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Full text of "The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds causes, symptomes, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, & subsections, philosophically, medicinally, historically opened and cut up"



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THE 

Anatomy of 

MELAl^CHOLY 

'hL tliree Partiticaxs wifH ^eir >severalL j 
ASecflions, members ki sutleclions, 

(T) e mo en Uu fju moi^ . ' 

{^Jl-trn a SafurvcaJC Wrera ce. Coridacirw 
to ^/ic touCo-u/tna u)tscoufjc- . 
j/u. tta-niA. ooihan, c^rrr-ecl-ea an^ 
atufTnc?ife^ tu me ^7ufnoy~^. 

niur^iLnctum.aut rmscm/' I'fue <ruL-i. 




J-'t'^YtOoru^. 



THK 

ANATOMY 

OF 

MELANCHOLY, 

WHAT IT IS, WITH ALL THE 

KINDS CAUSES, SYMPTOMES, PROGNOSTICS, 

AND 

SEVERAL CURES OF IT. 

IN THREE PARTITIONS. 

•WITH THEIR SEVERAL 

SECTIONS, MEMBERS, & SUBSE CTIONS, 

I'HILOSOPHICALLY, MEDICINALLY, HISTOEJCALLY OPENED AND CUT UP. 
BY 

DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR. 

WITH 

A SATYRICAL PREFACE COIVDUCING TO THE FOLLOWING DISCOURSE. 

A ^EW EDITION. 

TO ■WHICH IS PREFIXED 

THE LIFE OF THE AUTHOR. 



VOL. I. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR THOMAS M'LEAN, HAYMARKET; R. GRIFFIN & CO, 
GLASGOW : AND J. GUMMING, DUBLIN. 

182G. 



HONORATISSDIO DOMINO, 

NON MINVS VIRTVTE SVA, 
QUAM GENERIS 

SPLEMDORE, 

ILLVSTRISSIMO, 

GEORGIO BERKLEIO 

MILTI DE BALNEO, 
BAllONI DE BERKLEY, 

Mouhrey, Stgrave, 

D. DE BRUSE, 

DOMINO SVO MULTIS NOMINIBUS OBSERVANDO, 
HANG SUAM 

MELANCHOLI.E 

ANATOMEN, 
JAM SEXTO 

REVISAM, 
D. D. 

DEMOCRITUS Junior. 



De?nocrUus Junior ad Librum suum. 



VADE liber, qualis, non ausim dicere, foelix, 

Te nisi foelicem fecerit alma dies, 
Vade tamen quocimque lubet, quascunquo per oras,. 

Et Geaium Domini fac imitere tui. 
I blandas inter Charites, mystamque saluta 

Musarum quemvis, si tibi lector erit. 
Rura colas, urbeni, subeasve palatia regum, 

Submisse,placide, te sine dente geras. 
Nobilis, aut siquis te forte inspexerit heros, 

Da te moiigerura, perlegat usque lubct. 
Est quod Nobilitas, est quod desideret heros, 

Gratior haec forsan charta placere potest. 
Si quis morosus Cato, tetricusque Senator 

Hunc etiam librum forte videre velit, 
Sive magistratus, turn te reverenter habeto ; 

Sed nuUus ; muscas non capiunt aquilse. 
Non vacat his tempus fugitivum irapendere nuo-js. 

Nee tales cupio ; par mihi lector erit. 
Si matrona gravis casu diverterit istuc, 

lUustris domina, aut te Comitissa legat: 
Est quod displiceat, placeat quod forsitan illis, 

lugerere his noli te modo, pande tamen. 
At si virgo tuas dignabitur inclyta chartas 

Tangere, sive schedis heereat ilia tuis : 
Da modo te facilem, et quaedam folia esse memento 

Conveniant oculis quse magis apta suis. 
Si generosa ancilla tuos aut alma puella 

Visura est ludos, annue, pande lubens. 
Die, Utinam nunc ipse meus* (nam diligitistas) 

In praisens esset conspiciendus herus. 
Ignotus notusve mihi de gente togata 

Sive aget in ludis, pulpita sive colet, 
Sive in Lycseo, et nugas evolverit istas. 

Si quasdam mendas viderit inspiciens, 
Da veniam auctori, dices ; nam plurima vellet 

Expungi, qu8e jam displicuisse sciat. 
Sive Melancholicus quisquam, sen blandus Amator^ 

Aulicus aut Civis, seu bene comptus Eques 
Hue appellat, age et tuto te crede legenti, 

Multa is tic forsan non male nata leget. 
Quod fugiat, caveat, quodque amplexabitur, ista 

Pagina fortassis promere multa potest. 

* Haec cornice dicta, cave ne male eapias. 



Democritus Junior ad Librum suiim. 

At si quis Medicus coram te sistet, amice • 

Fac circumspecte, et te sine labe geras : 
Iiiveniet namque ipse meis quoque plurima scriptis, 

Non leve subsidium quae sibi forsan erunt. 
Si quis Causidicus chartas impingat in istas, 

Nil mihi vobiscum, pessima turba vale : 
Sit nisi vir bonus, et juris sine fraude peritus ; 

Tum legat, et forsan doctior inde siet. 
Si quis cordatus, facilis, lectorque benignus 

Hue oculos vertat, quee velit ipse legat ; 
Candidus ignoscet, raetuas nil, pande libenter, 

OfFensus mendis non erit ille tuis, 
Laudabit nonnuUa. Venit si Rhetor ineptus, 

Limata et tersa, et qui bene cocta petit, 
Claude citus librum ; nulla hcic nisi ferrea verba, 

OfFendent stomachum quas minus apta suum. 
At si quis non eximius de plebe poeta, 

Annue ; namque istic plurima ficta leget. 
Nos sumus e numero, nullus mihi spiral Apollo, 

Grandiloquus Vates quilibet esse nequit. 
Si Criticus Lector, tumidus Censorque molestus, 

Zoilus et Momus, si rabiosa cohors : 
Hinge, freme, et noli tum pandere, turba malignis 

Si occurrat sannis invidiosa suis : 
Fac fugias ; si nulla tibi sit copia eundi, 

Contemnes tacite scommata quteque feres. 
Frendeat, allatret, vacuas gannitibus auras 

Impleat, baud cures ; his placuisse nefas. 
Verum age si forsan divertat purior hospes, 

Cuique saleSj ludi, displiceantque joci, 
Objiciatque tibi sordes, lascivaque : dices, 

Lasciva est Domino etMusajocosa tuo, 
Nee lasciva tamen, si pensitet omne ; sed esto ; 

Sit lasciva licet pagina, vita proba est. 
Barbarus, indoctusque rudis spectator in istam 

Si messem intrudat, fuste fugabis eum : 
Fungum pelle procul (jubeo); nam quid mihi fungo ? 

Conveniunt stomacho non minus ista suo. 
Sed nee pelle tamen ; laeto omnes accipe vultu, 

Quos, quas, vel quales, inde vel unde viros. 
Gratus erit quicunque venit, gratissimus hospes 

Quisquis erit, facilis difficilisque mihi. 
Nam si culparit, quaedam culpasse juvabit. 

Culpando faciet me meliora sequi. 
Sed si laudarit, neque laudibus etferar ullis, 

Sit satis hisce malis opposuisse bonum. 
Haec sunt quae nostro placuit mandare libello, 

lit quae dimittens discere jussit Herus. 



The Author's Abstract of Melancholy ^ A,aAoy;;;?. 



WHEN I go musing all alone. 
Thinking of clivers things fore 

known. 
When I build castles in the aj r, 
Void of sorrow and void of feare, 
Pleasing myself with phantasms 

sweet, 
Mcthinks the time runs very fleet. 
All my joys to this are folly, 
Naught so sweet as melancholy. 
When I lie waking all alone, 
Recounting what I have ill done, 
My thoughts on me then tyrannize, 
Fear and sorrow me surprise. 
Whether I tarry still or go, 
Methinks the time moves very slow. 
All my griefs to this are jolly, 
Naught so sad as melancholy. 
When to myself I act and smile, 
With pleasing thoughts the time 

beguile, 
By a brook side or wood so green. 
Unheard, unsought for, or unseen, 
A thousand pleasures do me bless, 
Andcrownmysoule with happiness. 
All my joyes besides are folly, 
None so sweet as melancholy. 
When I lie, sit, or walk alone, 
I^ sigli, I grieve, making great 

mone. 
In a dark grove, or irksome den, 
With discontents and Furies then, 
A thousand miseries at once 
Mine heavy heart and soule en- 
sconce. 
All my griefs to this are jolly, 
None so sour as melancholy. 
Me thinks 1 hear, me thinks I see, 
Sweet music, wondrous melodic. 
Towns, palaces, and cities fine ; 
Here now, then there ; the w arid is 

mine. 
Rare beauties, gallant ladies shlce, 
Wliat e'er is lovely or divine. 
All other joyes to this are folly, 
None so sweet as melancholy. 
Methinks 1 hear, methinks I see 
Ghosts, goblins, fiends ; my phan- 

tasie 
Presents a thousand ugly shapes, 
Headless bears, black men, and 

apes, 
Doleful outcries, and fearful sights, 
My sad and dismall soule affrights. 
All my gri€fs to this are jolly. 
None so damn'd as melancholy. 



Me thinks I court, me thinks I kiss. 
Me thinks I now embrace my mis- 
triss. 

blessed dayes, O sweet content. 
In paradise my time is spent. 
Such thoughts may still my fancy 

ttiove, 
So may I ever be in love. 

All my joyes to this are folly. 
Naught so sweet as melancholy. 
When I recount loves many frights. 
My sighs and tears, my waking 

nights, 
My jealous fits ; O mine hard fate 

1 now repent, but 'tis too late. 
No torment is so bad as love. 
So bitter to my soule can prove. 

All my griefs to this are jolly, 
Naught so harsh as melancholj. 
Friends and companions get you 

gone, 
'Tis my desire to be alone ; 
Ne'er well but when my thoughts 

and I 
Do domineer in privacie. 
No gemm, no treasure like to this, 
'Tis my delight, my crown, my bliss. 
All my joyes to this are folly, . 
Naught so sweet as melanchofy. 
'Tis my sole plague to be alone, 
I am a beast, a monster grown, 
I will no light nor company, 
I finde it now my misery. 
The scean is turn'd, my joyes are 

gone,; 
Feare,discontent,and sorrows come. 
All my griefs to this are jolly. 
Naught so fierce as melancholy. 
I'll not change life with any King, 
I ravisht am ; can the world bring 
Morejoy ,then still to laughandsmile, 
In pleasant toyes time to beguile ? 
Do not, O do not trouble me, 
So sweet content I feel and see. 
All ray joyes to this are folly. 
None so divine as melancholy. 
I'll change my state with any 

wretch 
Thou canst from gaole or dungliill 

fetch : 
My pain's past cure, another hell, 
I may not in this torment dwell, 
Now desperate 1 hate my life. 
Lend me a halter or a knife ; 
All my griefs to this are jolly. 
Naught so damn'd as melancholy. 



T/w Arfptment of l.he Frontispiece. 



TEN (lisliijct Squares here seen 

apart, 
Are joyn'd in one by Cutter's art, 

1. Old Democritus under a tree, 
Sits on a stone with book on knee; 
About liim hang there many fea- 
tures 

Ofcats,dogs,andsuchlikecreatures, 
Of v/hich he makes anatomy, 
The seat of black choler to see. 
Over his head appears the skie. 
And Saturn Lord of melancholy. 

2. To the left a landscape of Jea- 

lousie. 
Presents itself unto thine eye, 
A kingfislier, a swan, an hern. 
Two fighting cocks you may discern, 
Two roaring bulls each other hie, 
To assault concerning venery. 
Symbolesarcthese;! say no more. 
Conceive the rest by that's afore. 

3. The next of solitariness, 

A portraiture doth well express. 
By sleeping dog, cat ; buck and do, 
Hares, conies in the desart go : 
Bats, owls the shady bowers over 
In melancholy darkness hover. 
Markwell: If 'Ibe not as't should be 
Blame the bad Cutter, and not me. 

4. Ith' under column there doth 

stand 
Inamorato with folded hand ; 
Down hangs his head, terse and 

polite. 
Some dittic sure he doth indite. 
Bis lute and books about him lie. 
As symptomes of his vanity. 
If this do not enough disclose, 
To paint him, take thyself by th' 

nose. 
S.Hypochondriacus leans on his arm 
Winde in his side doth him much 

harm, 
And troubles him full sore, God 

knows, 
Much pain he hath and many woes, 
About him pots and glasses lie, 
Newly brought from's Apothecary. 
This Saturn's aspects signifie, 
"Vou see them portraid in the skic. 



G. Beneath tiieiii kneeliisg- on liis 

knee, 
A superstitious man you see ; 
He fasts, prays, on his idol fixt. 
Tormented hope and feare betwixt : 
For hell perhaps he takesmore pain. 
Then thou dost heaven itself lo gain, 
Alas poor soule, I pitie thee. 
What stars incline thee so to be ? 

7. But see the madmen rage down- 

right 

With furious looks, a ghastly sight! 

Naked in chains bound doth he lie 

And roars amain he knows not why! 

Observe him ; for as in a glass. 

Thine angry portraiture it v/as. 

His picture keep still in thy pre- 
sence ; 

Twixt him and thee there's no dif- 
ference. 

8. 9. Borage and liellebor fill two 

scenes, 
Sovereign plants to purge the veins 
Of melancholy, and chear the heart 
Of those black fumes which make it 

smart; 
To clear the brain of misty fogs. 
Which dull our senses, and soule 

clogs. 
The best medicine that ere God 

made 
For this malady, if well assaid. 

10. Now last of ail to fdl a place. 
Presented is the Author's face ; 
And in that habit which he wears. 
His image to the world appears, 
His minde no art can well express. 
That by his writings you may guess. 
It was not pride, nor yet vain glory, 
(Though others do it commonly) 
Made him do this: if you must 

know, 
The Printer would needs have it so. 
Then do not frowne or scofte at it. 
Deride not, nor detract a whit, 
For surely as thou dost by him, 
He will do the same again. 
Then look upon't, behold and sec, 
As thou lik'st it, so it likes thee. 
And I for it will stand in view, 
Thine to command, Reader, adieu. 



DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR 

TO THE READER. 



GENTLE loader, I presume thou wilt be very inquisitive 
to know what antick or personate actor this is, that so in- 
solently intrudes, upon this common theatre, to the worlds 
view, arrogating' another mans name, whence he is, why he 
doth it, and what he hath to say. Although, ''as he said, 
Primum, si nohiero, non respondebo : quis coacturus est ? (I 
am a free man born, and may chuse whether I w ill tell ; w ho 
can compel me ?) if I be urged, I will as readily reply as that 
Egyptian in ^ Plutarch, when a curious fellow would needs 
know what he had in his basket, Qnum vides velatam, quid 
inquiris in rem ahsconditam ? It was therefore covered, be- 
cause he should not know what was in it. Seek not after that 
which is hid: if the contents please thee, " and he for thjf 
use, suppose the man in the moon, or tvhom thou wilt, to be the 
author: 1 would not willingly be known. Yet, in some sort 
to give thee satisfaction, Avhich is more than I need, I will 
shew a reason, both of this usurped name, title, and subject. 
And first of the name of Democritus ; lest any man, by reason 
of it, should be deceived, expecting a pasquil, a satyre, some 
ridiculous treatise (as I myself should have done,) some pro- 
digious tenent, or paradox of the earths motion, of infinite 
worlds, ininfinito vacuo, ex JortuitdutomorumcoUisione, in an 
infinite waste, so caused by an accidental collision of motes in 
thesun, all which Democritusheld, Epicurus and their master 
Leucippus of old maintained, and are lately revivedby Coper- 
nicus, Brunus, and some others.- Besides, it hath been always 

=* Seneca, in Ludo ia mortem Claodii Ca;saris. ^ Lib. de Curiositate. 

*■ Rlodo haec tibi usui sint. qnem^'is auctorem fingito. Wecker. 
VOL, I. K 



2 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

an ordinary custom, as ''Gellius observes,^or later writers and 
impostors, to broach many absurd and insolent fictions, under 
the name oj'so noble a philosopher as Democritus, to get them- 
selves credit, and by that means the more to be respected, as ar- 
tificers usually do, novo quimarmoriascribunt Praxitelem sua. 
'Tis not so with me. 

* Non hie Centauros, non Gorgonas, Harpyiasque, 
Invenies ; hominem pagina nostra sapit. 

No Centaurs here, or Gorgons, look to find : 
My subject is of man and humane kind. 

Thou thy self art the subject of my discourse. 

^ Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 
Guadia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli. 

Whate'er men do, vows, fears, in ire, in sport, 
Joys, wandrings, are the summ of my report. 

My intent is no otherwise to use his name, than Mercurius 
Gallobelio-icus, Mercurius Britannicus, use the name of Mer- 
curic, s Democritus Christianus, &c. although there be some 
other circumstances for which I have masked myself under 
this visard, and some peculiar respects, which 1 cannot so well 
express, until I have set down a brief character of this our 
Democritus, what he was, with an epitome of his life. 

Democritus, as he is described by ^ Hippocrates, and ' Laer- 
tius, Mas a little wearish old man, very melancholy by nature, 
averse from company in his later dayes, '' and much given to 
solitariness, a famoms philosopher in his age, ' cosevous with 
Socrates, wholly addicted to his studies at the last, and to a 
private life ; writ many excellent works, a great divine, ac- 
cording to the divinity of those times, an expert physician, a 
politician, an excellent mathematician, as " Diacosmus and 
the rest of his works do witness. He was much delighted with 
the studies of husbandry, saith " Columella; and often I find 
him cited by ° Constantinus and others treating of thatsubject. 
He knew the natures, differences of all beasts, plants, fishes, 
birds; and, as some say, could p understand the tunes and 
voices of them. In a word, he was omnifariam doctus, a g-ene- 
ral scholar, a great student ; and, to the intent he mig-ht better 
contemplate, 'i I find it related by some, that he put out his 

''Lib. '10. c. \9. Multa a male feriatis in Deinocriti nomine commenta data, 
nobilitatis, auctoritatisque ejus perfugio utentibus. t Martialis, lib. 10. 

epigr. ]4. fJuv. Sat. 1. k Auth. Pet. Besseo, edit Colonial 1616. 

■' Hip. Epist. Damaget. • Laert. lib. 9. . k Hortiilo sibi cellnlam 

seli^eiis, ubique seipsum iucludens, vixit solitariiis. 1 Fiornit Olj^nipiade 

80 ; 700 annis post Trojam. >"Diaco8. quod cunctis opevibus facile 

exceliit. Laert. » Col. lib. 1. c. 1. « Const, lib. de agric. passim. 

1' Volucrum voces et linguas intelligere se dicit Abderitanus, Ep. Hip. 'i Sabellicus, 
exempl. lib. 10. Oculis se privavit, ut melius contemplationi operam daret, sublimi 
vir ingenio, profundaj cogitationis, &c. 



DCMOCRITUS TO THE READRR. 3 

eyes, and was in liis old ao-e voluntarily blind, yet saw move 
tliari all Greece beside.*;, and "^ writ of every subject : Ni hil in 
toto opificio natnrce^ de qiio non scripsit : a man of a n ex- 
cellent wit, profound conceit ; and, to attain knowledge the 
better inhis younger years, lie travelled to Egypt and ^ At bens, 
to confer witb learned men, ^admired of some, despised of 
others. After a wandring- life, he setled at Abdera, a town 
in Thrace, and was sent for thither to be their law-maker, 
recorder, or town-clerk, as some will ; or as others, he was 
there bred and born. Howsoever it was, there he lived at last 
in a garden in the suburbs, wholly betaking' himself to his 
studies and a private life, " sorinr/ that sometimes he uwiild 
n-nlk down to the haven, '^ and lavcjh lieartihj at such variety 
of ridic7iloHS objects, which there he saw. Such a one was 
Democritus. 

But, in the mean time, how doth this concern me, or upon 
what reference do I usurp his habit? I confess, indeed, that 
to compare my self unto him for ought T have yet said, were 
both impudency and arrogancy. I do not presume to make 
any parallel. Antistat mihi millihus trecentis : ^ parvus sum : 
nullus sum ; altum nee spiro, nee spero. Yet thus much I 
will say of my self, and that I hope without all suspicion of 
pride, or self-conceit, I have lived a silent, sedentary, solitary, 
private life, mihi et Musis, in the university, as long- almost as 
Xenocrates in Athens, ad senectam fere, to learn wisdom as 
he did, penned up most part in my study : for I have been 
brought up a student in the most flourishing colleg-e of Eu- 
rope, ^ augustissimo coller/io, and can brag with * Jovius, al- 
most, in ed luce domicilii Vaticani, totius orbis celeherrimi, per 
37 annos multa opportunaqtie didici ; tor thirty years I have 
continued (having' the use of as good '^libraries as ever he had) 
a scholar, and would be therefore loth, either, by living as a 
drone, to be an unprofitable or unworthy member of so 
learned and noble a society, or to write that which should be 
any way dishonourable to such a royal and ample foundation. 
Something' I have done : though by my profession a divine, 
yet turbine raptus ingenii, as '' he said, out of a running 
wit, an unconstant, unsettled mind, I had a great desire (not 
able to attain to a superficial skill in any) to have some smat- 
tering in all, to be aliquis in omnibus, nullus in singulis ; 

^ Naturalia, moralia, mathematica, liberates disciplisas, artiumqne omnium peri- 
tiam, callebat. * Veni Athenas ; et nemo me novit slJem contemptui 

et admiratioai habitus. "Solebat adportam ambiilare, et inde, &c. Hip. Ep. 

Dameg. '^ Pei-petuo risu pulmonem agitaie dolebat Democritus. Juv. Sat. 7. 

> Non sum dignns prsestare matellam. Mart. ^ Christ Church in Oxford. 

* Pnefat. hist, •> Keeper of our college library lately revised by Otho Nicolson. 

Esquire. ^ Scaliger. 

B 2 



4 . DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

which ''Plato commends, out of him "^ Lipsius approves and 
furthers, as fit to he imprinted in all curious wits, not to be 
a slave of one science, or dwell altogether in one subject, as 
most do, but to rove abroad, centum puer artium, to have an 
oar in every mans boat, to ^ taste of every dish, and to sip of 
every cup ; which, saith ^Montaigne, was well performed by 
Aristotle, and his learned countrey-man Adrian Turnebus. 
This roving' humour (though not with like success) I have 
ever had, and, like a ranging' spaniel, that barks at every bird 
he sees, leaving- his game, I have followed all, saving that 
which I should, and may justly complain, and truly, quiubique 
est, nusquam est, which § Gesner did in modesty ; that I have 
read many books, but to little purpose, for want of good 
method, I have confusedly tumbled over divers authors in our 
libraries with small profit, for want of art, order, memory, 
judgement. I never travelled but in map or card, in which 
my unconfined thoughts have freely expatiated, as having 
ever been especially delighted witli the study of cosmography. 
•^ Saturn was lord of my geniture, culminating, &c. and Mars 
principal significator of manners, in partile conjunction with 
mine ascendent ; both fortunate in their houses, &c. I am 
not poor, I am not rich ; nihil est, nihil deest ; 1 have little, I 
want nothing : all my treasure is in Minerva's tower. Greater 
preferment as I could never get, so am I not in debt for it. I 
have a competency (laus Deo) from my noble and munificent 
patrons. Though Hive still a collegiat student, as Democritus 
in his garden, and lead a monastique life, ipse mihi theatrum, 
sequestred from those tumults and troubles of the world, et 
tamquam in specula positus ('as he said,) in some high place 
above you all, like Sto'icus sapiens, omnia scscula prceterita 
prasentiaque videns, uno velut intuitu, I hear and see what is 
done abroad, how others ''run, ride, turmoil, and macerate 
themselves in court and countrey. Far from those wrangling- 
law-suits, aulcE vanitatem,foriambitionem, ridere mecum soleo: 
I laugh at all, ^ only secure, lest my suit go amiss, my ships 
perish, corn and cattle miscarry, trade decay, / have no wife, 
nor children, good or had, to provide for ; a meer spectator 
of other mens fortunes and adventures, and how they act 
their parts, which me thinks are diversely presented unto 

<'InThejet. dphJi. Stoic, li. diff. 8. Dogma cupidis et curiosis ingeniis 

impriraendum, nt sit talis qui nulli rei serviat, aut exacte umim aliquid elaboret, alia 
negligens, nt artifices, &c. « Delibare gratum de quocunque cibo, et pitissare 

de quocunque dolio jucundum. ' Essays, lib. 3. § Prsefat. bibliothec. 

*'Ambo fortes et fortunati. Mars idem magisterii dominiis juxta primam Leovitii 
regulam. > Heinsius. k Calide ambientes, solicite litigantes, aut misere 

excidentes, voces, strepitum, contentiones, &c. ' Cyp. ad Donat. Unice se- 

curus, ne excidam in foro, aut in mari Indico bonis eluam, de dole filise^ patrimonio 
tilii non sum solicitus. 



DEMOCRITIJS TO THE READER. 5 

me, as from a common theatre or scene. I hear new news 
every day : and those ordinary rumours of war, plag-nes, fires, 
inundations, thefts, murders, massacres, meteors, comets, 
spectrums, prodigies, apparitions, of towns taken, cities be- 
sieged in France, Germany, Turky, Persia, Poland, &c. 
daily musters and preparations, and such like, which these 
tempestuous times alford, battles fought, so many men slain, 
monomachies, shipwracks, piracies, and sea-fight!^, peace, 
leagues, stratagems, and fresh alarms — a vast confusion of 
vows, M'ishes, actions, edicts, petitions, law-suits, pleas, laws, 
proclamations, complaints, grievances — are daily brought to 
our ears : new books every day, pamphlets, currantoes, stories, 
whole catalogues of volumes of all sorts, new paradoxes, 
opinions, schisms, heresies, controversies in philosophy, re- 
ligion, &c. Now come tidings of weddings, maskings, mum- 
meries, entertainments, jubiles, embassies, tilts, and torna- 
ments, trophies, triumphs, revels, sports, playes : then again, 
as in a new shifted scene, treasons, cheating tricks, robberies, 
enormous villanies in all kinds, funerals, burials, death 
of princes, new discoveries, expeditions; now comical, then 
tragical matters. To day we hear of new lords and officers 
created, to morrow of some great men deposed, and then 
again of fresh honours conferred : one is let loose, another 
imprisoned : one purchaseth, another breakefh : he thrives, 
his neighbour turns bankrupt ; now plenty, then again dearth 
and famine ; one runs, another rides, wrangles, laughs, weeps, 
&c. Thus 1 daily hear, and such like, both private and pub- 
lick news. Amidst the gallantry and misery of the world, 
jollity, pride, perplexities and cares, simplicity and villany, 
subtlety, knavery, candour and integrity, mutually mixt and 
offering themselves, I rub on, privus privatus : as I have still 
lived, so I now continue statu quo prius, left to a solitary life, 
and mine own domestic discontents ; saving that sometimes, 
ne quid mentiar^ as Diogenes went into the city and Demo- 
critus to the haven, to see fashions, I did for my recreation 
now and then walk abroad, look into the world, and could 
not chuse but make some little observation, non tarn sagax 
observator, ac simplex recitator, not, as they did, to scoff or 
laugh at all, but with a mixt passion : 

" Bilem, saepe jocum yestri movere tumultus. 

1 did sometime laugh and scofFwith Lucian, and satyrically 
tax with Menippus, lament with Heraclitus, sometimes again 
I was ^ petulanti splene cachinno, and then again, " urere bilis 
jecur, 1 was much moved to see that abuse which I could 
not amend : in which passion howsoever I may sympathize 

<" Hor. " Per, " Hor. 



6 DEMOCRTTUS TO THE READER. 

witli liin» or tliem, 'tis for no such respect I shroud my self 
uiuler his name, but either, in an unknown habit, to assume a 
little more liberty and freedom of speech, or if you will needs 
knoAv, for that reason and only respect which Hippocrates 
relates at large in his epistle to Damegetus, wherein he doth 
express, hoM, coming- to visit him one day, he found Demo- 
critus in his garden at Abdera, in the suburbs, p imder a shady 
bower, 'i with a book on his knees, busie at his study, some- 
time writing, sometime walking-. The subject of his book was 
melancholy and madness : about him lay the carkasses of 
many several beasts, newly by him cut up and anatomized ; 
not that he did contemn Gods creatures, as he told Hippo- 
crates, but to find out the seat of this atra bilis, or melancholy, 
whence it proceeds, and how it is engendred in mens bodies, 
to the intent he might better cure it in himself, by his writings 
and observations "^ teach others how to prevent and avoid it. 
Which good intent of his Hippocrates highly commended, De- 
mocritus Junior is therefore bold to imitate, and, because he 
left it imperfect, and it is now lost, quasi succenturiator Demo- 
criti, to revive again, prosecute, and finish in this treatise. 

You have had a reason of the name. If the title and in- 
cription offend your gravity, were it a sufficient justification 
to accuse others, I could produce many sober treatises, even 
sermons themselves, which in their fronts carry more phantas- 
tical names. Howsoever, it is a kind of policy in these dayes, 
to prefix a phantastical title to a book which is to be sold: for 
as larks come down to a day-net, many vain readers will tarry 
and stand gazing, like silly passengers, at an antick picture in 
a painters shop, that will not look at a judicious piece. And 
indeed, as * Scaliger observes, nothing more invites a reader 
than an argument unlookedfor, unthouffht of, and sells better 
than a scurrile pamphlet, turn maxime cum novitas excitat 
palatum. Many men saith, * Gellius, are very conceited 
in their inscriptions^ and able, (as ' Pliny quotes out of Se- 
neca) to make him loyter by the way, that icent in haste to 
^fetch a mid-ivife J'or his daughter, now ready to lye down. 
For my part, I have honourable " precedents for this 1 have 
done : I will cite one for all, Anthonie Zara Pap. Episc. his 

I' Secmidutn moenia locus erat frondosi« populis opacus, vitibusque sponte natis : 
teniiis prope a(iiia delluebat, placide murmurans, ubi sedile et domus Democriti con- 
spiciebatnr. q Ipse composite considebat, super genua volumen habens, et 

utniique aha patentia parata, dissectaque aniraalia cumulatiin strata, quorum viscera 
nmabatur. • rCnin ninndus extra se sit. et mente captus sit, et nesciat se languere, 
lit medelam adhibeat, >■ Scaliger, Ep. ad Patisonem. Nihil magis lectorem invi- 

tnt (jiiam inopinatiini argumentnm ; neque vendibilior merx est quam petulans liber. 
!»■ t (j'^-'^'i ^'' .'^^''"'''' ^^1"""t"'" 'uscriptionum festivitates. ' Praefat. Nat. 

Hist. I atn obstetriceiu partuvienti filis>, accersenti moram injicere possunt. "Ana- 
tomy of 1 opery. Anatomy of Immortality. Angelus Scalas, Anatomy of Anti- 
mony, &C. i. o ' .1 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 7 

Anatomy of Wit, in four sections, members, subsections, &c. 
to be read in our libraries. 

If any man except against the matter or manner of treating- 
of this my subject, and will demand a reason of it, I can allege 
more than one. 1 write of melancholy, by being busie, to 
avoid melancholy. There is no greater cause of melancholy 
than idleness, no better cure than business, as "" Rhasis holds : 
and howheit, St ultus labor est ineptiarum, to be busied in toyes 
is to small purpose, yet hear that divine Seneca, better aliud 
agere quani nihil, better do to no end, than nothing. I writ 
therefore, and busied my self in this playing labour, otiosdque 
dilifjentid ut vitarem torporem Jhriandi, with Vectius in Ma- 
crobius, atque otium in utile verterem negotium ; 

^ — Simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitse, 
Lectorem delectando simul atque munendo. 

To this end I write, like them, saith Lucian, that recite to 
trees, and declaim to pillars, Jor wayit oj' auditors ; as '■ Pau- 
lus vEgineta ingenuously confesseth, not that any thing was 
unknown or omitted, but to exercise my self (w hich course 
if some" took, I think it would be good for their bodies, and 
much better for their souls;) or peradventure, as others do, 
for fame to shew my self (^S'cJre timm nihil est, 7iisi te scire hoc 
sciat alter.) I might be of Thucydides opinion, ^ to knoic a 
thing and not to express it, is all one as if he kneiv it not. 
When I first took this task in hand, el, quod ait ^ ille, im- 
pellente genio negotium suscepi, this T aimed at, "^ vel ut 
lenirem animum s'cribendo, to ease my mind by w riting, for 
I had, gravidum cor, fetum caput, a kind of imposthume in 
my head, which I was very desirous to be unladen of, and 
could imagine no fitter evacuation than this. Besides, I might 
not well refrain ; for, ubi dolor, ihi digitus, one must needs 
Scratch where it itches. I was not a little offended with this 
malady, shall I say my mistris melancholy, my Egeria, or 
my malus genius ; and for that cause, as he that is stung 
with a scorpion, I would expel, clavum clavo, '^ comfort one 
sorrow with another, idleness with idleness, ut ex viperd 
theriacum, make an antidote out of that which was the 
prime cause of my disease. Or as he did, of whom "^ Felix 
Plater speaks, that thought he had some of Aristophanes 
frogs in his belly, still crying Brecc ekex., coax, oop, oop, 
and for that cause studied physick seven years, and travelled 

xCont 1. 4. c. 9. Non est cara melior qnam labor. y Hor. ^Nonquod 

de novo qaid addere, ant a veteribas prwtemiissum, sed pi-oprisE exf-rcitatioms caussa. 
» Qui novit, neqae id quod sentit exprimit, perinde est ac si nesciret. Jovins, 

Praef. Hist c Erasmus. iOtium otio, dolorem dolore, sum solatus. 

<= Observat. 1. 1. 



8 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

over most part of Europe, to ease himself; to do my self gootl, 
I turned over such physicians as our libraries would afford, or 
my 8 private friends impart, and have taken this pains. And 
why not ? Cardan professeth he writ his book De consola- 
tione, after his sons death, to comfort himself; so did Tully 
write of the same subject with like intent after his daughters 
departure, if it be his at least, or some impostors put out in 
his name, which Lipsius probably suspects. Concerning- my 
self, 1 can peradventure affirm with Marius in Sallust, ^ that 
which others hear or read oJ\ I felt and practised my self: 
they get their knowledge hy hooks, I mine by melancholizing : 
experto crede Roberto. Something I can speak out of ex- 
perience, (ermnnabilis experientia me dociiit ; and with her in 
the poet, ' Hand ignara mail miseris succurrere disco. I 
would help others out of a fellow-feeling, and as that vertuous 
lady did of old. ^ being a leper her self, bestoic all her portion 
to build an hospital for lepers, 1 will spend my time and know- 
ledge, which are my greatest fortunes, for the common good 
of ail. 
. Yea, but you will inferr that is ' actum agere, an unne- 
cessary work, cramben bis coctam apponere, the same again 
and again in other words. To what purpose? ^ Nothing is 
omitted that may well be said: so thought Lucian in the like 
theam. How many excellent physicians have written just 
volumes and elaborate tracts of this subject ? no news here: 
that which I have is stoln from others; ^ dicitque mihi mea 
pagina, fur es. If that severe doom of ° Synesius be true, 
it is a greater offence to steal dead mens labours, than their 
cloaths, what shall become of most writers? I hold up my 
hand at the bar amongst others, and am guilty of felony in 
this kind : habes conjitentem reum, I am content to be pressed 
with the rest. 'Tis most true, tenet insanabile multos scri- 
bendi cacoethes ; and f there is no end of icriting of booLs, as 
the wise man found of old, in this '^ scribling age especially, 
wherein ^ the number of books is ivithout number, (as a worthy 
man saith) presses be oppressed, and out of an itching humour, 
that every man hath to shew himself, * desirous of fame and 

honour, (scribimus indocti doctique ) he will write, no 

matter what, and scrape together, it boots not whence. 

g M. Joh. Rous, our Protobib. Oxon. Mr. Hopper, Mr. Guthridge, &c. >> Quae 
illi audire et Icgere solent, eoroui partini vidi egotnet, alia gessi : quae illi literis, ego 
rnililundo didici. Nunc vos existiniate, facta an dicta pinris sint. 'Dido, 

Virg. ^ Camden, Ipsa elepliantiasi correpta elephantiasis hospitium constraxit. 

I Tliada post Hoineruin. '"Nihil prKtermissiun quod a quovjs dici possit. 

n Martialis. "Magis impium mortuoruoi lucubrationes qnam vestes furari. 

pEccI. ult. 1 Libros eunuchi gignunt, steriles pariunt. ''D. King, praefat. lect. 
Jonas, the late right reverend lord bishop of London. ' Homines famelici glorias 

ad ostentationem eraditiouis uudique congerunt. Cuchanauus. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 9 

* Bewilched ickJi this desire of fame, etiam mediis in mor- 
bis, to the disparagement of" tlieir health, and scarce able to 
hold a pen, they must say soTnething, "and get themselves a 
name, saith Scaligar, though it he to the doicnfall and mine 
of' many others. To be counted writers, scriptores ut saluten- 
tur, to be thought and held Polyraathes and Polyhistors, 
apiid imperitum vulyus oh ventosce nomen artis, to get a paper 
kingdom : nnlfd spe qncestils, sed ampldj'amce, in this preci- 
pitate, ambitions age, nunc nt est sceculum, inter immaturam 
eruditionem, ambitiosum et jnccceps ('tis "" Scaliger's censnre) 
and they that are scarce auditors, vix auditores, must be 
masters and teachers, before they be capable and fit hearers. 
They will rush into all learning togatam, armatam, divine, 
humane authors, rake over all indexes and pamphlets for 
notes, as our merchants do strange havens for traffick, write 
great tomes, cum non sint reverd doctiores, sed loquaciores, 
when as they are not thereby better scholars, but greater 
praters. They commonly pretend publick good : but, as 
Gesner > observes, 'tis pride and vanity that eggs them on ; 
no news, or ought worthy of note, but the same in other terms. 
Ne J'eriarentur Jortasse typoyraphi, vel ideo scribendum tst 
aliquid nt se vixisse testentur. As apothecaries, we make new 
mixtures every day, pour out of one vessel into another; and 
as those old Romans rob'd all the cities of the world, to set 
out their bad sited Rome, we skim off the cream of other 
mens wits, pick the choice floAvers of their till'd gardens to 
set out our own sterile plots. Castrant alios, ut libros siios, 
per se graciles, alieno adipe suffarciant (so * Jovius inveighs); 
they lard their lean books with the fat of others works. 
Ineruditijures, Src. (a fault that every writer finds, as I do 
now, and yet faulty themselves) ^ Trium literarum homines, 
all thieves; they pilfer out of old writers to stuff up their new 
comments, scrape Ennius dung-hils, and out of ^ Democritus 
pit, as I have done. By which means it comes to pass, '' that 
not only libraries and shops are J'ull oj' our putid papers, but 
every close-stool and Jakes : Scribunt carmina, quw legunt ca- 
cantes ; they serve to put under pies, to "^ lap spice in, and 
keep roast meat from burning. With us in France, saith 
'' Scaliger, every man hath liberty to write, but few ability. 
* Heretofore learning was graced by judicious scholars, but 

' Effascinati etiam laiidis araore, 8cc. Justus Baronius. " Ex ruinis aliens 

existirnationis sibi gradum ad famara struunt. ^^ Exercit288. > Omnes sibi 

famam qiisenint, et quovis modo in orbem spargi contendunt, ut novae alicujus rei 
habeanter auctores. I'nef. biblioth. » Prsf. hist ^ Plautus. " Et De- 

mocriti puteo. ^ Non tam refertae bibliothecae quam cloaca. <" Et quidquid 

chartis amicitur ineptis. d Epist. ad Petas. In regno Francis omnibjis scribendi 

datur libertas, paucis facuUas. <" Olina liferse ob homines in pietio, nunc sordent 

'ib homines. 



10 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

now noble sciences are vilified by base and illiterate scrihlers, 
that either write for vain-glory, need to get money, or as 
parasities to flatter and collogue with some great men : they 
put out ^ hurras, quisquiliasque, ineptiasque. ^ Avionx) so many 
thousand authors you shall scarce find one, by reading of 
whom, you shall he any whit the better, but rather much worse, 
qnibus inficitur potius, quani perficitur, by which he is rather 
infected, than any way perfected. 

'^ Qui talia legit, 



Quid didicit tandem, quid scit, nisi somnia, nugas ? 

So that oftentimes it falls out (which Callimachus taxed of 
old) a gTeat book is a great mischief. » Cardan finds fault 
with Frenchmen and Germans, for their scribling to no pur- 
pose: non, inquit, ah edendo deterreo, modo novum aliquid in- 
veniant : he doth not bar them to write, so that it be some new 
invention of their own; but we weave the same web still, twist 
the same rope again and again : or if it be a new invention, 
'tis but some bauble or toy which idle fellows write, for as idle 
fellows to read : and who so cannot invent ? '' He must have 
a barren wit, that in this scribling age can forge nothing. 
^ Princes shew their armies, rich men vaunt their buildings, 
souldiers their manhood, and scholars vent their toyes; they 
must read, they must hear, whether they will or no. 

"» Et quodcumque seme! chartis illeverit, omnes 
Gestiet a furno redeuntes scire lacuque, 
Et pueros et anus . 

What once is said and writ, all men must know, 
Old wives and children as they come and go. 

Wliat a company of poets hath this year brought out ! as Pliny 
complains to Sosius Senecio. ° This Ai^r'A, every day some or 
other have recited. What a catalogue of new books all this 
year, all this age (I say), have our Frank-furt marts, our do- 
mestick marts brought out ! twice a year, ° projerunt se nova 
ingenia et ostentant : we stretch our wits out, and set them to 
sale ; magna conatu nihil agimus. So that, which p Gesner 
much desires, if a speedy reformation be not had, by some 
princes edicts and grave supervisors, to restrain this liberty, 
it will run on in infinitum. Quis tarn avidus librorum helluo, 

> f Ans. pac. g Inter tot miUe volnmina vix unum a cujus lectione qnis melior 

eradat, immo potius non pejor. h Palingenins. • Lib. 5. de sap. ^ Sterile 

oportet esse ingenium quod in hoc scripturientiim pmritu, &c. ' Cardan praef. 

ad consol. m Hor. ser. 1. sat 4. " Epist. lib. 1. Magnum poetarum proventum 

annus hie attulit : mense April! nullus fere dies quo non aliquis recitavit. oldem. 

V Pnncipibus et doctoribus deliberandum relinquo, ut arguantur auctorem furta, et 
millies repetita toUantur, et temere scribendi libido coerceatur, aliter in infinitam pro- 
gressura. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. I I 

wlio can read them? As already, we shall have a vast chaos, 
and confusion of books: we are i' oppressed with them; ''our 
eyes ake with reading', our finj^ers with turning-. For my part, 
I am one of the number ; ?ios nnmerus snmus: I do not deny 
it. I have only this of Macrobius to say for myself, Omtie 
menm, nihil metim, 'tis a!l mine, and none mine. As a good 
house-wife out of diverse fleeces Aveaves one piece of cfoth, 
a bee gathers wax and honey out of many flowers, and makes 
a new bundle of all, 

Floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libant, 

I have laboriously ^ collected this cento out of various writers, 
and that sine injuria : I have wronged no authors, but given 
every man his own ; which ^ Ilierom so much commends in 
Nepotian ; he stole not v/hole verses, pages, tracts, as some do 
now a days, concealing their authors names ; but still said this 
was Cyprians, that Lactautius, that Hilarius, so said Minutius 
Felix, so Victorinus, thus far Arnobius : I cite and quote 
mine authors (which, howsoever some illiterate scriblers ac- 
count pedantical,as a cloke of ignorance, and opposite to their 
affected fine style, I must and will use) sunipsi, non surripui ; 
and what Varro, lib. 6. de re rust, speaks of bees, viinime 
malejica,nullius opus vellicantes J'aciunt deterius, I can say of 
myself. Whom have I injured? The matter is theirs most 
part, and yet mine : apparet unde sumptum sit (which Seneca 
approves) ; aliud tamen, quam unde sumptum sit, apparet ; 
which nature doth with the aliment of our bodies, incorpo- 
rate, digest, assimilate, I do concoquere quod hausi, dispose of 
what I take : I make them pay tribute, to set out this ray 
Maceronican : the method only is mine own : I must usurp 
that of ' Wecker e Ter. nihil dictum quod non dictum prius : 
methodus sola artijicem ostendit : we can say nothing but what 
hath been said, the composition and method is ours only, 
and shews a scholar. Oribasius, Aetius, Avicenna, have all 
out of Galen, but to their own method, diverso stylo, non di- 
versd Jide. Our poets steal from Homer ; he spews, saith 
vElian, they lick it up. Divines use Austins words verbatim 
still, and our story-dressers do as much ; he that comes last 
is commonly best, 

donee quid grandius tetas 

Postera, sorsque ferat melior. 

f Onerabuntur ingenia, nemo legendis sutBcit. q Libris obruimur : ocnli 

legendo, inanus volitando dolent. Fara. Strada, Momon. Lucretius. ''Qnidquid 

ubiijire bene dictum facio meum, et illud nunc meis ad compendium, nunc ad fidem 
et auctoritatem alienis, expriiuo verbis : omnes anctores meos ciientes esse arbitror, &c. 
Sarisburiensis ad Polycrat. prol. * In Epitaph. Nep. illud Cyp. hoc l^act. illud 

Hilar, est, it* Victorians, in huuc luodum loquutus est Arnobius, &c. ' Pra;f, ad 

Syntax, mtd. 



12 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

Though there were many giants of old in physic and philo* 
sophy, yet I say with " Didacus Stella, ^ dwarf standing on 
the slwulders of a giant, may see farther than a giant himself ; 
I may likely add, alter, and see farther than my predecessors : 
and it is no greater prejudice for me to indite after others, 
than for J^lianus Montaltus, that famous physician, to write 
do morbis capitis after Jason Pratensis, Heurnius, Hildesheim, 
&c. Many horses to run in a race, one logician, one rheto- 
rician, after another. Oppose then what thou wilt, 

AUatres licet usque nos et usque, 
Et gannitibus improbis lacessas ; 

I solve it thus. And for those other faults of barbarism, 
"^ Dorick dialect, extemporanean style, tautologies, apish imi- 
tation, a rhapsody of rags gathered together from several 
dung-hills, excrements of anthors, toyes and fopperies con- 
fusedly tumbled out, without art, invention, judgement, wit, 
learning, harsh, raw, rude, phantastical, absurd, insolent, in- 
discreet, ill-composed, indigested, vain, scurrile, idle, dull 
and dry; I confess all ('tis partly affected): thou canst not 
think worse of me than I do of my self. 'Tis not worth the 
reading, I yield it : I desire thee not to lose time in perusing 
so vain a subject ; I should be peradventure loth my self to 
read him or thee so writing : 'tis not operce pretium. All I 
say, is this, that I have ^ precedents for it, which Isocrates 
calls perfugium iis qui peccant, others as absm'd, vain, idle, 
illiterate, &c. Nonnulli alii idem fecerunt, others have done as 
much, it may be more, and perhaps thou thy self: Novimus 
et qui te, ^-c. we have all our faults ; scimiis, et hanc veniam, 
Sf-c. ^ thou censurest me, so have I done others, and may do 
thee : Coedimus, inque vicem, Sfc, 'tis lex talionts, quid pro quo. 
Go now censure, criticise, scoff and rail. 

" Nasutus sis usque licet, sis denique nasus, 
Non potes in nugas dicere plura meas, 
Ipse ego quam dixi, &c. 

Wer'st thou all scoffs and flouts, a very Momus, 
Than we our selves, thou canst not say worse of us. 

Thus, as when women scold, have 1 cryed whore first ; and, 
in some mens censures, I am afraid 1 have overshot my self. 
Laudare se vani, vituperare stulti: as I do not arrogate, I 
will not derogate. Primus vestrum non sum, nee imus, I am 
none of the best, I am none of the meanest of you. As I 

_ " In Luc. 10. torn 2. Pygmsei gigantum huraeris impositi plus quam ipsi gigantes 
yident. , x Nee aranearum textus ideo melior, quia ex se fila gignuntur, nee noster 
ideo vilior, quia ex alienis libaraus, ut apes. Lipsius adversus dialogist. y Uno 

absurdo dato, miUe sequuntur. zNon dubilo inultos lectores liic fore stultoe. 

* Martial 13. 2. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 13 

am an inch, or so many feet, so many parasauges, after him 
or him, I may be peradventure an ace before thee. Be it 
therefore as it is, Avell or ill, I have assayed, put my self upon 
the stao-e ; I must abide the censure ; 1 may not escape it. It 
is most true, stifhis virum arr/uit, our style bewrayes us, and 
''hunters find their game by the trace, so is a mans genius 
described by his works : multo melius ex sermoiie (piam linen- 
vientis, de morihis hominnm jvdicamns ; 'twas old Cato's rule. 
t have laid myself open (I know it) in this treatise, turned 
mine inside outward : I shall be censured, I doubt not; for, 
to say truth with Erasmas, nihil mo I'osius hominum pidiciis, 
there's nought so pievish as mens judgements : yet thisis some 
comfort — ut palatct, sic judicia, ouv censures are as various as 
our palats. 

•■ Tres mihi convivse prope dissentire videntur, 
Poscentes vario uinkum diversa palato, &c. 

Our writings are as so many dishes, our readers guests ; our 
books like beauty; that which one admires, another rejects; 
so are we approved as mens fancies are inclined. 
Pro captu lectoris habent sua fata libelli. 

That which is most pleasing to one is amaracum sni, most 
harsh to another. Qtiot homines, tot sententice, so many men, 
so many minds : that which thou condemnest, he commends. 

^ Quod petis, id sane est invisum acidumpue duobus. 
He respects matter; thou art wholly for words: he loves a 
loose and free stile ; thou art all for neat composition, strong- 
lines, hyberboles, allegories : he desires a fine frontispiece, en- 
ticing pictures, such as Hieron. Natali* the Jesuit hath cut 
to the Dominicals, to draw on the readers attention, which 
thou rejectest; that M'hich one admires, another explodes as 
most absurd and ridiculous. If it be not point-blank to his 
humour, his method, Ins conceit, ' si quid forsan omissum, 
quod is animo ro)irpprrit,si qua- dictio, cVc if o^ight be omitted, 
or added, which he likes, or dislikes, thou art mancipinm 
paucw lectionis, an idiot, an ass, nullus es, or plaf/iarius, a 
trifler, a triviant, thou art an idle fellow; oV else 'tis a thing 
of nicer indusrry. a collection without wit or invention, a 
very toy. ' Fa cilia sic putant omnes quae jam facta, nee de 
salehris cof/itant, uhi via strata ; so men are valued, their la- 
bours vilified, by fellows of no Morth themselves, as things 
of nought : who could not have done so much ? vumipnsqne 
ahundat sensusuo, every man abounds in his own sense ; and 

•> Ut venatores ferain e vestigio impresso, vinim scriptiuncula. Lips. c Hor. 

dHor. ♦Antwerp, fol. 1607. • Muretns. fLipsius. 



14 DEMOCRITITS TO THE READER. 

wliilest each particular party is so affected, Iiow should one 
please all ? 

^ Quid dem ? quid non dem ? Renuis tu, quod jubet il!e. 

Ijow shall I hope to express my self to each mans humor and 
'' conceit, or to give satisfaction to all ? Some understand too 
little, some too much, qui similiter in legendos libros, atque 
in salutandos homines irrnunt, non corjitantes quales, sed qui 
bus vestibus induti shit, as ' Austin observes, not reg-arding" 
what, but who write, "^ oreorin habet cmctoris celehritas, not 
valuing the mettal, but the stamp that is upon it ; ccuitharnm 
aspiciuni, non quid in eo. If he be not rich, in great place, 
polite and brave, a great doctor, or full fraught with grand 
titles, though never so well qualified, he is a dunce. But 
as *Baronius hath it of cardinal Caraffa's works, he is a 
meer liog that rejects any man for his poverty. Some are too 
partial, as friends to overween ; others come with a prejudice 
to carp, vilifie, detract and scoff; (^qui de mej'orsan quidquid 
est, omui contemptu contempfius judicant^ some as bees for 
honey, come as spiders to gather poyson. What shall I do in 
this case ? As a Dutch host, if you come to an inn in Ger- 
many, and dislike your fare, diet, lodging, &c. replyes in a 
surly tone, ' uUud tibi quasras diversorium, if you like not this, 
get you to another inn : 1 resolve, if you like not my writing, 
go read something else. I do not much esteem thy censure: 
take thy course : 'tis not as thou wilt, nor as I will : but when 
we have both done, that of "Plinius Secundus to Trajan will 
prove true, Every mans witty labour takes not, except the mat- 
ter, snhject, occasion, and some commendinyj'avourite happen to 
it. If I be taxed, exploded by thee and some such, I shall 
haply be approved and commended by others, and so have 
been (expertus loquor ;) and may truly say with " Jovius in like 
case {absit verbo Jactantia) hcroum quorundam, pontificum, et 
virorum nohiliumJamiUaritatem et amicitiam, gratasque gra- 
tias, et multorum "bene landatorum laudes sum inde promeritus : - 
as I have been honoured by some worthy men, so have I been 
vilified by others, and shall be. At the first publishing of 
this book, (which i' Probus of Persius satyrs) editum librmn 
continuo mirari homines, atque avide deripere ccepernnt, I may 
in some sort a])ply to this my work. The first, second, 
and third edition were suddenly gone, eagerly read, and, 

fvllor. 'i Fieri Don potest, ut quod quisque cogitat, dicat unus. Muretns. 

'iT '■ ^^ ^^^' *^^P" ^'* "" Erasmus. * Aniial. torn. 3. ad annum 360. 

Est porcus ille qui sacerdotem ex amplitudine redituuni sordide demetitur. 'Erasra. 
J;'^'- . '" Epist. 1. 6. Cujusque ingeniuiu nou statim enicrgit, nisijuateria; 

fautor, orcasio, commendatorque contingat, " Pra;f. hist. » Laudari a 

laudato laus tst. PVit. Persii. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 15 

as I hare said, not so much approved by some, as scornfully 
rejected by others. But it was Democritns his fortune, Idem 
admirationi et *irrisioni habitus. 'Twas Seneca's fate : that 
superintendant of wit, learning-, judgement, ^^ad stuporem 
doctus, the best of Greek and Latin writers, in Plutarch's 
opinion; that renoicned corrector of vice, ns "^ Fabius terms 
him, and painful omniscious philosopher that icrit so excel- 
lenthj and admirably well, could not please all parties, or 
escape censure. How is he villiiied by = Caligula, Agellius, 
Fabius, and Lipsius himself, his chief propugner? In eo ple^ 
raqiie perniciosa, saith the same Fabius : many childish ti^acts 
and sentences he hath, sermo illaboratus, too negligent often 
and remiss, as Agellius observes, oratio vulgaris et protrita^ 
dicaces et ineptCE sententia, eruditio plebeia, an homely shal- 
low writer as he is. In partibus spinas etjastidia, habet, saith 
* Lipsius; and, as in all his other works, so especially in his 
Epistles, alice in argutiis et ineptiis occupantnr : intricatus 
alicubi, et parum compositns, sine copid rerum hoc fecit : he 
fumbles up many things together imraethodically, after the 
Stoicks fashion : parum ordinavit multa accumnlavit, Sec. If 
Seneca be thus lashed, and many famous men that I could 
name, what shall I expect ? How shall I that am vix nmbra 
tanti philosophi, hope to please? No man so absolute, 'Eras- 
mus holds, to satisjieall, except antiquity, prescription, ^c. set 
a bar. But as 1 have proved in Seneca, this will not alwayes 
take place, how shall I evade? 'Tis the common doom of 
all writers : I must (I say) abide it : I seek not applause ; 
" Non ego ventosce venor suffragia plebis ; again, nan sum adeo 
inj'ormis : I would not be vilified "; 

''laudatus abunde, 

Non fastiditus ti tibi, lector ero. 

I fear good mens censures; and to their favourable acceptance 
I submit my labours, 

et linguas mancipiorum 



Contemno- 

As the barking of a dog, [ securely contemn those malicious 
and scunile obloquies, flouts, calumnies of railers and de- 
tractors ; I scorn the rest. What therefore I have said, pro 
tenuitate vied I have said. 

* Minuit prsBsentia famam. q Lipsius, Judic. de Seneca." r Lib. 10. 

Plurimuin studii, multam rerum cognitionem, omnem studiorum materiani, ficc- 
multa in eo probanda, multa admiranda. « Suet. Arena sine calce. 

* Introdnc ad Sen. 'Judic de Sen. Vix aliquis lam absolutns, ut alteri 

per omnia satisfaciat, nisi longa temporis pra;scriptio, semota judicandi libertate, 
reKgione quiidam animos occuparit. " Hor. £p. \. lib. 29. ^^ /Eque 

turpe frigide laudari ac insectanter \atnperari. Phavorinus. A. Gel. lib. 19. c. 2. 
> Ovid. Trist. 1. eleg. 6. ^ Juven. Sat. 5. 



16 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READKR. 

One or tv\'o thinosyet I was desirous to have amended, if I 
could, concerniiiiT- t!ie manner of handling this my subject, for 
which I must apologize, </e/?rec«r<, and upon better advicegive 
the friendly reader notice. It was not mine intent to prosti- 
tute my muse in English, or to divulge secreta Minprvce^ but 
to have exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could have 
got it printed. Any scurrile pamphlet is welcome to our 
mercenary stationers in Englisli : they print all, 

cuduntque libellos, 

In quorum foliis vix simia nuda cacaret : 

but in Latin they will not deal : wliich is one of the reasons 
^Nicholas Car, in his Oration of the paucity of English writers 
gives, that so many flourishing wits are smothered in oblivion, 
lye dead and buried, in this our nation. Another main fault 
is, that I have not revised the copy, and amended the style, 
which now flows remisly, as it was first conceived : but my 
leisure would not permit : J^eci nee quod poiui, nee (juod voltii, 
I confess it is neither as I would, or as it should be. 

''Cum relego, scripsisse pudet, quia plurima cerno, 
Me quoque quae fuerant judice digaa lini. 

When I peruse this tract which I have writ, 
I am abash'd, and much I hold unfit. 

Et quod gravissimum, in the matter it self, many things I dis- 
allow at this present, which when 1 writ, "JVon eademest cvtas 
non mens. I would willingly retract much, &c. but 'tis too 
late. I can only crave pardon now for what is amiss. 

I might indeed (had 1 wisely done) observed that precept 
of the poet, 

— — nonumque prematur in annum, 

and have taken more care : or as Alexander the physician 
would have done by lapis lazuli, fifty times washed before it 
be used, I should have revised, corrected, and amended this 
tract ; but I had not (as I said) that happy leisure, no ama- 
nuenses or assistants. Paucrates in '^ Lucian, wanting a ser- 
vant as he went from Memphis to Coptus in iEgypt, took 
a door bar, and, after some superstitious words pronounced, 
(Eucrates the relator was then present) made it stand up like 
a serving man, fetch him water, turn the spit, serve in supper, 
and what work he would besides ; and when he had done that 
service he desired, turn'd his man to a stick again. I have no 

» Aiit artis inscii, aut qusestiii rnagis quam Uteris student, iiab. Cantab, et Lond. 
exc.is. 167G. bOvid. do Pont. eleg. 1. 6. -(^ Hor. 'iTo.n. 3.. 

Fhilopseud. accepto pessiilo, qimm carmen quoddam dixisset, effecit ut arabularet, 
aquam haunret, coenam paiarct, &c. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 



l7 



such skill to make nen^ men at my pleasure, or means to hire 
them, no whistle, to call, like the master of a ship, and bid 
them run, &c. 1 have no such authority, no such benefactors, 
as that noble * Ambrosius was to Origen, allowing- him six or 
seven amanuenses to write out his dictates ; 1 inust, for that 
cause, do my business my self, and was therefore enforced, as 
a bear doth her whelps, to bring- forth this confused lump : I 
had not time to lick it into form, as she doth her yonngones, 
but even so to publish it, as it was first written, tjuidcjuid in 
buecam venit : in an extemporean style, (as "^ 1 do commonly 
all other exercises) ejftidi quidquid dicfovit (jenms mens ; out 
of a confused company of notes, an<l writ with as small deli- 
beration as I do ordinarily speak, without all afFectation of 
big words, fustian phrases, jingling- terms, tropes, strong- 
lines, (that, like * Acestes arrows, caught fire as they flew) 
strains of wit, brave heats, elegies, hyperbolical exornations, 
elegancies, &c. which many so much afiect 1 am ^ aqmv 
potor, drink no wine at all, which so much improves our mo- 
dern wits; a loose, plain, rude writer, ^"c?///i voco f?cum, et 
li()onem ligofiem, and as free, as loose : idem calamo quod hi 
mente: ? I call a spade a spade : animis hccc scriho, von avri- 
bus, I respect matter, not words ; remembering- that of (Jardan, 
verba propter res, nan res propter verba; and seeking- with 
Seneca, quid scribam, non quemadmodnm, rather what, than 
how to write. For, as Philo thinks, ^ he that is conversant about 
matter, neglects ivords ; and those that excell in this art of 
speaking, have no proj'ound learning : 

' Verba nitent pbaleris ; at nullas verba medullas 
lutus habent 

Besides, it was the observation of that M'ise Seneca, ^ when 
you see a fellow careful about his words, and neat in hisspeechy 
know this for a certainty, that mans mind is busied about 
toyes, there^s no solidity in him. .A o??. est ornamentum virile 
concinnitas : as he said of a nightingale, 

vox es, praetcrea nihil, &c. 

I am therefore in this point a professed disciple of 'Apollo- 
niiis.ascholarofSocrates: I neglect phrases,and labour wholly 
to inform my readers understanding-, not to please his ear; 'tis 

♦ Eusebius, eccles. hist. lib. 6. <" Stans pede in uno, as he made verses. 

*Virg. fNon eadem a suramo expectes, minimoque poeta. k Stylus 

hie nalhis praeter parrhesiani. h Qui rebus se eiercet, verba neglig:it ; et qui 

callet artem dicendi, nullani discipHnam habet recognitam. ' Palingenius. 

'' Cujuscunque orationem vides politam et solicitam, scito aniraum in pusillis occupa- 
tum, in scriptis nil Bolidum, Epist. lib. 1. 21. i Philostratus, lib. 8. vit. Apol. 

Negligebat oratoriam facultatem, et penitus aspernabatur ejus professores, quod lin- 
guam duntaxat, non autem mentem, redderent eruditiorem. 

VOL. I. C 



18 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

not my study or intent to compose neatly, which an orator re- 
quires, but to express my self readily and plainly as it hap- 
pens : so that, as a river runs, sometimes precipitate and swift, 
then dull and slow; now direct, then per ambages; now deep, 
then shallow; now muddy, then clear; now broad, then nar- 
row ; doth my style flow — now serious, then light ; now 
comical, then satyrical ; now more elaborate, then remiss, as 
the present subject required, or as at that time I was affect- 
ed. And if thou vouchsafe to read this treatise, it shall seem 
no otherwise to thee, than the way to an ordinary traveller, 
sometimes fair, sometimes foul ; here champion, there in- 
closed; barren in one place, better soil in another. By 
woods, groves, hills, dales, plains, &c. T shall lead thee 
per ardua montiuni, et lubrica vallium, et roscida cespitum, et 
* g^ehosa camporum, through variety of objects, that which 
thou shalt like, and surely dislike. 

For the matter it self or method, if it be faulty, consider, I 
pray you, that of Columella: nihil perj'ectum, ant a singnlari 
consummatum industrid : no man can observe all ; much is de- 
fective no doubt, may be justly taxed, altered, and avoided in 
Galen, Aristotle, those great masters. Boni venatoris, ('"one 
holds) plures feras capere, non omnes. He is a good hunts- 
man ran catch some, not all : I have done my endeavour. 
Besides, I dwell not in this study : non hie snlcos ducimns ; 
non hoc pulvere desndamus : I am but a smatterer, I confess, 
a stranger : ° here and there T pull a flower. I do easily grant, 
if a rigid censurer should criticize on this which i have writ, 
he should not find three sole faults, as Scaliger in Terence, 
but three hundred, so many as he hath done in Cardans Sub- 
tleties, as many notable errors as °Gul. Laurembergius, a late 
professor of Rustocke, discovers in thatanatomy of Laurentius, 
or Barocius the Venetian in Sacroboscus. And although this 
be a sixth edition, in which I should have been more accurate, 
corrected all those former escapes, yet it was maqni lahoris 
opus, so difficult and tedious, that (as carpenters do find out 
of experience, 'tis much better build a new sometimes, than 
repair an old house) I could as soon write as much more, as 
alter that Aviiich is written. If ought therefore be amiss, (as I 
grant there is) 1 require a friendly admonition, no bitter in- 
vective : 

P Sint Musis socise Charites ; Furia omnis abesto. 

Otherwise, as in ordinary controversies, funem contentionis 

* Hie enim, quod Seneca de Ponto, bos herbatn, ciconia larisam, canis leporem, 
virso florem legat '"Pet. Nannius, not. in Hor. " n Non hie cnlonus 

douiieiliiuu habeo ; sed, topiarii in uiorem, hiue inde florem vellico, ut canis Nilum 
lujiibens. o Supra bis uulle notabiles errores Laureiitii demonatra\i, &c. 

t> Philo de Con. 



DEMOrRITlTS TO THE READER. 19 

vprtamns : sed cin bono ? Wc may coTaend, and likely mis- 
use each other : but to what purpose ? We are both scholars, 

say, 

'' Arcades ambo, 

Et cantare pares, et respondere parati. 

If Ave do MTangle, what shall Me get by it ? Trouble and 
wrong- our selves, make sport to others. If I be convict of 
an error, I will yield, I will amend. Si qnhlhonh morihm, si 
quid verltati dissentaneum, in sacris vel humanis Uteris a me 
dictvm sit, id nee dictum esto. In the mean time I require a 
favourable censure of all faults omitted, harsh compositions, 
pleonasmes of words, tautological repetitions, (though Seneca 
bear me out minqnam nimis dicitnr, quod minquam satis dici- 
tnr) perturbation of tenses, numbers, printers fluilts, &c. My 
translations are sometimes rather paraphrases, than interpre- 
tations; non adverbnm; but, as an author, I use more liberty, 
and that's only taken, which was to my purpose. Quota- 
tions are often inserted in the text, which make the style 
more harsh, or in the margent, as it hapned. Greek authors, 
Plato, Plutarch, Athenjeus, &c. I have cited out of their in- 
terpreters, because the original was not so ready. I have 
mingled sacra profanis, but I hope not prophaned, and, in 
repetition of authors names, ranked them per accidens, not 
according to chronology ; sometimes neotericks before an- 
cients, as my memory suggested. Some things are here al- 
tered, expunged in this sixth edition, others amended, much 
added, because many good * authors in all kinds are come to 
my hands since ; and 'tis no prejudice, no such indecorum, or 
oversight. 

' Nunquam ita quidquam bene subducta ratione ad vitani fuit, 
, Quin res, aetas, usiis, semper aliquid apportet novi, 
Aliqtiid moneat; ut ilia, quae scire te credas, nescias, 
Et, quae tibi put^ris prima, in experiundo ut vepudies. 
Ne'er was ought yet at first contriv'd so fit, 
But use, age, or something, would alter it; 
Advise thee better, and, upon peruse, 
Make thee not say, and, what thou tak'st, refuse. 
But I am now resolved never to put this treatise out again : 
ne quid nimis, I will not hereafter add, alter, or retra'ct ; I 
have done. 

The last and greatest exception is, that I, being- a divine, 
have medled with physick : 

^Tantumne est ab re tua otii tibi, 

Aliena ut cures, eaque nihil qune ad te attinent ? 

q Virg. ♦ Franibesarius, Seunertus, Ferandus, &c. r Ter. Adelph, 

« Heaut act. 1. seen. 1. 

c2 



20 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

(which Menedemus objected to Chremes) have I so much 
leisure or little business of mine own, as to look afier other 
mens matters, which concern me not ? What have 1 to do 
with physick ? qnod medicornm est, promittant medici. The 
*Lacedaimoninns were once in counsel about state matters : a 
debauched fellow spake excellent well, and to the purpose : his 
speech was generally approved : a grave senator steps up, and 
by all means would have it repealed, though good, because 
dehonestabatnr pessimo auctore, it had no better an author ; 
let some good man relate the same, and then it should pass. 
This counsel was cinbra.ce-},J'actum est, and it was registered 
forthwith ; et sic bona sententia mansit, mains auctor miitatus 
est. Thou sayest as much of me, stomachous as thou art, and 
grantest peradventure this which I have written in pliysick, 
not to be amiss, had another done it, a professed physician, 
or so ; but why should I meddle with this tract ? Hear me 
speak : there be many other subjects, I do easily grant, both 
in humanity and divinity, fit to be treated of, which, had I 
written ad ostentationem only, to show my self, I should have 
rather chosen, and in which 1 have been more conversant, I 
could have more willingly luxuriated, and better satisfied my 
self and others ; but that at this time I was fatally driven 
upon this rock of melancholy, and carried away by this by- 
stream, which, as a rillet, is deducted from the main chanel 
of niy studies, in which I have pleased and busied my self at 
idle hours, as a subject most necessary and commodious: — 
not that I prefer it before divinity, which I do acknowledge 
to be the queen of professions, and to which all the rest are 
as handmaids, but that in divinity I saw^ no such great need : 
for, had I written positively, there be so many books in that 
kind, so many commentators, treatises, pamphlets, expositions, 
sermons, that whole teems of oxen cannot draw them ; and, 
had I been as forward and ambitious as some others, I might 
have haply printed a sermon at Pauls Cross, a sermon in St. 
Maries Oxon, a sermon in Christ Church, or a sermon be- 
fore the right honourable, right reverend, a sermon before the 
right worshipful, a sermon in Latine,in English, a sermon with 
a nan»e, a sermon without, a sermon, a sermon, &c. But 1 
Jiave ever been as desirous to suppress my labours in this kind, 
as others have been to press and publish theirs. To have 
written in controversie, had been to cut off an Hydras head : 
" lis lifem (/('ftcrat ; one begets another ; so many duplications, 
triplications, and swarms of questions, in sacro hello hoc quod 
styli mucrone rt//y7wr, that having- ouqc began, I should never 

• Gellius, lib. IS. c. '.i. « Et inde catena qutedain fit, quae hjeredes etiam 

ligat. Cardan. IltinsiHs. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 21 

make an end. One had much better, as " Alexander the 
Sixth, pope, long- since observed, provoke a g-reat prince than 
a begging- friar, a Jesuite, or a seminary priest: I will add, for 
ine.rpi/f/nahile genus hoc homhn/m : they are an irrefragable 
society: they must and will have the last word, and that 
with such eagerness, impudence, abominable lying, falsifying, 
and bitterness in their questions they proceed, that, as > he 
snidj'urorne ccecus^ an rapit vis acrior, an culpa ? responsum 
date. Blind fury or errour, or rashness, or what it is that 
eggs them, 1 know not, I am sure, many times; which ^Austin 
perceived long- since : tempestate contentioms, serenitas, cha- 
ritatis ohnuhilatur : with this tempest of contention, the se- 
renity of charity is over-clouded ; and there be too many 
spirits conjured up already in this kind in all sciences, and 
more than Ave can tell how to lay, which do furiously rage, 
and keep such a racket, that as '-^ Fabius said, it had been 
much better for some of them to have been born dumb, and 
altogether illiterate^ than so far to dote to their oicn destruc- 
tion. 

At melius fuerat non scribere : namque tacere 
Tutum semper erit. 

'Tis a general fault — so Severinus the Dane complains ''in 
physick — unhappxf men as ice are, tve spend our daies in un- 
proftable questions and disputations^'intricnte subtilties,rfe land 
caprind about moonshine in the water, leaving in the mean 
time those chief est treasures of nature untouched, icherein the 
best medicines for all manner of diseases are to be founds and 
do not onlg neglect them our selves, but hinder, condemn, forbid, 
and scoff at others, that are ivilling to empdre after them. 
These motives at this present have induced me to make choice 
of this medicinal subject. 

If any physician in the mean time shall infer, ne sutor ultra 
crepidam, and find himself grieved that I have intruded into 
his profession, I will tell him in brief, I do not otherwise by 
them, than they do by us, if it be for their advantage. 
I know many of their sect which have taken orders in 
hope of a benefice : 'tis a common transition : and why may 



^ Malle se bellum cum magno principe gerere, qnam cum nno ex fratrnmmendican- 
tiam orHine. > Hor. epofl. lib. od. 7. ^Epist 86. ad Casulam presb. 

» Lib. I'i. cap. 1. Mntos nasci, et omni scientia egere, satins fiiisset, qnam sic in 
propriam perniciem insanire. bJnfgiJx niortalitas ! Iniitilibus quacstionibiis 

ac discj^ptationibus vitani traducitniis ; naturre principes thesanros, in quibus gravis- 
sitnae morborum medicinfe collocatae sunt, interim intactos reiinqnimus ; nee ipsi 
solum relinqiumus, sed et alios prohibemus, impedimus, condemnaniii.«, liidibriisqiie 
afiicimns. 



22 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

not a melancholy divine, that can get nothing- but by si- 
mony, profess physick ? Drusianus, an Italian, (Crusianus 
but corruptly, Trithemius calls him) "" because he was not 
fortmmte in Ms practice,Joisook his profession, and writ after - 
tvards in diviuiij/. Marcilius Ficinus was semel et sinml, a 
priest and a physician at once ; and '' T. Linacer, in his old 
ag-e, took orders. The Jesuites profess both at this time : 
divers of them, permissu snperioriim chirurg-ions, panders, 
bawds, and niidwives, &c. Many poor countrey-vicars, for 
want of other means, are driven to their shifts; to turn 
mountebanks, quacksalvers, empricks : and if our greedy 
patrons hold us to such hard conditions, as commonly they 
do, tljey will make most of us work at some trade, as Paul did 
— at last turn taskers, maltsters, costermougers, g-rasiers, sell 
ale, as some have done, or worse. Howsoever, in undertak- 
ing this task, 1 hope I shall commit no great errour, or inde- 
corum^ if al! be considered aright. I can vindicate my self 
w^ith Georgius Braunus, and Hieronymus Hemingius, those 
two learned divines, who, (to borrow a line or two of mine 
*^ elder brother) drawn by a natural love, the one oj" pictures 
and maps, prospectives and chororpaphical delights, wiit that 
ample Theatre of Cities; the other to the study of genealogies, 
penned Theatrum Genealogicum: or else I can excuse my 
studies with ^ Lessiusthe Jesuiteinlike case — It isadisease of 
tlie soul, on which I am to treat, and as much appertaining- to 
a divine as to a physician ; and who knows not what an agree- 
ment there is betwixt these tAvo professions? A good divine 
either is, or ought to be, a good physician, a spiritual physician 
at least, as our Saviour calls himself, and was indeed, Mat. 4. 
23. Luke 5. 18. Luke 7« 8. They differ but in object, the 
one of the body, the other of the soul, and use divers medi- 
cines to ciu'e I one i\n\enAs,animam per corpns,the other corpus 
per animam, as ^'our regius professour of physick well informed 
us in a learned lecture of his not long since. One helps the 
vices and passions of the soul, anger, lust, desperation, pride, 
presumption, &c. by applying that spiritual physick, as the 
other uses proper remedies in bodily diseases. Now, this being 
a common infirmity of body and soul, and such a one that hath 
as much need of a spiritual as a corporal cure, I could not find 
a fitter task to busie my self about — a more apposite theam, 
so necessary, so commodious, and generally concerning all 

" Quod in praxi miuime fortunatns esset, medicinam reliquit, et, ordinibus initiatas, 
in theologia postmodimi scripsit. Oesner, Hibliotheca. <• P. Jovius. «M. 

VV. iJurton, Preface to liis Description of Leicestershire, printed at London by W. 
Jaggard for S. White, l&*-2. • In Hygiasticon ; neque enim hasc tractatio aliena 

videri debet a theologo, &.c. agitur de morbo aninije. g D. Clayton, in comitiiB, 

anno lOil. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 23 

sorts of men, that should so equally participate of both, and 
require a whole physician. A divine, in this compound mixt 
malady, can do little alone ; a physician, in some kinds of 
melancholy, much less : both make an absolute cure : 

■* Alterius sic altera poscit opem : 
and 'tis proper to them both, and, I hope, not unbeseeming- 
me, who am by my profession a divine, and by mine inclina- 
tion a physician. 1 had Jupiter in my sixth house ; I say, with 
iBeroaldus, wow sum medicns, nee mediciufe prorsus expers ; in 
the theorick of physic I have taken some pains, not with an 
intent to practise, but to satisfie my self; which was a cause 
likewise of the first undertaking of this subject. 

If these reasons do not satisfie thee, good reader— as Alex- 
ander Munificus, that bountiful prelate, sometime bishop of 
Lincoln, when he had built six castles, ad invidiam operis 
eluendam, saith ^ 3Ir. Crambden, to take away the envy of his 
work, (which very words Nubrigensis hath of Roger the rich 
bishop of Salisbury, who, in king Stephens time, built Shir- 
burn castle, and that of Devises) to divert the scandal or impu- 
tation which might be thence inferred, built so many religious 
houses— If this my discourse be over medicinal, or savour too 
much of humanity, I promise thee that I will hereafter make 
thee amends in some treatise of divinity. But this, I hope, 
shall suffice, when you have more fully considered of the mat- 
ter of this my subject, rem substratum, melancholy madness, 
and of the reasons following, which were my chief motives— 
the generality of the disease, the necessity of the cure, and the 
commodity or common good that will arise to all men by the 
knowledge of it, as shall at large appear in the ensuing pre- 
face. And I doubt not but that in the end you wdl say with 
me, that to anatomize this humour aright through all the 
members of this our microcosmus, is as great a task as to re- 
concile those chronological errours in the Assyrian monarchy, 
find out the quadrature of a circle, the creeks and sounds of 
the north-east or north-west passages, and, all out, as good a 
discovery as that hungry ^ Spaniards of Terra Austral is Incog- 
nita as great trouble as to perfect the motion of 3Iars and 

Mercury, which so crucifies our astronomers, or to rectifie the 
Gregorian kalendar. I am so affected, for my part, and hope, 
as ™ Theoprastus did by his Characters, that our posterity, 

1' Hor. i Lib. de pestil. ^ In Newark in Nottinghamshire. Cnm dno 

Eedificasset castella, ad toUendam stmctionis imidiam, et expiandam macnlam dno 
instituit coenobia et collegis religiosis implevit. ' Ferdmando de Qnin 

anno 1612. Amsterdami impress. n> Prsefat ad Characteres. Spero emm O 

Polycles, liberos nostros meliores inde futiiros, quod istiusmodi memoriae mandata 
reliquerimos, ex prsceptis et exemplis nostris ad vitam accommodatis, at $e mde 
corrigaDt 



24 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

friend Poly des, shall he better for this which iveJiavetvriiten, 
hy correcting and rectifying what is amiss in themselves b:f 
our examples, and applying our precepts and cautioiis to their 
own use. And, as that great captain, Zisca, would have a 
drum made of his skin when he was dead, because he thoug^ht 
the very noise of it would put his enemies to flight, I doubt 
not but that these following lines, when they shall be recited, 
or hereafter read, will drive away melancholy (though I be 
gone), as much as Zisca's drum could terrific his foes. Yet 
one caution let me give by the way to my present or future 
reader, who is actually melancholy — that he read not the 
" symptomes or prognosticks in the following tract, lest, by ap- 
plying that which he reads tohimself,aggravating, appropriat- 
ing things generally spoken, to his own person (as melancholy 
men for the most part do), he trouble or hurt himself, and get, 
in conclusion, more harm than good. I advise them there- 
fore warily to peruse that tract. Lapides loquitur (so said 
*' Agrippa, de occ. Phil.) et caveant lector es ne cerebrum iis 
excutiat. The rest, I doubt not, they may securely read, and 
to their benefit. But 1 am over-tedious ; 1 proceed. 

Of the necessity and generality of this which I have said, if 
any man doubt, I shall desire him to make a brief survey of 
the world, as ^Cyprian adviseth Donate—Supposing himself to 
be transported to the top of some high mountain, and thence 
to behold the tumults and chances of this wavering world, he 
cannot chuse but either laugh at, or pity it. St. Hierom, out 
of a strong imagination, being in the wilderness, conceived 
with himself that he then saw them dancing in Rome ; and if 
thou shalt either conceive, or climb to see, thou shalt soon 
perceive that all the world is mad, that it is melancholy, dotes; 
that it is (which Epichthonius Cosmopolites expressed not 
many years since in a map) made like a fools head (with 
that motto, caput helteboro dignum) a erased head, caveastul- 
torum, a fools paradise, or (as Apollonius) a common prison 
of gulls, cheaters, flatterers, &c. and needs to be reformed. 
Strabo, in the ninth book of his Geography, compares Greece 
to the picture of a man ; which comparison of his Nic. Ger- 
belius, in his exposition of Sophianus map, approves — The 
breast lies open from those Acroceraunian hills in Epirus, to 
the Sunian promontory in Attica; Pagae and Megara are the 
two shoulders ; that Isthmos of Corinth the neck ; and Pelo- 
ponnesus the head. If this allusion hold, 'tis, sure, a mad 



" Part I. sect. 3. " Praef. Lectori. P Ep. 2. 1. 2. ad Donatum. Panllispcr 

fe crede subduci in ardui montis verticem relsiorera : gpeculare inde rerum jacenfiutn 
faries; et, ocuHs in diversa porrectis, fluctuantis mundi turbines intnere : jam simal 
aut ridebis aut misereberis, Sec. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 25 

head — Morea may be Morki; and, to speak what I tliink, the 
inhabitants of modern Greece swerve as much from reason 
and true rebgion at this day, as that IMorea doth from the 
picture of a man. Examine the rest inbke sort; and you shall 
find that kingdoms and provinces are melancholy, cities and 
families, all creatures, vegetal, sensible, and rational— that all 
sorts, sects, ages, conditions, are out of tune : asin Cebes table, 
omnes errorem bibunt : before they come into the world, they 
are intoxicated by errours cup — from the highest to the lowest, 
have need of physick; and those particular actions in "> Seneca, 
where father and son prove one another mad, may be general : 
Porcius Latro shall plead against us all. For indeed who is not 
a fool, melancholy, mad? — ^ Qui nilmolitur itiepte ; who is not 
brain-sick ? Folly, melancholy, madness, are but one disease ; 
delirium is a common name to all. Alexander Gordonius, 
Jason Pratensis, Savanarola,Gnianerius,Montaltus, confound 
tem, as differing secundum magis et minus ; so doth David, 
Psal. 37. 5. / said unto thejools, deal not so madly : and 'twas 
an old Stoical paradox, omnes stultos insanire, — ^ all fools are 
mad, though some madder than others. And who is not a 
fool ? who is free from melancholy ? who is not touched more 
or less in habit or disposition ? If in disposition, ill disposi- 
tions beget habits ; if they persevere, saith * Plutarch, habits 
either are or turn to diseases. 'Tis the same Mhich Tully 
maintains in the second of his Tusculanes, omnium insipien- 
turn animi in morbo sunt, et perturbatorum : fools are sick, 
and all that are troubled in mind: for what is sickness, but, 
as " Gregory Tholosansus defines it, a dissolution or perturba- 
tion of the bodily league tchioh health combines ? and who is 
not sick, or ill disposed ? in whom doth not passion, anger, 
envy, discontent, fear, and sorrow, reign ? Avho labours not of 
this disease ? Give me but a little leave, and you shall see by 
what testimonies, confessions, arguments, I will evince it, that 
most men are mad, that they had as much need to go a pil- 
grimage to the Anticyrae (as in "^ Strabo's time they did), as in 
our dayes they run to Corapostella, our Lady of Sichem or 
Lauretta, to seek for help — that it is like to be as prosperous 
a voyage as that of Guiana, and that there is much more need 
of hellebore than of tobacco. 



qControv. 1. 2. cont. 7. et 1. 6. cont, 'Horatiusr si,]em Hor. 1. 2. 

sat. 3. Damasippus Stoic lis probat omnes stultos insanire. ' 'I oni. 2. sympos. 

lib. 5. c. 6. Animi affectiones, si diutius inhaereant, pravos generant habitus. "Lib 
28. cap. 1. Synt. art mir. Morbus niliil est alind quain dissolutio quaedam ac pertur- 
batio foederis in corpore existentis, sicutet sanitas «st consentipntis bene corporis con- 
sumiuatio quse.dani. '^ Lib. 9. Geogr. Plures olim geutes navigabant illuc 

sanitatis caussa. 



26 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

That men are so misaffected, melancholy, mad, giddy- 
headed, hear the testimony of Solomon, Eccles. ,2. 12. And 
I turned to behold wisdom^ madness, and Jolly, ^c. And 
ver. 23. All his dayes are sorrow, his travel grief, and his 
heart taketh no rest in the night. So that, take melancholy 
in what sense you will, properly or improperly, in disposition 
or habit, for pleasure or for pain, dotage, discontent, fear, 
sorrow, madness, for part, or all, truly, or metaphorically, ^tis 
all one. Laughter it self is madness, according to Solomon; 
and, as St. Paul hath it, worldly sorrorv brings death. The 
hearts of the sons of men are evil; and madness is in their 
hearts while they live, Eccles. 9. 3. Wise men themselves are 
no better, Eccles. 1. 18. In the multitude of ivisdom is much 
grief; and he that increaseth wisdom, increaseth sorrow, cap. 
2. 17. He hated life it self; nothing pleased him ; he hated 
his labour; all, as y he concludes, is sorroic, grief vanity, 
vexation of spirit. And, though he were the wisest man in the 
world, sanctuarium sapientice, and had wisdom in abundance, 
he will not vindicate himself, or justifie his own actions. 
Surely I am more foolish than any man, and have not the 
understanding of a man in me, Prov. 33. 2. Be they Solo- 
mon's words, or the words of Agur the son of Jakeh, they are 
canonical. David, a man after Gods own heart, confesseth as 
much of himself, Psal, 37- 21. 22. So foolish was I and 
ignorant, I teas even as a beast before thee — and condemns all 
for fools, Psal. 93, and 32. 9. and 4^. 20. He compares 
them to beasts, horses, and mules, in which there is no under- 
standing. The apostle Paul accuseth himself in like sort, 
2. Cor. 11.21. I would you would suffer a little my fool- 
ishness ; I speak foolishly. The whole head is sick, saith 
Esay; and the heart is heavy, cap. 1. 5. and makes lighter 
of them thati of oxen and asses ; the ass knows his owner, Sfc. 
read Deut. 32. 6. Jer. 4. Amos 3. 1. Ephes. 5, 6. £e 
not mad, be not deceived : foolish Galatians, who hath be- 
witched you ? How often are they branded from this epithet 
of madness and folly ! No word so frequent amongst the 
fathers of the church and divines. You may see what an 
opinion they had of the world, and how they valued mens 
actions. 

I know that we think far otherwise, and hold them, most 
part, wise men that are in authority — princes, magistrates, 
'■^ rich men — they are wise men born : all politicians and states- 
men must needs be so ; for who dare speak against them ? 
And on the other, so corru^,*. is our judgement, we esteem wise 



y Ecclea, 1. 24. ^ Juje haereditario sapere jubentur. Euphonnio, Satyr. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 27 

ami lionest men fools ; v/bicb Democritus well siguifiecl in an 
epistle of his to Hippocrates ; '^ the Abderites account vertue 
madness ; and so do most men living-. Shall I tell you the 
reason of it? ^Fortune and Vertife (Wisdom and Folly their 
seconds) upon a time contended in the Olympicks ; every man 
thousfht that Fortune and Folly would have the worst, and 
pittied their cases. But it fell out otherwise. Fortune was 
blind, and cared not where she stroke, nor whom, without 
laws, andahatarnm instar, Sj-c. Folly, rash and inconsiderate, 
esteemed as little what she said or did. Vertue and Wisdom 
gave place, '^were hissed out, and exploded by the conniion 
people — Folly and Fortune admired ; and so are all their fol- 
lowers ever since. Knaves and fools commonly fare and de- 
serve best in worldlings eyes and opinions. Many good men 
have no better fate in their ages. Achish, 1 Sam. ^1. 14. held 
David for a madman. '' Elisha and the rest were no otherwise 
esteemed. David was derided of the common people, Psal. 9. 7. 
/ am become a monster to many. And generally we are ac- 
counted fools for Christ, 1 Cor. 1 4. WeJ'ools thouyht his lije 
inadness and his end without honour, Wisd. 5. 4. Christ and 
his Apostles were censured in like sort,John 10. Mark 3. Acts 
26. And so were all Christians in ^^Plinys time : J'vernnt et 
alii similis dementice, ^-c. and called not long after, ^ vesa- 
nice sectatores, eversores honiinum, polluti novatores, fanatici^ 
canes, malefici, venejici, Galilcei homunciones, ^-c. 'Tis an 
ordinary thing with us to account honest, devout, orthodox, 
divine, religious, plain-dealing men, ideots, asses, that can- 
not or will not lye and dissemble, shift, flatter, accommodare 
se ad eum locum nbi nati sunt, make good bargains, supplant, 
thrive, patronis inservire, solennes ascendencli modos appre- 
hendere, leges, mores, consuetudines recte observare, candide 
landare, Jortiter dej'endere, sententias amplecti, dubitare de 
nnllis, credere omnia, accipere omnia, nihil reprehendere, 
ccvteraque qua; promotionemj'erunt et securitatem, qucc sine 
amhaye Jelicem reddunt hominem, et vere sapientem apud Jios 
— that cannot temporize as other men do, s hand and take 
bribes, &c. — but fear God, and make a conscience of their 
doings. But the Holy Ghost, that knows better how to judge 
— he calls them fools. The J'ool hath said in his heart, Psal. 
53. 1 . And their wayes utter their Jolly, Psal. 49. 14. ^For 
ivhat can be more mad, than for a little worldly pleasure, to 

* Apud quos virtus, insania et furor esse dicitiir. b Calcagniiius, Apol OniDes 

niirabantur, putantes illisutu iri Stultitiam. Sad prajter eTpectatiouem res evenit. 
Audax Stultitia in earn irruit, 8cC. ilia cedit irrisa; et plures hiiic habet sectatores 
StuUitia. "' Non est respondendum stulto secundum stultitiam, <12 Reg. 7. 

* Lib. JO. ep. 97. ^Aug. ep. 178. g Quis, nisi mentis inops, iscc. 

'^ Quid iusanius quam pro momentanea felicitate seternis te uiancipare suppliciis ? 



28 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

procure unto themselves eternal punishment ? as Gregory and 
others inculcate unto us. 

Yea even all those great philosophers the world hath ever 
had in admiration, whose Morks we do so much esteem, that 
o-ave precepts ofwisdom to others, inventersofarts and sciences 
— Socrates, the wisest man of his time by the oracle of Apollo, 
whom his two scholars ''Plato and ^Xenophon so much extol 
and magnifie with those honourable titles, hest and wisest of 
all mortal men, the happiest and most just ; and as *AIcibiades 
incomparably commends him ; " Achilles was a worthy man, 
but Brasidas and others were as worthy as himself; Antenor 
and Nestor were as good as Pericles ; and so of the rest : but 
none present, before, or after Socrates, nemo veterum neque 
eorum qui nunc sunt, were ever such, will match, or come near 
him" — those seven wise men of Greece, those Britain Druids, 
Indian Brachmanni, ^Ethiopian Gymnosophists, Magi of the 
Persians — Apollonius, of whom Philostratus, non doctus, sed 
natus sapiens, wise from his cradle — Epicurus, so much ad- 
mired by his scholar Lucretius ; 

Qui p-enus humanum ingenio superavit, et omnes 
Perstrinxit, Stellas exortus ut setherius Sol 

Whose wit excell'd the wit of men as far. 
As the Sun rising doth obscure a star 

or that so much renowned Empedocles, 

* Ut vix humana videatur stirpe crcatus 

all those, of whom w^e read such "" hyperbolical eulogiums ; as 
of Aristotle, that he was Avisdom itself in the abstract, " a mi- 
racle of nature, breathing libraries, (as Eunapius ofLonginus) 
lights of nature, gyants for wit, quintessence of wit, divine 
spirits, eagles in the clouds, fallen from heaven, gods, spirits, 
lamps of the world, dictators, 

(Nulla ferant talem secla futura virum) 
monarchs, miracles, superintendents of wit and learning 
Oceanus, phwnix, Atlas, nonstrum, portentum hominis, orbis 
universi musaum, ultimus humana; naturae conatus, natures 
maritus, 

merito cui doctior orbis 

Submissis defert fascibus imperium, 

k In fine Phaedonis. Hie finis fuit amici nostri, o Eucrates, nostro qHidem 
juHicio, oniniiiiu quos experti sunius"optirai et apprime sapientissirai, et justissimi. 
' Xenop 1. 4. de dictis Socratis, ad finem. Talis fuit Socrates, quem omnium opti- 
mum et felicissimum statuam. * Lib. 25. Plantonis Convivio. * Lucre- 
tius, ni Anaxagoras dim Mens dictus ab antiquis. " Regula naturae, 
naturae miraculum, ipsa eruditio, dsemonium hominis, sol scientiarnm. mare, sophia, 
antistes litcrarum et sapientia', ut Scioppius olim de Seal, et Heinsius. Aquila in 
nubibus, imperator literatorum, columen literarum, abyssus eruditionis, ocellus 
Eiiropec, Scaliger. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 29 

as iElian writ of Protaooras and Gorf^ias — ^we may say of 
them all, tantum a snpientibus ahj'neritnt, quantum a this 
pueri, they were children in respect, infants, not eaofles but 
kites, novices, illiterate, euiiuchi snpientice. And, althoug-h 
they were the wisest and most admired in their age, as he 
censured Alexander, I do them: there were 10,000 in hisarmy 
as M'orthy captains (had they been in place of command), as 
valiant as himself; there were myriads of men wiser in those 
dayes, and yet all short of what they ought to be. ° Lactan- 
tius, in his book of Wisdom, proves them to be dizards, fools, 
asses, mad-men, so full of absurd and ridiculous tenets and 
brain-sick positions, that, to his thinking, neverany old woman 
or sick persion doted worse, p Deniocritus took all from Leu- 
cippus, and left, saith he, the iuheritance of his folly to Epi- 
curus : '^ insamenti dum scipientice, ^-c. The like he holds of 
Plato, iVristippus, and the rest, making no difference ^betwixt 
them and beasts, saving that tliey could speak. ^ Theodoret, 
in his tract De Cur Groic. Affect, manifestly evinces as much 
of Socrates, whom though that oracle of Apollo confirmed 
to be the wisest man then living, and saved him from the 
plague, whom 2000 years have admired, of whom some will 
as soon speak evil as of Christ, yet re vera, he was an illi- 
terate ideot, as*Aristophanes calls him — irrisor et ambitiosus, 
as his master Aristotle terms him, scurra ^tticus^ v.s Zeno, 
an "enemy to all arts and sciences, as Athenffius, to philoi^o- 
phers and travellers, an opinionative asse, a caviller, a kind of 
pedant; for his manners, (as Theod. Cyrensis describes him) 
a * Sodomite, an atheist, (so convict by Anytus) Iracnndus et 
ebrius, dicax, ^-e. a pot companion, by Plato's own confes- 
sion, a sturdy drinker ; and that of all others he was most 
sottish, a very mad-man in his actions and opinions. Pytha- 
goras was part philosopher, part magician, or part witch. If 
you desire to hear moreof Apollonius, agreat Mise man, some- 
time paralleled by Julian the apostate, to Christ, I refer you to 
thatlearned tract of Eusebius againstHierocles — and, forthem 
all, to Lucian's Piscator,Icaromenippiis, Necyomantia. Their 
actions, opinions in general, were so prodigious, absurd, ridi- 
culous, which they broached and maintained ; tlieir l.ooks and 
elaborate treatises were full of dotage; which Tully ((id At- 
ticuni) long since observed — delirant plerumque scriptores in 
libris suis — their lives being opposite to their words, they com- 

o Lib. 3. de sap c. \7. et '20. Omnes philosophi aut stulti aut insani : nalla anus, 
niil:us aeger, inejjtius deliravit. 1> Deraocritus, a Leucippo doctus, hsBreditateui 

stultitiae reliqnit Epicuro. 1 Hor. car lib. 1. od. 34. r Nihil interest inter 

hos et bestias, nisi quod loqimntur. Desa 1.26 c. S. ^ Cap. de virt. 'Neb. 

et Ranis. " Oinniam disciplinanira ijnarus. * Pulcliroruiu adolescentam 

causa frequenter ^innasium obibat, &c. 



30 DF.MOrRITUS TO THE READER. 

mended poverty toothers, and were most covetous themselves, 
extolled love and peace, and yet persecuted one another with 
virulent hate and malice. They could give precepts for verse 
and prose ; but not a man of them (as * Seneca tells them 
home) could moderate his affections. Their musickdid shew 
us Jlebiles modos, Sfc. how to rise and fall; but they could not 
so contain themselves, as in adversity not to make a lainentable 
tone. They will measure g-round by geometry, set down 
limits, divide and subdivide, but cannot yet prescribe qnantv.m 
homini satis, or keep within compass of reason and discretion. 
They can square circles, but understand not the state of their 
own souls —describe right lines, and crooked, &c. but know 
not what is right in this life — quidiuvitd rectum sit, ignorant: 
so that, as he said, 

Nescio, an Anticyratn ratio illis destinet omncm. 

I think all the Anticyrae will not restore them to their wits. 
"^ If these men now, that held > Zenodotus heart, Crates liver, 
Epictatus lanthorn, were so sottish, and had no more brains 
than so many beetles, what shall we think of the commonalty ? 
what of the rest ? 

Yea, but (will you infer) that is true of heathens, if they 
be conferred with Christians, 1 Cor. 3, 19. The ivisdom of' 
this world is Joolishness with God, earthhf and devilish, as 
James calls it, 3. 15. They were vain in their imaginations ; 
and their foolish heart was foil of darkness. Rom. 1.21, 22. 
When they profossed themselves wise, became fools. Their 
witty works are admired here on earth, whilst their souls are 
tormented in hell fire. In some sense, Christiani Crassiani, 
Christians are Crassians, and, if compared to that wisdom, no 
better than fools. Quis est sapiens ? Solus Dens, * Pytha- 
g-oras replies: God is only wise. — Rom. 16. Paul determines, 
only f/ood, as Austin well contends; and no man living can be 
jnstijied in his sight. God looketh downfoom heaven upon the 
children of men, to see ij' any did understand. Psalm bo. 2. 3. 
but all arc corrupt, erre. Rom. 3. 12. JVowe doth good, ?io 
not one. Job aggravates this, 4. 18- Behold, he found no 
stedfoistness in his servants, and laid folly upon his angels, 19. 
How much more on them that dwell in houses of clay ! In this 
sense, we are all as fools ; and the ^ Scripture alone is arx 
Minervce ; we and our writings are shallow and imperfect. 
But I do not so mean : even in our ordinary dealings, v»'e are 



* Seneca. Scis rotunda metiri, sed non tuum ani'mum. '^ Ab uberibus sapientid 
lactati, ccecutire r.on possnnt. > Cor Zenodoti, et jecur Cratetis. * Lib. de 

nat. boni. ' Hie profundissimae sophiaj fodinaj. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 31 

no better than fools. All our actions, as =* Pliny told Trajan, 
upbraid us oj'jofli/: our whole course of life is but matter of 
laughter : we are not soberly wise ; and the world it self, which 
ouoht at least to be wise by reason of his antiquity, as ^Hugo 
de Prato Florido will have it, semper stnlfizat, is every day 
morejoofish than other : the more it is ichippcd, the wore it 
is : and, as a child, will still be crowned with roses andjfoivers. 
We are apish in it, asini bipedes ; and every place is full 
hwersorum Apuleiorum^ of metamorphosed and two-legged 
asses, inversnrnm. Silenormn, childish, pveri instar bimnli, 
tremuld patris dormientis in ulna. Jovianus Pontanus (An- 
tonio Dial.) brings in some laughing- at an old man, that by 
reason of his age was a little fond : but, as he admonishetli 
there, ne mireris, mi hospes, de hoc sene, marvel not at him 
only; for tota ha;c civitas delirium, all our town dotes in like 
sort; "^we are a company of fools. Ask not, with him in the 
poet, '' Larvce hunc, intemperio', insaniceqne, ar/itant senem ? 
What madness ghosts this old man ; what madness ghosts 
us all ? For we are, ad unum omnes, all mad ; semel insani- 
vimus omnes : not once, but alwaj^s so, et semel, et simul, et 
semper, ever and altogether as bad as he ; and not senex bis 
puer, delira anus ; but say it of us all, semper pneri ; young 
and old, all dote, as Lactantius proves out of Seneca; and 
no difference betwixt us and children, saving that majora 
ludimvs, et grandioribus pupis, they play with babies of clouts, 
and such toys, we sport with greater babies. We cannot 
accuse or condemn one another, being faulty ourselves; de- 
liramenta loqneris, you talk idly, or, as '' Micio upbraided 
Demea, insanis ? anj'er ; for we are as mad our own selves ; 
and it is hard to say which is the worst. Nay, 'tis univer- 
sally so, 

fVitam regit fortuna, non sapientia. 

When § Socrates had taken great pains to find out a wise 
man, and, to that purpose, had consulted with philosophers, 
poets, artificers, he concludes all men were fools ; and, though 
it procured him !)oth anger and much envy, yet in all com- 
panies he would openly profess it. When * Supputius in 
Pontanus had travelled all over Europe to conferr with a wise 
man, he returned at last without his errand, and could fiiid 
none. '' Cardan concurs with him: I^ew there are (Jar ought 

3 Paneg>-r.Trajano. Omnes actiones esprobrare stuUitiam \-identur. ''Sen 4 in 
doini Pal. M'.mdus, cpii ob anti(ji!itafem deberet esse sapiens, semper stultizat, et nullis 
flagellis alteratur ; s<'d, et piier, vuit rosis et floribus coronari. >^ Insanum te omnes 
pneri, clamantquepiiella;. Hor. <* pjautos, Aulular. « Adelph/act. 5 seen. 8. 
'Tully, Tusc. 5. ? Plato, Apologia Socratis. * Ant. Dial. "Lib. 3. de. sap. 
Pauci, ut video, san* aientis sunt. 



32 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

I can perceive) well in their wits. So doth ''Tally : / sec 
every thing to he done J'oolishly and unadvisedly. 

lUe sinislrorsum, hie dextrorsum abit : unus utrique 
Error; sed variis illudit partibus omnes. 

One reels to this, anotlier to that wall ; 
'Tis the same errour that deludes them all. 

' They dote all, but not alike, (Mav;a yov -nxaiv o/y^otx) not in 
the same kind. One is covetous^ a second lasclvimis, a third 
ambitions, a fourth envious, Sfc- as Damasippus the Stoick 
hath well illustrated in the poet, 

^ Desipiunt omnes seque ac tu. 

'Tis an inbred maladie: in every one of us, there is spminarivm 
stultiti(B, a seminary of folly, which, if' it be stirred up^ or get 
a head, will run in infinitum, and injinitehf varies, as ice our 
selves are severally addicted, (saitli ' Balthazar Castilio) and 
cannot so easily be rooted out; it takes such hold, as Tully 
ho\ds,alt(e radices stiiltitice ; '" so we are bred, and so we con- 
tinue. Some say there be two main defects of wit — errour and 
ignorance — to which all others are reduced. By ignorance we 
know not things necessary; by errour we know them falsly. Ig- 
norance is a privation, errour a positive act. From ignorance 
comes vice, from errour heresie, &c. But make how many 
kinds you will, divide and subdivide ; few men are free, or 
that do not impinge on some one kind or other. " Sic ple- 
rumque agitat stultos inscitia, as he that examines his own and 
other mens actions, shall find. 

* Charon, in Lucian, (as he wittily feigns) was conducted by 
Mercury to such a place, where he might see all the world at 
once. After he hadsufficiently viewed, and looked about. Mer- 
cury would needs know of him what he had observed. He told 
him that he saw a vast multitude, and a promiscuous; their 
habitations like mole-hills; the men as emmets: he could 
discern cities like so many hives oj' bees, wherein every bee 
had a sting ; and they did nought else but sting one another ; 
some domineering like hornets, bigger thin the rest, some 
like filching wasps, others as dro?ies. Over their heads were 
hovering a ci>ufnsed company of perturbations, hope, fear, 
anger, avarice, ignorance, &c and a multitude of diseases 
hanging, which they still pulled on their pates. Some were 

•> Stulte et incaiite omnia agi video. ' Insania non omnibus eadem. Erasm. cl;il. 
.3. cent. 10. Nemo mortaliiim qui non aliqua in re desipit, licet alius alio inorbo laboiet, 
hie libidinis, ille aviritiai, ambitionis, invidiae. "^ Hor. 1. 2. sat. 3. 'Lib. 1. de 

aulico. Est in unoquoque nostrunri seminaritnn aliqiiod stultitiaj, qiioil si qiiando ex- 
citetur. iu infinitum ihcile excrescit. "'Priniaqiie hix vitai prima furoris erat. 

"Tibulliis. Stiilti pratereunt dies; their wits are a wool-gathering. So fools com- 
monly dote. * Dial contemplantes, torn. 2: 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. S3 

brawling, some fighting-, riding-, running, soUcite amhientes^ 
callide litigantes, for toyes, and triHes, and such momentany 
things — their towns and provinces meer factions, rich against 
poor, poor against rich, nobles against artificers, they against 
nobles, and so the rest. In conclusion, he condemned them all 
for mad-men, fools, ideots, asses — O stulti ! qnoenam hcec est 
amentia ? O fools ! O mad-men ! he exclaims, insana studia, 
iiisani labores, dj-c. Mad endeavours ! mad actions ! mad ! mad ! 
mad ! " O seclum insipiens et vijicetnm ! a giddy-headed aoe. 
Heraclitus the philosopher, out of a serious meditation of mens 
lives, fell a weeping, and with continual tears bewailed their 
misery, madness^ and folly. Democritus, on the other side, 
burst out a laughing; their whole life seemed to him so ridicu- 
lous : and he was so far carried with this ironical passion, that 
the citizens of Abdera took him to be mad, and sent therefore 
embassadors to Hippocrates the physician, that he Mould ex- 
ercise his skill upon him. But the story is set down at laro-e 
by Hippocrates, in his Epistle to Damagetus, which, because 
it is not impertinent to this discourse, I will insert verbatim 
almost, as it is delivered by Hippocrates himself, with all the 
circumstances belonging unto it. 

When Hippocrates was come to Abdera, the people of the 
city came flocking about him, some weeping, some intreatino- 
of him that he would do his best. After some little repasf, 
he went to see Democritus, the people following him, whom 
he found (as before) in his garden in the suburbs, all alone, 
P sitting upon a stone under a plans tree, without hose or shoes, 
with a book on his knees, cutting up several beasts, and 
busie at his stndg. The multitude stood gazing round about, 
to see the congress. HippQcrates, after a litlle^pause, saluted 
him by his name, whom he re-saluted, ashamed almost that 
he could not call him likewise by his, or that he had forgot it. 
Hippocrates demanded of him what he was doing. He told 
him that he was '^busie in cutting up several beasts, to Jind 
out the cause of madness and melancholy. Hippocrates 
commended his work, admiring his happiness and leisure. 
And why, quoth Democritus, hav€ not you that leisure ? 
Because,replyed Hippocrates, domestical affairs hinder,neces- 
sary to be done, for our selves, neighbours, friend*— expences, 
diseases,frailties and mortalities which happen— wife,childreu, 
servants, and such businesses, which deprive us of our time. 

"Catullus. P Sub ramosa platano sedentem, solum, discalceatnm, super 

lapidem, valde pallidum ac macilentura, promissa barba, librum super genibus ha- 
bentem. 'iDe furore, mania melancholia scribo, nt sciam duo pacto in ho- 

minibus giguatnr, fiat, crescat, cumuletur, minuatur. Hac (iniquit)' auimalia. qu* 
vides, propterea seeo, non Dei opera perosus, sed fellis bilisque uaturam disqui- 
rens. ^ 

VOL. I D 



34 DEMOORITUS TO THE READER. 

Atthisspcorh Domocritus profu^el}' laughed (liis friends, and 
the people standing- l>y, weeping in the mean time, and lament- 
irjg- his madness). Hippocrates asked the reason why he 
laughed, fie told him, at the vanities and fopperies of the 
time, to sec men so eiiipty of all virtuous actions, to hunt so 
far after gold, having no end of ambition — to take such intinite 
pains for a little glory, and fo be favoured of men — to make 
such deep mines into the earth for gold, and many times to 
find nothing-, with loss of their lives and fortunes — some to 
love dogs, otliers horses, some to desire to be obeyed in many 
proviiices,'and yet themselves will knoM no obedience — *some 
to love their wives dearly at first, and, after a while, to forsake 
and hate them — begetting- children, M'ith much care and cost 
for their education, yet, when they grow to mans estate, *to 
despise, neglect, and leave them naked to the worlds mercy. 
" Do not these behaviours express their intolerable folly ? 
When men live in peace, they covet war, detesting quietness, 
"^ deposing- kings .and advancing others in their stead, murder- 
ing some men, to beget children of their wives. How many 
strange humours are in men ! When they are ])Oor and needy, 
they seek riches ; and, when they have them,they do not enjoy 
them, but hide them under ground, or else wastefully spend 
them. O wise Hippocrates ! I laugh at such things being 
done, but much more when no good comes of tiiem, and when 
they are done to so ill purpose. There is no truth or justice 
found amongst them; for they daily plead one against another, 
ythe son against the father and the mother, brother against 
brother, kindred and friends, of the same quality; and all this 
for riches, whereof, after death, they cannot be possessors. 
And yet — notwithstanding- they \^ill defanse and kill one an- 
other, commit all unlr.wfid actions, contemning God and men, 
friendsan<lcoiintrey — they makegreataccountofmany sense- 
less things, esteeming them as a great part of their treasure 
statues, pictures, and such like moveables, dear boug-ht,and so 
cunningly wrought, * as nothing- but speech wanteth in them ; 
^an<l yet they hate living- persons speaking to them. Others 
afi'ect difiicult things : ii" they dwell on firm land, they will re- 
move to an island thence to land again, being no way con- 
stant to their desires. They commend courage and strength in 
wars, and let themselves be conquered by lust and avarice. 
They are, in brief, as disordered in their minds, as Thersitcs 

# 

■■ Anst. 1. 1. in Gen. .fumenti et sen'i tui ob.sec(niiini rigide posttilas ; et tii nullnni 
piajstas aliis, iicc ipsi Deo. sUxores clncnnt,iii()x foras ejiciunt. ' Piierosamunt, 
mox fastidiunt. "(^iiidlioc ab iiisania depst^ "^ Rcges eligmit, deponnrst. 

yContra parente.s, frativs, rives, perpedio rixaritiir, et ininiicitiasaonnf. * Cn-do 

rqnideni, \ivos diipeut do maiirtore vultus. ' Idoia iuanimata araant ; animalaodio 
haljt.nl ; .sio poiitificii. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THR READER. 35 

was in his body. And now me thinks, O most worthy Hip- 
pocrates ! you should not reprehend my laughini^, perceiving 
so many fooleries in men ; "" for no man will mock his own folly, 
but that which he seeth in a second ; and so they justly mock 
one another. The drunkard calls him a glutton, whom he 
knows to be sober. Many men love the sea, others husbandry: 
briefly, they cannot agree in their own trades and professions, 
much less in their lives and actions. 

When Hippocrates heard these words so readily uttered, 
w ithout premeditation, to declare the worlds vanity, full of 
ridiculous contrariety, he made answer, that necessity com- 
pelled men to many such actions, and divers wills ensuingfrom 
divine permission, that we might not be idle, seeing* nothing is 
so odious to them as sloth and negligence. Besides, men can- 
not forsee future events, in the uncertainty of humane affairs ; 
they would not so marry, if they could foretell the causes of 
their dislike and separation ; or parents, if they knew the hour 
of their chiidrens death so tenderly provide for them ; or an 
Inisbandman sow, if he thought there would be no increase ; 
or a merchant adventure to sea, if he foresaw shipwrack ; or 
be a magistrate, if presently to be deposed. Alas ! worthy 
Democritus, every man hopes the best; and to that end he 
doth it ; and therefore no such cause, or ridiculous occasion of 
laughter. 

Democritus, hearing this poor excuse, laughed again aloud, 
perceiving he wholly mistook him, and did not well understand 
what he had said concerning perturbations, and tranquillity of 
the mind — insomuch, that, if men Mould govern their actions 
by discretion and providence, they w ould not declare theih- 
selves fools as now they do ; and he should have no cause of 
-laughter: but (quoth he) they swell in this life, as if they were 
immortal, and demi-gods, for want of understanding. It were 
enough to make them wise, if they would but consider the 
mutability of this world, and how it wheels about, nothing- 
being firm and sure. He that is now above, to morrow is 
beneath ; he that sate on this side to day, to morrow is hurled 
on the other ; and, not considering these matters, they fall into 
many inconveniences and troubles,coveting things of no profit, 
and thirsting after them, tumbling headlong into many cala- 
mities — so that, if men would attempt no more than what they 
can bear, they should lead contented lives — and, learning to 
know themselves, would limit their ambition, ''they would 
perceive then that nature hath enough, without seeking such 

•»Snam stulfitiam perspicit nemo, sed alter al'erum deridet. bDenjque sit finis 

qua?rendi: cuinque habeas plus, Paiiprfiem metuas minus, et iinire laborem Incipias, 
parto, quod avebas ; uterc. Ilor. 



36 DEMOCRITUS TO THE UEADFR. 

sup(M-fl 11 ili('s,rin«lunprofi table tliinos,wbicli1)rit»onothiiig- with 
theiii but j^riefand molestation. As a fat body is more subject 
to diseases, so are rich men to absurdities and fooleries, to 
many casualties and cross inconveniencies. There are many 
that take no heed what happeneth to others by bad conversa- 
tion, and therefore overthrow themselves in the same manner 
throniih tiieir own fault, not foreseeino; danoers manifest. 
"^Fhese are tilings (O more than mad ! rpioth he) that give me 
matter of laughter, by suffering the pains of your impieties, 
as your avarice envy, malice, enormous villanies, mutinies, 
unsatiabh; desires, conspiracies, and other incurable vices— be- 
sides your'dissinndation and hypocrisie,bearing deadly hatred 
one to tiie other, and yet shadowing it with a good face— flying 
out into all lilthy lusts, and transgressions of all laws, both of 
nature and civility. Many things, which they have left off, 
after a while they fall to again — husbandry, navigation — and 
leave again, fickle and unconstant as they are. When they 
are young, they Mould l)e old, and old, young. "^Princes com- 
mend a private life ; private nien itch after honour: a maoi- 
stratecommendsaquietlife; a quietman would bein his office, 
and obeyed as he is : and what is the cause of all this, but that 
they know not themselves 1 Some delight to destroy, *^ one to 
build, another to spoil one countrey to enrich another and 
himself. 'In all these things they are like childran. in whom 
is no judgeaient or counsel, and resemble beasts, saving that 
beasts are better than they, as being contented with nature. 
sVVhen shall you see a lion hide gold in the ground, or a bull 
contend for a better pasture ? When a boar is thirsty, he driidvs 
what will serve him, and no more ; and, M'hen his belly is full, 
he ceaseth to oat ; but men are inunoderate in both, as in lust — 
they covet carnal copulation at set times ; men always, ruinat- 
itig tluneby the health of their bodies. And doth it not de- 
serve laughter, to see an amorous fool torment himself for a 
wench, weep, howl for a mis-shaj>en slut, a dowdy some- 
times, that might have his choice of the finest beauties? Is 
there any remedy for this inphysick? 'J doanatomize and cut 
u[) thes(; poor beasts, to see these distempers, vanities, and 
follies : yet such proof were better made on mans body, (if my 



•■ Astiitani vapido sprvat snli pectore vulpetn. — Et, cum, vulpp positiis, parifpr vnl- 
pinaripr. — Crf(inaii(luiii cum Crctp. ''Qui (it, Ma-cenas, ut npiuo, quam sibi sorfom 
Spu nifio (lederif, spu sdrs ol>jpcpiit, ilia Contpiilus vivat? 8.:o Hor. •' Dlruit, 

aMlillcat, iiuifat ((uadrafa loinndis — Trajaiius jmiitpni stiiixit super DMinibiitm, (|iiPin 
suicpssoi- ejus Adrianus statim demolitus. 'Qua quid iu re ab inl'antihus diflerunt. 
cpiibus mens et S(>nsus sine ratinue inest ? Quidqnid srse his oilert, volupp est. .- Idem 
Pint. I: Iftin.saniit" caussam <lis(|uiiam, bruta macto e^ soco, cum hop potius in ho- 
minii)ns invi .sti"andnm esset. 



DEMOCRITIJS TO Tllli; READER. 37 

kind nature would endure it) ' wlio, from the hour oC his 
birth, is most miserable, weak, and sickly : when he sucks, he 
is guided by others, when he is grown great, practiseth unhap- 
piness, '^ and is sturdy? and, when old, a child again, and 
repenteth him of his life |>ast. And here being interrupted by 
one that brought books, he fell th it again, that all were mad, 
careless, stupid. To prove my Ibrmer speeches, look into 
courts, or private houses. 'Judges give judgement according 
totheirown advantage,doingnianifestwrong to poor innocents 
to please others. Notaries alter sentences, and, for money, 
lose their deeds. Some make false moneys : others counterfeit 
false weights. Some abuse their parents, yea corrupt their 
own sisters ; others make long libels and pasquils, defaming 
men of good life, and extol such as are lewd and vicious. 
Some rob one, some another : '"magistrates make laws against 
thieves, and are the veriest thieves themselves. Some kill 
themselves, others despair, not obtaining. their desires. Some 
dance, sing, laugh, feast, and banquet, whilst others sigh, lan- 
guish, mourn, and lament, having- neither meat, drink, nor 
clothes. "Some prank np their bodies, and. jtave their minds 
full of execrable vices. Some trot about, "-to bear false witness, 
and say any thing for money: and tliough judges know of it,yet 
for a bribe they wink at it, and suffer false contracts to prevail 
ai^ainst equity. Women are tdi day a dressing, topleasure other 
men abroad, and go like sluts at home, not caring to please the r 
own husbands, whom (hey should. Seeing men are so fickle, 
so sottish, so intemperate, why should Jsot 1 laugh at those, 
to whom f folly seems wisdom, will not be cured, and per- 
ceive it not? 

Jt grew late : Hippocrates left him ; and no sooner was he 
come away, but all the citizens came about flocking-, to know 
how he liked him. He told them in brief, that, notwithstand- 
ing those small neglects of his attire, body, diet, i the world 
had not a wiser, a more learned, a more honest man ; and 
they were much deceived, to say that he was mad. 

Thus Democritus esteemed of the Morld in his time ; and 
this was the cause of his lauo-hter : and oood cause he had. 



'Totus a nativitate morbus est i^ In vigore fiiribiindus, quuni decrescit insana- 

bilis. 'Cyprian, ad Donatum. Qui sedet, crimina.judicaturus, &c. '" Tu 

pessimus omnium latro es, as a thief told Alexander in Ciirtius. — Dainnat foras 
judex, quod intus operatur. Cyprian. " Vultus magna cura ; magna auinii iucu- 

ria. Ani. Marcel. " Horrenda res est ' vix duo verba sine mendacio proferuntur : 
et, quamvis solenniter homines ad \eritatem dicendam invitentur, pejerare (amen 
non dubitant ; ut ex decern testibus vix unus verum dicat. Calv. in 8. Job. Serm. 
1. PSapientiam insaniam esse dicunt iSiquidem sapientia; sua; aduiiratione 

me complevit ; olfendi sapientissimnm virum, qui salvos potest omnes homines, 
reddere. 



38 DKMOCUITUS TO THE 'HEADER. 

■^Olim jure qiiidcm, nunc plus, Democrite, ride. 
Quin rides? vita hsec nunc mage ridicula est. 

Democritus did weil to laugh of old: 

Good cause lie had, but, now much more : 

This life of ours is niort^ridiculous 
Than that of his, or long l)eforc. 

Never so much cause of laugliter, as now ; never so uia'iy 
lools anil mad men. 'Tis not one ^ Democritus will serve turn 
to laugh in these days : we have now need of a Democritus 
to lauf/h at Democritus, one jester to flout at another, one fool 
to Hear at another — a great Stentorian Democritus, as big as 
that Rhodian Colossus; for now, as * Salisburiensis said in 
his time, totus mundus histriouem ayit — the whole world 
playes the fool : we have a new theatre, a new scene, a nevr 
comedy oferrours, a new company of personate actors: Volupicc 
sdcrce (as Calcagninus wittily feigns in his Apologues) are ce- 
lebrated all the world over, * where all the actors were mad 
men and fools, and every hour changetl habits or took that 
which came next. He that was a mariner to day, is an apo- 
thecary tomorrow, a smith one while, a philosopher another, 
in his Volupia; ludis—n king now with his crown, robes, 
scepter, attendants, by and by diove a loaded asse before him 
like a carter, &c. If Democritus were alive now, he should 
see strange ah erations, anew company of counterfeit vizards, 
whitlers, Cunsane asses, maskers, mummers, painted puppets, 
oufsides, phantastick shadows, guls, monsters, giddy-headsj 
butter-flies : au<) so many of them are indeed (" if all be true 
tliat I have read); for, when Jupiter and Junos wedding- was 
solemnized Oi old, the gods were all invited to the feast, and 
many noble men besides : amongst the rest came Chrysalus, a 
Persian prince, bravely attended, rich in golden attires, in gay 
robes, with a majestical presence, but otherwise an asse. The 
gods, seeing him come in such pomp and state, rose up to give 
him place, ex hahitu honiinem metientes ; "but Jupiter, per- 
ceiving what he was — alight, phantastick, idle felloAA- — turned 
him and his proud followers into butter-flies: and so they con- 
tinue still (for ought I know to the contrary), roving about in 



- ' E. Gra;c. cpip;. *Plures Democriti nunc non siilKciunt. Opus Democrito, 

qui Dcu'ooritinn rifleat. Eras. Moria. 'I'olycrat. lib. 3. cap. 8. e Petron. 

* Ubi unincs delirabant, omnes insani, &c. hodie nanta, eras philosophus ; hodie 
fabtr, eras i)liarinacopola ; hie modo regein fi^ebat multo satellitio, tiar.^, et sceptro 
ornaliis, nnnr, vili amictus centicnlo, asinnrn clitellarinm impellit. "Calcagni- 

iins, Apol. Chrysalus e ca'teris, auro dives, manicato peplo et tiara conspicuus, levis 
alioqiiin et iiiiliitis consilii, &c. Mai,'no iastii ingredienti assurgunt Dii, &c. " Sed 

hottiinis U'vitateni Jupiter perspicicns, at tir(inquit) eato bombilio, &c. prdtinusqfie 
v»-3tis ilia luanicula in alas versa eat; et inortales inde Chrysalides vocant hujusmodi 
homines. 



DEMOCRJTUS TO THE READER. 39 

pied-coats, and are called Chrysalides by the wiser sort of 
men— that is, golden outsides, drones, flies, and things of no 
worth. Multitudes of such, &c. 

-ubique invenies 



Stultos avaros, sycophantas prodigos. 

Many additions, much increase of madness, folly, vanity should 
Democritus observe, were he now to travel, or could get leave 
of Pluto to come to see fashions, (as Charon did in Lncian) to 
visit our cities of Moronia Pia, and Moronia Felix— sure 1 
think he would break the rim of his belly laughing-. 

* Si foret in terris, ridernt Democritus, seu, &c 

A satyrical Roman, in his time, thought all vice, folly, and 
madness, were all at full sea, 

'' Omne in prsecipiti vitium stetit. 

* Josephus the historian taxeth his countrymen Jews for 
bragging of their vices, publishing their follies, and that they 
did contend amongst theujselves, who should be most notorious 
in villanies : but we flow higher in madness, far beyond them^ 

c Mox daturi progeniem vitiosiorem ; 

and the latter end (you know, v/hose oracle it is) is like to be 
worst. 'Tis not to be denied ; the world aUers every day. 
Ruunt iirhes, rerpia trail sfernntur, ^'C vnrimttur hahitm, lorjes 
mnovantnr, as '-^ Petrarch observes— Ave change language, 
habits, laws customs, manners, but not vices, not diseases, 
not the symptoms of folly and madness ; they are stdl the 
same. And, as a river (we see) keeps the like name and place, 
but not water, and yet ever runs, 

(* Labitur et labetur in omne vulubilis eevum) 
our times and persons alter, vices are the same, and ever will 
be. Look how nightingals sang of old, cocks croAved, kme 
lowed, sheep bleated, sparrows chirped, dogs barked; so they 
do still : we keep our madness still, play the fools stdl, wee 
dumjimtus Orestes ; we are of the same humours and inclina- 
tions as our predecessors were ; you shall find us all alike, 
much at one, we and our sons, 

Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis ; 
and so shall our posterity continue to the last. But to speak 
of times present — 

«Juven. I'Juven. •De bello Jucl. 1. 8. c. 11. TniMuitates vestra> 

nminein latent ; inque dies siogulos certainen habetis, quis lujor sit ' Hor. 

■' Lib. 5. Epist. S. • Hor. 



40 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

If Democritus were alive now, and should but see the su- 
perstition of our age, our "^ religious madness, as^Meteriwi 
calls it, relifposam insaniam — so many professed Christians, 
yet so few imitators of Christ, so much talk of religion, so 
much science, so little conscience, so much knowledge, so 
many preachers, so little practice — such variety of sects, such 
have and hold of all sides, 

* obvia signis signa, &c. — 

such absurd and ridiculous traditions and ceremonies — if he 
should meet a^ Capouchin, a Franciscan, a pharisaical Jesuite, 
a man-serpent, a shave-crowned mcnk in his robes, a begging 
frier, or see their three-crowned soveraign lord the pope, poor 
Peter's snccessour, serviis servorum Dei, to depose kings with 
his foot, to tread on emperours necks, make them,bare-foot and 
bare-legg'd at his gates, hold his bridle and stirrup, &c. (O 
that Peter and Paul were alive to see this!) — if he should ob- 
serve a'' prince creep so devoutly to kiss his toe, and those red- 
cap cardinals, poor parish priests of old, now princes com- 
panions — what would he say ? Calum ipsumpeiitur stnltitici. 
Had he met some of our devout pilgrims going bare-foot to 
Jerusalem, our lady of Lauretto, Rome, St. lago, S. Thomas 
shrine, to creep to those counterfeit and maggot-eaten reliques 
— had he been present at a masse, and seen such kissing of 
paxes, crucifixes, cringes, duckings, their several attires and 
ceremonies, pictures of saints, ' indulgencies, pardons, vigils, 
fasting, feasts, crossing, knocking, kneeling at Ave Maries^ 
bells, with many such 

juctinda rudi spectacula plebi, 

praying in gibberish, and mumbling of beads — had he heard 
an old woman say her prayers in Latine, their sprinkling of 
holy water, and going a procession, 

( ■ * monachorum incedunt agmina mille ; 

Quid memorem vexilla, cruces, idolaque culta, &c. 

their breviaries, bulls, hallowed beads, exorcisms, pictures, 
curious crosses, fables, and babies — had he read the Golden 
Legend, the Turks Alcoran, or Jews Talmud, the Rabbins 

fSiiperstitio est in samis error. ' Lib. 8. hist. Belg. * Lncan. sFa- 

Uier Angelo, tlie Duke of Joyeuse, goin^r bare-foot over the Alps to Rome, &c. 
|| Si cui intueri Vcicet quie patiuntiir superstitiosi, invenies tarn indecora honestis, tam 
indigna liberis, tam dissimilia sanis. nt nemo fuerit dubitaturus fiirere eos, si cum 
paiicioribiis fnrerent. Senec. ' Quid dicam de eorura indulf;entiis, oblationibus, 

votis, solutionihu.'!, jejuiiiis, coenohiis, vigiliis, somniis, horis, org-anis, cantilenis, 
campanis, siriiulacris, missis, purgatoriis, mitris, breviariis, buUis, lustralibus aquis, 
rasuris, unctioiiibus, candelis, calicibus, crncibus, niappis, cereis, thriribulis, incanta- 
tioiiibus, exorcismis, sputis, legendis, &.c. Baleus, dc actis Rom. Pont * Th. 

Nauger. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. ^ 41 

Comments, what would he have thought ? How dost thou 
think he might have been affected ? Had lie more particularly 
examined a Jesuites life amongst the rest, he should have seen 
an hypocrite profess poverty, "^ aud yet possess more goods and 
lands than many princes, to have infinite treasures and reve- 
nues — teach others to fast, and play the gluttons themselves ; 
like watermen, that rowe one way and look another — ' vow 
virginity, talk of holiness, and yet indeed a notorious bawd, 
and famous fornicator, lascivvm pecns, a very goat — monks 
by profession*, such as give over the world, and the vanities 
of it, and yet a Machiavellian rout "^ interested in all matters 
of state — holy men, peace-makers, and yet composed of envy, 
lust, ambition, hatred and malice, fire-brands, adnlta jmtricc 
pestis, traitours, assassinates — hac itnr ad astra ; and this is 
to supererogate, and merit heaven for themselves and others ! 
Had he seen on the adverse side, some of our nice and cu- 
rious schismaticks in another extream, abhor all ceremonies, 
and rather lose their lives and livings, than do or admit any 
thing papists have formerly used, though in things indifferent 
(they alone are the true church, sal terrce, cum sint onininm 
insiflsissimi) — formalists, out of fear and base flattery, like so 
many weather-cocks, turn round — a rout of temporisers, ready 
to embrace and maintain all that is or shall be proposed, in 
hope of preferment — another Epicurean company, lying at 
lurch as so many vultures, watching for a prey of church 
goods, and ready to rise by the down- fall of any — as " Liician 
said in like case, what dost thou think Domocritus would have 
done, had he been spectatour of these things; or, had he but 
observed the common people follow like so many sheep one 
of their fellows drawn by the horns over a gap, some for zeal, 
some for fear, quo se cumqne rapit tempestas, to credit all, 
examine nothing, and yet ready to dye before they will abjure 
any of those ceremonies, to which they have been accustomed 
— others out of hypocrisie frequent sermons, knock their 
breasts, turn up their eyes, pretend zeal, desire reformation, 
and yet professed usurers, gripers, monsters of men, harpies, 
devils, in their lives, to express nothing less ? ' 

What would he have said, to see, hear, and read so many 
bloody battels, so many thousands slain at once, such streams 
of blood able to turn mills, unins oh noxam Juriasque, or to 



k Dutn simulant spernere, acquisivernnt sibi 30 annorum spatin bis centena miliia 
librarum annua. Arnold. ' Et quiiin interdiu de virtiite loqnuti sunt, sero 

in latibulis clunes agitant labore nocturno. Agrippa. * 2 Tim. 3. 13. — But they 

shall prevail no longer: their madness shall be evident to all men. "'Benigni- 

tatis sinus solebat esse, nunc Jitium otVicina, ruria Ilomana. Biidaius. » Quid 

tibi videtur facturus Democritus, si horum spectator conti^isset? 



42 DEMOCRITUS TO TirE READER. 

make sport lor ])rinces, v/ithoiit any just cause, * for vain 
titles (saitli Austin) precedency , some ivench, or snch like toy^ 
or o?(t oj' desire oj' domineering^ vain-rflory, malice^ revenge^ 
Jolly ^ madness^ (g-oodly causes all, oh qiias universus orbis 
bellis et ccedibns misceatur) vrhilest statesmen themselves in 
tbe mean time are secure at home, pampered with all delights 
and pleasures, take their ease, and foHov,- their lust, not con- 
sidering* Avhat intolerable misery poor souidiers endure, their 
often wounds, hunger, thirst, &c. ? The lamentable cares, 
torments, calamities and oppressions, that accompany such 
proceedings, they feel not, take no notice of it. So wars are 
begun, by the persicasion of debauched, hair-brained, poor, 
dissolute, hungry captains, parasitical fawners, unquiet hot- 
spurs, restless innovators, green heads, to satisjie one mans 
private spleen, lust, ambition,, arxirice, Sj-c. tales repiunt 
scelerata in proelia caussaj. Flos hominum, proper men, w ell 
proportioned, carefully brought up, able both in body and 
mind, sound, led like so many ° beasts to the slaughter in the 
llower of their years, pride, and full strength, without all re- 
morse and pitty, sacrificed to Pluto, killed up as so many 
sheep, for devils food, 40000 at once. At once, said I ? — 
that were tolerable : but these wars last alwayes ; and for 
many ages, nothing so familiar as this hacking and hewing, 
massacres, murders, desolations — 

( ignoto coelum clangore remugit) 

they care not what mischief they procure, so that they may en- 
rich themselves for tire present : they will so long blow the coals 
of contention, till all the world be consumed with fire The 
I'seigeof Troy lasted ten years,eightmonths : there died 870000 
Grecians, 670000 Trojans : at the taking of the city, and after, 
wereslain276000 men,women,and children, of all sorts. Csesar 
killed a million, Mahomet the "i Second Turk SOOOO persons ; 
Sicinius Dentats fought in an hundred battels ; eight times in 
single combat he overcame, had forty wounds before, was 
rewarded with 140 crowns, triumphed nine times for his good 
service. M. Sergius had 32 wounds; Scseva the centurion, I 
know not how many ; every nation hath their Hectors, Scipios, 
Caesars, and Alexanders. Our "^ Edward the Fourth was in 26 
battels afoot : and, as they do all, he glories in it ; 'tis related 
to his honour. At the siege of Hierusalem» 1 100000 died with 
sword and fanline. At the battel of Cannas, 70000 men were 



* Ob inanes ditionam titulos, ob praereptum locum, ob interceptam muliercu- 
lam, vel quod e stultitia natum, vel e malitia, quod cupido dominandi libido 
nocendi, &.c. oBelluni rem plane belluiuau vocat Morus, Utop. lib. 2. 

p Munster. Cosmog. 1, 5. c. 3. E Diet. Cretens. ; 'i Jovius, vit. ejus. 

"• Comineus. 



DRMOCRITUS TO THE UEADKR. 43 

slain, *iis Polybius rocon!s,an<l as ninny at Battle Ahhye \\\\h 
us ; and 'tis no news to fight from sun to sun, as they did, as 
Constantine and Licinius, &c. At the siege of'Ostend, (the 
devils aeadeniy) a poor town in respect, a small tort, but a 
great grave, It^'OOOO men lost their lives, besides whole towns, 
dorpes, and hospitals, fidl of maimed souldiers. There were 
engines, fire-works, and whatsoever the devil could invent to 
domischief,with 2500000iroJi bulletsshot of 40 pounds weight, 
three or four millions of gold consumed. ^Who (sailh mine 
author) ca« be siijfficienthf amazed at their Ji'mty hearts^ ohsti- 
vaci/, J^iry, blindness^ who, rcithovt any likelyhood oj' yood 
snccesH, hazard poor sovkUers, and lead them without pitty to 
the slauyhter^ which muiy justly be called the rage oj'jurious 
beasts, that run icithont reason vpon their oivn deaths ? * quis 
mains yenius, (piw JFitria, quae pesfis, ^-c. what plague, what 
Fury, brought so devillish, so bruitisli a thing as war first into 
mens minds ? Who had so soft and peaceable a creature, 
born to love, mercy, meekness, so to rave, rage like beasts, and 
run on to their own destruction ? how may Nature expostulate 
with mankind, Eyo te divinvm animal finxi, S^c. I made 
thee an harmless, quiet, a divine creature ! how may God ex- 
postulate, and all good men ! yet, horumj'ucta (as * one con- 
tloles [tantum admirantnr, et heroutu nnmero habent : these 
are the brave spirits, the gallants of the world, these admired 
alone triumph alone, have stf;tues, crowns, pyramids, obelisks 
to their eternal fame, that immortal genius attends on them : 
hac itnr ad astra. When Rhodes was besieged, *^Josse iirbis 
cadaveribns repletw sunt, the ditches were full of dead car- 
cases ; and (as when the said Solyiaan great Turk beleagred 
Vienna) they lay level with the top of the walls. This they 
make a sport of, and will do it to their friends and confederates, 
against oathes, vows, promises, by treachery or otherwise—' 
" dolus an virtus, quis in hosts requirat? 

leagues and laws of arms (" silent leyes inter arma : for their 
advantage, omnia jura, divina, humana, proculcata plernm- 
que sunt) Gods and mens laws, are trampled under foot ; 
the sword alone determines all ; to satisfie their lust and 
spleen, they care not what they attempt, say or do : 

y Rara fides, probitasque, viris qui castra sequuntur. 



*Lib.3. •'Hist, of the Siege of Ostend, fol. 23. •Erasmus 

de belle. Ut placiduui ill«d animal benevolentia; natum tam ferina vecordia in 
mirtuam rueret perniciem. * Rich. Dinoth, praefat. Belli civilis Gal. i Jo- 

viiw. " Dolus, aeperitas, iiijustitia, propria bellorum netjotia. Terlul. 

•''Tully. y Liicau. 



44 DKMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

Nothing* so coininoii as to have ^father Jifjlit against the son, 
brother atjauist brother, kinsman against kinsman, kingdom 
aqninst kingdom, province against province, Christians against 
Christians, a quibus nee unquani cogitatione fuerunt lasi, of 
whom they never had offence in thought, word, or deed. 
Infhiite treasures consumed, towns burned, flourishing cities 
sacked and ruinated — quodqne animus memhiisse horret, goodly 
countries depopulated and left desolate, old inhabitants ex- 
pelled, trade and traffick decayed, maids deflowered, 

Virgines nondum thalamis jugatae, 
Et comis nondum positis ephebi; • 

chaste matrons cry out with Andromache, * Concubitum mox 
cogar pati ejus, qui interemit Hectorem, they shall be com- 
pelled peradventure to lye with them that erst killed their 
husbands — to see rich, poor, sick, sound, lords, servants, 
eodem omnes incommodo mactati, consumed all or maimed, &c. 
et quidquid gandens scelere animus audet, et perversa mens, 
saith Cyprian, and whatsoever torment, misery, mischief, hell 
it self, the devil, ^fury and rage can invent to their own 
ruine and destruction : so abominable a thing ^ is war, as 
Gerbelius concludes — adeoj'oeda et abominanda res est beltum, 
ex quo hominum ccedes, vastationes, ^-c. — the scourge of Gorl, 
cause, effect, fruit and punishment of sin, and not tonsura 
humani generis, as Tertullian calls it, but ruina. Had Demo- 
critus been present at the late civil wars in France, those 
abominable wars, 

(- bellaque matribus detestata) 

' where in less than ten years, ten hundred thousand men icere 
consumed, saith Collignius,^0 thousand churches overthrown, 
nay the whole kingdom subverted, (as ''Richard Dinoth adds) 
so many myriads of the commons were butchered up, with 
sword, famine, war, tanto odio utrinque, ut barbari ad ab- 
horrendam lanienam ohstupescerent, with such feral hatred, 
the world was amazed at it — or at our late Pharsalian fields in 
the time of Henry the Sixth, betwixt the houses of Lancaster 
and York, an hundred thousand men slain, * one writes, *= an- 
other, ten thousand families were rooted out, that no man can 
but marvel, \^saith Comineus,) at that barbarous immanity, 

' Pater in filium, affinis in affinem^ amicus in amicutn, &c. Regio cum 
regione, regnum regno colliditnr, populus populo, in miituam perniciem, bel- 
luariim instar sanguinolente ruentium. * Labanii tleclam. '^ Ira enim et 

furor Bellonse consultores, &c. dementes sacerdotes sunt. b Bellum quasi 

bellua, et ad omnia scelera furor immissus. c Gallorura decies centum millia 

ceciderunt, eccleaiarum 20 millia fundamentis excisa. <i Belli civilis Gal. 1. 1. 

hoc ferali bello et casdibus omnia replcverunt, et regnum amplissimum a fundamen- 
tis pene everterunt ; plebis tot myriades gladio, bello, fame miserabiliter perierunt. 
* Pont. Huterus. «■ Comineus. Ut nullus non execretur et adrairetur crudeli- 

tatem, et barbaram, insanium, quaj inter homines eodem sub coelo nates, ejusdem 
linguae^ sanguinis, religionis, exercebatur. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 45 

frral madupsa, committed heticpon men of' the same nation, 
Idminarfp, and rflif/ion. ""Qnhfvror, O cAves? Why do the 
f/p/itiles soj'nrioiish/ rune ? saitb the prophet David, Psal. 2. 1. 
But we may ask, why do the Christians so furiously rage ? 

• Arma volunt, quare, poscunt, rap'mntque juvenlus? 

Unfit for o-entiles, much less for us, so to tyrannize, as the 
Spaniards in the West Indies, that killed up in 42 years (if we 
may believe '^Bartholomisus a Casa their own bishop.) 12 
millions of men, with stupend and exquisite torments ; neither 
should I lye, (said he) if I said 50 millions. I omit those 
French massacres, Sicilian evensoncrs, =the duke of Alva's 
tyrannies, our g;ir.i-powder machinations, and that fourth Fury 
(as •> one calls it), the Spanish inquisition, which quite ob- 
scures those ten persecutions — 

'sajvit coto Mars impius orbe. 

Is not this ^ minidiiftjv.riosus, a mad world, as he terms it, insa- 
mim helhim ? are not these mad men, as *Scaliger concludes, 
(jin hi prcel'ia, acerbd morie, insanice sine memoriam pro per- 
petuo teste relhiqinnii posterifati — which leave so frequent 
batteh-, as perpetual memorials of their madness to all succeed- 
ino-aoes? Would this,think you,have enforced ourDemocritus 
to laughter, or rather made him turn his tune, alter his tone, 
and weep Avith ' Heraclitus, or rather howl, ™ roar, and tear his 
hair, in commiseration — stand amazed; or as the poets faign, 
that Niohe was for orief quite stupified.and turned to a stone? 
1 have not yet said the worst. That which is more absurdimd 
" mad — in their tumults, seditions, civil and unjust wars, "quod 
stulte snscipitnr. hnpie f/erifnr, misere Jinkiir — such wars, I 
mean ; for all are not to l3e condemned, as those phantastical 
Anabaptists vainly conceive. Our Christian tacticks are, all 
out, as necessary as the Roman acies, or Grecian phalanx. 
To be a souldier is a most noble and honourable profession, (as 
the world is) not to be spared. They are our best walls and bul- 
warks ; and I <lo therefore acknowledge that of * TuUy to be 
most true, .^III onr civil affairs, all onr studies, all our plead- 
iug, industry, and commendation, lies under the protection etf 
warlike veriues; and, tchensoever there is any suspicion of tu- 



i' e Lncan. *Virs. f Bishop of Cusco, an eye witness. ?ReadMete- 

'ran, of his .stiipcnd cruelties. 1' Heinsins, Austriac. ' Virgr- Georg. 

k Jansenius Gallohelaricus, 1596 Mnndus furiosns, inscriptio libri. * Exercitat. 

250 .serm. 4 i Fleat Heraclitus, an radieat Deinocritus ? m Curn- leves lo- 

qiinntur, ingentes stnpent. "Arma ameni capio, nee sat rationis in arinis. 

" Erasmns. * Pro >Iura;na. Omnes urhanae res, omnia stiidia, omnis foreusis 

laiis et iudustria latet in tutela et prajsido bellica- \-irtutis; et, aiiuul atqae increpuit 
suspicio tuniultiis, artes illico nostra; conticescunt. 



46 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

viult, all our arts cease : wars are most behoveful ; et hella- 
tores aqricoUs civltati sunt vJ'diores^ as * Tyrius defends : and 
valour is much to be commended in a wise man ; but they mis- 
take most part : anjerre, trucidare, rapere falsis nomimbus 
virtntem vacant, Src. ('Twas Galgacus observation in Tacitus) 
tliey term theft, murder, and rapine, vertue, by a wrong- name: 
rapes, slaughters, massacres, &c. jocvs et ludus, are pretty 
pastimes, as Ludovicus Vives notes. ^They commonly call the 
m*>st hair-brain blood-suckers, strovyest thieves, the most des- 
perate villains, trecherous rogues, inhumane murderers, rash, 
cruel and dissolute caitiffs, courageous and generous spirits, 
heroical and worthy captains, '^bra,ve men at arms, valiant and 
reiioirned souldiers, possessed with a brute perswasion oj" false 
honour, asPontus Hater in his Burgundian history complains : 
by means of wliich, it comes to pass that daily so many vo- 
luntaries offer themselves, leaving their sweet wives, children, 
friends, — for sixpence (if they can get it) a day, prostitute their 
lives and limbs, desire to enter upon breaches, lye sentinel, 
perdue, give the first onset, stand in the fore-front of thebattel, 
marching bravely on, with a cheerful noise of drums and 
trumpets, such vigour and alacrity, so many banners streaming- 
in the ayr, glittering armours, motions of plumes, woods 
of pikes, and swords, variety of colours, cost and magnifi- 
cence, as if they went in triumph, now victors, to the Capitol, 
and with such pomp, as v»'hen Darius army marched to meet 
Alexander at Issus, Void of all fear, they run into eminent 
danger,s, canons mouth, he. ut vnlneribus suis Jerrum hos- 
tiuni hebetent, saith "^ Barletius, to get a name of valour, 
honour and applause, which lasts not neither; for it is but a 
mere flash, this fame, and, like a rose, intra diem iinum extin- 
guiliir, 'tis gone in an instant,. Of 15000 proletaries slain in 
a battel, scarce fifteen are recorded in history, or one alone, 
the general perhaps ; and after a while, his and their names 
are likewise blotted out ; the Avhole battel it self is forgotten. 
Those Grecian orators, summd vi ingeuii et eloquentice, set 
out the renowned overthrows at Thermopylae, Salamine, 
Marathon, Mycale, Maniinea, Chceronea, Platea : the 
Romans record their battel at Cannas, and Pharsalinn fields; 
but they do but record ; and we scarce hear of them. And yet 
this supposed honour, j)0[iular applause, desire of immortality 
by this means, pride and vain-glory, spurs them on many times 

* Ser. 13. P CnirleHssimos saivissimosque latrones, fortissiinns 

propng^natovps, fidelissinios duces, liabent, brufa persiiasione donati. '! Eo- 

baniis Ht'ssns. Quibus omnis in annis Vita placet, non uUa juvat, nisi morte ; 
nee ullaui E.s.se putant vitam, quaj nou assueverit arniis. r Lib. 10. vit. Scan- 

derbeg. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 47 

rashly and unadvisedly to make away themselves and mul- 
titudes of others. Alexander was sorry, because there were 
no more worlds for him to conquer : he is admired by some for 
it : animosa voxvidetur,et regin : 'twas spoken like a prince : 
but (as wise ^Seneca censures him) 'twas ro.T inup^sainia et 
stultissivia : 'twas spoken like a bedlam fool ; and that sen- 
tence which the same ' Seneca appropriates to his fatherPhilip 
and him, I apply to them all — Non inhwres J'nere pesfps 
mortalium quam innndatio, qnam cnujffar/ratio^ cjuibis, 4*c. 
they did as much mischief to mortal men, as fire and water, 
those merciless elements when they rage. " Which is yet 
more to be lamented, they perswade them this liellish course 
of life is holy : they promise heaven to such as venture their 
lives be/lo sacra, and that, by these bloody wars, (as Persians, 
Creeks, and Romans of old, as modern Turks do now their 
commons, to encourage them to fight, lit cadaut irrf'eliciter,) 
if they die in the Jield, therj f/o directhf to heaven^ and shall 
he canonizedj'or saints, (O diabolical invention I) put in the 
clironicles, in perpetuam rei memoriam, to their eternal 
meujory; when as in truth, as ''some hold it, it were much 
better (since wars are the scourge of God for sin, by which he 
punisheth mortal mens pievishness and folly) sr.ch brutish 
stories were suppressed, because admornm institniionem nihil 
hahent, they conduce not at all to manners, or good life. But 
they will have it thus nevertheless; and so they put a note 
o{ y dirinitif upon the most cruel and pernicious plafjue oj' hu- 
mane kind, adorn such men -with grand titles, degrees, statues, 
images — "= honour, applaud and highly reward them for their 
good service — no greater glory than to dye in the field ! So 
Africanus is extolled by Ennius : and :Viars,and ""ilerculesjand 
I know not how many besides, of old v. ere deified, went this 
w^ay to heaven, that were indeed bloody butchers, wicked 
destroyers, and troublers of the world, prodigious uionsters, 
hell-hounds,feral plagues, devourers, conunoJi executioners of 
humane kind, (as Lactantius truly proves, and Cyprian to 
Donat) such as were desperate in wars, and precipitately made 



"Null; heatiores hahiti, quam qui in proeliis cecidissent. Brisoniiis, rie rep. 
Persariiin. 1. 3. fol. 3. 44. Idem Lactandiis df Romanis et Gra^cis. Idt-m Ammi- 
anus, III), 'i;?. de Parthis. J'ldicatur is solus Ijeatus apiid eos, qui in pra^lio fnde- 
rit aiiiiiiaui. De Benef. lib. 2. c. 1. 'Nat. qiutist. lib. 3. " Buttrus Asnphitri- 

4non. Biisbequiiis, Turc. hist. 'Per cwdes et sangainem patere hominibus ascensuin 
in coelnm putaiit. Lactiint. de fal.sa reiig. 1. 1. cap. S. 'f Quoniani belia acer- 

!>issinia Dei ilagella sunt, (piibas hoiuiimm j)ertinaciain piinit. ta perpetiiA. 
oblivione sepelieiida potios qiiaui memoria; mandanda plerique indicant. Kicli. 
Dinoth. pra;}'. hist. Gall. i Cruentam humani generis pe.stein et pemiciem 

divinitatis nota insigniuuL ^Et (quod dolenduui) applaiisum hubent et occur- 

sum viri tales. a Herculi eadem porta ad coeluoi patuit, qui magnam geueris 

humani partem perdidit. 



48 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

aAvay themselves, like those Celtes in Damascen, with ridicu- 
lous valour, ut dedecorosum putarent muro ruenti se siibdu- 
cere, a disgrace to run away from a rotten wall, now ready to 
fall on their heads. Such as will not rush on a swords point, 
or seek to shun a canons shot, are base cowards, and no 
valient men. By wiiicli means, Madet orbis mutuo sanguine^ 
the earth wallows in her own blood : "ScevU amor Jerri et 
scelerata insania belli ; and for that, which if it be done in 
})rivate, a man shall be rigorously executed, ^and tvliich is 
no less than murder it self] if' the same fact be done inpublick 
in wars, it is called manhood, and the party is honoured for it, 

"^ prosperum etfelix scelus virtus vocalur We measure 

all, as Turks do, by the event; and, most part, as Cyprian 
notes, in all ages, countreys, places, soivitice matjnitudo im- 
punitatem sceleris acquirit — the foulness of the fact vindi- 
cates the oft'euder. ^ One is crowned for that which another 
is tormented, 

(Ille crucem sceleris pretium tulit, hie diadema) 

made a knight, a lord, an earl, a great duke, (as ^ Agrippa 
notes) for which another should have hung in gibbets, as a 
terror to the rest — 



-fet tamen alter, 



Si fecisset idem, caderet subjudice morum. 

A poor sheep-stealer is hanged for stealing of victuals, com- 
pelled peradventure by necessity of that intolerable cold, 
hunger, and thirst, to save himself from starving : but a ^^ great 
man in officemay securely rob v/hole provinces,undo thousands, 
pill and pole, oppress ad libitum, fley, grind, tyrannize, enrich 
himself by spoils of the commons, be uncontrollable in his 
actions, and, after all, be recompensed v.ith turgent titles, 
honoured for his good service ; and no man dare find fault, 
or ^ mutter at it. 

HoAv would our Democritus have been affected, to see a 
wicked caitiff, or J'ool, a very ideot, a funye, a golden 
ass, a monster of man, to have many good men, tvise men. 



!> Virg. JEneid. 7. 'iHomicidium qnum committunt singuli, crimen ^si^^ 

quum publice geritiir, virtus vocatiir. Cyprianus. •= Seneca. 'i Jnvcn. '^ De'*' 

vanit. scient. de princip. nobilitatis, 'Juven. Sat 4. Pansa rapit, quod Natta 

reliquit. — Tu pessiinus omuiiim latio es, as Deojetrius the pyrat told Alexander, 
in Curtius. ''Non ausi mutire, &c. iEsop. ' linprobuin et stultniii. 

si diviteni, uiiiltos bonos ^ iros'in servitute habentem, (ob id duntaxat quod ei contingat 
aureorum nuiuisiniitum cumulus) ut appendices et additamenta numisuiatuni. Morus, 
Utopia. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 49 

learned men to attend upon him with all sulmission, as an 
appendix to his riches, for that respect alone, because he hath 
more wealth and money, '-" and to honour him with divine titles, 
and bumhast epithets, to smother him >vith fumes and eulo- 
gies, Mhom they knew to be a dizard, a fool, a covetous 
wretch, a beast, &c. bpcanse he is rich ! — to see sub exnviis 
leonis onaqrum, a filthy loathsome carkass, a Gorg-ons head 
pufted up by parasites, assume thus unto himself glorious titles, 
in Avorth an infant, a Cuman ass, a painted sepidchre, an 
Egyptian temple ! — to see a withered face, a diseased, de- 
formed, cankered complexion, a rotten carkass, a viperous 
mind, and Epicurean soul, set out with orient pearls, jewels, 
diadems, perfumes, curious, elaborate works, as proud of his 
clothes as a child of his new coats — and a goodly person, of 
an angeiick divine countenance, a saint, an humble mind, a 
meek spirit clothed in rags, beg% and noM" ready to be starved ! 
— to see a silly contemptible sloven in apparel, ragged in his 
coat, polite in speech, of a divine spirit, wise ! another neat 
in clothes, spruce, full of courtesie, empty of grace, wit, talk 
non-sense ! 

To see so many lawyers, advocates, so many tribunals, so 
little justice : so many magistrates, so little care of common 
good ; so many laws, yet never more disorders — tribunal 
litium ser/etem, the tribunal a labyrinth — so many thousand 
suits in one court sometimes, so violently followed ! — to see 
i.'ijustissinmm sape juri prwsidentum, impium relifjioni, im- 
peritissi niutn eruditioni, otiosissimum labori, monstrosum hu- 
manitati ! To see a lamb '' executed, a woolf pronounce sen- 
tence, Latro arraigned, and Fur sit on the bench, the judg-e 
severely punish others, and do worse himself, '^ eundem fur- 
tum facere et punire, ^ rapinam plectere, qnum sit ipse 
raptor ! — Laws altered, misconstrued, interpreted /?ro and cow, 
as the "judge is made by friends, bribed, or otherwise affected 
as a nose of wax, good to-day, none to-morrow ; or firm in his 
opinion, cast in his ! Sentence prolonged, changed, ad ar~^ 
hitriumjudicis ; still the same case, ^ one thrust out oj" his in- 
heritance, another J'alsbf put in by favour, false forged deeds 
or wills, Inciscc leges negliguntur, laws are made and not 
kept ; or, if put in execution, § they be some silly ones that are 



» Eorumque detestantur Utiopienses iDsaniam, qui divinos honores iis impendunt, 
(Juos sordidos et avaros agnoscunt ; non alio respecta honorantes, quani quod dites 
sint Idem. lib. 2. ''Cyp. 2. ad Douat I'p iit reus innocens pereat, tit nocens. 

Judex damnat foris, quod intu.s operalnr. i' Sidonius Apo. ^ Salvianus, I. 3. 

de provid. '' Ergo judicium nihil est nisi publica merces. Petronius. Quid 

faciant leges, ubi sola pecuuia regnat ? Idem. 'Hie arcentur haeredita- 

tibiis liberi ; hie donntnr bonis alienis ; falsum coasulit ; alter testameutum cornirapit, 
&c. Idem. ? Vexat ceusura columbas. 

VOL. I. B 



50 DEMOCRITUS TO THP: READER. 

piiiiislied. As, put case it to be fornication, the father will dis- 
inherit or abdicate his child, quite casheer him (out villain ! be 
gone ! come no more in my sight) : a poor man is miserably 
tormented with loss of his estate perhaps, goods, fortunes, 
oood name, for ever disgraced, forsaken, and must do penance 
to the utmost : — a mortal sin ! and yet, make the worst of it, 
niimquid almdj'ecit, saith Tranio in the ^ poet, nisi quodfaci- 
unt summis nnti f/eneribus ; he hath done no more than what 
gentlemen usually do — 

C'Neque novum, neque mirum, neque "secus quam alii sclent) 

for, in a great person, right worshipful sir, aright honourable 
grandee, 'tis not a venial sin, no not a peccadillo : 'tis no of- 
fence at all, a common and ordinary thing : no man takes 
notice of it; he justifies it in puMick, and peradventure brags 
of it; 

^ Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio, Seioque, decebat 
Crispinum 

"^ many poor men, younger brothers, &c, by reason of bad 
policy, and idle education (for they are, likely, brought up in 
no calling), are compelled to beg or steal, and then hanged for 
theft ; than which, what can be more ignominious ? non minus 
enim turpe principi midta supplicia, quam medico multa 
fvnera : 'tis the governours fault. Libentius verberant quam 
doccnty as school-masters do rather correct their pupils, than 
teach them when they do amiss. "" They had more need 
provide there should be no more thieves and beggars, as they 
ought icith good policy, and take away the occasions, than 
Ift them run on, as they do, to their oum destruction — root out 
likewise thosecauses of w rangling,a multitude of lawyers, and 
compose controversies, lites histrales et secnlares, by some 
more compendious means ; whereas now, for every toy and 
tritle, they go to law, Q 3Iugit litibus insanum fornm, et scevit 
invicem discordaniium rabies) they are ready to pull out 
one anothers throats; and, for commodity ^ to squeeze blood 
(saith Hieorum) out r^' their brothers hearts, defame, lye, dis- 
grace, backbite, rail, bear Mse witness, swear, forswear, fight 
and wrangle, spend their goods, lives, fortunes, friends, undo 
one another, to enrich an harpy advocate, that preys upon 
them both, and cryes, eia^ Socrates! eia, Xanthippe! or some 



" Plniit, Mostel. I'ldem. f Juven. Sat. 4. <l Quod tot sint fiires 

et niendici, inagistratii'im culpa fit, qui malos iinitantiir praeceptoies, qui discipulos 
lihentins verberant quam docent. Morus, Utop. lib. 1. <" Decenumter furi 

gnivia et horrenda supplicia, quuiii potius prnvidendum niulto foret tie fares 
sint, TIP cuiqiiam tarn dira furaiidi aut pereundi sit necessitas. Idem. 'Bo- 

terus, de augnien. urb. lib. 3. cap. 3. sE fraterno corde snngiiinem eli- 

ciiint. 



DEMOCRITCS TO THE READER. 51 

rornipt judge, that like the « kite in ^Esop, while the mouse 
and frog fought, carryed both away. Generally they prey one 
upon another, as so many ravenous birds, brute beasts, devour- 
iiig fishes : no mediuvi ; omnes ^ Mc aut captantur ant captant; 
ant cadavera qu(S lacerantur, aut corvi qui lacer ant —either 
deceive or be deceived — tear others, or be torn in pieces them- 
selves; like so many buckets in a well, as one riseth, another 
falleth ; one's empty,another's full ; his mine is a ladder to the 
third; such are our ordinary proceedings. VVhat's the market? 
a place (according to *= Anacharsis) vvherein they cozen one 
another, a trap ; nay, what's the world it self? ^ a vast chaos, a 
confusion of manners, as fickle as the air, d&micilium hisano- 
rum, a turbulent troop full of impurities, a mart of walkino- 
spirits, gobJins, the theatre of hypocrisie, a shop of knavery, 
flattery, a nursery of villany, the scene of babling, the school 
of giddmess, the academy of vice ; a warfare ubi (veils, noils J 
purpiandum ; ant vincas aut succumbas ; in which kill or be 
killed; M'herein every man is for himself, his private ends, and 
stands upon his own guard. No charity, Move, friendship, 
fear of God, alliance, affinity, consanguinity, Christianity, 
can contain them ; but if they be any wayes offended, or that 
strmg of commodity be touched, they fail foul. Old friends 
become bitter enemies on a suddain, for toyes and small of- 
fences ; and they that erst were willing to do all mutual offices 
of love and kindness, now revile, and persecute one another 
to death, with more than Vatinian hatred, and will not be 
reconcded. So long as they are behoveful, they love, or may 
bestead each other; but, when there is no more good to be 
expected, as they do by an old doo-, hang him up or casheer 
him ; which ' Cato counts a great indecorum, to use men like 
old shoos or broken glasses, which are flung to thedunghil : 
he could not find in his heart to sell an ox, much less, to 
turn aM'ay an old servant : but they in stead of recompence, 
revile him ; and when they have made him an instrument of 
their villany, (as sBajazet the second,emperorof theTurks,did 
by Acomethes Bassa) make him away, or, in stead of' reward, 
hate him to death, as Silius was served by Tiberius. In a 
word, every man for his own ends. Our summum bonum is 

3 Milvus rapit ac deglubit. b Petronius, de Crotone civit. c Quid forum ? 

ecus quo ahus ahum circumven.t. d Vastum chaos, larvarum emporium, thea'- 

f" ■ '»> 1^°'="«"'«. ^c- ^. \^^J^o coelum, uemo jusjurandum, nemo Jovem, pluris 
lacit , sed omnes aperhs oculis bona sua computant. Petron. fPlutarch vit 

ejus. Indecorum animatis i.t calceis uti aut vitris, qua>, ubi fracta, abjicimns ; nam' 
nt de miepso d.cam, nee boyem seneni vendiderim, nedum horainem natu ffrandem' 
laboris socium. .'Jovius. Cummnumera illii.sbeneficia rependere non possit aliter' 
merhcijussit. " Beneficia eousque lata sunt, dum videutur solvi posse ; ubi 

multum anterenere, pro gratia odium redditur. Tac. 

E 2 



52 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

commodity ; and the goddess we adore, Dea monetay queen 
money, to whom we daily offer sacrifice ; which steers our 
hearts, hands, ^ affections all — that most powerful goddess, 
by whom we are reared, depressed,elevated,''esteemed the sole 
commandress of our actions — for which we pray, run, ride, 
go, con.e, labour, and contend as fishes do for a crum that 
falleth into the water. If s not worth, vertue, (that's honum the- 
atrale) wisdom, valour, learning, honesty, religion, or any 
sufficiency, for which we are respected, but '^money, greatness, 
office, honour, authority. Honesty is accounted folly; knavery, 
policy ; '^ men admired out of opinion, not as they are, but as 
they seem to be : such shifting, lying, cogging, plotting coun- 
terplotting, temporizing-, flattering', cozening', dissembling, 
'^that of necessity one must highly offend God, if' he be con- 
Jormable to the icorld., (Crstizare cum Crete) or else live in 
contempt, disgrace, and misery. One takes upon him tem- 
perance, holiness ; another, austerity; a third, an affected kind 
of simplicity ; when as indeed he, and he, and he, and the rest, 
are ^hypocrites, ambodexters, out-sides, so many turning pic- 
tures, a e lion on the one side, a lamb on the other. How 
would Democritus have been affected to see these things ? 

To see a man turn himself into all shapes like a camelion,or, 
as Proteus, omnia transj'ormans sese in miracula rerum, to 
act twenty parts and persons at once, for his advantage — to 
temporize and vary like Mercury the planet, good with good, 
bad with bad; having a several face, garb, and character for 
every onehe meets — of all religions, humours, inclinations — to 
fawn like a spaniel, mentitis et mimicis obsequiis, rage like 
a lion, bark like a cur, fight like a dragon, sting like a ser- 
pent, as meek as a lamb, and yet again grin like a tygre, 
weep like a crocodile, insult over some, and yet others domi- 
neer over him, here command, there crouch ; tyrannize in one 
place, be bafiled in another ; a wise man at home, a fool abroad 
to make others merry. 

To see so much difference betwixt words and deeds, so 
many parasanges betwixt tongue and heart — men, like stage- 
players, act variety of parts, '' give good precepts to others to 
soar aloft, whitest they themselves grovel on the ground. 



» Paucis carior est fidas quam pecunia. Sallust. •> Prima fere vota et 

cnnctis, &c. t' Et genus et formam regina pecunia donat. Quantum quisque 

sua nnininorum sennt in area, Tantum habet et fidei. ^'Non a peritia, sed 

ab ornatn er viilgi vocibus, habemur excellentes. Cardan 1. 2. de cons. i' Per- 

jurata suo postponit numina lucro INTercator. — Ut necessarium sit vel Deo displicere, 
vel ab hoiiiinibus contemni, vexari, negligi. ' Qui Curios simulant, et 

Bacchanalia vivunt. ?TragelapLo similes vel Centauris, sursum homines, 

deorsum equi. '' Prseceptis suiscoelum promittunt, ipsi interim pulveris terreni 

vilia mancipia. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 53 

To see a man protest friendship, kiss his hand, ^qnem 
mallet irmicatum videre,^ smile with an intent to do mischief, 
or cozen him whom he sahites, ^ magnifie his friend unworthy 
with hyberbolical elogiums— his enemy albeit a good man, 
to vdifie and disgrace him, yea, all his actions, with the utmost 
livor and malice he can invent. 

To see a '^ servant able to buy out his master, him that car- 
ries the mace more worth than the magistrate; which Plato 
[lib. 11. de leg.) absolutely forbids, Epictetus abhors. An 
horse that tills the ^land fed with chaff, an idle jade have 
provender in abundance; him that makes shoos go bare-foot 
himself, him that sells meat almost pined; a toiling drudo-e 
starve, a drone flourish. ° 

To see men buy smoke for wares, castles built with fools 
heads, men like apes follow the fashions, in tires, oestures 
actions : if the king laugh, all laugh ; * ' 

- Rides ? majore cachinno 



Concutitur: flet, si lacrymas conspexit amici. 

8 Alexander stooped: so did his courtiers: Alphonsus turned 
his head; and so did his parasites. •> Sabina Popptea, Neros 
wife, wore amber-colour'd hair; so did all the Roman ladies 
m an instant; her fashion was theirs. 

To see men wholly led by affection, admired and censured 
out of opinion without judgement : an inconsiderate multitude 
like so many dogs in a village, if one bark, all bark without 
a cause : as fortunes fan turns, if a man be in favour, or com- 
mended by some great one, all the world applauds him • -if 
in disgrace, m an instant all hate him, and as the sun when 
he IS eclipsed, that er»5t took no notice, now gaze, and stare 
upon him. ° 

To see a ^ man wear his brains in his belly, bis guts in his 
head, an hundred oaks on his back, to devour an hundred 
oxen at a meal; nay more, to devour houses and towns, or 
as those anthropophagi, ' to eat one another. 

Tosee a man roll himself up, like a snow-ball,frombase beo-- 
garytorightworshipfulandrighthonourabletitles,unjustlyto 

Jj^Tf^ ^^'''' T *" ^^"^A^^ hominps, ut ssviant : blandiri ut fallant. Cyp. 

ad Donatum. c Love and hate are like the two ends of a perspective elasT 

rainistratur ; servus majores opes habens quam patronns. ebui terram coTunt 

Srca'ic os^^hX t"' ''"M'^''^-' cabalii ave^a ,aginantur: discaieeaTuTdircuS 
qiucalceosah.s facit. f Jnven. sBodiu. lib. 4. de repub. c. 6. h pjinju^' 

ill" affLSil" 1 ^li^r "" T'" t ^^'^*°'" '^ 

luuni anectareot ■ Odit damnatos. Juv. k A^r npa ep. 28 1 7 Oimrnm 



54! DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

screw himself into honours and offices; another to starve liis 
ge7mis, damn his soul, to gather wealth, which he shall not 011- 
joy, which his prodigal ^son melts and consumes in an instat't. 

To see the Ko(,Mt,-nXixv of our times, a man bend all his forces, 
means,time,fortunes, to be afavourites favourites favourite,&c. 
a parasites parasites parasite, that may scorn the servile world, 
as having enough already. 

To see an hirsute beggars brat,that lately fed on scraps,crept 
and whin'd, crying to all, and for an old jerkin ran of errands, 
now ruffle in silk and satten, bravely mounted, jovial and 
polite, now scorn his old friends and familiars, neglect his 
kindred, insult over his betters, domineer over all. 

To see a scholar crouch and creep to an illiterate peasant 
for a meals meat ; a scrivener better paid for an obligation, 
a faulkner receive greater wages than a student ; a lawyer get 
more in a day, than a philosoper in a year ; better reward for 
an hour, than a scholar for a twelve nioneths study ; him that 
can '' paint Thais, play on a fiddle, curl hair, &c. sooner get 
preferment <han a philologer or a poet. 

To see a fond mother, like ^Esops ape,hug her child to death, 
a *= wittal wink at his wives honesty, and too perspicuous in all 
other affairs ; one stumble at a straw, and leap over a block ; 
rob Peter, and pay Paul ; scrape unjust summs with one hand, 
purchase great manners by corruption, fraud, and cozenage, 
and liberally to distribute to the poor with the other, give a 
remnant to pious uses, &c. — penny wise, pound foolish ; blind 
men judge of colours ; Avise men silent, fools talk; ^ find fault 
with others, and do worse themselves ; *" denounce that in 
public which he doth in secret; and (which Aurelius Victor 
gives out of Augustus) severely censures that in a third, of 
which he is most guilty himself. 

To see a poor fellow, or an hired servant, venture his life for 
his new master, that will scarce give him his wages at years 
end ; a countrey colone toil and moil, till and drudge for a pro- 
digal idle drone, that devours all the gain, ^r lasciviously con- 
sumes with phantastical expences ; a noble man in a bravado 
to encounter death, and, for a small flash of honour, to cast 
away himself; a worldling tremble at an executor, and yet not 
fear hell-fire ; to wish and hope for inmiortality, desire to be 



'Absuraet haeres Csecuba dignior servata centum clavibus, et mero distinguet 
pavimcntum superbis poiitificuin potiore coenis. Hor. b Qui Thaidem pingere, inflare 
tibiam, crispare crines. cDoctus spectare lacunar. ^ q^uHJus. Est enim proprium 
stultitiae aliorum cernere vitia, oblivisci suorum. Idem Aristippus Charidemo apnd 
Lucianum, Omnino stultitiaj cujusdam esse puto, &c. « Execrari publice quod 

occulte agat. Salvianus, lib. de pro. Acres ulciscendis vitiis quibus ipsi vehementer 
indulgent. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 65 

happy, and yet by all means avoid death, a necessary passage 
to bring him to it. 

To see a fool-hardy fellow, like those old Danes, fpii decoi- 
lari malunt qnam verberari^ dye rather than be punished, in 
a sottish humour imbrace death with alacrity, ''yet scorn to 
lament his own sins and miseries, or his dearest friends de- 
parture. 

To see wise men degraded, fools preferred, one govern 
towns and cities, and yet a silly woman over-rules him at 
home ; command a province, and yet his own '' servants or 
children prescribe laws to him, as Themistocles son did in 
Greece ; " What I will (said he) my mother xvill, and ivhat 
my mother will, my father doth. To see horses ride in a 
coach, men draw it; dogs devour their masters ; towers build 
masons; children rule; old men go to school ; women wear 
the breeches ; ''sheep demolish towns, devour men, &c. and 
in a word, the world turned upside downward. O ! viveret 
Democritus ! 

•^To insist in every particular, were one of Hercules labours; 
there's so many ridiculous instances, as motes in the sun. 
Quantum est in rebus inane ! And who can speak of all ? 
Crimine ab uno disce omnes ; take this for a taste. 

But these are obvious to sense, trivial and well known, easie 
to be discerned. How would Democritus have been moved, 
had he seen * the secrets of their hearts ! If every man had a 
window in his breast, which Momus>vould havehad in Vulcan's 
man, or (that which Tully so much wisht) it were Avritten 
in eveiy mans forehead, Quid quisqne de republicd sentirei, 
what he thought; or that it could be effected in an instant, 
which Mercury did by Charon in Lucian, by touching of his 
eyes, to make him discern semel et simul rumores et susurros, 

Spes hominum csecas, morbos, votumque, labores, 
Et passim toto volitantes sethere curas — 

Blind hopes and wishes, their thoughts and affairs, 
Whispers and rumours, and those flying cares — 



»Adamu8, eccl. hist. cap. 212. Siquis damnatus fuerit, Istus esse gloria est ; nam 
lacrymas, et planctum, caeteraque compiinctionumgen*ra,qu£e nos salubria censeu»us,ita 
abominatur l)ani,utnecpropeccatis nee pro defnnctis amicis ulli flere liceat. ''Orbi 
dat leges foris, vix famuliim regit sine strepitu donii. « Quidquid ego volo, hoc vult 
mater raea, et quod mater vult, facit pater. <^ Oves, oliui mite pecus, nunc tarn 

indomitum et edax, nt homines devoreiit,Sic. Morus. Utop. lib. 1. ^Diversos 

variis tribuit natura furores. fDemocrit. ep. prsed. Hos dejerantes et potantes 

deprehendet, hos voraentes.illos litigantes, insidias molientes, suflragantes venena mis- 
centes, in amicorum apcusationem subscriheutes, hos gloria^iilos ambitione, cupiditate, 
luente captos, &c. 



fi6 DEMOCniTUS TO THE HEADER. 

that be could cuhicnlornm ohdnctas fores recludcre, et secrc- 
ta cordium penetrare, (which * Cyprian desired) open doors 
and K>cks, shoot bolts, as Lucians Gall us did with a feather of 
his tail ; or Gyi>es invisible ring-, or some rare perspective 
glass, or otacousticon, which would so multiply species, that 
a man might hear and see all at once (as '' Martianus Capellas 
Jupiter did in a spear, which he held in his hand, which did 
present unto him all that was daily done upon the face of the 
earth) observe cuckolds horns, forgeries of alchymists, the 
philosophers stone, new projectors, &c. and all those works of 
darkness, foolish vows, hopes, fears, and wishes, what a deal 
of laughter would it have aflorded ! He should have seen 
wind-mills, in one mans head, an hornets nest in an other. 
Or, had he been present with Icaromenippus in Lucian at 
Jupiters whispering place, '^ and heard one pray for rain,another 
for fair weather ; one for his wives, another for his fathers 
death, &c. to ask that at Gods hand, ichich they are abashed 
any man should hear; how would we have been confounded ! 
would he, tliiiik you, or any man else, say that these men 
were well in their wits ? 

Hgec sani esse hominis qui sanusjuret Orestes ? 

Can all the hellebore in the Anticyraj cure these men ? No, 
sure, '' an acre oj' hellebore will not do it. 

That which is more to be lamented, they are mad like Se- 
necas blind woman, and will not acknowledge, or *'seek for 
any cure of it ; for pauci vident morhnm suum, omnes amant. 
If our 'leg or arm oftend us, we covet by all means possible to 
redress it ; g and if we labour of a bodily disease, we send for 
a physician ; but, for the diseases of the mind, we take no no- 
tice of them. Lust harrows us on the one side, envy, anger, 
ambition on the other. We are torn in pieces by our passions 
as so many wild horses, one in disposition, another in habit ; 
one is melancholy, another mad ; and which of us all seeks 



^Ad Donat. ep. 2. lib. 1. O si posses iu specula sublimi constitutiis, &c. bLib. 
1. de niip. Philol. in qua, quid singiili natiouuin populi quotidianis tnotibus agitarent, 
reliicebat. <= Q Jupiter ! contingat iiiihi auriim, bajreditas, &c. Miiltos da, Jupiter, 
annos ! Dementia quanta est hominum ! tur|jissima vota Diis insusurrant: si quia 
adnioverit aurein, conticescunt ; et quod scire homines nolnnt, Deo narrant. Senec. ep. 
10. lib. I. ''Ptautus, Menaech. Non potest haec res heliebori jugere obtinerier. 

f Eoque gravior morbus, quo ignotior periclitanti. f Quae laedunt oculos, festinas 

demere ; siquidEstanimura, differs curandi tempu* in annum. Hon sSicaput, 

crus dolet, brachium, &c. medicum accersimus, recte et honeste, si par etiam iodustria 
in animi morbisponeretur. Job. Peletiua Jesuita. lib. 2. de hum. aftec. morboniraque 
cura. h Et quotusqiiisque tamt-n est, qui contra tot pestes medicum requirat, vel 

aegrotare se agnoscat ? ebullit ira, &r. Et nos tamen a-grosesse negamus. Incolumes 
medicum recusant. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE HEADER. 5/ 

for help, doth acknowledge his error, or knows he is sick? 
As that stupid fellow put out the candle, because the biting 
fleas should not find him ; he shrouds himself in an unknown 
habit, borrowed titles, because no body should discern him. 
Every man thinks with himself, eyomet videor mihi samis, I 
am well, I am wise, and laughs at others. And 'tis a general 
fault amongst them all, that^' which our fore- fathers have ap- 
proved, diet, apparel, opinions, humours, customs, manners, 
we deride and reject in our time as absurd. '' Old men ac- 
count juniors all fools, when they are mere dizards ; and (as, 
to sailers, 

terrseque urbesque recedunt 

they move ; the land stand still) the world hath much more 
wit ; they dote themselves. Turks deride us, we them ; 
Italians Frenchmen, accounting them light headed fellows ; 
the French scoff again at Italians, and at their several cus- 
toms : Greeks have condemned all the world but themselves 
of barbarism ; the world as much vilifies them now : we ac- 
count Germans heavy, dull fellows, explode many of their 
fashions; they as contemptibly think of us; Spaniards laugh 
at all, and all again at them. So are we fools and ridiculous, 
absurd in our actions, carriages, dyet, apparel, customs and 
consultations ; " we scoff and point one at another, when as, in 
conclusion, all are fools, "^and they the veriest asses that hide 
their ears most. A private man, if he be resolved with him- 
self, or set on an opinion, account all ideots and asses that 
are not affected as he is, 

« (nil rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducit) 

that are not so minded, ^(cpiodqne volunt homines, se bene velle 
jnitant) all fools that think not as he doth. He will not say 
with Atticus, suam qulsqne spon^avi, mihi meant, let every 
man enjoy his own spouse ; but his alone is fair, siais amor, 
^•c. and scorns all in respect of himself, ? will imitate none,hear 
none ''but himself, as Pliny said, a law and example to him- 
self. And that which Hippocrates, in his epistle to Dionysius, 
reprehended of old, is verified in our times, Quisque in alio 
snperfliinm esse censet, ipse quod non habet, nee curat ; that 
Mhicn he hath not himself or doth not esteem, he accounts 
superfluity, an idle quality, a mere foppery in another; like 
^Esops fox, when he had lost his tail, would have all his 
fellow foxes cut off theirs. The Chinese say that we Euro- 

=< Preesena aetas stultitiam priscis exprobrat Bud. de affec. lib. 5. *" Senas 

pro staltis habent JQvenes. Balth. Cast. <- Clodios accusal moschos 

"* Omnium stultissimi qui anriculasstudiose tegunt. Sat. Menip. '' Hor. Epist. 2. 

f Prosper. S Statint sapiunt, statiDi gciunt, neminem reverentur, neminem imi- 

tantur, ipsi sibi exemplo. Piiu. ep. lib. 8. *> Nulli ^IterJ sapere concedit, ae 

desipere videatur. Agrip. 



58 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

peans have one eye, they themselves two, all the world else is 
blind (though ^Scaliger accounts them brutes too, meriim 
pecus) : so thou and thy sectaries are only wise, others indiffer- 
ent ; the rest, beside themselves, meer ideots and asses. Thus 
not acknowledging our own errors and imperfections, we se- 
curely deride others, as if we alone were free, and spectators of 
the rest, accounting it an excellent thing, as indeed it is, 
aliend optimum Jrui insanid, to make our selves merry with 
other mens obliquities, when as he himself is more faulty than 
the rest : mutato nomine, tie tej'abula nari'atur : he may take 
himself by the nose for a fool ; and, which one calls maximum 
stultitice specimen, to be ridiculous to others, and not to per- 
ceive or take notice of it, as Marsyas when he contended with 
Apollo, non intelligens se deridiculo haberi, saith '' Apuleius ; 
'tis his own cause ; he is a convict mad-man, as "^ Austin 
well infers : In the eyes of' wise men and angds he seems like 
one, that to our thinking icalks icith his heels upwards. So 
thou laughest at me, and I at thee, both at a third ; and he re- 
turns that of the poet upon us again, ^ Hei nihi ! iusanire 
me aiunt, quum ipsi uttro insaniant. We accuse others of mad- 
ness, of folly, and are the veriest dizards our selves : for it is 
a great sign and property of a fool (which Eccl. 10. 3. points 
at), out of pride and self-conceit, to insult, vilifie, condemn, 
censure, and call other men fools (Mon videmus manticcs quod 
a tergo est), to tax that in others, of which we are most faulty ; 
teach that which we follow not our selves; for an inconstant 
man to write of constancy, a prophane liver prescribe rules of 
sanctity and piety, a dizard himself make a treatise of wis- 
dom, or, with Sallust, to rail down-right, at spoilers of coun- 
treys, and yet in " office to be a most grevious poller himself. 
This argues weakness, and is an evident sign of such parties 
indiscretion. ^ Peccat uter nostrum ctuce diqnius? Who is 
the fool now ? Or else peradventure in some places we are ^ all 
mad for company ; and so 'tis not seen : societas erroris et 
dementice jmriter absurditatem et admiratiojiem tollit. 'Tis 
with us, as it was of old (in ''Tullies censure at least) with C. 
Fimbria in Rome, a bold, hair-brained, mad fellow, and so 
esteemed of all, such only excepted, that were as mad as him- 
self: now in such a case there is no notice taken of it. 



aOmnisorbis ...... a Persia ad Lusitanium. b 2 Florid. « August. 

Qualis in oculis hominum qui inversis pcdibus atnbulat, talis in oculis sapientum et 
angelorum qui sibi placet, aut cui passiones dominantur. J Plautus, Menaechmi. 

«Govemaur of Africk by Caesars appointment. fNunc sanitatis patrocinium est 

insanientium turba. Seu. sPro Roscio Amerino. Et, quod inter omnes constat, 

insanissimus, nisi inter eos, qui ipsi quoque insaniunt. '■ Necesse est cum iasani- 

entibus fnrere, nisi soIhs relinqueris. Petrouius. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 59 

Nimirum insanus paucis videatur, eo quod 
Maxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodcm. 

When all are mad, where all are like opprest, 
Who can discern one mad man from the rest ? 

But put tlie case they do perceive it and some one be mani- 
festly convict of madness ; " he now takes notice of his folly, 
be it in action, gesture, speech, a vain humour he hath in 
building", bragging, jangling, spending, gaming, courting, 
scribling, prating, for which he is ridiculous to others, ''on 
w hich he dotes ; he doth acknowledge as much : yet, with all 
the rhetorick thou hast, thou canst not so recall him, but, to 
the contrary, notwithstanding, he will persevere in his dotage. 
'Tis amahilis insania, et mentis gratissinms error, so pleasing, 
so delicious, that he ^ cannot leave it. He knows his error, 
but will not seek to decline it. Tell him what the event will 
be, beggary, sorrow, sickness, disgrace, shame, loss, mad- 
ness; yet ^an angry man will prej'er vengeance, a lascivious 
his whore, a thief his booty, a glutton his belly, bejore his 
icelf'are. Tell an epicure, a covetous man, an ambitious 
man, of his irregular course ; wean him from it a little, (Pol! 
me occidistis, amici ! ) he cryes anon, you have undone him ; 
and, as "^ a dog to his vomit, he returns to it again : no per- 
swasion will take place, no counsel : say what thou canst, 

Clames, licet, et mare cselo 



Confundas, surdo narras : 

demonstrate, as Ulysses did to ^^^Elpenorand Gryllus and the 
rest of his companions those sicinish men, he is irrefragable 
in his humour ; he will be a hog still : bray him in a morter ; 
he will be the same. If he be in an heresie, or some perverse 
opinion, settled as some of our ignorant papists are, convince 
his understanding, shew him the several follies and absurd 
fopperies of that sect, force him to say, veris vincor, make it 
as clear as the sun, s he will err still, peevish and obstinate 
as he is; and as he said, ^ si in hoc erro, lihenter erro, nee 
hunc error em aiiferri mihi volo ; I will do as I have done, 
as my predecessors have done, 'and as my friends now do: I 
will dote for company. Say now, are these men ^ mad or 

* Quoniam non est genns unum stultitise, qua me insanire putas? bStoltam me 
fateor, liceat concedere venim, Atqne itiara insanum. Hor. cQdi : nee possum 

cupiens non esse quod odi. Ovid. Errore grato libenter omnes insanimus. ^ Ama- 
tor scortum vitae pr^ponit, iracundus vindictam, fur pradam, parisatus gnlam, ara- 
bitiosus honores, avarus opes, &c. odimus haec et accersiraus. Cardan. 1. 2. de 
conso. >? Prov. 2G. 11. 'Plutarch. Gryllo. suilli homines, sic Clem. Alex. vo. 

gNon persuadebis, etiamsi persuaseris. t'Tully. ' Malo cum illis insanire, 

qnam cum aliis bene sentire. i^Qui inter hos enutriontur, non magis sapere pos- 

sunt, qtiam qui in culiua bene olere. Petron. _, 



60 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

no ? ^ Heus, affe, responds ! are they ridiculous ? cedo quemvis 
arbitrum ; are they sance mentis, sober, wise, and discreet ? 
have they common sense ? 

''uter est insanior horum ? 

I am of Democritus opinion, for my part ; I hold thern worthy 
to be laughed at : a company of brain-sick dizards, as mad 
as •= Orestes and Athamas, that they may go ride the ass, and 
all sail along to the Anticyrs, in the skip of' fools, for com- 
pany together. I need not much labour to prove this which 
I say, otherwise than thus, make any solemn protestation, or 
swear ; I tliink you will believe me without an oath ; say at a 
word, are they fools? I refer it to you, though you be likewise 
fools and madmen yourselves, and I as mad to ask the ques- 
tion : for what said our comical Mercury ? 

^ Justum ab injustis petere insipientiaest. 

rie stand to your censure yet, what think you? 

But, for as much as I undertook at first, that kingdoms, 
provinces, families, were melancholy as well as private men, 
I will examine them in particular ; and that which I have 
hitherto dilated at random, in more general terms, I will par- 
ticularly insist in, prove with more special and evident argu- 
ments, testimonies, illustrations, and that in brief. 

e Nunc accipe, quare 

Desipiant omnes seque ac tu. 

My first argument is borrowed from Solomon, an arrow 
drawn out of his sententious quiver, Prov. 3. 7. be not wise 
in thine own eyes. And 26. 12. ^ Seest thou a man wise in 
his own conceit ? more hope is of a fool than of him. Isaiah 
pronounceth a woe against such men, (cap. 5. 21.) that are 
wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight. For 
hence we may gather, that it is a great offence, and men are 
much deceived that think too well of themselves, and an espe- 
cial argument to convince them of folly. Many men (saith 
s Seneca) had been without question wise, had they not had an 
opinion that they had attained to perfection of knowledge al- 
ready, even before they had gone halfway, too forward, too 
ripe, prtBproperi, too quick and ready, ^ cito prudentes, cite 
p'ii, cito mariti, cito patres, cito sacerdotes, cito omnis 
officii capaces et curiosi : they had too good a con- 
ceit of themselves, and that marred all — of their worth, 

»Persius. ''Hor. 2, ser. cVesanum exagitantpueri, innuptseque pnellse. 

d Plautus. e Hor. I. 2. sat. 2. f Superbam stultitiam Plinius vocat. 7. ep. 21. 

quod semel dixi, fixum ratumque sit. gMulti sapientes procnldubio fuissent, si 

sese non putassent ad sapientise summum pervenisse. hidem. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 6l 

valour, skill, art, learning, judgement, eloquence, their good 
parts : all tlieir geese are swans : and that manifestly proves 
them to be no better than fools. In former times they had but 
seven wise nien ; now you can scarce find so many fools. 
Thales sent the golden tripos^ which the fisherman found, and 
the oracle commanded to be ^given to the wisest, to Bias, 
Bias to Solon, &c If such a thing Avere now found, Ave 
should all fight for it, as the three goddesses did for the golden 
apple— we are so wise : we have women-politicians, children 
metaplj^'sicians : every silly fellow can square a circle, make 
perpetual motions, find the philosophers stone, interpret Apo- 
calypsis, make new theoricks, a new systeme of the Avorld, 
new logick, new philosophy, &c. Nostra nti(pterprpo,stiit\i 
''Petronius, our covnlrey is so Jull oj' deijied spirits, divine 
souls, that you may sooner find a God than a man amongst us; 
we think so well of our selves, and that is an ample testimony 
of much folly. 

My second argument is grounded upon the like place of 
Scripture, whicii, though before mentioned in eflfect, yet for 
some reasons is to be repeated (and, by Platos good leave, I 
may <lo it : '■^<?tox«Xov ^Sev hJev /SxaTm/) I^ools (saith David) 
by reason oj' their transyressions, Sfc. Psal. 107. IJ- Hence 
Muscuius inferrs, all transgressors must needs be fools. So 
we read Ivom. 2. Trihulation and anyuish on the soul of 
every man that doth evil ; but all do evil. And Isai. 65. 14. 
31y servants shall sing for joy, and "^ ye shall cry for sorrow 
of heart, and vexation of mind. 'Tis ratified by the com- 
mon consent of all philosophers. Dishonesty {sahh Cardan) 
is nothing else but folly and madness. ^ Probus quis nobiscum 
vivit? Shew me an honest man. JVemo malus, qui non 
stultus : 'tis Fabius aphorism to the same end. If none 
honest, none wise, then all fools. And well may they be so 
accounted : for who will account him otherwise, qui iter 
adornat in occidentem, quum properaret in orientem ? that goes 
backward all his life, Avestward Avhen he is bound to the east? 
or holds him a Avise man (saith 'Muscuius) thit prefers 
momentary phasures to eternity, that spends his masters goods 
in his absence, forthwith to be condemnedfor it ? Necquidquani 
sapit, qui sibi non sapit. Who will say that a sick man is 
Avise, that eats and drinks to overthroAv the temperature 
oi his body ? Can you account him Avise or discreet that 



^Pliitarchus, Solone. Dctiir sapientiori. ^Tabv praesentibiis plena est nnmiiiibas, 
lit facilius possis Deiim qnani hoiuinem invenire. c Pulchriim bis dicere non nocet 
d Malefactors. «- W lio can find a faithful man ? Prov. 'lO. 6. flu Psal. 49. Qui 

praefert monientanea sempiternis, qnidilapidat heri absentis boua,inox in jus vocandus 
et daninaudus. 



62 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

would willingly have his health, and yet will do nothing that 
should procure or continue it? ^Theodoret, (out of Plotinus 
the Platonist) holds it a ridiculous thing for a man to live 
after his own laws, to do that w>hich is offensive to God, and 
yet to hope that he should save him ; and, when he voluntarily 
neglects his own safety, and contemns the means, to think 
to he delivered by another. Who will say these men are 



wise 



1 



A third argument may be derived from the precedent. ^ All 
men are carried away with passion, discontent, lust, pleasures, 
&c. They generally hate those vertues they should love, and 
love such vices they should hate Therefore more than melan- 
choly, quite mad, bruitbeasts, and void of reason, (soChrysos- 
tome contends) or rather dead and buried alive, as " Philo 
Juda?us concludes it for a certainty, of all such that are carried 
away with passions, or labour of any disease of the mind. Where 
is fear and sorrow, there (''Lactantius stifly maintains) wisdom 
cannot divell. 

qui cupiet, metuet quoque porro. 

Qui metuens vivit, liber mihi non erit unquam. 

Seneca and the rest of the Stoicks are of opinion, that, where 
is any the least perturbation, wisdom may not be found. 
What more ridiculous, (as ''Lactantius urgeth) than to 
hear how Xerxes whipped the Hellespont, threatened the 
mountain Athos, and the like ? To speak ad rem, who is 
free from passion ? ^ Mortalis nemo est, quem non attingat 
dolor morbusve, (as s Tully determines out of an old poem) 
no mortal men can avoid sorrow and sickness ; and sorrow is 
an unseparable companion of melancholy. ^ Chrysostome 
pleads farther yet, that they are more than mad, very beasts, 
stupified, and void of common sense : for how (saith he) 
shall I know thee to be a man, when thou kickest like an ass^ 
neighest like an horse after tcomen, ravest in lust like a hull, 
ravenest like a bear, stingest like a scorpion, rakest like a icolf, 



^ Perquam ridicnlum est homines ex animi sententia vivere, et, quae Diis in- 
grata sunt, exequi, et tamen a solis Diis velle salvos fieri, quum propriaj salatis 
curam abjecerint. Theod. c. 6. de provid. lib. de curat. Grajc. affect. h Sa- 

piens, sibi qui iniperiosus, &c. Hor. 2. Ser. 7. <^ Conclus. lib. de vie. offer. 

Certum est animi morbis laborantes pro mortuis censendos. dLib. de sap. 

Ubi timor adest, sapientia adesse nequit. *" Quid insanius Xerxe Helles- 

pontum verberante ? &c. f Eccles. 21. 12. Where is bitterness, there is no 

nnderstanding^. Prov. 12. 16. An angry man is a fool. §3 Tusc. Injuria in 

sapientem non cadit. '> Horn. 6. in 2 Epist. ad Cor. Hominem te agnoscere 

nequeo, cum tamquam asinus recalcitres, lascivias ut taurus, hinnias nt equus 
post mulieres, ut ursus ventri indulgeas, quum rapias ut lupus, 8cc. At (inquis) 
formam hominis habeo. Id niagis territ, quum ferara humana specie vidcre me 
putem. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE HEADER. 63 

as subfile as a fox, as impudent as a dog ? Shall I say tJiou art 
a man, thou hast all the symplomes of a beast ? How shall I 
know thee to be a man ? By thy shape ? That affrights me 
more, tvhen I see a beast in likeness of a man. 

"" Seneca calls that of Epicurus, maynificam vocem, an he- 
roical speech, a fool still begins to live, and accounts it 
a filthy liohtness in men, every day to lay new foundations 
of their life : but who doth otherwise ? One travels ; another 
builds ; one for this, another for that business ; and old folks 
areas far out as the rest: O dementem senectutem ! Tully 
exclaims. Therefore young, old, middle age, all are stupid, 
and dote. 

''^Eneas Sylvius, amongst many others, sets down three 
special wayes to find a fool by. He is a fool that seeks that 
he can notfind: he is a fool that seeksthat, which, being found, 
will do him more harm than good : he is a fool, that, having 
variety of ways to bring him to his journeys end, takes that 
which is worst. If so, me thinks most men are fools. Examine 
their courses, and you shall soon perceive what dizards and 
mad meii the major part are. 

Beroaldusv/ili have d.iunkards, afternoon-men, and such as 
more than ordinarily delight in drink, to be mad. The first 
pot quencheth titirst (so Panyasis the poet determines in 
Athenjeus): secnnda Gratiis, Moris, et Dionysio — the second 
makes merry : the third for pleasure : quarta ad insaniam, 
the fourth makes them mad. If this position be true, what 
a catalogue of mad men shall we have ! what shall they be 
that drink foiu' times four? JVonne supra omnen fnrorem^ 
supra omncm insaniam, rcddunt insanissimos ? I am of his 
opinion, they are more than mad, much worse than mad. 

The ^Abderites condemned Democritus for a mad man, be- 
cause he was sometimes sad, and sometimes again profusely 
merry. Hac patrid (saith Hippocrates) ob risumfurere et iu- 
sanire dicunt : his countrey men hold him mad, because he 
laughs ; ^ and therefore he desires him to advise all his friends 
at Rhodes, thai they do not laugh too much, or he over sad. 
Had those Abderites been conversant with us, and but seen 
what "^ fleering and grinning there is in this age, they would 
certainly have concluded, we had been all out of our wits. 



aEpist. 1. 2. 13. Stultns semper incipit ^^vere. Fceda hominiiin levitas ! nova 
quotidie fiindamenta yitai ponere, novas spes, &c. '' De ciirial. miser. Stiiltus. 

qui qnrerit quod nequit invenire, st'dtus qui quffirit quod nocet iuventuiu, stultus qui 
cum plures hahet calles, deteriorem deligit. Mihi videntur onines deliri, ameutes, 
&c. « Ep. Damageto. '^ Amicis nostris Rhodi dicito, ne nimiura rideant, 

aut nitniutn tristes sint. '■ Per multum risum poteris cojjuoscere stultum. 

Offic. 3. c. 9. 



64- DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

Aristotle, in liis Ethicks, hohXn, J elix idemcine sapiens, to be 
wise and happy, rre reciprocal terms. Bonus idevicpte sapiens 
honesUis. 'Tis ''Tallies paradox: wise men are free, hut 
fools are slaves: liberty is a power to live according to his 
own laws, as mc will ourselves. Who hath this liberty? 
Who is free ? 

-^ sapiens sibique imperiosus. 



Quern neque paiiperies, neqne mors, neque vincula terrenl ; 
Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 
Fortis, et in seipso totus teres atque rotundus. 

He is wise that can command his own will. 
Valiant and constant to himself still. 
Whom poverty, nor death, nor bands can fright, 
Checks his desires, scorns honours, just and right. 

But where shall such a man be found? if no where, then e 
diametro, we all are slaves, senseless, or worse^ Nemo malus 
felix. But no man is happy in this life, none good ; there- 
fore no man wise. 

•^ Rari quippe boni 

For one vertue, you shall find ten vices in the same party — 
paud Promethei, multi Epimethei. We may perad venture 
usurp the name, or attribute it to others for favour, as Carolus 
Sapiens, Philippus Bonus, Ludovicus Pius, &c. and describe 
the properties of a wise man, asTullydoth an orator, Xeno- 
phon Cyrus, Castilio a courtier, Galen temperament ; an 
aristocracy is described by politicians. But where shall such 
a man be found ? 

Vir bonus et sapiens, qualem vix repperit unum 
Millibus e multis hominum consultus Apollo. 

A wise, a good man in a million, 
Apollo consulted could scarce find one. 

A man is a miracle of himself: but Trismegistus adds, maxi- 
mum miraculum homo sapiens : a wise man is a wonder : miilti 
thyrsicferi, panci Bacchi. 

Alexander, when he was presented with thatrich and costly 
casket of King Darius, and every man advised him what to 
put in it, he reserved it to keep Homers works, as the most 
precious jewel of humane wit : and yet ^ Scaliger upbraids 
Homers Muse, nutricem insance sapiential, a nursery of 
madness, '^ imjjudent as a court lady, that blushes at nothing. 
Jacobus Micyllus, Gilbertus Cognatus, Erasmus, and almost 

a Sapientes liberi, stulti aervi. Libertas est potestas, &c. b Hor. 2. ser 7. 

cjnven. , JHypercrite. ^ Ut mulier aulica nullias pudens. 



DRMOCRITUS TO THE RriADRR. 65 

all posterity, admire Luciaiis luxuriant wit: yet .Seal iger re- 
jects him in liis censure, and cails liiui flie Cerberus of the 
Muses. Socrates, wliom a!! t!;e wor/d so much magnified, is, 
by Lactantius and Theodoret, condemned Tor a fo(d. Phitaich 
extolls Senecns wit beyond a!! the Greeks — iinUl secmidns : 
yet " Senega saith of himself, lahen \ would solace my self' 
v-ith (I J'ool, I refect upon my sflj' ; and there I have him. 
Cardan, in his sixteenth book ofSubtilties, reckons up twelve 
supereminent, acute philosophers, for worth, subtlety, and 
wisdom — Archimedes, Galen, Vitruvius,Arc!iytas Tarentinus, 
Euclide, Geber, thr.t first inventer of alg-ebra, Aikindus the 
nratliematiciau, both Arabians, with others. But his trinmviri 
t^rranim. \\\x i>eyond the rest, the Ptolemajus, Plotinus, Hippo- 
crates. Scaliger (exercitat. 2^4) scoffs at this censure of 
his, calls some of them carpenters, and mechanicians : he 
makes Galen fitiihriain Hippocraiis, a skirt of Hippocrates : 
and the said '' Cardan himself elscM here condemns both Galen 
and Hippocrates for ledious.iess, obscurity , confusion. Para- 
celsus will l^ave them both meer ideots, infants in physick and 
philosophy, ScaligerandCardan admire Suissetthe calculator, 
qui pene modnm exce.ssit hiimivii ingenii ; and yet " Lud. Vivas 
calls them rmyas Snisseticas : and Cardan opposite to him- 
self in another place, contemns those antients in respect of 
times present, "^^ major esq .le 7iostros^ ad prccscutes collatos, 
juste pneros appellari. In conclusion, the said ^ Cardan and 
Saint Bernard will admit none into this catalogue of wise men, 
n)ut only proj)]!ets and apostles : how th.ey esteem themselves, 
you have heard before. We are worldly-wise, admire our 
selves, and seek for applause: but hear Saint ^Bernard, quanta 
magis Joras es sapiens, tanto magis intus stultvs efficeris, S^c. 
in omnibus es prudens, circa teipsum insipiens : the more 
wise thou art to others, the more fool to thy self. I may 
not deny but that there is some folly approved, a divine fury, 
a holy madiiess., even a spiritual drunkenness in the saints 
of God thomselves : Sanclam insaniam Bernard calls it, 
(though not, as blaspheming '' Vorstitus would inferr it as 
a passion incident to God himstlf, but) familiar to good 
men, as that of Paul, 52 Cor. he urns a fool, S^c. and Rom. 
9. he wiseth himself to he undtJiematized J'or them. Such 
is that drunkenness which Ficinus speaks of, v/hen the 



''Epist. 33. Qiiaiido futuo delectiri volo, noa est longe qiia*rcntlu3 ; me video. 
''Priino contradicenHum. ^Lil). de caiissis corrupt, artiiiin. ''Actione ad 

subtil, in Seal. fol. Y2. -2(3. c Lib. 1. de sap. 'Vide, miser houio, quia 

totuin est vanitas, toluni stultitia, totum dementia, quidquid facisiu hoc niundo, prajter 
hoc solum quod propter Deuin fucis. Ser. de miser, liom. b' In 2 Platonis, dial. 

1. de jnsto. I'Dum irain et odium in Deo revera ponit. 

VOL. I F 



66 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

soul is elevated and ravished with a divine taste of that heavenly 
nectar, which the poets deciphered by the sacrifice of Diony- 
sius, and in this sense, with the poet, ^ insanire luhet : as Austin 
exhorts us, ad ebrietatem se quisque paret ; let's all be mad 
and ''drunk. But we commonly mistake and go beyond our 
commission : we reel to the opposite part ; " we are not capa- 
ble of it ; '^and, as he said of the Greeks, Vos Grasci semper 
pueri, vos Britanni, Gallic Germani, Itali, Sfc. you are a com- 
pany of fools. 

Proceed now a partibus ad totnm, or from the whole to 
parts, and you shall find no other issue. The parts shall be 
sufficiently dilated in this following- preface. The whole must 
needs follow by a sorites or induction. Every multitude is 
mad, ^ hellua mnltorum capitum, precipitate and rash, with- 
out judgement, stidtum animal, a roaring- rout. ^ Roger Bacon 
proves it out of Aristotle — vulgtis dividi in oppositum contra 
snpientes : quod vidyo videtur vernm,Jalsnm est ; that which 
the commonalty accounts true, is most part false ; they are 
still opposite to wise men ; but all the world is of this humour 
(vulgus); and thou thyself art de vidgo, one of the common- 
alty ; and he, and he ; and so are all the rest; and therefore 
(as Phocion concludes) to be approved in nought you say or 
do, meer ideots and asses. Begin then where you will, go 
backward or forward, choose out of the whole pack, wink and 
choose : you shall find them all alike — never a barrel better 
herring. 

Copernicus, Atlas his successor, is of opinion, the earth is 
a planet, moves and shines to others, as the moon doth to us. 
Digges, Gilbert, Keplerus, Origanus, and others, defend this 
hypothesis of his in sober sadness, and that the moon is in- 
habited. Tf it be so that the earth is a moon, then we are 
also giddy, vertiginous, and lunatick, within this sublunary 
maze. 

I could produce such arguments till dark night. If you 
should hear the rest, 

Ante diem clause componet Vesper Olympo : 

but, according to my promise, 1 will descend to particulars. 
This melancliofy extends it self not to men only, but even to 
vegetals and sensibles. 1 speak not of those creatures which 
are saturnine, melancholy by nature, (as lead, and such like 
minerals, or those plants, rue, cypress, «&c. and hellebore 



»Virg. 1, Eel. 3. t>Ps. inebriabuntiir ab ubertate domus. ^^InPaal. 

104. Aust. "1 In Platonis Tim. sacerdos .'Egyptiiis. « Hor. Vulgus iiisa- 

num. f Paret ea divisio probabilis, &;c. ex Arist. Top lib. 1. c. 8. Rog. Bac. 

Epist, de secret, art. et. n«t. c. 8. Non est judicium in vulgo. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. G7 

itself, of which ■* A grip pa treats, fishes, l)irds, and beasts, 
hares, conies, dormice, i*tc. owls, bats, night-birds) but that 
artificial, which is perceived in them all. Remove a plant; it 
will pine away; which is especially perceived in date-trees, 
as yon may read at large in Constantines husbandry — that 
antipathy between the vine and the cabbage, vine and oyle. 
Pitt a bird in a cage ; he will dye for snllenness ; or a beast in 
a pen, or take his young ones or companions from him; and see 
what efif'ect it will cause. But who perceives not these com- 
mon passions of sensible creatures, fear, sorrow, &;c.? Of all 
other, dogs are most subject to this malady, in so much, some 
hold they dream as men do, and through violence of melan- 
choly, run mad. I could relate many stories of dogs, that 
iiavo <}yed for grief, and pined away for loss of their masters; 
but they are common in every ''author. 

Kingdoms, j)rovinces,and politick bodies, are likewise sen- 
sible and subject to this disease, as "^ Boterus, in his Politicks, 
hath proved at large. As, in hnniane bodies, (saith he) there 
be divers al/erations proceediiic/ J'rom humours, so there be 
many diseases in a conimon-ivealth, which do as diversely 
happen J'rom several distempers, as you may easily perceive 
by their particular symptoms. For where you shall see the 
people civil, obedient to God and princes, judicious, peace- 
able and quiet, rich, fortunate, '' and flourish, to live in peace, 
in unity and concord, a countrey well tilled, many fair built 
and populous cities, nhi incolw nitent, as old "" Cato said, the 
people are neat, polite, and terse, vhi bene beateqne vivnnt, 
(which our politicians make the chief end of a common-wealth; 
and w hich ' Aristotle, Polit. lib. 3. cap. 4. calls commnne bo- 
num, Polybius, lib. 6, optabilem et selectum statnm,) that 
countrey is free from melancholy ; as it was in Italy in the time 
of Augustus, now in China, now in many other flourishing 
king'doms of Europe. But whereas you shall see many dis- 
contents, common grievances, complaints, poverty, barbarism, 
beggary, plagues, wars,rebe!lions, seditions, mutinies, conten- 
tions, idleness, riot, epicurism, the land lye untilled, waste, full 
of bogs, fens, desarts, &c. cities decayed, base and poor towns, 
villages depopulated, the people squalid, ugly, uncivil ; that 
kingdom, that countrey, must needs be discontent, melan- 
choly, hath a sick body, and had need to be reformed. 



a De occult, philosoph. 1. I.e. 25. et 19. ejiisd. 1. Lib. 10. cap. 4. *> See Lip- 

sius, epist. '' De politia illiistrium, lib. 1. cap. 4. Ut in hiiiiianis corpnribus variae 

accidunt imitafiones corporis animirpie, sic in repablica, Sec. '' Ubi reges phi- 

losophantur. Plato. f Lib. de re rust. fVel publicam iitilitatem. Sains 

publica suprema lex esto. Beata civitasj non, ubi pauci beati, sed tota civitas beata. 
Plato, quarto de repub. 

f2 



68 DEBIOCRITUS TO. THE READER. 

Now that cannot we^l be effected; till tlie causes of these 
Dialadiesbe first removed, which comuiouly proceed from their 
own default, or some accidental inconvetiieuce ; as to be site 
in a bad cJime, too far north, steril, in a barren place, as the 
desart of Libya, desarts of Arabia, places void of waters, as 
those of Lop and Belgian in Asia, or in a bad air, as at Alex- 
andretta, Bantam, Pisa, Durazzo, S. John de Ullua, &c. or in 
danger of the seas continual inundations, as in many places 
of the Low-Countreys and elsewhere, or near some bad neigh- 
bours, as Hungarians to Turks, Podolians to Tartars, or al- 
most any bordering countries, they live in fear still, and, by 
reason of hostile incursions, a're oi'tentimes left desolate. So 
are cities by reason ^ of wars, fires, plagues, inundations, 
''wild beasts, deca}'^ of trades, barred havens, the seas violence, 
as Antwerp may witness of late; Syracuse of old, Brundusium 
in Italy, Rhye and Dover with us, find many that at this day 
suspect tlie seas fury and rage, and labour against it, as the 
Venetians to (heir inestimable charge. Butthe most frequent 
maladies are such as proceed from themselves, as, first, when 
religion and Gods service is neglected, innovated, or altered — 
where they do not fear God, obey tiieir prince — where athe- 
ism, epicurism, sacrilege, simony, &c. and all such impieties 
are freely committed — that countrey cannot prosper. When 
Abraham came to Gerar, and saw a bad land, he said, sure 
the fear of God was not in that place; '^ Cyprian Echovius, 
a Spanish chorogTapher, above all other cities of Spain, com- 
mends Borciuo, hi which there was no beggar, tio man poor, 
^•c. but all rich and in good estate : and he gives the reason, 
because theij iverc more religions than their neighbours. Why 
vv as Israel so often spoiled by their enemies, led into captivity, 
&c. but for their idolatry, neglect of Gods word, for sacrilege, 
even for one Achans fault? And what shall we expect, that 
have such multitudes of Achans, church-robbers, simoniacal 
patrons, &c.? how can. they hope to flourish, that neglect 
divine duties, that live, most part, like epicures ? 

Other common grievances are generally noxious to a body 
politick ; alteration of laws and customs, breaking privileges, 
general oppressions, seditions, &c. observed by '^ Aristotle, 
Bodin, Boleiu?, Junius, Arniscus, &c. I will only point at 
some of the cLiefest. ^ Impotentia gubernandi, ataxia, con- 



^ Mantua, vsb! miseras minium vicina CremonfE. bjntenlum a feris, nt 

oliin Mauritania, &c. '- Di^iiciis Hispanife an. .1604. Nemo raain«, nemo 

pauper ; opliuuis cjnisqiK' atque flitissiniiis. l^ie, saiictecjue vivebant ; summa(|iie cum 
veneiatione et timorc, diviao caitiiJ, sacrisque rebus, incumbebant. " Polit. 

1. u. c. 3. eUatorus, polit. lib. 1. c. 1. Cum nempe princeps rerum gerendaruiii 

imperi!.t;.s, se^nis, cscitans, sniqiie luuneris iramemor, anit fatuas est. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 69 

fusion, in government, which proceeds from unskilful slothful, 
griping-, covetous, unjust, rash, or tyrannizing magistrates, 
when they are fools, ideots, children, proud, wilful, partial, 
undiscreet, oppressors, giddy heads, tyrants, not able or unfit 
to man ige such offices. " Many noble cities and flourish ino- 
kingdoms by that means are desolate ; the whole body groans 
uiider such iicads ; and all the members must needs be misaf- 
fected, as at this day those goodly provinces in Asia Minor, 
&c. groan under the burthen of a Turkish government; and 
those vast kingdoms of Muscovia,Russia, "^ underatyrannizino- 
duke. Who ever heard of more civil and rich populous 
countreys than those of Greece, Asia Minor, abouiidhuf lokh 
all "" wealth, multitude qfmhabitant^,J'oi'ce,potver, splendor, 
and magnificence ? and that miracle of countreys, '' the Holy 
Land, that, in so small a compass of ground, could maintain 
so many towns, cities, produce so many fighting- men ? Egypt 
another Paradise, now barbarous and desait, and almost waste, 
by the despotical government of an imperious Turk, intolera- 
hili sermtuiis juf/o premltur (''one saith): not only fire and 
M'ater, goods or lands, .^ed ipse spiritus ah insolent is simi vic- 
toris pendet mitu : such is their slavery, their lives and souls 
depend upon his insolent will and command — a tyrant that 
spoylsall wheresoeverhe comes ; insomuch that an historian 
complains, if an old inhabitant should noiv see them, he would 
not know them ; if a traveller, or stranr/er, it would grieve 
his heart to behold them — whereas (^'Aristotle notes) nova^ 
exactiones, nova onera im'posita, new bujdens and exactions 
daily come upon them, (iike those of which Zosimus, lib. il.) 
so grievous ut viri uxores, patres flias prosiituerent^ ut ex- 
actoribus e qucestu, Sj-c they must needs be discontent : hinc 
civitatum gemitus et ploraivs, as '^ Tully holds ; hence come 
those complaints and tears of cities />oor, miserable, rebellions^ 
anddesperate subjects, as ' Hippolytus adds : and, ''as a judi- 
cious countrey-man of ours observed not long since in a sur- 
vey of that great Duchy ofTtiscany, the people lived much 
grieved and discontent, as appeared by their manifold and 
manifest complainings in that kind ; that the state u-as like a 
body which had latelg taken physick, whose humours are not 
yet icell settled, and weakened so much by purging, that nothing 
was left but melancholy. 

"Non viget re«publica cujns caput infirniatur. Salisburiensis, c. 22. ''See 

D- Fletcliers relation, and Alexander (J;if,'iiinus history. c Abundans omni 

divitiarum allluentia, incolarum multitudiue, splendore, ac potentia. <l Not 

above 200 miles in length, 60 in breadth, according to Adricomius. »• Ro- 

mulus Amaseus. f Sabellicus. Si quis incoia vetus, non a^'nosceret ; ai 

quis peregrinus, ingeiniscereL ?Polit 1. 5. c. 6. Crudelitas principiini, im- 

punitas scelerum, viohtio legum, prrulatus pecuniae publica-, &:c. ii Epist. 

' De increm. nrb. cap. 20. Subditi luiseri, rebelles, desperati^ S^c. ^ R. Dalliugton^ 

1596, conclasio libri. 



70 DEMOCRITUG TO THE READER. 

Whereas the princes and potentates are immoderate in lust, 
hypocrites, epicures, of no religion, but in shew — Quid hy- 
poerisij'ragilms ? what so brittle and unsure ? what sooner 
subverts their estates, than wandring and raging lusts on their 
subjects wives, daughters ? to say no worse. They that should 
J'acem proeferre, lead the way to all vertuous actions, are the 
ringleaders oftentimes of all mischief and dissolute courses; 
and by that means their countries are plagued, '" and they them- 
selves of'tenrvined^ baiiishedor murdered by conspiracy oj' their 
subjects, as Sardanapalus was, Dionysius junior, Helioga- 
balus, Periauder, Pisistratus,Tarquinius,Timocrates, Childe- 
ricus, Appius Claudius, Andronicus, Galeacius Sforsia, Alex- 
ander Medices, &c. 

Whereas the princes or great men are malicious, envious, 
factious, ambitious, enudators, they tear a common-M ealth 
asunder, as so many Gne/Jes and Gibellines, disturb the quiet- 
ness of it, ''and, Avith mutual murders, let it bleed to death. 
Our histories are too full of such barbarous inhumanities, 
and the miseries that issue from them. 

Whereas they be like so many horse-leeches, hungry, grip- 
ing, corrupt,^ covetous, avaritice mrt«c?/>?'a,ravenousas wolves, 
(for, as Tully writes, qui prccest, prodest ; et qui pecudibus 
jnwest, debet eornm utilitati inservire) or such as prefer their 
private before the publick good (for, as ^ he said long since, 
res privatfc publicis semper officerej—ov whereas they be illite- 
rate, ignorant, empiricks in policy, uhi deestj'acultas, " virtus, 
(Aristot. pol. 5. cap. 8.) et scieutia, wise only by inheritance, 
and in authority ]>y birth-right, or for their wealth and titles 
— there must needs be a fault, *^ a great defect, because, as an 
8 old philosopher afSrms, such men are not alwayes fit — of' an 
infinite number, J'eiv alone are senators ; and oj' those few, 
J'etver good: and oj' that small number oj' honest good and 
noble men, few that are learned, wise discreet, and sjifficient, 
able to discharge such places — it must needs turn to the con- 
fusion of a state. 

For, as the ^ princes are, so are the people ; qnalis rex, 



a Boterus, I. 9. c. 4 Poiit. Quo fif iit mit rebus desperalis exiilent, aiit conjiiratione 
subditoHim crudelissiine tandem trucidentur. *• Miituia odiis et casdibiis 

exhausti, &c. ' Jiiicra ex nialis, sceleratisque caussis. "iSallust. 

•For most part, we misiake the name of politicians, accounting such as read 
Machiavel and Tacitus, great statesmen, that can dispute of political precepts, 
supplant and overthrow their adversaries, enrich themselves, get honour, dis- 
semble. But what is this to the bene esse, ov preser\ation of a common-wealth? 
f Imperium suapte sponte corruit. sApul. Prim. Flor. Ex. innu- 

luerabilibns, pauci senatores genere nobiles ; e consularibus pauci boni : e bonis 
adhuc p;iuri cruditi. h ;is}on solum vitia roucipiunt ipsi principes, sed etiam 

infunduut in civitatem ; plusque exemplo, quiim peccato, nocent Cic. 1. de le- 
gibuf. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 71 

talis grex : and, which ^ Antigones right well said of old, qui 
Macedonicc regem erndit, omnes etiam subditos erudit^ he that 
teacheth the king- of Macedon, teacheth all his subjects, is 
a true saying still. 

For princes are the glass, the school, the book. 
Where subjects eyes do learn, do read, do look, 

Velocius et citius nos 

Corrumpunt vitiorum exempla domestica, magnis 
Cum subeant animos auctoribus 

their examples are soonest followed, vices entertained : if they 
be prophane, irreligious, lascivious, riotous, epicures, fac- 
tious, covetous, ambitious, illiterate, so will the commons most 
part be, idle, unthrifts, prone to lust, drunkards, and therefore 
poor and needy {■}, Trevio. araca-iv if/.voiBi, >c«; xAKov^ytuv, for poverty 
begets sedition and villany) upon alloccasionsready tomutiny 
and rebel, discontent, still complaining,murmuring,grudging, 
apt to all outrages, thefts, treasons, murders, innovations, in 
debt, shifters, cozeners, outlaws, projlif/atce Jhmce ac vitce. 
It was an old ** politicians aphorism, they that are poor and 
had, envy rich, hate good meUy abhor the present government, 
wish Jor a netv^ and would have all turned topsie turvy. 
When Catiline rebelled in Rome, he got a company of such 
debauched rogues together : they were his familiars and coad- 
jutors, and such have been your rebels, most part, in all ages — 
Jack Cade, Tom Straw, Kette, and his companions. 

Where they be generally riotous and contentious, where 
there be many discords, many laws, many law-suits, many 
lawyers, and many physicians, it is a manifest sign of a dis- 
tempered, melancholy state, as ^ Plato long since maintained : 
for, where such kind of men swarm, they will make more work 
for themselves, and that body politick diseased, which was 
otherwise sound — a general mischief in these our times, an 
imsensible plague, and never so many of them; which are 
now multiplyed (fiaith Mat. Geraldus, '' a lawyer himself,) as so 
many locusts, not the parents, hut the plagues oj' the countrey, 
and, for the most part, a supercilious, bad, covetous, litigious 
generation oJ" men — ^ crumenimulga natio, 6fc. a purse-milk- 
ing nation, a clamorous company, gowned vultures, ' qui 

^Epist. ad. Zen. Juven. Sat. 4. Panpertas sfeditionem gignit et nialeficium. Arist, 
pol. 2. c. 7. '' Sallust. Semper in civitate, quibus opos nuUse sunt, bonis invident ; 
Vetera odere ; nova exoptant ; odio suamm rerum mutari omnia petunt. 'De 

legibus. Profligata' inrepub, disciplinfe est indicium jurisperitorum numerus, et medi- 
conimcopia. '' In prajf. stud, juris. Multiplicantur nunc in terris, ut locusta;, non 

patria; parentes, sed pestes, pessimi homines, majore ex parte superciliosi, conteutiosi, 
&c. — licitum latrocinium exercent. e Dousa, epid. Loquutuleia turba, vultares 

togatj. ffiarc. Argon. 



72 DEMOCUITUS TO THE READER. 

ex mjurid vivunt et sanguine civium, thieves and seminaries 
of discord, worse than any polers by the high way side, auri 
accipitres, ami exterehronides, pecuniarnm lianiiohc, qna- 
drnplatores, curicE harpar/onefi, Jori tintiunabula monstra Jio- 
minum, mangones, Src. that take upon them to make peace, 
but are indeed the very disturbers of" our pence, a company of 
irreligious harpyes, scraping, griping, cntch- poles, (I mean 
om* common hungry petty -foggeYs,r{dmiasJ'oreuses — love and 
honour, in the mean time, all good laws, and worthy lawyers, 
that are so many ^oracles and pilots of a well governed com- 
mon-wealth) without art, without judgement, that do more 
Iiarm, as ^ Livy saith, quam bella externa^ James, raorhive^ 
than sickness, wars, hunger, diseases ; and cause a most 
incredible destruction oj' a cortimon-ioealth, saith ''Sesellius, 
a famous civilian sometimes in Paris. As ivy doth by an 
oke, imbrace it so long, until it hath got the heart out of 
it, so do they by such places they inhabit : no counsel at all, 
no justice, no speech to be had, nisi eum prccmulseris : he 
must be fed still, or else he is as mu!e as a fish ; better open an 
oyster without a knife. Expertocredr, (saith '^ Salisburiensis) : 
in manus eoram millies incidi ; et Charon immitis, qui nulli 
pepercitunq?iam, his huge clementior est — I speak out oj' expe- 
rience ; I have been a thousand times aniGugst them ; and 
Charon himself is more gentle than they : ^ he is contented with 
his single pay ; but they multiply still : they are never 
satisfied: besides they have damnijicas linguas, (as he terms 
it) nisi J'wiibns argenteis vincias : they must be feed to say 
nothing, and *g:t more to hold their peace, than we can to 
say our best. Thej will speak their clients fair, and invite 
them to their tables : but (as he follows it) ^ of all injustice^ 
there is none so pernicious as that oj' theirs, tchich, when they 
deceive most, will seem to be honest men. They take upon 
them to be peace-makers, etj'overe caussas humilium, to help 
them to their right : patrocinantur afflictis ; ^ but all is for their 
own good, ut loculos pleniorum exhauriant : they plead for 
poor men gratis ; but they are but as a stale to catch others. 
if there be no jar, 'they can make a jar, out of the law it self 
find still some quirk or other, to set them at odds, and con- 
tinue causes so long, (lustra aliquot J I know not how many 



a Jnrisconsnlti domiis oraculum civifatis. TuUy. b Xjijj. 3. ^Ijib.]. 

de rep. Gallori'.m. Incredibilem reipiib. perniciem aflferunt. t <iPolycrat. lib. 

«' Is stipe contentus ; at hi asses integros sibi multiplicari jubent. ' Plus acci- 

pitint tacere, qnam tios loqui. sTotius injustitioe. nulla capitalior, qn^iii eoruin, 

qui, cum raaxiine decipiunt, id agunt ut boni viri esse videantur. '' Nam, quo- 

cunijne modo caussa procedat, hoc semper agitnr, ut loculi inipleantur, etsi avaritia 
nequit satiari. ' Camden, iu Norfolk. Qui, si nihil sit litium, e juns apicibus 

lites taniLii serere caileut. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THR READER. 73 

yearsjbefore the causeis heard: and when 'tisjiulged and deter- 
niiiiCMl, by reason of some tricks ami errours, it is as fresh to 
begin, after twice seven years sometimes, as it was at first ; and 
so they prolong time, delay suits till they have enriclied them- 
selves, and beggared their clients. And, as "■ Cato inveighed 
against Isocrates scholars, we may justly tax our wranglino- 
lawyers, — they do cori'ienescere in lUihvs^ are so litigious and 
busie here on earth, that 1 tliink they will |)!ead their clients 
causes hereafter, some of them in hell. ^ Simierus complains, 
amongst the Suissers, of the advocates in his time, that, when 
they should make an end, they begin controversies, and pro^ 
tract their caitses many years, persu-ading them their title is 
good, till their patrimomes he consumed, and that they have 
spent more in seeking, than the thing is worth, or they shall 
get by the recovery. So that he that goes to law (as the pro- 
verb is) <= holds a wolf by the ears ; or, as a sheep in a storm 
runs for shelter to a brier, if he prosecute his cause, he is con- 
sumed : it" he surcease his suit, he loseth all : what difference ? 
They had wont heretofore, saith ''Austin, to end matters, per 
communes arbitros ; and so in Sv, itzerland, (we are informed 
by " Simierus) they had some common, arbitrators or dayes- 
men in every town, that made a J'riendly composition betwixt 
man and man : and he much wonders at their honer,t simplicity^ 
that could keep peace so ivell, and end such great causes hif 
that means. At "^^Fez in Africk. they have neither lawyers 
nor advocates ; but, if there be any controversie amongst 
them, both parties, plaintifJ'and defendant,come to their Alfa- 
kinsor chief judge; and at once, without any farther appeals 
or pitiful delays, the cause is heard and ended. Our fore- 
falliers,(as ^a worthy chorographer of ours observes) had m ont, 
pauculiscruculis aureis, with a few golden crosses, and lines in 
verse, to njake all conveyances, assurances. And such was the 
candour and integrity ofsucceeding' ages.that a deed, (as I have 
oft seen) to convey a Avhole manor, was implicite contained in 
some twenty lines, or thereabouts; like that scede or scytala 
Laconica, so much renowned of old in all contracts, which 
''Tully so earnestly commends to Atticus, Plutarch in his 



X 



* Plutarch, vit Cat. Caussas apiul imeroifli^ias in suaiu fiuem receperunf, pa- 
trociriio suo tuebantiir. '' Lib. 2. de Helvet. repub. Non explicaudis, sed mo- 

lic'iidis controversiis operain dant, ut lites in miiltos annos extrahautur suiuina 
cuni niolestia utriusque partis, et duin interea patririionia exhauriuntiir. ••■ Lnpum 

auribus tenent "^Hor. cLib. de Hdlvet. repub. Judicesquocunque 

pago constitiumt, qui arnica aliqna transactione, si fieri possit, iites tollanL Ego 
majorutn nostroruui simplicitutem adiiiiror. qui sic caussas gravissimaa com- 
posuerint, &c. 'Clenard 1. I. ep. Si qua; controversia;, utraque pars ju- 

dicem adit: is seinel et simul rem tiansigit, audit: nee quid sit apellatio, 
lacrymosffique mora;, noscunt. >-' Camden. '' Lib. 10. epist. ad Atticum, 

epist 11. 



74 DKMOCttlTUS TO THE READER. 

Lysander, Aristotle, polit. Thiicy elides, lib. \, ^ Diodorus, 
and Siiidas, approve and magnifie, for that Laconick brevity in 
this kind ; and well they might ; for, according to ''Tertullian, 
certa sunt paucis, there is much more certainty in fewer words. 
And so was it of old throughout : but now many skins of 
parchment will scarce serve turn : he that buys and sells a 
house, must have a house full of writings ; there be so many 
circumstances, so many words, such tautological repetitions 
of all particulars (to avoid cavillation they say) : but we find,by 
our woeful experience, that, to subtle wits, it is a cause of much 
more contention and variance ; and scarce any conveyances© 
accuratety penned by one, which another will not find a crack 
in, or cavil at: if any word be misplaced, any little errour, 
all is disannulled. That Avhich is law to day, is none to mor- 
row : that which is sound in one mans opinion, is most faulty 
to another; that, in conclusion, here is nothing amongst us but 
contention and confusion. We bandy one against another ; 
and that, which long- since ^ Plutarch complained of them in 
Asia, may be verified in our times — These men, here assembled, 
come not to sacrifice to their pods, to offer Jupiter their first 
J'ruits, or merriments to Bacchns ; hut an yearly disease, exas- 
peratiruf Asia^ hath brought them hither, to make end of 
their controversies and law suits. 'Tis multitndo perdentium 
etpereuntium, a destructive rout, that seek one anothers ruine. 
Such, most part, are our ordinary suitors,termers, clients : new 
stirs every day, mistakes, errours, cavils, and at this present, 
(as I have heard) in some one court, I know not how many 
thousand causes : no person free, no title almost good, with 
such bitterness in following, so many slights, procrastinations, 
delay es, forgery, such cost (for infinite sums arc inconsiderately 
spent) violence and malice, I know not by whose fault, law- 
yers, clients, laws, both or all : but as Paul reprehended the 
'' Corinthians long since, I may more appositely infer now : 
There is aj'ault amongst you ; and I speak it to your shame. 
Is there not a ^wise man amongst you, to judge between his 
brethren ? but that a brother goes to law with a brother ? And 
* Christs counsel concerning law-suits was never so fit to be 
inculcated, as in this age : ^ Agree with thine adversary 
quickly J Sfc. Matth. 5. 25. 



aBiblioth. I. 3. ^XAh. de Anim. ^ Lib. major, morb. corp. an aniini. Hi 

non conveninnt, ut dlis more majorum sacra faciant, non ut Jovi primitias offerant, 
aut Baccho comissationes ; sed anniversarius morbus, exasperans Asian), hue eo» 
coegit, ut contentiones hie peragant. "• 1 Cor. 6. 5. 6. f Stulti, quando 

demum sapietis ? Psal. 49. 8. f Of which text read two learned sermons, * so 

intituled, and preached by our Regius Professour, D. Prideaux : printed at London 
by Foelix Kingston, 1621. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READliR. 75 

I ooiilil ropeat many such particular grievances, wliich must 
disturb a body politick : — to shut up all in brief, where good 
government is, prudent and wise princes,there all things thrive 
and prosper; peace and happiness is in that land : where it is 
otherwise, all things are ugly to behold, incult, barbarous, un- 
civil; a paradiseis turned to a wilderness. This island amongst 
the rest, our next neighbours the French and Germans, may be 
a sufficient witness, that in a short time, by that prudent po- 
licy of the Romans, was brought from barbarism : see but what 
Ctesar reports of us, and Tacitus of those old Germans : they 
were once as uncivil as they in Virginia ; yet, by plantino- of 
colonies and good laws, they became, from barbarous outlaws, 
'" to be full of rich and populous cities, as now they are, and 
most flourishing kingdoms. Even so might Virginia,and those 
wild Irish, have been civilized long since, if that order had 
been heretofore taken, which now begins, of planting colonies, 
&c. I have read a ''discourse, printed anno 161'2, discovering 
the true causes, why Ireland teas never intirehi subdued, or 
brought under obedience to the croicn of England, until the 
beginiiing of his Majesties happy reign. Yet, if his reasons 
Avere thoroughly scanned by a judicious politician, I am afraid 
he would not altogether be approved, but that it would turn to 
the dishonour of our nation, to suffer it to lye so lon<r ■^yaste. 
Yea, and if some travellers should see (to come neerer home) 
those rich United Provinces of Holland, Zeal;?nd, &c. over 
against us, those neat cities and populous towns, full of most 
industrious artificers, '^so much land recovered from the sea, 
and so painfully preserved by those artificial inventions, so 
wonderfully approved, as that of Bemster in Holland, ut nihil 
huic par aut simile invenias in toto orbe, saith Bertius the 
geographer — all the Avorld cannot match it : '^ so many naviga- 
ble channelsfrom pflace to place, made by mens hands,&c.and, 
on the other side, so many thousand acres of our fens lie 
drowned, our cities thin, and those vile, poor, and ugly to 
behold in respect of theirs ; our trades decayed, our stilt run- 
ning rivers stopped, and that beneficial use of transportation 
wholly neglected ; so many havens void of ships and towns, 
so many parks and forests for pleasure, barren heaths, so 
many villages depopulated, &c. I think sure he would find 
some fault 

1 may not deny but that this nation of ours doth bene audire 
apudexteros — is a most noble, a most flourishing kingdom, by 

aSaepius bona materia cessat sine artifice. Sabellicus, de Germania. Si quis vide- 
ret Germaniam nrhibus hodie exrnlfani, non diceret, iit olira, trist^ni cultii, aspe- 
ram c<rlo, terranitn infonut-ni. *> fiy his Majesties Attorney General there. < As 
Zeipfand, Bemster in Hoilanil, kc. d From Gaunt to S'luce, from Bruges to the 

seaj 8ic. 



76 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

comnion consent of all -^ geogTaphers, hislorians, politicians : 
'tis uniea velut ar:i\ and r/hich Quintius in Livy said of the 
inhabitants of Peloponnesus, mfsy be well applyod to us, we are 
testiid'mes testa sua inclmice — like so many tortoises in our 
shells, safely defended by an an^Tysea, as a wall, on al! sides: 
our island hath many such honourable eufogiums; and, as a 
learned countrey-man of ours right well hath it, '' Ever shice 
the Normans first coming into England, this coimtreg, both 
for military matteis and all other of civility^ hath been pa- . 
ralleVd ivith the most flourishing king doms_ of Europe, atid 
our Christian ivorld — a blessed, a rich coimtrey, and one of 
the fortunate isles ; and, for some thiiigs, "^ preferred before 
other countries, for expert seamen, our laborious discoveries, 
art of navigation, true merchants — ihey carry the bell away 
from all otfier nations, even the Portugals and Hollanders 
themselves — '^ without all fear , (saitli Bot ems) fur roicing the 
ocean whiter and ■8?tmmer ; and two of their captains, icith 
no less valour than fortune^ have sailed round about the world. 
•= We have beside many particular blessings, whicfi our neigh- 
bours want — the gospel truly preached, church discipline 
established, long peace and quietness — free from exactions, 
foraign fears, invasions, domestical seditions — v/ell manured, 
^fortitied by art, and nature, and now most happy in that for- 
tunate union of England and Scotland, which our forefathers 
have laboured to eii'ect, and desired to see : but, in which we 
excell all others, a wise, learned, religious king, another Numa, 
a second Augustus, a true Josiah, most worthy senators, a 
learned clergy, an obedient commonalty, &c. Yet, amongst 
many roses, some thistles grow, some bad weeds and enormi- 
ties, which much disturb the peace of this body politick, 
eclipse the honour and glory of it, fit to be rooted out, and 
with all speed to be reformed. 

The first is idleness, by reason of which we have many 
swarms of rogues and beggars, theeves, drunkards, and dis- 
contented persons, (whom Lycurgus, in Plutarch, calls morbos 
reipub, the boils of the common-wealth) many poor people in 
all our towns, civitates ignobiles, as s Polydore calls them, 
base built cities, inglorious, poor, small, rare in sight, ruinous, 
and thin of inhabitants. Our land is fertile (we may not deny), 
full of all good things; and why doth it not then abound with 
cities, as well as Italy, France, Germany, the Low-Countreys ? 

'^Ortelius, Boterus, Mercator, Meteranus, &c. ^Jam inde non belli gloria, 

quam humanitatis cultu, inter florentissimas orbis Christiaui gentes imprimis floruit, 
Camden, Brit, de Normanis. "^ Geog. Keeker. d fam hyeme quam aestate 

intrepide sulcant oceanum ; et duo illorum duces, non minore audacia quam fortu- 
na, totius orbem terrio circumnavigarunt. Amphitheatro Boterus. f A fertile 

«oil, good air, &c. tin, lead, wool, saffron, &c. f Tota Britannia unica velut 

arx. Boter. g Lib. 1. hist. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE P.F.ADF.R. 77 

because their policy hath been otherwise ; and we are not so 
thrifty, civoiimspect, industrious. Idleness is the malm c/cni- 
us of our nation : for, (as -' Boterus justly aroues) fertility of a 
countrey is not enouoh, except art and industry be'joyned 
unto it. According- to Aristotle, riches are neither natural or ar- 
tificial : natural are good land, fair mines, &c. artificial, are 
manufaolures, coines, &c. Many kingdoms are fertile, l)ut thin 
of iidiabitants, as that duchy of Piedmont in Italy, wliich 
Leander Arbertus so much magnifies for corn, wine, fruits, 
&c. yet nothing- near so populous as those which are more 
barren. ^En(j/,and smth he (London onhj excepted) hath 
nevei- a populous city, and yet a f miff ul countrey . I find 
46 cities and walled towns in Alsatia, asm«ll province in Ger- 
many, 50 castles, an infinite number of villages, no oroiind 
idle — no, not rocky places, or tops of hills, "are nntifled, as 
^ Munster infovnieth us. In '^ Greichgea, small territory on the 
Necker, 24 Italian miles over, I reatl of 20 wailed towris, in- 
numerable villages, each one containing 150 houses most part, 
besides castles aisd noblemans palaces. I observe, in ^Turinoe 
in Dutchland, (twelve miles over by their scale) 12 coiinties, 
and in them 141 cities, '2000 villages, 144 towns, 250caslles 
— in 'Bavaria, 34 cities, 46 towns, &c. "PortmjalUa iutpram- 
7*w, a small plot of ground, hath 1460 parishes, I30monasre- 
ries, 200 bridges. Malta, a barren island, yields '^^0000 inhabit- 
ants. But of all the rest, I admire Lues Guicciardines relations 
of the Low-Countries. Holland hath 26cities,40U great viII»oes 
— Zeland, 10 cities, 102 parishes— Brabant, 26 cities, f()2 
parishes— Flanders, 28 cities, 90 towns, 1 134 villages, besides 
abbies, castles, &c. The Low- Countries generally have three 
cities at least for one of ours, and those far more populous and 
rich : and what is the cause, but their industry and excellency 
in all manner of trades, their commerce, which is maintained 
bya muUitudeof tradesmen, somany excellent channelsmade 
by art, and opportune havens, to which (hey buijd their cities? 
all which we have in like measure, or at least may have. But 
their chiefest loadstone, which draws all manner of commerce 
and merchandise, which maintains their present estate, is not 
fertility of soyl, bi-t industry (hat enricheth them : the gold 
mines of Peru or Nova Hispaniamay not compare with (hem. 
They have neither gold nor silver of their own, wine nor oylj 
or scarce any corn growing in those United Provinces, little or 



a Incremenf. nro. lib. I. cap. 9. b Angiiae, excepto Loiidino, nulla est civitas 

mpmoralnhs, licet ea natio rerum omnium copia ahiindet. •• Cosmog. lib. 3. cap. 

119. Villaruin non est numenis ; milliis locus otiosus, aut incuitiis. dChytrens 

orat edit. Fiancof. 1.">S:). <• Magiuus Geog. ' Oitelius e Vaseo et Pet. de 

Medina. "An hundred families iu each. 



7^^ DEMOORITUS TO THE READER. 

no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk, wool, any stuff almost, or mettle ; 
and yet Hungary, Transilvania, that brasr of theirmines, fertile 
Eng^land, cannot compare with them. I dare boldly say, that 
neither France, Tarentum, Apulia, Lombardy, or any part 
of Italy,Valence in Spain, orthat pleasant Andalusia, with their 
excellent fruits, wine, and oyl, two harvests- — no, not any part 
of Europe, is so flourishing-, so rich, so populous, so full of 
good ships, of well built cities, so abounding with all things 
necessary for the use of man. 'Tis our Indies, an epitome 
of China, and all by reason of their industry, good policy, and 
commerce. Industry is a loadstone to draw all good things ; 
that alone makes countries flourish, cities populous, ^and will 
enforce, by reason of much manure which necessarily follows, 
a barren soyl to be fertile and good, as sheep (saith ^Dion) 
mend a bad pasture. 

Teil me, politicians, why is the fruitful Palestina, noble 
Greece, ^gypt, Asia Minor, so much decayed, and (meer 
carcasses now) fain from that they were? The gTound is the 
same ; but the government is altered ; the people are grown 
slothful, idle; their good husbandry, policy, and industry, is 
decayed. NonJ'atujata aut effeta hnnms; (as "" Columella well 
informs Sylvinus) sed nostra f.t inertia, &c. May a man be- 
lieve that which Aristotle in his Politicks, Pausanias,8tepha- 
nus, Sophianus, Gerbelius, relate of old Greece? 1 find here- 
tofore 70 cities in Epirus (overthrown by Paulus iEnu'lius), a 
goodly province in times past, '' now left desolate of good 
towns, and almost inhabitants — 62 cities in Macedonia, in 
Strabo's time. I find 30 in Laconia, but now scarce so many 
villages, saith Gerbelius. If any n)an, from Mount Tiiygetus, 
should view the countrey round about, and see tot delicias^ 
tot urhes per Peloponnemni dispersas, so many delicate aijd 
brave built cities, with such cost and exquisite cu'ining, so 
neatly set outin Peloponnesus, ''he should perceive them now 
ruinous and overthrown, burnt, waste, desolate, and laid level 
with the ground. IncrediJnle dictu, Sfc And as he laments, 
Quisy taliaj'ando, Temperet a lacrymis ? Quis tarn durns aut 
J'errens, (so he prosecutes it) who is he that can sufficiently 
condole and commiserate these mines? Where are tliose 4000 
cities of iEgypt, those 100 cities in Crete ? Are ihey now con«e 
totwo? Whatsaith Pliny, and iElian, of old Italy ? There v/ere, 
in former ages, 1 166 cities : Blondus and Machiavelboth grant 



» Pop'.ili multitndo diliprenti cultura fecimdat solum. Bofer. 1. 8. c, 3. ^ Orat. 

35. Terra nbi oves stabulantur, optima agricolis ob stercus. ("De re rust. 1. 2. 

cap; 1 <iHodie nrbibus desobitiir, et magn;i ex parte inco!isdestituit:ir, Gerbt'lius 
desc. Grsecise. lib. 6 '' Videhit eas f'ere omnes aut exersas, aut solo cequatas, 

aut in rudera foedissime dejectas, Gerbelius. 



DKMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 79 

them now nothing- near so populous and full of g-ood towns, as 
in the time of Augustus (fornow Leander Aibertus can find but 
SOO at most), and, if we may give credit to * Livy, not then 
so strong and puissant as of old : They mustered 70 letjions 
hijbrmer times, which now the known world toill scarce yield, 
Alexander built 70 cities in a short space for his part ; our 
sultans and Turks demolish twice as many, and leave all 
desolate. Many will not believe but that our island of Great 
Britain is now more populous than ever it was : yet let them 
read Bede,Leland,and others; they shall find it most flourished 
in the Saxon Heptarchy, and in the Conquerours time was 
far better inhabited, than at this present. See that Doomsday- 
Book : and shew me those thousands of parishes, which are 
now decayed, cities ruined, villages depopulated, &c. The 
lesser the territory is, commonly the richer it is — parvus^ sed 
beuecnltus,af/er — as those Athenian,Laced8emonian, Arcadian, 
Elean, Sicyonian, Messenian, &c. common-wealth of Greece 
make ample proof— as those imperial cities and free states 
of Germany may witness — those cantons of Svvitzers, Rhseti, 
Grisons, Walloons, territories of Tuscany, Lucca and Sienna 
of old, Piedmont, Mantua, Venice in Italy, llaguse, &c. 

That prince, then fore, (as '' Boterus adviseth) that Mill have 
a rich country, and fair cities, let him get good trades, privi- 
leges, painful inhabitants, artificers, and suffer no rude matter 
unwrought, as tin, iron, wood, lead, &c. to be transported out 
of his countrey — ' a thing in part seriously attempted amongst 
as, but not effected. And because industry of men, and 
nmltitude of trade, so much avails to the ornament and en- 
riching of a kingdom, those ancient '^ Massilians would admit 
no man into their city that had not some trade. Selym the 
First, Turkish Emperour, procured a thousand good artificers 
to be brought from Tauris to Constantinople. The Polanders 
indented with Henry duke of Anjou, their new chosen king-, 
to bring with him an hundred families of artificers into Poland. 
James the first in Scotland (as '^Buchanan writes) sent for the 
best artificers he could get in Europe, and gave them gieat re- 
wards to teach his sul)jects their several trades. Edward the 
Third, our most renowned king, to his eternal memory, 
brought cloathing first into this island, transporting some fa- 
milies of artificers from Gaunt hither. How many goodly 
cities could 1 reckon up, that thrive wholly by trade, where 



!>Lib. 7. Septuaginta olitn legiones scripta; tlicuntiir ; qnas vires liodie. Sec. 
•'Polit. 1. 3. c. 8. 'For dying of cloaths, and dressing, &c. •' Valer. lib. 2. 

c. 1 ^ Hist. Scot. lib. 10. Magnis propositis pra;nuis, ut Scoti ab iis edoc«- 

rentur. 



M) DEMOrRiTU'i TO TJIE ItEAPFR. 

tliousasidsorinbabftaiUsfive singular wpll by tlieir fiiigerends, 
as Florence in Italy by making cloth of gold; great Millan by 
silk, and all curious works ; Arras in Artois by those fair 
hangings; many cities in Spain, many in France, Germany, 
have none other maintenance, especially those witliin the land. 
* Media, m Arabia Petr^ea, stands in a most unfruitful coun- 
try, that wants water, amongst the rocks, (as Vertomannus 
describes it) ; and yet it is a most elegant and pleasant city, 
by reason of the trafHck of the east and west. Ormns, in 
Persia, is a must famous mart town, hath not else but 
the opportunity of the haven to mnke it flourish. Corinth, 
a noble city, {lumoi. Grceclce, Tully call it) the eye of 
Greece, by reason of Cenchreas and Leclieus, fbose excel- 
lent ports, drew all the trafiick of the Ionian and /Egea)) seas 
to it ; and yet the country about it was cnrva et Sfqjprciliosa, 
(as ''Strabo terms it) rugged and harsh. We may say the 
same of Athens, Actium, Thebes. Sparta, and most of 
those towns in Greece. Noreniberg in Germany is sited in a 
most barren soil, yet a noble imperial city, by the sole indus- 
try of artificers, and cunning trades : they drew the riches ol' 
ntost countreyes to tJjem; so expert in manufactures, that, as 
Sallust long since gave out of the like, sedem (vr'imce in ex- 
tremis diffitis habeni ; their soul, or intellectus affens, was 
placed in their fingers ends; and so we may say of Basil, Spire, 
Cambray, Francfurt, &c. It is almost incredible to speak 
what some nrite of Mexico, and the cities adjoyning to it : 
no place \n the world, at their first discovery, more populous. 
" Mat. Iiiccius the Jesuite, and sorae others, relate of the in- 
dustry of the Chinaes most populous countreys, not a beggar, 
or an idle person to be seen, and how by that means ihey pros- 
per and flourish. We have the same means — able bodies, 
pliant wits, matter of all sorts, wooll, flax, iron, tin, lead, 
wood, &c. many excellent subjects to work upon ; only indus- 
try is wanting. We send our best commodities beyond the 
seas, which they can make good use of to their necessities, set 
themselves a work about, and severally improve, sending tha 
same to us back at dear rates, or else make toyes atui babies 
of the tails of them, which they sell tons again, at as great a 
reckoning as they bought tlie whole. In most of our cities, 
some few excepted, like ^ Spanish loiterers, we live wholly 
by tipling : inns and ale-houses, malting, are their best 



ajVfunst. cosni. 1. 5. c. 74: Agro omnium leruiii infecundissii-ao, aqua indinente, 
inter saxeta, urbs taiaen elegantissima, ob oiientis negotiation's et ocritlentis. 
b Lib. 8. Oeogr. ob asperum s\i\m\. c Lib. Edit, a nic. Tregant. Belg. A. 

1616. exuedit. in Sinas. ^ Ubi nobiks probii locoliabent ailem aiiquain protiteri. 

Clenard. ep 1. 1. 



DEMOCRITITS TO TllK READER. 81 

ploughs; their greatest traffick, to sell ale. ^Meteran and 
some others object to us, that we are no whit so industrious as 
the Hollanders: Manual trades, (saith he) xchich are viore 
curious or troublesome, are whollif exercised hi/ stramjers: they 
dwell ill a sea full of fish ; hut they are so idle, they icill not 
catch so much as shall serve their own turns, but buy it of their 
neiyhhours. . Tush ! ^ Mare liberum : they fish under our 
noses, and sell it to us, when they have done, at their own 
prices, 

-Pudet hsec opprobrla nobis 



Et dici potuisse et non potuisse ret'elli. 

I am ashamed to hear this objected by strangers; and know 
not how to answer it. 

Amongst our towns there is only '^London that bears the face 
of a city — '^epitoine Britannia', a famous emporium, second to 
none beyond seas, a noble mart : but sola crescit,decrescentibus 
aliis ; and yet, in my slender judgement, defective in many 
things. The rest (*" some i'ew excepted) are in mean estate, 
ruinous most part, poor and full of beggars, by reason of their 
decayed trades, neglected or bad policy, idleness of their in- 
habitants, and riot, which had rather beg or loyter, and be 
ready to starve, than work. 

1 cannot deny but that something may be said in defence 
of our cities, "^that they are not so fair built, (for the sole 
magnificence of this kingdom concerning buildings, hath been 
of old in those Norman castles and religious houses) so rich, 
thick sited, populous, as in some other countreys. Besides the 
reasons Cardan gives, {Subtil. Lib. 11.) we want wine and oyl, 
their two harvests ; we dwell in a colder air, and, for that 
cause, must a little more liberally ^ feed of flesh, as all North- 
ern countreys do. Our provision will not therefore extend 
to the maintenance of so many : yet, notwithstanding, wo 
have matter of all sorts, an open sea of traflick, as well 
as the rest, goodly havens. And how can we excuse our 



^Lib. ll?. Belg. Hist. Non tamlaboriosi, utBelgse, sed, utHispani, otiatores, vitani 
\\t plurimiiin otiosam agentes : artes manuarioe, qnoe plnrimuni habent in se laboris et 
difticultatis, majoreraque requirunt industriam, a peregrinis et exteris exercentur : babi- 
tant in piscosissimo niari ; interea tantiim non piscantur quantum insula; suflecerit, sed 
a vicinis emere coguntiir. t" Grotii Liber. <-" Urbs animis nuraeroqiie potens, 

et robdre genti«. Scabger. ^ Camden. <■ York, Bristow, Norwich, Worcester, ^c. 
fN. Gainsford's areument, "Because gentlemen dwell wth us in the countrey villages, 
our cities are I'^ss," is nothing to the purpose. Put 300 or 400 villiiges in a shire, and 
every village yield a gentleman : what is 400 families to increase one of our cities or 
to contend with theirs, which stand thicker ? and whereas ours usually consist of 7000, 
theirs consist of 40000 inhabitants. ? Maxiiua pars victiis in carne coiisistit 

Polyd. Lib. 1. Hist. 

VOL. I. " G 



82 DEMOCRITUS TO THfi READER. 

negligence, our riot, drunkenness, &c. and such enormities 
that follow it ? We have excellent laws enacted, (you will say) 
severe statutes, houses of correction, &c. — to small purpose, it 
seems: it is not houses will serve, but cities of correction : ''our 
tradesg'enerallyoughtto be reformed, wants supplyed. In other 
countreys, they have the same grievances, I confess, (but that 
doth not excuse us) ^ wants, defects, enormitiesy idle drones, 
tumults,discords,contention,law-suits,many laws made against 
them to repress those innumerable brawls and law-suits, excess 
in apparel, diet, decay of tillage, depopulations, *^ especially 
against rogues, beggars, ^Egyptian vagabonds (so termed at 
least) which have ''swarmed all over Germany, France, Italy, 
Poland, (as you may read in "^MunsterjCranziuSjand Aventinus) 
as those Tartars and Arabians atthis day do in the eastern coun- 
treys — yet, (such hath been the iniquity of all ages) as it seems, 
to small purpose. Nemo in nostra, civitate mendicus esto, saith 
Plato: he will have them purged from a * common- wealth, 
" as a bad humour J'rom the hody, that are like so many ulcers 
and boils, and must be cured before the melancholy body can 
be eased. 

What Carolus Magnus, the Chinese, the Spaniards, the 
duke of Saxony, and many other states have decreed in this 
case, read Arniseus, cap. 19. Boterus, lihro 8. cap. 2. Osorius, 
de Rebus gest. Eman, lib. II. When a countrey is over- 
stored with people, as a pasture is oft over-laid with cattle, 
they had wont in former times to disburden themselves, by 
sending" out colonies, or by wars, as those old Romans ; or by 
employing them at home about some publick buildings, as 
bridges, rode-wayes, (for which those Romans were famous 
in this island) as Augustus Csesar did in Rome, the Spaniards 
in their Indian mines, as at Potosa in Peru, where some 
thirty thousand men are still at work, six thousand furnaces 
ever boyling, &c. '' aqueducts, bridges, havens, those stu- 
pend works of Trajan, Cladius at 'Ostium, Dioclesiani 
Thermse, Fucinus Lacus, that Pirseeum in Athens, made by 
Themistocles, amphitheatrums of curious marble, as at Ve- 
rona, Civitas Philippi, and Heraclea in Thrace, those Appian 
and Flaminian wayes, prodigious works all may witness; 

a Refrsenate monopolii licentiam ; pauciores alantur otlo ; redintegretnr agricolatio ; 
lanificiuni instauretur ; ut sit honestum negotiurn, quo se exerceat otiosa ilia tinba. 
Nisi his malis niedentur, friistra exercent justitiam. Mor. Utop. Lib. 1. b]\Jan- 

cipiis locuples, ejjetserisCappadociimrex. Hor. c Regis dignitatis non estexercere 
imperium in mendicos, sed in opulentos. Non est regni decus, sed carceris esse custos. 
Idem. '1 Colhivies hominum niirabilis, excocti sole^ itnmnndi veste, fcedi visii, furtis 
imprimis acres, &c. ''Cosmog. lib. 3. c. 5. f Seneca Hand munis ttirpia 

principi multa supplicia, quam medico miUta funera. B Ut pituitam et bilem a 

corpore (II. de leg.) oranes vult exterminari. ''See Lipsius, Admiranda. ' De 
quo Suet, in Claudio ; et Plinius, c. 36. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 83 

and (rather than they should be '^ idle) as those '' ^Egyptian 
Pharaohs, 3Ioeris, and Sesostris, did, to task their subjects to 
build unnecessary pyramids, obelisks, labyrinths, chanels, 
lakes, gigantian works all, to divert them from rebellion, riot, 
drunkenness ; " quo scilicet alantur, et ne vagando laborare 
desuescant. 

Another eye-sore is that Avant of conduct and navigable 
rivers, — a great blemish, (as ^ Boterus, •= Hippolytus a Colli- 
bus, and other politicians hold) if it be neglected in a com- 
mon-wealth. Admirable cost and charge is bestowed in the 
Low-Countreys on this behalf, in the Duchy of Mdan, terri- 
tory of Padua, in ' France, Italy, China, and so likewise 
about corrivations of Maters, to moisten and refresh barren 
grounds, to drean fens, bogs, and moors. Massiuissa made 
many inward parts of Barbary and Numidia in Africk (be- 
fore his time incult and horrid) fruitful and bartable by this 
means. Great industry is generally used all over the eastern 
countreys in this kind, especially in iEgypt, about Babylon 
and Damascus, (as Vertoraannus and ^Gotardus Arthus re- 
late) about Barcelona, Segovia, Murcia, and many other 
places of Spain, 3Iilan in Italy : by reason of which, their 
soil is much improved, and infinite commodities arise to the 
inhabitants. 

The Turks of late attempted to cut that Isthmos betwixt 
Africk and Asia, which ''Sesostris and Darius,and some Pha- 
raohs of ^Egypt had formerly undertaken, but with ill success 
(as ' Diodorus Siculus records, and Pliny) ; for that the Red- 
sea, being three ^ cubits higher than iEgypt, would have 
drowned all the countrey, coepto destiterant, they left off. 
Yet (as the same ' Diodorus writes) Ptolemy renewed the 
work many years after, and absolved it in a more opportune 
place. 

That Isthmos of Corinth was likewise undertaken to be made 
navigable by Demetrius, by Julius Caesar, Nero, Domitian, 
Herodes Atticus, to make a speedy "'passage, and less dan- 
gerous,from the Ionian and^Egaean seas : but, because it could 
not be so well effected, the Peloponnesians built a Mall, like our 
Picts wall, about Schoenus where Neptunes temple stood, and 

=» Ut egestati simul et ignavise occurratur, opificia condiscantnr, tenues sableventur. 
Bodin. 1. 6. c. 2. num. (3, 7. bAraasis, .-Egypti rex, legem promiilgavit, ut 

omnes subditi quotanni.s rationein redderent unde \ iverent. '^ Bascoldus, discursu 

polit. cap. 2. " •! Lib. 1. de increm urb. cap. 6. " Cap. 5. de increm urb. 

Qmis flumen, lucus, aut meru, illuit. f Incredibilem commoditatem, 

vectura mercium, tre.s fluvii navigabiles, &c. Boterus, de Gallia. ? Heroditiis, 

'■ Ind. Orient, cap. 2. Rotam m medio flumiue cnnstituunt,cui ex pellibns animaliuin 
coDsutos utres api)endunt : hi, duni rota movetur, aquani per canales, &c. ' Centum 
pedes lata fossa, 30 alta. "< Contrary tothat of Archimedes, who holds the super- 

ficies of all waters even. ' Lib. \. cap. 3. ■" Dion. Pansanias, 

et Nic. Gerbelius, Munster. Cosm.lib. 4. cap. 36. Ut brevoirforet nangatio, et minus 
neririilosa. 

o2 



84 , DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

in the shortest cut over the Isthmos, (of which Diodorus, lib, 
\\. Herodotus, lib. 8. Uran. — our later writers call it Hex- 
amilium) which Ainiirath the Turk demolished, the Vene- 
tians, anno 145S, repaired in fifteen dayes with thirty thou- 
sand men. Some, saith Acosta, would have a passage cut 
from Panama to Nonibre de Dios in America ; but Thuanus 
and Serres, the French historians, speak of a f.mious aque- 
duct in France, intended in Henry the Fourths time, from the 
Loyr to the Seine, and from Rhodanusto the Loyr, the like to 
which was formerly assayed by Doniitian the emperour, 
" froniArar to Mosella, (which Cornelius Tacitus speaks of in 
the thirteenth of his Annals), after by Charles the great, and 
others. Much cost hath in former times been bestowed in 
either new making or mending chanels of rivers, and their 
passages, (as Aurelianus did by Tiber to make it navigable to 
Rome, to convey corn from iEgypt to the city : vadum alvei 
tnmentis effodit, sahh Vopiscus, et Tiberis ripas extrnxit ; he 
cut fords, made banks, &c.) decayed havens, which Claudius 
the emperour, with infinite pains and charges, attempted at 
Ostia, (as I have said) the Venetians at this day, to preserve 
their city. Many excellent means, to enrich their territories, 
have been fostered, invented in most provinces of Europe, as 
planting some Indian plants amongst us ; silk-worms ; ^ the 
very mulberry leaves in the plains of Granado, yield thirty 
thousand crowns per annum to the king of Spains coffers, 
besides those many trades and artificers that are busied about 
them in the kingdom of Granado, Murcia, and all over Spain. 
In France, a great benefit is raised by salt, &c. Whether 
these things might not be as happily attempted with us, and 
with like success, it may be controverted — silk-worms 
(I mean) vines, fir-trees, &c. Cardan exhorts Edward the 
Sixth to plant olives, and is fully perswaded they would pros- 
per in this island. With us, navigable rivers are most part 
neglected. Our streams are not great, 1 confsss, by reason of 
the narrowness of the island : yet they run smoothly and even, 
not headlong, swift, or amongst rocks and shelves, as foam- 
ing- Rhodanus and Loyre in France, Tigris in Mesopotamia, 
violent Durius in Spain, with cataracts and whirl-pools, as the 
Rhine and Danubius, about Schafhausen, Lausenburgh, 
Linz, and Cremmes, to endanger navigators ; or broad shal- 
low, as Neckar in the Palatinate, Tibris in Italy ; but calm and 
fair as Arar in France, Hebrus in Macedonia, Eurotasin La- 
conia : they gently glide along, and might as well be repaired, 
many of them, (I mean Wie, Trent, Ouse, Thamasis at Ox- 

. * Charles the great went about to make a channel from Rhine to Danubius. Bil. 
Pirkiraerus, descript, Ger. the ruinesare yet seen about Wessemberg, from Rednich 
to Altemul. Ut navigabilia inter se Occidentis et Septentrionis litora fierent. 
^Maginus, Geogr. Sijulerus^ de rep. Hclvet. lib. 1. descript. 



DExMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 85 

ford, the defect of which we feel in the mean time) as the 
river of Lee from Ware to London. B. Atwater of ohl, or 
(as some will) Henry the first, ''made a channel from Trent 
to Lincoln, navigable; which now, saith Mr. Cambden, is 
decayed : and much mention is made of anchors, and such 
like monuments, found about old '' Verulamium : good ships 
have formerly come to Exeter, and many such places, whose 
chanels, havens, ports, are now barred and rejected. We 
contcnm this benefit of carriage by waters, and are therefore 
compelled, in the inner parts of this island, because porterage 
is so dear, to eat up our commodities our selves, and live like 
so many boars in a sty, for want of vent and utterance. 

We nave many excellent havens, royal havens, Falmouth, 
Portsmouth, Milford, &c. — equivalent, if not to be preferred, 
to that Indian Havanna, old Brundilsium in Italy, Aulis in 
Greece, Ambracia in Acarnania, Sudaiu Crete, — which have 
few ships in them, little or no traffic or trade, — which have 
scarce a village on them, able to bear great cities: sedvide- 
rint politici. I could here justly tax many other neglects, 
abuses, errors, defects among us, and in other countreys — de- 
populations, riot, drunkenness, &c. and many such, qnce 
nunc in aurem snsnrrare non lihet. But I must take heed,we- 
(juid f/ravius dicam, that I do not overshoot my self — Sns 
M'mervnm — I am forth of my element, as you peradventure 
suppose ; and sometimes Veritas odium parity as he said ; 
verjuice, and oatmeal is goodjor a parret : for, as Lucian said 
of an historian, I say of a politician, he that will freely speak 
and write, must be for ever no subject, under no prince or 
law, but lay out the matter truly as it is, not caring what any 
can, will, like or dislike. 

We have good laws (I deny not) to rectify such enormi- 
ties ; and so in all other countreys; but, it seems, not al- 
M'ayes to good purpose. We had need of some general vi- 
sitor in our age that should reform what is amiss — a just army 
of Rosie-cross men ; for they will amend all matters, (they 
say) religion, policy, manners, with arts, sciences, &c. — 
another Attila, Tamberlane, Hercules, to strive with Ache- 
loiis, Auyece stabulum purfjare, to subdue tyrants, as ' he 
did Diomedes and Busiris; to expel thieves, as he did Cacus 
and Lacinius ; to vindicate poor captives, as he did Hesione ; 
to pass the torrid zone, the desarts of Libya, and purge the 
world of monsters and Centaures — or another Theban Crates 
to reform our manners, to compose quarrels and controver- 
sies, as in his time he did, and was therefore adored for a god 

» Camden in Lincolnshire. Fossedike. '' Near S. Albons, . ' Liiius Girald. 

Nat. Comes. 



86 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

in Athens. As Heicules '^purged the ivorld of monsters, and 
subdued them, so did hejight against envy, lust, anger, ava- 
rice, ^'C. and all those J'eral vices and monsters of the mind. 
It were to be wished ^v^ had some such visitor, or (if wishing- 
would serve) one had such a ring or rings, as Timolaiis de- 
sired in '^Lucian, by vertue of which he should be as strong as 
ten thousand men, or an army of gyants, go invisible, open 
gates and castle doors, have what treasure he would, transport 
himself in an instant to Avhat place he desired, alter affections, 
cure all manner of diseases, that, he might range over the 
world, and reform all distressed states and persons, as he 
would himself. He might reduce those wandering Tartars in 
order, that infest China on the one side, Muscovy, Poland, 
on the other; and tame the vagabond Arabians that rob and 
spoil those eastern countreys, that they should never use more 
caravans, or janizaries to conduct them. He might root out 
barbarism out of America, and fully discover Terra Australis 
Incognita; find out the north-east and north-west passages ; 
drean those mighty Maeotian fens; cut down those vast Her- 
cynian woods, irrigate those barren Arabian desarts, &c. 
cure us of our epidemical diseases, scorbutum, plica, morbus 
Neapolitanus^ S\c. end all our idle controversies; cut off our 
tumultuous desires, inordinate lusts ; root out atheism, im- 
piety, heresie, schism and superstition, which now so cru- 
cifie the world ; catechise gross ignorance, purge Italy of 
luxury and riot, Spain of superstition and jealousie, Germany 
of drunkenness, all our northern countreys of gluttony and in- 
temperance ; castigate our hard-hearted parents, masters, tu- 
tors; lash disobedient children, negligent servants; correct 
these spendthrifts and prodigal sons ; enforce idle persons to 
work; drive drunkards ofi'the ale-house ; repress thieves, visit 
corrupt and tyrannizing magistrates, &c. But, as L. Licinius 
taxed Timolaiis, you may us. These are vain, absurd, and 
ridiculous wishes, not to be hoped : all must be as it is. 
•^Boccalinus may cite common-wealths to come before Apollo, 
and seek to reform the world it self by commissioners ; but 
there is no remedy ; it may not be redressed : desinent homi- 
nes turn demum stultescere, quayido esse desinent : so long- 
as they can wag' their beards, they will play the knaves and 
fools. 

Because, therefore, it is a thing so difficult, impossible, and 
far beyond Hercules labours to be performed, let them be rude, 

=* Apuleius, lib. 4. Flor. Lar familiaris inter homines a;tatis suae cultus est, litium 
omnium et jurgiorum inter propinquos arbiter et disceptator. Adversus iracundiam, 
invidiam, avaritiam, libidinem, cateraque animi humani vitia et raonstra pbiloso- 
phus isle Hercules fiiib. Pestes eas mentibus exegit omnes, &c. *> Yotis Navig, 

•^ Ragguaglio, part 2. cap. 2. et part 3. c. 17. - 



DEMOCUITUS TO THE READER. 87 

stupid, lo norant, inciilt : lapis super lapidem sedeat ; and as 
the ' apologist will, resp. ttissi et graveolentia lahoret, mun- 
dus vitio ; let them be barbarous as they are ; let them "^ ty- 
rannize, epicurize, oppress, luxuriate, consume themselves 
with factions, superstitions, law-suits, wars and contentions, 
live in riot, poverty, want, misery ; rebel, wallow as so many 
swine in their own dung-, with Ulysses companions : stnltos 
jnbeo esse libenter. I will yet, to satisfie and please my self, 
make an Utopia of mine own, a new Atlantis, a poetical com- 
mon-wealth of mine own, in which I will freely domineer, 
build cities, make laws, statutes, as I list my self. And why 
may I not? 



pictoribus atque poetis, &c. 



You know what liberty poets ever had ; and, besides, my pre- 
decessor Democritus was a politician, a recorder of Abdera, a 
law-maker, as some say ; and why may not I presume so much 
as he did ? Howsoever, I will adventure. For the site, if you 
will needs urge me to it, I am not fully resolved : it may be 
in Terra Anstralis Incof/nita ; there is room enough (for, of 
my knowledge, neither that hungry Spaniard, '* nor Mercurius 
Britannicus, have yet discovered half of it) or else one of 
those floating islands in Mare del Zur, which, like the Cy- 
anean isles in the Euxine sea, alter their place, and are ac- 
cessible only at set times, and to some few persons; or one of 
the Fortunate isles; for who knows yet where, or which they 
are ? There is room enough in the inner parts of America, and 
northern coasts of Asia. But I will choose a site, whose 
latitude shall be 45 degrees (I respect not minutes), in the 
midst of the temperate zone, or perhaps under the sequator, 
that '^ paradise of the world, uhi semper virens laurus, ^c. 
Avhere is a perpetual spring-. The longitude, for some reasons, 
I will conceal. Yet he it knoum to all men hy these presents, 
that if any honest gentleman will send in so much money, as 
Cardan allows an astrologer for casting a nativity, he shall be a 
sharer; I will acquaint him with my project; or, if any 
worthy man will stand for any temporal or spiritual office or 
dignity, (for, as he said of his archbishoprick of Utopia, 'tis 
sanctns ambitus, and not amiss to be sought after) it shall be 
freely given, without all intercessions, bribes, letters, &c. his 
own worth shall be the best spokesman ; and (because we 
shall admit of no deputies or advowsons) if he be sufficiently 
qualified, and as able as Milling to execute the place himself, 
he shall have present possession. It shall be divided into 

•' Valent. Andreic Apologf. manip. 604. *" Qui sordidus est, sordescat adhuc, 

fHor. d Ferdinando Quir. 16ia. t Vide Acosta et Laet. 



88 BEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

twelve or thirteen provinces ; and those, by hills, rivers, rode- 
wayes, or some more eminent limits, exactly bounded. Each 
province shall have a metropilis, which shall be so placed 
as a center almost in a circumference, and the rest at 
equal distances, some twelve Italian miles asunder, or there- 
about ; and in them shall be sold all things necessary for the 
use of man, statis horis et diehus : no market-towns, markets 
or fairs; for they do but beggar cities (no viUage shall stand 
above six, seven, or eiglit miles from a city) except those em- 
poriums which are by the sea side, general staples, marts, as 
Antwerp, Venice, Bergen of old, London, &c. Cities, most 

{)art, shall be situate upon navigable rivers or lakes, creeks, 
lavens — and, for their form, regular, round, square, or long 
square,^ with fair, broad, and straight ^ streets, houses uni- 
form, built ofbrick and stone, like Bruges, Bruxels, Rhegiura 
Lepidi, Berna in Switzerland, Milan, Mantua, Crema, Cam- 
balu in Tartary described by M. Polus, or that Venetian Pal- 
ma. 1 will admit very few or no suburbs, and those of baser 
building, walls only to keep out man and horse, except it be 
in some frontier towns, or by the sea side, and those to be 
fortified '^ after the latest manner of fortification, and site upon 
convenient havens, or opportune places. In every so built 
city I M'ill have convenient churches, and separate places to 
bury the dead in, not in church -yards — a citadella (in some, 
not all) to command it, prisons for offenders, opportune 
market-places of all sorts, for corn, meat, cattle, fuel, fish, 
&c. commodious courts of justice, public halls foi" all so- 
cieties, burses, meeting- places, armories, "^ in which shall be 
kept engines for quenching fire, — artillery gardens, publick 
walks, theatres, and spacious fields allotted for all gymnicks, 
sports, and honest recreations, — hospitals of all kinds for 
children, orphans, old folks, sick men, mad men, souldiers, 
— pest-houses, &c. (not built />recan'o, or by gowty benefac- 
tors, who, when by fraud and rapine they have extorted all 
their lives, oppressed whole provinces, societies, &c. give 
something to pious uses, build a satisfactory alms-house, 
school, bridge, &c. at their last end, or before perhaps ; 
which is no otherwise than to steal a goose, and stick down 
a feather, rob a thousand to relieve ten) and those hospitals 
so built and maintained, not by collections, benevolences, 
donaries, for a set number, (as in ours) just so many and no 
more at such a rate, but for all those who stand in need, be 
they more or less, and that ex publico (prarioj and so still 
maintained : no)i nobis solum nati sumus, ^-c. I will 

a Vide Patridum, lib. 8. tit. 10. de Instit. Reip. h {jjc olim Hippodatnus 

Milesius. Arist. polit. c. 11. et VitrnviHs, 1. 1. c. ult. c With walLs of earth, &c. 

dDe his, Plin. epist. 42. lib. 10. et Tacit. Aiiiial. 13. lib. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 89 

have conduits of sweet and good water, aptly disposed in 
each town, common ^ granaries, as at Dresden in Misnia, 
Stetin in Pome'land, Noremberg-, &c. colleges of mathema- 
ticians, musicians, and actors, as of old at Lebedum in Ionia, 
^ alchymists, physicians, artists and philosophers: that all arts 
and sciences may sooner be perfected and better learned; and 
publick historiographers, (as amongst those antient 'Persians, 
qui in commentarios rejerehant qnce memoratu digna f/ere' 
bantnr) informed and appointed by the state to register all 
famous acts, and not by each insufficient scribler, partial or 
parasitical pedant, as in our times. L will provide publick 
schools, of all kinds, singing, dancing, fencing, &c. especially 
of '' grammar and languages, not to be taught by those tedious 
precepts ordinarily used, but by use, example, conversation, as 
travellers learn abroad, and nurses teach their children. As I 
will have all such places, so will 1 ordain <^publick governours, 
fit officers to each place, treasurers, sediles, quaestors, over- 
seers of pupils, widows goods, and all publick houses, &c. and 
those, once a year, to make strict accounts of all receipts, 
expences, to avoid confusion ; et sic fiet ut non absumanf, 
(as Pliny to Trajan) qitod pndeat dicere. They shall be 
subordinate to those higher officers, and governours of each 
city, which shall not be poor tradesmen, and mean artificers, 
but noblemen and gentlemen, which shall be tyed to residence 
in those towns they dwell next, at such set times and seasons : 
for I see no reason (Avhich *Hippolytus complains of) that it 
should be more dishonourable for noblemen to govern the city, 
than the countrey, or unseeniingly to dwell there note, than of 
old. "I will have no bogs, fens, marishes, vast woods, desarts, 
heaths, commons, but all inclosed (yet not depopulated, and 
therefore take heed you mistake me not) ; for that which is 
common, and every mans, is no mans : the richest countreys 
are still inclosed, as Essex, Kent, with us, <fec. Spain, Italy ; 
and where inclosures are least in quantity, they are best ^ hus- 



aVide Brisonium, de regno Pers.jib. 3. de his, et Vegetium, lib. 2 cap, 3. de 
Annona. b Not to make gold, hut for matters of physick. cBresonins. 

Josepl-.us, lib. 21. antiq. .lud. cap. 6. Herod, lib. 3. d So Ltid. Vives thinks 

best, Comminius and others. >-• Plato 3. de leg. .'Ediles creari vult, qui fora, 

fontes, vias, portus, plateas, et id genus alia procureut.— Vide Isaacum Poniannm, 
de civ. Atnstel ha;c omnia, ice. Gotardum et alios. f De iucreui. urb. 

cap. 13. Ingenue fateor me non intelligere cur ignobilius sit urbes bene munitas 
rolere nunc quam olim, aut casa> nisticae prsesse quam urbi. Idem I'bertus 
Foliot, de Neapoli. sr Ne tantillurn quidem soli incultnm relinquitur ; ut 

verum sit ne pollicem quidem agri in his reginnibus sterilem aut infecundum reperiri. 
Marcus Hemmgius, Angustaaus, de regno Cliiiut, 1. 1. c. 3. '■ M. 

Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, saith, that, before that conntrey was inclosed, the 
liusbandinen drank water, did eat little or no bread, fol. (ifi. lib. 1. their apparel 
was coarse: they went bare-legged; their dwelling was correspondent ; but since 
•nclosure, they live decently, and have money to spend ; (fol. 23.) when their 



90 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

banded, as about Florence in Italy, Damascas in S}Tia, &c. 
which are liker gardens than fields. I will not have a barren 
acre in all my territories, no not so much as the tops of moun- 
tains : where nature fails, it shall be supplyed by art; ''lakes 
and rivers shall not be left desolate. All common high- wayes, 
bridges, banks, corrivations of waters, aqueducts, chanels, 
piiblick works, buildings, &c. out of a "^ common stock, cu- 
riously maintained and kept in repair ; no depopulations, in- 
grossings, alterations of wood, arable, but by the consent of 
some supervisors, that shall be appointed for that purpose, 
to see what reformation ought to be had in all places, what 
is amiss, how to help it ; 

Et quid quseque ferat regie, et quid quseque recusal ; 

what ground is aptest for wood, what for corn, what for cattle, 
garden, orchyards, fishponds, &c. with a charitable division in 
every village, (not one domineering houj^e greedily to swallow 
up all, which is too common with us) what for lords, '^what for 
tenants : and because they shall be better encouraged to im- 
prove such lands they hold, manure, plant trees, drean, fence, 
&c. they shall have long leases, a known rent, and known fine, 
to free them from those intolerable exactions of tyrannizing 
landlords. These supervisors shall likewise appoint what 
quantity of land in each manor is fit for the lords demesns, 
what for holding of tenants, how it ought to be husbanded, 

(<iUt Magnetes equis, Minyee, gens cognita remis,) 

how to be manured, tilled, rectified, •'and what proportion is 
fit for all callings, because private possessors are many times 
idiots, ill husbands, oppressors, covetous, and know not how 
to improve their own, or else wholly respect their own, and 
not public good. 

Utopian parity is a kind of government, to be wished for, 
^rather than effected, Respuh. Chistianopolitana, Campanellas 
City of the Sun, and that new Atlantis, witty fictions, but meer 
chimeras : and Platos community in many things is impious. 



fields were common, their wool was coarse [Cornish hair : but, since inclosure, 
it is almost as good as Cotswol, and their soil much mended. Tusser, c. 52. 
of his Husbandry, is of his opinion, one acre inclosed is worth three common. 
The conntrey inclosed I praise : The other delighteth not me ; For nothing of 
wealth it doth raise, &c. « Incredibilis navigiorum copia : nihilo pauciores 

in aquis quam in continenti commorantur. M. Riccius, expedit. in Sinas, 1. 1. 
c. o. , bTo this purpose, Arist. polit. 2. c. 6, allows a third part of their 

revenews, Hippodamus half. "-"Ifa lex agraria dim Romae. <* Lu- 

canus, i. 6. f Hie segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvpe; Arborei fetus alibi, at- 

que injussa virescunt^Gramina. Virg. 1. Georg. f Joh. Valeut. Andreas, 

Lord Verulam. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 9l 

absurd and ridiculous; it takes away all splendor and magni- 
ficence. 1 will have several orders, degrees of nobility, and 
those =^ hereditary, not rejecting- younger brother.-? in the mean 
time ; for they sliall be sufficiently provided for by pensions, 
or so qualified, brought up in some honest calling, they shall 
be able to live of themselves. I will have such a proportion of 
ground belonging to every barony : he that buyes the land, 
shall buy the barony : he that by riot consumes his patrimony, 
and antient demesns, shall forfeit his honours. As some dig- 
nities shall be hereditary, so some again by election or gift 
(besides free offices, pensions, annuities) like our bishopricks, 
prebends, the Bassas palaces in Turky, the *> procurators 
liouses, and offices in Venice, which (like the golden apple) 
shall be given to the worthiest and best deserving both in war 
and peace, as a reward of their worth and good service, as so 
many goals for all to aim at, (honosalit artes) and encourage- 
ments to others. For I hate those severe, unnatural, harsh, 
German, French, and Venetian decrees, which exclude ple- 
beians from honours : be they never so wise, rich, vertuous, 
valiant, and well qualified, they must not be patritians, but 
kee|) tlieir own rank : this is natnrce helbnn hiferre, odious 
to God and men ; I abhor it. My form of Government shall 
be monarchical ; 

( "^ nunquam libertas gratior exstat, 

Quam sub rege pio, &c.) 

few laM s, but those severely kept, plainly put down, and in 
the mother tongue, that every man may understand. Every 
city shall have a peculiar trade or privilege, by which it shall 
Ite cliiefiy maintained : 'and parents shall teach their children, 
(one of three at least) bring up and instruct them in the mys- 
teriesof thcirown irade. In each town,these several tradesmen 
shall be so aptly disposed, as they shall free the rest from dan- 
ger or offence. Fire-trades, as smiths, forge-men, brewers, 
bakers, metal-men, &c. shall dwell apart by themselves; 
dyers, tanners, fel-mongers, and such as use water, in con- 
venient places by themselves: noisome or fulsome for bad smells, 
as butchers slaughter-houses, chandlers, curriers, in remote 
places, and some back lanes. Fraternities and companies I ap- 
prove of, as merchants burses, colleges of druggers, phy- 
sicians, musicians, &c. but all trades to be rated in the sale of 
wares, as our clerks of the market do bakers and brewers ; 

a So it is io the kingdom of Naples, and Francr. *>See Contarenns and 

Oaoriiis de rebus jjestis Enianuelis. <■ Claudian, 1. 7. '' Herodotus, Erato 

1. 6. Ciuu j'Efryptiis Lacedeerponii in hoc congnnint, qnod eonim pracones, 
tibicines, coqui, et reli(iui artifices, in paterno artificio succedunt, et coqiius a coquo 
gignitiir, et paterno opere perseverat. Idem Marcus Polus, de Qtiinzay. Idem Oso- 
rius, de Euianuele rege Lusitauo. Riccius, de Sinis. 



92 DEMOCRITrS TO THE READER. 

corn it self, what scarcity soever shall come, not to exceed 
such a price. Of such wares as are transported or brought in, 
''if they be necessary, commodious, and such as nearly con- 
cern mans life, as corn, wood, cole, &c. and such provision 
we cannot want, I will have little or no custom paid, no taxes ; 
but for such things as are for pleasure, delight, or ornament, 
as wine, spice, tobacco, silk, velvet, cloth of gold, lace, jewels, 
&c. a greater impost. I will have certain ships sent out 
for new discoveries every year, ^ and some discreet men ap- ' 
pointed to travel into all neighbour kingdoms by land, which 
shall observe wha^artificial inventions and good laws are in 
our countreys, customs, alterations, or ought else, concerning 
war or peace, which may tend to the common good ; — eccle- 
siastical discipline, penes episcopos, subordinate as the other : 
no impropriations, no lay patrons of church-livings, or one pri- 
vate man, but common societies, corporations, &c. and those 
rectors of benefices to be chosen out of the universities, exa- 
mined and approved as the literati in China. Noparisli to con- 
tain above a thousand auditors. If it were possible, I would 
have such priests as should imitate Christ, charitable lawyers 
should love their neighbours as themselves, temperate and 
modest physicians, politicians contemn the world, philosophers 
should know themselves, noblemen live honestly, tradesmen 
leave lying and cozening, magistrates corruption, &c. But this 
is impossible ; I must get such as I may. 1 will therefore have 
''of lawyers, judges, advocates, physicians, chyrurgions, &c. 
a set number ; '^ and every man, if it be possible, to plead his 
own cause, to tell that tale to the judge, which he doth to his 
advocate, as at Fez in Africk, Bantam, Aleppo, Raguse, siiatn 
quiscpie cmissam dicere tenetur ; those advocates, chyrurgions 
and ''physicians, which are allowed to be maintained out of the 
'^ common treasure ; no fees to be given or taken, upon pain of 
losing their places ; or, if they do, very small fees, and when 
sthe cause is fully ended. ''He that sues any man shall put in 
a pledge, Avhich if it be proved he hath wrongfully sued his 



» Hippol. a Collibus, de increm. urb. c. 20. Plat. 7. de legibus. Qiise ad 
vitam necessaria, et quibus carere non possumus, nullum dependi vectigal, Sec. 
''Plato, 12, de legibus, 40 annos natos vult, ut, si quid memorabile viderint apud 
exteros, hoc ipsum in rempub. recipiatur. <" Simlerus, in Helvetia. 

«i Utopienses caussidicos excludunt, qui caussas cullide et vafre tractent et dLsputent. 
Iniquissiinum censent hoininem uUis obligari legibus, qua; aut nuinerosiores sunt 
quam ut perlegi queant, aut obscuriores quam ut a qnovis possint intelligi. 
Volunt ut suam quisque caussam agat, eamqne referat judiciquara narraturus fuerat 
patrono: sic minus erit anibaguui, et Veritas facilius elicietiir, Mor. Utop. 1. 2. 
•■ Medici ex publico victum sumunt. Boter. 1. 1. c. 5. de /Egyptiis. f De his, 

lege Patrit. 1. 3. tit. 8. de reip. Instit. S ;fiihil a clientibus patroni accipiant, 

priusquam lis finita est. Barcl. Argen. lib. 3. . i' It is so in most free cities in 

Germany. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 93 

adversary, rashly or malitiously, he shaFl forfeit and lose. 
Or else, before any suit begin^ the plaintiffshall have his com- 
plaint approved by a set delegacy to that purpose : if it be of 
moment, heshall besuffered,as before, to proceed; if otherwise, 
they shall determine it. All causes shall be pleaded suppresso 
nomine, the parties names concealed, if some circumstances 
do not otherwise require. Judges and other officers shall be 
aptly disposed in each province, villages, cities, as common 
arbitrators to hear causes, and end all controversies; and those 
not single, butthree at least on the bench at once, todetermine 
or give sentence; and those again to sit by turns or lots, and 
not to continue still in the same office. No controversie to 
depend above a year, but,without all delays and further appeals, 
to be speedily dispatched, and finally concluded in that time 
allotted. These and allotherinferiour magistrate^, to be chosen 
^as the Uterari in China, or by those exact suffrages of the 
''Venetians ; and such again not be eligible, or capable of ma- 
gistracies, honours, offices, except they be sufficiently " c|uali- 
fied for learning, manners, and that by the strict approbation 
of deputed examinators: ''first, scholars to take place, then, 
souldiers; fori am of Vegetius his opinion, a scholar deserves 
better than a souldier, because unius cctatis sunt qnce Jortiter 
Jinnt qnce vera pro ntilitnte reipiib. scribuntnr, oeterna : 
a souldiers work lasts for an age, a scholars for ever. If 
they '' misbehave themselves, they shall be deposed, and ac- 
cordingly punished; and, whether their offices be annual 'or 
otherwise, once a year they shall be called in question, and 
give an account: for men are partial and passionate, merciless, 
covetous, corrupt, subject to love, hate, fear, favour, &c. omne 
sub rer/no (jraviore rerjnum. Like Solons Areopagites, or 
those Roman censors, some shall visit others, and t' be visited 
invicem themselves : ''they shall oversee that no proling officer, 
under colour of authority, shall insult over his inferiors, as so 
many wild beasts, oppress, domineer, fley, grinde, or trample 
on, be partial or corrupt, but that there be ccquabile juSfjus- 



=> Matt. Riccias, exped in Sinas, 1. 1. c. 5, de examinatione electionnm copiose 
agit, &c. bContar. de repub. Venet. I. 1. <"Osor. 1. ll.de reb. gest Eman. 

Qui in Uteris maximos propressus fecerint, maximis honoribus «fBciuntur; secundus 
honoris gradus militibus assigoatur : postremi ordinis mechanicis. Doctorum ho- 
iniDiiii) jndiciis in altiorem loRum (jnisqiie pr«fertnr: et qui a pUirimis approbatur, 
ampliores in rep. diguitates conse(iuifur. Qui in hoc examine primas habet, iusigni 
I)er totam vitam dignitate insignitur, marchioni similis, ant duci, apud nos. 
•' Cedant arma to^x. t \s ;„ Bema, Lucerne, Fribnrge in Switzerland, a 

vitious liver is incapable of any office ; if a senator, instantly dejjosed. Sim- 
lerus. fNot above three years, Aristot. polit. 5. c. 8. " Nam quis cnsto- 

diet ipsos custodes ? '' Cytreus, in Greisgeia. Qui non ex sublimi de- 

spiciant inferVores, nee nt bestias conculcent sibi subditos, auctoritatis nomini con- 
fisi, &c. 



94 DEMOCRITITS TO THE READER. 

tice equally done, live as friends and brethren together; and 
(which ^Sesellius would have and so much desires in his king- 
dom of France) a diapason andsiceet harmony oj' kings, princes, 
nobles, and plebeians, so mutually tyedand involved in love, as 
well as laws and authority, as that they never disagree, insult, 
or incroach one upon another. If any man deserve well in 
his office, he shall be rewarded ; 



-quis enim virtutem amplectitur ipsam. 



Praemia si toUas ?— r 

He that invents any thing for publick good in any art or 
science, writes a treatise, ^ or performs any noble exploit at 
home or abroad, '^ shall be accordingly enriched, ^ honoured, 
and prefeiTed. I say, with Hannibal in Emiius, Hostem qui 
Jeriet^ mihi erit Carthaginiensis : let him be of what condi- 
tion he will, in all offices, actions, he that deserves best shall 
have best. 

Tilianus, in Philonius, (out of a charitable mind no doubt) 
wisht all his books were gold and silver, jewels and precious 
stones, ^ to redeem captives, set free prisoners, and relieve all 
poor distressed souls that wanted means : religiously done, I 
deny not ; but to what purpose ? Suppose this Mere so well 
done, within a little after, though a man had Croesus wealth 
to bestow, there would be as many more. Wherefore I will 
suffer no ^beggars, rogues, vagabonds, or idle persons at all, 
that cannot give an account of their lives, how they s maintain 
themselves. If they be impotent, lame, blind, and single, 
they shall be sufficiently maintained in several hospitals, built 
for that purpose ; if married and infirm, past work, or, by in- 
evitable loss or some such like misfortune, cast behind, — by 
distribution of ''corn, house-rent free,annual pensions or money, 
they shall be relieved, and highly rewarded for their good ser- 
vice they have formerly done : if able, they shall be enforced 



aSeselHus de rep. Gallorum, lib. I. et 2.' ! ^Si qnis egregium aiit bello aut 

pace perfecerit. Sesel. 1. 1. <; Ad regendam renipub. soli literati admittuntnr ; 

uec ad earn rem gratia magistratuum aut regis indigent; omnia ab exploratacujusqHe 
scientia et virtiite pendent. Riccias, 1. 1. c. 5. ''In defuncti locum eum 

jussit subrogari, qui inter majores virtute reliquis prasiret ; non fuit apud mortales 
ullam excellentius certamen, aut cujus victoria magis esset expetenda ; nou enim 
inter celeres, celerrimo, non inter robustos, robustissimo, &c. e Nullum 

videres vel in hac vel in vicinis regionibus paupereni, nullum obaeratum, &c. 
fNullus mendicus apud Sinas ; nemini sano, quamvis oculis orbatus sit, mendicare 
permittitur : omnes pro viribus laborare coguntur ; casci molis trusatilibus versandis 
addicuntur: soli hospitiis gaudent, qui ad labores sunt inepti. Osor. 1. 11. de reb. 
gest. Eman. Heming. de reg. Chin. 1 1. c .3. Gotard. Artli. Orient Ind. deser. 
sAlex. ab Alex. 3. c. 12. i' Sic olim Ronia3. Isaac, Pontau. de his optime. 

Amstol. 1. 2. c, 9. 



PEMOCRITUS TO THE READER; 95 

to work, ^ For I see no reason (as ''he said) ichy an epicure 
or idle drone, a rich glutton, a usurer, should live at ease^ 
and do nothing, live in honour^ in all manner of pleasures, 
and oppress others, ivhen as, in the mean time, a poor la- 
bourer, a smith, a carpenter, an husbandman — that hath 
spent his time in continual labour, as an asse to carry bur- 
dens, to do the common-wealth good, and without whom we 
cannot live — shall be left in his old age to begg or starve, 
and lead a miserable life, worse than ajument: As "" all con- 
ditions shall be tied to their task, so none shall be over tired, 
but have their set times of recreations and holidayes, indul- 
gere genio, feasts and merry meeting^s, even to the meanest 
artificer, or basest servant, once a week to sing or dance, 
(though not all at once) or do whatsoever he shall please, 
(like "^ that Saccarii festii amongst the Persians, those Sa- 
turnals in Rome) as well as his master. '' If any be drunk, 
he shall drink no more wine or strong drink jn a twelve 
moneth after. A bankrupt shall be ^ catademiatus in amphi- 
theatro, publickly shamed ; and he that cannot pay his debts, 
if by riot or negligence he hath been impoverished, shall be 
for a twelve moneth imprisoned: if in that space hiscreditours 
be not satisfied, s he shall be hanged. He ''that commits sa- 
crilege, shall lose his hands ; he that bears false- witness, or is 
of perjury convict, shall have his tongue cut out, except he 
redeem it with his head. Murder, 'adultery, shall be punished 
by death, '' but not theft, except it be some more griev- 
ous offence, or notorious oftenders : otherwise they shall be 
condemned to the gallies, mines, be his slaves >vhom they 
oflfended, during their lives. I hate all hereditary slaves, and 
that duram Persarum legem, as ' Brisonius calls it ; or as 



a Idem Aristot. pol. 5. c. 8. Vitiosum, qiiam soli pauperum liberi ediicantur ad 
labores, nohiliuin et divitiim in voluptatibus et deliciis. ''Qiui- h;fc iiijiistitia, 

utnobilis f|uispiani, aut f(it!ner;Uor, qui nihil agat, lantam et splendidam vitam agat. 
otio et deliciis, qiium interim auriga, faber,. agricola, quo respub. carere non potest, 
vitam adeo miseram ducat, lit pejor quani .iuTnentorum sit ejus conditio ? Iniqua 
resp. quaj dat parasitis, adulatoribiis, inaniiim voluptatum artificibns, generosis et 
otiosis, tanta niunera prodigit, at ctmtra agricolis, caibonariis, aurigis, fabiis, &,c. 
nihil prospicit, sed eoruni abusa labore llorentis letatis, fame penset et spruinnis. 
Mor. Utop. 1. 2. -lu Segoyia nemo otiosus, nemo mendicus, nisi per ajtatem ant 

niorbum opus facere non potest: nulli deest unde \ictuni quajrat, aut quo se exer- 
ceat- Cypr. Echovius Delit. Hispan. Nulliis Cenevae otiosus, ne septennis puer. 
Paulus Heuzner, Itiner. ■' Athena-us, 1. 12. ''Simlerus, de repub. HelveL 

fSpartian, olim RomaJ sic. (-'He that provides not for his family is worse than 

a thief. Paul. '■ Alfredi lex. Utraquc nianus et lingua prajcidatur, nisi eam capite 

redemerit. ' Si quis nuptam stuprarit, virga virilis ei prpecidatur; si mulier, 

nasus et auricula pra'cidatur. Alfredi lex. En leges ipsi Veneri Martiqne tinien- 
das ! k Pauperes non peccant, puum extrema necessitate coacti rem alienamca- 

piunt. Moldonat. summula qua;st. 8. art 3. Ego cum illis senlio qui licere pu- 
tant a divite clam accipere, qui tenetur pauperi subvenire. Emmannel Sa. Aphor. 
coniess. ' Lib. 2. de reg. Persarum. 



96 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

^ Ammianus, impendio Jbrmidatas et ahommandas leges, per 
quas oh, noxam unius,omms propinqnitas perit : hard law, that 
wife and children, friends and allies, should suffer for the fa- 
thers offence ! 

No man shall marry until he ** be 25, no woman till she be 
20, ^ nisi aliter dispensatumjherit. If one "^die, the other party 
shall not marry till six months after ; and, because many fami- 
lies are compelled to live niggardly, exhaust and undone by 
great dowers, "" none shall be given at all, or very little, and 
that,bysupervisors,rated: they thatare foul shall have agreater 
portion; if fair, none at all, or very little; 'however, not to 
exceedsuch arate as those supervisors shall thinkfit. And when 
once they come to those years, poverty shall hinder no man 
from marriage, or any other respect ; shut all shall be rather 
inforced than hindered, '' except they be ' dismembered, or 
grievously deformed, infirm, or visited with some enormous 
hereditary disease, in body or mind : in such cases, upon a 
great pain or mulct ^ man or woman shall not marry ; other 
order shall be taken for them to their content. If people 
over-abound, they shall be eased by ' colonies. 

™ No man shall wear weapons in any city. The same attire 
shall be kept, and that proper to several callings, by which 
they shall be distinguished. "^ LuxnsJimeriimshdW be taken 
away, that intempestive expence moderated, and many others. 
Brokers, takers of pawns, biting usurers, I will not admit ; 
yet, because Mc cum hominihus non cum diis agitur ° we con- 
verse here with men, not with gods, and for the hardness of 
mens hearts, I will tolerate some kind of usury. If we were 
honest, I confess, fsi probi essenmsj we should have no use 
of it ; but, being as it is, we must necessarily admit it. How- 
soever most divines contradict it, 

(Dicimus inficias ; sed vox ea sola reperta est) 



" =>Lib. 24. b Aliter Aristoteles — a man at 25, a woman at 20. Polit. ^Lex 

olim Lycurgi. hodie Chinensium ; Vide Pliitarchum, Riccium, Hemminginm, 
Amiseum, Nevisanum, et alios de hac quasstione. "* Alfredus. '" Apud La- 

cones olim virgines sine dote nubebant. Boter 1. 3. c. 3. fLege cautum non 

ita pridem apud Venetos, ne quis patritius dotem excederet 1500 coron. sBux. 

Synag. Jud. Sic Judaji. Leo Afer, Al'iicse descript. ne sint aliter incontientes, ob 
reipub. bonum, ut August. Cassar. orat. ad coelibes Romanos olim edocuit. 
''Morbo laborans, qui in prole m facile diftunditur, ne genus humanimi foeda con- 
tag^one Isedatur, juventute cast ratur : mulieres tales procul a consortio virorum ab- 
legantur, &c. Hector Boethius, hist. lib. 1. de vet. Scotorum moribus. ' Spe- 

ciosissimi juvenes liberis dabunt operam. Plato, 5. de legibus, ''The Saxons 

exclude dumb, blind, leprous, and such like persons, from all inheritance, as we do 
fools. ' Ut olim Romani, Hispani hodie, &c. '"Riccius, lib. IL cap. 

5. de Sinarum expedit. Sic Hispani cogunt iVlauros arma deponere. So it is in most 
Italian cities. n Idem Plato, 12, de legibus. It hath ever been immo- 

derate. >Vide Gail. Stuckiura, antiq. convival. lib. 1. cap. 26. " Plato, 9. de 

legibus. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THR READER. 97 

it must be winked at by pobticiaiis. And yet some great doc- 
tors approve of it, Calvin, Bucer, Zanohius, P, Martyr, be- 
cause, by so uiany grand hiwyers, decrees of emperours, 
princes statutes, customs of common- wealths, cliurches ap- 
probations, it is permitted, 8ic. I will therefore allow it ; but 
to no private persons, not to every man that will ; to orphans 
only, maids, widows, or such as by reason of their age, sex, 
education, ignorance of trading, know not otherwise how to 
employ it; and those, so approved, not to let it out apart, but 
to bring their money to -^common bank which shall be allow- 
ed in every city, as in Genoua, Geneva, Noremberg, Venice, 
at ^'5, (), 7? not above 8 per centum, as the supervisors, or 
ccrarii prcvfccti, shall think fit. '' And, as it shall not be lawful 
for each man to be an usurer that will, so shall it not be lawful 
for all to take up money at use — not to prodigals and spend- 
thrifts, but to merchants, young tradesmen, and such as stand 
in need, or know honestly how to employ it, whose necessity, 
cause, and condition, the said supervisors shall approve of, 

1 will have no private monopolies, to enrich one man, and 
beggar a multitude — ''multiplicity of offices, of supplying by 
deputies : weights and measures the same throughout, and 
those rectified by the prhhum mobile, and suns motion ; 
threescore miles to a degree, according to observation : lOOO 
geometrical paces to a mile, five foot to a pace, twelve inches 
to a foot, &,c. and, from measures known, it is an easie matter 
to rectifie weights, &c. to cast up all, and resolve bodies by 
algebra, stereometry. 

I hate wars, if they be not adpopuli salutem^ upon urgent 
occasion. 

Odiinus accipitrem, quia semper vivit in armis. 

* Offensive wars, except the cause be very just, 1 will not allow 
of: for I do highly magnifie that saying of Hannibal to 
Scipio, in 'L\\y—It had been a blessed thimj for you and us, 
if God had given that mind to our predecessors^ that you had 



» As those Lombards beyond seas, (though with siitne reformation) mens pie- 
tatis, or bank of charity, (as Malines terms it, cap. 33. Lex Mercat. part 2.) that 
lend money upon easie pawns, or take money upon adventure for mens lives. 
''That proportion will make merchandise increase, land dearer, and better im- 
proved, as he hath judicially proved in his tract of usury, exhibited to the Parlia- 
ment anno IG'iL i Hoc fere Zanchius, com. in 4. cap. ad Ephes. sequis- 
sniiam vocat usuram et charitati Christiante cousentaneam, modo non exigant, &c. 
nee omnes dent ad foenus, sed ii qui in pecuniis bona habent, et ob aetatem, sexum, 
artis alicujus i:,'norantiam. non possunt uti. Nee omnibus, sed mercatoribus, et iis 
qui hontste impendent, &c. d Idem npud Persas olim. Lego Brisonium. 
•^Idein Plato, de It gibus. "Lib. 30 Optimum quidem fuerat earn putribus 
nostris meutem a Diis datani esse, ut vos Italiaj.nos Africa imperiocoutenti essemus. 
Neque emm Sicilia aut Sardinia satis digna pretia sunt pro tot classibus, Stc. 

vol.. i H 



98 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

been content with Italy, tee with AJ'rick. For neither Sicily 
nor Sardinia are worth such cost and pains, so many fleets 
are armies, or so many Jhmous captains lives. Omnia pr.itis 
tentanda: fair means shall first be tried. "^ Perayit tranquilla 
potestas. Quod violenta nequit. I will have them proceed 
with all moderation ; but (hear you !) Fabius my general, not 
Minutius; nain ^qui consilio nititur, plus hostibus nocet, 
quam qui, sine animi ratione, viribus : and, in such wars, to 
abstain as much as is possible from 'depopulations, burning- of 
towns, massacring- of infants, &c. For defensive wars, I 
will have forces still ready at a small warning, by land and sea, 
a prepared navy, souldiers in prpcinctn, et, quam '^ Bonfinius 
apud Hungaros svos vult, virgam ferream, and money 
which is nervus belli, still in a readiness and a sufficient 
revenue, a third part (as in old '^ Rome and Egypt) reserved 
for the common-wealth ; to avoid those heavy taxes and 
impositions, as well to defray this charge of wars, as also 
all other publick defalcations, expences, fees, pensions, repa- 
rations, chaste sports, feasts, donaries, rewards, and entertain- 
ments. All things in this nature especially I will have ma- 
turely done, and with great '^deliberation : ne quid ^temere, 
ne quid remisse, ac timide fiat. Sed quo feror hospes ? To 
prosecute the rest would require a volume. Manum de ta- 
belld ! I have been over-tedious in this subject : I could have 
here willingly ranged ; but these straits wherein I am includ- 
ed will not permit. 

From common-wealths and cities, I will descend to families, 
which have as many corrosives and molestations, as frequent 
discontents, as the rest. Great affinity there is betwixt a poli- 
tical and oeconomical body ; they differ only in magnitude 
and proportion of business (so Scaliger ''writes): as they 
have both, likely, the same period, as 'Bodin and ''Peucer hold, 
out of Plato, six or seven hundred years, so, many times, 
they have the same means of their vexation and overthrows ; 
as, namely, riot, a common mine of both, riot in building, 
riot in profuse spending", riot in apparel, &c. be it in what kind 
soever, it produceth the same effects. A 'chorographer of ours, 
speaking o&i^er of ancient families, why they are so frequent 
in the north, continue so long*, are so soon extinguished in the 
south, and so few, gives no other reason but this, luxus omnia 

''Claiulian. t'Tiiucydides. « A depopulation e cgrorum, incendiis, 

et cjusinodi factis immanibus. Plato. dflungar, dec. 1. lib. 9. **Sesel- 

lins, lib. 2. de repub. Gal. valde enim est indecorum, ubi quid prteter opinionem 
accidit, dicere, Non putaram, preesertim si res prascaveri potuerit. Livius, lib. 1. 
Dion. 1. 2. Diodorus Siculus, lib. 2. 'Peragit tranquilla potestas. Quod 

violenta nequit. Clandian. pBellum nee timenduni nee provocandum. 

Plin. Panegyr. Trajano. '' Lib. 3. poet. cap. 19. > Lib. 4. de 

repub. cap. 2. iiPeucer. lib. I. de divinaf. l Cambden, in Cheshire. 



dEmocritus to the reader. 99 

disaipnvit, riot hath consumed all. Fine cloaths and curious 
buildinos came into this island, as he notes in his annals, not 
so many years since, non sine dispendio hospitalkatis, to the 
decay of hospitality. Honv beit, many times that >vord is mis- 
taken; and, under the name of bounty and hospitality, is 
shrowdod riot and prodigality ; and that,which is condemnable 
in it self well used, hath been mistaken heretofore, is become: 
by its abuse, the bane and utter ruine of many a noble family, 
for some men live like the rich g-lutton, consuming themselves 
and their substance by continual feasting and invitations, — 
with " Axylos in Homer, keep open house for all comers, giv- 
ing- entertainmentto such as visit them, "'keepingatable beyond 
their means, and a company of idle servants (though not so 
frequent as of old)--are blown up on a sudden, and (as Actaeon 
was by his hounds) devoured by their kinsmen, friends, and 
multitude of followers. *^It is a wonder that Paulus Jovius 
relates of our northern countreys, what an infinite deal of 
meat mo consume on our tables ; that I may truly say, 'tis not 
bounty, not hospitality, as it is often abused, but riot in excess, 
gluttony, and prodigality; ameer vice: it brings in debt, want, 
and beggary, hereditary diseases, consumes their fortunes, and 
overthrows the good temperature of their bodies. To this I 
might here well add their inordinate expence inbuilding,those 
phantastical houses, turrets, walks, parks, &c. gaming, excess 
of pleasure, and that prodigious riot in apparel, by which 
means they are compelled to break up house, and creep into 
holes. Sesellius, in his common wealth of '^ France, gives three 
reasons why the French nobility were so frequently bankrupts; 
F'irst, because they have so many law-sidts and contentw7is, 
one upon another^ ivhich were tedious and costly : hy ichicJi 
means it came to pass, that commonly latcyers bought them out 
of their possessions^ A second cause was their riot ; thet/ 
lived beyond their means, and icere therefore swallowed up 
by merchants, (La-Nove, a French writer, yields five reasons 
of his countrey-mens poverty, to the same effect almost, and 
thinks verily,if the gentry of France were divided into ten parts, 
eight of them would be found much impaired by sales, mort- 
gages, and debts, or wholly sunk in their estates.) The last 
was immoderate excess in apparel, which consumed their reve- 



'Iliad, lib. 6. ''Vide Pntoani Conium ; Goclenium de jjortenfosls coenis 

nostroriim fcriipoiiitn. •• Mirabile dictii est, qaantnm opsoniorum una domus 

.singulis diebiis ab.siimat ; steriiuntur mens;e in oimies pene horas, calentibtis semper 
cduliis, descript. Britan. <i Lib. 1. de rep. Galloruni. Quod tot lite.s et 

raus.sse jbrenses alias ferantar ex aliis, in immensiim producantur, ct niagiin.s siimp- 
tus reqi'.irant; nnde fit ut juris adniinistri pleninuine nobiliiini possessiones adquirant, 
turn quod suniptuOse vi\ant, et a tuercatoribus absorbeautiir, et splendissiine ^-es- 
<iantnr, )!cc. 

II 2 



100 DEMOeRITllS TO THE READER. 

nueSy How this concerns and agrees with our present state, 
look you. But of this elsewhere. As it is in a mans body — if 
either head, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, or any one part be 
misatfected, all the rest suffer with it — so it is with this oeco- 
nomical body : if the head be naug-ht, a spendthrift, a drunk- 
ard, a whoremaster, a gamester, how shall the family live at 
ease ? ■^ Ipsa si cupiat, Salus servare prorsus non potest hanc 
Jamiliam; (as Demea said in the comedy) safety herself can- 
not save it. A good, honest, painfnl man many times hath a 
shrew to his wife — asickly, dishonest, slothful, foolish, careless 
woman to his mate — a proud,peevishflurt, a liquorish, prodigal 
quean ; and by that means all goes to ruin : or, if they differ in 
nature — he is thrifty, she spends all ; he wise, she sottish and 
soft — what agreement can there be? what friendship ? Like 
that of the thrush and swallow in ^Esop ; instead of mutual 
love, kind compellations, whore and thief is heard ; they fling 
stools at one anotliers heads. ^ Qiice intemperies vexat hanc 
Jamiliam ? All enforced marriages commonly produce such 
effect; or, if on their behalf's it be well, as to live and agree 
lovingly together, they may have disobedient and unruly chil- 
dren, that take ill courses to disquiet them : "their son is a 
thief, aspendthrift, their daughter a whore; a '^stepmother, 
or a daughter in law,disterapers all; ''or else, for want of means, 
many tortures arise — debts, dues, fees,dowries,joyntures, lega- 
cies to be paid, annuities issuing out; by means of which, they 
have not wherewithall to maintain themselves in that pomp as 
their predecessorshave done, bring up or bestowtheir children . 
to their callings, to their birth and quality, '^and will not de- 
scend to their present fortunes. Oftentimes too, to aggravate 
the rest, concurr many other inconveniences — unthankful 
friends, decayed friends, bad neighbours, negligent servants, 
{s servij'nraces, versipelles, callidi, occlusa sibi mi He clavihus 
reserant, furtimque raptant, consuvmnt, lir/nriunt) casualties, 
taxes,muicts, chargeable ofHces,vain expences,entertainments, 
loss of stock, enmities, emulations, frequent invitations, losses, 
suretiship, sickness, death of friends, and (that which is the 
gulf of all) improvidence, ill husbandry, disorder and confu- 
sion ; by which means they are drenched on a sudden in their 
estates, and at unawares precipitated insensibly into an inex- 
tricable labyrinth of debts, cares, woes, want, grief, dis- 
content and melancholy it self. 



aTer. bAmphit. Plant. <■ Paling. Filius aut fur. dCatuscnra. 

mure, duo galli simul in rede, at glotes bina^ nunquam vivnnt sine lite. •• Res 

augusta domi, f When pride and beggary meet in a family, they roar and howl, 

auil cause as niatiy flashes of diacontents, as fire and water, when they concur, make 
thunder claps iu tlie skies. S Plautus, Aulular. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. JOl 

1 have done with families, and will now briefly run over 
some few sorts and conditions of men. The most secure, 
happy, jovial, and merry in the worlds esteem, are princes and 
great men, free from melancholy; but, for their cares, miseries, 
suspicions, jealousies, discontents, folly, and madness, I refer 
you to Xenophons Tyrannus, where king Hieron discourseth 
at large with Simonides the poet, of this subject. Of all others, 
they are most troubled with perpetual fears, anxieties, inso- 
much, that (as he said in " Valerius) if thou kneM est with 
what cares and miseries this robe were stuffed, thou wouldst 
not stoop to take it up. Or, put case they be secure and free 
from fears and discontents, yet they are void ''of reason too 
oft, and precipitate in their actions. Read all our histories, 
qnas de stvltis prodidere stulti — Iliades, ^neides, Annales — 
and what is the subject ? 

Stultorum regum et populorum continet aestus. 

How mad they are, how furious, and upon small occasions, 
rash and inconsiderate in their proceedings, how they dote, 
every page almost will witness : 

delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. 

Next in place, next in miseries and discontents, in all man- 
ner of hairbrain'd actions, are great men: procnla Jove, procul 
ajvlmine : the nearer, the worse. If they live iu court, they 
are up and down, ebb and flow with their princes favours, (/w- 
fjeninvi vultu statque caditque .s?/o) now aloft, to morrow down, 
(as '^Polybius describes them)/? A;e so many casting counters,now 
oj'cfold, to morrow oj" silver, that vary in worth asthecompu- 
tant will ; now they stand Jor unites, to morrow J'or thousands; 
now hejore all, and anon behind. Beside, they torment one 
another with mutual factions, emulations ; one is ambitious, 
another enamoured ; a third, in debt, a prodigal, over-runs his 
fortunes ; a fourth, solicitous with cares, gets nothing, &c. 
But, for these mens discontents, anxieties, I refer you to Lu- 
cians tract, de mercede conductis, '^ JEneas Sylvius, {Uhidinis 
et stnltitice servos, he calls them) Agrippa, and many others. 

Of philosophers and scholars, priscce sapientice dictatores, 
I have already spoken in general terms. Those superintend- 
ents of wit and learning, men above men, those refined men, 
minions of the Muses, 



a Lib. 7. cap. 6. h Pellihir in bellis sapicntia : ^i geritnr res. Vetus pro- 

verbinm. Ant rejrem aut fatuiim nasci oportere. «■ Lib. L hist. Rom. similes 

abacalorum calculis, secundum computantis arbitrium, moHo ajrei sunt, raudo anrei ; 
ad nntum regis, nunc beati sunt, nunc niiseri. '' ^Erumnosique SoloneSj in 

•Sa. 3. De miser, curialium. 



102 DEMOCUITUS TO THE READER, 

-* mentemque habere queis bonam. 



Et esse ''corcuiis, datum est, — 

•^ these acute and subtle sophisters, so much honoured, have 
as much need of hellebore as others. 

'1 O medici, mediam pertundite venam. 



Read Lucians Piscator, and tell how he esteemed them; 
i\grippas tract of the Vanity of Sciences ; nay read their own 
works, their absurd tenents, prodigious paradoxes, e^ risum te- 
neatis amici ? You shall find that of Aristotle true, nullum 
magnum ingenium shiemixturd dementi ce ; they have a worm, 
as well as others: you shall find a phantastical strain, a fustian, 
a bombast, a vain glorious humour, an afi'ected stile, &c. like a 
prominentthred in an uneven woven cloth,run parallel through- 
out their works; and they that teach wisdom, patience, meek- 
ness, are the veryest dizards, hairbrains, and most discontent, 
^ In the multitude of wisdom is grief; and he that encreaseth 
trisdom^ encreaseth sorrow. 1 need not quote mine author. 
They that laugh and contemn others, condemn the world of 
folly, deserve to be mocked, are as giddy-headed, and lie as 
open, as any other. 'Deniocritus, that common liouter of folly, 
was ridiculous hiisiself : barking Menippus, scoffing Lucian, 
satyrical Lucilius, Petronius, Varro, Persius, &c. may be cen- 
sured with the rest ; Loripedem rectus derideat, JEthiopem 
albus. Bale, Erasmus, Hospinian, Vivos, Kemnisius, explode, 
as a vast ocean of Obs and Sols, school divinity; ^a labyrinth; 
of intricable questions, unprofitable contentions : incredihilem^ 
delirationeniy one calls it. If school divinity be so censured,, 
subtilis ^Scotus lima veritatis, Occam irrefragabilis, cvjus 
ingenium Vetera omnia ingenia subvertit, dfc. Bacanthrope, 
Doctor Resolutus, and Corculum TheologicB Thomas himself, 
Doctor ^ Seraphicus, cui dictavit, Angelus, ^c. what shall 
become of humanity? Ars stulta, what can she plead ? what 
can her followers say for themselves ; Much learning- ^ cere~ 
diminuit-brum, hath crackt their sconce, and taken such root, 
that tribus Anticyris caput insanabile, hellebore it self can do 
no good, nor that renoMued • lanthorn of Epictetus, by which, 
if any man studied, he should be as wise as he was. But all will 
not serve. Rhetoricians, in ostentationem loquacitatis, multa 
agitant — out of their volubility of tongue, will talk much to 



'^V, DouscE Epid. lib. 1. c. 13. hHoc. cognoraento cohonestati Roinse, qui 

ffeteros niortales sapientia praestarent. Testis Pliu. lib. 7. cap. 34. clnsanire 

parant certa ratione modoque : mad by the book, they. '' Juvenal. ^ Solo- 

mon, f Communis irrisor stuUitiae. ? Wit, whither wilt ? hgcaliger, 

exercitat. 324. 'Vit. ejus. >< Ennius. 'Lucian. Ter mille dracninis 

olira empta ; studens inde sapieutiam adipiscetiur 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 103 

no purpose. Orators can perswado other men what tliey will, 
quo vohint nnde volunf^ move, pacific, &c. but cannot settle 
their own brains. AThat saith Tully ? Malo indisertam pru- 
dent iam, qnavi lo(ptacem stnffitiam ; and (as '^ Seneca seconds 
him) a wise mans oration should not be polite or solicitous. 
'' Fabius esteems no better of most of them, either in speech, 
action, gesture, than as men beside themselves, i.isanos c?e- 
clamatores ; so doth Gregory ; non mihi sapit qui sermoney 
sed quij'actis, sapit. Make the best of him, a good oratour is 
a turn- coat, an evil man; bonus orator pessirmis vir ; his 
tongue is set to sale; he is a raeer voice (as ''he said of a 
nightingal); dat sine mente sonum ; an hyperbolical liar, a 
flatterer, a parasite, and (as '^Ammianus Marcellinus will) a 
corrupting cosener, one that doth more mischief by his fair 
speeches, than he that bribes by money ; for a man may with 
more facility avoid him that circumvents by money, than him 
that deceives with glosing terms ; which made * Socrates so 
much abhor and explode them. ^^Fracastorius, a famous 
poet, freely grants all poets to be mad ; so doth " Scaliger ; 
and who doth not ? (Ant insanit Jiomo, aut versus facit, Hor. 
Sat. 7. /. 2. Insanire lubet,i. e.versus componere, Virr/. Eel. 3. 
So Servius interprets) all poets are mad, a company of bitter 
satyrists, detractors, or else parasitical applauders; and what 
is poetry it self, but (as Austin holds) vinum, erroris ab ebriis 
doctoribus propinatum ? You may give that censure of them 
in general, which Sir Thomas More once did ofGennanus 
Brixius poems in particular. 



• vehuntur 



In rate Stultitise : sylvam habitant Furiae. 

Budseus, in an epistle of his to Lupsetus, will have civil law 
to be the tower of wisdom ; another honours physick, the 
quintessence of nature ; a third tumbles them both down, and 
sets up the flag of his own peculiar science. Your supercilious 
criticks, grammatical triflers, note-makers, curious antiqua- 
ries, find out all the mines of wit, ineptiarum dolicias, 
amongst the rubbish of old writers: ^pro stnltis habent, nisi 
aliquid snffieiant invenire, quod in aliorum seriptis vertant 
vitio : all fools with them that cannot find fault : they correct 
others, and are hot in a cold cause, puzzle themselves to find 
out how many streets in Rome, houses, gates, towers, Ho- 

=»Epist. 21. 1. lib. Non oportet orationem sapientis esse politam aut solicitam. 
■•Lib. 3. cap. 13. MuUo anhelitu jactatione, i'urentes, pectus, fronteni credentes, &c. 
<= Lipsias, Voces sunt, pneterea nihil. ' Lib. 30. Plus mali face re videtur qui 

oratione quara qui pretio quemvis corrnmpit ; nam, &c. •-' In Clorg. Platonis. 

f In Naugerio. >■' Si furor sit Lywus, &c. quoties furit, furit, fnrit, aroans, bibens, et 
poeta, &c. iiMorus, lltop. lib. IJ. 



104 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

mers counfiey, /Eneas mother, Niobes daug-hter, an Sappho 
puhlica J'uerif ? ovum ^prius extiterit, an gallina? SfC et 
alia, quce dediscenda essent, si scires, as "^Seneca holds — 
what clothes the senators did wearin Rome, what shews, how 
they sate, where they went to the close stool, how many 
dishes in a mess, what sauce ; which, for the present, for an 
historian to relate, (^ according to Ludovic. Vives) is very ri- 
diculous, is to them most precious elaborate stuif, they ad- 
mired for it, and as proud, as triumphant in the mean time 
for this discovery, as if they had won a city, or conquered a 
province as rich as if they had found a mine of gold ore. 
Quosvis auctores absurdis commcntis suis percacant et stereo- 
runt, one saith : they bewray and daub a company of books 
and good authors, with their absurd comments, (correcto- 
rum sterquilinia '^ Scaliger calls them) and shew their wit in 
censuring others, — a company of foolish note-makers, hum- 
ble-bees, dors or beetles : inter stercora nt plurimum versan- 
tur, they rake over all those rubbish and dunghills, and pre- 
fer a manuscript many times before the Gospel itself, ^ the- 
saurum criticum, before any treasure, and with their delea- 
turs, alii leguntsic, mens codex sic hahet, w '\i\\ i\\eiv postremm 
editiones, annotations, castigations, &c. make books dear,' 
themselves ridiculous^ and do no body good : yet, if any man 
dare oppose or contradict, they are mad, up in arms on a sud- 
den ; how many sheets are written in defence, how bitter in- 
vectives, what a j)ologies ? ^ Epiphy Hides has sunt et mere 7mgo3. 
But 1 dare say no more of, for, with, or against them, be- 
cause I am liable to their lash, as well as others. Of these 
and the rest of our artists and philosophers, 1 will generally 
conclude, they are a kind of mad men, (as s Seneca esteems of 
them) to make doubts and scruples, how to read them truly, 
to mend old authors, but will not mend their own lives, or 
teach us ingenia sanare, memoriam ojfficiorum ingerere, ac 
fidem in rebus humanis retinere, to keep our wits in order, or 
rectify our manners. Numquid tibi non demens videtur, si istis 
operam impenderit? is not he mad that draws lines with 
Archimedes, whiles his house is ransacked, and his city be- 
sieged, when the whole world is in combustion, — or we, 
whilest our souls are in danger, (mors sequitur, vitajugit} 
to spend our time in toys, idle questions, and things of no 
worth ? ^ 

That ''lovers are mad, I think no man will deny. Amare 
simul et supsre ipsi Jovi non datur ; Jupiter himself cannot 
intend both at once. 



a Macrob. Satur. 7. 16. bEpist. 16. « Lib. de caussis corrup. artium. 

eEdit. 7. volimi. lano Grutero. 
He bcneficiis. '' Deliriiis et ainens dicatiiv 



a IVlacrob. Satur. 7. 10. "JKr -. 

dLib. 2. ill Ausonium, cap. 19. et 32. ffidit. 7. voliim. lano Grutero. 

f Aristophauis Ranis. 8 Lib. 



nierito. Hor. Seneca. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 105 

a Non bene conveniunt, nee in una sede morantur, 
Majestas et amor. 

Tully when he was invited to a second marriage, replied, 
he could not s'unul amare et sapere^ be wise and love both 
together. ^ Est Orais iile ; vis est immedicahilis ; est ra- 
bies insana : love is madness, a hell, an incurable disease; 
impotcntem et insanam libidinem *^ Seneca calls it, an impotent 
and raging lust. 1 shall dilate this subject apart : in the mean 
time let lovers sigh out the rest. 

"^ Nevisanus the lawyer holds it for an axiome, viost vomen 
are fools, ^consilium feminis invalidum) Seneca, men, be 
they young or old; who doubts it? youth is mad, as Elius in 
Tully, Stuiti adolescent}! li, old age little better, deliri senes, 
^•c. Theophrastus, in the 107 year of his age, 'said he then 
began to be wise, turn sapere coepit, and therefore lamented 
his departure. If wisdom come so late, where shall we find a 
w ise man ? our old ones dote at threescore and ten. I would 
cite more proofs and a better author; but for the present, let 
one fool point at another. § Nevisanus hath as hard an 
opinion of '' rich men — wealth and 7cisfiom cannot dwell to- 
ff ether ; stultitiam patiuntur opes ; 'and they do commonly 
^ inj'atuare cor hominis, besot men ; and as we see it, J'ools 
have fortune : ' sapientia non invenitnr in terra suaviter vi- 
ventium. For, beside a natural contempt of learning, which 
accompanies such kind of men, innate idleness, (for they 
will take no pains) and which,'" Aristotle observes, ubi 7ne7is 
plnrima, ibi minima fortuna ; ubi plnrimujortuna, ibi mens 
perexigua ; great wealth and little wit go commonly together ; 
they have as much brains, some of them, in their heads as 
in their heels ; besides this inbred neglect of liberal sciences, 
and all arts, which should excolere mentem, polish the mind, 
they have most part some gullish humour or other, by which 
they are led ; one is an Epicure, an atheist, a second a 
gamester, a third a whoremaster, (fit subjects all forasatyrist 
to work upon) 

"Hicnuptarum insanit amoribus, hie pueroriini ; — 

° one is mad of hawking, hunting, cocking ; another of ca- 
rousing, horse-riding, spending ; a fourth, of building, fight- 
ing, &c. 

a Ovid. Met. b Plutarch. Amatorio est amor insanns. "^ E pisL 39. 

^SylvK Diiptialis. 1. 1. num. 11. Omnes mulieres, ut plurimum stulta;. '^ Ari- 

stotle, f Dolere se dixit, quod turn vita egrederetur. ff Lib. 1. niim. 11. 

Sapientia et divitine vix simnl possideri possunt. ^ They get their wisdom by 

eating pie-crust, some. * Xfr.ixxrx tok Sy»ToK ytyirxi xtpfoavyr,. Opes qui. 

dem mortalibus sunt amentia. Theognis. '' Fortuna, nimium quem fovet, stol- 

tum facit. ' Job. 28. ■» Mag. moral, lib. 2. et lib. 1. sat. 4. " Hor. 

ser. 1. sat. 4 " Insana gula, insanae obstructiones, insanam venandi stadium — 

Di.scordia demens. \ irg. ^'En. 



106 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

Insanit veteres statuas Damasippus emendo; 

Damasippus hath an humoui" of his own, tobetalktof; ^He- 
liodorus the Carthaginian another. In a word, as Scaliger con- 
cludes of them all, they are statiim erectce stultitice, the very 
statues or pillars of folly. Chuse, out of all stories, him that 
Lath been most admired ; you shall still find multa ad lau- 
dem, midta ad vituperationem marjnijica, as ^ Berosus of Se- 
miramis : omnes mortales militia, triumphis divitiis, Sfc. tnm et 
luocu, ccede, coeterisque vitiis, antecessit : as she had some good, 
so had she many bad parts. 

Alexander, a worthy man, but furious in his anger, over- 
taken in drink : Caesar and Scipio valiant and wise, but vain- 
glorious, ambitious ; Vespasian a worthy prince, but covetous : 
^^ Hannibal, as he had mighty vertues, so had he many vices ; 
unam virtutem 7nille vitia comitantur, as Machiavel of Cos- 
mus Medicos, he had two distinct persons in him. I will de- 
termine of them all, they are like these double or turning pic- 
tures ; stand before which, you see a fair maid on the one 
side, an ape on the other, an omIc : look upon them at the 
first sight, all is well ; but farther examine, you shall find 
them wise on the one side, and fools on the other ; in some 
few things praise- worthy, in the rest incomparably faulty. I 
will say nothing of their diseases, emulations, discontents, 
wants, and such miseries ; let Poverty plead the rest in Ari- 
stophanes Plutus. 

Covetous men, amongst others, are most mad ; ^ they have 
all the symptoms of melancholy — fear, sadness, suspicion, &c. 
as shall be proved in his proper place : 

Danda est hellebori multo pars maxima avails. 

And yet, methinks, prodigals are much madder than they> 
be of what condition they will, that bear a publick or private 
purse; as a ^Dutch writer censured Richard the rich duke of 
Cornwal, suing to be emperour, for his profuse spending, qui 
effudit pecuniam ante pedes principum electorum sicut aqtiam, 
that scattered money like water; I do censure them. Stulta 
Anglia, (saith he) quce tot denariis spotite est piivata ; stulti 
principes Alemanice, qui nohilejus suum pro pecnnid vendi- 
derunt. Spend-thrifts, bribers, and bribe-takers, are fools ; 
and so are '^all they that cannot keep, disburse, or spend, 
their moneys well. 

' aHeliodorus Carthaginiensis ad exlremnm orbis sarcophagotestamentome hicjassi 
condier, ut viderem an quis insanior ad me visendum usque ad haec loca penetraret. 
Ortelius, in Gad. ''If it be his work ; which Gasper Veretus suspects. <" Livy. 
Ingentes virtutes ; ingentia vitia. *> Hor. Qiiisquis ambitione mala aut argenti 

pallet amore ; Quisquis Inxuria, tristiqne superstitione. Per. e Chronica Slavonica, 
ad annum 1257. de cujus pecunia jam incredibilia dixerimt. f A fool and his money 
are soon parted. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. lO/ 

I niioht say tlie like of angry, peevish, envious, ambitious 
('Antiei/ras melior sorhere meracas) , Epicures,atljeists, scliism- 
aticks, hcreticks : hi omups haheiit hnaxjinatioiiem lasam 
(saitli Nyniannus;) and t/icir madness shall he evident, 2 
Tim. 3. .9. i^Fabatus, an Italian, holds sea-faring- men all mad; 
the ship is mad, for it never stands still: the mariners are mady 
to expose themsehies to such imminent danrjers : the icaters are 
raffing mad, in perpetual motion : the winds are as mad as 
the rest : they hiow not whence they come, whither they would 
go : and those men are maddest of all, that go to sea ifor one 
fool at home, they find forty abroad. He was a mad man 
that said it ; and thou, peradventure as mad to read it. 
•^ Felix Platerus is of opinion all alchymists are mad, out 
of their wits ; ^ Athenasus saith as much of fidlers, et Musarum 
luscinias, ^musicians; omnes tihicines insaniu?it ; ubi semel 
efflant, avolat illico mens; in comes musick at one ear ; out 
goes wit at another. Proud and vain glorious persons are 
certainly mad ; and so are lascivious; I can feel their pulses 
beat hither; horn mad some of them, to let others lye with 
their wives, and wink at it. 

To insist § in all particulars, were an Herculean task, 
to ''reckon up Hnsanas substructiones, insanos lahores, insa- 
num luxum, mad labours, mad books, endeavours, carriao-es 
gross ignorance, ridiculous actions, absurd gestures, insanam 
gulam, insaniam villarum, insana jnrgia, as Tully terms 
them, madness of villages, stupend ' structures, as those 
^Egyptian pyramids, labyrinths and Sphinges, which a com- 
pany of crowned asses, ad ostentationem opum, vainly built, 
when neither the architect nor king that made them, or to 
what use and purpose, are yet known. To insist in their 
hypocrisie, inconstancy, blindnesss, rashness, dementem te- 
meritatem, fraud, cozenage, malice, anger, impudence, in- 
gratitude, ambition, gross superstition, ^ tempora infecta et 
adulatione sordida, as in Tiberius times, such base flattery, 
stupend, parasitical fawning and colloguing, &c. brawls, con- 
flicts, desires, contentions, it would ask an expert Vesalius to 
anatomize every member. Shall I say? Jupiter himself, 
Apollo, Mars, &c. doted : and monster-conquering Hercu- 
les, that subdued the world, and helped others, could not 

« Orat.de imag,— Ambitiosus et andax naviget Anticyras. bNavis stiilta, 

quae conUnuo movetur ; nantae stulti, qui se periculis exponnnt ; aqua insana, qute sic 
fremit, &c. aer jactatur, &c. qui mari se committit, stolidum unum terra fu- 
giens, 40 man invenit. Gasper Ens. Moros. c Cap. de alien, mentis. 

"Dipnosophist- lib. 8. ^Tibicines niente capti. Erasm. Cbil. 4. cen. 7. 

f Prov. 30. Insana libido.— Hie, rogo, non furor est ? non est ha-c mentula demens ? 
Mart. ep. 74. 1. S. v Mille pnellaruni et puerorum mille furores. h Uter 

est insanior horum? Hor. Ovid.^Virg. Plia. ' Plin. lib. 36. k Tacitus 

3 Annal. ' 



108 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

relieve himself in this : but mad he was at last. And where 
shall a man walk, converse with whom, in what province^ 
city, and not meet with Signior Deliro, or Hercules Furens, 
Msenades, and Corybantes '? Their speeches say no less. '-"E 
J'ungis nati homines ; or else they fetched their pedigree from 
those that were struck by Sampson with the jaw-bone of an 
ass, or from Deucalion and Pyrrha's stones; for durum genus 
sumus ^ marmorei sumus ; we are stony-hearted, and savour 
too much of the stock, as if they had all heard that inchant- 
ed horn of Astolpho (that English duke in Arios-to), which 
never sounded but all his auditors were mad, and for fear 
ready to make away themselves ; ^ or landed in the mad haven 
in the Euxine sea of Daphnis insana, which had a secret qua- 
lity to dementate ; they are a company of giddy-heads, after- 
noon men ; it is a midsomer-moon still, and the dog-dayes 
last all the year long : they are all mad. Whom shall I then 
except? Ulricus Huttenus*^ JSTemo ; nam Nemo omnibus horis 
sapit ; Nemo nascitur sine vitiis ; crimine Memo caret ; JV*e- 
mo sorte sua vivit contentus ; Nemo in amore sapit ; Nemo 
bonus ; Nemo sapiens ; Nemo est ex omni parte beatus, Sfc. 
and therefore Nicholas Nemo, or Monsieur Nobody, shall go 
free : Quid valeat nemo, nemo referre potest. But whom 
shall I expect in the second place 'i such as are silent: vir sa- 
pit qui pauca loquitur ; *" no better way to avoid folly and 
madness, than by taciturnity. Whom in a third; all sena- 
tors, magistrates ; for all fortunate men are wise, and con- 
querors valiant, and so are all great men ; non est bonum 
ludere cum di'is ; they are wise by authority, good by their 
office and place ; Jiis licet impiine pessimos esse, (some say) we 
must not speak of them ; neither is it fit : per me siut omnia 
protinus alba ; I will not think amiss of them. Whom next? 
Stoicks ? Sapiens Stoicus ; and he alone is subject to no per- 
turbations, (as *^ Plutarch scoffs at him) he is not vexed ivitk 
torments, or burnt withjire^ foiled bij his adversary, sold of 
his enemy. Though he' be ^crinkled, sand-blind, toothless, 
and deformed ; yet he is most beautij'ul, atid like a god, a 
king in conceit, though not tvorth a groat. He never dotes, 
never mad, never sad, drunk ; because vertue cannot be taken 



a Ond. 7. Met. E fungis nati homines, ut olim Corinthi primsevi illius loci accolas, 
quia stolidi et fatui fungis nati dicebantiir. Idem et alibi dicas. bPamian. 

Strada, de bajulis, de marmore semisculptis. « Arrianus, periplo maris Euxini, 

portus ejus meminit, et Gillius. 1. 3, de Bosphor. Thracio. Et iaurus insana, quae, 
allata in convivium, convivas omnes insania affecit Gnliel. Stucchius, comment, &c. 
<^ Lepidum poema, sic inscriptum. f Stultitiam dissimulate non potes, nisi 

taciturnitate. f Extortus, non cruciatur ; ambustus, non laeditur ; prostratus 

in lucta, nou vincitur ; non fit captivus ab hoste venandatus. Et si rugosus, senex, 
cdentulus, luscus, deformis, formosus tamen, et deo similis, felix, dives, rex, nulliiiSu 
egeus, etsi deuario non sit dignus. 



DEMOCRITITS TO THE READER. 10,9 

away (as ^ Zeno holds) by rpnso?i of stronrf apprehensmn : 
but he vvas mad to say so. ^Atiticyrcc caelo huic est opvs, ant 
dolahrd : he had need to be bored, and so had all his fellows, 
as wise as they would seem to be. Chrysippus himseHlibe- 
rally grants them to be fools as well as others, at certain times, 
upon some occasions : amitti virtvtem ait per ehrietatem, 
ant atnhilarhim morhum: it maybe lost by drunkenness or 
melancholy ; he may be sometimes cra/ed as well as the rest : 
' ad sumtnam, sapiens, nisi qnnm pitnita molesta. I should 
here except some cynicks, Menippus, Diogenes, thatTheban 
Crates, or, to descend to these times, that omniscious, only 
wise fraternity "^ of the Rosie Cross, those great theologues, 
politicians, philosophers, physicians, philologers, artists, &c. 
of whom S. Bridget, Albas Joacchimus, Leicenbergiu?^, and 
such divine spirits, have prophesied, and make pronuse to the 
world, if at least there be any such, (Hen. "^ Neuhusius nmke 
a doul3t of it, * Yalentinus Andreas, and others) or an Elias 
ArtifextheirTlieophrastian master; whom though Libavius and 
many deride and carp at, yet some will have to be the § renewer 
aj' all arts and sciences, reformer of the world, and now 
living ; for so Johannes Montanus Strigoniensis (that great 
patron of Paracelsus) contends, and certainly avers ^a most 
divine man, and the quintessence of wisdom, wheresoever he 
is : for he, his fraternity, friends, &c. are all ' hethrothed to 
wisdom, if he may believe their disciples and followers. I 
must needs except Lipsius and the pope, and expunge their 
name out of the catalogue of fools ; for, besides that parasitical 
testimony of Dousa, 

A sole exoriente, Mseotidas usque paludes. 
Nemo est, qui Juste se oequiparare queat — 

Lipsius saith of himself, that he was '' humani (fencris qnidani 
padaf/o(/us voce et stylo, a grand signior, a master, a tutor 
of us all ; and for thirteen years, he brags, how he sowed wis- 
dom in (he Low Countreys, (as Ammonius the philosopher 
sometimes did in Alexandria) ^ cum hnmanitate literas, et sa- 
pientiam cum prndenlid : anfisies sapientice, he shall be sapi- 
entnm octacns. The pope is more than a man, as '" his parrots 
often make him — a deuii-god ; and besides his holiness can- 
not err, in cathedra belike : and yet some of them have been 



a Ilium contendunt non injuria affici, non insania, non inebriari, quia virtus non 
eripitur ob coiistantes compiehensioues. Lij)S. Phys. Stoic, lib. 3. dilli. IS, •'Tarreus 
Hebus, epig. 10-2. 1. 8. c Hor, '' Fratres sanct. Rostra- Criicis. t An 

sint, quales sint, nude nonien illud asciverint. ''Turn Babel. -Omnium artiurn 
et scieutiarum instaurator. i' Divinus ille vir, anctornotarum in ep. Rog. Bacon, ed. 
Hauibur, ItiOS. 'Sapientiae desponsati. k Sohus hie est sapiens, alii volitant 

\elut umbrae. 'In ep. ad Balihas. Moretum. "' Rejectiunculie ad Patavuin 

Feiinus ci.n reliqais. 



110 DEMOCRITUS TO THE HEADER. 

magicians, hereticks, atheists, children ; and, as Platina saith 
of John 22, Et si vir literatus, multa soliditatem et levitatem 
jyroB sejirentia egit, solkli et socordis vir ingenii ; a scholar 
sufficient; yet many things he did foolishly. Lightly I can say 
no more in particular, but in general terms to the rest, they are 
all mad, their wits are evaporated, and (as Ariosto feigns, 1.34) 
kept in jars above the moon. 

Some lose their wits with love, some with ambition, 

Some, following '^ lords and men of high condition. 

Some in fair jewels rich and costly set, 

Others in poetry their wits forget. 

Another thinks to be an alcymist, 

Till all be spent, and that his number's mist. 

Convictfools they are, mad men upon record ; atid, T am afraid, 
past cure, many of them ; ^crepunt ingenia; the symptomes 
are manifest ; they are all of Cotam parish : 

c Quum furor baud dubius, quum sit manifesta phrenesis, 

what remains then '^ but to send for lorarios, those officers to 
carry tliem all together for company to Bedlam, and set 
Rabelais to be their physician. 

If any man shall ask in the mean time, who I am, that so 
boldly censure others, tunnllanehahesintia? Have I no faults? 
« Yes, more than thou hast, whatsoever thou art. Nos numerus 
sumus : I confess it again, 1 am as foolish, as mad as any one. 

^Insanus vobis videor: non deprecor ipse. 
Quo minus insanus 

I do not deny it ; demens de pnp^do dematur. My comfort is, I 
have more fellows, and those of excellent note. And though I 
be not so right or so discreet as I should be, yet not so mad, 
so bad neither, as thou perhaps takest me to be. 

To conclude, this being granted, that all the world is me- 
lancholy, or mad, dotes, and every member of it, I liave 
ended my task, and sufficiently illustrated that which I took 
upon me to demonstrate at first. At this present I have no 
more to say. His sanam mentem Democritus ; I can but 
wish my self and them a good physician, and all of us a better 
mind. 



a Ma^um viram sequi est sapere some think ; others desipere. Catul. •> Plant. 
Mensech. <= In Sat. 14. '' Or to send for a cook to the Anticyrte, to make 

hellebore pottage, settle-brain pottage. e Aliqnantulum tamen iude rae solabor, 

quod una cum multis et sapientibus et celeberrimis viris ipse insipiens sim ; quod de se, 
Menippus Luciani in Necyomantia. • Petronius, in Catalect. 



DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. HI 

And altliouoh, fortheabovenamed reasons,! had a just cause 
to undertake this subject, to point at these particular species of 
dotage,tl>atsomen might acknowledge their imperfections,and 
seek to reform what is amiss ; yet I have a more serious intent 
at this time ; and — to omit al! impertinent digressions — to say 
no more of such as are improperly melancholy, or meta- 
phorically mad, lightly mad, or in disposition, as stupid, 
angry, drunken, silly, sottish, sullen, proud, vain-glorious, 
ridiculous, beastly, pievish, obstinate, impudent, extravagant, 
dry, doting, dull,desperate,hair-brain'd,&c. mad,frantick,fool- 
ish, heteroclites, which no new ^hospital can hold, no physick 
help — my purpose and endeavour is, inthe following- discourse 
to anatomize this humour of melancholy, through all his parts 
and species, as it is an habit, or an ordinary disease, and that 
philosoj)hicalIy, medicinally — to shew the causes, symptoms 
and several cures of it, that it may be the better avoided ; 
moved thereunto for the generality/ of it, and to do good, it 
being a disease so frequent, as ''Mercurialis observes, inthfse 
our dayes ; so often happenhiff, saith " Laurentius, in our mv^e- 
rahle times, as few there are that feel not the smart of it. Of 
the same mind is MW^w Montaltus, •^ Melancthon, and others ; 
« Julius Caesar Claudinus calls it the fountain of all other dis- 
eases, and so common in this crazed ar/e oj' ours, that scarce 
otie of a thousand isj'reefrom. it ; and that splenetick hypo- 
condriacal wind especially, which proceeds from the spleen 
and short ribs. Seeing then it is a disease so grievous, so com- 
mon, I know not wherein to do a more general service, and 
Spend my time better, than to prescribe means how to prevent 
and cure so universal a malady, an epidemical disease, that 
so often, so much, crucifies the body and mind. 

If I have over-shot my self in this which hath been hitherto 
said, or that it is (which I am sure some >vill object) too phan- 
tastical, toe lir/ht and comical for a divine, too satjfricalfor 
one of my profession, I will presume to answer with 'Eras- 
mus in like case, 'Tis not I, but Democritus : Democritus 
di.rit : you must consider what it is to speak in ones own or 
anothers person, an assumed habit and name; a difference be- 
twixt him that affects or acts a princes, a philosophers, a ma- 
gistrates, a fools part, and him that is so indeed; and what 



"That, I menn, of Antlr. Vnle. Apolopr. mancip. 1. 1. pt26. Apol. •> Ha:c affectio 
nostris temporiVnis freqiientissinia. (^ Cap. 15. de Mel. ''Deanima. Nostro hoc 
saiciilo iiioiljiis freqiientissimiis. « Consult. 98, Adeo nostris (empoiihiis frequenter 
inRniit, nt nullus fere ab ejus labe imniiinis reperiatiir, et omnium fere niorhoruui 
occasio existat. f ISIor. Encom. Si quis calumnietur levius esse quam decet theologum, 
ant mordacius quam decent Christianum. 



112 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

liberty those old satyrists have had: it is a cento collected 
from others : not I, but they, that say it. 

Dixero si quid forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris 
Cum venia dabis ■ 

Take heed you mistake me not. If I do a little forget my 
self, 1 hope you will pardon it. And to say truth, why should 
any man be offended, or take exceptions at it ? 

^ Licuit, semp erque licebit, 

Parcere personis, dicere de vitiis. 

It lawful was of old, and still will be, 

To speak of vice, and let the name go free. 

1 hate their vices, not their persons. If any be displeased or 
take ought unlo himself, let him not expostulate or cavil with 
him that said it (so did ^ Erasmus excuse himself to Dorpius, 
si parva licet compnnere magnis ; and so do I) : but let him be 
anf/ry with himself, that so betrayed and opened his own 
faults in applying it to himself'. "" If he be guilty and deserve 
it, let him amend, whosoever he is, and not be angry. He 
thathatethcorrectionis afool,Vrov. 12. 1. If he be not guilty, 
it concerns him not; it is not my freeness of speech, but a 
guilty conscience, a gauled back of his own, that makes him 
winch. 

Suspicione si quis crrabit suA, 

Et rapiet ad se, quod erit commune omnium, 

Stulte nudabit animi conscientiam, 

I deny not,this,whichIhavesaid, savours alittleofDemocritus. 
^ Quamvis ridentem, dicere vervm (piid vital? one may speak in 
jest, and yet speak truth. It is somew^hat tart, I grant it : 
acriora orexim excitant embammata, as he said ; sharp sauces 
increase appetite ; 

^ Nee cibus ipse juvat, morsu fraudatus aceti. 

Object then and cavil what thou wilt, I ward all w^ith Demo- 
critus buckler; his medicine shall salve it; strike Avhere 
thou wilt, and w hen : Democritus dixit ; Democritus will 
answer it. It was written by an idle fellow, at idle times,about 
our Saturnalian or Dionysian feast, when, as he said, mdlum 
libertati pericnlum est, servants in old Rome had liberty to 
say and do what tliem list. When our country-men sacrificed 

a|Hor. Sat. 4 1. 1. ^Epi. ad Dorpinra de Moria. Si quispiam ofTendatur,- 

et sibi vindicet, non habit quod expostulet cum eo qui scripsit ; ipse, si volet, secutn 
agat injiiriam, utpote sui proditor, qui declaravit hoc ad se proprie pertinere. eg; 

quis se liesum clamabit, aut couscientiam prodit suam, autcerte metum. Phaed. 1. 3. 
yEsop. Fab. dHor. ^Mait. 1. 7, ^-i. f Ut hibet, feriat : abstergain 

hos ictus Deiuocviti »harinaco. 



UKMOCRITIIS TO IMIR READF.R. 113 

to tlioir goddess * V;icuna, and sat tiplijig- by their Vacunal 
tires, 1 writ this, and published this. Ovnq c>.eye» it is nemiriis 
nihil. The time, plijce, persons, and all circumstances, apo- 
lo<>i/e for me; and why may I not then be idle with others? 
speak my mind freely? li' yon deny me this liberty, upon 
these presiimpfions 1 will take it : 1 say again, 1 will take it. 

b Si quis est, qui dictum in se inclementius 
Exisiimabit esse, sic existimet. 

If any man take exceptions, let him turn the buckle of his 
oirdle ; I care not. I owe thee nothing-, reader : I look for no 
favour at thy hands; 1 am independent : 1 fear not. 

No. I recant; I will not; I care ; I fear; I confess my 
fiult, acknowledge a great offence; 

motes proestat coraponere fluclus : 



I have overshot myself; I have spoken foolishly, rashly, un- 
advisedly, absurdly; I liave anatomized mine own folly. And 
now, methiuks, upon a sudden I am awaked as it were out of 
a dream ; 1 have had a raving nt, a phantastical fit, ranged up 
and down, in and out ; I have insulted over m»)st kind of men, 
abused some, olfended others, wronged my self; and now, be- 
ing recovered, and perceiving- mine error, cry with '^ Orlando, 
Solvete mi. Pardon (O botii !) that which is past ; and I will 
make yon amends in (hat which is to come : I promise you a 
more sober discourse in my following treatise. 

If, through weakness, folly, passion, "^discontent, ignorance, 
I have said amiss, let it be forgotten and forgiven. I acknow- 
ledg-e that of "^ Tacitus to be true, Asperrpfacetice, ubi nimis ex 
vero traxere, acj-PTti sui mpmoriam relinqwint: a bitter jeast 
leaves a sting behind it ; and as an honorable man observes, 
^ They fiar a sahjrists wif, he their memoires. I may justly 
suspect the worst; and, thoui>h I hope 1 have wronged no 
man, yet, in Medeas words, I v, ill crave pardon, 

lllud jam voce extrema peto, 

Ne, si qua iioster dubius effudit dolor, 
Mancant in animo verba: sed melior tii)i 
Memoria nostri subeat ; hsec irsa data 
Oblitereiitur 



»Rusticonitn dfa prasesse vacantibns et otiosis pntabatar, cui post labores agricola 
sacriticabat. Plin. 1. 3. c. 1-2. Ovi'l. 1. 6. Fast. Jam qutxiue cum fiunt antiquae 
sacra Vaciinae, Aute Vaciinales stantque sedentijue f'>cos. Rosiniis. h^'gi-^ 

prol. Eunuch. -■ Ariost. 1. 39. st ."jS. ^ Ut enira ex stndiis gandiom, sic 

stadia ex hilaritate proveniunt. Plinius Maximo sno, pp. lib. 8. ^ Annal. 15. 

f Sir Francis Bacon in his Essayes, now Viscouut H. Aibanes. 

VOL. I. I 



U4 DEMOCRITUS TO THE READER. 

And, n my last words, this I do desire, 
That what in passion I have said, or ire, 
May be forgotten, and a better mind 
Be had of us, hereafter as you find. 

I earnestly requestevery private man, as Scaliger did Cardan, 
not to take offence. I will conclude in his lines, Si me cogni- 
tum haberes non solum donates nobis hasjacetias nostras, sed 
etiam indic/num duceres, tam humanum animum, lene inge- 
nium, vel minimum suspicionem deprecari oportere. If thou 
knewest my ^ modesty and simplicity, thou wouldst easily 
pardon and forgive what is here amiss, or by thee miscon- 
ceived. If hereafter, anatomizing this surly humour, my 
hand slip, and, as an unskilful prentice, I launch too deep, 
and cut through skin and all at unawares, make it smart, or 
cut awry, '' pardon a rude hand, an unskilful knife ; 'tis a 
most difficult thing to keep an even tone, a perpetual tenor, 
and not sometimes to lash out ; difficile est satyram non scri- 
bere ; there be so many objects to divert, inward perturba- 
tions to molest; and the very best may sometimes err; ali- 
quando bonus dormitat Homerus : it is impossible not in so 
much to overshoot : 

opere in lingo fas est obrepere somnum. 

But what needs all this ? I hope there will no such cause of 
offence be given ; if there be, 

cNemo aliquid recognoscat : nos mentimur omnia. 

I'le deny all (my last refuge), recant all, renounce all I have 
said, if any man except, and with as much facility excuse, as 
he can accuse : but I presume of thy good favour, and gra- 
cious acceptance, gentle reader. Out of an assured hope and 
confidence thereof, I will begin. 



"Quod Probtis Persii p/oyfa^o? virginali verecundia Persium fuisse dicit, ego, 
&c. ''Quas aut incuria indit, aiit humana parum cavit fiatuia. Hor. '^Prol. 

Plant. 



Lectoi'i male feriato. 



TIJ vero cavesh, edico, (jiiisqnis es,net€meresugilles authorem 
hupisce operis, aut cnvillntor irrideas. Imo ne vel ex aliorum 
ceusurd incite ohloquaris, (vis dicam verbo ?) nequid nasutulns 
iuepte improbes, ant falso fiiufas. Nam si talis reierd sit, 
fpialemprcB sefert. Junior Deinocritus, seniori Democrito sal- 
tern affiiiis, aut ejus genium vel tantillum sapiat ; actum de te ; 
censorem asqne ac delatorem ^aget e contra (petulant! splene 
cum sit); sufflabit te ini^cos, comminuet in sales, addo etiam, 
et deo Risui te sacrificabit. 

Iterum moneo, tie quid cavillere, ne (dum Democritum 
Junioreni conviciis inf antes, aut ignominiose vituperes, de te 
nan male sentientem) tu idem audias ab amico cordaio, quod 
olim vulgus Al)deritanum ab '' Hippocrate, concivem bene me- 
ritum et popularem suum DemocriHim pro insano liabens: 
Nee tu, Democrite, sapis ; stulti autem et insani Abderita. 

" Abderitanae pectora plebis babes. 

H(Bc te paucis admonitum volo, maleferiate Lector. Jlbi. 

1 Si me commorit, melius non tan-ere, clamo. Hor. b HinDor Pniot Ha 

mageto Accers.tns sum, ut nemocritum, ta.nquam insanam, curaX sed i" 
jiuan, con,^ru non. per Jovem, desipienti* negotium, sed rerum omnium' recepC 
lum deprehend, ; ej.«,„e mgen.nm demiraf us s,un. Abderitanos vero tan quam Don 
sanos accusav,, veratn potione ipsos potius eguisse dio ns. c Mart ^ 



i2 



HERACLITE, /leas ! miser o sic convenit cevo : 

Nil nisi turpe vides, nil nisi triste vides. 
Ride etidm, quantumque lubet, Democrite, ride : 

Nbn nisi vana vides, non nisi stulta vides, 
Isjletu, hie risu, modo gaudei ; unus utrique 

Sit licet usque labors sit licet usque dolor. 
Nunc opus est (nam tosus, eheu ! jam desipit orbisj 

Mille Heraclitis, milleque Democritis. 
Nunc opus est (tanta est insania) tratiseat omnis 

Mundus in Anticyras^ gramen in Hellehorum. 



SYNOPSIS 



FIRST PARTITION. 



r Their 
Causes. 
Subs. 1. 



Or 



Defiuition, 
Member, 
Division. 
Subs. 2. 



Impulsive: J Sin, Concupiscence, &c. 

Instrumental;^ Intemperance, all second causes, 
'( &c. 
rOf the body .- Epidemical, as Plague, Plica, &.c. 
300 which \ or 
are ( Particular, as Gout, Dropsie, &c. 

rlu disposition: as all perturbations, evil 
atiection, &c. 



/ Of the head 
or mind. 
Subs. 3. 



_. Or j Dotage. 

V Subs. 'A. \ \ Phrensie. 

Madness. 
/ E( sfa.oie. 
Habits as ( i-jcanthropia. 
Subs. -I. 1 Chorus sancti Viti. 
Hydrophobia. 

Possession or obsession of 
Devils. 
*^MeIancholy. See V. 
rlls .Equivocations, in Disposition, Improper, &c. Suhspct. 5. 



r 



Iflemb. 2. 
To its ex • 
plication, ,'a 
digression 
ofanatomy, 
in which 
observe 
parts of 
Subs. I. 



Body 
hath 
parts 
Hubs. 



contained, as 



containing 



r Humours, Blood, Phlegm, 
J Choler, Melancholy. 
1 Spirits ; vital, natural, ani- 
|_ mal. 

r Sihiilctr : spemiatical, or flesh, 
J bones, nervfs, 8cc. 
1 Dissimilar : brain, heart, liver, 

l_ &c. Subs. 4. 



Soul and his faculties, as 



I Vegetal. Subs. ■ 
< Sensible. Subs. 



- 6,7, S. 

Rational. Subs. 9, 10, II 



Memh. 3. 

Its definition, name, difference. Sub. I. 

The part and parties affected, affection, &:c. Subs. 2. 

The matter of melancholy, natural, unnatural, &c. Subs. 4. 

r Of thf head alone, Hy- i with their seve 
Proper, to I pochoudriacal.or windy ) ral causes, syni 
parts, as ^ melancholy. Of the ^ ptomes,prognos 

ks, cures. 



Species, or 
kinds, 
which are 



ancnoiy, natural, unnatural, 6 

r Of thf head alone, 

per, to J pochoudriacal.or wi 

ts, as ^ melancholy. Of tli 

(^ whole body. 

Or 



\ pto 



Indefinite; as Love-melancholy, the subj-^ct of the third 
Partition. 



Its Causes in general. Sect. 2. A. 

Its Symptomes or si>;ns. Sect, 3. B. 

Its Prognosticks or indications. i>ect. 4. 4. 

Its cures : the subject of the second Partition. 



118 



SYNOPSIS OF rhli FIRST PARTITION. 



Superna' 
tural 



5 As 
Or 



Or 



r- 



A. 

Sect. 2. 
Causes of 
Melancholy 
are either 



Natural 



V^ 



O 



r 



Or 



VJ^ 



Outward, 
or adven- 
titious, 
^ which are 



Evident, 
outward, 
remote, ad- 
ventitious. 



As from God immediately, or by second causes, ^tib. I. 
Or from the devil immediately, with a digression of 
the nature of spirits and devils. Suh. 2. 
r mediately, by magicians, witches. Sub. .3. 
/'Primary, as stars, proved by aphorisms, sij^ns from 
physiognomy, metoposcopy, chiromancy. Sub. A. 
^CongenitCj r Old age, temperament. Sub. 5. 
inward ^ Parents, it being an hereditary 
from I disease. Sub. 6. 

ecf ssary, see b • 
^Nurses. Sub. 1- 
Bducation, 

Sub. 2. 
Terrors, af- 
Irights. Sub. 3. 
Scoffs, calum- 
nies, bitter 
jests. Sub. 4. 
Loss of liberty, 
servitude, im- 
prisonment. 
Sub. 5. 
Poverty and 

want. Sub. 6. 
An heap of 
other acci- 
dents, death of 
friends, loss, 
&c. Sub. 7. 
Ill which the body 
works on the mind, 
and this malady is 
caused by prece- 
dent diseases, as 
agues, pox, &c. or 
temperature innate. 
Sub. 1. 
Or by particular 
parts distempered, 
as brain, heart, 
spleen, liver, mesen- 
tery, pylorus, sto- 
mach, &c. Sub. 2. 



Or 



Contingent, 
inward, an- 
tecedent, 
tiearest. 
Memh. 5. 
Sect. 2. 



V. 



Particularly to the three species. See n 



n 

Particular 
causes 
Sect. 2. 
Memb. 5. 



n 



Of head Me- 
lancholy are. 
Sub. 3. 



Inward 



Or 



Outward 



f Of hypochon- f 

\ driacal, or 3 

windy melan- J 

eholy are, \ 

Over all the 
body are. 
Sub, 5. 



Inward 

Or 
Outward 




Innate humour, or from distemperature 
adust. 
A hot brain, corrupted blood in the brain. 
Excess of veuery, or defect. 
AgUes or some precedent disease. 
Fumes arising from the stomach, &c. 
Heat of the sun immoderate. 
A blow on the head. 

Overmuch use of hot wines, spices, gar- 
lick, onions, hot baths, overmuch waking, 
&c. 

Idleness, solitariness, or overmuch study, 
vehement labour, &c. 
Passions, perturbations, &c. 
f Default of spleen, belly, bowels, stomachy 
J mesentery, meseraick veins, liyer, &c. 
S Months of hemorrhoids stopt, or any other 
' ordinary evacuation. 
( Those six non-natural things abused. 
^ Liver distempered, stopt, over hot, apt to 
I ingender melancholy, temperature innate. 
Bad diet, suppressing of hemorrhoids, &£C. 
and such evacuations, passions, cares, &c, 
those six uon- natural things abused. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE URSI PARTITJON. 



119 



Bread; coarse and black, &c. 
Drink ; thick, thin, sowre, &(;. 
Water unclean, milk, nyl, vinegar, wine, spices, 
&c. 



Sub- . 
stance ( 



Flesh 



/Diet of- 
fending in 
Sub. 3. 



Herbs, 
Fish, 

&c. 



Necessary 
causes, as 
those six 
non-natural 
things, 
which are, 
Sect. 2. 
Memh. S. 



Quali- 
ty, as 



. Quan- 
Ntity 



Parts ; heads, feet, entrails, fat, bacon, 
blood, &c. 

( Bief, pork, venison, hnres. 
Kinds < goats, pigeons, peacocks, 

t fen-fowl, &c. 
Offish; all shell-fish, hard and slimy 

fish, &c. 
Of herbs; pulse, cabbage, niellons, 
arlick, onions, ike. 
roots, raw fruits, hard and windy 
meats. 



V- n 



Preparing, dressing, sharp sauces, salt meats, 
indurate, sowced, fryed, broiled, or made- 
dishes, &c. ' 

Disorder in eating, immoderate eating, or at 

unseasonable times, &c. Subsec. 2. 
Custom ; delight, appetite, altered, &c. Subs. 3. 



Retention and 
evacuation. 
Subs. 4. 



I Costiveness, hot baths, sweating, issues stop- 
< ped, Venus in excess, or in defect, phlebo- 
i tomy, purging, &c. 

Air; hot, cold, tempestaous. dark, thick, foggy, moorish, &c. Subs. 5. 

Exercise, ( Unseasonable, excessive, or defective, of botly or minde. 
Sub- 6. I solitariness, idleness, a life, out of action, &c. 

Sleep and waking, unseasonable, inordinate, over much, OTcr little, &c. 
Sub. 7. 

Sorrow,caiise and symptome, Sub.i. Fear, 
cause and symptome. Sub. 5. Shame, re- 
pulse, disgrace, &c. Sub. 6. Envy and 
'Irasci-^ malice, 52//>. 7. Emulation, hatred, fac- 
bie I tion, desire of revenge, jSw6. 8. Anger 
a cause, Sub. 9. Discontents, cares, 
miseries. Sub. 10. 
or ^ Vehement desires, ambition. Sub. 11. Co- 
( vetousness, ^uxofyufiav. Sub. 12, Lore 
\ of pleasure, gaming in excess, &c. Sub. 
coticu- } 13. Desire of praise, pride, vain-glory, 
pisci- \ &€. S«6. 14. Love of learning, study in 
I ble. J excess, with a digression of the misery 
I of scholars, and why the Muses are me- 
^ (^ lancholy. Sub. 15. 



Memb.Z.Sect.2. 
Passions and 
perturbations 
of the mind. 
Subs. 2. With 
a dig^ression of •< 
the force of 
imagination. 
Sub. 2. and divi- 
sion of passions 
into Stib, 3. 



120 



SYNOPSIS OF THE FIRST PARTITTO.V. 



(■". 



B. 

SymptomeM 
of melan- 
choly are 
either 
ct.Z. 



Body, as ill digestion, crudity wind,' dry brains, hard belly, 
thicil blood, ranch waking, heaviness and palpitation of heart, 
leaping in many places, &c. Sub. 1. 

y- ^ /" Fear and sorrow without a just cause, sus- 

ri^onimon | picion, jealousie, discontent, solitariness, 

to all 01 < irksoraeness, continual cogitations.restless 

most, ^ thoughts, vain iniaginatiunSj &c. Subs. 2. 



/^Celestial influences, as b "U c? , f'^c. parts 
of the body, heart, brain, liver, spleen, 
stomach, &cc. 

/Sanguine are merry still laugh- 
ing, pleasant, meditating on 
playes, women, mtisick, &c. 
Qr Phlegmatick, slothful, dull, 

) heavt, &:c. 
Humours ( Cholerick, furious, impatient, 
subject to hear and see 
strange apparations, &c. 
Black, solitary, sad ; they think 
they are bewitcht, dead, 
V &c. 

Or mixt of these four humours adust, or not 
adust, infinitely varied. 



Particular 
to private 
persons, 
accordin;^ 
to Sub.:i. 



Their several 
customs, con- 
ditions, disci- 
pline, &c. 



Coutinuance 
of time as the 
humor is i 
tended or r 
mitted, &c. 



■'Ambitious thinks himself 
a king, a lord ; covet- 
ous runs on his money ; 
lascivious on his mis- 
tfis ; religious hath re- 
velations, visions, is a 
prophet, or troubled in 
mind ; a scholar on his 
book, &c. 



Pleasant at tirst, hardly 
discerned : afterwards 
harsh and intolerable, if 
inveterate. 



Hence 
some 
lake 
three 
degrees, 



I 



Falsa cogila- 

tio. 
Cogitata lo- 

qui. 
Exsequi lo- 

quutum. 



I By fits, or continuate, as 
V, ( the object varies, pleas- 

ing or displeasing. 
Simple, or as it is mixt with other diseases, apoplexies, gout, caninus 
\appetitus, &c. so the symptomes are various. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE FIRST PARTlTIOiV. 



121 



Particular 
svmptiimes 
to the three 
distinct 
species. 
Hfct. 3. 
Mem. 2. 



/Head- 
mclan- 
choly. 
Sub. 1. 



• In body 



} 



Hypo- 
chondria- 
cal or 
windy 
nieiau- 
choiy. 
Sub. 2. 



Over all 
the body. 
Sub. 3. 



Or 



In mind. 



lu l>ody 



Or 



In mind. 



In body 

Or 

In mind. 



Head-ach, binding, heaviueis, vertigo, lipht- 
L ness. singing of the ears, much waking, 
fixed eyes, high colour, r'>d eyes, hard belly, 
f dry body ; no ^rt- it sign of melancholy in 
^ the other parts. 

Continual fear, sorrow, suspicion, discontent, 
siiperlluous cares, solicitude, anxiety, per- 
petual cogitation of such toyes they are pos- 
sessf d with, thoughts like dreams, &c. 



VN'ind, rumbling in the guts, belly-ake, heat 
ill the boueis, convulsions,crudities, short 
wiiid.soivrand sharp belchings, cold sweat, 
pain in the left side, sutl'ocation, palpita- 
tion, heaviness of the. heart, singing in the 
ears, much spittle, and Jiioist, J!>:c. 



( Fearful, sad, suspicious, discontent,anxiety, 
-[ 8.:r. Lascivious by reason of much wind, 
(. troublesome dreams, affected, by fits, &c. 



{ 



Black, most part lean, broad ^eins, gross, 
thick blood, their hemorrhoids commonly 
stopped, &.C. 

^ Fearful, sad, solitary, hate light, averse from 
i company, feariul dreams, &c. 



Symptomes of nuns, maids, and widows 
mind, &c. 



melancholy, in body and 




Why they are so fearful, sad, suspicious without a cause, 
why solitary, why melancholy men are witty, why they 
suppose they hear and see strange voices, visions, appa- 
ritions. 

Why they prophesie, and speak strange languages ; whence 
comes tlieir crudity, rumbling, convulsions, cold sweat, 
heaviness of hecirt, patpitation, cardiaca, fearful dreams, 
prodigious phantasies. 



Prognosticks 
of melan- 
choly. 
Sect. 4. 



yTeuding to good 
as 



Tending to evil as 



V 



Corollaries and 
qaestions. 




scabs, itch, breaking out, &c. 
jaundise. 
emorrhoids voluntarily open, 
appear. 



• Leanness, dryness, hollow-eyed, &c. 
Inveterate melancholy is incurable. 
If cold it degenerates oft^n into epilepsie, apo- 
plexy, dotage, or into blindness. 
If hot, into madness, despair, and violent 
death. 



f The grievousness of this above all other diseases. 
1 The diseases of the mind are more {rrievoos than 
I those of the body. 

/ Whether it he lawful, in this rase of inelan- 
^ rholv, for a man to offer violence to himself. 

How a melancholy or mad man, oll'ering violence 
\. to himself is to be censured. 



THE 



FIRST PARTITION, 



/'SECTION". 
THE FIRST J MEMBER. 

I SUBSECTION. 



Maii^ji Excellency, Fall, Miseries, Infirmities ; The causes of 

them. 

Mmis^Excellency.'] ITlAN, the most excellent and noble 
creature of the world, the principal and mif/hty work of' God, 
wonder oj'natnre, as Zoroaster calls him ; avdacis naturee mira- 
ciilum, the " marvail oJ'7narvails,ns Plato ; the ^ abridgement and 
epitome oftheworld, as Pliny; microcosmus, a little world,a mo- 
del of the world, *^soveragn lord of the earth, viceroy of the 
world, sole commander and governour of all the creatures 
in it ; to whose empire they are subject in particular, and 
yield obedience ; far surpassing- all the rest, not in body only, 
but in soul ; ^imayinis imago, *" created to Gods own ^ image 
to that immortal and incorporeal substance, with all the facul- 
ties and powers belonging unto it ; was at first pure, divine, 
perfect, happy, ^created after Godin true holiness andrighte- 
otisness; Deo congrnens, tree from all manner of infirmities, 
and put in Paradise, to know God, to praise and glorifie him, 
to do his will, 

Ut dis consimiles parturiat deos, 
(as an old poet saith) to propagate the church. 

Man's fall and misery.^ But this most noble creature, 
Heu iristis, et lacrymosa commutatio ! Q one exclaims) 
O pitiful change ! is fallen from that he was, and for- 

» Magnum miraculiim. '' Mundi epitome, naturae delicia;. <" Finis re- 

rum omnium, cui subliinaria serviunt. Scalig. exercit. 365. sec. 3. Vales, de sacr. 
Phil. c. 5. ti Ut in nnmisraate Capsaris imago, sic in houiine Dei. e Cien. 1. 

f Imago mundi in corpore, Dei in anim;i. Exemplumquc Dei qnisque est in imagine 
parva. S Eph. 4. 24. '• Palanterius. 



2 Diseases in General. [Part 1. Sec. 1. 

feited his estate, become miserabilis homuncio, a castaway, a 
caitiff, one of the most miserable creatures of the world, if he be 
considered in hisowii natiire,an imregenerate nian, and somuch 
obscured by his fall, that (some few reliques excepted) he isin- 
feriour to a beast : " man in honour that under standeth not, is 
like unto beasts that perish ; so David esteems him : a monster 
by stupend metamorphosis, ^ a fox, a dog-, a hog- ; Avhat not? 
Quantum mutatus ah illo I How much altered from that he 
was ; before blessed and happy, now miserable and accursed ; 
'^ he must eat his meat in sorroiv, subject to death and all manner 
of infirmities, all kinds of calamities. 

A description oj' melancholy.'] Great travel is created 
for all men, and an heavy yoke on the sons of Adam, from 
the day that they go out of their mothers womb, unto that 
day they return to the mother of all things ; namely^ their 
thoughts, and fear of their hearts, and their imagination 
of things they wait for, and the day of death. From him 
that sitteth in the glorious throne, to him that sitteth be- 
neath in the earth and ashes — from him that is cloathed in 
blue silk, and weareth a croivn, to him that is cloathed in 
simple linnen — tcrath, envy, trouble and unquietness, and 
fear of death^ and rigour and strife, and such things^ come 
to both man and beast, but sevenfold to the ungodly ''. All 
this befalls him in this life, and peradventure eternal misery 
in the life to come. 

Impulsive causes of mans misery and infrmities.'j The 
impulsive cause of these miseries in man, this privation or 
destruction of Gods image, the cause of death and diseases, 
of all temporal and eternal punishments, Avas the sin of our 
first parent Adam, ^ in eating- of the forbidden fruit, by the 
devils instigation and allurement — his disobedience,pride, am- 
bition, intemperance, incredulity, curiosity ; from whence pro- 
ceeded original sin, and that general corruption of mankind — 
as from a fountain flowed all bad inclinations,and actual trans- 
gressions, which cause our several calamities,inflicted upon us 
for our sins. And this belike, is that which our fabulous poets 
have shadowed unto us in the tale of ^Pandoras box, whicn, be- 
ing opened throughher curiosity, filled the world full of all man- 
ner of diseases. It is not curiosity alone, but those other cry- 
ing sins of ours, which pull these several plagues and miseries 
upon our heads. For ubi peccatum, ibi procella, as § Chry- 
sostom well observes. ^ Fools, by reason of their transgres- 

* Ps. 49. 20. bljascivia superat equiuoa, impudentia canem, astu vnlpem, 

furore leonem. Chrys. 23. Gen. c Gen. 3. 17. d Ecclus. 40. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8. 

e Gen. 3. 16. f Ilia cadens tcgmen manibus decussit, et una Perniciem im- 

misit raiseris mortalibus atram. Hesiod. J. oper. t'Hom. 5, ad pop, Antioch. 

iPsal. 107. 17. 



."\r<Miib. l.Siibs. 1.] Disea'ies ill (r^jwrai '] 

.•<ion, (Did because of their iniquities are afflieted. '■' Fear 
Cometh like svddeu desolation, and destruction like a whirle- 
winde, affiiction and anfjui>di, because they did not tear God. 

Are yon shaken ivith rears? ^ (as Cyprian well urcj-eth to 
Deaietrius,) are you molested with dearth and famine ? is your 
health crusheth with raf/inr/ diseases ? Is mankind rjene- 
rally tormented with epidemical mnludics ? 'tis allj'or yonr 
sins. Hag'. 1.9, 10. Amos 1. Jer. /• God is angry, punisbeth, 
and tbreatenetb, because of their obstinacy and stubbornness, 
they will not turn unto him. "^IJ' the earth he barren thenjbr 
want of rain ; if, dry and sqnalid, it yield 7io fruit ; if your 
J'ountnins be dried up, your icine corn, and oyle blasted ; ijfthe 
air be corrupted, and men troubled irith diseases, 'tis by reason 
of their sins, which (like the blood of Abel) cry aloud to heaven 
for veng'eance. Lam. 5. l5. That we hare sinned, therejore 
our hearts are heavy, Isa. 59. M, 12. We roar like bears, 
and mourn like doves, and want health, ^'C.J'or our sins and 
trespasses. But this we cannot endure to hear, or to take 
notice of. Jer. 2. 30. We are smitten in vain, and receive 
no correction ; and cap. 5. o. Thou hast stricken them ; 
but they have not sorrowed; they have refused to receive cor- 
rection ; they have not returned. Pestilence he hath sent; but 
they have not turned to him, Amos. 4. "^ Herod could not abide 
John Baptist, nor ^ Domitian endure Apollonius to tell the 
causes of the plague atEphesus, his injustice, incest, adultery, 
and the like. 

To punish therefore thisblindness and obstinacy of ours, as 
a concomitant cause and principal agent, is Gods just judg'e- 
ment, in bringing- these calamities upon us, to chastise us, (I 
say) for our sins, and to satisfie Gods wrath : for the law 
requires obedience or punishment, as you may read at large, 
Deut. 28. 15. IJ' they will not obey the Lord, and keep his 
commandments and ordinances, then all these curses shall come 
upon them. ^Cursed in the town, and hi the field, Sfc. 
8 Cuised in the fruit of the body, &:c. ^ The Lord shall send 
thee trouble and shame, because of thy wickedness. And a 
little after, ' The Lord shall smite thee with the botch of 
JEgypt, and with emrods,and scab, and itch ; and thou canst 
not be healed ; ^ with madness^ blindness, and astonishing 



a Prov. 1. 27. I' Quod antern crebriiis bella concntiant, qaod sterilitas et 

fames solicitudineni cuinulent, quod savientibus murbis valetiido frangitur, quod 
hinnanuiu genus luis populations vastatur ; ob peccatnm omnia. Cypr. '^ Si raro 

desnper pluvia descendat, si terra situ pnl veris sqaaleat, si \ix jejunas et pallidas herbas 
sterilis gleba prodncat, si turbo vineam debilitet, &c. Cypr. "* Mat. 14. 3. 

« Philostratus, lib. 8. vit. Apollonii. Injustitiam ejus, et sceleratas nnptias^ et caetera 
quae praeter rationem fecerat, morborum caussas dixit. f 16. ?18 ''20. 

' Vers. 17. ^ 23. Deus, quoa diligit, castigat. 



4 I)i.fieases in GerwraL [Part. 1. See. 1. 

of heart. Thi^ Paul seconds, Rom. 2. 9. Tribulation and 
anguish on the soul of every manthat doth evil. Or else these 
chastisements are inflicted upon us for our humiliation, to 
exercise and try our patience here in this life, to bring- us 
home, to make us know God and onr selves, to inform and 
teach us wisdom. ^Therefore is my people yone into captivity, 
because they had no knowledge ; therefore is the wrath of the 
Lord kindled against his people, ami he hath stretched out his 
hand upon them,. He is desirous of our salvation, *' nostrce 
salutis ayi«?MS,saithLeranius, and for that cause pulls us by the 
ear many tiuies, to put us in mind of our duties, that they 
which erred might have *= understanding, (as Isay speaks, 
29. 24.) and so to be reformed. I am afflicted and at the point 
of death, so David confesseth of himself, Psal. 88. lb. v. 9. 
Mine eyes are sorroirful through mine affiiction : and that 
made him turn unto God. Great Alexander, in the midst of 
all his prosperity, by a company of parasites deified, and now 
made a god, when he saw one of his wounds bleed, remem- 
bered that he was bat a man, and remitted of his pride. In 
morbo recolligit se animus, as '^ Pliny well perceived ; in 
sickness the mind refects upon it self, with Judgement sur- 
veys it self, and abhors itsj'ormer courses ; insomuch that he 
concludes to his friend Maximus, ^that it were the period of 
all philosophy, if ive could so continue, sound, or perform but 
a part of that ivhich we promised to do, being sick. Who so 
is wise then, ivill consider these things, as David did, (Psal. 
144. verse last) and, whatsoever fortune befall him, make use 
of it — if he be in sorrow, need, sickness, or any other ad- 
versity, seriously to recount with himself, why this or that 
malady, misery, this or that incurable disease, is inflicted upon 
him; it may be for his good ; '^'sic expedit, as Peter said of 
his daughters ague. Bodily sickness is for his souls health ; 
periiset nisi per iiset ; had he not been visited, he had utterly 
perished ; for " the Lordcorrecteth himwhom he loveth, even as 
a father doth his child in rvhom he delighteth. If he be safe 
and sound on the other side, and free from all manner of in- 
firmity ; ^ et cui 

Gratia, forma, valetudo contiiigat abunde, 
Et mundus victus, non deficiente crumena — 

^ Isa. 5. 13. vers. 15. b Nostras saltitis avidus, continenter anres vtllicat, 

ac calamitate sabinde nos exercet. Levimis Lemn. I. 2. c. 29. de occult, nat. 
mir. c Vexatio dat intellectiim. Esay2S. 19. *i Lib. 7. Cum. judirio, 

mores et facta recognoscit, et se intuetiir — Dmn fero langnorem, fero religioiiis 
amorem : Bxpers langiioris, non sum memor hujus amoris. •? Summam esse 

totius philosopliia;, ut talcs esse sani perseverenms, qnales nos fiituros esse infirmi 
profiteraur. f Petrarcli. 8 Prov. 3. 12, '' Hor. Epist. lib. 1. 4. 



Memb. 1. Subs. 1.] Disea.'iest in Genpral. 5 

And that he have grace, beauty, favour, health, 
A cleanly diet, and abound in wealth — 

yet, in the midst of his prosperity, let him remember that 
caveat of Moses, ^ heivare that he do not forget the Lord 
his God ; that he be not puffed up, but acknowledge them 
to be his good gifts and benefits, and ^ the more he hath, to 
be more thanhful, (as Agapetianus adviseth) and use them 
aright. 

Instrumental causes of oiir infirmities.'] Now the instru- 
mental causes of these our infirmities are as diverse, as the 
infirmities themselves. Stars, heavens, elements, &c. and 
all those creatures which God hath made, are armed against 
sinners. They were indeed once good in themselves ; and 
that they are now, many of them, pernicious unto us, is 
not in their nature, but our corruption which hath caused 
it. For, from tlie fall of our first parent Adam, they have 
been changed, the earth accursed, the influence of stars 
altered ; the four elements, beasts, birds, plants, are now 
ready to offend us. The principal thinr/sjor the use of man 
are water, fire, iron, salt, meal, wheat, hony, milk, oile, wine, 
clothing, good to the godlg, to the sinners turned to evil, 
Ecclus. 39. 26. Fire and hail, and famine, and dearth, all 
these are createdfor vengeance, Ecclus. 39. 29. The heavens 
threaten us with their comets, stars, planets, with their 
great conjunctions, eclipses, oppositions, quartiles, and such 
unfriendly aspects ; the air with his meteors, thunder and 
lightning, intemperate heat and cold, mighty winds, tempests, 
unseasonable weather ; from which proceed dearth, famine, 
plague, and all sorts of epidemical diseases, consuming- 
infinite myriads of men. At Cayro in iEgypt, every third 
year, (as it is related by *= Boterus, and others) 300000 dye of 
the plague ; and 200000 in Constantinople, every fifth or 
seventh at the utmost. How doth the earth terrific and oppress 
us with terrible earthquakes, which are most frequent in 
-^ China, Japan, and those eastern climes, swallowing- up some- 
times six cities at once ! How doth the water rage with his 
inundations, irruptions, flinging down towns, cities, villages, 
bridges, &c. besides shipwracks; whole islands are sometimes 
suddenly over-whelmed with all their inhabitants, as in 
" Zeland, Holland, and many parts of the continent drowned, 
as the 'lake Erne in Ireland! " Nihilque prceter arciuni ca- 



»Deut. 8. 11. Qui stat, ■videat ne cadat. bQoanto luajoribiis benefiriis a 

Deo cumulatur^ tanto obligationem se debitorem fateri. <■ Boterus He Inst. 

Urbiiim. '' Lage hist, relationem Lod. Frois de rebus Jai)onicis ad annum 

li>96. "■ Guicciard. descript. Belg. an. 1421. ' (Jiraldus Cainbrens. 

ffjanus Dousa, ep. lib. I. car. 10. 



6 Diseases in General. [Part J. Sec, 1. 

fhvera patenti ceminiusfreto. In the fenns of Freesland, 
1^30, l)y reason of tempests, ''the sea drowned mult a Jwminnm 
niiJlia, et jumenta sine yinmero, all the country ahnost, men and 
cattle in it. How doth the fire rage, that jnerciless element, 
consamino" in an instant whole cities ! What town of any an- 
tiquity or note, hath not'heen once, again and again, bv t!je 
fm-y of this merciless ejjpment, defaced, ruinated^ and left 
desolate? In a word, 

''Ignis pepercit? unda mergit: aeris 
Vis pestilentis aequori ereptum necat ; 
Bello superstes, tabidus morbo peril. 

Whom fire spares, sea doth drown ; whom sea, 
Pestilent ayre doth send to clay ; 
Whom war scapes, sickness takes away. 

To descend to more particulars, how many creatures are at 
deadly feud with men! Lions, wolves, bears, &c. some 
M^ith hoofs, horns, tusks, teeth, nails : how many noxious 
serpents and venomous creatures, ready to oifend us with 
sting', breath, sig^ht, or quite kill us ! How many pernicious 
fishes, plants, gums, fruits, seeds, flowers, &c. could 1 reckon 
up on a sudden, which by their very smell, many of them, 
touch, taste, cause some grievous malady, if not death it self! 
Some make mention of a thousand several poysons : but these 
are but trifles in respect. '^The greatest enemy to man is 
man, who, by the devils instigation, is still ready to do mis- 
chief — his own executioner, a wolf, a devil to himself and 
others. We are all brethren in Christ, or at least should be — 
members of one body, servants of one Lord; and yet no fiend 
can so torment, insult over, tyrannize, vex, as one man doth 
another. Let me not fall, therefore, (saith David, when wars, 
plague, famine, were offered) into the hands of men, merciless 
and wicked men : 

■Vix sunt homines hoc nomine digni; 



Quamque lupi, ssevae plus feritatis habent. 

. We can, most part, foresee these epidemical diseases, and 
likely,avoid them. Dearths, tempests, plagues, our astrolog-ers 
foretell us : earth-quakes,inundations,ruines of houses,consum- 
ing fires, come by little and little, or make some noise before- 
hand ; but the knaveries, impostures, injuries, and villanies of 
men no art can avoid. We can keep our professed enemies 
from our cities, by gates, walls and towers, defend our selves 



»Munster. 1. 3. Cos. cap. 462. •> Buchanan. Baptist. <^ Homo homini 

lupus; homo homini daemon. ^Ovid. de Trist 1. 5. Eleg. 7. 



Memb. 1. Subs. 1.] Diseases in General. 7 

from thieves and robbers by watchfulness and weapons : but 
this malice of men,and their pernicious endeavours, no caution 
can divert, no vig-ilancy foresee, we have so many secret plots 
and devices to mischief one another ; sometimes by the devils 
help, as magicians, "^ witches; sometitnes by impostures, mix- 
tures, poysons, stratagems, single con>bats,wars, (wo hack and 
hew, as if we were adinternecionem M«i<?, likeCadrnus souldiers 
born to consumeoneanother : — 'tis an ordinary thing to read of 
an hundred and two hundred thousand men slain in a battle) 
besides all manner of tortures, brasen bulls, racks, wheels, 
strappadoes, guns, engines, &c. ^Ad unum corpus humanum 
supplicia plura, quam membra : we have invented more tor- 
turing instruments than there be several members in a mans 
body, as Cyprian well observes. To come nearer yet, our own 
parents, by their offences, indiscretion, and intemperance, arc 
our mortal enemies. *" Thejathers have eaten soivr grapes ; 
and the childrens teeth are set on ed(je. They cause our grief 
many times, and put upon us hereditary diseases, inevitable 
infirmities : they torment us ; and we are ready to injure our 
posterity, 

'^ mox daturi progeniem vitiosiorem ; 

and the latter end of the world, as ^ Paul foretold, is still like 
to be worst. We are thus bad by nature, bad by kind, but 
far worse by art, every man the greatest enemy unto himself. 
We study many times to undo our selves, abusing- those good 
gifts which God hath bestowed upon us, health, wealth, 
strength, wit, learning, art, memory, to our own destruc- 
tion : ^ Perditio tua ex te. As e Judas Maccabaeus killed Apol- 
lonius with his own weapons, we arm ourselves to our own 
overthrows : and use reason, art, judgement, all that should 
help us, as so many instruments to undo us. Hector gave 
Ajax a sword, which, so long as he fought against enemies, 
served for his help and defence ; but after he began to hurt 
harmless creatures with it, turned to his own hurtless bowels. 
Those excellent means, God hath bestowed on us, well im- 
ployed, cannot but much avail us : but, if otherwise perverted, 
they ruine and confound us ; and so, by reason of our indis- 
cretion and weakness, they commonly do : we have too many 
instances. This S. Austin acknowledgeth of himself in his 
humble Confessions ; promptness of loit, memory, eloquence, 
they were Gods good gij'ts; hut he did not use them to 
his glory. If you will particularly know how, and by 



^Miscent aconita novercae. ''Lib. 2. Epist. 2. ad Donatum. "^ Ezech. 

18. 2 d Hor. 1. 3. Od. 6. e 2 Tim. 3. 2. f Ezech. 18. 3L 

s 1 Mace. 3. 12. 

VOL. I K 



8 Diseases in General. [Part 1. Sec. 1. 

what means, consult pliysiciaiis ; and tbey will tell you, that it 
is in offentling' some of those six noii-natural things, of whicl^ 
I shall after ^dilate more at large : they are the causes of our 
infirmitiesjour surfeiting, and drunkenness,ourimmoderate in- 
satiable lust, and prodigious riot. Plures crapnla^quam gladius, 
is a true saying — the board consumes more than the sword. Our 
intemperance itis,tliat pulls so many several incurable diseases 
upon our heads,^ that hastens old age, perverts our tempera- 
ture, and brings upon us sudden death. And, last of all, that 
which crucifies us most, is our own folly, madness,(«/wos Jupiter 
perdit, dementat ; by substraction of his assisting grace, God 
permits it) weakness, want of government, our facility, and 
proneness in yielding to several lusts, in giving way to every 
passion and perturbation of the mind ; by which means we me- 
tamorphose our selves, and degenerate into beasts ; all which 
that prince of ^ poets observed of Agememnon, that, when he 
was well pleased, and could moderate his passion, he was — os 
oculosque Jovipax — like Jupiter in feature, Mars in valour, 
Pallas in wisdom, another God ; but, when he became angry, 
he was a lyon, atiger, a dog, &c. there appeared no sign or like- 
ness of Jupiter in him : so we, aslong as we are ruled byreason, 
correct our inordinate appetite, and conform our selves to 
Gods word, are so many living saiuts : but, if we give reins 
to lust, anger, ambition, pride, and follow our own wayes, we 
degenerate into beasts, transform our selves, overthrow our 
constitutions, ''provoke God to angei, and heap upou us this 
of melancholy, and all kinds of incurable diseases, as a just 
and deserved punishmept of our sins. 



SUBSECT. II. 

r DEFINITION 7 
THE { NUMBER \ OF DISEASES. 

I DIVISION J 

Vt hat a disease is, almost every physician defines. '^Fer- 
nelius calleth it an affection of' the body contrary to nature — 
^ Fuchsius and Crato, an hindrance, hurt^ or alteration of 
any action oj^the body, or part oj'it — sTholosainus, a dissolution 
of' that league which is hetiveen body and soul, and a pertur* 



* Part. 1. Sect. 2. Memb. 2. '' Neqyitiaest^ quae te non sinit esse senem. 

<■ Homer. Iliad. <> Intemperantia, liixus, ingluvies, et infiuita hujusmodi 

flagitia, quae divinas poenas merentur. Crato. *' Fern- Path. 1. I. c. 1. Morbus 

est afFectii'3 contra uaturam corpori insidens. ' Fuohs. Instit. 1, 3. Sect. 1. c 3. 

a quo priiDiira vit^atur actio. § Dissolatio foederis in cprpgrP; iit sanitas est 

eoQsutnmatio. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] Def. JVum. Div. of Diseases. 9 

hation of it ; as Jiealth theperfection, and makes to the preser- 
vation of it — ^ Labeo in Agellius, an ill hahit of the body, 
opposite to nature, hindering the use of it — others otherwise, 
all to this efTect. 

Nnmher of diseases.] How many diseases there are, is a 
question not yet determined. ''Pliny reckons up 300, from 
the crown of the head to the sole of the foot : elsewhere he 
saith, morhornm infinita mnltitudo, their number is infinite. 
Howsoever it was in those times, it boots not ; in our dayes, 
I am sure the number is much auo-mented : 

— '^ macies, et nova febrium 

Terris incubuit cohors : 

for, besides many epidemical diseases unheard of, and altooe- 
ther unknown to Galen and Hippocrates, as scorhntum, small 
pox, plica, siceatinff sickness, morbus Gallicus, 6fc. we have 
many proper and peculiar almost to every part. 

JVb man free from some disease or other.] No man 
amongst us so sound, of so good a constitution, that hath not 
some impediment of body or mind. Qnisque suos patimur 
manes ; we have all our infirmities, first or last, more or less. 
There will be, peradventure, in an age, or one of a thousand, 
like Zenophilus the musician in ''Pliny, that may happily live 
105 years without any manner of impediment; a Pollio 
Komulus, that can preserve himself «i/;?7/i wine and oyle ; a 
man as fortunate as Q. Metellus, of whom Valerius so much 
brags ; a man as healthful as Otto Herw ardus, a senator of 
Ausborrow in Germany, (whom *Leovitius the astroloo-er 
brings in for an example and instance of certainty in his art) 
who,becausehehad the significatours in his geniture fortunate, 
and free from the hostile aspects of Saturn and Mars, being a 
very old man, e could not remember that ever he teas sick. 
•^ Paracelsus may brag, that he could make a man live 400 
years or more, if he might bring him up from his infancy, and 
diet him as he list ; and some physicians hold, that there is 
no certain period of mans life, but it may still, by temperance 
and physick, be prolonged. We find in the mean lime, by 
common experience, that no man can escape, but that of 
' Hesiod is true : 

nX£/)j [xtv yxf yxicc aoocuv, rrXBUfi Ss ^xXxa^ffx. 

AVTOlJ.aTOt ^OlTU(7l. 

» Lib. 4. cap. 2. Morbus est habitus contra naturara, qui usum ejus, &c. 
b Cap. 11. lib. 7. ^- Herat. d Cap. 50. lib. 7. Centum et rjuinque vixit annos 

sine ullo incommodo. e Intus mulso, foras oleo. f Exemplis gcnitur. 

prsefixis Ephemer. cap. de infirmitat g Qui, quoad paeritiee iiltimain me- 

inoriam recordari potest, non tn«aiimt se asgrotum decnbuisse. h Lib. de vita 

ioDga. i Oper. et dies. , 



10 Div. of the Diseases of the Head. [Part. 1 . Sec. I , 

Th' earth's full of maladies, and full the sea, 
Which set upon us both by night and day. 

Division of diseases.'] If you require a more exact division 
of these ordinary diseases which are incident to men, I refer 
you to physicians : "they will tell you oi acute and chronick, 
Jirst and secimdary, lethales, salutares, errant^ fixed, simple, 
compound, connexed, or consequent, belonging" to parts or the 
whole, in habit or in disposition, ^-c. My division at this time 
(as most befitting my purpose) s^hall be into those of the 
body and mind. For them of the body, (a brief catalogue of 
which Fuchsius hath made, Institut. lib. 3. sect. I. cap. 1 1.) 
I refer you to the voluminous tomesof Galen, Aretffius,Rhasis, 
Avicenna, Alexander, Paulus, Aetius, Cordonerius, and those 
exact neotericks, Savanarola, Cappivaccius, Donatus Alto- 
marus, Hercules de Saxonia, Mercurialis, Victorius, Faven- 
tiiuis, Wecker, Piso, &c. that have methodically and elabo- 
rately written of them all. Those of the mind and head 1 
will briefly handle, and apart. 



8UBSECT. 111. 

Division of the Diseases of the Head. 

JL HESE diseases of the mind, forasmuch as they have their 
chief seat and organs in the head, are commonly repeated 
amongst the diseases of the head, which are divers, and vary 
much according to their site : for in the head, as there be 
several parts, so there be divers grievances, which, according 
to that division of '' Heurnius, (which he takes out of Arcu- 
lanus) are inward or outward (to omit all others which per- 
tain to eyes and ears, nostrils, gums, teeth, mouth, palate, 
tongue, wesel, chops, face, &c.) belonging properly to the 
brain, as baldness, falling of hair, furfair, lice, &c. '^Inward 
belonging to the skins next to the brain, called dura and pia 
mater, as all head aches, &c. or to the ventricles, caules, 
kells, tunicles, creeks, and parts of it, and their passions, as 
caros, vertigo, incubus., apoplexie, falling-sickness. The 
diseases of the nerves ; crampes, stupor, convulsion, tremor ^ 
palsie ; or belonging to the excrements of the brain, c«- 
tarrhes, sneezingi rheunies, distillations ; or else those that 



' 1 See Fernehus, Path. lib. 1. 9, 10, 11, I'i. Fuchsiu.s, instit. I. 3. sect. 1. c. 7. 
Wecker. Synt. •'PiEelat. de morbis capitis. In capite ut variap habitant 

partes, ita varife querelae ibi eveniiint. =^ Of which react HeuruiiiS;, Montaltas,. 

Hildesheim, Quercetan, Jason Pratensis, &;c. 



Memb. 1. Subs, 4.] Dimisea of the Mind. \ \ 

pertain to tbe substance of the brain itself, in which are con- 
ceived, plaensie, fefkarcfie, ?nefaucholif, madiienH, weak me- 
inorij, sopor, or coma mrjilki and vic/if. coma. Out of these 
again I will single such as properly be'lono- to the phantmie, or 
imagination, or reason it self, which ^Laurentius calls the 
diseases of the mind; and Hildesheim, morftos imaf/inationis, 
nnt rationis 1(ss(b, which are three or four in number, /?/trPM- 
sie, madness, melanchobf, dotage, and their kinds, as hydro- 
phobia, Igcantropia, chorus sancti Viti, morbi dcemoniaci ; 
which I will briefly touch and point at, insisting especially in 
this oi melanchohj, as more eminent than the rest, and that 
through all his kinds, causes, symptomes, prognosticks, cures; 
as Lonicerus hath done de Apoplexid, and many other of such 
particular diseases. Not that I fiud fault with those which 
have written of this subject before, as Jason Pratensis, Lauren- 
tius Montaltus, T. Bright, &c. they have done very well in 
their several kinds and' methods : yet that which one omits, 
another may haply see; that which one contracts, another may 
inlarge. To conclude with '' Scribanius, that which they had 
neglected, or perfunctorily handled, ice may more thoroughly 
examine ; that which is "^ohscurely delivered in them, may be 
perspicuously dilated and amplified by us, and so made more 
familiar and easie for every mans capacity, and the common 
good; which is the chief end of my discourse. 

SUBSECT. IV. 

Dotage, Phrensie, Madness, Hydrophobia, Lycantropia, 
Chorus sancti Viti, Extasis. 

Delirium, dotage.] JJOTAGE, fatuity, or folly, is a com- 
mon name to all the following species, as some will have it. 
•^Laurentius and '^ Altomarus comprehended madness, melan- 
choly, and the rest, under this name, and call it the summum 
genus of them all. If it be distinguished from them, it is 
natural or ingenite, which comes by some defect of the organs, 
and over-moist brain, as we see in our common fools ; and is 
for the most part intended or remitted in particular men, and 
thereupon some are wiser than other; or else it is acquisite, an 
appendix or symptome of some other disease, which comes 
or goes ; or, if it continue, a sign of melancholy it self. 



"Cap. 2. de raelanchol. b Cap. 2. He Physiolo^ia sa-arnm. Quod alii minus, 

rerte tortasse dixerinf, nos examinere, melius dijudicare, corrigere studeamus. 
•^tap. 4. de rael. >' Art. med. c. 7. 



1,2 Diseases of the Mind. [Part. 1. Sec. \, 

Phretisie.] Phrenitis (which the Greeks derive from tlie 
word (pgijv) is a disease of the mind, with a coiitimial madness 
or dotage, which hath an acute fever annexed, or else an in- 
flammation of the brain, or the membranes or kells of it, with 
an acute fever, which causeth madness and dotage. It differs 
from melancholy and madness, because their dotage is without 
an ague : this continual, with waking, or memory decayed, 
&c. 3Ielancholy is most part silent, this clamorous ; and many 
such like differences are assigned by physicians. 

Madness.^ Madness, phrensie, and melancholy, are con- 
founded by Cels«s,andmany writers ; others leave outp/jrew.sie, 
and make madness and melancholy but one disease ; which 
'^ Jason Pratensis especially labours, and that they differ only 
secundum maj'us or minus, in quantity alone, the one being a 
degree to the other,and both proceeding from one cause. They 
differ intenso et remisso gradu, saith ^ Gordonius, as the hu- 
mour is intended or remitted. Of the same mind is *= Aretaus, 
Alexander Tertullianus, Guianerius, Savanrola, Heurnius ; 
and Galen himself writes promiscuously of them both, by rea- 
son of their affinity : but most of our neotericks do handle them 
apart, whom I w^ill follow in this treatise. Madness is there- 
fore defined to be a vehement dotage ; or raving without a 
fever, far more violent than melancholy, fuW of anger and cla- 
mour, horrible looks, actions, gestures, troubling the patient* 
with far greater vehemency both of body and mind, without all 
fear and sorrow, with such impetuous force and boldness, that 
sometimes three or four men cannot hold them ; differing only 
in this from phrensie, that it is without a fever, and their me- 
mory is, most part, better. It hath the same causes as the 
other, as choler adust,and blood incensed, brains inflamed, &c. 
'^ Fracastorius adds, a due time and full age to this definition, 
to distinguish it from children, and will have it confrmed im- 
potency to separate it from such as accidently come and go 
again, as hy taking henbane, nightshade, wine, ^c. Of 
this fury there be divers kinds ^ ecstasie, which is familiar 
with some persons, as Cardan saith of himself, he could be in 
one when he list; in Avhich the Indian priests deliver their 
oracles, and the Avitches in Lapland (as Olaus Magnus writeth, 
I. 3. cap. 18 extasi omnia ])rcedicere) answer all questions 



* Plerique medici nno complexu perstringunt Iios duos morbos, quod ex eadem 
caussa oriantur, quodque magnitudine et modo solum distent, et alter gradus ad al- 
terum existat. Jason Pratens. '^ Lib. Med. <= Pars manias raihi videtur. 

"1 Insanus, est qui setate debita, et tempore debito, per se, non momentaneam et fu- 
gacem, ut vini, solani, hyoscyami, sed confirmatam liabet impotentiam bene operandi 
circa intellectum. 1.2. de intellectione. « Of which read Felix Plater, cap. 8. de 

mentis alienatione. 



Memb. 1. Subs. 4.] Du eases of the Mi it d. 13 

in an extasi^ ydii will ask ; what your friends do, where they 
are, how they fare, &c. The other speeirs of this fury are 
enthusiasms, revelations, and visions, so often mentioned by 
Greo-ory and Beda in their works; obsession or possession of 
deYi\s, Sibijlline prophets, M\d poetical Furies ; such as come 
by eatin«' noxious herbs, tarantulas stingins^,&c. which som6 
reduce tZ this. The most known are lycantropia, hjdropho- 
bia, chorus sancti Viti. 

Lycanihropia.] Li/canthropia, which A vicenna calls cncu- 
butfi, others lupinam'insamam, or wolf-madness, when men 
run howling about graves and fields in the night, and will not 
be perswaded but that they are wolves, or some such beasts— 
* Aetius and ^ Paul us call it a kind oi meUmchohf ; but I should 
rather refer it to madness, as most do. Some make a doubt of 
it, whether there be any such disease. ^Donat. ab Altomari 
saith, that he saw two of them in his time: •» Wierus tells a 
story of such a one at Padua, 1541, that would net believe to 
the contrary,but that he was a wolf. He hath another instance 
of a Spaniard who thought himself a bear. ^ Forestus con- 
firms as much bv many examples ; one, amongst the rest, of 
which he was an eye witness, at Alcmaer in Holland— a poor 
husbandman thatstill hunted about graves, and kept in church- 
yards, of a pale, black, ugly, and fearful look. Such, belike, 
dr little better, where king Prcetus ^.daughters, that thought 
themselves kine ; and Nebuchadnezzar, in Daniel, as some in- 
terpreters hold, was only troubled with this kind of madness. 
This disease perhaps gave occasion to that bold assertion of 
s Pliny, some men icere turned into wolves in his time, and 
from wolves to men again; and to that fable of Pausanias, of a 
man that was ten years a wolf, and afterwards turned to his 
former shape : to ^ Ovids tale of Lycaon, &c. He that is de- 
sirous to hear of this disease, or more examples, let him read 
Atistin in his eighteenth book de Civitate Dei, cap. 5 ; Mi- 
zaldus, cent. 5. 77; Sckenkius, lib. 1. Hildesheim, spicil. 2. 
de Mania ; Forestus, lib. 10. de Morbis Cerebri ; Glaus Mag- 
nus; Vincentius Bellavicensis, spec. met. lib. 31. c. 122; Pierius, 
Bodine, Zuinger, Zeilgur, Peucer, Wierns, Spranger, ^c. 
This malady, saith Avicenna, ti'oubleth men most m tebruary, 
and is now a dayes frequent in Bohemia and Hungi'y, accord- 
ino- to' Heurnius. Schernitzius will have it common in Livo- 
nia. They lye hid, most part, all day, and go abroad in the 



pr»s«g. Deemonum. 1. 3. cap. 21. ^ J Observat. hk 10. de morbis cerebri, c. 15. 

f Hippocrates, lib. de insania. sLib. 8. cap. 22. Homines mterdum lupos fien , 

et coBtra. hMet 1. 1. *Cap. de Man. 



14 Diseases of the Mhd. [Part. 1. Sec. I. 

night, barking-, howling-, at graves and deserts ; ^ they have 
usually hollow eyes, scabbed legs and thighs, very dry and 
pale, '^ suith Altoraarus : he gives a reason there of all the 
symptomes, and sets down a brief cure of them. 

Hydrophobia is a kind of madness, well known in every 
village, which comes by the biting of a mad dog, or scratching- 
(saith '^ Aurelianus), touching, or smelling alone sometimes 
(as '^ Sckenkius proves), and is incident to many other creatures 
as well as men ; so called, because the parties ajffected cannot 
endure the sight of water, or any liquor, supposing still they 
see a mad dog in it. And (which is more wonderful) though 
they be very dry, (as in this malady they are) they will rather 
dye than drink. ^ Coelius Aurelianus, an ancient writer, makes 
a doubt whether this hydrophobia be a passion of the body or 
the mind. The part affected is the brain : the cause poyson 
that romes from the mad dog, which is so hot and dry, that 
it consumes all the moisture in the body. '^Hildesheim relates 
of soma that dyed so mad, and being cut up had no water, 
scarce blood, or any moisture left in them. To such as are 
so affected, the fear of water begins at fourteen dayes after they 
are bitten, to some again not till forty or sixty dayes after : 
commonly, saith Heurnius, they begin to rave, flye water, and 
glasses, to look red, and swell in the face, about twenty dayes 
after, (if some remedy be not taken in the mean time), to lye 
awake, to be pensive, sad, to see strange visions, to bark and 
howl, to fall into a swoun, and oftentimes fits of the falling 
sickness, »Some say, little things like whelps will be seen 
in their urines. If any of these signs appear, they are pf>st 
recovery. Many times these symptomes will not appear till 
six or seven moneths after, saith '' Codronchus ; and some 
times not till seven or eightyears,as Guianerius ; twelve.as Al- 
bertus ; six or eight moneths after, as Galen holds. Baldus the 
great lawyer dyed of it : an Augustin frier, and a woman in 
Delph, that were ' Forestus patients, were miserably consumed 
with it. The common cure in the countrey (for such at least 
as dwell near the sea side) is to duck them over head and ears 
in sea water; some use charms ; every good wife can prescribe 
medicines. But the best cure to be had in such cases, is from 
the most approved physicians. They that will read of them, 
may consult with Dioscorides, lib. 6. cap. 37. Heurnius, Hil- 
deshiem, Capivaccius, Forestus, Sckenkius, and, before all 
others, Codronchus an Italian, who hath lately written two 
exquisite books of this subject. 

a Ulcerata crura ; sitis ipsis adest immodica; pallidi ; lingua sicca, *• Cap. 9, 

art. Hydrophobia. c Ijib, 3- cap. 9. ^Lib. 7. de VcDenis. « Lib. 3. 

cap. 13. de inorbis acutis. fSpicil. 2. g Sckenkius, 7. lib. de Venenis. 

liLib. de Hydrophobia. 'Observat. lib. 10. 25. 



Mem. I. Subs, 4.] Dfamses nf the M'md 15 



Chorus sancAi VitiA Chorus sancti Fr/?', or S. Vitus danco; 
the lacivious dance, 'Paracelsus callf^ it, because they that are 
taken with it, can do nothing but dance till they be dead, or 
cured. It is so called, for that the parties so troubled were 
wont to go to S. Vitus for help ; and, after they had danced 
there a while, they were '^certainly freed. 'Tis strange to hear 
how long they will dance, and in what manner, over stools, 
forms, tables; even great-bellied women sometimes (and yet 
never hurt their children) Avill dance so long that they can 
stir neither hatid nor foot, but seem to be quite dead. One 
in red cloaths they cannot abide. Musick, above all things 
they love ; and therefore magistrates in Germany Avill hire 
musicians to play to them, and some lusty sturdy companions 
to dance with them. This disease hath been very common 
in Germany, as appears by thoserelationsof "^Sckenkius, and 
Paracelsus in his book of Madness, who brags how many se- 
veral persons he hath cured of it. Felix Piaterus [de Mentis 
Alienat. cap. 3.) reports of a woman in Basil whom he saw, 
that danced a whole moneth together. The Arabians call it 
a kind of palsie. Bodine, in his fifth book de Repuh. cap. 1. 
speaks of this infirmity ? Monavius, in his last epistle to 
Scoltizius, and in another to Dudithus, where you may read 
more of it. 

The last kind of madness or melancholy is that demoniacal 
(if I may so call it) obsession or possession of devils, which 
Piaterus and others would have to be preternatural : stupend 
things are said of them, their actions, gestures, contortions^ 
fasting, prophesying, speaking* languages they were never 
taught, &c. many strange stories are related of them, which 
because some will not allow, (for Deacon and Darrel have 
written large volumes on this subject pro et con.) 1 voluntarily 
omit. 

•^ Fuchsius, Institvt. lib. 3. sec. Leap. 11, Felix Plater, 
* Laurentius, add to these anotlier ^furif that proceeds from 
love, and another from sfnchf, another divine or relifjious fury; 
but these more properly belong to melanchobf ; of all which I 
will speak ' apart, intending to write a whole book of them. 



^Lascivam choream. To. 4. de inorbis amentium. Tract. I. b.Eventn. ut 

pkirimuni, rem ipsaui cotnprobante. c Lib. 1, cap. de Mania. <'Cap. 3. 

de mentis alienat. i Cap. 4. de mel. 'PART. 3. 



l6 Mphinehofy in Dispoftitio)}. [Vart. \, Sect ]. 



SIJBSECT. V. 

Melancholy in Disposition, impropeily so called. 
Equivocation^. 

-ELANCHOLY, the subject of our present discourse, is 
either in disposition or habit. In disposition is that transitory 
melancholy which come and g^oes upon every small occasion of 
sorrow, need, sickness, trouble, fear, grief, passion, or pertur- 
bation of the mind, any manner of care, discontent or thought, 
which causethanguish,dulness,heavinessandvexationofspirit, 
any wayes opposite to pleasure, mirth, joy, delight, causing 
frowardness in us, or a dislike. In which equivocal and impro- 
persense, we call him melancholy, that is dull, sad, sowr, lump- 
ish, ill disposed, solitary, any way moved, or displeased. And 
from these melancholy dispositions " no man living is free, no 
Stoick, none so wfee, none so happy, none so patient, so 
generous, so godly,sodivine, that can vindicate himself; so well 
composed, but more or less, sometime or other, he feels the 
smart of it. Melancholy, in this sense, is the character of mor- 
tality. ^ Man, that is born oj^ a woman, is oj' short continuance, 
andfidloftronhle. Zeno, Cato, Socrates himself, — whom 
•^iElian so highly commends for a moderate temper, that 
nothing could disturb him ; but going out, and coming in, still 
Socrates kept the some serenity of countenance, ichat misery 
soever befell him — (if we may believe Plato his disciple) was 
much tormented with it. Q. Metellus, in whom '^ Valerius 
gives instance of all happiness, the most fortunate man then 
living, born in that most flourishing city of Rome, of noble 
parentage, a proper man of person, well qualified, healthful^ 
rich, honourable, a senator, a consul, happy in his tvife, happy 
in his children, S^c. yet this man was not void of melancholy; 
he had his share of sorrow. '^ Polycrates Samius, that flung 
his ring into the sea, because he would participate of discon- 
tent with others, and had it miraculously restored to him 
again shortly after by a fish taken as he angled, was not free 

aDe quo homine securitas? de quo certum gaudium? Quocunque se convertit, in 
terrenis rebus ainaritudinem aniini inveniet. Aug. in Psal. 8. 5. ''Job. 1. 14. 

c Omni tempore Socratem eodem vultu videri, sive domum rediret, sive domo egi-e- 
deretur. d Lib. 7. cap. 1. Natus in florentissima totius orbis civitate, no- 

bilissimis parentibus, corporis vires habuit, et rarissiinas animi dotes, uxorem con- 
spicuam, pndicam, felices liberos, consulare decuSj sequentes triumphos, 8ic. 
e ^lian. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 5.] Melancholy in Disposition. 17 

from melancholy dispositions. No man can cure liimsclf ; tlie 
very gods had bitter pangs, and frequent passions, as their 
own ^ poets put upon them. In general >> as the heaven, so is 
our life, sometimes fair , sometimes overcast, tempestuous, and 
serene:, as in a rose, fowers and prickles : in the year it self, 
a temperate summer sometimes, a hard ivinter, a drowth, and 
then again pleasant showers ; so is our life intermixt with 
joyes, hopes, fears sorrows, calumnies ; Invicem cedunt dolor 
et voluptas : there is a succession of pleasure and pain. 



medio de fonte leporum 



Surgit amari aliquid, quod in ipsis floribus angat. 

JEve}i in the midst of lauyhhuf there is sorroiv (as ^ Solomon 
holds) ; even in the midst of all our feasting and jollity, (as 
* Austin infers in his Com. on Psal. 4l) there is g-riefand dis- 
' content. Inter delicias, semper alif/uid smvi nos stranqulat : 
for a pint of honey, thou shalt here likely find a gallon of gaul ; 
for a dram of pleasure, a pound of pain ; for an inch of mirth, 
an ell of moan ; as ivy doth an oak, these miseries encompass 
our life ; and 'tis most absurd and ridiculous for any mortal 
man to look for aperpetual tenour of happiness in his life. No- 
thingso prosperous and pleasant, but it hath ^some bitternessin 
it, some complaining, some g^rudging ; 'tis all y>.vKvir^K^ov, a 
mixt passion, and, like a cherjuer table, black and white ; men, 
families, cities, have their falls and wanes, now trines, sextiles, 
thenquartiles and oppositions. VYe are not here, as those angels, 
celestial powers and bodies, sun and moon, to finish our course 
without all offence, with such constancy, to continue for so 
many ages; but subject to infirmities, miseries, interrupt, tossed 
and tumbled up anddown,carried about with every small blast, 
often molested and disquieted upon each slender occasion, ^un- 
certain, brittle ; and so is all that we trust unto. ^' And he that 
knows not this, and is not armed to endure it, is not ft to live in 



a Homer Iliad. ''Lipsins, cent.3. ep. 45. Ut coelnni, sic nos homines sumiis : 

illad ex intervallo nubibus obducitur et obscuratar. Inrosario Acres spinis intermixti. 
Vita similis aeri ; udum mode, sudum, tempestas, serenitas : ita vices renim sant) 
prsemia gaudiis, et sequaces curw. c Lucretius, 1. 4. 1124. d Prov. 14. s! 

Extremum gaudii luctus occupat fNatalitia inquit celebrantur ; nuptia; liic 

sunt ; at ibi quid celebratur, quod non dolet, quod non transit ? f Apuleios, 

4. florid. Nihil quidquid homini tam prosperum divinitus datum, quin eiadmixtum sit 
aliquid diflTicultatis, ut etiam amplissima quaqua latitia, subsit qu;cpiam vel parva queri- 
monia, conjugatioue quadam mellis et feilis. g Caduca nimirum et fragilia, et 

puerilibus consentanea crependiis, sunt ista quae vires et opes humanje vocantur: af- 
fluunt subito : repente dilabuntur ; nullo in loco, nulla in persona, stabilibus nixa radi- 
cibus consistunt ; sed incertissimo flatu fortune, quosin sublime extulenint, improviso 
recorsu destitutes in profundo miserianim valle miserabiliter immergunt. V^alerias, 1. 6. 
c- 9. ''Huic seculo parumaptus es ; ant potius omnium nostrorum condi- 

tionem ignoras, qnibus reciproco quodam nexu, &c- Lorchanus Gallobelgicus, lib. 3. 
ad annum 1598. 



18 Melancholy hi Disposition. [Parf. 1. Sec. 1. 

this ivortd (as one condoles our time); he knows net the condi- 
tion oj'it, where., with a, reciprocal tye, pleasure and pain are 
still united, and succeed one another in a ring. Exi e mundo; 
get thee gone hence, if thou canst not brook it: there is no 
way to avoid it, but to arm thyself with patience, with mag- 
nanimity, to =* oppose thyseSf unto it, to suffer affliction as a 
good souldier of Christ, as ''Paul adviseth, constantly to bear 
it. But forasmuch as so i'ew can embrace this good counsel of 
his, or use it aright, but rather, as so many bruit beasts, give 
way to their passion, voluntarily subject and precipitate them- 
selves into a labyrinth of cares, woes, miseries, and suffer their 
souls to be overcome by them, cannot arm themselves with 
that patience as they ought to do, itfalleth out oftentimes that 
tliese disjyositions become habits, and many affects contemned 
(as "^ Seneca notes) make a disease. Even as one destination., 
not yet cfroiim to custome, makes a cough, but continual and 
inveterate causeth a consumption of the lungs ; so do these 
our melancholy provocations ; and, according' as the humour 
itself is intended or remitted in men, as their temperature of 
body or rational soul is better able to make resistance, so are 
they more or less affected : for that which is but a flea-biting 
to one, causeth unsufi'erab'e torment to another; and which 
one by his singular moderation and well composed carriage 
can happily overcome, a second is no whit able to sustain ; 
but, upon every small occasion of mis-conceived abuse, injury, 
grief, disgrace, loss, cross, rumour, &c. (if solitary or idle) 
yields so far to passion, thathis complexion is altered, his di- 
gestion kindred, his sleep gone, his spirits obscured, and his 
heart heavy, his hypocondries mis-affected ; wind, crudity, on 
a sudden overtake him, and he himself overcome w'lih melan- 
choly. As it is with a man imprisoned for debt, if once in the 
goal, every creditor will bi ing hisaction against him,and there 
likely hold him — if any discontent seise upon a patient, in an 
instant all other perturbations (for qnii data porta, ruunt) will 
set upon him ; and ihen, like a lame dog or broken-winged 
goose, he droops, and pines away, and is brought at last to 
that ill habit or malady of melancholy it self; so that as the 
philosophers make '' eight degrees of heat and cold, we may 
make eighty-eight of melancholy, as the parts affected are di- 
versely seised with it, or have been plunged more or less 
into this infernal gulf, or waded deeper into it. But all these 



=>Hor.snm omnia stiidia dirigi debent, ut hnmana fortiter feramiis. ''2 Tim. 

2. 3. cEpjst. 9(). 1. lO. Aft'ectusfrequpntesconteniptique niorbum faciunt.. 

Destillatio una, nee adhnc ic niorem adducta, tussirn facit; assidiia et violenta, 
phthisiin. <i Calidum ad octo : fVigidiim ad octo. Una hirnndo non fucit 

asstateni. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 1.] Digression of Anatomy. 19 

melanchohi fits, howsoever pleasing- at first, fur displeasini;', 
violent and tyrannizing over those whom they seise on for 
the tiuje — yet these fits, I say, or men affected, are but im- 
properly so called, because they continue net, but come ;md 
go, as by some objects they are moved. This melanchohi^ of 
which we are to treat, is an habit, morbus sonticus, or chro'ni- 
cus, a cronick or contiiuiate disease, a settled humour, as 
'^ Aurelianus and '' others call it, not errant, but fixed ; and 
as it was long- increasing, so, now being (pleasant or painful) 
grown to an habit, it will hardly be removed. 

SECT. I.— ME3iB. II. 
SUBSECT. I. 

Diyression oj' Anatomy. 

l^EFORE I proceed to define the disease of, melancholy^ 
what it is, or to discourse farther of it, I hold it not imperti- 
nent to make a brief digression of (be anatomy of the body 
and faculties of the soul, for the better understanding of that 
which is to follow : because many hard Mords will often oc- 
cur, as myrache, liyjjochondries, hccmorrhoicU, S^c. imayina- 
iion^ reason, hnmonrs, spirits, vital, natural, animal, nerves, 
veins, arteries, chylus, piiuita: which of the vulgar will not 
s<» easily be perceived, what they are, how sited, and to what 
end they serve. And, beside, it may peradventiue give occa- 
sion to some men to examine more accurately, search farther 
into this most excellentsubject,(and thereupon, with thatroyal 
•" prophet, to praise God ; Jar a man is fearfully and iconder- 
fidly made, and curiously icrouyltt) that have time and leisure 
enouoh, and are sufficiently informed in all other worldly 
busiii^ess, as to make a good bargain, buy and sell, to keep and 
make choice of a fair hauk, hound, horse, $cc. but, for such 
matters as concern the knowledge of themselves, they are 
wholly ignorant and careless ; they know not what this body 
and soul are, how combined, of what parts and faculties they 
consist, or how a man differs from a dog. And what can be 
more ignominious and filthy (as '^ Melancthon well inveighs) 
than for a man not to knoic the structure and composition cf 
his oicn body? especially since the knoicledye of it tends so 
much to the preservation of his health, and information of his 
manners. To stir them up therefore to this study, to peruse 



» Lib. 1. c. 6. b Puchsins^ |. c. sec cap 7. Hildesheini, fol. 130. <^PsaI» 

39. 13. <• De aniina. Tnrpe enim est homini ignorare sai cor|)oris (ut ita 

dicana) aedificium, praesertim cum ad valetudinem et mores haec cognitio plurimam 
conducat. 



20 Division of the Body. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

those elaborate works of ^ Galen, Bauliiims, Plater, Vesalius 
Falopius, Laurentius, Remelinus, &c. which have written 
copiously in Latin — or that which some of our industrious 
countrey-men have done in our mother tongue, not long 
since, as that translation of '' Columbus, and '^ Microcosmo- 
gTaphia, in thirteen books — I have made this brief digression. 
Also because '^Wecker, "^Melancthon, '^Fernelius, ^Fuchsius, 
and those tedious tracts de Aninid (which have more compen- 
diously handled and written of this matter) are not at all 
times ready to be had — to give them some small taste or 
notice of the rest, let this epitome suffice. 



SUBSECT. II. 

Division of the Body, Humours. Spirits. 

\JF the parts of the Body there may be many divisions : the 
most approved is that of ''Laurentius, out of Hippocrates, 
which is, into parts contained or containing. Contained are 
either humours or spirits. 

Humours.^ A humour is a liquid or fluent part of the body, 
comprehended in it, for the preservation of it, and is either 
innate or born with us, or adventitious and acquisite. The 
radical or innate is daily supplyed by nourishment, which 
some call cambium, and make those secundary humours of 
ros and gluten to maintain it ; or acquisite, to maintain these 
four first primary humours, coming and proceeding from the 
first concoction in the liver, by which means chylus is exclud- 
ed. Some divide them into profitable, and excrementitious. 
But * Crato (out of Hippocrates) will have all four to be juyce, 
and not excrements, without which no living creature can be 
sustained ; which four, though they be comprehended in the 
mass of blood, yet they have their several aflfections, by which 
they are distinguished from one another, and from those ad- 
ventitious, peccant^ or ^ diseased humours^ as Melancthon 
calls them. 

Blood.l Blood is a hot, sweet, temperate, red humour, 
prepared in the mesaraicke veins, and made of the most tem- 
perate parts of the chylus in the liver, whose office is to nou- 
rish the whole body, to give it strength and colour, being 
dispersed, by the veins, through every part of it. And from it 



^Densapart. ^ History of man. cD. Crook e. ^ In gyntaxi* 

eDeanima finstit. lib. 1. s Physiol. 1. 1,2. hAnat. 1. 1. 

c. 18. ' In Micro. Snccos, sine quibus animal sustentari non potest, ^ Mor- 

b«sos huraorcs. 



Meiiib. 2. Subs. 2.] Similar Parts. 21 

spirits are first begotten in the heart, which afterwards, by 
the arteries^ are cotnmiinicated to the other parts. 

Pituita, or phlegm, is a cold and moist humour, beo-otten 
of the cokler part of the chjlus (or wliite juice comini*- out of 
the meat digested in tlie stomach) in the liver; his office is to 
nourish and moisten the members of the body, which, as the 
tongue, are moved, that they be not over-dry. 

Choler is hot and dry, bitter, beg-otten of the hotter parts 
of the chijlus, and gathered to the gall : it helps the natural 
heat and senses, and serves to the expelling of excrements. 

Melancholy.^ Melancholy, cold and dry, thick, black, and 
sovvr, begotten of the more feculent part of nourishment, and 
purged from the spleen, is a bridle to the other two hot hu- 
mours, blood and choler, preserving them in the blood, and 
nourishing the bones. These four humours have some ana- 
logy with the four elements, and to the four ages in man. 

Serum, Sweaf, Tears.'] To these humours you may add se- 
rum, which is the matter of urine, and those excrementitious 
humours of the third concoction, sweat and tears. 

Spirits.] Spirit is a most subtle vapour, which is express- 
ed from the blood, and the instrument of the soul to perform 
all his actions ; a common tye or medium betwixt the body 
and the soul, as some Avill have it; or (as ■' Paracelsus) a 
fourth soul of it self. Melancthon holds the fountain of these 
spirits to be the heart ; begotten there, and afterward con- 
veyed to the brain, they take another nature to them. Of 
these spirits there be three kinds, according to the three 
principal parts, femm, heart, liver; natural, vital, animal. 
The natural are begotten in the liver, and thence dispersed 
through the veins, to peitbrm those natural actions. The 
vital spirits are made in the heart of the natural, which by 
the arteries, are transported to all the other parts : if these 
spirits cease, then life ceaseth, as in a syncope or swouning". 
The animal spirits, formed of the vital, brought up to the 
brain, and diffused by the nerves, to the subordinate mem- 
bers, give sense and motion to them all. 

SUBSECT. III. 
Similar parts. 

Similar parts.'] -CONTAINING parts, by reason of then- 
more solid substance, are either homoffemal or heterogeneal, 
similar or dissimilar ; (so Aristotle divides them, lib. Leap. 1. 
de Hist. Animal. Laurentius, cap. 20. lib. 1.) Similar, or ho- 
mogeneal, are such as, if they be divided, are still severed into 

\^ ' Spirjtalis anima. 



22 Similar Parts. [Part. 1 . Sec. I . 

parts of the same nature, as water into water. Of these some 
he spermaiical, Home ffeshy, or carnal ^ Spermatical are 
such as are immediately beg-otten of the seed, which are 
bones, gristles, lif/aments, membranes, nerves, arteries^ veins, 
skins, fibers or strin(/s,J'at. 

Bones.'j The bones are dry and hard, begotten of the 
thickest of the seed, to strengthen and sustain other parts ; 
some say there be three hundred and four, some three hundred 
and seven, or three hundred thirteen, in mans body. They 
have no nerves in them, and are therefore without sense. 

A gristle is a substance softer than bone, and harder than 
the rest, flexible, and serves to maintain the parts of motion. 

Ligaments are tliey that tye the bones together, and other 
parts to the bones, with their subserving- tendons. J\Iembranes 
ofSce is to cover the rest. 

JSTerves, or smews,i\re membranes without,and full of marrow 
within : they proceed from the brain, and carry the animal 
spirits for sense and motion. Of these some be harder, some 
softer : the softer serve the senses ; and there be seven pair of 
them. The first be the optick nerves, by which we see ; the 
second move the eyes ; the third pair serve for the tongue to 
taste; the fourth pair for the taste in the palat ; the fifth be- 
long to the ears ; the sixth pair is most ample, and runs almost 
over all the bowels ; the seventh pair moves the tongue. The 
harder sinews serve for the motion oi" the inner parts, proceed- 
ing from the narrow in the back, of whom there be thirty 
combinations — seven of the neck, twelve of the breast, &c. 

Arteries.] Arteries are long and hollow, with a double skin 
to convey the vital spirits; to discern which the better, they say 
that Versalius the anatomist was wont to cut up men alive. 
••They arise in the leftside of the heart, and are principally two, 
from which the rest are derived, aorta and venosa. Aorta is 
the root of all the other, which serves the whole body; the 
other goes to the lungs, to fetch ayr to refrigerate the heart. 

Veins.] Veins are hollow and round like pipes; arising from 
the liver, carrying blood and natural spirits, they feed all the 
parts. Ofthese there be two chief, vena porta, B.nd vena cava, 
from which the rest are corrivated. That vena porta is a vein 
coming from the concave oif the liver, and receiving those 
mesaraical veins, by whom he takes the c%/ms from the stomach 
and guts, and conveys it to the liver. The other derives 
blood from the liver, to nourish all other dispersed members. 
The branches of that vena porta are the mesaraical and 
haemorrhoids. The branches of the cava ave inward or out" 

=»Laurentius, c. 20. 1. 1. Anat. ^ lu these they observe the beating of the 

pulse. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 4.] Anatomy of the Borhf. 2S 

ward — inward — seminal or emnlgent — outward, in the head, 
arms, feet, &c. and have several names. 

Fibrce, Fat, Flesh.] Fihra> are strinofs, white and solid, 
dispersed throuoh the whole member,and rig-ht.obliquo.trans- 
verse, all which have their several uses. Fat is a similar 
part, moist, without blood, composed of the most thick and 
unctuous matter of the blood. The ^skin covers the rest, 
and hath cuticulam, or a little skin under it. Flesh is soft 
and ruddy, composed of the congealing of blood, &c. 



SUBSECT. IV. 

Dissimilar parts. 

Dtssim r LA R parts are those which we call orrfanical or instru- 
mental; and they be inward ov outward. The chiofest outward 
parts are situate forward or backward. Forward,x\\e crown and 
foretop of the head, skull, face, forehead, temples, chin, eyes, 
ears, nose, &c. neck, breast, chest, upper and lower part of the 
belly, hypochondries, navel, groyn, flank, &c. Backward, the 
hinder part of the head, back,shoulders,sides,loyns,hip-bones, 
OS sacrum, buttocks, &c. Or joynts, arms, hands, feet, leggs, 
thighs, knees, &c. Or common to both, which, because they 
are obvious and well known, I have carelessly repeated, eaque 
prcectpua et (/randiora tantum: quod reliqnum, ex libris de 
anima, qui volet, accipiat. 

//m'arrfoy^a/i/ca/parts, which cannot be neew^ are divers in 
number, and have several names,functions,and divisions; but 
that of' Laurentius is most notable, into noble, or icpioble parts. 
Of the noble there be three principal parts, to which all the 
rest belong, and whom they serve — brain, heart, licer ; accord- 
ing to whose site, three regions, or a threefold division is made 
of the whole body; as, first, of the head, in which the animal 
organs are contained, and brain it self, which by his nerves 
gives sense and motion to the rest, and is (as it were) a privy 
counsellour, and chancellour, to the heart. The second region 
is the chest, or middle belh/, in which the heart as king keeps 
his court, and by his arteries communicates life to the whole 
body. The third region is the lower belly, in which the liver 
resides as a legate a latere, with the rest of those natural 
organs,serving for concoction,nouris;hmenf,expelling of excre- 



* Cujus est pars similaris a vi ciitifica, iit inlpriora mimiat. Capivac. Anat. pag. 2,r2. 
Anat. lib. I. c. 19. Celebris est et pervulgata partium divisio iu princiwes et iguobles 
partes. 

VOL. I. r 



24 Anatomy of the Bochf. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

menfs. This lower region is distinguished from the upper by the 
midriff, or diaphragma, andis subdivided again by ^some into 
three concavities, or regions, upper, middle, and lower — the 
upper, of the hypocondries,in whose right side is the liver, the 
left the spleen{i'rQm. which is denominated hypochondriacal me- 
lancholy) the second, of the navel and flanks, divided from the 
first by the rim — the last, of the water-course, which is again 
subdivided into three other parts. The Arabians make two 
parts of this region, epigastrium, and hypoc/astrium ; upper, or 
lower. Epigastrium they call mirach, from whence comes 
mirachialis melancholia, sometimes mentioned of them. Of 
tliese several regions I will treat in brief apart; and, first, of 
the third region, in which the natural organs are contained. 
The lower region. Natural Organs.'] But you that are 
readers, in the mean time, suppose you were noic brought 
into some sacj'ed temple, or majestical palace, (as '' Melanc- 
thon saith) to behold not the matter only, but the singular 
art, tvorkmanship, and counsel oj' this our great Creator. 
And 'tis a pleasant and profitable speculation, ij^it be consi- 
dered aright. The parts of this region, which present them- 
selves to your consideration and view, are such as serve to wm- 
trition or generation. Those of nutrition serve to the first or 
second concoction, as the oesophagus or gullet, which brings 
meat and drink into the stomach. The ventricle or stomacn, 
which is seated in the midst of thatpart of thebelly beneath the 
midriff', the kitchen (as it were) of the first concoction, and 
which turns our meat into chylus. It hath two mouths, one 
above, another beneath. The upper is sometimestaken for the 
stomach it self: the lower and nether door (as Wecker calls it) 
is named pylorus. This stomach is sustained by a large kell or 
kaull, called omentum ; which some will have the same with 
periton(BU7n\, or rim of the belly. From the stomach to the very 
J'undament, are produced the guts or infestina, which serve a 
little to alter and distribute the chylus, and convey away the 
excrements. They are divided into small and great, by reason 
of their site and substance, sleufler or thicker : the slender is 
duodenum, or whole gut, M'hich is next to the stomach, some 
twelve inches long (saith '^Fuchsius). Jejmmm, or empty gut, 
continue to the other, which hath many mesaraick veins 
annexed to it, which take part of the chylus to the liver from 
it, Ilion, the third, which consists of many crinkles, which 
serves with the rest to receive keep, and distribute the chylus 
froxwihe stomach. The thick guts are three, the blind giit, 

* D. Crook, out of Galen and others. '» Vos vero veluti in templnm ac sa- 

crarium quoddain vos duci putetis, &c. Suavis et utilis cognitio. « Lib. 1. 

eap. 12. sect, 5, 



Mem. 2. .Sul>>;. 4] Aiiaforfn/ of the Both'. 25 

colon aiul rtffht (jut. The hlhid is a lliiok and short «-ut, 
Jiaving' one mouth in which the ilion and colon meet: itreceives 
the excrements, and convey^^ them to the colon. This colon 
Iiath many windini>s, that the excrements pass not away too 
fast : the rif/ht r/nt isstrainht, and conveys theexcrenients to 
tbej'nn dame nt, whose lo ver part is bound up with certain mus- 
cles, called sphincteres, \hi\t the excrements may he tlie hetter 
contained, until such time a man be willini:;- to g-o to the stool. 
In the midst of these guts is situated the mesenterium or midriff'^ 
composed ofmany veins, arteries, andnuich fat, serving chiefly 
to sustain the guts. All these parts serve the first concoction. 
To the second, which is busied either in refining the good 
nonrishment, or expelling the bad, is chieHy l)elonging the 
liver, like in colour to congealed blood, the shop of blood, 
situate in the right hi/pocondrv, in figure like to an half moon ; 
(jenerosum membrnm, Melancthon stiles it; a generous part; 
it serves to turn the chylns to blood, for the nourishment of the 
body. The excrements of it are either cho/erick or wateri/y 
which the other subordinate parts convey. The f/all, placed in 
the concave of the liver, extracts choler to it : the spleen,melan- 
chohf ; which is situate on the left side, over against the liver^ 
a spungy matter that draws this black choler to it by a secret 
vertiie, and feeds upon it, conveying the rest to the bottom of 
the stomach, to stir up appetite, or else to the guts as an excre- 
ment. That watery matter the two kidneys expurgate by those 
emulgent veins, and ureters. The emulgent draw this super- 
fluous moisture from the blood ; the two ureters convey it to 
the bladder, which, by reason of his site in the loMer belly, 
is apt to receive it, having two parts, neck and bottom : the 
bottom holds the water; the neck is constrhiged with a muscle, 
which, as a porter, keeps the water fromrumiing out against 
our will. 

Members of generation are conunon to both sexes, or 
peculiar to one ; which, because they are impertinent to my 
purpose, I do voluntarily omit. 

jyiiddle Ref/ion.'] Next in order is the middle ref/ion, or 
chest, which comprehends the vital faculties and parts; which 
(as I have said) is separated from the lower belly by the dia- 
phrafpna or midriff, which is a skiti consisting of many nerves, 
membranes ; and, amongst oth(;r uses it hath, is the instru- 
ment of laughing. There is also a certain thin membrane, full 
of sinews, which covereth the whole chest within, and is called 
pleura, the seat of the disease called /y/f^Mr/.s/,", when it is in- 
flamed. Some add a third skin, which is termed mediasfinus, 
Avhich divides the chest into two j>arts, right and left. Of this 
region the principal part is the /r/art, which is the seat and 

L 2 



26 Anatomy of' the Body. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

fountain of life, of heat, of spirits, of pulse and respiration : 
the sun of our body, the king and sole commander of it : the 
seat and organ of all passions and affections ; {primiimvwens, 
ultimum moriens : it lives first, and dies last in all creatures) of 
a pyraniidical form, and notmuch unlike toapine-apple; '^apart 
worthy of admiration, that can yield such variety of afi'ections, 
by whose motion it is dilated or contracted, to stir and com- 
mand the humours in the body ; as, in sorrow, melancholy ; in 
anger, choler ; in joy, to send the blood outwardly ; in sorrow, 
to call it in ; moving the humours, as horses do a chariot. 
This heart, though it be one sole member, yet it maybe divided 
into two creeks, right and left. The right is like the moon in- 
creasing, bigger than the other part, and receives blood from 
vena cciva, distributing some of it to the lungs, to nourish 
them, the rest to the left side, to ingender spirits. The left 
creek hath the form of a cotie, and is the seat of life, which 
(as a torch doth oyl) draws blood unto it, begetting- of it spirits 
aiid fire; and, as fire in a torch, so are spirits in the blood; 
and, by that great artery called aorta, it sends vital spirits over 
the body, and takes aire from the lungs, by that artery which 
is called venosa ; so that both creeks have their vessels ; the 
right two veins ; the left two arteries, besides those two com- 
mon anfractuous ears, which serve them both ; the one to 
hold blood, the other aire, for several uses. The lungs is a 
thin spungy part, like an oxe hoof, (saith '' Fernelius) the 
town-clark or cryer {^ one terms it), the instrument of voice, 
as an orator to a king ; annexed to the heart, to express his 
thoughts by voice. That it is the instrument of voice is ma- 
nifest, in that no creature can speak or utter any voice, 
which wanteth these lights. It is besides, the instrument of 
respiration, or breathing ; and its office is to cool the heart, 
by sending ayre unto it by the venosal artery, which vein 
comes to the lungs by that aspera arteria, which consists of 
many gristles, membranes, nerves, taking in ayre at the nose 
and mouth, and, by it likewise, exhales the fumes of the heart. 
In the upper region serving the animal faculties, the chief 
organ is the brain, which is a soft, marrowish, and white sub- 
stance, ingendered of the purest part of seed and spirits, in- 
cluded by many skins,and seatedwithintheskuil or brain-pan; 
and it is the most noble organ under heaven, the dwelling house 
and seat of the soul, the habitation of wisdom, memory, judge - 



» Haec res est praecipiie digna admiratione, qnod tanta affectuum varietate cietur 
cor, quod omenes res tristes et laetaj statim corda feriunt et movent. ^ Physio 

I. 1. c. 8. c Ut orator regi, sic piilmo, vocis instrumentum, annectitiir cordi, 

&c. Melaucth. 



Mem. 2. Sub. 5] Anatomy of the Soul. 27 

ment, reason, and in which man is most like unto God : and 
therefore nature hath covered it with a skull of hard bone, 
and two skins or membranes, whereof the one is called dura 
mater, or meninx, the other pia mater. The dura mater is 
next to the skull, above the other, which includes and protects 
the brain. When this is taken away, the pia mater is to be seen, 
a thin membrane, the next and immediate cover of the brain, 
and not covering only, but entering into it. The brain it self 
is divided into two parts, theybre and hinder part. The Jbre 
part is much bigger than the other, which is called the little 
brain in respect of it. This^bre part hath many concavities, 
distinguished by certain ventricles,which are the receptacles of 
the spiritSjbrought hither by the arteries from the heart,and are 
there refined to a more heavenly nature, to perform the actions 
of the soul. Of these ventricles there be three, right, left, 
and middle. The right and left answer to their site, and beget 
animal spirits; if they be any way hurt, sense and motion 
ceaseth. These ventricles, moreover, are held to be the seat of 
the common sense. The middle ventricle is a common con- 
course and cavity of them both, and hath two passages ; the one 
to receive pituita; and the other extends it self to the fourth 
creek : in this place imagination and cogitation : and so 
the three ventricles of the fore part of the brain are used. The 
fourth creek, behind the head, is common to the cerebral or 
little brain, and marrow of the back-bone, the least and most 
solid of all the rest, which receives the animal spirits from the 
other ventricles, and conveys them to the marrow in the back, 
and is the place where they say the memory is seated. 



SUBSECT. V. 

Of tJie Soul and her Faculties. 

According to =^ Aristotle, the soul is defined to be iynxi- 
%ua, perfectio et actus primus corporis orgamci, vitam ha- 
bentis in protentid — the perfection or first act of an organical 
body, having power of life ; which most ''philosophers approve. 
But many doubts arise about the essence, subject, seat, di- 
stinction, and subordinate faculties of it. For the essence and 
particular knowledge, of all other things it is most hard (be it 
of man or beast) to discern, as *^ Aristotle himself, '' Tully, 
* Picus Mirandula, *^Tolet, and other neoterick philosophers 

» Dc aniin. c. 1. *" Scalig. cxerc. 307. Tolet. in lib. de aoima, cap, ]. &«% 

•" D^ anima, cap. }. <* Tnsenl. qnsc8<. ' Lib. fi. Doct. VaJ. Gentil. c. 13. 

pag. 1216. ^Aristot. 



28 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. 1. Sec. I, 

confess. "* We can understand all things hy her ; hut, ivhat she 
is, ice cannot apprehend. Some therefore make one soul, di- 
vided into three principal faculties ; others^three distinct souls; 
(which question of late hath been much controverted by Picolo- 
mineus, and Zabare])'^Paracelsus will have four souls, addingto 
the three granted faculties, a spiritual so?il ; (which opinion of 
liis, CampanelUi, in his book de "^Sensu rerum, u)uch labours to 
demonstrate and prove, because carkasses bleed at the sight of 
the murderer; with many such arguments :) and ''some, again, 
one soul of all creatures whatsoever, differing only in organs ; 
and that beasts have reason as well as men, though, for some 
defect of organ, not in such measure. Others make a doubt, 
whether it be all in all, and all in every part ; which is amply 
discussed in Zabarel among the rest. The ^ common division 
of the soul is into three principal faculties, vegetal, sensitive, 
and rational, which make three distinct kind of living" crea- 
tures — vegetal plants, sensible beasts, rational men. How 
these three princijial faculties are distinguished and connected, 
humano ingenio inaecessum videtur, is beyond humane capa- 
city, as * Taurellus, Philip, Flavins, and others, suppose. The 
inferiour may be alone; but the superiour cannot subsist 
without the other ; so sensible includes vegetal, rational, both 
which are contained in it (saith Aristotle) ut triyonus in tetra- 
gono, as a triangle in a qudrangle. 

Vegetal soul.] Vegetal, the first of the three distinct facul- 
ties, is defined to be a substantial act of an organical body, 
by which it is nourished, augmented, and begets another like 
unto it self': in which definition, three several operations are 
specified, altrix, aiwtrix, procrcatrix. The first is s nutrition, 
whose object is nourishment, meat, drink and the like ; his 
organ the liver, in sensible creatures ; in plants, the root or 
sap. His oflice is to turn the nutriment into the substance 
of the body nourished, which he performs by natural heat. 
This nutritive operation hath four other subordinate functions 
or powers belonging to it — attraction, retention, digestion, ex- 
pulsion. 

Attraction.'] ^'Attraction is a ministring faculty, which (as 
a loadstone doth iron) draws meat into the stomach, or as a 
lamp doth oyle ; and this attractive power is very necessary 
in plants, which suck up moisture by the root, as another 
mouti), into the sap, as a like stomach. 

*Aiiinia quaeqne intelliginius ; et taiuen, qiiaj sit ipsa, intelligere non valemus. 
'^ Spiritnaleii! animam a reliquis distinctatn tuetur, etiam in cadavere inhpereutem post 
njortem per aliquot menses. fLili. 3. cap 31. <i Ccelius, lib. 2. 

c. 31. Piutarcii. in Grillo. Lips. cen. 1. ep. 50. Jossius de Risn et Fletu, Averroes, 
Campanelia, 8^c. '■ Philip, de Aninia, ca. 1. Coelius, 20. antiq. cap 3. Plu- 

tarch, de placit. Philos. t'De vit. et. mort. part. 2. c. 3. prop. 1. de vit. etraort.2. 

c. 22. F]sJntritio est alinienti. transraufafio, viro naturalis. Seal, exerc 101. 

sect. 17. h yee more ol' attraction iu Seal, exerc. 343. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 5.] Anatomy of the Soul. 29 

Retention.'] Retention keeps it, lieing attracted unto the 
stomach, until such time it be concocted ; for, if it should 
pass away straight, the body could not be nourished. 

Digestion.] Digestion is performed by natural heat ; for, 
as the flame of a torch consumes oyle, wax, tallow, so doth it 
alter and digest the nutritive matter. Indigestion is opposite 
unto it, for want of natural heat. Of this digestion there be 
three differences, maturation, elixation, a^sation. 

Maturation.] Matiiration is especially observed in the 
fruits of trees, which are then said to be ripe, when the seeds 
are fit to be sown again. Crudity is opposed to it, which 
gluttons, Epicures, and idle persons are most subject unto, 
that use no exercise to stir up natural heat, or else choke it, 
as too much wood puts out a fire, 

Elixation.] Elixation^is the seething of meat in the sto- 
mach, by the said naturad heat, as meat is boyled in a pot ; 
to which corruption or putrefaction is opposite. 

Assation.] Assation is a concoction of the inward moisture 
by heat ; his opposite is simiustulation. 

Order of concoction J'our-J'ohlP\ Besides these three several 
operationsofrf?Vjres^iow, there is a four-fold order of concoction; 
mastication, or chewing in the mouth ; chylijication of this so 
chewed meat in the stomach : the third is in the /?fer, to turn 
this chylus into blood, called sanguijication ; the last is assi' 
mulation, which is in every part. 

Expulsion.] Expulsion is a power of «?/fr?V?ow, by which it 
expells all superfluous excrements and reliques of meat and 
drink, by the guts, bladders, pores ; as by purging, vomiting, 
spitting, sweating, urine, hairs, nails, &:c. 

Augmentation.] As this nutritivejaculty serves to nourish 
the body, so doth the augmenting J'aculty (the second operation 
or power of the vegetal J'aculty) to the increasing of it in quan- 
tity, according to all dimensions, long, broad, thick, and to 
make it grow till it come to his due proportion and perfect 
shape ; which hath his period of augmentation, as of consump- 
tion, and that most certain, as the poet observes : 

Stat sua cuique dies ; breve et irreparabile tempus 
Omnibus est vitee 

A terra of life is set to every man, 

Which is but short; and pass it no one can. 

Generation.'] The last of these vegetal Jciculties h gene- 
ration^ which begets another by means of seed, like unto it 
self, to the perpetual preservation of the species. To this fa- 
culty they ascribe three subordinate operations : the first to 
turn nourishment into seed, &c. 



30 Anatomy of the SouL [Pari. 1. Sec. I. 

Life and death concomitants of the vegetal JacultiesJ^ Ne- 
cessary concomitants or affections of this vegetal J'acwlty are 
life and his privation, death. To the preservation of Ute the 
natural heat is most recjuisite, though siccity and humidity, 
and those first qualities, be not excluded. This heat is like- 
vise in plants, as appears by their increasing, fructifying', &c. 
though notso easily perceived. Tn all bodies it must have radi- 
cal ^moisture to preserve it,that itbenot consumed ; to which 
preservation our clime, countrey, temperature, and the good 
or bad use of those six non-natural things, avail much) for, 
as this natural heat and moisture decayes, so doth our life it 
self: and, if not prevented before by some violent accident, or 
interrupted through our own default, is in the end dryed up 
by old age, and extinguished by death for want of matter, as 
a lamp, for defect of oyl to maintain it. 



SUBSECT. VI. 

OJ' the sensible Soul. 

jS EXT in order is the sensible J acuity, which is as far beyond 
the other in dignity ,as ;i beast is preferred to a plant,having those 
vegetal powers included in it. 'Tis defined an act of an or- 
ganical body, by which it lives^ hath sense, appetite, Judgement^ 
breath, and motion. His object, in general, is a sensible orpas- 
sible quality because the sense is affected with it. The general 
organ is the brain, from which principally the sensible opera- 
tions are derived. The sensible soulh divided into two parts, 
apprehending or moving. By the apprehensive power, we per- 
ceive the species of sensible things, present or absent, and re- 
tain them as wax doth the print of a seal. By the moving', the 
body is outwardly carried from one place to another, or in- 
wardly moved by spirits and pulse. The apprehensive i'acuhy is 
subdivided into two parts, hnvardov outward — outivard,as the 
five senses, of touching, hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting ; to 
which you may add Scaligers sixth sense of titillation, if you 
please,or thatofspcec/i,which is the sixth external sense,accord- 
ing to Lullius. Inward are three, common sense, phantasie, me- 
mory. Those five outward senses have their object in outward 
things only, and such as are present, as the eye sees no colour 
except it be at hand, the ear sound. Three of these senses are 
of commodity, hearing, sight, and smell; two of necessity, touch 

^ Vita consistit in calido €i liumido. 



Meuib. 2. Subs. 6.] Anatoiuif of the Sold. SI 

and taste, without which we cannot live. Besides, the sensi- 
tive power is active or passive — active, as, in sig-ht, the eye 
sees the colour ; passive, when it is hurt by his object, as the 
eye by the sun beams, (according to that axiom, visible forte 
destruit seusnm) or if the object be not pleasing, as a bad 
sound to the ear, a stinking smell to the nose, &c. 

Sit/Jit.] Of these five senses, sight is held to be most pre- 
cious, and the best, and that by reason of his object ; it sees 
the whole body at once; by it we learn, and discern all things — 
a sense most excellent for use. To the sight three things are 
required ; the object, the organ, and the medium. The object 
in general is visible, or that which is to be seen, as colours, 
and all shining bodies. The medium is the illumination of 
the air, which comes from ^ light, commonly called rfj«/>/ia- 
vum ; for, in dark, we cannot see. The organ is the eye, and 
chiefly the apple of it, which, by those optick nerves concur- 
rino- both in one, conveys the sight to the common sense. 
Betwixt the organ and the object, a true distance is required, 
that it be not too near, or too far ofil Many excellent ques- 
tions appertain to this sense, discussed by philosophers; as, 
M'hether this sight be caused intra mittendo, vel extra mit- 
tendo. tVc. by receiving in the visible species, or sending of 
them out; which ^ Plato, ^Plutarch, '^ JMacrobius, "^ Lactan- 
tius, and others, dispute. And besides, it is the subject of 
the perspectives, of which Alhazen the Arabian, Vitellio, 
Roger Bacon, Baptista Porta, Guidus Ubaldus, Aquilonius, 
&c. have written whole volumes. 

Hearinq.'] Hearing, a most excellent outward sense, by 
which ice learn and get knoicledge. His object is sound, or that 
which is heard; the medium, ayre; organ, the ear. To the 
sound which is a collision of the air, tliree tilings are re- 
quired ; a body to strike, as the hand of a musician ; the body 
strucken, which must be solid and able to resist; as a bell, 
hue-string ; not wooll, or spunge ; the medium, the air, 
which is imvard or outward; the outward, being struck or 
collided by a solid body, still strikes the next air, until it come 
to that inward natuml air, which, as an exquisite organ, is 
contained in a little skin formed like a drum-head, and, struck 
upon by certain small iiistauments like drum-sticks, conveys 
the sound, by a pair of nerves appropriated to that use, to the 
common sense as to a judge of sounds. There is great variety 
and much delight in them; for the knowledge of which con- 
sult with Boethius, and other musicians. 



"Lumen est actus perspicni. Lumen a luce provenit ; Jiix est in corpore lucido. 
*>Id FhsEcioD. ' I'fitur. 7. c. 14. '-Lac. cap. 8. cle opif. Dei, J. 

« De pract. Philos. -1. 



32 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. J . Sec. 1 . 

SmellitK/.] Smelling is an outward sense^ which appre^ 
hcnds by the nostrils drawing in air ; and, of all the rest, it is 
the weakest sense in men. The organ in the nose, or two 
small hollow pieces of flesh a little above it: the medium the 
air to men, as water to fish : the object, smell, arising from a 
mixt body resolved, which whether it be a quality, fume, va- 
pour, orexhalation, I will ncit now dispute, or of their differ- 
ences, and how they are caused. This sense is an organ of 
health, as sight and hearing (saith ^Agellius) are of discipline ; 
and that by avoiding bad smells, as by choosing good, which 
do as much alter and affect the body many times, as diet it 

self. 

TasteJ] Taste, a necessary sense, which perceives all sa- 
vours by the tongue and palat, and that by means of a 
thin spittle, or watery juice. His organ is the tongue with 
his tasting nerves ; the medium, a watery juice ; the object, 
taste, or savour, which is a quality in the juice, arising from 
the mixture of things tasted. Some make eight species or 
kinds of savour, bitter, sweet, sharp, salt, &c. all which sick 
men (as in an ague) cannot discern, by reason of their organs 
misaffected. 

Tonchinq.'] Touch, the last of the senses, and most igno- 
ble, yet of as great necessity as the other, and of as much 
pleasure. This sense is exquisite in men, and, by his nerves 
dispersed all over the body, perceives any tactile quality. His 
organ the nerves; his object, those first qualities, hot, dry, 
moist, cold ; and those that follow them, hard, soft, thick, 
thin, &c. Many delightsome questions are moved by philo- 
sophers about these five senses, their organs, objects, metliums, 
which for brevity I omit. 

SUBSECT. VH. 

Of the Inward Senses. 

Common sense.] INNER senses are three in number, so 
called, because they be within the brain-pan, as common sense, 
phantasie, memory. Their objects are not only things present, 
but they perceive the sensible species of things to come, past, 
absent, such as were before in the sense. This common sense 
is the judge or moderator of the rest, by whom we discern all 
differences of objects ; for by mine eye I do not know that I 
see, or by mine ear that 1 hear, but by my common sense, who 
judgeth of sounds and colours : they are but the organs to 
bring the species to be censured ; so that all their objects are 
his, and all their offices are his. The forepart of the brain is 
his organ or seat. 

i» Lib. 1 9. cap. 2. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 7.] Analomy of the Soul. 33 

PJiantasie] Phantasie, or imagination, which some call 
fcstimairve. or cogitative, (confirmed, s^ith ^Feruelins, by 
frequent meditation) is an inner sense, which doth more fully 
examine the species perceived by common sense, of things 
present or absent, and keeps them longer, recalling them to 
mind aoain, or making- new of his own. In time of sleep, this 
facuhy"is free, and many times conceives strange, stupend, 
absurd shapes, as in sick men we commonly observe. His 
organ is the middle cell of the brain ; his objects, ?i\\ the spe- 
cies communicated to him by the common sense, by compa- 
rison of which, he feigns infinite other unto himself. In me- 
lancholy men, this faculty is most powerful and strong, and 
often hurts, producing many monstrous and prodigious things, 
especially if it be stirred up\v some terrible object, presented 
to it from common sense or memory. In poets and painters, 
mrt7?«a^?ow forcibly works, as appears by their several fictions, 
anticks, images, as Ovid's house of Sleep, Psyches palace in 
Apuleius, &c. In men it is subject and governed by reason, 
or at least should be ; but, in brutes, it hath no superiour, 
and is ratio hrutornm, all the reason they have. 

Memory.'] Memory luyes up all the species which the senses 
have brouiiht in, and records them as a good recjister, that 
they may be forth-coming when they are called for hy phan- 
tasie and reason. His object is the same with phantasie ; his 
seat and organ, the back part of the brain. 

Afections of the senses, sleep and waking.] Tfje afl'ections 
of these senses are sleep and leaking, common to all sensible 
creatures. Sleep is a rest or binding of the outtcard senses, 
and of the common sense, for the preservation of body and 
so?d (as '• Scaliger defines it) ; for, when the common sense 
resteth, the outWard senses rest also. The phantasie alone is 
Iree, and his commander, reason ; as appears by those mia- 
ginary dreams, which are of divers kinds, natural divine, 
dcemoniacal, ^c. which vary according to humours, diet, ac- 
tions, objects, &c. of which, Artemidorus, Cardan us, and 
Sambucus, with their several interpretators, have written 
great volumes. This ligation of senses proceeds from an in- 
hibition of spirits, the way being stopped by which they 
should come; this stopping is caused of vapours arising out 
of the stomach, filling the nerves, by which the spirits should 
be conveyed. When these vapours are spent, the passage is 
open, and the spirits perform their accustomed duties ; so 
that waking is the action and motion of the senses, which the 
spirits, dispersed over all parts, cau.^e. 



a Phys. 1. 5. c. 8. bExercit 280. 



31 Anaiomij of the Soul. [Part. 1. Sect. 1. 

SUBSECT. VIII. 
Of the Moving Faculty. 

Appetite.'] J- HIS moving faculty is the other power of the 
sensitive soul, which causeth all those inward and outward 
animal motions in the body. It is divided into two faculties, 
the power of appetite and of moving from place to place. 
This of appetite is threefold, (so some will have it) natural, 
as it signifies any such inclination, as of a stone to fall down- 
ward, and such actions as retension, expulsion, which de- 
pend not of sense, but are vegetal, as the appetite of meat 
and drink, hunger and thirst. Sensitive is common to men 
and brutes. Voluntary, the third, or intellective, which com- 
mands the other two in men, and is a curb unto them, or at 
least should be (but for the most part is captivated and over- 
ruled by them : and men are led like beasts by sense, giving 
reins to their concupiscence and several lusts) ; for by this 
appetite the soul is led or inclined to follow that good which 
the senses shall approve, or avoid that which they hold evil. 
His object being good or evil, the one he embraceth, the 
other he rejecteth — according to that aphorism, omnia appe- 
tunt honuni , all things seek their own good, or at least seem- 
ing- good. This power is inseparable from sense ; for, where 
sense is, there is likewise pleasure and pain. His organ is 
the same with the common sense, and is divided into two 
powers, or inclinations, concupiscible or irascible, or (as " one 
translates it) coveting, anger -invading, or impugning. Con- 
cupiscible covets alwayes pleasant and delightsome things, 
and abhors that which is distasteful, harsh, and unpleasant. 
Irascible, ^ quasi aversans per iram et odium as avoiding it 
with anger and indignation. All affections and perturbations 
arise out of these two fountains, which although the Stoicks 
make light of, we hold natural, and not to be resisted. The 
good affections are caused by some object of the same nature ; 
and, if present, they procure joy, which dilates the heart, and 
preserves the body: if absent, they cause hope, love, desire, 
and concupiscence, The bad are simple or mixt: simple, 
for some bad object present, as sorrow, which contracts the 
heart, macerates the soul, subverts the good estate of the body, 
hindering all the operations of it, causing melancholy, and 
many times death itself ; or future, as fear. Out of these two 
arise those mixt affections and passions of anger, which is a 
desire of revenge — hatred, which is inveterate anger — zeal 

*T. W. Jesnit, b his Passions of the Mind. ^Veleurio. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 9.] Anatomy of the Soul. 35 

wliich is offended with him wlio hurts that he loves — and 
fw^xatgExfticiaj, a compound aftection of joy and hate, when we 
rejoyce at other mens mischief, and are grieved at their pros- 
perity — pride, self-love, emulation, envy, shame, &c. of which 
elsewhere. 

Movincf from place to place, is afaculty necessarily follow- 
ing- the other: for in vaiu were it otherwise to desire and to 
abhor, if we had not likewise power to prosecute or eschew, 
by moving the body from place to place. By this faculty 
therefore we locally move the body, or any part of it, and go 
from one place to another: to the better performance of whicli, 
three things are requisite— ;-that which moves ; by what it 
move*i; that which is moved. That which moves is either 
the ellicient cause, or end. The end is the object, which is 
desired or eschewed, as in a dog to catch a hare, &c. The 
efficient cause in man is reason, or his subordinate phantasie, 
which apprehends good or bad objects; in brutes, imaghiation 
alone, which moves the appetite, the appetite this faculty, 
which, by an admirable leagueof nature, and by mediation of 
the spirit, commands the organ by which it moves ; and that 
consists of nerves, muscles, cords, dispersed through the whole 
body, contracted and relaxed as the spirits will, which move the 
muscles, or * nerves in the midst of them, and draw the cord, 
and so, per conseqiiens, the joynt, to the place intended. That 
which is moved is the body or some member apt to move. 
The motion of the body is divers, as going, running, leaping, 
dancing, sitting', and such like, referred to the predicament 
of sittis. Worms creep, birds flye, fishes swim ; and so of 
parts, the chief of which is respiration or breathing, and is 
thus performed : the outward air is drawn in by the vocal ar~ 
tery, and sent by mediation of the midriftothe lungs, which, 
dilating themselves as a pair of bellows, reciprocally fetch it 
in, and send it out to the heart to cool it ; and from thence, 
now being hot, convey it again, still taking in fresh. Such 
a like motion is that of the pulse, of which, because many 
have written whole books, I will say nothing-. 

SUBSECT. IX. 
Of the Rational Soul, 

XN the precedent subsections, I have anatomized those infe- 
riour faculties of the soul ; the rational xenwiineXh, a pleasant 
hut a doubtful subject (as ''one terms it), and with the like 
brevity to be discussed. Many erroneous opinions are about 

aNervi a spirita moventur, spiritaa ab anima. Melanct. •> Velcario. Ju- 

enndnm et anceps subjectum. 



36 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

the essence and original of it; whether it be fire, as Zeno held ; 
harmony, as Arisfoxenus; number, as Xenocrates; whether it 
he organical, or inorganical ; seated in the brain, heart, or 
blood; mortal, or immortal; how it comes into the bod}'. 
Some hold that it is ex traduce, as Phil. 1. de Animd, Tertul- 
Uan, Lactaniius de opific. /)e?, cap. 19. Huf/o, lib.de Spiritu 
et Animd, Vincentius Bellavic, spec, natural, lib. 23. cap.2.et 
11. Hippocrates, Avicenna, and many ^ late writers; that one 
man begets another, body and soul ; or, as a candle from a 
candle, to be produced from the seed : otherwise, say they, a 
man begets but half a man, and is worse than a beast, that 
beg"ets both matter and form ; and, besides, the three faculties 
of the soul must be together infused ; which is most absurd, as 
they hold, because in beasts they are begot (the two inferiour [ 
mean), and may not be Avell separated in men. ''Galen sup- 
poseth the soul crasin esse, to be the temperature it self; Tris- 
megistus, Musasus, Orpheus, Homer, Pindarus, Pherecydes 
Syrius, Epictetus, with the Chaldees and ^Egyptians, affirmed 
the soul to be immortal, as did those Britan ' Druides of old. 
The "^ Pythagoreans defend metempstfchasis and paligenesia — 
that souls go from one body to another, epotd prius Lethes 
unda, as men into wolves, bears, dogs, hogs, as they were in- 
clined in their lives, or participated in conditions : 



■ ''inque ferinas 

Possumus ire domes, pecudumque in pectora condi. 

'^Lucians cock was first Euphorbus, a captain : 

Ille ego, (nam memini) Trojani tempore belli, 
Paiithoides Euphorbus eram, 

a horse, a man, a spunge. "Julian the Apostatatliought Alex- 
anders soul was descended into his body : Plato, in Tima.o, 
and in his Pha'don, (for ought 1 can perceive) dillers not much 
from this opinion, that it was from God at first, and knew all; 
but, being- inclosed in the body, it forgets, and learns anew, 
which he calls reminiscentia , or recalling', and that it was 
put into the body for a punishment, and thence it goes into 
a beasts, or mans, (as appears by his pleasant fiction de sor^ 
titione animarum, lib. 10. de rep.) and, after " ten thousand 
years, is to return into the former body again : 

aGoclenius, in •4"^%o^- pag. 302. Bright, inPhys. Scrih. 1. 1. David Criisitis, Me- 
lancthoDj Hippius Hernius, JLevinus Leiiinius, &c. t'Lib. an raoresseqnan- 

tur, &c, <^ Ca;sar. 6. coin. ''Kead iiilneas Gazeus dial, of llie inimoitality 

of the soul. t Ovid, uic-t. 15. 'la Gallo. Idem. ;; Niiephonis, 

liist. I. 10. c. 35. 1' Pined. 



Mem. 2. Subx. J).] Anatomy of tlw Soul. :]7 

— "post varies annos, per mille figuras, 



Rursus ad huuianae tertiir primordia viite. 

Others deny the immortality of it, which Poinponatiis ofPadua 
decided out of Aristotle not long- since, Pltmn.^ Avunculus, 
cap. 7. lib. 2. et lib. 7. cap. 55. Seneca, lib. 7. epist. ad Lu- 
cilium, epist. 55. Diccearchus, in Tidl. Tusc. Epicurus, 
Aratus, Hippocrates, Galen, Lucretius, lib. 1. 

(Pr^eterea gigni pariter cum corpore, et una 
Crescere sentimus, parilerque senescere, nientum) 

A verroes, and I know not how many neotericks. '' This q?t.es- 
tion of the immortality oj'the soul is diver si ly and wonderfully 
inipuyned and disputed, especially anionyst the Italians oj' 
late, saith Jab. Colerns, lib. de inimort. anima, cap. 1. The 
Popes themselves have doubted of it. Leo Decimii«, that 
Epicurean Pope, as ''some record of him, caused this ques- 
tion to be discussed pro and con before him, and concluded 
at last, as a prophane and atheistical moderator, with that 
verse of Cornelius Gallus, 

Et redit in nihilum, quod fuit ante niliil. 

it bej^an of nothing' ; and in nothing- it ends. Zeno and his 
Stocks (as'' Austin quotes him) supposed the soul so long- to 
continue, till the body was fully putrified, and resolved into. 
materia prima : but, after that, inj'umos evanescere, to be ex- 
tinguished and vanish ; and in the meantime Avhilst the body 
was consuming, it wandrod all abroad, et e longinquo multa 
annunciare, and (as tliat C'lazomenian Ilermotimus averred) 
saw pretty visions, and suffered 1 know not what. 

c- Errant exsangues sine corpore et oSsibus umbrae. 

Others grant the immortality thereof; but they make many fa- 
bulous lictioiis in the mean time of it, after the departure from 
the body — like Platos Elysian f]fHds,and the Turkic paradise. 
The souls of good men they deified ; the bad, (saith "^^ Austin) 
became devils, as they supposed ; with njany sucli absurd te- 
nents, which he hath confuted. Hierom, Austin, and other 
fathers of the church, hold that the soul is innnortal, created 
of nothing-, and so infused into the child or emhrio in his 
mothers womb, six months after the « conception ; not as 
those of brutes, which are ex traduce, and, dying with them, 

*Claudian. lib. 1. de rapt. Proserp. ''Hax qua;stio miiltos per annos varie ac 

mirabiliter impiignata, &c. i' Colerus ibid. '^ De eccles. dos;. cap. 16. 

•"Ovid. 4. M«»t. 'Bonoruni lares, ninlornin vero larvas pt lemiiiTs. i'Some 

sai- at three days, some six weeks, others otherwise. 



38 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

vanisli into nothing' — to wisose divine treatises, and to the 
Scriptures themselves, I rejourn all such atheistical spirits, as 
Tully did Atticus, doubtino- of this point, to Platos Phffidon : 
or, if they desire philosophical proofs and demonstrations, I 
refer them to Niphus, Nic. Farentimus Tracts of this subject, 
to Fran, and John Picus in digress, sup. 3, de jlnhnd, Tholo- 
.sanus, Fugnhimis, to Soto, Canns, Thomas, Pereshis, Dandi- 
nus Colerus, to that elaborate Tract in Zanchius, to Tolets 
Sixly Reasons, and Lessius Twenty-two Arguments, to prove 
the immortality of the soul. Campanella, lib. de sensu rermn, is 
large in the same discourse, Albertinus the Schoolman, .Jacob. 
Nactantus, to7n. 2. op. handleth it in four questions— Antony 
Brunus, Aonius Palearius, Marinus x\Iarcennus, with many 
others. This reasonable soul, which Austin calls a spiritual 
substance moving it self, is defined by philosophers to be the 
first substantial act of a natural, humane, organical bodif, hij 
which a man lives, perceives and understands, feely doing all 
things, and with election: out of which definition we may 
gather, that this rational soul includes the powers, and per>» 
forms the duties, of the two other, which are contained in it : 
and all three faculties make one soul, which is inorganical of 
it self (although it be in all parts), and incorporeal, using their 
organs, and working by them. It is divided into two chief 
parts, differing in office only, not in essence — the understand- 
ing, which is the rational power apprehending ; the ivill, %vhich 
is the rational power moving : to which two, all the other ra- 
tional powers are subject and reduced. 



SUBSECT. X. 

Of the Understanding. 

Understanding is a power of the soul, ^by which we 
perceive, know, remember, and judge, as well singulars as 
universals, having certain innate notices or beginnings of 
arts, a refecting action, by tchich it judgelh of his own 
doings, and examines them. Out of this definition, (besides 
his chief office, which is to apprehend, judge all that he per- 
forms, without the help of any instrument or organs) three dif- 
ferences appear betwixt a man and a beast : as, first, the sense 
only comprehends singularities, the undersJanciing univer- 
salities : secondly, the sense hath no innate notions : thirdly, 
brutes cannotreflectupon themselves. Bees indeed make neat 

aMelanct. 



}.Ifim. 2. Siihs. 10.] Anatomy of the Soul. 39 

ami curious works,and many other creatures besides; but when 
they have done they cannot judge of them. His object is 
God,E'ws,all nature,and whatsoever is to be understood : which 
successively it apprehends. The object first moving- the vnder- 
standing, \s, some sensible thinof; after, by discoursing, the mind 
findsout the corporeal substance, and from thence thespiritual. 
His actions (some say) arc apprehension, composition ^ division, 
discoursinfi^ reasoning , memory , (which some include minven- 
twn), ^uA judgement. The conjmon divisions are of the under- 
standing-, agent, ni\d patient ; specnlative, ami practick ; in 
habit, or in act ; simple, or compound. The agent is that which 
is called the wit of man, acumen or subtilty, sharpness or in- 
vention, when he doth invent of himself without a teacher, or 
learns anew — which abstracts those intelligible species from the 
phantasie, and transfers them to the passive understanding, 
^because there is nothing in the understanding, which was not 
first in the sense. That which the imagination hath taken from 
the sense, this agent judgeth of, whether it be true or false ; 
and, being so judged, he commits it to the passible to be kept. 
The agent is a doctor or teacher; X\\e passive, a scholar; and 
his office is to keep and farther judge of such things as are com- 
mitted to his charge ; as a bare and rased table at first, capable 
of all forms and notions. Now these notions are two-fold, ac- 
tions or habits: actions, by which we take notions of, and per- 
ceive things : habits, which are durable lights and notions, 
which Me may use when we will. '\Some reckon up eight kinds 
of them, sense, experience, intelligence, faith, suspicion, errour, 
opinion, science ; to which are added art, prudency, wisdom ; 
as also ^synteresis, dictamen rationh, conscience ; so that, in all, 
there be fourteen species of the understanding, of which some 
are innate, as the three last mentioned ; the other are gotten 
by doctrine, learning, and use. Plato will have all to be 
innate : Aristotle reckons up but five intellectual habits : two 
practick, as prudency, whose end is to practice, to fabricate ; 
wisdom, to comprehend the use and exj)eriments of all notions 
and habits whatsoever; which division of Aristotle, (if it be 
considered aright) is all one with the precedent : for three 
being innate, and five acquisite, the rest are improper, imper- 
fect, and, in a more strict examination, excluded. Of all these 
1 should more amply dilate, but my subject will not pennit. 
Three of them I will oidy point at, as more necessary to my 
following discourse. 

Synteresis, or the purer part of the conscience, is an innate 



^ Niliil in intellfctu, quod non pr'iH.i fiirrtt in sensu. ''Velciirio, ''The piife 

j):\rt of the conscirncr. 

VOL. I. M 



40 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part 1. Sec. 1. 

habit, and doth signifie a conservation of the knoivledge of the 
law of God and Nature, to know good or evil: and (as our 
divines hold) it is rather in the understanding y than in. the loill. 
This makes the major proposition in a practick syllogism. 
The dictatem rationis is that which doth admonish us to do 
good or evil, and is the minor in the syllogism. The con- 
science is that which approves good or evil, justifying or con- 
demning our actions, and is the conclusion of the syllogism ; 
as in that familiar example of Regulus, the Roman, taken pri- 
soner by the Carthaginians, and suffered to go to Rome, on 
that condition he should return again, or pay so much for his 
ransom. The synteresis proposeth the question; his word, oath, 
promise, is to be religiously kept, although to his enemy, and 
that by the law of nature — '^ do not that to another, which thou 
wouldst not have done to thy self. Dictatem applies it to him, 
and dictates this or the like : Regulus, thou wouldst not ano- 
ther man should falsifie his oath, or break promise with thee ; 
conscience concludes, Therefore, Regulus, thou dost well to 
perform thy promise, and oughtest to keep thine oath. More 
of this in Religious Melancholy. 



SUBSECT. XI. 

Of the Will. 

WILL is the other power of the rational soul, Svhich covets 
or avoids such things as have been before judged and appre- 
hended by the understanding. If good, it approves ; if evil, 
it abhors it: so that his object is either good or evil. Aristotle 
calls this our ra^{o«a/ appetite; for as, in the sensitive, we are 
moved to good or bad by our appetite, ruled and directed by 
sense ; so, in this, we are carried by reason. Besides, the 
sensitive appetite hath a particular object, good or bad ; this, 
an universal, immaterial : that respects only things delectable 
and pleasant; this honest. Again, they differ in liberty. The 
sensual appetite seeing an object, if it be a convenient good, 
cannot but desire it ; it evil, avoid it : but this is free in his 
essence, ""much now depraved, obscured, and fain from hisjirst 
perfection, yet, in some of his operations, still free, as to go, 
walk, move at his pleasure, and to choose whether it will do, or 
not do, steal, or not steal. Otherwise in vain were laws, de- 

^ Quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris. ^ Res ab intellectu monstratis re- 

ci()it, vel rejicitj approbat, vel iraprobat, Philip. —Ignoti nulla cupido, t Me- 

anctliou. (Jperatioues pleruniqiie feraj, etsi libera sit ilia in essentia sua. 



Mom. 2. Subs. 11.] Audtomy of the Sovl. 41 

liortations, exhortations, counsels,precepts, rewards, promises, 
threats, and punishments: and God should be the author of 
sin. But, in ''spiritual things we Avill no good ; prone to evil, 
(except we be regenerate, and led by the spirit,) mo are eo-- 
ged on by our natural concupiscence, and there is arx^ix, a 
confusion in our powers ; '' our wJioIp will is averse Jrom God 
and his law, not iu natural things only, as to eat and drink, 
lust, to which we are led headlong by our temperature and 
inordinate appetite : 

c Nee nos obniti contra, nee tendere tantum, 
SuflBcimus, 

we cannot resist ; our coiicupiscence is orig-inally bad, our 
heart evil ; the seat of our affections captivates and enforceth 
will ; so that, in voluntary things we are avei-se from God and 
goodness, bad by nature, by ^ignorance worse ; by art, discip- 
line, custome, we get many bad habits, suffering- 'tbem to do- 
mineer and tyrannize over us ; and the devil isstill ready at 
hand with his evil suggestions, to tempt our depraved will to 
some ill disposed action, to precipitate us to destruction, except 
our will he swayed and counterpoised again M'ith some divine 
precepts, and good motions of the Spirit,which many times re- 
strain, hinder and check us, when we are in the full career of 
our dissolute courses. So David corrected himself when he 
had Saul at a vantage. Revenge and malice were as two vio- 
lent oppugners on the one side ; but honesty, religion, fear of 
God, with-held him on the other. 

The actions of the will are velle and nolle, to will and nill, 
(which two v/ords comprehend all ; and they are g-ood or bad, 
accordingly as they are directed) and some of them freely per- 
formed by himself; although the Stoicks absolutely deny it, 
and will have all things inevitably done by destiny, imposino- 
a fatal necessity upon us, which we may not resist : yet we say 
that our will is free in respect of us, and things contin^-ent, 
howsoever, in respect of God's determinate counsel, they are 
inevitable and necessary. Some other actions of the icillnre 
performed by the inferiour powers, which obey him, as the 
sensitive and mox-Ancf appetite ; as to open our eyes, to go hi- 
ther and thither, not to touch a book, to speak fair or foul : but 
this appetite is many times rebellious in us, and will not be 
contained within the lists of sobriety and terapprance. It was 
(as 1 said) once well agreeing with reason ; and there was an 

a In civiiibus libera, bed non in spirilualibi's Osiander. *> Tota voluntas 

aversa a Deo Omnis homo mendax. c Vir;;. d Vel propter ignirantiam, 

qiiod bonis studiis non sit instructa mens, nt debuit, aut divinis prseceptis exculta. 

y\2 



42 Anatomy of thfi Soul. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

excellent consent and harmony betwixt them : but that is now 
dissolved, they often jar; reason is overborne by passion, 

(Fertur equisauriga; neque audit currus habenas) 

as so many wild horses run away with a chariot, and will uot 
be curbed. We know many times what is good, but will not 
do it, as she said, 

^ Trahit invitam nova vis ; aliudque cupido, 

Mens aliud, suadet: 

lust counsels one thing, reason another; there is a new re- 
luctancy in men. 

^ Odi : nee possum, cupiens, non esse, quod odi. 

We cannot resist ; but, as Phaedra confessed to her nurse, '^qiKS 
logueris, vera sunt ; sed Juror suggerit sequi pejora : she said 
well and true (she did acknowledge it) ; but head-strong pas- 
sion and fury made her to do that which was opposite. So 
David knew the filthiness of his fact, what a loathsome, foid, 
crying sin adultery was ; yet, notwithstanding, he would com- 
mit murther, and take away another man's wife — enforced, 
against reason, religion, to follow his appetite. 

Those wa??ira/ and ue^e^a/ powers are notcommanded by will 
at all ; for who can add one cubit to his stature ? These other 
may, but are not : and thence come all those head-strong pas- 
sions, violent perturbations of the mind, and many times vi- 
tious habits, customs, feral diseases, because we give so much 
way to our appetite^ and follow our inclination, like so many 
beasts. The principal habits are two in number, vertue and 
vice, whose peculiar definitions, descriptions, differences, and 
kinds, are handled at large in the ethicksy and are indeed the 
subject of moral philosophy, 

MEMB. III. 
SUBSECT. 1. 

Definition of Melancholy, Name, Difference. 

JJ-AVING thus briefly anatomized the body and soul of man, 
as a preparative to the rest — I may now freely proceed to treat 
of my intended object to most mens capacity : and, after many 
ambages, perspicuously define what thismelanchoiyis, shew his 
name, and differences. The 7iame is imposed from the matter, 

* Medea, Ovid. ^ Ovid. n Seneca, Hipp. 



Mem. 3. Snbs. 1.] Definition of Melancholy, 43 

and disease denominated from the material cause, (as Bruel ob- 
serves) MfXayxoXiat, quasi MiXatv xp^ri, from black choler. And 
whether it be a cause or an effect, a disease or symptome, let 
Donatus Altomarus, and Salvianus, decide ; I will not contend 
abftut it. It hath several descriptions, notations, and defini- 
tions. * Fracastorius, in his second book of intellect, calls 
those melancholy, ichom, abundance of that same depraved 
humour of black choler hath so misaffected, that they become 
mad thence, and dote in most things, or in all, belonging to 
election, will, or other manifest operations of the understanding. 
''Melanelius out of Galen, Ruffus, Aetius, describe it to be a 
had and peevish disease, which makes men degenerate into 
beasts; Galen, a privation or infection of the middle cell of the 
heady ^c. defining* it from the part aflfected ; which '^ Flercules 
de Saxonia approves, libA. cap. 16. calling- it a deprivation of 
the priticipal function ; Fuchsius, lib. 1 cap. ^3. Arnoklus 
Breviar. lib. 1. cap 18. Guianerius, and others. By reason of 
black choler, Paulusadds. Halyabbas simply calls itacowwo- 
tion of the mind; Aretseus, ^ a perpetual anguish of the soul, 
fastened on one thing, without an ague ; which definition of his, 
Merrialis (de affect, cap. lib. l.cap. lO.) taxeth ; butTElianus 
Montaltus, defends, (lib. de morb. cap 1. de Melan.) for sufli- 
cient and good. The common sort define it to be a kind of 
dotage without a fever, having, for his ordinary companions^ 
fear and sadness, without any apparent occasion. So doth 
Laurentius, cap. 4. Piso, lib. 1. cap. 43. Donatus Altomarus 
cap. 'J. art. medic. Jacchinus,m com. in lib. 9. Rhasisad Al- 
jnansor, cap. lo. Valesius, exerc. IJ. YuchHhvi,institut. S.sec.l. 
c. 1 1, ^c. which common definition, howsoever approved by 
most, ^Hercules de Saxonia will not allow of, nor David Cru- 
sius, Theat. morb. Herm, lib. 2. cap. 6: he holds it insuffi- 
cient, ^as rather shewing what it is not, than what it is ; as 
omitting the specifical difference, the phantasieand brain: but 
I descend to particulars. The summum genius is dotage, or 
anguish of the mind, saith Aretaeus : — of a principal part, Her- 
cules de Saxonia adds, to distinguish it from cramp and palsie, 
and such diseases as belong to the outward sense and motions ; 
** depraved,'* ^to distinguish it from folly and madness, (which 
Montaltus makes angor a?imt to separate) in which those func- 
tions are not depraved, but rather abolished ; " without an 

a Melancholicos vocamus, qnos exsuperantia vel pravitas melancholiae ita male 
habet, ut inde insaniant vel in omnibus, vel in pluribus, iisqne, manifestis, sive ad rec- 
tam rationem, voluntatem, pertinent, vel electionem, vel intellectus operationes. •> Pes- 
eimum et pertinacissirnura morbum, qui homines in brnta degenerare cogit. <^ Panth. 
Med. d Angor animi in una contentione detixus, absque febre. "Cap. 16. 

1. 1. - __ • Eorum definitio, morbus quid non sit, potius quam quid sit, explicat. 
K Animae functiones imminuntur in fatuitate, toUuntur in mania, depravantur solum in 
melaDchoIia. Here, de Sax. cap. 1. tract, de Meiauch. 



M Of the Parts afectedy tjc. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

aqne^ is ailded by all, to sever it' from phrensie, and that 
melanchoty which is in a pestilent fever. '•^ Fear and son'o?^?' 
make it differ from madness: ^^ without a caitse^' is lastly in- 
serted, to specific it from all other ordinary passions of^Jear 
and sorrow." We properly call that dotage,as "Laurentius in- 
terprets it, when some one principal J'aculty of the mind, as 
imagination or reason^ is corrupted, as all melancholy persons 
have. It is without a fever, because the humour is, most part, 
cold and dry,contrary to putrefaction. Fear and sorroic are the 
true characters and inseparable companions of most me/awcAo/?/, 
not all, as Her. de Saxonia (Tract, postumo de Melancholia, 
cap. 2.) well excepts; for, to some, it is most pleasant, as to 
such as laugh most part ; some are bold again, and free from 
all manner of fear and orrief, as hereafter shall be declared. 



SUBSECT. II. 
Of the parts aff^ected. Affection. Parties affected. 

oOME difference I find amongst writers, about the principal 
part affected in this disease, whether it be the brain or heart, or 
some other member. Most are of opinion that it is the brain ; 
for, being a kind ot\lota(je,\t cannot otherwise be, but that the 
brain must be affected, as a similar part, be it by ^ consent or 
essence, not in his ventricles, or any obstructions in them, (for 
then it would be an apoplexie, or epilepsie, as '^ Laurentius well 
observes) but in a cold dry distemperature of it in his sub- 
stance, which is corrupt and become too cold, or too dry, or 
else too hot, as in madmen, and such as are inclined to it : 
and this '^Hippocrates confirms, Galen, Arabians, and mositof 
our new writers. Marcus de Oddis (in a consultation of his, 
quoted by "" Hildesheim), and five others there cited, are of the 
contrary part, because fear and sorroAv, which are passions, be 
seated in the heart. But this objection is sufficiently answered 
by * Montaltus, who doth not deny that the heart is affected (as 
s Melanelius proves out of Galen) by reason of his vicinity ; 
and so is the midriff nnd many other parts. They docom- 
pati, and have a fellow-feeling by the law of nature : but, for 
as much as this malady is caused by precedent imaginaiion, 
with the appetite, to whom spirits obey ,and are subject to those 

'' Cap. 4. de inel. h Per consensnni , sive per essentiam. " "^ Cap. 4. 

^^ niel, '' Sec 7. He mor. vulgar, lib. 6. e Spicil. de melancholia, 

f Cap. 3. de niel. Pars aft'ecta cerebrum, sive per consensum, sive per cerebrum con- 
tingat; et proceitiui, auctoritate et ratione stabiliUir. M Lib. de mel. Cor vero, 

vicinitaiis ratione, una aflicitiir, ac septum tiaiisversuui, ac stomachus, cum dorsali 
spiua, &c. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 2.J Oft/ie Parts affected, ^c. 45 

principal parts ; the brainmust needs primarily be mis-affected, 
as the seat of reason ; and then the heart, as the seat of affec- 
tion, ''Capivaccius and Merculialis have copiously discussed 
this question ; and both conclude the object is the inner 
brain, and from thence it is communicated to the heart, and 
other inferiour parts, which sympathize and aremuch troubled, 
especially when it comes by consent, and is caused by reason of 
the stomach, or myrache (as the Arabians term it), or whole 
body, liver, or ^ spleen, which are seldom free, pylorus mesa- 
raick veins, ^-c. For our body is like a clock ; if one wheel be 
amiss, all the rest are disordered ; the whole fabrick suffers ; 
with such admirable art and harmony is a man composed, such 
excellent proportion, as Lodovicus Vives, in his Fable of 
man, hath elegantly declared. 

As many doubts almost arise about the "^ q^c^ion, whether 
it heimayination or reason alone, or both, Hercvdes de Saxo- 
nia proves it out of Galen, Aetius, and Altomarus, that the 
sole fault is in '' imayination ; Bruel is of the same mind: Mon- 
taltus (in his 2 cap. of Melancholy ) confutes this tenet of 
theirs, and illustrates the contrary by many examples, as of 
him that thought himself a shell-fish ; of a nun, and of a des- 
perate monk that would not be perswaded but that he was 
damned. Reason was in fault (as well as imagination), which 
did not correct this error. They make away themselves often- 
times, and suppose many absurd and ridiculous things, ^hy 
doth notreason detect the fallacy, settle, and perswade, if she 
be free? '^Avicenna therefore holds both corrupt; to M'hom 
most Arabians subscribe. The same is maintained by ^ Are- 
tceus, Gorgonius, § Guianerius, &c. To end the controversie, 
no man doubts of imagination, but that it is hurt and misaf- 
fected here. For the other, 1 determine (with ^ Albertinus 
Bottonus, a doctor of Padua) that it is first in imagination, 
and afterwards in reason, if the disease be inveterate, or as it 
is of more or less of continuance ; but by accident, as ' Here, 
de Saxonia adds : faith, opinion, discourse, ratiocination, are 
all accidentally depraved by the default of imagination. 

Parties affected.^ To the part affected, I may here add the 
parties, which shall be more opportunely spoken of elsewhere 



a Lib. 1. cap. 10. Subjectam est cerebrum interius. bRaro quisqnam 

tnmoreni eflFugit lienis, qui hoc inorb afficitur. Piso. Qnis affectns. <" See 

Donat. ab Altomar. J Facultas iuiagiuandi, non co^tandi, nee memoraDdi, 

Isesa hie. « Lib. 3. Fen. 1. Tract. 4. cap. 8. f Lib. 3. cap. 5. (.'Lib. 

Med. cap. 19. part 2. Tract. 15. cap. 2. hHildesheira, spicil. 2. de Melanc. 

fol. 207, et fol. 127. Quandoqne etiam rationalis si affectiis inveteratas sit. 'Lib. 
postnmo de Melanc. edit 1620. Depravatur tides, discnrsus, opinio, &c. per vitinm 
imaginationis, ex accidenti. 



46 Of the Parts affected. [Part I. Sec. 1. 

now only signified. Such as liave the Moon, Saturn, Mer- 
cury iwiH'^&^cieA in their genitures — such as live in over-cold, 
or over-hot climes — such as are born of melancholy parents, 
as offend in those six non-natnra! things, are black, or of an 
high sanguine complexion, "that have little heads, that have 
a hot heart, moist brain, hot liver and cold stomach, have been 
long sick — such as are solitary by nature, great students, given 
to much contemplation, lead a life out of action — 'are most sub- 
ject to melancholy. Of sexes, both, but men more often ; yet 
^ women mis-affected are far more violent,and grievously trou- 
bled. Of seasons of the year, the autumn is most melancholy. 
Of peculiar times, old age, from which natural melancholy is 
almost an inseparable accident; but this artificial malady is 
more frequent in such as are of a *= middle age. Some assign 
forty years ; Gariopontus, 30 ; Jubertus excepts neither young- 
nor old from this adventitious. ''Daniel Sennertus involves all 
of all sorts, out of common experience; in omnibus omnino cor- 
poribus, cujuscnnque co;istitutionis, dominatur: Aetius and 
Aretsenus ascribe intv> the number not only ^ discontented, pas- 
sionate, and miserable persons, swarthy, black, but such as are 
most merry and pleasant, scoffers, and high coloured. Generally, 
*saith Rhasis, " the finest ivits, and most generous spirits, are 
hej'ore other, obnoxious to it. I cannot except any complexion, 
any condition, sex, or age, but ''fools and Stoicks, which (ac- 
cording- to "Synesius) are never troubled with any manner of 
passion,but(as Anacreonscica</«,sf«e sanguine et dolor e) similes 
J'ere diis sunt. Erasmus vindicates fools from this melancholy 
catalogue, because they have most part moist brains and light 
hearts ; ^ thei/ are Jree J rom ambition, envy, shame, and J'ear ; 
they are neither troubled in conscience, nor macerated withcaresy 
tQ ivhich our whole lij'e is most subject- * 



a Qui parvum caput habent, insensati plerique sunt. Arist. in physiognomic. 
''Aretasus, lib. 3. c. 5. <■ Qui prope statum sunt. Aret. Mediis convenit 

aetatibus. Piso. <• De quartano. - •= Pronus ad melancholiam non tarn 

niaestiis, sed et hilares, jocosi, cachinnantes, irrisores, et qui plerumque prajrubri sunt. 
fLib. ). part. *i. cap. 11. gQui suntsubtilis ingenii, etmulfse perspicacitatis, 

de facili incidunt in melancholiam. lib. 1. cont. tract. 9. ^ Nunquam sanitate 

mentis excidit, ant dolore capitur. Erasm. "In laud, calvit. ''Vacant 

conscientise carniticina, nee pudefiuut, nee verentnr, liec dilaceraatur millibus cura^ 
rum, quibus tola vita obnoxia est, 



Mem. 3. Sv.ha. Jj.] Matter of MduHcliolij. 47 

SUBSECT. III. 
Of the matter of Melancholy. 

\JV the matter of melancholy, there is much question be- 
twixt Avicen and Galen, as you may read in ^ Cardan's Con- 
tradictions, ''Valesius controversies, 31ontanus, Prosper Ca!e- 
nus, Capivaccius, '^ Bright, ''Ficinus, that have written either 
whole tracts, or copiously of it, in their several treatises of 
this subject. *= What this hnmotir is, or whence it proceeds, 
how it is inr/endered in the body, neither Galen, nor any old 
writer, hath sufficiently discussed, as Jacchinus thinks ; the 
neotericks cannot agree. Montanus,in his consultations, holds 
melancholy to be material or immaterial ; and so doth Arcu- 
laniis. The material is one of the four humours before men- 
tioned, and natural ; the i/«wj«fena? or adventitious, acquisite, 
redundant, unnatural, artificial, which '^Hercules de Saxonia. 
will have reside in the spirits alone, and to proceed from an 
hot, cold, dry, moist distemperature, ichich, icithont matter, 
alters the brain aiid functions of it, Paracelsus mIioIK- re- 
jects and derides this division of four humours and com- 
plexions ; but our Galenists generally approve of it, subscrib- 
ing to this opinion of 3Iontanus. 

This material melancholy is either simple or mixt — offend- 
ing- in (niantity or quality, varying- according to his place, 
Mhere it setleth, as brain, spleen, mesaraick veins, heart, 
M'omb, and stomach — or differing- according to the mixture of 
those natural humours amongst themselve;^, or four unnatural 
adust humours, as they are diversely tempered and mingled. 
If natural melancholy abound in the body, which is cold and 
dry, .sY> that it be more ^ than the body is well able to bear, it 
must needs be distempered (saith Faventius) and diseased : and 
so the other, if it be depraved, whether it arise from that other 
melancholy o^choler adust, or from blood, produceth the like 
efiects, and is, as Montaltus contends, if it come by adustion 
of humours, most part hot and dry. Some difference I find, 
whether this melancholy matter may be ingendred of all four 
humours, about the colour and temper of it. Galen holds it may 



' a Lib. 1. tract. 3. contradic. 18. "'Lib. 1. cont. 21. ^Bright, cap. 16. 

rt Lib. 1. cap. 6. de saoit. tuenda. c Quisve aut qualis sit humor, aut qnas 

istius differentia, et quomodo fiisnatiir in corpore, scrntaiidmn ; ac enim in re niulti 
veteram laboraverunt ; nee facile accipere ex Galeno sententiam, ob loquendi varie- 
tatem. Leon. Jac. com. in 9. Rhasis, cap. ]6. in i'. Khasis. i Tract, postum. 

de Melan. edit. Venetiis, 1620. cap. 7 et ,S. Ab inteinperie calida, hiimida, &c. 
? Secundnin magis aut minii-s : si in corpore fiierit ad inteniperiem, plu!>qmun corpus 
iialubriter ferre polerit ; judt corpus morbosuin efBcitiir. 



48 Matter of Melancholy . [Part I. Sec. 1. 

))e ingendred of three alone, excluding flegm, or pituita ; 
whose true assertion ^ Valesius and Menaraus stifly maintain: 
and so doth '' Fuchsius, Montaltus, '^Montanus. How (say they) 
can white become black? But Hercules de Saxonia {I. post, de 
viela. c. 8.) and '^ Cardan are of the opposite part (it may be in- 
gendred of flegm, e/siraro con fin gat, though it seldom come to 
pass); so is«Guianerius,andLaurentius(c. l,),withMelancthon, 
(in his book de Animd, and chapter of humours; he calls it 
asininam, dull, swinish melancholy, and saith that he was an 
eye witness of it) ; so is * Wecker. From melancholy adust 
ariseth one kind, from choler another, which is most brutish ; 
another from flegm, which is dull ; and the last from bloody 
which is best. Of these, some are cold and dry, others hot and 
dry, s varying according to their mixtures, as they are intended 
and remitted. And indeed, as Rodericus a Fons. (cons. 12. /.) 
determines, ichorous,and those serous matters, being thickned, 
become flegm; and flegm degenerates into choler; choler adust 
becomes aniyinosa melancholia, as vinegar out of purest wine 
putrified, or by exhalation of purer spirits, is so made, and be- 
comes sowrandsharp; and, fromthesharpness of this huniour, 
proceed much waking', troublesome thoughts and dreams, &c, 
so that I conclude as before. If the humour be cold, it is 
(saith '' Faventinus) a cause oj' dotage, and produceth milder 
symptomes : ij' hot, they are rash, raving mad, or inclining to 
it. If the brain be hot, the animal spirits are hot, much mad- 
ness follows, with violent actions: if cold, fatuity and sottish- 
ness ('Capivaccius). '' The colour of this mixture varies like- 
wise according to the mixture^ he it hot or cold ; ^tis sometimes 
blacky sometimes not (Altomarus). The same 'Melanelius 
proves out of Galen : and Hippocrates, in his book oi Melan- 
choly (if at least it be his) giving instance in a burning coal, 
which, when it is hot, shines, when it is cold, looks black ; and 
so doth the humour. This diversity of melancholy matter pro- 
duceth diversity of effects. If it be within the ""body, and 
not putrified, it causeth black jaundise; if putrified, a r|uartan 
ague : if it break out to the skin, leprosie ; if to parts, several 
maladies, as scurvy, &c. If it trouble the mind, as it is di- 
versely mixt, it produceth several kinds of madness and dot- 
age ; of which in their place. 

aLib. 1. controvers. cap. 21. b Lib. 1. sect. 4. c. 4. ^Concil. 26, 

•^Lib. 2. contradic. cap. 11. «De feb. tract, diff. 2. c. 1. Non est uegandum ex 

hac fieri melancholicos. fin Syntax. e Varie aduritur et miscetur, nnde varias 

amentium species. Melanct. •' Humor frigidus delirii caussa ; furoris calidus, &c. 

'Lib. 1. cap. 10. de affect, cap. kNigrescit hie humor, ah'quando super- 

calefactus, aliquando superfrigefactus. cap. 7. i Humor hie niger aliquando 

prseter modum calefactus, et alias refrigeratus evadit: nam recentibus carbonibus ei 
f|uid simile accidit, qui, durante flamma, pellucidissime candent, ea exstincta prorsiis 
nigrescunt. Hippocrates, ™ Guianerius, difl'. 2. cap. 7. 



jVlem. 3. Sub.s. 4.] Species oj Me lane holy. 49 

8UBSECT. IV. 

Of the species or kinds oj^ Melancholy. 

1 ▼ HEN llie matter is divers and confused, how should it 
otherwise be, but that the species should be divers and con- 
fused .'' Many new and old writers have spoken confusedly of it, 
confoundinome/«w-cAo(?/ and madness,ns "Heurnius,Giiianerius, 
Gordoiiius, Sallustius Salvianus, Jason Pratensis, Savanarola, 
that will have madness no other than melancholy in extent, difj 
fcriiig- (as 1 have said) in degrees. Some make two distinct 
species, as Rutfns Ephesius an old writer, Oonstantinus, 
Africiiniis, Aretaeus, '^ Aurelianus, ' Paulus iEgineta : others 
acknowledge a multitude of kinds, and leave them indetinite, 
as A{5tius (in his Tetrahiblos,) ^ Avicenna {lib. 3 Feri. 1 Tract. 
4. cap. 18.), Arculaiius, {cap. 16. in 9), Rhasis, Montanus 
{med. part. I). ^ IJ' natural melancholy he adust, it makeih 
one kind ; ij" blood, another ; ifcholer, a third, differiny from 
the first ; and so many several opinions there are about the kinds ^ 
as there be men themselves. Hercules de Saxonia sets down 
two kinds, material and immaterial ; one from spirits alone, 
the other J'rom humours and spirits. Savanarola (/?///;, II, 
Tract. (). cap. 1. de a; gritud. capitis) will have the kinds to be 
infinite; one from the myrache, called myrachialis of the 
Arabians ; another stomachalis from the stomach ; another 
from the liver, heart, womb, hcemorrhoids ; ^ one beginning ^ 
another consummate. Melancthon seconds him; ^us the hu- 
mour is diversely adust and mixt, so are the species divers. But 
what these men speak of species, 1 think ought to be under- 
stood of symptomes; and so doth 'Arculanus interpret him- 
self: infinite species, id est, symptomes : and, in that sense, (as 
Jo. Gorrhteus acknowledgeth in his medical definitions) the 
species are infinite ; but they may be reduced to three kinds, 
by reason of their seat — head, body, and hypoeondries. This 
threefold division is approved by Hippocrates in his book of 
Melancholy (if it be his, which some suspect) by Galen {lib. a. 
de loc affectis^ cap. 6), by Alexander (/j'6. 1. cap 16,) Rhasl% 
{lib. 1. Continent. Tract, 9. lib. 1. cap. 16), Avicenna, and 

aNon est mania, nisi estensa melancholia. ^Cap. 6. lib. 1, f 2Ser. 2. 

cap. 9. Morbus hio est oranifarius. d Species iudefinitse sunt. *' Si aduratur 

naturalis melancholia, alia sit species ; si sanguis, alia ; si flava bilis, alia, diversa a 
primis. Maxima est inter has dillerentia; et tot doctorum senteutia", qnot ipsinumero 
sunt. ' Tract, de. mel. cap. 7. ^Quapdara inripiens, quaedam consummata. 

•^Cap. de humor, lib. de anima. Varie aduritnr et miscetur ipsa melancholia; unde 
variiB amentium species. ' Cap. 16. in 9. Rhasis. 



50 Species of Melancholy. [Part. 1 . Sec, I. 

most of our new writers. Th. Erastus makes two kinds ; one 
perpetual, which xahead melancholy ; the other interrupt, which 
comes and goes by fits, which he subdivides into the other two 
kinds, so that all comes to the same pass. Some ag-ain make 
four or five kinds with Rodericus a Castro {de morbis mnlier. 
lib, 2. c. 3.) and Lod. Mercatus, who (in his second book 
de mulier. affect, cap. 4.) will have that melancholy of nuns, 
widows, and more antient maids, to be a peculiar species of 
melancholy differing from the rest. Some will reduce enthu- 
siasts, extatical and demoniacal persons, to this rank, adding- 
^love melancholy to the first, and lycanthropia. The most 
received division is into three kinds. The first proceeds from 
the sole fault of the brain, and is called head melancholy : the 
second sympathetically proceeds from the whole body, when 
the whole temperature is melancholy ; the third ariseth from 
the bowels, liver, spleen, or membrane called mesenterinm, 
named hypocondriacal, or icindy melancholy, which ^ Lau- 
rentius subdivides into three parts, from those three members, 
hepatich, splenetick, mesaraick. Love melancholy (which A vi- 
cenna calls ?7/w/j7') and lycanthropia (which he calls cncubnihe) 
are commonly included in head melancholy : but of this last 
(which Gerardusde Solo calls amoreos, and most knir/ht melafi- 
choly,) with that of reliyions melancholy, virginum et viduarum 
maintained by Rod. a Castro and Mercatus), and the other 
kinds of /ore m€lancholy,lwi\\ speak apart by themsel vesin my 
third partition. The three precedent species are the subject 
of my present discourse, which I will anatomise, and treat 
of, through all their causes, symptoraes, cures together, and 
apart ; and every man, that is in any measure affected with 
this malady, may know how to examine it in himself, and 
apply remedies unto it. 

It is a hard matter, T confess, to distinguish these three spe- 
cies one from the other, to express their several causes, symp- 
tomes, cures, being that they are so often confounded amongst 
themselves, having such affinity, that they can scarce be dis- 
cerned by the most accurate physicians ; and so often intermixt 
with otherdiseases that the best experienced have beenplunged. 
Montanus {consil. 26.) names a patient that had this disease of 
melancholy, and caninus appetitus,hoth together ; and {consiL 
23.) with vertigo — ^Julius Csesar Claudinus, with stone, 
gout, jaundice — Trincavellius, with an ague, jaundice, ca- 
ninus appetitns, S^c. '' Paulus Regoline, a great doctor in 
his time, consulted in this case, was so confounded with a 
confusion of symptomes, that he knew not to what kind of 

=" LaurentiuS; cap. 4. de mel. ^Cap. 13. 1 480. et 116 consult, 

consil, ] '2. fi HHdeshieni, spicil. 2. fol. 166. 



Memb. 3. Subs. 4.] Species of Melancholy. 51 

melancholy to refer it. ''Trincavellius, Fallopius, andFran- 
canzanus, famous doctors in Italy, all three conferred with 
about one party at the same time, gave three different opinions: 
and, in another place, Trincavellius being demanded \vhat he 
thought of a melancholy young man, to whom he was sent 
for, ingenuously confessed that he was indeed melancholy, 
but he knew not tOM'hat kind to reduce it. In his seventeenth 
consultation, there is the like disagreement about a melancholy 
monk. Those symptomes, which others ascrii)e to misaftect- 
ed parts and humours, ''Here, de Saxonia attributes wholly 
to distempered spirits, and those immaterial, as I have said. 
Sometimes they cannot well discern this disease from others. 
In Reinerus Solinanders Counsels, sect, consil. 5. he and Dr. 
Brande both agreed,that the patients disease washypochondria- 
cal melancholy. Dr. Matholdus said it was asthma, and no- 
thing else. " Solinander and Guarionius, lately sent for to the 
melancholy duke of Cleve, with others, could not define what 
species it was, or agree amongst themselves; the species are so 
confounded ; as in Cassar Claudinus his forty fourth consulta- 
tion for a Polonian count : in his judgement, '^ he laboured of 
head melancJwli/, and that which proceeds Jrom their hole tem- 
perature, both at once. 1 could give instance of some that have 
had all three kinds semel etsimnl, and some successively. So 
that I conclude ofour melancholy species, as ^ many politicians 
do of their pure forms of common- wealths — monarchies, aris- 
tocracies, democracies, are most famous in contemplation; but, 
in practice, they are temperate and usually mixt, (so * Polybius 
enformeth us) as the Lacedfemonian, the Roman of old 
German now, and many others. What physicians, say of dis- 
tinct species in iheir books, it much matters not, since that in 
their patients bodies they are commonly mixt. In such ob- 
scurity therefore, variety and confused mixture of symptomes, 
causes, how difficult a thing is it to ti'eat of sev^eral kinds apart; 
to make any certainty or distinction among so many casualties, 
distractions, when seldom two men shall be like affected per 
omnia ! 'Tis hard, I confess ; yet nevertheless I Avill adventure 
through the midst of these perplexities, and, led by the clue or 
thread of the best writers, extricate myself out of a labyrinth 
of doubts and errours, and so proceed to the causes. 

» Trincavellius, torn. 1. consil. 15 et 16. ^Cap. 13. tract, post, de inelan. 

<•- Guarion. cons. raed. 2. d£,aboravit per essentiam, et a toto corpore. * Ma- 

chiavel, &c. Sraithus, de rep.Angl. cap. 8. lib. 1. Buscoldus, discur. polit discurs. 5 
•ap. 7. Arist. 1. 3. polit. cap. ult Keckerm. alii, &c. ' Lib. 6. 



52 ' , Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. I. 



SECT. II. 

MEMB. I. 

SUBSECT. I. 

Causes of Melancholy. God a cause. 

IT is in vain to speak of cures, or think oj" remedies, until such 
time as we have considered oj" the causes ; so ^Galen prescribes 
(Glauco); and the common experience of others confirms, that 
those cures must be unperfect, lame, and to no purpose,where- 
inthe causes have not first been searched, as ''Prosper Calenius 
well observesin his tract dealra bile to Cardinal Csesius : inso- 
much that^Ferneliusj9?/i.§ a kind of necessity in the knowledge 
oJ" the causes, and, unthout ivhich, it is impossible to cure or 
prevent any manner of disease. Empericks may ease, and some- 
times help,but not thoroughly root out : sublatd caussd, tollitur 
effectus, as the saying is ; if the cause be removed, the effect is 
likewise vanqnished. It is a most difficult thing (I confess) 
to be able to discern these causes, whence they are, and, in 
such "^ variety, to say what the beginning was. ^ He is happy 
that can perform it aright. I will adventure to guess as near 
as I can, and rip them all up, from the first to the last, yeneral, 
and particular to every species, that so they may the better 
be descried. 

General causes are either supernatural or natural. Super- 
natural are from God and his angels, or, by Gods permission 
from the devil and his ministers. That God himself is a 
cause for the punishment of sin, and satisfaction of his justice, 
many examples and testimonies of holy Scriptures make evi- 
dent unto us: Psal. 107- 17. Foolish men are plagued for 
their offence, and by reason of their wickedness : Gehazi was 
strucken with leprosie (2 Reg. 5. 2J,) Jehoram with dysentery 
and flux, and great distress of the bowels (2 Chron. 21. 15,) 
David plagued for numbering his people (I Par. 21), Sodom 
and Gomorrah swallowed up. And this disease is peculiarly 
specified, Psal. 127. 12. He brought down their heart through 
heaviness. Deut. 28. 28. He stroke them with madness^ 
blindness, and astonishment of heart. ^ An evil spirit teas 



a Primo artis curativae. ^ Nostri pritnum sit propositi affectioniim caussas 

indagare. Res ipsa hortari videtur ; namalioqni earum curatio manca et inutilis esset. 
cPath. lib. 1. cap. 11. Rerum cognoscere caussas, medicis imprimis neces?arium; 
sine quo, nee morbum curare, nee pracavere, licet. <l Tanta eniiu niorbi vanetas 

ac differentia, ut non facile dignoscatnr, unde initinra morbus sumpserit. Melanelius, 
e Galeno. «Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere caussas ! H Sam. K?. 14. 



Memb. 1. Subs. ].] Cavses of Melancholy. 53 

se7it bff the Lord npon Sani, to vex him. * Nebuchadnezzar 
did eat grass like an oxe ; and his heart was made like the 
beasts of the field. Heathen stories are full of such punish- 
ments. Lycurg-us, because he cut down the vines in the 
country, was by Bacchus driven into madness ; so wasPentheus 
and his mother Aj^ave, for neglecting- their sacrifice. ^ Censor 
Fulvius ran mad for untiling Juno's temple, to cover a new one 
of his own, which he had dedicated to Fortune, "" and teas 
coi founded to death icith r/riefand sorrow of heart. When 
Xerxes would have spoiled ** Apollos temple at Delphos of 
those infinite riches it possessed, a terrible thunder came from 
heaven, and struck 4000 men dead; the rest ran mad. "A 
little after, the like happened to Brennus (lightning-, thunder, 
earthfjuakes) upon sucn a sacrilegious occasion. If we may 
believe our pontificial writers, they will relate unto us many 
strange and prodigious punishments in this kind, inflicted by 
their saints ; — how ^ Clodovseus, sometime king of France, the 
son of Dagobert, lost his wits for uncovering the body of S. 
Denis ; and how a ? sacrilegious Frenchman, that would have 
stolen away a silver image of S. John, at Birgburge, became 
frantick on a suddain, raging and tyrannizing- over his oavu 
flesh ; — of a ^ lord of Rhodnor, that, coming- from hunting late 
at night, put his dogs into S. Avans church, (Llan Avan they 
called it) and, rising betimes next morning, as hunters use to 
do, found all his dogs mad, himself being suddenly strucken 
blind; — of Tiridates, an ' Armenian king, for violating some 
holy nuns, that Avas punished in like sort, with loss of his wits. 
But poets and papists may go together for fabulous tales ; let 
them free their own credits. Howsoever they fain of their 
Nemesis, and of their saints, or, by the devils means, may be 
deluded ; Ave find it true, that nltor a terc/o Dens, ^ He is God 
the ai"r?;*/7er, as David stiles him ; and that it is our crying sins 
that pull this and many other maladies on our own heads ; 
that he can, by his angels, which are his ministers, strike and 
heal (saith 'Dionysius) Avhomhe Avill ; that he can plague us 
by his creatures, sun, moon, and stars, Avhich he useth as his 



» Dan. 5. 21. •> Lactant. instit. lib. 2. cap. 8. « fllente captns, et smnrao 

animi niarovp consumptus, ^ Munster. cosmog. lib. 4. cap. 43. De coelo 

siibsternebantur ; tnniqiiam insani, de saxis praecipitati, Sec. ''Livius, lib. 3.S. 

fOaguin. 1. 3. c. 4. Qnod Dionysii corpus discoopenierat, in insaDiam incidit. 
gldeii), lib. 9. sub Carol. 6. Sacrorutn contemptor, templi foribus eftractis, dum 
D. Johannis argenteam sinialacrum rapere contendit, simulacrum aversa facie dorsum 
eiversat; nee mora, sacrilegus mentis inops, atque in semet insaniens, in proprios 
artus desaent. hGiraldns Cambrensis, lib. 1. cap. 1. Itinerar. Cambria;, 

i Delrio, torn. 3. lib. 8. sect. 3. quaesL 3. kPsal. 44. I. iLib. 8. 

cap. de Hierar. 



54 Causfisof 3Iol(tnchohj. [Part. 1 . .Soc. 5. 

instruments, as a lnis]>andnian (saith Zanchius) dofli an 
Latchet Hail, snow, winds, &c. 

(^Et conjurati veniunt in classica venti; 

as in Joshuas time, as in Pharaohs reign in ^Egypt) they are 
but as so many executioners of his justice. He can make tlie 
proudest spirits stoop, and cry out, with Julian tlie Apostate, 
Vicistl, GaUlcce ! or, with A polios priest in '' Chrysostome, O 
cfehini! O terra! uncle hostl'i Inc ? What an esiemy is this ? 
and pray with David, acknowledging- his power, /«m iceakened 
find sore hroken ; I roar for the firiej' of mhie heart ; mine heart 
panteth, S^c. (Psal. 38. 8.) O Lord, rebuke me not in thine 
anger, neither chastise me in thy wrath (Psal. 38. 1 ). Make me 
to hear joy and gladness, that the bones ivhich thou hast hroken, 
may rejoice (Psal. 51 • 8. and verse 12.) Restore to me the joy 
of' thy salvation, and stablish me with thy free spirit. For these 
causes,belike,'=Hippocrates would haveaphysician takespecial 
notice whether the disease come not from a divine supernatural 
cause, or whether it follow the course of nature. But this is 
farther discussed by Fran. Valesius(</e sacr. philos. cap. 8.), 
'^ Fernelius, and ^ J. Caesar Claudinus, to whom T refer you, 
how this place of Hippocrates is to be understood. Paracelsus 
is of opinion, that such spiritual diseases (for so he calls them) 
are spiritually to be cured, and not otherwise. Ordinary 
means in such cases will not avail : non est reluctandum cum 
Deo, When that monster-taming- Hercules overcame all in 
the Olympicks, Jupiter at last, in an unknown shape^ wrestled 
with him ; the victory was uncertain, till at length Jupiter 
descried himself, an(i Hercules yielded. No striving with 
supream powers : 

Nil juvat immensos Cratero promittere moutes : 

physicians and physick can do no good ; hve must submit our- 
selves under the mighty Aawr/o/'Gorf,acknowledge our offences, 
call to him for mercy. If he strike us, una eademcpie maims 
vulnus opemque feret, as it is with them that are wounded with 
the spear of Achilles; he alone must help; otherwise our 
diseases are incurable, and we not to be relieved. 



aClandian. •'De Babila martyre. cLib. cap. 5. prog. (iLib. J. 

de abditis rerum caussis. 'Respons. med. 12. resp. f 1. Pet. 5. 6. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] Causes of Melancholy. 55 



SUBSECT. II. 



A Digression of the natvre of Spirits, bad Angels, or Devils, 
and hoiv they cause Melancholy. 

jljLOW far the power of spirits and devils doth extend, and 
whether they can cause this or any other disease, is a serious 
question, and worthy to be considered : for the better under- 
standing of which, 1 will make a brief digression of the nature 
of spirits. Andjalthoug-h the question be very obscure(accord- 
ing- to '" Postellusj^w// of controversie and amhignity, beyond 
thereach of humanecapacity — {fateor excedere vires intentionis 
meroe, saith ^ Austin ; I confess 1 am not able to understand it; 
finitum de infmto non potest statuere : we can sooner determine 
with Tully, {de nat. deorum,) quid non sint, quam quid sint ; our 
subtle schoolmen,Cardans, Scaligers, profound Thomists,jPra- 
castorianaetFerneliana acies, are weak, dry,obscure,defective, 
in these mysteries ; and all our quickest wits, as an owles eyes 
at the sun's light, wax dull, and are not sufficient to apprehend 
them) — yet, as in the rest, I will adventure to say something to 
this point. In former times, (as we read, Acts 23,) the Saddu- 
cees denied that there were any such spirits, devils, or angels. 
So did Galen the physician, the Peripateticks, even Aristotle 
himself, as Pomponatius stoutly maintains, and Scaliger in 
some sort grnnts; though Dandinus the Jesuite {com. in lib.^.de 
animd) stifly denies it. Snbstantice separata, and intelligences, 
arethesamewhichChristians call angels, and Platonists devils; 
for they name all the spirits, doemones. be they good or bad an- 
gels, as Julius Pollux {Onomnsticon, lib. 1. cap. 1.) observes. 
Epicures and atheists are of the same mind in general, because 
they never saw them. Plato, Plotinus, Porphyrins, Jamblicus, 
Proclus,(insisting in the steps ofTrisniegistus,Pythagorasand 
Socrates) make no doubt of it ; nor Stoicks, but that there are 
such spirits, though much erring from the truth. Concerning 
the first beginning of them, the '^ Thalmudists say that Adam 
had a wife called Lilis, before he married Eve, and of her he 
begat nothing but devils. The Turks '' Alcoran is alto^ciher as 
absurd and ridiculous in this point ; but the scripture informs 



» Lib. 1. c. 7. de orbis concordift. In nulla re msjor foit altercatio, major ohscan'tas, 
minor opinionum concordia quam de dxmoDlbus et snbstantiis separati-:. •'Lib. .3. 

de Trinit. Cap. 1. '' Pererius, in Genesin, lili. 4. in cap. 3. v. 23 J See 

Strozzius Cifo<jna, omnifarae Mag. lib. 2. c. 15. J. Aubanus, Bredenbailiius. 

VOL. I. N 



66 Nature of Devils. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

us Christians, how Lucifer, the chief of them, with his asso- 
ciates, '^ fell from heaven for his pride and ambition — created 
of God, placed in heaven, and sometimes an angel of light, 
now cast down into the lower aerial sublunary parts, or into 
hell, and delivered into chains of darkness (2 Pet. 2. 4.) to be 
kept unto damnatijon. 

J^ature of Devilt^^ There is a foolish opinion, which some 
hold, that they are tne souls of men departed; good and more 
noble were deified ; the baser groveled on the ground, or in 
the lower parts, and we«e devils ; the which, with Tertullian, 
Porphyrins the philosopher, M. Tyrius, ser. 27. maintains. 
These spirits, he ^ saith, ivhich we call angels and devils, are 
nought but souls of men departed, which, either through love 
and pity of their friends yet living, help and assist theniy 
or else persecute their enemies, whom they hated ; as Dido 
threatned to persecute ^Eneas : 

Omnibus umbra locis adero : dabis, improbe, poenas. 

They are (as others suppose)appointed by those higher pow- 
ers to keep men from tneir nativity, and to protect or punish 
them, as they see cause ; and are called boni and mali genii 
by the Romans — heroes, lares, if good, lemures or larvas, if bad 
— by the Stoicks, governours of countries, men, cities, saith 
•^Apuleius ; Deos appellant, qui ex hominum numero, juste ac 
prudenter vitce curriculo gubernato,pro numine, postea ab ho- 
minibus prcsditifanis et cceremoniis vulgo admittuntur, ut in 
Mgypto Osiris, Sfc. Prwstites Capella calls them ivhich pro- 
tected particular men as well as princes. Socrates had his 
dasmonium saturninum et igneum, which, of all spirit is best, 
ad sublimes congitationes animum erigentem, as the Platonists 
supposed; Plotinus his; and we Ciiristians, our assisting an- 
gel, as Andreas Victorellas, a copious writer of this subject, 
Ludovicus de La Cerda the Jesuite, in his voluminous tract de 
Angela Custode, Zanchiiis, and some divines think. But this 
absurd tenet of Tyrius, Proclus confutes at large in his book 
de Anima et D<smone. 

^ Psellus, a Christian and sometimes tutor (saith Cuspinian) 
to Michael Parapinatius, emperourof Greece, a great observer 
of the nature of devils, holds they are * corporeal, and have 
aerial bodies ; that they are mortal, live and dye (which Martia- 
nusCapella likewise maintains, butourChristian pholosophers 



'•' Aiigelus per superbiiim sepnratus a Deo, qui invcritate nonstctit, Austin. ^ Ni- 
hil aliud sunt Dajnioiies, quaiii nuriw aninui-, qua?, coipore deposito, priorem miserati 
vitam, co.^natis snccurrnnt, eoininoti inisfricordiA, &c. *'i)e Dto Socratis. 

d He lived 500 years since. * Apnleius, Spiritns aniiiialia sunt animo passibilia, 

mente rationalia, corpore aeria, tempore .sempiterna. 



Mem. I. Subs. 2] JS'ature of Demh. 57 

explode); that ' they are nourished, and have pxcrementsi ; that 
they feel pain,, if they he hnrt {\\h\c\\ Cardan confirms, and 
Scaliger justly laughs him to scorn for; .si pascantur acre, 
cur non pur/nant ob pnrioretn aera ? ^~c.) or stroken: and if 
their bodies be cut, with admirable celerity they come tooe- 
ther again. Austin [in Gen. lib. 3. Uh. arbit.) approves as 
much : nintata cam corpora in deterioi-em analitatem aeris 
spissioris: so doth Hieroni {Commeyit. in epii^t. ad Ephes. 
cap. 3.), Origen, Tertullian, Lactantius, and many ancient 
fathers of the church, that, in their fall, their bodies were 
changed into a more aerial and gross substance. Bodine 
lib. 4. Theatri Naturce,) and David Crusius {Hermeticce 
Philosophies lib 4. cap. 4 ) by several arguments proves an- 
gels and spirits to be corporeal : quidqnid continetur in loco^ 
corporemn est : at spiritus continetiir in loco . ergo. Sispiritns 
sunt quanti, erunt corporei: at sunt quanti, ergo. Sunt finiti^ 
ergo quanti, S)C. ^ Bodine goes further yet, and will have these 
anim(B separatee, c/enii, spirits, angels, devils, and so likewise 
souls of men departed, if corporeal (which he most eagerly 
contends), to be of some shape, and that absolutely round, like 
sun and moon, becaiise that is the most perfect form, qua; nihil 
habit asperitatis,nihilangulis incisum, nihil anfractibus involu- 
tum,nihileminens, sedinter corpora perf ecf a est perfectissimum : 
therefore all spirits are corporeal (he concludes), and in their 
proper shapes round. That they can assume other aerial bodies, 
all manner of shapes at their pleasures, appear in what likeness 
they will themselves ; that they are most swift in motion, can 
pass many miles in an instant, and so likewise '^transform bodies 
of others into what shape they please, and with admirable cele- 
rity remove them from place to place; (as the angel did Ha- 
bakkuk to Daniel,and as Philip the deacon was carried awayby 
thespirit,when he had baptised the eunuch ; so did Pythagoras 
and Apollonius remove themselves and others, with manysuch 
feats) that they can represent castles in the ayre, pallaces, 
armies, spectnuns, prodigies, and such strange objects to mor- 
tal mens eyes, '' cause smells, savours, &c. deceive all the 
senses ; most writers of this subject credibly believe ; and that 
they can foretell future events, and do many strange miracles 



»Nntniintar, et excreroenta habent; quod pnlsata doleant, solido pprciissa corpora. 
•' Lib. 4. Theol nat. fol. 535. cCyprianus, in Epist. Monies etiam et animalia 

transferri possnnt : as the devil did Christ to the top of the pinnacle ; and witches are 
often translated. See more in Stroz/ius Cicogna, lib .3. cap. 4. oninif. nia^. Peraera 
8'ibducere, et in sublime corpora ferre possunt. Biarimnns. — {\icussi dolent, et 
ijruntnr in conspicnos cineres. Agrippa, lib. 3. cap. de occul. Philos. <' Acrippa, 

de occull. Philos. :ib. 3. cap. 18. ^ W > 



58 Nature of Devils, [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

Junos imag-e spake to Camillus, and Fortunes statue to the 
Roman matrons, with many such. Zanchius,Bodine, Sponda- 
nus, and others, are of opinion that they cause a true metamor- 
phosis, (as Nebuchadnezar was really translated into a beast, 
Lots M'ife into a pillar of salt, Ulysses companions into hog's 
and dogs by Circes charms) turn themselves and others,as they 
do witches into cats, dogs, hares, crows, &c.(Strozzius Cicogna 
hath many examples, lib. 3. omnif. mag. cap 4. et 5. which he 
there confutes, as Austin likewise doth, de civ. Dei lib. IS.) — 
that they can be seen when and in what shape, and to whom 
they will (saith Psellus, Tametsi nil tale viderim, nee optem 
videre, though he himself never saw them nor desired it), and 
use sometimes carnal copulation (as elsewhere 1 shall ^ prove 
more at large) with women and men. Many will not believe 
they can be seen ; and, if any man shall say, swear, and stifly 
maintain, (though he be discreet and wise, judicious and learn- 
ed) that he hath seen them, they account him a timorous fool, 
a melancholydizard, a weak fellow, a dreamer, a sick or a mad 
man ,■ they contemn him, laugh him to scorn ; and yet Marcus, 
of his credit, told Psellus, that he had often seen them. And 
Leo Suavius, a Frenchman, (c 8. inCommentar.l. l.Paracelsi 
de vita louffd, out of some Platonists) will have the ayre to be 
as full of them as snow falling in the skies, and that they may 
be seen, and withal sets down the means how men may see 
them ; Si irreverberatis oculis^ sole splendente, versus caelum 
co?iti?iuaverint obtutus, ^c.and saith moreover he tryed it,(/)rcB- 
missorumjeci experimentum)Hnd it was true, that the Platonists 
said. Paracelsus confesseth that he saw them divers times and 
conferred with them ; and so doth Alexander ab ^ Alexandro, 
that he sojound it by experience, when as bej'ore he doubted of 
it. Many deny it, saith Lavater, {de spectris, part. 1. c. 2. et 
part 2. c. 1 I.) because they never saw themselves : But, as he 
reports at large all over his book, especially c. 19. part. 1, they 
are often seen and heard, and familiarly converse with men, as 
Lod. Vives assureth us, innumeral)le records, histories, and 
testimonies evince in all ages, times, places, and ^all travellers 
besides. In the West Indies, and our northern climes, 7iihil 
familiar ills quam in agris et urbibns spiritus videre, audirey 
qui vetent, jubeant, Sfc. Hieronynius {vita Panli), Basil {ser- 
40), Nicephorus, Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomenus, '^Jacobus 
Boissardus (in his tract despirituum apparitionibus), Petrus 



» Part. 3. sect. 2. Mem. Sabs. 1. Love Melancholy. •> Genial, dieriim 

Ita sibi visum et compertum, quuin prins, an essent, ambigeret — Fidem suam 

libeiet i Lib, 1. de verit. Fidei. Bcnzo, &c. ^ £,iij_ jg Divinatione 
et Magia. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] Nature of Devils. 59 

Loyerus (/. de spectris)W\evw^ (1, 1.) have infinite variety of 
sucli examples of apparitions of spirits, for him to read that 
farther doubts, to his ample satisfaction. One alone I will 
briefly insert. A noble man in Germany was sent ambassa- 
dour to the king of Sueden (for his name, the time, and such 
circumstances, I refer you to Boissardus, mine * author). 
After he had done his business, he sailed for Livonia, on set 
purpose to see those familiar spirits, which are there said to 
be conversant with men, and do their drudgery works. 
Amongst other matters, one of them told him where his wife 
was, in what room, in what cloatbes, what doing, and brought 
him a ring from her, which at his return, non sine omnium 
admiratiotie, he found to be true; and so believed that ever 
after, which before he doubted of. Cardan (/. 19. de subtil.) 
relates of his father Facius Cardan, that, after the accustomed 
solemnities, An. 1491, 13 August, he conjured up seven de- 
vils in Greek apparel, about 40 years of age, some ruddy of 
complexion, and some pale, as he thought : he asked them 
many questions; and they made ready answer, that they 
were aerial devils, that they lived and died as men did, save 
that they were far lono-er liv'd, (seven or eight hundred 
•'years,) and that they did as much excel men in dignity, as 
we do juments, and were as far excelled again of those that 
were above them : our ^governours and keepers they are more- 
over, (which '' Plato in Critias delivered of old,) and subordi- 
nate to one another : ut enini homo homini, sic dcemon dcemotii 
dominatur ; they rule themselves as well as us ; and the spirits 
of the meaner sort had commonly such offices, as we make 
horse-keepers, neat-herds, and the basest of us, overseers of 
our cattle; and that we can no more apprehend their natures 
and functions, than an horse a mans. They knew all thino-s, 
but might not reveal them to men; and ruled and domineered 
over us, as we do over our horses ; the best king amongst us, 
and the most generous spirits, were not comparable to the 
basest of them. Sometimes they did instruct men and com- 
municate their skill, reward and cherish, and sometimes again 
terrifie and punish, to keep them in awe, as they thought f^t; 
nihil magis cupientes (saith Lysius, Phjfs. Stdiconan) quam 
adorationem hominum. The same author Cardan in his Hy- 
perchen, out of the doctrine of Stoicks, will have some of these 
genii (for so he calls them) to be " desirous of mens company. 



Cap. 8. Transportavit in Livoniam, cnpiditate videndi, &c. •> Sic Hesiodus 
de Nymphis, >ivere dicit JO setateg phoenicum. r Castodes homi- 
num et provinciarum, &c. tanto meliores horainih.is, quanto hi brutis animantibus. 
rrajsides, pastores, gubernatores hominum, iit illi animalium. ^ Nalura fami- 
Jiares ut canes hominibus ; multi aversantur et abhorrent. 



60 Nature of' Spirits. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

very affable, and familiar with them, as dogs are ; others again 
to abhor as serpents, and care not for them. The same, belike, 
Trithemius calls igneos et svblunares, qui nnnquam demergunt 
ad irtjeriora, ant vix nlluni habent in terris commercium : "gene- 
rally they Jar excellmen in worthy as a man the meanest worm ; 
though some of them are inj'eriour to those of their own rank in 
worth, as the black guard in aprinces court, and to men again^ 
as some degenerate, base rational creatures are excelled of brute 
beasts 

That they are mortal, besides these testimonies of Cardan, 
Martianus, &c. many other divines and philosophers hold 
(post prolixum tempus moriuntur omnes), the '' Platonists, and 
some Rabbines, Porphyrins and Plutarch, as appears by that 
relation of Thamus : '^The great god Pan is dead: Apollo Py- 
thias ceased ; and so the rest. S. Hierome, in the life of 
Paul the eremite, tells a story how one of them appeared to 
S. Anthony in the wilderness, and told him as much. ''Paracel- 
sus, of our late writers, stifly maintains tliat they are mortal, 
live and die, as other creatures do. Zosimus (I. 2.) farther 
adds, that religion and policy dies and alters w itn them. The 
* Gentiles gods, he saith, were expelled by Constantine ; and, 
together with them, imperii Romanimajestas etj'ortuna inte- 
riit et jnojligata est ; the fortune and majesty of the Roman 
empire decayed and vanished; as that heathen in "^Minutius 
formerly bragged, when the Jews were overcome by the Ro- 
mans, the Jews god was likewise captivated by that of Rome ; 
and Rabsakeh to the Israelites,no god should deliver them out 
of the hands of the Assyrians. But these paradoxes of their 
power, corporeity, mortality, taking of shapes, transposing 
bodies, and carnal copulations, are sufficiently confuted by 
Zanch. (c. 10. /. 4) Pererius, (in his comment) and Tostatus 
(questions on the sixth of Gen.) Th. Aquin. S. Austin, Wie- 
rus, Th. Erastus, Delrio, {torn. 2. /. 2 qvcBst. 29.) Sebastian 
Michaelis {cap. 2. de spiritibns), D. Reinolds {lect. 47.) They 
may deceive the eyes of men, yet not take true bodies, or make 
a real metamorphosis : but as Cicogna proves at large, they 
&re^illusori(e et prcestigiatrices transj'ormationes (omnif'. mag. 
lib. 4. caj). 4), meer illusions and cozenings, like that tale of 
Pasetis obulus in Suidas, or that of Autolycus, Mercuries son, 



a Ab homine plus distant, qnam homo ab ignol)ilissimo verna ; et taman quidam ex 
his ab hominibus siiperantur, ut homines a feris, &c. *> Cibo et potu uti, et 

Venere cum liominibus, ac tandem mori Cicogna, I. part lib. 2. c. 3. ^Plutarch, 
de defect, oraciilornni. ''Lib. de Zilphis et Pygmwis. ^ Dii gentium a 

Constantino profligati sunt, &c. f Octavian. dial. Judieorum deum fuisse Romano- 

rum numiiiibus una cum gente capiivum. S Omnia spiritibus plena ; et ex eorum 

Concordia et discordia omnes boni et mali efTectus pronianant, omnia humana reguntur. 
Paradox, veterum, de quo Cicogna, omnif. mag. I 2. c 3. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. Gl 

that dwelt in Parnassus, who got so much treasure by cozen- 
age and stealth. His father Mercury, because he could leave 
him no wealth, taught him many fine tricks to get means ; "for 
he could drive away mens cattel, and, if any pursued him, 
turn them into what shapes he would, and so did mightily en- 
rich himself; hoc aMn maximam prcedam est adsequutus. 
This, no doubt, is as true as the rest ; yet thus much in ge- 
neral, Thomas, Durand, and others grant, that they have un- 
derstanding far beyond men, can probably conjecture, and 
^ foretell many things : they can cause and cure most diseases, 
deceive our senses ; they have excellent skill in all arts and 
sciences; and that the most illiterate devil is qnovis homine 
scientior, as "^ Cicogna maintains out of others. They know 
the vertues of herbs, plants, stones, minerals, &c. of all crea-^ 
lures, birds, beasts, the four elements, stars, planets ; can aptly 
apply and make use of them as they see good, perceiving the 
causes of all meteors, and the like; Dant se coloribns, (as 
** Austin hath it,) accovimodttnt sejiguris, adhccrent sonis, suh- 
jiciunt se odoribus, irif'nndunt se saporibus, omnes sensns, etiam 
ipsam intellif/entiam, dcemones fallunt : they deceive all our 
senses, even our understanding" itself, at once. ''They can 
produce miraculous alterations in the ayre, and most wonder- 
ful effects, conquer armies, give victories ; help, further, hurt, 
cross, and alter humane attempts and projects, {Dei permissu) 
as they see good themselves. ^Vhen Charles the great in- 
tended to make a channel betwixt the Rhine and Danubius, 
look, what his workmen did in the day, these spirits flung 
down in the night : ut conaturex desisteret, pervicere. Such 
featscan they do. But that which Bodine (/. 4. Theat. nat.) 
thinks, (following- Tyrius belike and the Platonists) they can 
tell the secrets of a mans iieart, ant cogitationes^ honmmm, is 
most false : his reasons are weak, and sufficiently confuted by 
Zanch. {lib. 4. cap. 9.), Hierom, {lib. 2. com. in Mat. ad 
cap. 15.) Athanasius {qucest. "21 . ad Antiockum Priiicipem), 
and others. 

Orders.^ As for those orders of good and bad devils — which 
the Platonists hold, is altogether erroneous; andthoseEthnicks 



i'Oves, quaa abacturus erat, in qnascnnque formas vertebat. Pausanias, Hyginns. 
*> Austin, in 1. 2. de Gen. a literam, cap. 17. Partim quia snbtilioris sensns acimiine, 
partim scientia callidiore vigent, et experientia propter niaRnani longitudinem vitae, 
partim ab angelis discunt, &c. ^Lib. .3. oninif. mag. cap 3. Lib. 18. quaest. 

eQuum tanta sit et tani profunda spirituum scientia, mirnm non est tot tantasque res 
visu admirabiles ab ipsis patrari, et quidem rerum naturaliuni ope. quas niulto melius 
intelligunt, multoque pentius suis locis et teniporibus applicare uorunt qua m homo. 
Cicogna. ' Aventinus. Quidquid interdiu exhauriebatur, nocte explebatur. 

Inde pavefacti curalore.s, &c. 



62 Nature of SpiAts. [Part. 1 . Sec. 2. 

honi anfl mali gpnii are to be exploded. These heathen writ- 
ers aofree not in this point among themselves, as Dandinus 
notes ; an shit ^ mail, nnn conveniunt ; some will have all spirits 
jTOod or bad to us by a mistake ; as, if an oxe or horse could 
discourse, he would say the butcher was his enemy because he 
killed him, the grasier his friend because he fed him ; an hunter 
preserves and yet kills his game; and is hated nevertheless 
of his game ; nee piseatorem piscis amare potest, Sf-c. But 
Jamblicus,Psell uSjPIutarch, and most Platonists, acknowledge 
bad, et ah eorum mahjiciis cavenduni, for they are enemies of 
mankind; and this Plato learned in Egypt, that they quar- 
relled with Jupiter, ''and were driven by him down to hell. 
That which <^Apuleius, Xenophon, and Plato contend of So- 
crates dcemonium, is most absurd ; that which Plotinus of his, 
that he had likewise Deum pro dcemomo ; and that which Por- 
phyry concludes of them all in general, if they be iieglected 
in their sacrifice, they are angry ; nay more, as Cardan in his 
Hyperchen, will, they feed on mens souls : elementa sunt 
plantis elementum, animalibus plantce, hominibus animaliay 
ernnt et homines, aliis, non antem diis ; nimis enim. remota est 
eorum natura a nostra ; qua propter dwmonihus : and so, be- 
like, that we have so many battles fought in all ages, coun- 
tries, is to make them a feast, and rheir sole delight But to 
return to that 1 said before — if displeased, they fret and chafe, 
(for they feed, belike, on the souls of beasts, as we do on 
their bodies) and send many plagues ainongstus; but, if 
pleased, then they do much good ; is as vain as the rest, and 
confuted by Austin (/. 9. c. 8. de Civ. Dei,) Euseb. (/, 4. 
prcepar. Evang. c. 6) and others. Yet thus much I find, 
that our school-men and other •* divines make nine kinds of 
bad spirits, as Dionysius hath done of angels. In the first 
rank, are those false gods of the Gentiles, which were adored 
heretofore in several idols, and gave oracles at Delphos, and 
elsewhere ; whose prince is Beelzebub. The second rank 
is of lyars and sequivocators, as Apollo Pythius, and the 
like. The third are those vessels of anger, inventors of all 
mischief; as that Theutus in Plato; Esay calls them "^vessels 
of fury; their prince is Belial. The fourth are malicious re- 
vengingdevils; and their prince is Asmodaeus. The fifth kind 
are cozeners, such as belong to magicians and witches; their 
prince is Satau. The sixth are those aerial devils, that 



aJnlib. 2, de anima, text 29. Honieriis indiscriminatim omnes spiritus dseraones 
vocat. ''A Jove ad inferos pulsi, &c. cDe Deo Socratis. Adest 

milii divina sorte djenioniumquoddam, aprinia pueritia me sequutnin ; sajpe dissuadet ; 
impellit nonniin(iiiam, instar vocis. Plato. d Agrippa, lib. 3. de occul. ph. c. 18» 

Zanch. Pictorius, Pererius, Cicogna^ 1. 3. cap. 1. »" Vasa iraej c. 13. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] J^ature of Spirits. 63 

^ corrupt the aire, and cause plagues, thunders, fires, &c. 
spoken of in the Apocalyps, and Paul to the Ephesians names 
them the princes of the ayre ; Meresin is their prince. The 
seventh is a destroyer, captain of the Furies, causing wars, 
tumults, combustion, uproars, mentioned in the Apocalyps, 
and called Abaddon. The eight is that accusing or calum- 
niating' devil, whom the Greeks call A;afo^o?, that drives men 
to despair. The ninth are those tempters in several kinds ; 
and their prince is Mammon. Psellus makes six kinds, yet 
none above the moon. Wierus, in his Psendomonarchid 
Dcemonis, out of an old book, makes many more divisions 
and subordinations, with their several names, numbers, offices, 
&c. but Gazseus (cited by '' Lipsius) will have all places full of 
angelsjspirits, and devils,above and beneath the moon,8etheriaI 
and aerial,which Austin cites out ofForro, /. 7. deCic.Dei, c. 6. 
The celestial devils above, and aerial beneath, or as ''some 
will, gods above, semidei or half gods beneath, lares, heroes, 
f/enii, which clime higher, if they lived well (as the Stoicks 
held), but grovel on the ground, as they were baser in their 
lives, nearer to the earth ; and are 7nanes, lemnres, lamicB, ^-c. 
^ They will have no place void, but all full of spirits, devils, or 
some other inhabitants ; Plennm caelum, aer, aqua, terra, et 
omnia sub terra, saith Gazaeus ; though Anthony Kusca (in his 
book de InJ'erno, lib. 5. cap. 7.) would confine them to the 
middle region, yet they w ill have them every where ; ^ not so 
much as an hair breadth empty in heaven, earth, or waters, 
above or under the earth. The air is not so full of flies in 
summer, as it is at all times of invisible devils : this *^ Paracelsus 
stifly maintains, and that they have every one their several 
chaos; others will have infinite Morlds, and each world his 
peculiar spirits, gods, angels, and devils, to govern and 
punish it. 

Singula p nonnulli credunt quoque sidera posse 
Dici orbes : terramque appellant sidus opacum, 
Cui minimus divftm prsesit. 

^ Gregorius Tholosanus makes seven kinds of setherial 
spirits or angels, according to the number of the seven planets. 
Saturnine, Jovial, Martial, &c- of which Cardan discourseth, 
lib. 20 de subtil, he calls them substantias primas ; Olympicos 
dceviones, Trithemius, qxii proesunt Zodiaco, ^c. and will 



a Quibiis datum est nocere'terrae et mari, &c. b Physiol Stoicornm e Senec. 

lib. 1. cap. 28. '' Usque ad Junam animas esse sethereas, vo«arique heroas, 

lares, genios. "^ -Mart. Capella. e ^fihil vacuum ab his, ubi vel capillam 

in aerem vel aquam jacias. ( Lib. de Zilp. • Palingenius. h Lib. 7. 

cap. 34. et 5. Syntax, art. mirab. 



g4 J^ature of Spirits, [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

have them to be good angels above, devils beneath the moon ; 
their several names and offices he there sets down, and (which 
Dionysius, of angels) w ill have several spirits for several coun- 
treys, men, offices, &c. which live about them, and as so many 
assisting powers, cause their operations ; will have, in a word, 
innumerable, and as many of them as there be stars in the 
skies. '^ Marcilius Ficinus seems to second this opinion, out 
of Plato, or from himself, I know not, (still ruling their in- 
feriours, as they do those under them again, all subordinate ; 
and the nearest to the earth rule us ; whom we subdivide into 
o-ood and bad angels, call gods ordevils, astheyhelp or hurt us, 
and so adore, love or hate) but it is most likely from Plato, for 
he, relyin"" wholly on Socrates,quemmori potius qiiammentiri 
volnisse scribit, out of Socrates authority alone, made nine 
kinds of them : which opinion, belike, Socrates took from 
Pythagoras, and he from Trismegistus, he from Zoroaster — 
first, God, secondly, ideae, thirdly, intelligences, fourthly, 
arch-angels, fifthly, angels, sixthly, devils, seventhly, heroes, 
eio-hthly, principalities, ninthly, princes ; of which some were 
absolutely gootl, as gods, some bad, some indifferent inter 
deos et homines, as heroes and damones, which ruled men, 
and were called genii, or (as ^ Proclus and Jamblicus will) the 
middle betwixt God and men, principalities and princes, 
which commanded and swayed kings and countreys,and had 
places in the sphears perhaps; for, as every sphear is higher, 
so hath it more excellent inhabitants ; which, belike, is that 
Galilgeus a Gaiiiseo and Kepler aims at in his Nuncio Siderio, 
when he will have '^ Saturnine and Jovial inhabitants, and 
which Tycho Brahe doth in some sort touch or insinuate in 
one of his epistles : but these things ^ Zanchius justly ex- 
plodes, cap. 3 lih. 4, P. Martyr, in 4. Sam. 2S. 

So that according to these men, the number of getherial 
spirits must needs be infinite : for if that be true that some of 
our mathematicians say, that if a stone could fall from the 
starry heaven, or eighth sphear, and should pass every hour an 
hundred miles, it would be sixty-five years, or more, before it 
would come to the ground, by reason of the great distance of 
heaven from earth, which contains (as some say) one hundred 
and seventy millions eight hundred and three miles, — besides 
those other heavens, (whether they be crystalline or watery, 
which Maginus adds) which perad venture hold as much more, 



a Comment, in dial. Plat de amore, c. .5. Ut sphaera qusslibet super nos, ita prae- 
stantiores habet habitatores sua; sphserae ronsortes, ut habet nostra. *> LiS. de 

aninid et da-mone. Medii inter deos et homines, divina ad nos, et nostra sequaliter 
ad deos fenmt. ^ Saturninas et Joviales accolas. djn loca detrusi sunt 

infra coelestes orbes, in aerem scilicet et.infra, iibi jndiciogeneraii reservantur. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] JWiture of Devils. 65 

— how mnny such spirits may it contain ? And yet, for all 
this •* Thomas, Al'oertus, and most, hold that there be far more 
angels than devils. 

Suhlnnanj devils, and their kinds.] But, be they more or 
less, qnod svpra nos, nihil ad nos. Howsoever, as Martianus 
foolishly supposeth, celherii dccmones non curant res humnnas ; 
they care not for us, do not attend our actions, or look for 
us ; those aetherial spirits have other worlds to reign in, belike, 
or business to follow. We are only now to speak in brief of 
these sublunary spirits or devils. For the rest, our divines 
determine that the devil hath no power over stars, or heavens. 
^ Carmimhus ccelo possnnt deducere Innam, SjC. Those are 
poetical fictions ; and that they can ""sisiere aquam Jtmiis^ et 
vertere sidera retro, 6f-c. as Canidia in Horace, 'tis all false. 
''They are confined, until the day of judgement, to this sub- 
lunary world, and can work no further than the four elements, 
and as God permits them. Wherefore, of these sublunary 
devils, though others divide them oihernise according to their 
several places and offices, Psellus makes six kinds, fiery, 
aerial, terrestrial, watery, and subterranean devils, besides 
those faires, satyrs, nymph, &c. 

Fiery spirits or deviisare such asconunonly work by blazin'y 
stars, firedrakes, or icpiesfatvi, w hich lead njen often in fiii- 
mina, ant pra^cipitia, saith Bodine {lib. 2. Theat. natiircc, 
fol. 221.) Quos, inquit, arcere si volunt viatores, clard voce 
Denm appellare, aut prond facie terrain contimjente adorare 
oportet : et hoc amuletnm majorihns tiostris accept inn f err e de- 
bemus, Sfc. Likewise they counterfeit suns and moons, stars 
oftentimes, and sit on ship masts ; in navicfiormn summitatihus 
visimtnr ; and are called Discnri (as Eusebius, /. contra Philo- 
sophos, c. 48, informeth us, out of the authority of Zeno- 
phanes) ; or little clouds, ad motnm nescio qnem volantes ; 
which neverappear, saith Cardan, but they signifie some mis- 
chief or other to come unto men, though some again will have 
them to portend good, and victory to that side they come 
towards in sea fights; St. Elmes fires they commonly call them, 
and they do likely appear after a sea storm. Radzivilius, 
the Polonian duke, calls this apparition Sancti Germani 
sidus ; and saith moreover, that he saw t!ie same after in a 
storm, as he was sayling, 1582, from Alexandria to Rhodes. 
Our stories are full of such apparations in all kinds. Some 
think they keep their residence in that Hecla mountain in 

a Q. 36. art. 9. h VirR. 8. Ec. <• /En. 4. ^ Austin. Hoc dixi, ne 

quis existimet liabitare ibi mala dstmonia, nbi solem et liinain et stellas Deus ordiovit. 
Et alibi: nemo arl>itraretnr dEemonem coelis liabitare cum anp;«'lis .suis, unde lap.snm 
crediniiis. Id. Zauch. I. 4. c. .3. de angel malis. Pereriiis, in tJen. cap. G. lib. 8. in 
ver. 2. 



66 Digression of Spirits. [Part. J. Sec. 2. 

Island, i^tna in Sicily, Lipara, Vesuvius, &c. These devils 
were worshipped heretofore by that superstitious «:t^^e/:x,avT£;a, 
and the like. 

Aerial spirits or de^vils are such as keep quarter, most part, 
in the ^ air, cause many tempests, thunder, and lightnings, 
tear oaks, fire steeples, houses, strike men and beasts, make it 
rain stones (as in Livies time), wooll, frogs, &c. counterfeit 
armies in the air, strange noises, swords, &c.asat Vienna before 
the coming of the Turks, and many times in Rome, as Scheret- 
zius, /. de sped. c. 1 part. I. Lavater, de spect. part. I.e. 17, 
Juliu« Obsequens, an old Roman, in his book of prodigies, ah 
urb. cond. 505, '' Machiavel hath illustrated by many examples, 
and Josephusin his book de belloJudiaco,hefore the destruction 
of Jerusalem. All which Guil. Postallus (in his first book, c. 7. 
de orbis concordid) useth as an effectual argument (as indeed 
it is) to perswade them that will not believe there be spirits or 
devils. They cause whirlwinds on a sudden, and tempestuous 
storms ; which though our meteorologists generally refer to 
natural causes, yet I am of Bodines mind {Theat Nat. I. 2.) 
they are more often caused by those aerial devils, in their se- 
veral quarters ; for tempestatibus se ingei wit, seiith '^Rich. Ar- 
gentine ; as when a desperate man makes away with himself, 
which by hanging or drowning they frequently do, (asKorn- 
mannus observes, de mirac. mort. part. 7- c. 76) tripiidium 
agentes, dancing and rejoicing at the death of a sinner. These 
can corrupt the air, and cause plagues, sickness, storms, ship- 
wrecks, fires, inundations. At Mons Draconis in Italy, there is 
a most memorable example in ''JovianusPontanus :;and nothing 
so familiar (if we may believe those relations of Saxo Gramma- 
ticus, Olaus Magnus, Damianus A. Goes) as for witches and 
sorcerers, in Lapland, Lithuania, and all over Scandia, to sell 
winds to marriners, and cause tempests ; which Marcus Paulus 
the Venetian relates likewise of the Tartars. These kind of 
devils are much * delighted in sacrifices, (saith Porphyry) 
held all the world in awe, and had several names, idols, 
sacrifices in Rome, Greece, ^Egypt, and at this day tyran- 
nize over, and deceive, those Ethnicks and Indians, being 
adored and worshipped for '^gods: for the Gentiles gods 
were devils (as ^ Trisniegistus confesseth in his Asclepius; 
and he himself could make them come to their images by 
magick spells), and are now as much respected by our 

aDomus diiunnt, muros, dejiciunt, iramiscent se turbinibus et procellis et pulverem 
instar columnae evehunt. Cicogna. I. 5. c. 5. b Quajgt. jn Liy. ^ He 

praestigiis daemonum, c. 16. Convelli culmina videmus. prostemi sata, &c. <*De 

bello Neapolitano, lib. 5. e Suffitibus g'audent. Idem Just. Mart. Apol. pro 

Christianis. f In Dei imitationem, saith Eusebius. B Dii gentium 

dasmouia^ &c. ego in eorum statuas pellexi. 



Memb. 1. Subs. 2.] Digression of' Spirits. 67 

papists (saith ^ Pictorius) vvder the name of saints. These 
are they which, Cardan thinks, desire so much carnal copu- 
lation with M'itches Incuhi and Succuhi), transform bodies, 
and are so very cold, if they be touched ; and that serve 
magicians. His father had one of them, (}" as he is not 
ashamed to relate) an aerial devil, bound to him for twenty 
and eight years. As Ag-rippas dog had a devil tyed to his col- 
ler, some think that Paracelsus (or else Erastus belies him) 
had one confined to his sword pummel ; others wear them in 
rings, &c. Jannes and Jambres did many things of old by 
their help, Simon Magus, Cinops, ApoUonius Tyaneus, Jam- 
blicus, and Trithemius of late, that shewed Maximilian the 
emperour his >vife, after she was dead ; et verrucam in collo 
ej'ns (saith ''Godolman), so much as the wart in her neck. 
Delrio, (fib. 2.) hath divers examples of their feats; Cicogna, 
lib. 3. cap. 3, and Wierus in his book de proestig. dcBmonum^ 
Boissardus, de niagis et veneficis. 

Water-devils are those wff?arfes or water nymphs which have 
been heretofore conversantabout waters and rivers. The water 
(as '^Paracelsus thinks) is their chaos, wherein they live. Some 
call Xhem fairies, and say that Habundia is their queen. These 
cause inundations, many times shipwracks, and deceive men 
divers wayes, as Succubce, or otherwise, appearing- most part 
(saith Trithemius) in Momens shapes. Paracelsus hath several 
stories of them that have lived and been married to mortal 
men, and so continued for certain years with them, and 
after, upon some dislike, have forsaken them. Such a one 
as Eg-eria, with whom Numa was so familiar, Diana, Ceres 
&c. ^Olaus ]Magnushath a long' narration of one Hotherus, a 
king of Sweden, that, having- lost his company as he was hunt- 
ing- one day met with these water nymphs or fairies, and was 
feasted by them ; and Hector Bocthius, of Macbeth and Banco, 
two Scotisii lords, that, as they were wandering- in woods, had 
their fortunes told them by three strange women. To these 
heretofore they did use to sacrifice, by that v^^yi.x^nu'x, or divi- 
nation by waters. 

Terrestrial devils are those ^ lares, genii ^Jennies, satyrs, 
s M ood-nyniphs, foliots, fairies, Robin GoodJ'ellous, Trnlli, ^-c. 
which as they are most conversant with men, so they do 
them most harm. Some think it was they alone that kept the 
heathen people in awe of old, and had so many idols and 



» Et nunc siih divorum nomine coluntnr a pontificiis. b Lib. 11. de rerum 

Tar. r Lib. 3. rap. 3. de niagis et veneficis, &.C. "^ Lib. de Zilphis. 

•'Lib. 3. f Pro salute hominiuiLcxrubare se simulant; sed in eoram uerniciem 

omnia moliuntur. Aust. eDrjades, Oriadcs, Hamadryades. 



68 Digression of' Spirits. [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

temples erected to them. Of this range was Dag-on among-st 
the Philistins, Bel amongst tlie Babylonians, Astartes amongst 
the Sidonians, Baal amongst the Samaritans, Isis and Osiris 
amoiiost the .Egyptians, &c. Some put our '^ fairies into this 
rank, which have been in former times adored with much su- 
perstition, with sweeping- their houses, and setting of a pail of 
clean water, good victuals, and the like; and then they should 
not be pinched, but find money in their shoes, and be for- 
tunate in their enterprizes. These are they that dance on 
heaths and greens, as ^ Lavater thinks with Trithemius, and, 
as'^Olaus Magnus adds, leave t'nat green circle, which we 
commonly find in plain fields, which others hold to proceed 
from a meteor falling", or some accidental rankness of the 
ground ; so nature sports herself. They are sometimes seen by 
old women and children. Hieron. Pauli, in his description 
of the city of Bereino in Spain, relates how they have been 
familiarly seen near that town, about fountains and hills : Jion- 
iiunquam (saith Trithemius) in sua lafihnia montinin simpli- 
ciores homines ducmit, stnpenda imrantihus ostendentes mira- 
cula, molarum sonitns, spectacnla, Sj-c. Giraldus Canibrensis 
gives instance in a monk of Wales that was so deluded, '^Pa- 
racelsus reckons up many places in Germany, where they do 
usually walk in little coats, soine two foot long'. A bigger 
kind there is of them, called with us hohaohlius, and Robin 
GoodJ'ellorvs, that would in those superstitious times, grind 
corn for a mess of milk, cut wood, or do any manner of 
drudgery work. They would mend old irons in those iEolian 
isles of Lipara, in former ages, and have been often seen and 
heard. "Tholosanus calls them Trnllosand Gefulos,cind saith 
that in his dayes they were connnon in many places of France. 
Dithmarus Bleskenius, in his description of Island, reports for 
a certainty, that almost in every family they have yet some such 
familiar spirits; and Felix Malleolus, iu !iis book de crudel. 
dcemon. affirms as much, that these Trolii, or Telchines, are 
very common in Norway, '^ and seen to do drudgery work; 
to draw water, saith Wierus, [lib 1. cap. 22.) dress meat, or 
any such thing-. Another sort of these there are, Avhich fre- 
quent forlorn ? houses, which the Italians caW JoUots, most 
part innoxious, ^' Cardan holds : They will make strange 



a Elvas Olans vocat. lib. 3. >> Part. 1. cap. 19. <= Lib. 3. cap. 11. El- 

vanim choreas Olaus lib. 3. vocal. Saltum adeo profunde in terras imprimunt, nt 
locus insigni deinceps virore orbicularis sit, et granien non pereat. *• Lib. de 

Zilph. et Pygma;is, Olaus, 1. 3. f Lib. 7. cap. 14. Qui et in famulitio viris et 

feminis inserviunt, conclavia scopis purgant, patinas mnndant, ligna portant, equos 
curant, &c. f Ad ministeria utuntur. S Where treasure is hid (as some 

think), or some murder, or such like villany committed. '' Lib. 16. de rerum 

varietat. 



Mem. I. Subs. 2.] f Digression of Spirits. 69 

noises in the night, howl sometimes pitrifuHy, and then 
laugh again, oavse great flames atid sudden liahtslflinrf stones, 
rattle chains, shave men, open doors, and shvt them, fiinn 
doivn platters, stools, chests, sometimes appear in the lihenesse 
of hares, crows, black dogs, S^-c. of which read =^ Pet. Thyraeus 
the Jesuit (in his Tract 'de locis infestis, part. 1 et cap. 4.) 
who will have them to be devil's, or the souls of damned 
men that seek revenge, or else souls out of purgatory that 
seek e.-ise. For such examples, peruse ^ .Sig !>iinundus Scheret- 
zius, lib. de spectris, part. I. c 1. which lie saith he took out 
of Luther most part ; there be many instances. ^Plinius Secun- 
dus remembers such a house at Athens, which Athenodorus 
the philosopher hired, which no nmn durst inhabit for fear of 
devils. Austin (de Civ. Dei, lib. 22 cap. 8.) relates as much 
o{ Hesperms the tribunes house at Zubeda near their city of 
Hippo, vexed with evil spirits to his great hinderance ; cnm 
afflictione animalinm et servorum. suorwn. Many such in- 
stances are to be read in Niderius, Formicar. lib. 5. cap. 1 9. 3 
Src Whether I may call these Zim and Othim, which Isay 
cap. 13. 21. speaks of, I make a doubt. See more of these 
m the said Scheretz. lib. 1. de sped. cap. 4 : he is full of ex- 
amples. These kind of devils many times appear to men 
and affright them out of their wits, sometimes walking- at 
'^ noon-day, sometimes at nights, counterfeiting dead mens 
ghosts, as that of (Jalignla, which (saith Suetonius) was seen 
Jo walkm Lavinias garden : where his body was buried, spirits 
haunted, and the house wliere he dyed : «= Nulla nox sine ter- 
rors transacta, donee incendio consumpta ; every nio-ht this 
bapned, there was no quietness, till the house was Burned. 
About Hecla in Island, ghosts conuiionly walk, animus niorl 
tuorum simuiantes, saith Jo. Anan. lib. 3. de nat deem 
Olaus, lib. 2. cap. 2. Natal. Taliopid. lib. de apparit. spir 
-Koj-mannus, de mirac. mort.part. 1. cap. 44. Such sights are 
frequently seen circa sepnlcra et monasteria, saill?Lavat 
hb. I. cap. 19. in monasteries and about church-yards, loca 
paludinosa, ampla a;dijicia, solitaria, et cmle honiimim no- 
tata, cVc Thyreus adds, nbi gravins peccatum est commis- 
sum, impn, paupermn oppressores, et nequiter insiqnes habi- 
tant. These spirits often forerell mens deaths, by several 
signs, as knocking, groanings, &c. though Rich. Aroen- 



»Vel sp.ntns snnt lu.jusmod. damnaton.m, vel e purpatorio, vel ipsi da-mones 
;, , "yuKlam lemures doint-sticis instnimentis noctu l.sdunt : i.atinas ollas' 

cantharas. et aha vasa. rfej.c.nt; et qui.lam voces e.nittunt, ejulant, riLum e„ ittunt' 
^c. ut canes nig:n, feles, varus ionms, &c. c Epist. 1. 7. d Meridionalf.« 

d^mones Cicoprna r«lls them, or Ahustores, I. .3. cap. 9. - Sueton c 69 in S 

liguh\. fStrozzius Cicogna. iib. \i. ...ap. cap. 5 ^^' 



a 



70 Digression of' Spirits. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

tine, c. 18. de prcesfigiis dcemojium, will ascribe these pre- 
dictions to good angels, out of the authority of Ficinus and 
others ; prodigia in obitu principum scepius contingunt, ^-c. as, 
in the Lateran church in "^ Rome, the popes deaths are fore- 
told by Sylvesters tomb. Near Rupes Nova in Finland, in the " 
kingdom of Sweden, there is a lake, in which, before the go- 
vernour of the castles dyes, a spectrum^ in the habit of Arion 
with his harp, appears, and makes excellent musick, like those 
blocks in Cheshire, which, (they say) presage death to the 
master of the family ; or that '' oak in Lanthandran park in 
Cornwall, which foreshews as much. Many families in Eu- 
rope are so put in mind of their last, by such predictions, and 
many men are forewarned (if we may believe Paracelsus) by 
familiar spirits, in divers shapes, as cocks, crows, owls, which 
often hover about sick mens chambers, vel quia morientiiim 
J'ceditatem sentiunt, as '^Baracellus conjectures, et ideo super 
tectum infirmorum crocitant, because they smell a corse ; or 
for that (^ Bernardinus de Bustis thinketh) God permits the 
devil to appear in the form of crows, and such like creatures, 
to scare such as live wickedly here on earth. A little before 
Tullies death, (saith Plutarch) the crows made a mighty noise 
about him ; tumultuose perstrepentes, they pulled the pillow 
from under his head. Rob. Gaguinus, hist. Franc, lib. 8. 
telleth such another wonderful story at the death of Jo- 
hannes de Monteforti, a French lord, anno 1345. Tanta 
corvorum multitudo cedibus morientis insedit, qnantam esse in 
Gallia nemo judic asset. Such prodigies are very frequent in 
authors. See more of these in the said Lavater, Thyreus, de 
locis infes/is, part. 3. cap. 58, Pictorius, Delrio, Cicogna, 
lib. 3. cap. D. Necromancers take upon them to raise and lay 
them at their pleasures ; and so likewise those which Mizal- 
dus calls ./Imbulones, that walk about midnight on great 
heaths and desart places, which (saith •= Lavater) draw men out 
of the ivaif, and lead them all night a bg-wag, or quite bar 
them of tlieir icag. These have several names in several 
places; we commonly call them pucks. In the desarts of 
Lop in Asia, such illusions of walking spirits are often per- 
ceived, as you may read in M. Paulus the Venetian his travels. 
If one lose his company by chance, these devils will call him 
by his name, and counterfeit voices of his companions to 
seduce him. Hieronym. Pauli, in his book of the hills of 



a IJem. c. 18. bM. Cary. Survey of Cornwall, lib. 2. fol 140. « Horfo 

Geniali, fol. 137. dPart. 1. c. 19. Abdncunt eos a recla via, et viam iter fa- 

cientibiis intercludiint. e Lib 1. cap. 44. Daemonuni cernuntiir et audiuntur 

ibi freqiientes illiisiones ; unde viatoribus caveudum, lie se dissocient, aut a tergo 
maneaut ; voces eniui fiuguut socioruiu,ut a recto itinere abducant, &c. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 2.] Dir/reitsion of Spirits, 71 

Spain, relates of a great * mount in Cantabria, where such 
spectnims are to be seen. Lavatcr and Cicog-na have variety of 
examples of spirits and walking- devils in this kind. Some- 
times they sit by the high-way side, to give men falls, and make 
their horses stumble and start as they ride, (if you will believe 
the relation of that holy man Ketellus, ''in Nubrigensis,) that 
had an especial grace to see devils, gratiam divinitns collatam, 
and talk with them, et impnvidus cum spiritihus sermoneni 
miscere, without offence : and if a man curse or spur his horse 
for stumbling, they do heartily rejoyce at it ; with many such 
pretty feats. 

Subterranean devils are as common as the rest, and do as 
much harm. Olaus 3Iagnus {lib. 6. cap. 19) makes six 
kinds of them, some bigger, some less. These (saith " Mun- 
ster) are commonly seen about mines of metals, ar.d are some 
of them, noxious; some again do no harm. The metal-men 
in many places account it good luck, a sign of treasure and rich 
ore, when they see them. Georgius Agricola (in his book de 
siibterraneis animantibus, cap. 37) reckons two more notable 
kinds of them, which he calls '^Gcetuli and Cobali ; both are 
cloathed after the manner of metal-men, and icill many times 
imitate their works. Their office, as Pictorius and Paracelsus 
think, is to keep treasure in the earth, that it be not all at once 
revealed ; and, besides, * Cicogna avcrrs. that they are the 
frequent causes of those horrible earth-quakes, which often 
swallow vp, not only houses but ichole ishmds and cities : in 
his third book, cap. 11, he gives many instances. 

The last are conversant about the center of the earth, to 
torture the souls of damned men to the day of judgement. 
Their egress and regress some suppose to be about .Etna, 
Lipara, Mons Hecla in Island, Vesuvius, Terra del Fuego, Sec. 
because many shreeks and fearful ciyes are continually heard 
thereabouts, and familiar apparitions of dead men, ghosts, and 
goblms. 

Their offices, operations, study.'] Thus the devil reigns, in a 
thousand severed shapes, as a roariny lyon, still seeks whom 
he may devour^ (I Pet. 5.) by earth, sea, land, air, as 
yet unconfined, though '^some will have his proper place the 
air — all that place betwixt us and the moon, for tliem that 



» Mons stf rilis et nivosus, iibi intempesta nocte umbrae apparent. ^ Lib. 2. 

cap. 21. Offendicula faciunt transeuutibus in via ; et petulanter rident, cum vel ho- 
niiuem vel jumentum ejus pedes atterere faciant, et maxime si homo maledictis et cal- 
caribus stevita. <^ln cosmogr. ^i Vestiti more metallicoriiiii, gestus et 

opera eorum imitantur. «• Immisso in terra; oarceres vento, horribiles terra; niotus 

efficiunt, quibus saepe non domus mode et turres, sed civitates iotegne et insalae, 
haustae sunt. f Hieron. in 3 Ephes. Idem Michaelis c. 4. de spiritibus. Idem 

Thyreus de locis infestis. 

VOL. 1 O 



72 Digression of Spirits. [Part 1. Sec. 2, 

transgressed the least, and hell for the wickedest of them ; luc 
veliit in carcere ad Jinem mundi, tunc hi locum Jiinestiorem 
trudendi, as Austin holds, de Civif. Dei,c. 22. lib. 14. cap. S. 
et 23. But, be where he will, he rageth where he may ; to com- 
fort himself (as ^ Lactantius thinks) with other mens falls, 
he labours all he can to bring- them into the same pit of per- 
dition Avith him ; for '' mens miseries, calamities^ and mines 
are the devils banqueting dishes. By many temptations and 
several engines, he seeks to captivate our souls. The lord of 
lyes, saitli •^ Austin ; as he ^vas deceived himself he seeks to 
deceive others ; the ring-leader to all naughtiness; as he did 
by Eve and Cain, Sodom and Gomorrha^ so would he do by 
all the world. Sometimes he tempts by covetousness, drunk- 
enness, pleasure, pride, &c. errs, dejects, saves, kills, protects, 
and rides some men, as they do their horses. He studies oiir 
overthrow and generally seeks our destruction; nnd, al- 
though he pretend many times humane good, and vindicate 
himself for a god, by curing of several diseases, csgris sanita- 
tem, et ccecis luminis usum restitnendo, (as Austin declares, 
lib. 10. de civit. Dei, cap. 6.) as Apollo, iEsculapius, Isis, of 
old have done ; divert plagues, assist them in wars, pretend 
their happiness ; yet nihil his impurius, scelesti?fs, tiihil hu- 
viano generi hifestius ; nothing so impure, nothing so perni- 
cious, as may well appear by their tyrannical and bloody sa- 
crifices of men to Saturn and Moloch (which are still in use 
amongst those barbarous Indians), their several deceits and 
cozenings to keep men in obedience, their false oracles, sacri- 
fices, their superstitious impositions of fasts, penury, &c. 
heresies, superstitions, observations of meats, times, &c. by 
which they '^ crucifie the souls of mortal men, as shall be 
shewed in our treatise of religious melancholy. Modico adhvc 
tempore sinitur malignari, as ^ Bernard expresseth it : by 
Gods permission he rageth a while, hereafter to be confined to 



» Lactantius, 2 de origine erroris, cap. 15. Hi maligni spiritiis per omnem terram 
vagantur, et solatium pertlitionis suoe perdendis horninibus operantur. b Morta- 

liiim calatnitates epula; sunt raalorum daemonuni. Synesius. c Dominus men- 

dacii, a seipso deceptus, alios drcipere cupit. Adversarius huniani generis. Inventor 
mortis, superbia; institutor, radix malitiae, scelerum caput, princeps omnium vitiorum, 
furit inde in Dei contumeiiam, homiuum perniciem. De horum conatibus et opera- 
tionibus, lege Epiphanium, 2 torn. lib. 2. Dionysium, c. 4. Ambros. Epistol. lib. 10. 
ep. 84. August, de civ. Dei, lib .5. c. 9. lib. 8. cap. 22. lib. 9. 18. lib. 10, 21. 
Theophil. in 12. Mat. Pasil. ep. 141. Leonem Ser. Tbeodoret. in 11 Cor. ep. 22. 
Chrys. hom. .53. in 12. Gen. Greg, in 1. c. John Barthol. de prop. 1. 2. c. 20, 
Zanch. 1. 4. de malis angelis. Perer. in Geo. 1. 8. in c. 6. 2. Origen. Sfepe prceliis 
intersunt ; itinera et negotia nostra qusecunque dirigunt, clandestinis subsidiis optatos 
saepe prajbent successus. Pet. Mar. in Sam., &c. Ruscara de Inferno. J Et 

velut mancipia circumfert. Psellus, *" Lib. de transmut. Malac. ep. 



Mem. 1. .Subs. 2.] Digression of Spirks. 73 

hell and darkness, which is prepared for him and his angeh 
Matt. 25. 

How far their power doth extend, it is hard to determine. 
"What the ancients hekl of their effects, force, and operations, 
I will briefly show you. Plato, in Critias, and after him, his 
followers, gave out that these spirits or devils icere mens go- 
rernours and keepers, ovr lords and masters, as ice are of onr 
cattle. ^ They govern provinces and kingdoms by oracles, 
auguries, dreams, regards and punishments, prophesies, in- 
spirations, sacrifices, and religious superstitions, varied in as 
many forms, as tiiere be diversity of spirits: they send wars, 
plagues, peace, sickness, health, dearth, plent)^, ^ adstantes 
Mc jam nobis, spectantes et arhifrantes, S,c. (as appears by 
those histories of Thiicydides, Livius, Dionysius Halicarnas- 
seus, with many others, that are full of their wonderful stra- 
tagems) and were therefore, by those Roman and Greek com- 
mon-wealths, adored and worshipped for gods, with prayers, 
and sacrifices, &c. '^ In a w ord, hihil magis cpia^runt, (piam 
metum et admirationem hominuni ; and (as another hath it) 
did non potest, quam. impotenti ardore in homines dominium, 
et divinos cultus, maligni spiritus affectent. Trithemius in 
his book de septem secundis, assigns names to such angels as 
are governours of particular provinces (by what authority I 
knownot), and gives themseveral jurisdictions. Asclepiades a 
Grecian,Rabbi Achiba the Jew, Abraham Avenezra.and Rabbi 
Azareel, Arabians, (as I find them cited by '^ Cicogna) farther 
add, that they are not our governours only, sed ex eoriim 
Concordia et discordidjboniet mali aifectus promanant ; but as 
they agree, so do we and our princes, or disagree ; stand or 
fall. Juno was a bitter enemy to Troy, Apollo a good friend, 
Jupiter indifferent : JEqua Vejius Teucris, Pallas iniqnaj'uit ; 
some are for us, still some against us ; premente Deo,J'ert Dens 
alter opem. Religion, policy, publick and private quarrels, 
wars, are procured by them ; and they are "^ delighted perhaps 
to see men fight, as men are Avith cocks, bulls and dogs, bears, 
&c. Plagues, dearths, depend on them, our bene and male 
esse, and almost all our other peculiar actions, (for, as Anthony 
Rusca contends, lib. 5. cap. 18, every man hath a good and 
a bad angel attending of him in particular, all his life long, 
which Jamblicus calls dxemonejn) preferments, losses,weddings, 
deaths, rewards, and punishments, and (as ' Proclus will 
all offices whatsoever : alii genetricem, alii opijicem jwtes- 



3 Cnrtodes sunt liominnm, nt nos animalium : turn et pro\ineiis praepositi regunt 
auguriis, somniis, oraculis, praemiis, &:c. b UpsJug^ Physiol. Stoic, lib. l.cap. 19. 

eLeo Suavis. Idem et Trithemius. ^ Omnif. mag. lib. 2. rap. S.*?. . ^ Ludus 

deorum snmus. f Lib. de anima et d«mone, 

o2 



74 Digression of Spirits. [Part 1. Sec. ^. 

tat em hahent, ^c. and several names they give tbem ac- 
cording to their offices, as Lares, Indir/etes, Prcestites, SfC. - 
When the Arcades, in that battel at Chreronea, which was 
foughtagainstKingPhilip for the liberty of Greece,had deceit- 
i'ully carried themselves, — long after, in the very same place, 
diis G rcEcicJc ultorihiis, (saith mine anthor) they were miserably 
slain by Metellus the Roman : so likewise, in smaller matters, 
they will have things fall out, as these boni and mali genii 
favour or dislike lis. Saturnini nou conveniunt Jovialihus, ^c. 
He i\\iii\& Saturninus, shall never likely be preferred. ''That 
base fellows are often advanced, undeserving Gnathoes, and 
vicious parasites, when as discreet, wise, vertuous, and worthy 
men are neglected, and unrewarded,they refer to those domi- 
neering spirits, orsubordinate genii: as they are inclined, or fa- 
vour men,so they thrive,are ruled and overcome; for, (as ''Liba- 
nius supposeth) iis our ordinary conflicts and contentions, ge- 
nhisgenio cedit et ohtemper at ^owe genius yields and is overcome 
by another. All particular events almost they refer to these 
private spirits; and (as Paracelsus adds) they direct, teach, in- 
spire, and instruct men. Never was any man extraordinarily 
famous in any art, action, or great commander, that had not 
Jamiliarem dwrnonem, to inform him, as Numa, Socrates, 
and many such, as Cardan illustrates, cap. 128- Arcanis pru- 
dential civilis, ^ speciali siquidem gratia, se a Deo donari as- 
serunt magi, a geniis coilestibus instrni, ah iis doceri. But 
these are most erroneous paradoxes, inepfw etjahulosa; nugce, 
rejected by our divines and Christian churches. 'Tis true, 
they have, by Gods permission, power over us ; and we find 
by experience, that they can 'Uiurt, not our fields only, cattel, 
goods, but our bodies and minds. At Hammel in Saxony, 
an. 1484. 20 Jnnii, the devil, in the likeness of a pied piper, 
carryed away 1 30 children, that were never after seen. Many 
times men are ^ affriglxted out of their wits, carried away 
quite (as Scheretzius illustrates, lib. ] . c. 4.) and severally mo- 
lested by his means. Plotinus the Platonist (lib. J 4. advers. 
G^wos^) laughs them to scorn, that hold the devil or spirits can 
cause any such diseases. Many think he can work upon 



'^ Quoties fit, ut principes novitiutn aulicum divitiis et dignitatibu3 pene obruant, 
et multorum annorum ministrnni, qui iioa seinel pro hero periculum subiit, ne te- 
runcio donent, &c. Idem. Quod philosophi non remunerenter, cum scurra et in- 
eptus ob iusulsum jocum saspe prsemium reportet, inde fit, &;c. b Lib. de 

crnent. cadaver. '^ Boissardus, c. 0. magia. <* Godelmannus, cap. 3. 

lib. 1. de Magis. idem Zancbius, lib. 4. cap. 10 et 11. de malis angelis. e No- 

civa raelancholia furiosos elficit, et quandoque penitus interficit. G. Picolomineus ; 
idenique Zanch. cap. 10, lib. 4. Si Deus permittat; corpora nostra movere possunt, al- 
terare, quovis morborum et malorum genere afficere, imo et in ipsa penetrare et 
sa^nre. 



Mem. I. Subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. "5 

the body, biitnotiipon the mind. But experience prononnceth 
otherwise, than he can work both upon body and mind. Tcrfu]- 
lian is of this opinion (c. 22.) 'that he can came both sickness 
and health, and that secretin'. ''Taurellus adds, by clancnlar 
poysons he can infect the bodies, and hinder the operations 
of the bowels, though we perceive it not ; closehj creepinr/ into 
them, saith '' Lipsius, and so crucifie our souls; et uoeivd melan- 
cholidfnriososefficit. For, being a spiritual body, he struo-o-Ies 
-with our spirits, saith Rogers, and suggests (accordino- to 
'' Cardan, verba sine voce, species sine visn) envy, lust, anoer, 
&c. as he sees men incb'ncd. 

The manner how he performs it, Biarmannus, in his oration 
against Bodine, sufficiently declares. He <" begins first with 
the phantasie, and moves that so stronglg, that no reason is 
able to resist. Now the 2Jhantasie he moves by mediation of 
humours; although many physicians are of opinion, that the 
devil can alter the mind, and produce this disease, of himself. 
Quibnsdam medicorum visum, saith 'Avicenna, quod melan- 
cholia contingat a dcemonio. Of the same mind is Psellus, 
and Rhasis, the Arab, {lib. I. Tract. 9. Conf.) nhat this 
disease proceed'^ especially from the devil, and from him 
alone. Arculanus, cap. 6. in. 9. Rhasis, iEIianus Montallus 
in his 9 cap. Daniel Sennertus, lib. 1. part. 2. cap. II, con- 
firm as much, that the devil can cause this disease ; by reason, 
many times, that the parties affected prophesie, speak strange 
language, but non sine interventu humoris, not without the 
humour, as he interprets himself; no more doth Avicenna: si 
contingat a damonio, sufficit nobis 7it convertat complexionem 
ad choleramnigram, et sit caussa ejiis propinqua cholera niqra ; 
the immediate cause is choler adust; -which " Pomponatius like- 
wise labours to make good : Galgerandus of Mantua, a famous 
physician, so cured a dasmoniacal women in his time, that 
spake all languages, by purging black choler : and thereupon, 
belike, this humour of melancholy is called balneum diaboli, 
the devils bath ; the devil, spying his opportunity of such hu- 
mours, drives them many times to despair, fury, rao-e, &-c. 
mingling himself amongst these humours. This is tha? which 
Tertullian averrs, corporibus injligunt acerbos casus, animaque 



^ Inducpre potest morbos et sanitates. bViscerum actiones potest Inliibere 

latenter, et venenuj nobis ignotis corpus inficere. c Irrepentos corporibus oc 

culto morbos fin^^unt, mentes terrent. membra distorquent. Lips. Pi.vs. Stoic. I J 
'': '.■'• . . ' De rerum var. 1. lO. c. 93. e Q„un, mens immediate de- 

cipi neqnit, primum movet phantasiam, et ita obfirmat vanis conceptibus, ut ne- 
quem facultafi a;stiraativa>, ratiwuve locuui relinquat. Spiritus malusinvadit animam 
turbat sensus, m furorem conjicit. Austin, de \it. beat. 'Lib. 3. F'en. l' 

Tract. 4. c. 18. i A dicuioue luaxime proficisci, et sa^pe solo. ' *> Lib de 

meant. ; 



76 Digression of Spirits. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

repentinos ; membra distorquent,occulterepentes,Si-c. and, which 
Lemnius goes about to prove, immiscent se mali genii pravis 
Immorihus. at que afrce bili, Sfc. and ^ Jason Pratensis, that the 
devil, being a slender incomprehensible spirit, can easily insi- 
nuate and ivind himself into humane bodies, and cunninghf 
couched in our boivels, vitiate our healths, terrijie our souls 
withj'earj'ul dreams, and shake our mind with furies. And in 
another place, These unclean spirits settled in our bodies, and 
now mixt ivith our melancholy humours, do triumph, as it were, 
and sport themselves as in another heaven. Thus he argues, 
and that they go in and out of onr bodies, as bees do in a hive, 
and so provoke and temptus, as they perceive our temperature 
inclined of itself, and most apt to be deluded. ^ Agrippa and 
Lavater are perswaded that this humour invites the devil to it, 
wheresoever it is in extremity ; and, of all other, melancholy 
personsare most subject to diabolical temptations and illusions, 
and most apt to entertain tlieni, and the devil best able to work 
upon them ; but, whether by obsession or possession, or other- 
wise, I will not determine ; 'tis a difficult question. iJelrio 
the Jesuite, {torn. 3. lib. 6) Springer and his colleague, {mall, 
malej'.) Pet. Thyreus the Jesuite, {lib. de dcemoniacis, de locis 
inj'estis, de terrificationibus nocturnis) Hieronymus Mengus 
(Flagel. deem.) and others of that rank of pontifical writers, 
it seems, by their exorcisms and conjurations, approve of it, 
having forged many stories to that purpose. A nun did eat a 
lettice '^icithout grace, or signing it with the sign of the crosj^ 
and was instantly possessed. Durand, lib. 6. Rational, c. 86. 
num. 8) relates that he saw a wench possessed in Bononia with 
two devils, by eating an unhallowed pomegranate, as she did 
afterwards confess, when she was cured by exorcisms. And 
therefore our papists do sign themselves so often with the sign 
of the cross, «e dcemon ingredi ausit, and exorcise all manner 
of meats, as being- unclean or accursed otherwise, as Bellar- 
mine defends. Many such stories I find amongst pontificia! 
writers, ''to prove their assertions; let them free their own 
credits : some few I will recite in this kind out of most ap- 
proved physicians. Cornelius Gemma {lib. 2. de nat. mirac. 
c. 4) relates of a young maid, called Katherine Gualter, a 
coopers daughter, an. 1571 ? that had such strange passions and 
convulsions, three men could not sometimes hold her. She 
purged a live eele, which he saw, a foot and a half long and, 

a Cap. de mania, lib. Ae morbis cerebri. Dffiinones, quum sint tenues et incompre- 
hensibiles spiritus, se insiniiare corporibus hnmanis possunt, et occult in visceribus 
operti, valetRclinem vitiare, somniisaniinasterrere,et mentes furoribus quatere. Insi- 
nuant se melancholicoruui penetralibusintus, ibique considunt et deliciantur, tamquam 
in regioue c larissimoium sideruni^ coguntqne aninium furere. ^iAh. 1. cap. 0. 

occult, philos. part. 1. cap. 1. de spectris. <■ Sine cruce et sanctificatione ; sic a 

dymone obsessa. dial. ^ Greg. pag. c. 9. 



Mem. I. Subs. 2.] Causes of Melancholy. 77 

touched himself; but the eele afterwards vanished : slie vo- 
mited some twenty-four poundsof fulsome stuff of all colours, 
twice a day for fourteen dayes ; and,after that,shc voided great 
balls of hair, pieces of wood, pigeons dung, parchment, goose 
dung, coals; and, after them, two pound of pure blood, and 
then again coals and stones (of which some had inscriptions) 
bigger than a walnut, some of ihem pieces of glass, brass, &c. 
besides paroxysmes of laughing, weeping, and extasies, &c. Et 
hoc {inquit) cioii horrorc vidl, this I saw witii iiorrour. They 
could do no good on her by physick, but left Uvs to the clergy. 
Marcellus Donanis lib. 2. c. 1. dc med dirab.) hath such 
another story of a countrey felloAV, that had four knives in his 
belly, instar serra; dentatos, indented like a saw, every one a 
sptin long, and a wreath of hair like a globe, with much bag- 
o-aoe of like sort, wonderful to behold. How it should come 
into his guts, he concludes, certe nan alio qnam dcemonis as- 
tutid et dolo. Laufjius (Epist. med. lib. 1. Epist. 3SJ hath 
many relations to this effect, and so hath Christopherus a Vega. 
Wierus, Skenkius, Scribanius, all agree that they are done by 
the subtilty and illusion of the devil. If you shall ask a rea- 
son of this, 'tis to exercise our patience; for as "Tertullian 
holds. Virtus non est virtns, nisi comparem habet ali/piem^ 
in quo superando vim siumi ostendat ; 'tis to try us and our 
faith; 'tis for ovu* offences, and the punishment of our sins, 
by Gods permission they do it; caruijices vindictoi justa. Dei, 
as ^ Tolosanus stdes them, executioners of his will : or rather 
as David Psal. 78. ver. 49. He cast upon them the fierce- 
ness of his aiufer, indignation, wrath, and.vexation, by send- 
ing out of evil angels. So did he afflict Job, Saul, the lunaticks 
and da?moniacal persons whom Christ cured, Matth. 4. 8. 
Luke 4. 1 1. Luke 13. Mark 9. Tobit 8. 3, &c. This, I 
say, happeneth for a punishment of sin, for their want of faith, 
incredulity, weakness, distrust, &c. 



SUBSECT. IIL 



Of Witches and Magicians^ how they cause Melancholy. 

JL OU have heard what the devil can do of himself: now 
you shall hear what he can perform by his instruments, who 
are many times worse (if it be possible) than he himself, and 
to satisfie their revenge and lust, cause more mischief; multu 

» Peuult. dc opitic. Dei. •> Lib. 28. cap. -26.. Tom. ± 



78 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. ^, 

enim mala non egisset dcemon, nisi provocatus a sagis, as 
* Erastus thinks: much harm had never been done, had he not 
been provoked by witches to it. He had not appeared in Sa- 
muels shape, if the witch of Endor had left him alone ; or re- 
presented those serpents in Pharaohs presence, had not the ma- 
gicians urged him unto it : nee morbos vel hominibus vel hrutis 
in/iigeret, (Erastus maintains) si sagce quiescerent ; men and 
cattle might go free, ifthe witches would let him alone. Many 
deny Avitches at all, or, if there be any, they can do no harm. 
Of this opinion is Wierus, {lib. 3. cap. b^. prcestig. deem,) 
Austin Lerchemer a Dutch writer, Biarmannus, Ewichius, 
Euwaldus, our countryman Scot : with him in Horace, 

Somnia terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, 
Nocturnos lemures, portentaque Thessab, risu 
Excipiunt ■- 

they laugh at all such stories : but on the contrary are most 
lawyers, divines, physicians, philosophers, Austin, Hermingius, 
Dangeus, Chytra;us, Zanchius, Aretius, &c. Delrio, Springer, 
''Niderius, (lib. 5. Formicar.) Cuiatius, Bartolus, {consil. 6. 
torn. I.) Bodine, (dcemoniant. lib. 2. cap. 8) Godelman, Dam- 
hoderius, &c. Paracelsus, Erastus, Scribanius, Camerarius,&c. 
The parties by whom the devil deals, may be reduced to these 
tivo — such as command him, in shew at least, as conjurers, 
and magicians, (whose detestable and horrid mysteries are 
contained in their book called '^ Arbatell ; dcEmones enim ad- 
vocati prccsto sunt, seque exorcismis et conjuratiojiibus quasi 
cogi patiunlur, ut miserum magorum genus in impietate deti- 
neant,) or such as are commanded, as witches, that deal ex 
parte implicite or explicite, as the ^ King hath well defined. 
Many subdivisions there are, and many several species of sor-^ 
cerers, witches, inchanters, charmers, &c. They have been 
tolerated heretofore, some of them ; and magick hath been 
pubiickly professed in former times, in * Salamanca, *^ Cracovia, 
and other places, though after censured by several -^univer- 
sities, and now generally contradicted, though practised by 
some still, maintained and excused, tamquamres secreta, quce 
non nisi viris magnis et peculiari benejicio de ccelo instru^tis 
communicatur (I use '' Boissardus his words) ; and so far ap- 
proved by some princes, ut nihil ausi aggredi in politicis. 



5 De lamiis. ^ Et quomodo venefici fiaiit, enarrat. •" De quo plura 

legas, in Boissardo, lib. 1. de praestig, t'Rex Jacobus, D^monol. I. 1. c. 3. 

*■ An university ia Spain, in old Castile. fThe chief town in Poland. 

a Oxford and Paris, See linern P. Lnmbardi. h Pr«-fat. de magis et vene- 

ficis, lib. 



Mom. I. Subs. 3.] Causes of Melancholy. 79 

in sacris, in consiliis, sine eornm arhitrio ; they consult still 
with them, and dare indeed do nothing- without their advice. 
Nero and HeJiogabalus, Maxentius, and Julianus Apost^.ta, 
were never so much addicted to magick of old, as some of 
our modern princes and popes themselves are now adayes. 
Erricus, king of Sweden, had an "* inchanted cap, by vertne 
of which, and some magical murmur or whispering terms, he 
could command spirits, trouble the ayre, and make the wind 
stand which way he would ; insomuch that, when there wps 
any great wind or storm, the common people were wont to 
say, the king" now had on his conjuring cap. But such exam- 
ples are infinite. That which they can do, is as much almost as 
the devil himself, who is still ready to satisfie their desires, 
to oblige them the more unto him. They can cause tempests, 
storms; which is familiarly practised by witches in Norway, 
Island, as I have proved- They can make friends enemies, and 
enemies friends, by philters; ^ turpes amores cotici/iare, en- 
force love, tell any man where his friends are, about what em- 
ployed, though in the most remote places ; and, if they will, 
''■ hrinr/ their sweethearts to them hy night, vpon a yoats hack 
flyiny in the ayre, (Sigismund Scheretzius, pr/r^ 1. cap. 9- de 
spect. reports contidently, that he conferred with sundry such, 
that had been so carried many miles, and that he heard witches 
themselves confess as much) hurt, and infect men and beasts, 
vines, corn, cattle, plants, make women abortive, not to con- 
ceive, '' barren men and women imapt and nnahle, married 
and unmarried, fifty several v/ays, (saith Bodine,/. 2. c. 2.) flye 
in the ayre, meet Avhen and where they will, as Cicogna proves, 
and (Lavat. de spec. part. 2. c. 17.) steal yoimy children ontajf 
their cradles, ministerio d?emonum, and put deformed in their 
rooms, ti'hich rre call chanyelinys, (saith ^Scheretzius, />«r^ ). 
c. 6) make men victorious, fortunate, eloquent : (and there- 
fore in those ancient monomaehics and combats, they were 
searched of old, 'if they had no magical charms) they can 
make s stick-frees, such as shall endure a rapiers point, mus- 
ket shot, and never be wounded ; (of >vhich read more in Bois- 
sardifs, cap. 6. de Mayici, the manner of the adjuration, and 
by whom 'tis made, where and how to be used inexpeditionihns 
helUcis, prcEliis, dnellis, ^e. with many peculiar instances and 
examples) they can walk in fiery furnaces, make men feel 



aRotatutn pileum habebat, quo ventos %iolentos cieret, aerem tnrbaret, et in qDam 
partem, i^c. b Erastus. <" Ministerio hirci noctnmi. dSteriles 

nuptos et inhabiles. Vide Petrum de Palnde, lib. 4. distinct 34. Panlum Gniclandum, 
^Infantes matribus suffurantur ; aliis suppositiiis in locnra veronim conjectis, 
'MiHes. eD. Luther, in primnm praeceptnm, et Leon. Varius.Iib.de 

fascino. 



80 Cause$ of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

no pain on the rack, ant alias torturas sentire ; they can 
stanch blood, =• represent dead mens shapes, alter and turn 
themselves and others into several forms at their pleasures.'* 
i^gaberta, a famous witch in Lapland, would do as much 
publickly to all spectatours — modo pusilla, modo amis, modo 
procera ut quercits, modo vacca, avis, cohdwr, ^c. now 
young, now old, high, low, like a cow, like a bird, a snake, 
and what not ? She could represent to others what forms they 
most desired to see, shew them friends absent, reveal secrets, 
maxima omnium admiratione, &c. And yet, for all thissubtilty 
of theirs, (as Lipsius well observes, Physioloff. Stoicor. lib. 1. 
cap 17.) neither these magicians, nor devils themselves, can 
takeaway gold or letters out of mine or Crassus chest, et clien- 
telis, suis largiri ; for they are base, poor, contemptible felloAvs, 
most part : as ''■ Bodine notes, they can do nothing in judicum 
decreta aut pcenas, in regum consilia vel arcana, nihil in rem 
nummariam aut thesauros ; they cannot give money to their 
clients, alter judges decrees, or counsels 01 kings : these minuti 
genii cannot do it : altiores genii hoc sibi adservdrunt ; the 
higher powers reserve these things to themselves. Now and 
then, perad venture, there may be some more famous magicians, 
(like Simon Magus, '' Appollonius Tyaneus, Pastes, Jamblicus, 
*^ Odo de Stellis) that for a time can build castles in the ayre, 
represent armies, &c. (as they are ^said to have done) com- 
mand wealth and treasure, feed thousands with all variety of 
meats upon a sudden, protect themselves and their followers 
from all princes persecutions, by removing from place to place 
in an instant, reveal secrets, future events, tell what is done in 
far countries, make them appear that dyed long since, &c. and 
do many such miracles, to the worlds teiTovu', admiration, 
and opinion of deity to themselves": yet the devil forsakes 
them at last ; they came to wicked ends ; and raro aut mm- 
quam such impostors are to be found''. The vulgar sort of 
them can work no such feats. But to my purpose — they can, 
last of all, cure and cause most diseases to such as they love 
or hate, and this of 'melancholy amongst the rest. Paracelsus 
(torn. 4. de morbis amentium, tract. 1.) in express words affirms, 
miiltijaschiantur in melancholiam ; many are bewitched into 
melancholy, out of his experience. The same saith Danasus, 
lib. 3. de sortiariis. Vidi, inquit, qui melancholicos morbos 



»Lavat. Cicog, i^Boissardus, de M«gis. « Daemon, lib. 3. c. 3. 

«l Vide Philostratutn, vita ejus; Boissardum de Magis. e Nubrigensis. Lege 

lib. 1. cap. 19. fVide Suidam de Paset. ? E)e cruent. cadaver. hErastus, 

Adolphus, Scribanius. ' Virg. Mwcid. 4. incantatricem describens ; 

Haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes, Quas velit, ast aliis duras imittere 



Meoi. i. Subs. 4.] Causes of Melmcholy. 81 

f/ravissimos mduxerunt : I have seen those that have caused 
melancholy in the most grievous manner, "dn/ed up xvomens 
paps, cured f/out, palsie ; this and apoplexij.J'aUimj -sickness^ 
which no pliysick conld help, solo tactu, by touch alone. Ru- 
land (in his 3. Cent. Cura9{.) gives an instance of one David 
Helde, a young- man, who, by eating cakes which a witch 
gave him, mox delirare capit, began to dote on a sudden, 
and was instantly mad. F.H. D. in ''Hildesheim, consulted 
about a melancholy man, thought his disease was partly ma- 
gical, and partly natural, because he vomited pieces of iron 
and lead, and spake such languages as he had never been 
taught; but such examples are common in Scribanius, Her- 
cules de Saxonia, and others. The means by which they work, 
are usually charms, images, (as that, in Hector Boethius, of 
king Duffe characters stamped of sundry metals, and at such 
and such constellations, knots, amulets, words, philters, &c. 
M'hich generally make the parties affected, melancholy; as 
*^ Monavius discourseth at large in an epistle of his to Acolsius, 
giving- instance in a Bohemian barron that was so troubled 
by a philter taken. Not that there is any power at ail in those 
spells, charms, characters, and barbarous words ; but that 
the devil doth use such means to delude them ; ut fi deles 
inde mcif/os (saith ''Libanius) in officio retineat, turn in con- 
sortimn malpf'aciorum vocet. 



SUBSECT. IV. 

Stars a cause. Signs from Physiognomy^ Metoposcopy, 
Chiromancy. 

Natural causes are either ^rirnon/ and universal, or secnn- 
dary and more particular. Primary causes are the heavens, 
planets, stars, &c. by their influence (as our astrologers hold) 
producing this and such like effects. I Mill not here stand 
to discuss, obiter, whether stars be causes or signs ; or to 
apologise for judicial astrology. If either Sextus Empiricus, 
Picus Mirandula,Sextus ab Heminga, Pererius, Erastus, Cham- 
bers, &c. have so far prevailed with any man, that he will 
attribute no vertue at all to the heavens, or to sun or moon, 



aGodelmanuus, cap. 7. lib. 1. Nutricum mammas praesiccant ; solo tactu poda^am, 
apoplexiam, paralysin. et alios morbos, quos medicina curare non poterat b Factus 
inde maniacus. Spic. 2. fol. 147. c Omnia philtra, etsi inter se differant, hoc 

habent commune, quod hominem efficiant meiancholicura. epist. 231. Scholtzii. 
•* De cruent. cadaver. 



82 Causes of Melancholy. [Part, J. Sec. 2, 

more than he doth to tlieir signs at an inn-keepers post, or 
tradesmans shop, or generally condemn all such astrolooical 
aphorisms approved by experience — I refer him to Bellan- 
tius,Pirovanus,Marascallerus,Goclenius, Sir Christopher Hey- 
don, &c. If thou shalt ask me what I think, I must answer, 
(nam et doctis hisce errorihns versatns sum) they do incline 
but not compell, (no necessity at all : ^agunt non cor/imf) 
and so gently incline, that a wise man may resist them ; sa- 
])iens dominahitur astris : they rule us; but God rules them. 
All this (me thinks) ''Joh. de Indaoine hath comprized in 
brief: queer is a me quantum in nobis operantur astra? Sfc. 
Wilt thou knoiv hoivjar the stars work upo7i us ? I say they do 
hut incline, and that so yently, that^ if we will be ruled by 
reason, they have no power over us ; but if ice follow our own 
nature, and be led by sense, they do as much in us, as in brute 
beasts; and we are no better: so that, I hope, I may justly con- 
clude with '^CajetanfCoelumvehicuhandivina; virtutis,8fc. that 
the heaven is Gods instrument, by mediation of which he go- 
verns and disposeth these elementary bodies— oragreat book, 
whose letters are the stars, (as one calls it) wherein are writ- 
ten many strange things for such as can read — •* or an excel- 
lent harp, made by an eminent ivorkman, on ichich he that can 
but play, will make most admirable musick. But to the pur- 
pose — 

^Paracelsus is of opinion, that a physician, tvithout the 
knowledge of stars, can neither understand the cause or cure 
of any disease — either of this, or gout, not so much as tooth- 
ache — except he see the peculiar geniture and scheme of the 
party affected. And for this proper malady, he will have the 
principal and primary cause of it proceed from the heaven, 
ascribing more to stars than humours, ^ and that the constel- 
lation alone, many times, producefh melancholy, all other 
causes setapart. He gives instance in lunatick persons, that are 
deprived of their wits by the moons motion ; and, in another 
place, refers all to the ascendent, and will have the true and 
chief cause of it to be sought from the stars. Neither is it his 
opinion only, but of many Galenists and philosophers, though 



» Astra regunt homines ; et regit astra Dens. ' •> Chorom. lib. Qiiseris a dkj 

qnantum operantur astra ? dico, in nos nihil astr nrgere, sed animos proclives trahere; 
qui sic tamen liberi sunt, ut, si ducem sequantar rationem, nihil efficiant; sin vero oa- 
tiiram id agere quod in brutis I'ere. <^ Coelum vehiculum divinae \irtutis, cujus 

mediante motu, lumine, et influentia. Dens elementaria corpora ordinat, et disponit. 
Th. de Veio. Cajetanus in Psa. 104. d Mundus iste quasi lyra ab excellentissimo 

quodam artifice concinnata^ quamqui norit, mirabiles elicietharmonias. J. Dee. Apho- 
rismo 11. « Medicus, sine coeli peritia nihil est, &c. nisi genesim sciverit, ne 

tantillnm potent, lib. de podag. fConstellatio in caussa est: et influentia coeli 

morbum hunc movet, interdgm omnibus aliis amotis. Et alibi. Origo ejus a ccelo 
petenda est. Tr. de morbis amentium. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 4,] Causes of Melancholij. 8S 

they notso stifly and peremptorily maintain as much. Tkisva- 
riet!/ of melancliolij symptomes proceeds from the stars, saith 
•'Melaiicthon. The most generous melancholy (as that of Au- 
oustus) comes from the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in 
Libra; the bad, (as that of Catiline) from the meeting of 
Saturn and the moon in Scorpio. Jovianus Pontanus, in his 
tenth book, and thirteenth chapter de rebus coelestiMis, dis- 
courseth to this purpose at large. Ex atra bile varii f/ene- 
rantur morbi, Sfc. ^ Many diseases proceed from black 
choler, as it shall be hot or cold; and thouyh it be cold in its 
oicn nature, yet it is apt to be heated, as water may be made 
to boyle, and burn as bad as fre ; or made cold as ice ; and 
thence proceed such variety of symptomes : some mad, some 
solitary ; some lauc/h, some rage, dsc- — the cause of all 
which intemperance' he will have chiefly and primarily pro- 
ceed from the heavens— '/'/om theposition of Mars, Saturn, 
and Mercury. His aphorisms be these : '^ Mercury in any 
geniture, if he shall he found ?« Virgo, or Pisces his opposite 
sif/n, and that in the horoscope, irradiated by those quartih 
aspects of Saturn or Mars, the child shall be mad or melan^ 
choly. Again, ^ He that shall have Ssitmn or Murs, the one 
culminatiny, the other in the fourth house, ivhen he shall be 
horn, shall be melancholy ; of tvhich "he shall be cured in 
time, ?y Mercury behold them. ^ If the moon be in conjunc- 
tion or opposition, at the birth-time, with the sun, Saturn, or 
Mars, or in a quartile aspect tvith them (e malo coeli loco, 
Leovitius adds) many diseases are signified ; especially the 
head and brain is like to be mis-affected with pernicious hu- 
mours, to be melancholy, lunatick, or mad. Cardan adds, 
quartd lund natos, eclipses, earth-quakes. Garcasus and Leo- 
vitius will have the chief judgement to be taken from the lord 
of the geniture; or when there is no aspect betwixt the moon 
and Mercury, and neither behold the horoscope, or Saturn 
and Mars shall be lord of the present conjunction or oppo- 
sition in Sagittary or Pisces, of the sun or moon, such per- 
sons are commonly epileptick, dotCjdaemoniacal, melancholy^ 

;;. a Lib. de aDima, cap. de humorib. Ea varietas in melancholia habet ccelestes 
caussas (i Tj et 1|. in D ci ^ et D in «!,. ''Ex atra bile varii generantur 

morbi, perinde ut ipse multum calidi aut frigidi in se habuerit, quum utiique suscipi- 
endo quam aptissima sit, tametsi suapte natura frigida sit. Annon aqua sic afficitur 
a calore ut ardeat ; et a frigore ut in glaciem concrescat? et ha;c varietas distinctio- 
num, alii flent, rident, &c. <= Hanc ad intemperantiam gignendam plurimum 

confert ^ et fj positus, &c. , rt g Quoties alicujus genitura in m et >£ ad- 

verso signo positus, heroscopum partiliter tenuerit, atqiie etiain a <J vel '^ O radio 
percussus fuerit, natus ab insania vexabitur. « Qui ^ et ^ habet, alterum in 

culinine, alterum imo coelo, cum in lucem venerit, melancholicus erit, a qua sanabi- 
tur, si g illoa irradiariL f Hac configiuratione natus, aut lunaticus, aut mente 

captus. 



^4 Causes of' Melancholy . [t'art. 1. Sec. 2. 

But see more of these aphorisms in the aljove-named Ponta- 
nus, Garcaeus, cap. 23. de Jud geniinr. Schoner. Ub. 1. cap. 
8. which he hath gathered out of ^Ptolemy, Albubater, and 
some other Arabians, Junetine, Ranzovius, Lindhout, Origan, 
&c. But these men you will reject peradventure, as astrolo- 
gers, and therefore partial judges; then hear the testimony of 
physicians, Galenists themselves. ^ Crato confesseth the in- 
fluence of stars to have a great hand to this peculiar disease: 
so doth Jason Pratensis, Lonicerius {prarfat de Apople.rid) 
Ficinus, Fernelius, &c. "^P. Cnemander acknowledgeth the 
stars an universal cause, the particular from parents, and the 
use of the six non-natural things. Baptista Port. 7?m^. /, I. 
c. 10, 12, 15, will have them causes to every particular iiidi- 
vidnum. Instances and examples, to evince the truth of those 
aphorisms, are common amongst those astrologian treatises. 
Cardan, in his thirty-seventh geniture, gives instance in Math. 
Bolognius, Camerar, hor. natalit. centur. J. genit. 6. et 7. of 
Daniel Gare, and others, but see Garcasus, cap. 33. Luc. 
Gauricus, Tract 6. de Azemeuis, ^c. The time of this me- 
lancholy is, when the significators of any geniture are directed 
according to art, as the hor. moon, hylech, &c. to the hostile 
beams or terms of T? and $ especially, or any fixed star of 
their nature, or if ^ , by his revolution, or transitiis, shaU of- 
fend any of those radical promissors in the geniture. 

Other signs there are taken from physiognomy, metopos- 
copy, chiromancy, which because Joh. de Indagine, and Rot- 
man (the landgrave of Hassia his mathematician) not long 
since in his Chiromancy, Baptista Porta, in his celestial Phy- 
siognomy, have proved to hold great affinity M^ith astroloo-y^ 
to satisfie the curious, I am the more willing to insert. 

The general notions'' physiognomers give, be these : black 
colour argues natural melancholy ; so doth leanness, hirsute- 
ness, broad veins, much hair on the hroivs, saith '^ Gratanaro- 
lus, cap. 7. and a little head, out of Aristotle : high sanguin6 
red colour shews head melancholy ; they that stutter and are 
bald, will be soonest melancholy, as Avicenna supposeth) 
by reason of the driness of their brains. But he that will 
know more of the several signs of humours and wits out of 
physiognomy, let him consult with old Adamantus and Pole- 



" Ptolemaens, Centiloquio, et quadripartito tribuit omnium melancholicornm sym- 
ptomata siderum influentiis. bArte Medici. Accedunt ad has caussas aftectiones 
siderum. Plurimum incitant et provocant influentise coelestes. Velcurio, lib. 4. 
cap. 15. c Hildesheim, spicil. 2. de mel. d Joh. de Indag. c. 9. Mont- 

altus, cap. 23. « Caput parvuin qui hahent, cerebrum habent etspiritns ple- 

ramqueangustos.— Facile incidunt iu melautholiam rubicundi. Aetius, IdemMoU- 
taltus, c. 21. e. Galeno. 



Mem, ]. Subs, 4.] Causes of Melancholy. 85 

inus, that comment, or rather paraphrase, upon Aristotles 
Physiognomy, Baptista Portas four pleasant books, Michael 
Scot de secrctis natures, John de Indagine, Moiftaltus, Antony 
Zara, auat. bufeiiiorum, sect. 2. memh. 23. et lib. 4. 

Chiromancy hath these aphorisms to foretell melancholy. 
Tasnier, Uh. 5. cap. 2. (who hath comprehended thesunimof 
John de Indagine, Tricassus, Corvinus, and others, in his 
book) thus hath it : '•'The Saturnine liae f)oinf}Jrom the rascefta 
throufjh the hand, to Satiirns mount, and there intersected by 
certain little lines, argues mehnicholy ; so if the vital and 
natural make an acute anyle. Aphorism 100 : The Satur- 
nine, epatick, and natural lines, making a gross triangle in the 
hand, argue as much ; which Gochnius (cap. 5. Chiras.) 
repeats verbatim out of him. In general, they conclude all, 
that, if /S'a^j^rws mount be full of many small lines and inter- 
sections, "^ such men are most part melancholy, miserable, and 
full of disq7iietness, care and trouble, continually vexed with 
anzious and bitter thoughts, ahcay sorrowful, fearful, sus- 
picious : they delight in husbandry, buildings, pools, marshes, 
springs, woods, rcalks, Sfc. ThaddaUs Haggesius, in his Me- 
toposcopia, hath certain aphorisms derived from Satnrns lines 
in the forehead, by which he collects a melancholy disposition; 
and '^Baptista Porta makes observations from those other parts 
of the body, as, ifaspotbe over the spleen ; '^or in the nails, 
if it appear black, it signifeth much care, grief, contention, 
and melancholy. The reason he refers to the humours, and 
gives instance in himself, that, for seven years space, he had 
such black spots in his nails, and all that while was in perpe- 
tual law-sutes, controversies for his inheritance, fear, loss of 
honour, banishment, grief, care, &c. and when his miseries 
ended, the black spots vanished. Cardan, in his book de libris 
propriis, tells such a story of his own person, that a little be- 
fore his sons death, he had a black spot, which appeared in 
one of his nails, and dilated it self as he came nearer to his 
«nd. But I am over-tedious in these toyes, w hich (howsoever, 
in some mens too severe censures, they may be held absurd and 
ridiculous) I am the bolder to insert, as not borrowed from 
circumforanean roguesand Gipsies, but out of the writing-s of 
worthy philosophers, and physicians, yet living-, some of them, 



" Satumia, a rascetta per tnediam nianutn decurrens, usque ad radicem montis Sa- 
turni, a par\'is lineis intersecta, arguit melancholicos. Aphoris. 78. * Agi- 

tantuc miseriis, continuis inquietudinibus, neque unquam a solicitudine liberi sunt: 
aniie afflignntur amarissimis intra cogitationibus, semper tristes, siispiciosi, meticu- 
losi : cogitationes sunt, velle agrum colere, stagna amant et paludes, &c. Job. de Inr 
dagie. bb. 1. - c Ccelestis Physiogn. lib. 10. dCap, 14. lib- 5. Idem Macula 

m UDgulis nigrae, lites, rixas, melancholiam significant, ab humore in corde tali. 



86 Causes of' Melancholy, [ Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

and lelig-ioiis professors in famous universities, who are able 
to patronize that which they have said, and vindicate them- 
selves from all cavillers and ignorant persons. 



SUBSECT. V. 

Old age a cause. 

SECUNDARY peculiar causes efficient (so called in re- 
spect of the other precedent) are either congenitce^ in- 
ternee innata, as they term them, inward, innate, inbred ; 
or else outward and adventitious, which happen to us after we 
are born : conoenite, or born with us, are either natural, as 
old age, or prater naturam (as ''Fernelius calls it), that dis- 
temperature, which we have from our parents seed, it being 
an hereditary disease. The first of these, which is natural to 
all, and which no man living' can avoid, is ''old age, which 
being cold and dry, and of the same quality as melancholy is, 
must needs cause it, by diminution of spirits and substance^ 
and increasing of adust humours. Therefore '^Melancthon 
avers out of Aristotle, as an undoubted truth, senes plerumque 
delirdsse in senectd, that old men familiarly dote, ob atram 
bilem, for black choler, which is then superabundant in them : 
and Rhasis, that Arabian physician, (in his Co7it. lib. 1. cap. 
9.) calls it *^ a necessary and inseparable accident to all old 
and decrepit persons. JIfter seventy years, (as the ^ Psalmist 
saith) all is trouble and sorrow ; and common experience con- 
firms the truth of it in weak and old persons, especially in 
such as have lived in action all their lives, had great imploy- 
ments, much business, much command, and many servants, 
to oversee, and leave off ea.' abrupto ; as ^Charles the Fifth 
did to 'King Philip, resign up all on a sudden. They are 
overcome with melancholy in an instant; or, if they do con- 
tinue in such courses, they dote at last, (senex bis puerj 
and are not able to manage their estates, through common 
infirmities incident to their age; full of ache, sorrow, and 
grief, children again, dizards; they carle many times as 
they sit, and talk to themselves ; ^they are angry, waspish, 
displeased with every thing, suspicious of all, wayward, 
covetous^ hard, (saith Tully) self-willed, superstitious, self- 
conceitedf braggers and admirers of themselves, as Balthasar 

* Lib. 1. Path. ell. ^ Venit eninij properata malis, inopina senectus : 

Et dolor aetatem jussit inesse meam. Boethius, met. 1. de consol. philos. c Cap. 

de humoribus, lib. de anima. ^ Necessarium accidens decrepitis, et inseparabile 

e Psal, 90. 10. fMeteran. Belg. hist. lib. 1. ' g Sunt morosi, et anxii, et 

iracnndi, et difficiles senes, si quseruuus, etiam avari, Tull. de senectute. 



Mem. 1. Subs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy . 87 

Castalio hath truly noted of them. This natural infirmity is 
most eminent in old women, and such as are poor, solitary, live 
in most base esteem and beggary, or such as are witches ; 
insomuch that ^ Wierus, Baptista Porta, Ulricus Molitor, Ed- 
wicus, do refer all that witches are said to do, to imagination 
alone, and this humour of melancholy. And whereas it is 
controverted, whether they can bewitch cattle to death, ride 
in the air upon a coulstaft' out of a chimne3'-top, transform 
themselv^es into cats, dogs, &c. translate bodies from place to 
place, meet in companies, and dance, as they do, or have car- 
nal copvdation with the devil, they ascribe all to this redun- 
dant melancholy, which domineers in them, to ''somniferous 
potions, and natural causes, the devils policy. Non Iccdunt 
omnino, (saith W ierus) ant quid mirumjaciuut, (de Lamiisy 
lib. 3. cap. S6.) nt putatvr : solum vitiatam Jiabent phanta- 
siam ; they do no such wonders at all, only their " brains are 
crazed. ** They think they are icitches and can do hurt, but do 
not. But this opinion Bodine, Erastus, Danteus, Scribanius, 
Sebastian Michaelis, Campauella, (de Sensu rerum, lib. 4, 
cap.'d.) '^ Dandinus the Jesuit, (lib. 2. de Animd) explode; 
^ Cicogna confutes at large. That witches are melancholy, 
they deny not, but not out of corrupt jjhantasie alone, so to 
delude themselves and others, or to produce such effects. 



SUBSECT. VI. 

Parents a cause by propagation. 

A HAT other inward inbred cause of melancholy is our tem- 
perature, in whole or part, which we receive from our parents, 
which spernelius calls/?r<E^er naturam, orunnatural,itbeingan 
hereditary disease ; for as he ''justifies, quale parentum, maxime 
patris, semen obtiyerit, tales evadunt simulares spermaticceque 
partes : quocumqjie etiam morbo pater, quum generate tenetur, 
cumsemine transfert in prolem : such as the temperature of the 
father isjsuch is the sons; and, look, what disease thefatherhad 



» Lib. 2. de Aulico. Senes avari, morosi, jactabundi, philanti, deliri, snperstitiosi, 
suspiciosi^ &c. Lib. 3. de lamiis, c, 17. et 18. ''SolamiTDj opinm, lapi adeps, 

lac. asini, &c. sanguis infantum, &c. « Corrupta estiis ab hnmore melancholico 

phantasia. Nymannus. ''Putant se Ijedere, quando non laedunt. «Qui 

haec in imaginationis vim referre conati sunt, aut atrae bilis, inanera prorsus laborem 
susceperunt. f Lib. 3. cnp. 4. omnif. mag. ? Lib. I.e. 11. path. '■ Vt 

arthritici, epilep. Sec. 

VOL. 1. P 



88 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

when he begot him, his son will have after him, * and is as 
well inheritor of his infirmities, as oj'his lands. And where the 
complexion and constitution of the father is corrupt, there, 
C'saith Roger Bacon) the complexion and constitution of the 
son must needs he corrupt ; and so the corruption is derived 
from the father to the son. Now this doth not so much appear 
in the composition of the body, according to that of Hippo- 
crates, ^in habit, proportion, scarrs, and other lineaments; but 
in manners and conditions of the mind; 

Et patrum in nates abeunt, cum semine, mores. 

Seleucus had an anchor on his thigh ; so had his posterity, as 
Trogus records, /. 15. Lepidus (in Pliny, /. 7. c. 17) was pur- 
blind; so was his son. That famous family of iEnobarbi were 
knownof old, and so surnamed, from their red beards. The 
Austrian lip, and those Indians flat noses, are propagated ; the 
Bavarian chin, and goggle eyes amongst the Jews, as '^ Bux- 
torfius observes. Their voice, pace, gesture, looks, are likewise 
derived, with all the rest of their conditions and infirmities ; 
such a mother, such a daughter ; their very ^ affections Lem- 
nius contends to follow their seed, and the malice and bad con- 
ditions of children are many times wholly to be imputed to their 
parents. I need not therefore make any doubt of melancholy, 
but that it is an hereditary disease. ^Paracelsus in express 
words affirms it, lib. de morb. amentium. To. 4. TV. 1 ; so 
doth s Crato in an epistle of his to Monavius : so doth Bruno 
Seidelius, in his book de morbo incurab. Montaltus proves 
{cap. II.) out of Hippocrates and Plutarch, that such here- 
ditary dispositions are frequent ; et hanc (inquit) feri reor 
ob participatum melancholicam intemperantium (speaking of 
a patient) : I think he became so by participation of melan- 
choly. Daniel Sennertus (/i6. 1. part. 2. cap. 9.) will have this 
melancholy constitution derived not only from the father to the 
son, but to the whole family sometimes ; quandoque totisfami- 
His hcereditativam. •'Forestus in his Medicinal Observations, 
illustrates this point with an example of a merchant his patient 



aUt filii, non tarn possessionum, qiiam morborum hseredes sint. bEpist. de 

secretis artis et natiiraj, c. 7. Nam in hoc quod patres corrupt! sunt, generant filios 
corruptse complexionis, et compositionis ; etfilii eorum, eadem de caussa, se corrum- 
punt; et sic derivata corruptio a putribns ad filios. ^ Non tam (inquit Hippocrates) 
gibbos et cicatrices oris et corporis habitum apioscis ex iis.sed veruni incessum, gestus, 
mores, morbos, &c. '' Synagog-. Jud. « AtYectus parentum in fetus 

transeuut, et puerorum malitia parentibus imputanda,!. 4. cap. 3, de occult, nat. mirac. 
f Ex pituitosis pituitosi, ex biliosis biliosi, ex lienosis et melancholicis melancholici. 
sEp. 174. in Scoltz. Nascitur nobiscum ilia, aliturque, et una cum parentibus habe> 
mus malum hunc, Jo. Pelesius, lib. 2. de cura humanorum aflfectuum. ^ Lib. 10. 
observ. 15, 



Mem". 1; Subs. G.] Causes of Melanchobi. 89 

that had this infirmity by inlioritance; so doth Rodericus 
a Fonseca, {Tom. 1. cows?//. 69) by an instance ofa young man 
that was so affected ex matre. melancholic a, had a melancholy 
mother, et vicfu melanchoHco, and bad diet together. Ludo- 
vicus Mercatus, a Spanish physician, (in that excellent tract, 
which he hath lately written of hereditary diseases,Tbm. 2. oper. 
lib. 5.) reckons up leprosie, as those ^Galbots in Gascony, he- 
reditary lepers, pox, stone, gout, epUepsie, &c. Amongst the 
rest, this and madness after a set time comes to many, whicli 
he calls a miraculous thing in nature, and sticks for ever to 
them as an incurable habit. And, that which is more to be 
wondered at, it skips in some families the father, and goes to 
the son, ^ or takes every other, and sometimeji every third, hi 
a lineal descent, and doth not alicayes produce the same, hut 
some like, and a symboliziny disease. Tliesesecundary causes, 
hence derived, are commonly so powerful, that (as "= Wolphius 
holds) S(Bpe mutant decreta siderum ; tiiey do often alter the 
primary causes, and decrees of the heavens. For these reasons, 
belike, the church and common-wealth, humane and divine 
laws, have conspired to avoid hereditary disaases, forbidding 
such marriages as are any whitallyed ; and, as Mercatus ad- 
viseth all families, to take such, si fieri possit, qncE ma.rime 
distant naturd, and to make choice of those that are most dif- 
fering in complexion from them : if they love their own, and 
respect the common good. And sure, I think, it hath been 
ordered by Gods especial providence, that, in all ages, there 
should be, (as usually there is) once in "^six hundred years, a 
transmigration of nations to amend and purifie their blood, as 
we alter seed upon our land,and that there should be as it were an 
inundation of those northern Goths and Vandales, and many 
suchlike people which came out of that continent of Scandia, 
and Sarmatia (as some suppose,) and over-ran, as a deluge, 
most part of Europe and Africk, to alter (for our good) our 
complexions, which were much defaced with hereditary in- 
firmities, which by our lust and intemperance we had con- 
tracted. A sound generation of strong and able men were 
sent amongst us, as those northern men usually are, innocu- 
ous, free from riot, and free from diseases; to qualifie and 
make us as those poor naked Indians are generally at this 
day, and those about Brasile, (as a late ^ writer observes) in 



aMaginus, Geog. bSaepe non eundem, sed similem producit effectum, et 

illaeso parente transit in nepotem. cj)ial. praefix. genituris Leovitii. <<Bo(]in. 

de rep. cap. de periodis reip. «■ Claudius Abaville, Capurhion. in his voyage to 

Maragnan. 1614. c. 45. Nemo fere a"'^rotus, sano omnes et robusto corpora, vivunt 
aiiDos 120, 140, sine medicina. Idem- Hector Boethius de insulis Orchad. etDamianus 
a Goes de Scandia. 

p2 



90 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

tlieisleof Maragnan, free from all hereditary diseases, or other 
contagion, whereas, without help of physick, they live com- 
monly an hundred and twenty years or more ; as in the Or- 
chades and many other places. Such are the common effects 
of temperance, and intemperance ; but I will descend to par- 
ticulars, and shew by what means, and by whom especially, 
this infirmity is derived unto us. 

I^ilii ex senibusnati raro sunt ^rmi temperamenti : old mens 
children are seldom of a good temperament, (as Scoltzius 
supposeth, consult. 177) ^wd therefore most apt to this disease : 
and, as '^ Levinus Lemnius farther adds, old men beget, most 
part, wayward, peevish, sad, melancholy sons, and seldom 
merry. ''He that begets a child on a full stomach, will either 
have a sick clifld, or a crazed son (as '' Cardan thinks, contra- 
dict, med. lib. 1. contradict. 18) ; or, if the parents be sick or 
have any great pain of the head, or megrim, head-ache, ('^Hie- 
ronymus Wolfius doth instance in a child of Sebastian Cas- 
talio's) or if a drunken man get a child, it will never, likely, 
have a good brain, as Gellius argues, lib. 12. cap. 1. JEbrii 
gignunt ebrios ; one drunkard begets another saith ''Plutarch, 
(sym. lib. 1, qucest. 5.) whose sentence ^ Lemnius approves, 
/. I.e. 4. Alsarius Crutius Gen. de qui sit med. cent, 3. 
fol. 182. Macrobius lib. I. Avicenna lib. S. Fen. 21. 
Tract 1. cap. 8. and Aristotle himself sect. 2. prob. 4. 
Foolish, drunken, or hair-brain women, most part bring forth 
children like unto themselves, morosos et languidos : and so 
likewise he that lyes with a menstruous woman. Intemperantia 
Veneris, quam in nautis prcesei-tim insectatur ^ Lemnius, qui 
uxores ineunt, nulla menstrui decursus ratione habitd, nee ob' 
servato interlunio, prcecipua caussa est, iioxia, perniciosa : 
(concubitum lumc exitialem ideo, et pestij'erum, vocat Rode- 
Ticus a Castro, Lusitanus ; detestantur ad unum omnes medici) 
turn et quarto, lund concepti, infelices plerumque et ametites, 
deliri, stolidi, morbosi, impuri, invalidi, tetrci lue sordidi, 
minime mtales, omnibus bonis corporis atque animi destituti: 
ad laborem nati, si seniores, (inquit § Eustathius) ut Hercules, 
et alii. ^ Judcei maxime insectantur fcedum hunc et immun- 
dum apud Christianas concubitum, ut illicitum abhorrent, et 
apud suos prohibent ; et quod Christiani toties leprosi, 
amentes, tot morbilli, impetiyines, alphi, psorce cutis et Juciei 



i^Lib. 4. c. 3. de occult, nat. mir. Tetricos plerumque filios senes progeneiant et 
tristes, rarius exhilarates. ''Coitus super repletionem pessimus, etfilii qui turn gig- 
nuntur, aut morbosi sunt, aut stolidi. e Dial, prsefix. Leovitio. ^ L. de ed. liberis. 
•^De occul. nai mor.Temulentse et stolidse mulieres liberos plerunque prodiicunt sibi 
similes. f Lib. 2. c. 8. de occult, nat mir. Good master schoolmaster, do not 

englisW this- gDe nat. mul. lib. 3. cap. 4. h Buxendorphiuj*, c. 13. Syuag. 

Jud. Ezek. 18. 



Meiiib. 1. Subs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy. 91 

decolor ationes, tarn multi morbi epidemici, acerbi, et venenosi 
sint, in hunc immundum concubitum rejiciunt ; et crudeles in 
pifjnora vocant, qui, qnartd lund, projiiiente hac mensinni 
illuvie, concubitum hunc nnn perhorrescunt. Damnavit olim 
divina lex, et morte mulctavit hujusviodi homines (Lev. 18. 20) 
et inde nati si quideformes ant mutili, pater dilapidatus,quod 
non contineret ab ^immundd muliere. Gregorius J\Iaynus,pe' 
tienti Augustino numquid apud ^ Britannos kujusmodi concu- 
bitum toleraret, severe prolnbuit viris suis turn misceri Jeminas 
in consnetis suis nienstruis, Sfc. I spare to English this which 
I have said. Another cause some give — inordinate diet, as if a 
man eat garlick, onions, fast over-much, study too hard, be 
over sorrowful, dull, heavy, dejected in mind, perplexed in his 
thoughts, fearful, &c. their children (saith ^ Cardan subtil, 
lib. J 8) will be miich subject to madness and nielancholg ; Jor, 
ij' the spirits of the brain be fusled or mis-affected by such 
means at such a time, their children icill bejusled in the brain ; 
they will be dull, heavy, timorous, discontented all their lives. 
Some are of opinion, and maintain that paradox or problem, 
that wise men beget commonly fools. Suidas gives instance 
in Aristarchus the grammarian ; duos reliquit Jilios, Aristar- 
chum et Aristachorum, ambos stultos; and (which ''Erasmus 
urgeth in his Moria) fools beget wise men. Card, subtil. I. 12. 
gives this cause : quoniam spiritus sapicntium ob studium re- 
solvuntur, et in cerebrumferuntur a corde : because their na- 
tural spirits are resolved by study, and turned into animal ; 
drawn from the heart, and those other parts, to the brain. 
Lemnius subscribes to that of Cardan, and assigns this reason, 
quod persolvant debitum languide, et oscitanter ; undej'etus a 
parentum generositate desciscit: they pay their debt (as Paul 
calls it) to their wives remisly ; by which means their children 
are weaklings, and many times idiots and fools. 

Some other causes are given, which properly pertain to, and 
proceed from, the mother. If she be over-dull, heavy, angry, 
peevish, discontented, and melancholy, not only at the time of 
conception, but even all the while she carries the child in her 
womb, (saith Fernelius,/>fl^/((. /. 1. 1 1) her son will be so like- 
wise affected ; and worse, (as* Lemnius adds, /. 4. c. 7) if she 
grieve overmuch, be disquieted,or by any casualty beaft'righted 
and terrified by some fearful object, heard or seen, she endan- 



»Drusiu3, obs. lib. 3, cap. 20. bfied. Eccl. hist. lib. 1. c. 27. respon. 10. 

•^ Nam spiritus cerebri si turn male afficiantur, tales prorreant ; et quales fnerint af- 
fectus, tales filiorum: ex tristibus tristes, ex jacandis jacnndi nascDDtor, &c. 
<* Fol. 229. mer. Socrates children were fools. Sab. « De occol. nat. mir. Pica, 

morbus mulierum. 



92 Causes oj' Melancholy. [Part. 1 . Sec. 2. 

eers her child, andspoils the temperature of it ; for the strange 
imaoination of a woman works effectually upon her infant, 
that (as Baptista Porta proves, Pliysiog. ecelestis, l.b.c. 2) she 
leaves a mark upon it; which is most especially seen in such 
as prodigiously long for such and such meats : the child will 
love those meats, saith Fernelius, and be addicted to like hu- 
mours. ^ If' a c/reat-bellied womaji see a hare, her child will 
often have an hare-lip, as we call it. Garcaeus, de Judiciis fje- 
niturarum, c. 33. hath a memorable example of one Thomas 
Mickell, born in the city of Brandeburge, 1551, ^that icent 
reeling and staggering all the dayes of his life, as if he would 
fall to the ground, because his mother, being great with child, 
saw a drunken manreeling in the street. Such an other 1 find 
in Martin Wenrichiusjcow. c?eor^Mmows^rorMm,c. J 7. ^Isaw, 
(saith he) at Wittenberge in Germany, a citizen that looked 
like a carkass. / asked him the cause : he replyed, his mother , 
token she bore him in her womb, saw a carkass by chance, and 
was sore affrighted with it, that ex eo fetus ei assimilatus : 
from a ghastly impression, the child was like it. 

So many several wayes are we plagued and punished for 
our fathers defaults ; in so much that (as Fernelius truly saith) 
'^it is the greatest part of our felicity to be well born ; and it 
wei'e happy for humane kitid,ifonly such parents, as are sound 
of body and mind,should be suffered to marry. An husband- 
man will sow none but the best and choicest seed upon his 
land ; he will not rear a bull or an horse, except he be right 
shapen in all parts, or permit him to cover a mare, except he 
be well assured of his breed ; we make choice of the best rams 
for our sheep, rear the neatest kine, and keep the best dogs; 
quanta id diligentius in procrearidis liberis observandum? and 
how careful then should we be in begetting of our children? In 
former time, some ^ countreyshave been so chary in this behalf, 
so stern, that, if a child were crooked or deformed in body or 
mind, they made him away; so did the Indians of old (by the 
relation of Curtius), aud many other well-governed common- 
wealths, according to the discipline of those times. Here- 



a Baptista Porta, loco prad. Ex leporum intuitn plerseque infantes edunt bifido su- 
periore labello. b Quasi inox in terram collapsunis, per omnem vitam ince- 

debat, cum mater gravida ebrium hominem sic incedentem viderat. f Civem 

facie cadaverosa, qui dixit, &c. <• Optimum bene nasci ; maxima pars ff lici- 

tatis nostras bene nasci ; quamobrem prasclare humane gencri consultum videretur, si 
soli parentes bene habiti et sani liberis operam darent. <> Infantes infirmi pra;- 

cipitio necati. Bohemus, lib. 3 c. 3. Apud Laconesoliiu. Lipsius, epist. 85 cent, 
ad Belgas, Dionysio Villerio, Siqnos aliqiia membrorum parte inuUIes notaverint, na- 
carijubent. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 3.] Causes of Melancholy . 93 

tofore, in Scotland, (saith '^ Hect. Boetliius) if any were visited 
with the Jailing sickness, madness, gout, leprosie, or any suck 
dangerous disease, which was likely to be propagated from the 
father to the son, he teas instantly gelded ; a woman kept from 
all company of men ; and if by chance, having some such dis- 
ease, she were found to be %vith child, she with her brood were 
buried alive: and this was done for the common good, lest the 
whole nation should be injured or corrupted. A severe doom, 
you will say, and not to be used among-st Christians, yet more 
to be looked into than it is. For now, by our too much facility 
in this kind, in giving way for all to marry that will, too much 
liberty and indulgence in tolerating all sorts, there is a vast con- 
fusion of hereditary diseases, no family secure, no man almost 
free from some grievous infirmity or other. When no choice is 
had, but still the eldest must marry, as so many stallions of the 
race ; or, if rich, be they fools or dizzards, lame or maimed, un- 
able, intemperate, dissolute, exhaust through riot, (as he said) 
^ jure htjcreditario sapere jubentur ; they must be wise and able 
by inheritance ; it comes to pass that our generation is corrupt ; 
we have many weak persons, both in body and mind, many feral 
diseases raging amongst us, crazed isiavMes, parentes peremp- 
tores ; our fathers bad ; and we are like to be worse. 



MEMB. II. 
SUBSECT. I. 

Bad diet a cause. Substance. Quality of meats. 

-According to my proposed method, having opened 
hitherto these secundary causes, which are inbred with us, I 
must now proceed to the outward and adventitious, which hap- 
pen unto us after we are born. And those are either evident, 
remote ; or inward, antecedent, and the nearest : continent 
causes some call them. These outward, remote, precedent 
causes are subdivided again into necessary and not necessary. 
J^ecessary (because we cannot avoid them, but they will alter 
us, as they are used, or abused) are those six non-natural things, 
so much spoken of amongst physicians, which are principal 
causes of this disease: for,almostin every cousultation,whereas 

»Lib. 1. de veterum Scotorum moribus. Morbo comitiali, dementia, raa»iri, lepra, 
&c. aut simili labe, quae facile in proiem trannmittitiir, laborantes inter [eos, 'ingenti 
facta inilagine, inventos, ne gens fceda contagionc laederetur, ex iis nata, castraverant; 
mnlieres hujnsmodi procnl a virorum consortio ableganint ; quod si hartun aliquacon- 
cepisse inveniebatur, simnl cum fetn nonditm edito, defodiebatar viva. ''Eaphormio 
Satyr. 



94 Causes of Melancholy. [I^art 1. Sec. 1. 

tliey shall come to speak of the causes, the faultis found, and 
this most part objected to the patient ; jaeccavif circa res sex 
non natnrales : he hath still offended in one of those six. Mon- 
tanus,(cowsi7. 22.) consul ted about amelancholy Jew, givesthat 
sentence; so did Frisemelica in the same place; and, in his two 
hundred forty fourth counsel, censuringa melancholy souldier, 
assigns that reason of his malady : ^He offended in all those six 
non-natural things, which were the outward causes, from which 
came those inward obstructions ; and so in the rest. 

These six non-natural things are diet, retention, and 
evacuation, which are more material than the other, because 
they make new matter, or else are conversant in keeping or 
expelling it. The other four are, air, exercise,sleeping,waking, 
and perturbations of the mind, which only alter the matter. 
The first of these is diet, which consists in meat and drink, 
and causeth melancholy, as it offends in substance oraccidents, 
that is quantity, quality, or the like. And well it may be 
called a material cause, since that, as ** Fernelius holds, it hath 
such a power in begetting of diseases, and yields the matter 
and sustenance of them ; for neither air, nor perturbations, 
7ior any of those other evident causes, take place or work this 
effect, except the constitution of body and preparation of hu- 
mours do concur ; that a man may say, this diet is the 
mother of diseases, let the father be what he icill ; and from 
this alone, melancholy and frequent other maladies arise. 
Many physicians, I confess, have written copious volumes of 
this one subject, of the nature and qualities of all manner of 
meats; as, namely, Galen, Isaac the Jew ; Halyabbas, Avicenna, 
Mesne, also four Arabians; Gordonius,Villanovanus, Wecker, 
Johannes Bruernius, sitologia de Esculentis et Proculentis, 
Michael Savanarola, Tract. S. cap. 8. Anthony Fumanellus, 
lib. de regimine senum. Curio in his comment on Schola 
Salerna, Godefridus Stekiusai'te med. MarsiliusCognatus, Fici- 
nus, Ranzovius, Fonseca, Lessius, Magninus, regim.sanitatis, 
Frietagius, Hugo Fridevallius, &c. beside many other in 
•^English; and almost every pecidiar physician discourseth at 
large of all peculiar meats in his chapter of melancholy. Yet, 
because these books are not at hand to every man, I will briefly 
touch Avhat kind of meats ingenderthis humour, through their 
several species, and which are to be avoided. How they alter 



a Fecit omnia delicta, quae fieri possnnt, circa res sex non naturales ; et eas fueriint 
raussBR extrinseccE, ex quibiis postea orta; sunt obstructiones. bPath, I. I.e. 2. 

Maxiniiim in gignendis morbis vim obtinet, pabulum, materiamque morbi suggerens : 
nam nee ab aere, nee a perturbationibus, vel aliis evidentibus canssis morbi sunt, nisi 
consentiat corporis prseparatio, et humorum eonstitutio. Ut semel dicam, una gula est 
omnium morborum mater, etiamsi alius est genitor. Ab hac morbi spoute saepe 
t-jnanaut, nulla alia eogente caussa. ^Cogan, Eliot, Vauban, Vener. 



Mem. S. Sub^. 1.] Causes of Jielamholy. 95 

and change the matter, spirits first, and after humours, hy 
wl)ich we arc preserved, and the constitution of our body, 
Fernelius and others will shew you. I hasten to the thing- it 
self: and, first, of such diet as offends in substance. 

Beef.'] Beef, a strong and hearty meat (cold in the first 
degree, dry in the second, saith Gal /. 3. c. 1. de alimfac.) 
is condemned by him, and all succeedingauthors,to breed gross 
melancholy blood ; good for such as are sound, and of a strong 
constitution, for labouring men, if ordered aright, corned, 
young of an ox, for all gelded meats in every species are held 
best; or, if old, ^ such as have been tired out with labour, are 
preferred. Aubanus and Sabellicus commend Portugal beef 
to be the most savoury, best, and easiest of digestion ; we com- 
mend ours : but all is rejected and unfit for such as lead aresty 
life, any ways inclined to melancholy, or dry of complexion. 
Tales (Galen thinks) de facili melancholicis cBgriiudbiihiis 
capiuntvr. 

Pork.'] Pork, of all meats, is most nutritive in his own na- 
ture, but altogether unfit for such as live at ease, or are any 
Mays unsound of body or mind; too moist, full of huiuours, 
and therefore noxia delicatis, saith Savanarola, ex eanim usii 
lit duhitetur, cnifehris qunrtana (jeneretnr : naught for queasie 
stomachs, in so much, that frequent use of it may breed a 
quartan ague. 

Goat.] Savanarola discommends goats flesh, and so doth 
*> Bruerinus, /. 13. c. 19, calling it a filthy beast, and rammish; 
and therefore supposeth it will breedrank and filthysubstance : 
yetkid,such as are young and tender, Isaac excepts,Bruerinus, 
and Galen, /. 1. c. 1. de alimentornmfacultatibus. 

Hart.] Hart, cuid red deer, ^ Jtat'h a» evil name ; it yields 
(/ross nutriment ; a strong and great grained meat, next unto 
a horse, which although some countries eat, as Tartars and 
they of China, yet '^ Galen condemns. Young foals are as com- 
monly eaten in Spain, as red deer, and to furnish their navies, 
about Malaga especially, often used. But such meats ask 
long baking or seething, to qualifie them; and yet all will 
not serve. 

Venison, Fulloio Deer.] All venison is melancholy, and 
begets bad blood : a pleasant meat in great esteem with us 
(for we have more parks in England than there are in all 
Europe besides) in our solemn feasts. 'Tis swuewhat better, 



» Fnetagius. ''Non laudatur, qiiia ui'-'ancholicum prsebetalimentam. 

•■Male alit cervma (inqnit FrietaRius): crassissinmin et atribilarium siippeditat ali- 
f"^"!""'- '' I-'ih. de subtiliss. diccla. Equina caro et asinina equinis danda est 

huniinibus et asininis. 



96 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2 

Lunted, tban otherwise, and well prepared by cookery; but 
generally bad, and seldom to be used. 

Hare.] Hare, a black meat, melancholy, and hard of diges- 
tion : it breeds incubus, often eaten, and causeth fearful dreams; 
so doth all venison, and is condemned by a jury of physicians. 
Mizaldus and some others say that hare is a merry meat, and 
that it will make one fair, as Martials epigram testifies to Gellia; 
but this is per accidens, because of the good sport it makes, 
merry company, and good discourse that is commonly at the 
eating of it, and not otherwise to be understood. 

Conies.] ^ Conies are of the nature of hares. Magninas 
compares them to beef, pig, and goat, Reff. sanit.part. 3. c. 17 : 
yet young rabbets, by all men are approved to be good. 

Generally, all such meats as ai-e hard of digestion, breed 
melancholy. Aretseus, lib. 7. cap. 5, reckons up heads and 
feet, •'bowels, brains, entrails, marrow, fat, blood, skins, and 
those inward parts, as heart, lungs, liver, spleen, &c. They 
are rejected by Isaac, lib. 2. part. 3. Magninus, joar^ 3. cap. 
17. Bruerinus, lib. 12. Savanarola, Rub. 32. Tract. 2. 

Milk.] Milk, and all that comes of milk, as butter and cheese, 
curds, &c. increase melancholy (whey only excepted, which is 
most wholesome.) "" Some except ass-esmilk. The rest, to such 
as are sound, is nutritive and good, especially for young 
children ; but, because soon turned to corruption, "^not good 
for those that have unclean stomacks, are subject to headach, 
or have green wounds, stone, 8cc. Of all cheeses, I take that 
kind which we call Banbury cheese to be the best. Exvetustis 
^pessimus, the older, stronger, and harder, the worst, as Lan- 
gius discourseth in his Epistle to Melancthon, cited by 
Mizaldus, Isaac, p. 5. Gal. 3. de cibis boni sued, ^-c. 

I^owl.] Amongst fowl, ^peacocks and pigeons, all fenny 
fowl, are forbidden, as ducks, geese, swans, herns, cranes, 
coots, didappers, waterhens, with all those teals, curs, shel- 
drakes, and peckled fowls, that come hither in winter out of 
Scandia, Muscovy, Greenland, Friezland, which half the year 
are covered all over with snow and frozen up. Though these 
be fair in feathers, pleasant in taste, and have a good outside 
(like hypocrites), white in plumes, and soft, their tlesh is hard, 
black, unwholesome, dangerous, melancholy meat. Gravant 
et putrejaciunt stomachum, saith Isaac, part. b. de vol, their 
young ones are more tolerable ; but young pigeons he quite 
disproves. 

a Parum abaunt a natura leporum. Bruerinus, 1. 13. cap. 25. puUorum tenera et 
optima. *" lUaudabilis succi nauseam provocant. c Piso. Altomar. 

d Curio. Frietagius, Magninus. part. 3. cap. 17. — Mercurialis,. de affect, lib. f. c. 10. 
excepts all milk meats in hypocondriacal melancholy. « Wecker, Syntax, theor. 

p. 2. Isaac, Bruer. lib. 15. cap. 30. et 31. 



Mem. 2. Subs. I.] Causes oj Melancholy. 97 

Fislies.'] Rhasis aiul "MjJgninus discommend all fish, and 
say, theyl)reed*?7'&'cos?7ies, slimy nutriment, little and humorous 
nourishment; Savanarola adds cold, moist; and phleomatick, 
Isaac; and therefore unwholsomefor all cold and melancholy 
complexions. Others make a difference, rejecting* only among- 
fresh-water fish, eel, tench, lamprey, craw-fish, (which Bright 
approves, cap. 6), and such as are bred in muddy and standing 
Avaters, and have a taste of mud, as Franciscus Bonsuetus 
poetically defines. (Lib. de aquatilibris) 

Nam pisces omues, qui stagna lacusque frequentant, 
Semper plus succi deteriores habent. 

All fish, that standing: pools and lakes frequent, 
Do ever yield bad juyce and nourishment. 

Lampreys, Paulus Jovius (c. 34. de jnscibus Jluvial.) highly 
magnifies, and saith, none speak against them, but inepti and 
scrnpvlosi ; some scrupidous persons; hwi^ eels (c. S3,) heab- 
liorreth : in all places, at all times, all physicians detest them, 
especially about the solstice. Gomesius (lib. 1. c. 22. de sale) 
tloth immoderately extol sea-fish, which others as much vilifie, 
and, above the rest, dryed, sowced, indurate fish, as ling-^ 
fumados, red-herrings, sprats, stock-fish, haberdine, poor-john, 
all shell-fish. ^Tim Bright excepts lobster and crab, Mes- 
sarius commends salmon, which Bruerinus contradicts, lib. 22. 
c. 17. Magninus rejects congre, sturgeon, turbot, mackerel, 
skate. 

Carp is a fish of which I know not what to determine. Fran- 
ciscus Bonsuetus accounts it a muddy fish. Hippolytus Sal- 
vianus, in his book de Piscium naturd prccparatione, which 
was printed at Rome in folio 1541, (with most elegant pic- 
tures) esteems carp no better than a slimy watery meat. Pau- 
lus Jovius, on the other side, disallowing tench, approves of 
it; so doth Dubravius in his book offish-ponds. Frietagius 
^ extols it for an excellent wholesome meat, and puts it amongst 
the fishes of the best rank ; and so do most of our countrey 
gentlemen, that store their ponds almost with no other fish. 
But this controversie is easily decided, in my judgement, 
by Bruerinus, /. 22. c, 13. The difference riseth from the 
site and nature of pools, '^ sometimes muddy, sometimes sweet: 
they are in taste as the place is, from whence they be taken. In 

»Cap_ 18. part 3, '' Omni loco et omni tempore medici detestantiir anguillas, 

praesertim circa soistitium. Daranantiir tain sanis turn aegris. <" Cap. 6. in his 

Trdct of Melancholy. ''Optime nutrit, omnium judicio, intfr primsp notap pisws 

gn?fu prap'^lanti. « Non est rliibiuni, r\W\n, pro viiarioiiini situ ac naturi), niagnas 

alimcutorum soitianUii diffeientias, alibi siiavioies, alibi lulultLtiores. 



98 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

like manner almost, we may conclude of other fresh-fish. But 
see more in Rondeletius, Bellonius, Oribasius, lib. 7- cap. 22. 
Isaac, /. I. especially Hippolytus Sal vianus, who is instar om- 
nium, solus, Sfc. Howsoever they may be wholesome and ap- 
proved, much use of them is not good. P. Forestus, in his 
Medicinal Observations, ^relates, that Carthusian fryers, whose 
living ismost part fish, are more subject to melancholy than any 
other order; and that he found by experience, being sometimes 
their physician ordinary at Delph in Holland. He exemplifies 
it with an instance of one Buscodnese, a Carthusian of a ruddy 
colour, and well liking, that, by solitary living and fish-eating, 
became so misafli'ected. 

Herbs.'] Amongst herbs to be eaten, I find gourds, cow- 
cumbers, coleworts, melons, disallowed, but especially cab- 
bage. It causeth troublesome dreams, and sends up black 
vapours to the brain. Galen, {loc. affect. I. 3. c. 6) of all 
herbs, condemns cabbage ; and Isaac, lib. 2. c. I. animce gra- 
vitatemfacit, it brings heaviness to the soul. Some are of 
opinion, that all raw herbs and sallets breed melancholy blood, 
except Ijugloss and lettice. Crato {consil. 21. lib. 2) speaks 
against all herbs and worts, except borrage, bugloss, fennel, 
parsly, dill, bawn, succory. Magninus, (regim. sanitatusy 3. 
part. cap. 3 1 ) omnes lierboe simpllciter maloB, via, cibi : all herbs 
are simply evil to feed on (as he thinks). So did that scoft- 
ing cook in '' Plautus hold. 

. Non ego ccenam condio, ut alii coqui soleut, 

Qui mihi condita prata in patinis proferunt, 
Boves qui convivas faciunt, herbasque aggerunt. 

Like other cooks, I do not supper dress, 

That put whole medows in a platter, 
And make no better of the guests than beeves, 

With herbs and grass to feed them fatter. 

Our Italians and Spaniards do make a whole dinner of herbs 
and sallets (which our said Plautus calls coenas terrestres, Ho- 
race, coBiias sine sanguine) ; by which means, as he follows it, 

*^ Hie homines tarn brevem vitam colunt 

Qui herbas hujusmodi in alvum suam congerunt : 

Formidolosum dictu, non esu modo, 

Quas herbas pecudes non edunt, homines edunt. 

Their livves, that eat such herbs, must needs be short; 
And 'tis a fearful thing for to report, 

a Obaervat. 16. lib. 10. '' Pseudolus; act. 3. seen. 2. = Plautus, ibid, j 



Mem. 2. Subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 99 

That men should feed on such a kind of meat, 
Which very juments would refuse to eat. 

^ They are >vindy, and not fit therefore to be eaten of all men 
raw, though (qualified witli oyl, but in broths, or otherwise. 
See more of these in every ^ husbandman and herbalist. 

Roots.'] Roots {etsi quarundanKjenthim opes sint, saith Brue- 
rinus — the wealth of some countries, and sole food) are windy 
and bad, or troublesome to the head ; as onyons, oarlick scul- 
lions,turneps,carrets,vadishes,parsnips. CraU)(lib.2. consil.il.) 
disallows all roots; though "^^ some approve of parsnips and 
potatoes. 'I Magninus is of Cratos opinion — * t/ieif trouble the 
mind, sendinr/ gross fumes to the bruin, make r.ien mad, espe- 
cially garlick, onyons, if a man liberally feed on them a year 
together. Guianerius {tract. 15. cap. 2.) complains of all 
manner of roots, and so doth Bruerinus, even parsnips them- 
selves, which are the best ; Lib. 9. cap. 14. jmstinacurum usus 
succos f/if/nit improbos. 

Fruits.] Crato (consil. 21. lib. 1) utterly forbids all manner 
of fruits, as pears, apples, plums, cherries, strawberries, nuts 
medlers, serves, &c. Sanrjuinem in/iciunt, saith Villanovanus ; 
they infect the blood; and putrifie it, Magninus holds and' 
must not therefore be taken, fiflcjfti, autquantitate magna, wot 
to make a meal of, or in any great quantity. 'Cardan makes 
that a cause of their continual sickness atFessa in Africk,iec«Mse 
they live so much on fruits, eating them thrice a day. Lau- 
rentius approves of many fruits, in his Tract of Melanchohf, 
which others disallow, and, amongst the rest, apples, (which 
some likewise commend) as sweetnigs, pairmains, pippins, as 
good against melancholy ; but to him that is any May inclined 
to or touched with this malady, ^Nicholas Piso,in his Practicks, 
forbids all fruits, as windy, or'to be sparingly eaten at least, and 
not raw. Amongst other fruits, ^ Bruerinus (out of Galen) 
excepts grapes and figs; but I find them likewise rejected. 

Pulse.] All pulse are naught, beans, pease, fitches, &'c. 
they fill the brain (saith Isaac) with gross fumes, breed black 
thick blood, and cause troublesome dreams. And therefore 
that which Pythagoras said to his scholars of old, may be for 
ever applyed to melancholy meu.Afabisabstitiete; eat no pease 



aQuare rectms valetadini suae quisque consnlet, qui, lapsus prioruni parentum 
raemor, eas plane vel omisent vel parce degustarit. Kersleius, cap. 4. de \t-ro iisu med 
«> In Mizaldo de Horto, P. Crescent Herbastein, &c. e Cap. J3. part. 3. Br\<^\it 

in his Tract of Mel. '' Intt-llectum turbant, producunt iusaniain. <=Aiidi>i' 

(inqnit Magnin.) qaod, si quis ex iis per annum continue comedat, in insaniain caderet' 
c. 13. liuprobisucci sunt. cap. 1-2. ' De rermu vaiietat. lu Fes>a pleriimoue 

ni')rbosi, quod fnii^us .jniedc^nt ler in die. - Caj>. de mel. '• tiib. 11. c. 3 ' 



TOO , Cames of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

nor beans. Yet, to such as will need eat them, I would give 
this counsel; to prepare them according to those rules that 
Arnoldus Villanovanus and Frietag-ius prescribe, for eating- 
and dressing- fruits, herbs, roots, pulse, &c. 

Spices^ Spices cause hot and head melancholy, and are, 
for that cause, forbidden by our physicians, to such men as are 
inclined to this malady, as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, 
mace, dates, &c. hony and sugar. ^Some except hony : to 
those that are cold, it may be tolerable ; but '' dulcia se in hilem 
vertunt ; they are obstructive. Crato therefore forbids all spice 
(in a consultation of his for a melancholy schoolmaster), omnia 
aromatica, et quidquid sanguinem adurit : so doth Fernelius, 
consil. 45 ; Guianerius, tract. 15. e. 2; Mercurialis, cons. 189. 
To these I may add all sharp and sowre things, luscious, and 
over sweet, or fat, as oyl, vinegar, verjuice, mustard, salt; as 
sweet things are obstructive, so these are corrosive. Gomesius 
(in his book de sale, I. 1. c. 21) highly commends salt; so do 
Codronchus in his tract de sale absinthii, Lemn. /. 3. c. 9. de 
occult, nat. mir. Yet common experience finds salt, and salt- 
meats to be great procurers of this disease : and for that cause, 
belike,those Egyptian priests abstained from salt, even somuch 
as in their bread, ut sine pertnrbatione anima esse^, saith mine 
author — that their souls might be free from perturbation. 

Bread."] Bread that is made of baser grain, as pease, beans, 
oats, rye, or *" over-hard baked, crusty and black, is often 
tspoken against as causing melancholy juyce and wind. John 
Mayor, in the first book of his History of Scotland, contends 
much for the wholesomeness of oaten bread, it was objected 
to him then living at Paris in France, that his countrymen 
fed on oats and base grain, as a disgrace ; but he doth ingenu- 
ously confess, Scotland, Wales, and a third part of England, 
did most part use that kind of bread ; that it was wholsome 
as any grain, and yielded as good nourishment. And yet 
Wecker (out of Galen), calls it horse meat, and fitter for ju- 
ments than men to feed on. But read Galen himself, (^Lib. 1. 
De cibis boni et malt sued) more largely discoursing of corn 
and bread. 

Wine.] All black wines, over-hot, compound, strong thick 
drinks, as Muscadine, Malmsie, Allegant, Rumny, Brown - 
bastard, Metheglen, and the like, of which they have thirty 
several kinds in Muscovy — all such made drinks are hurtful 
in this case, to such as are hot, or of a sanguine cholerick com- 



» Bright (c. 6.) excepts hony. *> Hor. apud Scoltzium, consil. I86. « Ne 

eomedas cnutam, choleram quia gignit adustam. Schol. Sal. 



Memb. 1. Subs. 2.] Causesi of Melancholy. 101 

plexion,young-, or inclined tohead-raelancholj^tfor many times 
the drinking of wine alone causeth it. Arculanus (e. 16. in 9. 
Rhash) puts in ^ wine for a g-reat cause, especially if it be im- 
moderately used. Guianerius {Trac. 15 c. 2) tells a story of two 
Dutchmen, to whom he gave entertainment in his house, that, 
*'in one months space, ivere both melancholg by drinkinrj of wine : 
one did nought but sing, the other sigh. Galen (/, de ransis 
morb. c. 3), Matthiolns (on Dioscorides) and, above all other, 
Andreas Bachins, /. 3. 18, 19, 29) have reckoned upon those 
inconveniences that come by wine. Yet, notwitiistanding all 
this, to such as are cold, or sluggish melancholy, a cup of wine 
is good physick ; and so doth Mercurialis grant, consil. 25. In 
that case, if the temperature be cold, as to most melancholy men 
it is, wine is much commended, if it be moderately used. 

Cider, Perry.] Cider and Perry are both cold and windy 
drinks, and, for that cause, to be neglected ; and so are all 
those hot spiced strong drinks. 

Beer.'] Beer, if it be over new or over stale, over strong, or 
not sod, smell of the cask, sharp, or so\\t, is most unwholsome, 
frets, and gauls, &c. Henricus Ayrerus, in ^ a consultation of 
his, for one that laboured of hypocondriacal melancholy, dis- 
commends beer ; so doth ^ Crato (in that excellent counsel of 
his, lib. 2. consil. 21) as too windy, because of the hop. But 
he means, belike, that thick black Bohemian beer used in 
some other parts of ^ Germany. 

-nil spissius ilia, 



Dum bibitur ; nil clarius est, dum mingitur ; unde 
Constat, cjuod multas faeces in corpore linquat — 

Nothing comes in so thick ; 
Nothing goes out so thin ; 
It must needs follow, then. 
The drugs are left within — 

^s that old ^poet scoffed, calling it Stygi/e rnonstrum conforme 
palndi, a monstrous drink, like the river Styx. But let them 
say as they list, to such as are accustomed' unto it, 'tis a most 
wholsome (Sso Polydor Virgil calleth it) and a pleasattt drinks- 
it is more subtil and bitter for the hop, that rarities it, and 
hath an especial vertue against melancholy, as our herbalists 
confess, Fuchsius approves, lib. 2. sect. 2. instit. cap. 11. and 
many others. 

« Vinum turbidum. b Ex vini patentia bibitione, duo Alemanni in uno mense 

melancholici facti sant <■ HildesLeim, spicil. fol. '273. JCrassum general 

sangTunem. eAbout Dantzick, Inspruce, Hamburg, Lvpsick. fHenricus 

Abnncensis. cPotus turn salubris turn jucundus, I. I. 



102- Causesi of Melancholy. [Part. I. Sec. '2. 

Waters.'] Standing- waters, thick and ill colouied, such as 
come forth of pools and motes, where hemp hath been 
steeped; of- slimy fishes live, are most unwholsome,putrified, 
and full of mites, creepers, slimy, muddy, unclean, con upt, 
impure, by reason of the suns heat, and still standing-. They 
cause foul distemperatures in tlie body and mind of man, are 
unfit to make drink of, to dress meat with, or to be ^ used 
about men inwardly or outwardly. They are good for many 
domestical uses, to wash horses, water cattle, &c. or in time 
of necessity, but not otherwise. Some are of opinion, that 
such fat standing waters make the best beer, and that seething- 
doth defecate it, as ^ Cardan holds {lib. 13. subtil.) it mends 
the substance and savour of it ; but it is a paradox. Such 
beer may be stronger, but not so wholsome as the other, as 
•* Jobertus truly justifieih, out of Galen, {Paradox, dec. 1. 
Paradox. 5) that the seething- of such impure v,aters 
doth not purge or purify them. Pliny {lib. 31. c. 3.) is of 
the same tenet ; and P. Crescentius, agricult. lib. 1. et lib. 4. 
c. 11. et c. 45. Pamphilius Herilachus, /. 4. denat. aqnarum, 
such waters are naught, not to be used, and (by the testi- 
mony of "^ Galen) breed agues, dropsies, pleurisies, splenetick 
and melancholy passions, hurt the eyes, cause a bad tem- 
.perature, and ill disjwsition oj'the ichole body, with bad colour. 
This Jobertus stifly maintains, {Paradox, lib. 1. jjart. 5) that 
it causeth bleer eyes, bad colour, and many loathsome diseases 
to such as use it. This, which they say, stands with good 
reason ; for, as geographers relate, the water of Astracan 
breeds worms in such as drink it. * Axius, or (as now called) 
Verduri, the fairest river in Macedonia, makes all cattle 
black that taste of it. Aliacmon, now P.eleca, another stream 
in Thessaly, turns cattle most part white, si potui ducas. 
I. Aubanus Bohemus referrs that ^struma, or poke of the 
Bavarians and Styrians, to the nature of their waters, as 
g Munster doth that of the Valesians, in the Alps ; and *> Bodine 
supposeth the stuttering- of some families in Aquitania, about 
Labden, to proceed from the same cause, and that thejilth 
is derived from the tvater to their bodies. So that they 
that use filthy standing, ill-coloured, thick, muddy water, 
must needs have muddy, ill-coloured, impure, and infirm 
bodies : and, because the body works upon the mind, they 

a Galen. 1. 1. de san. tuenci. Oavendae sunt aquse qua ex stagnis hauriuntur, et 
quae turbidse et male olentes, &c. ^ Innoxinm reddit et bene olentem. 

c Contendit hsec vitia coctione non emendari. <i Lib. de bonitate aquae. Hy- 

dropem auget, lebresputridas, splenein,tusses ; nocetoculis ; malum habitum corporis 
et colorem. « Mag. Nigritatem inducit, si pecora biberint. f Aquse ex 

nivibus coactae strumosos faciunt. b' Cosmog. 1. 3. cap. .36. ''Method. 

hist. cap. b. Balbutiunt Lahdoni in Aquitania ob aquas ; atquf hi niorbi ab aquis ia 
corpora deri\'antiir. 



Mem. 2. Subs. -2.] Di/et a Cause. 103 

shall have grosser understandinof, «lull, fogoy, melancholy 
spirits, an«l be really subject to all manner of infirmities. 

To these noxious simples we may reduce an infinite num- 
ber of compound, artificial made dishes, of which our cooks 
aflford us a great variety, as taylors do fashions in our apparel. 
Such are =* puddings scuffed with blood, or otherwise composed, 
baked meats, sowced, indurate meats, fryed. and broiled, but- 
tered meats, condite, powdered, and over-dryed, ^ all cakes, 
simnels, buns, cracknels, made with butter, spice, &c. frit- 
ters, pancakes, pies, salsages, and those several sawces, sharp, 
or over sweet, of which scientia popitife, (as Seneca calls it) 
hath served those 'Apician tricks, and perfumed dishes,which 
Adrian the Sixth, pope, so much admired in the accounts of his 
predecessouT Leo (lecimns ; and which prodioiousriot and pro- 
digality have invented in this age. These do generally ingen- 
der gross humours, fill the stomach with crudities,and all those 
inward parts with obstructions. Montanus (cnnsil. 22) gives 
instance in a melancholy Jew, that, by eating such tart sawces, 
made dishes, and salt meats, with which he was over-much 
delighted, became melancholy, and was evil affected. Such 
examples are familiar and conunon. 



SUBSECT. 11. 

Quantity of Dyet a cause. 

-i- HERE is not so much harm proceeding from the substance 
it self of meat, and quality of it, in ill-dressing and prepar- 
ing, as there is from the quantity, disorder of time and place, 
unseasonable use of it, '' intemperance, over-much or over- 
little taking of it. A true saying it is, Plures crapula quam 
rjladius; this gluttony kills more than the sword; this omni- 
vorantia, ethomicida tfula^ this all devouring, and murdering 
gut. And that of ^ Pliny is truer; simple diet is the best : 
heapinr/ tip of several meats is pernicions, and sawces worse; 
many dishes bring many diseases. ' Avicen cryes out, that 



" Ednlia ex sanguiue et snffocato parta. Hildesheim. b Ctipedia vpro pla- 

centae, bellaria, commentaque alia ciiriosa pistorum et coqnorum gustiii ser\iei)tiam, 
conciliant morbos tnra corpori turn aiiimo itisanabiles. Philo Judaeus, lib. de vic- 
• timis. P. Jov. vita ejus. c As lettice steeped in wine, birds fed with fennel and 

su^ar, as a popes concubine used in Avignion. Stephan. <i Animse upgotiam 

ilia facessit, et deteinpio Dei immundum stabulum facit Peletius, 10. c. eLib. 

11, c. 52. Honriini cibus utilissimus simplex ; acervatio cibonim pestifera, et con- 
dimenta perniciosa ; multos morbos niulta fereula ferunt. ''31 Dec 2. c. Ni- 

hil detenus quam si teinpus justo longius comedendo protrahatnr, et varia ciborona 
genera conjungantur ; inde morborum scatorigo, qua ex repngnantia humorum 
oritur. 

VOL. I. O 



104 Dypt a Cause. [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

nothing is worse than to ^ feed on many dishes, or to protract 
the time of meals longer than ordinary ; from thence proceed 
our infirmities ; and 'tis the fountain of all diseases, which 
arise out of the repugnancy of gross humours. Thence, saith 
'^ Fernelius, comes crudities, wind, oppilations, cacochymia, 
plethora, cachexia, bradypepsia : *> hinc suhitcc mortes, atque 
intestata senectus; suddain death, &c. and what not. 

As a lamp is choked with a multitude of oyl, or a little, 
fire with overmuch wood, quite extinguished ; so is the natural 
heat, with immoderate eating, strangled in the body. Perni- 
ciosa sentina est abdomen insaturabile, one saith — an insa- 
tiable paunch is a pernicious sink, and the fountain of all dis- 
eases, both of body and mind. "^ Mercurialis will have it a 
peculiar cause of this private disease. Solenander {consol.b. 
sect. 3) illustrates this of Mercurialis, with an example of one 
so melancholy, ab intempestivis comissationibus, unseason- 
able feasting. ^ Crato confirms as much, in that often cited 
counsel, 21. lib. 2, putting superfluous eating for a main cause. 
But what need I seek farther for proofs ? Hear '^ Hippocrates 
himself, lib. 2, aphoris. 10. Impure bodies, the more they 
are nourished, the more they are hurt ; for the nourishment is 
putrifed with vicious humours. 

And yet, for all this harm, which apparently follows surfet- 
ting and drunkenness, see how we luxuriate and rage in this 
kind. Read what Johannes Stuckius hath written lately of 
this subject, in his great volumn De Antiquorum Conviviis, and 
of our present age : quam ^ portentoscB ca>ncB, prodigious sup- 
pers : s qui^ dum invitant ad ccenam, ejferunt ad sepulcrum, 
what Fagos, Epicures, Apetios, Heliogables our times atford? 
Lucullus ghost walks still ; and every man desires to sup in 
Apollo : ^sops costly dish is ordinarily served up. 

_•' Magis ilia juvant, quse pluris emuntur : 



the dearest cates are best ; and 'tis an ordinary thing to be- 
stow twenty or thirty pound on a dish, some thousand crowns 
upon a dinner. 'Muley-Hamet, king of Fez and Morocco, 
spent three pound on the sawce of a capon : it is nothing in 
our times : we scorn all that is cheap. We loath the very 
^ light, (some of us, as Seneca notes) because it comes free ; and 

aPath. 1. 1. C.14. b Juv. Sat. 5. cNimia repletio ciboram facit me- 

laDcholicum. "^ Comestio superflua cibi, et portus quantitas nimia. « Im- 

pura corpora quanto magis Isedis : putrefacit enim alinientum vitiosus humor, 
f Vid. Goclen. de portentosis ccenis, &c. Puteani Cora. 8 Amb., lib. 

de Jeju. cap. 14. '■ Juvenal. ' Guicciardin. '' Na. quaest. 4. 

«a. ult. fastidio est lumen gratuitum ; dolet quod solem, quod spiritum, emere non 
possimus, quod hie aer, noe emptus, ex facili, &c. adeo nihil placet, nisi quod ca- 
rum est. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 2.] Dyet a Cause. 105 

we are offended with the suns heat, and those cool blasts, be- 
cause we buy them not. This air we breath is so common, 
we care not for it ; nothinof pleaseth but what is dear. And, 
if we be "^ witty in any thing-, it is ad yvlam : if we study at 
all, it is erudito lu.ru, to please the palat, and to satisfie the 
o^ut. A cook oj' old was a base knave (as ''Livy complains), 
but now a great man in request : cookery is become an art, a 
noble science : cooks are r/entlemen : venter deus. They 
wear their brains in their bellies, and their guis in their 
heads, (as " Agrippa taxed some parasites of his time) rushing- 
on their own destruction, as if a man should run upon the 
point of a sword; usque dum rumpantur, comedunt : ^all day, 
all night, let the pjiysician say what he will — imminent 
danger and feral diseases are now ready to seize upon them— 
they will eat till they vomit, (edunt ut vomant ; vomu7it ut 
edant, saith Seneca; which Dion relates of Vitellius, Solo 
transitu ciborum iiutriri judicatus : his meat did pass throuo-h, 
and away) or till they burst again. " Strac/e animantium veti- 
trem onerant ; and rake over all the world, as so many "^^slaves, 
belly-gods, and land-serpents ; et totus orbis ventri iiimis an- 
ffustus ; the whole world cannot satisfie their appetite. ^Sea, 
land, rivers, lakes, ^-c. may not give content to their raqinq 
guts. To make up the mess, what immoderate drinking 
in every place ! Senem potum pota trahehat anus : how they 
flock to the tavern ! as if they wevefruges consumere nati, 
born to no otherend than to eat and drink, (like Offellius Bibu- 
ius, that famous Roman parasite, qui, dum vixit, aut bibit aut 
minxit) as so many casks to hold wine ; yea, worse than a 
cask, that marrs wines,and it self is not marred by it. Yet these 
are brave men ; Silenus ebrius was no braver : et qucejue- 
runt vitia, mores sunt: 'tis now the fashion of our times, an 
honour : nunc vero res ista eo rediit (as Chrysost. serm. 80. 
in 5. Ephes. comment) ut effeminata redendceque ignavice 
loco habeatur, nolle inebriari ; 'tis now come to that pass, 
that he is no gentleman, a very milk sop, a clown, of no 
bringing up, that will not drink, fit for no company : he is 
your only gallant that plays it off' finest, no disparagement 
now to stagger in the streets, reel, rave, &c. but much to his 
fame and renown ; as, in like case, Epidicus told Thesprio his 
fellow servant, in the '' poet. jEdepol ! Jvcinus improbum, 



■ "Ingeniosi ad gulam. bOlim vile raancipium, nunc in omni festiraati- 

one ; nunc ars haberi coepta, &c. <• Epist. 28. 1, 7. quorum in ventre ingeninm, 

in patinis, &c. "iln lucem coenat Sertoriiis. « Seneca. fMancipia 

gulae, dapes non sapore sed sumptn aestiniantes. Seneca, consol. ad Helyidium. 
g SjBvientia guttura satiare non possunt fluvii et maria. yEueas Sylvius, de raiser. 
liuriaJ. I'Plautus. 

q2 



106 Dijet a Cause. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

one urged : the other replied, At jam alii fecere idem; erit 
illi ilia res honori : 'tis now no fault, there be so many brave 
examples to bear one out; 'tis a credit to have a strong brain, 
and carry his liquor well : the sole contention, who can drink 
most, and fox his fellow soonest. 'Tis the summum bonum of 
our tradesmen, their felicity, life and soul, (tantd dulcedine 
affectant, saith Pliny, lib. 14. cap. 12, ut Jiiagna pars non 
aliud vitce prcemium intelligani) their chief comfort, to be 
merry together in an ale-house or tavern, as our modern Mus- 
covites do in their mede-inns, and Turks in their coifee-houses, 
Avhich much resemble our taverns : they will labour hard all 
day long, to be drunk at night, and spend totius anni labores 
(as St. Ambrose adds) in a tipling feast; convert day into night, 
as Seneca taxeth some in his times, pervertunt ojfficia noctiset 
lucis ; when we rise, they commonly go to bed, like our An- 
tipodes, 

Nosque ubi primus equis Oriens afflavit anhelis, 
Illis sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper. 

So did Petronius in Tacitus, Heliogabalus in Lampridius, 

a Nodes vigilabat ad ipsum 

Mane; diem totum stertebat. 



Symdiris the Sybarite never saw the sun rise or set, so much 
as once in twenty years. Verres, against whom Tully so much 
inveighs, in winter he never was extra tectum, vix extra 
lectiim, never almost out of bed, ''still wenching, and drink- 
ing ; so did he spend his time, and so did myriads in ourdayes. 
They have gymnasia bibonum, schools and rendezvous; these 
Centaures and Lapithaetoss pots and bowls, as so many balls, 
invent new tricks, as salsages, anchoves, tobacco, caveare, 
pickled oysters, herrings, fumadoes, &c. innumerable salt- 
meats to increase their appetite, and study how to hurt them- 
selves by taking antidotes, ''■ to carry their drink the better : 
^and when naught else serves, they will go forth, or be con- 
veyed out, to empty their gorge, that they may return to drink 
afresh. They make laws, insanas leges, contra bibendifoU 
lacias, and "^ brag- of it when they have done, crowning that 
man that is soonest gone, as their drunken predecessours 
have done, f* quid ego video ? Ps. Ciim corona Pseudo- 
lum ebrium tuvmj and, when they are dead, Mill have a 

aHor. ^ Diei brevitas conviviis, noctis longitudo stupns, conterebratur. 

cEt, quo pins capiaut, irritamenta excogitantur. d Foras portantur, ut ad con- 

vivium reportentur; repleri ut exhauriant, et exhaiirire ut bibant Ambros. eln- 

gentia vasa, velut ad ostentationein, &c. fPlautiis. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 2.] Dyet a Cause. 107 

can of wine, with ^ Marons old woman, to be engraven on 
their tombs. So they triumph in villany, and justifie their 
wickedness, Mith Rabelais, that French Lucian, " drunken- 
ness is better for the body than physick, because there be 
more old drunkards, than old physicians." Many such frothy 
arguments they have, ''inviting and encouraging others to do 
as they do, and love them dearly for it (no glew like to that 
of good fellowship.) So did Alcibiaues in Greece, Nero, 
Bouosus, Heliogabalus in Rome (or Alegabalus rather, as he 
Avas stiled of old, as "^ Ignatius proves out of some old coyns) ; 
so did many great men still, as ^ Heresbachius observes, 
When a prince drinks till his eyes stare like Bitias in the poet. 

■C ille impiger hausit 



Spuraantera vino pateram)- 



and comes off clearly, sound trumpets, fife and drums, the 
spectators will applaud him; the ^bishop himself, (if hebelye 
them not) with his chaplain, icill stand bji, and do as much ; 
O dignum principe haustnm ! 'twas done like a prince. Our 
Dutchmen invite all comers u'ith a pail and a dish : velut in- 
J'undibula, integras obbas exhanriunt, et in monstros^is poculis 
ipsi monstrosi vio7istrosius epotant, making barrels of their 
bellies. Incredibile dictu, (as " one of their own country- 
men complains) ^ (juantnm liqnoris immodestissima gens ca- 
piat, Sfc. Hoio they love a man that ivill be drunk, crown 
him, and honour him for it, hate him that will not pledge 
him, stab him, kill him : a most intolerable offence, and not to 
be forgiven. ' He is a mortal enemy that will not drink 
with him, as Munster relates of the Saxons. So, in Poland, 
he is the best servitor, and the honestesl fellow, (saith Alex- 
ander Gaguinus) ^that drinkeih most healths to the honour of his 
master ; he shall be rewarded as a good servant, and held the 
bravest fellow, that carries his liquor best ; when as a brewers 
horse will bear much more than any sturdy drinker; yet, for his 
noble exploits in this kind, he shall be accounted a most valiant 
man; for ^ tam inter epulas fortis vir esse potest ac in bello, 
as much valour is to be found in feasting, as in fighting ; and 



»Lib. 3. Anthol. c. 20. •'Gratiam conciliant potando. f Notis ad 

CsEsares. <i Lib. de educandis principuin lihertis. ^Virg. fJdem 

Btrenui potori* episcopi sacfllanus, cum ingentem pateram exhaurit princeps. 
? Bohemus, in Saxonia. Adeo immoderate etimmodeste ab ipsis bibiturj ut, in compo 
tationibus suis, non cyathis solum et cantharis sat infuodere possint, sed impletam 
mulctrale apponant, et scutella injecta hortantur quemlibet ad libitum potare. •> Dicta 
incredibile, quantum hujusce liquoris immodesta gens capiat : plus potantem araicissi- 
mum habent, etserto coronant, inimicissinium e contra qui non vult, et c«de et fustibui 
erpiaat > Qui potare recusat, hostis habetur ; et caede nonnumquam res 

expiatnr. '' Qui melius bibit pro salute domini, melior habetur minister. 

' Grace, poeta apud Stobseum, ser. 18. 



108 I>yet a Came. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

some of o«r city captains, and carpet knights, will make this 
good and prove it. Thus they many times wilfully pervert the 
good temperature of their bodies, stifle their wits, strangle 
nature and degenerate into beasts. 

Some again are in the other extream, and draw this mischief 
ontheir heads by too ceremonious and strict diet, being over- 
precise, cockney-like, and curious in their observation of 
meats,times, as that Merficnm statica prescribes — just so many 
ounces at a dinner (which Lessiusenjoins), so much at supper; 
not a little more, nor a little less, of such meat, and at such 
hours ; a dyet drink in the morning, cock-broth, China-broth, 
at dinner, plumb-broth, a chicken, a rabbet, rib of a rack of 
mutton, wing of a capon, the merry-thought of a hen, &c. — 
to sounder bodies, this is too nice and most absurd. Others 
offend in over-much fasting; piningadayes,(saith^Guianerius) 
and waking a nights, as many Moors and Turks in these our 
times do. Anchorites^ monks, and the rest oj'that superstitious 
rank, (as the same Guianerius witnesseth, that he hath often 
seen to have hapned in his time) through immoderate J^astingy 
have been frequently mad. Of such men, belike, Hippocrates 
speaks, ( I Aphor. 5) when as he saith, ^they more offend in 
too sparing diet, and are worse damnified, than they that feed 
liberalkf and are ready to surfeit. 



SUBSECT. III. 



Custom of Dyet ^ Delight, Appetite, Necessity, how they cause 
or hinder, 

J^ O rule is so general, which admits not some exception; to 
this therefore which hath hitherto been said, (for I shall other- 
wise put most men out of commons) and those inconveniences 
which proceed from the substance of meats, an intemperate or 
unseasonable use of them,custom somewhat detracts, and quali- 
fies, according to that of Hippocrates, 2 Aphoris. 50. "" Such 
things as ive have been long accustomed to, though they he evil 
in their oivn nature, yet they are less offensive. Otherwise it 

» Quide die jejiinant, et nocte vigilant, facile cadunt in melancholiam ; et qui naturae 
moduin excediint, c.5. tract. 15. c. 2. Longa famis tolerantia, ut iis SEepe acciditqui 
tanto cum fervore Deo servire ciipiunt per jejunium, quod maniaci efficiantur, ipse vidi 
88epe. b In tenui victu agri delinquuit ; ex quo fit ut majori afBciantur detri- 

mento, majorque fit error temn quam pleniore victu.> f Quae longo tempore 

consueta sunt, etiamsi deteriora, minus in assuetis molestare solent. 



Mom. 2. Subs. 3.] Causes of Melancholy. 109 

might well be objected, that it were ameer "tyranny to live after 
those strict rules of physick ; for custom '" doth alter nature it 
self; and to such as are used to them, it makes bad meats whol- 
some, and unseasonable times to cause no disorder. Cider and 
perry are windy drinks ; (so are all fruits windy in'themselves, 
cold most part) yet, in some shires of '^England, Normandy in 
France, Guipuscovain Spain, 'tis their common drink ; and they 
are no whit offended with it. In Spain, Italy, and Africk, they 
live most on roots, raw herbs, camels "^ milk, and it agrees well 
with them ; which to a stranger will cause much grievance. In 
Wales, lacticiniis vescuntur, (as Humfrey Lluyd confesseth, a 
Cambro-Brittain himself, in his elegant epistle to Abrahura Or- 
telius) they live most on white meats ; in Holland on fish, 
roots, " butter ; and so at this day in Greece, as ^ Bellonius 
observes, they had much rather feed on fish than flesh. With 
us, maxima pars rictus in came consistit ; we feed on flesh 
most part, (saith "Polydor Virgil) as all northern countreys do; 
and it would be very offensive to us to live after their dyet, or 
they to live after ours : we drink beer, they wine : they use oyl, 
we butter : we in the north are ''great eaters, they most sparing 
in those hotter countreys: and yet they and we, following our 
own customs, are well pleased. An Ethiopian of old,seeingan 
Europaean eat bread, wondered, quomodo stercoribus vescentes 
viveremus, how he could eat such kind of meats ; so much 
differed his countrey-men from ours in dyet, that (as mine 
' author infers), si (juis illorumvictum apudnos cemulari vellet; 
if any man should so feed with us, it would be all one to 
nourish, as cicuta, uconitum, or hellehor it self. At this day, 
in China, the common people live, in a manner, altogether on 
roots and herbs ; and, to the wealthiest, horse, ass, mule, dogs,, 
cat-flesh is as delightsome as the rest : so ""Mat. Riccius the 
Jesuit relates, who lived many years amongst them. The. 
Tartars eat raw meat, and most commonly ' horse-flesh, drink 
milk and blood, as the Nomades of old — • 



» Qui medice vivit, misere vivit. b Consuetude altera natara. "^Here- 

fordshire, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire. >i Leo Afer. I. 1. solo camelorum 

lacte contenti, nil prajterea delitiiirum ambiunt. e FJandri vinum butyro dilu- 

tnni bibunt (nauseo referens) : ubique butyrum, inter omnia fercula et bellaria, locum 
obtineL Steph. praefat. Herod. fDelectantur Graeci piscibus magis quam car- 

nibus. gLib. 1. hist. Aug. '' P, Joyius desrrip. Britonam. They sit, 

eat and drink all day at dinner in Island, Muscoyy, and those northern parts, 
' Suidas, vit. Herod, nihilo cura eo melius quam siquis cicutam, aconitum, Stc. 
''Expedit. in Sinas, lib. 1. c. 3. hortensium herbarum et olerum apud Sinas qnam 
apud nos longe frequentior usus ; complures quippe de vulgo reperias nulla alia re, 
vel tenuitatis vel religionis caussa, vescentes. Equos, mulos, asellos, 8cc. xque fere 
vescuntur, ac pabula omnia. Mat. Riecius, lib. 5, c. 13. ' Tartari mulis, equis 

vescnntnr, et crudis camibus, et fruges coutemnont, dicentes, hoc jumentorum pabulum 
et boam, nou hominuin. 



110 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Spc. 2. 

(Et lac concretum cum sanguine potat equino). 

They scoff at our Europeans for eating- bread, which they call 
tops of weeds, and horse-meat, not fit for men ; and yet Scaliger 
accounts them a sound and witty nation, living an hundred 
years ; even in the civilcst conntrey of them, they do thus, 
as Benedict the Jesnite observed in his travels, from the great 
Mog-ors court by land to Paquin, which Riccius contends to 
be the same with Cambulu in Cataia. In Scandia, their bread 
is usually dryed fish,andso likewise in the Shetland Isles; and 
their other fare, as in Is'and, (saith '" Dithmarus Bleskenius) 
butter, cheese, and fish ; their drink,water, their lodging- on the 
ground. In America, in many places, their bread is roots, 
their meat palmitos,pinas, potatoes, &c. and such fruits. There 
be of them, too, that familiarly drink ''salt sea water, all their 
lives, eat " raw meat, grass, and that with delight : with some, 
fish, serpents, spiders; and in divers places they "^ eat mans 
flesh raw, and rosted, even the emperour '^Metazuma himself. 
In some coasts again, *one tree yields them coquernuts, meat 
and drink, fire-fuel, apparel (with his leaves), oyl, vinegar, 
cover for houses, &c. end yet these men, going naked, feeding 
coarse, live commonly a hundred years, are seldom or never 
sick ; all which dyet our physicians forbid. In Westphaling-, 
they feed most part on fat meats and wourts, knuckle-deep, 
and call it ^ cerebrum Jovis ; in the Low Countreys, with 
roots ; in Italy, frogs and snails are used. The Turks, saith 
Busbequius, delight most in fryed meats. In Muscovy, garlick 
and onions are ordinary meat and sauce, which would be 
pernicious to such as are unaccustomed to them,delightsometo 
others ; and all is *" because they liave been brought up unto it. 
Husbandmen, and such as labour, can eat fat bacon, salt gross 
meat, hard cheese, &c. (O dura messorum ilia !) coarse bread 
at all times, go to bed and labour upon a full stomach ; which 
to some idle persons would be present death, and is against the 
rules of physick; so that custom is all in all. Our travellers 
» find this by common experience : when they come in far coun- 
treys, and use their dyet, they are suddenly offended ; as our 
Hollanders and Englishmen, when they touch upon the coasts 
of Africk, those Indian capes and islands, are commonly mo- 



alslandiae descriptione. Victiis eoruin butyro, lacte, caseo consistit : pisces loco 
panis habeiit; potns aqua, aut serum ; sic vivunt sine medicina multi ad annos 200. 
bLaet. Occident. Ind. dscrip. 11]. c. 10. Aquani inarinaiii bibere sueti absque noxii. 
cDavies second voyage. I'Patagones. 'Benzo et Fer. Cortesius, lib. novus 

orbis inscrip. f Linscoften, c. FjG. palnia; instar, totius orbis arboiibus longe 

prsestantior. s Lips. ep. li Teneris assuescere mnltuin. ' Re pentinae 

niutatiuncs uoxaiii pariunt, Hippocrai. aphorism. 21. ep. 6. sect. 3. 



Mem, 2. Subs. S.] Causes of' Melancholy. Ill 

lested with calentures, fluxes, and much distempered by rea- 
son of their fruits. ■' Perer/rina, etsi suaria, solent vessentibns 
pprturhatwnes insir/nes acljerre ; strange meats, thoug-h plea- 
sant, cause notable alterations and distempers. On the other 
side, use or custom mitigates or makes all good again, JMi- 
thridates, by often use, (-vhich Pliny wonders at) was able to 
drink poyson ; and a maid, (as Curtius records) sent to Alex- 
ander from king Porus, was brought up with poyson from 
her infancy. The Turks (saith Bellonius, lib. 3. cap. 15) 
eat opium familiarly, a dram at once, which we dare not take 
in grains. ''Garcius ab Horto writes of one whom he saw at 
Goa in the East Indies, that took ten drams of opium in three 
dayes ; and yet consnlfo Inr/nehatnr, spake understandingly ; 
so mucli can custom do. "^Theophrastus speaks of a shepherd 
that could eat hallehor in substance. And therefore (Jardan 
conclu'les (out of Galen) consuetndinem ntcunque J'erendam, 
nisi ralde malam ; custom is howsoever to be kept, except it be 
extreme bad. He ad\ iseth all men to keep their old customs, 
and that by the authority of '^ Hippocrates himself; dandnm 
aliquid temporl^ Ktati, regioni, consuetudinl, and therefore 
to * continue as they began, be it diet, bath, exercise, &c. or 
Avhatsoever else. 

Another exception is delight, or appetite to such and such 
meats. Though they be hard of digestion, melancholy; yet 
as (Fuchsius excepts, cap. 6. lib. Insfit. sect 2) ^ the .stomach 
doth readibf dif/esf, and rc'illinf/b/ eatertahi svch meats ire love 
most, and are pleasinr/ to ns, abhors on the other side such as 
ire dista.'iie ; which Hippocrates confirms Jlphoris 2. 38. 
Some cannot endure cheese, out of a secret antipathy, or see 
a roasted duck, which to others is a « delightsome meat. 

The last exception is necessity, poverty, want, hunger, M'hich 
drives men many times to do that which otherwise they are 
loath, cannot endure,and thankfully to accept of it; asbeverao-e 
in ships, and, in sieges of great cities, to feed on dogs, cats, rats, 
and men themselves. Three out-laws, in ''Hector Boethius, 
being driven to their shifts, did eat raw flesh, and flesh of such 
fowl as they could catch, in one of the Hebrides, for some few 
moneths. These things do mitigateordisaunul thatwhich hath 
been said of melancholy meats, and make it more tolerable ; 
but, to such as are wealthy, live plenteously, at ease, may 
take their choice, and refrain if they will, these viands are 

« Bnierimw, L 1. c. 2S. I'Siinpl. uied. c. 4. 1. 1. <-Henmins, 1. 3. 

c. 19. prax. med. <"Aphoris 17. *^ In dubiis consuetndinem seqna- 

tur at|ole.sceii.s. et in coeptis perseveret. f Qui cum voltiptate assiimunf ur cibi, 

Vf ntriculns avidius coniplectitur, txptditinsqup concoquit ; ft. qua- displicent, aver- 
s«*tur. ■'■■ Mothing against a good stomach, as the savin-.; is. h LJb. 7. 

Hist Scot. 



J 12 Retention and Evacuation^ Causes. [Part. 1. Sec* 2. 

to be forborn, if tliey be inclined to or suspect melancholy, 
as they tender their healths; otherwise, if they be intenope- 
rate, or disordered in their dyet, at their peril be it. Qui 
monet, amat, Ave, et cave. 



SUBSECT. IV. 

Retention and Evacuation a cause, and how. 

Of retention and evacuation there be divers kinds, which 
are either concomitant, assisting, or sole causes many times 
of melancholy. ^ Galen reduceth defect and abundance to 
this head ; others, ^ all that is separated or remains. 

Costiveness.] In the first rank of these, T may well reckon 
up costiveness, and keeping in of our ordinary excrements, 
which, as it often causeth other diseases, so this of melancholy 
in particular. '^ Celsus (lib. 1. cap. 3) saith it produceth 
inflammation of the head, dulness, cloudiness, head-ach, 8j-c. 
Prosper Calenus (Uh. de atrd bile) will have it distemper 
not the organ only, '' but the mind it self' by troubling oj'it ; 
and sometimes it is a sole cause of madness, as you may read 
in the first book of'' Skenkiushis Medicinal Observations. A 
young merchant, going to Nordeling fair in Germany, for ten 
dayes space never went to stool : at his return, he was grievously 
melancholy, ^thinking that he was robbed, and would not be 
perswaded, but that all his money was gone. His friends 
thought that he had some phi Itrum given him: butCnelinus, 
a physician, being sent for, found his § costiveness alone to be 
the cause, and thereupon gave him a clister,by which he was 
speedily recovered. Trincavellius (consult. 35. lib. 1) saith as 
much of a melancholy lawyer, to whom he administered phy- 
sick ; and Kodericus a Fonseca {consult. 85. torn. 2.) ^ of a pa- 
tient of his, that for eight dayes was bound, and therefore me- 
lancholy affected. Other retentions and evacuations there are, 
not simply necessary, butat some times; as Fernelius accounts 
them, (Path. lib. 1. cap. lb) as suppression of emrods, mo- 
nethly issues in women, bleeding at nose, immoderate, or no 
use at all of Venus ; or any other ordinary issues. 

'Detention of emrods, or monethly issues, Villanovanus 
{Breviar. lib. 1. cap. 18) Arculanus,(ca/?. 16. in. 9. Rasis) Vit- 
torius Faventinus, (pract. may. Tract. 2. cap. 15) Bruel, &c. 



a 30. artis. ''Quae excernuntur aut siibsistunt. ^ Px ventre snppresso, 

inflammationes, capitis dolores, caligines, crescunt. ^ Excrementa retenta men- 

tis agitationem parere solent. « Cap. de mel. fTam delirus, ut vix se 

hominem agnosceret. gAIvus astrictuscaiissa. '' Per octo dies alvum 

siccuiu habet, et nihil reddit. 'Sive per nares, sive hacmorrhoides. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 4. Retention and Evacuation^ Causes. 113 

put for ordinary causes. Fuchsias (/. 2. sect. 5. c. 50) ^oes 
farther, and saith,*^/tfl^ many men, nnspasonahhj cured of the 
emrods, have been corrupted tvith melanchobf ; seekinr/ to 
avoid Scylla, they fall into Charyhdis, Galen (/. de hum. 
commen. 3. ad text. 26) illustrates this by an example of Lu- 
cius Martius, whom he cured of madness, contracted by this 
means ; and '' Skenkius hath other two instances of two me- 
lancholy and mad women, so caused from the suppression of 
their moneths. The same may be said of bleeding at the 
nose, if it be suddenly stopt, and have been formerly used, as 
•^ Villanovanus urgeth ; and "^ Fuchsius {lib. 2. sect. 5. cap. S3) 
stifly maintains, that without great danger, such an issue may 
not be stayed. 

Venus omitted produceth like effects. Matthiolus (epist. 5. 
I. penult.) ^avoucheih of his knowledge, that some through 
hashfulness abstained from venery, and thereupon became very 
heavy and dull; and some others, that were very timorous, 
melancholy, and beyond all measure sad. Orihasius (jyied. 
Collect, i. 6. c. 37) speaks of some, ' That, if they do not 
use carnal copulation, are continually troubled with heaviness 
and head-ach ; and some in the same case by intermission of it. 
Not use of it hints many ; Arculanus (c. 6. in 9. Rasis) and 
Magninus {part. 3. cap. 5) think, because ^it sends up poi' 
soned vapours to the brain and heart. And so doth Galen 
himself hold, that if this natural seed be over-long kept (in 
gome parties) it turns to poison. Hieronymus Mercurialis, in 
his chapter of Melancholy, cities it for an especial cause of this 
malady, '' priapismus, satyriasis, ^c. Haliabbas (5 Theor. c. 
36) reckons up this and many other diseases. Villanovaniis 
(Breviar. I. 1. c. 18^ saith he knew ^ many monks and 
widows, grievously troubled with melancholy, and that from, 
this sole cause. ""Ludovicus Mercatus (/. 2. de muUerum af- 
fect, cap. 4) and Rodericus a Castro (de morbius mulier. I. 2. 
c. 3) treat largely of this subject, and will have it produce a 
peculiar kind of melancholy, in stale maids, nuns, and widows, 
ob snpprcssionem mensium et Venerem omissam, timidce, ma^stcc, 



"Multi, intempestive ab hEemorrhoidibus curati, melancholia correpli sunt. Incidit 
in Scyllam, &c. ''Lib. 1. de Mania « Breviar 1. 7. c. 18. "iNon.sine 

niagno incommodo ejus, cui sanguis a naribus prouianat, noxii sanguinis vacuatio im- 
pediri potest. '■ iNoyi qnosdani, pra? pudore a coitu abstiueiites, torpidos pi- 

grosiiue factos; nonnullos etiam nieiancliolicos pr;rter moduui ma'stos, tiiiiidosciue. 
fNonnuUi, uisi coeant, assidue capitis gravitate infestantur. Dicit se Dovisse quos- 
dam tristes, et ita factos ex intermissione Veneris. s Vapores venenatos mittU: 

sperma ad cor et cerebrum. Sperma, plus diu retentum, transit in venenum. ''Graves 
prodncit corjwris et animi tugritudines. 'Ex spernmte supra niodum rctento, 

uionachos et viduas melaucholicos sape fieri vidi. ''Melancholia, orta a vasis 

semiuariis in utcro. 



1 14 Retention and Evacuation, Causes. [Part 1. Sec. 2. 

anxicB, verecnndce, suspiciosa^, languentes, consilii inopes, cum 
summd vitce et rerum meliorum desperatione, Sfc. they are me- 
lancholy in the highest degree, and all for want of husbands. 
jElianu, Montaltus (cap. 37. de melanchol) confirms as much 
out of Galen; so doth Wierus. Christophorus a Vega {de 
art med. lib. 3. cap. 14) relates many such examples of men 
and women, that he had seen so melancholy. Felix Plater, 
in the first book of his Observations, * tells a story of an 
antient gentleman in Alsatia, that married a young wife, and 
teas not able to pay his debts in that kind for a long time to- 
gether, by reason oj'his several infirmities. But she, because 
of' this inhibition oj' Venus, foil into a horrible Jury, and 
desired every one that came to see her, by ivords, looks, and 
gestures, to have to do with her, ^'C. ''Bernard us Paternus, 
a physician, saith, he knew a good honest godly priest, that, 
because he ivould neither willingly marry, nor make use of the 
stews, foil into grievous melancholy fits. Hildesheim {spicil. 
2) hath such another example of an Italian melancholy 
priest, in a consultation had anno 1580. Johon Pratensis 
gives instance in a married man, that, from his wifes death 
abstaining, "after marriage became exceeding melancholy: 
Rodericus a Fonseca, in a young mansomis-aiFecled, tom. 2. 
consult. 85. To these you may add, if you please, that con- 
ceited tale of a Je\v, so visited in like sort, and so cured, out 
of Poggius Florentinus. 

Intemperate Venus is, all out, as bad in the other extream. 
Galen (/. 6, de morbis popular, sect. 5. text. 26) reckons up 
melancholy amongst those diseases which are '^exasperated 
byvenery: so dodi Avicenna, ("J. 3. c. ll) Oribasius, {loc. 
citat.) Ficinus, {lib. 2. de sanitate, tuendd) Marsilius Cogna- 
tus, Montaltus, {cap. 27) Guianerius, {Tract. '5. cap.'H.) Mag- 
ninus, {cap. b.part. 3) Ogives the reason, because Ht infri- 
gidates and dry es up the body, consumes the spirits; and would 
therefore have all such as are cold and dry, to take heed of 
and to avoid it as a mortal enemy. Jacchinus {in 9. Rasis, 
cap. 15) ascribes the same cause, and instanceth in a patient 
of his, that married a young wife in a hot summer, ^and so 



aNobilis seneX Alsatus javenem uxorem duxit: at ille, colico dolore et multis 
morbis correptus, non potuit praestare oflScium mariti,. vix inito matrimonio aegrotus. 
Ilia in horrendum I'urorem incidit, ob Venerem cohibitam, ut omnium earn invisentium 
congressum, voce vultu, gestu, expeteret: et quum non consentirent, molossos Angli- 
canos magno expetiit clamore. •> Vidi sacerdotenj optimum et pium, qui, qued 

nollet uti Venere, in melancholica symptomata incidit. <= Ob abstinentiam a 

concubitu incidit in melancholiam. <iQu8e a coiru exacerbantur. eSuperfluum 

coitura caussam ponunt. f Exsiccat corpus, spiritus consumit, &c- caveant ab hoc 

sicci, velut inimico raortali. e Ita exsiccatus^ ut e melancholico statim furtit 

inaanus ; ab humectantibus curatus. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 4.] Retention and Eracuation, Causes. 115 

dryed himself' with chamher-xcork, that he became, in short 
space, from melancholi/, mad: he cured liim by inoistiiinjr 
remedies. The like example [ find in Lselius a Fonte Eu^-ubi- 
nus, (consult. 129) of a oentleraan of Venice, that, upon the 
same occasion, was first melancholy, afterwards mad. Read 
in him the story at large. 

Any other evacuation stopped will cause \\, as mcII as 
these above named, be it bile, '^ ulcer, issue, &c. Hercules 
de Saxonia, {lib. 1. cap.lQ) and Gordonius, verifie this out of 
their experience. They saw one m ounded in the head, who, 
as long- as the sore was open, lucida habnit mentis intervalluy 
was well ; but, Avhen it was stopped, rediit melancholia, his 
medancholy fit seized on him again. 

Artificial evacuations are much like in effect, as hot-houses, 
bath, blood-letting-, purging, unseasonably and inmioderately 
used. ^ Baths dry too much, if used in excess, be they natural 
or artificial, and offend, extream hot or cold; ''one dries, the 
other refrigerates, over-much. Montanus (consil. 137) saith 
they over-heat the liver. Job. Struthius {Stigmat. artis, I. 4 
c. 9) contends, "^that if one stay longer than ordinary at the 
hath, go in too oj't, or at unseasonable times, he putrijies the 
humonrs in his body. To this purpose writes Magninus (/. 3. 
c. 5). Guianerus (Tract. 15 c. 21) utterly disallows all hot 
baths in melancholy adust. ^I saw (saith he) a man that 
laboured of the gout, who, to be freed of his malady, came to the 
hath, and u-as instantly cured of his disease, but got another 
v'orse, and that u-as madness. But this judgement varies, as 
the humour doth in hot or cold. Baths may be good for one 
melancholy man, bad for another: that which will cure it in 
this party, may cause it in a second. 

Phlebotomy.'\ Phlebotomy, many times neglected, may do 
much harm to the body, when there is a manifest redundance 
of bad humours and melancholy blood ; and when these 
humours heat and boyl, if this be not used in time, the parties 
afi'ected, soinfiamed, are in great danger to be mad ; but if it 
be unadvisedly, importunely, immoderately, used, it doth as 
much harm by refrigerating the body, dulling the spirits, and 
consumingthem. As Job. ' Curio,in his tenth chapter, \^ ell re- 
prehends, such kind of letting blood doth more hurt than oood ; 
8 the humours rage much more than they did before ; and is 
so far from avoiding melancholy, that it increaseth it, and 

a Ex caiiterio et ulcere exsiccato. b Gord. c. 10. lib. 1, disconinieiids cold 

baths, as noxious. = Sicruni rf dilunt corpus. J Si quis longiiu moretur 

in lis, aut ninus frequenter aut importune utatur, huniores piitrefacit. « Efco 

•anno superiore quamdam guttosum vidi adusfum, qui, ut liberaretur de gutta ad 
balnea accessit, et, de gutta liberatus, maniacus factus est fQn Schola 

Salernitana. sCalefactio et ebullitio per venae iucisiouein tnagis saepe incitatur 

et augetur ; maiore inipetu huniores per corpus discurruut. 



116 Bad Air, a Cause. [Part 1. Sec. 2 

weakneth the sight. ''Prosper Caleniis observes as much of all 
phlebotomy, except they keep a very good diet after it : yea 
and as ^'LeoiiartusJacchinus speaks out of his own experience, 
= the blood is much hlacher to manif mew aj'ter their letting 
of blood than it was at first. For this cause, belike Sallust. 
Salvinianus (I. 2. c. 1) will admit or hear of no blood-lelting 
at all in this disease, except it be manifest it proceeds from 
blood. He was (it appears, by his own words in that place) 
master of an hospital of mad men, '^ and found bi/ long expe- 
rience, that this kind of evacuation, either in head, arm, or any 
other part, did more harm than good. To this opinion of his 
* Felix Plater is quite opposite : though some ivink at, disalloiv, 
and quite contradict, all phlebotomy in melancholy, yet by long 
experience I have found innumerable so saved, after they had 
been twenty, nay, sixty times let blood, and to live happily after 
it. It was an ordinary thing of old, in Galens time, to take at 
once from such men six pound of blood, which we now dare 
scarce take in ounces : sed viderint medici: great books are 
written of this subject. 

Purging- upward and downward, in abundance of bad hu- 
mours omitted, may be for the worst ; so likewise, as in the pre- 
cedent, if over-much, too frequenter violent, it ^weakneth 
their strength, saith Fuchius (/. 2. sect. 2. c 17) ; or, if tSey be 
strong or able to endure physick, yet it brings them to an ill 
habit ; they make their bodies no better than apothecaries 
shops ; this, and such like infirmities, must needs follow. 

SUBSECT. V. 
Bad Air a cause of Melancholy. 

Air is a cause of great moment, in producing this or any 
other disease, being that it is still taken into our bodies by 
respiration, and our more inner parts. ^ If it he impure and 
foggy, it dejects the spirits, and causeth diseases by infection 
of the heart, as Paulus hath it {lib. 1. c. 49.) Avicenna, 
(/. 1) Gal. {de san tuendd), Mercurialis, Montaltus, &c. 
^ Fernelius saith, a thick air thickneth the blood and hu- 

' a Lib. de flatnlenta Melancholia. Frequer.s sanguinis missio corpus extenuat. 
b In 9 Rhasis. Atram bilem parit, et visum debilitat. '- Multo nigrior spec- 

tatur sanguis post dies quosdam, quam fuit ab initio. '' Non laudo eos qui in 

desipientia docent secandam esse venani frontis, quia spiritus debilitatur ir.de, et ego 
longa experientia obsei-vavi in proprio xenodocliio, quod disipientes ex phlcbotoinia 
magis laeduntur, et magis desipiiint ; et melancholici stepe fiunt inde pejores. ^ De 
mentis alienat cap. 3. etsimultos hoc impiobassesciara.innumeroshac rationesanatos 
longa observatione cognovi, qui vigesies, sexagies venas tundendo,. &c. f Vires 

debilitat. g Impurus aer spiritus dejicit ; infecto corde gignit morbos. •' San- 

gninem densat, ethumores, P. 1. c. 13. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 5.] Causes of Melancholy. 117 

mours, ''Lemnius reckons up two main thing's, most proKt- 
able and most pernicious to our bodies — air and diet : and 
this peculiar disease iiothinosooner causeth('' Jubertus holds) 
than the air wlicrein tee breathe and live. " Such as is the 
air, such be ourspirits; and, as our spirits, such are our hu- 
mours. It ott'ends, commonly, if it be too ' hot and dry, 
thick, fuliginous, cloudy, blustering, or a tempestuous air. 
Bodine (in his fifth book de repnh. cap. I. 5. of his 
Method of History) proves that hot countreys are most trou- 
bled with melancholy, and that there are therefore in Spain, 
Africk, and Asia Minor, great numbers of mad men, inso- 
much, that they are compelled, in all cities of note, to build 
peculiar hospitals for them. Leo ^ A Utr (lib. 3 de Fessd nrhc), 
Ortelius, and Zuinger, confirm as much. They are ordinarily 
so cholerick in their speeches, that scarce two words pass 
without railing or chiding in common talk, and often quarrel- 
ling in their sU'eets- ^ Gordonius will have every man take 
notice of it. Note this (saith he) that in hot countreys, it 
is far more Jamiliar than in cold : although this we have now 
said be not continually so ; for, as " Acosta truly saith, under 
the aequator it self, is a most temperate habitation, wholsom 
air, a paradise of pleasure : the leaves ever green, cooling 
showres. But it holds in such as are intemperately hot, as 
^ Johannes a Meggen found in Cyprus, others in Malta, 
Apulia, and the 'iloly Land, where, at some seasons of the 
year, is nothing but dust, their rivers dryed up, the air scorch- 
ing- hot, and earth inHamed ; insomuch that many pilgrims, 
^oing barefoot, for devotion sake, from Joppa to Jerusalem 
upon the hot sands, often run mad, or else quite overwhelmed 
with sand, profundis arenis, as in many parts of Africk, 
Arabia Deserta, Bactriana, now Charassan, when the west 
wind blows, ^involuti arenis transeiintes necantur. ' Her- 
cules do Saxonia, a professor in Venice, gives this cause, why 
so many Venetian womeii are melancholy, quod din sub sole 
deyant, they tarry too long in the sun. Montanus (consiL 21), 
amongst other causes,assigns this, why that Jew his patient was 
mad, (juod tarn multum exposuit se calori etjriyori ; he ex- 
posed himself so much to heat and cold. And, for that reason, 



»Lib. .3. cap. 3. b Lib. de qiiartana. Ex aere ambiente contrahitur humor 

melancholiciis. <" Qualis aer, talis s))iritus ; et ciijusmodi apiritiis, huniores. 

■JjElianiis Montaltiis, c. 11. calidns et siccus, frigidus et siccus, pahidinosus, crassus. 
'■ Multa hie in xenodochiis fanaticoruin niillia, cjuas strictissinie catenata servantur. 
f Lib. med. part. 2. c. 19. Inteliige, quod in calidis regionibus frequenter .-icpidit 
mania, in frigidis autem tarde. ?Lib.2. '• Hodopericon, c. 7. 'Apulia 

aestivo calore maxitue fervet, ita ut ante finem Maii peiie exusta sit. ^ Maginus 

Pers. 'Pantheo, seu Pract. med. 1. 1. c. IG. Venetee inulieres, quae diu sub 

sole vivunt, aliquando melancholic^ evaduht 



118 Causes of Melancholy . [Part. 1. Sec 2. 

in Venice there is little stirring- in those brick-paved streets in 
suninier about noon; they are most part then asleep; as they 
are likewise in the great Mogors countreys, and all over the 
East Indies. At Aden, in Arabia, as ^Lodovicus Vertoniannus 
relates in his travels, they keep their markets in the night, 
to avoid extremity of heat; and in Ormus, like cattle in a pas- 
ture, people of all sorts lyo up to the chin in water all day long. 
At Braga in Portugal, Burgos in Castile, Messina, in Sicily, 
all over Spain and Italy, their streets are most part narrovv, to 
avoid the sun-beams. The Turks wear great turbans, adfu' 
gandos soils radios, to refract the sun beams ; and much in- 
convenience that hot air of Bantam in Java yields to our 
men, that sojourn there for traffick; where it is so hot, ^thnt 
they that are sick oj' the pox, life commonly bleaching in the 
s?tn, to dry up their sores. Such a complaint I read of those 
Isles of Cape Verde, fourteen degrees from the aeT|uator : they 
do male audire : '^one calls them the unhealthiest clime of 
the world, for fluxes, fevers, frenzies, calentures, which com- 
monly seize on sea-faring men that touch at them, and all by 
reason of a hot distemperature of the air. The hardiest men 
are offended with this Jieat ; and stitFest clowns cannot resist 
it, as Constantine affirms, Ayricult. 1 2. c. 45. They that are 
naturally born in such air, may not ''endure it, as Niger records 
of some part of Mesopotamia, now called Diarbecha; qui- 
husdam in locis scevienii cestu adeo suhjecta est, ut pleraque 
animaliajervore solis et coeli extinguantur ; 'tis so hot there 
in some places, that men of the countrey and cattle are killed 
with it; and Adricomius, of ''Arabia Felix, by reason ofmyrrhe, 
frankincense, and hot spices there growing, the air is so ob- 
noxious to iheir brains, that the very inhabitants at some 
times cannot abide it, much less weaklings and strangers, 
f Anatus Lusitanus {cent. 1. curat. 45) reports of a young maid, 
that was one Vincent a curriers daughter, some thirty years of 
age, that would wash her hair in the heat of the day (in July^ 
and so let it dry in the sun, § to make it yelloiv ; but by that 
means, tarrying too long in the heat, she inflamed her head, 
and made her self' mad. 

Cold air, in the other extream, is almost as bad as hot; and 
sodoth Montaltus esteem of it, (c. 11) if it be dry withal. In those 
northern countreys the people are therefore generally dull 



a Navig. 1. 2. c. 4, corninercia tiocte, hora seciintla, ob niinios, qui sieviunt iuterdiii, 
sestus, exercent ^ Morbo Callico laboraiitos exponuut ad solem, ut, niorbos 

exsiccent. "^Sir Rich. Haukins, in his Observations, sect. 13 ^ Hippo- 

crates, .3. Aphorismorum, idem ait. •" Idem Ma^inus in Persia f Descrip. 

Ter. sanct. ? Quum ad solis radios in leone longam moram Intheret^ ut capillos 

fluvos reddcret, in maniam incidit 



Mem. 2. Subs. 5.] Bad Air, a Causa. - I], 9 

Iieavy, and many witches ; wliich (as 1 liave before quoted) 
Saxo Graniniaticus, Olaus, Baptista Porta, ascribe to melan- 
choly. But tliese cold climes are more subject to natural me- 
lancholy (not this artificial) which iscoldaiid dry: for which 
cause '^Mercuriiis Britannicus, belike, putsmelancholy men to 
inhabit just under the pole. The worst of the three is a '' thick, 
cloudy, misty, foggy air, or such as comes from fens, moorish 
grounds, lakes, muckhills, draug-hts, sinks, where any car- 
kasses, or carrion lyes, or from whence any stinking fulsom 
smell comes. Galen, Avicenna, Mercurialis, new and old phy- 
sicians, hold that such air is unwholsom, and ing^enders me- 
lancholy, plagues, and what not. ' Alexandretta, an haven 
town in the Mediterraneaojsea, Saint John deUllua, an haven 
in Nova-Hispania, are much condemned for a bad air, so as 
Durazzo in Albania, Lithuania, Ditmarsh, Pomptinaj paludes 
in Italy, the territories about Pisa, Ferrara, &c. Rumney marsh 
with us, the hundreds in Essex, the fens in Lincolnshire. 
Cardan {de rernm varietate, I. 17. c. D6) finds fault with the 
site of those rich and most populous cities in the Low Coun- 
treys, as Bruges, Gant, Amsterdam, Leyden, Utrecht, &c. 
the air is bad, and so at Stockholm in Sweden, Regium in 
Italy, Salisbury with us, Hull and Lin. They may be com- 
modious for navigation, this new kind of fortification, and 
many other good necessary uses ; but are they so wholsom ? 
Old Rome hath descended from the hills to the valley; 'tis 
the site of most of our new cities, and held best to build in 
plains, to take the opportunity of rivers. Leander Albertus 
pleads hard for the air and site of Venice, though the black 
moorish lands appear at every low water. The sea, fire, and 
smoke, (as he thinks) qualifie the air; and •^ some suppose 
that a thick foggy air helps the memory, as in them of Pisa 
in Italy; and our Cambden (out of Plato) commends the site^ 
of Cambridge, because it is so near the fens. But, let the site 
of such places be as it may, how can they be excused that 
have a delicious seat, a pleasant air, and all that nature can 
afford, and yet, through their own nastiness andsluttishness, 
immund and sordid manner of life, suffer their air to putrifie, 
and themselves to be choked up ? Many cities in Turkey do 
male audire in this kind ; Constantinople it self, where com- 
monly carryon lyes in the street. Some find the same fault 
in Spain, even in Madrit, the kings seat, a most excellent 
air, a pleasant site; but the inhabitants are, slovens, and the 
streets uncleanly kept. 

/»Mandns alter et idem, sen Terra Anstralis incognita. i> Crassns, et tnrbidns 

T\ f"'**^"^ ^*^""'* an>njain. ^ Commonly called Srandarone. in Asia iMinor. 

•* Atlas Geographicus. Memoria valent Pisani, quod crassiore fniantur aere. 

VOT,. I I, 



120 Causes of Melancholy. [Part 1. Sec. 2. 

A troublesom tempestuous air is as bad as impure ; rough 
and foul weather, impetuous winds, cloudy dark dayes, as it 
is commonly with us : ccelum visujhedum, ^ Polydore calls it 
— a iilthy sky, et in quo facile generantur nubes ; as Tullies 
brother Quintus wrote to him in Rome, being then quyestor 
in Britain. In a thick and cloudy air, (saith Lemnius) men 
are tetrick, sad, and peevish : and if the western winds blow, 
and that there be a calm, or a fair sunshine day, there is a kind 
of alacrity in mens minds ; it cheers up men and beasts, but if 
it be a turbulent, rough, cloudy, stormy weather, men are sad, 
lumpish, and much dejected^ angry, waspish, dull, and melan- 
choly. This was '^Virgils experiment of old, 

Verum, ubi tempestas, et coeli mobilis humor, 
Mutavere vices, et Jupiter htimidus Austro — 
Vertuntur species aniraorum, et pectora motus 
Concipiunt alios 

But when the face of heaven changed is 

To tempests, rain, from season fair. 
Our minds are altered, and in our breasts 

Forthwith some new conceits appear. 

and who is not weather-wise against such and such conjunc- 
tions of planets, moved in foul weather, dull and heavy in such 
tempestuous seasons ? '^ Gelidum contristat Aquarius annum ; 
the time requires and the autumn breeds it ; winter is like 
unto it, ugly, foul, squalid ; the air works on all men, more or 
less, but especially on such as are melancholy, or inclined 
to it, as Lemnius holds : '^they are most moved with it ; and 
those tvhich are already mad, rave doicnright, either in or 
against a tempest. Besides, the devil many times takes Ms 
opportunity of such storms ; and, when the hmnours by the air 
be stirred, he goes on tvith them, exagitates our spirits, and 
vexeth our souls ; as the sea-umves, so are the spirits, and hu- 
mours in our bodies tossed ivith tempestuous tvinds and storms. 
To such as are melancholy therefore, Montanus {consil. 24) 
will have tempestuous and rough air to be avoided, and [con- 
sil. 27) all night air, and would not have them to walk abroad, 
but in a pleasant day. Lemnius {lib. 3. cop. 3) discommends 
the south and eastern winds, commends the north. Montanus 

a Lib. 1, hist. lib. 1. cap. 41. Aura densa ac caliginosa tetrici homines existunt, et 
subtristes. Et. cap. 3. Flante subsolano et Zephyro, maxima in mentibus honjinum 
alacritas existit, mentisque erectio, ubi coelum solis splendore nitescit. Maxima de- 
jectio moerorque, siquando aura calioinosa est. ^ Geor. <^ Hor. 

<lMens quibus vacillat, ab aere cito oftenduntnr; et multi insani apud Belgas ante 
tempestates sajviunt, aliter quieti. Spiritus qiioque aeris, et mali genii, aliquando se 
tempestatibus ingerunt, et menti humanae se latenter insinuant, eamqne vexant, ex- 
agitant : et, ut Huctus marini, humanuni corpus ventis agitatur. 



Mem. 2. Subs, 6.] Idleness a Came. 121 

(consil. 31) ^unll not any windows to he opened in the ni(/7it : 
(consil. 'M9.etco)ml. 230) he discommends especially the south 
Avind, and nocturnal air : so doth ^ Plutarch : tlie nioht and 
darkness makes meu sad ; the like do all subterranean vaults, 
dark houses in caves and rocks ; desert places cause melan- 
choly in an instant, especially such as have not been used to 
it, or otherwise accustomed. Read more of air in Hippocrates, 
i\etius, lib. 3. a c. 171- ad 175. Oribasius, a c. 1. ad 22. 
Avicen. /. 1. can. Fen. 2, doc. 2. Fen. 1. c. 123. to the 12, &c. 



SUBSECT. VI. 

Immoderate Exercise a Cause, and how. Solitariness, Idleness. 

jS OTHING so good, but it may be abused. Nothing better 
tliau exercise (if opportunely used) ibr the preservation of the 
body : nothing so bad, if it be unseasonable, violent, or over- 
much. Fernelius (out of Galen, Path. lib. 1. cap. 16) saith, 
*" that viiich exercise and weariness consumes the spirits and 
substance, rejriperates the body : and such humours tchick 
nature would have otherivise concocted and expelled, it stirs 
up, and makes them rage ; which being so enraged, diversely 
affect and trouble the body and mind. So doth it, if it be un- 
seasonably used, upon a full stomach, or when the body is 
full of crudities, which Fuchsius so much inveighs against, 
(Lib. 2. instit. sect. 2. cap 4) giving that for a cause, why school- 
boys in Germany are so often scabbed, because they use ex- 
ercise presently after meats. '^ Bayerus puts in a caveat 
against such exercise, because it ^ corrupts the meat in the 
stomach, and carries the same juice raw, and as yet undigestedy 
into the veins (saith Lemnius): tchich there piitrijies, and con- 
founds the animal spirits. Cvtdo (consil. 2J . /. 2.) 'protests 
against all such exercise after meat, as being the greatest 
enemy to concoction that may be, and cause of corruption of 
humours, which produce this and many other diseases. Not 
without good reason then, doth Sallust, Salvianus (1.2. c. 1), 
and Leonartus Jacchinus (?/« 9 Rhasis), Mercurialis, Arcula- 
nus, and many other, set down ? immoderate exercise as a 
most forcible cause of melancholy. 

n Aer noctii densatur, et cogit nioestitiam. b Lib. de Iside et Osiride. 

<■ Multa dpfatigatio spiritns, virinmqiie substantiam, exhaiirit, et corpus refrigerat. Hu- 
niores corruptos, qui aliter a natura concoqui et domari possint, et demmn blande ex- 
cludi, irritat, et quasi in fuiorem agit, qui postea (mota Camarina) tetro vapore corpus 
varie lacessunt, aniniiiinqne. "'In venimecom, Libro sic inscripto. elustit. 

ad vit. Christ cap. 44. Cibos crudos in venas rapit, qui piitrescenfes illicspiritus ani- 
niales inficiniit f Ciudi hfec hunioris copia per^enas aggeritur ; unde morbi 

jnultiplices. s: Immodicum exerciti\im. 

K 2 



122 Causes of Melancholy . [Part. 1. Sec, 2. 

Opposite to exercise is idleness (the badge of gentry), or 
want of exercise, the bane of body and mind, the nurse of 
naughtiness, step-mother of discipline, the chief author of all 
mischief, one of the seven deadly sins, and a sole cause of this 
and many other maladies, the devils cushion, (as ^ Gualter 
calls it) his pillow and chief reposal ; for the mind can never 
rest, hut still meditates on one thing or other : except it he 
occupied about some honest business, of his oicn accord it 
rusheth into melancholy. ^ As too much and violent exercise 
offends on the one side, so doth an idle life on the other (saith 
Crato); it Jills the body full of fleym, gross humours, and all 
manner of obstructions, rheums, catarrhs, S^c. Rhasis (cont. 
lib. 1. tract. 9) accounts of it as the greatest cause of melan- 
choly. "^ I have often seen, (saith he) that idleness begets this 
humour more than any thing else. Montaltus (c. 1.) seconds 
him out of his experience : ^they that are idle are far more 
subject to melancholy, than such as are conversant or employed 
about any office or business. ^ Plutarch reckons up idleness 
for a sole cause of the sickness of the soul: there are those 
(saith he) troubled in mind that have no other cause but this. 
Homer (//iac?. 1) brings in Achilles eating of his own heart in 
his idleness, because he might not fight. Mercurialis, consil. 86, 
for a melancholy young man, urgeth ^ it as a chief cause : why 
was he melancholy ? because idle. Nothing begets it sooner 
encreaseth and continuethitoftener,than idleness ; — adisease 
familiar to all idle persons, an inseparable companion to such 
as live at ease (jpingui otio desidiose agentes) a life out of ac- 
tion, and having no calling or ordinary employment to busie 
themselves about; that have small occasions; and though 
they have, such is theirlaziness,dulness, they will not compose 
themselves to do ought ; they cannot abide work, though it be 
necessary, easie, as to dress themselves, write a letter, or the 
like. Yet, as he that is benummed with cold, sits still shaking, 
that might relieve himself with a little exercise or stirring, do 
they complain, but will not use the facile and ready means to 
do themselves good ; and so are still tormented with melan- 



a Horn. 31. in 1. Cor. 6. Nam, qua mens hominis quiescere non possit. sed. 
continuo circa varias cogitationes discmrat, nisi honesto aliqao negotio occupetur, ad 
meiancholiam sponte deiabitur. b Crato, consil. 21. Ut iinmodica corporis 

exercitatio nocet corporibus, ita vita deses et otiosa : otium animal pituitosura reddit, 
viscernm obstructiones, et crebras fluxiones, et morbos concitat. <^Et vidi quod 

una de rebus quae magis generat meiancholiam, est otiositas. <iReponitur otium 

ab aliis caussa ; et hoc a nobis observatum, eos huic malo magis obnoxios qui plane 
otiosi sunt, quam eos qui aliquo munere versantur exsequendo. e De Tranquil, 

animee. Suntquos ipsum otium in aniuia conjicit ajgritudinem. _ ^Nihilest 

quod ajque melaucholiam alat ac augeat, ac otium et abstinentia a corporis et animi 
exerritatiouibus. 



Mem. 2. Subs. G.] Idleness a Cause. 123 

clioly. Especially if they had been formerly brought up to 
business, or to keep much company, and upon a sudden come 
to lead a sedentary life, ''it crucifies their souls, and seizeth on 
them in an instant ; for, whilest they are any ways imployed, in 
action, discourse, about any business, sport or recreation, or in 
company to their liking, they are very well ; but, if alone or 
idle, tormented instantly again : one days solitariness, one 
hours sometimes, doth them more harm, than a weeks phy- 
sick, labour and company can do good. Melancholy seizeth 
on them forthwith, being alone, and is such a torture, that, as 
wise Seneca well saith, malo mihi male quam molliter esse, I 
had rather be sick than idle. This idleness is either of body 
or mind. That of body is nothing but a kind of benumming 
laziness, intermitting exercise, which (if we may believe ''Fer- 
nelius) causeth crudities, obstructions, excremental humours, 
quencheth the natural heat., dulls the spirits, and makes them 
unapt to do any thing ichatsoever. 

•^ Neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. 

As fern grows in untild grounds, and all manner of weeds, so 
do gross humours in an idle body : ignavum corrumpnnt otia 
corpus. A horse in a stable, that never travels, a hawk in a 
mew, that seldom flies, are both subject to diseases ; which, left 
unto themselves, are most free from any such incumbrances. 
An idle dog will be mangy ; and how can an idle person think 
to escape? Idleness of the mind is much worse than this of 
the body: wit without employment is a disease, ^cerugo 
animi, rnbigo ingenii : the rust of the soul, « a plague, a hell 
it self; maximum animi nocumoitum, Galen calls it. ^ ^s, 
in a standing pool, worms andjilthy creepers increase, (et vi- 
tium capiunt, ni moveantur, aqnce ; the water itself putrifies, 
and air likewise, if it be not continually stirred by the wind) so 
do evil and corrupt thoughts hi an idle person ; the soul is con- 
taminated. In a common-wealth, where is no public enemy, 
there is, likely civil wars, and they rage upon themselves : 
this body of ours when it is idle, and knows not how to be- 
stow it self, macerates and vexeth it self with cares, griefs, 
false fears, discontents, and suspicions ; it tortures and preys 
upon his own bowels, and is never at rest. This much 1 dare 
boldly say, he or she that is idle, be they of what condition 
they will, never so rich, so well alllied, fortunate, happy — let 

^ J Nihil magis exceecat intellectum, quam otium. Gordonius, de observat. vit hum. 
lib. 1. bPath. lib, 1. cap. 17. exercitationis intermissio inertem calorem, langnidoa 
spinlus, et ignavos, et ad omnes actiones segniores, reddit ; cruditates, obstructiones, 
et excrementorum proventus facit. c Hor. Sen 1. Sat. 3. <! Seneca, ♦'Moero- 
rem animi, et maciem, Plutarch calls it f Sicut in stagno generantur vermes, sic 

in otioso mate cogitationes. Sen. 



1^4 Causes of Melancholy, [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

them have all thing's in abundance, and felicity, that heart can 
wish and desire,all contentment — so long* as he or she, or they, 
are idle, they shall never be pleased, never well in body and 
mind, but weary still, sickly still, vexed still, loathing still, 
weeping, sighing, grieving, suspecting, offended with the 
world, with every object, wishing themselves gone or dead, or 
else carried away with some foolish phantasie or other. And 
this is the true cause that so many great men, ladies, and gen- 
tlewomen, labour of this disease in countrey and city ; for 
idleness is an appendix to nobility ; they count it a disgrace to 
work, and spend all their days in sports, recreations, and pas- 
times, and will therefore take no pains, be of no vocation ; 
they feed liberally, fare well, want exercise, action, employ- 
ment, (for to work, I say, they may not abide) and company 
to their desires; and thence their bodies become full of gross 
humours, wind, crudities, their minds disquieted, dull, heavy, 
&c. Care,jealousie, fear of some diseases, sullen fits, weeping- 
fits, seize too ^familiarly on them : for, what will not fear and 
phantasie work in an idle body? what distempers will they not 
cause? When the children of Israel murmured ^against 
Pharaoh in iEgypt, he commended his officers to double their 
task, and let them get straw themselves, and yet make their full 
number of brick : for the sole cause why they mutiny, and 
are evil at ease, is, they are idle. When you shall hear and 
see so many discontented persons in all places where you come, 
so many several grievances, unnecessary complaints, fears, sus- 
picions% the best means to redress it, is to set them awork, so 
to busie their minds ; for the truth is, they are idle. Well 
they may build castles in the air for a time, and sooth up them- 
selves with phantastical and pleasant huraours; but in the end 
they will prove as bitter as gal! ; they shall be still, I say, dis- 
content, suspicious, "^ fearful, jealous, sad, fretting and vexing 
of themselves ; so long- as they be idle, it is impossible to please 
them. Otio qui nescit uti, phis habet neyotii, quam qui neyo^ 
tium in negotio, as that ^ Agellius could observe : he that 
knows not how to spend his time, hath more business, care, 
grief, anguish of mind, than he that is most busie in the midst 
of all his business. Otiosus animus nescit quid volet : an idle 
person (as he follows it) knows not when he is Avell, what he 
would have, or whither he would go ; quam illuc ventmn est, 
mine lubet ; he is tired out with every thing, displeased with 
all, weary of his life : nee bene domif nee militicEf neither at 



' Now this le^, now that arm, now'their head, heart, &c. *>Exod. 5. 

•^ (For they cannot well tell vvhat aileth them, or what they wonld have themselves) 
my heart, my head, my husband, my son, &c. >i Pro, 18. Pigrum dejiriet timer 

— Htaiif.ontimoruineuon. "^ Lib. 19. c. 10. 



Mem. 2. Subs. G.] Idleness a Cause. 125 

home, nor abroad; errat, et prceter vitam vivit ; he wanders, 
and lives besides himself. In a word, what the mischievous 
effects of laziness and idleness are, I do not find any where 
more accurately expressed, than in these verses of Philolaches 
in the =" Comical Poet, which, for their elegancy, I will in 
part insert. 

Novarum sedium esse harbltror similem ego horainem, 
Quando hie natus est. Ei rei argumenta dicam. 
^des quando sunt ad amussim expolitse, 
Quisque laudat fabrum, atque exemplum expetit, &c. 
At ubi illo migrat nequam homo indiligensque, &c. 
Tempestas venit, confringit tegulas, imbricesque, &a 
Putrefacit aiir operam fabri, &c. 
Dicam ut homines similes esse sedium arbitremini. 
Fabri parentes fundamentum substruunt liberorum ; 
Expoliunt, docent literas, nee parcunt sumptui. 
Ego autem sub fabrorum potestate frugi fui ; 
Postquam autem migravi in ingenium meura, 
Perdidi operam fabrorum iUico, oppido, 
Venit ignavia; ea mihi tempestas fuit, 
Adventuque suo grandinem et imbrem attulit. 
Ilia mihi virtutem deturbavit, &c. 

A young- man is like a fair new house : the carpenter leaves it 
well built, in good repair, of solid stuff; but a bad tenant lets 
it rain in, and, for want of reparation, fall to decay, &c. Our 
pai'ents, tutors, friends, spare no cost to bring us up in our 
youth, in all manner of vertuous education ; but when we are 
left to ourselves, idleness, as a tempest, drives all vertuous 
motions out of our minds ; et nihili sumus ; on a sudden, by 
sloth and such bad ways, we come to naught. 

Cozen o-erman to idleness, and a concomitant cause, which 
goes hand in hand with it, is ^nimia solitudo, too much soli- 
tariness — by the testimony of all physicians, cause andsymp- 
tpme both : but as it is here put for a cause, it is either coact, 
enforced, or else voluntary. Enforced solitariness is commonly 
seen in students, monks, friers, anchorites, that, by their order 
and course of life, must abandon all company, society of other 
men, and betake themselves to a private cell ; otio superstitioso 
seclusi (as Bale and Hospinian well term it), such as are the 
Carthusians of our time, that eat no flesh (by their order), keep 
perpetual silence, never go abroad ; such as live in prison, or 
some desert place, and cannot have company, as many of our 
countrey gentleman do in solitary houses ; they must either be 
alone without companions, or live beyond their means, and 

» Plautus, Prol. Mostel. ^Piso, MontaltuSj Merciuialis, &c. 



126 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. J. Sec. 2. 

entertain all comers as so many hosts, or else converse with 
their servants and hinds, such as are unequal, inferior to 
them, and of a contrary disposition; or else, as some do, to 
avoid solitariness,spend their time with leud fellows in taverns, 

, and in ale-houses, and thence addict themselves to some un- 
lawful disports, or dissolute courses. Divers again are cast 
upon this rock of solitariness for want of means, or out of a 
stronp: apprehension of some infirmity, disgrace ; or, through 
bashfulness, rudeness, simplicity, they cannot apply themselves 
to others company. Nullum solum irif'elici f/ratius solitu- 
dine, ubi nullus sit qui miseriam exprohret. This enforced 
solitariness takes place, and produceth his effect soonest, in 
such as have spent their time jovially, peradventure in all 
honest recreations, in good company, in some great family or 
populous city, and are upon a sudden confined to a desart 
country cottage far off, restrained of their liberty, and barred 
from their ordinary associates. Solitariness is very irksoni 
to such, most tedious, and a sudden cause of great inconve- 
nience. 

Voluntary solitariness is that which is familiar with melan- 
choly, and gently brings on, like a Siren, a shooing-horn, or 
some Sphinx, to this irrevocable gulf: ""a primary cause Piso 
calls it ; most pleasant it is at first, to such as are melancholy 
given, to lie in bed whole dayes, and keep their chambers, to 
walk alone in some solitary grove, betwixt wood and water, by 
a brook side, to meditate upon some delightsome and pleasant 
subject, which shall aflfect them most; amahilis insania^ and 
mentis fjratissimus error. A most incomparable delight it is 
so to melancholize, and build castles in the air, to go smilijig 
to themselves, acting- an infinite variety of parts, Avhich they 
suppose, and strongly imagine they represent, or that they see 
acted or done. Blanda quidem ah initio, saith Lemnius, to 
conceive and meditate of such pleasant things sometimes, 
^present, past, or to come, as Rhasis speaks. So delightsome 
these toyes are at first, they could spend whole days and 
nights without sleep, even whole years alone in such con- 
templations, and phantastical meditatiqns, which are like 
unto dreams ; and they will hardly be drawn from them, 
or willingly interrupt. So pleasant their vain conceits are, 
that they hinder their ordinary tasks and necessary busi- 
ness; tliey cannot address themselves to them, or almost to- 
any study or imployment : these phantastical and bewitching 

•thoughts so covertly, so feelingly, so urgently, so continually, 
set upon, creep in, insinuate, possess, overcome, distract, and 

•' A (piibus nialiini, velut a primaria causiiA, occasionem nactum est. *> Jucunda 

reriiiu pncstiitiimi, pireteritariun et pufuturaruin meditatio. 



jMem. 2. Subs. C] Idleness, a Cause. 127 

detain them, they cannot, 1 say, go about their more necessary 
business, stave ofior extricate themselves, but are ever musintr, 
mehnicholizing, and carried along, as he (they say) that is led 
round about an heath with a Puck in the night. They run 
earnestly on in this labyrinth of anxious and solicitous melan- 
choly meditations, and cannot well or willingly refrain, or easily 
leave off, winding- or unwinding" themselves, as so many 
clocks, and still pleasing their humours, until at last the scene 
is turned upon a sudden, by some bad object : and they, being 
now habituated to such vain meditations and solitary places, 
can endure no company, can ruminate of nothing but harsh 
and distasteful subjects. Fear, sorrow, suspicion, s?«6?7w/icMs 
/>?fc?or, discontent, cares, and weariness of life, surprize them in 
a moment ; and they can think of nothing" else : continually 
suspecting, no sooner are their eyes open, but this infernal 
plague of melancholy seizeth on them, and terrifies their souls, 
representing some dismal object to their minds, which now, by 
no means, no labour, no perswasions, they can avoid ; hceret 
lateri lethnlis ariindo ; they may not be rid of it ; ^ they cannot 
resist. I may not deny but that there is some profitable medi- 
tation, contemplation, and kind of solitariness, to be embraced, 
which the fathers so highly commended — ''Hierom.Chrysostom, 
Cyprian, Austin, in whole tracts, which Petrarch, Erasmus, 
Stella, and others, so much magnifie in their books — a para- 
dise, an heaven on earth, if it be used aright, good for the 
body, and better for the soul ; as many of those old monks 
used it, to divine contemplations ; as Similus a courtier in 
Adrians time, Dioclesian the emperour, retired themselves, 
&c. ill that sense, Vatia solus scit vhere : Vatia lives alone ; 
Avhich the Romans were wont to say, when they commended a 
countrey life ; or to the bettering of their knowledge, as Demo- 
critus, Cleanthes, and those excellent philosophers, hav^e ever 
done, to sequester themselves from the tumultuous world; or, 
as in Plinies villa Laurentana, Tullies Tusculan, Jovius study, 
that they m\^\\iheiier vacare studiis et Deo, serve God and fol- 
low their studies. Methinks, therefore, our too zealous inno- 
vators were not so well advised in that general subversion of 
abbies and religious houses, promiscuously to fling down all. 
They might have taken away those gross abuses crept in 
amongst them, rectified such inconveniences, and not so far to 
have raved and raged against those fair buildings,and everlasing- 
monuments of our forefathers devotion, consecrated to pious 



» Facilis descensus Averni ; Sedrevocaregradum.saperasqueevadere ad auras, Hie 
labor, lioc opus est. Virg. ^ Hieronymiis, ep. 7'2. dixit oppida et urbes videri 

sil)i tetros carceres, solitudiiipm Paradisutn ; solnui scorpionibns infectum, sacco 
iiuiictus, hunii Cubans, aquii et herbis victitans, RomanLs pfsetulit deliciis. 



J 28 Causes of Melancholy . [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

uses. Some monasteries and collegiate cells might have been 
well spared, and their revenues otherwise imployed ; here and 
there one, in good towns or cites at least, for men and women 
of all sorts and conditions to live in, to sequester themselves 
from the cares and tumults of the world, that were not desir- 
ous or fit to marry, or otherwise willing- to be troubled with 
common affairs, and know not well where to bestow themselves, 
to live apart in, for some conveniency, g-ood education, better 
company sake ; to follow their studies (1 say) to the perfection 
of arts and sciences, common good, and, as some truly de- 
voted monks of old had done, freely and truly to serve God: 
for these men are neither solitary, nor idle, as the poet made 
answer to the husbandman in ^Esop, that objected idleness 
to him, he was nevei so idle as in his company ; or that Scipio 
African us in ^Tully, numquani minus solus, quam quum solus ; 
niimquam minus otiosus, quam quum esset otiosus ; never less 
solitary than when he was alone, never more busie, than 
when he seemed to be most idle. It is reported by Plato, 
in his dialogue de Amove, in that prodigious commendation of 
Socrates, how, a deep meditation coming into Socrates mind 
by chance, he stood still musing, eodem vestigio cogitabund?is, 
from morning to noon ; and, when as then he had not yet 
finished his meditation, perstabat cogitatis: he so continued 
till the evening : the souldiers (for he then followed the camp) 
observed him with admiration, and on set purpose watched 
all night; but he persevered immoveable ad exortum solis, 
till the sun rose in the morning-, and then, saluting- the sun, 
went his wayes. In what humour constant Socrates did thus, 
I know not, or how he might be affected ; but this would be 
])ernicious to another man; what intricate business might so 
really possess him, I cannot easily guess. But this is otiosum 
otium ; it is far otherwise with these men, according to Sene- 
ca : omnia nobis mala solitudo persnadet ; this solitude un- 
doeth us ; pugnat cum vita sociali; 'tis a destructive solitari- 
ness. These men are devils, alone, as the saying is : homo solus 
aut devs, aut dcemon ; a man, alone, is either a saint or a devil; 
metis ejus aut languescit, aut tumescit ; and ^vcb soli! in this 
sense ; woe be to him that is so alone! These wretches do fre- 
quently degenerate from men, and of sociable creatures, be- 
come beasts, monsters, inhumane, ugly to behold, misanthropi; 
they do even loath themselves, and hate the company of men, 
as so many Timons, Nebuchadnezars, by too much indulging 
to these pleasing humours, and through their own default. 
So that which Mercurialis (consil. 1 1) sometimes expostulated 
with his melancholy patient, may be justly applied to every 

aoffic. 3. i^Eccl. 4. 



3Ieiu. 2. Subs. 7.] Slecpiny and waking^ Causes. 129 

solitary and idle person in particular: ^natura de te videtur 
ennqueri posse, 6fc. nature maij justbj complain of thee^ that, 
whereas she c/ave thee a ffood uholesome temperature, a sound 
bodji, and God hath ffiv'n thee so divine and excellent a soul, 
so many r/ood parts and profitable f/ifts, thou hast not onhj 
contemned and rejected, but hast corrupted them, polluted 
them, orerthrotcn their temperature, and perverted those gifts 
with riot, idleness, solitariness, and rnaiiy other wayes ; thou 
art a traitoiir to God and Mature, an enemy to thy self' and 
to the icorld. Perdiiio tua ex te ; thou hast lost thy self wil- 
fully, cast aw ay thy self ; thou thyself art the efficient cause 
oj' thine own misery, by not resisting such vain cogitations, hut 
giving way unto them. 



SUBSECT. VII. 

Sleeping and leaking, Causes. 

* T HAT I have formerly said of exercise, I may now repeat 
of sleep. Nothing- better than moderate sleep ; nothing- worse 
than it, if it be in extreams, or unseasonably used. Tt is a 
received opinion, that a melancholy man cannot sleep over- 
much : sontnus supra modum prodest ; as an only antidote; 
and nothing ofiends them more, or causeth this malady sooner, 
than waking'. Yet, in some cases, sleep may do more harm 
than good,in that flegmatick,swinish,coJd. and sluggish melan- 
choly, which Melancthon speaks of, that thinks of waters,sio'h- 
•ing- most part,&c. 'It duls thespirits (if overmuch) and senses, 
fills the head full of gross humours, causeth destinations, 
rheums, great store of excrements in the brain, and all the 
other parts, as "^ Fuchsius speaks of them, that sleep like so 
many dormice. Or, if it be used in the day time, upon a 
full stomach, the bodyill composed to rest, or after hard meats, 
it increaseth fearful dreams, incubus, night walking, cryino- 
mn, and much unquietness. Such sleep prepares the body, as 
'' one observes, to many perilous diseases. But, as I have said, 
waking- overmuch is both a symptome and an ordinary cause. 
It causeth driness of the brain, J'rensie, dotage, and makes the 

^ Natura de te vidctiir conqueri posse, qnorl, cum ab ea teniperatissimum corpns 
adepliis sis ; tarn prjBcIariim a Deo ac utile donum, non contempsisfi modo, venitn 
corrupisti, focdasti, prodidisti, optiniam temperaturam otio, crapida, et aliis vitje 
erroribiis, &c. '' Path. lib. cap. ] 7. Fern, corpus iufrigidat ; omnes sensns, 

mentisf.Mie vires, forporc debilitat. cLib. 2. sect. 2. cap. 4. MaETDam excre- 

nientoruin vim i. rrbro et aliis partibus coacervat. '' .f o. Refztus, lib. de 

r»'bus 6 Dou uatinalibus. Praparat corpus talis sonmus ad multas periculosas a?gri- 
tudines. 



130 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

bodif dry, lean, hard, and ugly to behold, as "^ Lemuius liatli it. 
The temperature of the brain is corrupted by it, the humours 
adust, the eyes made to sink into the head, choler increased, 
and the whole body inflamed; and, (as may be added out of Ga- 
len, 3. de sanitate tuendd, Avicenna 3. i.)^ it overthroics the 
natural heat ; it causeth crudities, hurts concoction ; and what 
not? Not without good cause, therefore, Crato (cows//. 21. 
lib. 2.), Hildeshiem (spiciL 2. de delir. et Mania), .Jacchinus, 
Arculanus (on Rhasis), Guianerius, and Mercurialis, reckon 
up this overmuch wakeing, as a principal cause. 



MEMB. III. SUBSECT. I. 

Passions and Perturbations of the Mind, how they cause 
Melancholy. 

As that Gymnosophist, in •= Plutarch, made answer to Alex- 
ander (demanding- which spake best), every one of his fellows 
did speak better than the other ; so may I say of these causes, 
to him that shall require which is the greatest, every one is 
more grievous than other, and this of passion the greatest of 
all ; a most frequent and ordinary cause of melancholy, ^fulmen 
perturhationum (P'\cco\oxmwen%cdi\\^ it), this thunder and light- 
ning of perturbation, which causeth such violent and speedy 
alterations in this our microcosm, and many times subverts the 
good estate and temperature of it: for, as the body works upon 
the mind, by his bad humours, troubling- the spirits, and send- 
ing gross fumes into the brain, and so per consequens, disturb- 
ing- the soul, and all the faculties of it, 

— —" Corpus onustum : 

Hesternis vitiis, animutn quoque prsegravat una, 

with fear, sorrow, &c. which are ordinary symptomes of this 
disease ; so, on the other side, the mind most effectually 
works upon the body, producing, by his passions and perturb- 
ations, miraculous alterations, as melancholy, despair, cruel 
diseases, and sometimes death it self; insomuch that it is most 
true which Plato saitli in his Charmides ; omnia corporis 
mala ab animd procedere ; all the * mischiefs of the body 

' =» Instit. ad vitam optimam, c. 26, cerebro siccitatem adfert, phrenesin et delirium : 
corpus aridum facit, squalidum, strigosum ; humores adurit ; temperamentum cerebri 
corrumpit ; maciem inducit : exsiccat corpus, bilem accendit, profundosreddit oculos, 
calorem anget. b Naturalem calorem dissipat : la;sa. concoctione, cruditates facit. 

Attenuaut juvcnum vigilatee corpora noctes. t' Vita Alexand. •^Grad.l. 

c. 14. cHor. f Perturbationes clavi sunt, quibus corpori animus ceu 

patibulo affigitur. Jamb, de myst. 



Memb. 3. Subs. 1.] Perturbations of the Mind. 131 

proceed from the soul : and Democritus in * Plutarch urg-eth, 
Damnation iri animam a corpore ; if the body should, in this 
behalf, bring- an action against the soul, surely the soul would 
be cast and convicted, that by her supine negligence, had 
caused such inconveniences, having- authority over the body, 
and usinu it for an instrument, as a smith doth his hammer, 
saith i' Cyprian, imputing- all those vices and maladies to the 
mind. Even so doth ''Philostratus, wo« coinqninatur cojpus, 
nisi consensu animce ; the body is not corrupted, but by the 
soul, ^ Lodovicus Vlves will have such turbulent commotions 

, proceed from ignorance and indiscretion. All philosophers 
impute the miseries of the body to the soul, that should have 
governed it better by command of reason, and hath not done 
it. The Stoicks are altogether of opinion (as ^ Lipsius and 
^Piccolomineus record) that a wise man should be a9ra6>jf, 
withoutall manner of passionsand perturbations whatsoever, as 
s Seneca reports of Cato, the '' Greeks of Socrates, and ' Jo. 
Aubanusofanation in Africk, so free from passion, or rather 
so stupid, that, if they be wounded with a SAvord, they will 
only look back. ''Lactantius (2 instit.) will exclude /ear 

Jroni a wise man : others except all, some the g-reatest pas- 
sions. But, let them dispute how they will, set down in thesi, 
g-ive precepts to the contrary ; we find that of 'Lemnius true 
by common experience ; no mortal man is free from these 
perturbations : or if he be so, sure he is either a god, or a 
block. They are born and bred Avith us, vt^e have them from 
our parents by inheritance : a parentibus habemus malum hunc 
assem, saith'"Pelezius ; nascitur una nobiscum, aliturque ; "'tis 
propagated from Adam ; Cain was melancholy, ° as Austin 
hath it ; and who is not? Good discipline, education, philoso- 
phy, divinity, (I cannot deny) may mitigate and restrain these 
passions in some few men at some limes ; but, most part, they 
domineer, and are so violent, ''tliat — as a torrent, (torrens 
velnt af/f/ere rnpto) bears down all before, and overflows his 
banks, sternit arjros, sternit sata — they overwhelm reason, 
judgement, and pervert the temperature of the body. Fertnr 
P equis aurir/a, neque audit currus habenas. Now such a man 
(1 saith Austin) that is so led, in a wise mans eye, is no better 



a Lib. de sanitat tuend. h Prole?, de virtute Christi. Quae utitnr corpore, 

ut faber malleo. c Vita Apollonii, lib. 1. dLib. de anim. abinconsi- 

derantia, et ignorantia omnes animi motiis. e De Physiol. Stoic. f Grad. 1. 

c. 32. eEpist. 104. I'iEIianus. ' Lib. 1. cap. fi. si quis ense 

perciisserit eos, tantnm respiciunt k Terror in sapiente esse non debet. i De 

occult, nat. inir. 1. 1. c. 16. Nemo mortalium, qui atlectibus non ducatur : qui non 
movetur, aut saxum aut Dens est. ni Instit. 1. 2. de hamanorum affect, niorbo- 

rumque curat. " Epist.lO.'j. " tJranatensis. PVirg. q De 

civit. Dei, 1. 14. c. 0. qnalis in oculis hominuoi, qui iuversis pedibiis ambulat, talis in 
oculis sapientnm, cui paasioues dominantur. 



132 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. S'. 

than he that stands upon his head. It is doubted by .some, 
f/ravioresne niorhi apertiirhationibns,an ab humor thus, whethev 
humours or perturbations cause the more grievous maladies. 
But we fiud that of our Saviour (Mat. 26. 41) most true: the 
spirit is willing ; the flesh is iceak ; we cannot resist; and this 
of'' Philo Judasus : perturbations often offend the body, and are 
mostjrequent causes of melancholy, turning it out of the hinges 
of his health. Vivos compares them to '' icinds upon the sea; 
some only move, as those great gales; but others, turbulent, 
quite overturn the ship. Those which are light, easie, and more 
seldom, to our thinking, do us little harm, and are therefore 
contemned of us: yet, if they be reiterated, '^ as the rain (saith 
Austin) doth a stone^ so do these perturbations penetrate the 
mind, ''and (as one observes) produce a habit of melancholy 
at the last, which having gotten the mastery in our soids,may 
well be called diseases. 

How these passions produce this effect, ^ Agrippa hath han- 
dled at large, Occult. Philos. A 1 1. c. 63 ; Cardan, /. J 4. subtil. 
Lemnius, /. 1. c. 12. de occult, nat. mir. et lib. 1. cap. 16; 
Suarez, Met. disput. 18. sect. 1. art. 25; T. Bright, cap. 12. 
of his Melancholy Treatise; Wright the Jesuite, in his book 
of the Passions of the Mind, &c. — thus in brief — To our ima- 
o'ination cometh, by the outward sense or memory, some object 
to be known (residing in the foremast part of the brain), which 
he misconceiving or amplifying, presently communicates to the 
heart, the seat of all affections. The pure spirits forthwith flock 
from the brain to the heart, by certain secret channels, and sig- 
nifie what good or bad object was presented ; '^^ which imme- 
diately bends itselfto prosecute or avoid it, and, withal, draweth 
with it other humours to help it. So, in pleasure, concur great 
store of purer spirits ; in sadness, much melancholy blood; in 
ire, choler. If the imagination be very apprehensive, intent, 
and violent, it sends great store of spirits to or from the heart, 
and makes a deeper impression, and greater tumult : as the 
humours in the body be likewise prepared, and the temperature 
it self ill or well disposed, the passions are longer and stronger: 
so that the first step and fountain of all our grievances in this 



a Lib. de Decal. passiones maxiine corpus offendimt, et aniniani, etfrequentisiimai; 
causste melancholia;, dimoventes ab ingenio et sanitate pristinii, 1. 3. de anima. 
1j F'ra?na et stimuli animi : velut inmari qnasdam aura; leves, qna^dam placida3,qu;e(lam 
tin-bulenta! ; sic in corpore quajdam aftectiones excitant tantum, qufedam ita movent, 
ut de statu judicii depellant. ^Ut gutta lapidem, sic paullatira life penetrant 

animum. '' Usu valeates, recte rnorbi animi vocr.ntur. f Imaginatio 

movet corpus, ad cujus niotum excitantav hnmores, et spiritus vitales.qnibns alteratnr. 
f Eccles. 13. 26. The heart alters the countenance to good or evil ; and distrnctiou 
of the mind causeth distemperature of the body. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 2.] Of the Force of Imaybiatiou. 133 

kind is ""Itesa hnnffinatio^ which, mis-informing the heart, 
causeth all these distemperatures, alteration and confusion of 
spirits and humours; by means of Mdiich, so disturbed, concoc- 
tionis hindred, and the principal parts are much debilitated ; as 
''Dr. Navan'e well declared, being consulted by JNIontanus 
about a melancholy Jew. The spirits so confounded, the 
nourishment must needs be abated, bad humours increased, 
crudities and thick spirits engendered, with melancholy blood. 
The other parts cannot perform their functions, having the 
spirits drawn from them by vehement passion, but fail in sense 
and motion : so we look upon a thing', and see it not; hear 
and observe not ; which otherwise would much affect iis, had 
we been free. I may therefore conclude with '^Arnold us, 
maxima vis est pliantasice ; et huic nnifere, non antem corpoiis 
intemperiei, omnis melancholice caussa est ascribenda : great is 
the force of imagination ; and much more ought the cause of 
melancholy to be ascribed to this alone, than to the distem- 
perature of the body. Of which imagination, because it hath 
so great a stroke in producing this malady, and is so power- 
ful of it self, it will not be improper to my discourse, to make 
a brief digression, and speak of the force of it, and how it 
causeth this alteration. Which manner of digression how- 
soever some dislike, as frivolous and impertinent, yet I am of 
'^Beroaldus his opinion, such digressions do mightibf delight 
and refresh a tceary reader ; they are like saicce to a bad 
stomach ; and I do therefore most willingly use them. 



SUBSECT. II. 

Of the Force of Imagination. 

▼ T IIAT Imagination is, I have sufficiently declared in my 
digression of the anatomy of the soul. I will only now point 
at the Avonderful effects and power of it; which, as it is eminent 
in all, so most especially it rageth in melancholy persons, in 
keeping- the species of objects so long, mistaking, amplifying 
them by continual and " strong* meditation, until at length it 
produceth in some parties real effects, causeth this, and many 



» Spiritiis et sanguis a lassa imaginutione contaminantur ; hnniores enim mntati 
actionis animi immutant. Piso. bJIontani consil. '22. Ha- vero quomodo 

caaseot inelancholiain, clarum ; et qnod concoctionein impediant, et inenibra princi- 
palia debilitent. 'Breviar. 1. 1. cap. 18. d Solunt hujusmodi egressiones 

favorabiliteroblectare,et lectorenilassumjucunde refovere,stoinachunK|uenauseantein, 
quodam quasi condiinento, reficere : et ego libenter excurro. "' Ab imagiiiafi.me 

oriuntur airectiones, quibiis aniina compouitur, aut tiirbatur de tiirbatur, Jo. Sarisbur- 
]Matolog. lib. 4. c. 10. 



134 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

oilier malrtdios. And although this phantasie of ours be a 
subordinate faculty to reason, and should be ruled by it, yet in 
many men, through inward or outward distemperaturesj^defect 
of organs, which are unapt or hindred, or otherwise contami- 
nated, it is likewise unapt, hindred, and hurt. This we see 
verified in sleepers, which,by reason of humours, and concourse 
of vapours troubling the phantasie,imagine many times absurd 
and prodigious tilings, and in such as are troubled with incubus^ 
or witch-ridden (as we call it) : if they lie on their backs, they 
suppose an old woman rides and sits so hard upon them, that 
they are almost stifled for want of breath : when there is no- 
thing offends but a concourse of bad humours, which trouble 
thephantasie. This is likewise evident in such as walk in the 
night in their sleep, and do strange feats : ^ these vapours move 
the phantasie, the phantasie the appetite, which, moving- the 
a«?»i«/ spirits, causeth the body to walk up and down, as if they 
were awake. Fracast. (/. 3. de intellect.) refers all extasies to 
this force of imagination; suchaslye whole dayes together in a 
trance, as that priest whom ''Celsus speaks of, that could sepa- 
rate himself from his senses when he list, and lie like a dead 
man void of life and sense. Cardan brags of himself, that he 
could do as much, and that when he list. Many times such 
men, when they come to themselves, tell strange things of hea- 
ven and hell, what visions they have seen; as that S'^Owen in 
Matthew Paris, that went into S* Patricks Purgatory, and the 
monk of Evesham in the same author. Those common appari- 
tions in Bedeand Gregory, SaintBrigets revelations, Wier,/.3. de 
lamiis c. 11, Caesar Vanninus in his Dialogues, &c.reduceth, (as 
I have formerly said) with all those tales of witches progresses, 
dancing", riding, transformations,operations, &c. to the force of 
^imagination, and the ''devils illusions. The like effects almost 
are to be seen in such as are awake ; how many chimaras, an- 
ticks, golden mountains, and castles in the air, do they build 
unto themselves! I appeal to painters, mechanicians, mathe- 
maticians. Some ascribe all vices to a false and corrupt ima- 
gination, anger, revenge, lust, ambition, covetousness, which 
prefers falshood, before that which is right and good, deluding 
the soul with false shows and suppositions. «BernardusPenottus 
will have heresie and superstition to proceed from this fountain; 
as he falsely imagineth,so he believeth ; and as he conceiveth of 
it, so it must be, and it shall be ; contra gentes, he will have it 

aScalig. exercit. \ ^ Qui, qnoties volehat, mortuo similisjacebat, auferens se a 

sensibus ; et, quum punfreretur, doloreni non seDsit. <^ Idem Nytnannus, oiat. 

de Imaginat. <* Verbis et unctionibns se consecrant daemoni pessima; mulieres, 

qui iis ad opus suum utitnr, et eanim phantasiam regit, ducitque ad loca ab ipsis desi- 
derata : corpora vero earum sine sensu permanent, quaj umbra cooperit diabolus, ut 
nolli sint conspicua ; et post, umbra sublata, propriis corporibus eas restituit, 1. 3. c. 11. 
Wier. *■ Denario medico. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 2.] Of the Force of Tmaffination. 135 

so. But most especially in passions and affections, it shews 
strange and evident effects : what will not a fearful man con- 
ceive in the dark ? what strange forms of" bugbears, devils, 
witches, goblins ? Lavater imputes the greatest cause of spec- 
trums, and the like apparitions, to fear, which, above all other 
passions, begets the strongest imagination (saith "^ Wierus) ; 
and so likewise love, sorrow, joy, &c. Some die suddenly, as 
she that saw her son come from the battel at Cann*, &c, 
Jacob the patriarch, by force of imagination, made peckled 
lambs, laying peckled rods before his sheep. Persina, that 
^Ethiopian queen in Heliodorus, by seeing" the picture of Per- 
seus and Andromeda, in stead of a blackmoor, was brought to 
bed of a fair white child ; in imitation of whom, belike, an 
hard favoured fellow in Greece, because he and his wife were 
both deformed, to get a good brood of children, efef/antissi- 
mas imaf/ines in thalamo collocavit, <Sc. hung the fairest pic- 
tures he could buy for money in his chamber, that his wije, by 
frequent sight of them, might conceive ayid bear such children. 
And, if we may believe Bale, one of Pope Nicholas the thirds 
concubines, by seeing of ''a bear, was brought to bed of a 
monster. If a woman, (saith " Lemnius) at the time of' her 
conception, think of another man present or absent, the child 
will be like him. Great-bellied women, when they long, yield 
us prodigious examples in this kind, as moles, warts, scars, 
harelips, monsters, especially caused in their children by force 
of a depraved phantasie in them. Ipsam speciem, quam animo 
ejffigiat,fetui inducit : she imprints that stamp upon her child, 
which she '^ conceives unto herself. And therefore Lodovicus 
Vives (^lib. 2. de Christ, fem.) gives a special caution to great- 
bellied women, ''that they do not admit such absurd conceits 
' and cogitations, but by all means avoid those horrible objects, 
-heard or seen, or filthy spectacles. Some will laugh, weep, 
sigh, groan, blush, tremble, sweat, at such things as are sug- 
gested unto them by their imagination. Avicenna speaks of 
one that could cast himself into a palsie when he list ; and 
some can imitate the tunes of birds and beasts, that they can 
hardly be discerned. Dagobertus and Saint Francis scars and 
wounds, like to those of Christs (if at the least any such were). 



* Solet timor, proe omnibus affectibus, fortes imagtnationes {jignere ; post, amor, 
&c. 1. 3. c. 8. b Ex viso urso, taleni peperit. f Lib. I. cap. 4. de oc- 

cult, nat. tuir. Si, iuter amplexus et suavia, cogitet de uno aut alio absente, ejus 
eflSgies solet in fetu elucere. >) Quid non fetui, adhuc mati'i anito, subita 

spiritiium vibratione, per nervos, quibus matrix cerebro conjuiicta est, impriniit 
impraegnatae iraagiuatioV ut, si imaginetur malum granatum, illius uotas secuta 
proferet fetus ; si leporem, infuns editur supremo labello bitido, et dissecto. 
Vehemeus cogitatio movet reruni species. VVier. 1. 3. cap. 8. c J^^e, duiu 

uterum gestent, admittant absurdas cogitationes : sed et visu^ audituqne foeda et 
horrenda devitent. 

VOL. I. S 



13fi Causes of Melanclwhj. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

* Agrippa supposeth to have liapned by force of imagination. 
That some are turned to wolves, from men to women, and 
women again to men, (which is constantlybelieved) tothesame 
imagination ; or from men to asses, dogs, or any other shapes — 
^ Wierus ascribes all those famous transformations to ima- 
gination. That, in hydrophobia, they seem to see the picture 
of a do2f still in their water; '^that melancholy men, and sick 
men, conceive so many phantastical visions, apparitions to 
themselves, and have such absurd apparitions, as that they are 
kings, lords, cocks, bears, apes, owls ; that they are heavy, light, 
transparent, great and little, senseless and dead, (as shall be 
shewed more at large, in our '^ Sections of Symptomes) can be 
imputed to nought else, but to a corrupt, false, and violent ima- 
gination. It works not in sick ana melancholy men only, 
but even most forcibly sometimes in such as are sound : it 
makes them suddenly sick, and '^ alters their temperature in 
an instant. And sometimes a strong conceit or apprehension, 
as * Valesius proves, will take away diseases: in both kinds, it 
will produce real effects. Men, if they see but another man 
tremble, giddy, or sick of some fearful disease, their apprehen- 
sion and fear is so strong in this kind, that they will have the 
same disease. Or if, by some sooth-sayer, wise-man, fortune- 
teller, or physician, they be told they shall have such a disease, 
they will so seriously apprehend it, that they will instantly 
labour of it — a thing familiar in China (saith Riccius the 
Jesuit :)'if'it be told them that they shall be sick on such a day, 
when that day comes, they tcill surely be sick, and will be so 
terribly afflicted, that sometimes they die upon it. Dr. Cotta 
(in his Discovery of ignorant Practitioners of Physick, cap. 8.) 
hath two strange stories to this purpose, what phansie is able 
to do ; the one of a parsons wife in Northamptonshire, anno 
1607, that, coming to a physician, and told by him that she was 
troubled with the sciatica, as he conjectured, (a disease she was 
free from) the same night after her return, upon his words, fell 
into a grievous fit of a sciatica: and such another example he 
hath of another good wife, that was so troubled with the cramp; 
after the same manner she came by it, because her physician 
did but name it. Sometimes death itself is caused by force of 
phantasie. I have heard of one, that, coming by chance in 



a Occult. Philos. 1.1. c. 64. ''Lib. 3. de Lamiis, cap. 10. "^AjTrippa, 

lib. 1. cap. 64. ^Sect. 3. memb. 1. subsect. .3. « Malleus malefic. Ibl. 77. 

Corpus mutari potest in diversas a'gritudines, ex forti apprehensione. fFr. Vales. 

1. 5. cont. 6. Noniiumquam etiani morbi diutiirni consequuntur, quandofiue curantur. 
eExpedit. in Sinas, 1. 1. c. 9. Tantuin porro multi prajdictoribus hisce tribuunt, ut 
ipse nietus fidem faciat : nam, si pr^dictum iis fiierittali die eos morbo corripiendos, 
ii, ubi dies adveuerit, in morbum incidunt : etj vi metiis afflictij cum segritudine, ali- 
quando etiain ctuu niorte, colluctantur. 



Mcin . 3 . S libs. 2. ] Of the Force of Imarjinatiov . 1 37 

oompany of him that was thoiioht to be sick of the plaonie 
(which was not so,) fell doM n siuhlenly dead. Anotlior was sick 
of the plague with conceit. One,seeinf>- his fellow \vt blood, 
falls down in aswoun. Another(saitli " Cardan, out ol'Aristonc) 
fell down dead, (which is taniiliar to women at any jj'hastly sight) 
seeing but a man hanged. A Jew in France (saith ^ Lxlovicus 
Vives) came by chance over a dangerous passage or plank, thatr 
lay over a brook, in the dark, without harm; the next day, per 
ceiving" what danger he was in, fell down dead. Many will nt»t 
believe such stories to be true, but laugh commonly, and deride 
when they hear of them : but let these men consider with 
themselves, (as '^- Peter Byarus illustrates it) if they were set to 
walk upon a plank on high, they. %A'ould begiduy, upon which 
theydare securely walk upon theground. Many,(saithAgrippa) 
'^strong hearted men otherwise, tremble at such sights ; daze/, 
and are sick, iffheg look but down from an Mf/k place ; and 
what moves them bid conceit ? As some are so molested by 
phantasie ; so some again, by fancy alone and a good conceit, 
are as easily recovered. We see commonly the tooth-ach, gout, 
falling-sickness, biting* of a mad dog-, and many such maladies, 
cured by spells, words,characters, and charms; and many green 
wounds, by that now so much used ungnentum armarium, mag- 
netically cured ; which Crolliusand Goclenius in a book of late 
have defendpd, Libaviusin a just tract as stiHy contradicts, and 
most men controvert. All the world knows there is no vertue in 
such charms, or cures, but a strong conceit and opinion alone, 
(as'Pomponatius \\o\(\s)ivhichforceth a motion of the humours, 
spirits, and blood ; ichich takes atcay the cause of the maladg 
from the parts affected. The like we may say of our magical 
eff'ects,superstitious cures,and such as aredone by mountebanks 
and wizards. As, by icicked incredulity, many men are hurt, (so 
saith * Wierus of charms, spells, Si,c.)wefnd, in our expe- 
rience, by the same means many are relieved. An empirick 
oftentimes, and a silly chirurgion, doth more strange cures,than 
a rational physician. Nymannus gives a reason — because the 
patient puts his confidence in him; ^ which Aviceima /r/v^er.<f 
before art, precepts, and all remedies whatsoever. 'Tis opinion 
alone, (saith *> Cardan) that makes or mans physicians ; and he 
doth the best cures, according to Hippocrates, in whom most 

a Subtil. 18. b Lih. 3. de anitna, cap. de mel. = Lib. de Peste. J Lili. I. 
cap. 6.^. Ex alto despicientes, aliqtii pras tiinore contreniiscunt, caliaant, iiifirniantur ; 
sic siugiiltus, febres, iiiorbi comitiale.s, <iuaiifloqne seqmintnr, qiiaiidoque receduut. 
" Lib. df Incantatione. liiiasinatio .subitum Immorum et spiritnnni iiiotiini infert ; 
nnde vario artectu rapitur sans;iiis, ac una inorbificas caiissas partibus allL-ctis eripit. 
f L. 3. c. IS. de praestijc. Ut impia credulitate qui.s la-ditiir, sic et levari eiindeni cre- 
dibile est, usuque observatuui. i .E^O'' persuasio et iiducia oniiii arti et consilio et 

meclicina; prteftrenda. Avictn. •' Plures aanat, in quem plures confidunt. lib. de 
sa|Heutiu. 

s 2 



138 Cames of Melancholy. [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

trust. So diversly doth this phantasie of ours affect, turn, and 
wind, so imperiously command our bodies, which, as another 
^Proteus, or a cameleoriy can take all shapes, and is oj' such 
force (as Ficinus adds) that it can icork upon others, as well as 
ourselves. How can otherwise blear-eyes in one man cause the 
like affection in another ? Why doth one man's yawning ^ make 
anotheryawn? one mans pissing", provoke a second many times 
to do the like? Why doth scraping of trenchers offend a third, 
or hacking of files? Why doth a carkass bleed, when the mur- 
therer is brought before it, some weeks after the murther hath 
been done? Why do witches and old women fascinate and be- 
witch children? but (as Wierus, Paracelsus, Cardan, Mizaldus, 
Valleriola,C8esarVanninus,Campanella,and many philosophers 
think) the forcible imagination of the one party moves and alters 
the spirits of the other. Nay more, they can cause and cure not 
onlydiseases,maladies,and several infirmities,by this means, (as 
Avicenna, de anim. I. 4. sect. 4. supposeth) in parties remote, 
but move bodies from their places, cause thunder, lightning, 
tempests; which opinion Alkindus,Paracelsus,and some others, 
approve of : so that T may certainly conclude, this strong con- 
ceit or imagination is astrum hominis, and the rudder of this our 
ship, which reason should steer, but, over-borne by phantasie, 
cannot manage, and so suffers it self and this whole vessel of 
ours to be over-ruled, and often over-turned. Read more of 
this in Wierus, /. 3. de Lamiis, c. 8, 9, 10. Franciscus Vale- 
sius, med. controv. I. 5. cont. 6. Marcellus Donatus, /. 2. c.l. 
de hist. med. mirabil. Levinus Lemnius, de occult, nat. mir. 
/.I.e. 12. Cardan, /. 18. de rer?im var. Corn. Agrippa, de 
occult. Philos. cap. 64, 65. Camerarius, 1. Cent. cap. 54, hora- 
rum subcis. Nymannus, inorat. de Imag. Laurentius, and him 
that is instar omnium^ Fienus, a famous physician of Antwerp, 
that wrote three books de viribus imaginationis, I have thus 
far digressed, because this imagination is the medium deferens 
of passions, by whose means they work and produce many 
times prodigious effects ; and as the phantasie is more or less 
intended or remitted, and their humours disposed, so do per- 
turbations move more or less, and make deeper impression. 

aMarciliHs Ficinus, 1. 13. c. 18. de theolog. Platonica. Imaginatio est tanquam 
Proteus vel cliauiseleon, corpus propriuia et alienuni nouaumquam afficiena. ^ Cur 
oscitantes oscitent. Wierus. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 3.] Division of Perturbations. 139 

SUBSECT. III. 

Division of Perturbations . 

Perturbations and passions, which trouble the phan- 
tasie, though they dwell between the confines of sense and 
reason, yet they rather follow sense than ;eason, because they 
are drowned in corporeal ors^ans of sense. They are com- 
monly ^ reduced into two inclinations, irascible, and concu- 
piscihle. The Thomists subdivide them into eleven, six in the 
coveting, and five in the invading. Aristotle reduceth all to 
pleasure and pain ; Plato, to love and hatred ; *> Vives, to g-ood 
and bad. If good, it is present, and then we absolutely joy and 
love : or to come, and then we desire and hope for it : if evil, we 
absolutely hate it : if present, it is sorrow ; if to come, fear. 
These four passions *= Bernard compares to the wheels of a 
chariot, by which ice are carryed in this world. All other 
passions are subordinate under these four, orsix,assome will — 
love, joy, desire, hatred, sorrow, fear. The rest, as anger, envy, 
emulation, pride, jealousie, anxiety, mercy, shame, discontent, 
despair, ambition.avarice,&c. are reducible unto the first : and, 
if they be immoderate, they '^consume the spirits ; and melan- 
choly is especially caused by them. Some few discreet men 
there are, that can govern themselves, and curb in those inordi- 
nate affections, by religion, philosophy, and such divine pre- 
cepts of meekness, patience, and the like ; but most part, for 
want of government, out of indiscretion, ignorance, theysuflfer 
themselves Avholly to be led by sense, and are so far from re- 
pressing rebellious inclinations, that they give all encourage- 
ment unto them, leaving the rains, and using all provocations 
to further them. Bad by nature, worse by art, discipline, «cus- 
tom,education, and a perverse will of their own, they follow on, 
wheresoever theirunbridled aflfections will transport them, and 
do more out of custom, self will, than out of reason. Contn- 
max voluntas (as 3Ielancthon calls it) malum facit : this stub- 
born will of ours perverts judgement, which sees and knows 
what should and ought to be done, and yet will not do it. 
3/awc?/>?ar/?fte, slaves to their several lusts and appetite, they 
precipitate and plunge * themselves into a labyrinth of cares: 

'T. W. Jesuit. '>3. jg Aniraa. cSer. 35. Hae qaatuor passiones sunt 

tamquam rotae in curru, quibus vehimur hoc mando. <i Hanim quippe iramode- 

ratione, spiritus marcescunt, Fernel. I. 1. Path. c. 18. <=Mala consuetudine de- 

pravatur ingenium, ne bene faciat. Prosper Calenus. I. de atra bile. Plara facinnt 

homines e consuetudine, quam e ratione. — A teneris assuescere multum est Video 

ineliora proboque ; deteriora sequor. Ovid. 'Nemo i*ditur, nisi a seipso. 



140 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

blin«le(l with lust, blinded with ambition, '^ they seek that at 
God' hands, which they may yive unto themselves if' they 
covld hut re/'rain from those cares and pertvrhations, v)here- 
with they continually macerate their mindes. But giving way 
to these vioI<;nt passions of fear, grief, shame, revenge, hatreif, 
malice, &c. they are torn in pieces, as Acta^on was with his 
dogs, and ''crucifie tlieir own souls. 



SUBSECT. IV. 

Sorrow, a Cause oj" Melancholy. 

Sorrow. -_- 
Insanus dolor. xN this catalogue of passions, which so much 
torment the soul of man, and cause this malady, (for I M'ill 
briefly speak of then\ ail, and in their order) the first place 
in this irascible appetite may justly be challenged by sor- 
row — an inseparable companion, '' the tnother and dauyhter 
of melancholy, her epitome, symptome, and chief cause. Ah 
Hippocrates hath it, they beget one another, and tread in a 
ring-; for sorrow is both cause and symptome of this disease. 
How it is a sj'mptome, shall be shewed in his place. That it is 
a cause, all the world acknowledge. Dolor nonnullis insanice 
caussaj'uit, et aliorum. morhornm insanahilium, saith Plutarch to 
Apollonius ; a cause of madness, a cause of many other dis- 
eases; a sole cause of this mischief, '' Lemnius calls it. So 
doth Rhasis, co7it. I. I. tract. 9. Guianerius, tract. 15. c. 5. 
And, if it take root once, it ends in despair, as "^ Felix Plater 
observes, and, (as in ^Cebes table) may well be coupled with 
it. sChrysostom, in his seventeenth epistle to Olympia, de- 
scribes it to be a cruel torture oJ' the soul, a most inexplicable 
ffrief, poisoned worm, consnminy body and soul, and gnawing 
the very hearty a perpetual executioner, continual night, jjro- 

''Multi se in inquietudinem praecipitant: ambitione et ciipiditatibus excsDcati, non 
jntclligiint se illud a tliis petere, quod sibi ipsis, si veliiit, praestare possint, si curis et 
perturbationibiis, qtiibus assidne se macerant, imperare vellent. ''Taiito studio 

miseriaruin caussas, et aliincnta doloium, quajrimns ; vitarnque, secus felicissiniam, 
tristem ct miserabilem efticimiis. Petrarch, pra^fat. de Remediis, &c. c Timor 

et meestitia, si diu perseverent, raussa et soboles atri liumoris sunt, et in circulum se 
procreant. Hip. Aplioris. 23. ]. 6. Idem Moutaltus, cap. 19. Victoriiis Faventinua, 
pract. iraag. ■' Multi ex mcerore et nietu hue dehipsi sunt. Lemn. lib. i. 

cap. 16. <? Mulfa cnra et tristitia faciunt accedere melancholiam : (cap. 3. de 

mentis alien.) si altas radices agat, in veram fixamque degenerant melancholiam, et in 
desperationem desinit. *Ille, lucius ; ejus vero soror desperatio simul ponifur. 

K Aniniiuiim crudele tormentut.i, dolor inexplicabilis, tinea, non solum ossa, sed corda, 
pertingens, ]ierpetuus caruifex, viresanima; consumens, jnsis nox ettenebraj profuuda^, 
teinpestfui, ct tuibo, et fvbris wm apparens, omni igue validius incendcns, longior, et 
pugua fincm iiou liabens — Crucem circtimiert dolor, faciemque omni tyraiiuo crudelio- 
rem \)rx se l^rt. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 4.] Sorrow, a Cause oj' Me fane hoi i/. 141 

Jound darkness, a whirlwind, a tempest, an ar/ue twt appear- 
ing, heating worse than any fire, and a battle that hath no end. 
It crucifies icnrse than any tyrant : no tortvre, no strappado, 
no bodily punishment^ is like unto it. 'Tis the eao-le, without 
question, which the poets fained to gnaw ^Prometheus heart; 
and no heaviness is like unto the heaviness of the heart (Ecclus. 
25. 15,16). ^ Every perturbation is a misery; but grief a 
cruel torment, a domineering passion. As in old Rome, M-hen 
the Dictator was created, all inferiour magistracies ceased — 
when grief appears, all other passions vanish. It dries up 
the bones (saith Solomon, c. VJ. Prov.); makes them hollow- 
ey'd, pale, and lean, furrow-faced, to have dead looks, wrinkled 
brows, riveled cheeks, dry bodies, and quite perverts their 
temperature, that are misafFected with it; as Elenora, that 
exiJ'd mournful duchess, (in our *^ English Ovid) laments to 
her noble husband, Humphrey duke of Gloucester — • 

.Sawest thou those eyes, in whose sweet cheerful look, 
Duke Humphrey once such joy and pleasure took, 
Sorrow hath so despoil'd me of all grace, 
Thou couldst not say this was my Elnor's face. 
Like a foul Gorgon, &c. 

^ It hindei-s concoction, refrigerates the heart, takes away sto- 
mach, colour, and sleep ; thickens the blood (•= Fernelius L 1. 
c. IS. demorb,caussis), contaminates the spirits, (^Piso) over- 
throws the natural heat, perverts the good estate of body and 
mind, and makes them weary of their lives, cry out, howl, 
and roar, for very anguish of their souls. David confessed as 
much (Psal. 38. 8.) I have roared for the very disquietness of 
my heart : and (Psal. 1 19. 4. part. 4. v.) my soul meltethaway 
for very heaviness : (vers. 38.) / am like a bottle in the smoak. 
Antiociius complained that he could not sleep, and that his 
heart fainted for grief. " Christ himself, vir dolorum, out of 
an apprehension of grief, did sweat blood, (Mark 14): his 
soul was heavy to the death, and no sori'ow was like unto his. 
Crato {consil. 21. /. 2) gives instance in one that was so melan- 
choly by reason of' grief; and Montanus {consil. 30) in a noble 



a Nat. Conies, Mythol. 1. 4. c. 6. bTnlly, 8. Tusc. oninis pcrtiirbatio mi- 

seria ; et carnificina est dolor. <" M. Draji.on, in his Her. ep. d Crato 

consil. 21. lib. '2. moestitia universum infrigidat corpus, calorem innatam estinguit, 
appetitom destruit. « Cor refrigerat tristritia, spiritus exsiccat, innatumque calo- 

rem obruit, vigilias inducit, concoctionein labefactat, sanguinem incrassat,exaggeratqne 
melancholicum snccum. f Spiritus et sanguis hoc contaminatur. Piso. " Marc. o. 

16. 11. ii Mcerore maceror, marcesco^ et consenesro, mist-r ; os.sa atqne pellis sum 
misera macritudiu*. Plaut. 



142 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

matron, ^ that had no other cause of this miscMff. J. S. D. 
(in Hildesheim) fully cured a patient of his, that was much 
troubled with melancholy, and for many years ; ^ hut after- 
wards by a little occasion of sorrow, he fell into his former 
fits, and was tormented as before. Examples are common, how 
it causeth melancholy, *= desperation, and sometimes death it 
self; for (Eccliis. 38. I ^.) of heaviness comes death. Worldly 
sorrow causeth death (2 Cor 7. 10. Psal. 31. 10.) My life is 
wasted ivith heaviness, and my years ivith mourning. Why 
was Hecuba said to be turned to a dog ? Niobe, into a stone ? 
but that for grief she was senseless and stupid. Severus the 
emperour '^ dyed for grief; and how ^many myriads besides! 

Tanta illi est feritas, tanta est insania luctAs ! 

Melancthon gives a reason of it — ^ the gathering of much me- 
lancholy blood about the heart ; which collection extingnisheth 
the good spirits, or at least dulleth them, ; sorrow strikes the 
heart, makes it tremble and pine away, with great pain : and 
the black blood, drawn from the spleen, and diffused under the 
ribs on the left side, makes those perilous hypochondriacal con- 
vulsions, which happen to them that are troubled with sorrow. 



SUBSECT. V. 

JFeart a Cause, 

C.^'OSEN german to sorrow, k fear, or rather a iikter,—fdns 
Achates, and continual companion— an assistant and a principal 
agent in procuring of this mischief; a cause and symptome as 
the other. In a word, as § Virgil of the Harpies, I may justly 
say of them both, 

Tristius baud illis monstrum ; nee ssevior ulla 
Pcstis, et ira DeAm, Stygiis sese extulit undis. 

A sadder monster, or more cruel plague so fell. 

Or vengeance of the gods, ne'er came from Styx or Hell. 

a Malum inceptum et actum a tristitia sola. b Hildesheim, specil. 2. de 

nielancholiA. Mcerore animiposteaacceflente, in priorasymptomataincidit. « Vives, 3. 
de aniiiKi, c. dd moerore, Sabin. in Ovid. ^ Herodian. 1. .3. Mcerore magis qiiam 

morbo consuiuptus est. fBothwellius atribilarius obiit, Bnzarrus Gemiensis 

hist. &.C. f Moeslitiii cor quasi percussnm constringitiir, tremit, et languescit^ 

cum acri sensu doloris. In tristitia, cor iiigiens attrahit ex splene lentum humorem|me- 
lancholitum, qui, effiiFus sub costis in sinistro latere, hypochondriacos flatus facit : quod 
sape accidit iis (jiii diuturna cura et mastitia conflictantur. Melancthon, g Lib. 3. 
.i;u. 4. 



Mem. U. Subs. 5.] Fear, a Cause. 143 

This foul iiend of fear was worshipped heretofore as a god 
by the Lacedemonians, and most of those other torturing' 
*aflrections,and so was sorrow,amongst the rest, under the name 
of Angerona Dca; they stood in such awe of them, as Austin 
{de Civitat. Dei, lib. 4. cap. 8.) noteth out of Varro. Fear was 
commonly ''adored and painted in their temples with a lions 
head; and (as Macrobius records, 1. 10. Saturnalium) ''In 
the calends of January, Jlngerona had her holy day, to ichom, 
in the temple of Vohipia, or goddess oj" pleasure, their augures 
and bishops did yearly sacrifice ; that, being propitious to 
them, she might expel all cares, anguish, and vexation of the 
mind, for that year J'ollmving. Many lamentable effects this 
fear causeth in men, as to be red, pale, tremble, sweat; '^ it 
makes sudden cold and heat to come over all the body, palpi- 
tation of the heart, syncope, &c. It amazeth many men that 
are to speak, or shew themselves inpublick assemblies, or be- 
fore some great personages, as Tully confessed of himself, that 
he trembled still at the beginning of his speech ; and Demos- 
thenes, that great orator of Greece, before Philippus. It con- 
founds voice and memory, as Lucian wittily brings in Jupiter 
Tragoedus so much afraid of his auditory, when he was to 
make a speech to the rest of the gods, that he could not utter a 
ready word,but was compelled to use Mercuries help in prompt- 
ing. Many men are so amazed and astonished with fear, they 
know not where they are, what they say, *= what they do ; and 
(that which is worst) it tortures them, many dayes before, with 
continual affrights and suspicion. It hinders most honourable 
attempts, and makes their hearts ake, sad, and heavy. They that 
live in fear, are never free, 'resolute, secure, never merry, but 
in continual pain ; that, as Vives truly said, nulla est miseria 
viajor quam metus ; no greater misery, no rack, no torture, 
like imto it ; ever suspicious,anxious,solicitous, they are child- 
ishly drooping without reason, withoutjudgement, ^especially 
if some terrible object be offered, as Plutarch hath it. It 
causeth oftentimes sudden madness, and almost all manner of 
diseases, as I have sufficiently illustrated in my ''digression of 
the Force of Imagination, and shall do more at large in my 



a Et metura ideo deam sacranint, ut bonara mentem concederet. Varro, Lactan- 
tins, Anpr. * *> Lilius Giralrl. Syntag. 1. de diis rniscellaneis. ^ Calendis 

Jan. feriae. sunt divae Axgerona*, cui pontifices in sacello Voltipiae sacra faciunt, qnod 
angores et animi solicitudines propitiata propellat. <' Timor inducit 

frigus, cordis palpitationein, vocis defectum, atque pallorera. Agrippa, 1. 1. « 63. 
Timidi semper spiritus habent frigidos. Mont « Effusas cernens fngientes 

agmine turmas, Quis niea nunc inflat coriiua ? Faunus ait. Alciat f Metus 

nou solum memoriara consternat, sed et institutnni animi onme et laudabilem cona- 
tum impedit Thucydides. s Lib. de fortitiKline et virtute Alexandri. L'b 

prope res adfuit terribilis. *' Sect. 2. Mem. 3. Subs. 2. 



144 Causea of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

section of '' Terrours. Fear makes our imagination conceive 
what it list, invites the devil to come to us, (as '^ Agrippa and 
Cardan avouch), and tyrannizeth overour phantasie more than 
all other atlections, especially in the dark. We see this verified 
in most men ; as "^Lavater saith, qua' rnettmnt, Jinf/U7it ; what 
they fear they conceive, and faign unto themselves ; they think 
they see goblins, haggs, devils, and many times become 
melancholy thereby. Cardan {suhtil. lib. 18.) hath an example 
of such an one, so caused to be melancholy (by sight of a bug- 
bear) all his life after. Augustus Caesar durst not sit in the 
dark ; nisi aliquo assidente, saith '^ Suetonius, numqnam tene- 
bris evigilavit. And 'tis strange what women and children 
will conceive unto themselves, if they go over a church-yard 
in the night, lye or be alone in a dark room ; how they sweat 
and tremble on a sudden. Many men are troubled with future 
events, foreknoAvledge of their fortunes, destinies, as Severus 
the emperour, Adrian and Domitian : quod sciret ultimum 
vitcc diem, saith Seutonius, vAilde solicitns ; much tortured in 
mind because he foreknew his end ; with many such, of 
which I shall speak more opportunely in ^ another place. 
Anxiety, mercy, pitty, indignation, &c. and such fearful 
branches derived from these two stems of fear and sorrow, I 
voluntarily omit. Read more of them in * Carol us Pascalius, 
^ Dandinus, &c. 

SUBSECT. VI. 

Shame and Disgrace, Causes. 

oHAME and disgrace cause most violent passions, and bit- 
ter pangs. Ob jmdorem et dedecus puhlicum, ob eirorcm 
commissum, scepe moventur generosi animi (Felix Plater, lib, 
3. de alienat. mentis) : Generous minds are often moved with 
shame, to despair, for some publick disgrace. And he (saith 
Philo. lib. 2. de provid. dei) '' that subjects himself to fear ^ 
grief, ambition, shame, is not happy, but altogether miserable, 
tortured with continual labour, care, and misery. It is as 
forcible a batterer as any of the rest. ' Many men neglect the 
tumults of the icorld, and care not for glory,, and yet they are 

a Sect. 2. Mem. 4. Subs?. .3. b Subtil. 18. lib. Timor attrahit ad se dsemonas. 

Timor et error multnm in hominibus possunt. *■ Lib. de Spectris, ca. 3. Fortes 

rare spectra vident. quia minus timent. ^ Vita ejus. « Sect. 2. Memb. 4. 

Sabs. 7. >De %'irt. et vitiis. B Com. in Arist. de Anima. ''Qui 

mentem subjecit timoris dominationi, cnpiditatis, doloris, ambitionis, pudoris, felix 
DOD est, sed omnino miser : assiduis laboribiis torcjuetur et miseria. ' Multi 

contemnunt mundi strepitum, reputant pro nihilo ploriam, sed timent infamiam, of- 
fensiouem, repulsam. Voluptatem severissime coutemniint; in dolore sunt molli- 
orts ; gloriam negligunt ; franguntur iniamia. 



Mem. 3- Subs. 6.] Shame and Disgrace, Cannes. 145 

afraid of infamy, repulse^ disgrace : {Tnl.qffic. I. 1.) they can 
severely contemn pleasure, hear rjrief indifferently; but they 
are quite '■>■ battered and broken rviih reproach and obloquy 
{siquidem vita etfamajmri passu ambulant), and are so de- 
jected many times for some public injury, disgrace, as a box 
on the car by their inferiour, to be overcome of their adversary, 
foiled in the field, to be out in a speech, some foul fact com- 
mitted or disclosed, &c. that they dare not come abroad all 
their lives after,butmelancholize in corners, and keep inholes. 
The most generous spirits are most subject to it. Spiritns altos 
fran(iit et yenerosos: Hieronym. Aristotle, because he could 
not understand the motion of Euripus^ for grief and shame 
drowned himself: Calius Rodoginus (antiquar. lee. lib. 29. 
cap. 8.) Homerns pudore consumptus, was swallowed up with 
this passion of shame, '' because he could not unfold the fish- 
erman's riddle. Sophocles killed himself, ''for that a tra- 
gedy of his was hissed off' the stage. (Valer. Max. lib. 9. 
cap. \2.) Lucretia stabbed her self; and so did "^ Cleopatra, 
rrhen she satv she that ivas reserved for a triumph, to avoid 
the infamy. Antonius, the Roman, ^ after he ivas overcome 
of his enemy, for three days space sat solitary in the fore-part 
<f the ship, abstaining from all company, even of Cleopatra 
her self and aftericards, for very shame, butchered himself 
(Plutarch, vita ejus). ApoUonius Rhodius ^wilfully banisJied 
himself forsaking his countrey, andall his dear friends, because 
he was out in reciting his poems, (Plinius, lib. 7- cap. ^3). 
A jax ran mad, because his arms were ajudged to Ulysses. In 
China, 'tis an ordinary thing for such as are excluded in those 
famous tryals of theirs, or should take degrees, for shame and 
grief to lose their wits s (Mat. Kicc'ms, expedit. ad Sinas, I. 3. 
c. 9). Hostratus the fryer took that book which Reuclin had 
writ against him, under the name of Epist. obscurorum viro- 
rum, so to heart, that, for shame and grief, he made away him- 
self'*' {.Jovius,inelogiisJ. A grave and learned minister, and an 
ordinary preacher at Alcmar in Holland, was (one day, as he 
Malkcd in the fields for his recreation) suddenly taken with a 
lask or looseness, and thereupon compelled to retire to the next 



« Graving contumeliam ferimus quam detrimentnm, ni abjecto nimis aninio siinns. 
Pint, in Timol. f" Quod pi.scatoris scnisma solvere non posset. <■ Ob 

tragwdiani explosam, mortem sibi siadio conscivit. •' Ciiiu vidit in triumpliuin 

se servari, cau.ssa ejus iginnninix vitiiiidai inortcin sibi conscivit. Pltit. •"Bel- 

le victus, per"tres dies srdil, in prora iiavis, abstiuens ab oir.ni consorfio, etiani 
Cleopatra;; postea se interlVcit. '" Cum male rccitasset Ar^onautica, ob pudo- 

rem exulavit. F Qiiidatn, pra? verecum'.ia simul et dolore, in insaniam incidunt, 

eo <(uod a literatorum gradu in cxaiuiiie excluduntur. '' Hostratus cuculiatus 

adco {viavitt/r on Keucliiii iibrum, qui inscribifur, EpistoliS obscurorum viruru.ui, 
dolore siuiul tt pudore sau' iulus, ut stipsum interfecerit. 



146 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. Sec. 2; 

ditch ; but, being ^ surprized at unawares by some g-entle- 
woman of his parish wandering that way, was so abashed, that 
he did never after shew his head in publick, or come into the 
pulpit, but pined away with melancholy : Pet. Forestus, med. 
observnt. lib. \0. observat. 12.) So shame amongst other 
passions can play his prize. 

I know there be many base, impudent, brazen-faced rogues, 
that will ^ nulla pallescere culpa, be moved with nothing, 
take no infamy or disgrace to heart, laugh at all ; let them be 
proved perjured, stigmatized, convict rogues, thieves, trai- 
tours, lose their ears, be whipped, branded, carted, pointed at, 
hissed, reviled, and derided, (with ^Ballio the baud in Plautus) 
they rejoyce at it ; cantores probos ! babcE ! and bombax ! what 
care they ? We have too many such in our times. 

-Exclamat Melicerta perisse 



Frontem de rebus. 



Yet a modest man, one that hath grace, a generous spirit, ten- 
der of hisreputation,wiIl be deeply wounded,and so grievously 
affected with it, that he had rather give myriads of crowns, lose 
his life, than suffer the least defamation of honour, or blot in his 
good name. >\nd, if so be that he cannot avoid it, — as a night- 
ingale, qu€c, cantando victa, moritur, (saith ** Mizaldus) dies 
for shame, if another bird sing better — he languisheth and 
pineth away in the anguish of his spirit. 



SUBSECT. VII. 

Envy, Malice, Hatred, Causes. 

JbiNVY and malice are two links of this chain ; and both 
(asGuianerius, Tract. 15- cap. 2. proves out of Galen, 3 Apho- 
rism, com. 22.) ^ cause this malady by themselves, especially if 
their bodies be otherwise disposed to melancholy. 'Tis Valescus 
de Taranta and Felix Platerus observation : ^ envy so gnawes 
many men's hearts, that they become altogether melancholy. 
And therefore, belike, Solomon (Prov. 14. 13.) calls it, the 
rotting of the bones ; Cyprian, vulnus occultum. 

=1 Prompter ruborem confusns, stati coepit delirare, &c. ob suspicionem, quod 
vili ilium crimine acc'usarent ^ Horat. « Pg. Impudice. B. Ita est. Ps. 

sceleste. B. dicis vera. Ps. verbero. B. quippini ? Ps. furcifer. B. factum optime. 
Ps. snciofraude. B. sunt mea istarc. Ps. parricida. B. perge tu. P. sacrilege. B. fa- 
teor. Ps. perjure. B. vera dicis. Ps. pernicies adolescentum. B. acerrime. Ps. fur. 
B. babse ! Ps. fugitive. B. bombax! Ps. fraus populi. B. planissime. Ps. impure le- 
no, coemim. B. cantores probos ! Pseudolus, act. 1. seen. 3. <• Cent. 7. e 

Plinio. <= Multos videmus, propter invidiam et odium, in melancholiam inci- 

disse ; et illos potissimum quorum corpora ad hanc apta sunt. f Invidia affli- 

git homines adeo et corrodit, ul hi melancholic! penitus fiant. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 7.] Envy, Malice, Hatred, Causes. 14/ 

— *Siculi non invenfere tyranni 



Majus tormentum : 

the Sicilian tyrants never invented the like torment. It cru- 
cifies their souls, withers theirbodies, makes them hoUow-ey'd, 
•'pale, lean, and g-hastly to behold (Cyprian, ser. 2. de zelo et 
livore). '^ As a moth gnaws a ijarment^ so, (saith Chrysostome) 
doth envy consume a man ; to be a livino- anatomy, a skeleton • 
to he a lean and '^pale carcass, quickened with a •= fiend (Hall, in 
Charact.); for, so often as an envious wretch sees another man 
prosper, to be enriched,to thrive, and be fortunate in the world 
to get honours, offices, or the like, he repines, and oTieves : 

rintabesciique videndo 



Successus hominum' 

Suppliciumque suum est : ' 

he tortures himself, if his equal, friend, neig-hbour, be preferred 
commended, do well ; if he understand of it, it oauls him 
afresh ; and no greater pain can come to him, than to hear of 
another mans well doino- ; 'tis a dagger to his heart, every 
such object. He looks at him (as they that fell down in Lucians 
rock of honour) with an envious eye, and will damage him- 
self to do the other a mischief, (Atque cadet subito, dmn super 
hoste cadat) as he did, in ^sop, lose one eye willing-ly, that his 
fellow might lose both, or that rich man, in *Quintilian 
that poysoned the flowers in his garden, because his neio-hl 
hours bees should get no more honey from them. His wliole 
life is sorrow ; and every word he speaks, a satyr e ; nothing- 
fats him but other mens mines; for, to speak in a word, envy is 
nought else but tristitia de bonis alienis, sorrow for other 
mens good, be it present, past or to come ; et yaudium de 
adyersis, and ''joy at their harms, opposite to mercy, * which 
grieves at other mens mischances, and misafl^ects the body in 
another kind ; so Damascen defines it, lib. 2. de orthod. fid, 
Thomas, 2. 2. fjutsst. 36. art. 1. Aristotle, /. 2. Rhet. c. 4. et 
10. Plato, Philebo, Tully, 3. Tusc. Greg. Nic. /. de virt. 

'^i^'"-' J L "' ^'^ ^"'^"^ minax, torviis aspectus, pallor in facie, in labis tremor 
stridor in dentibus, &c. «• Ut tiuea cnrrodit vestinientum, sir invidia euni qui 

zelatur, consumit. d PaHor in ore sedet, macies in corpore toto. Nusquam 

recta acies ; livent rubigme denies. eDiaboli expressa imago, toxicurn charitatis 

veneuum aiiiicitiai, abyssus mentis; non est eo monstiosius moustrum, damnosius 
damnum: unt, torret, discrucuit, macie etsqualore conticit. Austin. Domin. prim. Ad- 
vent. 'Ovid. KDeclam. 1.3, linivit tlores maleficis succis, in venenum mella 
convertens h Statins cereis Basilius eos comparat, qui iiqnefiunt ad prasentiam 
soils, qua aln gaudent et oruantur; muscis alii, qua; ulceribus gaudent, amcena prater- 
cunt, sistunt in foetidis. ■ Misericordia etiam, quie tristitia qujedaiu est smoe 
Uiiserantis corpus male afficit, Agrippa, 1. 1. cap. 6;i. ' 



us Causes of Mclancholtj. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

aninifP, c. VZ. Basil, dc InviiUd. Piiularus, Od. 1. ser. 5; "and 
we iiixl it true. 'Tis a comiiiou disease, and almost natural to 
us, (as "Tacitus holds) to envy another mans prosperity : and 
'tis in most men an incurable disease. ^ I have read, saitli 
Marcus Aurelius, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee authors ; I have 
consulted with many wise men, for a remedy fot envy: I could 
find none, hut to renounce all happiness, and to he « wretch, 
and miserahle for ever. 'Tis the beginning- of hell in this lise 
and a passion not to be excused. "^ Every other sin hath some 
pleasure annexed to it, or ivill admit oj'an excuse ; envy alone 
toants both. Other sins last but for a ivhile : the gut may be 
satis fed ; ancjer remits ; hatred hath an end ; envy never 
ceaseth. (Cardan lib. 2. de sap.) Divine and humane examples 
are very familiar: you may run and read them, as that of Saul 
and Dav^id, Cain and Abel : anr/ebat ilium non proprium pec- 
catum, sed Jratris prosperifas, saith Theodoret ; it was his 
brothers good fortune gauled him. Rachel envied her sister, 
being- barren, (Gen. 30) Josephs brethren, him (Gen, 37.) 
David had a touch of this vice, as he confesseth (•'Ps?l. 37), ^Jle- 
remy and "^Habbakuk : they repined at others good : but in the 
end they corrected themselves. V^dl.Jb'.fret not thyself, S^c. 
Domitian spited Agricola for his worth, s that a private man 
should be so much ylorijied. '' Cascinna was envyed of his fel- 
low-citizens, because he was more richly adorned. But, of all 
others, 'women are most weak: ob pulchritudinem, invidice 
sunt Jemince (Musseus) : aut amat, aut odit : nihil est tertium 
(Granatensis) : they love, or hate : no medium amongst them, 
Implacabiles plerumque l<vs(e nmlieres. Agrippina like, ^a 
woman, if she see her neiyhbour more neat and elegant, richer in 
tires,jewels, or apparel,is enraged, and, like a lioness, sets upon 
her husband, rails at her, scoffs at her, and cannot abide her ; 
so the Roman ladies,in Tacitus,did at Solanina,Cfficinna's wife, 
' because she had a better horse, and better furniture ; as if she 
had hurt them with it, they were much offended. In like sort 
our gentlewomen do at their usual meetings ; one repines or 



ainsituin mortalibus a iiatiirc\ rccentem aliorum felicitatem tegris oculis infueri. 
Hist. 1. 2. Tacit. ■> Legi Chalilieos, (Irascos, Hebra;os ; con.suliii sapientes, 

pro reiuedio invidia; ; hoc enim inveni, reminciare felicitati, et per])etiio miser esse. 
« Omiie peccatum aut excusationcm secum habet, aut volnptatem ; .sola invidia utraque 
caret lleliqua vitia finem habeut ; ira defervescit ; gnia sntiatur; odium fiiiem lial>et, 
invidia nuinquam quiescit. ^Urebat me jemulatio propter stuKos. i* Hier. 

12.1. 'Hab. I. s Invidit privati noiiieu supra principis atSolli. ''Tacit. 

Hist. lib. 2. part. 6. ' Perituras dolore et invidia, si quam viderint ornatioreiii se in 

publicum prodiisse. Platina, dial, amoruui. i^ Aut. Guianerius, lib. 2. cap. 8. 

vit. M. Aurelii. Femina, vicinam eleganlius se vestitam videns, Itenre instar in viruin 
insurgit, &c. 'Quod insignis eqiio et Oatro veheretur, quaniquaia nuUius cum 

injuria, ornatum ilium, tanqnam Isesa', gravabautur. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 8.] Emulation, Hatred, ^-r. 149 

scoffs at anothers bravery and happiness, Myrsine, an Attick 
wench, was niurthered other fellows, 'because she did excel the 
rest in beauty, (Constantine, Ar/ricult. I. 11. c. 7). Every 
village will yield such examples. 



SUBSECT. VITI. 

A^/mulation, Hatred, Faction, Desire of Revenye, Causes. 

Out of this root of envy, ''spring- those feral branches of fac- 
tion, hatred, livor, emulation, which cause the like grievances, 
and are serroi animce,the sawesof the soul, "^^co us t ernatio ni s pleni 
aif'ectus, affections full of desperate amazement ; or, as Cyprian 
describes emulation, it is '' a moth oj'the soul, a consumption, to 
make another ma7is happiness his misei'y,to torture, crucifie,and 
execute himself', to eat his oicn heart. Meat and drink can do 
such men no r/ood: they do ahcays grieve, siyh, and yroan, day 
and niqht without intermission ; their breast is torn a sunder : 
and a little after, ^whosoererhe is whom thou dost emulate and 
envy, he may avoid thee ; but thou canst neither avoid him, nor 
thyself'. Wheresoever thou art, he is with thee; thine enemy 
is ever in thy breast ; thy destruction is icithin thee ; thou art a 
captive bound hand and foot, as long as thou art malicious and 
envious, and canst not be conif'orted. It was the devilsrtver- 
throiv ; and, whensoever thou art thoroughly affected with this 
passion, it wdl be thine. Yet no perturbation so frequent, no 
passion so common. 

Ka» 9rTW^(3? Tnu^u (pOovEs;, y.xi aoi^o? aoi^a;. 

A potter emulates a potter; 

One smith envies another : 
A begg:ar emulates a begijar ; 

A sinsring man his brother. 

'Quod pulchritiuline onines excelleret, puellas indignata; occiderunt. ''Late 

patet iinidia- fecuiida pernities ; et livor radix omnium maluruin, foDS cladiuin: inde 
odium sin-git, a;mulatio. Cyprian, ser. 2/de Livore. i" Valerius, 1.3. cap. 9. 

'' Qualis est animi tinea, quaitaijes pectoris, zelarein aUero,velaliornmfelicitatem.suani 
facere iniseriam, et velut qiiosdam pectori suo admovere carnifices, coffitationibus et 
sensibiis suis adhibere tortores, qui se intestinis cruciatibiis lacerent ? Non cibus tahbus 
la;tus, non potus potest esse jucundus : suspiratur semper et gemifiir, etdoletur dies et 
noctes ; pectus sine intermissione laceratur. ^ Quisquis est ille, (piem <«nuilaris, 

cui invides, is te subterfugere potest : at tu nonte : ubicuuqne fugeris, adversariustuus 
tecum est; hostis tuus semper in pectore tuo est, pernities intus inclusa : ligatus es, 
vinctus, zelo douiinante cajjtivus : nee solatia tibi ulla subveuiunt : hinc diabolns, inter 
initia statim luundi, et periit primus, et perdidit. Cyprian, ser. 2. de zelo et livore. 
'Hesiod, op. et dies. 



150' Causes of Metancholif. [Part. 1. See. 2. 

Every society, corporation, and private family, is full of it ; 
it takes'liold almost of all sorts of men, from the prince to the 
ploughman ; even amongst gossips it is to be seen ; scarce three 
in a company, but there is siding, faction, emulation, between 
two of them, some si»m/^as,jarr, private grudge,heart-burning 
in the midst of them. Scarce two g-entlemen dwell together 
in the country, (if they be not near kin or linked in marriage) 
but there is emulation betwixt them and their servants, some 
quarrel or some grudge betwixt their wives or children,friends 
and followers, some contention about wealth, gentry, pre- 
cedency, &c. by means of which, (like the frog in ^ ^Esop, 
that ivould swell till she was as big as an ox, hut burst her 
self' at last) they will stretch beyond their fortunes, call- 
ings, and strive so long, that they consume their substance in 
law-suits, or otherwise in hospitality, feasting, fine clothes, 
to get a few bumbast titles ; for ambitiosd paupertate labora- 
mus omnes ; to outbrave one another, they will tire their bodies, 
macerate their souls, and, through contentions or mutual in- 
vitations, beggar themselves. Scarce two great scholars in an 
age, but with bitter invectives they fall foul one on the other, 
and their adherents — Scotists, Thomists, Reals, Nominals, 
Plato and Aristotle, Galenists and Paracelsians, &c. it holds 
in all professions. 

Honest ''emulation in studies, in all callings, is not to be dis- 
liked: ' Us ingeniorum cos, as one calls it — the whetstone of wit, 
the n^rse of wit and valour ; and those noble Romans, out of 
this spirit, did brave exploits. There is a modest ambition, 
as Themistocles was roused up with the glory of Miltiades ; 
Achilles trophies moved Alexander. 



*= Ambire semper stulta confidentia est 
Ambire numqaam deses arrogantia ei 



est : 

'tis a sluggish humour not to emulate or sue at all, to with- 
draw himself,neglect, refrain from such places,honours, offices, 
through sloth, niggardliness, fear, bashfulness, or otherwise, 
to which, by his birth, place, fortunes, education, he is called, 
apt, fit, and well able to undergo : but, when it is immoderate, 
it is a plague and a miserable pain. What a deal of money did 
Henry the eighth, and Francis the first, king- of France, spend 
at that '^famous interview! and how many vain courtiers, seek- 
ing each to outbrave other, spent themselves, their lively-hood 
andfortunes,and dyed beggars ! ^ Adrian the emperour was so 
galled with it, that he killed all his equals ; so did Nero. This 

a Rana, cn>jida sequandi bovem, se distendebat, &c. byEtnidatio alit iiigenia. 

Paterculus, poster. Vol. <^Grotius, Epig- lib. 1. "J Anno 1519, betwixt 

Ardes and Quine. * Spartian. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 8.] Mmulation, Hatred, Sfc. 151 

passion made * Dionysius the tyrant banish Plato and Philoxe- 
nus the poet, because they did excell and eclipse his i^lory, as 
lie thought ; the Romans exile Coriolanus, confine Caniillus, 
murder Scipio; the Greeks, by ostracism, to expel Aristides, 
Micias, Alcibiades, imprison Theseus, make away Phocion,&c, 
When Richard the first, and Philip of France, were fellow soul- 
diers together at the siege of Aeon, in the Holy land, and 
Richard had approved himself to be the more valiant man, in so 
much that all mens eyes were upon him, it so gauled Philip, 
(^Francnm urebat regis victoria, saith mine '' author ; tarn cB(/re 
J'erebat Richardi f/loriam, ut carpere dicta, cuhimniari J'aclu) 
that he cavilled at all his proceedings, and fell at length to open 
defiance. He could contain no longer, but, hasting home, in- 
vaded his territories, and professed open war. Hatred stira up 
contention, (Prov. 10. 12); and they break out at last into im- 
mortal enmity, into virulency,and more thanV aniinian hateand 
rage ; "" they persecute each other, their friends, followers, and 
all their posterity, with bitter taunts, hostile wars, scurril invec- 
tives, libels, calumnies, fire, sword, and the like, and will not be 
reconciled. Witness that Guelf and Gibelline faction in Italy; 
that of the Adurni and Fregosi in Genoa; thatofCneius 
Papirius and Quintus Fabius in Rome ; Cassar and Pompey ; 
Orleans and Burgundy in France ; York and Lancaster in 
England. Yea, this passion so rag'eth ^ many times, that 
it subverts, not men only, and families, but even populous 
cities. '^ Carthage and Corinth can witness as much ; nay 
flourishing kingdoms are brought into a wilderness by it. 
This hatred, malice, faction, and desire of revenge, invented 
first all those racks, and wheels,strappadoes, brazen bulls, feral 
engines, prisons, inquisitions, severe laws, to macerate and tor- 
ment one another. How happy might we be, and end our time 
with blessed days, and sweet content, if we could contain our 
selves, and, as we ought to do, put up injuries, learn humility, 
meekness, patience, forget and forgive, (as in 'Gods word we 
areinjoyned), compose such final controversies amongst our 
selves, moderate our passions in this \i\ndi, and think better of 
others (as § Paul would have us) than oj'our selves ; he of like 
affection one towards another ^ and not avenge onr selves, but 
nave peace loith all men. But being that we are so peevish and 
perverse, insolent and proud, so factious and seditious, so mali- 



» Plutareh. b Johannes Heraldus, I. 2. c. 12. de bello sac. « Nulla dies 

tantum poterit lenire furorem.— .Sterna bella pace aublata gcrunt. — Jurat odium, 
nee ante invisura esse desinit, quaui esse desiit. Paterculus, vol. 1. '^ Ita SEevit 

haec Stygia ministra, ut urbes subvertat aliquando, deleat populos, proviiicias alioqui 
florentes redigat in solitudines, niortales vero miseros in profunda iniseriarum valle 
miserabiliter immergat. « Carthago, aemula Romaui imperii, t'unditua interiit^ 

Sallust Catil. . fPaul.3. CoK e Rom. 12. 



152 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

cious and envious, we do hivicem angariare^ maul and vex one 
another, torture, disquiet, and precipitate our selves into that 
gulf of woes and cares, aggravate our misery and melancholy, 
heap upon us hell and eternal damnation. 



SUBSECT. IX. 

Anger, a Cause, 

Anger, a perturbation which carries the spirits outwards, 
preparing the body to melancholy, and madness it self — 
ira furor brevis est ; and (as '^ Piccolomineus accounts it) one 
of the three most violent passions. ^ Aretaeus sets it down for an 
especial cause (so doth Seneca, ep. 18- 1. 1.) of this malady. 
•^ Magninus gives the reason ; exjrequenti ird supra modmn 
calejiunt ; it over-heats their bodies ; and, if it be too frequent, 
it breaks out into manifest madness, saith S. Ambrose. 'Tis a 
known snying ; Juror Jit Icesa scepius patientia ; the most pa- 
tient spirit that is, if he be often provoked, will be incensed to 
madness ; it will make a devil of a saint ; and therefore Basil 
(belike) in his Homily de Ird, calls it tenehras rationis, mor- 
hum animce et dcsmotieni pessimum ; the darkning of our under- 
standing, and a bad angel. '^Lucian (in Ahdicato, Tom. 1.) 
will have this passion to work this effect, especially in old 
men and women. Anger and calumny (saith he) trouble them 
at first, and, after a while, break out into open madness : many 
things cause Jury in women, especially if they love or hate 
overmuch, or envy, be much grieved or angry ; these things, 
by little and little, lead them on to this malady. From a dis- 
position, they proceed to an habit ; for there is no difference 
betwixt a mad man and an angry man, in the time of his fit. 
Anger, as Lactantius describes it, (i. de Ird Dei, ad Donatum, 
c. 5) is ^ sceva atiimi tempestas, Sfc. a cruel tempest of the mind, 
making his eyes sparkle fire, and stare, teeth gnash in his head, 
his tongue stutter, hisj'ace pale or red ; and what more filthy 
imitatioti can be oj'a mad man ? 



»Grad. 1. c. 54. b Ira, et moeror, et ingens'animi consternatio, melancho- 

licos facit. Aretjeus. Ira immodica gignit insaniam. <= Reg. sanit. parte 2. 

c. 8. In apertam insaniam mox ducitur iratus. "' Gilberto Cognato iuterprete. 

Multis, et praesertim senibus, ira irapotens insaniam facit, et importuna calumnia : 
haec initio perturbat aninium ; pauUatim vergit ad insaniam. Porro rauliernm corpora 
multa infestant, et in hunc morbum adducunt, prascipjie si qu£B oderint aut invi- 
deant, &,c. hsec pauUatim in insaniam tandem evadunt. « S»va animi tempestas, 

tantos excitans iluctus,|ut statim ardescant oculi, os tremat, lingua titubet, dentes coa- 
crepent. Sec. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 9.] ^nger, a Cansf. 153 

' Ora tument ira ; fervescunt sanguine venae ; 
Luinina Gorgoneo ssevius angue micant. 

They are void of reason, inexorable, blind, like beasts and 
monsters for the time, say and do they know not what, curse 
swear, rail, fight and what not ? How can a mad man do 
more ? as he said in the comedy, ^ iracuniUd non sum apud 
me; I am not mine own man. If these fits be immoderate, 
continue long-, or be frequent, without dou))t they provoke 
madness. Montanus (consil. 21) had a melancholy Jew to his 
patient ; he ascribes this for a principal cause : irascehatur le- 
vibus de canssis ; he was easily moved to anger. Ajax had no 
other beginning of his madness; and Charles the sixth, that 
lunatick French king, fell into this misery, out of the extre- 
mity of his passion, desire of revenge, and malice ; ''incensed 
against the duke of Britain, he could neither eat, drink, nor 
sleep for some days together : and in the end, about the calends 
of July, 1392, he became mad upon his horse-back, drawing 
his sword, striking such as came neer him promiscuously, and 
so continued all the days of his life. (JEmil. lib. 10. Gal. hist.) 
Hegesippus (de excid. urbis Hieros. /.I.e. 37) hath such a 
story of Herod, that, out of an angry fit, became mad, and "^leap- 
ing out of his bed, he killed Jossippus, and played many such 
Bedlam pranks. The whole court could not rule him fora long 
time after. Sometimes he was sorry and repented,much grieved 
for that he had done, postquam deferbuit ira; by and by out- 
ragious again. In hot cholerick bodies, nothing so soon 
causeth madness, as this passion of anger, besides many other 
diseases, as Pelesius observes, (Cap. 21. /. 1. de hum. affect, 
canssis) Sauf/uinem immirmit. Jet aitr/et : and, as " Valesius 
controverts, (Med. controv. lib. 5. contro. 8.) many times kills 
them quite out. If this were the worst of this passion, it were 
more tolerable: Hmt it rttines and subverts whole towns, 
8 cities, Jamilies, and kingdoms. Nulla pestis humano generi 
plurisstetit, saith Seneca, (de Ira, lib. 1.) no plague hath done 
ma^ikind so much harm. Look into our histories ; and you shall 
almost meet with no other subject, but what a company '' of 
hair-brains have done in their rage. We may do well, there- 
fore, to put this in our procession amongst the rest : From all 
blindness of heart, from pride, vain'glmy, and hypocrisy, from 
envy, hatred, and malice, anger, and all such pestiferous per- 
turbations, good Lord, deliver lis ! 

»Ovi(l. b Terence. einfensus Britaimiae duci, et in ultionem versus, 

nee cibum cepit, nee quietem ; ad Calendas Julias, 139"2, comites occidit. "In- 

dignatione nimia furens, animiqne irapotens, exsiliit de leeto : furentem non capiebat 
aula, &c. eAn ira possit hominem interiniere. • Abernethy. sAs 

Troy, sjevse memorem Jtinonis ob iram. i' Stultorum regum et popaloram con- 

tinet xstus. 

T 2 



154 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

SUBSECT. X. 

Discontents, Cares, Miseries, Sfc. Causes. 

ills CONTENTS, cares, crosses, miseries, or whatsoever it 
is that shall cause any molestation of spirits, grief, anguish, and 
perplexity, may well be reduced to this head. Preposterously 
placed here, in some mens judgements, they may seem: yet, in 
that Aristotle in his ''Rhetorick defines these cares, as he doth 
envy, emulation,&c. still by grief, I think I may well rank them 
in this irascible row; beingthat they are,as the rest,both causes 
and symptomes of this disease, producing the like inconveni- 
ences, and are, most part, accompanied with anguish and pain 
(the common etymology will evince it — cura,quasicorura) ; de- 
nientes curce, insomnes curae, damnosce cur(s, tristes, mordaces, 
carnijices, ^c. biting, eating, gnawing, cruel, bitter, sick, sad, 
unquiet,pale,tetrick, miserable, intolerable cares (as the poets'* 
call them) ; worldly cares, and are as many in number aslhe sea 
sands. '^Galen,Fernelius,Felix Plater,Valescus deTaranta, &c. 
reckon afflictions,miseries,even all these contentions,and vexa- 
tions of the mind, as principal causes, in that they take away 
sleep, hinder concoction, dry up the body, and consume the 
substance of it. They are not so many in number, but their 
causes be as divers, and not one of a thousand free from them, 
or that can vindicate himself, whom that Ate dea — 

** Per hominum capita molliter ambulans, 
Plantas pedum teneras habens — 

Over mens heads walking aloft. 
With tender feet treading so soft — 

Homers goddess Ate, hath not involved into this discontented 
•rank, or plagued with some misery or other. Hyginus 
(fab. 220) to this purpose hath a pleasant tale. Dame Curaby 
chance went over a brook, and, taking up some of the dirty 
slime, made an image of it. Jupiter, eftsoons coming by, put 
life to it; but Cura and Jupiter could not agree what name to 
give him, or who should own him. The matter was referred to 

a Lib. 2. Invidia est dolor, et ambitio est dolor, &c. b Insomnes, Claudianus. 

tristes, Virg, mordaces, Luc. edaces, Hor. mcestas, amarae, Ovid, damnosse, inquietae. 
Mart, urentes, rodentes, Mant. &c. <= Galen. 1. 3. c. 7, de locis affectis. Homines 
sunt maxime melancholici, quaudo vigiliis multis, et solicitudinibus, et laboribus, et 
curis, fuerint circumventi. * Lucian. Podag. e Omnia imperfecta, confusa, 

et pertnrbationc plena. Cardan. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, ^c. 155 

Saturn as judge : lie gave this arbitrement : his name shall be 
Homo ab hmno : Cura eum possideat quamdiu vivat : Care 
shall have him whil'st he lives ; Jupiter his soul, and Tellus his 
body when he dies. But, to leave tales — A general cause, a 
continuate cause, an inseparable accident to all men, is dis- 
content, care, misery. Were there no other particular afflic- 
tion (which who is free from?) to molest a man in this life, the 
very cogitation of that common misery were enough to mace- 
rate, and make him Aveary of his life ; to think that he can 
never be secure, but still in danger, sorrow, grief, and perse- 
cution. For, to begin at the hour of his birth, as ^ Pliny doth 
elegantly describe it, he is born naked, and Jails ^ a whining 
at the very first ; he is stvadled and bound up, like a prisoner ; 
cannot help himself; and so he continues to his lives end ; 
cnj usque J'erce pabulum, saith '^ Seneca, impatient of heat and 
cold, impatient of labour, impatient of idleness, exposed to 
Fortunes contumelies. To a naked marriner Lucretius com- 
pares him, cast on shore by shipwrack, cold and comfortless 
in an unknown land : ^ No estate, age, sex, can secure himself 
from this common misery. A man, that is born of a womauy 
is of short continuance, and full of trouble (Job 14. 1. 22) ; 
and, while his fiesh is upon him, he shall be sorroivjul: and^ 
while his soul is in him, it shall mourn. All his days are sor- 
roiCf and his travels grief: his heart also taketh not rest in the 
night; (Ecclus. 2. 23. and 2. II) all that is in it, is sor- 
row and vexation of spirit ; * ingress, progress, regress, egress^ 
much alike. Blindness seizeth on us in the beginning, labour 
in the middle, grief in the end, errour in all. What day ariseth 
to us, tvithout some grief, care, or anguish ? or what so secure 
and pleasing a morning have we seen, that hath not been over- 
cast before the evening ? One is miserable, another ridiculous, 
a third odious. One complains of this grievance, another of 
that. A liquando nervi, aliquando pedes, vexant, (Seneca) nunc 
destillatio, nunc hepatis morbus ; nunc deest, nunc superest, 
sanguis : now the head akes, then the feet, now the lungs, then 
the liver, &c. Huic census exuberat ; sed est pudori degener 
sanguis, Sfc. He is rich, but base born; he is noble, but 
poor : a third hath means; but he wants health, peradventure, 
or wit to manage his estate. Children vex one, wife a second, 
&c. J^emo facile cum conditione sua concordat,, no man is 

a Lib. 7. nat. hist. cap. 1. Hominem nudam et ad vagitum edit natura. Flens ah 
initio^ devinctiis jacet, &c. 

'' Axxfv^cuv <yfvo/xr)v, nat ^xx-fvaxi aTraQvyKTnW 
Tai ysvo? xvQpwrruv tto^voxkpvtov, aa6sn^, o;xt«ov. 
Lacrymans natus sum, et lacrymans morior, &c. *; Ad Marinuui. ^ Boethias. 

einitium caecitas, progressum labor, exitum dolor, error omnia: quem tranquillum, 
qucEso, quem non laboriosiim aut anxium diem egimus ? Petrarch. 



156 Causes ofMekuieliohj. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

pleased with his fortune ; a pound of sorrow is familiarly mixt 
with a dram of content; little or no joy, little comfort, but 
^ every where danger, contention, anxiety in all places. Go 
where thou wilt ; and thou shalt find discontents, cares, woes, 
complaints, sickness, diseases, incumbrances, exclamations. 
//' thou look into the market, there (saith ^ Chrysostom) is 
brawling and contention ; if to the court, there knavery and 
flattery, Sf-c. if to a private mans house, there's cark and care, 
heaviness^ Sfc. As he said of old, 

"^ Nil homine in terrA spiral miserum magis alma : 

No creature so miserable as man, so g-enerally molested, ^ in 
miseries of body, hi miseries of mind, miseries of heart, in 
viiseries asleep, in miseries awake, in miseries loheresoever he 
turns, as Bernard found. Numquid tentatio est vita humana 
super terrain ? A meer temptation is our life; (Austin, con- 
fess. lib. 10. cap. 28.) catena perpetuorum malorum ; et quis 
potest molestias et difficultates pati ? Who can endure the 
miseries of it ? ^ In prosperity we are insolent and intolerable, 
dejected in adversity, in all fortunes foolish and miserable. *Tn 
adversity, I wish for prosperity ; and, in prosperity,Iani afraid 
of adversity. What mediocrity may he found? ichere is no 
temptation ? what condition of life is free ? " Wisdom hath 
labour annexed to it, glory envy ; riches and cares, children and 
hicnmbrances, pleasure and dh-eases, rest and beggary, go toge- 
ther ; as if a man were therefore born, (as the Platonists hold) 
to be punished in this life, for some precedent sins : or that, as 
•^ Pliny complains. Nature may be rather accounted a step- 
mother, than a mother unto us, all things considered : no crea- 
tures life so brittle, so full of fear, so mad, so furious; only man 
is plagued with envy, discontent, grief covetousness, ambition, 
superstition. Our whole life is an Irish sea, wherein there is 
nought to be expected, but tempestuous storms, and trouble- 
some waves, and those infinite ; 



3 Ubiqne periculum, ubique dolor, ubique naafragium, in hoc ambituj qnocunque 
me vertam. Lipsius. ** Horn. 10- Si in forum ioveris, ibi rixae, et pugnae ; si 

in curiam, ibi fraiis, adulatio ; si in domum privatam, &c. <^ Homer. <• Multis 

repletur homo niiseriis, corporis miseriis, animi miseriis, dum dormit, dum vigilat, qno- 
cunque se vertit. Lususqiie rerum, temporumque nascimur. '^ In blandiente for- 
tunaintoIerandi,incaiamitatibnsh]gubrt's, semper stultietmiseri. Cardan. fPros- 
pera in adversis desidero, et adversaprosperistimeo: quis inter haec medins locus, ubi 
non sit hnnianaD vitae tentafio? S Cardan, consol. Sapientiae labor anuexus, gloriae 
invidia, divitiis cura;, soboii solicitiido, volnptati morbi, quieti paupertas, ut quasi luen- 
dorum scelerum caussa nasci hominem possis cum Platonistis agnoscere. ^ Lib. 7. 
cap. 1 . Non satis aestimare, an uieiior parens natura homini, an tristior noverca, 
fuerit. Niilli i'ragilior vita pavor, confusio, rabies major ; uni animantium ambitio data, 
luclus, avaritia ; uni supeistitio. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, ^c. 157 

(^Tantuin malorum pelagus aspicio, 
Ut non sit inde enatandi copia) 

no Halcyonian times, wherein a man can hold himself secure, 
or agree with his present estate : but as Boethius infen's, Hhere 
is somethinff in every one oj'us, ivhich, bej'ore tryal, ice seek, 
and having tryed, abhor : •= rce earnestly ivish, and eagerly 
covet, and are eftsoons iveary of it. Thus betwixt hope and 
fear, suspicions, angers, 

''Inter spemque metumque, timores inter et iras, 

betwixt falling in, falling out, &c. we bangle away our best 
days, befool out our times, we lead a contentious, discontent, 
tumultuous, melancholy, miserable life ; insomuch that, if we 
could foretel what was to come, and it put to our choice, we 
should rather refuse, than accept of, this painful life. In a 
word, the world itself is amaze, a labyrinth of errours, a desart, 
a wilderness, a den of thieves,cheaters,&c. full of filthy puddles, 
horrid rocks, precipitiums, an ocean of adversity, an heavy 
yoke, wherein infirmities and calamities overtake and follow 
one another, as the sea-waves ; and, if we scape Scylla, we fall 
foul on Charybdis ; and so in perpetual fear, labour, anguish, 
we run from one plague, one mischief, one burden, to another, 
diiram servientes servitntem ; and you may as soon separate 
weight from lead, heat from fire, moystness from water, bright- 
ness from the sun, as misery, discontent, care, calamity ,danger, 
from a man. Our towns and cities are but so many dwellings 
of humane misery ,?';? which, grief and sorrow, (^ as he right well 
observes out of Solon) innumerable troubles, labours cf mortal 
men, and all manner of vices, are included, as in so many pens. 
Our villages are like mole-hills, and men as so many emmets, 
busie, busie still, going to and fro, in and out, and crossing- 
one anothers projects, as the lines of several sea-cards cut each 
other in a globe or map; now light and merry, but (^as 
one follows it) by-and-by sorroiiful and heavy ; noiv hoping, 
then distrusting ; now patient, to morrow crying out ; note 
pale, then red ; running, sitting, sweating, trembling, halting, 
Sfc. Some few amongst the rest, or perhaps one of a thou- 
sand, may be pullus Jovis, in the worlds esteem, gallinas 

» Euripides. i> De consol. 1. 2. Nemo facile cum conditione sua concordat. 

Inest singulis quod imperiti petant, experti horreant. c Esse in honore jnvat, 

mox displicet. "Jfior. « Borrhaeus in 6. Job. Urbes et oppida nihil aliud 

snnt quam humananim aerumnarnm domicilia, quibus luctus et moeror, et morta- 
liam varii infinitique labores, et omnis generis vitia, quasi septis incladuntur. 
^Nat Chytreus, de lit. Europae. Lsetus nunc, raox tristis ; nunc sperans, paallo post 
diffidens ; patiens hodie, eras ejulans ; nunc pallens, rubens, currens, sedens, claudi> 
cans, trejnens, &c. 



158 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

Jilins alh(S, an Iiappy and fortunate man, ad invidiamj'elixj be- 
cause rich, fair, well allied, in honour and office ; yet peradven- 
ture ask himself, and he will say, that, of all others, 'he is most 
miserable and unhappy. A fair shooe, Aic soccus nevus, elec/ans, 
as he ''said; sed nescis ubi urat ; but thou knowest not where 
it pincheth. It is not another mans opinion can make me 
happy : but (as ^ Seneca well hath it) he is a miserable icretch, 
that doth not account himself' happy : though he be soveraiyn 
lord oj' a world, he is not happy, (f'he think himself not to be so; 
for what availeth it what thine estate is, or seem to others, if thou 
thy self dislike it ? A common humour it is of all men to think 
well of other mens fortunes, and dislike their own : 

^ Cui placet alterius, sua nimirum est odio, sors : 

but ^ qua Jit, Mcecenas, SfC. how comes it to pass ? what's the 
cause of it? Many men are of such a perverse nature, they are 
well pleased with nothing, (saith ^Theodoret) neither with 
riches nor poverty : they complain when they are well, and, 
ivhen they are sick, grumble at all fortunes, prosperity and 
adversity ; they are troubled in a cheap year, in a barren : 
plenty, or not plenty, nothing pleaseth them, war nor peace, 
with children, nor without. This, for the most part, is the 
humour of us all, to be discontent, miserable and most un- 
happy, as we think at least ; and shew me him that is not 
so, or that ever was otherwise. Quintus Metellus his felicity 
is infinitely admired amongst the Romans, insomuch, that 
(as 8 Paterculus mentioneth of him) you can scarce find, of 
any nation, order, age, sex, one for happiness to be compared 
unto him : he had, in a word, bona animi, corporis, et fortunes, 
goods of mind, body, and fortune ; so had P. Mutanius 
^ Crassus. Lampsaca, that Lacedaemonian lady, was such 
another in 'Plinies cowc^xX, a kings wife, a kings mother, a 
kings daughter ; and all the world esteemed as much of Poly- 
crates of Samos. The Greeks brag of their Socrates, Phocion, 
Aristides ; the Psophidians in particular of their Aglaiis, 
omni vita felix, ab omni periculo immunis (which, by the 
way, Pausanias held impossible ;) the Romans of their ^ Cato, 

a Sua cuique calamitas prsecipua. *> Cn. Graecinus. <^ Epist. 9. 1. 7. 

Miser est qui se beatissimum non.judicat ; licet imperet niundo, non est beatus, qui 
ue non putat : quod enim riifert, qualis status tuus sit, si tibi videtur malus ? 
<• Hor. ep. 1. 1.4. ^Hor. ser. 1. sat. 1. f Lib. de curatGraec. affec. cap. 6. 

de provident. Multus nihil placet ; atque adeo et divitias damnant, et paupertatem ; 
de morbis expostulant ; bene valentes, graviter ferunt ; atque, ut semel dicam, nihil 
eos delectat, &c. s Vix ullius gentis, aetatis, ordinis, hominem invenies, cujus 

felicitatem fortunae Metelli compares. Vol. 1. . '' P- Crassus Mutianus quinque 

habuisse dicitur rerum bonarura maxima, quod esset ditissiraus, quod essetnobilissimus, 
eloquenfissimus, jurisconsultissiinus, pontifex maxiraus. ' Lib. 7. Regis filia, 

fegis uxor, regis mater. ^ Qui nihil uuquam mali aut dixit, aut fecit, quod aliter 

facere non potuit. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, %-c, 159 

Curius, Fabriciiis, for their composed fortunes, and retired 
estates,governmentofpassions,and contempt of the world : yet 
none of all these was nappy or free from discontent — neither 
Metellus, Crassus, nor Polycrates; for he died a violent death, 
and so did Cato : and bow much evil doth Lactantius and 
Theodoret speak of Socrates! — a weak man — and so of the 
rest. There is no content in this life ; but (as ^he said) all 
is vanity and vexation of spirit ; lame and imperfect. Hadst 
thou Sampsons hair, Milos strength, Scanderbegs arm, So- 
lomons wisdom, Absaloms beauty, Croesus his wealth, Pa- 
setis ohnlum, Caesars valour, Alexanders spirit, Tullys or 
Demosthenes eloquence, Gyges ring, Perseus Pegasus, and 
Gorgons head, Nestors years to come, all this would not 
make thee absolute, give thee content and true happiness in 
this life, or so continue it. Even in the midst of all our mirth 
jollity, and laughter, is sorrow and grief; or, if there be true 
happiness amongst us, 'tis but for a time ; 

^ Desinit in piscem mulier forraosa superne ; 

a fair morning turns to a lowring afternoon. Brutus and Cas- 
sius, once renowned, both eminently happy — yet you shall 
scarce find two (saith Paterculus) quos fortuna maturim de- 
stituerit, whom fortune sooner forsook. Hannibal, a conqueror 
all his life, met with his match, and was subdued at last : 

Occurrit forti, qui mage fortis erat. 

One is brought in triumph, as Caesar into Rome, Alcibiades 
into Athens, coronis aureis donatus, crowned, honoured, ad- 
mired ; by-and-by his statues demolished, he hissed out, mas- 
sacred, &c. '^ Magnus Gonsalva, that famous Spaniard, was 
of the prince and people at first honoured, approved; forth- 
with confined and banished. Adniirandas actiones graves 
plentmque sequnntur invidice, et acres ca/j/wnw ('tis Polybius 
bis observation) : grievous enmities, and bitter calumnies, com- 
monly follow renowned actions. One is born rich, dies a 
begoar; sound to day, sick to morrow; now in most flou- 
rishing estate, forlunate and happy, by-and-by deprived of his 
goods by foreign enemies, robbed by thieves, spoiled, capti- 
vated, impoverished, as they of "^ Rabbah,/??/^ under iron saws, 
and under iron harroics, and under axes of iron, and cast into 
the tile- kiln. 

« Quid me felicem toties jactAstis, amici ? 
Qui cecidit, stabili non erat ille gradu. 

» Solomon, Ecclefl. 1. 14. h Hor. Art Poet. <• Jovius, vita eiui. 

i 2 Sam. 12. 31. e Boethius, lib. 1. met. 1. 



]60 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

He that erst marched like Xerxes with innumerable armies, as 
rich as Croesus, now shifts for himself in a poor cock-boat, is 
bound in iron chains, with Bajazet the Turk, and a foot-stool 
with Aurelian, for a tyrannizing conquerour to trample on. So 
many casualties there are, that, as Seneca said of a city con- 
sumed with fire, 7ma dies interest inter maximam civitatem et 
ymllam, one day betwixt a great city, and none ; so many griev- 
ances from outward accidents, and from our selves, our own 
indiscretion, inordinate appetite ; one day betwixt a man and 
no man. And (which is worse) as if discontents and miseries 
would not come fast enough upon us, homo homini dcemon ; 
we maul, persecute, and study how to sting, gaul, and vex one 
another with mutual hatred, abuses, injuries; preying upon, 
and devouring, as so many ''ravenous birds ; and, as juglers, 
panders, bawds, cosening one another; or raging as ''wolves, 
tygers, and devils, we take a delight to torment one another; 
men are evil, wicked, malicious, treacherous, and "^naught, not 
loving one another, or lovin»- themselves, not hospitable, 
charitable, nor sociable as they ought to be, but coun- 
terfeit, dissemblers, ambodexters, all for their own ends, 
hard-hearted, merciless, pittiless ; and, to benefit them- 
selves, they care not what mischief they procure to others. 
^ Praxinoe and Gorgo, in the poet, when they had got 
in to see those costly sights, they then cryed bene est, and 
would thrust out all the rest ; when they are rich themselves, 
in honour, preferred, full, and have even that they would, 
they debar others of those pleasures which youth requires, and 
they formerly have enjoyed. He sits at table in a soft chair at 
ease ; but he doth not remember in the mean time, that a 
tired water stands behind him, an hungrji J'elloic ministers to 
him full: he is athirst that gives him drink, (saith ^Epictetus) 
and is silent ivhiles he speaks his pleasure ; pensive, sad, 
when he laughs. Pleno se proluit auro ; he feasts, revels, and 
profusely spends, hath variety of robes, sweet musick, ease, 
and all the pleasure the world can afford, whilst many an 
hunger-starved poor creature pines in the street, wants clothes 
to cover him, labours hard all day long, runs, rides for a trifle, 
fights peradventure from sun to sun, sick and ill, weary, full 
of pain and grief, is in great distress and sorrow of heart. He 



a Omnes hic aut captantur, aut captant ; aut cadavera quae lacerantur^ aiit corvi qui 
lacerant. Petron. ^ Homo omne monstrum est ; ille nam superat feras ; lupos- 

que et ursos pectore obscure tegit. Heins. « Quod Paterculus de populo Ro- 

mano, durante bello Punico, per annos 115, aut bellura inter eos, aut belli prasparatio, 
aut infida pax, idem ego de mundi accolis. <• Theocritus, Idyll. 15.] e Qui 

sedet in mensa, non meminit sibi otiose ministrare negotiosoSj edenti esurientes, 
bibenti sitientes, &c. 



3Ieiii. 8. Subs. 10] Discontents, Cares, ^c. IGl 

lothes and scorns his inferiour, bates or emulates bis equal, 
envies bis superior, insults over all suob as are under bim, 
as if he were of another species, a demi-god, not subject to 
any fall, or humane infirmities. Generally they love not, are 
not beloved aoain : they tire out others bodies with continual 
labour, they themselves living- at ease, caringfor none else,«ii 
nati; and are so far many times from putting to their helping 
hand, that they seek all means to depress, even most worthy 
and well deserving, better than themselves, those whom they 
are, by the laws of nature, bound to relieve and help, as much 
as in them lyes: they will let them cater- waul, starve, beg and 
hang, before they will any wayes (though it be in their power) 
assist or ease: ''so unnatural are they for the most part, so 
unregardful, so hard-hearted, so churlish, proud, insolent, so 
dogged, of so bad a disposition. And, being so brutish, so 
devilishly bent one towards anotlier, how is it possible, but 
that M'c shoidd be discontent of all sides, full of cares, woes, 
and miseries ? 

If thisbe not a sufficient proof of their discouient and misery, 
examine every condition and calling* apart. Kings, princes, 
monarchs, and magistrates, seem to be most happy ; but look 
into their estate, you shall ^ find them to be most encombred 
with cares, in perpetual fear, agony, suspicion, jealousie ; that, 
as "^ he said of a crown, if they knew but the discontents that 
accompany it, they would not stoop to take it up. Quern mihi 
regem dabis, (saith Chrysostom) non curis plenum ? what 
king canst thou shew me, not full of cares? "^ Look not on his 
croicn, but consider his afflictions ; attend not his number of 
servants, but multitude oj' crosses. JS^ihil aliud potestas cut- 
minis, (puim tempestas mentis, as Gregory seconds him : sove- 
raignty is a tempest of the soul : Sylla like, they have brave 
titles, but terrible fits — splendorem titulo, cruciatum animo ; 
which made * Demosthenes vow, si vel ad tribunal, vel ad 
inter i turn duceretur, if to be a judge, or to be condemned, 
^vere put to his choice, he would be condemned. Rich men 
are in the same predicament : what their pains are, stulti 
nesciunt, ipsi sentiunt — they feel, fools perceive not, as I 
shall prove elsewhere ; and their wealth is brittle, like 
childrens rattles ; they come and go ; there is no certainty 
in them ; those whom they elevate, they do as suddenly 



aQnnnrloiii adolescentia sua ipsi \ixerint lantius, et liberius voluptates siias exple- 
verint, illi gTiatis imjwnimt duriores continentiae leses. ^ Lugubris Ate liictuqne 

fero resjntn tnmlHas oljsi'lHt aices. — Res est inquieta felicitas. "^ Pins aloes qnam 

mellis habet — Non humi jarentem tolleres. Valer. 1. 7. r. .3. '' Non diaHema 

aspicias, sed vitarn afllictione rpfertam, non catervas satellitum, sed ciirarum multitu- 
dincm. ' As Plutarch rilateth. 



162 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. J. Sec. 2. 

depress and leave in a vale of misery. The middle sort of 
men are so many asses to bear burdens ; or, if they be free, 
and live at ease, they spend themselves, and consume their 
bodies and fortunes with luxury and riot, contention, emula- 
tion, &c. The poor 1 reserve for another ^ place, and their 
discontents. 

For particular professions, I hold, as of the rest, there's no 
content or security in any. On what course will you pitch ? 
how resolve? To be a divine? 'tis contemptible in the worlds 
esteem : to be a lawyer ? 'tis to be a wrangler : to be a phy- 
sician? ^pudet lotii ; 'tis loathed: a philosopher? a mad 
man : an alchymist .? a begger : a poet ? esmit, an hungry 
jack : a musician ? a player : a school-master? a drudge : an 
husband-man ? an emmet : a merchant ? his gains are uncer- 
tain : a mechanician ? base : a chirurgion ? fulsome : a trades- 
man ? a'^lyar: ataylor? a thief : a serving-man.^ a slave: 
a souldier ? a butcher : a smith, or a metal-man ? the pot's 
never from's nose : a courtier ? a parasite. As he could find 
no tree in the wood to hang himself, I can shew no state of 
life to give content. The like you may say of all ages : children 
live in a perpetual slavery, still under the tyrannical govern- 
ment of masters : young men, and of riper years, subject to 
labour, and a thousand cares of the world, to treachery, 
falshood, and cozenage : 

** Incedit per ignes, 

Suppositos cineri doloso : 

* old are full of aches in their bones, cramps and convulsions, 
silicernia, dull of hearing, weak-sighted, hoary, wrinckled, 
harsh, so much altered as that they cannot know their own 
face in a glass, a burden to themselves and others : after 
seventy years, all is sorrow (as David hath it ;) they do not 
live, but linger. If they be sound, they fear diseases ; if sick, 
weary of their lives : rion est vivere, sed valere^ vita. One 
complains of want, a second of servitude, ^another of a secret 
or incurable disease, of some deformity of body, of some loss, 
danger, death of friends, shipwrack, persecution, imprison- 
ment, disgrace, repulse, « contumely, calumny, abuse, injury, 
contempt, ingratitude, unkindness, scoffs, flouts, unfortunate 
marriage, single life, too many children, no children, false 



a Sect. 2. mem. 4. subsect. 6. '' Stercus et urina, medicorum fercula prima, 

c Nihil lucrantur, nisi admodum mentiendo, TuU. Offic. ''Hor. 1. 2. od. 1. 

RRarus felix idemque senex. Seneca, in Here. CEtaeo. f Omitto aegros, exsules, 

mendicos, quos nemo audet felices dicere. Card. lib. 8. c. 46. de rer. var. e Spre- 
taeque injuria formiv. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 11.] JimhHwn^ a Cmise. 163 

servants, unhappy children, barrenness, banishment, oppres- 
sion, frustrate hopes, and ill success, &c. 

»Talia de genere hoc (adeo sunt multa) loquacem ut 
Delassare valent Fabium 

talking Fabius will be tyred before he can tell half of them ; 
they are the subject of whole volumes, and shall (some of 
them) be more opportunely dilated elsewhere. In the mean 
time, thus much I may say of them, that generally they crucifie 
the soul of man, '' attenuate our bodies, dry them, wither 
them, rivel them up like old apples, and make them as so 
many anatomies (^ ossa atque pellis est totus, ita cnris ma- 
cet) ; they cause tempus J'cedum et sqnalidnm, cumbersome 
dayes, ingrataque tempora, slow, dull, and heavy times; make 
us howl, roar, and tear our hairs (as Sorrow did in "^ Cebes 
table), and groan for the very anguish of our souls. Our 
hearts fail us, as Davids did (Psal. 40. 12.) Jor innumerable 
troubles that compassed him ; and we are ready to confess with 
Hezekiah, (Isa. 58. 17.) behold! for felicity^ I had bitter 
grief: to weep with Heraclitus, to curse the day of our birth, 
with Jeremy (20. 14), and our stars with Job ; to hold that 
axiom of Silenus, * better never to have been born, and the best 
next of all, to dye quickly ; or, if we must live, to abandon 
the world, as Timon did, creep into caves and holes, as our 
anchorites ; cast all into the sea, as Crates Thebanus ; or, as 
Theombrotus Ambraciotes four hundred auditors, precipitate 
our selves to be rid of these miseries. 



SUBSECT. XI. 

Concupiscible Appetites, as Desires, Ambition, Causes. 

1 HESE concupiscible and irascible appetites are as the 
two twists of a rope, mutually mixt one with the other, 
and both twining about the heart ; both good, (as Austin 
holds, /. 14. c. 9. de civ. Dei) ^ if they be moderate; both per- 
nitiousifthey beexorbitunt. This concupiscible appetite, how- 
soever it may seem to carry with it a shew of pleasure and de- 
light, and our concupiscences most part affect us with con- 
tent and a pleasing object, yet, if they be in extieams, they 
rack and wring us on the other side. A true saying it is, desire 
hath no rest, is infinite in it self, endless, and (as s one calls it) a 

»HoD. bAttennant rigiles corpns miserabile curse. <■ Plautus. ^H^c, quae 
crines revellit, .^rumna. « Optimum non nasci, aut cito mori. '^Bonae, 

si rectam rationem sequautur ; malse, si exorbitant. eTho. Buovie. Prob. 18. 



164 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

perpetual rack, =*or horse-mill (according- to Austin), still go- 
ing round as in a ring. They are not so continual^ as divers : 
Jacilius atomos dinumerare possem, (saith ^ Bernard) quam 
motus cordis ; nunc Jiccc, mmc ilia cogito : you may as well 
reckon up the motes in the sun, as them. '^^ It extends it self 
to evei'y tlmuf (as Guianerius will have it) that is superfluously 
sought after, or to any ^Jervent desire (as Fernelius interprets 
it) : be it in what kind soever, it tortures, if immoderate, and 
is (according to * Plater and others) an especial cause of me- 
lancholy. Miiltuosis concupiscentiis dilaniantur cogitationes 
mece, ^Austin confessed — that he was torn a-pieces with his 
manifold desires ; and so doth § Bernard complain, that he 
could not rest for them a minute of an hour : this I would 
have, and that, and then I desire to he such and such. 'Tis 
a hard matter therefore to confine them, being they are so va- 
rious and many, and unpossible to apprehend al!. I will only 
insist upon some few of the chief, and most noxious in their 
kind, as that exorbitant appetite and desire of honour, which 
we commonly call amhition ; love of money, which is covet- 
ousness, and that greedy desire of gain ; self-love, pride, and 
inordinate desire of vain-glory or applause ; love of study in 
excess; love of ivomeu (which will require a just volume of 
it self) : Of the other I will briefly speak, and in their order. 
Amhition, a proud covetousness or a dry thirst of honour, a 
great torture of the mind, composed of envy, pride and covet- 
ousness, a gallant madness, one ^ defines it, a pleasant poyson, 
Ambrose, a canker of the soul; an hidden plague ; 'Bernard, 
a secret poyson, the father of livor, and mother of hypocrisie, 
the moth of holiness, and cause of madness, crucifying and dis- 
quieting all thai it takes hold of ^ Seneca calls it, 7'em solici- 
tam, timidam, vanam, ventosam, a windy thing, a vain, solici- 
tous, and fearful thing : for, commonly, they that, like Si- 
syphus, roll this restless stone of ambition, are in a perpetual 
agony, still ' perplexed, semper taciti, tristesque recedunt, 
(Lucretius) doubtful, timorous, suspicious, loth to oftend in 
word or deed, still cogging', and colloguing-, embracing', cap- 
ping-, cringing, applauding-, flattering, fleering, visiting, wait- 
ing at mens doors, with all affability, counterfeit honesty, 



=> Molam asinariaui. b Tract, de. Inter, c. 92. >■ Circa qnamlibet rem 

mundi haec passio fieri potest, quaa siiperflue diligatur. d Ferventius desi- 

deriiim. e Imprimis vero appetitus, &c, 3. de alien, ment. ' Conf. 

1. c. 29. KPer diversa loca vagor ; nullo temporis moinento quiesco ; talis 

et talis esse cupio ; illud atque illud habere desidero. '' Ambros. 1. 3. super 

Lucam. aerugo anima;. 'Nihil animum crociat, niiiil molestius inquietat; 

secretum virus, pestis occulta, &.c. epist. 120. ^ Ep. 88. 'Nihil infeli- 

ciiis his; quautus iis timor, quanta dubitatio, quantiis conatus, quanta solicitudo ! nulla 
illis a molestiis vacua hora. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 11.] Ambition, a Cause. 165 

and humility^ If that will not serve, if once this humour (as 
'' Cyprian describes it) possess his thirsty soul, amhitionis sul- 
suqo nbi hihnlam animam possidet, by nook and by crook he 
will obtain it ; andjrom his hole he will climbe to all honours 
and offices, if it he possible for him to get up ; Jiatterinff one, 
bribing another, he will leave no means unassay'd to win all. 
'^ It is a wonder to see how slavishly these kind of men subject 
themselves when they are about a sute, to every inferior per 
son ; what pains they will take, run, ride, cast, plot, counter- 
mine, protest and sm ear, vow, promise, what labours undergo, 
early up, down late; how obsequious and affable they are, how 
popular and courteous, how they grin and fleer upon every 
man they meet ; with what feasting- and inviting-, how they 
spend themselves and their fortunes, i n seeking that,many times, 
which they had much better be without (as '' Cineas the ora- 
tor told Pyrrhus) ; with what waking nights, painful hours, 
anxious thoughts, and bitterness of mind, inter spemqne me- 
tiimqne, distracted and tired, they consume the interim of their 
time. There can be no greater plague for the present. If 
they do obtain their sute, which with such cost and solicitude 
they have sought, they are not so freed : their anxiety is anew 
to begin; for they are never satisfied; nihil aluidni si imperium 
spirant ; their thoughts, actions, endeavours are all for sove- 
raignty and honour ; like '^Lues Sforsia (that huffing duke of 
Milan, a man of singular wisdom, but profound ctndntion, 
born to his own, and to the destruction ofltalg) though it be to 
their own mine, and friends undoing, they will contend; they 
may not cease ; but as a dog in a M'heel, a bird in a cage, or 
a squirrel in a chain, (so'Budaeus compares them) ^they climbe 
and climbe still with much labour, but never make an end, 
never at the top. A knight would be a baronet, and then a 
lord, and then a viscount, and then an earl, &c. a doctor a 
dean, and then a bishop; from tribune (o praetor: from bai- 
liff to m;>yor : first this office and then that : as Pyrrhus, (in 
, ''Plutarch) they will first have Greece, then Africk, and then 
Asia, and swell with iEsops frog so long, till in the end they 



» Semper attonitas, semper'pavidus quid dicat, faciatve : ne displiceal, hamilitatem 
simulat, honestateni mentitur. •> Cypr. Prolog, ad ser. to. 2. Ciinctos honorat, 

universis inclinat, subseqnitur, obsequitur ; frequentat curias, visitat optiinates, 
amplexatiir, applandit, adiilatur: per fas et nefas e latebris, in omnein grailmn nbi 
aditus patet, si ingerit, discurrit. c Turbse cogit ambitio regem inscrvire, 

nt HoDierus Agaraemnonem querenlem indncit. <i Pliitarchus. Qnin con- 

viveiunr, et in otio nos oblectemns, qiioniani in promptn id nobis sit, &c. _ _ e Jo- 

vius, hist 1. 1. Yir singulari prudentia, sed profunda ambitione ; ad exitium Italia; 
natus. f Ut liedera arbori adharet, sic^ambitio. &c. P Lib. .3. de 

coDtemptu reriim fortuitarum. Maguo conatu et impetu nioventur; super eodem 
centre rotati, non proficiunt, nee ad finem perveniunt. ^ Vita Pyrrhi. 



16G Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

hurst, or come down, with Sejanus, ad Gemonias scalas, and 
break their own necks ; or as Evangelus the piper, (in Lucian) 
thatblewhispipesolong, that he fell down dead. If he chance 
to miss, and have a canvass, he is in hell on the other side ; 
so dejected, that he is ready to hang himself, turn heretick, 
Turk, or traytor, in an instant. Enraged against his enemies, 
he ''rails, swears, fights, slanders, detracts, envies, murders ; 
and for his own part, si appetitum explere non potest, J'urore 
corripitur ; if he cannot satisfie his desire, (as ^ Bodine writes) 
he runs mad : so that, both wayes, hit or miss, he is distracted 
so long as his ambition lasts ; he can look for no other but 
anxiety and care, discontent and grief, in the mean time — "^mad- 
ness itself, or violent death, in the end. The event of this is 
common to be seen in populous cities, or in princes courts ; for 
a courtiers life (as Budaeus describes it) is a ^ galUjnaiifhf of 
ambition, lust, fraud, imposture^ dissimulation, detraction, 
envy, pride; the court, a common conventicle of flatterers, 
time-servers ; politicians, Sfc. or (as ^ Anthony Perez will) 
the suburbs of hell it self. If you will see such discontented 
persons, there you shall likely find them : ' and (which he ob- 
served of the markets of old Rome) 

Qui perjurum convenire vulthominem, milto in Comitium ; 
Qui mendacem et gloriosum, apud Cloacinoe sacrum ; 
Dites, damnosos maritos, sub Basilica quaerito, &c. 

Perjur'd knaves, knights of the post, lyers, crackers, bad 
husbands, &c. keep their several stations, they do still, and 
alwayes did, in every commonwealth. 



SUBSECT. XII. 

4>tXa§yi;gia, Covetousness, a Cause. 

X LUTARCH (in his shook whether the diseases of the 
body be more grievous than those of the soul) is of opi- 
nion, if you icill examine all the causes of our miseries in 
this Irfe, you shall find them, most part, to have had their 

» Ambitio in Insaniam facile delabitar, si excedat. Patritius, I. 4. tit, 20. de regis 
instit. bLib. 5. de rep, cap. 1. <^ Imprimis vero appetitus, sen concupiscentia 

nimia rei alicujns honestis vel inhonestfe, phantasiara laediint; unde multi ambitiosi, 
philauti, irati, avari, &c, insani, Felix Plater, 1. 3. de mentis alien. d Anli- 

ca vita coUuvies ambitionis, cupiditatis, simulatiouis, impoSturse, fraudis, invi- 
diae, superbias Titanicae: diversorium aula, et commune conventiculura, assentan- 
di artificum, &c, Budaeus de asse. lib. .5. c In his Aphor. fPlautus, 

Curcul. act. 4. see. 1. sTom, 2. Si examines, omnes raiseriae caussas vel a 

furioso contendendi studio, vel ab injusta cupiditate, originem traxisse scies.— 'Idem 
fere Chryiostomus, Com. m c, 6. ad Romao. ser. 11. - 



Mem. 3. Subs. 12.] Covefonsneis, a Cause. 1/57 

ber/inninc/ Jrom stubborn anffer, that fiiriong desire, of' conten- 
tion, or some unjust or immoderate affection^ as covetousness^ 
Sec. From M'lience are tears and contentions amont/st you ? 
* S*. James asks : I will add usury, fraud, rapine, simony, op- 
pression, lyiufr, swearing, bearing- false witness, &.c. are they 
not from this fountain of covetousness, that greediness in get- 
ting, tenacity in keeping, sordidity in spending ? that ihey are 
so wicked, *' unjust ajfainst (rod, their neif/hbour, themselves, 
all comes hence. 7 he desire of money is the root of all evil, 
and they that lust aj'ter it, pierce themselves through with many 
sorroics,! Tim. 6. 10. Hippocrates therefore, in his epistle 
to Crateva an herbalist, gives him this good counsel, that, if 
it were possible, " amongst other hearbs, he should cut up that 
tveed oj' covetousness by the roots, that there be no remainder 
left i and then knew this for a certainty, that, for/ether with 
their bodies, thou maist ipiickly cure all the diseases oj' their 
minds; for it is indeed the pattern, image, epitome, of all 
melancholy, the fountain of many miseries, much discontent, 
care and woe — this inordinate or immoderate desire oJ' gain, 
to get or keep money, as ''Bona venture defines it ; or, as Austin 
describes it, a madness of the soul ; Gregory, a torture ; Chry- 
sostom, an unsatiable drunkenness; Cyprian, blindness, spe- 
ciosnm supplicium, a plague subverting- kingdoms, families, 
an "incurable disease; Budseus, an ill habit, ^yielding to no 
Temedies ; (neither iEsculapius nor Plutus can cure them) 
a continual plague, saith Solomon, and vexation of spirit, 
another hell. I know there be some of opinion, that covetous 
men are happy, and worldly-wise, that there is more pleasure 
in getting wealth than in spending, and no delight in the 
world like unto it. 'Twas Bias problem of old, With what 
art thou not weary ? with getting money. § What is most 
delectable ? to gain. What is it, trow you, that makes a poor 
man labour all his life time, carry such great burdens, fare 
so hardly, macerate himself, and endure so much misery, un- 
dergo such base offices withso great patience, to rise up early, 
and lye down late, if there were not an extraordinary delight 
in getting and keeping of money ? What makes a merchant, 
that hath no need, satis superque domi, to range over all 



"Cap. 4. 1. •> lit sit ininnus in Dfum, in proxitniiru, in seipsnm. cSi 

vero, Crateva, inter ca^teras herbanini radices, avaritiae radicem secare posses ania- 
ratn, ut ntillse reliquia; essent, probe sclto, Sec ^Cap. 6. Diaetje saliitis. Avaritia 

est amor imnioderatus pecuniw vel acqnirendas vel retinendap. •-■ Mains est 

morbus, maleque atficit avaritia, siqiiidein censeo, &c. Avaritia ditlinilins curatur 
quain insania ; quoniamhac omnes fere iiiedici lahorant Hip. ep. Abderit. ' Feruin 
profecto diramque ulcus anirai, remediis non cedens, medendo exasperatur. jQua 
re non es lasius ; Incrum iaciendo. Quid maxime delectabile? iucrari. 

VOL. I. V 



168 Causefi of Melancholy. [Part. l.Sec. 2. 

the world, through all those intemperate * zones of heat and 
cold, voluntarily to venture his life, and be content with such 
miserable famine, nasty usage, in a stinking ship, if there were 
not a pleasure and hope to get money, which doth season the 
rest, and mitigate his indefatigable pains? What makes them 
o-o into the bowels of the earth, an hundred fathom deep, en- 
dangering their dearest lives, enduring damps and filthy 
smells, (when they have enough already, if they could be 
content, and no such cause to labour) but an extraordinary 
delio-ht they take in riches? This may seem plausible at first 
shew, a popular and strong argument: but let him that so 
thinks, consider better of it ; and he shall soon perceive that 
it is far otherwise than he supposeth ; it may be haply pleas- 
ing at the first, as, most part, all melancholy is ; for such men 
likely have some lucida hitervalla, pleasant symptomes in- 
termixt : but you must note that of ^ Chrysostom, 'tis one 
thiuf/ to be rich, another to be covetous : generally they are 
all fools, dizards, mad-men, '^miserable wretches, living be- 
sides themselves, sine arte fruendi, in perpetual slavery, fear, 
suspicion, sorrow, and discontent ; plus aloes quam mellis hu' 
bent ; and are, indeed, rather possessed by their money, than 
possessors; as "^ Cyprian hath it, mancipati pecuniis, bound 
prentise to their goods, as « Pliny; or as Chrysostom, servi 
divitiarum, slaves and drudges to their substance ; and we 
may conclude of them all, as '^Valerius doth of Ptolemseus 
king of Cyprus, he rcas in title a king of that island, but in 
his mind, a miserable drudge of money : 

g Potiore metallis 



Libertate carens- 



wanting his liberty, which is better than gold. Damasippus 
the Stoick (in Horace) proves that all mortal men dote by fits, 
some one way, some another, but that covetous men ^ are 
madder than the rest : and he that shall truly look into their 
estates, and examine their symptomes, shall find no better of 
them, but that they are all ' fools, as Nabal was, re et nomine 
(1 Reg, 15): for, what greater folly can there be, or ^ mad- 
ness, than to macerate himself when he need not? and 



aExtretnos curritmercator ad Indos. Hor. b Horn. 2. Aliud avarus, aliud 

Jives, c Divitiae, ut spinae, animuin hominis timoribuSj solicitndinibns, ango- 

ribus* mirifice piingunt, vexant, cruciant. Oieg. in Horn. dgpist. ad Donat. 

cap. 2. eLib. 9. ep. 30. f Lib. 9. cap. 4. lusiilaB rex titiilo, sed animo 

pecunise miserabile mancipium. e Hor. 10. lib. 1, h Danda est hellebori 

multo pars maxima avaris. ' Luke 12. 20. Stiilte, hac nocte eripiam animam 

tuam. '' Opes quidem mortalibus sunt dementia. Theog:. 



Mem. 3. Snbs. 12.] Covetoitsness, a Cause. J 09 

when (as Cyprian notes) " he may he freed from his hurdeji, 
and eased of his pains, will fjo on still, his tcealth increasing, 
when he hath enoiirjh, to (jet more, to live besides himself, to 
starve his r/enius, keep back from his wife ''and children, 
neither letting- them nor other friends use or enjoy that which 
is theirs by right, and which they much need perhaps : like a 
hog-, or dog- in the manger, he doth only keep it, because it 
shall do nobody else good, hurting- himself and others; and 
for a little momentary peif, damn his own soul. They are 
commonly sad and tetrick by nature,asAchabs spirit was be- 
cause he could not get Naboths vineyard (1. Reg. 22); and, 
if he lay out his money at any time, though it be to necessary 
uses, to his own childrens good, be brawls and scolds ; his 
heart is heavy ; much disquieted he is, and loth to part from 
it : miser abstinet, et timet nti (Hor.) He is of a wearish, dry, 
pale constitution, and cannot sleep for cares and worldly bu- 
siness; his riches (saith Solomon) will not let him sleep, and 
unnecessary business which he heapeth on himself: or, if ho 
dosleep, 'tisa very unquiet, interrupt, unpleasing sleep, with 
his bags in his arms, 

•congestis undique saccis 



Indormit inhians ; 

and, though he be at a banquet, or at some merry feast, he 
sighs for grief of heart (as ' Cyprian hath it), and cannot sleep, 
though it be upon a down bed; his wearish bodg takes no rest, 
''^ troubled in his abundance., and sorroufnl inplentg, unhappu 
for the present, and more unhappy in the life to come (Basil.) 
He is a perpetual drudge, ^restless in his thoughts, and never 
satisfied, a slave, a wretch, a dust-worm; semper quod idolo 
SKo immolet, sednlus observat : (Cypr. prolog, ad sermon.) still 
seeking what sacrifice he may offer to bin golden god, per fas 
et fief as, he cares not how ; his trouble is endless : ^ crescunt 
divitia ; tamen curtcE nescio quidsemper abest rei : his wealth 
increaseth ; and the more he hath, the more ^he wants, like 
Pharaohs lean kine, which devoured the fat, and were not sa- 
tisfied. '•Austin therefore defines covetousness, quarumlibet 



Ed. -,. lib. 2. Exonerare cum se possit et relevare ponderibus, persnt maris foriiinia 
aucrentibiis pertinaciter incubare. b Non amicis, non liberis, non ipsi sibi qnid- 

qnamimpertit: possidet ad hoc tantum, ne possidere alteri liceat, &c. Hieron. ad 
faulin. lam deest quod habet. quam quod non habet. c Epist 2. lib. 2. Suspirat 

in convivio, bibat licet gemmis, et to'ro molliore marcidum corpus condiderit, visilat 
in pluma. d Angnstatur ex abundantia, contristatur ex opulentia, infelix pr*- 

sentibus boms infehcior in fufuris. e Hlorum cogitatio nunqnam cessat, qui pecn- 

nias supplere diligunt Guianer. tract. 15. c. 17. f Hor. 3. Od. 24. Quo plus 

sunt potee, plus sitiuntur aqua;. pHor. 1. 2. Sat. 6. O si angulus ille proxin.u, 

accedat, qui nunc deformat agellum ! h Lib. 3. de lib. arbit. Iramoritur sludiis 

et amore senescit habendi. 

u 2 



170 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

ferum inhonestam et insatiabilem cupiditatem^ an unlionest 
and unsatiable desire of gain ; and, in one of his epistles, com- 
pares it to hell, ^ which devours all, and yet never hath enough, a 
bottomless pit^ an endless misery ; in quem scopulum avaiiticc 
cadaverosi senes ut plurimum impingunt ; and, that which is 
their greatest corrosive, they are in continual suspicion, fear, and 
distrust. He thinks his own wife and children are so many 
thieves, and go about to cozen him, bis servants are all false: 

Rem suam periisse, seque eradicarier, 

Et divAm atque hominum clamat coiitinuo fideoi, 

De se suo tigillo fumu si qua exit foras. 

If his doors creek, then out he cryes anon, 
His goods are gone, and he is quite undone. 

Timidus Plutus, an old proverb— as fearful as Plutus : so doth 
Aristophanes, and Lucian, bring him in fearful still, pale, 
anxious, suspicious, and trusting no man. ^ They are afraid oj" 
tempests J'or their corn, they are ajraidof their friends, lest 
they should ask something of them, beg or borrow ; they are 
afraid of their enemies, lest they hurt them ; thieves, lest they 
rob them ; they are afraid of war, and afraid of peace, afraid 
of rich, and afraid of poor ; afraid of all. Last of all, they are 
afraid of want, that they shall dye beggars ; which makes thera 
lay up still, and dare not use that they have : (what if a dear 
year come, or dearth, or some loss ?) and were it not that they 
are loth to '^lay out money on a rope, they would be hanged 
forthwith, and sometimes dye to save charges, and make away 
themselves, if their corn and cattle miscarry, though they have 
abundance left, as '^Agellius notes. ^Valerius makes mention 
of one, that, in a famine, sold a mouse for two hundred pence, 
and famished himself. Such are their cares, ^griefs and perpetual 
fears. These symptomes are elegantly expressed by Theo- 
phrastus in his character of a covetous man : s lying in bed, 
he asked his ivife ichether she shut the trunks and chests fast, 
the capcase be sealed, and lohether the hall door be bolted ; 
and, though she say all is well, he riseth out of his bed in his 

^Avarus vir inferno est similis, &c. modum non habet, hoc egentior, quo plura 
habet. ''Erasm. Adag. chil. 3. cent. 7. pro. 72. Nulli fidentes, omnium for- 

midant opes : ideo pavidum malum vocat Euripides : metuunt tempestates ob frumen- 
tum, amicos ne rogent, initnicos ne laedant, fures ne rapiant; belium timent, pacem 
timent, summos, medios, infimoa. e Hall Char. dAgellius, lib. 3. c. 1. 

Interdum eo sceleris perveniuut, ob lucrum ut vitani propriam cornniutent. *■ Lib 7. 
cap. 6. f Omiies perpetuo morbo agitantur; suspicatur omnes timidus, sibiqueob 

aurum insidiari putat, nunquam quiescens. Plin. Prooem. lib. 14. ^Cap. 18. 

In lecto jacens, interrogat iixorem an arcam probe ciausit, ancapsula, &c. E lecto 
surgens nudus, et absque calceis, accensa lacerna omnia obiens et lustrans, et vix 
Konno iadnlgens. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 13.] Love of Gaming, Sfc. 171 

shirt, barefoot^ and hare legged, to see whether it he so, with 
a dark lanthorn searching every corner, scarce sleeping a wink 
all njo'ht. Lucian, in that pleasant and witty dialogue called 
Gallus, brings in Micyllusthe cobler disputing with his cock, 
sometimes Pythagoras ; where, after much speech pro and 
con, to prove the happiness of a mean estate, and discontents of 
a rich man, Pythagoras his cock in the end, to illustrate by 
examples that which he had said, brings him to Gniphon the 
usurers house at mid-night, and after that to Eucrates ; whom 
they found both awake, casting- up their accounts, and telling 
of their money, ''lean, dry, pale, and anxious, still suspecting 
lest some body should make a hole through the wall, and so 
get in ; or, if a rat or mouse did but stir, starting upon a sud- 
den, and running to the door, to see whether all were fast. 
Plautus, in his Aulularia, makes old Euclio ^ commanding 
Staphyla his wife to shut the doors fast, and the fire to be put 
out, lest any body should make that an errant to come to his 
house: when he washed his hands, *^ he was loth to fling 
away the foul water; complaining that he was undone, be- 
cause the smoak got out of his roof. And as he went from 
home, seeing a crow scrat upon the muck-hill, returned in all 
haste, taking it for malum omen, an ill sign, his money was 
digged up ; with many such. He that will but observe their 
actions, shall find these and many such passages, not feigned 
for sport, but really performed, verified indeed by such co- 
vetous and miserable wretches ; and that it is 

— <" manifesta phrenesis, 

Ut locuples moriaris, egenti vivere fatp — 

a meer madness, to live like a wretch, and dye rich. 



SUBSECT. XIII. 

Xoue of Gaming, ^-c. and Pleasures immoderate ; Causes. 

XT is a wonder to see, how many poor distressed miserable 
wretches one shall meet almost in every path and street beg- 
ging for an alms, that have been well descended, and some- 
times in flourishing estate, now ragged, tatterred,and ready to 

»Curis extenuatus, vigilans, ft secum supputans. ^Cave, quemqiiam alienum 

in aedes intromiseris. Ignetn extingui ^olo, ne canssae qaidquam sit, quod te quis- 
qaam quaeritet Si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris. Occlude sis fores ambobas 
pessulis. Discnicior animi, quia dome abeundam est mihi. Nimis bercule invitas 
abeo; nee, quid agam, scio. <" Plorat aquara profundere, &c. periit dum fumns 

de tigUlo exit foras. <* Juv. Sat, 14. 



172 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

be starved, lingring out a painful life, in discontent and g-rief 
of body and mind, and all through immoderate lust, gaming, 
pleasure, and riot. 'Tis the common end of all sensual Epi- 
cures and brutish prodigals, thatare stupified and carried away 
headlong with their several t)leasures and lusts. Cebes, in his 
table, S. Ambrose, in his second book of Abel and Cain, and, 
amongst the rest, Lucian, in his tract de Mercede condnctis, 
hath excellent well deciphered such mens proceedings in his 
picture of Opnleniia, whom he feigns to dwell on the top of a 
high mount, much sought after by many suiters. At their first 
coming, they are generally entertained by Pleasure and Dalli- 
ance, and have all the content that possibly may be given, so 
long as their money lasts ; but, when their means fail, they 
are contemptibly thrust out at a back door, headlong, and 
there left to Shame, Reproach, Despair. And he, at first that 
had so many attendants, parasites, and followers, young and 
lusty, richly array'd, and all the dainty fare that might be had, 
with all kind of welcome and good respect, is now upon a 
sudden stript of all, ^pa'e, naked, old, diseased, and forsaken, 
cursing his stars, and ready to strangle himself; having no 
other company but Repentance, Sorrow, GrieJ] Derision, 
lieggerif, and Contempl, which are his daily attendants to his 
lives end. As the ''prodigal sou had exquisite musick, merry 
company, dainty fare at first, but a sorrowful reckoning in 
the end ; so have all such vain delights and their followers. 
^ Tristes voluptatum e.ritus, nt qidsquis volnptatum suarum 
reminisci volet, infellifjcf : as bitter as gall and wormwood is 
their last ; grief of mind, madness it self. The ordinary 
rocks upon which such men do impinge and precipitate them- 
selves, are cards, dice, hawks, and hounds, Qnsanum venandi 
studium, one calls it — insanw suhstructiones) their mad struc- 
tures, disports, playes, &c. when they are unseasonably 
used, imprudently handled, and beyond their fortunes. — 
Some men are consumed by mad phantastical buildings, by 
making galleries, cloisters, terraces, walks, orchards, gardens, 
pools, rillets, bowers, and such like places of pleasure, 
(inuiiles domos, '^ Xenophon calls them) which howsoever 
they be delightsome things in themselves, and acceptable 
to all beholders, an ornament, and befitting some great 
men, yet unprofitable to others, and the sole overthrow of 
their estates. Forestus, in his observations, hath an example 
of such a one that became melancholy upon the like occa- 
sion, having consumed his substance in an unprofitable 

^ Veniricosiis, niidiis, pallidiis, Iseva pudorem occultans, dextra seipsum strangu- 
Inns. Occiirrit antem exeiinti Poenitentia, his iniserum conficiens, &c. ^ Luke, 15. 
c Boefhins •! In Oilcoiioiii. Quid si nuuc ostendam eos qui magna vi argenti 

doinas iiiulilfs fedificant? iuqirit Socrates. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 13.] Love of Gaming, ^-c. 173 

building-, wbicb would afterward yield him no advantaore. 
Others, I say, are ^overthrown by those mad snorts ofhawk- 
iu"" and hunting- — honest recreations, and fit for some great 
men, but not for every base inferiour person. Whilst they 
will maintain their faulkoner, dogs, and hunting nags, their 
wealth (saith ''Salnmtze) nois mcay with hounds, and their 
fortunes ffye away tcith haicks : they persecute beasts so long, 
till, in tlie end, they themselves degenerate into beasts (as 
'^ Agrippa taxeth them), '* Actseon like; for, as he was eaten to 
death by his own dogs, so do they devour themselves and their 
patrimonies, in such idle and unnecessary disports, neglecting 
in the mean time their more necessary business, awd to follow 
their vocations. Over-mad too sometimes are our great men 
in delighting and doting too much on it; ^when they drive 
poor h^ishandmenj'rom their tillage (as * Sarisburiensis objects, 
Polycrat. l. 1. c. 4), fling doivn comitrey J'arms, and whole 
totcns, to make parks andjorests, starving ineii to feed beasts, 
and ^punishing in the mean time such a man that shall molest 
their game, more severely than him that is otherwise a common 
hacker, or a notorious thief. But great men are some wayes 
to be excused ; the meaner sort have no evasion why they 
should not be counted mad. Poggius, the Florentine, tells a 
merry story to this purpose, condemning the folly and imper- 
tinent business of such kind of persons. A physician of Mi- 
lan, (saith he) that cured mad men, had a pit of water in his 
house, in which he kept his patients, some up to the knees, 
some to the girdle, some to the chin, pro modo insanice, as 
they were more or less affected. One of them by chance, that 
was well recovered, stood in the door, and seeing* a gallant 
ride by with a hawk on his fist, well mounted, with his spa- 
niels after him, would needs know to what use all this prepa- 
ration served. He made answer to kill certain fowl. The pa- 
tient demanded again, what his fowl might be Avorth, which 
he killed in a year. Hereplyed, five or ten crowns; and when 
he urged him further what his dogs, horse, and hawks, stood 



» Sarisburiensis, Polycrat 1. 1. c. 4. Venatores omnes adhuc institutionem redolent 
Centaurorum. Raro invenitur quisquam eoram modestus et gravis, raro continens, et, 
ut credo, sobrius anquam. ^ Pancirol. Tit. 23. Avolant opet: cum accipitre. 

'■ Insignis venatorum stultitia, et supervacanea cura eoruni, qui, dum nimiuDi venati- 
oni insistunt, ipsi, abjecta omni humanitate, in feras degenerant, ut Actseon, &c. 
d Sabin. in Ovid. Met « Agrippa, de vanit. scient Insannni venandi studium, 

dum a novalibus arcentur, agricolje, subtrabunt praedia rusticis, agri coloois praeclu- 
dimtar, sylvan et prata pastoribus, ut augeanturpascuaferis. — Majestafis reus agricola, 
si gustarit. f A novalibus snis arcentur agricolae, dum ferae baheant vagandi 

libertatera : istis ut pascua augeantur, praedia subtrahunlur, &c. .Sarisburiensis. 
v Feris quam hominibus squiores. Cambd. de Ciiiil. Conq. qui 36 ecclesias matrices 
depopulatus est ad Forestam Novam. 31at. Paris. 



174 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 9. 

him in, L'e told him four hundred crowns. With that the pa- 
tient bad him be gone, as he loved his life and welfare ; " for, 
if our master come and find tliee here, he will put thee in the 
pit amongst mad men, up to the chin ;" taxing the madness 
and folly of surh vain men, that spend themselves in those 
idle sports, neolecting their business and necessary affairs. 
Leo Decimus, tltat hunting* pope, is much discommended by 
' Jovius in his life, for his inunoderate desire of hawking- and 
hunting, in so much, that (as he saith) he would sometimes 
live about Ostia iveeks an moneths together, leave suiters 
^ unrespected, bulls and pardons unsigned, to his own preju- 
dicCj and many private mens loss : '^and, if he had been by 
chance crossed in his sporty or his game not so good, he was so 
impatient that he would revile and miscall many times men of 
great worth ivith most bitter taunts, look so sowr, be so angry 
and icaspish, so grieved and molested, that it is incredible to 
relate it. But, if he had good sport, and been well pleased 
on the other side, incredibili mumficentid, with unspeakable 
bounty and munificence, he would reward all his fellow hun- 
ters, and deny nothing fo any suiter, when he was in that 
mood. To say truth, 'tis the common humour of all gamesters, 
as Galatseus observes: if they win, no men living are so jo- 
vial and merry; but, ''ifthey lose, though it be but a trifle, 
two or three games at tables, or dealings at cards for two 
pence a game, they are so cholerick and testy, that no man 
may speak with them, and break many times into violent 
passion*!, oaths, imprc^-^tions, and unbeseeming speeches, 
little differing from mad men for the time. Generally of all 
gamesters and gaming, if it be excessive, thus much we may 
conclude, that, whether they win or lose for the present, their 
winnings are not mnnera J'ortunce, sed insidice, as that wise 
Seneca determines — not fortunes gifts, but baits; the com- 
mon catastrophe is ^beggery: ^ut pestis vitam, sic adimit 
alea pecuniam ; as the plague takes away life, so doth gaming 
goods ; for ^omnes nndi, inopes et egeni; 

h Alea Scylla vorax, species certissima furti, 

Non coiitenta bonis, animum quoque perfida mergit, 

Fceda, furax, iniamis, iiiers, furiosa, ruina. 

'^Tom. 2. f^e vitis illiistrium, 1. 4. de vit. Leon. 10. l' Venationibus adeo 

pprdite sludebat et aucnpiis. <■ Aut infeliciter venatus, tarn impatiens inde, ut 

siitnmos ssepe viros acerbissiniis conlumeliis oneraret ; et incredibile est, quali vultus 
atiiiiiique hahitn dolorem iracundiamqiie preferret, &cc. d Unicuique auteui 

hoc a nntuia iiisituni est, nt doleat, sicubi eriaverit aut deceptus sit. ^ Jiiven. 

S-.it 8. Nee enim locnlis comifantibus itnr ad casum tabulae ; posita sed luditurarca. — 
liemnius, instit. c. 44. Mendaciorum quidetn, et perjuriorum, et panpertatis, mater est 
aiea : iiiiflam habens patrimonii reverentiam, quum illud effuderit, sensim in furta 
di'lnbitur et rapinas. Saris. Polycrat. 1. 1. c. 5. f Damhoderns. ? Dan. 

SoHter. 1' Petrar. dial. 27. 



Mem. 3. J^ubs. 13.] Love oJ'G(wiing, Sfc. 175 

For a little pleasure they take, and some small grains and get- 
tings now and then, their wives and children are wringed in the 
meantime: and they themselves, with the loss of bofly and soul, 
rue it in the end. I will say nothing of those prodigious pro- 
digals, ^ perdendce pecuniw (fp)iitos, (as he taxed Anthony) qui 
patrimoninm sine iillaj'ori cnlnmmd amittnnt, (saith ''Cyprian) 
and <^ mad Sybaritical spendthrifts, qmqvennd comedimt patri- 
monia ca;na ; that eat np all at a breakfast, at a supper, or 
amongst bauds, parasites, and pla} ers ; consume themselves 
in an instant, (as if they had flung it into ''Tyber) with great 
wagers, vain and idle expences, &c. not themselves only, but 
even all their friends ; as a man t^esperately swimming drowns 
him that comes to help him, by suretiship and borrowing they 
Avill willingly undo all their associates and allies ; ^iratipecu- 
niis, as he saith — angry with their money. ^ What tcifh a wan- 
ton eye, a fiqnorish fonf/ne, avd a f/amesome hand, when they 
have nndiscreeily impoverished themselves, mortgaged their 
wits together with their lands, and entombed their ancestors 
fair possessions in their bowels, they may lead the rest of their 
dayes in prison, as many times they do, they repent at 
leisure : and, when all is gone, begin to be thrifty : but sera 
est injundo parsimonia ; 'tis then too late to look about ; their 
s end is misery, sorrosv, shame, and discontent. And well they 
deserve to be infamous and discontent, ^ catamuliarr in amphi- 
theatro, (as by Adrian the emperours edict they were of old ; 
decoctores ho.ioruin snornm ; so he calls them — prodigal fools) 
to be publickly shamed, and hissed out of all societies, rather 
than to be pitied or relieved. 'The TuscanJ^ and Boeotians 
brought their bankrupts into the market place in a bier, with 
an empty purse carried before them, all the bojes followino-, 
where they sat all day, cirrvmstante plehe, to be infamous 
and ridiculous. At ^ Padua, in Italy, they have a stone called 
the stone'of turpitude, near the senate house, M'here spend- 
thrifts, and such as disclaim nonpayment of debts, do sit with 
-their hinder parts bare, that, by that note of disgrace, others 
may be terrified from all such vain expence, or borrowing 
more ihr.n they can tell how to pay. The 'civilians of old 
set guardians over such brain-sick prodigals, as they did over 
mad-men, to nioderate their expences, that they should not 
so loosely consume their fortunes, to the utter undoing of 
their families. 

^ Sallust. ''Tom. 3. S^r. de alea "Plutiis, in Aristopli. calls all such 

gamesters nitul men ; Si in ins^inum liotiiinem contis^ero. Sponfanenm ad se trahunt 
fiiroreni : et os. et nares, et ociilos, rivos facimit fiiroris et diversona. Chrys. horn. 71. 
''Paschasins Jtistns, 1. 1. de alea. f Seneca. 'Hall. e'ln Sat. 11. 

Sed denciente cniniena, et rrescente gula, qnis te manet exitus — rebus in ventre'm 
mersi^? "Spartian. Adiiano i Alex. ah. Alfx. I. fi. r. 10. Idem Geibelius, 

1. 3. Gra;. di^r. >> Fines Moris. 'Justinian, in Diirestis. 



176 Causes oj Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec- 2. 

I may not here omit those two main plagues, and common 
dotages of humane kind, wine and women, which have in- 
fatuated and besotted myriads of people. They go commonly 
together. 

^Qui vino indulget, quemque alea decoquit, iUe 
In Venerem putris. 

To whom is sorrow, saith Solomon, (Prov. 23. 39.) to whom is 
wo, but to such a one as loves drink? It causeth torture, (vino 
tortus et ira) and bitterness of mind (Sirac. 31. 21). Vinnm 
y)/ro7'is, Jeremy calls it {chap. 15), wine of madness, as well he 
may ; for hisanire facit sanos, it makes sound men sick and sad, 
and wise men ''mad, to say and do they know not what. Ac' 
cidit hoclie terribilis casus (saith ^ St. Austin) : hear a miser- 
able accident : Cyrillus son this day, in his drink, matremprwg- 
nantem nequiter oppressity sororem violare voluit,patrem occidit 
fere, et duas alias sorores ad mortem vulneravit — would have 
violated his sister, killed his father, &c. A true saying it was of 
him, vino dari Icetitiam et dolorem; drink causeth mirth, and 
drink causeth sorrow ; drink cmxHeih poverty and want, (Prov. 
2 1 .) shame and disgrace. J\Iulti ignobiles evasere oh vini potum^ 
Sfc. (Austin) amissis honoribus, proj'nc/i aberrdrnnt : many 
men have made shipwrack of their fortunes, and go like rogues 
and beggars, having turned all their substance into anrum 
potabile, that otherwise might have lived in good worship and 
happy estate ; and, for a few hours pleasure (for their Hilary 
term's but short), or "^J'ree madness (as Seneca calls it), pur- 
chase unto themselves eternal tediousness and trouble. 

That other madness is on women. .^postatare facit cor, 
(saith the wise man) * atque homini cerherum minuit. Pleasant 
at first she is (like Dioscorides Rhododaphne, that fair plant 
to the eye, but poyson to the taste) ; the rest as bitter as 
wormwood in the end, (Prov. 5. 4) and sharp as a two-edged 
sword (7. 21). Her house is the way to hell, and goes down 
to the chambers oJ' death. What more sorrowful can be said? 
They are miserable in this life, mad, beasts, led like ^ oxen to 
the slaughter : and (that which is worse) whoremasters and 
drunkards shall be judged; amittunt gratiam, (saith Austin) 
perdunt gloriam, incurrunt damnationem (jeternam. They lose 
grace and glory : 

— s brevis ilia voluptas 

Abroo;at seternum coeli decus. ■ 

they gain hell and eternal damnation. 

"Persins, Sat. 5. bPocnliim quasi sinus, in quo saepe naufragiura faciunt, jac- 

tiirft tuoi pecuniae tuna mentis. Erasm. in Prov. Calicnm remiges. chil. 4. cent. 7. Pro. 
41. <■ Ser. 33. adiVat. in Eremo. >' Liberas iinius horse insaniam aeterno 

teniporis taedio pensaut. cMenander. f Prov, 5. ? Merlin, Cocc. 



Mem.'S. Subs. 14.] Philautia, or Self-love, Sj-c. 177 



SUBSECT. XIV. 

Philautia, or Self-love, Vain-glory, Praise, Honour, Immo- 
derate Applause, Pride, over-viuch Joy, dfc. Causes. 

J^ELF-LOVE, pride, and vain-glory, ^ccecns amor sni, (which 
Chrysostoiiie calls one of the devils three great nets; ''Bernard, 
an arrow which pierceth the soul through, and slayes it ; a 
sly insensible enemy, not perceived) m'd main causes. Where 
neither anger, lust, covetousness, fear, sorrow, &c. nor any 
other perturbation, can lay hold, this will slily and insensibly 
pervert us. Quern non gula vicit, philautia superavit (saith 
Cyprian) : whom surfeiting could not overtake, self-love hath 
overcome. ' He hath scorned all money, bribes, gifts, up- 
right otheru'ise and sincere, hath inserted himself' to no fond 
imagination, and sustained all those tyrannical concupiscences 
of the body, hath lost all his honour, captivated by vain-glory. 
(Chrysostoni. sup. Jo.) Tu sola auimum mentemoue peruris^ 
f/loria: a great assault, and cause of our present malady — 
although we do most part neglect, take no notice of it, yet this 
is a violent battererofoursoulsjcausethmelancholy and dotage. 
This pleasing" humour, this soft and whispering popular air, 
amabilis insania, this delectable frensie, most irrefragable pas- 
sion, mentis grutissimus error, this acceptable disease, which so 
sweetlysets upon us, ravishethoursenses, lulls oursouls asleep, 
puffs up our hearts as so many bladders, and that without all 
feeling, '' in so much as those that are misajfected ivith it , never 
so much as once perceive it, or think of any cure. We com- 
monly love him best in this "^ malady, that doth us most harm, 
and are very willing to be hurt : adulationibus nostris libenter 
favemus (saith 'Jerome) : we love him, we love him for it : 
s O Bonciari, suave, suave fuit a te tali hcec tribui ; 'twas sweet 
to hear it ; and, as ''Pliny doth ingenuously confess to his dear 
friend Augurinus, all thy icritings are most acceptable, but 
those especially that speak of us : again, a little after to Maxi- 
uius, ' / cannot express hoiv pleasing it is to me to hear my 



aHor. ''Sagitta, quop aiiimam penetrat, le\iter penetrat, sed noaleve infligit 

valniis. sup. cant. "-"Qui omiiem pecuuiarum contemtum ha bent, et nuUi iniagina- 

tioni totius tnundi se immiscuerint, et tyrannicas corporis concupiscentias sustinuerint, 
hi mnltotics, cajiti a vanii g:loria, omnia perdiderunt. <' Hac correpti non co^- 

tant deiiiedtlA. "^ Di, taleui a terris avertite pe.stem. '' Ep. ad Eiisto- 

cliium, de rustod. virgin. -'Lips. Ep. ad Bonciarinni. •' Ep. lib. 9. Omnia 

tiia scripla (lulrberrinia existimo, maxiine famen ilia qunc de nobis. 'Exprimere 

iiuu posbuni, quHui sit jurunduui, &,c. 



178 Ciiuses of Melancholy. [Fart. I . Sec. 2. 

self commended. Thoug-h we smile lo ourselves, at least ironi- 
cally, v/hen parasites bedawb us with false encomions, as many 
princes cannot chuse but do, qnum tale quid nihil intra se re- 
pererint, when they know they come as far short, as a mouse 
to an elephant, of any such vertues ; yet it doth us good. 
Though we seem many times to be angry, ^and hlnsh at our 
own praises., yet our souls inwardly rejoice: it puffs us up ; 
''tisjallax suavitas, blandus dcemon, makes us swell beyond our 
hounds, and Jorr/et our selves. Hertwo daughters are lightness 
of mind, immoderate joy and pride, not excluding those other 
concomitant vices, which "^ Jodocus Lorichius reckons up — 
bragging, hypocrisie, pievishness, and curiosity. 

Now the common cause of this mischief ariseth from our 
selves or others : '^ we are active and passive. It proceeds in- 
wardly from our selves, as we are active causes,frora an over- 
weening conceit we have of our good parts, own worth, (which 
indeed is no v, orth) our bounty, favour, grace, valour, strength, 
wealth, patience, meekness, hospitality, beauty, temperance, 
gentry, knowledge, wit, science, art, learning, our ''excellent 
gifts and fortunes, for which (Narcissus like) we admire, flat- 
ter and applaud our selves, and think all the world esteems 
so of us; and, as deformed women easily believe those that 
tell them they be fair, we are too credulous of our own good 
parts and praises, too well persM'aded of ourselves. We brag 
and vendicate our ^ own works, (and scorn all others in respect 
of us ; infiati scientid, saith Paul) our wisdom, 'our learning: 
all our g'eese are swans : and we as basely esteem and vilifie 
other mens, as we do over-highly prize and value our own. 
We will not suffer them to be in secundis, no not in tertiis ; 
what ! mecum confertur Ulysses ? they are mures, musca:, cu- 
lices, prce se, nitts and flies compared to his inexorable and 
sui^ercilious, eminent and arrogant worship ; though indeed 
they be far i.efore him. Only wise, only rich, only fortunate, 
valorous, and fair, puffed up with this tympany of self-con- 
ceit, as the proud ? Pharisee, they are not (as they suppose) 
like other men, of a purer and more precious metal : ^ Soli 
rei. gerendce S7inf efficaces (which that wise Periander held 
of such) : ■ jneditantur omne qui prius nefjotium, Sfc. Novi 
quemdam (saith ^ Erasmus) I knew one so arrogant that he 



aHieron. Et, licet nos indignos dicimns, et calidus rubor ora perfundat, attamenad 
landein suain intrinsecns animae la;tantur. bThesaiir. Theo. cNec euim 

mihi cornea fibra est. Per. d E tnanibus iliis Inascentur violae. Pers. 1. Sat. 

e Omnia enim nostra supra modum placent. fFab. 1. 10. c. 3. Ridentur, mala 

oni componunt carmina : veruin Gaudent scribentes, et se venerantur, et nltro. Si ta- 
ceas landaut quidqiiid scripsere, beati. Hor.Ep 2.1.1. g Luke 18. 10. h De 

ineliore luto fiuxit prsBcordia Titan. 'Anson, sap. k Chil. 3. cent. 19. pro. 

97. Qui se crederet nemineni uUa in re prac-stantiorem. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 14.] Philantin, or Self-love, t^e. J79 

thought himself inferiour to no man living, like * Callisthenes 
the philosopher, that neither held Alexanders acts, or any 
other subject, worthy of his pen, such was his insolency ; or 
Seleucus, king of Syria, who thought none fit to contend with 
him but the Romans ; '' eos solos dir/nos ratus (jnibuscitm de 
imperio certaret. That which TuUy writ to Afticus lono- 
since, is still in force — "there teas never yet true poet or 
orator, that tho7ifjlit any other better than himself'. And such, 
for the most part, are your princes, potentates, great philoso- 
phers, historiographers, authors of sects or heresies, ar;d all 
our great scholars, as'^Hierom defines: a natural pMlo go- 
pher is glories creature, and. a very slave of rumour, J'mne, 
and popular opinion : and, though they write de contemptu 
gloria:, yet (as he observes) they will put their names to their 
books. J obis etj'ama; me semper dedi, saitli Trebellius Pollio, 
I have wholly consecrated my self to you and fame. 'Tis all 
my desire, night and day, 'tis all my study to raise my name. 
Proud •'Pliny seconds him ; Qnamquam O ! 3fc. and that vain- 
glorious ^' orator is not ashamed to confess in an Epistle of his 
to Marcus Lecceius, ardeo incredibili cupidtate, d\-c. I burn 
with an incredible desire to have my " name rec/istred in thy 
book. Out of this fountain proceeds all those cracks and braori, 

^ speranms car mani fingi posses linenda cedro, et Icevi 

servanda cupresso ' Non usitatd uec tenui ferar pennd 

nee in terra morabor longius. JVil parvum aut humili 

modo, nil mortale, loquor. Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Au- 

Jidus. Exegi moniimentiim asre perennius. — Jamque opus 

exegi, quod nee Jovis ira, nee ignis, <^''c. cum venit ilia dies, 
4'C. parte tamen nvliore mei super alta perennis astra ferar, 
nomenque erit indelebile nostrum — (This of Ovid 1 have para- 
phrased in English — 



And when I am dead and gone, 
My corps laid under a stone, 
My l;inie shall yet survive, 
And 1 shall be alive, 
la these niy works for ever. 
My glory shall persever, &c.) 



ftTanto fastu scripsit, ut Alexandri gest;t inferiora scriptis siiis existinir^et. Jo; 
Vossius, lib. 1. ciip. 9. de hist. b Plutarch. \ it. Cati.nis. i-Neiiio un- 

qtiam poela aut orator, qui queniquam sp nieliorem arbitraretur. d Consol. ad 

Parainachiuiu. Miindi philosophiis, glorias 'ninial, et popularisaiira- et ruinoriini veiiale 
mancipiiini. f Epist. 5. Capitoni siio. Diebus ac noctibiis, hoc solum cosito, si 

qua me po.ssum levare homo. Id vote meo .siiflficit, &c. 'Tullius. g Ut no- 

men meiim scriptis tuis illustretur. — Inqnics animus studio :eternitatis noctes et dies 
angebatur. Heinsius, orat fiineb. de Seal. ''Hor. art. Poet. 'Od. uit. 1. 3, 

Jamque opus exegi — Vade, liber felix ! Palingen. lib. ]S. 



ISO Cmises of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

and that of Ennius, 

Nemo me lachrymis decoret, neque funeral fletu 
Faxit: cur ? volito vivu' docta per ora virum. — 

with many such proud strains, and foolish flashes, too common 
with writers. Not so much as Democharis on the ^Topicks, 
but he will be immortal. Typotius, deJamcUah^W be famous; 
and well he deserves, because he writ of fame ; and every 
trivial poet must be renowned, 

— — plausuque petit clarescere vulgi. 

This puflin^ humour it is, that hath produced so many great 
tomes, built such famous monuments, strong castles, and 
Mausolean tombs, to have their acts eternized, 

Digito monstrari, et dicier, " Hic est!" 

to see their names inscribed, as Phryne on the walls ofThebes, 
Phryne fecit. This causeth so many bloody battles, 

et noctes cogit vigilare serenas ; 

long journeys. 

Magnum iter intendb ; sed dat mihi gloria vires 

gaininghonour, a little applause, pride, self-glory, vain-glory— 
that is it which makes them take such pains, and break out 
into those ridiculous strains, this high conceit of themselves, to 
•* scorn all others, ridiculo Jastu et intolerando contemtu, (as 
^ Palffimon the grammarian contemned Varro, secum et natas 
et moriiuras literas jactans) and brings them to that height of 
insolency, that they cannot endure to be contradicted, ^or hear 
of any thing hnt their own commendation, which Hierom 
notes of such kind of men : and (as * Austin well seconds him) 
"'tis their sole stndy, day and night, to be commended and ap- 
plauded; when as indeed, in all wise mens judgements, quibus 
cor sapit, they are ^mad, empty vessels, funges, beside them- 
selves, derided, et id camelns in proverbio, quasrens cornua^ 
etiam quas habebat anres amisit ; their works are toyes, as an 
almanack out of date, § aucloris pereunt garrulitate sui ; they 
seek fame and immortality, but reap dishonour and infamy ; 
they are a common obloquy, insensati, and come far short of 
that which they suppose or expect. C' O puer, nt sis vitalis, 

ainlib. 8. bj)e ponte dejicere." <^ Siieton. lib. de gram. d Nihil 

libenter audiunt, nisi laudes suas. ^Epigt. 56. Nihil aliud dies noctesqne co- 

gitant, nisi ut in studiis siiis laudentur ab hominihus. fQuas major dementia 

aut dici aut excogitari potest, quam sic ob gloriam cruciari ? Insaniam istam, Do-- 
mine, longe fac a me. Austin, conf. lib. 10, cap. .37. E Mart. 1. 5. 51. 

I'Hor. Sat. 1.1.2, 



Mom. 3. Subs. 14.] Vain-glon/, PrideyJoy, Praise. 181 

metuo.) Of so many myriads of poets, rhetoricians, philoso- 
phers, sophisters, (as * Eusebius mcU observes) which have 
written in former as^es, scarce one of a thousands works re- 
mains ; nomina et Uhrisimul cum corporibns inter iprunt ; their 
books and bodies are perished together. It is not, as they 
vainly think, they shall surely be admired and immortal : as 
one told Philip of Macedon insultino; after a victory, that his 
shadow was no longer than before, we may say to thenj, 

Nos demiramur, sed non cum deside vulgo, 
Sed velut Harpyias, Gorgonas, et Furias : 

We marvail too, not as the vulgar we, 
But as we Gorgons, Harpy, or Furies see : 

or, if we do applaud, honour, and admire — quota pars, how 
small a part, in respect of the M'hole world, never so much as 
hears our names ! how few take notice of us ! how slender a 
tract, as scant as Alcibiades his land in a map ! And yet 
every man must and will be immortal, as he hopes, aud extend 
his fame to our Antipodes, when as half, no not a quarter of his 
own province or city, neither know's nor hears of him : but, say 
they did, what's a city to a kingdom, a kingdom to Europe, 
Europe to the world, the world it self, that must have an end, if 
compared to the least visible star in the firmament, eighteen 
times bigger than if? and then, if those stars be infinite, and 
every star there be a sun, as some will, and as this sun of 
ours hath his planets about him, all inhabited; what propor- 
tion bear we to them ? and where'sour glory ? Orbem terrarum 
victor Ronumus habebat, as he crackt in Petronius; all the 
world was under iVugustus : and so, in Constantines time, Eu- 
sebius brags he governed all the world : universum mundum 

prcEclare udmodnm admhnstravit et omnes orbis (jentes 

imperatori subjecti : so of Alexander it is given out, the four 
monarchies, &c. when as neither Greeks nor Romans ever had 
the fifteenth part of the now known world, nor half of that 
Avhich was then described. What braggadocians are they and 
we then ! qnam brevis hie de nobis sernio ! as ^ he said : " pudc' 
bit aucti nomiiiis: how short a time, how little a while, doth 
this fame of ours continue ! Every private province, every 
small territory and city, when we have all done, will yield as 
generous spirits, as brave examples in all respects, as famous as 
ourselves — Cadwallader in Males, Rollo in Normandy — Rob- 
bin-hood and Little John are as much renowned in Sherwood, 
as Caesar in Rome, Alexander in Greece, or his Hephaestion. 

»Lih. r.ont. Philos. <-ap. 1. ''Tiill. som. Scip. <-° Bot-thius. 



182 Causes of Melancholi/. [Piirt. 1. Sec. 2. 

* Omnis (Bias omnisgue populus in exemplum et admirationem 
venit: every town, city, book, is full of brave soldiers, sena- 
tors, scholars ; and though "" Brasidas was a worthy captain, 
a g-ood man, and, as they thought, not to be matched in La- 
cedfenion, yet, as his mother truly said, plures habet Sparta 
Brasidd meliores ; Sparta had many better men than ever he 
was : and, howsoever thoa adniirest thyself, thy friend, many 
an obscure fellow the v/orld never took notice of, had he been 
in place or action, would liave done much better than he or 
thyself. 

Another kind of mad men there is, opposite to these, that 
are insensibly mad, and know not of it — such as contemn all 
praise and glory, think themselves most free, when as indeed 
they are most mad: calcant, sed alio J'astu: a company of 
cynicks, such as are monks, hermites, anachorites, that con- 
temn the world, contemn themselves, contemn all titles, ho- 
nours, offices, and yet, in that contenipt, are more proud thru 
any man living whatsoever. They are proud in humility ; 
proud in that they are not proud ; sccpe homo de vancefilorice. 
contemtu vaimis gloria tin, Rs Austin hath it (covjess. lib. 10. 
cap. 38); like Diogenes, intus f/loriantur., they brag in- 
wardly, and feed themselves fat with a self-conceit of sanc- 
tity, which is no better than hypocrisie. They go in sheeps 
russet, many great men that might maintain themselves in 
cloth of gold, and seem to be dejected, humble, by their 
outward carriage, when as inwardly they are swoln full of 
pride, arrogancy, and selfconceit. And therefore Seneca 
adviseth his friend Lucilius, '^in his attire and (/e-ttvre, out~ 
ward actions, especially to avoid all such things as are more 
notable in theinselves; as a rugged attire^ hirsute head, horrid 
heard, contempt of money ^ coarse lodging, and whatsoever 
leads to fame that opposite irny. 

All this madness yet proceeds from ourselves : the main 
engine which batters us, is from others; we aremeerly passive 
in this business. A company of parasites and batterers, 
that, with immoderate praise, and bumbastepithetes,glozing 
titles, false elogiums, so bedawb and applaud, gild over many 
a silly and undeserving mai!, that they clap him quite out of 
his wits. Res imprimis violenta est laudiim placenta, as Hie- 
rom notes : this common applause is a most violent thing, 
(a drum, a fife, and trumpet, cannot so animate) that fattens 
men, erects and dejects them in an instant. 



aPutean. Cisalp. hist. lib. 1. b Plutarch. Lycnrgo. cEpist. 5. lllud te admo- 

neo, ne eorura more, qui non proficere, seil conspici cupiiiiit, facias aliqiia, quaj in lia- 
bitu tuo, ant genere vitse, notabilia sint. Asperum cultum, et intonsnin caput, m gli- 
gentiorem barbam, indictiim argento odium, cubile hnmi poyitnra, et quidquid aliud 
kndem perversa via sequitur, evita. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 14.] Vahi-rjlory, Pride, Joy, Praise, 8fc. 183 

*Palma negata inacrum, donata redncit opimum. 

It makes them fat and lean, as frost doth conies. '' Andwho is 
that mortal man that can so contain himself', that, ij' he he im- 
moderatebf commended and applauded, toil I not he moiled ? 
Let him be what he will, those parasites wiil overturn Vava : 
if he be a king-, he is one of the nine worthies, more than a 
man, a God forthwith "(edictum Domini Deiqne nostri) ;, and 
they will sacrifice unto him : 

— '' divinos, si tu patiaris, honores 



Ultro ipsi dabimus, meritasque sacrabimus aras. 

If he be a souldier, thenThemistocles, Epaminondas, Hector, 
Achilles, duo J'nlmina belli, triumviri terrarnm, ^-c. and the 
valour of both Scipios is too little for him ; he is invictissimusy 
serenissimus, multis tropccis ornatissimus, naiura: dominus, 
although he be lepus r/aleatus, indeed a very coward, a milk 
sop, '^ and (as he said of Xerxes) postremus in pugnd, primus 
itijm/d, and such a one as never durst look his enemy in the 
face. If he be a big- man, then is he a Sampson, another Her- 
cules: if he pronounce a speech, another Tully or Demos- 
thenes (as of Herod in the Acts, thevoyce of God, and not of 
man) ; if he can make a verse, Homer, Virgil, &c. And then 
my silly weak patient takes all these elog-iums to himself; if 
he be a scholar so commended for his ranch reading, excellent 
style, method, &c. he will eviscerate himself like a spider, 
study to death : 

Laudatas ostentat avis Junonia pennas : 

peacock-like, he will display all his feathers. If he be a 
souldier, and so applauded, his valour extoH'd, though it be 
impar conrfressns, as that of Troilus and Achilles — infelix 
piier — he will combat with a giant, run first uj)on a breach : 
as another * Philippus, he will ride into the thickest of his 
enemies. Commend his house keeping, and he will beggar 
himself; commend his temperance, he will starve himself. 

laudataque virtus 

Crescit ; el immensum gloria calcar habet. 

be is mad, mad, mad ! no whoe with him ; 

Impatiens consortis erit ; 

• ^ ^j'* ** ^"'^ ^^^° **™ ^®"® modulo suo metiri se novit, ut eum assidiia et 

imtnodicaelaudationes non moveant? Hen. Steph. c Mart. ^Stroza. 

e Justin. f Livius. Gloria tantum elatus, non iia, in meilios hostes irrnere, 

Quod, completis muris, conspici se pagnantem, a muro spectantibus, egregium 
ducebat. 

VOL. T. V 



184 Causes of Melancholy . [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

he will over the ^ Alpes, to be talked of, or to maintain his cre- 
dit. Commend an ambitious man, some proud prince or po- 
tentate : si plus (equo laudetiir, (saith ^ Erasmus) cristas erigit, 
exuit hominem, Deum se putat ; he sets up his crest, and will 
be no longer a man, but a God. 

-•^ nihil est, quod credere de se 



Non audet, quum laudatur, Dis cequa potestas. 

How did this work with Alexander, that would needs be Jupi- 
ters son, and g-o, like Hercules, in a lions skin ? Doraitian, a 
God, (^ Dominus Deus noster sic fieri juhet) like the ® Persian 
kings, whose image was adored by all that came into the city 
of Babylon. Commodus the emperour was so gulled by his 
flattering parasites, that he must be called Hercules. ^ Aa- 
tonius the Roman Mould be crowned with ivy, carried in a 
chariot, and adored for Bacchus. Cotys, king" of Thrace, was 
married to ^ Minerva, and sent three several messengers, one 
after another, to see if she were come to his bed-chamber. 
Such a one was '^Jupiter Menecrates, Maximinus Jovian us, 
Dioclesianus Herculeus, Sapor the Persian king, brother of 
the sun and moon, and our modern Turks, that will be Gods 
on earth, kings of kings, Gods shadow, commanders of all that 
may be commanded, our kings of China and Tartaria in 
this present age. Such a one was Xerxes, that would whip 
the sea, fetter Neptune, stultdjactantid, and send a challenge 
to Mount Athos ; and such are many sottish princes, brouglit 
into a fools paradise by their parasites. 'Tis a common humour, 
incident to all men, when they are in great places, or come to 
the solstice of honour, have done, or deserv'd well, to ap- 
plaud and flatter themselves. Stultitiam suam produnt, 6fc, 
(saith * Platerus) your very tradesmen, if they be excellent, 
will crack and brag, and shew their folly in excess. '' They 
have good parts ; and they know it ; you need not tell them of 
'It; out of a conceit of their worth, they go smiling to them- 
selves, and perpetual meditation oftheir trophies and plaudites: 
they run at the last quite mad, and lose their wits. Petrarch, 
(/ife. 1. de contemptu mundi) confessed as much of himself; 

a], demens, et ssevas curre per Alpes; Aude aliquid, &c. Ut pueris placeas, et 
declamatio fias. Juv. Sat. 10. bin Mor. Eucom. c Juvenal. Sat. 4. 

•1 Sueton. c. 12. in Domitiano. «^Brisonius. f Antonius, ab assentatoribus 

evectus, Liberum se Patrem appellari jussit, et pro deo se venditavit. Redimitus 
hedera, et corona velatus aurea, et thyrsum tenens, cothurnisque succinctas, curru, 
velut Liber Pater, vectus est Alexandria;. Pater, vol. post- e Minervse nuptias 

arabiit, tanto furore percitus, ut satellites mitteret ad videndum nnm dea in thalainiun 
venisset, &c. ''.Elian, lib, 12. i De mentis alienat. cap. 3. ^Se- 

qnitiirque superbia formam. Livius, lib. 11. Oraculuni est, vivida sspe ingenialux- 
(iriare hac, et evanescere ; raultosque sensum penitus amisisse. Homines iutuentur, 
ac si ipsi non essent homines. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Studify a Cause, 185 

and Cardan (in his fifth book of Wisdom) gives an instance in 
a smith of Milan, a fellow citizen of his, ^ one Galeus de Ru- 
beis, that, being commendedfor refindingof an instrument of 
Archimedes, for joy ran mad. Plutarch (in the life of Artax- 
erxes) hath such a like story of one Chanius, a souldier, that 
wouniled king Cyrus in battel, and grew thereupon so '• arro- 
gajit, that, in a short space aj'ter, he lost his wits. So, many 
men, if any new honour, office, preferment, booty, treasure, 
possession, or patrimony, ex insperato fall upon them, for 
immoderate joy, and continual meditation of it, cannot sleep, 
"" or tell what they say or do ; they are so ravished on a sud- 
den, and with vain conceits transported, there is no rule with 
tliem. Epaminondas therefore, the next day after his Leuc- 
trian victory, ^ came abroad all squalid and snh miss, and o-ave 
no other reason to his friends of so doing, than that he^er- 
ceived himself the day before, by reason of his good fortune, 
to be too insolent, overmuch joyed. That wise and vertuous 
lady « <]ueen Katharin, dowager of England, in private talk, 
upon like occasion, said, that ^ she would not toillinr/l}/ endure 
the extremity of either fortune ; but, if it tvere so that of ne- 
cessity she must undergo the one, she rcould be in adversity, 
because comfort teas nevei' counting in it; but still counsel and 
government toere defective in the other : they could not mode- 
rate themselves. 



SUBSECT. XV. 

Zore of Learning, or overmuch Study. With a Digression 
of the Misery of Scholars, and why the Muses are melan- 
choly. 

liEONA RTUS Fuchsius (Instit. lib. 3. sect.!. cap. 1), Felix 
Plater (lib.S. de mentis alienat.) Here, de Saxonia {Tract, post, 
demelanch. cap. 3). speak of a g peculiar fury, which comes by 
overmuch study. Fernelius {lib. 1 . cap. 18) '' puts study, con- 
templation, and continual meditation, as an especial cause of 

a Galeus de Rnbeis, civis noster, faber ferrarins, ob inventionem instnimenti, coch- 
leae olim Archimedis dicti, pra; Isetitia insanivit. b Insania postmodum coireptus, 
Ob nimiam inde arrosantiam. c Bene ferre magnam disce fortunam. Hor — For- 
tunam reverenter habe, quicunque repente Dives ab exili pro^rediere loco. Ausonius. 
1 Frocessit sqnalidns et snbmissns, lit hesterni diei gaudium intemperans liodie casti- 
garet. ^ Uxor Hen. VIII. fNeulrius se fortunae extreniiim libenter exper- 
tnram dixit; sed, si neceesitas alteriiis sabinde imponeretiir. optare se diflicilem et 
adversam ; quod in hac nulli onquam defuit solatium, in altera nuiltis congilium, &c 
l^od^ V ives K Peculiaris furor qui ex Uteris Ht i' Nihil magis auget, ac 
assidua studia, et profunda} cogitationes. 

X 2 



186 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

madness ; and, in his 86 consul, cites the same words. Jo. 
Arculanus (m lib. Rliasis ad A Imayisorem, cap. 16) amongst 
other causes, reckons up studimn vehemens : so doth Levinus 
Lemnius {lib. de occul. nat. mirac. lib. I. cap. 16). ^Many 
men (saith he) come to this malady by continual ^ study, and 
night-ivaking ; and., of all other men, scholars are most subject 
to it ; and such (Rhasis adds) "that have commonly the f nest 
wits (Cont. lib. 1 . tract. 9). Marsilius Ficinus {de sanit. tuendd, 
lib. 1. cap. 7) puts melancholy amongst one of those five prin- 
cipal plagues of students: 'tis a couimon maul unto them all, 
and almost in some measure an inseparable companion. 
Varro (belike for that cause) calls tristes philosophos et severos. 
Severe, sad, dry, tetrick, are common epithetes to scholars : 
and ^ Patritius, therefore, in the Institution of Princes, 
would not have them to be great students : for (as Machiavel 
holds) study weakens their bodies, dulls their spirits, abates 
their streno-th and courage ; and good scholars are never 
o-ood souldiers ; which a certain Goth well perceived ; for, 
when his country-men came into Greece, and would have 
burned all their books, he cryed out against it, by all means 
they should not do it : ® leave them that plague, ivhich in 
time icill consume all their vigour, and martial spirits. 
The * Turks abdicated Cornutus, the next heir, from the em- 
pire, because he was so much given to his book ; and 'tis the 
common teneut of the world, that learning dulls and dimi- 
nisheth the spirits, and so, per consequens, produceth me- 
lancholy. 

Two main reasons may be given of it, why students should 
be more subject to this malady thiHi others. The one is, they 
live a sedentary, solitary life, sibi et Musis, free from bodily 
exercise, and those ordinary disports which other men use ; 
and many times, if discontent and idleness concur with it 
(which is too frequent), they are precipitated into this gulf on a 
sudden : but the common cause is overmuch study ; too much 
learning (as s Festus told Paul) hath made thee mad : 'tis that 
other extreme which effects it. So did Trincavellius (lib. 1. 
consil. 12. et 13.) find by his experience, in two of his pa- 
tients, a young baron, and another, that contracted this malady 
by too vehement study ; so Forestus (observat. L 10. observ. 

a Non desunt, qui ex jiigi studio, et intempestiva lucubratione, hue devenerunt : 
hi pi'se cieteris^ enim plerumque melancholia sclent infestari. *> Study is a 

continual and earnest meditation, appiyed to some thing with great desire. Tully. 
c Et illi qui sunt subtilis ingenii et multae prfenieditationis, de facili iucidunt in me- 
lancholiam. dQb studiorura solicitudinem, lib. 5. tit. 5. e Gas- 

par Ens. Thesaur. Polit, Apoteles. 31. Graecis banc pestem relinquite, quae dubiuni 
nou est quin brevi omnemiis vigorem ereptura Mo.rtiosque spiritus exhaustura sit, 
ut ad iirina tractanda plane inhabiles futuri sint. f Knolles, Turk. Hist, 

s Act. '26. i?4. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 187 

13) in a young divine in Lovain, that was mad, and said * he 
had a bible in his head. Marsilius Ficinus (de sanit. tuend. 
lib. 2. cap. I. 3, 4, et lib. 2. cap. 10) gives many reasons 
^ichy students dote more oj'ten than others: the first is their 
negligence : *= other men look to their tools ; a painter will wash 
his pensils ; a smith will look to his hammer^ anvil, Jorye ; an 
husbandman will 7nend his plough-irons^ and fjrind his hatchet 
ij'it he dull ; aj'aulkner or huntsman tvill have an especial care 
oj'his hau-ks, hounds, horses, dogs, S^c. a musician tc ill string 
and unstring his lute, ^c. only scholars neglect that instrument 
(their brain and spirits, I meayi) which they daily use, and by 
which they range over all the world, which by much study is 
consumed. Vide (saith Lucian) ne.Juniculum nimis intendendo, 
nliquando ahrumpas: see thou twist not the rope so hard, till 
at length it ^ break. Ficinus in his fourth chapter gives some 
other reasons : Saturn and Mercury, the patrons of learning, 
are both dry planets; and Griganus assigns the same cause, 
why Mercurialists are so poor, and most partbeggers; for that 
their president Mercury had no better fortune himself. The 
Destinies, of old, put poverty upon him as a punishment; 
since when, poetry and beggery are gemelli, twin-born brats, 
inseparable companions ; 

* And, to this day, is every scholar poor : 
Gross gold from them runs headlong to the boor : 

Mercury can help them to knowledge, but not to money. 
The second is contemplation, hchich dryes the brain, and ex- 
tinguisheth natural heat ; Jbr whilst the spirits are intent to 
meditation above in the head, the stomach and liver are left 
destitute; and thence come black blood and crudities, by de- 
fect of concoction ; and for xcant of exercise, the superfluous 
vapours cannot exhale, Sfc. The same reasons are repeated 
by Gomesius (lib. 4. cap. 1. de sale), sNymannus (orat. de 
Imag.) Jo. Voschius (///;. 2. cap. 5. de peste); and something 



ajs'imiis studiis nielancholicns evasit, dicens, se Biblium in capite habere. bCar 
melancholiii assidua, crebrisqae deliranientjs, vexentur eoruiii aninii, ut desipere 
cogantur. c Solers qailibet artifex instrnmenta sua diligentissinie curat, peni- 

cillos pictor ; malleos incodesque faber terrarius ; miles equos arnia ; venator, auceps, 
aves et canes ; citharam citharoedus, &c. soli Musarum mystaj tarn negligen'tes sunt[ 
ut instrumentum illud, quo niunduni universiim nietiri solent, spiritutn scilircf penihis 
negligere videantur. .1 Areas, (et arnia tua". tibi sunt imitanda Diana-) Si 

nunquam cesses tendere, mollis erit. Oyid. eEpheraer. 'Contem- 

platio cerebrum exsiccat et estinguit calorem naturalem ; unde cerebrnm frigidum et 
siccum evadit, quod est melancholicnm. Accedit ad hoc, quod natura, in con- 
lemplatione, cerebro prorsus, cordique intenta, stomachum heparqne destituit ; unde, 
ex ahmentis male coctis, sanguis crassos et niger efficitur, duni nimio otio membrorHni 
nuperflui vapores non exhaiaot, t Cerebrum exsiccatur, corpora seusim cra- 

cilescunL ° 



188 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

more they add, that hard students are commonly troubled 
with gowtSjCatarrhes, rheums, cachexia bradijpepsia, bad eyes, 
stone and collick, ^ crudities, oppilations.i'er/jV/o, winds, con- 
sumptions, and all such diseases as come by overmuch sit- 
ting : they are most part lean, dry, ill-coloured, spend their 
fortunes, lose their wits, and many times their lives ; and all 
through immoderate pains, and extraordinary studies. If 
you will not believe the truth of this, look upon great Tos 
tatus and Thomas Aquinas works; and tell me whether 
those men took pains'? peruse Austin, Hierom, &;c. and many 
thousands besides. 

Qui cupit optatam cursu contingere inetam, 
Malta tulit, fccitque puer, sudavit et alsit. 

He that desires this wished goal to gain. 
Must sweat and freeze before he can attain, 

and labour hard for it. So did Seneca, by his own confession 
{ep. 8.): ^ fiot a day that I spend idle ; part of the night I keep 
nmie eyes open, tired tcith wakiny, and noiv shnnberinn, to 
their continnal task. Hear Tully {pro Jirchid Poetd): whilst 
others loytered, and took their pleasures, he was continually 
at his book. So they do that will be scholars, and that to the 
hazard, (I say) of their healths, fortunes, wits, and lives. How 
much did Aristotle and Ptolemy spend {unius reyni jnetium, 
they say — more than a kings ransom), how many crowns jaer 
annum, to perfect arts, the one about his history of creatures, 
the other on his Almayest'l How much time did Thebet Ben- 
chorat employ, to find out the motion of the eighth sphear? 
forty years and more, some write. How many poor scholars 
have lost their wits, or become dizards, neglectiiig all worldly 
affairs, and their own health, wealth, esse and bene esse, to gain 
knowledge! for which, afterall their pains, in tbeworlds esteem 
they are accounted ridiculous and silly fools, ideots, asses, and 
(as oft they are) rejected, condemned, derided, doting, and mad. 
Look for examples in Hildesheim {spiciL2.de mania etdelirio:) 
read Trincavellius (/. 3. consil. 36. et. c. 17), Montanus 
(consil. 233), *^ Garceus (cle Judic. genit. cap. 33), Mercurialis 
{consil. 86. cap. !^5), Prosper '' Calenus (in his book de atrd 
bile) ; go to Bedlam, and ask. Or if they keep their wits, yet 

!> Stiidiosi sunt cachectic), et minqnam bene colorati : propter debilitatem digestivaj 
facultatis, miiltiplicantiir in iis superfluitates. Jo. Voschius, part. 2. cap. 5. de pestev 
b Niillus mihi per otiiim dies exit ; partem noctis studiis dedico, non vero sonmo, sed 
octilos, vigilia latigatos cadentesquH, in opera detineo. >-■ Johannes Haniischius 

Boheinus, nat. 1.516, eniditns vir, niniiis studiis in phrenesin incidit. Montanus iu- 
stanceth in a Frenchman of Tolosa. <' Cardinalis Cacius, ob laborein, vigiiiani, 

et diuturua stiidia, factits uielanclioliciis. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Study, a Cause, 18,9 

they are esteemed scrubs and fools, "by reason of their car- 
riage ; ajiei' seven years study, 

''statua taciturnius exit 



Plenimque, et risum populi quatit : 

because they cannot ride an horse, which every clown can do; 
salute and court a gentlewoman, carve at table, cringe, and 
make congies, which every common swasher can do, hospopu- 
lus ridet : they are laughed to scorn, and accounted silly 
fools, by our gallants. Yea, many times, such is their misery, 
they deserve it : a nieer scholar, a meer ass. 
•^ Obstipo capite, et figentes lumine terram^ 

Murmura cum secum et rabiosa silentia rodunt, 

Atque cxporrecto trutinantur verba labello, 

jEgroti veteris meditantes somnia, gigni 

De nihilo nihilum ; in nihilum nil posse reverti. 

^ ^who do lean awry 

Their heads, piercing the earth with a fixt eye; 

When, by themselves, they gnaw their murmuring, 

And furious silence, as 'twere ballancing 

Each word upon their out-stretcht lip, and when 

They meditate the dreams of old sick men. 

As, out of nothing nothing can be brought, 

And that which is, can neer he tunid to nought. 

Thus they go commonly meditating unto themselves, thus they 
sit, such is their action and gesture. Pulgosus {I. 8. c. 7) 
makes mention how Th. i\quinas, supping Avith king Lewis 
of France, upon a sudden knocked his fistupon the table, and 
cry ed, conclusujti est contra Manichccos ; his wits were a wool- 
gathering (as they say), and his head busied about other mat- 
ters : when he perceived his error, he was much ^ abashed. 
Such a story there is ofArchiniedes in Vitruvius, that, having 
found out the means to know how much gold was mingled 
with the silver in king Hierons crown, ran naked forth of the 
bath and cryed, d^^mx, 1 have found; ' and was commonly so 
intent to his studies., that he never pei'ceived what icas clone 
about him: when the city was taken, and the souldiers now 
ready to rijle his house, he took no notice oj'it. ^ S*. Bernard 
rode all day long by the Lemnian lake, andasked at last where 
he was (Marullus, lib. 2. cap. 4.) It was Democritus carriage 

»Pers. Sat. 3. They cannot fiddle ; but, as Themistocles said, he could make a 
small town become a great city. b Ingeninm, sibi quod vanas desumpsit Atlienas, 

Et septem stadiis annos dedit, insennitque Libris et curis, statua taciturnius exit Ple- 
rumque, et risu populum quatit. Hor. ep. 2. lib. 2. <-Pers. Sat. ^ Translated 

by M. B. Holiday. ^ e Thomas, nibore confusus, dixit se de argumento cogitasse. 

f Plutarch, vita Marcelli. Nee sensit urbem captam, nee milites in domuin irruentes, 
adeo inteutus studiis, SiC. -.'Lib. 2, tap. 18. 



190 Causes of Melanchol//. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

alone that madethe Abderites suppose U\m to have been mad, 
and send for Hippocrates to cure him: if he had been in any 
solemn company, he would upon all occasions fall a laughing-. 
Theophrastus saith as much of Heraclitus, for that he conti- 
nually wept, and Laertius of Menedemus Lampsacenus, be- 
cause he ran like a mad man, "saijing, he came from hell as 
a spie, to tell the devi/s ivhat mortal men did. Your greatest 
students are commonly no better — silly, soft fellows in their 
outward behaviour, absurd, ridiculous to others, and no Avhit 
experienced in worldly business : they can measure the hea- 
vens, range over the world, teach others wisdom ; and yet, in 
bargains and contracts, they are circumvented by every base 
tradesman. Are not these men fools ? and how should they 
be otherwise, hut as so many sots in schools, ichen (as '' he 
well observed) theif neither hear nor see such things as are 
commonly practised abroad? how should they get experience? 
by Mdiat means ? "I knew in my time many scholars, saitb 
iEneas Sylvius, (in an epistle of his to Gasper Scitick, chan- 
cellor to tlie emperour) excellent well learned, but sor?ide, so 
silly, that they had no common civility, nor knew hoio to 
manage their domestick or publick affairs. Paglarensis was 
amazed, and said his farmer had surely cozened him, when he 
heard him fell that his sow had eleven pigs, and his ass had 
but one foal. To say the best of this profession, 1 can give 
no other testimony of them in general, than that of '' Pliny 
of Isseus — he is yet a scholar; than ichich kind of men 
there is nothing so simple, so sincere, none better ; they are, 
most part, harmless, honest, upright, innocent, plain dealing 
men. 

Now, because they are commonly subject to such hazards 
and inconveniences, as dotage, madness, simplicity, &:c. Jo. 
Voschius would have good scholars to be highly rewarded, and 
had in some extraordinary respect above other men, '^ to have 
greater privileges than the rest, that adventure themselves and 
abbreviate their lives for the publick good. But our patrons 
of learning are so far, now a dayes, from respecting- the Mu- 
ses, and giving that honour to scholars, or reward, which 
they deserve, and are allowed by those indulgent privileges of 



a Sub FoiiiB larva circumivit urbeni, dictitans se exploratorem ab inferis venisse, 
delaturnm (JcCiiionibus morialiura peccata. bPetronius. Ego arbitror in scho- 

lis stultissimos fieri, quia niliil eoriini, qiias in iisu habemus, aut audiuut aut vident. 
•Novi, meis diehus, plerosque stinHis literarnm deditos, qui disciplinis adinodum 
abiinduhaiit : sed hi nihil civiiitatis habebant, nee rem publ. nee doniesticam regere 
norant. .S'Liipuit Pagiarensis, et i'lirti villicum aceusavit, qui suem fetam iindeciiu 
poicellos, asinnni nnum duntaxat pullnni, euixam rettilerat. d Lib. 1. Epist. 3. 

Adiiue scholastieus tantum est: quo genere hominum, nihil ant est sinipiicius. aut sin- 
crriiis, aut melius, *'3iirc priviltgiandij qui ob commune bonum abbreviant 

sibi vitain. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15,] Study, a Cause. 191 

many noble princes, that, after all their pains taken in the uni- 
versities, cost and charge, expenses, irksoni hours, laborious 
tasks, wearisome dayes,rlaiig'ers, hazards (barred inferim from 
all pleasures which other men have, mewed up like hawks all 
their lives) if they chance to wade through them, they shall in 
the end be rejected, contemned, and (which is their greatest 
misery) driven to their shifts, exposed to want, poverty, and 
beggery. Their familiar attendants are, 

' a Pallentes Morbi, Luctns, Curaeque, Laborque, 
Et Metus, et malesuada Fames, et turpis Egestas, 
Terribiles visu formge 

Grief, Labour, Care, pale Sickness, Miseries, 
Fear, filthy Poverty, Hunger that cryes ; 
Terrible monsters to be seen with eyes. 

If there were nothing else to trouble them, the conceit of this 
alone were enough to make them all melancholy. Most other 
trades and professions, after some seven years prenticeship, are 
enabled by their craft to live of themselves. A merchant 
adventures his goods at sea ; and, though his hazard be great, 
yet, if one ship return of four, he likely makes a saving voyage. 
An husbandmans <>ains are almost certain; quihns ipse Jupiter 
nocere non potest ('tis ^ Catos hyperbole, a great husband him- 
self) : only scholars, methinks- are most uncertain, unrespected, 
subject to all casualties, and hazards : for, first, not one of a 
many proves to be a scholar ; all are not capable and docile ; 
ex omni lir/no non fit Mercmins : •= we can make majors and 
officers every year, but not scholars : kings can invest knights 
and barons, as Sigismond the emperour confessed : universities 
can give degrees ; and 

Tu quod es, e populo quilibet esse potest : 

but he, nor they, nor all the world, can give learning, make 
philosophers, artists, oratours, poets. We can soon say, 
(as Seneca well notes) O virum honnm ! o divitem ! point at a 
rich man, a good, an happy man, a proper man, siontuose 
vestitum, ealaniistratum, bene olentem : 7naf/no teniporis ini' 
pendio constat luce laudatio, a virum lileratnm ! but 'tis not 
so easily performed to find out a learned man. Learnings 
is not so quickly got : though they may be willing- to take 
pains, and to that end sufficiently informed and liberally main- 
tained by tlieir patrons and parents, yet few can compass it : or, 
if they be docile, yet all mens m ills are not answerable to 
their wits ; they can apprehend, but will not take pains ; they 

^ Virg. .^!)n. lib. 6. l) Plutarch, vita ejus. Certum agricolationis lucrum, &:c. 

i' Quotaiinis liuut cousules et proconsnles : rex et poeta quotannis non nascitur. 



192 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

areeitherseduced by bad companions, velinpuellamimpingunt, 
vel in poculum, and so spend their time to their friends grief 
and their own undoings. Or, put case they be studious, in- 
dustrious, of ripe wits, and perhaps good capacities, then how 
many diseases of body and mind must they encounter ? No 
labour in the world like unto study. It may be, their tempera- 
ture will not endure it : but, striving to be excellent, to know 
all, they lose health, wealth, wit, life, and all. Let him yet 
happily escape all these h?iz?ir(ls,aireisintestinis, with a body of 
brass, and is now consummate and ripe; he hath profited in his 
studies, and proceededwith all applause: after many expences, 
he is fit for preferment: where shall we have it? he is as far to 
seek it, as he was (after twenty years standing) at the first day of 
his coming to the university. For, what course shall he take, 
being now capableand ready? The most parable and easie, and 
about which many are imployed, is to teach a school, turn 
lecturer or curat ; and, for that, he shall have faulkners wages, 
ten pound per annum, and his diet, or some small stipend, so 
long as he can please his patron or the parish; if they approve 
him not (for usually they do but a year or two — as inconstant, 
as *they that cryed, "Hosanna" one day, and "Crucifie him'* 
the other), serving-man like, he must go look a new master : 
if they do, what is his reward ? 

^ Hoc quoque te inanet,ut pueros elementa docentem 
Occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus. 

Like an ass, he wears out his time for provender, and can 
shew a stum rod, togam tritam et laceram, saith ''Hffidus, an 
old torn gown, an ensign of his infelicity ; he hath his labour 
for his pain, a modicum to keep him till he be decrepit ; and 
that is all. Grammaticus non est Jelix, ^c. If he be a 
trencher chaplain in a gentlemans house, (as it befel ^ Eu- 
phormio) after some seven years service, he may perchance 
have a living to the halves, or some small rectory with the 
mother of the maids at length, a poor kinswoman, or a crakt 
chamber-maid, to have and to hold during the time of his life. 
But, if he offend his good patron, or displease his lady mistres 
in the mean time, 

e Ducetur plant-i, velut ictus ab Hercule Cacus, 
Poneturque foras, si quid tentaverit unquam 
Hiscere 

as Hercules did by Cacus, he shall be dragged forth of doors 
by the heels, away with him. If he bend his forces to some 

a Mat. 21. " Hor. ep. 20. 1. I <" Lib. 1. de contem. amor. ^ Satyricon. 

e Juv. Sat 5. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 193 

other studies, with an intent to be a secretis to some noble 
man, or in such a place with an embassadour, he shall find 
that these personsrise,like prentises,oneunder another : and so, 
in many tradesmens shops, when the master is dead, the fore- 
man of the shop commonly steps in his place. Now for poets, 
rhetoricians,historians, philosophers, ''mathematicians, sophist- 
ers, &c. they are like grashoppers : sing^ they must in summer, 
and pine in the winter ; for there is no preferment for them. 
Even so they were at first, if you will believe that pleasant 
tale of Socrates which he told fair Pha?drus under a plane-tree, 
at the banks of the river Ismenus. About noon, when it was 
hot, and the grashoppers made a noise, he took that sweet 
occasion to tell him a tale, how grasshoppers were once scho- 
lars, musicians, poets, &c. before the Muses v, ere born, and 
lived without meatanddrink, and for that cause were turnedby 
Jupiter into g-rashoppers: and may be turned again, in Tithoni 
cicadas, ant Lycirnvm ranas, for any reward I see they are like 
to have: or else in the mean time, I would they could live, as 
they did,without any viaticum, like so many ''ma?/?/coc?iate,those 
Indian birdsof Paradise, as we commonly call them — those, I 
mean, that live with the air and dew of heaven, and need no 
other food : for, being as they are, their "rhetorick only serves 
them to curse their hadjhrtvnes ; and many of ihem, for M^ant. 
of means, are driven to hard shifts; from grashoppers, they turn 
humble-bees and wasps, plain parasites, and make the Muses 
mules, to satisfie their hunger-starved panches, and get a meals 
meat : To say truth, 'tis the common fortune of most scholars, 
to be servile and poor, to complain pittifuily, and lay open their 
w^ants to their respectless patrons, as ''- Cardan doth, as ^ Xy- 
lander and many others; and (which is too common in those 
dedicatory epistles) for hope of gain, to lye, flatter, and with 
hyperbolical elogiums and commendations, to magnifie and 
extol an illiterate unworthy idiot, for his excellent vertues, 
Avhom they should rather (as * Machiavel observes) vilifie, and 
rail at downrig-ht for his most notorious villanies and vices. 
So they prostitute themselves, as fidlers or mercenary trades- 
men, to serve great mens turns for a small reward. They are 
like "Indians ; they have store of gold, but know not the worth 
of it: fori am of Synesius opinion, ^\Kiuf/ Hierou yot more hy 
Simonides acquaintance, than Simonides did by his : they have 



" Ars rolit astia. i' Aldrovandus, de Avibtis, I. 12. Gesner, Sec. •■ Literas 

habent, qtit-is sibi et fortnna; sua; inaledicant. Sat. Menip. '^ Lib. de libris prO- 

priis, fol. 24. ' rrajt'at. translar. Piotarch. fPolit dispiit. Laiidibus ex- 

toUunt eos, ac si virtutibiis pollerent, (jnos, ob infinita acelera, potiiis vituperarc opor- 
tt;rot. c Or, as hdrsi-s know not tbi-ir strencrth, tliey consider not tlieir own 

worllt. I' Piura i-x >Siuiouidis iauiiliaritate Hierou coiiscquutus est, quam ex 

Hierouis Simonides. 



194 Causes of Melancholy . [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

their best education,good institution,sole qualification from us : 
and, when they have done well, their honour and immortality 
from us ; vve are the living- tombs,registers,and as so many trum- 
petours of their fames : what was Achilles, without Homer ? 
Alexander, without Arrian and Curtius? who had known the 
Caesars, but for Suetonius and Dion ? 

a Vixerunt fortes ante Agamemnona 
Multi: sed omnes illacrymabiles 
Urgentur, ignotique, longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

They are more beholden to scholars, than scholars to them; but 
they under-value themselves, and so, by those great men, are 
kept down. Let them have that Encyclopaedia, all the learn- 
ing- in the world ; they must keep it to themselves, '' live in base 
esteem, and starve, except they will submit (as Budasus well 
hath it) so many good parts, so many ensigns oj' arts, vertues, 
and be slavishly obnoxious to some illiterate potentate, and live 
under his insolent worship, or honour, like parasites, qui tam- 
quam mures, alienumpanem comedunt. For, to say truth, artes 
hcB 71071 sunt lucrativce, (as Guido Bonat, that great astrologer 
could foresee) they be not gainful arts these, sed esurientes et 
Jamelicce, but poor and hungry. 

*^ Dat Galenus opes ; dat Justinianus honores ; 
Sed genus et species cogitur ire pedes : 

Tlie rich physician, honour'd lawyers ride, 
Whil'st the poor scholar foots it by their side. 

Poverty is the Muses patrimony ; and, as that poetical divinity 
teacheth us, when Jupiters daughters were each of them mar- 
ried to the Gods, the Muses alone were left solitary, Helicon 
forsaken of all suters ; and I believe it was, because they had 
no portion. 

Calliope longum coelebs cur vixit in sevum ? 
Nempe nihil dotis, quod numeraret, erat. 

Why did Calliope live so long a maid? 
Because she had no dowry to be paid. 

Ever since all their followers are poor forsaken, and left unto 
themselves; in so much that, as ^ Petronius argues, you shall 

a Hor. lib. 4. od. 9. ^ Inter inertes ft plebeios fere jacet, ultimum locum ha- 

bens, nisi tot artis virtutisqne insignia, turpiter, obnoxie, supparasitando fascibus subje- 
cerit protervsB iusolentisqiie potentise. Lib. 1. de contemt. rerutn fortuitariun . 
t: Buchanan, cleg. lib. ^ In Satyrico. Intrat senex, sed cultu non ita speciosus, ut 

facile appareret eum hac nota literatiim esse ; quos divites odisse solent Ego, inquit, 
poeta sum. Qiiare ergo tam male vestitus es ? Propter hoc ipsum ; amor ingenii 
neminem unquam divitem fecit. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] W/iy the Muses are Melancholy. ].95 

likely know them by tbeir cloaths. There came, saith he, 
by chance into my company^ a J'elloic, not very spruce to 
look on, that I could perceive, hij that note alone, he iras a 
scholar, ichom commosily rich men hate. I asked him tchat 
he teas : he answered, a poet. I demanded ar/ain why he teas 
xo ruf/qed : he told me, this kind of learning never made any 
man rich. 

^ Qui pelago credit, magno se fcenore tollit ; 
Qui pugnas et castra petit, prsecingitur auro ; 
Vilis adulator picto jacet ebrius ostro ; 
Sola pruinosis horret tacundia pannis. 

A merchants gain is great, that goes to sea : 

A souldier embossed all in gold : 
A flatterer lyes fox'd in brave array, 

A scholar only ragged to behold. 

AH which our ordinary students right well perceiving in the 
universities — how unprofitable these poetical, mathematical, 
and philosophical studies are, how little respected, how few 
patrons — apply themselves in all haste to those three commo- 
dious professions of law, physick, and divinity, sharing- tjiem- 
selves between them, ''rejecting- these arts in the mean time, 
history, philosophy, philology, or lightly passing them over, 
as pleasant toyes, fitting only table talk, and to furnish them 
Avith discourse. They are not so behoveful : he that can tell 
his money hath arithmetick enough : he is a true geometri- 
cian, can measure out a good fortune to himself; a perfect 
astrologer, that can cast the rise and fall of others, and mark 
their errant motions to his own use. The best opticks are, to 
reflect the beams of some great mens favour and grace to shine 
upon him. He is a good engineer, that alone can make an in- 
strument to get preferment. This was the common tenent 
and practice of Poland, as Cromerus observed, not long' since, 
in the first book of his history: their universities were gene- 
rally base ; not a philosopher, a mathematician, an antiquary, 
&c. to be found of any note amongst them, because they had 
no set reward or stipend; but every man betook himself to 
divinity, hoc solum in vt-tis habens, opimum sacerdotium; a 
good personage was their aim. This was the practice of some 
of our neer neighbours, as '^ Lipsius inveighs ; they thrust 
their children to the study oj' laiv and divinity, before they be 
injbrmed aright, or capable oJ' such studies. Scilicet omnibus 

* Petronius Arbiter. ''Oppressus paupertate animus nihil exiniiiim aut sub- 

lime cogitare potest Amoenitates literarum, aut elegantiain, quoniatn nihil prsesidii 
in his ad vitae coniinodum videt, prirao negligerc, mox odisse, iucipit. Heius. 
^ Epistol. quast. lib. 4. ep. 21. 



196 Causes of Melanchohj . [Part. i. Sec. 2. 

artibus antistat spes lucri ; at formosior est cumulus auri^ 
cjuam quidquid GrcBci Latinique delirantes scripserunt. Ex 
hoc numero deinde veniuut ad gubernacula relpub. interavnt 
et prcesunt consiliis recfum ; o pater I o patria! so he com- 
plained ; and so many others : for even so we find, to serve a 
s>Teat man, to get an office in some bishops court (to practise 
in some ^ood town), or compass a benefice, is the mark we 
shoot at, as being- so advantagious, the high way to preferment. 
Although, many times, for ought I can see, these men fail as 
often as the rest in their projects, and are as usually frustrate of 
their hopes: for, let him be a doctor of the law, an excellent 
civilian of good worth, where shall he practise and expatiate? 
Their fields are so scant, the civil law with us so contracted 
with prohibitions, so few causes, by reason of ihose all-devour- 
in"* municipal laws (cjuibus 7iihil illiterat'ms, saith ^Erasmus — 
an illiterate and a barbarous study; for, though they be never so 
well learned in it, I can hardly vouchsafe them the name of 
scholars, except they be otherwise qualified) and so i'ew courts 
are left to that profession, such slender offices, and those com- 
moidy to be compassed at such dear rates, that I know not how 
an ingenious man should thrive amongst them. Now, for phy- 
sicians, there are in every village so many mountebanks,empe- 
ricks,quack-salvers,Paracelsians(as they call themselves) ,ca?/- 
sifici et sanicidce (so ^ Clenard terms them), wisards, alcumists, 
poor vicars, cast apothecaries, physicians men, barbers, and 
good wives, professing gTcat skill, that I make great doubt how 
they shall be maintained, or who shall be their patients. Be- 
sides, there are so many of both sorts, and some of them such 
harpyes, so covetous, so clamorous, so impudent, and (as'^he 
said) litigious idiots, 

Quibus loquacis afFatim arrogantiae est, 
Peritias parum aut nihil, 

Nee ulla mica literarii sails; 
Crumenimuhija natio, 

Loqimtuleia turba, litium strophBe, 
Maligna litigantium 

Cohors, togati vultures, 

Lavernse alumni, agyrtee, &c, 

Which have no skill, but prating arrogance, 
No learning, such a purse- milking nation, 

Gown'd vultures, thieves, and a litigious rout 
Of couseners, that haunt this occupation, 

that they cannot M-ell tell how to live one by another, but, as 
he jested (in the comedy) of clocks, they were so many, ''w/./or 
pars popuJi aridd reptant fame, they are almost starved a 

a Ciceron. dial. ^ Epist. lib. 2. * Ja- Doiisa, Epodon lib. 2. car. 2. ^ Plauttis. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Why the Muses are MelaucfiOly. 197 

great part of them, and ready to devour their fellows, =* et 
noxid calliditate se corripere ; such a multitude of pettifoggers 
and empericks, such impostors, that an honest man knows 
not in what sort to compose and behave himself in their society, 
to carry himself with credit in so vile a rout; scientke nomen, tot 
sumtihus partnm et viffiliis, projiteri dispudeat, postqnmn, Sfc. 
Last of all, to come to our divines, the most noble profession 
and worthy of double honour, but of all others the most dis- 
tressed and miserable. If you w\\\ not believe me, hear a brief 
of it, as it was, not many years since, publicly preached at Pauls 
cross, ''by a grave minister then, and now a reverend bishop of 
this land. We, that are bred yp in learning, and destinated hy 
our parents to thi" end, tee suffer our childhood in the grammer 
school, li'hich Austin calls rnagnam tyrannidem, et grave ma- 
lum, and compares it to the torments ofmarfyrdom ; ivhen ive 
come to the imiversity, if tee live of the coUeffe allowance, as 
Phalaris objected to the Leontines, Travrm iv^s^i:;, ttMv p^v^s koh 
?"''^«, needy of all thinr/s Init hunger and fear ; or, if ve he 
maintained but partly by 07ir parents cost, to expend in [un] ne- 
cessary maintenance, hooks, and degrees, before we come to any 
perfection, five hundreth pounds, or a thousand marks. If, by 
this price of the expence of time, our bodies and spirits, our sub- 
stance and patrimonies, ice cannot purchase those small re- 
wards, which are ours hy law, and the right of inheritance, a 
poor personage, or a vicarage of 50]. per'annum, but we must 
pay to the patron for the lease of a life (a spent and out-worn 
life), either in annual pension, or above the rate of a coppyhold, 
and that with the hazard and loss of our souls, by simony and 
perjury, and the forfeiture of all our spiritual preferments, in 
esse and posse, both present and to come ; what father after a 
while ivill be so improvident, to bring up his son, to his qreat 
charge, to this necessary beggery ? What Christian will be so 
irreligious, to bring up his son in that course of life, which, by 
all probability an(l necessity, cogit ad turpia, enforcing to sin, 
willentangle him in simony and per jury , when as the poet saith, 

Invitatus ad haec aliquis de ponte negabit 

a beggars brat, taken from the bridge ichere he sits a begging, 
if he kneiv the inconvenience, had cause to refuse it. This be- 
ing thus, have not we wished fair all this whi'je, that are initiate 
divines, to find no better fruits of our labours ? 

^ Hoc est, cur palles ? cur quis non prandeat, hoc est ? 
Do we macerate our selves for this? is it for this we rise so 
early all the year long, '^ leaping (as he saith) out of our bexh, 
when ive hear the bejl ring, as if ice had heard a thunder clap? 

»Barc. Argenis. lib. 3. b joh. Howson, 4 Novembris, 1537. The sermon 

was printed by Arnold Hartfield. <■. Pers. Sat. 3. d E lecto exsilientes, 

ad subitum tintinnabuli plnusiini, quasi fiilniiue territi. 1. 



19S Causes of Melanclioly. [Parf. 1. Sec. 2. 

If this be all the respect, reward, and honour, we shall have, 

» Frange leves calamos, et scinde, Thalia, libellos : 

let us give over our books, and betake our selves to some 
other course of life. To what end should we study ? 

^ Quid me literulas stulti docuere parentes ? 

what did our parents mean to make us scholars, to be as far to 
seek of preferment after twenty years study, as we were at first? 
why do we take such pains ? 

Quid tantum iusanis juvat impallescere chartis ? 

If there be no more hope of reward, no better encouragement, 
I say again, 

Frange leves calamos, et scinde, Thalia, libellos : 

let's turn souldiers, sell our books, and buy swords, guns, and 
pikes, or stop bottles with them, turn our philosophers gowns 
(as Cleanthes once did) unto millers coats, leave all, and ra- 
ther betake our selves to any other course of life, than to con- 
tinue longer in this misery. ^ Prcestat de^tiscalpia radere, 
guam literariis monumenth maf/natumj'avorem emendicare. 

Yea, but me thinks 1 hear some man except at these words, 
that (though this be true which I have said of the estate of 
scholars, and especially of divines, that it is miserable and 
distressed at this time, that the church suffers shipwrack of 
her goods, and that they have just cause to complain) there is 
a fault; but whence proceeds it? if the cause were justly ex- 
amined, it would be retorted upon ourselves; if we were cited 
at that tribunal of truth, we should be foiiutl guilty, and not 
able to excuse it. That there is a fault among- us, I confess ; 
and, were there not a buyer, there would not be a seller: but 
to him that will consider better of it, it will more than mani- 
festly appear, that the fountain of these miseries proceeds from 
these griping- patrons. In accusing theiu, 1 do not altogether 
excuse us : both are faulty, they and we : yet, in my judgement, 
theirs is the greater fault, more apparent causes, and much to 
be condemne'd. For my part, if it be not with me as I would, 
or as it should, I do ascribe the cause (as '^ Cardan did in the 
like case) rneo hif'ortiinio potius quam illorum sceleri, to 
* mine own infelicity, rather than their naughtiness, (although 
I have been baffled in my time by some of them, and have as 
just cause to complain as another) or rather indeed to mine 



a Mart. b Mart e Sat. Menip. ^ Lib. % de cons. ^ I had no 

money : I wanted impudence : I could not scramble, temporize, dissemble : non pran- 
deret olus, &c. — Vis, dicam ? ad palpandum et adulandum penitus insulsns, recudi 
non possum, jam senior, ut sim talis ; et fingi nolo, utcunque male cedat in rem meam, 
et obscurus inde delitescam. 



Mcia. 3. Subs. 15.] Study ^ a Cause. 1^9 

own negligence; for I was ever like that Alexander (in ''Plu- 
tarch) Crassus his tutor in philosophy, who, though he lived 
many years familiarly with rich Crassus, was even as poor when 
from, (which many wondered at) as when he came first to him. 
He never asked; the other never gave him any thini^-; when he 
travelled with Crassus, he borrowed an hat of him, at his return 
restored it again. 1 have had some such noble friends, ac- 
quaintance and scholars; but, most part, (common courtesies 
and ordinary respects excepted) they and I parted as we met: 

they gave me as much as 1 requested, and that was And as 

Alexanderab Alexandrio (Genial, d'ler. l.6.c. 16) madeanswer 
to Hieronymus Massainus, that wondred/pmm pluris ic^navos 
et ifjnobiles ad dignkates et sacerdotia promotos quotidie 
videret, when other men rose, stiil he was in the same state, 
eodeni te/wreet for tuna, cuimercedemlahorum studlorumqne de- 
beri putaret, whom he thought to deserve as well as the rest — 
he made answer, that he was content with his present estate, 
was not ambitious: and, although ohjurgahundus suam segni- 
tiem accusaret, cum obscurce sortis homines ad sacerdotia et 
pontificatns evectos, Sfc. he chid him for his backwardness, yet 
he was still the same: and for my part (though I be not worthy 
perhaps to carry Alexanders books) yet, by some overweening 
and well wishing friends, the like speeches have been used 
to me; but I replyed still, with Alexander, that I had enough, 
and more perad venture than I deserved; and, with Libanius 
Sophista, that rather chose (when honours and offices by the 
emperour were offered unto him) to be talis sophista, quam 
talis viagistratus, I had as live be still Democritus junior, 
and privus privatus, si mihi jam daretur optio, quam talis 

J'ortasse doctor, talis dominus. Sed quorsnm haoc ? For the 

rest, 'tis, on both H\Ae%,facinus detestandum to buy and sell 
livings, to detain from the church that which Gods and mens 
laws have bestowed ori it; but in them most, and that from 
the covetousness and ignorance of such as are interested in this 
business. I name covetousness in the first place, as the rootof 
all these mischiefs, which (Achan like) compels them to 
commit sacrilege, and to make simoniacal compacts, (and what 
not?) to their own ends, ''and that kindles Gods wrath, brings a 
plague, vengeance, and an heavy visitation upon themselves and 
others. Some, outof that insatiable desire of filthy lucre, to be 
enriched, care not how they come hy it, per fas et nej'as, hook 
or crook, so they have it. And others, when they have, with 
riot and prodigality, imbezelled their estates, to recover them- 



a Vit. Crassi. Nee facile judicari potest, ntrumpanperior cum pritno adCiassum.&c. 
b Deiim habent iratum ; sibiqne mortem a^ternam acqiiirunt, aliia miserabilem ruinam. 
Serrariiis, in Josiiam. 7. Eiiripidrs. 

VOL. I. Y 



Causes of Melnnchohj, [Parf. 1. Sec. 2, 

selves, make a prey of the church, (robbing it, as « Julian the 
Apostate (lid) spoile parsons of their revenues (in keepin"- half 
back, '' as a great man amongst us observes)awrf^/mif maintenance 
on which they should live; by means whereof, barbarism is in- 
creased, and a great decay of Christian professours : for who 
will apply himself to these divine studies, his son, or friend, 
when, after great pains taken, they shall have nothing where- 
upon to live? But with what event do they these things? 

<^Opesque totis viribus venamini : 
At inde messis accidit miserrima. 

They toyle and moyle, but what reap they ? They are com- 
monly unfortunate families that use it,accursedin their progeny, 
and, as common experience evinceth, accursed themselves in 
all their proceedings. With what face (as he '^quotes out of 
Austin) can they expect a blessing or inheritance from Christ 
in heaven, that defraud Christ of his inheritance here on earth ? 
I would all our siraoniacal patrons, and such as detain tithes, 
would read those judicious tracts of S"^ Henry Spelman, and S'^ 
James Sempil!, knights; those late elaborate and learned trea- 
tises of D"^ Tilslye and M'^ Montague, which they have written 
of that subject. But though they should read, it would be 
to small purpose ; dames, licet, et mare coclo confundas ; 
thunder, lighten, preach hell and damnation, tell them 'tis a 
sin : they will not believe it ; denounce and terrific ; they 
have * cauterised consciences ; they do not attend ; as the in- 
chantedadder, they stop their ears. Call them base, irreligious, 
prophane,barbarous.pagans, atheists, epicures, (as some of them 
surely are) with the bawd in Plautus, Euge ! optime ! they 
cry; and applaud themselves with that miser, himul acnummos 
contemplor in area: say what you will, quocunque modo rem: 
as a dog barks at the moon, to no purpose are your sayings : 
take your heaven, let them have money — a base, prophane, 
epicurean, hypocritical rout. For my part, let them pretend 
what they will, counterfeit religion, blear the worlds eyes, 
bumbast themselves,andstuffe out their greatness with church 
spoils, shine like so many peacocks — so cold is my charity, so 
defective in this behalf, that I shall never think better of them, 
than that they are rotten at core, their bones are full of epi- 
curean hypocrisie, and atheistical marrow; theyare worse than 
heathens. For, as Dionysius Halicarnasseus observes (Antiq,' 
Rom. lib. 7). ^Primum locum, ^-c. Greeks and barbarians 

aNicephorus, lib. 10 cap. 5. ''Lord Cook, in liis Reports, second part, 

fol. 44. 'Euripides. "^ Sir Henry Spelman, de non teinerandis Ecclesiis. 

e 1 Tim. 4. 2. fHor. sPrimuixi locum apud onines gentes habet patritius 

deoriim cultus, et sceniorum ; nam hunc diutissime custodiunt, tarn Gr-esci qoam 
harbari, &c. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 201 

observe all religioua rites, and dare not break them, for fear 
of offending their gods: but our simoniacal contracters, our 
senseless Achans, our stupified patrons, fear neither God nor 
Devil : they have evasions for it; it is no sin, or not due jure 
dimno, or, if a sin, no greatsin,&c. And, thoiig-h they be daily 
punished for it, and they do manifestly perceive, tliat,(as he said) 
frost and fraud come tofoulends; yet (as '^Chrysostome follows 
it) nulla ex poena Jit correctio; et, quasi adversis malitia ho- 
minnm provocetur, erescit quotidie quod puniatur : they are 
rather worse than better : 

iram atque aniraos a crimine sutnunt; 

and the more they are corrected, the more they offend: but let 
them take their course, (^ Rode, caper, viteni) <^o on still as 
they beg-in, ("'tis no sin!") let them rejoyce secure: Gods 
vengeance will overtake them in the end; and these ill gotten 
goods, as an eagles feathers, "^will consume the rest of their 
substance: itis^ anru7n Tholosanum, and will produce no better 
eftects. Let them lag it up saje, and make their conveyances 
never so close, lock and shut ^foor, saith^Chrysostome : yet fraud 
andcovetousness, tico most violent thieves, are still included ; and 
a little gain, evil gotten, ivill subvert the rest oj' their goods. 
The eagle in ^Esop, seeing a piece of flesh, now ready to be sa- 
crificed, swept it away with her claws, and carried it to her 
nest : but there was a burning coal stuck to it by chance, which 
unawares consumed her young ones, nest and all together. Let 
our simoniacal church-chopping patrons, and sacrilegious har- 
pies, look for no better success. 

A second cause is ignorance, and from thence contempt ; 
siiccessit odium in literas ah ignorantid vulgi ; which '^^Junius 
M'ell perceived : this hatred and contempt of learning proceeds 
out of ^ignorance; as they are themselves barbarous, idiots, 
dull, illiterate, and proud, so they esteem of others. 

Sint Maecenates, non deerunt, Flacce, Marones : 

let there be bountiful patrons, and there will be painful scholars 
in all sciences. But, when they contemn learning, and tlftnk 
themselves sufficiently qualified, if they can write and read, 
scamble at a piece of evidence, or have so much Latin as that 
emperour had, ^^qui nescit dissimulare, nescit vivere, they are 
unfit to do their countrey service, to perform or undertake 

" Tom. 1. de steril. trium annorum sub Elia serraone b Ovid. Fast cDe 

male qiiaesitis vix c^audet tertius hteres. d Strabo, 1. 4. Geo^. «■ Nihil facilius 

ones f vertet, qiiain avaritia et frande parta Etsi enjm seiain addas tali area;, et exteriore 
janua et vecte earn coinnuinias, intus tamen fraudeni et avaritiam, &c. Ju 5 Corintli. 
f Aead. cap. 7. g Ars neminem habet initnicum, prieter ignorantem. h fj, 

that cannot dissemble cannot live. 

y2 



202 Causes of Mdanclwly, [Part. 1 . Sec. 2. 

any action or employment, which may tend to tlie good of 
a common-wealth, except it be to fight, or to do countrey 
justice, with common sense, which every yeoman can like- 
wise do. And so they bring up their children, rude as they are 
themselves, unqualified, untaught, uncivil most part. ^ Quis 
e nostra juventute legitime instituitur Uteris ? quis oratores 
aut philosoplws tangit ? quis historiam legit, illam reruni 
agendarnm quasi animam ? Pracipitant parentes vota sua, ^-c. 
*twas LipsJus complaint to his illiterate countrey-men : it may 
be ours. Now shall these men judge of a scholars worth, that 
have no worth, that know not whatbelongs toastudentslabours, 
that cannot distinguish between a true scholar and a tlrone? or 
him that by reason of a voluble tongue, a strong voice, a 
pleasing' tone, and some trivantly Polyanthean helps, steals 
and gleans a fev*' notes from other mens harvests, and so makes 
a fairer shew, than he that is truly learned indeed ; that thinks 
it no more to preach, than to speak, ^ or to run away with 
an empty cart (as a grave man said) ; and thereupon vilifie 
us, and our pains ; scorn us, and all learning. *^ Because 
they are rich, and have other means to live, they think 
it concerns them not to know, or to trouble themselves with 
it ; a fitter task for younger brothers, or poor mens sons, 
to be pen and inkhorn men, pedantical slaves, and no whit be- 
seeming the calling' of a gentleman, as Frenchmen and Ger- 
mans commonly do, neglecting therefore all humane learning: 
what have they to do with it? Let marriners learn astronomy ; 
merchants factors study arithmetick; surveyors get them geo- 
metry ; spectacle-makers opticks ; landleapers geography ; 
town-clarks rhetorick; what should he do with a spade, that 
hath no ground to dig? or they with learning-, that have no 
use of it ? Thus they reason, and are not ashamed to let 
marriners, prentises, and the basest servants, be better quali- 
fied than themselves. In former times, kings, princes, and 
emperours were the only scholars, excellent in all faculties. 

Julius Csesar mended the year, and writ his own Commen- 
taries : 

— ci media inter proelia, semper 

Stellarum coelique plagis, superisque vacavit. 

• Antoninus, Adrian, Nero, Severus, Julian, &c. ^Michael the 
emperour, and Isacius, were so much given to theirstudies, that 



» Ei)fst. quaest lib. 4, epist. 21. Lipsius. ^ Dr. King, in his last lecture ou 

.Jonah, sometime right reverend lord bishop of London. '^ Quibus opes et otiuin, 

hi barisaro fastu literas coutemnunt. '' Lucan. lib. 8. « Spartian. Soliciti de 

vebus uimis, ' Nicet. 1. Anal. Fumis lucubrationum sordebant. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 2Q3 

no base fellow would take so much pains : Orion, Perseus, Al- 
phonsus,Ptolemaeus,famousf?stronomers; Saber, Mitliridates, 
Lysimachus, admired physicians — Platoskings.all; Evax,that 
Arabian prince,amost expert jueller, and an exquisite philo- 
sopher ; the kings of vEgypt were priests of old, and chosen 
from thence : Rex idem homiymm, Phoehiqne, sacerdos : but 
those heroical times are past; the Muses are now banished, 
in this bastard age, ad sordida tuf/itriola, to meaner persons, 
and confined alone almost to universities. In those dayes, 
scholars Avere highly beloved, '^ honoured, esteemed, as old 
Ennius by Scipio Africanus, Virgil by Auo-ustus, Horace by 
Maecenas; princes companions ; dear to them, as Anacreon 
to Polycrates, Philoxenus to Dionysius, and highly rewarded. 
Alexander sent Xenocrates the philosopher fifty talents, be- 
cause he was poor, visn rernm ant eruditione prcBStantes viri 
mensis olim regnm adhibiti,ns Philostratus relates of Adrian, 
and Lampridius of Alexander Severus. Famous clarks came 
to these princes courts, vehtt in Lycaum, as to an university, 
and were admitted to their tables, quasi dirihii epulis accum- 
bentes; Archelalis, that Macedonian king, Mould notwillinolv 
sup without Euripides, (amongst the rest he drank to bin? a"t 
supper one night, and gave him a cup of gold for his pains) 
delect atus poet (V. suavi sermone : and it Mas fit it should be so, 
because (as ''Plato in his Protagoras mcH saith) a good philo- 
sopher as much excells other men, as a great king doth the 
commons of his countrey ; and ng^Hn, " fiuoniam illis nihil 
deesf, et minime etjere solent, et disciplinas^ qnas -profitentiir, 
soli a contemtu vindicare possnnt ; they needed not to beij so 
basely, as they compell '• scholars in our times to complain 
of poverty, or crouch to a rich chuff' for a meals meat, but 
could vindicate themselves, and those arts Mhich they pro- 
fessed. NoM' they would and cannot; for it is held by some 
of them, as an axiom, that to keep them poor, will make them 
study ; they must be dieted, as horses to a race, not pamper- 
ed ; ^alendos volunt, nan sar/inandos, ne melioris mentis finm- 
mula extingiiatur : a lat bird Mill not sing, a fat dog cannot 
hunt; and so, by this depression of theirs, ^some Avant means, 
others Mill, all Mant s incouragement, as being forsaken al- 
most, and generally contemned. 'Tis an old saying, 

Sint Msecenatc-s, nori deernnt, Flacce, Marones ; 

a Grammaticis olini et dialecticis .ji.risque professoribiis, qui specimen fiuflitionis 
dedissent, eadem diernitatis insignia decreveruut iniperatores. fpiibus ornabant iieroas. ' 
Erasm. ep. Jo. Fabio epis. Vien. b Probus vir et philosoplms luagis pr;vstat inter 

alios homines, qnam rex iiiclytus inter plebeios. '^Heinsins. prtefat Poematnni. 

'1 Servile noraen scholans jam. e Seneca. 'Haud facile emer-jiiiit, &c. 

? Media quod iioctis ab bora Sedisti, (lua nemo faber. qua nemo setlebr.t, Qui clocet 
obliquo lanaui diducere feiro ; Kara tamen nierces. Juv. Sat, 7. 



•iOt Causes of Melanchohj. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

and 'tis a true saying still. Yet oftentimes, 1 may not deny it, 
the main fault is in ourselves. Ouracademicks too frequently 
offend in neglecting patrons (as * Erasmus well taxeth), or 
making ill choice of them ; negliffwrns ohlatos^ avt amplecti- 
mur parum aptos : or, if we get a good one, non studemus 
mutuis officii s J'avor em ejus alere, we do not plye and follow 
him as we should. Idem mi/ii accidit adolescenti (saith Eras- 
mus, acknowledging his fault) ; et gravissime pecccivi : and so 
may ''I say myself, 1 have offended in this, and so perad venture 
have many others: we did noirespondere mciffnaturnjavoribiis, 
qui cceperunt nos amplecti, apply our selves with that readi- 
ness we should : idleness, love of liberty, {immodicus amor 
libertatis ejf'ecit, ut diu cum perjidis amicis, as he confesseth, et 
pertinaci paupertate, colliictarer) bashfulness, melancholy, 
timorousness, cause many of us to be too backward and remi.ss. 
So some offend in one extream, but too many on the other: 
"we are, most part, too forward, too solicitous, too ambitious, 
too impudent : we commonly complain deesse Mascenates^ 
want of encouragement, want of means, Mhen as the true de- 
fect is our want of worth, our insufficiency. Did Maecenas 
take notice of Horace or Virgil, till they had shewed them- 
selves first? or had Bavins and Maevius any patrons? Egrc' 
aium specimen dent,B2L\\h Erasmus: let them approve them- 
selves worthy first, sufficiently qualified for learning and man- 
ners, before they presume or impudently intrude and put 
themselves on great men, as too many do, with such base 
flattery, parasitical colloguing, such hyperbolical elogies they 
do usually insinuate, that it is a shame to hear and see. Im- 
fiwdica; lavdes conciliant invidiam, potins quam laudcm ; and 
vain commendations derogate from truth; and we think, in 
conclusion, non melius de landato, pejus de laudanfe, ill of 
both, the commender and commended. So we offend; but 
the main fault is in their harshness, defect of patrons. 
How beloved of old, and how much respected, was Plato of 
Dionysius ! How dear to Alexander was Aristotle, Demaratus 
to Philip, Solon to Croesus, Anaxarchus and Trebatius to Au- 
gustus, Cassius to Vespasian, Plutarch to Trajan, Seneca to 
Nero, Simonides to Hieron ! how honoured ! 

'Sed lisec prius fuere ; nunc recondita 
Senent qiiiete : 

those dayes are gope ; 

Et spes et ratio studionim in Cacsare tantiim ; 

» Chil. 4. cent. 1 adag 1. '' Had I done as otlifr^ did, put my self forward, 

I mipht ba\e haply been as great a mau a* nmiy of oiy eqiiaU. <^ Catnllni^ 

Javcn. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 205 

as he said of old, we may truly say now : he is our amulet, 
our ^suri, our sole comfort and refuge, our Ptolemy, our com- 
mon Maecenas, Jacobus munijicus. Jacobus pacijicus, mysta 
Musarum, rex Platonicus : grande decus, columenque nostrum; 
a famous scholar himself, and the sole patron, pillar, and 
sustainer of learning : but his worth in this kind is so well 
known, that (as Paterculus, of Cato) ;am ipsum laudare nefas 
sit; and (which ^ Pliny to Trajan) seria te carmina, honorque 
aternus annalium, non ha>c brevis et pudenda prcedicatio, 
colet. But he is now gone, the sun of ours set; and yet no 



night follows. 



-Sol occubuit ; nox nulla sequuta est. 



i 



We have such another in his room — 

Aureus ; et simili frondescit virga metallo ; 

and long may he reign and flourish amongst us. 

Let me not be malitious, and lye against my genius ; I 
may not deny, but that we have a sprinkling of our gentry, 
here and there one, excellently well learned, like those Fug- 
geri in Germany, Dubartas, Du Plessis, Sadael in France, 
Picus Mirandula, Scbottus, Barotius in Italy : 

Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto ; 

butthey are butfewin respect of the multitude : the major part 
-^and some again excepted, that are indifferent) are wholly bent 
for hawks and hounds, and carried away many times with in- 
temperate lust, gaming, and drinking. If they read a book at 
any time, {si quid est interim otii a venatu, poculis, aledy 
scortis) 'tis an English chronicle, St. Huon of Bordeaux, 
Amadis de Gaul, &c. a play-book, or some pamphlet of 
news, and that at such seasons only, when they cannot stir 
abroad, to drive away time: "^ their sole discourse is dogs, 
hawks, horses, and what news? If some one have been a tra- 
veller in Italy, or as far as the emperours court, wintered in 
Orleance, and can court his mistris in broken French, wear his 
clothes neatly in the newest fashion, sing some choice out- 
landish tunes, discourse of lords, ladies, towns, palaces, 
and cities, he is compleat, and to be admired : «■ otherwise he 
and they are much at one ; no difference betwixt the master 
and the man, but worshipful titles :— wink, and choose betwixt 

^ »Nemo est quern non Phoebus hie noster solo intuitu lubentiorem reddat 
ranegyr. ^Virgil. *■ Rarus eniin ferine eensns communis in ilia Fortuna. 

Juv. bat. 8. f Quis enim grenerosum dixerit bun*, <iui ludignus cenere, et prse- 

cJaro nomine tantum Insignis ? Juv. Sat. 8. or 



206 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec 2. 

him that sits down (clothes excepted) and him that holds the 
trencher beliind him. Yet these men must be our patrons, 
our gorernors too sometimes, statesmen, magistrates, noble, 
great and wise by inheritance. 

Mistake me not (1 say again) vos, o pafriciits sanguis ! you 
that are worthy senators, gentlemen, 1 honour your names 
and persons, and with all submissness, prostrate myself to 
your censure and service. There are amongst you, 1 do in- 
genuously confess, many well deserving' patrons, and true 
patriots, of my knowledg^e, besides many hundreds which I 
never sav/, no doubt, or heard of — pillars of our common- 
wealth, ^ whose worth, bounty, learning, forwardness, true 
zeal in religion, and good esteem of all scholars, ought to be 
consecrated to all posterity : but, of your rank, there are de- 
boshed, corrupt, covetous, illiterate crew again, no better than 
stocks, merum pec?is (tester Deum, non mihi videri dignos 
ingenui hominis appellatione) barbarous Thradans, (et quis 
ille Thrax qui hoc neget V) a sordid, prophane, pernicious 
company, irreligious, impudent and stupid, (I know not what 
epithets to give them) enemies to learning, confounders of 
the church, and the ruin of a common-wealth. Patrons they 
are by light of inheritance, and put in trust freely to dispose 
of such livings to the churches good ; but (hard task-masters 
they prove) they take away their straw, and compel them to 
make their number of brick : they conmionly respect their 
own ends; commodity is the steer of all their actions; and 
him they present, in conclusion, as a man of greatest gifts, 
that will give most : no penny, '^no Pater-noster, as the say- 
ing- is. Nisi preces avroj'ulcias, amplius irriias ; nt Cerbe- 
rus qffd. their attendants and officers must be bribed, fed, 
and made, as Cerberus is by a sop by him that goes to hell. 
It was an ok! saying, omnia Romte venalia; 'tis a rag' of po- 
pery, which will never be rooted out; tliere is no hope, no 
good to be done without money. A dark may offer himself, 
approve his '^ v/orth, learning, honesty, religion, zeal: they 
wdl commend him for it; but 

"^probitas iaudatur, et alget. 



If he be a man of extraordinary parts, they w ill flock afar oflT 
to hear him, as they did, in Apuleius, to see Psyche : rnulti 
mortales conjiuebant ad videndmn scbcuH decus, speculum 

^ 1 have often met with my self, and conferred \vi<h, divers worthy gentlemen in 
the countrey, no whit inferiour, it' not to be preferred for divers kind of learning to, 
many of our academicks. ''ipse, licet Musis venias comitatiis, Honiere, Si nihil 

attuleris, ibis, Homere, foras. ""Et legat historicos, auctores noverit ouines, 

Tamquam ungues digitosquc suos. Jiiv. Sat. 7. <i Juvenal. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 207 

r/hriosnin : laudaUir ah omnibus ; spectatur ah omnibus ; 7iec 
q7iisr/uam, non re.r, nan ref/ius, cupiens ejus nuptiarum, petitor 
accedit ; mirantur qnidem dhiinam speciem omnes ; sed, ut si- 
viulocrumfahrepolitum, mirantur : many mortal men came to 
see fair Ps3che, the glory of her age : they did admire her, 
commend, desire her for her divine beauty, and gaze upon 
her, but, as on a picture : none would marry her, (pmd indo^ 
tata : fair Psyche had no money. ""So they do by learning : 

''didicitjam dives avarus 



Tantum admirari, t.antum laudare, disertos, 
Ut pueri Junonis avem 

Your rich men have now learn'd of latter dayes 
T' admire, commend, and come together 

To hear and see a worthy scholar speak, 
As children do a peacocks feather. 

He shall have all the good words that may be given, " "^ a pro- 
per man, and 'tis pity he hath no preferment," all good wishes ; 
but, inexorable, indurate as he is, he will not prefer him, though 
it be in his power, because he isindotatus, he hath no money. 
Or, if he do give him entertainment, let him be never so well 
qualified, plead affinity, consanguinity, sufficiency, he shall 
serve seven y* ars, as Jacob did for Rachel, before he shall have 
it. "If he will enter at first, he must get in at that simoniacal 
gate, come off" soundiy, and put in good security to perform 
all covenants ; else he will not deal with, or admit him. But, 
if some poor scholar, some parson chaff, will offer himself; 
some trencher cliaplain, that will tak<^ it to the halves, thirds, 
or accept of Avhat he will give, he is welcom ; be conformable, 
preach as he will have him, he takes him before a million of 
others ; for (he best is ahvayes best cheap : and then (as Hierom 
said to Cvvmathm) patella digmim operculum : such a patron, 
such a dark ; the cure is well supplied, and all parties pleased. 
So that is still verified in our age, which '^ Chrysostome com- 
plained of in his time: qui opulentiores sunt, hi ordinem pa^ 
rasitorum cof/unt eos, et ipsos tamquam canes ad mensas s?ias 
enutrinnt, eorumque impudentes ventres iniquarum ccenarum 
reliquiis dijferciunt, iisdem pro arhitrio abntenies: rich men 
keep theselecturers, and fawning parasites, like so many dogs, 
at their tables ; and, filling their hungry guts with the offals of 

=» Tu vero licet Orpheus sis, saxa soiio testudinis emolliens, nisi plumbea eoruia 
corda auri vel eirgenti malleo emollias, &c. Salisburiensis, Polycrat. lib. 5. c. 10. 
bJn\en. Sat. 7. ''Euge! bene I no need. Doiisa epod. 1. 3. Dos ipsa scientia, 

sibiqiie congiariuin est. '' Qiiatnor ad portas ecclesias itiir ad omnes ; Sanguinis, 

ant Simonis, priesulis, atque Uei. Holcot. « Lib. contra Gtntiles, deBabilA 

niartiie. 



208 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

their meat, they abuse them at their pleasure, and make them 
say what they propose, ^^s children do by a bird or a but- 
ter fly e in a string, pull in and let him out as they list, do they 
by their trencher chaplains, prescribe, command their ivits, let 
in and out, as to them it seems best. If the patron be precise, 
so must his chaplain be; if he be papistical, his dark must be 
so too, or else be turned out. These are those clarks which 
serve the turn, whom they commonly entertain, and present 
to church livings, whilst in the mean time we, that are uni- 
versity-men, like so many hide-bound calves in a pasture, 
tarry out our time, wither away as a flower ungathered in a 
garden, and are never used ; or, as too many candles, illumi- 
nate our selves alone, obscuring one anothers light, and are 
not discerned here at all ; the least of which, translated to a 
dark room, or to some countrey benefice, where it might shine 
apart, would give a fair light, and be seen over all. Whilst 
we lye waiting here (as those sick men did at the pool of ''Be- 
thesda, till the angel stirred the water) expecting a good hour, 
they step between, and beguile us of our preferment. I have 
notyetsaid. If, after lotig expectation, much expence, travel, 
earnest suit of our selves and friends, we obtain a small bene- 
fice at last, our misery begins afresh; we are suddenly en- 
countered with the flesh, world, and devil, with a new onset: 
we change a quiet life for an ocean of troubles; we come to a 
ruinous house, which, before it be habitable, must be neces- 
sarily (to our great damage) repaired : we are compelled to 
sue for dilapidations, or else sued our selves; and, scarce yet 
setled, M-e are called upon for our predecessors arrerages: 
first fruits, tenths, subsidies, are instantly to be paid, benevo- 
lence, procurations, &c. and (which is most to be feared) we 
light upon a crackt title, as it befell Clenard of Brabant, for 
his rectory and charge of his Beginse ; he was no sooner in- 
ducted, but instantly sued, ccepimusque C^saith he) strenue ti- 
tigare, et implacabili bello confligere : at length,[after ten years 
suit, (as long as Troyes siege) when he had tired himself, and 
spent his money, he was fain to leave all for quietness sake, 
and give it up to his adversary. Or else we are insulted over, 
and trampled on by domineering oflricers, fleeced by those 
greedy harpyes to get more fees, we stand in fear of some 
precedent lapse : we fall amongst refractory, seditious secta- 
ries, peevish puritans, perverse papists, a lascivious rout of 
atheistical Epicures, that will not be reformed, or some 

'^ Praescribunt, imperant, in ordinem cogiint; ingenium nostrum, prout ipsis videbi- 
tur, astringunt et relaxant, ut papilionem pueri aut bruchnm filo demittunt, aut attra- 
hunt, nos a libidine sua pendere aequutn censentes. Heinsius. b John 5. 

tEpist. 1. 2. Jain siiffectus in locum deiuortui...protiun8 exortus est ad\-ersariu», &.c. 
po^ multus labores, siiuitusj &c. 



Mem. 3. Subs. 15.] Sttfdif, a Cause, 209 

litigious people, (those wild beasts of Epbesus must be 
fought with) that will not pay their dues without much 
repining, or compelled by long suit ; laid clericis op- 
pido if/f'esti^ an old axiom; all they think well gotten that is 
had from the ehurch; and, by such uncivil harsh dealings, 
they make their poor minister weary of his place, if not his 
life: and put case ihey be quiet honest men, make the best 
of it, as often it falls out, from a polite and terse academick, he 
must turn rustick, rude, melancholise alojie, learn to forget, 
or else, as many do, become maltsters, grasiers, chapmen, &c. 
(now banished from the academy, all commerce of the Muses, 
and confined to a countrey village, as Ovid was from Rome to 
Pontus) and daily converse with a company of idiots and 
clowns. 

JVos interim quod attinet (nee enivi immunes ah hac noxd 
siimus) idem reatus manet ; idem nobis, et si non multo gra- 
vins, crimen objici potest : nostra enim culpa fit, nostra incu- 
rid, nostra avaritid, quod tarn Jreqne7ites^ J'oedcequejiant jn ec- 
clesid nunditiationes, (templum est venale, Deusque) tot sor- 
des invehantur, tanta grassetur impietas^ tanta nequitia, tarn 
insanus miseriarum Euripus, et turbarum cestuarium, nostro, 
inquam, omnium (academicorum imprimis) vitio Jit. Quod tot 
resp. malis afficiatur, a nobis seminarium ; ultra malum hoc 
accersimus, et qudvis cotitumelid, qudvis interim miserid digni, 
qui pro virili non occiirrimus. Quid enim Jieri posse spera- 
mns, qnum tot indies sine delectu pauper es alumni^ terrce Jilii, 
et cujnscvnque ordinis Iiomunciones, ad gradus certatim ad- 
mittaninr ? qui si definitionem, distinctionemque unam aut 
alteram memoriter edidicerint, et pro more tot annos in dialec- 
ticd posrierint, non refert quo profectu, quales demum sint, 
idiota, nugatores^ otiatores, aleatores, compotores, indigni, 
libidinis voluptatumque administri, 

Sponsi Penelopes, nebulones, Alcinoique, 

inodo tot annos in academid insumpserint, et se pro togatis 
venditdrint ; lucricaussd.et ami corn m inter cess^iprcssentantur; 
addo etiam^ et magnificis nonnunqnnm elogiis mornm et scieri- 
tice ; et,jam valedieturi, testimonialibus hisce Uteris, amplis^ 
sime conscriptis in eorum gratiam, honor antur, abiis,quijidei 
sii(B et existimationis jacturam procnldnbiofaciiinti. Doctores 
enim et professores (quod ait '^ ille) id unum curant, ut ex 
professionibus frecpientibus, et tumultuariis potius quam 
legitimis, commodasua promoveant, et ex dispendio publico 



» Jan. Acad. cap. G. 



210 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. Sec. 2. 

suura faciant incrementum. Id solum in votis habent annui 
plerumque magistratus, ut ah incipientium numero ^ pecunias 
emungant ; nee multuni interest, qui sint, literatores an lite- 
rati, modo pingues, nitidi, ad aspectum speciosi, et (quod 
verbo dicam)pecuniosisint. ^ Philosophastri licentiantur in 
artibus, artem qui non habent ; " eosque sapientes esse jubent, 
qui nulla prcfiditi sunt sapientia, et nihil ad gradura, praeter- 
quam velle, adferunt. Theologastri, {solvant modo) satis 
superque docti, per omnes honorum gradus evehuntur et ascen- 
dunt. Atque hincjit quod tarn viles scurrce, tot passim idiotcB^ 
literarum crepusculo positi, larvce pastorum, circumj'oranei, 
vagi, bardiyj'ungi, crassi, asini, merum pecus, in sacrosanctos 
theologicE aditus illotis pedibus irrumpant, prceter inverecun- 
dam J'rontem adferentes nihil, vulgares quasdam quisquilias^ 
et scholarium quondam nugamenta, indigna quae vel reci- 
piantur in triviis. Hoc illud indignum genus hominum et 
famelicum, indignum, vagum, ventris mancipium, ad stivam 
potius relegandum, ad haras aptius quam ad aras, quod divi- 
nas hasce literas iurpiter prostituit — hi sunt qui pulpit a com- 
plent, in cedes nobilium irrepunt, et quum reliquis vitcc desti- 
tuantvr subsidiis, ob corporis et animi egestatem, aliarum in 
repub. partium minhne capaces sint, adsacram hanc anchor am 
confuqiunt, sacerdotium quovis modo captantes, non ex since- 
ritafe, (quod '^ Paulus ait) se cauponantes verbum Dei. JVe 
quis interim viris bonis detr actum quidputet, quos liabet ecclc" 
sia Anqlicana quamplurimos, egregie doctos, illustres,intact(B 
famm homines, et plures J'orsan quam qucevis Europce pro- 
vincia; ne quis a Jlorentissimis academiis, qucB viros unde- 
quaqne doctissimos, omni virtutum genere suspiciendos, ahunde 
prodncunt ; et multo plures utraque habitura, multo splendid 
dior futura, si non hce sordes splendidum lumen ejus obj'us- 
carent, obstaret corruptio, et cauponantes quccdam Harpyice, 
proletariique, bonum hoc nobis non inviderent. Nemo enim 
tarn cwcd mente, qui non hoc ipsum videat ; nemo tam stolido 
ingenio, qui non intelligat ; tam pertinaci judicio, qui non 
aqnoscat, ab his idiotis circumforaneis sacram pollui theolo- 
qiam, ac coelestes Musas, quasi proj'anum quiddam, prostitui. 
Viles animae et effrontes (sic enim Lutherns ^ alicubi vocat) 
lucelli causs^, ut muscse ad mulctra, ad nobilium et herouni 
mensas advolant : in spem sacerdotii, cujuslibet honoris, officii^ 
in quamvis aulam^ urbem seingerunt, adquodms se ministerium 
componunt : 

3 Accipiamus pecuniam, demlttamus asinutn, ut apud Patavinos Italos. bHos 

non ita pridem perstrinxi, in Philosophastro, Comoedia Latina, in MAq Christi Oxon. 
pnblice habita, anno 1617. Feb. 16. ^ Sat. Menip. d 1 Cor. 7. 17. 

e Comment, in Gal. 



Mem. 3. Su!>s. 15.] Wlifj the Muics are Mdanchob). '2\\ 

— Ut nervis alienis mobile lignum 

Ducitur, 
* offiim sequentes, psittacorum more, in praeda? spem quidvis 
effutiunt; ohsecundantes paraski (''Erasmus ait) quidvis do- 
cent, dicunt, scribunt, suadent, et contra conscientiarn pro- 
bant, non utsalutarem reddant gTegem,sed ut maonificam sibi 
parent fortunain. '^Opinionesquasvis etdecreta contra verbum 
Dei astrnunt, ne oftendant patronum, sed ut retineant fa- 
voreni proceruni et populi plausuni, sibique ipsis opes accu- 
mulent. Eo etenhn plerumque animo ad theologiam accedvnt, 
non ut rem divinam, sed ut snani, faciant ; non ad ecclesiw 
bonmn promovendnm, sed expilandum; qucerentes (cpiod Pan- 
lus ait) non quae Jesn Christi, red quse siia, non Domini the- 
saurum, sed ut sibi suisqiie thesauri zetif. J\''ec tantum Us, 
qui viliorisjortuncc, et abjectce sortis sunt, hoc in usu est ; 
sed et medics, summos^ elatos, ne dicam episcopos, hoc malum 
invasit. 

*! Dicite, pontifices, in sacris quid facit aurura ? 

*'summos sape viros transversos agit avaritia ; et qui reliqiiis 
morum probitate prcelncerent, hi facem prceferunt ad simo- 
niam, et in corruptionis hunc scopulum impincfentes, non 
tondetit pecus, sed deglubunt, et, quocunqne se couferunt, ex- 
pilant, exhauriunty abradunt, macfnum famos suce, si non 
animce, naufragium facientes ; ut non ab injimis ad summos, 
sed a summis ad infimos, malum promandsse videattir, et illud 
verum sit, quod ille olim lusit, 

Emerat ille prius, vendere jure potest : 

Simoniacus enim (quod cum Leone dicam) gratiam non acci- 
pit; si non accipit, I'on habet; et si non habet, nee grains po- 
test esse, nee gratis dare : tantum enim absunt istorum non- 
nulli, qui ad clavum sedent, a promovendo reliquos, ut penitus 
impediant, probe sibi conscii, quibus artibus illic pervenerint : 
*^nam qui ob literas emersisse illos credat, desipit; qui vero in- 
genii,eri!ditionis, experientise, probitatis, pietatis, et Musarum 
id esse pretiuni putat {quod olim re verdj'uit, hodie promitti- 
tur) planissime insanit. Utcunque vel undecufique malum hoc 
oriqinem ducat (non ultra quaram) ex his primordiis cospit 
vitiorum colluvies ; omnis culamitas, omne miseriarum agmen, 
in ecchsiam invehitur. Hinc tamjrequens simonia ; hinc ortce 
querela, J'raudes, [imposturce ; ah hocj'onte se derivdrunt om- 
jies nequitia, — ne quid obiter dicam de ambitione, adulatione 
plusqnam aulicd, ne tristi domicoenio laborent, de luxu, de 
J'oedo nonnunquam vitw exemplo, quo nonnullos ojj'enduntj de 

a Heinsius. !> Ecclesiast. c Luth. in Gal. "i Pers. Sat. 2. cSallnst. 

Sat. Menip. 



212 Causes of Mdancholy. [Part. I. See. 2. 

compotatione Syharitica, SfC. Hinc tile squalor academicns^ 
tristes hac tempestate Camoense, qnum quivis homiinculus, ar- 
tium ignarus, his artihns assurgat, hiinc in modum promovea- 
tur et ditescat, ambitiosis appellationibus insignis, et mnltis 
dignitatihus augustus, vulgi oculos perstringat , bene se liaheat, 
et grandia gradiens, majestatem quamdam ac amplitnditiem 
pros se J evens, miramqne solicitudinem, harba reverendus, toga 
nitiduSy purpura coruscus, supellectilis splendore etfamulomm 
numero maxime conspicuus. Quales statua? (quod ait ^ille) 
quae sacrisin aedibus coluranis imponuntur, velut oneri ceden- 
tes videntur, ac si insudarent, quuin re vera sensu sintcaren- 
tes, et nihil saxeara adjuvent firinitatem ; Jltlantes inderi uo- 
lunt, quum sint statuoe lapidece, umbratiles re vera homuncio- 
nes, fungi for san et bardi, nihil a saxo differentes ; quum in- 
terim docti viri, et vitce sanctioris ornamentis prwditi, qui ces~ 
turn diei sustineut^ his iniqud sorte serviant, minimo forsan 
salario contenti, puris nominibus nuncupati, humiles, obscuri ; 
multoque digniores licet, egentes, inhonorati, vilamprivam pri- 
vatam agant; tenuique sepulti sacerdotio, vel in collegiis suis 
in asternum incarcerati^ inglorie delitescant : — sed nolo diutiiis 
hanc mover e sentinam. Hinc illce lacryma, lugubris Musa- 
rum habitus; ^hinc ipsa religio (quod cum Secellio dicani) in 
ludibrium et contemtum adducitur, ahjectum sacerdotium^ 
(atque hcBC uhi Jiunt, ausim dicere, et putidum '^pntidi dicte- 
riumde clero usurpare) putidum vulgus, inops.rude, sordiduw, 
melancholicum, miserum, despicabile, contenmendum. 



MEMB. IV. SUBSECT. I. 

Non-necessary, remote^ outward, adventitious y or accidental 
causes ; as fir »t from the Nurse. 

\JY those remote, outward, ambient necessary causes, I 
liave sufficiently discoursed in the precedent member. The 
non-necessary follow ; of which (saith "^ Fuchsius) no art can 
be made, by reason of their uncertainty, casualty, and multi- 
tude ; so called not-necessary, because (according to * Ferne- 
lius) they may be avoided, and used without necessity. 
Many of these accidental causes, which I shall entreat of here, 
might have well beea reduced to the former, because they 
cannot be avoided, but fatally happen to us, though accident-' 
ally, and unawares, at some time or other : the rest are con- 

aBudaeiis, de Asse, lib. 5. bjjib. de rep. Gallormn. cCarapian. ^ Prooem. 
lib. 2. Nulla ars constitui potest. «Lib. 1. c. 19. de morbonim caussis. Quas 

declinare iinet, ant niill^ necessitate ntimnr. 



Mem. 4. Siilxs. I.] Nurse, a Cause. ^13 

titigent and evitable, and more properly inserted in this rank 
of causes. To reckon up all, is a thino- unpossible; of some 
therefore most remarkable of these contingent causes which 
produce melancholy, I will briefly speak, and in their order. 
From a childs nativity, the first ill accident that can likely 
befall him in this kind, is a bad nurse, by whose means alone 
he may be tainted with this ''malady from his cradle. Anius 
Gellius (/. 12. c. I) bring-sin Phavorinus, that eloquent philo- 
sopher, proving" this at large, ^that there is the same verttte 
and property in the milk as in the seed, and not in men alone, 
hut in all other creatures. He gives instance in a kid and lamb : 
ij' either of them suck of the others milk, the lamb of the 
goates, or the kid of the ewes, the wooll of the one tvill be 
hard, and the hair of the other soft. Giraldus Cambrensis 
(Itinerar. Cambrias, I. 1. c.*2.) confirms this by a notable 
example, which happened in his time. A sow-pig- by chance 
sucked a brach, and, when she was grown, '^ would miracu- 
lously hunt all manner of deer, and that as well, or rather 
better, than any ordinary hound. His conclusion is, ^ that 
men and beasts participate of her nature and conditions, by 
whose milk they are fed. Phavorinus urgeth it farther, and 
demonstrates it more evidently, that if a nurse be ^ mis-shapen, 
unchaste, unhonest, impudent, drunk, "^^ cruel, or the like, the 
child that sucks upon her breast will be so too : all other affec- 
tions of the mind, and diseases, are almost ingrafted, as it were, 
and imprinted in the temperature of the infant, by the nurses 
milk, as pox, leprosie, melancholy, &c. Cato, for some 
such reason, would make his servants children suck upon his 
wives breast, because, by that means, they would love him 
and his better, and in all likelihood agree with them. A 
more evident example that the minds are altered by milk, can- 
not be given, that that of ^Dion, which he relates of Caligu- 
las cruelty; it could neither be imputed to father nor mother, 
but to his cruel nurse alone, that anointed her paps with blood 
still when he sucked, which made him such a nmrderer, and 
to express her cruelty to an hair ; and that of Tiberius, who 
was a common drunkard, because his nurse was such a one. 



aQiio semel est imbuta recens, servahit odorein Testa diu. Hor. b Sicut 

valet ad fingendas corporis atque anirai simititudines vis et natura seminis, sic quo- 
que lactis proprietas. Neque id in horninibus solum, sed in peciulibus, aniniad- 
Versaiii: nam si oviiim lacte hcedi, aut capraruni agni alerentur, consiat Heri iu his 
lanam duiiorem, in iliis capillum etigni teneriorem. c Adiilta in feraruni per- 

sequntione ad miraculum usque sagax. ''Tarn animal quodlibet, quani homo, ab 

ilia, cujus lacte nutritur, naturara contrahit. elmproba, inlbrmis, impudica, 

temulenta nutrix, &,c. quoniam in moribus effonnandis maguam sa?pe partem inge- 
nium altricis et natura lactis tenet. f Hjrcanaeque admorunt ub«ra tigres. Virg. 

g Lib. "2. de Cajsaribus. 



SU Cau.<ex of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2: 

Et si delira J'uerit, (^one observes) injantulum delirium fa- 
ciei; ifshe be a fool oradolt, the child she nurseth will take after 
her, or otherwise be misaffected ; which Franciscus Barbaras 
('I. 2. lilt, de re uxorid) proves at full, and Ant. Guivarra 
(lib. 2 de Marco Aurelio) : the child will surely participate. 
For bodily sickness, there is no doubt to be made. Titus, Ves- 
pasians son, was therefore sickly, because the nurse was so 
(Lampridius) : and, if we may believe physicians, many times 
children catch the pox from a bad nurse, (Botaldus, cap. 61. de 
lue Vener.) Besides evil attendance, negligence, and many 
ajToss inconveniences, which are incident to nurses, much 
danger may so come to the child. ''For these causes Aristotle 
(Polit. lib. 7. c. 17), Phavorinus, and Marcus Aurelius, would 
not have a child put to nurse at all, but every mother to 
bring' up her own, of what condition soever she be; for a 
sound and able mother to put out her child to nurse, is na~ 
turw intemperies (so '^ Guatso calls it) : 'tis fit therefore she 
should be nurse her self; them^other will be more careful, lov- 
ing and attendant, than any servile woman, or such hired 
creatures ; this all the world acknowledgeth : convementissi- 
mum est (as Rod. a Castro, de nat. midierum, lib. 4. c. 12, iu 
many words confesseth) matrem ipsam lactare infantem, (m ho 
denies that it should be so?) and which some women most cu- 
riously observe ; amongst the rest, ''that queen of France, a 
Spaniard by birth, that was so precise and zealous iu this be- 
half, that when, in her absence, astrange nurse had suckled her 
child, she was never quiet till she had made the infant vomit 
it up again. But she was too jealous. If it be so, as many 
times it is, they must be put forth, the mother be not fit or 
Well able to be a nurse, I would then advise such mothers, (as 
^Plutarch doth iu his book de liberis educandis, and "^^S. Hie- 
rome, lib. 2. epist. 27. Lcrta^ deinstitut.Jil. M?igx\m\x%,part. 2. 
Req. sanit- cap. 7, and the said Rodericus) that they make 
choice of a sound woman, of a good complexion, honest, free 
from bodily diseases, if it be possible, and all passions and per- 
turbations of the mind, as sorrow, fear, grief, § folly, melan- 
choly : for such passions corrupt the milk, and alter the tem- 
perature of the child, which now being ^ udtim et molle lufum, 
is easily seasoned and perverted. And if such a nurse may 
be found out, that will be diligent and careful withali, let Pha- 
vorinus and M. Aurelius plead how they can against it, 1 had 
rather accept of her in some cases than the mother her 



aBeda, c. 27. 1. 1. Eccles. hist. ^Ne insitivo lactis alimento dc^eneret cor- 

pus, et animus corrunipatur. <■ Lib. 3. de civ. conserv. << Stephanas. 

eTo. 2. Nutrices non quasvis, sed maxime probas, deligamus. ^Nutrix non sit 

lasciva aut temnlenta. Hiei. BProhibendum ne stolida lacti-t. ''Per«. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 2.] Ednnation, a Cause. S15. 

8elf ; and (which Booacialus fhe physician, Nic. fiiesius the 
pohtician, lib. 4. deippnb. cap. 8. approves) " name nurses are 
much to be preferred to some mothers. For why may not the 
mother be naught, a peevish drunken fiurt, a waspish chole- 
rickslut,a crazed piece, a fool, (as many mothers are) unsound, 
as soon as the nurse ? There is more choice of nurses than 
mothers ; and therefore, except the mother be most vertuous, 
staid, a woman of excellent good parts, and of a sound com- 
plexion, I would have all children, in such cases, committed 
to discreet strangers. And 'tis the only way (as by marriage 
they are engrafted to other families) to alter the breed, or,"if 
any thing be amiss in the mother, (as Ludovicus Mercatus 
contends, Tom.2. lib. de morb. hcrred.) to prevent diseases and 
future maladies, to correct and qualifie the childs ill-disposed 
temperature, which he had from his parents. This is an ex- 
cellent remedy, if good chcice be made of such a nurse. 

SUBSECT. 11. 

Education, a Cause of Melancholy ^ 

JliDUCATlON, of these accidental causes of melancholy, 
may justly challenge the next place; for if a man escape a 
bad nurse, he may be undone by evil bringing up. '^ Jason 
Pratensis puts this of education for a principal cause : bad 
parents, step-mothers, tutors, masters, teachers, too ri'>-orous, 
too severe, too remiss or indulgent on the other side, are often 
fountains and furtherers of this disease. Parents, and such as 
have the tuition and oversight of children, offend many times 
in that they are too stern, alway threatning, chiding, brawlino-, 
M'hipping, or striking: by means of which, their poor childre^i' 
are so disheartned and cowed, that they never after have 
any courage, a merry hour in their lives, or take pleasure in 
any thing. There is a great moderation to be had in such 
things, as matters of so great moment to the making or marrino- 
of a child. Some fright their children with beggers, bugbear?, 
and hobgoblins, if they cry, or be otherways unruly: but,' 
they are much to blame in it, many times, saith Lavater {de 
spectris, part. 1. cap. 5) : ex metn in morbos (graves bwidunt, 
et noctu dormientes clamant ; for fear they fall into many dis- 
eases, and cry out in their sleep, and are much the worse for 
it all their lives ; these things ought not at all, or to be sparingly 

»Nutrices interdnm matribus sunt meliores. b Lib. de morbis capitis, cap. de 

mania. Haod postrema caussa siipputatur edacatio, mter has mentis abalienationis 
eaussas. — Injusta noverca. 

VOL. I. 2 



3\g Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. S. 

done, and upon just occasion. Tyrannical, impatient, hair- 
brain'd school-masters, aridi magistri, so ^ Fabius terms them, 
Ajaces flagelUferi, are, in this kind, as bad as hangmen and 
executioners: they make many children endure a martyrdom 
all the while they are at school: with bad diet, ifthey board in 
their houses, too much severity and ill usage, they quite per- 
vert their temperature of body and mind — still chiding, ray- 
lino-, frowning, lashing, tasking, keeping, that they arej'racti 
animis, moped many times, weary of their lives, ^ nimid seve- 
ritate dejiciunt et desperant, and think no slavery in the 
world (as once I did myself) like to that of a grammar scho- 
lar. Prceceptorum ineptiis discrnciantur ingenia pueroruniy 
saith Erasmus : they tremble at his voice, looks, coming in. 
S'. Austin, in the first book of his confess, and 4. ca. calls this 
schooling meticulosam necessitatem, and elsewhere a martyr- 
dom, and confesseth of himself, how cruelly he was tortured 
in mind for learning Greek ; nulla verba noveram ; ct savis 
terroribus et pcenis, ut nossem, instabatur mihi vehementer : I 
knew nothing ; and with cruel terrours and punishment I was 
daily compel'd. '^Beza complains in like case of a rigoruus 
schoolmaster in Paris, that made him, by his continual thun- 
der and threats, once in a mind to drown himself, had he not 
met by the way an uncle of his that vindicated him from that 
misery for the time, by taking him to his house. Trincavel- 
lius {lib. 1. consil. 16) had a patient nineteen years of age, 
extreamly melancholy, ob nimium studium Tarvitii et prce- 
ceptoris minas, by reason of overmuch study, and his ''tutors 
threats. Many masters are hard hearted, and bitter to their 
servants, and by that means do so deject, with terrible 
speeches and hard usage so crucifie them, that they become 
desperate, and can never be recalled. 

Others again, in that opposite extream, do as great harm by 
their too much remissness; they give them no bringing up, no 
calling to busie themselves about, or to live in, teach them no 
trade, or set them in any good course ; by means of which, 
their servants, children, scholars, are carried away with that 
stream of drunkenness, idleness, gaming, and many such irre- 
gular courses, that in the end they rue it, curse their parents, 
and mischief themselves. Too much indulgence causeth the 
like, ^ inepta patris lenitas etjhcilitas prava, when as, Micio- 
like, with too much liberty and too great allowance, they feed 
their childrens humours, let them revel, wench, riot, swagger, 



»L»b.2. cap. 4. *> Idem. Et, quod maxiuie nocet, dnm in teneris itatitnent, 

nihil conantur. <^ Praefat. ad Testam. '' Plus mentis prsedagogico 

aupercilio abstnlit, qnain unquam preeceptis snis sapieatise iustillaTlt. <:Ter. 

Adal. 3. 4. 



Mem. 4. Sub*. 2.| Eduratiou^a Came. 217 

ami do what they will themselves, and then punish them 
with a noLse of musicians. 

"Obsonet, potet, oleat unguenta de meo. 
Aniat ? dabitur a me argentum, diim erit commodum. 
Fores efFregit? restituentur; discidit 

Vestem ? resarcietur .Facial quod lubet, 

Sumat, consumai;, perdat: de( return est pati. 

But, as Demea told him, Ui ilium corrnmpi sinis, your lenitv 
will be his undoina^ ; pravidere v'ldeor jam diem ilhim, qunm 
hie efiens pro I'll (f let aliquo militatum ; I foresee his ruine. So 
parents often err : many fond mothers, especially, dote so much 
upon their children, like ''^sops ape, till in the end they 
crush them to death. Corpornm nutrices, animarvm noverccc, 
pampering- up their bodies to the undoing- of their souls, they 
will not let them be "^ corrected or controled, but still soothed 
up in every thing- they do, tliat, in conclusion, thei/ bring sor- 
row, shame, heaviness, to their parents, {Ecclus. cap. 30. 8. 9) 
become wanton, stubborn, toil f'ul, and disobedient ; I'ude, un- 
taught^ head-strong, incorrigible, and graceless. They love 
them so Jbolishh/, (saith '' Cardan) that theg rather seem to 
hate them, bringing them not up to vertue, but injury, not to 
learning, but to riot, not to sober lij'e and conversation, but to 
all pleasure and licentious behaviour. Who is he of so little 
experience, that knows not this of Fabius to be true ? *^ Educa- 
tion is another nature, altering the mind andicill,a7id I ivould 
to God (saith he) we our selves did not spoile our childrens 
manners, by our overmuch cockering and nice education, and 
weaken the strength oj' their bodies and minds. That causeth 
custom, custom nature, &c. For these causes, Plutarch (in his 
book rfe lib. educ.) and Hierom, (epist. lib. I. epist. 17. to 
Lazta de institut. jftlice) gives a most especial charge to all pa- 
rents, and many good cautions about bringing- up of children, 
that they be not committed to undiscreet,passionate, Bedlam 
tutors, light, giddy-headed, or covetous persons, and spare 
for no cost, that they may be well nurtured and taught; it 
being a matter of so great consequence. For, such parents as 
do otherwise, Plutarch esteems like them V^a^ are more careful 

■Ter. Adel. act 1. sc. 2. ^Camerarius, em. 77. cent 2, hath elegantly ex- 

pressed it in an emblerae: perdif .^mando, &c. <: I'rov. 13. 24. He that spareth 

the rod hates his son. <) Lib. 2. de cousol. Tam stulte pueros diligimus, nt 

odisse potius videaniur •. illos noii ad \irtutem sed ad injtiriain, nou ad eruditionem 
sed ad luxiim, non ad vitam sed voluptatemeducantes. ^Lib. 1. c. 3. 

Educatio altera natura ; alterat aninios et voluntateiu : atqueatiDam(iDqiiit) liberoruni 
nostrorum mores non ipsi perderemus, qiium infantiani statim deliciis sohinius ; moi- 
lior ista edacatio, quam indulgentiani vocamus, nerves imines, et mentis et corporis, 
frangit: fit ex his consuetudo, inde natura. fPerinde agit ac siqnia de calceo 

•it solicitns, pedem nihil cnret. Javen. Nil patri minnn est qnam iilins. 

z2 



:§]8 Cmises of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

of their shooes than of their feet, that rate their Avealth above 
their children. And he, (saith ^Cardan) that leaves his son 
to a covetous schoolmaster to be informed, or to a close ahhy to 
fast and learn tcisdom together, doth no other, than that he be 
a learned fool, or a sickly wise man. 



SUBSECT. III. 

Terrours and Affrights, Causes of Melancholy. 

jL ULLY (in the fourth of his Tusculans) disting-uisheth these 
terrours which arise from the apprehension of some terrible 
object heard or seen, from other fears ; and so doth Patritius 
{lib. 5. tit. 4. de regis institut.) Of all fears, they are most 
pernicious and violent, and so suddainly alter the whole tem- 
perature of the body, move the soul and spirits, strike such 
a deep impression, that the parties can never be recovered, 
causing more grievous and fiercer melancholy (as FelixPlater, 
c. 3. de mentis alienat. ^speaks out of his experience) than any 
inward cause whatsoever; andimprints it self so forcibly inthe 
spirits, brain, humours, that, if all the mass of blood were let 
out of the body, it could hardly be extracted. This horrible 
kind of melancholy (for so he terms it) had been often brought 
before him, and troubles and affrights commonly men and ico- 
men, young and old, of all sorts. "^ Hercules de Saxonia calls 
this kind of melancholy (ab agitatione spirituum) by a pe- 
cvdiar name ; it comes from the agitation, motion, contraction, 
dilatation of spirits, not from any distemperature of humours, 
and produceth strong effects. This terrour is most usually 
caused (as '^ Plutarch will have)Jrom some imminent danger, 
when a terrible object is at hand, heard, seen, or conceived, 
"truly appearing, or in a ^ dream : and many times, the more 
sudden the accident, it is the more violent. 

f Stat terror animis, etcor attonitum salit, 
Pavidumque trepidis palpitat venis jecur. 

a Lib. 3. de sapient. Qui avaris paedagog^s pueros alendos dant, vel clauses in 
coenobiis jejunare simul et sapere, nihil aliud agunt, nisi ut sint vel non sine stultitia 
eruditi, vel non Integra vita sapientes. t" Terror et metus, maxime ex 

improviso accidentes, ita animum corarnovent, nt spiritus nunqnam recuperent : gra- 
vioremque meiancholiani terror facit, quam quae ab interna caussa fit. Impressiotam 
fortis in spiritibus humoribusque cerebri, ut, extracta tota sauguinea massa, aegre 
expriaiatnr ; et haec horrenda species melancholia; frequenter oblata mihi, omnes 
exercens, viros, juvenes, senes. c Tract, de melan. cap. 7. et, 8. Non ab intem- 

perie, sed agitatione, dilatatione, confractione, molu spirituum. ^ Lib. de fort, 

et virtnt. Alex. Prassertiiu ineunte periculo, ubi res prope adsunt terribile.s. ^Fit 

a visione horrenda, revera apparente, vel per insomnia. Platenis. ^ A painters 

wife in Basil, 1600, somniavit fiiium bello mortuum; inde melancholica consolari 
jiolait. % Senec. Here. CEt. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 3.] Terrours and Affrights, Causes. 2|9 

Their soul's affright, their heart amazed quakes, 
The trembling liver pants ith' veins, and akes. 

Artemidorus the g^raminarian lost his wits by the unexpected 
sig-ht of a crocodile {Laiirentius, 7- de mefan.) ^The massacre 
at Lions, in. 1572, in the reign of Charles the ninth, was so 
terrible and fearful, that many ran mad, some died, great- 
bellied women were brought to bed before their time, gene- 
rally all affrighted and ag-ast. Many lose their wits '' % the 
sudden sight of some spectrum or devil, a thing very common 
in all ages, (saith Lavater, part. 1. cap. 9.) as Orestes did at 
the sight of the Furies, which appeared to him in black (as 
"^ Pausanias records). The Greeks call them /xo^//,oXt;xfi«, which 
so terrifie their souls. Or if they be but affrighted by some 
counterfeit devils in jest, 

( '^ ut pueri trepidant, atque omnia csecis 

In tenebris metuunt- 

as children in the dark conceive hobgoblins,and are soreafraid, 
they are the worse for it all their lives : some, by sudden fires 
earthquakes, inundations, or any such dismal objects. Themi- 
son the physician fell into an hydrophobia by seeing one sick 
of that disease (Dioscorides, /. 6. c. 33) : or by the sight of a 
monster, a carcase, they are disquieted many months follow- 
ing, and catmot endure the room where a coarse hath been, 
for a world would not be alone with a dead man, or lye in that 
bed many years after, in which a man hath died. At <" Basil, a 
many little children, in the spring time, went to gather flowers 
in a meadow at the towns end, where a malefactor hung iu 
gibbets : all gazing at it, one by chance flung a stone, and 
made it stir; by which accident the children affrighted ran 
away : one, slower than the rest, looking back, and seeing the 
stirred carcase wag towards her, cried out it came after, and 
was so terribly affrighted, that for many dayesshe could not 
rest, eat, or sleep; she could notbe pacified, but melancholy died- 
''In the same town, another child, beyond the Rhine, saw a 
grave opened,and,uponthesightof a carcase, was so troubled 
in mind, that she could not be comforted, but a little after 
departed, and was buried by it (Platerus, ohservat. /.I). A 
gentlewoman of the same city saw a fat hog cut up, when the 

aQuarta pars comment, de statu relifrfonig in Gallia sub Carolo \x. 1572. ^ Ex 

occursu daRmonnm aliqui furore corripiuntur, ut experientia notiim est. •" Lib. 8. 

in Arcad. ^ Lucret. « Puellse extra urbem in prato concurrentes, &c. 

mcEsta et melancholica domuni rediit; per dies aliquot vexata, dummortuaes*. Plater, 
f Altera trans-Rhenana, ingressa sepulchnim recens apertum, vidit cadaver, et do- 
mum subito re versa putavit earn vocare : post paucos dies obiit, proximo sepulcrocol- 
locata. Altera, nahbulum sero prBP.teriftns, metuebat ne nrbe exclusa illic pernocta- 
ret ; unde melancholica facta,, per multos annos laboravit. Platerus. 



S20 Cames of Melancholy. [Part. I. Sec. 2* 

intrals were opened, and a noysorae savour offended her nose, 
she much misliked, and would not longer abide ; a physician, 
in presence, told her, as that hog-, so was she, full of filthy ex- 
crements, and aggravated the matter by some other loathsome 
instances, in so much, this nice gentlewoman apprehended 
it so deeply, that she fell forthwith a vomiting, was so mightily 
distempered in mind and body, that, with all his art and per- 
swasions, for some months after, he could not restore her to 
her self again ; she could not forget it, or remove the object 
out of her sight {Idem). Many cannot endure to see a wound 
opened, but they are offended ; a man executed, or labour 
of any fearful disease, as possession, apoplexies, one be- 
M'itched : "or, if they read by chance of some terrible thing, 
the symptomes alone of such a disease, or that which they dis- 
like, they are instantly troubled in mind, agast, ready to apply 
it to themselves ; they are as much disquieted, as if they had 
seen it, or were so affected themselves, Hecatas sibi videntur 
somniare ; they dream and continually think of it. As la- 
mentable effects are caused by such terrible objects heard, 
read, or seen : auditus maximos motus in corpore J'acit, as 
^ Plutarch holds ; no sense makes greater alteration of body 
and mind; sudden speech sometimes, unexpected news, be they 
good or bad, prcevisa minus oratio, will move as much, (ani- 
mum ohruere, et de sede sua depcere, as a "^ philosopher ob- 
serves) will take away our sleep and appetite, disturb and 
quite overturn us. Let them bear witness, that have heard 
those tragical alarums, out-cryes, hideous noises, which are 
many times suddenly heard in the dead of the night by irrup- 
tion of enemies and accidental fires, &c. those ''panick fears, 
which often drive men out of their wits, bereave them of sense, 
understanding, and all, some for a time, some for their whole 
lives; they never recover it. The '' Msdianites were so af- 
frighted by Gideons souldiers, they breaking but every one a 
pitcher; and ^Hannibals army, by such a panick fear, was dis- 
comfited at the walls of Rome. Augusta Livia, hearing a few 
tragical verses recited out of Virgil, ( Tu Marcellus eris, ^c.) 
fell down dead in a swoon. Edinus, king of Denmark, by a 
sudden sound which he heard, ^was turned into fury, tvith all 
his men {Cranzius, I. 5. Dan. hist, et Alexander ah Alexan- 
dra, I. 3. c. 5.) Amatus Lusitanus had a patient, that, by rea- 
son of bad tidings, became epilepticus (cen. 2. cura 90). Car- 
dan (subtil. I. is) saw one that lost his wits by mistaking of 

* Subitus occursus, inopinata lectio. '^Lib. de auditioue. c Theod. Pro- 

dromus, lib. 7. Amorum. '' Eft'uso cernens fugieutes agnnne turmas, Qiiis mea 

nunc inflatcornuH ? FauDiis ait. Alciat, einbl. 122. ^Jiid. 6. J9. fPlutar- 

•huSj vitS ejus. s In fui orem f urn sociis versus. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 3.] Terrours and Affrights^ Causes. 221 

an echo. If one sense alone can cause such violent commo- 
tions of the mind, what may we think, when hearing, sight, and 
those other senses, are all troubled at once, as by some earth- 
quakes, thunder, lightning, lempests, &c. ? At Bologne in 
Italy, anno 1504, there was such a fearful earthquake about 
eleven a clock in the night, (as ^ Beroaldus in his book de terrce 
motn, hath commended to posterity) that all the city trembled, 
the people thought the world was at an end, actum de morta- 
libus ; such a fearful noise it made, such a detestable smell, the 
inhabitants were infinitely affrighted, and some ran mad. Audi 
rem atrocem, et annalibus memorandam (mine author adds) : 
hear a strange story and worthy to be chronicled : I had a 
servant at the same time, called Fulco Argelanus, a bold and 
proper man, so grievously terrified with it, ''that he was first 
melancholy, after doted, at last mad, and made away himself. 
At "^ Fuscinum in Japona, there was such an earthquake and 
darkness on a sudden, that many men were offended toith head- 
ach, many overwhelmed ivith sorrow and melancholy. At Mea- 
cum, lohole streets and goodly palaces were overturned at the 
same time ; and there ivas such an hideous noise withal, like 
thunder, and filthy smell, that their hair stared for Jear, and 
their hearts quaked ; men and beasts weie incredibly terrified. 
In Sacai, another city, the same earthquake was so terrible 
unto them, that many were bereft of their senses; and others, by 
that horrible spectacle, so much amazed, that they knew not 
what they did. Blasius, a Christian, the reporter of the news, 
was so aftrighted for his part, that, though it were two moneths 
after, he was scarce his own man, neither could he drive the 
remembrance of it out of bis mind. Many times, some years 
following they will tremble afresh atthe "^remembrance or con- 
ceit of such a terrible object; even all their lives long, if men- 
tion be made of it. Cornelius Agrippa relates (outof Gulielmus 
Parisiensis) a story of one, that, after a distasteful purge which a 
physician had prescribed unto him, Mas so much moved, ^ that 
at the veiy sight of physick, he would be distempered : though 
he never so much assmelled to it, the box of physicklong after 
would give him a purge ; nay the very remembrance of it did 



3 Snbitaneas terrse motus. ^Cocpit inde desipere cum dispendio sanitatis, inde 

adeo dementans, ut »ibi ipsi mortem inferret, c Historica relatio de rebus Japonicis, 
tract. 2, de legal, regis Chinensis, a Lodovico Frois Jesuita, A. 1596. Fuscini dere- 
pente tanta aeris caligo et terrse motus, ut multi capita dolerent, plnrimis cor moerore et 
melancholia obrueretur. Tautura fremitum edebat, ut tonitru fragorem imitari videre- 
tur, tantamque, 8cc. In urbe Sacai tarn horriticus fuit, ut homines vix sui compotes 
essent, a sensibus abalienati, moerore oppress! tam horrendo spectaculo, &c. <* Quun 
snbit illius tristissima noctls imago. ( Qui Koloaspectu mediclua: movebaturad 

porgandura. 



222 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

effect it; "like travellers and seamen, (saitli Plutarch) that when 
they have been sanded^ or dashed on a rock, for ever after foar 
not that mischance only, but all such dangers whatsoever. 



SUBSECT. IV. 

Scoffs, Calumnies, bitter Jests, how they cause Melancholy., 

At is an old saying-, ^ a blow with a word strikes deeper 
than a blow icith a sword: and many men are as much gaitled 
with a calumny, '^a scurril and bitter jest, a libel, a pasquil, sa- 
tyre, apologe, epigram, stage-playes, or the like, as with any 
misfortune whatsoever. Princes and potentates, thatare other- 
wise happy, and have all at command, secure and free, quibus 
potentia sceleris impunitatem fecit, are grievously vexed with 
these pasquellinglibells and satyrs: they fear arailing^Aretine, 
more than an enemy in the field : which made most princes of 
his time (as some relate) alloic him a liberal pension, that he 
shouldnot tax them in his satyrs. The gods had their Momus, 
Homer his Zoilus, Achilles his Thersites, Philip his Demades : 
the Csesars themselves in Rome were commonly taunted. 
There was never wanting a Petronius,a Lucian, in those times; 
nor will be a Rabelais, an Euphormio, a Boccalinus, in ours. 
Adrian the sixth,pope,^ was so highly offended and grievously 
vexed with pasquils at Rome, he gav e command that statue 
should be demolished and burned, the ashes flung into the 
river Tiber, and had done it forthwith, had notLudovicusSues- 
sanus, a facete companion, disswaded him'to the contrary, by 
telling him that Pasquils ashes would turn to frogs in the bot- 
tom of the river, and croak worse and lowder than before. 
Genus irritabile vatum ; and therefore ^ Socrates (in Plato) ad- 
viseth all his friends, that respect their credits, to stand in awe 
of poets, for they are terrible felloivs, can praise and dispraise ^ 
as they see cause. 

Hinc, quam sit calamus ssevlor ense, patet 
The prophet David complains, (Psal. 123.4) that his soul 
teas full of the mocking of the icealthy, and of the despiteful- 
ness of the proud ; and (Psal. 55. 4.) for the voice of the wicked^ 

aSicut viatores, si ad saxum impegerint, aut nautae. memores sui casus, nonistaino- 
do quK offendunt, sed et similia, horrent perpetuo et tremunt. bLeviter volant, 

graviter vulnerant. Bernardus. c Eusis sauciat corpus, meutem sermo. <• Sciatis 
eum esse qui a nemine fere aevi sui magnate non illustre stipendiuni habuit, ne mores 
ipsorum satyris suis notaret Gasp. Barthius, prasfat. parnodid. <= Jovius, in vita 

ejus. Gravissime tulit famosis libellisnomen saum ad Pasquilli statnam fuisse lacera- 
tum; decrevitque ideo statuam demoliri, &c. <" Plato, lib. 13. de legibus. Qui 

exlstimationem curant, poetas Tcreantur, quia magnam vim habent ad laudanduiu et 
yituperandum. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 4.] Scoffs, Calumnies, hitter Jests, ^e. 22-5 

S\c. and their hate, his heart trembled within him, arid the 
terrors of' death came upon him : fear and horrible fear, Sfc. 
(and Psal. 69. 20.) Rebuke hath broken my heart ; and I am 
full of heaviness. Who hath not like cause to complain, and 
is not so troubled, that shall fall into the mouths of such men? 
for many are of so ''petulant a spleen, and have that fignre sar- 
casmus so often in their mouths, so bitter, so foolish, (as 
''Balthasar Castilio notes of them) that theif cannot speak, hut 
thetj must bite ; they had rather lose a friend than a jest : and 
what company soever they come in, they will be scoffing-, in- 
sultino- over their inferiours, especially over such as any way 
depend upon them, humoring, misusing, or putting gulleries 
on some or other, till they have made, by their humoring or 
guUino-, "^ ex stnlto insanum, a mope or a noddy, and all to make 
themselves merrv : 



-'1 dummodo risum 



Excutiat sibi, non hie cuiquam parcit amico : 

friends, neuters, enemies, all are as one; to make a fool a mad- 
man, is their sport ; and they have no greater felicity than to 
scoff andderide others; they must sacrifice to the god of laugh- 
ter (with them in * Apuleius) once a day, or else they shall 
be melancholy themselves : they care not how they grinde 
and misuse others, so they may exhilarate their own persons. 
Their w its indeed serve them to that sole purpose, to make 
sport, to break a scurrile jest; which is levissimus ingenii 
fructus, the froth of wit (as 'Tully holds) ; and for this they 
"are often applauded. In all other discourse, dry, barren, stra- 
mineous, dull and heavy, here lyes their genius ; in this they 
alone excell, please themselves and others. Leo Decimus, that 
scoffing pope, (as Jovius hath registered in the fourth book of 
his life) took an extraordinary delight in humouring of silly fel- 
lows, and to put gulleries upon them ; s by commending some, 
perswadhiif others to do this or that, he made ex stolidis stul- 
tissinws et maxime ridiculos, ex stultis insanos — soft fellows, 
stark noddies ; and such as were foolish, quite mad — before he 
left them. One memorable example he recites there, of Ta- 
rascomus of Parma, a musician, that was so humoured by Leo 
Decimus, , and Bibiena his second in this business, that he 
thought h.mself to be a man of most excellent skill, (who was 
indeed a ninny) ; they ^ made him set foolish songs, and in- 

» Petulanti splene cachinno. b Curial. lib. 2. Ea quorumdam est inscitia, ut, 

quoties loqui, toties inorrlere licere sibi putent. ^'Ter. Euuuch. <• Hor. 

Ser. 1. 2. Sat. 4. "^ Lib. 2. f De orat. « Laudando, et mira iia per- 

snadendo. i> Et vana inflatus opinione, incredibilia ac ridenda quaedam musiceti 

prascepta commentaretur, &c. 



S24 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

vent new ridiculous precepts, which they did highly commend^ as 
to tye his arm that played on tlie lute, to make him strike a 
sweeter stroke, ^ and to pull down the Arras hangings, because 
the voice would he clearer, by reason of the reverberation 
of the wall. In the like manner they perswaded one Barabal- 
lius of Caieta, that he was as good a poet as Petrarch ; would 
have him to be made a laureat poet, and invite all his friends to 
his instalment; and had so possessed the poor man with a con- 
ceit of his excellent poetry, that, when some of his more dis- 
creet friends told him of his folly, he was very angry with them, 
and said ^ they envy ed his honour and prosperity. It was strange 
(saith Jovius) to see an old man, of sixty years, a venerable and 
grave old man, so gulled. But what cannot such scoffers do, 
especially if they find a soft creature, on whom they may work? 
Nay, to say truth,who is so wise, or so discreet, that may not be 
humoured in this case, especially if some excellent wits shall 
set upon him 1 He that mads others, if he vvere so humoured, 
would be as mad himself, as much grieved and tormented ; he 
might cry with them in the comedy, Proh Jupiter ! tu homo me 
adigis ad insaniam : for all is in these things as they are taken : 
if he be a silly soul, and do not perceive it, 'tis well ; he may 
happily make others sport, and be no whit troubled himself: 
but if he be apprehensive of his folly, and take it to heart, then 
it torments him worse than any lash. A bitter jest, a slander, a 
calumny, pierceth deeper than any loss, danger, bodily pain, or 
injury whatsoever ; leviter enim volat,(as Bernard, of an arrow) 
sed graviter vulnerat ; especially if it shall proceed from a 
virulent tongue, it cuts (saith David) like a two-edged sword. 
They shoot bitter words as arrows (Psal. 64. 3.); and they smote 
with their tongues (Jer. 18. 18), and that so hard that they 
leave an incurable wound behind them. Many men are un- 
done by this means, moped, and so dejected, that they are never 
to be recovered ; and, of all other men living, those which are 
actually melancholy, or inclined to it, are most sensible, (as 
being suspicious, cholerick, apt to mistake) and impatient of an 
injury in that kind; they aggravate, and so meditate continu- 
ally of it, that it is a perpetual corrosive, not to be removed, 
till time wear it out. Although they, peradventure, that so 
scoff, do it alone in mirth and merriment, and hold it optimum 
aliendfrui insanid, an excellent thing to enjoy another mans 
madness ; yet they must know that it is a mortal sin (as 
*^ Thomas holds), and (as the prophet ^ David denouncetn) 
they that use it shall never dwell in Gods tabernacle. 



' Ut voces, Qudis parietibus illiste, suavius ac acutius rcsilirent. '' Immortalitati 

ct glorije suae prursus invideutes. ^^ 3. 2d3e quKst 75, Irriso mortale peccatum. 

i Psal. 15. 3. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 4.] Scoff s^ Calumnies, bittei- Jest a, S,'c. 225 

Such scurrile jests, flouts, and sarcasms, therefore, ought not 
at all to be used, especially to our betters, to those that are in 
misery, or any way distressed : for, to siu'h,a?rwn7iarum incre- 
mentasytit, they multiply grief; and (as ''he perceived) mm?//^/* 
pudor, in mnlfis iraamdia, ^c. many are asl)amed, many vexed, 
angred; and there is no greater cause or furtherer of melancholy. 
Martin Cromerus,in the sixth book of his history, hath a pretty 
storv to this purpose, of Vladislaus the Second, king of Poland, 
and Peter Dunnius, earl of Shrine; they had been hunting late, 
and were enforced to lodae in a poor cottage. When they went 
to bed, Vladislaus told the earl in jest, that his m ife lay softer 
Avith the abbot of Shrine : he not able to contain, replyed, £"/ 
tun cum Dabesso, and yours with Dabessus, a gallant young 
gentleman in the court whom Christina the queen loved. 
Tetigit id dictum principis animnm; these words of his so galled 
the prince, that he was long after tristis et cogitabundus, very 
sad and melancholy for many moneths: but they were the earls 
utter undoing; for when Christina heard of it, she persecuted 
him to death. Sophia the empress, Justinians wife, broke a 
bitter jest upon Narsesthe eunuch, (a famous captain, then dis- 
quieted for an overthrow which he lately had) that he was fitter 
for a distaff, andteep women company, than to wield a sword, 
or to be general of an army : but it cost her dear; for he so far 
distasted it, that he went forthwith to the adverse part, much 
troubled in his thoughts, caused the Lumbards to rebell, and 
thence procured many miseries to the common-wealth. Tibe- 
rius the emperour withheld a legacy from the people of Rome, 
which his predecessorAugustushad lately given, and perceiving 
a fellow sound a dead coarse in the ear, would needs know 
wherfore he did so : the fellow replyed, that he wished the de- 
parted soul to signify to Augustus, the commons of Rome were 
yet unpaid : for this bitter jest the emperour caused him forth- 
with to be slain, and carry the news himself. For this reason, 
all those that otherwise approve jests in some cases, andfacete 
companions, (as who doth not?) let them laugh and be merry, 
rtimpuntur et ilia Codro ; 'tis laudable and fit; those yet will by 
no means admit them in their companies, that are any wayes in- 
clined to this malady ; non jocandum cum Us qui miseri sunt et 
(vrtimnosi: no jesting with a discontented person. 'Tis Castilios 
caveat, ''Jo. Pontanus, and '^ Galateus, and every good mans : 

Play with me, but hurt me not : 
Jest with me, but shame me not. 

Com^Vrts is a vertue betwixt rw.s'?jc?7?/andsc7<m7?7?/,twoextreams, 
as affuhilitu is betwixt^a^^e/j/ and contention : it must not ex- 

» Balthasar Castillo, lib. '2. de aiilico. *> De sci monc, lib. 4. cap. 3. ' Fol. 55. 

Galatfuij. 



226 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

ceed ; but be still accompanied with that * a^^aQuii or inno- 
cency, quoR nemini nocet, omnem hijurice oblationem abhorrens^ 
hurts no man, abhors all offer of injury. Though a man be 
liable to such a jest or obloquy, have been overseen, or commit- 
ted a fold fact, yet it is no good manners or humanity, to up- 
braid, to hit him in the teeth with his offence, or to scoff at 
such a one ; 'tis an old axiom, turpis inreum omnis exp^obratio. 
I speak not of such as generally tax vice, Barclay, Gentilis, 
Erasmus, Agrippa, Fishcartus, &c. the Varronists andLucians 
of our time, satyrists, epigrammatists, comcedians, apologists, 
&c. but such as personate, rail, scoff, calumniate, perstringe 
by name, or in presence offend : 

i* Ludit qui stolida procacitate, > 

Non est Sestius ille, sad caballus ; 

'tis horse-play this ; and those jests (as he '^saith) are no better 
than injuries, biting jests, mordentes et aculeati ; they are poy- 
soned jests, leave a sting behind them, and ought not to be 
used. 

** Set not thy foot to make the blind to fall, 
Nor wilfully offend thy weaker brother; 
Nor wound the dead with thy tongues bitter gall ; 
Neither rejoice thou in the fall of other. 

If these rules could be kept, we should have much more ease 
and quietness than we have, less melancholy : whereas, on the 
contrary, we study to misuse each other, how to sting and gaul, 
like two fighting boars, bending all our force and wit, friends, 
fortunes, to crucifie ^ one anothers souls ; by means of which, 
there is little content and charity, much virulency, hatred, 
malice, and disquietness among us. 

* Tully, Tusc. quasst. bMart. lib. 1. epig'. 35. ^ Tales joci ab injuriia 

pon possint discerni. Galateus, fo. 55. d Pybrac. in bis Qnatrains, 37. « EgQ 
bnjns misera fatuitate et dementia oonflictor. TuU. ad Attic, lib. 11. 



Mein. 4. Subs. 5.] Loss of Liberty, Servitude, c^e. 227 



SUBSECT. V. 

Loss of Liberty, Servitude, Imprisonment, how they cause 
Melancholy. 

A O tbis catalogue of causes^ I may well annex loss of 
liberty, servitude, or imprisonment, wbicb to some persons 
is as g-reat a torture as any of tbe rest. Though they have 
all things convenient, sumptuous houses to their use, fair 
walks and gardens, delicious bowers, galleries, good fare and 
dyet, and all things corsespondent, yet they are not content, 
because they are confined, may not come and go at their plea- 
sure ; have and do what they will, but live ^aliend (juadrd, 
at another mans table and command. As it is ''in meats, so 
is it in all other things, places, societies, sports ; let them be 
never so pleasant, conmiodious, wholsom, so good ; yet om- 
nium reriim est satietas, there is a loathing satiety of all things 
(the children of Israel were tired with manna): it is irksome 
to them so to live, as to a bird in a cage, or a dog in his ken- 
nel ; they are weary of it. They are happy, it is true, and 
have all things (to another mans judgement) that heart can 
wish, or that they themselves can desire, bona si sua norint : 
yet they lothe it, and are tired with the present. Est natura 
hominmn novitatis avida ; mens nature is still desirous of 
news, variety, delights; and our wandering affections are so 
irregular in this kind, that they must change, though it be to 
the worst. Bachelors must be married, and married men 
would be bachelors ; they do not love their own wives, though 
otherwise fair, wise, vertuous,,and well qualified, because they 
are theirs: our present estate is still the worst; we cannot en- 
dure one course of life long (et quod modo voverat, odit), one 
calling long {essein honorejuvat, mox displicet) , one place long, 

<^ RomcE Tibur amo ventosus, Tibure Romam : 
that which we earnestly sought, we now contemn. Hoc quos- 
dam affit ad mortem ('' saith Seneca) quod proposita scope mu- 
tando in eadem revolvuntur, et non relinqunnt novitati locum. 
Fastidio coepit esse vita, et ipse mundus ; et subit illud rapi- 
dissimarum deliciarum, Quousque eadem ? this alone kills 
many a man, that they are tyed to the same still ; as a horse 
in a mill, a dog in awheel, they run round, without alteration 
or news ; their life groweth odious, the world loathsome, and 
that which crosseth their furious delights, What ?- still the 
same ? Marcus Aurelius and Solomon, that had experience of 

'Migeram est alien^ vivere quadrii. Juv. bCrambe bis eocla. — Vitae we 

redde priori. «Hor. ^D« tranquil, nuimse. 



Cavsfs of Melancholy. [Part, I . Sec, 2. 

all worldly delight and pleasure, confessed as much of them- 
selves : v/hat they most desired, was tedious at last, and that 
their lust could never be satisfied ; all was vanity and affliction 
of mind. 

Now, if it be death it self, another hell, to be glutted with one 
kind of sport, dieted with one dish, tyed to one place, though 
they have all thing's otherwise as they can desire, and are in 
heaven to another mans opinion — what misery and discontent 
shall they have, that live in slavery, or in prison itself? Quod 
tristius morte, in servihite vivendHm,as Herniolaiis told Alex- 
ander in ''Curtius; Morse than death is bondage : ^' hoc animo 
scAto omnes fortes, ut mortem servituti anteponant ; all brave 
men at arms (Tully holds) are so affected. '^ Equidem ego is 
sum, qui servitutem extremum omnium malornm esse arbitror : 
I am he (saith Boterus) that account servitude the extremity 
tf misery. And what calamity do they endure, that live with 
those hard task masters, in gold-mines (like those thirty 
thousand '^ Indian slaves at Potosa in Peru), tin-mines, 
lead-mines, stone-quarries, cole-pits, like so many mould- 
warps under ground, condemned to the gallies, to perpetual 
drudgery, hunger, thirst, and stripes, v/ithout all hope of de- 
livery ? How are those women in Turkic affected, that most 
part of the year come not abroad ; those Italian and Spanish 
aames, that are mewed up like hawks, and lockt up by their 
jealous husbands ? how tedious is it to them that live in stoves 
and caves half a year together ? as in Island, Muscovy, or 
under the •'pole it self, where they have six moneths perpetual 
night. Nay, what misery and discontent do they endure, that 
are in prison ? They want all those six non-natural things at 
once, good air, good dyet, exercise, company, sleep, rest, ease, 
&c. that are bound in chains all day long, suffer hunger, and 
(as "^^Lucian describes it) 7niist abide that fit hy stink, andrat- 
ling of chains, howling, pitifil out-crges, that prisoners ns?t- 
ally make : these things are not only troublesome, but intole- 
rable. They lye nastily among toads and frogs in a dark dun- 
geon, in their own dung, in pain of body, in pain of soul, as 
Joseph did (Psal. 105. 18, They hurt his feet in the stocks ; 
the iron entred his soul) : they live solitarily, alone, seques- 
tred from all company but heart-eating melancholy : and, for 
want of meat, must eat that bread of affliction, prey upon 
themselves. Well might s Arculanus put long imprisonment 
for a cause, especially to such as, having lived jovially in all 
sensuality and lust, upon a sudden are estranged and debarred 

> Lib. 8. bTuUius Lepiijo, Fam. 10. 27. c Boterus, 1. 1. poiit. cap. 4. 

<* Laet. descrip. Americae. « If there be any inhabitants. ' In Toxari. 

Interdiu quidem coilum vinctum est, et manus constricta ; noctu vero totum corpus 
vincitiir : ad has miserias accedit corporis I'oelor, strepitus ejolantium, souini bre^itas : 
hapc omnia plane molesta et intolerabilia. 8 In 9 Rhasis. 



Mem. 4. Subs. ().] Poverty and Want^ Cause. 229 

from all manner of pleasures ; as were Hunniades, Edward 
and Richard the Second, Valerian the emperour, Ba.jazet the 
Turk. If it be irksome to miss our ordinary companions and 
repast for once a day, or an hour, what shall it be to lose 
them for ever? If it be so g-reat a delight to live at liberty, and 
to enjoy that variety of objects the world affords, what misery 
and discontent must it needs bring to him, that shall be now 
cast headlong into that Spanish inquisition, to fall from hea- 
ven to hell, to be cubbed up upon a sudden ? how shall he be 
perplexed ? what shall become of him ? =* Robert, duke of Nor- 
mandy, being imprisoned by his youngest brother Henry the 
First, ah illo die inconsolabili dolore in carcere contahuit 
(saith Matthew Paris), from that day forward pined away with 
grief. '^ Jugiirth, that generous captain, brour/ht to Rome in 
triumph^ and aj'ter imprimned, throiigh anf/iiish oj" his soulj 
and melancholy^ dyed.. ^ Roger, bishop of Salisbury, the se- 
cond man from king" Stephen, (he that built that famous cas- 
tle of '^ Devises in Wiltshire) was so tortured in prison with 
hunger, and all those calamities accompanying such men, 
* ut vivere noluerit, mori nescierit, he would not live, and 
could not dye, betwixt fear of death and torments of life. 
Francis, king- of France, was taken prisoner by Charles the 
Fifth, ad mortem fere melancholicus, saith Guicciardine, me- 
lancholy almost to death, and that in an instant. But this is 
as clear as the sun, and needs no further illustration. 



SUBSECT. VI. 

Poverty and Want, Causes of Melancholy . 

X OVERTY and want are so violent oppugners, so un- 
welcome guests, so much abhorred of all men, that I may 
not omit to speak of them apart. Poverty, although (if con- 
sidered aright, to a wise, understanding, truly regenerate, and 
contented man) it be donum Dei, a blessed estate, the way to 
heaven (as ^ Chrysostome calls it), Gods gift, the mother of 
modesty, and much to be preferred before riches (as shall be 
shewed in his § place), yet, as it is esteemed in the worlds cen- 
sure, it is a most odious calling, vile and base, a severe torture, 
summinn scelus, a most intolerable burthen. We ''shun it all, 

» William the Conqncrors eldest son. •> Sallust. Romam trinmpho ductus, 

tandenique in carcerem conjectus, aninii dolore periit. ^ Camden, in Wiltsii. 

Miserum senem ita fame et calamitatibus in carcere fregit, inter mortis metum et vit* 
tormenta, &c. <i Vies hodie. c Seneca. f Com. ad Hei)raeo9. 

KPart. 2. sect 3. raemb. .3. •> Quern, ut difficilem morbiim, piieris tradere fornai 

danaa. Pl«t. 



230 Causes of Melancholij. [Part. 1. Sec. t>. 

eane pejus et angue : we abhor the name of it, 

(* Paupertas fugitur : totoque arcessitur orbe- • • • ) 

as being the fountain of all other miseries, cares, woes, labours 
and grievances whatsoever. To avoid which, we will take any 
pains ; 

( extremes currit mercator ad Indos) 

we will leave no haven, no coast, no creek of the world, un- 
searched, though it be to the hazard of our lives ; we will dive 
to the bottom of the sea, and to the bowels of the earth, ''five, 
six, seven, eight, nine hundred fathom deep, through all the 
five zones, and both extreams of heat and cold : we will turn 
parasites and slaves, prostitute our selves, swear and lye, damn 
our bodies and souls, forsake God, abjure religion, steal, rob, 
murder, rather than endure this unsuii'erable yoke of poverty, 
which doth so tyrannize, crucifie, and generally depress us. 

For, look into the world, and you shall see men, most part, 
esteemed according* to their means, and happy as they are 
rich : '^ uhique tanti qnisqne, quantum habuit, J'uit. If he be 
likely to thrive, and in the way of preferment, who but he ? 
In the vulgar opinion, if a man be wealthy, no matter how he 
gets it, of what parentage, how qualified, how vertuously en- 
dowed, or villanously inclined ; let him be a bawd, a gripe, 
an usurer, a villain, a pagan, a barbarian, a wretch, '^Lucians 
tyrant on tvhoni you may look with less security, than on the 
sun — so that he be rich (and liberal withall) he shall be ho- 
noured, admired, adored, reverenced, and highly '^magnified. 
The rich is had in reputation, because oj' his goods (Eccles, 
10. 31) : he shall be befriended ; Jor riches gather many 

Jriends (Prov. 19. 4;) multos numerabit amicos ; all 

happiness ebbs and flows with his money. He shall be ac- 
counted a gracious lord, a Meeceon^, a henefactor, a wise, 
discreet, a proper, a valiant, a fortunate man, of a generous 
spirit, pullus Jovis, et gallince Jilius alba?, a hopeful, a good 
man, a vertuous honest man. Quando ego te Junonium 
puerum, et matris partum vere aureum, as ^Tully said of 
Octavianus, while he was adopted Csesar, and an '' heir appa- 
rent of so great a monarchy ; he was a golden child. All 
' honour, ofRces, applause, grand titles, and turgent epithets, 
are put upon him; omnes omnia bona dicere; all mens eyes 

a Lucan. 1. 1. ''As in the silver mines in Friburo;h in Germany. Fines RIo- 

rison. c Euripides. dXom. 4. dial. Minore periculo solem quain 

hunc defixis oculis licet intueri. ^ Omnis enim res, Virtus, fama, decus, diviua 

humanaque, pulchris Divitiis parent. Hor. Sen 1. 2. Sat 3. Clarus erit, fortis, Justus, 
sapiens etiam rex, Et quidquid volet. Hor. fEt genus, et formam, regina 

P^cuuia donat. Money adds spirits, courage, &c. i? Epist. ult. ad 

Atticura. '' Our young master^ a fine towardly gentleman, (God bless him !) 

and hopeful. Why ? he is heir apparent to the right worshipful, to the right honourable, 
&c. iO nummi, nummi! vobis hunc prsestat honoreni. 



Mem. 4. Subs, fi.] Povpr/y and Want, Causes, 251 

are upon Iiiin, " God bless his jrood Worship! his honour!" 
» ererymanspeaks well of him ; every man presenfs.hira, seeks 
and sues to him for his Jove, favour, and protection, to serve 
him, belong unto him ; every matiriseth to him, as to Themis- 
tocles in the Oiympicks; if he speak, (as of Herod) uoa- Dei, 
nan homhns ! the -voice of God, not of man ! All the o-races, 
Veneres, pleasures, elegances attend him : ''g-olden Fortune' 
accompanies and Jodg-eth with him, and (as to those Romnn 
emperours) is placed in his chamber. 



-^ Secuia naviget aurA, 



Fortuiiamque suo temperet arbitrio; 

he may sail as he will himself, and temper his estate at his 
pleasure: jovial days, splendor and mao-nificence, sweet mu- 
S!ck, dainty fare, the oood things and fat of the land, fine 
clothes, rich attires, soft beds, down pillows, are at his com- 
mand ; all the world labours for him; thousands of artificers 
are his slaves, to drudge for him, run, ride, and post for him : 
diymes (for Pytliia phiUppizat), lawyers, physicians, philo- 
sophers, scholars, are his, wholly devote to his service. Every 
man seeks his acquaintance, his kindred, to match with him: 
yhough he be an aufe, a ninuy,a monster, agoos-cap, uxorem 
ducat Datmen, when and whom he will : hunc optant generum 
rex et rer/ina—he is an excellent ^ match for my son, my 
dau«-hter, my niece, &c. Quidquid calcaverit hie, rosa Jiet ; 
let bim go whither he will, trumpets sound, bells ring, &c. all 
happiness attends him ; every man is willing to entertain him ; 
he sups in s Apollo wheresoever he comes: what preparation 
IS made for his '' entertainment! fish and fowl, spices and per- 
fumes, all that sea and land affords. What cookery, masking- 
mirth, to exhilarate his person ! 

' Da Trebio ; pone ad Trebium ; vis, frater, ab illis 
Hibus ? 

What dish will your good worship eat of? 



^ dulcia poma, 

Et quoscunque feret cultus tibi fundus honores, 
Ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives. 

Sweet apples, and whate're thy fields aftbrd, 
Before the Gods be serv'd, let serve thy Lord. 

; Exiude sapere eum omnes dicimus, ac quisque fortnnam habet. Plaut. Pseud, 
c ^"^■^^.^^'"■tuna pnncipnm rubiculis reponi solita. Julius Capitolinus, vitS Antouiui. 
reironius. .1 Theologi opulentis adhaerent, jurisperiti pecuniosis, literati 

f n^m '^' '■'?f'Tj'''"\a'-t.fices. e Muiti ilium juvenes, multa petiere puells. 

' Duramodo sit dives, barbarus ille placet. ir Plut. in Lucullo. A rich cham- 

oer so called. h Pan.s p,,„e melior. i Juv. Sat. 5. k Hor. Sat. 5 



VOL. I. 



A A 



282 Cautes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

What sport will your honour have ? hawking-, hunting, fish- 
ino-, fowling, bulls, bears, cards, dice, cocks, players, tum- 
blers, fidlers, jesters, &c. they are at your good worships com- 
mand. Fair houses, gardens, orchards, terrasses, galleries, cabi- 
nets, pleasant walks, delightsom places, they are at hand ; ^itt 
aureis lac, vinum in argenteis, adolescentulcE ad nutiim speci- 
osce, wine, wenches, &c. a Turkie paradise, an heaven upon 
earth. Though he be a silly soft fellow, and scarce have 
common sense, yet if he be born to fortunes, (as I have said) 
^jure hcereditario sapere juhetnr, he must have honour and 
office in his course ; '^ nemo, nisi dives, honore digitus (Ambros. 
offic. 21); none so worthy as himself: he shall have it; atque 
esto quidquid Servius aut Labeo. Get money enough, and com- 
mand ^ kingdoms, provinces, armies, hearts, hands, and affec- 
tions ; thou shalt have popes, patriarks, to be thy chaplains and 
parasites ; thou shalt have (Tamberlain-like) kings to draw thy 
coach, queens to be thy landresseSjCmperours thy foot-stools, 
build more towns and cities than great Alexander, Babel 
towers, pyramids, and Mausoleail tombs, &c. command heaven 
and earth, and tell the world it is thy vassal ; auro emitur 
diadema, argento coelum pauditur, denarius philosophum con- 
ducit, jiummus jus cogit, oholus liter atum pascit, metallum sa- 
nitatem conciliat, ces arnicas conglutinat. And therefore, not 
without o-ood cause, John Medicos, that Rich Florentine, when 
he lay upon his death-bed, calling his sons Cosmus and Lau- 
rence before him, amongst other sober sayings, repeated this, 
Animo quieto digredior, quod vos sanos et divites post me re- 
linquam; it doth me good to think yet, though I be dying, 
that I shall leave you, my children, sound and rich; for 
wealth sways all. It is not with us, as amongst those Lace- 
daemonian senators of Lycurgus in Plutarch — he prejerred, 
that deserved best, was most vertuous andioorthy of the place ; 
^ not swiftness, or strength, or wealth, or friends, carryed it 
in those dayes ; hwt inter optimos optimus, inter temperantes 
temperantissimus, the most temperate and best. We have no 
aristocracies but in contemplation, all oligarchies, wherein a 
iew rich men domineer, do what they list, and are privi- 
leo-ed by their greatness. *^They may freely trespass, and do 
as they please ; no man dare accuse them, no not so much as 
mutter against them; there is no notice taken of it; they may 
securely do it, live after their own laws, and, for their mo- 



» Bobemus, de Turcig ; et Bredenbach. •> Euphormio. '■Quipecunian} 

habent, elati sunt animis, lofty spirits, brave men at arms : all rich men are generous, 
eouragious, &c. <iNummns ait. Pro me nubat Cornubia Roma;. <!NQnfuit 

apud mortales ullum excellentius. certamen ; nou inter celeres celerrimo, i^on int§r ro- 
busies robugtissi mo, &c. f Quidquid libet licet. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 6.] Poverty and Waat^ Causes. 23-'? 

ney, get pardons, iiKliiloeiJces, redeem their souls from piir- 
g-atory ami Isel! it self,^ — rfaustini posmlet area Jovem. Let 
them be Epicures, or atheists, libertines, Machiaveliaus, (as 
often they are) 

' Et quamvis perjiuus erit, sine gente, crucutiis, 

they may go to heaven through the eye of a needle ; u they 
will themselves, they may be canonized for saints, they shall 
be ^ honourably interred in Mausolean tombs, commended hy 
poets, registered in histories, have temples and statues erected 

to their names e manibns iflh nascentnr violce. Tf he 

be bountiful in his life, and liberal at his death, he shall have 
one to swear (as he did by Claudius emperour in Tacifus), he 
saw his soul go to the heaven, and be miserably lamented at 
his funeral. Amhuhaiuruni coflerfin, cVc. Trimalchionis To- 
panta, in Petronius, recta in ccelum abiit, went right to hea- 
ven; (a base quean ; "^ thon wouldst have scorned once in tJnf 
misery to hare a penny from her) and why? modo nnmmos 
vietiit, she measured her money by the bushel. These prero- 
g"atives do not usually belong' to rich men, but to such as are 
most part seeming* rich ; let him have but a good "^ outside, 
he carries it, and shall be adored for a God, as ''Cyrus was 
amongst the Persians, oh splendidnm apparafum, for his gay 
tyres. Now most men are esteemed according to their cloaths : 
in our giJlish times, whom you peradventure in modesty 
would give place to, as being- deceived by his habit, and pre- 
suming- him some great worshipful man, believe it, if you shall 
examine his estate, he will likely be proved a serving man of 
no great note, my ladies taylor. his lordships barber, or some 
such gull, a Fastidius Brisk, Sir Petronell Flash, a meer out- 
side. Only this respect is given him, that wheresoever he 
comes, he may call for w hat he will, and take place by reason 
of his outwarti habit. 

But, on the contrary, if he be poor, (Pror. 15. \b) all his 
dayes are miserable; he is under hatches, dejected, rejected, 
and forsaken, poor in purse, poor in spirit : Sprout res nobis 
Jluit, ita et animus se habet : s money gives life and soul. 
Though he l)e honest, wise, learned, well deserving, noble by 
birth, and of excellent jjood parts; yet, in that he is poor, un- 
likely to rise, come to honour, office, or good means, he is con- 
temned, neglected ; J'rustra sapit, inter litems esnrit, amicus 

»Hor. Sat. 5. lib. 2. bCum moritnr dives, concurrunt undique cives : Paupeiis 

ad fiinas vix est ex millibus unns. "^Et modo quid fait? ignoscat mihi genius tuus ! 

noluisses de manu ejus nuintno^ accipere. '' He that wears silk, sattin, velvet, and 

fjold lace, must needs be a gentleman. " Est sanguis atque npiritus pecunia mor- 

tolibos. f Euripides. gXennpbon, Cvropapd. 1. 8. 

.A A 2 ' 



"234 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. l.Sec. 2. 

molestus. ^ Tfhe speak, what hahler is this ? (Ecclus.) his 
nobility without wealth is ^projectd vilior alga, and he not 
esteemed. 

Nos viles puUi, nati infelicibus ovis ; 

if once poor, we are metamorphosed in an instant, base slaves, 
villains, and vile drudges ; ^ for to be poor, is to be a knave, a 
fool, a wretch, a wicked, an odious fellow, a common eye-sore : 
say poor, and say all : they are born to labour, to misery, to 
carry burdenslikejuments,/9«\s/«m stercus comedere, with Ulys- 
ses companions, and (as Chremylus objected in Aristophanes) 
^ salem linffere, lick salt, to empty jakes, fay channels, •= carry 
out dirt and dunghils, sweep chimnies, rub horse-heels, &c. I 
say nothing of Turks galley-slaves, which are bought ^and sold 
like juments, or those African negroes, or poor ^ Indian drudges, 
qui indies hinc inde defer endis onerihns occumbunt ; nam qnod 
apud nos haves et asini vehiint, trahunt, SjC. id omne misellis 
Indis, ^c. they are ugly to behold, and, though earst spruce, 
now rusty and squalid, because poor : ^ immundas J'ortunas 
wquum est squalorem seqvi : it is ordinarily so. ' Others eat to 
live, but they live to drudge; ^ servflis et miser a gens nihil 
recusare andet : a servile generation, that dare refuse no task. 



-' Heus tu, Dore, 



Cape hoc flabellum, ventulum huic facito, dum lavamus, 

sirrah, blow wind upon us while we wash ; and bid your fellow 
get him up betimes in the morning ; be it fair or foul, he shall 
run fifty miles a foot to morrow, to carry me a letter to ray 
mistress: Sssia adpistrinam ; Sosia shall tarry at home, and 
grind mault all day long; Tristan thresh. Thus are they com- 
manded, being indeed, some of them, as so many foot-stools 
for rich men to tread on, blocks for them to get on horse 
back, or as ^ walls for them to piss on. They are commonly 
such people, rude, silly, superstitious ideots, nasty, unclean, 
lowsie, poor, dejected, slavishly humble ; and as ° Leo Afer 
observes of the commonalty of Africk, natnrd viliores sunt, 
nee apud suos duces majore in pretio quam si caries essent : 
base by nature, and no more esteemed than dogs, ° miseram, 
laboriosam, calamitosam vitam, agunt, et inopem, infelicem ; 

ain tenui rara est facundia panno. Juv. bHor. c Egere est ofi'endere ; 

et indigere scelestum esse. Sat. Menip. d Plant, act. 4. e Nullum tam bar- 

barum, tam vile munus est, quod non lubentissime obire velitgensvilissima. fLau- 
sius, orat. in Hispaniam. S Laet. descrip. Americae. hpjautiis. 'Leo 

Afer, ca. ult. 1. 1. Edunt, non ut bene vivant, sed ut fortiter laborent. Heinsius. 
k Munster de ruslicis Germanise, Cosmog. cap. 27. lib. 3. ' Ter. Eunuch. 

n> Pauper panes factus, quem caniculae conimingant. "Lib. I. cap. u!t. ^Deos 

omnes illis infensos diceres ; tam pannosi, fame fracti, tot assidue malis afSciuntor, 
tamquam pecora qiiibus splendor ratiunis emortuus. 



Mem. 4. Subs 6.] Poverty and Want, Causes. 235 

rudiores asinis, ut e brutis plane natos dicas ; no learning-, 
no knowledge, no civility, scarce common sense, nought but 
barbarism amongst them ; belhiino more vivunt, neque calceos 
gestant, neqne vestes ; like rogues and vagabonds, they go 
bare-footed and bare-legged, the souls of their feet being as 
hard as horse hoofs, (as "Iladzivilius observed at Damiatain 
Egypt) leading a laborious, miserable, wretched, unhappy 
life, '' like beasts and Juments, if not ivorse (for a ^ Spaniard in 
Tucatau sold three Indian boyes for a cheese, and an hundred 
negroe slaves for an horse) : their discourse is scurrility, their 
suinmum bonum a pot of ale. There is not any slavery which 
these villains will not undergo : inter illos plerique latrinas 
evacnunt ; alii cnlinariam cnrunt ; alii stabnlarios agunt, 
nrinatores ; et id genns similia e.vcrcent, ^-c. like those people 
thatdwell in the '^ Alps, chimney-sweepers, jakes-farmers, dirt- 
daubers, vagrant rogues, they labour hard some, and yet can- 
not get clothes to put on, or bread to eat ; for what can filthy 
poverty give else, but * beggery, fulsom nastiness, squalor, 
contempt, drudgery, labour, ugliness, hunger and thirst, pedi- 
culornm et pulicum nnmerum (as 'he well followed it in Aris- 
tophanes) tleas and lice? pro ^jrt//io vestem lacrram, et pro 
pulvinari lapidem bene magmtm ad caput, rags for his ray- 
inent, and a stone for his pillow, pro cathedra, ruptce caput 
urnw, he sits in a broken pitcher, or on a block, for a chair, 
et malvce ramos pro panibus comedif, he drinks water, and 
lives on wort leaves, pulse, like a hogg, or scraps like a dog : 
nt nunc nobis vita afficitur, qnis non pntabit insaniam esse, 
infelicitatemqne ? (as Chreniylus concludes his speech) as we 
poor men live now adayes, who will not take our life to be 
8 infelicity, misery, and madness ? 

If they be of little better condition than those base villains, 
hunger-starved beggars, wandring rogues, those ordinary 
slaves, and day-labouring drudges, yet they are coumioniy so 
preyed upon by ''poling officers for breaking laws, by their 
tyrannizing landlords, so flead and fleeced by perpetual 'ex- 
actions, that though they do drudge, fare hard, and starve 
their Genius, they cannot live in some ''countries ; but what 
they have is instantly taken from them ; the very care they 
take to live, to be drudges, to maintain their poor families, 

» Peregrin, ^ieros. ''Nihil omnino naeliorem vitam deg^nt, quani fera? in siJvis, 

jainenta in terns. Leo Afer. <^ Bartholomseus a Casa. -lOrfelius, in Hel- 

vetia. Qui habitant in Csesia valle ut plurimum latomi, in Oscella valle cultromm 
fabri, famarii in Vigetia, sordiHam genus hominnm, quod repnrgandis caminis victum 
parat « I write not this, any wayes to upbraid, or scoffe at. or misuse poor men, 

but rather to condole and pity them, by expressing, &c. fChremylns, act 4, Pint, 

ff Panpertas durum onus miseris mortalibus. ^ Vexat censura columbas. 

' Deux ace non possunt, et sixcinque solvere nolunt; Omnibus est notum quaire tre 
•olvere totiun, '■Scandia, Afnca, Lituania. 



23(5 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 9.- 

their trouble and anxiety, takes away their sleep {Sirac. 31. 1); 
it makes them Meary of tlieir lives: when they have taken all 
pains, done their utmost and honest endeavours, if they be 
cast behind by sickness, or overtaken with years, no man 
pities them; hard-liearted and merciless, uncharitable as they 
are, they leave them so distressed, to beg", steal, murmur, and 
^ rebel, or else starve The feeling- and fear of this misery 
compelled those old Romans, whom Meneniiis Agrippa 
pacified, to resist their govenours — outlaws, and rebels in most 
places, to fake up seditious amies ; and in all ages hath caused 
uproars, murmurings, seditions, rebellions, thefts, murders, 
mutinies, jarrs and contentions in every commonwealth, grudg- 
ing', repining, complaining, discontent in each private family, 
because they want means to live according to their callings, 
bring up their children ; it breaks their hearts, they cannot 
do as they would. No greater misery than, for a lord to have 
a knights living, a gentleman a yeomans, not to be able to live 
as his birth and place requires. Poverty and Avant are gene- 
rally corrosive to all kinds of men, especially to such as have 
been in good and flourishing estate, are suddenly distressed, 
^ nobly born, liberally brought up, and, by some disaster, and 
casualty, miserably dejected. For the rest, as they have base 
fortunes, so they have base minds correspondent — likebeetles,e 
stercore orti, e stercore victus, in stercore delicimn — as they 
were obscurely born and bred, so they delight and live in ob- 
scenity; the}' are not so thoroughly touched with it. 

Augustas animas angus