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Full text of "An Atlas of Ancient Egypt"

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AN ATLAS OF ANCIENT EGYPT. 

WITH COMPLETE INDEX, 

GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL NOTES, 

BIBLICAL REFERENCES, etc. 




SPECIAL PUBLICATION 



OF THE 



EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. 



LONDON: 

SOLD BY 

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TBUBNEE & CO. 

PATBBNOSTEB HOUSE, CHABING CBOSS BOAD, W.C. 

BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. 

ASHER & CO., 18, Bedford St., Covent Garden, W.C. 

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND; 37, Great Russell St., W.C. 
(Opposite the British Museum J. 

1894. 



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CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

Preface ...... 

Introduction ..... i 

M. Naville's Geographical Discoveries relating 
TO THE Route of the Exodus ... 7 

Biblical References to Localities in Egypt . 17 

Chronological Table of the Egyptian Dynasties . 20 

Ancient and Modern Authorities for Egyptian 

Geography and History . . . 21 

General Map of Ancient Egypt, with Adjacent 

Countries . . . . . no. i 

General Map of Modern Egypt, with Adjacent ,, 11 
Countries ...... 

Map of Ancient Egypt — the Delta to Beni SufiF . ,, iii 

Tables of the Nomes, with their Capitals, and the Gods 
worshipped in them — (i to XX of Lower Egypt and xx — xxil 
of Upper Egypt). 

Map of Ancient Egypt — from Beni SufeF to EkhmIm ,, iv 

Tables of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the Gods 
worshipped in them — (ix to XIX of Upper Egypt). 

Map of Ancient Egypt — frOxM EkhmIm to Philae . ,, v 

Tables of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the Gods 
worshipped in them — (l to IX of Upper Egypt). 

Map of Ethiopia — from Aswan to Semneh . ,, vi 

,; from Semneh to Khartum . ,, vii 

Map of Goshen and the probable Route of the 

Exodus ...... ,,viii 

Index to Map of Modern Egypt . . . PP. i — vii 

Index to Maps of Ancient Egypt, Ethiopia, etc. . „viii — xi 



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PREFACE. 



The Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund issues this volume 
of Maps of Ancient Egypt as a Special Publication, in the belief 
that many of its friends and subscribers may desire to possess 
such an Atlas exhibiting the latest identifications of ancient sites, 
and more especially marking the important geographical discoveries 
which have resulted from the work of the Society. 

Egypt changes but little ; and the modern Map, with the natural 
as well as the artificial features depicted upon it, will give a truer 
insight into the physiography of the country in ancient times than 
the skeleton maps of Ancient Egypt which follow it. This map 
also shows the lines of the modern desert roads (which generally 
coincide with those of the old roadways), the Egyptian railway 
system, and the Suez Canal; it will therefore be appreciated by 
travellers, as well as by archaeological enquirers. Opposite to the 
maps of Ancient Egypt will be found tables containing the names 
of the Nomes and their capitals, and of the local gods, but the state 
of our present knowledge does not enable us to delineate their 
boundaries; which, moreover, often varied. 

Maps of the Wady Tumilat and the Land of Goshen have 
already been published by the Egypt Exploration Fund as part of 
the results of M. Naville's researches conducted for the Society, 
and explained at length in his Memoirs of 1884 and 1887. The 
present Map of that district is compiled from them, and extracts 
from the Memoirs which bear upon the maps are also reprinted. 
A reference list of localities in Egypt mentioned in the Bible is 
appended for the use of Bible students. 

Since this Atlas will doubtless fall into the hands of many who 
have had neither time nor opportunity for the study of Egyptology, 
interested as they may be in its results, a few notes on certain 
geographical aspects of Ancient Egyptian history are here given. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS AND THEIR COUNTRY; 
THEIR FOREIGN INTERCOURSE. 



The Egyptian population, its origin and character. — 

The land of Egypt, stretching from the Mediterranean to Aswan 
on the Nubian frontier, has an area of only 10,292 square miles, 
with a present population of nearly 7 millions, or about 600 jpeople 
to the square mile. In extent the country has remained unaltered 
from remotest historic times, but its ancient population is supposed 
to have been more dense than that of to-day ; in the age of Josephus 
(a.d. 37 — 100) it appears to have numbered at least 7J millions. 
Some authorities hold that the Ancient Egyptians were of African 
origin, and from the South. Others maintain that they came from 
the North- East by the isthmus of Suez; or from the East by Ktis 
and Coptos; or from the South-East by the straits of Bab el 
Mandeb; their original home, according to these several opinions, 
having been in Asia Minor, in Central Asia, or in South Arabia. 
But, whatever their origin, this at least is clear to us — from the 
earliest times of which any historic record survives, the strong, 
mystic, and subtle individuality of the people was fully marked 
and developed; and the physical characteristics of their country 
are so correspondingly distinctive that it is difficult not to consider 
these as the main cause of that distinction in life, religion, and art 
which is so much a thing apart that we can only describe it as 
Ancient Egyptian. 

Egypt "the gift of the Nile." The Delta and its 
changes. — Egypt is little more than the bed of the Nile. Her 
fertile Delta was formed by the accumulation of alluvial deposits at 
the mouth of the river during pre-historic times, and was so called 
by the Greeks on account of the resemblance of its outline to that 
of the fourth letter of their alphabet. In the maps of this Atlas 
the courses of the river and canals, and the outlines of lakes are 
represented as those of the present day, since it is impossible to 



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2 The Delta and its Changes. 

restore the ancient beds with certainty. The Greek historians and 
geographers tell us that the Nile divided into three main branches 
at the southern point of the Delta, and that these subdivided, so 
that the river entered the sea by seven channels, of which five 
were natural, and two artificial. But these have all more or less 
changed, dwindled, or disappeared. In order of East to West, 
they were named by the Greeks — the Pelusiac, Tanitic, Mendesian, 
Phatnitic, Sebennytic, Bolbitine, and Canopic branches, generally 
after the principal cities through which they passed. In the days 
of Herodotus, the fork of the river was three or four miles north 
of where Cairo stands ; it is now some ten miles further north still. 
The Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile are its two chief 
outlets at the present day, and they may be taken as roughly cor- 
responding with the Canopic and Phatnitic channels. The Pelusiac 
branch has disappeared. The elusive character of the internal 
geography of Ancient Egypt largely results from natural variations 
in the distribution of the waters of the river; from great artificial 
changes of the water-system (notably those made in the times of 
Mena, the first historic king; of the xiith and xixth Dynasties; 
and of the Ptolemies); and, lastly, to the cumulative effects of local 
irrigation continued for thousands of years. 

Lower and Upper Egypt, Nubia, and the Faiyum. — 
To the Egyptians, the Delta was "the Land of the North*' 
(or Lower Egypt). The rest of their country was '*the Land of the 
South" (or Upper Egypt), and extended from the apex of the 
Delta to that bank of granite which crosses the Nile at about 24" 
N. latitude and produces the **first cataract." This cataract 
marked the confines of the Land of Nubia (the Ethiopia of Greek 
and Roman geographers), known to the Egyptians as the Land of 
Kash, and one of their earliest conquests. Upper Egypt (including 
the FaiyAm) has an average width of only 10 miles, with a length 
of about 450; and this also is "the gift of the Nile."^ It is hemmed 
in by the hills of the Arabian and Libyan deserts, and its rich black 
soil is entirely formed of the deposit left by the annual overflowing 
of the river. The Faiytim is a natural depression surrounded by 
the Libyan hills, 840 square miles in area, and about 50 miles south- 

^Serodotusll,5. 



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Lower and Upper Egypt, Nubia, and the Faiyum. 3 

west of Cairo. The Bahr Yflslf, a water-course diverging from the 
river near Asytit, enters the Faiyflm through the gorge of El Lah6n, 
and thus connects the province with the valley of the Nile. The 
Faiydm was anciently renowned for its fertility, and is still well 
cultivated; its name is derived from an Egyptian word signifying 
"marsh, or lake district," through its Coptic form oi Phtom, Here 
was the celebrated **Lake Moeris'' of the Greeks, the admiration 
of Herodotus and the work of the xiith Dynasty kings who built 
the adjoining ** Labyrinth," and ^were buried near to it, within the 
pyramids of Hawareh and El Lah6n. These kings turned the natural 
lake, formed by drainage and the annual overflow of the Nile, into 
the artificially controlled reservoir of Lake Moeris. At its highest, 
the original lake of the Faiyflm had almost covered the province; 
as reduced, it seems to have had a perimeter of 136 miles, and a 
greatest depth of 230 feet.^ To the ancient inhabitants their river 
was Hapi^ and their country Kemt, the Black Land; while the 
sandy desert was Tesert^ the Red Land. The Greeks called 
the country Aigiiptos, and its river Neilos, whence, through the 
Latin forms of ^gyptus and Nilus^ come our names of Egypt and 
the Nile. Little or no rain falls in Upper Egypt, although the 
climate is said to be now changing in this respect. The necessary 
irrigation of the crops has always depended upon the due storing 
and distribution of the waters of the yearly inundation. 

Ancient Quarries. — Owing to the scarcity of wood, Egyptian 
buildings were generally made of bricks of Nile-mud: monumental 
works were constructed of hard or fine-grained stones, which were 
abundantly found in the rocky edges of the Nile valley. The rock 
on both sides of the river, and as far as Silsileh, was limestone of 
various qualities, and there is hardly half a mile of cliff without 
quarries; perhaps the finest quality was obtained opposite Memphis 
at Turra. A patch of hard quartzite is found close to Cairo at 
K6m el Ahmar, and numerous fine monuments in this material 
exist. Alabaster was quarried especially in the Het Nub region on 
the east bank from Minyeh to Asy6t. In the southern portion of 
Upper Egypt, sandstone took the place of limestone as the chief 

« See The Fay^m and Lake Moeris, by Major E. H. Bbowk, R.E., Inspector General of 
Irrigation, Upper Egypt; 1892. 



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4 Mythology. 

material for stone construction, and the most notable quarry is at 
Gebel Silsileh, where the rocks on either side approach and over- 
hang the river, so that the removal of the blocks was easily effected. 
Red granite and some grey granite were quarried at Aswan, the 
cataract at Syene being formed by a vein of this Syenite* crossing 
the river valley. Between the Nile and the Red Sea was a great 
variety of fine materials, such as basalt, granite, diorite, porphyry; 
the latter, perhaps, worked only by the Romans. The difficulties 
of obtaining them did not deter even the earliest kings of the ivth 
Dynasty from making the freest use of these stones for their 
"monuments of eternity." 

Egyptian mythology; its connection with the geography 
of Egypt. — The true sources of their beneficent Nile, and the 
causes of its regular rise and fall in the summer and autumn months 
were as unknown to the Ancient Egyptians as the origin of the great 
Sun himself. As that set nightly behind the Western hills, so to the 
Egyptians the West was that land of darkness to which their dead 
passed on; and their great cities of the dead (or cemeteries), were 
always preferably founded upon the west bank of the river. In 
very early times travellers' tales of the oases of the Libyan waste 
doubtless helped them to believe that beyond the perils of the 
desert and of death the islands of the blest were to be found. They 
deified all regular and persistent natural phenomena which they 
recognised as such, and chief among their good gods were different 
forms of the Sun; and Osiris, the fertilizing power of the river. But 
the barren desert, ever ready to encroach upon their tilled and 
fertile fields, was inimical to all the amenities of life in the eyes 
of a settled and agricultural people such as they were.* The 
desert was therefore personified in the destructive god Set; and 
between Set and Osiris there had been constant rivalry and warfare 
corresponding to the unending encroachments of desert on fertile 
land, and fertile land on desert. 

The State Religion and the Government; their feudal 
character. — The gods of the Ancient Egyptians were essentially 

1 This is, however, not the true Syenite of mineralogists. 

* Incidental reference is made to this fact in Genesis XLVii, 31 — 34. The ** shepherds " here 
referred to were nomads of the Eastern desert, who were always troublesome to the Egyptians. 



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The State Religion and the Government. 5 

local gods — gods of a district, or even of a city. Their chief deities 
were of the Sun, the Earth, the principal planets and stars, and the 
Nile; all these being worshipped under different aspects, and con- 
sidered both as gods of the living and of the dead. Their common 
nature made it easy for any one of the local gods to be regarded 
as national, if bis city became the chief seat of government and the 
home of the reigning dynasty. The kings were supposed to be of 
divine descent, and were, theoretically, the great high priests of 
their dominions; so that, notwithstanding the number and variety 
of their local deities, the Egyptians still had a national religion. 
The system of government can best be described as feudal ; it was 
bound up with the state religion, and its administration was based 
upon the subdivision of the land. 

The Nomes and their Princes. — Upper and Lower Egypt 
were divided into some forty provinces, the number and boundaries 
of which might vary from time to time. These provinces were 
called hesep by the natives, and by the Greeks nomoi\ whence the 
modern term Nomes. Each nome had its farm-land; its marshes 
for fowling and the cultivation of papyrus reeds; its canal; and its 
capital, which was the centre of the provincial religion and ad- 
ministration. Great vassal princes were the hereditary rulers of the 
nomes, and high priests of the local temples, being responsible 
to the king for the due maintenance of civil order, and military 
efficiency. Their duties consisted in loyalty to the person and 
interests of the king, in care for the well-being of their vassals, 
and in the military discipline and command of all their able-bodied 
men.^ 

Communication with foreign nations. — Sometimes the 
king sent his nobles on exploring and aggressive expeditions, whence 
they were expected to return with treasure which it might please 
them to call the gifts or tribute of other lands. Such expeditions 
brought back fine material for the use of the sculptor, precious 
metals, stones, woods, and incense, costly articles of foreign art 
and manufacture, natural curiosities and products, — vegetable, 
animal, and sometimes human, — and added to the variety of 

* See the biographical inscriptions of "Beni Hasan %" and "Bent Hasan ii" for particulars as 
to the conduct of exemplary monarchs. 



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6 Communication with Foreign Nations. 

the indigenous flora and fauna of Egypt, which is naturally THit^ 
limited. Hostile, commercial, and general national intercourse 
was thus gradually established with Nubia and the SAdan, 
the Libyan and other North African peoples, desert tribes, 
the inhabitants of the Sinaitic peninsula, Syria, Babylonia, and 
Mesopotamia, the traders and dwellers on the coasts of the Red 
Sea and in Arabia, the kingdoms of Asia Minor, the Phoenicians, 
and the pre- Homeric Greeks. In the seventh century Greek 
colonists (traders and mercenary troops) were formally recognised 
by the Egyptians. 

The invasions of Egypt by foreign nations. — Egypt was 
conquered by the Hyks6s* not much later than 2000 B.C. ; by 
the Ethiopians under Sabako B.C. 700; by the Assyrians under 
Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal B.C. 672 — 665; by the Persians under 
Cambyses B.C. 525; and fell, as part of the empire of Persia, into 
the hands of Alexander B.C. 333. But it is only from the Hebrews 
and from Greeks, by birth or culture, that we have any foreign 
accounts of her civilisation before it was merged in that of the 
Roman Empire. The Greeks linked the life of Ancient Egypt 
with that of Europe; and it is primarily to Greek accounts that we 
owe our first knowledge of this country of their conquest and 
adoption. 

' The HjksAs have not yet been identified. They are stated by Josephus to have been ''Shep- 
herd Kings," and to have come from the North East. 






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SUMMARY 

OF 

M. Naville's Geographical Discoveries 

RELATING TO THE SojOURN OF THE ISRAELITES IN EgYPT, 

AND TO 

The Route of the Exodus. 



In the first and fourth "Memoirs" of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 
M. Naville has endeavoured to trace the route of the Exodus; 
his conclusions are drawn from the results of his excavations 
and researches at Saft-el-Henneh studied in the light of ancient 
historical and geograjphigal^ records. These conclusions, with the 
arguments that lerf^^to them, are here summarised, and followed 
by an extensive quotation of the chapter on the ** Route of the 
Exodus" from his Memoir entitled The Store City of Pi thorn} 

Up to 1883, the mound of Tell el Maskhutah was supposed by 
Egyptologists to occupy th^gjte of the city of Raamses (Exodus i, 
11); in the spring of thsfr year M. Naville found it to be on that 
of Pithom. 

By the study of the inscriptions on monuments which had already 
been taken from the place and were then in Ismailiah, and of those 
which he himself discovered among the ruins, M. Naville found that 
the god of the city had been Tum, that its religious name had been 
Pi'Tum — the Abode of Tum, and that the temple had been situate 
in the civil city of Thukut. The name Pi-Tum corresponds with 
the Hebrew Pithom, the Coptic Pethom, and the Pithom and Peitho 
of the Septuagint. The founder of the place appeared to be 
Rameses II (xixth Dynasty, B.C. 1300 — 1250),^ who is usually 
supposed to be the Pharaoh of the Oppression, and it had evidently 
been built as a fortified military store-house or granary (Exodus i, 
11); (the Hebrew word here means store-houses, the Septuagint 

1 The third and revised edition of M. Naville's Store City of Pithom and the Boute of the 
Exodus was published in 1887, after the discovery and excavation of Goshen, and the friendly 
criticism of the First Edition by Biblical critics and Egyptologists all the worid over. 

* The dates of Ancient Egyptian history, in round numbers, as given throughout this letter- 
press, are, as far as possible, in accordance with those to which Professor Flinders Petrie has 
recently given currency in his lectures delivered at University College, London. 



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8 PiTHOM AND SUCCOTH. 

trsinslsites /orit^ed elites) ^ in which provisions were gathered for the 
use of armies or caravans bound across the Eastern desert. The 
bricks of which these ''military store-houses" were built were 
composed of the common material, Nile mud, mixed with chopped 
straw, but in places they were apparently made without straw 
{Exodus V, 6 — 19). 

The name Thuku occurs repeatedly in those letters of scribes 
and officials of the Xixth Dynasty which constitute the so-called 
Anastasi papyri, and is there followed by the determinative (a hiero- 
glyphic symbol, marking the nature of the preceding word), 
indicating a borderland inhabited by foreigners. In these writings 
the name denotes a district including *'the lakes of Pithom of 
Menephthes, which is of Thuku," and it is hence clear that before 
becoming the civil name of the capital, Thuku designated a region, 
or district, containing Pithom. Such was the meaning of the 
name under the xixth Dynasty. M. Naville also gives his 
philological reasons for considering Succoth {Exodus xii, 37 ; 
XIII, 20) as the Hebrew equivalent of Thuku.® 

Among the Roman ruins of the mound M. Naville further dis- 
covered two inscribed stones, one bearing the words Ero Castra, 
the camp of Ero; and the second reading as follows: — 

Dominis nostris victoribus, Maximiano et Severo imperatoribus, et 
Maximino et Constantino nobilissimis Caesaribus, ab Ero in Clusmay 

M. Villi— e. 

Under our victorious lords, the emperors Maximianus and Sever us ^ 
and the most illustrious Caesars Maximinus and Constantine, from 
Ero to Clusma there are nine miles — Nine, 

As was usual in the Roman provinces where Greek was spoken, 

the distance is given both in Latin and Greek, and the at the end 

of the last line stands for nine. This Roman milestone was the 

means of leading M. Naville to the conclusion that Pi-Tum was the 

Heroopolis of the Greeks. In the English Bible {Genesis xlvi, 

28), we read that Jacob, going to Egypt, **sent Judah before him 

unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen." Here the Septuagint, 

whose writers must have known the geography of Egypt, translates 

instead of *'unto Goshen," unto ** Heroopolis in the land of Ramses." 

The Memphite Coptic version, which was translated from the 

B It must here be said that Brugsch's philological argument for the identification of Thukut 
and Succoth is not admitted by M. Maspero. 



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The Red Sea. 9 

Septuagint, keeps the old name of the city, and has ''near Pethom, 
the city in the land of Ramses'*; showing that at the time when 
this version was made, in the fourth century a.d., Heroopolis was 
still for the natives the abode of the God '*Tum/' who possibly was 
not yet dethroned by Christianity. In Egyptian, Ar or Era, when 
followed by the hieroglyphic sign denoting a building, means a 
store-house, and the first part of the Greek name for this store city 
may be the Greek transliteration of the Egyptian word ''Era.'' 
The Greek and Roman writers who speak of Heroopolis are 
unanimous in declaring that the city was near the sea, at the head 
of the Arabian Gulf, which was also called Heroopolitan, and hence 
it is assumed that even in the times of the Romans the Red Sea 
extended much further north than it does now, and that the Bitter 
Lakes were then under water. Linant Bey considered it geologically 
proved that, under the Pharaohs of the Xixth Dynasty, Lake 
Timsah and the valleys of Saba Biar and Abu Balah were part of 
the Red Sea. This view is confirmed by the physical features of the 
country, for the depression of Lake Timsah has a narrow extension 
towards the west, presenting the appearance of the head of a gulf. 
The sea would thus have extended to within three miles of Hero- 
opolis. Gradually the water withdrew, communication between 
city and gulf was partly cut off, and where the Red Sea had been 
there remained only salt marshes, which were called by Strabo 
and Pliny the Bitter Lakes} 

M. Naville also found at Tell el Maskhutah an historical narrative 
tablet of Ptolemy Philadelphos in whose reign (b.c. 286 — 247) the 
Septuagint version of the Hebrew Scriptures was begun in Alex- 
andria. This tablet gives many data which not only confirm the 
discoveries already mentioned, but also show that another great 
temple of the vilith Nome was Pikerehet, dedicated to Osiris. 
Pikerehet plays an important part in the tablet, the last lines of 
which give the amount of taxes which were granted as income to 

^ Professor Sayce (in The Higher Criticism and the Monuments, S.P.C.K. 1894; pp. 259 — 60) , 
specially emphasises the objections to M. Naville's theory of the Eoute of the Exodus. Up to 
the present time, none of the various theories can claim sufficient proof to warrant an exclusive 
acceptance, and until further and careful examinations of the character, date and situation of 
ancient remains between Lake Timsah and the Gulf of Suez have been made, no satisfactory 
explanation of the Biblical statements is to be expected. 



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lo City of Goshen. 

that temple. In the different Nome lists it is also named, alter- 
natively with Pi-Tum, as the chief sanctuary of the Vllith Nome 
of Lower Egypt, and always as belonging to the region of Thuku. 
M. Naville therefore concludes that this region contained two im- 
portant sanctuaries very near to each other, Pi-Tum and Pikerehet, 
the latter being the closer to the sea. The Greeks called a temple 
of Osiris a Serapium, and the official itinerary of the Roman Empire 
mentions a city of Serapium, or Serapiu, as being some eighteen 
miles distant from Ero; and since we know of no other temple of 
Osiris in the neighbourhood of Heroopolis, Pikerehet must be the 
Serapiu of the Itinerary. There are no traces of ruins which can 
be the remains of Pikerehet — Serapiu, excepting those at the foot 
of Gebel Mariam. 

The tablet speaks of the horses and cattle given to the sanctuary 
of Pikerehet for its annual support. Passages from a Xllth 
Dynasty papyrus {circa B.C. 2500), which tells of the political exile 
and long wanderings of an Egyptian nobleman called Saneha, and 
others from one of the Xixth Dynasty Anastasi papyri already 
mentioned, indicate that the more immediate eastern neighbour- 
hood of Pi-Tum was known as the estate or farm of Pharaoh. 
Now the ** before Pi-hahiroth'* of Exodus xiv, 2, is translated in the 
Septuagint and the Coptic versions as ** before the farm." Hence 
M. Naville concludes that the Pi-hahiroth of the Hebrews was the 
Pikerehet of the Nome lists, and of the tablet of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphos. 

GOSHEN. 

M. Naville's researches at Saft-el-Henneh led him to identify it 
as the site of Pi Sopt (the Abode of Sop f), which was the religious 
capital of the xxth Nome of Lower Egypt. This Nome was 
known to the Egyptians as the Nome of Sopt or Soptakhem, and 
Professor Brugsch discovered that it was identical with the Arabian 
Nome of Greek and Roman writers. The civil capital of the 
Nome was Pa Kes, from which came its Greek name of Phacusa 
{Pka-Cusa). M. Naville found this name ''Kes'^ in the inscriptions 
of the shrine of Nectanebo II (xxxth Dynasty, B.C. 367 — 350), 
at Saft-el-Henneh, and in such connections as showed that it 



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Land of Goshen. ii 

was at the civil capital called **Kes,"that Nectanebo erected this 
shrine, in the religious capital, **Pi Sopt." Therefore Phacusa 
("Pa Kes"), the secular capital, and Pi Sopt or Pa Sopt, the 
religious capital of the XXth Nome, both stood upon the site now 
occupied by the modern village of Saft-el-Henneh. The names of 
.Goshen and Phacusa have the same origin in ancient Egyptian/ In 
the Septuagint the land of Goshen is called Gesem of Arabia, i.e., 
Gesem, which is in the Nome of Arabia, and the term, though 
strictly referring to a limited district, may yet have applied to 
the whole country occupied by the Israelites. Kesem (Gesem) is 
mentioned in such connections, and with such hieroglyphic deter- 
minatives in the Temple lists of offerings from the various districts, 
as to show that it is the civil name of the district and city in which 
stood the Temple of Sopt, the God of the Arabian Nome, 
and hence the land of Goshen was the country around Saft-el- 
Henneh, within the triangle formed by the villages of Saft, Belbeis 
and Tel-el-Kebir. Again, the Coptic translation of Genesis xlv, 
ID, gives for our Goshen — Kesem of T — arabia; and T — arabia 
" the Arabia " in Coptic corresponds to what the Arabs call 
the Hauf, i.e., the land between the Nile and the Red Sea, which 
constitutes the present province of Sharkieh, and where the Nome 
of Arabia was situate. M. Naville further concludes that at the 
time when the Israelites occupied the land, the name ** Goshen ** 
belonged to a region which had as yet no definite boundaries, and 
which extended with the increase of the people over the territory 
they inhabited. He also thinks that the term **land of Ramses*' 
(Genesis xlvii, ii) applied to a larger area, and included that 
part of the Delta which lies to the eastward of the Tanitic branch, 
a country which Rameses II (xixth Dynasty, B.C. 1300— 1250) 
enriched with innumerable works of architecture, and which cor- 
responds with the present province of Sharkieh. The city of 
Raamses {Bxodusi, 11) was situate in the Arabian Nome, but its 
identification cannot be regarded as established. 

1 In the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archseology for June 1898, and writing on the 
newly ascertained Egyptian personification and worship of the zodiacal lights of the morning and 
evening twilights— the God Sopt being that divine personification, and Pi Sopt or Pa Sopt the 
chief seat of his worship — Brugsch shows that Gesem, the Coptic form of the ancient Egyptian 
name Keset, which was the name of the civil city Phacusa, means *' the city of the twilights.'' 
The land of Goshen was so called as belonging to the city of Goshen. 



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THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. 



'* Among the historical events upon which the discovery of Pithom 
tends to throw light, one of the most important is certainly the 
Exodus, and the route which the Israelites followed in going out 
of Egypt. The Israelites were settled in the land of Goshen, in a, 
region which perhaps extended further northward, but which cer- 
tainly comprehended the Wady Tumilat, wherein was situated the 
city of Pithom, where, according to the Septuagint, Jacob and 
Joseph met when the Patriarch came to Egypt. Bound for 
Palestine, two different routes lay before them. The northern 
route had been followed by the great conquerors. It went from 
Tanis to the Syrian coast; it was the shortest way, but it went 
through several fortresses, particularly the great stronghold of Zar. 
Besides, the first part of it crossed a well-cultivated and irrigated 
land occupied by an agricultural population, which was not a land 
of pasture necessary for a people of shepherds. This northern 
route is called in the Bible, the way of the land of the Philistines ; 
and, from the first, before any other indication as to the direction 
they followed, it is said that the Israelites did not take that road. 
The other was the southern route, which their ancestor Jacob had 
taken before them, and which, according to Linant Bey, was still 
followed by the Bedawin of our days before the opening of the 
canal. They went straight from El Arish to the valley of Saba 
Biar; while the traders, travelling through Kantarah, Salihieh, and 
Korein, followed very nearly the old northern route. The Israelites 
had only to go along the canal as far as its opening into the Arabian 
Gulf at a short distance from Succoth ; then, pushing straight for- 
ward, they would skirt the northern shore of the Gulf, and reach 
the desert and the Palestine way without having any sea to cross. 

"The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth.*' 
It is useless now to discuss the site of the city of Rameses, which 
will only be ascertained by further excavations. It is quite possible 
that we must here understand the name as referring to the land of 
Rameses rather than to the city, the land must have been either 
west or north of Pithom. The first station is Succoth, Thukut, or 
Thuku. Here it is important to observe that the name of the 



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L 



Etham. 13 

place where the Israelites first encamped is not the name of a city 
but the name of a district, of the region of Thukut, in which, at the 
time of the Exodus, there existed not only Pithom, but the fortifi- 
cations which Rameses II, his predecessor, and successor had 
erected to keep off the plundering tribes of Bedawin. It is quite 
natural that the camping ground of such a large multitude must 
have had a great extent. It was not at Pithom that the Israelites 
halted ; the gates of the fortified city were not opened to them, 
nor were the store-houses. Besides, the area of the enclosure 
would have been quite insufficient to contain such a vast crowd. 
They pitched their tents in the land of Succoth where Pithom was 
built, very likely near those lakes and those good pastures to which 
the nomads of Atuma asked to be admitted with their cattle. 

There has been much discussion about the site of the next 
station, Etham, which has always been considered as a city, and 
even as a fortress. The name Succoth, that of a region, shows 
that we are not to look for a city of Etham, but for a district, a 
region of that name. Saneha says in his papyrus that, leaving the 
Lake of Kemuer, he arrived with his companion at a place called 
Atima, which could not be very far distant. Let us now consult 
a document of the time of the Exodus, the papyrus Anastasi VI, 
and read in M. Brugsch^s translation, ** We have allowed the tribes 
of the Shasu of the land of Atuma to pass the stronghold of King 
Menephtah of the land of Succoth, towards the lakes of Pithom 
of King Menephtah of the land of Succoth ; in order to feed them- 
selves and to feed their cattle in the great estate of Pharaoh'' That 
is what I consider as the region of Etham, the land which the 
papyri call Atima, Atma, Atuma. It was inhabited by Shasu 
nomads, and as it was insufficient to nourish their cattle, they were 
obliged to ask to share the good pastures which had been assigned 
to the Israelites. The hieroglyphic determinative of its name 
indicates that it was a borderland. Both the nature of the land 
and its name seem to agree very well with what was said of Etham, 
that it was **on the edge of the wilderness " {Exodus xiii, 20). 

Another reason which induces me to think that Etham was a 
region, and not a city, is that in Numbers (xxxiii, 6, 7, 8) we read 
of the "wilderness of Etham," in which the Israelites marched three 



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14 Etham and Succoth. 

days after having crossed the sea. This desert, then, would have 
extended very far south of the city from which it derived its name; 
and one does not see how Etham, an Egyptian city, would have 
given its name to a desert inhabited by a Semitic population on 
the opposite side of the sea. 

I believe, therefore, Etham to be the region of Atuma; the desert 
which began at Lake Timsah and extended west and south of it, 
near the Arabian Gulf. As this desert was occupied by Shasu and 
Satiu, Asiatic nomads of Semitic race, they may have had, some- 
where on the shore opposite to Egypt, a sanctuary dedicated to 
their god Baal Zephon ; and this was not necessarily a large place. 
It may have been a small monument, a place of worship or of 
pilgrimage, like those numberless shekhs' tombs which are found 
on the hills and mountains of Egypt. 

The Israelites leaving Succoth, a region which we now know 
well, the neighbourhood of Tell el Maskhutah, push forward towards 
the desert, skirting the northern shore of the gulf, and thus reach 
the wilderness of Etham; but there, because of the pursuit of 
Pharaoh, they have to change their course: they are told to retrace 
their steps so as to put the sea between them and the desert. 

The next indications of Holy Writ can only be determined con- 
jecturally. Surveys and excavations are needed to give us accurate 
information. However, although it is impossible yet to bring 
forward positive evidence in favour of this or that theory, I will 
attempt to trace the route followed, relying on what seems most 
probable. 

"And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying: 'Speak unto the 
children of Israel that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, 
between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-Zephon; before it 
shall ye encamp by the sea.'" {^Exodus xiv, 2). 

We must bear in mind that the sea was only at a very short 
distance from Succoth, and that it covered the valley of Saba Biar. 
Judging from the appearance of the ground, as it is given in the 
maps, it is clear that the gulf must have been very narrow in the 
space between Lake Timsah and the Bitter Lakes. We have left 
the Israelites in the land of Atuma, on the northern shore of the 
Arabian Gulf, at the edge of the wilderness. There they receive 



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MiGDOL AND THE PASSAGE OF THE ReD SeA. 15 

the command to camp near the sea, so as to be separated by the 
gulf from the desert which they had to cross. They are obliged, 
therefore, to turn back; to pass between Pithom and the end of 
the gulf, somewhere near Magfar, then to march towards the south 
to the place which is indicated as their camping ground. The 
question now is, Where are we to look for Migdol dsvA Pi-Hahirothl 

As for Migdol, the ancient authors, and particularly the Itinerary, 
mention a Migdol, or Magdolen, which was twelve Roman miles 
distant from Pelusium. It is not possible to admit that this is the 
same Migdol which is spoken of in Exodus, for then it would not 
be the Red Sea, but the Mediterranean, which the Israelites would 
have before them, and we should thus have to fall in with MM. 
Schleiden and Brugsch's theory that they followed the narrow 
track which lies between the Mediterranean and Serbonian bog. 
However ingenious are the arguments on which this system is 
based, I believe it must now be dismissed altogether, because we 
know the site of the station of Succoth. Is it possible to admit 
that from the shore of the Arabian Gulf, the Israelites turned to 
the north, and marched forty miles through the desert in order to 
reach the Mediterranean ? The journey would have lasted several 
days ; they would have been obliged to pass in front of the 
fortresses of the north ; they would have fallen into the way of the 
land of the Philistines, which they were told not to take; and, 
lastly, the Egyptians, issuing from Tanis and the northern cities, 
would have easily intercepted them. 

Besides, when the text speaks of the sea, it is natural to think 
that it means the sea which is close by, of which they are 
skirting the northern coast, and not that other sea, which is 
forty miles distant. All these reasons induce me to give up 
definitively the idea of the passage by the north, and to return to 
the old theory of a passage of the Red Sea, but of the Red Sea as 
it was at that time, extending a great deal farther northward, and 
not the Red Sea of to-day, which occupies a very different 
position. 

The Egyptian form of the word Migdol is a very common name ; 
it means 2. fort, a tower. It is very likely that in a fortified region 
there have been several places so called, distinguished from each 



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l6 MiGDOL AND THE PASSAGE OF THE ReD SeA. 

Other, either by the name of the king who built them, or by some 
local circumstance; just as there are in Italy a considerable number 
of Torre. I should, therefore, with M. Ebers, place Migdol at the 
present station of the Serapeum. There the sea was not wide, and 
the water probably very shallow; there also the phenomenon which 
took place on such a large scale when the Israelites went through, 
must have been well known, as it is often seen now in other parts 
of Egypt. As at this point the sea was liable to be driven back 
under the influence of the east wind, and to leave a dry way, the 
Pharaohs were obliged to have there a fort, a Migdol, so as 
to guard that part of the sea, and to prevent the Asiatics of 
the desert from using this temporary gate to enter Egypt, to steal 
cattle and to plunder the fertile land which was round Pithom. 
That there was one spot particularly favourable for crossing because 
of this well-known effect of the wind, is indicated by the detailed 
description of the place where the Israelites are to camp. There 
is a striking difference between this description and the vague data 
which we find before and after. It is not only said that they are 
to camp near the sea, but the landmarks are given, Pi-Hahiroth, 
Migdol, Baal Zephon, so that they could not miss the spot, which, 
perhaps, was very restricted. 

We have now the landmarks of the camping ground of the 
Israelites : on the north-west Pi-Hahiroth, Pikerehet, not very far 
from Pithom; on the south-east Migdol, near, the present Sera- 
peum ; in front of them the sea; and opposite, on the Asiatic side, 
on some hill like Shekh Ennedek, Baal Zephon. There, in the 
space between the Serapeum and Lake Timsah, the sea was 
narrow, the water had not much depth, the east wind opened the 
sea, and the Israelites went through. 

This seems to me, at present, the most probable route of the 
Exodus. I think it agrees best with what we know of the geo- 
graphical names, and of the nature of the land. Besides, it does 
not suppose very long marches, which would have been quite im- 
possible with a large multitude; the distances are not very great, 
and on that account the information which we owe to the Roman 
milestone is invaluable." 



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20 



CHRONOLOGICAL 
TABLE OF THE EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES. 



N.B. — The dates in the followiDg table as far as the xixth Dynasty are those which Professor 
Petrie has given in his Lectures as approximative. The uncertainty for the early period is very 
great, but the date assigned to the XTiiith Dynasty is believed to be correct within one century. 
The later dates are taken chiefly from B5ckh and Wiedemann ; from the xxvith Dynasty to the 
end of the native rule the error cannot be more than a few years. 



Dynasty. 
I Thinite 
II Thinite 
in Memphite 
IV Memphite 
V Memphite 
VI Elephantine 
VII Memphite 
VIII Memphite 
IX Heracleopolite 
X Heracleopolite 
XI Theban, or Diospolite 



OLD KINGDOM OR EMPIRE. 
Capitax. 

This, near Abydos 
This 

Memphis, near Cairo 
Memphis 

Memphis ... 

Elephantine, near Syene ^ 

Memphis ... 

Memphis .. 

Ahnas (Heracleopolis Magna) 

Ahnas „ ,, 

Thebes (Diospolis) 



MIDDLE 

XII Theban, or Diospolite 

XIII Theban ,, „ 

XIV Xoite 



KINGDOM OR EMPIRE. 

Thebes (Diospolis) 
Thebes ,, 
XoYs, in the Delta 



(HYKSOS PERIOD). 

Avaris (Tanis ?) 
Avaris ,, 



XV Hyksos 

XVI Hyksds 

NEW KINGDOM OR EMPIRE. 

XVII Theban, or Diospolite Thebes (Diospolis) 

XVIII Theban ,, „ Thebes ,, 

XIX Theban ,, „ Thebes ,, 

XX Theban ,, „ Thebes ,, 

XXI Tanite,and the Priest Kings Tanis and Thebes 



XXII Bubastite 

XXIII Tanite 

XXIV Saite ... 
XXV Ethiopian 

XXVI Saite ... 



Bubastis 

Tanis 

Sai's 

Thebes 

Sais 



Dates b.c. 
4782 

4519 
4217 
4003 
3726 
3508 
3327 
3257 
3111 
301 1 
2826 



2783 

2570 
2117 



2003 
1933 



1743 
1592 

1327 
I183 
1048 

934 
814 

725 
719 
665 



PERSIAN PERIOD. 
XXVllth Dynasty [Susa] B.C 



DYNASTIES. 
Sais B.C. 408 

387 



LAST NATIVE 
527 xxvni Saite 

XXIX Mendesian Mendes 

XXX Sebennyte Sebennytus 350 

MACEDONIAN RULE.— B.C. 332— B.C. 305. 
PTOLEMAIC PERIOD.— B.C. 305— B.C. 30. 

ROMAN PERIOD.— B.C. 30— a.d. 394. 

BYZANTINE RULE.— a.d. 394— a.d. 638. 

A.D. 638, THE ARAB CONQUEST. 



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21 

PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES 
ON THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT. 



I.— Classical Writers. 

Herodotus (b.c. 484-400 [?]). — Book 11, and part of Book iii of his 
History are devoted to Egypt, where he had travelled, note-book in hand, 
about 450 B.C., during the reign of the Persian Artaxerxes. 

Manetho (time of Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, third century B.C.) — He was 
an Egyptian priest, with temple archives at his command, but wrote in 
Greek, the language of the court. It is only from his History of Egypt that 
we have any literary record of the dates and succession of the dynasties, 
and of that History only such fragments survive as were incorporated in 
the writings of Josephus, and the Christian chroniclers; it was written soon 
after B.C. 271. 

Eratosthenes (b.c. 276-196). — A fragment of his "Chronographia/* 
preserved by Syncellus, contains a list of thirty-eight Theban Kings. 

DiODORUS SiCULUS (contemporary of Julius Caesar and Augustus). — 
Book I of his "Historical Library'' is exclusively devoted to Egypt, and 
later portions of his work give us invaluable information relating to the 
Persian period. He travelled in Egypt about B.C. 57. 

Strabo (about B.C.54-A.D.20: Augustus to Tiberius). — His ** Geography'' 
takes into account all that he found to be most interesting and characteristic 
in every country. Book xvii deals with Egypt, where he travelled B.C. 24. 

Plinv, the Eider (a.d. 23-79). — His "Natural History," which he com- 
piled from literary sources, and not from observation, incidentally describes 
some of the products and monuments of Egypt, often as marvels, and 
summarises the geography. 

Josephus, Flavius (a.d. 37 to about 100). — In his Greek ''Jewish An- 
tiquities," Josephus gives a fuller account of the Egyptian life of the 
Children of Israel than that given in the Old Testament. In his treatise 
defending Jewish culture and antiquity against the attack of Apion, he 
quotes many ancient authors in reference to the Exodus; above all, he 
gives long extracts from Manetho's history of Egypt. 

Plutarch (about a.d. 50 — 130). — There are references to Egypt in his 
" Parallel Lives," and other works ; his treatise on Isis and Osiris is exclu- 
sively devoted to considering the Egyptian religion. 

Ptolemy, the Geographer (flourished in Alexandria A.D. 139-160, sur- 
viving Antoninus Pius). — He describes Africa and Egypt in Book IV of his 
"Geography" of the then known world. This work was the great geo- 
graphical text-book of Europe for more than a thousand years. 

Antonini Itinerarium (made by successive Emperors down to the 
Antonines). — This is the official Itinerary of the whole Roman empire of 
the period, in which the principal and cross-roads, together with a list of 
the places and stations upon them, and the distances from one place to 
another, in Rcaiian miles, are all given. 

Africanus (wrote in 221 A.D.) — He composed a Chronicle of the History 
of the World. As regards Egypt, his history was largely based on that 
of Manetho. His work is lost, with the exception of certain extracts pre- 
served by other writers. 

Eusebius (a.d. 264 — 340). — Allusions to Egypt are contained in various 
writings of Eusebius. His chronicle of Egyptian history is chiefly taken 
from the lost work of Africanus, and is most fully preserved in an Armenian 
translation. 

Georgius Syncellus (lived in the 8th Century A.D.) — This chronicler 
also made large extracts from the writings of his predecessors, including 
those of Africanus, and hence of Manetho. 



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22 

II. — Modern Works. 

Brown, Major. — Lake Moeris and the FayUm, 

BrugsCH, H. — Dictionnaire Giographique, Geographische Inschriften, 
* Geschichte /Egypt ens unter den Pharaonen, 

DiJMlCHEN, J., and Meyer, E. — Geschichte des alten Aegyptens. 

Erman, a. — */Egypten und /Egyptisches Leben im Altertum, 

Expeditions : — 

Description de rUgypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui 
ont itifaites en Hgypte pendant I'expidition de Varmie fran^aise, lO vols, 
text ; 14 vols, plates. 

Champollion, J. F. — Monuments de rSgypte et de la Nubie, 4 vols, of 
plates. Notices descriptives, 2 vols. 

ROSELLINI, I. — / Monumenti deir Egitto e delta Nubia, 9 vols, text; 
3 vols, plates. 

Lepsius, R. — Denkmdler aus /Egypten und /Ethiopien. 12 vols, plates; 
I vol. text. 

MSmoires publiSs par les membres de la Mission ArchSologique 
frangaise au Caire, 

Journals: — 

Zeitschrift fur /Egyptische Sprache und Alterthumskunde. 

Recueil de travaux relatifs h la philologie et h VarchSologie "Bigyptiennes 
et Assyriennes, 

Revue Hgyptologique. 

Lepsius, R. — Kdnigsbuch. 

Mariette, a. — Voyage dans la haute Hgypte. Karnak, Abydos, 
Deir-el-Bahari, Dendirah. 

Maspero, G. — Histoire ancienne des Peuples de V Orient, Htudes de 
Mythologie et d'Archiologie Sgyptiennes. t Histoire de r Orient (forth- 
coming). 

Petrie, W. M. Flinders. — Ten Years Digging in Egypt, Memoirs: A 
Season in Egypt, Hawara, Kahun, Illahun^ Medum^ and Tell et Amarna, 
History of Egypt (forthcoming). 

Societies: — 

Excavations and Survey Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund (see 
end of this Atlas). 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 

Wiedemann, A. — ^Egyptische Geschichte. 

WlLKlNSONjSirGardner — Manners and Customs of the AncientEgyptians, 

* May be had in English translation, f English translation will be issued simultaneously. 



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GENERAL MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPT 

WITH 

ADJACENT COUNTRIES. 



20" A 25 



30* C 35* D 40* E 45' 



I. 



6Cf 




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(X] 

Q 
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Table of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the 

Gods worshipped in them (i to xx of Lower Egypt and 

XX to XXII of Upper Egypt). 





Nome 




Capital City. 


Deity. 


I. 


01 


m 

Anb-hez 


... Men-nefer ... 


Ptah 


II. 


♦^£3 


Khensu (?) 


. . . Sekhem Hor-ur(Aroeris) 


III. 


^^ 


Ament 


... Amu 


Hathor 


IV. 


K^ 


Sap-qema 


. . . Zeqa 


Sebek 


V. 




Sap-meh 


. . . Sau 


Neith 


VI. 


^\^ 


Ka-khas (?) 


... Khasuu 


R^ 


VII. 


w \t 


Nefer(?)amenti 


. . . Senti-nefer . . . 


Amen-ri 


VIII. 




Nefer (?) abti 


... Per-Tum ... 


Turn 


IX. 




Aty 


Per- Usar-neb- te t 


Osiris 


X. 


Ka-kem 


...Het-Ta-her-abL, 


Horus- 
Khenti-Khety' 


XL 


a%i 


Ka-heseb 


. . . Per-mkka . . . 


Set 


XII. 


^^ 


Theb-aht (?) 


. . . Theb-neter . . . 


• 
Anher 


XIII. 


15, 


Heqa-ames 


. . . Anil 


Turn 


XIV. 


fit 


Khent-abt 


. . . Zaru 


Horus 


XV. 


^ 


Tekh (?) 


. . . Khemenu . . . 


Thoth 


XVI. 


1= 


Ha-mehyt (?) 


... Per-ba-neb-tat 


Ba-en-tat 


XVII. 


^ ^ o 


Sma-behtet 


Pa-khen-en-Amen 


Ainen-ra 


XVIII. 


i^ 


Am-khent 


... Per-Bast ... 


Bast 


XIX. 


^^ 


• 

Ara-peh 


... Amt 


Uazyt(Buto) 



XX. A|v Septu-kemhes(?) Qesem,Per.Sopt Septu 

{The last three Nomes of Upper Egypt contained in the Map 

of Lower Egypt.) 



XXI. ()^ 
XXII. 



Am-khent . . . Henen-seten . . . Her-she-ef 

... Smen-Hor ... Khnem 

... Tep-ah(?) ... Hathor 

[To Sfice Map Jll.^ 



Am-peh 
Matenu 



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Table 


OF THE 


NOMES, WITH THEIR CAPITALS 


AND T 


Gods 


WORSHIPPED IN THEM 


(ix to XIX of Upper Egypt 




Home. 




Capital City. 


Deity. 


IX. 


± 


Men (?) 


... Apu 


Min 


X. 


I^ 


Uazet 


... Thebu 


Hathor 


XL 


&I 


Set 


. . . Shashotep 


Khnem 


XII. 


(^ 


Tu-f 

• 


. . . Net-ent-bak . . . 


Hems 


XIII. 


J_rflh 


Atef-khent 


... Saut 


Upuat 


XIV. 


J_^_Sii Atef-peh 


... Qesi 


Hathor 


XV. 




Unt 


... Khemnu 


Thoth 


XVI. 


h 


Mahez 


... Hebnu 


Khnem 


XVII. 


^ 


• 
Anpu 


. . . Kasa 


Anubis 


XVIII. 


^ 


Sep 


... BEet-Benu, Sep 


Anubis 


XIX. 


IJl 


Uaseb (?) 

[To face 


... Per-Maza 

Map IV.'] 


Set 



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MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPT. 
A 




BENI SUEF TO EKHMIM. 




Digitized by 



Google 



i 



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Ij 



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Table of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the 
Gods worshipped in them (i to ix of Upper Egypt). 





Nome. 


Capital City, 


Deity. 


I. 


' ... > 
^ W 


Ta-Vhent (?) 


... Abu 


Khnem 


II. 


1^ 


Uthes-Hor 


... Tebu 


Horus 


III. 


J- 


Ten (?) 


... Nekheb 


Nekhebyt 


. iv. 


f 


Uas 


• 

... Apt, Net 


Amen 


V. 


liSis 


Herui 


... Qebti 


Min 


VI. 


t 


Aat-te (?) 


. . . Ta-n-terer 


Hathor 


VII. 


1 


Seshesht 


. . . Het-seshesht, EEet 


Hathor 


VIII. 


^ 


Abez 


... Teni 


• 

An her 


IX. 


J. 


Men (?) 


... Apu 


Mia 






[To face "ilap F.] 





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MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPT. 
B 




'UifO' (JSanrnvSmjOtlb/') 



B 



EKHMIM TO PHILAE. 



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MAP OF ETHIOPIA. 



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MAP OF ETHIOPIA. 
B C 



VII. 




B C 

SEMNEH TO KHARTUM. 



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CO 


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Pi 

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H 


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INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EGYPT, 

No.n. 



Ababdeh, D gh 

Abadeh* G g 

Abd el Hab (Kokreb), E g 

Abkor, G g 

Aboody, G f 

Abonkir, O a 

„ (b) G a 
Absari, Gf 
Abflol, D g 
Abtin, D g 
Aba Ahmed, D g 

,, Bellah (1.). b 

„ Bona (well), G h 

„ Darah, E e 

,, Delek,Dh 

„ DiB.Dg 

,. Dom, G g 

„ Egb, Dg 

„ ea Znsar, D i 

„ Fatmeh, Gg 

M Gerad,Gi 

n ,. Gh 

„ Girgeh, G o 

„ Gkifli, G g 

,, Haifa (wells), D g 

,, Haraz, Di 

,, Hashim, D g 

„ Hereji, D e 

,, Hor, D e 

„ J ez Zega. 

„ Klea (wells), D h 

„ Koloda,Eg 

„ Mohary, B o 

„ Nnb,Dh 

„ Odfa, Dg 

,, Saghara, B o 

,, Said, Ge 

,, Samad, G h 

,, Shaar (Myos Hermos), D d 

„ Shar, Do 

„ Sher, Dg 

„ Seiyal, h 

„ 8yale,'Dh 
Abat, D i 
Abataki, B b 
Abntingil, G e 
Aba Usher, G h 
Acre (or Akka) D a 



Adda, Of 

Addereworri, E b 

Aden Ammam, D g 

Adiabo, F i 

Afat, Gg 

Agahl, E h 

Agayl, E i 

Aghig (mt.), P g 

Ain Aba Saweirah, D o 

„ Amar, G d 

„ el Haderah, D o 

„ el Eadeirat, D b 

„ el Sheb, B e 

„ elWeibe, Eb 

„ Hamid. B h 

„ Hawara, D o 

„ Eelid, Bo 
Akaba (galf), D o 
Akaba, E o 
Akaba el Benat, G f 
Akabah esh Shamiyeh, E o 
Akabah Zamameh, D g 
Aka8h,Gf 
Akeeg, G d 
Akka (Aore), E a 
Akra,Ed 
Alem el Halfi, B b 
Al Engreyah, D g 
Alexandria, B b 
Algeden, E h 
Algaeib, D g 
Allataksora (mt.), F i 
Amadib, F h 
Amandar, g 
Ambigole (oat.)> G f 
Ambab, G d 
Ambakal, G g 
Amet, E g 
Amka, G f 
Amman, E b 
Ammara, G f 
Ammarsheem, G e 
Amri (wells), G h 
Amar, D g 
Anagalle, F i 
Angash (Wady Haifa), G f 
Aniba, e 
Annak, D e 



Angasab, f 

Arabian desert, G D o d 

Arab*s Galf, B b 

„ Tower, B b 
Ard Jiddar, E o 
Argab Teshagoa (desert), G g 
Argeyn, G f 
Argo and I, G g 
Ariab, E g 
Arkhab, G i 
Asfoan, D d 
Asgade, F i 
Ashrafi, I., D o 
Askalan, Do 
Asrafi, I., D o 
Assanaga (well), D g 
Asses Ears, E o 
Assouan, D e 
Assar, D h 
Atbara, E h 
Atbara (r), E h-i 
Atfeh, G 
Atireh. G f 
Atmoor (desert), D f 
Atman, D g 
Ayina, E o 
Ayoan, D o 
Azidei, E h 

Baalak, E h 

Baga, Dh 

Bahak (oat.), G g 

Bahiri (Lower Egypt), G b 

Bahneseb, G o 

Bahr Attab Arrelan, D f 

Bahr bela Ma, B bo-d 

D f 

Baidib, E f 
Bakri, Gg 
Balat, B d 
Banaghir, E h 
Baraka, E F h 
Barango, D i 
Bardi (i), g 
Bardowal (1), D b 
Barea, Fh 
Bareedy (o), E e 
Bar el Hadjar, G f 



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INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EGYPT. 



Barnd, E g 
Basiein, G g 
Bain el Hajar, f 
Bayada (well), C h 
,, (steppe), C h 
„ (desert), D g 
Bazeh, £i' 
Bedareh, G d 
Bedshem, D g 
BeiUany, G f 
Beisan, E a 
Beit el Oawa. G g 
Belagenda, F h 
Belbeis, G b 
Bender el Eeber, D e 
Beni Hasan, G o 
„ Bala, Gd 
Benisooef , G o 
Benneh, G g 
Ben Naga. D h 
Berab»Di 
Berber, D g 
M Dg 
Berenice (rains), E e 
Berfedu, F i 
Beris, Ge 
Bermin, G o 
Bersheh, G o 
Bettera, E o 
Bir, D f 

,. Aba Earaet, D g 
Birbe, D e 
Bir Darfaooi, D d 

„ el Mashiyah, D o 

., elNabeh, Df 

., esSeb, Db 

„ Shamael, D g 
Birket el Haj, G b 
„ Earan, G o 
„ Temseh, G b 
Bir Nanarik, D g 

„ Samiyeh, G g 

„ Sreb, D d 
Birti. G g 
Bisagra, D h 
Bisha, F h 

Bisharen (desert), D e 
Bitter Lakes, G b 
Borgadeh, G g 
Bostan, G f 
Bonrlos (1.), G b 
Brothers (i), D d 
Brambel, G o 
Bolak. Gd 
Bola el Argol, G d 
Borkat (i), F g 

Gairo, G b 
Garmel (mt.), D a 
Geiga, D f 



Ghangnr, G h 

Gheli, Dh 

Ghime, D o 

Goorooor (oasis), G o 

Gosseir. D d 

Gosseir, Old (Philotera), D d 

Dabab. E h 

Dabba, D i 

Daga, Eh 

Dahal, D o 

Dakkeb, D e 

Daksheleh. D g 

Dal, Gf 

Damanhoor, G b 

Dameur, or Nafadik, D g 

Damietto, G b 

Dar el Mnghr, F o 

Dar Halfiyeh, D h 

Darkein, E d 

Darmont. D e 

Dashoor, G c 

Dead Sea, E b 

Debbee Sale, F h 

Debbeh. G g 

Debod, D e 

Defar, Gg 

Degwig Bagd, G i 

Dehmir, D e 

Deiroot esh Sherif , G d 

Delligo, Gf 

Delto. the, O b 

Denderah, D d 

Dendor, D e 

Derr, G e 

Derrer, D h 

Desoor, Dd 

Diggo, Fh 

Dongola (North). G g 

.. (Old), G g 
Doosh, G e 
Doagiyet, G g 
Dra, Bd 
Daderdabb, E f 
DongQjn (spring), G e 
Danknaz, E h 

Ebar. Gf 

Ebret. E h 

Ebsambonl (Aba Simbel), G f 

Ed Damar. D g 

Ed Dabbah (wells), G h 

Ed Dugim, D i 

Edermih (oat.), G g 

Edfoa, D e 

Egarin, D i 

Ekhmin, d 

El Abaoa, D h 

„ Abdeh, D b 

„ Abeidieh, D g 



El Abid. G 

„ Adek. G i 
Elag (wells), h 
El Agel, E 

„ Akaba. G d 

„ Aliab, D h 

„ Amra, G i 

M Arak, G g 

„ Arish, D b 

„ Bagara, D g 

„ Beda, E d 
Elbeh (i.). E f 

„ (mts.). E f 
El Belka. E b 

„ Bescam, E h 

„ Betish, G d 

„ Bam, G h 

„ Bosaireh. E b 

., Egedeh, D h 
Elephantine (i), D e 
El Fasher, E h 

„ Fekyibrahim, D i 

,. Fokari, F d 

., Gezir, G d 

„ Gimmea, D g 

.. Gindi, E h 

.. Goz (wells), G h 

,. Gwa, G i 

,. Gwernaiah, G i 

.. Hadeida, G c 

,. Hadgir,Dh 

,. Hagra, E h 

„ Hareib, G d 

„ Harreyry, F d 

., Hassa. D g 

„ Hegera, E i 

„ Haimar (well), D e 

,. Helba. G i 

., Helleh, D d 

.. Hibeh, D d 

.. Hiss, E f 

„ Hoora, E d 

„ Howarte, G c 

,, Howeiyat, G g 

„ Habagwi, G h 

,. Jaa, F a 

., Jindel, B d 

.. Ea*a. E c 

.. Eab, D d 

.. M Dg 

„ Eabar, G g 

„ Ealabsheh, D e 

„ Ealas, G g 

., Eantara, G b ^ 

„ Easan, D e 

„ Kasr, B d^ 

n ..Bo 

., Eersh. G d 

„ Eharjeh, 6 d 

„ Ehalasah, D b 



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INDEX TO MAP OF MODEBN SOYPT. 



Ul. 



£1 Kholit, £ b 

„ Eirbekan, G g 

n Koweh, D i 

., Kadrowab, D g 

„ Ends (Jenisalem), E b 

„ Kur, C g 

„ Eonim, D g 

„ Manawi, D g 

,. Mashitah, E b 

.. Mek, D h 

„ Melohai, F b 

„ Manawi, D g 

„ Mensbieb, C d 

„ Metzareib, E a 

„ Motmar, G d 

„ Hues, D g 

., Ordeh (N. Dongola). G g 

„ Sonane, £ b 

„ Sagaleb, £ h 

., Uk. D i 

„ Waata. G d 
Em Matre. E g 

„ Mogran. D g 
EoBheyfa, F d 
Eresaia. Do 
Erment, D d 
Er Bib, E b 
Er Bumi, F b 
Esdood, D b 
Eshetabah, D h 
Eshmnnein, G o 

Esh Sboona (Leuooe Portos), D d 
Esneh, D d 
Es Safijeb (wells), G b 
E*Sh*habboo, F d 
Ea Salayieb, D i 

„ Saribe, G h 

„ Sueimanieh, D g 
Etsrah, F b 
Et Tib, D b 

„ Toriab, D i 
Eynanab. E o 
Ezrak. E b 



Fadasi, Di 
Faioam (tbe), G o 
Fakirkir, D i 
Farafreh, Bd 
Farasa, D e 
Fariad (i). G g 
Fannundi, G f 
Farsboot, G d 
Fateereh, D d 
Fayab, G g 
Feiran, Do 
Ferkei, G f 
Feahn, Go 
Filik.Bh 
Foul Bay, £ e 



Gabra, G i 
Gabra (wells), G h 
Gakdol (welU), D g 
Oalakla.Dh 
Gallaweeb, G d 
Gamba (wells). G h 
Oarderamak, B o 
Gar en Nebi. D b 
Gamata, Dg 
Gau el Eebir, G d 
Gaza, Db 
Gedia. Dh 
Gerad,Gh 
Gerada,Di 
Gerashab. D h 
Gerazeh, D i 
Gereyiy B o 
Gerfeda, F i 
Gergaf, Ei 
Gertod, Gg 
Ghatta (bay), B b 
Gbizeb, Gb 
Gienneh, G d 
Gilif (desert), D g 
Girgeb, G d 
Girri, Ei 
Girshe, De 
Golban (i), E e 
Goorgote. G f 
Goorti. G f 
Gob Bedjeb, E h 
Guba. D h 
Gubata Awara, B o 
Gueyra, E o 
Guiren Tawa, G f 
Galfab, D h 
Gnrkab, Dh 
Gorneh, D d 
Gataba, D g 
Garzael el Quez, D b 

Habsai, E i 
Hadanei, E h 
Hagar (plateau), F h 
Hagona, G i 

Haj (Egtn. route), DBF o-d-e 
.. Fd 
Hakl,Do 
Haliaha, Ge 
Halfiyeh, D h 
Hamadun, D e 
Hamdal, £ h 
Hamdun, D i 
Hammadiyah (wella), G h 
Handak, Gg 
Handub, E g 
Hannak, Gg 
Hannek, Gg 
Gg 
Hapu, G d 



Harrat el Ehuturra, F d 
Harrat e* Sydenyin, E o 
Harrat Moahit, F d 
Hasabala, £ i 
Hassanee (i), E e 
Hawaia, D h 
Hellet, D h 
Hemenar, G g 
Hesban, E b 
Hormareb, D g 
Hudeibah, F e 

Ibrim, G e 
Id Nibeg, G i 
Igadeb, Gg 
lizeam, G o 
Irau, Gf 
Ismailia, G b 
Itfu, G d 

Jaffa, D b 
Jaffatine (i), D d 
Jara, Bd 
Jebel Adraneb, G f 

„ Agagemab, D f 

„ Ain, Bb 

„ Ajlo"n, E b 

„ Anaz, F d 

„ Araif en Nakah, D b 

„ Asma, D g 

„ Ataka. G o 

„ Bakutueb, £ h 

„ Baran, D e 

„ Bisbisb, D f 

„ Gbeki, D b 

„ Dokban, D d 

,, el Abia, G h 

„ Elag, Gh 

„ el Erefah, G b 

„ el Hagr, D h 

„ el Tyb, D o 

„ el l^b, D 

„ Erelah, G h 

„ Erkowit, £ g 

„ es Sofiyeh, D b 

,, Eynunab, E o 

„ ez Zega, G g 

„ ez Zeit, D o 

„ Ferageh, D e 

„ Garab, D o 

„ Gebdar, £ b 

„ Gharib, D o 

„ Gurrat, £ g 

„ Hallat Ammur, £ 

„ Hauran, £ a 

„ Hawi, G h 

„ Helal, D b 

„ Hummam, D c 

„ Jowla, E d 

„ Eaterin, D o 



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IV. 



INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EGYPT. 



Jebel Kissere, D g 

„ Eafrah, D o 

„ Kulgeli, C g 

„ Kureb, E h 

„ Handera, G f 

„ Maarura, G i 

M Memfayah, D d 

,, Merzam, F d 

„ Miama, F b 

„ MoQsa, D 

„ Mnksheib, D b 

M Mnrhat el Mora, f 

„ Musmar, E g 

„ Ojmeh, D c 

n Owdom, G h 

„ Paraseh, F h 

„ Beft, Gf 

„ Bosas, D d 

„ Sakhar, G d 

„ SaUkh,£f 

„ Sehteb, E g 

M Serbal, D o 

ft Sherrara, F o 

„ Shigre, Df 

„ Silsili, D 6 

„ Sohannit, D f 

„ Soterba, E f 

„ Sotirba, E g 

,, Saam, G d 

ty Tayibal Ism, E o 

„ Tenasep, G o 

„ Tobeyk, F o 

M Tuenai, E g 

„ Uriba, E g 

„ Wady Lehnma, D e 

„ Witter, F d 

„ Yob, E h 

„ Zobara, D e 
Jelall, B c 
Jeraeh, E b 
Jerin el Ful, G d 
Jerizet W. Jemal (i), E e 
Jerusalem, E b 
Jiora (spring), D g 
Jordan (r), E a-b 
Jabal (i), D o 

Kababisfa, G h 
Eabati, D h 
Eabenat (cat.), G g 
Eabashi, D h 
Eadd Dhaba, E o 
Kaf,Fb 
Eafr Eliab, D d 
Eagmar, G i 
Eaibar, Gg 
Eaibub, G i 
Kaisariyeh, D a 
Ealaat Ajroad, G b 
Ealabab, E h 



Ealat el Hessy, E b 

Kalat el Belka, E b 

Ealat en Nakhl, D o 

Ealat Medawara, E c 

Eamgal, D g 

Eamlin« D i 

Eandjar, D h 

Earaken, G f 

Earanak, D i 

Eardaseh, De 

Earkabat, E h 

Eamak, Dd 

Easbia, D i 

Eaah (wells), D d 

Easinkar, G g 

Easr Ahmed, D d 
M el Akhdar, F o 
„ el Lebekb, G d 
„ Ezrak, E b 
„ Eenm, G c 
„ Zerka, E b 

Eassaba (wells), G e 

Eassala, Eh 

Eatieh, Db 

Eauwnmi, G d 

Eazeroon (c), D b 

Eednet, F h 

Eeneineitah, D g 

Eenneh (old), D d 

Eenneh, D d 

Eenar, D g ^ 

Eerak, E b 

Eerreri, D h 

Eez Zaraf , G h 

Ehan Yonas, D b 

Ehartum, D h 

Ehor Abdnm, G g 
„ Abu Henid, G g 
„ Aba Eashim, G h 
„ AH. Eh 
„ Anseba, E h 
„ Aradaeb, E h 
„ Baraka, E g 
„ el Aba Eak, G h 
„ el Brega, G h 
„ el Erefah, G h 
„ el Gash, E h 
„ el Laban, D h 
„ el Oalas, E i 
„ el Wabari, G h 
„ ez Zaraf, G h 

. „ Fagedel, Eh 
„ Gergaf, E i 
„ Hambat, E h 
,, Harabsoid, E h 
„ Hassanawi, G h 
„ Eashmil, E i 
„ Mamam, E h 
„ Mesalami, E i 
„ Omadeh, F g 



Ehor Omrahid, E i 

„ Sawa, E h 

„ Tagel,Eh 
Ehutraneh, E b 
Eirba,Ei 
Eobban, D e 
Eodokol, G g 
Eoft,Dd 
Eokan, D e 
Eoom Ombo, D e 
Eorasi, E h 
Eorkas (i), D g 
Eorosko, G e 
Eorrobi, D g 
Eorti,Gg 
Eorti, D e 
Eoas, D d 
Eoye, G f 
Ereder, E i 
Eabaneeh, D e 
Eubishi, D g 
Eaeh, D d 
Eafit, F h 
Eafriat (wells), G g 
Eanawat, E a 
Earakol, G g 
Eas Aba Delaah, G h 
Easkas, G g 
Eatraneh, E b 

Lahaiwa, Gd 

Libyan desert, B-G b-o-d-e 

Lad, D b 

Luxor, D d 

Maan, Eb 
Maatuk, D i 
liaooar (i), E e 
Maoowa (i), E f 
Madik, Gf 
Magaga, Dg 
Maharakat, E i 
Maharroka, D e 
Bfahass, Gf 
Mahatepe, F i 
Mahtul (wells), G g 
Mais, Eg 
Makafab,Ef 
Makhgar, D d 
BCakhmudieh, D h 
Maleki, G e 
Manakil, Di 
Manfaloot, G d 
Mankabat, G d 
Mansora, G d 
Mansurah, Gb 
Mansurieh (i), D e 
Marabut, B b 
Mar donah (i), E d 
Marea, Fh 



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INDEX TO MAP OF MODEBN EGYPT. 



Mareb (r), F i 
Mareotis (1), B o 
MarowaD, D e 
Maniarti (i), G g 
Masara, B d 
Mashabeh (i), E d 
Masznas, t 
Massawady, D h 
Mataleb, G o 
Matarieb, Gb 
Matammeh, D h 
Matammeh, D h 
Medinet el Faioum, G o 
MehaUet, b 
Meherig, G d 
Mekerif , D g 
Meks, B b 
Melawi, G c 
Melnia,Eh 
Menoaf, G b 
Menzaleh (1), G b 
Menzaleh, G b 
Memfayah, D d 
Memphis (rains), G o 
Merawi/G g 
Meriar (i), E e 
Merie, D e 

Merod, Island of, D h 
Merod (pd'), D h 
Merreh, D h 
Mersa Amid, E g 
Arrakea,*E f 
Dhiba, D d 
Dongola, E f 
Duroor, E g 
Fedja, E f 
Haleib, E f 
Mubarik, D d 
Shab, E e 
Sheikh Barud, E g 
Shekeli, D d 
Solakh, E f 
Zebaider, E d 
Mesalamia, D i 
Meahteb, G d 
Metaghara, G o 
Mgitta, G 
Midian, E a 
Minieh, G o 
Mirkisseh, Gf 
Mitkinab, Eh 
Mitraheny, G o 
Mogarra (wells), B o 
Mograt (i), D f 
Moie tel Abd, D d 
Moilah (weUs), D d 
Moilah (Muweileh), E o 
MoBer, Fb 
MoBhi, G g 
Monsa, D o 



Magatta(i),Ei 
Mnkaa, D o 
Makari, D g 
Monsnf, G d 

Nabesh, D f 

NabluB, E b 

Nalowaty, G £ 

Namahn (i), E d 

Natron Valley and Lakes, B-G b 

Nazareth, E a 

Nedi, D g 

Nedim (well), D g 

Nesle Sheikh Hassan, G o 

Nmara, E a 

Nowabat, G e 

Nuba, D h 

Nabia, D-E-F g-h-i 

Nurain, D i 

Oasis, Ooorcoor, G e 
„ Great, G d-e 
„ Lesser, B o 
„ Selimeh, B f 
„ Western, B d 
Obisoo, D e 
German, E a 
Okmeh, G f 
Olag, G g 
Cm Bak, D g 
Ombrega, E i 
Cm Deras (oat.), D g 
„ Dhayr (desert), G g 
„ Doban, B i 
Omdnrman, D h 
Cm el Abas, E e 
„ Kadissa, G i 
„ Kohl, Gi 
„ Sayala, G i 

Palinorus (rock), E e 
Petra (rains of), E b 
Philae, D e 
Port Damayghah, E d 
Port Si^d, G b 

Bahmanieh, G b 
Raikah (i), E d 
Bamleh. D b 
Bas Abiad, F e 

„ Aba Fatimeh, E f 

„ Aba Mud, E e 

„ Abu Mussarib, E d 

„ Aba Semar, D d 

„ Beeban, D d 

„ Benass, E e 

„ Elba,Ef 

„ El Half, Bb 

„ Feger,Fo 

„ Fortol, D 



Bas Gharib, D o 

„ Gimsah, D o 

„ Golhan, E e 

„ Jerboah, F e 

„ Jusreah, E f 

„ Eurkamah, E d 

„ Maharash, E d 

„ Marabat, E d 

„ MelkelOad, De 

„ Mrek, Dd 

„ Mohammed, D o 

„ Bowa, Ef 
Bassay, E h 
Bas Shagra, D d 

„ Tobit, Eb 

„ Tandeba, D e 

„ W. Tariam, E e 
Bedesia, D e 
Beyaneh, G d 
Boccan (i), D h 
Bosetta, G b 
Bowa (Banai) bay, E f 
Roway, E g 
Bafaz, D i 
Saal Hashish, D d 
Sabderat, E h 
Safaj (i), D d 
Safieha, D e 
Sagadi, Dh 
Saghe, D d 
Said, the, G-D d-e-f 
Sakai es Safiyeh, G h 
Salalat, E g 
Salamad (wells), G g 
Salehiyeh, G b 
Samelood, G o 
Sammoad, G b 
Samunt, D e 
Sarras, Gf 
Say (i), G f 
Seberget (i), E e 
Seboa, G e 
Sedinga, G f 
Seflac, G d 
Sefarieh, E a 
Seilab, D g 
Sekket, D e 
Selimeh (oasis), B f 
Selma, E d 
S*em Magdid, G I 
Senmeh, f 
Senoor, E b 
Seriba Ambareb, E h 
Serra, f 
Serra Garby, G f 
Shaab Aba Fenderah, E e 
„ „ Himara, E e 
„ Ghadireh, E e 
„ Suady, B f 
Shaba. G g 



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VI. 



INDEX TO MAP OF MODSBN EOTPT. 



Shadwan (i), D d 
Shaibarah (i), E d 
Shalof, D b 
Shamba, D h 
Sharona, G o 
Shebaoat (welli), D h 
Sheb Alan, G e 
Shegat, i 
Sheikh el Walia, D h 

„ Hassan, D h 
Sheikieh, D h 
Shendy, D h 

M Dh 
Sherafeh. G o 
Shererat, F o 
Sherm, D o 

„ Abban, E e 

„ Aba, E f 

„ Aba Amarah, E f 

M ,. Datek, E f 
„ Ghat, E f 

M „ Jeseireh, E f 

$• n Med, E e 
„ Nehleh,Ef 
,. Shora, E f 

„ Braikhah, F e 

„ Gharar, E f 

„ Demerah, E d 

„ Gabeten, £ f 

„ Hassey, E e 

„ Heb el Madfa, E e 

„ Eafafah, E d 

„ Shaab, E f 

„ Sheikh, Ee 

„ Tenbo, F e 
Shershare, G i 
Shiban, G g 
Shitah, G g 
Shobek, E b 
Shorolat e* Nejed, F d 
Shawak, E d 
Sibil Bagadi. D i 
Sinai, D o 
Singat, E g 
Sioat, G d 
Siwah, A e 
Siyall (i), E e 
Skaghab, E d 
Sneta, B o 
Soba (rains), D h 
Soleib, G f 
Solib, G g 
Songari, G e 
Son, Gg 
Sortot, G g 
Sotahl (wells), G h 
Soaakin. E-F f-g 
Soaakin, E g 
Soadan, B-G-D-E-F i 
Soahag, G d 



Suega,Gd 
Saes. G b 
Sahani, E i 
Sak Aba Sin, E i 
Sakkoi, G f 
Salkhad, E a 
Syene (Asaoaan), D o 

Tafa, De 
Tahta, G b 
Tageta, D h 
Tahtah, d 
Takazze (r). D-E-F i 
Tamagwet, D g 
Tamai, Eg 
Tamaniai, D h 
Tamanib, E g 
Tamboak, E g 
Taneh, G o 
Tangoor, G f 
Tankaad, Gg 
Tebak, E o 
Teheyn, F d 
Tel Atrib, G b 
Tenedah, B d 
That el Hadj, E o 
Thebes, D d 
Theran (rains), F g 
Thofja, F 
Thalia, F o 
Thyale, D e 
Tiberias (1), E a 
Tiberias, E a 
Tinareh, G f 
Tineh, G b 
Tiran (i), D o 
Todlak, E h 
Toggan, E h 
Toogh, D d 
Tokar, F g 
Tomat, E i 
Tomantotal, D g 
Tor, D 
Tosk, G f 
Trinkitat, F g 
Toara, G c 
Taari (oat.), G g 
Taoki. D f 
Tara, Gg 
Tarf en Baka, D o 
Tyflah (i), F f 



Umboge, D g 
Urn Gegaz, E d 
Um Eeis, E a 
Umm Bokhara, G d 
Um Shash, F d 
Umtaref, D h 
Umanixnah, B d 



Urbi, G g 
UrikeiB, E a 

Wady Aba Gir, G g 

„ Absa. d f 

„ Allake, D f 

„ Allake, D f 

M Amadan, F d 

„ Amai, D e 

,, Amet, E g 

„ Amar, D g 

„ Arab, E g 

„ Arabah. G o 

„ Assiam, E f 

„ Daffelli, D f 

„ Dehib, E f 

„ Denmkad, E g 

„ Dimoka, D f 

„ Dras, E g 

„ el Ain, D o 

„ „ Akaba, D o 

„ „ Ammar. D h 

„ „ Arabah, E b-c 

„ „ Fag. D e 

„ „ Fokari, F d 

„ „ Gar, F c 

„ „ Hodein, E e 

„ „ Hamath, F d 

„ „ Kab, B c-g 

„ „ Moaddan, F d 

„ „ Bararit, D e 

.. „ Sany, F d 

„ „ Shely, D i 

„ „ Tarfeh, G o 

.. „ Tyh, G 

„ en Nail, F o 

„ „ Negar, Ei 

„ Esserba, D e 

„ Ferah, D g 

„ Ghadaghid. D e 

„ Oizzl. F d 

„ Glaanmdel, D c 

„ Habob, E g 

„ Haliah, G f 

„ Haratreb, E g 

„ Jemal, D e 

„ Earit, G c 

„ Earra, F d 

„ Laemebr D g 

„ Langheb, E 

„ Malik, B h 

„ Mandera, D f 

„ Margarit, D f 

„ Mindet, E e 

„ Mojeb, E b 

„ Mokatteb, D c 

„ Mokattem, G g-h 

„ Moasa (Petra), E b 

„ Nabeh. D f 

„ Naham, D o 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EGYPT. Til. 

Wadj Nar, E e Wady Sirr, E d Wandi, E g 

„ Nejed, Ed „ Terib Arig, E g 

„ Nejib, Ed ,. Therry, F d Yanntik (r). E a 

„ Nakeri (Nechesia), D e ,, nin Eabrit, D f Tenbo, F e 

„ Ossir, Eg „ Werran, F a Tuba (i), E o 

„ Bajan, G o Wah el Bahrieh (Lesser Oasis), B o 

„ Saiag, D d „ „ Dakhel (Western Oasis), B d Zafarana (i), D o 

„ Satab, Eh . » >, Kharjeh (Great Oasis), d-e Zagazig, b 

„ Sela, F h Wardan, C b Zerak el Eurdi, h 

„ Sdem, D g Wedge (El Weg), E d Zerbal, D i 

„ Shab, Ee Woad Naga, D h Zeribah, D i 

M Shetal, Ee Wold Medina, D Zerka, E b 



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INDEX TO MAPS OF ANCIENT EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, &c. 

Nos. I. & III.— VIII. 



ICap. 

Aareq t. B o 

Ahtt T. Aa 

Abtil m. Ba 

Aba T. B 

Abaklr m. B a 

Aba'l Menaggi (Canal) in. b 

Abo-rawaah (Pyr.) . . ni. C b 

Aba Simbel ti.'Bo 

Aba Sir m. C b 

Abydofi T. A a 

Addeh ti. B o 

Aden. Golf of i. F f 

Adalia i. E e 

Aethiopia i. G e 

Ahnfts el Medtneh m. G o 

Akhet-Aten it. Ab 

Aksheh ti. B o 

Alexandria m. A a 

i.Bb 

AmAdeh ti. C o 

Ammoniam . . i. B c 

Amt • m. G b 

Ama m. B b 

Anas el Wogild . . . . t. B o 

Ant T. B a 

Antaeopolis it. B o 

Anthylla m. B b 

Anti T.Bb 

Antinod it. A b 

Ana m. G b 

Ana-Menia t. B b 

Ana-Qema t. B b 

Anyt T. B b 

Aphroditopolis . . . . it. B o 

Aphroditopolis . . . . m. G o 

Apollinopolls Magna t. B b 

Apa IT. B 

Ar&bat el MadMneh . . t. A a 

Arab el Hetam it B b 

Arabia E F c-d-e 

Arko (Island) . . . . Tn. A o 

ArsinoS m. B o 

Arsinod Tin. 

AsfAn T. B b 

Asia Minor i. B G D a 

Asphynis t. B b 

Assyria i. E a 



Map. 

Astaboras (B.) tu. E e 

iCJe 

Aswin T. B 

AsyAt IT. B b 

Atb&ra (B.) Tn. E e 

„ I. G e 

Atfih m. G 

Athribis m. G b 

Atama (Desert) . . Tin. 

Aiamifl I. D f 

Baal Zephon . . Tin. 

Babylon i. E b 

„ m. G b 

Babylonia i. F b 

Baghdad i. E b 

Bah m. G b 

Bahr el Mehalleh . . m. G a 

„ es Saghaiyer.. m. Ga 

„ Faraai m. G a 

„ Maryflt in. A a 

,. Ma*izz . . m. G b 

,, Yasif m. B 

„ „ iT.Aa-b 

Begarawleh Tn. D f 

Behbeit el Hagar . . m. G a 

Behen ti. B d 

Behneseh it. A a 

Bek TI. G b 

Belbds m. C b 

,, . . . . . . Tm. 

Beni Hasan (Tombs) it. A b 

„ Sadf m. 

Berber Tn. E e 

Berenice . . i. D d 

Beris T. A 

Berytas i. D b 

Bigeh T. B 

Birket el Earilln m. B c 

Bitter Lakes m. D b 

„ M .. .. Tin. 

Blae Nile i. D f 

Bolbitine month m. B a 

BoAn TI. B d 

Babastis m. G b 

Tin. 

Barla&(L.) m. B a 



Map. 

Basiris ni. C b 

Bato m. B a 

Gabasa m. B a 

Gairo m. G b 

Gamp of Ghabrias . . m. D a 

Ganopic month m. B a 

Ganopns m. B a 

Ga8ias(Mt.) m. Ea 

Ghenoboskion t. B a 

Glysma m. D b 

Gontrapselohis . . ti. G b 

Goptos T. B a 

Greta i. A a 

GnssB IT. A b 

Gynopolis it. A a 

Gyprns i.-G a 

Gyrene i. A b 

Dakkeh ti. G b 

Damanhtbr m. B a 

Damascns i. D b 

Damietta m. G a 

Damietta moath m. G a 

Daphnae m. D b 

Darias stels m. D b 

„ „ .. .. Tm. 

Dah8hi!lr (Pyr.) . . . . m. G c 

DArftbr i. A f 

DebAt TI. G b 

Defeneh m. D b 

Dendereh t. B a 

DendAr ti. G b 

DdrAbaMak&r m. B b 

„ Anba Bish6i . . in. B b 

., el Bahri . . t. B b 

t, Baramilis . . m. B b 

„ Gebrawi (Tombs) it. B b 

,, Bifeh (Tombs) . . it. B b 

Derr ti. C o 

. Dimay m. B o 

Dmsh&l m. Bb 

Diospolis Panra t. B a 

Dodeca-Schoenns . . . . ti. G b 

Dnmyftt m. G a 

DOsh el EaVeh . . . . i. A o 



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i 



INDEX TO MAPS OF ANCIENT EOYPT, ETHIOPIA, ETC. 



IX. 



ICap. 

EdDakhel(Boad) .. .. y. A b 

Ed D6r IT. A b 

Edfu V. B b 

£dku(L.) m. Ba 

Eileithyapolifl . . . . v. B b 

Ekhmlm . . . . * . . nr. 6 o 

El 'Arish . . . . . . in. E a 

„ Bersheh (Tombs) . . nr. A b 

., Bahlyeh (Canal) . . ni. C b 

Elephantine . . ▼. B o 

El HawAteh . . nr. A b 

„ Hibeh nr. A a 

„ Kab V. B b 

„ Kais nr. A a 

„ Eantareh . . . . m. D b 

„ Kess m. E a 

„ Ehargeh (Oasis) . . v. A b-o 

» v.Ab 

„ KAleh (Pyr.) .. .. ' v. B b 

„ Kumeh v. B b 

, vn. Bd 

„ Easiyeh iv. A b 

„ LahAn (Pyr.) . . . . in. c 

,, M&hmMyeh (Canal) . . m. B a 

„ Maks v. A 

,, Mashaik v. B a 

,, Menshiyeh . . . . v. A a 

„ Uksor V. B b 

Erment v. B b 

Er Basohtd m. B a 

„ BiyashAt m. A b 

(Oanal) . . m. B b 

Eahmundn nr. A b 

Esneh v. B b 

Es Sebii'a ti. G o 

Etham (Desert) . . . . vni. 

Eaphrates (B.) i. D a 

Faiyi^ iii. B o 

FAkiis III. G b 

„ vin. 

Faras vi. B o 

Fareg ti. B o 

Fort St. Jolien . . . . in. B a 

FostAt III. C b 

Ftteh HI. Ba 

Qebel Ahmar (Quarries) . . in. C b 

,, Barkal . . . . tii. B d 

Oebeldn t. B b . 

Gebel Silsileh .. .. t. o 

Oerf Hosdn . . . . ti. C b 

Gerrha in. D a 

Geztret ez ZAhin (Tombs) t. B c 

Girgeh t. A a 

Olseh (Pyr.) . . . . in. G o 

Qoshen in. G b 

M Tin. 

,. (Land of).. .. vni. 



ICap. 

Greece i. A a 

HammAmAt (Boad) . . v. G b 

HawAreh (Pyr.) . . . . in. B o 

Heb V. Ab 

Hebnu iv. A a 

Heliopolls in. G b 

Henen-Seten . . . . in. C c 

Heracleopolis Magna in. C o 

Hermonthis . . . . v. B o 

Hermopolis in. C a 

Hermopolis Magna iv. A b 

Panra . . . . ni. B a 

Heroopolis in. D b 

„ vni. 

Het-Bena iv. A a 

Het Nub (Quarries) iv. A b 

Het Sefent v. B b 

Het Seshest v. B a 

Het-Ta-Her-Ab . . in. C b 

Hibis V. A b 

Hieraconpolis . . . . iv. A a 

IV. Bb 

, V. Bb 

Hipponon iv. A a 

Hypsele iv. B b 

Horbdt ni. G b 

Hu Y. B a 

Ibiim VI. G 

Isoam ni. C a 

Iskenderteh . . . . in. A a 

Ismailia vni. 

ItfA IV. Be 

Jerusalem i. D b 

Ealabsheh vi. G b 

Eamak v. B b 

Easa IV. A a 

Easr es SaiyAd . . v. B a 

„ Eurtbi . . . . in. B c 

Eassassin vni. 

Eaa el Eebir . . iv. B c 

EedAbeh (Canal) .. .. in. B a-b 

Eemsa vi. C b 

Eenem i. G c 

Eertassi vi. G b 

Ehartftm i. C e 

vn. G^ 

Ehasan in. B a 

Ehata*neh in. C b 

Ehemenn in. C a 

Ehemnu iv. A b 

Ehenu v. G c 

Eher-'Ahau . . . . in. G b 

Eolzom in. D b 

Eordofan i. G f 

Eorti VI. G b 



Map. 

EnbbAn vi. G b 

Euft T. B a 

EAm Aba Billil . . . . in. B b 

„ Afrin III. B b 

., el Ahmar . . . . iv. A a 

„ el Ahmar .. .. v. B b 

„ el Hisn . . . . in. B b 

„ Galf in. Bb 

„ Omb6 . . . . V. G 

Eiis V. B b 

Eusdr . . . . . . IV. A b 

Latopolis V. B b 

Letopolis in. C b 

Lencos Limen . . . . i. G c 

Libyan Desert . . . . B d-e 

Lisht (Pyr.) in. C c 

Lazor v. B b 

Lyoopolis IV. B b 

Ma'abdeh iv. A b 

Maam vi. C o 

Maharrakeh . . . . vi. C b 

Maraua vn. D £ 

Mareotis (L.) . . . . in. A a 

Masr el Eahireh . . . . in. C b 

MAtu V. B b 

Mecca i. E d 

MedamAt v. B b 

Medinet el Faiynm ni. B c 

Medtnet el Taigiina . . in. B c 

Medinet HabtL . . . . v. B b 

Mediterranean Sea . . A B C b 

MMiUm (Pyr.) . . . . in. c 

Memphis m. G c 

, I. Gb 

Mendes m. G b 

Mendesian mouth . . . . ni. D a 

Men-nefer in. C c 

Menzaleh (L.) . . . . m. GD a 

M6r (Tombs) . . . . it. A b 

MeroS (Pyr.) . . . . vn. D f 

I. Cc 

Merur (L.) . . . . m. B c 

Metelis m. B a 

Migdol m. D b 

,. .. .. .. Tm. 

Mines i. G e 

i.Dd 

Moeris (L.) in. B c 

Mons Porphyrites (Quarry) i. G c 

NAka TH. Df 

Napata (Pyr.) . . . . i. G e 

„ TH. Bd 

Napet Tn. B d 

Natron Lakes . . m. B b 

Naucratis m. B b 

Nebdaheh m. G b 



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INDEX TO MAPS OF ANCIENT EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, ETC. 



Nekheb 

Nekhen 

Nekr&sh 

Neshi 

Net-ent-bok 

Net .. 

Nineveh 

Nishweh 

Nitriotis 

No-Amen 

Noph 

Nubyfc 

Nilri (Pyr.) 

NM Yezir (Canal) 

Oasis Parya 
Oasis Magna 
Ofedtneh 
Ombos 
On .. 
Onias 
Ostraoine 
Ozyrbynoas 

Pachnamanis 
Pa-Khen-en-Amen 
Pakhet 
Panopolis . . 
Paraetoniom 
Pelusiac arm 

„ month 
Pelusium . . 
Per-Ba Neb-Tat 
„ -Bast .. 



-Hebyt .. 

•Her-merti 

-Eemhes 

-Maka 

-Maza 

-Phtah 

-Sopt 



„ -Tam 

>» »» 
„ -Uazyt 
„ -Usar 
Phacasa 



PharbaethuB 
Phatnitio moatfar 
Philae 
Pibeseth 

II • • 

Pikeheret . . 
Pithom 

i> • • 

Port St. Jalien 
Premis 
Prosopis 



Map. 




Map. 


v.Bb 


Pselohis .. 


.. VI. Cb 


v.Bb 


Pserket 


.. VI. Cb 


in. B b 


P-sbe-en-hor 


. . V. B b 


v.Aa 


Psoi 


. . V. A a 


IV. Bb 


Ptoiemals . . 


. . V. A a 


v.Bb 






I. Ea 


QebU 


V. Ba 


III. B a 


Qes 


. . III. C b 


I. Ob 


Qesem 


.. III. Cb 


v.Bb 


»i • • • • 


.. VIII. 


III. 


Qesi 


IV. A b 


V. Co 


II . . . . . . 


.. V.Bb 


VII. B d 


Quarry 


I. Co 


III. B a 






I. B 


Raqety 


III. A a 


I C 


BedSea .. 


I. DEc-d-e-f 


VI. Cb 


II (old shore of) 


.. VIII. 


V. Co 


Redeslyeh (Temple, route to) v. C c 


III. C b 


Be-fu (Quarries) . . 


III. C c 


III. Cb 


Rbinocolura 


I. Cb 


III. E a 


„ 


. . III. E a 


IV. A a 


Bosetta 


. . III. B a 




„ mouth 


III. B a 


III. C a 






III. C a 


Sabkhat Bardawil . . 


III. Ea 


IV. A b 


Sa el hagar . . 


. . III. B b 


IV. Bo 


Baft el Henneh . . 


III. C b 


I. Bb 


»« M 


.. VIII. 


III. CD b 


Sais 


. . III. B b 


III. D a 


SakhA 


. . III. B a 


III. Da 


SakkAreh (Pyr.) . . 


III. C 


III. C b 


Sau 


. . III. B b 


III. C b 


Saut 


I. C c 


VIII. 


II . . . . . . 


. . IV. B b 


III. Ca 


Sebennytio mouth . . 


. . III. B a 


III. C b 


Sebennytus . . 


. . III. C b 


v.Bb 


Bekhet Amu (?) . . 


I. Be 


III. B a 


Sekbem 


.. III. Cb 


IV. A a 


Semennd 


.. III. Cb 


VI. Cb 


Semneh 


. . VI. A d 


III. C b 


Senemt 


V. B 


VIII. 


Sennaar 


I. C f 


III. D b 


Seni • 


.. v.Bb 


VIII. 


Senti-Nefer . . 


III. B a 


III. B a 


Sep 


IV. A a 


III. B b 


Serbonis (L.) 


. . !"• D a 


III. C b 


Set 


. . IV. A b 


VIII. 


SetbroS 


.. III. Db 


III. C b 


Seveneh 


V. B c 


III. Ca 


Shabb&s . . 


. . III. B a 


V. Bo 


Shardneh . . 


IV. A a 


III. C b 


Shasbotep .. 


.. IV. Bb 


VIII. 


Sheikh AbAdeh .. 


. . IV. A b 


VIII. 


Sheikh Fadl 


. . iv. A a 


III. D b 


„ Sa'ld (Tombs) 


.. iv.Ab 


VIII. 


Shenhiir 


.. v.Bb 


III. B a 


Shetnu 


. . ra. C b 


VI. Co 


Shetti 


in. B 


III. C b 


Shugafieh . . 


.. vin. 



Shutb 
Sidon 
Sikket KubbAt (Boad) 

Sile 

Silsilis 

Sin 



IV. Bb 
i.Db 
▼. B c-b 

m. Db 

V. C 
III. D a 



Smen-Hor in. C o 

Soba vn. C g 

Soleb vn. A b 

Somali Coast . . . . i. F f 

Speos ArtemidoB . . . . iv. A b 

Stabl Antar iv. A b 

Suocoth vm. 

Suez m. D 

Sunt ▼. B o 

Syene v. B c 



Ta-Aht 
Tacompso (i.) 
Tifeh 
Tahet 



I. B c 

. . VI. C b 

. . VI. C b 

. . VI. C b 

Tahpanhes lu. D b 

Tak 'at el Fara'un . . . . iii. D b 

Talmifl vi. C b 

Tanis in. C b 

Tanitic mouth . . m. D a 

Tankassi vn. B d 

Ta-'n-Terer v. B a 

Taphis VI. Cb 

TarrAneh ra. B b 

Ta-She m. B c 

Tatu m. C b 

Tebu v.Bb 

Tehneh rr. A a 

Tehni iv. A a 

Tell Abu Sdfeh .. iii. D b 

II Atrib III. C b 

II Baklieh in. C b 

,1 Basta III. C b 

I, „ VIII. 

II Belim in. D b 

,1 Billeh III. C a 

II el Amarna . . iv. A b 

I, el Her in. D b 

II el Eebir . . . . viii. 

II el Maskhftteh . . . . m. D b 

» ,, „ .. .. vin. 

II el Yahiid . . . . in. C b 

« „ ,» .. .. vni. 

II el Tahildidh . . . . in. C b 

II Fera*in in. B a 

II FaramA .. .. in. D a 

II Gemayemi .. .. in. C b 

II Hisn in. C b 

,1 Monf III. C 

I, Mukdam . . . . in. C b 

I, BotAb in. D o 

▼!". 

II SAn el Hager . . . . in. C b 



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INDEX TO MAPS OF ANOIEMT EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, ETC. 



ICap. 

TellTniai iix. G b 

„ Tilkh III. G b 

„ Zftelto III. G b 

Tema-tti-her iii. B a 

Temay iv. A b 

Teni t. A a 

Tennis in. D a 

Tentyra ▼. B a 

Tep-Ah III. G 

Terenuthis ui. B b 



Map. 

Thoa VIII. 

Tigris (B.) i. E a-b 



Termes 

Tert .. 

Thebes 

Thebae 

Theb-neter 

Theba 

This .. 



▼I. G b 
▼.Bb 
v.Bb 
I. G 

III. G b 

IV. Bo 
v.Aa 



Tims4h(L.).. 

TAd .. 

Tu-Ea 

Ttlneh 

Tarra (Quarxies) 

Tutsis 

Tn Uab 

Tyrus 



III. D b 
v.Bb 
IV. B 
IV. A b 

III. G 
VI. G b 

vii.Bd 
i.Db 



WAdy el 'Aitsh 
en Natron 
es Sofra 
Halfeh 
TamtlAi 



White Nile 



Uhat I. G c 

Usim III. G b 

Ut Meht I. B c 

UtUab i.Bc 

Ut Bes I. G c 



Xols . 

Zan . 
Zani. 



Zeqa . . 
Zeezes 
Zoan.. 



III. 


Ea 


III. 


Bb 


VII. 


Df 


VI. 


Bd 


III. 


Cd-b 


VIII. 




I. 


D f 


III. 


Ba 


III. 


Gb 


III. 


Db 


III. 


Db 


III. 


Ob 


I. 


Be 


III. 


Gb 



LONDON: 

W. Obxogs and Sons, Ioxitsd. 
1894. 



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I. The Store-City of Pit horn and the Route of the Exodus^ Memoir for 1883-4. 
By Edouard Naville. With Thirteen Plates and Two Maps. Third Edition. 
1888. 25^. 
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With Forty-four Plates and Seven Plans. Second Edition. 1888. 25^. 

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Naville. With Eleven Plates and Plans. Second Edition. 1888. 25 j. 

V. Tarn's. Part II., Nebesheh {Am) and Defenneh {Tahpanhes). Memoir for 1887-8. 

By W. M. Flinders Petrie. With Chapters by A. S. Murray and F. Ll. 

Griffith. With Fifty-one Plates and Plans. 1888. 25^. 
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Special Extra Reports. 

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Archwological Report, 1892-3. Edited by F. Ll. GRIFFITH. With Seven Illustrations 

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Publications of the ArchaBological Survey of Egypt. 

Edited by F. Ll. Griffith, B.A., F.S.A. 

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Newberry. With Plans and Measurements of the Tombs by G. W. Fraser. 

Forty-nine Plates. Price 25^.; to Subscribers, 20s. 
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