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AN ATTEMPT 



TO DIYILOP 



THE LAW OF STORMS 



BY MEANS OF FACTS. 
ARRANGED ACCORDING TO PLACE AND TIME ; 

AND 

HENCE TO POINT OUT A CAUSE 

FOR 

THE VARIABLE WINDS, 

WITH THI VIIW TO 

PRACTICAL USE IN NAVIGATION. 



ILLU8TIATBD BT CHAKT8 AND WOODCUTS. 



THIBD EDITION. 

o 



BY LIBUT.-COLONEL W. piD. C.B, PJl.8. 

(Qftke Ropal BngmetnJ) 



LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY JOHN WEALE, 

LIBRARY OF CIVIL, MILITARY, AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, 

59, HIGH HOLBORN. 

1850. 



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LONDON: 
PALMim and Clatton, Printert, 
10, Cren* Court 



The Second Edition of this Work being out of 
print, I republish it on account of the value I attach 
to the Log Books of Ships, and Narratives of Seamen, 
which formed the basis for "The Law of Storms." 

W. R. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

P«ge 

An Introductory Chapter. — How this Inquiry originated. 
— Franklin's North-east Storms. — Capper's Whirl- 
winds. — Redfield*8 Progressive Gyratory Storms. — 
Rise and Fall of the Barometer 1 



CHAPTER II. 

Storms traced by Redfield. — Storm of September, 1821. 

— Storm of August, 1830 10 

CHAPTER III. 
The Barbados Hurricane of 1831 24 

CHAPTER IV. 

Barbados Hurricane, September 3, 1835. — Another at 
Antigua, August 12th, 1835. — Hurricanes not caused 
by the Islands. — Ground Swells explained. — ^A Rota- 
tory Gale 35 

CHAPTER V. 

On the Hurricanes of 1837. — Five Storms traced in close 
succession. — How these point out a Cause for the 
Variable Winds 47 

CHAPTER VI. 

On Storms in the Southern Hemisphere. — They revolve 
in the contrary manner to North Latitude. — Ships 



Vi CONTENTS. 



Tafe 



may overtake Storms. — That there are Hurricanes in 
the P&cific Ocean. — Mauritius Hurricanes of 1818, 
1819, 1824, 1834, and 1836.— Two Storms, which 
were very disastrous to East India Fleets under 
Convoy of the Albion and Culloden, in 1808 and 
1809. — Mauritius Gales of 1811. — The Blenheim's 
Storm, &c. — Barometrical Records . .144 



CHAPTER VII. 

On Typhoons in the China Sea, and on the Hurricanes 
of India.— Extraordinary Change of the Barometer at 
Cpaton and Macao. — Capper's Whirlwinds. — Pondi- 
cherry Hurricane of 1 760-1. — ^The Bay of Bengal 
Hurricanes. — Remarkable Fall of the Barometer . 271 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Hurricanes of 1780. — ^That which destroyed Savanna- 
la-Mar, 3rd of October. — The Great Barbados Hurri- 
cane, 10th of October. — Solano*s Storm, and of the 
Winds called Norths 289 



CHAPTER IX. 

On Storms in High Latitudes. — The Cause of the Baro- 
meter falling, with a Southerly Wind in the Northern 
Hemisphere, and with a Northerly Wind in the 
Southern Hemisphere, explained. — Easterly Storms 
in Ireland and Westerly of the Coasts of Portugal, in 
the middle of February, 1838. — ^The way in which 
Storms appear to pass over the British Islands. — Thr 
Lighthouse and Coast-guard Reports. — Logs, &c., 
from the Lisbon Squadron. — Mediterranean Storms. 
—The Storms of 1838.— Effect of Storms on Chain 
Bridget. — The Bermuda Hurricane of 1839 403 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

CHAPTER X. 

On Measuring the Wind's Force. — Captain Beaufort's 
Table for denoting the Force of the Wind and the 
State of the Weather 453 

CHAPTER XI. 

On Waterspouts and the Smaller Whirlwinds. — Moving 

Columns of Sand. — On the Fall of Fish on Land 461 

CHAPTER XII. 

CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

Tornadoes on the West Coast of Africa 5 Pamperos 3 the 
Barometer ; the Rollers at St. Helena and Ascension 5 
the Ripplings in the Straits of Malacca. — Rule for 
laying Ships to in Hurricanes .... 490 



APPENDIX. 

Popular Explanation of the Barometer and Sjrmpiesometer 519 
General Index 523 



1 



HAP. 



pper. 



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• ■ ■ * 



ON 



HURRICANES AND STORMS. 



CHAPTER I. 

AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

My attention was first directed to the subject of chap. 
storms from having been employed at Barbados in ' 
re-establishing the government buildings blown down 
in the hurricane of 1831 ; when from the violence of 
the wind 1477 persons lost their lives in the short 
space of seven hours. I was induced to search every 
where for accounts of previous storms, in the hope of 
learning something of their causes and mode of action. 
West Indian histories, however, contain little beyond 
a record of the losses in lives and property, and the 
sufferings of the inhabitants, during the period of 
these tempests. 

The first paper I met with, which appeared to con- 
vey any just opinion on the nature of hurricanes, was 
one published in the * American Journal of Science,' 
by Mr. W. C. Redfield of New York. 

The late Colonel James Capper of the East India Cepper. 
Company's Service, who published a work of the 
winds and monsoons in 1801, mentions some of the 
hurricanes which happened on the Coromandel Coast 
of India ; but he merely reprints very brief statements 

B 



2 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

CHAP, of their fatal eflfects from *Orme's History of Hin- 

'. — dostan.' The following passage is to be found in 

Colonel Capper's work : 

** It would not, perhaps, be a matter of great diffi- 
culty to ascertain the situation of a ship in a whirl- 
wind, by observing the strength and changes of the 
wind. If the changes are sudden, and the wind 
violent, in all probability the ship must be near the 
centre of the vortex of the whirlwind ; whereas if the 
wind blows a great length of time from the same 
point, and the changes are gradual, it may be reason- 
ably supposed the ship is near the extremity of it." 

Redfieid. Mr. Redfield, living amidst the records of storms and 
shipwrecks, had actually done what Colonel Capper 
was satisfied with merely suggesting, and had come to 
the same conclusion, without being at all aware of 
what Colonel Capper had written ; and he has also 
shown that they are progressive. 

In one of the numbers of the * American Journal of 
Science * above alluded to, in 1 83 1 , I found collected 
together many records of the same storms; and a chart 
on a very small scale, showing the progress of one of 
the storms. 

Strongly impressed with the belief that Mr. Red- 
field's views were correct, I determined to verify them 
by making charts on a large scale, and on these laying 
down the different reports of the wind at points given 
in the * American Journal of Science.' The more 
exactly this was done, the nearer appeared to be the 
approximation to the tracks of a progressive whirlwind. 

SeeChartB Thesc are Charts I. and II. prefixed to this volume. 

Since my object is not to propose a particular theory, 
but to endeavour to direct attention to the curious facts 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 3 

I have collected and arranged (with some degree of c h a p. 

labour), I shall do little more than print these as they 

are arranged, and set them before the public. 

The facts are in themselves however full of interest ; 
for the records best suited for the purpose are detailed 
accounts of the greatest storms, and the dangers to 
which seamen are exposed. 

The barometer, as a measure for the atmospheric 
pressure, will appear more valuable than ever ; and we 
have a new^ and apparently the true, explanation of 
the cause of its fall in great storms. 

A popular description of the barometer will be 
found at the end of the volume. 

We have at length a clue towards an explanation of Variable 

^ I winds, 

the VARIABLE WINDS. 

The quantity of electricity exhibited during tropical 
hurricanes is very great ; and this part of the subject 
deserves great attention. 

Many of the storms we call gales, certainly partake 
of the same nature as tropical hurricanes, and are rota- 
tory ; and so many of their courses pass over the same 
track, that the fact is remarkable. They seem to be 
carried towards the poles in some of the general re- 
turning atmospheric currents from the equator; and 
by tracing storms, it seems probable tjiat we may 
learn something more than we at present know of 
these upper currents. 

Franklin was aware, that what he called north-east Franklin, 
storms came from the south-west; and the geographical 
position in which he was placed, probably contributed 
not a little to lead his inquiring mind to meteorological 
studies : for it will be seen by the annexed charts, that 
a great portion of the tropical storms which pass over 

B 2 



4 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

H A P. or near to the West Indies, change their direction, 
! about the twenty-fifth degree of latitude, on approach- 
ing the coast of the American continent, and that they 
sweep along its eastern coast. Franklin died before he 
made the next step. 

At New York the labouring people remark, that if 
the haze indicating a storm be first seen over Staten 
Island (or south-eastward), the wind will come from 
the north-east ; but if the haze be seen first over the 
Jersey shore of the Hudson river (or westward), then 
the wind will come on from the south-east. It is also 
said to be a seaman's phrase, that a north-wester will 
never remain long in debt to a south-easter. The cor- 
rectness of these observations, and the reasons for 
them, will be understood as we proceed* 

In reading the observations, it wiU tend to make 
them more easily understood if figures like the fol- 
lowing be constructed on paper and then cut out, 
so that they may be made to represent progressive 
whirlwinds. 

The fleurs-de-lis in both figures point to the north. 
The first figure is intended to represent a whirlwind 
turning firom right to left (supposing yourself in its 
centre), or in the contrary way to the hands of a 
watch. The^ letters in the diagram denote the points 
from whence the wind in the whirlwind blows. 

In such a whirlwind as that represented by the upper- 
most circle, the wind on the northernmost portion of 
the circumference must be east ; on the southernmost 
portion it must be west ; on the westernmost portion 
it must be north ; and on the easternmost portion it 
must be south — and it is necessary that this should be 
perfectly understood before proceeding further. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER, 



Such a whirlwind storm coming from the south, c B A p. 

with its centre passing along the New Jersey side of '. 

the Hudson River, would place the city of New York 
Proper North, WM East. 




Proper South, Wad West. 



Proper North, Wind West. 




Proper South, Wind East. 



6 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



CHAP. ]Q the right hand semicircle, and the wind there would 

'- — commence at the southward of east ; but if the centre 

of the storm were upon the sea and to the eastward of 
New York, as usually happens, then the inhabitants of 
that place would have a storm commencing at north- 
east : and such were Franklin's north-east storms. 

A glance at the plates will show, that in the latitude 
of New York, these gales come usually from the west- 
ward of south. If they begin at south-east they must 
end about north-west, which will be understood by a 
little careful examination of the moveable figure ; and 
hence " the north-wester seldom remains long in debt to 
the south-easter.** In the West Indies they come from 
the eastward, and proceed to the westward inclining 
northerly: and it is constantly remarked, that the 
severest hurricanes leave off blowing at the opposite 
point to which they commence. 

The following figure shows that this will occur if 
they are progressive whirlwinds. 




tNTRODUCTORT CHAPTER. 7 

Id the last fig^K* such a whirlwind coming from chap. 
the eastward, is supposed to pass over an island in the — 1 — 
middle of its course. The wind would at the com- 
mencement be nearly north ; and it would be at the 
end nearly south. The direction of the wind is shown 
by the arrowed heads. 

Proper North, Wind Bast. 




Proper South, Wind West. 

Lines drawn across concentric circles best explain 
the mode of veering of the wind in these storms; and 
(for those who may not recollect all the points) a figure 
of the mariner's compass will be found at the end of 
this chapter. 

Thus in the preceding figure, a pTogressive whirl- 
wind, turning in the opposite way to the hands of a 
watch, is supposed to pass over four ships. The wind 
will veer but little whilst the storm is passing over the 
ship most to the eastward. With this ship it will 
commence at east by south, and leave off at about 
south by east. 



8 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

CHAP. The next ship will be further within the centre of 

'- — the whirlwind ; with it the gale would commence at 

east by north, veering by the east to the south, and 
ending at south by west. 

The fourth, or westernmost ship, would receive the 
wind first from the north-east by north, veering at 
first gradually to north ; then more rapidly to north- 
west, and by degrees it will become west, and the storm 
will finish with the wind blowing somewhat from the 
south of west. The tempest will be furious whilst the 
wind is veering fastest ; for the ship will then be near 
the centre of the storm : yet in the very centre there 
is a calm. 

The ship in the figure over which the centre passes, 
will have the wind change but once. This ship will 
receive the wind at first from the north-east. If the 
vessel could be supposed to remain stationary and not 
to drift, the wind would blow over it in the same direc- 
tion until the centre of the hurricane reached her. She 
would then have a calm ; and after an interval of calm, 
she would have the wind as violent as before, but from 
the south-west ; and there would be no other change 
of wind until the storm ended. 

The gradual fall of the barometric column during 
the first part of these storms, and its gradual rise 
during the second part, will be found to be singularly 
regular; and the nearer a ship is to the centre the 
greater will be the fall. 

The smaller whirlwinds and waterspouts appear to 
be phenomena of another kind from the great storm. 

No part of the subject is more curious than the 
squalls and gusts ; and their descriptions merit atten- 
tive consideration. 



INTHODUCTOHY CHAPTER. 



But by far the most interesting part of the subject chap. 
is, that we have at length a clue towards an explana- ' 
tion of the variable winds. 



THE MARINER'S COHPABS. 



m^ 



7^ dir^elion qftJu umd at reporUd iy ihipt, I vndartland to nuon U« 
magmtie dirtetiOH. Tht daieM on ftotn both rn civil and in nautieal Urn*. It 
iMmU gnatly faeHUatt mteh tnqiaritt at UUfmmt \feM log bookt vera litpl at 
«imitimt. 



10 



CHAPTER 11. 



STORMS TRACED BY REDFIELD. 



CHAP. Charts I. and II. are those which were constructed 

II 
[ from the data published in the * American Journal of 

Science ;' these data are here annexed: for it is only 
by collecting together a number of facts relative to the 
same storm, and by arranging these facts, that we can 
hope to arrive at any knowledge of the mode of action 
of Nature in great storms. The reader is therefore 
invited to follow the reports step by step, comparing 
them with the projections on the plans, and correcting 
the projections where they may be faulty. 
Charts By taking a general vie^, however, of Charts I. 

and II., before examining them in detail, it will be 
observed, that the arrows which indicate the direction 
of the wind, come from the southward on the right- 
hand side of the storm ; and from the north ward on 
the left-hand side. 

Towards the centre of their courses, the arrows 
appear to fly both east and west ; but on examining 
the reports in detail, it will be found, that as the 
storms came from the south and were proceeding to 
the north, the wind at the commencement of the gales 
was easterly, and at the end of them westerly. 

Violent as these storms were, their rate of progress, 
on examining the dates, will be found to be no more 



redfibld's storms. V 11 

than the rate of the ordinary atmospheric currents, c h a^p. 
and are stated to be at from 7 to 16 miles an hour. ! 



One of the most remarkable facts recorded of the Hurricane 

of 1821. 

hurricane of 1821 is, that in the states of Massachusetts Trees 
and Connecticut, the trees were blown down on the opposite 
eastern portion of those states with their heads to the 
nortli-west ; whilst those on the western portion were 
prostrated with their heads to the south-east. 

The progress of the ship Illinois on Chart II., and a Hurricane 
letter from the master, deserve particular attention. ^It Ship 
will be seen, that on the 15th of August, 1830, the 
swell caused by this storm, then to the southward of 
the ship, reached the vessel ; but as the Illinois had a 
fair wind and was assisted by the Gulf-stream, whilst 
the storm made a detour towards Charleston and the 
coast of Georgia, the ship, for a day, outran the 
swell: on the 17th, however, the storm overtook her, 
blowing furiously from the south ; whilst, at the same 
moment, it was unroofing houses at New York from 
the north-east. 

In following the course of this storm, it will be Change of 

, , direction. 

found in what a remarkable manner it suddenly 
changed its course on meeting the continent of America 
near Charleston. This will afterwards be found to be 
the case with most of the others which pass over the 
Bahama Islands, though not of all. It will be seen 
that they change their direction about the twenty*fifth 
degree of latitude. 

The Blanche, British frigate, commanded by Com- H. m. s. 
modore Farquhar, having been in the hurricane of isso. 
1830, 1 procured her log from the Admiralty; and I 
have laid down her track from the time she was off 
Cuba until her arrival at Halifax. The first part of 



REDFIELDS STORMS. 



. the I(^ is printed in this chapter; the latter part will 

. be printed in its proper place further on. 

A diagram is given to explain the manner in which 
this storm most probably passed over the Blanche. 
This direction is marked by a line cutting the concen- 
tric circles in the figure ; and the veering of the wind, 
as given in the Ic^, may be read o£r along this line, 
from the time when it b^;an at N.E., until it became 
S.W. 




But a ship in her situation must have been affected, 
and carried on by the current of the Gulf-stream ; and 
when the frigate made sail, she no doubt kept up with, 
and kept within the influence of what seamen call the 
tail of the hurricane. The storm at this period going 
towards the north-west, the Blanche was left in the 
eastern half-circle, and therefore had for a time a 
southerly and fair wind for Halifax. 



redfield's storms. 13 

The place of the ship Britannia is also marked on chap. 
Chart II. This vessel left New York on the evening - — ■ — 
of the 16th, with fine weather. On the night of the Bntannim, 

1830 

17th she met the huiricane, having the wind first at 
N.E., then E.N.E., and after midnight she had the 
wind from S.E. Her course being towards England, 
she probably crossed the centre of the whirlwind 
storm's track. 

Data on which Chart I. is constructed. 

" The earliest supposed trace of this hurricane which has lAn Hurricane 
obtained^ is from off Turk*s Island in the West Indies, where it - 
appeared on the 1st of September, 1821^ two days previous to 
its reaching our coast. It was felt there severely^ but at what 
hour in the day we are not informed. 

"The next account we have is from lat. 23° 43', where the 
storm was severe on the 1st September, from south-east to 
south-west. Whether these two accounts are considered as 
identifying the storm, or otherwise, will not at this time be 
deemed material. 

" Our next report is from lat. 82° 30', long. 77° from Green* 
which, on the night of the 2nd of September, a hurricane for 
three hours. 

" At 3 A.M. on the 3rd of September, a severe gale was expe- 
rienced 30 miles outside of the American coast, off Wilmington, 
N. Carolina. 



€< 



At Wilmington there was no gale. ^ //■ /^ 



" At Ocracock Bar, N. C, at daylight on the morning of the 
3rd, a severe gale from £. S. E. 

"At Edenton, N.C. the gale was at N.E. 

" Off Roanoke, on the morning of the 3rd September, a dread* 
ful gale at E. : then S.W. and N.W. 

" A vessel from Charleston, S. Carolina, two days previous to 
arriving in the Chesapeake, experienced the gale at 4 a.m. on the 
3rd, from S. E. to W. S.W. 

" A vessel from Bermuda experienced the gale from the west- 
ward, on the inner edge of the Gulf-stream. 

Another vessel from Charleston did not experience the gale. 
In lat. 37° 30^, on the inner edge of the Gulf-stream, gale 
from the westward with squalls. 



/,r. 









14 redfield's storms. 

CHAP. "On James' River, Virginia, the gale was severe from the 
_^' N.W. 

Hurricane ""^^ Norfolk, Virginia, the gale raged on the 3rd for five 
of 1821. hours, from N.N.E. to N.N.W., and terminated at the latter 
point : greatest violence at 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

"At sea, forty miles north of Cape Henry, severe at S.E. 
changing to N.W. 

" Off Chincoteagne, coast of Maryland, gale from the S. E. on 
the 3rd. 

" At Snowhill, Maryland, gale commenced at 1 1 a.m. 

" In lat. 38° 30', long. 74° 30', gale S. by E. 

" A ship from Boston, bound to Norfolk, experienced nothing 
oi^he gale. On the 3rd was in lat. 40° 19^ weather foggy, and 
light winds from S.E. 

"At Morris River, Jersey, the gale was E.S.E. 

" No hurricane was felt at Baltimore. 

" At Cape Henlopen, Delaware, the hurricane commenced at 
half-past eleven a.m. from E.S.E.*; shifted in twenty minutes to 
E.N.E., and blew very heavy for nearly an hour. A calm of half 
an hour succeeded, and the wind then shifted to the W.N.W., 
and blew, if possible, with still greater violence. 

"At Cape May, New Jersey, commenced at N.E. at 2 p.m. 
and veered to S.E. and blew with violence ; after abating fifteen 
minutes, it again blew with increased violence for two hours, and 
then abated. The sun set clear with pleasant weather ; at which 
time not a cloud was to be seen in the western horizon. 

"At Bombay Hook, near the mouth of the Delaware River, 
the gale blew from the N.N.E. and W. N.W. 

" At sea, forty miles N.E. of Cape May, the gale was at S.E., 
and lasted eight hours. 

"At Philadelphia, the storm commenced at 1 p.m. on the 3rd 
from the N.E., and raged with great violence from N.E. to N.W. 
during the greater part of the afternoon. 

"At Trenton, New Jersey, the gale commenced at 3 p.m. with 
the wind at N.E. 

" In lat. 39° 20', long. 73^ 30', the gale blew from the E.S.E. 
and S.S.E., and lasted eight hours. 

"At New York, the gale was from N.E. and E., and com- 
menced blowing with violence at 5 p.m. ; continued w^ith great 
fury for three hours, and then changed to the W. More damage 
was sustained in two hours than was ever before witnessed in 
the city -, the wind increasing in the afternoon. Tke wharvet were 



R£DFIELD*S STORMS. 15 

mferfiawed, rising thirteen feet in one hour. Previous to the gale CHAP, 
the wind was from S. to S.E., but changed to N.E. at thie com- H. 
mencement of the storm, and blew with great fury until the even- hurricane 
ing, and then shifted to the westward. of 1821. 

" At the Quarantine, Staten Island, the wind was reported at 
E.S.E. 'y other accounts fix it at E. 

''At Bridport, Connecticut, the gale commenced violent at 
S.E. at 6 P.M., and continued until 9 p.m., then shifted to N.W., 
and blew until nearly 11 p.m. 

" At New London, the gale was from 7 p.m. until midnight. 

" At Middleton, Connecticut, violent from S.E. for five hours. 

''At Springfield, Massachusetts, violent from 9 to 12 p.m.^ 
then changed to the westward. 

At Northampton, at S.E. on the same evening. 
At Worcester, Massachusetts, in the night between the 3rd 
and 4th September. 

"At Boston, the gale commenced at 10 p.m., but was not 
severe. At the time the storm was raging with its greatest fury 
at New York, the inhabitants of Boston were witnessing the ^ 
ascent of a balloon, and the aeron aut met with little or no wind. — ^"^•'vu^. > 'j, 

" The general course of this storm, northward" of Cape 
Hatteras, appears to have been S. S. W. and N. N.T^ 3 and of its 
further progress we are uninformed." — 'American Journal of 
Science, vol. xx. p. 24. 



€< 



Data on which Chart II. is constructed. 

'*This storm, or hurricane, was severe at the Island of Hurricane 
St. Thomas, on the night between the 12th and 13th of 
August, 1830. 

" On the afternoon of August 14, and the succeeding night, 
it continued its course along the Bahama Islands, the wind 
veering almost round the compass during the existence of the 
storm. 

" On the 1 5th of August the storm prevailed in the Florida 
channel, and was very disastrous in its efiects. 

'* In lat. 26° 51', long. 79° 40', in the Florida stream, the gale 
was severe on the 1 5th, from north-north-east to south-west. 

"Late on the 16th, off St. Augustine (Florida), in lat. 29° 58', 
long. 80° 20', the gale was very severe. 

" At St. Andrew's, twenty miles north of St. Mary's (Georgia), 
from 8 o'clock p m. on the 15th, to 2 a.m. on the 16th, the storm 



18 



REDFIELDS STORMS. 



CHAP. 

n. 

Hurricane 
of 1830. 



" Rate of progress from Providence to St. John's, Florida, 
sixteen miles per hour. 

" From St. John's to Cape Hatteras, North CaroHha, sixteen 
and a half miles an hour. 

*' From Cape Hatteras to Nantucket, on the south-eastern 
coast of Massachusetts, eighteen miles per hour. 

" From Nantucket to Sable Island, off the south-eastern coast 
of Nova Scotia, twenty miles per hour." 



Master of 
Illinois' 
letter. 
See 
Chart II. 



Heavy ap- 
pearance 
in South. 



Wind 
backed* 



Prepared 
for bad 
weaihcr. 



Extract of a letter from the Master of the ship 
Illinois. 

" I sailed from New Orleans on the 3rd of August, bound to 
Liverpool. 

" Nothing worth notice occurred until the 1 5th of August, in 
lat. 33° N., long. 77® W., when there was a very heavy swell 
from the south, more than I had ever experienced before in this 
part, unless preceded by heavy gales. We had no indication of 
wind at this time, but there was a dull and heavy appearance in 
the south. During the day the wind was light and at south-east, 
at night it shifted to south-south-west. 

" On the l6th it was a fresh wholesome breeze 5 so that with 
the help of the Gulf-stream we ran at a great rate, steering north- 
east, and at noon we were in lat. 36°, long. 73°. 

" The 17th the wind continued steady at south-south-west, 
blowing a strong wholesome breeze, but the appearance to the 
south continuing dull and heavy ; the sea was smooth again, and we 
seemed to have outrun the southerly swell. At noon, lat. 37^ 58', 
long. 69° 23', we were still continuing to fun about the course of 
the Gulf- stream. The temperature of the water was 86°. On 
the first part of the 18th (afternoon of the 17th current time*) 
the wind backed to south, and began tofreBhen in very fast ; some 
heavy clouds arising in the south-west with flashes of lightning 
in that quarter. At 8 p.m. the wind had increased to a strong 
gale : the weather at this time had an unusual appearance, but 
still it did not look bad. 

''At 10 the wind had increased, and we took in our sails, and 
prepared for the worst. 

"At 11 o'clock the sea ran high and cross, which induced me 
to heave the ship to, under a close- reefed topsail. 

" At half-past 12, midnight, all was darkness -, the heavy 

• Civil time. 



REDFIELDS STORMS. 



19 



clouds which had been rising in the south-west had overtaken CHAP. 



us 



the rain fell in torrents, and the lightning was uncommonly 
vivid ; the wind had, in the space of an hour, increased from a 
moderate gale to a perfect hurricane. 

" At half-past 1 a.m. it began to veer to the westward. 

" At 3 A.M. it was west, and rather increased in violence as it 
shifted. 

" At daylight the sky was clear, but the gale, if anything, rather 
increased in its fiiry; the sea was tremendous, and ran in every 
direction. 

" At 7 the wind had got to the north-west, and at 9 it began 
to abate a little. 

" I have only to add, that from an experience of twenty or 
thirty years, during which time I have been constantly navi- 
gating the Atlantic, my mind is fiilly made up that heavy winds 
or hurricanes run in the direction of whirlwinds. 

" Believe me, &c., 
(Signed) " ROBERT WATERMAN." 



II. 



Hurricane 
of 1830. 



The Blanche's place at noon on the 12th will be 
found on Chart II. At midnight the weather is stated 
in her log-book as being " calm and cloudy." 

Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Blanche^ Commodore Farquhar, Blanche's 
kept hy Mr. Middlemist, Master R.N.— /n Civil Time, ^* 



Hour. 



CouracB. 



NNW 
NNW JW 



NWbyN 

Head from £ 
toStoSEbyE 

from E to N E 



Winda. 



NEast>y 



NortWT 



NWesfy 



Remarks, &c., H. M. S. Blanche, 
August 15, 1830. 



A.M. Fresh breezes and squally; tried 
for soundings half- hourly. 3.30. Down 
fore-topmast-staysail and set fore staysail ; 
close- reefed mizen-topsail. 4. Ditto 
weather. 4.30. Close-reefed fore-topsail, 
and reefed foresail and set it. 6.30. Wore, 
dose-reefed main-topsail ; furled fore 
and mizen topsails; down top-gallant- 
yards and masts; in flying jib-boom; 
reefed and furled mainsail. 8. Strong 
gales, with yiolent squalls ; ship pitching 
and working heavily. 9. A hurricane; 
getting in jib-boom, ship made a hesyy 
plunge ; lost the boom, spritsail yard, and 
jib, and three seamen, who were unfortu- 
nately drowned ; cut away life-buoy, but 
to no effect ; both bumkins went in about 



c2 



See 
Chart n. 



for ship 



hove- to, 
and 



wind 
yeerlng. 



20 



REDFIELDS STORMS. 



CHAP. 
II. 

Blanche'! 
Log. 



Hurricane 
paaaing 
uTcr snip. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Blanche — continued. 



More 
moderate. 



Storm 
moTiog 
northward 
and leay- 
ing ship. 



Hour. 



12 



Courses. 



Head to N £ 



Winds. 



N West^y 



Remarks, &c. H.M.S. Blanche, 
August 15, 1830. 



the same time. 9*60. Both fore-topmast- 
stays went. 10. Fore- topmast carried 
away close to the cap, and fell with top- 
sail-yard on fore-yard, springing it in the 
starboard quarter ; main-topmast stay car- 
ried away ; got a hawser up and secured 
the masts ; fore and main courser split and 
blew away ; starboard cutter filled, cut her 
adrift, lost her gear ; split fore- staysail ; 
down ditto and trysail; Tiolent hurri- 
cane and heary sea ; scuttled lower deck, 
and worked chain pumps. 11. Washed 
away starboard hi. nettings. 11.30. Wind 
shifted to N W, and blew more yiolentl j ; 
bowsprit shroud carried away. 



Course. 



N£ 



Latitude. 



2r 16' N 



Longitude. 



79<» 36' W 



Bearings and Distance. 



MatinUla Reef, N £ J E 30 miles. 



R.\V. 



78^ 



P.M. 



upW 
oflfWNW 



from N £ by 
NtoNW 



1 

2 

9 

10 

12 



from W by N 
toNWbyW 



S West»y 



WbyN 



WNW 

Nby W 

North 

NbyE 

North 



Sby£ 



August 16, 1830. 

A. M. Strong gales and squally. 

12.30. Set main-staysail. 

Strong breezes and squally, rolling hea- 

■Tily ; employed clearing the wreck and 

securing the masts ; found that the main 

rigging had, during the hurricane, drawn 

considerably through the seizings, 

8. Strong gales and squally weather; 
employed turning main rigging in afresh. 

Fresh gales and squally. Lat. 30^ 12* 
N, long. 79^ 22' W. 






p. M. Ship laying oyer so much as to 
bury the starboard quarter-gallery, that 
in risins it was completely stoTe, at well 
ss the dead- lights lost, with fore-topnail, 
top- gallant, and royal staysail. 

2. More moderate ; set main-staysail. 

3. Split ditto ; bent a new one. 

4. Ditto weather; set main-staTsail ; 
jolly-boat filled, carried away laitKMird 
tackle ; cut her adrift, lost her gear. 

6. Lashed the wreck of fore-topsail and 
topsail-yard to the ship; swifted main 
rigging ; found bowsprit, mainmast* and 
fore- yard badly sprung. 

8. Strong gales ana squally ; tried re- 
peatedly to put the ship before the wind. I/T^ 

Midnight. Strong gales and squally ' ^' 
weather. 



/' 
/«-. 



w^-» 



REDFIELDS STORMS. 



21 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Blanche — continued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 
2 
4 



A.M. 
1 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 



A.M. 

1 

4 
6 



Courses. 



K|£ 



ENE 



ENE 
EbyN 

NE 
EbyN 



EbyN 
EiN 



EJN 



Winds. 



8W 



Sby W 



sw 



sw 

WNW 

SW 



Remarks, &c. H. M. S. Blanche, 
August 16, 1830. 



Bermuda, E pt. N 80 E, 772 miles. 

P.M. Fresh breezes and squally weather. 

12.30. Sent the fore-yard down. 

3.30. Wore; unbent mainsail and main- 
topsail. 

4.40. Set mizen-topsail. 

6. Strong gales and squally weather; 
set main-trysail. 

8. Strong gales, with a heavy sea. 

12. Fresh breezes and squally, with rain. 



August 17, 1830. 

A.M. Fresh breezes and squally, with 
rain. 

Fresh breezes with a heavy swell. 

Observed a ship running before the 
wind ; bent spritsul to main-topsailgyard 
as jury main- topsail ; showed our corours. 

Altered course to speakNew York Packet 
of London) from Jamaica bound to Lon- 
on ; set trysails, and resumed our course. 

Noon. Presh breezes and cloudy weather. 

Lat. 31° 42' N, long. 76° 69^ W. 

Bermuda, N 87° E, 596 miles. 



^ 



P.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. 

2.30. Bent mainsail ; reefed mtto. 

4. Ditto weather ; set mainsail. 

4.30. Got main- top-gallant-mast up for 
fore- topmast ; down main-trysail, and set 
spanker. 

7. Set main-staysail; crossed main- top- 
gallant- yard. 

9.40. Up spanker. 

11.30. Up mainsail. 

Fresh breezes and cloudy. 



August 18, 1830. 

A.M. Fresh breezes and rainy. 

3. Up foreyard and jury-topsail, and in 
main-trysail. 

4. Liffht aira and cloudy, with heavy rain, 
thunder, and lightning. 

5.30. Trimmed; set courses; observed 
a ship and barque on weather-beam. 

Squared yards ; got stump of jib-boom 
in, and pointed flying jib-boom. 

9.30. Up mainsail, and set main- trysail. 

11.30. Set spanker. 

Moderate, with rain. 

Lat. (No observation.) Long. 74° 6'. 

Bermuda, N 87° E, 477 mUes. 



CHAP. 
IL 

Blanche's 
Log. 






*♦*• 



i 

z**^ 
*«.«. 



/V'>* 



*v 






/ 



Storm 
had now 
reached 
Boston. 



22 



REDFIELDS STORMS. 



CHAP. 

n. 

Blanche'! 
Log, 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Blanche— con/tfiv^if. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks, &c., H. M. S. Blanche. 
August 18, 1830. 


P.M. 




1 


1 


BIN 


wsw 


P.M. Light aira and cloudy. 


2 




West 


3.30. Got flying jib-boom out, as a jib- 


4 




N byW 
Calm 


boom crossed ; main-royal- yards as a jury 


6 
9 


N E* * 


fore-gallant-Yard. 
Set the sail. 


10 


ENE 




Ditto weather. 


12/ 

A M. 






Up mainsail. 7.30. Trimmed. 


NE 


Calm 


12. Light airs and cloudy : trimmed ; 






set mainsail. 


August 19, 1830. 


1 


SE 


ENE 


A.M. Light aira and eUmdy, 12.10. 


2 


SSE 




Trimmed ; wore ship. 
4. Light airs and cloudy. 4.30. Trim- 


4 


NE 


Variable 


med, and set spanker. 


6 


XVF. 




7.40. Up mainsail and in jury- topsail. 


1^ i.^ JCi 




8.50. Spoke ship Ruth (of London) 


7 • 


NNE4E 




from Jamaica. 


8 


NEbyN 




11.30. Up mainsail; unbent jury-top- 
sail, &c. 


10 


NNEJE 


East 


12. Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. 


11 


NNE 




Lat. (No observation.) Long. 73® 34' W. 




Wreck Hill, N 88« SO' E, 445 mUes. 


P.M. 

1 


NNE 


East 


Moderate with rain ; discoTered a leak 


3 


NNEJE 




in alter bread-room. 

4. Moderate and cloudy ; found main- 
topsail-yard sprung in larboard quarter. 


6 


North 


Variable 


7 


NbyW 




Moderate and cloudy. 
Ditto weather. 


8 


SEbyE 




12. Moderate and cloudy. 


9 


ESE 






10 


EbyS 


NE 




11 

A.M. 


ESE 






August 20, 1830. 


1 


ESE 


NE 


A .M. Moderate and cloudy weather. 




T3 t. 


* 


4. Ditto weather. 4.30. Out fourth 




3 


East 




reef of main-topsail and second reef of 
mizen-topsail. 
7.30. Unbent main- topsail to fish the 


SEbyE 


5 


East 




yard. 


7 


EJE 


Variable 


Noon. Light breezes and fine weather. 
Lat 32« 52' N, long. 72» 43' W. 


10 




NbyE 




P.M. 








1 


EbyS 


N by E ' P.M. Moderate and fine weather. 


5 


EJS 


NNE 




10 


Eby S 




Midnight. Ditto weather. 



REDFIELDS STORMS. 



23 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Blanche — concluded. CHAP. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks, &c., H. M. S. Blanche, 
August 21, 1830. 


A.M. 

1 


EbyS 




A.M. Moderate and fine weather. 


2 


EJS 






8 


EJS 


NNE 




9 


BiS 






10 


EbyS|S 






12 


S £ by E i E 




Noon. Moderate and fine weather. 


P.M. 
1 




NE 


Lat. 32** 25' N., long. 70» 39' W. 


2 


£S£ 






3 


S E by E } E 






5 


SEbyE 






6 


SB 


ENE 




7 


SEbyE 






11 


SE by E i E 




Midnight. Fresh breezes and fine. 



Blanche's 
Log. 



The remainder of the Blanche's log, as far as the 
time of her arrival at Halifax, will be found in 
Chapter V. 

This ship had fine weather until the evening of the 
22nd, when another storm overtook her. Her place 
on the 22nd will be found on Chart II. The dotted 
circle marked on that chart is intended to represent 
the storm's place on the 25th. 

These two storms closely following each other, and 
causing changes of wind, will be further illustrated in 
Chapter V.> which treats of the Variable Winds. 



24 



canei. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 

CHAP. Whilst employed for two years and a half in the 

'- — islands of Barbados and St. Vincent, amongst the 

S^^rate ^lins caused by the hurricane of 1831, 1 had the best 
of hum- opportunity of ascertaining that the progressive rate of 
the storms is not greater than that of the ordinary 
atmospheric currents; and that hurricanes certainly 
appear to owe their destructive power to their rotatory 
velocity. 

The distance between Barbados and St. Vincent is 
nearly 80 miles. This storm began at Barbados a 
little before midnight on the 10th of August, 1831 ; 
but it did not reach St. Vincent until seven o'clock 
next morning : its rate of progress, therefore, was about 
10 miles an hour. 

A gentleman of the name of Simons, who had resided 
for forty years in St. Vincent, had ridden out at day- 
light, and was about a mile from his house, when he 
observed a cloud to the north of him, so threatening in 
appearance, that he had never seen any so alarming 
during his long residence in the tropics : he described 
it as appearing of an olive-green colour. In expecta- 
tion of terrific weather, he hastened home to nail up his 
doors and windows ; and to this precaution attributed 
the safety of his house, which is situated on the Upper 
Adelphi estate, on the east side of St. Vincent, and 
opposite the centre of the island. Mr. Simons described 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 



25 



the effects of the storm to me, on the spot from whence c fi a p. 
he first saw the cloud, in the north. ! — 

The centre of this hurricane, coming from the east- 
ward, seems to have passed a little to the north of 
Barbados and St. Vincent; and Mr. Redfield has traced 
its course to the southern United States of America, as 
may be seen on Chart III. 

The annexed figure will assist in explaiaiDg this, 
and make the account of it, here reprinted, more 
intelligible. 

The easternmost circles are intended to represent 
the whirlwind hurricane as it set in at Barbados, and 




26 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 



CHAP, the westernmost circles are meant to represent the 
! — same whirlwind storm when its centre was over the 

southern part of the island of St. Lucia and the wind 

blowing from the south at Barbados. 

The following account of the Barbados hurricane of 

1831 is taken from that published at Bridgetown in 

that island immediately after it occurred. 



Mornins 
before tne 
Btonn. 



Noon. 



4 p.m. 



6 p.m. 



7 p.m. 



9 p.m. 



10 p.m. 

wind 

NNE. 



" On the 10th of August, 1831, the sun rose without a doad, 
and shone resplendently. At 10 a.m. a gentle breeze which had 
been blowing died away. After a temporary calm, hig^h winds 
sprang up from the east-north-east, which in their turn subsided. 
For the most part calms prevailed, interrupted by occasional 
sudden pufis from between the north and north-east. 

" At noon the heat increased to 87°, and at 2 p.m. to 88°, at 
which time the weather was imcommonly sultry and oppressive. 

" At 4 the thermometer sank again to 86°. At 5 the clouds 
seemed gathering densely from the north, the wind commencing^ 
to blow freshly from that point : then a shower of rain fell, fol- 
lowed by a sudden stillness ; but there was a dismal blackness 
all round. Towards the zenith there was an obscure circle of 
imperfect light, subtending about 35 or 40 degrees. 

" From 6 to 7 the weather was fair, and wind moderate, with 
occasional slight puffs from the north ; the lower and principal 
stratum of clouds passing fleetly towards the south, the higher 
strata a scud, rapidly flying t^ various points. 

" At 7 the sky was clear and the air calm : tranquillity reigned 
until a little after 9, when the wind again blew from the north. 

" At half-past 9 it freshened, and moderate showers of rain 
fell at intervals for the next hour. 

" Distant lightning was observed at half- past 1 in the north- 
north-east and north-west. Squalls of wind and rain from the 
north-north-east, with intermediate calms succeeding each other 
until midnight. The thermometer meantime varied with re- 
markable activity : during the calms it rose as high as 86°, and 
at other times it fluctuated from 83° to 85°. It is necessary to 
be thus explanatory, for the time the storm commenced and the 
manner of its approach varied considerably in different situa- 
tions. Some houses were actually levelled to the earth, when 
the residents of others, scarcely a mile apart, were not sensible 
that the weather was unusually boisterous. 




BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 27 



" After midnight the continued flashing of the lightning was CHAP, 
awfully grand^ and a gale hlew fiercely from the north and HI. 
north-east 5 but at 1 a.m. on the 1 1th of August the tempestuous |^-^- v« 
rage of the wind increased 3 the storm^ which at one time blew l a.m. 
from the north-east, suddenly shifted from that quarter, and 
burst from the north-west and intermediate points. The upper Storm's 
regions were from this time illuminated by incessant lightning; *^®"^®' 
but the quivering sheet of blaze was surpassed in brilliancy by 
the darts of electric fire which were exploded in every direction. 
At a little after 2 the astounding roar of the hurricane, which 2 a.m. 
rushed from the north-north-west and north-west, cannot be ^NW. 
described by language.'*' About 3 the wind occasionally abated, 3 a.m. 
but intervening gusts proceeded from the south-west, the west, 
and west-north-west, with accumulated fury. 

*' The lightning also having ceased, for a few moments only Lightning. 
at a time, the blackness in which the town was enveloped was 
inexpressibly awful. Fiery meteors were presently seen falling 
from the heavens ; one in particular, of a globular form and a 
deep red hue, was observed by the writer to descend perpen- 
dicularly from a vast height. It evidently fell by its specific 
gravity, and was not shot or propelled by any extraneous force. 
On approaching the earth with accelerated motion, it assumed a 
dazzling whiteness and an elongated form 3 and dashing to the 
ground in Beckwith-square, opposite to the stores of Messrs. 
H. D. Grierson and Co., it splashed around in the same manner 
as melted metal would have done, and was instantly extinct. In 
shape and size it appeared much like a common barrel-shade ;t 
its brilliancy and the spattering of its particles on meeting the 
earth gave it the resemblance of a body of quicksilver of equal 
bulk. A few minutes after the appearance of this phenomenon, 
the deafening noise of the wind sank to a solemn murmur, or, 
more correctly expressed, a distant roar, and the lightning, 
which from midnight had flashed and darted forkedly with few 
and but momentary intermissions, now, for a space of nearly 
half a minute, played frightfully between the clouds and the 
earth with novel and surprising action. The vast body of vapour 

* Lieutenant-Colonel Nickle, commanding the d6th regiment, who had 
sought protection by getting under an arch of a lower window, outside his 
house, did not hear the roof and upper story fall ; and was only assured this 
had occurred by the dust caused by the falling ruins. 

t A barrel'Shade is the name for the glass cylinder put OTer candles in 
the tropics. 



\. 




28 BARBADOS hurrican:e of 1831. 

CHAP, appeared to touch the houses, and issued downward flaming 
in. blazes which were nimbly returned from the earth upward. 

" The moment after this singular alternation of li^tmng, the 
hurricane again burst from the western points with violence 
prodigious beyond description, hurling before it thousands of 
missiles — the fragments of every unsheltered structure of httman 
art. The strongest houses were caused to vibrate to their fonn- 
dations, and the surface of the very earth trembled as the 
destrojrer raged over it. No thunder was at any thne distinctly 
heard. The horrible roar and yelling of the wind, the noise of 
the ocean — whose frightful waves threatened the town with the 
destruction of all that the other elements might spare— ^the 
clattering of tiles, the falling of roofs and walls, and the com* 
bination of a thousand other sounds, formed a hideous and 
appalling din. No adequate idea of the sensationiB Which then 
distracted and confounded the faculties, can possibly be convejred 
to those who were distant from the scene of terror. 

'^ After 5 o*clock the storm, now and then for a few momenta 
abating, made clearly audible the falling of tiles and baildin|^ 
materials, which by the last gust had probably been carried to a 
lofty height. 

6 a.m. " At 6 a.m. the wind was at south, and at 7 south-east ; at 

^^xh. ^ east-south-east 3 and at 9 there was again dear weather. 

• « « « 

" As soon as dawn rendered outward objects visible, the 
Writer, anxious to ascertain the situation of the shipping, pro- 
ceeded, bnt with difficulty, to the wharf. The rain at the time 
was driven with such force as to injure the skin, and was so 
thick as to prevent a view of any object much beyond the head 
of the pier. The prospect was majestic beyond description. The 
gigantic waves rolling onwards seemed as if they would defy all 
obstruction j yet as they broke over the careenage they seemed 
to be lost, the surface of it being entirely covered with floating 
wrecks of every description. It was an undulating body of 
lumber* — shingles, staves, barrels, trusses of hay, and every 
kind of merchandise of a buoyant nature. Two vessels only 
were afloat within the pier 3 but numbers could be seen which 
had been capsized, or thrown on their beam-ends in shallow 
water. 

" On reaching the summit of the cathedral tower, to whichever 

* Lumber is the American tenn for timber ; and 9hingU$ are made of split 
blocks of wood, and are used instead of tiles and slates for roofs. 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 29 

point of the compass the eye was directed^ a grand but distressing CHAP, 
picture of ruin presented itself. The whole face of the country ^^* 
was laid waste ; no sign of vegetation was apparent^ except here 
and there small patches of a sickly green. The surface of the 
ground appeared as if fire had run through the land^ scorching 
and burning up the productions of the earth. The few remaining 
trees^ stripped of their boughs and foliage^ wore a cold and 
wintry aspect -, and the numerous seats in the enV|rons of 
Bridgetown, formerly concealed amid thick groves^ weve now 
exposed and in ruins. 

" From the direction in which the cocoa-nut and other ^rees 
were prostrated next to the earth, the first that fell must have 
been blown down by a north-north-east wind ; but far the 

« 

greater number were rooted up by the blast from the north- 
west." 

The centre of this storm appears to have passed a 
little to the north of Barbados, and over the southern 
extremity of St. Lucia ; and its further progress may 
be seen on Chart III. 

On the evening of the 10th no unusual appearance St. Lacia. 
had been observed at St. Lucia ; but as early as 4 or * ».ni. 

. . Aug. 11th. 

5 o'clock next morning the garrison, stationed near 
the northern extremity of the island, began to be 
alarmed : some hut-barracks were blown down, and 
the wind was then nearly north. 

The storm was at its greatest height between 8 and 
10 o'clock in the morning; but from that time the loa.m. 
wind gradually veered round to the east, diminishing 
in force and dwindling as it were to nothing in the 
south-east^ and it was succeeded by a beautiful evening, 
with scarcely a breath of wind. 

At the southern extremity of the island the most 
violent part of the storm is reported to have been from 
the south-west. 

At St. Vincent the garrison was at Fort Charlotte, St. Vln- 

cent 

near the south-west point of the. island ; and there the 



30 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 



CHAP, wind first set in from north-west, veerinff to west and 

III. . . . 

- to south-westy raising the water of the sea in Kingston 

Bay so as to flood the streets ; and it unroofed several 

of the buildings in the fort, and blew down others: 

but at Martinique (as will be seen from the following 

report printed in the " London Shipping List *' for 

1831), the wind was easterly during the gale. 



Wind 
West. 



Marti- 
nique. 
Wind 

East. 



Otf Gre- 
nada. 
Wind 
Westerly. 



Dominica. 



Effect of 
electriciiy 
on forest 
trees. 



'^Paris^ Sep. 15, 1831. — ^The Martial airived at Havre from 
Martinique; sailed on the 15th of August. On the 1 1th of 
August a gale at east was experienced there which lasted six 
hours. The plantations suffered severely. Two vessels belong- 
ing to Bordeaux, and all the Americans at anchor in the road of 
St. Pierre, were driven out to sea." 

The army schooner, the Duke of York, on her 
return from Trinidad to Barbados during this hurri- 
cane, was in sight of Grenada in the evening, and to 
the eastward of that island. About midnight she first 
began to experience hard squalls from the north-west^ 
which caused the master to take in sail. The squalls 
increased until the vessel could carry no sail at all, 
and she was expected every moment to founder. 
Happily, at daylight, those on board of her unex- 
pectedly found themselves drifted close to the island 
of Barbados, the cause of which will be evident on 
inspection of the figure given in page 25, where her 
place is marked. 

The hurricane was felt at Dominica, but I have not 
learned in what direction the wind blew there. 

A great part of the island of St. Vincent is covered 
with forest, and a large portion of the trees at its 
northern extremity were killed without being blown 
down. These I frequently examined in 1832; and 
they appeared to have been killed, not by the wind. 




BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 31 

but by the extraordinary quantity of electric matter chap. 
rendered active during the storm. '. — 

Most accounts of great hurricanes represent the 
quantity of electric matter exhibited to be very great ; 
and the description given by Hughes of a great storm, 
which occurred at Barbados during the night of the 
31st of August, 1675, is nearly the same as that of 
1831. He states, that the lightning darted, not with 
its usual short-lived flashes, but in rapid flames, skim- 
ming over the surface of the earth, as well as mount- 
ing to the upper regions. 

During the severest period of the hurricane at Bar- 
bados, on the night of the 10th of August, 1831, two 
negroes were greatly terrified by sparks passing off* 
from one of them. This took place in the garden of 
Codrington College ; and it was related to me on the 
spot where it happened, by the Rev. Mr. Pindar, the 
Principal of that College. Their hut in the garden 
had just been blown down, and in the dark they were 
supporting each other, and endeavouring to reach the 
main building. 

In the work I have quoted on this Barbados hurri- No earth- 
cane, allusions are made to the declarations of some 
persons, that they felt shocks of earthquakes during 
the storm. But after attentively listening to the 
opinions of different people on this point, and careful 
examination of the ruins with reference to it, I feel 
persuaded there are no sufficient reasons for believing 
that any earthquake occurred at this period : and it is 
very material to the success of the present investiga- 
tion, that the phenomena of hurricanes and earth- 
quakes should not be connected together without 
proof. The ancient Charibs, and after them many of 




32 BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 

CHAP, the European settlers, seem to have thought no power 
' but that of earthquakes sufficient to cause these tem- 



pests which suddenly disturb their regular climate. 

The following paragraph occurs in the same woi^: 
Mr. Benjamin Grittens relates, that at his property, 
called Tubbs's, ^' About two p.m. of the 10th o( 
Lidica- August, he observed indications of approaching bad 
hurricane. Weather; and at four, intimated to his negroes that 
a hurricane might be expected. At six, he bid them 
not quit their homes, as a dreadful storm was approach- 
ing, and if they went abroad they would probably be 
seen no more. At nine, the indications which caused 
his apprehensions were less apparent, and he retired 
to rest. It is well known that this gentleman foretold 
the storm of 1819, some hours previous to any other 
person suspecting such an event. The indicaticHis 
observed by Mr. Gittens were — 1 st. The darting for^ 
ward of the clouds in divided portions, and with fleet 
irregular motion, not as if borne by the wind, but 
driven as it were before it. 2ndly. The distant roar 
of the elements, as of wind rushing through a hollow 
vault. 3rdly. The motion of the branches of trees, 
not bent forward as by a stream of air, but constantly 
whirled about/' 
Bermuda. The undulatious of the sea caused by this hurricane 

The iwell '' 

ofihesea. reached the Bermudas, where they broke against the 
south shore of those islands. Whilst the storm was 
passing over the West Indies on the 1 1th, 12th, and 

White 13th, white objects appeared of a light blue, so de- 

app^Jred cidedly as to attract the attention of all the inhabitants. 

iig t blue. jj. jg ^j^^g recorded in the Bermuda Gazette. 

"Appearance before a Hurricane, Barbados Hurricane, 1831. 
"It is worthy of remark, that on the II th, 19th« and ISth of 




BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1831. 33 

August^ 1831, the sun here bore a blue appearance, and where it CHAP, 
shone in rooms, or elsewhere, it was also blue : this was about ^^I* 
the time of the hurricane of Barbados." 

The crews of vessels off Bermuda observed the same 
appearance, their sails appearing blue ; and the same 
is said to have been observed by ships as far west as 
the coast of America. 

Dr. John Frith, of Bermuda, was at sea on the Appear- 

&I1CG off 

afternoon of the 11th of August, 1831, becalmed a St. Kitu. 
few miles north of St. Kitts. He informed me that 
the appearance of the day was that of evening when 
the sun had set, and the full moon risen. 

The only information relative to the fall of the Barome- 
barometer I have been able to obtain, is contained 
in the following extract from a note from Lieutenant 
Byrne, Fort Adjutant at Barbados, addressed to Arch- 
deacon Eliot. Lieutenant Byrne says : — 

" On reference to my notcs^ I find that at eight o'clock at 
nighty on the 10th of August, the barometer stood at thirty 
inches, and at two o'clock in the morning of the 1 1th of August, 
it had sunk to 29*40 ; and my informant, on whose statement I 
can rely^ states, that he is almost confident, by four o'clock^ it 
must have sunk below twenty-eight inches.** 



36 BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1835. 

CHAP, about east-norlfe-east : but before half an hour more, 

IV 

! — it had come on to blow so violently, that with diffi- 
culty could persons keep their feet. 

Wind The wind, at first east-north-east, veered gradtuilly 

more and more to the east, and then having reached 

▼eeringto the cast Continued veering towards the south, until 
at the conclusion of the storm it blew into Carlisle 
Bay, just round the Cape, on which Fort Charles is 
situated, as marked on Chart IV. 

H.M.S. One dotted line on the chart shows the probable 

Spitfire. . * 

course of the centre of this storm ; and another line 
parallel to it shows the portion of it which would pass 
over Carlisle Bay ; and this last line will explain the 
mode of the veering of the wind. H. M. steam-vessel 
Spitfire (commanded by Lieutenant Kennedy) was 
lying in the bay ; and her log, as well as that of the 
Champion, has been procured from the Admiralty ; 
and both are here inserted. The fires of the Spitfire's 
boilers not being lighted, she did not go to sea until 
11 A.M. By steering to the westward, both vessels 
remained for a longer period of time subject to the 
influence of the hurricane ; and it will be found in 
pursuing the examination of various reports of ships. 
Ships that vessels often sail with the storm, when they scud 

soraetimet . , 

sail with m a humcaue. 

During this storm several boats were driven to sea 
from their anchors at Speightstown on the north-west 
side of Barbados; and one large boat, which had 
broke from her moorings, was found at St. Lucia. 
Another boat having one man on board returned to 
Barbados, after being several days at sea. 

This storm abated at Barbados about one o'clock in 
the afternoon, and by two was altogether over. 



the Btorm. 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1835. 



37 



About half-past three in the afternoon it would chap. 

appear that the ship Champion was in the centre of '- — 

the tempest, and by her course she must have crossed 
from the right-hand side to the left, of the course of 
the hurricane. At midnight she still was in the gale ; 
but by one in the morning of September 4th it was 
over at the place she then occupied. 

The Spitfire steering west-south-west from Carlisle 
Bay, and going at the rate of five, six, and seven 
knots an hour, lost her mainmast at four in the after- 
noon, by which time she also was in the left-hand side 
of the hurricane's course ; but by eight in the evening 
she appears to have got out of the storm. 

This storm was felt only in a slight degree at St. 
Vincent. 

The place of the Nightingale packet, arriving from 
England and approachiug Barbados, will be found on 
the chart ; and an extract from her log-book is like- 
wise inserted. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Champion^ kept by 

W. Parker, Master. 



Hour, 



A.M. 

1 



i 2.30 

I 4 

I 5.40 

I 

G.15 



7 
8 



Courses. 



£iS 



^i 



:^ 



Winds. 



Thursday, Sept. 3, 1835. 



NNE 



A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy ; braced 
up on starboard tack, head off shore ; ex- 
tremes of the island of Barbados, N W by 
WiW. 

2.30» Furled the mainsail. 

4. Squally, with rain. 

5.40. Bore up, set the foresail, jib, and 
driTer. 

6.15. Squally, with thick heavy rain; 
up foresail and driver, down iib \ wore 
ship's head off shore ; lowered topsails, 
and close reefed them. 

7. Wore and set the courses. 7.45. Made 
our number to the sisnal station, Barbados. 

8. Up courses and hove-to ; found lying 
here H.M. steam-vessel Spitfire ; the com- 
mander of ditto came on board ; bore- up : 
out fourth and third reef; set the top- 



H. M. S. 
Champion 
off Bar- 
bados. 
See 
Chart rv. 






l$J(^^ 



^J^ 



Left Car* 
lisle Bay. 



38 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1835. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Champion — comtumed. 

IV. 



Storm 

OTertaking 

ship. 



U^^^ 






Storm's 
centre. 



Hour. 



A.M. 



9 



10 



Noon 
>^ 

P.M. 
1 



1.20 



2.30 
3.40 



5.40 

6 

6.30 
7&8 

11 
Midn. 



A.M. 



Courses. 



WbyN 



WbyN JN 



W by N 1 N 



ii^ 



Winds. 



N£ 



NEbyN 



SWoffWSW 

SWbyS 



Head from N 
toNE 



NNE 
SSW 



ssw 



8 

9 

10 



11 



WbyN 



W by N J N 



ESE 
Easterly 



ESE 



Thursday, Sept. 3, 1836. 



eallant-sails. Needham's Point, E 8 £, 
half a mile ; set courses. 

9. Squally; in top-eallant-aails, np 
mainsail, down top-gaUant-yards, and 
struck the masts. 

10.30. In three reefii of the topsail; 
furled Uie misen ditto; reefed the foreMul, 
and set it. 

Noon. Strong gales, with thick rain. 

Lat. d. r. 13^ 16* 24" N, long. d. r. 60* 
14' 40". 

Point ^-"-Mj-Hj St Lucia, N 6r» W, 
50 miles. 

P.M. Strong gales, with thidc rain ; 
close reefed the fore and main-topsails ; 
bent the storm-stavsails; sent t^>-gal- 
lant-masts and stua*sail booms on deck, 
and made all snug aloft. 

1.20. HesTT squalls; furled fore-top- 
sail, up foresail, in main- topsail, and furled 
them. 

2. Set the main-trysail and fbre and 
main-sta]rsails. 2.20. Brailedupthetrysail, 
down main-staysail ; wore ship's head to 
the eastward ; down fore-staysaiL 

2.30. A tremendous heary hurricane ; 
brought to the wind under bare poles. 3.40. 
The wind moderated and shifted suddenly 
round, with heavy rain, to the opposite, and 
blew most riolently ; a sea over the stem. 

6.40. Washed the dingy and life buoy 
from the stem. 

6. The wind moderated ; set the main- 
staysail and main-trysail. 

6.30. Strong gales ; down main-staysail, 

8. Strong gales and squally, with rain ; 
set the fore-staysail. 

Midnight. Strong gales and squall j, 
with rain ; wore ship. 

Friday, Sept. 4, 1836. 

A.M. Moderate and cloudy. 

4. Wore ship; down main* staysail. 
Day-liffht. Saw the high land of 8t. 
Lucia, rf W by W, 15 or 16 miles ; mode- 
rate and cloudy ; made sail to single- 
reefed top- sail and fore-sail. 

8. Point Moliciqua, N £, 4 miles ; mo- 
derate, with rain. 

10. Sent the top-gallant-msst up, and 
fidded ditto; crossed top- gallant- yards, 
and set top- gallant- sails; sent the stud- 
sail-boom and small sails up, and loosed 
them to dry ; carpenter employed repair- 
ing hammock-nettings, and other defects. 

11. Out first reefs of the topsail. 






)fC^ 






BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1835. 



39 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Champion — concluded, CHAP. 

* IV. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Friday, Sept. 4, 1835. 


A.M. 

Noon 


WNW 




Noon. Moderate and cloudy ; Sugar-loaf 
Hill, St. Lucia, E, 13 miles. ObserTations, 








'B '%M 






13^48' 8" N Altofela, N by W, 125 maet. 


r.M. 

1 


WNW 


SEbvE 


P.M. Moderate and fair. 


8 




ENE 


Ditto weather. 


11 




EbyS 


Ditto. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. Steam-Vessel Spitfire, 


Barbados, Lieut. A. Kennedy, Commanding) kept by 


Samnel Lillinop, Second Master. 


Hour. 


Courses. 

• • « • • • • • 


Winds. 


Thursday, Sept. 3, 1835. 


A.M. 

1 


NE 


A. M. Fresh breeses and cloudy, threaten- 


8 






ing weather, with rain at times. At 8, ar- 
riTedH.M.S. Champion; commander went 


8.45 






on board per signal. 8.45. Sailed H.M.8. 


9.50 






Champion. 9.50. Lit the fires ; every ap- 


10 






pearance of a hurricane. At 10, a hard 
gale, heaTY sea making in the bay ; seTeral 
sail sUpt their cables ; seTeral boats that 














were lying at the engineer's wharf were 








sunk at their moorings ; sent a boat to their 








assistance, but found it impossible from the 


10.30 






wind and sea to make head-way. 10.30. 
The anchor came home, the wind blowing a 


11 






heavy gale. At 1 1, finding it impossible to 
ride the hurricane, slipt the cable with a 














long buoy-rope, 60 fathoms of chain, wind 


11.16 






blowing a hurricane from N E. At 11.15, 
the dingy was blown from the stem ; the gig 
swamped and lost ; the cutter was blown 
in-board| and stove in several places ; the 
masts, sa^, and oars of the boats were lost. 


NOOD 




Veered 


Noon. Blowing ahurricane; wind veered 






to south- 


round to the southward and westward, 






ward and 


sea making a complete breach over the 






west- 


ship ; hove 73 bags of coals overboard to 






ward 


lighten ship. 


P.M. 

1 


wsw 




No observation. 


P.M. Still blowing a hurricane ; main- 


2 




Variable 


trysail, fore-staysail, and jib blown from 


3 






die bolt-rope; ship labouring very much; 
fore-trysail was blown from the gaskets, 














and a great part of it lost ; main-trysail- 








ga£r carried away. 


4 






At 4, the mainmast went, about three 


5 






feet below the deck, and fell across the 



Spitfire in 
Carlisle 
Bay. 
Lighted 
fires and 
put to sea. 
see 
Chart IV. 



Crossed 
storm- 
track. 



Mainmast 
wont. 



40 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1835. 



CHAP. Extract from the Loir of H. M. Steam- Vessel Spitfirk — ctmcbukd. 
IV. * 



See 
Chart IV. 



Nightin- 
gale 

within the 
circuit of 
storm. 



Hour. 


Couraei. 


Winds. 


Thursday, Sept. 8, 18S6. 


A.M. 

6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 


SW JS 
8W 




larboard quarter, breaking the rail« two 
stancheons, and splitting the coTeiing- 
board ; six hammocks were washed oat 
of the netting, and larboard binnacle 
quarter-deck, and fore-hammoek-clothe. 

8. More moderate. 

12. Fresh breexes, and doudj weather. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. Brig Niohtinoaub. 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Wednesday, Sept. 2, 1835. 


A.M. 

1 

Noon 

P.M. 

1 
4.30 

8 

A.M. 

1 

8 

10 
12 

P.M. 

1 
2 
4 
8 
9 


,...*■.. 


ENE 
ENE 

ENE 
ENE 

E 
E 

SE 

S 

SSE 
SE 


Fresh breezes and cloudy. 
Lat. \A^ 34', long. 66'' 4(r. Barbados, 
S 73, W 261. 

Fresh breezes and squally. 
Heavj squalls, with rain ; in aU stud- 
ding-sails ; close-reefed the topaaUa. 
Squally, with rain. 


Thursday, Sept. 8, 1836. 

Squally, unsettled weather. 

Squally, with rain ; furled all aaila ; 
down the top- gallant- yards and maat* 
and got fljring jib-boom on deck. 

Bent the storm-sails, and set them. 

Sun obscured. 

lAt. d. r. 13° 10', long. 67** 64^. Bar- 
bados, south point. 8 86, W 102. 

Strong gales and squally. 

Set the topsails and course. 

Strong breezes and dark cloudy weather. 

Moderate breezes and cloudy. 

Saw the island of Barbados, bearing 
W, distant three or four leagues, aou^ 
point bearing W 8 W. Midn. North ex- 
tremity of the island W 13 N. 



The wind is stated as blowing from the south-east 
and east-south-east, until the evening of the 4th, 
when it became east-north-east, and the Nightingale 
anchored in Carlisle Bay, at 7.15, p.m.; and was 
soon afterwards despatched after the Spitfire, supposed 
to have been in sight, dismasted. 



Barbados. 



BARBADOS HURRICANE OF 1835. , 41 

"Liverpool, Oct. 22, 1835. — The island of Barbados was CHAP, 
visited with a severe hurricane on the 3rd of September. The ^^- 
sloop Goldhunter, of St. Vincent, was lost -, crew saved. The 
mail-boat, Lady Lyon, was capsized and sunk ; one man saved. 
The mail-boats, Nancy and Mary and Placid, were stranded. 
The Manchester and Montague lost foremasts ; and the Firefly, 
Ariel, and Barbados, were driven out to sea, and they had not 
returned on the 14th of September. 

" H. M. steamer Spitfire, the Hebe, of London, and several 
other vessels put to sea ; the Spitfire was driven into Grenada 
with damage and loss of mainmast -, and the Hebe returned on 
the 9th under jury-masts, having been dismasted. The gale 
extended to St. Lucia ; and the north end of that island was 
strewed with lumber and pieces of wrecked vessels. The Thomas 
Parker was driven there from Barbados, dismasted. H. M. S. 
Nightingale arrived at Barbados on the 4th of September.*'— 
From the London Shipping List q/" 1835. 



A ship at anchor, in such a storm as the one here Ground 
detailed, where the wind blows into the bay in which 
she is riding, affords the best opportunity for ascer- 
taining the height of the waves in hurricanes, when 
vessels are observed by persons on shore. The main- 
mast of the Spitfire has been ascertained to measure 
ninety -two feet in length : and some observations were 
taken with a view to this inquiry into the height of the 
waves before she slipped her cable to go to sea, but as 
they were not committed to writing at the time, they 
cannot be relied upon. 

In ordinary gales of wind on the south coast of Height of 
England, I found, in 1836, the height of the waves 
measure twelve feet, by a graduated pile on the outer 
end of the Brighton chain-pier, and they proceeded 
forward at the rate of twelve miles an hour. In 
1837, during gales rather more severe, the waves were 
observed at the same place, by Captain Alderson, 
Royal Engineers ; they were then found to be thirteen 



waves. 



% 



tions. 



of undula- 
tions. 



42 GROUND SWELLS EXPLAINED. 

CHAP, and a half feet high, and proceeding at the rate of 
' nineteen miles an hour ; but the height of the barome- 
ter was not noted at the time. In the deep sea of the 
Atlantic, Captain Fitz Roy measured the height of the 
waves by ascending the rigging of a frigate, and found 
them to be sixty feet high, computed from the trough. 

inunda- The diminished atmospheric pressure probably allows 
the undulations of the sea to rise higher in storms, as 
is the case with the tides: and this may be another 
cause, as well as the wind, why great disasters often 
occur from inundations during storms. 

Progress If uudulatious wcrc to proceed forward no faster 
than nineteen miles an hour during hurricanes, still 
the waves would considerably precede the storm. 
This chapter, together with Chart IV., tends to ex- 
plain what is called a ground swell ; and the reasons 
for the uncertainty of seaman, whether a ground swell 
does or does not bespeak a coming storm : for a ship 
on the shaded portion of the plan would have the 
swell, and yet not experience the storm. 

It was long supposed that the undulations in water 
were merely on the surface, and that the motion of 
the particles of water was vertical. Recent researches 
prove that this opinion is not correct, and seem clearly • 
to show that the effect of heavy waves is propagated 
downwards. The great waves which are raised by 
hurricanes, affect the sea by degrees to an unknown 
depth ; but rolling onwards until they reach sound- 
ings and shallower water, they are there found to act 
powerfully against the bottom. These are strictly 
"Ground Swells;" of which further illustration will 
be given in the progress of this work. 

A short time before this there had been a hurricane 



ANTIGUA HURRICANE OF 1835. 43 

at Antigua and St. Kitts. At Antigua it happened chap. 
on the 12th of August, 1835; the wind during the 



first part blowine from the north, and during the ^^j?^* 

r o ' o hurricane 

latter part from the south, with a calm of twenty SfJ®^^* 
minutes in the middle of it. From this account, the 
centre probably passed over Antigua. 

The barometer was observed to fall 1 .4 inch ; and 
the sympiesometer was much agitated, and fell pro- 
portionably. 

Trees were blown down, as if forming lanes, an Gusts. 
effect which has been remarked in many other de- 
scriptions of hurricanes ; and at its commencement the 
wind was described as coming in gusts.* 

The course of the storm, which passed over Antigua 
on the 12th of August, has been traced by Mr. Red- 
field, and will be found on Chart III. 

It has been said that hurricanes are not met with storms do 
to the eastward of the West India islands ; but this is ea«twwd 
not correct. A ship met the Barbados hurricane of west 
1831 to the eastward of that island. Two of the hur- Sfids. 
ricanes of 1837 I have traced to the eastward of the 
West Indies; and there seems no reason to believe 
that they are caused by the islands, as some persons 
imagine. 

Whatever their cause may be, that cause seems to Rotatory 
act with very different degrees of intensity at different Jways"*^' 
periods ; for the usual atmospheric current, or trade- ■^''"•* 
wind, is sometimes disturbed, the veering and changes 
indicating a rotatory movement of part of the atmo- 
sphere, without proving destructive. Such an instance 
occurred on the 9th and 10th of July, 1837; and 

* From a verbal statement of Major Barry, R.E., who was at that time at 
Antigua. 



44 



A ROTATORY GALE 



Clouds in 
this gale 
mistaken 
for land. 



CHAP, this is also another instance in proof that storms come 

'. from the eastward of the West India islands. 

The gale about to be mentioned was met to the 
eastward of Barbados, both by the ships Trinidad and 
Castries ; but I have not been able to trace the first 
ship. Mr. Mondel, as well as all his crew and passen- 
gers, appears to have taken one of the squalls for 
land; and it seems to have passed very nearly over 
the same track as that on Chart IV., the centre pass- 
ing over St. Lucia. At St. Vincent the wind became 
west. 

Extract of a letter from Liverpool. 

" On the 9th July, the Castries (Mondel), from Liverpool to 
St. Lucia, in lat. 15^ 4\ long. 54^ 58', having the wind then at 
east-south -eastj the master being confident in his reckoning, bis 
mate suddenly reported^ ' Land on the lee-bow !' the man at the 
helm pointing it out at the same time : it had all the appearance 
of the broken outline of the West India islands, and looked as if 
within a mile and a half from them. Never doubting but that it 
was land, the captain trimmed his sails, that he might alter his 
course : when he had finished, he again looked for the land, 
when nothing like it was visible. On Reaching St. Lucia, and 
hearing that there had been a hurricane there on the 10th, he 
concluded that what he had seen was this storm. The Castries 
had no barometer on board.'* 



Ship 
Castries. 



The following is Mr. Mondel's account : 

"Noon, 9th July, nautical time (8th xivil time)^ wind east- 
north-east. At 3^ 52" 3", long, per sun and moon 51^ 33' west ; 
4^8" 9", long, per chronometer, 51° 59' west j cloudy weather. 
At midnight strong breezes, and much lightning 3 2 a.m. heavy 
squalls and rain. At noon, lat. by account 1 5° 3', by observation 
15° 4'; long, by chronometer 54° 58', by observation 54° 18'; 
north point of St. Lucia, south 81° 12' west j 353 miles. 

"At 8*" 16" 45', long, per moon and * Antares 54° 41^^ 
Noon, 10th July, nautical time (9th civil time), commences cloudy 
wpBther. At 3.30. p.m. was alarmed by the officer on deck 



A ROTATORY GALE. 45 

calling out ' Land a-head !' I ran up from below, and there, to CHAP, 
my astonishment, saw what appeared to be the land, about two ^^' 
miles distant, the vessel sailing seven to eight miles per hour. 
We took in all staysails and stood to the south (wind east-south- 
east), which might have occupied six or eight minutes to accom- 
plish, in which all appearance of land had subsided. So strongly 
the appearance of land did this phenomenon assume, that even 
the Irish passengers saw it, or believed they saw it ; and I have 
a perfect recollection of one of them calling down the hatchway 
to his comrades, ' Arrah, by Jasus, boys, here's the land close-to.* 
Every seaman on board saw it, and would have sworn it was the 
land, had they not been convinced to the contrary by the course 
steered. I had some difficulty to convince two gentlemen that 
were passengers that it was not the land, nor were they altogether 
assured until we saw Barbados. At noon, lat. by log 14^ 28', 
by observation 14° 57'; loiig. by chronometer 57° 42', by ob- 
servation 57° 14'; current 29 miles north; north point of St. 
Lucia, south 75° 32' west; 188 miles. 

" 1, King Street. ~ (Signed) "J. MONDEL, Jun." 



" The barque Trinidad, from the Clyde, experienced a severe Ship 
gale of wind, approaching to a hurricane, on Sunday last, the ^ ' 

9th July, to the eastward of Barbados." — From the Port of Spain 
Gazette, July 10, 1837. 



Extract from a letter in Lloyd's Books, dated Bar- 
bados. 

"The whole of the 9th July the wind blew strong from north- Barbados, 
east, with occasional heavy gusts, until 7 p.m., when it came in ^ ^ ^ 
a severe gale. At 10 ».m. the wind moderated for a short time, S.E. 
when it began again, with increased violence, from south-east and 
south-south-east, until daylight next morning, when the gale 
abated. The schooners Mjrrtle and St. Andrews were driven on 
shore on the Pelican reef, to the leeward of Carlisle Bay." 



" The gale on the 9th July did some injury to the mills and 
houses in Barbados." — From the West Indian, July 10. 



46 A HOTATORY GALE. 

CHAP. "St. Lucia, July IQth. — The island received a severe gak 
^^* from the north and from the south, on the evening of Sunday, 

St Lucia ^^^ J^y> ^^^ ^^c morning of Monday^ XOth July, 1837> during 
Wind N. which the schooner Mary £llice (M'Lean), then lying in the bay 
and s. ^£ Vieux Fort, was driven on the rocks, and the drogher £liza 
driven on shore." — From Lloyd's Books, 

(Signed) "WM. MASTERS/* 



St. Vin- "St. Vincent, July 10th. — ^The weather has been boisterous 

Wnd during the night, and the wind was at west,** — Ihid, 

west. 



48 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. These have been traced, and are laid down on Charts 

V. 

'. — V. and VI. The earlier of the two passed over Bar- 
bados on the morning of the 26th of July ; at ten the 
same night it was at Martinique, by which hour it was 
all over at Barbados ; at midnight on the 26th and 
morning of the 27th it reached Santa Cruz. By the 
30th of July it reached the Gulf of Florida, where some 
vessels were wrecked by it, and many damaged ; it 
then took a more northerly direction, being on the 1st 
of August at Jacksonville, in Florida. 

From Jacksonville it passed over Savannah and 
Charleston, going in a direction to the eastward of 
north. 

The other hurricane on Chart VI. was at Antigua 
on the 2nd of August ; by the 5th and 6th it also was 
on the coasts of Georgia and Florida, crossed the line 
of the other hurricane, nearly meeting it ; and it seems 
to have touched Pensacola on the 8th of August. 

Barbados The rcports of these two storms are arranged in the 

hurricane ^ 

of 1837. order of their progress, and are as follow : 



Ring- 
dore's 
Log. 
See 
Chart V. 



Fine 
weather. 



Weighed. 



Extract from the Log- Book of H. M. Brig Ringdove, in the 
Barbados Hurricane of the 26th July, 1837. Received from 
Lieut. J. W. Tarleton, R.N. 



H. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks on Board. 


A.M. 

1 

2 
3 

P.M. 
4 






Easterly. 


July 25th. 1837. 

At anchor in Carlisle 
Bay. Barbados. 

A.M. Light breeset and 
fine. 

8. Loosed sails. 

Noon . Moderate and fine. 

P.M. In cutter. 

4. Weiehed and made 
sail out of the Bay. 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



49 



Log of the Ringdove — continued. 



H. 


K. 


P M. 

5 
6 
7 


7 


8 


6 


9 


7 


10 


7 


11 


7 


12 


5 


1 


6 


A.M. 

2 
3 
4 


6 
4 
3 


5 


4 


.6 


4 


7 


3 


8 


1 


9 


3 


10 


9 


11 
12 


6 
6 


Counet. 


Dist. 


N19°W 


63 



F. 



2 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



2 
6 
4 



4 
4 
4 



6 
2 



Lat. 
Obt. 



Courses. 



NNW 
NbyW^W 

NbyW 
NbyWiW 

NNW 
NWbyN 



NWJN 



NWiN 

ENE 

NEbyEJE 

ENE 



EJN 

NNE 



North 



Lat.D.m. 



None U** 21' 

N 



Lon. 
Chro. 



None. 



Winds. 



NE 



Variable 
fromNE 



NNE 



Variable 



SbyE 



LOD^. D.K. 



60^ 4' W 



Remarks on Board. 



5. In first reefs, unbent 
cables. 

7. North point of Barba- 
dos, E by N, 7 or 8 miles. 

8. Moderate, and cloudy. 
10.45. Hard squalls, with 

heavy rain ; in top-sallant 
sails, mainsail, and jib; first 
reef of boom-mainsail, and 
second ree& of topsails. 

Midnight. Fresh breezes, 
with passing squalls ; set 
jib and mainsail. 



July 26ih, 1837. 

A.M. Fresh breezes and 
squally, with rain. 

1. 50. Up mainsail ; 
tacked. 

2. 40. Heavy squalls, 
with rain. 

4.10. Down jib, set stay- 
sail. 

5.30. Up foresail, and 
lowered the topsails to a 
squall; in third ree& of 
topsails, down top-gallant- 
^ards and masts; in fly- 
ing jib-boom; down boom- 
mainsail ; braced round on 
the starboard tack, 

8. Variable breezes and 
cloudy weather. A heavy 
cross swell. 

9. Trimmed sails to a 
breeze from the southward. 

9.20. Dark threatening 
weather, wind increasing. 

10. Fresh gales, with 
hard squalls and a heavy 
sea ; close-reefed and furled 
the topsails ; in jib-boom, 
got preventer-braces on 
the yards and runners to 
secure the foremast. 

1 1 . Qale moderating. 
Noon. Fresh gales, with 

passing squalls. 



Be&ringt and Distance. 



Cape Ferre, Martinique, 
N 75° W. 44 miles. 



CHAP. 
V. 

First 
storm. 

Ring- 
dove's 
Log. 



Squalls. 



Heavy 
squalls 



on 

starboard 

tack. 



Close- 
reefed 
topsails. 



E 



50 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 

First 
storm. 

RlDg- 

doTe's 
Log. 



Log of the Ringdove — concluded. 



Out 

third 
reefs. 



Oat 

second 

reefs. 



H. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks on Board. 


P.M. 








P.M. Fresh breezes and 


1 


5 


6 


NbyE 


Sby E 


squally ; a heary swell. 
1. More moderate ; set 


2 


6 


4 


NNE 




fore-staysail and close- 
reefed fore-topsail. 


3 


7 


4 






1.40. Set dose-reefed 


4 


7 


4 






main- topsail. 


• 






2.50. Out fourth reels. 


6 


6 


6 






set foresail and lee clew of 


6 


7 


6 






mainsail. 




ESE 


4. Moderate and cloudy. 


7 


7 


4 






a heavy swell. 


8 


6 


6 






4.20. Out third reefi^ 


u 






down fore and tetlore-top- 


9 


6 


6 






mast-staysail. 
5.40. Trimmed sails. 


10 


7 


4 






* 






6. Fresh breezes and 












cloudy. 
8. Ditto weather. 










Easterly 


11 
12 

A.M. 


7 
7 


4 

4 






11. Trimmed sails. 






12. Fresh breezes and 
fine. 


July 27th, 1887. 


1 


6 


6 


NNE 


East 


A.M. Moderate breezes 


2 


6 


4 






and fine. 


3 


6 


2 






2. Trimmed. 


4 


6 


4 


NbyE IE 




4. Fresh breezes and 


6 


6 


4 


" w 




cloudy. 


6 


6 


4 






7. Altered course to N 


7 


6 


4 






by E ; out jib-boom. 
8. Fresh oreezes and fine. 


8 


6 


6 


NbyE 




9 


6 


4 


North 




Altered course to N. 


10 


4 


6 






8.40. Set jib. 


11 


4 


6 






10.50. Out second reefii 


12 


5 


6 

Lat. 
Obt. 






of topsails. 
Noon. Moderate and fine. 


Co ones. 


DUt. 


Lon. 
Chro. 

o / 

5856 
W. 


LatD.R. 


Loof . D.m. 


Bearingt and Dittanee. 


N176« 


155 


ir2i' 

N. 
6 


16 *49' 
N. 


59« 7' W 


Bermuda, N 19'' W ,949 miles. 


1 


4 


North 


East 


P.M. Moderate and fine. 


2 


4 


2 


Nby W 


ESE 


1. 30. Up top-gallant- 


3 


4 


4 






masts, crossed top-gallant- 


4 


4 


6 






yards, and set the sails. 


5 


5 


6 




SE 


Out first reefs, and set 


G 


5 


G 






starboard fore- topmast and 
top-gallant studoing-sails. 


7 


4 


4 






8 


5 


4 






4. Moderate and cloudy. 


9 


4 


4 






6. Ditto weather. 


10 


4 


G 




ENE 


8. Ditto breezes and 


U 


5 


4 






fine; trimmed. 


12 


5 


2 






Moderate and cloudy. 



««m: 



^l^ 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 51 

At 10 A.M. on 26th, the sympiesometer fell from chap. 

30.10 to 29.74. At 11, synjpiesometer rising. Noon, '- — 

sympiesometer 29.92. No barometer on board. ^"^^ 



Extract from Lieut. James's Private Journal, com- 
manding the Spey Packet. See account of Antigua 
hurricane, 2nd August, 1837 : 

"Barbados, July 26, a.m. — At 2 o'clock, light showers of 
rain, wind shifting from south to north-west, the sky dark and 
gloomy, with flashes of lightning in the south-east and south- 
west : at 4, calm, with a heavy swell rolling into the bay j light- Chart V. 
ning and thunder, sky assuming a blue- black appearance, with a ^^ ^°°^' 
red glare at the verge of the horizon ; every flash of lightning ment. 
was accompanied with an unusual whizzing noise, like that of a 
red-hot *iron plunged in water : at 6 the barometer fell rapidly, 
the sympiesometer much agitated and unsettled, and fell at 
length to 28.45 inches -, hoisted in the boats, sent down top- 
gallant-masts, struck lower yards and topmasts, let go both 
bower anchors, veered out a long scope of cable on the moorings 
and both bowers : at 7.30, the hurricane burst on us in all its 
dreadful fury : at 8, it shifted from east-south-east to south, and Wind 
blew for half an hour, so that we could scarcely stand on the 
deck^ made preparations for battening the hatches down and 
cutting away the masts 5 the sea came rolling into the bay like 
heavy breakers, the ship pitching deep, bowsprit and forecastle 
sometimes under water : the wind shifting to the west-south-west, veering to 
at 9 the barometer began to rise, and to our great joy we ob- w^g^^ 
served a change in the sky for the better. As the haze cleared 
away, we counted twenty-one sail of merchantmen driven on 
shore, and perfect wrecks. Her Majesty's ship Gannet drove 
with four anchors down, but fortunately brought up and rode 
out the gale. Her Majesty's steamer Alban went -on shore, but 
in all probability will be got off. One brig foundered at her /e^KA^'/' 
anchors, and sunk. Thank God, we rode it out so well ! The •' ^^"^ 
Spey, the Gannet, and Fortitude merchant ship, were all that 
rode out the hurricane. The City of Kingston steamer put to 
sea, and returned next day. 

" On the 30th of July, the Spey left Barbados to run along 

E 2 



**vcV*s 



52 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAT, the islands and pick up the mails for England. Found that the 
hurricane had scarcely heen felt at St. Lucia, hut at Martinique 
several ships were wrecked.** — Jtmes Newspaper, 



V. 



First 
storm. 



Grenada. 



St. Vin- 
cent. 



" The harque Clydesdale, from Barbados to Antigua, encoun- 
tered a severe hurricane ten miles north of Barbados, on the 26tb 
of July, 1837." 

" Arrived the British schooner Emancipation, from Grenada, 
The captain states, that Grenada and the neighbouring islands 
had been visited by a violent gale on the 26th July, 1837.** — 
New York General Advertiser. 



" Our paper from St. Vincent's informs us, that the gale of 
the 26th of July was severely felt there -, the wind being from 
the west and the south, with a heavy swell of the sea.** — From the 
Barbadian, 



St. Lucia. " St. Lucia, 30th July, 1837. — We have experienced a severe 
gale from the north-west, which blew very violently for several 
hours.*' — From Lloyd's Books. 



Marti- "Martinique suffered a severe gale on the 26th July, from 

nique. ^j^^ south-east. The brig Blayais went on shore, with forty-three 

persons on board, and only six were saved.** — From the Weekly 

Register. 

" The storm of the 26th July was felt severely at Martinique 
The tempest raged there with great violence at 10 at night, at 
which hour all was calm at Barbados. The Blayais was driven 
on shore at St. Pierre, a harbour much exposed to the south- 
west. An American vessel was driven on shore at Fort Royal, 
which is an unusual occurrence, as that harbour has always 
been considered a safe anchorage in any weather.** — From the 
Barbadian. 

Dominica. " One of the most violent gales of wind, which at this season 
arc so alarming to these colonies, occurred on Wednesday last, 
26th July, 1837. The wind blew from south-east all day, and 
about 8 in the evening, a violent swell set in from the south- 
west, which occasioned a tremendous surf. The barque Jane 
Lockhart was obliged to slip her cables, and stand to sea. 
The Venus sloop was washed up into Kew-street. Tlie sloop 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 63 

Dolphin^ from St. Bartholomew's to Barbados, was forced back CHAP, 
to this island, after having got within twelve miles of Barbados.'* V. 
— Dominica Colonist. 



Copy of a MS. report at Lloyd's, dated St. Croix, st. Croix. 

"About midnight on Wednesday, the 26th of July, it came 
on to blow smartly /rom the east-south-east, shifting by Thursday 
morning, the 27th July, to south-east, blowing a gale of wind 
until towards noon, when it began to moderate. 

.(Signed) "ANDREW LANG." 



" Le Navire Bonne Aim^e a p^ri k Porto Rico dans un coup Porto 
de vent, 26, 27 Juillet, 1837."— Por/ of Spain Gazette. ^co. 



" A Spanish brig was totally dismasted on the 28th of July, g^^ j^^. 
off St. Domingo, in a hurricane, and had to throw overboard a mingo. 
quantity of flour." — American Paper, 



" St. Domingo^ Aug. 13. — Two hurricanes have been recently 
experienced here, during which the Edward (French ship) was 
wrecked in the outer roads, and three of the crew drowned : thre^ 
Haytian vessels were also lost on the coast, and only one man 
saved.'* 

" The gale on the 29th July, at Nassau, was from the east and Nassau. 
the east-south-east, as reported by the master of the sloop Hum- 
ming-Bird.**— N(e»/btt«d/a«c? Gazette. 



"There was a violent gale at Nassau, New Providence, from 
the east and south-east, on the 29th July, which continued until 
2 P.M. on Monday, the 31st of July.** — New York General 
Advertiser, 



The following was received from Captain Milne, Captain 
R.N. By referring to Chart V. and the place of the r.'n. "** 
Snake, oflf the N.E. end of Cuba, it will be understood 
how this storm caused the trade wind to be reversed. 
We have here an example of variable winds within 
the limits of the trades, changing in conformity to a 
fixed law. 

" H.M.S. Snake, under my command, was employed during 
the months of June, July, and August, 1837, on the N.E. coast 



54 THE VARIABLE WINDS. 

CHAP, of Cuba, in the vicinity of Point Mulas, during which time tbc 
V. following facts connected with the hurricanes of that 3rear were 

-.. ^ observed. 

First 

storm. ** It was found from observation, that at 8 a.m., the mean 

Bar. 30.19. height of the barometer on the Coast of Cuba was 30.19 at a 

temperature of 83°, and the diurnal fall until 4 o'clock, at which 

time it was lowest, was 0.45 nearly. That the barometer was 

invariably affected by the direction of the wind \ being highest 

with a N.E. wind, and lowest with a S.W. 

" On the morning of the 25th July the barometer indicated 

30.19, with the trade wind varying as usual from E.N.E. to 

E.S.E., force 3 to 4, with fine weather. On the following 

morning, July 26th, the barometer stood at 30.16, wind N.E. hy 

E., the sky overcast, with thin rain. 

Bar. "July 27th. Barometer drooping, now 30.10, wind very light 

"^* and unusual, varying from N.N.W. to N.N.E. Dense camnli 

Sky light in the N.W., streaked with strata of a dark colour : blue of the 
blue. , ,. , , 

sky very light colour. 

" July 28th. Barometer 30.08. Wind Northerly and E.N.E., 
very variable, sky overcast. Forenoon, breeze sprung up from 
the S.E. 9 P.M. heavy squall from N.E., with a heavy swell 
setting in from the same quarter. 

" July 29th. Barometer 29-94. Fresh breezes and squally ; 

wind E.N.E. to S.E. 10 a.m. a heavy long swell setting in 

from the N.E. increasing rapidly. Wind flying about, shifted to 

Bar.29.86. N. and N.W. 3.30. Barometer 29.86, and drooping. 4 p.m. 

Centre heavy squall of wind and rain, in which wind shifted to W.S.W 

pnssiiig and S.W. Blew a strong gale all night ; the barometer rose 

after the squall. 

" July 30th. Barometer risen to 30.06. Sky still wild, 
although gale of last evening has subsided. Wind still S. to 
S. by E. with squalls of wind and rain. 
Bar.30.17. "July 3lst. Wind S. by E. Barometer 30.17 5 fine weather. 
" It is a curious fact, relative to the gradual fall of the baro- 
meter from the 26th, the very day on which the hurricane was 
at Barbados, until the bad weather reached H.M.S. Snake on 
29th, at 4 P.M., when it immediately rose. The shifting of the 
wind it will be observed was from S.E. to E.N.E. j then to N., 
N.W., W.S.W., S.S.W., S., and S. by E., when it cleared up! 
Vessels boarded at the time had experienced, on the 29th, a 
heavy north-easterly gale outside of Crooked Island. 

(Signed) "A MILNE. 

"Captain H.M.S. Snake.** 




HURRICANES OF 1837. 55 

Extract of a letter from Lieut. Parsons, command- chap. 

ing H. M. packet Seagull, dated Falmouth Har- ! 

hour, 18th Sept. 1837 ; addressed to Admiral Sir ^j"^ 

•■■ storm. 

P. H. Durham. chart v. 

'' We arrived here on the 18th from Mexico and Havannah ; H. M. 
we had the wind for twenty days from the east and east-north- §^«^ii 
east, with four days calm. In coming through the Gulf of 
Florida, and in the narrow part of the channel, on the night of 
the 30th July, I experienced a very heavy gale of wind from the 
north-west, which increased on the morning of the 31st, with 
thick weather, lightning, and rain in torrents. At about 10 a.m. 
we discovered discoloured water on the lee-beam, having had no 
observation on the 30th. At this time the wind was west, which 
made the Bahama bank (where I judged we were) a lee-shore \ On lee- 
and in carrying a press of sail to clear it, all of them were split * rj^'on- 
and blown out of the bolt-ropes : I was therefore under neces- and an- 
sity of anchoring in five fathoms water 5 and by the time I had ^'"*'®^* 
veered out 100 fathoms of chain, the vessel's stem was in 4} 
fathoms. I did not let go the other anchor^ fearing she might 
founder, as the sea was making a fair breach, and rolling aft to 
the wheel on the quarter-deck ; and if we parted, we had still a 
chance of getting into the Old Bahama Channel. With great 
difficulty we tried to get another jib and trysail bent. 

''On the morning of the 1st August the wind increased, and 
blew a perfect hurricane for about four hours, when it mode- 
rated a little, and veered to the south-west, which enabled us to 
bend another topsail. At noon we began to weigh, and in three 
hours we were able to make sail off the reef. 

''The part of the bank on which I suppose we anchored is 
lat. ^4° 40' north, long. 79° 8^ west, and twelve miles south of 
Orange Keys. 

(Signed) "J. PARSONS." 



"The barque Baltimore, from Havannah, experienced heavy Bahamas, 
gales from the westward, on the 31st July, which continued until 
the 1st of August. She was over the reef on the Bahama banks 
by the Cat Keys, and compelled to anchor and ride out the gale* 
When the weather cleared on the 2nd, she saw three vessels on 
the reef wrecked, but she was unable to lend them assistance.'*—' 
New York General Advertiser, 




56 THE VARIABLE WINDS. 

CHAP. "The barque Cossack, on the Ist August, encoontered a 
^ V. violent gale forty miles south of St. Augustine. Met a ship. 
First supposed to be the Emily, of Liverpool, dismasted, and making 

Rtorm. for a port." — New York General Advertiser. 

"The ship Providence, on the 1st August, in lat. 29® 30', 
experienced a heavy gale.** — Ibid. 



Florida 
coast. 



Extract of a letter from St. Simond's Island, lat, 
31^2', long. 81^28': 

"On the 1st and 2nd August we had a very severe gale 
here.** — Ibid, 

" The brig Monument (Fisher) experienced a severe gale on 
the 1st of August, off Cape Florida.'* — Ibid. 



"The barque Josephine, on the 1st August, experieQced a 
severe gale from north-east, lat. 27° 50', long. 79° 20', and had 
some of her sails blowing from the yards, though they were 
furled.** — Charleston Mercury. 

''The brig Moses, on the 1st August, off Cape Camaveral, 
lat. 28° 16', long. 80^ 24', experienced a severe hurricane, com- 
mencing at north-east and veering round to south, which hove the 
brig on her beam -ends, and obliged her to cut away her niast. 
She was in fourteen feet water, and was saved by the wind com- 
ing from the south.'' — Ibid. 



''The schooner A. Brook, on the 2nd August, lat. 29° S8', 
long. 80° 41', experienced a severe gale of wind from east-north- 
east to south- south-east. Lost her flying jib and split her main- 
sail." — New York General Advertiser. 



"A severe gale of wind at Jacksonville, on Tuesday, Ist of 
August, which continued until Sunday, the 6th of August,"^ 
when it blew a hurricane from the north-east and south-east. Two 
government warehouses were blo^Ti down at Jacksonville, and 
the crops of cotton destroyed." — National Intelligencer. 



" The barque Mablehead, of Boston, was lost on the western 
reef of the little Bahama bank on the 2nd August." — From the 
Southern Patriot. 

• This was owing to the second hurricane nearly overtaking the tirst one. 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 57 

e brig Howell anchored on the little Bahama bank on the CHAP, 
ugust^ 1837. Obliged to cut away both masts to prevent ^* 
ing on shore in a violent gale.*' — From the Southern Patriot, j,. 

Btorm. 



e Ida* experienced a severe gale in the Gulf on the 
August. All her sails were blown to pieces. The boats 
twenty of the crew were washed overboard. The captain 
brought her into port with five men." — New York General 



On the 26th July, the sympiesometer indicated the ap- 
.ching storm more decidedly than the barometer.** — West 
Newspaper, 



"The Georgia steam-packet left Charleston on Saturday, 
5th 1837, in the morning, and arrived at Norfolk in 
^ Chesapeake, on Monday the 7th August. Had rough 
«i.^er and north-east winds.'' — From the New York General 
Mni^rtiser. 



About 1 P.M. the southern portion of this storm was The Bai- 
l:>out W. S.W. of the Balclutha. July W. 

See 
*' Greenock, Dec. 5, 1837.— Thursday, 27th (26 p.m. civil Chart V. 

hue) July, in lat. 14° 28' north, and long. 56° 12' west, wind 

veered from east-north-east to west-south-west, with a tremen- 

ioas swell from the southward ; the sky clouded, with thunder 

and lightning, and heavy rain, with all the appearance of hurri^ 

cane of wind -, furled all sails but the main-topsail j at 1 p.m. 

a heavy gust took the ship, and laid the sail under water, which 

continued for the space of half an hour ; at 3 p.m. the wind 

veered to the northward, and cleared up to the southward, but a 

very bad appearance to the south-west ; had no barometer or 

sympiesometer -, at 6 o'clock, fine clear weather -, made all sail 

for Deilierara, where the Balclutha arrived on the 3rd August. 

"WILLIAM MILRAE." 

* There were five ships named Ida. This is not the same ship which was 
in the third hurricane on the 17th August, 1837. 



58 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Second 
8torin« 



Spey's 
Log. 

Chart VI. 



Spey ap- 
proaching 
aecond 
•tonn. 



K'ear it. 



Antigiui Hurricane of 2nd of August. 

THE SECOND STORM. 

The Spey packet, which had been at anchor in 
Carlisle Bay, Barbados, during the hurricane of the 
26th July, sailed from that island on the 30th for St. 
Thomas, delivered mails at the northern islands as she 
went along, and, as will be seen by her log, was very 
nearly sailing into the second hurricane. 

Extract from the Log of H. M. Packet Spey, in Civil Time, 

Lieut. James, Commander. 



Storm now 
past Spey. 



See 
Chart V. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



▲.M 



P.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



A • XI • 



SW 



Bar. 



Ther. 



falling 



SEtoW 



nsing 



R**mark». 



Tuesday, August 1, 1837. 

A.M. Moderate and cloudy, with light 
showers and hazy weather ; barometer fall- 
ing : landed the mails at Dominica. The 
Jane Lockhart, of London, slipped and 
went to sea on the 26th, and returned to 
take in the rest of her cargo. 

P.M. Calm and sultry, the sky orercast 
with dark heayy clouds, exactly the same 
appearance they had before the hurricane 
came on at Barbados ; emploved in pre- 
paring for another blow ; got all snug, and 
kept away to the S W ; further off the land 
the better. 



Wednesday, August 2, 1837. 

A.M. Heayy squalls, with lightning and 
thunder ; heayy sea running ; wind shifted 
from S E to W. 

P.M. Barometer rising ; made more sail, 
and stood in for Guadaloupe ; at 8, saw the 
land, ran in for Basseterre, and landed the 
mails in a heayy surf ; at 5, bore away for 
Antigua. 



Thursday, August 3, 1837. 

At 6 A.M. close in wiui the land ; obtenred 
the island had suffered lately, all the cocoa- 
nut trees, were blown to pieces. The Mon- 
trose bark, of Liverpool, totally wrecked, 
with 300 hhds. of sugar on board, the day 
before in a severe hurricane. 

P.M. Made all sail for Montserrat. 



Friday, August 4, 1837. 
A.M. Landed the mails, and found that 
there had been no hurricane felt on the 26th 
of July or the 2nd of August. 



s. 










HURRICANES OF 1837 



69 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Packet Spey — continued. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



A. M* 



A.M. 



P.M. 



Bar. 



Hier. 



Remarks. 



Saturday, August 6, 1837. 
A.M. Landed the mails at Nevis and St. 
Kilts ; here the hurricane was most seyerely 
felt. The ship Julia, of London, full cargo, 
was wrecked on the 2nd, and so smashed to 
atoms, that there is hardly a vestage of her to 
be seenw The ship Michael, of I^ndon, on 
shore^ billed, part of cargo sayed, and dis- 
charging into the Robert, of London. Hie 
mail-boat Eleanor, with the Leeward mails 
on board, knocked to atoms ; mails lost. 



Sunday, August 6, 1837. 

A.M. Arrived at Tortola. Here the hur- 
ricane has destroyed the town and several 
plantations. One brig from St. John's, with 
a great number of small craft, total wrecks. 

jP.M. 2.30. Came to an anchor in St. 
Thomas's harbour, and landed the mails. 
Here the hurricane of the 2nd appeared to 
have concentrated all its power, force, and 
fury ; for the harbour and town were a scene 
that baffles all description. Thirty-six ships 
and vessels totally wrecked all around the 
harbour, among which about a dozen had 
sunk or capsized at their anchors ; some rode 
it out by cutting away their masts, and up- 
wards of 100 seamen drowned ; but what 
was very extraordinary, tbete was not one 
English vessel in the port. The harbour is 
so choked up with wreck and sunken vessels, 
that it is difficult to pick out a berth for a 
ship to anchor. The destructive powers of 
this hurricane will never be forgotten. Some 
houses were turned regularly bottom up. 
One large well-built house was carried by 
the force of the wind from ofif its foundation, 
and now stands upright in the middle of the 
street. The fort at the entrance of the har- 
bour is levelled with the foundation, and the 
24-pounder8 thrown down : it looks as if it 
had been battered to pieces by cannon-shot. 
In the midst of the hurricane shocks of 
earthquake were felt : and to complete this 
awful visitation, a fire broke out in the back 
stores of Messrs. Stubbs and Co. Heavy 
tiles were flying about from the tops of the 
shaking and trembling houses, killing and 
wounding many persons. One fine American 
ship, 500 tons, was driven on shore under 
the citadel, and in an hmr nothing could be 
seen of her but a few timbers. Several fine 
merchant ships and brigs are at anchor, dis- 
masted, with cargoes ; and not a spar or rope 
for standing rigging to be had in the island. 
No place hitherto has suffered so much from 
a hurricane in all the West Indies as St. 
Thomas's. Thank God we escaped so well 
out of it! R. B. JAMES. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Second 
storm. 

Chart VI. 



Ik. 



60 

CHAP. 
V. 

Second 
Btorin. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 

"Jamaica, Aug. 13. — The Judith and Esther arrived here 
from Cork ; experienced a tremendous gale on the Ist inst. oflf 
Deseada, lat. 16°, long. 61°, for 24 hour9^ during which she was 
three times on her beam -ends, and lost boats, part of her bul- 
wark, and sails.** 



Antigua. 



" On the 2nd of August, between 2 and 3 a.m. we had a smart 
gale from north, which crept gradually round by north-west, west, 
and south-west, until it died away at south-east.** — Antigua Herald 
of the Bth of August, 1837- 



" The barometer at Antigua, in the gale of the 2nd August, 
only sunk .43, another sunk .63." — West Indian. 



Barbuba. " The brig Maria Jane upset and dismasted off Barbuda, in 
the storm of August 2, 1837.'* — American Paper. 



Nevis. 



" This morning, between 3 and 4, the wind being north, a 
shower of rain fell. At half-past 6 a.m. the wind began to rise 
until 8, it then shifted to the north-north-west, and gradually 
increased in gusts until 10, during which time much rain fell. 
The wind then veered to the westward, and next to due south, 
then back to south-west,* and last backed to south again, from 
whence it blew steadily and with violence until 2 p.m. when it 
abated.**— iVm» Post Newspaper, August 2, 1837. 



St. Kitts. 



" Early on Wednesday morning, the 2nd of August, the wind 
blew strong from the north, and indicated the forthcoming storm. 
At about 8 A.M. it veered to north-west, and shortly afterwards 
to west, during which time it blew a perfect gale, throwing a 
tremendous sea into the harbour, and threatening the destruc- 
tion of every vessel.'* — St. Christopher Gazette. 



"The mail-boat Eleonore, Captain Carter, wrecked to the 
eastward of the bay of Basseterre, St. Kitts, on the 2nd August, 
1837.** — Kingston Chronicle, Jamaica. 



• •* It is difficult to ascertain with certainty the direction of the wind while 
the stonn continued."— from the St. Thomn»$ Times Nevtpaper, Au^nt o. 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 61 

'* At St. Bartholomew the storm commenced at north-east, CHAP, 
and continued to increase with violence until ^ p.m." — Barbadian V. 

storm. 

St. Baits. 

Extract of a letter from the Dutch island of St. 8t.MarUn. 
Martin : 

" A gale commenced about 9 a.m. and raged with great vio- 
lence from 11 A.M. to P.M., veering from east-north east to north- 
west,** — Barbadian Newspaper, 



Extract of a letter from Lloyd's Correspondent, 
dated Santa Cruz : 

" On Monday^ 31st July, 1837, the weather was moderate j Santa 
several ships sailed on Tuesday, the Ist of August ; in the even- '* 
ing the wind was north-east and the weather moderate. On Chart VI. 
Wednesday, the 2nd, the wind during the night had shifted to 
the north; the weather looked squally, cloudy, and suspicious, 
and continued so during the forenoon -, the wind shifted gra- 
dually to the north-north-west. 

" At 1 P.M. the falling of the barometer, the appearance of the 
weather, and the increasing wind, left us no doubt of the approach- 
ing storm, and it came on from the north-west, between 3 and 4 
P.M. The mercury continued falling, and the gale increasing 
until half-past 6 p.m. when the wind became westerly. At 7 p.m. 
the mercury began slowly to ascend, but yet the storm increased 
in violence. At 8 p.m. it was blowing a hurricane from west- 
south-west to the south-west, coming in furious gusts until 10 p.m., 
when a certain decrease in their violence had taken place, which 
abatement continued until Thursday morning, the 3rd of August, 
when it blew a fresh gale from the south. 

(Signed) "ANDREW LANG." 



" At Tortola the hurricane commenced at 3 p.m., and increased TortoUu 
in violence until 9 p.m., when it began to abate." 

"The brig Jane, of St. John's, N.B., was driven on shore ^'"^ ''u— ^ni** 
during the gale on the 2nd of August."— Tor/o/a, August 6, 



Purtof 
th* track 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 

A P. Extract from the Log-book of the Brig Watkr-Witch, W, 
^- Newby, Commander, fram Liverpool to St. Thomas's (kept 

by the Mate), made by Mr. Gilbert Ker, Consignee of tbt 

Vessel. — In Nautical Time. 



H. 


^ 


I Cour». 


Wind. 


Eemwk* on bowd. Tue»d«r, Aug. 1, IB37. 


*'i 


. We.t 


BbjN 


P.M. Freah breciM uid clev; people 










employed bending cables and ihiflingfoie- 










lopniail, and tap-gallant studding-tkill 




s 


. WIN 


Vmiable 




10 


fi 






At A.no msde the iaUnd of Deieado, 


12 


6 


. MidllighT 




bearins S W by S, distant about 6 Uoeuei. 
At dusk, ihe land bore S S W ; mid- 


















night, squally with heavy rain ; in royal* 




s 


I 


ENE 


and all sluddinB-iaila. 
A.M. Steadybreeteaandoloudyisetdo. 



















sail ; at dajlisht made the tatand of ModI- 
seirat right a-beod ; set the jib and irVMul. 
. Noim cleari rock Redonda bearing ft S B 






. WNW 


NE 


10 






N 










and ChaileatoD (Nevii) N. Lit. obi. 
18»3'N. 


Itemark. oil beard, WBdne«d.j. Aug. 3. 










1837. 






2 




. NWbyW 


NE 


P.U. Frofh breeze* and clear ; peopla 

emplnyed rarioualy; made the island of St. 


4 








a 

8 




. N W i W 




Kitts; in lower and aU lee stodding-Mili. 
At -1. made the UUi.d of Sabs. 


in 








At du.lc, in all studdiDg-uuls ; Sab. 


12 








bearing N N E j and EusUlia E N E ; M 8. 
in Syiw jib snd royali ; midnight, f^b 


2 








breeiea and cloudy ; in lop-sillant-»aili. 
A.U. Do. we.ti.er. 










At T, made the Uland of St. John, ud 


4 








ibartlT after ihM of St. Thomia. 


8 








Noon squally ; double reefed the top- 


in 








laiU, snd stowed the jib; the (own ui 


12 








.„K. 



Extract of a letter from Captain Newby, of the 
British brig Water-Witch, from Liverpool to St. Tho- 
mas's, and which left Liverpool, July 17, 1837. 
Storm " Arrived off St. Thomas's on the 2nd of August ; niurning 

^rtaking gqually. and the Water-Witch was off St. John's, and standing 
for St. Thomas's, the wind north and north-north-west. Noon, 
shipping in the harbour visible ; at 1 p.m. squalls violent ; at 
3 P.M. we had beat up within half a mile of the forts, when we 
could proceed no further for the violence of the squalls, and 
anchored in ten fathoms water ; seat down top -gallant- yards. 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 63 

ice. 'y did not suspect a hurricane. At 5 p.m. squalls ceased^ CHAP. 

ind began a heavy gale of wind^ at that time off the land. At 7 V. 

?.M. a hurricane beyond all description dreadful -, the windlass 

:apsized^ and I could not slip my cables^ ship driving until I was storm at 

n twenty fathoms water : a calm then succeeded for about ten ^'* '^*^°" 
^ ' mas. 

tninutes, and then^ in the most tremendous unearthly screech I 

5ver heard, it recommenced from the south and south-west ; I now , i . . 

considered it all over with us, for the wind was directly on shore, /^ 7^^. •^i'** ^*'"' 

and the sea rose and ran mountains high. The foretop-gaUant-f Oa^**^***^*^ 

mast (though struck) and the gig were carried up some feet in 

the air, and the vessel drove again into twelve fathoms. We were 

3bliged to steer her all night, and keep her head to wind, for t^w^/^.w*-* ''•**^ 

when she got her bows to it she went down on her broadside, i^y^'i^ f'^ / 

\t 2 P.M. the gale abated somewhat, and the barometer rose an y^ /- ,^' . t- u r^. 

inch J at daylight, out of forty vessels, the Water- Witch and one 

other were the only two not sunk, ashore, or capsized.** 

" Papers from Caraccas have been received to the 5th ot Sep- Porto 
tember. They contain a detailed account of the hurricane at ^^^°' 
Puerto Rico, on the 2nd of August, which was equally disastrous 
in its effects with that at Barbados and the other West India 
islands. Fourteen Spanish vessels, nine foreign, of which, how- 
ever, not one was English, and ten coasters, were entirely 
wrecked during the tempest.** — Hampshire Telegraph. 

Extract of a letter from the Harbour-Master at 
Porto Rico to the Governot. 

"At 4 P.M. on the 2nd of August, 1837, in consequence of 
having observed the barometer falling, I ordered all vessels in the 
harbour to prepare for stormy weather, although the fall of the 
barometer was not great. 

"At 8 P.M. the mercury was at 29.6 Baro. 

"At 9 P.M 29.5 Wind at N. N. E. meter. 

At 10 P.M. barometer . . . 29.4 and strong. 

At 1 1 P.M 29.3 Wind veering to E. 

At this hour it began to blow in an alarming 
and furious degree until midnight ; when the , 

barometer stood at 28.0, and every vessel \^^< 
sunk or ashore. ' 

"At i p. 1 A.M. 3rd August, the ba- 
rometer rose to . 29.17 
" At 4 A.M. the barom. stood at 29.5 Wind fell and then 

veered to S. 



u 



» ;. L. < >■■ 



64 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. "Thirty-three vessels were at anchor, and all lost. From St. 
V' Bartholomew we have learned, that on the 2nd of August two 
g^ , hundred and fifty buildings were destroyed." 

Btorm> — 

" The Nile, American brig, foundered at sea August 4th, 1837; 
lat 31^ 30', longitude not known.*' 



St. Do- 
mingo. 



Captain 
A. Milne, 
R.N. 



Chart VI. 



"The William FV. was lost at the island of Ramos, near the 
island of Taxando, Porto Rico.** 

" It blew a hurricane o£f Ragged Island on the 4th of August, 
1837." 

"A severe hurricane was experienced at Porto Plata (St. 
Domingo) on the 3rd of August, which did considerable da- 
mage.** — New York Paper. 



It IS the salt water, driven by the force of the wind 
in hurricanes, over islands, which blackens vege- 
tation in the manner described below. This evil is 
mitigated when abundant rain falls at the same time, 
by washing the salt spray from plants. Gales, un- 
accompanied by heavy rains, prove sometimes very 
destructive to small islands. The following I re- 
ceived from Captain Milne, R.N. 

" H. M. S. Snake, off N.E. point of Cuba. 
August 'ind. Bar. 30.95, wind east, force 3, fine weather. 
August Srd. Bar. 30.18, wind not as usual, being from S.E. 
to E., and p.m. to E.N.E., then toN.N.E., fine weather. 
. " August 4th, Bar. 30.04, morning dull and hazy, sky wild and 
unsettled, wind N. by £., a heavy swell from N.N.E., breaking 
heavy on the coast. Bar. 29*98, wind shifted to N.W., fresh 
breezes and squally; 3 p.m. wind W. -y 6 p.m. sky threatening 
and wild, a great deal of dull blue lightning pouring down in the 
northern sky j 8 p.m. strong gales with heavy squalls, wind 
S.W. by W., with thunder, lightning, and heavy rain ; 10 p.m. 
wind subsided, barometer risen -, midnight, light winds and 
cloudy, wind S. S.W. 

" Following day fine weather, with wind S.W., S., and S.E. ; 
Bar. noon, 30.13. 



€€ 



tt 



THE VARIABLB WINDS. 



65 



" On the 6th, arrived at Fortane Island ; found that Crooked CHAP. 
Island had been visited by a hnrricane. The statement given by ^- 
the residents was, that on Thursday night, the 3rd August, at second 
1 1 P.M., the gale freshened up at N.E., blowing with great vio- Btorm. 
lence, uprooting trees, blowing down their flag- staffs, and destroy- 
uig vegetation. On the 4th, about noon, the wind shifted to 
N.W., blowing with greater violence than before 5 several vessels 
which were there were wrecked or left dry upon the beach : 
total destruction to aU vegetation. Torrents of rain fell during the 
whole time, inundating the low lands : this rain was brackish, s ^^ *-— *- ^^ 
On the afternoon of the 4th, the wind shifted from N.W. to 
S.W,. still blowing hard ; during the night it shiftied to N.E., 
and cleared up. Another hurricane was expected next full tnoon, 
from there being little thunder and lightning during the hurri- 
cane. From the fall of the barometer, on the 15/A and iSth August, 
a gale must have blown in the vicinity of the Bahamas.* 

" Having visited Crooked Island in the middle of July, I was 
much struck on my return after the hurricane, at the change 
produced on the face of the country. Where a few days previous 
nature presented all the brilliancy of tropical vegetation — oranges 
and limes hanging to their trees in graceful festoons — all now 
were gone 5 the trees lay prostrate, and the whole aspect of the 
island was changed from the vivid green of vegetation to the dark 
withered leaf, as if winter had encroached on the tropical regions. 
The changes of the wind were, as before, round by the north. 

(Signed) "A. MILNE, Capt. H.M.S. Snake." 



"JJassau, New Providence, 6th Sept., 1837.— Since the Nassaa. 
storms which occurred here on the 29th of July and 5th of 
August, 18S7, we have had no accounts from the out islands 
until within the last three or four days. These accounts are very 
distressing. It was the gale which began amongst them on 
August 4th which did the greatest damage. The sea rose on the Chart VI. 
south side of the Great Bahama, and washed away some low land. 
At St. Salvador the storm was very severe, and several bouses 
were blown down, as well as stock destroyed. At Long Island 
(more particularly on the north part of it) an unusual and de- 
structive rise of the sea took place, and drowned a number of 
cattle. At Rum Key the loss was great indeed."— ^ow the 
Charleston Courier. 

• This alludes to the storm on Chart VII. 

F 




66 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



CHAP. '' The Ulrica was dismasted off Hole-in-the-Wall on the 5th 
^* August, 1 83 7.* * — Charleston Mercury, 



Second 
Btorm. 



Ship 
Athol. 

Chart VI. 



Storm's 
yonex. 



" The brig Ann and Minerva, from Havannah to Corunna, on 
the 6th August, 1837, in lat. 30° 31', long. 73° 19',* during a 
severe gale from the south-east, was hove on her beam- ends and 
compelled to cut away both masts.'* — From the Southern Patriots 



" The brig Bell, from Demerara to Nassau, in gales from the 
4th to the 6th August. She experienced a succession of hurri- 
canes from the north-west and south-west. On the 7th, in lat. 
27° 40, long. 75° 50', spoke the Saratoga, and got a supply of 
bread and spars. On the 15th of August, in lat. 31° 21', long. 
78° Sf, met the Brilliant, Jamaica ship, bound for Liverpool, 
which supplied her with water and spars.** 



Extract of a letter from Mr. Gleig, Commander 
of the ship Athol, Havannah to Antwerp : 

"Cowes, 15th Sept., 1837. 

" I sailed from Havannah on August 1st, with a favourable 
wind from the south-east, until the morning of the 5th, when 
we were forced to shorten sail, with the wind from north-east. 
Towards evening we were compelled to heave-to, with a heavy 
sea going from the same direction, until the morning of the 6th, 
when about 9 o'clock the sea was perceived to be in a tremendous 
uproar, which was occasioned by the swell from the other direc- 
tion.! At 10 o'clock it fell away calm all at once, and in the 
course of 20 minutes the water was perceived through the haze 
to appear the same as heavy breakers : when about 10 hours 30 
minutes, our breakers turned into a complete hurricane, which 
assumed its greatest strength in the course of an hour, and lasted 
until betwixt 4 and 5 in the afternoon, when it abated gradually. 
The direction of wind was in general from north to west, but at 
times it extended as far as south. 

(Signed) "GEORGE GLEIG, Master.** 

" To Lieut.-Col. Reid, R. E." 

* This Itt. and long, places the ship beyond the verge of the stonn, as I 
hsTe marked it. The storm may have been more extended. 

t See ** The Progress of the Development of the Law of Storms and of 
the Variable Winds" for an explanation of winds and waves at the storm's 
vortex. 




THE VARIABLE WINDS. 67 

"The brig William, from Portland to Matanzas, put into CHAP. 
Charleston on the 5th of August, 1837. OflF Ahaco experienced ^' 
a severe gale from the north-east : lay to ; hove overboard all g^^^^ 
that was upon her decks. Finding she was driving towards the storm 
shore, cut away both lower masts and let go her anchors, with 
the frdl scope of cable. At 9 p.m. the wind shifted to the south- 
west, when she parted the starboard chain cables ; then the crew 
shipped the other chain and tried for the nearest port. Fell in 
with the William Davison, from Jamaica to London, and received 
frx)m the master a spar and a sail, for which he publicly thanks 
Captain Nares." — Charleston Mercury, 



*' Brig Pomeroy, off Abaco, in the gale on the 5th of August, 
1837, lost her masts, and put into Wilmington.*' — Ibid, 



" A severe gale of wind at Jacksonville, on the 1st of August, Florida 
which continued until Sunday last, the 6th August, when it blew ^^^^ 
a hurricane frova. the north-east to south-east. Two government 
warehouses were blown down in Jacksonville, and the cotton 
crops destroyed." — National Intelligencer, 



" The brig Opulence experienced a hurricane on the 5th August, 
1837. Hole-in- the- Wall bearing south-west forty miles distant; 
wind from south-east to north-east; lost topmasts, &c. &c.'* 



The effect of storms in creating unusually high tides, 
and in deluging low lands on the border of the sea, 
will be frequently noticed, and this is a part of the 
subject of great interest.* 

"Darien, August 10. — During the last week we have been 
visited by a storm which has not been equalled since that of the 
year 1824. The wind on Sunday last, in the morning, blew fresh 
from the north-east ; in the after part of the day it shifted round 
to south-east, when the rain began to fall in heavy torrents. The 
wind then rose very high, and began to blow with fearful violence, 
tearing up the oldest oaks and mulberry-trees in the place by the 
roots, while limbs and branches of the different trees were flying 
in all directions. The water of the river then rose, and covered Inunda- 
the rice plantations so completely, that they appeared to the eye ^io'^bythe 

♦ See page 100, " Progress of the Development," &c. 

f2 




68 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



Second 
storm. 



*«*^'^^"^ 



CHAP, to form part of the river. The rice, there is no doubt^ will be 
^* greatly injured by the salt with which the water is impregnated. 
From the country^ the accounts represent the cotton crops to be 
all but destroyed^ and the com broken down^ and many houses 
unroofed. A letter from Jacksonville says, ' We have had the 
hurricane on a visit for two days. Houses innumerable have 
been destroyed, and two great stores have also been demolished. 
Our crops have shared a similar fate, especially com, which is 
completely laid waste in the fields.* The vessels which had ma- 
terially suffered from the hurricane are as follow : — ^The Bolivar, 
Richardson, drifted nine miles over the marsh, and left about 
six hundred yards from the bed of the river. Virginia in the 
same state. The Forester, after having dragged six miles over 
the marsh, left high and dry four hundred yards from the river. 
Greorge and Mary, from Charleston, was lost j crew saved. The 
Favourite drifted over St. John's bar, and afterwards sank in 
Jacksonville harbour ; cargo. United States' stores, kMt. The 
Ann, after drifting six miles into the woods, was left seven hun- 
dred yards from the river. A schooner, with black bottom, on 
shore on Cumberland bank. A sloop on shore near Fernandi, 
with mast, &c., broken. Great apprehensions were entertained 
for the S. S. Mills, which left St. Augustine's on the 5th inst. 
with thirty passengers on board." — Times Newspaper. 



" St. Mary's, August 13. — On the 5th we were visited with 

a very severe gale, which has done great injury to the crops and 

Inunda- buildings. Our streets were completely inundated by the over- 

tionbythe flowing of the river, and persons walking were knee-deep in 

high tide, water. In the bay it was waist-deep, and it was not long before 

the place was rendered impassable. Had the wind continued for 

two or three hours longer there could not have been a house left 

standing. The oldest inhabitant does not recollect a similar 

occurrence, and the buildings are all more or less injured. The 

damage here has been estimated at from 10,000 to 15,000 dc^Iars. 

The cotton, as far as I have heard, is totally destrojred." 



Schooner " The schooner S. S. Mills, firom St. Augustine's, on Saturday, 
S.S.MilU. 5^jj August, 1837, for Charleston, with passengers, was over- 
taken by the hurricane on the 6th August, and capsized on 
attempting to cross the bar of St. Andrews. One man only was 
saved on a spar." — Charleston Mercury, 20/A August, 1837. 




THE VARIABLE WINDS. 69 

(From the Sawumah RepubHcan, Aug. 7«) C H A P. 
•' The Wbathsr. — Wc have not for some time, partkularly ^' 

at this season of the year^ been visited with a blow equal to that o^^.^ 

we have experienced for the last five days, and we are fearful, Btorm. 

that much injury has occurred to the shipping along the coast. Coast of 
Our city has suffered in the prostration of trees and fences. The ^ ' 

tide on yesterday was over our wharves^ and no doubt those who Hish tide, 

have planted on low lands on the river have suffered materially.'* ^^ 
— Times Newspaper. 



** Savannah, August 15. — ^The heavy gale with which we 
have been visited has left us nearly desolate, and the houses left 
standing are much injured. All goods in the front of the stores 
are damaged, and many of the vessels in the harbour, after inunda- 
having dragged miles up the river, are left high and dry upon the JJ^J^ggJ 
marsh. The schooner America was struck by lightning, and her 
fore, royal, and main-topgallant-mast severely damaged 5 the 
decks ripped up, and her cargo set on fire, though not entirely 
consumed. The captain as he stood was stunned, and did not 
recover for an hour after. She was shortly to leave for New 
Orleans. Happily we have heard of no lives being lost, not- 
withstanding houses were frequently seen falling just on the eve 
of the tenants leaving them, whilst others were completely swept 
from their foundations by the water, which was from four to six 
feet deep in the streets. The cotton crop is totally lost \ and it 
is considered by some who have seen several of the plantations 
that ten bags will not be made round the country. I suppose 
the destruction by hurricane in this part of the country was never 
before so universal. Our cotton-fields, which were good for a 
bag per acre, have been three feet deep in water, and our com is 
utterly gone. It is impossible to estimate the damage done to the 
crops, buildings, trees, and fences 3 but it is my opinion that we 
shall scarcely recover in five years." — lUd. 



" The schooner Erie, off Charleston bar, the 6th August, 183T> 
at 3 P.M. The wind suddenly shifted to the amtth-tast, and com- 
pelled her to stand to the south to prevent her going on shore. 
Passed two disabled vessels.** — Southern Patriot. 



** Brig Franklin, Captain Schofield, experienced a severe gale 
on the 6th August, 1S37> off Doboy Island. She was compelled 
to scud, and make the north end of Cumberland Island. Struck 



.4 



70 HURRICANES OF 1837. 

CHAP, three times in crossing the bar. Saw a schooner to leeward at 

^' the commencement of the storm. The schooner suddenly dis- 

Second appeared, but we soon saw her again, bottom upwards.** — From 

storm. the New York General Advertiser. 



Extract of a letter from St. Simon's Island : 

" On the Ist and 2nd of August, 1837 (in lat. 31° 2', long. 
81° 28') j we had a very severe gale here ; and on Sunday, the 6th 
August, it commenced blowing about noon ; and between 3 and 
5 o'clock it shifted from north-east to south-east, and became one 
of the most furious hurricanes we have had since 1834. It con- 
tinued to blow until midnight, or 1 o'clock in the morning of the 
7th, when it abated suddenly.** 



" The gale, which swept along the south coast, on the 7th of 
August, 1837^ was felt in full force at Pensacola, lat. 30° 2S', 
long. 87° 29'. Almost all the vessels, except the ships of war, 
dragged and went ashore.** — New York Gazette, 



''New York, 23rd August, 1837. — During a violent gale at 
Pensacola, on the 8th inst., the brigs Alvira, Rondout, and Lion, 
were driven on shore, and much damage done to the shipping in 
port. Most of the small vessels were driven on shore.* *-^jFytwi 
Lloyd's List, 



Ship 



The following is a remarkable narrative : 

" Cove of Cork, Dec. 14th, 1837. 
" Sir, — Having received yours of the 7th instant, I haste to 
Jadithand give you every information respecting the hurricane which I was 
Esther, ^^^ ^^ board of the brigantine Judith and Esther, of Cork, which 
NarratiTo vessel I was master of, and bound from Cork to Kingston^ 

slJSi;ur. Jwnaica. 

" I sailed from Cork on the 2nd of July, in the present year, 

for Jamaica, having carried a fair wind from the time of my 

departure up to the 1 st of August, on which day I experienced 

a most dreadfid hurricane, the following of which are the 

particulars : 

Chart VI. " On the night of the 31 stof July, at 8 p.m., in lat. 17® IjK 

Remark- north, and long 52° 10' west, the wind blowing fresh from the 

peaiance "orth-east, and all possible sail set, / observed a white appearance 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 71 

of a round form, nearly vertical, and while looking steadfastly at it^ C H A P. 

a sudden gust of wind carried away the topmast and lower studding" ^' 

sails. At 8.30 p.m. the atmosphere became very cloudy, and the second 

wind increasing, we took in our small sails and took one reef in storm. 

the topsail, not observing at this time any swell but what would niosphere. 

have rose from such a breeze. The wind continued after this Xo swell. 

time quite steady from the north-east, and not increasing until 

the hour of 1 a.m. on the following morning (1st August), when 

the wind increased and the sea rose very fast, so that it caused 

the vessel to labour hard. At 6.30 a.m. on the same day, close- Close 

reefed the topsail, reefed the foresail and furled it, and close- '®?$^^ 

o.oO a.iii. 

reefed the mainsail; sent top-gallant-yards down, and housed 
the main- top-gallant- mast ; the sea at this time very high and 
regular from the north-east. Seven a.m. the wind gradually tn- Wind in- 
creasing 3 took in the mainsail and topsail, and let the vessel run <^'c*8ing. 
under bare poles, all hands being of opinion that she would do 
better running than if hove-to ; the sea at this time very high. Scudding, 
and the vessel labouring and straining much, and shipping great 
quantities of water : the pumps being particularly attended to. 
At about 8 A.M. very heavy rain, and the wind increasing to a g a.m. 
hurricane, so that it was impossible to hear each other speak on 
deck, or yet do anything for our safety. She broached-to, and Broached- 

was hove on her larboard beam- ends, by a tremendous heavy *<>» *^ice 

•' •'on beam 

sea, which, after she righted, we found took all the bulwarks ends. 
nearly away on the larboard side. She had been for some time 
on her larboard beam -ends before she rose, and when she did, 
the wind veered suddenly to the southward of east. After running 
a short time before the wind, she was hove again on her beam- 
ends, which, when she righted, took all the bulwark away on the 
other side except a few planks; she then became iigain ma- 
nageable for about fifteen minutes, which time was about noon. 
After the short time she was manageable, it fell calm for about Calm, 
fifteen minutes, and the hurricane suddenly veered to about 
south, when we then gave up all hopes of safety. A sea, owing 
to the sudden shift of wind, had struck her on the starboard Third time 

side, and hove the vessel the third time on her beam-ends. She on beam 

' ends. 

lUid remained some time so^ the cabin nearly filled with water, and 

forecastle (though as much precaution as possible taken against 

it) ; all the boats (3), the cookhouse, water-casks, spafe spars, 

sails, a quantity of spare rope, in fact every thing of toy value 

was gone ; the mate, who was attending as well as possible to 

the wheel, was washed from it, the wheel was carried away. All 



# 



72 HURRICANES OF 1837. 

CHAP, the stanchions on the starboard side were broken, and every 

^- sail, except the mainsail, blown away into rags, though furled 

I T properly ; the foretop, while on her beam-ends, nearly smashed 

storm. to pieces, when to our agreeable surprise we observed her again 

righting, and could not account for the manner in which we 

were saved, but through the powerful hand of an Almighty 

Protector. For nearly an hour we could not observe each other, or 

anything but merely the lights and, most astonishing, every one of 

Finger wr Jinger-nails turned quite black, and remained so nearly five weeks 

hf^^^^^d ^fi^^^^'^^^* After she had righted, we observed the clouds 

crew lost break, which were from the commencement of the gale in a 

^^^ body, with heavy rain, the wind also abating a little \ one hand 

managed to get below and procured a handspike, which we 

shipped as a tiller, and managed to get her again before the sea, 

which was then running tremendously high > the pumps were 

again got at, and kept going. This time we considered about 

3 P.M. 3 P.M., the gale then began to abate, and the sea did not break 

so furiously, so that we managed to set a balance reefed main- 
sail, and hove her to. The gale still abating, I went below, and 
found every article, that could be damaged by salt water, da- 
maged : the pumps still attended to ^ and we found she did not 
make any water except what got from the cabin and forecaatle. 
At 6 P.M. the gale greatly abated, and the sea fell fast. The 
appearance of the sky at this time was most remarkable, being 
VeiT dark of a deep red colour to the north, and looking yexj dark to the 
"^ ^ west, as if the gale was moving in that direction. At midnight 
the gale considerably abated and the weather appeared much 

4 A.M. better, the vessel not making any water. At 4 a.m. on the fol- 
^^1' lowing morning, being the Snd of August, the weather appeared 
turned. as before the gale (a steady breeze from north-east)^ tiie atmo- 
sphere at this time being a dark red, and the clouds not moving* 
We at this time bent the second topsail and ran under it single- 
reefed, and a close-reefed mainsail. At 10 a.m. on the same day^ 
the wind remaining quite steady, ran under a whole topsail and 
single-reefed mainsail ; the crew being quite exhausted, I gave 
them the remainder part of the day for rest. The wind was at 
first north-east, and veered easterly to south, or south-somth-wegt. 
No swell preceded the storm. The barometer was broken ^ but by 

Barque the barque Laidmans, of Liverpool, Capt Hughes, which arrived 
felt the^'^ ^^ Kingston four days after me, her barometer (in the lat. and 
■well. long, in which I experienced the gale) was very unsteady, rising 

* A second letter on this subject follows this one. 



THE VARIABLE WIND8. 73 

and falling during three days^ and a very heavy sea running, CHAP, 
though not an increase of wind. ^* 

" Our sufferings were very great, more so than any person Second 
could imagine. storm. 

" All the within particulars are well authenticated, which will 
be seen by the protest now in London. 

" I trust every information you require is here j and if the 
track of the Judith and Esther be required, I shall send you an 
abstract } it is really worthy of notice. Trusting I have not 
delayed this information too long, I remain your obedient 
humble servant, "WILLIAM SEYMOUR.** 

"To Lieut.-Col. Wm. Reid, R.E." 

On receiving Mr. Seymour's first letter, I wrote for 
an explanation on certain parts of it, and the following 
is his answer : 

" Cove of Cork, Jan. 2nd, 1838. 

" Sir, — The information which you require I would have Mr. Sey- 
given you ere now, but being from home. second 

" Respecting the gust of wind which first alarmed us on the letter, 
night commencing the hurricane ? It came from a north-east 
direction, and remained so without turning until the time men- 
tioned in my last to you. 

" Secondly, as to our holding on when the vessel lay on her 
beam-ends the third time } 

" The third time the vessel had been on her beam -ends, some 
of the crew were in the main rigging, and the others standing on 
the weather side of the companion, holding on the weather rail. 

" Thirdly, as to the cause of not being able to see each other ? 

" The cause of this I cannot well tell j but while running 
before the vessel was hove the third time on her beam-ends, and 
while on the beam-ends, the atmosphere had quite a different 
appearance j darker, but not so dark that (I should imagine) 
would hinder one ft*om seeing the other, or from seeing a greater 
distance, were it not that our eyes were affected. It was about 
this time our finger-nails had turned black 3 and whether it was 
from the firm grasp we had on the rigging or rails I cannot tell, 
but my opinion is, that the whole was caused by an electric body 
in the elements Every one of the crew were affected in the same way, 

" I have the honour, &c. 

"WILLIAM SEYMOUR." 

"To Lieut.-Col. Wm. Reid, R.E. ' 




74 HURRICANES OF 1837. 

CHAP. These two storms lead us towards an explanation of 

'- — the variable winds. The track of the Barbados hurri- 

^rm.^ cane, delineated on Chart V., is also marked by cruci- 
form dots on Chart VI., and its probable place on the 
6th of August is shown by a dotted circle. The places 
of two progressive whirlwind storms on the 6th of 
August, are, therefore, shown on Chart VI. By con- 
sidering these figures, it will be seen, that the west 
wind of the first storm would become neutralized and 
reversed, as the second storm advanced to the place 
left by the first. 



Hurricane of the middle of August. 

Third THE THIRD STORM, 

■torin. 

On Chart VII. a more extensive storm is described ; 
and as it occurred at the period when the last Jamaica 
ships of the season were on their passage to England, 
it affords a good opportunity for the investigation on 
the nature of storms. 

I have endeavoured to procure as many logs of ships 
in these storms, or narratives in place of the logs^ from 
the masters in command of the vessels as possible ; 
yet it will be found, that there are still many to be 
obtained : and notwithstanding the "appearance of this 
plate, crowded with the names of Vessels, there are still 
others whose positions I have not been able to procure. 

The barque Felicity, of Greenock, met this storm^ 
on the 13th of August, upwards of 400 miles to the 
eastward of the West Indies, and somewhat to the 
northward of these islands ; and her place is marked 
on the chart. Whether the storm originated there or 
more to the eastward I am unable to explain ; but it is 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 75 

remarkable, that at the commencement of the storm it chap. 

was in the north-west quarter in which the sky ap- '- — 

peared black. The wind commenced blowing from ^J^ 
that quarter, veering to west, to south-west, and south; 
but I have not obtained the log in detail. 

Three other ships met with the hurricane north* Castries, 

Scipio, 

east of Antigua, viz., the Castries, the Scipio, and the and 

-. , - Margaret. 

Margaret ; but I have only been able to get the log of 
the first ; and her course from St. Lucia to England 
will be found laid down. Between noon-day of the 
14th, and noon of the 15th of August, the Castries 
appears to have crossed the last portion the third storm ; 
and to have had the wind veering as it would do under 
such circumstances, in a storm which revolved from 
right to left. On the 14th, the Sophia, then 800 miles 
from the storm, began to feel the swell from the 
south-east. 

On the 15th the storm had reached Turk's Island; 
and on the 16th, it began to be felt by the easternmost 
vessels, then off the Bahamas : on that day the Mary 
Sharpe was dismasted; on the 17th the Calypso was 
upset* 

. At midnight on the 18th, the Rawlins will be found Chart vn. 
becalmed in the centre of this great «torm; now extend- 
ing over a circle of 600 miles in diameter. If such a 
circle be described, and we turn to the log of any ship 
(as for example the Sophia) which the circle includes, 
we shall find the Veering of the wind such as it would 
be in a rotatory storm. A short time before the centre 
of the storm reached the ship Rawlins, the Sophia had 
the wind from the east-north-east. By degrees, as the 
northern portion of the storm was passing over the 
Sophia, the gusts came from the east^ and then from 



76 HURRICANES OF 1837. 

CHAP, the east-south-east, for the hurricane was then moving 

'- — towards the north-west : and when the storm suddenly 

atom. changed its direction (as so many of these gales do on 
approaching this part of the coast of America), then 
See log. we find by Mr. Barclay's narrative, that on the after- 
an?'2i8u noon of the next day, the wind backed to the east and 
then to north : for the storm proceeding now towards 
the north-east, left the Sophia in the left-hand semi- 
circle* The West Indian (Turner), like the Rawlins, 
will be found becalmed in its turn : and the log of the 
Rawlins contains a remark on ** the dismal appearanee 
to the north-west : " which points at the place of the 
West Indian at this period. If a new circle be now 
described with the same radius, and with the place of 
the West Indian as a centre, this cirele will reach the 
Penelope; and if we turn to Mr. Grimes's narrative, 
we shall find his ship beginning to feel the hurricane 
about this period of its course. 

This will explain the mode of investigation adopted : 
but to render it as satisfactory as the subject is capable 
of being made, the log of every ship on Chart VII. 
should be procured and printed : to obtain them all 
has been beyond my power; for although I have found 
in every quarter a strong desire to aid this inquiry, the 
masters of ships are too busily employed when in port 
to copy out the necessary documents. I shall now 
give the data procured, such as they are ; and after- 
wards endeavour to explain the fourth and fifth storms. 
Most of the ships placed on this chart were drifting 
with the Gulf-stream during the storm, at a time when 
no observations could be got. Their actual places, 
therefore, during the storm, cannot be ascertained with 
exactness; but the evidence from the reports leaves 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 77 

little doubt but that this great storm, like the others, chap. 

was rotatory and progressive. The following are the '- — 

documents : '^^^ 

■torm. 
"St. Augustine, 19th August, 1837. — On Tuesday, the 15th 
August, we were visited by a third gale of wind, of equal severity 
with the two which preceded it, and which continued until the 
afternoon of Friday, 18th August, when it ceased." — American 
Newspaper, 

" The schooner James Busick, sailed from Norfolk, U.S., for 
the West Indies, but returned, being damaged in a severe gale 
on the 14th Aug^ust, which continued with violence for thirty-six 
hours.*' — Ibid, 



"A severe gale at Turk's Island on the 15th August."- 
JFVom Lloyd's List. 



Narrative of Mr. Wilkinson, Master of the Calypso, ship 
in the storm of the middle of August, 1837. 

"On the 15th August, at noon, the Calypso was, by obser- Chart VII. 
vation, in lat. 26° 47' north, and lonj, 75® 6' west j the wind was 
from the eastward, about east-north^iln^ ; she had royals and 
fore-topmast-studding-sail set: shortly tiiter, we got a heavy Heavy 
swell ftrom the north-eastward, and the wind freshened gradually B^ell* 
till 9 o'clock, when only the double-reefed topsails, reefed foresail 
and mizen, could be carried. During the night the wind in- 
creased, and day-light (the moon about full) found the vessel 
under a close-reefed main-topsail, with royal and top-gallant- Close- 
yards on deck, and prepared for a gale of wind. At 10 a.m. the ^ * 
wind about north-east^ the lee-rail under water, and the masts 
bending like canes ; got a tarpaulin on the main rigging, and 
took the main-topsail in ; the ship labouring much, obliged main Took in 
and bilge-pumps to be kept constantly going. At 6 p.m. the ^P^^- 
wind north-west, I should think the lat. would be about 27°, and 
long. 77®. At midnight the wind was west, when a sea took the 
quarter-boat away. At day-dawn, or rather I should have said 
the time when the day would have dawned, the wind was south- 
west, and a sea stove the fore- scuttle -, all attempts to stop this Fore- 
leak were useless, for when the ship pitched the scuttle was g^^^g 
considerably under water : I then had the gaskets and lines cut 



WhiUt 
muU ship 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 

from the reefed Toressil, which hlew away ; a oew fore- topmast - 
atuddiog-sail was got up and down the fore-rigging, but in a 
few seconds the bolt-rope only remained ; the masts had then to 
be cut away. My chief mate had a small axe in hia berth, 
which he had made very sharp a few days previous ; that was 
immediately procured ; and while the men were employed cnttiog 
away the mizenmaat, the lower yard-arms went in the water. It 
is homau nature to struggle hard for life ; so fourteen men and 
myself got over the rail between the main and roizen rigging, 
OS Ihe imut-headi vent into the tealer : the ship was sinking faat ; 
while some men were employed cutting the weather- lanyards of 
the rigging, some were calling to God for mercy; some were^ 
stupified with despair ; and two poor fellows, who had gone' ' 
from the afterhold, over the cai^, to get to the forecastle, to 
try to stop the leak, were swimmiog in the ship's hold. In 
about three minutes after getting on the bends, the weather- 
lanyards were cut fore and aft, and the mizen, main, and fore- 
masts went one after the other, just as the vessel wA going 
down head foremost. 




"She then righted very slowly. On getting on board again, 
I found the three masts had gone close off by the deck : the 
boats were gone, the main hatchesstove in, the planks of the 
deck had started in many places, the water was up to the beams. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 79 

and the puncheons of rum sending about the hold with great CHAP, 
violence ; the starboard gunwale was about a foot from the level ^* 
of the sea, and the larboard about five feet ; the main and mizen- 
masts were held on the starboard side by the lee-rigging, and the stonn. 
foremast was kept from floating from the starboard side by the 
stay. The sea was breaking over the ship as it would have done 
over a log. You will, perhaps, say it could not have been worse, 
and any lives spared to tell the tale. I assure you. Sir, it was 
worse ', and by Divine Providence, every man was suffered to 
walk from that ship to the quay at Wilmington, although the 
main and bilge-pumps were broken ! The wind, from about 
noon of the l6th till about 10, or noon of the 17 th, blew with 
nearly the same violence. There was no lull ; neither did it fly 
from one quarter of the compass to the other, but backed from 
east-north-east to south-west^ and then died away gradually. On 
Sunday, while beating off Rum Key, the wind was variable and 
squally. On Monday, in lat. 24° 40', long. 74° 45', had fine 
steady winds from the eastward. Tuesday I have described. I 
had no barometer ; but Arom the appearance of the weather on 
Monday and Tuesday morning, I did not apprehend we should 
have had bad weather. 

" We shall now return ft'om noticing the Avinds and weather, 
to see the Calypso safely anchored. After fishing the pumps, 
and getting them made air-tight, by putting candles and winding 
new canvass round, they were set to woi^, notwithstanding the 
seas breaking constantly over. The week of the masts Wks 
cleared, about sixty puncheons of rum stove, and the men re- 
mained night and day at the pumps, till Monday the 21st, when 
the water in the hold having decreased to nine feet, a spare spar 
was lashed to the paul-bolts for a jury-foremast, and a topsail 
set on it, the wind being then southerly. On Tuesday, the 
spritsail-yard was turned into a jury-mizenmast, and an old 
foresail set on it, that being the only sail, except the jib of the 
sparesail, that was not entirely destroyed. On Wednesday, got 
the pumps to suck, and set the jib forward : there being only 
two-thirds of a puncheon of water, two bags of damaged bread, 
and a barrel of pork, but no cooking apparatus on board, were 
obliged to go on an allowance of one pint of water each per day. 
The condition the men now were in was indeed very bad ; they 
were worn down with fatigue, had lost all their clothes and 
bedding, and were covered with boils. On Friday, shortened the 
allowance of water to half a pint each per day, and remained in 



80 HURRICANES OF 1837. 

CHAP, that condition till the 30th, during the days, under a sooi 

^- sun, and at night laying on deck. On the SOth, in lat. 3«** «', 
«, . , and long, about 78J° W., we fell in with the American brig 

storm. Rupert, from Havannah to New York : the generous captain 
immediately sent a puncheon of water, some fruit, and many 
little luxuries, for which I shall ever feel grateful. This was tbe 
third vessel we had spoken since the hurricane, but the only one 
that assisted us. The first had had h*is deck swept, and could 
spare nothing ; the second was an American brig, that we feU in 
with at night, and hailed, telling him our distress : he asked if 
we could remain on board till daylight : and when I told tliat I 
only wanted provision and water, he surlily asked, ' What ship is 
that ? where are you from ? where are you bound to then ? wliat*8 
your longitude?* When all his questions were answered, he 
hauled his wind, and at day-dawn in the morning could just be 
seen on the horizon. On ike S\st of August we sighted the land, 
about thirty miles to the southward of Cape Fear, but the wmi 
coming more from the eastward, had to bring up in five fathoias 
Fifth water. During the night the wind increased, but fortunately 

storm. backed into the northward (which was off the land), and at noon 
on the following day blew a very heavy gale of wind, and continned 
until the morning of tke Slnd, when it backed to the west -north-west, 
and moderated : we then slipped the cable, and sailed along the 
land for Baldhead lighthouse. At noon we got a pilot on board, 
and anchored once more in port. We were kindly received by 
the good people at Smithville and Wilmington, who complained 
bitterly of the late storm, for many of their houses were np- 
roofed, and trees blown down. 

(Signed) "GILBERT WILKINSON." 

''To Lieut.-Col. Reid, R.E." 



At> 



Two paintings of the ship have been made by the 
marine-painter, Mr. Huggins, under the direction of the 
master, Mr. Wilkinson, which Mr. Huggins has re- 
duced for this work. The first shows the crew on the 
ship's bottom cutting the weather-rigging, and is placed 
where that act is described by Mr. Wilkinson. 

The other is the Calypso under jury-masts, and 
the crew bringing their ship into Wilmington. The 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



81 



" shifting of the wind to the eastward, and its in- c H A P. 

creasing" will be again adverted to, in illustration of '■ — 

our subject; it was the fifth Btorm and came from ^^ 
the west. 




The Calypso appears to have been upset just after 
half the storm had passed over, and to have been very 
nearly, although not quite in the centre of its course. 



" The brig Mary, Sharp, dismasted and lost her rudder u 
l6th Awguat, lat. 27° 30', long. 73° 50'." 



" The brig Cumberland put into Nassau, having experienced a 
hanicane on the 15th Aogast." — Lloyd'i List, 

"The Marjr, Sharp, from New Orleans to Barbados, was 
abandoned on the 5th September, lat. 32°, long. S0°, having been 
dismasted and thrown on her beam ends, with six feet water 
in her hold, in a gale on the t6th August, in lat. 37° 30', long. 
73° 53'." 

"The Neptune from Jamaica to London, was dismasted in 
this storm." 



82 HURRICANES OF 1837. 

CHAP. " The Jennet^ Gibson, from Honduras to London, was cap- 
V. sized in a gale on the 21st August. On the 3rd September the 

^ . , crew arrived at Rhode Island.** 

Third 

storm. 



''The Emerald saw the Rosebud, of Glasgow, on the ^rd 
August, in lat. 34°, long. 75°, a wreck ; stood for her, and found 
her derelict.'" — Lloyd's List. 



''The Duke of Manchester was thrown on her beam ends, and 
lost her mainmast in a gale on the 18th and IQth Augnst, lat. 
32°, long. 77V'— Ibid. 



"The brig Yankee, on the I6th August, in lat. 24° 30', long. 
70° 30^ experienced a severe gale of wind from north-east to 
south-south-west, which lasted until the 20th. Lost her 
main-tq[MHul, &c. &c.*' — New York General Advertiser. 



"The packet ship Sheridan, Rnasdl, arrived at New York, 
on the JiBth August, from Liverpool. On the 22nd Augoat, 
in lat. 39° 45^ long. 68° 33", experienced a hurricane, which took 
away the fore and main-topsails (double-reefed) from the yards 
entirely, leaving nothing but the bolt-rope standing.*' 

" Philadklphia, Aug. 19. — ^The Mecklenburg brig Harmonie, 
Galle, from New York for Alexandria, was driven on shore fifty 
miles to the southward of the Capes on Saturday night last in 
the gale ; the captain has come to town for assistance, and states 
that the vessel is perfectly tight, and can be got off without mnch 
damage.** 

" New York, Aug. 31. — ^The Hindley, Turner, from Laguna 
for Liverpool, which was off Sandy Hook on the I6th inst., dis- 
masted, has been brought up to this port ; the three lower masts 
have been replaced without discharging, and it is expected she 
win be able in a fortnight to proceed.** 



" Sept. 8. — ^The barque Wanstead, arrived here from London, 
experienced on the 23rd August, in lat. 43° 34', long. 54® 20^, 
a severe gale of wind ', lost boat, stove bulwarks, and washed 
seven men and the captain overboard, and succeeded in getting 
them on board again.'* 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 83 

*' The Rosebad, Dick, from Hayannah to London, was capsized CHAP, 
and dismasted on the 1 8th Angnst, in lat. 34°, long. 74° j ^en ^* 
in with by the General Sumpter, Bonnet, which attempted to tow f )^j^ 
her into the Chesapeake. "^•Z/oy<^*« List, storm. 



Extract from an American newspaper, dated Wil- 
mington, August 25 : 

^' On the afternoon of Friday, the 1 8th, the wind shifted to High 
the north-east, and rain began to pour heavily. Before midnight ^^®' 
the storm increased, threatening min ; and daylight revealed to 
us uprooted trees, and our streets washed into gullies, roads 
obstructed, and bridges carried away. [Then follow the details Dikes 
of injury done to buildings.] The embankments of the sea it 
is said have given way, and that two new inlets are formed 
opposite M'Rae*s, of Peden Sound. The tide rose six feet higher 
than usual.** — Ckarlesttm Mercury, 



" Newbourne, N.C, Aug. 25. — A severe gale commenced on 
Friday, the 1 8th, at midnight, and continued until Sunday, 20th, 
at daybreak.** — Ibid. 



" There was a severe gale at Charleston on the 17th, 18th, and 
19th of August.** — New York Daily Ejprese. 



"The William Thompson, which arrived yesterday from 
Jamaica, having sailed on the 29th July, and come by the wind- 
ward passage, encountered a hurricane in lat 38^, long. 60°, 
on the 21st and 22nd of August, 18S7.*'— Lloyd's List, igth 
Sept. 

" The Lady Katharine Barham, ft-om Jamaica -, in a hurricane 
l6th, 17th, and 18th August, 1837, in lat. 29^ long. 77^" 



" The Brilliant, from Jamaica, experienced a violent hurricane 
on the 18th of August, 1837. 120 miles south of Cape Hatteras, 
which lasted to the 2l8t.**— /6tU I8th Sept. 



g2 




84 HURRICANES OF 1837. 

CHAP. " The Westchester, from Havannah, experienced a heavy gale 
V. fnm the north-east, on the 18th &nd on the 20th, ia lat. 39f*, 
long. 74^" 



Third 
storm. 



'' The James Ray, from Jamaica, sailed Ist August, and came 
the Gulf passage ^ experienced dreadful weather, particularly on 
the 16th and 19th."— L^i^V List. 



" The Maria, from Honduras to London, on the 20th ot 
August, in lat. 30^, long. 74^> capsized. A boat's crew picked 
up by the Hogarth, from New Orleans, bound to New York." — 
Ibid. 

'' The Argus, on the 20th and 21st of August, experienced a 
heavy gale from east, and suffered damage.*' — New York Gtmerd 

Advertiser. 

'* The Mecklenburg brig Harmonia was run on shore, fifty 
miles southward of the Cape, on Saturday night laat, 1 9th 
August, in the gales.*' — Ibid^ 



" The ship Napier, from Liverpool, 19th August, off Cape 
Henry, experienced a heavy gale ^om east and east-north-east S* — 
lUd. 

" Captain Robinson, of the Maria, was saved in his boat, with 
his crew. The Maria was capsized on the 20th August.** — Ibid. 



" LivBRPOOL, Aug. 4. — ^The Experiment, arrived here from 
Nassau, experienced a hurricane on the 20th of August, and lost 
sails, &c. There were ttoo severe gales at Nassau previous to the 
12th of August, and several vessels lost.** 



"The barque St. Helena, on the 18th and 19th August ex- 
perienced heavy gales from the north-east and north. At 7 p.m., 
on the 19th, lost the close-reefed main-topsail, lying-to. Wind 
shifted to north-west, and blew a hurricane for twenty-two hours, 
during which time she lay- to under five yards of canvass in the 
mizen -rigging -, rail under water part of the time.'* — Ilnd. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 85 

" The steam-packet Columbia, from New York to Charleston, CHAP, 
experienced a severe gale on the 20th August, from east to north- ^' 
west,** — New York General Advertiser, Third 

stonn. 



"The Powhatam, Chase, from Malta and Gibraltar to New 
York, on the 22nd August, lat. 40°, long. 67° 30', experienced a 
tremendous hurricane from east-south-east to north, and lost both 
top-gallant-masts." — Ibid, 



"Philadelphia, August 30.— Arrived the ship Ellen Mar, 
from Cronstadt, and the Citizen, from New Orleans, in distress. 
On the 18th, had experienced a hurricane -, on the 22nd, picked 
up Captain Tilley and the crew of the Ida, from Jamaica, bound 
to London.*' 

"The barque Chief, Eldrige. from Charleston for Boston, 
suffered severely in a gale on the 19th August, off Frying-pan 
shoals. On the 21st August spoke the Duke of Manchester, 
lat. 34° 12', long. 74°, main and mizen-masts gone."— /Attf. 



"The brig Pensacola, on 18th August, lat. 31°, long. 79^30', 
encountered a heavy gale ; carried away tiller and foremast." — 
Ibid. 

"Express Mail. — A third storm has visited the Floridine 
coast, but the details are not yet known." — Ibid. 



"A severe gale was experienced at Washington, Edenton, 
North Carolina, on the 18th August. Great damage has been 
done, and several vessels have been lost ; one of them, with the 
crew, on the bar of Washington." — Ibid, 



" The Oglethorpe, on the ISth August, experienced a violent 
gale from the north-west. (Lat. not given.)" — Ibid. 



" Captain Robinson and crew of the Maria, of Hull, were 
picked up by the Hogarth." 



"The Brig Vincennes, from Teneriffe to New York, in lat. 
35° 30', long. 65° 40', on the 21st August, experienced a heavy 
gale from south-south-west.** — Ibid, 



86 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



CHAP. '' The brig Delos, Smith, from Leghorn and Gibraltar, on the 
^' 2l8t August, in lat, 37° 40', long. 66° SO , had a gale from ike 
Third *^^^ ^^^ south-east ; on the 22nd she had moderate weather," — 
storm. New York General Advertiser, 



Shi 

>piu 
feelin 
8econ< 
hurricane 
on 
Chart VI. 



P 
Sophia 

I 



Trade 

wind 

reversed. 



On the 4th of August the ship Sophia, from Jamaica 
to England, was between the Islands of Cuba and 
Hayti. She was then within the influence of the 
second storm, as marked on Chart YL, having a heavy 
swell rolled back by that storm from the north, and 
the trade-wind reversed by the same gale. A break 
will be found in this Log-book, between the 6th and 
1 3th of August. 



An Account of Part of the Voyage of the Sophia, J. Barclay, 
Master, from Jamaica to London, in August, 1837. — In 
Nautical Time. 



Hour. 



Noon 



p. M. 



Wind. 



SW 



SW 



SSW 



Bar. 



set fair 



set fair 



rher. 



Remarki. 



Thursday, August 4, 1837. 
Wind S W ; a fine steady hreeae, with a 
peculiar haze round the horixon ; the aky 
neayy to the northward, and clouds meeting 
it from 8 W : at noon, doubled Cape Maiae: 
met a heavy $ea from the northward; the 
water eorered with dried wood, eTidtatly 
washed off the neighbouring bushes Tery 
recently ; barometer standing at set *-'' 



Fridaj, August 5, 1837. 
WindSW; steady breexe ; sun obscured 
by thick haze ; head sea making the ship 
plunge much ; obliged to shorten sail and 
lower the topsails on the caps ; at 6 pus. 
spoke an American schooner frt>m Port-au- 
rrince, apparently prepared for and antici- 
pating a breese; at midnight, reefed the 
foresail and close reefed the topsails; 
squall J ; barometer as yesterday ; at day- 
light made all sail, the sea haying fallen 
considerably ; at noon, wind S S W ; fine 
breeze ; the sun partially obscured by red- 
dish htue; latitude obsenred 21° 52^, longi- 
tude p. chronometer 74*" 10' 30" W ; baro- 
meter stationary at set fair. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



87 



Account of the Voyage of the Sophia — continued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



Wind. 



Bar. 



rher. 



sw 



KEtoE 



set fair 



P.M. 
A.M. 



P.M. 
A.M. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



B 



E 



ENB 



fair 



fair 



fair 



fair 



NE by E change 



Remarks. 



Saturday, August 6, 1837. 
Wind S W with the same appearance ; at 
2 P.M. saw Castle Island N N W about four 
leagues ; at 3, perceived two Teasels on shore 
on their beam ends, with a signal of distress 
flying, and tents on the beach ; proved to be 
two Nassau wreckers, east away the day 
before in a Tiolent hurricane from the north- 
ward, which they gave a terrific account of. 
From this date to the 13th inst. fine weather, 
with the wind from N E to E. 



Sunday, August 13, 1837. 
Wind £; squally with rain; a.m. dark 
and cloudy with thunder and lightning ; at 
noon, observed in lat. 27° 20', long. p. chro- 
nometer 74^ 67' 20'' ; barometer at fair. 



Monday, August 14, 1837. 
Wind E ; moderate ; observed a long ttcell 
coming from the southward and eastward; 
A.M. squally ; made and shortened sail as 
necessary ; at noon, dark cloudy weather ; 
latitude by indifferent observation 28° 38', 
long. 74® 60' 16" ; barometer at fair. 



Tuesday, August 16, 1837. 
Wind £ ; steady, but light all these 24 
hours; swell still from the SS£; lat. 
observed 29** 60', long. p. chronometer 
74« 37' 20" W ; bar. as yesterday. 



Wednesday, August 16, 1837. 
Wind EN E ; steady and moderare, with 
a heav^ lowering sky ; at 4 p.m. in top-gal- 
lant sails and gi^-topsail : at midnight, do. 
weather; a.m. breeze freshening ; at noon, 
strong breeze with a very stormy appearance, 
the swell evidently increasing; latitude ob- 
served ^^ 37', longitude p. chronometer 
1A? 64' 30" ; barometer at fair. 



Thursday, August 17, 1837. 
Wind N E by £ ; steady ; the sky loaded 
to the eaatwara with heavy sluggish clouds, 
and apparently no distance over head ; at 
3 P.M. oown royal yards ; at 6, breeze fresh- 
ening ; in first reef of the topsails ; at 7, in 
spanker, jib, and mainsail, set the trysails, 
and in second reef of the topsails : at mid- 
night, strong gale with a hig^ cross sea ; up 
foresail ; the mercury much agitated and in- 
clined to &11; at 6 A.M. set the foresail again; 
at noon, very hazy round the horizon, with 
the appearance over head as yesterday ; lati- 
tude 33** 3' N, longitude p. chronometer 
76® 9' ; barometer fallen to change. 



CHAP. 
V. 



Shin 

Sophia in 
second 
storm. 



Chart VII. 



Swell of 
third 
hurricane 
from S.E. 



Swell from 
S.S.E. 



Swell 
inertias log. 



Clouds 
low. 



Bar. 

falling 



88 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Third 
storm. 

Storm ap- 
proaching. 



Account of the yo3rage of the Sophia — comtmMed. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



P.M. 



Bar. 



Ther. 



ENE change 



E falling 



Hore-to. 



£8 £ 



P.M. 



SSE 



stormy 

to 
change 



A.M. 



Wore. 



See 

remarks, 
page 75. 
Storm re<- 
cunring. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



SSE stormy 
I to 
'change 



NNW 



Remarks. 



Friday, August 18, 1837. 
Wind ENE with the same wild appear* 
ance, and every indication of a dangeioaa 
change of weather ; at 3 p.m. wore uiip to 
the southward ; in foresail and main-ctaj* 
sail; at midnight, do. weather; barometer 
still ftdling; wind £ ; gale increasing ; close* 
reefed the topsails and stowed the foresail ; 
it daylight, m fore and main-topsails, down 
top*gallant- yards, and housed the top*gal- 
lant-ma&ts ; in jib-boom, and stowed Jib and 
fore-topmast-staysail in the net; came»to 
under the stoim misen and main-trysail; 
at noon, heavy gale of wind E S E ; sea nm* 
ning rery high, the ship labourinff much ; 
the sky as if closing around us, and haTiiig 
a most dismal appearance : no obsenratioD ; 
barometer from stormy to change, but im- 
possible to set it in consequence of the ship's 
labouring ; in dead lights. 



Saturday, August 19, 1887. 
Heavy gale with violent squalls and rain ; 
at 6 p.m. blowing a hurricane, the sea con- 
tinually breaking over the ship ; one pomp 
constantly kept goin^ ; at 11.30, ship^>ed a 
tremendous sea, which carried away the 
whole of the bulwarks and some of the stan- 
chions on both sides of the main deck, some 
spare spars, and lee- beam ; at midnight, the 
scene most appalling, the wind lasmng the 
foam and rain, so as to render it impossible 
to look to windward; the ship fiterallj 
under water forward ; about this time the 
starboard quarter-boat was blown from her 
lashings, and we saw no more of her ; at S 
a.m. ^^e harder, if possible ; blew the main- 
trysail completely out of the bolt-rope, at 
the same time a succession of seas breaking 
over the ship, swept every thing off the 
decks but guns and long-boat ; turned the 
hands up and rigged boui pumps ; at noon. 
not the least appearance or a change; wind 
SSE; dismally dark, and no observation ; 
barometer as yesterday ; wore ship. 



Sunday, August 20, 1837. 
No alteration until 10 p.m. when the wind 
backed to the e<utteard, blowing as hard as 
ever ; at midnight, do. weather, the same 
terrific appearance ; a.m. the grodmaUjf fteeft- 
ing to tMs north%Dard with no abatement ; at 
noon, wind NNW but not the least abate- 
ment; no observation ; barometer as yes- 
terday. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



89 





Account of the Voyage of the Sophia — concluded. 


Hour. 


Wind. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

• 

A.M. 


NW 
W 


rising 

rising 
rapidly 

fair 


Monday, August 21, 1837. 
At 1 P.M. wind at N W, the sea a-beam 
and breaking over them as if determined to 
destroy all before it ; got the storm mizen 
in and stowed ; let her drift under bare 
poles ; at 6, more violent, if possible ; had 
the bulwarks on the poop washed away, 
and the larboard quarter-boat stove ; at 8, 
set the mizen again ; the breeze inclined to 
moderate, and the mercury to rise ; at mid- 
night, still dark and gloomy ; mercury get- 
tine up fast : at daylight, moderated a little, 
and incUned to clear up ; bore up and set 
the close-reefed topsails and foresail ; at 9 
A.M. got sights for the chronometer ; baro- 
meter rising rapidly ; at 10 A.M. made more 
sail, with a fine steady breeze from the 
westward ; ship making one foot of water 
per hour ; at noon, observed in 34^ 38' N, 
longitude per chronometer 74*» 20' 30' W, 
haying made since last observation, against 
wind and sea, ninety-five miles of noruiing, 
and forty-nine of longitude ; barometer at 
fair. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Third 
storm. 



Drifting 
under bare 
poles. 



" From this date to the 3rd of September we had variable The Bre- 
winds and fine weather. On that day we spoke a brig from 
Matanzas to Bremen. She left Cuba on the 18th of August^ 
with a fine westerly breeze, which brought her through the Gulf 
of Florida, and alongside of us, over the same ground where so 
much damage had been so recently done. 

'* In 1824, when I commanded the ship New York Packet, 
we encountered in September, homeward bound, to the north- 
ward of Bermuda, a hfeavy gale from south-east, which continued 
for two days, tdhen it suddenly became calm, A small clear spot A calm. 
appeared in the opposite quarter, north-west ; and in a very short Storm's 
span the ship was on her beam-ends, with her lower yards in the ^^' 
water, from the action of the wind upon her spars and ringing alone, 
I was obliged to cut away some of her masts, or she must have 
foundered. 

''In August, 1832, between the Havannah and Matanzas, in 
the Sophia, I experienced a similar breeze to this last one, in 
company with several other Jamaica ships. I paid close atten- 
tion to the barometer, and other signs of a change of weather | 
and having prepared accordingly, suffered little or nothing in 
spars or rigging, when some of those in company were dismasted. 



90 



HURRICANE8 OF 1837. 



CHAP. On that occasion, ships not thirty miles off were not aware of it. 
^* // began at south-east, and going round the compass, westward, ended 
where it began in six hours, 
storm- (Signed) "JAMES BARCLAY." 



Ship 
Rawlins. 



Calm for 
an hour. 



Bar. 



,t\(f 






J 



Narrative of Mr. Macqueen, Master of the Ship 
Rawlins, from Jamaica to London. 

o / 

" Latitude — Ck>mmencementy N. SO SO 
„ Termination, 30 40 

"Longitude — Commencement, W. 77 40 
„ Termination, 77 18 

" Dates— 17th, 18th, IQth August. 
" Wind commenced at north-east by east, blowing strong from 
that quarter, about twelve hours, then suddenly veered to uartk, 
continuing with unabated vigour until midnight of 18th ) in an 
instant a perfect calm ensued for one hour; then quick as 
thought the hurricane sprung up, with tremendous force, from 
south-west t not again shifting from that point. No swell whatever 
preceded the convulsion. The barometer gave every notice of 
the coming gale for many previous hours. Two days antecedent 
the weather beautifully serene, but oppressively hot, with light 
shifting airs ; barometer during that time standing at ' set-lmir/ 
during the gale as low as almost to be invisible in the tube, above 
the frame- work of the instrument. The force subsided at mid- 
night, August 19th 5 the sea tremendous, and rising in every 
direction ; from the force of wind no tops to the waves, being 
dispersed in one i^eet of white foam -, the decks tenanted by 
many sea-birds, in an exhausted state, seeking shelter in the 
vessel 5 impossible to discern, even during the day, anything at 
fifty yards distance 5 the wind representing numberless voices, 
elevated to the shrillest tone of screaming -, but few flashes of 
lightning, and those in the south-west. A very heavy sea con- 
tinued for some days after. 

(Signed) " GILBERT MACQUEEN, 

" Commander of the ship Rawlins.*' 

In the log of the Rawlins, on the 20th August, a.m., 
there is this expression : — 

''The wind and sea much abated. A dismal appearance to 
the north-west" 

This was the direction in which the centre of the 
storm had moved. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



91 



Narrative of Mr, Turner, Master of the Ship Wkbt Indian,* CHAP. 

from Jamaica to London. 



Hour. Wind. 



P.M. 



Bar. 



Ther. 



30.1 



BSE 



P.M. 



80.1 



30.0 



P.M. 



ENE 



ENE 



A.M. 



30.0 



Hezmurks. 



August 14, 1837. 

Water smooth, and fine weather. Lati- 
tude obseryed 28'' 28' N; longitude by 
chronometer 79° 46' W ; current N J W 
90 milea since the preTious noon. 



August 15, 1837. 

Wind light from ENE; smooth water. 
At 6 P.M. this day the weather put on an 
unsettled appearance, and a strong swell 
began to set in from the east-north-east, 
which continued to increase, as did also the 
wind from the north-east ; the next mornins 
the sky more settled. Latitude observed 
Sl^'O'Ii; longitude by chronometer 79° 69^ 
W; current N ^ W^ 90 miles since the 
previous noon. 



August 16, 1837. 

No current perceptible these twenty-four 
hours, although when the ship was tacked 
at 6 P.M. last evening, and quite on the inner 
edge of the Qnlf-stream, the water at the 
sunace was like a boiling cauldron; the 
heat of the water 8 and 10 degrees warmer 
than the air, which became equal about 
midnight. Fresh winds, variable yrom etut- 
north-east to north-east, gradually increasing. 
Latitude observed 31° 45^ N ; longitude by 
chronometer 77° 69^ W. 



August 17, 1837. 

Blowing fresh from yesterday, with a 
heavy swell from the £ 8 £ (wind being 
east-north-east) ; ship under reefed courses 
and double-reefed topsails. At davlight 
this morning the sky put on a very threat- 
ening aspect; ship's head to the ESE, 
with a tremendous sea from ESE; wind 
and sea continued to increase all day, with 
rain; barometer not falling until 5 p.m., 
when it went down suddenly 6^''; ship 
then under reefed forecourse and close- 
reefed main- topsail ; top-gallant-yards and 
mast on deck, jibboom and mizen-topmast 
housed ; at midnight, took in forecourse. 
The hurricane had now commenced, 3 a.m. 
of the 18th ; in main-topsail ; hurrieane at 
its meridian; wind now about east-north- 
east. Latitude by account 31^ SS' N ; long, 
by account 77*» 13' W. 



Third 
storm. 

ShipWesi 

Indian 

(Turner). 



Ship on 
port tack. 



Swell 

from 

E.O.E. 



Wind 

from 

E.N.E. 



* There were two ships of this name in the storm. 



92 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Third 
storm. 



Narrative of the Ship West Indian — continued. 



Calm, and 
let a reef 
out. 



Hurricane 
returned. 



Scudded 
24 hours. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



Bar. 



Ther. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



A.M. 



ESE 



SW 



W 



N W 



29.1 



28.8 



rising 



29.5 



29.5 



Remarks. 



August 18, 1837. 
Ship now lyins-to; main-topsail sheet 
partially hauled aft ; the wind drawing tmon 
easterly ; constant heary rain ; sea running 
▼ery high. At 6 p.m. the wind was east- 
touth'eaati struck by a sea; nearly swept 
the decks ; carried away quarter-boats; did 
considerable damage to quarter-gallery. 
The wind still increasing to the eouthward; 
just after midnight of the 18th it fell nearly 
calm ; set main-topdail, and let a reef out 
to steady ship. At 2 a.m. came out in an 
insUuUf with all its former violence, from the 
eouth'Weet ; could not attempt to wear the 
ship on account of damage sustained on lar- 
board quarter. Latitude by account ZV* 9^ 
N ; longitude by account 77* 56' W. 



August 19, 1837. 
Hurricane stiU continuing, with all ita 
former Tiolence ; at midnight of the 19th it 
moderated a little, wind veering to the w^U^ 
ward all the time ; at 4 a.m. the wind o&otrf 
toeet; got the ship before the wind nnder 
close-reefed topsails, and scudded before the 
gale ; a tremendous cross sea. Latitude by 
account 31*» 21' N. 78*» 6' W. 



August 20, 1837. 
Continued to run before the gale all these 
twenty-four hours, the wind getting roond 
to noi^h'Weet; heavy cross sea. At noon, 
latitude by account 31° 42' N; longitude 
by account 77° 14' W. 



August 21, 1837. 
Now find the ship has been in the Onlf- 
stream great part of the time since the last 
observations were obtained. In four dajs 
ship has been set N 52° E 130 miles; for 
some days after had very unsettled weather, 
with a great deal of sea. At noon, latitude 
by observation 33° 32 N; longitude by 
chronometer 72° 13' W. 

(Signed) H. TURNER. 



The brig Mary left Port Royal, Jamaica, on July 
30, 1837, and followed nearly the same track as that 
laid down for the Palambam and Duke of Manches- 
ter, which will be found on Chart VI. The Mary's 
place for the 16th August will be found on Chart VII. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



93 



She was, therefore, behind the two first storms, but chap. 
before the third. 



V. 



Third 



Extract from the Log of the Brig Mary, J. R. Crosbie, Master, ttorm. 
from Jamaica to Liverpool. Sailed from Kingston, July 29, ^^K^^^^T* 
1837 5 Port Royal, July 30, 1837. Nothing particular oc- 
curred until the 3rd August, commencing with incessant rain, 
thunder, and lightning ; a heavy cross sea. — Civil Time. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



Bar. 



Ther. 



ESE 



A.M. 



EbyN 
NEbyE 



ESE 



29.10 



29.00 



falling 



SE 



ESE 



SEtoNW 



28.70 



82 



82 



80 



28.60 



nsing 

and 

falling 

28.50 



28.10 



76 



74 



70 



Remarks. 



Augnst 16, 1837. 
Wind ESE ; current NNE two miles 
per hour ; latitude observed 32^ 21', 
longitude p. chronometer 77^ 60* ; baro- 
meter 29.10; thermometer, ^ade 82^, 
water 82**. 



August 17, 1837. 
Wind E by N, N E by E ; strong gales 
and heavy squalls, with a h«id sea from 
N E ; barometer 29.00 ; thermometer, 
shade 82®, water 82<>. 



August 18, 1837. 
Wind ESE; increasing gales ; struck 
top-gallant- yards and masts ; secured all 
on deck ; every appearance of bad wea- 
ther ; barometer falling fast ; labouring 
and straining; lying-to under balance- 
reefed trysail ; barometer 28.70 ; therm., 
shade S0\ water 82''. 



August 19, 1837. 
Wind S E ; gale increasing to a perfect 
hurricane ; under bare poles ; barometer 
28.60; thermometer, shade 76®, water 80®. 



August 20, 1837. 
Wind ESE; sea making a complete 
breach over all; barometer rising and 
falling very fast; unsettled for the last 
twenty- four hours; seldom get below to 
look at it ; barometer 28 J50 ; thermo- 
meter, shade 74®, water 78®. 



August 21, 1837. 
Wind from SB to NW; barometer 
28 .10 ; a terrific appearance ; thermome- 
ter, air 70®, water 76® ; under bare poles ; 
nothing can withstand the wind at pre- 
sent ; secured all on deck as well as pos- 
sible ; sent all but three men off deck ; at 
5 A.M. tremendous sea struck the vessel 
on the larboard bow, which took away all 



Third 
storm com- 
mencing. 



94 



HURRICANES OP 1837. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Third 
ttoxm. 



Extract from the Log of the Brig Mary — eimtimmd. 



Hour. 



Wind. Bar. 



Ther. 



P.M. 



8W 



SWto 
NW 



NbyE 



NW 



ntmg 
28.40 



70 



38.80 



TlMr. 
broken 



28.90 



29.00 



29.00 



Remarki. 



bulwarks, stancheoiiB, boaU, tpantwrnter- 
eatktf cabooM, and ererj marmJbim off 
deck, atream and kedge tnehor; tmmI 
laying on her broadside, imfbrtmimtdT 
lurched ; one scMaan of b oard ; ptdud 
him up, with imminent risk of my own 
life, but he had his lee broken, and another 
man his arm, and had more men disabled; 
one man found himself under the fomUnp 
when he recoTered himself; tiiehuirionne 
continuing to rage more and more, ererj 
exertion made to save as mndi ma poe* 
sible; at noon gale abating; bnromeCer 
rising gradually ; I could not leaT* the 
deck to note it, but it certainly must 
have been lower, noon 28.40 ; thefmo- 
meter, ahade 76**, water 70° ; p.m. Intitode 
36^ 12' N, longitude p. chronometer 
720 ir W; a turbulent cross sen; reeeel 
verjlaboursome; midnight, set the reeM 
souare mainsail, all other saik being 
blown away. 



August 22, 1837. 
Wind SW; made all sail that dream- 
stances would permit ; hearj rein, 
thimder, and lightning; latitude 36^ 23^, 
longitude 76<' 6' W; barometer 28.80; 
thermometer broken. 



August 23, 1837. 
Wind SW to N W; Utitude 36<> ST, 
longitude 68« 17'; barometer 28.90. 



August 24, 1837. 
Wind N by E ; latitude 36<» 13^ lon- 
gitude 66^ 46^; barometer 29.00 ; more- 
able and gloomy. 



August 26, 1837. 
Wind NW; latitude 36<* 35', Umgi- 
tude 65^ 38' ; barometer 29.00. 



*' The remaining part of the passage strong breezes from the 
westward j barometer rising gradually. 

(Signed) " J. R. CROSBIE. Master of the brig Mary." 



TH£ VARIABLE WINDS. 



95 



Extract from the Log of the Barque Pbnklopk, J. H. Ghrimes, CHAP. 
Master, firom Jamaica to London. — In Nautical Tones, ' 



Hour. 



P M. 



A^. 



Wind. 



£S£ 



P.M. 



Bar. 



NE 



A.M. 



E toSE 



ESE 
to E 



Ther. 



Remarks. 



August Id—Nauticai Tbnei, 

Strong gales and cloudy. At 4 p.m. (I8th 
mean time) larboard pump choked ; ship 
labouring much, and making a great deal of 
water; midnight, strong gales; kept the 
ship off the wmd occasioniul j, to pump the 
ship out with weather-pump ; at 8 a.m. 
ri9th) wore ship to the southward ; took in 
lorecourse, and close-reefed the topsails ; 
wind ESE; at 6 a.m. wore ship to north- 
ward ; at 10 A.M. (19th) hard gales ; in fore- 
topsaU and fore-topmast staysail, and hore 
to under dose- reefed main-topsail ; latitude, 
by account at noon, 34^ 6& N, longitude 
76<» 2f W, 



August 20~(19 P.M. Civil Time). 

Hard gales, and a heayy sea ; at 4 p.m. 
(19th) gue increasing ; starboard pump con- 
stantly going ; ship labouring much, and 
making much water ; at 8 p.m. (20th) tre- 
mendous gales ; ship laying with gunwales 
in the water, on the larboard tack; at 11 
P.M. hoisted the fore-topmast staysail, and 
wore ship to the N E ; a very neayy sea 
running, when the ship came to the wind 
on the other tack; fore-topmast staysail 
blew away, and the main-topsail was split ; 
midnight, a heavy sea broke on board and 
washed the boats to the leeside of the deck, 
and carried away bulwarks on both sides, 
fore and aft ; at 2 a.m. (20th civil time) set 
main-trysail, to kee^ ship to ; in five mi- 
nutes it blew away m tatters ; wind from 
E to S E ; one pump constantly going ; at 
4 A.M. sounded the well, and found nearly 
three foot water in the weather-pump ; 
called all hands to the pump, and found the 
sand had washed from the bottom of the 
larboard pump; set both pumps on; at 
daylight found the plankshear on the lar- 
board ride had started off half an inch for 
three feet in length ; at 8 a.m. wind mode- 
rated; secured the long-boat and spare 
anchors ; pumps still going ; sugar washing 
out Tery mat ; at 10 a.m. ^Oth) wind more 
moderate ; set close-reaed fore-topsail ; 
wind ESE to E ; noon, dark cloudy 
weather; wore ship to southward; noon, 
latitude account 36^ 20', longitude 75° 20* 
W. 



Third 
storm. 



96 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Third 
storm. 



Extract from the Log of the Barque Penelope — camiimmei. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



CuTTcnt 
accele- 
rated. 



Wind. 



ESB 



NNW 



sw 



NNW 



Bar. 



Ther. 



broke 



Remarki. 



Atigost 21, 1837. 
August 21— (20 Civa Time). 
Strong gales and cloudy ; at 2 p.m. got 
the ship pumped out to tweire inches^ wmb 
the larboard pump choked again ; mt 4 p.m. 
wind ESE; wore ship to NE, not laying 
to well ; at 9 ▲.m. gale increasing, and, the 
wind baring reered to the N N W, a very 
heavy sea running, and the ship getting top- 
heavy from the qusntity of sugar waahed 
out, came to a resolution oi running before 
it till the gale abated ; at midnight it Uew 
a perfect hurricane from N N W; at 4 a.m. 
(21st August, mean time) a heavy S6« bioke 
on board, and stove the boats on deck ; so 
we were obliged to throw the J^mm over- 
board, likewise everything off the deck, 
water-casks, stream-anchor, ftc. ; at 8 aji. 
saw a French brig scudding under » fore- 
sail, apparently with no accident; at 10 
A.M. more moderate, ship making mneh 
water ; and, one pump being choked, deemed 
it prudent to get into some port in America ; 
noon, latitude 34*^ SO' N, longitndeby chro- 
nometer 72** 20' W. 



August 22— (21 Civil Tims). 
At 6 P.M. wind hauled to the S W ; made 
up my mind to gain a port to the northward 
of Cape Hatteras; found by obaenrmtum 
that the current had increaied in velecitjf 
during the gale, and drove the ship consi- 
derably to the northward and eastward, 
eastward of where I expected her to be. 
Barometer being broke, it was useleaa. The 
general appearance of the weather was 
dark end cloudy, but no lightning. The 
latitudes and longitudes for the fot two 
days will be very incorrect, as there was 
little time to attend to anything else hot 
the pumpe ; but on the 21st they are 1^ ol>- 
servation. On the night of the 2(Hh we had 
run about eightv miles due S, whidi would 
have made the latitude by account, on the 
21st, about 33"* 20^ N, whereas by obeerva- 
tion it was Zi° 6(K N, and the longitude 
72° 20^ W ; the latter part of the hunicane 
from X N W ; during the night it was very 
dark, snd heavy black clouds, thouch, if I 
recollect right, the moon was in her last 
quarter. 

(Signed) J. H. GRIMES, 

Commander of the Penelope. 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



97 



Extract from the Log of the Barque We^t Indian, Simpson, CHAP. 
Master, from Jamaica to London. — In CtVt7 Time, 



Hour. 



P.M. 



Wind. 



N 



Bar. 



A.M. 



SWtoE 



StoSE 



falls 



Ther. 



down 



P.M. 



JUM. 



below 
rain 



W 



Kemarki. 



^ 



August 2(W' 
Increasing breezes, and oark gloomy wea- 
ther; the wind not steady, shifting about 
from point to point, and dying into a calm, 
every now and then with heayy drops of 
rain; at times the marine barometer and 
svmpiesometer fsll very little ; the weather- 
glass brushes up for a strong gale at noon ; 
latitude 87° N, longitude 64' W ; in all 
studding- sails, royals, flying jil^gaff-topsail, 
unrove all the studding-sail gear, and sent 
the booms of the yards down ; during these 
twenty-four hours the wind has been va- 
riable from 8 W to E ; at 2 p.m. passed the 
briff Constitution, of Rochester, waterlogged 
and dismasted. 



Third 
storm. 

Ship West 

Indian 

(Simpson) 



August 21. 
A.M. Increasing gales, and squally : in 
top-gallant- sails ; a heavy sea from N E ; 
the wind is variable from S to S E, and a 
heav^ sea from that quarter likewise ; at 8 
▲.M. in double reef of the topsails ; people 
employed unbending all small sails, and 
sending in the flying Jib-boom and g^ar : 
carpenter unshipping the bulwarks and 
stowing them below, and battening down 
and securing all the hatchways ; at 10 strong 
gales ; doubly stowed and passed the main- 
sail, jib, and mizen, and unrove the gear of 
the mainsail ; at noon hard gales, and hazy, 
with a cross confused sea ; barometer and 
sympiesometer down below rain; latitude 
by account 38° 23' N, longitude 62° 40' W ; 
at 4 p.m. close-reefed the topsails and reefed 
the foresail ; at 6 p.m. hard gales ; stowed 
the foresail and fore-topsail, and passed 
them to the yards ; unrove the foretacks 
and sheets, and hove the ship to, head to 
the eastward, vnnd 8 ; at 10 p.m. blowing 
quite a hurricane ; we are now involved in 
a white smoke or fog, and the water as 
white as a sheet ; the main-topsail is on the 
cap, and the sheets eased off a little to ease 
the sail ; at midnight nearly calm. 



Lying-to. 



^. 






y^^. 



Auffust 22. 
At 1 A.M. the vnna came away from about 
W, and i£ possible it blew harder than ever ; 
at 6 A.M. it is blowins a hurricane; the 
ship is laying with half the lee main- deck 
in the water ; three men lashed to the lee 
bilge-pump, and trving the main pump 
every ten minutes ; the boat on the lee side 
has broke both davits; secured the boat 



H 



Hurricane. 






Nearly 
calm. 



Hurricane. 



98 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Third 
storm. 

Ship West 
Indian. 



Extract from the Log of the Barque West Indian — comdrnde^. 



[lour . 



Wind. 



P.M. 



W 



Bar. 



Ther. 



Remarks. 



Ship Ida. 



August 22. 
with tackles from the miienmaat; it it 
blowing so hard now that the sea is snooth 
at times, and the water is coming orer the 
weather-rail like a waterspout ; 8 a.m. the 
ship is now laying with her lee-rail under 
water, the ship making more water than 
usual ; pumps constanuy going ; at noon 
the gale is now at its height ; it is dreadfiol ; 
you cannot make the people hear what is 
said, and you can hardlT see for the lashing 
of the rain and sleet ; latitude bj aoooont 
39** 9' N, longitude 61*» 84' W ; at 2 p.m. 
more moderate; at 4 bore awaj; set the 
foresail and fore-topsail. We sailed firooa 
Jamaica, August the Ist, and arrived in the 
Downs on the 1 1th of September ; we had 
nothing but fine weather before and alter 
the gale. I have made forty- eight passages 
across the Atlantic Ocean ; I have alwaTt 
met with more hurricanes, thunder, squallet 
and tempestuous weather within the influ- 
ence of Uie Gulf- stream, than I have foumd 
either to the northward or southwtfd« end 
I cannot account for it. 

(Signed) HENRY SIBiPSON. 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Ida, Tilley, Master.- 

In Cft;t7 Time. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



A.M. 



EXE 



Bar. Ther. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



ENE 



NE 



30.10 



Remarks. 



85 



Tuesday, August 15. 1837. 
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy weather ; 
at 5 light airs and variable, with rain, thun- 
der and lightning, wind veering round the 
compass ; the sky at this time had a verj 
eurious appearance, streaky, and resembling 
a waterspout, and sometimes that of a rain- 
bow ; this weather continued till 10 o'clock* 
when it became fine ; at noon light bte eaee 
and fine, made sail ; latitude observed 27^ 
31' N, longitude by chronometer 79° 36' 
W; thermometer 85°; marine barometer 
30.1-10 ; at 6 tacked ship to the eastward^ 
at midnight light breezes and cloudy wea- 
ther ; tacked to the northward ; wind £ N E. 



Wednesday, August 16. 1837. 
A.M. Light breezes and squally weather ; 
at daylight set top-gallant sails ; at 9 in top- 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



99 



Extract from tbe Log of the Ship Ida — continued. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



P.M. 



NNE 



A.M. 



NEto 
£S£ 



Bar. 



29.80 



29.20 



P.M. 



N£ 



29.00 



Ther. 



80 



A.M. 



NEto 
SW 



28.50 



f.M. 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, Aug^t 16, 1837. 
gallant ^ils ; at noon freah breeses and 
aquaUy weather ; latitude obserred 29° 54' 
N, longitade 79*" 39' W ; thermometer 80'' ; 
marine barometer 29.8-10 : p.m. strong 
breezes and squally ; in second and third reef 
of the topsailiB ; sent down the royal yards ; 
at 8 wore ship to the eastward ; wind 
NNE; at midnight strong breezes and 
eloudy, with a swell from the eastward; 
marine barometer 29.2-10. 



Thursday, August 17, 1837. 
A.M. Fresh gales and squally weather ; 
at 4 handed the fore-topsail and foresail ; at 
intervals the wind came in gusts, then sud- 
denly dying away, and continued so for four 
hours ; sent down top-gallant-yards and 
masts on deck ; at 8 hove-to under close- 
reefed main-topsail and main-trysail ; at 9 
split the main-trysail ; at 10 the main-top- 
sail blew from the bolt-rope ; at noon blow* 
ing a hurricane ; marine barometer 29° ; no 
latitude, no longitude ; wind N E ; head 
to E 8 E; laying- to under bare poles; at 
8 p.m. shipped a heavy sea, which washed 
away the caboose and bulwarks on the lee 
side ; at 10 shipped a heav^ sea on the wea- 
ther quarter, which stove m the companion 
and washed away all the after bulwarks ; 
the lee-quarter-boat was completely blown 
to pieces by the wind ; at midnight olowing 
a tremendous hurricane, with rain and a 
hetrrj mountainous sea; ship labouring 
heavily, and shipping great quantities of 
water fore and aft ; four feet water in the 
hold ; used every exertion to free the ship 
without success ; marine barometer 28.5-10. 



Friday, August 18, 1837. 
A.M. Blowing a tremendous hurricane ; 
the wnd veering from X E to SW within 
last twelve hours, and every sail blown to 
atoms from the yards and from under the 
gaskets; all the pumps choked with bal- 
last; the ship was laying over in a most 
awful state ; at 5 p.m. succeeded in getting 
ihe ship before tbe wind, which we expect 
prevented her from foundering ; at 8 found 
to our great joy the ship made much better 
weather scudding than lay ing- to ; at mid- 
night found we had run out of the hurri- 
cane, but it still blew a very heavy gale ; 
water in the hold increased to six feet; all 

h2 



CHAP. 
V. 

Hurri- 
cane, 
middle of 
August. 

Ship Ida. 



Near the 
centre. 



100 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Hurri- 
cane, 
middle of 
August. 

Ship Ida. 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Ida — conthmed. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



Bar. 



Ther. 



P.M. 



NEto 
SW 



A.M. 



W 



A.M. 



A.M. 



West- 
ward 



SW 



29.50 



65 



Remarks. 



Friday, August 18, 1837. 
the pumps choked ; five men ill with ferer, 
four disabled by accident, the remainder 
much fagged by long exertions, haTing no- 
thing to eat but raw meat. 



Saturday, August 19, 1837. 
A.M. Strong ffales with a high sea ; aI 
daylight all hands employed in lifting the 
pumps to clear the ballast, but no one eould 
stay in the pump- well to effect it, in conae- 
quence of foul air ; got one of the bilge-<f9«^ 
pumps to work, and one of the main-pumpa 
lifted six feet out of its original place, it 
threw water badly ; at noon strong breescs 
and cloudy weather ; hauled our wind and 
made sail for some port in America ; fiTe 
men ill with fever, four off duty by fialla, 
and the remainder much fagged by loiig 
exertion ; wind W. 



Sunday, August 20, 1837. 
A.M. Strone breeaes and cloudy wea- 
ther; people sll employed at the pumpe, 
but nearly worn out by fatigue and want oC 
rest ; at noon ditto weather, seven feet water 
in the hold, and it still increasing fast ; em- 
ployed at the pumps, which threw but Terr 
little water ; latitude observed 3r 36' N, 
longitude 76° 9' W ; thermometer 6^ ; 
marine barometer 29.5' 10; some of the 
people employed getting spars ready for a 
raft in case tne ship should founder during 
the night ; at midnight more moderate, 
eight feet water in the hold ; the wind from 
the westward all these twenty- four houn. 



H 



Monday, August 21, 1837. 
A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy 
ther ; at daylight to our great joy saw a 
ship to windward, with her mizen-maatand 
top- gallant-masts cut away ; made a signal 
of distress to her, she bore up and came 
down on us ; at 6 spoke her ; she proved to 
be Citizen, of New York, from New Orleana, 
bound to Bremen, now to the nearest port she 
could reach, bcinfl[ in great distress as vrell 
as ourselves, making three feet and a half of 
water per hour ; we consulted, and entered 
into an engagement to stay by each other ; 
at 9 took off the hatches, and be^an to 
lighten the ship from between decks, by 
throwing overboard coffee, rum, and ship 
stores, and everything that impeded lighten- 
ing the ship, as we were under great appre- 
hension of the ship capsizing, as wt nad 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



101 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Ida — concluded. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



A.M. 



A.M. 



Bar. Ther. 



SW 



SW 



Remarks. 



Monday, August 21, 1837. 
two tier of sugar washed out of the lower 
hold ; as the pumps proved of little service 
commenced balemg out the ship with 
buckets ; but as she had ten feet water in 
the hold, thought our longer exertions 
would be of little ayail: at 8 spoke the 
Citizen, and informed her commander that 
we should abandon our ship at daylight ; at 
midnight strong breezes and squally, the 
ship haying so much water in her we could 
scarcely get her to answer her helm ; wind 
this day 8 W ; latitude 32° 7' N, longitude 
76° 30' W. 



Tuesday, August 22, 1837. 
A.M. Light breezes and fine weather; 
at 4 strong breezes and squally weather; 
made a signal of distress to the Citizen, and 
finding all our endeayours in yain to save 
the ship with our worn-out crew, got the 
boats ready and made preparations for 
abandoning her; at 6 the Citizen stood 
towards us; at 7 we hoye-to near each 
other, out boat and sent part of crew on 
board ; the boat returned three times, when 
we succeeded in getting all the crew safe on 
board the Citizen, although it blew yery 
strong, and the ships were obliged to bear 
up to pick up the boat, as the wind blew 
80 heavy they could not pull to wind- 
ward ; latitude 33° 14' N, longitude 76° 19' 
W. when abandoned ; and landed at Phila- 
delphia on the 30th of August. 

(Signed) JAMES TILLY. 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Westbrook, J, Freeman, 
Commander, from Jamaica to London. — In Nautical Time, 



Hour. 



P.M. 



P.M. 



Wind. 



Variable 



Variable 
ESE 



Bar. 



Ther. 



Remarks. 



August 16, 1837— (14 Civil Time), 
6 P.M. light air, approaching to calm ; 
midnight, heayy swell from the S E ; noon, 
latitude 31** N, longitude 78° W ; wind ya- 
riable. 



August 16, 1837— (16 Civil Time), 
1 P.M. li^ht bafflinff winds; 7 p.m. in- 
creasing wind, and looking squally ; in 



CHAP. 
V. 

Hurri- 
cane, 
middle of 
August. 

Ship Ida. 
Sugar had 
dissoWed. 



Ship 

West- 

brooiL. 



102 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 



Hurri- 
cane, 
middle of 
Augpist. 

8hip 
West- 
brook. 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Westbrook — comikmed. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



Bar. 



P.M. 



Stormy in 
the south. 



A.M. 



P.M. 
A.M. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



Variable 



NE 



EbyN 
E 



SE 



SEto 

NNW 



A.M. , N N W 



Ther. 



Remarka. 



August 16, 1837— (16 Cvril Time). 
small sails ; midnight, wind E 8 B ; at«adj 
wind and clear ; noon, latitude 82° 20^, longi- 
tude 1&* 43'; wind variable. 



August 17, 1837— (16 CivU Tume). 
1 P.M. wind N E ; fresh wind, and clear 
weather, with a S E swell runing ; 6 p.m. 
in top-gallant sail and single-reefed top- 
sails ; strong wind, with a yerj heary tea 
from the S £; 8 p.m. a yery heayy appear- 
ance in the S, with a good deal of light- 
ning ; stowed the mainsail ; 7 a.m. strong 
gales, and a yery heayy sea, vessel shipping 
a good deal of water ; 9 a.m. in second roei 
in topsails ; noon, strong gales and Tery 
heayy squalls, with rsin ; latitude 32** 47% 
longitude 76'' 14'. 



August 18, 1837— (17 Citnl Tims). 
1 P.M. wind E by N ; strong galea and 
hard squalls with a high cross sea running ; 
midnight, strong gales and squally ; 5 a.m. 
wind £ ; noon, blowing strong, and no ap- 
pearance of change, dose-reefad the topaaua 
and down royal-yards ; no obserration. 



August 19, 1837— (18 CivU Time). 
1 P.M. wind S E ; strong galea, and a 
heayy sea running ; 3 p.m. stowed the fore- 
sail ; 8 P.M. stowed the fore-topsail, being 
split, and hoye-to imder dosed-reefied main- 
topsail and trysail ; midnight, came on to 
blow a complete hurricane ; sea rising yery 
high ; vessel labouring heavily, and ship- 
ping quantities of water on all sides ; 
(19), no appearance of any change. 



August 20, 1837— (CiVi/ Time). 
Wind at S E, untU 11 a.m. on the 20th, 
whenitveeredtoNNW; throughont theae 
twenty-four hours a terrific hurricane ; the 
sea awfully high ; vessel labouring as before, 
and shipping quantities of water on all aidea ; 
a heavy sea struck the lib-boom, and carried 
away me spritsail-vard, jib, and flying Ub- 
boom ; the ship pitching so very heavily, 
we were obliged to cut away the wreck for 
safety; lost at the same time both jiba* 
sprung the fore- top-gallant- mast, split the 
main-trysail; heavy rain throughout; no 
observation. 



August 21, 1837— (C»vi7 Time). 
Wind N NW; not the least alteration 
in wind or weather; vessel labouring as 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



103 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Wiestbhook— concluded. CHAP 



Flour. 



Wind. 



Noon 

P.M. 



Bar. 



WNW 
Variable 



Ther. 



Remarks. 



August 21, 1837— (CtPf? Time), 
before, and shipping quantities of water on 
all sides ; rain and thunder ; midnight, 
just the same ; 4 a.m. more moderate ; bore 
away, and set the foresail and fore- topsail ; 
latitude 34° 58', longitude 78° 32'; wind 
WNW. 



August 24, 1837— (CVvi/ Time). 
At 1 P.M. wind Tariable, and a heary 
southerly swell ; at midnight a heayy 
easterly swell. 



Extract from the Log-hook of the Siiip Sheridan. 



Hour. 



Wind. 



A* ^A • 



EbyS 



Bar. 



Ther. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



Remarks. 



Auffust 21. 
At 9 A.M. a fresh breeze, £ by S, and 
thick foggy weather; no obserration at 
noon. 



NWbyN 



August 22— {NatUical Time), 
Begins with strong breeze and cloudy 
weather ; wind £ by S ; course W by N, 
and a heavy sea ; at 2 p.m. rolled away the 
studding* sail booms, and took in studding- 
sails ; the wind increasing to a gale, at 4 
P.M. double-reefed the topsails, and furled 
the mainsail and spanker ; at 7 p.m. the 
gale increasing, with a tremendous heavy 
sea, obliged to keep sail on the ship to save 
the masts ; at 8 p.m. a perfect hurricane ; 
parted the topsail and fore-sheets, and split 
the sails ; hauled them up as well as possi- 
ble, it being impossible for men to go on Uie 
yards ; the spanker blown out of the gas- 
kets; the ship rolling both leeward and 
weather boats m, and shipping large quan- 
tities of water ; throughout the night dread- 
tiH weather ; at 1 a.m. wind N W by N ; 
course W S W ; at 6 a.m. a little more mo- 
derate ; cut away the fragments of the sails 
to save the spars ; latter part more mode- 
rate. Latitude at noon, by observation, 
39° 46'. 



The packet-ship Mediator, Champliu, from London, 
took the gale August 22nd, from the eastward at 8 
P.M., civil timCy her place at noon being in latitude 



V. 



Hurri- 
cane, 
middle of 
August. 

Ship 
West- 
brook. 



Ship 
Sheridan. 



104 THE VARIABLE WIKD8. 

CHAP. 42° 36', longitude ei"" 42'. At midnight the gale 

'- — was east-north-east; at 4 a.m., on the 23rd, north* 

east ; at 7 a.m. at north ; at 8 a.m. the gale abated, 
being of shorter duration than with the Sheridan, and 
having hauled gradually by the north to narth-wesL 

On the afternoon of the 22nd of August, the barque 
Barlow, from Liverpool, bound to St. John's, New 
Brunswick, passed the Mediator, New York packet, 
whilst that vessel was lying to. On the afternoon of 
the 20th, at the period the storm was very severe to 
the south-west of her, the Barlow experienced calms 
and variable winds. By noon on the 2l8t, the wind 
freshed, with the weather cloudy. At 4, in the after- 
noon of that day, it became south-easterly. Increasing 
in force, and veering towards east, it changed first to 
north, and afterwards by degrees to north-west. 

In the Barlow's log-book the wind is marked north 
at noon on the 22nd, at which time the topsails were 
close reefed, having previously split a sail. Profiting 
by the fair wind, this ship ran before it to the west- 
ward, and was soon out of the influence of the storm ; 
for by four o'clock on the morning of the 23rd, she had 
royals set again, with light and variable breezes. 
The ships The narrative of Mr. Griffith, Master of the ship 
Blanches- Duke of Manchester, tends further to explain the 
Paiam- nature of the three first storms. The Duke of Man- 
chester and another vessel, the Palambam, were to the 
south of the two first hurricanes on Charts V. and VI.; 
but they were in the heart of the third one, and the 
Palambam foundered. Her place where last seen by 
Mr. Griffith is marked on Chart VII., and she was 
then under a close-reefed topsail, near the centre of 
the storm. 



bam. 



HURRICANES OF 1837. 



106 



The black squall mentioned in the narrative was chap. 

described to me by Mr. GriflSth, as the most appalling '. — 

sight h^ had ever seen during his life at sea ; and he 
thought it probable, had it passed over his ship, that 
it would have upset her ; but it passed about a quar- 
ter of a mile astern.* 

The Log-book is printed from the date of the ship 
Duke of Manchester leaving Jamaica, in order to record 
the weather experienced beyond the southern limit of 
the first and second storms. It shows that the trade 
wind became suspended ; and the whole of it deserves 
to be attentively studied. 



Narrative of Mr. Griffith, Master of the Ship the Duke op 

Manchester. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 








July 26, 1837. 


P.M. 




NE 


P.M. Got underweight with a light breeze 

from the N E, with a cloudy unsettled sky, 

-•and exceedingly sultry. Midnight. Calms 

and light breezes of air from idl quarters of 

the compass. 

A.M. I)itto weather. 


A.M. 






July 27, 1837. 








Ditto weather; ship's head round the 


Noon 




NorthJy 


compass. Noon. A light air from north- 
ward, and black cloudy sky. 


P.M. 






P.M. Ditto weather, Tery sultry. Lucia 
harbour bearing S E, distance sixteen miles. 






• 


Midnig'nt. Ditto weather. 


July 28, 1837. 


A.M. 




N 


Light breeze from the northward. Day- 
break. Weather more clear; west end of 
Jamaica bearing SE by £, distance about 
eight leagues. Noon. Light breeze from the 


Noon 










NW 


NW, with an exceedingly dark confused 
sky, the clouds flying in every direction, and 
atmosphere yery sultry and oppressive. Sun 






i obscured from ike time of our sailing. 



Duke of 
Manches- 
ter's Log. 



See Charts 
V. and VI. 



♦ See Luke Howard's " Climate of London," vol. ii. p. 151, 2nd edition, 
for an account of a cloud of similar appearance. 



106 



STORMS OF 1837. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Duke of 
Manches- 
ter's Log. 



Narrative of the Ship the Duke of Manchestbr — eauimmed. 




P.M. 



A.M. 

Noon 



P.M. 



A.M. 

Noon 

P.M. 



A* M4 



P.M. 



A.M. 

Noon 

P.M. 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Southward 



Westward 



SSW 



8SW 



SSWto 

s 



WSW 



SSW 



A.M. 

Noon 

I'.M. 



SSW 

SE 

S 



SE 



Remarks. 



July 28, 1837. 

2 P.M. Wind Teering round the oompsM, 
with heayy rain and squalls. 

6. The appearance of the westiier Jhrmum 
ing ; wind SSW; took in small smilSt and 
single-reefed the topsail. 

8. Heavy rain, wunder, and lightning; 
inclined to a calm. Midnif^ "Fxmtt ~ 
and cloudy, with small rain. 



July 29, 1837. 

A.M. Ditto weather; wind SSW. 
Weather more clear. Noon. Pleasant 
ther ; got a sight of the sun for the Itnt 
since sailing. 

Lat. 190 IC N, long. 79° 17' W. 

P.M. Light airs and doudy, sultry 
ther. Midnight. Ditto weather. 



10. 



July 30, 1837. 

2 A.M. Squally ; took in small sails ; wind 
Teering from S S W to S. 

8. Clear weather. Noon. Steady 

Lat. 19*» 14'. lonff. 80** 26'. 

P.M. Ditto weather ; wind still the 

8. Light breeze from the WSW; taekad 
to the southward. Midnight. Light aiit 
and cloudy. 

July 31, 1837. 

6 A.M. Steady breese from the SSW; 
tacked ship to the westward. 

8. Steaay breeze and clear weather. 

11. Made the land (Grand Caymana). 
bearing S W, distance fifteen miles. 

Lat. (Noon) 19^ 21', long. 80^ 67'. 

P.M. Light breeze and steady. 

Midnight. Ditto weather. 



August 1, 1837. 

A.M. Light breeze and clear. 

8. Pleasant weather, but sultry ; one 
in sight to the southward. Noon. Ditto 
weather. 

Lat. 19«» 46', long. 82*^ 9'. 

P.M. Light breeze and fine weather; 
wind still from the S S W. 

8. llie wind shifted to the SE, with heary 
squalls. Midnight. Squally ; wind S. 



August 2, 1837. 
A.M. Weather more settled. 
8. The wind yeered to the S £. 
Noon. Pleasant weather. 
Lat. 20° 26'. lone. 83° 12'. 
P.M. Moderate breeze and pleasant wea- 



I 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



107 



Narrative of the Ship the Duke of Manchester — etmtmued. 



Hour. Courses. 



P.M. 



Winds. 



A II. 



Noon 



P.M. 



A.M. 



Noon 



P.M. 



A.M. 



Noon 



P.M. 



A.M. 

Noon 



P.M. 



SE 



SE 
E 



NE 
Calm 



Calm 



Southw<* 

SE 

I 

1 

South 

! 

Southw«» 



Remarks. 



August 2, 1837. 
ther. Midnight. Light airs from the 8 £, 
inclined to cum ; cloudy sultry weather. 



August 3, 1837. 

A.M. Unsettled weather; took in all 
small sails. 

2. More moderate ; made sail ; wind S E. 

Noon. Ditto winds, and very sultry. 

Lat. 21** 25', long. 83° 68'. 

P.M. Light airs from E. 

2. Calm; dark, cloudy, sultry weather; 
ship's head round the compass. 

Midnight. Ditto weather. 



August 4, 1837. 

A.M. Light airs from all points of the 
compass. 

6. Pleasant hreeze from the NE, and clear. 

Noon. Light airs, and hazy sultry weather. 

Lat. 21° 31'. long. 84° 38': 

Midnight. Calm. 

P.M. Light hreeze, and ditto weather. 
Spoke the Ambassador, from Liverpool, 
bound to New Orleans, out fifty-six days. 

Augusts, 1837. 

A.M. Calm; the sea as smooth as oil; 
not the least ripple or flaw of wind ; weather 
sultry. Daylight. Ditto weather ; two sail 
in sight. At 7, lowered the pinnace to board 
the nearest vessel, which proved to be the 
Palambam, Capt. Lotheiington, who sailed 
from Jamaica on the same day as myself. 
We had both experienced the same weather, 
and agreed exactly as to our opinion thereof, 
and how it was likely to terminate ; we, from 
the weather we haa between Jamaica and 
the Caymans, concluded that they had had 
a hurricane in Jamaica. 

Noon. Hazy, and exceedingly oppressive. 

Lat. 21° 87 , long. 84° 46'. 

P.M. Ditto weather. 

2. Liffht airs from the southward. 

8. CaJms, and cloudy. 

Midnight. Light airs from the S E. 

August 6, 1837. 
4 A.M. Ditto weather ; wind South. 
Noon. Cape Antonia, bore N by W, 
distance fourteen miles. 
Lat. 21° 42', long. 86° 0'. 
P.M. Strong breeze from the southward, 
and cloudy weather. Midnight. Squally. 
Ship Palambam in company. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Duke of 
Manches* 
tor's Log. 



See Charts 
V. and VI. 



108 



STORMS OF 1837. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Duke of 
Manches- 
ter's Log. 



Narrative of the Ship the Duke of Manchbstbr — eamiumed. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

Noon 



P.M. 



Courses. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



Winds. 



SEbyS 



SEbyE 
toEbyN 



Southward 



A.M. 

Noon 

P.M. 



ENE 

toESE 



SE 



A.M. 



Noon 



P.M. 



NNE 
SE 

Northward 



A.M. 

Noon 

P.M. 



£ 
ENE 



E 
toENE 



NE 



Bemarks. 



August 7, 1887. 

A.M. Ditto weather. 6. Increasiiig 
and squally ; wind S £ by S. Noon. Ditto 
weather. 

Lat. 23° 48', long. 84** 66'. 

P.M. Strong breeze and clondT, hut fine 
weather; wind veering from SE hy B to 
E by N, latter part squally and Twiahle 
weather, with a heary sea from the BNS. 



and 



August 8, 1837. 

A.M. Commences with strong 
squally ; took in and made sail as 
wind variable from ENE to ESS. 

5. More moderate. 9. Tacked ship to tka 
southward. 

Lat. (Noon) 24** 6', long. 83** iW. 

P.M. Strong breezes and squally, a hcftTT 
sea running from the ENE, shippbis mnek 
water. 6. A very heavy white squall, with 
thunder and lightning ; in amall sails, aad 
double-reefed the topsails. 7* More mode- 
rate. Midnight. Squally, with ligihtaiiig 
and thunder. 



August 9, 1837. 

A.M. Ditto weather; blowing 
double-reefed-topsail breeze frt>m 
heavy sea running from that quarter; aevenl 
vessels in sight. Ship Palambam in eooa* 
pany. Noon. Ditto weather. 

Lat. 23** 20', long. 83** IQf. 

P M. Ditto weather. 8. Tacked to the 
south-eastward. Midnight. More mode* 
rate, but cloudy. 



August 10, 1837. 

A.M. Steady breeze from £. 4. Tacked 
to the NNE. 5, Fine weather ; out reefi^ 
and made all possible sail by the wind. 8. 
Tacked to the SE; wind £N£. Noon. 
Fresh breeze and cloudy, with aBNEawelL 

Lat. 23** 33', loni. 82^ 6'. 

P.M. Strong breeze and steady. 5. 
Tacked to the northward. Midnight. Ditto 
weather. Palsmbam in company. 



Augu»t 11, 1837. 

A.M. Commences wiiii fine steady hreese 
and ditto weather ; wind £ to NNE. 
Noon. Ditto weather. 

liat. 24° 38', long. SO'' 30'. 

P.M. Increasing breeze and squally. 6. 
Strong breeze frt>m the N E ; double -reeled 
the topsails. Midnight. More moderate ; 
made all sail. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



109 



Narrative of the Ship the Duke of Manchester — cmUimued. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 








August 12, 1837. 


A.M. 






A.M. Fresh breeze and fine weather, but 


Noon 






cloudy and sultry. Noon. Ditto. Ship 
Palambam in company. 
Lat. 25^ 42', long. 79° bb\ 


P.M. 






P.M. Ditto weather. 8. Squally, with 
much rain ; shortened sail. 10. More 
settled ; made sail. Midnight. Cloudy, with 
passing showers of rain. 


August 13, 1887. 


A.M. 






A.M. Strong breeze and cloudy weather. 


Noon 






Noon. Ditto weather. Palambam in com- 
pany. 
Lat. 28° 19', long. 79° 41'. 


P.M. 




SSE 


P.M. light breeze from the SSE, and 
hazy. Midnight. Ditto weather. 


August 14, 1837. 


A.M. 






A.M. A continuance of light winds and 


Noon. 






cloudy. Noon. Light airs and calms. 
Lat. 30° 17', long. 79° 36'. 








P.M. 






P.M. Very sultry weather. Midnight. 
Light breeze and cloudy. 


August 15, 1837. 


A.M. 




ESE 


A.M. Light airs from the ESE. Noon. 


Noon. 






light airs and close oppressiye weather. 
Padambam in company. 
Lat. 31° 36'. long. 78° 40'. 


P.M. 






P.M. Light variable winds and hazy. 3. 
squally, with rain. From 4 to midnight, 












NEto 
SEbyE 


wind yariable, veering from N E to S E by E. 












• 


August 16, 1837. 


A.M. 






A.M. Light variable winds and a cloudy 
confused sky. 8. A fresh breeze from the 






N 


North and hazy weather ; a ttoell from the 


Noon. 






cfistward. Noon. Increasing breeze and 
cloudy ; head sea also increasing fast. 

Lat. 32° 39', long. 7r 30'. 

Ship Palambam in com^iany. 

P.M. Increasing breeze andneadsea ; took 


P.M. 












in top • gallant-sails ; single-reefed the top- 








sails, and sent down royal-yards; wind 
veering from N E by E to E by N. 






NEbyE 






to 


5. Fresh gale ; double-reefed the toMails ; 
a very heavy sea running from E N E. 6. 
Saw the Palambam for the last time, dead to 






EbyN 








leeward. Midnight. Fresh gales and hazy. 


r 

August 17, 1837. 


A.M. 






A.M. Commences with strong sales and 
squally, with rain. 2. Close-re^ed the top- 
saUs; reefed the courses, and stowed the 




















square mainsail and spanker; sent down 



CHAP. 
V. 

Duke of 
Manches- 
ter's Log. 



Third 
storm ap- 
proaching. 



See 
ChartVII. 



Palambam 
when last 
seen. 



no 



STORMS OF 1837. 



CHAP. Narrative of the Ship the Duke of Manchkstbr — eomtkmei. 

V. 



Third 
storm. 



Black 
squall. 



Cross sea. 



Wore, and 
followed 
the storm. 



Hour. 



A.M. 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Noon. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



Noon. 



P.M. 



E to 
ENE 

SW 



Remarks. 



August 17, 1837. 
top-gallant-jards, and run in the fljhig jfl^ 
hoom. Daybreak. Heary gales ; forlad die 
foresail ; a tremendous sea running and j 
breaking on board. 9. Furled the Ibfe and | 
mizen-topsails, and stowed the fore-topmeet- | 
staTsail. Noon. Blowing a Tiolent gale* 
with a dangerous cross sea running mm 
N E to S £, breaking on board fore and 
aft; furled the main-tomail; ship laying* 
to under a tarpaulin placed in the miaeo 
rigging. 

Lat. 31° 59^, long. IT 2'. 

1 P.M. Blowing a hurricane ; got li£»-lines 
passed fore and aft the ship, and athwart, 
for the security of the crew. A moet «ztn- 
ordinary phenomenon presented itidf to 
windward, almost in an mstant, reeembHag 
a solid black perpendicular wall, about fifteen 
or twenty degrees above the horison, and 
disappeared almost in a moment; thea ia 
the same time made its appearance* aad ia 
fiye seconds was broken, and spread as teaa 
the eye could see : from this time to aiid* 
night, blowing a most riolent hnirieaiM^ 
with a most awful cross sea breaking eo«> 
stantly on board fore and aft, carrying avay 
bulwarks, boats, cook-house, &o., in ftwt, 
ererything clear with the deck« asoept 
stanchions. Seycn of the crew onaUe nr 
duty, haying been more or lesa injured ia 
the gale. Much thunder and lightning* the 
thunder scarcely heard, although wa were 
struck with the electric fluid ; 1 had three 
seamen dangerously injured, but sustained 
no other damage. 



August 18, 1837. 

A.M. The hurricane still raging ; ahip la* 
bouring yery much, and at times completely 
under water, with the cross sea breaking on 
board ; found the ship to strain and oAaka 
much water ; all hands lashed at thepumpa : 
what with the yiolence of the wind, and the 
sofbreaking over them, it was impoeaibla to 
work them. 7. A heay^ sea broke on board* 
carried away the skylights, binnacles, and 
companion, and fiUed the cabin with water. 
Nopn. Ditto weather ; wind £ to B N B. 
Sun obseryfd. 

a*at. (by calculation) 32'' 34', long. 76" 17'. 

P.M. Wind veered round to the S W; a 
little more moderate ; wore the nhip to run 
her before the wind ; after running a short 
time, a heayy sea struck her on the atar- 
board quarter, and she broached- to, blowing 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



Ill 



Narrative of the Ship the Dukb of Manchbstbr — eontinmed, CHAP. 

V. 



Hour. 



Courses. 



P.M. 



A.K. 



Noon 



Windn. 



PM, 



A.M. 



Noon 



P.M. 



NE 



W 



SW 



WSW 



WSW 



Remarks. 



August 18, 1837. 
A hurricane at the time ; it threw her on her 
heam-ends, and carried away the lee-quarter 
gallery ; endeayoured to wear the ship, could 
not get at the fore- topmast-staysail-halliards, 
they being on the lee side ; loosened the fore- 
sail (a new one) which instantly blew away : 
the ship at this time filling fast at the gallery, 
and down the companion and scuttles ; cut 
away the mizen and mainmasts ; the ship 
being on her beam- ends, and haying six feet 
water in the hold, it was some time before 
she paid off. After getting the ship before the 
wind, found she would not run : brought her 
to on the larboard tack, and sent all hands 
to the pumps. 6. A tremendous high cross 
sea, breaking on board fore and aft ) scuttled 
the cabin deck to let the water into the 
hold, and nailed sails oyer the companion 
and scuttles, &c. Midnight. Ditto wea- 
ther ; all hands at the pumps ; seyen of the 
crew unable for duty. 



August 19, 1837. 
A.M. Ditto weather; all hands at the 

Eumps; sea as before, but more inclined 
rom the westward, shipping much water 
oyer all. Noon. More moderate. Sun ob- 
served. 

Latitude (by dead reckoning) 33° 7', lon- 
gitude 75° 37'. 

P.M. Very heayy gales; wind W; a 
heayy sea running and breaking in almost 
eyery direction, making a complete breach 
oyer the ship fore and aft; boatswain and 
two hands employed securing the head- 
yards, &c. 6. Wind SW; set the dose- 
reefed fore-topsail, and run the ship to the 
NE. 8. More moderate; the sea more 
regular from the westward. Midnight. Got 
the pumps to suck for the first time ; seyen 
of the crew still off duty. 



August 20, 1837. 

A.M. A continuance of strong sales from 
the W S W, with a heavy sea ; fiye of the 
crew unable for duty. 8. More moderate ; 
let the reeft out of fbre- topsail. Noon. 
Squally, with rain. Sun observed. 

Lat. (by acct.) 33° 47', long, (do.) 74** 52'. 

P.M. Increasing gales; double-reefed 
the fore-topsail. 2. Heayy gale from the 
WSW; dose-reefed the fore-topsail ; a 
high sea nmning from the WNW, but 
irregular, shipping much water. Midnight. 
More moderate, with constant rain. 



Third 
storm. 



On beam- 
endji. . . , 



f,L.*^ *- ** 



Ship 
falling 
behind 
the storm. 






112 



STORMS OF 1837. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Third 
storm. 



Narrative of the Ship the Duke of Manchester — couchdei. 



Hour. 



▲.M. 



Noon 



P.M. 



A.M. 



Noon, 



P.M. 



A.M. 

Noon. 

P.M. 



A.M. 

Noon. 



P.M. 



A.M. 

Noon. 



C!ourse8. 



Windt. 



8W 



SW 



Variable 

N 



North**. 
NtoNE 



NbyE 

to NE 



Variable 



Variable 



Remarks. 



August 21, 1837. 

A.M. Moderate and fair weather, with a 
TerylonR high sea, running from the WSW; 
made all sail on the foremast; ship not 
making much water. Noon. Spoke tiM 
American ship Deucalion, of Boston, from 
the HaTannah, bound to Boston ; she had 
experienced the hurricane, but was At the 
time more to the southward; the '^♦*"* 
informed me (although she was a ship in 
fine trim, and 800 tons burthen,) that his 
ship was near going down with them. 

Lat. (Noon) 34*^ lO', long. 74** 2f. 

P.M. Light winds and sultry weather; a 
yery heavy sea running from the W 8 W ; 
wind S W ; crew employed preparing risgiag 
for a jury-mainmast ; set a roTal on a jnry- 
mizenmast. 8. Light airs ana fine weather. 
Midnight. Ditto weather. 

August 22, 1837. 

A.M. Light breese from the SW; all 
hands employed about getting up the Jnrj- 
mainmast 8. Squally, with rain ; clewed all 
the sails down. 9. More moderate ; made 
all sail ; set a topsail on Uie jury-mainmaat. 
Noon: Cloudy, with heavy rain. 

Lat. (d.r.) 34** y. long. 74* 24^. 

Sun obsenred. Four men unable for duty. 

P.M. Fre«h breeze and cloudy, with rain. 
4. More settled and fine ; a heaTT sea atill 
runninfc from the westward ; wind TariaUe. 
Midnight. Steady breeze and fine weather; 
wind N. 



AuRUst23, 1837. 

A.M. Steady breeze from the northward. 
2. Wind yariable from N to N £, with fine 
weather until noon. 

Lat. (by obsenration) 34^59', long. 74*" 40'. 

P.M. Light winds and fair weather; wind 
ycering from N by £ to NE. Midnight. Ditto 
weather. 



August 24, 1837. 

A.M. Liffht breeze and fine weather ; all 
possible sail put on the jury-masts. Noon. 
Liffht yariable winds ana fine weather. 

Lat. 35° 46'. long. 74° 49'. 

P.M. Light winds and fine weather ; wind 
yariable. Midnight. Cloudy. 



August 25, 1837. 
A.M. Commences with light airs and fine 
weather. Noon. Ditto weather. 
Lat. 36* 25', long. 74° 12'. 



STORMS OF 1837. 113 

" I have now given you, to the best of my recollection, the CHAP, 
particulars of the gale, winds, &c. A compass at the time was ^' 
useless, and in the midst of it I had none to go by. Third 

" From the 25th to my arrival at New York had variable storm, 
winds and weather, attended with squalls, but nothing particu- 
larly deserving of notice. 

" I experienced a hurricane in 1830, off Cape Florida, on the 

15th and l6th August: several ships were lost and dismasted. 

On the 26th same month had another, in latitude 31°, longitude 

75°, which came on precisely in the same way as this of 1837: 

we were dismasted, &c. 

(Signed) " JOS. GRIFFITHS.'' 

These are the two storms on Chart II., described in 
the log-book of the Blanche frigate. 



We shall now follow the track of the ship Castries, 
from the West Indies, and further develop a cause for 
variable winds. The track of the Castries will be 
found on Chart VII. By comparing the log-book 
with the Chart, it will be seen how this ship on the 
13th (civil time) sailed into the southern portion of 
the third whirlwind storm, which caused her to have 
a N.W. wind at 6 p.m. But the storm was on that 
day making progress to the westward. When its 
centre had passed the meridian of the ship, the west 
wind would veer towards the south ; and as the ship 
then had a fair wind to run north, we might expect 
her to advance from the storm's southern half circle, 
in which the wind blows west^ into the northern half 
circle, in which it blows east. 

Thus the log-book has the wind changing from 
N.W. to S.W., to S.S.W. to S.S.E., to S.E. to E.S.E., 
and E. before the return of the N.E. trade wind. 

The Castries seems to have passed behind the 

I 



114 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP, hurricane, experiencing only what seamen call its 

^___ "tail." It is probable that the storm must have 

arisen between this place and that where the barque 

Felicity is marked on the Chart; and it does not 

appear to have been severe at first. 



Ship 
Castries. 



Third 
storm. 



Seo 
foot of 
Chart VII. 



Fourth 
storm. 



From Mr. Mondel, Commander of the ship Cas- 
tries, from St. Lucia to Liverpool : 

'' We left the island of St. Lucia at 6 p.m. on the 1 1th August, 
nautical time (1 0th August, ctvtV time), with a light northerij 
wind, passing through between St. Lucia and Martinique ; the 
wind continued light and variable for three succeeding days, bat 
with much lightning. 

"On the 1 5th p.m. (14th, civil time), wind south-south-west 
to south-east ; very squally, with much thunder, lightomgy and 
rain, and by noon the trade-wind blew steadily at east. 

" During the night of the 1 5th (I speak from memory) the 
brig Scipio, from Demerara to Dublin, experienced a hurricane, 
and on the following morning spoke a French ship that bad been 
dismasted in it. 

" I am sorry I cannot give the corresponding latitude and 
longitude of this vessel (the Scipio). She arrived thirty-six hours 
after me in Dublin, and I had her log-book, but made no memo- 
randum. We had no swell in this instance, but it was very dark 
dismal weather, so that even the most experienced saw some- 
thing to be afraid of; however we escaped. 

" The hurricane of the 25th of August was not preceded by 
any very particular symptoms of the weather. It blew steadfly 
from the east -south-east for the preceding twenty-four hours ; 
and at 4 p.m. on the 25th (24th mean time), we had split an 
old jib, and bent another with the intention of setting it ; a cer- 
tain proof, up to that hour, that the weather did not look very 
bad. But as the gale increased the wind veered to the mortk^ 
nud the rain came down in torrents, and continued to do so 
until the following morning, when the gale abated." 



STORMS OP 1837, 



115 



Log of the Castries from St. Lucia, as far as latitude 39° 41'^ CHAP, 
longitude 50° 4'. — Kept in Nautical Time, ^' 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


L.W. 


Remarks on board. 














August 12, 1837. 


A.M.2 


6 




NE 


WSW 




Light winds and pleasant 


4 


6 










weather; Point Ferre,Mar- 


6 


4 






W 




tinique, NlW; all stud- 


8 


3 










dingsails set ; in all do. ; 


10 






Calm 






wind from NE with rain. 


12 


2 










At simset much light- 


P.M. 2 


2 




NEbyN 


SW 




ning. 


4 


2 










Midnight. 


6 


3 










Out all studdingsails on 


8 


3 










larboard side. 


10 


3 












12 


3 






s 




Light breezes and clear 
weather. 


^smivttA 


Dig. 

• • 


Dif. 


Depu- 


Lat. by 


Lat. by 


Diff. 


Long.by Longitude 


Longitude 




VHIUTBC* 


Lat 

• • 


ture. 


Acct. 


Obfl. 


Long. 


Acct. 


by Obs. 


byChron. 




• • 


• • 


. . 


16 l6 


•.. 


O 

60 10 


















August 13, 1837. 


2 


3 




NNEiE 






Light breezes and clear 


4 


3 


4 




SE 




weather. 


6 


3 












8 


4 




NbyW 






In all larboard studding- 


10 


4 






ENE 




sails; lightning. 


12 


3 










Midnight. 


2 

4 


2 
2 


4 


Nby W 

NNW 




i 


Slight showers of rain. 


6 


2 












8 


3 












10 


3 










Fair light trade winds. 


12 


4 












o 




/ 


/ 


o ' o / 


/ 


O / 




o / 




N9W 


68 


66 


10 


16 16 


16 26 


11 


60 21 


• • 


60 40 
















August 14, 1837. 














(13 at noon, Civil Time.) 


2 


3 




NW6 VV 


NNEto 




Light unsteady breezes 


4 


2 






NlW 




and cloudy; all sail set by 


6 


2 


4 


W6N 






the wind. 


8 


4 


4 


NE6E 






8. In royals & flying jib. 
10. Squally with rain^ 


10 


3 










12 


3 


4 


E6N 






Midnight. Wind veered 


2 


4 




NW J W 






round to the N E ; stood 


4 


2 




WNW 


N 




on starboard tack. 


6 


4 




NE6N 


NW 




4. Tacked eastward. 


8 


4 










8. Set foretop-mast and 


10 


8 










main studdingsails, main- 


12 


6 






SW 




sails, and main>royal. 

Set lower and main- top- 
mast studdingsail. 


ifE 


53 


62 


16 


17 l6 


• • 


16 


O / 

60 6 


■ • 


60 ij 1 



Castries 
meeting 
third 
storm, 



I 2 



116 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 








Log of the Castries — anUlnued. 

• 








Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


L.W. 


I 


and crou- 


1 
Remarki on board. 


ing behind 
















iu track. 














Aogoat 16, 18S7. 
(14 at noon, CtvU Tmm.) 




2 






NNE^E 


SSW 




Fresh breeiaa ft af nally, 




4 
6 








to 
SSE 




with a dirty threatening ap- 
pearance. 4. In all atnd- 
ding-saila ; broke the atod- 




8 














10 












ding- sail boom. 10. la 




12 
















2 


8 






SE 




much lightmnc. 11. Set 




4 8 














6 ; 7 










Midnight. Mora aattltd ; 




8 7 














10 


7 










and jib. 




12 


7 










Midnight. 












ESE 


thunder, lightning, and 
rain. 

Fair and dondy; oal 
main- royal. 




Course. 


DU. 

171 


Dif. 
Lat 

158 


Depar- 
ture. 

6^ 


Lat.bf 
Aect. 

o / 

19 56 


Lat.by 
Obe. 

o / 
19 36 


Diff. 
Lonf. 


Lonf.b> 
Acct. 


(..oofitudp 
bjChroB. 


Lnofitodc 
byObe. 






N22E 


5§ 5^ 


. • 


5$ o6 














August 16, 1837. 




2 


7 




NbyE 


E 


\ 


(15 at noon, Ciml TVav) 




4 


7 










Frcshbreeses and ekMidy; 


Qale 


6 


6 ' 


N 






all sail set by the wind. 


passed and 


8 


6 i 








Settled; out fore- top- 


trade wind 


10 


6 


Nby W 


ENE 




mast and main atnddinf- 


returned. 


12 


7 








sail and flying Jib. 




2 
4 


6 
6 










Midnight. 




6 


\0 

4 




N W JN 






CTloudy weather. 




8 


5 








Showery. 




10 


4 








Employed Tamiahing tlia 




12 


3 










poop, ftc. ftc. 




Nl^W 


131 


2^ 


3f 


o / 

21 41 


• • 


40 


5§ 3^ 


. . 


59 64 














1 


August 17, 1837. 




2 


6 




NNW 


NEiE 


k 


Moderate breesca and 




4 


6 
5 






' 


pleasant weather. 




V 

8 


O 1 

6 


Nby W 


NEbyE 






10 


6 


N W 








12 


«1 




1 


Midnight. Cfloudy. 




2 

A 


4 




NbyWJW 




Squally, with rain. 




6 


5 




NbyE 


1 




8 


6 






Increasing ^ireeies and 




10 


6 




NNE 


1 E S E cloudy. 




12 


7 






1 1 




N l8 W 


1 

lis 


1 

hlli 
i 


• 31 


1 o . 

: 23 36 

1 


; 23 27 

1 


34 


/ 

60 U 


1 60 6 

1 
1 


• . 


1 



STOBMS OF 1837. 
Log of the Castries — continued. 



Hour. 


K. 


.. 


Connea. 


Wiodt. 


L.W. 


Remarks on boud. 






« 


NNE 

N 

NbjEiE 

NNE . 
NbyB 


EbyS 
EbyS 




August 18, 1837. 
Fine hrepiea and clear; 
all lul set by the wind. 
Set lower-mun-top and 

lOp-gBllBtlt-BCuddil)g-»ftil. 

Squally, with rain. 
Midnight. 
Light Bhowcm. 

Pair Hid warm. 


Coont. 


Uii 


2! 


l>p»r. 


Tc*"' 


t-^bi 


Diir. 

Looj. 


Lonj.bj Ltporltodt 


Upfitndt 




nJe 


13fi 


,.^ 


ij 


2.4f 




1& 


69° fii S§ S4 




10 
12 


4 
4 

4 
4 

4 
4 
4 
i 




N 

NNW 

NWbyN 
NNW 

NW 


EbyN 




Aogtut 19, 1837. 
Light wind, and fine 
weather. 

Midnight, ol«u weaihet. 
light winds and fine 


N23'W 


gs 


8/ 


*& 


2H 


.1.4 


44 


60° 36 


oWd .. 




2 

* 
6 

e 

10 
12 
2 
4 
6 
S 
10 
12 


3 
3 
3 
3 

* 

i 

4 

3 
3 




NWbyN 

NNW 

NbyW 

ENE 


NEbyN 




AugnitM, 1837. 
Light breezes and plea- 
■anl weather. 

Midnight. 

lacreaaing breezes and 
cloudy. 

Oat main-top and lop- 


N20W 


,7 


Ti 


,i 


2Sd 


,H 


30 


6t« 


eUi 




1 



117 

CHAP. 



of the third 



118 



THE YARIABLB WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 



Swell 
probably 
from the 
third 
Rtorm. 



Log of the Castries — continuetL 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


2 


2 




4 


2 




6 


2 




8 


2 




10 


2 




12 


3 




2 


3 




4 


4 




6 


4 




8 


4 




10 


3 


4 


12 


3 





Courses. 



NbyE 

NNW 
N 



NEbyN 



Winds. 



E 



L.W. 



i 



Remarks on board. 



August 21, 18S7. 
Light airs and rtrj 
weather; thermoaietflr at 
sunset 87^^ 



Light airs; midnight* 



Increasing; aet lower 
studding-suL 

Light breezes. 



Coune. 



N 14 E 



'^Lat. 


Deprir* 
ture. 


Lat. b) 
Aect. 


Lit. by 
Obt. 


Diff. 
Long. 


Long.bj 
Acet. 


Longitude 
bj Chi on. 


LoBgitod* 
bjOU. 


1 / 
62 60 

1 


56 


o / 

29 3 


o / 

29 3 


1^ 


o / 

60 61 


o / 

60 48 


• • 



2 
4 

6 
8 

10 

12 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 



N33E 



3 
3 

3 
3 
4 
6 
6 
6 
4 
4 
4 
4 



104 



NE4N 



Chron. fast 



ssw 
sw 

2k 42- 20* 
S 



August 22, 1837. 

Light winds and fine 
weather ; out larboard 
studding-sail. 

Midnight. 

Pleasant breeiea. 



Light winds and di 
At 8^ 38- long, per ann 

and moon . . 69.49^. 

Per chron. . . 69.44|. 



87 




O /! O / 

30 30 30 31 



15 6^6 



5§ 3^ 



6§4( 



2 
4 

6 

8 
10 
12 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 6 
12 6 



I 



3 
3 
4 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



NEbyN 



SSE 



SEbyN 



August 23, 1837. 
Moderate breeaaa and 
pleasant. 

Midnight. Inoreaaing 
breezes and clear. 

I Cloudy. 



A high westerly swelL 



I ,1 



/ o 



/I 



<■■ / 



NL'SK IJi lllP .')!» 32 1130 21 1 « .58 37 

I , ; 



o / 

'»« 40 



ft / 

r>H 45 







STORMS OF 1837. 



119 



Log of the Castries — continued. 



Hour. 


K. 
6 


2 


4 


6 


6 


6 


8 


7 


10 


7 


12 


7 


2 


8 


4 


9 


6 


8 


8 


8 


10 


8 


12 


8 



F. 



Courte. 



N 18E 



6 

8 

10 

12 

? 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 



DU. 



176 



3 
1 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
6 
5 



Dif. 
Ut. 



167 



Courses. 



NNE 
NEbyN 



NEIE 
JN 

NNE 



Winds. 



ESE 



L.W. 



\ 



Remarks on board. 



August 24, 1837. 

Moderate breezes and 
hazy ; all staysails set. 

In flying-jib and lower 
staysails. 

In main - top - gallant 
main-staysails and fore- 
royal. 

Midnight. 

Fresh breezes and cloudy. 

Ditto ditto. 

Strong wind? ; in Qying- 
jib and gaff-topsail. 



Oepftr- 
ture. 



54 



Lat. bj 
AccU 



35 1 



4 
4 



4 

4 



NNE 



N|E 



NNW 
(Midnight) 



SW 



ENE 



Latby 
Oba. 



3''5 46 



Diff. 
Long. 



/ 

1 4 



Long.by 
Acct. 



o / 

57 33 



LoD{fitade 
by Chron. 



o / 
57 45 



Longitude 
by Ob«. 



EbyS 

E byN 

NE 
NNE 

N 
WNW 

NW 



h 

2 



NlOW 



41 



40 



o / 

35 37 



August 25, 1837. 
Strong winds and cloudy. 
3. In top- gallant- sails; 
increasing gides; double- 
reefed both topsails. 4. 
Furled both courses ; split 
the jib ; bent another. 6. 
Close-reefed both topsails ; 
blowing a hard gale, with 
heavy raiu. 9. Fore- topsail 
sheet broke, and split the 
sail; furled it. 11. Blow- 
ing a hurricane ; blew the 
main-topsail out of the 
ropes ; got a boat- sail bent 
to the ^aff, and another in 
the mam rigging; the ship 
keeps-to well } shipping 
much water over the lee- 
rail; pumps carefully at- 
tended to; washed most 
of the larboard bulwarks 
away. As the wind veered 
N to N E and to N W 
the vessel was continually 
with the sea, on or abaft 
the beam, which caused 
her to labour tremendous- 
ly, and I am afraid has 
tnrown some of the pun- 
cheons of molasses out of 
their berths, as the water 
is very much discoloured, 
and we can hear some of 
the casks rolling about. 



9 



5^ 



42 



6^ 54 



CHAP. 
V. 



Fourth 
storm, 
overtaking 
Castries, 



and 



passing 
over her. 



120 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 








Log oft 


he Castries — concluded. 








Hour. 






L.W. 




Fourth 


K. F 


Coiirses. ; Winds. 


Remarks on board. 


storm. 






' ! 








1 




August 26, 1837. 




2 


6 14 NEbyE WNW 




Strong winds with a high 




4 


6 


4 






cross sea. 1 




6 


6 


4 


' 


Set jib, mainsail, and 




8 


7 


4 NEbyJE NW , 


main-top-gallant-aaiL 




10 


8 




1 ! 






12 


8 




, 




and gaff-topaail. 




2 8 




■ 




Sea more regular; out 




4 


8 




1 


topmast- studding -aaila. 
Strong breeiesanddoady. 




6 


8 




1 






8 


8 




1 
1 




Kain and lightnhig. 




10 


8 


ENE 


Fair and strong bmies ; 




12 


8 


1 
1 


carried away fore-top«gal- 
lant-mast, sent it iown; 




1 


1 
1 






m top main-stayaaiL 




r*niirA^ 


Dii 


Dif. 


Depar- 


".at.bj 


\M. by 


Uiff. 


LoDf.by 


I^nritude 
by CnroD. 


Longitude 






\^UIU«l.. 


vis* 


Ut. 


ture. 


Acct. 

c / 


Obs. , Long. 


AccL 


bjUb*. 


! 







/ / 


J /' 


C / 


c / 




1 




N53E 


180 


108 144 


37 1h 37 9 2 58 54 44 

1 


54 56 


• . 


1 




1 










1 


August 27, 1887. 




2 8 




ENE 


NW 


i 


Strong breezes ft dondy ; 




4 8 










carrying moderate Mil, 




6 8 














8 8 




i 




stretched and ftrj looae. 




10 ; 8 














12 ' 7 

2 7 




• 






Clear weather. 




tt f 
4 7 
6 7 




1 
i 




Squally, with rain. 




8 7 




1 




Set main - top - gaUast- 




10 7 






sail and spanker. | 




12 7 

1 




1 




Set fore-top*gal]ant-aaQ. 




o 




/ 


-O _ / / 


/ / 


/ 








N 63 E 


176 


80 

1 


156 


38 29.38 25 


3 10 

• 


51 34 


52 26 


. • 






2 6 '4 


NE hyE 


NNV 




August 28, 18S7. 
Fresh breezes k souaUy ; 
out lower and mam-top- 




4 5 


iK 


1 




6 4 . 




1 


mast studding-saila. 
Pleasant breeiea and 




8 '; 4 . 










10 


6 , 








cloudy. 




12 


6 4 




1 




2 


6 




W ! 




4 


4 








6 


4 




, 




8 


3 4 




' 




10 


4 








12 


5 


1 


sw 




N oO Ello A 

1 


«s 


:U) 31)39 11 


113 li) 11' 


50 4 . . . 1 




1 _ 


1 


1 


' 












1 


L. 1 



STORMS OF 1837. 121 

Further remarks relative to the Castries, on the chap. 
24th and 25th August, 1837 : ^-^ 

" The hurricane commenced with the wind at east by south, 
and veered to the north-east as it increased. At 11 p.m. the 
hurricane blew from the north- north-east, and veered about two Rate of 
points per hour until 4. 30 a.m. when it partially abated. veering. 

"We had a sudden lull whilst reefing topsails ^at 4 p.m. on Lull, 
the 24th, by civil time), 

" Had a high westerly swell for two Jays previous ; but as Swell, 
this is very frequently the case about the termination of the 
trade winds, / know not whether to ascribe it to the coming of this 
hurricane or to some preceding gale. 

"Before the storm it was very dark and hazy, with much 
lightning in the evenings. 

(Signed) "J. MONDEL." 



By the log of the Castries, it will he seen that after 
the 14th of August, at noon (by dvil reckoning)^ that 
vessel had fine weather and the usual trade winds until 
the 22nd, notwithstanding the third storm that was 
raging not very far off to the westward. About this 
period, however, a heavy swell was felt from the west- 
ward for two days ; and there had been lightning in 
the evenings. 

On the 23rd it became hazy, and a breeze from 
east-south-east freshened to a gale. This was not the 
great storm which had passed onwards on its course, 
and which on the 23rd had reached the place of the 
ship Wanstead. This other gale being a fair wind for 
the Castries, that ship was carried along with it, until 
past noon on the 24th {ciml reckoning). Although not 
entered on the log, the master states, that there was a 
sudden lull whilst close-reefing topsails, indicative of 
being in the centre of a rotatory storm ; and the log 
shows how rapidly the wind was veering, and how 
** violently it was blowing just about this period. 



122 THE VARIABLE WINDS. 

CHAP. The Castries had to lie-to until noon on the 25tb, 
_ _1_ when she was enabled to bear away again for England. 

On the principle followed throughout, of giving as 
much information as could be procured relative to each 
storm, the following extracts are added. 

Ship "The Victoria, Dunn, from Lunenburg to Dominictt, ww 

Victoria, upggt and dismasted in a hurricane, on the 24th of August, 1857» 

in lat. 33°, long. 58°, and abandoned on the 12th September.'* — 

From the Shipping Gazette. 



wind. 



Barque "The barque Clydesdale, from Barbados and Antigua, en- 
Clvdes- countered a severe hurricane ten miles north of Barbados, on 
the 26th of July, 1837. On the 24th of August encountered a 
hurricane more severe than the former, in lat. 32^ 30', long. 
59° 30', in which the vessel was hove on her beam ends, and re- 
mained in that position for two hours. She righted after the 
whole of her top-gallant-masts and rigging had been cut away.** — 
Ibid. 

Extract from the protest of the Clydesdale : — 

" On the 23rd August, 1837, lat. 30° 21', about noun^ it came 
on to blow fresh breezes from the cast-south-east, accompanied 
with a heavy confused swell. At 4 p.m. sent down main-royal 
yard, and at midnight atmosphere dark, and wind strnthreoMt, 
Cloose-reefed at 5 a.m. on the 24th ) took in all sail ; at noon 
blew a complete hurricane ) ship lying over very low, sea wasliing 
over 3 at 4 p.m. top-gallant -masts and yards cut away to save 
the vessel 3 at midnight gale moderated. At 4 a.m. of the S5th 
kept away ; at 8 moderate, but still a confused swell. 



The third storm had passed over the same part of 
the ocean on the 22nd of August, where the Castries 
was lying-to on the 24th and 25th, at which last date 
the greater storm was beyond the place of the Wanstead. 
Here, therefore, we have another instance of an expla- 
Variable uatiou of tlic Variable winds : for the great storm would 
cause a westerly gale on the 22nd, over the same part 
of the ocean, where tlie smaller storm, coming from 



STORMS OF 1837. 



123 



the south-westward (and bringing up the Castries chap. 

along with it in the right hand semicircle), changed '. — 

the wind to east. 

Bermuda lies between the courses of the two storms 
marked on Chart VII. By comparing the projections 
on this Chart with the following extract from a Regis- 
ter kept by Captain Page, of the Royal Engineers, at 
Bermuda, and given to me there, in 1839, further 
views connected with the causes for the variable winds 
will be suggested; for the greater storm on the 21st 
of August, 1837, caused the wind at the Bermudas to 
blow hard, with squalls, from the south-west; and as 
it advanced in its course, the wind became west. 

On the 24th of August the lesser storm, though it 
did not reach Bermuda, changed the wind to north; 
whilst a very heavy sea from the east rolled against 
the eastern end of the islands, so remarkable as to be 
spoken of to me two years after, as matter of great 
curiosity at the time of its occurrence, because of the 
north wind blowing lightly. 



Extracts from Register of Weather, kept in St. George's, Bermuda. 



1837. 
Aug. 


Barom. 


Ther. 


Winds. 


Wind's 
Force. 


• 

Weather. 


2l8t 


30.000 


83.5 


sw 


7 


Hasy dense cum. clouds; squalls 




29. 950 


79.0 






with rain ; lightning at night. 
Showers ; lightning in S E and 


22nd 


30. 032 


83.0 


SW 


4.1 






78.5 






E. 


23rd 


30. 062 


84.0 
79.0 


s w 

and W 


2.0 


Fine ; passing clouds. 


24th 


29. 962 


83.0 
78.5 


N 

• 


2.0 


Fine ; cumul. clouds ; a remark* 
dbly heavy 9weU of the $ea ; a tre* 
mendoua sttr/ breaking on the rockt ; 
quite remarkable and unusual. 

Mean of tide +5".0 above the 
mean, resulting from a series of 
observations. 


25th 


30. 205 


80.0 


Nor 


2.0 


Fine ; air very dry ; Dew Point 






75.5 


calm. 




from 12* to 15° below mean tem- 
perature. 



124 THE VARIABLE WINDS. 

CHAP. " And in the monthly summary of Observations it is thus 
V» stated : — ' The weather has been fine, serene, and very dry j the 
winds moderate and variable, amounting in force to a gale, in a 
part of one day only -, although, from accounts received, there 
has been a succession of severe gales or hurricanes, Ixith north 
and south of these islands, and at no great distance/ 

(Signed) " GEO. C. PAGE, 

" Capt. Royal Eng." 



Fifth By referring to the narrative of Mr. Barclay, at 

1837?* P^o^ 89, it will be seen that on the 3rd of September 

Bremen he Unexpectedly found a Bremen brig, which had sailed 

"^' from Mantanzas, in Cuba, on the 18th August, up with 

and alongside of him. This brig had come up by 

having had strong westerly winds all her voyage. The 

ffth stonily above alluded to, explains the cause of this, 

for the Bremen brig appears to have been just within 

the influence of the southern portion of it. 

I have traced this gale back to Apolachicola and 

St. Mark, in the State of Alabama. From thence it 

crossed over Florida, and entered upon the Atlantic, 

TheCa- w^licrc the Calypso under her jury-masts met it, and 

lVD80 

meets the had to auchor 30 miles to the southward of Cape Fear, 
storm. Although the storm came from the south-westj the 
Calypso had the wind first from the eastward. " During 
the night it increased, but fortunately backed into the 
northward (which was off the land), and at noon on 
the following day blew a very heavy gale of wind, 
and continued until the morning of the 2nd, when it 
backed to the west-north-west, and moderated." See 
page 81). 

The following are the published reports relative to 
this storm : 

Apola- " ApoLACinroLA, Sq)t. 1, 1837. — I write from the midst of 

thircla. ruins. A hurricane yesterday swept our town and half destroyed 



STORMS OF 1837. 125 

it. Nearly every house is unroofed ; a number of the upper CHAP, 
stories are blown down, and many houses levelled. The storm ^• 
commenced on the afternoon of 30th Aucrust. but was not severe „.^^ 
until 4 A.M. on the morning of the 31st, when it became very storm, 
violent until 7 p.m. The wind was from the south-east to north.'* 
— Extract of a Letter published in the American Newspapers. 



" The terrible tempest which visited Apolachicola completely 
destroyed the town of St. Mark. The lighthouse was almost 
the only building left standing, yet the town of St. Joseph suf- 
fered very little in the gale." — From the American Newspaper. 



" There has been a severe storm at St. Mark, which commenced St. Mark, 
about sunrise on the morning of the 31st August, 1837> the wind 
being from north-east. At 8 a.m. the wind was north, and it had 
increased in violence : only one wharf has been left standing. 
At the lighthouse the sea rose eight feet higher than usual. At 
Pensacola there was no wind. The schooner Lady Washington was 
becalmed at the same time at Key West. The wind was oflf shore 
at the time of the storm, which makes it difficult to account for 
the high tide 3 but it is supposed whilst the north-east wind was 
blowing on shore, a south-easter prevailed at sea. This is frequently 
the case, and invariably produces a high tide.*' — New York General 
Advertiser. 

" Another storm commenced about the middle of last night, Georgia, 
and at 10 a.m. this morning was blowing with some violence 
from the north-west. It continued with somewhat increased 
violence until noon, when the wind veered to about west. It is 
now 2 o'clock, and still blowing a severe gale.*' — From a Savannah 
Newspaper, Georgian, ^\st August, 1837. 



" The ship Florence experienced a heavy hurricane on the 2nd Near Cape 
September, 1837> fifty miles east-south-east of Cape Hatteras. !!*'*««•• 
It commenced blowing at east-north-east, and veered round the 
compass.*' — New York General Advertiser, 



" The Danish brig Maria, on the 2nd September, in lat. 36^ 6', 
long. 73° 40', was scudding in a gale from the south. 



126 THE VARIABLE WINDS. 

CHAP. '* The brig Stranger^ on the 2nd September, from Porto Plato 

y* __ (in St. Domingo) to Philadelphia, experienced a severe gale from 

Fifth south, changing suddenly to north,*' 

storm. 

'' The wreck of a ship, abandoned and apparently recently dis- 
masted, the sea breaking over her, and articles floating alongside, 
was passed during a heavy gale of wind, on the 2nd September, 
lat. 33° north, long. 74° west." 



Variable It is Only uecessary to prove that the winds are 
^° ' rotatory, and that by some fixed law of nature they 
revolve uniformly in the same way, and we are enabled 
to assign a cause for the variable winds. This subject 
is best studied by beginning at the equator, and fol- 
lowing storms towards the poles ; for the disturbing 
causes, although very violent near the equator, seem to 
occur less frequently, and we can there study the nature 
of a single isolated storm. But in high latitudes it is 
very difficult ; for the tropical storms seem to be car- 
ried onwards towards the poles, whilst other storms are 
there generated, probably also rotatory; and as the 
numbers increase, and they seem to expand in size, 
and the meridians approach each other by the d^rees 
of longitude diminishing, the winds become huddled 
together in a manner that has hitherto appeared inex- 
plicable. Even admitting the great probability that 
such is a fixed law of nature, it can only be satisfacto- 
rily proved by adducing as many facts in connection 
with each other as can be collected. As far as my in- 
vestigations have been carried, all the facts I have met 
with seem to be in accordance with such a fixed law ; 
and in one of Mr. Redfield's published papers he states, 
that not one instance of a contradictory kind has come 
to his knowledge. 




THE VARIABLB WINDS. 127 

We shall, therefore, return to the latter part of the chap. 

voyage of H.M.S. Blanche, from the West Indies to ! — 

Halifax, in August, 1830. By her log-book we find J-^s. 

./ o Blanche. 

a second gale coming also from the southward, over- ^ ^^ 
taking the frigate on the 24th of August, and becom- circle, 

. . Ill Chart II. 

ing a violent hurricane by 10 p.m. on the 26th ; and, 

if we observe the veering of the wind, we find it to be \ 

similar to all the other storms described. 

This hurricane is mentioned In the * American 
Journal of Science,' vols. xx. and xxi. ; and it is there 
•stated by Mr. Redfield to have been at Martinique 
between the 19th and 20th of August ; to have passed 
northerly, and, touching the American shore near Cape 
Hatteras, raged with great fury at each locality for 
about forty hours, as it swept the great central curve 
of their coast; and it passed from thence over St. 
George's Bank, in a north-east direction. On the 
American coast it was everywhere a north-east storm ; 
but it will be seen by the log of the Blanche that ship 
had the wind at south-east ^ veering to south-west and 
to west. The Blanche was on the opposite side of the 
whirlwind. 

I have added, from the same volumes, an interesting 
narrative of what befell the corvette Kensington, built 
in America for the Russian Government. That vessel 
sailed from the Delaware, with fine weather, on the 
23rd of August, and, steering south-south-east, met 
first " a disagreeable head sea," and then the storm on 
the 25th, without apparently being at all aware of 
what she was about to encounter. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of H. M.S. Blanchk, Commodore Farqohar, 
^- kept by Mr. Middlemist, Master R.N.— In CivU Tbmt. 

[Continoed from Chap. II. p. 13.] 



Blanche' 



i" 



SEbrE 



P.M!. Fresh breezes tad cloudjr. 
B. Strong winds and iqamllj ~- 
12. Strong galea and aquallj. 



NRhrN 
offNEbyE 

-NNE 

JlNEbrN 

NNE 



off S E hy N 

up EXE 

NEbTE 

ENE 

E by N i N 



B^N 



SEbyS 

Sby E 



Augtut 23. 1830. 
A.M. Strong galea and iquaUj. 
i, Frpsh gafea and cloudy. 
H. Strong gales, with a hesTy aeti. 
9.30. Down jury top-gallant-yard. 
11.30. In flying jib.boam. 
12. Strong gales and aqualty, with ■ 
tiovy sea. 
Wtcck mil, S M' B, 231 mUet. 

P.M. Hard gslo. with hearj s^aalla. 
Ditto wratbeT', downiDalD'SMraalL 
6. Hard galea and squally wwttllar. 

Ditto weather. 

Most violent gain, with hesry •qyall*. 



. Ditto weslher. 



Wreck mil, 8 76° E, 360 milet. 

P.H. Hard gales and heary aqaaHa. 
B. Split main-BUytail i unbent it, mad 
bent another. 
Midnight. Strong galea and doaij. 



Augu'.tas. igjo. 

A.M. Slfmg galrt and clondy. 

Do>vri tiiain-suywul and Ml mdn-trTMil. 

I. lUrii irslw and iqually. 

4.SII S.t rrr/id foniail J down miKa- 

9. 311. A L'Bvy sea stove in cabin d«*d i 

lij-his and windows ; up f.ire»ail ; hauled to | 

the wind. I 

12. Ilnrd gnW and hcBTT iquslla. 1 

Wreck Hill, S .^7 K. 248 miles. I 



STORMS OF 1837. 



129 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Blanche — continued. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks, &c. H.M.S. Blanche, 
August 26, 1830. 


P.M. 








1 


E 


SbyE 


P.M. Hard gales and heary squalls. 


5 


NEbyE 
ENE 


V 


Ditto weather, with a heayy sea. 


7 




Hard gales, with violent squalls. 


10 


£ 


SbyW 


Violent hurricane ; fore-staysail blew to 


U 


ESE 


• 


pieces. 


12 

A.M. 


SEbyE 






August 26, 1830. 


1 


SE 


SWbyS 


A.M. Strong gales and squally weather. 
2. 30. Set main-staysail ; down miaen- 


5 


SSE 


W 


trysail. 


8 


SbyE 




Strong gales and squally. 
8. Kara gales. 


9 


Wby S 


9. 30. Set fore-staysail ; down main- ditto. 


12 


SbyE 




Noon. Strong gales and squally. 
Lnt. 36« 1' N, long. 69° 2' W. 








V« %M 






Wreck Hill, S 46° E, 325 miles. 


P.M. 

1 


S 


WbyS 


P.M. Hard gales and heavy squalls. 


2 


NNE 




Ditto weather. 


7 


NW 




Ditto ditto ; hauled to the wind in conse- 
quence of a heavy sea. 


8 


NWbyN 




& Fresh gales and clear. 


9 


NW 




12. Strong gales and squally. 


10 


N W by W 

NNW 






11 

A.M. 






August 27, 1830, 


1 


NWby W 


WbyS 


A.M. Strong gales and squally weather. 
3. More moderate. 


3 






4 


NNE 


W 


4. Strong breezes and cloudy weather. 


8 






8. Strong breezes and cloudy weather; 
found ensisn and several flags damaged. 
12. Fresh breezes and fine weather. 


12 












Lat. 38** 16' N, long. 68** 1' W. 








Sambro Light, K 28"* £, 425 miles. 


P.M. 

1 


NNE 


WSW 


P.M. Strong breezes and fine weather. 


5 




w 




6 






6. Fresh breezes and fine weather. 


12 

A.M. 






12. Ditto weather. 


August 28, 1830. 


1 


NNE 


w 


A.M. Fresh breezes and fine. 


8 






8. Light airs and fine. 
12. Light winds and fine. 


12 












Lat. 41° 21' N, long. 6r 2" W. 


P.M. 

1 






Sambro Light, N 36° E, 233 mUes. 


NEbyN 


NWbW 


P.M. Moderate and fine weather. 


4 




NW 




8 






8. Light airs and fine. 
12. Moderate and fine. 


12 







CHAP. 
V. 

Blanche's 
Log. 



End of 

{^ale, fol- 
owed by 
westerly 
winds. 



130 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Blanohe't 
Log. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Blanche — comdmied. 



Blanche 

off 

Halifax. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

1 

8 

11 

Noon 



P.M. 

1 
3 
6 


12 

A.M. 
1 
8 

Noon 



P.M. 
1 

2 
4 

Midn. 



Conrftes. 



NEbyN 



NE 
NEbyE 



Winds. 

NW 

NNW 



NAV 

WbyS 

SWbS 



SWbW" 
8SW 



SWestlJ^ 



Remarks, &c. H.M.S. Blanche, 
August 29, 1830. 



August 29, 1830. 
A.M. Light airs and fine weather. 
Observed land, bearing N E by K. 

Noon. Light breezes and fine. 
Lat. 43° 10' N. long. 65*' 29' W. 
Sambro Light, N 48"" 30'E, 114 mflea. 

P.M. Light airs and fine weather. 

6. Shelboume lighthouse, N f £. 

12. Light airs and fine weather. 



August 30, 1830. 
A.M. Light airs and fine weather. 
Ditto weather and foggy ; fired a gm lor 
a pilot, 
rioon. Moderate and hazy weather. 
Lat. 44'' 6' N, long. (none). 
Sambro Light, N E } N, 21 milea. 

P.M. Light airs and fine. 
2. Fired a gun for a pilot. 
Ditto weather. 
Midnight. Ditto weather. 



At Bermuda, on the 2l8t of August, 1830, the 
weather was fine, with light airs. On the 22nd there 
were "stormy heavy showers," the wind changing 
from N.E. to S.E. On the 23rd and 24th it blew 
strong, and south-easterly. On the 25th the wind 
became south and squally ; and on the 2Gth it veered 
to S.S.W., after which the weather became fine. 



STORMS OF 1837. 



131 



Extract from the Log Book of the Russian Ship of War 
Kensington^ Capt. W. W. Ramsay. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 



Courses. 



wsw 

ESE 



A.M. 
P.M. 



A.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



Easterly. 



Winds. 



Variable 

South w'y 

ENE 



NE 
NandE 



NandE 



Remarks. 



Monday, August 23, 1830. 
P.M. Cape Henlopen, bearing W 8 W. 
At 7, discharged ttie pilot, and steered 
offESE. 



Tuesday, August 24, 1830. 

A.M. Commences with light and variable 
weather. 

P.M. From 4 to 6. Light airs from the 
souUiward. 6 to 8. Nearly calm. 

A.M. From midnight to 4. Moderate 
and clear ; disagreeable head sea. 4 to 8. 
Wind fresh from ENE. 8 to meridian. 
Freshening ; took one reef in the fore and 
main and two in the mizen-topsails. 



Wednesday, August 26, 1830. 

A.M. Wind high from the N E ; took 
two reefs in the fore and main-topsails. 

P.M. From 4 to 6. Fresh gales from 
the N and E, weather cloudy ; sent down 
royal*yards. 6 to 8. Wind increasing. 7. 
(40^) dose-reefed the topsails, reefed the 
courses, and furled the mainsail. 8 to mid- 
night. Very squally, with rain. Midnight. 
Under close-reefed topsails, reefed foresail 
and fore-staysail; the second gig washed 
from the larboard davits. 

A.M. From 4 to 8. Wind not so strong, 
and hauling to the East. 



Thursday, Ausust 26, 1880. 

A.M. Fresh gales from N and E, with 
heavy head sea; attached an eight-inch 
hawser to the end of the bowsprit. Drought 
both parts into the hawse-holes, and set 
them weU up ; got a pull of the bobstays 
and bowsprit shrouds. 

P.M. From 4 to 6. Gale increasing. In 
sending down top-gallant-yards lost fore- 
top-gafiant-mast and yard,. Furled the 
foresail, fore and mizen-topsailB ; got pre- 
venter-tackles from the foremast to the 
bowsprit. 6. Andrew M*Cormick was 
washed from the jib-boom and drowned. 
6 to 8. Oale very heavy ; the sea increas- 
ing to an alarming height. 8 to midnight. 
Qtile most violent ; lying to undtr close- 
reefed main- topsail and fore- staysail. 



* See the dotted circle on Chart XL The Kensington must have been 
near the Blanche. 

k2 



CHAP. 
V. 

RusMan 
corvette 
Kensing- 
ton's Log. 



Com- 
mencing.* 



132 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Russian 
corvette 
Kensing« 
ton's Log. 



Extract from the Log Book of the Russian Ship of War 

Kensington — continued. 



Middle of 
gale. 






/ 



.-w^ 



C-' ,*- r 



Hoar. 



Courses. 



▲.M. 



«>.« < » i,'*-' 



P.M. 












A.M. 



Winds. 



North 






West 



Rtmarks. 



• Thursday, August 26, 1837. 

A.M. From midnight to 4. Gale raging 
with great violence ; a tremendous sea. 1. 
The main and mixen-top-gallant-masta were 
hlown away close to the caps. 2. A perfect 
hurricane from the North ; taken a-hack : 
the ship in a very critical situation ; pitched 
away the jib-boom, with it the spritsaU- 
yard; sprung the bowsprit and fore and 
mainmasts ; attempted to relieve the ahip of 
the main- topsail, weather sheet partUig. the 
sail was instantly thrashed to pieces. 4. 
The situation of the f>hip was moat critical, 
working violently, and much distreiaed 
from the weight of her battery. 4.30. Fora- 
sail, fore* topsail, and mainsail burst fnm 
their gaskets, and were blown into ribbons. 
4 to 8. Oale raging with unabated Aury; 
fore-staysail blown from the bolt-rope, and 
such the force of the storm that not a rag 
of canvas could be shown. 4.40. Main- 
topmast went by the cap. 6, Fore and 
mainmast badly sprung ; secured the part- 
ner wedges with heavy spikes ; to saTe the 
forcmsst and bowsprit cut away the fore- 
topmast, carrying with it the head of the 
foreman and part of the fore-tqp; cock- 
billed the fore- yard and secured the lee am 
to the cable-bitts. 6 30. Carried away wea- 
ther mainbracc bumpkins ; to save the maata 
cut away the main-vard, which no hmiiaa 
effort could secure : the situation of the ship 
awful in the extreme, five feet water in the 
hold, and the crew p»erfectly paralysed ; the 
wind had now attained a nirioua height, 
and the sea increased to such an alamiag 
degree that with great difficulty men ooulS 
be found to cut away the main- yard. 



Friday, August 27, 1830. 
P.M. Oale yet dreadful. 4.30. Wind 
hauled to West ; set the misen- staysail to 
keep the ship to. 4 to 8. Gale somewhat 
abated; set the main-starsail. 6. Oale 
abating ; all hands employed clearing 
wreck ; weather cloudy, rrom 8 to mid- 
night. Moderate; heavy sea; ship very 
uneasy. 

A.M. From midnight to 4. Very heavy 
sea. 4 to 8. Gale again increasing ; spoke 
ship Norfolk, from Sorjolk; receivea an 
offer of assistance. The Sor/olk teat noi im 
the gale. 



133 



The Racer's Storm ; and the Winds called Norths. 

The Racer sloop of war encountered another hurri- chap. 
cane on the 28th of September, 1837 ; H. M. sloop ^' 
Ringdove being then in the same seas, and within 
its influence : a comparison of the logs of these two 
vessels enables us to lay down the probable course of 
this storm. It may be an instructive one to inquire 
into, inasmuch as it was moving over Yucatan and 
towards the Gulf of Mexico; and will serve, along 
with another storm to be described at the end of 
Chap. VIII., to explain (at least in some degree) those 
winds which the Spaniards call Norths^ and the gales 
of the eastern shores of Mexico. 

By comparing the two log-books and the places of 
these two vessels, we find the Racer was the most to 
the southward. She experienced the storm first, and 
had the wind from E. N. E., whilst the Ringdove, a 
degree to the northward of her, had the wind more 
easterly. Both vessels ran with the storm ; but the 
Racer having lost her masts, the Ringdove ran the 
furthest into the Gulf of Mexico, and therefore longer 
experienced the storm. It lasted with her until mid- 
night of the 1st of October } whereas it left the dis- 
masted Racer on the morning of that day. 

The account of this storm is introduced^ in the hope 
that it will lead to further inquiry into the storms of 
the Gulf of Mexico, and ultimately to an explanation 
of the true nature of the winds called Norths. 

The wind's force in the log of the Racer is recorded 



134 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



CHAP, according to Captain Beaufort's rules ; which will be 

' — found explained at the end of Chap. X. It is a 

method so simple and expressive, that it is to be 
hoped it will be adopted in all records of the weather, 
both by sea and land. 




The paragraph from the * Jamaica Dispatch/ which 
follows the Ringdove's log, was only met with after 
the figure placed above had been engraved ; and it 
shows that the Racer's storm passed over part of 
Jamaica. 



WINDS CALLED NORTHS. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Sloop Racer, James Hope, Esq., CHAP. 
Commander ; between 1 p.m. of the 28th September, 1837, ^' 
and 12 a.u. of the 30th September, 18S7. rI^7~ 

Log. 



H.K.F. Coum,. 


Wind.. 1 1 


Wealber 


i 








J 














September 28, 1837. 


1 2 SW 










P.M. 1.30. Spoke an Eng- 


2 4 6 WSW 


ENE 


7 


OCQ 




lUh schooner from JaoiHicii. 


3^ SEbyS 










2. Spoke uiEngliobbngi 


4 S 

5 1 6 










furled the cou^b, anil 
trimmed □□ lubosid tack ; 


6 1 6 










rove top tar kle- falls. 


1 1 fi 










5. Sent top-ea11«it-?srd« 
OD deck ; housed top- gallant- 


i\ BhjE 




7 


QHW 




* I ITpSE 










masts, und infljingjib-bsom. 


10 1 










7.30. Furled the tajisaila. 


11 I Off s a w 




8 


HQR 




and set themaintry-BBil 1 bat- 
tened the haluhwaj'a dunn. 


12 1 










Midmehc. Set forc-stu}'- 
sail, and wore ; daim diiio. 












September 29, 1837. 


1 1 




B 


UQH 


6 


A.M. 6. A sea washed 


a 1 UpN 

8 1 










awB7 life-buoy, stove Blum- 
boat, and cnrried away Btar- 


4 1 


EbyN 


g 


GHK 


e 


board-faU- gripes and laah- 


6 1 
6 I 










Cut a way ditto. 


1 1 6 OffNW 










9. Down aain-UyBoil; a 


8 1 6 










heavy sea running [ sent 


B I fi 
10 I fi 


ENE 


10 






top-gallont-masti on deck. 


11 1 5 

12 1 G 




10 


QUR 


6 


Noon. 


CoDTH. oil unit. 


L.t.N. 


LoBfllud* W. 








o "■■■ ' 




8 4W 3^ 


iS 43 


8§ 2l 


None. CapeAjitonio,N33 W156 


14 2 NWiW 


ENE 


to 


QUB 




P.M. Shaped a ooune 
N W i W. 


2 4 fi 










8. Sea washed away part . 
ofleehammock-netlingsand 


h < 5 










twoupperhalf-ports. 
7. IS. In a heavy gust of 












4 4 i 




11 






wind the ship went over on 
her beam-ends, and Isy with 


S i 4 

e 4 1 




„ 






her lopa in the water for two 
minutes 1 when the roatta 
aoing she righted, with bi 
feet water in the hold. 










7*6 




13 






Found bowsprit goneat the 
collars ; foremast six feet 
abofB ihedeck. mainmast at 
the hounds ; everything on 



Furled 
Inpaaib, 
Battened 
hatchoi. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



Extract from the Log 


ofH.M.Slc 


mpB 






B.K. 


F. 


Counei. Wind*. 11 | 


Veit.he> » 


B«m>rkj. 








.&(S 


J 












1 














ENE 1 


QUR 


the lower deck hOTe to lee- 
































and pul of the ahol ud 
















chiin c»hli* thrown oat 
































hMeh wnihed «w»y; lea 
















wiULinchor .drift; rat 
















awai ditto; tnitetuiut down 
batches aireih, elMriiic 
















wreck, and pnmpinf ahip; 




a 




Drift to Ilu 
N W 








M S.30. the wreck beinc 
clear, Bent a watch below to 
clear up lower deck. 
e.Sa.PuDipaauckedi ah^ 






















Inulepor 








wei>t oTer on he. beam-cndt. 














but righted imiDedUUlr, 
with 2| feet water in the 








lioai 






































atovc in, the weather waiat- 




10 












anchor and •wingiii|-boom 

deck a< abo»e: ho*e orer- 
board two after Ics curo- 
naile*. >hoi, and aU other 
BOiaJl deck lumber; pump- 
inic .hip, Becuring hatchea, 
and clcuing lower drck. 




'^ 










OtlU 


11.10. Departed thia lift, 
Charles Gambridge (boy), 

the lower deck. 




12 








12 




Midnight. 






September 80, 1*31. 




I ! 






12 


OQU 


A.U. S.Gotheadofoiaia- 




!' 




ESE 






tryaail hoUted twelve bet 
up the slump of maioiMM. 
7. Mualered ahip'a ciew. 




i ! 

7 


Drift to the 
N W 








and found niiuing U«uy 
Langmede (k.k) and lanwa 
Martin (capt. rnrecaatle). 




8 




11 






9 










full of water, and (he nuun- 




10 


1 mile pet 








spritis of No. 374 (Anold) 




11 


hour 








lioke"n. 


























the deep. 




12 






10 


OCR 


Noon.*^ 




Ceuw 


Di>Un«. 1 Lil. N. 1 Loxrllud. W. 1 


..™.. 


BMJDttHdDMMea. 












Nr9W 


HI 


20 li 


M <:■ None 


CapcAntunio.NsWlOl 





WINDS CALLED NORTHS. 



137 



Extract from the Log of H.M. Sloop Rkcka— concluded. CHAP. 



H 


K 


F 


Couno. 


Windt. 


- 1 






^ 








We.iher 


Betoarki. 


Racer' 












s£ 




J 




Log. 


















September 30. 1837. 




















P.M. Emplaned itowing 




■1 






Drift w the 










the boatB. 
3. Got top-gBUant-maiU 










NW 
1 mile per 










lashed SB jurv-muta and 
crossed lop gKllant-yudB u 
lower yardfl. Set an inner 
Jib a» a miin-stajaail. 




I 

1 






ESE 


10 








i 






liour. 










8 Employed ss molt re- 
quisite, clearing the deets, 




10 
















&c. 




11 




















13 




















October I, 1837. 






■1 




NW 




9 






A.M. Setfoie top-gsllant- 




2 


2 














asil and main-lrysail. Day- 




















light. Set spendee-jib on 




4 


2 














bowsprit and main •lop-gal' 






2 














lan^BB^ ; held a BUFTej on 
pcoTisioDB, &c., and hove 




8 


2 




N 


ESE 




QRO 






7 


2 














OTerboHrd those ipoited ; 




« 


2 










C 








8 2 


5 












board ahcet- anchor and 




10 




S 


NNE 










niounling auns; departed 
this life, a child— committed 




n 


2 


2 




SEbyS 


7 


BC 




the body to the deep. 




12 


9 














Noon. 




CoaT.c. 


DtiUnci. 


Ltl. N. 


LoDgltadi W. 


Cbita. 






N 21 W 


u'o 


a^"Vi 




85.36 


Capo Antonio, S !il W 9( 






. 




NNE 
















2 
2 






Eatterl; 


e 






bread-room 1 drying ilopa, 
flagB. tc. [ aet fore and main 
















































S 


NNW 


NB^ 


s 


Be 












6 
















11 




6 

6 


NWhjN 
















2 














Midnight. Wore. 





The Racer and the Ringdove, being both on the 
north side of the whirlwind stonn, had easterly winds. 



THE VARIABLE WINDS. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Sloop Ringdotb, 
Joha Shepherd, Master. 



Lacoftbe 




n 










^Kdote. 


Qoui, 


K. 


F, 


CoiUMi. 


Wind). 






r 










September 27, 1837. 
AtAncTioroffLaiiiiiieFueTO. i 




6 








NE 






8 








ENE 


At 8, aeni ■ boftt to loand to (he eHt- ' 
ward. 




10 








SSE 


Standing to Ihe SSE. 




11 










At 11. weighed & mid« uU to tke S8B 
11.30, abspTted a Btianee lail on th« bw- 
1)0». iliercd Doune tu dou her. U.45. 
.hartened»nil.w<.t«hip.ho»etot.bo«dc>d 
the Spiinuhbrig Gurtunrdo, 63 dan from 
BKcelonn. bound to Trinidad de CuU. 
















12 










Noon. Fteshbrcera and cloudy: hen 
upai>dmadei)aUtoiheSSB:Sag>rU.r 
Mount N N E. wid norUi point Lbcm de 


























Feuro, E j N. 














Lai. 21° 23' N. Long, IS" fi*' W, noRh 




■"■"■ 


6 




SEbyS 


Euterl; 


end<>fLar>a.ElNMnnuUi. 
f.U. Uodemte and fine, with hMiy 






S 


< 






swell from the eaatward. 






3 

3 
3 


4 


Sb^E 

NbjW 


ESE 


At 4, ditto weather; Caro Bratcn, 
EN RIO or 12 mile*. 
e.30, equKllj, with rain, thunder, nd 






3 
2 
3 


6 

4 


SEbyl 


NE 


AtB.moderatc k cloudr, with Ughtalas. 






3 
3 


4 
S 


SbfE 










2 


e 


E 


Midi>ight. Fresh breeHW and One, «Ui 














heavj iwell from the eaitword. 




A.M. Freah breeze, and fine. 






2 


4 


8B 








3 


4 


SEbyE 










2 * 




EuterlT 








4 ' 

5 '* 
S * 


}nje 

NhjW 




At 4, freah breetes and squally. 

Al 6. Cayo Breton, N E bjf N. 

At 7, strong winds and cloudy ; inthna 

At 8, ditto weather. 






. 


NiW 








* " 






At 9, obiened the high land ofTrinUad 
a-hcad. 






i fl 


















LariB de Fcuio on the weather bow. 






4 






Noon. Stronghreecesuidenc. 
Sugar Lo«fMouM,NbyE4E. Conne 
E, diatanec. seren miles. 






















Lat. 21° 2S', 21° 23' X. long. 79=47' W 

79' 43'. 

Larcii do Ff iin., E by X nine or ten mile*. 















WINDS CALLED NORTHS. 



139 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Sloop Ringdove — continued. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Windi. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 






September 28, 1837. 


M 


2 
2 



4 


NbEiE 




P.M. Moderate and cloudy, -with rain. 
1.30, a heavy squall. 


2 


6 


4 


WSW 


Easterly 


2.16. More moderate. 


3 


5 


4 


WbyS 






4 

6 
6 


6 
8 
6 








At 4, moderate and cloudy. 






ESE 




7 


7 


6 


WSW 






8 


6 








At 8, fresh breezes and fine, with heavy 
swell from the eastward ; in top-gallant- 


9 


8 








sails ; carried away the long line. 


10 


8 










"i 


6 
2 


2 
2 


.... 


E 




12 

A.M. 


8 




SWbW 




11.46. Altered course to S W by W. 


September 29, 1837 


1 


7 


4 


SWbW 




A.M. Strong winds and thick weather, 
with high sea. 


2 


8 


6 








3 


9 






E 


3.30. Up mainsail. 


4 


9 


4 






At 4, squally. 


6 


9 








At •), fresh gales, with high sea ; down 
top-gallant yards and masts, and close 
reefi^ the topsails ; in jib-boom, and 
furled the courses. 


6 


9 








6. Altered course to W. 


7 


8 


4 


W 






8 


8 


2 






8. Fresh gales and dark gloomy wea- 


9 
10 

4 m 


fi 








ther, with heavy squalls and rain. 


o 
8 










11 

12 


8 
7 


6 






Xoon. Fresh gales and heavy squalls,with 
high sea ; ship under dose-reefed topsails. 
Course, S 83'' W, distance 179 miles. 






















Lat. 21° 4' N, long. 82^ 66' W. 












Cape Corrientes, N 61' W, distance 96 


P.M. 










miles. 


1 


8 




W 


E 


P.M. Strong gales and heavy squalls ; 
set fore-staysiul. 


2 


9 










3 

4 


9 
9 








At 4, ditto weather, with passing 
showers of rain. 


6 


9 










6 


9 










7 


8 


6 








8 


8 


4 






At 8, strong gales and dork gloomy 
weather, with rain. 


9 


10 










10 


11 








At 10, carried away the tack of fore- stay- 
sail, and split the sail ; unbent it to repair. 


11 


10 








12 


11 






Midnight. Heavy gales, with hard 










1 
1 

i 


squalls and high sea. 



CHAP. 
V. 

Log of the 
Bingdove. 



k 



THE VAKLABI^ WINDS. 



CHAP. Extract from the Lag of H.H. Sloop Rinoootb — etHtkmti. 



E. F. Counw. Wiad. 



NNE 
KKB^E 



September 30, 1S37. i 

A.M. StronEgale»,«ithheKT7«qiuUii, 
lightning, Knd rain. 3. Altered counc 
to "W by N. 3.40. Trimmed, and •!- 
tered coune to WNW. 4. Straig 
gala, with hard iqualU and heB*y rmin. I 
6. Set fore-itajsail and fiulco for*- ' 
topaail; got the jolly-boat in off tlia . 
quarter to prevent her being wkatud 
away, the foiemaat darit being bent by 
the tea ; found the ^ atove durins tbc ' 
night by the tea itrilcinK her. 8. Hcavj I 
guea, with hard iqualU ; furled aaia- ' 
tojMul, ael fore and main trjaaiL i 

Noon. Hard galea, with beavjrtqnalb | 
and high bcb ; «hip tmdei tryaaila and ' 
fore siaysaiU. 

Courae, XT1°W, di>ian»e211mile*. 

Lat. 23^ 13' N, long. 88° SV W. 

Cape Conientea, S 7S° E, diatanoe 111 

P.M. Freeh galea and aqnallr, with 
high sea. 



4.16. Set n 



o-top»ai], and hoT* ahip 



waihed away the binnaclea. 

At H Btrong galea, with hard aqnalla 
and high ica. 



At 8 freah galea and thick wvatfacr, 
with high sea. 

At 10 gale moderating i >et «lo*»- 
reefiid main-topiail and fbie-trjMul. 

Noon. Slronfi winds and Mually ; 
ship under naui-topuil, trjtaila, and 
fore-itayiaiU. 

Coune, N 35" W, die lance 76 milca. 
I jit. 23° 40-, 23' IC N, long. 88' ll* W. 
87" 48'. 

gringo I.ighthoute, >' 80^ B, diatanes 
29-^ miles. 



WINDS CALLED NORTHS. 



141 



Log of H. M. Sloop Ringdove — concluded. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 






P.M. Fresh sales and squally, with 


1 


2 




NEbyN 


ESE 


high sea. 


2 


3 


6 






At 2 a heayy squall ; clewed up main- 


3 


6 




NNE 




topsail. 


4 


5 








At 4 fresh gales and dark gloomy 
weather, with neavy passine squalls. 
6. Ditto weather. 6.16. Set main- 


6 


6 








6 


4 


2 


NEbyN 




7 


2 


4 


w 




topsail. 


8 


3 


4 






At 8 ditto weather. 


9 


4 




NNE 




At 9 hea^y squalls ; in main-topsail. 


10 


3 








9.15. Set ditto. 


11 


3 


3 








12 


3 








Midniffht. Fresh gales and thick wea- 
ther, with passing squalls. 


A.M. 










October 2, 1837. 


1 


3 


4 


NNE 


ESE 


A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy sea, 
gradually going down. 

Course, N 28"" E, distance 99 miles. 






















Lat. 26** 10', 26° 7' N, long, sr 17' W 












87° 22'. 












fRrtugo Lighthouse, S 80° E, distance 












237 miles. 



CHAP. 
V. 



Log of the 
RingdoTe. 



"Kingston, Sept. 28, 1837.— State of the Weather.— The See 
rains which comiQenced on Monday Evening last, in Spanish piJIfJaJ* 
Town, Kingston, and the neighbouring districts, have continued Kacer and 
unabated up to the present moment. During the last two days "^ ^^®' 
the streets of Kingston were continually inundated, and all 
business suspended, except in the daily printing offices.** — 
Jamaica Dispatch. 



" We are sorry to state we were visited during the whole of 
Tuesday and yesterday with a severe gale of wind, which drove 
from their moorings three vessels in the harbour. The brig 
Clorinda, Moore, was driven upon a neighbouring wharf, where 
the schooner Admiral Colpoys, Darrell, was lying. The con- 
cussion took away the cut-water and bowsprit of the latter. 
The harbour-master directed the scuttling of the Clorinda, to 
save the adjacent wharves and vessels. The brig Cadwallader 
dragged her anchor a considerable distance -, and the sloop 
Chatham parted her anchor, and has drifted down as fiar as 
Greenwich. Mr. Stewart, the harbour-master, has been in- 



142 TH£ VARIABLE WINDS. 

CHAP, strnmcntal in protecting the shipping, by his decisioii tml 
V. exertions.** — Ibid, 



Canadt. The storms detailed in this chapter explain the 
reason why north east winds bring rain and stormy 
weather in Canada ; and they account for the extra- 
ordinary tides which sometimes happen in the river 
St. Lawrence. 
Variable Here also we have a cause for currents of the ocean 
events, being suddenly accelerated, or unexpectedly chanpng 
their direction. The effect of diminished atmospheric 
pressure combined with the action of the wind in 
creating ocean currents will be noticed further on. 
Wreckers. A far greater number of storms pass over the Gulf 
of Florida than seem to fall to its regular share, thereby 
increasing the danger of jts navigation, sufficiently 
imminent from currents, rocks, and shoals. This has 
given rise to the business of wrecking, followed as an 
occupation, and in which considerable capital is em- 
barked, on both sides of the Florida stream, by Ame- 
ricans as well as English. The crews are required to 
take out a licence, that they may be registered and 
under control. 
Necessity 'I'^c interests of navigation and of the social world 
trolling require that a strict control and watch should be 
^^™' maintained over the conduct of inhabitants of islands 
which border one of the most frequented as well as the 
most dangerous thoroughfares on the ocean. 

Had Mr. Wilkinson and his crew agreed to abandon 
the Calypso, as he was asked to do, that vessel, in all 
probability, would have been immediately afterwards 
taken possession of by the brig, which so shamefully 
abandoned him at a time when he and his men had 



WINDS CALLED NORTHS. 143 

only three-quarters of a puncheon of fresh water chap. 
amongst fourteen persons, in a hbt climate ; and when ' 

they were reduced to eat raw salt pork, being at the 
time without masts or sails. Mr. Wilkinson's situa- 
tion serves to exemplify that of masters of ships when 
they have to treat with wreckers. 

Since the account of the Racer's storm was first 
published, its further course has been traced by Mr. 
Redfield across the Southern United States to the 
Atlantic Ocean, where it became an Atlantic gale, 
north of the Bermuda islands. 



144 



CHAPTER VI. 



ON STORMS IN THE SOUl^HEKN HEMISPHERE. 



CHAP. The storm tracks already traced in north latitude, 

VI • 

! with few exceptions, are seen to follow nearly similar 



courses, and in their progress to pass gradually to- 
wards the North Pole. While studying the subject, 
I was led to conclude that, in accordance with the 
beautiful order and regularity of Nature, storms in 
south latitude would be found to revolve in a precisely 
contrary direction to that which they take in the 
northern hemisphere ; I therefore earnestly sought for 
facts, to ascertain if this were really the case or not. 

The first observations I obtained were from Captain 
Locke Lewis, of the Royal Engineers, who was for 
several years stationed in the island of Mauritius, 
between the 20th and 21st degrees of south latitude; 
and I soon afterwards received others from Captain 
Grierson, also of the Royal Engineers, who had like- 
wise been stationed at the same island. 

On first atti^mpting to lay down these observations 
of storms in south latitude, by means of the figure used 
for those of north latitude, they were found only recon- 
cileable with revolving storms, travelling towards the 
equator instead of towards the i)ole ; but a little inquiry 
proved that this was not their true course. When the 
other figure was used, wliich represents a storm revolv- 
ing like the hands of a watch (being the second figure 



ON STORMS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 14i5 

at page 5), then their progress was of course reversed, chap. 

and tended towards the south pole ; and such will be '- — 

found (as far as I have been able to obtain records) 
to be their real course and mode of action. 

It was not until I had laid down these observa- 
tions from the Mauritius, and others in south latitude 
obtained at the India House, that I received from Mr. 
Redfield, of New York, a copy of the pamphlets written 
by that gentleman on the subject of storms ; and found 
in those of the latest date a sentence expressive of pre- 
cisely the same opinion as my own. Mr. Redfield had 
not then published any detailed proofs in support of it. 
The following is the sentence alluded to : 

" There is reason to believe that the great circuits 
of wind, of which the trade winds form an integral 
part, are nearly uniform in the great oceanic basins ; 
and that the courses of these circuits and of the 
stormy gyrations which they may contain, is, in the 
southern hemisphere, in a counter direction to those 
north of the equator, producing a corresponding 
difference in the general phases of storms and winds 
in the two hemispheres." 

Neither was I aware, when the first edition of this 
work was printed, that Professor Dove, of Berlin, 
entertained opinions somewhat analogous, viz., that 
the winds do revolve, and that in different direc- 
tions, in the two hemispheres. Professor Dove and 
Mr. Redfield do not appear to have been known to 
each other; It therefore strengthens the probability 
of the correctness of what is here stated, that three 
individuals should have formed similar opinions on 
the subject before they had any communication with 
each other. 

L 



146 ON STORMS IN THB 

CHAP. Since the mode of action of the wind in storms can 
^' ' only be satisfactorily ascertained by procuring many 
simultaneous observations regarding the same stormSi 
recorded at distant points, I proceed to give such de- 
tails as I have collected from south latitudes. But the 
number of ships navigating the southern seas is few 
compared with those sailing on the North Atlantic; 
it has therefore proved proportionably difficult to pro- 
cure simultaneous observations of one and the same 
storm in the southern hemisphere. 

Though much less perfect than the obser^tions ob- 
tained from north latitude, the facts brought together 
and arranged in this chapter can hardly fail to 
interest those who navigate the southern hemisphere. 
I have printed extracts from the logs in some instances, 
where I have met with a single ship only in a storm in 
south latitude, without being able to find a vessel 
which encountered the same storm at a second pcnnt: 
and though such logs may be of little value in proving 
by themselves the rotatory nature of storms, yet they 
may be the means of tracing out other vessels which 
have encountered the same hurricanes. 

I was not aware, when I commenced this inquiry, 
that it is an observation among seamen, that the 
storms near the islands of Mauritius and Madagas- 
car generally begin at south-east and end at north- 
west. 
Shipt mmy This wiU commouly happen when ships are sailing 
■tormt. from the Cape of Good Hope towards India ; but on 
the returning voyage, it would appear as if the ships 
sometimes overtake the storms, and by sailing faster 
than tliey move along, plunge into them from the 
east side, receiving the wind from the north-west- 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 147 

north, or north-east. The case of the Neptune, which chap. 

. VI. 

will be given hereafter, is an instance of what is here '- — 

supposed to happen. 

The most useful observations for our purpose are 
those made at several islands within the sphere of the 
same storm ; and if the tracks of ships can be added, 
little more seems required than that such observations 
should be made and recorded at each place with 
proper care. In 1824, Captain Locke Lewis, R.E., 
proposed, that regular observations regarding hurri- 
canes should be kept by the French at the Isle of 
Bourbon, and by the English in the island of Mau- 
ritius, and that duplicates of these observations should 
be exchanged. This should now be done, and the 
sphere of observation extended to the island of Rodri- 
guez eastward, and to Madagascar and the coast of 
Africa westward. 

The small vessels which supply Mauritius and 
Bourbon with cattle, which they bring from Madagas- 
car, although they seldom venture to make the voyage 
during the hurricane months, sometimes meet with 
storms; and the reports collected from them by the 
harbour-masters would be very useful. If such records 
as are here suggested were kept, the logs of ships 
which may meet with storms in the same seas would 
be of great value ; and the whole, when put together 
and compared, would either prove or disprove the 
rotatory nature of tempests. 

It will be seen in this chapter, that the severe storms 
experienced off the Cape of Good Hope are, in all 
probability, sometimes the Mauritius hurricanes and 
Madagascar gales; as the storms off Cape Hatteras 
are certainly very often no other than the hurricanes 

l2 



148 ON STORMS IN THE 

CHAP, of the West Indies; and these two capes are in cor- 

'__ responding latitudes in opposite hemispheres. 

Thebaro- In this chapter will be found many more perfect 
^^ ' observations on the barometer during hurricanes than 
in any preceding one ; and the results they present by 
the gradual fall of the mercury until the middle of the 
storm is passed, and its rise until the storm is entirely 
over, is very striking. This occurs so regularly and 
so constantly in all the storms we have traced, that it 
seems of itself almost a proof that storms revolye in 
circles, and are progressive. 

That there are portions of the same latitude within 
the tropics which are more subject to Imrricanes than 
others, there seems no reason to doubt. The great 
continents may change the courses of the storms, and 
they may probably diminish their violence when they 
do not changie their direction. The localities subject 
to hurricanes are,nq;t so limited as has been supposed; 
and we find them in the Pacific Ocean. In 1837, 
an American ship, called the Independence, Fisher, 
master, was in a severe hurricane at Vavaoo, one of 
the Friendly Islands, latitude 19° south, longitude 
173° west. She went on shore ; when her masts were 
cut away ; a shift of wind took her off again. In 
18 — , a whaling vessel experienced a severe hurricane 
at the Navigator's Islands, about latitude 12^ south, 
longitude 160° west; and in this storm two others 
were lost. The very interesting narrative of Mr. 
Williams, of the London Missionary Society, giving 
an account of part of fifteen years' residence in the 
South Pacific, proves, that in the latitudes where he 
sailed for so many years in tlie southern oceans, there 
are hurricanes exactly corresponding in nature to 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 149 

those of Other similarly situated tropical latitudes, chap. 

We find for example in his book, allusion made to the '- — 

breaking of the banana leaves as a measure of the 
force of the wind when threatening to amount to a 
hurricane; and this is the common mode of express- 
ing the dread of its approaching strength in the West 
India islands. 

I subjoin a short extract from another part of Mr. 
Williams's work, to show with what violence the storms 
of the Pacific Ocean sometimes rage. The hurricane 
alluded to happened at the island of Rarotonga, one of 
the groupe called Hervey Islands, situated in latitude 
19"^ south, longitude 160° west, on the 21st and 22nd 
of December, 1831. The vessel belonging to the mis- 
sionaries was at the time hauled up on shore to be 
lengthened. By Mr. Williams's account, it will ap- 
pear that the ground swell preceded the " coming 
tempest;" and the sea was raised .so high that his 
vessel was carried some distance inland from the 
shore* When the east end of their chapel was blown 
in, we must conclude that the wind was easterly, and 
it is stated that the gale ended in the west< 

Extract from the Rev. Mr. Williams's narrative, 
giving an account of a hurricane at Rarotonga. 

"Oq the morning of December 21, 1831, I received informa- Hurricane 
tioii that a very heavy sea was rolling into the harbour -, and if *V^ ^*" 
It increased (of which there was every probability) the Vessel 
tnust sustain damage. I set out for Avarua, and was alarmed 
on arriving by the threatening appearance of the atmosphere and 
agitated state of the ocean. I instantly employed natives to 
carry stones, and raise a sort of breakwater round the vessel; 
One end of the chain cable was then fastened to the ship, and 
the other attached to the main post of our large school-hous^^ 
which stood on a bank, ten feet high, forty or fifty yards from 
the siea 3 and having removed all the timber and ship's stores to 



k. 



150 ON STORMS IN THE 

CHAP, what I conceived a place of safety, and taken every precantioa 
^^' to secure my ship and property from the coming tempest^ I re- 
turned to Ngatangiia. As I was leaving Avama, I saw a heavy 
sea rolling in lift the vessel several feet ; she fell however gently 
to her place again. Next day (Sunday) was one of gloom and 
distress -, the wind blew most furiously, and rain descended in 
torrents from morning to night. We held however oar rdigioot 
services as usual. Towards evening the storm increased; trees 
were rent and houses began to fall : among the latter was a 
large shed used as a temporary school-house, which boned my 
best boat in its ruins. 

" About 9 P.M. notice came to me that the sea had risen to an 
alarming height; that the vessel had been thumping all day on 
the stones 5 and that at 6, the roof which covered her was blown 
down and washed away : to complete the evil tidings, the mes- 
senger told us the sea had gone over the bank and reached the 
school-house, which contained the rigging, coppers, and stores 
of our vessel ; and that if it continued, all our settlement would 
be endangered. 

" As the distance was eight miles, the night terrifically dark, 
and the rain pouring down like a deluge, I determined to wait 
till morning. 

" Before daylight I set out for Avarua^ and in order to avoid 
walking knee deep in water all the way, and to escape the Mling 
limbs of trees, which were being torn with violence from their 
trunks, I attempted to take the sea-side path 3 but the vrind and 
rain were so violent. I found it impossible to make any progress. 
I was obliged to take the inland road ; and by watching oppor* 
tunities, and running between the falling trees, escaped without 
injury. Half-way I was met by some of my workmen> who in- 
formed me that the sea had risen to a great height, and swept 
away the store-house and its contents. The vessel was driven in 
against the bank, upon which she was lifted with every wave, 
and fell off again when it receded. On reaching the settlement, 
it presented a scene of fearful desolation : its luxuriant groves, 
broad pathway, and neat white cottages, were one mass of mint, 
among which scarcely a house or tree was standing. The poor 
women were running wildly with their children, seeking a place 
of shelter, and the men dragging their property from the minf 

of the prostrated houses On reaching the chapel. I was 

rejoiced to see it standing ; but as we were passing, a resistlesi 
gust burst in the east end, and proved the premonitory aympUmk 



SOUTHERN HEMIBPHERE. 151 

of its destruction. The new school-house was Ijring in ruins by CHAP. 
its side ; Mr. Buzacott*s excellent house, which stood on a stone ^^' 
foundation, was unroofed and rent : the inmates had fled. 

" Shortly after my arrival, a heavy sea burst in with devas- 
tating vengeance, and tore away the foutidation of the chapel, 
which fell with a frightftd crash. The same wave rolled on, till 
it dashed on Mr. Buzacott*s already mutilated house, and laid it 
prostrate with the ground. The Chiefs wife had conducted 
Mrs. Buzacott to her habitation ; but shortly after they reached 
it the sea dashed against it, and the wind tore off the roof, so that 
they were obliged to take refuge in the mountains. They waded 
nearly a mile through water, in some places several feet deep, to 
reach a temporary shelter, and found that a huge tree had fallen 
and crushed the hut. Again they pursued their way, and found 
a hut standing, crowded with women and children taking refuge, 
where they were however gladly welcomed. 

" The rain was still descending in deluging torrents | the angry 
lightning was darting its fiery streams along the dense black 
clouds, which shrouded us in their gloom. The thunder, deep and 
loud, rolled and pealed through the heavens, and the whole island 
trembled to its very centre as the infuriated billows burst upon 
its shores. The crisis had arrived — this was the hour of our 
greatest anxiety j ' but man's extremity is God*s opportunity.' 
Never was this sentence more signally illustrated than at this 
moment — the wind shifted suddenly a few points to the west ; 
which was a signal to the sea to cease its ravages, and retire 
within its wonted limits. The storm was hushed j the lowering 
clouds began to disperse ; and the sun, as a prisoner, burst forth 
from his dark dungeon and smiled upon us. ***** * 

"As soon as possible, I sent a messenger to obtain some 
information respecting my poor vessel, expecting she had been 
shivered to a thousand pieces j but, to our astonishment, he 
returned with the intelligence, that although the bank, the 
school-house, and the vessel, were all washed away together, the 
latter had been carried over a swamp, and lodged amongst a 
grove of large chestnut trees, several hundred yards inland, and 
yet appeared to have sustained no injury whatever.* As soon as 
practicable I went myself, and was truly gratified at finding that 
the report was correct, and that the trees had stopped her wild 
progress; otherwise she would have driven several hundred 
yards further, and have simk in a bog.'* 

The first hurricane of which I received any account 






152 MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1818. 

CHAP, in south latitude, was that which happened on the 28th 

'- — of February and 1st of March, 1818, at the Mauritius, 

when the Magicicnne frigate was lying there, moored 
in the harbour of Port Louis : and on that occasion, 
tills frigate and forty other vessels went on shore, or 
were sunk ; the American brig Jason being the only 
vessel out of forty-one which rode out the storm. 

By a communication from France, I find tliat this 
storm was felt at the Isle of Bourbon, though it was 
not 60 severe as at the Mauritius; but I hare not 
succeeded in getting either the date when it reached 
Bourbon, or any account of how the wind blew during 
tlie time it lasted. 

A figure is here annexed explanatory of its progress 
over Mauritius. 




" Oarag&n h Maurice, An 2« Fi'vrier an soir, an I Mars, 181S. 

" Lfs pitmoM aiixquel on rccntinutt h Maorice ra]i|>rocbe dra 
i;ranilrs tcmp^tea n'ont point aiinonci- celle-ci. Dana lef Joan 
|>n'i.x'd<;iis Ic niercure dea barumJ^tn-s de la villc cUit descenda 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 153 

deux fois au dessous de 28 ponces (29*8 English)^ mais le 28 CHAP. 
Fdvrier^ il avait repris son niveau ordinaire. Senlement dans ^* 
I'aprfes-midi, le vent se mit k souffler par rafall^s variant de 
Test-sud-est au sud-est et au sud-sud-est. La force des grains 
augmenta progressivement jusques k la nuit et cependant peu de 
personnes con9urent des inquietudes. Plusieurs fois dans cette 
saison, des menaces de temp^tes plus caracteris^s n'avaient eu 
aucun r^sultat f^cheux. Aussi les marins du port^ et les ha- 
bitans des campagnes n6glig^rent-ils ^galement les precautions 
que Ton prend d*ordinaire lorsqu'on craint un coup de vent. 
Peu de navires renforc^rent leurs amarres -, aucun habitant ne 
songea k couper les tiges des maniocs pour en sauver les racines. 
La nuit survint et Touragan commen9a ses ravages. La force 
du vent toujours croissante, et la descente rapide du mercure 
dans le barora^tre, ne laiss^rent plus de doute sur le fl^au dont 
on allait eprouver les terrible effets. 

*' Jusques au milieu de la nuit les vents souffl^rent du sud" Wind 

8 8-E to 8 
sud-est, au sud avec une extreme violence. Vers une heure apr^ ' -d»wo. 

minuit^ ils commenc^rent a toumer vers Pest; au point du jour^ East. 

ils etaient au nord-nord-est et au nord; le mercure ^tait descendu K. N. £. 

k 26 pouces 4 lignes (2800 English), hauteur r^duite k cellc dtt ^o'^- 

niveau de la mer. Jamais on ne Tavait vu aussi has. Plusieurs 

personnes crurent que leurs barom^tres etaient d^rang^, celles qui 

ne pouvaient se m^prendre sur la cause de cette depression, 8*at- 

tendaient k une grande catastrophe. Heureusement pour la 

colonic que cet etat de Tatmosph^re, n*eut qu*une courte dur^e. 

En effet on pent juger, par le mal qua fait louragan, de celui 

qu*il aurait produit si sa violence, telle qu elle etait, de 4 heures 

J k 6 heures du matiu) se fOit prolong^e de quelques heures. 

En passant au nord-ouest, le vent se calma assez promptement ; N. W. 

le mercure remontk avec toute la rapidity qu*il avait mise k 

descendre, et dans le joumee m^me du premier Mars, on parvint k 

communiquer avec la plupart des vaisseaux echou^s dans la rade^ 

et Ton put s*occuper de porter quelque rembde aux accidens causes 

par la temp^te, k ceux du moins qui en etaient susceptibles. 

''On k observe le lendemain du coup de vent que les eaux 
avaient partout un goClt saumatre. La pluie, pendant sa duree^ 
avait elle-m^me une saveur tr^-saiee. 

" La salle de spectacle est un tr^-grand edifice. Sa forme 
est celle d*un T dont la t^te est un avant-corps considerable, 
puisquc la partie posterieure, formant la queue du T, a seule 53 
pieds de largeur sur 82 de long. Si cet edifice eM ete brise par "Eiett m 
la temp^te on aurait pu attribuer, cet evenement k la manl^re ^' 



154 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1818« 



VI. 



Flat ri:of8. 



CHAP, dont il ^tait construit ; mais, ce qui est k-peine crojrable, eeC 
iramense arri^re-corps de 34 pieds et surmont^ d*iin oombie en 
charpente, li^ en outre avec Vavant'Corps qui forme la la^ade^ a 
cependant chass^ de pr^s de cinq pieds sur son soabastemcnt 
Quelle force prodigieuse que celle qui a pn prodnire^ le d^>lace- 
ment horizontal d*une telle masse ! son renversemeirt eat M im 
ph^nom^ne ordinaire ; sa translation, si Ton pent employer oe 
terme, ne se con^oit pas. 

" Toutes les maisons couvertes en bardeauz (shinglew) et c'ett 
la presque totality de celles de la colonie, ont 4iti inonck^ in- 
t^rieurement par la pluie. On n'imagine point la vioknce cC 
Fabondance avec laquelle elle est lanc6e horizontalement pendant 
nos temp^tcs. Alors les couvcrtures imbriqu^ aont inntiks 
et dangereuses m6mc car clles donnent an vent one grande prise, 
ct contribuent k la destruction des Edifices. Si rooragan ent 
durd jusques k midi seulement avec la m6me-force la viUe n*ent 
^t6 qu'un mon9eau de mines. Ddjk, au moment oh il a cess^ 
beaucoup de belles maisons, intactes en apparence, ^tai^t en- 
tam^es par le toit. Celles qui n'auraient pas ^t^ renverato, 
eussent it6 emport^es pibce h. p'itce. 

"Les maisons couvertes en terrasscs ou argamasses, k la 
manibre de Tlnde, ont r<^sist^ k la temp^te, et on y a 4t6 k Tabri 
de la pluie. Mais aucune sorte de couverture n'a mieox sootenn 
cette ^preuve decisive que cellc construite suivant le proo^d^ de 
M. Cbaix, c*est-k-dire en briques unics par ten ciment r^nmemx ie 
sa composition. 

*' Les couvertures en ardoises ont ^td enlev^s. La plnput 
de celles en cuivre et en fer-blanc ont 6ti enlcv^s anssi, et 
cependant les totts de cette deruih*e sorte ont sur les bardeanz 
Tavantage inappreciable de ne point donner de gontti^res et d*tec 
facile k rdparer. Le mal est venu de ce qu*on n'avait pris pas 
les moyens convcnablcs pour les fixer sur le lattis des combles. 

" Autrefois les habitans aisds construisaient une petite mainon 
servant babituellement de ddpendance, mais destine sortout k 
leur servir de rdfoge pendant les coups de vent. Quoiqii*il soit 
probable qu'un fldau pareil k celui du 1 Mars, ne sc reproduira 
pas de longtemps, on ferait bien de revenir k cette sage pre- 
caution. Un petit pavilion en pierre soigneusement bAti, peu 
ilev6 sur le sol, et convert d*un toft plat dtroitcment li^ k la 
ma^onnerte, ne coute pas beaucoup plus, que construit k la 
manibre ordinaire, et il a le double avantagc d*une dxa6e in* 
ddfinie, et d'etre un lieu dc surety, pour les families lorBqoc 
Touragan sc declare." 



Resinous 
cement. 



Hurricane 
houses. 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



155 



Log of H.M.S. Maoictenne, commanded by Oatytain Purvis, R.N. CHAP. 



Mauritius, Feb. 28, 1818. This log is in Civil Time. 



Hour 



P.M. 



Wind. 



SSE 



Squally 



A.M. 



SSE 



SE 



ESE 



Bar. 



falls 
29.5 



Ther. 



NE 



28.0 



Kemarks. 



February 28, 1818. 
Wind SSE. p.m. fresh breezes and 
squally ; heavy rain at times ; at 3 sent 
party on board the Agile (a detained 
schooner) to take her lower yards and 
topmasts, and secure her afresh ; observed 
a chasse-mar^e upset in the middle of 
the harbour ; sent the barge to her assist- 
ance ; at 6 a pilot came on board, in con- 
sequence of the fall of the barometer, and 
threatening appearance ; at 8 squally ; at 
12 midnight strong gales, heavy squalls. 



March 1, 1818. 
Wind SSE. a.m. 2.10, strong gales, 
heavy squalls, and rain, blowing exces- 
sively hard; the best bower bent to a 
mooring- anchor ; ship driving slowly; 
got the spars out of the rigging; SE, at 
2.40 a merchant ship drove athwart us, 
and carried away the jib and flying-jib- 
boom, with gear; then went clear and 
upset ; at 3 a schooner drove athwart us, 
remained some time, and then drove on 
shore ; at 4, blowing a complete hurri- 
cane, ship still driving ; drove on board 
the Prince Regent, merchant ship ; car- 
ried away the ensign staff, and cut the 
stern down to the cabin windows ; carried 
away her jib-boom, and sprung her bow- 
sprit; jolly-boat swamped and w^nt 
down ; the barge went adrift, and stove 
her broadside in with the Prince Regent's 
anchor ; made fast a cable to the careen- 
ing hulk ; ship aground ; heeling very 
much to port ; E S E, tt 5 a brig drove 
athwart us ; carried away her mainmast, 
and went on shore ; daylight, hurricane 
still unabated; observed all the ships 
in harbour (except ^the American brig 
Jason), forty-one in^^mber, were either 
on shore or sunk ; foQnd the main and 
mizen channels shifted with the violence 
of the wind, and the hammock-cloths, 
rails, and boards blown away; at 6 
parted the sheet-cable ; the hulk parted 
her mooring-chains, and we drove on 
shore at the point of the entrance of the 
fort ; N E, ship heeling yery much to 
starboard ; sounded round the ship, and 
found ten feet water from the fore to the 
main chains, seventeen feet under th^ 
stem, and eighteen feet under larboard 



VI. 



Log of the 

Magi- 

cienne. 



^^^^^^Hl^ 



156 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1818. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 

Magi- 

cienne. 



Log of H. M. S. Maoiciennk — cmUimietL 



Hour. 


Wind. 


Bar. 

i 


Ther. 

1 


Remarki. i 

1 


P.M. 
A.M. 


ENE 
Easterly 

ESE 


29.5 


March 1 1818. 
bow ; at 8 hard gales, with hesrf aqiialk 
and rain ; issued a gill of spirits to itup*n 
company ; at 9 more mooeimte ; noon, 
strong breeaes and squally; found m the 
weather moderates th€ waUr ikoaM hal ; 
Under starboard foreehsins only seven 
feet, astern fourteen, and on the Isibosid 
bow fifteen feet: N £. between 2 snd S 
P.M., fresh gales and soually. With vain; 
at 4 fresh breetes and rainy wetttbcr; 
attempted to heare the ship off by the 
ftingle bower fast to mooring-snchor ; at 
4.30 lound anchor coming home ; E N E, 
at 7 and 8 fresh breezes and cloudy wee> 
ther; easierly at 10.30 ; midnightt osodeo 
rate, with rain. 


March 2, 1818. 
Wind ESE at 8 a.m. 



Extract from the * Asiatic Journal' : 

" The frigate Magicicnne, Captain Pun'is, is on sboi^, and 
many houses in the town are in ruins. On the plantations the 
buildings have suffered as much as the fields : many planters 
have lost their all, and the distress is general. The barometer 
sunk lower than ever was known, and most of those who ob- 
served it were unable to account for the notice it gave in so 
extraordinary a manner* 

" It appears ^lat the most violent blast was from the north* 
east, but with a force very upequal, as we could see small vessels 
withstand it, whilst others of the greatest strength were destr oy ed 
at a small distance from them. 

" Many persons observed that the rain water was salt ; and, 
on the day after the storm^ the water which flows near the town 
Xvas found brackish.*' 

The Magicienne suflTered greatly, whilst on this 
station^ from the effects of hurricanes ; and^ by the 
following extracts from logs kept in the ship (which 
I received from Capt. Evans, R.N.), she experienced 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



167 



two storms in 1819, though less severe than those in chap. 
1818. _^1_ 

The first one is that which immediately follows; 
and, like the one of the previous year, began with the 
with at south -south-east, and ended with the wind 
about north-west* 



Extract from the Log of H.M. S. Magiciennk, moored in Log of the 

Magi- 
cienne. 



Port Louis^ kept by George Evans, Midshipman. 



Hour. 



n 



Noon 

P.M. 

1.30 



6 



6.30 



7 
7.40 

8 
8.30 
8.40 



12 



Wind. 



SE 

SEbyS 

SSE 



SWJ w 

ssw 



NW 



Bar. 



Ther. 



29.79 



79 



29.14 
29.10 



29.14 



rigmg 
29.58 



76 
76J 

77 



77§ 



Remarks. 



Monday, January 26, 1819. 

A.M. Moderate breezes, with rain at 
times. 

11. Strong breezes and squally ; down 
royal and top- gallant-yards, and struck 
top-gallant-masts. 

Xioon. Ditto weather. 

1.30. Qot top- gallant- masts on deck; 
sent a launch to the port- office for cables 
to secure the ship ; the barometer haring 
fallen greatly, struck lower yards and 
topmasts ; run out one 12-inch havrser to 
an anchor on shore ahead; secured it 
on board, and secured the other cables 
afresh. 

At 6 strong gales, with rain; employed 
securing boats, &c. ; seyeral ships in the 
harbour broke from their moorijigs ; got 
the awnings down, and jib and spanker- 
boom in. 

6.30. A brig off Magazine Point parted 
her stem moorings, and swung alonsside 
our starboard quarter ; fiast moored her 
afresh; pointed the yards to the wind. 
At 2 hoisted the barge in, and hauled 
second cutter and jolly-boat up on shore ; 
sent a party to secure the Voyageur, and 
a 12-inch hawser to the Shawfield to 
secure her; got the top- gallant-yards 
and skysail -masts out of the rigging. 

At 7 strong gales, with hearj squalls. 

7.40. Blowing a perfect hurricane from 
SSW. 

At 8 hurricane increasing; saw the 
flash of a gun to the westward. 

8.40. The wind shifted to the N W, 
more moderate; barometer rising; 
pointed the yards to the wind. 

12. More moderate. 




158 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1819. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Magicienne, moored in 



VI. 



Log of the 

Magi- 

ciennne. 



Port Louis — continued. 



Hour. 



Wmd. 



12.30 



N 



NNE 



8 
9 



10 
Noon 

P.M. 



Midn. 



Bar. Ther.; 



Remarks. 



29.62. 77§ 



29.80 75i 



29.80 75) 



Tuesday, January 26, 1819. 

A.M. 12.30. Strons gales and aqmlly ; 
a hulk astern parted her stem mootiafi, 
and swung under our stem. 

At 4 heavy gales, with rain; at daylight 
every vessel in the harbour on shore, inth 
the exception of two brigs ; one sUp on 
Tonnelieo reef dismasted, and another oa 
shore near her, with her masts standing 
and signal of distress up ; sent an oficer 
on board her ; sent a party to moor the 
hulk astern, and another party to heave 
the Voyageur oC 

At 8 dark cloudy weather, with rafau 

At 9 sent the lugger St. Jaquea oat to 
the Wolfe's Cove on shore oflf Fort Ton- 
nelieo, to take her cargo out. 

At 10 squally, with rain at times. 

Noon. Moderate and cloudy. 

P..M. Moderate breeze and cloudy ; got 
the jib and spanker-booms out, and got 
the top-gallant- yards and skyasil-masti 
in the rigging ; swayed the gaff up ; sent 
the Voyageur with an officer to the 
Wolfe's Cove to assist in unloading her; 
hove a brig off Magasine Point ; sent a 
boat to tow the St. Jaques up with pert 
of the Wolfe's Cove's cargo. 

Midnight. Moderate and fair. 



The next extract from the log of the Magicienne 
describes a third hurricane, which that ship encountered 
whilst lying in Port Louis Harbour, Mauritius, on the 
28th and 29tli March, 1819. The centre of this storm 
would seem to have passed nearly over, or a little to 
the northward of where the ship was lying; for we 
find the wind moderating in the middle of the gale, 
yet veering from the south-south-east, where it com- 
menced, to the north-east, and ending like the two 
former storms in the north-west. It will likewise be 
seen how regularly the barometer fell, until the wind 
began to veer about to the opposite quarter from 
where the gale commenced. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



159 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Magicienne, moored in CHAP. 
Port Louis, kept by George Evans, Master. ^' 

Log of 

thellagl- 

cienne. 



Hour. 


Wind. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Remarks. 










Friday, March 26, 1819. 


A.M. 


ESE 






A.M. Moderate and cloudy. 


P.M. 


EbyS 






P.M. Ditto. 


Saturday, March 27, 1819. 


Hidn. 


ESE 






Midnight. Strong squalla of wind and 


A.M. 


EbyS 
EbyS 






r*xu. 

A.M. Squally, with rain ; received on 
board the crew of the tender, And gave 
her to the Liverpool. 

Midnight. Strong squalU of wind and 
rain. 


Sunday, March 28, 1819. 


1 


SE 






A.M. Fresh breezes and squally. 


4 








Came on board a pilot to unmoor the 
ship ; sent a launch a-head to weigh the 
small bower anchor, but finding the baro- 
meter falling, and other indications of bad 
weather, let it go again. 


10.30 




29.90 


80} 


10.30. Heavy squalls of wind ; struck 
top-gallant- masts . 


11 


SSE 








12 




29.77 


88^ 


Strong breezes and squally. 


P.M. 
1 








P.M. Ditto. 


2 


SSE 






Small spars out of the rigging. 


3 




29.74 


82} 


3.10 Got top-gallant-masts on deck. 


5 




29.70 


81} 




5.46 








5.45. Fresh gales and cloudy; struck 


6 


SSE 


29.70 


81 


lower yards and topmasts ; in jib and 
spanker-^oms ; down gaff, and pointed 


7 




29.70 


80 










the yards to the wind. 


8 


SSE 


29.69 


80 


At 8, strong gales and heavy squalls, 
with rain. 


9 




29.66 


79J 




10 


S *S E 


29.66 


79} 




11 


SEbyS 


29.55 


794 


At 11, gale increasing ; squalls much 
more violent ; wind Teering round to the 
eastward. 


12 




29.46 


79} 


Midnight. Gale increasing violently ; 
expended forty fathom four inishes for 








IV 


A.M. 








additional lasmng for the cables. 


Monday, March 29, 1819. 


1 


SEbyS 


29.25 


79 


A.M. Blowing a hurricane ; thick haie 


2 




29.24 


78} 


and sprays. 


2.18 




1 


w 


At 2.18, the ring of the anchor on shore, 
to which the best bower cable was clinched, 
gave way, in consequence of which the ship 


3 




29.16 


77 


drifted on shore on the larboard bilge, 
bringing home the small bower anchor 
and carrying away a 7f inch hawser; 
hove in the best bower cable. 











k 



160 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OP 1818. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Magiciennk, moored in 



VI. 



Log of 

theMagi- 

cienne. 



Moderate, 
windTeer- 
ingfait. 



Port Louis — continued. 











Hour. 


Wind. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


A.M. 








3.19 








4 


S 


28.98 


77 


4.30 


• 

NE 






5 


WN W 


28.98 


78 


6 




28.99 


78 


7 


NW 


29. 70 




8 




29.20 




9 




29. 32 




10 




29. 40 


79 


12 


NW 


29. 42 


80 


P.M. 








1 








2 


N 






3 


• .... . 


29.50 


80 


7 


NNE 






8 




29.71 


79} 


12 









Remarks. 



Monday, March 29, 1819. 

At 3.19, hurricane more Tiolent; o^ 
•enred H.M.S. LiTerpo<^ on ahoiVt a-aten 
of ua, and a numher of merchant ahipa. 

At 4, more moderate, wind mmrim$ 
rotmd ; ran out the heat ho wer cable again, 
and clinched it ; ran out the aheet cable 
on the larboard- quarter, and clinched ic 

At 4.30, quite moderate, wind Tearing 
round fast to N £; ahip atill agnmnd; 
carried away the messenger in tmng to 
heave the ship off; roTe a purenaae on 
the cable. 



At 8, strong gales and squally ; carried 
away the purchase- fall. 

Noon. Ditto weather. 

P.M. Strong gales and sqaally; up 
lower yards; rove a purt-haae-faU, and 
lashed the purchase-blocks afrrah; en- 
deavoured to heave the ship oil^ bnt find- 
ing the tide lowering and the ahip iMt 
aground, with hut twelve feet water un- 
der the lee- main-chains, deferred* and 
commenced lightening the ship. 



At 8, moderate, and squally with rain. 
Midnight. Dark cloudy weather. 



The next storm is the hurricane of 23rd February^ 
1824, at the Mauritius. It appears to have begun 
with the wind more at east than the three preceding, 
and seems to have ended with the wind nearly at west : 
this would indicate a course about south. 

By an extract of a letter from the Commandant of 
the Isle of Bourbon, tlie same storm docs not appear 
to have visited that island: and the reason will be 
apparent, on inspecting the figure drawn to explain 
the Mauritius hurricane of 1824, at page 165. 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 

The registers from three different barometers for this 
hurricane have been preserved by Captain Locke Lewis; - 
and it will be seen how nearly they agree in the gradual 
descent before alluded to, during the Brst part of the 
hurricane, and the gradual and regular ascent during 
the latter part of its continuance. 

The French extract, which follows Captain Lewis's 
tables, relates to the manner in which these storms 
blow in gusts or veins, which seems to be a distinguish* 
ing character of hurricanes. 



Observations of the State of the Barometers during a Hurricane 
at the Mauritina. on the 23rd February, 1824. 



HOUT. 


Ho.l. 


No. a. 


No. 3. 


Rcinailu. 


At 7. Oi.M. 


29.75 


20.77 


29.60 


Wind S E; v»r. to E: strong gales. 


8. „ 


., 75 


,, 77 


,, 60 


Dilto dltlo 


8.30 ,, 


.. 70 


„ 73 


„ 60 


Ditto ditto 


9. ,, 


,. 70 


,, 73 


,, fiO 


Ditto ditto 


9.30 ,, 


., B8 


,, 70 


,, fiO 


Ditto ditto 


10. ,, 


,, 6S 


,. 70 


,, 60 


Ditto ditto 


10.30 ,, 


,, Ci 


,, 68 


,. *7 


Ditto ditto 


11. ,, 


,, iS 


,, 66 


,. « 


Ditto ditto 


11.16 ., 


„ 60 


,. 62 


■ ■ <5 


Ditto ditto 


11.30 ,, 


,, £6 


,, 68 


,, -40 


Ditto ditto 


11.45 ,. 


., 66 


., 68 


,, 40 


Wind nUAcd to tlic outward. 


IS. ., 


,, 53 


,, 66 


,, 38 


Ditto 


12. IS P.M. 


,, 40 


., 60 


,, 33 


Ditto 


12.30 ., 


.. 44 


,, 48 


„ 28 


Ditto 


12.45 ,, 


>. 40 


.. « 


,, SB 


Ditto 


1. „ 


., 57 


,, 40 


,, 20 


Wind E N E. 


1.15 ., 


„ 30 


., 34 


,, 18 


Ditto 


1.30 „ 


„ 29 


.. 3* 


„ 16 


Ditto 


1.46 ,, 


,, 25 


.. ^8 


., 10 


Ditto 


2. ,, 


„ 20 


.. 22 


., 06 


Ditto 


2.15 ,, 




,, 13 


28.96 


Ditto 


2.30 ,, 






,, 96 


Ditto 


2.45 ,, 


" 02 


',', 05 


.. 88 


Ditto 


3. ,, 


28.07 


28. -99 


.. SO 


Ditto 


3.16 ,, 


., 86 


,, B3 


,, C9 


Wind N E. 


3.80 ,, 


., 76 


.. 77 


.. S'" 


Ditto 


3.46 ,, 


,, ea 


,, 69 


„ Si 


Ditto 


4. ,, 


., 6S 


,, 60 


,, 43 


Wind N N E. 


4.16 ,, 


,. 68 


„ 60 


,, 46 


Ditto 


4.30 ,, 


., 69 


>. 80 


,, 46 


Wind North. 


4.4S ,, 


,, 69 




.. 47 


Wind N N W. 


6. ,, 


,, 69 


'.', 60 


.. 47 


Wind N W. 


6.15 ,, 


,, 62 


,, eo 


.. 47 


Ditto 


6.30 ,, 


., 67 


,, 60 


„ 53 


Ditto 



162 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1824. 



CHAP. 


Observations of the State of the Barometers — contimmei. 


VI. 






1 

Hour. ,No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


RemAtlu. 




1 
At 6. 46 P.M. 28. 67 


28. 60 


28.53 


Wind N W. 




6. ,, ,, 72 


., 71 


,, 59 


Wind W ; gale decreasing. 




6.16 ,, .,, 80 


,, 83 


,. 73 


Ditto ditto 




6.30 ,, 1.. 97 


,. 94 


,, 80 


Ditto ditto 




7. ,, 29.09 


29.06 


,, 90 


Wind S W. 




7.30 ,, „ 17 


,, 14 


29.00 


Ditto 




8. „ ;, , 28 


,, 23 


,, 08 


Wind S E. 




8.30 ,, '.. 33 


,, 30 


,, 10 


Diito 




February 24. 








Wind S W. 




6. Oa.1I. 


,. 67 


,, 60 


,, 46 


Ditto 




7. ,, 


,, 09 


,, 62 


,, 49 


Dttto 




8. ,, ',, 70 

1 


., CO 


,, 50 


Wind W. 



(Signed) 



THOMAS LOCKE LEWIS. 
Captain Royal Engineers. 



In the hurricane of the 23rd of February, 1824, at 
the Mauritius, upwards of thirty vessels were wrecked 
there. 

The following remarks, printed in a Mauritius news- 
paper, relate to the manner in which the wind appears 
to blow in veins differing in degrees of strength : 

" II parait qu'une trombe, ou tourbillon (de ceux qui ont fait 
donncr aux ouragans le nom de typhou)^ a parcoum une ligne 
sur laquelle se sont trouv^^es plusieurs maisons du Champ-de- 
Lort, et particuli^rement le College Royal. 

'' C*est contre ce terrible ph^nom^ne, qu*il faut se pr^cantionner 
dans Ics ouragans : aussi n'est il pas prudent en pareil cas, de 
demeurer dans les maisons ^Icvdes ; dans celles surtoot qni soDt 
poshes sur de haut soubassemens en pierre formant le rez-de- 
chauss^. C*est tr^s mal raisonncr que de dire, qu*une maisoa 
a rdsiste k tcl ouragan ou h tcl autre. Ellc nc 8*est pas trour^ 
sur le chemiii d'un tourbillon, voilh ce qui Ta preserv^e. TeBe 
est aussi la cause d*un fait observe dans tons les ouragans cclai 
de la preservation d'une maison tombante de vetustd, ^troite, 
^levee, qui n'est pas mtymc cbranlcc k pen de distance d'on 
edifice ncuf, qui est renverse ou mis on pieces. 

" La mctdorologie est encore dans son enfance. Tout-cc-qw 
nous savons c*cst (|ue, dans ce (^n'on appelle los mauvais temii. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 163 

la pesanteur des colonnes atmosphdriques decroit plus on moins ; CHAP, 
mais les proportions entre ce d^croissement, et Taction de Tair ^• 
h, la surface de notre plan^te, demeureront probablement long- 
temps ignor^es. Probablement aussi ce n*est pas nous qui ^ 
verrons construire Tan^nom^tre capable de mesurer la force 
acquise par Fair, lorsqu*il r^duit en filamens, et qu*il tord comme 
un cordage le tronc d*un arbre vigoureux, ou qu'il fait toumer 
sur sa base une Edifice en pierre comme la Maison Laffargue, 
Aussi les di verses denominations donn^es r^cemment aux dif- 
f^rens d^grds de la temp^te, en raison de Tespace que le vent par- 
court dans une seconde, nous semblent telles fort insignificantes. 
C*est le tort de beaucoup de savans. lis ont la fiireur de r^duire 
pr^maturcment en theories certains points des sciences naturelles, 
sur lesquellcs on est entibrement d^pourvu de faits sufRsamment 
observes. " J. M." 



Copy of a Letter from the Commandant of the 
Island of Bourbon, to Captain T. Locke Lewis, Royal 
Engineers, relative to the hurricane of the 23rd of 
February, 1824: 

''Nous avons ressenti k Bourbon, le contre coup de votre 
temp^te. II est k remarquer, que le 22 F^vrier, noiis eiimes 
aussi des apparences de mauvais terns ; qui s*accruerent jusqu*au 
lendemain, au point de me determiner, k donner le signal d appa- 
reillage k nos batimens. Mais ces deux jours les vents rest^rent 
k Test et au sud-est, ils s*appais^rent dans la joum^e m^me du 
23. Le lendemain le tems fut magnifique, et se maintient en cet 
^tat jusque dans Taprbs-midi du 25, que le vent s*^tant d^clar6 
an nord,a mena des nuages et une simple apparence de pluie. 
L*indication barom^trique, n*^tait nullement d^favorable. Par 
malheur les batimens ^toient revenues sur la rade -, dans la nuit 
la mer devint affreuse, et contribua surtout k en pousser neuf 
d'entre eux sur la c6te. Le vent soufila altemativement du 
nord et du nord-ouest ; mais sans une extreme violence. Le 
barom^tre etoit descendu alors k per long. 27*7 (or 28.2 inches 
English)." 



There was a severe hurricane at the Mauritius on 
the 19th and 20th of January, 1834. Captain Grier- 
son. Royal Engineers, who was stationed there at that 

M 2 



164 MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1834. 

CHAP, date, has informed me, that the wind scarcely veered 

'- — at all during the continuance of this storm ; and that 

its general direction was that of the trade wind at the 
Mauritius, or nearly south-east. Captain Grierson^s 
statement was from memory, having made no Tecord 
in writing at the time. 

Mr. James Tilley, who was then master of the ship 
Emma Eugenia, was also there at the time ; and he 
states that the wind was eastj veering to the southward. 
His ship and seventy-nine other vessels were driven 
on shore. Mr. Tilley describes the wind as blowing in 
sudden gusts. 

If this storm were a rotatory one, revolving as we 
suppose those of the southern hemisphere to turn, a 
portion of its west side only would pass over Mauri- 
tius, as represented in a figure hereafter annexed; 
and it was probably moving on a course nearly south. 
Had it been moving towards the contrary direction, 
it would have been carried towards the Seychelles 
islands ; but there it is said hurricanes never happen ; 
and they are probably of rare occurrence so near the 
equator. During the war it was the practice of our 
ships to go to these islands for safety during the hurri- 
cane months from the Mauritius, as it was the custom 
in the West Indies to go to Trinidad : thus we find 
in both hemispheres our ships of war sought to avoid 
hurricanes by approaching the equator. Yet further 
on in this inquiry, one great storm will be traced, 
which seems to have been felt within a degree of the 
equator. 

If the Mauritius storm of the 19th and 20th of 
January moved southward, this would bring it to the 
place of the ship Duke of Buccleugh, on the 21st and 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



220d of January. By referring to her log, it will be * 
seen this ship was proceeding on her voyage from - 
Calcutta and Madras towards England, when she met 
a storm on the afternoon of the 2l3t of January, which 
has every appearance of being this hurricane. She 
was then standing on a course W. i S., her place at 
noon being marked in the log ; and her place at about 
5 P.M. is on the foregoing figure. 

At 6 P.M. she had the wind at east-nortk-etist ; at 
midnight it had veered to east hy north, and was in- 
creasing, with the weather cloudy. The ship ran in 




166 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1834. 



CHAP, the gale until past noon, the wind veering to east- 

! south-easty and to south. Then the vessel had to be 

laid-to ; and we have again in the log the description 
of what occurs when a ship is near the centre of a 
storm. From south the wind veered to sauth-Mauth- 
west J and next became south-west; and at 4 next 
morning, which was the 23rd of January, when the 
wind was west^ the gale began to moderate. 



Log of 
the Duke 
of Buc- 
cleugh. 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Duke or Bucclbugh. 

Civil Time, 



Ilour. 



Noon 



Coursen. 



W8W 



Winds. 



ENE 



Remarks. 



Tuesday January 21, 18S4. 

Steady breeze and hasy weather. Em- 
ployed Tariously under the boatswain; 
cleaned the lower deck. 

Noon. Fresh breeso. 



Ditt. I 
per Log j Course and DUt. 



8uii*s Lat 



S 67** W 200' 



24° 36' 8 



Long. Chro. 



61° 49' E 



Bar. 



30.00 



Ther. 



Sjap. 



80i 



29.60 



Dift 



.40 



W i S £ by N Fresh breeze and hazy weather; all sail 

set. 
ENE 6. Cloudy ; in top gaUant-stadding-tails, 
and fore ana mizen-royals, and top-gallant* 
sails. 
6. In main-topmast-studding-saila. 
£ by N , Midnight, Increasing breeze and ekmdr 
weather. In lower and fore-topmaat-stud* 
ding-sails and main-royal. 



ESE 



Wednesday, January 22, 1884. 
Fresh breezes and unsettled weather; 
furled the fore and main-top-gallant-aaila. 

4. Increasing; double- reefed the topsails 

and sent down royal yards ; heary rain. 

i 8. Thick rainy weather and sharp squalls ; 

, spar-lashcd the long-boat and booma, and 

battened the hatches down ; furled the main- 

I sail. 

11. Fresh gale : in third reef fore-topaail« 
and housed the flying-jib-boom. 

Noon. The gale increasing, with a high 
irregular sea on ; the ship libouring hearuy ! 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



167 



Log of the Duke of Buccleugh — continued. 



Hour. 



Courses. 



Winda. 



South 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, January 22, 1834. 
and shipping quantities of water ; furled the 
fore-topsail and foresail, and close-reefed the 
main- topsail, and rounded- to, under the 
main-topsail, and main-trysail on the hr' 
board tack.* 



Dist. 

per Log 

K. 


Course and Dist. 


Sun's Lat. 


Long. Chro. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Sjmp. 


Diff. 


226 


S 74° W 243' 


26° 39' S 


67° 32' E 


29.76 


80° 


28.94 

• 


.82 



P.M. 



ssw 



sw 



P.M. At 30"* past noon, the gale increased 
to a severe hurricane, and blew in furious 
gusts yrom S S W, the ship laying oyer on her 
beam^ends, labouring heavily, and shipping 
great quantities of water ; broke the main- 
trysail-gaff, and split the sail to pieces; 
broke the inner bobstay* chain ; got the fish- 
tackles and preventer- tackles up to secure 
the foremast and ease the bowsprit; split 
the main-topsail ; a considerable quantity of 
water came in at the lee lower quarter-gallery, 
although the slide was shut, and through the 
lee lower dead-lights ; the carpenter employed 
caulking and securing them ; employed bale- 
ing water from the lower deck and work- 
ing the pumps ; found a quantity of water 
rushing in on the lee-bow ; loosed the fore- 
topmast-staysail and lowered the driver saff ; 
split the sail to pieces to try to wear the ship ; 
split the staysail; loosed the foresail, and 
split it to ribbons, and afterwards the fore- 
topsail, which split also ; got tarpaulings in 
the fore-rigging, but the ship lay on her 
broadside in the trough of the sea, and re- 
fused to wear, with her lee- waist full of water, 
the gale blowing furiously from S W, and the 
sea occasionally making a complete breach 
over us; stove the lee- quarter cutter; cut 
her away; cut the lee guns adrift, and threw 
them overboard, and all the bales of hay from 
the top of the long-boat to ease the ship ; the 
lee hammock-nettings washed away. At 3, 
discovered the leak, which proceeded from 
the lower sill of the upper-deck scuttle 
under the top-gallant- forecastle having been 
knocked away; stopped it; cut away all the 
head- sails, and put tarpaulins in the weather 
mizen-rigging, to bring the ship again to the 
wind ; empleyed baleing the lower-deck and 
working the pumps ; found the bilge- water 



See the left-hand vessel marked in the figure, p. 166. 



CHAP. 
VL 

Log of 
the Duke 
of Buc- 
cleugh. 



L 



168 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1834< 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of 
the Duke 
of Buo- 
cleugh. 



Log of the Duke of Buccleugh — conchided. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



Courses. 



A.M. 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, January 22, 1834. 

strongly impregnited with nitre, from the 
cargo l>cing damaged. The gale blew with I 
great fury until 4 o'clock, when it be||an to | 
moderate ; got hold of the bobatay-chain and , 
set it up with a preventer-tackle ; bent the 
new driver and set it, balance-reefed. 6. The 
gale abating and the ship easier ; continued 
pumping, and at 8 pumped her dry ; fresh 
^ale with a heavv cross sea ; ten to eleven 
inches in the well ; pumped her dry. Mid- 
night. Fresh gale and a high sen. 



Ht ail to the 

NNW 



Thursday, January 23, 1834. 
A.M. Strong gale : pumped her out every 
two hours. 4. Moderating ; bent beat fore- 
topmast-staysail. 

7. Set the close-reefed mizen-topeaiL 8. 

Reefed mainsail and set it ; a high sea nin- 

, ning ; got wreck main-topsail cleared away ; 

, bent new one ; set it treble-reefed ; unbent 

the remains of foresail and fore-topaail, and 

; bent the new ones, close-reefed foa^topsail, 

' and reefed foresail and set them ; observed 

bowsprit slightly sprung outside the 

moning. 



DUt. 

p«r lA>f 

K. 



Course and Dist. 



Sun's Lat. 



Ix>ng. Chro. 



N 3r E 64' 



24'' 53' S 



58'' 4' 



B4r. I Ther. 



29.76 76 

i 



Symp. 



29.43 



Diff. I 



.33 



Head to the 

NW 

and 

NNW 



From 

SW 

to 

W 



Wednesday, January 23, 1834. 
Moderate gale and passmg squalls; re- 
paired chain-bobstay with a spare iron 
skackle and set it up ; got the flying jib- 
boom in ; furled mainsail ; sent down Ibre- 
top-gollant-yard, and houned the mast ; sent 
down mizen-top-gallant-yard ; sent down 
broken main-trysiul gaff; pumped when we 
had about twelve inches water; was used 
every four hours ; strong winds and paaaing 
fquaUs, with a high cross sea. 



'* It is surprising that previous to so severe a gale a greater 
fall of the barometer had not taken place, having not been lower 
than 29.76 inches. It may be accounted for, from tbe wind 
blowing from the southward. The sympiesometer bad been for 
the last week about .:i.S decimals lower than the barometer ; bat 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 

on the morning of the gale it fell .82 decimals lower than the < 
latter ; therefore the indications of thia eenaitive instrument 
ought to be attended to.' 

(Signed) " A. H., Commander." 



The following table of Observations was given to 
me by Col. Lloyd, whilst this edition was in the press. 

Meteorological Observations taken at the Observatory in the 
Hurricane, on the 20th January, 1834. 



Jan. 1831. 


Buomeur 
















D.y. 


Hour. 


Eng.Inch. 






19 


7 r.M 


29.S85 


Wind incrcniiiiig in 
violent guiu. 


Cloud! flying and oc- 
oaaionnl rain. 


30 


T A.]t 


29.776 


Wind in lUong and 


Look.ing«ild& gloomy 
with hcttTj- rain. 
Rainingheavily.BPudB 




101 >> 


29.685 










heaTj- guBW, 


flying and looking wild. 




Hi „ 


29,605 


SE by E wind in 






TCTy Tiolenl and sud- 


little, acuda atill flying 








den gusta. 


& looking vcr^ gloomy. 




Hi >• 


29.6.55 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




la 1. 


29.628 


Wind increwing in 


Raining TBry heavily 




i2i ., 


29.676 


»ery heavy busM. 
wind .tin Sicressing. 


& looking very wild. 
Raining very heavily. 




1 ci 


29.670 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




'i .. 


29.510 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




r 


29.476 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




2i ., 


29.426 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




3 ;; 


29. 3S6 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




H ,, 


29. 2B.i 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




* .. 


29. 310 




Stm raining beatily. 




*i ., 


29. 230 


Wind Incrcaring in 
heavy guals. 


Ditto 




6 .. 


29.196 


Ditto ditto 


HiUQing very heavily. 




B} >> 


29.165 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto 




4:: 


29. OSS 


Wind incrcating in 
den cu«t*. 


Ditto 




8) .. 


29.135 


Wind abating sUtUe. 


Raining lest heavily. 




» V, 


29. 170 


Ditto ditto 


Rain not quite »o 
heavy. 
Ditto ditto 




B! ., 


29.200 


Wind BtiU decreu- 








ing. buloecMionallyin 










heary gusts. 






10!.. 


29.2S6 


Ditto ditto 


Raining heavUy at 












\^:: 


29.300 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 




29.330 


Ditto ditto 


Ditto ditto 


21 


sj;.; 


2U.650 


Wind much ub«ted. 


Ditto ditto 



• A ahip called the Aaia was also in thia atonn, and some observation* 



} found in Mr. Thon 
South of the Equator," page B! 



"The Nature of Storma 



170 



MAURITIUS HURRICANE OF 1836. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Jan. 1834. 



Meteorological Observations — contmued. 
Barometer. 



Day. 



22 



Hour. 



Hi 






2J P.M. 

3 
12 



> » 

A.M. 



Eng. Inch. 



Winds. 



Remarlu. 



29. 69r> 
29. 78.5 
29. 795 

29.782 
29. 782 
29. 895 



Wind still abating. 
Ditto ditto 
Still abating but oc- 
casionally strong. 
Ditto ditto 
Wd. increasing a little. 
Very light wind. 



Raining oceaaionaUy. 
Very dull and cloudy. 
Ditto ditto and oc- 
casional rain. 
Ditto ditto 
Raining heavily. 
Cloudy. 



J. A. LLOYO, Surveyor Qencral and Ciril Knginccr. 

Storm of Another storm was experienced at Mauritius on 
March 6, 1836 ; during which, according to the state* 
ment of Captain Grierson, Royal Engineers (made 
from memory), " the wind blew, during the first half 
of the storm, from south by west, or nearly south. 
There was a calm of about an hour in the middle of 
the storm, after which a very heavy sea came rolling 
in from the north by east, or nearly north ; half an 
hour after which occurrence, the wind came on again 
from the opposite quarter with very great violence." 

In the "Nautical Magazine for June, 1837," the fol- 
lowing report has been published of observations which 
were made during the storm by the Surveyor-Gieneral 
of Mauritius, at the Observatory, apparently with great 
care. The wind in that table is marked as oscillating 
in a remarkable manner. A mean of these oscillations 
makes the first portion of the hurricane to come from 
a little to the eastward of south, and the last portion a 
little to the westward of north, or nearly the same as 
the observations of Captiiin f Jrierson. 

Immediately over Port Louis, where the Observa- 
tory stands, is a high and steep mou.itain, which pro- 
bably influenced the direction of the gusts of wind. 
This liurricnue came from the direction of RiNlriguez. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 171 

Meteorological Observations takeD at the Observatory, Port C H A. P. 
Louis, Maa.itins, during a Hurricane on the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 
8th of March, 1836, — {Copied from the Nautical Magazine for jj^ 



i 29.740 
:9.770 030 

I 29.770. 
29.220 6fiO 

>i 29.190 030 

' 29.176 0: 

i 39.176 . 
29.120 0- 

Ij 29.110 0: 

\ 28.996 11 



27 10.86 B3.' 
27 11.19 S2.i 

I 

27 11.19 82.1 
27 6.00 81.( 



27 4.44 

27 3.88 

27 3.76 8] 

27 2.63 81 



28.94 . 
28.98 



J 11.96 79.5,28.04 , 

lll'28.696[080'28 11.03 79.o!27,93 

•". 28,646 050 26 9 36.79.0,27.84 

;(28.61t 031 26 9.01179,6 27.78 

28.470!04i:26 8.66| 79.8 27.72 , 

1 28.376 096 26 7.43 79 H 27.60 

■■ '"0 04.5 26 6.98 80.2 27.52 



11 28.77608621 



12i2) 
I 21 
1121 



Light wind. 
Very variable, and bloiriDK 

hard: «iii<l yBripd fron 

by WioENEbyN. 
S E very ttroae, E S B by B 

to S S W by 8 : raining. 
S E very strong, and in guats, 

8E by E to 3W by 8: 

En'k diito. NE by N I 
S^W; raining heavily. 

Varyiii« from S to E in yery 

Blrong i:usl3. Slade 4 

plete vi.riBlioii Jurini 

Varying 



a-ong 



ludde: 






S b A\ bj- W, in heavy and 
sudden gu»la: aiill ditto, 
ipletevntifttion inhtavy 



and 



endou! 



Varj-iiiV {ram E N E by N 
to 8 W by W, in bM*y 

Varviiiu Srom E by' N l„ 
WSW, in heavy blMts: 
■till raining. 
''raryingfromENEbyN to 
I SSWby S, in heavy and 
I sudden pntb : raining very 

I heavily. 

i A complete variation inheary 

and sudden gusts: ditto. 
I Diitfl, ditto. 

'arvine from N E by N to 

S W : Jilio. 

■.iryuii! from ENE by N 

Ditto, ditto: stiil n 
Ditto, ditln. 
Ditto, ditto. 
DittoioyswbyW: ditto. 
DitIo,siillhi;ili. nn.' ' ' 
Vurjliig from NE 

decreasing is violence, and 

raining less heavily. 



THE CULLODEN S STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 






MeteorolOEJcal Obaervations — coMliiimed.. 


Mi. 

Llofd'. 

tiOM. 


S_ 


i 


1 


i 

036 


1 


ii! 


i 

o 
s 


yruoa. 




filh 


2} 


■2a.2D5 


2S 


6.63,80.b!27.52 


o'o 


VaninE from BNE by X 
to S8W br W. in ocim- ! 






















3 


29.215 


030 


26 


5.97'S0.6 ... 




sionslly hoTT pub. 
Ditto to SS^Vl in ditto. I 






3i 


2B.273 


030 


26 


6..'iO,80.B .-. 










1 


28.263 


020 


26 


0.08:80.3 ... 




Ditto to S by W: ditto. ' 






*i 


28.240 


013 


26 


6.97 80.6, ... 

1 i 




Varying from E bj- S to V , 

by IS ; ditto. 






B 


28.280 


010 


26 


3.8380.71 ... 




\t,;:_ from due S todiu 

W: u.VI-.yht r..i.,;rj. 1 






^ 


28.233 


OOS 


26 


6.86 81.0' ... 










28.343 


010 


26 


6.9781.0, ... 




Varying from d. Ste NNE ' 


Calm. 


^ 


6} 


28.2S6 


010 


26 


6.0e|8).3 


... 




by E. TCTT light. 

N by W, almu^t calm : wind 








varying from N W by N 10 . 
X by E. 

Varying from N B to NS W 1 




I 


7 


28.276 


02O 


26 


8.30 81.0 
























by W, cloudy, rind mJb. ] 
W by S t.. N by W, wry 






7i 


28.326 


030 


2S 


6 87,81.0; ... 
















1 1 




cloudy, and binwina. 
Varying from S\V toKW 






S 


28.120 


096 


26 


7.99 80,2,27.60 




















by N. ditto. ; 




7ih 


7 


29.333 


935 


27 


ft.47 79.0 28.77 




Varying from N by E to 
\< R W by 8. blMri>g 
hard, and rtininit hnrilT. 1 






n 


29.385 


030 


27 


8.80 79.0 28.81 




Varyingfrom WNWtoN 
by'w, ditto. 






g 


29.400 


016 


27 


7.03 ;79.0 28.82 

\ 1 




Varying from W by N to< 

N by V. ditto. 
Varying from W N W to 

NNW, ditto. 






8i 


2S.410 


010 


27 


7.14 


79,0.28.83 








9 


29.443 


036 


27 


7.48 


78.6 2S.SG 




Varying from due W to 4w 
N, ditto. 






8* 


29.430 


008 


27 


7.69 


70. S 28.86 




Ditto, ditto. 






10 


29.460 


010 


27 


"' 


79.0j28.86 




Vn-V'SS..'" " " 






10* 


29.460 


000 


27 


:.,. 


79.0|28.B6 




Varying from N bj W to 
NW, ditto. 






• 


29.468 


008 


27 


7.82 


7B.T 


28.87 




Varying from due W to do* 

N, ditto. 
Varying fronk due W to dne 






li 


29.480 


012 


27 


7.93 


7a.fi 


28.88 
























N ,u,-.|u:,..,ohigh. 






2J 


29.323 


046 2T 


S.38 


78.fi 


•8.92 




Ditto, ditto. 






4 


20.350 


025 27 


8.72 


78.fi|2S.96 




Ditto, wind dtrcrcaaiog, but 












1 




itill in hravy blaati occa- 






H 


29,396 


04627 
2W27 


9.17'78.fi,29.01 




Ditto, ditto. [lioiiallT. 1 
Varying fr. S W to N by W. 1 
Ditto, WSWtoNNW. ■ 






7 


29.833 


11.8T;7H.3 


29.24 






8th 


12 


29.843,010!27 


ll.OS'Hl.fl 


J9.23 










29.S4filoO0 27 


11.9g!Nl.l< 


•9.23 




Ditto, W by N l« W by 8. ' 
Ditto, NW to SW. 






8 


20.035 090 


28 


,.» 


80.0 


>y.3i 





dtiring the gale of Iht lluromttcr— l^glish, 1.700 in.; 
Fmich, I7.l."i in. 
J. A. Ll.UVD, SurTeyoT-deneral and Civil Hnginen. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 173 

Whilst searching for records of storms in south chap. 

latitude, my attention was directed to two, very dis- '. — 

astrous in their consequences ; which, even after a lapse 
of thirty years, have left a deep impression on the 
minds of many persons, from the great loss of life as 
well as property they occasioned. These were the 
storms of 1808 and 1809, encountered by the fleets 
of the East India Company, under convoy of his 
Majesty's ship Albion, Captain John Farrier, and of 
the Culloden, with the flag of Rear-Admiral Sir 
Edward Pellew, the first Lord Exmouth. The East 
India Company's ships Glory, Lord Nelson, and Ex- 
periment, foundered in the storm of 1808. The Lady 
Jane Dundas, Jane Duchess of Gordon, the Calcutta, 
and the Bengal, with his Majesty's brig of war Har- 
rier, foundered in the hurricane of the year 1809. 

A court of inquiry, composed of twelve East India 
Directors, was engaged for a considerable time inves- 
tigating the subject of these losses ; and the minutes 
of their proceedings are preserved at the India House, 
as well as the logs of the surviving ships. From each 
of these records I have been allowed to make any 
extracts I desired. 

On Chart VIII. will be found the storm which was 
experienced by the East India fleet, under convoy of 
the Culloden line-of-battle ship and the Terpsichore 
frigate, in March, 1809. These ships had crossed the 
equator, and had sailed on their homeward passage, 
with fine weather, until about the 1 1th of March. The 
place of the fleet, at noon the next day, will be found 
on the chart, and the ships sailed in company until the 
14th : on that day the storm became so violent, that 
they were dispersed ; and I have taken advantage of 



174 THE culloden's storm. 

CHAP, this circumstance to compute each ship's place, where 

. it was not previously marked on the log ; and have 

also endeavoured to trace out the track of each vessel 

in the storm, in order thus to obtain simultaneous 

observations of the wind at different places. 

Whilst this fleet, under the convoy of the Culloden, 
was sailing from India towards the Cape of Grood 
Hope, four British men-of-war left the Cape on the 
21st of February, 1809, intending to cruise off the 
islands of Mauritius and Bourbon : one of these, the 
Caledon, put back, having sprung a leak ; the Nereide 
frigate, with the Racehorse and Harrier, proceeded for 
their cruising ground, and kept together until the 24th 
of February, when the Nereide separated from the 
other two, and followed a more northerly track. Their 
respective tracks are laid down on the chart from the 
8th of March ; and we shall find them, by the logs of 
the Nereide and Racehorse, encountering the stonn <m 
different days, according to the courses they sailed; 
but the Harrier has never been heard of since. 

So many ships dispersed by the same storm over a 
great extent gives us the means of judging its nature, 
and of the course it took ; and we find it, after having 
travelled obliquely with regard to the trade- wind firom 
the east towards the west, recurving at the 25th and 
30th degrees of south latitude, and going off to the 
south-eastward, with a remarkable degree of simi- 
larity to the manner in which hurricanes already 
traced in the northern hemisphere pass off to the 
north-eastward. 

In the minutes of the proceedings of the Committee 
of Inquiry at the India House, most of the commanders 
speak of this hurricane as two distinct storms ; and 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 175 

throughout their evidence used the terms first and chap. 
second gales. ! — 

This appeared an enigma until Chart VIII. was 
projected ; but when the chart was finished, this very 
circumstance helped to explain the nature of the storm : 
for we see at once why the Huddart, William Pitt, 
Harriet, and Euphrates had fine weather for two days ; 
and why the Huddart again met a storm with the 
wind blowing violently from the north-west^ so that 
she was obliged to put all her guns but two down in 
the hold to stiffen her. These four ships, on the shaded 
portion of the plan, by lying-to and falling to the 
southward, got out of the hurricane ; but the Huddart 
met it again when it had recurved, and this vessel en- 
countered the last part of it about the time when the 
first part had reached the Racehorse. 

The Northumberland, Indus, and Sovereign, also 
lay-to, and got out of the violence of the hurricane 
soon after the four ships on the shaded portion of the 
plan ; but the Sir William Bensley and the St. Vincent 
scudded, by which they ran a day's sail a-head of the 
seven ships already named : and the chart shows where 
the Sir William Bensley was forced to lie-to, on the 
17th, for twenty-one hours under bare poles, with the 
wind veering from north to west. 

The CuUoden scudded, the Terpsichore and the 
four missing Indiamen following her ; and if they put 
before the wind, they must have sailed towards the 
track of the storm's centre, near which in all proba- 
bility they foundered. 

The Terpsichore lay-to on the 15th for sixteen 
hours, but the CuUoden still stood on. By the 15th at 
noon the centre of the storm was due north of her, and 



176 THE culloden's storm. 

CHAP, was overtaking her when both ship and storm changed 
* their courses, the ship (excepting for five hours) run- 
ning under her foresail and close-reefed main-topsail 
to the south-west, whilst the hurricane commenced the 
curve which was soon afterwards to direct it to the 
south-east. There the CuUoden, in her turn, got out 
of it with the wind blowing at south-west, whilst the 
dismasted Nereide was in a north-west storm on the 
opposite side of the great whirlwind. 

The Nereide was sailing with fine weather and 
studding-sails set on the forenoon of the 15th; but 
by three o'clock in the afternoon of the next day she 
had reached the centre of the hurricane, where, by 
the last part of the Northumberland's log, she had a 
lull for half an hour ; and before this period she was 
dismasted. 

The Nereide's place on the chart for noon on the 
16th March is her place computed by the dead reckon- 
ing ; but the ships appear to have been all set more 
than twenty leagues to the southward in the current 
This would place the Nereide to the south-west of the 
CuUoden at mid-day on the 16tb, and therefore on the 
middle of the storm's track, as dotted on the chart. 

The account of the sail which the missing ships 
were under when last seen cannot fail to be interesting 
to every seaman, and I have found the following in 
the minutes of the Inquiry. 

The Calcutta and Bengal were last seen about noon 
on the 14th, near the Admiral, and under their close- 
reefed main-topsails and foresails. 

The Jane Duchess of Gordon was last seen on the 
14th, by the Inglis, with her fore and main-topsails 
close-reefed and set : it was then blowing a storm. 



M 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 177 

and she lost sight of her at three o'clock in the after- chap. 

° VI. 



noon. 

The Lady Jane Dundas was also last seen that day, 
with close-reefed fore and main-topsails set. 

Each ship had on board from five to seven thousand 
bags of saltpetre ; and^n hurricanes, when water gets 
into a ship's hold, sucK cargoes as saltpetre and sugar 
are well known to melt, and the trim of a vessel thereby . 
becomes deranged, and it is in consequence in danger 
of oversetting. In the Calypso, and H. M. ships 
Raleigh and Racer, we have instances of ships upset- 
ting when under bare poles. 

I have placed on the same chart. No. VIII., the The 
track of the ship Boyne, commanded by Mr. Stockley, gale. 
and marked the progress of a gale he encountered, as 
recorded in his log here printed. This stonn crossed 
the land of Madagascar, and had been previously met 
on the east of that island by a Glasgow ship, the name 
of which Mr. Stockley was not able to recollect, and 
which he could not ascertain, as he was leaving 
England outward bound when I received his log. 
The Boyne's log will be found after those of the Cul- 
loden's fleet. 

If this storm followed a course similar to that traced 
as encountered by the East India fleet and the Cullo- 
den, it must have passed near the Cape of Good Hope. 
To afford the means of verifying the chart, the whole 
of tl^ logs are printed in detail. The four first given 
are those of the ships of war. 



N 



THE CULLODENS STORM. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Colloden (bearing the ttf 
^- of Vice-Admiral Sir E, Pellew, Bart.), Captain P. B. PeUn, 



Loffoftb 
CuUoden 



Ship in 
from of 



Hour 


K. 


F. 


Counei, 


Winds 


Renutlu. 








WSW 


SB 
EbyS 


Wedn«dB7, HiTch 8, 1S09. 
A.M. U<>der.te brctze^ 

Fieth windi, with rain. 
Ditto neither. 






;; 








P.M. 






WSW 


E3E 
SE 


I*t. 18° IB* 8, lotif. 79° SO* E. 










P.M. Strang windi mnd (qoally. 










Took in the third reef of the topMlI*. 

Seiil the tojal-niwt* on deck. 












maiii-lopsul. 






















Strong ynaii, t«th a grtat tta/nm Ik* 




7 

7 

7 
7 


2 


WSW 


SE 


Thursday. Much 9, 1809. 
A.U. Strong wind* and tquallj-. 

Ditto wewher. 




7 
6 












7 

8 

8 








laaa. (br Rno aad dwoo) TB" 16'B 
Strong wind*. 


4 


8 
7 




WSW 


SE 


L«t. 19° 22' S, long. 76° 38'. 
Roderique, S Sl° W, 130 lekgaw. 




7 
7 

7 
7 








F,M.Strongwind>;1ooeedaiBm£aMiL 
Ditto w«Bth« ; conToy in company. 




7 


1 




Fiulcd the miintkil. 




7 
I 






SEbyS 


filTong wind*, leilh a gnat na from (Af 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



179 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Culloden — continued. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


▲.X. 








Friday, March 10, 1809. 


1 


7 


2 


AVSW 


SEbyS 


A.M. Strong winds. 


2 


7 


4 


• • • 


S£ 




3 


7 


6 








4 


7 


4 






Ditto weather; convoy in company, 


6 


8 









except the Northumberland. 


6 


7 


6 






Up foresail. 


7 


7 


2 






Saw the Northumberland a-stem. 


8 


6 


4 






Long, (by lunar obs.) at a.m. 73^63' 30". 


9 


7 











10 


7 


2 








11 


7 









Lat. 20'' 17' S. long. 73° 58' E. 


12 


7 


2 






Thermometer 77°. 

Cape St. Mary, S 79° W, 533 leagues. 


P.M. 

1 


7 





vvsw 


SEbyS 


P.M. Strong winds. 


2 


6 


6 






Set the fore and main- topmast-staysails. 


3 


7 


4 








4 


8 











5 


7 


6 








6 


6 


4 








7 


6 


6 








8 


7 









Strong breezes, irtVA a great noell from 


9 


6 


6 






the S E. 


10 


6 


6 








11 


6 


6 








12 

A.M. 


7 









Ditto weather ; twelve ships in sight. 


Saturday, March 11, 1809. 


1 


6 





wsw 


SEbyS 


A.M. Strong winds. 


2 
3 


6 
6 



2 






Split the foresail ; set the mainsail and 


4 


7 


2 


• . • • 


SSE 


main -topmast-staysail. 


5 


6 


6 








6 
7 


7 
7 



2 






Unbent the foresail, fore and mizen-top- 


9 

8 


■ 

7 





WbyS 


SbyE 


sails, and bent new ones. 


9 


7 


4 








10 


8 


2 








11 


8 










12 


8 








Lat. 20° 58' S, lonj? . 71° lO' E. 

Cape St. Mary, S 79° W, 483 leagues. 


P.M. 

1 


6 


2 


WbyS 


SSE 




2 
3 


6 
6 








P.M. Strong winds and squally. 


4 


6 


^ 


• • • . 


SEbyS 


Ditto weather ; convoy in company. 


5 


7 










6 


6 


^ 


.... 


SSE 1 

1 


7 


6 


^ i 


1 

1 


8 
9 


2 
2 




Strong breezes, with rain. 


10 




6 








11 




6 








12 




4 









CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Culloden. 



Swell 
from the 
coming 
storm. 



N 2 



180 



THE CULLODEN S STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Loff of the 
Cimoden. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Culloden — contmmed. 



Swell. 



Fleet Btill 
in firont of 
Btonn. 



Storm 
now oTer- 
taking the 
fleet. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Coursefl. 


Winds. 


Remarki. 


A.M. 






Sunday, March 12, 1809. 


1 


7 





WbyS 


SbyE 


A.M. Strong winds; doae-reefed the 


2 


7 


2 






fore-topeaiL 


3 


7 


4 








4 


7 


6 






Ditto weather ; ten aail in sight. 


6 


8 











6 


8 


2 






Strong winds and squally, wiik a §rmt 
$ea; all the fleet in sight. 


7 


7 


6 






8 


6 


6 


• • « 


SEbyS 




9 


7 


4 








10 


7 


4 






Fresh winds and squally. 

Cape St. Mary, S 80'' W, 430 leagues. 


11 


7 


4 






12 


7 









Lat. 20° 41' S, long. 68^ 14' B. 
lliermometer 78°. 


P.M. 












1 


7 





W by 8 


SE 




2 


6 











3 


6 


2 






P.M. Strong winds and squally. 


4 


6 


4 








6 


6 


4 






Ditto weather ; conyoy in company. 


6 


6 


2 








7 


6 


4 








8 


6 


4 








9 


6 


4 






Squally, with rain ; seren ships in ii|^. 


10 


7 











11 


7 











12 

A.M. 


7 


4 








Monday, March 13, 1809. 


1 


7 


2 


WbyS 


SE 


A.M. Strong' winds and squally. 


2 


7 


2 








3 


7 


4 








4 


7 


4 






Ditto weather ; handed the fore-topsail 


5 


6 


4 






at daylight ; set it again. 


6 


6 


4 








7 


6 


6 








8 


7 


2 


W 




Strong breezes and cloudy ; oonToy in 


9 


8 





W by S 


SSE 


company. 


10 


7 











11 


6 









Cape St. Mary, S 80° W, 370 leagUM. 


12 


8 









Lat. 22° ly S , long. 66° 23^ B. 
Thermometer 77 J°. 


P.M. 












1 


8 





WbyS 


SE 




2 


7 


6 








3 


8 











4 


8 









P.M. Strong winds and squally. 


5 


7 


4 








6 


7 


4 






Ditto weather, with rain. 


7 


8 











8 


8 


2 








9 


4 


2 






Fresh gales and squally. 


10 


7 


4 








11 


i 


4 


• • • • 


SSE 


Five ships in sight. 


12 


7 


4 






1 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



181 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Culloden — continued. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 
6 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

8 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 

12 

P.X. 

1 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



K. 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
6 
7 
7 
6 
7 
7 
7 



7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
8 
7 
8 



9 
9 
9 
9 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 
7 
7 

8 



8 
8 
8 

8 

7 
7 
7 
7 



F. 





6 
4 
2 
6 


6 
4 
4 
2 



4 


6 
4 
6 
2 
4 
4 
4 
6 
2 



2 






6 

4 





6 


6 



CoureeB. 



WbyS 



Winds. 



SSE 



SE 



WbyS 



WbyS 



wsw 



SWbW 



S\V|W 



sw 



S£ 



SEbyE 



ESE 



ESE 



E 



KemarkB. 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 
A.M. Strong winds and squally, with 
hard rain ; at daylight, squally, with hard 
rain ; down top-gallant-yards ; got the 
flying jib>boom in, and handed the fore- 
sail. 



Strong gales and squally ; got the jib- 
boom in ; handed the fore-topsail ; bent 
main-staysail and trynail. 

Strong gales ; six ships in sight. 

Lat. 220 64' S. long. 62** 14' E. 

S W point Isle of France, N 65^ W, 
118 leagues. 

P.M. Hard gales and thick weather, 
with a ereat sea. 

Took m the main-topsail ; set the main- 
staysail ; it blew to pieces. 



Hard gales, with a heavy sea ; none of 
the ships in sight. 



Very hard gales and a heayy sea. 



Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 

A.M. Heayy gales. 

The fore-staysail blew to pieces ; a sea 
struck the larboard-quarter boat, broke 
the davit, and stove the boat ; the star- 
board quarter gallery was washed away. 



Attempting to cut away the micen-top- 
mast it went, and carried away the head of 
the mizenmast, the ga£f, and part of the top ; 
lost the whole of the ringing, &c. ; bent tne 
fore- topmast- staysail for a main- staysail. 

S E point Isle of Bourbon, N Or W, 
170 miles. 

Lat. 22" 34' 8, long. 68** 38' E. 

P.M. Qot the fore and main-top-gallant- 
masts on deck ; double breeched and 
elected the lower-deck guns; got the 
main-runners up. 

Took in the slack of the lee main rigging. 

Hard gales, with tremendous heavy gusts. 

The gale appeared to break. 

More moderate, with less sea ; set the 
reefed foresail. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Loff of the 
Culloden. 



Mainstay- 
sail blew 
away. 

Ships 
sepa- 
rating. 



Xear 

storm's 

vortex, 

and 

running 

parallel 

to it. 



182 



THE CULLODENS STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Loff of the 
CuTloden. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Culloden — 



Storm 
re-rurring 
towards 
S.E. 




P.M. 

9 
10 
11 
12 



A.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



At H • 

1 
2 
3 

'I 

9) 
10) 

12) 



K. F. 



7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
6 

7 



8 

8 

9 

10 

9 

9 

10 

10 

9 

9 



4 
4 
3 

3 



8 I 

8 6 

8 

8 





6 
4 
2 
6 




4 

6 
4 



4 
4 





7 4 





6 
4 



Courses. 



Winds. 



SW 



sw 



upSSE 
otfSbW 



£ 



EbvN 



WNW 



W 



WbyN 



EXE 



NEbyF 



up 
SWJW 

off 



ssw 



NNE 

N 

NNW 



NW 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 



Stronff gales, with rain at timet. 

Found 150 yards of the spanker tared, 
the rest was lost with the miaenmast head, 
and spanker- boom ; found several knees 
broke, the transom worked yery much, and 
the nails of the lower deck planks drawn 
three or four inches ; the upper f croke 
broken in the wake of the malnmatt, Ac. 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 



A.M. Strong gales and cloudy. 

At 7, up faresail; brought- to for the 
convoy : employed mending the t^rrice 
of the rigging, putting the ship to righfii, 
&c. 

Lat. 26* 6' S, long. 56^ 37' E. 

Cape St. Mary, N 8r W, 213 letfiut. 

P.M. Strong winds and hazy. 



Set up the larboard main-rigging. 



Hard gales, with rain and a heayy tat. 

Larboard gallery washed away. 

A yery haid squall; deved up the 
maintops^ail; it blew away; hauled up 
the foresail and handed it ; the ship 
strained and laboured much, one chain 
and one hand pump kept her free. 



Friday, March 17. 1809. 
A.M. Very hard gales, with hearj 



Set the trysail. 

The ship strained, and leaked in erery 

5 art of the upper works and deck ; at 
aylight, found the fore and main belly- 
stays, the inner bob-stays, and laniards 
of the two foremost fore-shrouds carried 
away. 



W N W Cape St. Mary, N 82' W. 194 league 
' Lat. 260 53' S, long. 54° 42' E. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



183 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Culloden—cohc/ikM. 



Hour. 




K. 



F. 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 







4 
6 




Courses. Winds. 



Remarks. 



SSW ,WbyS 

off j 

SbyE , 

N \V b Ni 



NWbN 



NW ' 
NWbW SW 



Friday, March 17, 1809. 

P.M. Fresh gales and cloudy, with a 
great swell fiom the S W, 



Wind Teering to the southward; fine 
weather. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Terpsichore, 
J. M. Gordon, Captain. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 



K. 



F. 



7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

5 

7 




4 

4 



2 
4 
4 

4 
2 



Courses. 



WbyS 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



SEbyS 



KM. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



7 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 




4 
6 
4 
6 
2 
4 
4 







up SSW 
offS W 
Why Si SE 



W by S 



SEbyE 



SE 



Monday, March 13. 1809. 

A.M. Strong breezes, with hard squalls 
and rain. 12.30. Up foresail; ship 
making five inches per hour. 

Ditto weather ; Admiral W } S. 

At 6, fresh breezes and thick cloudy 
weather. 



At 10, up foresail, and hove-to. 10.15. 
bore up ; furled the mainsail and mizen> 
topsail. 

Strong winds and squally weather ; Ad- 
miral W by S 3 or 4 miles. 

Course. S IT W, distance 155. 

Lat. 22*^ 14^, long. 64° 42/ E. 

Cape St. Mary, S 80° 20' W, 399 leagues . 

P.M. Fresh breezes and squally, with 
rain. 

Ditto weather ; Admiral W by S. 

Set the foresail. 
Up foresail. 
Squally, with rain. 

Strong breezes and squally weather ; 
Admiral W by S. 



CHAP. 
VL 

Log of the 
CuUoden. 



Log of 

theTeit>si* 

chore. 



184 



THE CULLODENS STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of 

thoTerp* 

sichore. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Terpsichore — continued. 



\ 



SweU 
firom east- 
ward. 



Calloden 
in sight. 



Sails 
splitting. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
6 



8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 



2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 



4 

5 
6 
7 

8 

9 



K. 



6 

6 
6 
6 
6 



6 6 



7 
7 
6 
5 



6 
6 

4 
5 

6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 

7 



7 
7 
7 



7 

7 
7 
8 

8 



F.^Counes. 




2 
4 
4 
6 






4 




4 
4 




G 



WbyS 



Winds. 



ESE 



WbyS 



2 


4 
4 

4 



4 


4 
6 
4 



WbyS 




SEbyE 



SEbyE 



W 



Remarks. 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 
A.M. Fresh gales and squally, vrith 
rain. 1.30. Burnt a blue light. 
At 2, lowered the main- topsail. 

Ditto weather ; close* reefed the maiii- 
topsail and furled the fore- topsail. 

Strong gales and thick squally weather ; 
down main-top-gallant-yard and nuzen- 
top- gallant- mast; bent storm-staysails 
and reefed the foresail. 

At 8, strong gales and thick hemry 
weather ; struck the fore and main-tcm- 
gallant-mast and set storm-staysail; 
carried away the strap of the main-stay- 
sail-sheet and split the sail. 

Noon. Strong gales and thick rainy 
weather, a heavy ua from the eeutward; 
six of the conyov in sight. 

Course, S 82** W, distance 168. 

Lat. 22** 36', long. 61** 66' E. 

Cape St. Mary, S 80** 16^ W, 343 leaguea. 

P.M. Hard gales and thick cloudy 
weather; ship making nine inches per 
hour; sent top-gallant-maat on deck 
and rigged jib-boom in. 

2.40. Carried away the tiller three feet 
from the rudder-head ; clewed up & furled 
the main-topsail ; shipped the short tiller. 

At 4, ditto weather. 

At ^.40, a sea broke oTer the stenit 
stove the jolly-boat to pieces. 

At 6, ditto weather. 

At 8, strong gales, with rain, and a heayy 
sea running; employed at the chain- 
pumps. 

At 11, the Admiral's light W by N. 
Midnight. Hard gales & squally weather. 



Wednesday, March 16, 1809. 

A.M. Hard gales and thick cloudy 
weather. At 1, the ship brought by 
the lee ; loosened the foresail ; burnt a 
blue light ; the spare main-topsail-yard 
washed away from chain. 

At 4, ditto weather. 

Excessive strong gales and thick rainjr 
weather; split every staysail we at> 
tempted to set. 

At 8, do. weather ; shipped a sea over the 
larboard- quarter, which greatW damaged it. 

At 9, saw a sail in the W*N W ; ship 
making two feet per hour. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



185 



Extract ftrom the Log of H.M.S. Terpsichore — continued. 




A.M. 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
6 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
6 

7 
8 
9 



K. 



7 

7 
7 



8 
6 
4 




3 

7 
7 
7 
7 



7 
7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
8 
9 

7 



F. 



Courses. 



W 



Winds. 



W 



upSSE 
offS 

upSSE 
offSbW 



do. 



upSSE 
offSSW 



up SB 
offS 



upSEbE 
offSSE 

WbyS 



W 



E 

EbyN 



ENE 



ENE 




NE 



NE 



NNE 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 



Noon. Hard gales, with abeavy sea running. 

Course, S 76° W, distance 160. 

Lat. 23° 13' S, long. 60° 1' E. 

Cape St. Mary, Madagascar, S 8° 10' W, 
304 leagues. 

P.M. Strong gales and thick weather, 
with rain ; shipped a number of seas. 

At 2.30, being under the goose wing of 
the foresail, it blew from the yard, and the 
ship- broached- to ; attempted to set the 
fore storm-staysail, but it blew to pieces ; 
found we could set no sail ; cut away the 
mizen-topmast, but to no effect ; put the 
helm a-lee and kept her to ; ship laboured 
much ; at the pumps. 

At 6, nothing in sight ; found two of the 
main-shrouds gone larboard-side; got the 
runners and tackles up, and secured. 

At 8, ditto weather; employed at the 
pumps. 



At 12, heavy gales and thick weather. 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 

A.M. Hard gales, with heayy rain ; wind 
and sea somewhat abating ; ship making 
two feet per hour. Strong winds and 
cloudy weather, but much clearer. At 
daylight, more moderate ; found most of 
the topmast-stays and a number of the 
laniards of the lower rigging carried away. 

7.40. Made sail and lK>re up. 

At 8, strong winds and cloudy weather ; 
nothing in sight. 



Noon. Strong breezes and clear weather ; 
nothing in sight. 
Course, S 67° 0' W, distance 81. 
Lat. 23° 44' S, long. 68° 41' E. 
St. Mary's, S 82° 36' W, 276 leagues. 

P.M. Freah breezes and cloudy weather. 



At 4, ditto weather. 

At 6, fresh breezes and cloudy weather ; 
set the foresail. 
At 8, strong ditto, ditto. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of 

theTerp. 

sichore. 



HoTe-to. 



No ship ii^ 
Bight. 



Storm 
moving 
south- 
ward. 



186 



THE CULLODENS STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of 
the Terp- 
sichore. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Terpsichors — cmUmmed, 



Storm 
re-cunring 
towarda 
S.E. 



Swell 
from west- 
ward. 



Storm 
leaving 
Terpsi- 
chore. 



11 
12 



A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



8 
9 

10 

11 

< 



Hour. 


K. 


P.M. 




10 


6 


11 


6 


12 


6 


A.M. 




1 


6 


2 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


7 


3 


8 


3 


9 


3 


10 


2 


11 


2 


12 


2 


P.M. 




1 




t 





2 




3 


1 


4 


I 


5 


2 


6 


1 


7 


2 


8 


2 


9 


1 


10 


1 



F. 



2 
2 

5 

6 







Courses. 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



W 



NNE 
NE 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 
At 10, hand pumps kept going. 

At 12, frefth breezes and haxy weather. 



W by S N 



WSW NWb.N 



SWb.W 



NW 



upSW 
offSb.W 



SWbyS 

i SSW 
ISby Wl 



NW 
WNW 



Friday, March 17, 1809. 

A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy ; ship ; 
making twenty inches per hour. 
At 2, took in the fore-topsail. ' 

At 4, fresh breezes, with a head sea; 
close reefed the main topsaiL 



2 


21 


2 


4 


2 





3 





4 


4 


5 





6 


4 


6 

1 


4 



SbTW 

s 

SbyE 
SSE 



WbyN 
W 



Noon. Moderate breezes and cloudy; 
weather ; hove- to, to sling the main*ysjd 
afresh. 

Course, S. 64° 0' W, distance 126. 

Lat. 25« 29' S. long. ^ 28' E. 

Cape St. Mary, N 88*" W, 180 leagues. 

P.M. Moderate and cloudy weather. 

At 2, filled and set the mainsail. 

Ditto weather; a heavy noeU Jrom th§ 
westward. 
Pumped ship occasionally. 

Light breezes and dark cloudy weather. 



3 W j Ditto weather ; wore ship. 



▼ariable 



7 ; 2 W by S 




6 



6 



rWbyS 
I 4S 



Saturday, March, 18. 1809. 

A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy ; fidded 
top gnllant-mast. 

2.30. Out third reef of the topsmilf and 
set the jib. 

Ditto weather ; observed a deal of the 
copper off on each side of the stern. At 
daylight, saw a sail bearing S E by E ; 
.shortened sail. 

At 7, the stranger proved, by signal, to be 
the Earl St. Vincent, one of the convoy. 

At 8, moderate breezes and hazy weather. 



W 



SSW 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Tbi 



-emduded. CSJlP. 



Log of 
ths Terp- 
■ichtne. 



B.„.JK. 


F 


Counes. 


Wind*. 


Hemuks. 


10 


1 



2 

3 


W. 


88W 

• 


Saturdnv, Much It, 1809. 
_ Noon. Fresh winds j E«l Si. Vincent 

"'^t!'ii"sV S. lonp 66- 8' E. 
Cape St. M«y. N 88^ 10' W, 180 leagnn. 

P.M. FreslibreeiM and cloudy weather. 

At 4, ditto weather ) Earl St. Yineent in 

TTnfidded the fore-topmast, 

At e. ditto weather. 


Copy of the Log of H. M. S. Nkreide.— In Civil Time. 


Hour. 

•1 

10 
13 


K.F 


CoureEB. 


Wind.. 


Rcmuha. 


5 
5 
6 
6 

e 
7 

7 

8 
9 

9 
9 

10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 
9 


6 

t 

6 

3 


S 
2 

3 
3 
2 


2 
2 


6 


NE 

1 NE 
) JN 

NK 
NE 


ssw 

SbyE 
SE 

SSW 


Wednesday, March 13. 1809. 
A.M. Moderate bree»es and cloudy. 

Vaiyina to the eastward. 

At dayligh% moderate brecKes and flue 

Set fore lower-atudding-saila. 

Set the fore-topmast and top-gallsnt- 
(tudding- tails. 
Wind frpBhcnirg; down flying-jib. 
In itudding-aaila and I op- gi. 11 ant- sails, 

L«t. sT'sa'^S, long. srao'E. 

Isle of Bourbon, bearing N 4° E, 370 
miles. 

P.M. Freth gales and clear weather ; in 
f econd reef in the topsails. 

main-topsail: down top-gsUmil-jaids ; tha 
tame wenlher- 
Struck the top- gallant- mas ti 

Strong gales and hazy weather. 



Good 



THE CULLODBN » 3T0RU. 



Copy of the Log of H. M. S. Nbreide- 



Hour.'K. F. Counci. Wind. 



upNB 
br E off 
NN 



SEb^S 



Thiu.daj. Hanh 16, 1809. 

A.M. Udndcil the fora tmd m>m top- 
isili 1 u[i foiraai] utd furled it ; b«nt uic 
tryiiil. 

At 1, lUDDg g&Ic* Mid clondj waktber, 
Kilh run.. 

Strong fialts: carried away Ih« mam- 
■toyinil aheet and aplit the *>il. 

SiTimg giles, <*ith a heavy aea; ibis 
Uhouring very much; a black boy fril 
over and wu druwoed. 



11.40. Oalo still increanng toahnni- 
canp: putthchElijiupibutfouadahewoiild 
not [all off; lo»~>>ned ihe fortaail, which 
blewoDlortbe^ltropei righted the bell 
tried her again. H.th no bettetmMcM; I 
Eile vioienilj un'Teaiing, toand itnroi 
tuyrortheinrv^Fortheship tocntawn 
the miienm^iBt. 1 1 A6. Cut it away, atiU 
■he would not na off; the main-toprmaat 
blew orer the side. 11.66. Cut away tb* 
malnmant.irbcn (he Tfcred before tbawlad. 

At 12, diito wiRihet. 

No obier'atiun. 

P.M. Heavy (.'ilea and tqoaUy I kat, ia 
culling away the maati, apuikl ~~'* 

miicn.topsiil, uiih all tbe ' 

Tunning rigging ; maimail, 

with ttandmg nivd running rigging. 
1.30. Cut away the (aTetopnuk 

preeeive the foremast i laved tM to 
I with pan of standing and mmiiti 
I ging : foresail tii<littiDg, aaved fifty 

of cmTu, with theboltrope; loaiai 

from tbe quarter. 
I At 3. wind *ofred toW. 
WXW At 4, heavy i-qualU; got the ft 

I ready for briojiin^-totbcyard; ditto galea; 
j employed aecuiing fbicmaii and Ibicyaid. 

At 8, heavy aquallf, with constant iaia> 



E NW 

xwbw! 

NW I At 12. 8( 
I pooped in. a 

i.,„pto,rf ... 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



189 



Copy of the Log of H. M. S. Nereidb — concluded. 



Hour. 


K. F 


. (bourses. 


Winds. 


1 

* 

RemarkB. 


A.M. 








Friday, March 17, 1809. 


1 


11 4 


t SbyE 


N by W 


Heavy gales and squally. 


2 


11 -1 








3 


11 i 


[ SSE 


NN W 




4 


11 ( 






Ditto weather. 


5 


9 ( 








6 


10 ( 






Ditto, ditto. 


7 


10 ( 








8 


9 ( 






More moderate ; bent the foresail. 


9 


9 i 


[ SEbySNWbN 


Ditto weather; people yariously em- 


10 


9 1 


2 SE 


NW 


ployed clearing the wreck. 


11 


8 i 








12 


9 ( 






Ditto weather. 


P.M. 








No observation. 


1 


7 ( 


) SEbyENWbW 


Fresh gales and cloudy weather ; bent 






iE 




and set foresail and fore-topmobt-staysail. 
Hauled to the wind on the starboard 


2 


6 ( 


) 3 E by E 






2 ( 






tack. 


3 


2 ( 


) SWbyS 


NW 


Ditto weather. 


4 


3 ^ 


I SSWJW 
) SSW 




4.30. Down topmast-staysail. 


5 


3 ( 


WSW 




6 


2 * 


I SbyW 






7 


2 ( 


) NbyE 






8 


2 ^ 






Fresh breezes and cloudy ; wore ship. 


9 


2 ^ 




NWbW 


More moderate, with a heavy swell. 


10 


2 1 








11 


2 . 








12 

A.M. 


2 1 


2 N 


i 


Moderate and cloudy weather. 


Saturday, March 18, 1809. 


1 


• • 


. NbyW 


Variable 




2 


* * • 


. NW 


SWbW 




3 

4 


• • • 


. ywbw 


SW 


Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. 


5 


• * • 






Ditto weather, with ram at intervals; 


6 


• • 


. WNW 




got up a pair of sheers; set maintop- 


7 


• • • 






gallantsail on it. 


8 


AC • 






Ditto weather; made all possible sail; 


9 
10 


• • « 

• • • 






cut the stump of the mast up. 


11 
12 


• • 

• • • 






Ditto weather. 

Lat. 26** 46' S, long. 68° 16' E. 


P.M. 








Juan de Lisboa, N 85'' 30' W 156 mUes. 


1 

2 


• • • 

• • • 


. W by N 


SbyW 


Fresh breezes and cloudy ; down miaen. 


3 

4 


• • • 

• • • 


• 




Ditto weather. 


6 
6 


• • ■ 

• • • 






Fresh breezes and cloudy; down mizen. 


7 
8 


• • 

• • * 






Ditto, ditto. 


9 
10 


• • • 






Moderate and cloudy. 


11 

12 


• • 

• • • 






Ditto, ditto. 


A mm 


• • • 






(Signed) CORBET, Captain. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Log of the 
Noreide. 






V' •^^ 



./t>^- 



lA^iy^. 



^0»>«O»-vi, J* 



J. 



/ • 



190 



THE CULLODEN S STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Log of the 
Kaoebone. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Racehorse, Wm. Fisher, Esq., 
Commander. — Kept by R. Nfellsou, Master. 



H.M. Brig 
Harrier in 
company. 



Harrier 
aBtern. 



Harrier 
when last 
•een. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



A.M. 

1 
2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



K. 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
4 
3 
4 
4 
3 



3 
3 
4 
2 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
4 
3 
4 



6 



4 
4 
8 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



1 
1 
I 
1 






F. 



Courses. 



Winds. 



RemarlLs. 



EbyN 



EbyN 



EbyN 



WNW 



WNW 



WNW 



WbyS 



WSW 



SW 



EbyN 



Monday, March 13, 1809. 
Fresh breeze and cloudy weather ; down 
main-staysail. 

4. Moderate and fine weather. 
Altered the course to E by N. 
Made signal 89 to Harrier. 



[in company. 
Light breeze and fine weather ; Harrier 
Course. N 62° E, distance 168. 
Lat 36" 69' S, long. 66^ 30', d.r. 
Island of Roderique, N 19'' £, 1 100 mQet. 

Light breeze and fine weather. 



6. Light airs and clear weather. 



Moderate and clear weather. 



Ditto weather ; Harrier in company. 



EbyN 



Head fr. 
SE to 
ENE 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 
S W by S Light breezes and fine weather. 



At daylight ditto weather; taw the 
Harrier. 

8. Light airs and fine weather ; Harrkr 
astern. 



Light airs and cloudy weather. 
Courfte, N 61° E, distance 96 milet. ' 

Lal.35'' 58' S, long. 68° 28 30". chro.fiS^y, , 
Roderique, N 16^E, 983 miles. [d.b. 



SW 



Light breeze, inclinable to calm. 

4. Ditto weather; Harrier a long way 
astern. 
Calm and cloudy weather ; shortened sail. 




THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



191 



Extract from the Log of the Racehorse — continued. 



Hour. 


K. 



F. 



Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

7 


Head fr. 




Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 


8 








EtoSE 




7.30. A Ught breeze from N N W. 


9 


4-3 


4 








10 


3 


4 








11 


3 


4 








12 


3 


4 






12. Light breeze and cloudy; Harrier 


A.M. 










not in sight. 


Wednesday, March 16, 1809. 


1 


3 


4 


EbyN 


NWbW 


Light breeze and clear weather. 


2 


4 


2 








3 


6 


4 








4 


6 


4 




W 




6 


6 









6. Harrier not in sight. 


6 


6 


2 








7 


5 


4 








8 


6 









8. Ditto weather. 


9 


3-2 











10 


3 


6 


ENE 


SW 




U 


4 


2 








12 


4 


4 






12. Harrier not in eight. 

Course. N 49° E. distance, 83 miles. 

Lat. 350 2' S, long. 59^ 22' E. D. e. 


P.M. 










Roderique.N 12^23' E.distance,964milmi. 


1 


4 


4 


NEbyE 
ENE 


SSW 


Fresh breeze and fine weather. 


2 


6 


4 






8 


7 


2 


NEbyE 


SSE 




4 


7 









4. Ditto weather. 


5 


8 


4 


NE 


ESE 




6 

7 


9 

8 






. 




6. Fresh breeze and cloudy weather. 


8 


8 









8. Strone breeze; furled main-top- 
gallant-sail; close-reefed fore-topsail; 


9 


6 

am 









10 


7 









took third reef in main-topsail; struck 
fore- top-gallant-mast. 


11 


6 









1 1 . Close- reefed main-topsail, and reefed 


12 


6 









12. Fresh gale. [the courses. 


Thursday, March 16, 1809. 


1 


6 





NE 


ESE 


Strong breeze and cloudy weather. 


2 


6 











3 


6 











4 


6 


4 








6 


6 


4 








6 


6 









6. Fresh breeze, with rain. 


7 


4 


6 


NEbyN 


EbyS 




8 


6 





NNE 


w 


8. Ditto weather. 


9 


6 


4 








10 


7 


4 


NbyE 


EbvN 




11 


6 





ENE 




12 


6 





SE 




Noon. Ditto, ditto. 

Course, N to E, distance 1 44 miles, [d.e. 
Lat. 32° 40 S, long. 61° 14' Ech.. 59*> 62' 
Port Louis, Lnle of France, N 9** 40' W, 
distance 761 miles. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Racehorse. 



Getting 
into the 
storm. 



Port- tack. 



192 



THE CULLODENS STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Raoehone. 



Extract from the Log of the Racchorsb — eonttnued. 



Wore. 



Storm 
moTing 
south- 
eaitward. 




P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
II 
12 

A.M. 
1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

"I 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 

11 



4 
6 
6 
6 

7 
6 
5 
4 
6 
5 
6 
6 

3 
4 
2 
2 
1 
2 
6 
6 
6 
7 
5 
3 
8 



8 
7 
6 
3 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
3 
6 
6 
8 



8 
8 
8 
7 
6 
3 
3 
7 
7 
8 
9 
9 



F. 



Courses. 



SE 
SEiS 
SEbyS 

2 


2 SE|S 

6 

SE 



2 SEbyS 

2 



Winds. 



ENE 



SEbyS 

ESE 
SEbyE 



SE 
SEbyE 



SEbyE 



BbyS 
NE 



NE 



NEbyN 

NbyE 

NbyE 

NbyW 
NWbN 



ENE 



ENE 



EbyN 



EbyN 



EbyN 



NEbyN 
SE byE 



S 



SEbyS 



Remarks. 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 
Fresh breeze and doady weather. 



8. Ditto weather. 



Midnight. Strong breese and ekrady. 



Friday, March 17. 1809. 
Strong breese and cloudy weather. 



4. Ditto weather. 



8. Fresh breese, ditto. 



Noon. Ditto, ditto. 

Course, S 57° E, distance 121 miles. ri>.a. 
Lat. 33* 44' S. long. 62*> SC chro. 61* 49'. 
Roderique, NO*" 40' S, distance 844 mika. 
Fresh breeze and cloudy, with raia at 
times. 

Ditto weather. 



6. Light breezes and cloudy, with raia. 
8. Thick, rainy weather. 

Fresh breese and rainy weather. 



Saturday, March 18, 1809. 
Strong breeze and squally, with raia« 

3. Strong gales, with heary raia. 



6. Ditto, ditto. 6.30. A heary swell; 
down try and foresaUs ; kept before the 
sea. 

8. HeaTy sale, with rain; got ia the 
spritsail-yard. 






THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 
Extract from the L»^ of the Raceborbb — concluded. 



193 

CHAP. 



Hour. 


5! 

9 


. Counei. 

1 


Wind*. 


Hemwks. 


13 


i 

NW 


SBbyE 


Saturday. Mweh 18. 1800. 
12. Theeea running very high; brought 

and fote sUyaaila. 

Coune, N 26° E. diaunce IM mile.. 

Lai. 31=42' D.R., long. 63" 41'. Nu 
obaervalion n. h. 

Hoderique. N, diiUnce 722 mile*. 

Port Louia, N 25° 45' W, 092 mile.. 






opESB 
offNE 

npESE 
off EN E 


8 


Strong gales, with heavy Bqualla and 
rain. 

4. Ditto, ditto. 

B. The amall cutler waa earned away 
(by a lea) from the atcm. 






upEbN 






t) 




offNE 

upEbN 
offNE 


SSE 
SSE 




Sunday, March 19, 1809. 
Strong gale and squally, with rain. 




upBNE 

offNE 
by N 

upNE 




a. Mure moderate weather. 


13 


::i: 

* 
3 


DffNbE 
NbyE 

NJE 


Eh, S 


8. Fresh breeie and cloudy. 

12 Modernle and clear weather. 
Courae, N 34° W, distance 22 mile*. 
Lai. 31° 26' S. long. 62" 48' chro.. 63° 26' 

Itoderique, N 1- W. 706 mUet, 


1 

10 
11 
13 


3 
3 


N 


ENE 




3 
2 
3 

2 


■N by W 
NbyE 


Variable 


4. Light brceie and rainy nreaihcr. 
Ditto, ditto. 


3 



NiW 

htad ir. 
NtoNW 




11. Squilly, with rain. 

12. Dittti, ditto. 



194 



THE CULLODEN 8 STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



The four next logs are those of the ships which first 
got out of the hurricane, and whose places are marked 
on the shaded part of the Chart, viz., the Huddart, 
William Pitt, Harriet, and Euphrates. 



Log of the Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Huddart/ Captain Wm. 
Httddart- Nesbitt, towards England.— In Nautical Time. 




P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



5 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



5 
6 

4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
I 4 
' 4 



F. 



Coanes. 



4 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 















4 

4 

4 

4 

Oi 

0, 



4 



WSW 




Remarka. 






Monday, March 13, 1809. 
S £ by S P*M. Freth breezes and aqually wwidier 
throughout. 



WSW 



SEbyS 



A.M. At 8.30, departed this life Captam 
John Robinson ; at noon, committea the 
body to the deep with the tisttal cere- 
monies. 

Lat. observed, 22'' 25' S, long. 65" SS' K 

(Signed) C. ABKCOLL. 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 
P.M. First and middle parts a strouj 
trade, the weather heavy and unaettlM, 
with constant hard rain and a risiiig tea, ; 
latterly increasing to a heavy gale, with : 
violent squalls from the S S £, and ship* , 
ping much water. 



* H. C. S. Honourable Company's Ship. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



195 



Extract from the L<^ of the H. C. S. Huddart — continued. 



Hoar. 


K. 


▲.M. 


1 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


7 


4 


8 


4 


9 


4 


10 





11 





12 





P.M. 




1 





2 





3 





4 


5 


6 


5 


6 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


9 


6 


10 


6 


11 


6 


12 


2 


▲.M. 




1 




2 




3 




4 




6 




6 




7 





F. 



Counefi., Winds. 



WbySiS E S by S 



WSW 



SE 



[8 
W<» up to S S E 

offtoSW 



Remarks. 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 



A.M. At 4.30, the Admiral's light bore 
E 8 E ; at daylight very thick weather, 
could see only three of the fleet in the 
8 E, but could not distinguish the ships ; 
the gale increasing rapidly. 

At 8, the Harriet passea us under close- 
reefed topsails and foresail. 

At 9, in a violent gust of wind, the fore- 
sail blew to ribbons, and immediately 
after the main-topsail in like manner ; got 
the new foresail ready to bend, but the 
gale was so violent could not haul it to 
the yard ; set the storm, main, and fore 
staysails, and laid the ship to the wind ; 
one ship bearing S 8 W likewise hove- to; 
latterly a very heavy sea running, with 
furious gusts of wind and hard rain. 

Noon. The William Pitt and Earl St. 
Vincent on our weather-beam, and two 
others in sight ; could not see the Com- 
modore. 

No observation. 

Lat. 22° 24', long. 64° 11'. 

(Signed) F. DOW. 



Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 

P.M. The gale increasing; reefed the 
main 'Staysail and set it, the sea running 
excessively high, and making frequent 
breaches over the ship. 

At 3.30, shipped a very heavy sea, which 
upset most of the gims, stove the cutter to 
pieces (on the larboard quarter), the wea- 
ther waist and gang boards, washed off the 
lee ones, with the rail, &c. ; laid the ship for 
some time on her larboard side, and tore 
with the weight of water her main-staysail 
to pieces ; hove overboard several of thestar- 
board guns ; set the fore-topmast staysail. 

At 4.30, wore ship and Kept her head 
W S W, all pumps going, blowme with ex- 
cessive violence m gusts ; ship making good 
weather till 1 a.m., when she most unfor- 
tunately brought by the lee, in doing whicii 
she shipped a heavy sea on her starboard 
quarter and stem, and was immediately 
afterwards laid over on her larboard beam- 
ends, her lee-side being entirely under 
water ; her gunwale-rail, gang-boards, &c., 
were soon swept away, and every thing on 
that side dashed to pieces and wauied 
overboard ; made every exertion to wear 
ship, but without success ; the storm fore- 

o2 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Huddart. 



IL. 



THE CULLODEN S STORM. 



C 11 A P, 
VI. 


Entract from the Log of 


the 11. C. S. HUDDART— CMfMMJ. 


Log of the 


Hour. 


K. 


f. 


Courw.. Winri.. 


Reiurki. 


Huddui. 














AM 






WJopioP S8E 
offioSW, 


"Wedne^duj, Uurh IS. 1809. 
Hliyuiil nii'l firv-topniagl atBifiail blowing 
h) ribbons ; Bltempted to Mt the )>b. but 










it WB* likevHue initanllj liloiiii t« piMM ; 






;^ 




the nighi being excMMvelj d*xk, tt wu 


y 




(' 






r*^ 


Judnd too dMnarrous to stteinpt cnuiag 
away the miienmait tUl daTlight; cDt 

iwsj nnd hovo oTcrtioanl u m>ny of our 








'^y 




l<~eetllUB<iH-ecouldp<»ubljget kt, and 
kept «11 h.ncl.«t the pump* ft.no the time 






















..{ (,\a being brought by the lee tiU ncu 














layligbti the jiitu»tlQn o-f tho ■hip WM 














very periii>u». herlerboMd Hde up to At 
quently under wolei. «nd Lh» ship Uyinf 






































orer^O murh thai theinen could acwMly 














■Und to thi! pump*, *iid in the darkaea 














of the Tiii h% from the railing being duhed 
iiWDT toTvewud, tl waa daogatoua tor the 








































dnylight, (he gale abating and lb* m* 
father fallintc. we were enabled 1« kMp 






















the water under by the pump*. 




s 










woathrt. the ftu>l* being leai rialcnt, and 




9 












10 










ihereaMi'iRfMi. 


Ship 














following 












.»T..il. 


■torm. 










NE 


At 11.30, wjrt ,hip and itooi bt/an 1*# 

,ciad. in hopca of joining the fleel; »t 

It. th^ fii.t part of the gale th* wind waa 
S a ^ aUtling Ultcrly to B and N B. 


Imt Mir 


12 










NooD. Fair weather. 


behind it. 












Lai. 23° 8'. long 83° 37'. 

(Signed) C. ARCKOLL. 




ThiiTulsT. Maich IS, 1809. 










sw 


NE 






2 












3 

4 




^ 






squalls at timet. 


fipcChwt 


e 
T 




^ 








VIII. 


8 

e 


e 






Tlie ship pumped out Axj. 




10 






W 8 W 








n 














A.X. 

I 

2 


G 












3 

S 





I 1 

■;, 1 


A M, .\t r,, ^aw ilittc (htpa from tb* 
inninmail hULid biaring E 8 K. 




1 1 1 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



197 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Huddart — continmed. 



Hoar. 



A.M. 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 

1 

2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

1 

2 
8 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



6 
4 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 



4 
5 

4 
4 
4 
6 



F.' Courses. 



3 

4 
4 4 



4 


4 






6 iO 
6 
6 



5 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



WSW 



W 

WiS 

WbyS 



WSW 

SWbyW 

SW 



NNW 
NWb.W 



Winda. 



Remarks. 



N£ 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 



At 10, the headmost stranger made big- 
\ nol; made our number, which he answered, 

informing us that he was the William Pitt, 
I and the other two were the Harriet and 
j Euphrates, which had been damaged in 
j the gale, and leaked ; informed the Pitt 

by telegraph that we had suffered in ihe 

gale, thrown guns overboard, and feared 

our cargo was much damaged. 
Lat. observed, 25** 14' S,Tong. 61° 46'. 



Friday, March 17, 1809. 
X E P.M. First part, fresh breezes ; middle 
and latter, blowing hard and inereatmff ; 
N N E employed drying sail and clearing ship ; 
bent and set main- topsail. 



NNW 



No observation. 

Ut. 'lb"" 34', long. 60°. 



NW 



NW 



WbyS 



Saturday, March 18, 1809. 
P.M. Strong breezes throughout, with 
hard squalls at times; gun* all but two, 
and everything of ang weighty down in the 
hold to stiffen ihe ehip. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Log of the 
Httdd«rt. 



Meeting 
the storm 
when re- 
curving. 



but gains 
below. 



198 THE CULLODBN'g 8T0RK. 

CHAP. Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. HuoDARi^-emteUM. 



teL"" 


Hour. 


K.|. 


Co»»«j W,nd^ 


R«ii«ki. 




'l' 

2 

4 

5 


s 

3 

3 
3 




NW 

NWbW 
WNW 

W 


Why 8 


Lst. ob.erT«i, 26= 33* 8, S6- W E. 




8 
9 
10 
11 
13 


3 

a 

3 
3 
3 








(Sisnrf) C. ARKCOLL. 


Htt. 


Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Willmh Pitt, Optain 
Chariee Graham, towards St. Hdena. 




Hour. 


K. 


p. 


Couww. j Wmdi. 1 Remarlu. 




P.M. 






Why S 


ESbyS 


Mondajr, Mueb 13, ISO*. 






































1 Lit. ar IB' 8. 




I 






WbyN 

WbV8 














WbyS 


SSE 






T S 

T 8 


Tu»d.y.lUrchl»,lB09. 




A 


1 


* 









SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



199 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. William Vnrr—contmued. CHAP. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


» ^. 


Log of the 
Wniiam 










Pitt. 


P.M. 










Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 




6 






WbyS 


SSE 






6 














7 














8 












1 


9 












1 


10 















11 















12 















▲.M. 










NoLat. 




1 















2 




4 










8 


8 













4 


8 













6 


8 













6 


8 


2 










7 


6 













8 


3 







• 






9 


3 













10 


6 


4 










11 


6 













12 

P.M. 


6 


4 










Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 




1 


7 


4 


WbyS 


SSE 


P.M. Stronff sides with violent squalls, 
first and middle parts; latterly, fresh 




2 


8 











8 


8 





VViS 




breezes and pleasant weather, a very 




4 


8 











high sea throughout. 




6 


o 

8 


V 












n 
















8 












, 




.s- 








upSb.W 














otfW 








111 
















12J 
















A.M. 










lAt. 23** 49* 




n 






upSbrE 
offS 




A.M. Weather began to dear up. 




2/ 


• • 


• • 








8\ 






upSSE 
offSbyE 








4/ 


• • 


• • 








6 
















6 
















7 
















5} 








upSEb.S 











otfSbyE 








10 
















11 


4 













12 


4 


4 


SWJS 








P.M. 


Thursday, March 16, 1809. 




1 


4 


4 


WNW 


NE 


P.M. PleatarU trade with fair weather 


See Chart 


2 


4 


4 






throughout; strong south-east swell. 


vm. 


8 


4 


4 


WSW 








4 


6 


6 











THE CULLODENS STORM. 



CHAP. Extract from the Lc« of the H. G. S. William 



Log "f the 
WiUiam 



MMting 
ttu*tuim 



Hour. K. F. CoDraei. Wind*. 



8W Wa E byN 
WhjS 



Tliundiy, March 16, ISW. 



n GompKiijr wiih the Williun Pitt.) 



Friday, Uiteh IT, 1809. 



First and middle parts, frwh bgeww 
Biid pleuanc weather I latUrlf fmkmii»t' 
with a cpry conftiied iirM. 



wsw 

WIN 

WSW 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



201 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. William Pitt — concluded. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. , 


Remarks. 


P.M. 




1 


Saturday, March 18, 1809. 


'4 








upWSW 


NW 


If r w 








offSW 






6 


2 ;0 


SE 






7 


2 


NNW 






8 


2 !o 


NWbN 






9 


2 


4 








10 


2 


4 








11 


2 


4 


NW 






12 


2 


4 


NWbW 






▲.M. 










Lat. 66° 6'. 


1 


3 





WNW 






2 


3 4 








3 


3 4 








4 


3 4 








5 


3 4 


WbyN 






6 


3 6 








7 


8 4 








8 


8 4 








9 


3 4 








10 


8 4 








15} 





upWbS 








1 


^ffWbN 






Extract from the Log of the 


H.C.S. Harriet, Captain W. Lynch, 


towards En^ 


rland.-^In Nautical Titne, 


Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds 


Remarks. 


P.M. 










Monday, March 13, 1809. 


1 


7 


4 


WbyS 


SEbyS 


P.M. UHzy; fresh galea and a heavy 


2 


7 


4 






sea ; pumped ship every watch ; most 


8 


7 


4 






water 12 inches^ 


4 


6 











6 


6 











6 


6 


4 






• 


7 


6 











8 


6 











9 


6 


4 








10 


6 


4 








11 


6 











12 


6 









Noon. Fleet in company, and Euphrates 
and Northumberland well up towards 


▲.M. 










noon. 


1 


6 





WbyS 


SEbyS 




2 


6 


4 


! 




3 


6 


4 








4 


6 











6 


6 











6 


6 











7 


6 












CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 

William 

Pitt. 



Log of the 
Harriet 



202 



THE CULLODEN's STORM. ^ 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Harriet. 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Harriet — aminmtd. 




A.M. 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



12 



ik« M« 



1 

2 



K. F. Coarsee. 



5 
5 



6 
6 
G 
6 
6 



6 
6 
6 
5 
7 



Winds. 



WbyS 



Why 8 



SEbyS 



S£ 



WbyS 



WbyS 



upSW 
offWbS 

■upSSW 
'offSW 

' upS 
offSSW 



ditto 
upSSE 
offSbW 



SE 



SSE 



SE 

ESE 

E 



Remerke. 



Monday, March 13, 1809. 



A.M. At 10, brought* to, by sifiial ; at 
10. 30, filled. 
Lat. observed, 22** 19^ S. 

(Signed) ALEX. RAMSAY. 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 
P.M. Cloudy, with tmall rata; ftwh 
gales durine the first and middla paru 
with squalls and rain, latter hlowiBg 
yiolently, and the sea rising. 



During the a.m. $aw the Admind wmdk 
one mile, and Calcutta and Hugh la^is 
SE; weather very thiek, and emr ap- 
pearance of a yiolent gale ; pumped ahip 

every half hour. 
No observation. 

(Signed) JOHN JONES JAMBS. 



Wednesday, Mareh 15, 1809. 
P.M. Thick mist; blowing witliovt in- 
termission till 4 A.M. most Tiolentljv 

it moderated. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



203 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Harriet — continued. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


A.M. 










Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 


41 






upSE 
oflfSbE 


ENE 


A.M. At 4, the pumps sucked for the 


' 


• • 


• • 




first time since 8 p.m. 


6) 








At 5, brought-to, finding it impossible 












to run; the ship labouring excessively, 












and the sea washing over all ; kept both 












pumps going, but from the immense 












quantity of water which got between 
decks down the hatchways could not keep 


6 






















her clear, and most part of the night we 












had two feet and two and a half in the 












well; all hands employed throughout 












the night at the pumps, and in attendmg 












the scuppers on the lower decks. 












At daylight, observed only the Euphrates 
in sight ; kept lying-to till 7 a.m., when no 


7 












8 


6 









other ship appearing bore up on a VV by S 
course, and made her signal to follow. 


9 


6 









At 9, were joined by the William Pitt. 


10 


6 









Towards noon the swell abating, and the 


11 


6 









weather bearing the appearance of con- 
tinuing moderate. 


12 


6 









No observation. 


P.M. 










(Signed) ALEX. RAMSAY. 


Thursday, March 16, 1809. 


1 


6 





WbyS 


WbyN 


P.M. Uazy; breeze steady; repairing 


2 
3 


6 

A 










the ravages of the late gale. 


o 

4 


6 


4 








6 


6 











6 


6 











7 


7 











8 


6 


4 








9 


7 











10 


6 











11 


6 











12 


6 











A.M. 












1 
4 


5 
5 


4 

4 


WbyS 


WbyN 




St 

3 


1/ 

5 


4 








4 


4 







6 


5 







6 


6 


4 




7 


6 


4 




8 


6 


4 




9 


7 





, 




10 


7 





I 




11 


5 


4 








12 


6 


4 






(Signed) JOHN JONES JAMES. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Harriet. 



Hove- to. 



and 

thereby 
dropped 
out of the 
storm. 



204 



THE CULLODEN8 STORM. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Har&ibt— coiicImM. 

VI. 



Remailw. 



' 


Hour. 


K. 






1 


Log of the 


F. Courses. Winds. 


Harriet. 










P.M. 












1 


6 


4 


WbyS 






2 


6 


4 








3 


6 


4 








4 


6 


4 








6 


6 











6 


6 





1 




7 


7 


4 






8 


7 


4 






9 


7 









10 


6 











11 


5 


4 








12 


5 


4 








A.M. 












1 


5 


Whys 






2 


6 











. 3 


6 











4 


4 











5 


3 


4 








6 


3 


4 








7 


3 











8 


2 


Oi 






9 


2 









10 


2 











11 


2 











12 

PM. 


2 







1 






1 




WbyS 






2 







WNW 






3 













4 






S W 






5 












6 












7 






NNW 






8 












9 


2 











10 


2 











11 


2 











12 


2 











A.M. 












1 


2 











2 


2 





NW 






3 


2 











4 


2 





WNW 






6 


2 











6 


3 





WbyN 






7 


1 3 











8 


3 


4 








9 


3 


4 






10 


3 


4 


■ 


■ 11 


2 









1 12 


2 




1 





Friday, March 17, 1809. 



Saturday, March 18, 1800. 



Noon. Lat. 26 9' S. 



T..J- .1 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



205 



Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Euphrates, Captain Philip CHAP. 
Herbert, towards St. Helena. — In Nautical Time, ^- 



Hour. 


K. 


F 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 






Monday, March 13, 1809. 


1 


7 





WbyS 


SE 


P.M. Strong breezes, squally through- 


2 


7 









out; pumped ship twice in twenty-four 


8 


7 









hours. 


4 


7 









Lat. observed, 22° 18' 8. 


5 


7 











6 


7 











7 


6 


4 








8 


6 


4 








9 


7 











10 


7 











11 


7 











12 


7 











▲.M. 












1 


6 


4 


WbyS 


SE 




2 


6 


4 








8 


7 











4 


7 











5 


7 











6 


7 











7 


6 











8 


6 











9 


6 









(Signed) JOHN GILLESPIE. 


10 
11 


3 





Hove- to 






5 









Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 


12 


7 









Hazy, with frequent squalls and rain ; 
carried away the foot-rope of the fore- 


P.M. 










tops lil. 


1 







WbyS 


SSE 


P.M. First and middle parts thick hazy 


2 











weather, with frequent hard soualls, latter 
increasing to a heavy gale with hard rain. 


8 











4 











the ship labouring much ; shipped a great 


6 











deal of water. 


6 













7 













8 













9 













10 


6 


4 








11 


6 











12 


6 











A.M. 

I 


6 


4 


WbyS 


SSE 


A.M Handed the fore and mizen-top- 


2 







* 




sails and lowered the gaff and top- gallant- 


8 











yards ; pumped the ship evt- ry two hours ; 


4 











no ships in sight. 


6 













6 











No observation. 


7 













8 













9 













10 


6 











11 


6 











12 


6 









(Signed) GEORGE NORRIS. 



Log of the 
Euphrates. 



206 



THE CUIJX>D£N8 STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Eophratet. 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Euphratks — ctmimmd. 



All leefs 
out. 




P M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 



K. 



4 
5 
4 
3 



5 
6 
7 

8 ' 
9 
10 

12/ 

A.M. 



I] 



2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

P.M. 
1 

2 

3 
4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



2 

2 

2 
4 
4 
4 

5 
5 
5 



4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 

6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5 
5 
f) 



F. Counet. 



Winds. 



4 






2 




2 

4 

4 

4 

,4 

4 

14 
!4 
|4 

4 

:4 
4 



8W 



ssw 

10 w 



up 8 
oflfSW 



ditto 

W 
ioW8\V 

Wby8 



SSE 



SSE 



ESE 



WSW 

WbyS 



WbyS 



E 



Remarkt. 



Wednesday, March 16, 1809. 

P.M. A hard gale with heary aquilk and 
rain ; atruok the fore and main top-gaUant- 
masu and ^ot the jib-boom in. I/mingthe 
gale the ship laboured much k made a great 
deal of water in her upper worka ; ahiracda 
great quantity down ner hatehwaja ; kepi 
the pumpe constantly going and halonc the 
water from the middle deck with hodLeia. 

At 5, one of the long 12-potmdtri broke 
adrift, which we were obliged to heave 
overboard, and seTcral empty watef-bstti. 

At 8, split the foresail. 



Midnight. 8plit the mainsail 

A.M. At 1, under bare polea, with 
squalls and tremendous high 
Bent the bt. foresail. 



Noon. In company with the WUBmi 
Pitt and Harriet ; the Admiral not in aight. 
Lat. obserred, 23^ 66' 8. 

(Signed) JOHN OILLBSPIB. 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 

P.M. Moderate breesea, moMlj elev^ a 
very heavy swell, and the ah^ lollfaig 
much ; out reef in the fore and a 
sail ; drying some sails ; oat all 
the main-topsail. 

Lat. observed, 25^ 4'. 




(Signed) GEORGE NORRIS. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



207 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Euphrates — concluded. CHAP. 
VI. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

A.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



K. 



P.M. 

1 

2 



5} 



6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.X. 

1 

2 
8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

12} 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
6 
7 
6 

7 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
3 
3 
2 
1 
1 



1 
1 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

4 

4 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



Courses. 



WbyS 



Winds. 



ENE 



WbyS 



W 



SW" 



sw 

upWSW 

offSW 

ESE 



SSW 
NWiN 



NbyE 
NWbW 



NE 



.VE by N 



Remarks. 



Friday, March 17» 1809. 
P.M. At 8, increasing breeze and cloudy. 



Log of the 
Eupbraten. 

Meeting 
the storm 
when re- 
curving. 



SW 



upWbS 

offWxVw; 



A.M. At 3, strong breeze. 



At 10, increased to a gale. 

General Remark. 
First part a moderate breeze* and fair; 
middle, strong breezes ; and latter, strong 
gale with much sea. 
Lat 26° 21' 

* (Signed) JOHN GILLESPIE. 



Saturday, March 18, 1809. 

P.M. Hazy, with rain ; lying- to for the 
Commodore. 

First part a fresh breeze; latter part 
squalls from the S W. 

Lat. observed, 26° 7'. 



(Signed) GEORGE NORRIS. 



208 



THE CULLODEN S STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



The following are the logs of the Northumberland, 
Indus, and Sovereign, which were the next ships to 
get out of the storm after the Huddart, William Pitt, 
Harriet, and Euphrates, and near the border of the 
storm. 



Log of the Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Northumbsrlano, 
berland. ' Captain John Rohertson Franklin. — In Nautical Time. 





Hour 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 




P.M. 




1 

1 

! 




Monday. March 13, 1809. 


See Chart 


1 


6 


6 WbyS 


EbyS 


P.M. A »tron« breeie, with hard aqvaDt 


VIII. 


2 


6 


6 




and rain throughout. 




3 


6 


6 










4 


6 


6 










6 


6 













6 


6 











7 


6 


01 








8 


6 











9 


7 











10 


7 













11 


6 


4 










12 


6 


4 










A.M. 














1 


6 


4 


WbyS 


EbyS 






2 


7 













3 


7 













4 


7 













5 


7 













6 


6 


4 










7 


6 


4 










8 


6 


4 










9 


6 


4 










10 


7 













11 


7 













12 


7 









Lat. obserred, 22'' 16' 8.» long. W ST. 




P.M. 










(Signed) H. KKMFT. 




Tuesday, Mirch 14, 1809. 




1 


7 





WbyS 


EbyS 


P M. First part, a strong breeae* widi 




2 


7 









frequent hard squalls and rain ; middW 




3 


7 









part, gale increasing ; latter part, blowing 
a hard gale, with violent haitl sqnalla ana 




4 


7 











5 


7 


4 






constant rain. 




6 


7 !4 










7 


7 '0 










8 


7 '0 






reefed the topsails. 




9 


7 .0 










10 


7 2 






No observation. 




11 


7 ;4 




1 




12 


7 


6 




1 
1 



._ A 



THE CULLODENS STORM. 



209 



Extract from the Log of H. C. S. Northumberland — continued. CHAP. 

VI. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Ck)ar8e8. 


Winds. 


Kemarks. 


A.M. 








Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 


1 


7 




W byS 


EbyS 




2 


7 










3 


6 










4 


5 










5 


6 










6 


6 










7 


6 










8 


5 










9 


6 











10 


5 











11 


6 











12 


6 









Lat. 22« 49' S, long. 62° 49'. 


P.M. 










(Signed) HENRY J. OLIVER. 


Wednesday, March 16, 1809. 


1 







WbyS 


ESE 


P.M. A strong gale till 10, with constant 


2 











rain and very severe squalls ; middle more 


8 











moderate ; latter quite moderate, and the 


4 











sea going down fast. 


5 











At 5, thinking it not prudent to continue 


6 










under sail, brought-to under the mizen- 
stay-sail, the gale increasing and the sea 


7 








upS 
offSSW 


ESE 


8 








getting very high. 


®i 










Durine the gale, washed away the side 
of both lower quarter-galleries. 


n 








ditto 




I2) 










Noon. Up top- gallant-masts. 


A.M. 


















upS 
offSSE 






3) 

4 










6) 








ditto 




At daylight, only the Lord Eldon in 
sight ; it being moderate, made the signal 


7 


5 









8 


6 









53, and bore up. 


9 


6 


4 






Pumped the ship every watch during the 


10 


6 


4 






gale. 


11 


6 


4 






Lat. observed, 23° 48^ S, long. 61° 40'. 


12 

P.M. 


6 


4 






(Signed) H. E:EMP. 


Thursday, March 16, 1809. 


1 


6 





WbyS 


EbyN 


P.M. A moderate decreasing breeze 


S 


6 









throughout, with hazy weather; water 


8 


6 









getting smooth. 


4 


6 











6 


5 


4 








6 


5 


4 




Bent great storm mizen-staysail. 


7 


5 







Crossed top-gallant-masts, shifted the 


8 


5 







mainsail with the new one, ditto fore- 


9 


5 







top maa t-stay sail, and fore-top-gallant-sail 


10 


5 







with ditto. 


11 


5 









12 


6 










Log of the 
Northum- 
berland. 



Hove- to. 



Bore up. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



CHAP. Extract from the I.ogof H.C.S. Nortbtihbkrland — eoMlumed. 



Log ol (he 
North um- 



Approtch- 
■Run. 



Wind 
•wellSW. 



Thundif, Harch IS, 1809. 



A.M. Emplojed diyingwet Mit*. lie. 
Pumpnlahip, cleren mohM. 



Fndny. MiTch 17, IS09. 
P.U, First part, A modersU brMoa.b- 
treuing : middle, blawing Ir«*h, with 

Xalii ; Utterly, ■ hree »c» K«ni*V <»■ 
ch mUie* the ship plunge mep. 
Pumped ship, elcTcii inclie*. 



Piiinped ihip. eleven inchn. 






tluw ntft 
In company with the Lord EldoB, 
Pumped *hip, eleren inehes. 



ti^iutday. MaralilB.]Uft. 

I P.M. In thtllr*tpan,Rn ' 

rrom the N. a Fwy hravy ^, 

S W ; lattetl]-, a freah biera* from lb* B 
ard cloudy trcathpr. 

I Close-rMfed and handed fore-i 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



Extract from the Log of H.C.S, Northumberland — continued. CHAP, 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Coureee. 


Winda. 




p.Ji. 
10 
11 

ts 


3 
2 
3 


4 
4 

4 


NNE 

BEbyS 


KW 


Saturday, March 18, 1809. 
standing tu the Bouthwaid ; aupposius 
them Xa be psit of our fleet, bote up and 

ing officer Bpoke them at midnight ; they 
prored lo be the Indus and SoTCreign ; 
made the signal to wear. 


*""■ 


2 
2 
3 
3 








A.M. Shaped and cleansed ship below. 


3 

4 




WNW 


SWbS Out third reefs. 

1 


S 
6 

7 


3 

I 








Pumped »hip. eleven inches. 


8 
9 
10 
11 

13 


4 
6 
S 
G 

G 


4 


W by N 




Out second reeft. 

In company with the Lord Eld on, SoTe- 
rti^n, and Indus. 
Lat.(byindiff.ob..)26''45'S,long.6r4J'. 












(Signed) H. J. OLIVER. 


Sunday, March 19, 1809. 


l" 
2 


e 

7 


6 ' W by N 


SSW 


P.M. A fresh breeip. with squalls and 
rain in the first part; Utter, moderate. 




e 

6 

e 
e 

6 




.... 


SbyE 


Signal to stiver W. 


10 
11 
12 


a ;o 

B 

e 

■ 










6 ,0|WbyN 

e 4- 

6 

4 h 

4 ,4' 


SbyE A.M. The Sovctcijfii informrd ui thai, 
having linked and laboured 60 much 
duiing tliP gnlc, ilie »bb under the nctei- 
sitj- of throwing ovciboard anllpctre. 






At diiyliftht, the Lird Eldon and Indus 
just in sight, astern ; shortened sail. 


10 


i'i' 






12 









Niian. Woreandstoodtowardstbelndus. 
Lot. cbactred, 2G^ 2' S. 

(Signed) H. KEMP. 



Log of the 
Northum- 
berlaud. 



212 



THE CULLODEN8 STORM. 



CHAP. Extract from the Loe of H. C. S. Nortbviibkri:.ani> — eo nliiu Ki. 

VI. ^ 



Log of the 
Northum- 
berland. 



Hour. 



K. 



P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
I 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 

A.M. 



F. 



3 

1 

2 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

3 

3 

2 



2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 



1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
I 
1 
1 



1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4 


3 


6 


2 


6 


2 


7 


2 


8 


2 


9 


2 


10 


2 


11 


3 


12 


2 



4 

4 















4 



6 



Courses. 



£ 
W 



Winds. 



SSE 



Bemaiks* 



W 



Monday, Mareh 20, 1809. 

P.M. First and middle parts modcnte ; 
latter, little wind and fine weather. 

At 3, the Indus made the signal to speak, 
and informed us she laboiured so much 
during the night and was unable to carry 
sail, and imofer the necessity to throw 
overboard saltpetre. 



S 



NNW 



A.M. Outallreeis. 

Bore up to join the Indus. 

Lat. obsenred, 25'* 61' S. 

(Signed) H. J. OUVER. 



Tuesday, March 21, 1809. 



SW 



6' SSW 

6 



6 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



213 



Extract irom the Loir of H. C. S. Northumberland — continued. CHAP, 

* VI. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


'V^nds. 


Remarks. 


pji. 






Wednesday, March 22, 1809. 


I 




4 


S8W. 






2 













8 













4 




4 








6 













6 




4 








7 













8 













9 


2 





WbyS 






10 


2 











11 


2 











12 


2 











A.X. 












1 


2 





WbyS 






2 


2 











8 


2 











4 


2 











6 


2 











6 


2 











7 


2 











8 


2 











9 


1 


4 








10 


1 


4 








11 


1 











12 


1 











Thxirsday, March 23, 1809. 


P.M. 












1 


1 





WbyS 






2 


1 











8 


1 











4 


3 





WSW 






6 


3 











6 


3 


4 








7 


3 


6 








8 


3 


6 




1 


9 


3 


4 








10 


4 











11 


4 











12 


3 


4 








▲.M. 












1 


2 


4 


WSW 






2 


2 











8 


2 











4 


2 











6 


2 


4 








6 


2 


4 








7 




4 








8 




4 








9 




4 








10 













11 













12 









1 



Log of the 
Northam*- 
berland. 



214 



THE CULLODEN 8 STORM. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of H. C. S. Northumbkrland — eatUimied. 
VI. _^___ 



Log of the 
Northum- 
berland. 



Meet! the 
Nercide ; 



and the 

Huddart, 

Pitt, 

Harriet, 

fiuphrate*. 



Hour. 



F.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 



A.M. 
1 
2 

3 
4 
6 
6 

n 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



I 



J 



P.M. 
I 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 

6 

7 



K. 



2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 



I 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 



1 
I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
I 



F, 



I ,4 










4 
4 
4 
4 








1 
1 
1 



Courses. Winds. 



wsw 



SSE 



WbyS^S 



SbyE 



not 
entered 



1 



E N E Variable 
WbyN 

Ebyxi 



Remarka. 



Friday, March 24, 1809. 
P.M. Throughout light hreeiea, with fine 
pleasant weather. 



At 6, discorered six fail, bearing B 8 E, 
standing to the westward { made the tig- 
nal for ditto. 

At daylight, two of them in aicfat from 
the deck, bearing EKE; made tne aifBal 
to make all possible sail, and hote>to to 
let the Sovereign come up. 

Noon. Discovered the septal, Ko. 9, fly- 
ing from the headmost ship, and nuiclBg 
out several of the ships to be part of our 
fleet that separated on the l6th; and, 
perceiving one of them under JnrymaiB 
and mizen masts, stood towards them. 



A.M. Lat. observed, 26^ 50" S. 

(Signed) H. J. OLIVSR. 



Saturday, March 26, 1809. 
P.M. Light winds and variahlt t hi wig V 



out. 



At sunset, about five miles ftjQJt ^m 

ships, made them out to be the 'WiOini 

Pitt, Huddart, Harriet, Bunhr«t0i» end 

I the American ; the crippled anq> aftiftte. 



WbyS 



Variable 



At daylight, sent a boat on board ; she 
proved to be H.M. frigate La Nereide, kft 



SOUTHERN HEHISPHEUE. 



215 



Extract from the Log of H. C. S. Northumberland — concluded, 
F. 



Hour. 



K. 



▲.X. 

8 

9 
10 
11 



12 



1 
1 



1 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Rcinarks. 



W by S S S E 



Saturday. March 25, 1809. 
the Cape on the 21(»t February, to cruise 
o£f the isle of France ; she lost her main 
and mizenmasts in a hard gale on the 
16th, a little to the south and westward of 
our fleet. After the gale blowing most 
furiously from the S £ it left little windjbr 
half an houVt and then set m as violently 
from the N IV, which caused the heavy 
westerly swell we experienced on the 17th ; 
she is bound to False Bay to refit ; re- 
ceived the order of sailing from her. 
Lat. observed, 27° 6' S. 

(Signed) H. KEMP. 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Indus, Captain G. Wilden, 
towards St. Helena. — In Nautical Time. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


P.M. 


1 


6 





2 


6 


2 


8 


7 





4 


7 





6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 





8 


7 





9 


6 


4 


10 


7 





11 


7 





12 


7 





▲.M. 






1 


6 


4 


2 


6 


4 


3 


6 


4 


4 


6 


4 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 


8 


6 


4 


9 


6 


4 


10 


6 


4 


11 


6 


4 


12 


6 


4 



I 

Courses.! Winds. 



Remarks. 



WbyS 



WbyS 



SSE 
fair. 



Monday, March 13, 1809. 



P.M. Pumped ship; a squally trade 
throughout ; moderating towards noon. 



People making robands for the new 
mainsail. 

A.M. 1 to 4, squally and rain* 



Course, S 76' W, distance 160 miles. 
Lat. observed, 22' 15' S, long. 6o' 23'. 

(Signed) HENRY BEEHER. 



CHAP. 
VL 

Log of the 
Northum- 
berland. 



Nereide 
crossed 
storm's 
centre. 



Log of the 
Indus. 



216 



THE CULLODEN8 8TORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Extract from the Log of the H. C« S. Indus — cantmued. 



' 



Log of 
Indas. 



the 



Lightened 
ship. 



Hurri- 
cane 



on the 
border of 
storm. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 

10 



11 
12 

A.M. 
I 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

8 



9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



K. 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 

6 



6 
6 



6 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
5 



4 

3 
3 
3 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 



F. 



Courses. 



WbvS 



WNW 



W 



WbyS 



Winds. 



ESbyS 



squally 
and 
rain. 



W S W 



SW 



SbyW 



ditto 



SbyE 



E 



Remarks. 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 



P.M. At 3, squally; first and middle 
parts, a fresh trade, with frequent squalls 
and rain ; latter, increasing to a gale, with 
a Tery heaTV sea. 

Pumped ship. 

Handed the misen-topsaiL 

At 10, the ship labouring Terj rnudi, 
hove overboard two 6- pounder guns, two 
kedge and one stream anchor, aM all the 
lumber of the forecastle, to ease the ahfp. 

Pumped ship; Commodore not in ngnt. 



A.M. At 6, set the main-topMiI, tent 
downtop-gallant-yards,ftstnick fhemti, 
close-reefed the fore and main topaaik. 

Furled the fore- topsail and iwii>— n, and 
reefed the foresail ; in setting it, it apHti 
furled it ; got in the jib and driTer boo«M. 

Three ships in sight. 

The sea running very high, and "^^^Hf 
a fair breach over us. 

Course, S 71*", W, distance, 14« mOet. 

Lat. observed, 22*" 65', long. ^ ^. 

(Signed) T. W. ALDHAM. 




Wednesday, March 16, 1809. 

P.M. Hie ship labouring so 
as seriously to endanger the ••••♦, 
having much water below decks. 

At 4, hove overboard 300 bags of salt- 
petre, it then blowing a hurricane ; two 
ships in sight. 



Heavy gale. 

General Remarks. 

First and middle parts, a fresh gals and 
rain at times; latter more modcfata; 
towards noon a pleasant breese. lliiae 
twenty-four hours the ship labooziaa 
much, shipped a great deal of water, and 
kept the bilge-pump eoing all night 
Pumped ship every two nours. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



217 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Indus — continued. 



Hoar. 


K 


F. 


Coursefl. 


Winda. 


Remarks. 


A.M. 






Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 


1 


2 


4 


SbyW 


£ 


At daylight saw the Sorereign bearing 
ENE; at 10 a.m. joined her. 


2 


2 


4 






A.M. At 2, the yawl was washed away 
from the starboard quarter. 


3 


3 









4 


3 









Set the fore and mizen topsails close- 


6 


3 









reefed, and foresail. 


6 


3 


4 


WbyN 






7 




4 








8 




4 








9 













10 







W 






11 




4 








12 











Noon. Out third and fourth reefs of fore 
and main -topsails. 
Course, S W 74', distance 74 miles. 
Lat. observed, 23° 37', long. 62° 12'. 


P.M. 










(Signed) H. BEEHER. 


Thursday, March 16, 1809* 


1 


4 


6 


WNW 


NEbyE 


P.M. Cloudy; a pleasant breeze and 


2 


5 









fine weather throughout. 


3 


6 


4 








4 


6 


6 








6 


6 


4 








6 


6 


4 


W§S 






7 


5 





^ 




Pumped ship. 


8 


5 





w 






9 


6 


2 






Found the rigging very much damaged, 


10 


6 


4 






and the sails in the sail-room wet. 


11 


5 


4 








12 


5 


4 








A. Iff 










A.M. ChU all reefi of topsails, and fidded 


1 


5 


4 






top- gallant-masts ; loosed cUl sails to dry. 


2 


6 


4 








3 
4 


6 
5 


4 
4 






Swayed up the top-gallant-yards, and 
out all reefs clear. 






4 






6 


5 


7 

4 






The Sovereign in company. 


7 


5 


4 








8 


6 


4 








9 


6 











10 


6 


4 








11 


6 


4 








12 


6 


4 






Course, W 74° S, distance 133 miles. 
Lat. observed, 24° 4' S, long. 69® 60'. 
(Signed) T. W. ALDHAM. 


Friday, March 17, 1809. 


P.M. 












1 







Wis 


ENE 


P.M. Moderate and fair. 


2 













3 













4 














CHAP. 
VI. 

Loff of the 
Inclus. 



Loosed 
sails. 



218 



TUB CULLODEN S STOllM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Loe of the 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Indus — coniimued. 



JLiOg ot 
Indui. 



Meeting 
the storm 
recurring. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.H. 








Fnday, March 17, 1809. 


5 


6 Oi W48 1 


ENE 




6 


5 


0; 

1 


j Ijghtning in the N W. 


7 


5 









8 


5 









In first reefs of topsails. 


9 


5 









Pumped ship. 


10 


5 


2 






11 


5 


4 




First part, moderate and fair; middle. 


12 


5 


4 




cloudy, with light passing clouds and Tari- 
able ; latter, a fresh breeze, wiih a N W 
•well. The ship labouring much, rolling 


A.M. 








of water uiroughout. 


1 


5 


4 


WbyS 


Variable A.M. Cloudy, and small rain. 


2 


5 


6 








3 


6 











4 


5 


6 


WSW 


ditto 




5 


5 


4 








6 


5 


4 


SWbW 






7 


5 


4 






Pumped ship. 


8 


5 


4 








9 


6 


4 








10 


5 


4 








11 


5 


4 




WNW 




12 


5 


2 






Course, S W, distance 128 nules. 
Lat. obsenred, 26° 29" S, long. bV W. 
(Signed) H.BEEHER. 


P.M. 










Saturday, March 18, 1809. 


1 


3 


4 


SW 


Variable 




2 


3 


4 






P.M. Cloudy. 


3 


3 





SSW 






4 


3 









Pumped ship. 


5 
6 
7 


3 

n 





SbyW 






3 
2 










In $eeond and third r0e/t of fore-top«il. 


8 


2 









and two ditto main. 


9 


2 











10 


2 









Saw two strange saiL 


11 


• 2 









First and middle parts, a moderate biem 


10 


2 









and variable ; latter, pleasant fareeM^ witk 


▲.M. 










passing showers. 


1 


2 





XWbN 




A.M. At 1, ioined company the H.C. 
ships Northumberland and Lord Sldoo. 


2 


2 


4 


NNW 




3 







WNW 






4 




4 






First part, a heavy swell, th« ship 


5 











labouring very much. 


6 













7 













8 













9 


4 









Course, S 66'' W, distance 76 miles. 


10 











Lit. observed, 26** 43' S. 


11 


1 











12 


4 





\V by N 




(Signed) T. W. ALDHAM. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



219 



Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Indus — concluded, 
F 



Hour. K. 



P.M. 

I 
2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 
2 

3 
4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



6 
6 
6 
6 
3 
3 



f 



Courses.. Winds. 



Remarks. 



4 4 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 

4 

i 

4 
4 

4 
6 



WNW SW 

WbyN 



W 
WbyN 



Sunday, March 19, 1809. 
P.M. First and middle part, fresh breeze 
and squalls, with rain ; latter, a pleasant 
breeze and fine weather, very heavy swell. 



W 



Course, S 81° W, distance 105 miles. 
Lat. observed, 26** S, long. 67° 63'. 

(Signed) H. BEEHER. 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Sovereign, Captain 
Alexander Campbell, towards St. Helena. — In Nautical Time, 



Hour. 


K. 


P.M. 




1 


6 


2 


7 


3 


6 


4 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


8 


6 


9 


7 


10 


7 


11 


7 


12 


7 



! 
F. Courses. 



WbyS 



Winds. 



SSE 



Remarks. 



Monday, March 13, 1809. 
P.M. Fresh trade, with frequent squalls 
and rain throughout. 



Close- reefed main- topsail. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Indus. 



Storm 
moving 
towards 
SE. 



Log of tho 
Sovereign, 



220 



THE CULLODEN S 8TORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Sovereign. 



Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Sovereign — coniumei. 



Hour. 



A.M. 
I 

2 

a 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 



2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 



12 



K. 



7 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
7 
7 
6 
4 
6 
7 



F. 



7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
3 



3 



Courses. 



Winds. 



W by S 



SSE 



W by S S by E 



SE 



Remarks. 



Mondsy, March 13, 1809. 

A.M. At 1, shifted the fore-topmast stay- 
sail, with a new one ; sailmakcr repairing 
the fore-topmast staysail that was split. 



Pumped ship every four houit. 

Lat observed, 22"" 18' 8. 

(Signed) JOHN FREEMAN. 



part, 
rain; 



Tuesday, March 14, 1809. 

P.M. First and middle parts, 
breezes, with squalls and rain { latter 
a fresh gale, with hard squalls aad 
ship rolling very much, and ahioped a 
great deal of water over all and tnnMi^ 
Uie ports, her top side workinff very miiu. 
Out fourth reef main-topaaiC 
Struck mizen top-ga]lant-maat« 
mainsail. 



Squally and rain; cloae-rMfed 
topsail. 



A.M. Admiral burnt a Uue lig^t; 
handed mainsaiL 



Squally, with rain ; reefed the rnffnall 



Handed the fore-topsail. 

At 10, a heavy sea struck the larboud 
quarter- gallery and stove it in ; got it se- 
cured before much water sot in; down 
top-gallant-yards, and struck the masts. 

Pumped ship every hour during the last 
twenty-four hours ; latterly, constantly at 
the pumps. 

Noon. Only three ships in sight. 

No observation. 

(Signed) N. BENT. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Soveksign — continued. 



Honr. K. F. Cooraea. Winds. 



Wednesduj, Uuch Ifi, 1809. 

P.M. Hard gslei, with rain in Uie fitet 

~ [oiddle parls; lallir, more moderatt 



washed nway the waist bulwarks; making 
B great deal of water ; handB constaolly ar 
the pumps ; a great deal of water on thi 



L W8W 

I WbjS 



Noon. In cocapan; with the Indus. 
Lat. observed, 23° £4' S. 

(Signed) JOHN FHEEMAN, 



1 NWbW 

2 

1 WNW 



Thursday, March 16, 1S09. 
P.M. Pleasant breezes and fair weather 
throughout; got the Jib-boora out ani 
(he jib. 



A.M. Swayed the top-gftUanl-maala n 
end, and crosied the yards ; out reef of 
foresail, and third and fourth reef main 
and fourth ditto fore topsails; tet the 
mairuail, and looted tmail laile to dry. 
Fumped ahip STer)' half hour. 



222 



THE CULLODENS STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Sovereign. 



Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Sovereign — comtiimea. 



Meeting 
the storm 
recurring. 




A.M. 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

A.M. 

1 

2 



K. F.' Courses. 



6 
5 

4 
5 
6 
6 
6 



6 
6 
.5 
5 
6 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



6 
6 



8 


5 


4 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


7 


4 


8 


5 


9 


6 


10 


6 


11 


6 


12 


6 


P.M. 




1 


4 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


7 


2 



w 




W| s 



S W b w 



sw 



sw 
ssw 



NE 



WbyN 

Cloudy. 



RemarkB. 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 



Lat. observed, 24** 7' 8. 

(Signed) N. BENT. 



Friday, March 17, 1809. 

P.M. Moderate breese and doudj 

ther, with a heavy head sea; on Mp^^^^^**^ 
pitching bowsprit and spritaail-ywd in« 'r^'r*4' i 
got the jib-boom and apritaail-yard in ; ^14^'^^ 
hands constantly at the pumpa; iinmdnp^s^**^ 
the water gaining on the pumps ; cam* to j 
the determination (br the aoTiee of my 
officers and petty officers) of throwing 
overboard some dead weight from fo Kw aid ; 
employed clearing away to the aaltpttie ; 
threw overboard sixty bags ; infoimed tlie 
Indus per telegraph that we oonld BoC 
carry sail on that account. 

In third reef main-topaail, and reeisd Hit 
foresail. 



A.M. At 2, close-reefed fore-topeaiL 



Out fourth reef fore and third ditio 

main topsail. 

Lat. observed, 25° SO' 8. 

(Signed) JOHN FREEMAN* ! 
A. CAMPBELL. 



Saturday, March 18, 1809. 
P.M. Moderate breezes, cloudy weather, ! 
viith a very heavy head sea. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



223 



Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Sovereign — concluded. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. , Remarks. 


P.M. 








1 Saturday, March 18, 1809. 


8 


2 


4 


S 


W byN 


9 


2 









10 


2 






11 


2 ,0 






12 


2 




Spoke the Northumberland, and m com- 
pany with the Lord Eldon. 


▲.M. 










1 


3 







1 


2 


3 




wsw 




8 


3 










4 


3 










6 


3 




w 






^ 6 


3 








* 7 


3 


. 


WNW 




8 


4 











9 


6 





W by N 






10 


6 











11 


6 







t 




12 


6 







1 

i 


No obsenration. 

Lat. on the 19th at noon, 25° 59' S. 

(Signed) N. BENT. 



The two next logs are those of the East India Com- 
pany's ships Sir William Bensley and Earl St. Vincent, 
the two ships which scudded until they came near the 
centre of the storm on the 17th, when the one lay-to 
for twenty-one hours, and the other for thirteen. 

Extract from the Log of the H. C. S. Sir William Bensley^ 
Captain G. Hooper. — In Nautical Time, 



Hour 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


P.M. 








1 


6 





WbyS 


SSE 


2 


6 









3 


5 


4 






4 


5 









6 


5 









6 


5 









7 


5 


2 






8 


5 


4 






9 


6 










Remarks. 



Monday, March 13, 1809. 

P.M. Hazy and rain; fresh trade and 
squally ; swell from S E. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
SoTereign. 



Jjog of the 
SirWil- 
liam 
Bensley. 



SOUTHERN UEHISPUEBB. 
Extract from tbe Log of the H. C. S. Si r Wu. BmntLKY-^cmUiMBed. 

Hour, K F. CouTMS. Winds, 



Mondi?. Utrch IS, 1S09. 



Lat. 2r 19' S, long. GS* *V B. 
TuMdi;, March 14, 1S09. 



er, hard galea and hetrj •qnaDi; 



Noon. Not » ihip In tight, the mi 

L»l. 22" <6''9, long. 03° «• E. 
'No obserratiaii. 

W«dne«dB]r, Uaich Ifi, 1800. 
P.M. Ilcny ■qualia; Ihick rain. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



225 



Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Sir Wm. Bensley — contimied. CHAP. 

VI. 



Hour. 



} 



P M. 

6 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 



1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

▲.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



K. 



5 
5 

4 
4 
4 
4 



4 

4 
4 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
6 
6 



5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



F. 



Courses. 



Winds. 



wsw 



wsw 



SB 



• • • 



SE 



Bemarks. 



Wednesday, March Id, 1809. 
Heavy gales. 



• ^ • • 



Violent squalls. 



I A.M. Ditto, 



Log of 
the Sir 
William 
Benaley, 



WSW 



EbyN 



More moderate. 

Set the fore-topsail, and bent ihe fore- 
sail. 
Set the mizen-topsail. 
Lat. 24** 26' S, long. 60° 30' E. 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 

P.M. Fresh gales and cloudy weather in 
the first part ; middle and latter, a con- 
fused and heavy swell. 



Storm 
recurring. 



WSW 



EbyN 



Noon. No ship in sight. 
Lat. 25'' 59' S, long. 58° 10' E. 



Log of 
the Sir 
WlUUm 
Bendejr. 



THE CULLODEN S STORM. 
' Extract from thehog of the H.C.S. Sia Wh. Bknblby — ctrnthmed. 

Hour. K. F. Counea. Winds. 



WbjS 

SrbyS 



< wsw 

off 
8W 



Uidnigbt. Hard tqnalli tnd n 



NNW A.M. L;mg-to, under ban polca. 
N W H«>TT hard tqnalla. 



I SbyW 

off 

SbyE 

awUs 

oSS 



Middle and latter, hcBTj galea, with a 
high kb; obliged lo throw twdva gon* 
OTerboord. 

No obaerration. 

1^1. 30° 12' S, long. £6° SC B. 



Set Ite reefed mainiail. 
Fint part, etrong galei ; latter part, 
moderat«. No abip in eight. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



227 



Extra 


Ctfr< 


)mtheLc 


»gofthe 


H.C.S. Sir Wm. Bensley — concluded 


. CHAP. 




VI. 


Hour. 


K. ] 


P. Counes. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 




Log of 










• 


the Sir 












William 


P.M. 








Sunday, M&rch 19, 1809. 


Bensley. 


1 


\ 


4 WbyS 


SW 






2 


1 4 


i 








3 


1 { 


3 








4 


1 ( 


5 








5 


1 1 


S 








6 


1 ( 


5 








7 


1 ( 


5 








8 


1 ( 


3 








9 


1 < 


5 W4S 








10 


X 4 


1 








11 


\ i 


1 








12 


\ i 


i 








A.M. 










• 


1 


2 ( 


) WiS 


SW 






2 


2 ( 


) 






3 


2 ( 


) 








4 


2 ( 


) 








6 


1 ( 


) 




• 




6 


1 ( 


J 








7 


1 ( 


J 








8 


1 ( 


> 




(This ship seems to hare been separated 




9 


1 ( 


i WbyS 




from the fleet, and saw no vessel till she 




10 


1 e 


J 




rounded the Cape of Good Hope.) 




11 


1 e 


1 WbyN 








12 


1 c 


; 




Latitude observed, 27** 24' S. 




Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Earl St. Vincent, Captain 


Log of the 


John Brook Sampson, towards England. — In Nautical THme, 


Earl St. 
Vincent. 


^our. 


K.I 


'. Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 




P.M. 








Monday, March 13, 1809. 




1 


7 C 


> WbyS 


S£ 


P.M. Cloudy; throughout a strong 




2 


7 C 


I ' 




trade, with frequent squalls and rain ; a 




3 


6 6 






swell from the south-east. 




4 


6 6 


1 








6 


6 t 


► 








6 


6 


1 








7 


6 










8 


6 








, 


9 


6 6 










10 


7 










11 


7 6 










12 


7 










A.M. 












1 


7 4 






A.M. Hard squalls and rains. 




2 


7 6 










3 


7 










4 


7 











q2 



THE CVLLODEN B STORM. 



CHAP. Extract firom the Log of the H.C.S. E^mi. St. Vimc«i*t— ewrttorf. 



Log of til* 

TiUMnt. 



W8W 
WSW 



HondBj, Much 13, IBM. 



L»t. ob»etTed, 21° 18' S. 

(Signed) ROBERT BROOKS. 



Tuesday, Hmh 14, )809. 
P.M. SquHUiBnd nln; fintindmlMI* 
puu, ■ fiesh trade : Utterly, hud |*lc. 
vsriabie at S nnd RE, wiih cqualls, nin, 
uid B high wo, lerr thick tlu latter put 
of the twenty-four houn. 



Down top-gallant- yards. 

Unnded lbre-to;«ail. 

Split mam-iopiai] : iMttl^toTlluSMl 

No obterfstion. 

(Signtd) 3. aViOL 



Wedneiilay, March 16, ISOO. 
P.M. Throughout atrong gala, tritfc 
jGTere squalla and rain, a Tcry high ant* 
leo, ship making aix inches watv pH 
hour, owin^ to her shipping many mm; 
pumped ihip twice eTcry watch. 



Carried away the tiUer-rope; 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



229 



Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Earl St. Vincent — contmued, CHAP. 

^ VI. 




A.1C. 

1 

2 
8 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 
6 



4 
4 
4 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



6 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


9 


7 


10 


7 


11 


7 


12 


7 


r.M. 




1 


7 


2 


7 


3 


7 


4 


7 


6 


7 


6 


6 


7 


5 


8 


3 


9 


3 


10 


3 







6 
6 
6 
6 









SW 
W 



W 



ESE 



EbyN 



W 



ESE 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, March 15, 1809. 

A.M. At daylight no ships in sight; 
altered the course to west, suspecting the 
fleet to be to the north, as we had kept to 
the south durins the night to ease the snip ; 
under a fore and reefed main- staysail these 
twenty- four hours. 

More moderate. 

Rain and squalls. 

No ships in sight. 

Moderate. 

Lat. observed, 24** 19' S. 

(Signed) ROBERT BROOKS. 



Log of the 
Earl St. 
Vincent. 



Thursday, March 16, 1809. 
P.M. Fresh wind throughout, and 
cloudy, with showers in the first and 
middle parts ; latterly fair. 

No ships in sight. 



NEbvE 



A.M. At 7, out two reefs in the mpin- 
topsail. 



Lat. 26° 27', long. 68'^ 13'. 



Friday, March 17, 1809. 
P.M. First part, strong breezes from the 
eastward ; middle and latter, strong gales 
from N E to N W, with severe squalls and 
heavy rain ; high cross sea ; put the ship 
under fore and main-stay tails. 



THE CULLODEN 8 STORM. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of the H.C.S. Eakl St. Vincent— nnchM. 



oirwaw 

SWbS 
SWb 
N 
opWNW 

offSW 

Dp SWb 
W 

oiraaw 



NWbN 
NWbN 



WbjN 
WbyS 



WbyS 
SWbM 



Friday, MbtcI) 17, 1S09. 



I,at. obterred, W B' 8, loDg. 67° 3*. 



A.M. At daylight, uw a ttniiga Mil 
beuingWNW; made tba privM* rigii^ 
(tnnger pioTcd lo be ths Terpaichomw 

IM. obaerred, 2S' 61'. 

(Sl^ed) JAMBS OUMM. 

Memorandum.— The St. Tineont bm 
the CuUuden again in Ut. 28" 37', u 1 r. >. 
OD the 38Ui Match. 1809. 



The documeots explaining the Culloden's storm eod 
here. The next log is that of the ship Boyne ; and is 
placed here because the gale she experienced ia also 
marknl on Chart VIII. 



THE BOYNES GALE. 



231 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Boyne, Captain William H. CHAP. 
Stockley^ from Bombay towards London^ and in the Mozam- 
bique Channel; in lat. 15*^ 24' S., long. 41° SO' E.— In Log of the 
Nautical Time. Boyne. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Bar. 


rher. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 








Sunday, Jan. 11, 1835. 


1 


4 





SWJW 


N 


30.00 


83 


P.M. First part, decreasing 


2 


2 


4 










breeze from the N E ; middle 


3 


1 


4 










part, calm, with sgualls and 


4 


2 





. . 


NE 






hard rain; light breeze and 


6 










Calm 






squally from S W. 


6 








/ 










9 


2 





SbyE 








Squally. 


Midn. 
















▲.M. 
















3 


1 





S 










4 


1 4 




WSW 








5 


1 


SbyE 

SSE 










8 


2 1 


sw 








u 


3 


SbyE 








Squally. 


P.M. 












Lat. 17° 8' S, long. 40^63' E. 




Monday, Jan. 12, 1835. 


1 


1 4 


SSW 


w 


29.90 


82 


First part, thick, unsettled 


6 


2 '4 


SSE 








weather, with constant heavy 


6 


2 '4 


^^ ^^ ^h^ 


sw 






pqualls from the SW; middle 


9 





up SSE 








and latter part, fresh gales 




1 








from the southward and west- 


Midn. 


1 


4 


off SE 








ward, with squalls and heavy 


A.M. 














rain, and a long swell from 


2 


1 


4 


NW 








the southward. 

Taken aback in a hard squall ; 
at daylight, down royal yards. 


6 


1 


4 


NWbN 








Bent the storm mizen, and 


10 


1 


4 


SbyW 








set it. 


12 

P.M. 


2 





SWbyS 








Lat. 17° 11' S, long. 41° 7' E. 


Tuesday, Jan. 13, 1835. 


1 


2 





SSW 


WbyN 


29. 80 




First part, blowing hard 


2 


2 





SWbyS 








from the SW, with heavy 














squalls and rain ; middle part, 
















continual heavy rain, with 
















vivid lightning and thunder. 
















and Uie wind shifting all 










all round 






round; latter part, variable 
wind, with thick, unsettled 
weather. 


9 


2 


4 


SWbW 


Variable 






Wind variable. 


Midn. 


2 















A.M. 
















6 


2 





wsw 


SSE 








9 


2 





WbyS 


Variable 




Variable wind. 


Noon 






w 


Variable 


Wind variable. 












Lat. 17^=)4'S, long. iO'^lG'F. 



Chart 

vm. 




232 



THE BOYNE8 GALE. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Boyne. 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Boynb ^eoMthmed. 




P.M. 
1 

6 
10 

▲.M. 

2 
8 



P.M. 
1 



Ididn. 

A.M. 



P.M. 



K. 



F. 



6 
2 

2 

2 



P.M. 



2 
6 
8 

3didn. 

A.M. 



2 

7 



P.M. 



I to 

1 



1 

2 

7 

6 

8 

4 



Courses. 



SWbW 

W8W 

SWbW 

W8W 



8W 



88W 
Head 8 W 

to 
W8W 



Head fr. 

WSW 

to 

8W 



Winds. 



8SE 



8by£ 

8E 
SSE 



Head 

WSW to 

8W 

8 
SSE 



8 
SbyE 



8£ 



Bar. 



29.06 



29.06 



29.38 



Ther. 



29.07 



N 



ENE 



4 SbEjEi E 



29. 90 



Ramaikt. 



Wednesday, Jan. 14, 19Z5. 

Unsettled weather* wilk 
squalls and hard rain. 

Blowing hard, and tea get- 
ting up. 



Blowing hard. 

First part, Tariable, unsettled 
weather, and hard rain ; mid- 
die and lattea Ptft, Uoving 
heavy from the 8 8 B. 

Lat. 18^ 20^ 8, long. 89° E. 



Thursday, Jan. 16, 18S5. 

Blowing a hard gale, with 
•qually weather and rain ; hard 
gales throughout from 8 8 E. 

Ditto weather. 

Lat 18^ 34', long. 88*. 



Friday, Jan. 16, 1886. 

Heayy gale from the 8 8 B, 
with heayy fl[usts at 8 a.m.; 
barometer still fidling, and 
from 9 to noon the sale ooBti- 
naed with increased Ibree; at 
10 A.M. the main-topaail went. 
and left the ship under atoim 
mizen. 

Lat. 19° 6' 8, long, sr ll'B. 



Saturday, Jan. 17t 1836. 
Wind decreasing. 



Li^ht breeie. 

Wind increasing, and draw- 
ing to the N B. 

Heavy gusts and hard rain. 

First part, decreaainc gale; 
middle part, hard gab from 
the N E, with severe puatsand 
heavy rain, and a high erom 
sea ; ship labouring much. 

Latter part, moderate breeas, 
and hazy. 

Lat. 21° 10' S. long. 37* 4'E. 



Sunday, Jan. 18, 1836. 

Throughout, a fresh 
from the eastward ; and next 
day a steady trade at E 8 B. 

Lat. 23^ 1 4' S, long. 3r 20' R 






233 



The Albion* s Hurricane, in November , 1808. 

It is a prevailing opinion amongst seamen who na- chap. 
vigate the Indian seas, and it is stated in the minutes 



of inquiry into the storms of 1808 and 1809, that hur- ^umw. 
ricanes are frequently avoided by ships steering on a 
course so as to keep well to the eastward of Mauritius. 
But the storm next to be described occurred in longi- 
tude ninety degrees east, about thirty degrees to the 
eastward of that island ; and by the log of the CuUoden 
the ships under her convoy in 1808 were in long. 80° E. 
when they felt the first indication of that hurricane 
which has been just detailed. 

The fleet under convoy of H M.S. the Albion, 74 
guns, consisted of nine ships belonging to the H. E. I. 
Company. 

They sailed from Madras on October 5, 1808, had 
crossed the equator, and were in lat. 6° south, and 
long. 90^, when, on the 18th and 19th of November, 
they began to experience a heavy swell of the sea, and 
occasional squalls of wind. On the morning of the 20th 
the weather was much the same ; but in the afternoon 
it began to blow hard, and on the 21st it amounted to 
a very severe hurricane. 

The ships under the Albion's convoy were as stated 
below : — 

The Anne and Preston, most to the northward. 
The Ceylon and Tigris, nearest the Albion. 
The Phcenix and Diana, got most to the southward. 
The Glory, Lord Nelson, and the Experiment, 
foundered. 



234 THE ALBION S HURRICANE OF 1808. 

CHAP. This fleet was not very much dispersed, aod the 

' ships were carried but a little way from where they first 

hil^iStne. encountered the severe part of the storm. But, as I 
have not been able to determine their relative posi- 
tions, it has not been practicable to construct a chart ; 
and therefore the logs of the E. I. C/s ships have not 
been given in detail, but only extracts taken from 
them as here inserted. 

The log of the Albion will be given here ; and there 
is this remarkable difierence between the storm now 
detailed, and those which have been hitherto traced, 
that the wind not only made the complete circle, but 
something more. 

The ships Anne and Preston appear to have felt the 
storm less than the others of the fleet. The Anne had 
sprung her bowsprit, and had fallen astern ; and the 
Preston was near her. In the course of the afternoon 
of the 21st all the other ships experienced a lull in the 
midst of the storm, although at somewhat different 
periods of time ; but with all of them the wind on this 
afternoon veered very rapidly round the compass. 

By the log of the Albion the gale began to moderate 
at 5 P.M. of the 21st. With the Ceylon it moderated 
at 2 P.M., but at 4 is reported ** to have recommenced 
as hard as ever." 

The Phoenix reports it was almost calm at 5 P.M., 
when she set close-reefed mizen-topsail and loosed her 
foresail. Her log at this time records, " light winds 
and variable all round." Two hours afterwards she 
had split her mizen-topsail and handed her foresail. 

With the Tigris the gale had moderated at 1 p.m. ; 
half an hour afterwards the wind died away suddenly 
altogether; but at 2, as expressed in the log, "came 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 235 

on to blow if possible with greater violence than ever," chap. 

and the ship had to lie-to under bare poles. The wind 

had veered as with the other ships. * hunriSine. 

In the Diana's log it is stated, " the gale broke at 
1 P.M., continued to moderate till 5, and then came on 
as hard as ever," the wind veering round as stated by 
the other logs. 

With the Diana and Phoenix (the ships most to the 
southward) the storm appears to have continued until 
the morning of the 23rd. With the Albion, and ships 
near her, the storm ended on the morning of the 
22nd ; and the Preston and Anne did not feel it after 
the 21st. 

The three missing ships were all seen on the after- Missing 
noon of the 2 1 st. The Lord Nelson was going fast wh^ last 
ahead of the Phoenix, with three or four reefs in her 
main-topsail, and her foresail in the brails. The fore 
and mizen top-gallant yards were down. 

The Glory was seen at the same time a little astern ; 
and the commander of the Phoenix states in his evi- 
dence, that her topsails were double reefed, and her 
courses set, for she sailed very badly, and therefore had 
in general to carry much canvass. 

The Experiment, at 2 p.m. of the same day, was seen 
to the eastward of the Phoenix, with her foresail and 
close-reefed main-topsail set, and her fore and mizen 
top-gallant masts down on the deck. 

The violence of the wind in this hurricane appears 
to have been extreme. During its greatest fury the 
Diana and Phoenix are said to have been within a few 
inches of running foul of each other. With these two 
ships the gale appears to have been particularly severe 
on the 22nd, after it had left the other eight vessels. 



236 THE Albion's hurricane of 1808. 

CHAP. The log of the Diana states, "The noise of the 

'- — wind resembled thunder, and on the afternoon of the 

hurdame 22nd it was Still blowing a hurricane, with every gust 
apparently more violent than the last The water in 
the hold gradually increasing, the gun-deck forward 
from the main hatchway four feet deep in water." At 
5 P.M. her commander, finding the gun-deck filling 
very fast, had to remove the ladies and children ; and 
for some hours they were every minute in expectation 
of the ship's sinking. 

About this time a part of the upper fore-hatchway 
stove in with the weight of water above it« In this 
state of the ship, the commander ordered to cut away 
the foremast, which was with difficulty effected, from 
the exhausted state of the crew. At midnight the 
wind with this ship moderated considerably, at which 
time she must have been about a degree of latitude 
south of the Albion. 

This storm does not appear to have been moving 
onward, at first, with the regular progression of those 
which have been traced on the charts; but seems 
more to have resembled the commencement of a whiri- 
wind, floating with irregular motion, as waterspoute 
do in calm weather ; yet, after it left the fleet, we see 
by the logs of the Diana and Phoenix that they felt the 
hurricane a considerable time after the other ships. 
By their observations they were to the southward; 
and if this storm, like that of the CuUoden, last 
described, had set the currents to the westward, these 
ships were probably south-west of the Albion; and, 
being yet within the influence of the storm, must have 
commenced a progress not dissimilar to others traced 
in south latitude. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



Gxtract fiom the Li^ of H. M. S. Albion, Captain John Ferrier. CHAP. 
In Civil Time. ^• 



Houi. K. F. ConraeK, Winds. 



Lttt. S° 47' S, long. 89° 40' E 



SbfE 
Sby W 



P.M. Fiesh brecM and cloady. 
Set the mainaul and jib. 

Moderate breezei and cloudy. 
Freih bieeie* and squally, with ti 
Squally ; down jib. 



Yriday, November 18, 1808. 
A.M. Elcvim sail in aighl. 
Squally, with inin ; up mainiail. 
Cloudy 1 iqually, with nun. 

Fresh breeze and cloudy. 



Lat. r 33' 8, long. 89° 5V E 



. 8byW 

SbrE 

S 

SIE 



W by S 

wsw 



Moderate breexet and cloudy. 



238 THE Albion's hurricane of 1808. 

CHAP. Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Albion— con/mii^. 



Uour. 


K. 

_ 


F. 


Couraci. 


Wuid». 






2 

2 
2 



2 

6 
4 


8SE 


".-r 


A.M. SqukUy. 

At dajligbl, convoy io doie order. 




a 

2 

I 
2 













2 
2 


4 









Coune, S 20° E, dUtance 63 nulm. 
Lat.8^23'S.lonB.90°18'E. 




3 
3 
3 


4 
4 



SiW 

sbVw 


WbSJS 
W by S 






3 
3 
3 


4 
6 



ME 


VuiaWB 




12 


■i 
4 
3 
3 

4 


6 

6 




SbrW 
SbyW 


WbSiS 
WbyS 

WbrS 


Moderate biceiei and clondyj dooble- 

reefed toiuoilB. 




4 


4 


SbWJW 








4 
4 
4 

4 
3 

a 










8 
SbyW 


w 


A.M. Fmh hrettei and aquilly i in 
third reef in the topwila. 




2 




S 








2 
2 









Ut. 9= 41' S, long. 9fy sr K. 




2 

a 

2 




4 
4 




w 




h 


a 
a 

3 




4 

4 


8 


head fr.S 
toSSE 


WbyS 


Ficih gilet and rqu^W, with nin and 
a heavy swell ; iplit the lore-ittyaaU. 










up S fl- 
uff SSE 




Coune. .S 23' K, dUlance B.> milea. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



Extract from the Log of II. M. S. Albion — continued. 



;i 



12 J 



NbyE 

nn"e 



thlp'thd 
fTom NE 
toENE 



NEW 
NEbN 



Monday, November 21, 1808. 

A.M. Hard ^oles and iquiiU}', with 

rain ; one hbiI in sight ; ■ very bird 

squtill; hnukd down cbe itorm-atayiail ; 

the ihip making much water. 

At i, strong gales, with baid squalls 
and tain; all the pumps going. 

TerylieBTj squalls, with rain; the fore- 
topniut Wew over the side by Ihe capi 
the moat in falling carried away the lar- 
board side of the lop. 

Very heavy gales, with rain and hard 
gusts of reind. 

■?.3o,ih6mBin-lopmiilblewoTcr the side. 

9,30, the niiienmatt went by the board, 

Theshippayed-off; aet the fore-iUys^ 

Began to throw ovGrbjardtbemiiin-deck 

ftiiDs 1 tho flbip labouring Tery much, the 
mainaail blew from the yard, and a great 
part of the foresail ; the Tore-stayiail blew 
to pieces from ilie nclting in the bowsprit. 

Course, 8 SS" E, dialonte 40 miles. 

Lat. 10° e-S, long. yi°a3' E. 

P.M. Thick weather, with heavy gales, 
aecompanied with hard gusts of wind and 
lain, and a grest sea, the latter blowing 
OTertLcthip: emplojcd « the pumps and 
throwing overboard the main-detk guns. 

S b J W At 3, left off the latter duly, after having 
thrown o»orboatd 19, At3,30, an citieme 
Lard gust of wind. At 4, a heavy sea 
running; ship labouting very much. At 
fi, the gale began to moderate. At 8, 

W N W fresh galea and ihtck weather. 

Midnight. Moderate brecEes and thick 



varisble 
from W 
to N and' 



At daylight, saw the Ceylon. 

Freah breeies and cloudy weather, with 
a great swell ; found the third main-chain 
plate on the slBihoard side, and the eighth 
fore one on the larhoard side, drawn i the 
baigo stove, by the fall of the main-top- 
gallants; the ahip working much on the 
upper, lower, and orlop decks; tlie hoop- 

g butts, over tho ports, opened — '" *" 



Ihe !■ 



: the 1 



rway., 



. the 



Log of tht 
Albion. 



J~.U-.-i.l 



THE Albion's hubricake of 1808. 



Extract from the Log. of H .M. S. Albion — coMcUJed. 



I 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Connei 


Winda. 












ii 






hetdfr. 


V.rittbU 










NNE 


fr.WwN 




toNE 


indNE 


12 










'l 






>blp-ibd. 


ditto 


3 
4 








&omN 
toNE 

Atp'ihcl. 




! 







&.Nb.W 




6) 






toNb.E 




7 







haida 




8 




4 


a 


wsw 


e 




s 






10 

11 




1 

4 


SJW 


WbyS 


12 




4 
















l" 1 





SiW 


WbyS 


2 1 






















i 


J 


s 






I 










2 i 






10 


2 2 






12 


'i' 






r.M. 


1 








1 2 


S«E 


WbyS 




1 
1 


SbyE 
9b.ElE 






1 








1 4 


SSE 






1 4 


SbyE 






1 






1 








1 






10 


1 :0 






11 l|0 






12 


1 










-.■■■erul boll* brukc; tl 
oTeiboKd tweWe of Uivlowrr-deckpuu 



L«t. 10° 31' ti, long. Sl° 13' E. 



P.U. Hodenite bTMte* ; Caylon in com- 
puiy ; employed in cleuiog tbo wnd > 
towudf midnight light breora. 



Wednesday. MoTcnber £3, ISM. 



241 



Mauritius Gales of 1811. 

The next figure shows the relative positions of the chap. 
Astrsea and four other vessels of war, on the 5th and ^ 



6th of March, 1811, when the Astraea was in the har- Mauritiua 

' ^ ' gales. 

hour of Port Louis, Mauritius. All five vessels had 
fine weather on the morning of the 5th. 
a 60 



EdipaeG 
Eclipse h 



-0 




20 



We find by the logs which are here printed, that the 
Racehorse and Phoebe, which ships were most to the 
eastward, were the first to prepare for bad weather, 
and they began to do so between eight and ten in the 
forenoon. The Nisus, though she felt squalls, did not 
prepare until the afternoon, and the Astreea in the 
harbour had still " light airs" at noon. 

It was night before the Eclipse felt it; and this ship, 
the furthest to the westward, did not strike her top- 
gallant-roasts until the morning of the 6th. 

Thus these vessels are found feeling the storm in 
succession, as if it came from the eastward, moving 

R 



242 



THE MAURITIUS GALES OF 1811. 



CHAP, slowly to the west. The Racehorse and Eclipse were 

'. — about 180 miles from each other; and, as twelve hours 

^^^"* elapsed from the time when the former prepared for 
the gale and when the Eclipse split a topsail, we may 
infer the storm moved at the rate of about 15 miles 
an hour. 

A ship called the Melville is mentioned in the 
Astraea's log ; and could the Melville's log be found it 
would tend to explain further the nature of this gale ; 
but the Melville was not one of the regular East India 
ships; for there is no record of such a vessel at the 
India House. 

The Racehorse, the ship furthest to the north, seems 
to have been in the track of the centre of the gale, and 
between 4 and 5 o'clock p.m., on the 5th, to have been 
almost in the centre itself. The wind is reported to be 
then veering very fast ; and it would appear as if the 
Racehorse crossed the gale's central path. The courses 
and the wind, as stated in the log, are no doubt the 
magnetic bearings. The variation of the needle at 
Mauritius, as given in " Norie's Navigation,'* was 
16^ 2(/ W., in the year 1789. 



Log of the Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Racehorse, Captain 



Raeehorae. 



Fisher 5 kept by Lieut. J. B: TatoalL 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


A.M. 








1 


2 6 




2 


3 


EbyN 


3 


2 [2 




4 


I 6 




5 


2 




6 


4 




7 


4 2 


SWbyS 


8 


3 6 













Winds. 



Remarks. 



SEbyS 



March 5, 1811. 
A.M. Moderate and fine. 



At 7, fresh breeses and squally 

8. 30, in main top- gall ant- sail and third 



E.. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



243 



Extract from the Loe of H. M. S. Racehorse — concluded. CHAP. 
VI. 



Hour. 



9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 



1 

2 

3 
4 
6 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



{ 



A.M. 



1} 



2 
8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



K. 



8 
3 
3 
3 



4 

2 
1 
3 
8 
11 
1 










F. 








1 
2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
8 
2 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 



Counes. 



Winds. 



SWbySSEbyS 
SbyE 
EbyS 



} EiS 

EbNJN 
E 

upSE 

offESE 

ENE 

offSE 



upSBbS 
offS 



SbyE 



SSW 



NWbN 



NWbN 



SEbyS 



SSE 



SSE 



EbyN 



SEiE 



Remarks. 



March 5, 1811. 
reef of the topsails ; got the royal masts on 
deck and flying jib-boom in ; squally, with 
rain ; in third reef of boom-mainsail. 

Noon. Ditto, weather. 

Course, N 75^ E, distance 44 miles. 

Lat. 19** 39' S, long. 68" 28' E. 

Round Island, S 73'' W, 44 miles. 

P.M. Fresh gales and squally weather, 
with heaTy rain. 

At 1, down main top-eallant-yard and 
got main-topmast on deck ; got the sprit- 
sail-yard and jib-boom in ; sent the stud- 
ding-sail-booms on deck. At 2, increasing 
gales; in fore- topsail; set the fore-staysail 
and furled the square-mainsail ; reefed the 
trysail. At 4, stiong gales ; up foresail and 
furled it. At 5, the wind thified tuddenly 
round to ^A« N £, whicli caused the ship to 
labour ycry much. 5.10, in main- topsail ; 
got the main boom and gaff on deck. At 
6, ditto weather, strong gales ; lyine-to 
under the reef-trysail and fore-staysail. 

Midnight. Strong gales, with sudden 
squalls. 



March 6, 1811. 
A.M. Strong gales, with heavy rain at 
times. 

At 4, ditto, ditto. 

More moderate ; set the main-trysail. 

At 7, set the foresail; heavy squalls, 
with rain ; observed that three parts of the 
gammoning of the bowsprit were gone. 
7.50, squally; up foresail. At 8, ditto 
weather; fresh gales, with heavy rain. 
9.30, set the foresail. 

Noon. More moderate, with drizzling rain. 

Course, S 7"* 42' E, distance 18 miles. 

Lat. 19° 52' S, long. 58° 42' E. 

Round Island, N 83° W, 53 mUes. 

P.M. Fresh breezes, with squalls and 
heavy rain. 

1.30. Set the square majnsail ; got the 
main-boom and gaff shifted. At 4, mode- 
rate and clear weather. At 6, fresh breezes 
and clear weather. At 7, up mainsail and 
furled it ; squally, with heavy showers of 
rain. At 8, ditto weather. 



Midnight. Fresh breezes and cloudy 
weather. 

~ r2 



Log of the 
Racehorse. 



Lying-to. 



244 



THE MAURITIUS OALES OF 1811. 



CHAP. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Ph<bbb, Captain James 


VI, 


HiUyar ; 


kept by Lieut. Kenelm Somerville. 






Log of the 














Phoebe. 


Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. i 




A.M. 








March 6, 1811. 




1 


3 





SW 


SE 


A.M. Moderate and cloudy weather. 




2 


2 


4 






8.30. In top-gallant-saila ; down jib. 




3 


2 









10 50. Squally ; up counea ; cloae reefed 




4 


3 


4 






topsails. 




5 


3 


4 










6 


3 













7 


6 





ENE 








8 


6 


6 










9 


8 













10 


7 





NNE 








11 


6 


4 










12 


5 


4 






Noon. Fresh winds and squally weather. 
Course, N 12^ E, distance 29 milae. 
Lat. 20** T 8, long. 68° 26^ E, 
Isle of Flamondo, N 68^ W, 88 ndlei. 




P.M. 














1 


3 


2 


E 


Tariable 


P.M. Fresh breeaea aad equally, with 




2 


3 





NE 


■ 


heavy rain. 




3 


2 


2 


ENE 


SE 


1.40. Handed the topaaila; rcafod the 




4 


2 


4 


NE by N 




courses ; down top-gallant- yarda. 




6 


3 


4 






5.30. Struck top-gallant-maata. Aft 6, 




6 


3 


4 






squally, with rain ; got the top-gaUaat- 




7 


3 









masts on deck and in jib-boom ; ^lit the 




8 


3 


6 






main staysail ; shifted it. 




9 


3 


4 


NE 


EbyN 


w 




10 3 


4 










11 3 


4 


NW 


NEbyE 






12 1 3 









Midnight. Strong galea and equally w«a> 




A.M. 










ther. 




March 6, 1811. 




1 


3 





NW 


ENE 


A.M. Fresh breeaes and equally, with 




2 


2 


4 




1 


heary rain. 




3 


2 


4 










4 


2 


4 


NJW 




At 4, ditto weather. 


6 3 











6 


3 









G.30. Fresh breeaea and cloudy. 




7 


3 













8 


3 





N 








9 


3 


4 


SbE^E 


E 






10 


3 14 










11 1 3 14 










12 I 3 . 2 




1 


Noon. More moderate. 










1 


lAit ir 43' S. lonff. 57° 51' E. 






i 
1 




i Round Island, S W by W | W. 10 milM. 

1 




r.M. 1 1 

1 3 >4 

2 3 4 


SSE 


! 1 
E 1 N P.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy -wvatlMr. 




3 3 4 




1 

1 


1 




4 1 4 ,0 


N 


1 






6 4 





N W 


1 





SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 
Extract from tiie hog of H. M. S. Phcbbb — concluded. 



345 
CHAP. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


ConiwB. 


Wind.. 


Reraulu. 


V.H. 




2 
2 


NW 


EiN 


Mwche, mil. 

At e, modctMO Mid Mjually weather. 


8 
9 

to 

11 
13 


1 


NbyE 


Variable 


Ai S, ditto westher. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S, Nisus, Captain P. Beaver. 


In CiuiV Time. 


Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Couraw. 


Wind.. 


BewMk*. 


r 


3 
2 
2 


6 


SWbyS 


SEbyS 


March 5. 1811. 
A M. Moderate and cloudy. 


3 




sswiw 






5 

e 

7 

s 

•1 


2 
2 
2 
2 





SWbjS 
SWiS 
SWbyS 

JNNE 




At fi.30. .qusUy. 

At S, iiju.lly, with rain. 


10 


7 
3 




NEbrN 
awbyw 






"1 






|»E 




Noon. Fre»hbrMie.&.qu.lly,»it]i run. 


'■{ 


S 




NE 

ENE 


ESE 


CourM, S 79 E^ diftance 12' W. 
Lat. 19° M' S. long, fiS" &'. 
Eound Uland, N 79° 12' W, 19 milm. 
P.M. FrEshbreeiesandBqnally. 12.M. 
clo.e-reefedihe topattil.; furled ditto, 


2 

3 

4 
6 

6 
7 
8 
9 

10 


1 
1 
I 

1 

1 
1 

2 



* 




EbyN 

EbyN 
ENE 
upENB 
offNE 
byN 


8EbyS 
SEbyK 


At 2. reefed the courses, hard aquall*. 
took in and set the storra-.taywiil., occB- 
iionaUy furled mainsaU. 

At a.*5, Blruck top. gall ant- niMW. 

At 4, hard .quails and rain. 

5.i6, down main-Htiiy.Bil. 
At e, haiy weather and hard .qualU. 
7.10, earned away (he atarboaid botokin. 
At 8, ditto weather. 


12 


2 





NNE 

offNbW 




Midnight. Freth gales and aquaUy i eon- 
atant rain. 













246 



THE MAURITIUS GALES OF 1811. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Log of the 
Nifus. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Nisvs — comAuM. 



Hour. 



K. 



A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



F. 



1 

1 
1 
1 


1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 



3 

3 |0 
2 



2 
1 

3 
2 



Counes. 



Winds. 



N^E 

NbyW 

N 

NbyE 

upNNE 

offNbW 

NNE 



ENE 



E 



NIE ENE 
NJW 



N J W 



1 16 

2 10 



ENE 



2 
2 
1 



upNoflf 
NbyW 

N Variable 
NbWiW 

NiW, 

NbyE EbyN 



Remark!. 



March 6, 1811. 
A.M. Fresh galea and squally, withrain. 



At 4, ditto breeses and squally, ditto. 



At 8, ditto ditto ditto. 



Noon. Ditto weather. 

Lat 36° 8. 

Round Island, S j W, 7 or 8 



P.M. Fresh breezes and doady. 



At 4.10, squally. 



At 6, firesh breeses and sqnally. 



Biidnight. Fresh breens and eloody. 



Log of the 
Astnea. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. AsTRiSA, Captain C. M. 

Schomberg. — In CivU TYmf . 



Hour. 


1 

k.|f. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


A.M. 

1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


! 

• • ,.. 

.. 1.. 
1 • • • 


In Port 
Louis 

• • • • 

• • • • 


Calm 

SE 
Variable 


March 6, 1811. 
A.M. Clear, fine weather. 

Liffht airs and cloudy weather. Sailad, 
the Melrille, E.I.C. ship, for BengaL 

Light airs, with rain. 


9 
10 
11 
12 


( • . • . 
1 . • . . 
'.. '.. 

1 

1 • • • • 









SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



247 



J 


\SJLt 


ra 


ct from 


the Log 


of H. M. S. AsTRiBA — concluded. 


C HAP. 
VI. 


Hour. 



K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 




Log of the 














Astrssa. 


P.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 


• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


In Port 
Louis 


SSE 


March 5, 1811. 
P.M. Squally, with showers of rain. 




9 
10 
11 
12 




• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


. . • • 


Variable 


Heavy squalls, with constant, heavy rain. 
Ditto weather. 




A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
6 

7 


• • 

• • 
• « 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


ditto 


ditto 


March 6. 1811. 
A.M. Heavy squalls, with constant, 
heavy rain ; got top-gallant mast on deck, 
and struck lower yards and topmasts; 
squally, with showers of rain ; got the sheet 
anchor over the side ready for letting go. 




8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• ♦ 

• • 

• • 
f 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 






P.M. Squally, with showers of rain; 
got the stream cable out on the larboard 
bow ; one of the larboard cables broke ; 
got a new one from the dock- yard. 




• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 






Ditto weather. 




Extract from the Log of H.M. Brig Eclipse^ Captain W. 

Steed.— In Civil Time. 


Log of the 
Eclipse. 


Hour. 


K. 


P. 


4 

6 

6 


Courses. Winds. 


Remarks. 




1 
2 
3 

4 


4 
3 
3 
3 


SSW 
SbyW 

SJW ^ 
SbyW 

1 


SE 
Variable 


March 5, 1811. 
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy. 





THE HAtlRinUS OALE8 OP 1811. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Brig Eclipse — amdnhd. 



LoRof Uu 
Ecfipw. 



Hour. 


K. 


F 


Connei 


Windi. 


Rtrmariu. 


A.M. 


_ 








HsicliS. 1811. 


M 


3 

1 





BSE 


V«mbU 




6 


2 
3 

3 


2 






SBbjE 
3EbyE 













SEjE 








a 


s 


SE 


VuiBble 






4 





SEbfE 




Coune. 3 Iff* fiS* E, dUUnoe 87 tnOtt. 
L»t. 20° 20' S, long. 5*" 4*' E. 
Port Loui.. N it-\* m reilM. 














5 

s 


a 
a 


EbjSJS 


SbyW 


P.M. FfMh brwiei and cloudy. 




6 

6 


s 
2 






At 4, ditM weUfaer. 




6 










At 6, tteth breeiei and iqatlly. 




2 

3 


"r 


Variiible 


At 8. dilto. dilto. 8. SO, tpUt Uu bn- 






4 


B}8 




topioU ; Mttea ditto, and Id Ibtit mbU oT 




3 


2 






the topRoiU. 




2 



4 


E 
EJS 






Muchfl, IBU. 












tha fote-topssil, and itruck U^Ballattt 
matt; employed securing the booBi, 




1 


2 



EbyS 






2 


s 






furled Ihe boom mainuil. 









B 




At 4, Btrong galea with T«ry hMTj 




2 










^j 


2 




« 


apBbN 
offNE 








1 




byE 
upENE 

off 




At B, ditto weather; re«fed the fercNa. 


.1] 











and handed the mam-lopaail; gotlbetop- 


11 









uie ipritsail yard on deck. 


12) 


c 





NNE 




Couree. S 62° B. diitance ST. 
Lat. 19" 48', long. 56° 48'. 
Port Loui*. 8 81* E. 58 mile..t 
























P,M. FfMh gale, and anuaUy. with ndD 
at timei. 1. 30, aet the tore-atayMil ud 
rryaaU. 




1 





upNEbN 






I 


* 


offjf 




At 4, dilto weather. 




1 


i 


opNNK 








2 


D 


offN 




At 6, ditto, with rain. 




2 





BpNEbE 






st 


I 


6 



offNbW 




At 8, ditto, ditto. 
Froth gale* ud cloudy. 








upNbE 
oftNbW 
















11 1 1 









Noon. More ino<ierate. 



* There appear* to be lome niatake here ; aupposod to maa 
NSff-lT'E. 164mLlc8. 
t Supposed to mean Port Louia, S 75' 8' K, 86 milea. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



249 



The Astrsea sailed from Port Louis harbour on the chap. 

VI. 

15th of March, previous to which day, the Racehorse, — * — 

Phoebe, and Eclipse had come in, and anchored in ^^^^ 
that port. The figure following will show the course 
of the Astraea, from her leaving the harbour until she 
met another gale more severe than the first one. 




Rodriguez 



•n 



The figure is also intended to point out the course 
this second gale appeared to take. 

The Astraea began to prepare for this second gale on 
the afternoon of the 18th ; and we find by the log, that 
she was lying-to from 7 o*clock on the evening of the 
19th, until 8 o'clock on the evening of the 20th, or 
twenty-five hours ; the Nisus was near her at the time, 
and her log is here given; but slight discrepancies 



260 



THE MAURITIUS GALES OP 1811. 



CHAP, in these logs prevent my being able to lay down the 

! exact relative positions of these two vessels, for which 

MaoriUiu reason the place of the Astreea is only marked. The 
Nisus laid-to at an earlier hour, and continued in that 
position nearly the whole time, until ten at night of 
the 20th. 

The logs of the Phoebe, Racehorse, and Eclipse, 
which were lying in Port Louis harbour, follow that of 
the Nisus ; and no notice is taken of bad weather in 
these logs until the 20th, when the gale began, and 
continued till the 21st: all five logs report the wind 
beginning at the southward of east, and ending at the 
northward of west. 

The Astrsea and Nisus had again fine weather on 
the 21st of March ; and the three ships in harbour on 
the 22nd. 



Log of the Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Astkma, Captain C. M. 



Astnea. 



Schomberg, kept by Lieut. John Baldwin. — In CwU 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


▲.M. 










Monday, March 18, 1811. 
Lat, 19** 36', loM. 6r 6^. 
Round Island, S W, 6 leafl[iifla. 












P.M. 












1 


4 


6 EbyN 


S£ 


P.M. Fresh breeses and ekmdTwtatlMr; 
unbent the fore and main-topsau, and hmd 


2 


4 


2 






3 


4 





£N£ 




better ones ; close- reefed than ; dowatap> 
ffallant-Tards, and struck the mattt; gotm 
flying jib-boom. 


4 
6 


4 
5 


2 



EbyN 




6 


6 


4 








7 


6 


4 








8 


6 





£ 


SSE 




9 


6 











10 


6 6 






At 10, ditto weather ; reefed the ocnnm 


11 


7 |6 






and set them ; set trysails. 


12 

A.M. 


3 
3 


4 



£N£ 




Squally weather. 


Tuesday, March 19, 1811. 


1 ^ ^ 


4 


E 


SSE 


Squally, with rain. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 
Extnct from the Log of H. M. S. Astrxa— oiHituMi«(f. 



351 

CHAP. 



Hour. K. F. Counea. Wiudi. 



SW 
SWbW 



Thuwday, Mwch 19, !8ll. 



Strong breezes and it heavy sea from 
ewtwHrd. 

:. IfP, long. Sa° 33', 
Round Iilond, 8 10°, distance 68 mil 

P.M. Ditto weather. 1.30, up muns 
top'SBllant-muts on deck ; sti 
gale, wiui ihowen of lain. 
Furled tliemain and main-topeailB. 



i EbyN 

SbyE 



Up foreasil. 

Freiih gale and aqnally, with n 
the tryaail and ael it. 



Midnight. Ditto weather. 



Wednesday, March 20, 1811. 
A.M. Strong gale, with run and a heaTy 



Jl offSSB 

. upSb.I 



At 4, ditto weather. 



At 6, the gale increaeing, with constant 
rain; fore-stayaail halliards broke, hauled 
the sail down ; obaeired the drift of the 
ship to be 1} mile per hour. 

At 9.30. took second reef in the tryuil, 
the only sail now set. 



SbW 
. upSW 
DffSSW \ 



P.M. Strong gale and equally, with 
rain. 1.30, bore up : set fore- staysail. 
At 3, hauled to the wind. 

At 5,i0, more moderate. 



252 



THE MAUBITIU8 GALES OF 1811. 



CHAP. 


Extract from the Log < 


Df H. M. S. AsTRiBA — coucCmM. 


VI. 


^7 




Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 




Log of the 
Astnea. 


Remaribi. 




P.M. 








Wednesday, March 20. 1811. 




1} 




. • * 


upNE 
offlibN 


NW 


At 8, ditto weather ; set main-stajtail. 




9 














10 














11 










. 




12 .. 




• • • • 


NW 


Ditto weather. 


Log of the 
Nisus. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Nisus^ Captain P. Beaver. 


In Civil Time. 




Hour. 

1 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


1 
Winds. 


Remarks. 




A.M. 










Tuesday, March 19, 1811. 




1 


8 


SW4S 


SSE 


A.M. Fresh breeses and cloudy wMdMr. 




2 


3 2 


SWbyS 




At 2. 10, s()ually ; in fore andmino*top* 
sails, and muEen-storm-stayMiL 




3 


2 2 


• • • . 


SbyB 


At 3.40, in nudn-topeail ; fbrUd tiie 
mainsaiL 




4 


1 6 


upEbyS 
offENE 




At 4, ditto weather. 4. 16, won Md; 
down top-K^i^t-mast ; in flying Jio- 






1 






6 


1 6 






boom. 8, fresh breeies and squaUy. 




6 


2 <0 










7 


2,0 


. • • . 


Variable 






8 I 1 ! 6 


upE§S 
o#EbN 










1 








9 


2i0 






At 9. 15, close-reefed matn-topMiL 




10 


2 2 


E 


SSE 






11 


3 '0 


E§N 








12 


2 6 


£ 




Noon. Fresh gales and haiy wemther. 














Course, N 60° E, distance 41'. 














Lat. 19** 19^, long. 68° 18^. 




P.M. 










Round Island, 8 60° W, 41 miles. 




1 1 4 


np Boff 
BNE 


BSE 


P.M. Commences Tery strong gales and 




1 




dark cloudy weather. 




2 ! 













3 ; 





• . • . 


SS W 






4 





upSEbE 

offE 
upSEbE 
offEbyS 




At 4, hard gales and constant rain. 




6 











I 








6 DIG 

1 






At 6, yery hard squalls. 




7 


SEtoSE 








1 1 
8 


bvE 

SEbSto 




At 8, hard gales and rain ; got the Ion 








SEbyE 




runners up, and secured the foremast. 




9 





SB off 




• ' 




1 




SEbyE 








10 







: 10. 20, the wind ihifUd to tMs nortK-wmL | 




11 





StoSSE 


N W 






12 

1 


SSWtoS 


' Moderate ; ditto weather. 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



263 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Nisus — concluded. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 




Log of the 






— 








Niaus. 


A.M. 








Wednesday, Marcb 20, 1811. 




1 


1 


2 


up E off 
ENE 


Variable 


A.M. Hard gales and dark cloudy 












weather. 




2 












Hard galea and constant rain. 




3 
















4 


1 





upSE 
offESE 








6 














6 
















7 








SEtoS 
byE 








8 


1 





SEto 
SEbyE 




At 8, ditto, ditto. 




9 
















10 












Noon. Hard sales and hearer squalls, with 
rain ; ship under fore and mizen-staysails. 




11 








• • • • 


SSE 




12 








S 


W. 


Course, N 39'' E, dbtance 42'. 
Lat. 18° 47', long. 68° 46'. 




P.M. 










Round Island, S 42° W. 84 milefl. 




1 


. • 


• • 


upNWoff WNW 


P.M. Fresh gales and squally. 




2 




• • 


SWbW 








3 






upNW 

byW 

offESbS 








4 




, 




At 4, more moderate. 




5 












6 

7 




• • 

• • 


WNW 










• • 


offSW 








8 




• • 


. • • * 


NW 






9 






SWbW 


■ 






10 




• • 


Woff 
WNW 




At 10. 20, squally, with heary rain. 




11 




• • 










12 


*' 1 

1 


• • • • 


NNW 


Midnight. Strong breezes and squally. 




Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Phcebb^ Captaiu James Hillyar, 


Log of the 


in Port Louis, Mauritius. — In Civil Time, 


Phcebe. 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 










Wednesday, March 20, 1811. 




A.M. 




Soulh^y 


A.M. Strong breezes and squally wea- 
ther ; sent too-gallant-mast on deck. 

P.M. Squally, with rain ; struck lower 
yards and topmasts; employed hearing 
taut the moorings. 












P.M. 






SbyE 
SbyW 


^ L 




up 


10 






Heary squalls; blew away the mizen- 








Btorm-staysail. 





Hk 



254 



THE MAURITIUS GALES OF 1811. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

liOgof the 
Pnoebe. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Fhcbbb — amchied. 



Log of the 
Kaoehone. 



Log of the 
Eclipse. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 




A.M. 

P.M. 

Midn. 




SW 

Westerly 


Thursday, March 21, 1811. 

A.M. Strong tnteies and aqnally, with 
rain. 

P.M. Ditto weather ; employed hearing 
taut the moorings. 

Midnight. More moderate. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Racehorse, Captain 
W. Fisher, in Port Louis Harbour, Mauritius, kept by 
Lieutenant J. B. Tatnall. — In CtvtV Time, 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


A.M. 

4 
Noon 

P.M. 

6 
11 
Midn. 

A.M. 

1 

9 

Noon 

P.M. 

1 

11 
Midn. 


• • ■ • • • • 


S£ 
Variable 

W 

WbyN 

W 

Variable 


Wednesday, March 20, 1811. 
A.M. Fresh breezes and clear weather. 
Ditto weather. 

Strong breezes, with heayy squalls. 
P.M. Strong breezes, with heayy eqnaUs 
of wind and rain. 
Ditto weather. 

Hard gales and continued heayy nda. 
Midnight. Heayy weather ; brought hone 
the stem anchor, and slightly touched. 


Thursday, March 21, 1811. 
A.M. Hard gale, with heary rain. 

Got the lower yards down ; still lightly 
touching. 

Noon. More moderate and olondy. 

P.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy. 

Moderate ; a cable and anchor reeeivad 
from the dockyard, and laid it out to the 
westward, for the purpose of hearing the 
ship off. 

HoTe her off and secured her. 

Midnight. Light airs and cloudy weathtt. 


Extract from the Log of H.M. Brig Eclipse, Captain W. Steed» 
lying in Port Louis, Mauritius. — In ChU Time, 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 








Wednesday, March 20, 1811. 
A.M. Strong breezes and clear weather ; 
afternoon came on to blowing yery hard. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



255 



Extract from the Log 


of H. M. Brig Eci^ivbb— concluded. 


CHAP. 
VI. 




Winds. 


Remarks. 




Hour. 


Ck)ur8e8. 


Log of the 
Eciipte. 


A.M. 

P.M. 




Variable 


Thursday, March 21, 1811. 

A.M. Begins blowing yery strong, with 
constant ram ; pilot brought an anchor to 
lay out a-stem. 

P.M. More moderate, with heavy rain. 





The Blenheim's Storm, February^ 1807. 
The storm in which H. M. ships Blenheim and Bien- 

. . /. helm's 

Java foundered, bears the same indications of a storm. 
rotatory character with those already described in 
southern latitudes. The manner in which these ships 
met the hurricane, looks as if they had been sailing to 
the southward of it, and, plunging into its south-east 
side, received the wind from north-east. 

The following figure is intended to represent how 
this may have occurred, 




£.^ 



256 THE Blenheim's storm. 

c H AP. The ships were sailing at the rate of nine or ten 

— knots an hour. Some storms, as for example that of 

Bien- 1821, traced by Mr, Redfield, certainly move along 
Btonn. no faster than the rate of seven miles an hour ; ships 
may therefore overtake such storms. 

The Harrier, brig of war, the same which foundered 
in the CuUoden's storm, was the only vessel out of three 
which survived on this occasion. She was in company 
with the Blenheim and Java up to the evening of the 
1st of February, 1807, at which time all three were in 
the greatest distress. The Blenheim waa the flag-ship 
of the late Rear- Admiral Sir Thomas Troubridge. 

The log of the Harrier, from the 1st to the 4th oi 
February, is printed in detail ; and in it will be (bond 
the last recorded signals from the Blenheim. 

On the morning of the 30th of January, these three 
ships had moderate weather, but it was cloudy ; there 
was a heavy swell, and the wind was at north-east: 
at noon that day their latitude was 16^ 34' S., long. 
71^ 56' E. In the afternoon of the same day, the log 
states the breeze to be freshening, the weather squally, 
and records various stays carried away. On the morn- 
ing of the 31st, the Harrier was still carrying stud- 
ding-sails ; but there was ^^ a very cross sea always 
rolling away some back-stay, top-gallant-sheet,** &c ; 
and at noon of the 31st, their latitude was 18^ 4rS.9 
and long. 69° 36' E. During the afternoon (judgii^ 
by the log) the weather became gradually worse. On 
the morning of February 1st, it is styled threatening; 
and from this period the log is given in detail. The 
brig scudded throughout ; and if we follow her course, 
hour by hour, on the 2nd of February and forenoon of 
the 3rd, we find she sailed in a circle, completing three- 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



257 



quarters of the revolution, in accordance with the sup- chap, 
posed law of storms in the southern hemisphere. But ! — 



the report from a single ship does not afford conclusive ^^?"; 
evidence, and I am not at present aware of any other storm, 
vessel being in this storm. It is most probable that at 
Rodriguez the wind became south-west. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Brig Harrier^ Captain 

Justin Finley. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 
2 
8 



4 
5 
6 

7 



8 

9 

10 

11 



12 



P.M. 
1 



2 
3 



4 
6 



K. 



9 
9 
9 



9 
9 
9 
9 



10 
9 
9 
9 



9 



F. 



9 
9 



9 

9 

I 
9 4 



Courses. 



SW 



Winds. 



NE 



WSW 



SW 
SWbyS 



NE 



Remarks. 



NEbyN 



Sunday, February 1, 1807. 

A.M. Threatening wcamer; in third reef 
of fore-topsail ; heavy rain and the wind in- 
creasing ; sent the top-gallant- yards down ; 
in third reef of main- topsail ; hauled the 
mainsail up, and bent the storm-staysails 
and trysail. 

Strong gales, with heavy squalls and rain. 

Ditto weather ; struck the fore- top- gal- 
lant-mast ; the wind still increasing, found 
it dangerous to attempt striking the main- 
top-giulant-mast ; the vrind blowing so 
strong, sent all the small sails from aloft. 

Strong gales, with heavy rain ; Admiral 
and Java in company. 

Strong gales, with rain ; handed the 
mainsail; close-reefed tbe fore-topsail; 
people employed in clearing the ship and 
lashing the booms. 

Noon. Heavy gales ; Admiral and Java 
in company. 

Course, S 60"* W, distance 225 miles. 

Lat. 21^ 4' S, long. 66° 11' E. 

Rodriguez, N 80^ W, 180 miles. 

P.M. Strong gales ; in fourth reef main- 
topsail ; the gue increasing, with a very 
heavy sea. 

2.30. Hauled up the foresail and reefed 
it; carried away the fore- topmast backstay, 
repeated the knotted, and spliced ditto. 

Blenheim and Java in company. 

The main-topsail-yard was carried away 
in the slings, owing to tbe lift and brace 
giving way ; endeavoured to furl the sail, in 
doing which William Mailtrott was blown 
from the yard and drowned ; cut the sail 
f^om the yard. At 5.20, lost sight of tbe 

Admiral, in a very heavy squaU, bearing 
N W by W, distant half a mile ; and the 
Java, bearing N £ by E, distant a quarter of 
a mile : at this time we were shipping agreat 



Log of the 
Harrier. 



S 



358 



THE BLENHEIMS STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
HAirier. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Brig Harribr — ctrnHnmei. 



Last sig* 
naU of 
the Blen- 
heim. 



Wind 
East. 



Hour. 


K. 


P.M. 


6 


9 


7 


9 


8 


10 


9 


9 


10 


9 


11 


10 


12 


10 



F. 



Courses. 



4 SWbyW 







4 
2 




NNW 



Winds. 



NEbyE 



Remarks. 



ESE 



Sunday, February 1, 1807. 
quantity of water. 6.30. The fore-topnil 
blew away firom the fourth-reefed band ; the 
gale still continued to increase, with nsoat 
violent squalls of wind and rain, the Teasel 
labourina vc»ry much, and the sea striking 
her in sll directions yery heavily ; store 
several half-ports in, and mudi water going 
below ; kept the pumps continually going. 
7.50. The main-royal-mast blew away; 
the ^e increased to a hurricane, and, 
shifting round in tremendous squalls to the 
eaatward, obliged us to keep berare the sea. 



SIGNALS. 



Hour. 



3 

4 



No. 



331 



80 
80 



Wind 
South. 



A.M. 

1 


10 


2 


10 


3 


10 


4 


9 


5 


9 


6 


9 


7 


9 


8 


9 



By whom. 



Blenheim 



do. 
do. 



W 



WbyN 

§N 



















WNW 

NW 
NNW 
WbyN 



N 



To whom. 



Java 



General 
do. 



The ship is overpreased with sail, 
and cannot keep her atation on thai 
account. 

To steer SW. 

To steer S W by S. 

The Blenheim made another aigaal, 
which we could not make oat. 



E 



EbyS 
48 



ESE 

SE 

SSE 

SbyE 



S 



Monday, February 2, 1807. 

A.M. At this time we sldpped a great 
quantity of water, which wadied a graat 
quantityof the shot-boxes to pieces. 

2.10. The ¥dnd flew round nom east to 
south in a most tremendous squall ; kepi 
right before it ; a great quanti^ of water 
in the waist, so aa to aflbct the veMsl'a 
steerage very much ; most of the aUib oa rd 
ports either stove in or washed out, aaalao 
msny of the larboard ones; the aqiiall 
still coming on with greater violetio, and 
a most enormous sea. 

At 3, the fore-staysail blew away. S.49. 
Shipped two eeas, which filled the waistand 
waterlogged the brig for some minutes, 
which caused her tobroach-to ; endeavoued 
to get the fore-sheet aft, but the foresail 
blew away from the yard, leaving the reef ; 
she went off, but did not rise to the sea ; the 
waist being full of water, a great quantity 

going forward she settled down by Ukt 
ead ; sounded the well, found it increased 
from 12 to 30 inches in two minutes ; ho?« 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



259 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Brig Harrier — continued. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

9 
10 
11 



12 



P.M. 



1 

2 
3 



6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

la 



1 

2 
8 

4 
6 
6 
7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



K. 



9 
8 
9 



9 



9 
9 
9 



9 

8 

9 
9 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



6 
5 
6 
6 
2 
3 
4 

4 

7 
8 
6 
8 



F. 



Courses. 







4 




6 






Winds. 



N 



ENE 
E 



E 



WSW 
W 



SE 
S 

sw 



SWbyW 



W 



NW 
Variable 

N 



NE 



Remarks. 



Monday, February 2, 1807. 
the four foremost guns oyerboard, whichre- 
lieyed her much ; hove overboard all the 
round and canister shot on deck ; a great 
quantity of water having lodged in ^e 
wings between decks, got up all the old 
rope and some shot, and tl^ew it over- 
board ; the water in the waist flew with 
such violence from side to side as to wash 
the studding-sails and hammock-cloths, 
which were lashed under the booms, about 
the deck, and in consequence went over- 
board; washed overboard the starboard- 
binnacle and compass. At daylight, blow- 
ing most violently, employed in clearing 
the deck and splicing the risgin^ that was 
chafed through and cut in the night. 

Noon. Strong sale. 

Course, S 67° W ; distance 114 miles 

Lat. observed, 19° 29' S, long. 64** 26' E. 

Rodriguez, S 84° W, 64 miles. 

P.M. Strong gales and cloudy ; carpen- 
ters employed stopping up the ports ; got 
the old mam-topsail-yard on deck and Uie 
remains of the old foresail, and bent the 
new one. 

Ditto weather. 

4.40. Reefed the foresail. 

Strong gales, with squalls ; sent the top- 
gallant-mast down on deck. 

More moderate; the vessel labouring 
very much and shipping great quantities of 
water ; strong gales and cloudy weather. 

Ditto weather. 

Ditto weather. 

Strong gales and cloudy ; the sea much 
agitated. 



Tuesday, February 3, 1807. 
A.M. Strong gales and cloudy, and very 
heavy sea running. 

Ditto weather. 

Fresh gales and cloudy ; set the main- 
staysail, trysail, and mainsail ; bent a new 
fore-topsail ; employed rigging spare main- 
topsail-yard. 

Ditto weather ; split the mainsail. 

Moderate and cloudy. 

Moderate, with small rain. 
Course, N 22^ E, distance 110 miles. 
Lat. 19° 42' S, long, eff" K 
Mauritius, S 83° W, 740 miles. 

~s~2 



CHAP. 
VI, 

Log of the 
Hamer* 



Wind 
West. 



Wind 

North. 



260 



THE BRIDOEWATER STORM. 



CHAP, 
VI. 

Log of the 
Harrier. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. Brig Harrisr — comchidei. 



Bridge- 
water's 
harricaue. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 
2 
3 

4 
6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
U 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



K. 



7 
8 
7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
8 
7 



F. 



Courses. 



• a 






. * 
. a 



* . 



sw 

SWbW 

SbyW 
SSW 

SWbW 
SWbS 



Winds. 



SWbyS 



••SWbyS 






NE 



NE 



NE 



B 



Remarks. 



Tuesday, February 3, 1807. 
P.M. Moderate and cloudy. 



Ditto weather. 

Pointed the main-top-gallast-maat ; In 
third reef main-topsail. 
Ditto weather. 

Moderate, with small rain. 

9.20. Hauled down the main-topmait- 

staysail. 

Ditto weather. 



Wednesday, February 4, 1807. 
A.M. Moderate, with small rain. 



Fresh gales and cloudy, the TSiiel nil* 
ing Tery much. 

Furled the mainsail; in third imC of 
main-topsail. 
Windy looking weather, and tiie tea 

running Tery fast. 



Noon. Ditto weather, & aTerrhflSTyaMU 

Lat. 21° 18' S., long. 62*» 31' E. 

Cape of GK>od Hope, S 71'' W, 2440 milM. 

P.M. Strong gales and squally; got the 
top-gallant-masts down on dedi, eloae 
reefed the topsails, and furled the tea- 
topsail. 

Strong gales and heayr rain ; gottiiej9>- 
boom in, and the spritaail yard fore and aft. 



Squally weather ; thunder and Wghftring 
in the south-east quarter. 

Ditto weather ; a cross sea nmniag. 



The Skip Bridgewater. 

The H.E.I.C.S. Bridgewater, commanded by Cap- 
tain Maunderson, encountered a severe hurricane in 
March, 1830, about lat. 20° 55' S., and long. 90^ E., 
another instance in proof that these storms are not 
always to be avoided on the homeward voyage from 



.^ J 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 261 

India, by keeping a course " well to the eastward of chap. 

Mauritius," as has been supposed by many to be the '- — 

case. The Bridgewater, sailing to the westward, met ^|^f»^ 
the storm with the wind blowing at north-east, and ^«*>^c*a«- 
when it abated the wind was at north-west^ but the 
intermediate points not being stated, a copy of the log 
has not been inserted here. By it we find that a heavy 
swell from the northward preceded the storm. On the 
2nd of March, the barometer was at 29.75. On the 
4th, the wind being easterly, the ship hove-to on the 
larboard tack under the trysail, until that blew to 
pieces; after which she hove-to under bare poles, 
heaving her guns overboard. The barometer fell 
until it was at 28.80, with the wind increasing in vio- 
lence, so that the ship was in much danger of founder- 
ing. After this, gale, the Bridgewater was left with 
only her foremast, and the stump of her mizenmast. 



The Ship Neptune* 

The ship Neptune is another instance of a vessel, on The ship 
her returning voyage from India, falling into a hurri- ^^ 
cane where she receives the wind at north-east : an 
extract from her log is annexed. 

A painting of the Neptune was made by Mr. Hug- 
gins, under the superintendence of her commander, 
Mr. Broadhurst, who assures me the picture does not 
give an exaggerated representation of the state of his 
ship. The sketch here added was reduced by the 
painter himself. The ship appears to have sailed 
onwards until she was dismasted, and then perhaps 
dropped out of the hurricane, by being disabled, and 
left behind as the tempest proceeded on its course. 

* See '* The Progress of the Development of the Law of Storms," page 35. 



262 



THE NEPTUNE 8 STORM. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of the Ship Nbptunb, from Calcatta 

^* towards the Cape of Good Hope, Captain Alfred Broadhurst. — 

Log of the ^^ Nautical Time. 
Neptone. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Bar. 

• 


Ther. 


Remtrks. 


P.M. 












Saturday, January 31, 1836. 
P.M. Breezes, with rain ; 


1 


6 


* 


W by S N EasUyl 


29.86 


81 


2 


6 


4 










yery heayy swell from the 
N W ; ship Tery uneasy. 


3 


6 













4 


6 















6 


6 


4 












6 


6 


4 












7 


6 


4 












8 


6 


4 












9 


6 


4 












10 


6 















11 


6 















12 


6 





a . •• 


NNE 








A.]f. 
















1 


6 





WbyS 










2 


5 





• . • • 


NNW 






A.M. Taken a-back, with a 


3 


3 













smart squall at N W ; carried 
away the boom-iron on the 
starboard fore*yard-ann. 


4 


4 













6 


4 













6 


6 





. • • • 


N 






Much rain. 


7 


4 















8 


4 















9 


4 















10 


4 













Course S 63'' W, diet. 121 m. 


11 


3 













Dept. 109 miles. 


12 

P.M. 


3 





• • • • 


. • • • 


29.82 




Lat. 22^ 30' 8, long. 68" 20^ E. 


Sunday, February 1, 18)5. 


1 


3 





w§s 


Nortb»y. 






P.M. Cloudy, with heayy 


2 


3 


4 










north-westeriy swdl ; wind 


3 


2 













increasing, latterly with a Tery 


4 


2 












heaTT swell at north-weat; 
the snip rolling and labouiBg 


6 


2 












6 

7 


2 
2 












yery heayily. 


8 


2 












% 


9 


3 















10 


3 















11 


4 















12 


5 





• • • • 


E 






Midnight. Fresh breen, and 
sea gettmg up. 


A.M. 
















1 


5 





w§s 










2 


6 















3 


5 















4 


6 















6 


6 















6 


6 















7 


7 















8 


7 















9 


7 
















* The barometer on the preyious day had been 29. 98 inches. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



263 



Extract from the Log of the Neptune — continued. 






Hour. 



A.M. 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



A.M. 

1 

2 



8 

4 



K. 



7 
7 
7 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 



9 
9 

9 

8 



F. 



Counes. 



Winds. 



SbWiS 



E 



Bar. 



Ther. 



WbyS ENE 



WbyS 



29.77 80 



29. 74 

29.72 

29. 70. 

I 

29. 68; 

29. 62: 
29.65 



ENE 



ONtoNW 



ENE 



29.60 
29.46 

I 

29. 42 
29.40 



29.36 



Remarks. 



Sunday, February 1, 1836. 
Altered course to ease the 
rolling. 
Course, S 6r W, dist. 111m. 
Dept. 102 miles. 
Lat. 23° 36' S, long. 66° 23'E. 



Monday, February 2, 1836. 

P.M. Fresh easterly breeze 
and hazy. 

Wind increasing, with a 
heavy sea from N E ; down 
royal yards, hauled top-gal- 
lant-sails, double-reefed the 
mizen-topsails, and ^ot every- 
thing as snug as possible aloft ; 
battened domrn tne hatches. 

Midnight. Fresh gales, with 
frequent hard squalls and 
heavy rain ; sea running very 
high and cross ; ship labouring 
heavily ; handed the foresail. 

At 2, gale increasing; the 
ship labouring violently, and 
shipping a great quantity of 
water. 

At 4, gale still increasing; 
turned the hands out to take 
in the topsails ; a furious 
squall from NNE split the 
fore and main-topsails, and 
carried away every vestige of 
running rigging. By daylight it 
blew a most furious hurricane, 
every sail blown from the yards, 
although the courses were se- 
cured by extra gaskets and 
studding-sidl- tacks. The hur- 
ricane sUll increasing with tre- 
mendous fury, the sea running 
terrifically hi^h, causing the 
ship to labour m a most violent 
manner : at times the lee-side 
and hammock-nettings com- 
pletely buried In the water for 
some minutes ; found the water 
increasing in the well to 30 in. 

6.30. Shipped a very heavy 
seaon thelart>oard side,and the 
immense weight of water rush- 
ing over the fore hatches tore 
off the tarpaulin, and a very 
large quantity of water got 
below into the lower deck, 
before the hatches could be 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Neptune. 






/. 



THE NEPTUNE S STORM. 



Extract from the Log of the Niptunk — coMltMiud. 



Hour. 


K. 


F. 


Coluw;». 


Winds. 


Bar. 


rhcT. 


Remuki. 


A.H. 














Mond»j. pBbnupj 3, 18M. 


6 








NtoNW 


ENE 


J9.35 




aecured again ; an old aail, 
Ihrn timea doubled, and an 
extra larp.ulin, wara qnu^y 
battened orer them. 


6 












2|.30 




At 6, a heavy blut blew 
away the foro-topmaat, the 
jLb-bmim, and the apritaaiU 
ysrdi the water in the wdl 
































T 











29. ii 




At 7, the main-topmaat waa 
blown o.er the Mde, and. eap- 
aizing the mainlop alon^ with 
it,c»rriedaw«yallth«ftittoEk. 


B 












20.20 


















fhioudi on the atarbouti aide, 
















and Ktarted it up &om the 
tratael tree,. With the heavy 
rolling of theahip, ailed both 


9 












































tlie quuter-boata, which were 
















tornolear away from thed«»il». 


10 

It 















■29. 18 
2B.I6 




At 10, blowing a nuMt fa- 

and N, and the an ^ time* 

ovorua; and we were appie- 
heniiTe, b^m the oootiimcd 
quantity of water in the will. 




. 


_ 











that the ahip would no down. 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



265 



Extract from the Log of the Neptune — concluded. 



Hoar. 



A.M. 

12 



K. 



P.M. 
1 



3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



F. 











NtoNW 












Courses. 



upNW 
oflfW 



Winds. 



Bar. 



Ther. 



ENE 29.15 



ENE 



:o 



jo 





I 
|0 

















,0 







iO 



headfr.S ENE 29.10 
toSE 

29.10 



29.10 
29.10 
29.10 
,29. 12 
29. 15; 
29.18 



head fr.S 
toSE 



from 
S W b W 

to 
Sby W 



29.20 



ENE 29.20 

i 

.... 29. 30 

I 

.... 29. 30 

I 

.... 29. 40 

I 

.... ,'29. 45 



• • t 



29.60 



■ • • • 



29. 75 



29. 90 



29. 90 



Remarks. 



Monday, February 2, 1835. 
Noon. A slight lull; sent 
hands aloft to cut and dear 
away the wreck. 



Tuesday, February 3, 1835. 

P.M. Qale still blowing, 
with great violence. 

At 2, the hurricane suddenly 
abated, and it soon fell calm, 
causing the ship to labour 
dreadfully. 

At 4, with dark, dismal ap- 
pearance and constant rain. 

At 5, calm; a heavy sea 
struck us, and stove in the 
quarter- gallery. 



At 8, a fresh breeze sprung 
up from the W, and blew harcU 



A.M. At 2, more moderate. 



Moderate, and the sea going 
down; held a consultation 
with the chief officer, and, 
considering it impracticable 
to run for the Cape, consi- 
dered it best to run for the 
Isle of France, to repair. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Neptune. 



Wednesday. February 4, 1835. 
Lat. observed, 24° 29' S. 
A.M. Chron. 64" 35' E. 
Bar. 30. 10. ITier. 78°. 



Thursday. Ftbruary 5, 1835. 
Bar. 30.15. 



266 



The Ship Ganges. 

CHAP. The Ganges crossed the equator on the Slst of 

'- — December, 1836, and had scarcely entered upon south 

latitude before she experienced bad weather, which 
continued until the 7th of January, on which day she 
had a gale. By the log of the Ganges it will be seen 
that the Thalia, of Liverpool, was dismasted not &r 
from this ship ; and the log is printed because it may, 
perhaps, be the means of tracing a hurricane nearer to . 
the equator than has been yet done. 

Log of the Extract from the Log of the Ship Ganges, Capt. A. BroadhiirBt, 
Ganges. ^^^ ^Yhq Mauritius towards St. Helena.— In Nautical ITime. 



Hour. 


1 
K, F. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


1 
Bar. 


Ther. 


Remarks. 












December 31. 1836. 


P.M. 


• • • • 


• . • • 


. • . . 


29.83 


83 P.M. Light, yariable breent. | 
















Lat. 0** 10' N, long. 83^ r E. 


January 1, 1837. 








S£ by S 


WNW^ 29.80 


82 


P.M. Variable throoghoiit. 
















with some squalls and rain. 
Lat. 0*" 20" S, long. WVK 


P.M. 
















January 2, 1837. 


1 


• • 


• • 


SbyE 


North»r 29. 76 


82 


P.M. Squally ; wuid Ttria- 


9 


• • 


• • 


• • > • 


N\V 




bly northerly and north-iPM- 


10 


• • 


• • 


SSE 








terly; hard squalls and heavy 


11 


• • 


• • 


• . • • 


NW7 






rain; latterly, a Urge, con- 
fused sea ; sMp labouiing and 
straining violently, and ih^ 


A.M. 














ping much water. 


1 


• • 


• • 










A.M. Atl.30,heaTTsq[iiaI]a; 
split the fore- topsail ; ftizled 




























it ; ship lurching hearily and 
















shipping much water. 
















At daylight, more moderate; 
















hoisted the main-topsail, and 
















set the jib. 


8 1 • . 

1 


• . 


. • « « 


NW 






At 8, violent squalls ; wind 
N W, with heavy squalls ; split 
the jib in hauling it down. 




1 




! Lat.a^'e'S, long.83^42'B. 



. .^ 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



267 



Extract from the Log of the Ganges — continued. 



Hoar. 



K. 



P.M. 

10 



^ 



A.1C. 

1 

4 

6 

Noon. 



P.X. 

1 

3 

liidn. 

A.M. 



P.M. 

1 

4 
7 

11 

A.M. 

1 

4 

6 

11 



P.M. 

1 

A.M. 

2 



F. 












Counes. 



S 



S 



SSE 



s 






Winds. 



NW 



NW 



NW 



Bar. 



29.79 



29.79 



NNW 



SW light 

NW 



Ther. 



29.77 



NW7 



NW 



29.70 



80 



80 



80 



82 



Remaiks. 



January 3, 1837. 

P.M. Fresh breeze. 

Hard squalls. 

At 10, frequent hard squalls 
and heavy rain ; throughout a 
high, confused sea; ship la- 
bouring yiolently. 

A.M. At 1» light breeze and 
fine ; less sea. 

At 4y squally and rain. 

At 6, moderate ; less sea. 

Noon. Squally. 

Lat. 4° 14^ S, long. SS** 67f E. 



January 4, 1837. 

P.M. Squally. 

At 3, hard squalls. 

Midnight. Moderate and 
cloudy ; a high sea on. 

A.M. At 2.30, hard squalls 
from the N W ; in all sail but 
topsails. 

At 3, moderate ; hobted 
topsails again; the weather 
throughout this log has had a 
yery gloomy, suspicious ap- 
pearance, but the barometer 
continues steady. 

Lat. 6*» 3' S, long. 83« 63' E. 



January 6, 1837. 

P.M. Hard NW squall and 
heayyrain; a high, confused 
sea ; ship lurching heayily. 

At 7» lightning in the south- 
ward. 

Hard NW squall, heayyrain. 

A.M. At 1, squally, with 
constant, heayy rain. 

At 6, moderate ; made sail. 

Cloudy, threatening appear- 
ance. 

Lat. r 6(y S, long. 84^ E. 



January 6, 1837. 

P.M. Moderate breeze, in- 
creasing with strong N. Wes- 
terly squalls. 

A.M. At 2, in top- gallant 
sails and jib ; handed the 
mainsail. 

At 5, squally ; heayy sea. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Ganges. 



268 



THE GANGES STORM. 



CHAP. 
VI. 

Log of the 
Ganges. 



Extract from the Log of the Gangks — cMiimted. 




A.M. 

9 
Noon 



P.M. 



6 
Midn. 

Noon 



K. F. 



P.M. 

•ti 

6 

Midn. 
Day'* 



A.M. 

6 



Courses. 



S 



S 

Head fr. 
Why 8 



• • • • 



• • . • 



Winds. 



NW 



WNW 



Bar. 



29.70 



29.60 



NNW 



NNW 



SWbW 

to 
SW b S 

S 



SbyW 



NW 



29.70 



Ther. 



82 



82 



81 



Remarkf. 



January 6, 1837. 

At 9, squaUy ; heavy 

Noon. The weather haThig a 

TexT threatening appearance, 

and the barometer fidhng, 

down top-gaUant masta aiul 

yards on deck, and housed the 

mizen-topmast, as I am now 

apprehensive of a hurricane. 

Lat. 9'' 38' S, long. Si"" 9' E. 



January 7, 1837. 

P.M. Increasing, with very 
suspicious, threatening ap- 
pearance, a high sea, and the 
ship labouring Tiolently ; bik 
rometer at 3 p.m. 29. 60, and 
falling ; pumped ship ei^taen 
inches; handed fore-topaail, 
and rounded two under the 
main one. 

At 4, heaTT squalla ; handed 
main-topsail imd secured all 
sails with extra gasketa. 

At 6, blowing hard, with 
furious squaUa u»d heavy xain 
and a high sea. 

Biidnight. Blowing a heavy 
gale, with ahigh, croaa, eoofii- 
sedtea; ship laboaring heavi^. 

Daylight, heavy gala aiid 
violent squalla. 

Noon. Ditto weather; the 
barometer fell to 29. 66, whieh 
was the lowest, and it nae 
towards noon *o 29. 60. 

Lat. lO"* 16' S, long. 84^21' B. 



January 8, 1837. 
P.M. Hard NW gate. 

At 6, more moderate. 

At 6.30, bore up aoQtht and 
set the foresail to eaaa the 
violent motion of the ah^ 

Midnight. More 
and less sea. 

Daylight, moderate, wi^ 
dark, squally, threatening ^- 
pearance. 

A.M. At 6. 

Durinff the forenoon the wea- 
ther still looks suspicions snd 
the barometer has hastily 
risen. 

Lat. 1 1° 10' S, long. 8i''30'S. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



269 



Extract from the Log of the Ganges — concluded. 



Hour. 



T.U, 



K. 



P.X. 

1 



F. 



P.X. 

6.4^ 






Courses. 



SbyW 



SWbyS 



SWbS 



Winds, 



NNW 



North^y 



Variable 



Bar. 



29.73 



29.76 



29.78 



Ther. 



80 



84 



84 



6 



SSE 



29.78 



29.80 



84 



83 



Remarks. 



January 9, 1837. 
P.M. More moderate ; 
high, cross, confused sea. 



a 



Moderate and fine ; swell im- 
abated; set the main-topsail 
double reefed. 

Lat 13« 4' S, long. 84^ 22' E. 



January 10, 1837. 
P.M. Light breeze, decreas- 
ing latterly, but squally ap- 
pearance; a heavy, confused 
sweU throughout. 

Lat. 14° 7' S, long. 84® E. 



January 11, 1837. 
Light airs and fine, with 
con&sed swell. 

Lat 14° 17' S, long. 83*» 40'E. 



January 12, 1837. 
Light airs and calm. 

Lat. 14** 26' 8, long' 83** 43^ E. 



CHAP. 
VL 

Log of the 
Ganges. 



January 13, 1837. 

P.M. At 5.45, saw a ship 
S by E ; standing north as we 
neared her, observed she had 
lost her mizenmast and top- 
masts; backed the mainyard 
to speak to her, and to oficr 
her assistance. 

At 6, spoke the stranger, the 
Thalia, of Liverpool, bound to 
Calcutta; informed us she 
had lost her masts in a violent 
hurricane on the 7th inst. (the 
day we had the gale), in lat. 
12^ S, long. 85° £ ; she had 
been hove-to under bare poles 
for nine hours before her masts 
were blown away; she was 
going tight and all well ; of- 
fered to render assistance, but 
it was not required. 

Lat. W S, long. 82*^ 10*. 



Met the 
Thalia. 



k 



270 THE GANGES* STORM. 

CHAP. In this Chapter several examples have been given, 

in succession, in which ships seem to plunge into the 

storms on their east side ; and the orders of the Dutch 
East India Company, which are quoted by Horsburgh 
in his sailing directions, would appear to have reference 
to ships encountering rotatory gales in this manner. 
Horsburgh's statement is as follows: "When the 
wind, at south-east, or east-south-east, shifted to north- 
eastward, the Dutch commanders were directed by 
the Company to take in the mainsail. If lightning 
appeared in the north-west quarter, they were to wear 
and shorten sail ; for in the first case they expected a 
hard gale at north-west; and, if lightning was seen 
in that direction, they thought tlie gale would com- 
mence by a sudden shift or whirlwind, which might 
be fatal if taken aback/' — £ast India Sailing Diree- 
tionsy vol. i. p. 83. 




271 



sea. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ON TYPHOONS IN THE CHINESE SEA, AND ON THE 

HURRICANES OF INDIA. 

This Chapter will contain such accounts of Typhoons chap. 
in the China seas as I have been able to procure. ' 

They are neither in suflBicient number nor suflBiciently Typhoons 
connected to be satisfactory : so far as they go, how- f]^"^®«® 
lever, they exhibit the same character as the storms of 
north latitude already traced ; and they may serve to 
create an interest for more extensive inquiry into the 
subject. 

The H. C. S. Bridgewater,* Captain Maunderson, 
was lying at Canton on the 9th of August, 1829, 
when she was driven on shore by the violence of the 
wind, and obliged to cut away her masts. At the com- 
mencement of the hurricane the wind was northerly, 
veering to the east, then becoming east-south-east, and 
ending at south-east; by which it may be inferred 
that the ship was in the northern or right hand semi- 
circle of this storm. 

At the same period the H. C. S. Charles Grant was 
approaching Canton from the southward ; and on the 
night of the same 9th of August, we find by her log, 
she had the wind in the opposite direction, with squalls 
and rain, and that she struck her royal masts and 
yards, and split her main-topsail. It may be supposed 
she was in the southern or left-hand portion of the 
same storm. 

* The same ship as that mentioned at page 260. 




272 



TYPHOONS IN NORTH LATITUDE. 



CHAP. 

vn. 



The barometer, on board the Bridgewater, fell to 

29.17; on board the Charles Grant it fell to 29.40. 

Typhoons The longitude of this last ship is not given; but we 

nete sea. may presume she was on or near the same meridian 

as Canton. 



Log of the Extract from the JiOg of H. C. S. Bridokwatbr, 
^^" Maunderson, lying at Canton in China. Lat «2° 41' N.j 

long. 113° 46' E. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

2 
3 

7 

8 

9 



10 



Noon 



P.M. 

2 
Midn. 



A.M. 

1 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Northi*y 



Easterly 



ESE 



Bar. 



faU- 

ing 

aalck- 

ly 

29.30 



SE 



29.17 



Bemarks. 



August 9, 1829. 

LintenPeak,N|Wabout4milet; Peak 
of Lantoa, S E. 

West point of Tungpoa, N B by E i B. 

Wind, first part Tariable, firom tha north- 
ward, and squally. 

A.M. Gayethe ship half the cable 

Weather still squally ; wind 
and barometer falling quickly. 

Struck top-gallant-Tards ; lowered the 
masts, and gave her tne whole cable. 

Barometer, 29. 30, and on the dedine; 
got the flying-jib-boom in. 

Blowing hard, and reering to tlit eait* 
ward. JPound the ship driTing . Let go 
the small bower, and brought up with two 
anchors a-head. 

Wind ESE with Tiolent gusta, in oat of 
which parted the smidl bower; dropped the 
sheet, and veered away upon both cahlat; 
brought the ship up with four 

Noon. Barometer 29. 17, with ▼«▼ thick 
weather. Typhoon still increasing. Hove&a 
the small bower-cable which hadpatad»Mid 
bent it to the spare anchor; pw paf e d to 
strike the lower yards ft topmasts; tlktah^ 
again driving, and beins in only fon] " " 
water, near the edge of Linten Sand 
no chance of bringing the ahip up, 
Maunderson consulted with the flitt 
second officers, when it was deei 
lutely necessary to cut away the maeli to 
save the ship, which was done inslntfly. 
Let go the spare anchor. The ship : 
brought up in 3| fathom on mait mwL 

P.M. Wind decreasing. 

Midnight. Moderate. 









August 10, 1829. 
Wind S £, with passing squalla aad 



. .;JU 



TYPHOONS IN THE CHINESE SEA. 



273 



Extract from the Log of H. C. S. Charles Grant^ from 

England towards China. 



Hour. 



I 

6 
8 



10 

P.M. 

8 
9 



A.M. 
I 
8 

6 
11 
IS 

P.M. 
1 

8 

4 

6 

8 

10 



Counes. 



.... 
• . • • 



>• • ( 



Winds, 



RemarkB. 



EbyS 



WbyN 
NWbW 



Saturday, August 8, 1829. 

A.M. Hazy. 

Light airs. 

Light airs, S by W in the first part; middle 
easterly airs and calms; in the latter an in- 
creasing breeze at N W. 

Light airs and calms. 

P.M. Cloudy. 

A.M. Scrubbed hammocks, and washed the 
gun deck ; Lady Melville in company. 
Lat. obserred, IT^S^'N. ; Bar. 29.66 ; Ther. 86°. 
(Signed) JOSEPH COATBS. 



NW 

NWbN 

W 

WbyS 






Sunday, August 9, 1829. 

A.M. Fresh breezes. 

Cloudy. 

In first and second ree& topsails. 

Rain. 

Midnight. Handed fore and mizen topsails. 



Throughout a strong breeze and cloudy wea- 
ther, with squalls and rain. 

Struck royal masts and yards. 
Tip foresail. 

Split the main-topsail ; shifted with the second 
bMt. 
Lat. obseryed, none; Bar. 29.40; Ther. S3^. 



CHAP. 

vn. 

Log of the 

Charles 

Grant. 



The Raleigh's Hurricane. 

A storm passed over the same place on the 5th and 
6th August, 1835 ; and in the ^^ Asiatic Journal " there 
18 the following short account of it. 

** A tjrphoon was experienced in the China Seas on the 5th and 
Ml Angost, 1835, during which the following vesi^ suffered : — 

The Danish brig Maria, totally wrecked on Pootoy. 

H. M. S. Raleigh, Captain Quin, dismasted, and in great 
danger of foundering. 

British brig Watkins, Whiteside, dismasted under Lantao. 

Brig Governor Finlay, Kenedy, dismasted among the 
iflbuids. 



Ml 



*€ 



€t 



tt 



274 



THE RALEIGH S STORM. 



CHAP. 

vn. 



'' Brig Ccenr de Lion, Glover, on shore on the Typa. 
" American brig Kent, dragged her anchors in the Comsing- 
-. P^ moon, and was carried by the swell one mile over a ledge of 
Idgh's rocks. 

hurricant. "Many Chinese junks have been dismasted; many houses 
in Macao have been greatly damaged ; and many lives lost in 
the inner harbour, where many vessels were also driven on 
shore.'* 



tMl 




45 



1—. 



SchcMir 



Bay 




ttj 



/%0 



TYPHOONS IN THE CHINESE SEA. 



275 



The Raleigh sailed from Macao on the Ist of chap. 

VII 

August, 1835. On the 4th, the barometer was falling; ! 

and in the afternoon, the wind veered round to the ?^® ?*" 

' Jeigh s 

N.N.E., when the storm set in. The barometer con- i^^Jfricane. 
tinned to fall until it was at 28.20, and soon after this 
the ship upset. The master's log speaks of the vessel 
as being "keel out;" and the greater part of the 
officers and ship's company were upon the weather 
larboard broadside for twenty minutes. 

A three masted schooner, commanded by Mr. 
Bennett, met with this hurricane, on the 5th of 
August, in lat. 18° 2' S., and long. 115° 50' E. : but 
this schooner's log has not yet arrived from India. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Raleigh, Captain Quin, at 
anchor in Macao Roads, from whence she sailed on the 1st of 
August, 1835.— In Civil Time. 




of the 
eigh. 



Hour. 


Counet. 


Winds. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Kemarks. 


▲.M. 








August 4, 1835. 


1 


•• •• 


Variable 








8 


• • • • 


NbyE 


29.60 




Barometer 29. 60, and falling ; in 
fore and main-top-gallant-aail. 


10 










Close-reefed topsails and courses. 


Noon 


• • • • 


• • • • 


29.45 




Down top-gallant-mast and yards. 


12.30 










Barometer fell from noon . 15 ; 
took in sail as usual. 


6 


• • a • 


North'y 






Split the fore-staysail. 


T.U. 












7.80 


. • . • 


SE 






The wind veered round to N N E, 
when a heavy typhoon commenced. 


8 


• • • . 


NNE 


29.36 




Ship, falling off, made a lurch, and 
took in so much water that had not 
the hatches been battened down, the 
consequences must have been fatal ; 
it was with the greatest difficulty 
she righted: typhoon increasing, 
unbent main-trysail.* 


10 


• • • • 


NE 






At 10. P.M., close-reefed the fore- 
trysail and set it ; typ^o^^n veering 
gradually round to E N E, with a 






















heavy sea. 



Hurri- 






cane com- 






mences. « 












* • 

9 


, 1 












Ca 



• Portions have been omitted, which only relate to taking in sail. 



/ .V A ^ ■ 

/ 

/ 



t^ r \f f ftx 



L 



c 



276 



THE RALEIGH 8 STORM. 



CHAP. 

vn. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Raleigh — eondbuM. 



Log oft] 
BaltiglL. 



the 



Centra of 
•tonn. 



Hour. 



A.1C 

11 

Midn. 



A.K. 

2 

8 

6 

6.80 



9.80 



9.50 
10 



Noon 



P.M. 



1 
7 



Coonet. 



. • • . 



• « * * 

• • . • 

• • •• 

• • • • 



• • . • 



Winds. 



EhrN 
ESS 
SE f 

...» ^ 



SEiS 



SSE 
Soatbei>7 



Bar. 



Ther. 



29.04 



29.06 
28.30 
28.20 



Remarks. 



Aii^t 4, 1885. 
Ship making sneh 
lurches, in fcMre-trysail : tjpluxm 
increasing. 



August 5, 1885. 
At 8, typhoon Teered round to 
E 8 E, stuf increaalng in iiol«iee ; 
and at 8, the barometer 29.5 and fill- 
ing ; at 6.80, barometer lUUng from 
28.30 to 28.20, oommeneed throwing 
earronades, slides, and shot awm* 
board ; at 8 am. typhoon Infrsasing, 
reliered shipof remainingoaiiODMles, 
except the 7th carronMe larboard. 
(The eutter on larboard qnntsr Iksld 
so much ef typhoon, and teriaf the 
boat might be finroed up ihm Blaan 
rigging, or £U1 in-board and increase 
ship's danser, cut her away.) At 
9.30, the snip made a very deep lee 
lurch, and at the same time was 
struck by a heavy weather sen; the 
tyjDhoon blowing, if possible, ^Ak 
stall greater tarj; the ahh^ wmtt 
oyer, and carried away bo£ iHmsI 
ropes and lelieying tadde; In tide 
awful situation, the ahip lay far aboot 
twenty minutes, with the m^or pvt 
of officers and ship's eompaay on 
her weather larboara broadside^ who, 
with the most praiseworUry finnlnws 
and actiyity, succeeded m entdag 
the lanyards of ba^Lstays and low 
rigf^ing ; 9.50, the masta and bow- 

Snt went by the board, and H. 
ajeaty's sloop rioted, with tar 
feet water in her hold. 
Lat. 20*' 44', long. 119^ R. 

People employed ^Hnrfaig tibe 
wreck. 

Obseryed the typhooQ to 
a little. At 6, typhoon 
rate, strong guMa of wfaid, yHth a 
heayy sea mm the southward. 

The pinnace and aeoond gig wws 
cut a-drift, and floated oat of the 
ship while she was on her beam ands, 
or more properly speakinc, kml-md: 
all anchors saVed, two long goaa 
9-pounders, one 82, and one IS* 
pounder earronades, and a ioUy^boat 
on the poop larbcMurd sioia aafed; 
but in all other r e spect s, a 
sweep on her upper deck. 



TYPHOONS IN THE CHINESE SEA. 



277 



Since the first edition of this work was printed, chap. 

YU, 

Mr. Redfield has published some further accounts, rela- — r — '—. 
tive to the Raleigh's Hurricane, which will be found 
at page 8 of the " Nautical Magazine " for January, 
1839. I abstract from this account the following 
tables of the barometer, at Macao and at Canton. 
Canton is distant about sixty miles north of Macao. 
The difference in the fall of the barometer at these 
places is very remarkable, and strikingly indicates the 
greater depression near the centre of a hurricane. 



August 5th. 
li. nu Barom. 

1. Oa.k 29.47 

S.80P.K 29.28 



5. 
7.20 
9. 
10.20 
10.46 
11. 6 
11.80 
11.58 



0.15 
0.80 
0.45 
1.20 
1.25 
1.45 



*f 



ft 



f» 



»t 



f» 



tt 



>» 



»f 



29. 20 
.29.12 
.29.08 
.28.96 
28.90 
28.85 
28.75 
28.65 



August 6th. 



t» 



»» 



»f 



»» 
»» 



28.60 

28.40 

28.30 

(lowest) 2S. 06 

28.08 

28.20 



August 6th. 
h. in. Bftzoiu. 

1. 66 A.K 28. 80 



2. 
2.26 
2.45 
8.10 
3.40 
4.10 
4.45 
5.15 
6. 
6.45 
7.46 
8.16 
8.46 
9.30 
10.25 

11. 
2. 0P.M 29.42 



f> 



ff 



>» 



t» 



»f 



»9 



• > 



f> 



ft 



»t 



ff 



ff 



ff 



ff 



..28.37 
..28.56 
.28.68 
.28.75 
. . 28. 83 
.28.90 
.28.97 
.29.02 
.29.08 
. 29. 12 
.29.20 
. 29. 21 
.29.23 
. 29. 27 
.29.80 
.29.34 



After which the barometer continued rising to 29.65^ at which 
point it nsoally stands during fine weather.— C5wi/o« Register, 
August 15. 

The following is an account of the state of the 
barometer and winds at Canton : 



Hour. 
Oa.k. 
4 p.m. 



9 A.K. 

4p.k. 



. • 



Barom. 
29.79 
29.70 

29.62 
29.64 
29.37 



Wmd. 
N.W 
N.byW. 

N.&N.W. 
Unsettled. 
N. 



August 4th. 
Fine weather. 
Moderate breeze. 

August 6th. 
Fair weather. 
Kain and fteik breese. 
Blowing hard and in heaTj gusti. 




278 THE Raleigh's storm. 



CHAP. Hour. 

vn. 5 A.M. 

n . . ft 


Barom. 

. . 29. 34 
. . 29. 51 
. . 29. 68 
.. 29.70 
. . 29. 85 

. . 29. 94 


Wind. 
. . N.E. 
. . S.E. 
. . S.E. < 
. . tS.Ei. 
. . S.E. 

• • S.E. • 


August 6th. 
Blowing hfrd with heaTj rain. 


11 » 

5 P.M. 

11 » 

8 a.m. 


• • tt tt tt 

, . Blowing hard,— mod«nting. 

> • ft tt tt 

» . t9 tt tf 

August 7th. 
. Cloudj. 



By the Raleigh's log it is seen that her barometer 
began to fall at noon on the 4th of August; soon 
after which period the storm set in, at the place where 
she was. It was nearly twenty-four hours afterwards 
before the storm reached Macao. An American ship, 
called the Lady Hayes, under weigh not fieir from 
Macao, met the wind at north. This vessel then stood 
on a south-easterly course, with as much sail as she 
could carry; and she had the wind veering from 
north to west, and then to south. 

Another American ship, called the Levant, which 
arrived at Macao on the 7th of August, coming from 
the southward, felt nothing whatever of this storm. 



If the tracks of these typhoons are similar to those 
of the West India hurricanes, they will generally come 
to Canton from the direction of the Philippine Islands. 
An extract from the log of H.M.S. Crocodile is added; 
that vessel having experienced a hurricane in Manilla 
Bay, on the night of the 23rd of October, 1831. 

An account, in the " Asiatic Journal," of this horri- 
cane at Manilla, states that the young leaves of the 
" paddy fields" were turned yellow by the falling rain ; 
and that some other fields of rice, either by the rise of 
the tide, or from the salt water, which the wind caught 
up and conveyed to them in showers, were completely 
whitened. 



COLONEL CAPPER S WHIRLWINDS. 



279 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Crocodi le, Captain R. Bancroft, CHAP. 

at ManiUa.— In Civil Time. '""ntT' 

liOg of the 
Crocodile. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 








October 22, 1831. 


▲.M. 


• • . . 


ENE 


A.M. Light wind and cloudy. 


F.M. 






P.M. Light wind and fine ; latter part, mode- 
rate breezes. 

• 


October 23, 1881. 


▲.M. 


• . a • 


NE 


A.M. Light wind and cloudy. 


P.M. 






P.M. Moderate and cloudy feather. 
Sunset, increasing breeze ana cloudy, veering 














more northward. 


7 






At 7, veered to seventy-five fathoms, and 
ranged the best bower. 


8 


. . • • 


N 


At 8.30, the ship drove, let go the best bower ; 
pointed yards to the wind, and struck top- 
gallant-masts ; earned away the main-top- 
gallant-mast, by its being swayed through the 














cross-trees. 


11 






At 11, the t3rphoon very heavy and the sea 
high; at 11.20, the ship again drove, veered 
out the whole of the best bower, which brought 
her up ; at this time the first gig was washed 
away from the quarter. 


man. 


• 




At midnight, the humcane very severe, with 
heavy rain and high sea ; bent the sheet cable 














over all, not being able to get it out of the 








hawse-hole. 


October 24, 1831. 


A.K. 


. • . • 


Nby W| A.M. Typhoon very heavy, with incessant 
I rain and high sea. 


1 






At 1.40, Its extreme rage abated, and shifted 






NE 


to the N E ; the sea became less violent, and 
the ship rode more easily; but very heavy 
squalls. 



Colonel Capper^s Whirlwinds. 
The late Colonel James Capper's opinion, that hur- 
ricanes are vast whirlwinds, was formed during twenty 
years' observation and study of the subject, on the 
coast of Coromandel. In the preface to his work, pub- 
lished in 1801, he says, that when he first attempted 
an investigation into the winds in India, he had great 
doubts of success, from the number and variety of 



280 COLONEL capper's whirlwinds. 

CHAP, them : but as he proceeded, he found that there were 

' many words to express the same thing, and that the 

hurricane, the typhoon, and the tornado were but 

English, Greek, or Persian, and Italian or Spanish 

names, for a whirlwind. 

In classing the winds, he observes, ^* the tempest is, 
both in cause and effect, the same as the hurricane or 
whirlwind ; and that the storm, or what the English- 
man calls a hard gale, is likewise nearly the same." 
He also stat^, that it is a long standing error that 
hurricanes in India occur only at the changes of the 
monsoons ; and that Dr. Halley must have been mis- 
informed on that subject. 

There is this difference in the observations of 
Colonel Capper and Mr. Redfield, that the former 
seemed of opinion that all whirlwinds are local and 
temporary, whilst Mr. Redfield has clearly shown that 
they are progressive. It is not improbable, however, 
that some storms are local, and end nearly at the same 
place where they began. 

The accounts of those storms, quoted by Colonel 
Capper, extracted from " Orme*s History," all oc- 
curred on the coast of Coromandel : but the reports 
given of some of the winds, though they may show 
that these hurricanes were whirlwinds, are not suffi- 
ciently detailed to enable us to determine their tracks, 
and from what directions (if they were not local) they 
came. 

The following are extracts from Colonel Capper's 
work on the winds and monsoons. 

Pondi- " During the siege of Pondicherry, at the time of the N.E. 



cherry monsoon, and on the 30th of December, 1760, the weather 

hurncftnCf 

X760. fiae in the evening ^ but a heavy swell rolled on the shore ftoin 



COLONEL CAPPERS WHIRLWINDS. 281 

tlie south-east. The next morning the sky was of a dusky hue, jC H A F. 
accompanied by a closeness of the air 5 but without that wild ^1* 
irregularity which prognosticates a hurricane. Towards the 
evening, however, the wind freshened from the north-west, and at 
8 at night increased considerably. About midnight the wind 
veered round to the north-east; fell calm with a thick hazej 
and, in a few minutes, flew round to the south-east, whence it 
blew with great violence. Almost all the ships might have been 
saved had they taken advantage of the wind blowing off the 
land ; but the roaring of the wind and sea prevented the cap- 
tains from hearing the signals for standing out to sea. The 
Newcastle and Protector were driven on shore, a few miles south 
of Pondicherry, and the crews were saved. The Norfolk, Admiral 
Stevens, returned next day ; and on the 7th, came in the Salis- 
bury, from Trinco, Trincomalee, south; and the Tiger, from 
Madras, north : so that in these opposite directions, of east, 
north, and south, the violence of the storm had not been felt. 

^The next in succession was that of 1773 3 on the 20th of Madras 
October that year, many days after the north-east monsoon had ^21?*^*°®' 
apparently commenced, the wind began to slacken, and the 
clouds in the evening appeared uncommonly red, particularly 
on the day preceding the storm. On the morning of the 21st, a 
strong wind blew off the land; and, in the course of a few hours, 
flew all round the compass. At this time the Norfolk, man-of- 
war. Admiral Cornish, with the America and Weymouth, and 
the Princess Charlotte, country ship of 400 tons, remained in 
Madras Roads, with several other country vessels. The wind 
began to blow from the north-west, and continued from that 
quarter for three or four hours, of which time the men of war 
availed themselves to put to sea ; but it then suddenly shifted to 
the eastward, and prevented most of the country ships from 
following their example. After having blown with incessant 
violence for fourteen hours, and with almost equal strength from 
every point of the compass, it at length ceased, but literally left 
only wrecks behind. 

** All the vessels at anchor were lost, and almost every person 
on board perished ; but the men-of-war and Princess Charlotte 
returned into the Roads on the 24th. The former had felt the 
gale very severely whilst near the coast, but without sustaining 
any material injury : the latter vessel likewise, from staying 
rather too long at anchor, had lost her fore and main masts, and 
was otherwise much damaged.*' 



282 COLONEL capper's whirlwinds. 

CHAP. From the Admiralty I obtained copies of the log- 

books of the Norfolk, the Salisbury, Tiger, York, and 

other ships of Admiral Stevens' squadron of 1760-1. 
At Pondicherry Roads this storm began about N.N.W., 
and ended about S.S.E. 

The Tiger, as well as the Salisbury, York, and 
Weymouth, were all to the southward of Pondicherry, 
and were in different places within the influence of 
this storm ; apparently showing that, like the otheiB, 
it came from the direction of the equator, although it 
must have moved a little southerly at Pondicherry, by 
the wind veering from N.N.W. to S.S.E. 

After accounts of other storms, Colonel Capper 
continues : — 

** Ships which put to sea in due time very soon get bejrond 
the influence of the hurricane to the eastward ; and it in very 
well known that they never extend far inland. All theae cir- 
cumstances, properly considered, clearly manifest the nature of 
these winds, or rather positively prove them to be whirlwinds, 
whose diameter cannot he more than 1^0 miles ; and the vortex 
seems generally near Madras or Pulicat. Those which hiq^pen 
in the north-east monsoon, generally fall with most vvAeaet 
within a few leagues of this place, and never, I believe, reach 
south of Porto Novo. 

''But at the commencement of the south-west monaooo, 
violent gales are sometimes felt on the east side of Ceylon, and 
the southern extremity of the coast." 

After describing a hurricane, encountered in sooth 
latitude by the Britannia, Indiaman, on the 10th of 
March, 1770, and explaining that it did not extend 
above 30 leagues, since the Britannia fell in with two 
ships which were within this distance. Colonel Capper 
proceeds : — " Thus then it appears that these tempests 
or hurricanes are tornadoes or local whirlwinds, and 
are felt with at least equal violence on the sea coast 



.^ 



COLONEL capper's WHIRLWINDS. 283 

and at some little distance out at sea. But there is a chap. 

material difference in the situation of the sun when ^— 

they appear at different places : on the coast of Coro- 
mandel, for example, they seldom happen, particularly 
to the northward, except when the sun is in the oppo- 
site hemisphere. On the Malabar coast they rage 
with most violence during the monsoon, whilst the sun 
is almost vertical. Near the island of Mauritius they 
are felt in January, February, and March, which may 
be deemed their summer months; and in the West 
Indies, according to Mr. Edward's * History of Ja- 
maica,' the hurricane season begins in August and 
ends in October." 

In Colonel Capper's work, we find Franklin's expla- 
nation of what first led him to observe that the north- 
east storms of America came from the south-west. It 
is in a letter to Mr. Alexander Small, dated the 12th 
of May, 1760, and is as follows: — 

" About twenty years ago, we were to have an Prankiin. 
eclipse of the moon at Philadelphia, about 9 o'clock ; 
I intended to have observed it, but was prevented by 
a north-east storm, which came on about 7, with thick 
clouds as usual, that quite obscured the whole hemi- 
sphere; yet when the post brought us the Boston 
newspaper, giving us an account of the same storm in 
those parts, I found the beginning of the eclipse had 
been well observed there, though Boston is north-east 
of Philadelphia about 400 miles. This puzzled me, 
because the storm began so soon with us as to prevent 
any observation; and, being a north-east storm, I 
imagined it must have begun rather sooner in places 
further to the north-eastward, than it did at Philadel- 
phia ; but I found that it did not begin with them until 



284 BAT OF BENGAL HURRICANES. 

CHAP, near 1 1 o clock, so that they had a good observatioii 

1— of the eclipse. And, upon comparing all the other 

accounts I received from the other colonies, of the time 
of the beginning of the same storm, and since that of 
other storms of the same kind, I found the beginning 
to be always later the further north-eastward." 

Whilst introducing the above paragraph, Colonel 
Capper says, it affords us a proof that a current of air 
in America moved many hundred miles during a 
north-east storm, probably from the Gulf of Mexico to 
Boston. Thus, having stated his belief that hurricanes 
were whirlwinds, he was upon the point of showing 
also that they were progressive. 



Bay of Bengal Hurricanes.* 
Baj of When hurricanes occur at the mouths of the Riyw 

Bengal 

hurrieanes. Ganges, the inundations of the sea, owing to the 
lowness of the alluvial land there, appear to be veiy 
disastrous; and also to be very frequent. On the 
31st of October, 1831, during a hurricane, it is said, 
1 50 miles of country were flooded, and 300 villi^^ 
with 10,000 persons, destroyed. 

Harricwip, The accouut of another hurricane, on October 7, 

October 7| 

1832. 1832, being more detailed, is here reprinted from the 
*' Asiatic Journal.'' It will be seen that the barometer 
of the ship London fell very nearly two inches on that 
day, off the mouths of tlie Ganges ; whilst at Chan* 
dernagore it only fell half an inch. It may hence be 
presumed, as well as from the report of the wind^ that 
the London was near the centre of the storm. The 

* See ** The Progreas of the Derelopment of the Law of SCoroM.'* 



jM 



BAT OF BENGAL HURRICANES. 285 

extract published in the "Asiatic Journal" is, how- chap. 

ever, not sufficient to enable the ship's track to be laid ! — 

down. The veering of the wind in this storm will be 
observed to be precisely similar to that in the West 
Indian hurricanes ; and the conclusion may be drawn, 
that this storm came from the Birman coast, and from 
the south-east. 



Hurricane of the 7th October y 1 832 at the Mouth of 

the Ganges. 

The storm of Sunday, 7th October, 1832, is de- At Chan- 
scribed, in a letter from Chandernagore, as having ®"**^®' 
been at one time, though fortunately not of long dura- 
tion, almost terrific, from the appalling violence of the 
wind. The oscillations of the barometer are described 
as very remarkable. 

Inches. 

The mean height on Saturday was 29.78 

Bat, though the weather was evidently threatening, it had 

not fiedlen, on Sunday morning at 6 a.m., to more than 29*68 
From this time, however, to 3.30 p.m., when it was at its 

lowest, it fell to 29.16 

Remaining stationary only for about an hour, during 

which time the wind was at times tremendous. 
The barometer then rose again with such rapidity (the 

gale increasing from this time) that at 9 p«m. it was at 29.46 

And at 2 a.m. on Monday at 29.62 

At 9.30 again at 29.78 

The wind at daylight on Sunday was .... £. N. £. 

At noon East. 

At 3.30 P.M. the gale was at its greatest 

height, and wind E. S. E. 

In the evening it was S. £. 

And at midnight Calm. 



p 



286 



BAY OF BENGAL HURRICANES. 



CHAP. Extract from the " Asiatic Joumal/* relative to a Gale on the 
Vn. 7th October, 1832. 

Log of the Note made from the Log of the Ship London, Mr. Wimtley 
London. Commander, between lat. 18° 26' and 20'' 23' j long. 86° 30^ 

and 90° East. 



Hour.' Winds. 



Bar. 



I 



A.M. 

8 
12 



.... 



I 



8 NE 
10 ENE 
Noon ' .... 

P.M. I 

4 EbyN 
6 



8 

9 
10 
12 



A.M. 

6 
Noon 



SW 



8W 



29.70 
29.60 



29.40 

28.90 

28.80 
28.60 
27.80 

28.10 
28.20 
29.00 



, 29.30 
; 29.60 



October 6, 1832. 
AM. Cloudj weather. 
Midnight. Squalls and rain. 



October 7, 1832. 
A.M. Squalls, with rain. 
Strong gales. 
Noon. Gales increasing. 

P.M. Fresh gales. 
A hurricane. 
Tremendous hurricane. 
Wind shifted to SW, and bltw with 
creased liolence. 
Increased yiolence. 
Midnight. More moderate. 



October 8, 1883. 
A.M. Moderating. 
Noon. Strong gales, high 



At Calcutta^ during the same storm, the wind, oom- 
mencing at north-east^ veered to east^ then shifted to 
south-west. The lowest point of the barometer at 
Calcutta was 29.20. 

Hurricane The most severe storm of late occurrence at the 
1833.^ ' mouth of the Granges, is that of May 21, 1833, when 
the H. E. I. C. ship Duke of York was carried a great 
way inland and wrecked. An account of her loss was 
published soon after ; but is now out of print, and no 
copy can be obtained. 

In the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, Mr. 
Prineep (secretary to the society) has given a report of 
the barometer on board the Duke of York. The fisdl is 



BAY OF BENGAL HURRICANES. 



287 



the greatest hitherto met with ; exceeding two inches chap. 

and a half: being a diminution, if correct, of one- '- — 

twelfth of the whole atmospheric pressure. 

Hurricane at the Mouth of the Hoogley, ^\st May, 1833. 

'* The tide rose at the mouth of the river more than twelve 
feet above the ordinary springs of the season, sweeping over the 
land more than the eye could reach, destroying all the bunds 
and villages, with the population and cattle. At the lower 
station of Hidgelee and Balasore, the tide rose several feet 
higher than in the gale of October, 1831, which destroyed nearly 
50,000 persons. The ground was strewn with the wrecks of 
houses, trees, and dead bodies. 

'' The accounts from Diamond Harbour state, that the whole 
country, as for as can be discerned, both up and down the river 
on both banks, was strewed with corpses of human beings and 
of the brute creation. The carcases of two or three tigers have 
been^drifted to Diamond Port, besides many deer and cattle, and 
quantities of large fish. 

'' The gale, as in most of these cases, seems to have been con- 
fined within a small range, and to the vicinity of the land, as 
several ships, which arrived at Calcutta a few days after, had felt 
nothing of it." — Asiatic Journal for Nov. 1833. — See Inundation 
of Hidgelee and Balasore. 

''At what is called the new tripod, the wind commenced at 
iOfUk'east" — Ihid. 

An Account of the Gale of the 2l8t May, by James PaiifSEP, 

Secretary to the Bengal Asiatic Society. 

** In the Meteorological Register for May, I noticed the great 
fall of the barometer which took place previous to, and during 
the severe gale that did so much damage at the mouth of the 
river Hoogley. I have since been favoured with an extract from 
the register of the barometer kept on board the H. C. S. Duke of 
York, one of the numerous vessels wrecked or stranded along 
the Hidgelee coast. This ship lay apparently in the line of the 
greatest force of the gale -, and the depression experienced in the 
barometer, confirmed as it is by the indications of a sympie- 
someter on board, gave us a terrible proof of the intensity of the 
storm. The fall in Calcutta was three-quarters of an inch ; at 



coast. 



ft 99 

99 99 

99 99 

99 99 

y» 99 

99 99 



29.09 


80 


28.67 


80i 


28.00 


80 




80 


26.50 


80 


27.00 


79i 


27^0 


79 


28.00 




28.60 


80| 


28.20 


81 


28.30 


82 


28.60 


84 



288 BAY OF BENGAL HURRICANES. 

CHAP. Saugor^ it appears, by the following statement (for the anthen- 
^^* ticity of which I can vonch), to have been upwards of two inekei. 
Tuesday, May 21, 1833. Inches. Ther. 

8 A.M. The barometer stood at 29.09 

y 99 99 

10 

1 1 No mercury in sight in the tube 

11.30 Mercury reappeared 26.50 

Noon. The barometer stood at 

4 P.M. 

8 

Midnight. 
Wednesday 22. 
4 a.m. 
8 
Noon. 

" The times of the changes are copied from those set down 
almost immediately after the gale \ of course from recollectkm. 

** The oil in the sympiesometer retired completely, whoi tlie 
mercury in the barometer disappeared, and rose again a litde 
before it. 

^'The mercury in the barometer did not, after Toesday ni^it, 
or rather Wednesday morning, act as it should have done, which 
was found to be owing to some salt water having got down vpoB 
the leather bag, and loosened it from the wood, and so having 
permitted the escape of the mercury. 

(Signed) " W. T. D." 

''The severity of this hurricane fell on Hidgelee and Sangor. 
It was not felt at Balasore.** — Journal of Bengal Asiatic Soektg. 

Malabar The hurricaiies on the Malabar coast appear to be 
of the same character as those in the Bay of Bengal : 
but it is impossible to arrive at just conclusions from 
the imperfect accounts usually given of them.* When 
the attention of the Officers of the East India Navy is 
drawn to the subject, they will no doubt explain tbe 
mode of action of the winds in these storms, and trace 
the tracks of hurricanes in the Indian seas. 

* Great attention haa been paid to thli subject in India aince this wt« 
first publifthed. 



Jll 



•289 



CHAPTER VIII. 

I 

1 

THE HURRICANES OF 1780. i 

I 

4 
I 

TER having so far studied the nature of storms, I c n a p. 

; desirous of ascertaining whether the greatest hur- !— 

pne recorded in West Indian history partook of the 

be character as those already described ; and the j 

lard of Admiralty have afforded me every facility in ; 

taining the documents necessary for the inquiry. i 

Three great storms occurred nearly at the same 

e ; and these have been confounded together, and 

sidered but as one. The first destroyed the town 

Savanna-la-Mar, on the 3rd of October, 1780. 

J second, and by far the greater one, passed over 

'bados on the 10th and 11th of the same month j 

I year. The third dispersed and disabled the ; 

^nish fleet, under Solano, in the Gulf of Mexico, ] 

pr it had sailed from Havannah, to attack Pen- * 

lola. : 

An account, published in the " Annual Register," of 

[earthquake having occurred at the same time, has | 

m quoted as an example to prove that these two \ 

enomena are connected. An earthquake may cer- ' 

ply occur at the same time as a hurricane ; but, in - 

\ West Indies, persons seem to have been pre- . 

posed to believe in these phenomena accompanying 

u 



290 HURRICANES OF 1780. 

CHAP, each other. We have a very strons: instance of thi 

VIII . ,. JO 

in Sir George Rodney's despatch ; for, after express- 
ing his conviction that an earthquake must have 
accompanied the great Barbados huiTicane, he states 
" that the violence of the wind could alone Jjave pre- 
vented the inhabitants from feeling the shock," which 
only proves the force of the wind. The mode <rf| 
investigation adopted here, of printing in detail the 
whole of the matter collected relative to hurricanes, 
will afford to every one the same opportunity for 
forming a judgment on the truth, or otherwise, of the 
connection between these phenomena. A note on this 
subject, introduced into the modem editions of Bryan 
Edwards's History of the West Indies, is not to be 
found in the last edition, which that author revised 
before his death. There seems no reason to doubt, 
from what we now know of the effects caused by 
hurricanes, that Savanna-la-Mar was overwhelmed 
by the sea, owing to the effect of diminished atmo- 
spheric pressure, together with the force of the 
wind. 

Chart IX. has been formed from the various docu- 
ments procured relative to these storms. As England 
was then at war, there were large fleets in the West 
Indies and on the American coast ; and this circum- 
stance has afforded great facilities for tracing these 
gales. 

On the same principle as that followed in the 
preceding chapters, documents explanatory of these 
three hurricanes will now be given in detail; the 
course of the first one being marked by a line dotted 
on the Chart. 

The command of the British fleet in the West 



HURRICANE OF 1780. 291 

Indies was divided. Sir Peter Parker commanded chap. 

VIII. 

at Jamaica, and was at Port Royal ; but Sir George 1— 

Rodney was off New York in the Sandwich, having 
gone to the coast of America with a portion of his 
fleet just before the storms occurred. 

Of Sir Peter Parkers squadron, the Thunderer, 
Stirling Castle, Scarborough, Barbados, Phoenix, 
Deal Castle, Victor, and the Endeavour, were all 
lost; and nearly the whole of their crews perished. 
The Berwick, Hector, Trident, Ruby, Bristol, Ulysses, 
and Pomona, were dismasted. 

Of Sir George Rodney's squadron, the Blanche, 
Andromeda, Laurel, Camelion, and Beaver's Prize, 
were lost ; and the Vengeance, Montagu, Ajax, Alc- 
mene, Egmont, Endymion, Albemarle, Venus, and 
Amazon, were dismasted or severely damaged. 

Some of the logs printed to explain the Savanna- 
la-Mar hurricane, serve also to explain the great 
Barbados hurricane. 

It is necessary, in comparing the dates, to bear 
iu mind that the log-books of 1780 were kept in 
nautical time. 



u2 



292 



Savanna- la- Mar Hurricane. 



CHAP. Account of the Jamaica hurricane of the Srd of 

VIII 

— October, 1780, from the "Annual Register.' 



» 



Savanna- ''About one p.m. the gale begau from the S.£.^ and con- 
Char"lX. tinned increasing with accumulated violence nntil four in the 
afternoon, when it veered to the south, and became a perfect 
tempest^ which lasted in force until near eight -, it then abated. 
The sea during the last period exhibited a most awful scene ; 
the waves swelled to an amazing height, rushed with an im- 
petuosity not to be described on the land, and in a few minutes 
determined the fate of all the houses in the Bay. 
Earth- "About ten the waters began to abate, and at that time a 

?"t^y***^ smart shock of an earthquake was felt. All the small vessels 
been felt were driven ashore, and dashed to pieces. The ships. Princess 
at 10 P.M. Royal, Captain Ruthveuj Henry, Richardson ; and Austin Hall, 
Austin, were forced from their anchors, and carried so far into 
the morass that they will never be got off. The earthquake 
lifted the Princess Royal from her beam-ends, righted her, and 
fixed her on a firm bed. This circumstance has been of great 
use to the surviving inhabitants, for whose accommodation sh'e 
now serves as a house. 
Lucca .. , " At Lucea^ay only two houses remain; and H. M. sloop 
Jwnaica^ •'Dltdger, lying m that harbour, has lost all her masts, and run 

* on shore. 

Montego . */ At Montego Bay the tempest increased to such an amazing 

Jamaica, ^^gree, as at dark to threaten general ruin and destruction. 

The prodigious Hashes of lightning, which regularly succeeded 

Midnight, each other, was an alleviation. From midnight (from the best 

of our information and recollection) the storm began to abate.*' 

The log of II. M. sloop Badger, then commanded 
by the lute Lord Colliiigwood, which is mentioned us 
having been in Lucea Bay, will be given ; and Lucea 
Bav will be found marked on the Chart. 



*, 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 293 

The centre of the hurricane passed over this vessel chap. 

VIII 

about six o'clock on the afternoon of the 3rd October. 1_ 

Four of the ships which were lost, the Phcenix, 
Scarborough, Barbados, and Victor, were lying in 
Mondego Bay a few days before the storm. The two 
last sailed on the 29th ; the Phoenix on the 30th of 
September; and the Scarborough on the 1st of 
October. This last ship was bound for the Spanish 
Main. Both the Badger and Phoenix were in com- 
pany with the Barbados just previous to the hurri- 
cane. The place of the Barbados when last seen by 
the Phcenix, and of the Phcenix when wrecked on the 
coast of Cuba, are both marked on the Chart. The 
Scarborough and Victor have never been heard of. 

In a published letter by the First Lieutenant of the 
Phoenix, the hurricane, as felt by that ship, is thus 
described. When the Phcenix was in company with 
the Barbados off Port Antonio, the wind began to 
blow, with a stormy appearance to the eastward, about 
11 at night, on the 2nd of October; and the Phcenix 
then close-reefed her topsails. At 8, on the morning 
of the 3rd, the wind was east-north-east^ with occa- 
sional heavy squalls; and Sir Hyde Parker, who 
commanded the Phoenix, remarked that the weather 
had the same appearance as he had observed in the 
commencement of a hurricane in the East Indies. 
He then ordered the topsails to be taken in, and wore 
the ship in order to keep mid channel between Jamaica 
and Cuba. 

At 2 P.M. the Phoenix lav-to, with a storm mizen- 
staysail, and her head to the northward. When night 
set in, the storm increased with great violence. At 
midnight the wind was south-east^ and the ship 



294 



SAVANNA-LA-MAll IIURIUCANE, 1780. 



CHAP, drawing upon Cuba, Sir Hyde Parker determined to 

L_ wear her; but no canvass could withstand the wind 

at this time, and she was wore by sending two hun- 
dred of the crew into the fore-rigging. When about 
to cut away the masts, the ship took the ground on 
the coast of Cuba ; and it was then 5 o'clock in the 
morning of the 4th of October. At Lucea Bay, 
Jamaica, the Badger's log shows that, six or seven 
hours before this period, it was moderate weather 
there ; and this proves the progress of the storm. An 
extract from Lieut. Archer's letter to his mother will 
be found to follow after the log of the Princess Royal. 
By the account here given, the hurricane would 
appear to have come to Savanna-la-Mar from the 
south-eastward. 



Log of the Extract from the Log of H.M. S. Badger, commanded by 
^^^' Cuthbert CoUingwood, Esq.^ at Lucea Bay, Jamaica. — la 

Nautical Time. 



Hour. . Courses. 



P.M. 
A.M. 

10 
Noon. 



P.M. 

9 

A.M. 

10 



Winds. 



NE 



Remarks. 



Monday, Octoher 2, 1780. 

P.M. Showery ; received on board two cords 
of wood from the shore. 

A.M. Weighed, in company with the Man- 
choec, for Pensacola. At 10, dispatched the 
above vessel for Pensacola. 

Noon, came-to, for Lucea harbour, in seven 
fathoms water, with the best bower. 



Tuesday, October 3, 1780. 

P.M. Moderate. 

At 9, hard rain, and continued raining aU 
night, with squally weather. 

At 10, tripped our anchor; let her drive 
within the point of the Fort, till it bore N by 
£, distant three-quarters of a mile ; and the 
easternmost X £ by N, distant one mile and a 
half ; heavy squalls, with hard rain ; down tup- 
gall ant-masts. 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



295 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Badger — concluded. 



llotir. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

1 

4 
4.30 

5 

5.30 
6 

10 

A.M. 

• 


• • . • 

• • . . 


NE 

Calm 
SW 


Wednesday, October 4, 1780. 

P.M. At 1, let go the sheet anchor in five 
and a half fathoms ; muddy ; veered the cable, 
and brought both anchors a-head; continued 
very heavy gales, with hard rain. 

At 4, let go another anchor. 

At 4.30, both sheet and bower anchors 
came home ; veered away to the clinch round 
the mast, when the best bower cable parted ; 
then immediately the sheet cable parted like- 
wise. 

At 5, she was driving on shore verv fast, 
when a gust of wind laid her down, with the 
coamings of the hatchway in the water. 

By consent of captain and officers, cut away 
the weather lanyards of the main shrouds, 
when the mainmast went away about twenty 
feet above deck ; she immediately righted, and 
drove broadside on shore, abreast of the town, 
the sea making a free passage over us, when 
our boat went to pieces alongside. 

At 5.30 cut the bower cable to let her swing 
end on. 4 

About 6, it fell calm for half an hour, when 
the wind shifted round to the S W, blowing a 
hurricane, with strong flashes of lightning. 

At 10, it became quite moderate. 

A.M. lumed everybody to, to clear the 
wreck of the mast; moderate, with frequent 
showers. 


Tuesday, October 10, 1780. 
Had an account of H.M.S. PbcBuix being 
wrecked on the coast of Cuba. 

(Signed) JAMES MORINO. 



Extract of a despatch from Rear* Admiral Sir Peter 
Parker, commanding a squadron on the Jamaica sta- 
tion, dated on board the Ruby, Port Royal harbour, 
Nov. 6, 1780. 

"It is with much concern, that I give the following detdil of 
the disasters which have befallen some of the ships and vessels 
on this station in the late hurricanes. 

"The 4th of last month, at half- past five in the morning, 
H.M.S. Phoenix was wrecked on the island of Cuba, about three 
leagues to the eastward of Cape Crux, in a most dreadful hurri- 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of the 
Badger. 




'^1 



^' I cap V U^ 






* 



296 SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP, cane ; aud^ according to Sir Hyde Parker's representation, if 
^^^' she had not been driven on shore she must soon have foundered. 
All the ship's company were saved excepting twenty, most of 
whom were lost with the mainmast and washed overboard. Sir 
Hyde Parker despatched his first lieutenant, Mr. Archer, in one 
of the ship*s boats to Montego Bay for assistance ; and, by the 
1 1th of October, all that remained of the ship's crew, to the num- 
ber of 240, were embarked on board of H. M. sloop Forctipine 
and three sloops, and arrived safe in Montego Bay on the 15th. 
I sent the James to bring the people round to this port ai^d this 
bay. Sir H. Parker was tried for the loss of the ship, and 
honourably acquitted. 

" H. M. sloops the Barbados and Victor, and H. M. S. the 
Scarborough, were in the hurricane. The two former. It is ap- 
prehended, are foundered i but the latter, I am in hopes, is safe. 
She was under orders to proceed to the Spanish Main ; and as 
the hurricane ran in veins, she may have escaped, as well as the 
Pallas, Diamond, Pelican, and Lowestoffe, who were also at sea 
at the time, and are all arrived safe, without any damage what- 
ever. The Pomona arrived on the 24th, with the bowsprit and 
foremast sprung, and mizcn-mast gone -, and on the 26th, Rear- 
Admiral Rowley arrived in the Grafton, with the following ships, 
from convoying the trade part of the way to Europe, viz., the 
Hector, Bristol, Trident, and Ruby, all of them disabled, and 
mostly dismasted. The Ulysses arrived the same day, without 
main and mizen-mast, having thrown all her upper-deck guns 
overboard. Captain Stewart has informed me that he is going to 
England with the Berwick, dismasted ; and I hope the Thunderer 
and Stirling Castle are also on their passage home, for I have not 
as yet received any intelligence of these ships. 

"Their Lordships will see, by the enclosed defects of the 
ships, what a miserable state several of them arc in 3 and what 
a number of masts, yards, and' stores, arc wanting to refit 
them. 

" 1 have dircted the naval storekeeper to send an abstract of 
the defects, &c., and remainder of stores in our magazine, to the 
Commissioners of the Navy, and I have written to them on that 
head. 

" Surveys are taking on the hulls of the ships that were in the 
hurricanes of the 5th and l/th ultimo. It is at present appre- 
hended that the Hector cannot be put into a condition here to 
enable her to proceed to England before next summer ; but she 




SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 297 

may then safely undertake the voyage with jury-masts, and only CHAP, 
a few guns on board. She threw all her guns overboard in the VIII. 
storm, excepting two 18-pounders. 

" I shall send home with the next couyoy as many of the 
disabled ships as can be fitted with jury-mksts. By the different 
accounts which have arrived, I find that the late storms have* •^ 
visited the Windward Islands as well as these seas. The 
Egmont arrived here on the 28th ultimo. On the 11th of last 
month the Egmont, Montagu, Ajax, and Amazon, being placed 
across the entrance of the careenage to St. Lucia, were obliged, by 
the violence of the wind, to put to sea -, and Captain Fanshawe 
does not know what has become of the other ships. On the 29th, 
the Endymiou arrived at this port from a cruize to windward of 
Martinico, with only the foremast standing. She brought in 
with her two French ships, named the Marquis de Brancas and 
L'Esle, which she took on her way hither. These two ships 
were, on the 11th of October, forced out with many others from 
St. Pierre's Road, Martinico, by the violence of the storm. They 
only arrived the day before with about fifty merchant ships, 
transports, and victuallers, and having 5000 troops on board; French 
and were escorted by two French frigates, named La Ceres and ^^^^^7' 
La Constant. 

" I am. Sir, &c. 

(Signed) "P. PARKER." 

"To Philip Stephens, Esq." 



Extract of a letter from Rear-Admiral Sir Peter 
Parker, Commander on the Jamaica station, dated on 
board the Ruby, 30th December, 1780. 

"By my last letter of the 6th ultimo, their Lordships will 
see the distressed state of this squadron. The loss of the Scar- 
borough frigate, and the Barbados and Victor sloops, seems now 
past all doubt. The Thunderer has not been heard of. There is 
a. chance that she has either got to England or America. 

"The 19th of October, the Stirling Castle, after having wea- 
thered the late gale and saved her foremast, her hull being very 
little damaged, ran at nine o'clock at night, going eight knots^ 




298 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



C H A P. on the Silver Keys, which are a cluster of rocks, several of them 
^^^^' under water, about fifteen leagues north of Old Cape Francois. 
She immediately separated ; and, of the whole crew, we only 
hear of one midshipman and four seamen who have escaped. 
Two of the seamen are now at the Cape 3 the midshipman and 
the other seamen were taken from a part of the wreck by a small 
vessel, and carried into Port-au-Prince, where they were clothed 
and treated with great humanity, and sent down here in a flag 
of truce,*' 



The next log is that of the Princess Royal, a 90- 
gun sliip, lying in Port Royal Harbour. No allusion 
is made to an earthquake eitljcr in this log or in any 
of the oflScial documents which I have met with from 
Jamaica. 



Ix)g of the Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H.M.S. PaiNCBM 
Prmcess Royal, Captain Harwood.— In Nautical Time. 

(Ship alongside the Wharf at Port Royal Harbour.) 




Winds. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



Remarks. 



• • • • 



ESE 



S£ 
ESE 



Monday, October 2, 1780. 

P.M. Squally weather, with heayj thowen 
of rain ; hauled the ship off from the wharf to 
make roum for the stages. 

A.M. People employed in sundry duties; 
carpenters fitting the outrisger; eaiilkcrt 
caulking the first course on the larboard-side 
of the ship's bottom. 



• Tuesday, October 3, 1780. 

SEbyE P.M. Squally weather, with rain; people 

ployed as before ; violent squalls, wiu Tery 

heavy rain in the night ; wind from the eouth* 

eastward. 

ESE ! A.M. Til e gale increasing, with much rain; 

people employed securing the ship; by the 

violence of the wind in the night, the misen* 

; topsail, fore- top- gallant-sail, and main-top- 

, gallant-sail, that were covering tents in tne 

yard, and had been condemned by survey on 

S E the 80th September last, were entirely blown 

to pieces. 




SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



299 



Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H. M.S. Princess CHAP 



Royal — concluded. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 
A.M. 


• • • • 

• • • • 


SSE 
S 

ssw 


Wednesday, October 4, 1780. 

P.M. Excessive hard squalls, with thun- 
der, lightning, and rain ; people employed as 
before. At midnight more moderate, and light 
rain. 

A.M. Moderate and fair; people employed 
getting the outrigger's pendants over the mast- 
head, and other duties ; caulkers caulking the 
larboard-side of the ship's bottom. 



VIII. 



Log of the 

Princess 

Royal. 



Extract from a letter* of Lieutenant Archer's to chart ix. 
his mother. The Phoenix frigate had been sent to 
Pensacola. This extract commences from that part 
of the letter which speaks of the ship's return to 
Jamaica. 



it 



Nothing remarkable happened for ten days afterwards, Lieut. 



when we chased a Yankee man-of-war for six hours, but could 
not get near enough to her before it was dark, to keep sight of 
her -J so that we lost her because unable to carry any sail on 
the mainmast. In about twelve days more made the island of 
Jamaica, having weathered all the squalls, and put into Mon-' 
tego Bay for water j so that we had a strong party for kicking 
up a dust on shore, having found three men-of-war lying there. 
Dancing, &c. &c. till two o'clock every morning, little thinking 
what was to happen in four days' time ; for out of the four 
men-of war that were there, not one was in being at the end 
of that time, and not a soul alive but those left of our crew. 
Many of the houses, where we had been so merry, were so 
completely destroyed, that scarcely a vestige remained to mark 
where they stood. Thy works are wonderful, O God ! praised 
be thy holy name ! 

" September the 30th, weighed j bound for Port Royal, round 
the eastward of the island ; the Barbados and Victor had sailed 
the day before, and the Scarborough was to sail the next. Mo- 

* I am indebted to Mr. Redfield for this letter. 



Archer's 
letter. 



300 SAVANNA- LA-M AH HURRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP, derate weather until October the 2nd. Spoke to the Barbados 
^^^^' off Port Antonio in the evening. At eleven at night it began 
to snuffle, with a monstrous heavy appearance from the cast- 
ward. Close reefed the topsails. Sir Hyde sent for me. 'What 
sort of weather have we. Archer ?* 'It blows a little, and has a 
very ugly look : if in any other quarter but this, I should say 
we were going to have a gale of wind.* — * Ay, it looks so very 
often here when there is no wind at all j however, dou*t hoist 
the topsails till it clears a little 3 there is no trusting any coun- 
try.* At twelve I was relieved j the weather had the same 
rough look : however, they made sail upon her, but had a very 
dirty night. At eight in the morning I came up again, found 
it blowing hard from the cast -north-east with close-reefed topsails 
upon the ship, and heavy squalls at times. Sir Hyde came 
upon deck. 'Well, Archer, what do you think of it?* 'Oh, 
Sir, it is only a touch of the times ; wc shall have an observa- 
tion at twelve o'clock ; the clouds are beginning to break ; it 
will clear up at noon, or else blow very hard afterwards.' — * I 
wish it would clear up ; but I doubt it much. I was once in a 
hurricane in the East Indies, and the beginning of it had mach 
the same appearance as this : so take in the topsails -, we have 
plenty of sea- room.' 

" At twelve, the gale still increasing, wore ship, to keep as 
near mid- channel, between Jamaica and Cuba, as possible : at 
one the gale increasing still -, at two harder yet : it still blows 
harder. Reefed the courses, and furled them 3 brought-to under 
a foul mi zen- staysail : head to the northward. In the evening 
no sign of the weather taking off, but every appearance of the 
storm increasing, prepared for a i)roper gale of wind -, secured 
all the sails with spare gaskets -, good rolling tackles upon the 
yards ; squared the booms 5 saw the boats all made fast ; new 
lashed the guns ; double-breeched the lower deckers ; saw that 
the carpenters had the tarpaulins and battens all ready for hatch- 
ways 5 got the top-gallant-mast down upon the deck ; jib-boom 
and spritsail-yard fore and aft j in fact, every thing we could 
think of to make a snug ship. 

*' The poor devils of birds now began to find the uproar in the 
elements, for numbers, both of sea and land kinds, came on 
board of us. I took notice of some which, happening to be to 
leew^ard, turned to windward, like a shi]), tack and tack ; for 
they could not fly aG;ainst it. Whon thoy came over the ship 
they dashed themselves down upon the dock, without attempt- 



s. 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 301 

ing to stir till picked up, and when let go again they wonld not CHAP, 
leave the ship, but endeavoured to hide themselves from the VIII. 
wind. 

" At eight o'clock a hurricane j the sea roaring, but the ^ind 
still steady to a point -, did not ship a spoonful of water. How- 
ever, got the hatchways all secured, expecting what would be 
the consequence, should tlie wind shift j placed the carpenters 
by the mainmast, with broad axes, knowing, from experience, 
that at the moment you may want to cut it away to save the 
ship an axe may not be found. Went to supper — bread, cheese, 
and porter. The purser frightened out of his wits about his 
bread-bags j the two marine-officers as white as sheets, not 
understanding the ship's working so much, and the noise of the 
lower deck guns, which, by this time, made a pretty screeching 
to people not used to it -, it seemed as if the whole ship's side 
was going at each roll. Wooden, our carpenter, was all this time 
smoking his pipe and laughing at the doctor 5 the second lieute- 
nant upon deck, and the third in his hammock. 

" At ten o'clock I thought to get a little sleep ; came to look 
into my cot, it was full of water ; for every seam, by the strain- 
ing of the ship, had begun to leak. Stretched myself, therefore, 
upon deck between two chests, and left orders to be called, 
should the least thing happen. At twelve a midshipman came 
to me. * Mr. Archer, we are just going to wear ship. Sir.' ' Oh, 
very well j 1*11 be up directly. What sort of weather have you 
got?' — 'It blows a hurricane.* Went upon deck; found Sir 
Hyde there. ' It blows damned hard. Archer.' ' It does indeed. 
Sir.* — ' I don't know that I ever remember its blowing so hard 
before, but the ship makes a very good weather of it upon this 
tack as she bows the sea -, but we must wear her, as the wind 
has shifted to the south-east, and we are drawing right upon 
Cuba 3 so do you go forward, and have some hands stand by ; 
loose the lee yard-arm of the foresail, and, when she is right 
before the wind, whip the clew-garnet close up, and roll up 
the sail.' ' Sir, there is no canvass can stand against this a 
moment 5 if we attempt to loose him he will fly into ribbons in 
an instant, and we may lose three or four of our people -, she'll 
wear by manning the fore shrouds.' — * No, I don't think she 
will.* * I'll answer for it, Sir ; I have seen it tried several times 
on the coast of America with success.' — 'Well, try it; if she 
does not wear, we can only loose the foresail afterwards.' This 
was a great condescension from such a man as Sir Hyde. How- 



302 SAVANNA-LA-MAR HUllRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP, ever, by sending about two hundred people into the fore-rigging, 
^^^^' after a hard struggle, she wore j found she did not make so 
good weather on this tack as on the other 3 for as the sea b^an 
to run across she had not time to rise from one sea before 
another lashed against her. Began to think we should lose 
our masts, as the ship ^ay very much along, by the pressure of 
the wind constantly upon the yards and masts alone ; for the 
poor mizen-staysail had gone in shreds long before, and the 
sails began to fly from the yards through the gaskets into 
coachwhips. My God ! to think that the wind could have such 
force! 

" Sir Hyde now sent me to see what was the matter between 
decks, as there was a good deal of noise. As soon as I was 
below, one of the marine -officers calls out, 'Good God! Mr. 
Archer, we are sinking 3 the water is up to the bottom of my 
cot.' — ' Poohi pooh ! as long as it is not over your mouth you 
are well off^ what the devil do you make this noise for?* I 
found there was some water between decks, but nothing to be 
alarmed at: scuttled the deck, and let it ran into the well; 
found she made a good deal of water through the sides and 
decks 5 turned the watch below to the pumps, though only two 
feet of water in the well ; but expected to be kept constantly at 
work now, as the ship laboured much, with scarcely a part of 
her above water but the quarter-deck, and that but seldom. 
'Come, pump away, my boys. Carpenters, get the weather 
chain-pump rigged.* * All ready. Sir.' — ' Then man it, and keep 
both pumps going.' 

" At two o'clock the chain-pump was choked -, set the car- 
penters at work to clear it 3 the two head-pumps at work upon 
deck : the ship gained upon us while our chain-pumps 
idle : in a quarter of an hour they were at work again, and 
began to gain upon her. While 1 was standing at the * pnmpSy 
cheering the people, the carpenter's mate came running to me 
with a face as long as my arm. ' Oh, Sir, the ship has sprung a 
leak in the gunner's room.* — ' Go, then, and tell the carpenter 
to come to me 5 but don't speak a w^ord to any one else. . . . Mr. 
Goodiuoh, 1 am told there is a leak in the gunner's room ; go 
and see what is the matter, but don't alarm any body; and 
come and make your report privately to me.' In a short time 
he returned. * Sir, there's nothing there ; 'tis only the water 
washing up between the timbers that this booby has taken for a 
leak.* • Oh, very well ; go upon deck and see if you can keep 




SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 303 

any of the water from washing down below.* — ' Sir, I have C II A P. 

had four people constantly keeping the hatchways secure, but VIII. 

there is such a weight of water upon the deck that nobody can "~ 

stand it when the ship rolls.' The gunner soon afterwards 

came to me. * Mr. Archer, I should be glad if you would step 

this way into the magazine for a moment.* I thought some 

damned thing was the matter, and ran directly ' Well, what is 

the matter here ?* — * The ground tier of powder is spoiled, and I 

want to show you that it is not out of carelessness in me in 

stowing it, for no powder in the world could be better stowed : 

now. Sir, what am I to do ? if you don't speak to Sir Hyde, he 

will be angry with me.* I could not forbear smiling to see how 

easy he took the danger of the ship, and said to him, ' Let us 

shake off this gale of wind first, and talk of the damaged powder 

afterwards.' 

" At four we had gained upon the ship a little, and I went 
upon deck, it being my watch. The second lieutenant relieved 
me at the pumps. Who can attempt to describe the appear- 
ance of things upon deck ? If I was to write for ever I could 
not give you an idea of it — a total darkness all above -, the sea 
on fire, running as it were in Alps, or Peaks of Teneriffe (moun- 
tains are too common an idea) -, the wind roaring louder than 
thunder (absolutely no flight of imagination) -, the whole made 
more terrible, if possible, by a very uncommon kind of blue 
lightnings the poor ship very much pressed, yet doing what 
she could, shaking her sides, and groaning at every stroke. Sir 
Hyde upon deck lashed to windward ! I soon lashed myself 
alongside of him, and told him the situation of things below, 
sa3ring the ship did not make more water than might be ex- 
pected in such weather, and that I was only afraid of a gun 
breaking loose. ' I am not in the least afraid of that -, 1 have 
commanded her six years, and have had many a gale of wind 
in her ; so that her iron work, which always gives way first, 
is pretty well tried. Hold fast! that was an ugly sea; we 
must lower the yards, I believe. Archer; the ship is much 
pressed.' — ' If we attempt it. Sir, we shall lose them, for a man 
aloft can do nothing ; besides, their being down would ease the 
ship very little ; the mainmast is a sprung mast ; I wish it was 
overboard without carrying anything else along with it; but 
that can soon be done ; the gale cannot last for ever ; 'twill 
soon be daylight now.' Found by the master's watch that it 
was five o'clock, though but a little after four by ours ; glad 



304 SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP, it was so near daylight, and looked for it with much anxiety. 

Cuba, thou art much in our way ! Another ugly sea : sent 

a midshipman to bring news from the pumps : the ship was 
gaining on them very much, for they had broken one of their 
chains, but it was almost mended again. News from the pump 
again. 'She still gains! a heavy lee!* Back-water from lee- 
ward, half-way up the quarter-deck, filled one of the cutters 
upon the booms, and tore her all to pieces; the ship lying 
almost on her beam-ends, and not attempting to right again. 
Word from below that the ship still gained on them, as they 
could not stand to the pumps, she lay so much along. I said to 
Sir Hyde, ' This is no time. Sir, to think of saving the masts ; 
shall we cut the mainmast away ? * — ' Ay ! as fast as you can.* 
I accordingly went into the chains with a pole-axe, to cut away 
the lanyards ; the boatswain went to leeward, and the carpenters 
stood by the mast. We were all ready, when a very violent 
sea broke right on board of us, carried every thing upon deck 
away, filled the ship with water, the main and mizen masts 
went, the ship righted, but was in the last struggle of sinking 
under us. 

" As soon as we could shake our heads above water. Sir Hyde 
exclaimed, ' We are gone at last. Archer ! foundered at sea ! * — 
' Yes, Sir j farewell ; and the Lord have mercy upon us ! ' I 
then turned about to look forward at the ship, and thought 
she was struggling to get rid of some of the water ; but all in 
vain : she was almost full below. ' Almighty Grod I I thank 
thee, that now I am leaving this world, which I have always 
considered as only a passage to a better, I die with a full hope 
of thy mercies, through the merits of Jesus Christ, thy son^ our 
Saviour ! * 

" I then felt sorry that I could swim, as by that means I 
might be a quarter of an hour longer dying than a man who 
could not ; and it is impossible to divest ourselves of a wish 
to preserve life. At the end of these reflections I thought I 
heard the ship thump and grinding under our feet : it was so. 
* Sir, the ship is ashore!' * What do you say?' — 'The ship 
is ashore, and we may save ourselves yet ! ' By this time the 
quarter-deck was full of men, who had come up from below, 
and ' The Lord have mercy u])on us ! ' flying about from all 
quarters. The ship now made every body sensible that she was 
ashore, for every stroke threatened a total dissolution of her 
whole frame : found she was stern ashore ; and the bow broke 



Cc^^J ^^'^^ 



SAVANNA-LA-MA% HURRICANE- _, .^ _ . ^ 

the sea a good deal^ though it w&s ^vashins 'clean over at every CHAP, 
stroke. Sir Hyde cried out, 'Keep to the quarter-deck, my vm. 
lads; when she goes to pieces it is your best chance!' Pro- a 

videntially got the foremast cut away, that she might not pay ^c^W^«•**' ^ ' 
round broadside. Lost five men cutting away the foremast, y^ \^^y ^^ ' 
by the breaking of a sea on board just as the mast went. That ^*^ * 
was nothing, every one expected it would be his own fate next : 
looked for daybreak with the greatest impatience 3 at last it 
came : but what a scene did it show us ! The ship upon a bed 
of rocks, mountains of them on one side, and Cordilleras of 
water on the other;* our poor ship grinding and crying out at 
every stroke between them -, going away by piecemeal. How- 
ever, to show the unaccountable workings of Providence, that 
which often appears to be the greatest evil proves to be the 
greatest good ! That unmerciful sea lifted and beat us up so 
high among the rocks that at last the ship scarcely moved. 
She was very strong, and did not go to pieces at the first \ ,• '^^^ 

thumping, though her decks tumbled in. We found afterwards t^ 
that she had beat over a ledge of rocks, almost a quarter of a \ 
mile in extent beyond us, where, if she had struck, every soul 
of us must have perished. 

*' I now began to think of getting on shore, so stripped off my 
coat and shoes for a swim, and looked for a line to carry the 
end with me. Luckily could not find one, which gave me time 
for recollection. ' This won't do for me, to be the first man out 
of the ship, and first lieutenant ; we may get to England again ; 
and people may think I paid a great deal of attention to myself, 
aiid did not care for any body else. No, that won't do ; instead 
of being the first, I will see every man, sick and well, out of her 
before me.* 

" I now thought there was no probability of the ship's soon 
going to pieces, therefore had not a thought of instant death : 
took a look round with a kind of philosophic eye, to see how the 
same situation affected my companions, and was surprised to 
find the most swaggering, swearing bullies, in fine weather, now 
the most pitiful wretches on earth, when death appeared before 
them. However, two got safe; by which means, with a line, we 
got a hawser on shore, and made fast to the rocks, upon which 
many ventured and arrived safe. There were some sick and 
wounded on board, who could not avail themselves of this 
method -, we^ therefore, got a spare top-sail-yard from the chains, 

X 



306 SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP, and placed oue end ashore and the other on the cabin window, 
^^^^* so that most of the sick got ashore this way. 

" As I had determined, so I was the last man out of the ship; 
this was about ten o'clock. The gale now began to break. Sir 
Hyde came to me^ and taking me by the hand, was so aflected, 
that he was scarcely able to speak. ' Archer, I am happy beyond 
expression to see you on shore, but look at our poor Phoenix !* 
I turned about, but could not say a single word, being too fidl : 
my mind had been too intensely occupied before; but every 
thing now rushed upon me at once, so that I could not contain 
myself, and I indulged for a full quarter of an hour in tears. 

'* By twelve it was pretty moderate 5 got some nails cm shore 
and made tents 3 found great quantities of fish driven up by tlie 
sea into holes of the rocks $ knocked up a fire, and had a nuMt 
comfortable dinner. In the afternoon made a stage from the 
cabin windows to the rocks, and got out some provinons and 
water, lest the ship should go to pieces, in which case we must 
all have perished of hunger and thirst -, for we were upon a deao- 
late*part of the coast, and under a rocky mountain, that cofold 
not supply us with a single drop of water. 

" Slept comfortably this night and the next day, the idea of 
death vanishing by degrees ; the prospect of being prisoners, 
during the war, at Havanna, and walking three hundred mUet 
to it through the woods, was rather unpleasant. However, to 
save life for the present, we employed this day in getting more 
provisions and water on shore, which was not an easy matter, 
on account of decks, guns, and rubbish, and ten feet wator tluit 
lay over them. In the evening, I proposed to Sir Hyde to 
repair the remains of the only boat left, and to venture in her to 
Jamaica myself; and in case I arrived safe, to bring vessels to 
take them all off ; a proposal worthy of consideration. It 
next day, agreed to ; therefore got the cutter on shore, and 
the carpenters to work on her ; in two days she was ready* and 
at four o'clock in the afternoon I embarked with four volunteem 
and a fortnight's provision ; hoisted English colours as we pot 
off from the shore, and received three cheers from the lads left 
behind, which we returned, and set sail with a light heart, 
having not the least doubt, that, with God's assistance, we 
should come and bring them all off. Had a very squally night, 
and a very leaky boat, so as to keep two buckets constantly 
baleing. Steered her myself the whole night by the stars, and in 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 307 

the morning saw the coast of Jamaica, distant twelve leagues. CHAP. 
At eight in the evening arrived at Montego Bay. YUl. 

" I must now begin to leave off, particularly as I have but half 
an hour to conclude ; else my pretty little short letter will lose 
its passage, which I should not like, after being ten days, at dif- 
ferent times, writing it, beating up with the convoy to the north- 
ward, which is a reason that this epistle will never read well ; 
for I never sat down with a proper disposition to go on with itj 
but as I knew something of the kind would please you, I was ^ 
resolved to finish it : yet it will not bear an overhaul 5 so don t 
expose your son's nonsense. 

'* But to proceed. I instantly sent off an express to the 
admiral, another to the Porcupine man-of-war, and went myself 
to Martha Bay to get vessels -, for all their vessels here, as well 
as many of their houses, were gone to moco. Got three small 
vessels, and set out back again to Cuba, where I arrived the 
fourth day after leaving my companions. I thought the ship's 
crew would have devoured me on my landing ; they presently 
whisked me up on their shoulders, and carried me to the tent 
where Sir Hyde was. 

" I must omit many little occurrences that happened on shore, 
for want of time 3 but I shall have a number of stories to tell 
when I get alongside of you; and the next time I visit you I 
shall not be in such a hurry to quit you as I was the last, for 
then I hoped my nest would have been pretty well feathered. 
But my tale is forgotten. 

I found the Porcupine had arrived that day, and the lads had 
built a boat almost ready for launching, that would hold fifty of 
them, which was intended for another trial, in case I had 
foundered. Next day embarked all our people that were left, 
amounting to two hundred and fifty ; for some had died of their 
wounds they received in getting on shore ; others of drinking 
mm ; and others had straggled into the country. All our 
vessels were so full of people, that we could not take away the 
few clothes that were saved from the wreck j but that was a 
trifle since we had preserved our lives and liberty. To make 
short of my story, we all arrived safe at Montego Bay, and 
shortly after at Port Royal, in the Janus, which was sent on 
purpose for us, and were all honourably acquitted for the loss 
of the ship. I was made admiral's aide-de-camp -, and a little 
time afterwards sent down to St. Juan's as captain of the Re- 
source, to bring what were left of the poor devils to Blue Fields 

x2 



308 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



on the Musquito shore, and then to Jamaica, where they arrived 
after three months* absence, and without a prize, though I looked 
out hard off Porto Bello and Carthagena. Found in my absence 
that I had been appointed captain of the Tobago, where I re- 
main his Majesty's most true and faithful servant, and my dear 
mother's most dutiful son. 

" Archer." 



The logs of the four ships, which Sir Peter Parker 
in his despatch reports as having returned safe, follow 
next. 

It will be seen, that the Pelican and Diamond, 
which were to the south of Jamaica, felt nothing of the 
first storm ; and that the Pallas and Lowestofie were 
out of the influence of it, cruizing near the islands of 
Caycos; yet they had the wind from south-south-west^ 
and must have been just on the border of the gale. 

The Scarborough, on her way from Montego Bay 
to the Spanish Main, would be within its influence off 
the west end of Jamaica, and near that point she pro- 
bably foundered. 

This hurricane may have originated within the 
limits of the Caribbean Sea; since we have no ac- 
count of its passing over the chain of the Antilles 
islands, or of having visited the Spanish Main. 



Log of the Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Pelican, Captain Thomas 

Ha3mes. — In Nautical T^me. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


1 
Winds. 1 


r.M. 

I 
4 
6 
6 


WNW 

N W bv N 

Nby'E 

Ni W 


Westerly 


A.M. 

7 


NW 





Remarks. 



October 3, 1780. 
P.M. Jjight breeies and cloudy. 
Lat. 12*^ 38', long. 82' 7'. 
Great Com Island, S 68"" W, diataoct 85 
miles. 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



309 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Pelican — continued. 



Hour. 


ConneB. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

1 
2 
7 
9 
10 


NWby W 

SSE 
W 

WbyN 
NW 


Westerly 


October 4, 1780. 
Moderate breeze and clear weather. 
Lat. 12** 26' N. 

Great Com Island, S W by W, distance 
8 leagues. 


9 

P.M. 

1 

6 

7 

9 

10 


S 

WNW 

NWbv W 

Sby'E 

SSE 

S 


Ditto 




October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes. 
Great Com Island, W S W, 2^ leagues. 


4 
10 
12 

P.M. 
2 
6 
7 
8 
9 


NW4 W 

s 

NW 

WNW 
NW§ W 

SbyW 

SSW 

SbyW 

S^E 

NW 

NWbyN 

NW 

NNW 


Ditto 
S West'y 




October 6, 1780. 
Fresh breeze and cloudy ; at anchor at 
Great Com Island. 


October 7, 1780. 
Moderate breeze and clear weather ; got 
under weigh. 


11 
Noon 

A.M. 
3 

6 

7 

8 

10 


We8ter»r 

Variable 
Variable 

Westerly 


Noon. Lat. 12** 5' N. 


October 8, 1780. 
Light breezes and clear. 
Lat. 12° 2'. 

1 


October 9, 1780. 


October 10, 1780. 
First and latter part, light breezes and 
clear ; middle part, squally. 


October 11, 1780. 
Light breezes. 



CHAP. 

vra. 

Log of the 
PeUcan. 



310 



SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vin. 

Log of the 
Pelican. 



Within 
the in- 
fluence of 
the ^eat 
hurricane. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Pelican — coniiaued. 



Hour. 



Noon. 



P.M. 

3 

9 
12 

A.M. 

11 

P.M. 
1 

Noon. 



P.M. 

1 
6 

A.M. 
3 

4 

6 
10 



Noon. 



P.M. 

1 

7 

A.M. 

10 
Noon. 

A.M. 



7 
8 



P.M. 
1 

3 
4 

7 

12 



Courses. 



EbyN 
ENE 



ENE 



NEbyN 
NbyE 



NJE 
N 



N 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



W8W 



SEbyS 



ssw 
sw 



wsw 



sw 

w 

wsw 



w 



sw 
wsw 

sw 



W S AV 



October 12. 1780. 
Got under weigh and made sail. 
Noon. Moderate. 

Great Com Island, N E { E, distance 7 
leagues. 
Lat. 12<» 9'. 



October 13, 1780. 

Fresh breezes and clear; set etadding- 
sails. 

Lat. 11°47'. long. 80*^40'. 

The Island of St. Andria, bearing N 9*" 
W, distance 44 miles. 



October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Light breezes and clear weather. 
Noon. Moderate breeze and doody. 
Lat. ir 8', long. 79° 31'. 
Bugles' Shoals, bearing N 21"* E, die- 
tance 76 leagues. 



October 15, 1780. 

P.M. Moderate breeze and clear weather. 

Hauled down the studding-sails. 

A.M. Hard squall and rain ; handed the 
top- gallant-sails and staysails. 

Fresh gales and rainj weather. 

More moderate and nir. 

Fresh gale and hazy ; cloee-reefed top* 
sails, and handed the fore and minn 
ditto ; down top-gallant-yards. 

Lat. 12° 52' N, long. 76*^58' W. 

Bugles' Shoals, N 24° W, distance 187 
miles. 



October 16, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh gale and cloudy. 

In third reef main-topsail, and headed 
the mizen- topsail. 

Hard squalls ; lowered tt^Maili 
sionally. 

Noon. Ditto weather. 

No observation. 

Lat. 15° 35', long. 75° 55'. 



■m I 



October 17, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh gales, with squalL 

Hauled up the courses and pe^t the main- 
sail, it being split, and bent another. 

Set the mainsail and lay- to ; hard sqoalle, 
with rain. 

More moderate and rainy weather; 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



311 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Pelican — concluded. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


A.M. 

1 

4 

7 

9 

10 

P.M. 

1 


NbyW 

NiW 

NNW 


Variable 
WSW 


October 17, 1780. 
hauled up the mainsail, and set the fore- 
topmast-staysail. 

Squally. 

Ditto. 

A great swell from the westward. 

Out three reefs. 

Lat. 17°, long. 76°. 


October 18, 178^. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and squally. 
Lat. 17° 47'. 

Point Morant, bearing N N E, distance 
8 or 9 miles. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Diamond, Captain John 

Linzee. — In Nautical Time, 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 
1 

5 
7 

A.M. 

1 

6 

8 

10 

P.M. 

1 

5 

8 

A.M. 

1 

6 




Westerly 

WNW 

WbyS 
W 

SWbyW 

WSW 

WbyS 


October 3, 1780. 

P.M. Light winds and clear all night. 

A.M. Moderate breezes and cleAr wea- 
ther ; at 6, weighed and made sail with 
three sail under our convoy for Blue 
Fields ; at 9, hove-to for the convoy ; at 
half-past 10, made sail ; at noon, St. Juan 
Point, S £ § S, distance 7 or 8 leagues. 
Point Gordon, W by N. distance 3 leagues. 


October 4, 1780. 

P.M. Light winds and clear weather. 

Up mainsalL 

Monkey Point, N J W, distance 2 or 3 
leagues. 

A.M. Moderate and hazy. 

Little Com Island, E § N, distance 5 or 
6 leagues. Blue Fields, S W, distance 6 
or 7 leagues. 

Set mainsail, out second-reef topsails, 
set top- gallant sails. 


October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and clear weather. 
Blue Fields' Bluff, S W | W, distance 3 
or 4 leagues. 
Made the convoy's signal to tack. 

Bluff, S by W J W, distance 3 or 4 
miles. 



CHAP. 

vm. 



of the 



Log oft] 
PeHean. 



Log of the 
Diamond. 



312 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vin. 



Log of the 
Diamond. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Diamond — amihmed. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



F.M. 



P.M. 



P.M. 
1 



P M. 

1 



P.M. 

1 
A.M. 

2 



P.M. 
1 

Midn. 

A.M. 

11 



P.M. 
1 

6 

8 

A.M. 

4 
Noon 



Counei. 



S62*'E 



8 81°E 



£ 



EbyN 



E 



Winds. 



Calm 



Remarks. 



October 6, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh breeses. 
lAt. 10^ 40^, long. 8l*» 6'. 
Com Island, bearing N 62f* W, distaoM 
98 miles. 



SE 



Westerly 



October 7, 1780. 

P.M. Light winds and haxy. 
Lat. 10« 32^, long. 80^ 8'. 
Porto BellOy S £, 14 leagues. 



October 8, 1780. 

P.M. Light airs and cloodr. 
Lat. 10° 32', long. 79' 12^ W. 



Easterly 



Variable 



SE 



NNE|£ 



October 9, 1780. 
P.M. Light breeies. 
Lat. 10** 62', long. 78** 6'. 



October 10, 1780, 

P.M. Light air and clear 
Lat. 10^ 64', long. 76*» 88' W. 



NE 



8W 
SSW 

WNW 



October 11, 1780. 
P.M. Squally, with rain. 

A.M. Light winds and squallay with 
rain. 

No obsenration. 

High land of Santa Marta* bearing SB, 
distance 11 leagues. 



SWbyW 

NW 

NWbW 
NW 



October 12, 1780. 

P.M. Moderate and cloudy. 
Moderate and squally. 

Moderate breezes and rain. 
Lat. 120, long. 73**. 



October 13, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breeses and squally. 

Light airs and fair weather. 

Moderate and squslly. 
Noon. Moderate and fair. 
Lat. 13° 67', long. 72° 26' 




8AVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



313 



Extract from the Loe of H. M. S. Diamond — contuiued. CHAP. 

* vm. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 

4 
A.M. 

4 



Noon 



P.M. 

1 
4 
Mldn. 

A.M. 

7 



9 

10 

Noon 



P.M. 

1 
4 



12 

A.M. 

6 

7 

8 
10 

12 

P.M. 
1 

4 

8 

12 

A.M. 

1 

6 
11 



Courses. 



• * 



NNE 



• i 



Winds. 



WNW 

nw 

Ditto 



WbyN 



WbyN 
NWbW 
NW 

NW 



NWbW 



W 



SWbyW 

SW 

8W 



SW 

SWbyS 
SW 



Remarks. 



October, 14, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate and squally. 
Squally, with, rain ; up mainsail. 

A.M. Fresh breezes and squally ; in two 
reefs in the topsail. 
Fresh ^es and cloudy. 
Noon. Moderate and clear. 
Lat. 160 69', long. 71** 88*. 



October 15, 1780. 

P.M. Close-reefed the topsails. 

Moderate breezes and squalls. 

Midnight. Heayy squails ; in fore and 
mizen-topsail. 

A.M. Carried away one of the fore 
sheets ; clewed up the foresail and reefed 
it again, set the sail. 

In main-topsail. 

Hove- to. 

Noon. Stronff gales and squaUy. 

High land M>out Cape Beata, St. Do- 
mingo, bearing N N W, distance 13 leagues. 



October 16, 1780. 

P.M. Strong ^ales. 

Reefed the mamsail and handed ditto ; set 
balanced mizen ; the land bore from S by 
W to W by N, distance 12 or 14 leagues. 

Ditto weather. 

A.M. Cloudy, with showers of rain. 

Let the reef out the mainsail, and made 
sail. 

Carried away the main-topmast-stay and 
spring, fore-topmast ditto. 

Moderate and dear ; spliced the stays 
and set up ditto. 

Ditto weather. 

Lat. 17*» 22'. 



October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breeze and squally weather. 
Spanned the main and nuzen shrouds. 
Ware ship. 
Handed the fore-topsaiL 

A.M. In main-topsail ; hoTe-to. 
Strong gales and squally weather. 
More moderate ; wore snip ; up foreftail ; 
set up the main rigging. 
Lat. 17^ 36' N. 



Log of the 
Diamond. 



The great 
hurricane 
approach- 
ing. 



/• I' 'k^ 



314 



SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vin. 



Log of the 
Diamond. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Diamond — eonUumed, 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 






October 18, 1780. 


1 






P.M. Saw the land, bearing £ by K, dis- 
tance 9 or 10 leagues. 


3 






Unbent the foresail and bent a new on*. 


5 






Wore ship; unbent fore*topmast-ttaj- 
sail, and bent another. 


6 






The Island of Beata, bore E N E» dis- 
tance 9 or 10 leagues. 


8 




NW 


Li£[ht airs. 


12 






Rainy weather. 


A.M. 








6 




Ditto 


A.M. The Island of Beata, N N E, dis- 
tance 6 or 6 leagues. 


8 




N 


Moderate and clear ; out second rMfc 

topsail. 


10 




Calm 




12 




NbyE 


Island of Beata, NE by N, distance 9 
leagues. 


P.M. 






Lat. ir 20' N. 


October 19, 1780. 


1 




NbyE 


P.M. Light airs and hasy weather* 


2 




SbyW 
W8W 




6 




In second reefs topsails. 

Island of Beata, K E, distance 6 leegnes ; 


7 




W 


8 




wsw 


wore ship. 


9 




WbyN 
WNW 




11 






12 






Ditto weather. 


A.M. 

5) 








6 

7) 
8 




Calm 






SE 


A.M. Light breezes and squally with 








ram. 


10 






Out first reef main-topsaiL 


11 






Saw two sail from the mast-head bcsr- 
ingNWbyN. 
Light breeses and hazy weather. 


12 




SEbyE 


P.M. 


SW 




Lat. 17° 11' N. 


October 20, 1780. 


1 




EbyS 


P.M. Light breezes and drizzling rain. 


6 




WSW 


Squally, with rain. 


Noon 






Noon. Ditto, ditto. 


P.M. 


S76^W 




Lat. 16^ 44'. long. 73' 20'. 


October 21. 1780. 


1 




NNE 


P.M. Squally, with rain. 


4 




Easterly Moderate and clear. 




NW { W 


and j Lat. 17'' 34'. long. 74'^ 41'. 
variablo 




SAVANNA-LA-HAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



315 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Diamond — concluded. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

1 




Easterly 

and 
variable 


October 22, 1780. 
P.M. Light breezes and cloudy. Saw 
Jamaica, and anchored at Fort Royal 
Harbour on the 23rd October. 



CHAP. 

vm. 



Log of the 
Diamond. 



The Pallas and the LowestofFe must have been 
just on the east side of this first hurricane ; and it is 
remarkable, that these ships were becalmed at no 
great distance from both storms. They narrowly 
escaped the second one by leaving their cruising 
ground ; and it is interesting to follow their tracks on 
the Chart, and trace their escape. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Pallas^ Captain T. Spry. — Log of the 



In Nautical TVmtf. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

1 

2 

5 

10) 

12) 

A.M. 

10 

11 

P.M. 
1 

2 
6 

7 
8 

11 


WNW 

SSW 

w 

WbyN 
VV 

^r 

WNW 

s 
sw 


SW 

Calm 

SSW 

Calm. 


October 3, 1780. 

P.M. Moderate weather; Lowestoffe 
and prize in company. 

Lat. 22° 8'. long. 69° 36' W. 

Turk's Island) 8 3r W, distance 18 
leagues. 


October 4, 1780. 

P.M. Varying from light to fresh 
breezes 
Lat. 21° 64', long. 71° O' W. 
Great Caicos, W, distance 10 leagues. 



Pa 



got 
lias. 



Calm.< 



* At this hour, when the Pallas was becalmed, the Phoenix was in the 
midst of the first hurricane. 



316 



SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vm. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Pallas — ctmtkmed. 



Log of 
PaBat. 



the 



Hour. 


Connes. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 

1 


A.M. 

6 
10 

P.M. 
1 

6 

11 

A.M. 

6 
7 
8 
9 

P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

6 

Midn. 

A.M. 

1 

8 
Noon. 

P.M. 

1 

2 
8 
4 
7 
9 
11 

A.M. 

7 

8 

9 

10 

P.M. 

1 

4 

7 
11 

A.M. 

5 

8 
10 
11 
12 


W 
WSW 

WSW 

W^N 
NWbyW 

W 

SWbyW 

WbyS 

WSW 

W|S 

WbyS 

WSW 

SEbyS 

WbyS 

WSW 

SSE 
WbyS 

WSW 
WbyS 
WNW 

S 
SEbyE 

SW 
WSW 

SWbyW 

SW 

SWbyS 

SSW 

SSW 

SW 

SWbyS 

SW 

SbyE 

SIE 

SJW 

SbyW 

SSW 

SWbyS 


Variable 

Ditto 
SWbyS 
SWbyW 

SW 
SW 

SWbyW 
SSE 

SEbyE 
SE 


October 4, 1780. 

t 

1 


Oetober 6, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate weather. > 


October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breeses and doady. 

• 

leagues. 
Lat. 22« O'. 


October 7, 1780. 
P.M. light winds and £ur ; LowwtoA 
in company. 

A.M. Little Inegua, bearing S 8 B, dw- 
tance 3 leagues. 
Lat.21°40'. 


October 8, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breeses and cloudy ; Low«- 
stoffiB in company. 

leagues. 
Lat. 20« 2' N. 

1 



\ 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



317 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. TAhi^AS— concluded. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

6 



P.M. 
1 

A.M. 

2 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

4 

9 
10 
11 



} 



A.M. 

2 
5 
7 

P.M. 
1 

A.M. 
1 

Noon. 

A.M. 

6 
12 



P.M. 



P.M. 



Courses. 



8SW 



SW 

S£ 
SEbyE 



WJS 
WbW 



ssw 



SWbyS 

SW 
W8W 



W8W 



Why 8 



^ 



Winds. 



NE 



Calm. 



Calm. 
8E 



Remarks. 



October 9, 1780. 
A.M. 8aw the east end of Jamaica; 
moderate weather. 



October 10, 1780. 
P.M. Calm; ship's head all round the 
compass. 

A.M. Yellow Hill, W 8 W, distance 10 
leagues. 
Lat. 18^ r N. 



October 11, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate and fair; spoke the 
Ramilies, in company with the South- 
ampton and Jamaica. 



S8E 



NW 
N 



Calm. 



NW 



N 



88W 



A.M. East end of Jamaica, N W by W, 
distance 6 leagues. 



October 12, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes. 



Noon. Ditto. 



A.M. Upper White Horses, bearing NW 
by N, distance 2 leagues. 



October 13, 1780. 
P.M. Lowestoffe in company. 



October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Anchored at Port Royal; light 
winds. 



October 15, 1780. 
Light winds. 



SquaUy, 



October 16, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vin. 



Log of 
Pafias. 



the 



318 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANB, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log of the 

Lowe- 

stoffe. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Lowestoffe, Captain 

C. Parker. — lu Nautical Time. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



P.M. 
A.M. 



Courses. 



S76^ W 



S7rw 



N75*»W 



S80«W 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



Tucsdajr, October 8, 1780. 
Variable' Moderate breezes and fair; made and 
shortened sail occasionally; Pallas and 
prize in company. 
Lat. 20° 7', long. 9** 87'.« 
Mayaguana, S 30° W, dist. 87 league*. 



ssw 



SE 



SSW 



sw 



£ 



NE 

to 
SE 

Calm. 



Wednesday, October 4, 1780. 

Light breezes and fair ; made the iigaal 
for seeing a sail in the N W ; PaUat and 
prize in company. 

Lat. 21° 62^ long. 8° 40^. 

Mayaguana, S 20° W, dist. 60 leagues. 



Thursday, October 6, 1780. 

Fresh breezes and fair. Half-past I, saw 
Turk's Islands, bearing SSW, diatanee 8 
or 7 leagues. At 3, saw East Caicoa from 
the masthead, bearing W by 8, distance S 
or 4 leagues ; Pallas and prize in eompa&T. 

Lat. 22° 17',l<mg. 8°12'B. 

Mayaguana, S 20° W, dist. 60 laagofli. 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Ditto weather. At 6, the SB 
part of Mayaffuana, W by S, diatanee S 
or 4 leagues. Lost sight <» the PaUaa and 

company. 

Lat. 21°65Mong. r^SO*. 



Saturday, October 7, 1780. 

Moderate breezes snd cloudy ; made and 
shortened sail occasionally. At aviniae^ 
Tariation, per azimuth, 7^ 10^ 

Lat. 20° 30'. 

Little Inegua, N by E { E, distance 6 or 
7 leagues. 



Sunday, October 8, 1780. 

Squally, with rain at times. At simriae^ 
Cape Maize, S S W | W. distanee 11 or 
12 leagues ; Pallas in company. 

Lat. 20° 7'. 

Cape Maize, NNW, dist. 3 or 4 leagues. 



Monday, October 9, 1780. | 

P.M. First part fresh breezes. At 6, Cape 
Maize, N E, distance 12 or 13 leaguea. 

A.M. At 6, the high land ^ Grand 
Ance, £, and the north part of Jamaica, 
S W ^ S, distance 6 or 7 leagaea. Latter 
part calm ; head all round. 

Lat. 18° 48'. 

East end of Jamaica, S W | S, distance 
8 or 9 leagues. 



* This log is printed as it was entered in the log-book. It is supposed 
to be reckoned from the place of lust depatturc. 




SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780, 



319 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Lowestoffe — concluded. 



Hour. 



P.M 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Calm 



Noon. 



P.M. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



ESE 



Variable 



Variable 



Variable 



Sea and 

land 

breezes. 



Ditto 



Ditto 



Remarks. 



Tuesday, October 10, 1780 
Calm ; head all round ; Pallas in company. 
Lat. 18° 6'. 

Yallah's Hill, W S W i W, distance 13 
or 14 leagues. 



Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 

P.M. Light breeze and fair. 1. Made 
the signal for seeing two sails in the S W. 
At 2, saw another sail in the S W. At 
3, one of the sails made the private signal, 
which was answered. 4.30. Found the 
sails to be H. M. ships Ramilies, South- 
ampton, and Jamaica. 

Noon. Pallas in company. 

Lat. 17''45' 

Yallah's Hill, W | N, dist. 8 leagues. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 

P.M. Ditto weather. At 6, Yallah's 
Hill, W J N, distance, oflf shore, 2 or 3 
leagues ; Pallas in company. 

Lat. 17° 61'. 

White Horses, N W by W i W, distance 
3 or 4 leagues. 



Friday. October 13, 1780. 

P.M. Ditto weather. At 6, Salt-pan 
Hill, W by N ; Cow Bay Point, W N W, 
offshore, distance 2 or 3 leagues. 

A.M. At 6, Rock Fort. NNW, off 
shore, distance 4 or 6 miles. 

Lat. 17° 49'. 

Rock Fort, N by W i W, distance 2 or 
3 miles. 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Light breezes ; running down for 
Port Roysd. 4.30. Came to an anchor in 
Port Royal. Port Royal Point, S; and 
the Twelve Apostles, W by S. 



Sunday, October 16, 1780. 
Light breezes ; sent seventeen prisoners 
to Kingston ; moored a cable each way. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 
Ditto weather. 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
Ditto weather, with rain. Received 
Vice- Admiral Parker's flag from H. M. 
ship Tobago, and hoisted on the fore-top- 
gallant-mast-head. 



CHAP. 

vni. 

Log of the 

Lowe- 

stoffis. 



i^ 



320 



SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. We next find the storm overtaking, on the morning 

vnL • • 
of the 5th, the ships under Admiral Rowley, which 

Chart IX. y^QYB Sent by Sir Peter Parker, to convoy a fleet 
part of the way to Europe : and the Stirling Castle 
was one of them. These ships suffered greatly; 
and in their crippled state had likewise the misfor- 
tune to meet the great hurricane at a later date. 



Log of the Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Grafton, bearing the flag of 

Rear-Admiral Rowley. — In Nautical Time. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
G 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

P M. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


NbyE 

NbyW 

N 

NbyE 

N by £ i E 

NbyE 

NNW 
ESE 

SEbyE 

SE 

ESE 

SE 

SEbyE 

ESE 

SEbyE 
ESE 


EbyN 

Variable 

ENE 
EbyN 

EbyN 

NW 

Variable 

ENE 

NE 

ENE 
NEbyE 

Variable 


Thursday, October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Light airs and cUmdy; made 
signal to annul the line, and to tea tlie 
order of sailing. 

Ditto weather. 

Ditto weather. 

A.M. Made signal to tack ; tadLedahip; 
squadron in company. 

Ditto weather. 

Squally, with rain ; handled top-gallttil- 
sails. 

Ditto weather. 

Set top-ffallant-sails. 

Noon. No obsenration. 

Lat. 29** 19' N, long. 74« 32'. 

WaUing's Island, 8 8^ E, dietnee IM 
leagues. 


Friday, October 6, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh gales and hasy; iqiiaUy 
weather ; close -reefed the tppsaUs. 

At 4, ditto weather, with rain at in- 
tervals ; got down top-gallant-yards. 



8AVANNA-LA-HAR HURRICANB, 1780. 
Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Grafton— cm1iimim(. 



Friday, OiWbor Q, 1780, 
At 7. diliQ weBtherj splii ihe m 

lowered down the yard, nnil Bet a Irysail ; 

strong gftles ond aqufllly, with rail 

handed the to[>sul« and couracf. 
At 8, ditto: made aignal foi Ifing-ti 

brought' to under tijaail. 

Midnight. The gale inoieoiin^, and 
hca*} aea from the E N E ; carriod awaj 
Ihc mBia-topmast, topsail -yard, Sec. 12.45. 
Found the mainmaat sprung two feet 
ikbove the upper deck. 

A.M. At a, tie miiermaHt went orer 
the side, and (he mainmHit immediately 
followed ; the ship labouring much and 
■hipping great (quantities of water ; people 
employed clearing the wreck and pumpirg 
the ship ; two of the upper-detk guns 
■^roke looae, one of which went through 

ie main-deck grating, and resting on the 
lower deck, frnm whence came a deluge of 
' ;r ; Ihe evhet being upset was secured 
le aame time j one of the eabin and fore- 
castle guna broke loose, but were secured ; 
nito the shifting iron ballast waa thrown 
overboard at the same time; the tiller 
breaking she fell uffinro the trough of the 
sea, and continued lo labour exceedingly ; 
the WBttr in the hold having increased to 
ten foet, and the [lumps and chains being 
■0 bad 03 to prevent working, the people 
quitted ihem, and hega,n baleing. 

At 3, finding the wreek alrike very hard 
under the oounler, put up the helm to 
wear, in order to clear the wreck, but it 
proved ineffectual. 

At 4, got another til'er shipped, and the 
main-hatches iccurcd. 

At fi, the shank painter of the beat bower 
gave way ; cut away the anchor from Ihe 

At G, seven feet water in the hold. 

At 7, cleared the wreck, Bnil threw four 
of the quarter-deck guns overboard ; the 
people constantly baleing : the ehip still 
labouring much. 

At 8, Uie gale teemed to abate. 




Noon. People employed as before, and 
preparing to get sail on the ship ; all the 

out of sight. 



322 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log of the 
Orftfton. 



Log of the 
Berwick. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Grafton — camektded. 



Hour. 



A.M. 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

A.M. 
1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 



Courset. Winds. 



Remarkt. 



Lying-to Variable 



SB 



INNW 
NW 



SEbyS 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 
No obaerration. 
Lat. 28** 20', long. 74*. 
Caucus, S 7^ E, diatance 114 leagiica. 



Saturday, October 7» 1780. 

P.M. Fresh gales and ckradj, with a 
sreat swell ; set a top-gallant-asiil oq tlie 
foremast and bore up ; saw a ship to the 
NW with her masts gone; emplojad 
pumping the ship and getting leady to 
rig Jury-masts; one of the upper-deck 
guns broke loose and went throii|^ the 
grating, and lodged upon the lower dcdt. 

Ditto weather. 



Ditto weather. 



A.M. Moderate gales and cloudy. 

Saw the Trident in the S W, with allhcr 
maats gone. 
Ditto weather. 



Ditto weather ; a swell from the N W ; 
employed at the pumps and at the figging. 
Lst. observed, 29® 6' N. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Berwick, Captain the 
Hon. K. Stewart.— In Nautical Time. 



Hour. 



p M. 

1 
2 
3 
I 


7 

S 



Courses. 



Winds. 



N by E E by N 



NNW 



S W by S 

ssw 

SSE 



Variable 



Remarks. 



lliurfcda^, October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Light airs and cloudy. 
Shortened sail. 

Unbent the new misen* topsail and bent 
the old. 
6.30. Wore ship. 
Light airs and cloudy. 
The Admiral S W, two or three leagues. 
Wore ship. 



SAYANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



323 



Extract from the Log of H. M.S. Berwick — contwrned. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 






Thursday, October 6, 1780. 


9 


NbyE 


Variable 


Handed top-gallant-sails. 
Ditto weather. 


10 






11 
12 


Nby W 






m mm 

A.M. 

1 








2 
3 


NNW 


NE 


A.M. At 3, tacked, by signal ; set top- 




J(EbySJS 
>^ E8E 




gallant-sails. 


4 

5 ; 




Moderate breezes and cloudy. 


r 

6 

m 


SE 


NNE 


Squally, with heaTy showers of rain. 


7 
8 


SEbyE 


NEbyE 


Moderate and cloudy. 


9 


SEIS 






10 


ENE 


Squally ; shortened sail occasionally ; 








the Stirling Castle and Hector's siffnal 
was made for their being out of their 


11 


SEbyE 


NEbyE 




m 




station ; dark, haxy weather. 


12 

P.M. 


ESE 


NE 


Lat. 29** 21', long. 71°.» 


Friday, October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and heavy showers 


1 


ESE 


NE 








of rain. 


2 


SEbyE 




At 2.30, double-reefed the fore and main- 


3 


• 


Variable 


topsails and close-reefed mizen; heavy 


4 






squalls of wind and rain. 


5 
6 






At G, in third reef in the fore and main- 
topsails. 


7 


SE 




At 7, handed the fore and mizen ditto. 
At 7.30, split the foresail and fore-top- 
mast-staysul. 


8 






At 8, handed the main -topsail. 
At 9, saw the Admiral, oearinff about 
W S W. At 9.30, bent another foresail. 


9 


upSEby S 
off 










SbyE 




and got down top-gallant- yards. 


10 


J 




At 10, could not see the Admiral ; heavy 


11 






gales of wind and rain; lying-to under 
the mainsail, the gale increasing much. 


12 






About ten minutes before 12, our bow- 
sprit and foremast went over the side, 
about thirty feet above the deck, and in 














the fall carried away the mainyard and 








mainsail, all split to pieces. 










1 

2 






A.M. At 2.15, blowing a hurricane; 


3 






carried away the mizenmast. At 2.30, the 


4 






mainmast went by the board; hands 


5 






employed in pumping and clearing the 


6 






wreck ; shipped a great quantity of water. 


7 






especially in the gun-room and ward-room ; 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



Log of the 
Berwick* 






* The Berwick's longitude does not agree with that gi?en in the other 
loga of the squadron. 

y2 






324 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vin. 



J^ of the 
Benrick. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Berwick — cimeimded. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

8 



9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

I) 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 



Couneii. 



Winds. 



Remarkf. 



Variable 



up N by E 
off 

NEbyN 



up N by E 

off 

Nby W 



up N by W 
offNbyE 
E by S I S 



• . . . • • . 

ESE 

SEbyS 
SEbyE 

ESE 
SE 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 
owing to the gailerieaaiid rudder-coat store 
in, great quantity of water went down in the 
cockpit and bread-roomi the ship labooiiiig 
hard ; on examining at daylight* fimnd — 
of the forecastle guns and two earrooMles 
gone oTerboard; two boetSy top-gallant- 
yards, and stecaJng-eaili gone from the 
booms ; stream and kedgearohon, hJimacle 
and compasses from the quarter-deck. ! 
At 9, saw four sail of ships aatam die- 1 
masted. 



Noon. Employed in dearinc the 

and setting tne damaged b reaaap from the 
bread-room, throwins it o f wb o a rd to pre- 
serre the remainder uom haatinn ; atraiig 
gales. 

By the falling of the maininaet two of the 
ujpper-deck guns broke adrift, andhy upset- 
ting them the carriages were broke ; simdry 
people much hurt in the gale ; onegamiBma 
the carriages found them unfit for usot aad 
hoye them oyerboard by Captain's 

Lat. 28*» 45', long. 70* 17'. 



WSW 



8W 



Variable 



Saturday, October 7» 1780. 
• P.M. Moderate breeies and cloudy. 

At 2.30, the Hector made the signal of 
distress ; employed clearing ship ; got up a 
maln-top-gallant-mast for a nuinnistt. 
with a top- gallant-sail on it. 

Moderate breeies and doudj ; a htKwj 
swell from the westward. 



A.M. Ditto weather; a heavy swdl 
from the westward. 

Light airs ; employed in getting out a . 
jury bowsprit and foremast up; three ships ; 
dismasted in sight. 

Ut. observed, 28'' 16'. 
Employed getting up sheers for the jnrj- 
furcmast. 
Ditto weather. 
Lat. 28' 19', long. 70° 29*. 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



325 



Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H. M. S. Trident, CHAP. 
Captain J. A. P. MoUoy.— In Nautical Tili. ^^^' 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 






Thursday, October 6, 1780. 


1 


NNE 


E 


P.M. Light airs; Admiral made the 


2 
3 






signal to disanntd the line. 


4 


Nby W 


Variable 




5 


Ni W 




Admiral called in all cruisers. 


\3 

7 
8 
9 


N 






10 


• 






11 


NbyE 






12 






Ditto weather. 


A.M. 

1 

2 








W 






3 


NN W 






4 
5 
6 


ESE 


NE 


A.M. Tacked by signal. 


7 
8 






Light breezes and cloudy, with heavy 


9 






r«in. 


10 
1 1 


SE by E 


NEbyE 


Squally, with rain. 


1 1 
12 






Ditto weather. 
Lat. 29° 17' N. 


P.M. 






Bermudas, N 75' 3', distance 146 leagues. 


Friday, October 6, 1780, 


1 


ESE 


NE 


P.M. Fresh breezes and squidly, with 


2 






heavy rain. 


3 






In second-reef topsail ; down top-gal- 


4 






lant-yards. 


5 


SE^E 




Spht main-topsail ; repaired it. 


6 






Squally ; split main-topmast-staysails 
and jib; bent others. 


7 






Handed fore and mizen-topsails. 


8 






Heavy squalls, with rain^ 


9 


SSE 


E 


Admiral made signal to bring-to on the 
larboard tacks. 


10 




EbyN 


Hauled the foresail up. 


11 






Handed main- topsails, btmt^ the main- 
sail, and brought-to under mizen-sUysail. 


12 






Heavy gales and violent squalls and rain ; 
bunted the foresail. 


A.M. 








1 


up SE by S 




A.M. Main- topmast went away. 


2 


offS 




Mizenmast went over theside, with all the 


3 






sails and rigging, clearing the wreck away. 

Excessive heavv squalls ; earned aWay 

the foremast, and with it the best bower 


4 


















jnchor, sails, and rigging. 



Log of the 
Trident. 



326 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR IIURKICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VUI. 

Log of the 
Trident. 



Their Jury- 
masts. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Trident — ameimded. 



Hour. 



lA)g of the 
Hector. 



5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



r.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Remmrks. 



up SE by S 
offS 



EbyN 



up NE by N NWbyN 
offENE 



upNbyW 
offNNE 



upNNW 
offN 



EbyS 



SE 



WbyN 



W 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 

At 5, the mainmast went orer the side; 
lost every thing belonging to it. 

People cmpU^red clearing the ship of the 
wrecks. 



SE4E 

ESE 
E 



NNW 



SW 



Hard gales and doadj ; no ship in light 

Lat. 28** 18' N. 

Bermudas, N 68^ 3' £, dist. 158 leagues. 

Saturday, October 7, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and haiy; emplojed 
clearing ship and getting jurr-niMta. 

Got a top-gallant-maat lor fnrwniel, 
another for a mainmast, and the loog-boat 
mast for a mizenmast. 

More moderate ; made sail mider jury- 
masts. 



Moderate and cloudy. 



Variable 



A.M. Fitting rigging for the jury-: 



1 



Employed getting a top-gaUant-niMt for 
a foremast 
Light airs ; no ship in sight 
Lat 28° 3' N 
Bermudas, N 6r 62^ E, dist 140 leagnee. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Hector, Captain Sir John 

HamiitoD. — In Nautical Time, 



Hour. 



P.M. 



Courses. 



NbyE 
N by E 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



I Thursday, October 5, 1780. ! 

E by N ; P.M. I/ght airs and fair at 60 min. past ' 

' noon ; tho squadron being in a line, thesig* I 
K by X iial w.w made to discontinuo ; nnfiwored 




SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



327 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Hector — contMued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
6 

7 
8 

'I 

10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



Courses. 



8SE 



NNE^E 
NbyE 



N 

NbyW 

N by W i W 

SEby E 



SEiS 
ESE 

SSE 

SEJE 

SEbyS 

N 

S 

up SSE 

off 

SbyE 



up S E by S 

off 

SbyE 



Winds. 



E 



EbyS 
EbyN 



NEbyE 

NE 

ENE 

NE 

E 

NEbyE 

EbyN 

ENE 
ESE 



Remarks. 



Thursday, October 6, 1780. 
per signal, and immediately made sail. 
At 3, wore ship to get into our station. 
At 4, hauled our wind to the northward ; 
the Admiral, N N W i W. 

At 6, light breezes ; the Admiral, N W 
by N. 6.30. Hoisted in the boat. At 8, 
the Admiral, NW J W, distance half a 
mile; light airs and cloudy. At 12, the 
Admiral, N W, distance half a mile. 

A.M. At 3, tacked ship, per signal, to 
the S E. At 4, the Admiral, S by E. 

At 5, squally, with rain, thunder, and 
lightning ; found the slings of the main- 
yard broke ; got them down ; employed 
fitting another pair. At 8, moderate and 
dark cloudy weather ; the Admiral, S by E. 

Fresh gales and passing squalls. At 1 1 .25 
the Stirling Castle's and Hector's signal 
was made for being out of thcdr station. 

Answered, per signal, and bore down upon 
the Grafton's lee quarter. At noon, she 
bore E by N i N» distance half a mile. 

No obseryation. 



Friday, October 6. 1780. 
P.M. Strong gales and squalls. At 5, got 
down top- gallant-yards and close-reefed ue 
topsails J ditto, handed the mizen-topsail. 
At 7, the gale increasing and sea running 
high, took in the fore-topsail. At 8, the 
Orafton not in sight; wore ship to the 
northward, and at 8.30, to the south. At 9, 
hoye-to, per signal; do., handed main-top- 
sail and courses under balance-mizen and 
mizen^staysail. At 12, the main-topmast 
went oyer the side ; the gale increased to 
a hurricane* At 1 a.m. the misenmast 
went oyer the side ; at 1.30, the foremast 
went likewise, and a few minutes after the 
mainmast went oyer the side ; found the 
foremast by the fall carried away the stop- 
per of the best bower anchor, that we were 
obliged to cut it from the bows with ^e 
rest of the wreck ; found the ship had 
water in the hold, oyer the second tier of 
casks ; upon sounding of the wcdl, found 9f 
feet water in ; turned all hands down to the 
pumps; some chosen seamen only kept 
upon deck to clear the wreck ; she shipped 
many heayy seas, which broke loose aU 
our shot, &c. ; the longboat receiyed great 
quantities of water ; scuttled her in order 
to saye her ; hoye oyer seyen of the upper- 
deck g^ns, and four of the quarter-deck 
ditto ; off the forecastle one gun, likewise 



CHAP. 

vni. 

Log of the 
Hector. 



328 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of the 
Hector. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Hector — comehAd. 




P.M. 

1 
2 
3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A m 3A« 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 

12 



Courses. Winds. 



Remarks. 



•ipNNWoffN 



SB 



S£iS 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 
all the shot from both decks, with ercrj 
loose thing to ease the ship. At daylight, 
found the small bower anchor haogmg bj 
the flukes ; cut it away, with eTerr other 
port of the wreck we had not seen oefiiret 
so that by 10 o'clock we were qoite dear 
of the wreck ; when the weather began to 
clear away, saw three of the aqaadraa in 
the same situation as ourselTea. 
Lat. 28° 28'. 



N\V 



SSE 



WNW 



WNW 






IP 



Saturday, October 7, 1780. 
P.M. Still hard gales, with a haarr i 
from the westward ; some of the ahip'a 
company employed getting dear the decks, 
and htting a top-gallant-s&l; hoisted H up 
to the stump of the foremast, to get the 
ship before sea. All the rest of the ship's 
company at the chain and hand-pumpa. 



The ship labouring Tery much, and 
shipping a great quantity of water» and 
five feet water in the hold. 



A.M. At 2, freed her; employed dfring 
away the booms, and getting tne topmasts 
out for jury-masts ; got up the upper and 
qxiartcr-deck guns HM OTerset in the gale. 



Senred out drams to the people erery four 
hours while pumpii%the ship out. At 
noon, saw a sloop standing to the 8K; 
the ships in company. 

Lat. 28° 19' N. 



I«og of the 
Bristol. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Bristol, 

Captain Glover. 




P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

/> 



Courses. 



Winds. 



NNE 

NbyE 



1 


1 
1 

1 

E 


E by N 

1 


K X E 



Kemarks. 



lliursday, October 6, 1780. 
I^'ght breeses and fair weather. 
The Admiral made the signal to annul 
all signals. 
Ditto weather. 



SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



329 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Bristol — cantifmed. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

7 

8 

9 

10 

ir 

12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

is 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



A.M. 
1 



Courses. 



NbyB 



NNE 



ESE 



SEbvE 

ESE 

SE^E 



SE 



SEbyE 
ESE . 



SEbyE 
SE 



up SE 

off 

S W by S 



Winds. 



EbyN 



E 



NE 



NEbvE 

NN'E 
ENE 



ENE 



NbyE 
NE 



NEbyE 
ENE 



upNNBc^E 



Remarks. 



Thursday, October 5, 1780. 



Light breezes and fair weather. 



Tacked» per signal. 



Squally, with rain^ 

In second reef of topsails { the Admiral 
made the Hector's and Stirling Castle's 
signal for being out of their station. 

Cloudy, with some rain. 

No obserration. 

Lat, 29° 32', long. 73° 68'. 

Crooked Island, S 1° 50' E, distance 132 
leagues. 



A sodden 
shift of 
wind. 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and rain. 

Ditto weather ; the Admiral> E S B> dis- 
tance 2 miles ; in first-reefed topsail. 

Split the fore- topmast- staysail { bent a 
new ditto. 

In second -reefed topsail, and down top- 
gallant-yards. 

Split the main-topmast stay; bent a 
new one. 

Fresh gales ; in third-reefed topsail, and 
handed ditto. 

Ditto weather ; up foresail, and brought- 
to under the mainsail ; heard two guns in 
S E quarter. 

Hard gales ; hauled up the mainsaili and 
brought her under the balance misen. 

Ditto weather; carried away the fore 
and main top-gallant-mast. 

Carried away the mizenmast ; employed 
in clearing the wreck, which carried away 
the main-topsail-yard ; found the ship to 
make much water ; 3^ feet in the well ; 
pumps constantly at work. 

A.M. At 1, the mainmast went in the 
parUbers, wMch carried with it the main- 
topmast, sprung the gallows, stove the 
longboat, cutter, and yawl, colour chest 
from quarter-deck, binnacle with azimuth, 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



Log of the 
Bristol. 



The Stir- 
ling Castle. 






L 



330 



8AVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vin. 

Log of the 
Bristol. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Bristol — canebuML 




A.M. 
2 

3 
4 



6 
G 



7 
8 
9 



10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 

8 

y 

10 

11 

12 



Courses. 



upNNE 
off£ 



upN 

off 
EbyN 



Lying-to 

up N by E 

offNEbyN 



S£ 
SEbyE 



8SE 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



Friday, October 6, 17S0. 
two common compasses, the gnnnier's 
stores. 

At 2.15, the foremast went by the board, 
carried with it the fore-top- gallant and 
N W yard, with sunner's stores in this top, com- 
plete ; royu top and top-sallant steering- 
sail with riggmg full; cUsmonnted one 
forecastle gun, and d^d other material 
damage ; seamen cleariiw the wreck ; ahip 
made much water, 5 net in the w^ 
pumps constantly at work. At 6, the bow- 
sprit went with the wreck forward. At 
6.30, cleared the wreck of the ship, and 
clearing the ship of lumber. 

At 7, hard gsles ; employed in gettins 
W N W ! the ship in a state of safety ; shipped much 
' water, pumps still at work. At 9, the |[iJe 
somewhat abated ; aaw two ahipa haTing 
lost their masts, supposed to be the Raby 
and Hector. At 10, the Hector passed irery 
j near ua. At 11, employed in i^ttinc mrs 
spars as jury-masts; the ship maioe lam 
water. At meridian, gale abated, and 
clear ; aaw a ship, supposed to be the Ber- 
wick, with stumps ; three sail in sight. 

Lat. 28° 41'. 



NW 



WNW 

SWbyW 

w s w 



w 



I Culm 



Saturday, October 7» 1780. 

P.M. Fresh gales, and a mat swell from . 
the N W ; in company with the Rnbj and 
Hector ; the gale abating and dear. I 

Saw in the S E three ships in oompanj; 
a strange sail, ditto onarter. 

The Hector made signal of diitress, bose 
down to join her. 



Moderate breeses and lair weather ; 
ployed in getting jury-masts ready. 



Moderate breeses, with a great swell 
from the N W ; three ships in company. 



A.M. Saw a strange sail in the SB quarter. 

Turk's Island, S 18^ £, dist. 14o leagues. 

Employed rigging a junr-foremast, with ; 
the spare topmast, and ditto topsail for a j 
foresail. I 

T.it. obseryation, 2S" 20'. ' 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



331 



Extract .from a Journal of the ProceediDgs of H. M. S. Ruby, CHAP. 

Captain John Cowling. V™- 



Hour. 



A.M. 



12 



P.M. 

2.30 

3 
3.15 



6.30 



A* Ml 1 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Not iu log 



P.M. 

2 
8 



Not in log 



EbyN 



NE 



ENE 



NNW 



NW 
WNW 



Remarks. 



Thursday, October 6, 1780. 

A.M. Light airs and cloudy ; made and 
shortened sail occasionally ; squadron in 
company. 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 

Fresh breezes and squally; made and 
shortened sail, and tacked occasionally; 
very heavy gales. At 12, the mizen-stay- 
sail blew overboard, bent another; the 
Admiral's light, N by E ; the misen and 
mizen staysiul blew overboard. P.M. At 
2.30, the foremast went by the board, and 
carried away the best bower, and cut the 
cable. At 3, the mizenmast went by the 
board, ten feet above deck. 3.15. The 
mainmast went by the board, and stove 
two of the boats ; lost three tons of water 
casks from the quarter, and two ditto from 
the upper and quarter decks; violent 
heavy gales, ship very laboursome. At 
5.30, hove overboard ten of the 9-pounder8 
to ease the ship; cut the wreck of the 
masts away ; saw three of the squadron 
dismasted; got the cutter's foremast to 
the weather cat-head, and set the sail and 
wore ship to get dear of them ; employed 
rigeing a jury-foremast; Berwick, Bristol, 
and Hector in company. 

Lat. 28** 20'. 



Saturday, October 7, 1780. 

A.M. Moderate and clear, the clouds 
much fallen ; three dismasted ships in 
sight ; found six puncheons of rum stove 
entirely. At 4, the Berwick made signal 
for the ships to the S E to join him ; two 
ships in sight, bearing N by E, 1 ditto, 
N N W, distance 4 miles ; saw a strange 
sail to the northward ; employed getting 
up jury-masts. 

Lat. 28°. 



Sunday, October 8, 1780. 
P.M. Ditto weather ; employed getting 
up jury-masts. At 2, saw the above sail, a 
sloop bearing down upon us. At 5, eot a 
jury-mizenmast up ; and at 8, a jury-fore- 
mast; Bristol and Hector in company; 
Berwick in sight; set forc-top-gnllant-sail 



Loff of the 
Ruby. 



Ut 



332 



SAVANNA- LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII 

Log of the 
Ruby. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Ruby — concluded. 

Rt marks. 




Sunday, October 8, 1780. 
for a foresail ; a heavy, confused sea ; em- 
ployed getting up aiury-mast. At 10 a,.u, 
saw a sail in the S £ ; Bristol and Hector 
in company. 
Lat. 28° 27'. 



The next document is an extract from a report made 
by Sir George Rodney, and addressed to the Secretary 
of the Admiralty. The squadron he alludes to was 
further removed from the centre of the storm ; and 
two of the ships' logs will be sufficient here to show in 
what way they were aflfected by it. The place of this 
squadron, which was under Captain Affleck's orders, is 
marked on the Chart. 

On referring to the log-books of Admiral Arbuthnot's 
squadron, I found the Shrewsbury off Rhode Island, 
and employed blockading the French squadron, com- 
manded by Admiral Temay. On the 8th of October, 
1780, by the Shrewsbury's log, the wind veered from 
E. N. E. to N. E., then N. N. W. and W. N. W., wUh 
strong gales and squalls^ with rain. The Sandwich, 
lying at Sandy Hook, had fine weather. 



Extract from a letter from Admiral Rodney to Mr. 
Stevens, dated on board the Sandwich, off New York, 
October 20, 1780. 

" I must desire you will be pleased to acquaint their Lordships 
that the squadron of ships and frigates which I stationed off the 
Delaware received very considerable damage in a violent gale of 
wind ) and most of them have been obliged to return to port in 
a crippled condition. The Terrible and the Cyclops lost their 
mizcnmasts ^ the Guadaloupe was compelled to throw some of 
hor puns overhoai^i^ and nlmost every ship wa»< so much da- 
maged as to be obl^d to return into port." 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



333 



Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H. M.S. Terrible, CHAP. 



kept by Lieut. Benjamin Forest. — In Nautical Time, 



VIII. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

6 

9 
10 

11 



Courses. 



Winds. 



S23**W 



NWbW 



P.M. 

3 

4 

8 

A. Mi 

2 

7 

10 



S40°E 



EbyN 



P.M. 



N 77^*2 



, 11 



NNW 



Remarks. 



Friday, October 6, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales and hazy weather. At 
6, we made signal for a strange sail in the 
NE. At 9.30, saw three in the NW 
quarter. At 10.30, the signal for the ships 
to the windward to make more sail ; ditto 
the bignal to chase in the west. At 11, 
shortened sail and hove-to ; the Triumph 
brought- to the chase at noon ; fresh gales 
and Slick hazy weather ; sounded at dif- 
ferent times, and tacked occasionally, as 
per signal. 

Cape Henry. S 65° W, distonce 74 
miles. 
Lat. 36° 29' N, long. 74°. 



Saturday,. October 7, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh breezes and squally, with 
rain. At 3, unbent the mainsail, being 
spUt; William Underbill, a soldier, fell 
overboard, and was drowned. At 4, em- 
ployed setting up the mizen rigging. At 8, 
carried away the larboard clew of main- 
topsail; handed the sail. At 2 a.ic. 
unbent the main-topsail and sent it 
down. At 7.30, the mizenmast went 
away ; employed cutting away the wreck. 
At 10, mainsail, in hauling up, split to 
pieces and blew away ; found the main- 
mast sprung in the lower decks ; lowered 
down the mainyard ; employed repairing 
the damages ; mtto weather. 

Cape Charles, N 56 W, distance 48 
leagues. 

Lat. 35° 39' N, long. 73° 50'. 



Sunday, October 8, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and hazy weather; 
carpenters employed making a fish for 
the mainmast; sailmakers employed re- 
pairing the mainsail; people employed 
setting up the ringing. At 6, saw five 
sail, two to N E, t&ee to S W, supposed 
to be some of our cruisers ; bent a foresail 
for a mainsail ; bent a main-topsail. At 
11, spoke H. M. S. Triumph and Cyclops 
frigate; people employed repairing the 
rigging. 

New York, N 11° W, distance 58 
leagues. 

l5t.-«6° 20' N, lAtt. 73° 17' 




Log of the 
Terrible. 




334 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of the 
Terrible. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Terrible — amehided. 



Log of the 
Triumph. 



Uour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 

1 


P.M. 

6 
12 


N 34^ W 


NEbyE 


Monday, October 9, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate and cloudy weather; 
employed about the ri^^ing and aaila; 
carpenters fishing the mainmaat and Jury- 
mast and yard ditto. At 12, got up the 

rigging it; tacked occasionally, aa per 
signal. 

Sandy Hook, N 9"" W, distance 75 kaguea. 

Lat. 8«° 48* N, long. 73** 40^. 


Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H.M.S. Triumph, 
kept by Lieut. W. A. Otway.— In Nauticai Tkme. 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 

10 

A.M. 

6 
8 

P.M. 

4 

A.M. 

5 

6 

8 


S2y'W 
S43**E 


NNE 
NEbyN 

NEbyN 


Friday, October 6, 1780. 

P.M. Throuffhout strong calaa and 
hazy; made the signal for aU cmiaera. 
At 10, saw the flash of a gun ahead. At 
6 A.M. wore ship, in company with the 
Terrible; a frigate to the windward: 
made the private signal, which we taka to 
be the Triton. At 8, saw a strange aidl 
in the N W ; set fore-trysaU. At 11, 
came up with the chase, hronght-to, and 
sent a boat on board ; she prored to be a 
ship from Philadelphia, captured by the 
Retaliation cutter, and bound to New 
York. 

Soundings, 18 fathoms. 

Cape Henry, N 75'' W, distance 39 kegiica. 

Lat. 36^ 28* N, long. 73^ 49'. 


Saturday, Octol>er 7, 1780. 

P.M. Throughout strong galea* with 
rain. At 4, uie squadron in compaiiy; 
furled the main-topsail. At 5 aj>u tne 
fore tack broke; up foresail, and ftirled 
it; excessive hard ^alea and a heavy 
sea; hauled the mamsail up, and aeC 
the foul weather misen-staysail. At 8» 
four feet water in the hold ; set all the 
chain-pumps to work. At 8, endeaToared 
to furl the mainsail, but could not perform 
it ; saw the Terrible, with her misenmaat 
carried away; quoined the lower-deek 
guns, it still continuing to blow excea- 
siTcly hard ; lost sight of the Terrible. 

Cape Hatteras, S 76'^ W, distance 48 
lesgucs. 

Lat, 35^ 45', long. 73** 5'. 



SAVANNA-LA-MAR HURRICANE, 1780. 



335 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Triumph — concluded. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

2 
9 

A.M. 

6 



Courses. 



N77°E 



9 



P.M. 

3 



6 

A.M. 



11 



N34°W 






Winds. 



NW 



NNW 



NNE 



NNW 



Remarks. 



Sundaj, October 8, 1780. 

P.M. First part, very hard gales and 
hazy weather ; middle and latter, mode- 
rate and cloudy. At 2, saw four sail ; set 
mainsail and lore-staysaiL At 9, set the 
topsail. At 6 A.M. the Terrible in the 
S £, her mizen gone, and main yard low- 
ered down ; saw the Cyclops to the east- 
ward, with her mizenmast carried away ; 
one of the ships in the S W fired seToral 
gims; three sail in that quarter; made 
the private signal to ships in the S W. At 
9, bore away for the Terrible; out second- 
reef foresail ; in company with the Ter- 
rible and Cyclops. 

Sandy Hook, N ll^ W, distance 99 
leagues. 

Lat. 86** W N, long. 72« 41' W. 



Monday, October 9, 1780. 

P.M. Light airs and cloudy; up top- 
gallant-yards, out first reefii. At 3, 
tacked ship; a ship ahead; made the 
private signal, which we answered ; found 
the knee of our head yerr much damaged, 
particularly the part which secures the 
gammoning of the bowsprit; carpenters 
employed repairing it. At 6, spoke 
H.M.S. Triton. At 7 a.m. one of the 
ships astern made the signal of distress ; 
brought-to, wore, and stood towards her ; 
she proved to be the Boreas, with the head 
of her rudder broken off, and her main- 
mast sprung in two places. At 11, made 
sail. 

Sandy Hook, N ll^' W, distance 74 
leagues. 

Lat. 36*^ 49' N, long. 73« 14'. 



CHAP. 

vin. 

Log of the 
Triumph. 




This is as far as the hurricane, which destroyed 
Savanna-la-Mar on the 3rd of October, 1780, has 
been traced. 



337 



The Great Hurricane of 1780. 

It has been stated that Sir George Rodney was off chap. 
New York during the occurrence of the hurricanes ^^' 
of October, 1780. He had left the command in the See 

Chart IX. 

Leeward Islands to Admiral Hotham, who, with his 
flag on board the Vengeance, and having with him 
the Montagu, Egmont, Ajax, Alcmene, Amazon, and 
some other vessels of war, was in the Careenage at 
St. Lucia, with his ships moored across the entrance 
of that harbour. The Albemarle was in Carlisle Bay, 
Barbados. The Endymion, with the Andromeda and 
Laurel, were cruising on the east side of Martinique ; 
and the Venus, Convert, and Surprise, were cruising 
among the northern Antilles Islands. 

The storm, coming from the south-eastj was first 
felt at Barbados ; and the ships of Admiral Hotham's 
squadron experienced the hurricane each in turn, 
according to the place she was in; and it will be 

4 

found to have passed on, until it reached the ships 
under Sir Peter Parker. 

The Deal Castle was wrecked on Porto Rico. The 
Ulysses and Pomona, with the fleet under their convoy, 
were in the Mona Passage ; and we find them suffering 
greatly, and almost in the centre of the storm. 

The Diamond and the Pelican had been sent to 
Honduras, convoying merchant ships, and had felt 
nothing of the* first hurricane; but, on their return 
towards Jamaica, though on somewhat different courses, 
both ships came within the influence of the Great 

z 



338 THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 

i 

CHAP. Hurricane about the 15tli of October, as will be seen 

vni. 
1— on reference to their logs, which have bc*eii printed, 

and to their places as marked on the Chart IX, 

The Pallas and the Lowestoffe had, most fortunately, 
left their cruising ground just before the hurricane 
passed over it. On the 13th they were becalmed ; and 
on the 14th anchored at Port Royal, Jamaica; and 
there, on that day, the wind was north-west. On the 
15th it became norths though light. On the 16th, by 
the log of the Pallas, it veered round to the south- 
south-west^ with squalls, thus indicating that a slight 
influence of the hurricane was felt at Port Royal. The 
storm, as marked on the Chart, is confined to that 
space over which it was violent. 

The Thunderer, bearing the broad pennant of Com- 
modore Walsingham, had just arrived from England ; 
and, in her way to Jamaica to join Sir Peter Parker, 
had touched at St. Lucia. She foundered in one of 
these storms ; but where, and on what day, never has 
been ascertained. 

The Chart shows the position of Admiral Rowley *8 
already disabled ships when the second hurricane 
reached them. The Stirling Castle, which belonged 
to tliis squadron, was wrecked by striking on Silver 
Keys after the storm. 

The Berwick had separated from this fleet afler the 
hurricane of Savanna-la-Mar, and was proceeding to 
England under jury-masts. She had reached north 
of the latitude of Bermuda when the second hurricane 
overtook her ; and by her track and log-book we are 
enabled to ascertain the direction taken by this storm. 

On reading the logs of these ships, and the various 
accounts of this hurricane, and comparing the difierent 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780, 339 

reports of the wind, it will be found, that no storm yet chap. 

described more strongly proves than this the rotatory 

nature of hurricanes; and, after attentive consideration 
of this tempest, in addition to the details of so many 
others, it seems difficult to refuse belief to this being 
their mode of action. The centre of the circle would 

• 

appear to have passed just to the north of Barbados, 
and thence ov,er the middle of the Island of St. Lucia : 
so that Admiral Hotham's ship, the Vengeance, which 
remained in the Careenage to ride out the gale, was 
in the right-hand semicircle of the storm ; whilst the 
ships which cut, or parted their cables, and ran first to 
the southward, were for awhile in the left-hand semi- 
circle. These last appear to have been dismasted, and 
the Vengeance driven on shore, just as the centre of 
the storm was passing between them. 

The three ships to the eastward of Martinique being 
in the right-hand semicircle, had the gale from the 
eastward, and were therefore upon a lee-shore. By the 
log of the Endymion, it will be seen that ship just 
cleared the north-east point of the island; but the 
Andromeda and Laurel were wrecked, and twenty-five 
men of the crew of the Laurel alone were saved. These 
men, of course, were made prisoners ; but were sent 
by the Marquis de Bouill6 to the British Governor at 
St. Lucia, with a letter expressing that he could not 
detain them as prisoners, from the chances of a catas- 
trophe common to all. 

An application having been made, at my request, 
by Viscount Palmerston, to the French Government, 
for any information which they could afford relative 
to the Great Hurricane of 1780, an extract from a 
report on the subject, made by the *'Intendant of 

z2 






340 THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 

GHAP. Martinique" to the Minister of Marine, was received 
from r ranee. 

The extract proves the wind to have veered at 
Martinique, as may have been expected, according to 
the apparent law of storms in the northern hemi- 
sphere; and throughout shows that the towns and 
fishing villages suffered even more from the extra- 
ordinary height to which the sea rose, than from 
the wind. 

Such a portion only of this document is printed as 
is still of interest. 

Coup de ** Le vent qui r^gnait de la partie de TE.N.E. ^tant devena 

Bastres de ^^^^ ^^^ dajxa la journde du 1 1 Octobre, plusieurs des b^timenfl 

St. Pierre, du convoi ddrad^rent et furent portds au large. II augmenta de 

plus en plus et devint trbs violent. II se rangea cofloite k 

r£.S.E et bient6t apr^ au S. et k 1*0. en varient avec aotant de 

rapidity que d'impdtuositd. Alors tout ce qui restait snr la nde 

fut entrain^ k I'exception de trois pctits b^timens cabotenra. 

French Ceus de convoi disparurent avec beaucoup de bftteaux et de 

^^^^^' go^lettes, soit de la colonie, soit des autres ilea Fran^aiaes on 

neutres. 
The iwell. " Un raz de marde des plus furieux mit le comble aa malhear 
que Ton dprouvait; il ddtruisit dans un instant ploa de 150 
maisons au boro^ dont trente ou quarante nouvellement bftdes ; 
ceUes qui dtaient derri^re furent enfoncdes en grand paitie ; et 
les marchandises qu'eUes contenaient enti^rement perdnes. CTcst 
avec beaucoup de peine que les particuliers qui les habitaient, 
sont parvenus k se sauver. 

''Le Fort St. Pierre construit il y a environ 120 ana, a 6bi 
^galement detruit, k Texception des magasins. 

" La mer a fait dans les bourgs surtout k St. Pierre, bean- 
coup plus de mal que le vent ; lalame y a montdjusqu^ fjingt-aaq 
pieds, 
LaDomi- ''Le vent et la mer ont fait les plus grands ravages )^ la 
^<l^e« Dominique. Plusieurs b^timens caboteurs ont dt^ jett^ k la 
c6te. Presque toutes les maisons du bord de mer ont €t^ em- 
portecs, ainsi que les magasins du Roi, la boulangerie et one 
partie des casernes. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 341 

"Le d^sastre a ^t^ encore plus affreux a St. Vincent, et les CHAP, 
pertes plus considerables. La frigate la Junon qui venait d'y Vm. 
arriver y a p^ri. st.Vin- 

" Des 600 maisons qui composaient le bourg de King*s-town cent, 
il n*en reste que 14. Les autres ont €t€ rashes. La campagne 
a €i€ enti^remeut d^vast^e, et tous les habitans sont expos^ k 
la plus afifreuse mis^re. 

'' II y a eu peu de mal k la Grenade ; quelques b&timens s*y La 
sont dchou^s^ mais nous n*avons pas appris que Tile ait souflPret. ^'^**^®» 

*' La Guadeloupe a re^u quelques dommages dans des planta- Guade- 
tions ', le r^ de mar^e en a fait beaucoup k la basse terre, et en Jjane** 
d* autres quartiers de la colonic. Galante, 

" Marie Galante a €t€ epargn^e en grande partie. 

" II n*en a pas ^te de m^me de St. Eustache. La mer y a St. Eub-> 
fieut aussi beaucoup de mal^ elle a consid^rablement mont^ et a ^^^®' 
inonde une grande partie des Magasins du Commerce.*' 

A Danish report, also procured for me by Viscount 
Palmerston, was made by Captain Stockfleth, who 
commanded the frigate Christiana, to the Danish 
Admiralty. This ship met the hurricane on the 13th 
of October, 1780, when south-west of Porto Rico; 
but the direction of the wind is not given. 

This report states, that only six or seven ships of 
the French convoy at Martinique were saved; and 
from Sir Peter Parker's Report, printed at page 302, 
we learn that there were 5000 troops on board. 

From St. Lucia, the centre of the storm appears to 
have passed over, or very near to, the Island of Mona^ 
on the morning of the 15th of October; and, when 
we take up the logs of the Venus and Convert, which 
were on one side of the storm at that date, and those 
of the Diamond and Pelican, which were on the 
other side of it, we find the wind blowing in contrary 
directions. 

On referring to the logs of ships lying in the harbour 
of Antigua, we there find the wind blowing in squalls ; 



342 THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP, at first coming from the east-north-east, then veering by 

— the east to the south-east^ in strict accordance with the 

apparent law of storms in the northern hemisphere. 

The squadron of Admiral Rowley, being in latitude 
26° 30^ (about which latitude we find hurricanes so 
frequently change their direction and set towards the 
eastward), first received the storm easterly. As the 
gale proceeded towards the north-east, this squadron 
was in its left-hand semicircle ; and the Ctiart shows 

ft 

the manner in which the ships then ran to the south- 
east, with the gale at north-west. 

By referring to the log-books of H. M. ships Shrews- 
bury and Resolution, it appeared that they were under- 
weigh off Long Island on the 18th of October, 1780. 
The weather had been fine for some time, both before 
and after ; and the only exception was that day, when 
it blew in squalls, so as to make these ships strike 
their top-gallant-masts, and the Shrewsbury split a 
topsail, the wind becoming north. 

At Bermuda, fifty vessels were driven on shore on 
the 18th of October; and we have here the log of the 
Berwick for that day, when she was to the northward 
of that island, from which we get the direction of the 
wind.* Thus the Great Hurricane is traced beyond 
Bermuda, moving in the direction of the Azores; and 
if this same storm was really the cause of the Shrews- 
bury and the Resolution striking their top-gallant- 
masts, and they increase in diameter as they proceed 
towards the Poles, this storm, on reaching the latitude 
of Great Britain, may have given a circular direction 

* The wind, as laid down from the Berwick's log-book, accords with tht 
reports of living witnesses (1839) at Bermuda ; and this storm is then •M" 
referred to as the greatest ever experienced in their latitude. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 343 

to the wind over an extent equal to the width of the chap, 

vni. 
Atlantic from the British Islands to Newfoundland. 1— 

But the extent of the storm marked on the Chart is 

confined to the space where it was violent. 



<€ 



Copy of an account of the hurricane of the 10th of 
October, 1780, which was sent to Lieutenant-General 
Vaughan, Commander-in-Chief of the Leeward Islands; 
and by him transmitted to Lord G. Germaine. Copied 
from the Gentleman's Magazine of 1780. 

"The evening preceding the hurricane^ the 9th of October, 
was remarkably calm ; but the sky surprisingly red and fiery. 
During the night much rain fell. 

''On the morning of the 1 0th much rain and wind from the 
north-west. 

By 10 A.M. it increased very much. 
By 1 P.M. the ships in the bay drove. 

" By 4 P.M. the Albemarle frigate parted and went to sea, 

as did all the other vessels, about 25 in number. 

" By 6 P.M. the wind had torn up and blown down many 

trees, and foreboded a most violent tempest. 
At Government House* every precaution was 
taken to guard against what might happen : 
the doors and windows were barricaded, but it 
availed little. 

"By 10 P.M. the wind forced itself a passage through the 

house from the north-north-west; and the tempest 
increasing every minute, the family took to the 
centre of the building, imagining, ^m the 
prodigious strength of the walls, they being 
three feet thick, and from its circular form, it 
would have withstood the wind's utmost rage j 

llh. 30m. however, by half-past eleven they were obliged 

to retreat to the cellar, the wind having forced 
its passage into every part, and tore off most 
of the roof. 

* The GoTemor of the Island of Barbados, in October, 1780, was Jamss 
CunDinghame, Esq. 



344 THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP. *'From this asylum they were soon driven out) the water, 
Vin. heing stopped in its passage^ having found itself a coarse to the 
cellar, they knew not where to go. The water had ros« four 
feet, and the ruins were falling from all quarters. 

" To continue in the cellar was impossible ; to return to the 
house equally so. The only chance left was making for the 
fields, which at that time appeared equally dangerous. It was, 
however, attempted -, and the family got to the mina of the 
foundation of the flagstaff, which soon after giving way, every 
one endeavoured to find a retreat for himself. The Governor 
and the few that remained were thrown down ; and it was with 
great difficulty they gained the cannon, under the carriage of 
which they took shelter. Their situation here was deplorable ; 
many of the cannon were moved -, and they had reason to fear 
that the one under which they sat might be dismounted and 
crush them by its fall, or that some of the ruins which were 
flying about might put an end to their existence ; and, to render 
the scene still more doubtful, they were near the powder-maga- 
zine. The armoury was levelled to the ground, and the arms 
scattered about. 

'* Anxiously did they look for break of day, flattering them- 
selves that with the light they would see a cessation of the 
storm ; yet, when it appeared, little was the tempest abated. 
Nothing can be compared with the terrible devastation that 
presented itself on all sides : not a building standing. The 
trees, if not torn up by the roots, were deprived of their leaves 
and branches 3 and the most luxuriant spring changed, in this 
one night, to the dreariest winter. 

" It is yet impossible to make a calculation of the number 
of souls that have perished : whites and blacks together, it 
is supposed to exceed some thousands. Many were buried in 
the ruins of the buildings -, many fell victims to the weather ; 
and a great number were driven into the sea, and there 
perished. The troops suffered inconsiderably, though their 
barracks and hospital were early blown down. What few public 
buildings there were, are fallen in the wreck : the fortifications 
have suffered considerably. The buildings were all demolished ; 
for so violent was the storm here, tchen assisted by the sea, that 
a 1^-pounder gun was carried from the south to the north 
battery, a distance of 140 yards. ^ Tlic loss to this country is 
immense : many years will be required to retrieve it. 

"Alarming consequences were dreaded from the number of 
* On its carriage, of course, which had wheels. 




THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 345 

dead bodies which lay uninterred, and from the quantity of fish CHAP, 
the sea threw up 5 but these alarms soon subsided.'* ^^^' 






At St. Christopher s, many vessels were forced on shore. 
At St. Lucia^ all the barracks and huts for his l^Iajesty's 
troops^ and other buildings in the island, were blown down^ and 
the ships driven to sea ; and the Amazon^ Captain Finch> 
miraculously escaped foundering. 

" At Dominica^ they suffered greatly. 

"At St. Vincent, every building was blown down, and the 
town destroyed.* 

''At Grenada, nineteen sail of loaded Dutch ships were 
stranded and beat to pieces. 

" At Martinique, all the ships were blown off the island that 
were bringing troops and provisions. On the 12th, four ships 
foundered in Fort Royal Bay, and the crews perished. The 
other ships were blown out of the roads. In the town of St. 
Pierre every house is blown down, and more than 1000 people 
have perished. At Fort Royal, the cathedral, seven churches, 
and other religious edifices j many other public buildings, and 
1400 houses, were blown down. The hospital of N6tre Dame, 
in which were I6OO sick and wounded, was blown down 3 and 
the greatest part of these persons buried in the ruins. The 
number of persons who perished in Martinique are said to have 
been 9000. 

"At St. Eustatia, the loss was very great. On the 10th of 
October, at eleven in the morning, the sky on a sudden black- 
ened all round ; it looked as dismal as night, attended with the 
most violent rain, thunder, lightning, and wind, ever known 
before. In the afternoon the gale increased. Seven ships were 
driven on shore near North Point, and dashed to pieces on the 
rocks, and their crews perished. Nineteen vessels cut their 
cables and went to sea 3 . and only one is yet returned. In the 
night, every house to the northward and southward was blown 
down, or washed away with the inhabitants into the sea, a few 
only escaping. The houses to the east and west were not so 
much hurt till the afternoon of the 1 1 th, when the wind on a 
sudden shifted to the eastward 3 and at night it blew with 
redoubled fury, and swept away every house. The old and 
new forts, the barracks and hospital, the cathedral, and four 

* St. Vincent and Grenada then belonged to the French. 



346 THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 

CHAP, churches, stood. Between 4000 and 5000 persons are supposed 
VIII. to have lost their lives in St. Eustatia.** — Anmual RegiMier for 

I7S0, p.^9r. 

Extract from Sir George Rodney's official report 
of the hurricane of the 10th of October, 1780, at 
Barbados. 

Sir George ''No naval stores of any kind can be got at Barbados or 
Rodney's St. Lucia, owing to the dire effects of the barricane which 
happened on the 1 0th of October. 

"It is impossible to describe the dreadful scene it has 
occasioned at Barbados, and the condition of the miserable 
inhabitants. Nothing but ocular demonstration could hare 
convinced me that it was possible for the wind to cause so total 
a destruction of an island remarkable for its numerons and weU- 
built habitations ; and / am convinced that the violence of the wimi 
must have prevented the inhabitants from feeling the carthqaakey 
which certainly attended the storm. Nothing but au earth- 
quake could have occasioned the foundations of the strongest 
buildings to be rent : and so total has been the devastation, 
that there is not one church, nor one house, as I am well in- 
formed, but what has been destroyed. ***** 

" I leave their lordships to judge how much my concern 
must have been heightened upon the report made to me, of the 
loss his Majesty and the public had sustained in the destmc- 
tion of ships of war, and the gallant oflicers and men belonging 
to them, a list of which I have the honour to enclose. But I 
hope some of them have escaped and arrived at Jamaica, to 
which ii!iland I shall despatch an express, acquainting Sir Peter 
Parker with the great disaster which has happened, and reqoest 
and demand his assistance, in not only hastening snch of my 
squadron as may have escaped the hurricane and arrived at 
Jamaica, to rejoin me, without loss of time, with the Thunderer 
and the Berwick, in pursuance to the orders he recehred by 
Commodore Walsingham." 



Extract of a letter to Lady Rodney, dated St Lucia, 
10th December, 1780. 

" I sailed from New York on the l6th November^ and arrived 
at Barbados on the 5th of this month. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 347 

" You may easily conceive my surprise, concern, and astonish- CHAP, 
ment, when I saw the dreadful situation of this island and the VIII. 
destructive eflfects of the hurricane. The strongest buildings and 
the whole of the houses, most of which were of stone, and re- 
markable for their solidity, gave way to the fury of the wind, 
and were torn up to their foundation j all the forts destroyed, 
and many of the heavy cannon carried upwards of a hundred 
feet from the forts. Had I not been an eye-witness, nothing 
could have induced me to have believed it. More than six 
thousand persons perished, and all the inhabitants are entirely 
ruined. Our friend. Sir P. Gibbs, has suflfered severely. The 
hurricane proved fatal to six ships of my squadron, among 
whom poor Jack Drummond perished on the back of St. Lucia. 
Several other valuable officers underwent the same fate at Mar- 
tinique and Dominica. * * * * *' — From the Life of Lord Rodney, 
vol. i. page 455. 



Extract of a letter from Dr. Blane (afterwards the The late 
late Sir Gilbert Blane) to Dr. William Hunter, dated Biane's 

letter. 

from on board the Sandwich (Sir G. Rodney's flag- 
ship), December 22, 1780. 

" It hegan to blow at Barbados on the Qth of October, but 
it was not apprehended until next day that there would be any 
thing more than such a gale of wind as they experience, from 
time to time, in this island at that season. On the evening of 
the 10th, the wind rose to such a degree of violence as clearly to 
amount to what is called a hurricane. At 8 p.m., it began to 
make impression on all the houses, by tearing o£f the roofs, and 
overthrowing some of the walls. As the inhabitants had never 
been accustomed to such a convulsion of nature, they remained 
for some time in security, but they now began to be in the 
utmost consternation. * * « * Jt was thought 
to be at its greatest height at midnight, and did not abate con- 
siderably until eight next morning. During all this time, most 
of the inhabitants had deserted their houses, to avoid being 
buried in the ruins -, and every age, sex, and condition, were ex- 
posed in the fields to the impetuous wind, incessant torrents of 
rain, and the terrors of thunder and lightning. Many were 
overwhelmed in the ruins, either by clinging too long in them 



348 



THE GREAT. HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP, for shelter^ or attempting to save ivhat was valuable, or bj un- 
VIII. avoidable accidents in the fall of walls, roofs, and fiimitnre, the 
materials of which were projected to great distances. JEvem ikt 
bodies of men and cattle were lifted from off the grommd, and carried 
several yards. An estimate has been attempted of the number 
of deaths, from returns made to the governor, and they amounted 
to more than 3000, though several parishes had not given in 
their returns when I was there. * ♦ ♦ jy| ^^ 

fruits of the earth, then standing, have been destroyed ; most of 
the trees of the island have been torn up by the roots ; and (what 
will give as strong an idea of the force of the wind as any 
thing) many of them were stripped of their bark. The sem rose 
as high as to destroy the fort, carrying the great guns many 
yards from the platform, and demolishing the houses near the 
beach. A ship was driven on shore against one of the building* 
of the Naval Hospital, which, by this shock, and by the im- 
petuosity of the wind and sea, was entirely destroyed and swept 
away. * * * * Xhe mole head was swept 

away; and ridges of coral rock were thrown up, wbieb still 
remain above the surface of the water : but the harboor and 
roadstead have upon the whole been improved, having been 
The effect deepened in some places six feet, in others many fathoms. Tbe 
laticms^'n ^'^s* ^^ coral, which had been the work of ages, having been 
^e bed of torn up, leaving a soft oozy bottom, many shells and fish 
e sea. found ashore which had been heretofore unknown.*' 



Lof? of the Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H. M. S. Albk- 
Albemarle. marle, kept by Captain Thomas Taylor, lying in Cariisle 
Bay, Barbados. — In Nautical Time. 



In Carlisle 
Bay. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Bemarks. 


1 

. P.M. 

1 

1 

A.M. 


• •■# •* s* 


E 
ENE 


T icsday, October 10, 1780. 

P.M. First part, moderate and hasj; 
middle and latter, strong galea, with hard 
rain ; employed watering. 

A.M. It blowing very hard, employed 
clearing our hawse; freshened ditto; 
seyeral ships driving ; a brig parted her 
cables, hoisted out a boat, and tent a 
midshipman and four men to aarist. 




THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



349 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Albemarle — continued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 



10 
12 

A.M. 
1 



Courses. 



Winds. 



NEbyN 



NNE 



Wester^J' 



Noon. 



P.M. 



Souther^J' 



SEbyS 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales of wind, with hard 
rain at times. At 1, a ship and brig drove 
athwart our hawse; employed clearing 
them of us ; we found their anchors had 
hooked our best bower cable. The gale 
still increasing much harder, and a large 
sea heaving in from the S W, which broke 
over Needham's Fort, called the officers 
together to ask their opinion whether it 
was best to endeavour to ride it out or go 
to sea ; the officers' opinion was to go to 
sea. At 2, slipped the best bower cable, 
balanced the mizen, clapped a hawser on 
the small bower cable for a spring, veered 
away the cable, slipped the hawser. In 
hoisting the fore-topmast-staysail to wear 
the ship it split all to pieces ; the gale still 
increasing, got down the top-gallant -mast 
on deck ; got in the spritsail and j ib«boom ; 
got the dead lights in ; shut the ports. At 
7» found the step of the mizenmast split ; 
cut away the mizen-topmast ; the mizen 
blew loose, and carried away the mizen- 
yard; got down the cross- jackyard; found 
the fore and main iliasts to work very 
much; At 10, cut away the fore topmast 
to save the foremast ; lowered down the 
foreyard. At 12.30, still blowing very 
hara ; a hurricane, with rain ; wind shift- 
ing round to the westward, 

A.M. At 1, carried away the mainmast 
close to the quarter-deck ; employed clear- 
ing away the wreck ; at daylight found the 
people had cut away the sheet cable close 
b^ the hatchway, in clearing away the rig- 
gmg belonging to the mainmast. At 5, 
the wind shifted round to the sotUhward^ 
still blowing very hard, with constant rain ; 
still lying hull- to with a heavy sea; the 
ship, labouring very much, shipped a heavy 
sea, which stove the armche^ and hen- 
coops ; threw theni overboard ; found two 
9-pound carriages broke all to pieces, and 
one 4-pound carriage ditto. 

Noon. Still blowing a hurricane, with 
hard rain. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 
P.M. Still blowing a hurricane of wind, 
with constant heav^ rain ; still lying hull- 
to, found thenc^of the rudder loose. At 
4 saw the N W end of Barbados, bearing 
N £ by N, distance 4 or 5 miles ; found the 
wooden ends to work very much. At 4.30, 
wore ship ; wind shifted round to the S £ ; 
got the spritsail up for a foresail ; heavy 



CHAP. 

vra. 

Log of the 
Albemarle. 



1 p.m. on 
Oct. 10, 
civil time. 



Put to sea. 



L-j 



\^'j^ 



Storm's 
centre. 



1 p.m. 
Oct. 11. 






350 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log of the 
Albemarle. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Albemarle — ctrndmied. 



Log of 
the Ven- 
geance, 
Admiral 
Hotham. 



In Careen- 
age. 
St. Lucia. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Bemarks. 


P.M. 

11 

A.M. 

Noon. 

P.M. 

4 

9 

12 

A.M. 

3 
5 

8 




SE 

SEbyS 


Thursday, October 12, 1780. 
gales of wind, with constant rain. At 1 1, 
still sounding, the wind <m our quarter. 

A.M. At 5, more moderate ; hore the i 
ship to under a trysail ; employed clearing 
the wreck. 

Noon. Fresh gales ; large sea from the 
S W ; the Island of Barbados, 8 E by £, 
distance 6 or 7 leagues. 


Friday, October 13, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh gales and cloudy, with a 
heavy sea from the S W ; swayed up the 
foreyard, set the foresail and fore-staysail. 
At 4, the extremes of Barbados from ESB 
to SE, distance 6 or 7 leagues. At 9, 
ditto ; fresh breeze and basy. At 12, ditto 
weather, with heavy sea. 

A.M. At 3, ditto weather, wUh UgkU 
nintji to the westtcard. At 5, saw the Island 
of Martinico, bearing from N W to W by 
N, distance 7 or 8 leagues. At 8, saw the 
Island of St. Lucia, S W, distance 7 or 8 
leagues ; employed getting up a top-gtl- 
lant-mast for a mizen-topmast ; saw two 
large pieces of a wreck pass us ; employed 
as needful ; N E end of St. Luda, 8 W by 
S, distance 3 leagues. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Vengeance (kept by James 
Waltou^ Master), moored in the Careenage at St Lucia. — In 
Nautical Time, 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 
A.M. 

6 

P.M. 

7 

9 

11 

• 12 


I 


Variable 

Variable 
Variable ■ 


Tuesday, October 10, 1780. 

P.M. Dark, cloudy weather; a mata 
and forty men employed on the Vigie. 

A.M. At 6, sailed the Blanche ami Ale- 
mene ; down top-gallant-yarda. 


1 
Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 
P.M. Strong squalls; shifted the stream 
anchor on the starboard bow to tlie N S. 
At 7.1'^, the Egmont drove and broncht 
up again. At 7.30, verv strong aqualU. 
At 9, the Ajax parted 'her cablea, and 
went out to sea. At 1 1 , the gale increaaed 
very much. At 12, the Egmont ^pped* 
and went out to sea. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1760. 



351 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Vengeance — continued. 



Hour. 



Courses. 



Winds. 



A.M. 
4 

6 
8 



P.M. 



8 



Variable 
NE 



NE 



10 
12 

A.M. 

4 
6 
8 



11 



NEbyE 



ESE 



P.M. 



8 
6 



9 



ESE 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 
A.M. At 4, let go the sheet anchor. At 
4. 30, the Montagu slipped and nin out to 
sea. At 6, struck lower yards and top- 
masts. At 8. A, the Amazon slipped and 
run out to sea. Several transports drove 
on shore and dismasted in the harbour. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 

P.M. Violent squalls, the gale still in- 
creasing. At 12.15, parted the small 
bower, and brought up with the stream 
and sheet anchors. At 12.30, cut away 
the mizen, main, and foremast; a smaU 
brig parted three cables, and drove ashore 
under our stem, and stove to pieces. The 
ship struck very hard abaft, run four- 
teen guns forward to ease her ; employed 
clearing the wreck; cut away the long- 
boat, cutter, and schooner-tender, which 
were immediately dashed to pieces; the 
hurricane still increasing, the ship still 
striking at times. At 8, rode clear off the 
rocks ; got the guns in their places, and 
quoined and secured the lower-deck guns 
and ports ; wind veering to the eastward. 
At 9, lightning between the squalls, still 
blowing excessively hard, with rain. At 
10, less wind, with more rain and lightning. 
At 12, the hurricane abated, with rain. 

A.M. At 4, strong gales and squally, 
with heavy rain. At 5, saw all the small 
vessels in the harbour on shore, and most 
of them dismasted. At 8, made the signal 
of distress with two guns ; got the boats 
over the side, and got the parted cable on 
board. At 11, carried out the small an- 
chor to steady the ship ; lost all the rigging 
of the masts and yardj, one foresail, one 
fore-topsail, one main-topsail, one main- 
topmast-staysail, mizen, andmizen-topsail. 



Friday, October 13, 1780. 

P.M. Moderate, with rain; warped 
further to the southward, and brought up 
with the sheet anchor ; veered away and 
hove up the small bower, bent another 
cable, and moored as before. At 8, thun- 
der and lightning, and rain. 

A.M. At 5, saw the Montagu off the 
harbour, with all her masts and bowsprit 
gone. At 9, got up the stream anchor ; 
the Montagu brought up ; got a schooner 
and sent boats with hawsers to assist her 
in warping in. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log of 
the Ven- 
geance. 



Wind 

veering 

eastwtfd. 



k. 



352 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of 
the Ven- 
geance. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. VENGEANCK-^-ooiic/aMM. 



Jjog of the 
Alcmene. 



Sailed 
from 
St. Lucia. 

Off Marti- 
nique. 



Parted 

from the 
Blanche, 
which woa 
lost. 



! 
Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


ReBiarks. 


1 

P.M. 


•#•• •••• 


Variable 

• 


Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate and fair weather ; car- 
penters fitting the stump of the mainmast 
for a jurymast ; departed this life, John 
Green, marine ; people employed getting 
up shears for a jury-mainmast. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Alcmene — In Nautical 7»ie. 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remaxks. 


P.M. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 




NNE 


Wednesday, Cctober 11, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and squally. 
At 2, got under weigh, in company with 
the Blanche; out ftrst-rcef topsails. 


NWbWiW 


N^E 


Martinique, E § N, 6 leagues. 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


NWbyW 

NbyE 

NW 


NbyE 

NNE 


Tacked. V<^ 5'-^ -^--r; 
Wore ship. y\,' Lf .*'-' «' 


NWbyN 


NbyE 





A.M. 

1 

2 
3 

4 


NNW 
EiN 


NbyE 


A.M. Hard gales and rain. 


6 
6 
7 

8 
9 

! 10 
11 
12 


E^N 


NNE 


Handed topsails. 

Up mainsail ; lay-to under foresail. 
Wore ship. 

Reefed mainsail; balanced misen; 
struck top-gallant-masts. 
Very hard gales and rain ; great sea. 
Handed mainsail. 


P.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 


up NNW 
offNW 


Variable 

1 

1 


Thursday, October 12, 1780. 
P.M. Hard gales and thick weather, 
with rain. 
Laying-to under foresail, and balanesd 

mizcn. 

mizcn, and fore staysails, ditto. 

At 4, reefed and furled foresail; up 
mizen, and lott sight of the BlancA^, bear' 
ing SSEhalfamUt, 



i 

I. 

lb- 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



353 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Alcmene — contumed. 



Hour. 


Conraes. 


Winds. 


Remarkf. 


P.M. 






Thunday, October 12, 1780. 


6 


upNNW 


NW 




6 


offN W 






7 






Hie gale inareasing; split main-stay- 
sail; la^hnll-to. 


8 






Blowing very hard ; sliipped many seas. 


9 






Two pumps going ; lowered the cross- 


10 
11 


upSWbyS 
offSby W 


SE 


jack-yard on deck. 


12 






Gale still increasing. 


A.M. 








1 






A.M. Ship labouring hard, shipping 


2 






much sea ; six of the larboard half-poru 


3 


up S E by S 
offESE 


SW 


washed overboard. 


4 






6 


upSE 






6 


offESE 




Gale abated. 


7 


upESEoffE 


SbyW 


Kept one pump going. 


8 

9 

10 






Little more moderate. 






Gale abated ; saw a ship a-head» which 
was supposed to be the Blanche. 








11 






Began to clear up ; a great sea running. 


12 

P.M. 






Passed by sereral pieces of wreck. 


Friday, October 18, 1780. 


1 


upEoffENE 


SSE 


P.M. Fresh gales and squally; sent 


2 






down mizen-topmast and yard ; at half- 


3 


NNE 


SE 


past, set mizen-suysail ; more moderate ; 
kept more away. 
Squally, with rain. 


4 

5 

6 






7 






Set foresail. 


8 
o 






Set dose-reefed main-topsail. 


10 


NNE^E 




Saw Martinique, B by N, 5 leagues ; set 


11 

4 tf% 


NbyE 




dose-reefed topsails. 


12 


NbyW 






1 

2 
8 
4 






■ 






A.M. At 4, up mixen-topmast. 

At 5, do. weather ; out one-reef-topsails. 

At 6, spoke a brig, the Norfolk, m dis- 


6 






6 






7 


NWbyN 
NW 




tress ; ihe Saints, bearing ENE, 6 leagues. 
At 8, gave chase to a snow in the N W. 


8 




9 


WNW 






10 






At 10, boarded ditto, being lateW from 
Bordeaux, and had drove out of Mar- 














tinique; fired one gun at ditto. 


11 


upNEbyS 
offNE 




At 11, got the prisoners on board, and 


. 




fired a gun at and brought-to a brig from 








Ostend for St. Eustatia. 






1 



CHAP, 

vra. 

Log of the 
Alonene. 



2 a 



364 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vm. 



Log of the 
Alcmene. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Alcmbm 



Hour. 



I^g of the 
Ajax. 



Striking 
in4| 
fathoDiB, 
cut and 
put to sea. 



A.M. 

12 



Courses. 



upNEhyS 
offNE 



Winds. 



SE 



Kemarlri. 



Friday, Oetober 18, 1780. | 

At meridian, in boat; made laO, the ; 

prize in company; the aonth end of Ova- i 

oaloupe N £ by £, 8 leagnee. 
Fresh hreesea and hasy. 



Extract from a Journal in H.M.S. Ajax, Captain John 
Symonds, at anchor in the Careenage, St. Lnda. — In 
Nautical Time. 




P.M. 



6 



Not in the log 



A.M. 

11 

P.M. 



NB 



Remarks* 



NNE 



P.M. 



NbyE 



Wednesday, Oetober 11* 1780. 
P.M. Squally, with rain ; aafled lunee 
the Blanche and Alcmene. 

At 6, struck top-gallant-maeta ; etnog 

gales; parted the small bower ealde, let go 

the best bower, Teered to half a eabk, 

wh«Mhe ship struck Tery heary on the 

NcfToof the sea in 4| fathoma watar ; hove 

"^ff by the spring, cast the ship's head to 

I the northward, cut both cablea, and poahed 

to sea. 

A.M. At 11, Groaa Islet, B by N, 4 or 
6 leasues. 

P.M. Saually, with rain; doee teaiiil 
topsail and set the foresail ; a^it the fae- 
topmast-staysail and unbent it; etnaig 
gales continue ; in both topeaila, the ship 
taking a very heaTy plunge; ^^IBaa) 
Doyle was washed out of the head, and 1 
was drowned ; blows haid. Tcry Strang • 
galea; brought-to, undcx tne mehiwfl; 
Tery heavy squalls in goats, with ain; 
the sea running very high and ~ 



Variable 
during 

the 
horrioane 



8 



Thursdar, Oetober 12, 1780. 

P.M. Very neayy guats of wind and 
rain; split the mainaail, whidi flev to 
pieces ; bent the fbre-staysail lor a miaen- 
stajrsail and set it ; balanced the ndnm and 
set it, which blew to pieces ; cut the wea- 
ther part of the mainsail from the wd 
and got it on deck ; bunted the foicaiul. 

At 8, blows excessively hard, the eea 
running very high ; violent gusts of wind, 
which blew away the main-topmast 12 fret 
above the capstan, with the topaail-yaid 
and top-gallant-maat, and earned away 
the mainyard in the slings; cut all away 
to get clear of the wreck. 




THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



365 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. kjkXr^coneluded, 



flour. 



P.M. 



8 



P.M. 



7 

A.M. 
2 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Variable 
during 

the hur- 
ricane 



P.M. 



10 

A.M. 

6 

9 



12 



Variable 



Remarks. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 

A.M. Heavy gusts of winds with light- 
ning ; the mizenmast blew over the side, 
about nine feet above the poop-deck ; cut 
away the rigging to clear the wreck ; 
shipped a great quantity of water into our 
scuppers and ports, which employed our 
pum^ until morning; strong ffusts and 
blowmg weather, with a lofty and irregular 
sea ; saw a large ship to leeward of us, and 
two frigates to windward ; employed clear- 
ing the standing and running-rigging that 
had been cut; pumps constantly going, 
with which we but just kept the snip free. 

At 8, more moderate ; set the main-stay- 
sail ; less wind ; the sea high and confused. 



Fridajr, October 13, 1780. 

P.M. Squally, with a confused sea; em- 
ployed clearing the decks of the running- 
rigging and blocks ; got down and saved 
both the main-yardarms. 

At 7, more moderate and showery; 
kept only one hand-pump poing. 

A.M. At 2, squally, with lowers of 
rain, thunder, and lightning. 

At 5, wore ship ; employed cutting the 
head of micenmast to fit a cap for the jury- 
mast, and preparing the main topsail-yard 
for a mainyard ; set fore-topsail, employed 
rigging the jury mizenmast, and main- 
topmast; got ui> the jury mizenmast; 
fresh gales and rain. 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 

P.M. Moderate and heavy rains ; se- 
cured the mizenmast and set a fore-stay- 
sail for a mizen ; got the main-topsail-yud 
across for a mainyard ; bent the sail and 
swayed the yard up; bent the main- top- 
gallant-staysail for a mizen-staysaiL 

At 10, more moderate ; set the fore and 
mizen-staysail. 

A.M. l)itto weather ; set the mainsail 
and got the top-gallant-yard across for a 
topsail, and set it on. 

At 6, saw the land, south end Dominica, 
S E by E, 10 leagues ; Saints, N E by E, 
12 leagues; examined the guns, and 
scaled ttiose that were wet. 

At 9, spoke the Albemarle frigate, who 
had lost her mainmast, fore ai^d mizen- 
topmasts, bound for Antigua to refit ; em- 
ployed variously. 

Noon. Saints, E by N i B, 5 leagues ; 
north end Dominica, £ | S, 7 leagues. 

2a2 



CHAP. 

vni. 

Log of the 

Aji 



Off Do- 
minica. 



Spoke the 
ilbemarle. 



356 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of the H. M. S. Eghont, Certain Fto- 
;_ ahawe ; kept by Mr. Robert Hartley, Master.— In Naaticul Thmf. 




TueBtUy, October 10, T80. 
P.M. Most part unsettled, with ft 
■qoalla of ram; TeceiTcd c- "— — 



bower underfoo 



indhDY 



n -upon her, uid ti 
BWBj on (he amftll bower, uiil hoi* vf 
the bcti bawcr; moored tha tbif wiu 
best bower and jmall bowtst, « whoU cable 
on the beat bover and tudf ■ cable ob the 
iimall bower. 

Noon. Got down tlie top-nUant-jafdli 
iqtulW, with hud nia ; twati hiamf ik 
Blanche and Alccuene frigatw. 



At 7, csmeonahearTpquaUo* 
rain, whi«h patted the small bowvoM 
at t went; fatkom &om th* anchor; 4a9 
■wiing to the b«fl bower, whj^ ^^4 
hat up; emplaned clcatiog thfahipteM 

At ll.io.-ciit a WSJ the beat boins u 
whole eable, the hawier that VrU fm _ 
the AxDsion, and the hawter 6m tkm 
spring, and went to tea under 

Mitlnighi. Split the ruain-tc 
■ail, and lei the conne*. 



A.M. SlTong galea, with haid 1^ 

Split the foie-itajiail. 
Unbent the main-ti 
Carried away the n 
Saw the Aiax staad 

Noon. St. Loda, N 19° ^ 
Iragnei. 
Eicew of UiitDde, r. 
Departnic. S0° W. 
Voy heaTj gale* and aqtully. 



THB GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



Extract rrom the Log or H. M. S. Egmont — continutd. 



Hour. 


Counu. I Winds. 




p« 






Thursday, October 12, 1780. 






NE 


P.M. \btj ttiODft gale*, wiib hard 


2 
3 






•quallt and rain. 
Saw B sloop lying-to in the SE quatier) 


■i 






loal orerbottd the davit. 


s 






A.M. AtS.lhemaia-topniMtaiidbow. 


s 






7 






•prit went away. At 8.16, the foremait 
went away by the larboard-. ide, and car- 


8 






9 
10 




From .11 


tied away the rigging and .topper of the 
.heet anchor, which we were obliged to cut 


11 

n 




quarter* 


away ; very hard galea and a very heaTy tea. 
Nion. thetiUBrinthegUD-toombroke; 


*.ii. 






the wind Jrom aU guarttri of tkt eompet* ; 
■hipped a great deal of water. 






Uuboard-quBrter, as did the munmMt ; aU 


4 











Thiuadaj. October 12, 1780. 

A.M. At 8, got up B jury foremut and 
Kt the fprtUail' topsail for a fotesail. 

Noon. Wore ship to the N W, the time 
the mast went away by the wieck ; the 



358 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIU. 

Log of the 
Egnont* 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Egmoict — etmiimmed. 




8 

P.M. 

9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



12 

A.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 

12 



P.M. 
1 

12 
A.M. 

12 I 



P.M. 
1 



From all 
qutrtart 



8SE 



SE 



SKbyE 



SKbyS 



Remarka. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 
cutter and gig, larboard-tide on the ahip 
•ides, were stove to piecea. 

P.M. At 9, waahed in both quirter- 
gallerr aaahea ; the ward-room oontinnaJl j 
full of water, and gun-room, the ahip being 
much by the stem. 

St. Locia, N E by E f E, diat 1 1 leagoea. 



Friday, October 13, 1780. 
P.M. At 1, wore ahip ; a greet deal of 
our bread damaged, and very wet. 



Fresh gales and cloudy, 
squalls of wind and rain. 

Much lightning/r. th4i 

Course made, N W by W J W. 
Distanced, 21 milea. 
Excess of latitude, 7 milea. 
Excess of longitude, 21 milea 
Departure, 20 milea. 
Latitude by account, 13^ 37' K. 
Distance made, 68 asilea, W. 
Longitude made, 1^ W» 
Midnight. Ditto 



A.M. Saw the land ; making Hhm 
Loaf in St. Lucia. 
Bearing, E by N, 10 or 11 



Noon. St. Laeb, JX.WWH^ 
151eagiiea. 

Ditto weather; gettmg JvnMWl np. 
and clearing the bread foobm eff flr i T"'gr' 
bread, and throwing it oretbo ei d; flfled 
twenlT-four butta of aalt-weter in the 
Ibiehold to bring the ahip by the hand. 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales and cloudy, with rain. 
Noon. St. Lucia, E, 27 leagoee 1 mile. 
Lat. by account, 13° 46' N. 
A.M. Fresh breezes and haiy 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 
P.M. Cloudy, with small rain. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



35d 



tSxtract from the Log of H.M.S. Egmont — contmued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

12 

8 

9 
12 



P.M. 

i 

5 
12 



P.M. 
1 

12 



P.M. 
1 

12 



Connet. 



P.M. 

1 
12 



P.M. 
1 



P.M. 
1 

12 



P.M. 
1 

12 



P.M. 
1 

n 



t,u. 



Winds. 



SEbyS 
Wt)yS 
SWbyW 



SEbyS 
SEbyE 



SEbyE 



SSW 



Remarks. 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 
Noon. St. Lucia, S 69'' 48' E, distance 
44 leagues 1 mile. 
Lat. by account, 14° 30' N. 
Great swell firom the S W. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and hazy weather. 

Lat. 14° 66' N. 

Noon. St. Lucia, S 66° 38' E, distance 
59 leagues 2 miles. 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and fair weather. 
Lat. 15° 46' N. 
St. Lucia, S 59° 44' £, dist. 77 leagues. 



Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 
P.M. Light breezes. 
Noon. Lat. 16° 29' N. 
St. Lucia, S 57'' 20' £, dist. 86 leagues. 



wsw 



NNE 



NNE 



N£ 



Thursday, October 19, 1780. 
P.M. Lat. by observation, 16° 54' N. 
Midnight. Calm. 



Friday, October 20, 1780. 
P.M. Lat. by observation, 16° 45' N. 
St. Lucia, S 65° E, distance 104 leagues. 



Saturday, October 21, 1780. 
P.M. Squally, and hard rain. 
Lat. 17° 10* N. 
St. Lucia, S 60° E, distance 137 leagues. 



Sunday, October 22, 1780. 
P.M. Lat. 17° 19' N, long. ex. 8° 18' W. 
Noon. Port Royal, Jamaica, N 85° 44' W, 
distance 139 leagues. 



Easterly 



ESE 



Monday, October 23, 1780 
P.M. Lat. 17^36' N. 
Port Royal, Jamaica, N 89° 24' W, dis- 
tance 127 leagues. 



Tuesday, October 24, 1780. 
P.M. Lat-H** 14'N, long.made, 9°44'W. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log df the 
Egmont. 



360 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780« 



CHAP. 

vm. 

XiOgofthe 
Egmont. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Eomon 



Aniyed at 
Jamaica. 



Log of the 
Montagu. 



Montagu 
parted and 
went to tee. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 




P.M. 

12 

P.M. 

12 

P.M. 

12 

P.M. 

12 

P.M. 


.•«••... 


Variable 

Easterly 
ENE 

NE 
NE 


Wednesday, October 25. 1780. 
P.M. Lat. ir 28'. 
East end of Oi^ TOMran, N W i W, 


Thursday, October 26, 1780. 

P.M. Lat. 18° 7' N. 

Cape Donna Maria, N B ; distance lOor 

11 leagues. 


Friday, October 27, 1780. 

P.M. Lat. 18° 15' N. 

Saw the end of Jamaica, W 8 W ; dis- 
tanoe 9 or 10 leagues; Morant Pointp 7 or 
8 leagues. 


Saturday, October 28, 1780. 
Noon. Kingston, 7 leagues. 


Sunday, October 29, 1780. 

P.M. Moored the ship fai Fuet Bojal 
harbour, Janudca. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Montagu (kept by Mr. 
William Raven, Master), lying off the Entnoioe of the 
Careenage, St. Lucia. — In Nautical Time. 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 




P.M. 

12 

A.M. 

3 
6 

8 


WNW 

Head to N 

upNW 

oflfWbyN 


N 
NNE 

1 


Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 
P.M. Strong gales, with heafy efsdh 
of rain ; struck the top-gallant ayali ; a 
Tery hesTy swell from the N W. At 12; 
parted or slipped, H.M.8. Ajax. 

A.M. At 3, slipped and stood to eea, 
H.M.S. Effmont. At 5.80, in ptepeiing 
to slip and go to sea, we parted ovr sHeHB 
and small bower cables ; stood out WK W 
till 8 A.M. South end of St. Loda them 
bore, S S E, 9 or 10 leagues ; beoQ^ h« 
to with her head to the notthwaid; up 

N W, off W by N, Tery strong galea ; ahip 
makes much water. 




.^^ 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



361 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Montagu — amtimied. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



S) 



A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 



5' 

7 

8 

9 

10' 
11 



Noon 



ConrseB. 



upNW 
offWbyN 



upNWbyW 
offWbyS 



Winds. 



NNE 



Head to the 
BSE 



NbyW 



W8W 



Remarks. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 

P.M. A heavy storm, with rain ; found 
the foremast sprung in the partners of the 
forecastle deck ; ship makes much water ; 
pumps continiudly going ; a yery high sea. 
At 3.30, in cutting away the main and 
fore-topmasts, with an intention to saye 
the lower masts, the mainmast, fore, and 
mizenmast, with all their yards, sails, and 
riraing, went oyer the side; a heayy storm 
with rain. 

The foremast in going killed six of our 
people, and stoye two cutters and pinnace 
to pieces. At 4.15, the bowsprit went by 
the outer gammoning, and carried away 
the greatest part of the head. 

At 6, ditto weather, and a yery high sea. 

At 8, ditto weather ; pumps continually 
going, eight feet water m the hold. 



CHAP. 

vra. 

Log of the 
Mmitaga. 



A.M. At 1, the sea breaking in abaft, 
the coat of the rudder being destroyed, the 
starboard Quarter ^lery stoye in, with 
several of Uie deadlights of the wardroom, 
the Captain called a council of his officers to 
consult what was most advisable to be done 
for the preservation of the ship, there being 
then nme feet water in the hold, when it 
was unanimously agreed to cut awav the 
best bower anchor and veer out a cable, in 
order to bring the ship's head to the sea, 
and thereby prevent the sea from breaking 
in abaft ; cut away the best bower anchor 
accordingly and veered out a cable, which 
in some measure was found to answer the 
end proposed. At 5, more moderate ; got 
our pumps to gain upon her ; cut away Uie 
best bower cable, not having it in our 
power to heave in any part of it, all hands 
being employed at the pumps. At 8, got 
up a jury foremast, and set tne mixen-top- 
gallant-sail for a foresail. At 9, saw the 
Sugar Loaves of St. Lucia, bearing 8 f N, 
distance 4 leagues ; the Island of St. Vin- 
cent then bore, E S £, distance 6 leagues ; 
got up a pair of sheers, and set the main-^ 
top-gallant-sail for a mainsail. 

£roon. Moderate breezes and a high sea ; 
pumps constantly going, seven feet water 
m the hold ; cloudy, with rain ; Sugar 
Loaves, E, distance 2 leagues. 



(5u^ 



Veered CjJij , 
outacabla^^v i^ 

her head ^i ij 
to sea. ^V*^^ 



p; 




362 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log of the 
Montagu. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Montagu — etmeh^U. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 
2 
8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 

4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 

12 



P.M. 

2 



Courses. 



Winds. 



ENE 



WbyN 

wsw 

88W 



SEbS 



ESE 



amd 



Variable 



Remaiks. 



Friday, October 18, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate, with rafau At 4, tftw 
the lights from Mome f^oftonla binbif 
ESE. 



AJM. Fired one gun at a signal of dis- 
tress. At 7. came-to with the ahest an- 
chor in twenty fathoms, the outer pan of 
the Vigie, £, distance 1 mUa; ioond 
H.M.S. Vengeance, Commodore Hotham, 
lying in the Careenage, dismasted ; fbmd 
our long-boat, with fourteen full-boand 
water-casks (butts) store and beat to 
nieces, which had been watering, Ac, 
H.M.S. La Blanche (per order of the 
Commodore, on the 10th inst.), and only 
four of the water-buttt reeoTered again. 

At 11, weighed and made sail. 

Noon. Light breeses, with rain ; fommd 
the eurmU uUina to tk$ ne/rtkwmrd; atove 
two water puncheons, full-bound, wUdti 
were lashed to the arm of the anebor; 
employed in pumping ship. 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate breeies and dondy, 
with rain. At 2, eame-to with the stream- 
anchor in 9 fiithoms water; PSdgeon 
Island, N, distance 2 miles. At 4, 
weighed and made saiL At 6.80» came- 
to ot the Careenage, with the ikuMt an* 
chor, in 13 fathoms. 



A.M. Receiyed boats and ha^ 
the Vengeance ; employed waiping into 
the (teenage. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



863 



Extract from a Joamal of the Proceedings of H. M. S Amazon, CHAP. 
Captain the Hon. Clement William Finch 5 Log kept by ^^™' 
Lieutenant Edward Pakenham. Lob of the 



Hour. 



A.M. 



P.M. 



A.M. 



P.M. 
6 

8 

9 

U 

A.M. 
4 



7.30 



12 



Courses. 



Not in log 



P.M. 



Winds. 



£ 



£SE 



NEtttiy 



8 



A.M. 

2 



NE 



NW 



Remarks. 



Monday, October 9, 1780. 
A.M. Anchored here the Blanche and 
Alcmene firigates. 



Tuesday, October 10, 1780. 

P.M. Freeh gales and squally, with rain ; 
let go the best bower underfoot, with a 
hawser bent to it from the Egmont, in 
order to steady her. 

A.M. Received on board proyisions, and 
completed for three months. 



Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 

P.M. Ditto gales, with haurd squalls ; 
struck top-gal&nt-masts. At 6, the Eg- 
mont parted ; ditto gales ; she brought up 
again imder our stem. At 8, strong gales 
and squally. At 9, the Ajax put to sea. 
At 11, the Egmont cut and put to sea; 
excessive hard gales, with rain; veered 
to a whole cable on the small bower. 

A.M. At 4, the Montagu parted and 
put to sea; bent fore, main, and mizen 
staysails, and made all ready for sea ; got 
the spritsail yard in. At 7.30, finding 
the gale increase, slipped the small bower 
and stream cables, and cut the best, and 
put to sea ; split the fore-staysail to pieces. 

Noon. Blowing a hurricane, with a 
heavy sea. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 

P.M. A perfect hurricane. At 2, got 
the fbre-top-^allant-mast's yards, &c., 
la^ed amidships on the main-deck ; split 
the staysails to pieces; ditto, lying-to 
imder bare poles. At 7, the ship began 
to water-log. 7.30, by the violence of 
the hurricane the ship overset, and lay in 
that situation the space of six or eight 
minutes, when the mast ^ went by the 
board ; found the ship to right ; cutaway 
the wreck, and began to heave the 
lee-guns over. About 8, the ship quite 
righted, with 10 feet water in the hold; 
kept the chain pumps going, and heaving 
theffuns overboard, clearing the wreck. &c. 

a!m. At 2, the chain pumps choked, 
with 7 feet water in the hold ; kept the 
hands baleing ; found several dead bodies 



Cut and 
slipped, 
and went 
to sea. 



Ship 
overset. 



i^. 



364 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 

vm. 



Log of the 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Amazon — eomiimmed. 



Hour. 



A.M. 

4 
12 



Coones. 



Not in log 



Winds. 



NNW 



Bemarki. 



Thunday, October 12, 1780. 
about the decks. At 4, found the wind 
abate, and sained on the ship. 

Noon. Shipped a spare tiller in the cabin, r 
the old being sprung and broke ; found we I 
gained considerablyontheship by haleing; | 
eyery thing in the hold store to pieces [ 
and m disorder ; the gale much ahated^ j 



Log continued by Captain the Hon. C. W. Finch. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



6 
10 

12 



A.M. 
6 

8 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Not in log 



EbyS 



12 



P.M. 



£by S 



6 

K 



Remarks. 



Friday, October 18, 1780. 
P JC First pNsrt, hard gales with rain, a 
heary sea ; middle and latter, freeh galas 
and squally, with rain. At 6, brake the 
chain of the starboard pump ; rigged the 
fore-top-gallant-mast tat a jarr-raraMsl, 
and set the Ibre-top-gaUant sail oaU; goc 
one of the compasses fitted ; the wind in 
the last twenty-four hours had beoi revnd 
the compass. At 6, kept the pomps 
going, baleing, &c. At 10, the punqis^ Ae. 



Midnight. Rigged the main-top*faIlant- 
mast for a jury-mainmast, and set the 
main-top-gaflant sail on it; the chain 
and hand-pumps kept constantly going, 
baleing &c. 

A.M. At 6, rigged the miaen-top* 
gallant-matt for a jury-miaenmast. At 8, 
struck the main-top-gaUant-niast» and 
rigged the spare Jib-boom for a JnrjMBaiB* 
msst, and set a miien-topsail v^poa it; 
got the spare pump down in the spirit- 
room and worked it; the carpsntsn ie> 
pairing and clearing the chain*pamna. At 
12, three feet water in the wdf ; dM 
pumps kept going, baleing, Ac 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
P.M. First and middle parts, fredi galas 
and hazy weather, with ram ; latter, OMide- 
rate and clear weather; employ«l clearing 
the ship of the wreck, &c. ; rigged the 
main- top- gallant-mast on the bitca, and 
set main- top-gallant-sail on it. At 4, saw 
the land ; the pumps kept goinc, kc. At 
6, the body of Martinico, IS by S, diet. 7 
or 8 leagues. At 8, cleared the well, with 




THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



365 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Amazon — concluded. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 




Not in log 




Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
the hand-pumps, baleing, &c. ; the spare 
pump choked ; set the royals. 

A.M. At 10, spoke H.M.S. Ajaz, with 
the loss of her mizenmast. 


A.M. 






10 




SSE 








12 






Noon. The northward point of Domi- 
nica, E by S, and southward point of Gua- 
daloupe, N N E.— Lat. 16*» 26' N. 









CHAP. 

vm. 



Log of the 
Amaion. 



The following is from the Hon. Captain Finch's Captain 

nk r ■ Finch 8 

Narrative. nanatiTe. 

" About seven o'clock at night the gale increased to a degree 
that can be better conceived from the consequences^ than from 
any description I can give. There was an evident necessity of • 
doing something to relieve the ship ; but I was unwilling tp cut 
away the lower masts till the last extremity, and accordingly 
ordered the people to cut away the main-topmast ; but, before 
it could be accomplished, I found it necessary to cut away the 
mainmast. 

" Whilst I was waiting for the men to come down, a sudden 
gust overset the ship ; most of the officers, with myself and a 
number of the ship*s company, got upon the side of the ship : 
the wheel of the quarter-deck was then under water. In this 
situation I could perceive the ship settling bodily some feet, 
imtil the water washed up to the afterpart of the slides of the^ ,.^ j . 
carronades on the weather side. Notwithstanding that the ship*^^^^'^^ ^'^ *"** 
was so far gone, upon the masts, bowsprit, &c., going away, she ^^^ ^"^ 
righted as far as to let us heave the lee quarter-deck guns and 
carronades overboard, and soon after one of the forecastle guns, 
and to cut away the sheet anchor ; which had so good an effect, 
that we were enabled to get at the pumps and lee-guns on the 
main deck. The throwing them overboard was, in our situation, 
a work of great difficulty ; and I could perceive the ship was 
already going down by the stem. This arduous task was ac- 
complished under the direction of Lieutenant £. Pakenham, 
whose experience and determined perseverance marked him out 
as perhaps the only individual to whom (amid such great exer- 
tion) a pre-eminence could be given.'* 



r • 



f*-»4«^ 



^ fi*^ 



366 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of H. M.S. Endymion, dqpCain 
^^^^' and kept by William Price, Master. — ^In 



liOgof the 
EDdymion. 



Windward 
of Marti* 
niqae. 



Andro- 
meda and 
Laurel in 
company. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 

5 

7 

12 

2 
3 
6 

8 



10 
12 



P.M. 

1 



6 
10 

A.M. 

1 

8 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 



5 
9 

12 

A.M. 

3 



Courses. 



• • . . 



Winda. 



S8W 

E 

Variable 



EbrS 
EbyN 



Remarka. 



ENE 
NEbyE 



NE 



NE 



NE 



Monday, October 9, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh breeiee and fidir weather; 
lying-to, setting fore-riffsiiif , ftmeU y end 
topmaatrimngai>; H.lft. frigates Audio- 
meda and JL^nrel in eompeay. 

Midnight Moderate bneiea and C^r. 

Lat. by obeerration, U"" 44' N. 



A.M. At 8, made the AndnBeda aid 
Laurel signals, to keep on head» as frr aa 
signals could be obaenred. 

At 9, the Andromeda made the sipMl 
for seeing a strange aail ; made the sipwl 
to chaae, and made aail ; out leefti ; set all 
sail upon a wind. 

Roto new fore- topmast- stsyaail-hal* 
yards. 

Noon. Moderate and lair 

Martinico, W S W, diataaoe 17 



Tuesday, October 10, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh bieeiea and hasy weather; 
in chase. 

The Laurel being aoonsiderahledisliBSS 
a-head brought £• chaae to, aftv Mam 
sereral shot ; found her to be the brig Sana 
and Nancy, from Boston, boond to Gi»> 
nada, loaded with lumber. 

At 6, in second reefr, and won sU^; 
hoTe-to to shift the men out of tb» priM; 
manned her and aent her to Barbados. 

A.M. Fresh galea and sqnally ; in third 
reefs. 

Martinico, W S W, distance lOlssgaaa. 

Strong gales and squally weather; An* 
dromeda and Lanr^ in oonqpsay. 



Wedneaday, Oetober 11, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and hard aqiialla. 

Handed topMuls; down fop g illiif 
yards; struck top-gallant-maats. 

At 4. saw the land NE end of ICsrti- 
nioo, S W by S, distance 7 leagues. 

At 6, set topsaila. 

Strong gale and great iw$0 frosa the 
ENE; handed ditto topaaila. 

Midnight. Strong gale and haidsqnsUs. 

A.M. At 3, made the aignal to the An* 
dromeda and Laurel to lie-by on the lar- 
board tack. 






THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



367 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Endym ion — ctmtinMed. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


A.M. 






Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 


8 




ENE 


At 8, handed topsail ; heavy gales and 

strong squalls ; lost sight of the two ships. 

At 9, nanded nudiuail under balance- 


9 












mizen and mizen-topsail. 


12 






Noon. Blows strong and yiolent squalls ; 
north-east end of Miurtinico, W S W, dis- 








P.M. 






tance 4 leagues. 


Thursday, October 12, 1780. 


1 




ENE 


P.M. Strong gale and hard squalls. 


12 






Noon. Wore ship to northward; there 


A.M. 






saw white water to leeward. 


2 






A.M. At 2, saw land. 


3 






At 3, just weathered the Island of Cara- 


6 




E 


cal, the north-east end of Martinico, then 
bore away, and run between Dominiea 
and Martinico. The main, mizenmast, 
and fore-topmast blown away by the vio- 
lence of the wind ; some time after, the 
bown>rit ; the wreck being so foul of the 
beet bower anchor, obliged us to out away 










^ 




26 fathoms of cable ; employed clearing 








the wreck. 


7 




Bl>yN 


At 7, hove-to under a mizen-topsail. 


12 




ES£ 


Noon. Continues blowing a heavy gale 
and violent squalls ; bearing and distance 


P.M. 






Martinico, north end, dist. 15 leagues. 


Friday, October 13. 1780. 


1 




SWbyW 


P.M. Strong gales and violent squalls. 


5 






Bent the longTOat's mainsail to the stump 
of the mainmast, to keep the ship to the 
wind ; ship labouring very much, snipping 














very heavy seas; got a stay up to the 








mizenmast, and set a mizen-staysail, al- 




• 




tered for the purpose. 
Midnight. Blowing a strong gale and 


12 




ESE 


A.M. 






hard squalls. 


4 






A.M. Ship rolls very heavy, which occa- 
sions her to strain much. 


6 






More moderate and settled. (Then fol- 
lows details of repairing the rigging.^ 


12 






Noon. Moderate and squally. Martmico, 


1 

P.M. 






£, distance 34 leagues. 


Saturday, October 14. 1780. 


3 




£S£ 


P.M. Strong gales and thick weather, 
with rain; standing to the westward. 








; 9 






Constant rain. 


A.M. 








9 




SE 


A.M. Blowing strons and squallv; 
making a mizen-staysau to set on the 








, 






stump of the mizenmast. 








Lat. 14M7'N,long.64°rW. 


1 
t 






Martinico, £ by N, distance 60 leagues. 



CHAP. 

vra. 

Log of the 
BD4jmkm« 



sight 
of Andro- 
meda and 
Laurel. 



Weathered 
Caraval.* 



Ship keep- 
ing up 
with the 
storm. 



* Andromeda and Laurel went on shore. 



368 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Ewdymiow comtimued. 


VIU. 




r 

1 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


Loff of the 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Eodymion. 


1 






P.M. 
1 

6 

12 




ESE 
SE 


Sunday, October 16, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and sqiially» with 
hard rain, and a great swell oom aovitfa- 
south-east. 

Wore ship and hoTe*to ; head to north- 
ward; setting the main-staysail ; split it 
to pieces. 

Midnight. Thick weather, with hard 




A.M. 

7 
8 

12 

P.M. 
2 

8 

A ir 


• • • • • • • 

• • • » • • • 


SSE 
8SE 


rain. 

A.M. Hard sqnaUs and heaTT rain. 

Santa Cms, north-easterly, distanee 67 
leagues. 

lS»n. Lat. 14** 82* N, long. 6«* 9' W. 




Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gale and thidt weather ; a 
great swell from the south, heaTy rahi. 
Blows dreary and squally. 




A.M. 

6 


« 




A.M. Moderate and elear; aU hands cai- 
ployed rigging Jurr-mainmast and miasB- 




12 

P.M. 
1 

5 

9 

A M 




SSE 

SE 
SbjE 

WSW 


^n. Santa Cms, north, ZV B, dk- 
tance 49 miles. 
Moderate and cloudy weather. 
Lat. by obserration, IT 16' N. 




Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate and eloody. 
All hands getting jury-mast 19 and bov> 
sprit out. 
Squally, with rain from the ioiithwvd. 




6 
12 

P.M. 

1 

3 


*..•••. . 


SSE 

SWbyS 
SSW 


A.M. Saw the land, bearing NKW, 
distanoe, 8 or 9 leagues, body of Porta 
Rico. 

Noon. Moderate and fidr weather; w«t 
end of the Island of Porto Rioo, bearing 
N N W, distance 7 leaguea. 

Lat. by obserration, IT 43" N. 




Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 
P.M. Light breeses and clear. 




9 
12 

A. If. 




SWbyS 


Squally; handed topsails. 




6 

7 

12 




SbyW 
Variable 


A.M. Fresh breeses. 
Noon. The westernmost land in sig^ 
bearing N W by N, distance 9 leagnea. 
A sail in sight ahead. 
Lat. by observation, 17^ 40^ N. 




THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



369 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Endymion — continued. 



Hour. Courses. 

1 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


P.M. 






Thursday, October 19, 1780. 


1 




8WbW 


P.M. Light breezes and clear. 


10 




SW 


Fired a 91b. shot at the aforementiorei 
sail ; found her to be a French ship 
from Bordeaux, bound to Port-au-Prince; 
shifted the officers and men out of the 
prize, and gave chase to a sail in the ei b - 


A.M. 






ward 


2 






A.M. Light breezes and cloudy. 

Fired a 91b. shot at the chase, and 


7 












brought her to ; found her to be the 








^olus French transport, with jury-masts. 








being wrecked in the gale of wind, with 
150 troops on board ; shifted ihe men and 














arms out of her, and gave chase to a sail 








to the north-east. 








West end of Porto Rico, distance 17 


P.M. 






leagues. 


Friday, October 20. 1780. 
P.M. Light breezes and cloudy weather. 


1 




NWbW 


6 


........ 


NNE 


Came on a black squall northward, which 
prevented our coming up with the chase, 
in all appearance a large French ship. 


12 






Noon. Fresh breezes and squally. 
West end of Porto Rico, N W by W, 














distance 30 leagues. 


P.M. 






No observation. 


Saturday, October 21, 1780. 


1. 




NE 


P.M. Fresh breezes and squally. 
Midnight. Fresh breezes and clear. 


Midn. 


NEbyN 


Noon 






Noon. Light airs and fair ; two prizes in 
company. 

Island of Mona, N by E, distance 18 
leagues. 

Lat. by obseryation, 17° 32' N. 


Sunday, October 22, 1780. 


P.M. 




NE 


P.M. Light breezes and clear. 


A.M. 

6 






A.M. Saw the land bearing N E, dist. 
5 or 6 leagues, the Island of Mona. 


12 






Noon. Light breezes. 

Island Saona, N by W, distance 5 leagues. 


Monday, October 23, 1780. 


12 




N E 


Noon. Point Salines, Ilispaniola, N W, 
distance 7 or 8 leagues. 
Fair weather and smooth sea. 


Tuesday, October 24, 1780. 


12 




Easterly 


Noon. Lat. by observation, 17° 11' N. 
Island Aha Vela, W N W, distance 8 
leagues. 


• 






Moderate breezes. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of th9 
Endymion. 



Chases un- 
der jury- 
masts, and 
takes a 
ship. 



2 B 




TIIE GREAT HURniCANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 




Lor of the 


Hont, 


Couwe.. 


Wind.. 


lUmarkt. 




12 

12 
12 
12 




Eiutnlr 

Variable 
Variable 
ENB 


IVcdnmd.J, OcU>b« 2fi. 1 7S0. 
or 18 leagues. 




Tl.uwd»y, 0otobCT26. 17S0. 
Noon. L»t. by obaerTHion, \r 32* N. 
I>1« & Vache, bearing N, diatann 10 

UaguM. 




Fridar. October 37. 1780. 

Moderate weather. 
Lai. ir 67' N. 




SatuidsT, October 28. 1780. 
Nnon. Eait end of Jamaica, beariu 

N W, distance 7 leaguea. 




SandaT, October 29, ITM. 
difliance 7 inilcj. 

Pelican. Prineeai Rojal. Albion. Dincumd. 
Lowentoffe, Pomona, Hmmot, Rabr. &■ 
mom, Giafton. Briatol. Trident, UfrMaT: 
the ccven lut diamaated. 


I«g of ihc 
Stir. 


Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Star (kept by R. Camiodj. 
Master), lying in St. Joho's Ilarbour, Aatigna.— Id Namtieai 
Time. 




Ho... 


CauneH. 


Wind*. 


Kemark*. 




I::: 




ENE 

ditto 

ditt-- 


Tucndaj, October 10, 1.80. 
P.M. Moderoleandcloudj. 




Wedneaday. October 11, 1780. 
A.M. FrrahbreeMa; aqually. 


Strain 
reaches 
Antigua. 


Thuraday. October 12. 1780. 
P.M. Moderate brMtea and calm. 
A.M. Frcnh galea, wiih rqualU of .ub. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



371 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Star — concluded. 



Hour. 



P.M. 
A.M. 



P.M. 
A.M. 

P.M. 

A • Jtt • 

P.M. 
A.M 



P.M. 

A 9 3C» 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Easterly 



SE 



ditto 



ditto 



Variable 



Remarks. 



Friday, October 13, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales, with squalU of rain. 
A.M. More moderate. 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate gales, with squalls of 
rain. 
A.M. Ditto weather. 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate breezes, with squalls of 
rain. 
A.M. Freeh breezes and squally. 

Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and squally, with 
rain. 
A.M. Ditto weather. 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate and cloudy. 
A.M. Light airs, inclining to calm. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Salamander, by Lieut. 
G. W. A. Courtenay, lying in the English Harbour, 
Antigua. — In Nautical Time, 



Hour. 



P.M. 



Courses. 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



P.M. 



P.M. 



P.M. 

4 



E 



ENE 
E 



ESE 



ditto 



Tuesday, October 10, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes, middle and latter 
part strong squalls, with rain; Commo- 
dore's signal for a lieutenant from ship. 



Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 
Strong squalls and rain. 
P.M. Struck yards and topmast. 



Thursday, October 12, 1780. 
P.M. Ditto weather. 



Friday, October 13. 1780. 

P.M. Ditto weather. 

At 4, got the lower yards fore and aft, 
and the stream -cable on shore, on the lar- 
board quarter. 

2b2 



CHAP. 
VIU. 



Log of the 

Star. 



Log of 
the Sala- 
mander. 



372 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of 
the Sala- 
mander. 



Extract from the LiOg of H. M. S. Salamander — conclmded. 



Log of the 
Vigilant. 




Remarks. 



Saturday, October 14. 1780. 
P.M. Squally, with rain; people 
ployed scraping the decks. 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 
P.M. Ditto weather. 1 

A.M. At 8, arrived here H.M.8. Ama- 1 
zon, dismasted, and the Albemarle under ! 

jury-mainmast. i 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Vigilant (kept by Mr. T. 
O'Neil, Master), lying at Antigua. — In Nautical 7¥aie. 



P.M. 

1 



A.M. 



1 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


A.M. 






1 




ENE 


P M. 






1 




NE 


A.M. 






1 




NNE 


P.M. 






1 




N 


12 


■ •••••• 


ENE 


A.M. 






1 




Variable 


12 




NNE 


P.M. 






11 




NE 


A.M. 






1 




ENE 


P.M. 






3 






A.M. 






1 


••••••• • 


E 


P.M. 




• 


1 




ENE 


3 






A.M. 






1 




EbyN 



Remarks. 



October 10, 1780. 

P.M. Rigged out & lashed the mainyvrd, 
for getting the guns in ; caulkers at work. 



October 11, 1780. 
A.M. Squally, with showers. 



October 12. 1780. 
A.M. Cloudy, lowering wind, the middle 
and latter parts strong gales; hem\7 
squalls, with abundance of rain. 

October 13. 1780. 
A.M. Strong gales, with heayy squalls 
and rain. 
P.M. Fresh gales and squal*j. 

October 14. 1780. 
A.M. Fresh gales and squaUy, with 
showers of rain. 

P.M. Bent the bower cables. 



I 



October 15, 1780. 

A.M. Fresh ffales and squally. 

P.M. Arrived here II.M. frigates Am-—. 
and Albemarle; the first lost all her masts, 
the latter her mainniust and topmast. 



r: N E 



October 16. 1780. 
A.M. Fresh gales and squally. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



379 



Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H. M. S. Venus, CHAP. 
Captain James Douglas, at St. Christophers. — In Nautical Time. ^^^^' 

JiOg of the 
Veniu. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 








Wednesday, October 11, 1780. 


P.M. 




ENE 


P.M. Light breezes and clear weather ; 
people employed working up junk. 


A. M. 






A.M. Ditto weather. 


4 






At 4, weighed and came to sail. 

At 8, anchored in Old Road, with the 


8 












small bower anchor in four and a half 








fathoms water, and veered to half a cable ; 








the northernmost fort N by E, and Uie 
southernmost fort SE by £; employed 














watering ship. 


Thursday, October 12, 1780. 


P.M. 






P.M. Squally weather, with rain ; came 
down from Basse Terre Road ; H. M. sloop 
Surprise hove-to and hoisted her boat out, 
and sent her on board of us ; and at half- 
past made sail, and saw her bring- to a ship 
in the offing. 


6 






At 5, completed our water ; and at 6.30, 
weighed, and came to sail. 


7 






At 7. Sandy Point, N W by N § N, St. 
Eustatia, N W, distance 2 or 3 leagues ; 
strong gales and squally ; close-reefed the 
topsails. 


9 






At 9, the extremes of St. KitU, from 
S by E to SE; St. Eustatia from W by S 
to S W by S, distance 3 or 4 leagues. 

Midnight. Tacked ship and handed 


12 


• • •• m € 9 • 


ENE 


A* M» 






mizen-topsail. 


2 




NE 


A.M. At 2, strong gales, with heavy 
squalls ; at 2.30, bore up. 


4 

! 






At 4, split the main- topsail; ditto, un- 
bent it ; Sandy Point, S E, distance 3 or 4 
miles; sent down the top-gnllant-yards 
and masts ; got the spritsail-yard and jib- 
boom in. 


8 






At 8, strong gales; split the mainsail 
and unbent it. 


9 






At 9, split the fore-staysaiL 


12 






Noon. Handed fore- topsail; bent a main- 
staysail and a fore-staysail for a mizen- 
staysail ; split the main-staysail in setting 
of it, and hove her to under a mizen- 




S 56" W 




staysail. 

Lat. 17** 8' N, long. 19' W.» 

St. Christophers, N E by E, distance 29 
miles. 


Friday, October 13, 1780. 


P.M. 


r 




P.M. Strong gales and squally weather. 


3 






At 3, found the bowsprit sprung; car- 
penters employed in making a fish for it ; 








still lying-to. 



• In some of these logs o( the year 1780, the longitude appear* to be reckoned from the iMt 
place of departure. 



374 



THE OUEAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 


Extract from the Log 


of H. M. S. Venus — concluded. 


VIII 






Log of the 


Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. llemarks. 


T CittLB. 


A.M. 




SbyE 


Friday, October 13. 1780. 
A.M. Ditto weather. 




r. M. 
6 

9 

11 
12 


S od" W 
S 67° W 


SbyE 
SSW 


At 0, saw two strange tail, one to the 
windward and the other to the leeward; 
ditto, hoisted our colours, as did the 
strange ships; they proved to be ILH. 
ships Convert and Surprise. 

At 9, made the signal for a strange sail : 
ditto, saw the Convert set her foresail and 
give chase. 

At 11, bent another mainsail ; at 11.30, 
saw the Convert bring-to the chase. 

Noon. Ditto weather; set the Ibfcsail; 
Convert and strange sail in sight. 

St. Christophers, N by £, distance 21 
leagues. 

Lat. 16° 60', long. 63' W. 


liOg of the 
Convert. 


Extrac 


:t from the ] 


Log of H. M. S. Convert (kept by Mr. W. 


Caspel, Master). — In Nautical Time, 




Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 




P.M. 

I 
2 


upNEoflfN 


ESE 


Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
P.M. Hard gales and squally. 




3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 ' 

12 I 






Wore ehip, and brought-to under the 
fore and mizcn- staysails. 




up S S E off 
6 by W 


E 


French snow in company, 
Venus in sight. 




A.M. 

1 

2 1 
3 










4 

6 ; 



7 


up S off S W" 


1 
1 

1 


A.M. Wore ship, and brought- to under 
the mizen. 

Fired a shot at the snow for bearing away ; 
unbent the fore- topsail and bent another. 



8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



At 9, hoisted out the longboat, and sent 
)ilicer and 10 men on board the snow ; re- 
ceived 28 prisoners ; hoisted the boat in, ft 
set the foresail ; fresh gales and sqnally ; 
prize and Venus in sit;ht ; a brig in the N E, 
and a 6loop in the N W ; a schooner S W. 

l^t. nr 50'. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



375 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Convert — continued. 



Hour. 



r.M. 
1 
2 
3 
4 



5 
6 
7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 



2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 



Courses. 



NEby E 



Winds, 



SEbyE 



Sby W 

S 
Sby E 



Sby W 

up S oflf SS W 

up S W off 
WSW 



WbyN 
SW 



SWbvS 

WSW 

S W by W 

EbyN 



ESE 
£byS 

ESE 



SEbyE 



SE 



SEbyS 



S W i S S S E 
SW 



ESE 
E^S 
ESE 

WN W 



S 

SbyE 

S 



Remarks. 



Sunday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales and squally. 



Made the private signal to a Tessel 
a-head, which she answered. 
Made the signal for all cruisers* 

Wore ship ; spoke the Venus ; made the 
signal to speak the Surprise. 
Set the main-topsail. 

Venus, Surprise, and price in company. 
One strange sail to the windward of ub ; 
«plit the fore- topmast-staysail. 
Noon. Squally. 



A.M. Handed the main-topsail; saw 
several guns and false fires to windward. 
Strong gales and squally. 

Hove- to under the foresail, mizen, and 
mizen-staysail. 



Midnight. Ditto weather; lost sight of 
the prize. 
Virgin Gorda, N, dist. 5 or 6 leagues. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales and squally ; spoke 
H.M.S. Venus ; found her bowsprit, fore- 
mast, and main-topmast carried away. 



Virgin Gorda, N by £» distance 5 or 6 
leagues. 

Made the signal, and wore ship. 



A.M. Ditto weather ; wore ship ; Venus 
in company* 
Up mainsail ; wore ship. 

Squally, with rain ; set the mainsaiU 

Virgin Gorda, N by W, distance 6 or 7 
leagues. 

Up mainsail ; bore down and spoke the 
Venus. 



CHAP. 
VIU. 

Log of the 
Convert. 



376 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



Ijog of the 
Ulyssce. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Convert— co«c/imW. 



Log of the Hour. 
Convert. 



10 

11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M> 
1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Courses. Winds. 



NW 
SW 

EbyN 

E 



SSE 

SEbyS 

SSE 



Remarks. 



SWbyW : SSE 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 

Virgin Gorda, W N W, dUtance 5 or 6 
leagues. 

Wore ship ; saw a sail in the north-east : 
wore ship ; aet the mainsail. 

Fresh gales and squally. 

Midnight. Venus in company. 

Virgin Gorda, N W, distance 6 or 7 
leagues. 

Lat. 18** 14' N. 



E 



EbyN SEbyE 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales and cloudy. 

Spoke a prize belonging to the Bellons. 



East part of Santa Cras, S by W, 5 or 6 
leagues. Wore ship. 



E 

Eby S 

E^ S 

EbyS 



SSE 
SbyE 



S E by E S by W 



Noon. Ditto weather. 



A.M. Fresh brccses and doody. 

Two strange sail in the 8 E quarter ; 
swayed up top-gallant-masts. 

Fired three shot at a Dutch ship from 
St. Eustatia, and hove-to. 

Out third and second-reef topsails ; set 
the courses ; employed setting up thefere- 
ripging. 

Midnight. Lat. \9^ 17'. 



Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of H.M.S. Ultnbs, 
Captain Thomas Damaresq. — In Nautical Time, 



1 



Hour. I C«iurj»C8. Winds. 



Komarks. 



P.M. 



••••••«• 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 
NE by E P.M. These 24 hours strong galea and 
squally, with hard showers of rain ; handed > 
fore and main-topsaiU ; set courses. 
N E At 4, made the Itland Mona, bearing ! 
southward, distance 4 leagues ; bore away i 
to the S W of them. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



377 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Ulysses — continued. 



Hour. 



Courses. 



P.M. 

8 

A M. 

1 

2 



P.M. 

2 

3 

A 



8 



A.M. 

2 



P.M. 



A.M. 
3 



• • • 4 • • • 



Lying -to, 

Southward, 

and 

SSE 



Winds. 



EbyS 



SE 



NE 



Variable 
round 
the 
compass 



Variable 



Remarks. 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 

At 8, the south end of Mona, E N E, 
distance 3 leagues, from which I take my 
departure. 

A.M. At ly lost sight of the Pomona. 

At 2, up foresail and brought-to under 
mainsail; struck top-gallant- masts ; car- 
ried away one of the fore and two of 
the main shrouds, and one of the main- 
topmast backstays ; employed getting up 
preventers. 

Island Saona, N 22"" W, dist. 22 leagues. 

Lat. 17'', long. 4® 14'. 

Sunday, October 15, 1780. 

P M. Ditto, hard gales, with a great 
sea ; lying-to under mainsail. 

At 2, balanced the mizen and set it, 
and handed the mainsail. 

At 3, carried the mizenmast over the 
side ; cleared the wreck. 

At 4, carried away the fore-topmast and 
topsail- yard over the side ; ditto the jib- 
boom; carried away one of the main- 
shrouds. 

At 6, the mainsail blew to pieces from 
the yard ; ditto, cut away the main-top- 
mast, in hopes of saving the mainmast ; 
got the ship before the wind. 

At 8, the mainmast went over the side, 
stove the boats and the booms, and carried 
away the barricading on the quarter-deck ; 
the ship brought- to; employed clearing 
the wreck, it blowing a storm of wind ; 
the foresail and spritsail blew to pieces 
from the yard ; the ship proving very leaky, 
with four feet water in the hold, and one 
of the chain -pumps rendered useless. 

A.M. At 2, the wind continued shifting 
round the compass. 

Island of Saona, N 33** W, dist. 32 leagues. 

Lat. 16° 20', long. 4° 36'. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 

P.M. These tweritv-four hours ditto wea- 
ther ; lowered the foreyard down to get it 
rigged, the rigging being all beat to pieces ; 
got a new foresail and bent it ; took a reef 
in ditto, finding the ship to open much in 
her upper works, and the water gaining on 
us, having three feet water in the hold. 

A.M. At 3, lying-to a-hull. At 3.30, 
got all the upper- deck guns thrown over- 
board, and all the lumber on deck, when, 
with the pumps and baling, we began to 
gain on the water. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



Log of the 
Ulysses. 




378 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of the 
Uiy8bC8. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Ulysses — comelmded. 



Hour. 



Courses. 



Winds. 



r.M. 
4 



8 



I'.M. 



Lying- to. 
Southward 
and 
SSE 



8 
11 



Variable 



Remarkf. 



SSE 



Monday, October 16, 1780. | 

At 4, began to heave the upper-deck ^ 
guns overboard ; ditto, taw a ship iu dia- ' 
tress in the S £ quarter. 

At 8, we got the water to three feet in 
the well. 

Island Mona, N 11'' E, diat. 28 miles. 

Lat. 17** 49'. long. 4*» 13'. 

Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 

P.M. First part, strong gales and hazy 
weather; miadle, moderate and clear; 
latter, light airs, inclinable to calms; a 
great sea. 

At 8, not able to get the forejard up, 
for fear of carrying away the foremast. 

At 1 1, saw a saU in the N N E quarter ; 
swayed the foreyard up, and set wretsil ; 
set a top-gallant-sail on the misenmsst ; 
the sail stood towards us ; fired two 18- 
pound carronades ; she hauled her wind ; 
saw it was a large ship that had lost her 
furc and mizen masts ; the Island of Zacha, 
EXE, distance 6 lea;;ues ; saw two sail 
dismasted ; light airs, inclinable to calms. 



Log of the Extract from the Journal of the Proceedings of H.M.S. Pomona, ' 
Pomona. | Captain C. E. Nugent.— In Nautical Time. 



Hour. 



P.M. 
A.M. 

2 



Courses. : Winds. 



Remarks. 



Saturday, October 14, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and cloody, with 
heavy squalls of wind and rain. 

A.M. At 2, hove- to under the miicB- I 
staysail ; making a great deal of water ; ' 
scuttled the lower-deck and kept the ; 
chain- pump going. 

At 3, reefed the courses and handed the 
topsails ; made the Island of Monm* bear- 
ing S W ; the Commodore wore nmad to 
stand to the northward ; made the signal 
to speak him ; hailed him to know if we 
fhould go ahead, and carry a light to lead 
him through the Mona Passage; and, 
being answered in the affirmative, loosed 
the topsails and bore up. 

At 7, the south end of Mona, S E, dis* 
tance 7 miles. 



r.M. 



Sunday, October lo, 1780. 
P.M. Strong gales and heavy rain ; still • 
hipping a great deal of water, and keeping I 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



379 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Pomona — concluded. 



Hour. Courses. 



r M. 



6 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



A.M. 
1 

3 
4 



P.M. 



P.M. 



E 



s\v 



Sunday, October 15. 1780. 
the chain and hand pumps going ; lowered 
down the fore and main yards. 

At 6, the main-topmast went overboard, 
with topsail-yard and part of the maintop ; 
obliged to cut away the mainyard to get 
clear of the wreck. 

At 7, the mizf nmast went about 15 feet 
above the deck ; employed clearing the 
wreck; then bore awav ; the pumps going, 
with four and a half feet water in the 
hold; hove overboard four 18-pounders 
from the quarter-deck. 

A.M. At 1, fore-top-gallant-mast blew 
away. 

At 3, the fore- topmast went over the 
side, with the topsail-yard, &c. 

At 4, shipped a sea which stove the 
cutter and long-boat; hove them over- 
board to clear the ship ; the gale abating ; 
employed in securing the foreyard and 
setting the foresail. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Light breezes, and a heavy sea 
and rain ; employed about the rigging. 

Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Ditto weather ; employed as before. 
Lat. 16° 38^. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Grafton, Rear- Admiral 

Rowley. — In Nautical Time. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 
2 

3 



Courses. 



SSE 



SEby S 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



ENE 



Variable 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and thick, cloudy 
weather. 



Ditto weather, and hazy, with a heavy 
swell from the N E. 



Midnight. Ditto weather. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of the 
Pomona. 



Log of the 
Grafton. 



380 



THE (;reat hurricane, 1780. 



C Tt A p. 
VIIL 

Log of the 
Grafton. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Grafton — comtimted. 



Hour. I Cour»e8. 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



A.M. 

4 
5 

n 

7 

8 



9 
10 
11 
12 



SEbyS 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



A.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

o 

6 

/ 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



up S S E off 
SSW 



Variable 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 



up S S E off 
S W bv S 



Easterly 



EXE 



A.M. Strong gales, and thick beary 
weather ; handed the topsails. 

Hauled up the courses and handed 
ditto, and brought-to under m trysail; 
Trident, Ruby, and Bristol in company. 

Noon. Heavy gales and cloudy weathrr ; 
employed at the pumps. 

No observation. 

lAt. 26° 30* N, long. 71** 30* W. 

Caucus,* S 6° E, distance 97 leagues. 

Tuesday. October 17, 1780. 

P.M. Lying-to under a trysail; heavy 
gales. 

Ship falling off in the trough of the sea, 
laboured much, and shipped heavy seas ; | 
employed at the pumps ; three feet water > 
above the kelson. 



Split the trysails to ribands; lay-to 
under bare poles. 



' N N E by N 

: off EN E 



NW 



A.M. Wind shifted round, and a 
fused sea. 



P.M. 

I) 



Lying- to 



Trident and Ruby in sight to the north* 
ward. 
N(K)n. Saw the Ruby bear up urndtr ktr 

fore»ail. 

No ob-ier ration. 

Lnt. 26*' r. long. 7 r 50'. 

(caucus, S 7^ W, distance 84 leagues. 

I W( dnesday, October 18, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gnle^, with heavy squalls ; 
' a h(>avy sea running ; employed baling the 
I ship ; all the pumps broke; six feet water 
in the hold. 

Wore* and bore up under a reefed fore- 
sail ; Trident in company. 



<in';it < 'hv« '■»'«. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



381 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Grafton — concluded. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

AiM. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



12 



Hour. 



P.M. 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



Courses. 



£S£ 



SEbyE 



SEby S 
SbyE 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



NWbW 



Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 
Two sail in sight. 
Out reef of the foresail. 

More moderate. 

Got up the fore- topsail-yard, and set the 
sail. 

Midnight. Ditto weather. A great 
swell from the north-west. 



NW 



A.M. Ditto weather. 

Trident made signal for a sail. 

Swayed up the mainyard, and got up 
the main-topsail-yard. 

The strange sail made signal of distress, 
and repeatsd it with a gun ; we made the 
Trident's signal to come within hail. 

At 11, spoke the Hector in great dis- 
tress, heaving her lower-deck guns over- 
board ; shortened sail to keep her company. 

Noon. Moderate and cloudy, with a 
great swell from the N N W. 

Lat. 220 32' N, lonf?. 69«> 6'. 

Turk's Island, S 23"* W, distance 68 
leagues. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Bristol. 



Courses. 



Sby W 

Lying-to. 

up S S E off 

SW 

SEbyS 

S 
SSE 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



ESE 



ENE 

Variable 
E 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh breezes and fair weather; 
the Commodore made the signal for all 
captains ; bore down and answered ditto. 

Carpenters repairing the yawl. 

Made sail. 

Saw two strange sail in the N W quar- 
ter ; signalized to the Ruby for ditto with 
two Kuns, repeated; two strange sail in 
the W by N ; hoisted a white jack at the 
mizen, and kept it there ten minutes; 
hauled down, as no ship answered it; some 
minutes after the Ruby hoisted a Dutch 
jack at the ensign-staff, fired two or three 
guns, and edged down to the Hector; we, 
perceiving no ship, answered it ; we still 
hauling our wind. 



CHAP. 

vni. 



Ix)g of the 
Grafton. 



Log of the 
Bristol. 



LMjofth 
Brbtol. 



THE GQEAT HUIIRICANE, 17&0. 
Extract from the Log of H. M. 5. Bristol — eomtimmed. 



""„„„. 


Couri«B. 


Winds. 


10 


SEbyS 


EbyN 


12 






A.M. 
1 
3 






3 

A 
6 


SSG 


E 


7 

B 
9 
10 


NbjW 
SEb,|,S 


i 
EbyN 


12 






V 

3 


SEbyS 


EbyN 


4 


8BE 


E 


6 

6 




1 


B 
9 
10 


SbrEiE 

s£b,s 


1 
E by N 


IS 






A.M. 

1 

2 






3 
4 


SSE 


E 


\ 


S E bj S ' E l,Y N- 


10 




12 




! 



SundRT, October 16, 1780. 
The Hector S i W, dUbuce 4 or S milM. 
Putcd company with the Hector. 
Squally weather. 
Midnight. ThcBubyW,distaiiM3or3 



A.M. 9,Av two lail in the KWqnirlfr, 

appeared to be diimuted ihip* ; boM 
down and ipoke to the Kuby. 

Wore «hip, then bearing N N W. fi or 6 

The above (faipi proved to be the Oiaf- 
ton. AdiTiir&l Itowley, and Trident ; wore 
■hip wiih ditto. 



l>iuo we»lher. 



Splitthcjib. 

Light breece* and cloudy. 



Fre»h breeeei and tqitally. 

Midnight. The Admiral SB by 8, 3 



Siw a ichooner (tending to the ninth- 

Ficsh brccicB and iquilly. 
In ircond reef fbte-topMil. 
NiH'n. Ditto weather; in aerond mf 



No ..1 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



383 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Bristol — continued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 



I'.M. 
I 

2 
3 

4 

^ 

o 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



Courses. 



SEby S 
up S E off S 



upESE 
off S bj E 



upNE 
offESE 



upNNE 

off E 



SEbyE 



SEbyE 



Winds. 



EbyN 



ENE 



NE 



NNW 



NW 



NW 



NW 



Remarks. 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh breezes: in second and 
third reef in main and fore topsail. 

Fresh gales. 

Brought-to the Admiral, S S E, 2 or 3 
miles, under mizen- staysail ; saw a ship, 
supposed standing northward ; struck the 
fore and main topmast. 

Hard gales and squally; lost sight of 
the fleet. 



Ditto weather. 



A.M. Heavy gales; split the mizen< 
staysail and set the balance mizen. 
A great swell running from the S E. 
Ditto winds and weather. 



Ditto weather , employed repairing the 
mizen- staysail. 

More moderate; wore ship and made 
sail. 

Noon. Saw two sail on the larboard 
bow; brought-to for some minutes, and 
made sail again ; the Ruby in company. 

No observation. 

Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales; in company with 
the Ruby. 

A great swell from the NNW. One 
mile and a quarter per hour. 

Got the fore- topsail- yard, and set sail. 

Some showers of rain ; out second reefi 
of the topsails. 

Got up the .... 

Saw a strange sail, bearing N E, quarter 
of a mile ; she made sail at our appear- 
ance, and made her escape. 



A.M. Moderate. 

In company with the Ruby. 

Set the mainsail and other small sails. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log of the 
Bristol. 



384 



THE CSIIEAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. Extract from the Log of IL M. S. Bristol — cancimded, 
VIH. 



Log of the ; ^^°^^- I Co""e8. 
Bristol. 



Log of the 
Hector. 




SEbyE 



Winds. 



NW 



W X \V 

N 



Remarks. 



Wediiei^day, October 18, 1780. 

Made the Ruby's signal to come within 
hail, which was not noticed ; made ditto ■ 
with Admiral Itowley's, with one gun, | 
and was answered. | 

Ditto weather. 

Employed variously. | 



Noon. Ditto weather. 
Lat. observed, 24« 27' N. 



— I 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Hector. 



Huur. 



P.M. 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

4 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



I'.M, 



Coursee. ' Winds. 



SbyE 

S by E 1 E 

SSW 

SSE 



I 



Eby S 

S£ 
E 



Remarks. 



Sunday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh gales and doudj. 

At 8, the Bristol, N E by £. 

At 10.30, split the main-topeail, unbent 
it, and bent another. 
Noon. Moderate and fair. 



A.M. At 3, fresh breezes and doody^W. | 



At 6.30, saw two sail bearing abcrat i 
S by AV. ! 

At 8, fresh gales and squally ; put the j 
ship's company to an allowance of two 
quarts of water a day per man ; co o pers 
employed shaking the empty and store 
ca^ks in the hold, to clear away. 

Lat. observed, 27^13' N. 



I 

2 


S by E ; 


3 




4 


SSE 


.* 




(} 








8 


1 


9 
10 


NbvE 

• 

1 







Monday, October 16, 1780. 
i E by S i P.M. The first part, fresh galea, with 
showers, rain, and sea; split the main- 
topsail, unbent it, and bi ni another. 



E by N 



At S, wore ship to the northward. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



385 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Hector — continued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

11 
12 

A M. 

1 



2 
3 
4 



5 
6 

7 



8 

9 

10 



11 



12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 



5 
6 
7 

8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



Courses. Winds. 



Nby W 

SSE 



up N by W 
offNWbyN 



up N by W 
oflfNWbyN 



upNNW 
offNW 



E 



NEbyE 



NE 



Remarks. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 

Midnight. Fresh gales and squally, with 
a heavy 8ea from the eastward. 

At 1.30, wore ship to the southward ; 
when veering, saw four strange sail in the 
NE. 

At 2, set fore and main-topsail. 

At 4, carried away the clew of the main- 
topsail, handed ditto. 
At 5, handed the fore-topsail. 

At 7, the main-tack gave way ; hauled 
up the weather clew, and rove a new tack ; 
carried away the mizen-gaff. 

At 7.30, set the main-sail. 

At 8, the gale increased ; hauled up the 
courses, and close-reefed them. 

At 10, hauled on board the main- tack; 
and in hauling on board the fore-tack, the 
sail split to piece?, and was lost. 

At 1 1 , blowing a very strong gale, with 
a heavy sea running ; and the ship labour- 
ing very much, and making a great quan- 
tity of water, was obliged to throw over- 
board the remainder of the quarter-deck 
and forecastle guns to ease the ship. 

Noon, Wore ship to the northward; 
hard gales, with chain-pumps constantly 
working. 

No observation. 

Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and squally, with a 
heavy sea from the eastward, and rain ; the 
hand pumps frequently working to keep 
the ship free ; the gale increased ; the ship 
labouring and straining very much, threw 
overboard 11 main-deck guns, in order to 
ease the ship ; got a preventer tack and 
sheet on the mainsail. 

At 5, the leech- rope of the mizen-stay- 
sail gave way, and the sail blew all to 
pieces, likewise the long-boat's mainsail 
for a mizen ; both were entirely lost. 

At 8, excessive hard gales and heavy 
squalls, with rain. 



Midnight. Variable to the N W. Wore 
ship to the eastward, and scudded under 
close-reefed muinsall ; the ship making 
great quantities of water; the hand and 
chain pumps constantly going. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



Log of the 
Hector. 



2c 



386 



THE GRKAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



C H A P. 
VIII. 



Log of the 
Hector. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Hector — comehided. 



Hour. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



P.M. 

1 

2 

? 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



A.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

t 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



Courses. 



Winds. 



EbyN 
ENE 



Eby S 
E by S i S 



ESE 

EbyS 

SSE 

ESE 
SEi E 



NW 



W 



W N W 



8Ei S 
S E by S 

SSE 



SbyE 



Remarkt. 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 



Served drains to the ihip'a eom^mj at 
4 ; excessive hard galea, with rain. 



At 8, ditto weather; the hand-pumpa 
and one chain-pump conatantly gouig. 

i 

Noon. Hard gales and squally, with' 
rain ; and a heavy sea running ; unbent 
the remainder of the foreaail from the 

yard. 

' No observation. 



Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 
P.M. The first part moderating, got up ' 
a spritsail and set it for a foreaail ; we find ■ 
the ship more leakv, which obliges ua to \ 
clear away the hold for baling ; cooper 
and assistants employed shaking water- 
casks ; ditto, hove them overboard. 



About 11, began to heave the remainder 
of the main-deck guns overboard, to esse 
the ship, as the leak increaaed ao tet; 
ditto, set the mainsail ; the leak obligea 
us to keep our chain and hand-pampa 
constantly working. 



N N W 



A.M. At 6, saw two strange aa& in the 
N N W, which we soon diacovered to be 
part of the squadron. N.B. We kept two 
of the upper-deik guna for tignala. 

At 9, tired one 18-pounder, and made 
the signal in distress ; employed hcftving 
overboard the lower- deck guns. 

Noon. The Grafton and Trident joined ; 
us ; we informed the Admiral of onrtitiia- > 
tion, who promised to star by ua, and | 
render us every assistance in hia power; 
unbent the spritsail, and bent a new fare- 
topsail for a foresail ; likewise, let all the 
reefs out of the mainsail to air ; broke 
two of the winches of the chain- pnmpa; 
armourers employed repainng them. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



387 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Trident. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 
2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



Courses. 



SiE 



ESE 
SSEiE 



SEbyS 



SSEiE 



SSE4 E 



SSE 



SE JS 



Winds. 



EbyS 

NE 
EbyN 



EbyX 



ENE 



Remarks. 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy ; made 
the signal to the Admiral for three sail in 
the S E. 

Admiral made the signal to call in all 
cruisers, but the above ships took no notice 
of it. 



Squally, with rain. 



A.M. Moderate and clear. 

Saw two sail in the S £. 

At 8.30, the Bristol and Ruby joined us. 



Noon. Fresh breezes and doudj; split 
main - topsail ; bent another, and re- 
paired it. 

Lat. 27° 19' N, long. 10° 57' E. 

Turk's Island, S 2° 41' W, distance 116 
leagues. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy. 



Set the rigging up ; condemned, per sur- 
vey, and Uirew overboard, 376 double 
pieces of beef, per order of Admiral Row- 
ley, being a nuisance in the ship. 

Richard Jibb fell overboard and was 
drowned. 



Midnight. Ditto weather. 



A.M. Saw a schooner standing to the 
northward. 



CHAP. 

vni. 

Log of the 
Trident. 



2c-2 



388 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



Log of the 
Trident. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Trident — comtimmed. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



P.M. 
I 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 

8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



Courses. 



S E i S 
SEbyS 



Winds. 



ENE 

EbyN 



up S E by S 
off S by E 



up S E by E 
off S E by S 

up E by S 
offSEbyE 



upNE 
off E by N 



ENE 



Remarks. 



Monday, October 16. 1780. 
Made the signal for a tail in the S E. 

Handed topsails ; reefed the mainsail ; 
sailmakers repairing the foresail. 

Noon. H<ird gales and squall j, with 
rain; brought-to. 
Lat. 26*^ 2' N, long, ll** ir E. 
Turk's Island, S 6° 20* W, distanee 91 

leagues. 



NEbyE 
NEbyN 



NNW 



upNbyE NWbW 
offNE 



up N by E 

offNEbyNi 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Strong gales and heavy squalls; 
handed course* ; lowered the lower-yards; 
got topsail-yards down. 



Hard gales and squally, with rain; a 
heavy sea. 



Midnight. Ditto weather. 



P.M. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
G 

4 

8 




{ 



A.M. Two sail in sight; one Iteaiing 
S b^ E, the other E by S, 2 or 3 milca. 
Ditto gales and thick, with rain. 



upNbyE NWbAV 
offNE 
E by S 

E by S J S N W 



ESE 



Noon. Ditto weather ; aaw tha 
and Ruby put before the wind ; Admiral 
E by 8, 2 miles. 

Lat. 26** 4^ N, long. IT 24' E. 

Turk's Island, S 9r 24' W, diataneo 84 
leagues. 



Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and cloudy. At 1.30, 
made sail to join the Admiral ; got up fore- j 
yard ; brought-to. 

Wore with the Admiral, and mado aail ; ' 
<;ot the main-yard up and topsail-yards 
across. 

Fresh gales and cloudy. 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



389 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Trident — concluded. 



Hour. 



P M. 

10 
11 
12 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



Courses. 



£SE 
SEbyE 

SE^E 



SEbvE 
SSE 



SbyE 



Winds. 



NW 



NEbyN 



Remarks. 



Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 



Midnight. Fresh gales and cloudy. 



A.M. Moderate and clear. 

Admiral made the signal to speak us ; 
bore down to speak him. 

Hector joined company, having all her 
masts gone. 

Noon. Ditto weather; Admiral S E, 
quarter of a mile. 

Lat. 24*' 20' N, long. 12*» 38' E. 

Turk's Island, S 32" 64' W, disUnce 67 
leagues.' 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of the 
Trident. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Ruby. — In Nautical Time. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



6 



Courses. 



A.M. 

6 



9 



Winds. 



EbyS 



EbyN 



ENE 



Remarks. 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 

P.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy; sent an 
officer on board the Hector, ana supplied 
her with sixteen barrels of powder, per 
order of Sir John Hamilton, Bart. 

At 6, the Hector parted company for 
Jamaica. At 6.30, saw two sail; made 
the Hector's signal for seeing two of our 
squadron in the S W ; ditto, answered 
ditto; the Bristol made the signal for 
seeing two sail in the N E. 

A.M. At 5, made the Biistol's signal for 
seeing two of our squadron in the N W, 
dismasted ; wore ship, and stood towards 
them ; the Bristol made the private signal, 
which was answered. 

At 9, joined us ; the above ships proved 
to be the Grafton, Rear- Admiral Rowley, 
and Trident, under jury-masM ; saluted 
the Admiral with three cheers ; answered 
ditto ; split the cross-jack ; unbent him, 
and bent another. 

Lat. 27° 34'. 



Los of the 
Ruby, 



390 



THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



CHAP. 
VIII. 

Log of the 
Kubj. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Ruby— amdmded. 



Hour. 



P.M. 



9 



Courses. 



P;M. 

2.30 

A.M. 

8 



P.M. 



Winds. 



EbyN 



ENE 



ENE 



NNW 



N 



Remarks. 



Mondaj, October 16, 1780. 

P.M. Ditto weather; sailmakera flniahed 
the mizen and mizen fore-topmaal-itaj- 
sail ; bent, and sent ditto. 

At 9, carried away the foreyard in th« 
slings ; split and lost part of th« Ibrctail 
ovenxoard; split the main-topmaal-atay- 
sail; got the cross-jack-yard down, and 
got it up for a forevard ; and ditto sail, 
for a foresail ; got the mizen top-gallaat- 
yard and sail up for a fore-topaail i sot 
the fore- top- gallant-yard and sail up tun 
a cross- jack-yard and sail ; employed 
repairing the foresail and main-topmaat- 
staysail; got down top- gallant •/■zda 
upon deck ; reefed and handed ooaraas ; 
brough-to under the mizen-ataysail; Oni* 
ton, Trident, and Bristol in eompany } a 
very heavy sea. 



Tuesday, October 17, 1780. 
P.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy. At 1, 
saw a strange sail in the S E. 
At 2.30, split the crosa-jack-yard. 

A.M. At 8, three of squadron in tight, 

to the S E, &c. 



Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 

P.M. Strong gales and thick aqnalls, 
and heavy following sea; Qraitcm, TH* 
dent, and Bristol in sight ; carried a light 
at the foremast head during the night; 
got up the cross-Jack and mainyarda, and 
set the sail ; Bristol only in sight. 

Lat. 24*» 19' N. 



Log of the 
Berwick. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Berwick. 

In Nautical Time. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 



Coiirses. 



Nby W 

NbyWJW 

NNW 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



Sunday, October 15, 1780. 
NEbyE P.M. Fresh breezes and cloud j| th* 
sailmakers employed in altering and 
making sails for the jury-masts and jaida. 
Squally, with rain. 
N E Ditto weather ; bent the main-topmaat* 
staysail, and paralleled the foreyaro. 




THE GREAT HURRICANE, 1780. 



391 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Berwick — continued. 



Hour. 



P.M. 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

Am Bt» 

1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 

12 



P.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

S 

9 
10 
11 
12 

A.M. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



Courses. 



N by \V| W 

NbyE 

N 
NbyWiW 

Nby W 

N 

NbyE 

NNE 
NEbyN 



Winds. 



Remarks. 



Variable 



NEbyE 

EbyN 
EbyS 



Sunday, October 16, 1780. 
Fresh breezes, with frequent showers of 



ram. 



Midnight. Light breezes and cloudy. 



NEbyN 



NE 



ENE 

NE 

S 

head to N E 

ditto* to 

NNE 



EbyS 



ESE 



A.M. Ditto weather ; the sailmakers 
employed in fitting a jury-main- topsail. 



Lat. observed, 34° 20' N. 

Got two of the quarter-deck guns on the 
forecastle. 

Noon. Lat. 34° 21', long 69° 18'. 

Nantucket Shoals, N 5° W, distance 
129 leagues. 



Monday, October 16, 1780. 
P.M. Moderate and clear ; sailmakers 
employed in fitting and repairing sails. 

Ditto weather. 

Sailmakers employed as above « 
Ditto weather. 



SSE 



Calm 
Ditto 



A.M. Light airs and cloudy. 



Sailmakers employed as above. 



A great swell from the eastward. 
Lat. observed 35° 3' N., long. 68° 42'. 
Nantucket Shoals, N 10° W, distance 116 
leagues. 



CHAP. 

vm. 

Log of the 
Berwick. 



On her way 
to England. 



Light airs. 



but a great 
swell. 



TtIB GREAT IIURHICANB, 1780. 
Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Berwick— oM/MMAf. 



nurrictne 
tho Bei- 



Hour. 


Couraa. 


Windi. 


"-"•• 


P.M. 






Tueid«y, October 17, 1780. 


2 


up N by E 
F, bvN 
£ JN 


Calm 


P.M. At 1.4fi, «u taktt, a-baUi kort- 


3 


Notihet'' 


■hip Mid handed topauk; •qnalljr, with 


4 




lain ; loosed the topuil*. 


8 














BsiU ; in lectins ths nuU-topMU canM 
awny cha yard la tha (llnp ; got it down; 














frr.h galea. "^ 


7 

8 


EbyN 




At 7 46, got uiothtr rtrd MnM. and 
bent ihc ibiI. 


e 

10 


EJN 
E 




"^«-- .w»-/^vr 


12 


EjN 














y 


EiS 


NNE 




3 
4 






Ditto weather. 


5 


E 


NbyE 




7 


EJS 


NNE 




8 


Eb;S 












No obaerraiion. 


10 


E^^ys 






12 




Noon. IM.. 34° SO*, long. M" W. 








Birmudan. N 31~ g, (Iuibocc 61 laaguM. 


PSC 






Wodnwday, October 1», 1780. 
P.M. Fresh galea and cloudy. 




EJS 


NNB 


i 






At i. h«ulcd the inainiul up aad Ihc 








fore -iitny sail down. 








At i. handed the mtmsaa. Al 4.3a, 








mniii-tn-iil hore-to undn thn wliia 








ditto ! Tery hard galM Md •quUy. 


S 


EbyN 




Hard galea and .quaUj. 


fi 


up K hy S 






7 


offESB 




Dilto weather. 


10 






Midnifht. Slmng gale* .od Iumj 


r 






(qualU. 


3 

4 

7 






A.M. Ditto weather. 



THE OR£AT HURRICANE, 1780. 



393 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Berwick — concluded. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


1 
Winds. Remarks. 


AM. 






Wednesday, October 18, 1780. 


8 


up E by N 


NNE 


Strong gales and heavy squalls; rove 




offESE 




new fore-tacks and sheets. 


9 


upENE 
offEby S 






10 






11 






Lat. observed, 33° 81' N, long. 65^ 10'. 


12 






Noon. Ditto weather. 


P.M. 






Bermudas, S 53° E, distance 31 leagues. 


ITiursday, October 19, 1780. 


1 


upENE 


N 


P.M. Fresh galeo, with frequent showerB 


2 


offESE 




of rain. 


3 






Set the mizen ; the sailmakers employed 


4 




1 in repairing the main- staysail. 

Ditto weather ; set up the lee, main, and 


5 








fore-shrouds. 


6 

7 






Ditto weather. 


6 
9 


upENE 
offEby S 






10 






11 








12 








AiM. 








1 


up N E by E 




A.M. More moderate* 


2 


offE 






3 

4 






Ditto weather ; bent the main-staysail. 


5 
6 






At 6.30, bore away under a foresail and 


7 


SE 


Nby W 


fore-topsail. 


8 






At 8, got the mizen- topsail- yard across. 


9 






Fresh gales and cloudy ; the people em- 


10 






ployed at the rigging and sails. 


11 






At 11, set the mainsail and main- topsail ; 
the sailmakers employed in repairing the 
mizen-staysail. 


12 






Noon. Ditto weather. 
Lat. 32° 25', long. 64° 21'. 








Bermudas, E, d^tance 41 leagues. 



CHAP. 

vni. 

Log of the 
Bewick. 






394 



Solano's Stomi, 1 780, and the Winds called " Norths'' 

CHAP. The chart of the great Barbados hurricane has been 
^ made, and its course determined by closely following 

the data procured. In none of the log-books of the 
same year, which have been examined at the Admi- 
ralty, is there any allusion made to other ^ales, coming 
from the eastward, and happening at the same time. 
The course laid down on Chart IX. is therefore, pro- 
bably, very nearly the true course of that tempest. 

I have made this remark, previous to introducing 
the subject of that storm which dispersed and disabled 
the Spanish fleet under Solano, destined for the attack 
of Pensacola, in Florida, first colonized from Europe 
by the Spaniards. This state was ceded by them to 
the English in tlie treaty of 1763. It was still held 
by England in 1780; but the Spaniards reconquered 
that part called West Florida, in 1781, the storm 
having saved it for the English for one year. 

This third storm, like that which destroyed Savanna- 
la-M ar, had been confounded with the great Barbados 
hurricane, which disabled Rodney's fleet, although it 
appears to have been a distinct one. It will serve to 
show, that the gales of the Gulf of Mexico are some- 
times, at least, of the same rotatory nature as those 
which have been described. 

It is possible, that the Spaniards may apply the 
term Nortes, or Nortlis, to more than one pheno- 
menon ; but the violent north winds in the neighbour- 
hood of Vera Cruz, are frequently no other than the 
left-hand side of rotatory storms, in their northerly 



NORTHS. 



396 



»5 



90 



HH 




10 



9ft 



VM) 



85 



396 SOLAN S STORM, 1780. 

CHAP, progression across the Gulf of Mexico ; just as Red- 

L field's storms, in their northerly progression, have been 

clearly shown to be in reality identical with Franklin's 
north-east storms. What is here meant will be under- 
stood by inspecting the preceding figure, which is in- 
tended to represent the storm which dispersed this 
Spanish fleet. 

I am indebted to Lord Clarendon, formerly British 
ambassador at Madrid, for copies of documents, pro- 
cured by him from the Spanish government, relative to 
Solano's storm, extracts from which are here printed. 

These records show, that the Spanish Admirals Air- 
ship was in tlie northern half of a circular storm, for 
the wind commenced at north-east, veered to south- 
east, and ended at south-south-east. It is possible that 
this storm may have had its origin near the west end 
of Cuba, for the weather at this period was moderate, 
and fine at Jamaica ; and we find no trace of it in any 
of the log-books of Sir P. Parker's squadron. The 
Phoenix British frigate, just before she was wrecked, 
had come from Pensacola, and she had looked into 
Havannah harbour, and seen Solano's fleet lying 
there. 

On the morning of the 15th the wind at Havannah 
was south-east ; on that day, Solano (having first con- 
sulted the pilots) called together the captains of the 
fleet, when it was determined to sail the next day, 
provided the wind did not veer from the sauth-east 
quarter to south. Next morning, the 16th of October, 
the wind being light, and more easterly, the 8i<mal 
was made to weigli, and fifty-eight ships out of 
seventy-four got out of liarbour before night, and 
they were all out at i) p.m. 



NORTHS. 397 

Fuerza de la Escuadra. CHAP. 

Comandantes. VIII, 

Navios San Juan (flag-ship) Pereda. 

Guerrero Estava. 

Velasco Muiioz Velasco. 

Dragon . . Autran. 

San Ramon. Calvo de Irazabal. 

San Genaro Tejada. 

Astulo Velasco. 

Fragatas .... Matilde Alderete. 

Rosalia . . Tacon. 

O. Comandante del Convoy. . Aristizabal. 

Aulia Goicoechea. 

Chambequin . Caiman Roda. 

Paquebot. . . . Pio Ibregon. 

Lugre Duque de Cornwallis Correa. 

Convoy » — Aristizabal. 

32 Transportes de Tropos . . . . / ^^^^^ al mando 
*^ L del Gen. Galvez. 

2 Hospitales. 

6 Transportes con Artilleria, viveres, municiones 

y pertrechos. 

1 1 Goletas con polvore. 

9 Mercantes con destino d Nueva Orleans. 

Extract from the Journal of the Spanish Admiral Journal of 
Don Jos6 Solano, having his flag on board of the juan,*flag. 
San Juan, commanded by Pereda : — * ^^' 

" Oct. I6th, 1780. At daybreak, after a moderate land breeze 
from £. and E.S.E., the scud moving in the same direction, it fell 
calm. The wind afterwards sprung up again from the E. S. E. 
quarter, and freshened ; and at 6 a.m. the signal was made to 
heave short. The wind appeared settled in the E. ; the signal 
was made to weigh anchor, and the Caiman ordered to wait to see 
all the vessels out of port. By half-past nine the Admiral was 
a league from the land, standing on under topsails only, in order 
to unite his fleet. In this manner he stood on a northerly course 
with the same sail during the rest of the day, with the wind 
varying from E. to N.E. By sunset, the Velasco, San Genaro, 
and the San Ramon, with seven transports, had not got out of 



398 Solano's storm, 1780. 

CHAP. port. Tlie Admiral kept the same sail upon his ship during the 
_^'^"- night. 

" Oct, \7th. At dawn it was calm in shore. By eight o'clock 
a breeze sprung up from the N.E. Fifty-eight ships and vessels 
were in sight, out of seventy-four ; the Velasco and San Genaro 
being among the missing ships. At seven o'clock, the Caiman 
made a signal that all the vessels had got out of the port by nine 
o'clock the night previous. The Admiral, concluding that the 
missing ships were cither covered by the haze. Or that they bad 
got a-head of him during the night, made sail in the coarse 
N. 10° W.* By noon the wind freshened at N. E., scud and 
heavy clouds closing in upon us. The San Juan carrying her 
foresail and topsails, lowering and raising the latter occasionally, 
in order to keep the fleet together. At 9 p.m., the breexe 
freshened ; took in the topsails ; towards evening, we coold only 
just see the vanguard, owing to the density of the clouds. 
At 6 P.M., reefed the foresail. By 10 at night, the wind in- 
creased, and was then at N.E. j E., with torrents of rain and 
some hard squalls, shifting as far as E. N. E. 

" Oct. ISth. At daybreak, heavy clouds, rain, wind, and sea. 
Two ships and a brig of the convoy in sight. At 9 a.m., the 
wind was E. N. E. At 10 a.m., a ship near us, which we took 
to be the Guerrero, made a signal that she was leaky. A squall 
coming on we could make out no more, and we then lost sight 
of all ships 3 furled the close-reefed foresail, and lay-to under a 
mainsail -, the ship labouring very much. 

"From the I8th to the ^Oth, continued lying-to in the fborth 
quadrant ; f the weather still dark and increasing ; the wiad 
at N.E. 3 continued rain, with a heavy sea 3 kept two pumps 
constantly working. 

*'At 10 P.M., on the QOM, our tiller broke 3 secured the 
rudder 3 the ship sustaining heavy and repeated squalls, whilst 
she came up from the E. N. E. as far as E., as the wind veered 
round from the S. E. to the S. S. E. 

" Oct. 2l8t. By half-past four in the morning, the wind 
changing, made the ship come up head to sea. The ship then 
pitched away all her masts as well as her bowsprit, and with it 
lost the greater part of the cutwater. By the exertion of the 
officers and crew the wreck was cleared by six o'clock ; at this 
hour it began to clear up from the S. S. E. Lightened the 
decks of everything we could. The sea ran so high that 
were still unable to ship another tiller. 

* In the original, Al rum bo, N 10. f Del 4t.i cusdr&ate. 



NORTHS. 399 

^' At 11 A.M., set top -gallant-sails on the stumps of the main CHAP, 
and fore masts, and the sail of the launch on the stump of ^^^' 
the mizen, keeping her head to the N. E. At noon, latitude 
26° 42' N., longitude, 290° 9' E. of TeneriflFe -, longitude 86° 1 1' W. 
of Greenwich. 

*' Oct, 22nd. Commenced with less sea and wind. At daylight 
saw a large vessel ; we fired three guns, but she did not answer 
our signals. Got another tiller shipped ; prepared jury-masts 
and sails, but the ship would not wear, and we could not set 
them. At noon fell in with the brig Industria, which had 
received no damage, and we were the only vessel, excepting one, 
(name unknown) that she had fallen in with since the 17th; 
she had laid-to all the time. The Industria was ordered to 
keep along with the Admiral. In the evening spoke the trans- 
port St. John the Baptist -, she had not suffered much. 

" Oct, 23rd. At daybreak found ourselves close to the frigate 
Rosalia, the captain of which came on board. During the first 
four days of the storm the Rosalia lay-to, but on the fifth she 
scudded with her spritsail for a foresail. Towards the end of 
the storm, for eight hours, she was in a complete hurricane; 
her seams had opened, and she leaked both through the decks 
and sides. By the assistance of her boats we were enabled to 
wear the San Juan, after which we got up the jury-rigging. 

''The Admiral calling a council, it was determined upon 
returning to Havannah ; orders were therefore given to Captain 
Pereda (captain of the San Juan) to proceed to that port, and to 
conduct thither all the ships he should fall in with. The 
Admiral shifted his flag on board the Rosalia, leaving the San 
Juan rigging jury-masts, in latitude 27° 20' N., longitude 
291° 9' E. of Teneriffe ; longitude 89° 21' W. of Greenwich. 

"The Spanish Admiral then sailed for Pensacola; and, after 
cruising in that neighbourhood for some time without finding 
any of his ships, he left it; and on the l6th of November he 
reached the Tortuga soundings, which had been ordered as a 
point of rendezvous ; finding no vessels there, he sailed for 
Havannah, and arrived there on the 19th, and there found his 
fleet." 

It is stated in the journal that Admiral Solano 
wished to go to sea again ; but in this desire he was 
overruled by the superior officer commanding in the 



400 SOLANO's STORM, 1780. 

CHAP, island of Cuba. Having called for reports to be 

— made to him by tlie commanders of ships of war and 

frigates, giving an account of what each suffered 
during the storm, I have received extracts from these, 
made by order of the Spanish Government: but it is 
better that we sliould endeavour to trace recent storms 
than dwell on those of which little more information 
can now be obtained. I sliall, therefore, briefly state 
what befel some of the other ships whose places are 
marked in the figures inserted in page 395. 

The The journal of the Guerrero, for the first part of 

the storm, is nearly the same as the journal of the 
Admiral's ship; but this ship experienced the severest 
part of the hurricane with the wind blowing from the 
north. 

On tlie 20th their latitude was 25^ 57' N., and 
long. 91° 7' W. of Greenwich. The wind haviog 
then veered into the fourth quadrant (il 4*** cuadrante) 
they made for the Tortugas soundings, where they 
fell in with the San Juan, Velasco, and other dis- 
masted ships, and the Guerrero returned with them 
to Havannah. 

Th*» During the early part of the gale the Velaaco car- 

ried away a topsail, lier foresail, and fore-topmast 
staysail. During a part of the storm this ship scud- 
ded to the W. N.W., under bare poles, and therefore 
she probably had the wind from E.S.E. It blew in 
violent gusts, and during the night of the 18th she 
lost her main-topmast. At two in the morning, the 
sea and wind augmenting, the main and mizen masts 
went. On the 20th the fore-topmast went, and the 
rudder split diagonally. Tlie storm with the Velasco 
ended on the 22nd, the wind having veered from 



NORTHS. 401 

the first to the fourth quadrant They considered chap. 
themselves in lat. 24° V N., long. 88° 14' W. of J^ 
Greenwich. 

The Dragon carried her foresail throughout, and The 
reached lat. 25° 59' N., long. 88° 53' W. of Green- ^^"^^^ 
wich. 

The 18th9 the San Ramon, having no ship in TheSan 
sight, and unable to stand her course, scudded to 
the W. S. W. In one of the most violent squalls 
this vessel became water-logged; four pumps did 
not keep the water under, so that they were " inun- 
dated " between decks, and the whole crew were put 
to baleing. This ship, intended to batter the forts of 
Pensacola, was armed with heavy guns, and eleven 
of them were thrown overboard to lighten her. She 
was carried to lat. 24° 10' N., long. 90° 5' W. of 
Greenwich. 

The San Genaro, losing the fleet on the lUth, TheSan 
scudded under bare poles to the W. S. W. ; and 
during that day lost all three masts, one after the 
other. The storm with her ended oiP the 20th ; lat. 
23° 33' N., long. 87° 14' W. of Greenwich. 

The Astulo lost the storm on the 2l8t, in lat. The 

AituJO. 

26° 46', long. 89° 30', having run for some time 
N. W., under bare poles, and then lay-to. 

The Matilde at first lay-to under her mizen, but The 
afterwards bore up and scudded. The storm with 
her was most violent on the 19th ; at three o'clock 
she lost her foremast, and soon afterwards her main 
and mizen masts. The wind veered from £. to E.S.E. 
and S. E. ; and she lost the storm on the 21st, in 
lat. 26° 29' N., long. 88° 42'. 

Extracts from the journals of other ships have 

2d 



402 SOLANO S STORMy 1780. 

CHAP, been sent from Madrid ; but enough is already given 

L- to show that the wind veered in this storm as in 

other West Indian hurricanes. The paper conclades 
by stating that there were nineteen vessels missing : 
whether any of them were ever again heard of is 
not stated. 

By referring to the storms of 1837, and examining 
that one experienced by the Racer, it will be seen 
that the course of it was very similar to that of the 
storm met by Solano, just described; and both of 
them, in all probability, caused a northerly wind to 
blow on the shores of Mexico. 



403 



CHAPTER IX. 

ON STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

Having traced hurricanes to the fortieth degree of chap. 

. XI. 

north latitude, with their courses pointing in the '- — 

direction of the islands of the Azores and the con- 
tinent of Europe, we are naturally led to consider 
whether the gales of our own country partake also of 
a rotatory character ; and whether those of the corre- 
sponding latitudes in the other hemisphere revolve 
in the contrary direction. Whilst we pursue this 
subject, however, following it up as facts may lead us 
onward, we must not suppose the rotatory storm 
(though probably the greatest) is the only disturbing 
cause of the regular atmospheric currents; and we 
should bear in mind not to carry its application too far. 
The further we go from the equator, the more com- 
plicated this subject becomes ; and gales succeed each 
other so fast during our stormy season, that it is not 
easy to identify the particular storm we may wish to 
study. It has been shown, that the hurricanes which 
originate within the tropics increase in diameter, and 
diminish in force, as they proceed towards the poles ; 
and as the meridians approach each other the gales 
may become huddled together. They may, therefore, 
frequently neutralize each other, and become irregular. 
Their force, too, may often fall off, until the strength 
of the wind on that side of the circle where it blows 

2d2 



404 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, from east is unable to reverse the regular westerly 
^^' atmospheric current, and to convert it into a tem- 
porary easterly gale ; and this may be a reason why 
easterly storms are less frequent in botli hemispheres 
in the latitudes within which Great Britain is 
situated. 

What is here meant will be better understood by 
turning to the two figures at page 410. These two 
figures, which are intended to represent the manner in 
which great storms revolve in both hemispheres, will 
also serve to show that on the sides of the circles next 
the poles the wind always blows from the east ; and 
on the sides next the equator from the west. 

The wind's force on the polar sides of the figures 
may be expressed by the rotatory velocity diminished 
by that of the regular westerly atmospheric current ; 
and if they should be equal a calm would be the con- 
sequence ; on the contrary, the same atmospheric 
current would add its force to the westerly and oppo- 
site sides of the storms in both hemispheres. Within 
the tropics, however, the violence of the hurricanes is 
so great, that the difierence here alluded to b not 
perceptible. 

Circles have been used in illustration of the move- 
ments of progressive whirlwinds; but the ciures 
described are most likely not circles. It is mcae 
probable that they resemble the figures annexed, the 
degree of curvature altering with the rate of progress 
of the storms ; and this may be another cause why, 
in high latitudes, westerly winds, in storms, blow 
harder than easterly. These two figures will serve 
to explain what is here meant, and the manner in 
which squalls may, perhaps, revolve in Iwth hemi* 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 



405 



spheres, if, for the sake of illustration, we may suppose chap. 
them to be continuous. 



NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. 







^-Jl\ 




SOUTHERN HBMI8PHBRB. 



The Cause of the Barometer falling with a Southerly 
Wind in the Northern Hemisphere^ and with a 
Northerly Wind in the Southern Hemisphere^ ex- 
plairted. 

On the south coast of England, violent gales usually 
set in with the wind about south, or south-south-east, 
and veer by the west towards north-west. The baro- 
meter, falling at the commencement, rises as the wind 
becomes northerly. In the corresponding latitude in 
the southern hemisphere, this order, as regards both 
the wind and barometer, is reversed. 

Captain King, in his sailing directions for Terra Weather. 
del Fuego, says — 



406 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDBB. 

CHAP. '^ Gales of wind succeed each other at short inter- 

'-. . vals, and last several days. At times the weather 

is fine and settled for a fortnight; but those times 
arc few. 
wiiida. " Westerly winds prevail during the greater part of 

the year. The east wind blows chiefly in the winter 
months, and at times very hard ; but it seldom blows 
in summer. 
Eantfriy " Wiuds from thc eastern quarter invariably rise 
light, with fine weather ; they increase gradually, the 
weather* changes, and at times end in a determined 
heavy gale. More frequently they rise to the strength 
of a treble-reefed topsail breeze, then die away gradu- 
ally, or shift to another quarter. 
Ni.rih and " From the north the wind always begins to blow 
w1nd87"^ moderately, but with thicker weather and more clouds 
than from the eastward; and it is generally accom- 
panied by small rain. Increasing in strength, it 
draws to the westward gradually, and blows hardest 
between north and north-west, with heavy doads, 
thick weather, and much rain. 

^^When the fury of the north-wester is expended, 
which varies from twelve to fifty hours, or even while 
shift Bud- it is blowing hard, the wind sometimes skifis tuddmly 
south- into the south-west quarter, blowing harder than be- 
fore. This wind soon drives away the clouds, and in 
a few hours you have clear weather, but with heavy 
squalls passing occasionally. 

^' In the south-west quarter the wind hangs several 
days (generally speaking), blowing strong ; but mode- 
rating towards its end, and granting two or three days 
of fine weather. 

'' Northerly wiudr^ then begin again, generdly 



west. 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 407 

during the summer months ; but all maimer of shifts chap. 

and changes are experienced from north to south by ! 

the west during that season, which would hardly ^*^*^ 
deserve the name of summer, were not the days so »^in^CT. 
much longer, and the weather a little warmer. Rain 
and wind prevail much more during the long than 
the short days. 

*^ It should be remembered, that bad weather never 
comes on suddenly from the eastward; neither does a 
south-west or southerly gale shift suddenly to the 
northward. South-west and southerly winds rise 
suddenly and violently ; and must be well considered 
in choosing anchorages, and preparing for shifts of 
wind at sea. 

^^The most usual weather in these latitudes is a Common 

weather. 

fresh wind between north-west and soudi-west, with a 
cloudy overcast sky. 

" Much difference of opinion has prevailed as to the ^"ometer 

* * and aym- 

utility of a barometer in these latitudes. I can only pi«ometer. 
say, that during twelve months' constant trial of a 
barometer and sympiesometer (Adie's) I found their 
indications of the utmost value. Their variations do 
not, of course, correspond to those of middle latitudes; 
but they correspond to those of high northern latitudes 
in a remarkable manner, changing south for north 
(east and west remaining the same).'* 

Captain King makes also the following remarks on 
the same subject : — 

" The mercury stands lowest with north-west winds, 
and highest with south-east. With the wind at north- 
west, or northerly, the mercury is low : if it falls to 
29 inches, or to 28.80, a south-west gale may be ex- 
pected ; but it does not commence until the column ftas 



408 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, ceased to descend. It frequently, however, falls witli- 

— out being followed by this change/' 

Horsburgh, in speaking of the winds of the South 
Atlantic, about latitude SS"" and 39^ says, '* Although 
here the westerly winds prevail during niost months 
of the year, they are often very unsettled, completing 
a revolution round the horizon, coincident with the 
course of the sun, every two, three, or four days, 
with intervening calms, particularly when the wind 
is in the south-west quarter." • • • • And in a 
note he says,* "When cloudy weather accompanies 
these northerly or north-west winds, there is a risk 
of a sudden shift to south-west or south : this happened 
to H.M.S. Bristol, to the Queen, and to us in the 
Anna, in January, 1800. We were in latitude 31® S., 
long. 22^ W. : had run 230 miles in the preceding 
twenty-four hours ; and, with steering-sails set, were 
running at the rate of ten or eleven miles an hour, 
when, at 9 p.m., in a shower, the wind shifted from 
the north-west to the south -south -west in an instant, 
taking us a-back. We lost all the light sails and 
booms, and the ship's head was thrown jound against 
the north-west sea before the sails were trimmed, 
which made her plunge bowsprit and forecastle ander. 
" Off the south coast of Terra Australis the progress 
of the gales is usually this : the barometer falls to 29.5 
inches or lower, and the wind rises from the north- 
west, with thick weather, commonly with rain; it 
veers gradually to the west, increasing in strength, 
and when it veers to the southward of that point the 
weather begins to clear up; at south-west the gak 
blows hardest, and the barometer rises ; and by the 

* East India Sailing Directory, vol. i. p. 67, second editkm. 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 409 

time the wind ffets to south or south-south-east it chap. 

IX. 

becomes moderate, with fine weather, and the baro '- — 

meter about 30 inches."* 

Professor Dove, of BerKn, aware of what is here 
stated, viz., that storms set in, in the southern henii- 
spbere, from the opposite quarter to that in which 
they commence in the northern, proposed a theory 
to explain the cause, in an octavo volume, published 
in German ; a portion of which will be found trans- 
lated in Nos. 67 and 68 of the "London and 
Edinburgh Journal of Science." Professor Dove, in 
support of this fact, quotes reports from various 
authorities, from which the following are copied : — 

" 1 • I am indebted to the kindness of Captain Wendt, who 
sailed round the world several times as commander of the 
Prussian ship Princess Louise, in answer to an inquiry ad- 
dressed to him, for the following notice : — 

'* * The wind in the southern hemisphere usually turns from 
north through west to south and south-east. Its direction 
consequently is contrary to that of the wind in the northern 
hemisphere. To the best of my knowledge the fact is nearly as 
follows : near the Cape of Good Hope in summer the wind is 
chiefly south-east, but if the wind turns northerly it is then 
more violent. When the best summer months are at an end, 
after a calm of short duration, the wind usually blows very 
moderately from south-east, with an unusually clear sky. The 
wind is continually increasing, whenever it turns easterly ^ and 
if it has turned to the north, clouds and lightning are sure to 
appear on the western horizon, and in less than half an hour a 
storm from west-north-west will ensue, and will not cease until, 
after 24 or 48 hours, it has veered more to the south. 

" ' Near Cape Horn, both to the east and west, with a north 
wind there is generally good weather ; when it veers to the 
north-west it soon blows hard; with a west-north-west to south- 
west it usually blows a storm (which is also frequently the case 
from west-north-west and north-west). The wind subsides as 
it becomes southerly. South-south-east fine weather, frequently 
succeeded by a calm.* 

* East India Sailing Dirsctory, toI. i. p. 07, second edition. 



410 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 



CHAP. 
IX. 



'' 2. jEthiopic Sea.— {he Gentil.) ' On the 35th and Mth wc 
experienced a kind of gust (coup de vent) from north to south- 
west by west 5 and I remarked a fact, which yon have had 
opportunity of observing more frequently than myaelfj that the 
winds do not follow the same rule in this hemisphere aa m the 
northern hemisphere; physicists have hitherto given no ex- 
planation of this phenomenon.* *' * 



If we project two circles to represent rotatory gales, 
one for each hemisphere, and draw lines across these 
circles, which shall be in the direction of the last 



NOBTBBBN HEMISPHBKB. 




SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 



* Article entitled Professor Dove's Outliucs uf a General Thenryof 
Winds, in *• Brewster's Journal of Science," toI. zi. p. 233. 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDBS. 411 

* 

portions of the tracks of the storms traced on Charts chap. 

VII. and VIII., but in both figures on the side next '- — 

to the equator, being that on which the wind is 
always westerly ; and if we suppose these two circles 
to revolve as the ^toms did which are represented on 
Charts VII. and VI 11., then the lines drawn across 
theae figures wiU show the veering of the wind in 
high latitudes of the two hemispheres. They will 
^Iso explain the reason why the barometer usually 
l^^ns to fall with a southerly wind in the northern 
hemisphere ; and with a northerly wind in the southern 
liemisphere. In these figures, the spear-heads mark 
the courses of the storms, and the sides which first 
sMrrive at each place they would pass over. 

In high latitudes the veering is often not com* wind 
pleted, before the wind backs to near the point from 
whence the gale had commenced, and in such in- 
stances the wind often blows harder than before. A 
succession of storms, which all revolve in the same 
way, following closely upon each other, might pro- 
duce this effect ; and something approaching to this 
consequence may be seen on Chart VII,, where two 
stomas nearly meet: but my desire, throughout this 
investigation, has been to avoid theory or hypothesis, 
and to confine myself to collecting and arranging 
facts, and to observing the consequences to which they 
lead. In an attempt made to procure sufficient in- 
formation relative to the storms of our own country, 
I have received the most liberal and I'eady support 
frpm various quarters: the Trinity Board having 
furnished observations from the lighthouses in all 
parts of the kingdom, and the Comptroller-General 



l>acking. 



412 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, of the Coast Guard.* and the officers under him, 

IX. * 

contributing much useful information ; but the whole 

length of our kingdom, from the Scilly to the Shet- 
land Islands, is not equal to the diameter of the storm 
traced on Chart VII., and the breadth of Great 
Britain and Ireland is still less so. 

The attempt alluded to was to ascertain the nature 
of the gales of February, 1838; particularly a storm 
which was severe, from the south-east quarter, in 
Ireland and on the west of Scotland. The report 
received from the Irish lighthouses possesses the 
great advantage of having the wind's force denoted 
by numbers : a denoting a calm, and 12 a hurri- 
cane ; and iu the tables, which will be found at the 
end of this chapter, numbers have been substituted 
for the expression of the wind's strength in words. 
The state of the weather is denoted by letters, and an 
explanation of these will be found at the end o( the 
next chapter. 

Where the height of the barometer is wanting in 
the English and Irish tables, it has been in part 
supplied from the Coast Guard reports. 

By referring to the report from Cape Clear lightr 
house (pp. 424, 5), it will be seen that a storm set in 
there on the 13th of February. 

On the 12th the wind's force is marked . . 8, 

On the 13th it is marked 11, 

On the 14th 12, 

and on the 15th its force removed the stone-coping 
of the lighthouse ; but from that time it appean by 
the report to have begun to diminish. 

* Captain Bowles, K.X. 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 413 

If we compare the reports, we find, on the 14th, chap. 

the wind's force in Shetland is marked 4, and at the '. — 

Pentland Firth only 1 ; at Greenwich it is marked 2, 
and on the coast of Northumberland a calm. On the 
16th the revenue cruiser Swift, at sea, between Cum- 
bray and Rothsay Bay, on the west coast of Scotland, 
reports the weather calm and cloudy between 1 1 a.m. 
and 2 p.m. on that day ; and the first indications of 
/the storm were felt by the Swift between 2 and 4 of 
the same afternoon. 

On the 15th the wind also removed the coping- 
stones from the lighthouse at Maiden Rocks, on the 
north coast of Ireland, its force being marked 10 ; but 
the ftirther to the eastward we examined the wind the 
less we find its force becomes. At the same date, at 
Greenwich, though easterly, it is only marked 6 ; and 
at Heligoland, on the same day, a strong breeze. By 
comparing the reports, the gale is found to make a 
gradual northerly progress ; as, for example, at Pent- 
land Skerries, the force on the 15th is marked I, but 
on the 16th it is reported 8. 

Thus the scope afforded by Great Britain and Ire- 
land being too limited for this inquiry, application was 
made to Admiral Sir John Ommaney, commanding on 
the Lisbon station, from whom I have received every 
assistance he could afford. By the reports from the 
ships under his command, we find, on the 14th of 
Fpbruary, when the storm was blowing violently at 
Cape Clear lighthouse at south-easty that the Camelion 
was lying-to in a hard gale off* Oporto, with the wind 
at south-west. On the 15th the Camelion ran into the 
harbour of Vigo. By midnight on the 16th there was 
moderate weather, with the wind west-north-west ; and 



414 STORMS IN HIGH LATirrnEs. 

CHAP, next day light southerly breezes. A meteorological 
.^^ report from the flag-ship in the Tagus contains a state- 
ment nearly similar, and is annexed. 

The Bellerophon and Iberia steamer were at Gib- 
raltar, and the Magicienne in the Bay of Cadiz. At 
Gibraltar the wind was light on the 7th, and the wea- 
ther cloudy until seven in the evening, when it set in 
to blow hard ; and on the 12th the Belleroph(m was 
driven on shore. At Cadiz, by the Magicienne's log, 
the wind blew from south-west and west during this 
period ; but at Gibraltar it was more variable, beii^ 
south-south-east, south-south-west, and north-west. On 
the 14th, 15th, and following days, the Magicienne*s 
log reports the weather at Cadiz as being moderate ; 
and, in proof of this, during each of these days that 
frigate was enabled to loose her sails. 

The Iberia steamer left Gibraltar on the 9ih, was at 
Cadiz on the 10th, and came out again the same day: 
from that time to the 14th, when she entered LisboD, 
she was off* that coast in heavy gales of wind varying 
from south-west to west-north-west. This looks as if 
it were the same storm there ; having also a northerly 
progression. 

At the time the Bellerophon was driven on shore 
at Gibraltar, with the wind at south-west, the Athol 
troop-ship, in lat. 27° N., long. 36° W., returning 
from Mauritius, was then about south-west of Aat 
place, having at the time light and variable winds, and 
the day before the Athol was becalmed. As she sailed 
north the wind freshened, and became west-north-west 
and north-west, with squalls ; but the weather was not 
bad. 

s^Tn. Ky I^loyd's printed reports it appears that a ship, 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 415 

called the Swan (Errington, Master), sailed from Cork chap. 
for Jamaica on the 11th, when the wind was easterly ' 

both at Cork and at Cape Clear lighthouse ; yet this 
ship returned to Cork on the 19th, in consequence of 
meeting a gale at south-west and south-south-west, so 
heavy that she was obliged to throw part of her cargo 
overboard. 

I have been informed by Mr. Yarrell that a great Effect of 

undula- 

many of the Red-band-fish (Cibola rubescens), as well tions on 

the bed of 

as various tribes of the genus Labrus, which inhabit the sea. 
only the bottom of the sea, and are rarely seen, were 
cast on shore on the coast of Cornwall during this gale. 
This was supposed to be occasioned by the effect of the 
surfiELce undulations being transmitted by degrees to 
the bottom. A similar effect, but one of a greater 
degree, is described in the late Sir Gilbert Blane's let- 
ter to Dr. Hunter, speaking of the hurricane of 1 780, 
printed at page 347. 

What has been here stated is not sufficient to prove 
satisfactorily that the gale during the middle of Feb- 
ruary was rotatory, although this south-east storm of 
Ireland, and of the west of Scotland, does not appear 
to have come as a storm from the south-east ; nor the 
south-west gales of Gibraltar from the south-west, since 
the Athol was becalmed in that quarter. 

When the first edition of this work was published 
I had not been able to procure the log-books of the 
squadron on the north coast of Spain under the orders 
of Lord John Hay. These vessels, at anchor in the 
harbour of Passages, at the bottom of the Bay of Bis- 
cay, should have had the wind from south, but more 
moderate than in Ireland. The log-book of the North 
Star, the Commodore's ship, has now been procured. 



416 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHA.P. and it proves that the wind changed,. and it became 
' south for two days, and then became south-west. The 
following is au extract from the log-book of the North 
Star, lying in Passages Harbour : — 

" 12th February . . . Wind south; light winds, and fine. 



13 th 


• 


. . — south; moderate, with rain a 
times. 


14th 


^*^ • 


. . — S.W. J moderate and fine. 


15th 


**^"" 


— S.W.; A.M. ditto; P.M. fwd 

breezes and squally. 


16th 


• 


. . — S.W. ; fresh breezes and sqiudly. 


17th 




. . . — S.W. J moderate, with rain." 



The annexed diagram of the British Isles is intended 
to show what the veering of the wind would be in 
these islands during a rotatory storm of great diameter, 
moving in a north-north-east direction, with its centre 
passing on the westward side of Ireland and the western 
isles of Scotland. By examining this figure it will be 
seen that in Ireland such a storm would set in about 
south-east, that it would veer more and more towards 
south-west, and end with the wind about west ; so that 
this diagram will serve, almost without alteration^ to 
represent the storm just described, and to explain the 
veering of the wind in many of the gales which pass 
over Great Britain and Ireland. 

The dotted portions of concentric circles show the 
way such a storm would set in, whilst those marked 
by continuous curved lines represent the storm pass- 
ing off; the right-hand side of it passing over Great 
Britain. The influence of such a storm might be felt 
much beyond the limits of the curves as drawn in the 
diagram. Thus it might change a north-west wind 
to a south-east one, as far as Heligoland, which hap- 
pened in February, 1837, as may be seen by turning 



BRITISH ISLANDS. . 417 

to the Lighthouse reports of the weather for that chap- 
penod. 

When we look at a globe, and examine the true 
figure of the earth and water, we see how very much 
the Atlantic narrows between Greenland and Norway. 
If land in any way influences the course of storms, 
it is possible the centres of a great number of the 
Atlantic storms may pass between these two countries. 
It will be curious to know the truth of this, which is 
at present little more than mere hypothesis. If cor- 
rect, north-easterly storms must be the most frequent 
gales at Labrador and Greenland ; but whether these 
really are the prevailing winds there I am not in- 
formed. 

In studying the subject, and consulting the figures, 
it should be borne in mind that the squalls, particu- 
larly those of high latitude, in all probability, do not 
follow curves so regular as the figures represent. 

The greatest difficulty in the inquiry is, in getting Value of 
the logs of merchant ships, which have hitherto been log-bookB. 
considered of no value after the accounts for the voy- 
ages to which they relate are settled. Sometimes 
they are retained by the masters, at other times by 
the brokers ; and no doubt they are often destroyed. 
Whilst procuring information I found that a proposal Proposal 
had long since been made, by a Captain in the service ^ernng 
of the East India Company,* to preserve the log- *™* 
books of merchant ships, and to deposit them, when no 
longer required by the masters or merchants, in some 
public building, where they might be referred to. If 
this were done at the principal commercial ports, by 
agreement amongst the merchants, each port keeping 

* Captain Geddes. 
2 E 




418 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, its own, and placing the log-books together in a dep6t 
__JJ__ where they might be examined, then the further pur- 
suit of this inquiry would be made comparatively 
easy; and the log-books of ships in all probability 
would assume, as meteorological reports, a high d^ree 
of importance. 

The registers of the weather kept at the lighthouses 
afford a means of obtaining much information on this 
subject; and, if different countries would exchange 
reports, such observations would become of great use. 
On our own coasts the revenue cruisers have the means 
of making good reports. 

Our numerous colonies, and the islands we possess 
in various seas, could furnish information from fixed 
points on shore ; and these, combined with the reports 
contained in the log-books of ships, would afford very 
great means for determining whether or not the courses 
which storms pursue are as uniform as they appear to 
be. Much information respecting the weather is also 
transmitted, from all parts of the world to which British 
commerce extends, by the agents and correspondents 
of Lloyd's Society. But, to render all such information 
useful for meteorological purposes, it requires to be 
arranged ; and it might be printed periodically. 

Of Mr. Luke Howard's work, entitled 'The Climate 
of London,' two volumes are entirely occupied by 
recording facts collected during many years. The fol- 
lowing passage extracted from it bears directly on the 
subject of this chapter : — 

'' Corresponding Opposite Currents in the Atmosphere, 
" ()u the 30th October, 18*23, at Grcneva, it was very warm, 
the thermometer at 59° F. j but in the following night there 
a remarkable change of temperature. A very strong gale 
on, with much rain ; and, towards morning, snow on the moan- 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 419 

tains round the lake down to one thousand eight hundred feet CHAP, 
elevation. The thermometer fell to 38-6° F. ^* 

" On the coast of Bretagne^ and in the counties of Wilts, ' 

Bucks, Bedford, Oxon, &c.^ there was in the same night a great 
storm of wind, with torrents of rain. On the morning of the 
31st of October the hills round Salisbury were covered with 
snow, which near Devizes^ &c., was said to be drifted four or five 
feet deep. 

" The remarkable part of this case is, the opposite directions of 
the wind during the storm. At Geneva, on the 29th, 30th, and 
31st of October, it is stated to have been constantly south-west. 
In England it was north-east, or even verging to north ; yet the 
same depressure of temperature obtained in both situations. 

" So far M. de Luc, who writes to the editors of the BibL 
Univ. for November, 1823. I may add, that having fallen in 
with a gentleman from Halifax, Nova Scotia, he informed me, 
that, during the gale above mentioned, the vessel in which he 
came, being then in the midst of the Atlantic, one thousand miles 
from Britain, had fine weather, with a strong westerly wind, 
which brought them to Falmouth 3 but attended with so great a 
swell from north-east as to occasion a remark by the Captain, 
that he was persuaded there must have been a great storm in 
that direction. The northerly gale, therefore, spent its fury on 
the ocean west of Britain ; and the neighbouring continent was 
subjected merely to the counter current from the southward, 
which yet must have descended from a colder tract of atmo- 
sphere above.** — Vol. iii. page 127. 

Whatever the phenomenon may be which has the 
power to cause such gyrations, it may originate new 
disturbances within the expanded limits of storms 
diminished to a breeze; and this, in high latitudes, 
may be another reason for the complicated nature of 
the winds in Great Britain. 

When gales diminish to strong breezes, and become 
no longer dangerous, they cease to be noticed in the 
shipping reports, and therefore we can trace them no 
further. 

The following Tables relate to the gales of Feb- 
ruary, 1838. 2 E 2 




420 






STOnMS 


IN 


HIOH 


LATITUDEB. 








CHA-P. 












IX. 






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421 
CHAP. 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 





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424 STORMS IN HIQH LATITUDES. 

CHAP. 





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425 

CHAP. 



»TOHHS IN illOH LATtTUDEB. 



Her Majcaty'e Ship Donegal's Meteorok^cal Jonnisl, 
in the River Tagtu, Feb. 1838. 







Wind*. 


1 


D.r 


8 




8 ■ S 


1 


8 




l.H 


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29.73 


V«ui.bk 


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2 60 


69 


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29.93 


Variable 


Light sin ud hur/ 


3 1 61 


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60 '99.92 


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29.80 


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66 


68 29.70 


29.68 


29.68 


Light ain ud fin*. 


5 fiO 


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29.50 


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A3i. SqB^y. withnfat. 


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Mtinaa. 
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60 


eo 29.47 


29.42 


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SWe>t" 
















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67 


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68 


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69 .20.20 


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29.42 


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29.17 


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BSB 


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29.30 


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69 


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69 


29.10 
20.60 


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29.59 


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29.61 


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WciieH' 


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61 


at .29.76 


29.76 


2978 


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29.60 


29.64 


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la 


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29.63 


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Light hreeuaud Am. 


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60 


62 


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DUio. 


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29.61 


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59 


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29.10 8 W 
















P.M.a«.T,.la..lAiiiL 


24 


61 


SB 


67 


29.20 


29.31 


29.21 WSW 




25 


61 


66 


.53 29.03:29.03 


M.IO NTVtoW 


Frab galea, vilh hM*T 














-mdlTfromWNW. 




65 


56 


66 '29.20'29.26 


19.11 


NW 


Squally, with beavynia. 


37 


67 


66 


57 


29.41 29.11 29.44 


Why S 


SquaUy, with tain. 


28 


6.'i 


57 


50 


2B.31 29.36 29.36 


W S W 


A.M. Ht«*r aqvdil tt 
wind, rain, thaadv, and 

lightning. 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 427 

It is upon the European side of the Atlantic that chap. 

attention should now principally be directed, in order ! 

to ascertain the usual course of storms. That which 
follows is printed with a view to induce inquiry into 
the gales of Europe. 

On the 11th of October, 1838, a very violent storm, stonnin 

Scotl&nd. 

which was called a hurricane, passed over Scotland ; 
and it is remarkable, inasmuch as its progress was to- 
wards the southward of east, and consequently coming 
from the northward of west : the progression appeared 
to be gradual. There was nothing unusual in the 
weather in the south of England on the 11th and 12th 
of October; but early on the 13th the wind at Ports- 
mouth set in with squalls, commencing at north-west, 
veering towards north, — an unusual circumstance, 
which led me to believe that a gale to the northward 
of us might be passing on a south-easterly course ; and 
the snow which fell at intervals, during the squalls in 
the afternoon, strengthened this opinion, which subse- 
quent accounts confirmed. 

It will be a very curious and interesting part of this Cause for 

1 !• T 1 r changes of 

inquiry to ascertain hereafter, it the nature of storms tempera- 
should become better understood, whether the great 
alterations in the temperature of the air, particularly 
in the winter season, be not frequently caused by the 
rotation of a great extent of the atmosphere. Thus, 
for example, circular storms of a thousand miles dia- 
meter, as they approach Great Britain, would bring to 
us part of the atmosphere of the Azores ; and may, 
perhaps, cause us to have the thermometer in the early 
part of December standing as high as 60°, which often 
occurs. On the contrary, if we suppose a storm coming 
to Great Britain from the direction of Labrador, with a 



^^^^ 



428 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, progression somewhat southerly, we may conceive a 

' very sudden alteration in the temperature likely to take 

Early faU place, and that in our winter months it would cover the 

of mow. ^ . , 

country with snow. 

The progression of this gale, which passed over 
Scotland on the 11th of October, 1838, coming from 
the northward of west, and moving somewhat to the 
southward of east, seems to have been the cause of 
snow falling so early in the year as the 1 3th of October 
in the south of England. 
Eflfect of The chain-bridge at Montrose was broken by this 

stormB on ^ ^ ^ •' 

chain- storm. This bridffe was visited soon afterwards by 

bridges. ^ ^ ^ 

Colonel Pasley, of the Royal Engineers, who made the 
following remarks upon the subject : — 
Montooee « The suspension-bridge of Montrose was inspected 
by me soon after it was blown up by the hurricane of 
the 11th of October. It was blown up from below, it 
being, like our English roofs, rather resting by its 
own weight than secured against hurricane action. 
The bridge at Montrose had nothing to stiffen it 
longitudinally in a vertical direction. Iron transverse 
beams, supported by the rods, had two tiers of planking 
over them, and a light railing on each side, like that 
of a common balcony. The suspension-bridge at 
Hammersmith, on the contrary, has railing of strong 
iron posts, and the rest of wood, on each side ; and 
two longitudinal sets of king-post trusses on each 
side of the carriage-way and between it and the foot- 
paths." 
Brighton Previous to this period Brighton chain-pier had been 
pier. twice broken by the force of the wind : this occurred 
the second time during the gale of the 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1836. Having witnessed the effect of the wind 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 



upon it until the fracture took place, I endeavoured c 
immediately afterwards to record the appearance, by _ 
sketches, from which the two following woodcuts have 
been reduced. The roadway of the pier gave way half 
an hour after midday of the 29th of November ; about 
which time Mr. Osier's anemometer recorded the pres- 
sure caused by the wind's force at Birmingham as 
equal to Hi lbs. on the square foot: the barometer at 
Greenwich had sunk to 29*24; the wind's force there 
being denoted by Hi. 

There was a double motion in the Brighton pier, 
for both chains and roadway oscillated laterally and 
undulated longitudinally; but the latter movement 
increased greatly, whilst the former diminished just 
before the fracture took place. It was, perhaps, owing 
to this double motion that half the upper part of the 
roadway (at J), and half the under part (at a), were 
visible to the spectators at the same instant. 



429 

HAP. 
IX. 



leuyfL '2(i5/^' 




ST0RM3 IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

As soon as the side-rails gave way the undulatiooi 
greatly iDcreased, aod almost immediately afterwards 
the roadway broke. It was remarked at the time that, 
had the side railing been a trussed rail, in all proba- 
bilily the pier would have withstood the force of the 
storm.* 

Mr. Reodell, the civil engineer, employed by Govern- 
ment to repair the chain-bridge at Montrose, having 
been so good as to send me drawings of the way in 
which he proposed to truss the bridge to prevent a 
recurrence of the same misfortune, woodcuts of Mr. 
Reodell's design are here inserted; for the effect o( 
the wind on these beautiful structures does not appear 
always to have been sufficiently considered. It will be 
seen the trussed rail, proposed by Mr. Rendell, passes 
below the bridge as well as above it. 

Longiivdinal Section of Mr, Rmd^* Tnuttd Bail /or MmfroM Brit^ 




• I'rbCGMional I'apcn of the Roytl Engineer*, »oI. i. p. IDS. 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 



431 



Transverse Section of Half the Roadway and One Foolpaih, 



CHAP. 
IX. 



1 




Transverse Section showing Cross bracing at every 35 feet below the Roadway. 




A storm which passed over England on the 28th a storm 

and 29th of October, 1838, is one of much interest, came from 

From the information collected it appears to have been west, 
proceeding on a course somewhat to the eastward 



Ik 



432 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, of north, and therefore coming from the westward of 

' south. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon of Sunday, the 

28th, it was calm at Portsmouth. The breeze which 
existed previous to the calm had left the vanes point- 
ing: (Tom the west. I observed them turn suddenly 
and to the opposite quarter, whilst the smoke from the 

neighbouring chimneys also showed that a decided 
change of wind had taken place. By 4 o'clock the 
sky, which had been clear, became overcast, and from 
that time all the appearances of the atmosphere indi- 
cated the approach of bad weather. The wind rose, 
passed blowing from the eastward of souths and soon became 
England, squally. The squalls increased, the wind veering to 
the south, and then towards west; and between 10 
and 1 1 at night its violence at Portsmouth was veiy 
great. It continued increasing in force until about 
two in the morning of the 29th, at which time it was 
alarming, and appeared at its height. After daylight 
the wind continued to veer towards west-north-west, 
and the barometer rapidly rose. By the log-books of 
H. M. S. Etna it appears that she was in sight of the 
Needles at daylight of the 28th, and at noon she was 
becalmed. Between 4 and 5 in the afternoon she was 
working up to Spitliead with tlie wind at east-soath- 
east; the wind's force, by Captain Beaufort's scale, 
being marked 4. The barometer had descended from 
29*70 to 29*44. Between 7 and 8 p.m. the wind was 
south ; and at midnight it is marked west-south-west. 
By the Etna's log its force at 3 in the morning is 
expressed by the number 9. 

From a statement in the Exeter newspaper, appa- 
rently made by an experienced observer, the barometer 
at 2 P.M. of the 28th was observed to be as low as 



IX. 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 433 

29.28y and the air to be saturated with vapour. In c ha p. 
the evening the barometer continued to fall rapidly, _ 
and at 9 p.m. it was at 28.29, with squalls And heavy 
showers of rain. At 1 in the morning the wind was 
at its highest force : the barometer then standing at 
28.7. At this hour, at Exeter, the wind 'suddenly 
shifted with great force from nearly south to west. 
At 2 A.M., on the 29th, the barometer had risen to 
28.b2, and by 10 o'clock it was as high as 29.27, 
when the gale was nearly over. 

An extract of a letter addressed to me by Captain 
Pringle, R.E., the circumstances therein detailed having 
been communicated by Captain Allen, of the Adelaide, 
states that *^ the Adelaide and Leith steamers were 
together off Flamborough Head, 28th October, 1838. 
Wind north and by west, a hurricane. The Adelaide 
stood south-south-west, and the gale lasted three hours; 
the Leith, north-north-east (out to sea), and was ten 
hours in the gale." 

By the following reports from Lloyd's list, the 
centre of the storm seemed to have passed over Port 
Talbot and Milford, and from thence proceeded nearly 
in the direction of Hull : — 

" Port Talbot, 29th Oct. — It blew a heavy gale at south-east 
last night, which shifted suddenly to north-west at 2 a.m., and 
blew a perfect hurricane for about an hour. The coasters in 
the port all broke adrift, but no material damage was done.'* 

'' Milford, 29th Oct. — Yesterday the wind was moderate at 
south-east; at 12 last night it flew to west, and blew a perfect 
hurricane for five hours.*' 

"Hull, 29th Oct. — 11.15 a.m. Yesterday the wind backed 
to south-east and east-south-east, and blew strong till this 
morning, when it got round to the westward, blowing very 
heavy ; — at 6 a.m. it flew round in a heavy squall to north ; but 
has since backed to west-north-west, blowing hard." 

2 F 




434 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP. In the "Nautical Magazine" for February, 1839, 

further details relative to this storm may be seen. 

At Dublin the wind became ecLsUnorth^asL The 
whole evidence indicates the storm being of a rotatory 
nature, although the veering of the wind in the left- 
hand semicircle was not regular. This in high lati- 
tudes will probably often prove to be the case. 
Gave a No incidents connected with this storm are more 

foul wind , 

to the interesting than those which befell two great steam 
ships in their passage to America. One, the Liver- 
pool, had sailed from her port some days before 
the storm. She had gained the 46^ of lat., and 
20'' 60' of long., and there on the 27th of October 
meeting a violent storm, was forced to put back to 
and a fair Cork. The Other steam ship was the Great Western, 
Great which Sailed at three o'clock in the afternoon of the 
day preceding the storm. Much anxiety was natu- 
rally felt for her safety, no accounts of her having 
reached England until the arrival of a ship, called the 
Pearl, which met the Gi-eat Western on the 29th, 
in lat. dO^ N., and in long. 11^ W. As she bad by 
that time made good progress, there was reason for 
supposing she must have had the storm at east, and 
consequently by being more to the northward, had 
fallen into the left-hand semicircle of the gale, which 
would be to her a fair wind for America. The follow- 
ing letter was received from the secretary of the Steam 
Navigation Company, to which she belonged, relative 
to this subject, on the ship's return, and is a document 
of much interest and importance :— 

'' Bristol, 13th Dec.. 1838. 
'' Dear Sir, — On leaving King*8 Road at 3 p.m.. 27th October. 
the wind was west-south-west, blowing strong and squally. 



Western. 



MEDITERRANEAN STORMS. 435 

** On the morning of the 28th^ wind west-north-west^ and mo- CHAP, 
derate, ftdling to a cakn by noon ; from noon the wind rose in ^' 
sudden gosts from the southward, gradually drawing to the east- 
ward until 8 p.m., when it blew a gale at east, with very heavy 
squalls and confused high sea to midnight, when the wind had gra- 
duBlly drawn to north-east ; from that time to eight in the morning 
of the 29th, the wind gradually shifted to west-north-west against 
the sun, blowing very hard all the time ; it then moderated. 

(Signed) ''C. CLAXTON. 

" Great Western Steam Ship Office, 
36, Princes-street.*' 

In the lighthouse reports from Scotland, the wind 
on the 29th of October, 1838, is marked " Variable*' 
at most of the stations ; at some easterly, and at a few 
on the north-west course, westerly. The force of the 
wind in most is marked moderate, or light. 

It deserves to be remarked, that by the same reports 
on the 27th October, it had been blowing strong from 
the west. If it be admitted that the storm, the course 
of which was over the north of England, was a rota- 
tory storm, the left-hand semicircle would pass over 
Scotland with the wind easterly. But the westerly 
gale which just previously prevailed, would, as it 
encountered the easterly storm, tend to neutralize its 
effect, and perhaps be the cause of variable and fluc- 
tuating winds. By referring to the reports from 
Heligoland lighthouse, the same storm appears to 
have been there on the 29th and 30th of October. 



Mediterranean Storms. 

Inquiries into the storms of the Mediterranean pos- 
sess an interest peculiar to themselves, from classical as 
well as from sacred history. The violent east or Levant 
winds, in all probability, will be found to be storma 

2f2 



436 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, coming from the south-west ; and they may sometimes 

! also originate to the southward of the Sahara. We 

may be enabled to account for the peculiar sensations 
felt in the Mediterranean during the prevalence of 
certain winds, and to ascertain the cause of the sirocco. 
It is stated in different books of sailing directions that 
the sand of Africa has been observed to be carried ht 
into the Atlantic by the wind. 

Should it be ascertained that the storms of the 
Mediterranean have a northerly progression, it may be 
found that they sometimes carry with them impalpable 
powder from the deserts. When the brig of war 
Ferret was in the Mediterranean, a few years ago, her 
commander, Captain Thomas Hastings, collected a 
fine sand from the shrouds and rigging during a 
sirocco wind. This fact, and the statement whida 
follows, will, I trust, induce those who have the oppor- 
tunity for observation further to investigate into this 
part of the subject. 
The following communication is from Dr. Davy : — 

" Fort Pitt, Chatham, Dec. 25, 18S8. 
" The phenomena respecting which yon have applied to ok 
occurred at Malta on the 15th of May, 18S0. The dost 
conveyed by a sirocco, or south-easterly wind. On tlie 
day, and about the same time of the day, a similar dott lidl at 
Utica, over a considerable portion of Sicily, and in Sardinia; dso 
accompanied with a south-east wind. I examined two or three 
different specimens of it collected in Malta, and a small quuitiqr 
which was brought from Palma Bay, by the late Hon. Sir Robert 
Spencer, which had fallen on the deck of his ship, the Madagas- 
car ^ and I found them all agreeing in appearance and chemical 
composition. In Italy, in many places, the phenomemm was 
also witnessed. Here it appeared to have occurred a day or two 
later. The opinion I formed at the time was, that the dust nught 
have been raised from the desert of Africa by a wkirlwmd, 
up to a great height, and then be driven and spread over a 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 437 

• 

iurftice. At Malta when it began to fall there was a luU^ the CHAP, 
violence of the storm having ceased. I could not learn that it ^' 
had fallen on the decks of any vessels close in on the AMcan 
shore, or on the African coast. On Etna it is said that the dust 
fell less abundantly than on lower situations in Sicily. It certainly 
was not derived from Etna, as was at first supposed. What I have 
mentioned I believe may be depended on, being given from the 
notes taken at the time, and to which I have referred. 

(Signed) " JOHN DAVY. 

" Lieut.-Col. Reid, Royal Engineers." 



The Storms of 1838. 

The first intelligence of a severe storm on the Ameri- 
can coast in September, 1838, was brought to England 
by the Montreal, New York packet, commanded by 
Captain GriflSng. She left New York on the 13th of 
September. A violent gale had set in on the 10th, 
blowing at first from north-east^ ''and, on the wind 
veering more to the northward^ this ship, with the 
Sheffield, for Liverpool, slipped away." 

According to the theory of storms, these vessels, after 
putting to sea from New York for England, should 
have had the wind veering towards west^ and conse- 
quently for them a fair wind. I have not been able to 
procure their log-books. 

The storm above alluded to, however, has been 
clearly traced in its course, from the Bahama Islands 
along the coast of America; and the reports made 
by the officers in command of the surveying vessels, 
Thunder and Lark, at the Bahamas, to the Admiralty, 
are of very great interest. These reports have been 
printed in detail in "The Nautical Magazine" for 
January, 1839. 



438 BERMUDA HURRICANE, 1839. 

CHAP. The Thunder, after dragging her anchors amongst 

'- — the Bahama Islands, was carried into the Gulf Stream. 

Sl^ndl^r^ Falling into the right-hand semicircle of the progressive 

round\he storm, with the wind blowing in the same direction as 

front of the current of the Gulf Stream set, the Thunder was 

the atorm. ' 

driven along faster than the storm's centre progressed. 
As the vessel advanced, the wind, by degrees, from 
being southerly became easterly; and the ship, crossing 
before the track of the storm's centre, got the wind 
from north-east. Then the Thunder was driven by the 
wind in the opposite direction to the storm's coune, 
until her anchors, which were still dragging, helped to 
bring her up on the coast of Florida. 

This is the explanation given by Mr. Lawrence, 
mate of H.M. surveying ship Thunder, of the cause for 
the many changes of the wind experienced on board 
that ship during this hurricane. 



The Bermuda Hurricane of 1839. 

The account of a storm, which passed over Bermada 
on the night of the 11th and morning of the 12diof 
September, 1839, is placed amongst the stonns of 
high latitude, because it has been traced from the 
tropic to Newfoundland, and over the mouth of the 
River St. Lawrence ; and because there is evidence to 
show that it still partook of the nature of a revolving 
storm on reaching the high latitudes, as well as when 
passing over Bermuda, and when further to the south. 
In setting in, over Newfoundland, the wind was iomtk^ 
easterly, veering to south-toest ; whilst at Halifiut it 
was north-easterly, ending in north-west. 



BERMUDA HURRICANE, 1839. 439 

This storm appears to have originated to the east- chap. 

ward of the West Indies, as it was not felt in any '■ — 

of the most windward islands. Whilst passing over 
Bermuda, it was evident that it was at that time 
moving on in a course nearly north ; for it set in with 
violence at east-south-east^ and ended at west-south- 
west. 

In proof that the centre passed very near the Ber- 
mudas, the merchant schooner Jane, coming from the 
American continent, which had seen the islands the 
previous night, and hove-to to the westward of them, 
had the wind during the whole storm northerly. 
The centre, therefore, must have passed between 
this vessel and the islands, for in the islands it was 
southe7^ly. 

Northward of Bermuda its course appears to have 
been a little to the eastward of north, as the annexed 
plate will show. An abstract only is given from the 
various ships' reports, to show in what manner the 
wind was experienced by each, in order not to en- 
cumber the subject with longer details, most of which 
have already been printed in the Bermuda news- 
papers. 

" The barqae Euterpe, from London, bound to Antigua, en- 
cofuntered this hurricane in lat. 20° 36' N., long. 46° 55' W., 
on the evening of the 8th of September, having studding- 
sails and royals set at the time. The published log does not 
state which way the wind blew, but it has the expression, ' in 
dose-reefed topsails, and furled the courses.* At eight p.m., 
the storm became a violent hurricane, which laid the ship over 
on her beam-ends -y so that she was dismasted. 

''The French barque La Blayaise, from Cayenne, bound to 
Bourdeaux, met this storm in about latitude 22°, longitude 58°, 
and at noon, on the 9th of September, began to feel the effect of 



BERMUDA HURRICANE, 1839. 441 

By referring to the Chart it will be seen that the chap. 

storm was upwards of six hundred miles from the — 

Bermudas on the 9th of September; yet, at that ^^nll^^the 
period, a swell had begun to roll on the south side of l^^^ 
the islands, and to break on the south shore with a 
loud noise. This indication of a storm in the neigh- 
bourhood gradually increased until the 11th, when 
the barometer began to give corroborative warning 
that a gale was approaching ; and it was also observed 
that the sea assumed that brown or muddy colour 
which the inhabitants remark to take place in violent 
storms. In the afternoon of the 11th, the surf broke 
against the south side of the island with great gran- 
deur. The wind blowing very fresh, and somewhat 
'unsteady, was generally to the northward of east; 
but between eight and nine at night the true storm 
seemed to reach the islands ; for then the wind blew 
in hard squalls from east-south-east. The barometers 
continued to descend to 28.3 inches, and the wind to 
become more southerly y until about five on the morn- 
ing of the 12th, after which the wind was south. Then 
the barometers began to rise, and the wind to veer 
gradually towards west-south-west; and it moderated 
about one or two in the afternoon. 

During the hardest part of the gale, several persons 
observed remarkable oscillations of the mercury in the 
tubes of the barometers. i 

The following is a copy of the Weekly Report of 
the weather; a similar Report to which is printed 
each week in the *' Bermuda Gazette," and afterwards 
deposited in the Library of the Colonial Office, in 
London. 



442 



STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 



CHAP. 
IX. Weekly Report of the Weather, from the Central Signal SUtion 

at Bermuda, between the 8th and 1 4th September, 18S9» 

height above the Sea being 134 feet. 



Date. 


Direction 


Wlnd'0 
force. 










Sept. 
1839. 


Hoars. of 
! Wind. 


Weather. 


Bar. 


Thar. 


i 


8th, 


Noon' SW 


2 


b. 


30.1 


1 

1 

85. ; 


1 


9th, 


Noon; S 

1 


3 


b. 


30.14 


85. 


Sea bmUng 
loudlj on aoatk 
aide. 


10th, 


Noon' N£ 

r 

1 

1 
1 

1 


3 


b. ▼. 


30.15 


85. 


Wind Tcered to 
N b J E at 6 T.M. 
Lightning in the 
aouth at 8.26 r.M. 
Sea breaking load- 
er on aouth alda. 
Weather threatea* 

■ 


nth, 


1 
NoonlSEbyE 


1 fi 


b. c. n>. 


29.95 


87. 


Threateniag m- 
pcarance or the 
weather. 




p.if. 1 












6 jNEbyE 


6 


m. u. 


29.83 


85. 


Sea roaring on 
aoQthaido. 


8 SE 


6 


o. u. r. 


29.8 


84. 


Wind Teend lo 
SB bj B; vary 
heary zain k light- 














ning. 




11 SEbyS 


8 


0. 1. r. 


29.6 


83. 






Midn.; SE 


10 


0. r. 


29.5 


82. 


A whdla gala at 




A.M. ; 










thiahour. 


12th, 


1 SSE 


11 


0. r. 


29.35 


82. 


Storm; baicaw 
ter falling rapidly. 




2 SSE 


11 

1 


0. r. 29. 2 

1 


82. 


Evary anpeaf^ 
ance oif a aani- 
cane. 




3 I SSE 


12 


0. r. 28. 85 


81. 






4 


SSE 


! 12 


0. r. 28. 64 


81. 


Hnznaaneu 




6 


SSE 


12 


r. 28. 3 


81. 






7 


S 


11 


r. 


28.72 


81. 


If ore modKala. 




9.45 


SW 


! 9 


m. 


29. 


81. 




'Noon 


wsw 


1 8 

1 


T. 


29.43 


*79. 




P.li. 

7 


WbyS 


4 


b. 


29.9 


79. 


Quite moderatt; 
storm right. 


13th, 


Noon! NW 

I 


1 3 

1 


b. c. m. 


29.94 


79. 


High sea break- 
ing at north reet i 


14th, 


Noon^ NE 


i 3 


b. :30.14 


78. 


1 




Midn. E 


' 4 


c. 1 30. 1 


76. 


SquaU at 9.40 








1 








P.M. 



John Mahon^ Sergeant 30th Regiment^ 

Signal Director. 




BERMUDA HURRICANE, 1839. 443 

By examination of the south coast of the islands, chap. 

TX- 

the sea was found to have risen fully eleven feet 

higher than the usual tides. It carried boats into 
fields, thirteen feet above the usual high water mark, 
and removed several rocks, containing by measure- 
ment twenty cubic feet; some of them bearing evi- 
dence of having been broken oS from the beds in 
which they rested by the surge. On the north and 
leeward side of the island, and within the camber 
of the dock-yard, the water was observed to rise two 
feet and a half higher than the ordinary tides. 

As the weather became fine at Bermuda, and the 
hurricane proceeded on its course, the northern reefs 
of the islands, in their turn, presented a line of white 
surge from the swell rolled back by the gale.* Vessels, 
as they arrived from the east or the west, reported 
that they met the wind in conformity with what 
appears to be a law of nature in these tempests. Thus, 
the Jane coming from Baltimore and the westward, 
had the wind northerly ; whilst the schooner Governor 
Reid, from England and the eastward, had the wind 
sautherly. 

On the arrival of the brig Lottery at Bermuda, it 
was ascertained that she was becalmed in latitude 
^T" V N., longitude 71° 52'. At the same time that 
the Vincennes was in the centre of the hurricane, the 
Lottery experienced a heavy swell. 

''The storm reached the schooner Damsel about midnight, 
between the 11th and l^th, blowing from the • . north-east, 
and veering to ...>•• • north-west. 

"It was six in the morning of the 12th before the storm 
overtook the Daphne (in latitude 35° SS', longitude 65° 24'), a 

* Bee t^e EngrAving of the Bermuda Horrioane of 1889 in the ** Progresi 
of the Derelopment of the Law of Stonn8»" and the Chapter <* On the Swell 
raiaed by Storma." 




444 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP, schooner^ which had sailed from Bermada for Halifax, on the 
^* 10th, at noon. The master. Captain Ingham, states, 'Bnt 

for the warning given by the barometer, we mast have been 

dismasted.* The wind with the Daphne at 6 a.m. was E.N.E. 

and its force marked 6 

At noon it was N.E Force 1 1 

At 2 p.M N.N.E „ 18 

At 4 p.M N. „ 1« 

At 6 A.M. 13th Sept. N.W. „ 9 

At noon N.W. by W. „ 7 

On the morning of the llth, the barometer of the Daphne 

stood at 89.95 

and from that time it fell with great regularity to 89.1 

At 4 P.M., on the 18th, the wind was morik, 

and consequently the vessel may be supposed to have been, then, 

due west of the centre of the storm.** 



Extract from the Log-book of the Brigantine Stamoard, 
Thomas Blay, Master, from Jamaica, towards Halifax, N.S. 

''Wednesday, llth September, 1839. — Commences with light 
variable airs from north-cast to south-east, and clear sky ^ aD 
sail set. At 6 a.m., civil time, moderate breezes from north- 
east, accompanied with light showers of rain, and a very heavy 
swell from that quarter : latitude by observation 34^ 3'« long, by 
chron. 66^ 6' at noon. At 8 p.m. strong breezes, the sky to the 
eastward very dark and gloomy, whilst it remained qaite dear 
to the westward up to midnight : took in the gaff-topsail and 
royal, and single-reefed the topsail; light showers of nin 
occasionally, and a very heavy swell — the wind and aweU atill 
from north-east. At midnight, strong breezes withoat rain^ the 
sky to the eastward very gloomy. 

"Thursday, 18th September. — Commences with strong breeiea, 
and dark gloomy sky, the wind blowing steady from north-east. 
At 6 A.M. it commenced raining, the wind increasing rapidly 
every instant; so suddenly indeed did the storm comnienee» 
that we were compelled to clew up and furl every sail set as 
quick as possible, without stopping to reef; and in one hoar 
after, I found it necessary to shorten sail — ^we were laying-to 
under the storm -trysail. At 7h. 30m. a.m. sent down top- 
p;allant-yard, housed top-gallant-mast and main-topmast. FVom 
9 A.M. to nonn it blew tremendously hard in gustx, bnf we had 
little rain ; lat. at noon, by account, 35® 5' N., long. 67^ 8' W. 
At I P.M. the 5well appeared to set more from the northward. 




BERMUDA HURRICANE, 1839. 445 

the wind shortly after commenced to back gradually. At 2h. SOm. CHAP. 
P.M. the wind was at north-north-east j the sky to the north- ^^ 
ward began to open^ and the wind to moderate. At 4 p.m. 
wind north, sky clearing fast, wind still moderating, saw a brig 
scudding to the southward. At midnight, wind north-west, 
clear sky, wind moderating fast, and sea falling; wore ship, 
and made sail to the north-east. 

"Remarks, — I remark that I have experienced several hurri- 
canes at sea, and have invariably found, that by observing strict 
attention to the set of the swell previous to the commencement, and 
even after, a tolerable correct idea may be formed of the direction the 
wind is likely to take. 

"I particularly noticed this in the last two which I expe- 
rienced; and on the 2nd Sept, 1838, in a hurricane that com- 
menced at east-north-east, although the sea when I first hove-to, 
set from that quarter, I found it afterwards altered its direction, 
and came from south-east, and for some time before the wind 
shifted to that point. 

''I felt so confident from that circumstance that I should 
have the hardest of the storm from that quarter, that I continued 
to lay-to on the starboard tack, well knowing that when the 
wind shifted I should head the sea much better, and con- 
sequently the vessel would lay safer. 

" In the storm of the 12th September last, although the sky 
looked much more dismal in the south-east than any other 
direction, the swell gave no indication of the wind coming from 
that quarter, as it set constantly from the northward. 

" T. W. BLAY." 



The Victoria sailed from Bermuda from New York, on the 
9th. The storm overtook her when in the position shown in 
the chart, with the wind blowing at north-east, which caused her 
to heave-to for six hours. 

The Grant, on her voyage from Baltimore, was either beyond 
its influence, or very nearly so ; for she had no occasion to take 
in any sail 

The mail-boat Margaret had sailed firom Bermuda to Halifax, 
a few days before the storm. She was overtaken by this gale, 
and lost her topmast, in . . latitude 37° 30', 

longitude 64"" lO'. 

The Ariel had the wind from north-east; the Joseph Porter 
from east-south-east, veering to south and south-west. 




BERMUDA HURRICANR, 1839. 447 

*' St. John's, Newfoundland. — September 13th, eight a.m., C H A. P. 
noon. Barometer 29.90. Ten p.m. Barometer 29.67; wind _ 
south-west; 3. b. c. 

"September 14th, six a.m. Barometer 29.64; wind south- 
west; cloudy. — Ten A.M. Barometer 29-70; wind west; force 
seven to eight. — Noon. Wind west ; force eight to nine. — ^Three 
P.M. Barometer 29.90; wind west; force seven. — Seven p.m. 
Wind west ; force five ; and cleared up. 

" Taken from the Register kept by Mr. Templeman, Colonial 

Office. 

"Alex. Milne." 



The following data I received from Mr. Redfield. 

" Brig Alfred Taylor. September 13th, latitude 43° 30' N., 
longitude 62° W., experienced a severe gale from east-south- 
east to north-north-east.'* 

"Ship Echo. September 12th, latitude 43° N., longitude 
63° W., experienced a severe gale from north-east, lasting eight 
hours." 

"Ship Lucretia. September (date not given), experienced a 
most violent hurricane from south-east, shifting rapidly by 
south-west to north-west; latitude 43° N., longitude 62° W." 

" Ship Cosmo. September 13th, latitude 41° 50' N., longitude 
62° 3/ W., experienced a severe gale from south-east.** 

"Ship Lancashire. September 13th, experienced a hurricane 
from east; latitude 41° 30' N., longitude 63° W.** 

" Ship Emerald. September 13th, latitude 40° 8', longitude 
62° 50' W., experienced a severe hurricane from east, veering 
round by south to west, and west-north-west.** 

" Barque Madonna. September 13th, experienced strong gales 
from north-north-east to north-north-west and north-west; lati- 
tude 36° 19' N., longitude 71° 26' W." 

" Brig Angola. September 13th, experienced heavy gales from 
north-north-east; latitude 36° N., longitude 68° W.** 

" Schooner Ganges. September 10th, experienced a hurricane 
from east; latitude 29° 15' N., longitude 62° 10' W.** 



H. M. ship Andromache, commanded by Captain 
Baynes, was in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and an 
extract from this ship's log is here printed in detail. 



k 



8TOHMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 



Extract from the Log of H. M. S. Andbohachk, commuided by 
Captain Bayaei, 18th Sept. 1839, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 



a. &■ F. Counea. Wind*. F. W. Ther. Bu. Sei 



September IS, 18(9. 
A.U. 4. Fine. 
Single uwluT ID Pu- 

8.30.* Shortened ia 
cabla : mmde lail. 

S.45. Weiglied, md i 
proceeded. 

9.30. Set toyti* ; ap 



9.30, Trimmed and ' ^ 
*et •taiboard fbre uid ,«4 
mtiit top-galUnt, «nd 't-^ 
fon-topmutitnddiaf- 1^'* 
■■ill. [l . w 

Sl*nding oDt of the 
birbouT. 

Obwrrad ■ faerqnt I 
ilardlnK out of the Baf ' 
ofChaleur. ; 

Running fn>m Mimni. 



Lang. W. I Bearing! and Diatance at Noo 



NWpaitorMiacou, Bi SO'cff 10^. 



P.M. a. Shonmed 
•ail, and hore-io o£ 
ihe Oahing eatablialt- , 
nient, Miacon Poinl ; . 
■ent a boat vilh an 

with ditto. 



2.44. Boat n 
up ditto; flllad and 
aadeaail to (heNXE. I 

Riuming for Bona- 



I 6. Muatered at qiiar> ! 
ten ; in ieooBd mm d ' 
lopiaila. i 



BERMUDA HURRICANE, 1839. 
Extract irom the Log of H.M.S. Akdrohachk- 



H. 


K 


F 


CouTset. 


Wind*. 


J 


Tbei. 


B.,. 


Sem. 


Remuki. 


pa 




















September 12, 1839. 
8. ^CRTly calm. 










C>lm. 







S9 


29.91 


30.00 






















Bonsventura, W by 






















S, 2-07 3'. 






















Hoye-tooffdilto. 


S 








NW 

Tuiible 












9.-30, Up foreaaU, 
down jib, and hove-to 
on larboard tack. 

Standing off and on. 


10 




















lO.lB. Set jib, wore 
tBck. 


11 






















IS 








NE 


2 








12. Fine, with an 


r 


















tUjOTB boTaatii. 






A.M. At 3, tacked. 


i 




















Standing off and on 


a 






















i 




















4.BonBvec,tura,Wby 

S.fi'or6'. 


7 




















6. Set forpiail. 8, 
PeniS, W S W, 3. 

Working to wind- 
ward towazda Cape 
Ga.p4. 

8.20. Taoked; oom- 


8 














69 


29.95 


SO. 4 






















nmnicaled with a boat 






















from the shore; out 






















second reeft, aet main- 


» 




















sail, and flying jib. 


ID 








NNB 


6 
6 




Si 


29.90 


30.2 


10.43. Spoke the 
barque Pallaa of Cork, 
troiii dilto. out twenty- 

reefa of topaaili. 


11 




















11. Tacked. 11.20 
ditto; aet top-gaUanu 
aails. 

12. Tacked; in top- 


l£ 








N 


7 




48 


29. SB 


29.84 






















fallant-aails. Barque 






















in company. 


Coone. 


Dirt. 


Ut.N. 


Long. W 


Bwring* «ad DiitmcM « Nooo. 






■• 




~ 




Flatlslwid, NW. 2'or3'. 



449 

CHAP. 






STORMS IN HIGH LATTrODBS. 
Extract from the L(^ of ILH.S. Amdeohacbs — raBtimmi. 



H. K. 


F. CoMMi. 


Windi. F 


W. 


Thet. 


Bu. 


Bern. 


«-*• 


P.M. 




NbjE 












a 














C>Hp«; fb^ ■nry 














Ding. 
At 1.30, Mt tor-gd. 
















3 














IJO. Indhtoiwaffc- 
msihcn tMkinpmid 
E&Idai>d,totrr«Di 






























«T»dedMcwieu: Sad 
















we|«nbutT<fylialt 
















oncMhtuk. 


6 














4. CloM.n«Ad■eM■ 
ker:i()llIHaIn^. 






























S.30. 0«la iaamm. 


« 














ing; doM-iMlBd tte 














topMibi naU te 








■= 








Unuymk, »1 abSek 


1 2 


6 ENE 


N 


*• 








UWDIMtl. 


8 9 


4 












•uruo*. 




r 


49 


29.60 


29.60 


7. Foried tlMMto- 
















wU. 
































port^to. 


9 3 














8. 8<t num-tryHL 














9. Down fan-Mf. 


















10 1 


6 upENB 

off 




c 








uil. 
Fulled tpukM. 


U I 


4 EbyN 


N 


" q 








IQ fbre ud K». 

MiU:Curiedditt»:i« 

prerenteilmeMMS* 








, 








13 1 


4 







SO 


39. £0 


29. M 


judi. 
.12. Bmwj mm frt- 
















dnenp. 


*■[■ 1 


EbyN 




q 








8«pt«BilMr 14. 


a 1 


NbyW 


c 








A.If. Blowlac k«d 
St timM in iqwDt. 


3 I 


upNNE 




D 










1 1 


off 






S3 


29.70 


SB. 80 


b^ri^NW.twSl 


« 1 
S I 


NEbyE 
apNNF 












UiebuqaoboUd^ 
oiDinemilMMitlMC 
quarUr. 




off 




I 






7.30. Wok. nd M 


7 I 


JJEbjE 


NW 








foiouol. 



BERMUDA HURHICANE, 1839. 451 

Extxact from the I.og of H. H. S. ANDROUACHS—cotic/wbd. CHAP. 



H. 


K.F 


CouTBoa. 


Winds. 


F, 


W. 


Ther. 


Bar. 


Sem. 


Rematka, 


9 
10 
U 

13 


1 4 

i s 
G i 
i 


WbyS 

W 
WbyN 


VKiable 


10 

9 

8 

7 
to 


b 


63 

63 


29.84 
29.Bfi 


29. 8S 
30.10 


with ft heaTT les. 

ed fore- topsail. 

9. Set ditto. 

10.3D. Set out fourth 
reeli of topsailB and 
ree&oC course*. Fid- 
ded topgaUant-BOftats ; 
croseed the yards. 

Set close - reefed apan- 

topmast - Btftysail i in 

northerly swell; two 
BsU in Bighl. 


Courwi. 


DUt. 


Lat.N. 


Long.W. 


Bearinga and Distance at Ntmn. 






•• 








Cape Ga»p« NNW. 

Bonaventura W N W fl or 6 leagoea. 


10 
11 

la 


3 i 


WNW 
NbyE 


N 

NNE 
E 
8E 

Variable 
NNW 


4 

3 

3 
2 


b 

b 


S2 
5S 


30.00 
30. 10 


30.12 
30.12 


P.M. 1.30. Out se- 
cond reefc; aet top- 
gallant-sails; outreefe 

3. Set rojaU and 
Btarbosril top-gallanl- 
Btuddiug-sails. 

4. Out first reefs: 
Bet Btarboard fore-top- 
miBt- studding tail. 

6. Flat Island bote 
N W by W three or 
four degrees. 

G, Muitered at quar- 
ters ; obaervod astrong 

upon Flat Island from 
the northward, round 
Cape Oftsp£. 

8. Trimmed; in stud - 
diog-saiis. 

9. Neorly calro. 
Beaiing up the Bay 

of Gasped 

10. Tacked; hove- 
to, head to the N E 
off Grand Or^e. 

12. Nearly cahn. 



452 STORMS IN HIGH LATITUDES. 

CHAP. By the journal of Mr. Redfield, at New York, oii 

IX y o 

__J the 12th of September, the wind was .... sauth-taesi^ 

but it freshened on the 13th, and became . northerly. 
The barometer, which had been standing at. . . 30.08, 
began to rise ; and at ten a.m. of the 14thy 

reached 30.48 

By the report of a Bermuda vessel, commanded by 
Captain Whitney, which was to the eastward , and 
beyond the reach of the storm itself, the wind was 
southerly. 



453 



CHAPTER X. 



ON MEASURING THE WIND'S FORCE. 



The first successful attempt for measuring the force chap. 
'and velocity of the wind, that I am aware of, was that ' 
of the Rev. Dr. Whewell, Master of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, who thus describes it, in a paper printed 
in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society. 

A fly (resembling the fly of a revolving ventilator, Whe- 
or the sails of a windmill) is fixed to the small end of anemo- 
ft;he vane of a weathercock, so as always to be turned 
^srith its circular disk to the wind ; and it consequently 
■revolves, by the action of the wind, with a rapidity 
S.ncreasing as the force of the wind increases. The 
devolutions of the axis of this fly are converted by a 
■irain of toothed wheels and screws into a vertical 
motion, by which a pencil is carried downwards, 
touching the surface of a vertical cylinder, the cylin- 
cier having the axis of the weathercock for its axis. 
^s the vertical rod on which the pencil slides is at- 
toched to the vane of the weathercock, the point of the 
compass from which the wind blows is recorded on 
the side of the cylinder on which the mark is made ; 
^hile the quantity of the wind is represented by the 
extent of the descent of the pencil. 

One of the diflSiculties which most interfered*with 

§ 

the precision of the observations was that which arose 
from the wavering of the wind. The weathercock is 



454 MEASURING THE WIND's FORCE. 

CHAP, in almost constant motion, swinging to and fro through 
__1J an arc often not less than a quadrant ; and the conse- 
quence is, that the pencil describes upon the cylinder, 
not a single line, but a broad path of irr^ular form, 
made up of the transverse line which the oscillation of 
the vane occasions. It might at first be supposed that 
this oscillation arose from the momentum of the vane, 
and might be remedied by some contrivance which 
should cause the change of direction of the wind to 
come into efiect more slowly. But the cause of this 
oscillation is in reality almost entirely the constant 
shifting of the wind, as may be seen by examining the 
motions of the vane ; for it often swings into a nev 
position, or stands still awhile, before it swings back 
again. 

Whewell's anemometer was erected at Cambridge, 
Edinburgh, Greenwich, and Plymouth, in 1838. 
Oaier'8 In the year 1837, another instrument, for the same 

meter. purposc, and of very ingenious construction, was ex- 
plained to the British Association by the inventor, 
Mr. Follett Osier. 

Extract from the Report in the '' Athensum *' for Sept. 16, 1837, 
of the proceedings of the British Association, at Liverpool. 

'' In Mr. Osler*s instrument, the direction of the wind is ob- 
tained by means of a vane attached to a rod, or rather tabe, tkl 
carries it; and conseqaently causes the latter to move with itadL 
At the lower extremity of this tube is a small pinion working ii 
a rack, which slides backwards and forwards at the wind mow 
the vane ; and to this rack a pencil is attached, which marks the 
direction of the wind on a paper ruled with the cardinal poiflli^ 
and so adjusted as to progress at the rate of half an inch per 
hour by means of a clock. The force is at the same time ascff- 
tained by a plate one foot square, placed at right angles with the 
vane, supported by two light bars nmning on friction -roIkn» .^^ 
and communicating with a spiral spring in such a way that the » 



MEASURING THE WINd's FORCE. 455 

plate cannot be aflfected by the wind's pressure without instantly CHAP, 
acting on this spring, and communicating the quantum of its ^' 
action by a light wire passing down the centre of the tube to 
another pencil below it, which thus registers the degree of force. 

'* The rain is registered at the same time, by its weight acting 
on a balance, which moves in proportion to the quantity fallings 
and has also a pencil attached to it recording the result. The 
receiver is so arranged as to discharge every quarter of an inch 
that falls, when the pencil again returns to zero.'* 

It is sufficient to supply the instrument once in 
twenty-four hours with a sheet of paper ruled to the 
proper form. 

In order to render the observations recorded by his 
anemometer and rain-gauge as generally useful and 
available as possible, Mr. Osier has adopted a plan for 
giving a condensed and comprehensive view of the 
records obtained. 

Having been much struck with the manner in which 
this anemometer records the squalls, writing their force 
at the same time that it gives the veering of the wind, 
and the quantity of rain that falls, showing also the 
precise time of their occurrence, Mr. Osier has done See plate 
me the favour to copy a portion of his condensed to page 
registers (which is here engraved and annexed) for 
fourteen days in the month of February, 1837, made 
by collecting and condensing the work of the instru- 
ment, and adding to it the heights of the barometer, 
thermometer, and hygrometer; so that we see at a 
glance six simultaneous comparisons. It is divided 
into days, and the days into hours. 

The upper portion records the rain which has fallen, 
and the hour at which each portion fell. Thus the 
first fall of rain commenced on the 10th of February, 
at h past 4 P.M., and ceased at a i before 6 the same 



456 MEASURING THE WINDS FORCE. 

CHAP, afternoon. The next portion, amounting to '52 of an 
^' inch, began the following day at 6 a.m., and ended at 
11 A.M. The rate at which these descended was 
regular, but the rest marked on the regbter fell at 
various rates; sometimes very rapidly, and then 
almost ceasing, as the different inclinations of the line 
indicate. 

The next division of the table gives the variations in 
the current of the wind, together with its degree of 
force. These observations are condensed from the 
registers of the anemometers, thus: — The course as 
recorded is not a definite line, owing to the oscillations 
of the vane, produced by the waves or pulses of the 
wind, already referred to in the extract from Professor 
WhewelFs paper : the mean, however, of these oscilla- 
tions gives the absolute direction, and this is the line 
transferred to the table. — See the dark line, a.ajl. 

On this line, as a base, is drawn the force of the 
wind at the time, represented by lines perpendicular 
to it, and varying in length according to the pressure ; 
thus showing the force and direction of the wind on 
the same division of the paper. The bars which cross 
the perpendicular lines, and run parallel with the 
direction line, denote each 1 lb. pressure on the square 
foot. Thus, on the morning of the 10th of February, 
the wind was south by west, with a pressure of 2 lbs. 
on the square foot ; and between five and six in the 
afternoon it veered to about south-west, and increased 
in strength to a gale, with 6 lbs. pressure on the 
square foot : then the wind began to abate, declining 
in pressure to what it was before. 

On the 11th of February the force of the wind was 
only 1 lb. on the square foot ; and the register shows it 




MEASURING THE WINd's FORCE. 457 

backing to the south-east. By referring to the portion o H a p. 
showing the register of the barometer, we find it de- ' 
scending until it comes to 28*50; and we find by the 
register of the thermometer and hygrometer that the 
air was saturated with moisture. The line which 
denotes the direction of the wind shows that it veered 
from south-east to souths and then to west ; and as it 
veered it blew a gale of 9 lbs. pressure to the square 
foot; The rain registered just above this is the heavy 
rain alluded to before. 

The state of the barometer is taken at 9 a.m. and 
3 P.M. daily. The daily maximum and minimum 
temperatures are denoted by two black lines, and the 
temperature at 9 a.m. by a dotted line. The dew- 
point, taken at the same hour, is marked by an arrow 
head. 

These fourteen days were selected by Mr. Osier as 
strikingly illustrative of the extraordinary meteorologi- 
cal changes which accompany squally weather. 

A gale in the south of England, which blew down 
trees, and broke the chain-pier at Brighton, on the 29th 
of November, 1836, approached in violence almost to 
a hurricane. Mr. Osier's anemometer had then been 
set up at Birmingham ; and it has recorded the wind 
on that occasion as blowing with a force equal to the 
pressure of 1 U lbs. on the square foot. A squall the 
day before, which lasted but a few minutes, yet did 
much damage, blew with a pressure equal to 17 lbs. on 
the square foot; the wind veering at the time from 
south-west towards south, and '10 of an inch of rain 
fell at the same moment. 

Mr, Osier informed me, that, being desirous practi- 
cally to ascertain the force exerted by the wind at 



458 

CHA.P 
X. 



MEASURING THE WINDS FORCE. 

various velocities, be made a few ezperimentB for 
that purpose while travelling on a calm day on a 
railroad. No very great degree of accuracy was at* 
tempted; but, as far as the experiments went, they 
fully corroborated the tables published many yean ago 
by Dr. Lind, of Edinburgh, of which the followii^ is 
a copy : — 

Scale of Pressure on One Square Foot. 



Pressure on one 

square foot in 

lbs. AToirdupoit. 


Miles per 
hour. 


Feet per 
seooad. 


ObMmrtionB. 


•005 


1 


1-47 


Hardly peroaptibl*. 


•020 
•044 


2 
3 


2-98 
4-40 


Just peroeptiblft. 


•079 
•123 


4 
6 


5-87 
7-83 


Gentle, pleasant wind. 


•492 
1-107 


10 
15 


14-67 
22*00 


Pleaiant gale. 


1^968 


20 


29-34 


Brisk gale. 


3^076 


25 


36-67 


Verj bosk gale. 


4-429 


30 


44 01 


Stonn. 


6-027 


35 


51-34 


Great stoou 


7-873 


40 


58-68 


Tempest. 


9-963 


45 


66-01 


Violent iMvert. 


12 •SOO 


50 


73-35 


Hurricane. 


17-716 


60 


88-02 


) 


31 -490 


80 


117-36 


> Most Tidlent hnnieaae. 


49-002 


100 


146*07 


) 



Since the first edition of this work was published 
Mr. Osler^s anemometer has been placed at sereral 
places in India as well as in Europe. 

A measure of the wind's force, as r^aids its 
strength, to be inserted in the log-books of shipa, pro- 
posed by the hydrographer to the Admiralty, Cap- 
tain Beaufort, is now ordered by the Admiralty to be 
adopted in the Royal Navy. The concise mode of 
inserting this measure, as well as the descriptian <^ the 
weather, first adopted at Greenwich Observatory, fe 
so great an im])rovement, that it is annexed; in the 



MEASURING THE WINd's FORCE. 459 

hope that, when generally known, it will be used both chap. 

in ships at sea, and for recording the winds's force on 

land. 

Figures to denote the Force of the Wind, 

denotes Calm. 

1 „ Light air ... . just sufficient to give . .. Steerage-way. 

2 ,, Light Breeze. . /^^ ^^i^h a well-con- \ i to 2 knots. 

^ I ditioned man-of- war, i 

3 „ Gientle Breeze . < under aU sail, and > 3 to 4 knots. 
. -r* f cleanfull,wouldgoinl 

4 „ Moder* Breeze \ smooth water, from / 5 to o knots. 

5 „ Fresh Breeze ."I T Royals, &c. 
Strong Breeze I Single-reefs and 

I I top-gallant-sails. 

Moderate Gale I in which the same ship I Donble-reefs, jib, 

y could just carry closer „ 
_ , _ . I hauled ' &c. 

Triple-reef,coar8es, 



6 » 

7 .. 

8 ,i Fresh Gale . . . 

9 >, Strong Gale . . 



&c. 
Close-reeft & courses. 



( -v 1.. V V ,, (Close-reefed main- 

10 „ Whole Gale. . "^^^ly^, .'^.^. ^^'^^^ topsail and reefed 

V \ foresail. 

11.. storm {-*-Si.fedt.:?r!')Stonn-8tay8aa8. 

1 2 ,> Hurricane. ... to which she could show No canvas. 

If the above mode of expression were adopted, the state of the 
wind, as well as its direction, might be regularly marked, every 
hour, in a narrow column on the log-board. 



Letters to denote the State of the Weather. 



h 


denotes 


Blue sky j whether with clear or hazy atmosphere 


c 


>» 


Cloudy; t.e., detached opening clouds. 


d 


99 


Drizzling rain. 


f 


99 


Fog— f Thick fog. 


g 


«> 


• 
Gloomy dark weather. 


h 


99 


Hail. 


1 


99 


Lightning. 


ni 


>y 


Misty or hazy — so as to interrupt the view. 



460 MEASURING THE WIND's FORCE. 

CHAP, o denotes Overcast — Le,, the whole sky covered with one 
^- impervious cloud. 

p ,, Passing showers. 

q „ Squally. 

r ,» Rain — i.e., continuous rain. 

S „ Snow. 

t » Thunder. 

u >» Ugly threatening appearance in the weather. 

V 9, Visibility of distant objects, whether the iky be 

cloudy or not. 

w n Wet dew. 

„ Under any letter denotes an extraordinary degree. 

By the combination of these letters, all the ordinary pheno- 
mena of the weather may be recorded with certainty and 
brevity. 



EXAMPLES. 

b c m — Blue sky, with detached opening clouds, but hazy 
round the horizon. 

g V — Gloomy dark weather, but distant objects remarkably 
visible. 

q p d 1 1 — Very hard squalls, and showers of drizzle, accom- 
panied by lightning with very heavy thunder. 



461 



CHAPTER XL 

ON WATERSPOUTS AND THE SMALLER WHIRLWINDS ; AND 
ON THE FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 



On Waterspouts and the Smaller Whirlwinds. 

Of the different atmospheric phenomena, none are chap. 
more curious than waterspouts. That they cause ^' 
small whirlwinds there seems no reason to doubt ; but 
I regard them as phenomena of a different nature from 
the great extended storm. Since the first edition of 
this work was published it has been found that the 
waterspout, or whirlpillar, does not revolve always in 
the same direction. 

That which renders the waterspout remarkable is 
the circumstance of a double cone being formed when 
the phenomenon is complete, one cone pointing down- 
wards from a cloud, whilst another points upwards 
from the sea. The thin semi-transparent columns, 
which stalk, as it were, on the surface of the ocean in 
calm weather, though no cloud is to be seen above 
them, as well as the small agitated circles, which are 
only seen by their marking the smooth surface of the 
sea in their gyrations, may probably have the same 
origin as the waterspout. One of these circles, which 
appeared too insignificant to do harm, afler performing 
many g3rrations near a ship commanded by Captain 
Marquis, on the coast of Malabar, suddenly approached 



s ■ 



462 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP, her, as she lay becalmed, with her saik loose, and, 

XI 

_ _J passing across her bows, carried off the flying-jib and 

jib-boom into the air, higher than the mast-head. 1 
have myself witnessed these semi-transparent columns, 
within the tropics, without being able to decide which 
way they turned round ; and the spiral fonn in which 
they are said to revolve may be the reason. 

Captain The following account I received from Captain 

l^^!^*' Beechey, R.N. :— 

spouts. 

" While we were off Clermont Tonnerre we had a uurrow 

escape from a waterspout of more than ordinary lixe. It ap- 
proached us amidst heavy rain, thunder, and lightning, and wai 
not seen until it was very near to the ship. As soon aa we were 
within its influence, a gust of wind obliged us to take in every 
sail ', and the topsails, which could not be furled in time, 
in danger of splitting. The wind blew with great violence, 
mentarily changing its direction, as if it were sweeping roond in 
short spirals : the rain, which fell in torrents, waa alao prcdpi* 
tated in curves, with short intervals of cessation. Amidat tins 
thick shower the waterspout was discovered, extending in a 
tapering form, from a dense stratum of cloud to within thirty 
feet of the water, where it was hid by the foam of the aea being 
whirled upwards by a tremendous g3nration. It changed its 
direction after it was first seen, and threatenled to paas over the 
ship ; but, being diverted from its course by i heavy goat ot wind. 
it gradually receded. On the dispersion of this magnificent phe- 
nomenon we observed the column to diminish gradually, and at 
length to retire to the cloud from whence it had deaceoded, in 
nn undulating form. 

" Various causes have been assigned for theae fonnatioiia 
which appear to be intimately connected with electricity. On 
the present occasion a ball of fire was observed to be precifntated 
into the sea, and one of the boats, which was away from the 
ship» was so surrounded by lightning, that Lient. Belcher thought 
it advisable to get rid of the anchor by hanging it some fathoaM 
under water, and to cover the seamen's muskets. From the 
accounts of this officer and Mr. Smyth, who were at a distance 
from the ship, the column of the waterspout first descended in a 
spiral form, until it met the ascending colomn a short diatanoe 



THE. SMALLER WHIRLWINDS. 463 

from the sea: a second and a third were afterwards formed, CHAP, 
which subsequently united into one large column, and this again ^* 
separated into three small spirals, and then dispersed. It is not 
impossible that the highly rarefied air, confined by the woods 
encircling the Lagoon Islands, may contribute to the formation 
of these phenomena. 

" Neither the barometer nor sympiesometer were sensibly 
a£fected by this partial disturbance of the atmosphere 3 but the 
temperature underwent a change of eight degrees, falling from 
82° to 74°: at midnight it rose to 78°. On the day succeedmg 
this occurrence several waterspouts were seen at a distance, the 
weather being squally and gloomy.** 

Clermont Tonnerre is in south latitude, and is one of 
the group of islands called " Dangerous Archipelago," 
about lat. 19° S., long. 137° W. 

Having applied to Captain Beechey, in the hope 
that he might be able to explain in which way the 
gyrations of wind which accompanied this waterspout 
revolved, I received from him the following expla- 
nation : — 

'' The g3nrations were in a direction contrary to that of the 
hands of a watch : if it had been otherwise the ship would have 
changed her tack, whereas she only broke off. She was on the 
starboard tack, and the waterspout came down upon the weather- 
beam, {md passed under the stem. At first the ship broke 
round off seven or eight points, and afterwards kept coming up 
and breaking off, as the gusts of wind varied their direction ; but 
the wind continued on the starboard side the whole time, and 
the ship did not alter her position more than a quarter of the 
circle. It was quite dear, from the peculiar manner in which 
the rain (if such large drops can be so designated) fell, that we 
were within the vortex of the spout, and that the gusts which 
laid the vessel on her side were part of the phenomenon, and 
consequently that the gyration must have been as I have stated. 
I have observed many waterspouts between the tropics, but, with 
the exception of that off Clermont Tonnerre, never noticed the 
direction in which they turned, and regret that the subject was 
never before mentioned to me, as I have had many opportunities 
of determining the fact. 



464 

CHAP. 



OK WATERSPOUTS AND 
Diagram to explain theforegoiny Rtmarkt. 




Tbe arrviM denote til* dilectionof thewind. 

The dotted ffromd-plan, the thip broken off htz eomM. 

" As it appears to me that any observations npon thi* extra- 
ordinary phenomenon will be intereating, I extnct from my 
journal a few lines, which I wrote when T last craned the 
equator : — 

" "The day had been very sultry, and in the afternoon ■ 
long arch of heavy cumuli and nimbi rose slowly above the 
southern horizon : while watching its movement, a water ap o n t 
b^an to form at a spot on the under side of the arch, that wai 
darker than the rest of the line. A thin cone (Sketcb No. 1) 




THE SMALLER WHIRLWINDS. 465 

first q>peared, which gradnally became elongated, and wu CHAP. 
shortly joined with Bcveral others, which went on increasing in ^■ 
loigth and balk until the columns had reached about half down 
to the horizon. They here united and formed one immense 
dark-coloured tube. The sea beneath had been hitherto undis- 
turbed ; but when the columns united it became perceptibly 
agitated, and almost immediately became whirled in the air with 
a rapid gyration, and formed a vast basin, from the centre of 




which the gradually- lengthening column seemed to dnnk fresh 
nippIieB of water (Sketch No. 2). The column had extended 
about two-thirds of the way toward the sea and nearly con 




THE SMALLER WHIRLWINDS. 467 

Newcastle; and the circumstance was mentioned to the chap 

XI. 

Admiral, by Captain Cochrane, on their arrival at St. '• — 

Helena, as a curious coincidence, viz., the Orontes 
being carried forward, whilst the waterspouts were 
a-head of her. 



Observations on a' Whirlwind or Waterspout in my passage from 
Demerara to Barbados, on the 24th August, 1836, in lat. 9° 
N., and long. 58° W. 

"Hamilton, 19th July, 1839. — The early part of the day was 
sultry and calm, with occasional heavy squalls of rain and wind, 
such as are common at that season of the year in tropical 
climates. At about two o*clock in the afternoon (a gentle breeze 
having sprung up) we observed a waterspout to windward of us. 
Phenomena of that description being very common in this 
quarter, it excited no particular attention, until it was seen ap- 
proaching the vessel with considerable velocity, and in a direction 
so likely to come in contact with her, that it became necessary 
to clew up all sail and put the vessel before the wind, in order 
that, sailing in a line parallel with the line of motion of the 
meteor, we might keep out of the range of its gyration. We 
were obliged to continue in company with it in this way for 
twenty minutes or half an hour 3 and I had an opportunity of 
satisfying myself that its progressive motion was in the direction, 
and of course with the velocity, of the general current of air, and 
that its rotatory motion, supposing the point of commencement 
to be the east, revolved towards the south. The water was 
raised up like water boiling in a pot to the height of two feet 
or more 3 and the spray, by the centrifugal action, to a much 
greater altitude. I would also remark that, although when at a 
distance the conical spiral-shaped cloud, indicating the existence 
of waterspouts, was perfectly apparent, yet on the approach of 
the meteor it entirely disappeared ; nor did it again show itself 
after passing to leeward of us. 

(Signed) " W. BURGESS. 

"To Lieutenant- Colonel Reid. 

" P.S. The waterspout, when at its nearest point to us, must 
have been within a hundred yards, and I judged it to have a 
diameter of about twenty to thirty feet." 

2h2 



k. 



468 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP. The moving pillars of sand described by Bruce as 

_ ' . having been seen in Nubia, though the account may 

Moying \yQ familiar to many, is here reprinted, because these 

columns of •' ' *^ ' 

sand. moving pillars probably originated from the same 
cause, whatever that may be. 

" On the 14th of November, at 7 in the morning, we left Asm 
Nagga, our coarse being due north; at 1 o'clock we alighted 
among acacia trees at Waadi el Halboub, having gone twenty- 
one miles. We were here at once surprised and terrified, by 
truly one of the most magnificent sights in the world. In that 
vast expanse of desert, from west and to north-west of as, we saw 
a large number of pillars of sand at different distances, at timet 
moving with great celerity, at others stalking on with a majestic 
slowness; at intervals we thought they were coming in a ^-ery 
few minutes to overwhelm us -, and small quantities of sand did 
actually more than once reach us. Again they would retreat, so 
as to be almost out of sight, their tops reaching to the very 
clouds. Then the tops often separated from the bodies; and 
these once disjoined, dispersed in the air, and did not appear 
more. Sometimes they were broken near the middle, as if 
struck with a large cannon shot. About noon they b^;an to 
advance with considerable swiftness upon us, the wind being 
very strong at north. Eleven of them ranged alongside of nt, 
about the distance of three miles. The greatest diameter of the 
largest appeared to me, at that distance, as if it would meaauie 
ten feet. They retired from us with a wind at soath-east, 
leaving an impression upon my mind to which I can give no 
name, though surely one ingredient in it was fear, and a con- 
siderable deal of wonder and astonishment. It was in vaia 
to think of flying: the swiftest horse, or fastest sailing ship, 
would have been of no use to have carried us out of the 
danger. 

'* 15th Nov. At 7 A.M. we left Waadi Dimokea. The same 
appearance of moving pillars of sand presented themselves to us 
this day, in form and disposition like those we had seen at 
\Va.idi el llalboub. only they seemed to be more in number and 
los^t in si/e." 

riu^' inovinii: pillars of sand are not confined to 
\l'ur;i rhov may he seen in every quarter of tlie 






THE SMALLER WHIRLWINDS. 469 

globe. They are thus alluded to by Captain Lyons, chap. 

in his work, entitled " Residence and Tour of the ! — 

Republic of Mexico," p. 196: — 

'' From San Lois Potosi to Zalatecas. — Our whole journey on 
this day was over an excellent, though dusty road, through a 
desert, only enlivened by the numerous spiral whirlwinds, which 
half buried us at times beneath the cloud they created.** 

Page 157, "Journey in Protillas": — 

" In three leagues over a stony road, we reached the Raneo del 
Tejou, and passed on to a plain, on which the number of whirl- 
winds was quite extraordinary. We had repeatedly seen a few 
of them ; but on this day they appeared to have assumed a new 
form, raising the dust to a height of 200 or 300 feet in straight 
o^umns, which preserved their perpendicularity and moved but 
slowly over the plain, while many continued to turn rapidly on 
their axis, without any perceptible progressive motion.** 

The same phenomenon is constantly observed in 
India: and the following extract is descriptive of 
some small whirlwinds seen at Deesa. These whirl- 
winds are usually termed ** Devils " in India. 

Extract from a letter from Lieutenant Fyers, 40th 
regiment, dated Deesa. Bombay Presidency, 1838. 

''The sand is so loose here in many parts, that the Devils 
take it up to a great height, and in such quantities that it has 
almost the appearance of an immense pillar of about eighteen 
feet in diameter, and some hundred in altitude; this goes travel- 
ling along in no very straight course. When it comes to any 
loose bushes cut for hedges, it takes and twirls them up, a 
good number of feet, like a corkscrew. Up high, the pillar loses 
itself in a cloud of sand, which is carried along by the current 
of air, but which appears to have lost the revolving power. 

(Signed) "WILLIAM FYERS." 



The sudden storm -which sunk the steam-boat 
Tigris on the River Euphrates, on the 21st May, 



470 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP. 1836, in some respect l>ears a resemblance to the 
' waterspout and the moving columns of sand just 

described. 

A memorandum, written by Mr. Ainsworth, who 
kept the meteorological journal of the expedition, 
states, — 

" It was a fine afternoon, only a few clouds, cuiiralo and 
cirro-strati, in the horizon ; a light breeze from the east-norUn 
east; the sun about two hours past the meridian, when a dense 
black cloud was first observed moving across the wildemcsi 
from the west-south-west, and in the teeth of the wind. As it 
approached, it was found to consist, in its base, of red-colourrd 
masses of dust, which succeeded one another rapidly, breasting 
the wind in their onward progress, and rising till theg were re- 
ceived into the bo9om of an overhanging cloud, from wkiek tkem 
columns of dust were again precipitated with great fares umi rtjridiig, 
accompanied with a violent rain. 

" During the storm the barometer fell upwards of two-tenths 
of an inch, which is a very large amount in a climate where the 
average diurnal oscillation did not at that time amount to 

05 . Immediately after the storm had passed by, the 

weather resumed its previous tranquillity; nimbi, or large 
clouds in the horizon. 

(Signed) "W. AINSWORTH." 

A written account by Captain Lynch states, — 

" Light blue clouds, with sheet lightning, had been observed 
above the western and west-north-western horizon, between the 
hours of noon and three p.m., for two days previooa to the 
storm. On the 21st, a little after noon, the clouds in the wesC- 
north-west assumed a dense appearance, and the breeze that had 
blown lightly from the northward, a little westerly, daring the 
morning, drew gradually round to that point, and freshened 
about one p.m. sufficiently to induce the officer on deck to fori 
the awnings of the Tigris; ere this operation (the work of a few 
minutes) was performed, the clouds were drawn down in contact 
with the horizon, inducing the commander of the Tigris to wars 
Colonel Chcsney, who happened to be on board, of the proba- 
bility of a squall; and endeavoured to make both vessels (the 
Euphratosi was in company) fast to the bank during its expected 



THE SMALLER WHIRLWINDS. 471 

passage. Almost as soon as the cloud toacbed the horizon, a CHAP. 

point of it a little to the left of its centre, as seen from us, was ^* 

disturbed and enlightened, until cracked by fine white lines, 

which I recollect remarking at the time resembled a lace veil 

thrown against the cloud ; this advanced rapidly, preceded by 

numerous little whirlwinds, gyrating contrary to ' the direction of 

the hands of a watch.* The gyrations of the main shaft could 

not be seen, even if my attention had been drawn to it, as the 

clouds of sand that preceded it rendered its motions invisible. 

About three minutes after the appearance of the veil, the vessel 

was unable, from the force of the wind, to keep her head to it 

with full force of steam, and in another she was whirling in 

it, contrary to 'the direction of the hands of a watch.' A 

minute of noise and horror, in which sand sparks (probably 

from the galley) and large drops from the clouds, were soon 

mingled with foam and wreck from the river, and the Tigris went 

down in silence — head south, or right down the river ^ having 

gone round by the westward, or against the storm point. Her 

head being north-westward, the wind on her larboard bow. 

Head westward, wind on the starboard bow. South-westward, 

on the starboard beam -, larboard side under water. South, 

wind on starboard quarter as she sunk. 

(Signed) " H. BLOSSE LYNCH." 



Having read an account in the " Times " newspaper 
of whirlwinds (similar to those so often described by 
Mr. Luke Howard), as having been seen near Lincoln, 
as well as Manchester, on the same day, I wrote to the 
persons named in the paragraph. 

The answers which have been received deserve 
attention, and are inserted, as well as the paragraphs 
which led to the inquiry. 

"Effect of a Whirlwind. — ^That phenomenon, which is 
known by this familiar name, was witnessed with great atten- 
tion, and no small cause of apprehension, on Wednesday last, 
by Mr. John Prestwood, of Branston, near this city, whose 
minute description we state almost in his own words. About a 
quarter before 3, just preceding the storm, a whirl of air was 



472 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP. 9eeu to approach from the east, and to become a vast cdiimn 
^I- about 80 yards in height, and as hirge round as a hay-stack that 
should have about^l5 tons of hay in it. It approached the field 
slowly where Mr. Prestwood and his men were hay-making, and 
took up the hay in a spiral ascent to a vast height, carrying it 
to a great distance, going off across the adjoining fidds. In 
about ten minutes or a quarter of an hour another great tornado 
was seen to approach out of the same quarter, proceeding in the 
same route as the other ; but it took across a fallow piece, about 
60 yards from Prestwood*s house. It made a turn to the rig^t, 
and then along the fallow field; there then occurred a sight 
most wonderful, for it tore up the earth, and raised it to a great 
height in a black mass that seemed to be full of fire, with thun- 
der and lightning out of the midst of it; the noise and cradding 
were hideous and appalling. It missed the house by a lew 
yards -, and Prestwood believes that if it had passed over it the 
whole would have been carried away. The comer of an ooi- 
house, and nearly a ton weight of newly-cut thorns, were taken 
along with it and scattered in all directions. It did not go ftstcr 
than a horse could keep up with it. Its course then went whirling 
and curving towards Canwick. The cattle that beheld it fled about 
in order to avoid the danger ; and such was its force, that anything 
that lay in its way must have been destro3red.*' — Limeolm Gmsette, 
''Extraordinary Whirlwind. — About 12 o'clock at noon, 
on Wednesday, a very extraordinary whirlwind took place at 
Hopwood, about one mile from Middleton, in a field at Hig^ber- 
fold, belonging to Mr. Joseph Howarth, a feurmer. A large oak 
tree was torn up by the roots, another was blown down in Hop- 
wood Clough, and boughs torn from off trees were seen Hying 
in the air for nearly ^ve minutes. The spouts from two 
in Blomerly Clough, and the slating from an engine-honae 
were torn off. The men in Hopwood Clough Colliery, up w aids 
of 300 yards under ground, were seriously alarmed, deacrihing 
the noise to be the same as if an engine had burst : people far 
the distance of a mile and upwards could hear it. What makes 
the affair more strange is, that the breadth the whirlwind took 
was only about ^0 yards. A man*s pair of breeches were carried 
off the coal-hill at Hopwood Colliery, and found in a sheep pas- 
ture about 400 yards off. There was not much rain, but there 
were many brilliant flashes of lightning and heavy claps of 
thunder during the afternoon.*' — Manchester GnardiaH, 

(Fn)m the Times of July II, 1838.) 



THE SMALLER WHIRLWINDS. 473 

Mr. Prestwood having: carried the letter he received chap. 

XI, 

from me to the editor of the " Lincoln Ghtzette,'* the '- — 

following is the additional declaration taken down by 
the editor ; and in recording which, he stated he was 
desirous of being exact. 

. " Lincoln, 12th Jnly, 1838. 
" According to John Prestwood*8 declaration, and that of his 
wife, and Dennis Brodwell, their man-servant, the fint colomn 
was not seen to revolve on its own centre. It might do so -, hut 
that escaped their observation. It went something like ' a rush- 
ing wind, a tearing wind;* but would not say it turned round 
as a top does when it is set spinning. The second was seen dis- 
tinctly to whirl round in that manner, and in the direction that 
the hands of a watch go. 

''The first was seen ^ before 3 in the afternoon. It came 
from out of the east, inclined southward in curves, following the 
sun then to westward, and must have been inclining towards the 
northward afterwards. Canwick is four miles north-west from 
Branston. Both places are south-east from the city of Lincoln 
a few miles. — (See Ordnance map.) The first column, after 
passing Prestwood's, was (according to hearsay) seen at Canwick 
fields (still inclining to iiorM-west), and went over a farmer's 
yard near the spot called Sweepwash in the map. In the two 
fields off this point, a ball of fire was seen to fall by three men, 
and it made a great hole, the stony soil being scattered around 
as if a large cart-load had been cast out in all directions. This 
was caused, it is supposed, by the first column. This column 
then made a detour more northward across the river Witham, 
which it momentarily dried for 50 to 100 yards, and made great 
devastation on the opposite side to where Prestwood first saw it, 
at Greetwell especially. 

'' There was much lightning in all directions at the time this 
was occurring, and heavy rain followed, with much hail of large 
size } but no water was seen in the columns, and he does not 
suppose they contained any. ' They seemed to be full of thunder, 
lightning, and earth, all mixed together.* 

(Signed) "E. B. DRURY. 

''Gazette Office, Lincoln." 



k 



THE SMALLER WHIRLWINDS. 475 

A record of the state of the weather, and of meteoro- chap. 

XI. 

logical phenomeDa, is now ordered to be kept at the '• — 

central signal station in the Bermuda Islands ; and 
weekly reports from this record are to be published in 
the " Bermuda Royal Gazette." The following is an 
extract from one of these reports. 

Report relative to a Waterspout, seen from Fort George, Bermuda, 






May 13tb, 1839. 
I observed on the morning of the 17th alt., aboat six a.m., 
a waterspout, bearing from Fort George south-west. When 
first seen it appeared very small, and travelled in aa easterly 
direction 3 when bearing south-east it vanished for a minute or 
two : when it was again seen it gradually became larger, and 
was of a pale red colour, although the sun was not shining. 
It was about twelve miles distant from the land, and it lasted 
for fifteen minutes. I am unable to state which direction it 
turned round. 

(Signed) " LUKE HEDDERLEY, 

" Sergeant 30th Regiment, S. Director.'* 

(Bermuda Royal Gazette,) 

On the 15th of August, 1839, I had an oppor- ^^^^ 
tunity of observins: the mode of revolvinc: of a water- voMng in 

^ ^ ° different 

spout. It formed under Government-House at Ber- ways. 
muda, which stands about 130 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

A heavy cloud, from which rain was falling, and 
from which the waterspout projected, moved slowly 
towards the shore, and to within 1000 yards of the 
spectators, who were to the southward of it. The mode 
of revolving could not be ascertained by the naked 
eye ; but on looking down through a telescope upon 
the lower part of the phenomenon, it appeared like a 
cylinder formed of spray from the sea. The height 



476 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP, seemed about fifteen feet. On the south side, nearest 

"VT 

_ ' J the spectators, the spray was seen distinctly to fly 

from the right hand towards the left with somewhat 
of a spiral motion : whilst over the top of it a small 
portion of the opposite side was seen returning from 
the left hand towards the right, completing the revo- 
lution in the same manner as the hands of a watch 
revolve. The upper part was alternately condensed 
into visible vapour, and re-dissolved in a remarkably 
sudden manner several times. Whibt contemplating 
this phenomenon, it was not easy to refuse belief that 
it owed its origin to some fixed cause. 

I am indebted to Mr. Walker, the Queen's Harbour 
Master at Plymouth, for an account of a waterspout 
he sailed through in the Bay of Naples ; which, by 
his statement, revolved in a contrary way to the one 
just described. Mr. Walker says, '^ I have been 
tlirough a waterspout in the Bay of Naples, and can 
safely state that its rotations were not in aocoidinoe 
with the law we have been discussing — namely, on 
its south side the wind was westerly ^ and on its north 
side easterly J^ 

On the 28tli of August, 1839, 1 witnessed another 
at Bermuda, which likewise seemed to revolve in the 
contrary direction to the hands of a watch ; but it was 
not sufiiciently developed, and was too distant to be 
certain of the fact, though attentively watched with a 
telescoj)C. 



On the Fall of Fishes upon Land. 

Minute The description of waterspouts carrying up the 

to tail water of the sea iuto the air, together with the re- 
rain, ported rains of salt water during hurricanes, led me 



FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 477 

to inquire into the singular accounts of minute fish chap. 
being seen in India on the land, both alive and dead, ' 

after heavy rain, and which are there believed by 
most persons to fall from the clouds. I thought it 
possible, since whirlwinds on land carry up branches 
of trees, and whirlwinds at sea carry up the water 
of the ocean, such phenomena might have the power 
of raising pools of water, and all small bodies floating 
in them. This inquiry led to a very curious paper 
being written on the subject by Captain W. C. Grant, 
of the Bombay Engineers, and which will be found 
subjmned ; and it will be found that Captain Grant 
also alludes to the moving pillars of sand. 

He had never, however, observed which way these 
small whirlwinds revolved. 

This singular fact of fish being found on the land in 
India after rain, which is discredited only by those 
who have not inquired, deserves more close investi- 
gation than it has yet received. 

I annex the reports I have met with ; and if they 
do not altogether confirm the opinion alluded to 
above — that fish are carried into the air by the smaller 
whirlwinds — they will at least, I trust, awaken a desire 
for further and more attentive inquiry. 

I am indebted to Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, 
London, for the following notes by Mr. Yarrell. 

Descent of Fishes frmn the Clouds. 

Extracts from a Letter to William Peete, Esq., F.L.S., giving an 
account of a shower of Fishes in India 5 with some additional 
remarks by Mr. Peete. 

'' The fish (a species of Cjrprinus, 2\ inches long) was copied 
from a drawing taken by Mrs. Smith, at Monadabad, July 2^h, 
1899> who speaks of this fish as being one amongst a number 



k 



478 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP, that came from the doads in a shower of rain» and was pretented 
^- to her with many others. 

" (The drawing was made hy that lady immediately, and 
coloured from life in every respect, with the exact size of the 
fish in length and breadth. 

''The drawing represents a small species of Cypruras^ 9| 
inches in length, green above, silvery white below, with a broad 
lateral line of bright red.) 

" Mrs. Smith, in a letter from Silpot, in Bengal, when re- 
siding there, July dOth, 1836, thus speaks of a similar eztnor- 
dinary event : — ' Have you not heard of its raining fish in India ? 
I can assure you that our men went out and picked them up, 
during a tremendous storm, on the gprass. I saw tliem myself 
from the window, leaping about, and the men taking them np. 
Is it possible the violence of the storm may Ibroe them oat of 
the river, or may they be drawn up by the ascent of the loam 
or vapour, and fall down in the rain ? but that many were 
springing about on the grass, is most true. They were small ; 
the largest I saw was about the size of a small gudgeon.* 

" The following lately appeared in a newspaper. 

" ' Shower of Young Herrings. — On the 9th of llarch, 
1830, the inhabitants of the Island of Ula, Argyleshire, after a 
day of heavy rain, were surprised to find numbers of small 
herrings strewed over their fields, perfectly fresh, and some 
of them exhibiting signs of life. Similar instances of showers 
of small fish are well authenticated.* 

" In ' Hasted's History of Kent,* vol. v., page 3, 8vo edition, 
is the following. 'About Easter, in the year 1666, a pasture fidd 
in the parish of Stansted, which is a considerable distance Iran 
the sea or any branch of it, and a place where there are no fish 
ponds, in quantity about a bushel, supposed to have been rained 
down from a cloud, there having been at that time a great tern* 
pest of thunder, hail, wind, &c. These fish were about the si» 
of a man*s little finger, some were small whitings, others like 
sprats, and some smaller like smelts. Several of these fish were 
shown publicly at Maidstone and Dartford.* 

" In a letter from Dr. Latham, he observed, that the circum- 
stance of the shower of fishes is no doubt a fact as recorded ia 
Hasted. I referred, too, to the ' Philosophical Transactions^' 
vol. XX., page ^89, where it is said to have happened at Stansted' 
I find in this volume of mine a MS. note, dated 1720, by the 
Rev. Mr. Barrel, which says, that an old sen^ant of his, named 



FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 479 

William Martin, mentioned to him, that, when a boy, he lived CHAP, 
with his father near where the fish fell, and saw the storm of ^' 
hail and rain which preceded, and took up several of the fishes. 

'' Colonel Sykes tells me, that in ' Harriot's Struggles through 
Life,* there is an account of a shower of fishes that fell in India : 
the storm overtook some troops on their march, and the living 
fish fell on the hats of the men. 

(Signed) "WILLIAM YARRELL. 

" Forwarded with a note." 



The next statement was given me by Mr. Buckley, 
with whom I made a voyage : — 

''On March 30th, 1836, at 4 a.m., heing in the brig Matilda, 
of St. John, N.B., off the Bay of Naples, the Island of Ischia 
bearing east, distant ten leagues. It blowing hard north-west, 
and thick weather, I observed a very curious appearance in 
the north-west. It appeared columnar, and -like a lighthouse 
enveloped in a white blaze of fire, and continued so for fifteen 
or twenty minutes, and then disappeared. Immediately after 
the wind fell to a moderate breeze, and cleared up, when we had 
a fine pleasant day. 

(Signed) "JAS. BUCKLEY, 

" Mate of the barque Barlow.** 



For the following I am indebted to Mr. Redfield: — 

Phenomena. — "Recently we have seen accounts of a shower 
of mud at Buenos Ayres; a shower of chalk at Bennington, Vt. ; \ ..w^ cv^- 
and a shower offish at Baton Rouge, La.'* — American Newspaper, Xt ^/ ^o^^^ 
1833. 



u 



Louisville, Kentucky. 
Yesterday morning a great number of small fish were found 
swimming in the gutters on Jefferson-street. During the night 
previous a heavy rain fell, and the fish of course descended with 
the water. We saw a number of them — they were from two to 
three inches long, and mostly sun perch.** — Louisville Newspaper, 
Nov. 1835. 



The Staunton, Va., Spectator, of the 24th ult. says, " During a 
storm last week (June, 1833), a gentleman of this place, who was 



K 



480 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP, on one of the roads a few miles from town, diatinctly saw a Urgv 
^' snake fall from the clouds into the roads, a short diatance before 
him. There was no tree near the spot, and the snake was at t 
considerable height when he first noticed it. The snake wu 
supposed to be of the water species, and was alive. It was 
doubtless taken up in a waterspout or whirlwind.** 



Shower of Eels. — ^'A friend of ours, 3resterdajr, presented 
to us a small paper of eels, from one to two inches in length, 
which he gathered after the heavy rain on Sunday, May 20, 1839, 
in the neighbourhood of Lafayette-place. They are perfect in 
form, and attracted the attention of thousands who yeateidaj 
called at our office.** — American Newspaper, 

Hail-Storm. — ^''A most tremendous and destmctive hsQ- 
storm passed over the country, about five miles above TVenUn. 
yesterday afternoon, Sunday, May 20, 1832. Windows, poaltxy, 
&c, was extensively destroyed.** — Ibid. 



Waterspout, 1832. — ''On Thursday, 11th inst., seversl of 
the inhabitants of Cancer, about eight miles from this place, htd 
an opportunity of witnessing this truly wonderful phenomenon, 
though, indeed, on not a very extensive scale. We have kamed 
upon inquiry that a whirl in the air was perceived at a little 
distance from Sampson*8 Pond. This whirlwind took the direc- 
tion of the pond ; and, at the moment of passing over it, t 
column of water ascended in one unbroken mass, and to such a 
height as to be seen at the distance of ^ye miles. A dood 
charged with electric fluid was suspended over the pond at the 
time. In this doud the top of the column was appaientlf 
merged, but in a few moments the whole mass descended mio 
the neighbouring woods, with such force as to break off the 
limbs of some of the trees with which it came in contact. Bf 
this sudden freak of the elements, several frogs became, nnintcn- 
tionally, aeronauts ; and, like Vincent Lemanli, paid for their 
excursion with their lives.*' — Plymouth Democrat, 



A Shower of Fishes. — " Wc have received from a 
resi>cctablc and credible authority the following narrative:-' 
' There is a farm bordering on Lake Gwynant, in this county, of 
which Mr. John Rowlands is the tenant, called Hafod Glwyfof. 



FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 481 

On last Wednesday fortnight a servant woman was engaged in CHAP, 
washing a pail at the edge of the lake, and a numher of children ^* 
were with her. While she was thus employed (the time was 
about eight o'clock in the evening) she was astonished by a 
shower of small fishes, which fell upon her and about her, partly 
into the lake and partly upon the land. They resembled her- 
rings, but were much smaller. The children picked many of 
them up, and threw them into the lake. A heavy shower of rain 
had preceded the descent of these fishes, and the day following 
there was much thunder and very heavy rain indeed.* Our cor- 
respondent has preserved the remains of some of these fish in 
spirits of wine." — Carnarvon Herald (English Paper, 1833.) 



I was informed by Admiral Sir Hugh Pigot that he 
himself saw a fish fall upon the deck of the Princess 
Charlotte, in Toulon harbour, when he was on board 
that ship. A waterspout struck her, and covered her 
decks with water. No one in the ship doubted but 
that this fish had been carried up out of the sea by the 
waterspout, and then fell on the deck. It was some- 
what longer than a man's hand. 



An account of salmon-fry being found on land at 
Jedburgh, in Scotland, after very heavy rain, having 
appeared in the ** Scotsman" newspaper, I wrote to the 
minister of the parish to ascertain the truth of the re- 
port, and the following is the answer I received : — 

" Jedburgh, 19th Sept. 1838. 
** Report said that many salmon-fry were found. I have been 
able to find only two, and these are still alive. They were found 
in a pitcher — quite empty and dry — which a woman had set out 
to receive some of the rain which was falling in torrents. The 
pitcher was placed beneath a water-conductor, leading down 
from the roof of a slated house, and the fish must have come 
down through it. There can be no doubt of the fact of their 
being found in this, as the woman to whom the pitcher belonged 
assured me there was not a drop of water in it when set out, and 

2i 




482 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP, nobody approached it to pat any thing in. I aoa sorry that I 
^^* have been able to get no precise information aboat the weather 
on that day^ except that it was an absolute deluge of rain. 
About the period in question a decided waterspout fell in tbr 
neighbourhood of the town, and much damaged the fields } bot 
whether it was the same as that in which the fish were found I 
have not been able to ascertain. I may add, that this placf 
stands on the brink of a small river ; in whicb, however, there 
are no salmon, and is about two miles distant from a still larger 
one in which there are many. 

(Signed) " JOHN PURVES, 

'' Minister of Jedburgh." 

Having written a second time to Mr. Purves, to 

know what size the small fishes were, the answer I 

received is as follows : — 

'' Jedburgh, 10th Oct., 1838. 

" I have waited for some time in replying to your Gommnni- 
cation of the 29th ultimo, in consequence of some reports in the 
place of other fishes being found near this on the same day. In 
so far as my inquiries have gone, they seem mere reports. I 
have, however, examined the two of which I wrote to yoa 
They urc still alive, and quite lively. As near as I can, 
they are each about an inch in length ; a head somewhat large 
in proportion to the body, which tapers much towards the taiL 
with clear transparent fins, and a tail very elegantly formed. I 
have renewed my inquiries about the vessel, which was perfectly 
dry when set out -, as was also the vessel into which the water 
was subsequently poured, and where they were discovered. Oo 
recalling every thing, I can distinctly remember that the day oa 
which they were found was not only very rainy, but rain acoom- 
panicd every now and then with swirls of wind of terrible power, 
as often in a thunderstorm — in short, it was quite like a water- 
spout. (Signed) " JOHN PURVES. 

" Lieut.-CoIonel Reid." 

For the next account I am indebted to Mrs. Kenrick, 
of Bounie-place, near Canterbury. Lord Eastnor thus 
writes to her : — 

" I have much pleasure in complying with your request, wad 




FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 483 

stating, to the best of my recollection^ the circumstances of the CHAP, 
crabs being found near Reigate. ^' 

** Soon after a most violent storm of rain and wind,* in the " 
svmmer of 1829, three small crabs, weighing from 1 j^ to 1| oz., 
were found in the area of the workhouse at Reigate ; and a fourth 
WHS afterwards found at a little distance, I think the following 
moming. One of them appeared to be still living. In the mom- 
mg of the day previous to the storm the area of the workhouse 
had been thoroughly swept and cleaned ; consequently they must 
have been seen had they been there then. They were found by 
a boy, who told the governor that he had found a comical sort 
of a frog. I went myself to the workhouse as soon as I heard of 
the circumstance, and saw the frogs. I know that Mr. Turner 
had one of them, for the purpose of preserving it ; and you will, 
probably, hear from him whether he has it still. 

" Believe me, &c., 

(Signed) " EASTNOR. 

" Tyttenhanger, 5th Aug., 1836. 

** To Mn. Kenrick, Bourne-place, near Canterbury." 






Mr. Turner, veterinary surgeon, of Reigate, thus 
writes on the subject to Mr. Fairholme : — 

Sir, " Reigate, 8th Aug. 1836. 

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, and shall be 
most happy to give you the particulars of the crabs, one of which 
is now in my possession. On the 19th July, 1829> there was a 
very violent storm, attended with a very heavy rain and hail, the 
wind being due south.f 

** Within the walls of the House of Industry, at Redhill, about 
one mile and a half from hence, the fall of water was so great as 
to appear like an inundation. After it had in some degree sub- 
sided, the inmates of the house went to open the drains in the 
yard, to relieve the water, and found four crabs alive and moving, 
one of which lived several days, and was preserved by me. The 
others, I fear, were not properly considered, and were ultimately 
destroyed and lost. The species appears to me to be the cancer 
psgarus, or common crab, though of small size. It is of a dull 

* *'Thxa was described to me as haying been more like a West Indian 
hurricane than a European shower." 

t Reigate is distant from Brighton, which lies to the south of it, about 
thirty-five miles. 

2i2 



HUjA ^i 




484 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP, brown colour, has two claws and eight legs, four on emch itde. 
^^- I have given beneath a rough outline of its size.* A nmilar dr* 
cumstance to this occurred seven or eight years ago ncmr thii 
town, and was witnessed by many highly respectable persons. 
After a severe downfal of rain, the road, and some little space, 
was positively covered with thousands of toads and frogs, though 
extremely small, nor larger than a walnut ; and many were lodged 
on the roofs of some of the houses. I shall be hi^ypy to show 
you the crab, as it is in a very perfect state. 

(Signed) " EDWARD TURNER. ' 



The next statement is that written by Captain C. W. 
Grant, Bombay Engineers, before alluded to r-^— 

Off the Fact of Small Fish Falling during Ratm m InSm. 

" That such is the case is certainly the generally receifed 
opinion ; and I have met with many officers who p ro fe s s to have 
themselves witnessed the fact ; that is, that after a heavy fall of 
rain they have seen small fish jumping about on the terraoed 
roofs of houses, and in other places wholly inaccessible to then, 
unless they had fallen from the clouds ; but I never knew any 
one who had either caught them in a water-tub or otlier reMr- 
voir, or had known them to fall on his person, as we have a 
right to expect would have sometimes occurred, if such were the 
case ; or that, in fact, would affirm that he had actually seen 
them falling. 

*' I have myself frequently noticed little fish flapping aboat ia 
puddles on the top of a high table land during and afler heavy 
rains -, but think their presence in such places, as well as on ter* 
races, may be accounted for without resorting to so improbabk 
an hypothesis as that of falling from the clouds. 

" In most parts of India the beds of small rivers, as well as 
those of the tanks or natural ponds, which are so nomenMis ia 
the rainy reason, become dry during the hot months, so that the 
small fish with which they abound must all perish, either firoiB 
this cause, or by means of the numerous water-fowl and other 
enemies to which they become an easy prey; so that, onlesi 
their spawn had the power of retaining its vitality onder very 
untoward circumstances, it would be difficult to account for their 

* llie Bkotcli is omitted. Tlie body of the crab in it meaHured exactly two 

irR-lipfl and a half. 



FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 485 

reappearance every season in such numbers 5 and that the CHAP, 
spawn has this power there are many reasons for believing : ^« 
among others^ it is even said that some water-fowl^ who subsist 
on this substance during their migrations, void the spawn two 
or three days afterwards, the eggs retaining their vital functions 
imimpaired. — (See Lyell's 'Principles of Geology.*) It is, there- 
fore, very probable that this spawn may adhere to pieces of stick 
or grass floating in the tanks or rivers, which on their becoming 
dry are borne aloft by the small whirlwinds, or devils as they are 
called in India, and thus carried through the air for a considerable 
distance, and lodged either on the terraces of houses, or on any 
other apparently inaccessible places (or the spawn may in itself 
be drifted along, mixed with the sand of the dried-up river-beds) : 
here they are swept by the eddy into the comers, gutters, or other 
protected spots, where they remain until washed out by the first 
fall of rain, which frequently lasts for many days. And when we 
consider how rapidly generation takes place in tropical latitudes, 
it is easy to suppose these Httle fish or fry might appear in such 
unlikely places. The constant heat of the atmosphere, from the 
time of the drying up of the tanks, &c. (that is during the hot 
months of April and May), till the first fall of rain, may perhaps 
account for the spawn or eggs retaining their vitality under such 
apparently unfavourable circumstances. 

" The small whirlwind, or devil, above alluded to, has such 
power that it frequently unroofs a house, carrying the thatch a 
great height into the air, as well as pieces of paper, matting, or 
any light substance ; and frequently assumes the appearance of a 
large and lofty pillar of sand, moving at a steady pace across the , 
plains, sucking every thing of small weight into its vortex, and 
thus sweeping along for miles, being evidently acted upon by two 
distinct forces, a spiral motion round its own axis, and a pro- 
gressive or linear impulse -, and might, therefore, possibly draw 
up these small fish into the air (as has been suggested by some), 
whence they would fall with the rain : but as these devils occur 
chiefly, solely I believe, in the hot winds or dry season, and never 
.during a fall of rain, such a mode of accounting for their ap- 
pearance loses its weighty though I admit that these peculiar 
currents of air may pass over the sea as well as the land, having 
myself seen the ocean affected in a manner that could only be 
occasioned by some such cause, namely, the surface drawn up in 
an irregular conical form to a considerable height, the clouds 




486 ON WATEBSPOUTS AHD 

CHAP, bellying down as it were to meet it, and tbe idiole advandnf in 
^^' a given direction. 

" The space between the donds and the water being to^ 
strongly marked^ so that it is jnst possible that a aboal of amiD 
fish swimming near the surfiEu:e might be lifted oat of the water 
by such a cause ; but as they have been said to lUl in the 
interior of Hindostan, in places immensely distant from tbe wet, 
and at a time when the tanks, &c., are mostly dried op, each an 
explanation of the fact is beset with difficnltiefl. 

" The late Major Hawkins, of the Bombay Engineen, who 
built and put up the machinery of the Mint at that preaidacy, 
told roe that he had paid much attention to this siibject« bat 
that he had never met with any person who bdievcd in the idea 
of these fish falling from the clouds who did not, on tetlMr 
inquiry, admit facts that enabled him (Major H.) to acooaat fv 
their presence in a more probable manner ; his idea being, thil 
the fish generally contrived to work themselves np to these w^ 
parently inaccessible places, such as the terraces of bonaeSv kc^ 
by means of the pipes or gutters by which the water ii let off 
them, or by the angles or corners of the buildinga ; it being wcD 
known that fish have an extraordinary power of ean n o unliag 
obstacles to their progressive movements, as ia evinced by the 
salmon and other species, particularly the jronng of eela 
arc said to be enabled to climb over the gates of a lod^ 
when dry, by means of the slime on their bodies. 

" Be this as it may, I still think that either this 
or that which I have here suggested, is more conaiatent 
knowledge of nature and her laws, than that these 
should actually fall from the clouds $ though, I believe^ we sr 
ill a minority on the subject, the fiact of their actnally fidiig 
with the rain being the more generally received opinion* 

** Since writing the above, my attention has been called to a 
)mi>er in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society ' of Bengal, Ibr Dl^ 
ix'mbcr* 1833. which bears so directly upon this subjectj tbe! I 
nni induced to transcribe it, from an idea that it may not 
ooiuo under the notice of many of the readers of this work. 
is written by James Prinsep, Esq., tbe editor of the joomal 
ipiostion, and is headed, ' Fall of Fish from the Sky.* 

** * The phenomenon of fish falling from the sky in the 
season, however incredible it may appear, has been attested ky 
such circumstantial evidence, that no reasonable doubt can be 



J 



FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 487 

entertained of the fact. I was as incFedulous as my neighbours^ CHAP, 
until I once found a small fish^ which had apparently been alive ^* 
when it fell, in the brass funnel of my pluviameter, at Benares, 
which stood on an insulated stone pillar, raised five feet above 
the ground in my garden. I have now before me a note of a 
similar phenomenon, on a considerable scale, which happened at 
Nakulhatty Factory, Zillah Decca Jelalpoor, in 1830. 

'"Mr. Cameron, who communicated the fact, todL the pre- 
caution of having a regular deposition of the evidence of several 
matives, who had witnessed the fail, made in Bengalee, and 
attested before a magistrate : the statement is well worthy of 
preservation in a journal of science, I therefore make no apology 
for introducing a translation at length. The shower of fish took 
place on the 9th February, 1830, in the neighbourhood of the 
Surbnndy Factory, Feridpoor. 

'James Prinsep.* 

''The depositions of eight or ten people here follow, of which 
I shall merely give extracts. 

" Shekh Chandhari Ahmed relates in his deposition, ' I had 
been doing my work at a meadow, when I perceived at the hour 
of IS o'clock the sky gather clouds, and it began to rain slightly, 
then a large fish, touching my back by its head, fell to the 
ground. Being surprised, I looked about, and behold a number 
of fish likewise fell from heaven ! They were saui, sale, yvgal, 
mtngal, and haduL I took ten or eleven fish in number, and I 
saw many other persons take many. I looked at heaven, and I 
saw like a flock of birds flying up, but there my perceptions 
were not clear enough : amongst these fish many were found 
rotten, without heads, and others fresh and perfect 3 and amongst 
the number which I had got, five were firesh, and the rest 
stinking and headless.* 

** Shekh Punikulloh, twelve years of age, declared, ' While I 
was sitting in my own house, I perceived a number of fish hXL 
from the sky, some of them on the roof of my own cottage, one 
of them was large, about one cubit, and three seer (lb,) in weight,* 

** Another man says, ' I perceived a baduli fish, large, about 
one cubit, fall before me from the sky, after which I went further 
and found another.' 

" Another says, ' I observed a mingal, and some other fish, 
badulis, &c. of different sizes, fall from the sky^ I picked up 
about five or six of them to satify my curiosity, but did not eat 
them at all.* 



488 ON WATERSPOUTS AND 

CHAP. "Another man deposed, 'I foond every |Murt of my bvC 
^- scattered with fish; they were bodMli, muM^, and mameii^ and 
amounted to twenty-five in number.' 

"Again, 'some were fresh, but others rotten and' without 
heads.' 

"AU accounts agree as to the time, 12 o'clock, and as to the 
description of fish. 

^' With regard to the small fish that Mr. Pdnsep found in his 
pluviameter, I think its presence is as likely to have been occa- 
sioned by either of the causes before mentioned, as that it fell 
from the clouds ; but with respect to the drcnmstantial acooont 
of the fall of fish in the neighbourhood of Feridpoor, I have 
nothing to say. When we read of fish, a cMi m hmftk and 
three pounds im weight, fisdling from the sky, some Iresh, oChen 
putrid, and without their heads, our reason is at fault, unless 
we suppose them to have been thrown up by some volcanic or 
gaseous eruption, such as is, I believe, mentioned by Humboldt 
as having occurred in South America : but it is quite evident that 
such a phenomenon can have no connexion with the foci of 
small fish commonly falling during rain in India; tlum^ I beg 
to state, that my suggestions as to the cause of their 
in apparently inaccessible spots are offered with the 
diffidence, having been induced to give them solely with the 
hope of exciting discussion and information on thia eestainly 
interesting fact 5 as, before we can arrive at a proper undcntand- 
ing of the subject, it would be necessary to kam from rt p f af f^ 
observations, whether the fish that fall are of fresh water or 
marine species, and whether they are full grown spedmcna of a 
small class, or the fry of larger kinds ; what the directioa of the 
wind was at the time of their falling, as well as any peculiarity 
of the atmosphere as denoted by the barometer or thermometer, 
and other minutiae that will naturally occur— my aim in writing 
these few remarks being chiefly to detail the effecta of those 
small whirlwinds called devils, that sweep across the Indiaa 
plains, and to show that they may be considered as models of 
those mighty hurricanes, that it has been the object of the fbie- 
going paper* to describe. 

" C. W. GRANT, 
"March, 1838." Captain, Bombay Engineers. 

* This alludcb to the original article on Hurricane*, printed ia thi 

rrofcf sional Tapers of the Corps cl" Royal Engineers. 



FALL OF FISHES ON LAND. 489 

The next account of the fall of fish in India, is chap. 

XI 

copied from the "Asiatic Journal" of January, 1839, 1— 

page 78, and taken by that journal from the " Calcutta 
Courier" of the 24th Sept., without naming the year. 

" We have the following account of an extraordinary fall of 
fish^ from a correspondent of undoubted veracity^ who witnessed 
the occurrence himself at a place not more than twenty miles 
south of Calcutta, in the Sunderbunds, by way of the Salt Water 
Lakes: — 'About 2 o'clock, p.m., of the 20th instant (probably 
80th September, 1838), we had a very smart shower of rain, and 
with it there descended a quantity of live fish, about three inches 
in length, and all of one kind only. They fell in a straight line 
on the road from my house to the tank, which is about forty or 
fifty yards distant. Those which fell on the hard ground, were 
as a matter of course, killed from the fall, but those which fell 
where there was grass growing, sustained no injury, and I picked 
up a large quantity of them ' alive and kicking,' and let them go 
into my tank. Some people suppose phenomena of this nature 
take place through the agency of waterspouts, which draw up the 
fish« &c., from rivers and tanks, and afterwards return them to 
the earth again in showers of rain; and there appears to me no 
other way of accounting for the occurrence of the phenomena, 
or that fish should be found so far out of their element. The 
most strange thing that struck me, in connexion with this event 
was, that the fish did not fall helter skelter, everywhere, or ' here 
and there;* but they fell in a straight line, not more than a cubit 
in breadth. The natives living in and about the place gave to the 
fish the name of uka; but whether this be the right word or not, 
I cannot tell from my own knowledge." 

When such a phenomenon as this occurs a few fishes 
should be preserved ; which is easily done by putting 
them into any common spirit, so that they may be 
sent to persons competent to determine their genus 
and species. 



490 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE CONCLUDING CHAPTEB. 



CHAP. The vast quantity of electricity rendered active during 
! hurricanes, and the appearances accompanying water- 
spouts, lead insensibly to the consideration whether 
this can be the agent which causes great storms. It 
was impossible, while arranging the matter here de- 
tailed, to avoid speculations on the subject ; and these 
speculations assumed a character of great interest, 
when satisfactory proof was obtained that great storms 
in the southern hemisphere revolve in the opposite 
direction to those of the northern ; and the two poles of 
the magnet, when in conjunction with a voltaic batteiy, 
were seen to exhibit a similar phenomenon. But being 
desirous, throughout this investigation into storms, of 
avoiding mere hypothesis, I state this only as a re- 
markable coincidence. 

With the view of trying if rotations could be ex- 
hibited off the poles, a 10-inch hollow shot was 
obtained from the Board of Ordnance, and converted 
into one of Barlow's magnetic globes, and placed b 
the hands of Mr. Clarke, of the Lowther Arcade, 
London. It was left to his ability to prepare it for 
experiments as he might judge best. 

A broad belt was turned on this 84 lbs. shot^ in the 
lathe for turning cannon at Woolwich, equal to the 
relative width between the tropics ; and this space was 




CONNEXION OF STORMS WITH ELECTRICITY. 



491 



covered with coils of copper wire, as in Mr. Barlow's c ha p, 
globes. A small iron cylinder was then inserted in - 
that part of the globe which corresponds to the latitude 
of Great Britain ; and a small coil of another wire 
passed round this cylinder to create a disturbance in 
the electric currents of this artificial globe. Then, 
when both coils were placed in communication with 
the exciting battery, and another voltaic current was 
passed through the wire which was designed to move 
in circles, and was put in proper connection with it, a 
rotation immediately commenced, changing its mode 
of revolving as the upper wire was changed from the 
copper to the zinc. 

There are squalls within the limits of the trade- 
winds which evidently are not of the nature of 
rotatory storms. From explanations received from 
naval officers, as well as from some log-books, I 
should be convinced that the tornadoes on the west 
coast of Africa, as well as the pamperos on the coast 
of South America, and also arched squalls, are phe- 
nomena altogether different from the whirlwind ; but 
the evidence has not proved reconcileable. Thus, in 
the log-book of H.M.S. Tartar, is to be found that 
which follows : — 



Extract from Log of H.M.S. Tartar, on the West Coast of Africa. 



Hour. 


Courses. 


Winds. 


Remarks. 


Noon 

P.M. 

4 


*••*••*• 


(Light 
(breezes 


AprU 3, 1821. 

At single anchor in the north-west bay 
of Fernando Po. 

Noon. Light breezes. 

P.M. Ditto weather. 

At 4, completed watering 110 tuns; in 
launch. 




493 



CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 



CHAP. 
XU. 



Extract from Log of H. M. S. Tartar— concAuM. 




8 
12 



Bemmrks. 



A.M. 

4 



P.M. 

7.35 



10 
11 

P.M. 

3 



P.M. 

1.30 



P.M. 

2.30 



Light 
breezet 



Calm 



At 8, light breent ; threatening in the ; 
north'Sast, indicating a tornado. | 

Midnight. Came on a tornado; cwirW 
round tM compau, 

^% , 



April 4, 1821. 

A.M. Tornado still continnei. 

At 4, calm, with thunder and li^ 

sent a boat to haul the seine, fte. 



NE 

SE 

ENE 
Eastward 



April 30, 1821. 

P.M. At 7.35, came- to, with small ' 
bower ; Cape Coast Castle N { E ; node- j 
rate and cloudy. 

At 10, heavy rain. 

At 11, a tornado from the nowfk §m»t 



May 1, 1821. 
P.M. At 3, came on a heavy tornado 
from the 90uth-€tut. 



May 7, 1821. 
P.M. At 1.80, came on a heavr tonado i 
from east-north-east ; split the jib. 



June 2, 1821. 
P.M. At 2.80, a heavy tornado from the 
eattward. 



I 



The four last examples accord with what I have 
been told by naval men, viz., that during the violence 
of the tornadoes the wind blows always from the east- 
ward. This part of the subject, therefore, requires 
more attentive observation. If seamen would make 
their log-books records of the weather, noting remark- 
able meteorological phenomena as they occur, thqf 
could funiish hourly observations over a vast extent 
This is the advantage offered by the present inquiry ; 
for, by means of the log-books of ships, hourly ol^ 
servations over extended tracks have really been 
obtained. 




ON CHANGES DURING HURRICANES. 493 

Depth of Water in Anchorages during Hurricanes. 

An anchorage, which would be of sufficient depth chap. 

in ordinary gales, might prove too shallow during a ! — 

hurricane, in consequence of the depth of the trough 
of the sea from the unusual undulations created by 
such storms. Instances have been here given, when 
the effect of hurricanes, blowing into a bay, has been 
to heap up the water within it for a time; so that 
vessels which have dragged their anchors during such 
a crisis, have been carried into places whence they 
could not float after the storm had passed over. 

The opposite consequelice may also occur : such as 
happened to the Lark surveying schooner, when at 
anchor off the west coast of Andros Island, in the 
Bahamas. " Owing to the receding water, that vessel 
struck-^ heavily from 6 to 8 p.m. on the 6th of Sept., 
1838; but floated again on her being raised by 
the south-east gale; whilst the wrecking schooner 
Favourite, 68 miles north of the Lark, was left com- 
pletely dry."* 



The Barometer. 

To Mr. Redfield (as far as I know) we are indebted 
for the first true explanation of the cause of the rise 
and fall of the barometer. In a communication, lately 
received from him, he has informed me, that the 
barometer stands somewhat higher than ordinary just 
beyond the verge of a storm. Thus, when the hurri- 
cane of the middle of August 1837 (Chart VIL), was 
passing, he observed that the barometer at New York 

* Lieut. Smith's Report, Nautical Magazine for January, 1839, p. 30. 




494 



CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 



CHAP, was considerably above 30 inches. Captain Leith's 

position in the Bahama Channel, in the Seringapatam 

frigate, will be found engraved on the same Chart; 
and I here add an extract from her log-booky which 
appears to confirm Mr. Redfield's remark. The baro- 
meter of the Seringapatam stood above thirty inches 
on* the day the Calypso was upset, not very fer from 
her ; and it fell to 29.6 as the ship stood to the south- 
ward, and the storm went off towards the north. 



Extract from the Log of H.M.S. Seringapatam^ on her Voyage 
between Nassau^ New Providence^ and Havannah^ in Aug. 1837. 



Hour. 


Wind. 


Bar. 


Remarks. 


A.X. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 


North 
and N by £ 

NWbyN 
WNW 


30.2 
30.0 
30.2 
29.6 


Augoat 15, 1837. 
A.M. Moderate and fine weather. 
Lat. 26** 26' N, long. 7r 28' W. 


Ausnst 16, 1837. 
A.M. Freah meeses and dimdy; aoit 
top-gallant-maata on deck, &c. 


August 17, 1837. 
A.M. ^rstpart; fiteshbreeneaadliasy; 
latter part, moderate and fine. 


AuguBt 18, 1887. 1 



Unfortunately, the barometer is supposed to foretell 
bad weather, whereas it only indicates that a physical 
change in the atmosphere has actually occurred ; but 
this may be the beginning of a storm : from what has 
just been stated, it will be understood that to mark 
the words " set fair ^'^ usually marked on barometers, is 
to bring this valuable instrument into disrepute, and 
instrument-makers should leave off the practice.* 



* Whateyor Mr. Redfiield has written on Meteorology desenres to be 
with attention. The following list of what he has published is taken 
pnper of his own in the English Nautical Magaiine for JinuMi, 



THE BAROMETER. 



495 



The gusts and squalls in the midst of the stonns are chap. 

features of great interest, towards which attention was 1— 

suggested in the first chapter of this inquiry. These 
phenomena explain Mr. Daniell's observations, in the 
paper published in the " Philosophical Transactions of 
1832/' on the Water Barometer of the Royal Society, 
constructed by himself. Mr. Daniell says, — 

''It is extremely curious to watch its action in Water 
windy weather; the column of water appears to be in of the 
perpetual motion, resembling the slow action of respi- society. 
ration. During a gale of wind, on the 16th of Novem- 
ber, 1830, I made the following observations : — 



Time. 


Thermometer. 


Water 

Barometer 

in 

Inches. 


Mercurial 

Barometer 

in 

Inches. 


Internal. 


External. 


h. m. 
2 30 

2 45 

3 

3 15 

4 
4 15 


o 
56 




66.6 
. • . • 


387.87 • 
387. 59 
387. 44 
387. 28 
387. 64 
387. 85 


29. 092 
29. 090 
29. 090 
29. 090 

• 

29.090 
29.090 



" About half-past two, the maximum range of the 
oscillations was about 0.28 of an inch ; about half an 
hour later, one gust of wind caused an oscillation of 
0.43 of an inch ; and the minor oscillations were gene- 
rally nearer the lower than the higher extreme. At 

«' SQBman's Journal for April, 1831, Vol. xx. p. 17—51. See also Vol. zx. 
p. 191—193; Blunt's Am. Coast Pilot, 12th Edition, July, 1833, p. 626—629; 
SiUiman's Journal, toI. xxt. p. 114 — 135 ; yol. xxyiii. p. 310 — 318 ; xxxi. 
p. 115—130; xxxiii. p. 50—65 and 261—265; Jour. Franklin Inst. yol. xix. 
Feb. 1837, p. 112— 127; Am. Coast Pilot, 13th Edition ; Jamieson's Edin- 
borgh Journal, Feb.—April, 1838." 



496 CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

CHAP, four o'clock the movement became sensibly less id 

xn. . . 
'- — extent, and the mean point of the oscillation b^an to 

rise, and, as I ventured to predict, the wind very soon 

began to abate. It became very suddenly calm, and 

the next day was very fine." 

Mr. Daniell next states, that the water baFometer 
precedes the mercurial barometer, in its indications, by 
one hour. The fact probably is, that the water baro- 
meter being more than thirty feet high, ahows us 
those small changes which the mercurial barometer, 
only about three feet high, does not record. The true 
value of the sympiesometer is its approach to the deli- 
cacy of the water barometer. The latter instrument is 
now out of order ; but Mr. Daniell concludes his paper 
by stating, that should the Council of the Royal Society 
hereafter come to the conclusion that there is enough 
of interest in the subject to induce them to prosecute 
it further, he is of opinion that the instrument may be 
reboiled and resealed, without much risk. If it were 
only for the purpose of showing us something more 
of the nature of gusts and squalls, it would be veiy 
desirable to restore this fine instrument to its efficient 
state. 

If further reasons still were wanting to show the 
importance of frequently observing and recording the 
variations of the barometer and sympiesometer whilst 
at sea, they might be supplied from a statement re* 
ceived from Mr. George Hepburn, master of the 
barque Felicity, of Greenock. (See the first part of the 
hurricane on Chart YII.) On the morning of the 13th 
of August, 1837, he found the sympiesometer down at 
28.50 inches, with the ship at the time under sky-saik 
and studding-sails. Flurrying on deck he furled all 




THE BAROMETER. 497 

small sails, and close-reefed the topsails and foresail, chap. 

At the commencement of the storm, the sky was black — 

in the north-west. By two p.m. all sails were furled, 
and the royal and top-gallant-yards and masts on deck, 
for the gale had increased to a hurricane ; the wind 
then south-west, and the ship frequently lurching the 
lee-rail under water. At 7.30 p.m., there was less 
wind, and it was veering to the southward, having 
commenced about north-west. 

It has frequently been observed that the barometer 
begins to rise a little before the most violent part of a 
hurricane takes place. It will probably be found that 
the upper part of this phenomenon moves onward 
before the portion nearest the earth's surface, and that 
this is the cause of the effect here observed. 

This may have been the case on the 13th August, 
1837, since the sympiesometer had sunk as low as 
28.50, and the black appearance was to the westward 
of the ship before the wind blew hard. 

A progressive whirlwind, of great extent, might 
have the effect of arresting the usual atmospheric 
current, and of heaping it up to a sufficient extent on 
one side of the storm, so as to affect the barometer, by 
increasing the atmospheric pressure ; whilst on the 
opposite side of the same whirlwind, the atmospheric 
pressure, beyond the limit of the storm, might be 
found to be somewhat less than ordinary. 

The following diagram is intended to render this 
explanation more easy. The circle is intended to re- 
present an extended storm in high latitudes; and 
the parallel lines the prevailing westerly atmospheric 
current. 

The same figure may also serve to explain why 

2 K 



CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 



CHAP, progressive revolving storms are ofteD preceded by 
_. J2L- calms ; and why a rise in the barometer may some- 
times precede the setting io of a storm. 




Every policy of insurance should bind the ownen 
or masters of a ship insured to provide a barometer: 
and the protest should show that the barometer wa> 
registered at least once during every watch. Bat it 
ought to be registered ofiener ; and, within the tropics 
during the hurricane season, every time the log is 
heaved. 

Many of the sympiesometers are made too short; 
for which reason this sensitive and valuable instrument 
may fail at tiie moment it is most wanted. Thus, the 
oil of the sympiesometer of H. M. brig Racer, com- 
manded by Captain James Hope, on the 29th of Sep- 
tfmbt-r, IS37, retired ult(^tlier from the column into 



THE SYMPIESOMETER. 499 

the well ; and then a bubbling was observed through chap. 

the oil, which was no doubt the escape of the hydrogen 

gas, owing to the high temperature and diminished 
atmospheric pressure acting conjointly. The number 
12 had been entered on the log-board to denote the 
wind's force. Soon after this, though under bare poles 
at the time, the Racer upset, and was only saved by 
her masts giving way in about two minutes. She was 
running at the time, with the wind two points abaft 
the beam on the starboard side, and she went over 
until her tops struck the waves. It is supposed to 
have been the sea, rather than the wind, which upset 
the Racer, for she was struck by a second wave before 
she recovered the lurch caused by the first. Her 
ballast had also been diminished as her water was 
nearly out, having at the time only eleven tons in- 
stead of forty-four. This shows the value of the 
precaution some naval officers adopt, of filling the 
iron water-tanks with salt water as the fresh is ex- 
pended. 

The barometer will enable us to distinguish that 
deceitful calm, which is only a lull in the midst of a 
storm, from a calm arising from other causes ; since 
the barometer stands lowest near the centre of a 
storm. On the contrary, when the barometer stands 
unusually high, and a calm ensues, such a calm may 
be the prelude to a gale ; but a ship would then be 
upon the verge of a storm, instead of in its centre. 



Calms, 

Calms will probably be found to be intimately con- 
nected with gales; for a rotatory storm must no doubt 

2k2 



500 CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

CHAP, influence the atmosphere around it Thus if a sbi o 
^^' in high northern latitudes were on the east or north i 
east side of a storm coming from the west, we might 
expect the prevailing westerly wind to be suspended. 
and a calm to ensue, until a southerly breeze should 
give the next indication of an appro;iching gale, which 
a fall of the barometer would confirm. 

If, however (being still on the east side), a ship 
should happen to be opposite to, and first fall into 
that portion of a gale which is nearest to the equator, 
and in which the wind blows westerly, tlien instead of 
a calm, the westerly breeze (if such preyiously pre- 
vailed) would probably increase ; the appearance of 
the weather might threaten a storm ; the barometer 
sink a little, and the wind even blow hard from the 
westward ; but if such a breeze should be found to veer, 
then the barometer might be expected to rise after the 
wind became due west, and soon afterwards to abate 
to its former force. 

In south latitude this order would be reversed. 

The calms which are so frequent on the boiderB of 
the trade winds, and those light and fluctuating winds, 
about the 30th degree of latitude, termed " The Vari- 
ables" seem to be owing to such causes as those just 
mentioned. The trade winds might there prevail, 
were it not that rotatory gales, moving eastward be- 
tween the 30th and 40th degrees of latitude, extend 
their influence within the limits usually assigned to 
these variable winds, and, balancing the easterly 
breeze, first cause calms, and then reverse the wind. 




501 



Diminished Atmospheric Pressure. 
It has been stated, at page 42, Chap. IV., that the chap. 

XII 

diminished atmospheric pressure in hurricanes may L_ 

be one of the causes of great inundations during 
storms ; and I regard this as a very curious field of 
inquiry. 

In most detailed accounts of great hurricanes near 
the sea, statements are found of extraordinary high 
tides occurring at the time. We read instances of 
great disaster from inundation, which lead to the 
belief such occurrences could not take place without 
the agency of some very powerful cause yet unex- 
plained. Thus, on the 2l8t of October, 1831, three 
hundred villages, with ten thousand inhabitants, were 
swept away by an inundation at the mouth of the 
Hooghly. And, on the 21st of May, 1833, near the 
same place, when the sea rose several feet higher than 
is reported in the gale of 1831, it is stated, in the 
" Asiatic Journal " of November, 1833, that fifty thou- 
sand people were drowned. 

We have the authority of the learned secretary of 
the Bengal Asiatic Society, Mr. James Prinsep, for 
observations that, at this time, the barometer fell 
upwards of two inches ; and that the oil in the sym- 
piesometer retired entirely from the tube. 

The Intendant of Martinique, in making his report 
upon that island to the French government, in 1780, 
says, " the sea was more destructive than the wind ; 
in the suburb of St. Pierre the surf rose twenty-five 
feet." And in the same report, speaking of St. Vin- 
cent, which then belonged to the French, he says, 



i. 



502 CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

CHAP. ^' In Kingston, out of six hundred houses, only fourteeD 

XII • 

'- — were left." The Jamaica reports state, that in that 

year Savanna-la-Mar was entirely submerged. 

At St. Vincent, in 1833, various marks on the 
shore, showing that the sea had risen twelye feet 
during the hurricane of 1831, and oyerflowed the 
roads below that level, remained distinctly visible. 
From the narratives of Mr. Williams, it is seen that 
similar effects occur in the South Sea Islands. He 
states that, after having moved his vessel forty or fifty 
yards from the sea, to what he thought a place of 
security, the sea notwithstanding reached it, and lifted 
the vessel several feet. 

During the Bermuda hurricane in 1839, the set 
was observed to rise more than two feet higher than 
usual at a spot which was not only on the leeward side 
of the island, but within the camber of the dock-yard ; 
neither did the tide at this place ebb as usual. 

I was told by Sir Thomas Hastings, that he had 
observed the ebbing tide in Portsmouth harbour sus- 
pended during a rapid fall of the barometer, and bq;in 
again to flow ; which he ascribed to the influence of 
diminished atmospheric pressure. A fall of two inches 
in the barometer indicates a diminution of a fifteenth 
part of the atmospheric pressure, which would cause 
water to rise a little more than two feet. 

If a revolving power, like a whirlwind, were the 
only one exerted, it might be expected that the level 
of the water would be diminished at the centre of the 
vortex, though heaped up towards the verge of the 
storm. But it may be possible, that a wave of a 
round or oval form, moving onward h'ke a tidal wave, 
but at tlic rate of the storm's progress, may accompany 



DIMINISHED ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. 503 

the storm in i& course, and that its height may depend chap. 

on the degree of atmospheric pressure, modified by — 

the revolving power of the wind. The impulse in the 
direction of the storm's course being given, and main- 
tained for a few hundred miles, currents, very similar 
to the ordinary currents of the tidal wave, might be 
created : so that if the effect produced by such a wave 
is added to the spring-tides, it might assist in causing 
those inundations in flat lands which often occur in 
violent storms. It will, therefore, be very desirable 
to note the height to which the tides rise on the lee- 
ward side of islands, particularly those lying at a 
distance from and uninfluenced by continents. 

After the storm of September, 1839, Mr. Hurst, of 
the brigantine Queen Victoria (whose place is marked 
in the chart), found the current of the Gulf Stream 
neutralized : and the same commander, on another 
occasion, found the current running to the westward ; 
a fact corroborated by other printed statements at the 
time. 

The storm of 1839, when crossing the Gulf Stream, 
was probably five hundred miles in diameter ; and a 
diminished pressure, amounting to a fifteenth part of 
the atmosphere, at the centre of a moving circle of this 
extent, seems adequate either to arrest or to accelerate 
existing currents, or create new ones. 

The width of the Bay of Bengal, contracting gra- 
dually, does not much exceed half the circumference 
of the greatest storms on the 20th degree of north 
latitude, so that an attendant wave, during a great 
hurricane coming from the south, might be expected 
to deluge the low countries at the mouths of the 
Gauges. 



L 



504 ROLLERS AT ST. HELENA AND A8CBN8ION. 

CHAP. This part of the subject deserves the attention of 
'— engineers, whilst constructing breakwaters in the sea. 



Hollers at St. Helena and Ascension. 

At the island of Ascension, as well as St. Helena, 
there are no storms ; but at both these places a yery 
heavy swell occasionally sets in, which the inhabitants 
call " rollers." 

These rollers are said to come from leeward, which 
is there the north-westward. There has been much 
speculation as to what can cause this sudden swell of 
the sea; some believing it to be owing to volcanic 
action, and others supposing it to be the ground swell 
occasioned by distant storms. It is said that the 
rollers not unfrequently continue for a whole day. 

In the narrative of Mr. Williams (a missionary in 
the South Seas), a similar swell of the sea is described. 
Speaking of Tahiti, he says, — " Mostly once, and fre- 
quently twice in the year, a very heavy sea rolls over 
the reef, and bursts with great violence on the shore : 
but the most remarkable feature, in the periodical high 
sea, is, that it invariably comes from west, or south- 
west, which is the opposite direction to that from whidi 
the trade-wind blows. The eastern sides of these islands 
are, I believe, uninjured by these inundations/' 

When the swell, proceeding from a hurricane, roUs 
against the east side of an island, within the tropics, 
some part of the storm which causes it will usually 
pass over that island : but a distant storm may pass 
on either side, sending only its swell upon the shore. 

It should be observed whether these rollers, by 



RIPPLES. 505 

setting in during the season of hurricanes, are con- chap. 

nected with them ; for if connected with the seasons, 

they cannot be volcanic. The exact direction from 
whence the swell comes at its beginning, as well as at 
its end, should be noted; for if the swell be caused 
by passing storms, it will assist us in approximating 
to the direction in which the storms pass, and be a 
guide in searching for vessels which may have en- 
countered them. 



Yy^4^ Mipplings in the Straits of Malacca* 

A disturbance of the surface of the sea of a diflPerent 
kind has been observed in the Straits of Malacca, which 
is not easily accounted for; and I shall here insert 
Horsburgh's description of it, in the hope that it may 
create inquiry and observation. 

''In the entrance of Malacca Strait^ near the Nicobar and 
Achen Islands^ and betwixt them and Jonkseylon^ there are 
often very strong ripplings^ particularly in the sonth-west mon- 
soon 3 these are alarming to persons unacquainted with them^ 
for the broken water makes a great noise when a ship is passing 
through the ripplings in the night. In most places^ ripplings 
are thought to be produced by strong currents^ but here they 
are frequently seen when there is no perceptible current. 
Although there is often no perceptible current experienced^ so 
as to produce an error in the course and distance sailed^ yet the 
surface of the water is impelled forward by some undiscovered 
cause. The ripplings are seen^ in calm weather^ approaching 
from a distance, and in the night their noise is heard a con- 
siderable time before they come near; they beat against the 
sides of a ship with great violence, and pass on, the spray some- 
times coming on deck ^ and a small boat could not always resist 
the turbulence of these remarkable ripplings." 

* See page 7 " Progress of the Development of the Law of Storms/' for 
further observations on this curious subject. 



k 



506 CONCLUDIiNO CHAPTER. 

CHAP. The following is an account of the ripples in the 

~ - Straits of Malacca, which were met with by Captain 

Basil Hall, R.N, :— 

" In H.M.S. Minden, in September^ 18M^ we jost noticed the 
ripples, when about half-way between Poolo-Penang and the 
Nicobar Islands 5 and they continued from that place to the 
passage between Nicobar and Poolo-Way^ off the north end of 
Sumatra. 

'* They were always of several miles in lengthy and in general 
from two to three and four hundred yards across; they stretched 
from the northward to the southward ; and they all p roceeded 
towards the east and north-east. The ripple has much the 
appearance of a flat sandy shore, just covered by the water, and 
breaking to a considerable distance from the beach. Tlie waves 
curl and break uniformly towards the east or north-east, that it 
towards the point of the compass to which the whole ripple is 
advancing. There is this difference between the ripple and the 
breaking on the flat shore, alluded to above^ viz,, that the ripple 
has not such long equal waves, but breaks shorter, and splashes 
the water up, in a manner different from that produced by the 
regular curl and dash of the beach wave. It has more the 
appearance of a ' race.' 

"They differ very much in the magnitude of their waves. 
Some are quite gentle, and scarcely whiten the surface, and 
create only a low noise ; others foam and dash, so as to shake 
the ship very sensibly, and even to throw the water up many 
feet. The noise of these is considerable, and is heard at ni^t 
from some distance. As we approached the line joining the 
Achen and Nicobar Islands, the ripples became more freqnent 
and violent. On the 5th of September, one passed ns every 
quarter of an hour, on an average. The wind during the days 
on which these phenomena were most remarkable, was 
east and north-east, very light, and shifting about. By 
of chronometers and good latitudes, the ship appeared to have 
been set to the north-west, somewhat less than one mile an 
hour (O.79 miles N.W. by W.). There was no bottom at eighty 
fathoms. 

"The following attendant circumstance is curious. On the 
evening of the 3rd of Sept., the wind was very light from north* 
east by north. The ship*s head west-south-west, and the rale 
of isailing U miles an hour. It was remarked, that whaie%*er 



' RIPPLINOS IN THE STRAITS OF MALACCA. 507 

the ripple touched the ship^ or rather when the ship was com- CHAP, 
pletely in it, the wind uniformly freshened. Upon watching this ^^' 
phenomenon, it was distinctly made out, that, at the same time 
with the wind's freshening, a change occurred in its direction. 
Before entering the ripple, the wind was north-east by north. 
'On entering it, it appeared to blow from about north. The 
exact difference in the angle could not be ascertained, though a 
considerable difference was manifest.' *' 

Captain Basil Hall is of opiDion that this might only 
have been an apparent shift of wind, caused by the 
ship drifting in the current. 

For the following I am indebted to an officer of the 
Royal Navy : — 

"Between the years of 1829 and 1833, I was attached to 
Mauritius and its dependencies, in two brigs (the Jaseur and 
Badger), and whilst cruising amongst the various coral islands 
between Madagascar, about 72^ east longitude, within the tropics, 
I have more than once passed through a complete circle of 
breakers, having the appearance of a reef of rocks, generaUy 
in a moderate breeze, and the spray was thrown over, so as 
slightly to wet the deck -, the centre of this circle was perfectly 
smooth and free from the least swell even, giving one the idea 
of a boiling cauldron or a whirlpool, such as is formed by water 
being forced from under the gate of a mill-pond, having a 
diameter of from one to two miles : as far as I can remember, 
no one attempted to account for these at the time, but all 
appeared to look upon it as a most extraordinary and inex- 
plicable wonder. 

(Signed) " F. L. BARNARD.' 

Naval officers, who have often seen these ripplings, 
represent them as being met with out of soundings, 
and in other localities besides the Straits of Malacca. 

These ripples are said to be obliterated by such a 
breeze as would carry a ship two knots an hour, with 
sky-sails set. 

The great height to which the salt water of the sea 
is sometimes carried up into the air, whether by the 



608 



CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 



CHAP, mere force of the wind driving it as spray, or by some 
! — lifting motion, as in the waterspouts, deserves atten- 
tion. That which follows is an extract from the April 
report from Barra Lighthouse for the present year 
(1838), sent me by Mr. Robert Stevenson, the engineer 
to the northern lighthouses. 

^^On the 16th, it rained spray and snow all day; 
so that for a week after we had no fresh water on the 
island." And Mr. Stevenson adds this note to the 
report : — " The top of the island, or base of the light- 
house, is 600 feet above the level of the sea." 

It had blown a storm, and the height of the baro- 
meter was, according to the same report, as follows : — 



Apnl, 1838. 


Barometer. 


Wind. 


Saturday 14 


9 A.M. 29. 30 
9 P.M. 28. 93 


SWand Wbreese 


Sunday 1*3 


9 A.M. 28. 80 


NW 




9 r M. 28. 93 


Ditto 


Monduy 16 


9 a.m. 28.94 


Ditto 


1 


9 P.M. 28. 9G 


Ditto 


Tuesday 17 


a.m. 29.20 


NNW 




P.M. 29.34 


North 









When the tracks are examined which storms follow 
within the tropics, we perceive that they do not take 
tlie direction of the trade winds ; but, moving obliquely 
across tliese winds, tliey seem to be carried along in 
liigher currents of air. The study of storm tracks 
may, therefore, help to some knowledge of the upper 
citniospheric currents. In this part of the investigation 
aeronauts may assist : through tlieir means it may, 
possibly, be learned at what altitudes above the earth 
storms travel. The upper currents of the air have 
ah'eady interested Mr. Green, who has expressed his 
readiness to {jive any aid in his power to this inquir>\ 



RULE FOR LAYING SHIPS TO IN HURRICANES. 509 

During a gale in the North Atlantic, about lat. 40°, chap. 

in a ship hove-to, on the clouds breaking sufficiently — 

to see through the lower ones, I observed the upper 
light clouds in a quiescent state, as if the storm was 
confined to an altitude little above the surface of the 
globe. 

Rule for Laying Ships to in Hurricanes* 

That tack on which a ship should be laid-to in a 
hurricane has hitherto been a problem to be solved ; 
and is one which seamen have long considered im- 
portant to have explained. 

In these tempests, when a vessel is lying-to, and 
the wind veers by the ship's head, she is in danger of 
getting stemway, even when no sail is set ; for in a 
hurricane the wind's force upon the masts and yards 
alone will produce this effect, should the wind veer 
ahead ; and it is supposed that vessels have often 
foundered from this cause. 

When the wind veers aft, as it is called, or by the 
stem, this danger is avoided; and a ship then comes up 
to the wind, instead of having to break off from it. 

If great storms obey fixed laws, and the explanation 
given of them in this work be the true one, then the 
rule for laying a ship to follows like the corollary to a 
problem already solved. 

In order to define the two sides of a storm, that side 
will be here called the right-hand semicircle which is 
on the right of the storm's course, as we look in the 

* In ** The Progress of the Development of the Law of Storms*' this rule 
is carried out further. It is there shown that the port tack leads a ship 
when north of the equator towards the storm's vortex ; and that the star- 
board tack leads a ship when south of the equator towards the storm's 
Tortez. 



k 



510 CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

CHAP, direction iu which it is moving ; just as we speak of 

L_ the right bank of a river. 

The rule for laying a ship to will be, when in the 
right-hand semicircle, to heave-to on the starboard 
tack; and when in the left-hand semicircle, on the 
larboard tack, in both hemispheres. 

The first of two figures inserted here is intended to 
represent one of the West Indian hurricanes, moving 
towards the north-west by north, in the direction of 
the spear drawn obliquely. The commander of a ship 
can ascertain what part of a circular storm he is falling 
into by observing how the wind begins to veer. Thus, ,^ 
in the first figure, the ship which falls into the yj^ -^ 
hand semicircle would receive the wind at first about 
east by north ; but it would soon veer to east, as the 
storm passes onwards. The ship which falls into the 
left-hand semicircle would at first receive the wind at 
north-east ; but with this latter ship, instead of veering 
towards east, it would veer towards north. 

The explanation of the rule will best be made oat 
by attentively inspecting the two figures. In both, 
the black ships are on the proper tacks; the white 
ships being on the wrong ones. 

The second figure is intended to represent one of 
those hurricanes in south latitude which pass near 
Mauritius, proceeding to the south-westward. The 
whirlwind is supposed to be passing over the vessels 
in the direction of the spear head. It will be seen that 
the black ships are always coming up, and the white 
ships always breaking off*; and that they are on oppo- 
site tacks on opposite sides of the circles. Thus, the 
Astrea, commanded by the late Sir C. Schomberg, 
was on the proper tack on the 20th of March, 1811; 



RULES FOR LAYING SHIPS TO IN HUERICANES. 





512 CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

CHAP, and an inspection of the log of that ship, at page 24<i, 
!_ will show how gradually she came up ; but the Buc- 



cleugh, on the 22nd of January, 1834, having had the 
wind from east-south-east, veering to south, and then 
to south-south-west, thereby proving her to be in the 
right-hand semicircle of a storm moving southerly, 
was in the wrong position when laid-to on the lar- 
board tack. Had she been on the other tack, the 
wind in veering would have drawn aft ; then, perhaps, 
she would not have laiE so long ** with her broadside 
in the trough of the sea, and with her lee-waist full of 
water." This will frequently be found to bring a 
ship's head to the sea; for the wind veers round 
faster than the swell changes its direction. 

If hurricanes were to move in the opposite course 
to that which they have hitherto been found to follow, 
then would the rule be reversed ; for the white ships 
would come up, and the black ships break off. 
Practical It cau require no comments to point out, that if the 
tions. wind in storms follows a fixed law, much advants^ 
may be gained by the knowledge of that law. 

In following the tracts of storms here detailed, we 
find that the hurricane drawn on Chart VI. passed 
over the Island of Antigua in six hours. Yet the 
ship Judith and Esther, not far from that island, was 
twenty-four hours in the same storm; for that ship 
ran along with it; and many other instances of the 
same nature occur in this inquiry. 

If one side of a storm be to a ship in her voyage a 
foul wind, the opposite side of the same storm would 
be a fair one. Thus, within the tropics in the Indian 
Ocean, the left-hand semicircle is a fair wind for ships 
in tlieir voyages from India to the Cape of Good Hope, 



RULE FOR LAYING SHIPS TO IN HURRICANES. 613 

whilst the right-hand side will assist the voyages of chap. 
outward-hound ships : but there is this important dif- ' 

ference, that in the first case ships would carry the fair 
wind with them ; whereas in the other semicircle, owing 
to the ship sailing in the contrary direction to the pro- 
gression of the gale, she would have the benefit of it 
during a short time only. Thus, if a hurricane coming 
from the eastward were passing over Mauritius, moving 
at the rate of ten miles an hour, and a ship sailing 
eastward were to fall into the side of the storm next 
the equator, and to run at the rate of ten knots an 
hour, the ship and storm would pass each other in 
half the time in which the hurricane would pass over 
the island, since they would be travelling at the same 
rates, but in opposite directions. 

In the 12th edition of the "American Coast Pilot" 
will be found some practical rules, by Mr. Redfield, ap- 
plicable to ships meeting storms in the North Atlantic ; 
and all I have collected proves that these rules are cor- 
rect. That a seaman may be able to apply them, how- 
ever, requires that he should study the subject, and 
understand the principle. 

The annexed note, written in 1842, when at Ber- 
muda, is inserted as an instance to show how the 
theory of storms may be applied in aid of navigation. 



Note on the Winds, as influencing the Courses sailed by Bermuda 

Vessels. 

In high latitudes the atmospheric currents, when undisturbed, 
are westerly, particularly in the winter season. If storms and 
gales revolve by a fixed law, and we are able, by studying these 
disturbing causes of the usual atmospheric currents, to dis- 
tinguish revolving gales, it is likely that voyages may be 
shortened. 

2 L 



ii._ 



.>14 CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

C li :V P. The indications of a revolving gale are, a descending baro- 
X^I- meter, with a regularly veering wind. 

In a voyage from Bermuda to New York, in the winter, 
strong westerly winds, together with the Gulf-stream, would 
carry vessels attempting to sail direct to New York to the east- 
ward of their course. No douht all seamen are aware of this, 
and do in consequence make some allowance by keeping to 
the westward. But according to the usual practice, on an 
east wind overtaking them, they would steer in a direct coarse 
for their destined port, making allowance only for the current, 
as the wind would be considered a fair one. If, however, the 
gale were a revolving one, the wind, at first easterly, would veer 
until it became westerly ; and would probably blow from the 
westward with increased force, when the vessel would be carried 
off her course. It is, therefore, a subject deserving considen- 
tion, whether advantage should not be taken of the temporary 
east wind in order to run to the westward, nearly as far as the 
meridian of Cape Hatteras ; so that, in the rest of the voyage to 
New York, the chance of reaching that port would be the same 
as that of coasting vessels in their voyage from the Carolinas. 

But should a dry easterly wind set in, and the barometer 
maintain its mean height, or rise above it, the case would be 
altogether different; for these would be indications of a steady 
wind and not of a revolving gale. Tlie ship may then be steered 
direct for the intended port; and this shows that the hygro- 
meter might prove a useful instrument at sea, though not 
hitherto used, that I am aware of, in aid of navigation. 

Since vessels sailing from Bermuda, and bound to New Yoik« 
or the Chesapeake, must necessarily cross the Gulf-stream, they 
will have the advantage in doing so before that stream begins to 
set strongly to the eastward. For this reason, as well as to have 
a better chance of getting to the westward, it would seem advisable 
on first leaving Bermuda to make no northing; but if the wind 
should at the time blow, for example, from the north-west, to 
sail free upon the starboard tack, and to keep on this tack untfl 
the vessel be so far advanced as to fall into the northerly current 
of the Gulf-stream ; and this might prove to be the best coune to 
pursue, even should the ship for a time make ttmthimg. Thtt 
more southerly the port to be gained, as for example Baltimore, 
the more does it appear advisable that this should be persevered 
in. The same principle of sailing for Boston, and even far 
Halifax (though in a much less degree), might be found to be 



NOTES ON THE WINDS. 515 

that by which the most certain course would be secured. It CHAP, 
may appear unreasonable to propose, that a ship bound to a ^^• 
port to the northward should, on leaving Bermuda, steer souther fy ; 
yet, when we shall be better acquainted with the causes of the 
variable winds and their changes, this may really not appear to 
be so unreasonable. 

For example, towards the end of a revolving gale passing over 
Bermuda, the wind may still be west, and blowing hard. Since 
the courses of such gales are northerly, a ship by steering north 
would only continue the longer in the same westerly gale, whereas 
by steering southerly a ship and the storm would be moving 
in opposite directions, and the vessel would the sooner have the 
chance of falling into a new variation of the wind. Sailing 
southerly, on the starboard tack, the latter end of such revolving 
gales as the one supposed above might (as frequently happens) 
veer to the west-north-west and even to north-west y which would 
enable a ship to come up and make a better course towards the 
west. 

These suggestions are offered to practical seamen, in the hope 
that some persons will be induced to consider this subject ; and, 
if gales really revolve, that advantage may be taken of their 
mode of action. 

In sailing from the West Indies to Bermuda, in the winter 
season, the trade wind will generally enable vessels to gain a 
meridian sufficiently to the westward, before they leave the lati- 
tudes where it usually blows ^ and in winter it would seem 
desirable to make the 68th or 70th degrees of west longitude, 
before leaving the ^5th of latitude. 

In voyages between Bermuda and Halifax, in the winter 
season^ the same reasons hold good for keeping to the west- 
ward as have been recommended for the passage from the West 
Indies to Bermuda, but in a much greater degree -, for in this 
latter case there is not the easterly trade wind to carry ships to 
the westward. On the contrary, the west wind may blow 
throughout, whilst the Gulf-stream also would tend to set 
vessels to the eastward. The degree of westing to be made in 
this passage in the different seasons does not seem to be agreed 
upon 

The chief object, however, of this Note is to point out the 
benefit which may be derived from profiting by the east winds, 
which blow on the north side of a revolving gale in north latitude, 
before the gale shall veer to the westward. 

2 l2 



k 



518 CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

CHAP, ship would be most likely to avoid the storm by 

XII . " 

'__ putting her head towards the equator: but they would 

be on opposite tacks. The ship in north latitude 
would be on the starboard tack, the ship in south 
latitude on the larboard. In both cases the wind 
would veer towards west, and both ships would come 
up until the storms passed by them, in their progress 
towards their proper poles; after which the wind 
might be variable. 

It is a point which has been often discussed, whether 
a ship should scud or not in a hurricane. 

In a revolving storm there will be one quadrant in 
which it will be more dangerous for a ship to scud 
than in the other three ; that being the one in which 
a vessel driven by the wind would be led in advance 
of the centre of the storm's track ; whilst to scud in 
the opposite quadrant would tend to lead a ship out of 
the hurricane. 

The preceding diagram, in which the quadrants of 
greatest danger are shaded, will serve to explain for 
both hemispheres what is here meant Within the 
tropics, whilst the course of storms tends towards the 
west, the quadrants of greatest danger will be on the 
sides of the storm next the poles ; but these quadrants 
will gradually change their position as the storms 
recurve; and in high latitudes, after tlie courses of 
storms become easterly, these quadrants will be on 
the sides next the equator. 

The four East India Company's ships which foun- 
dered ill the Culloden's storm were, from the accounts, 
scudding in the most dangerous ({uadrant of the storm 
wlicii hibt seen. 

1'h(* ^l(Hiii tr;irk> liuit! traced aiv far from sufficient 



CONCLUDING CHAPTER. 

The late Secretary of State for the Culonies, Lord 

. Glenelg, sent instructions on the suhject to all the 

British colonies; and extracts from the information 

obtained will be deposited in the Colonial Office for 

reference. 

The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty hare 
drawn the attention of the officers of the British navy 
to the subject ; and have caused a new form of log- 
book to be adopted, with a view of recording all mete- 
orological phenomena at the moment it ia obBerved. 
The log-books of ships of war are lodged at Somerset 
House, in chaise of the Accountant-General of the 
Navy : and 1 have always found' every facility given 
towards consulting them. 

Steps have also been taken, which I trust will be 
successful, to induce foreign nations to interest them- 
selves in this inquiry. A more perfect knowledge of 
the subject will facilitate international communication, 
which it is to be hoped is for the good of mankind. 




^Uh himiatim. 



521 



APPENDIX. 



POPULAR EXPLANATION OF THE BAROMETER AND 

SYBIPIESOMBTER. 

The barometer is a measure for the weight of the atmosphere^ 
or its pressure on the surface of the globe. It is well known 
that it is owing to the atmospheric pressure that water rises in 
a common pump, after the air has been drawn from the barrel; 
but that the height to which it can be raised by this means 
is limited, and not much exceeds thirty feet. A little more 
than thirty feet of water, therefore, balances the atmosphere. 
Mercury being about twelve times heavier than water, about 
thirty inches of mercury will also counterpoise the atmosphere. 
The principle of the barometer is simple. If a tube, about three 
feet long, closed at one end and open at the other, be filled with 
mercury, and, with the open end stopped by a finger, this tube 
be reversed, and placed upright in a cup partly filled with the 
same liquid, the mercury in the tube, in ordinary states of the 
weather, will descend to thirty inches, measured from the surface 
of the fluid in the cup, and not much lower. The mercury is 
sustained in the tube by the pressure of the atmosphere on the 
surface of the fluid in the cup. Such a tube and cup, so filled, 
would in fact be a barometer; and if a moveable index were 
added to it, this simple instrument would indicate the changes 
which take place in the atmospheric pressure. The sympieso- 
meter is a more delicate instrument for measuring the atmo- 
spheric pressure -, but it is also a more complicated one than the 
mercurial barometer, and it would be best understood by in- 
spection. The upper part of the tube contains hydrogen-gas, 
which is elastic ; and the lower part, including the well, contains 
oil. By this compound construction, whilst the length of the 
tube is less than that of the mercurial barometer, the index, or 
scale, for measuring the pressure is increased. Hydrogen-gas 
being very sensibly affected by all changes of temperature, the 
index, by which the atmospheric pressure is read, requires to be 
set according to the actual temperature, before the atmospheric 
pressure can be read off. 




Since mercury expands hy beat, k correction fov t 
is also required for the mercniial b&rometer, when exact nkv- 
lations are to be made; and for this reason barometera nmallj 
have a thermometer attached to theio, in order that the tem- 
perature may be read off, and recorded at the same time that 
the barometer is registered. 

The following table of the correction to be applied to the ob- 
served height of the mercury, to reduce it to the Crceang point, 
at 3S° Fahrenheit, or zero of the ctutigradt; scale, has beat ei- 
tracted from Galbraith's " Barometric Tables," pnbliabed in 1IIS3. 

Redaction of the English Barometer to the Freezing Pi»nt, or to 

32° on Fahrenheit's Scale. — Sabtraclm. 




B.O«B4 0.076f U 
06880.0711 a.0;3S0.O7«3 13 
n7380.l}7eA*^07»i:O.OeiB M 
07880.0817 kOBMg.W;3 t» 
0838 0. OSn ». OBSS'O. Mtfj M 
0888O.O»WkOBO)!(t.MM » 
09718.1006:0. lOM U 
09SHa.lOUIkI05S.0.10Mi ■ 

l0370.1W« B.Uir' 

10870.1126 0.1 ' 
1137 0.11780. 12180. iU>' a 
11870. 12390. l]720.iai| u 
12370. 12Rl'q.l32ftO.IM9 U< 
1288 n. 133!'0. 1378 0. 1414 47 I 
13380.13840.14320.1479 tt< 
13fla[),U3.ia.U8<0.1S34 dl 

14.1 jn. 1486 0. issa'o. ism sa 

UtSO. 15380. IMln. I«t4 M 
IS36 0.I5S0O.164tO.l( 



nai«.'uM|ir 



APPENDIX 523 

The atmosphere is supposed to extend to about the height of 
fifty miles ; and its density to diminish firom the surface of the 
globe upwards, in a geometrical ratio. 

Thus when observations are made on land, above the level of 
the sea, a correction is required for latitude, since the weight 
of the atmosphere diminishes as we ascend. It is owing to this 
that we are enabled to determine the height of mountains by 
barometers -, and that aeronauts compute the altitude to which 
they ascend in balloons. 

If any fluid in a cup be put into rapid circular motion, we 
should have a representation of the form that portion of the 
atmosphere assumes which is within the limits of a storm ; the 
most depressed part of the fluid would represent the centre of 
the gale where the atmospheric pressure is the least. 

The principle of the barometer should be explained in all 
works on navigation, and in all schools where navigation is 
taught. 



^ 



>: 



•* 









■J, 



t 



GENERAL INDEX. 



A. 

AoEL^iDB (steamer), 483. 

Ains worth, Mr., biB memoranda on the 

storm of the Euphrates, 470. 
Alax, 291, 297, 336 ; extract from log, 354. 
Albemarle, 291, 337 ; extract from log, 347. 
Albion, hurricane of the, describeo, 173, 

233; extract from log, 237. 
Alcmene, 291, 337 ; extract from log, 352. 
Alfred Taylor, 447. 
Amazon, 291, 297, 337; extract from log, 

363. 
Andromache, 447 ; extract from log, 448. 
Andromeda, 291. 
Anemometers, Professor Whewell's and 

Mr. Osier's, described, 453. 
Angola, 447. 

Ann and Mmerva (brig), 66. 
Anna, 408. 
Anne, 233, 234. 
Antigua, hurricane at, on Aug. 2, 1837, 

60. 
Apolachicola, storm at, 124. 
Archer, Lieut., his letter on the wreck of 

the Phoenix, 299. 
Arp;us, 84. 
Ariel, 445. 

Astrsea, 241, 510 ; extract from log, 246. 
Athol, 66, 414. 

Atmospheric currents effected by a pro- 
gressive wind, with a diagram, 497. 

B. 
Badffer, 292 ; extract from log, 294. 
BalcluUia, 57. 
Baltimore, 55. 
Barbados, 293, 296, 297. 
, hurricane at, in 1831, 24; in 

Sept. 1835, 35 ; in 1837, 48. 
Barlow, 104. 
Barnard, Mr. (K.N.), on circles of water 

near the Mauritius, 507. 
Barometer, fall of, at Barbados, in 1831, 33. 

at Porto Rico, 1837, 63. 

, striking results of, in storms, 

161. 



at Macao and Canton, 277. 

, cause of its falling in northern 

and southern hemispheres explained, 405. 
-, true explanation of the rise 



and fall of the, 493 ; importance of its 
indications, 496. 



Barometers, state of^ during a hurricane at 

the Mauritius, 169, 171. 
Beaver's prize, 291. 
Beaufort, Capt., his mode of registering 

the wind and weather, 458. 
Beechey, Capt., his detail of a waterspout, 

462. 
BeU, 66. 

Bellerophon, 414. 
Bengal, 173. 

, hurricanes in the Bay of, 284. 
Bermuda, great storm there, of 1780, 341. 
, hurricane at, in 1839, 438; 

course of, and detail, 441. 

-, indications of a coming storm 



at, 441. 
Berwick, 291, 296, 341 ; extracts from log, 

322, 390. 
Blanche, extracts from log, 19, 128, 291. 
Blane, Sir Gilbert, his letter to Dr. 

Hunter, 347. 
Blenheim, 255. 
Bonne Aim6e, 53. 
Bourbon, Isle of, description of a hurricane 

at, in 1824, 163. 
Boyne, the gale of the, 177 ; extract from 

log, 231. 
Bridgewater, hurricane encountered by 

the, 260, 271 ; extract from los, 272. 
Brighton chain-pier, effect of a gale on, 428. 
BriUiant, 83. 
Bristol, 291, 296, 408 ; extract from log, 

381. 
Britannia, 13, 282. 
Brook, 56. 
Bruce, his description of moving piUars of 

sand in Nubia, 468. 
Buccleuch, 512. 
Buckley, Mr. J., remarkable phenomena 

seen by, 479. 
Burgess, Mr., his observations on whirl- 

•wmds or waterspouts, 467. 

C. 

Calcutta, 173. 

Caledon,174. 

Calms, their connection with gales, 499. 

Calypso, 77, 124. 177, 494. 

Camelion, 291, 413. 

Capper, Col. James, his work on winds 

and monsoons, 1 ; whirlwinds described 

by, 280. 



k 



52G 



INDEX. 



Carlisle Bay, Barbados, storm in 1835, 37. 
Castries, 44, 75, 113; extract from log, 

115. 
Ceres, 297. 
Ceylon, 233. 

Chain bridges, effect of storms on, 428. 
Champion, 35 ; extract from log, 38. 
Charles Grant, 271 ; extract from log, 273. 
Chart I., data for forming, 13. 

II 15. 

Ill 29. 

IV 37. 

v., VI., VII 47. 

VIII 173. 

IX 290. 

Chief, 85. 

Chinese seas, typhoons in the, 271. 

Christiana, 340. 

Cleopatra, 446. 

Clydesdale, 52, 122. 

Cochrane, Capt., his remarks on water- 
spouts, 446. 

Cceur-de-Lion, 274. 

Columbia, 85. 

Compass, the mariner's, 9. 

Constantc, 297. 

Convert, 337, 340; extract from log, 374. 

Cosmo, 447. 

Cossack, 56. 

Crocodile, extract from log, 279, 446. 

CuUoden, Uie storm of the, 173; extract 
from log, 178. 

Cumberland, 81. 

Cyclops, 332. 

D. 
Davy, Dr., his account of sand falling in 

the Mediterranean, 436. 
Deal Castle, 291, 337. 
Delos, 86. 

Depth of water in anchorages during hur- 
ricanes, 493. 
''Devils" in India, whurlwinds so called, 

469. 
Diagram to show the veering of a storm 

over Great Britain, 420. 
Diamond, 29G, 340 ; extract from log, 311. 
Diana, 233, 236. 
Diminished atmospheric pressure the cause 

of high tides, &c., 501. 
Donegal, meteorolo^cal journal of, 426. 
Dove, Professor, his theory of storms in 

the two hemispheres, 145, 409. 
Drury, Mr., on a whirlwind near Lincoln, 

473. 
Duke of Buccleuch, 164 ; extract from log, 

166. 
Manchester, 82 ; extract from log, 

105. 



Earthquake, not felt during a horrieane, 3 1 . 

East India Company, their ahipa in the 
storms of 1808 and 1809, 178. 

Eastnor, Lord, on some small crabs being 
found after rain near Reigate, 482. 

Echo, 447. 

Eclipse, 241 ; extract from log, 247, 254. 

Egmont, 291, 297, 337 ; extract from log, 
356. 

Electricity, its effecu at Su Vincent, 30 ; 
at Barbados, 31. 

and magnetiam, apparent con- 
nection of storma with, 490. 

Eleonora, 60. 

Ellen Mar, 85. 

Emerald, 82, 447. 

Emma Eugenia, 164. 

Endeavour, 291. 

Endymion, 291, 297, 337; aztract from 
log, 366. 

Erie, 69. 

Etna, 432. 

Euphrates, 175 ; extract from log, S06. 

(river), the storm on the, 499. 

Euterpe, 439. 

Expenment (H.C.S.), 173, 233, 236. 

F. 

FeUcity, 496. 

Ferret, 436. 

Fieldinff, Mr., his report on a whirlwind 
near Manoheater, 474. 

Finch, Hon. Capt., his narratiTe, 365. 

Fish, on the fall of, on land, 476. 

Florence, 125. 

Franklin, Benjamin, hia opinion of north- 
east storma, 3 ; hia letter to Mr. SmalL 
283. 

Franklin (brig), 69. 

Fyers, Lieut., on the "devils" in Lidia. 
469. 

G. 

Gales of 1811 at Mauritius, 241. 

February, 1838, attempt to tmee 

them over Ireland and Scotland, 412 ; off 

Portugal, 413; Gibraltar, 414; Xorthof 

Spain, 414. 
Ganges, the storm of the, and extract from 

log, 266. 

hurricane at the month of the 

river, 285. 

(schooner), 447. 



York. 30, 286. 

E. 

Earl St. Vincent, 223 ; extract from log, 
oor 



Georgia, 57. 

Glory, 173, 233. 

Governor Finlav (brig), 273. 

Reid (brig), 443. 

Grafton, 296 ; extracU from log, 320, 379. 
Grant, 445. 

Captain, on the fall of fiah dniing 

rain in India, 484. 
Great Western (steamer), 434. 
Ground swells explained, 35. 



INDEX. 



527 



H. 

Hall, Captain Basil, on the ripplings in 
the Straits of Malacca, 605. 

Harmonie, 82. 

Harrier, 173 ; extract from log, 257. 

Harriet, 175 ; extract from log, 201. 

Hebe, 41. 

Hector, 296 ; extract from log, 326, 384. 

Hedderley, Sergeant, his report of a water- 
spout at Bermuda, 475. 

Height of waves in storms, 41. 

Hemispheres, storms rerolve differently in 
northern and southern, 490. 

Henry, 292. 

Hester, 446. 

Hindley, 82. 

Hoogley, hurricane at the mouth of the 
river, 287. 

Horsburgh, Captain, on the barometer in 
different winds, 408. 

Hotham, Admiral, his squadron in a hur- 
ricane, 337. 

Howard, Mr. Luke, his theory of the op- 
posing currents of the atmosphere, 418. 

• , his views on tornadoes, whirl- 
winds, and waterspouts, 471. 

Howarth, Mr., his description of a whirl- 
wind near Manchester, 472. 

HoweU (brig), 57. 

Hnddart, 175 ; extract from log, 194. 

Hurricane at Massachusetts and Connec- 
ticut in 1821, 11. 

, indications of a, 24. 

of middle of August; 1837, 74. 

of 1837 described, 47. 

at the Mauritius, 152. 

of 1780, 289. 

, the great, of 1780, 337. 

I. 
Iberia, 414. 

Ida, 57 ; extract from log, 98. 
Illinois, 1 1 ; extract frt>m master's letter, 18. 
Independence, 148. 
India, on the hurricanes in, 271. 
Indus, 175 ; extract from log, 215. 
Inglis, 176. 
Instruments for measuring the wind's 

force described, 454. 
Inundation by the sea at Darien, 67; at 

Savannah, 69. 

J. 
James Busick, 77. 

Ray, 84. 

Jane Duchess of Gordon, 173. 

(schooner), 439. 

Jason, 152. 
Java, 256. 
Jennett, 82. 
Josephine, 56. 
Joseph Porter, 445. 

Judith and Esther, 60 ; narrative of master, 
70. 



K. 
Kensington, extract from log of, 131. 
Kent, 274. 

King, Captain, on the barometer in dif- 
ferent winds, 405. 

L. 
La Blayaise, 439. 
Lady Hayes, 278. 

Jane Dundas, 173, 177. 

Katharine Barham, 83. 

Laidmans, 72. 
Lancashire, 447. 

Lark, 467, 493. 

Laurel, 291, 338. 

Leith (steamer), 435. 

L'Esle, 297. 

Levant, 278. 

Lighthouse reports of the gales of Feb., 
1838— Ireland, 420; Scotland, 422; 
England, 424. 

Liverpool (steamer), 434. 

Log-book, new form of, ordered by the 
Admiralty, 520. 

Logs ought to be kept in civU time, 9. 

London, note from the log of, 286. 

Lord Nelson (HC.S.). 175, 233. 

" Los Nortes," of the winds so called, 394. 

Lottery, 443. 

Lowestoffe, 296, 308, 338; extract from 
log, 318. 

Lucretia, 447. 

Lynch, Capt., on the storm in the Eu- 
phrates, 470. 

Lyons, Capt., on moving pillars of sand in 
South America, 469. 

M. 

Mablehead, 56. 

Madagascar, 486. 

Madonna, 447. 

Magicienne, 155, 414. 

Magnetic pole, experiment on the, 490. 

-^— intensity of the globe, and con- 
nection with storms, 491. 

Malabar, storm on the coast of, 288. 

Malcolm, Rear- Admiral, on watenpouti, 
466. 

Margaret, 75. 

(mail boat), 445. 

Maria, 84, 125. 

Maria Jane, 60. 

Marquis de Brancas, 297. 

, Capt., his ship in a whirlwind 

off Malabar, 461. 

Martial, 30. 

Martinique, French account of the atonn 
there in 1780, 340. 

Mary, 92 ; extract from log, 93. 

(Sharp), 81. 

Matilda, 479. 

Mauritius, storms at, in 1824, 161 ; in 
1834, 163; in 1836, 169; and in ISUt 
241. 




528 



INDEX. 



Mecklenburgh, 84. 

Mediator, 104. 

MelyiUe, 242. 

Merdumt-ships' logs, value of, and propo- 
sal to presenre them, 417. 

Meteorological observations taken at Port 
Louis, Mauritius, in 1836, 171. 



journal of H. M. S. Donegal 

at Lisbon, in Feb. 1838, 426. 
Meteorology, necessity for studying, and 

means of doing so, 518. 
Minden, 504. 

Montagu, 291, 297 ; extract from log, 360. 
Montreal, 437. 
Monument, 56. 
Moses, 56. 

N. 
Napier, 84. 
Neptune, 81 ; hurricane encountered by 

the, 261. 
Nereide, 174, 176 ; copy of log of, 187. 
Newcastle, 281, 466. 
Nightingale, 37 ; extract from log of, 40. 
Nile, 64. 

Nisus, 241 ; extract from log of; 245, 252. 
Norfolk, 281. 

North Star, extract from log of, 416. 
Northumberland, 175; extract from log 

of, 208. 
Notes on the winds as influencing the 

courses sailed by Bermuda vessels, 

513. 

O. 
Oglethorpe. 85. 
Opulence, 67. 
Orontes, 466. 

Osier, Mr. FoUet, his instrument for 
measuring the wind's force, 457. 

P. 

Palambam, 104. 

Pallas, 296, 337; extract from lo^ of, 315. 

Parker, Sir Hyde, capt. of the Phcsnix on 
her wreck, 296. 

. Rear-Admiral Sir Peter, his des- 
patches, 295, 297. 

Pelican, 337 ; extract from log, 308. 

Penelope, 76 ; extract from log, 95. 

Pensaoola, 85. 

Phcebe, extract from log, 244, 253. 

Phoenix, 233, 236, 295, 299. 

Policy of insurance, right to bind owners 
of ships to provide and register a baro- 
meter, 496. 

Pomeroy, 67. 

Pomona, 291, 296, 337 ; extract from log, 
378. ^ 

Porcupine, 296. 

Powhatan, 85. 

Preston, 234. 

Prestwood, Mr., his description of a whirl- 
wind near Lincoln, 471. 



Princep, Mr. James, his aceomit of the 
storm of 21st of May, 1833, 286. 

Princess Charlotte, 481. 

Louise, 409. 

Boyal, 298. 

Protector, 281. 

Providence, 56. 

Purves, Rcrv. Mr., on the fiUl of salmon 
fry during rain in Sootland, 481. 

Q. • 
Quadrant of greatest danser dufhig stocBi, 
how to be avoided, and diagrmm to ex- 
plain, 617. 
Queen, 408. 
Victoria (brig), 503. 

R. 
Racehorse, 174; extracts from Umt, IM, 

242, 254. 
Racer, 133, 177, 402, 496; eoctnet from 

log, 135. 
Raleigh, 177 ; the hurricmia of the, 273 ; 

extract from log, 275. 
Rarotonga, hurricane at, 149. 
Rawlins, 75 ; narrative of master ot^ 90. 
Recurving of storms in either liemiqihen^ 

complication on the, 516. 
Red-band-fish cast ashore by tlie uadnlik 

tions of the sea, 415. 
Redfield, Mr., of New Toik, his opfaion 

on hurricanes, 2 ; storms traeed by, 10; 

on storms in the southem liemiq>liae^ 

145; his data of the Bermuda hnrrieaBS 

of 1839, 452 ; on the revdving of whiri- 

winds, &c., 474. 
Resolution, 342. 
RcTolving of a waterspout at Bennnda 

described, 475. 
Ringdove, 48 ; extract from log, 138. 
Ripplings in the Straits of M^^^i^^ ^06, 
Rodney, Adm., his letters to theAdnomlty, 

332 ; his report of the hnrriesne at Bar^ 

bados, 345. 
Rollers at 8t. Helena, Aseenaum. nd 

Tahiti, 504. 
Rosebud, 83. 

Roseway (mail-boat), 446. 
Rotatory winds not always storms, 43. 
Rowley, Adm., a storm overtakes the sh^ 

under his command, 320. 
Ruby, 291, 296 ; extracts from log, 331, S89l 
Rule for laying ships to in hurricsBes, 509 ; 
diagrams to explain, 511. 

S. 
Sailing directions. East India, quoted, 270. 
Salamander, extract from log, 371. 
Salisbury, 281. 

Salt water carried to a great height, 607. 
, rain of, during a storm, 608. 



Sand, moving pillars of, in Nubia, 
by Bruce, 468 ; by Capt. Lyona, in Sooik 
America, 469. 



i 



INDEX. 



629 



Sand found on board ships in the Medi- 

temnean during storms, 436. 
Sayanna-la-Mar hurricane, 292. 
Sandwich, 291. 

Scarborough, 291, 293, 296, 308. 
8cq>io, 75, 114. 
Bcott, 440. 
Seajgull, 65. 

Seringapatam, extract from log, 494. 
Seymour, Mr., on the storm of Aug. 1837, 

Sheffield, 437. 

Sheridan, 82 ; extract from log, 103. 

Shrewsbury, 332, 342. 

Sir William Bensley, 175 ; extract from 

log, 228. 
Sketch of the Egmont after the hurricane 

in 1780, 357. 
Snake, 52. 
Solano's storm, 1780, and the winds called 

*' Los Nortes," 394. 
Sophia, 75 ; account of yoyage, 86. 
Southern hemisphere, on storms in the, 

144. 
SoTereign, 175 ; extract from log, 219. 
Spanish fleet (Solano's), in storm of 1780, 

397. 
— — detail of the hurricane of 1780, 

897. 
Spey (packet), extract from log, 58. 
Spitfire, 30 ; extract from log, 39. 
St. Helena, 84. 
St. Lucia, hurricane at, 29. 
St. Vincent, 175. 

, hurricane at, 29. 
Star, extract from log, 370. 
Standard (brigantine), 444. 
Steam-ships, Great Western and Liyer- 

pool, in the gales of Oct. 28, 1838, 434. 
Sturling CasUe, 296, 297. 320, 337. 
Storm of 28th Oct. 1838, in its course 

OTer England, 431. 
Storms traced by Kedfield, 10. 
— ^— originate eastward of West India 

Islands, 43. 

in the southern hemisphere, 144. 

— may be overtaken by ships, 146. 
— ^- of 1780, three different ones, 394. 
in high latitudes, remarks on the. 



403 ; theory and illustrations of, 405. 
of 1838, their courses traced on the 



Atlantic side, 437; and on the Euro- 
pean, 427. 

Storm- tracks in the tropics, 508. 

Stran^^er, 126. 

Surprise, 337. 

Suspension-bridge at Montrose destroyed 
by a hurricane, 428. 

Swan, 414. 

Swell, the set of the, a sure test of the 
coming wind, 445. 

Swift, 413. 

Sympiesometer, its yalue in indications of 
storms, 497. 

2 



r. 

Tartar, extract from log, 491. 
Terpsichore, 173, 175; extract from logr 

183. 
Terrible, extract from log, 333. 
Thalia, 266. 

<* The Tariables " of the ao"" latitude, 500. 
Thunder, 487. 
Thunderer, 291, 338. 

Tiger, 281. « 

Tigris (H.C.S.), 233. 

(steamer), 469. 

Tornadoes described, 280. 

— on the west coast of Africa, 

491; wind always from eastward during, 

492. 
Trident, 291, 296 ; extracts from log, 325, 

387 
Trinidad, 45. 

Triumph, extract from log, 334. 
Troubridge, Rear-Admirtd, founders in the 

Blenheim, 256. 
Turner, Mr., on some crabs being found 

after rain at Reigate, 483. 
Typhoons in the Chinese sea, 271. 
, tracks of the, 278. 

U. 
Ulrica, 66. 
Ulysses, 291, 296, 337; extract from log, 

376. 
Undulations of the sea, effect of, 415. 

of waves, progress of esti- 



mated, 42. 



V. 



Variable winds, the cause of, 3, 47, 119. 
Vaughan, Lieut.- General, account sent by 

him of the hurricane at Barbados of 

1780, 343. 
Vengeance, 291, 337; extract from log, 

350. 
Venus, 291, 337 ; extract from log, 373. 
Victor, 293, 296. 
Victoria, 122. 

Vigilant, extract from log, 372. 
Vincennes, 85. 

W. 

Walker, Mr., on a waterspout in the Bay 
of Naples, 476. 

Walsingham, Commodore, his ship foun- 
ders, 338. 

Wanstead, 82, 121. 

Water barometer of the Royal Society, 
495 ; compared with the mercurial ba- 
rometer, 495. 

Waterspouts and the smaller whirlwinds, 
on, 46t. 

Water Witch (brig), extract from log, 62. 

Weather, register of, kept at Bermuda, 
123 ; weekly reports of, 442. 

registers of, ought to be kept, 418. 

Westbrooke, 101. 

M 



530 



INDEX. 



Westchester, 84. 

West Indian (barque), extract from log, 
97. 

(Turner), 76 ; extract from 

log, 91. 

Weymouth, 281. 

Whcwell, Rev. Mr., his instrument for 
measuring the wind's force, 4'33. 

Whirlwinds, caused by waterspouts, 463. 

■^Vilkinson, Mr., his narrative of the storm 
of Aug. 15,1837,77. 

WUliam (brig), 67. 

IV., 64. 

Pitt, extract from log, 198. 

Williams, Mr. (London Missionary So- 
ciety), narrative of, 149. 

William Thompson, 83. 

Wind backing, cause of, 411. 



Wind, iti preMure on one square foot, 4?^. 

Wind and weather, Capt. fieanfor.'i 
mode of registering* 468. 

Winds and moonsoona, deacription of, tv 
Colonel Capper, 280. 

Winds, fair and foul, in aailing from Ame- 
rica, and from England, 515. 

Wind's force, on meaanring the, 4o3. 

Wreckers, ships called, in the Golf of 
Florida, 142. 

*, neceaaity for controlling ihen. 



142. 



Y. 



Yankee, 82. 

Yarrell, Mr., notes by him, on the fsU of 

fish from ihe clouds, 477. 
York, 282. 



THE END. 



J 



Pslatr aad Claytoa, Piiot«n, Crmn««coart. FlMt-ttrcct. 



DIRECTIONS FOB THE BINDER. 



Tike Plates to be cut close to the margin. 



To face the Title page 

To face page 1 
page 15 
page 25 
page 35 
page 47 
page 57 
page 75 
page 177 
page 289 
page 416 
page 441 
page 453 



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ff 



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Circles to assist Seamen in the 
practical application of the Law 
of Storms. 

Chart I. 

Chart II. 

Chart III. 

Chart IV. 

Chart V. 

Chart VI. 

Chart VII. 

Chart VIII. 

Chart IX. 

Chart of the British Islands. 

Course of the Bermuda Hurricane. 

Meteorological Diagram. 



Three spare copies of the Circles to be placed at the end. 



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