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Omne tii)it pnnrinni Otd iai*niil 
vtOr dnlrl. 

■"e f 

ui 1 i 


lyiTi ■ 







TO wuics a rMtruutt, 



rmnrnw mOH ma Aomoaiuti corr or IGJI. wtm thi aothob** i-awt 
MkKCCTion, AvoinnN*, fte. An. 




SriTni uiD FiiUDii, Puhtkii, 37, Bill Tub. Tiani Bum. 









Multu Nominibut Obtervando, 




D. D. 


The folhwinff address it found at the concliaioH of the folio edition, 
1651, from which the present isreprinted. 


" Bb pIsMcd to know (CoDrteoiu Rcailer) that aioce the Ixt Impreuion of this Book, 
the ingennoiu Author of it u deceued, leaving & Copj of it oactlf corrceteil, vith 
wren] coDiider^le Additioni by kii own band; thii Copy be committed to mj care 
and autodj, with directioni to Iuto thou Additioni iiuertcd in the next Edition ; 
which in order to lui eonmund, and the Pnblicke Qood, i> faithfully performed in thia 
lait ImpreuioD." H.C. 

(I. «. HBNRY CaiPPS.} 


" '1^ a book 10 full of nriety of reading, that lentlemen who hare loit their time and 
■re put to a pnih for iniention, miy fumuih themKliei with matter for common or 
acholutic diKODTM and writing." — Wood't Alhaut Oxx/metuu, i. 628. 

" If yon nsrer n* Burton apon Mekncboly, priatvil 1676, I pray look into it, and read 
the ninth page of his preface, ' Democritaito die Reader.' liere ia aomething there which 
tonehea the point we are upon ; but I mention the author to yon u the pleaoanteit, the 
moat learned, and the moat full of aterliug aeuie." — AreMitkop Herriiu'i Lettm, I2mo. 


Dr. JOHNSON apeaki of it aa the only book that erer took him ont of bed two hours 
■o^ner than he wiahni to riae. 

" Tttt ANATOMY op MELANCHOLY U a book which haa been Qni*enally read and 
admired. Thia work is for the moat part, what the aathor hJmaelf atyUa it, ' a cento ;' but 
it iaa lery ingenions one. Hi* quotationa, which abound in every page, are pertinint." — 
Onmgtr'i Biofraphitai Hilltry. 

Mr. Wakton, in hia edition of Milton, aDading to Bdbtoh, aaya, "Thewrlter'a variety 
of learning, hia quotationa from acarce and carioui booka, hia pedantry, aparkling with rude 
wit and ahapeleaa elegance, miatxllaneoaa matter, intermiitore of agTeeabLe tolei and 
illnatrationa, and, perhaps aliOTe all, the siugnlaritiea of hia feelinga, clothed in an uncom- 
mon qnaintneas of atyle, have contributed to render it evon to modem readera, a valuable 
rcpoaitory of atnniement and Infbrmation." 


TEN distinct Sqturei bere Men apart. 
Are jofu'd in one by Cntter'a art. 

1. Old OemcKTitua under a tree. 
Sits on a itone with book on knee ; 
About bim bang tbere man; features 
Of rati, ik)gii and Bucb like creatures. 
Of wbich he makea anatomy. 

The seat of black choler to see. 
Over his head appears the skie. 
And Saturn Lord of melancholy. 

2. To the left a landscape of Jealousie, 
Prevents itself onto thine eye. 

A luagftAtT, a swan, an hem. 
Tiro fighting-cocks you may discern, 
Tto roaring boUa each other bie. 
To assault concerning Tenery. 
Symboles are these ; I tar no more, 
Conceive the reat by that i afore. 

3. The next of solitariness, 

A portrvtnre doth weU express. 
By sLeeping dog, cat ; buck and do, 
Hares, comes in the deeart go : 
Bats, owls the shady bowers over. 
In melancholy darkneBs hover. 
Mark well : If t be not aa't should be. 
Blame the bad Cutter, and not me. 

4. 1th' under column there doth stand 
Inamorato with folded hand ; 

Down hangs his head, terse and polite. 

Some dittie sure he doth indite. 

His lute and books about him lie. 

As symptomes of his vani^. 

If this do not enough disclose, 

To paint him, take thyself by tb' nose. 

5. HTpochondriacns leans on his arm, 
\^'inde in his side doth him much harm, 
And troubles him full sore, God knows. 
Much pain he hath and many woes. 
About him pots end glasses he. 
Newly brought from's Apothecary. 
This Saturn's aspect si^fie. 

You see them portraid m the skie. 

6, Beneath them kneeling on hia knae, 
A superstitious man you see : 

He fasts, prays, on hts idol fixt. 
Tormented hope and feare betwixt ; 
For hell perhaps he takes more pain. 
Then thou dost heaven itself to gain. 
Alas poor aoule, I pitie thee. 
What stars incline thee so to be I 

7, Bnt see the madman rage downright 
With furious looks, a ffhastly sight 1 
Naked in chuos bound doth he lie 
And roars amain he knows not whyl 
Observe him { for as in a glass. 
Thine angry portraiture it was. 

Hie picture keep still in thy presence ; 
Twiit him and thee there's no difference. 

8, 9. Borage and hellebor fill two acenes, 
Soveraign plants to purge the veins 

Of meluicnoly, and chear the heart 
Of those black fumes which make it 

smart I 
To clear the brain of misty fogs, 
\Miich dull our senses, and soule clogs. 
The best medicine that ere God made 
For this malady, if well a«eaid. 

10. Now last of all to fill a place. 
Presented is the Author's face ; 
And in that habit which he wears. 
His image to the norld appears. 
His minde no art can well express, 
That by his writings you may guess. 
It was not pride, nor yet vain glory, 
(Though others do it commonly) 
Made him do this : if you must know. 
The Printer would neculs have it so. 
Then do not frown or scoffe at it. 
Deride not, or detract a whit. 
For sureiy as thou dost by him. 
He will do the same again. 
Then look npon't, behold and see. 
As thou lik'flt it, so it likes thee. 
And 1 for it will stand in view. 
Thine to command, Reader, adiew. 



WHEN I go mmine all alone, 
lliinking of divers IhingB foreknown. 
When I Duild cbsUgh in the ajr. 
Void of sorrow and void of feare. 
Pleasing myaelf with phantaama aweet, 
Methinka tne time runs ven' fleet. 
All my joyea to this are folly, 
Nauffht BO Bweet as melancholy. 
When I lie waking ell alone. 
Recounting what I have ill doiie. 
My thoughts on me then tyrannize, 
Fe«re and sorrow me surpriie. 
Whether I tarrf still or go, 
Methinks the time moves very alow. 
All my griefs to this are jolly. 
Naught so sad as melancDoly. 
When to myself I act and smile. 
With pleasing thoughts the time b^uile. 
By a brook aide or wood bo green. 
Unheard, unsought for, or unseen, 
A thousand pleaBUTea do me blesa. 
And crown my soule with happineas. 
AU my joyeg besides are folly. 
None so sweet as melancholy. 
When I lie, nt, or walk alone, 
I aigh, I grieve, making great mone. 
In a dark grove, or irksome den. 
With discontents and Furies then, 
A thousand miseries at once 
Mine heavy heart and soule ensconce. 
All my griefs to this are jolly. 
None BO sour aa melancholy. 
Me diinks 1 hear, me thinks I see. 
Sweet musick, wondrous melodic. 
Towns, palaces, and cities fine ; 
Here now, then there ; the world is mine. 
Rare beauties, galknt ladies shine. 
What e'er is lovely or divine. 
All other joyes to this are folly. 
None BO sweet as melancholy. 
Methinks I hear, methinks I see 
Ghosts, goblins, fiends ; my phanbme 
Presents a thousand ugly shapea. 
Headless bear«, black men, and apes. 
Doleful outcries, and fearfui sights. 
My sad and dismall soule afirights. 
All my griefs to thia are jolly. 
None so damn'd as melancholy. 

Me thinks I court, me thinks I kiss. 
Me thinks 1 now embrace my mistriM. 

blessed dayes, O sweet content. 
In Paradise my time is spent. 

Such thoughts may stilt my fancy move. 
So may 1 ever be m love. 
All rayjoye« to this are folly, 
Nauffht so sweet as melancholy. 
When 1 recount loves many frignts. 
My sighs and tears, my waking nights. 
My jeidouB fits ; O mine hard &te 

1 now repent, buttis too late. 
No torment is so bad as love. 
So bitter to mv soule can prove. 

All my griefs to this are jolly. 
Naught so harsh as melancholy. 
Friends and companions get you gone, 
Tls my desire to be alone ; 
Ne'er well but when my thoughts and 1 
Do domineer inprivade. 
No gemm, no treasure like to this, 
lis my delight, my crown, my bliss. 
All my joyes to this are follv. 
Naught BO sweet as melancholy. 
Tis my sole plagne to be alone, 
I am a beast, a monster grown, 
1 will no light nor company, 
I Gnde it now my misery. 
The scean ia tum'd, my joyes are gone, 
Feare, discontent, and sorrows come. 
All mv griefs to this are jolly, 
Naugnt so fierce as melancholy. 
Ill not change life with any King, 
I ravisht am : can the world bring 
More joy, then atill to laugh and smile. 
In pleasant toyes time to beguile i 
Do not, O do not trouble me. 
So sweet content I feel and see. 
All my joyes to this are folly, 
None so divine as melancholy. 
Ill change my state with any wretch 
Thou canst from gaole or dunshill fetch : 
My pain's past cure, another hell, 
I may not in this torment dwell, 
. Now desperate I bate my life, 
< Lend me a halter or a knife ; 
' All my griefs to this are jolly. 
Naught so damn'd as melancholy. 


VADE liber, qualis, non ausim dicere, fcelix, 

Te nin felicem fecerit alma dies. 
Vade Umen quocunque lubet, quaacunque per ona, 

£t Geoium Domini fitc imitere tui. 
I blandas inter Charites, roystamque saluta 

Hiuarum quemvis, si tibi lector erit. 
Rora colas, urbem, subeasve palatia regum, 

Submisse, placide, te sine dente geras. 
Nobilii, aut si quis te forte inB|>exerit beros, 

Da te morigerum, perlegat usque lubet. 
Est quod Nobilitas, est quod desideret heroi, 

Gratior heec fonan charta placere potest. 
Si qnis morosns Cato, tetricusque Senator 

Hunc etiam librum forte videre velit, 
Sive magistratus, turn te reverenter habeto; 

Sed nuUuB ; muscas non capiunt aquilee. 
Non vacat his tempus fugitivum impendere nngis. 

Nee tales cnpio ; par mihi lector erit. 
Si matrona gravis casu diverterit istuc, 

Illustria domina, aut te Comitissa legal : 
Est quod displiceat, placeat quod forsitan illis, 

logerere his noli te mode, pande tamen. 
At si virgo tuas digoabitur inclyta chartas 

Tangere, sive scbedis beereat ilia tuis : 
Da modo te facileni, et queedam folia esse memento 

Conveoiant oculis quie magis apta auis. 
Si generosa ancilla tuos aut alma puetla 

Viiura est ludos, annue, pande lubens. 
Die, Utinam nunc ipse meus* (nam diligit iitai) 

In pnesens esset conspiciendus berus. 
Ignotus DotuBve mihi de gente togati 

Sive aget in ludis, pulpila sive colet, 
Sive in Lycteo, et nugas evolvent istas. 

Si quaaidam mendag viderit inspiciens, 
Da veniam auctori, dices ; nam plurima vellet 

Expungi, quffi jam displicuisse sciat. 
Sive Melancholicus quisquam, seu blandui Amator, 

Aulicus aut Civis, seu bene comptus Eques 
Hue appellat, age et tuto te crede legenti, 

Multa istic forsan non male nata leget. 
Quod fugiat, caveat, quodque amplexabitur, ista 

Pagina fortaasis promere multa potest. 

* Hbc eonice dieU, etrt at oMt cipiu. 

viii Detnocrititi Junior ad Librum suum. 

At si quis Medicus coram te sistet, amice 

Pac circum specie, et te sine labe geras : 
Inveiiiet namque ipse meis quoque plurima scriptis, 

Non leve subsidium quee sibi forsan erunt. 
Si quis Causidicus chartas imptngat in iatas, 

Nil mihi vobiscum, pessima turba vale : 
Sit nisi vir bonus, et juris sine frauds peritus ; 

Turn legat, et forsan doctior inde siet. 
Si quis cordatus, focilis, lectorque benignua 

Hue oculos vertat, qus velit ipse kgat ; 
Candidus ignoscet, metuas uil, pande libenter, 

Offensus merdis non erit ille tuis, 
Laudabit nonnulla. Venit si Rhetor ineptus, 

Limata et tersa, et qui bene cocta petit, 
Claude citus librum ; nulla htc nisi ferrea verba, 

Ofieudent itomacbum qu«e minus apta suum. 
At si quis nou eximius de plebe poeta, 

Annue ; namque istic plurima ficta leget. 
Nos sumuB e numero, nullus mibi spiral Apollo, 

Grandiloquus Vates quilibet esse aequit. 
Si Criticua Lector, tumidus Censorque molestus, 

Zoilus et Momus, si rabiosa cohors : 
Ringe, freme, et noli tum paudere, turba malignis 

Si occurrat saonis invidiosa suis : 
Facfugias; si nulla Ubi sit copia eundi, 

Contemnes tacite scommata qu«eque feres. 
Frendeat, allatret, vacuu gannitibus auras 

Impleat, baud cures; his placuisse ne&s. 
Verum age si fbrsan divertat purior hospes, 

Cuique sales, ludi, dispUceanlque joci, 
Objiciatque tibi sordes, lascivaque : dices, 

I^sciVaest Domino etMusa jocosatuo, 
Nee lasciva tamen, si pensitet omne ; sed esto ; 

Sit lasciva licet pagioa, vita proba eat. 
Barbaras, indoctusque radis spectator in istam 

Si messan intmdat, fiiste iiigabis enm ; 
FuQgum pelle procul ( jubeo) ; nam quid mihi fungo ? 

Conveniunt stomacho non minus ista suo. 
Sed nee pelletamen; Iceto omnes accipe vultu, 

Quos, quas, vel quales, inde vel uude viroa. 
Gratus erit quicunque venit, gmtissimua hospes 

Quisquis erit, facUis difficilisque mihi. 
Nam si culpftrit, queedam culp&sae juvabit. 

Gulpando faciet me meliora sequi. 
Sed si laudSrit, neque laudibus enerai uUis, 

Sit satis bisce malis opposuisse bonum. 
Hsec aunt qute nostro placiut mandare libello, 

Et qus dirokteiu ducere jusiit Henu. 



Gewtle rnider, I presume ifiou will be rery in<|tiisitivc to know wW 
ftntick or personate actor thi« i«, (bat »o insolenily intrudes, upon this com- 
tuon theatre, to the worlds view, arrogating another mans name, whence he 
is, why hedolh it. and what tie hath to say. Althongh, 'as he said, Primtim, 
ti Holueiv. Hon retpondeho : quit coatlurui «( ? (I am a free man born, aiid 
may cbo<Mv whulhtr 1 will tell : who can compel me ?) if 1 be ur^ed. I will a» 
mdily rcpJy a* iJial E;^yuiiaii in •'Plutarch, when a eurioua fellow would 
need* know what he had iti his basket, Qmim vidri velalam. ijuid int/uinn in 
rrm abtctmditai'i f [l wii> ihrrcfgri; coveted, liccuuxe lie should not know 
what wm« tn it. £>crk not nl'ler tliat which ix hid : if the conlrntt plcuic thee, 
' and he for Iky utr, suppose the miin in the moon, or mhom thou wilt, to be 
iKtMttkor : 1 would not willingly be known. Yet, in some sort to give thee 
nliifaciion, which is more tlian 1 need, I will shew a reason, both of this 
■mq>ed Dame, title, and subject. And first of the name of Democritus ; leit 
say roao, by reason of it, should be deceived, expecting; a pasquil, a satyre, 
■ome ridiculous treatise (as I my self should have done), some prodigious 
leBcat, or pwradox of the earlhi motion, of infinite worlds, in injtnilo vacuo, 
tx forltiitd atomonan eollisionr., in an infinite waste, no caused bv an acci- 
dmtsl colUsioii of motes in t)ie sun, all which Democritus held, Epicurus ajid 
their master Lcucippus of old muintaincd, nnd arc lately rcvivcu by Coper- 
nicus, Bninu«, and some others. Bi'sidcs, it hath t>ccn nlwaycs anordimtty 
custom, iw *GellioK observes, /or later u'rilert and impostors, tobroachmany 
absurd atd insolent Actions, under Ike nanit of so ttoble a philosopher as 
Deniocritus, to yel ihvmnehes credit, and by that means (he more to be rc- 
meted, as aTUfic«ra usually do, novo t/ui ntarmori ascribunl Praxilelem tuo. 
lit not M> with me. 

• Kaa ble CntwiiM, noD Oottonu. Ilupviwiue, 
]R*«i4*: bomiDnn p^at qiulr^Hpil. 
No CrntjQn Timw. t^Gwnant. look tu AdiI: 
Hy fubjKl 1« i-t Tunn ujd bumukv kind. 

Thou thy self art tlie subject of my disi:ouri.e. 

iQuiiiquia ■i:u^il hnminn. vQitini. limni. in. VDlupU*. 
Oftodlt. dlvtirauk. bOHtii itrr^ga UIh-LII, 
Whatf'rr mra do. bdwi. 1v*n. in iir^ Tn fporr, 
Joft, KkDdrfu^ %n fht iUDiiD ot my Fejpoit. 

My inlcat a no otlierwisc lo usr his niunc, thnn Meicurius Gallobeleicus, 

Mcrcunus Britannicus, use the name of Mcrcurie, * Democritus C^hristiiin us, 

^ftc, although ibero be some other circumslunces tVir which I hiivc niiutked 

■yself under this visard, and some peculiar rv^pcct^, which 1 cannot so well 

I express, until I hnvc set down a brief character of this our Democritus, what 

' le was, with an epitome of his life. 

Dcfdocrilus, as be is described by ''Hippocrates, and ' Lacrtius, was a 

!■ Lud* (■ mwMn Cliudlf CbhtI*. > Lib. <I( CurlnlUU, -Moito tiv tIM ntuliinl. 
rUtwataMU). Wrckrr. • LRi. lO.e.lU. Mulusa*k(*rUtii In ti«ni(icii>t nninlnvcniD. 
■nMllmii ■iirlirirttiilini * jui prifuilo uirnUbo*. • Hutlilli. llli. 10. i|iUt. H. 'ivr, 
• AaUL fM. kcMM, flUI. ColvtilB I«1C. • IIIM. SigM. tfnae'^ ' i-^n. Ub. V. 




DemocritHi to the Reader. 

tiitlc wc:tri»li old man, veiy inebuclioly by nature, av<^rte from company in 
his latu?r dayes, *and miicli fwta Ko siililarint^ii, a fuiiimis |>hiloso|>lier iu 


|Hnioso|>iier iu 
Itig aije. 'coiivoui witli SocraU-*, whully aUUicned t« iiin kIuiIr-* at tlii: laul, 
acid to a iirivati^ Ijfi-; writ ninny excrlhni works, a g;rc:il ilivine, urconiiiig 
tij tlie diniiily of tliour linio, aii (expert pliywi'i;>n, a p'llit.iriiin, an (-Mvllctil 
iLiUllit'inHli<-iuii, :iii "' Diurnimuit ni^d the K'M of liig workKiIo wiliii-ti'. He 
wuK niui'K ili-liglitcd with llic Kliidiesof hiisbuniiry, saith "C<i)iiii>clla: mid 
often I hud him <:itMl hy "Constaiitinus and oUicra Ireairiigof tliiit Milij<;ct. 
It(: Icnpw t!io nntiites, diircrencfs of all l>fa«t«, (ilaaEH. fishes, bird), ; and, as 
«omv May, could ''undoritand iLu tune* and voicl-h oI' liiem. In a word, lie 
vfBs omni/ariam diiclat, a Kf""al scholar, a Rrtat studeiil: and, lo the in- 
tent he might bettrr coiiiuntphitr, '<l find it iidalt-d by some, that In- put 
out his eyes, and u'ux in lii« old np.* volimlaiilv blind, yet saw luori.' tlian all 
Greec* ia-iidcs, an<l ' writ, of every suhjoi'l ; Nitiii in tola opificia naturir, 
de ijtio ami gcripsU : a man of an ocelleut wit, profonnd concdl ; and, lo 
attain knowledge' the better in bis younger years, he travelled to l^ypl and 
*Alh<Tnii, 10 confer with learned men, 'admired of tome, degpxsed vf oihcrs. 
After a mnndring lile, he tetltd at Abdera, a tnwn in Tliraee, and was sent 
Ibr thither to be ilidi' Iaw-utak<:r, recorder, or town-clerk, as some will; oi a* 
Others, he was ihitre brtd and bom. Howsoever it was. there he lived at last 
in a ^idcii in tlic xnburbn, wholly h<-lakin); birnxL-lf to his studies and a 
private life, "saving that lomef'vics he would walk dnwn tti tht haven, 'and 
laugh hrartUtf at jucft variety of ridicultna ohjecit, wkieh there A« faw^J 
Such a onir wa» Deniocritus. ^^ 

But, in ihe mean lime, how doth this concern me, or iipn what refer- 
ence rio I usiiqi this habji ? I confess, indeed, that to comnare my»Hf 
unto him for ou^ht I lure vet said, were both impndrncy nnn arm^nncy. 
I do not [iremmc to nwk<! any [laralle). AnliHat iiiiki millibus Irecentit; 
*piirr.v» $um ; itullun turn ; allum arc tpirn. Htc sprrn. Yet thus much I i 
will xny of my self, and that I hope without all Hunpieion of pride, or self- I 
cxKiccit, I have lived a silent, sedentary, solitary, private life, mihi ct Musi*, 
m the uniicnrty, as long almost as Xcnocratm in Atlienii, ad senectamfcrc, 
lo learn wi«doEn as he did, penned tip most part in my »liidy : for 1 have 
be«n brouj^t up a student in the most Honrishingrollegr ofGtirflpu, -' anyus- 
titsima collei)io, and can brag with ' .Tovius, almost, in tti tucr domirilii Vati. 
caiii, toliui orbit txleberrimi, per 1)7 unnos malla opportunaqtie didici ; for 
thirty years I have (Hmlinuml (liaring the use of aa good " libraries na e»er j 
lie hiul) a wdiolat, and would l>r tlirri-forc loth, either, by living as a drone, 
to be an unprotilable or unworlhv memlterufao learned and noblea society, 
or to write thsitwiiieh should be anyway dishonourable to such a royal and 
ample foundation. Something I have done: tJiough by my profetiiun a 
divine, yet turlntte ropfiii iriffenii. as 'he said, out of a runnmic wit, an 
iinconslarit, unsettled mind. 1 had a great desire (not able to attain to a 
superficial skill in ativ)lohavc some smattering in all, to Ix^ n/iyuii in 
omnibus. nuUut in singulis : which ' Flalo eommends, out of him '' l.ipsius 
approves and fiirth^nt, as_fit In hn imprinted iu all evrioui unit, not lo br a 
slaee of on* scimee, or dwtU altogether in one subject, tu inosl do, but to 

'Hnilulo nldoDoltBMflniu. iUqw irip"™' iarJuckiu. tillt •oUHtlui. ' n<iniU Oltinpla.le 
Ml 7M innlt piBl TrnJuD. ■ Inita. qiinaoinc-iiiiiipi'HIniifuilrnHlUL Latn. •Col. T l.f. I. 

■ CoiuL Ub, (It tinM. uMi 

— — -. mTw 

iMahdlitiu. •xnnpL lik 10. Oiiilli » unvntii, »! inrliuirunbm|>l>tinniupinindiiiv4. •ul>Nrni >ltla> 
Rnlo. inrands oifiluionl*. sr. •>aliinlli>. nii>TnUii,nuiI)i(wim.b)vnln<llw4i>IInu.amuiBqUF 
aBBtinB ptflUan, odJibat. - Vml Aibmui •< avnu lu,' iu»U. • libai (UDlmuiui m Hlmlnilonl 
luHni. -KoMmi >d potDnn (mbiOirc. ct iniV, a<v lli|>. Kp. Ihinnf. ■ Frripriuu rliu imlniinnn 

Stur kiIbIbI Duuucriliu. luy, SM. 1. ■ tUa auiD lUfnu* I 'l^ U li' nnlrllJUii. UirL > ChntI 
un-h tn UilnciL • l-i»(4L i.uL ■ Kivivr uf aur mlinr lltHwjr UBrlj- iriltnl hv Oiho Mooi. 
■AD. K>mUTT, •Ki-jdlETI. ■ In TlinrL ■ Itill. Swic; li. lUC S. Vvpu* cwpidU (t oi' 
ln(«iUi liB|irtni^4iini. ui uUttco, kc. 

Demoeritus to the Rtader. 3 

nve atnmd, centum pui^r anium, (» liai'c an oar in every maat lioat, to 
' tittle <if4ffery dish, ami tn up of ri^ry cup i whicli, saith ' StuitUu^c, *»• 
well peHbnued by Amioilr, and his Icarnrcl roiiitlrcy-inaii Adriun Turncbii>. 
This ro*in]; humour (though not vJih like >iic€cs8) I h&w t-Tt-r htui, and. 
Eke a ranf^iij; 3|)aniel, iJut barks at ever^ bird h« »eea, leaving hix g:Ame, 1 
htrr foUuwc^ all, saving that which I should, and may jiutly rooiplain, and 
truly, ^ uitfHP til, niit']aam eti, wliicfa ■G«sner did ■» modetty : that I 
haw Tcai) many bouk^. but tu little [>urpo»e, for want of good mctiiod, I 
haw confunciily tamlilcd over diver* autlion in our lihrarias with sitiall 
profit, for want of urt, oiticr, memory, jiidifumeat. I acver travrll«d but in 
map or curd, in which mv iinc-oiiltiied thiiu|i;ht» have ftc-lT cxjutidt^d, nt 
having cvcf Ik«i> tTRptrinlly dcli^litcil with the irtudy of cosmography. 
'Saturn was lord of my ^cnitiirr, i-iilminutiii^, &r. and Mars princi[Kil 5i;j:ni- 
Scaior of niBoiiers, in pnrtilc conjunction with mine ascendent; both fortu- 
iMteioilKirhoutM. &c. I am not poor, I am not rich; »ifti7 (rif.niAit t/ccsr ; 
lhaT« little, I want nothing : all my treasure is in Minerva's tower. Greater 
pnfamenlad I could never get, so am I not in debt for it. I have a com- 
petency (iaus Deo) from mv noble and iiiuniticent patnm*. Though I live 
tfiU a colleiciatc student, a* Dc-tuoeritus in his ;^rden, and l<sid a raonaati<{ae 
life, iptr miki Ikratriim, MHpiMired fnim those tumults and trouMea of the 
«wM. et taiw'iam ia specula pmihit {' a* he said), in nome high place above 
yoo all, like Sltiieus sapirtis, omnia $itcata praterila prctsealia^ue videru, 
WW velut intutta, 1 hear and lec what i« <lone abroad, how otiicra * run, 
ride, turmoil, and macenile themncWes in court and countrey. Par from 
Ifaose wrangling law-snits, RuffT vanitafemrfiri ambUionem, ridere mecum 
tolto: I laugh at all, 'otihf lecurt, lest mj/ suit go amiss, jni/ Mp» perish, 
nan and calllo miscarry, trade decay, / have no wife nor children, gnod or 
hud, loprovidefor: a moerspectatorofotber mens fortunesand adventures, 
and how they act llietr parlji, which me thinks are divenely prc*t^nted iinto 
ne, a> from a mmmoa tlit^atre or scene. I hear nt^w new* every day : and 
tbote ordinary rumoun of war, pJapies, Arcs, inundation*, theft*, murders, 

acns*, meteors, comeu, upectrums, nrodii^ies, apjiarition!!, of towns taken, 
dtiea be s ieged in France, Germany, Turky, Peraia, Poland, Arc. daily musters 
and preparations, and such like, which thr^r ti^mpr-xtnoiiK times afford, battles 
bagnt, so many men slain, monomnchics, shipwracks. piracies, and sea- 
Sl^hta, peace, leagues, stratagems, and fresh alarms^— a vast eonfusion of 
Towa, widiea, actions, edicts, petitions, law-suits, pleas, laws, proclamations, 
tncnpUints, RTicvailMa — are daily brought to our ears: new books every 
day, painpiilets, cmrantoes, alories, whole catalogues of volumc^s of all »orU, 
■nr paradoxes, opiniiocu, schisms, heresies, controvenie* in philosophy, 
ndigioa, tec. Now come tidings of weddings, maskings, mummeries, entcr- 
tsiBiiMOt*, jubilee, emlraiaies, tilts, and tomaments. trophies, triumphs, 
terel*. sports, playes : then nfr>>n, as in a new iJiif\ed scene, treasons, 
cfaeating tricks. roblM;nes, (.-noTmoui villnnic!, in all kinds, funerals, burials, 
death of princes, new discoveries, expcdittonx ; now comical, theu 
Uapeal matters. To day we hear of new lords an<l officers created, to 
Morrow of some great men deposed, and then again of fire^ honours 
ranCerred: one is let loose, another imprisoned: one purcha3eth, another 
Inaketh : he thrives, his nriKhliour turns bankrupt; now plenty, then 
again dearth and famine ; one runs, anoilier rides, wrangles, tuuglis, wei^ix. 
it, llaa I daily hear, and such like, both private and public news. 

*lliiO— Jiissuw i» nULiMHiirfilM, rt nllUuivdxweuDqiwdDliaJanBdum. 'BHiyt. litb). 
• Pii^ tmtoA**. •Anfco rurb> rt i^gitunnil. Nn Uan BBfittont ilonDBiit luxU prlnwa 
laManMML ■lIctMla. > < illilf tmhirnlH. MiMtf lllipaM. ui mlwn n-ii'lrnt*>. roHi, 
-■ me._ >4;j7. Ill Dvnx. t;DlM tMHTBi. ■• VHIittn In (oTD. sul In nun 

• Bk». laliUBoniu filii nun tun MlkHn*. 

a 3 


Democritta to the Reader. 

AmkVmiw pM^nXn nnd misery «f ihc world, jollity, pridr, perplex ilip* nnd 

cares, simplicity ttnd villnny, Kubtlrly. knnvcry. (-andoiiT nnd integrity, 

■nutually miit and ottering tbem^elves, 1 rub on, j/rivut privatum : a» 1 hava 

still lived, so I now continue tlata ipia priut, left to a solitary life, and mine 

own domestick disconleuts; savlu); that sometimes, ne i/uld mentiar, a,» 

Diuaicnes went into tlie city and Deiuocritus to llje tiavni. lu see rusliicm^, 

I did Tor niv Tecreaiiou now aiid t)ien walk abroad, look into the world, niid 

could not ctiiise but make some little obicrvsUon, non lam sagax ohscrvalar, 

ac simplex rtcitalor, not, ;i.i tliey did, to scuH' or luugli ut alt, but uitli a 

mixt patiiion : 

• BUfin. icixjanuB votil nio*tnr lumultiu. 

1 did sometime laugh and tcolf with Lucian, and catyrically tax with 
Mcnippus, lament with lleraelitu)', somctimef a^in I wii»''iKlul(iii(i ipUne 
eachinno, and then a|^in, "urere bilis Jecur, \ was much moved to see that 
ahiisi- which 1 could not amend : in which passion howsoever 1 may »ym- 
pathixe Willi him or ihem, 'tis for no such respect I shroud my self uuder lii« 
name, but cither, in an unknown habit, to assume a little more liberty and 
frci'dnm o( spevch, or if you will needs know, for that reason and only rt!K|)eet 
which Hippocrates rclatvi at larp; in his epistle li> Dnme^etus, wherein lie 
doth exprcNg, how, coming I<> viiit him one dav, he luund Drmocrilvt in liis 
garden nt Abdera, in the suhnrlm, ■'under a xhudy huwer, iwith a book on 
his knees, husie at his study, noirictinu^ writing, »omeliroe walking. The 
subject of his lx>ok wa* melancholy und madness : about him lay the car- 
kasses of many several beasts, newly by him cut up and aitalnmixcd ; not 
tliat he did contemn Gods creatures, n* he told Hippocraics.bnt to find out 
the seat of this itlra inlU, or mclHucholy, whence it proceeds, and how it is 
engtndred in metis bodies, to the intent he might biucr cuie it in himself, 
bv his wrttinf^ and observations 'teach others how to prevent and avoid it. 
Which ^ikmI intent of his Hippocrat«'S hij^hlv commended. Democritus Junior 
is tlierd'ore bold to imitate, and, because he left it imperfecl, and it is now 
lost, qiiaii tuccfntuTtaloT Democrili, lo rwive again, prosecute, and finish 
in this trcntiic. 

Yon Imve had a reason of the name. If the litle and tnscriiition ufti^.nd 
your grnvity, were it a sufKcient justification to itccuse othcrx, I could pro- 
duce mnny solicr treatiim, even ncrmons themselves, which in their fronts 
carry more phantaslical name*. Howsoever, it is a kind of i>o!icy in these 
dayes, to prefix a phanloslical lillcto a book which is to be sold : for as larks 
come down to a day-net, many vain readers will tarry and stand gazing, 
like siUy poaicngers, at an antick picture in a painter s sliop, that will not 
look St ajudicioiis piece. And indeed, as 'Scaliger observes, rtalhing more 
inviles a rtatttr than an anjumtnt utilooied for, unthotii/ht of, and ttU$ 
better than a irtim7e pampklel, (am maximt cum mirifas rxcilal jialalam. 
Many men, saith 'Gellius, are very cuncciltd in their in)cri^fi»n4. and able, 
(as "Pliny quotes out of Si-ueca) lu make him loytvr by the way. that went 
in heult In fetch a tnid-wi/r for hit dauijhtrr, now ready la lit down. For 
my port, I nave lionoumble 'precedents forthis 1 have done : I will cite one 
for all, .Antbonic Zaru Pap. Bpisc. his Anatomy of Wit, in four sections, 
niembeni, *ub>ections. Sic. to be read in our libraries. 

If any man except against the matter or manner of Irrating of this ray 

*Bi}e- *PfT- ■H(ir, *8nr]in<luni mirni* Iihiuii rrjU Inmitonii (itiisullt utiarua, va>bux[uv 
niHllv aartl*: Itnul* pntpt m|il4 di^Eliirbnl. plurMi^ miirniikrJtnq, uU M^ilti rt (lunua Dcmurtlli muul. 

diMHUijueiaiiiiiulitfuiDUlttliaalrkU, rtrruruMi *l>e«rftrmlA^ftrut. 'Cuminuuaiu«<F«H«i^ tlTDpnttr 
r4pm> wl, vr invi'iBt hr lADfiiLi'rr, uE mnli-Uin ii!hibr*L ■Bt^fttiarr. Ep, ml PjkllAcnriB. NUiil BIA^la 
Jiv(i>rrm mTklal ciiiAjrl ift<>|jinMiim irjTumvntUfD ; nnjQ* tiRlEUbmttr mprx «tt qiiuu [ii-tuiani librr. 
> Lilt <i. f . n. Irllrv fti'^iMunliiz Ln4i'nr<i<>^un^ l'*t^i^tftl>*. - I'TBtnl. Natn IfuL fait t'\»Iwttlri1a 

CMTluFtVTinnilH* M,^4.TT»v«ttl inor^ni iii;kr<<Tv iHOnunl. * AjkAlomy of I'o^j. Au(«iny of Inuaon^ 
ly. Ansiiui Scalu. AnlU>my uf AnClnvDy. kr. 

ui I rittuitnM- I 

DeMocriltts to the Reader. 6 

mbjed, and will demand a reason of it, 1 can alle|(e niure tliaii one. I wnlc 
of melancholy, l>y bein^ buftie, to aroid ni«lanclu>l)'. Tlii:rc n no grcHlai' 
cnoM of mclancliolir ibaii idlciitwi, no ixttrr cure ihan 6u*ui«st, u 'Rhasiii 
tioldi : and liowbcit, ftuUtu labor tst infptiarum. In b<- busied in toycs ii 
I to small piirpoM.-, yet hnc ihitl divine Srn<Tii, Iwttcr aliud agert qnam nihil, 
I better do to oo rati, than noliiing. 1 writ thcrcrorc. snii busied my s«ir in 
L this playing taboar, vd'onfju* ditigvitlid ul vitarem torporem /erinnr/i, nitli 
^■STectius in Alsicrobius, atque utium in utile verlettm ntgotiam ; 


To tbuend I irrite, lik« tfaem, saitli Ltuiiii], that mate to tntt, antt 
Wlaim to pittart, for Haul of auditort ; ok ' Puiilug /Kginrtn in^nilOUtily 
confrjiwlh, nnt that any ihirvj wat unknnion or omillfrl, but to exfreite my 
jf{^(whkh coune >r xomc ttKjk, I think it would \k good for their bodies, 
and much better for ibeir m>uIs1 ; or pr rod venture, a« oili«rs do, for fame to 
tliew my self T-'icirf tuum nihil fil, nisi le icire hoc icial alter). I miji^ht 
be ofTliucydides opinion, *to know a thing and not to erpresi it, in all one 
at if he hnevs it not. When I first look this laskiu hand, el.t/uodait ''il/r, 
tmpeUcnle genio negotiusit suKept. this I aimed at, 'vel u( limirem animum 
tcrib^ndo. to eaM my mind by writing, for t bad, gravidum cor,fetum eapvt, 
a kind of imiKiMhume in my bead, which 1 na* reiy desirous to be aniftden 
of, and rould ima|;ine no fitter evacuation tlian this. Benides, I nii)tlit not 
aril refrain ; f»i, ubi dolor, ibi diiiitut,onv must needs scratch where it ilohr^i. 
I was not a little offrnded with this malady, nhall I xay mymiKtri^mf/aRcAo/y, 
my Egetia, or my mala* aritius : and for that c-juxe, a* he that io stung with 
a scorjHon, I would eipol, elawm clavo, ■'comfort one sorrow with another, 
idleness with iillcmrtt, u( ex viperd thtriacnm, m.^kc an nntidote out of that 
which was the prime cause of my dist-'ase. Or as he did, of whom 'Felix 
Ptalei speiiks. tliat thought tie b^d some of Aristophanes fioga in his belly, 
still crying; Bre<x' fkex, coax, oop, nop, and for that cause fiudied physicti 
KTcn vean, and travelled over most part of Europe, to ease hijnsetf; to do 
my Mff good, I turned over such phystdans as our libraries would aflbid, or 
any spHrate &knds ini pail, and have taken this pains. And why not? 
Cardan professctli he writ l}iis hook Dr mntalalinne attet hh sonK iteath, to 
comfort hiniiclf ; lO did Tully write of the same lubject with like intent nl^cr 
hti daoehtrr? ilepartnre, if it \k hi* ut least, or some impostors put out in his 
name, which Lij»iu« probably suspects. Concerning my self, I can perod- 
reniure afHno with Matins in Sallntt, ''that which other$ hear or readof, I 
felt and practiced my telf: they get their knowledge by books, I mine by 
melamchiliting : experto crede Roberto. Something I can speak out of ex- 
perience, anmnaMie exjierienlia me docuit ; and with her in the poet, 
' liavd ignara mali ntiteru tucvurrere di%co. I would help others out of a 
frilow- feeling, and aa that vertuous ladv did of old, >6ein^ a leper her se(f, 
be*tov all her portion to build an hospttat for Irpers, I will spend my time 
and knowlwlge. which arc niy greatest forlunta, for the common good of all. 
Yea, but yon nill infeir thai this is 'actum agcre, an unnecessary work, 
cnmben bit coctam npjwnerc, the samir again nnd again in other wordn. Tu 
what purpose? "^ Sothing in omiltfd that may wrll be taid : so thought l.ncian 
tu the like theam. How many cxccllpnl physicians have wriitcn just volumes 

•Coat 1- C p. a Tfcvolvun mtllor i|ii>in Ubor, vlldr. 'KmiqiiiidfiiinciviK^uidiililrrr, aut 
1 ntarnu iiiBim n'mim, w& piviirlD (xnriutioiili iwwrt. •Qal doiII. nnjur iA ijuod •mui 
npninit, pniRdi niw nsncir*!. 'J«viui, Tm!. IIi»i_ ■ErinnuL 'Othim oii". dnltPTTin 
<Ub>iv. nun wliW*. ■lIlBtnM. I.I. > M. Jnh, Ruu>. (nii pratsbib Oiori. Mr. n"|>i4i. \I(. 
nalfci^i Hi *Qur iUt«udJrr <■■ Ifrrr iipli^l.ntrum pferttin tidlfniovL bIia tn*^- tjuailli Ii- 
loei, rxo miUlioila -iiiUfl Vane •»• rililimatc. hi In an ilirit nliiilgilnl. 'Ulilo. Vlq;. •Can- 
*a.lFK^rfliiuliBgcBnT<>rl>i'li«ilia>l>hv>|>hlunivon<ltuilt. i tlUilalwil llaau'nua, >Ni. 
W fSMRUltMa -I'li^ k •)'»> It itid [Nitidl. 


Demoeritut to the Reader. 

and clahorBie tracts of this siibjecl ? no news here : that which I hare i* 
Bloln from ciihera ; "dicili/ue miUi mm }iagiRa,JuT tt. If lliul sirvcrc (loom 
of "SyaesiuA be true, i( it a t/rtnUr offence lo ttral dfttd mtiu laboxrt, than 
their claatht, what xhiill bcconio of innst wrilci« ? 1 hold up my Imnd ut 
the hat utnuii^t Mlitw, iinil raw guilty of felony in this kind : habtt confi- 
Icntem rrum, I nni conipnt to be prrsscd with the rest. 'Tig most true, tenet 
intanabile mullog ecribendi cace^lhes ; and f there it no end of writing ttf 
hooks, ax the wisemanfoundof old, in this "iicriUinKag^ e&pecially, wherein 
'lh« number of booH it without number, (at a worthy man aaith) /ircf icit be 
oppre»ied, and out of an itching humour, that every man hath lo shew him- 
self, 'desirous of fame awl honour, (teribmui imiocti doctiqne ) he 

will wtile, no luutter what, and serape logetlier, it hoots not whence. ' Be- 
wiiehtd with ihit dcsiri: of fame, ctiam mcdiix ia morbis, to the ilispiiragc- 
meut of tlidr hciill.h, andsrarce able to hold npen, they muxt irny fomelliing, 
"and get thnnsftves a name, saith Scaligei, though it be lo the down-fall 
andruinr ofmanti others. To be counted writers, scripfcrct ut talultiitur, 
to Ik: thought and held I'olymathes, and Polyliistors, apud tmpentum vulifut 
lib vrnlosa riomen artis, to get a paper kingdom : tiulld tft ijuitatit, ted 
(impld famtt, in ihis precipitate, ambiiioue ag«, nunc ut est saculum. inter 
immaluram erudilionem, ambilionum et pmcejis ('li» 'Scaligers censure) and 
ihoy ihat are scarce auditors, vii auilitorcs, niu»l be masters and teachers, 
before ihey be capable tmd tit hearers. They will rush into till learning, 
toi/atam, armalam, divine, humane authors, rake over all indexes and 
pamphlets for notes, ai our merchants do strange liavens for trnfiick, write 
great tomea, cum non tint rtvtrd doctioret, srd Im/Kacioret, when as tliey are 
not ttieieby better scholars, but greater praters. They lommonly pretend 
publick ^od: but, as Gcsncr "ob»crvc», 'tis pride and vanity that egg« them 
on ; no news, or ought wortliy of note, but the same in other terms. JVfl 
feriaretitur furtatte typographi, vel ideo tcribtudam eil alii/uid ut se virttit 
tesltntur. As apothecaries, we make new mixtures every <l<iy, pour out of 
one vessel into another; and as tliose old Romans rob'd all the cities of the 
world, to, set out their bad Bilt-d Rome, we »kim off the cream of other mens 
witefpick the choice flowerv of their till'd gardens to sci out our own sterile 
f/tatS, Catlraxt allot, ut librot tuo>, per le gracilis, oliena adipe tnj^ar- 
eiant (to '* Jovins invcight) ; they lard tiiuir lean bonks with the fat of other* 
woikn. tnerudili fures, ^c. (a ftiult tluit every writer findt, as I do now. 
Ml] yet f;inlty themselves) ' Trium lilrrarum homiaef, all tliieves ; they 
ptlferout of old writers to stuff up tlicit new comments, scrape Rnniusduug- 
hile, and out of' Democritus pit, ns I have done. Hy which means it comes 
to pa»s, ^that not only libraries and thopt art fuil of our putid ptipert, but 
every chse-ttool uitd jakst: Scribant earmina, ijua tegunt cacantet; they 
serve to put under pies, to ' lap spice in, and keep roast-meat from burning. 
With U4 in Fmnee, saith ""Scalijiet, every man halh liberty to write, but 
few ability. ' Heretofvre learning ««i< i/TOted by judii'lout leholart, but 
now uobU scieucet am rilijitd bxf base and lilittnite tcriblert, that either 
write for tain-glory, ne<rd to j^et money, or us patnxitcs to Hatter and colloi^ue 
with some ^n^iit men: they put out'^urrai, quisqaUituqar, incptiatqne. 
* Amongst to many thousand authart yw shali scarce find one, by reading of 

•MuUaliii. •Uifii ini|iiuiTi miirluiinun lunihnlinun <|uun r»Ii4 runrl. •EccI, ull. i ■■■• 
bn* rtinnchl (Ifnuut. mU'tiU'^ I'titwinL ■ 1>, King, pivfid- UcL Jmiu. tlir IaU- rt^ltl »vt'rru'l luril 
Utbop f>r LgnAan. 'ItninJni^ Tami^Ud clorW ia tMtgatttionrra vmditiuuU uudi<|iiu f^oEi^Tunl. 
t^uehuiaaiu * illh*vLaiiU etiitDt Ivi'Wt uaoK. ftc JiuUu IUT<Hii*i4, * Y.x ttiUiU xlipiar rxivfi. 

OHtiin"! ijtlH'iTiHforpAinbiiidutil, iii nut* «Iiritiiii ml Iu1«biiIui KUL^lur^'a, Frit-r IriliClrtlli. i TriuC 

■ E IbmiMilUDiiln. 


' J'IftlltlJH, 

.puf. All rpii& In rrspo Fr*nfi<' um*iJlnj*hJ'nl"'inUdaTnrlil.iiTU*, 
piiica rtL'allo. -Oliin Ulora Ob buBinn Si] i*ei-lh4, iiuno nn^Vrut ob hoioin^'^. ^ A^n- |4i]. 
'iilDT lul nUiifi vtjlufjiiii4 tiL vuuBj t tfujiu Itctitiiir rjuu lurliiit l'ViuUI. luiinu |roIiu* nou pcjor- 

Demucritiu to the lUader. 7 

wktrm yoK tkaU he diijr wkit tetter, hit rather much wortt, tjuidat iHjicitur 
potiia.ifvamper/ietturrhy wtiichliv tsrittlmiiiifci-lLil, ihununy way perr«;h,'il, 

>Oui Ulil Ultll. 

So tliat oAentiinea it falls out {wliicli Culliiiiai'luis taxed of old) a peat book 
is a great inticbk:r. 'Caidau finds fault willi Pri^iidimen aad (iurmaas, fur 
liieir ttcribling to Oi> purpuse : ntm, imjuit, nb cdauin drlerrro, mada novum 
aliquid iarrniaiit : 1i« iloth ixit liar thi-ni I<i write, K> tliitt it be Maw. new 
invFnticn of tlu'ir own : but wir wi-!ivi' tlxr muni' wrb rtill, twi«t ibc unut rapo 
again and u^in: or, if il be ii now invention, 'lis but lunic bniibk or toy 
wliich idk fellows write, for m idle fellows to rcml : mul who so cannot in- 
vent ? ^ He must Kave a barren wil, that it thU scrtlAinij uije ca» forye 
luUhing. ' Priucei iKem llieir armies, rich men vaunt ihiir buildintjt, soul- 
dUrs their imtnJKod, and nholari vtnl their Ivyts i litey luual icad, tliey 
mtut hear, wlwlfaef they will or iio. 

•XlquadtuniiupHniit rhurili [Ui-tHI. aman 
Gc«M % foTUD redcTOnlB iclrr lacutjur. 
it (lUtna d MM 

Vhai nacf ;■ tuil kiiJ KTJt. bU iti('» mail know. 
Old iMIti^fenil ^'httiln^n u (t*<7 f^'jmi' xnil ^o. 

tFhat a dititpaiit/ of writ hatli iJiit year 6rvught out ! lu Pliny (■<uii|itniiiii lo 
Smius SciMJcio. "^ T his \wi\, every d<iif tfimr. or other /uit.v rivittd. WhM a 
caulogtiv of new boukf at! llii* year, all lliU up: (I *ny), liurcour Tr^nk-furt 
nvu, our dommjek mart*, brought out ! twfcc a yciir, "pro/eritnl te iwrw 
iagenia el otlcnlaiil : we xtrrtch our wits nut, »iid «ct them to sale : maijno 
eomatm nibit at/imus. So tlint, which ■'C>i»ncr niucli desires, if a spei>ty rc- 
fonnMion be iiot bad. by some princes edicts and ;^v« iiipervisors, to rc- 
iliuiii tliis liberty, it will rtiii on in infinitum. Quit lam avidut iihrorum 
kelluo, wlio am read litem ! As already, we shall have a t-asi ehaoM and 
confiuion of liouks : we are '' oppnMxed with lliem ; 'our eye* ake with read- 
faig, our fiiiKert with tiimui);. For my |>arl, I am one of tl^ie uuuibcr ; nor 
■muriu ntmu* : I do n<it <lrny it. I Iiave only ihiK a( Macr»l>iti» tu my f(>t 
■y (cir, OiKiM- ovum, nihil mtma, 'tis ul) mine, iind nunc nliuc. As a, tgaoA 
lK>usr-wifc out of ilif cw fl<iccr« weaves <mi- jitpco of cloth, a bee gathim wax 
aad Iwney out of many liowcnt, ami mnkes ■* new bundle of all, 

Flurifvrn ul ^4* in hiUiIjub HmiiJA Ulnml, 

1 have laboiiously 'collected this cento out of divert writers, and tliat site 
iimaii : 1 hare wnukged no authors, but pveu eiery man Ids own ; whicli 
' Hieroo) so iime]) conunends in Nepotiati ; lie stctle not wliolo verses, pages, 
(nets, a*iKin>edo now a days, eooi-'caliii^Uieir authors names; but still said 
llu* was Cyprian*, that Laciantius, that Hilaciug, «> «uid Minutius Felix, sn 
Victorinus, thus litr Amobiiis : I cite and (|iiote mine nuthnm (which, howso- 
ever coRic illiterate scnl>lcrs aocounl pedanticnl, as a clokc of ignorance, 
nad oppocitc to their aRccletl fine stile, I must and will use) snmpM, ti<m 
twrtipvi; and wbnt Varro.lib. 6. dc re rust, speaks of bees, minivir- mnlrjiat, 
mllat* opus veltieaHlts Jaciunt deterias, I can say of ray self. Whom hare 
I injured? TIm matter is theirs most part, and yet niiue : apparel awte 
rampdim tif (which Seneca approves); ufttu/ tameii.i/ttam undt mmptuvi sil, 
oEparwt : which nature dolh witli the aliment of our bodies, ineorjiorate, 
wgai, aMimilute, I do amaiqurre ^jumI liasti, dispone of wliat I take ; I 

TilliiiliBlw ' Lib. &.ittMp, > aiiinn 'iimni't rur ini-mliiin qiiixlln hoa irFlptvTlF^iiirn jin. 
lite- IkA ICat^MU- vt«l ad coutoJ. " lior. hf. 1. ml 4. * Kput. litk 1- Haj^uan jwvLuumiira* 
WWP *^ ■mm bic tftomt : aihnih*Aiprili nutluii fi'rt' <]j<^ iiuu tiuii aUiiuI* rKitariL «tilimi, f rrtiioL. 

1 annilt bic tfbml : oihnvi* Aiprili nutluii fi'rt' <]j<^ i^uu tiuii lUqui* rKitariL 

H4of*v<lbUBdBlibnaAiluinitDUiiqDci. ut KTtfuJmlur jiurton-m Ftirtu, «1 miMlivn-prlilatbUuilur. 
llblAo coPrOHlor, bIiUt in 'nUnliiiTn pr»gTT«*ur> ■< <>ri.'(«Mmtiir inomlJk nvmu 


In kKBc amtaB iMianiii < 

* (hiUqnid vNquu Imw diduiD fiuiu mvum, *i ^EIluI iiuiie- lat-i* uli'LtiDimiiJlujn. mine ad 

■ Ul ll W llgfllS. fflprtrnPT^f fall : dinilt* UirlCITn niv.n rLlfnlm^ur ^riiilpir. 1:^ flBfri^ 

•InSolUpb. hrp. liiiHl Cjp. lux Ucl. Uliul IliUu.nt, Id Vlototiaus, 

8 DemocritMs to the Reader. 

make them pay Iributo. to set oii( this my Maceronicon : t)ir mfttluKl only 
is mine own: I must usurp that o^''WeckeT eTer. nihil tUclum i/tiod i>oh 
dictum priua : viethodut nola artijicem oslendit : wo can say nolhing but 
wlint hatli been said, the composition arid method is ours only, and sfievrs 
n xcholiit. OribiisiuH, Actius, Aviceana, have kII out ot Galen, but la their 
own mctlioci, diverfn tlyto, nan diveridjSdf. Our poet* ileal from Homer; 
lie spews, »aith ilvliaii, tlic^y hck it up. Divines u»e Auiittns words verbatim 
still, and ourstoiy>dtcucradou.t much; lie that conies last is commonly be*t, 

JunL'i: quitljfruidlUB wiXaa 
Prratvn^ tonquv Irral mvUur.^^ 

Ttiouiih there were many e'aots of old in phyaick and philosophy, yet I tay 
with ' Didiicus Stella, A dwarf tiandini/ on Ihethauldertofit giiat, may ret 
J'arlker than a giant kimielf; 1 tiluy likely add, alter, and sec fiutlier tliKii 
my predccc-Kwn : and it is no gre>iltrpri;ju<Iii.'c lor me lo indite alHer others, 
than for /Kliunus Monlalius, that famous phyiician, to write de morbis ea- 
pitit after Jason Praten&is, Heurnius, Hiltle-'*hoim. Ac. Many hgrses to 
nil) in a race. OQC logiciao, one rhetorician, after another. Oppose thea 
wbat thou wilt, 

AlUlnv licet utqur no* fI ihi|ii*» 

Bi gunltihiii MiiproWi tnWHH i 

I solve it thu*. And for those other fuults of barbarism, 'Dorlek dialect, cx- 
tempomncan style, tautologies, apish imitation, a rhapsody of rng* gathered 
toi^hor (torn several dung-hills, excrements of authori', toycs and loppcriea 
confusedly tumbled out, witliniit art. invention, judgement, wit, learning, 
harsh, raw, nide, phantastirtil, absurd, insolent, inniscreet, ill-composed, 
iudipiested, vain, »curritc, idle, dull and dry; 1 confess all ('tis partly afiected) : 
thou canst not think worse of me than I do of my self. Tis not worth the 
reading, I yield it : i <lesire thee not to lose time ia perusing so vatn a sub> 
jeet: I should be peradvcnturc loth my self loread him or ihee so wriUDi: 
tis not opera preltam. All I sav, i* iliis, that I have ''precedents for it, 
which Isocrateii calls per/ti^ium ii> qui peccant, others as absnrd, vatn, idle, 
illiterate, &c. NonnuUiatii idrm/ccerunl, others have done at much, it 
may be mon'., and |>er)iap* thou thy self: Novimiit et ^ ui (c, ^c. we hnre all 
our feults ; tcimu$, et Atinc teniflm. ^c. 'thoii cirnsnrrflt mc, so have I done 
others, and may do theu : Cir/timtu, in^ue eicem, i[e:, 'tis lex talioms, < 
pro quo. Go now cennure, criticise, scoff and rail. 

Nuulut ■■« uBrgur IfcfH, ■!> U«n^ii# tAiut. 
San [»nEr«m niiffuillorr* plunioa*. 

Wtr'tl Ihoa til iHifn tuJ flout*, x vnTy Mubiiu, 

Than ircpUTSrlvn, ttunj <Ka«l not «7 wnrwoi lu. .,,^_ 

Thus, as wh«n women scold, ha?c I cryed whore first ; and, in dome mens" 
ceiuturcs, I am afraid 1 have overshot my self. Laudarr i« vani, vitnprraTt 
Itutli : as i do not arrogate, I will not deroifate. Primus vestr&m non mm, 
nee tiNuj, I am noiM of the best, I am none of llie meanest of you. As I 
am an inch, or so many feet, so many paranangn. after him or him . 1 may be 
peradvcntum an ace before thee. Be it therefore ne it is, well or ill, I have 
aasayed, put my self upon the »tugn : I muM abide the censure : I may not 
eacapeit. It is most true, stylus eirun arguit, our style bewiayes us, and 
^bnnten find their game by the trace, so is a mans genius descried by his 
works: muUo meliiu ex termont ^uam Hneamentit, tte moribitt hominum 
jttdicamas ; 'twas olil Cato'* rule, 1 have laid my self open (I know it) in 
this treattie, turned mine inside outward : 1 shall be consured, 1 doubt not i 

• ttml. nl Bystu. mnl ■ In Lnt. 10. I«m. i. frsniiti (Ipjitum hiimrTU liE[ii»tu plm quuB 
'p^tPS"*'^ "*^^ '^<rc AnflvariMii iciiuj iiloo mflUor. qui* es *« Ua flcmuituT, nvc uoalBt Idvo 
tiliui. qnli n (Ilrnii llbciniu ui, d|jLi Li|uiu> tilv<nui dinlOfW. 'bnu (taanio dniu. mlH* 
h^uuntur- • NoqituUu* fnulLOB U«cL4tm hmlommUuL *Mm(UL lt,X ' Cl iioulaivi llfitt 

( inutta lra[ir<a*g. ilium iciiiiUunmU. I.lp>. 

Democrilut to tlu Reader. 


far, to my Inith with Hratinns, nihil morotius hominum jttdiciit, Ihen's 
nought fo ptcvuh as mens judgments ; vet this ia some comfort — ul palala, 
liejiuiicia, our oeoiures arc as various as our ]>ala.iii. 

>TrM Mlhl aOTi*1if» prvpt dlHnillr* Tldmiar, 
PoHOiM* tuioiBnltiun4l>ifi*[«l*ui, kr- 

Onr writiDga are a« so many dUticj, our rcudcre guc«t« ; our books like 
boMty: tbat which one admires, auotber rcjccU; »o arc we approved as 
■tens fiuicies are iDclioed. 

r» «*piu Intoili babcnl •(!■ fua llbtlll 

Tltat wliich is most pli-iiini; to one is nmarocuin tui, m(»l hanh to anotlicr. 
Qvot keminet, tot many men, so many minds : that which tbou 
con dctn nest, he com mends. 

■Quod|JV1i*. LdancfalinvfiuiD iciJumquD duvlnu. 

He respects matter : thou art wholly for words : he loves a looae and Tiec 
stile : thou art all for n«at conipoaition, strong lines, hyperboles, allc^riea : 
be desires a fine ftouttsmece,tuiiciug pictures, such as Hieron. Natah*thc 
Jcmit UaUi cut to the Domiuicalti, ti> draw on the readers attention, which 
tlH>u rejectest; tliat which one admires, anotlier expWc* as most atwuid 
and ridiculous. If it be uut point'hlniilc tu his humour, his method, his 
00nc«tt, ' si quid foriOM emiitfum, ^uoit if aaimo concrptrit, «i 'yutr </icfio,^e. 
if ought bi- omitted, oTadd<-d, whicb he likes, or disliko, thou art muncipium 
pattern /scrtonis, an ideot, an ass, nullutet, ot playiariui, a trifler, a trivaui, 
tbou art an idle fellow ; or cIm 'tis a tiling of mcer industry, a collection 
witlioul wit or invention, a very toy. * /■'aciliti nc putanl amnrs i/ii» jam 
/acta, MK dt taUbhi cogilant, ubi via ttrata ; so men are valued, tlieir 
labours t-ilificd,by fellows of no worlli themselves, as things of nDU);ht : who 
could not hate done as much ? unuiyaisi/ue abandal letua stio, errrv mnii 
aboands in his own sense ; and whitest each particular pany is so anecled, 
liaw should oti« please all '! 

* Quid ikm ! iiulil iiuu lUim I RcduU W. (|aail JuM jU«. 

Mow slinll 1 hope to express my self to each miins humor and 'eooccil, or 
10 give satislaetton to all ? Some Tinderslaod loo litlU, some too much, qui 
gimUler in legtndos librot, atqnt in $alutandai hominei irmunt, iiimi cogilan- 
tes quaUs.ttd gttibut cetlibut tnduti tint, as 'Austin observes, not re^rdlog 
what, but «bo write, ^orexin habet auclori) eeUbritat, not taluing the 
mcttalt but tbe sumip tliat is upon it; eanlharam atpieiunt. xon ^uicf ik to. 
If be be not ricli, in ^rcat place, poLie and bmte, a Krvat doctor, or MX 
fraught with grand titles, tlioueh octer so well quahticd, he is a duoco. 
But as ' Baroiiius hatli it of cardinal CaraiTas works, he is a inecr hog that 
Ttjects any man for his poverty. Some arc too partial, as friends to over- 
WMD : others come with a prejudice to carp, vilifie, detract and scotl'; (qui 
dt mt fonan quidqtiid ett, otnni contempttt contemptiut judicaiil) some as 
bees for honey, t0ED4 at spiders to gather poyson. What shall I do in this 
case ? As a Dutch host, if you come to an inn in Germany, and dislike 
your fare, diet, lodging, &c. replyes in a surly tone, '"aliud tibt qaarat 
dirrrtoriKM, if jfou like not tliis, get you to another inn : I resolve, if you 
like not my wniiiig. go read aonielhing else. 1 do not much esteem tby 
censure ; take tiiy course : 'tb not as lliou wilt, nor as I will : but when we 
bate both done, that of "Pliutus Secunduii tuTrujan will prove true, Every 
■SONS vitty tabovr lahtt not, execpl the matter, subject, oceasioit, and stmc 
tommnufut^ /avourite happtn to if. If 1 be taxed, exploded by ibcc and 

•Ilor 'l[*r. • Aniwf tl). fol. tSDT. 'Muntui. 
at qvid ,|uliH«. Mclttf, tUml uiMit. Mui^lu*. iLih. \r c> ciiilr rap. IL k Bibadiui. '.iniiiil. 
MK. *. u uuuuo SiIl em iftaria Ulc <|ul H«'iilulvii> ''s ^nijililii<ll(i<< (Mltuum HinUili. iti'imlilut- 
• BnMB. -Ilii. * Sfiii. 1. Sl Cuiu>i|<ui iut>iiiiuu iiuii •inllui fmciKll. alu nuttrkJ* tuiWr. occuiD. 


Democr'Uus to the Reader. 

some Hudi, I sltall haply be a{>))roved aiiil commended by others, and so 
hm-e liw-'ti {rxpertas la^aor); uiid may truly say u'llh °Joviua m like ra»c 
{abfit vcrio jactanlta) Iwroiim tjuorundam, pmilificain, cl virvTum niihiliiiui 
Jamiiiarilalcjn et amiritiam, gralasifur Qtatias, rt mullnrum ^' lirnc liiiiit'i' 
tomtit taudes sum inrfc piQinrrilits : ux I huve Ikx-ii Imnoiircd liy some 
worthy men, so have I iK-cn viliHcd hy othcni, and nhiiJI Ik. At tlic first 
publishing of lliis book, (wiiirh i I'rohns of Fcrsius satyrs) edilum librum 
ctmtinao mirari htmtinei, atque aoide derjpere cteperiinl, I may in some 
sort apply (o this my work. The first, second, &n<l third edition were aud- 
deoly gone, easterly read, and, aa 1 have said, nol so much approved by somi-, 
a* scornfully n-jt^ded liy olhen. But it waa Democriius Lis rorluiic. Idem 
admiratioai ft 'irrittoni habilua. 'Twas Seneca's fate : thai su]«-Txnti.-iidiint 
of wit, Ic.imin^, judgment, *ad sluporcm doclut, tlic l>est of Ori-i^k anil 
Latin writcrK, in Plutarch's opiniuii ; ihm rcnownrd cirrrertor nf vice, as 
'Fnbiiw terms Iiira, and pain/nl omnitcioiis pkilatopher that wnt so es- 
etthntly and admirabhj viell, coiild not please all parlies, or csra|K- censure. 
How is he vilified by " Camilla, Agclliut, Fahiug, and J.ipsius himself, bis 
chief propui^ner ? /« eo plerutjut pemiciosa, *aith tlic eame I'abius ; many 
Oldish tracts and sentences he hath, iermu iUaboralai, too ne^li);ent often 
and remiss, as Al^elliLis observes, oralio valr/aris tt jirolrita, dicaces et 
iitepla senlrnliit, truditio pltbeia, an lioniely shallou writer as he is. /it 
parlihus spinas et /atiidia, hahet, sailb ' Ijps-ius; atid, aa in all his ulhcr 
works, so es|H.-ciallT in his Kpi»t.)i-s, tttut in aripiliU el inrpliis oceiipanlur : 
intricalat alicubi, rt parum composiltit, niitir etipid rcrum hac ffcit : he 
jumbles up many things tocher tmmiithodically, alWr the Stoicks fashion : 
parnw wdaiaxit, mulla accumHiavit, ifc. If Seneca be thus lashed, and 
many famous men that I could name, what shall I expect i How shall I 
that am rtx timl>ra tatUi philofophi, hope to please ? No man so ahmlute, 
■Erasmus holds, (o satufy all, eicept unli'/iUlt/ . prvscnplion, ^c. iel a bar. 
But as I have proved in Seneca, this will not always take {>iace, how shall 
Ir.vade? Tis tlie common doom of all writers: I must (I say) abide it: I 
serJt not applause ; ' jVon eyo ventosa vxnor tuffragia pledu : again, aon 
tatit adco inJormU : 1 would not he vilified ; ^ 

• UmiIaIui ftb>jndp. 


Hon biUdltiu •! tflil, krUit. cn>. 

I fear good men's censurvs; and to their favourable acceptance 1 subiuil uy 

-ft LlDCuunuocliilonun 

CuUtlMllDth — ^— 

As tbe barking of a dog, I securely contemn thoM? malicious and scurrile 
ob)o()uies, flouts, calumnies of railers and detractors; 1 scorn the teat. 
What therefore I have said, pro iciiuilule med I have said. 

One or two tiling's yet i vtaa desiious to have amended, if I could, cob- 
ceniinji the mamiiT oniaiidUng this my subject, for which I must apoto^ixe, 
depneari, und upon better advice gir« the fiieudly reader uotice. It was 
not mine intent to prostitute my musc in English, or to divulge tecreta Mi' 
neiva, but to hare exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could have 
it printed. Any scurrile pani]>)del is welcome to our mercenary stati oaereia: 
English : they print all, 

■ gii4npt<tTJ* Ubpllot. 

ta quonunfotUs ttsaiuiA nrnU ivchtvI ; 

It was 
reta Mi' 
have got 

• Pnr. hiiL f l^udiit ■ liuiUlu Uui cM. i VIL rmll. ■ M Inull pnupntla funim. 'Lip. 

nua. iuilir- dv Hrtin^- ' L'Il IVl I'luHrnuni >tiiiUi. nmllain nrum i^oiQUIoiLpni. uduc'di iihiiliciriini 
trntlrttim. Xf. miiltn tii (To rtriilmnik. mi^IUi AcLmirNtdii. "!tiii<r AtnLB iEncpiJci^ -litirocliir, ui 
Sm. • Jiwll'. ■!.■ S™. Vli •llciiili Mm Jihtnliilm. lilillin [tT •>nulg uUirnrUL, nM Ionia Ipm. 

Krit iitw*^ri\'tiTt. viruifilu-Juilj'^Tiiluiti^trjLLr. rvllie^rtpo 'lus^minimEavorriipAfil. < llor. Ku. I. lib. 
• ^-jur tufj" fripiU' lauilari iit IiuwiUuUt vilui*[»il. I'hiiDiluua. A. iltl. Uli, 19. c >. 
•Ovld.TnM. I. dif. S. ■Jurvn.^i.S. 

Demoerittts to the Reader. 


but in tjido ibcy will not dual : wliwh ■* unc of tlicr reasons >■ Ntdiolmi Car, 
in bia Ontion ol' tbe puucitj' of Engltvli wriicre, irivi-«, tliat >o raany HouriiJi* 
ing vits are smotlieml in oMivion. lyr cl<-a(l nnil l>unod, in tiiis our natiuu. 
Aiioili«r main fault i», llial I haw itot rviiscd the ropy, ami amended ilie 
Mvte, wliicli miw llonn rcmUly. n* ii was first cwiccitcd: but u»y leisure 
would not p(.Tinit : Feci arc ifttod potui, nte ^aod vobti, I coufeae it i> nei- 
^tfcer a» I would, or OS it should l>e, 

^^^^H^ • Cum n'ltfo. iml|uil*H pnilN, niilHpliiIUDifcTnu. 

^^^r t Bin ubiuh 'd, ADilnmr-b I h(il[Jtiik(lL 

^^Vf TMod TraPWnmuin, In lUc mutter it s.ti(, muny tiling I duullow at liiis 
pmeni, wliicli when 1 writ, '' Non rdmni est trtan, n«n tnriu. ( would 
wiUiugly retract much, &c. but 'tis too late. I can only crarc purdoit now 
for «hst ia amiss. 

^v I m^ht indeed (bad I wififly donc)ob«erved that prccqH of the poet, 

^^H nu^umqifii prrnAturin uiBun. 

and have taken more care : or as Alexander the pliyait^ian would liat-e done 
by b{iis lazuli, fifty limes waslaed bt^lore it be used, I should havt? rnviMd, 
corrected, uud amended Hu* tract; but I had not (as I »ui(l) that bappy )ui> 
rare, no iimunuc^iiiivs nr auintnnti. Panrratr* in ' JLucrun, wittiting a M-r- 
rant »)> hv went Trom MemphiR loCaptii» in /K^ypt, took a iloor bar, and, 
after some "ipcr»titio"» word« pronounced, (F.ucratca the relator was then 
pnaent) made it stand up tike a »crvini;.man, fetch him water, ittrn the spit. 
Krve in Hipper, and what work he would besidea; aud wheii he hiid done 
tliat service he dciired, turned his man to a slick af^n. 1 have no such 
skill to make new men at my pleasure, or means to hire them, no whistle, lo 
all, like the master of a sliip. and bid them run, Ac. 1 have no nueh au- 
thoritv, no audi benefactors, as that noble 'Ambrosiuft was to OTig«u, 
alJowmg him six ur sevi:n anianuenses to write out his dictates; I must, for 
that cause, ilo my busines* my self, and was therefore enforced, us a liear 
doth tier whelps, to brine ftirth tliis confused lump : I had not time to lick 
h into form, as she dotli her young ones, but enm »o to publinh il, as it was 
first written, quidifuid in hiiccam vcnil : in an enicmporcnn style, (as ' I do 
comnioiily all other etcrciM^) efffdi t/uidquid diclavif tftnius meus : out of 
a confused company of notes, and writ with as small deliberation as I do or- 
dinarily speak, witltoui all atl'eciaiioo of big words, fustian phrases, jingling 
terms, Uopes, *lroci^ lines, (that, like ^ Aceties arrows. caug:lit fire as they 
Hew) slrainit of wit, brat-e heats, elo^ies, hyperbolical exoruatious, elegan- 
cies, Ac. which nunv so mudi aflect. I am ' aqva potor, drink no wine at 
all. which to much improve* our niodi^ni wil* ; a loose, pluin, rude writer, 
ficum coco Jlctum, et ligoacm iigonitm, and a* frt-e, as loose: idem calamo 
^Mod in n>eH/e ; ' 1 call a spade n spade : anims hire tcribo, non auhbut, I 
respect nwtter. not words ; rcaiemmring that of Cardnn, ryrin propter r«, 
MM rrs propltr verba ; and seeking with Seneca, yiiii^ icriham, nnti i/urmad' 
modnai, luther what, ilian how to write, l-'or, as Fhilo thinks, ^ he that it 
cmvertaxl about mailer, net/UcU worth; and those that excel! t'n ihis art 
Hf tpfaking, kacc kq prafattnd lettming ; 

> Vctli* ntiaxt gbaiaiM : ai luil^u tnha mcijullit 
luLm tiBliCTit 

BmkIcs, it was (he olisermtiun of tlml wise Seneca, '" when you see a fellow 

^AM wlis In4cii. till quaatul iDiidii qiiniD ILT^r^ if luliml. hkh^ C*D(ah. #1 Ixind- vxi'ui. irTA. 'Oviil. 
4vrvBl,*l«i. I. S. 'Itaf' *Tum. 3- ['liiUipiijmcl. nn-cplo ]mvulD. f|Uinn rm»>'n c^uciilclim ilixit- 
^. vAcU m unlnkiirtl, afiDBni hauflri^, ti^iinm I4riirv1. S^. 'Bu«i*Mu>. i'j'i'Ii-"- ht<L l^lr fl. 
vStelv t*itt ^ into, ■> hr vibAk 'itnv*- * Vir^. ' Nun v^iiatn q miuimu nEwtt«. lii^nJrn(M[ ud 
furli. f Aflua kir iiuJii^a iirJtLiT pftriluiiiimi- * Qui rfbua «r i jitv'^i. ti^rln m-jtli^il: ft qut 
alM srus wcntt, nnll'iii cAActiiEliiiun hnU^i irrn^iiiBTit, ■ I'aliugmlui. ^Cnjiucuuiiuu oia* 


SemocriHis to lite Reader. 

careful about hit wordt, and neat m hit tpeech, kitoK fhU for n eerlainlif, 
thai mam mind is busitd ab^ut Ic^et, Ihtre't no solidUy in hint. Nmi tst 
orHameHlum virile eoneinnilas : aa lie said ofa nigfatingalc, 

rot M. ptrimu nihil, ^ci, 

I am (Jierclon; in U)i« point n jirofcsat^d disciple of " A[>olloiiiu!i, a xchulnr of 
Socnito : I nrglect uhrasM, and labour wholly to Inform my n-adcre' under- 
standing, not to please Kis rar ; 'tit not my muily or iiiti-nl to compose 
neatly, which an orator rc(|iiirr«, but to uxpreM my nclf readily and plaiolir 
!w it happens : so that, a» a river nins, Komctimc^ prcripitatc nnd swift, then 
dull and slow ; now dirrct, then per ambagrt ; now deep, then shallow ; 
now muddy, then clear; now brand, then narrow; doth luy style flow-r- 
now aerioiu, then light : now comical, tlien satyrical ; now more elaborate, 
then remiss, aa the present subject ret|iiired. or as al tliat time I waft alTected, 
And if ibou voucfacaTe to read this treatise, ii shall seem no oiln-rwiju- to 
thee, than the wav to an ordinary traveller, sometimes fiiir, sometime* foul ; 
brrc cbampion, tfiur« inclosed; barreu to one place, belter soil in another. 
By wood), grovM, hills, <laks, plains, Sec. 1 sbatl lead thee ntr ardna moK- 
tiam, el tiibrica valtium, ct rotcida ccfpitam, et "glcbasa cnmporum, 
through variety of objects, ihut uhich ibou iliall like, and surely dislike. 

l-'or the matter it self or metlior], if it be faulty, consider, I pmy you, tliat 
of Columella : nihil perfectam, aul a sinyutari contumm/ttum induitrii : 
no man can observe all; much is defective no doubt, may be justly taxed, 
altered, and avoided iu Ualen, Aristotle, those great mnsters. Boni vena- 
loris (I* one holds] plurci /ertu capere, noil otnnes. He is a good hunisnmn 
can catch some, uol all: I have done my endeavour. Besides. I dwell not 
in lilis study : nou hie lulcut dudmuj ; non hoc palvere defuilamut : I uin 
but a tmulttrer, I confers, Katran^r: i here and there I pull a flower. I 
<Io easily grant, if a ri);id ceniuref abould criticize on this which I huve writ, 
he ahouM not find three *ole ftults, as Scalig^er in Terence, bnl llirre hnn- 
died, to muiy u he lialh done in Cardanii Subtleties, iis many notable 
errors as ' Gul. Ijiurcmbcigitu, a late piufestur of Rustockc, discovers in 
that anatomy of Laurcntius, or Bnror.ius the Venetian, in Sacroboscns. And 
altliougli this bo a sixtli edition, in which I should have been more accurate, 
correctt'd all those former escapes, yet it was magni laborU opus, so dillicult 
Bud tedious, that (as carpenters do linil out of experience, 'tis much better 
build a new sometimes, than repair an old house) I could as soon write aa 
mucfa more, as alter that which is written. 1 f ought therefore be amiss, (as 
I gnnt ibere is) I require a ftiendiy admonition, no bitter invective : 

■Sim Mgili >Dcl« Ch>tll»: FutU omDlxImla. 

Othervisc, as in ordinary eontrover*ies, ftuKm con(entionif nfctamui : sed 
ctii ioNO ^ We may contend, and hkcly misuse each oLiier ; but to what 
purpose? We ore both scliolars. say. 

. — ' — — ' Arc«iU« vnbo, 

£( Q*nt»rv parrf. rt TfutpnailpTt puihtL 

If we do wrangle, what »lm!l we get by it ? Trouble and wronif ogr selves, 
make snort to otlicts. If I be convict of au error, I will yield, I will amend. 
^ t/uia tmiit moribui, si ^uid vrrilati dimrntaneum, in iacris vrl humams 
Hl«rit a me dictum tit. id nee dictum esto. In the mt-an time I rectuire « 
filvourable ccniiire of all faults omitted, harsh coinpoiitirms, pironaxmes of] 
words, tautological repetitions, (though Scnccn beiir me out, nuiu/uam nimia 


Jib. I. II. -iniilwitBtii,. Ith. K Tit .*i>ol. 




kiln iTDlildm rt iiatkkUai^ ■t'lto uiktniim iu puxitli* oi^^^aiuiliiiii, iu ■i^Tii>tii uO i»Uilitm Epikl. 
" ■ Jiu. Ilh. K Tit H^ixjl. Nfjilij ■ 

mini. iiutAt^mvaiifTiyola. but Firfttiiii. rii-uEii* Inftntm, i-aiii* IrjKin^m, ilr^^i Hqnip )r^u r Frt. 

... - -. - Nrj^MErtwl drjilutijun (itui1tiirc*nt, ft pinilla* MprftUFd- 

Sjinnliiit, not in Unf, »N*iu hic folnciii* ili^miciliui" iiuln^ ^ fcrd, ruiil^rliLa mvn-m. bint.' Lnib* ADmn 
VFlltco, 111 cant* Nitum bm>Tii'- 'Vuj-iii hii nillv nifUliiJi** rtTVTt* l^nrrntii (U-uiDia«tnii, K^. 
■ FhiU., dcCuii. 'Viig. 

Demoeritus to tke Header. 


dieilur, ipiod naitquam Matis dieilitr) periurbatiotiii of li:n*(S, nunibeni, prin- 
ters fnatCn, &c. M_v tnnftlation* itrc iu>mcliiiici> nthrr |iura|iliniM'i(, than 
inU-rpRtaliunt ; non ad rrrbum i but, uk un uullior, [ \\*c Diorr tilwrtT, aiKl 
Hm.'* on); Ukcn, w)iic)i wan to tiiv piiipoM:. QiioliilionK anr nflrn inserted 
in the ttxt. nhicli ninkr llic xtvlr marc honh, or in tho margcnt, as it 
hapnwl, ({frck authors, Plato, Miilnrcli. Athcnteiu, Ac. I have cited Out 
of their iiitcq>icter», bfcatiw ihc original was not »o ready. I hav« Dtiinf^ed 
taem yrofanis, but I hope not prophancd, nnd, in repetition of autliora 
names ranked ibeiD />n- ucf-i^t-rM, not according to chronology : aomeiime* 
DMieiick* before auctenls. as my memory saffgeiled. Some ihiiiKK »« litre 
alWred, expunge«l tu thin sixth edilion, others amended, much addt^d, be- 
caute many good 'authors in all klndt are come to my tiands Mnci^; and 
'lit no prejudice, noxuch indrcorum. or nversig;ht. 

Onia r«>, vlw, ruua. h'uigiiT tliqiiMl appurttl n<ri t, 
Aliqtilil mnnHl ; ul liU. e^uv t^ltw rv citrdv, hrtrl**, 
Bt.qu*UM |>"Ilna |jr]in». In n|>vr1i(nito v( iyiiihUm^ 
Nr'M *M «Uf hi fK tt tlnit «anirtT'il ao Di, 
Bol ui*, HtCt "' Hmrthlaii. vould iltn It ; 
Adrfa* iht^ Mbn. «ni1, ujkiei iitruM, 

Bui I 3m now reiuWcd never to put itiia IrealiM! out aitain : ne ipiid tiimu, 
I will not liercaftct iutd, alter, or retract : I huvc dune. 

The laKl and greatest exception in, t}iut I, \>e'mg a divine, have mcdied 
with physick : 

^TmlunmP m ab re till of[i ti*A, 
AUvmutfiim, tvjii<< nihil c^iiifivl !<• *ltiq«tlt 

(which Menedemus objected to Cbremea) have 1 bo much leiture or little 
bu«inet» of mine own, as to look after oUier men* matters, which concent nic 
DOl ? What libve 1 to do with physick ? ^uod medicorum tsl, promittant 
ntdiei. The ' Laced«:niouian» were once in councd about state-mattem: 
a debauched fellow spake excellent well, and to the purpose : his speech wan 
gFDcnilly approved : a ^ve «rnntor *tr\t* up. and by all means would hare 
it trpmlrd. thougli £00d. bccnute drhotmstahalur pfirima auctorc, it had no 
better an author ; let aoroe good man relate the Kunu-. and then it slioutd 
pan. Tliis counsel was entbraced. factum ttt, and it wni; regi»trrr<I forlfi' 
with ; el sic Irona itnlentia marttit, ntatut auctor mulatui ett. Thou «ayesl 
ai much of me, stomachous as thou art. and )p«iitest petadventure iliis 
which I have written in physick, not to be amiss, had another done it, a pro- 
finsed pliysiciaa, or m : but why should I meddle with this tract ? Hear me 
speak : ibere be many oilier subjects, 1 do easily yrant, lioth in humanity 
wd diriiiity, fit to bi- treated of, which, bad I written ad ottrnlatumem only, 
to shew my self, I xhnutd have rather chosen, and in which 1 have been more 
converaant, I could hat-e more willingly liixurinied, and better satisfied 
mvself and otiwrs; but that nt this timet wai fatally driven upon this rock 
or melancholy, nnd carried away by thi* by-rtrcam, which, as a rillet. is 
deducted from the main channel of my sludW, in which I have pleased and 
b*»ied m J self at idle hours, as a subject most ncccswry and commodious : — 
not that 1 prefer it before divinity, which I do acknowledge to be the queen 
of profetasons, and to which all the rest are ni handmaids, bnt tliat m 
dtniuty i saw no such jcreat need : for. had I written positively, there be so 
raan^r books in that kind, h> many commentators, treatises, p:imphlet.H, ei- 
poMions, nermnik*. that whole teems of oxen cannot draw thent ; and, had I 
WCD >■ forward aiul anibili'>u» ax some others. 1 mi);bt have haply printed a 
aermon at Paalu CroM. a oermon in St. Maries Oxon. a sermon in Christ- 
Church, or ■ sermon before the right honourable, tighl reverend, a »ermon 

• rruabnwla*, SmMTliu, Fmadiu. tM. 'Trt. Aikrlnh, 'Hcidi. ul. I irn. I. 'Orl. 


Democritus to tif Header. 

bofore the riglit iForafaipful, a sermon in Latine, in Enj^lisb, a sennon with a 
name, a »errnon without, a sermon, a nemiou, &c. Bui I have been ever 
as desirous to suppres* my lalwjuri in l!ii» kind, aa others Iiave been to press 
and publish iJieira. To have writli^ii in conircivrnic, had been to cut olf an 
Hydras liead ; " Ih litem ijr.nrrnt : oup bi'jrfta nnotlHT ; no many duplica- 
tioiii, tri|>li<'aiions, and swarinH <il' (jiinlionx, in sacro htllo Anc quod styti 
■ntiitrone agilur, iliJtt, havini; once begun, I xhould never mnkv an end. 
One hwl much better, ns 'Aicxander the Sixth, pope, long since obscrred, 

rrovokc a great prince than a begging Tiiar, a JeEiiite, or a seminary priest: 
will add, for iHerpugnakiU genua hoc liominutn : they arc an irretregaUe 
society, they must and will hare the last word, and that with such cager> 
neas, impudence, abominable lying, falsifving, and bitterness in their quea- 
lions iliey proct-ed, that, as ''he »aid furiime crftu,*, an rapit eii urnor, an 
Ctttjiaf mponsum dale. Blind fury or errour, or rashncs*. or what it is lliat 
eKi:* tliem, i know not, I am Mire, mwny linifi: which 'Anatin perctivcd 
lonK wni'c : Cemprflatf ctmtrntionli, trrraitiir thnrilatu ofiniihilatur : with 
Uiis tempest of contention, the serenity of eharity is ovrr-i'li>iided ; and 
there he too many spirit* conjured "p already in this kind in nil seienres, 
and more than wc can lei! how to lay, which do furiously rage, and keep 
*ueh a racket, that, ns "Fabins said. U had been wihcA letter Jot iomi of 
thrm (o hare lefn burn dumb, and altotfelher UUlcrale, titan lo/ar to dote to 
their OH'rt detlrucluin. 

At mdliu fiiml Don lorlbFR ■ nuaijue Uccre 

Tutiun lenijjn nil, 

'Tis a general fanli — so Severinus the Dnnc complaiiL* ""in pbysirk — uii- 
happy own a; u'c are, we tptnd our daiea in unprofitable i/itettioiia and 
duputatums, intricate sublilties. de land eaprini, about moonshine in (he 
water. Uavinij in Ike mean time fhoie chief est trta*um of nature nntouched, 
wherein the heal medicinet for all manner of dictates are to &e found, and 
do not only neglect them our selves, bat hinder, condemn, forbid, and scoff 
at others, that are willing to enquire after them. Tliese motives at this 
present lia>« induced ine to make <'hoice of tlii« medicinal subject. 

If any physician in ibe mean time shall infer, iic sular ultra crepidam, and 
Bnd himself )C''iet'ed that t have Intruded into his profession, I will tell him 
in brief, I do nut otiicrwise by tliem, than they ilo by ns, if it be lor their 
advuRU)(^^. I know many of their sect which have laken onlets in hope ofa 
bencficv : 'tis u common transition : and why may not a melancholy divine, 
that can gel nothing but hy simony, profess physick ^ Drusianns, an Ita- 
hnn, (Crusiuniis but cornipllv. Trithemius calls him) 'because he wot not 
fortunate m his praclict, forsook hi* profession, and writ uflerwardi in 
dimnily. Marcilius Ficiiius was temel et simul, a priest and a pliysician at 
once ; and ''T. Linacer, in his old a^e, tuok orders. Tlie Jesuites profess 
both at this time ; divers of them, pcrmismi superiorum, cliiiur^iuns, pan- 
ders, bawds, and niidwives, &e. Many poor counlrt-y- vicars, for want of 
other mtunn, arc drivi-n to iheir shifts: to turn mountebanks, quacksalvers, 
euipiricks : and if our greedy patn>ns hold us to such liard conditions, as 
cuininunlv they do, thoy will make most of ns work at some trade, a* Paul 
did^-at last turn laskers, maltsters. coBlermoiigors. gtiiiiers, sell ide, aa 
some have done, or worse. Howsoever in undertaking this l^k, 1 ho|>e I 

• Kt Inilr ndini qusdun ni. qiiv Inrmln »uua Upt. CmiIhh. IMnuuI. 



1 Sdctlr ar tirUbv min 
T Kor- rpod. Etb- vA. 1. 
> Lib. IS, fa[i. L. MliU4 iiOB'i, fiiaint •cl»bl 
i|tuuu tiF bi jjruirriAia [irniii^iw ln*qhin^ ^ JiifclLi iiiurlatil**. Iiiiitl]lbu>4|u 

imffio prinfUip KFti-riv quad) oum <ruu (X fT^trMiii iniai<h rani him nnliiK. 

M LIU4 iiOB'i . ft loint •cl»bl f*rn. mxtnt fnivM. 

. - , . , ..... , . . I ttf tilK*(l- 

Urlimihu" viEuii Lr*-lur'iniii» ; njirun* |nlncl[>rh LbMBuritu, m (juitAU (mtUBlin» aiDtbunib mnliiin* 
I'lkLInr'Tjc mat. mM'tim infiu-tf}" rpllmivlmii^; npf ipai aoIuih n^lni|nlmiu, aol wi tiiot ]>rnhlbmua» 

* P. Javttu. 

Demoeriha to the Header. 


xliail eontmit no gr«9l ormur, or indreorum, if all br consulcni'd arighL I 
can vindicate my iwll'wilh (>M>tgiii« Rraumm, ami HicTonymui llnninj;ia«, 
ibnw Iwo learnt diTinr*, who, (to borrow a line or two of mini- 'el<lrr 
Imrtlirf) Hrawn by a rtaturat lorf, the one nfpi<ltirTt ami mapt, protpeettves 
and ckoTfjraphirtit lUVt'jhta, writ thnt ample Theatre nf Citiei ; Ihe other 
to Ihe tttKly oj' gcnealoyin, penned I'htatram (kncatojiicum : or else 1 can 
rxcuse my sluilks oitli ' Lcsaiiis tJ)c Jcauiie in like cafn. — li 'a » diiwaae of 
the soul, on ithkh 1 am lo ireal, uiid us much npiienaiiiiiig lo a divttie a* lo 
a pky^ician ; nnd who kuow^ tiut what an av^ieeiiitnt tltt.'t« ix betwixt tbcM 
twu nrofi-Btont i A goud divines citliiT it, or ou^^it to be, a good pbydHmi, 
a tpitilual ptiyxician at Icatt, as our Sntiour c-.iUii himself, and wa« indot-d, 
Mai. 4. 23- Luke 5. 18. Luke 7. 8. T\u:y ditlVr Imt in object, llic one of 
iW body, the other of the soul, and n«c dirvm mrdicincfl to cure; one 
aoiends atriinam per corpvt, the oth«r corpui per animam, as *our regius 
pfofesMur uf pliysick well informeri iis in a learned lecture of his not mag 
once. Onv helps the vices and (lOisions of the soul, ant.'er. lust, despera- 
UoD, pride, presuniption, &e. by a))plyin); that spiritual physick, a^ the 
Mlwr u«ci pru|K^r remedies io IkxIiK diseases. Now, tliis beinf; a common 
mtimiily o< body and miuI, and <ueh a i>ii« thai hath aa much need of a spi* 
riloaJ a9 a citt[H>raI i-ure, 1 could not find a ittttr t^uik to busie my «i?lf abottt 
—41 more a|)po«itr theam, "> nenruary, mi eiitnmodiou*, and ct-n«ralJy eon- 
ccrntng all sort* of nwn, thai should so equally participate of botli, and re- 
■luire a whole physician. A divine, in this rompound mixt malady, can do 
Utile aloite : a phyaiciSD, in some kinds of melancholy, much less: both 
maice an absolute cute : 

^ AllCTMBdfikllcniiiMcll oivm: 

and 'tis proper to them both, anil, I hope, not unbekc-eming roc, wlio am li^ 
my protewion a diviiie, and bvmine inolinntion a physician. I had Jupiter 
in my sixth house; I say, with 'Beroaldiis. iwrn sum medif^iif, nfc merfidito 
prortus rrpfTM : in the theofick of physiek 1 have taken some painit, n»t with 
an intent to practise, but to saliiihe my self; which was a cause hkcwi«c of 
tbe fiiM Dndertakio^of tliis anhjed. 

If Ubeae reasons do not salisBe thee, Rood reader — as Alexander Muniticus, 
llrat bountiful prelate, sometime bishon of Lincoln, when he ha<l built six 
caKlei,<uf tnnduin optris etuendam, »aith "Mr. Cambden, to take away the 
e«vy of Iii« work, (which very woriU Nubrigeij»i» iialli of Ro^,'er the rich 
hitbop of Salisbury, who, ia kin^ Slcphenn time, buiil Shirbiirn eantle, and 
tliot of DcvUcn') to divert the tcnndal or impulaliou which might be tliPnce 
mfem^l, bailt w many religious house* — If this my discourse be over mt^i- 
cinal. or savoar too much of humanity, I promise thee that I will heruatter 
make thee amends in some treatise of divinity. But this, I hope, shall suf- 
fice, when you Ita^* more fully considered of the matter of this my wibjeet, 
rem mitlralam, melancholy madness, and of the reasons followinji, which 
»e» my chief motive* — the ([euerality of the disease, the necessity of the 
core, arid llie commodity or common good that will arise to all men by the 
kiiDwkd|:e of it, »-■• slmll at large iij>|>c:ii in tlie ensuing preface. And t 
ikfubt not hut thni in the end you will *ay will) me. that to anatomiEc this 
tnimour aright through all the mcmhers of this our microcoimtn, is as great 
■ tuk B« to (econeik' those cbronologicnl rrrours in the Assyrian monarchy, 
fimi oat Ike quadmture of a circle, the creeks and sound* of the north-east 
or aonl»-wol posuges, and, ali out, ns good a disi^ovecy as that huQ{;Ty 

•1|. W. ftanoii. rw6»> 10 lit* Bmrrtptlnn e( l^lnaUT^hm-. nrt'ixxl » Loiiikin tif W. Jananl tor 
J- Wlaic. I<21. 'In llfKliBlkon I nrqup trnvta hpii tnrbtlUt Kllru* tiili-ri Ji-fk-l n Ihf olufo. Kxr. 
K»B( il* BHto nlaMt iD. (.'laylOD. In mmlltli.uino Injl. ' lliir. ' Lib. il>' t-oU, >tn 

II 111 III riilllinlMinifclii Cum duo Bdlflilaiii tMWllB. Id lollrmlnin iirwrlioRii in»iliui,Mra- 
'- B,du«lii>UtBlt<aD«1iU,(«cull(tl>tTUglu*iilnpl«*il. 


Demoeritiu to the Rtatkr. 

'SpRDiardB of Terra Au»lrdli« Incognita — as great trouble as to perfect tlie 
motion of Mar* atul Mercury, which iio enicififa our utronomers, or to rec- 
lilie the Greifuriun kalcndar. I um eo iilfcL-trd, fur my part, sod hope, as 
■" TlieophrttHlus diii by hix Chiiraclcrs, that our poxlrrity, friend PolycUs, 
shall be bettmr /qt this which we have written, by correelin/f and rectt/'giit^ 
what is amifg in thrmsfltws by our examples, and applying our prrcejits OTui ■ 
caulions to their onn use. And, as (hat ^eat capUiin, Zisra, would have a 1 
drum miidr of his skin when he was dead, because he thought the very nnJBs I 
of it would put his eiiemics to flight, 1 doubt not but that these folbnin j 
lini's, when they shall be recited, or hereader read, will drive away mclan- ' 
choly (thoui^h I be gone), as much a« Zimia's dnnn could lerrilie his foes. , 
Yet one caution let me give by' the way to my present or future reader, who ■ 
is actually melancholy — tliat he read not the "tyniptomes or urognoslicks in 
the foUowin); tract, led, by applyinir that whieli hr ci-acls to liiouelf, agm- 
vstlnjc, appropriating tiling grncnilly spoken, to his own person (as inekn- 
choly men lor the niu*l part do), he trouble or hurt hiuiself, and get, in 
I'oudution, more hnrm Inon good, i Ddvis« them thcretore warily to peruse 
rlinl tr«ct. Lapidti loquitur (so said "Agripna, dc ore. Phil.) et camaat 
Itctorei ne cerebrum iit e^cutiat. The rest, 1 doubt not, they may securely 
read, and to their bcneKt. But 1 am over-tedious : 1 proceed. 

Of the necessity and generahly of this whidi 1 have said, if any man 
doubt, 1 shall desire him to make a brief survey of the world, as I'Cyprian ad- i 
visetli Donate — Sniffing himnelflu be transported In the lop ofxome high 
mi}iiiilain, and thencr. to behold ihr tutnaltt and chances of this wavering 
world, ke canrwt chusc but rithrr launk at, or pity it. St, Hieroui, out of 
a xlron^ imitgtnittion, being in the wiliieineM, conceived witli himtielf that he 
tlie.n saw tliem dancing in Rome ; and if thou ghalt cither cunecive, or ■ 
chmb lo sec, thou shalt soon ]>erceivc that all the world is mad, tliat it is ' 
mclsnrlioly, dotes; thnt it is (which Epichthonius Cosmopolite* expreascd 
not many years since in a map) made like a fools head (with that motto. 
caput helleloro dignum) a erased head, caveu ttultitriim, a fools paradise, or 
(OS ApoLtonius) a common prison of gull*, cheaterii, Halterers, &c. and needs 
to be reformed. Strabo, in llie nintli book of his Geography, compares ' 
Greece to the picture of a man : which comparison of his Nic. Gerbeliua, in 
his expotitioii of Sophianu* map, approve* — The breast lies opeu from thoM | 
AcTOCeraunian hilU in Epirus, lo the Suniuri promontory in Attica : Pagee I 
and Megara arc tlie two shouldcra ; that Istlimos of Corinth the ueck : and J 
PclopunncKii* the head. If this ntluxion hold, 'tin, sure, a mad bead — .1 
^orra may be ^oria : and, to speak what I think, the mhidiitanls of mo-i 
dern Greece swerve as much from reason and true rcli|rion at ihi« dny. as 
that Morca doth from the picture of a man. Examine the re*t in like sort; 
and you shall find that kiuK^^oms and provinces are melancholy, cities aiKl 
families, all creatures, vegetal, seusible, and rational— lliat all sorts, sects, 
ages, conditions, are oul uf tune : as in Cebes table, omnrs errorem bibunt : 
before they come into the world, they are intoxicated liy r.rrours cup — frora , 
the highest ti> (lie lowest, have Reed of pbysick ; and those particular ac- 
tions in ''Suneca, where father and Hon prove one anotlier mad, may l>c 
S;encral : Porciu* Latro shall plcail agiunst us all. For indeed who is not a 
ool, melancholy, mad ? — 'Qui ml mo/ifur iitepfe ; who is not brain-tick 7 
Polly, melancholy, madness, are all on« disease: dflirium is a comiooit 

'F>riUn>ni1od> Quii. tniin lAll. Atnitrnlvnl lm[.m<. -rrolu. td niinFlpn* SiHto cnim. n 
FdIj'Jh. Itbcm ntwtrih* mflkom tnijc tuiui^m. tjucii] EttiuAnoiU mvntoriit mAadvU TclUivcrimuA, n 
pn*«pIlt(l<nrmi>Ui »<i<1rl> vl>I(*a kcwniuKUUi.ulH-la^rcnrripnl. • I'm I w. > •rml. 
Lf**orL p Eji i y t- ■(! DunjtfniB- hulllJtprf Ivenvlc ■uUhirtIn thluLmoniVt vrninni '4-]Blr>nikt 
• |iaFulu> lailr irtiiRi jU'KnlluiB kslMj rt,««iil)i ini11<vn« |u>irHti). Ilui^luinlli mun<!l tarblnnlB- 
Iww JimilmLil iii(ildctw(BtRiUm4i«t>,Si*. iConlTOT. l.t. raaL J, HLS.tuul. ' HonUoii. 

Semocritta to the Reader. 17 

name to all. Alexander Gordonina, Jason Pratensis, Suvanarola, Guiane- 
riua, Montaltus, confound theni, as dilTering secundum magis et minus; so 
doth David, Psal. 37. 5- / said unto the fools, deal not so madly: and 
'tw4s au old Stoical paradox, omnes slultos imanire, — 'all fools are mad, 
though some maddet than others. And who is not a fool ? who is free from 
melancholy ? who is not touched mure or less in habit or disposition I If in 
disposition, ill dispositions beget habits : if they persevere, saith 'Plutarch, 
habits either are or turn to diseases. Tis the same which TuUy mainlains 
ID the second of his Tuscutanes, omnium iasipientum animi in morbo sunl, 
et pertarbatomm : fools are sick, and all that are troubled in mind : lor 
what is sickness, but, as " Gregory Tholosansus defines it, a dissolution or 
perturbation of the bodily league which health combines ? and who is not 
sick, or ill disposed? in whom doth not passion, anger, envy, discontent, 
fear, and sorrow, reign ? who labours not of this disease ? Give me but a 
little leave, and you shall see by what testimonies, confessions, arguments, 
I will evince it, that most men are mad, that they had as much need to go 
a pilgrimage to the Anticyra; (as in *Strabo's time they did), as in our dayus 
they run to Compostella, our Lady of Sichem or Lauretta, to seek for help- 
that it is like to be as prosperous a voyage as that of Guiana, and that there 
is much more need of hellebore than of tobacco. 

That men are so misaffected, melancholy, mad, giddy-headed, hear the 
testimony of Solomon, Eccles. 2. 12. And I turned to behold wisdom, mad- 
WM, aiid folly, S(C. And ver, 23. All his days are sorrow, his travel 
grief, and his heart takelh no rest in the night. So that, take melancholy 
in what sense you will, properly or improperly, in disposition or habit, for 
pleanire or for pain, dotage, discontent, fear, sorrow, madness, for part, or 
■11, truly, or metaphorically, 'tis all one. Laughter it self is madness, ac- 
cording to Solomon ; and, as St. Paul haih it, worldly sorrow brings death. 
The hearts of the sans of men are evil; and madness is in their hearts 
while they live, Eccles. 9. 3. Wise men themselves are no better, Eccles. 
1. 18. In the multitude of wisdom is vtvch grief i and he that increaselh 
wisdom, increasetk sorrow, cap. 2. 17. He hated life itself; nolliing pleased 
him ; he hated his labour; all, as 'he concludes, is sorrow, grief, vanity, 
vexation of spirit. And, though he were the wisest man in the world, sane- 
ttiarium sapientice, and had wisdom in abundance, he will not vindicate 
himself, or justiiie his own actions. Surely I am more foolish than any 
man, and have not the understanding of a man in mv, Prov. 33. 2. Be 
ihev Solomons words, or the worils of Agur the son of Jiikeh, they are ca- 
nonical. David, a man at^r Gods own heart, confesseth as much of him- 
self, Psal. 37, 21, 22. So foolish was I and ignorant, 1 was even as a 
beast before thee — and condemns all for fools, Psal. 93. and 32. 9. and 49. 

20, He compares them to beasts, horses, and mules, in which there is no 
understanding. The Apostle Paul accuseth himself in tike sort, 2 Cor. 11. 

21. / would you would suffer a little my foolishness : I speak foolishly. 
The whole head is sick, saith Esay; and tlie heart is heavy, cap. 1. 5. and 
makes lighter of them than of oxen awd asses ; the ass knows his owner, ^c. 
read Deut. 32. 6, Jer. 4. Amos 3. 1. Epiies. 5. 6. Be not mad, be not 
deceived : foolish Oalatians, who hath bewitched you ? How often are 
they branded from this epithet of madness and folly ! No word so frequent 
amongst the fathers of the church and divines. You may see what an opinion 
they bad of the world, and how they valued mens actions. 

' IdFm Uor. L S. 941, 3. DAmosippus Stuli-u? pru^>jit oditk^ ntullo-'' insanirf'. ■ Turn. S. ftyapoK. 
bb- A. ?. S- Animi aSpi^tlnnp*. AJ rttririiL* inliarreanl, pravcm (^nursnt hahiluii. "Lih. 34. c&tf. 1- 
fitnL HTL mir. MoripuH nihil t-gl alLutl quBin UisAnluliM i]ua.-dam ac perlurbmio fcEitiTlj In carporp i-j.- 
Iijmtls. sifut M AanilAj rtt eonxvnlienlit ht-nc furpciriti cnnsumniatio ciiirlHm. * Lih. 9. (j'ivj{r. 



DemcrrltMS (o the Reader. 

I know tirtt wctliink ftirutliePHitc. nnd lioUl ihi-ni, mod part, wiw- men tli. 
Rre in aiiUinrity — princes, ma^UiratPe, "ricli men — they arc wi»c men burn : 
nil policiciiins and MaUrKnicu inu»t )ti«ik be m> : for uho daio sponk a^iiiiM 
tliem ? And on llie other, so eoiru^ti la our judgement, we esteem niM 
and lioncU men fools; wliicli Dc^mucriiuit well &ignitted in an epistle of his 
lo HipiKieriileH; ^lliv Abtlrtitti atiyiirnl vertue madnest : and 90 do nioM 
men linn]^'. Sliull 1 ti-ll vmi tin' leamii iif il'. '■fiirlunr 3in<\ Vertur (Wit- 
dom iiiid iFo//y ihi-ir scrondji) tipim n limi- eonli'iidcd in tin; Olynipickit; 
rv<-ry niiin iJiimglil ttiul Fortiinf and y'li/Zi/ would \ia\r. tlir wont, anil pitliol 
tlidr caww. Biil it fell out oilierwi»c. Forlanr- Wiis blind, and cnn-*! not 
whore (he stroke, nor wlnrni, without \iiv{t,andiibn'ai\im instar.^e. Fally, 
fftsh fliid inconsiderate, esteeme<l as little what »he said or did. Verttw mid 
Witdom f^ve place, 'were hissed ont, and exploded by the common people 
— Fol/g und Fortune admired ; and so are all their followeis ever since. 
Knave:! and fools commonly fare aod desenre be»t in u-()rld!iBns eyes and 
opinions. M^ny k""<1 nien have ih> better fnle in tlieir agrs. Aehish, I 
~|im. 'it. 14. liVlit David for a maUmun. ''HIisha und tlir rMt were no 

crwiae rsleemciJ. David irat ilpridctl of tin- common people, P»al. 9. 7. 
'an ftpojiwe a mnnftrr to miimj. And ireni^rnllv we ar« nrconnlci fools 
for ('htrsl, I Cnr. 14. Wf foolt il'Oi'ijkt his li/r maitnrst, unit his eud u'i'A- 
oiif AtfHOMj', VVisd. 5. 4. Christ and his Apoiilcs were rcnmired in like sort, 
Johi> 10. Mnrk 3. Acts 26. And «o were nil Christians in * Plinvs time : 
/ueittnf fl alii timilis 'lemenfiit, Src. and called not long after, 'maniit 
Kftaloret.ei'eriiarft liominvm, jmIIhIi noviilorts. f'anatici. caun, malrjici, 
vmtfiei, Galil(ti kommteiones, ifc. 'Tt« an otdinsry thing with ii* lo ac» 
count honest, devout, orthodox, divine, religiouii, ptain-deahiig men, ideots, 
aiiie«, ihut caimot or will not lye and diiMBible, abiil, flatter, atcommodart 
it ad rum locum u/n nali tunt, raahe good bart^aini, supplant, thrive, />a(ri>- 
nit inservire, inlcnnrs atcfmlcnefi morfoi apprehmdi-rf, leyrg, moret, fontut- 
ludinft rtctf obstrnare. caadide tavdarf, fortitrr defeadere, tenl^ittiat 
amjdeeti, dubitart df nulUs, crtdvre omnia, arciprre immia. nihil reprtheu- 
dere, caleriiiftif ifiKt promotiimem fvranl el teeurifalfjn, i/ua tint ambatfe 
filierm reddanl bonniiom. el vtre tnyienlem a/iud niM — that cannot tent* 
|>onze as other men do, *hand and take bribes, Sec. — but fear God. and 
make a coriicienee of iheir doini;s. But the Holy Ghost, that knows Witer 
how to jiidjtc — he ealls thetn ftiols. The foal Kalh taid in hix hrart, Psal. 
53. I. And thrir wayef Htltr iheir Jalltf, Psal. 49. 14. ''For u-hat can 69 
more mad, lhtt», for a UitU H.vtrld!i/ pleaiurr. ta procnre unto Ikratftlv' 
etentat pitnitknieut f as Gri'trorv anil oihi-tK inculcate nnto u>. 

YcB even all lliov ^jvut phi I oso pliers Uic world hiiih evi-r hnd in admira- 
tion, whose works we do so nincli esteem, that pivc precepts of wisdom to 
others, invcntersof art« and sciences — Socrates. the wisest man of hi« time 
by the oracle of .4poilo, whom his two scholars ' Ptato and ' Xenophun so 
naucti ext^ and macnifie with those honourable title*, irtt and wiiftt of alt 
mortal man, tlir happiest, and mast jnsi : and a* ' Atcibtades incomparably 
commends him; " Xchilled was a witrthy man, but Braiidai and otlten wera 
aa wortliy «* himself; Antenor and \rsiur were as icood as Pericles ; and so 
of itie rest : but none present, before, or after Socrates, neiKo rrlvriim nti/ut 


• Jiir«hH«1iluian|tri« jubmiuT. Eu|iharnd»« antjr^ 

,_r S.. ,.. ... g^,J ^p^ _ 

nlicEUIt (MftDU lr inkficlpui- lu^fji^kiij f ' In nm' I'lii 
ml«a. nontrv cptlilrTn juJiriu, uinnium ffim* rtpi-rti tuiiMi 

'liiolMiit^. }1ii" Afii* Tulr uniiu ncmirt, alba* 

iXrndfK 1, 1 iti>dirti«ftnf*-ili*. wl (InmB. Tilulutl ifcx'riLlvaH cjiiirm omnium tpttntum 


Democrittu to the Reader. 19 

qui mmc mnt, were ever sucli, will match, ur come near him" — those 
Mven wise men of Greece, those Britain Druids, Indian Brachmanni, 
Ethiopian Gjrmnoaophiits, Magi of the Persians — A|>ollaniu3, of wliom 
PhiloatratuB, rob doctat, ted nafuj iapUm, wise from his cradle — Epicurus, 
BO mucli admired by his scholar Lucretius; 

Qui »niu hununam in^nla luppni'il, rt airnn 
Femrioxit, itC'Uu ^xoitua iii jtthiTiu* ^1 

WlKwe wil Fiwll'd IhP nil ot oiea u (tr. 

Am X\it Bdh riling iloEh olitcure ft lUr^^ 

or that SO much renowned Empedocles, 

■ Ut vii huTJuna Tldefttur itlrpc cwntui 

all those, of whom we read such " hyperixilical eulc^ums ; as of Aristolle, 
that he was wisdom itself in the abstract, "a miracle of nnture, brratUin^ 
libraneg, (fts Eunapius of Longinus) lights of nature, i^yants for wit, quint- 
essence of wit, divine spirits, eagles in tlie clouds, fallen from heaven, gods, 
■pints, lamps of the world, dictators, 

fNuUft Tenut UlFDiwclafatun Tinim) 

monarchs, miracles, superintendents of wit and learning, Oceanut, phanix. 
Atlas, moHitrvm, porteniunt hominii, orbit universimuseium, ultimas Au- 
Montf naturtt conatus, nature maritus, 

— ■ merito flii doctior orbi* 

BubmiAut flvfert fbcibiu imjierlum, 

u £Iian writ of Protagoras and Goigias — we may say of them all, tamtam 
a tapi^tibui ab/uervnt, quantum a viris pueri, they were children in re- 
spect, infants, not eagles but kites, novices, illiterate, eunuchi sapientia. 
And, although they were the wisest, and most admired in tlieir age, as he 
censured Alexander, I do them : there were 10,000 in his army as worthy 
captains (had they been in place of command), as valiant as himself; there 
were myriads of men wiser in those dayes, and yet all short of what thiiy 
ought to be. ° lictantius, in his book of Wisdom, proves them to be 
dizards, fools, aescs, mad-men, so full of absurd and ridiculous tencnts and 
brain-sick positions, that, to his thinking, never any uld woman or sick 
person doted worse, i* Democritus took all from Leucippns, and left, sailh 
he, f/ie inheritance of his folly to Epicurus ; "> iiisnnieHli dam sapietiiia, ffc. 
The like he holds of Plato, Aristippug, an<l the rest, making no diU'erenrc 
'betwixt them and beasts, saving that they could speak. 'Thcudnret, in 
his tract De Cur. Grac. Affect, manifestly evinces aa nnich of Socrates, 
whom though tliat oracle of Apollo confirmed to be the wisest man then 
living, and saved him from the plague, whom 2000 years have admired, of 
»hom some will as soon speak evil as of Chrisi, yet re vera, he was an illi- 
terate ideot, as 'Aristophanes calls h'vtn—irTisor ei ambitiosus, as hismuslcr 
Aristotle terms him, scurra Atticus, as Zeno, an " enemy to all arts and 
sciences, as Athenteus, to philosophers and travellers, an opinionalive asse, 
a caviller, a kind of pedant ; for his manners, (as Tlicod. Cyrensis describes 
him) a 'Sodomite, an atheist, (so convict by Anytus) iracutirliis ct ebrius, 
ilicax, SfC. a pot-companiiin, by Plato's own confession, a sturdy drinker ; 
and that of all Others he was must sottish, a very mad-man in his actions 
and opinions. Pythagoras was part philosopher, part ma>;ician, or part 
witch. If you desire to hear more of Apollonius, a i;reat wise man, some- 
time parallel'd by Julian the apostate, to Christ, I refer you to thai learned 

>Lurrrliiu. -AnftHmrM ollm Mmi diphi* alj anliquis. -Ilrttula natiira, Tulurr mii.wiilum, 
'" nunium ntiminis, aol BCiMitLanim, nian\ AopblB. anliBfc'» LitiTarum vl MiMimtrn'. ut 
P Heal, 't )[c1nrtlU4. AquilH In riuliiliiiH. i]n[>t'raIi)T lllt'rtitMrum. l-ttlunii'n litl>r.iruni. 
is, occUiis Kurii[i«>. Hi-aliKOr. - Lili. It. rl.- ■.oil. . . IT. rl SO. Omni-- |p)iilui>nhlii uiit 
. pull* anuB. nulliil n'j;iT, inrpthi.. di^hraviL »■ IK'UMmtH"'-. a l..'in-ip|Ki <l"<'liij*. 
Ililia' rPlwiiil Ki.i.-uic,. i lliir. rar. ILIi. 1. orl. 31. ' Nihil inl.Ti..l inli-i li.p. .1 

ipu irniditLO, dAmuniuiD huminia, mo\ acitntiarum, niaic. AopblB. ariliBfca litiTarum i-I Hanii-nlrn'. ut 
^mppiuA ollm dp Hcai. 't )[c1nrtiu4. Aquila In riuliiliiiH. l]n[>t'raIi)T lllt'rtitMrum. i-ttlunii'n liti>r.iruiD. 
abj^Mua rruditiunia 
itnlli aul iiLianl . i 

hrrnlitatpin aliillilia' rPli(|iti- --. - -- - _...._ ... 

hnriu. ni.i 'luwil 1i«(iianlur. Ih- ™. 1. 30, i*. X. -Cay. ilv lirl. ■ Sili. i-l Rani-. •IIUTii 
diKi]'1inaniTn i(;naru>. « I'liU'liruram aili»U-nr<-n1un] p:au^sn frv^utii^T ^ymuUitiiim ^hiiiat, \r. 



Demoeritus to lite Reader. 

iTaci of F.uMtHUi mgaiiul Hierocli-*— and, for llifni a!!, lo Lucian's Piseator, 
Icaromenippus, yteyomanliu. Their notion)', oniiiions in jcen«ral, were m 
mudigiuii^, ubiiiril. ridiculous, which ihey hroacliol and mnintaiupd ; their 
hooks and elaborate trealites wrre full of dotag?; which 'fully (ad At- 
tirutn) long since observed — dtUranl plerumyue seriplorea in libriauU — 
tlicirlives being (ippo»ite to Uicir words, ihey commei dcii po»erly to otiteri, 
and were mo*t covetoun iheniaelves, extolled lovi- and (leace, and yel perae- 
culcd one another with virtilt-Mit hale iirtd mahcc. They could p've prccvpU 
forvcrecandprotr ; Init nut aiimnot'ihi'm(iiit ''Seneca lelU tlieni home) could 
modnraU his artectioini. Their munick did iihrw u»JJf/>ilrt modos, iff. how 
lo ri&e and f.iU ; but they could not so contniii ihcmsplvct, d.i in adversity 
nol to make a lamentable tone. They will me^wiirc ground by geometry. 
Ml down limits, divide and subdivide, but cannot yet prctrrihe t/uanlum 
komini talis, t>t keep within compass of reason and diwrclron. They can 
(quurccirclen, hut understand not the Mat«of their own souls — describe riyht 
lino, and crooked, Ac. but know not what is riffhl in this life— yiiirfw viVrf 
recluiasil, ignorant: to tlivt, as he Siiid, 

I think ull the Aniicyrw will not restore lh( m to ihtir wtl«. * If thoM men 
now, that held ^Zenodotiis heart, Criiies Uver, Epictcltis Inntlmrn, were so 
solltsh, and bad no more brains than %o many beetles, what shidi we think 
of the cotninmmlty ? what of the rest * 

Yea, but (will you infer) that i» true of heathens, if t Key lie conferred witli 
Christians, 1 Cor. U. 19. The vitdom nj' this world iifooli/hntn with God, 
tartklif and derilith, an .liinien calls it, -J. 1.5. Tliet/ iftre vain in their inta- 
ginatioKi : and thrir /oolixh hfarl wat fill of darknrts. Rom. t. 21, 2'2. 
Whttt thrif prn/psfrd ihrmttlrcs wi(f, brrame foa/t. Tlirir witiv work* ar« 
admired here on earth, whiUt their souU arc tormented in hell fire. In 
some senw, Cfiristiani Cra«iBni,Christian» ate f 'rtiminn», .-mil, if compared 
to that wisdom, no better than fools. Quit *st sapiens' Solas Dent, 
'Pythagoras replies: Godttumly mist, — Horn. 16. Pnul dcterrnines, oii/jr 
900(/. as Austin well contends; and tut man living can be juttijied in kit 
sight. God louhtd down from heaxtn upoit the children of men. to stt if 
nriy did understand. Psalm 53. 2, 3, but all are corrupt, en*. Rom. .1. 12. 
Mont doth good, no not one. Job af^Eravates ihit, 4. 18. Behold, ht 
foand no ttedfastnns in hit srrxantt, and laid folly upon his angrh, 19. 
How much mare on thrm that dwell in htnisfs of clay ! In this sense, we are 
all ax fiK'Is ; and tin- * Scripture alone is nrx AJinrrta : we and our writing 
are fthalliiw ami imjicrfrct. But I do not to mean : even in our ordinary 
dealings, we arc no better than font*. .All our actions, as '■ I'liny told Tra- 
jan, Hpbraid Hs of folly : our whole course of life i* hut matter of laughter "■ 
we are not soberly wi^e ; and the world it self, which ought at least to be 
wise by reason of his antiquity, as ' IIut;o de Pralo Klotido will have it. temper 
sMtizat. is every day more foolish than otbfr : the more it is whipped, the 
KWMe it it; and, as a child, will still be crowned with rottt and powers. 
yVn are apish in it, mini bipedet : mid erery place is full inrertarutn Ajm- 
leioTum of melamor]>hased and Iwci-lrj^grd aoes, inntrtarum Siltnorum, 
childish, pueri iHttar bimuli, tTfmulii pairii dormienlit in nlnd. Joriunns 
Ponianus (Antonio Dial.) brings in some laughing at an old man, that by 
reaMnof hisagi' wa»a little tbnd : but. ax he a<lmoiiisheth there, ne mirerit. 
Mi iospts, de Aocs*n<',eaiiirvf\ not at him only; lor iota httc civitat delirium, 

'^nfvu. Set* ruliinila mrtm. trd nun tirain 4nlinuin. • Ali nbrrilHi* ft^jiii-nrU rk^ui^, p«.<:vnrr 
Eun pnmuml- )C(.r K^muiloU. rt livur Cralrlt*. *\XU. An nnL tn^nk 'Uii i>n>ruDiliHlinv 
Mphiv lat\tav ^J'uivEjr. Tikiwio. Omur* Bi'tioiiti »|ir»l>rv* >tul'LIiim viiltntur, <8rir- 4 
in rluml I'll. MuiHlu*. qui ot> kntliuluivm dclx-Til nac Hpiqi'. msifrt itulUHl, fl nulili A^mIU* 

DenuHTtttts to the Reader, 2 i 

all our town dotes in lilte sort; " we are a company of foob. Ask not, witli him 
in the poet, * Larva hunc, intemperiir, imaniaque, agttant senem f What 
madnesB ghosts tliis old man ; but what madnesa ghosts us all? For we are, 
ad tanuK omnet, a\\ raoA ; semel insamvimus omnes: not ODce, but alway so, 
et temel, el timul, et semper, ever and altogether as bad as he ; and not senex 
bupuer,tieiira anus; but eay it of m all, semper paeri; young and old, all 
dote, as Lactantiua proves out of Seneca ; and no difference betwixt ui and 
children, saving that majora ludimus, el grandiortbui papis, they play with 
babies of clouts, and such toys, we sport with greater babies. We cannot 
accuse or condemn one another, being faulty ourselves, deliramenta loquerU, 
you talk idly, or, as 'Micio upbraided Demea, insanis? aufer ; for we are 
as mad our own selves ; and it is hard to say which is the worst. Nay, 'tis 
universally so. 

■ Vitani regit forlun'^ noD uplfntiL 

When ^ Socrates had taken great pains to hud out a wise man, and, to 
that purpose, had consulted with philosophers, poets, artificers, he concludes 
all men were fools; and, though it procured him both anfrer and much envy, 
vet in all companies he would openly profess it. When 'Supputius in 
Pontanus had travelled all over Europe to conferr with a wise man, he 
returned at last without his errand, and could find none. 'Cardan concurs 
with him : Few there are (for ought I can perceive) well in their wits. So 
doth ^ TuUy : / tee every Iking to be done foolishly and unadvisedly. 

IllejinliitTonuin. htr dextronum ahit : uniit utriquc 
Ertor ; wd rAriin lUuilil po-rtibuA omnoL 
One rev1« to Ihin, uiuthPT to IhKl wall ; 
'TIh thenuneerrour UiBt deludn Ihi-m all, 

' They dote all, but not alike, Mavta y'ov Taaiy bjioia, not in the same kind. 
One is covetous, a second lascivious, a third ambitious, a fourth envious, 
^c- as Damasippus the Stoick hath well illustrated in the poet, 

' ]><;"jpEunt omnos le^kii? ac tu. 

lis an inbred maladie : in every one of us, there is seminariam stultilia, a 
seminary of folly, which, if it be stirred up, or get a head, will run in infini- 
tum, and infinitily varies, as wc ourselves are severally addicted, {saith 
' Balthazar Castilio) and cannot so easily be rooted out ; it takes such fast 
hold, as Tully holds, alia radices stultiliit ; "so we are bred, and so we 
continue. Some aay there be two main defects of wit— errour and igno- 
rance — to which all others are reduced. By ignorance we know not things 
necessary; by errour we know them falaly. Ignorance is a privation, 
errour a positive act. From ignorance conies vice, from errour heresie, &c. 
But make how many kinds you will, divide and subdivide ; few men are free, 
or that do not impinge on some one kind or other, p Sic plerutwjue agitat 
f(n/tos intcifia, as he that examines his own and other mens actions, shall find. 
'Charon, in Lucian, (as he wittily feigns) was conducted by Mercury 
to such a place, where he might see all the world at once. After he had 
sufficiently viewed, and looked about. Mercury would needs know of him 
what he had observed. He told him, that he saw a vast multitude, and a 
promiscuous; their habitations like mole-hills; the men as emmeta ; he 
eoald discern cities like so many hives of bees, wherein every bee had a 
sting ; and they did nought else but sling one another ; some domineering 
like hornets, bigger than the rest, some like Jilchiiiij wasps, othersus drones. 

*llliui]uni (r omneri puPri. rlBinantqui? |riiel]r- Hor, •Plnuhl*. Auliilar, 'Adeljjh. act. .\ 
Irrn. 8. iTullj. TliiH'. 5. ' MnlD. ApulOi-iii Soimli'. i AnI, Dial. I Uli, 3. di- s.ip. Fnucifl 
ul video. aviB Tiimli?^ Fit»ii(. ^ Stulli' vt iai-auU! fininia iu{i viilvu. ' Inunta mm uinnihiirt ■■nilfin. 
Earh. Phil. S. epni. 10. Nrino mortaliuni uui nun nliilNfi in u- i^nsiliiT. Ut^ptaliun allci inorl>u UboiTl. 
hit libidinLi. illp aviritiH', «nhilii»ii-. iTiilcliir. "Ilor, 1, :;. ml. J, "Lib. 1. di- auliro. E»l in 
bBoqQoqur nnsf Kim 'i^miiiariiini uliipiml ^liilliUir, liuflil "i iiUH-^iido rsriTctnr. Eii infinitum facilp vx- 
rmciL • Frimanuo lux vita iitimiifiiKimpriil. pTihuilui. Slullt prrliTpiinlilipi; tliiir «il, 
tiTM wool-3<thpiini^ 8o [ooUieuramonlj-iloK>. iDial. rmtPDiplwil", torn.:!. 


OaaocrilHS to the Reader. 

Over llicir hcadit wltc bovorinp; a coiifiKcl <'r>ni[>:inv of |><-rtiir))ulliiii«, hope, 
feat, anm:r, uvuricc, ignorance, &ic. and a niiiltittidc of discniM^s hanging, 
wlikli ificy still pulled on their pates. Some were brawling, some ligtiiin^;, 
riding, ruiinin-;, tolxcile ambienlet, ca/lide liliganln, for Uiyvs, and vrittt-t, 
and «iir)i ir>oniciilar;f ihini:;* — llit-ir lowns uud provinces meer faclions, licti 
ugaiitM poor, (loor ^^niiiM rich, noblr* asTiinsl artificer*, they aj^ainil uuliln, 
mid BO the fi-st. In coiidiinioo, licroii<leniiR'd tJucn all lor mad-tnen, Ibub, 
ide«ts. a«es — O slullt ! ijua-nam hire cft amrslmf O fools! O mad' 
men! Iio oxcliiims, insanu ttudia, intaat ial'iircs, Str.. Mud En(k-iivoiir«I 
)iitid aitions! Kind! mad! mad t 'O ipclam insipicnt rt iiificrlHin ! M 
giddy-hcafled nge. lleraclitus the philosopher, out of a urnoiin mcdita- 
liun of mens lives, fell a weepini;. and with coutinual teiirs bewailed (lieir 
misery, madness, and folly. DtimucriluA, on the other »ide, biii^t out 
a Iniigliing; llieir whole hfe s(;utii<.-il to him so riiliculous : and he was so far 
ciirricd with this ironicn! piunion, thai tin- ciij/ens of Alidera look him to lie 
mati. and si-nl ihetrfpte eiiibiiKKodorx tu Hippocraivit tlm physretaii, that h« 
U'ould exertriie hiii xkill upon liim. But tin- nlory is ■ti-t down at larg« by 
IlipiHicnileH, in his Ivpistle to Damagctiis, whidi, bceauwr it t* not iropcr- 
linei.i lu this disroiir'e, I will insert verbatim nlmoKl, as it t« delivered by 
HiTniucmles himself, with all ihe circunisianees bcloitgiiig unto it. 

Whrn Hip[jocr<ites was come to Abdera, the people of the city came 
floi-knig about him, some weeping;, tioine iulreating uf him thai he would do 
hi* best. After some littJe rcpiiiit, he went to see Demoeritus, llie pwiple 
fallowing; him, whom h:- foond (n« before) in his Rardeu in the suburbi, ull 
nloue. ■ silting upon a ttonc under a plane trte, wilhoat hose tir shoti, wilh 
a book on hi* incrf, cullinif up several heatit, and batii^ athittttidg. The 
mulliiiide Mood gaxing round iil>oii), to mw tlie eci»giT>s». Htppoerulejt, 
after a little ph'ise, saluted him by hi» nnmc, whom he. ri--»uluted, Hsbamed thnt he could not call him likewise by his, or that he had forgot it. 
Htppo<'r«tes demanded of him what he was doing. He toht him thnt he 
was ' fmxie in cutting up several brauU, to Jiml out the cause ofmadiitft 
and melancholy. Hippocrati-s commended his work, admiring his happiness 
and leisure. And why, ijuoth Dt-niocrilu*. have not you thai leisure? Be- 
cause, replyed Mtppoerntet, domeslicid ailairs hitid<T, Deee«siuy to be done, 
forourseIve«,nvi<;hhours, fricndi — expences.disnufx, fniillieiand murtaliticv 
which htipTiPU — wife, elitldren, servants, and such binmcMc---", whieh drprive 
us of our time. At this Sjieeeh Demoeritus profusely Iniijhed (his friends, 
and the people standiui; by, wecpiuj; in the mean time, and lamenting his 
initdnexs.) Hippoerntes asktrd tlie reasou why be laughed. Me told him, 
at the vanilies and fuppcnes of the time, to see men so empty uf all virtuous 
actions, to hunt «> far after gold, haviug no end of ambition — to lake «uch 
inRnite patns for a litlh! glorv, in he faroured of men — to make such deep 
ntine* into tli« ennh for gohf. nnd many tiiui-n to find notliing, wilb Ion of 
their livn and fortunes — some to love dogs, others horsi-s, «ome to desire to 
be obeyird in many provinces, " and yet ihemselves will know no obrdience 
— * uonir to love tWir wives dearly at first, and. nfter n while, to fbrrokc 
anil hnle lliem — be^tting children, with much care and cost for their 
ctlucniion, yei, wlicn tliey ^row to uians estate, *<o despise, neglect, and 
lea>'e them nalied lo the worlds mercy- ' Do not these behaviours eicpress 
their intolerable folly f Wlien men live in jieiice, they covtt war. dt-tmio); 

*C«frillitt, -Sub mniHl pblaao h^^nTk'ni, »ohifi>. pUkrhln^ium. «aprr Ifpl'Ipm. YiOdc p«Ilidt,iii 
Ar nrK'nFaCicik. pruEuiaiA b&rl», lllinim tirjpcE (I'lulici* LolH'Eifi'in. ^t)i' Ivnm, muiiL, mrlUHhu- 

(Ulf|1iilj HUlnmLlJi. ■[ilv «!:]■-«. |-rif]<lcr<r<« m^v^ ii«in llcL ij]n'r^ ^kiTn*iji, «il fi^tlia )ilIJ«a)',,. nttliram 
ilkufiilirnv, ■ Ai-*[. L 1. U\ 4^". Jiiimi-rbll i-l %fl\\ t-ii vih«i«tid1'iin l\-^^^^ \-f^lt'\n* ', f-t Vt htaMiin 

S>n»iui ilUii. iii-v (]i<l |]i". ■ t'.vunt ■luniai, mux lutu rJicluuL ' f wiut tuuui. 
'Aymi- »Quiilhvcftbhiii4niA dvtvit 


Democrittu to the Reader. 23 

quietnems, ' deposing kings, and advancing otliers in tlieir sUad, murdering 
■oine men, to beget children of their wives. How many strange hitmoun 
are in men ! Wlien they are poor and needy, they seek riches ; and, when 
they ba«e them, they do not enjoy tbem, bjt hide them under ground, or 
else wastefully spend them. O wise Hippocrates ! I laugh at such things 
being done, but much more when no good comes of them, and when they 
are done to so ill purpose. There is no truth or justice found amongst 
tbem : for they daily plead one against another, 'the son against tlie father 
and tfae mother, brother against brother, kindred and friends of the same 
qtutUty ; and all this for riches, whereof, afler death, they cannot be pos- 
>e»ora. And yet — notwithstanding they will detame and kill one another, 
commit all unlawful actions, contemning God and men, friends and countrey 
— they make great account of many senseless things, esteeming them as a 
great part of their treasure, statues, pictures, and such like moveables, dear 
bought, and so cunningly wrought, *as nothing but speech wanteth in 
them; *" and yet thev hate living persons speaking to them. Others affect 
difficult things: if they dwell on firm land, they will remove to an island, 
thence to land again, being no way constant to their desires. They com- 
mend courage and strength in wars, and let themselves be conquered by 
lust and avarice. They are, in brief, as disordered in their minds, as Ther- 
sites was in his body. And now me thinks, O most worthy Hippocrates ! 
you should not reprehend my laughing, perceiving so many fooleries in men ; 
* for no man will mock his own folly, but that which he seeth in a second ; 
and BO they justly mock one another. The drunkard calls him a glutton, 
whom he knows to be sober. Many men love the sea, others husbandry : 
briefly, they cannot agree in their own trades and professions, much less in 
their lives and actions. 

When Hippocrates heard these words so readily uttered, without premedi- 
tation, to declare the worlds vanitv, full of ridiculous contrariety, he made 
answer, that necessity compelled men to many such actions, and divers 
wills ensuing from divine permission, that we miglit not be idle, being nothing 
is so odious to them as sloth and negligence. Besides, men cannot foresee 
future events, in the uncertainty of humane affairs : they would not so 
marry, if they could foretell the causes of their dislike and separation ; or 
parents, jf they knew tlie hour of their childrens death, su tenderly provide 
for them ; or an husbandman sow, if he thought there would be no in- 
crease ; or a merchant adventure to sea, if he foresaw shipwrack ; or be a 
magistrate, if presently to be deposed, Alas ! worthy Democritus, every 
man hopes the best; and to that end he doth it; and therefore no such 
cause, or ridiculous occasion of laughter. 

Democritus, hearing this poor excuse, laughed again aloud, perceiving he 
wholly mistook him, and did not well understand what he had said con- 
cerning perturbations, and tranquillity of the mind — insomuch, that, if men 
would govern their actions by discretion and providence, they would not 
declare themselves (ooh, as now tliey do ; and he should have no cause of 
laughter: but (quoth he) they swell in this life, as if ihey were immortal^ 
and demi-gods, for want of understanding. It were enough to make them 
wise, if they would but consider the mutability of this world, and how it 
wheels about, nothing being firm -and sure. He that is now above, to 
morrow is beneath ; he that sate on this si'le to day, to morrow is hurled on 
the other : and, not considering these matters, they fall into many inconve- 
niences and troubles, coveting things of no profit, iind thirsting after tbem, 

'B»^-* i-licuiir. 'ti'iioiMint. 'CiinTrn ['iii'iir^'-^ frulrrfl, ri^vs. |H<ri^4'tMi» Ti\]mltjr» I'l hiiiiiii-IILJi^ 
4<ml/ ■Cre'Lij i><|iildi-m, M\"f 'Uu-out '(f riiariii'tri^ LiilUii. ■'I'liiU niHiilLii'iln Jitn»hl; buijOJAta 
i^u bitKDi ; III' jwalilitli. 'Suun >lultilUm |>c»|>ii.-U ni'mo, H-il alter alleium (k-ridct. 


DemociUas to the Itettder. 

lumbling licnillong into many culaniilie^ — «» lliil, irini-n wiiulcl attempt uo 
more than w!)»t tlicy oiiii t>rar, tli«v kliuuld IcatI iruntculcd live*— iui<l, 
leaitiii^ to know thcmsFtvct, would liiuil their nnihition, ''they would per- 
ceive lfae[] that uaturf hath cnougli, without seeking »ucli superfluities, nitd 
tilt profitable thin^, which bring nothing with them but gnef and Dioles- 
tiition. An a fat body b more subjtct to diseases, so arc rich men to a1>< 
siirditicK aud rooleiiM, to mmiy easiialties and cross inconveniences, 
'riicri! an- many lliat late no l«ed what happeaeili to oiliers by bad «ni*<!r»«- 
lion. and iheri-roi'i- overthrow tlieimeli en in the same manner thr«ii]e;lt their 
own fault, not foresi'cine danger* munirc^t. Thwe art- tilings (O manr than 
mad I (]noth he) thai givi- mi' maUrr of laii^hlrt, by suircrine tlic^ pains of 
your inipioiies, as your nvaiicr, envy, malice, enormous villauioK, niutinics, 
unsatiable desir**, conspintcir*. and other incurable vices — besides your 
* disiiniulaiion audhypociisie, bearing deadly hatred one to tlic other, and yet 
ihadowin;; it with a good face— flying out into all (illhy lusts, and Iraosgret- 
»i(>n» iif all lawn, both of nature and civility, Slaiiy tilings, which tliey have 
left off, after » while they tall to again — liu*bandry, naii«atiun — auu leave 
iL^in, fickle mid unconstaiit an lliev are. Wheo tliey are young, ihey 
wontil be old, nnd old, youo):. 'Pniici:* eoinmi-nd u private life; private 
men itch after honour : a nnt^iitj'ati; <^onini<'nd:t a (|iiiet life ; it quiet man 
would be in his office, and obeyed bs he is : iind what is the cause of ull this, 
bm that they know not tlivmsclvij; f Some delight to destroy, "one to build, 
another to spoil one countrey to enrich another and himself. '' In all ibete 
things they ar« like children, in whom is nojudgt-ment or counsel, and resem- 
ble beaats, saving that beasts are better titan they , as beiii^; eontciitvd with na< 
ture. ' Wlien shall you see a lion bide jfold in the ground, or ahull eon tend for 
a better pasture ? When a boar i» thirsty, he drinks what will scrvi' htm, and 
no more : and, when liin belly ii full, he ceaxetli to eat : but men are im- 
moderate in both, lis in lii^l — they covet carnal copulation at Ket limej ; men 
always, ruinniing tliereby rhe health of their liodicK. And dolh it not 
deserve laughter, to see an nmi^roui; fool torment himself for a wench, weep, 
howl for a niis-shapcn slut, a dowdy sometinics, that might have his choice 
of the 6nest beauties? Is there any remedy for this in pbysick ? J [ do ana- 
tomize and cut up tliese poor beasts, to see these distempers, vanities, and 
follies : vet lueh proof were better made on mans liody, (if my kind nature 
irould eiiduri- it) ' who, from the hour of his birth, ii most miserable, weak, 
and Mckly ; when lie sucks, he is );uided by others, when he is grown great, 
practiseth itniiappinets, 'and is itnrdy, nnd, when old, a child again, and 
rcpenlclh him of his pn.-it life. .4nd here hcin^ iutei'rupted by one that 
brought books, he (ell to it again, that all were mail, enrvJi-M, stupid. To 
prove my former tfecches, look into courts, or private houses. '"Judges 
give judgement according to their own advantage, doing manifest wrong 
to poor innocents to please others. Nolarict alter sentences, and, for 
money, lose llietr deeds. Some make false nioneys : otiieis counterfeit 
false weight*. Sonte abuse their parents, yea corrupt their own nistcrt; 
oUicrs ntake loitK hbels aud pasi]uiU, defaming men of v^mhI life, and extol 
nicb a* are lewd and vicious. Some rob one, some another : " magistrates 

• DcBa^uoU Hall qiimaili ' cuuiiiuv hibfki |<1iu. Fa»]Kiirm mttnu niani, ct Qnitr l>lH)rnii Id> 
it|ilu. fHVtp, <|uiif1 Mttftiu : nbrf- ll»r. ' ^Mtniaan t«^LU.> iwr**! hiI> |ih<r1nrv Tiilprm..-Kl. t-un 
tnliH. po^UuH, ptfjlrr ^-Li^.jTuni.T, — ['I1rTifJt^l^l^1 men CtHr- '(f^i fll. Hvrriui» 111 nomci. ouua 
•Ibf •utti™ Sni ™iln'l"lrT>l. .ri wn ohjrwrni, mi C.)ol»iil'n »1'-Ji ' t.- I(r,7, ilHrjil. •JlScu. 

mutol iiuBiInU nutin^^*— rrijku.r* j>i7T»lrTU tlfuLiI au^rr Uumblhn -*tui rj(i> AiiriBhu* 

tltlim urniullit*. ^ Qui QuL'i hi ri'BJr infkariE.u, diOi"iuni.f)ullii. . 'i. .inr r>Jii'ni' |jir«ir 

<iii3*iiJt'! ■'^r hinujprt. *i>Iu]H- m. 'UinnfUit. iVt iq^iuiic lui'inn, Sruii m^'lo 

1*1 .1 " >. f^dlififein hummUiiit li>iv*1lw>niliini i*«i*1, (T.^ln- ■ -i^in ii>ii^ [ii..r1>u, f.^]. 'la 

il^ Ii.«. <t'"l>i^ 4l*rtr"i4( libAiuhllJ*. *C3i.rV4n. »l IKi^mliim ii'i\ f4^t, mniiim 

Ju • Tu |,r«lma> anifiiuiD Uln H,*i ■ llilcClulil Alfxuvbi ui CuHiu-.— Uuniut 

tarM- jitcirx. ijtii^ifit,,, f^L.|«]hr, C>}iTi*ii. 


Democritut to the Reader. 25 

make l&ws againat thieves, and are (lie veriest thieves tiiemselves. Some 
kill themKlves, others despair. Dot obtaining their desires. Some dance, 
sing, laugh, feast, and banquet, whitest others sigh, languish, mourn, and 
lament, having neither meat, drink, nor clothes. "Some prank up their 
bodies, and have their minds lull of execrable vices. Sume trot about, ■'to 
bear false witness, and say any thing for money '■ and though Judges know of 
it, yet for a bribe they wink at it, and suffer false contracts to prevail against 
eqnity. Women are all day a dressing, to pleasure other men abroad, and 
eo like sluts at home, not caring to please their own husbands, whom they 
uiould. Seeing men are so tickle, so sottish, so intemperate, why should 
not I laugh at those, to whom "* folly seems wisdom, will not be cured, and 
perceive it not? 

It grew late : Hippocrates left him ; and no sooner was he come away, 
but all the citizens came about Rocking, to know how he liked him. He 
told them in brief, that, notwithstanding those small neglects of his attire, 
body, diet, 'the world had not a wiser, a more learned, a more honest man ; 
and they were much deceived, to say that he was mad. 

Thus Democritus esteemed of the world in his time; and this was the 
caase of his laughter: and good cause he had. 

*OUin jure quLdFin, duih^ plus. DcmoFrltp, ridp. 

Quia ridefl T vita hn- auni; ma^ ridiculh e»t. 
D^tnocrltiiBLliU wplltnlwighuf uld : 

Oood cauH' he had, but now much more : 
Tbii Ufcof oun iB mare TLdicuJuua 

Thbji thut itl bin, orlongbelorp. 

Never so much cause of laughter, as now ; never so many fools and mad 
men. Tis not one 'Democritus will serve lum to laugh in these days: 
we have now need of a Democrilut to laugh at Democritus, one jester to 
flout at another, one fool to flear at another — a great Stentorian Democritus, 
as big as that Rhodian Colossus; for now, as "Salisburiensis said in his 
time, lolui mundus histrionem agit — the whole world playes the fool : we 
have a new theatre, a new scene, a new comedy of crrours, a new company 
uf personate actors : Volupia sacree (as Calcagninus wittily feigns in his 
Apologues) are celebrated all the world over, 'where all the actors were mad 
men and fools, and every hour changed habits, or took that which came 
next. He that was a mariner to day, is an apothecary to morrow, a smith 
one while, a philosopher another, in his Volupia /udis — a king now with 
bis crown, robes, scepter, attendants, by and by drove a loaded asse before 
him hke a carter, &c. If Democritus were alive now, he should see 
strange alterations, a new company of counterfeit vizards, whiflers, Cumane 
asses, maskers, mummers, painted ptippets, outsides, phantastick shadows, 
guts, monsters, giddy-heads, bulter-flies -. and so many of them are indeed 
("if all be true that I have read); for, when Jupiter and Junos wedding 
was solemnized of old, the gods were all invited to the feast, and many 
noble men besides: amongst the rest came Chrysalus, a Persian prince, 
bravely attended, rich in golden attires, in gay robes, with a majestical pre- 
sence, but otherwise an asse. The gods, seeing him come In such pomp 
and state, rose up to give him place, ex hahitu hominem mitientes : 'but 

• Vullui mj^nn nira; m«t!n» animi inrima. Am. MaripL rllortpnrti tp" mi; vii duo iprba 
»iDr ramdiiclo pri^rprunlnr: I'l, qimmi'iH mliMinim' bomineH nil vpTltalrm dircndam jnviErnhir. prjc- 
rare Eami'n Hon diiblt'lnC; nt i-x iIiTpm U^ntibM,^ vi\ uiun vi-ruin dii'iil. Cjiiv. in 8. Ji*h. Hprm, U 
^Sapipntiam iDriaDiam r?isp dii'iinl- 'Hiquidrm »q|iLpnUH- "ii'P ailmiratinnr mf cr(kiii|i^pvil ; OTIi-lidl 
Mpi^Dti^nizDUtn, fjiii ttAlvirpi p<>ti^l uiudph bominrt redilt n\ * E. (!rfl'<-, i'J'lK- ' Fliir*^ !>*■- 
nucTiti nun*- n"n aurtlciunK Opuj. Ilt'm^irTiUi, qui l>«TmNpriliim ridi-al, Erajj. ^fiiriEi. " l'»)3'<'nil. 
Jib. ^ i-ap. 8. p Pvlrim. 'Vbi cjnmi^'' di-liraJtanl. {imiLi'.i in^;ini» ^i-. boiUpnquU, 4t4<^ (ibilujiuphuh ^ 
htrflip JnbpT. rnw pbBnnripnp'..ld ; hiv ln{>do n'urnl BE''biit mitlhi "aldliljo, lir^H, of soi'hiro onjaTu*. 
aiiDc Tiliamipliiscpnfiruln. k.><iniiin i^iileil'irLuin imit'^lil. • <'bI*-«j^iu>h. A\"<\. riirj^jilunp i-a'Jpri*, 
auro *li»'pn. manicaro pnpiit pt liura ruKs^ili-liif-*. li'MS ibiiMi|iiln I'l llU^lil^^ puh^iiii. if. Miitfnf> fwiitu 
TnrTfvJipiiti ab'ur^uiit Uli. &i\ ^S<-d lnhniiiiix jpvilHli-lu Jnjiirpr pf'f>Mictc'n«. al im Jiii'liiil) p«Iii 
hvmbiiio. Kc proiiriii^4iie vp?iLi-i ilia niaiiipata in alas vp^^a P9I ; pI mnrlaLi-a indo ChiyHdUifp^ vucant 
buju^modi liomibm. 


DemocritHS to ihe Reader. 

Jupiter, pereeivinic wliat he was — a li[:hl, phanla»tick, idle fellow — turned 
bint bimI }ii« proud fotlowent intu butter-nici : nnd no ihi-y coiillniie atill, 
<for ouitlit I know to the cnntrdry), roving about in picdToats, ani are 
called Olirytaliilcs by the wi*cr sort of men — that is. golden out^des,.. 
drunc«, Dies, and things of iio worth. Multitudes of such, &c. 

-ull^qut' in*cnLrf 

Klultminrui, irmphiuibM pnidiijua. 

Maiiy addition*, much inircajie of iimduess, lolly, vanity, should Democrituft 
oliMrw, were hi- now lo tnivcl, or could get leave of Fluto to come «» 
fuiliion.'', {an Clntron did in I.iid^tn) to visit our cities of Morooia Pia, and 
Moroiiia I'elix — sure I think he would break the riui of liiii belly wilh . 

i9i(urrliD lorru. ridnct OtOUXTlliu. MV. tu. 

A latvrical RomaD, in his time, ibought all vice, folly, und madoeM, were 
all at full sea. 

•Omnfln prrciplil • (ll'im •inii 

■Jowphus the liistorian taxeth hi» coiinlrcymun Jew» for hriij^ging of 
tlwir vices, publisliiui; their follies, and that th<-y did conU'iid nmong^t thcm- 
Rvlves, who sIioDld be nioxt notorious iii vilbnica: but we How higher in 
iiiadoevs, far bevoud ilitm, 

aud the latter end (you know, nho^c orucle it is) is like la be worst. Tisj 
not to be denied ; the world altera everyday. Raiint urhcu. reyna Imns-i 
fenmtur, ^c. fariant'ir habitus, legts iHoatJonfur, as ' Polrareh «b»crve» — I 
we change language, habits, taws, custom*, mnnncn, but not vices, notj 
diM-Jue*, not the symplonuof fully and miulitefs; they are »lill the same. 
Aud, a» a river (we see) keeps tlie like name and place, but not water, and 
yet ever runs, 

onr times and person* ullvr, vice* art- tin- same, and ever will itc. Look how 
ni^hlitigaU xiutg of old, cocks crowed, kinii lowed, sheep bleated, sparrows 
chirped, dog» barked ; «o ihey do Mill : we kei-p our madness still, play the 
liiols srill, nee dnmjimtut Oretlea : we are of the same hnnii'iirs and inclina- 
tions as our predecessors wen: ; you shall lind us all alike, much at one, we 
und our soot, 

KlniU ulmnim. tl qiilnjurvnlui oli till, ; 

and so shall our posterity continue lo the litsL Bui. to spi-ak of timea 

If Dcmncrilu* were alive now, and should hut see the superttition of our 
age, our 'rt'ltgioirs rn-idnesB, na 'Metcmn c-nlls it, rrlWiosnia ias'tuiam — so 
many profcsicd Cliiistians, yet so lew imitators of riinsl, «o much talk of 
religion, so much science, so liltio conscience, so much knowledge, so many 
preachers, an. little practice — such variety of sects, such have and hold of , 
ull aides, 

■— — obTia ilKiit* ■Ixni, kc. — 

such absurd nnd ridiculous traditions aud ecrumunicj^— if lie should meet a 
"Capoitchiu, n I-'ranciscan. a pharisaicul Jesuile, a man-serpent, a share-i 
ciu«-ned monk in his robe*, a begging frier, of see their three-crowned] 
Kovcraigu lord ihc (lope, poOT Peter's sucreswur, ttrrut strt^mitt Dei. lo 
dirjMisc kings with his foot, to tread on cniperours necks, make tliem. bare- 
fool and barc-lrgg'd at bis gates, hold liis bridle and stirrup, d:c. (O that 

iniin*i»'*.-'»Tftni,-, ' f«jur *4i. ^tloi- ■ !.*<■ :^ RjiiM. K 'li\,T. *Sii^r,rii..* «■! 

j*if*uii> rrr»r. ' nirt(-, , Luczl *P*l]ii-f Aujr'v. (£4 D>Lc ol Jv>n»tf. gduifl 


Peler and Paul 

Demoeritu* to the Reader. 


wren alive lo *ce Uiii!) — if Kc should otncrvi: ■ 'prince 
iTccfi Ml devoutly to kin his toe, miil tlwwc rolcnp catdiDitl*, pool parish 
pticsla of old, now princilS I'orapaJiionB — what would kc nay ? Calum ipium 
fflitttr sla/litid. Jliwl lie aivt some of our devout pil(;rims goiiii; baie-lbot 
to Jcn)v«km. our lady of Lanrctto, Home, Si. la,^o, S. Ttiomaii shrine, to 
ctci^p to those coanterfeit and majj^l-eaion reliqucH — had be bv^ii present 
at a mauc, aod »e«u bulIi kiasioir uf paxe*. crurlfixv*. «rin^, duckiu^, 
their jMavcral attirM aiid certmoiiies, pioiuits i>r Quints, JiiidulK<^ncia, par* 
tlom, vitcil*, faiilinj^, feuitlK, crOMin^c, kiioirkitig, kneeling at Ave Mariet, 
bril*. with many xurh 

praytDf; in )ribberish, and mutnbliiig of bpnd»-— had he lieard ao old woman 
say her prayen in Latine, ihcir spriDkliD^; of holy water, and goiu^; a pn>- 

id fjLinaoTvu vtillla. orucn. ]culv|uc culU. ttc^} 

ihcir brcviariM, bidU, halluwird bcndx, exorcisms, pictiirus. curious crosaes, 
bbtcs, and babl«» — had he read the Golden Legend, the Turks Alcoran, or 
3vn Talmud, the Itabbiiis Conimentt, wlial would he hare thought ? How 
4oU tbou think he might have bnn aflccted ? Had lie more particularly 
examined a Jc!iuite<i lite amon)^t the rest, he should Lnve stsen au liypoeritv 
prufiirss piiveity, 'and yet posaess more guods and Itinda ihun luauy princes. 
(o bare infinite treasure* and rvveuuus— leaeb oUiCm to fust, and play ihc 
Illuilons tbcnuelves; like watermen, thai ruwe one wuy and lur>k itiiotJK^r^ — - 
"nxw virginity, talk of holimws, and yet indt<Hl a n<it»rinii!i hnwd, und 
hoMU* itirnicator, Uucivum prcus, a very toal — monk!' by prnfiwion," such 
m givf over the world, and the vanities of il, and yet a Machiavellian rout 
"islerested in all matters of »tate— holy men, peaee- makers, and yet com- 
posed of envy, lost, ambition, hatred and malice, lite-brands. wMta patria 
pettU. mitours, assasunales — hac r/ur ail uttra; and this is lo superero- 
gatt. and luerit heaven for tlieinsehts and other* I Had lie seen, on ibe 
ftd'erse sid«. suai« of our uit-e and curious sL-hiMuaticks, in another ektreaui, 
abltor all ceremuuies, and rather lose titeii livnt and livings, than do or admit 
any thing papists have fonnerly used, thou^ch in tiling indiflerenl (they 
alone are Uic tnic ehnrch, tal Irrrtr, cum tint omnium insuhitiimi) — for- 
malists, out of fear and hnse Raltcry, like «o iniiny wrather-cocks, turn 
roumi— a rout of tcmporif«re, ready to embrace and mnintiiiu all ihnt is or 
shall be proposed, in hope of preferment — another t^picnrean company, 
l}iii;^ at lurch as so many vultures, watching for a prey of church goods, 
and ready to riae by the down-^ll of any — as rLucian said in like case, 
what dosl tbou think Denicciilus would have done, had he heeu a spcctatour 
of these tbii^»— or, bad lie but obaerved the cduimon people follow like so 
nany sheep one of tlw^ir fellows drawn by tlie bonis over a };ap, »ome for 
Mai, aoinc fur fear, ouo tc ciimqac rapil (RinjiMtiis, lo eredtl ail, examine 
notliio^, and yet rrudy lo dye before ihry will abjure any of tliose reremo- 
nicB, Uy wbiidi they have l>i:cn accustomed — others out uf liyiHicrisie frv- 
(picnt sermons, knock their breasts, tuiD up ihcir eye>, pretend *cal, desin; 

Hs dlvlMltn ■uij*. ut nriro Fi'tIi, '! 
<<ftBM iUf«^ dr evrbini iii<lij[>'r mem,. • 
VBIoiia, hiirka, wriEae^* 4-Hi:TilrnE*. r'vrii 

iMiiiiniiiii|iii I i.Ti. h,.iiii)<j,, I 

Tlrt» «a«i . «ul«l« n:i .'"'U 

* tSt i|uii^ ]li£m1pii H 1'^ - 1 : p ' I " . ' 

•»Tlm. .L U.—l'til ll^', .fill, I ■ 

Hfii*uu, hin;;» •■Jiplui ...-■, 1, 1. 1. . . . 
I'liBt UtwMnUu*^ ti bur^^«iifvi4i:L<f i- 

»mtiiiiitl. Invrnin Ism iadrrui* hoMitb, un liulijtnt ilhrila. 

hJiJutbihitlbiii, ii-li«, BrilulliiiiiriiiB. Jfjiin^la, ,'irE**'lj|it« vti^-iliii^ 
\itiiitr tiniiilU'ri*. ini««l<^ I'ur^ilufil*. ujlu i«, l'n-\ uhk<, ^^niha, 

rjltElrlt-, rJllrlTmx.i-'nii'llnu, Hu^plt, rirn'lK. 11luEllf,itll, tll'UYi. 

I, s.-. ItuMn, flc' julii, P.iol. tTh. Nxun. 'Iluni 

\ii iiinttTLJUL ,;>«1lt> lai« i^i'idtJ-ib* miaia Ubnruip 41ij;i;b, Atui>l^^ 

■ '■r», i» I.'EllNili^'']uii04UktHiI UlK>n' liur»iini(N, AjtipV'- 

. --r L Oarir lEjrTrii-u phul iw viUivnl lir ^i^ inff<, ■ [li-- 

. . IJLEL, rurLa IClJIUJULA, DuiWuL tUlLld ti^'i >iiii?LUI fu- 



Hemocritus to the Jtettifer, 

refotmittion, aii<l yet prufc»e*l uxnrer*, gripere, monitors of niea, liarpiec, 
dcviln, in tJicir lire*, lu i-Kpreu oolliiiig 1cm ^ 

Whiit wgiild 111- liuvu raid, In me., hear, utid read no many bloody battel*, 
so many iliKiiKiinds Main at once, surli slrt-nms of Mood nbic to turn mills, 
uniiii ob jiii.tiim fiinnsifue. or to nmkp sport for princes, wiihout any just 
cause, V't"" '''^'" /'f/f' (sailh Austin) prtcedeniy, some wench, or $uck like 
toy, or out of dfnire of dtttmnetrtHg, fat't'tjtury, malice, reveiti/e. Jolly, 
nuuinm. (^oudly oauties all, oli tfutit unii:musorbii litllis el ctrdilrus miaceii- 
lar) wliilt!>l sUilcsiiieii lliemsieJurs in tlie ini-atj time art- Sefum ul liomp, 
pam[>ered witli all delights and pli-iiaurt-n, tuki? ihi-ir eiuii-, and foHnw their 
tusl, not Conxidirrici^ whiit inlolcrahli: iniwry poor Konldien endure, their 
oftrn wduiidt, hunger, (hint, &c. f The lament-iblc cari-i, torments, 
calamities and opprcMionf, thai accompany iiit'h proceedings, they feel not, 
take no notice of it. So wars arv bfgun, by the f>er»tuation «/ deliauclierl, 
hair-hrained, poor, dmniute, hungry raplai7is,paraiilital/av.'ners,iin(/uiel 
kol-tptiTt, resllttn inniiialitrn, greiii htadt, to saliifie one mans pricate 
tplteu, lufl, amhiliuii, avarice, ire. tales rapvint tctlerata in pralia cuimiip. 
Plot hitminum, projier men, well propDrtioneil, carefully brotiglil uii, able 
both in body unil mmd, sound, led like ao many 'beuil^ to tlie slaugliler in 
tlic flower of llii-ir v(-an, pride, and liill xircn^'lh. witlmnt ull remnrxc and 
pittr, Mcriticed to I'liito, killed Hp n* so muoy sheep, for di-vjU food, 
4O000 at once. At once, said I * — that were tolerable : hut these wars 
last alwaycs : and for many ages, oothin;; so tiimilinr ns ihit hacking and 
hewing, iiiassacies, murders, desolations — 

they earc not what mixt-hicf ibey procure, m tlmt they may enilch Ibem- 
Kelves for the present ; they will so loni; blow the <'oals of coiiieulion, till all 
the world be consumed with fiiv. Tin: 'Meg;c of Troy lusted ten year*, 
tiehl months: there died 870000 Orceinns, 670000 Trojans : at the taking 
of the city, nnd aflcJ", were slain 276000 men, women, and children, of all 
sorts. Ctesar killed u million, Mahomet the 'Second Turk 31)0000 perrons: 
Sieinius Deutatiis fought in an hundred battels ; eight timei in single com- 
bat he overcame, had forty wounds before, was rewarded wiili 140 crown*, 
triumphed niuc tinies for hi:* (rood serviee. M. Sergius had 32 wounds ; 
Scteva the cenlurion. I know not how luanv ; e»ery nation hath their 
Hectors, Scipios, Cicnar* and AUxandffs. riur " Edward the Fourth wa* 
in '16 InitllM afoot : nnd, :ts ihey do nil, lie clorici in it : 'tis related to his 
honour. At the siege of IlierusaleiTi, I lOOtiOO diinl with sword an<l (amine. 
At the battel of Cannns, 700O0 me^n were slain, "as Polybius records, and 
as maoy nt Baltic Abbve with ns : nnd 'tis no news to fi^hl from sun to 
sun, ks llier did, as ConsUnlinc and l.icinins, &e. At the scigc of Ortend, 
(the devils academy) a poor town in respect, a small fort, but a great grave, 
120000 men lost their lires, besides whole towns, dorpcs, and hospitals, full 
oT maimeil tuuldiers. There were engines, fire-works, and whatsoever the 
devil could invent to do muchief, witli 2.500000 iron bullets shot of 40 
pounds weiglit, tlir>M! or four millionii of p>ld consumed. * Who (saitli 
mine author} nan he xu^eirntli/ amaied at ihfir Jtinty heart*, ahstinaci/, 
fHrg, blindHtit, K'Ai, viilhotil any hkriyhoott nf good sHCCrXf, hazard poor 
taulditrt, and Uojf thrm vnlhout pitly to tht ttaughtrr, which mayjuttlg be 
tallfd lie raijr o/Jurioii* beoilt, that run trilhout rtason upon their own 
dtatkt ^ '<]«i* mall* <jtmnt,ijua Puria, '/nttpeStit. fir. whnt pUguc. wlial 

tOb infill.* ihUi^uiiiin litu^ikt uli prprn-pfum l^-vuin, nh irktcrrr.iiI»Ai tnnl^nmtftirt. tp) nitmi i* ^talillii 
iiAlitfn. *'< ' m^lilu^^ qiichl rlljinjn *U\rtntiWtA\, UfiMoni^ivnlli. Ikr, * UvUijid rvnp jpldfn' It^'lluiiiufn 
*!".*) Muf.<4, Vt-y, iili, V. ' MiiTiMP*. t'u*ini»:. I, \ r. .1. K l>ir^ ('prciu ' Ji>vlu«, *ti. ciu*. 
-Comim-u^ . L*K ^ * ttiiL oTlht- 8trfp <»rO«1i-»il. r.,t. va. ' Krfttinu« <li^ )»<]!„, \^\ plu-kJuni 
lUuilMiiauil brarruli>ulw niiLniu Ikiu trnuA nv^ritii itiinutiiJm nim4 pvmulrm- 

Democritut to the Reader. 29 

Fury, brou^t so devillish, bo bruitish a thing as war first into mena 
minds ? Who made so sofl and peaceable a creature, born to love, mercy, 
meeLneM, so to rave, rage like beasts, and run on to their own destruction ? 
bow may Nature expostulate with mankind. Ego te diviuum animal Jinxi, 
^c. I made thee an harmless, quiet, a diviae creature I how may God 
expostulate, and all good men ! yet, horum facta (as 'one condoles) tan- 
tum admirantur, el heroum numero kabent : these are the brave spirits, the 
gallants of the world, these admired alone, triumph alone, have statues, 
crowns, pyramids, obelisks to their eterniil fame, that immortal genius 
attends on them : hac itur ad astra. When Rhodes was besieged, 'fossa 
urbia cattaveribut replete gunt, the ditches were full of dead carcases ; and 
(as when the said Solyman great Turk beieagred Vienna) they lay level 
with the top of the walls. This they make a sport of, and will do it to 
their friends and confederates, against oaths, vows, promises, by treachery 
or otherwise — 

leagues and laws of arms, (*'aiUnt leges inter arma : for their advantage, 
omnia jura, divirta, humana, yrocuhata pleramque sunt) Gods and mens 
laws, are trampled under foot ; the sword alone determines all ; to satisfie 
their lust and spleen, they care not what they attempt, say, or do : 

■ IU« Ode*, probiOuniur, viri» qui cutrt BKiuuntur. 

Nothing so common as to have ''father fight against the son, brother 
against brother, kintntan agaiTist kinsman, kingdom against kingdom, pro- 
rinee againit province. Christians against Christians, a quibut nee unquam 
cogitations fuerunt lasi, of whom they never had offence in thought, word, 
or deed. Infinite treasures consumed, towns burned, flourishing cities 
sacked and ruinated — quoiique animus meminisse horret, goodly countries 
depopulated and tefi desolate, old inhabitants e?cpelled, trade and trafHck 
decayed, maids defloured, 

ViTirLnf^n nondum thalomia jug4tic. 
£t i!<jmin nundum pijsi1i?i pphvlii ; 

chast matrons cry ont with Andromache, ' Concubilum max cogar pati ejvs, 
qui intfremit Hectorem, they shiill be compelled peradveiilure to lye with 
them that erst killed their husbands — to see rich, poor, sick, sound, lords, 
servants, eodem onines incommorlo mactati, consumed all or maimed, &c. et 
ijuidquid gatidens scelere nuimus au/lel , el perversa mf.ns, saith Cyprian, 
and whatsoever torment, misery, mischief, hell it self, the devil, ^fury and 
rage can invent to their own mine and destruction : so abominable a thing 
'a war, as Gerbelius concludes — adco fmda et abominanda res est helium, 
ex quo hominum cades, vaslationes, ^c. — the scourge of God, cause, effect, 
fruit and punishment of sin, and not tonsara humani generis, as Tertullian 
calls it, but ruina. Had Democritus been present at the late civil wars in 
France, those abominable wars, 

I bellaque malribiui <leU-sUt>) 

^where, in less than ten years, ten hundred thousand men were consumed, 
saith Collignius, 20 thousand churches overthrown, nay the whole kingdom 
subverted (as 'Richard Dinoth adds) so many myriades of the commons 
were butchered up, with sword, famine, war, tanto odio utrinque, ut barbari 
ad abhorrendam lanienam obstupescerenl, with such feral hatred, the world 

T Rich. Dinoth. pnebL B'lli tit'M^ Ual. iJii'loi. -Dolua, ujwrllu, [njuitlli*. pro|iria bFllD- 
rmn DPfutJL Tertu^ ^TuUy. ' Ijicui. ' Pkter 3n Slium, Affinin in Bfllnrin. ■micuM in imicuin. 
tt R^n puni rp^onf. Tef:num reunu rolliditiir, pupuiUB populo, m mutuotu ipemick-m, i^ellutruni 
iutar saQgiiinolfTirr rurntium. 'Libknii dpcUm. 'Ira enim pl furur BrlfunE cunbultomi. &v. 
dnuentp* tmattiutea «unl. aGenum qiiui bellua, ct ml uniniji Bri-l<'ra Turur imminquji. ^ t^Hllo- 
fiim drtie* c«ntum mjllia ttrlcli^riint. co-leHuruml^millU rundumcnlia rxciu. 'BpIlL civilid Oa]. 
]. I. hnr frnlL beJJo et fvdiliu* omnU ivpleverunt, «t rrRniim ampliiHiiiiuin A fuDdimCTxtu |iene evfr- 
tminl : pleUi tol myiiacln gladiu, brllg, ftae miwnbilitei pmrcunt. 


DemwrUus to the Reader. 

TtM »maic(l at ii— or at our laic Pliaf«alian Hclcl» in llic Iniic of Flciiry iFif 
Sixih, bulwixt ibe liou»e» of Laii<!ailef and York, an liunilrtil tliniitumtl men 
slain. Joue wiUes, '■another, ten thoiiwnJ f.t!tiilie-s wik loaieA out, that no 
Juan can bat mitTrel, (ii»ilh (^luiaeut,) at that barbarous ijitmaniitt/ , feral 
martoes*, romniilttd brlicixl msn of tkr name tialinn. tanjti/tge, and religion. 
'Quit foror, O eivctf tt'Ay rfo llie firnfUri xo fiirmnily nii/c? itaitli tlic: 
prnphft Daviil, Vv*\. 2. 1. Uui. «c may a»k, wiiy do llit- (Ibmliajts lo 
ftiriouBly toge i J 

*-irmii iriilufit. ijuuv^ povqal. m^ttuili|t)P jutvnliu ! H 

Unlit for ([wililp^ imich lesn lur os, so to tyranutze, as ifie Spaninnls in the 
Wilt Intliii, thut killi!<l up in 42 yean (if ite may believe " Baitbulonioi'us a 
Cam tlii'ir nwii bi^liop) I -2 million* of nicii, with Mupt^ocl an<l (ixqulEJie lur- 
meiits; Dritiicr iliimid I lye (said he) if 1 taid /JU millions. I omit tiimcr 
French maMacrc*. Sialiiin cvcnfioiiK*, "(In- diikc of Alva'i tynitiniex, oor 
fCUD-powdrr machiniiiiung, and tlint fourth Fury (un ''one colU it), 
Spanish inquisition, which quite obscures ihoso ten pcrencutioDii 

^^"■tVT-lt tiitciHiuvimpiiiiiDiibr. 

Is not tliU ' tnnnitutfuriasut:, a mad world, as he terms it. innanum betlum f 
■rv not dic^c^mad men, as *Scali);er cuncludea. qni in pralio. arrrM morte, 
iiuanitt (vir mcmpriam pro perpetuo teste relini/iiuitl pi>steTila/i — wiiich 
leave so fri:<jiipnl hnttcU, as perpetual nieninrialt of tlntir madness to all su<'- 
ccdin^ age*? Would this, think you, hnvr enforced our Demucritu* to 
taiiKhtcr. or rather made him t»ni bis tunc, alter his tone, and wi^p willi 
' Heraclitiis, or rather howl, "loar, and tear bis hair, in commt»eraiion — 
aland ama/ed ; or as the poets fait^, tliat N'iol>e was for grief quite *tiipi- 
fied, and turnin] to a itone ? 1 have not yet said ihe wurst. That whicJi ia 
more ubiiitd and • niad^n their tiimulis. seditions, civil and t)n|u!it wurv, 
' qaoti tfultc tutdpitur, impie ifcritur, miaere finiUir — such warn, I mean ; 
for tdl nte not to tir (.-omli-miied. a* liii)<(e pbaiitailieiil Ai>aliit{i|ir.U vainly 
conceive. Uiii Christian tacticks ure, all out, as mivM.try a» the Itomau 
(iciVx, or Grecian phalanx. To be a soiiklier is a miiBl noble and hunouc>iJ| 
able profei^ion, (as ihe world is) not to be sparcil. Tlury ure our Im-si wallf^^ 
and bidwarks; and I do therefore acknowledge that of 'Tiilly to be most 
Inie, All it'ir eivil affairt, all our studiet, all our phaiUng, tiulutlry, an^ 
commendation, lies timler the protection of warlike vtrlutt ; and, whenf 
ever there in any luspieian <>f tumult, aUonrarIt reuse; wars are nid 
bclioveriil ; et hrllalorrt agriivlU civitali tuat tUilioreit, as > Tyrlti* dercn<U.| 
and valour is mueh lo be eommtrnded in a wiJie man : but ttiey mistake' 
tnost part ; anferre, trucidare, raperc, fulfill aoniniltut virtuUm oocaat, iff, 
('Twa»(falgncusohse.rvjlion in Tacitus) they term theft, murder, and ra- 
pine, vertue, by a wron^ name : i-npcs, sl.iu^^bters, massacrcn, Sic. jocas tt 
Indus, are pretiv pnttimes, as Ludovicus Vires notc.t. • Tkry commantg 
call the most hair-braia bltfKl-sacheri. tlrontjest thievi, the inoti ifti/terate 
viJlaiiit, trechrruns royues, iiihumaiif mardfrers, rash, cruel and dlssalate 
caitiffs, co'iragioas and graermis sptrilt, herincut and ii'orlhtf captains, 
'brave men al arms, valiant and tenawned souldiers, — posMssed tcilh a 
brute persu'tatait of fahe honour, a.i Poiitus Huler lu his Bur^uadian his- 

■ PonL Hulrnu. ■ Ciimiwin. Ci nollu* mm nntwlui el iilmlK'nii rruitpltUlmi. rl bartniwn 
tmanUm. qnf inwr hnniliincHlpni tuhm^lu nittu*. rju^tii^n hn^f. han^inb, rcliuloiilt. i-k.««»Ii 
luf. 'Liicfk. ~ Vlrib *>lbhul> 'kfCii^co, An rjr iiltnvu- *Riivl U'lPrao, vf im ^lupf 
mirlllnL • ilr,ii»iu*, Acnnriw^ 'Vinr, Ui-ot^ 'Jm^riiiii* OaHi»brl(l»'m. iSeK, U^ntlii* fu. 
rliiana. liu/clpUu lilirl. •CttfnrtTHl. &h KTm. 4. * KWl Itfrnrltlu*. «ii rlilfAl t>i'in4x:r,EMB 
• Cut* lev** lia^iimtuT, Inmt** atuirrnt, ■ Arm* wni-B^i'ipiw. iif* *M niUonli la atmi*. "Br 
nuf. * 1^n> Wiim4. Oinnr* urt^nr rH. oninJn •^iiilia. iiinuJn fipn«Au I*va «i inUuiOik Ui*t 
luU'U*! I'mldliibfllka virniil>^ H. •rmui uii-ir liiriv|iuii >>u)>irrlii nunullua. srlni illir->. miuw mo. 
tlrpanml. ttU-t- la •Cr-^4)t.-li*>iniL^> tvi L,*iino«qoe Ulrvno*. rnrtlMlinm [iTvi-nfTu1«'ivt. fi<kplit. 
■Irani •liir*«, hutipM linili |H-T><iul>in<' 'Icniiiu. •ftibuiu IIchhil (1uII>>.> omfiii k* ■[■■■• Vita 
|i|iKn. ut'onflajaivi. niqimivitr ^ mv uUcml^iv puUnl tklHP, i|iia Bua ftnuirirnl uuuii. 



Deuutcriiia to Ike iituder. 


yuy fomplains: by means of which, it coiaos to ptux tliat daily sq many 
toniataiKa offer tbcmKlTe*, iQaviDg their sweet wivu, cKildreo, friends, — Kir 
•ixpence (if ibey can get it) a day, pnwtituic their livnand limlM, desire to 
enter upon breadie*. lye Beataad, perdue, i^ive tite tirst onftel. stand in the 
furt-froutof the buiel, ntarcbin^ bravely on, with a cheerful noise of dniinx 
wmI irumjietd, such vi|;aur and alaiTity, so uiaoy banuert Htrt-aniiiif; in llic 
ayr, ^litlcrint; armours, iitotiotu »f |ilume«, woods of pikun, iinil twordt, 
vuriclv uf culuurs, oiHt aiid ma^iiifH'i-iHV, a» if ibi^v went in triumjjli, iiww 
vti'tom, lolhi-Ciipilol, nud nilh file b }ionij>, ax when Lhtriui iirmy niiirchod to 
■Hct Alcxniider nt Imuh. Void of nil fear, thry run into eminent ilHiwer*, 
■canons tnoulb», &c. nt auliteribiit tvujerram kiMli«i» hrbeleal, saitli ' Bar- 
letius, to gel n name of Talour, honour and appliiuse, which lasts itot iiei- 
^r ; for it is but a in«re flash, this fame, and, like a rose, infra tliem anum 
titin^tiHttT, 'lis ^ooe in an infttanl. Of 1^000 proletaries slain in a battel, 
wa(C« liiU>en are recorded in hbtory, or one alone, the geuorJ perhaps : 
and, alW a while, liis and tbcir names are likewise bloltcrd out; llic whole 
battel it Srif in forgotten. Those Grecian orutors, tummii ri im/rnii r.t cUf 
ynrnfid-, si:l (Mil tli<' renowned overthrows at Thermiipyltt, Salantiae, Mara- 
ikoM, MyeaU, Mantiitfa, CbinTonra, Ptalta : the Komiin» record tlieir 
htUiel at Cnnnas, and Pluirulian ticldi; but tlicy do but record ; and we 
■carce hear of them. And yet thi» supposed honour, poptdar applause, de- 
MM oTitninortahly by tbt4 means, pride aitd raia-glory, spurs ihem on many 
limes rashly and unadvisedly to make away themselves and multitudes of 
othen. Aleiaiider uas soriy, because there weie no more worlds for him to 
cooquer : Ik i» admiied by some for it : snimmu rox vidtlur, rl rtgia : 
'twa« spoken like a prince : liut (as wise ' Seneca censures him) 'twa« iwc 
ttiquitfima Kt itnllittima : 'twas sjxiken like a bedlam fool ; and thnt son- 
Iroce whii-li the s-ime *" Seneca appr»prtat<-s to In* fHtlier Philip nnd him, I 
Jj to them all — Uoti minorcs fnrre prslrs morfaliutn i/tiam inutulnlio, 
nam ctmJiayTalio,<iitibus, Jrc. they did as much niiscliief to mortal men, as 
re and water, those mercik-M clement* when ihcy ras^. 'Which is yet 
lore to be lamented, they |)ersuadc then) this hellisli course of life is holy : 
bey promise heaven lo such as Teniure their livi^ Mh tacro, and that, by 
be:se bloody wars. (a& Persians, Greeks, and Itunjiins of old, tis modent 
Turks do now tlieir cocumous. to encoiirajife tliem to fight, u( cadtmt infrli- 
ifer,) if ihry die in Ikr fifld. (Afw i/o dtreellt/ lo hrtirea, and shall be frt- 
otriifd for mints. (O diiihiilicai itiventtnn 1) put in the rUronicIw, m 
TTprtuam rei mrmoriain, (o their elernid memory ; when M in Irntli, as 
'•nmc hold it, il were much better (srnre wars are the (coiirgc of find for 
pn, bv which he piinithelh mortiil mrnH picvi«hiicss and folly) stirh hrutii^h 
rira were »up:.rc-»JM'd, liccauiv ad mornrn inalilMlionern nihil habfit, ihey 
Ince not al all to manners, or good life. But they will linve it thus 
rertheless; and so th';y put a note of *i/trintJy tipmi the iiii>tt cruel and 
rrnit-ioKi plaijae of hirmai* kiMd, adorn such mmi with grand titles, de- 
Kfirees, Uatue«, images — ''honour, applaud and highly reward them for their 
pMM) •erric* — no greater iriory lliaji lo dye in the field ! So Africaiiu* is 
cilolltHl by Eitnnis : and Man, and ' Hercules, ami I know not bow many 
beaides, ot old were deifinl, went this way to heaven, tliat were indo-d bhKtdy 

■ Utt la ilL ttetD4rrbv^ ■ Nnlll bt«l]ikn* habLt^ *)niiiii i|uE [n pwlii* »riJJ->,<n1- Briauniii*, ib- 
tmfM PsnaniiiL 1. V. CoLl. II- Irk-ni LvUaf^u* dr Runian^ ri Ornru. liLi-m AmmlanLiv Jill. VX tiff 
hjlk^ JiidirMDr b avlio bn^iu ktmd vw, qtii Ln pnpht, ludi^tt uikmjnn, IK' limrl. UK S- «■. 1- 

^Rr* buHrtnlli^ BfcniMiB Id c«hiin frtiunL LkUnr ili^ IkM fpIIil 1. 1, c^ii. S. 'Ouubiun br-LIft 

fc ff N —i im Ori tUtxt^ buaI. (iiflbva liummurn iirrtJaM^iun tiuuJU iw wriHhrni nl>livi<n><' iM'iH'timdA 

■ MIL Ku-h. "^' - - ■ ■ 

rl MtnlftnA 4LrlnltelM nnlk Intlrn 
I TW UtH. < UnroU hiIbu poiU kdcolom puult. ijiu nwKuuii KTnpnj'buoiani 

KHM HAI. (lift 

n jiu 

i»i| ■li'li'ikiliiml ■ip]>liiii*i]ill 

L prvt. I 


Deuoeritug to l/ie Itmder. 

hiildicr*; wicked drrtroycre, and (Tonblcra of the world. prcMliL'iouK inoii»ter», 
hvU-hoLindk. Icral pln^ups, detoiiKrB, ronimoii executioners of fnimnnr kind, 
(a.<t Lacianliiif inily proves, and Cyprian to Donal) aueli oa were dc«[>praip 
in wars, and preci pi lately nmde iiway thein»ctve«. like those Ccltes in l>a-j 
niHBceii, with ridiculous valour, ir( dcdemroinim pularent mwra nicnti se tu 
dacere, a liiaprace to ruu au*iiy from a lotlL-ii wall, now ready tu fall on ihi 
ht'ii<i». Siicli a* will nol nish oo b swin^is puini, or scrk to uliuii a cano. 
Ktiul. are basi- oowarila. imil no valiitnt nirn. By which ini-uii«, MaiUt orbit 
tnulua sanguine, ihe iMtlh widliiHs in her own blood : * .S>wi* amiir ferri et 
irrUrala iiunnin belli : nnd tbr that, whicFi il il \>f- doni; in privntc, a mnn 
shall Iw riarorounly cxccutfil, ^and which is no leM than murder il trlf, if 
the iame fuel be (/oncin puhtick in war*, it is called manhood, and the par/u 

M honouritt /or it. ' prospfram el felix irelus virtits vacatur Vie 

measure nil. oa Turks do. by the event; and, most part, as Cypiinn n«tes. 
in all ages, countrey^. places, santir mat/nilndo impanilaltm icelerit uc- 

?mirit — the finilnesii of the fuel vindicate llie oilender. " One i> crowned 
l>r ihiit which another W lomienied, 

mtdca knight, « lord, nn cntI, u grual diiki;, (iis " Ag;rippa notes) for which 
Bpotber »h(iulil have hung in gibb«t». Af a terror to tlie re«i — 

■ — ■ ■ 'Ft dunfm jiUiif. 

A poor »lieep- stealer is hanged lor stcatinff of victualt, compelled peiadveo- 
luru by necessity of lliai intolriablr cold, hunger, and tliirtt, to save htnitelf 
fnxu Klan'iiii; : but a >'^ut man in iiflicc may icnircly rob whol« province*, 
undo iboiiundA. pill and polr, »ppr<-M ad lihitnm. Hey, gtmd, Irraiini/c, en- 
rich hinifr.lf by ii|H)j[s of tfi<- comnKini, be nn control I able in his uctionn, nnd, 
after all, be n-compcnm-d with tiirgcnt title*, honoured lor hw good scnioe ; 
and ao tnnn dare hiid fault, or " mutter .it il. 

Hoifr would onr Ucnincritu* havtr been atl'cetcd, to aec a wicked caitiS*, 
'fool, a verij ideal, a funge, a fjolden a»s, a moMter of man, lo have maui/ 
good men, uw men, learned men la attend upon him with all aubmistiim, 
at an appendix to his riches, fur that rttprel alune, liecauie he hath more 
wealth and money, ' an J la honour him with divine litU'f, and hundait epi- 
thets, lo unother him "itli fuini:!i and euU)|cic», whom ihey knew tu In- a 
diurd, a fool, a covttou* wriitch, a bea*t, &<■. hrcause he is rich f— lo »« 
auh cxtrvii* leanis onagrntn, a Althy liinthsomi- curkaxt, a Gor^ms head 
pufTcd up by pantfLttrf, atuiimr thii* unto hinisi-.lf glorious ttllm, in worth an 
infant, u Cuniiin am, a pointed sepulchre, nn I'lgyplinn temple! — tu sec a 
withered face, a diwa»-d, ddbrnxd, cankered complexion, n rotten carkaM, 
a Tiperou* mind, and Bpicarran soni, set out with oiienl pcjirls, Jewels, 
diadems, perfume*, curious, elaborate works, a* proud of his clothes as a 
child of his new coats — and a jjioodly person, of an ani>ellck divine counte- 
nance, a saint, an humble mmd, a meek spirit, clothed in rsjjnt, be;;, and 
now ready to 1* starved !— to see a silly contemptible sloven in appurd, 
raj^K*^ in hii cuat, polite in speech, of a divine spirit, wixe ! anutiier neat 
clotliM, >pruce, fnll of courteue, empty of grace, wit, talk non>scntc I 

To ite. M> many lan-ycrs, advocates, so many tribunals, »o little jastic« 
so many ntai^istmte*, *a littlt care of common ^ond ; mo many laws, yi 

tVbs. Astld. T. • HumiFliUnni i|Ubni »nunliiunl linnli. (finen ■*!. qnutn pulilio gRltDT, i . ^ 
turn Tnaftiv, C^-prW,nL <EIraivd, •Jukml 'IV taail- ■riviil, dc prin.'in- nnhiaraii^ 
vJnTfin. for. i^ t-r«iu> npil, qu,}U NliU »Lk|u^1-— Tu pniAiiquk nraniuDi IslMn. 44 tlrmriiiuarhr 
prnl told A!riAndi-r» in Curltiu. 1 Snn 3iii.L miitir^, ft4\ .Km>p, 'tmprobuia ^i «Jfi]tuiu, *i 4b- 
tltPin. miiUiri' btiitut V'FV* m «rrtitutv htbrnlrn, i«'ti \A jIiinU\ti ijuMl ti runtinvtl uinntunq mmi*- 
initiiiK •iiinuluij 111 iiigMHUm <1 tdilUinifliU ODTDtuiiMani. Muru. lilupii. ■ Buninquo d*M«> 
iviijir ^(opic^^'"<^'■a^vm.qultllrilllMhanuTr• iLt tiiiiH.-iiduni.i|ii0Ak(i(il,4tii,f-iflnr(HarnoHUnlj i 
4Uv mi-iYtii lii'iKirt'i''*'. fjimm i)iiAit ■tilJ'" a^nr- lA'^ta. l\W r- 


Democritiu to the Jieader. 

dinordcn — triiunal litiam ttyrlem, the tribiinni a litbyTintli — 
Mt nwny IIioumikI suiu in one eitun »i>ini:tuncji, ko vtolrnily followed ; — lo 
aee iitjuttiuivum utpt Juri pratiidtntfm, impiun Teligioiii, imperitiitstmiiin 
truditioni, «fio<u«fiiMun Uihori, m«nstrosiim kamatiUali I To aee u Umb 
'Mccutcd, n wootrpTOOOUDCe sentence. Latro Atnign^, naA Furiit on iJie 
bench, lh« j<»d^ severely punUti others, aod do worse litmscir, " emtdem 
furt^m Jacert et ptmire, ^rapinam plectrre, iptum sit ipte raptor! — Lans 
altered, misoonMTued, interprt^ted pro and con, at tli« 'Judge is mndc by 
frieod*, bribed, or oiiiciiri«e affectei) as a note of wax, f^ood to day. none to 
notTOw ; or lirm in bis opinion, cast in liis ! Sentcoci: prolonged, changed, 
ad arbitrium judicis : still llie ume cmr, 'onr thrutt out of hu inhtritaHce, 
amother Jatfty ptl in liy favour, false forged itredt or wUU. Incita Itgtt 
wgHguntar, Ian are made and not kept ; or, if put in cxecutiou, > they be 
Kxnv silly ones thai are punished. As, put case it be fornication, the btli«r 
will diiinlierit or abdicate his child, quite casheer him (out, villain ! hr. «in« t 
come no more in mj sielil) : a poor man i^ miserably tormcntrd with ^m> of 
bu estate perhaps, goods, fortunes, good name, for ever disgraccl. liirsaken, 
lad niuiit du [icnancc to the utmost: — a mortal sin .' and yet, make the 
wi>«t of il, numipud atiid fecit, saich Tranio in the ' poet, niti ytod fa- 
nvBf summig nofi generic ; he hath dnnc no more than wtiat gentlemen 
usually do — 

for. m a great person, right worslupful sir, ati;;hl honourable grandee, 'tis 
not a venial un, no luit a pcccadiilo : 'tis no offence at all, a common and 
ocdioary thin|»: uo nun tak«s notice of it; be justifies it in publick, and 
pcndrcBtnre brags of it ; 

• Nun (|uod turpe bntl^ Tltlo, StSoqiu. •Iccebal 

' nanv poor men, younger brothers, dice, by reason of hod policy, and idle 
education (foi they are, likely, brought up in no ealliug), arc compelled to 
beg or steal, and then hanged for iliefl ; ihau whidi, what can be more 
igliomiiiions ? non mi'nui enim twrpt prineipi mulla sapjilicia, f/ttam mrdieo 
multa fniitra : 'tis the (ifOvfraOLrs f;iult. LihcTtlius rrrhcrant ijuam dorrnt. 
u school- mastert do ratJirr correct tlidr pupil.i, than tench them when they 
do amist. • They had more nrrd proridr thtre should hf no more ihieret 
aatl beggart, attbty ovyhl with good policy , and take away thf ovcasionn, 
than let (Arm run on, ai tfiey do, lo their own destruction — root out likewise 
those causes of irrangliog, a multitude of lawyers, and compose controvef' 
lies, Um luttralts et tecalares, bjf some more compendious means; whereas 
Km, for every toy and trifle, tney go to law, [' Mugit litibut inionum 
forum, et i<tvil iiivicem diicordantium rabiet) they are reudy to pull out one 
■•Others ihroaU: and, for commodity ' to iqueese hlood (utiih ilierom) nut 
of ikeir brother! hrarit, defame, lye, disgrace, backbite, rail, bear fuUc 
■itaeM, awear, furiwc^r, lighl and wrangle, iipend tlicir goods, lives, for- 
tUM*, ftieuU, uiidcj one .-ini>thcr, to enrich an harpy advocate, that preys 
apoa llierai liotli, and cryee, £ia, Socrates I Eia, Xanthippe! orsomccrronpl 
ndge, Uial like the '' kite in jiisop, irhilc the mouse and frog fought, carryed 
MU away. Generally ihey prey one upon nnothcr, ns so many rnv^nous 
birds, brute beasts, devouring tiahes: nomediam; omnei ' hie aul captantur 

*Cffk % ii4DBaaL a nl inu tnnof n» pnv4L. bt nn^i-na. Juili^t rLnnhat rort*, quori intu* tkpvRiur. 
'"' ~ ' • MiUfnu, 1. 1, ilf proTliL ■ Kiv'>J"''l':l<"n nihil nl aiil Dutilim iDfrcn. IV- 

inali tDcnii 1 r^lium maiuKi; klii-r ii'iianwnliuB eoRuiujiii. «r. Mutn. )T*xu rm- 
• PUuL Mi»lrl. 'Iilrm. ■ } tiTfiii. Bit. (• <4ii»l loi aini tiimM mmidlDl: 

'£* "'- ?"' Tania^ nnluiiiui pnrfcplom. qui dbdnuloi lllirnlln* vprbrrmiit qucio 

Ctop. Iln. 1. ■ l>f<imkuiiluf furl tfnvU<ttiorT«idkBUu|rIfi^a. uuuui ixjUitj I'rvi*!- 

a- . .. . ... \ir™. 

1 BBl. 

__ Monu. _. 

^■AiM milu roMi DC (una iiai. ni.' luiquuii lun 
ln^iiM. d* Mi(m«i. uib. Itb. 1. lap. J. ■ B (nti 
* ' " ' Pptnmlua, in CivUn* sItIi. 

xnvU<tIiorT«id*BUp|rIfi^a. ituuui jxjUitj 
(Utk funndj, bjE iwrvunili u( nivrvtiux 






J}€mocritv» to the Header. 

out cajiiani ; aul cadaivra ^uir tarrrttntuT, out ctirvi qui laet r O Kt o ithcT 
deceive or bu denivcd — <4:ni otliere, oi t>c< lorn in pieces ihentMlrn; like 
BO many buckets id a well, as one liMth, another fall«lh ; one'i empty, Ut- 
otbct'it full : hi» mine is a ladder to llie Uiitil : ituc)i are our otdinanr ))ro- 
ce«diiic». Whal's the market ? a plact (jicf-onliug to > Anacliawis) wherein 
t]i«;F cotftt one anoilter. a trip ; oay. whatV tlic worlii it »fiti '' a rant 
cAroa, » vnnfiiMoii of roanai^n', ti« fickle an tlic tiir, doni^citium itunnoniM, ti 
iiirl)iil«mt triHip full nf iiiipuritii-jt, it mart of tcalking Spirit*, gnlilin*. the, 
ilipnlrc olliyiiocnwe, a !'hi>p of knavpnj, finttcry, « nursery of villnny, ihc 
sccoeof bablinc:, the g<.'lio"l i>f i^diliitcst, the ncademv of ticc; a wnrfare 
u6i ivilit. noiit} puifiuirul'im ; ant rincat out tuceumbas; in which kill or 
be killed: wheriiiii every man is for himself, his pritaie cnd». and stands 
upon his oon t;itard. No charitv. ' love, friendship, fear of God, alliance, 
afliDity, coDsaoc^iiuity, chrialianity. can contain them; but if they beany 
waves offended, or Uiai mrint; of ruiumudii^ be louclied, lliey fall foul. Old 
ftiondit l)econu! bitter enemte* on u »Md(Uiii, for toye« and tmall offences ; 
anil they that enl were willing to do all mutual offices of lore and ktnittiess, 
now Ti^Tik-, and pcRu-euie one another to <lcalh, with more tlian V'atinian 
batted, and will not be reconciled. So long as they uri- bchoveful, they 
lo*e, or may bc»lcii<l each other ; but, when there is no more good to be 
expected, as they do by an old do^, hang him up or ca«)iccr him ; winch 
"'Cato count* a grent indfcorum, to use men like old shoos or broken 
glasses, which are Hun); to the dungliil: he could not find in his heart to 
sell an old ox. much less, to t(tm away an ol<l servant : but iSey in stead of 
recompence, revile him ; and when they have made hiai an instmmenl of 
tlieir vdlaiiy, (as "Bajazel tht- second, emperor oftlicTurki. did by Acome- 
thes BwtsB)make htm avay, or, in stead or "rennrd, hutL* Iiim to death, a.i 
Siliiis was fcrvcd by Tibenui. In a woni, every man for hi* own ends. 
Our tvmmum bonum i.i conimodilv: nod the E^odileKi ue adore, Dta moncta, 
queen monc>-, (o whom wc daily offer sacrrKce: which steer* our hearts, 
bands, f&flcclions, all — that most powerful goddess, by whom we arc 
reared, deprcMed, elevated, ^csleraied the sole commandrcsc of our actions 
— for which we pray, run, ride, go. come, labour, and contend as fishes do 
(on a crum that fall^ into tlie water. It's not worth, vertue, (that's boiaim 
tkeatrah) wi»dom, valour, learning, honesty, teli^ou, or any sulhciency. 
for which "e are respected, but 'money, ^reatueii, office, honour, au- 
ttioiity. Honesty is aceuunted folly ; kimvery, [lolicy; ■ men admired out 
of opinion, not as they are, but as they seem In be: such shifting, lyio^, 
cogging, plotting, counterplotting, tenipcirijiing, flailcring, eozcniiij;, dis- 
sembling, ' that o/'nrrfssili/ one murt highly affftid fJod, if he hr conform- 
ablt to the world, (Cretiiarc cum Clretc) or rise live in eoiitfinpt, difgrocr, 
and miitry. One lakes upon him temperance, holiness ; anotlier. austerity: 
a third, an affected kind of simplicity ; when a* indeed he, and he, and l>e, 
and Uie rest, are "hypocrites, ambodcxiers. oul-sides, so many turning pic- 
talcA, a "lion on the one side, a lamb on ibe oUier. How would Ueniocrtiua 
hare bceu ■ffectesd to see iliese things I 

i^id ftHtmt lopui 41UQ ftU'ifl ^uiD ^iroifinif^C > VwiumohuH. tKr<Hii<n ^mianTiiin, 
Irum hjpovrltftfit. ar. ' Nfmu nplniii. ni'iii'* ju*iuTh]j.luiiL, atriuo Joviu. ii'urii tavix , %t*i < 
A|«rlk« tculla th'Ufc kiift ftimplllBbl. k'«tmn. • I'liilarrlL ,)l. rjiiL I iLili^^rufib uiiiEiihTEV ul 
rm uU bit iiEri,, uuir. vb fncU, cbJlLrtFrnit : lutjia. vt ilir tttvi^i illr^m, ii*m liui.'m «><■■ 
imitUiWriim dfdum nt^Jiir^ luta jEttfijiria, llbi-n« at^^onl^ *JaTiuik rnin tnn,fiiir,4 nil 
bfvipl1c-t« TTjii-rKUTv nun nnHM *liln. )MUtiti JutBlL 'BtiitnciA VMuaiuc \ts» tiial. Juni vIcTi 
tar Mill fnr— uhi nullum tosrtrtim, pn> et»tti «llum niUiOir. "tie. tVtucii rirlm 
fidotiiuuu ijcfu»l& Salliu*. « Vrimk ^nr *iiu rt imnrtlA. $tt. • Bt ffnrni rt furmAai n'^nt iihm- 
ai» Junaf, UuAnJuEi qulnqiip *iA nunuDuptm htt^i Ln hMi-. Tuilum lii»l #1 Sdrt 'N^jn a p^rio*. 
■ril qb oTniklLiE'I luUl Tv,fU,v«^ htjHniur cit^lkruU^ t-Hiltn, L a ilc OOTith ■ IVlJunlA ng ^o«l- 
ficrnil numrnjL hurro .M<ir«(or. — L't nrv^mnuiu tii id [>rv dlfpllrtrt. Ttl «b hiraiibUius eonlinaiil. •Uuirurii»iiimglU)l, rlftHxhuwIuittunl. ■TMfvl>(iIui(liiiila irl Canlaub, 
■cinuHi humlnc*. ilrornm A|iij. m 

Democritiu to the Header. 


To we a man turn liimwir into oil ibaprs like a cuiiKtlioii, or, ns Proteus. 
OMBtia Iraiti/brmous tSK in miracv/a rrrnm, to act twenty jaxts Utiil persons 
al onv«, for his advantage — to Icniporifc nnd vary like Mercury the planet, 
good witli ^ood, bad with bad ; having a several face, gntb, and character 
for every one he meeU — of all reli^om, huinour*. iuclinations — to fawn like 
a ipaniel, jnrntitit el mimicis vhstijuiii, ta,^ like a lioQ, bark like a cut, 
figfat hke a dragon, iliug like a -terpvnl, as meek a3 a taiub, aiid yet antn 
Kriti like a tygrc, weep like a crocodile, insult ovt-r some, and yet oUiecs 
aomincer over him, bcre command, tliere crouch; tyninniu: to one plnce, 
be bafBed ui another ; a witc man at liome, a fool abroad to make otbcn 

To are so much diflerencc iKtwixt wordi aud deeds, cO many panuaogcs 
betwixt tongue and heart — men. like stuge-plnyerB, net variety of paita, 
* givie good precepts to olliers to soar alolt, whilcst ihcy themselves grovel 
on the grouud. 

To see a man proteM friendship, kiss his haod, '^t/uem tnalUt Imncalum 
vtdtre, "fnuitW. with an iutmt to do miM-hicf, or coieu him whom he salutes, 
'magitilie his I'riend unnorthy witli hyperbolical elogiumx — bia enemy albeit 
a good man. to vihiie and diitgrace him, yea, all hit actionw, with the utmost 
livur and mahce he cod invent. 

To MY a 'scn'ant able to buy out hla maittcr, him tliat rarrieit tlie ntacc 
more worth than the magtstmte : which Plato {lib. II. rfc iry.) absolutely 
forbids, KpictctHs abhors. An horse lliai tills ihe ''HnA fed with cJialf, an 
•die jade have provender in abundance; him that makes shoo* go bara-foot 
himself, him that sells meat almost pinod ; a toiling drudg« staire, a drone 

To see nwn buy smoke for wares, castles built with fools heads, men like 
apd follow the fashions, in tires, gestures, actions : if the kin;; laugh, all 

'RlitMl imjorp ™thlnno 

'Alexander stooped; so did his courtiers: Alphonsus turned his hcail : 
and so did his i>arasife3, 'Sabina I'oppErii, Ncros wife, wore amber-colour'd 
liair ; m> did all llie Roman ladies in an instant; her f[ishion was theirs. 

Tu see men wlutlly led by alfeetion. adntired and censured out of opinion 
wKbout jiidgenicnt : an ineonHiderulc mulcJIude, like so many doga in a villai^e, 
if one iMuk, all bark willimit a cause: as fortune* fan turns, if n niun be in 
favoar, or eoromended tiy some grc^t one, all the world apjilauds him : ' if iti 
diignire, in an instant all hnie hitn, and as iit ihe sun when he is eclipstd, 
that erst look no notice, now gnjre, .inil stnre upou him. 

To sec a ' man wear his brains in his belly, his gut* in his head, an hun- 
dred oaks on his back, to devour an hundred oxen nt a meal ; nay more, 
to devour bouses and towns, or as those anthtopophne;!, *■ lo eat one anolhcr. 

To Me a man lut! biouelf np, like a snow-ball, from ha«r lifirguiy tu right 
worsliiuful aiul rik;hl honourable titles, unjustly lo screw himself into honour* 
and oRit'f* ; anodier to stari'e his 'jtnius, damn his sout, lo ^atlier weulth. 
wiikh be iliuU not enjoy, which fact prodigal ' son melt* and consumes in nn 

•pTMrpiia mil (alum rniBUltual. iinl inirTim puiipil, ii-rrrai vllln muitlpU. • jGdm* 8]'It. 
• Aniicn luiniDH. al uninil; Uuidiii ni bllunl. C^v '"i Unguium. •Loiouut luMmllk* 
Uv mrndi or ■ f>r>Tn-li» |Ub : Ihnnni- muliigiUvi : iW uihor muklvlHa. •MiniilTl iwupli^ 
ttaff* Ite fUliv* iBini4t^liir; iiniiv m^jor** rti^^ lualuinh quHhk imimriiLL b q„i (,,rran 4-'t>T<inl. ■'qui 
f*nfa pumntiir • ^ulolLuiluf. cibalti kvrui lafinjinlii' ; invcAlcr^t*;! <lli»t.'iirTli^ niii r^Wv^* tlitt Cult 
*Jaf*B. ' Bu^*. lih. L d« n|iulL c. S. ■ Fllului. 1. 17. t. S. (.'^ulllin btliuli •urrliiKx : n-lmu 
ftieli^ St «^»n Ifutllv BnirdiMi njiinvm iMnm BflivUrvnl. 'OdiltiunDklci*. Jut. ■ Airfipparpv 
n L 7. QuynoB •nrbium nl in Trntir, InKi^nmio in imlmla. ■ PhJ. TIU7 hi ui> my ginipli' at 
knaL ' AUM»*i Mm CkuIm dlfnlor •rmin nunin clavlbiu, vl tarta atVaapat iik<Lmviituin 
I punSlkiuD pMInn nanlL HiiT. 



Demoerittts to the Reader. 

To see the Koailri^iay of our times, a man bend all liia forces, means, lime, 
fortunes, lu be a fdvourilea favourites favourite, &e. a paraiutea paraMtes 
panuitc, lliai may scorn ihe lervile world, as having enou<;li already. 

To SIC an hirsute beggars brat, tliat lately fedon scraps, eteiit mid wtiin'd, 
crying (o all, and for an old jerkin ran of crnmdi, now ninli- in silk im<l 
sattcn, bravely mounted, jovial and pnlilr, now teoni his old Iricnds and 
familiars, neglect bis kindred, insult over his betters, domineer over all. 

To see a scholar crouch tind rreeji to an illilcralr peasant for a mrals 
meat ; a scrivener better paid for nn obligation, a faiilkncr receive greater 
wat^s, tbaii a student ; a lawyer get more in k day, than a philosopher in a 

ii«ar: belter reward for an hour, than a scholar for a twelve uoneths study; 
lim that eanJ paint Tbats, play on a fiddle, curl hair, &c. sooner ^et prefer* 
meot than a philolui^r or a puel. 

To see a fond iiioiber, like jl^sops ape, )iug her child to deatli, a * vrittsi 
wink at bis wife-s honesty, and too |>crspicuous in all otlier alFairs ; one 
■tninbte at a straw, and lirap oTcr a block ; rob Peter, and pay Paul ; scrape 
unjust summs with one hand, pnrrhnse great mannurs by ['(>rni[iti»n, fraud, 
and coEenage, and liberally lo ilislributc to the poor with the other, give a 
remnant to pious uses, &c. — penny ni^. pound foolish ; blind men judge 
of eulouts: wise men silent, fools talk ; ' find fault with othera.and do worse 
themselves; '"denounce that in pubbck which be dulh in secret ; and (whicli 
Aurelius Victor gives out of Augustus) severely censures that in a tliird, of 
which hi? is most guilty himself. 

To sec a [xior fellow, or an hired servant, venture his life for bia new 
master, (but will scarce give him bia wagrs at years end ; a countiey colone 
toil and moil, till and dnidge for n proUi^l idle drone, llial dcvnurs all (lie 
gain, or lasciviously consumes with phanuuiical expeiices; n noble man in 
a bravado to encounter dcAth, and, for n small Hash of honour, to cast away 
himself; a worldling tremble at an execuier, and yet not fear hell-tire ; to 
wish and hope for immortality, desire to be happy, and yet by all mean 
avoid death, a necessary passa;^ to bring him to it. 

To see a tbol-hardy follow, Uke those old Danes, ifui deeollari malani 
^am verherari, dye rather than be punished, in a sottish humour imbnnt 
death with alacrity, " yet scorn to lament his own sins and miseries, or liia 
dearest friends departures. 

To see wise men degraded, fools preferred, one govern towns and c!tict',i 
&n<I yet a silly woman over-rules him at borne; Command a province, and" 

Jet his ovn "snnnts or children prescribe laws to him, ns Themi)t(K:lc-s son 
id in Greece; P IfAat t wUt (said \k) my tnothcr will ,u«d what wj tnothtr 
wiil, my father doth. To sec liorses ride in a conch, men draw it ; dogs 
devour their masters; towers build masons ; children rule; old men goto 
school; women wear the breeches; ^ sheep demolish towns, devour men, &c. 
and in a a ord, the world turned upside dowiivnard. O ! i-iveret Demoerititt ! 
'Tu insist in every particular, were one of Hercules labour*; there's so 
many ridiculuusinstancea,asmotesin the sun. Quantum est in rebtuinaat! 
And who can speak of all ? Cnniinc ali uno ffitcc om«e$ ; take this for a 

Bnl tliese am obvious to sense, trivial and well known, ca«ic lo be di^ 

><>il TTiiJiUin pInjEt?, inftiir* Tfliuu. crivpirr erlnim. ^ DjjcEub iihri 

Ttmn^ Unour. i^illiuL 

Miud LufUbU^. Omnlnn «tulllU» ?uJu«Um nov w(a, fcc, ~Kircnrl pubMcp quoit oepulOp «giA, 
Swvtapwi, lib. do ptv» Arm uldBcvndii fimiquibu* IptI tttiriiioiitur itLiIuI^uL * AdSinui, fveL 
hlit. n^k Itl. Siqui) dimualut roEril. IMsx naaflorUnt; nun Iiu'rjmn, H pluutim. twtmqiK 
MiapsbellaDam gflDTH. qua HUB ^utina rKruvnu*. tta SlHimirLanU]' Duyi^ uI ntr fm pfti^i ntf pm 
dcitecll* ■nlrlt uni agiv Dmt. •Orhl (tut \rip% Inrli, t1> biniilnin rfii ■in* iirFpllu domL 
'ftotdqaltf ep* nio, ho^vnli mftl'^F npA, rt^i^oH mUvr vult. lini ptier. i0«p«, oUtd mSIr tHvtu. 
nanc bm bidsnilun *l *dss. ul tagmlBn aHOml. a«. Honu, Iflop. Ub. I. -DiiFmnrAiIri-. 
tmUnitsn (uran. 

Detaocrilus to the tttader. 


ccrned. How would Deiuociitus lia>e twen moved, had he seen * tbe tccrcU 
of tlieir beartsl tf every man had a witid»w in Im breast, wliioh Morius 
would have had i» Vulcan's man, or (that wliidi Tully »" luiich wi»ht) it 
wttv writUB iu ewry mans furcliead, (Jwirf quis/jue ilr rcp'i/'Hr'i sentiret, 
wlml lir thoD^il : or that it could be ejected in an initliint, whit^U Mercury 
did bv Charon in Lucian. by toiichtogof his eyes, to make liira discern *emet 
tt *imal nanQres et hkhittos. 

r ,1 

tliat be COilId cubicuiortim ohducliu jorei recladert, el itertta cordivm 
MiMfntrv, (which 'Cy|)riaii desired) open doorx and locks, »hoot bolu, mi 
Uiciuu Gallus did with a featlter of Iuk tail; or Gy)^ uivisibic ring, or 
MMBk tare penipeclive ^aat, or olacotutinm, wbith would »o multiply specie*, 
tl»t a man might bear and mi: al) at onn; (nit " MarCianun Capellas Jupilor 
did in m xncat, which he hctd in hi* hotid, which diil prfgcnl unto lum all 
Uul WM dailv done upon ihc focc of the earth) obtcrvc cuckold* boms, for- 
geries of alchymi»lf , Ihc philoeophcnt stone, new projectors, &c. and all lliose 
works of darkness, foobsh tows, hope^ fears, and wishes, what n deal of 
laoghter voidd it hare afforded ! He should have seen wind-mill* in one 
mans bead, an hornets nest in au other. Or. liad he been present with 
IcaroDHnippiu in Lucian at Jupiten whi^pciiii); place, " and heard one pray 
fnr rain, another (« fair weather ; one for liis wives, another fur his fntJiers 
devth, &c. to atk that at GoHt kantt, wiieh Iheif arf. afiathed any man 
tkottld ktar : how would he liave been confotiiidinJ ! would be, lliink you, 
or any man else, say lliat the*c men were wdl in their witi ? 

Ubc Hill «ac tivnluii ijut •moat junl On'tui ■ 

Can all ike liellebore in the Anticyrie cure these men ? No sure, *an acre 
ofheUeborr aill tiul do il. 

Tliat which is more lo be lamented, ihey are mad like Seneca* blind wo- 
Duui, and will not acknowledge, or *»edc for any cure of it : for pavci vidtHl 
morbvm stium. onuici amant. tf our ' luK or arm olfend us, we covet hy all 
■ucans po«*iblc to redress it; ' and, if we labour of a bodily disea^, we send 
for a phystcian ; but, lur tlic diMaxeji of the minti, we lake no notice of Inem. 
Lust harrows n* on the one side, envy, anger, ambition on tlie other. We 
are torn in piccvs by oar passions, as so many wild faontva, one in disposition, 
another in habit; one is melancholy, another mud ; ' and which of us all 
Mek* fur help. <loth acknowled;,'e Ids error, or knows he i* sick * As tliat 
Kbipid fi-lbiw |)uti>ut the caudle, because tliebitiuj; fleas should not 6iid him ; 
be shroud.i htniM:lf iu an unVnown habit, borrowed titles, bec.uu»c "i> body 
ihonld diAceni Itint. Every man think* with himself, et/omet tiidcor mihi 
utnus, I am well, I aui wiMi, and luii^li* al others. And 'tis a ^ncral fault 
aaaongat them all, (hat ''which oar foref^therit have approved, diitt, apparel, 
opiaMMUi humours, custom*, nianneis, we deride and reject in our time as 

• OtBocM. n. prwL D« ddifwimtt poimtM d»p[cb»ndoi. hm lomrot-t, illimlltiMOUa. i>«i- 
Um iniillanMi. HttnatattA. mmt mlKntM. In inilPiiTuni unualiiincni mhirtlbFntn, noa ginra. 
Oh ^ddlk^. (BpWiaW, moU rdpiiii, lu- ' Ail Dormi. rp. 3. lili. L U li pintet In iDRuU 
^QibI iwirtliit^. a*' * LUk i- nv utip- PhiLoL Ed <)uA, 'jnkfl tln^uh nnititnum ^'p^ili uubtiUiuiU 
^■tfinl, prlnfvtel. *0 Jupilt-rT uiniiacAi mili^ tuTi^m, hiitmllUH, kc^ IAuIUa iU. 
■«MMO«! Dfnnlli quutli c«l hommum I TurffvEma vu1« l>i^»Eruu«urnn( . i^ quia vlnotprlt 
^ UUaHiaW mil . «lqucjA kltv ImininiH nolilntn ll^o nnrnmt. Simia'. Pp. 10. lib, 1, 'riBUIiit, 
■h. Htm >uU>l Im: m hiillul»>ii juuric ol)rin»rti-i, ■ Roqif Rnriiir nic^iliUi. nuii Ifiuillar 
m^^l^gj^ rCipA Updaat oriiki"» fr-tinA* iL'EfK^rr : *i Quiil ^1 tiUmi^ni. dllTrf* ^rurtnol lEbimft in 
SniL 11*1. 'SI »p«1. iTui ikilel. lji>icli"iip, Vr.imi>!lfiiin ii^«t»imu», I'oW n liimiiit*, al pM 
•^^ iBdiBlIi* lii»rfiil Biuihb iii.urirlur. Juh. IVIrl'm I>'>mU. lib. I. <lL.taijiii. tStn miirlicT mqni 
ibA, • W qoouu^ul^oo lainiTn ol.i^ui ccBin lol [inlFi mpdlruin mumU nl vfmluF x" (gnni- 
Bit tbuUMIn. k4. IU mn Umi-n »-p™ ••«> n»ij«niiu. InculuniK inMlrum twiiinnt. • ri»«rn 
MMdMlUUUn fcbeu Pipiotiiit Tlud. di- o Iti^. lih. ^ 



Democritus to the Readei'. 

abstircL ' Old men uocount juiiion all for>U, wti«n ihey are meer ditardft 
and (iLt, to »ailcn, 

iFmn)iw nrtinque nev&mt 

ttiey tuDve ; the laud slands still) ihe world halb much more wit : they d' 
themnelres. Turks deride u*, wo theni ; Italians I-'renchmen, accouutln: 
l)i«n light lieaded fdlowti; tlie Fieiirh «cofl'%'ain at Italians, and at tfaMr 
Mvc'tuI r^uKtonix : Grcick* have ouiideiniied all tho world liut themidvc* of 
barburinni ; tJic n'ortd lui mudi vilific-a thnn now: we account GiTiiiani 
bravy, dull fellow*, rxploilc mnny of ibdr fa»liio[i!( ; tliey ai (-outrmptibly 
tliink of us ; Spaniards laugh at nil, and all upiiti iit Uicm. So arc we foots 
and ridiculoiia. absurd in our actjons, cntrtiigui, dyct, n{>par«l, customs and 
consultations ; '' we scoff and point one at another, when as, in conclusion, 
all are fools, 'andthtg the itrieit lusei thai hide their eari most. A private 
man, if be l>e resolved with liimself. or set on an opinion, accounts all ideots 
and asws that are not alTected as he is, 

' (oil Irolum. Bill <juoi) ptMUit <fbl. tatit) 


tliat are not *o minded, '(qvodqur mititnt komincx, xe hcnr KtUr piitait 
fooU that think not lu he tfoth. Hr will nut sny with Alticiin, sunm ^ui 
gpmtsam, mihi mram, U-l every man enjoy his own spouse ; hut his alone is 
fair, lau! amor, ^c- and »cornsall in rcs]>cct of himself, '' will imitate nono, 
hear none 'but himself, as Pliny said, a law and example to himself. Ati<l 
lliat which Hippocrates, in Iiis epistle to Dionysitis. reprehended of old, is 
verified in our times, Quiujae in alio superjluum esse cemet. iptc qaod aon 
kabel, nee curat ; that which he hatli not himself or doth not esteem, he 
counts supertiuity, an idle quality, a mere fomiery in another ; like JEMt\ 
fnx, when he !ia<t lott his tail, would have all nis fellow foxes ctii ulf thci 
"Hie Cliini'iiesi say, that we KtirD|>L-ans hare one eye, tliey themselves two, 
(lit! world elwe it blind (llioni;!) > ^'uliifer accounts thcni briili's too, mrrvm 
pecw): «o thou arnl thy ^pctarie* arr only wisi-, others indifferent; the rest, 
Dende tbcmcelvfji, met-r idrott and hmcs. Thus not ncknowledgin^oiir own 
errors and imperfection*, we securely deride olber«, as it' we alone were fre«, 
and spectators of the rest, accounting it an excellent thing, as indeed it is, 
alien^ optimum fmi intaniA. to make our selves merry with other mens ol)li> 
qtiilies, wbcn as he himself is more faulty than the rest ; miilalv nomine, de 
tefabula narrttlvr : he may take himself by the nose for a fool ; and. which 
one calls maximum ttuttiliit tjtecimen, lo be ridiculous lo oiheis, and not to 
perceive or take notice of it, jwMar^yas when he contended with Apollo, non 
intrlligrnt te dtridieulo kahcri, utilh ' Aputelus ; 'tin hii own cau«e ; hr b 
a convict mad-roan, a* ' Austin well infers : In thr ryei o/teitf men and 
anffets hr teems tiic one, that lo our thinking ualkx «>>th hii hcrti tipionrd. 
So thou laughc*t at me. and I at thee, both at a thiril ; and he retnm* that 
of the poet tipon n» ngtiin, '" //« mtAi .' imaHire mc aiunt, ^itum ipgi nllro 
huajuant. Wc accuse others of madness, of folly, and are tlie veriest dizai 
our selves : for it ia a great sign arid property of a fool (which Ecel. 10, 
points at>, out of pride and self-concett. to insult. \ llifie, condemn, censu 
mnd call other men fools iXanvidemu* mantic/r '/vofl a tergo est), lo tux 
in otlters. of wliich we are most faulty ; leacti that which we follow not our 
■elves : for an inconstant man l» Wfit<! of consluncy. a prophane liver pr«> 
jHTribe rules of lanclity and piety, a diurd hinuclf make a treatise of wisdom, 

■ rimfs yeij >fuUia hi'>fl]>r juivan' fttltlb. Cul. •rioil^ui bvtii&T mtrE^buft. ' OmnldlQ *IMt* 
llMlnil i[UI simruli- •luelliuii: imnnl. Stl. Slrntp. 'Ilnr. Ki<l<l. i. il'iatptT. >8lMIUM- 

Pilaiki. "intLm ^K-i(ini, TicmnnTO n^vnnlur. ncwuofin ^miluituF, i^-v »it*i * jb<Tnpli*. Plin. «^ litit St 
Suili flEu^tE tBjiorc cuii4>prlJi, »r ttf^lptrv f{<lniiut. Sjrrip. (OtnniB vfbtt . ^ . . . ■ rrnl* ■■! 
LijilEiiiiubi- ^ i Flcprid ' Aujtiul. Qriftti, itt chi'nrfii hfimiitbiB qni jarmit |.fi!lliii« ^mltiibt. talU 
Id I mil* puiinrntuRi •■ ■ii(r1<iiiini>iult(l>lpliivt,>a><nlFawlnnn<1oniln>ntur. •Ils^Iui, UtnMlpBt. 



Democriius to llu Header. 


or, wJlhSnlliiM, toniildown-righl. atspoitenof countreyn, andyct In "olfice 
to be a mosl eii«voos poller hiinselT. This »ri;ueM weakni^s. aiid is au eri- 
d«ol Bii;ii of 6iic)i paitits iiidiacKtiou. " Ptetrat titer notfriim emct! dig niut? 

Wto it thrfaot now i Or «lse peradvcaluta in iaaw. places we are f uil ratul 
lb* coin|ictnt ; ami «> 'ti« no* leen : lacitta* trrorit et dementia pariter 
abrvrdilalrm ri adaiiinlioarmtatlit. Tis with ii>, asit vniBofoliJ(io ''Tiillioa 

enmitc at Iciul) with (-'. FJuiWia in Rome, n bold, hair-brain'd, mnd frllow, 

■d (oiwtonncdof all, iiuchoniycKceptrd.that w«reas ma«I n« hicnsctr: now 

I such a case thcrr h no notice tnkcn of it . 

Vsilma |Hn hcAiiniiin moiho Jk^lAiur «<rilDDi- 
WTlpvi tEltmnifll. f>bc-r««J] ur llktdppmL 
VHiu tm ^':<ni uur loxl uiu; tuim Gw ml I 

put the case ihey do perceive it, and gome one be m&nifenlly convict of 
incM; 'he now take* notice of hi« fully, be it in action, Ki-gturc, speech, 
R rain hiimoHr be liuli in buildiait, br^tn>'")>'- Jaueling, -ijicndin^;, giinuB|!;, 
i-ourtjd^. xcriblintr, |>ratini;, for wlikh he iit ridtcntuuR to others, ' on whicli 
! iliitts ; hi- dolli ackiiaivlrdjfi- ai iiiucli : yet, with all the rhotorick thou 
, tliou ranul not so r<^;ull him, hnl, to tiie coniniiy, not xit li stand ioi;, lie 
MiTL-ri- ill lti« dotage. Ti* amakilU intania, tt mentia ^ratiitimita 
r.«o plcn«ine,(0 4lclicioia,thal he ' cannot leave it. He knows hii error, 
but wiU not seek to decline it. Tell him what the event will be, begj^ry, 
•orrov, s)cknc<-'(, disgrace, shiuiic. loss, madncMi yet "anamgry man wiU 
prefer vengeance, a laicieiout his whore, a thief his fioatif, a glutton hit 
tUy, before h» ire(/'are, Tdl an epicure, a covetotix nwtii, an ambilioDS 
an. ofhiiirruijEuIar coiitw; wean hiin fruni it a little, (i>u/ .' tnr acadittis, 
mid be cryes aiicn, you huve undone biui : and, a> ' a dog ii> hit romit. 
itr n'turns to it -ii^tn ; m> pentiroiiou will take jilucc, no r<inn£cl : nay what 
thou ciuul, 

CUmP*. Ijcrt. ri infcrv4jci-ia 
Coafirajjj. ■ur<i,* n.-rnu : 

denwuttate, at UlvMea did lo ' Elpcnor and Gryllus, mul the rest of hi* 
DNipaniua* Ihate ttciaiuli mew, he i* Irrefra^bte in his buminir ; be will he 
I'hoz *ti|] : bray him in * niorter ; he will be tlie same. If lie be in an 
qe, 0( lome perrence opinion, «et1ed ax some of our ignorant papists are, 
nvinoe liis nndcnrtanding, >hcw him the (cvurat follic* and nbsutd Uip- 
ericd of tiiat iwct, force him to »ay. icrw rinror, make It as clear as the 
sun, 'he sill rrr xtill, pccvjih and obstinate as h« is : and as he said, ^si in 
Jkec erro, lihtHter rrro, nee hiinc rrrorcm aiffcrri vtihi voh; I will do ax I 
bare done, as my prcdnreswrs have done, 'and as my fiiends now do: I 
nil dote r<rr company. Say now. are these men * mad or no ? *" Hcut. age, 
retpintde ! ai* tl>ey ridiculGus ? redo i/uttavis arbilrum ; are lliey sun* mcn- 
Ht, sober, wise, and discreet ^ h^ve tliey common seiue ? 

'ultrnllnHmlof horum f 

I am of Demoi-ritas npininn, for my part; I hold Them wiirtliy to bo 
UaE;bcdat: a company of brain-sick diznnU, as miul as "Orestes and 
.Ubamas. ihnt they may go ride Ike on, and all sail along to the Anticyrw, 
in (he ihip of f«ols, for company lo;^ihcT- I need not much labour to 
pTOTc tliii which i eay.otberwise than thus, make any solemn protestation, or 

•Oantamr at ATrkk ttj C-nsrt iiTalnlnipDt. •S»»r< nuiUlii iii.ttociamiii M iiuuiirnlluin 
tBba. Ata. r Pto ll«wiu Amrrlnn. BU quuil Inlrr onin»i .'cniul. liUBBtMiaiu. nlii Inlcrnii. 

«.r-'-~ ' ■ "—' ^"'-"■' 

_Haa^mM nvb *^t (tou* aoam <tiilntJir, qiA tw iruanlur {lutu T 
e*d«r* avtvaAt AXtwur rOun twAnuni. Ilor, ^Odl; ni*- pii*>um eupiru* non rtu.- ^^itixl i,\U. Orul. 

EnOr* gntu tibciiBrr nnuA ini^riliuijt. •i^mtlor nconuia tJivpivpcciii. irb'im:hv4Vin<Ui<i.-uD< fur 

LI 4^ «B4- ■rmi'. flfl- U- *PI«t»fth. Oijllij. milll hoinlflp>. lie <'\t-m. Mr\. til "Nun 
Mfl^^tlSBL HUnd ffrvniAvrtt. rTntlj. •MBturi^mlUL* lutAnirf,ijUBin pruni mlti^ Iwnr ■*nEirr- 
Eu iBttr \g^ nwltluntu, non in«£l* Hnnfl i^vmii, f|uiun tjul Ln enlini brnc uinrr. Pcitrcm- 


Demccritua to the Header. 

ttal J 


tLwcar; I Uiink you will believe me wilhout an oaib; say at t word, arc 
ihcT TooU^ ! refer it to you, though you be Itkewjue fuoU and madmen 
vour M-lvu, and I as niaJ lu ask the <|u<:stion : for what iaJd uur comical 
Mercury ? 

• J uilum >b lojuitii psicre iaaipiRiUk etL 

But. for «» much as 1 undertook at first, that kingdoins, provinces, fami- 
liei, were melancholy a* well as firivate men, I will examine lliein in parti- 
culur; and tliat whielj I bavi^ liit)u-rtu diluted at random, in mure geueial 
trrtns, 1 nil! purliimlutly initi«t in, prove with moie Hpecial and evidi 
arguments, tc«linionies, illustrations, and tJiat in brier. 

'Stinp Iff ]|>e. ituuv 

My first ailment is borrowed from Solomon, an arrow drawn out of ha 
fenieiitJouN <iuiver, Vrtn: 3. 7. Be not uise in thine own eyes. And 26. 12. 
■ SettI thou a man toifc in his own conceit? more hope it of a Jonl than of 
him. Isuiuli pronoiincetli n woe ilf|:ainst such men, (cup. 5. 'iJ.) that art 
wifB in ihrirown rt/rs.mtd prudent m thrir own tiaht. For liimce wc may 
gatli^r, that it is a grent offence, and men arc much deceived that think too 
well of ihemsclvrs, and an especial argument to convince them of folly. 
Many digd (saitli '' Senec^) had 6een wilhout question wise, had they not 
had an opinttm that they had attained to perfection of knmiiUfi/je alrcadg , 
even before they had gone half way, loo forward, loo rtpe, pneproperi, too 
quick and ready, ^ eilo prudenlei, cito pH, cito mariti, cito jiatrtty cito 
taeerdottt, cito omnit officii cajiaets eteurioti: tJiey had too good a con- 
ceil of themfielveit, anil thut murml all — of their wortb, valour, skill, art, 
learning, judg<^nicnt, eloquence, their gciod pitrts : :ill tlieir gceae arc swans : 
and tbat miinifeslly proves them to he no better than Ibols. In former times 
they had but seven wise men ; now yon cun scarce find so many Owls, 
'riinlcs sent the golden tripos, which the fiftherm^in found, and the oracle 
commanded lo be ' yiven to the ivisesl, to Bias, Bias to Solon, die. Ifsucb 
a thing were now found, we should all ftght for it, as the three goddesses 
did for the golden apple — we are so wise : we have womeu-poliTicJaas, chil- 
dren metaphysicians : every ully fellow can luiuare a circle, make perpeiual 
motions, find the ptiiluKiphers stone, interpret Apocalypsjs, make aew thco- 
ricks, a new syKtenie of the world, new logick, new philosophy, ike. Nog' 
tra utiijue reijio, saith ' Petroniiis, vur countrey is to full of deified spirits, 
divine touts, that you may sooner find a God than a man amangst us : we 
tliink so welt of ourselves, and that is an ample testimony of much folly. 

My second argument is grounded upon the like place of Scripture, which, 
tliongh before mentioned in effect, yet for some reasons is to be repealed (aiid, 
by Platos good leave, I may do it: ' lit to taXor pqOtf oiiHr ^Xaxnt) Foots, 
(sttilh David] by reason oj their transgressiims, ^c. Psal. 107. 17. Heoce 
MuBculn^ infers, all trau!<j;ressors must needs be fools. So we read Rom. 
3. Tribulation and anguith on the soul of every man tkal doth evil ; but 
tU do evil. And Isai. 65. 14. My servants shall tiiy for joy, attd " yc 
sAollayfor sorrow of heart, and veratiim of miud. Ti% raiilied by the 
common eontcnlof all philosophers. tOshimeity {saith Cardan) « tutthituf 
elie but fiflly and madness. " Probiis guts aoiiscum vivit f Shew me an 
honest man. J^'emo malua, ifui rion stallus: 'tis Pabius aphorism to tlte 
tame end. If none bonesl, none wise, then all fools. And well may ibey 

■ PUatu. 'Bar. 1. 1. aal. a. i gupcrtmrn ilnUlttui ninlm tobU. t. *ti. IL quod fcmel dlil, 
Oiun nliimgu* til. • Mvlil H^irntH [>">™'''"'')° flUHMt. •■ •••• oon |nilSMrnt id Mpltalia 
■iimniuin ptnanliM. 'fiVn. iPluunbiii. Solow. Dvtait MfttallDfl. >TWb yiMliitlliuii 
pirija rat iLuninltiu. uifacUtiu jKiHit Drum uuua homlBOB InvmiN. 'fslchnim bb dtem noa 
uuruL • Mcltbclon. • Whs tan Hull > tuthlul mm 1 I^OT. 10. C 

Democritus to tAe Reader. 41 

lie M accounted : for wbo will account Iiitn olheiwue, qui ittr adornal in 
vetidttUtm, qvum properaret in i>ncHlein i tliat ^ws Imriward all hia life, 
««stwsnl, wbcn Ik- U lioutid to tlieoLHt? or hulds him a vise man (iiiiith 
' Mnacilla*) 'A'" jprrfr.rt ntommlary ptravirtt to «Umitt/, that icprnds hit 
matUr't goods it hU abirnce , forthwitk to b« condemned /or il ? AVr^uu/- 
fwm MQM/, f ui tibi non tapil. Wlio will s.iy that n sick man ii wise, tliftl 
tU» Mid drinks to overthrow the temperature of his body ^ Can you ac- 
count bid wbe or discreet that would willin};ly liave his health, iind yet will 
do notltinx thai sltmitd procure or continue il ? "■Theodortt, (out of Plotj- 
tins the Pluloiiist) holde il a ridtmhut thing /or a man to live a/ler his 
9ira laiei, to do that a/hich it offtntfvt to Qod, and yut to hope that Ac 
thonld tape him : and, when he wltialarily negUcli his own sa/eti/, and 
amlsmnt the nuaiu, to think to be deliuered by another. WIio will any 
thcve men arc wW t 

A tlurcl argiimwil may br dcrivul from the precedent. "* All men arc 
carried away witli paxsion, ditcontcnt, lust, plca>uic». &c, Th«y ^cn«rally 
hate iboae vertiics they should love, and tovc such riecs they *lioiili] hate. 
Therefore more than melancholy, quite mnit, bruit beasts, aiid void of rea- 
»o«. (so Chryiostome contends) or rather dead and buried altvc, as ' Pbilo 
J uilnrus conclude !t it for a certainty, o/ all each that art carried away with 
jHUtiont, or tahoitrof any distase v/ the mind. Where is/tia and sorrow, 
there (* Llctanliiui iililly niaJut^in^) vritdam cannot dweU. 


Qui aciunu iliji. UbrimStt) uue vrli unqnun. 

Seneca and the re«t of the Sloick* arc of opinion, that, uhciv '\* any tlie 
lean perturbation, wisdom may not he found. What more ridimlant, (a» 
'Laciaalius ur^^lh) than to hear bow Xcrae* wliipimd the (lellcdpuni, 
threatned the mountain Atlios, and the like ^ To s\>Qjk ad rem, who ia free 
drem pOMiuii ^ " Martalis nemo csl, t/uem mm allinyat dolor morbutve, (as 

tTSiUy dclvmttnitf out of an old poem) nu mortal men cait aroid sorrow and 
IcknnM ; and iturrow i* an nnseparuble companion of melancliolv. * ('hry- 
MlonuT pleads fiirtbcf yrl, l]iat they are inotc. than mnd, very bea^its, slnpi- 
ed, and tokI of common »cnM: : /or how (uith lie] shall ! know thee to be 
moN, K'Aen thou kiehest lih* an ass, ttriyhtsl like an horte after women, 
asest in tntt like a bull, ravenest lihe a bear, ttingesl Hie a scorpion, 
rnJtetl liie a wot/, as subtUe at a/ox, as impudent as a do'i ? Shall I say 
Ihotiarta man, that half altthesymptomet of a ieaxtt flow shall I know 
thtt to br a man? By Ihy shape ? That affrights me mort, when I sue a 
htnsl in tiheneti o/ a man. 

* Scneea calU iJtal of Epicuruii. magnijieam vncrm, an h«roical speerh, a 
/ool stiil beaint to live, and accounts it a liltJiy li|;htnesa in men, every day 
In Ut new (oundaiiona of their lift' : but who doth otberwise ? One travels; 
anoifier builds ; one for this, another for that bu»inen ; and old folk* arc as 
br out a« tlie rest: dementem srneclutrit ! TuUy exclaims. Therefore 
yonng, old, luitMIc age, all ar« Unpid, and dote. 

'iEneas Sylvius, amonj^it niany other?, «ets down three ^[lecial wayea to 

* tm ISal 4S. Q«i prwfrrl mumi'iilflivja H'mj]l(«-mta. qui lUlApiilit hprJ abv^U* btiiu, not In Joj 
WBMitill »t iiUHB *■ I. *Prrqii*m ricllniiliiniHllioniim aluiUni tnilnlit tlrirr, rl. num DUi 
I«pM« nnl. nt^nl. rt Mam ■ lolii IXIi vcllr hIiim flcrl. quiin propria Mlntli ;unm (liIrFfriat. 
Twad. c a. 4> iiirviU. HI,, d* rum. lirav. (Jti-cL •Sa|^[inB, ntbl qui lin|K>rloiBj. &c. Hut, t. 
w. 1. ■C^iDcliu. hljL dr vjir. uflvr. Ci'riiirii r«1 Bniml murl.Li bbnmrin jm iacirUua (Vnamdcm. 
•Ulk. d> ar> t'U lUnot mirti, ujiu'iiiii •tli/—c un|[iiL ' Quid iBunlui Xme HrllnHintuia in< 
>«wntil I kc •Stxltl.lL It. Whi-TT Itlimi'rnrx. Ihcrr In nil luilknLuidlllE. Wdt. IS. ■■. An 
•agn man la «boL -STuk. Injurtu In •iiii.TiiU'ia mm cxUl. • Uum. JTln 1 Kptn. id C«r. 
HiiMiw^M t* afuuaMHI DBquw, quut ikaiiluvii uIile^i. rrr^i-llrtf*. I«^jtlb« ui Uotot. Uimiu ui auuuh 

■Oii IHldlpfM, nl nntlM rwaUi iltdulfl*«l. quum fujilv uI llJ^m>, Jkc. At nnUHlal Ihnnun hnmm^ 

Id M^i Inrri, <|iium Irnan humani upwlv vlilir.- in' iiutrm. 

Id a*tfi Inrri, <|iium lonin humani upwlv vlilir.- m' imtrin. • Split. Lt. IS. Alnluu 
FT lBc-j>rii Tivttr. rad* hnminiim [tTli«i? aova iiuuTnlir ruuUBuimlB tils oantn. tutrmtrpim, 
^t.' ' CmcbtML mlivr- BlilTua. qui quwril cjund nrrjuiL mtvnifv. thiltv oaf quvht quod bohI 
l«iiMiiiii. iMlN* qui nn> i>lum iidicl <itl}n, dctcnutva dril||ll, Hlhl (Ktrohii anuws •Ittlci. 



Democritus to tie Header. 

find a fool by. He is a fool tliat v:fk* Uiat lie can not Grid : lie it a fool 
(hal teeka thai, wliicli, bein^ r»itncl, will do bitn more harm ihiui good : lie 
is B Tool, that, having variety of ways to brin^ )iim to hix joiirncvs end, 
tak«s that whitli is worst. If no, mc thinks miMt men lut- fool*, KxttmioQ 
llieir lourMs, and you slinll soon perceive whnt dii»ird» sinil mod men the 
major pnrt arc. 

BcToalilux will have dmnlcnnl*. afiernoon-inen. and such as moie than 
ordinarily delight in drink, (o be mad. The tint pot quenelit^th thirnt (vo 
Panyiisis the poet dctertnines in Alhena-tis) : secanda Graliis. Iforit, et 
Dhnytio — the secijod makes merry : llie third for pleanure : yaartfi ad in- 
taniam, the fourtti niukes tlieiii mad. If ihi-i [Misitioii be true, what a <:atii- 
logiie of mad men «hul1 vrt- have ! what shall thi-y be tliut drink four timea 
four? Nanne supra oncnem furarcm, supra omnrm insaniam, redduHt 
iasanittimns ? I uni of hi.i opinion, ihvy arc more than mail, nmch worse 
I linn mad. 

The ' Abdcriie4 condemned Democritng for n mn<l man, because he wa« 
Hometimcf sad, and sometime* D^iun pfofnscly merr^. Hac patriS (nttli 
Hippocmtes) ob risum furere el insaiiire divunl : his conntrey men hold 
him mad. because lie laui;lis : 'and therefore he derirti Aim lo advUe ait 
hit Jriends at Rhode f , that theydoiiot laui^h too niucR , or be oceriad. Had 
those AbderiiM been eouversani with 114, and but seen what *■ fleering and 
trriuniiie there is in lhi» age, they would certainly have coticliided, we had 
been all out of our wit*. 

Ariitlotlc, ill hi* Ethicks, holdi, filix vtemque sapiens, lo lie wise and 
bappv, arc reciprocal term*. Banut idrmque sapiens h«nrtliis. Tis ' Tullits 
panulox : urisc men art /rex, but /aots are slaves : lib«;rty i« a power lo liv« 
according (o his own laws, m wc will ourselves. Who hnlh this libetty ^ 
Who is free ? 

-<u]>Li^« BihicjtiF imiHTUMU*. 

Uiirninn|iiF|iBnrwrtp*, n^iipmun. ftpqnr Tlin?i*U Urrtnl ; 
Uoipoiuur 0ui>la1ijP>iJ>, <<«r«<oinni-T< huooivt 
Pvnl», el m kri|nu xmim> k'tva At>)iir ruluiiduk 
lip i» Kbr flat roll rumipoiidlilA fivm urilt, 

Villani mill (niHUat IV hlmu'ir •mi, 

W"hi>nj i^o^rTij^nor *lc#tli. nor b^rnUoin frichi. 

CTii^k" lUk^lMink. vs^iit hiriiuur*. ju«t ui<L fi|^I. 

Bill whore sliall such a roan be found ? if no where, then r diamelrtt, we 
are daves, seniKless, or worse. AT^ma malus ftlix. Bui no man is liappy 
in this lilc, none ^ood ; therefore no man wise. 

•RulqiLlpI^ hvfA 

For one Tertue, yon shall find ten vice* in the same jiaily — pavci Promelhei, 
mnlti Eptmethfi. Wc may peradvenlure usurp tbe name, or attribute it to 
odiers iar faTour, as Carotus ^npicns, Philippit* Bonus, I.iidnvicus Pius, 
*c. and describe llic projicrties of a wiw; man, as Tully iloth an orator, 
Xenophon Cyrus. Castilio a courtier, (.!.ilcn tempcmincnt ; an aristocracy is 
<le*erilKd by polilieians. Bui where shall such a rn^m he found ? . 

V[rtionU4rt^Tilrn<, Riinlrnt viK rrppvrit tmutn 
MDIibiLif mi'llii huiulfiuiii vuntullu* Apollo. 


A irlu-.fe tfni»rliruui kn b tnlilivn. 

A I'ollo ^miaiiairil miild iriHrv iLnil iio'. 

A man is a miracle of himu-lf : but TrismiviMus adds, mazimam miracntum 

lioma sapirns : a wile man \i a wonder : multi Thyriiqeri, paaci Barchi. 

Alexander, when he wm pn-scnti'd nilli that citrh and costly casket of king 

Darius, and cvcrv man advit^d hhn what to put iu it. Ik reserved it to kctp 

Homers works, ia ihe tni>*t precious jewel of humane wit ; and yet 'Sca- 

iiftt upbraids Homer* Muse, itutricem iatantg sapintiit, a nurxry of mad- 

MirBtM. kr. 'ItlL raiMflii •Ainlcli nixln Btindi itiflM. of nlmiuni ilib-uil. iiit nlnhtB 
MtMdliA • Vcr laalUiin itiuB fvUrii "•«"■■■"'■ *lillaia. OlBi. I. r, a ■8«{>LFnlr> 
(UilHirrri. Ubntu ml polntu. Sc. •Bw.S.Mr.l- -larwa. 'HypmtlrT. 

DemoeritHs to the Header. 


MM, ■ impndent as a court lady, Oiat blu4h«& at uollituK- Jacoliui Mycillus, 
OilbcTtus C<>KDalu!i. ErjstimB, aD<i almotit mil |)0»ierity, udmirr Liiciaus 
luxitriuni nil : vel Scriitigrr rt'ji-ctd hiiti in tiii centitie, and <m1U htm tli« 
Cetbcffva of the Mukm. Sot^ratcji, wboni all ilic <railit on much ma^niKcd, 
is, by Lurtiuilius and Tbc<>duret, c(ind('niiK.-d l'c;r a fool. Pliitnrch extolls 
Seoecaswil beyond all ihc Gri,i;k» — nulli urundas : jrt '■Seneca aaitli of 
bttna^ir. tfhen I wotild tf>fa<^ my tflj" wilh a fool, t rrfiffl vpon my *rtf: 
and there I kave Aim. Cafilnn. in his (.ixtocnth book ofSutxiltiM, K4;k(int 
up twelve Euperemtnent, acute p)iito«opbcr*, for wortb, ■oblletv, and wis- 
dom — Arehimedes. Galen. Viiruvius, Aichytai Tarratinus, li^ididc, ficlicr, 
ibitt fint inveoter of a]^l>Ta, Alkindiu the mathematician, both Arabians, 
with otht-r*. But ha Iriamciri ttrraram, far beyond ilie reat, arc Ptolc- 
aiGd*, Plutinus, Hippoc»us. Scaliger {exrrcilal. 224) hco& at this cen- 
pire ttt hi*, eallx *ume of tliem carpenters, and taecbaniciuns : lie makea 
Galen, _^ni6HiaiR Uippoeralh, f skirt ofHijipocrali-s: and ihi' Mtid 'Cardan 
himtelf eUcwhcrc cinidi-mni Ixith Ojti^n and Hippocntlu for tcdiousneos, 
obocurtiv, miifn«i»n. ParacHfiiK will have them botli mmr idcots. iajkntt 
is physick and philosophy. Kcnli^r and Cardan admin; KtiiKwi tlie calcn> 
lalor, lynt pejte moitiim exersttt kumani iu'ifuU : and yrt * l.iid. Viies call* 
them Hugos Snuitliciu : and Cardnii opposite lo himsrlf in another place, 
Mnteinii!! iIkim imtients in respect of times present , ^ majorty/ut ncmlros, ad 
■prttfrnUi aillalvg.jutle i-urmi appetlari. In concliinion, the said ' Cardtw 
■nd Saint Bernard iriHatimTt none into lhi« cjlalocucof wise men, "hat only 
teophci* and ajioatkA : — bow ihey eueem ibeouehes, you have beard before. 
We ate wurldly-wite, adinire our selce*, wid seek lor ap|>lau*e : but ticju 
liainl * Hftnani, qvanio mai/ii Jarat n tapieiis, tanio mayi* infui stalln* 
tfierrit, Jrc. ti> omaihut ft pntrtent, eircri iripitrm iatipitas ; llic more u iae 
tliou an to other*, the man- foal to tliy frlf. 1 may not deny but that tberc 
is aomc folly approve], a divine fury, u holy inadncas, even a spiritual 
drunkenness in the saints of God thcm^lrrs: Snactam imaaiam Bernard 
calls il, (though not, M bkfiphcming " Vorslius woold intcrr it as a pawiion 
incident to Uvd hIniH'lf, but) lamiliar to fiood men, as that of Paul. 2 Cor, 
he was a foot, ^i: and Rom. 9. he wislieth himself l» bt aaatkemalizrtt for 
Ihrm. Such ii tli;il drunkcancM which Kiciniis speaks of, when ihr »o<il is 
i-trvated and raviibed with a divine taste of that hwvtnlv nectar, which ihe 
piirU dc(^i|ilicred by the wacrifict! of Dionysius. mid In iliin H-tui-, with the 
tiort, r iiifanire lubtl : as Aovlin exhorts tii, ad ehi iclalint ic quUi/uf parti ; 
lrl'« all In; mad and ^ drunk. But we cummonly mi.itake and go hcyood our 
co>nimiMir>n : wc red to the oppoiitt- [)art : ' we are nut i^apahlc of it ; * and, 
as he wid nf ll>e Greeks, Vot Gr^ei semper putri, not Britanm, Oalli, 
Grnrntm, Itali, ^. wrn arc n company of focds. 

Protcctl HOW <i partikut ail tofum, or fnnn tlic whole to parts, and yon 
shall find no other issue. The ports shall be siiRicicnlly dilated in this 
fcllowiRg prclnce. The whole must needs follow by a torilu or induction. 
Every multitude is mad,'&e//u<i mullor«m capitum, precipitate and rasJi, 
wilboul judijcmcDi. tluit«m animal, a rourlni; rout. " Itogrr Bacon proves 
it oul of Aristotle — vnlyas dii:idi in oppvilluM t:onlia lai^ienlti : yucx/ tif/fjpo 
tidftar venim, falium ttt ; thai which the ctimmonalty secounts true, ia 
: |MUt Ikbc : they are uiil opposite to wise men ; but all the world is of 

> E(iiil. n. Oouiiia ralun ilfWtSf [ tuin, Dun nl lung* qur. 

r •nlln aMliiiu ]iu<1rni. 

. n Ba< (III. tl. 1& < I.iti, 1, di- ■■1)', - Vidn. mivt hbmn. I'lWlnluin nl ttnitw. Intiun 
ininin d^ttttlt, oitiit'i^ilfl (4fh« iu ho? munilo, ytwitt hoc totuni quod nnvirr t>vuin tt^^ 
, ^ odH* hnm- *!■ V PlaJniii*. diil 1.«taJiuUh 'Uuro imp «'( inikimi In Dm rr-rrrl nuplt- 
KrL 1. ifiL t»lTti>!miiliu ah ii)H'TMIcaoiiia>. 'Inr>>l. lUt, Ami. •[arialimli 

.\ ltoe.r " " 


;. ttab KpLKt, rlt pcFrel. kri. otnit c. I. Nan m judi^'lutn in lul^ 


Democrit)is to the Hauler. 

t)irshuiDour(Mi/£fu«); and Uioti thyself nrtt/eini/jro.oncoftbe commonalty ; 
nn<l he, aad lie; and so ate all the rest; and therefore (a* PJiocion con- 
cludes) to be approved in nought you say or do, meer idpou and rhcs. 
Begin then where you will, so backward or forwuril, diuone out ofthe whole 
pack, wink an<l choose : you sliall find Uiein all alike — never a barrtt letter 

Copeniicus, Atlas bia succesaar, b of opinion, the nnrth i* a planet, ntoires 
aad tuinen to otliera, a» the moon ilnth to iis. Oi^gee. tiilhcrt, Ke{>leni*, 
Orit;ani]s, and otlii^n. ili-fend ihiit hypothc^in ol' liis in sober sadiiesi, and 
that the mooD isinhubilrd. IT it tic so that the caich is a mooit, then are we 
nlso gi'ldy, vertiginous, nod liinatick, within this subhinary maze. 

I could pro<liicc *nch argumcntG till dark night. If you shuiiid hear the 

Init, accorduij; to my promise. I will descend to particulars. This melail' 
choty extends it self not to men only, but even tn vcgi^tiJs nnd sensibles. 1 
spcad not of thote (-rcaturMi which are saturnine, inulnncholy by unlure, (a* 
lead, ami such liko minerals, or tliosc phuils, rue, cypress, &c. and liellebo 
itself, of which "Agrippa treats, 6shes. birds, nnd beasts, hares, conies, d 
mice, &c. owls, bat«, night-birds) but that artificial, which is perceired 
tlieiu all. Kcmovc a plant : it will pine away; which is especially pcrrcivnd' 
in date>lrees, as you may read at Urge in Couiitaii tines hushaiidry — that 
antipathy betwixt the vine and the cabbage, vine arid oyle. Put a bird in 
a ca^ ; he will dye for auUemiess ; or a beast in a pen, or take his young 
ones or companions from him ; and see what etTect it will cause. But who 
perceives nol lli«se common passions of seiuible creatures, fear, sorrow, &c.? 
Of nil other, dogs are most subject to this malady, in so much, some hold 
they dream as men do, and through violence of nielaiieholy, run mad. I 
could relate many slurie-s of dogs, tnat have dyed tar grief, and pined away 
tor loss of their masters; but they arc common in every "iiuthor. 

Kingdoms, provinces, and politic]^ bodies, are likewise sensible and subject 
to this disirase, as * Boicrus, in his Politicks, hath proved at lar<;c. A», in 
humane baiHet (saiih he) tker^ be itiven alleraiiont proceedhuj Jrom iu- 
mours, so there lie many di&etites in a common-tueallh, wAuA do as divertely 
hamcK /mm trveral diitempers, as you may easily peiceive by their parti* 
cuLr symptoms. For where you aliall see the people civil, obedient to fl 
and pnnces, judicious, peaccalili! and (juiel, rich, fortunate, ' and flourisi 
to live in peace, in unity, and concord, a eounltey well tilled, miinv fair 
built anil populous cities, u^i iacola nitriit, us old * Cato said, the peniilc are 
neat, [lolite, and terse, uU bene, beate^ur. itii^nl, (which onr (Kiliticians 
make the chief end of a common-wealth ; and which * Aristotle, Polil. lib. 3. 
cap. 4. calls iMmmHte bonum, Polybius, lib. 6, optabllem et iclectum statum,) 
that countrey is free from melancholy ; as it was in Italy in the lime of 
.\n;-u*tua, now in China, now in many other f)aurtsliinttktn)^omsofEurupt!, 
But whereas you shall »ee many discontents, common grievances, complnints, 
poverty, barbarism, beK)i^ry, plagues, wars, rebellions, seditions, niutinii^s, 
contentions, idleocts, riot, epicurism, the land lye untilled, waste, full of 
bogs, (ens, deoarts, &c. cities decayed, hue and poor towns, villugrs depo- 
piiraled, tlie people squalid, uglv, uncivil; tbnt kingdom, that countrey^ 
must nee<lx be discontent, melancholy, hath a sick iKidy, and hnd need 
be reformed. 

•t>i9«oll.philowi'lLl- I- f- »3i«ll(l. (JTi"l I. Lib, m. nup. I- -S» LliHlm.tjil'l. • De polilj* 
llladtlom lib. 1. «r- *■ '^' 1" humuii- .injiunhui virin i^-lrtBnr muUlioriM wiri-inn mimbja*, 
•Ic la rrniiblScS. a*. ' f" i-ni™ iihilc-c,(.(iHii1iir. I'L»lu. ■^ <lr ir ni-1. ■ VpI nublMn 
MliUUirni. HiJu* Fu<>U« lUtimu Ici nlo. Una c tlU>. nun, uln piiicl Xmil, Md toU nillu bMH. 
riaW, qiuiu denpub. 


air ^ni 

Jtfmocrittit to the Header. 



P Now thai cannot ui-U bt- uiTcctiH], till tlii; causes of Uiese nia)adie*l>elin>t 
renovnl, wliirli ooiiiinoi)l<r procrwi) fnim thnir ciwn clt^lault, ot tiomi; acci- 
dtntal inconvrnipnce : nslo hci>ilc in a i>n<l rlimi', tmi liir north, Mrril, in n 
iMiTen plKP, OA the detan »f Ubyn, dcsnriB uf Anibia, plnccn voiil or waters, 
WtboMOfLop nnd Belgian in iV&ia, or in a bad aii, as at Alcxaiidretta, 
Bantam, Pisa. Dnrazzo, S. John de Ullua, &c. or in danger of llie 9ea» 
coatinual inuudatioM, as in many places of llie Low-Co untrey* and «!«)• 
where, or n«ar some bad neighbours, as Hungarians to Turks, Podolians io 
""•nara, or almost any bordeiiitg countries, they live tii fear stitl. and, by 
<n of hostile Jncunions, are oftentimes left deiulatc. Ba ar« cities by 
n ''of van, fires, plagues, inundations, ' wild licasti, decay of trades, 
tanvd havenn, t!ir sens viuleiice, as Antwerp mny witncu of late, Syracuse 
of old, Bnindiininm in Italy, llhyc and Dover with us, and mnnv that at this 
day suspect the scm fiity ami riigr, and labour agninst it, as tW VpnPtians 
to their inestimable charge. But the most frequent maladies air such as 
proceed from tliemaelves, as, first, when religioa and Oods service is ne- 
glected, innovated, or altcied— where they do not fear God, obey their 
prioce^where atheism, epicurism, sacrile^-, simony, Sep. and all such im- 
pieties are fredy committed — that coutitreycaunot jirii»[irr. When Abraham 
cam« to Gerar, and saw a bad land, he siiid, surc^ ihr fiiir uf Cud was not in 
that pikce, * Cyprian Itchuviiis, a Spanish chorograptirr, uimve dU other 
cities of Spain, commends Boreino, in which there wot no hcggar, no man 
poot, Ac. hut all rick and in good rstatr : and be gives the reason, because 
tkf^ were tm>rt! Ttligiont than their neighdoura. Why was Israel so often 
spoilod by their enemies, led into captivity, &c. but for their idolatry, 
Mgleci of Gods word, for sacrilege, even for one Achaiis fault ? And what 
•hall we expect, that have such multitudes of Achans, church-robbers, si- 
raoniacal patrons, Ac. '. how can iliey hope to flourish, that neglect divine 
duties, tliat live, most pan. like epicures* 

Other common grievauces are generally noxious to a body poltticlc; alte- 
ration of laws and customs, breaking' privileges, );cnci;d oppressions, sedi- 
lions, &c. observed by ' Arinlotle, Bodin, Boteriii, ,lutiiu«. Arnitcus, &<•. I 
will only p<nnt at some of the cliiefest. ' Impotrntia gubernnndi, nlaiin, 

nfusson, ill government, wliiih proceeds from unskilful, slothful, griping, 
touK. unjust, ntsli, or tyrannizing magistrates, uhcn they arc timls, 
tdeots, children, proud, williil, partial, undiscreet, oppressors, guldy beads, 
tyrants, not able orunQt to manage such offices. sMany noble cities and 
nouruhine Icingdoma by that means are desolate ; the whole body groans 
uadfTBiich heads ; and all the members must needs be niisaffected. as at 
this day tliooe goodly provinces in Asia Minor, Bee. groan under the burthen 
of a Turkish ^vernment; and tliose saat kingdoms of Muscuviu, Russia, 
'tuider a tyrannizing duke. Who ever heard of more civil and rich popu- 
loas coantreri tlian those of Greece, Asia Minor, ii6nun(/iiii/ with all' wealth, 
matllittidt of inliafritnnfs,/orcr, power, splfTidor, ond miignijirenct ? and that 
■niracle- of countreys, 1 tlic Holy Land, that, in so sninll a compaM of ground, 
Cfxdd maintain so many towns, cities, produce so mAuy fighting men? 
Egypt another Paradise, now barbarous and depart, and tdmost waste, by 
the despotical government of an imperious Turk, iittolerabili terrilulit 
/^o;^eiiii>Hr(*onesaith); not only nreand water, goodsor lands, »<;{ ip«G 

*K>aniv •«) adMni nimlum ddri* Crnnuor. ■ lalmtam a tent, ui ollm KiurlUnlk. k«. 
* IMicSt Hbpvate kb^ ISOt. Nirmu mtliu. di-eiil* iiAujirr ; upllniuk uiilhiui.- hlc^ui^ (QtbtliDQL Tit, 
^Bgtti^^ rirdttml ; miBmjLijik,' L-uni vi'nvrjilindv ,'f iiiqurr. UirtnuciiimL. lu-rii^iuf rrtMit. ini-uinltc- 
^ml 'PiJIL L, 5k f- S. 'BoEi<ruH, pol^I. ILli, 1, c I, Cnta ncmpp iirlnrKjip^ rrfuiu ^frrniUnim 
iMfvriSU*. HCSl^ ««ICvi*. fulqijp miincrli IniiQi'nioT. aitl fAluij« nl. ■ ^oti i ig'-t rmiiLjhli'H fo}ut 
^mlMtedHBr- Sftli^liiirimtU. o. W. ^Src D. F]riiihL-ra rtluUuEi. *aA AlmnAft (.ni-jjinua ht«. 
Ictf. ■Abunduu omai dSviliflrum BffiuciiUl. kiii'uktiiiii muLiiludiur ftfiltfiTloto. »f i^oleoUi. 



Democrittu ta the R&uler. 

tpiritut ab imolentuami rktorii ptniet Hutu : such is ifieir slavery, llioi^^ 
lives and souls depend iijiaii liis jiiioletit will and catnmand — a lyrutil that 
spovlii all tvlien^wev<!r lit: eomt-*; insoinucliitliat an 'liialoriaii cutiipbiiis, if 
an old mkabUaut ahoulii iivui ti^e ikrm, he woaltl not tniiw thfm; j/" a 
travtUrr, or ttrangtr, it would grif.vr hit htnrt li> Itthold llirm — whereas 
{'' Ai'ulotle ixnc-i) noitif riactioiiFf, naitii onrrii impofita, av-K liiirdens aud 
fiKOctioD* daily come upon them, (likr ihoic; of wliirli /osinnix, lib. 2.) so 
p'lctont ul XHri uxtirrs, paCrrs^liat prttstilueritnl, al txactoribui e ijaaslu, 
Ac. ihcy must need* be diwontent: Ainc ciiilalum •jemilui ct ploratut, a.% 
"Tully holds; bcncc romt thoEc comptaiiits nnd trars of cities, poor, muf* 
ruble, rel/elliom. and desperate iubjeeU, as "Ilippolyius adds: and, ''as 
a judicious coonUcy-mau of ours observed not lonj; siDce in a survev ol'ihat 
grual Duchy of Tuscauy. tlie people lived imich grieved and discoiitciit, as 
appeared by iheir maarlbld aud niaiiifest cuinplainiiifp b thai kind ; that 
the ttittf. leasiihe a body which had lately taken pht/tici, whine humours 
are not yet well lettUd, and weakened so inucA by pare/ing, that nothing 
wax Uft but mrlanekaly. ^k 

Wliercns the prince* *nd potenlatcx are imina<Icrale in lust, hy]x>CTilesj^| 
cpicxitcs. of HO rctij^ion, but in nhcw — Quid hyporrisi fraijUiug ' what so 
brittle and iinsiir« ? what sooner subverts their rMivtc-*, than »undriu|» and 
raginff lusts on tlieir subjects wives, daii;;hters f tfl say no worse. They lliat 
should /utein prfeferrf. load the way to all vcrtuous actions, are thu ring- 
leaders otlentimes of alt mischief and dissolute courses ; and by that nK^aiia^H 
their countries ate plagued. i and they Ihtmiteht* often raiatd, hanithrd itf^l 
mvrdcTf.d by conspiracy of thtir *ulijrctf, as Satdaiiapalus wan, I>ii)ny«i>U 
)unior, Hdifigulmlna, Periaiider. Piaittnitiis. Tarf|uinius, Timocrati-s.Childe- 
ricus, Appiiis Claudius, Andtonrcus, (lateiU'ius Sforaia, Alexander Mo^H 
dices. &c. ^B 

Whereas the princes or ^reat men utc nialicionit, cnvioiit, factious, 
ambitious, cro\ilator«, lliey tear a common -wealth asunder, as so many 
Ouelfes and Gibeltiiies, tlistiiib the quietness of it, ' and, with mitiual 
murders, let it bleed to dmtli. Our histories are loo fall of such baibaroui-a 
inhumanities, and the miseries that issue front them. 

Whereas they be like so many horse- lt«ehes. hunj^ry, g'^ping, cornif 
'covetous, ai-arilia mancipta. ravenous ut wolves, (for, as Tidly writ 
qvi pr/rrst, Jiradtsl ; rt ijui pecudthas pneest, debtt errrum utililali inter- 
Kirf) lit sui'li as prefer their private before tlic public jjood (for, as'he said 
long since, rrt prirvile: publici' lemprr o_ffir.rre) — or wliereai they be tllil 
rate, ijjliorant, ciiipiricks in jioliey. iihi drrtt faeallas, " eirtm, (Aristot.pof.' 
'>. tap. 8.) ft icicntia, wi*e only by inhcritunce, nnd in authority by ttirtb-^ 
riRht, or for tJieir wcallli iuwl tiihis-^tlirvc nm»t need* be a fault, 'a great 
defect, because, nsan "old phil««iophef«ffinns, such men arc not al waves fit 
--~^if an infinite number, frw aloat ore Knatort ; and of those few, fetter 
good : and of thai tmatt number of konesi, good, and nobl* men, few that 
are learned, witt, discreet, and tufftcitnt. able to diichari/e such ptactt —it 
must ueeda tuni to ilie confusion of a slate. 

For, as tlie ' princes arc, so arc llic people ; i/ualh rex, talii yrex : and, 

■ lteV-ni£-u^ $1 ^iili kUf-olM rrriiB. nnn Jmnrta^rrf I ; «i quu frrv-riliitK. iii^mLari-irl. > I'flliK L ^ 
p. S. CrajfiUi* i.H"fi|n>fn. iinimntln* ..*Iot>j»Hh iloliritj liYiim, pptiljil.i* ptmn'ia^ itttKitw. *c 
• Bt)l>L -Di-mtto.ii, uib, «Ti. itD. ISliMiIi iniM-rl. iFliclln. ■Ir>|irrul. Sv. 'It. Uiinnclun. It6a. 
(CTirliwIiJ llbti, iBiiLfu.,!, V !■- t I'..lii. Uii.i 111 ul >ul nlru llMiwruM n'lli'iil. ulnniijan* 
liviir mUAitaramctMAtUM^itnr luidi-iii TiiiiNJi-AFiir, ' M uhiik udii« fl rn)^* mfmuid. kf. < ti«- 
rnri iiwi)l>< «^trnti,']<>ri-4..t*ih i^llufi^ ■ mn,! ptH, vi^mitlfclt-Uir uum" f>t noU ~ 
tftfitutttiDi; •orl. 4t T**a Mkiiltiavfl «n<l Tii-Uut. vrc^Mf <rali<«nipn, Ami mo i!lt|.uEi' ..f pnlktlfu |4 
•upalinl ■nJ u^cflhi-o* Oip.'lf ■i1tcn*rV«, Mirl^'h Tl'iMntpIr^'. l»t hniumr. d[*uTnh|p^ But i 
Clib t« thr S*B# r**r. OP tin^i.>naitEuii i>i d i.<t4uiiii'iiL-H'i<ii1fU t 'liAfM-nutn tijinx v|un(« n>fn 
*ApuL riim., Kt IntmmvKJnliiiU'. jhiulj iK'uftlon-* ir"'i»rfi' (iobJW<; ■■ e«a>ulflrlbi]j paiirt hoi 
»THHdt •lliii^ pAiirl rruHlti. •Ntin vi'luni vHui 4'uiirJi>ianl i^l I'flntlpH. tt^ ttwn KkfUaitituL 
(Irltelnn; l>]iui|uc ntinplo. lusni I'rrrniii, nnrrnL Clc. 1. dtlrtibui. ^_ 








Demoeritm lo the Reader. 47 

vfcicb ' Antiganus t'l^ii weU «aiil of old, ^iii Ataetdmitc rtgtm tTudHjOmtun 
•tun gmMilot erudit, hr. thut (cacbcth the king ol Mocedon, ua«lietfa all liin 
•object*, K a true »:iying still. 

Fm rdnm u* lha (lua. thr Hhiiol. (he bonk. 
Wh*n> lutuMU »fn do Icuii. tlu tmii. Juluuk, 

Vrlof iiu pf ciliu* nil* 

CconilnbtiAl tlUumin ritfnif ]■ dnmntio*. mipilt 
Cum UMVit mlmiii- iMirt-irihu* — 

tkeir rxaraples arc soonest followed, vices onteriuuMHl : if they be prophane, 
imli^ui, lascivtous, rtoloua, «picur«a, factious, irovctom, knibitious, iHite- 
nte, so will iIm cocninous moei uait ht, iilte, iiiillinl\>, (xonp Inlust.dnink- 

■nll. Bwl tlirf efore poor and IH*ay {linriuoraaiy ifHeoui.iMlfatavpyiar, Tor 

poverty Ix^rU SL-diiiun and tillany) upon all (uriuions ri'iidv to mtitiuv and 
rebel, (liscoritt:iit, (till L-umuliiiriirig, murmiiriD^, ^rud^ing. apt to all out- 
agn, tfarlU, iTvo^oiu, niurcti-n, innovaliimf, indcbi.shillcrs.cozeiiet^, uut- 
tne^, pr^u/atte Jisima ac fit*, it wasanold 'politicians apliomm, thei/ 
that art poor and bad, envy rich, hale good men, ablior the prrsetit povtrit' 
mtnti, wish for aneti',aitd utiald hare aU lurried lopM tnrvy. \Vh«N 
Cdiilinc rebelled in Rome, lie f;ot a coiniiaiiy oTnuchdi^bnuched ixijpjct toge- 
lJ>cr : tbty were liis familiarsaud coadjutors, and audt bavc boeii your rebels, 
(DoU |ian, in ull Ofsti — Jack Cade, Tom Straw, Kelte, atid bi» companions. 

When! thcv he ^iu)«nitly riuloutandcorilvntioru, w1i« re- there Ik* ninny dis- 
mrds, many litw», uiany law-iiuits. inanv luwyen, and miiny physicians, it 
b a raBoil«»t sig:n nf n di*triii|>rn-d, inerimcboly Ktatc, in ■ I'Ulo lon^ since 
maintained : for, whirrr xuch kimt nf itir ii swunn, tJicy will make more work 
for ibenwoUes, and that body poUlirk disciuni, whieli n-ns otherwise sound 
—^ general mischief in tlicsc o»r timi-s, nn unsensible plague, and never go 
many of iliem; irh'ieh are now mnilipii/ed (saiih Mat. Geraldut. ''a lawyer 
liiroiielf,) at wrrHiny /ochii(«, not Me parenlt.lial ikt plagut* of the couMrtt/ , 
aad, far the moti pari, a tvpereUiont, l/ati, coveloas, htiywiu generation of 
mfn — ' crumenimulga (ki(m. $c. a piir^e-inilkiiis; nation, a claniflr<»u« com- 
panv. gnwtied vultures, *' f ur ei injuria rii'iinf el taur/uinr ciriuiu, thieves 
and reminiuicsor ducord. worMitliau any polcrs by the liit;h way *ide, aari 
aeri/Mtret, onri exlerrbroni'/it, pupuniarum hamiola', ^itadrupfatores, curiit 
tutrpagonet, fori liutinnabula maniira hotninnm, manffonrJ, ^. that take 
upon lliem to make |>cncc, but are indeed thr very tJiMurbcrs of our peate, 
a company of irreli^ous harpyes, scrnping. griping eatcli-poles, (I mean our 
enminoD imngry petty •foggcrs, rabata* forrtmet — love and honour, in the 
meau time, all good laws, and worthy lawyers, that ace so many 'oraclea 
and pilotaofa well (governed common- wealth) without an, without judge- 
ment, that do more haim, as ' Li»y saith, yii«™ hcUa eilrma^famrt, tnov' 
bite, tban licknest, buih, hunger, diseases : and catite a most incrrdihU di-' 
simclion of a irom»oa-wt:alth, nitb 'Scsellius, n funious drilian sometimes 
in Paris. A» ivy di>|]i by uo oke, imbrace il lo l<ing. until it hatli got the 
heart out of it, so do tbcy by Kuch plai'es ihi-v inhuhil : n» couniwl nl all, 
no justice, no spccoh (o be hod, nisi rum pramiihcrin : he niuM be led still, 
orelse bo is as mute as a M\ ; better ojx^n an oyster n-iihimt a knife. Ex' 
ptfto crede, (saitli '' Siilisburicnsis) ; in mnaui eoriim miltitf incidi ; tl 
Charon immilii, </ni milti pepereil unjKam, hit lonijc clenietlitir vsl — / 
iptak oMt of txperience ,- / katre betn a thotuand limrf aaio7iffst thtta ; and 

tRaUt. ad tat. Jwtth. RaL L PiupmH Mdlilnenii ttunil *l ■nili'ni^luni. ArliL gwl. 1^ c, T. 

^^^f^MVM w r i* BuiAfi umijkA jK'fur;!. ■ Di' Ir^ibm. l*rudlici£ih In r^|iaTL iliH^jjibEka^ #*l iiiill- 
I BiM Jiiihf mm II ni •vflu'nu. n mfdwonttn <-npSEL *ln [iff, itud- JkittL M(.Ji]^»ij4-uiiiir nunc i» 
^rn*. *< loc^'*. nv* r**'^ pirFi>t'-4, h^i pp«eih«^ i»i<a«,eii] huuiLnn*. laAjon^ rx imilr tnprrrUliivl, 
fv^QHttval. tl' Hfl— iirnirJTHnm rKviL'rrii. ■ ih»dk^. rpLil. l.<Mju,]iii]i<i« turba, luHnrfiru^ii, 
Jpq^ Arml <J«ri«tfliMJm tlomui ur^L-bluni civilATi*. Tiillj\ "Lib. Jk iLib. I- 4lo ivp. 
tli^nwi IwirrdlbiliBniTub. iwrniclRn nOfeniuL '}cnl. llh. 



Democrittis to the Reader. 

Ckarvn himself u mart geittlt than thty : ^kt u conlenled with his tingle 
pay : but thet/ multiply tlill : they are never italisfied : Iresides they liave 
damnificiu linyuai, (as he t«'-rni!i il] nixi fuaibut ari/entfis ctncitii : Uil-y 
muRt tic f<^<l tu Kiiv nothing, >nd Jgrt more Ui hold llietr jieace, tliuii we rivn^ 
ti> »ay OUT best. 'Fhoy will xpnuk ihrir cliuntt fnir, and invite thrjn to llii-ir 
tables ; bill (a» he foliowt it) ' 0/ all injustice, there is none m pumicunis \ 
as that of theirt, which, vahen Ihcy deceive most, will icem to be honest men. 
They take upon tlipra to be pcacc-niakers, et Jbvere catusas iumitiam, to 
lielp ihem to ihetr rif;ht : jralrociiianlar a^tcli) ; 'but ull i* Ibr theirowo 
good, ut laculox plrniurum exhaurianl : lliey plead for poor men ^tis ; butj 
tliey are but lut a stale to catcb oihtrs. If there be nojat, '"they can makftf 
ajar, out of the law it adf Rud xliU some ijuirk or other, (o set them at' 
oad», aiid couUnuc causeii ao bug, {lu*lra aliquot) 1 know not how many ' 
yMn, tioforu the cause U beard : utid when 'lis judged and determined, by I 
reoaon of xonie tricks and errours, it is a* fresh to begin, after twice svren 
year* snmclime*, as it was at first; and *q they prulonja; time, delay nuils lil] 
thpy have enriched iliernselvw, ami beggared their clients. And, as " Cato 
inveighed against Iwicrales *cliolurf, we may jiislly tax our wrangling law-] 
yen, — they do conienescere in Ulibas, arc so litigious and biisic tici« on 
earth, tlial I think they will plead (heir clients causes hereafter, some oM 
them in hell. "Siiolerus complains, aiiK>n|^l the Suissers, of the advoeatca 
in his time, thai, when they Bbould make an end, ihey beRiu eootroveniea, 
and protract thrir cautt) many yearn, periu'adinij them their title 1$ good, 
till their patrimonief he contumed, and that Ihry have tjient more in scekiny, 
than the thing it worth, or ihry *hall get by the recovery. So lliiit he that 
gact to law (ns tlie provrib is) i* boldt a wolf by the ears ; or, :i» a sheep in 
u storm runs for shelter to a brier, ifbe prosecute hix cauH.-, he is consumed : j 
if he (urccnse his «nil, hr lo«eth all : what diffeirncc ? They had wont here- 
tofore, saith ''Austin, to end mutters, per communci arhitroSi and n> in 
Switi«rland, (we arc informed by 'Simlcrus) Ihey hadsome common arhi-i 
tratort or dayttmen in every town, that made a friendly compoiilioK hrtwixl I 
man and man : and he much uanders at their honest simplicity, that could'\ 
kt.ep peace so well, and end such yrcal causes hy that meant. At ' Fez in 
Afnck, they have neither lawyers, uor advocates ; but, iflliece be any con- 
tfoversiei amongst ihcm, both parties, plaintiff and dcleiidaiit, come to their 
Alfakinsor c-hid' judge; avd at once, without any farther appeal* or pitiful 
delays, the cfiuf-c. tj hcnrd and ended. Our fote-luthent, (as ' a worthy clio- 
rogrnphcr of fiurs observe*) had wont, jiauciilis rruculii aurds, with a few 1 
golden croMrs, ami lines in verse, to ninke all eonveyiinccs, assurances. And 
such was the candour and integrity of succeeding ages, that a deed, (as I 
have ofi seen) to convey a whole man«r, »'u« impUcile eoniained tii nomc 
twenty Hues, or thereabouts ; like that sccdc or scytala Lacotiica, su much 
reiHiwned of old in all contracts, which "Tully so earnestly commends to 
Atlicus, Plutarch in his Lysander, Aristotle, /)o/>/. Thucydidea, /ifi. 1,*Dio-< 
dorus, and Suiila", approve and nia>n'i'ic* fbr ilial Lacouiek brevity in thil : 
kind ; and well they might; for, according to* Tertultian,cer/(i sant paucis. 

^Tt^iualcijiliillllir nij|[:L rn[]iuUur, quflmmruirlp ijul, cum mrhiiiEU' ilit-ll'iunl^ id ^(Ulrt 

■ ]■ fCI|if vontfnltu ; 4I lu n*tn LnTvirrot ilM 
HOI toQujn ^Tt^iimlc^imiiiiir nij|[:L rn[]iuUur, quflmmruirip ijui, cum mrhiiiEu' iTit-ii'iuni^ id ^(uii 
«l bool vin nu vliUjuilLir. ' Knia, ijikncunqup ncHlAcuuBiA ph^r^^UI. 1iu« trmtvT ■£^ti,p, ul latull 
tnplfuluT, Fill I'l^rllU iiviiult •dltil. -('•mitrn, In Nott.ilk. Qui, al nlhildt ntiuin, i' iiitla 

r«f^imm1. pAlnxiiilo fuu luvbuiiluf ' Lili, ^. ,lf ilrlvcc rtlmh. Son Mvll'*nil^ "^ innr*<inlu 
coDtrormiU (^jnfivn dul, itaut \\U'* in iniih.t* viniw ntfsbwilat. ■ummi (uri iiii»liMli cEritiHjue 
urilk. n ilam li,lvr*« piurlin»DlK nHkiiriuntiir, rLuimiD vimut li^urut. iltnr. *Lib, Ui* 
B*l»rl. TTTMib. Juillr^quocvoqiir |4C4 ■■i^htliijrnnl. iiu] UDlr4 tUqat tfviu'llonr. «i Arfi p'mll, 
itlm toUaiLt Bca iDiianiin noalrumii iLiir|,titir*lcDi ikliDrnir. qui »ip hjimm CT4*iuiiav nfinpamr- 
lial. llr- •Clrawill. 1. 1.1V SiqiiBiMnilnmnlB. utr«tuc)*njudi«<u idil: bamurlttrtnliil run 

nantfti. wilit : ntr, n""! •>< 

•fM. Ml AtUcimi, rpb: 

Ilia > 

4p»U»tin, bcTyDiunBriuir mum. dokiuL 
•miinth. la. • LtU d* Anlm. 

■ Cundta. 

iai run 1 

Democritas to the Reader. 


there is iDoch more cOTlaiuty in fewer words. Aitd so was tt of old Uirough- 
fiut: but HOW many skin<« of parcbment will scarce lerve turn: lie that buys 
and »elb a bDu<«, inti^t hav« a bouse full Af wriiin);* : tbcni be ao maoy cir- 
camsUncM, so mauy Kords. iacb (auiolouical n^|)i>utiups ofntl pariiciilarg 
(la aroid avillatiou thty say) : but v,-^ finit, by our wofiil oxpcncoce, thai, 
U> »\%\A\t wits, it b a caiue »f mack more cimli:nli«n and viiriancc; and 
scarce any coiiveyxnee lo accantlely ^loined by one, mbicli another will not 
find a cr»ck in, or cavil at : tf any one word b<t minplaccd, any liltle errour, 
all M diMnnullcd. Tbut wbicli ii law to day, i.t none to morrow ; ihat wliicb 
i* aovnd in one man* opinion, i« nuMt Ruilty to nmilbcr; that, in conclusion, 
here is oolbin^ amongst ux but ccintcotion and cnnfu»Lon. Wc bandy one 
agantat anoibcr; and ihnt, which long >incc ' Fliitnrch complatDed of tlunn 
in Aaia, nxvj be rerilicd in our times — Tkeae men, liert uaiembUd, come nut 
to tacrifiKx to ikdr godt, to offer Jupiter thurJtTil/rmls, or vterrimentt to 
Baetrkut : bat aa yearty diteoie, exasperating Asia, hath bntight tbtm 
kUhcr. to maie an end of their conlroverties and law iuitt. Ti» multitudo 
penUntium et pereiiHtiam, a d«itmelire rout, that seek one another* ruino. 
Sach, nuMt port, ar« our ordinary Kuitors, termers, clients : new itir» cvcrj 
day, miMako, errours, caviU, and at thU present, (as I bnvi- heard) in *ome 
one court, I know not liow many lliotisatui caust^s : no pt^rson fr«e, no title 
abnort good, with s>icfa bitterness in following, so niatiy slights, procrTifttioa* 
lions, delarn, {6t%Kty, »ucbcost (for iiiliiiiie sums nre iuconsidrrnitely spent), 
nolrncc and malice, 1 know not by whose tault, lawyers, clients, laws, 
both or at! : but, ax Paul reprcbendrd the '' (.'nri'ilhians Jon^ since, 1 may 
more appositely infer now : Ther« is a faiU amnni/st gou ; and I sfieak if 
to jfOtr thame. Is tker« not a 'wise man amon'jtt gou, fo Judge between 
hit brethren^ irul that a Urother ijoei to law with a brother f And * Chrisli 
roiiDsel coucernin^ law-suits was never so tit to be inculcated, as hi thisagu: 
'Agree talk thine adcertary t/uieiltf, ^c. Matlb. 5. 16. 

I could repeal many such particubtr grievauces, which musl disturb a 
body politick : — to sliul up all in brief, where good government is, prudent 
and wise princes, there all lhin(;;« thrive and prosper; peace and happbeu 
u in that laml : where it is oiberwiae. all ihin^ are u^ly to behold, incult, 
barbarous, uncivil ; a paradise it turned to a wilderness. Tliis island amongtt 
ibe TtU, o4ir next ndghboura the Prundi and Gcnnaiis, may be a suffiricQt 
wttnem, that in a tliorl time, by that prudent [wlicy of ibe Romans, was 
brought from harheriim ; *(^e but what CiE'sar reports of us, and Tacitus of 
thoae ojd (icTOians : they were once sis uncivil as the v in Virginia; yet, by 
idaating of colonics and good laws, they hecrtmc. from biirbarous outlaws, 
•to befiill of rich and populous cities, as now they .ire, nnd moM fiourishing 
tingdo«ni. Even so mi^bt Viri;ini.^, and those wild Irish, have been civilij;cd 
intg since, if that order had been heretofore taken, which now bi'gios, of 
pfauttiog colonies, &c. I have read a 'discourse, primed anno !6I'!, dii- 
rmxring the true cavui, why Inland uini never tntircly tubdiitd, or 
troHgkl tiuder obedience to the COivn of England, until the beginning of 
hu Majeiliet happy reign. Yet, if his rtasoiu wi^re tboruui;bly scanned by 
ajndictoux pn)itM:ian, 1 am afraid be would not altogether be approved, but 
dnt it wmild turn to the dishonour of our nation, to suffer it to lye so long 
waate. Vca, and if some travellers should see (to come neerer home) ihoae 

*\Jh. nM^. morlL wry. ma «niniL III nan nnionlunl. ut diii mm* tiuioFum Htn Fuiuof. Don 
■ll«tj |rrli*U^i nff"T»Ti1| mt Dari<bDn:imla4l)i>(iv*: tKi\ ■mmTCTHHut RK/Ttnu^ t-iuprnnt AilwL. 
\am ■■* Btk^. vt rtintrslliKfvi hie ntniEBDt. ' I Cot- S, h a. ' 0Eik)ti. i)(iimdn (liHRimii u^tb I 
FiiL a. I. -or nihltb mi n*A Iwo fMrni!') Si-nnnni. * m Intilulrd, ind pmchril \iy our Ka|laS 
Tntmat. D. PiUMOXt ftbtlri ■( Lauduo l,i Polli Kiuiciidd. ICBt. >8i^ua Ikid> mjtifrl* qh- 
MMiwiiar*. SakalUroa. ■■> QcRuall. a\ qoli lidnii Grniiktiiiiii iKbltnuhodlfMcuIlvn. nim 
*ntH, m oilia, irMm rnltik ■•fwram <wlo, laRim infaimi'm. ■ By Mi Ha)cill<* Allurocj <■«• 


Denocritut to the Reader. 

rich United Provinces of Holland, Zealand, &c. over tigain«t ut, tbosn neat 
cities and popiilou* towni. Tiill of moKt inrliistrioiis srtiBcere, '' w inuchlaiid 
recovered from Uie tea, nnd so painfully pn^ai-rvcd by tliose artificial in\-ca- 
tions, so wonderfully approved, as thai of Uemster in Holland, ut nxkil huie 
par aal $irriile inveniai iii lolo or/it, saith Uertiiis the j^gKphcr — all the 
world cannot maicb it : ' so many navigable cljanneU fiom place to [>lace, 
made by ineiii liaods, &c. and, on the Other side, ho many tliousand acret 
of OUT kai lie drowned, our cities thin, and tliosu vile, poor, and ugly to 
beliold in respect of theirs: our trades decayed, our still ruriatDn; rivers 
»toppc!i), und tliat hcneiicial use of trunspurtuiion wholly neglected ; to 
many hnvensvoid of ships and lonnt>, so many parks and forcxtsfor pleasure, 
barren heath», so many villages depopulated. Sec. I thinic sure he would find 
some iitiilt. 

1 may not deny but that this niition of our* ilotli hrne audire apvil eilrro$ 
—is a most noble, a most Hoiirisliing kingdom, by common consent of all 
'geogmphers, historians, politicians : 'tis uniea vflut arx, and which Quin- 
tiiis in Livy said of the inhabitants of Peloponnesus, may be well npplyed to 
us, we arc lesludines Usld nud ineiutie — like so many tortoises in our shells, 
safely defended liy au aii^y sea, as a wall, on all sides ; our island hath 
many such honourable eto^iums ; and, hh a learned counirey-man of oan 
right well hutli it, ' Ever aince the Norrnam fint coming ittta England, ikit 
Ctninlrey, both for military mallert and nil other of civility, halk been pa- 
rallel'it with the tnoil Jt<>tlrithing kingdom* of Europe, and mir Christiam 
world-~A lilcKied, a rich countrcy, and one of the fortunate isles; and, for 
some things, '' preferred before other countries, for expert seanicu, our labo- 
rious discovcricK, art of navigation, ttne mcrclmnts — they carry tlie bell 
iiwuyfrom all other nations, even the Portngals and Hollanders therasclvc* 
— 'u'itAoMf a//_/eur, (saitli ^iAxxms) f hi rowing the ocean winter and tiimmtr ; 
and two of their caplaini, tvilh no leas valour than fortune, have failed 
rou»d about the world. J Wehave besides many particular blessings, which 
onr nei|;;hbouis want— the gos[)el truly preachea, church diseiphne esta- 
blished. Ions peace and quietness — free from exactions, forai)cn lean, inva- 
sions, domestical seditions — well manured, * fortitied by art, and uature, and 
now most happy in that fortunate union of England und Scotlund, which our 
forefathers have blK>urcd to efleet, and desired to see : but, in which we 
cxcell all others, a wise, learned, religious king, unollier Numa, u second 
Augustus!, a tnic Josiah, most worthy senators, a leunied clergy, an obedient 
commonalty, &c. Ycl, amongst many roses, some thistles grow, some hi " 
weeds and enormities, which much disturb the peaee of this body politic 
eclipse the honour and glory of it, lit to be rooted out, and wiOi ail speed to 
he reformed. 

The first is idleness, by reason of which we have many swarms of rogues 
■nd beg^rs, tliecves, drunkards, and diseontenlcd persons. (whom Lycu[^ut, 
in Plutarch, calls mvrbos reipub. the boils of the common- wealth), many 
poor people in all our towns, civilaten ignobilex, as ' Polydore calls tliem, 
MM built cities, inglorious, poor, small, rare in sight, ruinous, and tjiin of 
inhabitants. Our land is fertile {we may nut deny), full of all good things ; 
and why doth it not then ntiound with cities, as well a* It^y, Francs, 
Germany, tlie Low-Countrcys i because itieir policy hath been otherwise ; 
and we are not so thrifly, circumspect, industrii>us. Idleness is the mollis 

*Aff Zpl|iUii<f, KpmBter 111 HuILBud, ke, ' Fpora Giuiil ht ShiL-f, Trvm Bfuen hi Uiv **«, %e. 

'Ottrllii*, Uolcrui. Ui'rnt^ri, MvlonniA, Sh. f Juii Lndtr rn^n hi'lli ciurb, iju^fu imnEBnLtaljri I'lilli^, 
l*<irr aoftnlJAtinu, (»rbi>{^hri>ittjuiL jrni|iMliBprkmt> S'truiL Camilf-n.lirit. dv NLDimAitikJ*. ^Kiv*ig, 

oSTt^wxiuL Amphtlh^Atru J^otrruh tA ttrliit 
'Tolt Urttaiini* unl>'( »»lul »". Buti-r. ' Lib. 



titter. ' 'I'liln hj'i'lnf" nm 

lUdkdl imkD» forLdTiA^ Inlkun orbcin Ufnp VifviimalTt^WxiuL Amphtlh^ttru Uotrruh 

•cAlifHw hit. X<^ l\H. kofl. wuaIh inffrun, ttt. ■ — - - 


Democritns to the Hftuin. 


^MiMoT OUT nation: for, (as" Bot«ni* justly argues) fcrtililyof n eounlMj 
it not cnoagti, cicept an and induttry I>c jovRcd unto it. According to 
AlislMle, riches are cither italural or arlilicial : oaltiral aie good land, fair 
mines. &c. anificial, are maoiifactiire*, coince. &c. Many ktngiloma are 
refiile. bul lliin of inliabilanls, as lUat duchy of Piedmont iu Italy, which 
Leutder Albetiin eo much ma^aifie* for corn, wine, fruiu, Sec. yet nothing 
near wo populous as tboM whirh are more barren. " Eni/land, nith he, 
(LomJon only rxetpUd) katk nnvr a populiiuf city, and yet a fruitful 
eommtreif. 1 Bud 4'> cities and wallcil liiwiii in AUatia, a Mnall province in 
Germanv, AOcMtlcx. nn infinite niimbc* of villagrs, no ground idle — no, not 
rocky placrK, or topt of hills, arc untillcd, sa " Munstcr inlbrmetb us. In 
'Grcid)gea,asmall territory on theNcckcr.'M Italian tnilrs oi-cr, I read of 
30 trailed (owns, innumerable villages, each One containing 150 houses most 
pan, beSMles castles and noblemens palaces. I obtene, in iTuringeui 
Dutchland, (tw«Ive miles over by their scale) 12 counties, and in them 144 
cities. 2000 villages, 144 towns, '^rjOcasiles—in' Bavaria. 34 cities, 46 towns, 
&c. • Porltigallut inliramnis, a small plot iifgruunii,haUi 1160 paii^ihea, 
130 ino»ast«rie:s, 200 brid^i-i. Malta, a barren inland, yii-liU '21)000 inlia- 
bitaut*. But of all tbe rest, I lulmirci Lues Oiiii'cianlincs relations of llie 
Low-Couiilrius. Holhnd liaUi 1^ cities, 400 great villages — ^Zelantl, 10 
cities, 102 pariilics — Brmlnnt, 36 cities, 102 parishes — Planden, 28 cities, 
90lDwns, 1154 villages, besides nbbics, castles, Ac. The Uiw-Coiin tries 
Evnerally have three cities at lca«t for one of ours, and those more popu- 
lous antf rich : and what is the cause, but tlteir industry and excellency in 
all manner of trades, tlieir commerce, wluch is maintained by a multitude 
of iradrsmen, so many excellent chaiinela made by art, and opportun« 
liBTcns, to which they build tlieir cities I all which we have in like measure, 
or St leaat may have. Bui iLeir chiefest loaditone, which draws all manner 
cf oommerce and nierchandiiie, which rtiainluiiu thdr present estate, is not 
ftnility of soyi, but industry tliat enricheth tliem : the gold mines of Peru or 
Nova Hbpania may not cnmpare witli them. Tliey hare neither gold nor 
lilrer of tneir own, wine nor oyl, or )irnree any com growing in those United 
Prartnce*, little at no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk, wool, any Muff almmt, or 
nettle; nod yet Hungary, Transilvania, that brag of their min», fcrtiln 
England, cannot compare with them. 1 dare boldly tav, ihnt neither France, 
Tnatum, Apqlia, Lombardy, or any part of Italy, VaJencc in Spain, or 
Iktt pleasant Andalusia, with their excelleni fruits, wine, and oyl, two har- 
itfti — DO, not any part of Europe, is so flourishini>, so rich, to populous, so 
fan oTgoodsliipS, of well built cities, so abounding with all things necessary 
fer the use of man. "Ta our Indies, an epitunit! of China, and all by rramn 
of their industry, good policy, and i-ommtrcc. Industry is a loadstone to 
4mw all good things : that alone mulccn countries flourish, cities populous, 
*4Bd wBI enforce, by reason of much munure which necessarily follows, a 
itrren toyl to be fertile and good, as sheep (unith " Dion) mend a bad 

Tell me, politicians, why is the fruitful Pn1cstin;i, noble Greece, JEgyyt, 
An Minor, *o much decayed, and (mecr carcaiwes now) fain from that iney 
Were ? Tbc ground is the same ; but the g^ovcrnmcnt is altered ; the people 
Uc grown slothful, idle; their good husbandry, policy, and industry, is 
dmtyetl. Norn falujala aut effeta humu$; (as ' ColumeJIu well inlorms 

oAl Ubi. I. n[>. a 
««flS ttandf L 

• Anfltii. HFFpto Irfinilina, nullEr<>rtiiiu mnniiiiliilli, lloiiM 

■*M. Bout. L a. c. I. 
'Br I* ran. lt.aif.1. 

, . ... .".lie 

Cusuoc. iSb.i. «n. lis. VlllinimiiuDntnumrrwi-.niilhuiliiciu 
tCTiymui.onL «lil- Fnnevr. Ufe3. v MaeiuuiOk^ ■Orlf Uu" Vvm 

_ . . . fiuuiliri m ••eii. ■ Puinili DiuliiUili) diI%a)U oiliurfi rtvunilat 
• OnL U. Trm atri on* lUbulaninr, optima ifilMlli uli •IfiFui. 


Uemoeritm to the Reader. 

Sy|vinu») ltd ttoUtAJit inertid. Sic. May n tnnn hplievp Uint wliich Aristotle 
in his Politick.i, l*iiii*!iniii». i^teptiAniis, ^phiunus, Gcrbcliiis. relate »f old 
Greece? I find licrcioforp 70 cities in Epirus (overlhrown by Paiilui 
/Emilius). a f^ocHlly province in times psAt, * now left desolate of );ood towns, 
and almusi inliabitauts — 62 cities in Macedonia, in Strabo's time. I tind 
30 in Lacouia, but now scarce so many >itla{i'es, saitli Gerbclius. If uny 
man, ftum Mount Tayj^tu*, should view the countrey round about, and *ct 
lot drlicias, lot arbts per Peloponn<sam dispenas, so luaiiy delitalr and 
bratT built eititr*, witlj such cost itiid exquisite cunning, so neatly set out in 
Pelojx)niii.-au!i, ' he slioidd [lerceivi: them now ruinou* aud iiverllimwn, biimi, 
wuKtc, desolate, and laid Ipvi-I witli the ground. IncretlihiU ilictu, Sfc, And 
o» lnr liinumti, Quit, talin fando. Teiiiperel a Incrymii^ Quia tarn durut 
aat feTTrus,(*n lie prowrulM it) wlio is he lliat can sufficitntly condole and 
cnrnmiscmlc ihcwr ruiiicn ' Whrn- :»rc those 4000 citic-s of .E^pt, those 
1 00 cities ia Crete ? Are l.hcy now rtunc to two ? What snilh Pimy, and 
jElian, of Uld Italy ? There were, in Ibrmer !ige>, llfiS cities: Uloodus 
and Machiavel both grant them now nothing Dear no populous and full of 
good towns, as in tlie lime of Augustus (for now Lcaiider Albertus can find 
but 300 at most), and, if we may give credit to ' Livy, not then so strung 
and puissant as of old : The*/ muHered 70 leyions in /ormer lime*, which 
jutw the known world will scarce yirltl. Alexander budt 70 cities in a short 
«na<'efor his part; ourAullaiis and Turks demolish twice as many, and leat-o 
all diwilute. Many will nut lieliert- but thai our island of Grvat Britain is 
now more popultius than ever it was : yet lei ihem read Bede, I.eland, and 
others; they shull lind it most flfiurishc-d in the Saxon Heptarchy, and in 
the Conquerors time wu.i fiii belter inhabilfd, than at this pn-scnt. See that 
Doomsday -KwiV : and shew mi: thousands of piirishc-s, which arc now 
decayed, cities ruined, villages depopulated, &c. The lesser the territory is, 
commonly the richer it \%—parvui, itd bene r>illus,agfr — as tliosc Athenian, 
Lacedtemonian, Atcadinn, Elcan, Sicvoninn, Messenian, Sic, commoit- 
wealths of Greece make ample proof — as those imperinl cities and ftre states 
of Germany may witness — those cautons of i^witzers. Khteti, Grisous, 
Walloons, territories of Tuscany. Lucca and Sienna of old, Piedmont, 
Mautua, Venice in Italy. Ragtise, &c. 

Tliat prince, therefore, (as ' Boterus adviseth) that will have a rich couii- 
trev, and fair cities, let him gel good trades, privileges, painful tn habitants, 
artificers, and suffer no rude mutter unwroughl, as tin, iron, wool, lead, 
&c. t" bi- traiisiHirted out of his countrey — »» thing in pan seriously at- 
tempted amongst us, but not rfTected. And, because industry of men. and 
multitude of trade, so much avails to the umameul and enriching of a 
kingdom, those ancient '* Massiliiins would admit no ni&n into their city that 
had not some trade. Selym the first Turkish rmpcrour, procured a tluni- 
sand Kood urtifirers to he brought from Tauris to CDRstsnttuople. The 
Polauders indented with Henry duke of Anjou, their new chot^n king, to 
bring with him an hundred families of urlificcrs into Poland. .Fanie-s the 
First ill Scotland (as * Buchanan writes) ticnt for the be»t arlilicen he could 
get in Burope, and gave them great ren^nU to tr»ch hit unbiccts their 
several trades. Edwaid the Tliird. out moti renowned king, to iii* eternal 
memory, brou);bt cloutliiug tir^t into this island, transporting soidc fiuniliet of 
artiticers from Gaunt liiUier. How many goodly cities corild I reckon «p, 
that thrive wholly by trade, w1i«r« ihuusuiids of iobabilants live aln|;ular ml) 

• Hodif uthlbui iliHolilur. el in4Tni n pule imwli* rtnOlniliii. Rrrlvlliiii. <I«M. Onatot, lib, S. 

* Vidfibll rv t^tr Trnuio nut i-VL-ntb. mil "ffoKjualAa. 4u( lu fuilrn tOffUnliiic dpjnUx. Offtbrliiu^ 
f Lib. 1. ikfbtiaciiiru ulim l^tr""!** K-niitv ^l^nt^r; i|uiai rim bujir. ju. •Pulll. L a ^- a 
*y4r<Aj»kd;o<fliiA(hB, nii<ldr<>iutrbg. tec ^ Vtlpr. lib, 9, t. I. •IlltL ftrtfL Itk 10. Mac^tBimipo. 
•at* pMnulIi. Htttcoll til 111 nluecmtul. 

thinocritta to the Reader. 


liv llieir fii^cvr eiitb, as Flomici! in Italy by miikiittc clotti of gnid; grcai 
Millan by Ri)k, and ull curioiu wiwkt ; ktta* in At(oi> l>y (Iichm- liiir hung- 
in^; iRiuty citJi'* in Spain, many in France, (.trrmiirty, hnvc noiiF other 
■■■UiUinBncr, Mpccially tfio*c vriihin {lie lanil. '' Hrrlia, in Amhin I'dreea, 
•tand» in a most unfniilfiil roiinin'V, timt tmnU water, arnongM iFic rocks 
(m Vcrtomannii^ <lcscribcs it) ; anil jvt it k a most elegant nn<l pleasant 
city, by reason or the irnffick of the ca»t and west. Onnu^. m Pcnia, is a 
tDosl ramotia mart-town, hath nought else but the opportunity of the haven 
to make il flourish. Corinth, a noble cily, {lumen Gnrcur, Tully calls il) 
the eye of Greece, by reason of Cenchread and Lecheus, tbo»e excellent 
ports, drew all tlie traffick of the Ionian and £g;ean seas to it ; and yet tlic 
countrey about it wa* eurva el tuperciiioia, (as ' Slrabo tcmin it) ruij^gftd 
and faanb. We may say the same of Athens, Actiuro, Thebi-s, .Sparta, and 
OMMt of thoM town.t in <in«<.-e. Norenberg in Germany is' kjIimI in a most 
barren xni, vpt a noble impt-riiil cily, by tne sole, indiutry of arli6r<T«, nnd 
running tratlci : they draw tlic rielin of nicirt couiilrcrs tii tliein; »or:xpprt 
in oianufacturct.lhnt, nsSalluKi lone si not- -^kreoutof the lik'-, fc/rm •vftinn* 
in tltrcMuditjilii hahtnl ,- their kiuIjUt tHlrlltctUtayfns, Wiuplncrd in their 
fingers ends ; and so we may ray of Llafjt, Spire, Cambmy, ["rancfurt, &c. 
It is almost iivcredible to ipcnk wlint m^mc write of Mexico, nnd the cities 
sdjoynintr to tt : no place in the world, at tlicir titst diKovcry, more popu- 
lous. ' iMat. Riceius the Jesuilc, and sonic others, relate of tlie industry of 
tbe Cbina<« inott populous eountreys, not a bef|:t;ar, or an idle person to be 
seen, aixl liow by that means they prosper and flourish. We have the same 
means — able bodies, pliatst wits, matter of all sorts, wool, flax, iron, tin, 
lad, wood, &c. many excellent subjects to work upon : only industry is 
wanting. We send our Ix-st eommudilien beyond tlie seas, which they can 
sake t^od u*cot to their nocewitie*, *t:i tliemsetves a work about, and 
ttTcrally improve, sending the same to u* back at dear rates, or else make 
loves and babies of the tniU of them, whirh they »cll tons a^in, ai as grf^t 
a reckoning as ihcv bou^^bi the whole. In niost of oar cities, some few ex- 
cepUd, lilce "Spanish toytercrs, we- live wholly by tipling: inn* and ale- 
Muses, nialliii',;, are tlieir best ploughs; their greatest tnifKck, to Kcll ate. 
* Heteran and wwoe others object to iis, that we arc no whit no industrious 
M tiie Hollaiiden: Manual iratfet, (saith he) tohich are more citriout or 
IroubU-utme, arc whally e.xercued by ilrangtra : theff dwell in a tea full of 
fi*k; but thry are no idlr. Ikey will nol catch m much at shall aerre their 
own turns, but buy it of thrir neijjhliours. Tush 1 ' Afar* liberum : they 
bh undo our noio, and «ell it to us, when they have done, at their own 

. I ■ - l^idd hrc opiirolFrla nobU 
Kl Ha pDluiiw el DUD giotubM irttOL 

I am ashamed to hear this objected by strangers ; and know not bow to 
answer iL 

AmonifM our towns there is only ' London that bcnrs the face of a city — 
^epitonte Brilannitr, a Yimous empoririin, second to none bry<md iea», n 
uoblc niart : lait nolo crticit, decrvsL'cntibui allis ; and yet, in my slender 
JM^unent, defective in mimy things. Tlie rest ('some few excepted) are in 
c»ute, niininu mu»t part, poor and full of befrgars, by reason of their 

. cfiBi. L &, p- 74'- A|^ Drnnltim rvrtim Infi'^iMirliitlino. iu|ui IntUitnirp. iDleT 4ipui,urba 

. •?llft Tim"*. I'^'Si * 1*1^ fini'ilH. In Sinw- • l"j' niililJn |Tliiliri Ic-ollitmil •rlmi 

, J praSlnL. Cfclrffl il-. 1. 1. 'I.ih la. «c1k. lll.t Nun tun I.1k.i1...1 uIB.'Ibo'. .lO. ul 

Vhpul. 4rfls14R«. tifnt uf )>luiimuru atuuun atgrtttv*- Artr* mm^imrl''. ^lur pliinmiim hnViil la tr 
UimictMnnMitt*. ndrityniquf- nquImM IsdiulilJun. a (ii'irKrlnu it «Irrl> i-iirnnilBr t hdiUanl 
)« lUaataiiiM mwt L tntirm Untudtnon piAcmtur quiuii tnnnl' ■ulTrcrTil, Hird ■ vlduEtnarr^cvfun* 
■u. • OiotU tiiaf. itTila intmliiiuinFroqup iKilciu. tt labuip tmtu. Bcaltgi't. tCsnitaifh 
'VeA. BflalB>, Kurwlch. Wwcntrc. &r- 


Dauocritas lo the Header. 

decayed trades, neglected or bad policy, idlen«8i of their inhabitants, and 
riot, which bad rather beg or loytcr, and be ready to Btarve, than work. 

I cannot d-jny. but tliat soraethinit may be said in defence of our cities, 
= that lliey are not so fair built, (for llie sole niastnificencc of this kingiloni, 
concerning building, liaih been of old in those Norman castles and rellgiojis 
houoca) so rich, tliick »itcd, populous, as in some other cuuntreys. lirsides 
Uw rcosons Cnrdan gives, (SuAfi/. £.16. II.) we want wine and oyl, thi^ir 
two biu'VMts ; wcdirrll in urulder air, and, for that cause, mu»t n lilllc more 
libernlly "feed of t|p»li. as all Norllu-rn coimtrpy* do. Oiir provision will 
not therefore extend tn the mniatennnc*! of s« many : yet, notwithstanding, 
we have matter of all Rort», an open sea of traffick, ns well as the rest, 
goodly havens. And how can w<: excnsrr our negligence, our riot, drunken- 
new, &c. and such enormities thnt follow It? We have excellent laws 
enacted, (you will gay) severe statutes, house* of correction, &c. — to small 
pucposc, it seems ; il is not houses will icrve. but cities of correction : " our 
trades generally ought lo be reformed, wants supplyed. In other countreys, 
they have the same grievances, 1 confess, ( but tfiat doth not excuse us) 
Pwant«, defects, enomiilies, idle drones, tumults, discords, contention, law- 
suits, many laws made against them to repress those innutnerublc brawU and 
hiW'Suits, excess iu apparel, diet, decay of (illa^, depopulations, t especi- 
ally against rogues, l>c^ars, .i\g;y|>liau vagabonds (so termed at least) which 
have ' swnrmed all over G<'^many, France, Italy, Poland, (as you may read 
in ' Munsier, Cmnrins, and Avcntinus) as those Tartars and Arabians at this 
day do in the eastern countreys — yet, (such liuth lieen the iniquity of all 
ages) aa il seems, to small purpose. Nemo in noUrA civitale mendiatg etlo, 
Sftith Plato : he will have them purged from a ' common-weath, " as a bad 
kiarutUT from ike body, that are like so many ulcers and boils, and must be 
cared before the nielauchuly body can be eased. 

What Caiuhis Ma;;nu3, the Chinese, the Spaniards, the duke of Sasonv, 
an<l many oiiier states, have decreed in this case, read Arnitcut, cap. iS. 
Bolerus, lihro S, cap. 2. Oiorius, de Rehas gtt(. Eman. Itb. 1 1 , When ■ 
countwy is overrtorcd with people, as a pasture is oft, over-laid witli cattle, 
lliey hiul wont in former timet to disburden themselves, by sending out colo> 
nies, or by wars, a* thosci old Romans; or by em|iloyinic tncm at home alxiut 
•ome publie buddings, as bridges, rode-ways, (for which those Romans were 
famous in this island) as Augtutus C«ciar did in Ronur. the Sp.iniards in 
their Indian mines, as at Potom in Pero, where some tliirty thousand men 
arc .still at vork, six thousand furnaces ever boyhng, Arc. ' oquoducta. 
bridges, havens, those stupend woiki of Trajan, Claudius at "Ostium, Dio- 
clc-siani Theima?, Fucinus Lacus, that Pirtecum in Athens, made by Xhentt> 
stocles, antphilheatnims of curioas marble, as nl Verona, Civiias Phtlipipif 
and Heraclea in Thraee, those .Appian and Flaminian wayes. prodij^ioua 
works all may witness; and (rathi-c than ihey should be 'idle) as those 
"^^ptian Pharaohs. Mn-ris. and Sesostris, did, to task their subjecUto 
build unnecessary pyramids, obelisks, labyrinths, ehanels, takes, ^i^atian 

■ U. Otlwrofdi snumnl, " Rtwio (mUrmm ilwrll ■Uh ■■• In Ihr coontny •llUcn. out dUn 
•m iMa." U niiihlu( to Ihc punxHr. I*ul JDO oi 100 , Dlagn In * ttiirr. tai nnj •Was* jivU • |ni> 
Ikmn vhil it IdO bndUf* U> mrrRVH unr »f i>ur I'llln or tii vunlKiil nail thrin. which alud 
fh^cliTr ' 4uil wlinv** our* wiudW coaaiiiE at ^IU>, ThrUi ranalit At UOOO lubtbitxnU- * Muinu 
\i<n *iml> Lii ctmQ cwuMiL ^oti,!. Litk ]. lliiL * IL«tTnuato tsnnvlKiltt lirrnmoi; lour^utm 
4l«(i(ur btia ; vrdlnimMar urinlwo; iuittteiiua iiitttunoir; ul »a hrmaliim i>H.>ndiD, quo v n^ 
*(«HI oIlMs tils luibt. NW aia auB* mtitatnt. fiwin (UTivdI luiUtLwk Uor. tiiop, LLb. I. 
rMiiloljrililacupl(i.t(tt«MsClp{adocumm. Hor. i Ri^ 1> dlcnltalia nan BluncKn inpBiiail 
in ntbdteo*. *m in npulmb»*- Kan nl ngai <1««ub, mA vMn^n^ nu rahEot. Idnn. ■ Coilitvin 
hcmUium mfTLbiltk. r^frmM n^\f. ),mmneAi vn^, ta<ii vitu. turUa iiq|FrinU vm » ttc- 'Co^tfio^n 
Itli, X f.ti. <E<«ii^x, Hiiirl mlnut lur^k prlncipi miUlft ioppilcift. qium nip«11co nmiU fonn^ 
•111 (AailUm *t bli™ I TOipuft. (]].*■ ir».i uDinn lull atmnlurl. '8« Iji'»l>i>. AdmUwds, 
•Utf*i HutL >nl.Uu'tiu : vl riihri>,c- M. -i;) wiiliitl (inu]«tl|tH*lBuci^utisIui. Oj.iriFUcMi. 
4taesulur. lanuntublt-vimiui, B^Khii- i-t r. 3- ciui& s. 1. lABVflk, jf^TpOr**!. Ir^vm pmrnnlti* 
til, W oBian ■ttbdtci 'pounnu iiuoaem irdiln*ai undt TiTvnet. 


Democrilus to the Header. 


to dirvrt tlinn Iraoi rebellion, rial, (lruuk«iiiie» ; *quo tcUiftt 
n« va^tuuio lahorarr drsutscant. 

Another «je-sor« a tint wiint of conduct aiid nnvi^bU; rircn, — a great 
Uenith, (ai * Uotenii, '' llip^lytiig a Collibii*, ant) otlicr politician* hold) 
■r it be Defected in a common -wealth. AdmiraWn cn*t and chnrgc is bo- 
kiowmI in the Low-Couiitreys on ih'ia behalf, in the Duchy »!' Mibo, iciri- 
(ory of Padua, ta ' France, Italy, China, and so likewise about oorrivalions 
of wftUn, to avoist«n and rafreaii barrai ^unds. to diean fens, bog«, and 
moon. MunnisKa made many inward paiU of Barbary and Numidia in 
Afrtck (bdbrc Iiii ttni« incull and horrid) fruitful aud barlafale by this 
BKUu. Great induitry in i;cTi«T«lly u«ei) all over (he eastern countreys in 
tlna khsd, c«pecially in i^^tvpt, nbuul Bubylon and Damascus, (as Vertu- 
mnnnus uid ''Gouirdus Artliu* relate) ul>out Barcelona, Segovia, Murcia, 
and toony other place* of Spain, Milan in Italy : by reason of which, tlieir 
soil is tnnch improved, and infinite cutnmoilitie* urixe to llie lahabitantn. 

The Tmks of late attempted to cut that Isihmon beiwim Africk and Asia, 
which * Sesostri* and Uaiius, and some Pharaohs of ''Egypt had forinctly 
Miidertakeo, but with ill success (as 'Diodorus Siciilus rccottls, and Pliny): 
for (hat the Red-sea, being three 'cubits hi|;hcr thsn JE^ypi, would have 
drowued all the connlrey, eaplo destileranl, ihey left otf. ^'<:t {a* the cane 
* DmcIotus wriiei) Ptolemy renewed the work maity yeiir* nftct, and nbtolvcd 
it in a more u]>poitutie place. 

Iliat IslhnioaorCoTinlU wud Likewine undertaken to be made navigable by 
DefDCUius, by Julius C»-Bir. Nero. Doniitian, Herodo Atticiu, to make a 
speedy * pasngc, and leM dan^ruui, frtiui tiie luniuii and j£i,'a.'aii seas : 
Mt. wcaaM it could not be to well effi^eii-d, tlit^ Peloponnesians built a 
wall, like out Picts v,-iill, about S<-ha!nu», where Neiituues temple stood, and 
in tlsc shortest cut over the Isthtnot, (of which Diodorus, lib. 11. Herodotus, 
lib. 8. Uran.— om later writers call it Hexnmilinm) which Amumtli the Turk 
denobthed, the Venetians, anno 14.^3, repaired in tiHeen ihiys with tiiJrty 
Uioauatd men. Some, saith Acosta, would have a pnssitge ent from Panama 
to Nonlwe de Dios in America : but Thnanus nnd Serres, the French his- 
Uriuu, speak of a famous aqueduct in Prance, intended in ilrjtry tlic 
Fonrtbs time, frow the Loyr to the Seine, and from KliodanuK to Loyr, the 
like lo wlikh was formeily a.iiayed by Domitian the empcrour, 'from Arar 
to Moaella, (wlucU Cornelius Tacitus speuks of in the thirteenth of his 
.AnnaU), after by Charles the frvM, and olliera. Much cost hath in l«r- 
mrr times been bestowed in citlier new ni^ikini; or mending chnncU nf 
rivrrs, and their pottage*, (as Aurelinnus did by Tiber to make it navi^fable 
lo Rome, to convey corn from ,1'!gypt to tlie <'ity ; vadum alvei twmcntU 
tffodit, saith Vopiscus, ct TihtrU ripas txtruxit : tie cut fords, made hiuiks, 
Ac.) decayed havens, which Claudius the cmperour, with iuficiile puin» and 
clnrgea, attempted at Ostia, (as I have said) the Venetians at this day, to 
pceaerTe tlwir crly. Many excellent means, to enrich their territoricji, haie 
Men fostered, invented in most provinces of Europe, ns planting some Indian 
pbnU amon^^t us ; silk-worms : " the very mullx^rry leaves in the plains of 
Oranado vield thirty thousand crowns per annum to the kin|r ofSpaius cof- 
fers, beaioes tlioae many trades and artificers that arc busied about them in 

■Llli I. lie fndrm. otii. tap. t. *C«p. S. lie Inolrm. u'll. 

<tei>aaB0i, IsOBI, MilBurt. ilfull. • Im-rrJIbili'ui wmmodtlMoii, nrtaii imtiuum. n« fluil) na- 

il^lilhi. Ii BolRW. di OdllL ' tl.'>T»U>tii>. ■ Ind. OrifDl. A|>. >. RoUm In mnllu auniiiie 

~~ nal, coin FTllUnt ntnuhum rnniiiln- ntm (piumilUDl: ti). duin tuMmn'Flui, wiuiai uvr 

. ac '(^UHD l»U« liU fo»*i, 3(1 •lit iCrintoitl In Uinl of Arrhuunlrt. Kho holili Uit of rfl wiUn *T*n, »tJli Lnn-, 3, 'IMnn, Puiuintu.. i-l Nic. (irrbrllu^ Mun.lrt. 

. lib, I- cMkSa tit bn^iuT faTT.| nti-Kntiiti *i idieiu* I'l^Flrulo^L M'Ttiailn ilir grvX rrat 

"■ ...» .... .... - . -— .-— ->-rnilam 

. . 111. nil. I'iikliiiMUi, dtwrlpl. titt, Ihri 

In U«,lTi1fh 10 AlTcmnL IJinanifibbiiUiiihir h-U 
Ocoi;^, S^oJcru*. dc rpp. Uolvrt. lili. 1. Elracript, 

■ •M J<I 

■^•kvnl Wiiiilmi nmii llwrnirh lo Alirmi'L llinB>i||ililIUla(ii[>r UcciilDaU>Ct8«pt«Mi>°l* 
•MnemM. >Hi#bni>.r ~ 


Demoeritus to (he Reader. 

the kingdom ofGrnnailo, Mtircia, and all over Spain. In France, * 
beiierit is raised by salt, &c. Whetlier iliese ibtiiga migtil tiol be as happil] 
atteinjiictl wiib u«, and with like success, it may be couiroierled — niik* 
worms (1 mean), vines, fir-tree», &c. C;irJaii exiiurts EUwaid ilii; Sixlb lo 
pkint olires, and is fully perawadccl llicy would prosper in this island, WiUi 
us, navigable riven are mon part ni-^l(.Tied. t>ur streams ure nut great, I 
(.■onfesK, by reason »f the narrotvn^-ss ol' tlie iibnd : yrl ttii^y run Mucothly 
and evftn, not headlong, swilX, or amunpit rooks and «hrlvus, us Ibiunmgi 
Khocbuiijx and I^tyre in Finance, Tigris in Mesopotamia, violent Uuriiis in 
Sptiin. with i'nUrai.-Ii and wliirl-pool«, as Kbine and Danubiiis, about 
SchnflinuBpn, Laiistnlmfgib, IJnz, and Crcmnic*, lo endanger navigators ; 
or brond sbidlow, as Neckar in llic I'alntinate, Tibn* in Italy; but calm and 
fiiir as Ariir in Friince. Ilvbtux in Macedonia, Eurotas in Laconia ; tiicy 
gently glide along, and might at well be repaired, mnnv of them, (I mean 
Wie, Trent, Oiue, Tbnmiiiis al Uxford, the defect of which we feel in tlie 
mean time) as the river from Ware to London. U. Atwater ofold.or J 
(as some will) Henry the iir«t, ' made a channel from Trent to Lincoln,] 
navigable; which now, sailb Mr. Caiubileu. i* decayed : and much iiicutioD.i 
itniade of anchors, and such like monumenU, found Hbout old "'Verulamium:j 
j^uod ibips have formerly comc tu F.xttt^r. and tnany audi places, wliotiel 
chiuiels, havens, port*, are now barrtd and rcje<;ted. We eonleuin tbiit 
benefit of carridKe by wuterx, and arc therefore ciunpelled, in tbe inm-r parts 
of this island, because porlngc is so dear, to eat tip our eotuniodities our- 
selvi-x, and live like so niiiny boar* in a sty, for want of venl and utterance. 

We have many excellent havens, royal havenx, Falmoulb. Porrsinoiilb, 
Milford, Ax. — eijuivalent, if not to be preferred, to that Indian Haviinn. old 
Brundusium in Italy, Aolis in Greece, Ambrnein in Acarnania, Suda in Crete, 
— which have few ships in ilicm, little or no traflick or tnule, which have scsice 
• vilinge oo them, able to bear great cities: acd xiderint poUlici, I couldJ 
here justly tax many other neglc^rts, abuses, errors, defects among us, audi 
in otlier countreys—depopidations. riot, drunkenness, &c, and many such, / 
guetnuncin aurtm susarmrt mn libel. But I must take heed, nequid gra'\ 
viut dicam. that 1 do not overshoot my aelf— 5us Minervum — I am forth 
my element, as you peradventure suppose; and someiimej ueri/a* w/iunj 
paril. as be said ; reijuice and oatmral u good /or a parrel : for, as LocianJ 
said of au historian, I say of a politician, he that will freely sgieak and write,^ 
must lie for ever no subject, under no pnnce or Uw, but lay out the matter j 
truly as it is, rtot earing what iiuy can. will. likr or dislike. 

Wc have good laws, (I deny not) to rectitie such enonnities ; and to i 
all other counlreys ; but, it socms, not alwayes to goml purpose. We had 
need of some general visitor in our ngc that should ri-forni what is amiM— a 
just army of Ilosic-cross men ; tor they will nnu-nd all matters, (tJiey say) 
religion, policy, mannens, with arts, sciences, Ae..— another v\ltilH, Tamber- 
lane, Hercules, to strive with Acbcloiis, Augea stabulum pargart, to subdue 
tyrants, as " he did Diomedosand Biisiris ; to expel thieves, a* he did Cacui ^J 
and Lacinius ; to vindicate poor c-^iptive*. as he did Heuonc ; to jiass tbe^H 
torrid loite, the deuuti of libya, and purj^e the wot^d of monsters and Cen- ^^\ 
laures — or anotber Theban Crate* to n-fomi our manners, to compose quar- 
rels and coDtroveruet, at in bis time be did, and was therefore adored for a 
([od in Alliens. A% Uemitet "purged iht learlti vfmoMttrs, omiI $uMMed 
Mem, to did he Jight against rnvg, l»*l, au/ftr, avarice, Src. and all ihoM 

'Cunrlro in Linrnlnthir*. I'oufillki'. -Nfu M. MImit. • I.taiu CtnJd. Not. Cnmn. •A|ii< 
ItitH, MK 1 Vlbj. I-Ar. ftflflUiru Lfiirr baminn *Uli> HI* futtvs Ht. Itttiin tPinntum M JiuslonaB 
mtirr irfuptntj 11(11 ifl-ilpr ri '\w-fy\mATf. Arl>vnaa inmiidiioD. bnitillAB. «««ritkAJki. lOiiaaiRP, 
rTtmiiUi' SEiimi humaiii tin* rt utuqaln rhjlfvophut ub U«nqlf* full. Fntncu iDnilltni»t&* 
rt a onmn, Kc 

Democritua to the Reader. 



frral viett and monstert af ihe miad. It were U> be wished we liitd «oinc 
luch vixitor,or (if wiatiing would wni:) one li»<l audi i> ring; or rittgit, iw 
TiimilstU desired iu ° Lucian, l>y venue of wiiii^h lie iJiould be uk strong us 
\e.n thoiiiiuid inei), or an army of EvatiU, ^o invisible, open iriilejc tind ciu'llc 
doorn, tiiive wlut treasure he would, iraciKpurt liiniwif in an inKliint xo what 
phkce bo dnaircd, alitor ulfccti»ii>, eiinr idl niunni-r of ditcaM-j, ihiit he might 
range over ibc world, uiid reform all itiatrrsucd nutcii uiid pi;r*on», u he 
would himwir. He might tirdude tliooe wandering Tutan io order, that 
infeat Chinann theonc ^itk, Mu.ieovy. PoUnd, on the other; and lame the 
ngabond Arabian* that ruh and spoil thoK cn^Um countreys, <bat they 
dwrald newr use more carsTaot, or jaoizarics to conduct tbcm. He miijihl 
root out barbarism out of America, and fully discover Terra Auttralta 
lacagnita ; find out the nofth-east and Dorth-weet paSMg«s ; drcao ihoee 
mi^ty Mu-'Oliaik fens; cut down those vast Hercynian woctda, irritate those 
barren Arabian desarts, &c. cure us of our epidemical diseases, scorbulnm, 
ptiea, morbtit Neapoiifaniu, ^c. end ttll our idle comrover&ieii : cut oil' our 
luluiuus desires, iDordioate luaU; root out atheism, impiety, her«*Je, 
»m luid supersiitioD. which now to crucifie the world; catecliiM! grots 
ignnnuictr, piiige Italy of luxury and riot, S])ain ofiuper^iilionand jeadoaxie, 
Uermany of druiikeone^is. all our nortlicrn counticys of ^dutlony and intem- 
perance ; eastiitate our bard^hearled pnreiili, mavieni, iiiton ; laiJi diso- 
bedient cliildren, ne^lip:nt lervmits: correct lliesc spend Uirin.-i and prodigal 
■OBB ; enforce idle prntgiu Io uork ; drivi- drunkards olf tlie idv-hoHse; 
repress tfaiev«, viiit eorni|iI and lyriinnizini^ migistr.iles, &c. Uiil, tu L> 
licinhl* taxed Timolaux, you mav ns. TheMi ^^^ vain. idiKiird, sind ridicu- 
lous wishes, not to he hoped : nil nnift he iu it i.i. <* ItoecAlinii* may cite 
common -wealths to come beliirc Apollo, and »eek to reform the world it self 
by commbaioiKrB ; but llicrc i» no remedy ; it may not be redressed : deai- 
tttnt homiaet lum demum ttuUeicere, t/uando este dttinenl : so long ns they 
can wag tlwir beards, Ihey will play the knaves and fools. 

Becaost?, tlierefbre, it is a llune so dilTtciilt. impossible, and far beyond 
HejTulei labours (o be fettonuva, let them be rude, stupid, ignonint, inculL: 
lapif fnpr.r tapidem *ed<at ; and as the '^ apolojfisl uill, retp. luiai rt yravfo- 
Ualii ttiimret, mundus cilio ; let tlieu) be barbarous aslhey are : let tliem 
' tvrannii^e, epicurixe, oppreiis, luxuriate, consume themselves wilh faclions, 
CUMftUtions, law-suits, wars and ecinteutions, live iu riot, poverty, want, 
■Utery; rebel, wallow ns so many swine in their own duu^;, with Ulvises 
com|MUtions ; stultos Juliro tste Ithenler. 1 will yet, Io satisfii? and plowe 
my self, mskc an iriopia of mine own, a new Atluutis, a poeticul cummon- 
weaJtfa of mine own, in which I will freely domini-er, build cities, muke laws, 
statotca. as I lutt my self. And why may 1 not ' 

Vol! know what liberty poets ever liad : and, besides, my predecessor Druio- 
critux was* politician, a recorder of Abdera, a law-maker, nssimie say : and 
wby may nol 1 presume so niucb as he did '. Howsoever I will adventure. 
For the Mte, if you will needs urge me to it. 1 am not fully rciolvcd : it may 
be m Terra AuilratU Incognita ; there is room cnoueh (lor, of my know- 
ledge, neitlicr that hungry Spauiur<),' nor Mereurius Bvilannicus, have yet 
discovered half of it) or cftc one of those floatini; islands in Marc del Xur, 
which, like the Cyanean islo in the Euxine sea, alter their place, and are 
accesnble only at set limes, and to some few persons; or one of llic For- 
timatie isles ; for who knows yet where, or wliieli they are ? There is room 
aoogfa in the inner parts of America, and northern coasts of Asia. Hut I 

[ -Tali* StTlR. r llugpii(;ii>. pRi t. irap. 1. rl pirll. r. IT i VcltiiL Aadre* A|Hilug. uuiijp, 
■QulsoKUduKKtrurdnniadhuc. -llor. -rirdinuiilaQult. lUt. 


Dewtocritta to the Reader, 

will choow a siic, whoM liititude &hftll be 45 <Ici;r««s (I roped not minulei), 
in the ini<l»t of tht^ trtnpcrati' sione, or perliftps under iho Bquator, thitt 
" paradise of the world, uftisem/ifr fiVews /uaraj, Jir. where Is a per^tuul 
spring. The loiif^ilude, for »oinc reasons, 1 will eoiiceal. Yet bt it inoivn ta 
all men bif these j/reseiiis, that if any honeal );i-ntl^iiian will send in mi much 
money, ax Cardau allows an astrologer for castiiit; a nativity, lie aliall be n 
sharer; 1 will acquaint hiai wiih ray projett; or, if any woilliy mun will 
stand for any tem|)oral or spiritual office, ur ciignily, {for, as li« said of hia 
arclibiiliopru'k of Utopiu, 'lis sanclas ambilut, und not aiiiist to he lought 
after) it shnll lie fredy i;iv«n, without all ititerressions, liribw, letter*, &c. 
bin own worth sliiill he the heit spokesman : and (becnuse we nhall ndmit of 
no deputies or ndvowsong) if he be suflieiently qnulilied, and as nble as 
willing to cxeentc the plaee himself, lie shnti have present pos»e«sioii. It 
iihall be dividod into twelve or thirteen provinees ; and those, by hills, riverj, 
rodc-wayes, or some more eminent liniiis, exactly bounded. Each prorince 
shnll have a metropolis, which sh.ill be so placed aaa center almost in a cir- 
cumference, and the rest at equal distances, some twelve Italian milea 
asunder, or thereabont ; and in them shall be sold all tilings necessarr tor 
the iii« of man, «/a/i« horia et diebus: no inarkel'towns, markets or 4tn(; 
for they do hut U-g^jr cities (no vtU^e shall stand above six, seven, or eight 
mile* from n eity) except those emporinins which are by (he sea side, general 
staples, mnrts, as Antwerp, Vcniee, Bergen of old, London, &'C. Cities, 
most part, (hull be situate upon navigable rivers or lakes, creeks, havens — 
and, for their Ibrm, re^uliir, round, square, or long squurc,* with fair, broad, 
and strnigbt " streets, jionses uniform, built of brick and slone, like Bruges, 
Bnixcls, Rhegium I/?pidi, Bema in Awitzeilnnd, Milan, Mantua, (.'rcma, 
Ciunbalu in Tartary described bj M. l'olu», or that Venetian Palma. I 
will admit very few or no suburbs, and those of baser building, wnlU only to 
keep out man and horse, exeept it bo in some Irontior towns, or by the sea 
side, and those to be fortified * after the latest manner of forlilicniion, and 
site upon eonveiiicnt havens, or opportune places. Id every so built city, I 
will have convenient churches, and separate places to bury the dead in, not 
in church -rnrds — a ciiadella (in some, not all f to command it, prisons for 
oflenders, oppnrlune niarkei-placcx of all »orU, for corn, meat, cattle, fuel, 
fish, Ike. commudion* courts of juHlter, publie hall* for all soeietie*, buntex, 
meeting jilaccs, arniorie*, ' in which shall Ix? kept engines for (|neneliiag lire, 
— artillery gardens, publiek walks, theater*, and spaeioiii fields allotted for 
all eymnicks, s{)ortx, and honest rec reiili on s.— hospitals of all kinds fur 
children, orphans, old ftilkf, siek men, mad men, souhliers — pest-hotwcs, 
&c. (not boilt pTfcario, or by gowty benefaitors, who, when by fraud and 
rapine they have extorteii all Iheir lives, oppre-ssed whole province, Mcietict, 
&c. ^vc soBiething to pious uses, build a satiftfactory nlnis>hoii><-, school, or 
bridge, &C. at their Inst end, or before perhaps ; which is no otherwise than 
10 Steal a piose, and stick down n leather, rob a thousand to reHcve ten) and 
ihOM hospitals so built and maintained, not by collections, benevolences, 
doouiea, for u set number, (as in ours) just so many and no more at such a 
rate, but for all those who stand in iveed, be tliey more or less, and that ex 
publico arario, and tio still niainlained : turn nobis tolum nati tu^ns, ^e, 
I will hare conduits of sweet and e>Md water, aptly disposed in each town, 
common 'granaries, as at Dnrsden in Miiinia, Steteiii in Pomerland, 
Noreinberg, &c. coUejiea of mallicmaticbns, muuciaiia, and actors, as of 

• Vak'AHwUrt Ltd ' Vlilfpnittluiu. lib, S. til. in.'lr luill. KtUh •»€ cllm Hippixkiiiiia 
UnHln. Af»L pultl. IT, II. M Vllnivio.. 1. 1. i^, ull. -With irilta D/nnli. Ilt. 'Dilui. f-lln. 

alat. n. IU>. la ri Tirii. Anntl. I& lib. • Viik- Biuuiauoi. dt npu IVn, lib, 1. O* Us, «l V«p. 
■, tUkl. rap. i. A- AnninJ, 



Bemocritus fa the Reader. 


oUl at Ubcdum i» lonin, ' ulchymieU, physicians, artlsu and philo9M>i>hors : 
llni all aits and tcicticc* may loonor be periecud and Ixtttiir Wrnrd ; and 
publick hiMoriograpbcra, {as amoD^t Uiom- miiient ' Veniatti, qui in com- 
■MR/arJM referebaul qua mtmoralu cfiynu gcrthnnttiT) minnswA and ap- 
pointed by the state lo rcKister all fanions acli, an<\ not by cacli inaufTicienl 
tcrihler, partial or tiarasilicat pendant, «a in our time's. I will provide piiblick 
•cbools, of all kind.i. wngiuj,'. danciiig, fftione, A-c. p*pcci«lly of '' friainmar 
Kn<l lan^iap-H, not to Ire iMu^lit by tbcuc ti^dioiii precepts ordinarily u»ed, 
but by UK, example, conversation, us trnvcUrrv Icorn Hbroad, and'nurws 
tcacb tbcir chMrpji. As I will havi^ nil such places, so w ill 1 ordain * piiblicfc 
govpriKHin, lit officers to cnch plncc, (T«asiirers, a-diles. qua-slon, otenccra 
of pupils, willows goods, and dU pnblick houses, iic. and tlio«e, once a vcar, 
to make strict nccoiints of all receipts, expences. to avoid confusion ; el tie 
Jiel ut turn absumant, (aa Plioy to Trajan) quod pvdeat dieere. Tli«y shall 
be subordinate lo those higher officers, and goveraours of each ciiy.'which 
shall not be poor Iradesraen, and mi^sii artificera, but nobtemeii and grnllc- 
tnen, vrhkb shall be tyed to residence in those towns thc^y dwell next, at such 
•et times and seasons; for I see no rvasuin (which ' ilip[iolyiu*complnins of) 
that it tkoHld l>« mort dithotumrabte far KobUmrn to gat*TH the city, than 
the cavntrty, or unteemly to dwett there now, tkan of old. ■ I will have 
no bogs, U-n*. marisiies, vast wuodt, <)c«krts, hrnihs, commons, but all in- 
cloMd (yet not depi>]>ulated, and thercForc l.nkc heed yon mistake me not) ; 
I ftir that which in comtnon, end every mans, is no mum : the richest coun- 
I treys arc stdl inclosril, as Ktsex, Kent, with us, &c. Spiiin, Italy ; and where 
[ incWutes arv le»»l in (|unntity, they are best *" husbanded, as aliout Flo. 
^^^eace in Italy, Dnmaeciis in Syria, &c. which are liker wardens th'in fields, 
^^p will not have a barren acre in all my (errilorie^, no not so much as the topi 
^^^ mountaina : where nature fails, it shall be supplyed by art: 'lukcH and 
riftn aball not be left desolate. All common hi^b-wayes, bridge*, banks, 
cofriralions of waters, ai|uediiets, chani^U, publick works,' buildings, &c. out 
of i-'cumntou Slock, cunoiuly maintiiinftl and ki'pt in rrpuir; no dcpopu- 
blion*, ingrOMiDgs, alterations of wood, urabh-, but by the consent of some 
BUpcrviwra, Uiat shall Ire appointed for that piirp»*e, in sec what rtfimnation 
OMght tu be had in all placi^t, wlint is amiis, how to help it ; 

wliat ground is aplest for wood, what for corn, what for cattle, gardens, 
orchards, Sahponds, &c. with a charitable division in every village, (not 
one diimineering bouse greedily to swallow up nil, which is too common with 
ns) what for Im^s, * what for tenants: and, bvcuuse they shall he belter 
encouraged lo improve such lands they hold, muiiure, plant trees, drean, 
fence. &c. they shall liave hm^ leasts, a known rent, and known line, to 
fne them from thn«e intolerable exaction* of lyrannixint; landlords. These 
pcrrisont shall liktwur appoint what (iiinntity of laud in each manor is 




lB»iillgiiw L^i iMiiiJiirnii lil II I till Tiimi umn^fM <'uIi.-fo uunc quam ollm. «iit o*bruBl^'-*l 
orbL Idnn IJbrrCua Fullitt, Jtf Ntapcili. i Ni> ratiiiltmu t)uir|(tn aoU ibculhim rtlJnqutmr •. ut 
» ^ D* |U|I|W« qiilctpm tffl Ln bin ri-ffk'»(1in< Al*'tili-m nut [nfii-utnliiiD rr(»trM^ MAfrui ae^ 
■iMitev Anniunnt. ilr Tr%no CbLup, 1, 1, r. 3. *• M, l';in-(c, In bur^tjrvt'v tif Cornwall. Hulb. 
Ih^ Mon Ul uablFTj vu LntlMtil. t^c bu^bauilmvo ijmnk urnr^f , iM e*t Ikltip or nn hn-mUl. tul. 
h. 1. tbdrapiiwl Mitnf^tEtii; tfiry wmr baFi'-l^inuPi]: t]><^r ilvvlUnji w** con^p')nitvn1, but 
twIofBiv, OMf lii» dr*s'titlVH ■jiilhMr muni'y tunytiid; ifuL d.] itha.ii (tL-ir flfldn wttvcum* 
_ J^Mt VOMI «*■ cou^o I'ofnlnh hair - \mt. iinrr iTitilotbr^ it It ilnitHl u ktjd^ «t ColvwoK ■&■! 
llviltHABiBdl ■nHlv4. TiiMi>r.i-. >J. ot hl> l[o«^iciidrj\LAnr hLioplnlon. onrju^rt IutIuaIU v^tth 
dhMvMauiim. ThevAinlrvy ifu*loanl I itriiitrL Tbr ocnvTiMliihlnhiiDtiii?^ Frpr mribitiit uf "^th 
iiMb T^f.tte- * IttOiidibiliii Tuiv]::ii>Euni cnpU; uthUa ptuclotM fn Aii|uJt qqtrn Ln rimtmi<uli 
COiMMmttr- M. RiKfoa. PX|vr|it. In -'^inu L r. r, :t ' To Tbi* pqniwr, Aritt yaWX. %^<^U 4Jlnv« 


Democritus to the Reader. 

Gt for tbe lords ileinesus, wliat for holding of tenants, how it ought to bo 

liuw to be luauured, tilled, reclitied, '"and what ptoporlion is fit for all call- 
iugt, Ijerause private poaai-Mtoii utk maay tiiiic-i idiou, ill hutbaiids, uppru* 
sort, covetous, and know not how to improve their own, or e\*ti wholly 
r«ip(s:t tbrir own, and noI nublick ^mhI. 

(lliipiiin parity is a kind of government, to bo wished for, "rallitr than 
effrctcti, Rtspuh. (JhrUlianopolitana.ilam^MwWui Ctty ufllie Suii, and tJiat 
nrw Atlantis, witty Hctions, but mciT rhimirnis : und PIjIus commiinity in 
mnny things is impioiii', iibsiird and ridit'iilniis: il (aki'3 away all splendor 
iinil magnificeDce. I will have several orders, ilcgrei-» of nobility, and those 
" liercdilary. not rejecting younger brothers In the mean timi- ; for they 
■hall be sufliciently provide^J for by pensions, or 80 qunlitied, brought >ip in 
some huneal calling;, they shall be able to live of themselves. [ will have 
such a pru|)ortion of (ground belonging to every barony : he ttmt btiyes the 
laiid, shall buy the barony : he tlial by not consumes his jiutrimony, aiid 
auticnt demeHas, shail forleil bin honours. As some dignities shall be liere- 
ditary, no miinc ixyflia by «l«ciion or gift (besides Uvq oflices, pensions, 
aiuiuilies) like our bishopneks, prebends, the Ba»»aa palaces in Turky. the 
p pnx^uralurH houses, utid offices in Venice, which (like the golden apple) 
shall be given to the worthiest and best deserving botli in war and peace, ai 
a reward of their worth and goo<l serviee, as so many goals for all tu ain) at, 
( horns alit arlvs) and encoumgcmenis to (itlicis. For I hate tliosc severe, 
unnatural, harxh, German, French, and Venetian decreed, wliieh exclude 
plebeians from honours : be tliey never sn wise, rich, verlunus, valiant, and 
well i|iialified, thi-y miisl not be patritiaUK, hut keep their own rank : this is 
naturae hrllum in/rrre, mlioiis to God and nicD ; 1 abhor it. My form of 
gOTcroment »h«ll he monurchicol ; 


-H DuiKjuun llticrtu graliur (UUI, 

4i14ni <ilb Tr^< JiL^, Al^. I 

few laws, but those severely kept, plaioly put down, and in the moilicr 
tont>tie, that every man may undeniand. Every city shall have a peculiar 
trade or wivilege. by which it shall be chiefly maintained: 'and parent) 
shall te'jcli their ehilarrn, (one of tliree at least) bring up and mstruci ihrro 
in the mysteries uf iJreir own trade. In each town, these several tradesmen 
sball be MO aptly disposed, as tliey shall free the rest IVoiu danger or offence. 
Fire-trades, ai sniiths, forge-men, brewers, bakers, inetal-tnen, &c. shall 
dwell apart by themselves; dyers, tanners, fel- mongers, and such as use 
water, in convenient plaeci by llieniselves : noisome or fulsome for bad 
smells, as biitclK^rs skingfater-hoiises, chundlers, curriers, in remote places, 
and some kick lane*. I''raternities and compnnies 1 approve of, as mer- 
chnnti burses, oollugcs of drugger*, physicianti, musieiana, iVc. but nil tratles 
to be rated in the tuJe of wares, as our clerks of the market do bakers aitd 
brewers ; com it Klf, what scarcity toever shall come, not to exceed such a 
price. Of such wares as arc traiisporlcd or brought in, 'if they be ncces* 
tary, commodious, and such as nearly concern mans life, as com, wood, 
cole, &c. and such provision we cannot want. I will have little or no custom 
paid, no taxes; but for such things as are for pleasiiic, delight, or ornament, 
as wine, spice, tobacco, silk, velvet, cloth of i^old, lace, jewclf, itc. a greater 

■l.iirwiu*. La. * Hie B^pplrf^ n\lc Tcniiuit f4itiri<i« im>; Atlivi*! IMiu tlibi* aic|iii< Lnjua<« 
TimmU Unnlni. Virc I 'Ituiit. ■Jbli. Vili'iii. Ai>ilir«, Lont Vurulim. ■)<« h it in Uw 
VTif b^ at Niplr*. aun Fihurt. pSrb CuuUii?riu, uiil Otfrlat ilr ivIhu fr*L» KmuiutU*. 
iCUudi«n. L T. ' Urrvltotoi, Efslu I- t- Ciiin £[:>p1ii* bin^lJMDttnl' In hix< luurr^iuxit. i|iiud 
tvirun piwcoim, tiUcUihW. i:iHjEii. t'l rirllfiLii nrlkni^-'', in I'ali'niip hrlinfiu aui^-rcilurK. «truumiji aoui|ud 
gipHlut, H fMrnutttfrn iwrwrrmL Itirm Ma^^u, t'oln., iIi< ljLitna>- LtU-m Oiunua. «1i. flinanu#lo 
frs» liuluiKk lllnln>. rtp Sinli. ■ llijijmt. ■ ('•.llihii., ilr inrmn. nrb, c, BO. I'Ui. 7, dr hxtbiu. 
QwftwIiiBUIilLCfnMrt'.ct rj'dbUA t'utrriHin poiiumuj. nulloin flcp«i<tl trcUgsl. fcf. 

X>MiM>m/if« to the Rtader. 



impoKi. I will liave cerUin sliim tent out for ii«w (iincovrrici cvtrf yrar, 
'hdiI Knnip (irirtnri men appointcu to travel into all ncijchboiir kingdom* by 
liind, vhich f\vAW (AfKrm wlint nrttfidul iiivcntionit und g-ootl laws arc in 
Other cwiiilwy*, nistomii. allrnilionn, or iiiiglil i^lsc, concerniiit; wftr or 
pcacp, which rony tend to the rommon good; — ecclesiastical discipline, 
peiuM eputopot, siibotdinntc as the other : no impToprintioMs. no lay patrons 
of church -livings, or one prinite man, but rummnn >>orictie«, curporaikins, 
&c. and ihoM rectors of bc-ncGcn to be chosen out of the univeriiilie«, exa- 
■Uii«d and auproved as the literati in China. No parish (o contain above a 
tboiuand auaitort. It' it were possible, 1 would have such priesta ai sliuutd 
tniUite Chri»l, charitable lawyers shoidtl love their nei);:)il>uurs ax tliem- 
•ehei, teoipenie and modest physicians, politicians ooniunii the world, 
philosoplieni Rhuuld know tlierasefvej. noblemen live huii<!iitlv, tradmnien 
le^fp lyinsc Bxd coMiniiig:, magistraiea corruption, iic. But tliin is impos- 
aible; I mutt ^t such a* I may. 1 will therefore have "of lawyers, 
jadget, advocates, physicians, chyrur);ioiia, &c. a M-t number ; ' and every 
tmn, if it br DMxible, to plead hit owo cau»c, to tell that talc to the Judi^, 
which he dntn to liis niltocate, as at Fc7 in Africk, Bantam, Alopfio, 
Ragu«r, IHAn ijuijifuc caHtiam dictre tenetur : — tliosc adiocatt^, chyrur- 
pons and ' phrMciiin*, which arc allowed to he maintained out of the 
'common trcwxirc ; no (ecu to be given or taken, upon pain of losing their 
pVacM; ot, if they do, very small fees, and when >ilie c<iusc is fully ended. 
* lie that sues any man shall put in a pledge, which if it bo proved he hatJi 
wrongfully sued his adversary, rashly or malitiousty, he shall forfeit atid 
loM. Or else, before any suit begin, the plaintiff sliall have his complaint 
■fproved by a set delegacy to that jiurpose : if it be of moment, he shall 
^ suffered, as before, to proceed: if otherwise, tlicy shall determine it. 
AH cauKs »liall be pleaded tiippreuo nomine, tlie tiartiea natnes concealed, 
if some circumstances do uot oilierwise require. Judges and other officers 
•hall be aptly dispo«>d in ea<rh province, villages, citii-s, as common arbilra- 
ton to bear causes, and end all coiitruvereie* ; and those not single, but 
three at kast on the bench at once, to determine or give lenlencc ; and 
tboae a^ain to sit by turns or lots, mid not to continue still in the «ame 
office. No coiitruretHie to depend above a ycAr, hiil, without nil dclaj'cs 
and further a]>|)eaU, to be s[>i^eililv diipalehcd, and Knnlly concluded in 
that time oitottetl. These and all other inferiour ntagistmtM, to be chosen 
■•■ the littrati in China, or by those exact suffrage* of die ''Venetians; 
and nidi a^n not he cligiliie, or capable of magistrjcies, honours, offices, 
cxenpt tkey be sutficientfy ' quidi6ed for Icnrtiing, mauners, and that by 
tbe Ktrict approbation of deputed cxaminalors : '' first, scholars to toko 

Etacc. thcji Kouldicn *, fi>r I am of Vegetius his opinion, » scholar d«(crrea 
utter than n souldier, because uinut atatit sunt qua fortitcr Aunt, ^ute 
oero prf> vtililatf rripub. tcribuntur, itlerna : a souldiers work fasts for an 
Age, a acholan for ever. If lltey 'misbehave tlicmselres, they shall b« 

*PlMa, HliW irftilmi. WnniM nibx tuli. ul. d qiii<Iin>minl>llBild>rtntiipuiI(sl*rot.hDCi|HuniSn 
Itnmtx, mi|4>lar, ■Mtmlrnu. tu tlrli*lll. ■ lUnplrnn riDuMlm ndiidunt. igiit t*atmt 
eiMIc M nfr* Ini4ciil H lUtiiahiiL IniiiulnlinDiii rmvni liomlDnn nUla nMlprI IveIIihi, (iu* uit 
vttHvrvitofn wiol qnui ul pvtuitl <]n vnL lot ulifUTfofr* iiatn ut i tfjo'lt jHwiDttDictllcl. Voluot 
Id «D^ qal«q«i« i»i— m t^tt, r«airjuit rrCnKl JEi.lici quuji iiarratufui ruvKI (iMmuu : •■« writ 
imtiwnw. rt nrltaf liclUiia rllcMiir. Mor. tJiuiir )- ^- •MMii^ibi puMii^u ^itUtni luoiuaL Buinr. 
I I. e. sTdt Jt|tniU*i> 'Or Sit. IrxtttMt. LXUt.K'li'rHf. la-IU. t Nihil • cll.'uUl>u« pi. 

tnai acElpUM. lirtHViiiaai lia Onlu HI. Hud. Argm. Ikb. 1. '11 i> ui in tnnil fn Iii» in !,,«. 

itamf. * yiia. ilkcliii. »jitiL En SlnkL I. 1- e. \ 4p f lUnlnulitiiF clnlloDum ropu.,r a^l- Sir. 
■CimUK. it* (*tfBt> Vfnrt. I. I, > Out. I. It. Jr nb. k<''I- Kiuui. Qui laliUii>iniiluii)> iirtinrntiii 

" 'H ■ " 


hqlvrt. llM^inil pT 

la^i^ Tl^m OlfSMBir inMfHUHj, BIVITUHPH BIBUU*. BUI UUf:i . .. I'mi, uv*. - lr,-iari. ATmt U>^- * At 

JaEtwf, Lonw, Ftibunn !■ AvHhiIibiI. « •tUwu lixr b iii«iMblpi,r my oltrn Its wMiet. In> 

Wb^ihi, akxlitttt hiiDcfiUit ^fnniintur p ■ntimlu- Itimun- ciulut m!llcniu» **tgiiklur ; liutlrruil unli. 

lum Juitictkt la feliinivm liH-um qultqur piwf^nr : H (jui ± ifluriinii 

. .., . initalo («iIKniIIu(. tjiil In hnir nidnlnr nrtmu holirl. lu ■ - " 

iTlIm dipdlMr imljiiAar^ Buvbicol •IbUd*. ■utilucl.ijuiil not. • CoUni dmu lopr 

■i* Hchankl*. &ott4fiini bominum 
ffmtmlar. MBtlbrn In m. 4bn|' 

Danocrilus to the Itfodtr. 


depoMd, and accordingly punished: and, whctlier their offioc* be .innunl 
'or olherwi»e, ouce a jeur tliey shall bu calltd in qiicslion, und give an 
accounl: for ineii art- |>;inial atid |iassiouate, meieilcss, covcloiis, corrupt, 
subject 10 love, hale, tear, favour. &c. amne mb reyno yraviore regttum. 
Like Solon* Arropiigilt-*, or ihosp Rinnan eeiiscirs, some ifiall visit others, 
and ' be vi»it(»l iiii<i<;f:ni llipnisclves ; '' tliey sliill rivtriee that no prolin|[ 
ofliocr, undcir colour of authority, shall insult uvm lii.'i iiilorLuni, an «o uiiuiy 
nild lira»t», opprcK*, docnincn, Rry, grindt!, at liamplc on, be partial Of 
cornipt, but that there be <equahiU j-ua, justice (-<]uallv done, live oi friends 
ftnd bretlireo together; and (whicli '.SrM-llio* noulu bate and »ri mueh 
d«*ires in his kingdom of France) a tHapason andswcet baTtnonij of kincjs, 
princes, nobies, and pletieiant, to miituatlt/ Ci/fd and involved in ioVf,at 
welt as lawi and authority, at that they never tlixagrec, intuit, or inrroarh 
one upon another. If ajiy man deserve well in hbt ofKcc, he shall W. 
re warded ; 

He that invents any thing for publick giofid in any art or science, write* a 
treatise, J or performs any nohle exploit at home or nbroail, '.ihall lieaccord- 
ins;ly enriehed, 'honoured, and preferred. I say, with Hannibal in Ennius, 
Hontrm ijui frrift mthi erit Carthag'mirasi!: : let him he of whiit ciindilion 
he will, in all offices, actions, be that deserves best shall have best. 

Tilianns in Philonius. (out of a charitable mind no doabi) winht nil his 
books were gold and silver, jeueis and precious stones, '" to redeem coptiires, 
set free prisoners, and relieve all poor distressed souls tliat wanted means: 
religiously done, I deny not ; but lo what purpose ? Suppose this were so 
well done, within a little after, tliough a man had Cr<esus wealth to bestow, 
there would lie as many more. Wherefore I will suffer no " lieir^ars. rogues, 
vaga)N>nds, or idle persons at all, tliat cannot give an account of their lire*, 
how thev maintain "themselves. If they he impotent, lame, blind, and 
single, tiioy shall U- suftieiently maintained in several hospitaU. built for 
that purpose; if married and inlirin, past work, or, by inevitable loss or 
some such like misfortune, ca«l behind, — by disiribution of i' corn, house- 
r«!nt free, annual pensions or money, they shall be relieved, and highly re- 
warded for their good wrviec they have tbrmcrly done : if able, tlicy shall be 
enforced to work '' For I tee no reason (as ' be said) why an rpicurt or 
idle drone, a rich glutton, a niurer, should live at ease, and donothing, live 
in honour, in all manner of pfeatKren, and oj^rest others, mhen as, in the 
mean time, a prior lai/ourer, a twilh, a carpeider , an kuthandman — that halh 
spent Ai.i time in eontimial labour, at an asse to earry burrlent, lo do the 
rommon-iveatth good, and without vjhtnn we cannot litie^*hall fie left in his 
old age lo bcgg or starve, and had a miierable life, worse than a JumeKl. 

'Sm tbow thrw IW^ Ai1*IM. »UL S. c. k 'Nun qui* cualodlfl ipw ciulndf*! *Cf- 
Irru*. if] Orrui^fa. Qui nfiq A tubliDII dn;iiciuil Eiifi:TlErn>>, upt ut Imtiu tonf^bWdl niM iiuhd!(oa. 
AuclQfanlJt nomln^ r^nflcL. ftc * ti«««l>lll]i dit [V|l Oillurum. ttb. L tt T- J Bl qiiLi VRn^liim ntt 
Ik^Nii kul |4A0r (KTfcccrlf- ftnpl. 1. If >Ai| rvf mlam n^m^iub. voU mer*tl blmtltimlLir ; ni*c id 
vam iTiniEffltii irufiitntuuiD sal r«ffii awUevnl : omnii aSoti-luTvU cujukqiio tclnOS «t <irf>ito pra- 
•Init. Ricdiu.t, tch 'tnilrfuncUlucuni ,-<jiu Juiiii >ubriieii', <i<'i>i'i<'r lutiurtailrl'ilr r<ll<(uis 

riiHt; nrm mn t(iiiit ourlAlra ul)uin*XMiULNkliiL)i I'l^tuikcn, u]E<:ujiih TLrlijrLk macts na**! tftprUn- 

to nv T'-i in TkrmU rr^oulbiu p^uppivin* ni^lluin oiirritumt ft«. * Nullm mmdlfiu ■imd 8ifeH; 
QCinlTu feuui, <ju4niyta bcailit i,rlialii* >L1. meD'UcQfV ji^-riaiMLUir l iiinEin pTu ilribiu IsIh>» ^■HW^'ar ; 
eferi DluliA IniHIilibu, >rr*Af]tlia sdiUcijntur : muli huB^iliiv jfiiiL'Ji'EiI, i|aL nil tkbur*:, *ijnt iiiv|iti, Oivur. 
I. II. dcnb. K»L Eiuiii. linmint danw. Chlo. L I. r, S. (Sulmil. Aith. Crlrnl. Ind. ili'wt. -AIbi. 
•b Airs, a 0> IS. » Skr iilita KimB, laiur. PcinUn. iIm hJq nptJinf'. ArikilvJ. I, t, " V, * Jdm. 
ArMol. pDL JLt.K \H4tf*nm.m»mtoh psupcrum Ubtii odut^Liiui 4d Ikliuiv*. ncbiliiun rl dlallum 
lo vi>lu|iuuba> d ilr-liFiU. •diuilivc IfijiulUli. ul nvbilli i|i>ia|iiuB, ui bBDcnier. qui oihll •(**. 
inabuo *t iifZcn'lMoiu vtluu agml, 4tiu tl dttDctlB. qumo iolvrin surif^ ftlwr, i^trul^. quo mpqli. 
rtftrr nim jiuU-al, vJuin heIl^* iq|««Ttin dii'M. m prinr qnta Jumpnton^m ml ^Jub nnilllltt T lairyos 
Traji, unw d'E [HJoxTit, odJilatorlhii*, in»iLjini ,Qi,ipU(mii mrnsi 

Srp>iU|fir, nl ronlT* Jk(:rl4?cjll>. r«fl-iri4rlii. JtiiTlflt, raSrtt. t 
umuliBUlLt. Juuff |,rijbel vl crtiuinlt. &lur. Clap. L I. 


Demtxrritiu to the Reader. 


As ■ all condilioQt sbdl betted to Uieif task, bo none shall be orcr-tired, but 
have ttieir >«( liniea of reereaiious aiid boUdayet, iadulgere geaio, feaMs and 
murtx meeting*, even to llie nieaoe^it artificer, or bwest servant, onrm wcelt 
to sinK or dance, (lliuiigli not all at once) or (l» uhiitsot^vrr he shall picaae, 
(like ' that SaccarUfcslu amount tlic Persians, those Sniiimals in Itome) 
aj> well at his iiuulrr. " If auv be drunk, he shall drink tio more wine or 
strong drink in a twelve Ri'inctli a-ilct, A bankntpt shall be " ealademiatta 
iH ampliilheairo, piiblickly shamed ; and he that cannot pay his debt<, if 
by riot or negligence he hath been impoverished, shall be for a twelve mooelk 
itnpriaooed ; if in that space faia crcditonrs be not satistied, * be shall he 
haaK«d. He ' that commits tscrUcKe, shall lose his bauds ; he thai bears 
&lse-witae«9, or is of periiiiy convict, shall have his tongue cut out, exceijt 
be redeem itwitli his liead. Murdt.T, 'adultery, ^11 bo punisliedbyih-atli, 
'but uot theft, except it be HOiue moie grJOTous offence, or notorious olToii- 
■lers: ot]ienri>e Uiry sliall l>e coiidemocd to the gallies. mines, be his slaves 
wluHD tJi«yof)'vaded,dimi^ tlu-tr lives. 1 hate all hereditary slaves, and that 
duram I'titarnm Irgcm, as * Brisoniui calb it ; or as '' Ammianus, imptndio 
fonaidatas rt abominaiidai ttgtf, pur tiuat, olt noxam uniis, nmnii propin- 
qvitat peril : hard Ian, lliat wife aiui children, friends and allies, should 
jQiffrr foe the fathers otTcncc ! 

No man shall muiry until be ' be 35, no woman till she be SO, ^ nisi aliter 
dhptnsatum j'ueril. If ODe'die, the other p.-trly shiill nut marry till six 
moDlhs aAcv : and, because many families are compelled to Irvc ni^^ardly, 
exhaust and undone by great dower«, 'none shall be given nt all, or very 
little, and that by supervisors, rated : they that are foul shall have a greater 
portion ; if &ir, none at all, or very little ; ' however, not to exceed such % 
rate as those sujM^rvisors iliall think fit. And when once they eonie to those 
TCua. poverty shall hindtr no uiau from iiiarriaiie, or aiiy other respect; 
■ but all shnll be rather inforced ihuii hindered, ' except they be ' disniembrcd, 
or ^rieviinilj deformed, infirm, or visited wilb some i:normons litreilitary 
diseiuu:, in body or mind : in such casta, upon a great pain or mulct. ^ man 
or woman sliail not marry; otlicr order shall be t^kcn fur them (o iheir 
content. If people over-abound, tJiey shall he eased by ' colonies. 

' No man shall wcaf wen{>ons in any city. The same atlirc sIihH be kept, 
and tliat proper to se^-cral cii1ling«, by which they shall be distinguished. 
*LMxu»/ktMeT»m shall be taken away, that iniempcstivc ex pence moderated, 
anl tnany others. Brokers, takers of pawns, biting usurrrs, I will not 
admil : yet. because hie cum kominibvi tion cum dtis atjitur, ' ive converge 
here with men. not witli gods, and for the hardness of mens henits, 1 will 
tolerate some kind of usury. If we were honest, 1 confess, («t pntbi esse- 

•fa Sa^ijA nofiu! E7l!u<a«, nrmo Diontliciu. nE»t fcr dti^ra ml moFbiiiD opui f«^i*iion point 1 

nUiiw. nr m^'trnivi* fjii^r. I'qi^iiii lleijinrr, liUffr ^ 4\ihrnm]ji, I- tS " Sbnlcnit, dc rtpuK 
IUt«C ' HptrtUn. oUm llnmp tic- * lie thjil pratl<tng nut fowtiiM timUy uirtirH Ihvi BltiiflC 
T^aL 'Alftt^lftL Utrmriuvbiuut cl liujE^a |*rfrvl<Uliir. ntit eam rapLtF rr<lf>iniihl- vSiqaU 
■luli^ ilDiHlrU, rira urilJ* ri jT»Tidiiiir ; u mullrr. uuu* et ■uriruLi prvt-icUtur. Atrrvdl i«l 
■ahfUM Ipu Vf»Tt K«ttli]iiF linHin lUx 1 ■ pAup«m non pcccuil, ijuuin cxlrcnil [i04^c*tflUf cotcU 
Wl ■fcmin rf^lttn^ M^Monal, qwrnmulH qtjviRl, H. «}(. 3, Kg4> i^mii illlfe ■fuliu t{uj Uei'K \riktAiii « 
tttttc dam tx^pti*. <|ul truolur pau^rLTi tiibvcntrf , Kiiiid»diii?L Hj. Aphor- rujili'vt. > l^^h, t- dji 
1^ fttiamu. ' Lib. 14. ■ ATiUt Aiiiiotolo— i mux ii K>. • woman 'i S» pc^llt. ' Lpi iilim 
LfvufL ludti* CUnRtfLum ; vidu Plutan-'liuiii, RH^riuiii. t[i'uuitLii^iuDt. Amk.vum. Novliflunm. pl 
tio$ 0f llM qoAvllDQ*^ ' Alrnxlnn. ' A I'm) Larom'a ciUm * iri^tiLcs nEiii> duiv itibirhimi. UuLtr. 
L & c J. ■ ^*P f *uruin non it* pridtin ipiul Vi<no1i>i. Uf cjuia jiatnlirik duU'm I'lcriii-Mrl LMO 
^niL *Bw. afiuf^ Jud. Bli: Judah. Loo Afn, Afr'crc lUirrml, il^ linl alirc^r tnnnTkllnrntvB, ub 
nlwli. haodoi. rt Xupul. Cv»t. uni. td ctutiba-v It'jni'kiiot oEiui orl^^otiEt ' Alorbo Utioniit. qciE la 
Lftjtm iMl^diffundiiur, t>r i^T'imB hiimNiEim fa-rik l'ipeiIulueh' E^-dbihir, juicatulf ua*imur . niDiirrrt 
WESfflKul 4 0<iTiaorUo i-bn-nim al>E4>ifihixtiLr. h', Jltn-l^tr n^x-tliiiu, tilitt lib. 1. il« vrL Sculumiu mort- 
IVL J Bf*'^''^'^"^ jv^vWH Utitlti *lkbitn^ j-iprTt-m, i'\:iU*.\ 'U' lygiho^ ■ Ttiir Kkxjiui I'tcludc 
adabi. blta<L Ir^irutia. vidauoli liKr v>*-~^>^<i*- tioai lJI lahrrEt>inb.'r, l* «vc ilii tofl^ ^ I'loJim ftitmuti. 
UhiHDi hwUr, kr- > Ri^rniu, tit*. It- r»p- ^ di) hhiatum i^lEipdlt. Skc Itltpin^ Ptiil^'nl Mvinm 
uai dnoMFT. Sn li i> ii> tnim lianu i-llin. ■ tdi'm I'laio, 11. Oe liyib<i>. It hiilh f"t 
Ian, temHttralr. Vldr UuU. Klucliliiio. uitlq. cnsrivii. Ill>. I. up. M. • Fklu. S. ilc In^ibui. 


Democntua to the Reader. 

mun) tie Bliould have no aae of Jt ; but, being: &* ■* ■'• *" mo^l nece«aril;r 
lulmil it. HoH-ioever mom tlivtnL-s von t ran] ii^t it, 

it must be winked ut by politicians. Aixl vvt some great doclore approve 
or it, Calvin, Buccr, Zancbiiii, P. Martyr, brrause, by sotnany grand law- 
y«rs, decrees of cmpcroura, princrs ntnt>it<^8, customs of common -wealths, 
churcluv approbation*, it is pirrmitli^d, &c. 1 will tlierefore allow il : but 
to Qo private persons, n'>t to cvcrr man ilinl will ; to orphans only, maidt, 
widow*, <ir micli as by reason ol' llnrir age, sex, cducaiion, ijioorance of 
trading, know not otherwise how (o employ it ; an<l ihoie, so anproved, 
not ti> let it out apart, but to bring their money to •'common lianV which 
shall he allowed in every city, as in Genotia, wncra, Norcmberp;, Vrnice, 
nt '' 5, 6, 7, not above 8 per centum, as the supervisors, or *rnni prm/ccli, 
shiUl think lit 'And. as ti sh-all not be Idwfiil for each miui to be an 
usurer that will, su shall it not be lawful for all to take up money al nxe — 
not to prodigals and spendtlirina, but lo mert^hants, youus Iradpsmen, and 
such as sUnd lu need, or know honestly how to employ it, wliose necessity, 
cause, and condition, ibi- said supervisors shall approve of. 

I will have no private monojiolies, to enrit'h one man, and beggar a inuU 
titodr — ' mulliphcity of office*, ofsupplymg by deputies: weights and mea- 
sures the same throughout, and thoir rectified by the primum mobile, and 
suns motion ; threescore miles to a degree, according lo observation ; 1 000 
geouietru-nl pnerx to a mile, live foot to a pncr, twelve inches to a fool, &c. 
aud, fmm mensures known, il is an caaie mailer to rertifie weights, &c. to 
easi up all, and resolve bodies by algebra, stereometry. 

I h^te ware, if they be not ad populi tulutum, upon nr^nt occasion. 

OtUmui uii-lpllrvm, quu H-mpt-r vLvIt in irtdU- 

' Olfenaive wars, except the cause be very just, 1 will not allow of : for I do 
highly magiitGe ibat saying of Hannibal lo Scipio, in " Livy~/f had been 
a Messed Mtny for yoa and vs. if Gift had t/iircn that mind to oar prede- 
cttsourn, that i/on had barn content icith Italy, v:c tvith Africk. For 
neither Sicilt/ nor Sardinia art worth such cost and fiaini, so many Jleett 
and amiet, or to many famous captains tirxs. Omnia pnus tcutanda : 
filir meaiet hIiuII first Iw tried. ' Pcragit tran^nitla patcstas. Quod violenta 
nt^uil. I will havelhrni proceed with ai) morlerntion ; bill (hear you!) Fabius 
my jjeneral, noi Minniius; nnm 'qti consilio yiititur, plus hostihut nocel, 
quant ifni, sine animi ratione, vtribus : and, in such wars, to abstain M 
much as is possible from 'depopulniions burning of towns, massaeria^ of 
infant*, &c. For defensive wars, I will have forces still ready at a small 
warning, by land and sea, a prepared Davy, souldiers in procinctu, et, quant 
' Bonfinitts aptiii Ifunyaros sans vult, virgamj'erream, and money, wliieJi 
is tiervus MH, still in a readmest and a Kufficicnt revenue, a third part (u 
in old ■ Itonie and Es:>pt) reserred for tlie common-weallh ; to avoid tho« 
heavy laxts and impositiona, as well lo defray ibis charge of wars, a« also 
nil olhei publick defaJcaiioiu, expences, fees, peuitious, reparations, chaste 

r Aiihmf Lomlunk ht)iiud *<-u. (ihnujcb wllhiojar TrfoHuuloal noiu flcWl*. or tvnk at fht* 
mj. (w Millnitlnnu il, raj'. 33. !.■>% iurir»l. [lartV.i thil U'nd munrjr upBB •itir [imwm. «r Oke 
moafy iipEtn *dt«fifurT for ait-at 1tvi-«. tThil iirnporllan arill naW lumbaadiiv litptpmf. Isnd 
OiurvT. tnd WlttrtraproTr.1, >« h" hnlh jiibliri^IJT j>rui««l in hli tn^rl of uniry. »\hibitcil In lint Pu* 
llttDRil uinn leit, ■ llui.' r<'i(- '/.laKbiut. <;B\. ill L rtf^ ■<! K|tli». cquUuram '<T*t UIUHBI rt 
<huttAUf'hrl,liU)«i-uii»!t]TjiiivnNt. ni^riJi. lEOit I'lii/;^^ Eiivtnijiii^ilHIii sdftvnut. urt il <liti Ilk |Hv 
i.-Dna> lidnk h*U'iit. I'l i>lj ^tiiti-ui. .j'Miiik fl-ti, fljii'iijii- lipjitfrntiimi. "On ))oiauqt ufi- N«' omnlbu*, 
>ed mrioDlunliu,, T( ill <\iil haeit-AtP impt-niit^M. A,^. >Iit'Hn> iiyud Pvrua nbm, tjvr Urugulum- 
* Mrra Piklu, dp li-t^l^iiji. • i.iti. 3U. OijCimuni '{ikl'li^m fvtnit fani p«triln» nn>ii^« nvntviQ ■ Dil* 
Aalam hbt. uI ioi ttiJim. not \tnitr itaivim ouitlrnU nt^ifiiia. Nf^uf ODim *i<:1Jla tiit S*rOiaU Hlis 
4l|IilA pppni *uat pro lot elunilnik. Xf, ' CiBuiliui- ' Tlttifydidn. > A <lrp<.|iiiJBU«nc wio-- 
tvnt. InctiidlU.MiiJuamiiillluiK mininihim. Tliiu. ' llimgit <1it. 1. 111>. 9, ■ bmilha. U£, fl. 
Ilr NpoKOiL irslilrmiin rql u..lot4jp>'n, 4il4 nniil pnrttr upknion'^n 4fi-iElU, tlifi-n-. San piUAaiB. 
^~t«lmpnninl fiaturrlt. Lrtiiu. lib. I. Uian. 1, 1. UMoratSirului. Iih. i. 

Ucmocritus to Me Reader. 


9^rt>, feasts, donariee, rewards, tmd eotertainmeHU. All tbin^ in tbb 
nature c*peviatly 1 sill bave maluruly done, and nttli great 'deliberation: 
ne qmd ''IrmtTe, ne ifuid rtmiste, ac timidejiat. Sed quo Trrnr hotpesf 
To proKCutc Uic rt-Al would rtvjuin: a vi>Iuni(-. Manum dr lahtlld ! I liave 
becD ovei-tediouK in ttiit lutijccl : I ruulil have here willinglv ningrd ; but 
Ibete straha whctcJn 1 am inrliidfd will not permit. 

From coninifln-irciiIt)i» and cities, I will dcj^ccnd to ramilics, wliicii Unve 
as nanj conosives and moicslationg, m frequent dtsconlcnls, as the rest. 
Great affinity tlieie is betwixt a political and ccconotiiical bodj ; they ilitlcr 
only in mainiitude aiid pioportion of busiuesa (so Sealii^er " writes) : as 
tbey liavc butli, lik*ly, tlie same period, a* " Bodiii and • Peucer hold, out of 
Plato, *tx or newa Imndied years, ao, many tim*--s, llit-y iiave the same 
mean* of thrir relation and overtliron'* ; un, imirifty, riot, a coinmou niiue 
of botb, riot in building, riot in prorime iprnding, riot in upparti, &(:. be it 
in what kind soever, it prodiicc^ih the ».inie etiecl*. A 'ehorograplicr of 
our*, speaking obUtr of ancient families, why they are so fretincnt in the 
north, continue so long, are so soon extinguished in the soutii, and so few, 
gives BO oilier reason but this, luxai omnia ditiipavit, riot hath consumed 
all. Fine cloaths and curious buildings eanie into this island, as be notes in 
itb auiiali, not so many yearn since, non lint ditpendui hospilaliialu, to the 
decay uf hoipilaljty. Houb<-ii, nimiv tinier that word hi mistaken; and, 
nndcr (he nuini- of liounty an<l bos pita lily, in >hniwdrd riot and prodigality ; 
and that, irhich is connnrndabte in it sidf well uwd, hatb been niislidten 
heretofore, i* bt-comc, by its nhnsc, the banc and nttrr ruinc of miinv a 
iM>ble family : for sonic men live like the rich glutton, con«nmine: tlicmseives 
and their substance by cootinual feasting and invitations, — with ''Axylos in 
Homer, keep open house for all comets, ifivtng entertainment to such as 
»i»il them. * ke«ping a table beyond Iheir means, and a company of idle 
servants (thuu^b not so lii?(|uent as of old) — are bluwn up on a sudden, 
ai>d (a* Acto^on was by his bounds) devoiired by tlicir kinsmrn, friends, and 
midtitude of followers. 'It is a wonder ihulPaulus Jovin.i rrJatcK of our 
northern ronntroys, what an infinite deal of meat we consume on onr tables; 
that I may Iralysuy, 'lis not bounty, not hospitality, as ilisoCtcn nbi)se<l, but 
riot in excess, gbittony, and prodigality; ameer vice: it brings in debt, 
want, and beggary, hereditary diseases, consumes their fortunes, and ovcr- 
ibrowB the good temperature of their bodies. To this 1 might here well add 
their inordinate expence in building, those phuntaslical hoiisen, turrets, 
walks, parks, &c. teaming;, excess of pleasure, and that prodt|;i<ius riot in 
apfM/el, by wliicb meaus they are compelled to break up bouse, and creep 
into holes. Sesellius, in his Common wealth of ' Franc<!, ^;ivr« three rea- 
sons why Oie French nobility were so fri-(|uctit]y bnnknipti' ; firit, tecaate 
tketf hare lo ntant/ law-tuilt and contentions, one upon aitnther, which were 
ttdiouM aad coitt]/ : hy which means tt came to pais, that commonly laiv- 
ytn bought thttn out ^ their possessions. A srcund caune was their riot ; 
lk*f lived btyond their meatu. and were therefore swallowed «p lig mer- 
thanis. (Ltt-Nove, a French writer, yield* five itasons of his countrey-mens 
poTcrty. to the same effect almost, and Uiinki verily, if the gentry of 
Franee were divided into ten parts, eij^ht of tliom would be found much 

• Pmctf minicUli iKibvUAi Quod Tlotcnla nPuiiLL CLauiUu. ' ItPIfum arc tiniciiduia ntc jnn- 
WWifcilfc riliL I'anfu r. Tnd«M>. • LUi. S. puCI, mn. Ik • Llli. t. Ju [rpuh. exi: t. • P«i. 
ar. Bii Ldcdiilnu. ' Cunlidai. to Chnhir*. t niwL lih n. ' Viilr l-iiti'anl<:i.n>nm : (iiielv- 
•fa^ ila poftaoluna smu nialrDnuD IvaitKinuiL ■ MinhUi- lUclu ni, quuninx bpuiuiunim una 
Ammi inAUa iUi4iaa vtmnul: ftcnmotgr mefl** In onnn prur tiuru. t^alrutilnu ti<mj>iT i<<Tufitf^ 
^■fH- linlu- ■ tJlt U il* "»■ Uillurum, Qood Ml llUa et iiui— (Dniwa iIIk liinnlui n tlUi. 
b iBnaBium proineutar. i^l Riaunint tun]]>tiift rw|iilnAt| aad* At ul jqrta wlinjnbifi {ili^nimqur 
~ "" ailqulnni. ium iiuuil lunplOM* Tlnwit, <( s awudilbui >bviTbrAniur. I'l 

innauut. kr. 


Democritus to the Retidtr. 

impaired by sales, inort};;aj;es, aiid dt^bi^, or wliolly sunk Id their ^talos.H 
The last wai immoderate vxct*s in apparel, which consamed Iheir rerenues. 
How this ooiicern* and acreRs with our present state, look you. But of 
Oii* cl«ewhi-re. A* It i» in n mans body — ^if either head, lieurt, iiumuch,. 
liver, »!p!p(-'ii, or any «nc pari be niisnfTected. all the rest, suffer witli il- — sffJ 
ii it with thii Lcconomicnl lundy : if the licitd ))i^ tiiiugiil, a spcndthrifl, » 
dntiikarrl, a whorcninsler, a gnmcsirr, how *hull thi- family hve at ('iisr ? 
*/p*a, »i cupiat, Satut tervart prorsut non fiolfit hanc JamiUam: (m 
Deniea said in the comedy) Safety her self cannot save it. A good, honest, 
painful man many times hath a shrew to his wife^a sickly, dishonest, 
slothlbl, foolish, careless woman to bis mate~a proud, peevish flirt, a 
litjuorixli, prodigal ({Uean : aiid by that means all goes to ruine ; or, if tJiev 
dificT in natures— he is thrilYv, she tpi^uds all ; he nise, slie sottish and soil 
— whnt agreement oiin tlirre be ? whul fripn<}*liip ? IJku lliat of the llirush 
and strnllow in Jf'.%op ; instead of mutual love, kin<l rompcltntionit, wliorc 
and thief in hciinl ; ihey fling «tooU at one another* hends. ' Qutr inlen- 
peries rtxal htnic fitmiham ? All enforceil marriai;cs commonly produce 
auch elfeets: or, if on their behalfa it be well, as to five and a^^ree lovingly 
togelliei, they may have disobedient and unrnly children, that take iU 
course* to disquiet iiem; "their sen ii a thief, a spendthrift, their daughter 
a whnrr : a "stepmother, or a daughter in law, distempers all; "or else, 
for want of means, many lorture* arise — debts, dues, fe», dowries, joyn- 
lurcs, legacies to bi- paid, luinuitics issiiinc: out; by means of which, they 
have not wherewithal! to maintain ihemselves in that pomp as their prede* 
cc-Ssouts have done, hring up or bestow their children to llieir calliHj^'s, to 
their birth nnd ([nnlity, Hand wilt not dcacend to their pre-ieni iWtnncs, 
Oftontimen too, to a^ravnle the rest, c.mcurr many other inconveniences- 
unthankful friends, decayed friends, bad neij^hbours. negligent servants, 
('^tervifiiTttcen, venipetleg.calUdi, occtma tibi mille clavitim reserant.fur- 
timgue roplaitt, contataant, fii/uriunt) casualties, taxes, mulcts, chargeable 
ofliees, rain exjietiees, entertain men Is. loss of stock, eumilies, emulations, 
fn-uneiit invitations, losses, sutetJship, sicknesi, death of fri^iidt, and (that 
whirh is t)ic culf of all) improvidence, ill huKkitidry, diwrder «nd confu- 
i^ion; by whidi niciins they arc drenched on :i auddcn in their rotates, and 
at unaware* prccipitaied in«irn*ib1y into nn iiiextrirable hibvrinth of debts, 
care", woes, want, grief, discontent, and melancholy it self. 

1 have done with families, and will now brieRy run over some few goi 
and conditions of men. The most secure, bappy. jovial, and merry in 
worlds e^lecm. are princes and ^jjeat men. free from melancholy ; but, 
their eares, miseries, suspicions, jealousies, discontents, folly, and madness, 
I refer you to Xeuophon* Tyrauotis, wlierc kin>[ Hieroii diicoiirselh at large 
with Snnonides the poet, of this subject. Of all others, tliey are most 
troubled with perpetual fears, anxieties, insomuch, that (as he xud in 
' Valgrius) if inou knewestwitit whnt irares nnd miseries this robe wc-rv 
stiilfecl, thou wouldxt not stoop to lake it up. Or, put case they be secure 
nnd free from fears and discontents, yet they are void 'of rcnson loo ofl, and 
precipitate in their actions. Read all our histories, ^tiat de ttuilit prodidtrt 
ttutli — Iliadcs, .l^ncides, Annales — and what is the subject ! 

How mad lliey ant, how furious, nn<l upon smatl occasions, rasli and in> 

^ Tor. ■ AmipblL fkul, ^ PnUnjc- Ptliw ma tut- ■ Catus vmn loutf. duii mUi Bfinul hi 
■vkr, rt ^uln biat, viiniiuni »miTit unp lltr, • li^v buu^x Omni, * Vfa*i, pridv tnil hr^fnj 
Tn,vl t& ji lunUj, thpy in^t viui hi^v). vol vnuc ^ inuiy OMhi^ or dlieoritmti. b tifr mad vaSn. 
■ bn ihrj HMOr. tiuki' lbiinil'-i-Fla|s in Ihc nkln. < PltuOu. Aalnlir. ■ Lib. T. oifL i. 
• I'tilllur in bdlii uvluilla : > i (eiUui m. Vrliu pNircrtiSiun, Aut nfon aut fttaiin 



Demacrilm la the Rtader. 
coiwiderate in their procmMlini;*, how tliey dote, rrery page almost will 

Neat in place, next in mtM-ri** anri ilUconteiit:!, in ull manner of btir- 
fanin'd nclions, uie grwil men : prccnln Jove, practil afulminr. : llirnearvr, 
the wo»c. If ibey live in court, (hey arc up unil ilown, vt>b snd flow witb 
ihcir pfJDcec favourt (/n^mi'vni VH/rv statyue cadUque *tio) now aloft, to 
Borrow down, (as 'Polybiu^ describes them) lUeio many caeling counlert, 
tev of gold, to morrow of titver, that I'lry in wortk as the computant mill i 
*OTc> li<ff Siaitd Jbr aniitt, to morroic for Ikoatandt ; now btfort ail. aniiit 
ieAind. Betide, llicytonueot oneanotiicr with mutual &ctiou«, irniulatiu:ui : 
one m nntbiliou*, axiother enamoured ; a third, in debt, a prodi^jt, ovui-runn 
Uafannnex; a rourlh, solicitous with care*, gcU notliing. An.-. Bui, for 
Uicsc men* discootenls, ansietict, I refer you to Lucians tinrt, dt nurcviJt 
and tnany otlien. 

Of pbuoaopfaers and scholars, pritca Siynentut dielaiorti. I have already 
nioken iu peiMirul lenui. Tliow- superiniendenU of wit and learning, men 
abore inen. ifuue relined men, millions of ilie Mu»e». 


1 • fumili». lUUUU rmX, 

* llicsc acute and subtle raphistcts, so much honoured, have as tniieh need 
ofbcllebor as othen. 

1 mifiUn, BMilHD jvnuniDIr «iuio. 

Read Lncians Piicator, and tell how fie eiteeincd tliem : Atrrippaa tract of 
the Vanity of Science* ; nay read their own work*, their alxiurd trovnlx, pro- 
digiou* jHuadoxia, ri ruum leatatU, amid f You sJiall find tliat of Arintotlc 
irae, nullum magnMm ingcriium tine mixturd dfmcniia ; tlicv hiive a norm, 
u well ax othen ; yon idiall Knd n pliitnta*tical xtraiD, a fu»liaii, n bombast, 
a Tainglurious bninour, an aliccleu stile, &c. like a prominent ihred in an 
nacven woven clotli, run parallel throii|;iiout tlieir works: and tiiey tliat 
Uacfa witdoo), patience, meekoe<u, are the veryest diiarda, liaiibraiiu, and 
oust discontent. ■ In the mullitudr afwitdom u ^rief; and he Ikat tit- 
trtattlk ttdidam, eutrrcaMlh sorraie. I nci^d not unote mine author. They 
dai Isugb and cootrnin othetn, condemn the world of folly, deservi- to be 
mocked, arc an Kiddy-hjcadcd, and lie a» open, as any otiirr. " Democritua. 
Ibalcoounon floater of lolly, wa> riiliculous himself: barking Men ippus, 
■coAag iMoan, Mtyrical Lacilius, Petronius, Varro, I'ersitis, Sic. may be 
censured with tlie rest; Loripedem rtctut dtriiieal, Mthiojicm albut. 
Bale, ErsMRiiis, llospinian, Vivet, Kemnisius, explode, as n vast ocean of 
Ob* and Sols, school diviitity : ' a labvrinth of iulricable <|ncs<ton*, uiipro- 
duble eooteutioni : incrtiUlntem dtUrationem, one calU it. If school 
dinnity be 90 CKumrtid, tublUU' Scali'i lima verilatu, Occam irrefragabUit, 
mjuA iH<7cni>ni ixtcra omnia ingenia ftil/rcrtit, i;e. Baconthrope, Doctor 
Rfiotutut, and Corculum 7'AM/<]yi'#, Tlwmiis himtvlf, Doctor ^ .Straphicut, 
•ru 'iiclarit Aagttut, ^. what shall becODIQ of hiimunilv '. An stuUa. what 
•"dii shi- pinu) ? what can her followers ssy for (licni)iclve& * Mu(-b teaming 
' rrTr-diiHiiitit-lrrKm, lialh erackt iheii akoncc, and taken such mot, that 
tnbuM Antieyris captil insaaabile, hellebore it self can do no f^ood, nor tliat 
lONnmed 'ianiboraofEpictetas, by which if any man studied, he should be 

't4K. L Ull. Bon. (tiDttn alsciiEoniDi «IfdIIi. wunanni tonDflUntli ■rUlrlnni. moil" vrrl "int, 

ad HiM^ t^vi*. biEBft li«Mi auAt, annf iBi*«rt. ■ MtvmaaO^at BoLdbh. in S*. S. Dp 

P. I>a»K II|>liL lib. I. c. IS. • Hm H^nnBrnw MliunMlsli BuniK. ijui 

ttk |in«Cw«iiL TniHi PJtn. Nb. T. cap. SL ■ InxHin uusnl «Rt ntiniK' 

...^ tJuviirml. > !Cqlivmi»i, •Cmrmunl* tnivit chiEUUip- 

pirMUL tt*. • VII. ■•}»•. • BnnliH. ■ Lu^ui. Tri mltli 

ipinHan MUiiWnui. 

•WkBkMhnirifct ■Sector. Pin 
^itaia ttm ^*|ai; hi Iiii teiW mp 


Detuocritus to the Itentta: 

■s wile tu li« waa. Dut all will not servo. Rhetoricians, in MtentaliaueiH 
tnqiiaeitatls, multa a^tant—otH of tlieir volubility of tongiio, will lalk luucli 
lo no piiqmic. Oraloni can perswadi' ulher men what they will, yuo v-olunt, 
unde rolunt, niovt, puritie, &C. ItuI caiiuot stttle llieir own brains. What 
saith Tiilly ? Mah indUertam pradenliam, ijuatn loquacf.m ilulliliam ; 
and (as ' Scnrcii Kcrondu him) a wim! tnani omtioii «houl<l iiol hr \m\ile or 
Eolicilous. '' I'abiuB fMrrmit no brtirr »f nirwt ot'tliein, cillirr in x[)v(^h, 
action, geatiire, than as men lirnidc themwWv, intanotdcclamatorti ; to 
doth Onj^TV : noa miki lupit ijui »erwone, ted ijiti Jaclit, lapil. Mikko 
ttse iMfit orhim, a good oratorir i« a turn-coat, nn evil man ; boHvi orator 
pfisimuii vir : his (ongiie is act to sale : be is a me«r voice (as ' he »aid of a 
nightiiigal) ; rial sine mf.nle siiaum ; an hvpcrbotical liar, a flatterer, a para- 
nilr, and (us' Aniniianus MarcelltmiH will) a corrupting coaeiicf, one that 
doth more mischief liy his fair spebchcs, than lit? that bribes by money : for 
a mnn may with more fiii'ility avoid him ihut cinnimvcnts by niomtr. than 
him thnt ucircivc* with glosing terms ; which niiidi; ^Socrates *a much abhor 
and explode them. ' Fmciwtorins, a fitmons poet, freely grunts all poets to 
be mad ; so doth "" Scaligcr; and who doth not ? {Aut in'nml homo, aul 
vtrsut facil , Hor. Sat. 7. /. 2. Intanire luhet, i. e. vertus compontre, 
Virg. Eel. 3, So Servius interpret?) all poets are mad. n eompany of bitter 
satyriati, detraelors, or else parasilicai applatiders ; and what is poetry itself, 
but (as Austin holds) rinum errttris ab tbrtii docloribui propinalum ^ You 
may givt^ that censure of them in genernl, which Sir Thomas Moore one* did 
of Gcrmrmus Brixius [loems in particular. 

^ -Tf huulur . 

lb roU ■tuHltis ^ njltvnluMUnl Funir. 

Budnnis, in an epistle of his to Lupsetus, will have civil law to be the 
tower of wisdom : another honours physick, the quintesaencc of nature ; » 
third tumbles tlicm both down, and sets up ihf flag of hi.* own pecnliar 
•cicni'p. Your supercilious cntick*. grammatical triflcrs, nolc-makcrt, cu- 
rious antii^tiarii'x, firid out all the mines of wit, inrptiarum deticias, amon^t 
the rubbish of old writi-r» : " pro slultii habent, ni*i alu/uld sa^dant met- 
nire, i/iiod in alinrum svriptit tiertant vitto : all fools with them that cannot 
find f.iult : they ciirrcct othrm, and arc hot in a cold cause, puzile them- 
selves to find out how many Mrccts m Itome. houses, gates, towers. Homers 
eountrey. £neas mother. Niobes dauj^hters. an Sappho pablica fueritf 
ovum ° priui extiUril, on gallina ? ifC. el alia, ya« lirdisctnda essirnt, ri 
ieirti. as p Seneca holds — what clothes the senators did wciir in Konic, what 
shews, how ibey itaic, where they went to the close stool, how mnny dishes 
in ft m<ss, whnt mucu; which, tor the pre^iit, for an historian to relate, 
(^ftccurding to Lodovic. Vives) is very ndicutoui, is to tlicm mott precious 
dabomtc stuff, they ndmirftd for it, anu as proud, as triumphant in the mean 
tiDi« for this discovery, as if thcv had won a city, or conquered a province; 
a* rich as if they had found a mmn of gol<l ore. Quosmt auvlores absurdit 
cvmmenli$ suit per faeani rl titrcorant, one ii»\l\t: they bewray and daub ■ 
company of books and good authors, with their absurd comments, (<wr* 
TSclOmm strrifuilinia ' Scaliger calls tlieni) and shew their wit in crnsurini 
Others, — a company of foolish noiL--uiaki.T>, humble-bees, dors or bi-rtles: 
inter if^reora ul plurimum versanltir, tliey rake over all those rubbish and 
dunghills, and prefer ft manuscript muny times befont thv Gotpel itself, 

■ Ei*^ 31, 1. UK Nonoportrt onllourm ■apirritl* i-Hf [tuliuin iul ulictUud, ^ Lkb. X Q|i- IS, 
yttilu, jiLihalilu. }KU.U<in^. (iirtulm. }hwIu>, (runb-m i-nlrnli-i, k<- ' Lipalu*, \nrr\ tujit. prviaiM 
nthiJ. J Lili. w Plut null fjur-ni tLdviur qui otxijimr <|iuin qui ivnrtlo ^urmvlf #orni(nin< l hub. 
fcr. • In tta(|. PUtonU, ' In Nutrvrlo, - 1*1 luiar Ui Lvhul Ac imoilH furit. rurtl. Scril. 
■iDuu. blb(D>, rl [iDfl*. Ac. • Morai. VIop. lib. II ■ HK-rub. SMui. 1. lb rBnA W. 
1 lib. d( BuaiU f oinip. Mnum. ' Lib. i, ia Avuuiuum. ca|i. W. ft K. 

Democritut to the Reader. 


'Ihftmtrtim tritwnm, bi;lorc nny ttntKiirr, and witti tlicir delealurt, alii 
bymU sic, ntevt codfx tif kabel, with their posirema tditiones, aiiiioialioD*, 
tuiigations, &c. make books dear, themscUca riiliculoua, aud du nu body 
good: yet. if any man dare oppose or coQiradict. they are inad, up in attnti 
on a sudden ; bow many xheeu are written in defeote, how bitter tnreclivc*. 
what apologies '. ' Epiphyiltdet ha sunt el mere nugte. But I dure say no 
more of, fur, with, or ain>>nft (faem, because I am liable to their laK)i, lu well 
uoiJien. Oftliew aiid ibe reit ofouraKists aud philo»uplier«, 1 will gcne- 
nDy coDcludf!, tbey arr a kind of mad men, (as "Sciktu I'stocmi of Miem) 
to mxkc dotibts nn<l iiruplen, how to read ihcm truly, tg mend old nulliora, 
but will not mend llicir own lives, or Icacli ii« tngrnia tanare, memonam 
ojieiffruat ixjrererf, ac Jidtm in rtfmt iumanit rrlirifrc, to keep our wit* in 
onter. or Teclify our manners. Sum^nid libi non demtnt viattar, m islU 
cprra m imptHderil * is not he mod that dmivs lines n'iih ArchJaiedeii, wliilcs 
bU house is ransacked, and his city besieged, nben tlie wbok' world i> in 
combuition. — or we, wliilest our souls are in danger, {mtiTi tetjuitur, vila 
/•yi/) tu upend our time in toy a, idle nuestiotis, and things of no worth ? 

That * lovi^rx am mitd, 1 think no man will deny. Amare timui tl iopcrt 
tpti Jovi non datur .- Jupiter binuelf cannnt intend both i>t oncc. 

* Sun iivnP njnrnxiual. ncc ia uui al^Ii' muraatur. 
M^^u« rt ntnur. 

Tolly, when he was invited lo a second marria)!^, replied, he eould not 
liKul anart tt taprrt, be wise and love tiuUi lotTcther. * £st Oreut Ult ; 
visttt tmmoiicaAt/u ; tsl rabietiuiana : love t.imudncM, iihell, nn inciirublc 
dbeSR ; impolrntrm ft intanam liliidinem ' St^ncra culU it. an impotcDt uod 
ngbtg luH. 1 ihall dilate thia subject ajiart : in tlut mean time let lovcra 
■i^ out the rest. 

'Nevisanus (he hwycr holds it for an axioms, most women are /onh, 
I' c»»ntinm Jeminit invaliduni) Senecn, men, be they younf; or old : who 
dovbuil? youth is mad, a<< Etius in Tully, Slulti adoletcentuli. old a^ liltle 
better, deliri rfnrt, Jrc. Tlieojihraiilus. in the 107 year of bis aj^, "i^aid he 
tlicn be;;an In be wim.-, lum saptm capit. and therefore lamented his drpar' 
lam. If oiidom come to late, where Hliall we find a wi»- tOAXi ? out old 
cars dole atthreeH^orcand ten. I would cite more proof* and a tictlcr author; 
tiDt, for tlic preEeni, let one; fool fxiint at another. ' Nevixunus haih as haid 
an opinion of'' rieh men — wraith and wisdiim cattnol dwell loijethcr; $tul- 
titiam patiUHlur opts: 'and (hvy do commonly ' tn/ufncire evr koiniHis, 
bsaot meo : and, as we sec A./oolt have fortuite : ' tapientia nott invemtur 
m ttrri taaeiter eiftnlium. For, be&idc a natural contempt of learning, 
■liich accoiniiauieasuch kind of men, innate idleness, (for tliey will take no 
fKtia) ami wlticb ' ArUlotle obsenes, uAi iMitt plurima, ibi minima fortana ; 
nbi plarima/ortana, i6i ment ptrexigua ; great wealth a[id little wit fsa 
commonly tot;eiher : they have as iimdi brains, some of thcin, in their heads 
•* in tlN-ir lte<-U ; besides this inbred ne^teel of liberal seienceit, and all artx, 
whicb should nntlcre menlurn, polish the mind, tliey have most part some 
I^Uiah hnnMiur or other, by whic:h they are led ; one i* nn Kpicute. an 
ubebt, a second a gamester, k third a whorrmm>ter, (fit subjects all for 
a ntyriai to work upon) 

■ UM. 7, *(i)gM. luio Gruum • Atu>iii|>huil> Riuii. • Lib. d* tHBcHcIii. •Dclinw at 
4i^B H^**"*" iBtfrilu. Hur- Svcirok * Grid, Mvl. ■ PJuUrt^li- AnuclDrin ral unnr intuiuL 
'fplii W. ■ ajinv nopililii. I. t. num. II, Onum nmllrm. ui plunmum. ilult*. ■ Artduilr. 
■iMiiM iv 41x11. vrt4 lum «'IU fcn^prplQr. * Ln>. 1. nam. U, ^|plvn(l4 eldivitiir viji »iiuul po^ 
■tiL 'TliejrfTt ihe/r •ivtom by «*ilO( ulunul. k»m. • Xp.|ua,„ i-ui t.tmi ^.^--a. 
tlum qoidm muiUIDxu aunl (ramCU. ThuucniiL. 'Foituu. aliniiua quun li^irl. 
iJ6h.n. * M>t. monl. Ilh. J. H llh. I. Ht. <. > n«r. •«. 1. ■■(. (. 


JJdiiocrilus til tic Reader. 

-fone is mnd or liawkiii^, hutiting, rocking; another of cvouuDg, hor»e- 
lidiiig, spending ; » fourth, of biiililinj;, fighting. &K. 

Inunit wvVfTvt tUluB> IHmvkppiivrrniTndo; 

Damuippus liath an humour of his own. In be lalkt of; ^ Hehodorus the 
CBfthaKioian. another. In a woixl, as Scuiigur (-ondudcji of them all, they 
arc ilatuai trtrltt ttuUilia, the very siutnpg or pillam ot' folly. Cliuni:, out 
of all ttorieit, Iiim that hath ht-cn tnont admired ; and yon shall ttil! find mutta 
ad iaiidrm, mtilla ad vitvpertilionnvi matfiiifica, as' Bcrogns of ^^l-ali(^lnis : 
omnes mortalrs militii.triumphit, diviliis, ^c. lutn el luxa.ciede, cttlerU^tu 
viliif, anifttstic : at she hud some good, Bo hiidshe many bad parts. 

Alexander, a worthy man, but furious in his anger, overtaken in drink : 
Cibiar and Seipio valiant and wise, but v at n -glorious, ambiuous : Vespasian 
a worthy prince, but covetous : ■" Hannilvjl, us he had nii^thty lertues. to had 
he many vices ; anam virtulrm millr. ritia cnaiilantur, an Machiavel of CoE- 
inus Medices, he had iwu di.itinet pcr»>n!i in him. I will detcnniiir of ihcnt 
nil, thry are liki^ these duublc or turning pietuioi ; stand before which, you 
»ce a fair maid on the one side, an ape on the other, an owl* : look upon 
them ai the firat night nil in well : but larthet examine, you Khali find them 
wise on the one mde, and fools on the other ; in some few things praisc- 
woTthy, in the test incomparably faulty. 1 will say nothtiig of (heir diseases, 
emuhitions, discontents, wants, and such miseries; let Poverty plead tlie 
rest in Aristophanes Plutus. 

Covetous men. amongst others, are mo»t mad ; " tht-y have all the symp- 
loma of melancholy — fear, sadncM, Ri(pi<:ion, &c. as shall be proved iu His 
proper place : 

Duda r>E hpQitMiri Dmlla |iin mixlm* ■TUl*. 

And yet, metliinkH, prodigals are much niadtler than they, he of what 
condition they will, that bear a pubUek, or private purse; aaa^Uuteh writer 
censured Kichnrd the rich duke of Cornwal, niin^ to be emperonr, for his 
profuse spending, qui effvdU prcvniam ante pedes imneipom eleclorum tictit 
aquam, that scattered niuney liki- watrr ; 1 d« cpniun- them. SttiUa 
Anglia, (saitll he) qua tot drnariU tpnnlr. rtt privata : slulli priunpet Ale- 
tiKuda:,i[ui ntihitr Jus suum pro ptciiaid vfuHidrruTit . Spend- thrift*, bribers, 
and brilie-taken, arc Irols ; and so arc fall tJicy that cannot keep, disburse, 
or spend, their money* well. 

I might «ay the like of angry, peevish, envious, ambitious C' Anticyras 
melhr sorhere meracas). Epicures, atheistt. schismalicks, herclicks: hi 
omnti habent imaginationcm lirsam (sailh Nyinaniius); and their maditeti 
ihait be evident, 'i Tim. 3. 'i. 'Fabatus. an Indian, holds sea-faring men 
all mad ; Ike tkip is mad, for it nercr tiaiidi tliU ; the mariuert are nod, 
to expote Ihemielcet lo tuck imminent dangtri ; the waters art raging nadt 
in perpetaal motion : ike irindsarr as madas ike rest : tkty know not lehemet 
Ihet/ come, whither tkey ViOtild go : and thoie m^i are maddest of all, that 
goto tea: foronr/oolal home, they find fitrl^ abroad. He wa» a mad niau 
ihutunid it; and thou, peradfcntiire, as mad to readit. 'Felix Platcfus 
ill of opinion all alchymisls are mad, out of their wits; 'Athcntrug suith ox 
much of fidlcrs, f/ ^ujamni laseitiiai. "niusietans; omnea tibiciits iiua- 
Jiiunt i ribi lemfl ejflanl, ai'iilat illico menu in Comes musick at one ear ; 

> laMlu futit ln>uir ul»l.ruotiOTii^. In^mnunt vohuill tludltnii^t>i«forlU ■li.inrnt. ^'i^E■ -fti. 
> U«lllHtan» CvThftuknii-nittB ilI citnTniim urhiM HjmpliK^ tesUUinilu luv hid jilHt ^.QlldUr. M *l^e~ 
nm uirjuft IfiiHuiar ml inr viti'iicfum uatpu' 44 lun^ InfA iviiMcwtfL Oru-liua, jiiUaiI. I If Et b*- hi* 
wufk; vTiii:^] GaM^n VrTTtu* aiatpcrii. " 1.\Tj. infrnU* vkrtalH; inipnim vrlijk *IIm. 
({t]i-iirTL> nmhilionr miJl aui artfi'iiti vullci tfnor*.^ Uui,r{ul» luxurW, tflrtli^in' *u|>mll1lor|i«. |Vt, 
■ ChriJuirA slh^onirJ. bl tniium l"T7, do tMiju.* pi.turiLi jant InfTtvUHIlJi iU\rr>MM r A rool iml hU 
inunc) 4f|. ivx^E] (Mrlit! i O/4I il<- lEtKff — AmliiliiHU* i^l 4uJax iiafirfl Arilirjra*, ' Mftv^ ttum, 

qti*r E4n1i]iEin rnovtftuT- ii.iiit*. >riilTj, 0111 •!» iM-nruUi cx^nmiur; *f[ii> in^^ia, r^uji *ii: Ipfltal. Af. ii#t 
;uuiu(, Kc. qmmiTi ■t.Miniii.itiii. >ioli<luDi iiuiir» itrri fuclrni. Winin iTiiniii. limart Kii>.Moi*k. 
•Cif,deilhS. ncnUi. ■ INpnowphliLlib. S. •TlblciooiBRiH ciipii Bnrai. Cld. I. ml I. 

^^^F Democritus to tie Header. 7 1 

out goes wit at auotber. Proud and vaiii ^'luriou* peraoni are ccttniiilj 
mud ; uad m> uie " lucivious ; I cau fei'l llieir puUcs bciit hitJicr ; burn mod 
some of thrtii, to Ivt al}ien Xve wltli tlic ir w'ivl'x, ami wink ut It. 

To insist " in all prtiiuUm, were nn llcmilciui U*i, to ' reckon up 
'' mutnat sutftruclii/nft, inxftnos laharfs, iruanum iuxum , mad labours, mad 
bodu, endeavours, carriugr-ji, uroM ignorance, ritticiiluiis actioDS, absurd 
gesUms, iiXonoiM galam, utsainam tillarttm, imanaJuTi/ia.&aTMy UHtM 
UiMD, nudntss of villages, Stupeod Structures, as tliose jf^ypUan u^raiiiids, 
labyriniJu aod i^phiii^, which a company of crowned omk*, ad osteata- 
HoHOH opum, viiinl)- built, wben neither Hit! arcliitect nor king that made 
them, or to what iim: and piirpme, ar« yet known. To insist in their liy- 
puvrinc, inconstancy, bltndncsn, rasliiicus, drmcntrm trmtritatcm, frdiid, 
comnagE, ntiilice, ang<rr, impudcitci;, in^TMtiludc, anibilioit, |^m su»enti- 
tioo, ' lentpora infttta el adtilationg sordida, an in Tilicrius times, sucn base 
flattery, slupend. parasitical fmening and collogiiiDg;, &c, brawls, cooflicls, 
desires, (outcntions, il would ask an expert Vesaliiis to anatomiie every 
nembM. Sball I »ay f Jupiter bimself, Apollo. Mars, &c. doted: and 
monater-comjucrin^ Hercules, tliat subdued tlie world. an<I helped ulliers, 
coutd not relieve himM'if in tliii : but mad be wtu at l^sl. And wliere sliull 
a man walk, converse uitb wlioni, in what ptovint'c^, city, and nut mi'ut witli 
Signior Deliro, or lleri:iilc» Fureos, Mmnade*, and CorjbaiilM * Then 
Speeches say no less. ' E/angit nati koraines i or else tiiey &:tclied tlieir 
pedigree from Uiose that were struck by Sampson with ihu jaw-boiic of an 
KM, o* from Deucdion and Pyrrha's stones ; for durum grnuf tujnns, ^ mar- 
morei ranu' : we are Stony -heaiti-d. and savour too much of the stock, as 
if they had all heard lliat inchanied horn of Astolpho (that English duke in 
Ahnstu), which never soundcil but all his audiiois were mad, and for fear 
muly lo make away ibi-msrlves : '' or kindt^ in tlie mad haven in the Euxiae 
Mm of JDaphnis iasana, which had a *eeret qualitv to dententaie ; tlmy are a 
eompaoy of giddy-heads, af^monn men; il i» midsoniur-moun siitl, and the 
tloy-dayes last all the year long: they are all nud. Whom (hall I thcji 
except i Ulricus Hulteiiut'' Aemu ,- ttam Srmo omnihut hprif *apit i Nemo 
aiuatur tiitr vihi* : crimine Nemo caret ; Ntmo *<yrlc tti4 trivit cotttrulus ; 
Jftma in amare laptt ; Nrmn bonJU ; Nenio tapteru i Memo est fx umni 
jtarii ieatat, ^c. and therefore Nicholas Nemo, or Monsieur Nobwiy, shall 
so free : linid r-atrat nsnio, n*»n>, Teferre polrtt . But whom shall 1 exi'rpt 
IB ihe second place f tueh as are silent : I'lr tapit, f iii paaca /oqtiitur ; ' uo 
belter way to avoid (btly and madnm*, than by taciturnity. Whom in a 
ibitd? all senators, nugistratrs ; for all fortunate men are wis«r, and lon- 

Saeroors valiant, and so are ail gre-at men : »oii rt,t Imnum ludert cum iliii ; 
■ey are wise by autltority, good by their odice and place : hia licet impuite 
prstimos esse, (some say) we must not speak of them : neilhur is it 6t ; per 
ase tint tmnia prolinut alba : I will not think amiss of them. liVliom next '. 
Stoicln! Sapien* Stoicit : and be alone issubjcct to no jwrttirhaiions, (a« 
' Plutarch HMtT* at him) he is mil vexed wil/t formenis, or burnt anthJiTt, 
Jtiled by kU tJ'fi'Crmry, tnld of hit enemy. Thoiujh Ae 6e wrinhlnl, taad- 
blhtd, toothless, aitd deformed ; yet he isnuiil beaal'ful, and like a god, a 

• Pnrr. as. Ibhm UMiki Ilk. ro«o, minfututo«l oon Ml bm mmtuU Jmum t Uut rn. 74. 

L » •Mlllr»ot««niiiirt uuviiimmiinHi-dKoB* ■ t;i*ml lofiMorhOTUijiI llor. OitiLMrii. 
tla. > flin. Hti as. -TMciliu, IAmihI. •O.iJ. T. M»t BruBRlinUI haminn. si ollm Co. 

Iteibi rr" ' tnim IniU mu)*'. <li"ii •luUdi cl fllnl f<ingl< mil <llo>Mnlur. Idvni r( ■Itbi iliiiik 

■VMbIb. SiHdi, rlr bttuHi. dp iii»nnnii. .rmliculiPll'. ■ Antuiut. pwiplo nutii Eu»mi. porMi 

KMlnililr rTTlilHTTi I 1 1r ITnirtifT Thmcli., EUnunii ir«»M, i|ii», llliU In rani't»luni. nm. 
,on-- -■'' ifffril, OiiUcI Sliuvblm. iiiinnn™i. kr. "L^pidum iK-^mi. ilo ln«]fi|iluin, 

■ tiaii I nt.n jiitir., niu urUurnlMtf. 'Bxlorw-. noii rniiuiiut : unbuiWi. hou 

b^dH " I'li-Mi, lion >inrUui; mm llti»nli™». •hhofl<'"iiunil»iu». Ei il ni|[n«u,inK'&. 

ifwti] ... u.Junuli. roiniuui Umili. cl ikv limilii. MU. lUtu. I«, iinliiui rgcol, em drm- 



DentocTttus to the Header. 


now ^^ 


kiuQ in conceit, though not worth a groat. fl« never dotet, ntvtr madjl 
ntvur tad, drunk ; because vertiie cannot be taken awai/ (as ■ Zeno holds) | 
by reason of tiTong apprehension : but he was mad to say so. ^ Antieyral' 
calo huic tsl opus, out dolabrS : he had need to be bored, arid so had nil hi* 
Icliuws, as wine as they would svein lo be, Chrysippus himself libtirjlly 
grams them to be fool* an vitW an o(lii'r». at tedain time*, iijion smme Bci-a- 
tionii: amitli lirtulfm ait pur cbrietatem, aut alribilarium morbum ; it may 
be lost by driinlci-nncM or nielaiirboly ; ht. may lie iic>ni<!tiinc» craxud u ireit 
as tiie rest : ' ad summam, tapims, nisi ^uum pituita moUsta. I should 
liere except some eyuicka, Mcntppiiit, Diogcncit, that Thebiin Crates, or to 
deacend 10 these tinicK, that omnrscioii*, only wise fraternity J of the Kotlc 
Crosx, those i^cat theologues, politicians, philosophers, pbysidana, philo* 
lowers, artists, &c. of whom S. Bridi^el, Albas Joaechimus, LeiceiibiT):iiii, 
and siK'h divioe spiriu, have projibesied, and made promise to the wi.rtd, if"' 
at least iIktc! be any such, (Hen. ^ Neuhusius makes a doubt of it, ' Valen- 
tinus AndrraN, and oiliere) or an Elias Artifeic their TheophrailiMii mnsler ; 
whom though I.ibavius iind mnny dcridci and carp at, yt^t some will have lo 
be llie '" rrnfwer </ all arit and trtrncff, r*li>micr of tlic world, and now 
Urine : ^°^ *" Johannes Monlaniis Strigoniensis (that great patron of Para- 
celsus) eonli.'nda, and certainly avers " n most divine man, and the qutu 
lence uf wisdom, uhcresoevcr he is: tor he. his frntemttv. friends. &c. 
all " betrothed to ttisdom. If we may believe their disciples and followers. I 
mnst iiri^ds except Lipsius and the pope, and expunge their name out of tlie 
catalogue of fools : for, l)esideii that parasitical te.itimony of Douta, 

LipMus sailh of himself, that he was fhnmiini gentrii ifuidam padaijogtis 
voce et tti/lo, a tcr^nd signior, a master, a Hilor of us all ; and for thirteen 
year*, he hrag*. how he sowed wisdom in the Low Countreys, (as Aininouiua 
the philosopher giomeltmes did in Alexandria) icum humanitute litrra*,el, 
tapitntiam cum pradenlid: antitti.s sa/nrntiir., hr iball be tapientum oetw 
VU4. The pope is mom ilian u man, a* 'liii p.irrols oflcn make him 
drnii-god ; and besides hi* holiness cannot «Tr. in cathedrd hirlikc : and yc 
some of them have been magicians, hcrcticks, Mheists, children; and, 
Ptfltina saith of John 2'2, El » vir lileraliis, multa stoiidilalem el levilatent 
prir K fortnlia e'/il. tialidi et locordis vir inyenii ; a scholar sufficient ; 
yet many things he did foolishly. Lightly I can say no more in particular, 
but in i^neral terms to the rest, they are all mad, their wit* are evaporated 
knd (as Ariusto iVigns, 1. -14) kept in jars ulxire (he moon. 

Mouip iotir thoLj vir- virh loit. tomf wah uibliion, 
^^rai<. TulIu^iiilE "iwriliftrtd OKU orhiKhfunilinijn- 
fiiimr. to fiurjmi'l>richin](L<^(aUy avt. 
Dtlii^ 14 puplTT. thrir wiu fgrvpl, 
Aoolhci tmnllilo br vt «J?hyini4l. 
Till sU bv*|i«iil. fe&d ihki hb naniW* rALA. 

Convict fisols Ihey are, mad men upon reconl ; and. I am alraid. past cure, 
msny of tbem ; ' crtpunt iHgeuia : the syroptomee are manifest ; they are 
all of Qolam parish : 

• uuuui (uror tiuiil iIuWui. qaun (tl msnltMs pIiMii»i>. 
what rrmains then ' but to send for lorarim, thoM officers to carry ihcm 
together for company to Bedlam, nnd set Rabelais to be tlicir physician. 

< lUum cvnlvTulHiil laun InJiiTii sffld. iwiil IniHiiU, non tnpljtlAri, <|uLa t-'titun non rripltur ob ran* ' 
•IUI1*> «vnipMhFi»luni.>. Ui4. Vftft. eiOlr, Ub, 3^ 11101, It. ' Tbiwui nthua. r[>U[. I0>. I. S. 
' llor, J Knlm Mbrt. Ruwc CnK'U. ^ .\a ^al. <|Uft1a atnl. luiitt iiumm lUuu uMlmiut. 
' Turri BibrL ■ Oinnlura ■ntum •! HlratUnim ituuuulur. • IKiIbib lIIc lii. lUi^lor iiounini ia 
rp- Rot Hun- «1- IluDlur- IdOa, • tkplmiik ilnpcmnii- rSailii* hit: v^i •Ajkii-nk. 4JU vnTilvit 
trial DBbi*. « In «|i. >d IWIImil Monnini. ■ IlclrxJuncnla ul r>l»iiin ('•tlniu rum nllquii. 
'Slwumi tiniDi fen|ui «i MTMtr. tumr Mtk; oIkeM irakom. C«tiil, ■ Kiuiu U*imlL • In 
Bm. It. ■ Or Id Willi rntinxik lollir Aii1!c>T<r. 10 mdwlKtktiot pvllu,v. Mdlc-hnln potn(r. 


Democritus to tk» ReatUr. 


If mj man ilinll ask in thu mciui time, who I am, that »o boldly ccnMire . 
Otfaen, tm nttlkuu habet vitia f Have I no fiiiilts ' ' Yes. more than thou 
haft, whatsoever ihoii art. Not nttnurae aamus: I con&U it again, 1 U& 
as foolJsIt, ai mad at any one. 

> 1 nMoui <k1iU riiUf^r ; Hon d^ptMor i|W>. 

I do ttol deny it; dcmunt dt popula dematur. My comfort ii, I have more 
mtom, and tliouc of cxctilknt note. And llion^h 1 bu nut Ko right or so 
diccreet a* I ihould be, yet not to mad. so bad neither, as thou perbap* 
tiikctt mc Xxi be. 

To conclude, this beiog granted, that all the world is melancholy, or mad, 
dotea, and every member of it, I have ended my ta&k, and sufficiently illua* 
tral«d that which I took upon me to demonstrate at first. At ihix i>rL>si-nt I 
ha>e no more to »ay. His sanam meatem Democritui ; I L-un but with my 
■elf and ibeni a good uby&iciun, and all of us a belter mind. 

And alllioug!i, for llie aboienamed rcnsons, I had a just cauM: to nndcr- 
take this subject, to point at iheic purli<-ohtr iprcie^uf doUgn, ihat Komcn 
migbt ackoowlcdgi; Uieir impcrlVctioni, and seek to rHbrm what is amiss ; 
wt I haTc a more serioiu intent at this time ; and — lo omit all impertinent 
oigTCMiona — lo sny no mote of such as arc improperly melancholy, or meta< 
phoricnlly mad, lightly mad, or in disposition, as stupid. iini;ry, drunken, 
silly, sottish, sullen, proud, vain-glorious, ridiculous, beastly, picvish. obsti- 
nate. impudent, extraTagant. dry, UolinK, dull, desperate, Uairbtain'd, &c. 
mad, franlick, foolish. heietoclite!i, which no new ^ hospital can hold, no 
phyuck help — my puqiose and endeavour h. in the followinii^ diK^oume to 
anatoQiiie Via humuur of m<-)uneholy, throug;li all hi.i parts and species, as 
it is au habit, or an ordinitry di^ictixe, and that philosophically, medicinally — 
to shew the cnusos, symptomes, and several cures of it, that it may be the 
better a»-oidcd ; moved thereunto for the generality of it, and to do good, 
it being a disease so frequent, as ' Mercnrialis observes, in l/irie our dayt$; 
to oJitH happening, saitli * I^ lire til ins. in our miserabfe timet, as few there 
are that feel not the smart of it. Of tht^ same mind i« .£lian Moutaltus, 
*Melanctlt«n. and others; ''Julius Cnsar Claudinus culls it the /ounfuia of 
all other disrates, and so r.ommon in this frazrd agr of nurs, that scarce 
vM of a thousand u frrr. from it; and that ).plenetick hypochondriacal 
wind especially, wliich proceed* from the t|)li-en arid short ribs. Being 
ibeo K UB disease so gtievoui, *i) eomronn, I know not wherein to do a 
HMK gvncral service, and spend iny lime hctter. than to prcscrilie means 
bow to prevent and eurc »o univcrs-il a malady, an epidemical disease, that 
w oftirn, so ranch, crucifies the body and mind. 

If 1 have over-shot my self in this which hath been hitherto said, or that 
it is (which I am sure some will object) too phauiaslical. too light and 
MMsira/ for a diifine, too satyrical for one of my profession, 1 will presume 
to answer with ^ Erasmus, in like cane, 'Tis not I, bm Democritus : Detntf 
eritas dixit : you must consider what it is to speak in one* own or iinolhcra 
pencil, an assumed habit nnd name : a difference fietwixL him tliat atli-ctit or 
aru a princcj, a philosophers, a magistrates, a fools part, and him that is 
Ml indeed ; and what liberty tho<e old sntyrist* hav« hatl : it is a cento col- 
lected from others : not I, but ihcy. that sny it. 

Dit'r,^ ri ittili! rurl,- JcicifumB, hoc miliijufb 
l-um ¥imlfc (lAbLii . 

* A Hqw ia la f niii t«nm In'ln mr volnhor. 4ti>'i<l *i"i^ <^in fniiJ(laelM|ilrDfiliu*D(vFlchc<rtiiulB rlrUlpif 
IHlfinuMai 1 qwiitile «. Mviil|ii-u» Luriaiii ii: McL-jom»ntil. ' FiflnFnui«, lo P»Iii1itI (Tlul. 
. i4 Ami, Vtlc. Ajwlui;. tniitiri\i, i. 1, .'I iffi. Apot, ■ Hw* iifTW'Clit ncjtlrli li<ni[H>rIlmi frt- 
" •• ' " • -|p Animl>, Voiini hr-f tflwiiln morbus rn^qiivnUadmuL 

^ ■ni t i—linfc 

■C.p. LV J,- Mfi, 

* Cwwulf- M. Adro aa«txli lfinT>on^u« rn-rinntlt-r Euvrult. ul fiuIEut fen th rjii* Ubo tmnuDU fVfi*- 
flalar. H onnlimi IMvivoFltoniin orr*kio oiltut, ^ Mnr. Bnrrim- 81 qnik ciJunnl'Eur I*vlii4 < " 


Vemoci ilus to tht Reader. 

Tak« hoed yon laistake mc noU If 1 do a bttle forget my self, I hope 
you will pardon it. And to say tnith, why should any tnun be oflcndcd, or 
lake exceptions at it ? 

— • LiruEt, ■flnjWTqufl Ni^tblt, 

Pojippre |i«r«ODi«, dVcfffp *lr filUt, 
Ilkwnilwuarnlil. uidttlllwllDN'. 
Td>p<siiIi olvlri-. liulli'l IhnnMiicHUftw. 

I hate their vice*, not iheit iwrson?. If nny be displeased or take ou^lil 
unto biiNMttr, lei htm uot i-xpi-stutncc or cavil with him thai said ii (so did 
' Eratmii* cxcina liiniiielf to Dorpius, »i parva iUrt tromponere maifnis : aiwl 
SO do I) : tut Ul him he anyrij with himse/f, that ti> hftraycd and opencit 
hit oien fault* in apptt/ini/ it to himurl/. * If he bi: {fuilty and dexcrve it, 
let kim Qinenrf, whosoever he is, and not hr. angrt/. tir that hattth corrte- 
lion ii a foel, Prov. 12, I . II' he h«; not cuilty, it ooncCTtw him not ; it is 
not my freeneSB of speech, but a guilty conxcimcc, n. gaulcd back of his 
own, llial makes him winch. 

Slulltf nuiUltlt utlati i-ufii4!irntiun, 

I deny not, this, whirh 1 have sni<l, savours b liltl'- of Drmoeritns. " Qnam- 
ITU ridentett.ilicere reram ijuid telalT one may speak in jc«l. nnd yet speak 
truth. It is somewhat tart, I pranl it : acrionx orexim excitant embamTnuta, 
a* hu said ; sharp sauceji increase appetite ; 

> Ncc clbuilpwjunt. monu rnuiUtutMpU, 

Object then nnd cavil nhut ihoii ivilt, I wind all with ' Drmocritus buckler ; 
his medicine shall salve it ; »t(ikc w here thou wilt, and whnn : Drmocrilaa 
£xit ! Dcmocritus will answer it. It wiis written by an idle I'cllow, at idle 
tinea, about our Satumalian or Dioiiysian fcnst, when, as he said, nullum 
Hitrtali periciilurn til, scnants in old Itonic had liberty to say and do what 
them Ii«. WIh'ii out counirey-nicii sacrificed to their (goddess ' Vucuna, 
and tat liplin^ hy their Vacunal fires, I writ tliiii, and published thin. Ovnc 
fXtyo'i i' <* I''"''''* nihil. The time, plaei,-, penuns, and all circum- 
stances, npologinr for mc : and ivhy may I not then be idle with otht^rt '{ 
speak n»y mind freely? If you deny me this lihorty, upon these prwump- | 
lions 1 wdl take it : I say ngnin, I will tiikc it. 

'M quia Hi. ijiildli-lum Ini? laFlfmcDUiu 

If any man take exceptions, let him txrn the burkle of his girdle ; I car« 
not. I owe thee notliing, reader : 1 look for no favour at thy hands; I am , 
independent : I fear not. 

No, I recant : 1 will not ; 1 car« ; J fear ; 1 confess my bull, acknow- 
ledge a great offc-jice ; 

1 have ovenhot niy »elf; I have .i[>oken fooliahlv, rHshly, unadvisedly, 
abaurdly ; I have anatomi«;d mine own folly. And now, inethinks. upon a i 
sudden I am awaked n4 it were out of a dream ; I huvt- had a raving Ht, a ^ 
pliantastical fit, ranged up and down, in and out : I hiive insulted over most i 
kind of men, abused some, offended others, wronged my self; and now, 
hcinr recovered, and perceiving mine error, cry witn " Orlando, SnUfIt mi. 
Pardon (O toni .') tliat which is putt ; and I will make you amends in tliatj 

• Ilor. ftaL 4. I. I. 'Kpl, ml nnnilrim ilr Mnril. SI igaiajilnn uKlmiUluT, rl itbl •Inilli'i'l. nna | 
halvl quod U|tii«lulc( cu]ii tu lulvjijitkl; lu«c. bI valol, flroum Apittnjuhvn, ut|vl0 tul pro<tUor. qut 
ilf^lutTlthor vl H- ytviiiiv pcrliutfn% < hi uui^ H ]d.4kMa b.'lLn)fclil(, uiL i^unvlpnlUm pTk>t1ll >uaiq, 
■ul n-nrmitiini. I'IimL L S. -EKnj.. F»li. ' Unr. ' M«il. 1. 1, SJ. U'Mohrf. tpfiil; iliiilTt. 
H^ni hot Lf<iu IVmnrrlti ph4miiirD, ^ Uinillcnnim <1rn pmwr vaauililHi> '1 uliv^l* ^ulabiklii'. ful 
noil libum (crloolii Hciillrvlwl. I'lln. \.Xc. II, Oilil. 1. E. Puk Jam tguaniiiii ciiin ItuDtiuiiQac 
*«.r» Viniiw, Ani* V«riiii»lc>«laaluur ni'ili'tiuiucrocoj, lt»uu». 'Tci-jiiotr . . . . 

Lit, •*■>"■ 

. Eunuib, •■ dilwl. 

Demoeritut la the Reader. 76 

wliich is to come : I promiH you & more sober diacourae in my following 

If, throo^ weakneH, follv, paasioii, "diaconteat, ignorance, I have raid 
amiu, let it be foi^ptten and forgiven. I acknowledge that of "Tacitus to 
be true, Atptrt fdcetia, itbi nimit ex vera traxtre, acrem sui memoriam 
relmqmunt: a bitter jeast leavea a sting behind it; and as an honourable 
man observes, ' They fear a tahiritU wit, lu tkttr memoriei. I may justly 
niipect the worst; luid, thoueh I hope I have wronged no man, yet, iu 
Hedeas woids, I will crave pardon, 

THwd jam toob atmsA pcto, 
Mc, il qw Dum doUiu (Aidlt dalor, 
Huuant In «Blno Toba : led melioi UM 
Mewrkiuirtrl nbiM ; lUKimdiM 


Aod, Id my tut iroidi. thli I do dnln. 
Tlul vhAt Id puaIob I have iftfd. or In, 
HivlwfoiiaUai,ud abetter mbul 
Be EiAd of u>, henaftei u jod find. 

I earnestly request every private man, as Scal^^r did Cardan, not to take 
offence. I will conclude m bis lines. Si me cogiutum habere*, nan tolum 
donarei nobis hat facetiae mulras, ted etiam itu^nitm duceret, lam Avmo- 
mm animvm, tene ingeniiim, vel jmntnuim tutpicionem deprecari oportere. 
If thon knewest my i modesty and simplicity, thou wouldit easily pardon 
and forgive what is here amiss, or by thee misconceived. If hereafter, 
anatomizing this surly humour, my hand slip, and, as an unskilful prentice, 
I launch too deep, and cut through skin and all at unawares, make it smart, 
or cut awry, 'pardon a rude hand, an nnskilfnl knife ; 'tis a most difficult 
thing to keep an even tone, a perpetual tenor, and not sometimes to ]aak 
out ; difficile ett tatyram non icribere ; there be so many objects to divert, 
inward perturbations to molest; and the very best may sometimes err; 
aliquando bonus dormitat Homenis : it is impossible not in so much to 
overshoot : 

open In lon^ lu e«t obrcpen «nBnaD. 

But what needs all this ? I hope there will no such cause of offence be 
given ; if there be, 

• Nemo >Uqaid reeognOKal : b« nenUmur omnU. 

I1e deny all (my last refuge), recant all, renounce all I have said, if any 
man except, and with as much facility excuse, as he can accuse : but I pre- 
sume of thy good favour, and gracious acceptance, gentle reader. Out of 
an assured hope and conHdence thereof, I will begin. 

> Ut enim ex itudiii gaudiom, iLc itndla ex hllaritale pTovenlunL Pllqfm Maximo fuo, ep. lib. a 
• Anoal. IS. PSliFnncli Bacon inbli EHavet. now VUcounl 8. Albann. lOuod Frobun Penli 
nt&yfi^oi Tiri^tiali rencnndii Fenlum Ailuc (ucit. epi, he, ' Quad aut Incaria fiidlt, auE humana 
paiiuD caTlt nalua. Hoi. • ProL Pilot. 



Tu vero cavesis, edico, quuquis es, ne temere sugitlei authorem hujuscc 
opens, aut cavillator irrideas. Imo ne vel ex aliorum cenaur& tactte oblo- 
quaris,(viEdicaniverbo?) nequid nasutulua inepte improbeB, aut faUo fingas. 
Nam si talis reverl sit, qualem pne se feit. Junior Democrilus, seniori 
Democrito saltern nfGois, aut ejus genium vel taDtillum sapiat ; actum di 
te ; censorem reque ac delatorem • aget e contra (petuUmti tplene cum sit) 
■ufflabit te in jocoa, comminuet in sales, addo etiam, et deo Ritui u 

Itfirum moneo, ne quid cavUlere, ne (dum Democritum Juniorem convj- 
ciis infames, aut ignominiose vituperes, de te non male sentientem) tu idem 
audias ab amico cordato, quod ofim vulgus Abderilanum ab ^ Hippocrate, 
concivem bene meritum et popularem suum Democritum pro insano habeos : 
Nee tu, Democrite, tapis ; stalti atitem el insani Abderitce. 

• AbderiUme twdon ptabU habn. 

Hsec te paucii admonitum volo, male feitate Lector. Abi. 

■ Bl DDF cobmiAril. meUiu non Unfren, cluDO. Hot. ^ Hippoc rpiat. Dunwto. Acc«nituB 
nm, ul Dnnochtum, Uinquun LoimiuD, curmmn ; Bed poftqium c^teni, qon. per loytm^ dnlplfii- 
tim D^Qtliun, wrA renim OEimiam n^cvptuuloin deprehcDcll ; ejuaque Ln^aLua dfWivtiu nm. Abde- 
JlUn« rent umqoAm non tuuu vcciuktI. ventri poti<nie lps« potliv cguUK djceu. ■ Uvt 

Heraclite, fleas ] misero sic convenit svo : 

Nil nisi turpe vides, nil nisi triste vides. 
Ride etiam, quantumque lubet, Democrite, ride ; 

Non nisi vana vides, non nisi stulta vides. 
Is fietu, hie risu. modo gaudeat; unus utrique 

Sit licet usque labor, sit licet usque dolor. 
Nunc opus est (nam tolus, eheu ! jam desipit orbis) 

Mille Hereclitis, milleque Democritis. 
Nunc opus est (tanta est insania) transeat omnis 

Mundua in Anticyras, gramen in Hellcbomm. 



Brtt. 1. 
Mtmt. 1. 

in irbjch 




AkI). I. 

r Iniinilal*e ; i Sin, oonoapiacanoa, (to. 

I. lutrunnitil ; i Intampennra, ill Hcond canioi, &c. 

Of the body rBpHemicd, u PIm". ™~. *e. 
*"■ "•'^^ "• t P^aenkr, u Gout, Droi«i«, »c 


or mind. 
Salt. a. 

In diipodtion i u ill peitiiriiatiani, aril •An- 


Habiti, ■■ LnuidiTOpiB. 
Ad*. 4. CWnt wned TOt 


FouMiion or obaewun of De- 

HeUnchol;. Ste f- 

It* Aqidvocation*, in Diipontion, Impropar, &c. 5i(&Kcf. 5. 

rHomonn, Blood, Phlcpn, Cholor, 
' conUioed, u -i MeUncholj. 

[ Splriti ; vital, natoral, udnul. 


To it* ez- 
pliatioD, n 
of anatomj, 
in which 
put! of 

Sail. 1. 


i Similar ; ipCTmatfcal, or fleah, 
bona, nerve*, &c. 
DiaairpiUr ; haia, heart, liTer.ftc. 

r Vegetal. Suit. 5. 
SoolaodUthcnltia,!!^ Senuble. Atii. 6, 7, S. 

LR*tional. Aite. 9, IS, II. 

It* definition, name, difference, rSiit. 1. 
The part and partiei affected, affection, &c. Bui*. 2. 
The matter of melancliolj, utiml, nnnatniai, &c. Smi*. 4. 

Of tlie head alone, Ufpo- i with their Mwa 1 
Proper, to dumdriacal, or windj me- J cvuee, ijmptomef , 
parti, aa lauehol;. Of the whole 1 prognoRicfci, 
[body Lciirca. 

Specie*, or 
which we 


I Indefinite ; ■■ Lore-melanchol;, the nbject of the third Par- 

Ita Caiuea in genend. Sltt. i. A. 
It* Symptomea or iigni. Stet. 3. B. 
Iti ProgiuMticlu or indintiona. Btel. 4. 4. 
.lt> Cniea ; the nbject of the lecond Partition. 

Cxuei of 

■re either 

Synojisit of the First Partition. 

I Af from God tmnieiliBtelir, or bj lecoail cauaei. ShU, 1. 
Super- J Or from the devil immediatetj, with i digrrasinn of tlir nn- 
natimd, '^ ture of gpirita and dcriU. Sub.2. 

; Or medjatelf , bj migicians, witches. Sui. 3. 

Primarr. u atan, prored bj aphori«ni, aigns from phieio- 
gnamf, motapoacDpT, chiromaDcf . Sub. 4. 

CoDgenite, f Old age, temperament. Svh. i). 
(\ inward < Porenta, it being &n hercditar; diaeaH*. 

from i Sub. 6. 




or adn-n- 
.which are 








remote, ad- 








inward, an- 
Memb. 5. 

Nurae«, Sub. 1. 
Education, Sub. 2. 
Terrora, Affrighta, 

Sub. 3. 
Scofli, calomniea, bitter 

jeita. Sub. 4. 
Lota of Ubertf, serri- 

tudo, impriaonment. 

Sui. 5. 
Porerty and want. 

Sub. 6. 
An heap of odier acci- 
dents, death of frieoda, 

loaa, &c. Sab. 1. 

In which the bodj works on 
the mind, and this malady 
ii cauaed by precedent dii- 
eaiea, aa aguea, poi, &c. 
or temperature innate. 
Sub. 1. 

Or by particolar parts dis- 
tempered, aa brain, heart, 
apleen, liver, mesentery, 
pytoniH, stomach, &c. 

Particukr to the three apeciei. See n . 


Sect. i. 
Mtmb. i. 


Of head 
are, Sai. :t. 

or hypo- 
or windy 

body are, 
Sub. a. 

L Outward 




I Innate humour, or from distemperature adust. 
A hot brain, eormpted blood in the bnin. 
Eicesa of Teoery, or defect. 
Agues, or some precedent disease. 
Pomes uiaing from the stomach, Itc, 

Heat of the ^n immoderate. 

A blow on the head. 

GrermuchDae of hot wines, apices, garlick, oniona, 
hot baths, oiennuch waking, Btc. 

Idlenesa, solitariness, or overmueh study, vehe- 
ment labour, &c. 

Pasaiona, perturbationa, tic. 

Default of spleen, belly, bowels, stomach, mesen- 
tery, meacraick veins, liver, &c. 

Months or hemorrhoids stopt, or any other ordi- 
nary evBcoation. 

Those six non- natural thin^ abused. 

' Liver distempered, stopt, over liot, apt to ingender 

melancholy, temperature innate. 
Bad diet, suppreasing of hemorrhoids, he. and such 
evacuations, passions, cares, &c. those sii non- 
natural thing* abused. 

St/nopiU of the First Partition. 




Brrtd ; n»ns and black, tuf. 

Drink ; (hick. thin, lowra. fa, 

Vi'kitt nni-lmi, mltk, dtI, tiiMC&r, win*, •jiicrt, Ac. 

Part* : hradc, trr-t, c nlraili. fiit. bioon, bltrad. &f . 


r Itirf. pock, naiaun. hnru, gcwU. plgconi. 















'*'°^'\ pruvockt. hn-fuwl. &e. 
Of lith i all r<haU<isb. hard and (limj Alb. &c 
Ofhcrixi pul>e,(«bba^.nidlons. garbck.onioni.&c. 
All rnoti, rvw frujti. hard and windy ■iinat*. 
tVr|)arin||f dmuinj^. ithaqi Minrnt. nil mi^at*. iuduraU, 

Hiircsd, frjtA, bmilrd, or madr-diihcf . Ac. 
Diaordci in tatiog. imaiodciiilc voting, or at imieMOnaUe 

time*. &c. Sutttr. 2. 
.Cwioni d«Ujtht, np|ivtitt<, altered, &«. Sait.3, 
tUtnUon and cia- / CoMJiicnat. hut bathi. m«atin|;. uniM itoppcd, Venui in 
roatiuii. Suit. 4. \ ciotu. or In defeot, plilebotomf, pur^ng. Sic. 
Air: hot, cold, Ivrnpntnoua, dait. thick, fuggy, mimriiib, 3lc. Suit. h. 
ExeniH. 1 UnaMBonable. ctMxiTC, or drffctiic, of budy or minde, •oUtari- 
SiA. 6. J nm, liUcocH, a life out of action. &c. 
\ SlMfi asd «aliui|b uuMMoaUe. incrdinatv, ut«r much, 01*1 lilUu, &r. Bui. 7. 
Somnr, cauaeandirniploinF. Sat. 4. F(«r. cauw 
and (jtnptoDie, S*A. y Shame, rcpuliw, dia. 
gncr.. Au.-. Sat. d. Euir and uiilkr. Sat. 7. 
EmuJnlion, hMml. fiolion, dmirr iif iriEn^V, 
Sab. H. AngEr acauie. £ui, 9. Diicantciiila. 
tana, niaertei. Sic. Skit. 10. 
Vfhanmnt d««im, ambition. Sab. II. CoirM- 
oomcu. ^i\afyvp!ar. Sat. 12. Ixivc of plea- 
(urci, |;aming la ciccu, Ht. Sab. 14. Loie tif 
leariiian. ntudy in rutcrai, with a tliicmmon of 
the miaiTir of inbolart, and why tliv Mnaot ar* 
melaocholy ^*' '^^ 

v™. :i. sm. t. 

I'aiiioni and 
peitBriMtiona «r 
tho mind, 
Smbt. 2. With 
a dlgnaaioa of 
Uw force of 
»•».<. and diTi. 
•ton of pMriona 

















'Bodj, aiin dinitioD, cmditjr, viud.Jry braiiia, hard bell;, thick blooit. much 

MUnfitcBTuioiuidpilpitalion urhml.leapm^tnminjplnceK.Ai'. Sui. 1. 

CoDmon r Kiar and lorrow without a juit cauH. luipicion. jcalouiie, 

to all or < iliiiTimtrnt, loliCirlnfu. likaoinrBPu, condnnal cogfla- 

Duxt. \ tioni, nalk-n th'iuj{htt. tain iniiiK>'">t>"n>, iai. 8ab$. 2. 

CcUitial inllumcn. aa 1} 1[ j , Kc. parti of tbc bodj, 

hntrt, bntlii. liver, iplccn. sloniacb, Kc. 

Saii{[uirk<: nrc niRrrir ■till. ]aitj[Hinf;. plcaiant, mcditaL* 

'"'t, "" l'l»yt?i. ""men, musirk. »ic. 
rhtcKmatiak, (lothful. dull, hcavjr, Ac. 
Cti'ilRni-k, furioiu. Impatient, aubjact to hear anil ur 

<iIrnti|[F al>pariliont, Sic- 
Black, totitarf, lad | they think tbe; «rr bvnitcht, 
dead, &c. 
Or miat uf ihcar four humour* adoat, or not adu»i, \B6iaU\j 
\ Their leve- f *<"'>'<">''»• thmki himulf a king, a lord ; Co- 
ral cuHtonm I ^luuj* r\tx\A on hi* mo»Py i laicUiiiuH on hia 
ocuiditiona ' \ "i''"* • T'lci-'U* hath crtclaliiint, lirioiu, 
dlacinline- I '' ' prophet, or tn^ublcd in mind ; a •cholar 
j^ [ on hi* book. Ac. 

_ ^ ^Ptrawnt at <ir«l. hardly ilitcr.rnfnt ; nflrrwnrili 

^'^^ hanb and iDlolcrablr. if inrrtrratr. 

Ihrwdrer™., ^j. g^,^, 4„„,„„. 

By ttta, or isintioualc, m the objert i«ric», 
. plea«in( or dinpleaaing. 
Sinfilc, or a* it ia mitt with othn di«MiM. apoplexiea, pjut, («■>«» tqiprlUai, 
&c. Wl the •yntplome* are larioni. 

anccof time 
aa the hn- 
■Dor i* in- 
tended ot re- 
mitted, &c. 


Sjpioptit of the First Partition. 

Bui. I. 

■jmptomei to 
the three dis- 
tinct ipecies. 

eal or 
Sot. 2. 

' Id body 


In mind. 

In body 


Head-tch, binding, keninen, vertigo, ligbtneu, 
linging of the can, much w^dog, fixed efa, 
high colour, red ejm, bmii bell]', dr^ bodjr ; no 
grot ligtt of meUncIuily in the o^r puti. 

l' CoDtinlwl Ual, Mrmr, nupieion, discontent, iu- 
perflaotu larei, lolicitnde, tuudetr, perpetual 
cogitatioD of such toyei they are poice»ed with, 
thotjghti like dreams, &g. 

[Wind, rambling in the guts, bellj-ake, heat in 
the bowels, convnlgioiu, crudities, short wind, 
iowT vid sharp belchlDgs, cold sweat, pain in 
the left side, suffocation, palpitation, heaiinest 
of the heart, singing in the ears, mn(^ spittle, 
•nd maiit, Ik. 

fFearfnl, sad, siupicions, discontent, aoiietr, &c. 
In mind. \ LaicIiiouB by reason of much wind, tronblesonw 
\_ dreams, affected bj fits, (kc. 

r Black, most part lean, broad Teins, gross, thick 
In bodj i blood, their bemoirbaidi commonlj stopped. 

Or I '*• 
in nuna. -^ pany, feaifol drearos, *c. 

Symptomes of nuns, maids, and widows melancholy, in body and 
mind, aic. 

the body. 

of melancholy. 
Sect. 4. 

A reason 
of these 


Tending to good, a* 

Tending to eril, as 

Corollaries and qoei- 

Why they are m fearful, sad, lojpidons without a cause, why 
solitary, why melancholy men are witty, why they suppose 
they hear and see strange loicei, vimons, apparitioDS, 

Why they prophesie, and speak strange languages ; whence 
cornea their crudity, rambling, convnliions, cold sweat, 
bearineu of heart, pal[Htation, cardiaea, fearful dreams, 
prodigioDs phsntssiea. 

fMorpbew, scabs, itch, breaking oat, 8cc. 
I Black janndise. 

I If the hemorrhoids voluntarily open. 
t. If varices appear. 

' Leanness, driness, hollow-eyed, &e. 

Inveterate melancholy is incurable. 

If cold, it degenerates often into cpilepsie, apo- 
plexy, dotage, or into blindness. 
, If hot, into nudness, despair, and violent death. 

The grievonsnesB of this above all other diseases. 
The diseases at the mind are more grievous than 

those of the body. 
Whether it be lawful, in this case of melancholy, 

for a man to offer violence to himself. Ntg, 
How a melancholy or mad roan, offering violence 

to himself, is to be censured. 





Man't Excellency, Fall, Mueriei, Infirmities : The camet of them. 

Man't Excellency.] Man, the roost excelleDt nod noble creature of 
the world, the principal and mighty work of God, wonder of Tiature, as 
Zoroaster calls him ; audacts natura miraculam, the *marvail of marvailt, 
as Plato; the ^abridgement and epitome of the world, as Pliny; micro- 
cosmut, a little world, a model of the world, ' soveraga lord of the earth, 
viceroy of the world, sole commander and govemour of all the creatures id 
it; to whose empire they are subject in particular, and yield obedience; far 
surpassing all the rest, not ia body only, but in soul; '^imaginis imago, 
'created to Gods own 'image, to that immortal and incorporeal substance, 
with all the faculties and powers belonging unto it ; was at first pure, divine, 
perfect, happy, < created after God in true holiness and righteousness ; Deo 
congrueas, free from alt manner of infirmities, and put in Paradise, to know 
God, to praise and glorifie him, to do his will, 

Vt dU coiuimSlei patturlal eIfdb, 

(as an old poet saith) to propagate the church. 

Mans fail and misery.] But this most noble creature, Heu tristis, et 
lacrymoia commutatio (•■ one exclaims) pitiful change ! is felleo from that 
he was, and forfeited his estate, become misera/tilis homuncio, a castaway, a 
caitiff, one of the most miserable creatures of the world, ifhe be considered 
in his own nature, an unregenerate man, and so much obscured by his fall, 
that (some few reliques excepted) he is inferiour to a beast : ' man in honour 
that undersfandelh not, is like unto beasts thai perish ; so David esteems 
him : a monster by stupend metamorphosis, Ja fox, a'dog, a hog; what 
not? Quantum mutatis ab illo! How much altered from that he was; 
before blessed and happy, now miserable and accursed ; '' he must eat his 
meat in sorrow, subject to death and all manner of infirmities, all kinds of 

A description of melancholy.] Great travel is created for alt men, and 
an heavy yoke on the sons of Adam, from Ike day that they go out of their 
mothers womb, unto that day they return to the mother of all things; 
tamely, their thoughts, and fear of their hearts, and their imagination of 
things they wait for, and the day of death. From him that sitteth in Me 
glorious throne, to him that sitteth beneath in the earth and ashes — from 

■UunnmciuneiilunL ^ Uundi epitome, nature delicLff, 'Finu KTuni omnium, uui Aubluat- 
lit WTYtuot Scjig. Mewit. 3SJ. i«. I, ViJ»i. ie sMr. Phil. c. 5. * Ut in numlfmite CeMns 
EBa^, fie in nomine Dei, * Gen. 1. ' Ima^o mondi in corpore, Dei in animi. Exfmp1umiiui> 
IM quiaque «l in tmuine pmrrl. lEph. 4. S4. i' PiliaUriu*. 'Pi. 4I>. !0. ILucivia 
luperaieqiiUDl.inipudpnnfc cvien, utu vnlpem. furore leonern- Chryi. SS. Oen, ■ Oen. 3. 17. 



Disftisn in iieneral. 

[Part. 1. Sec. I. 

Aim that u eloalktd ia blus lilA, and wcarcth a crown, to Aim ihat it 
cloalhvd i'l stMjj/r linnen—wralh, eiivtf, Irou&le, and uii^uielaest, and /ear 
of deaih, ami rigour and ilrife, and »ach thingt, come to both man an. 
bea*t, but seven/old to the ut>gcdit)K All tht* bef&IU him in this life, a: 
pi-ra I venture eterual misery iii the life lo come, 

Impuhirr eaute of tnaut mhery and infirtnitiet.'\ TUt impulsive cauae 
these miu-ric* in man, this privaliun or itc^triiclion of Godi image, the can 
of death unil diieuses, of all icmpnral &ncl internal punishments, was the sin 
of our first parent Adam, ■" in rating; of the forhidtlen fruit, by the devils 
in&ligalion and allurement — hi« disobedience, pride, nmbilion, intemperance, 
incredulity, eurio§ily : from whence proceeded orij^innl sin, and that general 
corrupliun of mankind— as from a fountain, flowed all bad inelinalions, and 
actual transgression a, which cause our several calamilies, inflicted upon us 
for our sin*. And this, belike, is that which our fubulous poets have sha- 
dowed unto us in the tale of " Pandoras box, which, being opened thrtni^h 
hut curiosity, filled the world full of uU nmnner of diseases. It is not curiij«ity 
olonf , hut lhn!'c other crying sins of ours, whirh pull these scvcrial plueuM 
utd niiserie* upon our hejds. I'or uhi peccatum, ihi procclla, ns "Chry- 
costom well observes. '' Foolt, by reason of their Iransgrfsfion, and became 
of their iiiit/ailiei, are afflicttd. '' Fear comet/i like sudden desolation, and 
destr-'ction like a whirlewimte, affiictiun and anguish, because they did not 

Are ifou shaken with wars?' (as Cyprian well urt;eth to Demetriui.) ajw 
you moUtted u<ilh dearth and famini .' is your health crushfd with raging 
ditcaftsf it mankind generally lorniented with epidemical maladies^ 'tis 
all for your sinf, Hn^. I. 9, 10. Amos 1. Jcr. 7. Ood is anjiry, punisheth, 
and thrciitcnrlh, brcuusv of thi-ir ubslinacy nnd KtuUKirnne», they will not 
turn unto him. ' If the earth he haTrr.n then for vant of rain : if, dry and 
tqualid, it yield no fruit ; if your foiintains he dried up, your vine, com, 
and oyle blasted ; if the air be corrupted, and. men tronhled with diseaiet, 
'Hs by reason ef their sins, which (like the blood of Abel) ory loud to 
heaven for vengeance. Lam. .5. 15. That tve have tinned, thertforK our 
hearts are heavy, Isa. £9. 1 1 , 12. ITe roar like bears, and mourn Itke doett, 
and want htalth, ^c. for our sias and trespattes. But tliis we cannot 
endurt- to heut, or to lake notice of. Jer. 2. 30. We arc smitten in vain, 
and receive no eorreclion ; and oap. .5. 3. Thou hast stricken ihem ; but 
they have not sorrowed : (hey have refused to receive correction ; they havt 
not returned. Pestilence he hath sent; but they have, not turned lo Aim, 
Amos 4. 'Ileroit could not abide John Baplist, nor " Domitian eudure 
Apollonius to tell (he causes of the plagiic at Lphesus, his injusticei incest, 
adultery, and the like. 

To punish tlierefure this bUndn«<s and obstinacy of ours, ke n concomitant 
causi- iuid principal av^tnt, is Gods just judgement in bringing tliew cala- 
mities upon US, to chastise ns, (1 say) for our sins, and to satinfie God's 
wrath : for the law retiuireit olicdietice or puniilimeiit, as you may re«d at 
large, Dcu). '28. 15. If they mill not obey lk« Lord, and keep htt cammansl- 
tntnts and ordinances, then all these curses shall come upon them. ^Curstd 
in the town, and in the afield, 4tc. 'Cursed in the fruit of the body, ^. 
' The Lord shall send thee trouble and shame, because of thy tvickedneat. 

BpcJm 40. t. f . J^ 4. V It • Cfffi). X Ift, • LlUuddiu trt^m mut^bii* dfcuuii, r( imS Tirmt' 
«lMi ImiDiail miicrlt mi>itBllbi^, HtrAm. llfvloiL 1. opri- * ttvtar \ Ml jiop. ADtkuett. r FhJ. 
IQ1. IT. 1 Pru*. L, VT- ' Ijuu4.t 'MlviD «i«briiii MU c<>DruUAiia. auod tlcrilti^ ct fuun M.liFltmll- 
mrm nmulmC quvU ■rvLrrillbun iij'prlfij ttMvilo fi*ii|fJliif. iiuuJ bumftnuin fpiiup* Lula |pifpu]»Uii&« 
tiKntur; nb |irrfii(um nmiLiKr t-ypfr •EM ruo il*aupi*r ]>ig<U ili-w^i-ncUl, «l i/-itiv hei piilTrrii 
fquilm. al (Ixjcliinu rl pnlJiilu firrhiu aMrtlk gkh* {XDAinil. n tuilxinnHio ilfhUltrl. «r, K'jyr. 
' Mwu It. I. ' PlillaiiiBiiia. lib. H. vLL Apoilonfl. ligiiiilU'in rjit-. i-t urfmaa du{iUu. tI faurk 
■|UBpmlrrr*Uiini'mf«'i'rB(,mutl>orum«uua>il)iit. "K - ]^ ■ *0. — 

Mnn. I.SuliE. 1.] 

DitetiMt in (JtHeral. 


And a linl« all«r, i The Lord thatl tmite liet with the botch of JEgypt, and 
uith emraif.aHd teab.anditck ; und thou camt not bf heated; 'wilhiimditets, 
blindnrst, and adfi'ithinff iif heart. Thi* Paul M-condf , Roir. 2. S. Triiu. 
lotion and aityaish on the sonl of every man that doth evil. Or ebe thesr 
chutHcmrnU ate inflict^rd upon us lor our humiliation, to exercUe and try 
our pnticnoc here in litis life, to bnng \n home, to moke us know God and 
our selves, lo infonn and icach us'nisdom. * Therefore it my people qont 
into raptifitff. bucatite they had no hnottledffe ; therefore I'l the wrath of 
the Lord kindled against his people, and he hath stretched out his hand 
upon them. He « dMirous ot our salvation, ^nosirm tatuti* aiiidut, sailli 
Lcmniu*, and for UmC cause pulU ui by the ear muny time*, to put ui in 
miad of our diitie*, that they which erred might have ' underslaiiding, (as 
lay Kpcaks, 29. 24.) and to to be reformed. I am affitcted and al the 
point of dtatk, «d David confeucth of himself, Psal. 88. \!i. v. 9. Mine 
eye* art torrowf^l through mine aJUedon : and that made him turn unto 
God. Great Alexander, in the midst of all his prosperity, by a company of 
ptraaites deified, and now made a god, when he saw one of hit woundi 
Und, remembered that he waft bnt a man, and remitted of hi* pride, /h 
■wrio rtcoUigit se animus, a* ■> Pliny well perceived : in tieknett the mind 
rtfltett wpon ittelf, tcilh judgement turvryt iistlf, and abhort iti former 
tMirsti : inMMnucli (]iat he oondudet tu hia friend Miixiniui, ' that it itert 
the period of alt philosophy, if tee could to continue, aound, or perform but 
» pari of that which iw promised to do. beinfj sick. Who so is wise Ifum, 
urill cotttider these things, ns David did, (Pml. 144. vcmc l«st) and, what* 
•oeTer fortune befal him, make u»e of it — if he lie in sorrow, need, aickncM, 
ot any olber adversity, seriously lo recount with himself, why this or that 
malady, misery, thit or that incurable disease, is inflicted upon him ; it may 
ba for his jcnod ; 'w exptdii, an Peter said of his daughter's ague. Bodily 
licknttt* i* for liis kuuI's Iwatth ; ptriitset, niti juriissct ; had lie not been 
ristied he Iiaid utterly periilicid ; for ' ihe Lord corrcetelh him vhom he 
loptth, evm a* a father doth his child in whom he deliyhteth. If he be 
tafr and sound on the othrr tide, and free from all manner of infirmity ; 
*rt evi 

GrttiK turaa. ttXfUitlii euntiat^ alnmdc. 
V.I iDiinf&iiB tW'1i*4, rbrnkilfinrlpnK-fmrnpiiA^ 
\n.\ Ihil hp hftTf «T»cf. b*«»tj-. t»*our, hnllh, 

yet, in the midst of his prospirrity, let him remember tliat caveat of Motes, 
^btvare lho4 he do not forget the Lord hi* God; that he be not putTcd up, 
bvt acknowledlce them to be his good gfifls and benefits, and > the more he 
hath, lo bf more thankful, (as A)rapetianus adviseth) and use them aright. 

Instrumental caiisri of our infirmities.] Now the imn-ni mental causes of 
these our iofirmitits ace at diverse, as the tnlinititirs thrmst'lvct. Stars, 
heavens, elements. Sec. and all tfaote crealurc-t which God hatb made, are 
otned against sinnen. Tbev wen: indeed once good in themscWea ; and 
Ihuibey are now, many of them, pernicious unto us, is not in th«ir nature, 
Im( our cortuption which hath cnnscd it. l-'or, from the fall of out first 
furesil Adam, tlicy have been changed, th« earth accursed, the infinence of 
(tan altered; the four elements. Iicasts, birds, pluitt, are now ready to 
oflend ns. The principal ikimjt for the «ie of man are water, fire, iron, 

• Vm IT. 'M. Dnu. i|aiH<lllIcrl,«MiaL • !». ^ la xm. 13. ' Nuiimilulti ■ndu. 

«>. • ytxalo itt aatUrrlam. Eiar M 19. ■ l.tli T, Cuinl'i'll'-to. maincira.'U rrcocnoKii. 
H I* IH|ii«nr— Uqid Urv luigiiorvm. fcro rfllslonl* tmoftiD ' KifF* 1ui,;uuri*. nan turn mptnuT 
ki^ •■wfl^ * Sanooun «vh totLii* ^jhilthkuphia. at itXra ntr t*ai otni^tetrMiut. quAlM noa 
IllMi MM inCmi frnaunmir ' Frtr>Kh. r rnr. 1 it. > Kor. £ciil. Ilh. I. 4. ' Dral. 
* U. <kit nM. "Idnl nrmliri, >(4nintn RDjutibiK tMn'trlli ■ D"!) FiunuUtur. I*DI0 OblUMIantw 

<> 3 


JDiMata in (weneral. 

[Part. I. Sec. I. 

salt, tMal, v'hrat, honij, milk, oile, wtnf, clothiyuj, yood to tht godly, to Ihrn 
sinnert turned to evil, Eccliis. 39. '16. fire, and hait, and famine, and 
dtarlht all tktte are created /or vengeance, Kcclus, 30. 59- The hrnvcn* 
threaten us with their comets, stars, ]>liuiets, wiili llii^r f^tM conjiincuon», 
eeJipies. oi>|KR>tlioiis, quartiles, and sueli unrrieudly aspects; the air wiih hi» 
meteors, iLiuiider and lightning, ititeiti|)erai<; liv;it uuil cold, mi'^hty winilt, 
tditpeHtM. unaeatonable weather; I'roni whii:li piucc^i'd Ucartli, fHiiiiiie, plat;ue, 
uitd all sutts or «[)i<ieniii.'al diMascs, conitiimtn^iiilinili: myrinds of men. At 
Cavru in jt^^vpl, every third year, (a* is rolalc^d bv ^ Boii-iu«, and others) 
300000 dye oV iIki pla^c; und 300000 In Consinntinople, cvrry liltli 
Mvcnlh at the uiniLitt. llow doth the earth tcrritic and ripprcM ii» wn 
terrible earthquakes, which are most frequent in ' China, Japan, mid tlioi 
eaatem climes, swallowing tip sometimes six cities at once I How doth t 
water rage with his iniindalioua. irruptions, flinging donn towns, cities, vil 
lages, bridges. &c. besides sUipwracks; whole islands are sometimes suddenly" 
orer-wlielmed witli all their inbabilaiits, as in *" Zelaiid. Holland, and many 
pari* of llie continent drowned, as the " lake Erne in Ireland t ' Sihiliftie 
pritter arctum cadavera palenti crmimut firln. In the fcnnsof Freeiland, 
I3.'i0, by reaMM) of tcmT)c»ts, f the ftm drown<Ht malta kaminum millia, ct 
jam^nla /tine uumtro, all tho country almost, men and ealtte in it. How 
doth llit^ fire m^, that mcreiicss element, conKiiming in an in^t^nt whole 
cities! What town, of any antiquity or note, hath not been oner, again 
and a^ain, by tlic fury of this mercileat clement, defaced, ruinated, and I ' 
desolate? In a word, 

M> ;>nu]f iitta iHinoTi or\'|p(uin ucmK; 
BuLJu tin^nUrt, I4bidu» muTtiti ^writ- 
Whum ftnt Bpuiw. *»* <liflh drown -. whom ik«, 
I^UVdi f-ytv i\at^ •mil to rl»r ; 
Whom vir i->&pr«i flrkuM* lakn 4vi>. 

To dcMCPd to more particulars, liuw many creature* arc at deadly feud 
with meni Lions, wolves, bears, &-e, some with hoof«, horns, tuska, teeth, 
nails: how many noxious Mrpents and venenious creatures, ready to oHend 
as with stin);, breath, sight, or quite kill us I How many pernicious fiahes, 
plants, gU(n», fruits, seeds, flowers, &c. could I reckon up on a sudden, 
which by their very smell, many of them, tonch, taste, cause sotne {grievous 
malady, if not death it self 1 Some make mention of a thousand several 
poysons : but these are but trifles in respect. 'The greatest enemy to man 
IS man. who, by tlie devils instillation, it still ready to do mischief— his own 
executioner, a wolf, a devil to himself and others. ^^V are all brethren in 
Christ, or at lean should be — meinbera of one tiody, scnants of one Ijonl; 
and yrt no fiend oan so torment, insult over, tyrannize, ves, as one man 
doth another, I.«l me not fall, tliercforr, (saith David, whrn wan, )>lague, 
famine, were offered) into the hands of men, merciless and wicked men: 




"Xix ■unl homlnH hw nomLnp Cigttl ; 

We can, most part, foresee these epidemical di*«aMK, and likely, aroid 
Ihem. Dearths, ttiinpesis, plafinc^, out aitruli^rs forett^ll as: Mrlh-qualtct, 
inundations, ruines of houses, eonHimiiie lire*, conw by Utile and hitic, or 
make some noise before-hand ; but the knaveries, impostures, injuries, and 
villanies of men wi art can avoid. Wc can keep our proft-sscd enemies from 
our cities, by gateji, walls and lowers, defend otir sriics front thieves and 
robbers by watchfulness and weapons: b<it this malice of men, ai>d ibetr 
pcmiciotis ciulcavours, no caution can divert, no vi^lancy foreae«, ire have 

^ tx«* hi't- rrUnanfm l.irfl- Ftem cl,* Jajiontn. md mnafQ 13M 
ISdT * (•inlLl4|k CnTiihmu ■ J«nij* l)iJii>a, v|>. lib. 1. lur- 10- 

> Bmnui di tul. CrUnn. 
■ OulcuHil dnrii|iL Bf l(. ut. 
t Minairr. 1. 3 t'ot. 

■ OiM.ilrTIM.I.a 



4 KHhutUL B4|>lf*t. * lt<*in<>hi)inlJiHtipiL4; hwiua hnmlaliLii^«»> 

\lem. I. SuIni. t.j DiMeanet in Getteral. 85 

K> mnny McrM ploU ftnil device* K> mucliier oii« iinoth«r; somelimea by Ut« 
dcvik Iwlp, as magician*, ' witclict; tometimen by impoolum. mixtures, 
pojsoBfi, Mralagcms, single coiabatf. wars. («e hack aii<i bew. a» if w« were 
aii intemecioiie'ii nali, like Cadmus souMii^ia boni tu cuti.iunit: uiiv UDOlbcr: 
— 'li« an iKdioary lliing (o read of an bundled iuiii iwii lumUrtd tbousund 
mt^D slain iu a bailie) beside* all meaner of inriurcji, brnxcii liuMr., Mckc, 
vbrt-U, iiir>i{tpadut», ^uus, eoplies, &e. " i4d unitni atrptu hutnatnim tup- 
piicia i/iiira, quam membra : nv liuive invented more toltiiring insUuai«Bts« 
than ll>ri<: be M-rcral tiKinbei* in u mans body, a« Cyprian well ob«en«B. 
To come nearer yet, our ovn pBrcnt», by tlieir ofl«nces, indncrelMn, and 
intemperance, are our mortal enemies. * Tke fatheri havt ealen towr 
graptrs ; ami ik* chiidrent Itttk art *tl on edgn. Tliey cause our nn'ief niajiy 
UUkea, and put upon u« hereditary diseases, inevitable infirmities: ibey lur- 
ment us; and we arv ready to injure our posterity, 

and the latter end of tlm worhl, a* * Paul foretold, is Elill like to be worst. 
We arc thui bod by nature, bad by kind, but far worse by an, every msin 
llic greate*! enemy nniu binisclf.* We study many times to undo our seNcs, 
abiKsing those good gifts which Ood hath be^towtd npoii us, liealtli, wealth, 
>tren|rili, wit. leainin);, art, memory, to our deitruttioo :* ' Perditio tua ex 
It. As 'Judas Maccabitus killed Apoll^iniui with his uwii weapuii*. we 
STin ourvelveft to our own orerlhrom: and use rcaxon, art, judgement, all 
ibat sboold help us, us so many inxtniments to undo us. Hector i^avc 
AJax a nword, which, so tung us hi- fought iv^.iii>»t cncinies, served for liis 
Mp and drfi-m^; btil after he began to hurt hurmlet* erealiires with it, 
turned to his own hutllrs* bowels. Those excellent means, God hatli be- 
stowed on n*. veil imployed. cannot but much avail us: but, if otherwise 
perverted, ihey ruine and confound us; and so, by reason of our indiitctetioit 
and weakiwat, tbey commonly do: we hiiv« too many instances. This 
S. Austin ackn«wt«d|;etli of himself in his bumble Confmioiis; pmmplness 
of wit, memory, eloquence, iKty wtre Gods gnod gifts ; t"it hf did not u»e 
fA^m to Am glory. If you will mrticuhirly know how, nii<l by what meant, 
Donsult physicians; ana they will tell ymi, that it i* to otTendinfi; some of those 
six DOD- natural things, of whicb I shall af^rr 'dilate more nt birge: tlicy are 
the causes of o>iT infirmities, our surfeiting, and drunkenness, onr imniode- 
rale insatiable lust, and prodigious riot. Plurt« crapula, auum gladtut, 
is B true saying — the board consumes more ihau the sword. Our tutempe- 
r&nce it ■«, tlist pulls so many incurable diseases iij>on our heads,'' that 
hasten* old age, perverts our temperature, and bring* upon us sudden death.* 
And, bst of all, itiat whi(.h cruciiies us most, is our own folly, madness, 
(qmt Jupiter perdit, drmtntat; by sul>*traction of hi* as*isling grace, God 
pennits it) wfoikneu, want of goremmcnt, our facility, and pnineiieis in 
yielding to teveral Insis, iu giving way to every pB)»ion ami [KxtuTluiiun of 
tbcmind; by which nM-aniwe mctainorphose our solven, and degem-ratt- into 
boat*: all whk-h that pnacc of "^ poets observed of Agamemnon, that, when 
he w&s well please<l, and could moderate bis posaion, he was— «j ocviosque 
Jovi par — like Jupiter in fcnture, Mars in valour, Palla« in windoni, another 
God; but, when he became angry, he was a lyoo, a tiger, a dog, &c. 
there appeared no sign or hkeness of Jupiter in nimf so we. as long as we 
arenikd by reason, correct our inordinate appetite, and conform our selves 
Iq God* word, are as so many livltiji; Mints: but, if we give reins to lust, 
anger, ambition, pride, and follow onr own wayes, we degenerate into 

• Kbcnl HUHll* mtittrm. • Lib. t. e|>UI. S. *d Ddumdd. • Kwrb. IS. 1. - Ilor. I & Od a 
•ma.SLt. • ItiiTk. II. SL 'lUur. xn. • Put. L Dart. «. HtmtiL 1. tNi^uiUanl. 
^» IV n^ •Killivc wvrm. ■Hamtt. lUwt 

I ^aiOnWi' 


96 Dtf. N»m. Div.ofDUtase,. [Pan. l.Sec. ll 

beuti, tnntfono uur selvei, overthrow our vuiutilutioui, " piovokt: God i 
an^r, and liop upon us thit of melancholy, and all kini^x of incurabi 
diseaie», ns a just and deserved |)uniBhmeiil of out sins. 

SUBOBCT. II.— The Definition. Number, Diviiion of D'ueaut. 

What ck diiesse is, alraosl every physician define*. ' Fernelius callelh it] 
an afftction of the body conlranj to nature — ' Fiicbaiu* and Crdlu, an hind- 
rance, hurt, or alt f ration of any action of the body,orpartofit~-*ThQ\(t-\ 
tunM, a diuoliitioa of that leayue which is l/ttwcrn body and foul, and d 
perturbation of it ; us health the perfection, and inakrs In the prrseritation 
t^fit — "^ Labeo in Agelliua, an ill habit of the body, oppotite to nature, hin- 
dering the u,« tf/it — iHUera olIiErwise, all to this effect. 

Number of diieaies.] How many diseases there are. is a question iiotj 
yet determined. 'Pliny reckons up 300, from ihe crown of the head, to th«J 
sole of the foot : elsewhere he suit!), morborum iafinita mullitudo. theirl 
number is infinite. Howsoever it wms in those timia, it booti not ; iu cur j 
dayes, I am sur« the Dumber h much augmented : 

) irtAm?*, ct flu V ft ftfbrkuin 

for, betides many epidemical diseases unheard of, and altogether unknown 
to Galen and Hippocrates, as scorbulum, smallpox, plica, sweating siek- 
neM, morbus Galliciis, ^, we have many prupec and peculiar almost to 
every parl- 

No man free from tome disease or other.] No man amonj^t us to sound, 
of RO good a constitution, that hath not some imprdimpnl of Ixidy or mind. 
Quisgue tuos patimur manes ; we have' all our intirmitict, tirst or lost, mor« 
or leas. There will be. pe tad venture, in an a^e, or one of n thousand, hke 
Zenophilus the musician in ' Pliny, that may happily live lOA years without 
any manner of impediment; a Pollio Romulus, that can preserve himself 
*with uiint andoyU; a man ai fortunate as Q. Metellus, of whom Valerius 
to much braji^gs ; a man a* healthful ux Otto Herwardus, a senator of Auk- 
bortow in Germany, (whom'" Lcovitiustheastrolo^^r bringiiii fur an example 
and instance of ccrininty in his art) who, because he had the significntout* 
in his geniture fortunate, and free from the hostile aspects of Saturn and 
Man, being a very old man, " could not remember that ever he wa» tick. 
' Pnracelsiis may brafi;, that be could make a man live 400 years or more, if 
he might bring him up from his infancy, and diet him as he list ; and soma 
physicians hold, ttiat tlierc is no certain period of mans life, but it may stilt, 
by temperance and physick, l>c |)tnlon(;i-d. We find in the mean time, bj 
common experience, that no man can escape, but thai of >' Hetiod is true : 

(lAifi) h'> 7^ Toia muar, itAilq (J Bi/ioaaa' 

'Avtafutroi ^iriiri. 

Th' T«Tlli'i tullbrntkUdln, uidfQtl Ihpfti. 
Which mtt lipuu ua both by nif bi fend lUy, 

Dtvition 9f diseases.] If tou require a more exact division of these ordi- 
nary diseases which are incident to men, I refer you to physicians: ^tbey 
will tell you q{ acvie and chrotiiek,_first and tecundary, UtkaUa, ialularet, 
trrant, fixed, timple, compound, eonnrxed, or comei/uent, belonging to parlt 


Cnt& ' Pmi^ rtlh^ h f. L Murtnjj cat nffwiut cuntrt nuunra corporl Inimtui. 'Fucbti 
loiliL L &. ft«U 1^ <■- 3, aqiio prlmutn titlktur iwUd- ■ DiMolull" (i»d*'Ti* In cur^iurr, ul uaiU>H4 

' Inlu* eiiilin. /otwoIm. * Kxcfapui craiiur, iirrnijf Ephrron. i4p^dcinOnnli*l^ * t^itl. quiO^ 
DtLvriU* ultlQibm nuvnriun xvoonliDt putrn. aim tnrTiimii ■# vrfbfun Atcutrtiikbt. - Uh. divlil 
\ttarjL f OpfE- tl dim. « ia« rmvllii*. fti^, »h, 1 op V, 10, II. U. F^b>ii^. luIlL L Z. 
••«r J, f. 7. W«k*i. «jn'. 


Man. 1. SaU. 3.] Die. oft/u DUeoMs of the Head. Et7 

For tlie whole, in habit or in dUpotition, ^c. My djvuion at tliii time (u 
most beliuiii^ mj purpoic) iliall be into tliow of the body and mind. For 
ihtra of the body, (■ Wei" catalogue of n hich Fu<:li»iuii Imtli nindr, Inililul. 
Hi. 3. uct, I. cap. I l.)l refer you to the voluminuux tonie« of Galen. Arc- 
taeiu, Rliuis, Avicenna, Alexander, PauluK, Aetiui, Cortioneriu*. and ihosc 
Ct Deoterieks, Savonarola, Cajiuivurciu*, Donntiis Allumaius, Herciiki 
iSaxonift, Mercurialis, Viclotim 1'iivculinu)', Wccker, Piso, &c, that bftve 
nelbodically snd elaborately written of tbcni all, Tbo»e of tlie mlDd snd 
hcul I will briefly liatidle, uiid upurt. 

SvDSKCT. WX.—D'tvition of tht Diteatet of the Head. 

Tiiue di»eaiies of the mind , foraunucli as lliey hsive tlicir chief seat uiul 
organ* in the liead, are commonly repeated atoungtt tlie diseases uf the head, 
wlitcb are direr*, and vary much aceordinji; to their site : for in the bead, a* 
there bo tevcml part*, wi there be divers grievances, which, aecordin^ to that 
division of ' Heurniiiit, (whii^h lie lakes out of Arculanus) are inward or out- 
ward (to omit ail others which )>crt]iin to eyes and ears, nostiils, gums, 
(eelh, moutb. palate, tongnc, wexel. chops, face, &c.) beloiij^inp; properly to 
the brain, ai baldne;^, fnlling of hiiiv. fiirfair, lice. Sec. ' Inward belonging 
to tJie skins next to the brain, railed dura and jmu ma/er, as all head achiu, 
tee. or to tlie ventricles, caules, kells, tuiiicles. creeks, and parU of it, and 
their paMtoiM, as caroi, vertigo. incuAut, ajiopUxie, falling tickneft. The 
dim»ce of the nemut ; crampus, ttnpor, coavuhinn, tremor, paUte; or be- 
loDguig to th« cxcremetiti of t)ic brain, aalarrhci, titee^iag, r/ieames, diuil- 
latioHt : or else those tluit pertain In the xubstanee of the bruin it self, in 
which are conceived, jtkrcmie, Utharfir., melanchotij , taadneu, weak me- 
morv, lopor, or coma vigiUa and et^i/ coma. Out of these agaia I will 
dnetesnch as properly belong to the pAanJcuie, or imayinat%ort,M rtason it 
trl^ which ■ Lauren tins calls the diseases of the oihid ; and Hildeshctm, 
morios imaifinalionis, aitt rationis Imta, which are three or four lu iiunibcr, 
phrtntir,, melanehohj, dolaye, and their kinds, as hydropkohia, 
IfeoMtkropia, vhomt taiKti i'iii, mi/rbi damoniaei ; which I will briefly 
touch And point at, ioMtling especiiiUy in tliis of melaacholy, lu more emi- 
nent than U)e reKt, and that through all his kinds, caitses, symplonics, prog- 
Boalicks, cures ; lu Locineius hath done dr ApopUxiS, and msiny other of 
such particular dixeiMcs. Not thai 1 tind fault with iho)ie which have written 
of this subject before, as Jason Pratensis, L^iurcnlius Montaltua, T, Bright, 
itc. they have done rery well in their several kinds and methods '. yet tliat 
which one omits, another may haply see ; that whicli one coutracts, another 
may tnlarge. To conclude with " Sctibanius, thai whick they had negUvled, 
or perfanctirrily haadttd, wc may mnrr thoruwjhly examine ; that wktch it 
^iteurtli/ dilivrrrd in litem, may he prrfpicuiiuily dilated and amplified by 
MS, and so made more familiar and eauif tor every mans cujiacity, and the 
common good : which is the eliief end of my discourse. 

Svasuct.lV.—JJotayt, Phreniie, Mtidaesi. Hydrophobia, Lycnntkropta, 
Ckirnit iancti Vili, Ej.tasig. 

Dttirium, dotage.] Dotaoe, fatuity, or folly, is a common name to all 
ibc foIh> wing species, a* some will btive it. ' Laurenlius and *Altomarus com- 
prehended madnett, mtianckoly, and the rest, under this name, and call it 
ihe tummum genus of them all. If it he dislinguisliedfromtlieni, it ianatarat 
or itgenite, which comes by some defect of theor^ns, and over-moist brain, 

* rmtfat, lir ipnrlii« i^pilin. hi vAjilw 'it \nim bihitJtnt pfkrlo*, Lu *hrl» rgupn^jn Iht ^irntiml. 
■Of *h[ch md KfiimtMi. MimWiui^ HlEilr«hvim, Qurn^i'lBji, Jutdu PrLlt-iuii, kc. ' C«|' i, d* 

BO*, mttoidljadlcsn.cofriKeK, UudHiBui. * Cip. I. 'Ic mcl. ■ Arl. mnl. i^- * 

88 BUeatuvflheMifd. [Part. l.Sec. I. 

M we KC in our commoii foola ; aud is for the most part intrndcrd or remillvd' 
in purticuloT men, nnd thereupon soin? are wiser than olher; or else H ic 
acqiiisit^', an appendix oi «ym|>ti>mt: of some other disease, which come* oi 
goes : or. if it continue, n »ien of mrlancholi/ it >elf. 

P/irtntie.] Phrenilis (wltich tlie Greeks derive from the word ^ifv) 
is a diseue of the mind, with a coniinxi^l iimduexi or duiiicir, whi<'li hnth an 
acute fcntr annexed, or else an tnflamniiiunn of the bniiit, or the membranes 
or kelUofiT, with tin acute fever, which cousrth mndneu and dolose. It dif- 
fer* from mrlanchnly and madneti. because their dotfigc i« without an ague : 
lhi:< continual, with waking, or memory decayed, &c. Melancholy is moot 
part silent, thtE clamorouA ; and many such hkc ditTerenccs arc assigned by 

Madnesn.] Madneu, phr«mk, awA mtlanekolt/ , txe confounded by C 
BUS, and many writer*; olbcni leave out phrentie, and make madncts ani 
mtlanv.h/tlyhvi one disease: which 'Jason Prutensii enptieially labours, um) 
that ihey differ only itcundutH majus or mmuf. in quantity alone, the one 
being o degree to ihc other, and both proceeding from one cnu»c. They 
differ infppui0 et remisio gradu, saith ^Gordonius, as the humour is intended 
or remitted. Of the name mind is ■ Arelteus, Alexander Tertulliauus, Gui- 
nnerius, Savanarota, Heurrjiuii : and Galen himself writes promiscuously of 
them both, by reason of thrir uffinitv : hut most of our neolericks do handle 
them apart, whom I will follow in this treatise, il/n'^neii is therefore defined 
to be a vehement dntage : or raving without a fever, far more violent lha% 
metancht'ly, full of nnger and clamour, horrible looks, aeiions, geslure*,.| 
troubling the patient* with (Hr grc.ilet vehcnicncy both of body and mindi, 
without all fi'iir and mnow. with »nch impetuous forre and boldness, that 
sometimes three or four men cannot liold tliem ; diit'cvinp only in this from 
phremit, that it is witliout a fever, and their memory is. most part, better. 
it hath the snme causes as the other, as choler ndust. and blood incensed, 
brains inflamed, &c, • Fracastorius adds, a dne lime and full age to ihil 
definition, to distinguish it from children, nnd will have it nojtfirmcd impo' 
teney, to separate it from fueh as arcidrnllij come and ao again, at bg taking 
hen/ianf, nii/htfhade, tvinp, Sfr. Of iliis fury then^ he uivem kinds, '' ecttacie, 
wliich is famitiitr wiili some |>rt]ions, ns Ciinlim snith of himself, lie eould be 
in one wlien he list : in which the Indian pricnts deliver tlieit oracles, and tli« 
witches in I-ipland (as Glaus jMagnus wriieth, I. 1. cop. 18. ejtosi omnia 
pradiffrc) nn-^wcr all questions in an extnsis you will ask ; what your friendA 
do. where they are. how they fare, &c. The other tpei'iet of this fury are 
enHiHiiaimt, rrvelaliotit, and mxiiiiu, so often mentioned by Gref^ory and 
Beda in their works : obsession or jjossesaion of devils. Sibylline prcphfls, 
and poetical Furies ; such as comet by eating iiuxitms herbs, taruntulM 
stinging. Sit. which somcn'duce to this. Tlie most known are lycanlkropiti, 
hi/dropiiohia, choni* iaxcli i'lti. 

Lycanthro^a.] Ci/f^inlhropia , which Aviccnnn calls cTu^rffA, others 
lupiaam ititaniam, or wolf-madness, when men nin howling about sravea 
and fi*lds in the night, and will not be pcrswaded but ihat they ate wolves, 
or some such beasts — * Ai^tius and '' Paulus call it a kind of melancholy ; 
but I should rather refer it to madnets, as most do. Some make a doubt of 
it, whether there lie any such disease. ' Donat. ab Altoinari sailh, that Xve 
saw two of them in his' time : ' Wierus tells a story of such a one at Padua, 

* l't«rl^a« nmUfi iipio oomplnu iifrvrrinEiifri h&i duo* inuitH4, quoil ^\ <44cin cviiuA tirlbitur, 
i|ilo^|Ue ibt^UuJlbc rt ifioilu •(pFiiin riiitml, vl Blftaf jcmlua vk uUtuui ^hitUt. Jbun rnleiu, 
* l4tL M^. ■ Pw nifii* mihi Tdilf-ruf- ■ lEjavm, ni, i|iiJ tfialf, d^hitA. «l Itntpiiiv liabilu. jwr 
r^. iiMl nion)f<ntuir«A tt riiKvi-ni. i>t vm;» .-olBril, hjovjami, *r<l (dnArmsluv hnlift in>piil«itlMB 
bnie p|*nn<ll rim lair'Jrr'iuTn. 1 t (I* inirlWiinnr > <)( Rhlrh nad frill I'lMi^. mp. I. it 
iBnlballaiuiluitr. ■ l.lh, «. np. I). • Liij, 0. c•^ l«. -Cap.). Art. mtA. ' Dc pntsH^ 
DaaHiniiin. L X np. II, 



4.] Ditemes of the Mind. 89 

1541, that would not believe to the coiilrary, l>u( llmt he wau a wolf. He 
bathanotbeiriiistaacieofaSpsntaid, who tliou^hl liimKlf u twur. <Poresiut 
confinns u much by many examples ; one, nmont^ci tin- rest, a( wliicli lie 
w«> an ere witneait, nt Alcmotr in llollnml — a poor hushniKlmnn ihul Ktill 
banted ubout gruTc*. and kept in chiifch-yaids. of a pido, MatW, "fly, and 
finrful look. SiicJi. belike, or little better, were kini{ IVwtns "i dmiglilw*. 
that tlioight ll;«ni«elres kine; and Nebueliadnezzar, in Daniel, a* Mmc 
iotSTpteUn hold, waa only troubled with thin kind of madneu. This disease 
periia|M gave occasioa toll)at bold asirertioa of Pliny, some men uert larneii 
iM(o wolrea in hii time, and/rora wolvft to mr-n again ; and to lliat Table of 
PauBBnias, of a man that was ten ynirx a wolf, and afterward* turned to bin 
fiimer shape: to'Ovids tali- of Lycaon, &e. He that i* (l<Tsiroa» to hear of 
':■* disease, or more cxampteii, let liim read Austin in bin eighteenth book de 
It Dn.cup. o\ Miznldus,cenl. fi. n ; Sckcnkius, lib. \ . Hildtikrim, 
micit. 2. df Ma»i4i Fortstui, lib. 10. de Morbu Ctrtbri i Olaiis Maynut ; 
Vinctntnu Bvllav\ctnsi», tpte. mat. iih, 31. c. 122: Pieriua, Bvdinr.Zuin- 
jer, Zeitytir. Peai-er, Witrfii, Spranijer, ifC. Tina majady, Baith .Aviccnna, 
iroublclli men niott in February, und in now a davvi freuueiil in Bobemin 
and Hun{;ary, aeeordintc to * Hcuniitw. Sehemititin will have it common 
in Livonia. They lye hid, must p;irt, nil day, and gp abroad in the nigbt, 
barking, bowling, at ETaves and deserts; ' Ihrif karr usvallg holloui eijes, 
Kahhcd Irtj* atd thighs, very dry and put f,faitii'".\\Xomtsrui : lit^jjivesa rea- 
•on there of all the symptome^, and sets down nbrief rurcof tlicm. 

ll^drophcbia i% a kiii<l of madness, well known in every villa^, which 
romes by the bitln;; of a mad do^, or scratching (saitb " Anrcliunns), touch- 
iog, oi sflKlLing alone sometimes (as " Sckcnkius provc-s), and in ineiilent to 
many otber creatures as well as men ; so called, because the partita* alfected 
catinot eitdurc (he siRht of *a!cr, or any liciuor, supposing still they see a 
tnad dog in it. And (whieli is more wondcrlul) tliout;li they be very dry, (as 
'n this malady they are) they will rather die than drink. t'Ccohus Aure- 
iiuin*, an ancient writer, makes a doiibl whether thu hydrophobia be a 
of the bixiy or the mind. The part affected i* the brain : the cauw, 
'aoD that ei>mcs from the mod dog, which is so hoi and drv, that it 
cnnsumen all the moisture in liie body. '< Hildeilicini relates of some that 
dyed so msKl. and, being ent up, bad no water, scarce blood, or any moia- 
tDre left in them. To such as are so aflictcd, the fear of water begins at 
uneen dayes after ibey are bitten, to some ni;ain not till forty or sixty 
ijes afler; commonly, saiih lleurnius, they bef^in to rave, Hyc water, and 
^ liMea. to look red. and swell in llie face, abont twenty daycs after, (if some 
remedy be not taken in llie mean time), to Ive awake, to be pensive, sad, to 
■ec strange visions, to bark and howl, to fail into a swoun. and oftentimes 
of tl>c falling sickncM. '.Some say, little things like whelps will l>e seen 
„ tlteir urines. If any of thc*c signs appear, they are past recovery. Many 
l.timea these aymptomes will not appear till six or seven mooctbs after, saiUi 
'Codronchus; and some limes not till seven or eight years, as Guianciiiis; 
twelve, usAlbertus: six or eight mODBtlu after, as Onlen holds. Baldus the 
Xreat lawi<er dyed of it : an Augustio frier, and a woman in Delpli, ibat were 
' Porfiius patients vere miseiably consumed with it. The common cure in 
Ihf counUey (for such at least as dwi-U near llie sea side) is to duck them 
over bead and ear* in sea water; some usecbaims: every gcod wife can 
pretcnbe medicines. But the best cure lo be had tu such cases, is from the 

• Ohrmv*!. Uh. to. •IrmaiM* vmbn. c 13. > lllppr)(Tsi?i, llli, do Inuntl. *>. S. ct^. n. 

ill will in ■ hi 1 1 ml Iqpi» &r.n; rl FuBtn. < M>-t. I. 1. ' Ctp, ilc >l>n: ' t!|r>nu crun : lilJ* 

Wtm^ ahM lianoAIci ; lli>«u •irck - Ccp. ft ul. Il*itrvpli>i>il«. ■ LIh, i. «n. a • t-lli. 7- Un 
'TaMBb. f Lib. a Kp. \i. •!« uioibla Hiiiii. ifnii'tl. 'J. ' (jikCDkUu. T lib, dr Vvnrnli. 
• Ub. 4* ll}<ln,i>l»bit. -ObHmi. Kb. 10. A 


DUtata ofl/ie Mind. 

[Part. 1. Sec. U 

moRt approved pliyxician*. They that will rend of th<;iu, may coniull witU 
Dioscorides, Hb. 6. cap. 37. llciirniiis, Ilddcshciiii, Capivacciux. FuroniUM 
SclHinkius, and, bclnrc all ntliera, CodraiichuH au Italian, ulio hulh latciyl 
writlrn two cxqiiisiic bu(ik« of thin subject. J 

VhoTiit iaiicti Vili.] CA(/iuf tancti Viti, or S. Vitus Asxnce ; ihc lii*civioun 
dance, " Paracelsus calls it, bc»u»c tlicy lliat are tiikiin willi it, can doJ 
nothing but dauce till they be drod, or cured. It it to called, for that ()iM 

Earties no Irciubbd were wont to go to S. Vitua for help; and, afYer tlien 
ad danced there a while, ihey were 'ceriiiiiily ftccd. Tis stranj,'e to hear' 
iw>w long iliey will dance, and in what manner, over stools, (oniiv, tabic*: 
cveii peat-b);lli('d women sumeiiines (and yet never hurt their childi'en) wilt 
dxncc to long tliut they can neither atir hand tior fuul, but seem to be quits 
dead. One in red cliuiths they cannot abide. Musick, abuve all things, 
they love ; and therefore mngiglnitcJi in Germany will bite mniiciant to play 
to them, and some lusty sturdy companions to dance with them. Chit 
(litease bath been very common in Gcrnmny, n» appcani by those relaliont ' 
of "Sckenkius, and raraceUus in his book of M.idncsn, who bm^ how j 
many teveral persons he bath cured of it. Felix Platcrus {de Mrnlis Aliraat.- 
cap.3.) reports of a womun in Basil whom be saw, that danced a u'hol« 
moncth tog^hcr. The Arnliian.t call it a kind of jraliie. Uudine, in hi.i tiftli 
bookefo Repub. cap. I. upcnksof ihi^i intirniiiy ; Muuavtus, in bin la^t epistle 
W Scolliziua, and in another to Diidithug, when- you may read more of il. 

The last kind of madness or melancholy is that demoniacal (if 1 may so 
call it) obieanion oi possession of devils, which I'lnirrus and olberj would 
have to be prteternalural : slupend things are said of them, their action*, 
gesture*, mntortiont, faaiin^, prophesy inif, speaking languages they wera 
nerer taught, &c. many strwuKe tilories are related of ihem, which because 
some will not allow, (for Deacon and Darrel have written lar;j^ volumes on 
tliis mibiect /TO rt con.) I voluntarily omit. 

■Fucnsius. Inttilut. lib. .1. (re. I. cup. 11, Felix Plater. ^Laurentius, add 
to these another fary that proceeds from love, and another from tludt/, 
another divine or rdiijious fury ; but lliese mote properly belong to melati' 
cholif : of all which I will speak 'apart, intending to write a whole book of 

SfiisccT. V .^MeloMchntt/ in DUpoiition. improperly to catUd. 
I Mijiii-cocalions. 

Mei,.»\ciioi.Y, the subject of our prei^cnt discourie, is cither in dispmilion, 
or habit, in dixpo^ition is ihai unnsitory melanrhnlii which comes and 
goes upon every small occasion of sorrow, need, sickness, trouble, fear, giief, 
pauion, or perturbiaiion of the mind, any manner of care, discontent, or 
thought, which causetb anguish, dulness, heaviness and vexation of spirit, 
any wayex opposite to pleasure, mirth, joy, delight, causing frowardncss in 
us, or a diilike. In which eqiiivoca] and improper sense, we call htm melan- 
choly, tliaC is dull, sad, sowr, lumpish, ill disposed, solitary, any way moved, 
or displeiued. And from these melancholy diiposilioni * no man living is 
free, no Stoiek, none so wise, none so happy, none lo patient, so ^ncrous, 
•« godly, to divine, tlint can rindicnte himself; »o well eomnoxed, but more 
or less, sunw time or other, hcfeelsihesmnrt ofit. Melnnchuly, in this sense, 
is the cburaclcr of mortality. ''Man, thai it born of a teoman, U of thorl 
contiitnimcc, and fuU of IroiibU. /cno, Cato, Socratet hiiastdf, — whom 

' L«Mi*un i*ho'**'n- Tn. I. Hr inorbli *ivmluai. Tnrr 1- * Evrnrn. ul plurlmum. ttdi (pivn 
coBiAnitimlP. ■ Lin, I. Mp, dF M*d>S. • l'<p, S ■!<■ nmili Ulmm, • Cap. L Ot mtt 
' PABT. a, ' Dr4tfo h<imJTt* Hriirituf ^r|UOfvnii(n ouiUum ' i^iomnqiic H ronvtrUi, ra I 
frnla nbtu ■maRludinaB inlmi In-rnii-l. Au^f. im I'ML & ^ > Job. I. II 


Mem. ]. Subs. 5.] Mttancholy in Duftositioa. 91 

*£littn (o highly contiiienili for n moderate teinpuT, tlist nothing eotitd 

"^dUtvrh him ; liul, going out, and rominif in, still Sotmtti kept thu samt 

••aertHitjf of counltnnncr, u-kal miseri/ toevcr befell kin — (if we nmy IkIictu 

I'PUto his <liftci|>!«) wax much tormented with ii. Q. Mclelliis. in whom 

['*VKlefiu3|^ite« instance of all happiness, the motl forlunnlf mnn thrn living, 

bom in thai most Jioiirhliing citii of Rome, o/ noble fiarentuge, a proper 

man of prrfoii, a^ell gualijjeil, healthful, rich, honourable, a aenalor, a 

nsvt, happij in his ui/e, happtj in hit children, ire. yet tliis man waa not 

lid cf melancholy ; he had hix share of lorruw. • Polycrales Samiun, that 

flan|; his ring into the siea, bccitiisc bi; would parlidpale of diseontent with 

others, and had it iniraeutoukly restored to him H^ain sliortly after l>v a finh 

taken as he ani;led, was not free from melancholy disposition». No man 

can cure iiimMtf : ihc very i^ods had bilter pangs, an<l frefpieiit passion*, na 

their own 'poRia put upon Them. In general, 'as Ike heaven, to i» our 

■ ^fe, toioelimfs Jair, lometimex overcatt, tempt »luovi, and nerene ; a* in a 

rote, /tiKFTi! and prickle* ; in the i/car itself, a temperate summer iomelimei, 

a hani winter, a drowlh, and then again plraiant thauiert : so is our lijc 

tntmniit with joyes, tio/vi, fears, iorroua:, ealumnier : /nci'teni cedunt 

iolor el vohpttu : (hure i* a tiiccewion of phraiun- and pain. 

' '- — * nii*dii> d* funrrlujiuruni 

SurpI unvri litquij, qund lii i|i*tt iltxihu' 4itigiit. 

£ven in the midst of laughing there it torrow (as 'Solomon holds): even in 
nidft of all our feasting and jollity, {as J AuHtiu infers in his Com. ou 
'Poal. 41} there ti gri«f and discontent. Intrr delieias, semper aliquiti tttv 
not itranyulat : for a pint of honey, thoti ikhalt her« likely tind a gallon of 
gaul; for a dr^un of pleasure, u pound nf pniti; fur an indi of mirth, an ell 
of moan: at ivy dolh an oak. these miseries encompass our hfe: and 'lii 
raostabKurd and ridiculous for any mortal man to look for n perpetual ten our 
of huppincsc in his life. Nothin(> so ptoaperou* and pleasant, but it hath 
^soiDebillernessiDit,somecompiaimiig,aome^Tudging; 'lis all yXvuinriKpov, 

mixt paasioD, and. like a chequer table, black and white; men, families, 
:eitiee, have their fulls and wanes, now tiines, isexiiles, then quartiles and 

ipoaiUuu. We am not here, ax thoKu angvU, celestial powers and bodies, 
jun and moon, to finish our courac without all oScuce, with such constancy, 
to continue for to many uxe*: hut subject to infirmities, miseries, interrupt, 
toMcdand tumbled np and down, carried about with every Bmnll blast, often 
itcd and disquieted upon each slender occasion, 'uncertain, brittle; 
ud M i* all that we trust unto. " Attd he that Anotea not this, and it not 
epmti to endure it, it not Jit to live in this world (as one condoleji our 
tin)*); he Anowt not the condition of it, where, with a reciprocal lye, plta- 
tUTt and pain are still united, and succeed one another in a ring. Exi e 

•ndo; gel iheegoae hence, if tliou canst not brook it: there is no way lo 
avoid it, but 10 arm thy self with patience, with nin^animilv, to ° oppose 
thy aelf nnto it. to suffer affliction as a goad suuldier of Christ, as " Paul 

■OhsI buU|iorc Bofninn «oil«n vultu Tldrri. sjifl dEimum if^lirfln >iiT<l(>mufirT«<LcRluT. 'Ub. 
|iT Ou< ^ NMh* in 11uHa1i*'inii luliun nrtfUcivliBfA', nulnliu'mia fparviililruk. i^iiriibh* vlrrahobuil, 
t ttnwkni«a •Q^tnl dntn. qxorfm runvplrELJiiri. pE]4tlr4ii>. fi-ll'-rn 1ilH-ni.. 4^EiiiiiiUrr di*cup. u4fiEFnivv 
Biilhva.a^' * .4:i^uv. ' Jlnnipr, JIIa'1. i npuJtEv, ci>nt X rp. tS. t'lfrrlum, *w n(ii h'lmlii*-* 
I-. Blad ex hklcf *»llo ii'Uikbas obElui-iliir rt obtcuruftir. In KiiArin f1 orv^t iplJiLt InlcnniJtlL Vll« 
I uihi ; udara mudo. vuduEu. tcmpi-iitiu, mfnniliui ^ lu v]ctn rFniin %i\M. jiriMniA ffAudU*. el ae. 
temt, * Lucrtnu*. J. 4. I, 11^*1, ' Prnr. [4, ;i, Rtlrf^mum f^-Audii lui'Eu. ixrt'tipBr- > NiiIa- 
. biqiiil «-]*1intntiir ^ niiptijii hi'' Jiiinl \ ■! ihl qiiM ^-clfbntur. qiicHl n»n ilnli-t. tjuncl nim traiiaU f 
^ApQlMOa. 4. df.Fld. SkTiLf qui'lqulrl buriihik Lniii urutljcrum dlilntlil* kiAlum. fttiLlI c^ 4ilmLLTumilt 
-"- ' i #fflciilI*Ut. ul rliuil uiiplin^iniA ijii&i^uA laiLitiA. puli«il <|Uirif^in Vi-I pnf>4 ijuorilifunln. ci^njil- 
v^nAilvD mrlliflcl frlli;-. ' rnciura mmlrum I't fmffiii** *1 piiprilibii* t'Emionljinii FtrpuniULi, 
h1lltibi|d» irtfM *l npm hilTndnpi tfri-anlEir- AlUibiinl -ulnlii; rr^H-iitc dlljihnnlur ^ liullu lu ]afO, 
"lilt hi pmCE^A. rUhliihiis nixa r*ilii'lb»i* e*in«l»tniili *i-eI Jni?<Tll**ln>o 1*Ii* ffflnri*, *iEjc(» in ■ulflimE' 
' ' unt. Im^KrfUo itc\in<i dnhiutti* lu {'Fufuiidn luiti-ri&ruin relic lulH-nibiiiii-T immrrfiinL 

A. L 4, t a. • Uttie j-ni-cln punnn a^li ; Miit pE.IiiiB itmn»lin ft(>E>1fciriJ"i r'lTidilijilfm Ig- 

, qiWIn* iwdprfiro nuMtEim ncxn, Kf- Lnrrhtnm IJAUi^tx-lRlfTii. lili A adiniuim IVJS. • Jlor- 
■IHB oninu mAt dlri^ drbcBl, ul humuu ClrrliUr fcnnui. • t Tim. 1. I. 

Digression of Atatamjf. 

[Part. I. Sec. 1. 



atlvitctti, constantly lo bcur it. But fonumuch lu so few cim crDl>ra(-<: tlji< 
good conittcl of his. or ti»c it aright, but riithcr, as to maii)- bruit bciitts^ j 
give vtiy to their pauion. ToIuiitHrily cublcct and precipitate tltem»clve 
into ft (abviinth of cawi, woes, miseries, and sutler their »ouis to be over 
ixutie bv tiieiii, cannot arm themiielves with iliat patience aa tliey ought 
do, it falleth out oftcnlimea tliat ihc^t dispoaUont become A uAir«, atid man% 
affnii contemned (as PSt'neca notes) tuake a ditease, Evtn as me dntil 
lalitm, not yet yraiim la cuslome, maAet a ovt/h, kut continual ami 
inveterate e/iutet\ a r.O'ifumptinn nf the tnni/% : »o do Utosc our RiclntK'lioljrl 
i>rori')Ciitinni' ; nnd, niToiding a* tlur liiimour it *c\f i« Inlende'l or rciuitluttl 
in men, a» tbcir tcmpcmlure of body or raiionnl »>iil is belter able to makal 
rcfistancc, so are they more or less affcclcd : for that which is but a flea*] 
biting to one, causclh unsuficrable torment to another; and wiiich one byl 
his singular moderation and well composed carriai[e can happily ovenome,] 
m second is no whit able to sustain : but, upon every small occasion of rais- 
eonceivi-d abuic. injury, grief, di»^:Tace, lost, cross, rumour, &c. (ifsotilarjr, 
or idle) yields so far to patriot), thai his complexion is ultcrMl, his digcBlion 
hindred, liis sleep ijoni-, bis spirits olwutiied, and his henrt heavy, hitl 
hypooondrics mis-nl)ected ; wind, criidilv, on a sudden ovcriokc him, aodl 
he him^t'lf overcome with mefaricAo/y. As it is with n man imprisoned fori 
debt, if once in the Raot, every creditor will bring his netion against bim, 
and there likely hold bim— if any diseontcni seise upon a patient, in au . 
instant nil other perturbations (for, qud data pnrla, ruunt) will set upon ^H 
him: and then, like a lame do|> or brokto-win^red ^ose, he droops, and ^^ 
pines away, and is broLi^rhl at but to tfiul ill babit or malady of melancholy ^* 
It self: so ihal, as tb(^ philosoplirts make i eight decrees of heat and cold, 
we may make eighty right of melanrho/y, as the parts affi-cted arc dicersely 
seiied with ti, or have been plunged more or less into this infcrnnl gulf, or 
waded dircptr into it. Hut all thcsit mtlaneholy fits, hovpsoevcr pleasing at 
first, or displeasing, violent unil tyranniiing over those whom they seise on 
for the lime — yet these fits, I say, or men aflecled, are but improperly sol 
called, because they continue not. Outcome and go. at by some objects lliey 
nremored. This ine/ttn(Ao/^, of which we are lo treat, i* an habit, norfrut 
sonlicai, or cAronfcus, a cronick or coiilinnate ditease, a setled humour, u 
' Aurelianus and ' olber) call it, not errant, but fixed ; and at it was long ^ 
iucreasing, »o, now being (pleasant or pninfiil) grown to lui habit, it will ' 
hardly be removed. 


StJBSECr. I. — Diyremtm of Anatomy. 

Betore I proceed to define the disease of melancholy, what it is, or to 
discourse farther of it, I hold it not impcrlincnt lo mnke a )>ri<.-f iligrcMion 
of tbe tmaiomv of the body and faculties of ihe stjul, for the better under- 
Staoding of lliat which is to follow : because many hard words will often 
occur, at Bit/racht, hypw:honAries, hamarrhoUb, ^c. iinaginalioit, reason, 
AtWtOKrt, spirit*, vital, natural, animal, nerfcs, wins, arlcriei, ckylit, 
pilttila ; wliich of the vulgnr will not so easily be perceived, what they are, 
how tiled, aiul to what end they serve. And, betide, it may peradventur« 
jrire occasion to Kome men to examioe more aocnrately, search fartlier into 
ihit moMt ctocllcm subject, (and thereupon, with that royal ' prophet, to 
praise (iod ; for a man is fearfully and waderfaliy math, and euriotttit/ 

mnrvm tdHllcIm, tnuLm l^il; ii*tii1o>f( itoLout^. l»hlk1iinir ^ C«bt>inii iwl <vfi> frtftdmu Ik4«cl0. 
I'H hlnsii1i> non f^rtl ir*IMciiL » Lib. 1. r. 4. ■ r^ch^lu*, 1 a wr, fse. '- I'lMaabPim. f»L 130. 

ipML». 13, 

Mem. 2. Sab*. 2.] 

I}ivuioR of the Body, 


wnngki) that have time ai)d lecture enough, and aro aulllcienti)' informed 
in all Mltcr worldly bu«neuee, as to make a good bai)j;aii), buy aad aell, to 
ke«p and iciikc choice of a fair hank, hunnd, hurse, Ike. l>ul. for mich 
Iten M concern the koouledf;^ ol' tlieum elves, lliry ttre wholly ignnrant 
ad carelcn: tliey know not what ihix limlv »nd soul urr, h<iw conibinnd, 
of what parts nt>i\ fiiL-iiltic* llicy consist, or liow a man diflfc^ni tVom a dog. 
Atid what can lie moic igiiomiiiious and fihliy (n» " Mclanclhon well in- 
eigb*) /Aon for a man not to knniv the utraclure and ernnponlion o/ Ma 
bodg r esprcialll/ tinct lite kHDwUdge of it It-nds to much lo tht prtitr- 
ttionof hi* health, and information of his mannerx. To stir them up 
rthervrore to lliis ftludy, to uu<ruae those elaborati' uorka of "Galen, Bau- 
hinus, Plater, Vtsalius, Falopmx, Laureiiliua, Rcmi^liiiui, Ac. which have 
written ropioutly in Latin — or llial nhich *ome of our industrious eountrcy- 
■nen have done in oar tnoiher ton^e, not long since, M that trunstntion of 
' Columbna, and * Mii^tcuimographin, in ihtrtren books — I have made t)ii« 
brief liigteawoD. Also because > Wcckcr. ' Mdancthon, ■ Fcmcliug, '' I'lich- 
■ius, and those tedious tracts de Aiiimd (which have more compendiously 
I kandled and written of this matter) are not at all times ready to be had — to 
five them some small taste or notice of the rest, let this epitome suffice. 

SuRiicT, II. — Division of the Bnifif. Humours. Spirits. 

Or the parts of tlie Body tlifre may hr muny diviriouH : ihc most approved 
[ii that of' LniirenltiJ*, out of Hippor rates, which is, into parts containnd or 

IfoJain^. Conlamrd mv cither kumonri or tptrits. 

Hvntmirs.} A humonr is n liquid or fluent part of the body, eomprc- 
' bended in it, for the preservation of it. and is either innate or bom with us, 
or adventitious and acquisite. Tlie radical or innate is daily supplyed by 
noiirishment, which some call cambium, and make lhoi>e secundaty humours 
of ro* and glulirn to maintain it : or -dC(|ui.itle, to maintain these four 6rst 
prtroaty bumours, coming and proeredin)( frtuii the firel concoction in tlic 
liver, by trliicli inean* cht/lut h tx('liid<'<l. Soim- divide them into pro- 
fitable, and excrcinenlitiuus. But ''Crato (out of Hippocrates) will have 
nil four to he jnycc, and not excrement*, without whicii no living creature 
c*n be nutlnincd ; whirh four, though tliev he comprehended in the iuum of 
I blood, yet they have their several niiectionB. by which they arc distinguinhrd 
from one another, and from those adventitious, peccant, or ' dittaied hu- 
mouTt, as Metancthon calls them. 

Blooii,\ Blocd is a hot. sweet, temperate, red humour, prepared in the 
tnttaraiehe veins, and made of the most temperate parts oX the chi/lui in 
tlie liver, wbo^- ofTioe is lo nourish tlie wholn body, to ^ivc it strength and 
cotaiir, bciiiit dispersed, by the <eiti}, through every part of it. And fiom 
il spirit* are limi l)e;^tten in t!>c heart, which afterwards, by the arteriet, 
are cotnniunicalt-d w tlie oihcr parts. 

Piiuila, or phlegm, is a culd and moist hiinioitr, bc^'otten of Uie colder 
part of the ciylnt (or while Juyce coming out of the meat digested iu (he 
stomach) in the liver; his office Is to nourish and moisten the meiuben of 
tbe body, which, as the tongue, arc moved, that they he not ovei-dry. 

Chottr is hot and dry. bitter, begotten of iho hotter parts of the chylut, 
and ^theredto the gall : it helps the natural heat and senses, and serves to 
the expelling of excrements. 

Metancholi/.l Melancholy, eold and dry, thick, black, and sowr, bc^t- 
traoflbe more fnculent part of nourishuit:ut. and pur){ed from the spleen, is 

•DcwiliDt. TlUf* nlm til homlFil <cnarti<' -ui •■i-ryi-iit ;ut lu-Ucwnl vcaOTlum, prnDttiiu riim 
W valrtodteira vt mitn* tu^ rii«niiE,i (ilurimum ^uiKlurai. * ti«usu put. ' l(i»iorT nf m«n, 
•D. CrookfL tts SiBlul. 'Dimini^. • Ii»iit. lih. 1. 'rhpiUiL I 1.1. • Ami. I, I. 


twHtlar Paris. 

[Part. I.Scc. 1. 

a bridle to tli« oilier two hot humours, hlooii uml akoltr, prciervmg them 
in llie blood, and nouriiliing the bones. These four humour* have •ome 
analof^y with the fimr elements, and to llie four Bjjes in man. 

Serum. Su-ent, Trari.] To these Immoiire you may add tcrum. which is 
the m&lter <>( urine, and those excrement ilious liumoun of llie thiid concoc- 
ijon, Hweat and tears. 

Spiriis.] Spirit is a moat subtle vaponr, which it exprewed from the 
blood, and the instmmcnt of the soul, to perform all hi* nctiouj; aeommoa 
tye or medium betwixt the body and the soul, as some will huve it ; or (a* 
'Piiraccl»ni!)8 fourth soul of it self. Melaucllioii holds the fountain of Uiew 
Kpirits to be the Aearf ,- bejrotteu there, and afterward conveyed tothi^ brain, 
tncy take another nature in them. Of these spirits there be three kinds, ac- 
cording to llie three principuJ part*, Arain, kearl, liver ; nalaral, vital, ani- 
mal. The natural in- begotten in the livfr, and theuce dispersed through 
the veins, to piTform tho<c nalnrol nclions. The vital tpiritt, ate made in 
the heurt of the natural, which, by the arteries, are transported to all the 
other parts: if these f/nrj7« cease, then life ccaseth, as in a *j/neope or swoun- 
tng. The animal tpiriu, formed of tlie i-Hal, brought up to the brain, and 
diirnsed by the nerves, to the subordinate members, give sense and molion 
to them all. 

SfBtWT. ill. — Similar Partt. 

Simi/or ;jar(i.]CovTjiiMs(-. teasonof their more solid substance, 
are either homoijcixral or kelero^eneal, simitar or liiuimilar ; (so Aristotle 
dirides theui,/i/i. I. vap. I. t/e liiu. Animal. Laurentinn, cap. 20. lib. J.) 
Similar, or hirmiigrn^al , arc such ns, if they be divided, are still nevered into 
parts of the canicr nature, as water into water. Of these somebcs/JBrmn/ico/, 
miatfifthj, or carnal. * Spermaticat are such as are immediately bt^ottcn 
of llic seed, which arc honts, t/rhtles, li/jamenU, membranes, nervet, arteriet, 
vrint, tkins.jHiers or alrimji.Jat. i 

li<mes.] The bones arc dry and hard, begotten of the tliiekeslofthe seed, 
to s1reni;theii and sustain other parts : some say there be tJiree hundred and 
four, some three hundred and s>cven, or three hundred thirteen, in mans 
body. Tliey have no nerves in them, and arc lheri:lbre without sense. 

A griitle is a substance softer than bone, and harder than ihe rest, flex- 
ible, and serves to maintain the parts of motion. 

Liyamrjili arc they that lye the bones together, and other parts to the 
bone*, with tlicir subserving tendons. A/em ftrane* office is to cover the rc4t. 

l^ervef, or sinews, are membranes without, and fullof marrow within; they 
proceed from the braiu, and carry the animal spirits for sense and motion. 
Of these some be harder, some softer : the softer sene the senses ; and there 
be seven pair of them. The first be the optiik nerrcs, by which we see ; the 
second move the eyes : the thirit pair »ii-rve fcjr tlie tongue lo taste ; the fourth 
pair for the taste m the pubt : the fifth belong to the ears ; the sixth pair t* 
most ample, and rLinsnlmo^t over all the bowels ; the seventh pair move:* the 
tongue. The harder sinews ser\-e for the molion of the inner parts, prot-ecd- 
in|; from the marrow in the hack, of whom there be thirty combinations — 
seven of the neck, twelve of the breast, &e. 

Arttrirf.] Arltritt are long and hollow, wiOi a double skin to convej 
the vital spirits; to discern which the better, tliev say that V'esalius the 
anatomist was wool to cut up men alive. ^ They an*e in the lefl side of tl»e 
heart, and arc principally two, from which tlie rest are derived, aorta, and 
imo»a. Aorta is the root of all the other, which serves ilie whole body ; 
the olher goes to the lungs, to fetch nyt to refrigerate the heart. 

'BplrinlliuiiBu. I tdamiilui. r.M, 1.1. Ami •InOinr ilii-ji obwrt* ih* bf uit>( of lb* 

Mem. ^. Subx. 4.] 

Disfimiliir J*artt. 




Vmu.] Veins arc hollow and round Itlce pijiet ; arising from tbo liv«r, 
rarrvin^ blood aad uaiural >pinU, tlicy ft-cd iill tlio parts. Of these thcK 
be two cIiicF. vetut porta, and vena cava, from which ihc rest arc corrivated. 
That vtita porta in a vein uoming from tho roncnvp of the liver, and receiv- 
ing tboM mcuiniirnl vcinn, by uhom he tnkcs the cAy/iis from ilie tlomacb 
and gut«, and convey* it to the li»cr. The other derives blood from the 
liTCr, to nourith all other dispersed members. The brandies of tliat vrna 
porta arc the mesaraicul and liamorrlioids. The branches o( the eava arc 
tnirani or outward — inii-ard — seminal ot fmulgent-^aatwitrtl, in tlielicad, 
arms, feet, Sic. and have several names. 

Fihrit, Fat, FleihJ] Fitirir are slrino^s, while and KolicI, dispersed through 
whole nicmbet, and rlt;lil, obliiiue, transverse, all whieti hnve lhi?ir several 
■MS. Fal iiiaiiinilar pnvi, uioiit, without blood, composed of the most thick 
and unctiioua matter of the blood. The ' Kkin carers ttic rest, and hath cuti- 
culam, or a little skin andc-r tt. FUtH Is toft and Tudd;;, composed of the 
congf.-iling of blood, &c. 

SVBSECT. IV. — DissimilaT iiarli. 

Ditlimitar part* are those wliicU we call organkal, oTitislrumtntal i and 
they be micorrf, or oulKard. The chiefc»t oatward parltare situate forward 
or faacknard. Forward, the crown and furt'top of the head, skull, lace, 
Ibtvhead, temples, chin, cvm, cars, nosr, Ac :w*k, breast, chcsl, upper and 
wer pirt of tlie belly, liyiiorliondrira, nitvel, gioyn, dank, A-c. Battward, 
himlet jisrt of the heart, back, shoulders, sides, loyns, hip-bones, a sa- 
crum, buttocks, tSi-c. Or jnynt*, arms, liand;, feet, leggs.lhiirhs, knees, &c. 
Or common to both, whieh, because they are obvious and well known, I 
Itavr rarclestly repeate<l, taij'it pracipua el grandiora lantum : quod rtli- 
faam, ex lil/risde anima. c/ui rolet, acc'ipial. 

Jau'ard orgamcal pans, which cannot lie seen, are divers in number, and 
havcMveral names, functions, and divisions ; but that of ^ Uiurcntius is most 
notable, into noblt, or ignoble v&cU. Of the noblr there he tliree principal 
parts, to wliich all the rest belong, and whom ihcy serve — brain, htarl, 
liver ; according to irhosc site, three regions, or a threefold division is made 
of thtt wliole body ; as, first, of the hrad, in which the animal organs are 
contained, and brain it self, which by hit nerves gives sense and motion to 
the ictt, ami is (as it were) a privy coiinscllonr, and ehaneellonr, lo the hrarl. 
The second rrgion it the chcsl, or middle bellj/, in which the heart aa kin^ 
Icccps his coari, and by Iiis nrtcrics conimuiiicales life to the whole body. 
The third rc^ioa is the lower belli/, in which the liver resides as a legale a 
latere, with the re^t of those natural organs, serving for coucoctiun. nuurish- 
laent, ejipellinti; of enecremenls. This lower region is distinguished from 
the upper by the midriff. ctriUaphruyma.auA ismbdivideilaeiiin hy 'some into 
three coocavitit-s, or re^icmB, ujiper, middle, and lower— the upper, of the 
hvpodiondrics. in wlnwe right side is the Urer, the left the s/ilcrn (from 
voicli i* denominated hypodiondriucal incianrholy) the second, of tlie navel 
and fli>nk!t, divides] from llie first by ilte nm — the lii't, of the wutcr-eoursc, 
which b again subdivided into thn-e other piirla, The Arnhians make two 
parts of this n-gion, ejngattrinm, and liypngaslriiim ; upper, or lower. Epi- 
gastriaim tbcy call niiiaefi, from whi^nce comes mirachialis melnncliotia, 
KMiiettRics mentioned of them. Of these several re^dons I will treat in 
brief apart ; and. first, of the third region, in which the natural organs are 

' Cn^ m j/mn ttniilntn a ili-iiinlcil. ul inlriiurt muni«[. i'lpliic Aii»(. nop. IW. J An>l, llh, I. 
•- ta RfWbna HI n nniidnti rtrtlum ill*liiu tn pHurlHn •! iinnhliti™ imrli-i. • D- Cmgli. out 


96 Anatomy of the Body, [Part. I. Sec. I. 

TUelMMr Ttg'mn. Natttral Organi.] Dul you tlmt are readers, in tlu 

mean dme, tappose yoa were now hrouyhl mlo tvme xucred temple, or majrt 

tical pa/act, (as ' Melancthon sailh) la bcliuld uut the matter oitltj, imt th 

liitffuiar art, workmantliip, and counsel oflhii out grrat Creator, And ' 

a phatant and profitable tpveutation, if it he ronsiderrd aright. The part 

ofthix rfyioii, whirli prMciiI tlicm^'lvcx to vour conoid r Nit ion mid view, 

sitch im serve to nutrition or generation. Tliosc of nutrition serve lo ili« 

tint OT second concoction, as ihc aio2}iiagtiR or gullet, which briiif;:s meat ' 

Dnd drink into the tlomach. Tlie ventricle or stomach, which is seated in 

the inidslof thiit pan of [he belly beneath ilie <nidrt/f, the kitchen i,usit wc-rc^^H 

of the finit concoi'liou, and which turns our ment icito di'jlus. It hatli two^H 

mouths, oiic above, anoihi-rVwueath. Tlit op{)tr is suniclinies tukt^n for the ' 

stuoiach it self: tlu- lowt^r aiid neiher door (as Weckur oalU it) i» named 

pylorus. Tim ttomuch ii xuntaincd l>y it W^ kcll or kaull. i^ulli-d omentum ; 

which «omc will have thi- xamp with pcritoaimm, iir rim of tin; bi-llv. From ^i 

the Stomaek to the very fundiiment, arc proitiirpd thir gnti or tnrc(/tna,.^H 

which serve a little to after and (Jislribiite the rhylus, and ronvcy away ihe^H 

exercnieots. They arc divided into small and great, by reason of their site 

and Kubstance, slender or thicker: the slender is daodenum, or whole i^t, 

which is next to the stomach, some twelve inches long (saith '° Puchsius). 

Jejunum, or empty ^t, coiitiimate to tlie other, which hath many metaraick 

veins iinncxed to it, which take part of tlie chtflut to the liver from it. Ilitm, 

the third, whicli conniit.ii of many crinkles, which lerves with the rest to re< 

eeivc, keep, and dintribiite ihc chylux from the flomach. TIk- thick guts are 

three, ihe blind gut, colon, and ri^ht gut. The bltad is a thick and short 

gut, having one moutli in which the i7/on and colon meet : it receives the 

excrements, and conveys ih^'in to the colon. This colon hath many wmdings, 

that the excrements pass not away too fiint : the riyht gut is straight, and 

conveys the excrements to iUe fvndamenf, whose lower part is bound up 

witii certuin muscles, called iphineteres, tliat the excremeats may be the 

belter conlaiiied, until such lime a rnau be willing to ^o 'o the stool. In ibe 

midst of these guts is situated the mesejiteritim or midriff, composed ofnuiu^ 

veiiic, arteries, and much fat, serrini: chiefly to sustain the suu. AU tbeie 

partt serve the first concoction. To the letrond, which is huxied eitlier in 

retinin^ the good nourishment, or expelling the bad, is chiefly bdoDnn^ the 

liver, like in colour tocongealed blood, thcshop of blood, situate in uie right 

hj/pochondry . in 6)^re like to an hall' moon ; generosum membrum, Me- 

laucthon iiiles it; a ^nerous part; it serves to turn thecAy/iu to blood, for 

the iiouriahnieiii of the body. The excrements of it arc cither cholerieA or 

watery, which the other subordinate pans convey. The gall, placed in the 

concave of the /»el^r, extract* cAo/tr to it : the ipleen. melancholy i which is 

situate on the lcl\ side, over H^uinst the liver, a spitn);y matter that draws 

this black ehoter tn it by a secret vcrtue, mid fei-dx upon it, conveying tlii^ 

rest to the bottom of the stomach, lo stir up apiwtite, or else to the ruIs iu 

an excrement. That wotety matter the two kidneys cxporgate by iliosc 

emiil^t I'cin*. and ureters. The emulgcnt draw this snjicrtluiius moisture 

from the blood ; tlie two urelen convey it to the bladder, which, hy n-iiHin 

of his site in the lower bellv, is apt lo receive it, having two parts, neck and 

bottom : ilie botiooi holds tlie water : tlie Deck is constringca with a ninscJe, 

which, ata porter, keep* the water from running; out against onr will. 

Members of ^aeration are common to both sexes, or peculiar to one; 

which, because they arc impertinent toroy purpoie, I do voluntarily omit. 

Middle tieyion.'] Next in order n the middle region, or chest, which 

' Vm nn tflnU ta iBmuliiDi •■: Hcnfluiii RuDdlUni •□■ <Sncl iHiinlt. ke. Snail* vl iiillli roptttla. 
• UlL L «^ la ML A. 

Mem. 2. Sgbfl. 4.] Anatomy of tie Bodtf. 97 

comprebends the vital fuculticx and parU ; which (as I liave laid) U sem* 
ratted froin llie lower belly by the diapkragma or midriff, nliich it, n tkin 
mtisisiin^ ijf many ncrvpii. membraDcs ; atid. aioonu^i uilier uir-i it limlh, is 
Ihr iimrumetit ol'lauj^hiiig. There is al»o u certain llim uitmSmnc, lull of 
nti<-ir«, whit:h covurelh tlie whole cheat wiiliin. and is oulicil pUura, the seat 
of UK!<li«!iisc calleilpi'turijiic, whi-ii it i* rti(lrtm«i. Simie add a tliird skin, 
which is tmncd mrdiiulinut, whii'h iliviiliLt ihrr cluMt into two parte, ri^bt 
and lefi. Of this rrgii>n thn principal pari in the htart, wl>ich ia the seat and 
rouoIBin of life, of heat, ufxpirits, nt' pulse, mid rcpiration : the suo of out 
body, lh« king and sole coairnniiiicr of it : the mat and ort;an of all paction* 
and aStctions : ijirintutmivem.nltimvm morieis: it lives Hnit.aiid die* Itul 
in all i-Kaiures) of a pyramidical fbnn, and not much unlike lo n pinc- 
appte : " a pan worthy of admiraliou, ihai cao yield ^avh variety of nlfcc- 
tKiot, by wnote motion it is dilated or cotitructed, tu ^lir and command the 
humour* in the body; ajt. in sorrow, melnnrhulv ; in anerr, cholcr; in joy, 
to send the blood outmrdiv : in sorrow. In call it in ; omving the humours, 
u hoTws do a chitriol. This }uarl, though ii bf otic *tAt member, yei it may 
be divided into two rrwk*, ri^ht and Uft. The right )« like the moon lu- 
craasti^, bifgiFr than the oilier part, and receive* blood from tvna cava, 
diMributii)); some of it lo the lungs, to nourish ihein, the ic»t t» ihe IcA tiide, 
(0 tDKender S|ttrita. Tke l^t ntrh hathllir form of a ame, and ix the wut 
of life, which (a* a torch doth oyl) draws blood unto it, b«K<-tliog of it Kpi- 
liu and fire ; and, as fire in a torch, so are spirits in the blotid ; and, by that 
mat arlfrtf called aorta, it send* vital npirils over tlie liody, and takes aire 
from the lungt, by tliat artrr^ ubicb is called vtm)*a : so tliat both creeks 
hsTQ their vcueU ; tlie right two vein*; ilti! left two arteries, besides those 
two common anlimctuous ears, which serve theni both ; the one to hold 
btood, the other aire, (or tcvetal uses. The lung* is a thin spuni^ pan, like 
an Dxe boof, (saitli " Fcrnclius) the town-dark or cryer C one term* it), the 
inttnimcRt of voice, as an orator to a king ; annexed lo ihe heart, to «xpre«i 
hi* thoughta by voice. Tliat it is the instnmenl of voice is manirm, in that 
DO CTCtttiire can ijieak or utter any voice, which wariteth th«e tights. It is, 
besides, the inilrument of reipitation, or breatliiuL; ; and its office is to cool 
the hearl, b\ (inodin^ ayre unto it by tlie prnnsvl artfry, which vein comea 
to the lung* by tlial agprra arleria, which (■ousiil* of many g-rislles, mem- 
btanea, nerres, taking in ayrc at llie nose and mouth, niid, by h likewise, 
ezbalea tbe fuoiet of the heart. 

In ibe upper r^tfitm serving the animal faculties, the chief orjifan is the 
brim, which is a soft, mavrowish, and white suhgtuncc, tngendred of the 
parcst part of seed and spirits, included by many skin^, and seated within 
the tkoll oir b«^ain-pau ; and it is the most noble orf^an under Iteaven, the 
dwelling hnuM! and seat of the toul, the habitation of wisdom, memory, 
j/adfieBttat, rcMon, and in which roan is most like unto God : and tliervfore 
UUIVB batii covered it witli a ikuU of hard booe, and two skinii or imnn- 
btanes, whereof the one is called dura mater, or mtainx, ihv other pia 
mater, 'the dara mater is next to the xkuU.ahnvi- tlie other, which includes 
ftnd protects Ihe brain. When this is takcnaway.thejiin mafcr isto he seen, 
a Una nembnne, the next and immediate cover of the limin, and not cover- 
ii^only, but cntrrint; into it. The brain it self is divided into two parts, 
Atjbrt and bhtdrr part, the fore part is much bigger than the other, 
whi^ it called the Utllt brain in (i-s[>ect of it. This /ort part hub many 
coBCavHks, dotinguishrd by certain ventricles, which are the receptacles of 

• Hn fvs v*^ prwtfpiiF Aifo* wimitulnti^. i^qrHl UbU aiT^tmim tarictAI* citiur cor. 4W>i1 omnn 
■■ liWn M 1MB Ilattai (vnli CPriui.l el moipiiu - Vhyilo, L I. (i, 1. > Ul onlor ragt. tic gHilinrj. 
ft. CftDCrt^Cur pbtiU. /U- Mflkuflh. 


98 Anatomy of tkt Sottt, [Pait. 1. Sec. 1. 

the spirit«> brought htlUer by tlie nclcric* tram Uic licart, «n<l arc ihefc re- 
ftned to n more hcuvrtily nuturc, ti> pcrtbtm ihf. iirtion« of the soul. Of 
tliese ventricles there be thrci-, riyhl, Itft, nnd middU. Tlie riykl aod Itfl 
aii&wer (o lUeir &ile, nod beget animal spirits : ifthevbenny wiiy hurt, sense 
aud motiou ceaselh. These ventricles, moreover, are held lobe thi- seal of tli« 
conimon wnte. The middle ventruU is a common coucourvu and eaviiy of 
them botli, and bath two passage!): ihcoueto receive /ntuifct ; tintl ike oilier 
exUndt it»vlf to llic fourth cre«lc; in tJii« they pluce imagination and ro^i- 
tation : and so titc ihree itntriclo uf tbi! fore pnrl uf tlxi brain arc u*ud. 
The fourth creek, behind tlic Iicarl, i« conitnon to Um eertM or little brain, 
and marrow of the biick-bimc, the IcAStmid movt solid of nil the rc^, which 
receives the animal spirits from the othor ventricles, anil onnveyt ihem to the 
marrow in the back, and is the place where they say th« memory isseatcd, 

StiBKECT. V. — 0/ the Saul and her Facultiet. 

Accouni ICO to "< Arttlullc, llw soul is defined to be tynXixtia, perftetio at 
aetut primm eiirporis oriianici, vHam hahtntit in potrntid — thu pci'fRClJoB^H 
W firet act of an or^jniciil bnily, hiiving power of life; which most 'philoso>^H 
phors approve. But mniiy doutitt ariK: iiboiit the rwrnw, sufijfct, tttil, rfi** 
tincliou, and subordinntc faculties. (■( it. Forlhn cittctice and paiticular 
knowledge, of all other things it h most hard (Ix- rl of man or beast) to dis- 
cern, as 'Arisloile himself, 'Ttilly, " Picus Miraiidula, *Tolet, and oilier 
neoterick philosophers, confers. " Wc run tind&rxland all ihiwjs by her; 
but what she it we canniti apprelitnd. Some therefore make one lotil, di- 
vided inlu three [irincipal fucuiues ; others. lUree distinct muU ; (which 
question of lute hiith bci:n niiicli conLroverUd by Pici>loniineus, and Zabarcl) 

* ParoceUiu will hiivn four souls, adding to tno thr<« granted faeullirji, a 
tptritual soul ,- (which opinion of his, Campnnclla, in hi« book df ' Senau m 
rerum, much labours to Hcmonstrnlo and prove, liccautc carknsscs bl<«d at 
the sight of the murderer ; with many such arguments :) and 'tome, again, ] 
one soul of all creatures whatsoever, difTeriii;^ only in organs: and that 
beasts have teasou as well as men, ihou^li, for some defect of organs, not 
in such measure. Ollii^m maki^u doubt, whether it be all in all, and all in 
every part; which is amply discussed in /aliarel amon^ the rest. The 'com- 
mon division of the foul is into tliri<(! principnl faculties, ver/elal, teatitiit, 
and rational, which make three distint.'t kind of livint: creatures — rrgrtal 
plants, srasihlf l>cast»^, ralumal mm. How these three principal fiicultics 
are disiiiiguisheil and connected, humniio hi'jetio inacccssiim ridftur. is be- 
vond humane capacity, as ''Taurelliis, I'hiUp, Flavius, and othns suppose. 
The tnferiour may be alone ; btit the superiour cannot subsist without the 
Other : so ttuaibU includes rtffelal, rational, both w hich are contained in it, 
(aailli A(isiDile) ul frigtntui in ittTagima, as a triaufcle ill a quadrangle. 

Vegetal sovl.l Vtffrlal, the first of the thrwt distinct faculties, jsdHiRed 
to be o subilanttal act of an oryanieal Imdy, by which it is nourished, ouy* 
mtnttd.aitdficifeti another like unto it »el/: in which definition, (hrei-WTrral 
Ojieratioot ore specified, altrix.auctrii.procrtutrix. The first b 'nutri- 
tion, nrlioic object is nourishment, meat, drink, an<I the like ; his organ the 
liver, in sensible creatures; in plants, die root or sap. His olltccis toinm 
the Duttimcnt into the subsunce of the body Dourbhcd, which he perform* 

« Dr tnlm. r I . • Br»ltr. mtrr. WI. T<-W. In liti. tlranlml, tap. 1. tft •!)« uniml. «p I. 

• 1\uHiL i|i«i. 'Llti s. UcH-r Vil Ci'niil. r. I3l iw UlS- ' Aiiilii, - Aiiiini qiinitir In- 
frfiifiwin^- «i Uuiii'n. qiijv ill ij.q, inCf iJk^iviuin tult-mui. « S|tihtuiktu uiUuAni ■ rvhqutt cU«- 
tinMn lartuf. vtiun in f«jA*cTi^ InSvivnlrdi pc.ifi (nottvBi pi'r utiqtinl ETii-nai'm, t l^lb. S. cagi. 31. 
*C<»U>i>. Ub. S. (. SI. Plulinh. Lb Uryllu. LIjh wn, I, t\- J". Ji.«iu»clr Il.i.i rr FJi-iii, .iii^rrin'ii, 
l-Mllllirtli. Itr ■ Phalf^ Or Anluik, c* I. <'il-liin, III. InUq. (in. ^ l'luliiii;b. ilr plD<-ll I'llllna. 
^Oarll. • t S urvp. I. ilriii. rl niurL t. c. a. •.Suiritit.m ilinu-Dil tiuuniuUtio, 
ritv Mtimllt. ttMt- mm. lui um. IT- 

Mem. 2. Subs. 5.J Anatotny of ihe Sovt. 99 

by natunil hcsl. Thi* nutritive operation hath four other subordinate tunc- 
tioDS or powrre belonging to it — atlraclifm, rertnrios. digettioit, erpvltion. 

Allraclioit,] * AllraclioK a ■» n\ini*lril\fi: tacvhy, which (ax a luitijEton« 
doth irou) drawi meat into ihe atomiivh, or u a lump doth oylc; and this 
attractive power ti very nect^sinry in plunt*, which suck itp moisture by the 
root, a* another mouth, into the tap, on a like stomach. 

RtttKlionA Rtt€ntian keeps it, being atlrncted unto the stomnch, uiilil 
lucb time it be concoetcd ; Tor, il' it should pass away straight, the body 
conk) Dot be nourished, 

I}igeat'wn^ Digtition is performed by nitliiral heat ; for, as the flame 
of a lorcb consume!) oyle, wax, tatlow, so doth it alter and dijimt tlie 
nutritire matter. Indigestion is opposite unto it. for want of nuturul heat. 
Of thb iii^«(iwi there be three dtiierenee!i, miiluriition, tlixation.auation. 

Maturution.\ Malanition i* esui-ciiilly obHTvi-d in the IVnits of trees, 
which are lliea said to Ih- ri|ii.-, n'licn the scrili .ire fit to be sown again. 
Cniditi/ ix opposed to il, which gluttons, Epicuici, and idle persons are most 
nbject unto, ihiit use no exercise to stir up natural heat, or ctse choke il, as 
too much wood puli; out a lire. 

Slixatron.] l^lij:ationis tJie seething of me«it in the stomnch, by llio said 
natural heat, as meat is boyled in a pot; to which corruption or putrefac- 
tion isofipoutc. 

AsiatKoi.] AttafioH h a concoction of the inward moisture by heat; 
his uppUMtets fcmiattulaliim. 

Order of noneaetitm four 'fold. "[ Besides these three several operationsof 
iSgettion, there is a fourfold order of concoction ; matlicalion, or chcwias 
iailie mouth; tAy/i/feo/ion of thisso chewed mcstin ibcttomurh; the thira 
is in the lic«r, to turn ihiii cKyltn into blood, called taKgu'^calion ; the last 
is custmu/u/ion, which is in every part. 

Erprtlfiatt.] Bxpaltivn is a power of nutrilion, by which it cxpells 
■II suj)«rHaous excrements and reli(]iies of meat and drink, by the guts, 
Madden, pore* ; as by pui^iaj;, vomiling, spilting, sweatinj^, urine, hairs, 
nails, Arc. 

AuffmrntatioH-] At tins nutri lief faculty serves to nourish the body, so 
doth the aut/menling faculty (the second operation or power of the vegetal 
faculty) to the increasing of it in<]unntity, according to all dimensions, lon^, 
broad, thick, and to make it grow till it come to his due proportion and per* 
fect sliape : whicb hath his period of augmentation, as of consaroption, and 
that most certain, as the poet observes : 

Bui fuirnilqac illn: bivnt tl lmi»nlrilB Mispiu 

Omnlliui nt \ jljiTi — — — ■ 

K inm •■iliU iinvllacnryiDUi. 

Which lifiui ^hoTt ; jiTiilpiAit nouatcui- 

Oeneration.\ The lust of ihi-se vegelalfaculltei is generation, which begets 
another by means of seed, like uuto it self, to the perpetual preservation of 
the species. To this faculty they ascribe three subordinate operations : the 
6rst to turn nourishment unto seed, &c. 

Lifr and dttitk conctmit'inta of the vegetal facaltiet.] Necessary con- 
ComilanlioralTectiona of this vegetal fitcullu "re life, and his privation. 
death. To the pteMrvalion of life the natural iicJit is most requisite, though 
acdiy and humidity, and those first <inalitics, be not excluded. Ttiis heat 
■ likewise in plants, 'as appears by their increasing, fructifying, &c. though not 
Measily perceived. In all bodies it must have radical * moisture to preserve 
il, that it be not consumed; (to which preservation our clime, countrcy, tem- 
pCTKture.andthefoodorbad use of those six non-natural things, avail much) 

• Sm Bvn •< inMCUas IB <«L ntic. M3. 


Tit* CMtblil in csUdo at hunkla. 


^XOlOWy of the Soul. 

(Part. I. Sec. 1. 

for, a* tlii» natural iieut and moistuie decayes, so dotli our lir« it sulf : and, 
if DOt |Keveiil«Hi tiefore by sume violent ai^cldciil, or interrupted llir»ti^li our 
Hwii default, it in llic eiiu ilryed up by old ag«, aud ektinguithcd )>y di^uth for 
wttiit ufoiWcr, u lamp, for dcfci;t of oyl to inaintuin it. 

SuJi.sKCT. VI. — Of the sensible Soul. 

Nkxt in order is tbciciut/i/Gyact'/fy, which is «s fdi beyond the other in 
digDJty, as a bcatt is preferred to a plaul. Iiavtuir thoie vegetal powers 
included in it. Tis deKned ao acl of an organitol body, by which it liret, 
halh Mntt, appetite, judgement, brtaCh, ami motion. His object, in giciieiul, 
is a iettitilile or [ta^isible i|iialily, becauw tbe sense is ulfected witii it. The 
geuetui organ t* t!ie brain, from whidi prriici|)nlly the sensible operation* 
arc derived. Tlic irmiblc soul is divided into two \tatVi, apprekeniling Ot 
moving. By I'le opprc/ienfi'^c poui'r, we pcreeivc the upcries of seniible 
tliinifs, present or ubtcnt, and n^tuin tlicw as wax dotfi the print of n seal. 
By the moring, the body is outwutdly carried from one place to another, or 
inwardly moved by spirits and pulse. TUe apprehenrive faculty is subdivided 
into two parta, imuardor outward — oaluard.witm fivi' setiscs, of (uucAiny, 
hevring, ttting, tmelling, tunting ; to wliieli you may add Sculi^t^rs sixth 
eenie of litiUatitm, if you please, or that ni tpttck, which is the »ix(h cx- 
ternitl »ense, ueciirdiii^ to Lullius. Inward uri- three, Pominon tease, phan- 
lasie, memorff, ThOM five outward senses hnve their object in outward 
lIiingK onlv, and *uch » are prtsi-nl, as the eye kci;» no colour cxeept it be 
at hand, inc ear soun<l. Tlireu of these senses arc of coniino<lily, ktariuij, 
right, and emtll ; two of necc«sity, touch and tastt, without which we eao- 
not live. Besides, the ttntitivf power i» aclice or pastive — active, aa. in 
•ight. the eye »eea tlie colour ; pajisive, when it is hurl by hb object, a» Uie 
eye by tht- sun beams, (according to that axiom, visibiU forte dettruif ttn- 
lum) or if the object be not pleasing, as a bad KOiind lo the ear, a stinking 
sincll to till- nosu, &e. 

Sight.] Of llieie five tenses, fii/ht is held to he most precious, and the 
bext, and ihiil bv reaM>ii of his object; it »c<-sihc whole body Mt once; by it 
we learn, and discern nil lhing«~a »cn»e most excellent for nue. To the 
#^A/ three things are requiml; the object, the organ, and the medium. 
The oh/ect in general is visibie, or that which is to be hcen, as colours, and 
all shilling bodies. The taedium is the illumination of the air, which comes 
from ' light, commonly called diaphaaum ; for. in dark, we cannot see. The 
organ is the eye, aud chiefly Uie apple of it, which, by those optick nervei 
concurring bnUi in one, eonveyi the si^ht to the common ^ense. Betwixt 
tJic or^n and the ubj<s;t, a true distance m re<{uired, that it be nut too near, 
or loo far off. Many cxcelbnt qnestions appertain to this sente, discussed 
by philosophers; as, whether this sight he mused intra mittcndn, rr.l rxtra 
millendo,4re. by rocciving in the visible species, or sriidiiig of them out; which 
* Plato, ''Flularch, 'iUacrobius, ' Lactantius. and others, dispute. And, 
besides, it is the subject of the perspeotireg, of which Alhazcn the Arsblaa, 
Vitellio, Roicer Bacon. Baptista Porta, Guidus Ubaldua, Aquilonlus, Sic, 
have written whole volumes. 

Hiarinn.] Heariiis, H most excellcol outward sense, by tvhich ite learn 
tad gri iinotvltdge. His object is sound, or that which is h^ard ; tlte 
mediKiK, avre : ttrgau, the c4r. To t)ie sound, wliieli is a collision of tbe 
air, three thin^ ara required ; a body to Urikc, as tli« haud of a musician ; 
tbu body strnckcn, whk-h must be soIhI anij aUu 10 resist; as a bell, 
late-stilng ; not wooll, or spungc ; (he oimliuBi, tlie air, which is i»a>ard <n 

' l.iLnmr,l ,r1ut iTmi.Lmj. LumPn aliKn pr4^<«l1; lux *•! in eiiruorfl luplddw fin 'Plia^in. 
>ltu>ri.7. c K > Uc. op. S. ilr o|>ir. tM. I IDr focl- nUwl. 

Mcni. 2. Subs. 7.) Analomif of the Soul, 101 

oulvL-ard i the outwnid, bcin^ Ktniok or cglliclod by a lolid body, itill urftt^t 
Ui« iieK lir, until it coine to thai immnt nntural air, nbicK, m an exquisite 
orKaa. ia contained in a littln akin Toiined [iki* it dmm-h«a<l, and, strucic 
ii[ion by certain small instrainents like dnim-dicka, coaieyx the sound, b^ 
It pair nr nerves appropriated to ibai iiw, (othn common ttmtr, ai loajndfe 
of Miinds. Tbere i!> gftat varlciv itnd intich ili'tiglil ift lUcm ; for llic knov- 
le«lg« of which (consult with Bui-tliitix, nnil nihcr mmirian*. 

Smelliai/.] SDi«llint[ ix an outward u-ntf, tcbieh appnh^Mlt by tkt not- 
triU diaming ia atr i uni!, of nil iW ttM, it is tbo WMtkMt seme tn men. 
The orti^n in the niixf, or two smnll hollow piece* of flesh n little abovp it: 
the metiiuM the air to men. a« water to 6nh : the ob/tel, smell, ariiiny^ from 
a aiixl body re«otv<^l, which whethiT it be a ([iialily, fume, vapour, or cxlni- 
Ulion. I vill not now dispute, or of their diiTereacca, au<l liow th«T iira 
cauMrd. This sense is an orstn of health, as sieht and harinr (milfa 
' AsdltiM) are of diiMriplioe ; and tint by avoi(iin$[ bad imieU*, or hy rhonuoe 
EimkI, nhi(.'h do aa much ulti^r and alftict the body many times, as diet it sell. 

T4Ute.\ Taite, a necessary wtiM.', vAiVA pereriv** all lavofirt by Iht 
t&ng^te aud p»lat,and that hy "itant of a tliin $pittle, or wat*ry juice. Hit 
organ is the tnuguc with his tatting nen-<-4 ; the medium, a watery juice ; 
the object, latle, at mvnnr, which is n ijuality In the Juice, artging ftoin the 
nature of lhini;s laMed. S:>in« make eight species or kind* of savour, bitter, 
iwerri, sharp, sati, Arc. all which sick men (as in an agite) cannot di«cera, 
l>y tejtson of ibfir origans misafiWried. 

7'oui:kiny.] Toacli, the last of the aeosea. and roost itnioble, yet of us 
grrsil nwcKxitv as the other, and of ax much pk-asure. Tlii* *vntc is cx- 
qufatite in mm, and, by hi" nerre^ (liii|icried dl over tlie body, pcreeives 
anv tactile r|uiility. Hi* organ, the nerrr* ; hit nhjret, tlionn Snt (jiialities, 
hot.dry. moist, cold: and tho«e that follow them, hard.son, thick, thin.&e. 
Many deli£;ht»otne questions are moved by philosophers about these five 
aeiuea, iheir organs, objecta, mediums, which for brevity 1 omit. 

St'MKCT. V\\.—Of the inward SentM. 

Common fcnse.] tnnfr tmset are tlirrr in number, so enllcd, bccmtiie 

they be within the brain-p«&, as common t4iu«, pkonlatie, memori/. Their 

objecu ai« not only ibin^ present, but they perceive the seitsiUe apectei 

~ lliinf:s /« come, patl. a^Knl. such as were before in the sense. Thi$ 

on teiur h the judge or moderator of the rest, by whom we discern all 

lerence* of objecta; for by mine eye I do not know llint 1 set-, or by 
mine ear that I hear, but by rov common xruir, who jud|^th of soiiiiil* and 
Rolonn; they are but the orsans to hritiK the ii|H-cie!i tu be crnxureil; so thai 
all their nbjeetii are hi*, and all their i)t1icn> are hi*. Tiir forepart of the 
brain is bi« oivan or M-ni. 

Phatttaaie.] PhantatU, or itaa^naiion, which aome call mutintalive, or 
eogitalire. (contirmed, sailh ' t'ernelius, by frequent meiiitniion) i« an inner 
•ease, which doth more fully examiae the species perceived by common tenie, 
aflfainga preaent or absent, and kee^ tliem longer, recalMng them to mind 
a^n, or maVinx new of bin own. In time of sleep, this faculty is free, and 
many times cuncetr«» strange, rtupend. nlwurd shapes, as in sick men we 
commonly observe. Hi* organ it the middle cell of the brain ; hi* ohjrets, 
aU the specie* communicated to htm by the common lettrc, by compari*(m 
of which, he Jei^x infinite other unto himself. In mrlancholy men, this 
faculty is moM powerful and stjong, and often hurta, producing many mon- 

rwa tnd prodigious things, especially if it be stirred up by some terriblt 
ect, presented to it from fonimon stntt or memory. In poeis and paintera, 
• Lfh. I>. MM ' Ttijt- 1, s (. «. 


102 Anatomy of the Soul. [Patl. 1. Sec. I. 

iiKagitialion forcibly works, a.t apfiears bv their leveral Bctions, anttcks, 
images, as Orid'i house of Slc(.-|i, Fajelies paljce iii Apuleiu*. &c. In men 
it is subject and govcrnnl \i\ rirason.w nt Iciint fhoiilcl he; but, in brutes, U 
tmth no Eupirriaiir, iini) ir ratio hnilorum, all llic rciuuin tliry have. 

Mrmor'j.^ Mtmory Itiycs up nil Uic upccicK wliicli tiic sense? have 
brought in, antl records thcin a,r- n good register, that (hey may be fortb- 
comiog when they arc cnlled for by pliuntativ and rtajson. His object is 
the fiame niili jifianlasie : bis seat and oryaa, the back part of the braiu. 

Aff'rcliont of' the leiurt, iltep ami waking.^ The afli'Ctioi]* of lliete 
tenKS are Wce/r and waking, coDiinon to all sciiatble <:rt.-uture*. SUcpit 
a T«*t or iinding of the outward unset, and of tht common senfr. Jot the 
prestrrathn 0/ bod ff and lout (■At'^^txalife^ dtiine* it); for, when tht! ooin- 
moil Kcnstr re«lrth, the outwiiid »cnses nat tUo. 'the phiinUifie nione i» free, 
and his commander renson; at nppcur* by thow imaginary drcJimn, whieh 
are of divers kinds, natural, dioinc, diemoinaeal, i/e. which vary according 
to humours, diet, actions, objects, &c. of which. Artemidorua. Cacdanus, 
aod Sainbucufl. mlth tli«ir several iiiterpretnton, have written i;reat voluines. 
This lig:Htioit of senses proceeds from an iabibiliou of tpirits, tlie way being 
stopped by which they should come; this stopping a caused of >apouni 
arising out uf the *loinach, fdUii^ the ueivei, by which the spiriitt should be 
conroym). Wlirn theitc vupourt nn- ypeut. the putsa^e is open, and tlie 
*pirit» pcrfoim ibeir aecuntomcd diilic*; xo tliat waking U thr antion and 
motion of the tenses, u,<hick the fpirili, dispcrtcd over alt parts, caiisg. 

SuBSECT. VIII. — Of the Moving Fucultg. 

Appetite.] Thik moving facaittf is the other power of llie ttntitive tout, 
which oiutoth all thoae iaieard and oalward animal motiont in the body. It 
is divided into two fHCiiltirn, the power of appetite und of moving from place 
to plncf. Thia of upnrlile » threefold, (»o *omc will hnvi- it) na,tural, BE it 
si^ifin any such inciinntion, n* of a ttone to fall duwnwiird, and such nc* 
lions as rtteHtioii, expulsion, which depend not of sense, but nre vegetal, m 
the Appetite of mcM and drink, hunger and thirst. Sensitive i» common to 
men and brutes. Voluntary, the third, or intellective, which commands the 
Other two in men, and is a curb unto them, or at leatl should be (but for the 
nost part is captivated and over-ruled by them : and men are led like beasts 
by sense, ^ivin;; reins to their concupiscence and sereral lusts) ; for by ihi» 
appetite the soul h led or inclined to follow that good wliich the senses sliall 
approve, or avoid that which they bohl evil. His object bein^ ifood or evil, 
the one he cmbntcctli, the otlicr he rcjectelh' — uccordin;^ to ibut apliori«tn, 
emnia appttunt brnium, all ihin^ tcek tlieir own good, or at least Mcming 
mod. This power i« inseparable from sense; for, where sense is, thcic ii 
likewise pleasure and pain. His organ if the same intli the common sentt, 
and is divided into two powers, or inclinalioaf, concnpiteible or iro^ciMe, or 
(as " one translales it) c»Ey(in<r, anger-ini'ading. or impugning. Concupis- 
eible cun-ls alwayes pleasant and deliL>htiome things, and abhorrs that which 
ie distasteful, hunb, and unpleasant. Iroicible, "guasi avcrians per tram et 
odium, as avoiding it with ao^r and indignation. All afleetions and pertur- 
bations ariMi out of lliese two fountains, wliicli atlboi^h the Stoicks make 
li^t of, we hold natural, and not to be resisted. The ^lood alTectians arc 
caused bv srimr objN-t of the Kime nature; and, if preK-iit, lliey procure 

i'oy, whicli dilates the heart, and prcscrrrs the body : if absent, they cause 
lOpe, loTt, desire, and eoncupi!<Tncp. The bad utf simpU or mi^rt : simptf, 
for Htne bad object present, as sorrow, which contracts the heart, macerates 

• r.tHrU. IM -T. W.Jnnii. In lui Paiaiani «[ lb* HiB4. •\rUmtK. 

Mem. 2. Snbs. 9.] Anatomy of the Soul. ]03 

the loul, aubverU the good estate of the body, hindering all the operations of 
it, causing melancholy, and maoy times death itself; or future, as fear. Out 
of these two, arise those mizt affections and passions of anger, which is a 
desire of revenge — hatred, which is inveterate anger — zeal, which is offended 
with him vho hurts that he loves — and (Timipitana, a compound affec- 
tion of joy and hale, when we rejoyce at other mens mischief, and are grieved 
at their prosperity — pride, self-love, emulation, envy, shame, &c. of which 

Moving from place to place, is a faculty necessarily following the other: 
fcr in vain were it otherwise lo desire and to abhor, if we had not likewise 
power to prosecute or eschew, by moving the body from place to place. 
By this faculty therefore we locally move tbe body, or any part of it, and go 
from one place to anotlier ; to the better performance of which, three things 
are requisite — that which moves ; by what it moves ; that which is moved. 
That which moves is either the efficient cause, or end. The end is the ob- 
ject, which is desired or eschewed, as in a dog to catch a hare, &c. The 
efficient cause in mao is reason, or his subordinate phantaeie, which appre- 
hends good or had objects i in brutes, imagination alone, which moves the 
appetite, the appetite this faculty, which, by an admirable league of nature, 
and by mediation of the spirit, commands the organ by which it moves ; and 
that consists of nerves, muscles, cords, dispersed through the whole body, 
contracted and relaxed as the spirits will, which move the muscles, or P nerves 
in the midst of them, and draw the cord, and ao,per consequens, the joynt, 
to the place intended. That which is moved is the body or some member 
apt to move. The motion of the body is divers, as going, running, leaping, 
dancing, silting, and such like, referred to the predicament of situs. Worms 
creep, birds flye, fishes swim ; and so of parts, the chief of which is respira- 
tion or breathing, and is thus performed : the outward air is drawn in by the 
vocal artery, and sent by mediation of the midriff lo the lungs, which di- 
lating themselves as a pair of bellows, reciprocally fetch it in, and send it 
out to the heart to cool it ; and from ihcnce, now being hot, convey it again, 
still taking in fresh. Such a like motion is that of the^u^e, of which, be- 
cause many have written whole books, I will say nothing. 

SuBSKCT. IX.— 0/ the Rational Soul. 

In the precedent subsections, I have anatomized those inferiour faculties 
of the soul ; the rational remaineth, ^pleasant, but a doubtful subject (as 
"* one terms it), and with the like brevity to be discussed. Many erroneous 
opinions are about the essence and original of it ; whether it be fire, as Zeno 
held; harmony, aa Aristoxenus; number, as Xenocratea ; whether it be 
organical, or inorganical; sealed in the brain, heart, or blood; mortal, or 
immortal ; how it comes into the body. Some hold that it is ex traduce, as 
Phil. I. de Animd, Tertullian, Lactantius de opifc. Dei, cap. 19. Hvgo, 
lib. de Spirilu et Animd, Vincentius Bellaiic. spec, natural, lib. 23. cap, 2. 
el II. Hippocratts, Avicenna, and many Mate writers; that one man be- 
gets another, body and soul ; or, as a candle from a candle, to be produced 
from the seed : otherwise, say ihey, a man begets but half a man, and is 
worse than a beast, that begets both matter and form ; and, besides, the 
three faculties of the soul must be together, infused ; which is most absurd, 
as they hold, because in beasts they are begot (the two inferiour 1 mean), 
and may not be well separated in men. ■ Galen aupposeth the soul crasin 
esse, to be the temperature itself; Trismegistus, Musceus, Orpheus, Homer, 

' Nervj ■ tpiritu hiciv^tiIut, <t^iirUuii nb JinimA, Mi-lnrrr. 1 Vi-Erurio. Jiiciindum et i^pept lub* 
>rrtmp. ' Goplcniu^. in ^iix"*- I'^H- ''^i- BrlgKt, In Phv". 8iT]h. I. 1. I>4vid Uiuaiui. Mclmfl- 
thort. Hipplui Heniiii*, Loviqii^ Lp inniut) Si'- • Lib. an myit* ptqiuTutur, \& 


AjuUomtf of the Soul. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 

Pin<la/iia, Pherecjdes Syriua, Epictelua, wilb ibe Chaldeei and £srvptians, 
afliirnx'tl the totii lu be immartai, as did iho«c Uritan ' Druidt^x nl' old. Tlie 
" P]rtbitj(Oteans defend meUmpsgchoat and yalinyenesia — that *onl» go fromJ 
one body ta another, cpatd prius Leihrs unda. oa men iiilo trolve^, bear«,J 
dog*, liogs, tu llii^y were inclined in their lives, ur participated in condiliooi i 

" inqur firrlnu 

' Lucians cock was tirat Euphorbus, a captain : 

■ Up (cn, (Oim OKnnlDl i Trnjwl Irmpiic* bKlll, 

a hor«r, a mnn, r spun<2<!. ' Juti.-in the Ajio-itHtr thmi^ht Alcxan 
wii* dr.<ceniicd into his body: Pbin, in Titnn-n, iinil in hi« PhndoD 
ought I can perceive) ilifters not much from this opinion, thiu it wa* 
God at first, and knew all : but. being incioscd in the body, it IbrgcM, andJ 
learas anew, which he call» reminiiventia, or rfcaiHng : and that it was putj 
into llie body for a uiLtiL»ihLiient, and thence it (joes into a bea8ts, or mans, J 
(as appears oy his plfusant Ijctioii rfc sorlUione animamm. lib. 10. de tep.^ 
and, tt(\et i ten tlioiinund yeun, \» to return into the former body ug^in : 

■ put IVirJA UIDM. per lllfllr fllfllFV, 

Ruraiia *A huuiuuv brrtur |irlniunUA 'llv^ 

Othera deny the inimortalily of it, which PomponntUH of Pmiua decided out 
ofAi'Utotie not Iuuk sirici-, Pliain* Ammcuht, rap. 7. Hb. i. ft lib. 7. cap.' 
55. Stneta, iib. 7. rjiist. nd Lueilium, rpiil. 55. Dietparchus, vt T*H. 
Tutc. Epicurus, Aralui, Ilippacralet, Galrt. /.uf'reljus, lib, 1, 

IPrslcFtA fljTxE pHribrr (ruin irtiryorr, ol un* 
CivicDn avnlxmu*, put llpT^iUi- wm^^LTc. lui-mmi] 

Avctrocj*, and I know not how manv neotericks. • This i/uestimt of Ike im-l 
mortality of the soul is diverxtt^ and ivondrrj'iclly impugned and ditputfd^^ 
Mpecially amongul the Italians of tatr, siiith Jab. Colcrus, lib. dc immort.^ 
anmir, cap. 1. The Popes lliemiiclve* hiivc doubted of it. Leo Dccimua. 
that Epicurean Pope, m ''nonie record of him, caused ihia question lo bftj 
diKCUNiMl nro und con itcSun him, nnd conchidcd at lust, an a prophane aniT^ 
atheittieul modcrutor, with thai rcrse of Conieliu» GaUiw, 

Bl rciJllln hlhiFum. qiiiidrull knU* nihil; 

it bei^n of nothing, and in nothing it i-ndn. Zeno and hit Stoicks (as 
'Austin ((uotes him) suppiKted tho «>nl to king to continue, till the body 
was fully putiific<l, and tr»olvcd into ttialeria prima; but, after that, in 
fumoi cvani^scrr*, to be extinguished and vnninh; and in tin- mean lime 
whilst the hudy wiix consuinin>;, it wnndied all abrniut, rt e toitginquo multa 
aumaieiari; and (ns that Clazomenian Heimotimii* nvirrrrd) saw pr«Uy 
*i(ioD*, and iiiiflcrcd I know not what. 

Others grant the iinniorlulilv thereof: but (hey make many fabulous fiction! 
in the mean time ol' it, atlcr tlit departure' from the body — like Platos 
Elystan &eida, and tlic Turkic parndiw. Tlie »ouU of iiood men they deified ; 
the bad (saiili 'Auxtin) hfcnmt dccilt, as they supposed; with nianv sucf 
abtnn) tcnent*, uliirh he hath confuted. Hictom, Austin, uad other fallicr 
of the church, hold that the aoul is immortal, created of notliing, and 
infuted into the child or tmbria in hia mothers nonib. six monihs alter th 
'conception; not aa iboie of brutes, which are ri /rurfuee, and, dying with 
them, vanish into nothiiiK— to w}io«e divine [reattaea, and to the Scripture 
thcmiclvet, I rejourn all such utheiiitieal spirit*, as Tully did Altirus,] 

■r. 0. tam, • BHri Xiaat Oumi disL u[ ibr ImiDotuiny ol Uif «nil. * <>>id. nwt H> 
In OiUu. IiIrb, • Mtn>|.hum., hmt. !. HI. c, U, • Phril. ■CluiiUu. lib. I. ilrnpl. l*nMtT^ 
- Hm qaHac niillM BCT uium rtnn •<■ niir»hlll(*ilinpu^«i». SB. n:«tijiM, iWd. • l>>cccl<m. 

mPc 2. Sobs. lU.] Anatomy of the Soul. 105 

doubting of thin point, to PImtot Pluedon : or, ir thry <ksiTr philosophic*] 
pn>ors and d«inonxlra lions, I tvfvt them to Niphiis, Nic. Favtrilinvi Tracts 
of thn subjoci, to Frtiit, and John Picnt t'n digrets. tup. 3. de AnimS, Tho- 
iManm, Euffubinui, To Solo, CanuB, Thomas, Peresiat, Dandinui, Ctileras, 

10 tliat ebburate Ttact id ZaiichiuH, to Toiets 8ixl;r Rcaauus, uihI LeuJui 
TwcDty-iwti ArKuiueiiU, to praT« tlie immortalitj of the soul. Caropundlo, 
lib. dr fejim rcrum in lurscia (hecuiiiedttcourae, Atbectiiitis tli«^hooltii>n, 
JKob. Nuciiintu), torn. '2. op. handMh tt in liiur cj ii tuition »— Antony Brunut, 
Aonin* I'iilranui, Mariniii Mnrccnnun, iriih nimiy others. This reatanaile 
tout, wfaich Aii>tin mils a spiritual siihUniicc moving it ^IT, is defined by 
pfailoMpbers to be ihe Jirtl tubttantiat act of a natiirni, humane, oryanivut 
iody. Ay which a man hvei, peri-eiKd, and underitands, Jreety doing all 
thingi, and iKtth elect.on : out of which dcfinilion we may ti>ther, tliat ibis 
nuional ttnil iiitludeii tli« powen. and performs the duties, of the two other, 
which %iK contained in it ; and all three facullied mnkt? one miuI, wbit;b i« 
iaorganial of it iwlf (although it b« tn all parts), and inci>rf>oreal, n*in^ their 
omns, and working by them. It i* divided into two rbirf p»rt«, differing in 
office only, not in r«*ncc — lh« undtrftanding, wliicb is the rational power 
appT«heiuiiiig : the mill, which is tJir ratiornd powor mociit'j ; lo wfaich two, 
all the other rational powers aro subject anil rrdiired. 

Si'KiECT, X. — Of the Viulertlandini/. 

VndtrstatuHatf i* a pourgr of the tout, *tiif u^Aieh tae prrcntv, kjimif, 
TttiumArT, and Judge, a* writ ginyvtari at unirertaU, hainng cf.rtain innate 
noliefS or btginnin^i of aril, a rrjierfi/iff action, by which it judgeth of hu 
ou-R doing), and examinet them. Utit of this <lrhnition, (hctidsii bt» chief 
office, which is to apprehend, judge all that ho performs, without the help 
of aiiy iDsttumentsoT orj^os) three diflerDnces appear betwixt a man and a 
beast : as, 6rst, (he seoae oaly comprehends aini/ulantits. the understanding 
mtioenalilitt : secondly, the sense hatb no innate notions: thirdly, brutes 
cannot reflect upon theni.seKM. Bcei indeed muke neat and curiouB works, 
and many otJtcr creatures hmides; but w]ien they have done, they caiuiot 
judge of them. Hi* object is God, Ens, all nature, and whatsoever ts tu he 
nnderslood ; which siirocssivcty it apprchi-nds. Tlie object lir<t moving the 
mdfr Handing, is some sensible thing; after, by tliscouning, the mtml Knds 
oni the corporeal sobstaiwe, and from thence the spiritual. His actions 
(some ny) me aj^eht-ntion. composition, dtvitioii , diiicourtiag , reunaninff, 
nemory, (which aome include ia inrtnlioa), and judgemtnt. The comoion 
divuions are of the under Htandiu;;. agtnl. and patient; tpeculaliee. and 
praclick : in kahit, or in act ; ximplf. or tvnpouiiil. The agent \» that which 

11 called the wil of man, acumrn or subtlety, iharpnest of invention, wliep 
be doih invent of himsi'lf without a tciclK-r, or lcam» anew— wliicli iibiiiracta 
ihmc intelligible MKcics from tlie phantn*i<-. ;iiid Ir^iniferrs tlicni to tli<3 jKiviive 
■ndcritanding, ''becamt there it nothiuy in the underktandiag , which ira* 
not Jlrtt in the tense. That which the iin.-iginiition huth tAkcn from the 
•CDse, litis agent judgeth of, whether it be tjuc or false; tind, being so 
jud(;ed. be commits it to the pasnble to be kept. Tlie agent is a doctor or 
teacher ; the pastive a scholar ; and his oflicc is to keep and tarther judge 
of such tilings as are committed to his charge : as a bare and rased table at 
fina, <-apable of all forms and notioiu. Now these notions are two^fold, 
aetitmt or habits ; actio"*, by which we Inke notions of, and perceive tilings : 
haiilr, which arc durvihic li^hls itnd nniionii, which wn mav use when we 
wiU. 'Some reckoit up eight kinds of ihcm, tcnic, txperirvce, inlelligmut. 


> Nihil In tntfllKtu. quod nun piliu fugnl in irmu. ' Vtlruiio. 


Anatomy of the SohL 

[Part. I. Sec. 1 



Jaitli, ttispieion, crroar, ofunion. science : to nhicb are added art. pntdene. 
witdom : a> itUo i syulr resit, dictamm ralionis, cvatcitncr i m> lliat, m 
there 111! fourteen spctriea ol' ihc utt/frrttandinff, of which »»m<! arr innatr, 
the three last mentioned; the other iiti- gotten by dortrin^, Iparoin^, an' 
uso. Plato will have all lo be innate : AriGtotIc reckons up but live inld' 
lectual liabit« : two praclicA. as jirudeney, whose end is to practise, lo fabri- 
cate; wUdam, to comprehend the use and experiments of all riotions and 
habits wliataotvcr ; which division of AriMollu (if it be considered aright) ' 
all one with the precedent: for. tliree bcin^; innate, and live acquisrle, tl 
r«-^t nrt! im|iTO]i(T, impciliEct, And, in a mure strict (rxuininiition, excluded. 
Of all the«- I should more eniply dilate, but my vuLijc^et will not ueimit. 
Three of tlicm I will only puinl at, a» raatx nccvMury to my followi. 

S^ntereiis, or the purer part of the conseiencc, is an innate habit, a 
doth SLf^uifie a coiurrt-rttion of tlit hnotvUdi/t of (he law of Gud and Nalarti 
fo know yoiid ar ecil : and (as out divines hold) it is rallier in the iiitder- 
tlanding, than in the will. This makes the major proposition in a praciick 
tgUojfism. The Hictamtn rutiaiiU h that wliit-h duih Admoiiinh us to do 
{^KmI or evil, and it the minor in the si/lloffism. The eotiNcience I* tliul whick^— 
■mrorc* good or evil, juittifyin^' or coixh^mning our aetioni, and ii the eoi»>^H 
caiMon oithe igUofitm : a« in that funiiliar example of Itogulux the Roman,^^ 
te](cn pritoncr by (lie Carthiigininns, and nuffcrcu to go to Rome, on that 
condition he shoulil return ngnin, or pay *o much for his mnnini. The. 
tynltrtiis proposelh the quc«liou ; his word, oatii, promise, is to be rrlr 
giously kept, ulthoiigh to hi< enemy, and that by the law of nature — '' 
not that lo aaolfier, ivliii-U thou tvouldal not have dune to thy self. Di 
tamea applies it to him, and dictates this or the like : Reguluj, iho' 
wouUlst not Ktiother man should faUifie Iiis oaih, or bn-itk hi* promise wi 
thee : conxctr ncc concludes, Therefure. ReKuIu», tliou do»t well to [>erform 
thy promise, and oughteKl to kce^i lliinu outh. 3Iure of ihU, in Rtl iniouM 

SifBSECT. \\.~0/lhf Will. 

Will is the other power of the rational loul, ' which coccfi or avoids 
things as have tten before judt/ed and apprehended by Ike undenlanding. 
If good, it approves ; if eril, it abhont it : tu that hia object ii either good or 
evU. Aristotle calls this our rational appr.litr : for an, in the Knsitivt, wc 
are moved to t;ood or bad by our apprtitc, rulird nnd directed by »en«e ; to, 
in thi«, «c are carried by rrasoa. IJ(*riJrs, ihe sfnsitive appetilc hath » 
ponicular object, good or luid ; thl;, an universal, immalerini : that respecu 
only things detectable and pleasant ; this, honest. A»ain, ihey differ in 
liberty. The sentital appetite seeing an object, if it be a convenient good, 
cannot but desire it ; if evil, avoid it : but tins is free rn bin etsence, "nnccA 
now depraved, obicurtJ, and fain from liitfril prrfrvtion, yet, in tome of 
hii operations, still free, as (o ifQ, walk, move at his plcuiun-, und lo cliouite 
wlieilitr it will do, or not do, ttcal, or not steal. (Jllicrwiae in vain wen 
lawH,(ldi<>ituiJon*, exhortation*, counndii, precept*, rewards, promise«, threat*, 
and piinishnienti : and God iJiould be the nuttinr of sin. ttut in "spiritual 
ihinK*, we will no good ; prone to evil, (except wc be regenerate, and led 
by the i^pirtt.) we are egged on by our natural concupiscence, and (here b 
drafi'n, a conliition io oiii power» : "our wkale will w actrte from God and 

s »acA™ 

I Tim ruin' part of iMTno-^im^f, * QtiqiI \AA fieri Aon >'.«s nlMnnc fnvriv, 

> Rv««blDirllt4t« 

in fplrUuAllbui. OiUoikt. 

* Inri'ilAfua librr*^ •rdnvn 

Mem. 3. Subs. II.] AHaloiMj/ ofllu Soul. 107 

iU lam. Dot in niKunl thbp only, at to cat and cliiiik, luiC, to which wc 
are ImI hcfMllong by out t('iii[>cruturv biuI inoidiaalo appetite : 

we cannot renitl ; ouc coacu]H»ci-nc<- i* artginally Iml, oiir heart evil : ihc 
■cat of our aflVcliotiR captirutes aixl rnforci'tli our will : no thnt, in i-oliiiitary 
thioga, w«arc avrne from Ood anil goodncM, h:\A by nature, by ''igiioninc* 
worbc : by art, ditriptine, ciintome, we get mnny bad habits, suffering them 
to domineer and tyninni?« over iis; and the devil is still ready at hand with 
hit evil suftgestiofs- *<• tempt our deprared will to some ill disposed action, 
10 procipitaie us to destruction, except our will be swayed and counterpoiwd 
a^R with some (lit iiie precepts, aiiu^ood motions of the Spirit, which tiiany 
timo rcslnin, hinder and check u», when we are in the hilt curirer of our 
dtiMlutr counci. So David corrected himneir when he liad Saul at a van- 
tage. Revcng*: and malice were at two violent oppu^nen on the one side; 
but honcxtv, rvli^on, feur of Ciod, witli-hcld him on the other. 

'ITie nclions of the will are vttt" and «ollr, to will and nill (which two 
words comprehend n!t ; and they nre good or bnd, accordingly as ihcy arc 
directed) and »ome of them fnx-ly performed by himself; although the StoieAt 
alMolutcIy deny it, and will hai'c all things inevitably done by dfiling, 
impoMiig a fatal necessiiy upon us, which we may not reai&t: yet we say 
tlial our will it free in respect of u*. and things contingent, hontoever, in 
reapcct of Gods determinate counsel, they ate ineiitablc and necesoary. 
SooM! other actions of the tctll are performed by the inferiour powers, which 
obev him, a* the $ensUiet and mni'iiii; appetite : as to Open our eyes, to go 
hither and thitliiT, not to touch a book, to speak fair or foul : but thi* 
appetite is manv times rebellious in us, and will not be coutaim-d within the 
fots of Bobricty and t«mj)eranc«. It wns (as I unid) once well ngreeing with 
restou: aod there was an excellent consent and harmony bet wi\t than; 
but that b now disaolved, they ol\en jar; reason is overborne byptiMton, 

[Kntiiri^u^a fliirijfm; npqiir kiiitfl ourriiB b&bma*) 

tt SO many wild horses run away with a chariot, and will not lie curbed. Wa 
know many timo what is good, but will not do it, a* she said, 

- — -.rTrthli in>ltun noTAvb; kZliLilque cui'iilo. 
Mna nlmd. >uiidtl : 

lust counsels one thing, reason another; there is a new reluctancyiu men. 

We cannot mist; but, as Phinlra coul'esied to htr nurse, *fuir taaufrit, 
Vtra *»it ; ttd/aror sug^eiit Kqni prjora : »1ie laitl well and tine, (slir did 
acknowlfilge it) ; but hend-strong pniJiinn and fnrv mitde her to do that which 
was opposite. So David knew the fi!lhine« .,f his luct. whm a loatliwme, 
foul, ciying sin adultery was ; yet. notwithstanding, he would commit muf 
iher, and take away another mans wife— enforced, against reason, religion, 
to follow his appetite. 

Those nalurat and ctgtiai powers are not commanded by wiH n( nil ; for 
vho can Olid one cubit 10 his ifature ? These other may, but arc not : and 
thence come all lliosc he^-ttrong iiastions, violent perturbations of the 
mind, and many times riiiciiis habiti, cu»loms, ieral diseases, because we ^ve 
HI tiiiieh way to our appr.lilCt and follow uur inclinattua, like so many beasts. 
The principal /taiil* are (wo in numbtT, verlut and ttiee, wliosi- peculiar de- 
Saitions. ilciciiptions, diflereiKM, and kinds, are Imndlcd at large in the 
tthicAs, and are indeed the wihfcclof moral philosophy, 

fVirf 1 Vf I wopicT IcnonrriiMn, quoit fionti itnilhAnrtn .ilinUrtict* nvn*, nt dirbaiT. avl dtti- 
*■• Tiw<*|>ia vswik. ■ jifdr*. Oriii. •Oiid. ' Kmm. iltrl'' 


Definition of MelaKcholy. [Part. 1. Sec. ly 

MEMfi. m. I 

SwBSECT, 1. — Dfjinitwn of Melancholy, Name, Difference. I 

Having thus briefly nnaiomizod the boiiy and soul of man, as a prepara^ 
tivc to thu rest — I inay now freely proceed to Ireat of mv tniended object, to 
most meoa ca|iacily : and, after muny amba^^s, perspicuously define whut 
this mulaKchtilif h, sliew bin name, and rliffemcts, Flie namt js iinjiciMrd 
from the matter, uiid djaeuse denoiiiinulud fiom the matritit) cauxe (ui llruci 
obwrvtn) M(XR■'x«^'<>, tjuati M'Xcm-x'JXTf. frmn liliick chol^r. And.ivli 
tlier it I>e iiruuccor unrii'vi^t, a diKcnac.or^ympUirni-, U-l DuiintiiK AltomariTa 
aod Salvianus, decide ; I will not cnntcnd about It. It hatb Kcvcml descri: 
tions, notntiont, and dctiniFimis. " Frnt-atluriiis, in hi« vccond book of in-! 
trilcct, calls ibosc mtltmcbtily, whom ahiiudinico (j/" that same depraved 
humour of black cliolcr hath m minaffeclei/, ihat fliey lecome mud thence, 
and dote in ntuit tfiini/s. or in all, beliinginy to eleclion, idll, or othrr muni- 
feat operation* of the under stanfiing. • Melaiieliiis Out of Galen. Riiffu 
Aetius, (iescTibe it to be a tmd and pirvith diiease, which makr$ men degi 
nerale into beattt : Calun, a privatiim or injection of the middle cell 
head, ^e. dtiRa'mg it from ihc part atTci-tcd : uliicli * IIercule» du 
approves, /i A. I. cap. 16. Cdllingit a drprii'ntion of the principal func' 
Fucfisius, lib. I. cap. 33. Arnoldii* brrvinr. Uh. 1. cap. 18. Giiianorii 
and others- Dy rtaiou of black choter, Piiuln* »dil». Malyabbax s. 
calls it.B commotion of the mind ; Atcteeus * a perpetual any Utah of the eov. 
fattned on one I hiny, without an ayve t whicli dcliiiiiioii of bis, Merri*! 
{de offtct. cup. lib. I. cop. 10.) laxetli ; but ^liaiius Monlaltus, defenda, 
(Jib. de morb. cap. I . dr Mf.liin.) for 4iinicit^nt and y;oaA. Tlie comiuuii so: 
define it to be a kind ofiinlaye without a frvrr, having, for his nrdina, 
companions, frar and tadnrts, withatit any appamit nccasion. Sci do' 
Latircntius, cap. A. Piio, lib. 1. cap. 4.3. Donatiix All[>in;iriis, cap.l. 
medic, Joccliinux, in mm. in lib. 9. Rhasis iid Almiuiinr, cap. 15. Vali 
nu*,fxcrc. 17. Fuc\if.uis, inslitut. 3. tec. I. c. 1 1. ^e. which common 
linition, howsoever approved by moM, * Hcrciilea de Snxonift will not all 
of, nor David Crusius, Thtal. morb. Herm. lib. 'i. cup. 6 : he holds it unaufB- 
cient, ' at rather shewing what ll it m>t, than what it is ; as omitting titC 
spccifical difference, tlie phantasie and brain : but I descend to particulars. 
Tbt summum ffevia \& dotayefOt aiiguith of the mind, saiih Aretwus;— ■»/* a 
principal part, Hetvule* de :>ax<)iiitt add», to distinguish it from crump and 
palaic, aind «uch disi^iuc* oa bt-long tu tli« outward Ktmii- ami motions; 
" dr/^roi^rf/," " to dixtinguisli it fiom folly and madnesit, (which Alontnllus 
makrs anyor animi, to separate) in which those fiinctiims arc not di'pmvcd, 
but rather alwlishcd ; " wiihout a« ojur" is added by all, to sever it from 
phrensie, and that melnntlioly which is a pestilent lever. " Frar and sor- 
row'' make it differ from mudneis : " without a cause" is lastly inserted, to 
•pecifie it frura all olher ordinary passions o\" fenr and sorroic." We pro- 
perty call that dotayr, an ■■ L«iii'uiitius interprels it, luhen some one principal 
faculty of the mind, at imaginaliim or reaton, it corrupted, as all melaa- 
eholy pertant have, ll i* witlioul a fever, bt'cauti- the humour i*, DiO«t part, 
cold auid dry, contrary lo putr<-f»ction. fear and sorrow are ttie true cba- 
nctera and inteparabte companions of most mtUineholy, not all, lu Hei. d« 

• MduichoUcot •Hwnut. imji ■uupcnaUa v*l prnilu mslinchuliK il* mtJf htbal. nl Indt laa» 
niiul v*l tn omTiibut. vir] in pltirlbii*. fltijuir mtnirmla, nUv v\ n'rUm »lLunrEn, YolunUafoi. p*fU« 
BniL Trl tinjtiatvtm. (rl Inu-llnlilt oprmlunn. ■ rmlinti<B rt p'liinai'tiiiauin martsini, qui 
konhxa !■ bruu Ar^amr* «||IL • fmMli. U*A ' Anflnr *nlini In <inl fonldltionr d*axlik 
nbaqvcfotm. * ''-a[>. tA f 1. ' Bomn AtlittWA. mqibaa quid nufi iii. iioiiu, 'tium (jmiL kU. M* 
pUcflL •AniaW' fun'Tl^unn imminaqnlur in ftftilUMt fnllimtur In cniailL, dtpiamntar •ojim In 
adtorholll. Hrv. drSu-rifi. I. Uvt. dp Mplnoh. > Ctp. L <ln nfl. _^^S 



Mem. 3. Sube. 2.J Of the Parts affected, ^e. 109 

Saxonifli ( Tract. pMlumo tU Mrlaneholid, cop. 2.) well txcepti ; for, to some, 
it a tnott plcosanl, u to such u liiiigli auM purt ; annir. vtit: bold a^ui,aud 
free from all muuiei of fear nnd grief, as liuR-aOm fJmll bf. ilccliiri:d. 

SOBEECT. U.— Of the part* afectttl. Affection. Partiei affected. 

Some difference I find atngngst wtilcrt, about tlic pnueipal pari nlTi-ctud 
in tliis dbcUMi, whcllicr it l>e tlic drain or heart, or iouK oihct mi-iiiber. 
Moat are of opinion tbnt it ii the braiu ; for, being u kind of dotage, it ciui- 
not othcrwiw be, but llint the braia niusl be affected, ax a liniilur pun, be it 
by * eoatent or tsientx, not in bis ventricles, or any obnlniclion* in them, 
(for then it would be an apoplexie, or epilepsie, as '' Laurcntiiu well obscn'cs) 
but in a cold dry distcmperature of It in his lubstancc, wliich is corrupt and 
become too cold, or too dry, or else too hot, as iu madniun, and such as are 
inclined to it ; and tliii ' MippoiTatei conHrms, Galeti, Arabians, and mo^t of 
our new writers. MunuK Jc Oddii; (in a coniultutiou of hiit, quoted by 
' Hildealieini), and tivt- uibcr* there cit«d, are of the contrary part, became 
fi!ar and Mirrow, which ate pss'ions, be tented in the heart. But thin oltjec- 
lioo is suriiuiently answered by * Montalliif, who doth not deny tti at die 
heart i« affected (••"Malanetiusproiee out of Galen) by rrtuon of hin vicinity ; 
tod BO is the midriff and mtrny other pans. They do cnmpali, and have a 
fieUow-feeliog by tbe law of nature : but, for as much ax thin maktdy is caused 
by precedent imayinatioB, with the appetite, lo whom spiiitt obey, nnd ate 
mbject to Ihove priucipal puna ; ttie hratn must needs primarily be mis-af- 
fccted. aa llie teul a( reaum : and iben the heart, a» the seat of affection. 
'CapcracciuN and Mcrruriutis have ropinuily diacusaed this question; and 
both conclude the Mibjcct i* the inner brain, iuid from tJieuee it isconimu- 
■tcated to tbe heart, and other infcrioiir parts, which nympnthin: and are 
msch troubled, c»pe«nlly when it egmes by coD«;nt. and i* i:auH.-d I>t rea4on 
of the stomach or m^rache {as tJic Arubians term it), or whole body, liver, or 
'^een, which are seldom itc«, pylorut, mttaraicA vein*, ^r. I'or our Iwdy 
■• like a clock : if one wheel be amitt, all tbe rest are disordered ; tlie whole 
bbricb suffer* : with itucU admirable an and harmony is a man composed, 
■■cb excellent pmjionion, a* Ludoviciis Vivea, in bis Fable of man, hath 
cfe^nily dccbrcd. 

As manv doubt* almnti arise about the ''affection, whether it be ituagiua- 
tiom or rroio'i alone, or both. Merculc* de Sa:ionia proves it out of Galen, 
Aetilis, and Altomams. that the sole fault is in 'inin^inarton: BrueJ ixofthe 
MMM miix! : Montaltus (in his i cap. of Melancholy) conliilcs thi« ti:net of 
tlwJra, and illustrates the contrary by many examples, as of him that thought 
btuaelf 8 shell-fish : of a nun, and of a desperate monk that ivould not he 
penwaded but that he «ui daiuucd. Reason was in fault (as well a» imagi- 
»alUm), which did not correct this error. They make away tlieni»cl*c« 
oftditimai, and suppOM many nbiiurd and ridiculuun thini^. Why doth not 
reeuem detect the fiulacy, settle, and pcr«wade, if ihe be free ? '" Avieeikna 
therefore hold* bolhcomipt; to whom most Arabians «ub*crtbe. The same 
it maintained by " Aretteus, Goreioniun, " Guinnrrius, &c. To end the con- 
troversic, no man doubt* of ima-jinalitm, but thiit it ii hurl and miauSerted 
hcfc. For the olhei, 1 determine (with •'Albcttinus BiHtonuii, u dormr of 

' P w laiMn. i»w |*r«ww]tl«w. * C»p. 4. di- meL • 6#c. T. to moi. rulmr. lib. A. 'Spl- 
iSL de DiCiUnrholU. * l**^ , I. dp rnrl. I'm aIUcI* crr^hfunit «!** prr i^ciakuEiBmn. wWt y^ urrc- 
■ - - ■ J* rt «Uonr >l»hl]tlur • L)h. fli- oiM. CtuntTi-, •irinilitli 

1 1 nnil^cif . cl proccnini tiirFti.ritAU- '.. . .... 

._ BM. wiA kttrlluF. tr Brjilum tmitwnmu. at >tuDJb:hu«. Tum<li>r»All >ii1ni. At. * Llti. I o4p 10. 

Afth}rffliiBi ««4 ntthn\m mEn^n*. J ItBTci .|uiwjLtfem Iiimimni i^lTuj^H Xivnit qui hiw luoibi. lUllrlliir, 
riH. UakBAclu*. * Sof Duiiu. hb Allonur. ■ Fvulua UniuuiHiU. nuf. crLUin.l^ ni:t ntcua- 
twClaai W. -LilLXI-m. L Tncl. t. tar. ■> • Lih. • l.ili. M.-ri. c>>^ I9l i»ri. >. 
I^kL U. c*t>. t, I aiMi»l.>i«, •pk-a, i. ill! HvUnc (oL OT, Bt luL 117. Uu«uh(q,«c cOUD nlliiii- 
ittiM aAciua InntHUiHiil. 

no Of the Partt affetttd-, ie. [P«it. I. See. 1.^ 

Pnilua) UiRt il b firat in ima/jinatiita, aada/Uruiardt in rtaton, if tkc tfitfcue 
f/einvrferatr, oras U it more or Icsi of roiitinuaacf ; but by acHdcnt, ss 
^ Here. UcSfixitnifl it<l(i«: faith, opinion , discourse, ratiocinalion, are all uo j 
citteutaily deprarcd h^ the dtfauU of ima-jination. I 

Parliet affected.] Tollio part afll-cted. I may here add the parties, which 
f'hail be more opportiinelv ti|)okeii ofelsewliere, uow only sit^ihed. Sucb u ' 
have the Jtfoon, Saturn, Mervury mii-ailetted in ihi-irg«niture« — «uchuhv«.. 
in over-eoltt or over-hot olimei — surh a* are born of melancholu parents, aa 
ofTcDd in ibode six iiun-nalurul tilings, arc blaek, or of Hn hr^n lan^ine , 
('oraj>l<!xion, ' that have littlu heads, thiit have a hut heart, m»ii>l braiit, hot , 
liver and cold xloinach, hnve been Ion; sick— -such nx ari^sohtiity hy naiure, 
great stiidrntu, given Ki much contcmplntioii, l«id o life om of action — are 
most subject in mttnachoty. Of sexes both, but men more often ; yet ' wo- 
men mis-altectcd nrc far more violent, and s^ricvously troubled. Uf seasons \ 
of the year, the aurumit is mo<st melancholy. Uf peculiar limes, old a;;^, 
from which iialur<il melancholy ia almost an inseparable accident; but thin 
artilicial malady is more rrti)utiit in sui^h at itic uf a ' luidille a);u. Somo 
aiWOT forty year*; Garioponltis, .'iO ; Juberttis excepts nuitber young nor 
oldlrom this ailveiilitioUH. " Daniel Scnm-rttit involves all of all turtK, out of 
comnion I'uprrienci: ; in omnibtit timnino corporiftux, rujuntinique (Oaititti- 
tioni», dominalnr, Aiiliii* and Areitpns ascribe into thp number not only 
* discotilented, passionate, and miieral/le persons, ta-arthy, black, but such 
as /ire most merry and pleasant, scoffert, and hi'jK eoloured. Generally, 
" saith Rhasis, ' the finest wits, and most generoiie spirits, are, btfort other, 
o&noxiottS lo it. I cannot except any complexion, any condition, «x, or 
age, but 'fools and Stoick*, which (according W "Synesius) are n«vcr 
troubled with any manner of paisiuu, but (as Aiiacreun* cicada, sint sa«- 
guine et dolore) similes fere diis sunt. Kraimu* rindicatcn fooU from this 
melancholy calali^ue, because tliiry have moxt part nioi^t braint and light 
hearts; 'fAcy art free from ambititin, cncy, shams, and fear ; Ikey are 
fieilher tmubied in consrirnce, nor miteeraled v/ith cares, to which our whole 
Ijfe M most subject- 

SuBSECT. 111. — Of the matter of Melancholy. 

Or tlie matter of melancholy, there is much i|ueition betwixt Avicen 
Oden, as you may rvad in ''Cardans Contradiction*. ' Valctiua (.'untroversie*, 
Montanus, Prosper Calenus, Cnpiviicriu!i, " Itrig^ht, ' Ficinus, that have 
writleo cither whole true Ik, or copiously of it, in ibsr several tr<-ati*i-« of this 
subject. ' What this humour is, or whence it proceeds, hnti' it is ingeadred 
in the body, neither Galea, nor any old writer, hath sufficiently discussed, 
at Jacchinits tkinlit : the ncolcricks cannot agree. Montnniis, in his Con- 
sultations, lloUU melancholy to ha material or immaterial ; and so dolh 
Arcuianus. Tbc material h one of the four humours before meuiionod. and 
uatiiral; the immaterial or adventitious, acquistte, rcduiubnt, uuiialural, 
artilicial, whicli * Hernules dft Saxoniii will liare reside in the spirili alooe, 
and to proceed from an hot, cold, dry, moist distcmperature, which, wilhovl 

Ilonb^ « KclilrnIL -Uui piriun r*|iij< hiticril. lowutul plntqur >ui>l. ,\tM. iii phiiLuguomlt. 

■ Amitut. lil-. 3. I'. & < Qui pnipc Btiluoi •iml. .Vri'T. Mr>IU* mnTKnll vuiiIkil I'lao. -D* 
quut«iM^ ■ V'uiuEK ttt mMlanrbanAm nan um miir*(iji, trd *i blUn^ Jot^vi. o«i hiiiitantv*. UtU 
tafM, *t<|il] Trl''riiinf;»*-|ifpribrk t«IDr. ' l.\K I. J-irl. T. ('^b. IL ■ Qui tubl >ubi'i11i jn^mij. *l 
mulU |Wr^)" ' - r«i-ill liic-ldunl In lui'ltiU'Lolitia. lll> i. (unL <r>i<. 3- ' NiiiKjniin HalUM 

timtil ru : < ' ri' r^itilrii. r.ti In llud «I'1<. • Viranl raliirlrnllB iirnillrlnt. 

n« |iuiIHjui .:ijr. Tir4-UJii'iT«Ti1hir cnilLlhuii-rT^Tum, otiiljui tolA Tiu (fbnntia n(. * Llh. 

I. IXIft. J. i.iJJiri.jir I-, • Ull. l.MEll SI. 'I! I'l ■ Uh. L MJ. fi. llo ••Bit. IllpHdi. 

■ UBl»tvii>iL»tlt(iltiu<nar. tut '|ija liltuiillSkr-i ' -1" [(fnttBi iR(uT|i'»r, Kni'iitiduin : 

lirlairm. Lnn, Jv.rani. InO. IlV.uU. ris. Ul nu. in. >» it IthaiK ■Tr»»l, pflliim. dr Mflu". 
tin. Tndlli. ie» 'tp T. re V Ahlnirmi^rlvnBas. hiwriM, kr. 



Mem.3.Sub«. 3.] MtUltr of AietancAaiy. Ill 

jKatier, ailtrt the i/rain and fvnct'iout of it. I'araccUut wliolly r«jecU and 
i]rri<li-4 litis divisioQ bl' fuur huaourt uid completions ; but our GulettisU 
grnrmlU approve of it, lubicribing: lo tbt* opiaiuii of Moiitanus. 

Thb niateriul melanchnly ii either simple <>r mixl — olTendiDi; in quantity 
or quality, Turyiuit urcarding lu his plui;e, whcm it «etlctli, m brain, 
>plrr:n, nmunkk viini, heiirl, womb, nixl stdnincli- — <>t difleiing according 
to tile mixture oftbow Duliinl hniDOurt ninon^t ihcmsckes, or four uima- 
tunil adust hunwun, as tliev are diverel^ icmpetod and ni)n|fle<l. ir na- 
tural mflancholy abcHind in tLc bo<l}', which is cold and dry, >t> that it 6e 
More '' than Iht bodi/ it tiiell able lo htar, it mutl need' be diatmpered |»aith 
Faventiut) and dtitased: and to llie olher, if it be depraved, whctlier it 
■liae Iroin that other mtlancliiilg of chotrr adust, or from blood, prodnccth 
the like edeels, and is, as MouiuUn.i coiilcnd*, if il eomu by aduxtinn of 
knmourt, moil part hot itnd dry. Some dillercnee 1 find, whether this mt- 
lamtkoty miittL'r tuay tn-- iiij^tidted of all four liiimoun, about the colour and 
lOKper of it. Odlc:n huliii it may be ingciidrcd of tVirca alone, rxcbidinf; 
fitgiH, or pittiitn : wIh;:io Inie :t<goriion ' Vale&ius and Menardua stilly main- 
lani: aod so doth ' FuchEiui, Moiit^ilius, ^ .VlouianuB. Ilow (tay ihey) can 
white become black ' liui tiercutes dc Saxo»i& l^l. jiost. de mtla. c. 8.) 
and '('aidau are of ilie ojipo^iie part (it may be ii)f;eadred of flefn», 'l*i 
nrro voulrm/at, llioui>h it fteldom come to pass); so is "■ OiiinTieriua, and 
Laurentiu* (c. I ). with Melancthon, (in hia book de Animd, and chapter of 
huaioun; he calU it cinninant, dull, swiiiiih mttaneholi/, and sailh that Lc 
was an eye witiiea* of it); so is " W'ecker. Frum melancholy sdiist arUclb 
OIK kiwi, from chotrr iinotlicr, whirh is tnott brutish ; another from flfym, 
which is dull ; and the last from blood, which is \k*1. Of these, some Br« 
cold and dry, others hot and dry, " varying; accordini; to their mixturca, 
US tlt«y arc intended and remitted. And indeed, as Itodericus a Fons. 
{can*. Vi. ^) determiDcs. ichorous, and those serous maliera. being thickned, 
become Aegm : and flei^m dct;enerates into choler ; choler adust becomes 
tfrwyinoid mtlancholia, a« vinetcar out of purext wine puuih^d. ur by t:\ha- 
latiun of purer spirits, i.i so made, and heoomei snwi and >h4rp : and, from 
the sharpness of thti hutnoui, pnice<sl mnch wakini;, irouUesume thoni^hts 
and drramn, *c. so that I conclude at before. If the humour be cold, it is 
(saitli ■' I'aveniinus) a cause of dotayv, and producelh milder i^mptomti : if 
hot, Ihty are rath, rttcing mad, or incUnimj to it. If the brain he lioi, the 
aotmal spirits arc hot, much madness fi^llows, with violent actions : if cold, 
fiituily and totii^hness (i Capivacctiis). ' The colour of this miilurt rariet 
likttinie accordtag lo tke mixture, be it hot or mid : 'lis sometime* black, 
tnmctimes not (Altomarus.) The same ■ Melaneliu* jitoves out of Galen : 
and Hippocrates, in his hook of Melancholy (if at least it l>e hU) P''i''E 
iiutanct- in a burning ennl, which, when il it hot, skiaes : when it ii cold, 
loot* black; and $o doth tbr humour. This dit-orsity of melancholy matter 
produerlh diTersity of t-flccts. If it he within the 'twd^, and not pulrificd, 
It caascth black janndise: if putritic'l, a tiuartan ague; if it break out to the 
■kin, leprotic ; if to parts, several maladies, as scurvy, &c. If it trouble the 
nund, as it is dii-crsly mixl, il ptoduccth several kinds of madoess and 
dotage; of which in thuir place. 

Unfiling iu(l* W Btdut : tllnoHpoi* aiPr1lwlinImii>prlpMi.piiuqiiuiiwrpiu*>lnhi1lrrfVrM 
jBSriil; tadc tonv* iiwitiuuin rltnioa. • LIlJ. 1. cuiitmrir^ a|i. 91. I tJo, I. 

Mnll: tailc Mrtvu* iiwitiuuin rltnioa. • LIIj. 1. cuiitmnr^ agi. 91. I tJo, I. •wL i. c. I. 
1 CfiArll. A 'l.iii.f, fctitiB Ju^ <^i.)t- IL * Dv frU tnri, diEt. ft. r. 1. Notirtl ni'iftiadum ifx Iriv 
1^1 |]vl<ivh4U«4>. • In fiyi.ia. * Vcrtf tdutlintf *i aivrtnt. nnfic vartv aTnirnniim i|K>rln. 
HHiinc' ' '' '"o' (rtcUbu •IrUill muui niroHi callnui. ftc 1 1^, I. c*|i 10. ilc dn-'l, no, 
* Vip-' ntit, ■uaauiti^ •u^r^cfirLiu. ■l^uMidu »L|4'rfr1f«fiftcau. qk|t 7. * Hitma air 

will w>*-— v-miA, i^i^ 4Df*atp aJunmS. [wt^uriiiJitlinr cwlnif. cfc ctvilnftt pruraa* nifniinint. 
BlKvvrim. > iliilAAir^uf . dilT V np. 7. 


Species of AtelancAol;/. 

[Piirt. 1. Sec. l.J 

8088ECT, IV. — Of the Kpecits or kinds of Melancholy. 

%ViiE\ tli<- matter in divers and t'Oiifiisefl, liow should it uUicrwisc be, but 
Uiai Uu: tprc'ttr* (hoiilil be divcm aixl conTiiicd ? Muny new iinil old nTrters 
hav<' spoken coni'uKrdly of it, con foti riding mclnncboli/ and mitibitn, as 
" Hciimiiis, Gitianoriiii, Gordoniu*, Sallntliu^, ^ulviunim, Jrsoh Fraienata, 
Savunarolii, that will have madness no other (hun melancholi/ in exlL-ui, dtf- 
fcriug (as 1 bate iaid) in dci^recs. Some make two distinet sprnpa, as 
Rufius EpbtMUH ail old writer. Constanlinus Africauus, Afvlu-iu, * Aure* 
liaaus, " Paiihis .E^iiiela : others acknowlidjire 11 mulliiude ul' kind*, nn<i 
leave them iudetiiiilc, as Actiu* (in lii* Tcirabiblos), ' Avicennw. {lib. 3. 
Ftn. 1. Trad. 4. cap. lit), An^ulunui (cop. 16. in 9), Rliiuix, Montanns 
(mri/. part. I). ' tj" natural mr.lanr.hnlt/ or. adust, it maketh one kind i if 
blooil, n»othfT ; if cholrr, a third, diffrrinij from the frgt ; aid to many 
uoeral opinion* there are about the kinrU, rw thrrr: be men themgelves. ' Her- 
culex do i^axouia ^etsdown t*ro kinds, material and immaterial; onejivm 
spirit t alone, t lie oilier from hamours and sptrili. Savanarola (i?u6. II. 
Tract. 6. cap. 1. de ayrifud. capili>) will have the kinds to be infinite; one 
from the myracht, called mi/railiialit of the Arabiaus ; anotbtrr ntnmachnlit 
from the tttrmach : aiiotlier from the liver, heart, wotuh, hminnrrhoidt ; 'otte 
birgiitninff, anothrr cnnsammate. iMeluncthon H-coiids him ; *'at Ihr humour 
is divrruly adutt and mist, so are the species dvcrs. But whnt these men 
Kpeak »f Nju'cio, I think ought lo be. undrrslmd of syinptomeK : iind iodolh 
• Atciilnnns inlcrprcl himself : infinite specits, id est, symptomcv ; and. in 
that sense, (as Jo- Gorrheeus acknowledgeih in his medicinal detinitions) the 
species are infinite ; but they may be reduced to three kinds, by reason of 
tlieir scat— Afdrf, body, and liypoehondrifi. This threefold division is ap- 
proved by Hippocrates in bis book of Melanclioly, (if it be bt^ which some 
suspect) Vy Galen {lib. 3. dt he. afftttis, cap. 6), by Alexaodcj- {lih. I. 
cap. !()), RliMis {lib. 1. Conltuenl. Trad. 9, lib. 1. crip. ICi), Avic^ntis, 
and muKt of our new writers. Th. Praatu* mukeit two kind*; one per- 
petual, which ct litad melancholy: the other intrrriipt, which comes and 
goes by lits, which he siilHlividc* into the other two kinds, so that all 
comes to the same p:iM, Some ncain make tbnr or five kinds with Rode- 
ricus & Castro {de morb'u muiier. lib. i. e. 3.) and Lod. Mereatiis. nho {in 
hia second book de tnuHer. afftct. cap. 4.) will have tliat melancholy of 
nuns, widows, and more antient maids, to be a peculiar species of tneum* 
choly differing from ibe rest. Some will reduce entbusiasU, extalic;d and 
dtemoiiiiicul penons, to tbb* rank, addiiii; ** love melancholy t» the tirst. and 
iycattthropia. TIil- moat received division is inlo thre-e kinds. The first 
pnicer^ls from the »>\t: fault of the brain, and a called hrad melancholy : the 
Mcond sympnt biblical It proi-eeds from the luAo/c body, when the whole tem- 
perature is mclanchoty : the ihinl uriseth from the boweU, liver, spleen, or 
iDembraoe called mttenterium, named hypochondriacal, or aindy melan- 
choly, which * Laureutius subdivides into three parts, from those three ineia> 
hcn.htpatick, tolenttiek, meittraick. Love mtlantholy (which Aviceona 
calls illiskij and tyeanthrofmi (which he calls cuiubuthe) are conunonly 
included in bead melun choly : but of this last (which Gerardus de Solo culls 
amorrot, nnd most mrlitncktily), with that of rrliqiou* melancholy, 
tw^uttMR, ct ridaarum (maintained by Rod. k Castro anil Mercntu*), and 


" ^aa 1*1 niiuU*, Dili citcJub ruifUiii:huUt- * C«'i. A |lb^ 1. * f Bcr. t. cip. 9^ Kvrbui hir ntt 
munilWriEd- ■ Upvi*^ iiEilrAniriP mini, t Hi tdnrKlur naturfclJt mi*lBn«!iQhi« bIUkII iiwcuvi il 

■HifbitH Uu- il rfjrk liLh-t. aUt.. AWirnt ■ yrlmU- IhlixJmi nt IMkt bv ■hEffTrritU ; fi lol >t«t4iTiim 
N^tPiili^. iHinlljxJ niLm'^TD •mit, 'TrttL dr mrl. ***{* T ' Oii»<tAin Ln>iplfltft.^ita*(Umcuiuum- 
■latA, *C4p. iltf humoF. lib. il« uilvt, V»rir kduf itur vi inbcflurl)>u i0DlHqchali«: uitdffTafW 
tnirnriun kprclo. • Cn^ IB. ia 0. lUiuli. ' LurnilEu, mf^ 1 dt nvL < Cap, IX 


Mem. 3. Sabs. 4.j Species of Melancholy. 113 

the other kincUof bu« melancholy, I will apeak apart by themselves in my 
third partition. The three precedent species are the subject of my present 
discourse, which 1 will anatomize, and treat of, through all their causes, 
symptomes, cures, together, and apart; that every man, that is in any mea- 
sure affected with this malady, may know how to examine it in himself, and 
apply remedies unto it. 

It i« a hard matter, I confess, to distinguish these three species one firom 
the crther, to express dieir several causes, symptomes, cures, being that they 
are so ofto) confounded amongst themselves, having such affinity, that they 
can scarce be discerned by the most accurate physicians ; and so often 
intennixt with other diseases, that the best experienced have been plunged, 
Montanni (cotuil. 26.) names a patient that had this disease of melancholy, 
and camnu appetxtvt, both together; and (consi/. 23.) with vertigo — 
'Julius Csesar Claudinus, with stone, gout, jaundice — Trincavellius, with 
an t^e, jaundice, caninus appetitus, &c. ' Paulus Regoline, a great doctor 
in his time, consulted in this case, was so confounded with a confusion of 
symptoraes, that he knew not to what kind of melancholy to refer it. 
* Trincavellius, Fallopius, and Francanzanus, famous doctors in Italy, all 
three conferred with about one party at the same time, gave three different 
opinions: and, in another place, Trincavellius being demanded what he 
thought of a melancholy young man, to whom he was sent for, ingenu- 
ously confessed that he was indeed melancholy, but he knew not to what 
kind to reduce it. In his seventeenth consultation, there is the like 
disagreement about a melancholy monk. Those symptomes, which others 
ascribe to misaffected parts and humours, ' Here, de Saxoni^ attributes 
wholly to distempered spirits, and those immaterial, as I have said. Some- 
times they cannot well discern this disease from others. In Reinenis Soli- 
nanders Counsels, seel, consil. 5. he and Dr. Brande both agreed, that the 
patients disease was hypochondriacal melancholy. Dr. Matholdus said it 
was tuthma, and nothing else. ^ Solinander and Guarionius, lately sent for 
to the melancholy duke of Clove, with others, could not define what species 
it was, or agree amongst themselves ; the species are so confounded ; as in 
CsFsax Claudinus his forty fourth consultation for a Polonian count : in his 
judgement, " he laboured of head melancholy, and that which proceeds 
from the whole temperature, both at once. 1 could give instance of some 
that have had alt three kinds semel et simul, and some successively. So that 
I conclude of our melancholy species, as ' many politicians do of their pure 
forms of common -wealths — monarchies, aristocracies, democracies, are most 
bmous in contemplation ; but, in practice, they are temperate and usually 
mixt, (so " Polybius enformeth us) as the Laced tcmonian, the Roman of old, 
German now, and many others. What physicians say of distinct species in 
their books, it much matters not, since that in their patients bodies they are 
commonly mixt. In such obscurity therefore, variety and confused mixture 
of symptomes, causes, how difficult a thing is it to treat of several kinds 
apart ; to make any certainty or distinction among so many casualties, dis- 
tractions, when seldom two men shall be tike affected per omnia 1 Tis 
hard, I confess; yet nevertheless I will adventure through the midst of these 
perplexities, and, ted by the clue or thread of the best writers, extricate my 
self out of a labyrinth of doubts and errours, and so proceed to the cau sea. 

'WLet 11& eoanlt. oituiL IS. i HUdabciin, apicil. 2. fol. IGS. ' Trlscavclliui, loin. 1. conill. 
Urt IS. I Cipf 13t tncL ooit deowlu. i Uuuion. coni. iDcd. 1. ^Labonrlt p« i!«mtiain, 
Hh l0to cDrpore. ■ MftfliiarfJ, tw- SmJthut, derop. And. cap. 8. \\h. I. Biuculdui, ducur. polit. 
diaFsn. A. cap. 7. Ariat. L 3. polit. cap. ult, Keckcnn.alir.Kc. -Lib. S. 


CoHSa of MeloRcholg. 

[Fart. 1. Sec. 3. 

SECT. II.— MEMB. 1. 

SuMK'T. 1.— Canses of Mtlancliolif. Ood a cau«e. 

/f if in vain toapeai of cures, or ihink ofremtilie*. until such lime at 
have conndertJ of the caiuM ; so "Ouleu {ire <u.TilH.-ji (Glaucii) ; aud thecoi 
moil exp-mnce of oiiictB irontinns, tliat iIiuh.- tutus mtisl bv. uii{Hirrei'l, Um< 
anil Irj no j>nriiust, ivlierciti llio (Onuses Jiavc nul tinit been .-M^aiclifd, 
" I'i(i.i|n!r Ciilciiiii* wdl iibiicrvt* in liU truct Jc atrd hilr to Catiliniil Cii-iiu 
iiisimiiKrh t.hiit. >' l-Vrncliui piilf ii kind of necessity in the knoielrti^r. of t. 
causes, and, without which, it is imjioitilile to cure or prevent tnp mauurr 
ilisrase, limpcricksninyciuic.aml somclimcshclp, but not tliorougFily root ou! 
nulilnlii caustn loUituT effeclus,tis the saying is; if the cause be rcmovcil 
vHerti^ likewise van qui shed. It is a most difli<Miltlhini;([ eonfess) lol>ea 
10 discern these causes, wlienec tliey are, and, in such "* variety, to say wl 
the be^intiicii; was. ' He is Iiajjpy Oial can [>erform it aright. I will adTcnture 
loeueMaanearas lean, and [ip^iemalliip, fruintlielirsi. to the \aa,l, ytiteml 
tkaajMrtiailar, to cvi^i-y svectti, that to tlicy miiy tli<! Iictt<:r be de^icried. 

wneral cuumm arc eitiiur svprmatural or nntural. SupcmatiiTal arc 
from Goti and his angcU, or, hi/ (Sod's jicrmissioH, from thr dnril and liii 
miniiitcn. Tluit Owd himself is a ciiiiw (or the punishment of sin, and wtis- 
faction of his Juslicc, many examples and lcstimonif» of holy Scriptures 
make evident unto us : I'sal. 107. 17. Foolish menart plaijutdfor their 
offence, and by reason of their wicAtdiifSs: Geliaii was atriickcn witli 
leprosie (2 Rerf. 5, '27), Jehoram with dy»enti-ry and flux, and great 
di»ca!t«3 of the boweU (2 Chron. 21. 15), David plagued for numbcrinj; bis 
l>i.-opl<^(l Par.'Zl), Sixlom and Gomorndi swallowed up. And tliis dia> 
eaxv is peculiarly KptM'itivd, Psul. 127. 12. He brought down their htart 
through heaviness. Dcut. 23. 2H. Ilr. strokf them with madness, ftli»dn»»$, 
and titlonishment of heart. 'An evil spirit was tent by the Lord upon Saul, 
to Kx him. ' Nebuchadnezinr did rat pr^iss likeanoxc; and hishrartwas 
made like (he beasts oflhejteld. licatlien stories are fnll of such punish- 
ments. Lycurjfus, becftuse he cut down the vines in the country, was by 
Bacchus diiven into madnem ; so was Penilieus, ;uid his mother Agave, for 
De^ectin^- their sacrifice. " Censor Fulviiis ran mad for untiliug Juno's tem- 
ple, to PdVi-r a new one of his own, which he had dedicated to Fortune. ' and 
vas confoutilrd to death v:ith griff and sorrow of heart. When Xer»e« 
would have xpoili»l " ,Apoll<i» Irmpio at Di^lphoi: of lliove infinite richci it 
possessed, a terrible thunder cumc from heaven, and struck 400l> men dead ; 
the rest ran mad. ' A hitlc after, the like happened to Brcnniui (lightning, 
thunder, earthi] nukes) npon such a sacrilegious occasion. If wc may believe 
our ponti^ial writers, llicy will relate unto us many strange and prodigious 
[>uiu)diment6 in tliis kind, inflicted by their aainta ; — bow i" Clodovw us, some- 
time king of France, the ton of Dai^obert, lost Uls wits for uncovering the 
body «f B. Oenis ; and bow a ' sacrilcjcion* Frenchman, that would have 
stolen uway a tiitver ima^ of S. John, at Bir^burgtr, became frantick on a 
suddain, ru^ng and tyrannising over his nwn flcxh : — of a * lord of Hbadnor, 

* Prlmo Arli* mtvtlTov " N^ttrl ^riaotm tkt prapoiitl ftir«lianum «u*aj3 indoEikTv. K^f IpH 
hutari tldvtari a«s uliixtu! nrum cuniiu iuuih ri iiiuitlli atrt. • I'ailj. lib. 1. uij>. II, Itirum 
ff tyiuf Pf nimaiL mnJlc;^ ini{irunl> nmruarlum ; ttni- i^uu, ni*c mortnim rumrr*, eiim: pnt>^ii*i.-rv. 

liJit Tvr\tm eoeiiovirrv pftiuHd] ■ 1 &un. Id. J In 

• t>u>. a. tl. ■ Luuut. IMIU. UIi. 1 fltp. s. 

■ Munxtcv. niBmi — « 


IncUiL. *l<l4'Tn, IJh. V, niltCuCiL 0. I^AproniEn contcm[i 

rrilwtf mt^iii muut. ttgi^a inHnwilnvuiivim. in pruiJrLut atIua disci* i1- * tlizmldu Cftnibmuif, 
lIl).U«*p.l. Illnriw. Cuilidn 

• LWhK, ntK 3S^ r G4fi)ibk I, A. ci, 4. (^iind Dion3^li i^nrpiii dtM<owi*rMi'rmt. in tfmnlaB 

Mtm. I. Sobs. 2.] Caws of MeiancAolg. 116 

iliat, cumtn^ from hunting \iMi at iiiglil, put Ills dags into S. Avans chnKfa, 
(IJan AviiR llwT i-iilM il) and, mii^ betimes neil morning, aa Imntera use 
lu do, fiMini) ull his ()<>^ mud, liimu-lf btfing' auddf.Rly xinx^kL-ti blind ; — of 
Tindotcs. nn ^ Aimcnian king, for violating sttmc lioiy miiin, llat wii* pun- 
whirti in tike sort, widi Iocs of his wib. But poets nna papi»U may go tof^ 
liter for fabulous tides ; let theoi frre their own credits. llowsocTcr tbej 
dun of tlicii Neinewn, and of iheir saints, or, by the devils means, may b« 
deluded ; we find it true, that itltar a tergo De«t,' He u God ihe awityfr, 
as David stilni him ; and tliai it \% our crying sins thai pull lliia aod many 
utlitT lualudioji on OUT own head.* ; tliat be can, by Us angek, whteh arc his 
miuistcm, Rliikc and hru1(Kiutl] ''Dionysiu*) whom ne will ; that hi- ran plague 
MB by hia rrcatiirrs, nun, moon, And xtars, wliifh he usrth as hiit tnitnimcnts, 
as ttbusbandman (saitii Zanchius) doth nn hntctict. Hai), snow, winds, &c. 

as in JoslraU) lime, as in Pliaraohs reigii in ^I'-gypt) ihey are but as lo many 
exc«utioneni of his justice. Ht: can make the proudest stiiiitd stoop, andcry 
oat. with Julian lh<' Afinttate, Viciati, Galilttr ! or, with Apollo* priest in 
' Chry«>»lotn<:, ttrtunt ! a ttrra! und« hoslis liicf What an enemy is 
tliia ^ ;ind pray with DaTid, acknowted);in^ his power, / am H'eaiined and 
*vrc liToiteft i I njar Jot Ike grir/ of mine heart ; mine heart panltik, ^. 
((Nal. 'M. 8.) O Lard, rehuie me not in Ihiae rnigrr, neither ehoAluc mrin 
thy <rra(ft.(Psal. 38. I.) Make me tohrarjvy and i/,tkat (he btmtt 
v-hkK Ihoa kaiit Irrokm, may rtjokf. {V*n\. 5\ . 8. and Tcnic 12.) ReMtore 
In me the joy of Ihy filvation, and tlabtUh me uith ihy free sprit. For 
tiirse Cannes. I>elike, ' Hippocmlrs would have a physician take special notice 
whether tbe diseaiie come not from a divine supemntnral caiiBC, or whetlter 
it follow tlie coune of naWre. Bnl tlii* is farther discm^sed by Fran. Vale- 
MU8 {driat-r. philos. ctip.B.). '' Fcmclius, and M, Ca-sar Ckudmus, to whom 
1 reler voo, how thin place of llrppormles i> to Ite underslood. ParaceUun 
iit of ofuniriti, that such spiritual dticasc^ (for »o he calU thcni) are spirit- 
oally ici he cured, and not oilierwisc. Ordinary means in such cases will not 
Bmu : wm csl rtluitandum c«m Deo. When tliatniniisli^r-t.-iminK llerciileB 
overcaine all in the Olyui picks , Jupiter at last, in nn unknown shape, wrestled 
with bim; llie vietorv was ntici^rtaiii, tilt at length Jupiter descried himself, 
and ll«rcules yiehled'. Nu xlrivinj; with supream powers : 

Nilia<Uii>itacatD»Cr4toro proTaUtomnnntn t 

pfayaicians and physick can do no good ; ' «.'« mvat siiftmif ourselves under 
the mighty hand ^ God, acknowledge our offcnce-s, cidl to him for mercy. 
If Ibc strike us, una eademque vtanut viilnu* opem^ueferet, at it is with them 
ihat are wounded with the kpear of Achilles ; he alone mutt help ; otherwise 
our diseases are incurable, and we not to be relieved. 

SvBsccT. II. — A Diyremian of the naturt of Spirits, had AngeU,or 
DtriU, andhoto they cause Melancholy. 

How far the power of spirits and devils doth extend, and whether tliey can 
rauM- lhi> or any other disease, is a serious question, and worthy to lie con- 
sidered ; for tbe belter nudtTitundin^- of which, I will make a hciof digression 
of the nature ofsfiirils. And. alilioii^h tlie question l>c very obscure, (ac- 
cording to 'PoslJlus) /"//n/cdiafroiicrxie and anidif/iiity, beyond the reach 
of humane capacity — (fatxor ercederr vircf inlt.nliimis mta ), sailh 'Austin; 
I coofesa I am not able to understand it ; finitum de infinito nim potest tta.. 
bure: we can soooci determine witii TuUy, (denat.deorujn,)^uidnontint, 

* Deliio. lom. 1, lib. S. >«U t ijiunt. S. • Pul. M. I. • Ub. K ap. Oi HiRu. • CbadUn. 
•or BuMK nuit]-'*- • Lib. f*f. i. proc. • l.lh. I. ilv kMlil* nrun. ' RrB[Km<. mod. IS. mp. 
MfM. X A 'l4lL I, r, 1, dr orMi eunMrdM. In nulll rr major (ufl ■lEcrtula. ntjuc utaKnrtU^ 
i^ar BfMliiaaH cuucanlli. qiuu Jf il><uvui1»i> <'i mlsunliim-ianlia, ' U^. X drTrliuL«*p. 1. 


116 Nature ofDeoiU. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

yuam guid aint ; our tubtle schoolmen, Cardaaa, Scaligers, profouod Tho- 
misU, Fracattoriana et Femeliana aciei, are weak, dry, obscure, defective, 
ID these mysteries ; and all our quickest wits, aa a.n owiea eyes at the suns 
light, wa» dull, and are not sufficient to apprehend them) — yet, as in the 
rest, 1 will adventure to say something to this point, in former times, (as 
we read. Acts 23,) the Sadducees denied that there were any such spirits, 
derils, or angels. So did Galen the physician, the Peripateticks, even Aris- 
totle himself, as Pomponatius stoutly maintains, and Scaliger in some sort 
grants; though Dand in us the Jiesuile (com. in lib. 2. de animd) atiflydeD'ies 
iL Sabttanlhe teparalis, and intelligences, are the same which Christians 
call angels, and Platonists devils ; for they name all the spirits, dxmones, be 
tliey good or bad angels, as Julius Pollux ( Onomasticon, lib. \.cap. 1.) ob- 
serves. Epicures and atlieists are of the same mind in general, because they 
never saw them. Plato, Plotinus, Porphyrins, Jamblicus, Proclus, (insisting 
in the steps of Trismegistus, Pylliagoras and Socrates) make no doubt of it ; 
nor Stoicks, but tliat there are such spirits, though much erring from the 
truth. Concerning the first beginning of them, the "* Thai mu dials say that 
Ailam had a wife called Lilis, before he marryed Eve, and of her he begal 
nothing but devils. The Turks " Alcoran is altogether as absurd and ridi- 
culous in this point ; hut t)te Scripture informs us Christians, how Lucifer, 
the chief of them, with his associates, " fell from heaven for his pride, and 
ambition — created of God, placed in heaveu, and sometimes an angel of 
light, now cast down into the lower aerial sublunary parts, or into hell, and 
delivered into chains of darknets (2 Pet. 2. 4.) lobe kept vnlo damnation. 

Nature of Devils.] There is a foolish opinion, which some hold, that they 
are the souls of men departed ; good and more noble were deified ; the 
baser groveled on the ground, or in the lower parts, and were devils ; the 
which, with Tertullian, Porphyrius tlie philosopher, M. Tyrius, ser. 27. 
maintains. These spirits, he ■'saith, v/kick tee call angels and devils, are 
nouifht but souls of men departed, which, cither through love and pity of 
their friends yet living, help and assist them, or else persecute their enemies, 
whom they haled; as Dido threatned to persecute ^ncas : 

Omnibus umlin IdcEb Adtta ; ilBbifl.lmprDbe, pctnaa, 

Tiiey are (aa others suppose) appointed by those higher powers to keep 
men from their nativity, and to protect or punish them, as they sec cause ; 
and are culled boni and mali genii by ihe Romans — heroes, lares, if good, 
lemures 01 larvceK bud — by the Stoicks, governours of countries, men, 'cities, 
saitli 1 Apuleius ; Deos appellant, gui ex hominum numero, juste ac pru- 
denter vita curricula gubernato, pro nwniiiie, postea ab hominibtis praditi 
fanis et cmremoniis viilijo admittantur, at in jEgypto Osiris, ^c. Prtesliles, 
Capella calls them which protected particular men as well as princes. 
Socrates had hta daimoninm saluminum et igneum, which, of all spirits, is 
best,ari sublimes cogitationes animum erigenletn,aa the Platonists supposed; 
Plotinua, his; and we Christians, our assisting angel, as Andreas Victorellus, 
a copious writer of this subject, Ludovicus de La-Cerda the Jeauite in his 
voluminous trad, de Angela Custode, Zanchius, and some divines, think. 
But this absurd tenent of Tyrius, Proclus confutes at large in his book de 
Animd et Dcemone. 

'Psellus, a Christian, and sometimes tutor (saith Cusplnian) to Michael 
Parapinatius, emperour of Greece, a great observer of the nature of devils, 
holds they are 'corporeal, and have avrial bodies ; that they are mortal, live 

" Pereriua. ■□O^^npnin, ^ib. 4. inrnji. S. t. 2^ > Bee Slruci^iis CicopTiD, omnLrarie Ma^. lib. 2- c. 
1ft. J. Aubuinn. DrTd#^^Mrt1LHA. • Aiigt-lu^ ppr AU]icrbiiini topJxr&tuB ft Dn>. qui in viriutc ntta 
»1«U(. Au^LJU. ■' Nihil aiiLMl simt Dniuaum, qunm nudn uiiiniir. qiiv, curmrn- ilopDztiLO, urluTi-m 
iDipitfrBli viTaniH n^j^aliji Hun^, rumni'ili izii^cnL'urJbi, &.^. 4 iJif t}co aiMTDliif. ■ ilt iivt^ 
f>OD yean rincv. ■ ApuJriiu. Upirltua «iiliTi4lift Btiut ftnimo pftjaibilic, meutc ralionalift. eorpttn 
ftiili, btmpuK uniiitcnw. 

Mem. I. Subs. 2.} Nalwre of DevUs. 117 

a»d dt/e (which Martianus Capetla likewjw raaiatains, but our Chiistian 
philosophers explode) ; Ikat ' they are nourithed, and have excremeaU ; that 
ihey feel pain, if they be hurt (which Cardan conflrms, and Scaliger justly 
laughs him tu scorn for ; li pascantur arre, cur turn ptignant ob puriorem 
aiera ? ifc.) or stroken : and, if their bodies be cut, with admjmble celerity 
tliey come together again. Austin (in Gen. lib. 3. lib. arbit.) approves as 
ranch ; Mutata caiu corpora in deteriorem qvaiitatem arris spiitioris : so 
doth Hierom {Comment, in epist. ad Ephes. cap. 3.), Origen, Tertullian, 
lju:tantius, and many ancient fathers of the church, that, in their foil, their 
bodies were changed into a more atirial and gross substance. Bodine ( lib. 4. 
TAeatriNatuTiB,)andIitiv'idCiaBia8{HermeticaPhUoMpMiB lib. l.cap.4.) 
by several arguments proves angels and spirits to be corporeal : quidqtiid 
continetur in loco, corporeum est : at spirittit continetitr in loco. ergo. Si 
tpiritus sunt qtianti, ervnt corporei : at sunt quanti, ergo. Sunt finiti, 
ergo quanti, ifc. " Bodine goes further yet, and will have these animte 
separata, gemi, spirits, angels, devils, and go likewise souls of men departed, 
if corporeal (which he most eagerly cod tends), to be of some shape, and that 
absolutely round, hke sun aad moon, because that is the most perfect form, 
quie mhii habet asperitatis, nihil angults incistim, nihil anfractibus invo- 
latum, nihil eminens, sed inter corpora perfecta eU perfeettstimum : there- 
fore all spirits are corporeal (he concludes), and in their proper shapes 
round. 'Hiat they can assume other aerial bodies, all manner of shapes at 
their pleasures, appear in what likeness they will themselves: that they are 
most swift in motion, can pass many miles in an instant, and so likewise 

• transform bodies of others into what shape they please, and with admirable 
celerity remove them from place to place ; as the angel did Habakkuk to 
Daniel, and as Philip the deacon was carried away by the spirit, when he 
had bapti:ced the eunuch ; so did Pythagoras and Apollonius remove them- 
aelves and others, with many such leats) that they can represent castles in 
the ayre, pallaccs, armies, spectrums, prodigies, and such strange objects 
to mortal mens eyes, "ciiuse smells, savours, &c. deceive all the senses; 
most writers of this siibjecl credibly believe; and that ihcy can foretell 
future events, and do many Strang miracles. Junos image spake to Ca- 
millus, and Fortunes statue to the Roman matrons, with many such. Zan- 
chius, Bodine, Spondanus, and others, are of opinion tliat ihey cause a 
true metamorphosis, (as Nabuchadne^ar was really translated into a beast. 
Lota wife into a pillar of salt, Ulysses companions into hogs and dogs by 
Circes charms) turn themselves and others, as they do witches into cats, 
dogs, hares, crows, &c. (Strozzius Cicogna hath many examples, lUt, 3. 
ojanif. maij. cap. 4. et 5. which he there confutes, as Austin likewise doth, 
de civ. Dei lib. 18.) — tliat they can be seen when and in what shape, and 
to whom they will (saith Psctlus, Tametsi nil tale viderim, nee optem videre, 
though he himself never saw them nor desired it), and use sometimes carnal 
copulation (as elsewhere I shall ' prove more at large) with women and men. 
Many wilt not believe they can be seen ; and, if any man shall say, swear, 
and stifly maintain, (though he be discreet and wise, judicious and learned) 
tliat he hath seen them, they account him a timorous foot, a melancholy 
dizurd, a weak fellow, a dreamer, a sick or a mad man ; they contemn him, 
laugh bim tu scorn ; and yet Marcus, of his credit, told Psellus that he had 
often seen them. And Leo Suavius, a Frenchman, (c. 8. in Commentar. 

■ NutrioDtiir, fi c\ertmpnt4 hahenL ; quod puluU clolruit, eolido percusu oorporp. "■ Lib. 4. 
TheoL lut. rul. 5X5. . CyprianuM, In E|>i«I. Manlpa iliam ft animnlla tnn^fprn iPOHHiint : n thr 
■VtU dill rhriflt to tbedtpoMho ]riDnu^ip; nnil vvitrbi^ are often IrumlAlccL Hvt more in Slrotiiii« 
Cirvcna, lib. 3. cup, 4. umniC maf;. L'fr u-ra aiiivlucciT, K in faUblLme corpou Ipttt puasunL, Biar- 
Dttjiw.— Pprciu^i iLoIlhi^ el uninlur iu ri>riapii:uoi clneret. A|nippat lilj. 3- rap. dp ixtuL rhiJoa. 

* Afrippa. it DCGUlt. thilM. lib. 3. rap. IS. > Put. 3, aec!.!. Hem. 1. Buba. L Love Helanebol;. 

118 Nature of DevUs. IV^ti. 1. Sec. 2. 

1. 1, Paractlti da zili UmgS, out <^ (ooie Platoni&ts) will Iiave the Ajre to 
be as full of Ui«ia as aiiow falliog iit Uic ikies, and ihat ihev may be seen, 
and witbal set* down Uie iiieauit how men may ttx them : Si irTevL-rbrralit 
octtlii, sole tphndenU, versus enlum continaaveTtnt tililulits, 4^c. and iiailli 
moreover he ir^cd it, (prtfmissorum feci eiprrimcutum) and it wa» irm:, 
that the Platonwts snid. Pnracetsus cnnfcs&etli Uial hi- saw thttin divcK 
limes, and conferred with them ; ami bo dotii Alcxantlcr at> ' Alexandra, 
that he found it to by txperience, when as before he dcmliled of it. Many 
d«ny it, sailli Lavater, (de »/H-c(rM, part. 1. c. 2. et part.i. c. II.) btcaate 
Ihf'j nevrr saw thrntselvfi : Bui, as he reports at large nil over liis book, 
espcciHlly e. 19. part. 1, tliey arc often aeon ami heard, and familiarly con- 
verse with men, as l^xJ. Vives assureih us, innumerable records, histories, 
and testimoniu!! evince in all n^es, limes, plaeea, and 'all truvellers busidea. 
In the West Inilief, mid our tiurtliern cliineK, nihil ftxmiliarius quam ia agris 
el Hrbibut spiritas viders, aurlirp, gui vt tent, ju brant, ^t. ilicrunyimis 
(vita Pauli), UbrU (««r. 40), Niccphonis, Eu»cbiii», Sorralcs. So/omonns, 
*Jacobu8 Boissardus (in his tract de s^nfuum oppaTitionibtis), Petrus I^y- 
Ou* (I. de sjtectris), Wierus (L 1.) have infinite variety of such examples of 
Apparitions of suiriis, for him to read that fartticr doubts, to his amjJe saii^ 
faction. One alone 1 will briefly insert. A noble man in Germany was sent 
QmbdRUtdour to tho kiii^ uf Suedeii, (fur his name, the time, and such 
ciKtrniitances, I mfi-r you to Boissardus, iniue ^author). AiWr he hud done 
his hiisinc«!>, he tailcil for I.ivunia, on set purpose to sec those familiar 
spirits, which lire there said to be conversant with men, and do their drudgery 
works. Amon^t other mnttcrs, one of them lolU him where his wife was, in 
what room, in what eloaths, what doin^;. and brouf^ht him a ring from her, 
which at his return, non siiw onmiitm ad/idratii^ne, he found to bo true ; and 
so believed that ever after, which before he doubled of. Cardan (t. 19. de 
sttbtit.) relates of his father Facius Cardan, that, after tlie accustomed 
soIcRuiities, As. 1491, 13 August, lie conjured up seven devi)« in (ir«H^k 
apparel, al>ont 40 yeai's uf a^e, xunie ruddy of complexion, and some pale, 
u be thought: hu asked them many questions; and they mad<; rody 
answer, that ihey were acrlnl dcviU, that they lived and died hs men diJ, 
save that chcy were fur longer liv'd, (seven or eight hundred " years.) and 
that they did &a much excel men in dignity, as we do jiimcnts, and were as 
far excelled again of those that were above them : our ''^overnoun and 
keepers they arc moreover, (which * Pliito in Ctitios delivered of old,) uml 
subordinate to one anotJier : u( mim homo homini, ik daman dirmani rlcni- 
natur ; they rule tliemselves as well aa us ; and the spirits of the meaner 
wtt had commuiily sueh otfices, us we make horse- keepers, neat-herds, »nd 
the iiasejil uf us, overseers uf our entile ; and iliat wc can no more apprehend 
their niiturex und fum-tigmt, tlian a horse a mans. Tlicy knew all things, 
but might not reveal them to men : and ruled and doniinecred over us, as 
we do over our horsrs ; the best kings amongst ns. and the most generous 
spirits, were not comparable to tJic basest of them. Sometimes tbey did 
instruct men and communicate their skill, reward and eherisli, and sonio- 
limes again tcrrifie and punisli, to keep Uiein ia awe, as they thuuvht fit ; 
nihil niai/it capi&ntes (saith Lysius, Pkyt. Slotearvm) t/uam adoralionem 
hominum. Tlie same author Cardan in his Hyperchen, out of the doctrine 
of Stoicks, will have some of tbew- {n'nii(forso be calls them) to be 'desirous 




> OiaW. dltprum, lu (iM ilium rt rdinjiertuia. O'limi Hlu. ui (airnt. umUavtrC— PldoD (un 
UboM. 'LilL l.ilDipnt. riilrl.Brniu.Kr. • Lib. ,Ic> tUiloiiIion* «4 MiolS. ' Oao. K Tnii*- 
poitKlllaUiaRlvn. ni|iiJlUU lidnM, k-r. ■ Hk tlalodat it Nymphl*, ilvnn diril 10 «IMn 
phiBSlfinn. • CuMoilr* hnialniim rl pTDiiDrlirum, Kt. (unto nu^lorat hnmlntUu, qouilD lii bruUa 
wilmiuUbUL • I'miliW. pwinn*. tulcnuiom hoMaau. ill lUI aiiiiultuai. ' NaiuiS & 
uI mmbcmkultai); mulu I'cnuilUT it ■Idminul. 

' Nalort Amil^^^^ 

Meiu. I. Sabs. -Z] 

Nature of Spirilx. 


of Hien'i vcimpany, very alfablc, aud fiuuitiar with (licm, as doi^ are; i>llii;i'i 
ngain lo abliuf as terpeaU, and care not for Uicm. Tlie same, l>eLke, 
THtlMfmius calls it/aeoi cl titlilanare), qui jtirn'/ucuit demergunt ad injiritrra, 
ant rii Kllnm hatient ia lerrin ivmmerinam : "yrneraWy ttiei/ fat excel men 
in m-arth, at a mn« thr tneanf%t U'orra ; thouci" sunnt- of tficm arc inftrkiar 
to ihotT. tif ihrir own rank in worth, a$ the black guard tn a princr.x ctntrtf 
aad lo mm lujnin, at some dfgtnrratc,bafr, ratioiuil crralnrfs are txcvUed 
ofhrute (itattt. 

Thiit Ibcyarc mortal, betides those testimonies of Ourdan, Manianu8,&c. 
tnany otbcr divines and philowphcTs hold {jiost protixiim lempus moriuntitr 
«MM(), Uie '' Flatonisis, and Boino Hubtiines, Purphyrius mid Flutarch, tui 
appears by that reJalioD of Thamiia: ' The great gad Pan it dead: Apollo 
PyiJiius ceased -. and to the re&t. S. Hierotni-. in the life of Paul thi: cri-mite, 
lellit u story, how urit! of tliein appeared to M. Aiilixiy in the wildcrot'iit, unci 
tohi Iiini ai nsuch. -> Paiaci'lnuii, of our lute wiitc^n, xiidy niiiintitiri)! [h;it tliey 
arr mortal, live und ilir, ai other eicaturc* do. Zoxiii^uit ( 1 . 2.) further ud<» 
that trligioii mid policy dii-n an<l nllrr* with them. The ^ (!)cnlilc8 god$, ho 
saith, were cxpelli-d by Constantino ; and. together with ihcm, imperii Ro- 
manituajettatt et fortuna interitt,el proftl'jalaftl ; the fortune and majesty 
of the KoDian cRipife decayed and vanished; ajf that heathen in ' Mitiutiua 
finnerly bragged, when the Jews were overeotnc by the Kuniunj, tlie Jews 
cod me liiewiae captivated by tliut of Koine : and Rabttakeli to the 
IsnteUtes, no ^od sliould deliver iht-ni out of tht- liaud.-i of tlie Assyrian*. 
Bui ttiese [larjdoxes of their powtr, corporrity, tnurtulity, tukinp: of nliapt:!*, 
trBii!i|MMiitgl>odie^, nnd tiitrtiid t'Opiiliitiuns,:ire tnfiiciently confuted by Ziindi. 
(c. 10. /. 4.) Percriwt, (in his eonimi-nt) and Tostalns (iiueilignK on thr si\th 
of GcoOTh.Aqnin.S. Austin, Wierus, 'I'h. Knuitus, IWrio, (lorn. 1.1.1. 
oHiNf. -29.) Sebastian Michael is {cap. 3. dt spiritibus), 1). Keinolds (tect. 47), 
They may deceive the eyes of men, yet not take true bodies, or make a rcnl 
metamorphusia : but, as Cico);na proves at lai^, tbey are "" iHutoria el 
pTirttiifialricet trotttformalioiies (omnif. mag. lib, 4. cap, 4,), nicer illusions 
and L-o/ontiigs, like ttiat taleof /'ajii:'i«ij6ufu(inSuidui,or that of Aulolyciw, 
Mercuric* »on, tlmt dwelt in Parniisius, whogotHu much treasure by coxcnaci! 
■lid Dtcallh- His Istlu-r Mcn^ury, bccauu^ he could h'livc liim no weidtii, 
Imt^bt him many fine tric-ks to gx't nicnns ; " for he eonid drive away mens 
cutlel, ami, 'if any piirNiicd him, turn them into what shapes he would, and 
Ml did mightily, enrich hinsclf ; hoc atta maximant pritdam eti adiequulut. 
This, no doubt, is as Irnc as the rcxt ; yet thus ninch in general, 'Fhomas 
Durand.andothers grant, that they have underaianding far beyond men, can 
probably conjecture, and "foretell many tbin^; they can cause and cure most 
diseases, dt-ceiveuur seiisoa; tbey lisive encellcnl skill in all artsund sciences: 
and iJiai tbe roost illiterate devd u t/uovit fiamiar srimtior , asfCieogna main- 
tains ouluf other h. TlieyknowtlieverturJioflii:rbs,pliiuls,sione*, minerals, Ac. 
of all creslurcs, Inrds, beanis, tlie four clenK-ntK, ttars, plani<ts ; can aptly ap[ily 
and make use of them as they **■•: ^ocid, pi^rcclving the cunxes of all nicitcorii, 
and tbchke: Dant »c cotorihus, (us lAuittin hntli it) ar.commodant ip fi-jurit, 
adturrcxl fonit, tuhjifiunl se odori(»it,iiifttndiint te sapoTibut,omnes iensaa, 
eliam iptam inlelli-jenliam, damottcs falttint : ihcy dcecivc all our senses, 

* Ah Tvaiiwplua ilUUsC. fiHr,in hornn^M|Enit1>LhujEnci irrnii ; I't tanu^ ituldvm #x h^alil,nmlutlKU 
*djymcM>t. Ill boaUnn « frTts U<-: ■^Ci'i'r ^<l i"ir>i m^> rl Vi*ni<rvcuiii liamlnvhii*. 40 uiiblt-iD miiri. 
CvbgaA. I |>ut V^ %<.3. '' I'fuUn^li. iLi' tklJ.'i'L ufkf iilorjm. 1 LlliL ili^ ]Cl]),hI* \-\ I'^rmBl'- 
< DirjpwiM* ft CvpaUiitinn |in>r1'itfKli viiui, Kf, ' OcUrian- lUuL JuiIsotijui Ui^uoi riiiw Uonu- 
•Mii^ Miiiiiailm uiu ^iiin ^%'U' <«|>UTum. * OibnlA t|iihtilxu (ilmu ; *>t rx tnrnat mtu'civiik p| 
^■eoffliS omiil* hpiU tt malj ^flcttfn pfwrmmiitl. omfilA lii,n>:iiu i^ii^lur- I'lnilv^, v^rTVin. Atipio 
ffrrpffi Oflinlfl DUX- I- It F. SL ■ Olc«. qnu tbiUrrirT,,! vMl lo ■(il'uciingiir X'itwtti •,.-rt«?1,AL r&u- 
■■JM. VtffAttu^ ' Autflii. in L 1- ill' OriL ft lii.'rani, i-ip. 17, Yatliiu iiuU aulpliliorit *i-iixi)> ai'u- 
Hin(^ fanitt vimUi falltillnfr vljr«nl, rt p^ivrliiilli itntyU-t tiuiftium liingitudiunn ttlnr, [urtisi «b 
■afcUs Ms t a n l. && * Lib. 3. omnlt iB*t, t*\: i, i Lib. W iiiinl. 


120 Natwre of^SpiriU. [Part. 1. Sec 2. 

even our und^ataadiDg itself, at once. 'Tbej can produce miraculous 
alterations in the ayre, and most wondeiTul effects, conquer armies, give vic- 
tories ; help, further, hurt, cross, and alter hntnane attempts and projects 
( Dei permuiu) as they see good themselves. > When Charles the great in- 
tendeii to make a channel betwixt the Rhine and Danubius, look, what his 
workmen did in the day, these spirits flung; down in the night ; uf conattt rex 
tleMuteret, pervicere. Such feats can they do. But that which Bodine 
(I. 4. Tktat. naf.) think* (following Tyrius belike and the Platoaists) they 
can tell the secrets of a mans heart, aul cogitalionet komiHtim, is most false : 
his reasons are weak, and sufficiently confuted by Zanch. {lib. 4. cap. 9.). 
Hicrum, Uib. 2. com. in Mat. ad cap. 14.) Athanasius (futsst. 27. ad 
Antiochum Prindpem), and others. 

Orden.] As for those orders of good and bad devils — which the Pla- 
toiiists bold, is altoectfaer erroneous ; and those Ethnicks boni and mali genii 
are to be exploded. These heathen writers agree not in this point amoDg 
themselves, as Dandtnus notes; an sint 'ma/t, non conneniant ; some will 
have all spirits good or bad to us by a mibtake : as, if an oxe or horse could 
discourse, he would say the butcher was his enemy because he killed him, the 
grasier his friend because he fed him ; an hunter preserves and yet kills bis 
(Tutne ; and is hated nevertheless of his game ; nee piscatorem pUcis amare 

iHilent, SfC. But Jamblicus, Psellus, Plutarch, and most Platontsts, ac- 
;nuwledge bud, et ab eorum male/iciis cavendum, for they are enemies of 
man-kind; and this Plato learned in Egypt, that tliey quarrelled with 
Jupiter, " and were driven by him down to hell. That which * Apuleius, 
Xetjoplioii, and Plato contend of Socrates (ftemonium, is most absurd; 
tliat which Plotinus of his, that he had likewise i>eum pro dfEmonio; and 
that which Porphyry concludes of them all in general, if they be neglected 
in their lacrifice, tlicy are angry; nay more, as Cardan in his Hyperchen 
will, they feed on mens souls: elemtnta sunt plantii e/ententum, antmalt&wf 
plantce, huminibus animalia, erunt el homines diis, non autem diia ; nimis 
miim remuta est earum nutura a nosird ; qua propter diemonibiu : and so, 
iHilike, that we have so many battels fought in all ages, countries, is to make 
them a fcuMt, and their sole delight. But to return to that I said before — 
if [liiipleusud.tlii'y Ireland chafe, (for they feed, belike, on the souls of beasts, 
IM wt! do on their bodies) and send many plagues amongst us : but, if pleased, 
thi'n they do much good ; is as vain as uie rest, and confuted by Austin (f. 
!). c. a. lit Civ. Dei), Euseb. (/. 4. prispar. Evang. c. 6.), and others. Yet 
IhuH much 1 find, that our school-men and other "divines make nine kinds 
of hull HiiirilH, as DtunvsiuiS liatii done of angels. In the first rank, are those 
fiilNit gouH of tho (ientilcs, which were adored heretofore in several idols, and 
Uavc iinii'lis at Ddjihos, and elsewhere ; whose prince is Beelzebub. The 
HiToriil rank in of lyarM imd scquivocutors, as Apollo Pythius, and the like. 
Tin' thiril arc ihose vcssi'ls of anger, inventors of all mischief; as that Theutus 
in I'lutii ; I'rfMty culls thcni ' vessels of fury ; (heir prince is Belial. The 
li)urtli lire niuticiiuiK n^vcngiiig devils ; and ihdr prince is Asmodieus. The 
(inii kind urn I'lucncrs, such as belong to magicians and witches; their ' 
princi' is Siilan. Tin.' sixtli are those atirial devils, that ^corrupt the aire, 
iiiiil iMUKi' |iliii;ui's, thnndera, fires, &c. spoken of in tlic Apocalyps, and 
I'linl In till' I''|i1u>i(iun^ names lliem the princos of the avre ; Meresin is their 

* IJ^iliM unU fell i.| tniii hniTunil' >]>Lriluuin »d<niiiH, mirurn nou m lol Unluque t*% >ua BdHirm- 
Mil'* ftli Iptlii iifllTiivl, I'l ^iilitrm n'Tun ualunliuiu o^k-. uuu mulru nu^hus LnlrllisHst. luihoQiie pvri* 
Una Biilii 1<it^U v^ \\'\\y\'.it\\tt\* ■|i]iUruv iioTunI it""'" nitmu. Ck^j;:iix ■ ATTntiwu. 4KH|iiiil 
Ihl^.iillu (.shimrU'lvniMr,'li- r\)iU'1iiiliiT, IrJi. jiaM^r^cli runUir,.?.. .'^r, ■ 1b UK S, dp odiiA, 
li'xi. VII. Ilt.ith'iii> iMitix'i liiiJimUiii iiniui^ x|tiriliL\ JA^noit.-^ «<ri'Ai. ^ A J.kx-^ wl infcriH p>U, iK. 
* III- lli'M Miu'irill^ Ailiil iinlii <UxLuA vMW iLrm^mimn ijiNHldaiu. a pnnU |4,rnti& lA^vnaiibiBi 
tK'yv .liN.<Mhilit . IbMLu^lul iM.uMiiu.]uAiii. iii^l«r *i»i-i4. V'ti ., ■ A^^n^.j.*. Ub, 5. *>" ncfvL ph. t. \K 
t l< I'll i.'iii'v lVi< iiu>. ri>>ii(ii>. I, .1. ra|>. 1. > Vw4 .IK, 1. 11 I duitnu duaa CM ■mtrf 

It'UH.i'l MIrtIL \v 

Hem. 1 . SnbB. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 1 2 1 

fKince. The leveoth ia a deatroyer, captain of tlie Furies, cauiii^ wan, 
himalu, combiutionB, uproars, meotioned in the Apocalyps, and called 
Abaddon. The eighth is thataccutingor calumnia^g devil, whom the Greeka 
call Aia/JoXoc, that drives men to despair. Tbe ninth are those tempters in 
•everal kinds ; and their prince is Mammon. Psellus makes six kinds, yet 
Done above the moon. Wierus, in his Pseudtmumarckid Damoitu, out of 
an old book, makes many more divisions and subordinations, with their 
■everal namea, numbers, offices, &c, but Gaznus (cited by 'Lipsius) will 
have all places full of angels, spirits, and devils, above and beneath the 
moon, tetherial and aeri^, which Austin cites out of Varro, I. 7. de Cm, 
Dei, c. 6. The celestial detiUi above, and atrial beneath, or as * some will, 
gods above, tenidei or half goda beneath, larei, heroet, genii, which clime 
h^her, if they lived well (as the Stoicks held), but gravel on the ground, 
as they were baser in their lives, nearer to the earth ; and are manes, lemures, 
lamia, &C, ^ They will have no place void, but all full of spirits, devils, or 
some other inhabitants i Plenum ctelum, air, aqua, terra, et omnia tvb terrd, 
saith Gazteus ; though Anthony Rusca (in his book de Inferno, lib. 5. cap. 
7.) would confine them to the middle region, yet they will have them every 
where ; ^ not so much as an hair breadth empty in heaven, earth, or waters, 
above or under the earth. The air is not so full of flies in summer, as it is at 
all times of invisible devils : this '' Paracelsus stifly maiutains, and that they 
have every one their several cfutos : otiiers will have inlinite worlds, and each 
world his peculiar spirits, gods, angels, and devils, to govern and punish it. 

Binpili ■ nannnlll Tvdunl qniique liilcn poue 
Djf-i atbeii: tpmniL^uL'fi^piJlaiiliLdiuupicuni, 
Cul minimua dirCin praWlL 

' Gregorius Tbolosanus makes seven kinds of setherial spirits or angels, ac- 
cording to tlie number of the seven planets. Saturnine, Jovial, Martial, Sic. 
of which Cardan Jiseourscth, lib. 20. de sablil. he calls them, substanlias 
jtrimai ; Olympicos iltemoncs, Tritliemius, ijvi prasunt Zodiaco, S^c. and will 
liave them to be good angels above, devils beneath the moon ; their several 
names and offices he there sets down, and (which Dionysius, of angels) will 
have several spirits for several coiiiitreys, men, offices, &c. which live about 
them, and as so many assisting powers, cause their operations ; will have, in 
a word, innumerable, and as many of them as there he stars in the skies, 
t Marcilius Ficinus seems to second this opinion, out of Plato, or from him- 
self, 1 know not, (still ruling tlierr inferioura, as they do those under them 
again, all subordinate ; and the nearest to the earth rule us ; whom we sub- 
divide into good and bad angels, call gods or devils, as they help or hurt us, 
and so adore, love, or hate) but it is most likely from Plato, for he, relying 
wholly on Socrates, iiuem mori polius quam meniin voluisse scribit, out of 
Socrates authority alone, made nine kinds of them : which opiniun, belike, 
Socrates took from Pythagoras, and he from Trismegistus, he from Zoroaster 
— first, God, secondly, ideee, thirdly, intelligences, fourthly, arch-angels, 
lifthlv, angels, sixthly, devils, sevcntlily, heroes, eighthly, principalities, 
ninthly, princes; of which some were absolutely good, us gods, some bad, 
some inditterent infer dcos vl hnmines, as heroes and damones, which nded 
men, and were called genii, or (as '' Proclus and Jamblicus wilt) the middle 
betwixt God and men, principalities and princes, which commanded and 
swayed kings and countreys, and had places in the sphears perhaps ; for, as 
every sphear is higher, so hath it more excellent inhabitants ; which, belike, 

' rbyaii'L. Bbpii-omm f S4>n<r. lib. I. rd|>. SA. > UF»[iit -j/X limum ni)imiiji nn^ ctht-h-u, vocariqiic 
b«nHB, lor^, nitlOH. ^ Marl. l'ai>i'iijL ' Nihil TacuLimJlIf his, iilii vrl ciipilluni In aiin*!!! vi^I auumil 
JAi-iu. * Lik ilf ZJIi'. ' J*Hjiiitn-nius. ' Lib. 7. cap. 3J- vj .*>. Bj-ntai. a.Tt. nilnli. < Com- 
IDtnit in dLU. V\si. Av uunri', i\ 3. L't jiplia^ra ffuri'libct aiiitrr iim!>h ilu |t^■lT4tu■ilon'^ linlK'l hAlpiLflb'ri* 
>4ic iphrnc c:DnMJrtL4, u( \iaheX uuntrt. ^ lab. de uuml vt ibcmone. ModU inter di>oi pt homjni-». 

[Part. I. Sec. 2. 

122 DlgTtssioH of Spirits. 

U that Oalilrous a Galilmo ;ind Kepler aims at id liis Nnnciit .VtifrHo, 
ho will have 'Saturnine aii'i Jovial iiihabiUiiU, and which Tyclio I)l_ 
(lol.h in some «Drt laiu'li or iiiMriuale in une of hi* «T|>islW : hut Uwie Uiini 
' Ziinchiuii jn.itly exjiloilos, cap. 3. lib. 4. P. Martyr, in 4. Sani. '28. 

So ihal, m-r«riiinglo ihcuc mwi, tlu^numlwr of wthcrial spirits must 
he inHnlti:' : for, if thnt he true tliat some of our iDnthematiciaiia «ay, tliat i 
11 Ktone cmilil f^ll from the starry heaven, or eighth »phcar, aud shuuld p: 
every hour an hundred miles, it would be sixty-tiTc yean, or iiion.-, lH<r<>rv 
would come to ground, by rcas<.in of the great distance of heaven from t-anlii 
which conlaiDS {as acme sav) une hundred and seventy niilliunx di^it liuii 
dred *nd three miles, — besides those other heavetis, (wlictlicr they l<c elirys- 
tatline or wattrry, which Magnus adds} tvhicli ptrrddventure holdc ns muehi 
more^— hi>w many such spirits m.iy it contain^ And yet, for nil lliis,' 
*■ TIiomaK, .Mbertii*, and rno«l, hold that there be fiii more angels than devils^ 

Subluuart/ devUf, and Ihtir kiniii.\ i)ul, lie they more or less, tftt. 
supra noa, nihil ad no». Elowsoever, as Martianus foolishly suppuit^lL, 
itthcrii dmnt/nes nan ciirant rca hamanas ; ihcy care not for us, do not at- 
tend our actions, or look for us ; those aiihcrial spirits have other worlds t« 
reiyn in, belike, or busiaes* to follow. We are only now to speak iii brief of 
these Kubluiiaty spinis or deiilx. For the rest, our divines determine (hat 
the (It^vil hath no power over stars, or li«avens. ' Cartainihus carlo possuitt 
drduKCTF. luitnm, ^e. Tlio»e are poetical iicticin!i: and that llieveun"' iitlere 
aquamfiuviU.ct vcrCcre tidcra rttro, SfC. a* Canidia in llorucc, 'tis all false. 
" fhcy are confined, until the day of judgeJnent, to this sublunary world, 
mid can work no further than the four elemcuW, und ns (.Sod pemiiis them. 
Wherefore, of ciie-sc sublunary devds, though others divide them utlierwise 
aeeotding to their scteral places and oHices. I'sclliis makes six kinds, licry, 
aiiria], terrestrial, watery, aud subterranean devils, besides iho»e fairies, 
satyrs, n\'in^lis, &c. j 

Fi(!ry spirits or devils are such as commonly work by blaKini; stars, fire., 
drakcui.or igntii fatui, wliieh lend men often in fimnina.aat praicipitia,wMi 
Bodinc, ^/i^. 2. Thral. naturtv, fol. 221.) (^uur, inqtiU, arccrt gi votunt 
viatorts, clard v&ce Drum appcltarc, aut prand facit terram coatiitgenle 
a4orare oporlet : el hoc amuUttim majoribns ntrstrit accrptum Jerre rtc- 
Ae-mu;, &c. Likewise they counterfeit suns and moons, stars ollontinies, and 
sit on snip masts: in ndtri^iorum mmmitalilius visunfur; aod are caU 
Discuri {as Euaebius, /. cuntru PliilcnopliM, c. 48. informcth us. out of tl 
authority of Zcuopbanes) ; or little ciuuiis, ad mitluin nesciv ijuem volanles ; 
which never apjiear, saith Cardan, but they sij-nifie some miKchief or oilier 
lo come unto men, though some a)r-<in will have them to portend i|;iiod, ai: 
victory to thnt .«iile they eonie lowiirds in sea ftKhls; St. Elniei fin--» the 
commonly call them, and they Uo likely appear after a»ea%torm. Rudziviiiu 
the Folonian duke, culls this npparition Sniirti Gciiiiini niiliii : and saith 
moreover, that ho saw llic snmc tiflcr in a storm, ;iis he wag sayling, l5S'i, 
fiom Alexandria to Rhodes. Our stories are full of such apparitions in all 
kinds. Some think they keep their residence in that Heela monutain in 
Island, ^IDH in Sicily, Lipara, Vesuvius, &c. These devils were worBhi|>])ed^ 
heretofore by that superstitious wvpoftafnia. and tbe like. 

Aerial spirits <ir devils are sueh as keep tjuartur, most port, in the " 
raiue many tempest*, lliutider, and hghtnLi>;i;s, tMir oaks, lirv nti-e pies, boi 

1 Rclimmiu 1-1 Jo^iiJii lu-niljia, ( In lura iLi'trti^i «uht iiifrn fitlf^il^ oti^t*, \n mi-ir.m irilicH 
tatn. bN juilino (I'lic^ntj n<4,'ii ^ndir. ^ Q- yi- jtri. H- ' Vlic- S Er. - .Kii. i. « AuatliL 
Ij4>c <llll, 'ir jjiiLt dL^lljTkrl hAtiJliAH- ihi la/kin lUrrmmUt. iihl H'^li^m rt liinuA <4 tlvllu IWnt or^liurtl. 
RX 4llbl : iLvnnu HrtiJlnivUjT Uvuiunciij f^u'lik tiuliilpuv ^vat 4iirfll< nil*, iinilr Ujviiin orT<i»iaui. tiL 
Zmnrti. I. I r. 1. 4u «ik*L nulia. f.-iviiiw. Iti iliu, ri|<. n. lib, K In w. (. - Domw dinmif. 
■iim •Irjirluiit, IsmlMMl w lutbuilliut ut I'mrllb. >'L |iul<t-nm lulu culuuuuc l'vpIiiiiiL ClMa- 
nik I. V c t> 


DigressioK of Spirits. 


■Ifike men and beaiU, inoku it tain «toiK» (as in Uvies tinte), wooll, frogs, 
Ac. cxMinlcHcit aiiniir* in thv mi, Mrange uois«s, awonls, Arc. lui ul Vimm 
Iw'bre ihe coming of lliu Turku, ni»] imxnj times m Rome, a* Schrrcliiii*, t. 
«ha€ct.c. l.jinrfjl- I.nratirr, </« *j*rc(. ^Mir/. I.e. 17, JiiliDRObt|rqiKn».an 
old Roman, in liis book of »roiligM», ab urh. Kvad. 505. ' MiichMvcl tiatti 
iliiatrtied by many Gxainplcs. oikI Jii»<^))iiis in liic Ixwk ik belli} Jndiuco, 
belbra the desiiuction of JcnisMcin. All which tinil. Poslcllus (in his first 
book, c. 7. <U orbit rancortfW) tucth its an effectual argument (as iudecd 
it it) to iierswade lliera that will not believe tliere be spiiits ocdevib. Tluiy 
ouiae wnirlwiuils on a ludilen, and tempestuous storms; which tliouii;h our 
neteoroluKitts ^cnemlly lufer to natural causes, yi-t 1 am of UodiiiL-s mind 
fTlual. Sat. t. 2.) llicy arc moie oAcii cauM^d by ihoM: aerial ttvvils, in 
tbdr MTcrnt quarters ; for tttapettati/ixu *' ia/jcrunt, vaitii '■ Iticli. ArgCD- 
tine : OS whtai a desperate man rauk<.s awuv with himself, which by bui^ag 
or drowniDfi; they frequently do, (as Korniiunntis obwrvt^, <J« ntirac. tttort. 
fart. 7. c. 76.) iripHdiuni ai/etlet, dancing nitd rejoicing at the death of a 
finniff. Tliese can cuiiuplihe air. and cnu»cplagnc$, sickness, Storms, sliijt- 
macks, fire*, iiiuivdatiotis. At Mods Dracoiiis in Italy, tliere n a most 
nKmonble example in 'Jovianui Fontanus; and nothing m> familiar (if wr 
may bdicve those relations of Saxo Grammaticus, Glaus Magnus, Daimanu* 
A. Goes) SiS fijr wilrhc-K uiid sorcerers, in l^pland, Liiliu^nU, and ul] u*«r 
idio, to sell wiiid* tn tn;trriners, aii<l cause tempests ; which Marcus Pan- 
the Venetian rclntcK likewise of llie Turlars. These kind of devils arc 
deUghted in taerificcs, (saith Porjiliyry) h<-ld all tli« world in awe, and 
several names, idols, sacriKces in [lomi-, Grcpce, .Kgypt, and at ihis 
ly tyraiiniie over, and deceive, those Etitnickx and Indians, bciog adored 
id wursliipped br < gods : for the Gentiles goiU were devils (as " Trisme|i^ 
coofeaselli in his Aaclejiius; and he himself could make them cooie to 
itrima^ by tnagick spells), and are bowasmuch respected bt/ our papists 
ith "Pictonus) Milder the name of faints. These are tiiey which, L'anlan 
thinks, desire so much carnal copulatiun with witches (Incufn and Suecabi), 
transform bodies, and arc so very cold, if they be touched : ami tlml serve 
raa);ictans. Ilis lather Iiad one of them, (* as he it not ashamed to ndatc) 
an ai^rial devil, bound to him for twenty and eight yean. As Agrippas dog 
had a devil tyed to his collcr. some tliink that Panu-elsus (or else l^iaslus 
belies hiio) had one confined to his sword pammel ; others wear (heni in liuK*, 
&-C. Jaiuies and Jambrea did many tilings of old by their help, Simon 
Magiis, Cinopi, Ap(iil<tniu*Tyaneus, Jamblicus, and Trithcmius of late, that 
shewed Maximilian tint empeiour his wife, after she was dead ; et etrracan 
in coUo rJHS (sailh *Coch)unim), so much as the wart in her neck. Delrio 
(lib. 2.) bath divers examples of their feats; Cii'o^na, lib. 'J. i.tip. 3, and 
Wierus in hi« book dr prtrtli-f. dsmonum, Boiiisardus, dr. maifii cl rrnr/fcu. 
Water-devils arc tliose naiwUt or water nymphs which have beeu hereto- 
eonversant about waters or rivers. The water (a* -' Paracelsus thinks) 
llietr chaos, wherein they live. Some call them fairies, and say that 
llahundta u their queeo. These cause inundations, many times ihipwracks, 
and deceive men divers wayes, as Stm-ubir, or otherwise, appearing most 
part (saith Tritfaeniius) in woDieuB shapes. Paracelsus hath several sloiiea 
of ihcm that have lived and bi^-n married to mortal n>en, and so continued 
fi>r certain year* wilii tliem, and aller, upon some dislike, liave formken 
them. Such a one u« E^-ria, willi whom Nuiua waa bo familiar, Diana, 

In Ur. < On [ruilElii JciiMnum. t. IS. CnnrrlU nilaliu (BlrtOD*. prMUtni mu, fte. 
mi0IUliu> |:*ni1('itl. I»l"-m Ju»l. Wjirl. Ajwl. pniOhnaCiuiu. 


[(•pobUnn. lib, 1 
..MLVm.Hitlk KilHliibt, <Oll fri'llum d^ilnnii'. A*". I'F" in ftrpim itJtlM» pfllnT. 

illwntid nondnc coluitiuf ft rin,unc4l*. 

•t*rlicMt.JCc. >Li1l,<luBilvM>. 

* LkU 11. dc irnim iu. 



Lili. 1. ntf. t. do 


!24 DigressioH ofSpiritt. [Part. 1. Sec. %J 

Ccnd, &c. ' 01au« Mflf^iiuii lialti a. lonii; narration of oiie Hothi'fos, k kiiigl 
of S»*ileii, Uiai, liavio)- lost his company us he was huiitiiii; one day, met' 
with lJi(:*i' water iiym|>hi or liirits, and *a3 fi-asted l>y ihcm ; and Hectot 
BoiflliinK, III" Mucbelh anil Hjuco, two Stuttmli lords, dial, aa lliiy vieiv wan*; 
dcting in woods, ii;id lln-it fortunes tuld iJiem by tiirot: Hira(i(,t! wumt-n. Tol 
Ihew liarclofbrc Uicy did ukc to ttixcrilii^c:, liy lli»t bipofiarrtia, vt divinnlioq 
by wRterB. devils nre tliniM.' * lam, ^rnii, Jannet, lati/rs. '•wood-nymphs, 
fbliois, fitiries, Robin Giixlffllows, TruUi, ^c. whirl) a* tlicy arc luoit 
Kinvenant with men, so they do them most harm. Some think it was tlicy 
oluiii; llmt kept the heathen people in nwc of old. and hod so uiativ idols 
iiiiil tirimtluM erected to tliein. 0( llm ran|^ wa« Dai;on fLmon^t ilte Phj. 
lisliiis, Rrl amoni^t the Itabylunians. Astartes aiiion;;^ the Siduiiiunx, Baal 
umoRgKt the Sainnritaiiii. Ish and O^irit amount the jEj^'jitiaii!', &c. Soma 
put our * Initicn inti) this rnnk, which have bi-en in foimcr timd adored with 
much superstition , with swccpinit their hoiiws, and tettin^ of a pail of clean 
water, good rictiiiiU, ami the Iik4' ; unit then llipy should n<it be pinched, 
but find money in their nhoes, and he forlnoate in their cmlerprizes. Thtae 
are tliey that danco on heaths and greens, as "* Lnvaicr thinks iritli Trtlho 
mttia, and, as'Ulaus Magnus adds, teitvc that i^reen eircle, which we com- 
monly find in plain fieldi?, which otheii hold to |>ioceed from a mi-tn>r 
Ikllitif, or some ace idenial rankncssof the i^round; au nature sportx bi-rarir. 
They are wiiietimea aeeu bv old uomen and diildieii. Hit-ron. Pauli, in . 
his uciicTiptioo of (lie city ot Dercitio in Spain, ri'latc^ how tliey havci hcen 
liimiliarlvxecn near thai town, about fountain* -ami hiiU: nonntiui/uiim (saith 
Trillieniins) in taa lulibufn manlium simplicinrrt homine* ducNut, itupriuia 
miraiili6Hg oiteu^nUnmiritcula, molarum a-nitus, tpeclaeiila, ^. UiraMiia 
('ambrensia give* instarn'i- in a monk nf W;>les thai was »a delodefl. ' Pa- 
recehim reckons up many {ilam^i in (icrtnany. where they do ustiulty walk in 
little coulji. doiiie two foot long. A bi^^^cr kind there is of them, called 
with UK Uoh'jtibtiat, and Robin Coo/IJvltoms, tlial wuuld, tii ihote supi-nti- 
(ious Iimc4, tiriiid corn (or a mess of milk, cat wood, or do any manner of 
drudsirry work. They would mend old irons in iJntsi- .^'uh'au rtlt* of l.ipara, 
in fonner ^^^4, and ha*u bven (lAen seen and lir.ard. ' TlioKraanns calls 
(]i«ro Trvllo* and Oetulot, and itaitji tliat in hii day<'« tJit^y wi>n! coninion in 
many places in Prince. Dithmanu Itlc^skenius, in hit de-sirriplion of Islaitd, 
reports for a nrrlainly, ibat :dnmst in every raniily thev have yet some such 
(amiliar spirits; and I'dix MnlWlus, in his book ite crmtel. dtttnon. affirmit 
as much, that the«^ TrtMi, or Tticlanea, :we very cumnion in Noruey, aitd 
" ««'n lo <tt> itntd^rtf work ! to draw water, soith WkTiis, (Hb, I, cafi. 'i2.) 
dreaa meat, or any such lUin;;, Another soil of ih^-te llirre an?, whii-h fre- 
<|uent forlorn 'houses, which the Italians call ^<<'tof«, mojit part innoxious. 
' Cardtm Itolds ; Thetf viill mnkt: tiratufe iioitet in Ihn nii/kl, ttoinl »Mie- 
limen iiillifiillti, and iben laiiifh agum.. eamc ijreal fiamrs and inddeti t'ujhu, 
fiiaij tlonrf, rattle ihuins, th'ivemrH.iipen ilnon. ind t/i'il (htm,^i»<ftiowm 
ptatttn, tloob, rhttts, tometimrt awmr in the tiirnMit of kartt, cmm, 
UocAtfoj^f,^!;. of which reail ' Prl. Tiirytniis the Jesuit (in his Tract tU locu 
infmlU, part. 1 . el top. 4.) who will have ihi^iii to be devils, or the souls of 
damned men ihnt *««k revenge, oit else souls out of purfcaiory tluu seek 

■LitklL ■ Pn>t«lirli>hniiilniitni-»riih»rFt»«lin'il»BI: Til tn eoniin pCTtiidon oomiii nmlmnluf, 
AoA *l>n*di--, OiUiliv, 1Un«i.lI]i>I»« •Bint Oluui lOcU. nil, 3. • I'lit 1. rxp. It. 
' LlL. 1 f^J'. n. r.l^.NrijIil b'rujrtNu4>laiL* Ijli, 3. «*im. B-^iauiu aiU-u profuTirl,- in trrm. Oti^'rlroujll. ul 
luoit inBi^ iWiiin-yi *lr,.f,' i,rhii'iilnri< iH, i-l mmn Mnn yttrnx 'l^h. ijp ZlJnh. vl rvKnu-lh, 
tMmw. t 1 • Ub. 1. ru{i. 11. Ui;l rt In (•niLtlltlu ilrti n l!>inlal> Imrnlunl. Tuiudii'lii •.■tn'u y»j. 
gfvA. iHllVa onmilvnl, Uunt pnrl4f*l, Kfn.H riinril, Kr. ^ Ail iiibiivLvriH uFuntur. ' Whi-r^ TTiv- 
tan it hlil(»»»omfll"iili), iirfiini- in,ji,li.h, nr mi-li iii.i' ixllui)f runmUlnl i l.di IC .U' iimuii) 
^ArlrUL ^ Ve] »j>krkiui jiliei tiujiumudj -iiiuiifeiufuiUH n-li' puiipivriOh ^1 ^r>i itouu/Eica, t. 4, j 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] Digressioa of Spirits. 126 

For such examples, peruee ' Stg;innunduB ScheretnuB, /i&. de tpeetru, 
part. 1. c. 1, which he saitb he took out of Luther most part; there be 
many instances. "* Plioius Secundus remembers sucb a house at Athens, 
which Athenodonis the philosopher hired, which no man durst inhabit for 
fear of devils. Austin (de Civ. Dei, lib. 22. cap. 8.) relates as much of 
Hesperius the tribunes house at Zubeda near their city of Hippo, vexed with 
evil spirits to his great hinderance ; cum affiictione animaliutn et senomm 
mamm. Many such instances are to be read in Niderius, Formicar. lib. 5. 
cap. 12. 3, ^c. Whether I may call these Zim and Othim, which Igay, 
oa/>. 13. 21. speaks of, 1 make a doubt. See more of tliese in the said 
Scheretz. Ub.J. de sped. cap. 4 : he is full of examples. These kind of devils 
many times appear to men, and affright them out of their wits, sometimes 
walking at ° noon-day, sometimes at nights, counterfeiting dead mens ghosts, 
as that of Caligula, wliich (saith Suetonius) was seen to walk in Lavinias 
garden : where his body was buried, spirits haunted, and the house where he 
dved : " Nulla nox sine lerrore traruacta, donee iticendio cotuumpta ; every 
niglit this hapned, there was no quietness, till the bouse was burned. About 
Hecia in Island, ghosts commonly walk, animas mortuoram nmulantes, saith 
Jo. Anan. lib. 4. de nat. dam. Olaus, lib. 2. cap. 2. Natal. Tallopid. lib. 
dt apparit. »pir. Kornmannus,dc mirac. mart. part. 1. c<^. 44. Such sights 
are frequently seen circa itpulcra el montuteria, saith Larat. Ub. 1. 
cap. 19. in monasteries and about church-yards, loco paludinosa, ampla mdi- 
Jieia, solilaria, et cade kominum rtotala, ifc. Thyreus adds, ubi ffraviua 
peecalum ett ctmmitsum, imjni, paupervm oppreiiorei, el nequiter huignei 
habitant. These spirits often foretell mens deaths, by several signs, as 
knocking, groanings, &c. Pthou^ Rich. Argentine, c. 18. de prtestiifiis 
d4tmonum, will ascribe these predictions to good angels, out of the authority 
of Ficinus and others ; prodigia in obilu principum sapiics conlinffunt, SfC. as, 
in the Laleran church in '< Rome, the popes deaths are foretold by Sylvesters 
tomb. Near Rupes Nova in Finland, in the kingdom of Sweden, there is a 
lake, in which, before the governour of the castle dyes, a spectrum, in the 
habit of Arion with his harp, appears, and makes excellent musick, like those 
blocks in Cheshire, which (they say) presage death to the master of the 
family ; or that ''oak in Lantbadran park in Cornwall, which foresliews as 
much. Many families in Europe are so put in mind of their last, by such 
predictions, and many men are forewarned (if we may believe Paracelsus) 
by ^miliar spirits, in divers shapes, as cocks, crows, owls, which often hover 
about sick mens chambers, vcl quia moricniium fcedilalem sendunl, as 
' Baracellua conjectures, et idco iuper tectum infirmorum crocilant, because 
they smell a corse; or for that (as ' Bemardinus de Bustis thinketh)God per- 
mits the devil to appear in the form of crows, and such like creatures, to 
scare such as live wickedly here on earth. A liule before Tu I lies death, 
(saith Plutarch) the crows made a mighty noise about him; tumultuote 
jitTslrepentes, they pulled the pillow from under his head. Rob. Gaguinus, 
hist. Franc, lib. 8. telleth such another woirderful stoig at the death of Jo- 
hannes de Monteforti, a French lord, annn 1345. Tatita corvorum multi- 
tudo adibus morientis insedil, ijuanlam esse in Gallid nemojudtcStset. Such 
prodigies are very frequent in authors. See more of these in the said Lavatcr, 
Thyreus, de locis infestis, part. 3. cap. 58, Pictorius, Delrio, Cicogna, lib. 3. 
cap. 9. Necromancers take upon tliem to raise and lay them at their plea- 

I Qbfdun iRDurea donmltcii instmmnitSi Dophi luJunt; patiniu, oI]u. conlhuas, otoJifc vm^, di'ji. 
fbuit : etqufcLun vurpq fmiltunl, ejulanf, TPBUin emitliiDr, kr. ut t:ani.A i^i^ni r«l«» variu iottn\\ !^Vr 
" KpiAL ], i. ' HcndionelH dvmoiK'A Cicopna ralb Jhpm, or Ala*i[nre*. ]. 5. iMiPr D. ■ burLoik, 
r. tt, in Calirrili, p SlroiEitm Cic^p^n, lib. ^. luan;. <'nii. A, 4 lilom. p. t*C ' M. Cfirv- J^lTwv 
<if Cum* all, lib. 2. Tol. UU. ' ilurio (iviiiali, ful, l^T. i I'lirt. 1. e. 19. Abducuni att iirvcti vU>. 
rt TluqiterUdenUbiiii Intrrrludunt. 

t3ti Digression of SiiiriU. [PaH. 1. Sec. 3. 

surcs; and so tikewiae tbose which Mixaldus calls Amhulontt, that walk I 
aliout midnight on groat liratlis and dcsart places, which (sailh "Lavaler) 1 
dram men out of ihe way, and Uart (Arm till tdght a by-way, or '{uile liar I 
(/lew o/ their way. Tlicsf liavr Kcvi-ral iiani«a in neveral places : we com- I 
niunly call tlidiii puchf. In ihci di'^arl* nf Lnp in Asia, such itluuciii» of I 
wnlkin^ Kpirrls arc ol^eii pcrrrtvct), ;i> you may read in M. Pauliii ths I 
Vc;n(^tiiin hiii travels. IT one lose hii <-oni|iittiy by chnnee, tlxiK: drvils will I 
cull him by his name, and coimtcrfuil voice* of liis ei)nipitnioii« to seduce J 
liim. Hieronym. Paul), in his book of the tiilla of Spain, relates of a c^restJ 

* mount in Cantabria, where such tpeclriims arc to be seen. Lavatcr aitd I 
Cicoj^na have variety of examplea of spirits and walking; devils in this kind. I 
Sometimes they sit by the liij^ti'Way side, to give men falls, and make their I 
hursL-s stumble and «uirt su. they ride, (if you will believe the relatton of that 1 
holy man Kelelliix, "in Niibri^-iisis,) ilial had an especial ^race to see ] 
deviU, tjmtiam iJirinitus collatam, and talk with theia. et impniiidu* cum 
tpirilibitt ttnnonrm mifn're, uithoiit of^l!Im^ : and if a muD cune tiT sjiiit his I 
horse for Ntumblin^, they do ticnrtily icjoycc Kt it; with niiuiy aach preltj J 
feats. I 

Subterr^neaQ devils arc as common as the rest, and do ns much harm. 1 
Olaus Magnus (lib. 6, cap, 19.) makes six kinds of them, some bigger, some'l 
IttiB. Tliese (saith ' Muiisier) are eomiiionly seen about mines of metals, and 
ate, some of tliein, noxious ; »omft a^in do no harm. The metal-men in 
miuiy places account it good luck, a sign of treasure an<l rich ore, when 
they sec tliem. Georgius AgricoUi (in bin liook dc subttrraneit animanlihut, 
cap. 37.) reckons two more notable kinds of them, which he ealls iGiriuH 
end Cobali; both ari^ cloathtd uftrr ihr, manner af mrlal-nrn, and will 
many liniM imitate Ih^tr works. Their ofliei-, a* Pieloriiis and Pamcelsui 
think, is to keep lr«aaure in the earth, that it bo not all at once revealed; 
and, IjeaideB, 'Cicogna arcrrs, that they are the frequent Gnuse« of ihun 
horrible eRrlh<|iiakes. u^AiVA ofli-n su-alluw ttp, not only hotisei. but tehoie 
itlaudi and eitia: in his ibifd liook, cup, 11, he ^lives many instances. 

The last are conY('rs.-uit alMiiit \\w: ei-ntiT of the eanli, to torttire tJu? souh ■ 
iif ilamiir^d men to the day of jmlgi'ment. Tlieir e(-ress and reg^n^ts nome | 
suiijio*e to he nbuiit .'Kinn, l.ipnni, Mims llecla in Ishuid, Ve<uviuii, Terra 
del Fuego, A-<:. [>e(Taine mniiv *.titcekB and tearful eryi'S are eoiitinually heard 
therewboutK, and familiar apparitions of dead men, ghosts, and gnhUns. 

Their o^cet,optnitioM, study.} Thus the devil reigns, in a thousand 
several shapes, n«a roaring /yon ttill seeki irliotit he may dcrour, (1 Pet. 5.) 
by earth, sea, land, air, as yet unconfined, though 'some will have his 
proprr place the air — all that place, lietwixt us and the moon, for them that 
traos^rnsed the least, and hell for the wirkede«t of .them; k'lc virlvt in 
earcert! adjinrm mundi, tuac in Imuin funrxtinrcja IrwUndi, as Austin liolds, 
de Ciril. Dei. c, 22. lib. 14. cap. .i. cl 23. Hut, be where lie will, he ragctJi 
white he may, to comfort himself (as ^ l.aclantius tliinks) witti oihRr mona 
falls, he labours all he can to bring them inlo the same pit of penlition with 
him : for " tnent miseries, calamities, and ruines, nrt Ihr dcoih banqueting 
dishes. Dy many temptations and several coi;ines, he seeks to caplifate our 

' lAU 1. cJifp. 41. DriiiifnutTimTiiinlUT rt uii1luii1aTft4fn<jiinilpalUu<lonf«^ iuiil#Sii.toTibiii I 

Ti-hcUim. Ill' H- 'Li'ui-Ei-n^ run fc bript niim0*nt ; Tof^tf^Iin Soifuiit loe^uiMiD, ui ■ riYia iUmiiv ihdu* 
ruint, ftr- ' >f cinv .ii-rt^i, ff nlvoflu, ohl (autnpnlS nocl* uvljnv App«Evnl. * LIU H, <«p. t|, 

mTi'nJk'tilii fArtiinr rnnvfiinllltuB In VIA ; fit Mliilinlrt rlilpni. eun *,>1 hcminnn trl JniDrDliira < ^ 
(•nlvfl ulU-Irrr rA'InijI. M iit&snui- ni hfjiiiu inUvlloUl rlT^krahhiiiupTliiI. * In L'r»«ij(Ot;r. J \ei 
mttiT nirtiUifurutii. fi-vlui i'( ripm ninini fiiijluilur. * lffiml«fi> In li^rrp cariL't'rr* tfv(ili>. hurrtljlJM 
tfTTWmatui plllricjul. iiLiilMia •irjM" v>>a 'UiJtTin miMln vl hirn-^T urd^ivllol*.* inr.'ifru f! tnviilk," 
tiinL 'JIL^rflu, in SK|ilii* l.lpm .MlrhuTi* r, 4. lir ■jiinTlliti*. Jrlt-in Tliyrrw> 4]r I'prI, I 

* L^eUnlLiit. i. .If "ficlDO t-rrofi*, i'i)k IV III ni^'licnl »]ilmi« nir nini;*-m U'mm ra^^rihir. u. 
ttvm potUitiuniB ■(■' prrOcu^ti' Ij^uinulflta viii-rkitwr. ■ MurluLiiD oiLiiDlUio^ ci>ul« xini aai 

Hem. 1. Sube. 2.] Digrtssum of Sjririlt. 127 

MttU. Tho lord of lyc*. saitli •■ Auatio ; aj A« wjm rfrcvi'tW AtniM/y. Ac sm*j 
lo dtcfivf othKrt i ilm ring-leader fu all niiui;htinr'ss ; as he <liil by l'"vc and 
C^ri. Sclom nnd Ootmnrlia, «o would lir dti by nil tlie world. Sometimes 
\w leiupW by rovcliiusiif", drunkcmie**, pleasure, priile, Src, errs, dcjeiMs, 
tiuvcs, Wills, proict't*, and ridt-* unw. men, aa lliey do their horses. He 
•tudies our overthrow iind generally i«4:ks our destruction ; and, aitbongli 
he jprctend many times humane gowl, nud vindicuie Iiiitisolf for a god, by 
cunng of »ev«Tal diseases, ^grii Mttxtatem, et c«ru lumiuis umm rf*tilurndo, 
(luAuKliii declares, {<&. \0.4e civil. Dei,cap.(i.)iuii\pti\\o,]aphi», Imn, 
of oM littv« done; divert plagues, as&ist tlicni in witrs, [ircti-nd llirir hnppi- 
nem ; TCt liiAi7 his iiiijntrias, icvUilius, nihil hnmano grnrri infntiat ,- 
nothing so impure, nothing; so peroicious, ns may wdl appear by tlwir 
lyraimic^l and bloody Kicrifices of meii tu Sntnrn and Moloch (which are still 
in use anioo^t those hiuliiitmis Indiuitx), tlidr several deceits and cowningit 
to lc«ep men io ohediciK'C, tlieir false or.-iclea, sacrifices, their superslitious 
iaipotitioos of fasts, penury, A-r. hcrc'iies. su|ieraliti»iis, obicrialioriit of 
meaU, limes, &c. by which tlicy 'rniciSe llie souls of mortal men, as shall 
bi- shewed in our treatise of religious melancholy, MtidiM adhuc tempore 
ttnilur maligjuai, as ' Bernard eipreeselh it : by G<hI* permission he rugi-th 
a while, hereafter to be confined to hell and darkni-M, tv/ticK i* prepared far 
him awl hit anrieh. Mall. 25. 

How far ihcir [lower doth extend, it is hard t» driermino. What the 
ancieota held of their dii'ei*, force, and op<;nnion», I will briefly shew yoii. 
Ptalo, in Ciitins, and oAer him, hi.t tiillower*, gave out that these spirits or 
devils Kvrc mtnt govcrw>«rii and iecpfri, our lord* and matltrs, as we are 
ofottr catlU. * They tjovem pToviwei and liiruidtniu by oracles, auijuHes, 
areains, rewards, and piini»hmenls, prophesies, inspirations, sacrifices, and 
rclieioui tapeniitions, varied in as many forms, as there be diversity of 
HpinU: tliry send ware, plagues, peace. «iekm'ss. healdi, dearth, plenty, 
^ adstantft h>r jam Kiibis,*pCClanles ct arhitrantrt, Sfa. (list uppi'am by ihoitc 
histories of 'rliiieydide.i. Liviim, Dionysius Haliearnnweun, with muny nthcrs, 
that are lidl of tlidr n'oiiderfid slratat;omx) anil were there-fore, by those 
Roman and firci'k romnnin-wiuillhs, aiiort^d nni! wnrsliipped for gods, with 
prayers, and sncriticcs. A.'c. ' In a word, nihil morjis quarimt, tjiiam rneliim 
et adjmralkmevt hominutn ; and (as another hath it) dicinon polesl, /jtiam 
impolenli ardore in homines dominium, et d'lvinot i-ullus, maligni spirifuu 
affectent. Tridiemius. in liis book de septem seoimlis, assigns names Io such 
angcU a* arc governours of partienlar provinces (by what authority 1 know 
not), and ^ren them ae\'eral jurisdictions. A«c1epiade» a Grecian, Rabbi 
Achiba the Jew, Abraham Aveiuir.ra, an^l Rabbi Ayan-el, Arabians, (as I find 
tbcm cited by J Cico^na) farther add, lliat they are not our govemoun only, 
teJ ex eontm coiKordU et discordiJ, lioni rt tnali afftctas promanant ; but 
att thiej aj^ee. so do we an<l our princes, or disagree ; stand or Inll. Juno 
was a bitter enemy toTmy, Apollo n good friend, Jupiter indifiercnt : jE^va 
Ventcs Teucris. Pallas iniijua fuit ; some are for us still, some ^nainst us ; 
ftrcnrnU Deo,/erl Deiis alter opem. Relij;iou, policy, publicit and private 
ijnarreli, wars, are procured by them ; and tbey are ' deltfthted perhaps to 

lum. Ul>. I. Utanfl'iin. r. I. Am'riK, K|.|ili>l. Jtl> 111. I'!'. HI. AiiKUil. <!>> <'1>. Dvl, 111. i. c. SL llh. n. ilk. 9. IS lib. Ill 91. 'I'hH.ptill. Ill It. >UI. I'»>l. <>p, l<l. LroniMn Hut TIimkIiuvI, in II 
Car. tf. ti. Chi}'*, hum. ;i3 in Vl l.-rTi. Ung In 1. r. Jahn, Tlarltial. it pro^j. 1.1. r. W. KsnrU. 
I. 4. dMA^i« ta^li*- LVrtT- la <^rrj. i IL. Inc. ft- 1. Origi-Ti. Srpi- jfruriiii iaicrviiitU iUitonrt nif- 
■OU* DUftri lii'"^'^^'^"!' Ltirktfiitjl. r^iiiIt-«HnliLcuthMil*(»jhrnIo. uip<< prvlw nl RUDivvitik. Pel. M*r, En 
Jbia, let- Uutrim fi" rnf^mo. ' Kl Tolut ntrmri^^jt 4'irv'iiinfj-rt. I'ai'llut. ^ l-ili. ti" tTiLii*Tjilt[. 
MKl^-»p. 4Cu9tu0i'i eiiitt boinlMfiiri. iil nut aufntiimrn. tbiiii't proTlnckli ifiVT^'^IE* nviitl avijiu- 
liU. Mmnlli, oinrulti. iiiuuilli. N<'. >Li|i>liu. P)inii>l. SI,Ar. lib. 1, up. Ik, 't.«u Suivli. Idvm 
ct TrilhcmiUf, ' Omnir, nu^ hli. i- ny S3. ■ L^rlim cU^Qrum vninut. 

12tf DigressioN of SpirUn. [Part, 1. Sec. 2;| 

wo tnen figlit. a* lacn arc witti cocks, buIlM nnd doc:*, bean, &c. Phgnc 
deailtis, drpcnd on t)i«m, uur tcue »iid male este, and nltno»t all our ptbc 
peculiar actions, (for, «« Anlhotiy Riiin-a Mmlrndii, iih. 5. cap. 19, every mail 
liatli a ^ood nnd n bnil niip:<'l att<'niling ol' him in partirulsr, all his Hfo Iod^,1 
nliich Jamblicus cdIIk ilamonetn) prcrmmni*. loiuies, wedding, dcaihs^l 
rennrd«, and {luniehnicnls, uid (sh ' Frix'tus will) all offices wlialsocv^r : f 
alii t/cnirtricera. aiii ojiifittm polestaUm httbcut, i(c. aud Hcvi-ral nain«s Uieyl 
giie tlwim ■ccurdiii^ to their officer, as Lares, JndigeU*, Prastitei, ^c.l 
Whcit l)i« Arcad<», in lliai battel at ChaBrooea. uliicb was rnught a^ins^i 
King Pbiiip (kit the liberty of Greece, had deu^itl'ullv carried tlicntieKvii,— H 
loti^ after, in the very tame placi.-, diU Ormciv ulUirihuf, (miilli mine iiiithnryl 
they were miserably Hlaiii by ML-ti^lIm tht^ Ruman : vo tikenigc, in j^nnlln] 
matlcTs. llicy will liufe lliin^ fall out, m tlicne tioni and mali genii farour 
or dislike ii«. SotHTaitii now amrraiunt Jnvtaiihut, Sfc. He that i& Satur- 
ntnut^ shall never likely be preferred. "'Thnt bn»c fellows are often advanced, 
undeaening Gnalh'is.aini vicious p.iratites. uhen asdiirreet, wise, veritious, 
and wciriliy men are neglected, and unrewarded, they refer lo those donu> 
neeriiig "pi'iU. or Biibordtoate Tcmi .' as they urir inclint^d, or favour men, Mtl 
tlinv thrive, art! riilMl and overeouie; for (aa " IJbaiiiu* supjiowab) in oti« 
ordinary eoafliclH and eonlifutioiu, fffnitit genia erdit el ofitrmpfrat, onfJ 
geniiis vi'^hU and ijt nvcreonur by amitlier. All parliciilar events nlinosl thef 1 
refer tn these private ipiiitK ; aud (as PacaceUu* adds) they dircl, leneh,] 
inspire, and inslract men. Nmit wiii siny man extraordinarily fnntnns in' 
any nn, action, or great comninnder, thai had not faniiliarvm d<tmonemf\ 
to inform him, u Numa, Socnitx^s, and mnny sueh, as Cardan illtinlratesj] 
cap. 128. Arcanix prudentitf cirilis, "tpecinli lii/uidcm gratid, K a Dtvi 
dtmari utterBtit mayi, a geTiiis eeelcstibus iuilrui, ab tit doeeri. But thctt\ 
ar« moel erTOiiei>iii paradoxes, iaeplte et /a&ultma nuga, rtrjecied 1>y ou( 
divinea and Cluristian churches. Tis tfuc. they have, by God* pcnnti 
power (H-er ua: and we find by cxperienee. that they can Phiirt, not oiil 
ficldii only, catiel. g^odn.but our bodie* :utd iitinds. At Hammel in i^axonv, 
an. I4!)4, '20 jHnii, tlie devil, in tlie hkenMK of a pie^l piper, carried awai 
131) ehildnn that were never after ne<:n. Miiny tim<» men are "< alTri^htea j 
out uf their wito, carried away quite (as SeheretuuB illustrTites, lib. 1. c. 4.M 
and Kcvcnlly molested by his means. Plotinus tlie Plalonist, (lib, I4i 
advert. Gnosl.) laughs tJicm to se^rn, thnl bold the devil or apirils cani 
cause any such diseases. Many think he can wock upon tlie body, (mt n»l 
ui>on the mind. Bill enperiencc pronouncelh othtrwise, iliat he can work 
Ih>Ui upon body and nund. TerluUian in uf ihix opinion, (e. 22.) ' ttial ht 
ca» came holh ikintss and lu^alth, uikI tltut mn-n-uy. * Taurelliiit adds. 
clancutar poiifoiu he can infect the bodiet, and bindrr lk« ttpcralioiM of lit 
tiowcU, though ire perceire it not ; closr.ii/ crtepinij Ibem, saith ' Lipaiui 
.ind socraciHeoursciult; et aneivd nwlnnfboliii furiosoi e^cil. For, ueiiij 
a spiritual body, be struggles witli our spirits, sailh Rogers, and suggest 
(aceordinK to " Cardan, verba mte voce, «p«ci>« unt i<uii) envy, last, uig« 
&c. as be sees nieu inclined. 

TfacmBDnerhowlteperfortiisil, Diarmannus, in his oration a^inst Bodiiic^ 

■ UK rip intm Fl alirmnnr. • 4ui>bc* nt, Bl ntlniipH noiitlinn oullctiTii fllTiliii (I lU^ilsUIn 
T^-ncutinmnt, ri iD)jlTr>r„in wiftanjm mlnltlnim. qufnun Bcivrl i^ru Iwri. i^'ricEL^ufn miltUt. np tfrurrd 
riiRU'nl. 4.?- I.lffu- ^ud |>hJo*ii|>Tii Mil rrvtniHimMiir. eun tfnmx vt jn<'ptLiK nS nttulfinti Jorui 
«jp» pmniutu »(Knl(l, Irulc At, Kr^ * I.Lh. dr rwUrrr. ■ Hf»k(.dr<1u». 0. 0, miiolM 
» <ff0.k1iiinTiiTiii, rap, 3, lir. ). cj.- lln^iA. iiirm XancTihif, llh^ V vn-. lOrt IT. dc rrmTia fti.n^lSi^ ^ S. 
«i»t iit''lni,i-Ho] LA riiTinBi* nine ji^ fi qijjiii'l(«i«i<^ |>t<iiau) E/iccrScit. U. rit^MomfiU'iu ; irLi'miiEir Zinr 
i^p. 10, lib 4 »il hriii jtrnniltal. I'vr^n iiuaIi* ihoivm ihuauciIp iijf*irftn\ i^unria mfirh^rum n m 
tonim g:nrf 4iiUc'ru<', E»u'. vr In iuiu pfoMnw rt «>'tlrA > Imliir^-iv iHiii'^i jitntipo* c4 Mnliirtr 
■ Vi«rvrit'n ti-hL.n.'* j><klF*f iiihibi-riiliUrrilc*, tt TmriiAm uiAAm l^i»(i« ruri>ii^ ^ri1]i:''rp. * iFrvumb 
cutvorilHu irnu1b> rbi-rUn l^njjiitii, iflvntnUFrml. ■(^>ri dttiuniunjL tSv- Vhjt- StuW. L Le, 7 
' l/r»n>in TU. t. 10. <;. M 

Hem. 1. Sobs. 2.] ' Digremon of Spirits. 129 

tafficicntiy d(«tai«*. ' //b begins first vAth tht pka»tasie, and tamtt that 
to strongly, that no rtamn it able to rtsitf. Now ihi- phantasie hi; move* 
by tncdialioii prhunuiiint ; iililwugh rnanv phy&icians urc of opiDton, thai th« 
dovjl ciin alter the mind, and produce Uiu dueaM, of himsetr. Quibutdaiti 
mtdicvruiH t-isHm, saith ' Aviccnna, ytiod mtlanehoHa conli»gat a dirmoiiio. 
Of Uie nioe mind is Pselliis, nnd RhasU. ilie Arab, (Hb. 1 . Tract. 9. Coil.) 
' tltat this disease proceeds tipeciaily from the devil, aiidfnim him alaite. 
Arculauu», cap. Q. in 9. Rhasis, JEiiannt Mtirttultus in ba 9 cap. Daniel 
Sennertu*, lib. 1. part, 2. c*ip. 1 1 , <;onfirm as ■iiu<-h, tliat llio devil mn rauwt 
llm dticaac ; by Kanon, Taa.ay times, that the partii'H nftVvted pro()he«t<!, 
upcsk >tTnnz« bnjn'-tS*'' '">* """ '*'*^ interventa humorU, not without the 
huttioiiT, lu hi; inlcrprcta himself; no more doth Aviccnnn : si continyat a 
d^moido, svj/icit nobis h( convtrtal compUxumem ad eholtram ntt/ram, et 
til eatitsa ejvspr«pinyua cholera nigra : the iiiiinedialu cause is choler adust ; 
which * PoiQponaiJuB likcwiw labours to make good : Galgenuidus of Man- 
tua, a famous i>liyMcian, SO Cured a diemoniacal woman in liio ttme, that 
•pake all languages, by pureini; blark choler; and thereupon, belike, this 
humour of melancholy is called halnrum diahnii, the deviU bitth : ilit^ devil, 
•pyiuK his opportunity of iittli humours, drive; them miuiy liines lo desimir, 
fary, rage, Siv. uunghng hitmi-lf umon^oi (hc«c humour*. Thitin thatwhicli 
Trrtullian avein, corporiius iitfiiffunt ncttbos eng'i-t, animir<juf rrprntinos; 
membra dittarquent, accutle repenles, &:c. and. which Lcmniui ^ov about to 
fnnv, amnisctnt sf malt ytnii pravii kitmorihui, atr/ue atrit bili, ^. an<l 
'JaMMi Ptatcn»it, lital liie devil, being a slender hicompr^hetitible spirit, 
cam easil>f insinuate and iL'ind himtelf into htimane bodien, and, cvnningltf 
Tiniched in our bvuieU, Kiliale aar healths, terrifie our tauls with fearful 
dreams, and shake oar mind with furies. AikI in another jiiace. These un- 
dean spirits, settled it* oar bodies, and now mirt with tmr melancholy hu- 
moart, do triumpk as it utrc, and sport ikensclvrs as in another heaven. 
Tints he argue*, and that tliry go in and out of our ho<lic«, us Ikth do in a 
hive, and M provoke and Icinpt ui, asthey pcrccireour tcmpcrnlurn inclined 
of itself, and n>o«t apt to be (kiu<Icd. *' Af^rippn and Lavater 8Tc pcrxwadrd 
that lhij« humour invilcs the devil to it, wheresoever it is in extremity ; and, 
of all ollw-r, metaDcholy persons are most subject to diabolical tomptationa 
and illusions, and most apt to enierlain them, and the devil beat able to work 
upon ihctn ; but, whether by obseiaioii, or iiossession, or otherwise, I will not 
determine : 'lis a difficult <]uesttcin. Dclrto the Jenuite, ftont. 3. lib, G.) 
Sprtn^r and liift colleague, (mall, malrf.) Pvi. Tliyn^uii the Jcsuite, (lib. de 
d^tntmiaeis, dr. tocis infeslis, dt terrificationihus nocturnis) Hicroiiymus 
yieofpa, ( Flage.1. dtetn.) and othc-n of that nmk of pontiliciBi irrilers, il 
■cem*, by ihcix csord»ms and conjurations, approve of it, having forged 
Bsny aiorics to that piirpoao. A nun did cat a letticc * without grace, or 
signing il vith Ike sign of the cross, and was instantly posscsicd. Durand, 
{lib. 6. Rational, c. 86. num. 9.) relates that he taw a wench poiMSsed in 
Bononn with two devils, by ealinjj; an unhallowed pomegranate, as she did 
afterwards confess, when she was cured by exorcisms. And thert'fore our 
papists do sif^ thenjselves so otlen with tlie sign of the cross, ne deemon in- 
gridi ausit, and exorcin: all inaiiner of meals, as being; unclean or accursed 
otherwise, ai Bellarniinc defends. Many such stories I find amongst jioiiti- 

.vi]ui(. prinum mft"rt phfcnttrtim, rt ITi uhllTTnal vmi* ffrir'rrlf- 

' QvuiD mnia InmfdUlc ilf ci^i ni 
boa, al inuMtm brulttli «>llni*tiv)<. 
MWflWU, luftjniir.'m rnniinL Am 

. (mti^jnivtf lucum TeJiiuiuBL Biilrtlua m*lu iD*mdlL viLmiuiH, cut- 
I, ,-* •u'vi.-.ii • nnjinL AiiilUK ^ rlL tttut. "Lib. 3. Frn- L TnBL i. q. 1H. rA d»- 
.ine piuGFlHi, fi Hi|ic>.iJi>. -Lib. iIf Inuac • Cip. dc muU. Ub. dp morMt cmbii. 

<. qqUffl «iDI fvrjiivic-f JTlrDIDprliriLiiEllifn <plrltiu. K toilnuMrF fOFIKTllXja hUDIuUt poUVUDl. 

a«mll> In iLimibuii i>pi-tti, ral<'iiiill»i-m tiiiair. lumnEj* uiinu innH, eC mnla rurnrlbui qu». 
Mb. iDilniunl v tneUi\rbo\ityr^im i^fni'tt^litnii inluB, ibiquD i-unBLilunl ft dtliniwihtr. tamfiuam En 
^rtfn* t lM <MimffnHD 4ldi^rui7i. i^ociii)li]i*^ an^mum furvtr. * l-ih. I. n|i. t. ocrult pbtlo*- puL L 
a^ L 4r *p*4lfi«. ■Blfii-fniotrt unetiflCBiiijiic : tit t dBinonc obi«u. itliJ' 


130 Qjttsof of Melancholy. [Part. 1 . Sec. 2. 

ficial wriler*. ** to prove their ouerlions ; let diem free ibetr own vr«diu : 
RUiiii: few I will rvcite ui tliu kind out of moft approvc-tl phviiciutis. Cunie- 
Itiit Gi!iiinia (lib. 2. de nat. mirac. c. 4) rdurrs of n y<iun|{ m;u<l, culled 
KiiUiTTim' fiijullrr, iicoiiprni dikiii^hlcr, an. 1571, thni had ituclmininpr [lai- 
»i(iiiii und cntividHion*, three men could iiol sonietimet hold hor. She pur^-d 
n livr rtlc. wiiicli he «iw, a loot and ti half long, and lonched bimiclf: but 
the eelc alteru-aid vaninhrd : she vomil^l looie twenty-four pouitdR of liil- 
(loiiictttuH'urall colours, twice a day for fourieeu duves ; aud, after that, she 
voided i;reai bulla of hair, piee«'A uf wood. pi^Tutu duni;, jiarchuient, guoac 
diinif, outils : aod, iiller them, two pound ot piim bliiod. aiid ihtn n^'^''* coats 
and Hluiien (uf whii'h ^ucih- hud rriscriplionK] higpT ihuii ii widiiul. ioriie of 
tliLiit piece* ofglaM, hniM, Are. I>r>ide« |inrox)r»nir* of liiiigliinir, weupiu^, 
uiid uxtaiiii.'S, Are. El hoc (intuit) mm horrore ridi, ihiB I »uw willi horrour. 
They cuuld do no Koiid on her l>y phyftick, hul left licr lo llie clei^. ftlur- 
ocllue UoiiatiiK (lib. 2. c. 1. lie mtd. tairab.) hath such another Klory of ti 
cuuntrey fellow, that liad four knives in hi* belly, imlar terra denlatos, 
iodenled likca taw, every one a span loofr. and a wreath of haJc like a );;lube, 
wiUk much baggie of like sort, wuDdtrful to hnliold. How it sliould come 
into Ilia i;ut«. he concludes, cerf«' non alio quam daiaanis astulij el ditto. 
Langiut ( Eiiisl. mrii. lib. 1. Epiil. ^^) hnlli ninny rcbticioK to tliia elTecl, 
Knd tu hatb Chrittophcru* a Vc^. Wicrut, Skcnkiii*, SmhaaiuH, ul) 
iif;ree thut they are done by the Miblilly and illusion of the drvil. If you 
duiU a«k a rcanon of thin, 'liR to esercisc our palirncc ; for a« ' TettidliuB 
hold*, Viritu non est virlM, nut comparem batiet ali'jv-em, to i/iio tnperando 
ii'm $u(iia osttadat ; 'tis to try us and ottr faith ; 'tis for our olTcncc*. and 
for the puni«hiucnl of our sins, by Guda permission they do it ; carnifictt 
nndictte juslie Dei, as 'Toluaanus itiles them, executioners of bis will : or 
rather u David, Pmi. 78, ver. id. He van upon Ihem the Jien-enes* of hit 
amer, indignation, wrath, and eexalitm, by tending tmt of evil angeli. So 
did he aHlict Job, Saul, the tuiiuticka and dicinouiacal pvrsont whom Christ 
cured, Matth. 4. 8. Luke 4. 11. Luke l^l. Mark 9. Tobit 8. 3, &c. 
This, I ray, happeueth for a punixhmcnt of sin, fur their want of faith, 
incredulity, WHukm-M, dixtni»i, A-c. 

SvMBi^.lll. — Of Wilehes and Mayidant, how Ihei/ cause Melancholy, 
You have heard what the devil can do of himself: now you shall Iwarwl 
lie can i«rrona by his iDstrumenls, who ore muiiy tiiiit-* wur*e, (if it be ^ 
•ibie) than lie himself, and, to latishc their reven^ and lurt, cause mora 
mischief; multa eiiim mala uon tyuset iZirmon, nisi provoratut a taifit, aa 
■ Erastus thinks : mueli harm had never been done, hod he nat been pru- 
vokeil by witches to it. He hnd notappcired in Samuels sliR(>e. if llu- witch 
of r.odor had let him alone : or rcpreseotcd tliose »crpcni;t in I'hnrauh'i pre- 
•ence, hiul not the magician* urged him unto it : ni?c marbm vel AooiimiAmc 
tvl lirtilit infliyerel, ( I^rosln* miiintnins) si tut/tt i/uietcerenl : men and cHt- 
tlc might go free, if llie witches would Id him alone. Many deny witches at 
all, or, if tliere he any, they can do no harm. Uf this opiiuon is Wierus, 
Ui6. 3. cap. 53. de pntstig. dam.) Austin Lercliomer a Dutch writer, 
Biannannui. Ewichius, Euwa]dus,ourcouutrymauScal : with him iu Horace, 

SoiMili, irnvm nuflm. Dilnculs.MKu. 
Nvriuntfii tvnarr*. iioricnlbiur Ttiwal*. rttu 

tfiey laugh al all surh stories: but on the conlnry ore most lawyers, divinnT 
phyueian", philoaophers, Austin, Ilcmingina, Dannna, Chytiwus, Zanchius, 
An-iiu«, itc Dalrio, S|>rin^r, * N'ideiius (lib, R. Formicar.) 

I. aa I 

n villi 

»|ii,iniv<lii i^ri«n''i nont, mirml. 

' Uk W, tup, M. Tub. X. 


I IV UmiK. • tl 

Mem. I. Suba. 3.] Oiwm of Mttanekitln. 131 

Banolus, (rmuU. *>. Uim. \.) IhMliiic, ( da-monianl . /■/<. l. cnji. H.) C<mI<-|- 

nian, DiunIiodi-nu!i, iec. Parjcelsu«, Kniitii<i, SiTiliiiTiiux, ('.imctithii!!, &<■. 

The partie* bv whom the drvil ittaU, niav In- rifliii'nl iu tln'M' iwi» — !iu<'li 

v rommand nim, in iihew at Icait, u funJurfTn, ami iiinjiri^iiiK, (whuv- 

detestable and horrid myiterif* are contained in tht'ir Imok raWt-d ' AT/mlrll: 

damoiut nim advocati prir$tn iuhI , leijme tznrcitmis et cimjunitiiinilniti/iiari 

ciMfi patiuntur, ul miserum auiyarum t/enia in tmpietnli- dtlincant) or siii-li 

u are commanded, as witches, tliat deal ex parte impliale, or expltrilr, aa 

ibe' Kittg hath well defined. Many suhdiviiiion^ llii-rc an-, am) niiinv <>e- 

reraJ ipecies of torcereni, witilies, inelianten, rhaniitm. A>-. They hut e 

been tolerated heretofore, ftomc of tlifm; and ni;iL;l('k )i»tli k'cn ptililickly 

pfolesaed in former time*, in ''SulamaniM, ' < 'r,irrivi;i, ,ind iillur |)l:ii-i.4, 

thoutrh after censumi by several "'unlvcniiii-n. ntid now ui'MithIIv I'oiiiru- 

dictetl, thou);h practised by nonie still, maiiiluinid and i-xt'iisi-<l, titmi/ium 

T€t lecreta, f ■« non nui ririt maijnu rl ptrulinri htnrfii-'to de ctrlo initr^rlit 

tnmaiMnicatuT (I use " Doissardus liiii witrdi); iind ihi liir a|i|iriiviil liv sonic 

princes, h( nihil im't lu/grrdi in poliliiv, in lains. in voHtiliit, nine toram 

arbilrio; they consult otill with tliem, anil itarc indei'd ilo niilhiii;; withiml 

their advice. Nero und Hi'liu^l>uluji, MiKcniiuTi, and .1uti4nu!> AiKislalLi, 

■ere nerer so much addicted to maffick of oli), hh !u>ni<- of our nioili-ni 

princea and popes themselves are now adnycs. Hrrieun. kiiii; of Swislni, 

iiad an ° inchanted cap, by vcrtue of which. Hnd soiiic niai;ical nnirmur or 

whisperintr terms, he cuuld conimttml spiriiN. troiil>li- the .lyri', and ui.iki' ihi> 

vind ilatKl which way lie wwdd ; iiiHomuch lliiii, when thrri- wa« iinv irn-.i! 

wind or storm, the common pc-uple were woni in »;iv, ilii' kiii'_' ikiu fi:iil nii 

hi* coDJurin;; cap. But nucli example* iire iitliniti-. Thai wliiih l)ii y I'.iti 

do. i* as much ajmoxt a* tlic devil himM'll', who ir. siill rraitv t'l ■^nii'lii' tlnir 

dft^ire*. toobli:;c them the more unto him. Tticv imii ciitiu' 1i'ni)H'>i>, 'inrins; 

>hich )M f.imiliarly jintctiiii'd bvwilchiM in Norwiiv, lithiiiil. us I li.iti' jirnvi-il, 

Tht-T can miikc friends ciiemie!i. mid cni'miei t'rii-iMU, liy iiMlirrs; ■' f irr/irj 

imorrs cunttluire, eiifori'i- liive, trll ;iny wlun- Ins Irii'inl* ;irt', liKuii 

>l>.it employed, lhniii;li in lli<- tiiii«l miioti' pl.ii-i'<; loid, trilnv will, 'ifirmif 

thi ir BitrethritTt* lit thrin fiy niyhl, m/khi ii i/iml.i hiiri flfiiini in Ihr iti/rr, 

':;i::i<nitiiid Schcrcl/iu*. jwrl. I. rup. 't, ilv unit, ri'imrl^ niiiliili'tillt. 

'.»■ cunfirred with HUiidrv inch, lliiil hitd Ixrii <>•< ■ arriiil m;iiiv niilit. iitid 

llial he heard uili'lies tii>'niMlvt'« cunfess u*. iiniijii hntl, am) iiilecl iin'ii 

an-l beUMs, vines, i:<tii. I'Utlle. phiiit', iiiaki' hoiii-h iilHirliv<', mil In I'lui' 

ceiie, ' barrrii, men and wnini'ii uiiii|it ^iiiil muilil. . iii^iriinl ati'l uiiiiiiirri'd, 

Hf[y ihe^-eral w.lys, (-uiilh ItiHline, /. i. r. 'J. i Hvi- in the a\r<', hiitI when and 

■ liere tlicy will, as Cii-iK.rna pnivi's. luirl [ L-iva1. il< Sjur. yur/. '1. r. 17 i ■•/ml 

jOHhi/ vhililtin (inl I'f Ihrir irnilli s. tii[[ii<i<Tii> d^i rii-itiuiii. tiinl put ilifurmiil 

la their rattms, vliith vi ra'l chiiM'/iitti'/f, ls;iiili ■ Selirri'l/iiis. /nirl. I. r. *i) 

make men lietiiiiniis. liirtunate. eliH[iii'nl: (ami linn Ino'. in ihnsi' amii'nt 

Dioni>machie<iiiiid('iinilnits, they were ■^'It^l'lll1| >>t'<iM,<i[ thivliail iici uMu'ieal 

rlianns) tliey cntt make "sliek-fret-'. siieli ;«< yliull endure -.i riiiiirr" |h>ijiI, 

mu'^ket sliot, atid never Ih> wi>unile(|; lul' uliieli reail inon in Itoi.isiiri/ux, 

ritp. 'i. di MiiQiii. llie nniiiner <■!' thi' iiil)iii:iliiiii. jiiiI 1>v hIi'iiii lit made. 

^hef'- and how In Ih' ii*i-it iu i jjirititiiynil-Hn f-t Hu-U, /uti li'<,durl/i.\, \i-.n\i\i 

K.anv pM;uliiir iiKhinee* ami e\;ini|'li-) iliev e.iii Halk m ti.rv rnrM;!!''-*, 

link'' men feel li'i [laiii nil llie l.iik. iinl ii/i'it tiiihiins S'liliri : Tl>e\ r.iii 

I>i:- r,-in ilnn li'.iu in H.^I-'Ji^I... IiI>. I il:- | ' i .1 .' < II. > J>. i.l.n. Ilii.i.".. : I l.< .1 • \n 

■■-■.i-f.ltl in Spun. :•< ■■{•> >'.i.lil. . ' Til.- . 111. M..I. I . l-..,.( .1 1iil,.ril i.; I.ii-. ^. . I :.. "i I' 

i.tT,l.rir-n. . l'i«-E.-ir. ■■'- HI 1. 1. --I 1 Ti.-'.. Jir. t kill y I'.i k. tl- I.lI ., ... t. i |. . i 

'r-r^l. ^-n-ri- TijrMrvr. rf m .ii | .iri. mk .^. l.i p.'i. ■ . M' n ■■. r; ( . i,.*tiii'.i r^''-- 

'-<. r-'iyV" ■'I iirKjiHih'.. \ i-J. r.'iiinii il.' |-.tLii<ti . I'l. I il.^i 1 ::| rotli.iti i.ii. i-tr-il"Ni ' Ln- 

LX'iT.^ rfi^tnliu* *ijlTiirAniiir ^ 4lii. .tii-iimiiiii. |.| Ijh, r-.rxiu <^».i.i,^^1l.. ' ^iil--«^ 'II I.Liihi 1. 

''- 1 T.mmn pm^i^pliitii. i-t I^.ih.i. \ iriie. 1iI> .Ik- i.i.<'ii.<'. 



132 Caiufs of MeUincholy. [ParU 1. Sec- 2. 

filanch Mood, " reprewnt dead mens ahapei, alter and turn theiDselffs and' 
others into sevcml rorm* at ihuir piBasiiK:*." Ajtalmrta, a famous witch \~ ' 
Lapland, would do as much jniblickly to all xpectutouri — modo jmi'M 
modo anus, modo procera ut qucrcux, modo racca, avit, coluher, ^x. no 
young, now old, high, low, like a cow, like n bird, « >nakr, and vrliat not 
Slie could reprewDl toothers what fonns tliey most desired to mo, she 
tbem fiiends abnunt, reveal secrcta, maximd cmrtium admir-ationc, ifc. 

Jet, forall thi**iititiltyofllii-irs, (ia Lipsiim well observes, Phyatohg. Sloicor, 
ii. 1. cap. IT) Hdither tUi-itc iuat;iciaaa, nor devils themselves, cao lak< 
away gold or iuttorK out o{ niine or Craxsus cliett, el clienlelU *ui$ largiri 
for they arc biiM, poor, [.-onti'mptible lelluwii, moit part : at ' Bodiiie uoi 
they gan do nothing in jtidicum dtenta aul jia-nas, in rrgum eontilia 
arcana, nihil in rem tiiimmariam avt Ihetnurot : tlit-y cannot give itiunL-y 
their clients, alter judges decree*, or counsels of king* ; these miHUli g 
cannot do it : altiora genii Hoc tihi adservdrttnt ; the higher powers rewrvo 
these thin;^ to themselves. Nov and then, perjd venture, there may bo 
some more famous mat^ieiaDs, (like Simon Magus,'' Apollonius Tyaneus, 
Pasetes, Jainblicus, ' Odu d<: Siejlis) that for a time can build castles iu the 
«yre, repruaent armies, &r. (a« lliey are ' said to have done) com 
wealth and treasure, feed ilHiunuiids with all variety of meats nponasuddi 
protect tlicmsclves and their follower* from all iirinees persecutions, by 
moving from pinre to place in an instant, reviiiit si-cri'U. future evtmts, 
what h (lone in far countries, make them iipp'^ir thnl ilved King iiin»-. &e, 
and do many such miracles, to the world* icrmur, adminition, and opini 
of dcjty to themselves :'' yet the devil forsakes them nt lust ; they eomc 
wicked ends: and raro out nunr/aam »uch impostors are to bclisund.' Th« 
vulgar sort of them can work no such feats, uut to my purpose — they can, 
last of all, cure and cause most diseases to such as tliey loie or hate, and 
this of " melancholy amongst the rest. Paracelsus (tarn. 4. de mortiit ametf 
tium, tract. I) in express words affirms, multi fturinanlur in melancholiam : 
many are b<Tirilrlicd into melancholy, out of his experience. Tlic^ Mune, 
Wtith Dun^vuK, tih. 'i. He (ortiariis. Vidi, inz/uit, ^iii mrtanrJiolifon morbiu 
graviffimof induxtrunt : I harr seen those that hikve earned meluncholy in 
tlic most grievous manner,' dri/td vp women) pfips, cured gout, pahit ; Ihit 
and apoplexy, falling sickness, whtth no phijsick could help, solo tactu, by 
touch alone. Ruland (in hit 3 Cent. Cttra 01) ^vos an instance of one 
David Helde, a young man. who, by eating cakes which a witch g^ve him, 
max delirare eapil, began to dole ou a sudden, and was instantly mad. 
F. H. D. in ' Hifdesheim, consiilted about a melancholy man, Ihou^it his 
disease was partly ma^cal, and parity iiatuml, beeauie he tiimiled piccmof 
iron and lead, and )ipak« Mucb lanf^uageii oji he had never lieen taught; but 
such examples arc common in Scribanius, Hercules iti- SaxoniiL, aii«I others. 
The racnns by which tliey work, an; utuully charms, images, (as that, in 
Hector Boethiits, of king Dutfir) characters stamped of sundry metals, and 
at such and «uch conslelJations, knots, amulets, words, philters, &c. wbkh 
generally make the parties alfceted. melancholy ; as ■ Monsviua diaeotirseili 
nt large in an epistle of his to Acolsius. giving instance in a Bohemian batcm 
that was so troubled by a philter taken. Not tlial there is any power at all 
in these spells, charms, characteni, and barbarous words ; but that llu; dvnl 

' L«at. CAenf. •IkilfHrtlai.itpMitli. • Drmon. Illi. Xr. \ 
BalMir<tnm .ir MindL ■ Nubriinvia. lirp- lil>. I. r*f. Ift • VSOc 8uidaii ,lr PuM. 

Vide rhiltHLrfttuiD, tI(A fdTLi; 
- - to. 

encnt. vtilaTCr. ■ Eruiiu. Ailulgihui, arrif^nnlui. 'Vln. Marii. 4. Ini iiililili mii iImiHiiiibi 

munu*, rsp. ^. \nt. I. S'ulriflun muniBt* priMli^nnr \ ^i>W u^fti ikxIpctud. i^poplMJan. fandnlB, 
ct sllw oiorhu. ntuM modiein* ciirurr uuu jHiirr*[. 'I'Ktu* \xiit muiiBAiA. S]>L<^ %. rol. 111. 
• QBoii pliUln^ rtiil Idler M diSbniil. hoc bibeul cuuunuur. quud humiiwBi plUeUol mpluehalMM.. ^ 
rjilitm. BthglUlL -^m 

Hem. I . Subs. 4.] Cbw« o/ Melaneholy. 1 33 

doth die luch means (o delude them : nl JiiieUt, iade najrut (saith '' Liba- 
Bim) in officio rttineal, turn in eontorliun malrfactoram tocet. 

SiTBUCT. IV, — Start a cause. Sign* from Phyiiagnomif, Metoposeopy, 


Natural camv:* are cither primary and univerml, oi srcuHdary and moK 
particular. Primary causes are the heavens. pUnels, siare, &c. by their 
influence (as our aairolo^n hold) jxoduciag this and such like efieds. I 
will not Ii«rc siaiid to discuM, olriter, viUvlher itara be causes or si^ii : or lu 
nftohgue for juJifiid iuirolo^y. If either Sextus Einpirieiis, Picus Miran- 
duta, SexIuB ah Hciniiig^, T'L-rrrtui, Erastiix, Chamben, &e. have no tar 
prevailed with any man, thai he will atlribiitc no verliic at nil to tlie heavens, 
or to sua or moon, mott; than he doth to their signs ;it an inn-kcepers post, 
or tnuiuiinani «hop, or gcni-raliv condemn all such nstrolo^cal aphorisms 
appiovwl by cxpciiejic^— 1 refer him to fiellantius, PiroTsinus, Marascallenis, 
Goclcnius, Sir Christopher HeydoQ, &c. If ihoii shalt aak me what 1 thiolc, 
I raust answer (nam el doctis Auc« erraribus versaloji Mam) titey do itieliDC 
Imt not coiDpell, (no iieceiisity at all ; ^ogunt non co^nt) and so (gently 
iDclioe, that a wbe man may resist tlivni ; sameiu, dominalilur ailrit ; tbuy 
rule us, but God rules llicin. All this (me think*) ' Joh. de Indit^nc liath 
eompriied in brief: ijuarix a mr qunntum in nobis optranlvr astraf Ifc. 
Wilt theu kiwio kow far the Stars u'ork upon usf I soy tkry do but incline, 
and that »o ijfntiy, that, if we will be rtiled fiij rtoion, thty hate no power 
over ut : but if we follow out own nature, and lie led by sense, they do us 
much in ki as iu brute btatta ; and we are no better : so that, 1 hope, 1 may 
m»y JDslly conclude with 'Cajelan, Ccelutn vehevlum diviHit virlulis, ^c. 
that the heaven is Gods instrumeiil, by roedialioii of which ho t;uverns and- 
dispoMth these elementary bodiev — or n ^at houk, whose letters are the 
Msrs, (as one calls it) wherein arc written many »tnin2e tliiii)|;s for such a« 
can read — 'or an exetllcnt harp, made by on rmincnl workman, on which 
Ae that can but play, mil make mvit admirable mutich. Diit to llic 
pwrpow — 

* PnncclsiLs is of opinioD, that a physician, witiout the knowledge of 
ttart, can tifitker understand the cause or cure of any disease — either of 
this. Of gout, not to murk as tooth-avhe — except he see the peculiar genitiire 
and tckeme of the party affected. And for tliis proper malady, he will have 
tils principal and jirimary cause of it proceed from the heaven, ascribing 
■tofe to (tars than humours, " and that the. constellation alone, many times, 
pndtueth melancholy, all other causes set apart. He ^ives instance in 
lanatidt penons. tluil are deprived of their wit* by the moons motion; and, 
in aootfaer place, rrfrr* aII to the ascendent, smd will have the true and 
cliief eauie of it to be sought from the star!!. Neither is tt his opinion 
only, but of many Gttlenists nnd philomphers, though they not so stifly and 
pcrcnptority nmrntaio as much. This variety ((f melancholy tymptonus 
proceeds from the stare, saith " Melanctlion. The dioM generous melancholy 
(w that of Ai^itttus) comot from tlie coajuoction of Saturn and Jupiter in 
librs : the bad, (aa tiiat of Catiline) from tlie meeting of Saloni and the 

* t>e tfBflil. aiUitr. • Asin nvinl liominn : H rpfl* uln Dmul I Chomm. Ilk Qniitla m 
vw^alBfuiD optnnOiF btliv ! dwo, m atit nlhik t^tm ur^^Fi-n »n1 ulnioa pPDcllm Ir^Vinr; quiflfl 
Uhb Ubrrt ivbL pI, vl ilut'rm mr^intnUtt na.*nrta. nihil I'fllrunr ; rfn veto luluFLjD, Lil i^ri^ quod lA 
bmu Cn«L ^ C^luih Vfhl'ulnm 'Il*Jni> ilTEiiMt. ru]iaa mivliuil* mntu, hiBiinp. i-t InflumUS. ]>vuh 
*i^H«UrUn>tpoi>or<tliu>i. .-I <lii|,DTiil. Til. -Ir Vdo. fajpluiiuln I'M. Kit. < Mumlui i<lr iiuui 
l«l« «b tKfrQvnli»tinu t[u<>hliin unHi-r E■onl'i^mlU^ iiuiitii fjui iiArU. mlrtliUr* fllrin tijtrmoninf. J. 
Din. Aphariimu II. • Hrrtir.ii -ini'.-niii piTHI* nniil nl. kr. ntai aiiiiiim •i-npiil. nt unlllliini 
rtttfll feb. df l**"!^' ' OnntlcElAijo kii i^twA p*l : t- 1 lnitiirntjji rivli Rinrhum Ktirji? nivrrr. ijitcf- 
oiia «Bnlba> >llla Hnolli. El ■Ilf-i. Orlvu I'jiu • «fIo pclrnib h<. Tr <!'' nn^rlila snii'nUuni. 
•lAL^ItMMBl. e*|<.dt)uuiiunli, £i>ui«luuii»UacliuUih*txlctBkiMcMMU ^ 1; *< U *■ 


Causet of Metanchofy. 

[Part. \. Sec. 21 

moon in Scorpio. Jo>iaaiu Poiilaiius, in liis tenth book, mid ihirlcvntlij 
(-haiiUr ttf. rcf/ut ctelrsti^t, (tiicoursi:!)] lo tjiix [lurposir ut largv. lix ii/i'tfl 
hUr varii grnrnintur niorhi, J(c. '' Many lihrmcs jirocct.d from black choler, I 
at it aliall hf hot or cold : unci Iboiigh it Ac coM in tit oicu nature, ijct it it\ 
ayC to lie heated, as wnter tnoy ftc made tit lnnjU, and burn tu bad asjlre; I 
or made cold as ice : and thence proceed lUcA varietp of syntptomet ,- totiic \ 
mad, sume toUtary ; some laugh, tome rage, ire. — the c ause of all which I 
intemperance he will have chieHy and primartly proceed fiom llie hi^avcns — -| 
^Jrtnn Ike poxituni of Man, Saturn, and Mcrcurif. Hiaauhoiiaiiis he ibcM'. ;l 
'MtTfury, in «nu pcnilure, if Ac »hall he found in Virgo, nr Piicc* AtfiJ 
oppoiite sign, and that in Ihr haroncope, irradiated hy those gaartitc aijiccltl 
oftintam or Man, the child shall be mad or melancholg. Again, 'He that\ 
shall have Sntiim or Miirn, the onr ciUiainatinff, the other in the fii»rtlt\ 
bou»e, when he shall he from, shall be nelanchobj ; of which he shall fic\ 
cured in lime, {f Mercury behold them. ' If the moon be in conjunction or I 
opposition, at the birth-time, with the sun, Saturn, vr Mara, or in ft ijuartilr^ 
aipvct with Iktm (e malo cctii loco, Leovilius addii) inany discuaes orffl 
tianifir.d ; especially Ihe head and brain it Hie to be mis-affeeted with perm I 
iiicui>i« humiiars, to be milancholy , luniitich, iir mad. Caraan adds, ^uar/^l 
lunA natos, wi\\iM-*, i:iirth-i{u;ilc<^». Gurcn'.iis ami Leovitius will linvt! iJicJ 
cJiicl'jiid^i^mcnt to he [akini (mm ihc lord »f ihi- gmiitiin:; or when thttrc i»l 
no upect hclwixl the moon iind Mercury, mid ncitliirr buhohl the Aorojtcop», I 
or Saturn »nd Mars shall W. lord of the plvsciit conjunction or opjmsitJOItil 
in Sayittary or Pisces, of the mn or -moon, such persons arc cominoolyJ 
epileptick, dote, dutmoiiiacal, melancholy. Dut »cc more of those aphori&iniii 
in the ahove-nameil Pontanus, Garc^ua, cap. '23. Ae Jud. genittir, Schuucr. J 
/i&. 1. ocip. 8. nhtch hti hath ^thered out of " Plok'iny. Albuhatar, andJ 
some other Arabians, Juuctine,Ran£OviuB,LiiKl]ioul, Origan, &<:. But thts^l 
men you will reject t)cnidvt:nture,(ua*trologers, mid ibtTelure purtiul jLidk;e5;J 
then hear the listimonv of phyiticiuns, Cafniufii themselves, ^Crato c:nn- 1 
tV^seth the influence vi »tan to have a grcnt hand to Uii« pvctiliiir diKciise ; I 
so (loth Jnson Prnlcnsis, Loniccriu* (prafat. de Apopttxid) I'icinus, Fer- \ 
nulius, Ac. " P. Cnomaiider acknowled^cth the sliLrs an universal cause, the 
particular Trom parenU. and the use of the six non-natural lhiug«. Baptista 
Fori. may. I. 1. c. 10, 13, 15, will have tJieui causes to every particuUri 
indioiduum. Instances ami examples, lo evince tlie truth of tliose aphoriiinis,] 
axe common amongst liiose milrolDEiau treatises. Cardan, in his thirlj 
aevent)i geniture, gives instance in Miitli. ItoloiiniuA, Camerar. hor. nalaiit. 
centur.7. genit. (>. f.t 7. of Daniel Gure, and other*, but see Gurc'ieuit, tap, 33, 
Luc. GaiiricuR, Tract. G. de Azemcnis, ^c. The lime of tJiis mrJancholy is, 
when the sienifiotors of any g<eniturc arc directed according to at, us lh« 
hor. moon, bylcch, &c. lothe hostile beams or terms of >; and ^ cKpcciaily. 
or anv fixed Blar of (heir nature, or if li , by his revolution, or trantitm, shuU 
ofTeuu any of those radical proDiissors in the gcniture. 

Otlicr ^i)rn» there are taken from physiognomy, inetoposcopy, chirornancy,! 
which because Joh, de Iiidatfiiie. and Riitmau (the landgrave of Hassia his 
mathematician) not lon^ since in his Chiminaney, Riiptista Porta, in his 

t Bn BlrtlfUe vuil pnMiitui niihrltl, ;>i'r>Fi4lf m( Lpit mulciuu ctlldi »r1 rrl(14l In tr* hqhiirrir. 'juHiki 
utrlijij*)HiBcipi«ndf)qiuniipUHi.lDia ail, Unu'lfei iiiiAiiltMiJaluf^ frijflila bt. Aunun «i]ua >ii- ■flloiEar ■ 
palon* uimOfii; rl » IMifon^ ui in glJiriam cctncnvr-tl t vl li*4 irarltfljia iliaUnf Uuiiuui. itiii ^"'[t ^* 
d« * IIiuwadtriU7Dpcm]DAini£l^i.^*tliunp1urtiaun ftmfert .f **t ); ptulriu, Kc. ' H Quo* \ 
lln ullcujiiii ecnitun in n) rl K tilirniu "lit"" i-untun, hnruuapiiiB p«nlllli'r ti-niimi, »li|.ip rtltm ■ I 
^ *^ b Q 'VVo pcroiiuuaruo[ii,nttiuiLMjiiuiUTf't4liaijr, -Qitl |^ PI ^ hfeM. ■Htnioi In rikl* 
mine, altermp imw obIu, ^-um in lui-i'jti vnir-rif. muUni-hi>lli>u* rrU. u qui huialiLlut. li H iftintlit^ 
dUfll- * Ifji'' fiiiiiljriimLtn'- natii'^ bhi luTinliruv^ Hui rnriiU' eii|htuiL * PL(»1rm»im, Cmtilomiif^ ; 
Fli|UVlrL|ur1]liil|-Lhtiir ^un^.^Tnn Tii^li,iif->in1LfnnLm h)-in;iL4]iii>u jiidi'rum rullor]iU;«- * Ailr Urdtf^ 
An^mi All b«4 (4.IU4J arTivUuni^ t^.tpimn )*li>r]iittim mi'iui.i rl |trovnmi tn HoriilM c^rltfltc*. ' 
Vrlcuiia, lib. 1. »!<- 11. ■ llllilrtlivini, >]-ii:il. 1. iLc mol. 


Menu 1. i3ub».5.] Catuts of Stelanchotif. 

Cf lenwl PhyHOgnonty, buve proved to liold great nSinily villi ^Uuli^y, 
to ntitfie tbr cwioue, I am tlie moK vrilliDg to tDwrt. 

Tlie geoerU ikOtioni * phyaH^nomcn i^ive, be tliew; black colomr nryitft 
matural melaiukotif ; to dolk leoKtuu, hirtalentss, brtxid e*i>u, much hair 
im lie bnmt. ioiih TGraianarolua, cop. 7. aud a little tiead, out of Aristotle: 
bieb Bui|n>iEie led (Htluur skews ltead-inelaii(-|iuly : ibejr that Uuttcf and are 
bodil, will Ix- ituonot mi-lum^liuly. (us Aviccnna Mi|^)0«eth) by reason of (he 
driiwm of tbcir brains. But lie that will know awn of tlie •etiTAl si^nft of 
hiiiiwnira and wit* out of {>hysio):tiomy, let him conoult witli old Ad>uiiuiilu9i 
ttud Pott-mus t)i-it conimcnt, or nithcr piiraphrase, upon AriHMtlc* Pbysiag- 
■omy, Baplista Fortas four plcoSLnt iKHtks. .Michael Scol <lc sccrHit itaturttt 
John d« I iidaj^ne, Montallua, Antony Zara, anal, im/fmontm, tret. 2. mtntb. 
23. W/iA.4. 

Chirantaiicv hath Oieiie aphorisms to foMtell melancholy. Tansier, /lA. !i. 
\p. 2. {who hutli <^uin|iTulictided Ihe «iitiim of John de iDda^inu, Triciutiiw, 
irvinus, an<l utberx, in liis \kxiV) tlius lialii it: * The Satumiuit Hiu ijmi^ 
'from Ike rasclla through thr. hand, to SalurHt mOHttt, and thrrr iiiferwcltd 
iy Mrtein little lintt, argues mrlaitchnft/ ; to if f A« ti*(ii/ and nnturul make 
a^ofvte tatgle. Aphofxam 100 : Thr f!'iluruine,epalieA,aitd naturaUinet, 
tttakmg a givtt Iriimgle in the hand, argue as muck i which Goeteniv* {cap. 
5. CAirvi.) repeats rtrbatim ont of liira. In general, they conclude all. that 
if Satunui mount be full of manv small lines and i Die reect ions, ^ tuch meit 
art wtatt pari aulancholy . miterable, and /uUoftii^uirtitest, mrrand Iroti- 
bie, tWitimiallii vend u:ifh anztOiK anrl liitier tkoughtt, o/u'ny $orrttw/ul, 
ftarfvl, tnspiriimj ; ihcy delight in huihaitdry , buiidings, po»/«, marshes, 
fpriagt,v.^oad* .tcaiks, ife. Tbaildirui ilai;;^^iui, in )ii> Afctopotcopia, hnth 
certain Mphiirinmx derived from Saturiu linn in lb<: tbrrlicuii, by which he 
collects n melnncholy disposition ; and ' Baptists Porta makc« ol»cr>'aiJo)ia 
fraia those other parts of the body, m, if a ^nt l>c over the spleen : "* or in 
lAe uaitt, if it appear biacA, it tigrtijitlh much care, grief, contention, and 
lanehofy. The reason he refers to the humours, and gives inatanee in hini> 
-aelf, (hat, for seven years space, be had such black spots in bis naiU. and all 
lliat while was in perpetual law-sutes, eonlroversiea fur hi* in!i(?rrtan<%, fear, 
of bouour, banishment, if^nef, eare, &c. and when bis miseriui i-ndcd, the 
spola vanished. Cardan, in liis book de lihrit ttropriis, trIU such a 
•tnry of liiM own pitrson, tliat, a litlJe Ix'-forr hit naot death, he. had a black 
Bpol^ wliM'h ap|irared in cmr- »f his nails, and dilntcd it Mrlfns he c>ime nearer 
cod. But i am ovcr-tcdioiis in these loycs. which (howsoever, in some 
IS too severe ceniinreii, they may be held nbsnid and ridiculous) I am the 
ler b> insert, as not borrowed from circumforanean rogues and Gipsiea, 
but out of the writings of worthy philosophers, and physicians, yet iivin;|r, 
some of then, and religious professors in famous universities, who arc able io 
psironiz« that which they hare said, and vindicate iliemselves from all cavil- 
len and ignorant [lersona. 

ScnsfcCT. V.^Oldage a cause. 

Snrcxntar peculiar can scs eOicicnt (so called in respect of tlie other 
pteccdenl) nri; either congenita, infenue, innalit, as they term them, inward, 
innate, inbred : or eifc outvrard and adveutitiouK, whicli happen to ut after 

• J<^h. il" It^tnt. r. 9. Monu)!-!*, f«n. tt. i Va\iMt pwirn (|uk hibrrtl, ci>iTbTuin tiabonl el fpl- 
fclH u* pl^nuui|ur ■OAutOL'^PiiCilr JIWMunt ^n mvloiK^UolLLni rublcnadi^ AiMJui. lili'M MublnlruLc 
^U. <■ OvJcuct' ■ Muminv ft nw^iU per mi^ilmEn manuni Jivtirft-nji, u»iu,r ul rut^^oin rn^mlia k. 
Hpirvt. ■ putu IIapib InL^nrrla, ir^ukl mpUnrhnUri^*. Ai»hnri^'7K * AciUitlurtnlMTll4,<:o{>Qnu1a 
Bfei|Blrtii'ilnihii4,no<Tiipnn(;EU*^ " ■n(lpUn<llQ« ISIicrt 4iuit' uiikr ftEnicuntur unuluUnLi iiiln («fit». 
In«bui. •nnppT trUIff. <u«|>i *-'>■'*(- luvUi'ulotT i <^>L'i1fblionH funt, flvll^ UTQAi colrrP, itwiit «jiuil< Tt 
P.pabnlv. he. lo.^ ln.U«ii»'. Ub. I. ■ CiirlnU- I'l^tln^. IIU. 10. 'C>p. 11. Ilti. fsTlilwB H>- 
-*- in uikfolU Dlffr*, Utm, tixat, mplAiieTioJUm>lsnln<anl.ftl>hiiiBinviDcionlif tfell. 


Causes of Melancholy^ 

[Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

we are born : congcnite, or bom with us, are either naiunil, as ol<l a^, 0M^| 
prater naturam (fu • Fimieliun ' cmlU it), thut (li«tcm[)cnimro, wliich w^B 
hate from our pnrents BCi^ii, it being: iin hereditary iliwniKe. The HnX of 
these, whidi is nnturni to all, and which no man living can avoid, is' old 
age, wbicli being cold and dry, and of the tame quality m melancholy is, 
Diu&t needs caiitie Jl, by diminuliou of spirits and substance, and iucrcauDg 
of adust humotit!!. TlKreibre * Mclanctlion avers out of Arislotle, m an 
andoubted triuli, tenet plerumqut dclinint in seneetd, tliat old men familiarly 
dote, ok alram bitrm, fur black choler, which \t tlien Mperabundant in 
ikem : and Hhiuit, that Arabian physician, (in his Cant. lib. 1 . cap. !>.) 
call* it** a neceatary and iiiseparaMt accident to all old and decrepit pt^raons. 
AJtfr leventy yrar«, (as the ' P«iilini*t tAith) ali u trouble and sorrnui ; and^^ 
common exporiencc confirms the tnilh of it in weak and old persons, espe-^l 
cinlly ill such a^ Imfc hved in action all their lives, had i:reat implojments, 
much busiiie^, much command, aud many eervanls to oversee, and leave off 
tx a&rupto : as J Charles the Fifth did to Kin;? I'hilip, resign up all on a 
sudden. Tliey are overcome with melancholy in an instant ; or, if ihey <io^_ 
continue in such countes, tliey dote at Uul, (tenex bis puer) and are not sUmH 
to manaf^ their estate*, tlirouj;h comninn infimiities incident to their ag;c;^' 
full of ache, sorrow, and erief, children Rgr->iri, dixiud* ; they cailc many 
limes iiK they sit, and talk lo ihetnselvps ; '' they arc nngry, wu»pi»li, dis- 
pleased with every thing, sueptcioui of all, wayward, covetous, hard, (saitfa 
Tully) itlf'VfiUed. miperslilious, se(f.conctilcd, lirafft/ers and admirtrs of 
thmuelvts, as BiilUiasar CastaUo hath truly aoled of them. This natural 
ioHnnily is nitut eniiuunt in old wom«nr and such as are poor, solitary, b 
b most base cxeem and be^|^;ery, or sucli ai are witches ; insomuch ih. 
' Wienn, BaptisUi Porta, Mrieui Molitor, EJivieiw, do refi-r all that witch 
are said to dn, to imagination uluue, and lliin humour nf mdmieholy. And^? 
whcreax it is controverted, whether ihey cun bi-wilch rattle t» deiith, ri<lc in 
the air upon n coulslafl'out of'achimncy-tnp, Uandbrm themselves into cats, 
dogs, &c. translate bodies from place to plnce, meet in companies, nod daiie«, 
us they do, or have carniJ copulation with tl)e devil, they ascribe all to Uiis 
redundant melancholy, which domiaeera in them, lo ™ somniferous potions, 
and natural causes, tlie devila policy, Non i«</tin/ omninci. (saith Wierua) 
aul quid tnimm facisnt, (de Lamiis, lib. .1. cap. 3ti} at palatur : totaurn 
Mtialam habenl pkanlafiam ; they do no such wonders at all, only their 
" brain* am craicd. " Tketi tkink they are witehet and can do hurt, but 
doaot. But this opinion Boilinc, Enulus, D'jnutus, Scribanius, (vrbasiinn 
Michaclis, Campanella, (d« Seitsu rerun, lib. 4. cap, !>.) f Dnndinn* the 
Jesuit, (/i^. '2.(/e^n)»iiJ)6xplode; iCicognn confutes at Inrgo. Thatwiiches 
arc melancholy, tliey deny not, but not out of corrupt phantnsic alone, n 
lo delude themselves and others, or to produce such cli'ects. 

Suii.Ht.CT. VI. — Parents a cause hi/ propagation. 

That other inward inhted cause of mtlancholy i» our Itrmpcrature, in 
whole or part, which wc receive from our parents, which 'Fcrneliu* calls 
praltT naturam, or unnatural, it being an hereditary disease ; for as lie 'jus- 
tifies, qvale partntum, maxime palrif, Mmeu obttgerit, taUt evadttnt timm- 
iart* tpermaticte^ue partes : quocuf^e eliam morbo pater, qnutn generat. 


riata acctilrtit (lnrt[i[ti». Pt intmr*.hiiv- ' ftal, ftL in f U^tinn. ^if]^. ttitt. IJU 1. « Sunt 

^Ub. S^ lie Aulico, Hmv* biuI* molovt. Jiu<UtiiiniJI. nhUivIl, dpllrl, tupoTtlUlciiLi^ wntpirUmt. JbA 
l4b. ^ d* Umtia. cr, t1, ft \%. - S^liamn. opiuin. luni kdr|4. lar a*iJii, so. hiieiji* tn/ifiluiu. A'«. 
■ Oonupt* «|t Ik «b hoDon laeluithuliro ptuMitVia. N^mmmii. > PufeVlft*l»l#rr, T|Uiiiidi> nun 
tv^nti r Out hat Lti iBAf^njtiionU vim tvfrrr* runitti aunt. Kut ttrm hilU^ liuuinii prckr>bA jjjii^ri-m 

Uem. 1. 8ub«. 6.] Catuet of Melaucholg. 137 

t€iMtur, cam tttniae trtu^fert in prolet^ : such »t the tcmpemuro of Uw 
bUicr IS, Mcb ia t)ia mm ; and, look, what disease the fathct hud when be 
begot bitn, bis itun will hmc oftrr him. ' and ii ai well inheritor of hit infir- 
niliei, as of hit ianti*. And whert Ike comphxiim and coiulitulion of the 
/alker is carrvpt. there, {" uiith Rof^r Dacon) tkt eompteiion and conslita- 
(WM vftht ton tnitsl nttdt be corrupt i and so the wrmplion it derived from 
tkt father to the ton. Now this doth DOl so muchuppeuria the cumpositioa 
of the l>ody, accordiiij; to tlial uf HJiipocnitoi, ' in habit, proportion, tearrs, 
taut othgriineameuU ; hut in mimarrt and conditUnu of the taind ; 
£1 p4lniiD 111 natL4 ftbpuut. cum MoaiDc, mun*. 

Sdenctu hud nn nnchor on his thigh ; so had his posterity, as Trosriu 
rtconU, /. 15. Ixpiilus (in Pliny, /. 7. 1. 17) was purblind; so was his aou. 
Tbat famous family of ^nobarbi were ktiown of old, aud so siiriiaiiied, from 
their red beards. The Austrian lip, and those Indian* flat no»vH, are propit- 
iated : ibe Bavarian chin, and goggle eyes amonjcat the Jews, as ' Buxtor- 
liua observes. Their voice, pace, gesture, looks, ute lilccwiir derived, with 
all the rcUof iheU conditions and infiTniitics ; *iich a mother, such a daugh- 
ter; ibeir vay "afiertions Lcraniiis conleniU to foliotv ttteir twd, and the 
na/irr! and bad conditions of childrctt are many tttiKS wholly to be imputed 
to Ihrir parenli. I nrcil not tlwrcforc make any doiibl of oielancboly, but 
liiat it is an hereditary disease. ' Paracelsus in express words affirms it, lib, 
df nurrb. atumtliMm, To. 4. Tr. 1 . ; so dolli ' Crato in an epistle of bis to Mo< 
navius : k> doth Bruno Seiddius, in his book de marba inciirub. Moi:t;iJ[ii* 
proves (ca/(. II.) out of Htppocralei awl Plutarch, I hut such hert-'diiiit) dis- 
(KKiitions are frei]«ei!t; el Aaiur (i»i]utt)^i^ri reor oh parliripatum mvlancho- 
licam ialemfterantium (speaking of a patient) : I tiiink ht bc^ciuni: so t)y par- 
ticipation of melancholy. Danid S<mncrtii> i^tU>. 1 .part. 'i. cap. 9) will have 
ihw melancholy constitution derived not only from ilic father to llic son, but 
to the whole family Mjmctimc*; quandoijiie talis familiis hetrfditaficom. 
' Forcsius, in his Medicinal Observations, illiistTatc4 this point with «n ex- 
ample of a merchant his patient, tbat had this infirmity by inheritance; so 
doth llodericus n Fonseca, (7V>in 1. contul. G9) by an uistance of a youn^ 
man that was so alfectcd ex malre melancholiea, had a mtJancholy motlier, 
el viclu melaackolico, and bad diet together. Ludovicua Meicaius, a Spanish 
physician, (in tJiat excelleiil trad, which he lialb lately written of hereditary 
tiiiea*e»,Tont. 'i. opcr. Ul/.S.) reckons up lepro.nit, ns lhi»e ''Gallxits in 
GuconVi lirteditary lepers, pox, stone, goal, cpilepsic, &c. Amongst the 
nat, tbi* and madness aller a >ct time come* to many, which he calls a mi- 
laculoax tJiin^ in nature, and stick* Ibr ever to them ns an incurable bnbil. 
And, that which it more to be wondered at, it skips in *ome frnniliex the 
father, and goet to the son, 'or taheeeverif other, aiuisotHelimcseiicrij Ihtrd, 
itt a lineal descent, attd doth not alwaget proilaee the tame, hut Some like, 
tutd a tumboUiin'j diaettte. These secundary causes, heuce derived, are 
cammoniy »o powerful, tbat (as '' Wolphius holds) siepc mataiil decrela n- 
rftfnrm ; they do often alter tite primary eauses, and decrees of the heuvtdis. 
E-'or tlieM Tcawns, belike, tlie churcli and common-wealtli, hnQLanc and di- 
*ue laws, haT« <;on*pircd to avoid hereditary di^icaiRs, forbidding such mar- 
(Mgcs u are any whil idlycd ; an<l, as Mercalns advii^th all fanulics, to taku 

■ 1ft tB\\. hull tdni |HAti4i>lonmn, Tiuiin TnOTliitTE^m hd'Trdt^f ,iEi1, * EpLft. 'It livrrFu nrTit ai DA- 
knr. c- 1. Nmn Bi hoc muicj tkntEi^H npirupii mm, jft-nonint lUiop i'[>mjJtK ccijnjNli-xuhiuN^ i-r fcunpEitt- 

*lldB lAm '.tiytalt IIILipiH^r'itrti Kitflhivcl clt.-Alrkit uFka ol«vriKtrli huhttfin 4i;do»''Ui'^ t\\. n-A vnim 
iMwdB. ifnbta, oiori?, niur>Hi*. He. * S>ii4fu^, J111L < AfTrcLii* iiuvuIueii in Tolut trarrj*rkmT. 
«l MnorvH malilU pArmubriB impKlaniU. 1- 4 uji. X dr orrull. niU- miro^:, * Ei ifilLilln-tjk \i'iXb\. 
tad, %% biUotU lillltul, « Utfiv«]4 "t nK-lHikrh'illcU niQlinchltlicL, * Klv \1l- in SrulU- Naicitiir 
HtecDid EO*. feinuniu, M QUk void |4fvniitnkih4l>dinuiTnnlufn hmif, Jiv ivlmii*, bh 'l. Av mtt, 

MOns proilucit <S(icluiB. <■ illaw parvnl* Inuiitin ovi-vtHn. ' UT*L ['TalU.(tnliuil> Lcnvntl. 


Oauts of MtlaneAolg. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 3. 

such, ni^eri poitH, qtiip maxime dittant naturd, and to nidke choice ol'thoi^c 
thut arc most ditiVriii^ in compkiJoa rrom them : if ibey lave tlu-iniwn, nnd 
rcjtpcct tlii;roiiiiii(i[i >n^<id. Ami sure, I think, U hath bmn Dnirtifl by Gndt 
especial proviileiKT, timt, iii all u)^, tlicru iihuiild be, (:i» uHUidly then; i*) 
once in *»ix hundred yean, a tninxnii^ration of nation* to antcnd and pnniic 
their blood, as wc alter setd upon our land, und tliitt thrfr *hould be as il i 
were an innndntion of those northern Goths nn<l Vandalos, and many such^M 
like people which came out of that continent of Scandin, and Sarmaiia (na 
some tuppose), and over-ran, as a delu):^. most pmrt of Europe and AfrJc-k, 
to alter (for oui i^d) oar compiexioni, which were much defaced with here 
ditary iiifinuiliea, which by our lust and in tempt ranee we had i-untracli-d^ 
A Hound ii^etieration of 8tr»n<; and abl<- men were .vent amon^l ii», us ihuig 
norfhi;rn men usiially are, innncuotiK, free from not, aud free Irom diion^cotil 
to r|Uftlitic and make im n* ihrisc poor nakt^il Indiana ari! ^nentlly ai tbifll 
day, and tho«r alxint Unwilc, (nx a liitc 'writer ob«-rve«) in ihc i«te of M&-^ 
raijnan. free from all hi-roiiitary di^cascj^, or other conbij.'icin, whereas, with- 
out help of physick, they live commonly an hundicd und twenty years or 
more; as in the Orcliades and maoy other places. Stich are the common 
efTccts of lemperanee, and intemperance : but I will descend to parliculani, 
and «hew by what nieaus, and by whom especially, this iulirmity it derivLiI 
unto u». ^1 

Filii ex ncnihiu nati raro tunt Jtrmi lemperamenli : old mens cbildrtMB^ 
are seldom of a good twnperament, (as Scolt/ius suppuselh, rnnsult. 177) 
und therefore most apt to tlii* disease : and, as ^ Levinus l,(-m:iiiiH larlher 
adds, old men bcgel, most purl, wuyward, peevish, s;ul, melanchuly anmt, 
and seldom merry. He that Iwgelt a child on a full stomach, will either 
have a sick ch)ld,oracra/cd son (as ''Cardan thinks, confrtuAVt.nwy'. Uh. 1. 
contradict. 18) ; or, if the parents be sick or have anv ^eat pain of the 
hea«l, or megrim, head-aehe, (' tlieronymus WolliuB doth instance in a child 
ofSebaitlian Casialio's) or if a druuken man ^et a child, it will never, likely, 
have a Eond brain, as Gellius arKues. 'ift. \'i- '-•ap. 1 . Eiirii ifiguunt ebrioi : 
ooc drunkard iM-zeta another, taiih > Plutarch, (xt/ia. lib. I . ^ uamf. .'>.) whose 
Mcntcncc ^ I,rmniu( approver, I. I. e. 4. AlKurius Crutiua Gi-n. lie i/m ui 
tneii.cent.3.fol.l^2. Macrobius /iA. I . Aviecnna ^A. .1. r.-n. 'il. T'rncf. 1. 
eep. 8. and Arigtottc himself feci. 2. prtth, 4, Foolish, dninkcn, or Itnir- 
brain women, most part bring: forth children like unto thcmselvcJi, morosoi 
et hnr/widos ; and so likewi*e he that lye* with n menstnioiis woman. 
IttUmptirrtnlia Vejierit, (jitam in natttig prttiertim insectatur ' Lemmuf, 7111 
uxnrct tiieujit. nvUi menalrui iteirnrsi/ ralione halfitd, nee obterviito tnfer- 
tunio, prirripiia cau^cu tit, noiia, pernietosa ; ( concubilam hunc tzittaleat 
ideo, et pctH/cnim, foea/ Rudericut a Cailro, Lusilanui; dtflrtlaiilur ad 
itnum omncs mr.diei) lam rl ifuarld land conci'.pti, tnfcliett phrumquf et 
antenUt, deliri, slolidi.mar/ioai, impart, inimliili. Ictrd lue lordl'li, minim* 
titalet, ovtnihtn bonis r:iirpi>Tii ati/ue animi datiluti: ad ial>orem nati, n 
netuorei (ini/utt '" KustnlhiHs) iit Hrrcuh.s, ct alii. " Juda-i maximr iiwec- 
tanlur Jiidum htinc ct immundum ap»d Ckriiliaiioi! cannthitnm, ut illiritam , 
ahhoTtent. ft apud iuos prokthent : rt quod Chrittinni totin, lrpTosi,iimrjtlet, ! 
tot moi'hilli, imprtigines, ulphi, psoree, cutis et ,/nciei dccoloraliintrs, tarn 
muiti morbi epiJirmici, acvrbi, et veufHosi siait, in hunc immundum concuhi- 

• Bi>iUd. lie »!>. w>. dr prrliKllj rrlji. 'Cludliis Ah4Ta]r. Ciputhlon. In Mi *oya«B to Ukrun>n. 
ISll. r. I& Nrnin IrTi' KfToliu. uua omni'irl rotmtln cnrnim<, tlTuntmnoa IM, IW. tlni' mrillrliii. 
tAcvt. ilp^i" iitnulE, l^ri'lidiL I'l PuTikl&iiM> Jil.of^ilf ^o«Ddtt. t Lih L o, 3 i\c nn'wU. 
uM. Jnif- T<*lf ifo* I'lnmmn.j*' fllltui m'iii* jijinn^ncnml fUr^il*^, ruliu ^xhUtrBloL ^ Ci>Jt.i« *u^,tt 
(VEtlrtlun^iii i>4^-kLiyu>, i^llIill.]uiUiin e^iEiiiiHliir. «ul morlvial xtitl. out mtoTJdi ^ P^aL |rr«.'lU- L»- i 
1-Ltl(V ' i-. 'irtr-i, Hln'ris, * Dc (H'**iif. i^ftt, mnf, Ti-miili'iitp- i-l «L»lii1ir iiiultifim llhrrot |i[vnitn]UV 
pndum^t <i^i HlmlU-ii, ■ l.ili- ^. c S. dvn-i-uU. Iikt. nikr, M^ur^i inwti'r trhoikLmmtUVidQlloloOllutk J 
■hit. ' IX- iiaL niul. Ilh. S. i'4i|>. 4. • Buiviiilurptilui. t. 13. >i>'ni«. JiuL Eitk. IS, -^J 

Mem. 1. Sabe. 6.] Catufs of Melattcholy. 139 

fKHi rejiauMt: el crudtUs in fngnoru rocant, qui, qvarlA htni,jtToftuentt 
kac mentum iltuvU, concufitlvm hunc nun perhorrescMut. Damnatit alim 
diiina Its, rt tiiorle mnlrtnvil hujufmixh huminr.s (Lev IH. 2(t>; fl inde 
nuti «' ftti dffomut wtl mutUi, jintrr ditapidaluf, ijmifl non cnatinfTfl al> 
"imntmntU matierf, Grtgoritif Miiynaf:., prlrnti Augitttino numitiid apU'l 
* Britatmos hujuttnodi. concubilum lolerarft, scprrt prohi&uil iflrU ruis liint 
muceri /emiiuis in c^ntaelis tuis menxiruU, Ifc, 1 apnre lo I^ngli«h this 
which I have said. AnoUier cause some give — inDrdiiiiitc diet, &s if a man 
«at gnriick, oniuiis, fadt over-much, study (oo tiard, l>c over- sorrowful, dull, 
hesTV, dejected uimiivd, perplexed in bia thoughts, ftariiil, Ac. their chlliirm 
(saitii ^Ctudan xnhtil. tih. IB) will lie much unbjeet lo vMitiui* and mrlan- 
cAo/y ; far, if tkt Tfnrili of Ike lirain lis fueled or mis-iiff'Kcted hy tuck 
«Miiiu at $uch a lime, ihfir ckildrrn u-'ill be fiinUd in ibr hndn : thty wilt 
ieduU, hfaftf, fimomus, discoKtmti^ all Ihcir tii'ri. Sntm; arp of opinion, 
uhI tnainuin that parailox or pmMt-m, that wiw men beget commonly 
fooU. SnkUe gives instance in ArisiniTliiis the ^immarian ; duog rfliquil 
JSSot, Aritlarchum cf Aritlackorum, amhos tlullot ; and (which 'Erasmus 
ngvUi in his Morta) foob bei>et wise men. Card, tubtil. I. l*.i. gives thi.n 
cauw : ijavniam t^rilus tupimlii'm oh uludium regotvuntur, tt in cerebrum 
femmttiT a eorde : becuiiat tlieir natural spirits are resolved by study, and 
lamed into aiiiniul ; dniwn fiiiiii tlie heart, and tiiose other parts, lo tlic 
tmtn. Lcmniux »iib:(rrib<:ii tu tluit of Cardan, aitil kjuigns this reaHOn, guod 
ftrwtvant dfJiilKnt langatdc, tl asrilantrr ; utidi: ftln* a parr.ntnm ffrnero- 
tilate dttciscit : tlicv p.\v their dobi (a.H I'liul <^iillx it) U> their n-ivi-^ reiiiisly : 
by whidi inean< their cliildrcn arc wntklings, Knd many times idiots aod 


Sumc otiicr causes arc given, which properly pertain to, fmd proceed 
from, the mother. If she be over-dull, heavy, angry, peevish, discontented, 
and nwlanelioly, not only at the time ol' conception, but even all the while 
die carries the child In Iter womb, (gaith FerneLiun, pnlk. /. 1 . 11) ber ton 
win be BO likewisi.- uflected; aud wonu (an* LemnJu* add«, I. A. c. 7) if she 
rhcvt: overuiiich, be diMuiieicd, or by any cusually lie afiVrglitcd and terrified 
liT •ome fearful object, heart! or sifii, «lie endungirn lii-r child, and spoils 
Ine tcmptrraiiirc of it ; for the strange imii^natiun of a woman works eflec- 
Inally upon her infiuit, that (a» Biiptiisia Porta prove*, fhyiiog. ealeUit, 
/. 5. C 2) slic leaves a mark upon it ; whicli i» most cspcrially seen in lucli 
M prodigiouiily long for snch and such meats, saith Feinelius, and be 
oddtcted to like humours. ' If a ^Teul-bellicd woman see a hare, her child 
uTxIl often have an hare-tip, as we call it. Garcitu».df Judiciia iieniluraruvi, 
r. Xi. hath a memorable example of one Thonia* Niekell, born iu tht^ city of 
Brandeburge, 15&I , "that tvenC rrelini/ and iliingcriiig all the dat/es of hit 
hfe, a* if he Mjouldfall In the i/Tound, brcauar his mother, licinif great wiih 
aiid, taur a drunken man reel in the UrrrA. Such another 1 find in Martin 
WcnrichiuR, con. de ortu tnvjislrurnm, c. 17. * I saw, (s:)ilh he) at Witten- 
bM}^ in Germany, a citizen tliat looked like a cnrkoii*. / atktd him the 
raw*^.' he replytd, his mothrr, when fbe borp him in her womb, sate a 
tarkat* % cAaitre, aud teas fore affriiiktfd with it, thai ex eo fetus ci 
Mbmilatm ; from a ghattly imprestiou, the child wax Uk« it, 

Somany severs! wav8 are we plagued and punished for our fathers defaults; 
iitao MMCh tliat (as I^emelius truly saith) "it i* the gnattil pari of our 

Efl«|aBw4l* jovundi Mia'.UEiTvr. if. • Fell. TML liu'r. KlieraVn vhUdrPu wflrt- furiU. SaK * th- 
«mmL ■■!. ntr- I'lrv, murtHij mulkc.rnuk, ^ [lKp1,i1>i Fiirln, Lh.i> \,t^. Kx Ii'p„mmiivriil1u pkrvcjut. 
WtadkB fvlant ^fiA^^ fti1iH.71.1rr li^TtrUH-L^ ■ lj(^i*i mut in l.-rmini.ii]Up*tinLt. pminmi.m tiUm in- 
i^riiaft, Aint^('rKn^l^<''>rium tic Mirnlfiirrin vliirr*!, ■ (^lt«in Ivlrratlfcirpnii4,i^l 
•U, ft*. ' OpUmum btac ouc>: mulBU inn IClltllalU wnli* bene wek quunobrcm prv- 


Cause* of Melancholy. 

(Part. I. 


filicity to 6« ire/i tarn : and it wtrt happy for hiimaHt kind, if only tach 
partnltf M are sound of hudy and mimi, should be tv-ffercd tn marry. An 
buabaiidmai) will »ow iionn )nit the best and choiccit krciI upon liii land ; 
lie will uot rear B bull or an hursc, cxc«.-pt he. be right »hapco io all part*, or 
permit liitn to cover % mare, except lie be well «s»itcd of hi* breed ; wc 
iTiiike choice of the beit rams for our slieep, rear iho neaieftt kioe, and keep 
the beat du^; ijimnto id diligentitii in proereandts Ulteris obserrandum f 
and how careful then ^ould we be in begcttiiii; of our children ? In foniicr 
time, wme 'comiirtryu have been so diary iu thin behalf, bd Mem, llial if a 
child wen crooked or duforined in !)iHiy or niind, they luadc liim away ; m> 
did the IndiauK of old (by the relation of Curtius), and many other wcll- 
govemod commonwcaltlis, according to tlic dincipline of those limes. Here- 
tofore, in Scotland (sniih > licet. BoeihiuK) ^f any ivere vifited tvilh the 
falling sicknest, madnesf, gout, tcprosic, or any such dangerous dintate, 
which wai liktly to be propagated from the father ta the $on, he u>a* 
inttantly gelded; a woman kepi from all company of men; and if Ay 
chance, haring some tuch iluease, ske were found to be with child, the with 
her brood were buried aline : aud lliis wtu done for the common ^'uod, leal 
the whole nation should be injured or corrupttid. A MCverc doom, yon will 
say, and not to be u.sed amongst Cliristians, yet more to lie looked into than 
it u. For now, by our loo much facility in this kind, in giving wny for all 
to marry that will, too miieli liberty and indulgence in tolerating all sorts, 
there is a vast confusion of hereditary diseases, no family secure, no man 
&linott free from some grievous infirmity or oilier. When no choice is had, 
but atill the eldest must marry, as so many statUons of the race ; or, if rich, 
be tlit^y foots or di/zards. lame or maimed, unable, intemperate, dissolute, 
enhausl through riot, (as he said) 'jura h(rrcdilario lapere jahcntur : they 
must be wise and able by inheritance ; it comes In pass t)i;tt our gciKrration 
is corrupt ; we have many wt-ak persons, botli in body and mind, many feral 
disease* niging amongst us, craxeil families, parenlef peremptory ; OUr 
futlicrs bad ; and we are like to be worse. 


SuMECT. I. — Bad diet a cause. Substance. Quality of meals. 

AeconoiKO to my pro[io3ed method, baviiii; opened hitherto lliese »ecuit-^ 
dary coiimt*, which are inbred with us, I must now proceed to the outward 
and adventitious, which happen unto us after we are bom. Aud tboitt are 
either evident, remote ; or inward, ontcecdent, and ibe nearot : continent 
causes some call them. These outward, remote, precedent causcii an *«b- 
divided a^ain into necessary and not necessary. Necrsiary (because wc 
cannot avoid them, but they will alter us, as they arc n«cd, or abused) are 
those six non-natural lluu;^, so much spoken of amongst physicians, which 
are prtndpalcauscsof this disease : for, almost in every consultation, whereas 
tbeyshnll rome to speak uf the causes, the fault is found, and this most part 
objected to Ui<^ patient; peccavit circa rea srx non naturales : lie halli still 
uflendcd in one of those six. Montanus, (consil. 'i'2) conHulied about a 
melanelioly Jew, gives that Hentvnce; so <]id Frisenielica in the siuiie place 
and, in his two hundredth forty fourth counsel, censuring; u melancholy 

ekf* tmnuno (Oini anuuUiuB •litntKor. •! nil iwimlvi brn" hdilll *l Mai Iib*H ap«nn Am 
■ lituitiu Inflnnl nmlnttlo dmUI. Uohmiui. ub. )■ c. A \fnii Luonw olln. Li|i»ii>, I'jilil. 
fmL ul JL^lkf^. DLoarnO VUUrto. SI i|uo»ftVtmiSinrniT>n>rum ]>*rli? Lnvtlle»iLots*crtni. ui<r«rL jubi-riL 
• Lib. 1. ilr ti-tvnim BBolunia moiUiin. Unriioeuinlliili. drmi'iihk. nunU, lejiit. Ac lui •iimli LiU. 
rfur CoclIv i'i inr^lvia InDODlttltKT. Ubdnnl'v ititpT vu.. mbi-itti ffl<-1i inuvtflni'.'ii'H "^ urim 

Hl]l(.tf*ni[ii; p]ii.j'l «i 1,imni Allqas cuWcptaHC bLfciki^H,lur. tlmuicuni bmu luruduiii etUlo, daftMlivb^ 
lui 'Iva. • l^|j|iuniiiu St,\jt. m 


Mem. 2. Sub*. 1.] Cavses of MelancAoitf. 


•outdier. assies that reason of his luaUdy : ■ H« ojff'ended in aU thott tix 
nom'tialMrat ihm^t, which wert the outward cautet, from vhizh came thott 
nward okstmetiont ; and to in tlie r«*l. 

'nwMsix oon-DHtural thm^ arc diet, retention, and evacuation, which 
mie more material than tlic otiipr, Wcauxr ihcy mnkc new matter, or c]«e are 
convenant in keeping oi expelling it. The otJicr fonr are, air, exercise. 
Utefiag, waking, and pertmbations of the mind, whieh only alter the matter. 
Tbe fint of thcM a diet, whieh consists in meat and c^rink, and eauactli me- 
lancho1;y, as it ofleods in subitance or accidents, that is, quautily, (luahly, 
or lli« like. And w«U it may be called a mati-rial cause, uuce tliat, as 
* Fcmelius holds, il hath tur.h a power in begetting of' diieates, aid yields 
lit matter and tiutejtanre of them ; for neither air, nor perturbation*, luir 
my of thott Othtr nidmt cautrt, takf ptact or work tkit eff(ft, rxcrft tht 
toittilutkm of bi/dy and preparation of humours do concur ; that a man 
matf say, tkit ditt is the mother nf duciucs, let the father 6e what he tiiill ; 
andjroin this alone, melancholy andfrei/uent othtr maladies arise. Many 
plirsicians, I confess, have wrillcn copious volumes of this one subject, of 
■be nature and qualities of all manner of meats: as, namely, Galen. Isaac the 
Jtrw ; Kalvabbas, Avicenna, Mctue. AtabiaiiA; Gotdoiiius, Villnnovanus, 
Wccker, Juhuunes Brueriiius, titoloi/ia de Etailentis et Pocitlcniis, Michael 
Sanuiarola, Tract. 2. cap. 8. Anthony Fumanellus, lib. de rtgirniue »e- 
WNM, Curio in his comment on Sehiiia Salema, Godefridus Scekiux arte 
wifd. Manilius Cognntn*, FicinuK, Hanuivius, Fonscca, Ijouius, Magnioux, 
mriN. sanitatit, Frirtagiun, Hugo FridcvBlliun, Ac. bwidcs many olhf-r in 
*Ene;liah; aod almost every peculiar physician discourse th at laz^ of all 
pvcoltar ments in his chapter of melancholy. Vet, beeau«e these book* arc 
not at hand lo every man, i will briefly (ouch what kind of meats Ingender 
ihb humour, through iheir several s])ecies, and which ar« to be avoided. 
How tliey alter and clianjite the matter, spirits first, and after humours. 
by which we are preservi^d. and tin- constitiitioii of our body, Fernelius and 
iMlien> will kIk'w you. I hasten to thi-. thin)i;it self: and, firat, of such diet as 
oSeods io fnb«tance. 

BetJ".] Beef, n strong and hearty meat (cold in llie 6rst degree, dry in 
the second, taith Gal, /. .I.e. I, de alim.fac.) is condemned by him, and nil 
■ncceedini; authors, to br«cd gross melancholy hlood ; good fur such ns Br« 
nmumI, aiid of a strong constitution, for labouring men, if unlered aright, 
eomed, voan};, of an ox, for all gelded meats in every species are held best ; 
or, if ohT, '' such ai have been tired out with labour, are prelprred. Aubaniis 
and Sabidtkrus commend Portugal beef to be the most savoury, best, and 
oMiSSt of digestion; wc commend oum: but all is lejected and unAt for 
n^ u lead a rcMy life, anv ways inellnud lo melancholy, or dry of eom- 
plezion. Talet (Galen tliinki) dc facili mtlancholicis trgritudinibus ca- 

Port.] Pork, of all mejvts, is most nutritive in hia own nature, but alto- 
pctlirr unfit for such as live nt ease, or are any ways unsound of body or 
mmi : too n)(>tt>l, full of humours, nnd tberernre nn:cia delicatis, xaith Sitvn- 
nrols. rx earum aim ul duhitetuT, an febrit quartana generetur: naught 
k« qiiraiii4? uTomuchs, in so much, that frequent use of it may breed a quar- 
tan a|^«. 

Ooat.\ Savanarola discommends goats flesh, and so doth ' Uruerinn*. 

^hA^ pQ«t«*4i'*'i Bunt ubiIrurtlDDn. ^ I'tlh^ L I-1-. II. MA;ilriiun in ciEnpudltnurblB fliDO^ 
^1, ■■fciilaM — '"' — I"" iiiurbl ■u)ij:«tfii> : Dud nov tb ftfro. ncc • |«rtorlAlianibu>. ivJ «JJ1* 

^^L ■■■ wobk r*4 ouiiiinm morliiitijii] m«1rt, Ftlnmid 4U1U nlwmitcr. Ab hjir mcirdi <[)uot* lapo 
i^^ai. •itiM altl cnKmii; iv»itiit. ■ ['ngmn. Kllot, Viuhan. vrtwi. • rrlFUclu* ■ Nun lau- 
t^i,xia BkFliiwhallfuni [jtvIwI tlimmtum. 

142 Caustt ofMdanckoly. [Part. 1. Sec. 2^ 

/. 13. c. 19, <!alliii^ il a filthy liciut, and rnmniiKli:an<I therefore Huppoitflh m 
wilt breed rank aiiit lilTliy sulAtnncc: yrt kill, kucIi aa areyounK and Irixlcr, 
\iivM.i cxcrpW, ftnicriiitjs, mid Golcii, /. I.e. \,dr alimeHliirum /ai:ullatibus, ' 

ffarl.] Hart, and rfd rletr, 'hath an evil name i it yieldt ffroft nttlri- 
meiil; a ftrong and i^eat f^raincd meal, nc^l unto n lionic:, whicli although 
some countries tax. as Tartars and tliey of China, y<'T. ' Gatcn condcmtis. 
Young foaU are a» cotnmonly talen in Spain, as red dvct, and, to I'uniiah 
llioir navies, atwut Malaga espt-Lially, ofttii lined. IIiil sucli meau atk 
Ions baking or settliin^, to ipinlitie th«in ; utid yet all will not serve. 

Venimm, Fallow Drcr.] All venison ia melanciioly, and begets biid 
blood ; a nifiisant meat in great eslwm with tis (for we hue more pnrkt in 
EiigUind tiian there nrc in all Kuropc beside*) in our xolenm feasts. Tis 
somrwiiat better, huiiled, than otherwise, and well prupartil by cookery ; 
but generally bad, nod seldom to be used. 1 

Hare.] Aare, a black meat, melancboly, and bard of digcition : it brcedfll 
mcubus, often eaten, and caiiu^tlt fearful dre^ims; so doth all venison, and. | 
is eoQdemiied by a jury of pbv-siciann. Mizaldiis and some others say thai 
hare i» a uiiirv mcut, and that it will make one fair, as MarliaU epigram , 
tvslilies toGclliii; bill this in per arciilrnt, because of the good sporl ill 
makcn, merry rumpany, and ^ood dixcDime that is commonly at llic L-ating I 
of it, nnd not otherwise to he iindcratooil. 

Coniet.j ''Conies are of the nature of hare*. Magninu* romparw them 
In beef, pig, nnd goat , Rf;/. »anil. pari. 3. c- 1 7 : yet young rabbctt, by all 
men, arc .ipproved to be good. 

Generally, all sueh meats as are hard of digestion, breed mdanclioly. 
Arctieus, lib. 7. cap. 5, reckons up heads and feet. ' boweU, brains, entrab, 
marrow, fat, blood, skins, nnd those inward parts, as heart. Iniif^, liver, | 
apleen, &c. Tliey an- rejected by Isaac, lib. 'i. jiarl. 3. Ma^-nitiiu, pari. 3, ' 
cap. 17. Brueriiiux, tih. 12. Saviinarola, Ruh. 3i. Tract, i. 

Milk.] Milk, and all that comes of milk, as butter and cheese, cunU, &c. I 
incmMc melancholy (wbey only excepted, which in mustwh(ile*ome). 1 Some] 
cxc<:pt n8»c8 milk. The rest, to sneh as ate round, i» tiiilritivi- and good,] 
cspfcislly for young children ; but, because soon turned to comipliou, ^ not | 
giKiil for those that have unclean atumacks, arc subject to Ix^adach, or have ' 
erecn wounds, stone. &i:. Of all ehi'e*M, I take that kind which ifc callj 
Banbury clieeau to be the best, Ei vrtuiiti prmnivt, the older, sttuiiger, ■ 
and harder, tlie worst, as Liin|,'iu» diKcgurielh iu liis Epistle to Melanethon, , 
cited by Mixaldus, Uitac, p. 5. Gal. 3. de cihis bnni nurci. i[c, 

Fnu'l.] -Amongsi, fowl, ' peacofkii anti pigeon*, all fenny fowl, an> foT-\ 
bidden, us ducks, gecw?, iwnns, herns. craneA, coot», didappers, watcrhems. 
vfith all those Icalx.cur*, slietdrakc*. and pccklcd Ibwln, that come hither in 
winter out of Seandin. Museovy, Creenland, Trici^tand, which half the year 
we covered all over with snow, and froien up. Though thew ho fair in 
feathers, pleasant in taste, and liavc a good outside Oikc hypoeritcs), white] 
in plunuis, and soft, their flesh i* hard, lilnek, unwholesome, dangerous, me-l 
lancholy meat. Gravant et putrrjiiriiial utomachum, saith Isaac, part. 5. 
<{e tio/. their you Rg one* are more tolerable; hut young pigeons he(|uiiel 

Fiiht's.] Rhaiin and *" Mai^ninii* discommend all 6sh, and «ay, tlieybrerd 
visconticf, shiny mitriment, little and humorous nouriiJimciil; t>avuiarola 

■Mill- alii HniuinailuirFrlaU^ual-. cmaiiainiuni «l UrlhUiriutn tujipvililal uliramtiim. •Uh. 
ilff luliiaitfu dl#>l4- Rquliurttroi<iadnliift«qaliiljicl4ncUrtlhniiiliiUimi*Tii4lnlnl«, * l^niTO •titnQl 
« fulutAlppomm. ftrnmiiiK. L tn ^jp. t!^ riili'.nnn l*.Ttpr* ct opIlrajL ^infliiiljtTdJ^fliirrliiiuaiui 

I'i^/ illt.fluar. 


|>. >. 1>MC. Bnin. lib. A. frp. X, ol 31. 

rtii. n,— MrmirUlte. d> 

lAM. VlliL I- 0, 10. cittt.iiU ftj] (rtilk niTil.* in liT i<(K-^iiri]ttriBAj mii[4ficiiiilv. ' ^T^Ill.r, axiitBi. Ili«vc, 

3. Stibs. ) .J Cataa of Melancholy. 143 

add* eiAA, moist ; and phlc^matick, Iximc ; itnil therefore iinwholraonM! Tor 
all I'cilil and melanrliuly complex iom. Others mitkc u dtfiereoce, rejecting 
only, iuiiong fr«i1i-wHltrr fisli, w\, tctieli, Uriprey, eraw-fish (wliicli Ufi^lil 
approves, cap. (i), und mdi ns nre bred in muddy and alanding walen. arid 
nve ■ tasle of mud, as Fninci»cus Donsuelus poetically deriiies. (Lib. de 


All flth. Ihai >iiii<Unii iiuuli anil bkin [mjunii. 
Du L-Tcr yMdb«4Ju)DtAradiiauHtlitiiiniC 

IjLmprrys, FauluB Jovius (c. 34. de piscUmtfitivial.)highly magoifits, and 
Mitli, nonespoak a^initt Uiein. Inil inepti and tcrupuloMi toine si'^ruputous 
pei-MUS 1 but " ixLt (c. ;j;j.) ft« nb\iirrcth : in all plaets, at all ttmr*, alt 
phyai-iani delttt ihrm, ftprriallg ri/iimt the solstirf. fliimesius (/iA. 1, e. 
'22. du nail') dodi imtno'lerjitely extol tea-fish, nhieh others as much vilifio, 
and, above tlic rext, drycd, towccd. initiirate ti»h. as ling, I'limiulog, nul-hor- 
riiipi, upralii, Ktoek-fish. hiiberdine, poor-john, all shell-tish. "Tim. Bright 
uxctpts lolntcr and erab. Me^^saiiiia commends salmon, which Hnierinus 
L-oniiadicts. lib. 3j. c. 17. Magntnttfl rejects coDgre:, sturgeon, lurbot, 
niiiekvrcl, skate. 

( jwp is a fi»h, of whicli I know not what to delermtne. Franciscus Bon- 
sitetus aecouiits it a muddy fuh. Hippolyltii SnlviaiiuB, in Iiis book de 
Pitcitim naluri rt prtrpnratttme, which Wim printed at Ituoie in folio, 1544, 
(witli mou 1' pictures] isttcen» carp no better limn a slimy watery nieat. 
Paului Joriiu, on tlic oilier side, disallowin;^ teoch, approves of it ; »o doth 
Uubranut in his books of Rsh-ponds. l-'ritt^ias i" extols it for un excellent 
wIhiIcmmik meat, nod puts it amongst the fii>heK of tlic best rank ; and so do 
most of our countrey (^nllemen, tbat store their ponds almost with no other 
tuch. But this eon trove raie is easily decided, in myjud<;emL>nl, by Brucrimis, 
/. 22. c. 1 3. The difleiencc riseth from the site and nature of jiools, "• sometimes 
muddy, sometimes sweet : they are in taste as the place n, from whence they be 
taken. In likn manner alnioii.1, we; may c(>ni:Iu<le of otlicr fresh fuh. But see 
tnore in lioiideleliii*, Britoniu*, Oribiixius, lib. 7. cap. 2'2. Isaac,/. 1. especially 
Htppolytut SalvinniiK, who is inilttr ommum, tolnt, %c. Howsoever they 
may be wholesome and approved, much use of them ii nol^od. P. Porea- 
Ins. in hi» Medicinal Observations, ' relates, that CarthusiHn fryer*, whose 
liring is most part fiah, arc morestibject to melancholy than any i>thei' order; 
and thnt he found by cKperience, being sometimes their physician nnltnary 
at IVIuh in Holland. He exemplilies it with an instance of one Bu«oiliie»c, 
n Carthusian of a ruddy colour, and well liking, thai, by solitary living and 
fiah-eatinK, became so misafl'eebs]. 

ffrrbt.] Anitrngst herbs to be eaten, 1 find gourds, eoweumbcr*, cole- 
worts, melons, diaallnwed, but espcciiilly cabbage. It eauseth tronblcsomo 
dreams, :ind m-mls up black rapoiif* to the bmin. Galen, (foe. affect. I. 3. 
c. 6) of all Iwrbs, condemns cabbage ; and Isaac, lih. 2. c. 1. animit graci- 
talrm fiteit, it brines heavinew to the soul. Some are of opinion, that all 
raw herbs and sallets breed melancholy blood, except liiigloHH and leitiee. 
Crato {eontil. 21. Hb, 2)9peaks a^inst all herlM and wortx. except Imrra^, 
bu^toiM, fennel, partly, dill, bawm, succory. Mngninus, (rvgim. tanilatis, 
3.pttrt.cap.3\)t>mneilurbiT mmplicUrr mal(t, tit! dbi : all herbs aresimply 
evil to (oea on (as It« thinks). So did lliat scoffing cook in ■ Plautus hold. 

• OboI loroduinn) kiiipaiv midirl drinunlur tnniDliu. pnHrttim dm iiilalltriiin, DtrnDonlui 
am Mill I tun •ffi-. ■ Ciq- 1. 1» hu Trvi uf Mi'1jiii<-1iuI> ' i>rmnr niiitu. iimnliiin juiUtiu. 
MSCT pnniB noo^ ^^Hx*g^i0X't i-rv^irvnii. ^ Sim r*t cliilMuni, tjain. [.tit tiikiiMrum >U[| wr Mtun. 
I AUnvfiMruca ■urliADtur illflrirnl^*!. nlihl fbtimtrtrpA. \hli\ liiTulanlivn*. ' Obv^ftvt- IS. iln. 
' iSMiilaliu. mit. 3, (sni. !. 


Causet of MeUtncJidy. 

-Non fya Mmun Mndlo. nl ■lii r«qui uiVml, 

Qui nithi conOllr (mlA lb p4tlbit |rruri;ruij1. 

t-i\c Qthrr ccicikfl. I ilu not Hup]>ti Un^u. 

Th«L mi\ vholi' mi'diiwi in n jAiil\i*i, 
Anil niAc no tirllcr iif ilto b'U<.-t(> lliui hooTn. 

Willi luTbfl uid iirut lu tv*-ii Uicru fAtlri. 

Our Italians and Spauiards do makt a whole dinner of hcrliit and talleU 
(which our said Plautus calls nmot tentalrts, Honce, c^nat $'me sanguine) i 
by which means, as he follows it, 

< lll'^hninlnmUm>iTcvcm rLlam cohinl 

Qui hi^rliu> Tiiijuf modi in alvum aUAju «!aTt^rua( : 

PurmiiltjluKTiiqitii-Eu, nun mu inc^Jo, 

Quail hprfau ppr^Klrt non i'iItiaI. hLmiitm i^unL 

Thpir Jl>v". thAl r«1 lurh hor'u* vuiit ncHti iip ihorf ; 

And^Oib fi'orfiii Ihiii^ for lu r^jiort, 

Tlk*l uoutluntld fnidoii >urh Q kju4 of in?4t, 

WhiiHi wry jumri>U would ri-f ub(t m cit. 

" They are windy, and not fit therefore to be eaten of all men raw, tlioiigli 
(|iialifiea with oyl, but in broths, or otherwise. See rooro of these in everjr 1 
* liuslMuidiiian and herbalist. 

Roots.] Hoots (tin quarundam ^fnliiim opes <itnf, saitll Bruirrinus — tlie 
weiilth of Home countries, and sok fomi) ate windy and bad, or troulilesoino 
111 ihi: luuid ; tu onyonK. ^rlick, ai'idliniiK, tiirnr|)]i, carrKti, radislies, jutrs- 
nipK. Crato {lib. 3. consil. 1 1) disallow* nil r"<>ls ; though 'tome approTC 
nf parfini[u and polulnc^i. ■ MiigniniiK i$ ofCruto^ opinion — ^ tkty trouble 
/he niinrl, undinij groff fumes to the broin, vtake men mad, especially gar- 
lick, onyons, if a man liberally feed on thcni a yenr toother. Guianeriua 
(tract. 15. ca/i. 2) complains of all manner of roots, and so doth Bruerinus, 
even parsnips themselves, uhich are the best ; Ltb. 9. cap.<ir»m 
titui succiM <7Wnt/ imprubiir, 

Fniits.] Crato (consH. 11. lib. I) utterly forbids all manner of fruits, as 
pears, appleis, plums, cherries, straw burriu*, nuts, medtun, serves, &'c. .Sitii- 
auintM injitiuut, saitli ViUanovanui' ; th<:y inf<-iH the blood ; and putriHc! it, 
Magninns holds, ivnd mu!,t not thi'Tcforc be taken, vid cibi, aut quantitalt 
raagnd, not to iiink<: a mciil of, or in any great quantity. * Cardjin makes 
that acnuncof their conlinual sicknessat Fessii in Africk, ircautcMrjf &V 19 
much OR fmils, eultng them thrice a day. Laurcnliua approves of many 
fruits in his Tract of Meianckoly, which others disallow, and, amongst the 
rest, apples, (which some likewise commend) as sweetings, poirmains, pip- 
pins, as good B^j^DSt melaitclioly ; but to him that is any way inclined to or 
touched with this melancholy, ' Nicholas Piso, in his Praclicks, forbid* all 
fnliu, as windy, or to be sparini^ly eaten at Ic-ait, and not raw. AmonK«t 
other fruits, ^ BniiTinus (out of Galen) excepts i;rapcs and figs ; but I find 
them likcwisf^ rcji-etcd. 

PuUf.] All pnlsn are naught, beans, pease, fitche*, &c. they fiU tlw 
bmiti (saith Isaac) with gross fumes, breed black thick tihind, and caosc 
troublesome dreams. And theretbre, that which PylJi-^ros said to hit 
seliolars of old, may be for ever applyed lo melancholy men, A faint abttt- 
t»elt : eat no pease nor beans. Vet, to such as will needs cat them, I would 
gire this comuel : to prepare Iheni according to tliose rules that Aruoldui 
Villanoraniui and Prictitgius prcserilw, for eating and dressing fruiu, lierba, 
roots, pulse, &(■, 

Spie€t.\ Spices cause hot and liead melancholy, and ore, for that cause, 
forbidden by our physicians, to such men as arc inclined to tliis malady, as 

■Plbitui, ilild. *QuBrii m'tlUBi]vl<>tudlnt«M*'rjuJjiiiiicrantulpL(Liii,Ut4A>prinniin nxfrnlTinmr* 
am, ru pluc t*I omixnt ••i\ )»nvil/«u*il(il. XcnMu*. up. L dcimiiuii unt ■In MIkMoM 
Hdito, p. CrwrnL HrrlnHpln. kc 'Vt.y. M. pwl.a, Bri^l. iniiii TivrlutMil. ■ Inullccinn .1 
p Audit i. {LtiEjuil Manila, ) qnnd. *i f|uiaa« rii* jvt uknuni c<rtiUau# \ 


Drrrtnia ikrii^btL lb F«i 

Causes of Mtlatickoly. 

Menu 3, Subs. 1.] 

pepper, gin^ri cinnamon, clorei, mace, dates, Ac. hony and »ii|>ar. ' Some 
except Ituny: lu those? tljul an: n)M, it iiiuy bo loleratiW : li»\. " dalcia it in 
hilem Tcrlunt ; tlicy an; olMtnictivc. Crulo therefore Turbidit all spice (in a 
cuii*ulttitii»i of hU lor n mclanclioly schoolniaitcr), omnia aromatica, et 
quidquid sanguinfm adurit : bo doth I-crnclius, conw/. 45 ; Gmimcriu*, (rart. 
15. c. 3 ; McTcurislis, cons. 180. To these 1 mny wdd all sharp and rowre 
Uiiogs, luscious, and over-sweet, or fat, at oyl, vinegar, verjuice, miigtard, 
stilt ; as »weet thinn;a are obstructive, so these nrc corrosive. Oomesius in 
bis books de tale, ^ 1. c. 21.) highly commends salt; sodoth Codronchus(in 
bn irsct, dt safe absinlkti, luema. I. 3, c. 9. de occult, nat. mir. Yet coni- 
mOD experience findt lalt, and salt-nieaU, to be great procurers of this das- 
c*te : and for thai cause, belike, lliuse E^j-pliau {iriesU abatained from sail, 
eren so much an in their bread, k( sine per lur^aliane anirna esset, naith mine 
autlior — that their soiilg might be Iree fniiii pcrlur bat ions. 

Brrad.'\ Bread ihai is madi' iif baser ^rain, ai jieiise, l>eans, ontx, rvc, 
or * ovrr-hard baked, erusty, anil black, is often spoken agaiiisl as causing 
meUncholy Juyce and wind. John Major, in the first book of his History 
of Scotland, contends much for the nholesomeuess of oaten bread. It was 
objected to him, then living at Paris in Frauco, that his coiinirymen fed on 
oalA and base grain, as a disgrace ; bol fae dotb in^nuousty confess, Scot- 
land, Wales, and a ttiird part of England, did most part use tlmt kind of 
btead ; tlial it was a^ whulxonie as any grain, and yielded as good nourish- 
ment. And yet Weekcr (out of Galen), calls it horse meal, and filler for 
jumcnts than men, to Iced on. But read Galea himself, (Lih. 1. Dcdbii 
honi tttiiali tacci) more largely discoursing of com and bread. 

WiuF.} All black wines, over-hot, compound, stronic thick drinks, a* 
Muwadine, Malmsie, Allegant, Itomny. Btownbastard, Mclbeglen, and the 
like, of which they have thirty several kinds in Muscovy— all sueh made 
driiiks are huitfid in this ease, to such as are hot, or of a sanguine cholerick 
cotn|)lexiijo. young, or inclined to he ad -melancholy : for mnny limes tlie 
drinking of wine alone causetb it. Arculanus (e. IG in 9. Rhagit) puts in 
' wine for u great caust:, especially if it be immoderately used. Guiancrius 
{Tract I5.C. 2)telli astoryof two Dutchmen, lo whom he gave entertainment 
in his house, that, * inane monrtlis apace, were both melancholy by drinking 
ofmne: one did nought but ning, the oilier si^h. Galen (I. de eauAtu 
tmorb. c. 3). Mattlilolus (on Dioscoridcs) and, above all other, Andreas Ba- 
chiui (I, 3. 18, 19, *iO) have reckone<l upon those inconveniences that come 
by wine. Yel. Dotwitlistaoding all thi^, to such ii* are cold, or sluKgisU me- 
lancholy, a cup of wine is good physick: and so itoth Mercuriidis stimt, 
amsil. 25. In that case, if the temperature be cold, as to most melancholy 
men it n, wine is much commended, tf it be moderately used. 

Cider, Perry.) Cider and Perry are both cold and windy itriuks, and, 
for that eauwe, to be neglected ; and »o ace all those hot spiced strong 

Bter.l Beer, if it be over new or over stale, over strong, or not sod, 
smell of thr ea*k, shiirp, or »(iwr, i» most unwholsoine. frets, and gnuts, &c. 
Ilenricus Ayreius, in "a consultation of hi*, for one that laboured of hypo- 
chondriacal melancholv, discommends beer; sodoth ' Crnlo (in that ex- 
cellent counsel of Ids, /li. 2. ronsif. 21) as too windy, because of the hop. 
But lie means, belike, that thick black Bohemian beer used in some other 
parts of GermaDy. 

•BiiKhl itHtxwptjhOBr. 'Hot «nd Scollduiii. roiull. im ■NfroiofdMfnuum. cho. 
IvBOI quia (IcnU uluiuiu- Srhul. aul. ' YinuDiIuibi'luin, i Kt (ini pnlimtlibllillluDr.dua Alih 
iMdD) Id and mm<* mrUuinhulii-i hvll lunl. > ttiUnlu'lDi. i;<icU. IqI. IK. • Crhuib tinwnl 

■mill II 1 About IMnliick. ln>pnH)i, llunhaqt. I.f-pilrk. 


146 Caasa of Melancholy. 

-nil spEv-liji iliJi^ 

l>Mm bHiititr : nii clirtus eitU iluin iiLinL:itiii 
Ctffl*l«L ^tiiid niulUi rv4-ni[| cur|ii]Ffl lllilj 

NuUtixj^i'Dmiiafa to Ihlak; 

Nit lb In fl C'tr^ ilut so thlUE 

ti miKT Tbortk foltow. thca. 

Tho dtutf* Ecrv Irn wUhln — — 

an thbt old ' poet »roli('ci, calling it Slytfue moaslrum conformc pattuli, 
moniitnnf, driiik, like llic river Styx. But let them «ny ax they liM, to 
£uch as Hie accustotncd unto it, 'tU a most wkolsume ('rq Folydor V'irgil 
cftlktb iO and a pltmaiit drink ; it is luure subtil and better tor ttte hop, 
tliBt rarifies ir, and hatii mi Mpeiial vertue against inelanclioly, as our 
herbalislB i.'oiir<.-w, Fudmus ujipioves, /<&. 2. itci. 1. '\ntiit. cap. II. and 
many olticrH. 

WateTt.\ Siaudiiiic wnlers, thick and ill [.uluurcd, audi ai cuiiic futtli of 
pools urid motes, when- htnip hatli hectt sli-cped, or «tiiiiy fiith^* livt;. arc 
moit iiiiwlioltonir, putriHcd, and full nf mill's, creepi-'n, ilimy, muddy, un> 
clean, corrupt, inipiirir, by iraiK>'i ul'lhe s\iti% licnt. and Mill standiii];. Tliey 
cauw foul diglcm|H:rattiri'8 in the body iind niiml o\ man, nrc until lo make 
drink of, lo drpM meat with, or to be '" ii»ed about men iiiwntdly or out- 
wiiriily. 'rticy are ^ood for many domestical uses, to wa»h hor«cs, water 
catlle, &c. oi Id time of necessity, but not uilieraise. Soini; are of opinion 
that such fat standing; waters make the be»t beer, and that sectliing dolh de- 
fecate it, as" Cardan Iwilds f'/i/i. V.i.tubtil.) it rnr-iidi thr iuhitance andauvour 
of it ; but it i* a paradox. Such beer may be slron^r, but nut a<j ivIiuUotue 
as the ottier, im " Joberliu truly juitifieih, uut of Galen, (Paradox, dec. 1. 
Paradox. !>.) that the xeelbiug of kik'Ii impure waters dolh nut purge or 
puritii- ihcni. Ptiny (lib. 3\. c. 3.) ii of the: same lenent; nnd P. Crtt*eeii< 
tiu*. a^ricuU. lib. 1 . r( lib. 4. c. 1 1 . e/ c. 4.i. PamphiliuK I lerilachu*, /. 4. 
dt iiat. aijuiinnii. such waters are nnnght, not to be used, and {by the tt-iiti- 
muny of I'Galeu) breed uijutitdropHe), pleurisies, splcne lick and melancholy 
paniom, hurt thr et/eg, cause a bad Icmperatare, and ill disjiosilion ^ the 
whole body, wUli had loluur. This Joberlus stifly niainlains, (Paradox, lib. 
I . part. 5,) that it eauseth blicr eves, bad colour, and many loathsome dU- 
eases lo such as use it. Tliis, wlucb they say, stands with g<KMl reason : for, 
U g;('u);raphers relute, llic water of Astracan breeds wutms iti such as drink 
it. 1 A\ius,ur(ai now called i Verduri, the lairenl river in Macedunia, makes 
all cattle bbek dint lai^tc of it. Aliacinon, nuw Pelccu, nnothfr Stream in 
TheMulv, turns cattle most part white, li polui du(.at. I. Aubauus Buhemus 
referrj iliat ' ilruma. or poke of the IJaviirinn* and Styrinns, to the nature 
of their wntcK. as ■ Munsier doth thnl of the Valesians in the Alp* ; and 
' Rodinc snppciseth the stuttering of some famihcs in Aquitunln, almut 
Ldnlen, to proceed from ilie same cause, and that the filth i» derived from 
the water lo iheir buihe*. So tliat they that <isc ti'thy, standing, Lll-coloured, 
thick, muddy water, must needs have muddy, ill-coloured, impure, and infirm 
bodies : and, because the body works upon the mind, lliey shall have grosser 
understand i[i|^, dull, foggy, melanehuly spirits, ajid b« really subject to all 
manner of in^nnilics. 

To thcic ni)xiou8 limplc^, we may reduce an infinite number of compound, 
artificial, made dishes, of which our cook% alTord us a great »ariety, au tay- 
lors do fashion* in our apparel. Such arc " puddings stuffed with blood, or 
other wiseeom posed, baked meats, so weed, indu rale meat*, frywl, and broiled, 

• Jtnirji'iii A.liriiu'1'nkLdi, I [*f>tufl turn julubri* lum juriindu^, \- I. ■ CimJra. ]. 1. ilr hul tuvnd. 
CHVL-nilir iiirtl ftijiijT qijp fi Hln^ijA h.vihimtiLr, rl littl fiti'\Ar ti mtlr itlrnf^*. If. * Innntivm 
mlaiL .-t tx-itr oJi'Otvm. * Cuiftt^nrlkl \ivv ^\Um viKiivuv Dun cuipnilarL * Llli Ac honkUt^ wg^iir. 
tt\«li>JtHm a'lipt. fclnrf [iiitr^dB^, .^plvuvui. tutert ; tMii^^l cl'uILi -. miUmn bsLutuiji cutpuf^t v( i^iAoKio. 
iM«^ NistlUlim indiirll. ri pu(,fim blbv'rint, > Aqw irx nivlbiia fudtIv ■IfuiiiEtvu* fjiduiiL 
• Gualdu|[. t y <*i^ JH- ' MtfltitnL hlq|. <af- ^ BkllKiClunl (^bdMLl \xi AqiillhiLJA «>b hi||]vi^ hlqLii, 
bl nul^* at' B*|i«» >n <:un>vn 4U-r*i-mijf , * KdulU a tuig^iUnc rt luffwttu |iarl-k ILlkt^brlin. 

Mem. 2. Suba. 2.] 

Dy*t a Cause. 


buttered incat!t,conili(r, powdered, ■'■■<lv^cr-<^i'y<^i''&'lc^^t>''i^ncl"> buns, 
cracknels ntMic with batter, Hpicc, &<:. Triltct*, puncalcM, pie*, aalHa^res, and 
thOM BeTcrsl xavrces, sharp, or orcr »«-m, of which tvicniia popinit. (att 
Seneca calls it) hath served (hose " Apician trick*, nnd perfumL-d diilipt, 
wliicb Adrian the Sixth, pone, to much admired in the accountii of hi* {tm- 
deceMUur Leo decimuM ; and wbiih prodi^fious riot and prodigality linvr in- 
T«nted in l!ii» ap;. These <ii> generally ingeiider gross humours, fill the 
stQnuu:b with urudilien, and nil llivsc inward uarts with obstruct ions. Mon- 
lanuj (cottil. 'I'l) givet instance in a metanclioly Jew, thai, by eating such 
tart sawces, mndc dishes, nnd snlt meats, with which he was over-mucb de- 
lighted, bccnmc melancholy, und was evil affected. i>uch vxainpleB are fa- 
miliar and common. 

Si'BSKCT. II. — Quantity of Dyet a Caute, 

Titran in not to much hnrm proct-i-ding from t3ie sub^t.'Ulce it idTof meat, 
and (jiutity of it, in ill-dressing and preparing, a;* there \» in>m the i|nandtj, 
disorder of time and place, unseasoiintile use uf it, * iiiienipenkncc, over*much 
or ovcT-little tnkine of it. A trne saying it is, Plarct crapulii quam gladiui ; 
this gluttony kills more than the sword; this omaimrantia, rt homicidaffuln, 
this all denntrinp. and mntdering gut. And thai of* Pliny is crncr; simple 
liielis tkr httt : heaping up of sevtr at meats ispeniicinus, and t^wcet leorte ; 
mantf dishe* bring many diseatef. ' Avicen cryes out, that nothing ii icorse 
lAtm tofttdon many dUhns, or to protract tne lime of mtals longer thun 
ordinary ; from tkenct proeetd our tnfrmititt ; ami 'tis the fountain of all 
diataat-t, wKickaTifr. »uf of ike rtrpiignaHcy of gnat humours. TIjenee, saitb 
* Femcliun, cuoic cniditics, wind, oppilati(>ii«, cacaehymia, plethora, cache- 
xia, brariypepna; *' hinc subit4r morirs, alqur. inlfttata tcnrctuf: suddiiin 
death, Siv. and what not ? 

Asa lamp ischoaked withnmiillitudeof oyl. orn little fire with overmuch 
wood, r|iiile extinguished; so is the natural liMit, with immoderate eating, 
strangled in tli« body. Perniciosa senlin'i est abdomen insalurai/ife , qua 
aunh—tM insaliaUe jraunch is a pernicious sink, and the fountain of all dis- 
CMe*. both of body and mind. ' Mercurialis will have it a peculiar cause 
of tlii» private disea^-. Solenander (co«jt(7. 5. «ec(. 3) ilUistrales this of 
Meicuri-jlit, witli an example of one to melancholy, ab intempeslivis camit' 
latintttbas. utue;utina1ili! fr:i.->iin{r. '' Cruiu conlirnis A3 much, in that iil\en 
cited connMrl, 'i\. lib. -2. putting luperRiifius calini; for a main cause. Hut 
what m-wl I neek farther for pmof» '- Hear * Hipitocr^kirs himself, lib. 2. 
apkofid. 10. Impure bodirf, the more they are luiumhrd, the more they 
are burl ,- for the nourishment is putrifed with viciout humnurs. 

And y«t, for all this harm, which apparently follows suHetting and drunk- 
enness, see how we luxuriate and rage in this kind. Head whal Johannes 
Stuckias hath nritten lately of this subject, in his great volumn De Anii- 
mtarwrn Coitrtviis, and of our present age : t/uam ' porienliim ftrnie, pro- 
aisioat Slippers : ^ qui. dam iiivitant ad t^anarn, efferanl ad lepulcrum, whal 
Pbgoa, Epicure*, Apicii^. Helio^blen our timcit affords Lueullus ^lioxt 

• CapHlU vm, plUfoUr. bfllkrii. commpnlAqDV 4lliciir&<Ai|'LtloraiD cltfoquOTuni ipuFui Hflrrifu- 
bcai. AcifeciUua nuTbca turn curi>urL luin ■iiimuliuAuftMIr^ Philu Iu^hiu. lili. dv *jflinili. P. jov. 
iltt An*. *.V« IrtUrv iii<r*|xif m VLni-, bird, A-d with fi-m^] uidviuu. u ■popn rnncnblrio lonl 
n A>\ipil»iL KirpriHi. ■ ^nlniir nof'tiliim INa terFHtl, (1 dr IiMnplon*! Imnuridgm tUbulum tlrlt. 
PrivlSvL 10. f. ' Lib 11. c W- liundnl <<lb(u utlUidriinDt iiB|iloK ; Bcenulb eibuFufa urMteta. 
•rl <f»«iii>'nU in'niii'iliu : nuiItiM mutbui luulla ftRUli trrtmU 'K DtE t, i.. Nihil dviniui 
^■^ tt tpmpim jiibIu Icintfiui rmnrdifndq urolnhtlitr. «l t«rla dhomv grbt^ti rnj^unfwil^ir ; tndf 
■vitmvJn •ca.lbrleti. i|i[H' .nL irpii|jnxr1LA hitinoTuifi brlttit, ' PiTIi L I. i^. H. *Jui. limt. & 

■ HImU ri'(fU>1Jo i?irM..F'in rit<!n iit^Uiii.<1iollPuni. >>Coinc«nv >biT>4'r<TuA rttpl. «1 putltk, qukDIlljM nllBrik. 

■ laiBim CuTpurfl iiuarilu riiB^il, nurrtH. iKiUi litlffiB Icdlt; pufri^fuEt viiini ■limimlurn viliuaui bonor. 
'Vtd. OorfpTir d*' jjtjrtc'niv>Ni" cirnij*, »n'. Fulrnni Com, i Amii. lib, d# Jpjn, etp. It 

r 1 

H8 ■ Dyet u Cause. [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

walVs still ; and every mnn dcitirps lo siip in Apollo : £sap« rostly (li«li in 
ordinarily *rrvL-d iifi. ■ 

* Maftlt Ilia joivit, iliiir p^urij I'lhUntuT! ^M 

\\ie dearest catcs niv ln-st; ;itid 'lis an ordiuoiy iliini; lo liesiow twenty <r^ 
lliiiiy pound on i> dish, some thouaaDd ctowm upon n dinner. ' Mutey- 
Hamet, kin;; uf Fra and Morocco, Kpent tJin-e pound on suv,'c« of a 
capon: it i^ notliiog in our time*: wr xciirn all lliiit i«<^lirnp. Wr loal/t the 
Vtrij * light, (nime of us, as Scncea norcs) hrraaf,r il comnfnc ; and we art 
offeadrfl with the sunt hiat. and tkosr coot filasi*. because wt buy them not. 
This nir we lircjthe is so coiniiion. we enre not Jor il; nodiing pleasetti but 
what it deiir. And, if we !w ' wiUy in any tliiiij;. it is ad i/iilam : if we 
Blndy at idl. it in rrurlito lum, lo please tlie palai, and lo sati^fie llie put. 
A cook afotdtea). a lirisi^ knaee (as '" Livy complain*), hut nnw arjrrat man 
in rfquest : nwArry i> tirciime an art, a n<ililr si-ir.niir : ciuiki arf gmtlrmrn : 
venltr deiii. Tlicy Vfcar llieir hnimn in their Mlirt, mid ikririjutt, in t/ieir 
heads, (as " A^rippii Used dome p^irasitt-s of his time) nitliing on thcii own 
destruction, as if a man ulionld run npini ihc point of n sword; ti»i/uf dum 
T'tmp'intar. vamedunt : "M day, all night., I<'l the pliysicinn say wliai lie 
will — iinmiTieni dan;zcr and fcriil diecnitrs an? now rcndy to seine upon Uieiu 
— -tliity will eat lill tliey romit, (ei/iin( ut i-omant ; i-otHuat ut eiiaat, saltli 
SenM'a; wliirli Dion relates of Viicllius. Solo transitu cilmrum nutriri jitdi- 
catuf; lirs meal did pass llirou'^li, and away) or lill ilii-y liuwt u^in. 
'' Strage anlmaatium vi:ntrem onrrant : and rake oier all tfii^ (vnrld, us %o 
many ''»tnv<-i«, belly-gods, and land-set penU; et totun orbif vcntri nimis an- 
j/uslus i the whole world cniinot salisfie ibeic appi^litc. ' Sra, land, rivert, 
lakei, SfC. may not give content to tfirir raying gutt. To make Up the mess, 
wbat immoderate drinking in every place! SrnemjioCiim pnfa tra/iebat anut : 
how they flock to the tavern ! a* if ihcy wi-rc friiors contmiuere nali. born 
Ut no ullier end but lo cat nnd drink, (like Utiellius Dibulus. that fauious 
Roman parasite, i/ui, dum t-trir. atit hihit out minxtt) as so inaay ca*ks to 
hold wine; yea, worse ihati a cask, that marrs wine, and it self is not 
marred by it. Yet these aiu brate men ; Silcnuit ebrina was no bnivrr : rt 
i/uir furrunt vitia, marei sunt : 'its now the Fashtnn of our tiroes, an honour: 
nnnr vrro res ista iro rtidiif (as Ctirywist. scrm. .*)(). in .'i, Epbes. comments) 
ut cffrminatiT ridrndai/ue ignnl'itr loco hahentur, nolle intliriari ; 'lis now 
come to that pns», ihat lie is no gentleman, n very milk-sop, b clown, of no 
bringing up, that will not drink, fit for no company : he is yonronly (i^allant 
that plays il olf finest, no disparagement now to sts^er in ihe sireets, reel, 
rave, &q. bnt much lo bis fame anil renown ; as, in tike case, Kpidicus told 
Tliesptio bis fellow servaoc, in the 'poet, ^depol ! /acinus imprnbum, 
one urjjed: the other lepl'ed. At jam a/ii/ectre idem: rrit illi ilia ret 
honori: 'tis now no fanli. ihere be so many brave examples tobcur'me ont; 
'tis a credit lo have a suonR bntio. and carry his liipior wdll : the sole con- 
tention, who can dttnk ino<.i, nnd fox his fellow soonest. Tig tiie «'i»i»t»m 
biutvm of our tradetmrn, their felicity, life and soul, (lantii dalcidine affev- 
tani, sailh Pliny, lib. I4, rap. 12, ut magna pitrx iion alind vilit prtemiina 
iattlligat) Ihcir chief comfoM, lo lie merry togolbcr in an alehouse or tavem, 
as onr modern Muscovites do in their medc-inns, and Turk* in tlieif coflbe* 
hoiist*, which oinch resemble our laverns: they will labour hard all day 
long, to be drunk at night, and spend lolius anni laboru (as Si. Ambrooc 

* J»r<>Tiil- ' C^tiin^iar'hn. ^ Nl <|iiip«1. 4, '& nil. fJi«ni1lo nt lumen ETituilum; -loli-I iiind 
4olr-iu, quml vplnmin, rmfr-'Tion pnat-Vinu*. ijuodhJr ■*r. nou i^iiptTi", rx ruclll, fti-. idvx- nihil jdIilti-i, 
nl4j i^Liod pariim 'It, ' liieculrt«l til ETilHin. ' Olliu vUu inuirirEitni. tiuilf^ in rtmni jraEmintlitni't 
nunc art htlri^l i-trftTa. Ar. ' KpiaL SS. I. 7. quoruni ta tmtrr iiifimiBm, i" j«ttnkM, Jtp, - In 
liirf-iii I'lviiiii Svr1ori«it, f R^nivn. i Hurlpik foltv rt^pn Don tapoTE tn} >»iirniaa A-itimnnlot. 
(imnTo. i^c"!".)!. "J lli-ltldn. ■ )*itiricDixi (uUun hUuc Diid [nmuBl iluvii cl uiuiii. .Kaeu 8>l- 
■ Lui.iJf oUivr. ciiTUi, 'I'laijluih ^ 

Mem. 2. Subs. 2.] Dyet a Cause. 149 

adds) ID a tipling feast : convert day into night, as Seneca taxeth some in 
his times, perverlunl ojic'ta noclis el lucis ; when we rise, they comniunly 
go to bed, like our Antipodes, 

Noaque Dfal pijnitu cquii Oiiens iffliTit uihelu. 
lUla len nibnu iccenilit lumlna Vupcr. 

So did Petronius in Tacitus, Heliogabatus in lampridius, 

UBue» diem totum Btcrtebftt 

Smyndiiis the Sybarite never saw the sun rise or set, so mucli as once in 
twenty years. Verres, against whom Tully so much inveiglis, in winter he 
never was extra leclam, vix extra ledum, never almost out of bed, " stilt 
wenchbg, and drinking ; so did he spend hb time, and so do myriads in 
our dayee. They have gymnasia bibonum, schools and rendezvous ; these 
Centaures and L^pithee toss pots and bowls, as so many balls, invent new 
tricks, as salsagea, anchoves, tobacco, caveare, pickled oysters, herrings, 
fumadoes, &c. innumerable salt meats to increase their appetite, and study 
how U> hurt themselves by taking antidotes, " to carry their drink the better ; 
* and, when naught else serves, Ihey ifill go forth, or be conveyed oat, to 
empty their gorge, that they may return to drink afresh. Tliey make laws, 
intanaa lejes, contra bibendi fallacias, and ' brag; of it when they have 
done, crowning that man that is soonest gone, as their drunken predeces- 
sours have done, ('quid ego video? Ps. Cum corond Pseudolum ebrium 
tuam) and, when they are dead, will have a can of wine, with 'Marons old 
woman, to be engraven on their tombs. So they triumph in viltany, and 
justifie their wickedness, with Rabelais, that French Lucian, " drunkenness 
U better for the body than physick, because there be more old drunkards, 
than old physicians." Many such frothy ai^uments they have, ''inviting and 
encouraging others to do as they do, and love them denrly for it (no glew 
like to that of good fellowship.) So did Alcibiades in Greece, Nero, Bo- 
nosus, Heliogabalus in Rome (or Alegabaliis rather, as lie was stiled of old, 
as ' Ignatius proves out of some old coyns) ; so do many great men still, as 
' Heresbachius observes. When a prince drinks till his eyes stare, like Bitius 
in the poet. 

Spiimonteia [latemm)' 

and comes off* clearly, sound trumpets, fife and drums, the spectators will 

applaud him; the 'bishop himself, (if he belye them not) with his chaplain, 

mill stand by, and do as much ; O dignum piincipc haustum ! 'twas done 

like a prince. Our Dutchmen invite all comers ti-ilh a pail and a dish : 

eelut infandibula, inlegras obbas exhauriunt, el in moaslrosis poculis ipsi 

monstrosi monslrosiiis epotunt, making barrels of their bellies. Incrediliilc 

dictu, (as *one of their own countrymen complains) ^ijuanlum liquoris im- 

modcstissima gens capiat, SfC. How they love a man that will be drunk, 

crown him and honour him for il, hate him that will not pledge him, stab 

him, kilt him : a most intolerable offence, and not to be forgiven. ' He is 

a mortal enemy that will not drink with him, as Munster relates of the 

Saxons. So, in Poland, he is the best servitor, and the honestesi fellow, 

(saith Alexander Gaguinus) ' that drinketh most healths to the honour of his 

' Hot. ■ Diei brcTilds couvLviia, noi^lia MngiliiJoalinirifl. conlm-hilur. ' El.quii plun r.ipijinr. 
irrilunPnU rxcacilxnlur ' Fe>tu porUnlur. ul ad ruiivivium ivporU^ntur; rvp]i-ri ut exhmiiJJinr. 
VI vxhuiiirf ut rHhoat. Anilirg^. T]n|;i-ntifi VA^a, vpliii mt] DHU'nUlioncin. fte. ■ I'lftiitu". 
• Lib. 3. Anlhol. p. 20. ' Graliam conciliaiil piii:in[lo. ■ NuMt >il ('■■anrf!. ' Lib. lip *Uii.:.iiiti.i 
prinripurn Lib^ru. ' Viiy. 'Itli^n. xlreniii poturis opt*K:opi ut<-i.']lJmun. pura jnEiMili'm pnl<<ruiJL 

dbliiril princPUB. ■ Bohe Bills, in BaxoniS. AJpo ininnidi-I.itl- rl immudi-SW »t) i|i-b bibilur, ut, 
in compul*tionibil« iiiii". ii.m ryithii allium cl I'aiillintij' «iil iiifulliliT.' |nn".ilTl. "iii imi^U'liilii nnil.'- 
lnl» ippomnl, 9l »ruti'llftin.i.-(& hurtshluriiiH'mlibcliulliliiliim |nitiirc ' Diitu im-rfliliik'. ijujii- 
luni bujUF«T ]]ijuiiri-« iiiiminli'ala fri-iiA rapinl : pliix p'irJiiitOlu JiiiiclssLmnm Unlh'nt, vl mtIu ciNryiuml, 
inimiriv>ini'.in e i*onlrai|Ui n™i niH, "I I'BrtJi-pl fiiBlilm. oxiiiiiiil. '• Qid puUn- r-tu^jl, liuslir, bi. 
briur; rt L-.L-du nuiinum>|u;uii tkt »pia(u[, > ttui mvliui bibil pro hIuIv duDiiiii, niiligi lubi'iur 


160 QmmofMelanciofy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

matter; lie shall be rewarded <u a good wrvanl, and hM the bravest fvDow, 
that L-anies his hqucr beat; when as a bruwen burse will kicar mucli mace 
than any sturdy drinker ; ytt, for his ooble cxploiu in thi> kind, he shall 
be accounted a most valiant man ; for ^lam inter rpitlax fortis, vir ftstpotmt 
ac in Mto, a* much valour is to be ruund in li-aiting, a* in tigliling; and 
tome i>r»iir city eaplatns, aod cariiet knights, will mitlco lliis goo«l,and prove 
it. Thux Uicy many limes wilfuity pervert the good tcmperalme of t!)eir 
bodies, slide ificir wit*, strangle nutiiie, and degenerate into bca»tA. 

Sonic ag»in nre in the other extrc-iim, and draw this mischief on their 
heads by too ccrrmoniou* and strict diet, bcinjj over-precise. eocViiey-like, 
and ctinous in llieir obsenati"n of meats, timea, as that Meiiiana tlatica 
prescribes — ^j"8t so many ounces al diuner (wlueh Lesiius enjoini), si> much 
at supper; not a Utile more, nor a Uitle less, of sudi meal, and al such 
houn; a dvet drink ia llie morning, cuck-briilh, Cliiua-broth, at dinneJ', 
plumb-brutfi. a chicken, a rabbet, rib of a ruck ot' mutton, wing ofa ca[x>ii, 
the mtrrry- thought of a heti, &c. — to soiiiicier Imdics this i* too nice an<l 
most absurd. Othc^rv olfend in ovc.r-miich fasting; pining a day es, (saitb 
'GnianeriuK) and waking a. nights, aa many Moors and Turks in these our 
times do. Anchorites, monks, nnd the re»l of that superstitious rani, (a* 
the same Guiancriiis wilnessclh, l/iot he hath often seen to have hafmed in 
hia time) through immoderate fisting, have been frtyueiitit/ mad. Of 
such men, belike. Hippocratc* <.pcaks, (I Apkor. 5) wheu as he saith, 
"lApy mare offend tfi too sparinij diet, unit an morie damnified, than thtg 
thatfred iiberulltf. and are ready to tiirftil. 

SviiSKCT. III. — Custom of Dytt, Delight, Appf-tite, Necetsity, hou> they 

cause or hinder. 
No rule is so general, which admiis not some pxceplioo ; to this there- 
fore Rhich hatb bei'n hitherto said, (for I shall otherwise put most men out 
of commons) and those inconveniences which proceed from the sulistancc of I 
■ncaU, an intemperate or unseasonnble use of (bem, custom somewhat de- 
tracts, and qualifies, according to that of Hippocrates, 3 Aphorii. 5U. "Stick 
ihingi ai we have been long aixuttomed to, though they be evil in their irtrn 
nature, yet thci/ are lens offenttve. Otherwise it miiflit well be objected, 
tliat it were u nicer "tyranny to hve atler those strict rules of pliysick ; fur 
custom i'dudi alter nulnre it self; and, to such as are used (o tliein, it ^^ 
mak<:s bad meats wholsome, and unseasonable timeii to cause no disorder, ^| 
Cider and perry ate windy drinks ; (so are all fruits windy in themselvea, 
cold most pari) yet, in some shires of ''England, Normandy in France, 
Ouipuscora in tipain, 'tis their common drink ; and they arc no whit 
offended with it. In Spain, Italy, and Africk, llicy live most on roots, raw 
herbs, camels 'milk, and it agrees well uith them ; wbich to a stran^r will 
eati<e much ^rievanct-. In Wale^, lacjiciniU vescuntur, (as Humfrey Lluyd 
coufesseili, a Cambro-Brittaiu binwelf, in his elejiant episUe to Abrahaiu 
Orteliiu) they live most on while meats; tu Hulland. on fish, rooiA, - 
'butler; and so al this day in (lrc<'re, :ls 'Belioiiius observes, iboy had 
much ratlirrr feed on fish tiinn Hesh. With us, m<ixima pars cieli* m corncj 
comittit : we feed on flesh most part, (saith " Polydur Virj^il) as all nortlicrn , 

'Unt ibMlivji'juiimi, cltiiwU>ii;Uuii,fieUecadunl Innr-I 

Lgogi umU UitvnnUS. ui 11* iwm J 

, quo^ nUDlb^ rIBcifealur. Ipiv Tllltj 

fc Op».. iTo^u »iiuJ Btolwiuiri, Mir, LK 
luichoUun L '( f^ul nnrnriP mniliLni ?v^'<'<lifflt, ?. i^ trvt Ift. r. t. 
AcfiiliK^ol UAlti cum fi^rvur*^ Dro hptvtfc rtipluul j!ff i''Jui)tuin, i, 

tmpt- * I^ tvuui victu B^ri iliiIiDiiuutiL ; *'K i|tici lU ur mft^un *ntciuitaj dPETIVMnlo, m^onicjo Itt ] 
*vn>r trmii c|lj4ju v'^i^^uti* vlctu » Hum Umg^>r« ^.^mjiiiiiiU luai. niiMmU ^Marion, uuitu* iu , 
AHiiirU* molMUtr «Etlm]i -gill miKUrr ■'i«iT,intH<r<>ntif, f CanBiiriiidutllvniuliin. ^H'lv- 
B»rfUhlR. CiltMimrriih'rr, Woroc«'iri«hlK. ■ Lpo Af^-r, ^ I- u>ln fjAivJotuia Iscu <<nitt<-iifci. ml 
prWirrr* drlLHfef»*n Aniltiaril ■ FJiin,lri tiELUDi l>tj1>r<j -niutiirn bibiinl {nAiun irfFTPiril iibvqu« J 
Bblynuu. iatte^FinnUlvfi-ulJirl brtUrin. loti^m cJjih,*i 
piMitnu OMC^ <1UAUi CMlUhiu, * Llh. L hiiT. Ang. 

Siri'b. i-iaUi. Hitnd. ' l>rk«luiiui UtaS • 

Men), ti. Subs. 3.j Cania a/ MelaneAoiy. 151 

counir«v» do; ami it would be very oflensive lo u» lo live aAet their dyet, 
or ibey to liw; utter oum; <*« drink beer, tht-y wiiie; tli«v n»e oyl, wc 
butter: urc in ttic nurt)i urn 'Krcat i-utcrit, liiey inuit spiinng m those hotter 
ronntrtya: anil vet they and we, followinK our own cwitnmi, am well 
pleased. An Mtftiopiun of old, acciiig an I-.urupiritn nit breuil, wondrRl, 
qmcmodo ttrrcoribtu vticeniM pivgrvmut, how we could rut siich kinds of 
■i«Bt< : to much difler«d his counlrcy-men from oure in dyut, thni (at mine 
'author uif«rs), ji t/tiu illorum viclum ap«d noi iftaiilari vtUet ; if nny man 
thould 10 r««d witb us, it would be all one to iiouritli, ns cicala, aeonilum, 
or helltboT it self. At llm day, in China, tlie common peu^ile live, in a 
nmuDer, iilt(>^(her oa roots and lierbi; and, to tlu wealtliiL-st. h'Jrse, a**, 
mule, doiii, i-ul-Riith i« as ddighlsom M l]i« fe«t: to ■Mat. Hii-ciui llie 
Ji-suit relutiti, who lived many Vvum nmoapit them. The Tartar* eat niw 
mciil, nixt aio«t comtnotilv 'horaC'flcsb, drink milk and blood, as the No- 
Quulesof old — 

Ttiey woir at our Eurofia^ans for eating; br<.'a(l, which they call tofis of weeds, 
and borse-ueat. not fit for men ; and yet Scalig^er vcoounta litem s »ound 
and witty nation, Livui>; an hundred yean; even in the civileat countrey of 
tliem, they do thuH, as Benedict the Jeeuite observed in his iraveU. from tlie 
great Mogon t-ourt by land to Patiuiu. which Rieciun eoiilL-nds to be the 
•ame willi Cambulu in (.'utaiu. In Scandia, their bread is usually dryed 
Gah, and so likewiM; in tJie Shrlland Isles: and their dthcr fiirc, u in 
Iilaixl, (nilli * Dithmanm lltetkeniiu) butler, rlieese, and fish ; their drink, 
water, their Uwlging on the ^ound. In Amrnea, iu muny place", ibeir 
bread is rnoU, their niciil palmiioB, piiiiio, potntos, &c. and siich fruits. 
There be of them, too, thai familiarly drink '' salt sea water, ail their lives, 
ml 'raw m«at, graM, and that with delight: with aonie, fish, serpents, 
spiders: and in diveni places they ''eat mans Hcsh raw, and rolled, even the 
cinpetuuT * .Meta/unia litmsi-lf. In some coast* again, 'one tree yirfds them 
co(|ueniut«, meat nod drink, fire-fuel, apparel (with his l«aves), oyl, vine- 
gar, to^er f(ir hoiucs, Ac. and yet these wen, goiu'r uakcd, feeding eoarse. 
livr commonly a huiKlred years, are seldom or uevi^r sick: all which dyei 
oar physicians forbid. hi Weitphiiling, tin^y feed most part on fat 
mnUs and wourts, knucklc-dccp, and call il * Jwin ; in the l^w 
C(Minlrey», with roots; in Italy, frog* nnd snails are ii«cd. The Tarfci, 
wilb Biisbequius, delight most in fryed mcttts. In Muf>covy, gnrlick and 
onions arc ordinary meat aud sauce, which would be peniicious to xnch a« 
are unaceiislomed to iliem, delightsome to others; and nil is ''because 
they have been brought up nulo it. Husbandmen, and such as labour, can 
•Bt fal b«ron, salt ^nss meat, hurd cheese, (tc. (O dvra fnetaenan ilia t) 
ooane bread al all linicK, ko to brd and bbour on a full slomaefa ; «4iicll, 
U> aome idle persons, would he present death, and is Hjiiniiiat the rules of 
pfaysick : so that rusloni is all in all. Our travellers 'find this by common 
expenence ; wlien they eoinc in fur eouutreys, mid u»e their dyel, they are 
auadenly offended ; as our llolliinilrrs nnd En^lisliracn, when they touch 

* T. J^rrlm dncrip, Bnluciuin, Thrr ait. rat >iid drink nil lUr ilillDiifr iii IbI&eiiI. Mtucuvj-, and 
Aotv DIAthrm r^nm. ' Suidb. riU ItvriKl, nlhllo rum rtt tni^iiu qiun tlcjul' cinilam. ■cniiiriia. 

^ rt. loF t«nuilsUj rel rAi^' 


... ... , _, jhaqiw 

* IHrW atf^uDd Tny4p\ ' Pfttucnnn, • 14rn«n pt P«r. CoTtHltijR, lib. flonu orMn i^ 

a^ * Kiffvlll. In HIiiM. 111'. I, r. S. htfrlriulum h(<rhaTLJin *-i , 

lOHjtf r^umOar uaut ; rataiplun^ guitfjif dc Tul|r» n.porlu iiullA [lIIL rt, lA t«nuilsUj rel rohi^ioula 
OHMiS, Tcsr«altfi, EqiKi^ mulri*. uullva, Itc. •vju*- 1,^1' ti^vi'antur, ar pftiiulAuuiDis.HAt.Rki'm,, lib, 
Il 1^ ta. tThtIhI mull*. #(jvi* t«wniatur. ticnJ'U^i'JirnilKiii, (.t mua* anUfncunl, 4i(mtm. hiw 
luMt iiM t*l"^''in 'I Innn, Htm homlnuin. • l<l<iniUic diHOrliilloiw. VictH nirun biitfrv. 
We t, fwo roiHtAlt L flints looo piols halvnr ; putu, wiiuh •■>' straa; sle vliisl alne mudlrtaS 
maMtmdianiitWK >t«<tt nniOviit. ti ■ ' 

. tnil. ilm^nji. I, II r.. la AqanBaMriDMnMbttvwMith 
^ , Pfttucnnn, • 14rn«n pt P«r. CoTtHltijR, lib. flonu orMv 

v^L 'UoKvllm, < H. inlirin iniUr. lulliit "(hi, (.riwrlhai timjct pntitaatlar. • Mn>. fp. 
* T tM t rt* M* M >«r c multitfn. ■ IWptiiUnK DKUUirrto nca*iD pftilunt. tliptforvit. spbotltiD.^. 
•11, « ircl.]. 


Causes of MelancAoly. 

[Part. I. Sec. 

upon the coasU of Africk, those Indiiin <-upe* nnd ialaudi), are coiucnoalir^H 
motesteH with cnhrntutv*, fliixvn, and much di»t(!m|)c-rr<l Iiv rea^oii orthcir^H 
flruiU. ' Peregrina, ftsi suavui, aoleni vescenlibiu pertKrbatimirs intiguet ^H 
adferre; strange mraw, though pleasant, cause notiible alleralifins and dis- 
tempers. On the otiict side, use or cuslom mitigates or makes all good ^i 
again. Mitbridatex, by onen use, (which Pliny wonders at) wns abl« to ^| 
drink poyson; and a maid, (as Cuttius records) sent to Alexander from kinr ^^ 
I*oni», was brought up witJi poyson from her infancy. The Turki (sttilli 
Bcllonius, tib. 3. cap. 15) eat opium familiarly, a dram at once, which we 
dare not take in grains. '' Gnri-ius ab Horto writi-s of one whom he saw 
at Goa in tlie East Indies, that took ten drains of opium in lliree dayes ; 
and yet coniu/Co loquebatur, spnke iiiiderstandiu^ly ; so much ran cusionil 
do. ' Tlicophrastus speaks of n shepherd that could eat helkhor in sub-j 
stftDCC. And therefore Cardnn concludes (out of Galen) coniJtctudincrit\ 
■ulcungut fereiidam, nifi valde malam; custom is however to be kept, <;xce|»l 
it be extreme tmd. He adviselh alt men to keep their old customx, nnd] 
that by the authority of '" Hi[)|iocr.kies himself: dandttm aliqutd (fm/wiri,! 
alali, rriiioni, tontuetudini, aud ilior^^fure to "continue as they began, be tti 
diet, bath, exercise, &c, or wJiatsoever elsy. 

Another exception is dt^light, or appetite to such and such meats, Thougli 
they be hard of digestion, melancholy ; yet ns(Fnchaius excepts, cap. 6. lih,\ 
Inttit. trcLl) " thr stomach doth rtndUy dlgett, and teiliiniily cnlertaiAM 
tuch mf.alf u.T love most, and are pleasini) to w«, nhhoTf on the othtr 
tuck as tor dislaste : which Hippocrates confirms, jlpAoris. 2. 38. SomAl 
ciinnot endure cheese, out of a secret antipathy, or sec a roasted duck, which! 
to othen i< a >' delightrome meat. 

The lust exception is necessity, poverty, want, hunger, which drives mcai 
many times to do that wbich otherwise tliey are loath, cannot endure, antf 
thankfully to accept of it; as beveriige in ships, and, in siejtes of great 
cities, to feed on dogs, cats, rats, and men ihcmseUes. Tliree out-laws, tul 
1 Hector Boethius, being driven to their shilU, did eat raw fleih, and desbj 
of such fowl as they could catch, in one of the Hebrides, for some fen 
monellii. Thew things do mitigate or disannul that which hiith h<«n aaid 
of melancholy meals, and make it mote tolerable ; but, to such ax arc 
wealthy, live ptenteously, at ease, may take their choice, and refrain if tli«y 
will, thi'Si- viands are tj> l>e forborn. if they be inclined to or suipect melan- 
choly, a» they tender their healths: ollierwJse, if tliey be iDtcmperatf, or 
disordered in their dyct, at their peril be it. Qui monel, amat, Ave, et cave. 

SUBSECT. IV. — RelenlioH and Evacuation a cautr, and how. 

Or retention and evacuation there he diver* kinds, whidi arc eillier con-j 
comitant, agisting, or sole cau^^ mnny times of midancholy. 'Galen 
reduceth defect and abundance to this head; others, 'alt that U trparaU 
or remaint. 

ContitieTittt.} In the first rank of these, I may well reckon tip costiTencsaJ 
and kei-ping in of our ordinary excrements, which, as it often causelh ollt«r 
diseases, «o this of melancholy in paiticular. * Celsus (tilt. I . cap. 3) sail 
it producfth iii/tammalitni of the head, dulnen, cliiadiiiex), kfad-aeh, ^•1 
Prosper Calenus (lib. de atrtt 6:/c) will have it disiemjier not the oipuii] 
only, " t/ut the tniiui iUelJ" by trouhliiig of i( : and sometimes it is a soh 

i Bnu'rlmu. L I. c 11 k Mimpl. irp<l, t, <.!. I. ■ llcDrniu*, I- 3- f. 19. atu. mrA. '.Kflu}^ 
iT. * In ltd bita COTUurtniJiricni »ftjiiiiliiT ailulnCDii*, H UiaBpUk pcrvi-rrrrt. *^uioiffl tntapti 
■uaumimEur rib], vrfllrl^ulu* ■* iUiu* oainpli'cUtnr. 'tprcltt:iuouip cuimxiuiL^ ''tn f^iir cU,|4l^f pnl, ■<! 
rjtlui. r Ki'lhiAg pfumt * goud tbjmu'ht u Ihu ■A|'ltif u. 'i t.J, ?. llJtt. h^itt, ' JO. util, 
■ tlu" normunnit niii nihuount. ■ Kx itiMr mi^nwo. <nllMiLmiiUuni», »|oli* <Uilui». alb 
Elu*, citMinil. * KiciimniU irliuu menu* t);Uatli)iiTin |>um wtnil. 

MenL 3. Subs. 4.] Itelmtion and Evacuation, Causes. 



cituM of DiailneM, as you mav read iii ihc Gnt book vt' " SkeukJus bi» Medi- 
cinnl OInervatiuiis. A young muTclutnt, ){■>"')£ to Nonlcling I'iitr iii Gi-iinaov, 
for ten lUyet space ncviT w'vnt to iloui : at l]i» return, he wan ^rit^vouuy 
melapeluily, "thinking tliiit lie was roblicil, und would not he pcHwuilcil, 
but tliai all Iiis money wns gone. Hit fricmls thought that he had»onic phillnim 
given tiim ; but Cnchnus, a physician, being leut for, found his ' cuKtivcncss 
alone to be the cause, and thereupon g«ve him a clisler, by which lie was 
^McdilT recovered. Trincavellius {cumatl. 35. lib. 1) saith as much of a 
AMkucDOly lawyer, to whom he adiuinisterud physick ; aikd Kodericus a 
ooseca (ermsvU. 85. iam. i.) ^of a patiunl of hu, that fur «ight daycs waa 
und, and therefore melauclioly affected. Other retentions aiid evaeuatioua 
there arc, iiiit Himply necessary, liut at some times ; as Penielius accminui 
tbcm {Path. lib. I. cap. \5) lis suppretisioa of emrodg, moncthly ix«ucji in 
wonKn, bleeding at nose, immoderate, or no n«c at all of Venu> ; or any 
Other ordinary issues. 

' Detention of cmrods, or moRCthly issues, Villanovanus (Brcviar. iib. 1, 
cap, 18) Arculanus, {cu^. 16. in t). Ratis) VitloriusFaTentinns, (pracl.nay. 
Tract. 1. cap. \5.) Uiuel.&c. put for ordinary caiistMi. Fiiebsiiis (l.i.scct.5. 
e. 30} t^oea laither, and satth. *lkat many men, unieasdnably cured f/ the 
emrodt, have been corrupted with mclanckohi .- ser.kinr/ to avoid Sci/lla, thetj 
' into Chari/bdit. Galcu. (/, de ham. commeu. 'J. ad text, ilil illustrates 
this by UD example of Liiciit* Marlitis, wiium he rured of inaddiss, coit- 
Irttcttrd by tliis ntraas: and ''Skcitkius hsili other two inatiinces of two 
mcluicholy and mad women, so can Kd from t)ic snpprc>.ii(m nf llieir monetli». 
The tame may be said of bleeding at the nose, if it Ix; xiidili-nly stci]it, luid 
have been formerly used, as ' VillanoTnnus urgcth ; and '' Fuchsitis (lib. 1. 
tett. 2. cap. 33) stilly maintains, that witlioul ijrtat danycr, tuck an isme 
mag not be stayed. 

Venus omitted uroducetb like efiects. Mattliiolus {epht. &. I. panvlt.) 
' anmeketh of hit inoailedi/e, that tame through hashfulnesn abstained from 
emery, and thereupon hccamr very hravy and dull; and mme other*, that 
Wgrt eery timoroits, melanchtdi/, and beyond all mraiurc tad. Uriltuslua 
{Mtd. Collect. 1.6. c. 37) speaks of some, 'That, if they dti not use carnat 
COpvlatioK, are contiiiuaUy trniihUd with hcarincis and hrad-aeh ; and 
aoMC in lk« tame cain by intermituoa of il. Not-nsc^ i>f it hurts many ; 
Aiculanu* (c. 6 in 9. Basis) and Miigninus (part. 3. cap. 5) thmk, becaiisi^ 
■ it ttndt up poisoned vapours to the brain and heart. And so doth Oalcn 
liiinsvlfhold, lliat, if this natural seed be over-lony kept (in some parties} 
it (unu topoisoii. Hierouymus Mercurialis, in his chapter of Mclnnclioly, 
cileA it for an eipecial cause of tliis malady, ^'priapismui, satyriasis, ^c. 
Haliabba* (5 Thror. c. 36) reckons up tlii* and many oilier diseases, Villa- 
nornnuK(£rmar, /. I. e. 18)saitb, he kneiv ^ many monkt and widows, gritv- 
outly troubled Ujith melancholy, and that from this sole caute, ^ Ludovicus 
Mcrcatns (/. 2. de mulirnim affect, cap. 4) nml Rodi-ricu* a Castro (rfff 
Morbis mitUsT. I. 2. c. 3) treat largely of this snbjcel, and will have it pro- 
duce a peculiar kind of melancholy, in stiile maidf, nimi, and widows, ub 
svpprttsionem Taeastiitn cl Veneram omisiam, timidie, miesta, anrite, vert- 

'Oftp. dp nrL "Tim ilrllniB. nl tU "p b{^inti>c<m nf^iti-ri^ri'L ' AKeih Mtriclua vA 
V PvroelodlaHltun] tLi^i'Ulil mliiJ n-dtliL ■ [^Lp,' ^h^-r »jiri^^ lUi^ livlnt^rthnMi^ . JIuL- 
U, tntrntprvtiiti %}> lifiiiurrhuuljl'iia furaii, irivliLrii'liipLiJl i.'piri-rjiTk tis'iT. liL4.'iJil ill Sc>'I)am> kf^. 
^ Lib. I- Jlr Mftnil. * Bri'rt^k I. T. r Ih. ■ Sau miv luitutm iiiL^-niiTiiiidu <-jil*. cui ,aii,;uii u riBrl- 
but |ir>jmajt*', iiOKll mi^ifEilal^ v4fiiMiir hnj^txtJrl poli'-l ' Nirti i^iitb.rlHniH pt!M- ptictim' ■ ruilu 4I1. 
I ■lAbmti-*. l-ifiNiUo* piKHjt'nn.' fAd-'tut: (ioiiiluUo. >-li™m ni'-Lu" lu>Jl/.n [iriripr inadnnt. nxr-ktuM, linu- 
da«E]UV- ' SuEwiuUi. Eiitl ■:ii<^ui1. UHlitui' CAjiLLi* k'ru,l1rili^ ilifv^lamur. ficil >r uoviv.n qvimiam 

bnllQ- l^pPFni'v, pjEi- ilk II ttflJ'iklEin], ImnaTl Lit Trunin "i. * lJnt*-<'* (inHUirjl onuifiifc irl tiiiiiil ■VT^'- 
• U^ ■I'vniidU' tupr* rauflhiu ntetttu. muDncLot i;l tl'LuJi* DirLBiivIioticiH kar|ib< Huii tlilL 


Retention and Evacuation, Cauaet. 

cuHda, ttupicwtt, lan0Miites. consiUi ioopei, cam tammi viltK tt rtrun 
mtliorum dfaptraltont. ^c. liie y flrc mclHiwholy in tin- liigtiMt ik-gn;i', and 
ull for want uf limbuiidi. .^litinus Molit.tlliiH {rap. 37. d* tnrlanchvl.) 
coiilini)* tut much uui oftialen; io dotb Wicnis. Chrisiophi^ruB a Vcgn(de 
art. mcd. Uh. 3. rap. 14) relates niHiiy such cxamplci of mtn and womeu, 
thai lie hud hmh ho rni; lane holy. Felix Pkttr, in the firM book of liii 
UlHcrVittiotm, ' IrlU a itonj of an antirnl ifentltinan in Altatia, that married 
a yoiifiy v.'iff'. and waf not abU to pay hia dehli in that kind for a long 
time loyether, bi/ rra»<m of his (rvrral iitjirmitiri. Bnt *hr, hrraustf of this 
inkibilion of Veruis, fell into a horrible furif, and driirrd rvrry tmt that 
came to tee her, by wordt, looks, and tfftluref, to haur to do icitA hsr, Sfi: 
'" BcnmrduB Paternua, a physician, aaith, he knew a ffowl ki»itst •/n/tlg priest, 
that, because he would neither wiUnujly marry, nor make «*t of the ttews, 
fell into gritvoits melancholy Jits. Hilde«h«'im {spicU. '2) tiath »iich aiiotlier 
rxnmptc of ud lluliau melancholy priest, in a con»iiltatiou had anno I6S0. 
Jaaon i'nilcnsi.i fcives iD.Htitna^ in a miimed man, that, from hiit wifes death 
abstaining, o/Vpr " marriage, breamir rxcredin;/ melancholy .- Roil<TioUHaFon< 
•eca, in » young man xi min-ntfceli'd, lata. 'i. cimtall. Ko. To thcie yoii 
nmv add, if you plrnsr, tli»t cnnrcit^d Ink of a Jew, lu viaited in like tort, 
nml so cured, out of l'o^i;iii* I'lorpntinns. 

Intemperate Vcnu» is, all out, as bad in the other extteam. Galen (/. S. 
de morbii jioptilar. sect. H, text. 26.) reckons up melancholy amongst thoM 
disciuie'i which are "exasperated by renery : *o dotli Avicenna, (2. 3. C. Hi ' 
Uiibiuiu*, {loc. cital.) i'lciiiuD {lih.2. dt fanitate taeTutif) Marailiiit Cog- 
natus, Montnllu*. («ip. 27) Cuianerian, {Trrtct. 3, cap. 2.) Mn^jninus, 
(cap. 5. part. 3) " gives tlic reason, beeauKc '' it infrigidafes and dryet ap 
the body, consumes the ijnrits : and would therefore have all eiieh as are 
cold and dry, to take heed of and to avt»d tt, as a mortal enemy. Jan^himia 
(ill 9 Jiatis, cap. 15) lurribcs the Kime cause, and instanceth in a paitciit 
of bit, that married a young wife in a hot summer, 'and so dn/cd himself] 
untb chambtfr'itork , that be became, in short space, from melanrholy, mad : 
he ciirrd him by moisining remedies. Tlie like example I Hod in Ltrliiis a 
Fonte EuguhinuK, (consult. I'iifl of a i;eiitlemaii of Venice, tlinl, apon the 
same (iceaMon, waa fmi melancholy, afi^nraril* mad. ftcad in him the 
atory at large. 

Any otheT evacuation stopped will cause ii, as well as these above-named, 
be it bile, 'ulcer, iiisue, tec. Hercules de Saxonid, (lib. I. cap. It!) and 
Oordonius, verilie this out of their experience. They »aw one sounded in 
the bead, who, as \ou^ aa tlie *ore was open, lucida Knhait mentis inter- 
valla, was well : but, when it wa* iitop{>ed, redHt melancholia, hi* melan* 
eholy iit nebcd on him aK*<u. 

ArlitieJal evacuation* nr« much like in elTect. as hot-houses, haths, blood- ^ 
letting, putjiing, umtcttsonably and immnder^tcly used. 'Baths dry loOfj 
much, if iiumI in excess, be they natural nr nrtiticial, and ofrcDd.cxireamhot, 
or cold : " one dries, the otlier (efrigeratcs, over-much. Montanus (cmuil. 
137) saith, they over-heal the liver. Job. i^lrutliius (.Stiymat. artis, t. 4. 
c. 9) contends, ' that if one stay loiufer than ordinary at Ike liatk, tio in too | 

I N*Iiai» KTn-i Atelun jmv.icio uinirm Until ; »t IJlc, I'olleo dolorc rl mullii iniiili" rnnrphii, 
nun |BiIu>l]»n>tu*ainrl>iiiiiiuMli.>lt InllanMthBoaioBRTonuk IIU ta lion»nc)iim furorrni Wt- t 
lilt, nil \ riutiTcn cuhlblUiD. ul umnliuu (an iarlwalfun cungmnin, taer. v-.lin, ttiiu, njirinri: 
cl. ^iiiqm ikwi cauBmllffit; ruuliimu Aii^iuuiiu mutui ttpvlia tilBaiorr', - Vidi H<i-nlu(im ottti* I 
muiu rl ijiuru. iiuLikuud tinU^l nrk Vvnerr. in rjicUnrhnllf^ viTn^ploinau Enpliljt • 0(f ihlBrlnf«ituii a J 
4N»ni!iibirii lai!lrUr in nttfJuirhi.hiiiD. ' Ua* n coitik Clhtprbkiiltjr. * Sij[>rrl1iltlln rnlUim r*inMia 1 

pnniuiL 1 Kuliral cuTpiii. •|.kiii,ii ,•« uH. fc,.. I'^.i^iul «li hor >l"-i, vriut iiiimlcD mortilLl 

' I !■ f xtiHUiK. iilc irrlwii'liullni .uliin Iwni iMuipia-. ah hanM-luitllwiciinlu. • Ei euMrlitl 
cl uWlP «.alc«lto. ' UiinL r. 10. till. I. >tlu nmlnr'niU nilil htUU. H BUliaut. • Sirmin hiUuih | 
cvrpuk, ■ si quill lonjiiw lonnur in iii. nnl lunl* fnqarawr *ut InsDitni* Dialut. luia 

Mem. 2. Subs. 5.] 

Mad Air, a Cause. 


tift, or al mnteaivaabU limn, ke pulrifiet Itie kumourt in hit body. To Uii< 
p«rpoM wTitPsMagninus ((, 3. c. !>). Guianerius {Tratit. IS, c. 2l)mU'rly 
diaaUomi all hot batba in iiiclauclioly aduit. * / taw (sailh lie) a man that 
lalfotirtd of (ftp goft, who, to br freed of his tiirlanchril^, camr to the hath, 
and vcai instastiy cnrtd of hit diteatr, hut gnl another a orse, and that icat 
madnttt. Bui ihU jiHl^4.-nKrot vu(it.-(, a» Uic? Imnuxi* cloth, in hot or cold. 
Batlu may be gtxid Ibr one mcliuicholy nmn, ba<l foe xnoUier : Uist vrhicb 
will cute it in this piiitVi mny cause it in k kccoiicI, 

fhhbotomy.] Phlebotomy, many timco iirf:lix'tFd, msy do mucb harm 

\ to the body, when tliere is a manircet ivdundauce ofbnd hucnouiB and nie* 
Uncholy blood ; and when these humours heat and boyi, if diia be not uia-d 
in lime, the pnrlies afltcteU. so iiilJamed, arc in );reat daugcr to be mud ; 
but if it be unadvisedly, iiupurtunely. initiioUeralcly. used, it dulb (ut niiK'h 

' bann by teffigemtin^ Uie Ixidy, dulti[i>; the ipirits. undconnutuin^ them. A« 
Job. ' Curio, in bs tenth chapter, well rt-prclicridx, »uch kind oflclting hUuui 

[ dotb mote hurt llian good : 'the humoiir* ragr much morn than thty did 

' hefoTt : and it sq far from iirrniliny melancholy, that it incrtaielh it, a»<t 

I wtainalh the fiijht. ' Pro»p<T Cnkniiit i>bsctycs a* much of all phlebotomy, 
Mcrcpt llicy kccpa very good diet after it : yen, and, as * Ixonaitii* Jacchi- 
nus spenks out of his own cxperieiire, ' the blood it much blacker lo many 
men after their Uttintf of blood, than it watat^rtl. For Ibis cause, belike, 
Sallust. SalviiiianuB (/. 3. c. I) will admit or hear of no blood-teiliiiKat ailiii 
this disease, except it be maoifesl it proceeds frum blood. He na* (it ap- 
pears, by Ins ovrii words in thai place) maatcr of an hospital of mad men, , 
" and found, by lan;i txperirnee, that thii hind of evacuation, cither in head, I 
am, or uny other part, did more harm than good. To thin opitiion of hi«, J 
'Felix Plutrr it (|urtc oppofitc : thonifh tomr. mink at, ditallow, and yulM I 
evnlradict, ail phlebotomy in mrlanrhtity, yrt by long crperiencf I hav€ 

I fonnd innumerable toaaved, after they had hrrn IwcHty, nay, futy limet 
let biood,and to lire happity after it. If wait an ortlinnry thinij of old, ra 
Galen* time, to lake at unc*f from tuck men iiz pound of blood, which wr now 
dare tcaree lake in ouneet: ted vidcriai medid : great books are nritteo of 

I this subject. 

Pu rp II i; upward and down u-aid, in abundance of bad humours omitted, 
may be for the worst ; so likeuise, as in tlic piecedeol, if over-much, loo 
fiei)uent or violi^ 'wi-aknelb I liuir strength, saith Fudisiun (/. 2. ti-ct. 2. 
r. 17); or, if ihi^y be slrotii; or nble to endure ubyniek, yet it brtnpi lhi:m to 

I an iU Iwbit ; Uiey make their bodies no Iwitter llian upotliecanet thopx : this, 
nud Kicb like intirmitict, mun tiucdx l(>llow. 

BtiBSBCT. V. — Bad Air a caute of Melancholy. I 

AiK is a cause of fj^irat moment, in producing this or any other diMMfl^ 
being that it is still taken into our bodies by respiration, aod our more inner ^ 
I paiU. • If it be impure and foyyy , it deject* the jpirilt, and cavtelh dit- 
tatei by infevlton of the heart, as Paulus hath it (lib. I . c. 49), Aviceona, 
(I. 1) Gal. (de tan laendd). Mercuriultii, Miiututtus, &c. ** Femeliu> saitb, 
a tAicA air thickncth the blood and humours. ' Lemniu* reckons up two 

* Cfivuuu lupf^arf <|ueinillAm nvllox^m «ic11 o^tmlum. <t<il. itx 7J^tr>TC1yr dvvutli. tillHJhrt vrrt'^ 
■lit. CI, ilFnll4 llbf-ratux manivuk ffecliutrtl. r Cn Schii]& EaliTuilhiia. ■ CaJtrfnctiit t<t rbuIHUu 
pfr ■<«» kBiTlalDnnn mai^ '^B'* lar-llaUjr <'T kUffvtur : RiAJnrv tm]»m humcitr* pt^r rATiHn illvumial. 
•Lib. drSuvtonit MrUArholA, Fivmi^t uniuinia rninln noipM rxtmnal. > Inik HhulL AUan : 
I bllvm p«MI. vt vtvoiD -tcliLllur. ' Mullu Dik;rtor »p*«lft1gr«irufirii pott die* ^uudun, uuun i^ilt al^l 
[ l«illn * noo Uudii suKiul In ditiplmtili ilnciiii wuiulun cHctmun rrunln, quiaiintUuiilrbllul 
I tanttiT tn4#, vA tfolnQ^vipctmiLfc nbntrnk't m pnrfrln xrnodTJi'hio. nmtf} tUiipU'plfr rt rh^i-bt>tn>l 
mtA m^ia Ivdiintvr. «t niilyl* ilnt^tunl ; ,>t ni^^loiii^linliri t^pr dunl tiii1i> yfinrr^. ' IV mpnlli I 
tfWuL r*p. X rW cnu)to« hoo ifnpr«144*' triun, nmianfTf* ht^r miimv tuy^n^ t«D^4 o^n/'TviUoq* I 
OKiwI.^ Tirr*>t>. ipuiiiM Trtuu luwlrnilu. &(. 'V[in drbUlul. • Inpuiui *Jlr rfiMu* il«>l 
jHtii iafccMnsl* pgnil mnrhui. > Scngulniui dcuMt. vt hnmonw. T, 1. e. IS. •LiA.Xnf.t. J 


Causes of Melancholy. 

[Part. l.Sec.2. 

main Uiiogs, most iirvHiable tuid most jwrnicioiislooiu bodies — air and diet : ■ 
and thia |)eculiar <[i>caM: noUiiui; nootier cauaeth (> Juberiua holds) than Ika 
atr wherrin wr brcal/ic and live. ^ Such oa \% itic air, sucli be our ipiTita ; 
and, aa Diir spinis, *uch arc our humoum. It ufTi-nds, cuiunionly, if it be 
loci ' liot and dry, tliicit, fiili^inoutt, cloudy, bluitcring, oi a tcDii>rxtuoii» ntr. 
Bodtnv (in his tifih book dc rtpab. cap. I. rl cap. H. of hi» Mcllicjd of IliS' 
tory) proves thai hot eountreys arc most troubled wilb tnvlanolioly, and thai 
tlicru nrc therefore in SfiaiD. Africk, and A»ia Minur, great numbers of mad 
nien, insomuch, thai they are compelled, in all cities of riotc, to build ptcu- 
Ijar hospitals for them. Leti"'Alci (lib. 3. d': Ft-ssu arfi*^, Oflelim, and 
Zuin^r confirm as much. They are ordinarily so cholerick in their speechc*, 
that ecatci two word* [laas witJiout railing oi chilling in coniniou talk, ami 
often (]uarri-llin|; in ihcir strt'ol*. " Gordon i us will have evexv man lake 
iiotiee of it : Note litis, (lailh he) thai, in hoi counlrt^i, il u Jar more 
familiar IhttH in cold : iilthi>ng^h thi» we liavi! now said lx> out continually 
to; for, w °Acostn trulvsnith, under the vqualoritsclf, u a nio»t temperate 
babitntion, whoUom air, a paradise of plcasurp: thi; Icitvcx ever green, cool- 
ing »howrc>. But it holds in such bs are inUinp<'nilely hot, as i' Johannes a 
Mcggen found in Cyprus, othcr« in Mnltit, Apuii.t, and the '■ tlojy Lund, 
where, at some seasons of the year, is noihiri]^ but du»^l. their rivers dryed up, 
the air scorching hot, and earth inflinied; insomuch that mLiny piUTims, 
i;oinR barefoot, for duvalioii sake, from Joppa to Jerusalem upon the hoi 
sands, often run mud, r)r eIstM|uile oveiw helmed with sand, prvfuiidit arrnis, 
ax in many {Hirtx of Africk, Ambia D.^scrta, Bactriana, now Charas^un, when 
till: west wind blows, ' involiili arenit traaxcunlr:* nccantar. ' Hi-rculcs de 
Saxoniil, a professor in Venice, gives thiacausi:, nliy so mmiy Vcnelian womea 
kra mclancnoly, guod diu tab sole drgtiat, they tarry too liin<; in the sun. 
Hontanus (co'isil.'2l,) amongst other canscit, aK^igns this, why that Jew hU 
patient was mad, i/uad lam tnulUnn e^posiiil m culorieC frigori ; bcexposnd 
oimself so much to heat and cold. And, for that reason, in Venice, there i* 
little stirring in lliose brick-paved streets in summer about noon : ihey itrc 
most part then sudecp : a^t they are likewise in tlie i^al Mogors eountreys, 
and all over the Bast IndicJi. At Aden, in Arabia, as 'LcHlovicu* Vvrto- 
mannu* relate* in his imvcU, they keep ihctr markets in the iiiKiit, to avoid 
extremity of iiciit; and in Onnu:>, like c^ittlc in a pa-'>turt% people of all sorts 

-Uc up lo (lie chin in water nil day long. .M lititpi in Portugal, Bargoe in 
C'ustile, Messina in Sicily, all ovct Spitin and luly, their strcetf arc most 
part narrow, to avoid tlie sun-beams. The Turks wear great turbaiu, ad 

fuijandoii nolis raihos. to refract the suu-bcams ; and mu(^h inconvenicuci! 
that hot air of Bantam in Java yields to our men, that sojourn there liir 
IratEck : where it is bo hot, "thai Iheif that are siekoflhe pOT,(i/etMmmoulif 
bleachinr/ in thr fun, to ilrij up thrir sorts. Such a complaint I rea<l of lho*c 
Isles of Cape Verde, fourteen de;jree» from llie u-i]nalor : they do niatc aa- 
dire: "one calls them the unhralihiest clime of the world, for fluxci, fevers, 
frenzicK, calcnturCJi, which commonly sviiv. on Kca-farin^ men that toucb ut 
tbein, and all by reawn of a liot dist('ni|)erature of the air. The hardiest 
men arc offended with this heat : and :itidVs' clownx cannot rcxint it, 09 Coit- 
slantine affirms, Agricalt. I. 2. c, 45. They thai ate naturally born in such 

J lib. «l* q n i f tu rt . K% iidni«niliiiTnLiiOJitlFalxJ1iir hnhiot mvluirhullfiiK ■QluJIh Ai>r, talu uplTi. 
bu; <M o^undo^J "iiLilLio. hi^nit^iv*, * Aliuiti* MbiiktnLtiiMH r, tl. p^hliit ■■liioi^Liii.rri^uliMrittnus, 
jvtjudtnotm, cn«>tj«. * MklUnbiv ai It^ivilwlUiii r^flLn4:umca tjiL^I4%. ^Lir hm<U*^Lmri-4U-i*ALA Arr* 
ruilur. ■ Lib. DlnL f4rt- t- P- 13. lulra^K*. I'lO'i in i'4lldi4 riii^ffikil^u* frv<kjiit<]ilrT lU'L'i'lil iikA-mit, Ml 
frtjiitlb Kuli-ui UnlL', ■ LiU i p ilo*lc|frtK-c>rt,i."-1, i.ijmlU*"»Ji»u txUitr luktimi' fi-rwrt, At 
ut uibrAnvA MiiL piTi*' f^uati tit. • Mv"]"^^ I'i'r*. * l*bUJi<n.«<u rmri. in,<,l. 1. <. Ir, VcuvJ* 
mnltvTipi^ ijiLfT -I'll MiT* *i*k tU Hiir, iJiPiiixikHitp nK^lxnvlinlik*^ ^v^iluut. ■ .Nj»"«, 1. ». p. L coLirui^fEij 
a*fttc. hvti vcruiiiU. uh ulmlt*, qui *«4luii( L")vUil, aMut, 4-i.i-iv^-nL * UuiThi <*4llici> Ul»iaatri 
njHniaat 4il auhin, u1 morlKi* cuiracni. >S(< aicli, il^nkiua, tnltii ObKnatiuiu, a^'l, 14. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 5.] 

Bad Air, a Cause, 

lur, may not "endure it. a» NiKcr reconitof some part of Me«oi)otainia, now 
called Deaibeclia; iiitiiu*dam in hrit siFvienti ittta adeo tnlijer.ta eU, nt 
plera'/itr attimitlia ffrvorc fotis el riili r xtinguanlar -. 'lis »(i hut lliore in 
•omc plnco, llial nii-u of the countrcy nnd inttlc! utc killed ivilb it ; aud 
'AdtKomia», of Arabia FHis, by reason of myirhc, (Vankincciiup, uiid lioi 
epioes tlivnr grnirin^, the <iir is to obnoiiou* to their brains, ibul the vtry 
inhabitants at some times cannot abide it. much Iru weakling* tuid itrun^^^ra. 
* Analus Lusitamis, (ctnt. 1 . curat. 45> reports of a young muid, llial wan 
out Vincent a currier* dnu^^liter, some thirty years of age, llial would wiisli 
lier hait iu the heat of (lie day (lu .Inly) and so let it dry in the »»n, ' fo 
ntake it yfllow : bat by that means, larrging too long in the heat, the in- 
fiamed her head, aait madr kcr %tlf mail. 

CoM air, in the otlier extrettni, in almoftt as bad as hoi ; and so dotli Mon- 
tahut r«te(^m of it {c. 11) if it tm dry withnl. In those northern countrey*. the 
pcoplu arr therefore gcnrmlly dull, hcnvy, and many witcliM; which (as I 
liave bcforv nulled) Saxo Oranimnticus, Ulaus, tlaptinia Porta, ascriUe lo 
nieUocholy. But tlic»c cold climes arc more sulijiTct to natural melancholy 
(not this nrtilicial) which is cold and dry ; for which cause ' Mercurius Bn- 
tannicus, belike, puts melancholy men to inhabit just under the pole. TIir 
worst of the three is a '' lliiek, doiidv. misty, fotcgy air. or sucli as comes from 
(en*, muocish grounds, lakes, muckliils. ilraught*, sinks, where any cnrkasscs, 
or eaniun lv<», or from whenci- any slinking fnlsom smell conies. Galen, 
.Aiiccniia, Meri'ttrialis, nrw and did physii-ians, hold that such air is uo- 
wholwm, and iui;ender» midaneholy, plagues, and what not ? ' Alexandretta, 
an haven town in the Mcdiicrranenn sen. Snint John di^ ITllua, an haven lu 
Nora-Hispania, arc much condemned for a bnd nir.soas Duraj;w> in .Albania, 
Lithuania. Diimarsh, Pomplinw paludes in Italy, the territories about Pisa, 
Penant, &c. Rumney marsh with u», the hundreds in Essex, the fen* in 
Lincolnshire. Cardan (ilc rerum variflate, t. 17. c. 96) finds foult with the 
wl« of those rich and most |jopulous cities in the Low Countreys, ns Hrngcs, 
Gant. Amsterdam, Leyden, Utredit, &c. : the air is bad, and so at Stockholm 
in Sweden, Refpum in Italy, Salisbury with us, Hull and Lin, They may be 
comniodions for navigation, this new kind of fotlifieatiou, and many other 
good necessary u«!k ; but arc they »" wholsom * Old Rome hathdeacended 
from llic hdls 1" the valley ; 'tis the site of most of our lU'w cities, and held 
best to bnild in plains, to take the opportunity of rivers. I.t:ander Albertus , 
pleads hard for the air and site of Venice, though the Idaek nmorish huids 
appear at every low water. The *ea, lire, and smoke, (»s he thinks) (jiialitie 
the air : and ■" some suppose that a thick foggy nir helps the memory, as in 
ihem of Pisa in Italy ; and our Cambden (out of Plato) commends the site of 
Caiuhrid);e, becjuse it In so near the fens. But, lot the site of sucli places be 
as it may. how eati they l>e excused that have a delicious seat, a pleasant air, i 
and all that nature can afford, and yH. through their own nastines«andslut-l 
lishness, immund and sordid manner of life. sulTer theii air lo putrifio, and I 
ihernselves to be choked un? Many rities in Turkey do laaU audirt in this 
kind: Constantinople it sell, where commonly carryon lyes in the street. Some 
find lite samo fault in Spain, even in Madrit, the king's seal, a most excellent 
air, a pkasanl site -, but the inhabitants arc slovens, and the streets uncleanly 

A ironblc»om tempestuous air is as bad a« Impure ; rough and foul weather, 
impetuous winds, cloudy dark dayes, as it is commonly with us: cceium vim 

• Jtlffotntt*. a Aphfiri»niuniiu. ld*m aIL * I'lom Mimknu* In Prnil. ■ Dnrrlp, T.^r, unrt 
^jdoin td tolit ivliu* tn Iraafr iDonm monm Irnhorcr 

BiBiD, * C'aiAinnnl>^ r^lvd HnjuUi 
KibbI, quad ctMslaic tnitaliu Urr, 

'Qdoiii "I tolit it/liu* tn Iraafr iDonm monm irohorcl. u1 i?a^llli4 Tluvu* rvddp'r^T, in rnuiun incidlt. 
• I'ammnnl)' nJInl HmuUraw, In Au Minor. 

tCiii>"u. ri LuiMcIiii HIT uiiinn lAcit uil- 
' Ailu CTii(n|.hii'Ui. HniorU nlai 


Caiaa of AfelancAolg. 

[Part. I. Sw. 2. 

fildirm. ' Polvdore call» it — a Kllliy *kv, rt inj/uo fuciU getierantvT ntilxi; 
asTulIieii bnAliet Quiiilux HTolo to liiui in Rome, boiii); then (jueesior iii 
Briluili. In a thick and cloudy air, (suilli IjriiiiiiuH) men arr letrick, tad, 
and piti'ish : and 1/ the wt*ter« winds blow, and that ihtre be a calm, or a 
J'air xunshinr iliiii, there is a kind of alacrity in mras minds ; il rkerrf up 
men and beasU: hnt tfit be a turbnUiit, roiiyh, ehudtf, tlormy wtather, 
muH arc sad, lumpish, and much dejti:ttd. aiir/ri/, wntpnth, dull, and melan- 
choly. This was ' Vir^ils experiineiil of old, 

%'rr^ini^ »lii l'.mpi<*UM, 111 rirli mitlni^H humor. 

VrTtunrur ■jftr-m AnuADruA. t\ pcvian molu* 

Cunripjuht jJioi 

But, ubm Hif Ur^ of hM^^n chuijp«di* 

To t«DiiM^t«. r»ln» f mm #rjwon* ntt. 
Our mihib are ktk'ml. aud In our br««alii 

And who in not wcAthcr-wiK ai;aiii«l such and such conjunctions of planets, 
roovoil ill foul weather, dull and heavy in Mich tempestuous seasons* ' Geli- 
dum contrislat Ai/utiriun annum: llie lime requires, aixl the aiiluinn brtM^di 
il : winter is like unto it, ii^h- l^""'- ^^iial'd : ihe air works on all meo, inoie 
or less, but especially 011 Hiich a« arc melancboly, or iocltned to it, ax Lcni- 
uiiis holdn: ''theyare most moved with il : and those which are already 
mad, ritve downright, eilhrr in or against a Itmpext. Bestdet, tkr dtvU 
many timnit Inhet hit oppirTlunity nj" mch storm-i: and, when the hnmoitrt 
by Ihr air lie ttirrrd, hr goes on 'vitk tk/im.vxagilatcs •mr tpirits.andvexdh 
our souls; lis thf srri-wni'es, so arc the f^ritt and hunwurs in our hodica 
tossed with lc'ni>e>luo>i) winds and storms. To »iich as lire mehiiclioly 
therefore, M»iilunus ieonsil. 24) will have tempestuous and rough air to 
be avoided, and (connil. 27) all ni^ht air, and would not have them to walk 
abroad, but in a pleasant day. Lemnius (/li. 3, cap. 3) diseom mends tite 
south and eastern winds, commends the north. Montanus (conjri/. 31) ' unit 
not any windowt to be opened tn the night: {^cottil. '2*29. et consil. 'i^lO) he 
diM'ominendi espmally the *iJuth wind, nnd not-tiinid air: «o ddtli > Phi- 
tatc-h: the night and darknivi niakcR men siid: thi; like do nil subtiTtiinrjtn 
*>ulls, dark houMrs Jn cav<-« and rocks; dr-iarl plueo cuui>e mdaneholv in 
ita instant, rupceiully «iich ns have not tK'cn uM-d lo il, or ollxTwise accus- 
tomed. Rod more of uir in Hippoeratei, Aetiuii, lib. .1. a c. 171. ad 175. 
OribnsiuK, ac. I. ad 2'J> Avicen. /. I. can. Fea. 3, doc. i. Fen. I. r. 133. 
to tlie 12, 4-C. 

SuasECT, VI. — Immoderate Exercise a Cante, and how. Solitariness, 


Noriiijio »o irood, Imi it may lie abnsed. Noiliini; better than exerciitt; 
(ifopportunelv used) for the pceaerviilion of the body : nothing so bad, if it 
be UQ^casonablc, violent, or overmuch, Pemehuii (nut uf Galt-n, Path, 
lib. 1. cap. lfi)S'iith, ' thai mimh cjreirife and wearinrtt coniumrs iht Spirits 
andsubfianee, refrigerates the body ; and such humours which nature KXmU 
have othcrwite eoncocled and expelled, if stirs up, and makes them rage ; 
which being to enraged, diversely affect and trouhic the body and mind. So 
dotb it, if It be unseasonably u»ed, upon a full etomtich, or when the body 

* LEti, L blfL UK f. T4p. 41. Aurl ilr^fA up rtl^^lnrtiil Irfriri hniblim nMEml. iH nihlriAtr*. tt 
<4p. X flaillckubwtluilui^IZi'pla^'tu, niuitija lli (nrtflUiuthMHrlnHID ftltrrltu ri^til, mf^tlfQM MT«' 
ii<t, iiM m-lum Kiltt flbJvuUi'Tii ultmrjL Sld-tLitkn dt'^i.'f^K um^ron^ar. tlquaAdi^ ^ura caUclnir' ~' 

■ ' tSrto 


I JUr 


'ntqniliii'i-xrilUfH «bHkrnol.«bflV&ilutit4V; rt multi luiui ft|.udtfr1^ qnlip 
lraL|>f>fii1i>« ka-flnnl,4LU^r<|i.rf<E^. Kpirl(i*<.|>ioqiir atfrti, pt laiUl ffrtiit, >L1c|ijLniliJ « tnnpfVtiU^U 111. 
^ruiil. fi uitfnli hiriEiiriri* u.^ I«mi1i-r Inkliinaiit, p^nMfUf TMwc. rftltiliani , i.I, nl ^tii^lnt iHrtnL ha. 
laanulli nnryoa vi'r^U> uililAir. ^ Aor lioclu .li'rtkflrur. ol ^nicit iaVtlin*JU- ' Lib, lie liiop rt 
Otirtilr, * Mulu drUiJ^fLcj q|ikrihi4. ^Lr^unnifLir Kil^euiliun, nh^unl. cl tmyua ntripmt^ 1 
Jlumorek C-»frii|4l'4^. <iiil ^ilvr t, nittiinli.'hnr,f<fiik rt tlcdinjvf] |>ci4>inL, ficlnnidi) liJmnW pxclvdi. IrriCAl^J 
rt qiiul inriiFuti'in 4Li;li.<|Lil |-U)i«fe imula r^oiarlnt) tcUd rm^worput mrlt Uiv«uqi. m>nuiw|iip. 



Mem. 2. Saba. 6.] 

Idteneta a Cause. 


All) of cTiidilics, wliicfa Fudwht* *a miidi infeiglm nguinft {Lib. 2. instil, 
'tect. 2. cap. 4) givii^ that for n ciLUcc, why schuol-boya in (ierniany an 
so oAeii scabbed. Iwcniiio thoy une cxercite presently after meals. ' Bi«ye- 
rus puts in a c-aveal against »iich (Exercise, because it '"corrtipU the meat in 
the ttamach, and cnrriet the tame juice raw, and as yet undigetled, into ihe 
ivtiu (iiailb Lvmnitia); which thert patrijtei, and con/nandf the animal 
tpirilt. Cvxli>(cmifH.'l\. l.'l.) "protests aK^iiisl all imrli cxrri;i:v alter 
mml. IIS bcioKtJie greatest eucniy tu cuiicoction time may be, md cause of 
Rirniption of nttmouRt, which prcxlucc tlii* und miuiy other (lisea«cs. Not 
without jowl reason ihcn.dotli Sallust. Snlvianii* (/. 2. c. 1 1. and Leonartus 
Jacchiuus (wt 9 Rkiuis), Mcrciiriuhx, ArciilnniDi, and many other, set down 
" immodcnUe eicrcise as n mont fgrriblr cause of melancholy. 

OppdlitetoexercbeisidlciicM (the badge of gentry), or want of excrciie, 
the bane of body and mind, the nurse of nnuphtinens, siep-mothor ofdisci- 
pliiM!. the chi<rr author of all mischief, one of the iKveii deadly uns, and a 
Hole frtuip of thi.t and many other maladiei, the devUs cushion, (u» '■ Gualter 
CBlhi ii) hi* j>illow and chief repo«al : for the mind (Tan never rest, but tliil 
mrdilaitt Ot cnr thing or other: except it be occupied about some honeit 
bMsintu, of his oteit accord U m$kelk into melanchoti/. *i A$ too much and 
violent txgrdtt offends on the one side, so doth an idU i^fe on tht other 
(laitliCnito): ttJilU the body full of ficgm, gross hummira, and all moNticr 
of ottlructio->i$, rheums, catarrhs, <^c. Ithiisis {cont. lib. I. tract. 9) ac- 
counts of i( as the tfrealosi caiiM uf melancholy. ' / have oflen neen, (xaitb 
lie) that idleneti begets Ihit humour more than any thing else. MonlaltllS 
(c. I.) seeonds him out of his experience: ' they that are idle art far more 
subject to mtlanchitly , than sack as are conversant or employed about aaff 
offet or busineif. ' Plulari'h reckon* up idleness fcir a lolc i-ausc of the 
sickncM of the «oul: tkrrr are those (itailli he) troubled in mind, that have no 
othtr cause but Ihix. Homer {Iliad. I) bring* in Aihillc* eating of Ills own 
heart in his idleness, hceaiist! he might not tight. Mcrcurialis, consil. 86, 
for a melancholy young man, nrgcth " it a« a chief cause; why wa* he me- 
lancholy ? because idle. Nothing begets it sooner, cncrcaseth and cuntr- 
nneili it ofteuer, than idleness; — a disease familiar to all idle pcrsoni, bq 
in««[iarablecompanion tosDch as live at etme(pingttioliodetidiaseagentt$)» 
lifeuutof a<-|ton,aod have nu calliiigor ordinary employment to busie thom- 
«elve« about; tltut lure smalt occaaioni; and, thuu^li they haim, xiich is their 
laxinrM, dulnesx, tlicy will not coiii|>o«o tlieinselves to do ought ; they cannot 
abide work, though it he necessary, »u>ic, or to drew themselves, write a 
letter, or the hke. Yet. ii* he that i» benumbed with cold, »its still shakinij;, 
that might relieve bimself with a little exercise or stirring, do they complaiu, 
but will Rot use the facile and ready mcaos to do themselves good; and so 
arc Hiill tormented with mekncholy. Especially if they had beeit formerly 
brought up to buiiiness, or to keeji much company, and upon a suddim 
come to lead sMfdentary life, * it crucifies their touls, and seitcthon them in 
an iiiMant: for, whilest tliey arv an\ ways imployed, in uction, discourtr, 
abont any buaineM, xpori or rceri^ation, or in company to thdr liking, tJiry 
aie rery wrJl ; but, if alone or idle. Uirmentid insliuitty again : one days 

twtt-, imila Biuitii miilt]fJli*n. • linmiicllniiinvii..riiltlunk * ILhiq, -11- Id I, Cur, fi, N^im. ui 

• llnmiicllniiinvii..riiltlunk * ILhlq, '11- Id I, Cur, fi, 
hnaili]lti|ulnfwtvlionpiHHlt, ftdcoatljtuoclroa vulu ctwll4ti«npB ilktfuml. iiM huurtb> j 


eacTi'itAtia oufvt air[HiTiTiu>. Ila vila ilrtft «t «Li4i4i: atium aniniuj pituLluiuiD rv<l(lit, TiBri-ruiu ah- 
■invOobra. 'I ?r«tina AuKitnifK. 'I mtitlvt canctl«l, ■ Kt ndJ i^j^J una iti- r^liut i^liit iiucl* |eo,ii«i«i 
mvlanvhoUaok. riotloaittiL * ttr^Kiriti^ir oHiimaii *JUa <4u>*a: i^t hot- a not>1»nl'<^r*Ai>im, o»i1iiild 
tt*l& DUCi* oinolio* *I(jl |pUno oli4*l vunt. inuo ntn qui DliifU'i lilUDcrr* TVF«a(iliiF rkjnf<Lfiid<i. 
< IJ« TThu^uaL aojiiiJi- &k»rii nu-jt iptiiiq (*i|j,m in Hriniia rdiijicLi ff*;niiiiliiirin, • Nihil i-jit uui-il 
ftnov mrlcac^Uam ilal u- lu^i-ii, v itUwiu ,'1 aJnUnpiilia a [-urpi>ria mt aiiLmi vLi'nUaUuDlbua. 
* 5rLht3lbl^«ri'«v-alliit''llfvIinn-i|uarti<,l4uiii. lianLonlilt. itc ii'iu-^ < tr. vLI, bi^m. b'l. I. 

160 Causes of Melanc/kols- [Part- 1 . Sec. 

lolit^riness, one hoars someliincs. tloili tliom mori; harm, tlinn a weeks phv' 
sii^k. bli«;ir and rutnpaiiy can da );u(hI. Mflnncholy sri/clh on ihcm rurtli 
wilii, bi-iiik: alono, and is »uc!i a torture, lliat, ai wise Seneca veil najtb, malai 
nri.'.i tnalf. ijuam moltittr tstt, I bud rnllicr Ixr sick thaii idle. Tills idlco' 
IK dllicr of body or mind. Tbnt ol' bnily it noibiii^; but a kiod of Imnummin^ 
IbzIdms, inlcrmtltin^ cxetrisc, which (if we may believe *Peniebux) causctk 
crudilifit, obilriictionx, fxavmeiilal hiimourn, yMpmiAcfA the natural keatf 
dails ihe spirita, otid makei them unapt la do tiny thing tuhaluever. 

As fern ^rows in unrild i;roiitid.i, ;tnd all manner of weed*, to do groas liu- 
inniim in an idli- tmdv : iiinaviim cnrmmpunt otiu enrpu*. A hotsc in a 
.■•liililr, ibiit never Iriivi-U, a biiwk in n mew, tbat seldom G'ms, are both stilt- 
jeet to diseases; wbicli, left unio thcinsclvc*, are mgut fr^^c from any mich 
ineiimbraneca, An idle dog will be mangy ; and Imw ubitll an idle person 
think to escape? Idleness of the ntind i» much wor^c thun thix of tha 
body : wit wilhoiit employment, is a disease, ' arut^o ammi, rubtgo tTyefiii : 
the rnst of the soul. * a pla(;iie, a bell ii self; maximiifn ammi aocumentuaif 
CJalen call* it, 'At, in a ttandimi pool, worms andjilthy eretpers increase,, 
(f( vitium capiuni, Tii movranlur, ai/utr : tfie water itself pulrities. ami air 
likewise, if it be not vontinunlly stirred by the wind) io do evil and corrupt 
tkouifhti in an idle prrton ; the soul is eontaminated. ht a common- 
wealth, whrre is no piiblie enemy, (here in, likely, civil want, and tlie<^ 
ragr iipim thcniaclvcs: this body of onr«, when it is idle, and know* not 
how to bestow it KcIf, maeeratcs and vexes it self with care*, griefs, false 
fears, disrontentt, and suspicions; it tortures and preys upon his own 
bowels, and is never at rest. Thus much I dare boldly lay, he or she that 
is idle, be ihey of what condition they will, never so rich, so well allied, 
furtiiiiiiCe, happy — let them have all ihinsa in abundance, and felicity, that 
heart can wish and desire, all contentment — so long aa he or she, or tliey, 
arc idle, they shall never be pleased, never well in body and mind, but' 
we.iry still, sickly "till, vexed slid, loalhina: still, weeping, sighing, arrieving', 
suipectinE. offendi-il with ihe world, with every object, wishtn;;; tht^mselTes 
gone or dead, or else curried away with some foolish phiintiisie i>r other. 
And this is ihc true cause that so many ctcnt men, ladies, and gentle- 
women, labonr of this disease in countrey ami city ; for idleness is nn appen- 
dix to nobility; they couul it a disgrace to work, and spend all their days 
in sports, recreations, and pastimes, and will therefore take no pains, be of 
no vocation; they feed liberally, fare well, want exercise, action, employ- 
ment, (for to work, I iiav, they may not abide) and company to their de- 
sires; and thrnce tlieir bodie* liecome Aitl of $;ross hunioun, wind, cru- 
dities, tbeir minds disc|nieted, dull, heavy, &c. Cure, Jealousie, fear of tome 
diseases, sullen lit«, weeping lit«. >cue too ''familiarly on tliem : for, what 
will not fear and pliantuie work in sn idle body ? what diiicmpere will they 
DOicnuse^ When the children of Israel murmured 'againit Pharaoh in 
£^pl, be commanded his officers to double their task, and let tltem get 
struw themsielves, and yet make their full number of brick: for the sole 
cause why tbev mutiny, and are evil at ease, is. (Aey are ul/e. When you 
shall hear and nee so many discontented persons in all places where you 
come, so many several ^ievdnces, unneccMary complaints, fears, tiw- 
pteiont,' tlie best means to redreM it, is to Mt tliem awork, to to busaa 


• Vt£h, lilk I, e«p. IT. «x«rrilkUqnb bttnaivLD Inirrtein ntlofem, lanifiiMof BplFiltu. M Iedjivw. t< 

< Jtor ffirl. I. Rit X I VnUT^A, *M»lvrPiti MlnaJ. #t mitdimi. I'^purrh ca1I« ir. ■ flictiltn 

tUgbn atvmaUii rrimn. tic Ln uUu j idaIip «>eir4.llonp< Hvn, > ^ow thin Ir^. nnv ihilMin, ntir 
ilii^r hpKd, 1h«rt. ft«- - BxttA X * (Virt Ihvy «iinoi ^X'tt ttli «h&i aiJrlh tliciD. of 



Idtenest a Cause. 


Mem. 2. Subs. 6.] 

llicit Diiad* : for the Irutli ii, ibcy are idle. Well they may build cartln in 
thr air for it time, aad miotb iip ihcmaelvrc with phantaslical and pleaiant 
hmiMXiTn : but in (he i-iul ihi.'y will ptovr as bitter as gall ; Ihpy shall be 
siiil, I M>y, diicontcnt, *u*picioa«, 'fearful. Jealous, sad, fretting; uud vexing 
of tbciRMlvc*; so long m iJiey be idle, it k impoaaible to please them. 
Ofio 0*ii nneit «(i, jAaa iabtl negolii, quam gui ncgotiiim in nrgotio, tu 
dial ' Ageilius couki obMfve ; he that kiiuwa not liow to »pead liii time, 
haib more txiaJneM, care, grief, an^ish of mind, than he thai it matt buitie 
ia lite midst of all liis business. Otiotut animut nmcit quid rttlel : an idle 
person (as lie follows it) knows not wlien lie ix w<-ll, trhst \u: w»u)il have, 
or whttliet be would gu ; quam iliae vrntum est, Uiinc luhtt i be in tired 
cwt with every ibiuK, displeased wiih nil, wcnry of his life: ntc bmt ttomi. 
«#« mi/i/itf , iwillter at home, nor ;ihr(«iil ; ftrat, tl prttlrr vUam vival ; he 
wanders, and livnt liciidi» bimsclt'. In a word, whnt ibc mischicTons efTects 
of laiiiirfK and idlcncM are, I do oot iitid any where more accurately ex- 
pressed, than in tbr-sc vrrsrs of Philolacbes in the 'Comical Poet, wlucb, 
ior tlteir elegancy, I will in part insert. 

?i«r4nim nimin hu. ■rlthrnr ■tniTi'n «fn bomlum. 

AI uhi Lllo nusrru.1 ntnu^uv tinnaci Lntllllfriuqiltf. Ae. 

Ifif^nt 4it hvniii]r> nimUi't ■.>«(■ riliuEn arbltfViniaL 
F&brl ijurtiilri rundnriiiitfLinL irib,1ruiLEi[ hltrurun; 
K^|.iilli;iit. lUirfnt UE'Tii'i ^iv paiv-iml iiimplul. 
l^> »^lv(n iiiih [nlirururt> polt-^t^ir ffURi Tui l 
ri>ili}i>Bjii auU'fil ulS^ravLiEi iE][.fii\LiuE Ennim. 
IVT-Jidi u^i'Euii rubroruni iliir". c>j^^»jiIl>, 
VrEut ij:ELBTL4i rn ihlIli irmpr^Lu r<iLr. 
AflTnitwqEir mo cnndkntm c4 ImhiviD Blliilll. 
tUimihk virluicLiiiloiLirlA'lt. &f. 

j*A yming man i* like a fair new house ; the carpenter Icnvcs it well built, in 
[good rejMiir, of solid stuff; hut a bod tenant lets [t rain in, and, for want of 
IteparMion, fall to decay, &c. Uur parents, tutors, friends, spare no cMt to 
l<|tnng as np in our youth, in all manner of vertuous education : but when 
rac are left W our selves, idleness, as a tempeat, drives all vetluous motion* 
l«at of our mind»: el nikiU tumiti ; on a sudden, by sloth and such bad 
[TaTS, we come to naught. 

(Toicii g^nnaii to idleuess, and a eoncomilant cauu, which ^es Imnd in 

li>n<l witli it, is '' ntntia lolitudo, too much solitariness — ^by Ihc testimony of 

I rII pltysicinit*, cause uud syinptomc tioth : but us it is here pal for u cause, 

{H is either enact, enforeetl, or else voluntary. Enforced solitarineu is 

commonly seen in suidents, monks, friers, uncbnnlr«, tJiat, by their order 

and course of life, must abandon nil rompuny, society of other men, nnd 

bf!take theiBSebes to a private celt ; orto tapentxtioso teclusi (as Bale and 

H<M[i(nian well term it), such as nxe the Carthusians of our lime, that cat no 

. Besb (by tlieir order), keep perpetual silence, never go abroad ; such as live 

' in prison, or some desert place, and cannot have company, as many of our 

oounlrey ^nilenieu do in solitary houses : they must either ha alone with- 

oul eampanioDS, or live beyond their means, and entertain all comers as so 

many basts, or eltc runvcrse with their servants and binds, such as are un- 

ei|ua1, inferior in lliem, and of a euntrary disposition : or else, as some do, 

to aroid solitariaess, spimd their linu^ with leud fi-llows in tiverns, and in 

ale-bouses, and ibcnrc addict ibrmsrlvejf to some unlawful disports, or di*> 

aohile counes- Divers agiiin -irc cHst upon this rock ofsolitarinrss for want 

of means, or out of a strong apprehension of some infirmity, disgrace ; or, 

• Fh>. M Ptfiiai itfjMrl timnr— llmilontlnuniDmni. • Lib. IS. c 10 I PUuID*, M«ll(l. 
• Ptto. HwUIUtt. Mftrurlilu, lb-. 


162 Causes of Melanchoh/. [Part. 1. Sec. \ 

throiigli Ixuihfulnesfi, rudeness, ulinplicity, llicy runnot, npply tli^uiiwlve* to 
olhcrs company, NuUttm lo/uni in/rlid graliut gotiludina, ufci nulluA sit 
^KJ misfriam txprohret. Tliis enforced »o)itarincM t<ikc» placr, cuid pio- 
duceih liU effect eooncst, in such bs have spent their time jovially, pcrad- 
venture in all honest iccreations, in i^Dod company, in some i^rcnt family nr 
populous city, aod are upon a sudden cotifmed lo a desnrt eountty cottage 
far off, restrained of theit liberty, and barred from their ordiuary associates. 
Solitariness is very trksum tu such, most tedious, and a sudden cause of i 
gieat ini^unveiiience. 

Voluntary jolitarioess is that wliich is familiar with melancholy, and 
gently brings on, like » Siren, a sliouing-horn, ur some Sphinx, lo lliis 
irrrvociible giilf : ' n primary causi! Piso calls il; most pleasauL it U at first, 
to tiicii as ate mrtancholy given, lo lie in bed whole dnycs, and kerp their 
chambers, to walk nlone in sonic solitary grove, betwixt wowl and water, by 
a brook side, to meditnic upon sonii? delightsome and pleiisiiiU subject, 
which shall aflect ihcm most: amnhilh insania, and mentis gralitfimm 
error, A most incomparable delight ii is so to melancholizo, and build 
castles in the air, to go smiling to themselves, acting an inlinite variety of ] 
parts, which they tiuppo^e.aiid sliongly imagine ihey represent, or that tney 
see ncted or done. Blanda tiuidem ab initio, sailn Lemnius. to conceive 
andnieditateof such pleMsautiliingB sometimes. Jp/<)(n(,/«i»r, or (o fume, as 
Rliasis speaks. So delightsome tliese loyes are at first, lliey could spend 
whole days and nights without sleep, even whole year* alone in such con- 
leinplati<ins, and phantBsticnl niedilaliuns, wliich are like unto dreams ; aod 
tliey will hardly he drawn from them, or willinglv interrupt. So pleatant 
tlivir vain conceits are, that ihev hinder their ordinury laski^ and neccswiry 
business; ihey cannot address tlicinsi-lvcs U> ihem, or nImoM to nny Mudy 
or imployment : the^c phantsf^licat and bewitching thought" so covertly, so 
feelingly, so urgently, so continually, set upon, creep in, insinuate, posseaSi 
overcome, distract, and detain ihein, they cannot, I say, go about their more 
necessary business, slave off or extricate themselves, but are ever musing, 
melancholiziop, and carried along, as he (they say) that is led round about 
an heath with a Puck in the night- They run earnestly on in this labyrinth 
of anxious and solidtous melancholy meditations, and cannot well or wil- 
lingly refrain, or easily leave off. winding and unwinding themselves, as so 
many clocks, and still pleasing their humours, until at last tlie scene is 
turned upon a sudden, by some bad object : and ihey, being now habituated 
to such vuin me tli Initio lis and »olita>v places, can endun- no company, can 
niminutc of nothing but harsh nnd distasteful subjects. Fcitr, sorrow, ', 
suspicion, tuhniflicus pvdor, discontent, cares, and weariness of life, sur- 
prize ihnni in a moment ; and they can think of nothing else ; continually ! 
suspecting, no socmei are their eyes open, but this infprnul phiguc of melao- | 
cholv iH'ixrth on them, and territicis their sonU, rrprohcnting some dismal 
object to their minds, which now, by no means, no labour. i>o perswasions, 
ihey can avoid ; ktrrcl laleri lelalu arundo ; they niny not be rid of it ; 
'ihcy cannot resist. I may not deny but that there is some profitable medi- 
Intion. i-ontcmplation. and kind of solitariness, to be embraced, which t]i« 
fathers so highly commended — ' Hietora. Chrysostom. Cyprian, Austin, in 
whole tracts, which Petrarch, Erasmus, Stella, and others, so much nuignifie 
in their books — a paradise, an heaven on earth, if it be used aright, good for 
the body, and better for the soul; as many of those old monks used it, lo 

* Ai4nkhu4 maJijTn^ irliit a prtrntTlS c4dvA» OMB«l(inpm nvliifn *4L 1 JorundA rerun pubmllitiii. 
^lvl'rll«T>tm. r( Ott^iTKrunj iDrtliuUo^ ' F4elJi» 'Irac iihi> Avprnl. ^etl t*^in-tpr f;fiLduni, mpmM* 
i|urF,*iLm 4(1 ■iiiu. II ir tibor. hue vyut otl^ Vift:. ' tliiTurii idiib. t-j\ "^t. OWiE L>liplEii, ft orbn 
tjdrn iiln Irlrva cArn-n-p. ■i]|au<lln«'ni PLnuluum; Bclunj >cuf|uuuil»u infntmu, mto uuLiIub,! 
cubui*, b^iil vi livrlju TLrtituit. flQiriiuilt jintuhl (U'lii-iii. 

Mem. 2. Subs. 6.] 

IdUneas a Cause. 

divine coo tcmplut ions ; aaStmulus arourtiirr in Ailriun* time, Dioclexian tli« 
iMDpermir, minsd tliemselvt-g, &r. in thut wmc. i'at'ia solnt sett vivert; 

'&tia lives klone; which Uie Komanx were wont to say. when ihey com- 
'IBMKlcd n couDtrcT life ; or to the bettering of tlicir knowledge, ns Oemo- 
iCrituB, CleKntlies, and those excellent philosophers, have ever done, to se- 
qtiester tbeoiselves from the tumultuous wurld ; or. a.* in PUiiies villa Lau- 

Tenlana,TuIlie8TuacuUn,JoviusMudy, that they might belter uactire tladiis 

I Deo, »erve Ood uvl follow their studies. Methinlts, therefore, our too 
u> innovators were not so well advised in that general subvenion «f 

,bb*es and religious hou^s, promise uounly to tling down all. They might 
Jiave taken awav those ^ss abuses ercpt in amonj^st them, rccttfird such 
inconvcniencrs, and not so far to have raved and mged againKt thnic fair 
.buildings, and everlasting monument* of our forcfatiicrs devotion, conse- 
iCratcd to pious uses. Some monn^lrne* and collegiate cells might have been 

'd) spared, and their rcv«iincs otherwise imployed ; here and there one, ia 
towns or cities at least, for men nud womeu of all sorts and conditions 
live i[i, to sequester themselves from the ca[«s and tumults of the uorld, 
lat were not desirous or fit to marry, or otherwise willinu to be iroublwl 
with cummtiii aflairs, and know not well where to beilow tlmmsM-lves, to live 
apart in. for more omvenieney, good education, better company sake; to 
iw their studic* (1 •uy) to the jierfeetion of arts and scienei-K, <-ommon 
, and, n» some truly devoted monks of old had done, frei^ly nnd truly 
wtnc God : for these men are neither sohtary, nor idle, as the poet made 
cr to the huxbundman in £sop, that objected idleness to him, he waa 
er so idle as in his company ; or that Scipio Africaaus in "'Fully, nam- 
yuam minat solut, quam qtium solus ; tmmr/uam minui otioauM, tjvttnt auum 
ettel otictut i never less solitary than when he was alone, never more busie, 
than when he seemed to be most idle. It is reuorttd by Plato, in his dia- 
lof^ Jf Amore, in tliat prodigious commendation of Socrates, how, a 
dtep nieditation «miing intu Soctaies miitd by chiiner, he stood still niu«ing, 
eoiJem mliffio riygitdbundm, from niomine to noon ; and, when at then he 
not yet finished his meditation, prrttahal cgitani; ; lie so continued till 

ic evening: the »ouldiers (for he then followed the camp) observed him 
with admiration, and on set purpose watched all night ; bnt he pcncvercd 
ilutiKivenble ad exorlum tolls, till the sun rose in the morning, and then, 
■aluiing the sun, went his wayes. In what humour constant Socrates did 
thus, 1 know not, or how he might be alfected ; but this would be pernicious 
to another man ; what intricate business miji^ht so really possess him, I 
cannot easJlif ifuesa. ButtUisisufiosumo^ion,- it is far otherwise with these 
men, according to Seneca : omnia natnn mala lolilurta pmaadel ; this soli- 
tude uudoeth us ; pu^al cum wtit foeiali ; 'tin a drstruc'tive 9.olitarinesi. 
^beae men are devils, alone, as the saying is ; homo solus aut dent, out 
rftfnon ; a man, alone, in either a xaint or a devil ; mms ejus aut lan<iuesal, 
aut Ivmrtcil i and " vtr soli ! in this sense ; woe be to him that in so alone 1 
These wntches do frequently degenerate frommen, and, of sociable creatures, 
bccooM beasts, monsters, inhumane, ugly to behold, misantkropi : they do 
even loath themselves, nnd hate the company of men, as so many Timonx, 
Nebnchadnvjan, by too much indulging to these pleasing humours, and 
through their own default. So that which Mercunalis (conn/. 11) some- 
tines expoiitutated witli his melancholy patient, may be jusUy applied to 
«*ery solitary and idle person in particular: ° nnlura ite te viilftar corii/atri 
pvUe, Ifc. nature may juslli/ complain nf thee, that, whereat she gave thee 

■ Oflc 9, •Sett <. ■ Natan do t* TidfltuTeowiuRi puaiui, quvd. eiin tb c4 IcmiKnlluiinuin 
nrviu BArptu* ■■«; umprtvcUrum a l>t« wtUrdnniim, non i<0Dli'mpiil4ll raoilo. TeM(iPcarru)>t«U, 


164 Causes of Melatiehoiy. [Part. 1. Sec. SS 

a good ivkalftame temperature, a touart hndy, and Gail hath yiiwn thtK tn 
dinnt and rxcrUent a toii, so many gocui parts and pTtffitahte g\ft*, (Ada 
hati not only contemntH and Tfjrctrd, httt katt corrupted them, polluteA 
ihem, vverthrown their lemprraitire, and ptrverted thate ytfls with ruitJ 
idleness. solUarinesi, and many other wayet ; tfioii art a Iruttour to OoJB 
and Nature, an rnfm;/ to thy self and to the world. Perditio tua ex le a 
Uiou liait lost Uiy self wilfiilij. east away ihy self; Ihou thy self art (Ad 
t^cieat caiMc of thine own misery, by not retisting tuck vuin coyilutiojis, buft 
t/ittitig way unta them. J 

SuBSBCT. V[l.— .SVfCpinj and waking, Causti. I 

What I liave rorwerly said of exercise, I may now tcprnt of »lccp. Nod 
thing better thau modtral« sleep ; nothing wonc ihnn it, if it be in extreanid 
or DDseasonably used. It is a received opinion, that a melancboly man «aiM 
not slevp uver-iuiii^li : tomans supra modum pradett ; it isan only aiittttoti! J 
aoil Tiui)itn)( offeiuU tfx^m more, or caunetli this malady sooner, than u-aking.l 
Y(^l,tn some ciuct, vlcep muy do more lionn tliati gxiod, in t]iat flegnialick^ 
switiisli, cold, und sliigg^i&li inclum-hnly, <v}ii(?li MelaneiJion sjieaks of, tbtril 
thinkn of wnlrtK, sighing most purl, &c. >* It duU ilie spirits (if orcnntich]i| 
and senses, tills t^e head full of groi" hiimour!i, cHUMth daittllationu 
rheutnw, greftt store of excrcmnnlG in ilip hniin, and nil the otlirr parts, an 
^Fnchsiut speaks of them, that sWp like so many ilormicr. Or, if it bu 
used in the day time, upon a full slomacb, llii' body ill composed to restj 
or after hard meats, it incroaseth fcarlul dreams, incuf-us, night walking'J 
crying om, and much uni}nieine»»- Such sleep prepares the body, as 'on(J 
observes, to many pcntous diteaxet. But. as I )iat« said, wakini; ov«rw.l 
much it buth a xym|>tonic aiiU an ordinary caiwe. /( eauselh drintst of thin 
brain, f remit, dataife, and makes the body dry, lean, hard, and uyly to (c4 
hold, as * Ij:niniu]i liiilb it. The lemprralurt of the brain it eorrupfed bfi 
it, thehamoars adu*t, the cyrs mailr lo sink into the head, cholrr litrreascdA 
and the whote body tnfiamed ,- .md (nt may he added ont of Galen, 3. dd 
tanitate tuetuU, Avictnna .3. I ) * it overthrown the natural htat ; il e4tu»et& 
crmditift, hurts eoncoclioui and what not '( Not without good cause, Iheieii 
fore, Cralo (toned. 21. Hb. 2.), Hildeshc^im (spicil. 2. de delir. et Manui^A 
Jacchinus, Arcalanus (on Rhasis), Guianerius. and McrcuriaUs, reckon upl 
lliiit overmach w&kin^, as a principal cause. ■ 

MEMB. 111. I 

SuBSECT. 1.— PiMiumi and Periurhations of the Hind, how they cause 


As that Gyntnosophist, in " PIntarch, mnduansu-ei to Aloxander (demanding 
which spake best), ei-cry one of his fellow* did »piMk better than the o(Imt ; 
so may f say ofthese causes, to him that shall require wliich is the greatot, 
every one is more grierons than other, and this of passion the greatest of all ; 
a most frequent and ordinary cause of melancholy, 'fuhnen perturbatianum 
(Ficcolomineus calls ttl, this thunder and lightning of perturbation, which 
canselli such vJoieui and speedy alteralioDs in this our miorocotim, and many 
timee snbrerU the t;ood estate and teRi|)erature of it : for, as the body worku 

rriDi. nb. Tap. n. Vm. wrjiiM Infrlxlilu^ umiii-a ■i.niuk. miqiUiqur iIhv loi[iatt daliUltala 

* lutlL hi] t-llDin bfifUum. r. UA, mrlrrii mcviUliiii arlfril, ^hn'iu'Bln r1 ctclint^m' .^'irpiit ^dunn 
fAfli, Kjii^idiini, virigmiim i liuiitr>n<* mlurii ; iiiiipi'rTUit''t]Fiiin i-vri'bri i'i»rriimph ; in'^icm LTiilu<i1a| 
fUiCTM coni'ii, hllpni ^j-p^ihIM, {trf.tiiii^n* trdilll wutitn. i-nlnrcm tiifrft. ' Niturtli'm f&ltirnal 
diMtpoi: IBH FouiwUoTie, cndium r*i?l[. Atimiiukt ji^tmun) I JailAiir rorpun Ei(H'it.v • Vlim 
a;«w>i1. •C.hLI. r. k ^ 

Mem. 3. Subs. I .] PerlurbtUioitt of the Mittd. 165 

upon ll»e mitid, by bit bad bunioars, troubling die spirits, aad Bending grots 
Tiimc^ iiilb the bntiti, and w per oiiieijatHa. diaturbiug llie muiiI, and all Uie 
fuculik-n of it. 

' ^- — I CoTJmt nniiiluni 

with fear, sorrow, Sic. which luc nrdinnry symptninc* of this diseue : so, on 
tli« other side, the mind m<i»t cflcciuiitly works ii{>ott the body, producing, 
by his passions and pcrttirbnlinns, mirairulous nllerntioos, as mdunclioly, 
despair, cruel diseaseii, and sometime* death it self; iniitimuch ihut if. is 
most Irae wliicU Plato siiitli in hit Charmidcs : omnia eorparis mala nb animd 
pTotxdert : all the ■ mischiefs of the body proceed from the koiiI ; imd De- 
mucritus in • Plutfurh iirgelh, Damnaluvi iri unimani a rarpore ; ifthc body 
should, in this bchnlf, brini;: an action against Iht? noul, MinJy the sou! would 
be cast and consiclcd. that by bcr nupiiin nt'xhK<^ncr, hud caused such in- 
conveniences, havio); authority over till? body, and iming it for an instrument, 
U a smith dot li his hammer, siiitli ''Cvprian, impnting all those vices and 
iDaladtesloiiiFmind. Even sn doth ' i'hihitiatun, non coim/uinalur atrpui, 
lisi eanientu antmiF i the body is not corrupted, but by the soitl '' [j>do- 
vicus Vivcs wdl have such turbulent comtnotions proceed from ignorance, 
and indiscretion. All philosophers impute the miseries of the body to the 
soul, that slioidd have governed it better by command of reason, and hath 
not done it. The Stoicks ate altogether of opinion (as • I.ipsitic and ' Pic- 
coiominesis record) that a vriae man »liould be Aira0iit without idl manner of 
pMUons and peTttiibatiuns whaisoever. as "Seneca reports of Cato, the 
Greeks of Socratts, nnd 'Jo. Aubunn.* of a nation in Africk, so tree from 
p m iOD. or ratlierso stupid, that, if they hi? wounded with a sword, they will 
only look back. ' Lictiintins (2 inntil.) will vxrAuilc four from a wiif won; 
otiiera except al), some the gmilcst pasiiont. Bui, let ihem dispute how 
they will, H;t down in tkrsi, give precepts to the contrary : we lind that of 
' I.cmnias trite by common experience; no mortal man iifrtefrom these 
ptrhir^aliom : or if lie be so. sure he is either a god, or a block. I'hcy hk 
horn and bfcd with us. we have them from our parents by inhiTit;iuce : a 
parmtiimt Aabrmiit malum hiinc aneiit, sailh '"Pelezius; naicitur un4 
Mobitcam, a/ilunjue : 'tis propagated from Adam ; Cain was melancholy, "as 
Austin hath it; and vrho is not ? Good discipline, education, phihiimphy, 
divinity, <I eaniiut deny) may mitigate and restrain tliPKe passions in «omc 
few men at some times; but, most part, tli«y domineer, and urc eo violent, 
"that — as a torrent, (torrent vtlut npg^ri: rupto) bears down nil before, and 
ovcTftow* his banks, ttemil a^rot, ilrrnit tata — they overwhelm reason, 
judiicincnt, and pcnerl the temperature of the hody. Fertur "eiati nuriga, 
mecnr audit currtis hnhfnaa. Now siicb a man (snith ■'Austin) Ifial it to 
tea, in a vite ntant eyt, ii no belter than he thai stantta upon hii hea4. It 
» (lonbtcd by tome, yraviores7ie murhi a perlurbalioni/ias, an ah kumorihut, 
whether humours or perturbations cau<«e the more grievous mdadies. But 
w« find that of uiir r^aviouT [Mal.'lG.-W) most true : the tjiirit it willing { 
tkefirih it tcfak ; wc cantiot resist ; and tilis of ' Pliilo .lu<lietis ; prrturha- 
tiont oj'trn offend the body, and an noft Jht^aent mutts of melanrhnly, 
luminy it out of the hinget of hit health. Vive* com pareii them to *wirufl 
' ptriarbAiioiir* dati aunl, ^uIIhu «or^oTf iinkinuiHv jHtUNila fcJQ^liur J*nt(r. dir rurtL 

«>. I. 

uniM 4nJmi molij*- 
■ Df OHuJL wtX. uitr^ 


pJn!*L^iair, <OniL Lc- 2t. t KpbL UM- ^ ^I^Unni. ' Ub. I. <4p. Gl «1 qui* oiiv* pi-roi 
vikpot, Issfum rfvnlrtunL ^ Tcrmr tnHpl^torHi< uoii «lobtt. ■ Df ohuJl uifeLuitr. 1. 1, ^ 

L L d* hMMimmnni kitetl. Diorborunhjuc pum, ' KplnL UK*. " QmMlriiAl*, p Virg. % Du 

ipnattmiimw i.aiHiw iimtpin tn lim. iltri^uTi-riti'- ab i^Kt- niu vl auuLali: priilini. I- 3. cU< uiiniA. * IVa-tja 
rt kllaivU UklinI: wtat In mtrl rj^mUin mnrm LtftPn, (|uiHlun plHFidc, ijaiBdiDi tiirt>ulpdt* ; >icin tvT- 

leC Cau»e» of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 

vpon the sea ; tome only move, ai those ffrral tjalti : but tithtrs, turbvlrnt, 
quite overturn the ship. Ttiose which nre li^ht, cnsic, and more scUlom, (o 
our thinking, do us little hanii, and arc tlicrcforc contemned of ns : yet, \( 
they be reiterated, ' at thi^ rain (sajth Austin) dolk a ifone. io do iheM jxr- 
lurt/alions penetrate the mind, "and (as one observes) firoduce an Aaii( (>/ 
melanchii/y at the iait, wliicli haviug gottvii t)ie mastery in our souls, may 
well be called diseases^ 

How tJit-tt! passions produce this i^fTect, * Agripim Imth handled at large, 
Occult. Philot. I. II. c. 63 ; Cardan, I. \4. suhtil. Lemnius, /. I. c. 12. de 
occult, nat. mir. et tih. 1. cap. 16 ; Suarex, Met. disput, IK. sect. 1. art, 
25 ; T. Bright, cap. 12. of his Melancholy Treatise ; Wright the Jcsnito, iu 
h» book of the Paasioos of ihe Mind, &c.— thus in brief— To our imagina- 
tion comcth, by the outward sense or mecnory. some object to be known 
(rtwidin^ in the foremost ])arl of the brain), which he misconceiving or am- 
plifying, prcaenlty communieates to the heart, the seal of all aliection*. 
The pure spirits foilhwiih flock from the brain to the heart, by certain 
secret chunneU, and signitie what good or bad object waji presented ; " which 
immt!diatL-ly bends it self to prosecute or avoid it, and, wiihul, druwclh with 
it other humours to help it. So, iu pleasure, concur grrat (Ion; of purer 
spirits; in sndnct*, much mclunchuly blood ; in ire, choler. If the imagi- 
nntionbe very npprehcnsivf, intent, anil violent, it sends greiit More of spirits 
to or from the heart, iind makes a deeper impression, and grenter tumult : 
as tlie humours in the body be likewise prcpiired, and the temperature it self 
ill or well disposed, the passions arc longer and stronger : so that the first 
Step and fountainofallourgrievaueesin tliiskind is ' liem imajjinatia, wluek|; 
mis-inforaiiiig the heart, causeth all these distemperaiurcs. alteration anf 
confusion of nuirils and humours ; by means of which, so disturbed, concoc 
tion is hindred, and the principal parts are much debilitated ; as ^ Dr. Ni 
varra well ileclared, being consulted by Montaiius about a melancholy JcwJ 
The spirits so confounded, the nourishment must needs be abated, ' 
humours increased, crudities and thick spirits ingendred, with melaochot 
blooil. The other puria cannot perform their functions, having the spirit 
drawn from them by vehement passion, but fail in sense and motion : so 
look upon a thing, and see it not : hear, and observe not; which otherwise 
would much alTect us, had we been free. I may therefore conclude with 
'Arnoldus, maxima vis eil phanlasia ; et huiv untfert, net autrtn corparit 
intemperiei, omnii mrlancholim caujuu est aicrtlienda : great is the force of 
imaginatiou ; and much more ought the cause of melancholy to be ascribed 
to tliis alone, than to the diatrmperature of the body. Of which imagina- 
tion, hci-auKe it haiji so greut a stroke in producing tliis malady, and is so 
])OwcrfuI of it self, it will not be improper to my discourse, to make a brief 
digression, and speak of the force of it, and how it causetli thin alteration. 
Which manner of digression howsoever some dislike, as frivolous and imper- 
tinent, yet 1 am of * Beroaldus his opinion, such diffreuions do miffhtili/ de- 
liffhl and re/nish a weari/ reader ,- they are like eawce fo a bad >lom<iek ; 
a7td I do therefore moat wiliinr/li/ use them. 

por? qu»1am 4ffi?rci6iH'i exrlLuil ijEifum, quii>dam [la ranvml, u1 ilp 4Ia(u Jiidlfll rItfipf'llHnt. ■ Ct 
fatU 1ft|il,trni. %ie paullAIim bjv prniflnnt iMiimum. • Utu Tftl«Qtt*. vmr motM^nlinl vorulut. 
* lnubfimCio moTOI i»(irpg«. ad riuiu nt'ituiD viptUntur Iididwm. VI ■pirltut v^IaIh. i)iiitm* kiUnlur. 
'Snw, IS- VS. Tho nnit aMm Ihr coonlnulMV to gcHid or r*il: kiiU ilLiilrscliEtu uf thd mind 
onHrth dItlrinpmlimorihrlHidy, • S|.lrl(a>cl HOfQU ■ ImS InueiiuUuinr MnunitiuiiUi i hu. 
mom cDkm muraU hciiunn uimi iminuEuiL Piii!. ' M«niuit c-on^U- 74. Urn tin^ wiomoao 

chiutut meluLthuliuti. rittriim ; H qnct^l A>nntjfti(*ni'in itii['>^Ji™,i1, I't luriubrm |<rUKipftli4 iWt>i]ttmt. 
■ Hn^t-kiir. I. 1- ra\^ i*- ' KoWl 1>ijjiuinn<l^ rgrr^tuiwrn U<urKtnliU<r uliliaEfa». *t IfctoROH liHiim 
juninrlc rifo'etr. (Cgnuchuaiqiie tuuHuilcin, •iu«d«D ijiian nmdiuciite. r*flc«i*i irt i^ lltmun 


Hb. 3. Subs. S.] Of the fWct of Imagbnalion. 107 

I SuiitBCT. II. — Ofthf Forrv of Imagination. 

1 What Imaifinittion is, I have siifticiciitK declared in my digreMioD of tbe 
I aiialoiuy of tlicr xoul. I will now only poiut at the wonderful eflecls aud 
I j>ower of it; which, as it is eminent in a]), so niou especially it ngetli in 
I mclaiit'holy pcr^sons, in keeping the species of objects so lonj;, mistaking, 
[amplifying: tncm by continual and '"(iroiiK meditation, uulil at length it 

Snxluccth in »ome jtarties real effects. cau«elh this, and many other maludies. 
od, although this phanlasie of ourt 1h: a iubordinat« fuculiy to reason, and 
uhonid be ruled by it, yet in many men, through inwurd or ouln'drd distum- 
Epentures, defect of organs, which arc iinnpl ur hindrt-d, or otlit^rwise contA- 
lltunated, it is likewise unapt, hindrrd, and hurt. This we see verified in 
Ksleepers, which, by reason of humour*, and concourse of vapimr« tioitbling 
Rbe pbautasie. imagine many times nhxnid and prodigious things, and in such 
ut ore troubled with incubus, or wiich-ridden. (as we c&ll it) : if they lie on 
Elbeir baclu, they suppose an old woman rides and sits so hard upon them, 
Ltbat they arc almost stifled for want of breath : when there is nothing 
BoAendi, but a concourse of bad humours, which trouble the phanla^ie. This 
& likewise evident in such as walk in the night in tiieir sleep, and do siran^ 
pEnU : ' these vapours move the phanlasie, llie phaniaaie the appetite, which, 
[teoving the animal spirits, causeth the body to walk up and down, as iftliey 
Ewcrc awake. Fracaat. (/. 3, dc inUlUel.) refers all extasies to this force of 
umngination ; such as lye whole daves together in a trance, aa that priest 
rwhoiD ''Celsua speaks of, that coulJ separate himself from his senses when 
Ilie list, and lie tike a dead man void of life and seuM-. Cardan bnga of 
Hiimself, that he could do us much, and thEit when he list. Many times such 
tnen, when thity come to ihemselvcs, tell strange things of heaven and hell, 
[«liat viiioni they have seen; as that S' Owen in Matthew Paris, that went into 
IS' Patricks Purgutory, and ihc monk of Evesham in the same author. Those 
UommoQ mpparilioDS in Dede nnd (irtgory. Saint Brigets revelations, Wier. 
R. 3. de lamii* c. 1 1. Ctesar Vanninua in his Dialogues, &c. reduceth, (as I 
nave Ibrmerly said) with all those tales of witches prog t esses, dancing, riding, 
Pniiiaform ati ona, operations, &-c. to the force of 'iniHgiuatiou, and the 'devils 
Bllusions. The like efl'ects almost are to lie seen in such as are awake: how 
rmany chimu^raij, antiek*. gulden mountains, and castles in tbe air, do tliey 
Muild unto tliemselves ! I appeal to painters, meehanicians, maihematieiaiis. 
Rome ascribe all vices to ;i false and corrupt imagination, anger, revenge, 
"Insl, ambition, eovutousiie&s, which prefers falsliood, before that which i* 
right tad good, deiuding the soul with false shews and suppositions. ■ Der* 
lUnlds PvDOttus will have heresie and superstition to proceed from thin 
Bbnnljun ; as he fiitscly im^nelh, so he belicveth ; and as he concciveth of 
' It, w> it mtist be, and it shall be ; contra gentes, he will have it so. But 
mott especially in passions and affections, it shews strange and evident 
eflecu : what will not a fearful man conceive in the dark' whnt strange 
fbnns of bugbears, devils, witches, goblins ? Lavater imputes the greatest 
luse of spcctrums, and the like apparitions, lo fear, which, above all other 
lions, begets the stron;;eiJt imagination (saith ''Wienis) ; and so likewise 
t, sorrow, joy, &e. Some die suddenly, as she that saw her son come 
lite battel atCanua?, icv. Jacob i hit patriarch, by force of imagination, 
made peckled lunbc, laying pecklcd rod* before his sheep. Fersiua, that 

*A1i Imji^LfutLDuartunEurAflbrtiiinF*. niiJbus tciifntrompoiiJItir, uiinirhHtm. Jo. !^Tl<lmr. M^Ut~ 

^fib.4.(^ 10. ■ BctUn. i^i-ri-'U. '(jii), tiiiciEiv* Tuli'Mt. ruurluir tLmilla Jtccbat. iur^Tt-u* w ■ 

pniKbamj at, nuura piingi'mriir, dolcirrm ni>ii ■■'Utat. -liliHrii Nyiuunimj. ur^l. Aa liaa^m%\, 

vrrbl* Fl vnolfimlbq* 4? oxivM^rukl tlrmninl iK'AiJmnniiUffnM, qui iit id ijpiutuuni uUtiir. c-t rarum 

i&lA«Uai ff^t, ducllaue 4ii \(m ■!> i|n[j ifoikilcrvtA : <^or]'oni i«fO wnnD tlnr u'niU iirrinuinil. 

^ ^ lunVn evOprrit dlkiKjIiii. ut niUli kErit<.ihii]i|ti4:vii; vl \»i%\, uijkbrt mblftlt. pfi>|.rti« coTLK.Flbut ru 

rfBttbilt, L X r. II. Willi. I Dnuriu nrdkui. ■ SoU-ltunur. pta ornnlbiu kOvctibui, Itulo tin*- 

■taattooviMiierT: poll, uur. Jn, L 1, a I 

Causes of MtUtHcholy. 

[Part, 1. Sec. 2. 


j^thiopian qiiron in IlclicMlorus, Vy w-t^inK: tbc ptcluiv »r Pertcui and Andro> 
m«<la, ill stead oi' » bbrkmoor, wa» brwiight. lo bnd of a fair white clitid ; 
imitation of wtiom, bcliko, nn lianl ^vnnrrd feHow in Grcpcr, b«i-a«w: 
aiid his wife wt-re tioth (tcformed, to grt a good brooil of children, tlegautit 
simaf imuijints in Ihalamo collocanl, &c. Iiung tlic fairest pictures be could 
buy for luuni^y in tiJs cl)amb<?i, l/tal hU ii'(/i*. by /reqvent tiiffil of rA^n, 
might conceive and bear such children. And, irwe may believe Bale, one 
of Poiit Nitliiila* tJie third* concubines, bv seeing of 'a bear, was b[ou);h^ 
to bed of a moimtttr. If a ivomun (iaitli ■> Leniiiioa) at (he time of her con 
ccplion, think of analhirr man present or absent, the child will lie like AijWJ 
G rent- bellied wodumi, wbc-ii lhi;y long, yield us prudigirius cxuiiipli-!( in thti* 
kind, IIS mnlc-«, wurit, »cars, hurclij)*, mon«tcr«, c-tpi;cia1ly caiii^c-d in thiu 
children by force of a dqitnveii pbiintnuic in thrni, /psam sprcirm, ^Hitn 
ammo e£igiat,feltii inditcit: she imprints that stamp upon her child, whict 
she ^cooceifc* unto licr self. And Ihercfoie I/>doviciis Vive* (/t6. 2. " 
CkAtt.fem.) gives a special cnution to great-bellied women, ' that they 
not admit such absurd eoitcetts and coyil'ilions, but by all utfan* ac 
those horrible olijrcta. heard or seen, orjillht/ spectacles. Some will hugh 
weC[i, sigh, i^ruaD. blush, tremble, sweat, at such things as are su^geste 
unto tlicin by their inia^iiiaiion. Avicenna speaks of one that could n 
him^f into a pahie when he list ; and Etume can imilatc the tunes of bir 
and twasis, that tht-y can hardly be discerned. Dugoberlus and Sain 
Francis scars and wounili, like lo those of Chrisls (if at the U-a-it any »hoI 
wctc), '"Agrippn snpiMisi ih In hnvv hupiic-d by force of iniiigi nation. Tlu 
some are turned to wolvcit. fmm men to women, and women again (o mcnj 
(which is cont'tnntly believed) in the Niimc imagination ; or from men 
BS»c». dogfl. or any other filia[H-s — " WicniR nscrihc* all those faniout Irani 
formations to imapnntion. That, in hydrophobia, they seem to sec ll 
piclure of a doi; still in their water ; "that melancholy men, and sick mcnj 
conceive so many phaniiutical visions, apparitions to themselves, and bavi 
nicb abnurd supposition*, as Uiat they are kings, lords, eoeks, bean, aptH 
owh: llial lliey are heavy, light, transparent, preat and little, aenseleu an 
dead, (a* shall be shewn more at large, iu our '■Sections of Symploineaicu 
be ini|)iited to nouglil else, hut to a corrupt, fttlie, and vintenl Imat^ination 
It work* not in siek and melancholy men only, but even iiio^t forcibly *onia 
timeM in xueh as are $ound : il make* thrm luddnnly sick, and 1 niters tliei 
tctnncrtlure in an instant. And Mimi-timi's a «lronu: conceit or apprchrnsioid 
as 'Valeiiuii proves, will lake awuy dts(-a.\i-x: in bnlh kinds, it will produc 
real eflecl«. Men, if they »ee but another man tnmbtc, giddy, or sick ■ 
some fe»rfiil diM-a-te, their apprebrnsion and fenr \s no strong in this kiiid^ 
tiiat they wilt have the xanic dixciue. Or if, by lomc tooth-saycr, wisc-matii 
fortune-teller, or phyiiciiui, lliev be told they *lia!l have such a disease, tiiej 
will so seriously apprehend it, ihnt They will instantly labour of it — a thing 
familiar in China («uith Iticcius the Jesuit :) 'if it he told Ihcm that they 
shall he sick art such a day, v;hfH that day eoniei, Ihey u'lU snrely be sick, 
and vnll &t so terribly afflicted, that sometimes they dye upon it. Dr.Colta 

Ifiwhl. ' Ub. t, l<■|^ 4. di> cjiTulL int. ml(, fti, littvT ampEcKU* CI «udiU, 
frfCftlo. <*J*l>tlBi£lcl Kllrl Ln&.|u 4'Uwrn'. ' M'iKl Vdiin fplill. .I'Lliuc uiulri mulo. 

lUuDV. |ir( ii?nof. qiiiliut malrii Qi^rt'bn fvnjuiiru «i1. iiii|>rkii]n iiiij.Tvpiki, 

*ix ^ 


Inifticttliu ■ "i. ^ _ . - . . - 

fdltiir ■Mjjrting inlH'Lln HflJjk, rl tlj"*tlu. Vt^hi'(ii4'iT« CdjifAEio incj"i-» frrum fjw*!*^ ^ivt. 

bomnitodrrlUnl. -Cltrult |-hl]n«- I. I, c. CI - Lkh, .X At UmL^v ^j. |f>, • Ajir'iriit. liK _ 
M|h 64. ^Ktct. 3 iDomb. I. luhMM^t. 3. v Hft^lrtit mfilorif. I*-\. IT. Cnrjruk raiiixH |»ii1rti in 4i- 
T*r««*irvr41q'lni<4, r^ f-,ni ■j.j.irhpfljiono. ' Pj. \v.h^. }. 5l ,'rnsi. ft- Notiimipquani rttun murU 

y ■■* III ijiw (nriu* Ti(l<'tn fvlhl - nun 

A^;-'J TTEiFTI I |L"i itfl'J Lr, '-|lJf|C|inlUf 


cm. 3. SubB. 2.] Of the Forct of Imaguuttion. 169 

(,in bb DiacQTery of ignorant PractttioTiera of Physick, cap. 8.) tmth two 
(trance Mories to lliin purptut?, ulial )>lian!iic i« able to do; itie oii« uf a 
piiriDm wife in NorthnmiJliinshiri-, anno l<il)7, liiat, comiu^ to H {tliyfLicinii, 
hhiI luld liv Iiim llint nhr wn* tioiiblnl wiUi tlic Ktatica, us he conji-cturcU, 
(a rliMSisc die was free from) tlic wmc night nftcr her n'tiini, upon his woida, 
fell into n grievous fit of m sciatica : »■)<! surh itn(itht:r rxampk lie halh of 
unotlicr e;oDi] wtfe. that wna so troubled wiili tlii: cramp; ni'tcr the same 
mnnncr ><Tie came by it, because her phy&icinn did but name il. Soineiimes 
death it wlfia caused by force of plianiaaic. 1 have heard ofone.tliat, cominK 
by chance in comHauy of htiti that was tliouKl't to be sick of the pl.iifuc (wliicn 
WW not so,) fell uuwn Kuiidnilv dead. Aiiutlier was sick of t\ie pi',t^4: with 
conceit. One, iH:eiR)c bin f<:ili>w let bluod, TjIU down in a twoun, Another 
(nitli 'Cardan, out of Ari>lutl<^) fiA\ down di-ud, (which it familiar to women 
ai any Rhaslly sight) «M:iiig but u mini hunifeU. A Jew in t'l-nncc (aailli 
' Lodovicus Vives) came by ebancc over a danjteniui piixnige or plank, that 
lay oier a brook, in (he ilnrk, without harm ; llic nrxl liay, pt.'rcoii in); what 
danger lie vaa in, he fell down dead. Many will not bclicvt- «iicli niinc* to 
be true, but Itiugh commonly, xnd deride whrn tlicy hear of iliein : but 
let llie«c mt'ii consider with ihemtetTcs, (as ' Peter Ityarus illustraict it) if 
tbcy weti- net to walk u|>on a plank on high, they would be giddy, upon 
which (lii'v ilan? securely walk upon the ground. Many (aaiih Agrippa) 
'' stronij hearird mm othtneUe, Irtm&le al tuck tu/Utx ; daztl, and art tick, 
tJiry look hut down from an hii/h plare : and what mntif* Ikcin bttt 
\ion€xit f As somr are wi molested bv pbitiiluj^ii^ : *ci totuv ii^ain, by ^cy 
filone and a good coiittil, art! a» trasily rtriivprtd. \Vt- fci- rnnimoidv llie 
.toolb-aeli, goul, filling- sick m-M, bilititc nf a mail do|{. and many such 
ladies, cured by spcIU, word*, rlinrartfrs, and clmrni* ; and many green 
nda, by that now lo much used unguftttum armarium, intigDeUt-ully 
red; which Crolliiis and Goclcniu* in a book of laic have defended, 
ibariui in a just tract af stilly contradicts, and most men coouovert. All 
ic world knows there is no vertue in such charms, or eure«, but a ationg 
'nc*it and opinion alone, (as "Pouiponalius holds) ahich forixlk a motion 
the hunwurs, ijtiritt, anil blaiid : which lakes away the cauit of the 
[■na'iu/ji from the parlt a/feclrd. The like we tnay »ay of our magical 
cflecbi, Kupt-rtiitiuui cures, and 3,uch as are dune by mountebanks and 
wtznnlf. At, by wickrdincrrilulili/, siitnij m^s arc hart (i«> s^iilh *Wieru» 
of charms, upell*, Ac.) wcHnd, in our rzperieiirv, hy the tame meant many 
are relitttd. An empirick oft* ntimvx, and a lilly cbinirgion, doih more 
Mrange cures, timn a rntional plivtician, Nytnannu* gives a reasou— 
because ihe patient puts liis confidence in him; 'which Aviccnna prr/erji 
htfarr art, prtetpls, and all remedies whatsoever. Tis opinion alone, (loiith 
Cardai)) that makes or marrs physicians ; and he doth ibe best cure*, 
ordinK to II ipi>oe rates, in whom mo»l trust. So diversly dues tin* plian- 
taKicofoursalfect, turn, and wind, m imperiously commniid our bodies, wbirb, 
u nnotbcr * Proteut, or a camileun, can lafce all tkafia, and if of titch 
foTvc (a» Fi<rii]u» adUi) that it can work upon others, at tvell us ourselves. 
How can olhi-rwite blear-eyv* in one moii cauxe the like lUFeclion in another? 
Why dolb onn man'» ' yawiiin)); make atioiber man yawn ? 
prOTokc a second mnny time* to do the like ? Why duth scraping of He 

•AiUILlK •U)>. i. atUBbU. cap. <U' uic]. -lull, ilr IV.ti'. • Lili. 1. np. )ia Ex illn 
dnplf^mlA. ftliqui pn tbnorP coalmmh'iinl. rhUtcnnl, ialirtiLanrur; tie nm^cilEij*. rt>1irr>4, mortU 
^mlUttlf^ ^juunnquff <vijnii»lu'. iji^nnilunnF ivrpiluiil. ' 1-ih. lU* tnraotaUoiifs liuik^rfuOu buIi- 
hUBAniin cl pVlJViuiiin iprii^iin trtrrrl; iTiiif larloafftf?]!! mpilui Mn£uji» ai uiii inurhlAnui 
IMftitHuaJfivIbcFlplt. > L. J. i.\ LS dri'fidltL;. Vl LUii»iA trrTiithurc -lui^ iHxU^ur, air 'I t|.i&ik 

inB pnvfrrpniU. Avin-n. * l'Jiin-,katLaT. in cinym i^lii'r* rrpnAitimtr Mh At t^p\i7aiH. ^Uir* 
rtOmt Fklniu, I. li p- lit tip TTmtlniFr J'Urimtr* TmuEifoUo r*tuni|nani I^Tcut ,rl«1ianialti>ii,tor- 
!«■ fnprium MtUcnuni nsnnnnxtuiin •dlrliiu. ■ Cur Mclunlfi oMllciil. WUinu. 

tioc mans pissmj:. V 


Caiues of Melancholy. 

[Part. I. Sec. 2. 

chers olTend a third, or backing of lil«s? Why doth a carkoM blerd, whml 
the murtlierer i» bittt^tlil liefore il, some week* after tlie mutthcr hiith 
donr ' Why do wilchpn iind old wouii^n lascinatc anil bi-wiirh cliildrcii ? bu 
(lit WicriiE, l'!trit(H--1«i«, Cntdun, MizaldiK, VallcrioU, C<v»ir V'Rnnfnui, Cam- 
panclU, iind mnny philo»o|>hcfs tliink) the forcible imagination of the one 
party moves and alter* the spirits of thn other. Nay more, they can e 
and euie not only discMes. mnlndies, and several infinnitie!, by this m« 
(ad Aviei-nna, de unim. I. 4. mcI. 4. supposcth) in parties remote, but moi 
bodies from their pUees, cause thunder, lightning, lempest«; which opiuic 
AlkinduB, Paracelsus, and some others, approve of: so thai J may certainly 
conclude, this strong conceit or imaginalion is astrum hnminxs. and ihi 
mddcr of tliis our ship, which reason should sleivr, bui, ovcr-bniD by phiin- 
tftsie, cannot mana^, ami so anflers it self and this whole vestc-.l of ouri (o ' 
ovcr-ridcd, and oUcin ovt^r- turned. Head more of thin in Wierug, /. 3. < 
Lamiis, c. 8, y, 10. Franciscuii Valitsiun, mcil. conlrov. I. 5. cont. 6. Mar-' 
cellus DonntUS, /. 3. e. I . df hUl. mrd. miriihil. I.cvinus Lemnius, de occult, 
nat. mir. 1. 1. c. 12. Curdan, /. 18. ds rcrum var. Corn, Agrippa.rff occalt. 
Philits. cap. 64, 65. CaracraTius, I . CchI. cap. fi4. horarum subcU. Nymaii> 
nun, in oral, de Imaij. LaurentiilS, and him that is initar omnium, Fieutu, ' 
famoiix phy5i<:iao of .Antwerp, that wrote three books de viribus imaginalioni* 
I have tJiim far di^rressed, because this imaginatioti is (lie medium drftreni 
of passioii*, by whose means tliey work and produce many [imc< proiiigiom 
effects; and as the pliant^isie is more or less intended or (emitted, and tin ~ 
humours disposefl, so do perturbations move more or lew, and make deef 

SUBSECT. Ill, — Divitioa of Pf.rturhationt. 

Perturbatioxs and passions, which trouble the phantasie, though i 
dwull between the confines of sense and reason, yet they rather follow ; 
than reanDM, because tliey are drowned in corporeal orgi^ns of sense. Thcyi 
arc commonly '' n-duced into two inclinations, iriuvible, and concupitcibU, 
The Thomints subdivide tliein into eleven, sit iu the coveting, and live 
in the invadinq. Aristotle reduceth all to pleasure and pain; Plato, to 
lo»« and hatred ; ' Vivcs to good and bad. If good, it is present, and iJieii 
we absolutely joy and love: or to come, and tlien wp dcnirc and hope 
for il: if evil, we absolutely hate il : if present, it is sorrow; if lo come, 
fear. These four pas'ions ' Bernard compares to the wker,U of a chariot, 
by which wt are carryed tn Mis world. All Other passions are subordinate 
under tlle^e four, or six, as some will — love, joy, desire, haired, sorruir, 
fear. The rest, as ang«r, envy, emulation, pride, jealoiisi«, anxiety, mercy, 
siiamc, ilisi:onlent, despair, ambition, avarice, Arc. are reducible unto the 
first: and, if ihc^ be immoderate, lliey * consume lite spirits; and me- 
lancholy is rs]ieeially caused bv tlicm. Some few discreet men there arc, 
that can govern themselves, and curb in these inordinate alTections, by reli- 
ction, philosophy, and such divine precepts of meeknexs, patience, and the 
like; out most pari, for want of |[overnmeul, out of indiscretion, igno- 
rauce. they suffer themselves wholly to be led by »en*e, and are so far from 
ri'jiir i-iiiL rebellious inclinations, ihnt tlicy give all cnronrngcment unto 
thi III. !■ ,11 lilt; the rains, and using all provocation* lo further ihem. Bad 
by nature, worse by art, discipline, ''rnstom, cdnraiion. and a perverse 
will of ibeir own, they follow on, wheresoever their unbridled affections will 
transport them, and do more out of custom, self will, than out of reason. 

quitnii .rhliiii.r Iidt miiFnlu. i lUruni uui|>iii'ImimKli>™iioii»,iiplt!Ruiii*iM»runl. Pfmri. I. LPtlh. 

rium fii'liini homin.i I' roiuuFiiiitinT. qiiiub t lalluai.— A Miuii ■■unctrt nuJHUB oL— Vulto 
mcUora ptobwinc ; Urlpitor* wquoi. 0»lcl. 


^■Hem. 3. S«b«. 4.] Sorrow, a Cause of Melancholy. 171 

^^^Contumax voluntas (ai Melarictlion calU il) malum facil: this stubborn 
^^nnll of tiun iirnerU jutl^cneiil, which scci and knows what iihoul<l and 
ought lo be tionv, sinJ ypt will not d<i it. Atanctpiii yu/<p, giavcB to their 
sevcml lu»i8 ami iippciitc, thev prccipilatc nnil plunge ' themwivcs into a 
labyrinth or cares: blinded with hi«t, blinded with ambition, ' M<ry teek thai 
at Cods handt, which they may g\v€ unto ihemselvea, if (hei/ could but 
rtfrain fram those carts and perturbations, wkeretvilh thty continually 
macerate their mindei. But giriog way to thcae violent |)EU»ion« of r<!ar, 
grief, sbante, revenge, h&tred, malice, &c. they are torn in j>iecei, as Act«con 
WW with his dogs, and '' cruci&e their own soub. 

I SuBSECT, IV. — Sorrow, a Cause of Melancholy. 

Sorrow. Insauus dolor. — In tlus catalogue of passions, which ki mucb 
tonnent the soul of man, and cause this malady, (for I will brietly speak of 
tbem all, and in their order) the first place in tliis iraccible appetite may 
jii&tly be oliallenged by sorrow — an insepamble companion, ' the mother and 
daughter of mvlanchuly , her epitome, symptome, and chief cause. Aa Hip- 
~ rues hath it. they beget one another, and tread in a ring ; for sorrow a 
cause and symptome of this disease. How it is a symplome, shall bu 
wed to hi* pliMA. Tliat it is a cause, all the world aclcnowledge. Dolor 
jih/Zu insaHia: caussa fait, el aliorum morborum insanahilium, wiilb 
Platarch loApoUoiiius; a cuuse of niaduesj. a cause of uiuny other ditciiscs; 
a solcciiUM! 01 this mischief, *" Lemiiius c:klU it. So doth Rhitsis, coat. 1. 1. 
tract. 9. GuianCTiii*, tract. I-O. c. 5. And, if it take root once, it ends in 
despair, as " Felix Plater observes, und (as in » Ccbes table) may well be 
coupled with it. i* Chrysoslom, in his seventeenth epistle to Olynipla, 
describes it to he a cruel torture of the soul, a most inexplicable grief, 
poisoned u.iirm, consumiiiy body and soul, aiid gnawiiiy the very heart, a 
perpetual executioner, coalinual inght, profound darkness, a whirlwind, a 
tempest, an ague not appearing, heating worse than ang Jire, and a battle 
that hath no end. It crucifies u-orse than any tyrant: no torture, no strap- 
pado, no bodily punithment, is like unto it. 'Tis the ca^lc, without quo- 
tion, which the poctx feigned to gnaw i Prometheus he;trt: and no bcavinesi 
is liie unto the heaiinru of the heart (Ecclns. 25. l.'i, 16.) ' Every per- 
larbation is a mitery ; but grief a cruel torment, a domineering passion. As in 
old Rome, when the Dictator was created, alt inferiour magistracies ceased — 
wb«0 ^rief appears, all other piuuions vanish. /( dries up the bones (sailh 
Solomon, c. 17. Prov.}; makes them hollow-ey'd, pule, and lean, furrow- 
iacpd, lo have dead looks, wrinkled brows, rirelcd cheeks, dry bodies, and I 
ouitt perverts Uitir temperature, that are niisaflecled with it; u Elenora, ' 
Uiat e»ird mournful duchess, (iu our • English Ovid) laments to her noble 
husband, Humphrey duke of Gloucealcr — 

SawpiI Ihfiu (bo«? pycs in v)io»r twwl ohorfftil look, 

flnirnw huh .c> a.-ipDird mfoIMgnti; 
Than *-'ya\.Ul iit'i *rf Ehix «4a m)- EJnont facr. 
Llkck roiil (-OTEun. kc- 

*M«aol*ditul. DIM > irliiia- iMuni le Id lnqiii(Fl<i<nn'-in i^iiroli'llini - KmUlkM •! eopMlbtUtnin 
EMsntl, oen inulUgiinl ai' illiiil* iliii i~.'ii-n'. qudtliibl tutli. >i irllm. ptaiUMMWlUi al nurU ti 
polaitelfoDVbut. quihui lualdur w maxtft^til. imjivrAn- vrClonL. ^TauluflludlaMlSavlilninitwjtou. 
n «te»«DU doknun, qwrTinnut i TlEaminir, mi-uh fcUi-lBBimBm, In^Lf-tn r( mEtpmbkli-m cHlcEiniiik. 
^iSVBtcb- pT*IU. 4* RomniliB, ar. ' TEmur vt m^it-Iitlii, »] illii [>,-t«i'i prmt, rai4H4<^( tubuti-* kIH 
kOHMlte •unl, pt in ciri-uIuRi w pnirrraiiL tli]>. AjihoiE* S3, 1. 4. Mpm Moiildflu,^ vay. t'J. VictntliiH 
FkV^nnTH. pnift imotf- ■ Mulll n mtxri^fv «1 nii'lu hue <b-[A])il taut. Lrniri. lib. i, txy. 10. 
tlfolucuf* rt mvcll^A rai-lnnt B''f''''li'r'* m^JunrhoLUfn : |i:iip- 3, Ur mi'iili* AlErn- 1 ai iltv ttu1E^ih^4I, 
iMTVnili fiSLATUqui.' ilrv^'ircrAlj ( lEickfiohitUolQ. ^t tn ili'vpi'tiilkmrm Ltr-lnil. 'lilt, tiicliit i-ju, yrra 
tarn ^FvCttnUu uiuml [iiriiJTur. ' AiilinAEujii pruilclt' tonnt^uim, liMar InphjiZfi-^hklEt, linvii, tinn 

d, BTil rnrda, ix'^Tiitifcmii. fprtnt-tLiEj, tnmlfci, vltc* niiJErbA' roTitirincria. juidi liux irl li'tii^l^rA 

. l4-ni1>r'l.\4. el tiirbb>. A^t It'hrii non flppm-n*. " isni" v^LiUIieb inrniilin,". tfmgitir. *■« imenji 

feavm nuu hubriL. — Crur^on ctTi^uirirnt dolnr. riv-krmqui' nmni tyranna CTuHrjIomn ftrm v iift. 

iti*i. Come*. MyUiEtl. I- i. r. 8. 'TuU^'. 3. Tu«f- umoii pcrturbailo mlii^rEa; ct »riilAf1ija 
■ K. Dr»}'ton, iu hi. iltt cj. 


CaHtei of McianchfAg. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 


* /( kmdtrt ecncnfiliiin, refngeralet the htart, take* axcay tlomach, colour, 
and sleep; ihickmf, Iht blood (" FtmeliuK I. I. c. 18. rfe morb. catuii*^ 
Ctmlautinntn the spirits, (' Piso) o*i-(tlir(>u*i the iialiital licat, jiervi-ttn li 
(toch) estate «!' Iwilv iin<l niiri<l, !iii<l miiki:! tliriri wtTuryoriliitir ItvM, rrv nij: 
liowl, and loar, for v<rrv ai>^iii«h of ihrir xoiiU. David confrMMl ax miici 
(Psal. 38- 8.) / have roared for the vert/ dhqaietnrn of my heart; 
{Psal. 119. part. 4. v.) my soul meltelh away far very keatintis: (vers. 38.' 
/ am like a hollle in the unoak. Anlioc]iii» complaiiicil that he could tii 
Kluep, ainl thai \m heart Tdinted for grief. ' Clitist liimielf, n> dohram. o\ 
of an rtpjin-htMiBioii of ^rrief, dill sweai blood. (Mark 14): hisooiil was lu^av; 
to thu ilcalli, 4nd uo iorrow was likf- unio liis. Cralo {consil. 'H. I. 21 [pv 
iDKlanc^ in one tliut was so mclaiirlioly Ity reason of 'grief; and Muntanui 
(^contil. 30) in u noble matron, * that had no iiihrr cttune of this niijichiffi 
J.S. B. (in HiMrslidni) fully eurc-d a jiatirnt of liix. lliut wm, much irotibl' 
with melancholy, and for many yenr*: "Auf nficru^ardn hy a littU oceatitM 
t^ $om»Vy he fell into his former fits, and wat Inrmtnttd as heforr. lix- 
aiDples arc common, how it cauRclh rnrlanrholy, ' dci>p<^ratioTi, and Rom«- 
times deaili it self; for[EerluB. 38. 15.) of heaviness comes deuth. Worldly 
sorrow catiselh death {'i Cor. 7. 10. Psal. 31. 10.) Mt/ life u wasted 
hcaririem, and my yturs with mojiming. Why was Hecuba said to 
turned to a do(-' Niohe, into a stone ? but that for {-rief she was itriuel 
and Mupid. Severn* llit; «mpt'roiir '' dyed for j;nef ; and how • maiiy niy 

Tuiu !lli «l (crtlu. Unl* al Inuiiii luoDb. 

Mclancthon gives n reaion of it — 'the gathering of much tnelanchotif blocd 
about the heart ; which rollectiim exttnguithelh the good spirits, or at least 
dttlleth them: sorroiv strihes the heaTt, makes it tremble and pine ateay, 
with great pain ; itmt the black blood, drawn fnun the spleen, and di^'nttd 
under the ribs on the left side, makes those perilous hypaehiindriacal con- 
tulsioHS, which happen to them that are troubled with sorrow, 

SuaitKCT. V,~^Fear,a C'ausr. 

Go*r.T( geiman to tomw, i« fear, or rather a »i«cr.— ^rfu» Achatet, 
cODtiaiinl companion — «q kssiclont and n principal nf;cnt in prociirin); ofthij 
tnischiuf ; z cause and syDiploine an the other. In a word, aa * Vir^l i 
the Harpies, I may justiv sav of them both, 

TrlKni»h4i]dk]^iimnnarnnn; nrr wirii^r 'ttU 

Fvtiif. ct in tfpAm. ^t>'^lt inv^^lutaTiniJIt. 

A BsiliW montliT. or nioir etnfl |>t>4rui^ *•> ''■II. 

Of tji^iffmncf uf Uiv (luiti. aL-'pFouncfmniSlyior llfil. 

Tlii* foul fitiid of fear was womhipped hcrrtoforc a* a ("i()d by the Lacedn^ 
muniaitt, aud most of those other torttiring '' attectionK, and vi was aorrow j 
aiDOngst the rrsi, under the name of An^erona Uea : they stood in iticb nwr 
of tlirm, as Aiiiilin ide Civilat. Dei, lib. 4. cap. 8) notetb out of Vatro. 
Fcurwiw commonly 'adored and p^iiiilcd in their temples oiili a lior* 
and (ax Mucrohiiu rrtortli. I. lo, Satiirujliiim.) * In the lalcndt of Ja- 

'CfBtocMtuJ. tl. Hb. 3. nui-intlB iinWfTinm tnO^ltlnl por^iiiB. cbEufvdi Inntlujn OKlliuuil, ■PLH'IJ« 
Mum iktiniit. ■ Cur tvftitrvnii trtvriiio. t^ifirm >'\.««'ii. inMifuEUEjui- i-iUuri-iii obiuU, v^Oju imlu^ 
dt. rtmi^urtiimpni la]H■^Al^IllI. bVitfulEiviii if»'ru>jir, rih,;ri'tjliiLjr niiiluni'h'kUi'ifin auri'iim. * 1<ptriUiu 
vl iulif1i» hnr rikntuDliialTir, I'kAci. r Uirr. n. Itt i1- ■ M(|kr*>r(> ntLu-xmr. mnrr^BCD, t\ L-aruf9 
mv<n. mltc': <n*A %\f\uf ^f\i\* *Li(n mlirri mh-riruillni', J'Tnrii. * Miifiim iiiL-o]t1uDi rtuTuKiM 
tfSiiaiA ■olL, ^ lliltk'tlii'Ljii. •^li?«-l-?. <]r uif'UnchfiriA. M^'ruri- luiiml uuttra ir^x-iU-iLLr. in pTJijiM 
■XApluntBU InjIdlL ■ Vin'j,, Z- ik'niiiii^H f. d,' unrrun-. amlnn. InOTJif. * Hlto'Iuii. 1, ^. Mib3 
rvwoucipt EiuKtn mi>rlhi ritn>uin|>niK nt. < Biilhwulliut itTiililljiriTiii i>bh1. Hrlinrru* l'rnui<ik«tB JklsLfl 
fcr, 'M.i'.'ii , . ..1 .|Uini p*-ivMM>'in i-imklrliii[iUjt. Eirmll. cl Ungii(->?ll, cum ftvii ■i^icfeu iiulut[^l 

In Ijttili:' - <tir*rilr t\ •idem- lontum humoinn aicltnohollourn. ijuL^fTiiku* .tib cutTU ^9 

*iTLlilI\> I'll' " ' "'ii,lfi»iM> (latu* furkl ', rfobil f*|ir OfCiTlll tin ijul dii^tunii cririL \Ti iiKVBljIm rnb^l 

rtirtmrur >f ' i.iTir-tfi'in. < Lilh. i X'-t,- 1- * El uifelniu ;d[*ii c!>'*ni nu'r*punt, «! tH,i,ia, mfiib^inn 
r-i>itr"1i 'I t \ -rn,, Lv'iMiiIfu., \,^j, I Iji^ui (Jtnlil. Ay nloif. I. clr cliii ini^-^lUniHL^ I Calnidufl 
J»ii F-'M.j .'II 1 1. Ilia' Artffrwnr, riil j.i,i.ilAi«4 In wvllo Valii|il* «arr« fariuirt. ^vv^ Eui;,-i.m cl n^^H 

lem. 3. Saba, ti.] Shame and Disgrace, Caustt. 173 

nuaiy, ArtgeTonn had her holy day, to whom, in Ike lemf/le of Volupia, or 
ffodtiesi of pteatvrt, ihcir ougurts and bUhopf did yearly aacrijice: thai, 
6eint/ pTOfiitioue to thtm. she might espet all carts, angviih, and vexation of 
the miitd, for that yearfoUawing. Many lameniable erii'tMs this fear euuootb 
in men, a« lo l>« red, |>ale, irciiible, HvcEat ; ' it makes nudden cold aiitl heat 
locomeoterall llie body, iialpitatiorioribehean, svncopt;, &c. It amaidh 
many men dial are lo upeitk, or sliew theitiiielvcx tn piiblick ai-Humhlies, or 
before some ^'TL-at peni>iia^4, im TiillveonlcMi-d »riiimiieir, that )ir. trembled 
Htill at tlic lieginniii^ of lijii «pvcrb; unci Dcnio«thcii«£ ibat groiit orntor of 
Grceee, before Philiiiiiii*. It conroimds voice and memory, as Liicion wit- | 
tily brings in Jupiter TmgorJiis so mnch afraid of his auditory, when he wa« 
to make n (speech to tlie rest of the gods, that he coidd not utter a ready 
word, but was eompellcd to uh Mercuries help in prompting. Many men 
are so amazed and astonished with fear, they know not wWe they arc, what 
they say. ' what they do; and <thai which t« worst) it lorlurt-s them, mnny 
dayei before, with continual afin(;lit.i and suspicion. It hinden most ho- 
■UKifttbh! atteoipts, and makes their Itearta ake, sad and lieavy. They that 
Jive in fear, are never free, '" resolute, necure, never merry, but in continual 
pain: that, a* Vive* truly said, nvlUt rfl miirrin major i/tiam mrttis : no 
grnier mitery, no rack, no tnrturc, like nnlo il ; evi-r luijiirjouf , anxious, 
wolkitoax, tliey are rhildiihly dmoptng without reason, willioui judgement, 
' etpteiaUy if tnmv terrthli: object be offered, tia Plutarch hath it. Itcauseth 
oflcnlimeii gudden madncft, and almost all manDcrofdiscases, asl Iiawvuf- 
ficicntly illuslnitwt in ray "digrcmion of the Force of Ima^nation, andtball 
do more at large in my w^ion of 'Terrours. Fear makes our ima|;ination 
conceive what il list, invites the devil to come to ub, (ajii '< A^ippa and Car- 
dan avoueh), and tvrannizeth over our phantasie more than all other aflce- 
ttona eipectslly in Om dark. We iee llits vcrifii-d in moit men ; as ' Lnvatcr 
mJUi, yHff metuanl, ftigunl ; what liiey feur lliey conceive, and fui^ unto 
UMntaeJcea ; tbey thiok they Hee i;oblina, hai;i:i, deviU, and manv times 
iMeomC melancholy thereby. Cardan {tuhlil. lib. \9) hnth an example of 
Mch an one, to cauncd to be meUncboly (by night of a bugbear) oil hit life 

after. Augustus Cw^sardunil not *il in tJic dark; nw (i/i'yfoajoVenre. sailli 
* Sueltmiiiii, tiHmquam trnrhris tvigil'irit. And 'tis strange what women 
and i-hildren will conceive nnlo them«'!ve?, if they go over a church-vard in 

an« i-iiiKiren will conceive nnlo t'>em«'!ve?, il they go over a church-vard in I 
ibu nigtit, lye ot be alone in a Hark rnom ; how they sweat and tremble ou a / 
<uddpn. Many men arc troubled with future events, forekiiowledk'e of their 
fortiinca, destinies, as Severus Oie empeionr. Adrian, and Domitiiui: quod 
*cirel allimuBt ut/tr dieni, sailh Suetonius, valde tolicilus; much tortured iti 
mind because lie foreknew his end; with many »ueh. of which I shall *pi-ak 
more opportunely in 'another iila^e. Anxiety, mercy, pitly, indignation, &o. 
and such fearful bntoelien derived from thmc two xlems of fear anil surrow, 
IvoluDiarilyumit. Read moreof tliem in''Cari>lus Pascalius, ' Dnndintis, &c. 

Slib»ect. VI. — Shame and Diigract, Cause*. 

SuaME and disgrace cause mo»t violent passions, and hitler pungs. 06 

pudaTcm el Jrdecus publicum, ob trroJVm commhmim, sitpe moventur gtiit' 

roxi aaimi (Feli* Plater, lib. 3. dt atienat. mtntis) : Generous minds arc 

often moved with shame, to despair, for eome publick diagrace. And he 

> Tlaun indurti Mew. (wHIt nUptUUancm. ncla drfi rtiim, tuiar jnllama. Anlppk, I. I. r. 13, 
"nmidl wnrntr tftrltai htbrnt ft^^^Aut. Mtml- ' EiTti**' coni^ni ni^lcrttfi a|piEAii Uirnu*. 4ui-i 
OH* aoe tnBiil (urnum f Faitau^^u Mnnt- ■ Mrru> uuutEklum mrmuriun rnn>&*'ii«l. mkI<.| iti. 
«IIBiMiiii ijiiml imnv «it Ui^liLIrm rHTJEinCum IniFipdll. Thiie>'tljd,4 vlrfh. dti ronltudlnr tt ■irlur^ 
AltXHHlrl. l*bT«<ipr>T*>dn>iii<'ininiLi. •Snr.i. M«tn. a Mu)*. a. ' Hi'rt. 3. Mmi, 4. !!iib>. ). 
• 8bML la IKk TuDorallrfeMI Ad at- 'Lvrinuna*. T^mu' tl vmr ini>lriiin d In hfunlnltnu [HrwunL 
■ lAx Or HhhuIi. «.I. Vurtn nru iiwirinilitml, nuis minut Uniriii. • ViMvJiu. ■ HnL I. 
Kmh. I- I'ul'L '. • Di- till- ri .Uiw ' Ct>». In Alia, dv Aolnd. 


Causes of Melanchfdy. 

{Part. I. Sec 2.1 

(sailh Philo. Uh. 'I. de promd. tiei) ' that sabjeclt hhntl/ (o fear, yritf^ 
ambilioit, thame, in not happy, but aUngethrr miserable, torltirtd tcith con- 
tinual labour, rare, andmitcry. It isiisfori^ible u batterer as a»y ufthcrr-tt. 
'Ulanij mrn nrijlcrl the lamitltf, of the world, and tare not for iflori/, and 
yctlhry arc afraid of infamy, rrpKhr., diffract : {Tul. oMc.t. 1.) they can 
itverehj roiitfni/iplfasure, h^ar ijrief infiifferrnlly ; hut they arr quilf* bat- 
lertd and broken with reproach and obloijut/ (jtyuirfffm vita rt fama pari 
poisa ambulant), mid are bo dejected many times for ionic public injury, 
disjn^ce, as a box on ihe ear by tlieir iiiferionr, to be overromc of their 
advenary, foiled in the fleld, to be out in a speech, some Ibiil fact committed 
or dJsclottvd. &c. that they dare not come abroad all iheir [\w& after, bat 
Hielaiicholi/e tii corners, and keep In holes. The most eeoerous spirit* ure 
most subjpt't toil. Sptritus allot frangit et ^eneroios : Hieronvm. Aristotle, 
bcc^nuKr rii- could not undrntund tli<: motion of Euripus, for fcnef and shame 
drowned hinisulf : Cichiit Rodoginiis {anIiguaT. Ire. lib. '29. cap. ti) Homt- 
rut pjidore contumplnt, wiw gwnllnwed up with tlii« piusion of shame, * be- 
cause he could Tiol unfold fhc fiherman's riddle. Sopliocirs killed himself, 
'for that a traijedy of hii mat hissed off Ihe stage. (Valcr. Max. lib. 9, 
cap. Vi.) Lucretia stabbed her self; and so did '' Clcopatru, when she tau 
that ihe wat reserved for it triumph, to avoid the iifamy. Antoniui, th« 
Roman. ' after he wax overcome of his enemy, for three days space sat soli- 
tary in the. fort'jiart of the *hip. abxtaining from all company, even of 
CUoimtra her self, and aftrrwards, for very shame, Imlcherrd himself. 
(Pliitan-li. Vila <-ju».) Apollonius Rhudius 'wilfully banished himself , for- 
saking his enuntrey, and all his drar friends, beeauie hi: teas out in reciting 
kis poems. (Pliniiis, lib. 7. cap. 23.) Ajax ran mud, bccauic his armi were 
adjudged to Ulysics. In Chmn, 'ti* an ortlinorv tiling for such lui are ex- 
cluded in those famou* Iryals of their*, or should lake degrees, fiir shame and 
grief to lose their wils '(Slat. Riccius, erpcdit. ad Xinas I. 3. c. 9). Ho»- 
iratiis the fryer took that book which (teiielin had nrit against him, under 
the name of Episl. obscuromm i-irorum, so to heart, that, for shame and 
grief, he made away himself' (yvtifuti, in eloyiin). A grave and learned 
minister, and an ordinary preacher at Alcmar in Holland, was (one day, a* 
he walked in the fiuMs for his recrealion) suddenly taken with a lask or 
looseness, and thereupon compelled to retire to the next ditch : but, bcinK 
'surprixed at unawuiis by xome gentlewomen of his parish wandering: that 
way, was so ahashcil, that he did never aller eIicw liis head in publick, but 
pined away with melancholy : (Pet. Foreatiis, med. obsrrval. lib. 10. ob- 
sert'at, 1'2.) So nhamc nmongst otIi<>r pssiioos ean play his [ithe. 

I know there be many ba*e. impmient, braxen- faced rtigiies, that will 
' nuUd pallefiKcre culpd, be morcd with nothing. Like no infamy or disgrace 
to heart, laugh at all; let llirm Ix' proved perjured, stigmatized, convict 
roKues, tliiuves, Irailours, lose their ears, be whipped, branded, carted, pointed 
at, hissed, reviled, and derided (with ** Balho the baud in Piautus) tbey 

'<lnl mriifrm KubJi^ilftiniiTkH iltimlnjitlitiTLnipiilitnEiJi. dolirrii. ftmt»itl<ini,. pudiiri*. ffftit tiohnt, 
>rj uimiiiiu Tiii>«r - AuJdill* jJilHirkln"^ lortliii'IiiT »I mLnrTlli. ■ MulU nrulKEiiniinl nmndl hrrfpmjD. 
Tr|iiicuil pru bibilu KlirTJAiriH >«-j timrnl tbramlam, ofTL-d^lnnrni. rr^hiilnam VolupulviD tccraaAiat 
DDitftfmniint ; tn dnlirrv huhI m^tlUuTi'* : tfturlairi fieL;ti(fMii1 ; Uha-j.ti-t'ir iitr^mkl. ■ Onttiu coDlo* 
rDrllnm rriimiit qnjim cLrlrlmlTnll^En. ni nlTJr«Er» lUm:, ■iiiniu ,tnLUh. Villi, [u Timid. * ^(id piic*- 
torlt mVflini talrf rt iion po««r(. 'OhlrAifn^dliLin rxtdoAPim. inurltfiii tlbi j;l*iUnrniiv]T|1. •Cam 
vlillt lu trluiaiihuru ic trtvsrl. cfe>i*^ rji^> ijri>4>irtLi^lJr vitan4la> mjirlnn ■Ljtt] nmiriiJI. VUtL * BcUa 
viclui. Jicr In* dioji irdif \n Kiruii ikavk*. nbatifima kb ornni raikiorlln. rti»ii) TLi^o^trv ^ pcdl^ tm 
InlvfftviL 'Cum m:i]u ri^liA:w.-i Aru(»mLiEii:H, (lb pudurt'in i-nii^ftvjt. ■ ^ludkjii. ytit i«rHiin4A 
■Irnul vtdolnrv. inlniuilBmliti^kEliinl, iiifmtid «liirr4UjtMiiHfiiduk»cL4mlDCvK'ludu]ifur. ^Uoalna 
ld*(umiUtu« mWo crmvltirr ob Kviit'lln^ llUrum. qui tn*t-nt»i<n. E{*iiluli9 ulDucuriiruin i Ironun, 4olOM 
limui tx pudan v^adttiu^ ui ,ci|'Hiin infi^rfm^iL * Vtoi'U't ruborpm fonfutu,. aiftUfo capliL 
■l«iir^n^ liR.ubuu|>iFlun«iD»E|iiiid till iUniiicflrnln« HVki>4Tirat ■ ItnnL ^ p^ ImpuUIr*. B. IBft 
!>.[, IV wriwtp. B. Jlcl, irti N- ti-rtfrn), H.i|ulu|ilnn IV (ufrifcl. II f.ii'liini ulllimo. Pi. •uirli.tnud*. 
b. sunt mo* l«l*A !'•. ^trlrkd*. B- m'rix lu, iV aurilrvc. D. Ckh-at. Pn, iwrjuFr. a. ,Tpi iliri#. W. 
penlcln uIuIhhdIuiii. H. immii"-. IV lor. B. huls ', Ft. tigiii'o. B. bombu < !■*. tiva winiU. Bl 
littiitmimt. Ft. impoic kno. taauB. V^ cwiam iintbut! P>aiiilalu,, wL t. Mm. a. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 7.] Envy, Malitx, Hatred, Catuts. 175 

rejoycc «t it ; eantortt probo* ! baba ! an<l lombax ! what care they ? We 
have too maiiv such in our limrs. 

Bfluntil Mrlli»lU |iri1i« 

Frontpn drrtbiH. 

Vet a mod«U mau, one thai hatJi grace, a generous spirit, tender of his repu- 
Ution, will be deeply wouuJed, and »n grirvousiy nfl'ecled witli it, tliat he 
had ratlin- xive myriads orcniHiii, lose his life, ihnii suffer the h-ast defama- 
tion of honour, nr blot in hi> gcHMJ name. And, if so be that be otn not avoid 
it — AS a nightin|;nlc, qua, canlando vicla, morilur, (sailJi ' Miuildus) dies 
for shame, if nnotlier bird sing better— he lauguisbeth and pineth away inthe 
an^ish of his spint. 

SuBSECT. VII, — Envy, Malict, Halrtd, Causes. 

ExvT and malice are two links of this chain ; and both (as Guianerius, 
Tract. I5.cap.'i.fto\eaoitt of Galen, 3 -IpAorwni. own. 23.) "■ iml« this 
maltutt/ hf ttirmffivrt, especially if their boditt he otherwise disposed to 
tatlaachoiy . Ti* Vale-scus de Tarantu nnd Tclix Platerus observation : 
* tnvtf toynawrt many men's hear Is. thai Ihey become allogelher melancholy . 
And, ibcroforc, bclifcc. Solomon {Prw. 14. 13.) calls it, the rotting of the 
btme$ : Cyprian, vulnus occvllum. 

-Simll non InrwiArr IjiHinl 

die Sicilian tyranU nuttt invented the like torment. It cruciliee their souls, 
wither* their bodies, makes them hoUow-cyd, "'pale, lean, and ghasitly to 
behold (Cyprian, ser. 2. d« zeiA e/ /icpre.) "> Ai a moth ynawa a yarment, 
so (aaith Chrysostomc) doth envy consume a man ; to be a living anatomy, a 
tktteton ; lobe a Uan and ' jmle carcass, ^uickned vAlh a ^Jiend (Halt, in 
Charact.) : for, so often as an enrious wretch sees another man prosper, to 
be eniiched, to thrive, and be fortunate in the world, to get hononrc, offices, 
or the like, be repines, and grieves : 

— -* Lnltfiovltqw vldcD<lo 

euufi>«iut huminuiu 

he lorturex hinixelf. if his equal, friend, iieighbunr be preferred, commended, 
do well ; if he undersland of it, it ^uls him afresh ; and no greater pnin can 
come 10 him, tlian to hear of anolher mans well doing ; 'tis a dagger at Ilia 
heart, every such object. He looks at him (as they that fell down in Lucians 
rock of honour) with an envious eye, and will damage himself to do the other 
a mischief, (Alquc cadet suhito, diimsiiper hosts cadai) as lie did, in I'Esopi 
loM one eye willingly, ihiil his fellow might lose both, or that rich man, in 
" Qtiintilian, that poysoned the flowers in his ganlen, becimsr his neighbours 
bees shotild get no more honey from them. His whole life is sorrow ; and 
every word he speaks a satijre ; nothing fats him but other mens mines ; for, 
to speak in a word, envy is nought else but irisliiia de bonis alieiiit. sorrow 
for other mens i;;ood, be it present, past, or to come ; tt yaiidiam de adversit, 
and "joy at tlieir harms, opposite to mercy, "which grieves at otlier mens 
mischances, and misafletts the body in another kind : so Damascen defines 
it, lib. ■i.(feor(Aorf._/iUTbonm8, 2.2. ^Bflist. 36. art. 1, Aristotle, /. 2, /((!(■(. 

kCnfeL 1- * n&jiiu- * Mullot ridvmiit. \tT.i\itcr iayidiua el odium, in raeJinchuhuti mrl- 
dlMri M iUrt iiiiIljtifnutEi iiuitrujn forpun uj bjmr *pU tunr. • lii^idla flfll^ifil TifioamiM aiIpo 
ft Otl p JU, III hi ■n<>Eni>< hiitliik |H-nJ1iiA Sant ' Itor. • Eljfl vultUB ntin»x. Inrvu* vpHIIU, 

Sar Ifl l»<*c, in l»i)il* IT*nio7. ^Tii'ruT in *l'*nrH(u>. a*-. » til Mnt-a rurrnitix iMUmfiiHirD. »ie iniri- 
nifa. i^uL ti-lJiTur. i.-uiuuiEilt. ■ rilltjr in OK tr^tr. niAcIr«ln <«>r[inrr toco. Nutquuu nvla u i><ii : 
Krwl ntiflllii (lv(al«'>- ' DSftbuli tfkpn'na iiiLkf{u, fmicum I'hntittitLt. krm'iiuui Btiiirilljr, HltTiauJ 
MfsUl i turn ■«( ru innnalrc-«]u> Envit-Erum. cUtimiiHliia jUmhilED ' U'lL lorn^l, liivrrirUI, mif L? «t 

MBi*,l4 fvutiiuin fntlU c'jrncrlon*. ■ SlAT>ii> p^orvit lla>tlUj> rot kYJm^^mt, ^o\ Ui|iit'Subt ad piv- 

■Manl to IdpuJu. * Mi>rfwunliA ctiun, iguit IrultUdqi^ihiiUD rii, vayv taiMnaut nrynm rtalv *<&• 
«L Agilpps, 1. 1. Of »> 

1 76 Canta of AUtaHcholy. [ Part. 1 . Sec. 

C. 4. tt 10, Plato, PhiUbo. Tully, 3. Tmc. Greg. Nic. I. de rirt. tuun4 
C. 12. Baiil. de tamdid. Pindarvt, Od. 1. itr. 5: and we find i( trui;. *n»' 
a coTiimon disease, nml nintost natural to u«, (aa'Tacilua liotds) to unvy 
anollier nmiia prosperity: and 'tis in most meu an incurable iii»ca»i;. ^1 
kavt read, iaitli Marcos Aurelius, Orrek, ffcbrtiv, ChalHec nulhort ; I havt 
consullrii with many wise mt-n,for a Ttmedy for cnvij : / cnuld Jixd nont 
but to Tf.nouncr all /lappiiiess, on'/ to lie a wrr.tch, and miirrahk Jor evrrA 
Tin ihi- lii.-|j;iiiutiiii:of lii-ll in tlii» life, nnd a|)as»i»ii not to In-cxchec'I. * JTterjrj 
ether iin hath fOTiti: pli'asarr anncred to 'I, or will admit of an excutt : envjfi 
alone vanis both. Oikrr tins last hut for a while : the ijiit tnatf be tali* 
fled; anger remits i hatred hath an end; enry n^tjer ctastth. (Carda 
lib, '2. de sap.) Divimr und humane e)^ainpl<--« »,n very familiar; you uiayl 
iiin and read them, »» th:it of ^iidI and David, Cain and Abel : angebat iC-\ 
lum 71011 praprium peccatum, t<d fralris prosperitat, sailh Tlieodorei; id 
his brotiiers pood fortune i^ulcd him. Rachel envied her »slor,bdii^bar-l 
lea, (Gen, 30) Josephs brethren him, (Gen. 37). Davidhail a (oudi of thill 
vici-, at lie cunfesielh (* P«al. 37), "Jeremy and "Habbaktik : tlicy rcpincdl 
nt others good ; bui in the end lliey correcitd ihemselvcs. Psal. 75 : fn 
not Ikijself, Sfc. Duniitiun iipiled A^rieoln for tiis worlh, '' /Aaf a /irityiWl 
man should hr. $o inur.k glorified. * Cwi^innu was envyed or his fellow-j 
citizen*, brcauMr he. wits mon- riclily adommi. But, of all others, 'women 
are most weak : ofi pulchritudinrm, inmdi/r mnl fvaiinit (Muffieils) : ««( 
amaU emt odit : nihil ert tcrtium (Granntnisis); llipy love, or hale: na\ 
medium amonf^st tlivm. Implacahiltf plerum'/ue lo'srt mulieres, Agrippinftl 
like, ■<! woaum, \f ehe tee her nfttfhbour more ntat or elegant, richer ut\ 
tires, jiiwtU. or apparel, is enraged, ami like a lionets, sets vpun her hut- 
hand, rails at her, tcoffi at her, and cannot abide her ; so the Roman ladies, 
in Tacitus, did uiSalonina. Ceecinna's uife. * because the had a belter horsw,. 
and belter familure ; at if the bad hart them with it, iheif were- muek\ 
offended, in like son our p?nllewomen do al llieir uitial meeiiii^ ; on 
repincn or i.c.o'fit, ut anuthurs bravery and happim^. Myrnintr, an Actick I 
wench, wa* uiurtlit'rcd of lier fellc>wi», 'hceaute she did rxcel the rest 1*1 
beauty (Constnnlinc, Agricult. i. II. e. 7.) F.vrry village will yield suchj 

SoBSKCT. VIII. — jEmulaliOH, Hatred, Faction, Desiro of Rntnge, 


Out of thi* rout of envy, ' spring those fi'ml hrjinchus of ladioD, hatre(l|] 
livoT, cmnlition, wliicb cause the like Krie'^nnces, nml arc seme animn, lh«' 
uwesof the xoiil. ^ constemalionii pleiii affectus, affirclion* fidl of despi'- 
rale amazement : or, aa Cyprian dtscribes emulntton, it is ' a mofh of th/i 
soul, a contantption. to make another mans hitpjniiess his miser)), to torture, 
erucifie, and execute himir.lf, to eat his own heart. Meat and drink can 
do such men no goad: Ihcff do alwags grieve, tigh, and groan, tlay and 

• Inatlum marUibut t nutiiii rmmlrm tllnnini MMUIon end ociilli Inlirri KItL I. %, Tuil. 
r LmI CUktdaftu, Oi«Eut. jlcbrwoi: eonviihii «pkrnBn. pr^tnxecUo lu^Mi*; tmo'vnliQ Invvnj, rvnun. 
cUir (clifltill, rl laTM luu luiifi "IP. •Oonipp"'r«luin wil airiiMiiuHinii Mcuin hibtl. »ul loiiin- 
■ ■■ ■■ . i-11iii (in ■ ■ ■■ - ■■■' ■■ 

UtcID: %n\t inr\Ait\il%/\\xv f*tf-i- HfliquA 

fiixin hntivfil; Tra di'frTf«acil : iplUntlnIUT: oilEuHl i 

aiiciii Wcr. laililli nimuiDun :jui«riL ■ ITMml nif ■miu»lci pfonupt •lullns. ' iricp. I(. 
■ Hab. I. ' ImlJII i.iiitll minn.ii «u|>ni jjnMipii MMll. ■ Twit. nUt. lib. i. pirt. C ' P<-rt- 
tni* dularr *■ Inridiil, ■! .(tiui rlilciiiil uninttorf o tc lu fublicuoi pHXllUw. llAilnH. lUd. •miiniin, 
I Ant. Ouluif riot. Ilh. «. cip, a ^iI. M. Aiiirlll. Kmiina. ficiMmrle»nlim w tmiIUhi .idnn. \imnm 
tUUl In Ttninl l<inir:t». »(. 'tlu»>l (lolnjid djiin >l olru •rhaieliir.qiumfiuiiri miLllim luni tnju. 
ili.anUiiin iHum. UiiniiMin !«■■, (iM.ibiiii jr. ' yuml jiiilrlifltudinu i.muv. .^n.iirwt. pufll* li 
iliinialil aKiilrniiit i Lulp piU't imlilw fnfunili ppmlpIiM; i-t limtnilu umTiuiin imlonim. hi 
SHium: iuill' mliuin .irfall. •■iiiulall'i. C»pli«Ji. ■•■1- 1. 'ir Urnw. '\«lrr»i.. L 1 np. (f 

l^j^Hf^,-..lfJn.....> cji.i.. rnVn... |.pftMfH liifii^- 11 tlU'TiH. 'vl ►MofiJ"! rrhn[AI4.ina„UDrwr«miBrrl4IIk 
M wtal <iu»d>ili pmli.ri luc. oiliNutiMt '•miB™<, .'.niWIrutiil'm it »-F,i(hij« •»!• wlhawni Inrtan^ 
qui M lolntiBli rnicljiiilii» Ui^rivni! Nun ntim ulll'u- IhIhi. nun ji<jDi< p(iii->i om juninilmj 
/!i««Brj»iiiprt*l(!niilliif. M 'lnWiirdl»ML(»Wt; [wtiu ilnf iDlmnlwionc limMur, 

Mem. 3. Subs. 8.] ^KHlnt'wv, Hiured, ^v. 


ttiyht milhcui inltriaitMn ; their breaal U lorn atttitder: and a litttr after, 

M miotoerer fie it. ulfm lltOH dotl emulate aiiH tHry, he may avoid thee ; 
l6«( (Ami euiul neither avoid him, «W (Ay ielj\ Wkeretoever lliea art. he 

it tr-ith thee ; ihine enemy is ei'er in (Ay lircatt ; thy tietlruction it within 
^ thee : thoa art a eaplire, hoanit hand and foot, as long a* Ihott art mriti' 

n<MM a»d cRt-iout, and iMni( vol he comforttd. It tua* the devils over' 
^thraw; an'}, vlicn^nrvcr ihoii ntt ihornugtily atFi'ctrd wiili tlii» pauiun, it 

m\i be tJiinc. Yet no pcrtiirbntion *i> frcqiirn(, no pnsxion *o commoo. 

• K«l ■(^<vtifr> ftpattii mrrlti, nol t/ktoi'i TKn"* 

fCdi VTVJt^t '^"X^ ^^*'r '■! ioiibi iaitl^- 

On* Binllh rq^lH miulbkr : 

Ettzj wcipty. corporation, and private family, i* full gf it ; tt takes hold 
|ilo)<MtofnilM)rt«orin«n, from the ]n\nix to tlie ploughman ; even amonc^t 

ift it is to be eecn : M.arce three io a company, Imt there i» sidin)c, 

Bcltnu, emulation, between two of thrm, Rome simuUat, jurr, privuii- 
jrodee, beaTt-butniiig in tlie mid»t of ilicm. Scatw two gyiitlemcn tlwell 
gcther in the country, (If they be not near kiu or linkwl in inarriiige) but 
sue is emulation lietwiKt them and llieir servants, wme ijuurrel or Rome 
iidge betwixt their wives oc ehildren. friend* aud follower*, wmc conten- 
iiOD about weulih. gentry, precedenry, &c. by means of which, (like th« 
in *.E»op, tttat would iwell till iie loof a* big as an ox. but burst her 
elf at last) they will stretch beyond their fortimt^K. callings, and strive eo 
ong, that tlify consume llieir substance in l«w-»iiit«, or otherwise in Iios- 
fiitttlity, fpaMing, line clothes, to get a few bumbnxt tilh^: fur amhitiosd 
miperlate latoramus omnet ; to outbrave one another, they will tire their 
lic», macerate their »o«U, and, throuffh conieutions or mutual invitation!*. 
^er theiuaelves. Scarce two grent vcholani in an agr, but with bilUr 
nvc<"tivc* lliey full fimi on« on the oilier, and their adherents — Scotists, 
~iiomisIs, RcaU, Nominal*, Plato and Arislolle, Gitlediila and ParaecUiant, 
&c. it holUx in all piofcMioni. 

Honent i' emulatinn in studies, in all calling*, ii not to be disliked : 'lis 
imaeniorum cos, as one calls it — the wbetatone of wit, llie nunie of wit and 
ralotir; and those noble Romans, out of this spirit, did brave exploits. 
There is a modest ambition, an Tliemiitoclcs wa« rouged tip with the glory 
of AIiltiiKlcs ; Achilles truphle* miivt-d Alexander, 

« AriibinHniivr uLuITi mnf^drjjti* nl : 

'tia a slug^h humour nol to emulate or to sue at all, to withdraw Uim»elf, 
negltcl. refrain from such places, honours, offices. throu<;h nloih, niggard- 
linen, fear, baihfulness. or otherwise, to which, by his birth, place, fortunes. 
education, he is called, apt, fit, and well able tti undcttjo , but. when it is 
imn>oder«tc, it is a plaf^ue and a miitrrablc pain. What a deal of money 
did Henry ibe cightJi. and Francis the tintt, kine of France, spend at that 
* Aunoas interview ! and how many vain courtier*, srckinij each to outbrave 
oiIh-t, spent tbemsdvei, ih^ir lively-hood and fortnnr*. and dyed beggars! 
' Adrian the emperour wax xo galled with it. that he killed all his equals; 
so did Nero, ThU [Kuaion made 'Dionvsius the tyrant banish Plato and 
Philoxenut the [loet, brrause they did eiccU and eclipse his glory, as he 
thought; the Romans c»ile Coriolanus. confine Camilius, murder Scipio ; 
the Greeks, by ostracism, to expel Aristides, Nicias, Alcibiades, imprison 

"<NIm|bI« «l Hto, <)iirni imaluli, ml Iniiiln, ins iubl«ruei'» (lolnti it tu uon «■ ubiniinqu* 
■wm>. MvniftriuA Uiv* l^nnml; hovtlt luiu flcniiri'r in irmtnn^ luu rvt. fi^nueln lutu* Itifluti^i 
llntcan, 'tiirtui, ,i-lo ilomlnint* cijitt'iii nir ■nlatlii Uht uJtn mhiniiiini Mnr rti-lwlm IiiU^r 
nttl* taUn miinill. 1-1 p.Tiil i^nmii., ui jwtiliillt Tj-pilsn. ««, » df hIo m li<of». • llr»!:>J- up. 
"*«"■ -Bint. ni|jiil, ninsmll hnn-m. „■ rliiiomlrl*!, ar. f .EinuIsUu ilil 1tii:i-o1». I"i1«"- 
(^nt. MUr. \oL iW-i.liuii.l'.pV. lib. I- ■ Anmi l»«. I»lvii< Anl>< >n<l Uuin<'. ■*i*itu». 


Cautes of MeUtHcJudy. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 

Theseut, mnkc nwny fhocion, &c. Wheu Bicharil the first, and Pliilip na 
Frnncr, vcrc Ti-Ilow toutdJers togetli^r nt llii; sie^c of Aeon, in the lloly 
lan<l. nnd Hieliard hiid approvi-d himaclf to in: ibe iiiur« valiant nian, in bo 
miicli timl all nieus eyes vem tipon him, ii »o (ptulwl Philip, (framnm 
nreliat regin cicloria, saitli iiiiiK- "uiitiior; tam agrt /trebat Richardi 
ijloniim, at carptre dicta, calumniari facta) thut hf. caivilled at all UJI 

tirot'i-t^diii>i:i, »nu Icll ut Icn^^ to ojk'ii dcHanu?. lip could cuiilniii nd 
i>uii;er, l)til, hnxiin^ liomi', inradcil his territories, and prolV-Ascd opcrn v-ni 
Hatred gtirs up contention 1 P.ov. 10. \i) ; aud tlicy brcjik out at last int 
imniurtnl ciiinay, intu virulcncy, and mure tliao Vatinian hate mid tugi: 
' they pcrsci'tiic encli other, their frienji, Ibllowcrs, and all iheit poftciity, 
with hitter taunts, hostile wars, gcurril iiivectivea, lib«U, calumnici', tiri*,, 
SH'oid, and the like, and will not be rectiiicilud. Wiiuess that Giielf at 
Gibclline tiactioD in Italy; that of the Adiinii and Fn-^M in Genoa: 
of Cneius Papirius and Quiiilud Fahins in Rome; Cii-sar and Poinpcy | 
Oilean* and Burgundy in Frano- ; York und Tjini-iwtcr in England. Yea 
this i)iiB«ion so ragetli "many times, thut it Eubvcrta, not men only, an 
families, but even populous cities. ^Carthnge and Corinth can witneM i 
niwh ; nay flourishing kingdoms arc brought into a wildi-nici* by it. Tliil 
lialr«d, miilici;:, laction, and destre of revenge, invented firil nil ihosi; racki 
■tiid wheuls, Btrsppadoes, braxcn bulU, feral en);inea, prison^, inquisitioni 
Mvere InwR, to mikcerate and lornK^iit ovie aiiotlier. How happy might w 
be, and end our time with blessed davs, and <>weet content, if we conid 
conliiin out selves, and. as we ought to do, put np injuries, leato huniilityJ 
meekness, patience, forget and forgive, (as in 'Gods word we are in- 
joyned), cumptwe wieh sniall controversies iimnng«t our selves, inodcrat 
our pouions in thr» kind, and think hrtlrr of otiifrii (as ' Paul would bat 
us) than of our irhrt ; hf of Hie afffction one lowards another, and no 
avf.nijr our sttvn, hut harr. peace with nil rrifii. But being tliut we are i 
peevish and pervonic, insolent and proud, so factions and seditious, so nuli' 
, eioiis and envious, wc do invicem anyariare. maul and vex one nnotticr, i 
lure, disquiet, and precipitate ourselves into thai ^ulf of woes and care*, i 
vat« our misery, and melancholy, heap upon us liell and eternal damnatToE 

SuMRCT. IX. — Anger, a CuKSr. 
Akuer, a perturbation, which carries the spirit.* outwards, preparing lh< 
body to melancholy, and madness it self — ira furor brevis rut; and (M 
■ Piecolomineus accounts it) one of the three most viuleiil paisiciiiK, " Ar 
Ueus sets it down for an r-spocial cau»c (so doth Senerai. cp. IB. 1.1.)' 
this malady. ' Mngninus gives llic reason ; ei frc'/ufuti ird fujira modum' 
cnlffiunt : it over-hciits liicir bodies; and, if il be too fccipii-nt. it breakt 
out into manifest mndne^, saitii S. Ainbrou'. Tis a known saying; furor^M 
^1 lasa strpiiif paticniia ; the most paticut spirit iliai is. if he be often prQi^^ 
voked, will be incensed to maducs^ ; it will make a devil of a saint : and 
therefore Basd (belike) in his Homilv de Ird, cdlls il hmebras ratioitis, mor- 
bum animn. vt dirmontm pt*simum : the darkniiig of our undcrsuuiding, 
and a bad angel. " Lucian (in Abdicato, Tom. I ) will have this passion 1<^^ 

•JohuiBH tt*T>li1ut. 1, 1. c. I>. (In balli) un. • NiilUiUNUntuiD pawHi Imlrr Turaiwm.~.Klnd^H 
UUa pua Hihbtt (arunt. — liinl mllani. nn- ^ntp ln>l>uni ru> dnloll. qunii ■— • il«)U. ItOmuIu, 
>al. 1. - Ilsi*Tll two Mljiiii mlolatn. ill utlw* ■■rlni'iKI illqiiHClo, •Irlpal pnpului, iiniTinciM 
Alitriiul Aorpnl^ mljjni In HfllturUnov. vftitJUrt .rnj luiti-m. m \i*>ton*\i mltrriAmm tillo miirnlil* 
IlIcrlniiDrixtL • CoihuD. MmiiU Houwh! isafrtH. Iii^iilltu» iiilriiil. 8illu«L C-iliL ' t^ul- 
t'al. * BijB9. la •CliwL L p. Vti- * Ira. v\ mf TDr, rl iiij£«»4 uniml I'or^Evftutlti. iDpfiui«?hulU 
TiKiL Awtjpti^ tn Imoiodjca j;l£nM iriaanlAitn. ' Kiv< >Ufkt. fxrt<< '^ v. i- In ipi-Fliuu iuMid 
nox doolnir llUu. 'Olllnrlu Cueu^Io Inlpriiwl.-. Mnilti. i-l ipfrr.frllni -nnllJui, in im)UlU 
(nivtliiin f*cil, #IIInpoF1im4 I'Almniiii - Urf SnUi» jirrturluj nriiiibuin l fiHurixL^in >0fsif vI l;i«Anir 
Pom ifiulitniiB CM^n mulU ^tifrvt^nt, ri Iji him' ni^irlpiijn utilitc'util. ^rv^'ki^ut. tl ^kis '- 
■111 hiirlih«ui, ar- Ilbt pimUBiiin m Invniam iKhrlpin#.^i1uTir, 


An^, a Caiue, 

9ik Uiii edect, esp«;ittllT iit old men and women. Angtr and calttmitif 
(saiUi be) trouiU them at firtt, om/, offer a while, break out into open 
nadiitM '. many thtiti/* eaust /uri/ in ujometi, tipecialty if they lovf or 
hale overmuch, or envy, fie much grieved or angry ; Ikete ikingt, by little 
anil Utile, lead them oa to thi» malady. From a dUtJOiition. llicy proceed 
to an habit ; for th«ri* is no ditfeieoce between a ma<l nmn and an ani^ij 
nan, in the tiiue of bis lit Anger, a* Laiuintiuit de*c(ibti ii. (L. de /ra 
Dei, ad Donatttm, c. 5) i», ' txta animi tfrnpcstai. ifc. a Cfu«l lempe*! of 
ttl« mtiid, tnakiiy hit ryu sparkle Jirt, and f tart ^ trelk gitath in his head, 
hi* longve stutter, hit face- pale or rrd ; and wh»t more JiUhy imilalion 
can bt of a itiad man ? 

'On lumCEii lAi frr'ncuni nui^iik- wqb; 
Lumbx C9E^rp>n;u utriiiK uiipit^ miranU 

Tbey are void of rea>M>n, inexorable, blind, like beuU and monsters for the 
time, say and do they knuw not what, curse-, swear, rail, fiulil, and wliat 
not ? How ean a mud man do inorc ? as lie said in the cumrdy, ■ iracum^i 
non tarn apvd mc j I am oot mine own man. Ifthetc fit* be immoderate, 
continiM long, or be frequent, wilhont doubt tliey provoke mndneM. Moo- 
taous {cimtil. •21) had a roeUncIioly Jew to his patient; he ascribes this for 
a principal cause: irascebatur letiibui de caiissis ; lie was easily moved to 
anger. Ajax had no other bei^inuing of his madness ; and Charles the sixth, 
thai lunatick French kioi?. fell into this misery, out of the extremity of his 
paM«on, deure of reveu|^, and malice ; ^ incensed a^ainxt the duke of Brt- 
l&iii, he couU neilfaer eat, drink, niir sleep for some days Io}^aher ; and la 
the end, aliout the calends of July, I39'i, he iKsrunie mad upon his horse- 
back, drawing hi* tword, strikiiiic nuchas cume neer him prumi.'ii-miiiily, ^nd 
«a continued hII the days of his life. (JEmil. lib. 10. (ial. ki»t.) lli'jfraippn* 
{d* txcid. urbit //icrtw. /. I. e. 37) hath such • slory of Hcrml, thid, out of 
•n angry fit, brcanie mnd, and 'leaping out of his bed, he killed Jn»ppnt, 
and played many such Bedlum pranks. The whole court could nol rule him 
for a long time after. Sotnetintes he was sorry and repented, much grieved 
for that he had dona, pottquam deferbuit ira ; by and by outragious agaia. 
Id hot cholen'ck bodiea, notliiag to soon causeih madness, as this passion of 
aof^r, beside* many otJier diseases, as Pelesius observe*, (('ap. 21. /. I. de 
hum. ajffect. caussis) Sanguiarm imminuil, fel augel : and, as > Valcstus 
eontrovciis, (Mtd. contrav. lib. 5. contro. S) many times kills them ijuilc out. 
If this were the worst of thi« passion, it were more tolerable : * bat it tuine* 
aud subivrli whole towns, ' cities, families, and kingdoms. Nulla pfstis 
knmano gmeTxplaris stetit, Eoith Seneca, (de Ird, lib, I) do plague hath 
done mankind so much harm. Look into our histories; and yon shall al- 
DloM meet witl) QO other subject, but what a company '° of haic-brain* hare 
dose in their rage. We may do well, therefore, to put tbisinour preceswon 
tnongM the rest: From all bUndncts of heart, from pride, vain-glory, and 
hjipOCrisie,froin envi/, haired, and malice, anger, and all SJieh peslifeiwts 
jterhsrbaliofUi, good Lard, deliver vt! 

SunsECT. X.-^ Discontents, Cares, Miserits, ifc. Causes. 

DiscosTKlTT*, cares, crosses, miseries, or what»oever it is tlial shall cause 
any molestation of spirits, ^ief.anifuish, and perplexity, may well be rwluccd 
to this head. Preposterously placed here, in some mens judgements, they 
may seeni : yet. in that .Aristotle in his " Rhetorick defines these cate«,as be 

* to y mimi twnp—tM. ttnlmrxFIUru llDrluf.uI •Ullm ■Hivvwnl i>rull,« tmnAI. nn^BUtulxH, 
MbUi Hnenprni. k^ lOiliL (Tptpiih. >in[tiugi UflUnniBituci, •( Iii uliionnn vtnun, 
BA^ ffta^ «fptl. UH qultlcm: ul CftltEtdu Jaliu. 1398, eomlXi uei:L(UL ^liidljeiunoao nlmlS 
h>*wi, SBiBli^ii* iinpvlrru. sutliU <lr U-vla - funinUn bod cupH')"! wila, fee. 1 A: 

' — 'vr^ InlAininv- '.ilwmrthj ' ' "" " ---.....■ .,.,.. 

I •■ pot"''"""" 'onlliiri nlun 

.,..,. ... ._. ,. .... _. I An i« [hjmH 

frTt-r™ InlAininv- ' .itixmrthy. ' At Tmy. avrn maanDina Junntiiii oh ir^ia. * RliHUirvlA 

•LIb.l. IhtUIU Mt ilaloT. il smbllia «■ dolor. Jw. 



Causa of MtUmcholy. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

doth cnry, emulation. &c. still by grirf. I think I ideit well ranic tbcm in tliis 
irascible row ; being that thev are, a^ the rest, both <:aii«fi and svmptofncs 
of lhi« disease, producing the like i neon venienees, and arc, most pnti, ac- 
companied with anguish and pain (the cotumon etymolo^ will evmc« K — 
cttra, quan ctmra) ; demenleg ctirm, intomnes curw, damnosa nirit, Iritlet, 
mordacrt, ettmijieet, S^c. biting, eating, gnawing, rcuel, bitter, sick, sod, 
unifuiel, pak, ictrick, miserable, intoWabli^ cares (as the poets* <;all them ;) 
worlJly cnrM, and are as many in iiiimher an the sea sands. P Galvn, Ft-rne- 
liiw, Felix Plater, Vulmens de Tnranta, &r-. reckon afflictions, miseries, even 
all these contentions, and vexations of the mind, as principal causes, in that 
Ibey take away sleep, hinder concoction, dry np the body, and consnnic th« 
Rubttance oril. They are not so many in number, but iheir cniisex be as di< 
vera, and not one of a thousand free from them, or thai can vindicate himselT, 
whom that Ate dea — 

1 Pot fioTDJiium ^^piu moUitcr aoibulUK. 

Orrrnirn* bnd« valklng ilofl. 

Ilomere goddess Ate. Imih not involved into this disrontentwl 'r»nk, of 
ptaeued with some misery or other, lly^iniis (_/ai. d20l to this purpose 
natn a pleasant tale. Dame Cnra by chance went overs brook . and, taking 
up aome of the diny slime, made an image of it. Jupiter, cftsoons coming 
by, put life to it ; but Cura and Jupiter could not agree what name to give 
him, or who d>liould own him. Tlie matter was referred to Saturn aa judge: 
he gave this arbilmnent : his name shall be Homo ab Aumo ; Cura eumpoui- 
dtat qvamdiu tnvat : Care shall have him whilst be lives : Jupiter liis soul, 
■nd Tcllus his body when he die-*. Bui, to leave tales — A general cause, a 
conlinunte cause, an inseparnhle accident lo all men, is discontent, care, mi- 
sery. Were there no other particular affliction (which who is free from ?) 
to molest a man in this life, the vrrj' cogitaiion of ihiit common misery were 
etiough to macerate, and make him weary of his life ; to think that he can 
never be secure, but still in danger, sorrow, grief, and persecution. Kor, lo 
begin at the hour of his birth, as ' Ptiny doth elegantly describe it. he it bont 
nalked, and falls^ a whining at the very Jirtt ; he it twadled and bound up, 
like a prisoner: cannot Help himself ; and so he euTttintiti lo hi* lives end : 
cujuique ferir pabulum, sailli "Seneca, impatient ofheal and cold, impatient 
of labour, impatient of idleueis. exposed to Fortunes coniunndies. To a 
naked mariner Lucretius compares him, cast on sht^re by sliipwnick, cold and 
comfortless iu an unknown land : * No estate, age, «ex, can secure himself 
from thix common misery. A man, llial u barn vf a u'umon, is of short con- 
fl'nuaaCf, and full of trouble (.(oh 14. I. 32); and, while his flesh is upon 
Am. Ac tkatl be sorrowful: and, while his soul is in him, it shall mourn. 
All his dntft are sorrow, and his Irnveta griff: his heart alto takelh not rest 
in the viglil ; (Eccliis. 2. 23. nnd !l. 11) all that is in it, is sorroui and 
relation of spirit ! 'inifresi, prvgrtsg, rarest, tffre»i, mueb alike. Blmd- 
»tu seiielh on us in the beginning, labour in the middle, grief in (Ae end, 
errovr in all. What dau arise th lo us. without same grief , care.or anquith ? 
or what so secure and pleasing a morning hare a-e sten, that hath not been, 
overcast before the evening? One is miserable, anotlier ridiculous, a third 
odious. One complains of this grievance, another of that. Aliguaado n^rti, 

• luomno*^ Clftu'IiJtrLTi.. Iri'tM. ^'fnf ■ mordv". l-\ir, Mur*. Il'jr. mrptlv^ nmar*, O.ld. aunncu*. 
Inquirlf. Mut. un^fiU-in ritdi'nE,'.. Mnui. ftr- bUoIchl L J- «- ?. dt locl> aOK-Iil IlLmitniv «uiil 
mitlm* nit<Uiirh"liri, ifiicndi. .LjjitLiv mulri., r< m^iriluiUnlTflu. «l Uboribur, t4 wn>. furiini (Ircuru. 
t*nU, il.uriHL I'deIai:, 'l>mnlAlmi>prf.^u.ninfi]iA. 4-t ptfrliirb*liuiir plmn. CuiUn. ■ tib^l. 
&flL Iii«l. r*|^ I. Ilflinli*rm nailumot pj .icltiim t*lt^ nalurt. Pli-m Ab IhllW, tlrrlacliu Jw I. ar. 

Ty ywrht iyBfVTVrr m<XviJjepirrot; i^Sllril. VfffTpJr. 
Ls<r)^nBBtMlu* turn, rf larT^^Tn:.iii> mur^tif. >:(. * Ad HiTiuurn. * Bu^lblu:^ * Inklium r«- 
f lluk ppoffmim Ubor. h^mu^ji ilulm, 'rnrr »mEit4 '- i|Ui-tii ir«]iL{TiUJiim, n n — u. i|urni non ktbunovtm 

I, 3. Subs. 10.] DiscoHtentt, Cares, ^v. 

tliijtiUJKioptde»,vtxant,iS^Dt:t:9.)H}iju:deH%liatio,nanehe]>atitmorl»tif, ntntc 
' ttl, Htme mperesl, tangais : now tli« licai) ukc-i, tJicii llic fuel, now [he 
■nj;s, then ttii- tiver. 6ic. Nate centus rxu/igial ; tr<l nsl pudori dtijener 
'' taiujtnt,ife. He U rich, but boM^ born ; tic U noble, but poor : a ihinlfialii 
luciiti*: but lit? wdiitu hi-allh, prrnd venture, or wit to manage his eatate. 
CbiMKii vfi one. «ifi- axcroiicl, 4c. Semo facile cum c<mdili<me tadeotf 
eordal, no mnn is jilciiKvcl wiih bi« fortiiiic ; a pound of sorrow u familiarly 
niixt u'ilh a dram of content ; Httli.' or no joy. litile coinfoit, but ' cicry witcre 
dui^r, cnntcntion, anxiety in all places. Go wliere thou wilt; and (hoti 
•halt find <Ji»contrnts, cares, noes, complaints, sicktieas, diseaiet, incum- 
brances, exclamations. If thou look itto the market, there (sailh » Chrysos- 
tofn) ti bmw liny and eonttntioa : if to the court, there kiutveri/ and fiat lery, 
^'. if t^a yrivale mans hotun, Ihere't cark ^tad can, hraviasit, ^c. Aa he 
said of old, 

•>U lKiinIni> [n um ■[•i»lnilivn(mn*(l>*bnl; 

No CTCMurc to mincriiblc on man, 8o generally molested, ■ in miseries of boiiif, 
M Mtieriet of mind, miseries of heart, in taiseriet asleep, in miteriet awake, 
ui mittrifi leherttoever he turiu, as Bernard found. Numi/tiid tmtatia est 
vita humaita super terrain f A in I'ur tern plat ion is out life: (Austin, 
lit. 10. cap. 'Hi) catena perprlaarum malorum : el //ais potest malritiag el 
d^ficuUatei pati '. Wjio can widure the nii»crii'ji of it .' * la prntperity bv 
art ifiolent and infotrrablc, drjrctrdia adr.rrnt<j,inailfoTtunn!fi)ott*k and 
mitt-rable. 'In advrrsity. I wuhfnr prnsprritif ; and, in proiptrity, [ant 
afraid of adversity. What mc.dioc tly maii he founds where is ju> tempta- 
Hani what condition of life ii free '^ "* Wisdom hath labour itanexed to U, 
fflortf «»ty .- riches and cares, children and itiCumhraHcei, plensure and dts- 
tasct, rest and begijerif, go loijether ; at if a man were therefore born, («a 
the Platoni»t* bold) to be punished i/t this life, far tome pm-edenl sint: or 
that, U * Pliny complains. Nature may be rather accounted a step-mother, 
than a mother unto as, ail things considered : no ervaturts life so brittle, to 
full of fear, so mad, so furious ; on'y man is plagued with eni'y. diseonlenl, 
griefs, cavetousness, ambition, supentition. Our whole lile is an Irish sea, 
wherein there is nou<rht to lie cxjK-cted, but trmpestuoiis itonn», and trou- 
MewMite waves, and tho^c intinilr : 

l'T«ntufn ninlitniM [H.'J>iriik Mpirlii, 
til rinn fit Iniji' rqnUmli nftpla ;) 

im Hakyonian tini««, wlicreiii a maii l-uu hold tiiniHelf secure, or ^ree nitli 
his piescot otate: but, ax Boi;thius inferrs, 'fA^'/r u something in every 
one of at, which, before tryal, we seek, and, havini/ Iryed, abhi/r : '' uie 
earnestly wish, and eagerly covet, and are eftsoons weary of it. Tliui, 
betwixt hope and fc«r, snsptcions, niigers. 

' Inwi mprnvfii' ni*itiimqui>. linnrr* tatrr ctlaK. 

betwixt falhag in, falling out, &c. wg bangle away our best day», befool 
out our times, we kad a contentious, disconteni, tumuUuou?. radancholir, 
iDMCrable life ; insoinucti tliat, if we could foretell what was lo come, and it 
put to our clioid-, we sbouM ratlier refiixi-, than Unctpt of, this painful life, 
in a word, the world ilxrlf ix a iiiiim', a labyrinth of errour», a desart, a 

• trUaiir (p?riculiiTii.iihiijuv<ialE>r, iiLlquu naufrajciunt, L(ihDi.'Uiib[tu. qaocuuoupiDOTFnMiL Llpalua. 
F tl«n. 10. IM 111 fLjTuio iivm, Ibl rlt^. «>1 pugnv; jii in rurUnj, ibi fntuft. uluWlu; liladmAuDI pri* 
*iii»a,ft:r. ■ ll.-dinrr, *.)k][>^iji r^[»k-ruj homa mju^rUit nrrputu mljH-ni^.anlmttnSBi'rUat Jumdonnll, 
thiol liillu. <|TiCH' 11X11^110 •p ."FtJL LutUhjui? rri^jm. (rmiNOnim'i'K* na'cimuf. » InblKadlmtv fct- 
idaA i»ti>l(rBii([i. ill I'uluni la libit, liri;iibrfv. ,tfiriprr iitulLi ct riilvjri. Cortliii. ' rrn<iipr« in tiitrv* 
ftia ilf tltlvru, il miiyrn,!! pt^tt^•n\^ lEmiT} : <|iu<i inliT )iav tnt'tlLaH Im^un, iibi uou til buniA'ia' ^ itn- trnti* 
Uol * CaM^u. /fiTipiitf r^ijJlvnlla' IaIjot innrHii*^ ul'Jitip aikriilio. ctivitiL. curm. wbcpto tolk-llktilO. 
TultiplBlL m^irbi, ''|kJL4.'ij i»4ii[i<''Mi. Ill i|uLt«l Eiirniionuii v:i:'konitD iriii*^ nivf^ hnniinimi pitHna cum E'lk- 
lOfiUlia uiiMcvpr. ' Lib. ^. i-op. I, Noil «iiti» rvtliu^rr, ui iriL^iuf pAr^n« nUiirt tinEn^n^» u, iriilfQt 
tKrrmA.niChL NuOi fnBfltibT \ili. jTiiY«f, 4^uitfUkiL>. rjiliit^ mrijur; itm luiirialiliulii Jinlulin (bilk, 
hiolat. «t«Hba i urti •uivrvlltiiv ' CiiripldPHr il>r <irn.,i>l-i. •!. Nmi" facili-i:fjui i-uiuH'Si^n'' —lo 
«nuoid«L liiHt ilniulli niiod ImniTlllnctwil, vxiKilibatTiMiil. ' Ktiv ta liuiiucr ju>bt. iikiviHi-. 
plkst. • llw. 

183 Catues of Melancltoly. [Part. I. Sec. 9 

wildcmcM, a dun ofttiicvcs, cheaters, &c. i'ull of filthy uiiddlc*, lioirid rocku 
precipilJuinR, an ocvan of adveraity, an heavy yokci WDcrein iiitiiiiiili(» aaa 
calamities overtake and follow oitc another, as the sca-wavts; iiud, if wa 
Bcapv Scylla, we fall foul on Charybdis; and 90, in perpetual fear, Inhoiiig 
anguish, we run fcom one plague, one uiiitchier, one burden, to anolliir, tiuram 
tervitntei ttrvitultm 1 and you ntay it* xoon separate weight fioin lead, hea 
ttom fire, niovBtiios from water, Im^chtnini frmn the sun, »s misery, discoon 
lent, care, culauiity, danger, from a man. Our town* Butt eiiiei are but M 
many dwellinpi of human misery, in which, grirf arul torrtnv, (■'an he ri^bl 
well <>h5i;rvc« out »f iiolon) iiinumerable Irvulilrs, laliours of mortal meu 
and all ntannrr of vicci, are inclnded, at in to many jicai. Our villiiKca art 
like molc-hilU, nnd men as »o many emmets, biisic. biisic still, going 10 and 
fro, in and out, and cros«in^ one another; projects, as the linvs of tcversil 
sea-cards cut each other in a e;lobc or map ; ntiw light and merry, but (' 
one follows it) by-and-by sorrwifal and lieary : now hoping, then dislrvali 
ing ; nou' patient, to niormu' i:ryiny out: now pal f, than red; rvnni 
iittiiiff, xiui'atinrf , trrmlding, halting, irr. Some few ainoiiRat the rest, 
perhaps one of a thousand, may be ptiUtu Jatiix, in the worlds estecna, *ja,_ ^ 
itiitf J$/iuj albat, an happy and fortunntc mun, ad invidiam fflix. becaustf 
rieh, &ir, well allied, in honour nnd office; yet peradventure ask himself, 
and he will suy, that of all ot)icn>, 'he is moM miserable and uidiappy. A 
Glir thooe, hie socait noiiw, eleffans, as he ■" said ; trd nrft-it ubi iirat ; but 
Ihou knowest not where it pinclielh. It is not unothcr nian« optnion eao 
make me happy: but {as "Seneca well hath it) he it a miserable wrrtck, 
Ihiit doth not account hintielf happy ; though he fie toveraii/n lord of a world, 
ft« M net happy, if he think himself not to lie so; for what availelh it whtil 
thine estate is, or teem la olhtn, if thou thtf atlf dislike it ,' A common 
humour it is of all men to think well of utlicr mens fonunes, and dislike 
their own : 

• Cul iilufi ■llribu. tiu clmtiun c*I (hUo. MM : 

but P gaifl, Maccnnt, <S-c. bow comes it to pii*» ? w hat's tho Rouse of it 
Many men uc of such a petvenw nature, they arc well pleased with nothing^ 
(saitli ^Thcndoret) ntitker uith riehes, nor poverty : (hey otnplain when 
they are well, and, uiheu they are nek. grumble at all fortune*, protptriljf, 
and adversity ; they are Iroaliied in a cheap year, in a barren : plenty, 
not plenty, nothing pltaseth them, war nor peace, with children, norwilhou 
This, for the most part, is the humour of tiB all, 10 be discouient. miscra" 
and most tinliappy, at we think at leujtt ; ftiid shew me him ihM is not 
or that ever was otherwitie. Quinla« Mctetlus his lelicilv in infinitely at)' 
mired amoiif^t the Roman*, insomuch, ihut (its * Palerculut mentioneth of 
him) you i:nii itciitre lind, of any nation, order, nge, *cx, one l»r luppineM 
to be compared unto him : he had, in n word, bona animi, corporis, rt for- 
tundf, goods of mind, body, and fortune! 10 had P. JMuiiami* *Ctavii», 
tampsacn. thsit Lacedaemonian lady, was sucli atiotlirr in ' Flinie« conceit, 
a kings Ji!\fe, a kings mother, a kings daughter ; find all the uorld esteemed 
as much of Polycrales of Sumoi. The Greek» brau of Uieir Socrates. P 

'UoribarrLft In JljIi. C'rlirt %'i itppk<Iii Tilhll i^inA aunl quiim IjUinaiiarum vriiini>flniiq *lom'i' - 
Quibuj lurliia i>| miz-For, ot morTAJluju \Ari\ tiii\iMi'tw Iiinjf**, rl mikuii L'<ii<-Ekf UN*, qii**l ^vjiUt 
XueluilucilLir, ■ Titi. Ch^Tftua, Ui' hi- KurujiK- Lcfbi nuik''. tiii^x EmlSa: nnn'r ^yi-iuis,. i-auiU- i-utt 
dilHilpn* , [patirnahuiljr, t^mn vJuUok ; ■mm' Dulkm^ rur>ciiT. cmrvn^H •pdfin^ctnnln'ami^ftrmi'ii'i. ' 

ULOiD iiuu JLjJkiLi; Ul^^l imptrtt manAa, uou fi1 Im-lTuji, ttui m- n^m unEnt : *ia.\'i Pii4iii r?lvrl^ qu 
kUlLtf luu- kir. ii iiM viiiotuF maliu r -Hur- ri'. I- L 4. r Itrjt. h ^ L -ti. 1- * Lih d*^ cu 
OivL aJhc. **|' 6. *^i- |.ni»]di-ui, Mullii nihil ph*c( ; fclqi.** i*lro *'t rfj^uin. fl^mnanl, ft imuji 
Ulnb: de mitblB t-iiPutmlvif : tvitp TiTmir*, fjt'iitt Fr-nint : ntqui', uT irmpl 'Llrain* niltil 
<1rlvctaV *tc. ' Vin umn" . .r; . ,ii,. orrtlult, huuilfirtn ;n>Tmirt, ruju> IthVlWnn f"i''i 
MrttUi fQcnrAr*^. ^'oI J i ' ■ ''TuIiAHum rtMiiiuui' h>Sina»r rlif-'iuf rrrum l4Rtj«iui niiMfl 

*Xih. ". lUfh DZK pi**** uxui. r»«.» m»TPr 





[Mem. 3. Subs. 10.] DUeontcHU, Cartt, ^e. 1^3 

ion, Amtidts ; the PaopLidiaiu in tmrlicuLtr of their AgUus, omut vitd 
lix, ab amtti feriatio immuni* (which, by (he way, Puuxiiniiis held impu- 
jblc;) tJtu Romans ur tJM:ir 'Catu, Ciiriui, l-'abririiis, lot tliclr cnm()o«etI 
unoa, and tctituil cjilitlcx, govrnimciit of jintisiun^, and coiili-uipt uC ihi: 
>Tld : j'ot none of all iht^c v.-is hHpp> or free frum discoutcul— ncillicr 
eicllii^ CrM»ii«, noT I'ulycialcs: for he died a violent di-aih, and »o did 
to : and Itow much evil doth Lactajilius and Theodoret sppuk of Socrutcs ! 
weak luan — and so or the tmU Tbere U no coiiUnC in thit lite ; but 
ka "be mid) all is tanily tmd vexation of spirit; laini? and impci-rcct. 
"adkt iJiou Saiapvons haic. Milus strength, SeaitdcTbcgs nrm, Solonioun 
i»d<im, Ahoaloina beatily, Ciic.iuk lux wraith, PatHif ohu/iim, Ctebant 
ndvur, AloKiindcr* ipirit. Tullys or Domosthenec eloquence. Gyges riug, 
PerseUH P4-e;;isu>, and Gurgons head, Nesiora years to conie, all this wuuld 
not make lh<rc nlMolute, |;ivc thee content atid true happiness in tliin lifer, or 
40 continue it. Even in the midst of all our mirth, jolhty, aod laughter, iit 
irrow and grief; or. if there be true happiness amongst un, 'tin but for a lime : 

* Dnibll In plu>Fin miiUpr (ormoift luptme ' 

m fair momine tunu to a luwriug aflernoon. Bruta* and CoMitis, once re- 
oownud, bntli emincndy Iiappy — -yet vou shall ncntcr Bml two (smith Fater- 
calua) quof fortuna miiluriii* ilntiCtirrit, vfliom forlun* sooner forsook. 
Hannibal, a conqueror all hi* IdV, met with his match, and was subdued at last: 

Oi'injffii fuiti. quj mifr fijt:ii pr»t. 

One is hroupht in triumph, ai Cu-sai into Uuiiie, Alcibiadcx into Athent, 
earoitii aareis dimalus, erowued, bonuurrd, adniitud ; by-an'd-bv hi* etiitnct 
demojislied, hehi»!ie<l out, mujuacrcd, &-c. ' Miii^nusGoDsnlva, that famous 
Spaniard, w-m of the prince and pi-tijile at first honoiircd, npprorcd ; I'otih- 
with confiiiCil Biid buTii*lied. AdmiriLndiis ticliimri graveg plerwnufae se- 
^uuhIut int'itliir, et arrrf nilumaia ( 'tw !V'lybiu!i hi!s ob»ert'aliun) : grievous 
«oaiilicK, and bitter calnmnirt, oommonly fnllow renowned actions. Uno ia 
born ricb, dies n beggar ; sonnd (o day, sick to morrow ; now in most llou- 
rishing estate, fortunate and happy, by-and-by deprived of liix goods by 
breign enemies, robbed by thieves, spoiled, captivated. inj|iuvcrislivd, as tJiey 
of' Rabbah.Tnrf under iron aaws, tnul ujuteririm harrnwt, and rnidrr axetof 
jron, and cast into the tilt-kiln, 

U^i i-t-L-idlT. tli.bUi ruin «rdl ilk- ic^^'^u- 

He that erst marrhed like Xerxes with innumerable armies, as rifli as 
Cronn*, now shif^ for himself in a poor cock-boat, is buund in iraii chains, 
ilh Bajaiet the Turk, and a foot-slool with Auiclian, for a tyrmmixing con- 
ncrour to trample on. So many casualties there are, ihut, aji Seneea said 
a city consumed with fire, una diiri interest inter maximam civitaltm et 
imilam, one day betwixt a g;reat city, and none ; sn many grievance* from 
outward sccldenLt, and from onr ndveit, our own indixcrotion, inordlimlc 
apfietiie; one day Ix^wiitt a man and no nmn. And (which i* worxe) as if 
dttcoiitenis and mixurics wonid not come Bmt enough upon at, homo hamiut 
dtrmon ; we niuul, nrr»-i^ute, nnd sliidy how to sting, gaul, and vex one 
another with mutual hatred, abuses, injuries; preying upon, and devouring, 
M so many 'rarcnou^ birds; and, ns juglen;, panders, bawds, cosening one 
iitother; or raging as ''wolves, lyj^ers, and devils, we take a delight to 
torment one another; men are evil, wicked, malicious, treacherous, and 
' naught, not loving one another, or loving iheiuselve*, not lioipitaLile, 

■ Qui nlhlj unqmin mall wjl dixit ^ Aui ftrlE. qiibd ftlUtr tt£en nun poIulL "BuUfuiciii. Ecdn, 
I 14. -Hor. Art. PuM. 'Jo.!!!., vllt rjui. f « Sun. IS. SL 'Bgalhio., Hli. I, iiirl. I. 

'Uuuil |-kipT4ulu«ttr]*4jjiitlo Kt'in^iio, dLirrinr(.hi*lio I'linjL-v. |*tfj *jiiiui U^. Hul bt-Uuni iairr vwa. uit 


Causes of MelaHcli<4y. 

[Part. l.Sec.3. 

cbaritablr, nor sociable na llicy oughc tu lir, liiil counierfeit, (tiiiKcniblcn, 
ambodcxters, hU for their own cndx, hard-hcadcti, mcnrilcsi, pittilcsf ; and, 
10 benefit llieiusclvea, they rittc not what mischief ihcy procure to others. 
''Praxinoi- and Gor^o. in the poet, when they had got in to see those co»lly 
t^bl!i, they tbtii cn^d bene est, and would thrust out all the rest: when 
Ihty are rit'h themselves, in honour, prefwted, full, and have even what ibey 
wtiulil, they debar ullitr* of those [iWsun-'s wSiidi youth requires, and ibey 
fornii^rly have: enjoyed. Ht situ ut labh- in a noil i-h*dir at ease : but he dntn 
ngt r[.-iiicnitK'r in the mean time, thitt a tired waiter ilutidi behind him, an 
hungry fcUow ministert to kimJ'uU: kr is athirtt that gii'ft bim driiiA, 
(Sftilh ' i^picletiK) and U silent whilr he gptaks his plraxurr. ; prnsav, sad, 
itftrti he lauijki. Plena se ploTuil auro; he feasts, rocU, and profusely 
upends, hath variety of robes, sweet mnsick. ease, and all the pleasure tlie 
world can alTord, whilst many nu hunger-slnrved jxior creature pines in the 
aireet, wants cloibes lo cov«r him, labours hard all day long, runs, ride* for 
a trifle, %hl* peradveulure from sun to sun, skk and ill. weary, full of |)«ia 
and b;rief, in in great distress and sorrow of heait. He lollies and scornii his 
infcrrour, hnte< or emulate:* his equal, envies his supcriour, insults over all 
such as arc under him, as if he were of another spi^cies. a denii-god, not 
Enbjccl lo any fall, or humane infirmities, fiencitdly thry love not, arc not 
beloved again : they tire out others bodies with ronlinual labour, tliry them- 
Mlves bving at ease, caring for none else, sihi nali ; and ate so fai maay 
times from pullini;; to their helpint; hand, that they seek all means to depraSr 
even most worthy and well descrvinf;, belter than themselves, those winnn 
they are, by the laws of nature, bound to relieve and help, as much as in 
them lye* : they will let ibem caier-waul, starve, beg, and bang, before ihey 
wilt nny wnycs (though it be in thcji' power) assist or eaau: 'so nnnaiural 
arc they for the most part, .10 uiirtnardful, so hard-hearted, so churlish, 
proud, insolent, so dop;gcd, of so had a dispoiition. And, bcin^ su brutish, 
so devilishly bent one townnls (mother, how is it possible, but that we sliould 
be discontent of all sides, full of rurei, woes, and miseries T 

If this be not a sufticient proof of their <liscontent and misery, cxainiite 
every condition and calliiti; apart. Kin)!^, princes, monnrchs, xnd ntigis- 
trales, seein lo be most bappy ; but look into their estate, you shall 'lind 
theoi lo be most i-ncumbtud witb eares, in perpetual fear, agouie, suspicion, 
jealousie; tliat, as he ''said of a crown, if they knew but the discontents that 
nccompnnie it, ibey would not stoop lo take it up. Quern miAi regem 
dahii, (saitli Chrysostom) luin curis plenum^ what kin^ canst thou shew 
me, not full of cares ? ' Look not an his crown, hut consider hit afflielioiis ; 
attend not hii iiumhrr of ftrraat*, hut multitude of crattrs. Nihil aliud 
potetla» culminis, ijuain trmpettas mentis, as Grc^ry seconds him : sovc- 
raignty is a tempest of the soul; Sylla bke, they have brave titles, bnt leniblo 
Altr^splendorera lilttlo, cruciadiin animo ; which made ' Demosthenes vow, 
St eel ad tribunal, vel ad ialerifajn ducfrttur, if to be a Judge, or to be 
condemned, nerc put to his choice, he would be condemned. Rich men sic 
in the same predii-amcnt : what their pains are, alulti nesctunf, ipH tentiunt 
— they feel, fools perceive not, as I shall prove elsewhere; and their 
weallh is brittle, like childrens rattles: ihey cora« and go: there b 110 
Certainly in them ; thn«e whom tbey elevate, tliey do as suddenly depress,^ 
an<l b'avc in a vote of misery. The inidille sort of oieo are so niaiiy 

' Thrr>rrf>nt, liljIL ly ■ Qui «rdet \n nieatS. aan m^mtaU tlbi oilout mlnltlnLr* nrvDlidao*, 
tvlpnti FiLiriitiilBA, liitHmli «nimt4'*. lE^. ^Qutniio Ui Bdi*1nr*bllS luA IjaV viurliU iBuUiu.^ll 
h(i* tt>lL]^n»I'-i w rtpU'T^rlnl. IIIJ fnftlia tmpcimiit durion* ■rfjntminili'i U-ipt, t Lufubrl 
]uotui|uv rvro TpfUKi tuinidi* obvldci iri-ev^— U<h nt In^ilru ioitriu^. ^ I'Iuk *lait ^usm ' 
htbrL— Sun huml JB«nl«n Imllvrvd. V^rr. 1.?. ^.S. ' ?<i>n rttiKlrmi AAjriclVn A*^] ntkESI 
rtlirumi aasmiriTU ■alvlllluni, MdciiiuuiomulllluiUQnu. i At Fluuitli nlttvUi. 


eiiL3. Svbs. 10.] VisconteaU, Caret, ^c 186 

^luaei to bear burdens ; or, if they b<: Tree, nnd lire 8t eaco, ibey apend 
nselvo, and oontaniR iJicir bodies and fortunes with luxury, and riot, 
ntcnlioo, cmnlBlion, A'c. The poor I reserve for another ^ place, and tlieir 

For particular prDfessioiis, I hold, as of llie rest, there's no coutent or 

rurity in any. On what course will you pildi? how reiolve? To be a 

»ine ! 'tis (-oiUeniplibli? in the world'* esiveiii : to be a lawyer ? 'tit to be « 

wrangler: to be a pUy&ioijn .' 'pudrl lolii: 'lis loathed : a phdowpherT • 

, Btad oitui : uii ^ a licgrger : a poet * rsuril, an hungry jack : a 

uusician ? a player: a school-nuster ^ a drudge: an hushand-nian i' tn 

amel : a merchant? his ^lins arc unrrrtain : a mechanician? baje: a 

airn^iun ? ful*omc: a trjdwtiinn ? a"'lyaf: ntiylor? a thief : a wninK- 

n ? a slave : a wMildier ' a bulehcr : a smith, or a metal-man ? the pors 

crcr from's noM : a courtier ? a parasite. As he could iind no tree in the 

rood lo hang himself, I can shew no state of life to give content. The like 

(jon may say of til s^s: children lire in u perpetual «Uvery, ttill under the 

lyrannical i^vcrnment of masters : young men, and of riper years, jubjcct 

to Iftbour, and a tliousand carci of the world, to irrachcry, fahhuoil, and 

du|lpD>Ll» rlnrrl JulWQ : 

*ald are full of acbeain their bones,eramp«. and conrul8ioa«,«i^Vr>iKi, dull 
l«rhcaring, weuL-fi^hted, hoary, writickled, harsh, so much altered aa that 
tthey cannot kuow their own face in a i;lass, a burden to tbeinselve* ami 
[others : afler seventy vcani, <xH u jinrroir (as David hath it) : they do not 
rlive, but linger. If tiicy be sound, they ft-ar disejues ; if nirk, weary of 
1 their li*e*: non ett vivert, ted valrrc, rita. <)tif. complains of want, « 
[■ecotid of servitude, f another of a sccrr't or incurable disease, of oomc defor- 
Inity of body, of some loss, dani^cr, death of friends, shipwrack, persecution, 
Jlroprbonmeiit, dtfi^-race, repulse, ''contumely, calumny, abuse, mjury, coii- 
F'teinpt, ingratitude, unkind iiess, aeoH't, Houls, unrbrtunalc marriage, single 
lift, too many children, uo children, false servants, unhappy children, Iwr- 
rcnscm, buiishment, oppreiuion, frustrate hopes, and ill succeAS, Sev. 

talking Fabius will be tyred belbre he can tell hnlf of them ; they arc the 
■nbject of whole volumes, and shall (some of them) be more opportunely 
dilated elsewhere. In the mean time, thus much I may say of ihem, that 
prDerally tliey crncifie the soul of man, 'attenuate our bodies, dry them, 
wither ihetn, rivel tlieni up like old apples, and make them as so many 
aoaioinici ['otia atque prllis est tolut, ita euri* maett) : tliey cause Umpus 
Jodum tt tquaiidum, cumbersome da)es, ingraliufut (em/iora, slow, dull, 
and heavy times; make uk howl, roar, and tear our hairs (as Sorrow did in 
<Cel>es table), and groan for the very anguish of our souls. Our hearts lail 
us, as Davids did, (Psal. 40. \'2) far innumerahle trmtbUt that eompatitri 
Aim ,' and we are ready to confess with Hezekiuh (Isa. 58. 17.) bahoid ! f<rr 
/flicilif, I haei hitltr grief : to weep with Heraclitus, to cur»c the day of our 
h;itii, witlj Jeremy (20. 14), and our stars with Job ; to hold that aiioni of 
Silenus, "dcffer nnvr to have been born, and the best nejrl of all, tndi/t: 
ijHickly ; or, if we muxt lite, to abandon tlie world, as Ttmon did, creep 
into care* and hoirs, its our anchorites; cast all into tlie sea, as Crate* The- 
bttnos; or, at Cleombrntu* Ambracioiei four hundred auditors, precipitate 
our Kclret to t>e lid of these miscrie:*. 

*tt(Tt. t- mem. 1 *ub«rel. S. 'McKui cl oilan, lnf<I^Toniin frmU prlinL ■NlhLllunvnhlr' 
mtfi adaiDdBa mmllondu. TuIJ. On<\ • Hit. I. i. ixl. I. ■ Kinu Crlli iariiii)ur >rn>-i. Hiijcm' 
!■ liver. QlAOr rOmjIin ircnM. pottlra, mt-nJira*. qum Mvnw nn^l U\\rw^A\f*t*. CfenL kLI>- S. 
*. la. <!• m. ir. < Spn-ri-in* Injnni loimip. 'ATh^miinl yIiII™ rorpu- mi.r-nibiif cu«. 
•flHitia. •U«<.v>*in>iet(rtcllll.4:ruiiin*. •Orlimtiiu nun ukI, uil clW mini. 


CavMi of MclancAobf. 

[Part. I. Sec. 2. 


SvBsECT. XI. — ConcupitcibU Appetite, aa Detire*, AnMtion, Ctnuet.i 
Ttii'st eiincupisciblean<l iiascible appetites are as the two twuuofa rope, 
miitiiulty mixt one with tlie olber, and both twining about tlx- li«iirt ; both 
good, (as Austin hi)lil», t. H. e. 9. dr da. Dn) " iflheg bt moiieralt : both 
perailioiis if [hci/ he cxnrhilant. Tliis eoncupiscible Hpjietllc, homoevet 
it may seem tw carry wilh it » »hcw of ptcaiiite and delight, nnd our coo- 
cupisi'enccs most piirt nlFcct un wilh (Content and a ulcaning object, yet. If 
they be in cxUram*, they rack and wting nx on the other side, A Irae •»»• 
iu^ it is, Hetire hath no rest, is itiRniti; in it ^Hf, cniI1c8», and (as "one rttllt 
it) a perpetual rack, 'or horec-inill (uccordiii); to Austio), still {(otiii; round 
a* ill a rini;. Tliey are not so continual, as diTprt : faciUat alauun i/iam- 
tnernrt: pinitera.{*!ii\ii ' HetnAid) qiuini molas <ordii : »unc A«c, tinne ilia 
eogito: you may as well reekou up the moie* in the sun. as lhe:n. »/( c*^ 
lands it itlf to every thing (as GuiaueriuB wiUhave it) that is snpfrfiiumtly 
sought t^ftnr, or lo any 'Jervejil clrsin: (as Femelius interpn-t» it) : be it in 
what kind »otvcr, it torture*, if immoderate, anil is (according to ''Plater 
and others) an cspi^ciul <;iuae of nichinrlioly. Multuosis cottevpiscenliit 
ditanianlar coijitalioafs mriF, 'Austin confessed — that he was lorn a-)>i<!C«f 
with his ntatiitbld desire* ; and so doth '' Beninrd eomplnin. that he could not 
Test far them a iiiiiiulf of an hour : thin I would have, and that, and then I 
desire lo be such and such. I'is n hard ntalter therefore to confine tli«ni. 
being they an- so various and many, and uiipua»ible to apprehend nil. I 
will only in.iisl upon some few of the chief, and most noxiou* in ihi-ir kfwl, 
BK that eKorbitiiiil appetite and desire of honour, which we <:ommoiity call 
ambition ; love of money, which is cmietousnrss, and that greriiy dchire of 
gain: sf //'-/ore, pride, and inordinate dexire of rRin-^'ory orappUuse ; love 
t^ stvdy in exces" ; lorn of vmmri l,whldi will ret{niie a jusl volume of it 
self). Of the otiicr I will hriidy speak, and in their order. 

Ambition, a proud covelousue** or dry thirst of honour, a greM tortur* 
of the mind, composed of cniy, pride, and covctousneM, a gallant tnadncM, 
one ' define* it, a pleasant poyson, Ambrose, acankerof the soul: an hidden 
plague : 'Bernard, a n-cret puysoii.tht j'alker of livur, and mother ofhypo- 
crisic, ihr tnath oj' bolinrss, and cause of madness, erucifying and disi/uiel- 
ifuf all that il fakes hold of . 'Seneca calls \i,rem soUcilam, limidam, ran'jm 
vrntosam, a windv thtng, avnin, solicitous, and fearful iJiing: for, commonly, 
they that, like Sitvphui, roll this mlle^s slune of ainliilidn, arc in a per> 
pctual agnny, still "pi-rplexed, semper taciti, tristrsgur rwedunt. (Lucreiiiu) 
doubtfid, timorou!!, suspicions, lolh to olfend in word or deed, still cojjvjn^, 
and eollogumg, embincing, cinping, cringing, applauding, flatleriu^, fleer- 
ing, visiting, waitin;^' at mens doors, with all affability, counieifeit honesty, 
and humihty'. If lliut will not serve, if once this liiimonr (as 'Cypriun de- 
scribeait) possess his tliirsty soul, ambilionia saha'ja ulnlnbvlam etnimampo*- 
tidel, by honk and by crook he will obtain it; and f rum bis bole he vill cHittbe 
to atlhomiirrs mid tifficei, if it fir piitsihle for him U> get uji ; Jiattrring one, 
hfilnng another, he mil leavr no vir.aus unassatf'd to win all. 'It it. a wooder 
to BM how slavishly these kind of men subject lliemMdit*, wlwn they are 

*Buii». almiiunniinnnniRiuuiilui; mnio.'. limirlilUnL •Tho. Duuiir. Piui. IK, ■Mnlim 
■wiukrlkiu, f TrvL tlr tnlpr, c. Wn ■ rirm qiiAmUbH rvoi munili hibo jM,.»ti, rt*.(l prvtpav, ^uv 

tiipfrdur dilWftlitr * J'Vrirnllut dnldrrlum, ^ In>|tnin;4 ,i'm ji.p^.(i4i», jmh X iIp ^Wn. aiant, 
• Cjinf. I. c. W ' IVr 'lI*,T*fc lucA •*tf'*ri nulla leio|N"H» ntoii»fnror|iilc*Pa. UliiMehli*i>«CL-«jib; 
lUud *Uj\irUJu<l 1]A>]»» A^^tA^rn. * Amlintik 1. a tti|,i-r Li>i4iu. iLriiir'j tittmc 'NihJ uinmtt 
crkUI. nihil in»lnlw>mi|iii,'tiil: pn-rvlum "tim, iH»(t, i.ivullt Sr. I'pl.L l»«. "Ep. «*. 'NUiU 
la&itrhla hi*-, qijuitun itt llmitr^ ipiJinTh iliiliLUtiji^ 4[i]niklui riiuattin, t^LianU vuUrlliirtn ' Itulllt Uflb ■ 
nwJvnii* TuUA n^trt. ■Sriiii)^? ^EEui,^lii«t ■^rmpi^r pavldii^qLil'l lUral. Iirulvi^ i,,. itii|,lin4il. hi 
llttlva ■iiDulftl. h4jno.fji[i<iii riu-itdlur, K'^j-r, I'rulog. 4fl ,ri. in. B. Cu^rlu* liunural, wu, 
litcUnM. uiii*«i|uilur. ub>iv|ukmr; friHiu.-iiInt l'UtLu, vikUjil opliiimli^ E,iii|<li'Kiutur, A}>^jli»bilil, vl 
Ivr J pavftftrliii'Tni, r |ji],'t,riK» lli outiii^uk ^nAiwn u\i\ ulikux {■■I'-E, *f \xiVftii. f\\-^ujn-. ^^\ 
fOflluDblllo tfp'm tii-if r« tii^. Ill lh>m>'njA AtiJnjirmfioiirni .in'Triiii'm *t«ihi'-ii 

Mem. 3, Subs. 10.] AmbitioH, a Cause. 


about a tate, to titry itifcriout perMH ; what pains tht^y will take, ran, ride, 
riul, plal, cnudtccniint, (iroleit ami nweur, vuw, prumiite, what labours un- 
der^, «rly up, iluwii laic ; how obxi:i|uic}u* and aflnble ihi^y are, how po- 
pular and courtcoitK, how thry grin and fier-T u|>oii every man they meet ; 
with what feasting and inviting, how ihcy «pend thcniirlvei and cheir Ibr- 
tynM. in seeking that, many times, which they Iind miii-h better bo witbout 
(at'Cineas the orator told Pyrrhus); with nhai wuking nights, painTu) 
hours, anxious thoughts, and biiierness of tnind, inltr tpftnque metumqtie, 
distructvd and tired, they consume the interim of their time. Tliere can be 
DO KrtAtcr plague for the present. If they do obtaia their sute. which with 
sueii cost and solicitudt; ihey have iiought, they are not mi freed : their 
anxtcly is anew to begin ; fur they are neter satisfied ; nihil aliutt nui int- 
perium rpintnt : their thoughts, actions, t-.ndeavuurs an all for siiveraigiity 
and honour; like "Lues Sforsia (that huffing duke of Milan, a mnn y 
mngular wtsdoia, but profound ambition, horn to kin own, and to tlip deslruc- 
lioH of Jialt/) though it be to their own niinc, and friends undoing, thoj 
will contend ; they may not cease ; but as a dog in a wheel, a bird in acage, 
orsE^uiirel iu a clmln, (so " Budteus compares Ihcm) "they climbe and 
climbe still wiih much laliour, but aevtc make an eod, never at the top. A 
knitchl would be a baronet, and then a lord, and then a vicounl, ana then 
an earl, Arc. n dorlor adean, and then ii bishop ; from tribune to prirtor: 
from baihff to mayor : first this office, and tiien Oiat : ui Pyrrhus, (in ■'PIu- 
Lnrch) tlicy will first hn*e Greece, thco Afriek, and then Asia, and *wcU 
with Miop" f(og so long, till in the end ihcy burst, or come down, with 
Sejanus, ad Ccmoniat scalas, and break tlieir own necks ; or as Evangelus 
th« piper, (in Lueian) that blew hi» pipe so long, till he fell down dead. If 
he chance to miss, and have a canvas, he is in a hell on the other side ; so 
dejected, that he is ready to liang himself, turn htretick, Turk, or trajtor, in 
au instant. Enrap^d against his enemies, he ''rails, swears, fights, slanders, 
detracts, envies, murders ; and, for his own pan, si appttilum exjiUre non 
'tr*t,faTore corripilur; if he cannot satisfie ms desire, (as ' Bi.dine writes) 
lie run> mad : so that, both wuvrs, hit or niiici, he is distracied »i long tks 
liii ambition lasts ; he can lotik for no other but anxiety and care, discontent 
and grief, in the mean lime — 'm^dncM ilsi-lf, ur violent death, in the end. 
The event of ibis is common to l>e seen in populous citicit, or in princes 
t'Ottrts; for a courtien; lil"e (as Builieus t\<.-H-c\\K*\\) h a^y<illimaufry of 
ambillou, liitl, fraud, imjHuliire. di»si mutation, ditraction, qwi-)/, /intlr ; the 
f<mrt,a common convcnlivlr of jtattircrs, ttrne-tcrvfrs ; pt/litk-iant, ^i: or 
(as ■ Anthony Pete* will) Iht mibarl/s of hell it telf. If you will sec such 
di^ifon tented persons, there you shall likely lind them : * and (which he ob- 
tcntdofthe markets of old Rome) 

Qnl jtcrJuntTn coai^nlrrTuahjjjnJiir^n, mltln Id ComlUuin; 

Pcrjnr'd knaves, knights of the post, lycrs, crackers, bad husbands, &c. 
keep their several stations, they do still, aod alwayes did, in every commnn- 


■ PlvtAfThM, Quia cvDiLvnnur, cl In otlo noi <ih]Ht«n<it, quonluo in prDmiiiu Id onUa ail, Jic. 
■ Ju^iuf < li^it. I. 1. Vir hin^^lAri pniiU'ntii. m<i1 tirirfimt.JL uDi>iiU'Tni-; ail i-nJlSum ImUv nAltiA. 

ruDntu vc in|i4t|ii muvrnliit : aiipfr ro^m mnlT<' r<itot^ non prpificjijTil. npi- 4^1 lluvm ii<rt ('uiunl, 

iluDL ' JLlh. i. *lr tvp. rnp. I. * liii|»ri]niB trnt Aiipi'lil-iih, wn t<nirii]jjfcrrntU ntmU n<l nUrvijiiJi 
bvumlv fHinhuui-iU-. |ibjiiil4umm ImlEi';!^ >in*U> niuiti jHithtUnmi. |jbjjiiull, lr><4, M\%ti. tif, \Ti**ni. 
F«IU Flatev, L a <!■ nmlu nkt^-n. ' Snilf* rlU i?»>Flnvi<-« ftmbilicnli, 'ti\f[At^*ti*. «JmtilarioiiS>. Wn* 
M>luiv, ftnidik. hivlittr. fa|vrMtf TLuiik?v : *h\ft*t*tium milfl. I't fvitirnuntr rtmivnliuuhiin, n^i^^ 
laadi mUkam. Ik. KiiclHia dv tHr. llh, & > !» hi* Aphun ' I'lkiLtu-. i'arrul, act. I. kt, I, 


188 Causes of Metanckoly. [Part, 1. Sec 

SuuSBCT. XII. — ^AapyvfmA.Covftoasnttt, a Cause. 

pLttTAHCii (in his * book wlitther the diseases of ihe body be more prcr- 
Oiia than ihose of thi- »(ml) is of o|)iiii()D, if you mm tramine alt the caiutt 
of OUT mufrift in Ihif Itfr, yo'i s/inU find thrm. moft /lart, to have had 
their beginning /rom sliibt/ora nnt/cr. thai furious dciirr. tf eoatrnlion, ot 
tome unjust or immodcratr ajftclxon, an t-ot'rloatncxs, IfC. From ivhcnce ar^ 
wars and contenlions amontjit you! "SI. Jntiic* a*\t*: I will add uiury, 
fraud, rapine, simony, oppression, lying, fwcaring, bciiring faUc witness, &-c. 
nrc \i\ty not from this founiain of covetousnesa, that greediness in geiiiu;, 
tenacity in keepini^, sordidity in spending? that ihpy are so wicked, 'hh- 
juat against God, their neiyhbour, themselves, all comes hcnoe. The dtttrt 
oftnaney is the root of all rvil, and tkcr/ that lull q/Ver it, pierce them- 
selves thniugk with mnnij sorroio, I Tiiii. G. 1 0. Hij)pacrales tliercfott, in his 
cpiitii? to Cruti-vu iin hcrhahat, gives him lliis ^oii counsel, lliut, it' it were 
DOuihIe, 'amongst other hrarhi, he should cat up that weed of eovetotunetS 
oy thr rants, thai there be no rentnindrr left ; and then tnow this for a 
certainty, that, logflher with their bodies, thou maiit i/uirkly cure ail Ihe 
difeases of their miiidn : for it is intleed the pattern, imngf, epitome, of all 
melancholy, the fouiilaiu of many miseries, much disconlent, care and uoe 
— tiiis inordinate or immoderate desire of gain, to get or keep money, as 
* DoDftveiiiure d«Gne* it ; or, as Austin deaciibea it, a madn&ss of the •oul ; 
Gregory, a torture: Cbrysusiom, an (insatiable druukenaeu; Cyprian, 
kliiiunt'SM, tpecwsum supplieium, a pla)>ue subvening kiugdoms, fainilie*, «a 
■"incurable diiuase; BtidB!ii«, an ill habit, 'yielding to mi rrmediesi 
(neitlier .Xnculupiiis nor Plutus can cure them) a continual ulapip, mitb 
Solomon, and vexation of spirit, another liel). I know that tliere be some 
of opinion, that covetous men are happy, and worldly- wisr, that there \i 
more pleasure in getting wciilth than in spending, and no deliglit in iho 
world like uiito it. Twas IJiixs problem of old, With vhat art thou not 
weary * v.:it\ getting money. ^ What is moxl drlrctahle ^ (o gain. What 
is it, tiow you, thai makes a poor man labour all his life time, carry sucli 
great burdens, fttre so hardly, macerate himself, and cr)dure so much misery, 
undcrifo such base offices with so great tiatience, to rise up early, and lye 
down late, if there were not an extraordmary delight in getting and k«epiDg 
of money ? What make* a merchant, that hath no need, sati% lapuriive 
(iomi, to rantfC over all the world, through all those tnienipfraie * >iincs of 
hcnt and cold, voluntarily lo venture his life, and be content with such 
niincrnhlc famine, nasty usnge, in a stinking ship, if there were not » pleasure 
and hope to get money, wliich doth »i-usou the rc*t, and mitigate his inde- 
fatigable pains? What mnkex ihcm go into the bowels of uic earth, aa 
hundred lathom deep, endnngertng their dearest lives, enduring dninps and 
filthy amells, (when they have enough idrcady, if they could be content, and 
DO 8uch cause to labour) but an extranrdinary delight they l«kc hi riclies i 
Thin may seem plausible at tirsl shew, a popular and xtrong argument: but 
let him that so thinks, consider better of il ; and hv «hn)l soon perceive tluit 
it is far otherwi.->e than he «upposclh ; il may be hanly pimping at the 6r»t, 
as, most part, all melancholv i» : for such men likely hiive wime Indda in- 
/rnTd^/n, pleasant symplomesinienuixt: but you must note ihatof 'Chrytos- 

cu|ii<llln(c. oflcitK'in (ulh*v *uii^— Liicin (ci* Chrj-^otEimiut. Cjtn, In f. « 1.1 UoniAiL ter- II. 
*C-«(L L t. r ri all lIl^uu1 i'l Drum, m jirijk'inMiii. (1 «rlp4aiu. *Hi \MTo. Cmuvt. rntcr 
niVfr*M UvrlHruiu riulJi^i^ ■•ivrLHv ■niilid.ii] avrtrv i.i»<«i4 •mtrtiii. ul nulla ri'Uijulft tawal. nioto 
HJLa. kr. 'Ct^K ft l>Ljplir ^luUa, Ai-RFLItB i'<1 Briupt liriruudi'nlUB pwniA irl b-ifiklrrntle Trt 
rtUnondjv, ^ >l4fut r«i m^rbnt, ntnlniiiH jihrtr jiitriTiA. ^ujiEiLli'm itinH-o, kc. -Ki^nt\^^tneUi^ 
fN^nlur i|tf>in liwn^a; qiionl^iii U,e imitte* Irn* mnlirl UlritrtJ.I- Hi|i. ap. Ahiliphl. 'Fvnlm urv« 
r^rto dinjnif|UP »iru> ■tim^il. Trnt.'flii- ikufl <v(Ji'ni. n.f^lonrlii m-^'ivlur, 'QuiL nnim«« bwuF 
tucmm fvirii^u. Qti^il RmLiinf .Ir^ivlj^jjlc ? Iiictaji, 'KLlrtiiK^ruritl nirKtbKivl Indoi, 
■ lion. t. Aliud tiariH. iJiuil dim. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 12.] Cattlautness, a Came. 

\ tome, 'tis arte Iking to bt rich, another to bt covelout : generally iliey are 
til foot*, dizard», mad-men. 'mitcniHlft wictchv*. liting besides i^emsdvc*, 

I tian aric frucndi, in perpelital slavery, frar. suspicion. Borrow, and diicon- 
Xenl ; plus alors ijuam meliix habtnt ; and aic, indeed, rather piiiiffsed by 
thtir mttary, than pastetttirfi as ''Cyprian liatli il. mancipnti pecuniit, 
bound prcntiw; to iheir giidOs, aa "Pliny; or as Chryuiiiom, tcTxi diviti' 
arum, *\a.\x* nnd dnidE:cs iii their sul>aianc« ; and we muy conrlude of ihem 

, ftll, as ' Voleriiis doUi of Ptolemwus king of Cyprua. hr wim tn tilU a king 

,t{f that island, but, ia his mind, a jnimrable drudge oj' money : 
' rgliinc nictallU 

^MDling hix tibcttv, vrlii^h is belter than gotd. Daniaaippus the Btoiclc (in 

loracr) provp* tliat all mortal men dolt by fits, ^nie oik- wnv, *omc an- 

. othrr, but that corctoiis mm ' Me. inadilcr than the rvtX : nnd ^c that shall 

Inily look into ihfir Mlntcs, »nd rxaminc their irvinpijimrs, »)iall find no 

better of them, but ibnt they are all '"fiioU, as wbh, rf el nominr 

\{\ Rey. 15): for, what greaur folly ciin their be. or "madness, than to 

macerate himself when he need not ? and when (ns Cyprian notes) ° he maij 

ht Jrted from his btirdrn, and eased of hit paiiii, wilt yo On ttitl, hi» wealth 

incrtatiny, when he hath enough, to yet more, to live betides himself, to 

\ fltarve his yenius, keep back from his wife Pand children, neither letting 

them nor other friendu unc or enjoy thai which is theirs by right, Bn<l which 

Ihey much nctd perhaps: liki- a hog, or do<r in the manger, he doth only 

keep it, hccauM- it shall rli> nobody else good, hurling himself and others; 

Rnd, for a little mcimeiilnry pelf, dnmn his own kouI. They are commonly 

sad and leirick by nature, as Achnbs spiril wns because he could not jjet 

piabolh* vineyard (I Rey. 22) ; and, if he lay out his money at any time. 

though it be to necessary uses, to his own children's gttod. he brawU and 

' Bcolds ; his heart is heavy : much disquieted he is, and loth to pait from it : 

^TCiMT abftinet. el timet uti. (Hur.) He is of a wearish, dry, pale i-onstitu- 

rtion. and cannut lU'cp for cures and worldly l>iisine«3: his riches (saith 

^Botomon) will not Irt him ticcp, and unnecessary business which he hcap- 

eth on himself; or, if he do xlccp, 'tis a very unquiet, interrupt, unpleasing 

Ltleqi, with hx* ba^ in hix atmt, 

— rmiRi'uMh undiquff lUvk 

Indormll InhlAiui- 

and, though he be at a banijuet, or at some merry feast, he ligki for yrirf 
of heart (a* fCyjjrian hath it), and cannot utrep, though il hr. upon a down 
br.d : bit nvarith hndtj ttikm no rmt, ' Iroublfd in his aliundrinrr, and arrrnw' 
fui ia plenty, unhappy for Ike prrtent, and murr unhappy in tht life to 
,eomt (Haail). He is a perpetual drudge, 'rcstlcM in his thiiughtu, nnd newer 
Htitfind, a tlnvr. a wretcli, a dust-worm ; semper quod iflolo suo immolel, 
ttdulvi obierval ; (Cypr. prolog, ad sermon.) still seeking what sacrifice ho 
may ofier to his golden god, per fax el nefas, he cares not how ; his trouble 
ia cndlesft : 'eresmnt divilia : taiiten curia: nvscio ijuid temper a bent rei : 
his wealth increaseth; and the more he hatli, the more "he warns, like 
Pharaohti leau kine, which devoured the fat, and were not satisfied. 'Austin 

*DlTiii». u1 •^^'^'''-■■^■■""■'■^^^i^^ (]nir>rifiuiH ti^li<'ltui]Irii^>'*. ■ri|:oFlba«.Eiilrllt« puiivimt i^Aiinr. 
VrlwL ((nn. iti, • Kpitt ul Dcpim, Mp, I • Lib. Si tu. W, lUb, 3. rnp. t. Iluill* 
Bl Htuto, tu'ti aiomn pfsrunlv mlh-rvlulr' mnnplpluin. ^ llorAlO lIK 1. ■Dbidk rut hrllphqrl 
'alUipArvmitiiiinii ntkrlL ^l-vkr I?. 30. »PiJT**^ h4r nwlf trIpUnt AnlmAibfuun. "Op*^ quldpin 
' VH'r1&u''iu 'urii ■li'rurnlJB. Thru;^. * IkL V. Jilt, V. Bioiunn oimi h* jkphII k n4t*«riT |K>n^-rll>u». 
pHfett iu4(i> furliin^H biiKrhtl(m> iifrlinAc^lfT m«Qlnirfl\ > Jivn biuei*!*, nun lihrrj*. nun ^[ni mbi 
flulSquan ImiwfUt -. pavitlrl vi htr taninni, nr pnal<U-iT tXirti lififlaL Jkc, Uifmrir ul I'^ulln, Tam 
afmq<"'<l>»'>".1''"<>q(io<t non ho-N-i. ' r.pi.I. a lib. ». Muplnlln l■on^l•ln. hlh»l ItrM ji^miiil-. 
■* lorcp molUorr mArri'tuin cur^u* i-orifIl,frr]1, vivilul In pJuni. ' AnpiiU1«ij f x kbiiii'LifjIli, ronlrlk- 
~Mr t% upatf Alii, inrvbs prt^^ul^l'iia lM»hkk, mfrUftcir in futvEU- ' llltrruni iTf,^iuliu nunfjiiuii 
ml. qw pirumiu tuppLvn. illjEfnnt. (^ulnniir. met- \b, f 11 ■ lint- X Oil. vt, ^na pt 
rpBls, plus iJUBntur uu*. •Hot. 1.1. n>i, K. Oil anniilixlilf proxImutiHrdtt. qid Diuu< <li' 
■crllum I 'Lllii IL nb. itUL Imnurllutiiuilila. dusuTCHuni^ltbkbmlla 



Gnww of Mttanchol^. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

Irhi* Jiiun cHok, ihru uui lie f'yd fjQOn, 

(Jierefote ddlues cOTetousuens, qKarumiibet remm inhoneitam et intaiiaUti'm 
eupidiinlem, an unlioiievt und umaiiablc doairr of gain ; nnd, in him.- of hit 
epiKllci, romjiiirei it tii IktII. " jcliieh devours all, and yet nfctr kalh tnov-jh, 
a bollnmlrsf pil, iin uuillriit miiwrv ; in aurm scapuium arartlttt cadaveroH 
Mntfutjiliirimumimpiiigunt; iind.thHt wWli inllieir j;t«ateat coirosivc, ihey 
areiu continLialsuf^picion, fear, and diitruKt. HuihiiiksliiHOwu wifeaiid cbil- 
dnaarcsomanytiiicvcB, andgoahont tocoxi-uhim, liix scrvaiiU arc alllaUe: 

Be dliAn aAiw buoiiDiira c^juiul duntiuuu Oilqo. 
Do M>uotiffll« tumuiiiiiui ciUfoni. 

Timidus Plutut, nn old proverb — as trarftil at Plulus : to docli Aiiato* 
phnnc*, and Liician, bring him in fearfol still, pule:, anxinut, iiu»picio«i*, 
aad Irusling no nian. ' They are afra'ul of trmpcsts for ihtir com, Ihejf 
art of raid of their frienda, Itatt they should ask something of th«m, beg 
or borrow ; tlunj art afraid of their tnemiea, kit they hurt them ; lhitt!es, 
lesl they rob them ; thetj arc afraid of war, and afraid of peace , afraid 
of rivh, and afraid nf pour ; afraid of all. Last of all, ihey arc afraid of 
wuiit, l)mt lliL'y tliiill <Iyi! U-^^ci> ; wtiiub makc!! tliem lay up *till. and da:« 
noi use ibut llii^y hni'r : (wlint if n dt^ur ycur come, or deartli, ur Kinie 
loo '.) nnd wc-ic it iKii (hat tlicy iirc loth lu ^ lay out mo^ey on a rop«, Okj ' 
wouUi lie hanged fonhwiili, and sometime* dye to wave <?haT|ce*, and makej 
away thcmselics, if ihcir corn and cattlf miscarry, thotigli they have abun- 
dance led, as 'Agdlius notes. * Valerius makes mention of one, that, in 
a famine, sold a mou&e for two huudied pence, and famished himself. Such 
are llicir carea, '' griefs, and ptrpelual fears. These symptomes arc elegantly 
expresjtd by Theophriuitus m Im cliarairtcr of a eovelous man : "lying in 
bed, he atkii hit wife ivhelhcr the shut the Irunkt and cheat* fati, lh< cap- 
cast he tealr.d, and whether the hall diiar he bulled: and, though the 
say all U well, he ritrth out of hit hrd in his shirt, barr fool, and barf 
Ifgged, to set whether it be so, wtlh a dark lanthorn starching every corner, 
scarce sleeping n wink all night. Lurian, jri that pleasant and witty 
dialogue called Galliis, brings ia Micyllus the coblcr disputing with his cock, 
someliiues Pythagoras ; whe^e, after much speech pro and can, to prote the 
happiiies* of a mean estate, and Jiscotiienls of a rich man, Pythagoras his 
COCK iti thf end, to illustrate by cxaui|)ks that which he hud said, brings 
him to Giiiphon the uaitrcn house at mia-niKht, and after thut to Encrates ; 
wham they fuiind btitli awake, ca*liii^ up tli«ir accuuntN, and telling 
of thoir money, ''lean, dry, pid«, and aoxiou«, Mtill auxpL-ctiiig Ic-sl soma 
body should miikc u hole through the wall, and mi get in ; or, if a rat or 
mouse did but fttir, siarline upon a sudden, and running to the door, to se« 
whether all were fast. Plautus, in bis Anhilarin, makes old Euclio 'com- 
manding Staphvia his wife to shut the doors last, and the Are to be put out, 
lest aiiy bodv should inak« iliat an errant to came to liis house : when be 
washed his iiaods, 'he was loth to fling away the foul water; complaiuini; 
(hat he was undone, because llie smoak gut out of his niuf. And, as lie 
went fiuni home, wedng a crow scrat upon the muck-hill, retmned in all 
haste, taking it for malum omen, an ill sign, hi» money was digged ttp; 

,>, fco. mndunniuibslwt. hucmol . . 
A'ims- vhl\. i «(]L 7. vrii. 1^- Suth fidtf&lH, oiBDluni famiiiAnl opn: Idrv 
Kariyiift -. inriuiml t«u|n>alji1?* nb ^mrnlum. vbH^ia he 
brlluni UBsnt. fom Dnnii. *iiiiuni». niodlut. Inflniu. 
laMnhiDi ra MCtnW ppncnlunl. ub Jucrutu ul iltuu uru; 
I vriBrbM --^ - - .- - • ' 

iliLi^m mnlum ychhS 

• A'iriK >lr Irifpino »i ilniaiv, fco. mndun nun bsbct. hue ffooliur. iiuo (ilun liiihi*!. >Enmi. 
" * . ------ ^ ■ ril op™ ; tdrv Mililiim i 

inriuuul tnipviliilva nb (niBicnlun, wnlCM ih tcRTDi. IkIdiIfh nr Inl w. f u m nv r>p1ut t 

" ' ' Illll.Char. ■Aki'111i». htt. i. c. 1. 

iaa, rammulrur, .Lib. 1. e^it. S« 


•Cap. If. 

In Into juta>. hitfiiu-^H bJinn^m ■!> ulruii 

tuitruH. tl vix Minna iri4ulj(rtii. 'CurU *:t6romitufy vtc^liib. *t «vfbin <uppmi*ii 
q^frnqiinn aiignum lAcdn intrvmiHrti. lfiitfn*iHnniiTr|lu,n^uut«tqulilcuikJSAI,quod l*c^l»* 
HiiMta quvflM- Si hutt* Faitutik rtnlii, «o lAtKiPilKrU Oci^lade u» Iora cmboTau immOi. IHb 
maita wtni, quia domii &b>ii«lum «t ttlhJ. Mini* btmil* InTttui tbatt i ntf, qaid ipn, Ida. 

i 8«1w. 13.] ZoM of Gaming, ^c. 191 

n; such. lU tliat wilt but obierve their actioas, shall find tlicM 
6nd mauy aueh paiangics, not feigned for S|)orl, but really pvrli>rni<.i), veri- 
fied indevd by such covetous and niisciable wrctclits ; aud that it i8 

a mccr madncct, to live like a wretch, and dye rich. 

Sdbsect. XIII. — Lov€ qf Gaming, ifc. and PUatures immoderate ; Cautet. 

It i« « wond«T to see, how mnny poor distressed tnisetabte wretches one 
shall ine«t almost in every path nnd street, begging for aii ainia. that have 
Iwcn well descended, and sometimes in (louriftliing estule. now nygeU, lal- 
lered. and ready to be starred, Un^riiig out a puitil'ul hfe, in di$cuiili:[il and 
grief of body and itiiud, and &1I through immoileralt lust, gaining, pk-aiure, 
bikI riot. nTis the cutnmoii end of all scimuitl Epicures and brutish prodi- 
giiU, that ant slupified and carried uwiiy lirmllong wiih their scvemlplciuures 
and bift*. Ctbc*, in hia labtc, S. Ambrose, in his second book of Abol and 
Cain, ami, nmon^'it tli<; red, Luciun, iii his tract de Mercede conduclh, lialli 
excellent well dcciphrrci! micIi mens procecdinijs in his picture of Optiltntia, 
wliom lie feigns to dwell on the top of a high mount, much sought aticr by 
many suiters. Al their first coming, they are generally entertained by 
^J'leasure and Dalliance, and have all the content that possibly may be 
[iven, Bo long as their money lasts; but. when tlidr meauii fail, they are 
antJtaplibly tliiust out at a back door, headlong, and there lei) to Shame, 
rproaeh, Dtipair. And lie, at fint tliat lind so many atlcnduntK, para- 
im, auJ followers, young and lusty, richly array'il, and all ihc dainty fare 
hat might bt- had, mlh ull kind of welcome ami good respect, is now upon a 
luddcn stript of all, " pale, naked, old, diseased, and forsaken, cursing hia 
tars, ami ready to Mranglc himself; having no other company but Htpent- 
tee. Sorrow, Urief, Derision, Bttjijery, and Contempt, wliich are his daily 
aUeadants to his lives end. As the 'prodigal son had exquisite musick, 
erry company, dainty fare at finl, but a sorrowful reckoning in the end; 
have all such vain deli;;hls and their followers. ' Trittes volnptalum 
txittit, ut giti*//uis volaylulum lunrum rrmiiitsci void, intcIHi/rl : at bitter 
icall anil wormwood is their btl ; grief of mind, m^dncts it tclf. The 
luiBiT rocks u(iun which such mon do impinge and precipitate thcroselvea, 
: nuil-t, dice, hawkii, and hounds, (iiaanum vcnundt tludiiim, one calls it 
-insamr subxlructioiiei) tlicir mad structures, disports, playcs, &c. when 
^tli«5 are unsciisonably utcd, imprudently handled, and beyond their for- 
tuDea. — Some men are consumed by mad pliantaslical buil(iiii|j>, by making 
i^alleries, cloisters, taraccs, walks, orchards, gardens, pools, rillels, bowers, 
|aad such like places of pleasure, (inulilrt domiis, * Xenophon calls them) 
rhicb howsoever they be di-lightsome things in tlicmsclves, and acceptublt 
all beholders, an ornament, and iK-filting some great nu^n, yctnnprolitalilc 
tu allien, and ttu' tole overthrow <if their estutcs. Forolus, in hix ubserva- 
tinns, hatli an example of «uch a one tbat became mclancholv n)H>u the like 
■ccasiou, having coniumcd hU Mibsiancc in tin unpiotitable building, which 
puldaficrwartlyicld him no ad*nntai;u. Otlicrs. I say, ore 'overthrown by 
tboae mwl iiporT* of hawking and hunting. — honest recreations, and fit for 
aone great men, but not for every basu inferiour person. Whdst they wUI 
maintain their faulkoncrs, doi;^, aud hunting nags, their wealth (saitli 
'SaIniutze}r»fUuu>i7y tct(A hounds, and their fortaneijlyf away with hawks: 

f Jbt. K«.t. ti- * V#ntrlcfl*m. nailuft, ji^lthfui, . , . , . .. _ 

OcBUrTt<Milfin gMunU tViiitviaU. bi* iJid4.<uiii iiptiUcu'n*, to:- 'Luke IS. J BD*tbliu. ' In 

Dom. Qoid lA Quite oab.'D'iiuu «(■ i|Ui rmci4 ^i*tt<fnii ihinui* inuUfninUAauilf Jocfuil !^i>rn(t«. 

Inbufiupa^ I'uiycnhl. 1. 1, c. 4. VfmAtiyri.4timnfflAilhu<<lEi4i]lutiniviiindnk#BtCffnl*iiroriiHi. Kkiu 

iVWU^ <4u1m|u»ii *oium nuidnfiH^i Cft>. luoMiniiiitiu.H. u14pk1d, HAniiuuBauuii- *Pu- 

Kt Am' 


'u)iai <ipu cum wvliiliFr. 


>^ IiudbiFDi oOTUlbuivilnnt Mlpnm alniiviluu. 

192 CSmte* of Melaneholtf. [Part. 1. Sec. 3. 

Iliey penecute beasts flo Ions, t'l'. ■" tfieeitil. they themselves degcaerat<- into 
l)ea.Hl»(as'' ARrippalaxetlilliem). ■■ Actwon like: for, Bshe wasealeii tiiclmth 
by liis own iJogi, no do they devour ilieinselvei and ihetr patiiinonica, in mirh 
idli-- and utuicccsaiiry disuotU, ni.'u:leciini; in tlie mean time thuir niocc ncces- 
sury buiint-M, nnd to loilow their vocntiuiiii. Over-mad loo ximclrmc-i ara 
our grr;it men in dcliicliting; nod doting Uto mudi on it; fiiikni Mfy drive 
poor husbundmen from (heir lilliige (lui iSiiri»biiripn«i« objcCM, Poii/crat. 
t. I. c. 4).jliny down counlrt-f/ J'arms, and Kfinlr tnwnt, to mahf parkt and 
foreata, itarviny men lofced beasU, and ' jninhhimj in the nifan time tuch a 
man that shall molest llidr yame, more teverthj than him that in olhertciM 
a fommoTi hacker, or a nolorious titiej'. But gtcnt men arc some wavL'a to l»c 
excused : the meaner sort have no evasion why they should not be counted 
mad. Powgtus, the Florentine, tells a merry story to this pur[)ase, cotidtrmn* 
iafc iht- fuify aaii impertinent busint^ss of such kind of persons. A physidBn 
of Milun, <>uith he) thut oured mad ipen, had a pit of water in liiit house, in 
whi<rh hir k«pt hi* piitiriiti, mime up bo the knees, some to ibc girdle, somt to 
the chin, pro tnodo insanitr, iv they were mure or less afTerted. One of theu 
by chance, that wiw W(rll recovered, jtood in tlie door, and, teeing a ^laot 
pais by with a hawk on his list, wpll mounted, with his spiiniels after lam, 
would needs know to what u«c nil this preparntion served, lie made answer, 
to kill certain fowl. The patient demanded again, what his fowl miicbt btt 
worth, which lie killed in a year. He rcplycd, five or ten crowns ; and wh«ii 
he urijed him farther what his dogs, horse, and hawks, stood him in, he totd 
him four hundred crown*. WitU that the patient bad him bt gtine. lu he 
loved his life nnd wilfure ; " for, if our master come and find thee here, he 
will put ihee in the pit uniungst mad men, up to the chin :" taxing the mad- 
neM nnd fully of such vain men, that spend themselves in tlioxi: idle sports, 
neglcctrng their business and nrccssary atTairs. Leo Decimiis, that huntin;{ 
poDe.ismuch discommended by 'J»vius in his life, for his immoderutedeure 
of hawking and hunting, io so much, that (as he aaith) he would somctimea- 
live abont Oatia weeks nnd mor)elhs together, leave suiters 'unrespected, 
bulls and pardons unsigned, to his own prejudice, and many private iiiena 
loss : "^ and, if he had been by chance trotted in his ajiort. or his game not to 
good, he Tcai in impatient, that he u-oald revHc and miscall munij timet men 
of great worth nulh must hitter taunts, look lo sowr. be so angry and wo$p~ 
ith, so grieved and mnlrslr.d, that if is incredible fo relnte it. But, if he had 
g<XKl sport, and been we!lp!ea^ed on the other side, ini.TrdibilimuniJicenlidf 
with unspeakable Imiuity und munili^'ence. he would rewartl all his felktw 
hunters, and deny nothmg to any suiter, when he va* in that tnood. To 
say truth, 'tis the comnum humour of all gamesters, its Oiihitccua observes : 
if they win, no men living are so jovial and merry ; but, " if they lose, ibougli 
it be but a trifle, two or three games ul table", or dealings at cards for two 
pence a jjame, they are so cholerirk and testy, thut no man may speak with 
them, and break many times into violent passions, oaths, imprecations, and 
unbeieemiug ipecchos, little differing from mad men for the time. Generally 
of all (taniwters and gaming, if it be excessive, thus much we may conclude, 
Uial, whether they win or lose for the present, their winnings are not munera 

•Invlenlf T^ftiloruin itult^iiji.d t<i|kcrT4f«ar« eat* fKPtnm, <ial. dum nlmlnm vmutcini liuia^nt. 
llitt, atin-ffi uiniil ]mihHfiiUt,MiLf<.rudiYrnrrftDl. ul Atlruii.jEO. <I5abln. luOvlfL Mt.L tAfrippfe, 
*Lt UTILE, k^u^nl- ItiunuEn vpn4iii1k 4lii(l;»in, fLtin i ni^iiiJJhut ftHriilur urLrulir. HuhlnhiinL ytv^it 
niaUri". nilfi fulunl* prpr^tii^iiuEuf. 4Ttt wl pr4t« piMt^irlbu*. nt aubi-iLEitur burut ii-ri\.—ytuftaii» 
rva« A^Wnb, 4i gu'l&r^L % A nnrftliliui fui« ftfT^rilJit arntitiw, di^m f^-nr liahnuni t^^^cidi fjlH-tU- 
USD . lltivUt puco* ItOKOailtiir, pr*41t iliblnhoBtur. A& Sulnbiirli.niilt, ' Virrtt iiuam h4iEii1i]>liii4 
aquiom. Camh. dtUulI. Cani|. igui K (Rlflalo muilcn it(]>oniiUiiii I'll ul FuirtUm Vi»ain. MaL 
Pub. 'Turn. t. <lr vili, illmlrluoi. L 4. iIktM. Lnn. 10. ' Vi-iiiillonibut 




"Aul tnMkiU'r f nqhK. Urn Imi 


hove of darning, ^-e. 

fortune, ttd instrliit, MS thai wise St-iiecu (lctirrniin«« — not Tortunet gift*, but 
baibt ; Uie coianiou cata»ln)|ibe is " be|:gCTy ; * ut pettit vilaiM, tie adimii 
alta prcuniam i a*t\w. \i\atf\v uikct nnay tile, k (todi ganuag goods ; for 
' Otnnct nadi, iaoprs rt ryrni ; 

Nim niuiuuta IhiiiIa. mnlmum qutri|up pcrnJA npr^lt. 

For n little plnKun^ ibcy uku, and »ome iimMll ^atn» snd ^ettinf^s now and 
then, tlidr wive* and rtiililreii are wringcd in ihp mean lime : and iheylhcm- 
(ctvM, with tW Uw« of body and »oul, nie it in the eud. I wil! suy nothing 
ofthoM procligioiit prodigals ^jifnUudx pecunia ffenitos, (a« \t« Utcd An- 
thooT) gui pafrimonittm tine uUdfori caitimni4 amitluni («aitli •■ Cyprian), 
and * mad Sybiriiical speiidlhrilU, tjuique uni enmmiunt pntrimonia menti; 
that eat up all at a breakfast, at a supjier, or amongi't bauds, parasites, aiid 
playen: consume tliemstrlves iii uri inii:int, {ait it' they had Hnd^ it into 
^Tyber) with pieal wajter*. vaiit and idle pxpcnccs, &(■. not themselv^t "I'ly, 
but Kirn all llirir friend*: a* a man desperately swimming drowns liini ibat 
come* to tii^lp bun, by mrrtifiliip and borrowing they will wilhngly undo all 
thrirnstociate^and allies; 'fra(ip(^rMHii*. ashesailli — aii^v with their money. 
' Whnf wilk a wanlon eyf,a lujuorish lony ae, and a i/ametome hand, when ihcy 
haveiindiscrertlyimpoverished themselves, mortgaged tlirirwits to([erbcr witii 
tlieir lands, and cutombed their ancestors fair ponessinns in their bow«U,tbey 
BMy kad the Tcstof their daycs in prison, aa many ttRiM they do, aDdlhora^^- 
pent at leisure : aud, when all isguin-, begin to brthriftr: hiitterarstiitjimtto 
partimimia ; 'tis then too laCt^tolookabout; iheir'end is misery, sorrow, shame 
aiid disconti^nl. And well tlioy dricrrc to be inf.mious Rnd discontent, '' rala- 
mirftnriinnTO/iAi7Ami(ro,(asbyAilriivnthcrniperotirsedict they woreof old ; dt- 
coclorft bonorum tanrum ; so h« rails tbcm — prodijcal fools) to be publickly 
shamed, and hitaed out of all societies, rather iban lo be uittied or relieved. 
'The Tuscansand Bceotiaiis brotiji^ht ilioir baiikrujiU Into tlw- market iilaix in 
a bier, with an empty purse carried befort ibeni, all llie b()ypi following, 
where they sal all aav, circumtlanU, to bi- infmiionit and ridiculoiu. 
At * Padua iu Italy, lueyhuvea »lune called ihi! stmtr of larpitiidr , n^ar the 
senate houn:, where Kjicod- thrifts, and such atdibfUiim nonpayment of debts, 
do sit with their liiiidcr parts bare, thai, by that note of dis^rrace, others may 
be tVfrified from oil such vain exponce, or borrowing more than they can tell 
how to pay. The ' civilians of old set tpiardians over such breiii-»ick prodi- 
1^9, as tliey did over mad-men. to moderBte tbeir expences, (hat Oiey stiould 
not so loo*dy consume theit fortunes, to the utter uiidoiu); of their familica. 
I may not here omit tlu)se two main plapies, and common dotages of hu- 
mane kmd, win« and women, which have iofatualtd and besotted myriads of 
people. They ^ commonly togetliex. 

• Qui Tlnn ImtuljH. qiiciiH|iuF •!« ilMAqui), Ulc 
In VvnomD piirlrl*. 

To whom it sorrow, sailb Solomoit, (Prov, 33, 39) to whom is wo, but to 
mch a one as lo»es drink ? ft causeth torture, (vino torlut et triJ) and bit- 
lemeMof mind (Sirac. M. SI). Vinumfiinirit. Jeremy calls it {cliap. 15), 
wine of madnesi, as well he may: fur intanirx fncil tanm, it makes sound 
niirn sick and sad, and wine men " mad, to sav and do ibey know not what. 

* Jat«D. fiAt. a Nfe nlm lui^TJli* ooidIuiiUTpu* itur ail rbODi labulr; po»ICA fed lodtlor anS.«> 
LafMKtoH, kiwlil. IT. ^1- .MiiibutUtriiin t^uidcnii vE ^piTju^iipiucn, rl i)iiujivElAli>. iiiAKr nt tick ^ Qulluv 
tuAvna MlilBonll rrrpmiTUnt, ijuTim ilHit rffiicti'ilt, •rniJm tn furti d.^kliiriir rt rajiLnn- RA-n^ 
tttfiwaLI. l.t.A. • llunbuilriut. ' Dto, Hmi^r. MVInr. 'Hal. IT. •SAlluit- iTnin. I^/f4m •p]mu>. m Arbtirlih. «il» aU »uch f^mptlcn nwd mrii; ^i Id inHntun homlnom eon- 
llHvg. AukMnnttD Ad w laltunt fhnirem : rto*. tC nw*. vt oculu*. rittBfBcEuut fifrutiBfl tbrrr. 
HTM. Ctajt. botn, 71, • Pu^hMm Jiudu. I. 1. ilr aldl. •Btorrm. 'HklL ilnSil,!!. 

Itao. AitfMaa. 'AV-i. •)• Aln. I. a t, 10. I>a'ui UtibeUui.l S. <!|«. dlir • I'lin MarU. 
■JoiflBUa. In IMfntit. - Prniui, Hat& ■ PnrMlMin iiuui >liiu>. in <|uu (kik iKiirig^miii U-iuDl. 
iHSBi* (•■■ |>K>uil> niai aicnlM. tinoa. m Pan: Caliijiun rmuft*. rhlL 4. enl. 1. Prtt. U. 


IW Cames of MelancMy. [Purt. I. Sec. i. 

Atxidit hotlie trrribiUt tatux (lAith " St. Auntiu) : lie^r a cniscrtbtv ovcicifiiit : 
Cyritlu.i «OTi this ilay, in hi* drink, matrem jir^aanteTn nr^uitfr opftrcstit, 
sarorcm ciolart voliiil, Jtatrrm ocatlit ftrrr, rt duai atiat mroret ad morltat 
vttlncraeit — would liatc viol;it<'it im »i»lcr, killed his father, Arc, A Inie 
suyini; it iriisorhim, virwdari i<stitiam etdoiorem; drink causclh mirlh, and 
dniik causeth sorrow; dlink causcth poverty and mant, (Pruv. 21.) $kaau- 
and dingrace. Malli ii/nobiUi evatere ob eim polam, tt (AunllQ) amistis 
hoHorihut. yrofugi abtmirunt : many iiieii liuve niadu »liipwrvii'k of their 
rartuiiL-H, and t;» liku rugiii:^ iiiid beggars, liavin)c turned all Hieit tvhitima: 
iiilo durum patnbiU, lliat otljorwiHe might haru livt-d in good woraliip aud 
liajipy cBliilc: and, for n few lioun pteaiur*^ (Fgr thoir //iVnry itTin * but 
ahorl), or yfree madtteta (as ticncca cnlli it), purchase unto thcmtclvea 
clurnal tediousncsti and trouble. 

That other madneBg is on women. Apoilalure /actt cor. (saitJi llic 
wise man) '>alt/tie homini cerebrum nrinutt. Pleasant at first she is (like 
Dioscofidea Rhodudiijilnic, thai fair plant to the eye, but poyaon to the 
taste); the n-il as bitu-r in womiwoud in the end. (Pniv. 5. 4) and sliaip as 
a two-edged sword (7,51). Iter hcuft is thr waif ta hell, and nitft down to 
the chamhen of death. Whnt mniv norniwliil niii bi- Kaid ? They are mi* 
scniblc in this life, mad, be»f!t», led liki- ' oarf h to Ihf alnaghler: and (thM 
whii'ii is worse) wboreniasteis and dninkarils shall be Judged; amittnnt 
graliam, (sailb Austin) perdnnt i/loriam, incurrunl damnat'ionera ttlemam. 
They lose ^race and glory: 

-litrrlmOl* loluplu 

'ttniiiia call durav : — . — - 

they gain bell and eternal danrnation. 

SuDSECT. XIV. — Philautia or Self-love, Vain-glory, Praise, Honour, Im- 
moderate Applattie, Pride, over-much Joy, i(c, Cautea. 

Selp-i.ovc. pride, and vain-glory, 'ciecaa amor atii. (whieh Chrysostome 

call* one of tlie devil.t tlirre great neta; " lifmatd, on arraw which piercttA 

Ike sou t thrvugti, mid slayvt i/; a tlye inir.nsi/dr. cneniy, not ptrctired) ate 

main <;ai])ie*. Where ncillu-r iinner, liisi, cov(-i(iu»tie.ii. leitr, soiruw, &c. nor 

any other perturbation. cni> lay liold, this will ilily and inioniibly pervert iis. 

QnriK nonyulu victt, pkdautta supcravit (saith ('y[»rini')i whom surfeiting 

could not overtake, self-love liatli overcome. ' lie Ihnl katk scorned alt 

money, bribes, i/ij'lu. upriyht otherwise and siticerr, hath inserted hintsrlf to 

noftmd imai/inatian, and saslahied all those tyrannical concHpiscenccs of the 

body, kalh lust all hit honour, captivated by vain-glory. (ChrysoKtom. mp. 

Jo.) Ta sola animum mcntemtpte pervris, gloria : a great assault and cause 

of oiir prvni'iit nialndy— ^1tbou);b we do mofct part neRlecl, take no notice of 

it, yet this i* a vinlont batterer of our »uuls. irjiuM^lh mdanchoW and doia^e. 

Thii pleasing himionc, ibis snl\ and whispering )>opular air,aniu/ji/M insania, 

ibis dcl«etablc frcnsic, most irn^fraigaldc pauion, mrntis rtralitsimus error. 

Ibis accepEable disease, which so sweetly »cl* ujidu ii», rHvi.-ibelli our M-n*es, 

lulls our souU asleep. pulTs iil> o)ir hrnrls ■« m mnny bladders, ntid tliU 

without all feelint;. * in so miicn as those that art misaffrclrd with it, nervr w 

much as once percehv it. or ihini of any cure. Wrenmnioiilv lo^r biiii beil 

in this ■ malady, tliat dolli us most harm, and are very willing to be huit : 

adttlatitmibus nnstris lihrnter J'avemut (itaith 'Jerome): we lovo him, we love 

him for it : • O Bonriari, saafe, suave fail a Ic tali hoc tribm ; 'twas sweet 

•^r. XS, id (iMt. In Ennio, rLilivrff< uiilu* how iiimnluii vltfrno inuparii u^in jjr-niHht- 
1 U vEtfliiiluF- ' Vri't. b < Mriiiii, C-are. ■ llur. • Sd^iu. .jno Aiitdjain L■■?1l(^tr>l, JcvttPr 
ppn.'IrDi. "Mi noil Irn' kpiUkfil >iilfiLi>, "..i'- f»"l- ■ Qui «iinjwm |.«-uni*rinn rv-^iU-iiilum hi)rt*ul. ri 
niilli iTnrmlr.Ail'iiLk tuiui* dldh.]! i.' {inirila-'iiPTt'it^ « tjnytii'i-tM ct^iifiii. etmriijitm^-. ntiiLi ■iiiinKicriiil, 
h( ino)iiitir.» riii'ir i iijii r:^"'^^ uiTiHi* i*r.lldrnmi. " liar r.^TfrptJ cuui rnipLrjinr ili. mc.ilc-IA. 
•Dl. uil«iiati,'itu»riiiir|«lnD. 'Ep-tdBaMaeLhiiu, Atc<ul«d.*tl)ilii. •Upt. £p. ul UniuUiluni. 

Mem. 3. Subs. I4.J P/iUautia, or Self-love, ^c. 195 

to hear rt: and, sa * Pliny dotb iiig«QuouBly con legs to liisiieat friend Aujcu- 
rinus, all /Ay irniinfts are most acceptahU, hul tkote ttpedalli/ that (pfak 
of iu: ^■(fiiu. a liltb afltr lo AEaxiiiius, '■/ cuaiwt expretji htiw pU'tamj it it 
to mt to hfor my letj' fimimriuUil, Ttioiigli we smile lii ourgclvc*. ul least 
irunicullT, wlu^n piiranitos hciliiwb iii with iwW: rncomiiins, lu iDuny prince* 
auinoi chuM! but do. juum lalr quid nihit intra se repereiint, wlien tliey 
know tWy come as fur short, as a muiiac to an elephant, or any such ver* 
Incs; ]r«t it doth ns good. Though we seem many times to be angry, 'and 
6iv»h al our own j/raijits, yel our sou It inwardli/ rejoice: it puJftMS up; 'tis 
fftUtix sitavitai, biandus tiarmoa, makes at suirll betjond our bnundt, and 
forget onr tthet. Hit two dituKhtets 3u* lightiit^s of mind, iminodtniic 
joy uitd [ifidi?, iH>t excluding tlio«c utlirr ccmcomilunt vici;!!, which '' .IihIocus 
Lorichius rui'lcon* up — bragjjing, hy|M)rrisie, pievishni-s», nml CTiriosily, 

Now tin: ciHnmon cause of tJiis mischief nriscth from our selves or others: 
' «c aie active and passive. Il proceeds inwardly from our selves, ns we ace 
active cansoB, from an orerweeninj; conceit we have of our good parts, own 
worth (which indeed is uo worth), our bountv, fafoiir.gtaee, valour, slrenj^tb, 
wealth, patience, nieekutu, hospitality, beauty, leni,*iante, gt-ntry, know- 
M)^ wit, •eicncir, an, leiirniiig, our 'exedl^nt ;:ins und fortunes, liir which 
(Nmciuiu like) ne udmite, flatter, uiid applaud our Helvcri, and think all tliC 
world CKteeio* to of u«; and, a> ddormcd women e:u4ly believe tboMi tlint 
tell them tlicy be f»tr, wc arc too credulous of our own cixid pnrts and 
pratMM, too well pcrswudcd of our selves. Wc brng nnd vcnditntc our ' own 
w«tk«, (and sconi all otiiers in le^pcct of us; injlatl idenftd, saitli I'atd) our 
wisdom, ''our leaniing: all our geeiieare swans; and we as basely esteem and 
HliAe other mtn^. us we do over-hi({hly piiie and value our ovt n. We will 
not suffer them lo be in tecundit, tn> out in /cr(ii<; what! mecam cotiferlur 
Ulytuaf tliey are murr*, mu^ct, culivfn, pro- fr, nilts add flies compai'ed to 
his in«xor<ibl<r and supercilious, eminent and nrro^nnt wurihip; tliu ugh in- 
deed tliey Ih: (ar before him. Only wise, only rich, only r<irl»n;ile, valorous, 
and fair, putfed up with ibis tympany of self-conceit, iw the proud 'Pharisee, 
they arc not (as they suppose) like other men, of a purer nud more precious 
metal; ' Soil ret ^erenda tunt e^cacet (which that wixe I'etiandcr held of 
gacU)'.^ me Jilan I ur iimne i/ut prius iirgutium, ^-c. Nori tjutmdum (saith 
' ErasDiiis) 1 knew one so arru^'aut tbal he thought himself inferivur to no 
man Uvin^ti I'ke •" Calliillumes the philosopher, that neither held Alexanders 
acts, or uiiy otlicr subjcet, worthy of his [a-n, such was hia iiisoleoey ; or 
Selcucas. king of Syria, who ihnnghl none fit to contend nitti biui but the 
Rotnans; *tOt totos <l'<gnot mt'i» qvilmecum df imprrio eertaret. Tliat which 
Tnlty writ lo Alliens long since, is still in force — " tlie n was never yet (rue 
poft or orrxlor, that thought any other belter than himnelf. And 3>uch, for 
the most part, are your princes, potentates, great philosophers, hlntorio^ra- 
ptiets, authors of seels urliereties, and all our great scholars, as I'Hieroni de- 
fines: u natural philiHopher it fflarifi crealure, and a very tlave of rumour, 
fame, and pirpvlar timnion : and, though ihey write de contemptu gloriir, 
yet (as he olwcn-rs) they will pot their name* Id the tr hooks. Vobis ct fama 
me temprrdcdi, *aith ']*r«:l>vtlius Pollio, I Imvc wholly consecrated myBelfto 

• Bp. Hh. 9. Oinnii (in'mptapHli-h^rrtmiiniiinnu). nuimo tuiwn lU&quadenohliu '■tnvA. 
mffrif non ^ivtim, iiujun *1e jTjrijtifUim, Sn. * IJlrraii- El. Iloil nua liiAifpo* dltflmu*. tl ralmv* 
nttKPT on pprfiiDiLtl. tiUmi-n itl l,i,.lpin tuBm Lnlrlunwt Hnlraiii IsUnlur. 'TTicMur, Thou. 
-Nm i-uin mlhl idniMiiUrii'ii. Vat, 'K uiiuiIIhu Itlii Nhccdiui tIhIv. Pfn. I. »tt. lOmnja 
aim niutm mpim minium iiliruoL « F.I., I. Id, c. 3. RiJraWf. null" i|i'l romrin.unl pjimim; 
TTVba t^Dilmt vnhi'nli*. f( pi^ Trni'TiuilMf. i-t ultTD. Hk uici>v, luiiluit i|uiil4]uiil «'rl]iwrc. Ivatl. 
^vt.tif.% L 1 'l.iiks. 1*. I'l. iUi-iiitllofrIiilnllnxllpT«on!!»Tit«i. ' Amrai. ..ii. UThll. 
S. OBI. 10, lira. VI. Uul tc rn'ilrioi nrminnn ulU in w prnUnnnivn. - Tinii. lutu .rri|><ii. ui 
Alruiulri gnittBli-riuM •rtlpHn i.iil« »«(«lliiiiir«. Ju. \(wlui, lib. I, mit K, tli-liio. ■ I'lntoitli. 
tIL Cfbmta. 'Smut unc^ ^oMaortK»r.<iuLf|iirmi|4un>tfn*liumQifbUn»rvlvr- 'i-4ii«cLu 
raauDuhlan. Muidi iiliilu><>{iliuii. i^oriir uiiiiii.l.>-l pi'pnlirla aune ■! miiHinun vmiiIc ui*DClI>l<u>i. 

o 2 

196 Canses of MelaneJioty. [Part. 1. Sw. 

you mntt &mc. 'TU all wy desirt, niyhl and day, 'tis all my iludy (o loii 
my namt. Proud i Pliny iecondi him: Quamquam O! i(c. and ilial vaji 
^ori»us ' orator i* not iuh»nii-d to confess in an Epwile of hi* to Maroin 
Ixoceius, artUo incredibili cupiilitale , .^c. I barn witk an incmlible detiH 
to have ' wjr riariie Tfgutred in thy honk. Oui of this fountain proccttl i " 

those cracks and brags. ' tperamtif e-armina fimji poue Untnda wdro, 

l^vi icritanda cupremo " Nim utilald nri: tenni /trar penn6 nre 

terrd morahor longiua. Nil parrum out /tiimili modo, ml morlate. tog» 

DicaT, qui violenx ol/atrrpU Aufidai. Exrifi wonumrn'""" are pert 

MUM. — JaiD'/ae opiu rxfiji, quod nee Jovis ira, nee ignis, S;c. cum Ptnit ilia 
dies, ^e. parte lanifn mttiore mei taper alta perennU a»tra ftTitr,tiomeaq 
trit indrlebih natlrnm— (This of Ofid I have paraphnwctl In English- 
Ami «h*ni KTn ilntd nn'l nooc. | 

. r "^ 

And 1 ■hull >" lis . 

In liatt my irorks fat tntt. 

My fluty •n*ll ftneta, He.] 


icir J 
•it " 

and that of Enniiis, 

I'mil; eurT vuUto •i>u' |i« (it* >(niin,— 

with many %neh proud atrains, and foolish Hnshu, too common with writers. 
Not BO much Its Di^mocharis on ihc "Topirks, but lie wiij tw immortsl. 
TVpotiiis. de fanul, »hal! Iw laiiioua ; and well Ii« deserve*, because he wnl 
of mnK : and every tririal port muat be renowned, 

pUutoquc pmi itbrnerrf nil(l. 

Thb puffing htimour it is. lliat huth proilnrr'd no many grrat Iomc», biiP 
■neb fsRious ntonuBients, strong CMlIn, nnd Maiisolcaii tombs, to liaic their 
acts etvniixed, 

CMclla'Mn'Inrl. rt iMut, " Hia ml I" 

to »cc their names tnii-ribtrd, as Pbryneon the wall* of Theb(!S, Phryne/'ecit. 
This causclli to many bhwly bnliles, 

Bt BDClB* C«ifl1 viftUrr »raiqua ; 

long journeys, 

MatauD) ItFT iDtndo : >o<l <lu mlhl iloiia ■ U «* 

gnining honour, n little appUuie, priilc.wlf-lore, vain-glory — that is it whieli 
mnkeo them titki^ mch puini, ond break out into those ridiculoii* strains, this 
higli conceit of tliemnelvei, to " (com nil others, ridifHlafanlu tt intoUrmtdo 
eoHtemf«,{*% " I'ala-nion the grammarian contemned Var[o,f«c>un ttnatatet 
morituras litcra* jui-lans) nnd brin;;H ihtin to that licight of insolcncy, that 
they cannot endure lo be contradicted, for ktar ofa»y thing bitt lluir owm 
eommendalioH, wliicii Hierom notes of such kind of men -. and (an • Austin 
well seconds Lira) 'tis their sole study, day aiid niyhl. tu be eommrndrd amd 
applandrd ; when as indeed, in all wise mens judgments, qaibvs cor sa/at, 
Incy arr * mad. empty vvuels, funj^es, l)cside Inenisvlves. iitrldvd, r( ut ca- 
mrlift in provtrhio, //utcrrns cornua, ttiam //uas kahehat aurts atnisit ; tlwir 
work* nic toycs, a* an almanack out of dalt;, ^'aueloris pcrrunl qarmlilate 
»«! ; they seek fame and imniortaliiy, hm re»p dishonour and inlam^ ; they 
are a common oblo(|ny, instratati, and come lar »hort of that which they 
siippOM or eicpect. (' ptier, ul ris vilalit, mfivo.) Of so mnnv inynad* 
of poets, rbetorieians,]>bilneophers, sophisiers, (,ns' Cuscbius kcII obicrves) 
which have written in former ages, scarce one ol*a thousands works remains; 
noiwtiKi tl libri sUhhI cum corptn-ibns iuleriemnt ; their books aud Ixidteii are 
perished toijeihei. It it not, a& they rainly think, tliey thalt surely be ad- 

iSplaLV r^filT^nl auA, t>4Flnn Bjf TEo^Ibut. hie iolum pur^o. tl qiiA m« pomim Irrirv hiimo. 
Id nbi mm nKrIi. Sr. ■ TuUiiia, ■ L'l nimKn nrnia trntit tiilt illiumtur.— Iiu]<iIm ktitmui 
iriiidio vcnTitBlIji nnrlH r% *i\e* mr^rb^jr Itt4n,liu. imf, nmr^ .lit 9fal. ■llor, art. PofL 
• Oil, ulL 1. 1. JimiiQr a\ni\ i>iPt(— Ttdr lib»f titit I I'tllnrni. Ii!>. K ■ In lib, ■ -De iHini* 
Mbw*. • SuMou nil. ilrcHTn. I Nihil IITmjIn •■■•lliml. lUt) tandn ««>* ■ Kpl.. M. Nlliil 
•Ifudd* eactrwur c>if Kiuit, ultl mln >luillli tub Iiuflnfui (Mirvilniliuk ■ QuEuajut donmil* 
•alilMuiltirtwUiiinlnt.fliamiiif nbcloifanciuHstl' liuanbs luun. DumiDf, lonin )kc t inr. 
AMia mbC Ilk. 10. (ir- n. >Mul.lAM. • Hit. Su. L I . t. • Lib. imiv rhtl«*. np. I. 

uir, , 


Mem. :j. riub». I4.J Vain-glor^, Pride, Jog, Praise. 

mired and immoilal : as on« told Philip of Maccilon imulting after k riclor}-, 
that bis ibadow was no louder than beror«, wr may tay to ihctn, 

KMdmtiwmr, Hdnosfun dnlrlcmlco. 1 Wc uuriil] loo. notu Itiu tulncm. 
Snl hIuI lliui>y>**> OaifOnu. CI Furiu. J Bui x> <•>> <t<iri^n<. Iliri^y. orTurtdw* : 

AT, if wc do applaod, honour, and admire — i/uota part, how Atnall a part, in 
w*p««t of tlie « We world, never so much as hears our uumu^ ! bovr few uiLc 
notic« of III ! how blender a tract, as scant as Alcibiades his land in a map I 
And y«t every inuti niiisl and nil! b^ immortal, as he honc«, and extend his 
fame to our antipudes, wht^n us half, nu not a quarter of his own prorinceor 
city. iieilhiT knows nor hears of him : but, suy thuv did, what's a city to a 
kingdom, a kin^nm to Europe, Europe to the world, the world it self that 
mu«t liave an end, if compiircd to the tcusl visible star in ihe firmament, 
etghtren times bigger than it ? and then, if those stars be mliiiite, and every 
Mar tbcre be a suo, as some will, and as this sun of ours hath it« planet* 
I him, all inhabited ; what proportion bear we to tliem '. and where'* 
If glof y ? Orlitm lemirum vii^ltir Romanus habehat, as he cruckt in Petro- 
lius : all the world was under Au^ni*lus : and so, in Conslantine* time, 
EuscImus brags Ik- governed all the world : unimrtmn munttum pretclare 

admodum adminittranl ttfrmnc* arhit gcnitt imperatoti iutijfcitt : so of 

Alexander it is given out. the four mnnnrcbies, &c. when as neither Greeks 
not Romans ever had the fifteenth part of the now Known world, nor half of 
that which was then described. Wnal bras:gadocians are they and we lliea ! 
qmam brrrit hie de HobU sermo I as ''he said: ' pudeliil aitcti nominu : hov 
short a time, how little a while, doLli this fume of oms eoniinuc ! Every 
priv&te province, e*erjf small territory and city, when we hav< all done, wiQ 
Tield as |ien«rt>us spirits, us bra^e exaniplcx rn all rex|H^-ts, as famous as 
onnelvi-s— f'iidw;>l!iuler in Wales, Rollo in Normandy — Rubbin-hond and 
Idtlr John are as much renowned in Sherwood, us Ci>'*ur in Rome, Alex- 
ander in Greece, at his Heplmslion. ' Oninis it(ag omnisqvF- pnpulut in ei- 
em/ditm et admiratumeTn erntt : every town, city, book, is full of brave 
fionldiers, senators, seholars; nnd though * Drasidas was a worthy captain, 
ajliood man, and, as they tbought, not to be matched in Laceda^mon, yet, as 
hit mother truly said, /»/ur«t habet SjHtrtii Brtuidd melim-es; Sparta had 
mtmy better men tlian ever he was : and, howsoever thou admirest Ihyxclf, 
thy lnei>d, many an obscure fellow the world n«ver took notice of, had he'b<-rn 
in place or action, would have done much better than he or he. or tlii>u ihvsi'lf. 
Another kind of mad men tliere ii, opposite to the*<-, that are insensibly 
mad, and know not of it — such as contemn all pmisc and glory, think them- 
selves most free, when as indeed they arc most mad : eatcant.srdaliofailHt 
a contpany of cynicks, snrh as are monks, hermites, nnaehorilcs, that con- 
temn the world, contemn lhem«clves. contemn all titles, honours. oHices. and 
yet, in that coutempl, are more uroud than any man hvini; whaliwever. 
TUey are proud in humility ; proud iu that iJiey are not proud : nfpe homo 
de vanit t/ltrriif amlrmtit raniui gtarialiir, ajt Aiislin liath it (cini/Vst, lUi. 10. 
cap. 38): like Dio^^nes, infas gloriaatur, ihcy brag inwardly, aud feed 
themselves fat with a self-conceit of sanctity, which is no better tlian hypo- 
erisie. Tlicy p> in sheens russet, many great men that miifht maintain 
themselves in cloth of gnlo, and »ecm to lie dejected, humble, by their out- 
ward carriage, when as inwardly they are swoln full of pride, nrrogancy, and 
self-conceit. And tlierefore Seneca advisetb his friend Lueibiis, * in kit attire 
and getture, ovlward aclitms, espeeiallv to avoid all such ihtngg n* are more 

* T.;tl. HD. Srtp. •Boflhiin. ' rnlpin. Cl«*lp. hbl. lib. 1. • Pliittft-h. Lwnfxn. * Kplut 
', ]:1tiJ ir tdmoneo. ntconim puitf. qui ii^hii ^jToflfvrr, tvl rumpici'iMiitiuni. fteli* kllqD*, qui la 
' kr.nii :-LJi. wtlfttvT* Ttiv, oaUTiflia tinf- A»|winjni (MJltiim, a(lnlcin»imii:>^iut. npflUnHiDimi Ijvr- 
iMi.. uaJltlDiB wcnlo odhim, riibUp huml Bufiliim. r% aulrlqiili] UInd Imidnn prrrrn) TlttmiiUni. 


Causes of Melancholy. 

[Part. I. Sec. 

tiolable in themselves; a* a rugged attirr, kir»ute bead, horrid btard, cow- 
tempt ofmonei/. count lodijing, unrl tohalsoevcr h'vis to fume thatopponte imy. 
All lW\% niadiiesii yet proceed* (lom our selvcK : the main engin which 
batters ue, i« from oihera ; we are mt-erly passive in ibis bu*iQesi. A coni- 
panv ofpimuilL-s and Ratterets, tliul. with iiiimoderate nraise, and bumbaal 
epitiioten, glo^inc tiUf», (aUv (^lojiium*, to bediwb tria upj)lii(i(!, -/Ad nver 
many a silly and undcrst-rvJng man, (hat they i^l^ip liliii iiuilt^ out ofliiK iiil&. 
Ret imphmi» viotenta rtt laudam placrnla, m Hii-rom note.i: this cnnimun 
applauM! is a most violent tliinsr, (a ilrum, a &(<:. nnd trnmpel, cannot to 
Knimntc) that fattens men, cn-ct* nnd ik-jpcl* thnm in nn inctant. 

It makft tWm fat aniJ lean, a frost duitt conica. ' And who is thai mortal 
man that can so contain kimmlf, that, if kv be immoiIeTatfhj eommrndtd 
and applauded, vrill nnt he mttm-di hinl be wliat he will, tlioip para- 
aitcB will overturn liira : if he hv ti king, lie i» (mi: ot iIip nine wiirtliics, more 
than a man, a God forthwith * {cdiclum Domini Driijuc noslri) ; and liiey 
will sacrifice unto bim : 

-> dlrinDB, t\ lo | 


tlliro l|i>l ilnblmiii. iDprlluiiHo uvntili 

If be be n souldier. thm Tlicmixlucli-s, Kpaniimindmi, Hector, Achiltn, ifuo 
fidmina belli, triumviri tcrnirnm, i/c. u'ld tin- mloiir of Ixith S(-ipio« is Inn 
little for bim ; be i» iniuclissimnt, frrrjiiisimux, miillif tmpiris ornnlissimus, 
natunB domtnus, although lie he /eptifgiilrntui, iiidceii n very coward, a milk 
sop, '"and (as he said of Xerxa) poitrcmut in put/iid, primus in fvy^, and 
Bueli a one a& never durst look tiis enemy in ilie faci?. If lie be n bin: ninn, 
then is lie a Sampson, another Hercules : if bt ptonounee a speeeli, miothuf 
Tuily or Dtmo»tlienes(a!iof Herudin the Acts, thi; voi/cro/Gixi. and nut of 
man) : if lie Ciin make a verse, Humer, Virgil. Ac. And then myiilly wmk 
patient takm nil these (-logiums to himself: if lie lieu srholur so commcndnl 
for hi) much reading, excellent style, melliod, Ac. lie will eviscerate hicnsotf 
like a spider, sDitly lo death : 

peacock-tike, he will displayall bis feathers. If he be aBOuldier, and no 
applauded, his valour extoli'd, though it be tmpar congres^ii, as thai of 
Ttoiliii and Achillea — infelix jruer — he will combat with u gianl, run fir»t 
upon u breach : a« another " Philippu^. he will riile into the tliii'kcst of hia 
CTivnties. Commi'nd his bo us i-- keeping, and he will bcgjjar himself: com- 
mend his temperance, he will starve himself. 

Cn-Ma; rt tmini^nautDyl(triftn«lCKThAbrt. 

he ii mad, mad, mad! uo whoe with him ; 


he will over the "AlpM, to lie talked of, or to mainlain his civdit. Com- 
mend an ambitions man, some proud prince or potentate: si plus tt^uQ lav- 
(/cfKr, (»iiitb i* Erasmus) cristas ertyit exnit hointucm, Vcumsepilat : ho Ml* 
up his ciest, and will be no lon^^er a man, but a God. 

• nltinnUiuoiIcirdorrar m 

ftuD wi4tl. quuin iJiuiltmT, DIa fln|ua iiolo* u«. 

How did thi* work with Alcx.-inder, that would needs be Japitcrs son, and 
1^, like Hercules, in a lion* skin ! Domiiian, a God, (' Dominu* De^lS 
nosier lic^erijnbel) hke the ' Persian kin^, whose iniai^ was adored by all 

■ Hot. 'Quit tpTo tarn t#D? motl^iro hiq mPtlrt Bruavlt. ulc"in} Bjaiduc f 1 ImmodlCfl- Itudkaunn 
Doumt-imill HciL »li-|.h, » Miit ' Sliuu. •Jculin. ■Llvim. Olgril ijalunn'Uliu. tioo 
U, In mfdioa huatn uruur*. iiuiid* r^mpliili, uiuiIbh orjutpicl v piicoairiMii, □ mnnt »piM-Uniibnf 
flfivfium iluHlMt. 'I.tlvinmi, r> •■<»• Fiitn'|irr Alfm A >»lr (liquid, kc. 1)1 [imilt iiIhcm, cI 
(MflnouUit Bat Ja«. 8m. 10. rli>Mur. Entum. iJuirntLftiLL 'Huriaa-c. It in Dumitiuw. 

M«iii.3. Sulu. I.^.J 

Study, a Cairn;. 199 

that came into iht city of Babylon. Commoilua the einpciouf was «■ 
gulled by hi* Raiierin;; paraiiteB, that he must be called Herculw, ' An- 
tODius lite Ronuui wuiild he crowned with ivy, carried in a rimriol, and 
adored fur Baccbiix. Colys, king of llimce, voi married Ki " Minerva, and 
sent thrive m-i'ra] innuRngcM, oiie after aiioUier, t» lee if xliv wvru come to 
hi« brij-chiimbr'r. SuchuDiifiWiui* Jupiter Munccratei, Maainiiiiu* Joviauus, 
Dioclc^iaiius Hcrouleaa. Snpor tlic: Per>iiin kin^, hrothvr of tlic sun and moon, 
and our moikm Turks, that will be Godi on earth, kin» of kin^, God* 
■hjidow, commanders of all that may iiccoinmai)detl,our kings of China and 
Tanaria in tliis present a^. Such a one wat Xerxes, that would wliiu tlic 
wa, feller Neptune, iliiltdjacfualid, and send a challenge to Mount Auiot ; 
and such are many sottish princes, brought inloafools purndiie by (heir iNtra- 
siles. Tisacommon humiiur, incident lo all meniirlieu tuey ace in great pfacca, 
or coaie to the solstice of honour, hitve done, or daerv'd well, to applaud 
and flatter themKlve*. Slultitiam suam produnt, S(c. (saith " I'lutcrus) 
yo«r very tradesmen, if they be cJicclUnt, will crack and bnig, and shew 
ihctr folly in excess. "They have good parts; and ihcy know it: you 
need not tell them of it ; out of a conceit of theit worth, tliey go smiUag 
lo themselves, and perpetual meditation of their trophies ana plauditcs : 
they run at llie last ijuite mad. and lose their wits, Petrarch, (lib I. tU 
cimtemlu mundi) confessed as much of himself; and Cardan (in his fifth 
book of wisdom) (lives an instance in a smith of Milan, ii ftllow citi«:n of 
hi*, 'oue Raleus de Rubejs, ilwt, being commended for ntlindinE of an in- 
slruiucnt of Archimedes, for joy run mud. Pluiureh (in the liic of Arta- 
xcrxea)halh such a like story of one Chamii* a soiddii-r, that wounded king 
Cyriuin battel, and <;reic(AeTwt(/H»ifo 'arrogant, thai, in a fkort fpace afttr, 
Ac lott kit ti/ifj. So many men, if any new honour, othec, prcfcrnienl, 
booty, treasure, possession, or patriniony, ex insptrato fall unto tliem, for 
immoderatejoy, and continual meditation of it, cannot sleep, *or tell what 
they say or do ; tltcy are so ravished ou a sudden, and with vain coiiceiLi 
Iransported, tliere is no rule with them. Euaininondas ihcrerore, llie next 
day oilef Ilia Leucttian vlvlOfy,''came abroad all n/uoliJ and talimiM, Aad 
save iiu otlit^r reason to his friends of so diiing;, tlicn that he [jcrceivcil 
nEmself lliu day before, by reason of his eood lortune, to be too in.tolent, 
overmae.b loyccl. That wise and vettnoiis lady ' queen Katharm, dowager 
of England, in private talk, upon tike occasion, said, (/inf ''sku tuoulil not jetl- 
limgiy endure the extremity of eilker fortune ; but, if it wrre »o that of nectis- 
titythemtut undtTtfO the one.ihewouid be iaadveraily, bccaun lomfurt wan 
«*vfr Konliiig in it; but still cuuritet and government were defective tn the 
othfr .- they could not aioderate themselves. 

SuBSECT, XV. — Love of Learning, (IT overmuch Study. With a Vigretntm 
of the Mitery of SchiAar*, and wkij the Mutes are mclaKcholy. 

Li:o\ARTi;s Fnchiius [Inatit. lib. 3. «rc/. I. cap. )), Felix Plater (lib. 'A. 
de mm/u n/ienu/.) Here, de Saxonia {Tract, post, de melamh. tap. 3), 
speak of a 'peculiar fury, which comes by overmuch study. Pcrnclius 

< Aiifimjii*. >lk ■nmUlarilma tfuvlua. Lilwmm kr P4IHK1 ■pjH'lliirl juhU. fl prv <lf 1 » lemllurit. 
RMmiliu h^dPtS, rliMfrtmi tpUIiu «uf«4^ pt lh3't>nm Urippt, dthiiiiiB)iiii kui^fUicIuf. turn), t«liit 
Llhri )'*lrt. 'trOu nt AlKunibl*. Vuer. tol. iiotl. ' Mriir-riB nnpUu unbiil, luln ftirniv, prt' 

•MWm. II1LI& 


iU> •UrwI. UB. S. -ilffiiiiluniTii. lupfclua fNniiim. U>lii>. lili. U. Oticuluoi >->l. iliiiliiape 
iBfiBla tuKUTlnf^luii'.pl rxn'wiv^ mn]In>n>*p 'mxi*"^ fH^iLri^i unii»t>u«-. E]Ermin<'> ^itlui'uFur. u id 
I|m1 tttm VBCiil homlnn. ■UkJriit 1r lluTii>ii, eiyi\ luvilf^r. fiihf r r#mfiu>. ab tnimitloiii*in inBlm. 
DipnlJ, covhir* OUm Afvltimvitii Ait\i. fira livtitii iriH'ikilt •lfi«utLS iiotUnvium «orT?ptLi<. ob 

qoirvfaqb* rr^tilp DtTr* «I>'»iU jirnorpdlrri ht^-itr Auamim*. ^ Pn>MvLtaqii>liiliu i^t Buliiiuniu. 
Hthr»I*nl>illt1|tujdlii>D lnlnnpirniMllgillc(iHllg[vrl. • l;iiir Urn. VIII. ' Nruliiuiu> fxituns 

ellaa rf wtmaB; quua 111 tutr nulU ungiHii drtfult MUliDm. In kliot nidU* futiilllutn, Ac, Lud. 
VlTHk •fwtulniiiilUrvrnuIrt hintont. 


Catues of MtluHchoty. 

[Part. I. Sec. 2.^ 

(Jih. l.oap. 18) 'puU study, cnnlL-tnplation, anil cuntinti»l medilution, us ui 
eapecial cause of madncw; and. in Ins S6 rnntui. cilvs the itumr «-onli>. Jo. 
Arculasus (in lib. Rkatis ad Almausortm, cap. 16) amongst nihcr causra, 
r^ckOTiB up $tudium ctkemtHs : so doth Letitiu« Leinnius {lilt, de occul. nat. 
mirac. lib. I. caji. 16). ■ Many men («atlli lie) come to thu malady by con- 
tinual ''sludif, and ni^ht'ivakiny ; and, of nil other men, scluflart are ma$t 
ivhjfct to it ; iini) such (Rljiuit udiU) ' that have coinmimly thtjinttt iri/< 
(Con'- lib. 1. trart. 9). Miir'i'iuK Fictnui (deuinit. tutadd, lib. I. cap. T) 
put« rorliinclKilv nmnn|;«i onr of thoitc fivr principiil ]>Iu;u«k (if simlcnti 
lis a cominon maul nulo Ihcni all, anit almost in sninv tnciuurc^ lui mirpnra- 
ble companion. Vnrio (belike for tlint cause) calls trielo philotophos cl 
trvertu. Severe, sad, (try. Ictrick, ace common epiilieics lo scboluirs: and 
' Patriliiis. iherefore, in the Inflilulion of Princes, would not liavc ibem to 
Ik! yreat tiliidenls ; for [as Alaibiavel holds) study weakens tlwir bodies, 
dutU tlitir spirits, abaiM their iitrt:n^tb and conniK': : and Rood Bcliolars a 
Tiprnr ^ood •ouldier* ; wliich a certain Gotli wi-ll |)cri.'tfived ; for, wlien hit, 
cotinliry-mcn cimic into Gr««'e, und would have burned uJI their biiuks, he 
cried out agmnut it, by idl nu-nn^ thty should not do it: * teavt tbem ik 
plague, tvhich in time will eoniume all their vigour, and martini tpirit*. 
The 'Turks abdicated (.'orniitiis. the nejit heir, from the empire, because he 
wB» so much i^iven to liis book : and 'tis the comraon tencnt of tlie woikl, 
that leaniinj,' dulls and diiiiinisiicth tlie spirits, and so, per couaequtra, pi 
duci'lli metanelioly. 

Two main rtasont may b« i;iven of it, wliy Hudcnta should be mor« m 
iect to tJii« niulady ihiui others. The one i», they lire a sedentary, solitary 
life, tibi r( Muiii, free fiom l>odily excreitie, mid thoic ordinary dispcHU 
which olhrr mrn u*c; and luuny limes, if disivintrni nnd idlenc-ui ct>n<:ur 
with it (which ii tiin I'reiiurntl, lliey are nrccipitntcd into Uiis gidf on n 
sudden : but the rommnn cnusc it ovcrmw-h study ; too mncli learning (as 
"'PcstuK told Fiiiil) hnth made ihcc niad : 'tis that other exlrenie which 
effects it. So did iVincavellins {lib. 1. conxil. 12. tt 1^) find by his expe- 
rience, in Iwo of his paiients, a young baron, and another, that contracted 
this malady by loo vehement study ; so Forestos {obntrvat. L 10. »4*crr. 
13) in a yotin); divine in Lovain, tlut was mad, and Miid ° be had a bible 
in kit bead. Marailius Ficinas (c/r sanit. tuemi. lib. 3. cap. 1 . .'i, 4, rl lib, 
2. cap. lU) ^ivvs many rcnsonii °u.'/t_v ttvdrnt* dote mart nftrtt than others : 
the first is their nceligencv; * olhi-T men look to thrir loiiu ; a painter wiU 
wash hit prnrih : a tmilh will look to bis bammrr, nnril, forge i an hus- 
bandman will mend hU plough 'inmt, and grind bU batchel if it be dtiU; a 
faulkner or bunlsntan will have an erpectal tare of hit hawkt, houndt, 
KitTKs, doys, ifc. ; <i muiieiati will Urixg and unstring his lute. ^c. only 
tchiilars neglect that instrument (/AerV brain iinj spirit*, f niton) tc'hi'.h ihfy 
daily uir, and by which they range aver all the. wurld, which by much study 
is amrumfd. Vide (railh Luciati) ite,funicuiam nimis intendmdo, aliifuando 
abrumpas: ««c tliou twist nut the rope 5u hard, till at length it i break. 


h« ^ 


' NlblL m*«I* BUKirL «^ u»ldu thidri. tl prvfumla c*RlliillDfi«. >Non dnuat. qui rt juici atiuUii, 
■n*i tiii^trliidLionr. i**it <lf niT^nil . b}, piwMiitfUk. vain |*U'ruRU|iirnii-|Diic-hii|» nal^tiit tn* 
^ fttuilj Ik « fcjnLJtiiEBi a^jd («riii*l mi-EliuflDii, uuljed \\i ■nmi- Ihmn uLth ^rnU iletljt. 

*l ffifrmpnnvi tiii^trliidLionr. i**it <lf niT^nil . b}, piwMiitfUk. vain |*U'ruRU|iirnii-|Diic-hii|» nal^tiit tn* 
'' ' ' ^ fttuilj Ik « fcjnLJtiiEBi a^jd («riii*l mi-EliuflDii, uuljed \\i ■nmi- Ihmn uLth ^rnU iletljt. 

Grcrlfhuic pe*leea nlliuju^tr. qu» JubEum nun t'Bt iiulii hrrtl oinuL-ni iii iLi-vmn ^n-vi^ira Marh^tii- 
* AcC- M' Vt. " Xiiqii* ■Cmlh* mi'tanjihnUi-iu 'im«]i, dlrma. •* Bibtlum m c^pllp hnbcK. ' Cur 

nrlut. mlln mot Annt; vfTulor, ftnn-^it. livi^i vt auivt-. HllurBm dltluVfluB, At, mtk Muijiriim 
nitttic- Uin bf^ll^mlBB lUaLut iiitlnrmnilunk ilttiil, t]uu luuuduv unli'vnLun BpElri •nJimi^ i^LriLucn 
cUktfl, |i*Blliia DwUfPT* vidHUiliit- ■* Atra*. \,iH arnn Hi* Ubk auil lEaUmdt Diuia) Hi DunuuBm 

Mem. 3. Sobs. Id.] Sltid^, a Cause, 301 

Ficious in his fourlb chapter ^ve» some otbct reajong : Saturn and MerCDry, 
[ tlw- |KtIruiiB of learning, ate Imlh dn,- planets : aii<I On^,iiiits uxiij^nx tlu: 

■ siuni- I'iiuM', ahy Morcurialiit* ntc tn poor, and mou pun beggm ; for 
I that tbcir pn^idcnl Mcrcntj- )iail no IxMtrr Ibnunc lilniseK. Tlic Dc»(inir», 
l::Or old, piit poverty upon him hs a punUlimrnt ; since viticii, poetry and 
Ibcggery aiv yemelH, twin-born brat^, inscpiirsblr conipnnioiit; 

I * Anil, to thltdjiy^lB «Tvry trhn^u ^icHtl; 

I ijrin^fiM rnm [hom rvn» hrncIIt^niE Co ihv hnar: 

IfilcTcury can help tlicm to kiiovlcdKe, but not to money. TIia Mcond u 
eonlftjiplalion, 'vihic/i dryn iht hrain, anii rxlinguishtlh natural hrat : for, 
wkiUt ikf spiriU arc inleiit lontrdilatioa ahovr in thr head, the ilomtick and 
\liftr are left ibtlilale ; arid llicnee come hlafk hlotid and crudilies, by dt- 
Y/tel of ctmetKlion ; and, for want tf exercise, the giiper/iuimt vapourt ctinnol 
tejhate. ^e. The same reasons are repeated by GomcsiuB {lib. 4. cap, I . de 
ttate), ' Nyinaiinus {oral, dt tmaij. ), Jo. V<i»chius i lib. 'i- cap. 5. dc pettt) : 

■ and tomeiibiug tnore they add, that bard students are cominouiy troubled 

■ Willi gciwiA, vutaTrhe^i, riieuma, cachrxia, bradgprpsin, bad eyes, stone, nnd 
Ecollick, 'crudities, 0|>pi1aliunB, rf:rtii7o, wind«, cunMiinjttions, tiiid ul) »uch 
|di»caM!a tut come by orer-inucb sitting: They nre niiMt part le»n, ctrT. iH- 
i,coli>nred, Kpend thrir tVirtiiucs, lo«c thrir will, and miiny times theitmcs; 
Iwid nil ihrongb immodenitc pains, and rxtrnortliimry studi<v'. IT yon wdl 
I not believe the truth of this, took upon great 'I'ostatus and I'homas Aquinax 

■ works; and tell me whether those men took pains? peruse Austin, Hierom, 
I tic. and many thousands besides. 

IMfopilopBtmcuniii nmiingnr nnmn. I lip ibitilnltc-t ihii <^iI^Tfl c<hI t«((ln. 
Male* IjuIU. Irvtt^uc i/utr, mdAvtl c( kltli. | Mu*i iwi^i ^id rn-i^iii iH^furv Ii«< oui 4ltiin, 

amd labour hard for it. So did Seneca, by bis owti roiifc»sioii (rp, 8 : ''not 

a day that I tpend idle ,- part of the Highl I keep mint eyes open, tirtd uiitk 

valtiitff, and nuw slumbtrini/, to their cmtinnal lavk. Hear Tiitly (pro 

Ardai Poeta): uhtltt others loiftered, and took their pleatiires, he vat 

etrntiniiaUi/ at his book So tliey do that will he itcliolais, aiid that to tli<! 

luKurd, (1 hny) of tlicir beallbs, fortutittt, wits, und lives. How much did 

L-Arist«)lle uiid Plulomv spend (uiiiuji rr^ni prrliutn, they luy — more ihati a 

Tkin^ ranxumi') hciw many c-cown* per annum, to pfrTi^et itrls, the one ubout. 

f his History ot' Crciilure*, the ulhpr on his Almagnl ? How much time did 

'Tliebet Qrnchonit employ, to (ind out the motion oi' the eighth sphciir '. forty 

years <ind more, some write. How many poor scholars have lu^t tlicir wits. 

or become dizards, neglecting all worldly atTairs, and their own healtbr 

fwnltb, tss«and bene e»te,loffiia knowledge! for which, after all their pains. 

iothe wofkls esteem they are accouDiedridicalouiaiid silly foolSfideots, asses, 

UKt(»9oht]i«viire) reelected, condemned, derided, dutini;, and inad. Look for 

uaoipks in ltild<-.slieiat dpicit. 2. de maaid ct delirio) : read TrincavcUiui 

(/. 3. cwsaV. 3<>. et c. IT), Montanns {wntii. 233.) " Garceus (de Jvdie. 

oriHt. tap. 3.'(), Merenrinii* {consU, 86. cnp. 25), I'rosper 'Cidemu (in liis 

I Mok rie dfrd^Te) : go to Ucdiam.snd ask. Ur if they keep thHr wits, yet 

r tbvy are esteemed tcrnbs and fools, i by reason of their carriage ; after 

teven gears ttudr/, 

< Kphrmrt- ■ CvntcmpUtl» ^prphrum ■]t*trr4t pt «MtJnctu( ^-alrtrrm ft«cu'4]Kni; untlr rv^rphmm 
tn^fmtm if iii' mi cruUl. ouokl r«l iiicikQi.-hol10uia. Ae^Mrdit «4 boc. ^uo<l rLiEiint Ln coatvfDiilAtiuh-. 
enabnt rnim. I'uidiqu* lulcnta. •ivmcbuia licHtque dnUIBll : gndc. « lUmcuUi uilc uur.lii, 
■■B^Hlt eiavniJi vl nl|^r cincidif. dura uimio uUd BMntmnm tui^rHul vwcim mm viTitlwil- 
■Ctfvtavnv wxtit^Mut, ttrrpot* arMtni fmiLlv^ffunt >SludlW autit rjuihrrli''i. vl nvniiffAin bimv 
ealancli |i»pl«r dfAiiulal«iDdlMnTalHttlu1tt. in»l>]r1i»jjtuTln«u*iiiirTSuti4Tc«. Jil Vvw^Lu*. 
part- S- rKii, X lir pf^v. 'Nollut nnil iitf oiium dl<^ «vU , phrtda (]ui:ri> lUidlLt tlvdti'u, uuii v^-r,* 
Mnmo, ■Htnculc^ tiglliS fidipiln* f*ilailA<(ur, in uprri (li^Uiu'o. ■ J»liiiEiiiini IJunuiiL'hiui Bo^u<mui. 
' BbL. lAlS. ^mtltrut TltH n^mijp ttudlia In phrnifstn luvidlt, M^inLinELK LntUIirrth lii * Pnnnlanun u( 
' TMuaa, * CithUfkUit C«Tia>, nli fkhoitnw tifthikn\ rl dluttinit «tM(1u, ric1u« rnetwkcbolJi^Dri, 
iPm. SU. ]. TliFi csuuot lldiUc : tiul.u TbOOuMixJti M>!d.lit could nuke tiiaiUto»Dl«CDiu » 


Guww of Mtlanchaly. 

[Part. 1. Sm. 

t tKlRmdiu nit 

ricmmqur. M rl>a twpuluiti qum; 

because they cannot iJdv an lionu.-, win'cb i^vcry clowii can do ; ^nltitc and 
cuiifl a genilcU'imiun, <iarv<: lU ublc, cringtr.aud mukc congici. which every 
cuoimun swasher cTiii ilo. hoifKipultt* ridel : llivy nte laiislicilto scorn, and 
ttccoduied silly fooU, liy our gall'tntx. Yea, many liiu««, sucli is tlieir 
nuu-ry, l)]<;y dc-ierve it : o incer teliolar. a mccr ass. 

• Otttujtit t'npllr. rl 1lK4^nlF« luitiini- lurrun. 
Munaura rum houid vt rftTf^uu -JlmiiB ni^iiiTil. 
Ali|ui>npdrHV*1u Irulinaiilur ^rfb* l«^]lo. 

l>t ii^hLJii ulliiliim ; in nlh^fum nU [iiu*# rcvPrti. 
wh«» »ln lean "wry 

Wlifit. by IhmupWn, Lh^ ipiAir Itirl' muTmurLnfi, 

Anil rijri'iu, iiii-urn. 4B'twcn tnlJuicmt; 

&ii?li niiTiluiiHiLj tlifir (Hil-*tFTlcbl lip, 4iid wbni 

Tliciy Tui'diiau. I^irdri'iuu {ifoLElsii-^ mvn, 

Aa. nb' 't/KutAing BiirfniHg tnn ^ trough', 

.iad that ttMchu, ran np^rr ttf tum'JtvumMjihl- 

Thus lliey go commonly mcilitHtin^ untn thcmielTcft, thus they sit, such is 
their action and gesture. ImiI^siis (/. 8. c. 7) inake« mention how Th. 
Ai^uiuas, sii|)|>ii)g with king Lewis ol' France, upon a sudden knocked lii* 
fist upon ihf table, and eryed, eonclvsum eit cvilra ManUhirot; his wiia 
were a wuoUKatheriug (as they savl, anU liis litad Imsii-d about oilier 
Biattriii: nhfn he pvrcmved his i^noi, he wa« much' ahuhrd. Such a story 
then: n nf Arcbinii^tlt-s in Vitiiiviiis, that, hiivinK: found out the mean* to 
know bi)w much ^^I'^^vas niingh;il with ihr. silvi:r in king Microns crviwn, ran 
naked forth of the Imrh and <:rycd. dp^ta, I hme found ; •■ and toag com- 
mimly n> itUent lo hU gludics, that /it tifvcr perceh^eH what u-a» done abuut 
him : when the city wit) taken, and the touldiert now readi/ lo rijlv his kaase, 
he tiMik no notice of it. ' S*. Beniuid rode all day lonjj by the Leninian 
lake, and asked at lunt where he? was (MaruUns, Ub. i. cap. 4). It was 
DonocrituH earriage atune timt made tlie Abdentes *iippoM him to hare 
bM!n rniid, and iM^nd fui Hip(ini-nite« to cure him: if he had been in any 
xolcmn i:onip:iny, he would n{H)n all occiuion* fall a laughing. Throphr.utiis 
Jiaith ns much of niTnrhtu», for that he conlinuully wept, and )^niu» of 
Menedeniim Lamp*nrcnii», because he ran hke n madmurt, ' say imi.hf came 
from hell us a epte, lo tell the dtt'iU what mortal men did. Your (palest 
8tudi?iit3 are commonly no belter— silly, soft fellows in their outward be- 
haviour, absurd, ridiculous to others, and no whit ex|)erienced in vxirldly 
husineai : tliey can meaimre the heavtiiii, range over the world, tf ach other* 
wUdum; and yet, in bar);a)ii!i and contracts, ihty arecircumventf^d by every 
ham: trjdesnian. Are not these men fwiU ? and bow sfiould they be other- 
wisc. //r(( nn «i many *iit* in tchmils, ichrn (ii« ' he well ubrnTved) thei/ nrith/rr 
hew nor tec inch thingt as are ntmmnnly practincd abroad f how nhould 
they Kct experience ? by what ni«un« ^ ''I Anew in m^ time miiny icholars, 
saitli jEneas Sylviii«{innn cpi»t]e of hi« to fi;uip<:r Scitirk.chiinc-ellor ro the 
cniperour) excellent well learnrd, but to rude, so fillit, that they had no 
eamiHon civility, nor knew how to matmgi? their domestick or putilick affairs. 
Paglarensit was amazed, and said his farmer had furely cozened Aim. when 
he heard him tell that his sout had eleven pigs, and hii ast had but trae foal. 
To sny t!ie best of this profeiision, I can give no other testimony of thein in 
general, than thatpf' PImy of Isteu* — he it yet a scholar ; than which kind 
of men there it nothing to simple, to lincere, mine better ; lliey arc, most 
part, hanuleu, honest, upriyht, iaaocent, pbin ileulitii; men. 

«tafaQtiim. ■ihLquaa*iui*«4ivumpkl1 Atluii**. Ei w^rlrm ttuiUSi viiiii* drdil, iqwimjUqim Lllirli 
«ft«uni^ BtalLiA Uf-jiunuutukit l'U'n'ni,|ur, H rk«i (Htpuhim i|U4ilt- Hue, rp. H- liti. S- *Vrr*, AUt, 
^1^vib>ii['.1 by M a lliitL.lky 'T]ib>iai», mb-jn oovfutii*. fllxtl *r druiEiim'-nrn L'oi^U**^. * I'lu- 
Omb ■ii'k MAivf.]U Nix'ttntil urbrin ,!ia|rUjq. kvn luiUIrt In aomum lTn>4'iiI««. adrv luUralut tlviUu. 
lETr * Lib. f, <M|>. m. 'Sub F^riir UniA irirTuinitir itrlM^iu, diclirjt,^ m^ nuiirr&t^iTDiii nb Ln^rit 
n ifM M *.arlimruni 'LimonHju* miirta-lluin pi'nrhU i purriinuiv E^i^ibitrvr inu-botlaftialUqlinoa 
toPl. quU nthil turiLin. t^iiK in EiiLU h.ihTniiK. nuf vuLliiiiIiuI vidrnl- ^Ni'H. m^it ilLeht>i. ulcruaqtiff 
■tiiial« llliTtmmdntitkja. c^ul di«clpbni> nilirki.i'bLni nlinniljiTFJijil : khI hi uJhkWiTUllbrit h«bc(^i1, urc 
TVIU pulfl. 1W itomr^rifun riifinv n^TBTiL. Hlut>uhl rii^litrt-rb*1-, n runi vilUcuin ■erfihiiil. ^ui puvn 
trbBR mub«iiB |iortrUo«. ulnun unani iIiehIiixiI imliutij. ,:iiiuiin rrtuictit- * Lib- I- E]>1-L 1. M^ 
iiup HhiiU'ti'^i* Ufitura ctt ; ijmu ^li-riiLummutti, tilhnjmlVkttlmpJlriUB.HiitBlnwnut. KulmrUiUk 

Mom. 3. Subs. I&] 

Shidff, a Cause. 


Now, bcmuic thry arc commonlT subject to inch liaiard* and incoovc- 
ni«nccs. as dotage, madn^M, ftiniplietiy, &c. Jo. Vofchiiu woiiM linve 
t;ood §elio1are to be hi{;hly rewarded, and Uud hi some cxtraoidia^ry rp&perl 
above olbef men, l to have grrater privUtgfi ihan the real, that a/ivrnlurt 
Ihcmtrlpes and abbrei-iaie ihtir liKrs/or the pnblick tfood. But oui patrons 
uf Iramin); *4re *o far, now a dnyrx, from rmpt'cltng the Mtues, and giTin^ 
that Iiunuur to »cliolurK, «i' leviird, whi<'h llicv dcKcrvi-, and are allowed by 
iltoMr iiultfl)^t privileges of many noblo priiicv», that, aflrr all their pain* 
tdkun in the uiiiT«ruiic», cokI and cbarge. expcnccs, irkxom hours, taliuriou* 
tiuks, wearisome dayeCr d:io(;;erB, hautrda (barred interim t'loin nil plcnniirca 
whicli other men have, mewed up like hawki all tlicir lires) if iticy cbaitre 
to wade ilirougli tliem, tlicy shall in tJie end be lejccled, contetnucd. and 
(whk-li is Ihcir greatest mJierv) driven to tlii^ir siiJlYs, expuied to want, 
(Miveity, 4nd bi-^;|^ry. TlK'ir lumiliar nttcndanU are. 


Rrli'f. Ldbuur, Car*, pulp HIcknrH. Mlwttn, 
Tvrrkt.l? mijn'tvn Ui hit n-vn vilh i.yn. 

Bt M«lii>. t< Tiiilrvuail4 FiunpT, Bltur|.i* £^iBm» 

If there were nothing; eUe to trouble tlitrni, tlK^ eunci^it of tlij* alone were 
enoash to make them all njidaitcliuly. M»«i other trades and piufesiioiis, 
jsfler M;me leveii ye^ri prenlircship, urr enabled tiy tlieir irrutt tu lite lit 
theiiiselvt-s. A merchstit adventures his goods at scu : and, thuugli ht> 
liiujird be grt-at, yet, if one ship retam of four, he likely makm a saving; 
voyage. An husbajidmans gains aiv nlmost certain ; giiibas ipfn Jupitrr 
nocere non potttt ('tit ' Catos hyperbole, a ^rtal husband himself) : only 
sclioiars, methinks, arc most uncertain, unreipecled. subject to all rasiial- 
ttes, and hazards : for, fiist, not one of a many ^rovc* to be a scholar ; all 
are not capable and docile; ex omni ligaononjit Mercunns: "^ we cau 
make majors aud officers everj- year, but not scholars : kin^ can invest 
knight* and barons, as Sigismond the empcrour confcsMid : unirersities can 
give degrees ; and 

faat h«, nor they, nor all the world, can f-'ive learning, make philosophers, 
artists, oratour*. poets. We can soon say, (as Seneca well notes) O n'rum 
^Mujfi .' (I iliritem ! point at a rich man, a good, an happy man, a proper 
man, sumluoiC vrMilum, calamlitralum, bene olrnlcm : magno tempuriji tm- 
ptvrtio roiifia' hirr lauiialio, o lirvm Utr.nititm ! but 'tibi not ta eaxilv per- 
luiRicd to hnd (lilt a karned man. l/'itrning is not co iptickly got : tNoiiifh 
they tnny lie willing to Uike pains, and to ihat end siifficicntly informed and 
liberally maintained by their patrons and pnrcnts, yet few can compon* it : 
or, if they be docile, yet all mens wills arc not answerable to their wits; 
they can apprehend, but will not take pains; they are cither seduced by 
bad companions, vef an pueltam tvipint/unl, vet in pocitltim, 3in^ so spend 
their lime to their friends ^rief and their own undoing*. Or. put case they 
be studious, induslriom, of ripe wju, and iierhap!! good capacities, then 
how many diseam-s of body and mind nmsl lliry i^ncounter? No labour in 
lite world like unto i^tudy. It may be, their temjieraturc will not endure it : 
Init, iiriving to be excalent, to know nil, they lose health, wealth, wit, life, 
and all. Let him yet happily escape all the(« hazards, <rt'ris inlrilinis, 
with a body of brass, and is now consummate and ripe ; be hnih profited 
in his 'tuHies, and proceeded with all applause : afU'r many expe4ices, he is 
fit for preferment : where shall he have it ? lie is as far to seek it, as be wiu 
(after twenty veara siandiiij:;) at the first day of hh eoming to the university. 
Fur, what courie shall he lake, being now capable and ready ? The most 

iJurc pii<Ur()anai. qui ob cemnninf bcmam ablinTtuii tM ttans, > Virg. Xa. llli. C- 'Plu- 
TVS ^1 pu'tA i)qoUnuiA mm lukf Star, 


Causi-t of MeiaHchoti/. 

[Part, 1. Sec. 

parable and easie, and ftboiit wliicli mauj are imploycd, u to tnncJi tt xcliool, 
turn lecturer or curat; and, for tJiul, he &liall have faulkncts wages, 
pound per annum, and liis iSitt, or sonic iiiiall uipend, so long as he > 
please hix patron or tin- parish ; if they approve him uol (for usually tli«^ 
do but a year or two — as inronsunl, as "lliey tliai crjed. " Hosanoa" ob^ 
duT, nnd " Cnicilie him " the oilier), «:rviii);-inun like, he mitBl go look . 
new RHuler : if llicy do, what i* hi* reward ? 

' Kvc i|uui]iiir 1r niuivt, ul uiii'ruk i-U'incEiti tbuHmuta 

Like an aa«, he wears out hi;* time fur provender, and can shew a stum rod, 
to^am. Iritnm et liiccram, vdilh i' HttUuii. an old torn |^wn. an en»i|;n of 
lu» iiirelicity : he bath his Intxiur fur his pain, a modicum to keep him (ill he . 
be decrepit; and that is all. fSraiamnticus nan /clix. ifc. If he Im a' 
trencher chaplain in a genilcmans hoiuc. (as it befcl '' Euphurmiu) uficr scimc 
aevtn ypiirs Bcrvicc, he may perchance have a living to the halvrs, or nonn! 
small rccton- with the molher of llie maids at Icnf^h, a poor kinswoman, or 
u unicht chamber-maid, (o have and to hold during the time rjf his life. But, 
if he olTend bis ^ood patrun,or displease lii» lady mistresin the mean time, 

• Ihici-lur pUnii. "plot Ictu* ih Ilrrrolr rimv 
fanriiiiitae bat*. •! quldlcaUivrilttuqium 

w Hercules did by Cacus, he shall l)e dragged forth of doors by die heab 
swsy witli liim, fr be bend his forces to some Other studies, with wa iu 
to be a Kcrelis to some noble maD, or in sucti a place with an embasndourJ 
he ahall fmd tbai these {>er!U>ns rise, bke preutises, one under another : aniT 
BO, in many tradesmen* shops, when ttie master !!■ dead, the foreman of tliel 
•Imp commonly stqis in hit phirir. Now for poeti, rhct uric inns, hisUiriuns, j 
phijfl)u>plicri!, * miithematicitin*, inphixters, &<-. thoy aiv hke ^nuhoppers : ' 
ting they must in unmnier, nnd pine in the winter; for ihen^ is no prefer-! 
nncnt for ihcm. Even so they were at first, iC you will believe lh*t pleasant] 
tale of Socrates which he tohl fair Fhtedmg under a plane-tree, at the batiksu 
of the river Ismenus. About nooo, when it was bol, and the Krashoppettl 
made a noise, be took that sweet occasion to tell him a lale. bow f;;ra*hop*i 
pers were once ^chola^», musicians, poets. &c. before tlie Muiust were bom,| 
and lived wittiout meat and drink, and for that cause were tunied byl 
Jupiter into grashopperx : and rnay be tiiracd again, in Tilhoni cictdas, ant} 
J-ynorum ranas, for any reward I sec ihey arc tike to hnve. : or else, in the 
mean lime, 1 would they coidd live, as they did, without any viaticum, like 
BO many ' manucod'tala , those Indian biiils of Paradise, as we commonlv 
call litem — those, I mean, that live with the air and dew of heaven, and 
need no other food; for, being as they are, their " rlielorici only ttrvrt 
them la curie their bad forlanrs ; and many of ihem, for want of means, 
arc driven to hard sJiiftt; from graslioppers, they turn humble- bees and 
wasps, plain parasites, and make the Muses mules, to satisfic their hunger- 
starved [HiDchcs, and ^tl a meals meat : To say truth, 'tis the e.ommoD 
fortune of mo*t nehobr*, to be si-rvili- und poor, to complain pittifiiUy, and 
lay open their wants to their rc»i)cctlc-w patrons, as " Cardan doth, as ' Xy- 
Inndcr, nnd many others; and (which is too common in those dedicatory '| 
epistles) for hope of gain, to lye, flatter, and with hyperbolical elu);tmiis . 
and commendntions, to inagniHe and extol an illiterate unworthy idiot, for 
his excellent vcrtues, whom thev should rather (as ' Mac!iiavcl oImoivu) 
vilifie, and rail at downright for Ids most notorious villanies and riccn. So 

• Mil SI. 

■ Hot. fp. W. I I, 
< \r*. Fullt- ulr^ " AJJruTib'lui, ilc Avjlxm. 

V Lib. 1 dc* coatcm. Buor^ ^8*l>rlroh- ■ Joir- ItftL ti, 
.. . I Afiljiiji, I. 1*^ (imiirr. t*- • LlUrv lultrnt, <fii.iUtlhl*r 

fortiin* Mim ip«!rdi4-unl- a*L Unitp. * LiIl iv Librik pritj^rlit. fnl. 'iK * Pi*f4t trhn^Ul T'lu- 
UTi'h. • Pnlli. ditput. l.<uililHu ntolluiii ma, w *l iimailnu iwUcnnl. quM. oh innnLu inlm. 
puliai •llupmi* vfmritt. 

Mem. 3. Subs. I5.j Shtdg, a Cause. 


ktliey (mxititule Ibemadves, ai Rdlcrs or merceuary tradesmen, lo serve |n%al 
I tarn* iiima for a mnall reward. They are like » Indians ; ihey have alor* of 

gold, lint know nol ihe worlli of U : for I am of Svntaius opiuioti, ■ A'iny 
r i/trrou got morr by .SimonirfM acijuaintancr, than Simonirlm did fty hU : 

IIm-V liarc tlicir b^*t (rdticntion, gooii instiliition, mAp i|ua!ilic'iUioii from ««; 
' Kod, wlirn ihcv huvr done veil, tlicir imnour mid immorulity t'rnm ii> ; we 
we the living tombs, rrgisters, and so mniiy lriini|ictotin" of i.licir Inmcs: 
I what was Achilles, without Homer ? AlcxaD<lrr, without Arrian and Cnrtius* 
^ who had known ihe Ccesarv, but for Suetonius and Dion ? 

• Vitrnmi fnRn unlr AimmuMna I Ummlot. Inontliiui*. lungt 

Mullt : led idnna LUocrymahilH j Noclv. carmt qul^ t»1c laero. 

arc more bcholdvD to schoinn, than tdiolun to them ; but they uudcr- 

thcm»clves, aod so, by those great men, art- krpt down. Let ihvni all that Encyclopaedia, all the learning in the world ; tlify muxt kcr^p it 

1 to themselves. '' live in bate eUeem, and tlan<e, except Ihcif will suhmit (aa 

BudieiiB well hath it) so many ijaud parli, so inanij tnsiijnt of arii, vertue*, 

■.and be tlariihly obnoxioux to tome illilrrate puUnlatt, and livr under hit 

inioteitt woTthip, or honour, like paratilr.t, ijui taai'juam murtt, alientim j>a- 

ntm comeduTtl. For, ti> sity trutli, arlrt ha mm aunt lucralivir (an Guido 

BoRiit, that g-n-ut astrologer could foresee) tiicy be not^nful artii tlie^, let/ 

t^urieultx el/amelictt, but poor mid hungry. 

■ t>>l 0»!ciu> op™ 1 dil JntUBlinui liunuri-i ; | Tlu'tkli iihy«[L-i»n, lionoiii'il Iswjfn, rtdc. 

Poverly la tJie Muses patrimony ; and, as that poetical divinity leaeheUi us, 
wheo Ju|>itCK daughter* were each of tlieni married to the Gods, the Muses 
aJone were lett nulitary. Helicon for^nken of all siiteri ; and I believe it was, 
becauic thuy had no portion. 

Erer uncc, all their followers are poor, foj'sakcn, and left unto themselves ; 
In so much that, as ** Petronius ar^e^, you shall likelv know them by their 
cloaths. There cume, sailli he, fiy chantr inta my oumpany, a feltaw, not 
verif ipruce lo look on. that I rtnild perceive hy thai note alone, he V!as a 
scholar, ii'hom cnmrnOnlij rich mtn hale. I asked him tL'hat lie wit : he ua- 
tinrred, u port. I demanded again why ht wat »o ragged : he told me, Ikie 
JUnd of (turning never VMde any man rick. 

• fkttpelitoeirdli.uucnu w lisnair lulUti 
Qui |iiinvrtcA>Irfi|ic1it. |ir*>-ifijjtturiuiED; 
Vntt MiilHtcr Dif to JnlwT rt>rtu« o>tro ; 
8oIa tiruiuMii liorr«t l>icuni]iM pjmniiL 

A mcTdiuili f «iu Lt fffvftt. tlkjti eun to hk i 
A kouldirr vmlxpk-vd ill In ^"1*' ^ 

A tphofiT only TitfEril to bobald. 

All which our ordinary Rttitleiiti right well perceiving iii the aniversittea— lu>w 
unprofitable tlwMi poetical, maLicmalieal. and philnHiphienl ttudiex are, 
how little n'-^pected, how few patrons — apply thrmKetves in all ha-itc to 
those three eommodions nroicMtous of law, physick, and divinity, sharing 
thcmsclvcM l>cIwceo them. 'rcjecling these art« in the mean time, history, 
philosophy, philology, or lightly passing them over, as pleasaut toye'J, titling 
only table talk, and lo furnish them with discourse. Tliey are not so be- 
hoveful : he that can tell his money, hath arilhmelick enough : he is a true 
ffeometrician, can measure out a good fortune tti himself; a pi-rieet astro- 
togcr, that can cast the rise and fall of other*, and mark their ermiit motions 

t Or, fe* hor*r* knov nol ihclv ttrtnjtili, iiivy pOMSitlirr nol thtit owu worUL ■ Flura ut Siipuui. 
dift fUbtUulul* EljfruiL (uiurgmilu, Tht. 4JUIUI1 v% illurLriil* Sititiiiuilc^ • [lor, lllv <- nd. 9- * In- 
brr inPFivt ct (ilttx'iuft fi-n jtcut, uliiEnum lurnni hiilirnB, niAi tiii ajXU tLrruii*iut iji«l^iji, tntpitvr. 
olltf^tb*. "ijjv^rtuutallilu fawJFiiifl .iLl-Jct'i'rU l^ml^nT lTih>l^ntl>iqi]|' ]>n1i>nllit. Lib, 1. i.* v,i^tlvnit. 
rrruTn roTtiiiumm, ' T^Ljchannn, f^ci. Mh. ' In ^tyrlpo. Tnlr^t tnu-i. ti'J culiu jiun Ua ■[■?- 
dOMU^ Hi r^iiJ*^ Apjianrol ^-uiii hke uulA Ulcntam «var; i|ul>» dlvili^>udu«r •uli<i>t Kt{i\liiquiL|iu,<tEi 
tauai. QuAcrrririi uni luaK- trtliliui^f rnipttrhtjr t[Mi|]ii: HnuitlnfiimllnrmfntTn urtnnun dlvilrm 
fpell. "PHdidlu* Arhli^f. '(^pTrwu* [mup^rutv >nimu* luIiLt iiAutluiii mil ■>ibiin» ro|lbrK 
imM*l> Amttnltuc* Ni?r*niiii. (ill rloHnbam. -luantuu nihil I'lnldil [• lili wl lUiB MmmiMlun 
itdn, iittmo ntt^cTP, Dox <mUbp. IticfriL Unn*. 


206 CaHMs of Itietanchoitf. [Part- 1. Sec 2. ' 

(o his own uih:. Hin bi.*«t oplicks arf. to felled tliu beanM uf itmx ^tt-M 
meiid favour and ^icc to shiiic upon liiin. Ilv » u ^il unclnenr, lliat 
alotie can make nn instrmncnt to ;;ct prclcrmeiit. Tins was tlie commoii 
leiifiit un<l practice of Poland, asfromtrus observed, not long ■iii«c, in tlie 
lltst lio'ik of liis hisiofv : ilioir uiiLvenitii.-:t were t^ncrally ba»c ; not a [ihi- 
]oRi>|ilH'r. a iiulhematician. au antitiuaty. &c. lo be found of any uoie 
anionK*t them, becaiuip Uity had no jrl reward or alipcud ; bm et-ery mxn 
betook biiuMtflo divinity. A»c m'u»> )R voiU hnheit*, opcmant saccrdotium: 
R goad pertonsjie wa« lliL-ir aim. Tlii» wax liic |irdi:iii.T uf suiue u('i>ur nucr 
ni.%'bbuiir!t, a* ' [.ipMiii; inveighs ; tkoj thrust their ckiidrcn to the ttndif of 
latv atui iiit:initii, ttr/nre lUeif be iuforntfd ariijht, or capahh oftucfi Htufliet. 
Seilicrt omnihui orlibus anthlat ipvi litcri ; et Jbmt/mor eti cumulus aun, 
iju'iai tfuidijiiiii Gritci J,aliiiu/ae deiirantei icrtpgirranl. Ex hoc mumera 
diriarU tietiiunt ad gahemacula reipali. inltnunl ft priegvnt cmigiUit reyum ; 
o pater ! o patria ! lo lie cuin]>iairie<l ; and »o many oilien : for even no we 
find, lo serve a gteat man, to^i-t an offit-c iu some bishops court (to pructtse 
in some good toon), or ci>mpa« n hunelii-e, u thk' mark we nhoM at, a« 
bein;^ to advaiilagiouK, tli<- Iiigh way \a prrlVrmicnl. 

AUIioui;)i, many time*, for aoglit I can sec, \\ic\e men foil aa often :it the 
r«ai in thor projects, and are as usually fniM.ruli' of tli<^ir hopes : for, let him 
be a doctor of the law. an excellent civilian of good worth, where thnll he 
prsctisi! and cxpaiiatcT Their fields are so scant, the civil law with us so 
contracted with proliitillions, ho frw euunes, by reawn of thoM idi-dcvounog 
iRunicipal laws f^rjuil/as nihil iUtteralitit, saith ** Erasmus — an illiterate aud a 
barbarous studv; for, thoii>rli Uh-v be never w well learned in it, I tan 
hardly soucbuale them llic name of h-IioIuts, except rliey be otliorwiie i|Utt- 
lified) and so few court* are left to that profi^ssion, such slender (iflice.i, and 
tho*e commonly to Iw eompMBrd at such dear rili.-s. iJiat I know nut honr an 
iogenioii* man slioutd tlirivc amount them. Now, fur physicians, tlurc nns 
in every villngc w many mountebanks, cmpi-ricks, quack -salvers, Pamcd- 
aiaiis (as they call ihemtelves), cautijlci el tanicidif (so '(ilcnard lernia 
them), witttruE, nlcumiet}, pour vicars, cast afH>thcciirie«, physicians in«u, 
barbers, and good wives, profe«sin^ threat skill. ih<it I make great doubt bow 
they shiill be maintained, or who tihall l>e their palienta. Uc^iides, there an! 
so mnny of both sort*, and some of them such baipyes, so covetous, su cla- 
moious, »o impudent, and (a» ' he said.) litigiou* idiuis. 




tlnlbut toqijfloli ■Etttlm ftm^ulltt nl, 
l'r-rl(Jt< t^rum nul uMA, 

C'mmnjiniulfs nallf>, 

Which hbrr iio •VIII. Iiui ■■ntlne urogaii*. 
NititfsniJDfr, kui^hft iiuno-mlliLlnif h*clun. 

M^iieiH UtijeAiitliiJn 
Cobun. lojali tullum. 
t^xniB stumnl. Bf ytu^ Jt& 

that they cannot veil tell how to live one bv another, but, as he jested (i: 
tlKicomedy) of clocki. they were so mnny, ' wyw/wM ptyra/i «j-iiii rrptat 
famf, they aie almost stancd a great part of them, and ready to devour 
their fcllom, ' (^' noxxd caitidilate te vorripere : such a miitlitudc of pctti- 
fogcers and empericks, such impo^lor?, th^tl an honest man knows not in 
what sort lo compose and behave himself in their society, l» carry himself 
with credit in so vile a root : acientia nomtn, tot iumtibus partum ft vi^ilux, 
profileri duniidral, poftt/nam. ^c. 

Last of ail, to eoine to our divines, the most noble profession and worthy 
of doable liononr, but of all others the most distrcswd and miwiable. Ifynu 
will not bi:lievc me, hear a brief of it, as it was. not many years since, pub- 
licly prcaehed at Paiib cross, '"by a prave minister then, and now areiercnd 

t epIilnL nllML liULfii. tl. •Ctamn. >tiiil. < Enlil. Ill), t. i It. IJvuib. Klmlun lUk t. 
vtt.%, • Wuidik I B»iic. Aewnii. lib.*, -Joh. llairHin, 4 Mvrtoibrl*. IWJ. Tl>» ■wihib 
wnr'i"'^^ Araold lUnflcld, 

(in ^ 

Mem. 3. Sobs. 16.] Study, a Causf. 907 

li**bop of Uiix land. W<, that are bred up in Uaniiitg,a>Kt dcstiuatcd by our 
partttU to this «ttd, we f^ffvr qvt tkUdhood in the fframmrr school, which 
Ahstin calU magiiam tj^mnnklvm, ct ^rarr malum, and compares it to the 
tonaenU of ntarttfrdom ; wAm we come to the uiiitvrsili/, if we iive of the 
CoUe^e allowance , as Phalaria objected la the Leonlinet, wnrruy irciit ^Kify 
Xifioi vai fii/inv, needy of all tliingt hut hanger atutfear ; or, if we be main- 
tained but parllif bj/ nar parents cost, do expend in [un] necttsary maiittC' 
iKince. boobt, and degrees, before vt COtM to any perfection. _five hriudreth 
pounds, or a thousand marks. If, by this price of the expence of time, our 
bodies and spirits, our tiibstanre luul patrimonies, we cannot purchase those 
small rewards, which are ours by taw, and the right of inhcrilaaev, a poor 
personage, or a vicarage of 50(. per nnnum, but we must pay to the patron 
for the leott of a life (a spent and out-worn lift), cither in annual peiuion, 
or above the rate of a eojtpyhotd, ami that with the hatard ami loss of our 
souls, by mnimy andperjnry, and the forfeiture of alt our Sfnrilnnl prefer' 
mfuis, ill etse anil jxikm, both present and In eotne ; to hat father after a 
while ufill be sn improvident, to briiit/ up his ton, to his great charge, ta this 
nrassary hrggrry f What Christian u'ill be so irreligious, to bring up his 
ton in that course of life, vihirh, by all probability and necessity, ciiioi a»l 
tar]iin, enforcing to sin, will entangle him in simony and perjury, when at 
th« poet tmth, 

InilMlai id b«;*lii|ui> lit pdnle npgibll 

a beggtrt bral, titkenfrom the bridge where he sits a begging, if he knew the 
ineoactmienct , had cause to refuse it. This being tliii.<, linvr not «e iish^l fair 
all Uiitwliile, tJtat uro iiiitiut); diviiKU, lu 6ii<l no bvtlrr fniiu of our labour*? 

• ITocnl. cur [itllnT cur<tufc> non pinmU^!, liccrvCf 

Do we nia<:«rait.- our sdvos for iliis? la it for tliii wc riec to early all the 
loriK, " leaping (ta be wiilb) out of our beds, whm we hear thv bell ring, 
if we had heard a thunder clap ! If lliii be all tbu respect, reward, and 
w, wcdiall buve, 

let us give ant our books, nnd bcUike ourxvlvcA to sonic nthcr course of life. 
To wti;iit end should we study 7 

what (lid our {lud-nu wciUi to umke us acholars. to he as far to »cek for prcfcr- 
Bieut al^r tireiily vears niitdy. ujiwi' weteul Grst I wUydowe lake such jniitft? 

If there he no more hope of revitni, no Wtlrrcncour^igvincnt, I>ayagatu, 

fet'* turn souliiicn, sell out books, and buy swoiiU, %am, and pikes, or stop 

bottles with ihcnt, turn our pliilosophL-rs gouoii (as Cluantho once did) untu 

millers cuats, have all. ami ratW r Ijelake our-sL-lvea to any other course of 

te, than to »>ntiiiue louj-i-r in tliU misery. ' Prastat denlisealpia radere, 

literariis manumfntis tnagnatum fotorem eme-ndieare. 
Yea, but mc think* I hear »o me muii except at t\>r»: word*, tint (tliongh 
lilt* be true which I Imve laid of llie i:xlate of scholar*, and ctperiiilly of di- 
vined, that ii is niiKeiable and disliv$s(sl at this limr, that tlie church suiTcrs 
•brn«rack ol her goods, and that they hare juxt cause to conipl.-un) there is a 
fault; but whence proceeds It? if Uie cause were j\i«vly cxaminpd. it wonld 
be retorted upon our selves ; if we were cited al that tribunal of truth, we 
tliouid he found g'uilty, nnd not nbic to excuse it. That there is a tault 
amon|; 111, 1 confess: and, were there not a buyer, there uuuld not be m 
udler : but tu tiiiu that will t-omider letter of it, JI will luore than mauifettly 

• rmbu k 
f Hut. t Mill. 

' E l«lu rAtUlrnbi. id >iil<Uum UbiUiuIhiII ■■lumn. luul fulmbw ImUl. I 


Causes of Melanekoltf. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 

»p{ieftr, that the fountain of these mianrii^) prucccds fium ibvss grtpiog pa- 
truDi. Ill accuting them, I do not »llo^cllit:r cxl-iim; ti> : both are iBultir, 
ibi-y and we : yel, in my ju<iKtr merit, thc:ir« is tlic ^atcr fault, more appa- 
mil causri, and much to be ooudemui^d . For my pnit, if it be Dot witJi mjQj 
u I would, ur IIS it should. I du uxcribe tlic cause (as 'Cardan dtcl iii thi 
like ra«') men infitrlanio potitif rjuam illorum iceltri, to 'niioe ovm inrrlt-l 
city, rotlicr thitn tlirir nuiiglitinrsii. (iiiLliouKh I have been Imfflcd in inyl 
time by Mimeof th<'m, and have .ti i-.iu*.a tu compluiii lu unothcT) 
rather indeed to mine own neglijirmT ; for 1 wiw ev<:r like ihnl AlcKandfl 
(in " Plutarch) Crassux his tutor in pliilowpliy, who, lliotigh be lived tnimyl 
yean familiarly with rieh Crassus, wa> cvcnnspod*' wlivn from,(whieh manj 
woudred at) an when lie eame lint to him. lie never uked ; the other ii«T«r^ 
gave biiB any thin); : when he travelled uitb Craesiis. he borrowed an hat i 
him, atliit return reitured it ajfuiii. I have had some auch noble friet]da,J 
acquaiiiian<'e, and M:holurt ; but, inoct imit. (commoti courteHieH and ordi- j 
nary rtrsppct* extcpted) they ami I [nirttril ui we met : ihev piw nie a« muc_, 

u I requested, and that was And as Alexander ab Alcxundro (Oen'uil. 

dier. I. 6. c. 16) made answer lo llieronymu* Manaintia, thai wondred, 
ijvum plurra ignavoi tt ignobiles ad dignilalet et garertiolia pronuilos i/iioli- 
iiie viderrl, when othtr men ro>e. Still be was in llicsanic»l<ite, tDiir-m irnorc 
fljorland, cut meri'rdem laborum sladiorumi/uc detieri putaret, whom he 
ihoujtht to deserve a« wtdl a» the rest — he made answer, that he was eoiitc^nl 
wiibhiii jiretent ctitate, was not amhitiiiun : and, altliuui^h objurgahiautu4 
tuam tcffiiitirm accusant, cum obscvrtr sorti.t homines ad iacrrdotia ct pon- 
tificatiis tvfclot, ^r. he chid him for his bitckwardueM, yet he was alill lli« 
same : and for my part (though i be not worthy pRrhapuloeurn' Atejiandcts 
hooks) yet, by some overwceninj; nnd well wishmK frii-nd», the like »pL-eehes 
have been used to me: but I replied still, with Alt-xamliT, ihai I hadenoiif;h 
and more peradienture tliao I de^en'ed ; and. with I.ih;miiii Sc^hista, tliat 
rather choHe (when honoun and offices by the eiDperour were oflered unto 
him) lo be talis sophista, qtiam talis maijiilratus, I had as live be still De- 
moeritua Junior, and prirus pritiatus, ti mihijam darelur optia, guam talis 

fortasae doctor, talis dominuf.- Sfd i/uorsum hire* For the rtjit, 'tin on 

bulh side*. /aetnux drlritandam to buy and &el) litin^, 1u detain from the 
cbuieh that whirh Godt nnd menu laws have bt-*iowcd on it ; but in them 
most, and that from the covclousn«))« nittl of Miirh ok arc interested 
in thishutineM. I name covcioii*nc»« in the iirst place, m the root of all 
these mischiefs, which (Aehan like) compels them to commit tacrile|;e, and to 
make simoiiiacal compacts, (and what not ^) lo their own ends. ' and that 
kindles Uods wrath, btingx a plas^ue. venjj^ance. and an heavv vi»itatton 
upon theniaelves and utheii. Some, out of that insatiable desire of 6tlhy 
lucre, tfi be eiiriehed, care not how ihey come by it, per fas r.t I'fns, hook 
or crook, *n tln'v have it. .^ud ntlwrs, when ihi-y havr, with riot ami prodi- 
gTility, imhcwfllcd tlieir eilatr*, torrrover tlieintelves. make a pmv of the 
rJiiirch, (robbing it, as ° Juban ibi- Apostate did) spoile psrwun of their re- 
*eniies (in keeping halfback, "bka great men iimon^t usnhsi^v.-^i) atuithiit 
mimttttianet on which thejf shovld liv«{ by means whereof, barbarian it in- 
creased, and a i;reat decay of Christian profcMOurx : lor who will apply 
biluselflo these divine studies, his son, or i'riend, when, after t^eal paio* 

• Lib. -V <ln cnn» ' I hij iioiiioMy . I « •Tiled Jmpudvnrr : 1 rouMnol *c*mhff. tfOJi^onw. flf«- 
•fWhlr . nj'n prartilp-rfl u1u». Jt«.— Vui. lUeniu T ul IhUtxinili^m t'T ijlulut'lum ptriiluk iri>uE«uii. EwudJ ' 
RMl iiauiLTit. JtiDh'iiLuE. Ill ,1m (aEui; ie ii'i'ji tioIlt, (iininiidv niOc «--diir In mn nimin. vi 4ih-..DrH* 

ao. " DifutD hkbmt irttMni;. »',tiii!'.. > {r'ntaiTi 4c-]uiruiiL iUL>iiL^4Vfn)<kLi-iQ ruinmn. Srfr*- 

rlia. Id Jwiiani. T. l^jrl^Mr^. * S. iili. 1l>. iriirf. &. * LunirtiuK iuhL^ Kvvvti^.i 

l«rt.ln]. U. 

M«m. 3. Subs. 15.] 

Stmfy, a Catae. 

taken, they ebail have nothing whereupon to live ? But vJth what event <U> 
tliey tliete ihiu)^ ? 

■ Opnnue lotif TtrilniA Taumtnl i 
At Idov niL-uli ifviilLi tnlH'rriuia. 

Hicy to}-lc and moylc, but wliat reap thvy i They arc commoRly unrortiinat« 
families that xue it, accursed in tlicii progeny, and, as common experieuco 
evinceth, accursed themselves in all their proceedings. With what face (in 
' he <|uote& out of Austin) can (Aty eipecl a bteising or inhrritaact ftom 
Chritl in heaven, that defraud Chnat of hi* inheritance here on earth? 
I would aU our atmomacal pairoiis, and sueh tu d<^lU]n titW, would 
read tliose judidou* tracts of ^ H«nry Speliuati, and S' Jiimc:! Smipill, 
ktij^t» : tiiofic hte cbbornte and k-ariwd irrutisf« »r D' Tilslyi' and M' 
Ikluntagtie, vhich tbcy bave written of tliut subject. But, thougli tbey should 
rwid. It wniilil be to small pur|K)M; ; clamrx licnt, et mare caito coi^funtlat ; 
tiiunder, lighten, prejicli hell and damnation, (ell them 'lis a sin: they will 
not bclieTcit: denonncc and tertilic ; thi^y hare 'cauterized consciences; 
(hey do not attend ; as the inchantcd udder, they stop tbeir ears. Call than 
base, irrebgiouB, prophauc, barbarous, nagaos. atheists, epicures, (as tome 
of tii«m sorely are) with tlie bawd in Flautus, £«(/« f opfime! theyciy; 
and applaud themselves with that miser, ''timul ac nammas eonttmplor 
in area : say what yuu will, yuucunyuc modo ri^iin ; as a dog barks at llic 
nooo, lu no purpose an- your sayings: take your heaven, let them hare 
money — <» h.ise, prophutie, epicurean, hypocritical rout. For my part, let 
tlti-m pretend whitt zeal they will, couDlerl'eit religion, bIcMr the worlds eyes, 
bum>K»Kt themselves, nnil siiiHe out their grratncM willi church spoils, shine 
like so many peacocks — s(i cold is my chnrity, no dcfwiive in this behalf, 
that I shall never tliink better of tlicm, than that they ure rotten at core, 
tlicir booes are full of epicurean hypucrisie, and atheistical marrow ; they 
are worse than he'Jtheiis. For, as Dionysius llaiicaiiia^seus obMTves {Antiq. 
Rom. lib. 7.) " Primum locam, Jfc. Grtekt and barbariaiu observe alt refi- 
yieut rilti, and dare not break them, for fear of offending their gods: but 
our sirooniucal cuntracriers, our senseless Achaiis, our stupified patrons, text 
netlher God nor HexW : they have evasions for it ; it is no sin, or not due 
jurt ditino, or, if a sin, no great sin, &k. And, lliou^h they t<e dady punished 
tat it, bikI they do manircstlv |>crceire, Uiat (as he said) frost and fraud 
come to foul cods; vet {as "thrysostome followa it) nulla ex pcend fit cor- 
Ttctio ! el, ytiosi adverfis malitia kQmiuitm prtivocrlur, crttcil gHottdie yuod 
ptmiatur : they are rather worse than better : 


and tile more they an^ corrcclcd, the more ibey ofiend: but let ihera take 
their course, (' Ho'de, caper, vilet) go on still an they begin, {'* 'tis no sin !") 
let them rejoyce secure: Gods vengeance will overtake them in the end; 
aad these ill gotten goods, as an c^c* feather*, 'will ennsume the rest of 
tbeir sabstance : it is* aurum Thotofonum, aud will produce n» bettrT cffeei*. 
£tt Ijtem laif it up *afe, and make ihew comxi/aacei ntver to close, lock and 
sAul door, saitb '' Chrysostome : yet fraud and covflfotuiMSt, fwontiuf molent 
thifMt, arf still included ; ana a little gain, evil gotten, will eitbtert the 
reil of their yaodt. Tlic eagle in ^sop, seeing a piece of flesh, now ready 
to be sucrilicnd, swept it away with her claws, atid carried it to her nest : but 
there was a bumin<; cool stuck to it by chance, which unawares consumed 

J liulpidn. ■ Sir Uttay Bprliuiii. eli' nun Urmsrinilli KmIMIi. • I Tin. 1. >, » Hot. 
_l FrtfloaJD locum Bhud nmniu itimtc* li »!>■<[ ^jqlriiiua Uvoruni f ulEu>, ot jf^nlonam ; luun huufUluUMbno 
eoHlAdtunt. lAm lirvri (jturo hprltarl, Kp- ^'Xcm 1- dfl HtTiL rrium umuninmub Elift ti-rifiuac. 
•Olid. FwL 'tie in»lr<iN«iilli« v\i n.iuilptlcrfluihMTP* < Jtltnlw. L4. (l»i^. ' ."Jihilftiriliiu 
op«««r«fttt, quun iimrillai^t fmuili- pArt4. KibI enlra i^mn vMu Ull nnK, ft pxEfrl^rr juiuS rt 
VMM «ub MBuaiuUi*. Inluvtunrnrnudfiti cI ovjihlLun. Jtc. tril^ Corinth. 



C'aiues of Melancholy. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 

lier young one*, nest nni] all togeilier. Let our ^inioiiiacal clmrcb-chupping 
IjatnNia, and iftcril«gioudk Imrjiin, luok for no bcttt^r »iicoi»s. 

A MCOni) cuiue \% ignomnci', nnil fmni ihrncc conti'tiipt : *iteeeKnt mfi'ioR 
in liUrtu ab ignorantid rulgi : wliick 'Junius well perceived: tliix hiilrcd 
and oontrmpi of learning proceeds oat of' ignorance ; as they nro lbl^nlgolvcs 
barbarous, idiots, dull, illiterate, and proud, so t}iey cst«cai of other*. 

AInl Mncf^atr*. i,<fn rlpcnint. Vfuro. Maronn : 

let lliere ha bountil'ul pulrons, und there will bt? paiuful scholars in all 
Kcivncn. But, wlii-ti thcry ['onlenin Ivnming, and think tbcmMilvei Btifficienilj 
qiiiitiliitl, if tlic^y can write tind read, nciunblc nt n picer of evidence, or bavc 
iii> miicli I.alin ux tlint cmperour had. *'^iii itctdt disinmnlare, Hfficit vitenf, 
they iim unfil lo do their countrey service, to perform or itndi-iiakr any 
iicUon or employment, whieh may tend to the good of n corainon-wrtilth, 
except it bo to ^ght, or to do countrey Justice, with common sense, which 
every yeoman can likewise do. And so they bring up their children, nidc 
as they arc themselves, iinqualified, uniauKht, uncivil most part. * Q«i* t 
tiosird juvt'ntute leijllime inililaitur iitervi f guis oratoreit aut philotopkas 
laniiitf ij-uU hitUrriam ietfil, illam rerum aijendnnini i/ttati animam ^ /*ras 
eipUant jtarraUs viiia sun, S(c. 'tvin* Lip»iu.i compliiint to his illiterate cotin- 
Itey-meu : h may Iih ouih. Now shall ihwe men jiidiff- of a scholars worth, 
that have no worth, lliul know not what belong* to a studt^tits labour*, that 
cannot distinguish bclwc<^n n true srhotsir and a dronr '. or hira that by 
reason of « voluble tongue, a strong voice, a pleading tone, and somi' Irtvantly 
Polyanthean helps, ste.ils and gleuns n few notes from other mens hiirvcsis, 
and so makes a tairer shew, than lie that is truly learned indeed ; th;it thinks 
it no more lo preneh, than to speak. "■ or fo run aivay with an empty carl 
(as a grave man said); and thereupon vililie us. and our pains; scorn Ds, 
(tnd all learning. "Because they are rich, and have other means to lire, 
they think it concerns them not to know, or (u trouble themselves witli it : 
a filler task for younger brother*, or poor mens sons, to be pen and inkhom 
men, ped;intical ilavea, and no whit besetming the calhng of a gentleman, 
as Frenclime.n and German* commonly do, neglecting therefore all humane 
learning: what have tht-y to do with it f Ijcx marriners learn astronomy; 
merchants factors study arithmelick ; surveyors ^et tliem geometry ; spcc- 
tacle-tnnkers ooticki ; Imidleupent geography : town-<'Uirki rhclorick : what 
should he do with u spade, that hath no ground to dig? or they with Iraming, 
th&t have no use of it. ? Thus they reason, and are not ashamed to let mar- 
riners. premises, and the ba»e«t servants, be better <junlilicd than ihcmsctTes. 
Id former times, kings, princes, and emperonrs were the only acholars, 
excellent in M focidticJ. 
Julius Cacaar mended the year, and writ his own CommeDtariea : 

ftlvllftrmn Ta»]^oppUc^*upritM|ucT«pa>lt. 

P Antoninns, Adrian, Nero, Severus, Julian, Ax. i Michael the emp 
tnd IbbcIus, were so much ^iven to their studies, that no base fdlow 
(ake so much pains : Ori<m, Pcrsens, Alphonxus, PtolemtDus, l^ous astro- 
Domcrs; Sabor, Mithrit!ale-s, I.ysimnehiic.ndmired phniciaiu — Platot kio):^, 
nil; hvax, that Arabian prinnc, a most expert jueller, end an cxquiaJie 

Shilosopbcr; the kingsof il^gypt were pricstaof old, and Hiusrn from thence: 
'er idem AoiniuHin, PkabufOf tacerdoi : hut those hcroicnl times are past : 
the Muses are now banished, in ibis biutard age, mi sordida tugurioUt, to 

>Aaid. rafiL.T- I Anninnkiimilul>r(inirnlrii»,tdvt«r Ij^aivil'm, ^ It^dul fvuiial dl«vmtlkte 
VaDDOttlvr, ■ Itpihl, f|iiv4i. ab^ i. rplit. Jl, Uptlmi. * Dt. KLt^ lnlLl*U«I UTtvn* tm J-hM^. 
wniMmn i«bl fitmiillunlliUIiop (■■ UiiiiIud, •Qflln opn *t vUnia, til btibaru (MuHlimi 
eoBWniuirii. • Loun. lih. 1. rSpaiiUB. SgUifli 4e Mbui nlpli. itOittLAaiL Pnnb. 
iaflibnlicfnum ^grUrlHiiL ^1 

Mem. 3. Subs. I5.J 

Studg, a Caute. 


meaner persons, and continod alone almost to utii*eniti«*. In iboflc dayM, 
achobrs were lu);hlj beloved, ''hoiiuurcd, esteemed, as old Ennins br Seipio 
Afticauus, Virgil by Au^''ustua, Horaci? by Mtceenas; princes coin pau ions ; 
dear to tliem, aa Anaereuii tii Palycniies, Pliiloxeniu to Dionvsius. aiid 
liigtilif rewarded. Alexaiidirr »cnt XunutirHlt's the philosopher filty tilcnct. 
bccftute he wai pour, cifii mum aut trwtitiatic pritntanles viri mentii otim 
rvywin adMbiti, o» Pliilostrntiis rclatrn of Adrian, and I.ampriditidL a( Alex- 
ander Severus. Famoii* darks cumc to these prinewi courts, w/uf in f.grtmm, 
as to an univ«rsitv, and were admitted to their tublc«, qunxi Hiv&m rpulis 
aceambentfj ; Archelaiis. that Macedonian king:, would not willingly BUp 
without Euripides, (amount tlie rest he drank to him at supper one night, 
and pave liim a cup of gold tor Uia pains) deleclaltis pocltt snavx termone : 
sud it was lit it should be so, because (as ' Plato in his Protaeorai well 
soitli) a good philnsuphur »* iiiulIi excelU other men, as a i;r«at kin^ doth 
tlie comoion* of liis riniiitrr:y ; and ttpun, 'juonioui illis niliil ttmt, et 
minime ryefC lolcnl, ct ditcipliixu, ijaiu profitentur, lo/i a lytntrmtii rindicaft 
pouMMt; they. Deeded not to bvg so baicly, a« tlu-y coni|)cll " M-hohirg in our 
limca to compbtn of poverty, or crouch to a rich clmlT Ibr a mrah nu-iit, but 
could »indicatc thcmsclTcs. and tliosc arts which they profeswd. Now they 
would and cannot ; for it is held by some oftheni, ns an axiom, that to keep 
llKm poor, will make them study ; they must be dieted, as horM's to a race, 
not (Muupered; '' altndos volant, noa sagiitandos. ne meiiorU mentis fiam- 
mula exlinf/uatur : a fat bird will not sing, a fat dog caonol hunt ; and so, 
by tIiU(le[Keui<)iiof Uicirs, "sionie want m«an!, other* will, all want 'tncou- 
ragvment, as beiu^ forsaken aliuosi, aod generally eonteumcd. 'Ti« an old 

RLal U*#rn&U'«. nun<l<wnint. FUrcu, Mbtuhiu; 

and 'tis a true saying stdl. Yel oftentimes, I may not deny it, the 
main fault is in oursclTss. Our acadcmicks too frequently offend in 
ne^ectin); patrons (aa i* Era.smus well taxetli), or making ill choice of 
them; nei/lir/imat olilatot, avt nmplertimur parum aplos ; or, if we get a 
good one, iwn tludemti* mutuit ajjiciit ftivonm f.jun alrrr, we do uot plye 
a»d follow him tu we slioutd. Idrm mihi aceidit adoleteenii (saith EraimiiK, 
acknowledging; hix fault); rf iiravUfime prccm-i: und so 'luay I my my 
•eir, I have oflciidcd in tlii:i, nnn so pcrndventiire have many olhen : we did 
not rripmutfiv nuignatum favorihui, qui ccepcrilnt ruis iimpUeli, apply our 
avivts with that readiness we should : idleness, love of libi:rty, (immodicut 
amor libfrlalis ffffcit, ut diu cum perJldU amids, as he I'onfewelh, tl pcrti- 
aaei pawperlale , collaefarer) bashfulness, nielancholy, ti moron inrts, ciiusu 
many of us to be loo backwaidand remiss. So some oUcikI in onccxlrcatn, 
but too many on the otiier: we are, most part, too forward, too soliritoii*, 
too ambttioas, too impudeiil : we. commonly complain dtene Macenates, 
want of encouragunw.nt, want of means, when as the true defect is our want 
of wortli, our in*uflicii!ncy. Did Mnrcnas tnke notice of Horace or Virgil, 
till thoy had shewed themselves lirst ? or Imd Davius and Mteviua any 
patrons ' Egrf^ium specimen dent, saith Erasmus : let tliem approve them- 
selves worthy first, siifticiently qualiliL-d for learning and manner), before 
they presume or impudenllv intrude and put thcms^-lrct On great men, an 
too many do, with such base flattery, parasitical colloguing, such hyperbolical 
elogies they do usually insiuuute, that it ia a shame to hear and tec Immo- 

■ Onmujiitrlf Dlim fid^Alrvikirit Jqrhqiiv proF^vKrlbutt <\"i pp>^<1mffli pniaitianit dnliifcit. rvidi^n 
dt0DdUlslii«iiait*4l^erwvnui( iiQpeniloie4,quibu*urii«ljuiit licrow. V.T\*m-w\i. J-i. Fthtnojili V^ro. 
•Pr4bu> vif n ^rbilirtiiiihiu laagi* itfvttAI littler aUu« InjuiiTirii. HQua ni uiflj'ui intft bW^)ri<n, 
■llviOAiu'. pF«-fii1. FirfnwluitL ■ m^r'ili' luampn drlujlan* jnm. ■ Snirct. * tl4Dil (VUi.''iunr- 
fdht, lir^ > hlislli ifioA no^tit ih h(trt ?(i«iUtT^. nui jvrno rikU<ri qui armti Mitvhal. <^I dvc«l «b- 
HfuDtaoun illrliKMrp (crni ; Kanumcn inv[<:ct. int. SuL 7. 'Chll. t.n>at, 1. ikUf. I. ■ tttd I 
u ottura did, iml mj U'ltfumsnl, I iui|{lit liuvr tu.plj' bc«iiugTc*tiiiiuiBin»aja(m;i!<iuW>. 


212 Cmuet of MeianeAobf. [Part. 1. Sec. ! 

dicie laudti eonci Jtunf invidiam, potiut quam laudem ; BJid min conimcnda- 
tion« <lcro)(ate IVoin irutii ; and wc thiiik, in conclusion, turn tntltuf de /an* 
data, prjus ite lauilanlt, ill of bolli. ibe commcnder and commended. So 
wc oftcnd ; but ibc msiiii faull in in iheir |jarslmB*s, der«.-t of pationv How 
beloved of oU. iind how muL-li n-specUd, was Plaio of Uionysiits! How 
dear to Alexander wai Arislullc, Ueiiiunttiix to riitli[i, SoloD to Craeauii 
Anaxarchus and TieltatiiiR to Aii^uaIuk, Ca^iiiiii to V'ejipiisiaii, Plutarcli 
Trajaii, Seneca to Nero, Simoniiles to Hieran I liow lionoiittd ! 

• j>pd bsc priUB furni-, (mm: rcQuncUbi 
Kmcnt qiiletP, 

those duyes an: gone i 

Elapacl nUoiluiUammlDCaiuetiutuin; 

a* he said of old, wc mtiy truly «n_v now : he in our amidet, oiii ''Mn, o 
sole comfort and tcfuec, our Ptolemy, our common Ma^cnax, Jaco' 
murtiftcu), Jacobiit pacifient, mytia Musarum, rrx Plaloiuau : gra 
dtcut, columen^ue rwelrum; a. famous scholar himself, and the sole patron, 
pillar, and sustainer of learotni:; : but liis worth in this kind is so well known, 
tbat(aa Patt^teuluK, o{CMo)jam iptvui luudarr nr/aasil ; and (which *= Ph'iiy 
to Trajan) seria re earmina, hiriuir^un aUrnus aniialium, mm hac bn-vm el 
paiit^Btia prtrdicatio, colet. Rut hi- t* now gone, tli« aun uf ours net; and 
yet no night follows. 

Hill ofcubuil ! nox DUlU wpiula m. 

We have such another in his room — 


and long may ho reign and flour i»h aniongnt im. 

Let nil: nut hn nmlilious, and ly<: uit^iinst my genius; I may not deny, but 
that, we hiivt! n uprinkiiiiji of our i;'""ry, here and tlierc one, ctecllently well 
learned, like thiise Fiigi;«ri in (icrm.iny, Diibnrl!i», I)u Plcssis, Saducl ia 
France, I'icii* MimnduU, Scholtos. liarotius in Italy: 

but thi-y are but few in resuect of the mullitmie : the major part (uul Mme 
ai^niu excipied. that an- indiflVreol) or* wholly btiit for liawt* and bounds, 
and carried away miitiy times wiUi intempc^rule luxt, gaming, and drinking. 
If they rcud a ixiuk at iiny time, (jtj quui r*t inlerim o(ii a veriatu pocalit, 
aird, (corlii) 'lix fin KngliKh Chronicle, S'. Huon of Uordc-aux, Amaili* dc 
Gaul, &c. a play-book, or some pamphlet of news, nod thnt at such seasons 
only, when they cannot stir abroad, to drive anay time: ' tbcir »o)c difcoursc 
i« dogt, huwk«, horses, and what news i If some one have been a traveller 
in Itulvi or as far as the emucrours court, wintered in Otleance, and can 
court his miittris in broken rrcneh, wear his clothes ueatly in the newest 
fashion, sing some choice outlandish tunes, di^tcuume oflurdn, laUii-n, towns, 
palaces, and cities, he is compk-at, and to lie admired : 'oth(:rwi»« he and 
they arc much at one; no difference betwixt the ninster and the man, but 
wonbipful titles: — wink, and dioune betwixt him that xils down (clothes 
eocoepted) and him tliat lioltk the trencher behind him. Yet these men nnisl 
be our patrons, our Kovernourv too wmctinie*, statenmcn, mngi^iralcx, noblot 
great and wise by inlirrttance. 

Mistake me not (I n«y again) los, o patriciits tanguUl you that arc 
worthy senators, gentlemen, I honour your narnca and perMiis, and. with 
all lubnuMtvcncM, prostrate myself to your censure and tecrvice. Tliere are 
amongst you, I do ingenuously confeaa, many well deserving palrous, and 
true patriots, of my kDowlcd|«, besides many hundreds wbtcli 1 never saw, 

•CiIbUiu. Jam. 'Nnnn tti qupn nan Fhirbui hir diwIei idIo Inlullu lulvnliunm mliUL 
'nattfT. 'Vlrfll, -Xtnit nilin fanir xiuui nmnunli Id IDt rununL Jui. KU. I. 
'Qalirala (•■*><>•■» dlnriiliuiio'. qui InlUgiiii* emrfr, ■■ pnvUfn Buuilur builmn lotl(nl«r Jut. 
0M. <t. 



Mem.3. SubK. 15.] 

Study, a Cause, 


nodoubt, or Iieartl of— pillarsorour common -wealUi, * whoae worth, houMy, 

kuniit);, forwaidnesa, true zeal in religion, and good cste<-iit uf ul! icliulnre, 

'ought to Iw <.-<>Dsecrated to all poiteriiy: but. ul' ;rour rank, then- arc n de- 

bn«)icd, (corrupt, eovelous. illiterute i;rew i^in. no IjcUit limn stwks, mfruin 

CM (trxlor Oi-uni, non milii vidirri digrmii ingcniii litmiini)! ajipcllalione) 
barouH'rhnii-ianx, {ct qiiii illc Thraiijui koc nrgrl'f) a Rortlid, propliaue, 
(.pernicious company, irnliiiioiiii, impuiJciil and stnpiii, (1 know not what 
epithets to give tbcm) rncmioit to tenrnitig, confoundcra of the chureh, and 
the niiQ ofa comDioii-wt-alth. I'ntiitns ilicy arc by right orinlierttatice, and 
put in trust freely to diF^poxcol'such livin)^ to the churches good; but (liacd 
laAk-tnasiers they provo) they take away their straw, and compel (hem to 
make llieir number of brick : they coinmoDly resuccl iheir own end*; com- 
uodity i.H thf. neet of all tlieir aclioiu: aiid bim uiey present, in concluMon, 
u a man of )[r(^ul(-&t k*^^' '-'■''t "''H tC'^e nio«t: no prnny, ''no Pafrr-notter, 
as the Haying in. A'ui prtctt aura fuleias, ampliuf irrilaf . ut Cerberus o^d, 
ihctT attrnilantx and iilScer* niunt w brilicd, fed, and mailc, as Cerberus is 
by a »op by him that goes to h<^lt. (l wat an old saying, omaii Ronut 
venalia: 'lb a rag of popery, which will never lie rooted out; there ia no 
hope, no good to be done, withont money. A dark may offer himself, ap- 
prove his ' worlli, learning, hooesty. religion, zeal ; they will eoinincnd kitn 
for it ; but 

1 pruUU* IsuilatuT. t\ iliK. 

Jfbe be a man of extraordinary uaits, they will Rock afurofFto heathhn, as 

• tfaey did, in Apnk-in^, to iii^e Psycho: muitt mQTlaU.t con^uehatil admUndum 

[S^cuti dtCHt, fpccaiim titonotam: laHitnlur ab nmmhux : fjirrtahiT af> om- 

nibiu : ntc yuu^xnm, noti rrx, non Ttyius, cupinif rjiis nu/itinnim, ptiilor 

^acr«v/tt; miranCur ^uidrm dninam iptciem omtitt: ifd, ut simiilaerum Jiibre 

ptdittm, miranlur: many mortsl iiii-n came to nee fnrr I'sycbc, the glory of 

her nge: they did a<ln]irc her, comnirnd, <lcsirc her for her divin« beauty, 

and gnz« upon her, bnl, as on ft pintnrc: none would marry her, ^Mod mU>- 

\tata: fair Psyche had no money. ^So they da by Icarnioj;: 

' dhUritJun dint irsniB 
TiBlirBi (ilinlfLri, tuiintn UurlAn, •llHrtOf. 

TollCAT (lu<lt4<L*4 40Tl}l> fclluloF »|fl.-&k. 

le shall have all Oie good words that may be given, " "' a proper man, and 

f 'tis pitv !ic hath no preferment." all good wishes ; but, inexorable, indurate 

ta* l>o i«, he will not prefer him, though it be in his power, because he is 

indotal«.i, he baili no money. Or, if he do give him entertatnuient, l«t 

him he. never jrii well <(ualditrd, plead affinity, consanguinity, siifHeiency, be 

•hall *e.t\v. wven trart, a» .laeob did for Rachel, JK^fore lie slmll have it. " If 

he will enter at lir«t, hi: must get in at tliat simuuiacal gate, come ofl' 

•onndly, und put in ^luil teciirilv to perforni all euvenanis ; v\*f. he will not 

deal wuh, or admit him. But, if some poor nehoUr, some parson chalf, will 

ofl'er himself; some trencher ehnplnin, that will laki- it. to the halves, thirds, 

or accept of what he will give, lie is weleom ; be eonforroHblo, preach as he 

will have him, he likes him before a million of others; for the best is alwayc* 

best cheap : and then (as liictom said to Cromatiiis) palellJ dignum oper- 

\atlum: inch a patron, such a clark : the cure is well supplyed, anil all 

IMTliaf pleated. So tliat is still verified in our age, which " Clirysoslome 

rt tuw cflru nul wfAi lay «pir, ftn<1 i-r-nff rrt'il wflli. di¥rr« norllly KPDtti>iiicn la thr aou□t^ 

■tiil tfitniour. i( nui tuW (in'frrrvd ti.rJi'i'm kind ur iMnitiw, lu niuii' utuiKiculnBlcla. 

ilWTi no 

rilwl Urj^lirbjB fij. «&ift <ou<* ri^riidliilaciiiL>Uic-(it. tiiid Li]uin1iv« i^rnm corda mrl rtt 4fi^il nDillA, 
"'•a. tt. H>li>1juiirnai>, Pohi'inl. )llj. ti, i'. ID. <Ju'CD. Hu. 1, - Buiut bmr! no nivii 
. rpod, 1. Z. 1>iA l|]u vJ,<itMn» 'itiLqur ri^iaf^urluin nC " QubIuut vl pqrlv wrWiu lliu ail 
■ ; VBigvtalf. 4ut Riraoni4, [tr»fUliK. bL^Ui' J>fi. Kntrol ■ Lib, punira I'^riinliv. dr DublU 

Caiutt of Melancholy. 

[Part. 1 . Sec. 2. 


o(Hnplain«d of in his tiioe ; qui oputentiorct laaf, tii onfincm paratilorun 
fogiuif eott tl ipiiu tami/Jiam canrt ad mentat suat rnulriunt, commqut 
imptutenlet vfntrrt ini'/tiarum etrnantm reli'iniU differeiuut, iifdrm pro 
Ufiitrio abulrjitcs: ricli oit-n kvtp these Icciiinr*, ami fawning porimlvi 
like BO many ilogY. "t their luMc« ; nnd, filling theii hun^v giiU uitli th< 
oflab of tbctr nicnt, ihty abuse them at their pleasure, and make them nj 
what ihcy propose, '' As children do by it bird or a buUtrfi^e tn a strntg^ 
puUin and let him oat as they I'ut, do Ihey by their trtncher ckaplaint^ 
pTFicribe, command their luila, let in and Otil, as to them il stemt beil. I 
the pHtroii bv prt-cise, au mutt hin cliaphin l)C ; if be be papistical , hii 
dark must be ho too, or i^lm- lit; tiiniM] out. Tboe are (Iiose clatL* which 
kcrve ili« turn, uhuni they commoiily entvrtiiin, and pmwiit to chutcb- 
livings, wiiU»t in tliv tncnn time wv, ihut iirc iinivrr«i(y-mcii, likt? ao uiau^ 
kidft-bouud rnlvci in n pMtnrc, tnrryout our time, wittier iiwiiy ut a flower 
Ul^ltttliered in a garden, and are aertr used : or, a» too mnny candles, illu- 
minale Otir selves alon«, obscuiing one anotbers light . nnd arc not <li«c«med' 
hat at all ; the least of whieli, trantlated to a dark room, or to some conn- 
trey benefice, where it mi^hl sbine apatl, would L^ivc a fair light, and ba 
•ecn oirer all. Whibl we lye nuilin); here (as those sick men did at ther| 
pool of t Bcthcsda, till tin? angel mirred the wuler) expeciiii;; a good hour, 
they step between, and be^iiiln us ■>!' our preferment. I liave not yet said.'i 
If, afii?T long expce.tation, nitieh cxpcnee, travel, earnest suit of our selretl 
ftnii friends, we obliiin a Kmnll JTcnrfiri! nt last,uitr miwrv bcjtins afresh ; we 
are siidUtnly enronntercd with the flcsb, world, nnd do'il, willi a nvvi unjtct : 
we chaiij;e ii (juict lifi? for nn ocean of tionblcs ; we Comc to 11 nitiwu* house, 
which, bifiirc it he hahilnble, must be necessarily (to out grrat damiig*^ 
repaired : wc arc compelled to sue for dilapidations, or else socd oiir nelvea fl 
and, source yet settled, wc are called upon for our predecessors BrTcrag«> ^ 
first fruits, tenilu, subsidiea, are intlantly to be paid, benevolence, procura*' 
ixoDt, &c. and (which U most to be feared) we light u]>on a crackt title, ai 
it befell Clenunl of Brabant, for bisi rectory and oliarge of his Begin* ; he 
was no sooner inducted, but infttaiilly sni^i), capimunque (' saitli he) ttrenne 
litiyare. tt implacabUi belto canjlinrrf : ut len^b, after ten years suit, (as 
long as Ttoyi-s siege) when he liaii tirctl hirnsclf, and spent his money, he was 
lain to leave all for quietness sake, and give it np to his adversary. Or 
else we are insulted over, and ItsiDipled on by dommeering nffici-rs, fleeceU 
by tlioM- greedy harpyes to get more fees, wc stanfl in t'cjr of some prece- 
dent lapte ; wc fall amongst refi'actory. seditious scctnries, peevish puritans, 
perverse papists, a lascivious rout of atheistical Epicures, that will not b« 
lefnimed, or some litigious people, (thotie wild beasts of Kphe^us must be 
foiigbt with) thai will not pay their dues without much repining, or com- 
pclkd by longsuit; laicicleridt nppido infcsti, an old axiom: all they think 
well gotten that it had from the church ; and, hy such uncivil harsh dealings, 
they make tlieir poor minister weary of his place, if not his life : and 
put catie tliey be quiet honest men, make the best of it. a* often it lalb out, 
irom a polili! aaii lenc ncadcmick, he must turn nistick, rude, melanchoUse 
alone, learn to forget, or else, as many do, become ninllstcro, irrasicr*, cbup- 
mett, &c. (now banished from the academy, all commerce of llic Mutics, and 
confinei] to a countrey village, as Ovid was from Home to Pontu*) and 
daily converse with a comjiany of idiots and clowns. 

fifot inierim ijuud attinr.t (nfc tnim immaMt ah hae noiitain'M) idem 
rtatvt manel ; tdim nobis, tt ti nou multo t/ravtut, cWnten objici palegl : 

' PnmrMhBit. Imptml. liionliBcmcoKUUti tnctnliim nviliiini, j/tmil Ifrttridtirilm. ulrmmnlH 
rrlam,!, ut iMpilluufn racn 4cl lirurhum lUi' linvriltant, aui ulr^unt. n» ■ lihullni- A-uh |>mdR« 
•riunm tvunln. Ufimiui i Jiitm ,V ■ EpiA. 1. 1. Jtm •uOrUii in lanUDdmoilul Bg^ 
IfniB RurUu «l md>munu, kr. pot I multM libam. nuniu*. lu. ^^H 





Mem. 3. Suba. I5.j 

Stiub/, a Cause. 


nottri enim tuSpi fit, aosiri inttriS, uMtrd avaritH, ^uod Ian /regvtnles, 
^ftid^qwJitiKl m ecvUtid nundinalionei, (tcmplum at vrnalc, Deusque) tot 
Wiufnlit mixhattlMr, lanla t/ratietHr imfiiflaa, lunta nequilia, lam iuianiu 
■ mumdfum Euriyus, el turbamm ailuririum, nuitro,in<juam, omnium (acade- 
w micoruin iaiprimitj vifiujit. Quod lot mp. malu iifficialur, a noliit trmi- 
Wnarium ; ttliro matum hoc avcertiniui, et ijuivit conlu-melid.'jtitivis interim 
^VtittTiA diijni, qui praeirili Honnccammut. Quid enimjicri i>offc tpcrataus, 
IfMUin tol indim tote deUcIa paupertt alumni. Itrrir Jilii, r.l cajuffiinqiie 
I ftrdinif komunciones, ad i/riiduf cerltitim admifliintnr .' qui ni drjiiiilionem, 
^llistiucliintemijur unam avl allrmm lacmnrttfT rdidicrrint, ft pro more lot 
miouiot in diaUcticA posuerial, non rej'erl yiu> proftclu, ijvalrt tlimam tint, 
WUiota, nu^larrt, otiatoret, nUatorrs, compolortt, indiytii, Ubtdinis volup- 
^atumqvt admiaifiri, 

W Sponiij Prni>lu|>«, qf^buloiirt. AlrJnniidr. 

gUtodo tot amtos in academiS iinumpmriiit, el ee pro togatts vtnditdritit; 
Kucricattstd, et amicorum inltrcrtta praaenlanluT t addo rliam, el magnx- 
m/ficit wmnunquam tlogiis momm tt tcieniicc ; et.jam valcdii-luri, ttstitao- 
Ena/iitu hitce lileris, amplittime contcriptit in tirrum aratiam, konoranlHt, 
uA (u, quijidri ftia cl ixiilimationit jaclttram procaldubio /ariuul. Doc- 
MHorc* Ku'im i-t psaffXiaiKn (i/uod ail 'illc) ill utiuni cur.iiit, ul vx jirolnisio- 
bibiui fmiucntibux, i-t tumultiiariii )>otiu» (|unm Icgilimi.i, cotnmixla *na 
|)TOinovMnf., cL ex ditpcndio puMiro miuri liiitiiiiit inrrctnmtiim- Id sotnm 
Mt tolia habeni annni plerumijvr- magintratiif, ul ah iiwipicnttum. niimero 
*p€cui>iat ttnungant ; nee mulfiim interest, i/iii tint, littratores an Ulerali, 
modO pitu/ittt, nilifli. itd tupvctum ipfcioft, rt {if'tod rerbo dicam) prcaniosi 
sint, ■ Pkiloeopliailri {ic^liantwr in uriibui. arlcm t/iii nwit kabcnt ; *eoi»- 
qiie Mpkntes esie jubent, ^ui nnllk pnediu buiiI sapientiu, tt nihil ad 
gradum, pru-'tertiuam Telle, adferunt, 7'fieohr/attri. {solraitt mado) tati* 
tvpenjur (tocti, per omnet honururn y nidus evekujitur et atcenduKl. A Iqut 
hiKcfit i/aod lam ciles scurrtt, tut pastim idiottr, lilerarum creputi:«la poniti, 
larv» paitarum, circam/aranei, tmgi, bardi, J'uni/i, cratai, atini, mrrum 
pevu*, in mcrotanrlot fhrtdoifite aditut illolis prdibut irrutnpani, prater 
muerecttitdam frontrm adj'erentes nihil, vulgarrt qiioidam i/uisquitiat, et 
tt:hoiariitm quttdam nugamrnta, ivdigna qair vel rrcipitintur in tririi*. Hot 
UIhH indiijium ijrnHK hominum tt Jiimr.licum, indiifniim,vagum,vtntrii nutn- 
cipinn, ad ttii^am poliur rtl'^nndiim, ad hams aptiiis, quam ad aras, qttod 
tSeimuhatcf literas lurpiter proMiliiit — hi giint qui pulpita coniptcnt, t'n 
tide* nohiliim irrepiiut, tl, quam rtUquii vitir dettitiinntnr sntaidiit, 06 
etfpvria tt animi eijeilntem, aliamm in rrpub. partium miiiime capacfg tint, 
ad meram hanc anchoram confniiiiint, tacerdotium quovis m«do captantes. 
non f r tinceritale, (quod '' Paulut ail) wd cauponantcs Tcrbum Del. Ne 
quit iHtcrim virit Ixmii detrartum quid pittrt, quoi kabet ecctriia Anqlicana 
qvamplarimot, egregie doctas, illuslret, intaclir famir kominet, el plum 
forttm qnam qtntrlt l-'wopir pniviiicia : ne quit a Jtorcntittiaiit acadentiis, 
qua tints Hndrqiiaqur diiclittimoi, omni virtutum generc sutjiiciendat, 
ahunitt prvdaC'tnt : rt multa pliirrs utraquc habitura. ritullo tpUndidior 
futura, tt non hit inrdrf iplrndidnm lumen rju.i oltfuscarent, ohstarrl cvr- 
ntptio, rt cauponantri quirdam Harpyia, prolrlariiaue, bonum hoc noAu tion 
inviderent. S'emo enim tarn ctrcd mmlr, qui non hoc ipfum iMeut ; nemo 
torn stolido ingetuo, ^ut non inltlligat : tarn prrlinaei judicio, qui not 
agnoscal, ab hit idiolit cireKm/oraneis tnrram pollui theotoffiam, ac eoi- 
leslet ifutat, quati profanum qutdiUim. proititin. Vilcs ABiittte el cflioiiies 

•Jua. AmL «^. ^ ■ A<Tintninij* iwunl^m^ di-mitumuih kjiinuin» ut apiic) PnUiTtnot fUlu*. 
• Uw nan »■ piMna iKnotiDii. m I'lillnwiibuiro. Cnnutiaili l^iiat. ta Mtit ChruU Oion. iiuIiUh 
talatt, <niiiii nil. Prli. it. • S.I. MrU) - 1 Cor 1. 17 


[Part. 1. Sec. 

216 Caiues of MelanckQUf, 

(tie enim Lalherus ' alicubi vocat) lucelli cauM&, tii rou»cte ttd mu)cti«r| 
ad noUlium ei hcroum mensaa advolani : iu spein sacerdotii, cujutlUtet 
konori*, officii, I'n qaamvii aalam, uTbem te ingertinl, ad quoilrrit tt mrnu- 
lerium componunt : 

Ut n?rvltallODl« mobile li^av 


'oflam sequentes, p»iUacorum more, in prseda.' speni ()uiiiviH elfutiunt : (Ate- 
cwiHantee purasitt (" Erasmus art) quidvii doconl, diciint. scribunl, suadeut,' 
ct contra conscieiitiani probant, non ut salutarem reddanl gregciii, Bed ut 
marnificam ubi parent fortunam. ■Upiiiioo^n c|ua»vi8 et decreia conlta 
verBimi Dei aalruunt, ne otTendaiil patronum, «ed ut letiiieaiit favonsm 
prorcruni ct pnpuli plausuni, sihiijue i|)AU »pt:!i acoitniiilent. £V> elenim 
pterumqitf ani/no ad thi-olagiam arcedtint, non ut rem dtrinam, sed ul tvamy. 
/aciaiit : twn ad cuclniT honiimprcnnmicndum, ffd rrpHandum ; quitretitrt 
{quod PauluK ait) nonqiiipJcsu Cliristi.scd qiKPsun, non Domini Ihesaurum, 
sed ul fihi tuin]ur thr.$auriifnt. Nrc lanttim its, qui vUioiig,fortuiiie,H 
abjectit sorlii suit, hoc in utii est ; sed el mfdios, mnunoi, ttatot, ne dica: 
epitcapos, hoc nutium invant. 

* Dli^iEtf, pubtlflcR*. toicorlf qoldCirlt AonMn? 

'8tjmmo»8«pe viros lransv«rrso« a^il avarilia; et t/ui reli/juit miiram 
hilate prtilueertnt, ki/act-m prirfrruni ad $imnniam, rl in corruplianii 
scopuliim impinijentet, non tondrul pccus, frd drifhihuni, ct, quoettnque 
ctm/rrunt,rxpilarit,rxliav.nunl, abradunt, mngnum famir sua: , si non animet: 
naufragium facientcs ; ul non ah infimif. ad summits, sfd a summis ad ii 
JimM, malum pramandsff. videatur,fl illud vrrum sit.guod UU olim imit, 

Biiicrul lllopiiui. uniU-n; jurr pulMlt 

Simoniaciis cnim (tguod cum Lconc dicam) gratiam non accipit; si noi 
accipit. non habet ; el si non babcl. nee grains pousl ewe, ncc gralia dare :| 
lanluin rnim absanl Ulorum noiiniilli, qui ad clavum tedent, a pronunieiti 
reliijuiui, ul penilnx impedianl, probe sibi co/isdi.tiuihut arlibut illic pervf- 
nprint: ''iiiiiii qui ob litems cmersisse iUos credal, ilwipit; qui vero :ngEiiii,| 
cmdiliimiv, ekpemntit^. pcobitatii, pietutU, cl Musariiin id esse preliuni pub 
{t/uiid olim re ncrA /nil, hodie priimiltitur) pluniisinKt iiifianil. Utciinq\ 
tiri iind(canquc malum hoc iiriijincm ducal, (mm tillrit quaram) tx his pri 
mordiis capit viliiiTum collurics : timiiif cnlamtCas, nmnr. miscriarum aijinm,. 
in fcc/fiicm invrhitttr. /line tarn J'mjiiens simouia ; hinc orlat querela, 
fraudti, imposturir: ab hoc font* w derivirtmt amnrt ntqvitiir ,—ne quid 
obiler dicam de ambilione, amttatione plmrjuam aulird, ne Irisli domiattw 
taborenl, dt luxu. de ftedo nonvunquam vi?ip cjemplo, quo nonnuUos offtK' 
dunt, dt eompatatiom Sifbarilicd, ^c. //rne Hie squalor acadetnicus, trtsles 
hae lempeslale CamcEnte, qiium qimii ho>nu»cutvs, artium tgnarus, his 
arlibitt assurgal, Anne m laodam proinaveal»r et ditestat, ambition* ap- 
ptllalioniliiis i»»ign\tt f( multit diiinitalibut awyusltis. vultji ocalot p<T>> 
Slrinqtit, bene >e habeat, el t/raiidia yradieus, majeslatent qaamdam ac am^ 
plitudiHtjn pra se ferem, miramque lolieiludiitem, barbd mterenduf, tog4 
nitiJat, puTfmrd torvscua, suptUeclilit tplimdare et fatnulnriim nutncro 
maxime conspicuHt, Qii ales statu w (quad ail 'illr) qutc KacriK in trdibus 
ooluninis iiii))onuntur. velut oiicri ceiUtiK-s videiitur, nc u iiuiidnn-nt. quum 
re v^ra mnsti sint rareiitet, et nihil laxi-ain abiuveiit firoiltutfrn ; Attanm 
tideri rohml. qnum sinl ttalute lapidete, untbralHen re vmi homiincioncs, 
futuji Jarsan rl hardi, nihil a saxo diffrrentrf ; y"'"'' intrrim docli rtri, 
<t in'ftf stiJteliarit tiruantrtilit prtrditi, qui ittlim diet s'liliaent, hit iitiqvi 
SWic scrriant , ndmmo forsan Ontario conlrnti, purit nomiaihus nuncupati, 

• CmmmA. mOH. > llftniioi. • &dc«iut. •Lulh.laCiL > IVik. S^ 1. ■ MIUM. 


Mcia. 4. Sub«. 1.] 

A'ttrse, a Caut*. 


hvmtet, ob$curi : multaqtit digniora licet, egenteii, inhonarali, vttam prinam 
pritatam agant : Irnuiijiir frpulli tacfrdolio, vtl in coltfffOi tiiis m rtlerjtuiH 
incarceroti. iiu/lnric deUtcicnnl ; — »ttt nnlo diutlus kane movert tetitinam. 
Hine ilht ItKTtjmte, luffubris lUutarum habiliis ; 'hiac ipsa rel'igio [i/uod cum 
Secellio dicam) in lurlibrmia et contcmlum adiluciliit, al'jecium jacenluiium, 
^at^Me hire ukt/iunt, ausim dicere, el puti'Jiim ^pulidi dii:lmiim dct i:lcro 
uturpare) pntiduiu valgus, inopt, rude, sorduium, meltincholicttta, miterutit, 
detpicabile, contemnendum. 


SuKECT. I. — Non'nccesiari/ , rrmole, ouUcard. adventilioiu, or accidental 
L cause*: aijintfrom the Sunt. 

I 07 those t*mote, outn-ard, Bmbiem nrctstary C3iu«i-s, 1 liave »iifficiently 
Kdiseouned in tlie precedent member. Tlie non-ntcttnary, I'ulluw ; of witieli 
I (nhh *• Fuchsiii^) no atl can be made, by r<-iuon of ihcir u:i(-iTliiinly, 
' catnaltr, and mnttitode : so calli^d not tircrffiary, because, (uccoriling to 
, 'FerneUua) ihcy may he avoidod, and unr.d without necmity. Miiny of 
[tbcM icciijentul cauM.'«, which [ ihall cnlrcut of licrr, miglit liiivc well been 
I'twiiiced to the former, bc^uuxi! ihcy cannot he avoided, Itiit ftilnlly happen 
[to us, though nccid<^n tally, and unawares, at some time or other: the real 
FUre coDtingent und evitnbic, and more properly inserted in this rank ol 
I causes. To Kckon up 'til, is a thing unpossible; of some therefore most 
r«maikable of these contins;cnt cauBe» which produce melanclioly, I will 
I brietiy speak, and in their order. 

From a cliild* nativity, the ftnrt ill acctdoDt that can likely befall hiin in 
ibb kind, is a bad ntirae, by whose m^ans alone lie may be Inintcd with 
lbi«Jiita)ady from lus cradle. AuIun Gelliua (/. \'l. e. 1) brinsis in E'bn- 
\ vorinus, lliat elo(|ueni philoK>plier, iirotinKlhU at lar>^, ''that there m the 
tame rtrlte and properly in ifke milk a* in ihr ttr.d, and not in men alant, 
but in oil olhcT tTriiturrs. Ht giro instanrc in a hid and lamli : if eilkcr 
of Ihtm iuck of the oth/rs milk, ike lamh of the goaiti, or the hid of the 
I rtt-eg, the wootl of the one tvill be hard, and the hair of Ike other aojt. 
k-Oiraldns Cnmbrcnsis (Itinerar. Citmhri<r, I. 1, c. 2.) eontimis this by a 
' notable eKampIc, which happened in hi» lime. A Kow-pig by eliance sucked 
a brach, aiid. when she was (^town, ' would ntirtwulouily hunt all manner 
of deer, and that a:t wtll. or rather better, than nny ordinary hound. His 
COncluiion is, "' that >ai-n and bcasli parlifi/iate of Iter nature and cundiliimi, 
by mhote milk thnj are frd. Phavurinns nriji-th it farther, and demon- 
BtrniPi it mor« evidently, thut if a niimt^ be " Biis-^/iaperi, n»chaite,unhoneiit, 
intpttdcnl, drunk, "cruel, or tlu< liki;, the child tltit iiuek* upon her breast 
mil be to (no: alt other alfectioiii of tJi? mind, and diituM.-^, are abnust 
jni^lfed, tin it were, and imprinted in the trniperature of tli« infant, by the 
nurses milk, as pox, leprosie, nic!anchi>ly, &c, ().ilo, for wimc meh rraiwn, 
would make his servants children suck upon his wives breml, hccaitM-, by 
tint means, they woidd love him and his the better, nnd in all likelihood 
asree wicii them. A more evident example that the minds arc altered by 
milk, cannot be given, than that of PDion. wliich he relates of Caligulas 

'tibk (Irmi. G«Ilomin. ■ C.-unplan, * I'ri'itin, Its. i- Nnlk^i an PLtntUlul potnt, ■ Lib. I. 
^ IB, dr BHvhDPiD cftuMls. Qua* ilt'Ikiuf? tWI. w nnl)& ni«ri*ahl1uli* uiimur. J iinti tiuii*] rst im- 
htiu tTfnit. ^rrftlfit oduroui Tn[A diu. Uur. ^ ISIi^ni >rtJi^l a^J iritucrjih* cor^hirU &ii[m> juitml 
•tBfliln'llnr* ti* *l '»*lflT« ■■■Biu'l*. lit qii"ciur bi''ri»i>Tuprirli>. Nequ^ Id in hombubuB luluco. anl in 
p«cudi1*u. uUulvj'nnm : nun al nvlum Earrf haiti, ivul ri^JFumin agni 4lrivnTi] t, toilsIbL Eirri iu hi* 
fclijiin durturrn, Ld ULlt 44iillliiiik vIkt,^ ti'm-riorvpi. ' Ailqlta In fi'mnim prnr^iLnlu^nc' ati mmru- 
I^nn uH|vr udu^ " Toin KiiETiuL <tuuiIllbrE. (iiuini bomu. ablllA, ciijii> lAcir niitrLrLir, iinTnnun (nil' 
' ' "- ■ImfpTDtQ, mliJiiiti*. lEittiu'^^fA. irititili^tifA rintfiiL, &i'. ijiifhipl.tcu in ui\>tii^'t* ..flV^rm'uKtU 
^ ^nc lATtriD lAffmmrEi tJtnr-ln p( nAliin iteiU Irnrl- ^ HiiriiuiK^iir iiUnOruitt utvn 
Viip rUbi.I.a>CiMrt)nu. 

bat . 


216 Caiues of Melanchottf. [Part. 1. Sec. SJ 

CTod^ ; it could ccitbcr be imputed to tbth«r nor motber, but to his cniel 
Dane aJonc, tJiat snointcd her naps wiih blood still wIi«q tie MckcU, wliich 
made him rnich a murderer, nod to express her cruelty to an huir ; and (hat 
of Tiberius, who was a coramoa drimkiud, becatue hiii nunc wut *ueh ii on«, 
Et,^ tielira/nerit, (t oti« obseires) infantatum dttirum fadtt ; if «hc 
a fool or doll, the child she nunrth will tukv vl\i:r her, or otberwiK be mis- 
aflected ; which Fiaiieiieui* Burbunis (/. 3. c. u/(. dt re uxwid) ]>tov«4 at i 
full, and Anl. Guirurrit (lib. 1. dr. Marco Anrtlio): the child will surclv^H 
warticiiiute. For Imdily wiknoM. llicre is no doubt to be made. Tiiu*,^H 
Vc>p»«ini>s win, wiw ibrtrfnrc sickly, bcc-:niso rhe miPM: wn* so (Lampridiua) : 
and, if wc may believe physicians, many limes children catch the pox from 
a bnd nurse, (Botaldiis, cap. 61. ile Im Vener,) Besides evil atteodanc^ 
iicgUc;ence, and many gross inconveniences, which are incident lo nunte*, 
much dani^r may so eonie to the child. ' For these caiijen Aristotle (Po/i>. 
Ub. 7. c. 17), PhavoriiiuB, and Marcus Aureliun, would nut have a child put 
to nurse at aJl, but every mother lo brin^ up her own, of what condition 
soerer xhe Iw ; fur a suiind and nhte mother lo put out Iier child to nurse,* 
M naliird! iatrmperirs (*» * GiinCso cnlls il) : 'ti« lit ttiereforc the «Iiould be 
nnrte her tclf ; the mnlhcr will be more careful, loving and atlendHnt, than 
any tetrilu wonmn, or *uch hired crcaturej* ; ihi* nil Uic world nrknow- 
Icdgeth : ronr«ni«nfii«in>uM tst (as Rod. a Caatro, de nat. mtf/tVrum, Hb. 4. 
c. 12, in many words eontesscth) mafrm ipsam lactare uifantem, (who 
denies that it should be so '.) and which some women most curiously 
observe: amongst (he rest, 'thai queen uf France, a Spaniard by btrtfa, 
that was so precise and ^ealous in this behalf, tbat when, in her ab«enc«, a 
strange nurte had suckled her child, iht was never quiet till she had made 
thc! infant vomit il up it||i:aiu. But she was too jealous. If it be so, as 
many time* it is, tlicy must be put forth, the motber tic not fit or well ahia 
to be a nurte, 1 woiilu th<m advue xueh miithera, (as " Plutarch doth in hit 
book dt liberit fdueandit, and " S. Hicri>me, lib. 2. cpi$t. 'il. Lata dt 
intlitut.^1. Mn^iiniis, pari. 3. Reg. sitnit. cap. 7, and the said Rotlericus) 
(hat they make choice of a Miund woman, of a good cumph'xion, honest, 
free from bodily diteasea, if it be possible, and all poMions nml ptrrlurba- 
tions of the mind, as sorrow, fear, gi'ief, "folly, melancholy : for such pas- 
sions corrupt the milk, and alter the (emp«rature of the child, which, now 
bt-inj; 'udum el titolie irifum, is easily seasoned and pen'erted. And if suck 
a nune may be ibuinl out, that will he diligent and careful wiihall, let PIm- 
vorinus unJ M. Aurtlius plead how they can a^raiust it. 1 had mther accept 
of her in some cases than tlie mother her self; aud (which Bonaeialus the 
physician, Nic. Bieiiius the politician, lib. A. dt repub. cap. 8. approves) 
' tomt nurses art tnvch In he prrf erred to tame tanihrrs. For why may not 
the mother be nnui;ht, a |)c<tvith drunken Hurt, a was|>i8b dioh-nck slut, a 
crazed piece, a fool, (w many mothers arr) uniound, as soon as tlie nunc? 
There is more choice of nurses than mothers; and tlicrcfore, i^xeepl the 
mothf^r be most vertuoiis, staid, a woman of excellent good parts, and of a 
sound complexion, I would have all children, in such cases, commitled to 
discreet iiira»t;ers. And 'tis the only way (as by marriage thoy are engrailed 
lo otlier fitmilies) to aher the breed, or, if any thing lie nmiss in the mother, 
(at Ludovicus Mercatui contends, Tom. 3. hb. ile morb. li(Frrrl,) to prevent 
iliK-ases and future maladies, to correct and oualitie the cbilds ill'ditposed 
temperature, which he had from liis parents. This is an excellent remedy, 
if goo<l choice be made of such a nurse. 

< IMa. '. tr. t, 1 , E«In. bM. ■ Sr lottim lunit allaHiM dwtwnrl nrpuo, rl uimiu lunnB- 
ptfur ' LIh. X ilr cir. cuiu^rt- * SVrfbftiiiUb *Ta. t. SuEriaH nm iimvat*. bvH UMxItne 
urebB, •Irlieimut. • NuiriiBiin>a UHlraMrtinnuWBib Olar. >.. ■ 

UHrt. * V*n. * Solhr** tnt^ritsin nuirilmj luitl ntUurr*. 

I ri«ti(h«dniD M MoUds 

Mem. 4. Subs. 2.] Education, a Cause. 


ScBSECT, II. — Edtieation. tt Const of Melancholy. 

Edcc«tios, ot these accidental causes of melancliuly, may justly chal- 
^ the next place ; for, if a man e*(^ape a bad aant, he miiy be undone 
^(nril liringiii^ up. 'JaaOD Prali^iiiiiK puts tin* of nluotioo for a priticipol 
'Caiue: biid parents, »tep-motlipni, tutors, miwtcn, tmchcr*. too risorous, 
_ too scvcrr, ton remiss or iii(iiilg(ii)t on tbc Other side, arc oflcn fountatiia and 
fiirtWrcts of thi« ili<i:aj«r. PartntK, and siirh o» have the luition and oi'cr- 
■ight of children, offrnii mnny limcs in that tbcvare too Ateni. alway tlin-nt- 
J ning, chiding, brawling, whipping, or etrikin? ; by mt-ana of wliicb, ihcJr 
J poor children are so disheartened and cowed, that ihey ni-vcr nftcr have any 
teour^^, a merry hour in their lives, or takti plcainti: in uny thing. Thcro 
ri* a neat moderation to be had in tuch things, as matters of n'n grent tnoment 
Fto tnv making or inariin!,; uf a child. Some fnght tlicir children with 
rlw^SBn, buglHrars, and hobirublinx, if ihey cry, or be otiicrvays nnnily : but 
T tlwy iire much to blame in it, many linu-s, ituth l.avaicr (f^ gpectris, pari. I. 
icap' 5) ; tx mrlv in marhos aravcs incidunt, t:t noctu dormienlei ciamoal : 
[ for fear they fall into many discote*, and cry ont in tlicir fleep, ajid are much 
ttbe worse for it all their livca : these thing* ought not at ail, or to be Hpu> 
[lingly done, and upon just occasion. Tyr.innical, impatient, hatrbratu'd 
[^ichool -mailers, ariilt mayiilri, to ' Fabiiis terms thcni, Ajaces fia/jctliferi, 
rare, ia I his kind, as bad aa hanfi^en and eiLeeutioiier« : tliev nuikf^ many 
[childreu endure a manvrdom all the while theyare at school : with bad diet, 
[if tbey iKiotU in their ^lOUses, too much severity and 31 iiiage, ihey quite 
Iperrcrt their tc.mperaturcof Ixidy and mind — still chiding, rayling, frowning, 
lliuhing, tucking, keeping, that ihcy art! /rnr/i animis, miipc^d mnnv tjmes, 
|irr:irT of their liveJi, * nimid frvcrilatr drficinnl cl daprraitl, ami lliink no 
^•Inreiy in ilic world (as once I did myseli*) like to that of a gnimmar scholar. 
'^racipiorum iniptiit dUcrHciantur tnyenin pucromm, snith Kcaunus : they 
— tbw at his voice, looks, coming in. St. Austin, in the fir«t book of his 
fits, and 4. ca. calls this Fchooling medculoiam necemitutfm, and else- 
ihere a maityrdom, and cunfesseth of himself, how cruelly he was tortured 
mind for learning Greek; ntilla verba noveraim el ntvis lemrihus el 
n'j, at ii&ijirin, iiuitiihalur mHii vehementtr : 1 knew nothing; and with 
Ccruelterrouraand punishment I was daily compel'd. ' Bern eomplaimiin like 
lease of a tigorouii schoiilniaaler In Paris, that made hini, by ln« continual 
Imnddr Uid thicuts, once in -<t mind to drown himself, bad he not met by 
be nay with nn uncle of his that vindicated him from that misery for the 
[time, by laking him tJ> bin house. Trincavclliux (lib. I. eontil. \(i) had a 
^|»ticnt nineteen yciir* of age, extremely melancholy, nh nimium ttud'um 
' Tarvilii ft praceptoria minas. by reason of overmuch Mndy, nnd Iiib '' tulor» 
threats. Many masters are hard hearted, and hitter to their ncrvants, and 
by tliat means do so deject, wiili terrible speeches and hard usage so crucific 
ihem, that ibi-y become desperate, and can never be lecnllcd. 

Other* again, in tliat oppu.iite extrcam, do as preat harm by their too 
t much ri^ntistneu ; ihey give ihcm no bi inking up , no calling to bnsie ihem- 
kIvck about, or to live in, leadi thorn no trade, or set them in any ^ad 
cnurtc; by means of which, iJicir scn'ants, children, scholars, are carrie-d 
, away with that stream of drunkenness, idlciieu, gamins and many hucIi 
irregular courses, that in the end ihey me it, curse their potGUl*, and mischief 
themselves. Too much indulgence causeth tlie like, • iarpla palris Icnilas 
et facilUas pratia, when as, Micio like, with too mui^h liberty and too great 

*tSbk 4#inoTtot>nplUi.<9|^ dciu&iA. Ilmul pni,it,.(nt r-niikid AuimnlMur nUickl^a, inu-r \u\ 
lU thaJlnulonii flnjiMt.— li^[iuniH>'rm. '>, -i, -if, t, >l<liia, 
Am In Irani! It* ilsirnt. aOd) toniuitar. ■ pnniai a4Tp>tani. 

Tor. AOeL >. C 


Causes 6j MtUmcholy. 

[Part. I. Sec. ! 

allowance, tliev feed Uieir cUildrens liumoura, let ttiem revel, weacli, riot, 
nwiigget, uiid (To wliat llicy will tliemsolvea, aud then puniali tJiem witli &. 
noise of musician*. 

Valemi teurclplui. KiMM quoti tabrt, . 

Baaul. DOniuniM. purdul ; dc^cnlum cat lii. . 

Bill. U.I Di'mr-4 UiUl him, lu illu-m corrampi sims, your lenity will be hit] 
uiidcitn^ ; pr^viHcrc vidciir jam dicm ilium, //uum hie e^ens pro/ugicl atiquo 
militatvm ; I forMvc liin mine. So puroiils often err : muny tbiid miiltiera, I 
cxpn'-iiilly, doll' Ml miii'h ii]icin Uirir ctiildceii, like * idopxujie, till in lli<^ end 
tlicy r.rusli tlirm lo driith. Corponim nutrieet, animarum, pam- 
pering up their bodies to tlic iiiidoiRg of their wmlii, tht-y will not let thetaj 
Ire "■ corrected or controlled, but still soolhc<l up in Mery thing tlicy do, that | 
in conclusion, (/icy bring iorrow. s/iume , AfflvinfM, lo Ihfir partmlr, (Eeclnt. 
cap. 30. 8. 9.) iecumt wanlon, itubborn, wilful, and diiobrdicnl ; ruife, 
wntituijhl, liead-ttrani), ini^rriijible, and t/raceteu. They love Ikem Ml 
foolithli/, (sailh 'Cardan) thnl they rather seem to hate them, Artngingt 
them mil vp lo ccrlue, but irijmy. not to leuming, but to riol, mil rtT 
sober life and r.imvertalinn. hut lo all pleamre and lii:i-ntiou» bchamovrA 
Who a li<: iir SO little cxptrience that knows not tlii» of Fabiu.s to be true! 
' Education it anothrr tiat.trr, altering the miiul and will, ami / would to 
God (luitli h(0 jj.'c our flt'cs did not spoile our childrrns mannrri, by our\ 
overmuch cochrring and nice education, and uirnken ihr utrcngth of Iht 
bodiet and minds. That causetK cuttom, rtistom nature, &c. For thf 
causes, Plutarch (in his bonk de lib. educ.) and llicrom, {rptst. lib. I. e;nj/^l 
n.toLittade institat. Jilia) ^ives a iDogt espccintchiirgc to all parents, and! 
many good canttoua about bnngin); up of children, that they be not com-f 
mitted to uudisereet, pasuonate, Bedlam tutors, light, giddy-headed, or] 
covetouti t>cr«in!i, and spare for no cost, that they may be well nurtured andJ 
luu^ht : It beiD^amatti-ruf 10 i^reat consequence. For such putentt asdol 
otiwrwiiw, Plutarch wleetns likt: lliein 'Ma( are miire vareful af thrir nhooerX 
than of their Jert, ihiit rate llieir wealtii abovt their ciiildrrn. And he," 
(naith 'Curd;in)(Aaf /erji^M hii son to it eovetout tchoidmantrr tobeiaformtdt I 
or to a close ahbg to fast and Irarn u)itdt)m together, itotk no other, . 
that he be a learned fool, or a siehli/ wi$e man. 

Sun-SKin-. til. — Terrourt and Affrights. Causet of Melancholy. 
TvLi.Y (in the fourth of his TuBcuUnx) diMio^iishelh tliese terrourswfe 
arise iVom the iipprchensionof some terrible object heard or seen, from other | 
fcara; and so doth Patritiiis (lib. A. tit. 4. de regis inatitut.) Of all fears, I 
they are most pernicious and violent, and so suddenly alter the whole trni- 
pcraHirc of the body, move the soul and spirits, strike such a deep imprcs* 
sion, that the parties can never be reeovered, cauiiiix more Kriev«u» and I 
fiercer melancholy, (as Felix Plater, c. ."J. de mentis alienat. "jpeKk* out ol 
bia exuetience) tlian any inward cause whsUoevcr; and imprint* it self so 
forcibly in the spirilt, brain, hnmoBrt, that, if all the mast of blood vjen 

'Tft. AftvLnrl. 1. h. V. i CunmrSu^ coin 77. ^mL t. i,'th olcf^rtllrnpniMfJltfn ui*io1j3mK j 
jrnlK MUBiilu, let, ' Pniv. JS. n*. Ii< ih>i lyurtti ihi umI luln lib luu. ' Lib. v. ilrrimo^ 
TwnBtulltf i^M'ro* cUUj^tmDt^ n\ oiLj'>cn pntrtii vjiLt-adibi : llltAitiiEi ml vLrlultfiQ aivl ml LniiinAiii» voai 
rrudttionm h^L ul lumm. non ail iium "^il lolupisifid riLDmtph J IJh. 1. p. .1. iuiucarlu4lt« 
n«<iiF»[k2U-mBufmot i<t ^oliuilBivm : a^nnv vtinun rin^iuU' librrvrum iio«tromm niopn nuii ij.«i jv 
4lrmQu>. fiinuD IfifufUm BUiirn di^li<.-il)» ivl^linui ; uit^lliot itu rduoHUo. quun Lojlulgpniiun icftftini]^ 
iKTvfA uiiLiiVA. tl invnlu i<ifiirpLit-iv, rmiiril: fA*!^ Iie> cuEmuvluttu. bitlf nHtuEv. * Pnlitclr w\t «a | 
tli|utidr caliwu bIc ■nllfltEit. pptU'm nihil .'Eirrt. Jeevi'ei. Nil ptiri mlout rat qium Ailu,, ■ lIU I, . 
dpiHplt^L Qui 4tuIb lEViitir'i;;** prj<To> i^JiMkiUi. clintH ti^I rLiii»(«lii lEniiiDldliii^iintfrtlmultlMivtf, 
nlliJl 4Uud Adwii. nbl ut tliii •H mr*. liur ithiTUTi.^ iHpiiliriH v^l non Ihir^ nti i*|.iraln ■ Trrmf ' 
■Inivlu*. uitkinir d irnpivviBo ADeicU''. . Lri qmItitijiii i^uniniovrQl, ul tplrlliiB iiEiErijuun ivrH|i,fr*ol : 
irtvlufpniijur nu'Um'buliun Iprror fvii, c|LiriE]E 4|uil- nb iiilt<nilt iaehhA fiL Einjir,-M,a uui, fatiit In «|il* 
miboi hiimarlluvjur frrvlirl. iit. r&Lrmri* i^iu, -juiKinnt^ w ^ wr* 'itpnmtiLii ; pi b<K burrvniU 
vpnin iBclUichDlL»frt<|upiilcTotilala mihl. vmni.** f xvnviu, tIniK Jbtrfitf*. kjih 

Mem. 4. Subs. 3.] Terrors and AffrighU, Cauae*. 221 

/(( imt of iht body, it could kardtt/ be extracted. Thit Kurrible kind e^ 
mrlanchtili/ (for bo h« tenm it) had been often broughl before him, and 
trimblcs and off riijhtt commonly men and Komen, yauni) and ald,afaU torti, 
• Hercuks (le SaxouiS call* Uiis kind of niitbncluily (ab agitations tpiri- 
luum) bv II tioi^iiliui nume; it <;uium from Hiv iii;it>itii>ii, motion, cootrnction, 
(lilulalion of *{)iritx, not fram iiny distompitrutiitr of humours, anil piyxliiceth 
Mixmg rflecu. Tlii* temnir ia moit tuuitllv caii«ci! (as " t*lnlarch will hare) 
from lome imminent dan^ftr, ichtM a ttrtibh abject i» at hand, heard, seen, 
or coDceJv-ed, v truly appearing, or in a ^drram: and loaDy tiioee, the more 
sudden the accid«Dt, it is the more violent. 

Artcraitloriis the i;rutnniariun loxt tiix wits by the iin<-x[icrli:d light of a Cto> 
codilc (taurentius, 7. rfr melan.) 'Tht- miissiicre cil Lioii», in I57'2. in the 
reign of Clurlc* llic aiittli, wm so t«nil)lc nnd IcarTol, timt many rau mad, 
some died, great-bellied nomen were brought to bed before their time, Keiie- 
rally all aiFrighlcd ond agast. Many lose tlicjr wits ' by the sudden tight of 
some spectrum or devil, a thing very common in all ayes, (sailli I^vatcr, 
p^rt. 1 . cap. 9.) as Urcates did at tfae sight of the Fiiii«s. wliicii spjwarcd to 
niiD ID black (as " Paiuanias records). Tlie Greeks call tliein ;inp^o-\^>:(ia, 
which to lerrtfie their souls. Or if they be but alTrighted by some counter- 
feit devils in jeat, 

n Unabfti mtf lumil 

taa children in the dark conceive hobgoblins, and are sore afraid) tliey are 
t.the worm for it all their lives: sooie, by sudden 6r««, earlh(|uakes, tiiunda- 
ktions. or any sueh dismal objects. TLemisou the physician lell into an hy- 
dropliobia by si-eing one sick of that iliaeusc (Diu«tri>ndes /. 6. c. .3.3): or by 
. the sight of a monster, a carcase, they aie i]i«[|iiiiTt<'(l innny montli* follow- 
■ iBg, and cannot endure the tuom wlien- a cuanr hath bten. for a world 
would not be alone with a disul ntita, or lye in that bed many years after, 
in which a man hath died. At * Basil, a many little children, in the s|)rio^ 
tinw, went to gather flowers in a meadow at the towns end, where a ouile- 
factor hun|i> in )f;ibbels: at g:i':ing at it. one by clinnce flung a stone, and 
I made it stir: bv which accident the children atlVighled ran away : one, slower 
than tliv rest, louking back, and seeing the stiircd carcase wag towards lier, 
cried out it caitie after, and was so terribly aflVinlited, thsit tor many dayes 
•he could nut ri-iil. eal, or sleep: she could not be [mciftnl. but mdunelNtly 
iticd. ' In tlie unit! town, another child, beyond the Rhine, saw a grave 
opened, and, upon ilic xijclit ofa carcase, was so troubled in mind, that she 
roitlil not be cntiir<irli-d, but a little after departed, and wan buried by it 
(PUtenis, obsfrmt. I.\). A gentlewoman of the same city saw a fat hog 
cut up, when the intrals was opened, and a noyaome savour oflcndcd her 
nose, she much mislikrd, and would not longer abide : a physician, in pnt- 
•eoce, told hi'r. us that hog, so was she, ftill of filthy excrements, uid ag- 
gravated ttie mailer by some other loathsome instances, in so much, this nice 
j^en lie woman appii^iended it su deeply, that she fell forthwith a voinitin|^, 
was to miglitily distempered iu mind and body, that, with all liis ait and 

• Tiw L dv mi-laa, «|i, T <l tk Nan tb iDiBiupnic. Md aclUlionp. •UlatiHonc, coalrulionp. molu 
•pntiuvm, - l.ik <U' loH. rl liRuL Al«. Piwwttlm InvuiilD (Hticuls. nbl m |iKiiic ■diunl Ur- 
nbHr%. 'V\t a vULoni^horrmiU. ntm Liipttrntp. *«] frt lii*<imn1iL Plftlvru*. iA pjitultfn 
■Uv in Bull. ia», ><.Diuik>lt ililum bf Ho mortuum : hubMnrUnchoIWiyiuoliiri noluit. ■Klik. 
tt*re. Oil- ' Qu&tirt ]>■■-■ iwmmrrit ^ alAtu ntipumia iu OollLi luti Cufia Ix. 13^^ ' bv oc. 
cana Atnnouutn ii1i<|ije mmr^ rtrrfiplunlur. ul riiirrit.olil aolum nL > Lil.. b^ in Arrvil. * Lurrrt. 
*l*iwilvf%ln urb-'m In pniA raiirurmitM. Ai! mi>vU 'I rovUnt^lmUr* diamiiiii iwhll; per ili«'* 411. 

OliOl t*X4a, dum ID0ITU4I^«>, I'UIOT, *AIU>r* t(aAA-HhlflHIIII.^Uaf#«kAH<pulrt1lln nr^nm xift^um. 

*Ud nwUvvr, ot <lamum KUbilu rvvcr** puUMImn voran: po<l pair^oi din otilil, prnHimu vT'ipulrfo 
col^catjL AJtrra^ pAllljnlum tvru |iivlirrivfu. TD?lurb«l af urbr rtetuiH llUfr jiprooclApfi ; undp mf- 
bMholkrD fnrit, pft inii^lntumoa UlKinviL FUlrntB^ 

222 Causes of MeUtKc/n^y. [Part. 1. Sec. 2J. 

penvuions, for tome months silcr, he cuuUl not restore her to ber selC 
agaia: »he could not forget it. or remove the object out of her si/lit f/dcm J. 
MaDjr cannot endure to see a wound opened, but they aru i)trc-iid<!ii ; it mim 
executed, or labour of anv fearful disease, as posscniun, apaplcnic*, on« 
bewitched: -^or, ifthevreaJ bv chance of some terrible tiling, the symp tomes 
alone of such a dtkciiie, or ihut nlik-h tlirv (tisltke, they ore innantly trou- 
bled in mind, ii^itxl. tcoAy to apply it t» tlii-tii selves; they are as raucli dis- 
quieted, ax if thev hail seen ii, or were! nu aSccted tbeiiiselves. ffecalaiti'' 
videntuT tomniare ; ihcy dream nnd continually think of it. As lameiiiable 
eflt'cls a,K ci>u»cd bv such tcrriiilc object* heard, read or iH.-en: anditta 
moximoi mottii in corpore/actf. as 'Pkilarch liolds; no sense midcex grrutcr 
alternlion of body and mind: suddea speech sometimes, unexpected news, 
be they good or bad, prttvixa mimis tiratio, wLil move a* much (nnimimi 
vbruert, el ilc ttde sua driicerr, ati ;i ' pldlosDplier obeen'es) will take away 
our sleep, and aput'tilt!, disturb and ijuiie overturit us, Let them bear wil- 
neis. that hme heard tlmse iru);ii'al alarums, oui-cryes, hideous noises, 
which are iniiiiy tintrx f^uddculy heard in the duid of tlie night by irniplioai 
of cncinie.4 and aei'iilcntiil lirc», &e. those '' pnnick fears, which ulWu drt*i(ti| 
nicn out nf their wits, bereave them of sense, nndersfanding, aitd all, Kciins 
for a time. *>mc for their whole live*; they never n.^cover tl. The ' Mi- 
dianitcs were so aH'ii^hted by (iideoos nouldiers, they brraking but every 
one a pilcher; and '' tlanuibalsaruiv, by such a paniek fear, wak discomfited 
at tlje walls of Itoine. Ati^ustu Livia, heariiih' * l'^"' tragical ven.cs rc<cite<l 
out of Virgil. (Tu MarccUut cru, ^e.) fell down dead in a swoon. Edinus, 
kin;; of Uinmatk. b;t a sudden »ouiid which he heard. ' was turntd into fury, 
tvilh all hii men (Crantiut, I. 5. Dan. hit!, el Alexander ab AUxandro, 
i. 3. c. 5.) .Amutuii Luxitanus had a patient, that, by reason of had tidings, 
became epilcpliens (cm. 2. cira 90). Cardan (subtil. I. IS) saw one that 
tottt hit will by mistaking of an oclio. If onv (ohk alone can <-ausc nich< 
violent commotions of the mind, what may wc think, when hearinfr, sight, 
and those other semics, arc all troubled at once, as by some earthquakes, 
thunder. Itgbtninf;, tempests, &c, ? At Bologne in Italy, anno 1504. there 
WOE such a feaiful earthquake about eleven o'clock iu the night, (aa ' Hero- 
aldus. in his book de lerrr mntu, hutli commended in posterity) lliai all the 
city trembled, tlie |)eople thought the world was at un end, aciam de marla- 
iibas'; sucli a fearful noi»e it nmdc, *uch u detc»lable smell, iJie iidiabitants 
were inSuiiel) ai)ri)£hted, and some ran mail. Audi rrm alracem. r.t anua- 
libiit mnnorandatn (mitie autlior add*): hear a slranzc ilory, and worthy tot 
be clirunided: I ha<l a (emni at the time, called Futon .Irjicinnua, a bold 
and proper man, *o grievously tcrrilie*] with it, >> th;it he was nt firat melan- 
choly, aDcr doted, at lust mat), and made nwny with himself. At '' l-'uscinum 
in Japona, tkrre was such an tarlhijuaJtf and darkntsa on a sadden, that 
man^ men Ktrt offended ttiilh ktadaeh, many overwltelmed with sorrow aitd 
melancholy. At Mtacam, whole slreelt and gwidly /lalact* were overturned 
al the lasie time; and there was such an fiidcous no'tsf withal, like thunder, 
amijilthysmtll, that their kair stared for fear, h':ar It quaked; men 
and beasts wrre incredibly terrijied. In Saeai, another ci/y, the MUM 
earlkt/Huke was si> terriblt unto, that many were bereft of their sensett 

> (hiblliu drmrMH, Inoiriiwi* Icvlia. • Lib. dr hhIIUiiih!. •Tlwvd, Frodnmin. lib. 1 Amonm. 
'Muumnnu Dicicnlt* •niniiu' tumuH. Qiilx nm niiiic Infltt camiii ! KluDui >iL AtrUt. piulil. lA 

I Cnpll trKU ^(.aiitirrr ^icm il]-r'4'Ti4]n wrv^Ia&t. I»i)c ^'im lirtnmlv. Ill «irtl lp%i irittrlrm Infenvl 
* ttuioiiii* trlntia "I" tphiM Jni»oi4k'i«. l/*p?(. ?r flv Jrj** ivi*" Ch^niiiJ". ■ I^Mioik* Frvb j^wll^ A. 
1W. V\iar.ini ^'n)!^-^)!.' iJinfn ^rticnlifu 1-4 K^trtf iTiuriq. Ml loitJIk ..Ml-Uv dairrtTiC. (tlnrimia c«T ID*- 
KOT cl mtluichuljl oWtirn-tur. TcEiEum ffi'inihim hl/btl, uf IvuiLni Iffu^fm imiUifi vtllrfr<iu, Uk« 
Ismiiur. tt^ In urtnt &>nii tnin hnrriAcv* ftiit, ulhwDloiv tlxivjQ^m|KiM«itm. tMBj^tnwiftall^ 
uU. Diainir* opprcHl um horrrndo >pr«l»iila. ac 




Mem. 4. Suba. 4.] Scoffs, Caiufitnus, bitter Jetts, ^e. 223 

amd othert, by that horrifilr spectacle, to mucK amattd, that they knew not 
what they did. BUaius, a Ctimtmti, the reporter of the news, was so af- 
fng:hicil for hia jiarl, ihai. tfiuu^li it «en' two mon*Uifl after, he was icarce 
hix own man, neither could he drive lh« lenK^nilimuce of U out of his 
mind. Many tinx-j, Konic yvan, fotlowin); they will irvmblc afrcih at the 
' remcmbnnco or conceit of *uch a tfrriljlc object; evi-n iiU l!icir livi-s loiic. 
if mention be made of it. Cornelius Agrippa rrlato^ (out of Gulieimus 
Parisicnsis) a story of one, that, after n di»tii«tcful piiti^c which a pUir*iL'iaii 
had prescribed tinto him, was so much moved, -> tkctt, at the irry ligkt of 
I physKk, lit leould be dUlempercd: thoui;h lie never so much u» nmrJled to 
n, (be box of phyaiclt long after would i;ive Iiira a purine; nay the very rc- 
tnembrniice of it did efleci it; '' like travellers and iea7nen, (ssiitb Plutarch) 
that, ifhrn they have liren tanded. irr dashed on a rack, /or ever ^fterjear 
Hot that misekance ohIi/, bat all tvek danger* whuttoever, 

' SviutCT, IV.^ — Scoffs, Calumnies, bitter Jest*, Aotu they cause Mrlanekoty. 

It is an old eayii)<;, ' a blow tvith a word strikes deeper than a blow with 

\ a Uford: and many men arc as much ^ulcd with a calnmiiy, '" a stuirril 

and bitter jest, n libel, a pasquil, satyrc, epologc, cpigmm. Mstgc-ptayes, or 

the Idte, as willi any misfortune whatsoever. Princes and potentates, that 

I otherwise happy, and have all at command, secure and free, guibutpo- 

[^Uia teelerisimpanilatem/evit.avKXTieytiusly vexed witJi these pa^ucIUne 

elk and iatyr« : tbey fear a ratlin;; " Arctine, mott^ than an enemy in the 

fieM; which made iixMt piin<ri-» of his lime (a.i »omc relate) allom him a 

liberal pension, that he nhoitld not lax them in his satyrs. Tlie goda liad 

their Mumu*, Homer bin Zniltiit, .Achilles lii> Thcrntei, Pliilip liis Dcmadea : 

I the C«sars themselves in Home were commonly taunted. There wa» never 

wantini? a Petronius, a Lucian, in those times; nor will he a Rabelais, an 

l^uphormio, a Boccalinus, in ours. Adrian the sixth, pope, "was so big^hly 

J Olfeiided and jjricvoutlv vexed with pasquillcrs at Home, he gave cnmniand 

I'tfaatNtatue should be demolished and burned, the oshcB finng into the river 

I Tiber, and bad done tt forthwith, bad not Ludo» icus Sucssanu«, a Ikeetc 

comp.iuinii, diMwaded him to tlie contrary, by tcllio>; hliu, that Pa»iiiila 

|axl»es would turn to frup in the bottom of the river, and croat worse and 

llowdcrllian liefore. OenKs irrilabile vatum : and therefore PSocrates (In 

I Plat4>) advineili all his friends, that respect their credits, to stand in aice of 

fiOKtSy far tkty are terrible frlloirs, eoji praise or diipraifc, as they see cause. 

The prophet David complains (Psal, 123.4) that hit soul was full of the 

, mocking of the wealthy, and of the dttpitefulntM of the proud ; and (Psal. 

66. 4) for the voice of the wicked, ^-c. and their hate, his heart trembled 

within him. and the terrors of death came upon him: fear and horrible fear, 

^e. (Psal. 69. 20) Rebvke hath broken my heart; and I am full of htvifi- 

turss. Wbu bath nut like cause to cbin])laiu, and U not so troubled, that 

■ball fall into the mouths of such meu^ for many are of so ''petulant a 

spleen, and have lh;il figure sarrasmus to often in their moullis, so bitter, 

so foolish, ins 'Balrhainr Costilio nutM of them) that tkty cannot speak, 

but Ihry must bile ,- ibey had rather hiSi- a fric-ud tlian a jest ; and n'lial 

I iQumitubtlilliiiilnatiiviiAantii-Iit tnE>t;t^. JQb^voluu^cvtnnctUcluaiwar^mlDr ftitfiiij;iD<lura, 

[^ Mi-nt TlAtDtiH. *i »1 uium im^ift^Tlni. irjt tiuiT*. ininiivn^> kuI raifU. nun bUnuxU} iiurtifu'^Hlmit, 

r ^.tai .-, .iH<i[,k 'I'lvrmr iH.*fi.'.riio r( tmnunf- M.4-ii1rr tnUnt. fT%iiu-r n.In«nml- BflRiuduL 

|juf. Ti'i'iiirTii hvtiri.». * Sciaiif mm rv*r qjl » Tiriiiini- trrr- w\i Bin ni*vB*Ar nott 

I ^idltijl, ILL' iriL.rk-. jptuniin HI^FlB »ui> noUF^I. OdiLt. n^rlliitu.tiT^fkl. DHnodTd. 

. ^ . . ... .. .L.. j^i. (jm-i*.lnii' tikia fuiluil, LLvi^i* iiLiDlvn kUuin ml FjxjuJIIJ tlil'iatu i'lit^ l&ctn- 

tlnnii <lt<tT'tt>jui- ttifo tlidiiwn ibvtall'i. ^i^- ' I'UUj. hft H A*r li^^kbuj,. ijui i-uiLifii>li.inrm 
UnMltl. \»ietMm iriwiluf. uif^ aiuliUD Tlin bJihrnI 'il Jvi'luiiIifiD ct Tllupmiiiliini. « FifhiJBbli 

' sgiwi* MchiuiHi. ■ Cutiu lib. a, bquuunuLkiuatiuuUl*, iil.quoUciliatBL*vlk«nionknUca> 
Al piUnl. 


daaea of Melancholy. 

[Part. 1. Sec. 

company wcrcr i\u:j come in, Ihcy will bn troflins, intuiting over their in> 
fcrioiini, c«pccullT over such sK any way depend upon tbtm, humouring,] 
niisutin?, or putling ^ullciics on some or otiier, till they have mnde, by their I 
humoiiTing or i^ullini;;, *ex iluUo ituaaum, a mope or a noddy, and ail (oj 
make thoinselvci lucrry : 

*— ■ dutnniudo rlamn 

Kxcullal tlbl, Don Mi? cutquam pkrrll ualro: 

frivod*, neiittin, «nemie*, all atv as one ; to make a fool a madman, b their 
spon ; and ihry have do grrntcr felicity thun to vcuff and dcridr others; 
tncy miul lacrinr^ to the ^od of biit;lili.-r <widi them in " Apuloitu) once a ' 
day, or else llirv ilinll bi* mclimctiolv tlii'mnrlvct : thry care not how tlie^'l 
^inde and misii«e others, no Ihcy rxhibrate their own pcr(on>. Their wita 
indeed serve them to that »olc piirpo«i-, To make sport, to break a «currtle 
jest : which is levitsimut iugfniifruclui, the froth of wit (as *Tully LoMb) ; 
and for \\m they nrc often Bpp)nuile<l. In all other discourse, dry, barren, 
UramineouE, dull and heavy, here lyca their i;;enius ; in this they alone 
excell, plea&c tlwmsclves and others. Leo Declinus, tliai scoffing pojw, (a* 
JoviuB hath regialercd in the fourth book of liis lift;) took an extraonltnaty 
de%hl in humouring of sillv ft^llows, and (o put ii^ullenes upon them i ^ by 
comnundin/f iomn, fieriwading other* to this or that, he iitad« ex ttoUt^ 
Mtultittimos el mniime ndirulot, ex slullU msanot — so(l fellowx, stark i 
noddies; and such an were fo»lidih, <iuite mitd — before he let\ tlicm. Onel 
mcmombtc cxatniilc he reriu--* there, of Tara.»ei>mus of Parma, a musician, ' 
thut was RO humored bv I.<.'0 Deciinut, and Itibieiin, hi^i si^eond in this busi> 
nc*«,th:it he thought himxelf tobc a man of innst, excellent skill, (who w