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3 1833 03628 8949 




Who participated in the Civil and Military 
Affairs of the 

American Colonies 

And those who were Soldiers in the Continental Armies 
during the 

War of the Revolution 

and those who served in the 

War of 1812 

\. ., VJ > W - * '- k : '. f \ o v. u 

78 8 216 5 





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Redlands, California, January 1. 1911, 

Colonial Period 

Exeter, New Hampshire 

1 his is undoubtedly the oldest house in Exeter, and il stands on the north- 
easterly corner of F ront and Clifford streets. It was built by Councillor John 
Oilman (1624-1708) probably as far back as 1658. hie was living in it in 
1676, and died there in 1708. 

It was constructed of hewed logs, with its second story projecting a foot or 
more beyond the lower story, for firing upon an enemy who might seek its 
shelter, or somtimes for pouring boiling water upon him. 1 he window openings 
were narrow, hardly more than loop holes, for musket firing from within. 

In times of attack by the Indians such houses became the shelter for neigh- 

The original structure was small, and is a part of the main body of the 
house setting back from the main street. Additions were soon made to it and in 
later years, probably in 1 772. the projection was built out. 

Colonial Period 

GILMAN, JOHN 1624-1708 

Sable, u man's leg couped at the thigh, in pale argent: 


A 1 1- mi I mn issuing fioni a cap of maintenance: 

Si deus quis contra. 

I hese arms were borne by his son. Judge Nicholas Gilman (1672-1 749) 
and by his grandson, Col. Daniel Gilman (1702-1780). 

Councillor, John Gilman, was born at Hingham, England, January 10, 
1624, and came over in 1638, with his father, Edward Gilman. 1 hey settled 
first in Hingham, Massachusetts, then moved to Rehoboth, Massachusetts and 
settled finally in Exeter, New Hampshire, before 1 650. He became at once 
a prominent citizen of the town. He was Justice of the Peace for many years, 
and for more than one half the years between 1 630 and 1 680 he was chosen 
a Selectman of Exeter. He was repeatedly appointed a Commissioner to end 
small cases. Under the rule of Massachusetts, he held for two years, the office 
of Judge of the old Norfolk County Court. Under the Province of New 
Hampshire, in 1682, he was made a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. 

He was Lieutenant of the Military Company of Exeter, New Hampshire, 
in I 669, and was promoted to be its Captain. He was a member of the first 
Council of the Province of New Hampshire in 1680-1683. He was a mem- 
ber of the Assembly in 1693 and 1697, and Speaker in 1693. In business he 
was largely interested in mills and lumber. He died at Exeter, July 24, 1708. 


Judge Nicholas Gilman was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, December 
26, 1672. 1 le was a Member of the Assembly of New Hampshire, in 1709. 
In King William's War he was on garrison duty at Exeter from January 9 to 
February 6, 1 69b. He commanded a Company oi Scouts in 1710 and in 
1712, in campaigns against the Indians. He was appointed Judge of the Court 


of Common Pleas of New Hampshire, in 1729, which ollice lie held for one 
year, resigning lo give more time to his private business. In 1732, he accepted 
an appointment as a Judge of the Superior Court and performed its duties until 
I 740, when he returned to private life. He was a farmer and a merchant and 
a man of large property, and was the owner ol several slaves. I [e died at 
Exeter, in I 749. 

GILMAN. DANIEL 1702-1780 

Colonel Daniel Gilman was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, June 28. 
I 702. He was Colonel of the Fourth Regiment of New 1 [ampshire troops, 
1758-1767. He was an extensive farmer and trader. He died suddenly in 
church of apoplexy, October 15, 1780, at Exeter. 

DUDLEY, THOMAS 1576-1653 

Or, a lion rampant vert, double queued: 

A lion's head erased: 

Nee gladio nee arcu. 

1 homas Dudley was born in Northampton, England, in 1376. He 
commanded a company of English volunteers, under a commission from Queen 
Elizabeth, in the army under Henry IV of France, at the siege of Amiens in 
1597. Subsequently, for nine or ten years he was steward to the young Eail 
of Lincoln. 

In 1629, he became connected with "The Company of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England' and sailed with the expedition to New England, sent out 
by that company in 1630, as its Deputy Governor, in the same ship with its 
Governor, John Winthrop. 

He landed at Salem, Massachusetts, June 12, 1630, and settled first in 
Newtown (now Cambridge, Mass.) which place he expected to become the 
capital city of the Colony. In this expectation he was disappointed and he 
moved lo Ipswich, whence after a short residence he moved to Roxbury, Mass. 
and died there July 31, 1653. 

He was the second Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony and its first 
T'cputy Governor. Governor, 1634, 1640, 1645 and 1650: Deputy Governor, 
1629. 1630. 1634. 1637. to 1640, 1646 to 1650 and 1651 to 1652. He 
was Assistant from 1635 to 1636, 1641 lo 1644. In 1643. 1647 and 1649 
he was one of the Commissioners for the United Colonies ol which he was twice 
president. He was in office continuously for 22 years. 

He was Lieutenant Colonel of the First Regiment of Massachusetts Mili- 
tia, in 1636, and Major General, 1644-1645. He signed the charter for 
Harvard College in 1650, and was a Fellow of the college, 1654 and 1655. 


Exeter, New Hampshire 

This house stands at the intersection of Front and Linden streets. 1 lie 
easterly or older part was built about the year 1730 by DANIEL OILMAN 
( I 702-1 780). In 1 758 or at about that date when Daniel Gilman was com- 
missioned as Colonel of the Militia, it is said, he enlaiged the house to its pres- 
ent size in order to receive in a proper manner the Governor of the Province as 
a guest, the second Gilman house to be enlargad for that purpose. 

Colonel Gilman died suddenly in church of apoplexy October I 5, 1 780 
and the house then passed into the possession of his son. Dr. Nathaniel Gilman. 



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Autographs of seven generations of Gilmans in America, in the 
direct line, beginning with Edward Oilman, the immigrant 
ancestor and ending with John T. Oilman, M. D., the maternal 
grandfather of Henry Atherton Nichols 


DENISON. DANIEL 1612-1682 


Argent, on a chevron engrailed gules, between three lorteaux, an annulet or: 

A dexter arm embowed, vested vert, the hand proper grasping scimitar. 

Major General Daniel Denison was bom at Bishops' Stoitford, 1 lertford- 
slure, England, in 1612. He had taken his first degree at Cambridge, Eng- 
land, when his father, with his wile, and three sons, ol whom Daniel was one 
removed to New England in 1631, and settled in Roxbury, Massachusetts. 1 [e 
spent the first year with his father in Roxbury, but in 1632 he removed to 
Newtown, now Cambridge, Mass., where on October 18, 1632, he married 
Patience, the daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley. lie moved in 1635 to 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, where he at once was called to public service which 
ended only at his death. He was elected Deputy to the General Court ol 
Massachusetts from Ipswich in 1635, in which office he was continued by 
successive elections until 1652, and for three or these terms he was Speaker of 
the House. He was also elected Town Clerk and subsequently in 16 57, he was 
commissioned a captain of the Ipswich Company during the Pequot War. In 
1637 he was appointed one of the Justices of the County Court at Ipswich. 
He was Major General of the Massachusetts militia, 1653-1654, 1655-1661, 
1662-1663, 1674-1681, and was chief in command ol the Massachusetts 
forces during King Philip's War. He joined the Ancient and Honorable Ar- 
tillery Company of Boston in 1660, and was elected its commander. He was 
an Assistant for thirty years. He filled the position of Colonial Secretary in 
1653, and was a Commissioner for the United Colonics from 1654 to 1662, 
being its president in 1662. He was appointed on several important Special 
Commissions by the General Court of Massachusetts. He died September 20, 
1 682, at Ipswich. 

WINSEOW. JOHN 1597-1674 


Argent, on a bend gules eight Wenges conjoined or: 


A stump of a tree with branches proper, encircled with a strap and buckle: 

Decarptus florio. 

John Winslow was born in Droilvvich, England, m 1597. He came over 
to Plymouth, New England, in 1621. in the "Fortune" and was a biother of 
Governor Edward Winslow. who came in the "Mayflower" the preceding year. 
John Winslow settled in Plymouth, and married Mary Chilton, a passenger, with 
her father and mother, in the "Mayflower." He moved with his family tu 
Boston in 1671. where he had previously established himself in business as a 
merchant. While living in Plymouth, he filled many oflu., of trust. He was 
a member of the General Court of Plymouth, 1633 lo 1639, and from 1653 
to 1655. He was a member of the Plymouth Military Company in 1643, and 
a member of the Council of War of Plymouth Colony, in 1646. 1653 and 
1654. He died at Boston in 1674. 



Argent, three chevrons crenelles gules, ovei .ill a lion rampant, sable, aimed .1 ,1 

languid azure: 


On a mount a hare courant, proper. 

Governor Jolin Winthrop was horn at Groton, Suffolk, 1 ngl tnd, in I >87. 
He was graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, about Kit)), studying I iw 
thereafter, the profession of his rather. lie vs. is chosen Goveinoj of 1 he 
Company ol the Massachusetts Bay in New England,' m 10-!''. and sailed 
lor New England. April 7, 1630. lie landed al Salem, Mas ichust'tls, [unc 
12, I (> 30, and removed to Charlestown, and <>n Scpleinbei 7, It, 10, u, boston, 
which lie established as the town ol the I olony. I le vva I ■ rein i ,.i 
the Colony of Massochusetts Bay. 1020-1634; 1637-1640; 1624 1644; 
1646-1649. Deputy Governor, I 30, 1644-11)46. ComiuisMoiici ol the 
United Colonies, 1643 and 1 643. 

Colonel of the Suffolk Regiment, 16 36. 1 le was m office continuously foi 
tvsenty years. I le died at Boston, Man li 26, 164''. 

AYER. PETER 1.633-1699 

Comet Peter Ayer was born in England about 1633 and came to this 
country befoie 1640 at which time his father, John Ayer, received land in 
Salisbury, Massachusetts. He was a yeoman. He was Cornet of the Haver- 
lull Military Company. 

In 1685, 1689, 1695 and 1698 he was Deputy to the General Court 
of Massachusetts from Haverhill. 

He died at Boston, January 3, 1699. 

LADD, NATHANIEL 1632-1691 

I le was born at Haverhill, Massachusetts, March 10. 1651-52, and moved 
lo Kxetcr. New Hampshire, in 1678. He served M a soldier in King Philip's 

War. 1673 unci 1676. He was a soldier m King William's War, 1690, and 
on July 22, 1691, he was wounded in a light with the Indians at Maquoil, ncai 
Cape Elizabeth, Maine, from which he died at Exeter. August II, I 69 I . 






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THIS MANSION, after it r.anie Into the possession of Col, Daniel Oilman, 
born 17112, died 17SU, was ocaupied and later owned In his son,, Col 
NICHOLAS OILMAN, born 1731, died 1783, who, with his wife Ann. 
daughter of llev. John and Elizabeth (Rogers) Taylor ol Milton, Mass . liVed in 
i, „„t.ii their death In 1783. Nicholas tiilnian wan Lieutenant ol the Kirst Com 
1 , . , 1 1 > ,,i tli.- New Hampshire Regiment engaged in the operation around Lukt! 
George in 17.",;,; Colonel of New Hampshire militia 1770 to; Lieutenant ol 
Captain John Langdon'B company of minute men, which inarched to Saratoga 
in 1777 to resist the Invasion of Burgoyue; Treasurer and Receiver lleneral ol 
New Hampshire from 1776 to his death in i"s:s; Continental l-oan Olllcev during 
the war; member of the Committee of Safety. 

Within its walls were burn his children, three of whom took a prominent 
part in public affairs. 

The old. 'st son. JOHN TAYLOR ell. .MAN, horn 17.".:;. died I828i owned 
ibis house in succession to bis father ami lived in it until ISIS John Taylor 
Oilman was Sergeant of Captain Hackett's Company of Minute Men from 
Exeter, New Hampshire, to Cambridge, Massac bus. 'tis, April 21, 177.".; member 
of the New Hampshire Committee on Claims, 1777; appointed officer of New 
Hampshire to register wounded soldiers; member of the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature, 177'.l. I7M, 1810-11; member of the Committee oi Safety, 1780; Delegate 
to Hartford Convention, 1780; member of the Continental Congress from New 
Hampshire, 17M S2; Treasurer of the State ol New Hampshire. 17s;; i.i 1789, 
and from 17'.u to 1794; on Commission appointed by Congress to settle war 
accounts of the several States; Governor of New Hampshire for fourteen terms, 
1795-1805 and 1M 4-1 816. 

The second son of Colonel Nicholas Oilman, Nicholas Gilman, Jr., born 
1755, died 1814, was a Captain and Adjutant of the Third New Hampshire Con 
tincutal Line 177U-1778; Senior Deputy Adjutant General of the Continental 
Army on the Staff of General Washington 177s to close of war; member Hon. 
New Hampshire of the Constitutional Convention 17S7; member of the 
National House of Representatives 1789-1797; United Slates Senator from New 
Hampshire from March 4, 1805, to the tune of bis death in IS1I 

A third son , Nathaniel Oilman, born 1759, died 1S17, succeeded his father 
as Continental Loan Officer in 17s:;; was member of the Slate Senate 1795 and 
1802; Representative in the Slate Legislature in 1804, and State Treasurer 
for eight terms from 1804 to 1 S 1 4 inclusive. 

In this building frequently assembled many patriotic leaders for eon 
sulfation during the War of the Revolution, and In re Colonel Nicholas Gilman, 
Sr., had his othee as State Treasurer of New Hampshire and Continental Loan 



Per pale gules and azure, semee of cross-crosslets or. A lion rampant argent: 


Out of a ducal crown or, a cockatrice with wings endorsed azure, armed gules. 

1 hese armoial hearings were also used l>y Ins sun, C aplain Edward 
Hutchinson, 1613-1675. 

Governor William Hutchinson was horn at Allord, in Linconshire, Eng- 
land, in I 386. I K married Anne Maihuiy in 1612. 1 le came to tins country 
in 1634, with his wife and children except Edward, who had preceded him, 
and settled in Boston, Massachusetts. lie lived at what is now the cornel ot 
Washington and School streets, the later site ol the "Old Corner Book Stoic." 
I le also owned a farm at Mount Wollaston near Boston. He was evidently a 
man well thought of by the community of Boston, for he was representative to 
the General Court of Massachusetts from 1635 to 1638. LIis wife's fame as 
a so called Anlinomian has overshadowed his, and he may not have deserved 
hilly the estimate of him by Governor Winthrop as "a man ol mild temper, 
weak parts and wholly guided by his wife." 

After Anne 1 luchinson's sentence to banishment from the Colony of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay because she undertook "to set up other religious exercises he- 
sides what those in authority had already established," her husband and she with 
then family, moved to Aquidneck, soon aftei called Portsmouth, Rhode Island, 
where many ol her friends and adherents had already established themselves in 
an independent government. 

William Hutchinson was elected Governor (Judge) of Portsmouth, April 
}0, 1639, and served until March 12, 1640, when Newport and Portsmouth 
formed a Union and elected a new Governor and chose William Hulcluusuii one 
ol the lour Assistants, which olfice he resigned Marc li 16, 1641. 

He died at Portsmouth, Rhode Island, in 1642. His Wife, Anne 
1 lulchinson, soon after his death, removed with a pail of her family, to Pel- 
ham, near New York City, where she, all but one of her children and some 
of her friends weie massacred by the Indians in September, 1643. 


Captain Ldwaid Hutchinson, son of Governor William Hutchinson, was 
burn in Lincolnshire, England, baptized May 28, 1613. He came over to 
New England, in 1633, while a single man. in the ship with Rev. John 
Cotton, his uncle, Ldwaid Hutchinson and others, and settled in Boston. He 
became a member of the First Church ol Boston, August 10, 16 54. and was 
admitted freeman, September 3, 16 34. 1 le went to England and there married 
on October 13. 1636, Catherine Hamby. He returned with his wife to 
Bo- ion. the home of his parents, at the time when the persecution ol his mother, 
Anne 1 lutchinson, was at its height. I le supported her and was one ol those 
ol her adherents who went to Rhode Island to establish a new home and body 
politic ill a land of toleration, and there he signed on March 24. 1 6 58, the 
compact of an independent government at Aquidneck, ol which his father, Will 


nun Hutchinson, was thosen Governor, the following year. Edward Hutchin- 
son returned to Boston. He joined in 1638, the "Military Company ol ihc 
Massachusetts" later called the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, 
ol which he became junior Sergeant in I 64 I . Lieutenant in 1654, and Captain 
in 1657. In 1642, he was sent by the General Court with John Leverett, on 
.in embassy to the Narragansel Indians. I le was a Deputy from Boston to llie 
General Court in 1058. On May 28, 1659, h< was confirmed Captain uf 
ihc "I luce County I roop" (Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex) and on October 
/. 10/4, Ins resignation as Captain ol tins company was accepted I >y 1 1 n- 
General Court. On July 26, 1675. he was appointed by the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony, I ommissioner and Captain ol an expedition to negotiate with the 
Indians in the Nipmuck Country. 1 lis expedition was ambushed by the In- 
dians on August 2, 1675, in a swamp neat Brookfield, when he received a 
wound hum which lie died eight days later .it Marlborough, Massachusetts, on 
his way home. 


Cap tun Edmund Greenleai was born about 1590, at Ipswich, Suffolk 
County, lindane!. He came to New England before 1638, and settled in 
Newbury, Massachusetts. He subsequently moved to Boston, where he died 
March 24. 1671. 

In l()57 he commanded a company which marched against the Indians, 
ml 047, was discharged at the age of about 57 years from military service at 
p. my and in 1642, was commissioned its lieutenant. In 1645, he became the 
commander ol the "Military Company of Ipswich, Newbury and Rowley' and 
In I03 ( ), he was made ensign of the Newbury, Massachusetts Military Com- 
his own request. 

Savage speaks of him as an ancient and experienced lieutenant and head 
ol the militia under Gerrish. 

FOLSOM, JOHN 1640-1715 

He was baptized at Hingham, Massachusetts about 1640-41. His father 
and family removed to Exeter, New Hampshire, about 1050. He was chosen 
Selectman of Exeter, in 1681, 1091 and 1696. Constable in 1084. Repre- 
sentative to the Provincial Assembly of New Hampshire, 1688, 1694 and 
1695. He was called Deacon. He died at Exeter in 1715. 


• - ' . 

1 linghain, Massachusetts. Erected 1645. 

This house was built and occupied in 1645 by JoilN FOLSOM (1617 
I 68 I ) the immigrant ancestor who landed with his wife, the daughter of Edward 
Oilman, at Boston, August 10, 1638, and at once settled at Flingham, Massa- 
chusetts. I he frame was of sawed oak and the house was taken down in 1875. 

John Folsom, (1641-1715) lived in this house as a boy until his falhei 
mused to Exeter, New Flampshire. 



Colonel Nathaniel Folsom was born at Exuter, New 1 lamp. Ian , in I 72o. 
He was captain in the New Hampshire Regiment in ihc <■ rown Point Expedi 
tion of 1755, and his command defeated th< enemj on Septcinbei H, 1755. 
mar "Bloody Biook." He was Major of the New I lampshirc troops in 1767. 
and Colonel in 1767-1768. In 1774, he was a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Assembly. Flis public services extending over more than 35 years, did not 
end with the Colonial period, and he became as ardent an upholder of the 
Colonies in their grievances against the ministry as he had been a loyal subject 
of the Crown. He was chosen a delegate to the General Congress held in 
Philadelphia, in 1774. Upon his return, he took command of a force of Exeter 
men to assist in the successful raid in December, 1774. upon Fort William ai;d 
Mary at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Ibis was undoubtedly the first overt 
act by an armed body in what became the War of the Revolution. After the 
Battle of Lexington, he was made Major General of the New Hampshire pa- 
triot forces, and as such served in the siege of Boston. After Congress adopted 
the army, including his three regiments at Boston, he returned to Exeter. He 
was retained during the war as Major Gencial of the New Hampshire Militia. 
During the War of the Revolution he was for lour years a member of the 
committee of Safety at Exeter, was repeatedly chosen to the -Slate Legislature 
and was a delegate to the Continental Congress, in 1777, and again in 1779. 
In 1776, the State Legislature elected him a Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas, an office which he held until his death, being a part of the lime its ( hief 
Justice. He died al F.xeter. May 26, I 790. 

PICKERING, JOHN 1637-1694 

Lieutenant John Pickering was born at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1637, 
and was a resident of Salem. He was Ensign of the Second I oot Company of 
Salem, early in 1675, and was Lieutenant of Captain Appleton's Company, 
which marched about September I, 1675, against the Indians neal Hudlcy, 
Massachusetts. He was detailed to go with Captain Mosely, on a scout and they 
engaged the enemy at Bloody Brook, near Deerfield, Mass. on Seplembel IN, 
1675. where Lieut. Pickering especially distinguished himself for his daimg. 

In addition to this military services which were often given, he was promi- 
nent in the civil affairs of his town, being frequently elected a Selectman and to 
other offices of trust. He died at Salem, May 5, 1694. 

WELLS. THOMAS 1605-1666 

Ensign and Dr. Thomas Wells was born in England, in 1605, and came 
to this country in 1635, in the "Susan and Ellen." 1 le settled in Ipswich, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1635, being one of the earliest English inhabitants of that town. 
where he had land grants made to him. He took the oath of Freeman in Boston, 
May 7. 1637. He was a deacon of the Ipswich church. In 1644. he was 
made Ensign of the "Military Company of the MassachurtW afterwards called 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Boston. He was a husband- 
man or yeoman, and also a physician. In 1657, he went to Maine and bought 
land in a place called Wells for him. He returned to Ipswich and died there. 
October 26. 1666. 



Thomas Nichols was in Aincsbury, Massachusetts probably as c.uly as 
166"). He was assigned a meeting house seal and made a "townsman" ill 
1667, and owned land there in 1667. He was probably living in 171b, but 
was dead in 1 720. 

1 le was a member of the Amesbury, Massachusetts "training bind in 
1 680. 

Janf. Jameson, the wife of Thomas Nichols Jr., son of 1 hernias Nichols, 
was the grand-daughter of Susanna Martin, the wife ul George Martin, of .Salis- 
bury, Massachusetts. 

Susanna Martin was one of the first in New England who became a victim 
of the witchcraft delusion. Her husband was a blacksmith and planter of Sail 
bury and a man of considerable ability and property: He manfully sought to 
protect his wife against her accusers. In April, 1669, he brought a suit againsl 
a man for slander for saying that his wife, Susanna Martin, was a wilhch. I he 
jury in the case found for the defendant but the Court "com lined not 
with the jury." Her husband died about 1686, leaving her more exposed 
to the attacks of her enemies, who finally brought her to trial on June 29, 
1692,, on charge of witchcraft, before the Court at Salem, Massachusetts 
who condemned her and four other women, siniilaily charged, to In- 
hanged on Tuesday. July 19, 1692. She, and the others, were executed accord- 
ingly on Witch Hill in Salem on the day set therefor. I his execution practically 
marked the culmination of the frenzy which had begun to jeopardize even the 

"Let Goody Martin rest in peace. 

I never knew her harm a fly. 

And witch or not. Cod knows — not I ? 

"I know who swore her life away; 

And, as God lives, Id not condemn 

An Indian dog on word of them." 

From "The Wilche's Daughter" by WhITTIER. 

Georcl MaRTIN, the husband of Susanna Martin and the grandfathei of 
the above named Jane Jameson, the wife of the s.ud I hoinas Nichols, was one 
of the fifteen "humble immortals" who in 1633, stoutly and successfully main 
tained, for the first time, the right of petition for the subjects of the English 
Crown. Major Robert Pike of Salisbury, an citizen, had denounced 
a law passed by the General Court for which he was tried, convicted, fined 
and disfranchised by the General Court. 1 his punishment caused man) citizens 
of Salisbury and the surrounding towns to petition for a revocation ol the sent 
ence. This offended the Court still more and the signers were called upon to give 
"a reason for their unjust request." Out of the seventy five who signed, the above 
mentioned fifteen alone refused to recede or to apologize and they were required 
to give bonds and to "answer for their offence before the County (. ouit. I hen 
cases were never called to trial, and they thus by thcii fnm stand laid the founda- 
tion for these rights which are now uranted in all the civilized wwlJ. 


Hannah Gaskill, wife of David Nichols. Grandson of Thomas 
Nichols, in ihe line ol descent of WilLrd Athcrton NiclioL, was llie giand- 
daugliter of Samuel Gaskill, of Salem, Massachusetts, who on December 30, 
I6G3, married Provided Southwick, the daughter ol Lawrence Southwick .md 

Cassandra, his wife. 

In 1657, Lawrence Southwick, a prosperous glassmakei ol Salem, .md his 
wife, Cassandra, renounced their connection with the Puritan Church and be- 
came adherents to the Society of friends or Quakers, whose tenets had been 
introduced into Salem by Holder and Copeland, and lor entertaining whom at 
their home, Lawrence Southwick was imprisoned for a .si. oil time, being released 
to be dealt with by the church, and his wife, Cassandra, served seven weeks in 
prison and was lei out by paying a fine. 

In June, 1658, Holder, Copeland, Lawrence Southwick .md wile, Cassan- 
dra, Samuel Gaskill and others were summoned into couil and, openly confessing 
their adherence to the Quaker faith, were committed to the 1 louse of Correction 
in Boston. After three weeks imprisonment they petitioned the magistrates in 
Salem (or their release, protesting against the action of the magistrates in that 
they, the petitioners, were being doubly punished and were illegally held m bond- 
age. In the Following October, they were released, but with an order that Law- 
rence Southwick and Ins wife Cassandra should depart out ol the jurisdn lion 
"before the Inst day ul the Court of Election, next, which il they neglect, i»r lc- 
fuse to do, they shall then be banished under pain of death. 

Declining to obey the order of the Court, through the preponderating influ- 
ence of Major General Daniel Denison, who stated "that they stood against the 
authority of the country in not submitting to its laws" and that "they and the 
church people are not able well to live together; at present the power is in our 
hand, and therefore the strongest must lend oil," on May 1 I, 1659, they were 
banished from the ( olony and sought rclugt on Sheltei Island in Long Island 
Sound where they both died the following spring, the wife surviving hei husband 
only three days. 

Whither has celebrated the banishment of Lawrence Southwick and his 
wife, Cassandra, in his poem, "Banished from Massacuselts, in 1600." 

At Shelter Island, on July 10, 1659, Lawrence Southwick executed his last 
will and testament in and by which he gave his daughter, Provided £50, and 
after the payment of other legacies made her residuary legatee and devisee. 

At the Session of the Court in June, 1658, when Lawrence Southwick and 
his wile Cassandra, were sentenced to the House of C orrection in Boston, then 
daughter, Provided, who had also become an adherent to the Quaker faith, and 
who was in attendance at the proscribed meeting, was sentenced to sit by hei hei I 
in the stocks an hour besides being fined. 

On October 18, 1658, when Lawrence Southwick and Cassandra, his wife, 
were warned of banishment, their younger children, Daniel, aged 22 and Pro- 
vided, aged 18, by reason of their inability to pay ihe heavy Inns imposed upon 
them "for siding with the Quakers and absenting themselves hum public Ordin 
ances" were ordered to be sold into slavery lo the English in the Barbadocs. 
They were olfered for sale at public auction at the wharves, but the sympathy of 
the shipmasters and owners were with them and no one would bid. I hey were 
then released. 


Whittier wrote a poem describing ilm incident entitled "Cassandra South- 
wick, in 1658," using by error the name ol the motliei instead "I tlie daughter. 
1 here is an old print representing llns attempted s.ile which is reproduced in the 
Essex Antiquarian vol. I, page 135. 

Samuel Gaskill, the husband ol Provided Southwick, was also one ol 

the seven condemned to the House ol Correction m Huston for openly avowing 
his adherence to the Quaker faith ami he was the object of other persecutions by 
the authorities in their execution ol the laws against the Quakers, lie ami his 
wife Provided, lived to be the progenitors ol many families of Quakers, som'e 

ot whom aie ol that faith today. 

SUMNER, WILLIAM 1604-1688 

Ermine two chevrons gules: 


A lion's head erased, argent, dueally gorged, or: 

In medio tulissimus ibis. 

William Sumner was born at Bicester, England, baptized January 27, 
1604-5. lie tame to New England with his wife and foui children and set- 
tled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1636. lie was made freeman May 17, 
1637, and was admitted to the church in 1652. 1 le was chosen Selectman of 
Dorchester, 1637, and for 22 other years up to 1688. From 1663, to I 680, 
he was one of the FeoiTes of the School land, lie was a Commissioner "to 
try and Issue Small Causes" for 9 years, from 1663 to 1671, inclusive, lie 
was chosen clerk of the Train Band of Dorchester, 1663. He was Deputy to 
the General Court of Massachusetts fiom Dorchester, 1638, 1666-70; 1672; 
1678-81 ; 168 3-86. He was called yeoman. He died at Dorchester, Decem- 
ber 9, 1688. 

ATHERTON. PETER 1705-1764 

Gules, three sparrow-hawks argent, belled and jessed ot : 

A hawk proper legged and beaked or. 

Colonel Peter Atherton was born in that part of Lancaster, Massachu- 
setts which became the town of Harvard. He was chosen the lirsl town clerk 
of Harvard and was town assessor and selectman for many years. He was 
the fust Rpresentative from Flarvard to the General Court of Massachusetts in 
1740 and again in 1764. He was appointed Justice ol the Peace in 174' 
He was Captain of the First Company of the Second Worcester Regiment of 
Militia and Lieutenant Colonel of the same regiment, I 762. 1 le was a 
blacksmith by trade. He died at Concord, Massachusetts, June I 3, 1 764. 
while in attendance as Representative at the Geneial Couit. 





<*>ales, tljree sujirfiilu-IjuUilis 
urgent, lu-IU-it mib \esatb nr: 

A bnivk proper, Icqqeo aub hrnlu'ti or 

EXPERIENCE WRIGHT, the wife of Col. Peter Athe.ton. was a 
grand-daughter of Samuel Ward well, a carpenter of Andover, Massachusetts, 

who was hung as a witch. 

At the first examination on the charge of witchcraft of Samuel Wardwell 
before the Court of September 16, 1692, he yielded to the pressure of those 
in authority and confessed that he was guilty as charged; but his manhood 
returning after the quiet of a night, he next day denied his confession and brave- 
ly maintained his innocence. This was an excuse foi his immediate conviction 
and condemnation to the gallows as a witch and he was accordingly hung on 
Witch I Ml in Andover, Massachusetts. September 22, 1692. 

it has been inferred that the horror of the execution which was quickly 
fell in the public mind upon the question, was the reason for omitting in the town 
records the cause of his death. 


The Era of the Revolution 



The Era of the Revolution. 


Ichabod Nichols was born at Salem, Mass., April 20, I 749, he married 
April 12, 1774, Lydia Ropes of Saiem, and he died al Salem, July 2, 1839. 
at the age of 90 years. 

He was the son of David 3 Nichols (Thomas 2 Thomas I) and Hannah 
Gaskill, his wife. 

David 3 Nichols came to Salem from Amesbury, Mass., about I 7)0, and 
(. is a blacksmith. 1 le was drowned at sea in I 7'">(), while on a fishing trip, ami 
d..d poor, leaving a wile with a large family of children, ami Landing dow n a 
name without reproach. 

Al the lime ol his father's death, Ichabod \-. .^ only 7 years old, and al Mi 
early age. Ins mother, who was a woman ol great energy and loicc of character, 
apprenticed him to a blacksmith, and to his great regret in after life, he did not 
serve the whole lime ol his minority, perhaps the only enterprise ol his life in which 
he did not become a master. 

Al the age ol 20 he went to sea and in 1770. at the age ol 21 years, he 
was put m command of- one of Mr. Derby's ships and made several successful 
voyages thereafter to China as ma:-ter of the vessel. At this period he had earned 
the tide of Captain and as Captain Ichabod Niihul-. he was ever after known. 

I he War of the Revolution changed his business plan.-. m\^\ Ik- became in- 
terested, as did many other prominent citizens of Salem, in privateering which re- 
cent historians have characterized as the most important factor in securing oui in- 
dependence of the English crown. When In- married, on April 12, 1774. I ydia 
Ropes ol Salem, who was not of the Quakei Faith, la had put hinisell in the 
position ol losing Ins connection wiih the Quakers, bul it was not until November 
12, 1776. 2 years and 7 months later, thai he was formerly read 'ml uf the 
Quaker meeting, together with his brothers, Samuel, Nathan and Jonathan, all 
ol whom, wiih him, had become prominent in the armed activity against England 
as represented by privateering. 

Family tradition was the only authority known through many years foi ihe 
chum that Ichabod Nichols had joined a volunteer company ol militia formed in 
Salem, the lallei part of 1776, and had man lied lo the Jcis<>a to IC-lllforct 

Washington's army, then in great need ol additional force 


rhesc services were given freely and ii would seem no iccoiel wat 
entered upon the official files because no money was paid therefor and conse- 
quently no receipt was taken. However, thai may be, the fact remains that tint 
tradition ol service to his country l>y land on llie part of Ichabod Nuhols lias only 
recently been verified through diligent search on the part of several "I Ins des- 

This evidence, so far as it has been obtained at this date, 1910, is given 
below to make it of permanent record. 

"November 14, 1776, was passed " an Act for providing a Reinforcement 
to the American Army." This act provided that one quartet part of all of the 
able bodied male persons within the state, from sixteen years and upward, not in 
actual military service (with certain exceptions) either by voluntary enlistment, 
lot or draft, should be appointed and held in readiness to march at a minutes 
warning to serve for a term not exceeding 3 months, within and for the defence 
of any of the United States when called out to reinforce the continental army by 
the General Court, or, in the recess thereof, by the council. 
(Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the Revolutionary War Vol. I. xxiii). 

"Ward. Benjamin Jr., Salem * * * Return made to Maj. Gen. James 
Warner of officers of a regiment raised by Brig. Michael Farley from his bri- 
gade and ordered to march to Danbury, Conn., via Providence, dated Ipswich, 
Dec. 24, 1776. Company raised in Salem." 

(Ibid Vol. 16. p. 525). 

"1776, Dec. 4th. The Militia met at ye meeting house, being rainy, to 
raise \\ part as a Reinforcement to ye Continental Army — ye proportion for this 
town being 87. 70 volunteers turned out and followed ye Drum — either to gi 
in person or to procure a strong hearty man. Ye Remd being 1 7 to complete ye 
no. were draughted as ye Law requires. * * * Ye most of them who were 
now enlisted are persons of character and property such as masters of vessels, 
shop keepers, etc.. Ye Col. who also turned out again addressed ye people. Ye 
drums went around and 92 persons enlisted on ye spot: Marched I 7 inst." 

(Extracts from an interleaved almanac of William Wetmore of Salem, 
1777-1778 — published in F.ssex Institute Historical Collections Vol. 43. p. 

"Boston. Dec. 19. 1776. Arrived here from Salem on their way to join 
the Continental Army, the Company of Volunteers who turned out upon receiv- 
ing information from the Gen. Court that every fourth able bodied male inhabit- 
ant was either to be enlisted or drafted. They are as grand a Set of men as any 
without exception that have appeared under arms in this town since its Restoration. 
They are commanded by Ben. Ward Esq. 

(New Hampshire Gazette. Dec. 1776). 

"Thursday last the militia of Salem were ordered to muster in order to 
draught every fourth man to reinforce the army to the Southward, when eighty- 
seven turned out volunteers among whom were gentlemen of the first character in 
the place." 

(New England Journal or the Essex Gazette, Boston, Dec. 13. 1776). 


"Boston, Dec. 19, 1776. The militia of Salem w re ordered to muster in 
order to draft every fourth man to reinforce the Army al the Southward, when 
eighty-seven turned out volunteers among whom were gentlemen of the first char- 
acter in the place, who marched through the town yesterday and made a most 
martial appearance." 

(The Continental Journal and Weekly Advertiser. Boston, Dec. 19, 


"Providence, Dec. 21. The troops from tlie neighboring slates continue to 
arrive daily; and labl night came lo town a company oi volunteers from Salmi." 

(New England Chronicle or the Essex Gazette, Die. 26, I 7/0). 

Early in December, 1776, Ichabod Nichols, a citizen ul Salem, Mass., a 
merchant, ship-master and owner m several privateers in commissioned naval 
service of the colonies against England, volunteered in the Salem Company, iuiu- 
manded by Capt. Benjamin Ward Jr. raised to reinforce the Continental Army 
lu the Southward, and with his Company be marched in mid-winter to I 'mm idem e, 
Rhode Island and horn there to Danbuiy, Connecticut, thence io New Jersey, 
where he served in the command under Washington at Morristown. 

In the same company with the said Ichabod Nichols, during said tout uf 
service, was his brother-in-law, Jeratbmiel Peirce, whost wife was a sistei «.l tht 
wife of said Ichabod Nichols. 

While said company was encamped at Danbury, Connecticut, said Ichabod 
Nichols wrote a letter to his wife at Salem ol wliuh the following is a copy: 

"Danbury, January 9lh, I 777. 
Ever Loving Wife: 

This is to informe you that our Company is Now under Marching Orders 
for the Jarsey Shore, where we Do Expect to Juyne General Washington's Army. 
Our Company is all in Good health at Preascnt. 1 hope this will find you Inj uy 
ing the same Innestimable Blessing. Desire you would Desire Mr. Gray to m ike 
one hundred Pounds Lawful money Insurance on the Sloop Reveng and the three 
first Provided it can be maid lor 30 or 35 per cent. As lo New. you have 
it more Perticular in Salem than we have here. So not bavin.; ay, I Rem tin your 
affectionate I [usband. 


After said company had continued its march lo New Jersey and while en 
camped at a place called Sarsdale Manor said Jerathmiel Peirce wrole a letter 
to his wife also of Salem of which the following is a cop} : 

"Letter No. 5. 

Scafd lie Manor Neai 

While Plains, 
1777 I-'eb. 12th. 


1 hese are lo Inform you of my Health with all binds By the Blessing ol 
God and hope you and family and all fund- Injoying thi Same. Ordi i Re< d 
yesterday for Morristown for marching to Joinc Gen'l Washington, bill In 
vented by Reason of a Snow Storm, tomorrow Morning al Kighl I lock we march 

for Mornstown if weather permit, we expect to be about -Six Days marching the 
Distance. Nothing new Sence 1 wrote to you before, Execepting a few Light 
1 lorse with the Rulers have Hen Kiied heare. I Conclude you have heard ol the 
buccess Gen I Washington has met with at Sanders taking forty Od \\ agons 
Loaded with flower and Prisoners at Sanders wich Spirits up Soldii h very much. 
1 lowever, put not your Dependence on man But in the Living God who is Able lo 
Grant us our Request. I should be Glad lo heal From you and the Lille ones il 
you have the oppertunity. Give my Respect lo youi hon parents and to all 
friuds. 1 remain your Beloved 1 lusband, till Death, 


My Respect to Mr. Dutch and Wyfe." 

1 he two letters printed above aie in the possession of the Misses Nichols ol 
Federal Street, Salem, and have been published in tin- 1 listorical C ollections of 
the Essex Institute Vol. 45, page 308. 

1 lie history of the activities ol (.apt. [chabod Nichols in privateering dur- 
ing the war ol the Revolution, like that ol many others who look pail in 
method of attack upon England, is yet to be written. 

We lind the following entries in the Naval Recoids of the American Revo- 
lution issued by the Library of Congress. 

Letters of Marque issued. 
1777 Aug. 13. p. 410 

"Patty" Mass. Sloop — Guns 4 — Crew 16. Bonds $5,000. 
Nathan Nichols, master. 
Bondeis, Nathan Nichols, Salem 

lciiABOD Nichols, Salem 

1 homas Nichols, Somersworth, N. 1 1. 
Owners, Darbey & Nichols, Salem 
Witnesses, Nathaniel Peabody 

E(benezer) Thompson 

1782. June 14. p. 456 

"Scorpion ' N. H. brigantine. Guns 8. Crew 15. Bond $20,000. 

John Stokell, master. 
Bondeis, John Stokell, Portsmouth 

Eliphalet Ladd, Exeter 

James McClure, Exeter 
Owners, IcilABOD NlCHOLS, Portsmouth and others 
\\ llness, Josiah Gilman 

Caleb G. Adams 

1781. May 30. P . 485 

"Venus" N. II. brigantine. Guns 4. Crew 35. Bond $20,000. 

1 Irnry Moore, master 

Bondeis. I lenry Moore, Portsmouth 

IcitAUoD Nichols, Portsmouth 
Owners, Robert Parker, Portsmouth 

IcilABOD NlCHOLS, Portsmouth 
Witnesses, Geoige Gaines, John Davenport 

1782. May 14 ,,. 274 

Schooner "Dolphin," N. H. Guns 4. i rew 1>. Bunds $20,000. 
John Riley, mastei 
Bonders, John Riley, Dover 

Nathaniel 1'olsom, Portsmouth 

luiAboD Nichols, Portsmouth 
Owners, Nathaniel I olsom ana others, 
witnesses, George Gaines, John Davenport 

From the leltei written to his wifi from Daubury, Conn., 9 Jan., I///, 
given above. WC also know CapL Ichabod Nichols was interested in a Sloop 

Revenge which was probably a privateer as he speak ol 'the three first Prize 
in connection with it. 

During Ins early married life in Salem, he lived in the house occupied in 
1858, by 1 lemy Ropes, on Derby Street, ueai the custom house and here hii 

second son at least was born. 

In June, I 779, he moved with his family to Portsmouth, New 1 lampshire, 
and duiing his residence there he occupied the house now I 1910) standing at 
the cornei ol Gardnei and Mechanic Streets, lacing lire river. 1 his house, a 
line specimen ol Colonial architecture and construction, was buih by Governor 
Wenlworth, foi his son. 

While in Portsmouth, he engaged in the wholesale grocery business and al o 
continued his sea-faring life as rnaslei ol ships oi which he was pari owner, and 
in one ol which, the ship "Light-Horse" i26 tuns, he brought into Salem, in 
June, I 790, one of the most valuable cargoes landed up to that nine one ol ujl 
which paid in duties alone the sum ol $27,109. 18. 

During his long absence on his voyages, his capable wife, without in the 
least neglecting the care and education ol hci children, carried on the business of 
his wholesale house in Portsmouth, with the help ol her two oldest sun-. 

He found time when in Portsmouth, to take up matters of public good. | lis 
name is found on petitions to the New 1 iamphshire Legislature in I 784, and I 78). 
for repairs to highways and bridges leading into Portsmouth. At a town meeting of 
Portsmouth 25 March 1783, Capl. Ichabod Nichols was elected a fire ward, 
and in I 790, he was chosen a member ol the Federal Fire Society ol Portsmouth, 
which was founded in March, I 789, foi the prevention so fai as possible ol dang- 
er from fne, and which is now in existence. 

About November, 1793, he returned to Salem, with Ins family, leaving his 
oldest lm*+g sontGeorge, in charge ol closing up his business in Portsmouth. 

(apt. Nichols engaged in commerce with Benjamin I lodges, under the 
firm name of Nichols and Hodges, upon his iclurn ' $Mem. fhey purcha ed 
several small vessels and went into the West India hade 1 he firm latei built 
and owned largei ships and engaged in the East India trade, in which < !apl Icha- 
bod Nichols had had so much experience. I hen store was on Union Wharf, 
then the principal wharf of the town. 


Al the time of his death, he was occupying the house which adjoined the 
present post office, on the south side of Washington Street, and also owned a 
small house next to it. Both houses have now (1910) been removed and re- 
placed with a brick business block. 

He took an active part in the most important undertakings for the welfare 
and prosperity of Salem, although he never was an officeholder in town or state 
affairs. He was a charter member of a corporation formed in 1 790, jnd on 
I 7 April, 1 797, incorporated under the style of the "Proprietors of the Salem and 
Danvers Aqueduct ' for the "purpose ol conveying fresh water by subterranean 
pipes into the towns of Salem and Danvers," the quaint description of lib purpose 
as read today indicating that this company was a pioneer in the building of aque- 
ducts m this country. 

On June i 4, 1814, a committee of three of the Proprietors of this corpora- 
tion was appointed to devise means for the increase in the water supply of which 
Captain Nichols was one. 

He was a member, number 69, of the Marine Society of Salem, instituted 
in 1 766, and a charter member, number 2, ol the East India Marine Society of 
Salem, which was founded October, I 799. Both societies are now in existence, 
f lis signature, the second in order, can be seen on the framed rosier of the last 
named society in its rooms in Salem, fie was its thud President, holding the 
office for the years 1808, 1809 and 1810. 

Salem voted in 1798, to build by subscription a lrigate of 32 guns to be 
given to the United States government for protection of commerce, under the Act 
of Congress of 27 April, 1798. Capt. Ich.tbod Nichols subscribed one tin usand 
dollars and was chosen a member of a committee to carry the vote into effect. 
1 his resulted in the building of the U. S. frigate Essex named in honor of the 
county of which Salem is the shire-town. 

In 1 80 1 , he was one of those who subscribed towards the grading and 
ornamentation of Salem Common, and he was for many years an officer of the old 
Salem and Boston turnpike, and he very capably superintended for many years 
the repairs to the road. 

Among the merchant vessels of which he was a part owner, the custom be- 
ing to divide ownership in such enterprises, appear the names of Ships "Active," 
1799; "Union." 1802; "Rambler." 1811; "Friendship," 1815; Brig 
"Factor," 1810, Schooners "Neptune," 1786, "Olive Branch," 1793. 
"Venus," 1804 and "Nautilus," 1812. 

About 1809, he bought a large tract of land between Salem and Lynn and 
carried on a milk farm, assisted by his son Henry. Il was not a very profitable 
undertaking, but he said it yielded him "3 per cent profit in money and 3 per 
cent in health." As he was a famous walker, it may be surmised that the over- 
sight, more or less constant, of this farm was the occasion for him to take his fa- 
vorite exercise. 


Deference to the leelmgs of his Quaker mother seems to have influenced both 
him and Ins wife lor a long time after his connection with the Quakci meeting 
had been severed; lor it does not appear that either his wife 01 he took any 
prominent part in a congregational church until after his mother's death in 1795, 

His wife joined the old North Church in Salem in 1 798, and although he is 
named as one of the early founders ol this church, he did not formally join il 
until 183.0, alter hi! wile's death in that year. 

Another interesting lact, also probably showing consideration foi his moth- 
ers views as to that rite, is that the first entry llial can as yet he lound ol die 
baptism of their children is on the I ilh August, 1798, when [chabod, born 
1784; Benjamin, bom, 1786; Charlotte, Loin 1788 and David, born I7 C '7, 
were baptised in the old North Chuich in Salem. 

1 lis education was obtained in boyhood in the common schools ol Salem, 
and from the age ol 20 m the life school ol experience and home study, and lie 
acquitted himself with credit. 

h is apparent that he valued very highly the advantages ol a liberal educa- 
tion for he not only gave all his children the best training lo be had in the common 
schools, but after his linancial affairs allowed it, he suit foul ol his latci born 
sons to Harvard College, where three were graduated with honor and one, David, 
died while in attendance there. 

Each of his two daughters married a graduate ol 1 larvard. 

He was a man of great industry and energy and very ailivc in his movements. 
His wife, Lydia, was the daughter of Benjamin Ropes ol Salem, and Kulli 
Hardy, his wife. 

Lydia Nichols, the wife of Ichabod, was somewhat above the average 
height, well proportioned, rather stout, though Ly no means corpulent, very erect 
and exceedingly dignilied. 

After her return to Salem she became a prominent member of the Old Noiih 
(Congregational) Church. She was one ol the organizers, and lor many years a 
manager ol the "Seamen's Orphan and Children's Friend Society" ol Salem. 

She was born at Salem 4 December, 1754, and died there 25 rebruary, 

1 he following is a list of the children ol Captain Ichabod Nichols and 
Lydia Ropes, his wife: 

I. John Nichols, born at Salem, 26 December, 1770. He died un 
married 8 June. I 798, at Pointe-a-Pitre, C'.iiadaloupe, West Indies. I lis 
obituary notice in the Salem Gazelle ol 13 July, I 7''8, speaks of him as ol 
amiable temper, ol genteel accomplishments, ol agreeable manners and ol solid 
virtues, and states that he was preparing himsell lor a liberal education and 
extensive business. He was for a lime employed as a clerk in Mi. AntllOtt) s 
counting room in Philadelphia. 


li. George Nichols, born al Salem, -4 July. 177b, and died there Oc- 
tober, 1863. I le was a merchant and resided the greatei pari ol In:, life in Sa- 
lem, Mass. 1 le began Ins business training in his falher'i wholesale grocery 
house in Portsmouth — showing rare ability for a young man and was entrusted 
there with great responsibility. Upon returning to Salem he was employed by Ins 
father's firm lor one year and then went lo sea, making several successful voyages 
to the La^t Indies, first as supercargo and later as master. I lis first command. 
at the age ol 22, in 1800, was the ship "Active" in winch his fathei and Cap- 
tain I lodges were heavy owners. 1 lis last sea voyage was in I8U4. 

I le then went into business in Salem with his brother-in-law, Benjamin Peirce 
and by the time of the war of 181 2, he bad accumulated a Luge fortune for 
those days. 1 Ins war brought him financial disaster, as it did lo many others, 
and one loss following another, m 1826 he found himself bankrupt ai the age of 
48. lie started anew in the auction and commission business and al the end of 
15 years thereafter he had the satisfaction ol having paid up bis creditors to the 
extent of a \ cry large sum of money. 1 le was twice married; fust 12 November, 
1801, to Sarah Peirce, who died 22 June, 1835, and second to Elizabeth 
Pence, his Insl wife's sister. He left several children. 

III. Lydia Nichols, born Portsmouth. N. II., 3 January 1781, and died 
22 October, 1868. at Cambridge, Mass. She married 27 November, 1803. 
Benjamin Peirce of Salem, born, Salem, 30 August, I 778, and died at Cam- 
bridge, 26 July, 1831. He was graduated at I larvard in 1801, with the high- 
est honors ol his class. 

After son.e years experience in business, he became connected with I lar- 
vard College as librarian. 1 le prepared a catalogue ol the library in 4 volumes, 
and wrote a history of Harvard College, published in 1833. 

While living in Salem, he represented the town in the General Court of Mas- 
sachusetts lor several years and in 1811 was elected Slate Senator to represent 
Lssex County. lie left children, one of whom was Benjamin Pence, the woild 
famous mathematician and professor of mathematics in I larvard 'University until 
Ins death in 1880. He was graduated at Harvard in 1829. 

IV. ichabod Nichols, born al Portsmouth, N. H.. 17 September. 
I 782, and died there 30 August, I 783. 

V. Ichabod Nichols, sometimes called Ichabod Nichols, lertius, born at 
Portsmouth, N. H., 5 July, 1784. He was graduated at Harvard, in 1802. 
lie became an eminent Unitarian divine and was settled over the hirst Parish in 
Portland, Maine, his ministery there extending from 1809 to 1859. He received 
the honorary degree of D. D. from Bowdom College, 1821, and of S. T. D. 
from Harvard m 1831. He was prominently identified with numerous scientific, 
educational and philanthropic institutions. 1 l<- died much lamented at Cam- 
bridge, 2 January, 1859, and his public I uncial was from the hirst Parish 
Church in Portland, Maine, ihe old stone church which was built under his pas- 
torate in 1825-1826. 


He was married twice, first, 15 May, 1810, to Dorothea Folsom Gilman, 
daughter of Governer John T. Gilman ol Exeter, N. I I , ami Deborah Fol om, 
his wife. She died at Portland. Manic, 17 April, 16 31. He married second, 
Martha btoTrmv Tiiggmson of Boston, who dud at Cambridge, Mr ,.. 14 De- 
cember, 1889. 

Rev. Dr. Nichols had two children to grow to maturity, by his first mar- 
riage, and had no children by his second marriage. His oldest bun was George 
Henry Nichols, M. D., Harvard, I Hii, a physician ol Standish, Maine, and 
Boston, Mass., who was the father of Willard Atherlon Nichols, undei whose 
right as member of the Society ol Sons ol the Revolution in California, tins 
memoir is published; and a second son, Rev. Dr. John I'ayloi Gilman Nichol . 
1 larvard, I 8 36, \s Ijo was a Unitarian minislci ol Saco, M line. 

VI. Benjamin Nichols, bom Portsmouth, N. II., 16 May, 1786. He 
died at Boston, 30 April, 1848. I le married 12 April, 181 3, Mai> Pickering 
of Salem, Mass., who was born 21 December, I 793, and died 22 March, 1863. 
He was graduated at Harvard, 1804, and was a prominent lawyei ol Salem, 
and later of Boston. He was appointed in 1818, by the legislature of Ma .i 
chusetts, with two others to arrange the records ol Plymouth C olony and its 17 
volumes is a monument to his faithfulness foi the greater part ol the work was 
done by him. 1 lis gieat knowledge ol financial methods ami Ins rare executive 
ability brought him many important dulic s in connection with large corporations. 
1 le hit c l.ildicn. 

VII. Charlotte Nichols, born 26 December, 1788, at Portsmouth, N. 
II. She died 29 March. 1872, at Cambridge, Mass. She married al Salem, 
Mass., 10 March, 181 I, Charles Sanders, Harvard, 1802. Ik was a very suc- 
cessful merchant in Salem and Boston, and passed the lattei part of Lis life in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. He left a large bequest to 1 larvard College, which was used in 
building Sander's 1 lieatre, so called, an annex to Memorial Hall, in which are 
now held the commencement exercises ol I larvard University. I le was born .it 
Salem, 2 May, 1/6 3, and died at Cambridge, 7 April, 1864. He Kit no 

VIII. Henry Nichols, born Portsmouth, N. II.. 21 July, 1791, and 
died there 28 October, 1791. 

IX. Henry Nichols, born Salem, Mas., 18 December, 179 3, and died 
at Boston, 27 January, 1871. 

In early hie he made several voyages to Europe and to the Last Indies as an 
officer and also as supercargo. In the war of 1812. he was captured by a British 
vessel and taken to the Cape of Good I lope, where he was held (or a long lime 
as a prisoner of war. He became interested in farming with Ins falhei neat 
Salem, Mass. In 1835, he bought a farm in Illinois and wmked it until 1841. 
when he returned to the East and look a situation as clerli in the lax colli i ling d 
partment of the City ol Boston, with wlm li he was conni < led until his di alh. I le 
married twice — first, 7 February, 1822, Sarah Hardy Ropes, who died 5 
March. 1826, at Salem, and second, Rebecca Anne rhayei al Boston, on 30 
October, 1850. She survived him. He left no children. 



X. Joseph Pcirce Nichols, born 10 February, 1795, at Salem. He 
was graduated .it Harvard in 1813,. He dud unmarried at Lima, Peru, 1H 
October, 1823. hie was engaged in the snipping business and at one time was 
a supercago of a merchant vessel. 

XI. David Nichols, bom 2 January. 1797, at Salem, and died there 
May 19 1HI4, while a student in Harvard College. I lis class was graduated 
wi 1814. 


"In this city on Tuesday, Captain Ichabod Nichols, aged 90. lor many 
years a distinguished shipmaster and merchant. 

Salem Gazette. 5 July. (Friday). 1839. 




Agreen Crabtree was born at Atllcborough, Massachusetts. December 16, 
I 739. 1 le married first, at Attlcboiough, Sarah Ingraham, daughter of Elijah 
Ingraham and Sarah Ide, his wife. She died and he married second at Cape 
Elizabeth, Maine, Satan Dyer. He had seven children by his first wife Sarah, the 
thud child being Sarah who married Major Lemuel Weeks of Portland, then 
called Falmouth, Maine, from whom the writer is descended. 

He had two children by his second wife, Mary. While living in Attle- 
borough he was a house carpenter. He moved to Sullivan, in the Province of 
Maine, on Henchman's Bay, at about the close of the French and Indian War in 
I 764. He was one of the first permanent settlers there, and built his cabin on a 
point known as Crabtree's Neck. I le built a fort on his farm and in the front 
of it, to defend the settlement against the French and Indians and against 
marauding bands of sailors; he had guns mounted in this fort and its walls may 
still be seen. 

After the close of the War of the Revolution, upon his permanent return to 
his farm, finding his mill in a ruined condition, he removed to another location 
near by, called Crabtree's Point, also in Frenchman's Bay. He was a mariner 
and a fisherman. 

He was a man of strong character and convictions and the tall to arms to 
fight for the independence of the country received an eager answer from lnrn and 
he chose privateering as his field of action. 

He was not a man of means, but we know he had some cannon of his own, 
probably a small vessel and possibly financial helpers. 


He left Ins home to take up the cause o( lus country early "> I 776. 1 lie 
(nst we hear from him is the following in the New I lampshire Gazelle, "July I 5. 
1776, Wednesday was brought into Falmouth (Poillaiid, Maine), by Capt. 
Crabtree a sloop (rom Anapohs bound to I lalilax, taken off the Grand Passage, 
laden with lumber, handspikes, butter, cheese and potatoes." 

At the first, privateering was almost wholly uncontrolled by authority, but 
the States and the Federal Government soon laid down general mles (oi this 
service, Capt. Ciabtree quickly submitted to then rules as appeals by the Follow- 
ing document on hie in the State House .it Boston: 

" I o the 1 lonroable Council of Massachusetts Bay. 

I he petition of Agreen Crablree humbly shows: 

1 hat your petitioner fix'd out a small schooner called the I lannah and Molly 
as a privateer to distress the Enemys ol the United Colonies. 

Said schooner mounted Eight swivel guns and Carried Fourteen nun, and 
has since she was fix'd out taken two sloops employed in carrying provisions to the 
Enemy, both which sloops are now libeled at the Court appointed to try the cap 
tines of such vessels, and as your Petitioner has nevei received any ( ommission, he 
now desires that your Honors would take Ins case inlb yom consideration, and 
giant him a Captain's Commission for said schooner and your Petitioner as in 
duly bound will evei pray. 

(Signed) Agreen Crabtree. 
Dated Watertown, July 30, 1776." 

I he official records show that the commission asked (or was issued to him 

iIk next day, he having filed a bond of $201)0.00 to obey all regulations relating 
to privateering. 

The next information we have as to Capt. Crabtree and his privateer is of 
Ins brilliant strategic exploit at Liverpool, Nova Scotia, referred to in a general 
way by McClay in his "History of American Privateering," p. 71, but given 
more in detail m the "New Hampshire State Gazette oi Exeter ( ircuiating Morn- 
ing Chronicle," Tuesday, November 26, 1776, as follows: 

"Boston October 31, I 776. We heat from the Eastward thai on hriday 
the 20th of Scplembci last, a numbei of persons belonging to the private armed 
schooner "1 lannah i\ Molly," Agreen Crabtree master, went into the Port of 
Liverpool, Nova Scotia Government, and crossed by land unlil they came within 
call ol a large ship oi 500 tons, mounting four carriage guns, foui cohorns and 
(our swivels, the leader of the party hailed the ship and desired them to send a 
boat on shore, accordingly the mate came with the boat 1 he privateer nun got 
into her, went on board the ship and took her. I hey brought the guns to beai 
upon a bug loaded foi England, and ordered the mastei ol the bug to come along- 
side of the ship with the brig. They linn stripped the ship of everything valuable, 
and put the effects upon the brig and let the ship go ashore and tame off with the 
brig. The same crew also at the same time, took two schooners and a sloop, the 
schooner and sloop have arrived, but the bug had not arrived in port the 6lh of 
October, so we fear : > he is re-taken. The captain of the privateer was so careful 
as to put all the guns and cannon, with a quantity of powder on bond his own 
privateer, so thai they have arrived safe. I he schoonei and sloop had nails, fish 
and a number of valuable articles on board." 

August 20, 1777, the Council of Massachusetts B.iy commissioned Agreen 
Crabtree as captain ol the private armed schoonei I larlequin" carrying ten car- 
riage guns and fifty-five men to cruise .> l;.iih>i the enemy, h dors not appear thai 
Capl. Crabtree sailed this privateer, and the probability is that he sold it after the 
commission \ issued, for on August 29, 1777, as captain and sole owner ol 
the private armed schooner "Hannah and Molly" he renewed Ins bond, and 
immediatel) thereafter sailed From Boston on the "Hannah and Molly," Ins fnst 
object being to go to the relief of the garrison at Machias, Maine, then threatened 
with attack by the English. I Ic arrived at Machias the 29th ol September, I 777, 
where he was hospitably received by Col. Allan in command of the post. Soon 
aflei bis arrival some friction arose between the privatcersman, Capt. Crabtree, 
whose only commander was the force of Ins commission and bond, and the milit- 
ary commander Col. Allan subject to orders from headquarters; and Capt. Crab- 
tree was criticised (or some of Ins exploits by the latter in official despatches, but 
no record lias been found of the Council of Massachusetts calling Capt. Crabtree 
to account. Both men were animated by 2eal for the good of the patriot cause. 
Perhaps the only disapproval by the Council upon Ins course was in finally order- 
ing the release ol a prominent citizen ol Gouldsboro', Maine, whom ( apt. Crab- 
lice suspected of disloyalty and finding him upon a vessel bound to the English 
Colony of No\a Scotia, took hun from the vessel, carried him to Ins own fortified 
home in Frenchman's Bay and kept hun there a prisoner until the above action 
was taken by the Council. 

.Alter leaving Col. Allan at Machias, ( apt. C rabtree sailed on a trip to the 
eastward, and putting in at St. John, New Brunswick, an English port, he sacked 
a liuck house erected there by the British, containing government supplies, and 
took everything he could lay Ins hands upon, including Indian pledges, the latter 
being turned over by him to Col. Allan at Machias, where Capt. Crabtree arrived 
on the eighteenth day of November, I 777. Col. .Allan at once reported this 
adventure to the Council, saying "1 cannot say how far this was Legal foi a priva- 
teer. But am Extremely glad it is Done, and am sine Crabtree would not have 
Done it, if he tho't it not for the Best as he has acted here with much I lonour." 
Col. Allan did not approve of Capt. Crabtree's seizure of the Gouldsboio citizen 
above referred to, but had no criticism to make in reporting the capture by Capt. 
C rabtree of one John Long, who was carrying messages to the enemy, and he 
reported at another time that he had desired Capt. Crabtree, who had just sailed 
on another expedition to sieze one Justice 1 oj at the mouth of the St. John river, 
who had led troops to threaten reprisals il Col. .Allan's family was not sent away 
from then Cumberland Bay home. 

1 he \aiious documents on file in the Massachusetts State Archives relating 
to his privateering commissions and bonds are signed by Agreen ( rabtree in the 
bold hand writing given in facsimile at the head of this article. 

After the war he settled down to peaceful pursuits in his Frenchman's Bay 
home ai.d piobably continued his fishing and farming. 

lie died there June 10, 1808, and his second wife Mary died there July 
7, 1829, aged 87 years. 

His body and that of his wife Maiy, were removed from their original 
places of burial at Crabtree's Point in Frenchman's Bay to the 1 lancock C emetery 
a few years ago and a monument was erected to their memory. 


Agrecn Crablree was the son of Benjamin C rabtree u( Altleborough, Massa 

chusetls born January 30, 1703-4 at Rehubolh, and Jemima Briggs, his wife. 

Benjamin Crablree was the son and only child ol Benjamin Crabtree bom 
at Relioboth, Massachusetts, October 12, 167 3, died at Altleborough, Massa 
chusetls, November 20, 1736 ami Elizabeth Ingalls, Ins wife, lie was a yeo 
man, selectman and a prominent citizen of Altleborough. 

Benjamin Crablree, was the son of John Crablree, born at Boston, Mai a 
chusetls, October 23, 1639 and died at Altleborough, Massachusetts, and 

-, his wife, fie was of Narragansclt, Rehoboth, and Swansea, 

successively before settling finally at Altleborough, Massachusetts. lie was a 
joiner or house carpenter, and was the owner ol many acres ol land. 

John Crablree was the son of John Crablree, who was bom in England and 
died at Boston February 11, 1656 and Alice Ins wife. He was ihe immigrant 
ancestor, coming over about the year 16 53 and settling in Boston. He was a 
joiner and a carpenter. 

1 he above memoir of Captain Ichabod Nichob lias been written to hie 
with the records of the Society of the Sons ol ihe Revolution in the Slate ol C ,,|i- 
fornia, under whose military services, the writer has filed additional claim for eli- 
gibility. He has been allowed to have it punted foi private circulation. 1 If is 
indebted lo various authorities, the principal ol which in addition to those men- 
tioned are, the "1 listorical Collections ol the Essex Institute," ihe "Pickering < len- 
calogy" and the lollowing unpublished papers: "A Mcmoil ol NkLoIs 
Family" by Benjamin Nichols and an autobiography ol George Nichols. 


Redlands, C alilorma, Januaiy I, l (, l I 

The War of 1812 


Ermine, three battle axes, sable. 
An arm embowered, in armour proper, holding a battle-axe, gules. 

Can Deo iiilulo carent. 

Lemuel Weeks, the son of Lemuel Weeks and Margaret Gooding, his wile, 
was born at Falmouth (now Portland), Maine, October 2, 1757. lie married 
December 7, I 780, Sarah Crabtree, the daughter of Captain Agreen Crabtree 
and Sarah Ingraham, his wife. She was born June 9, I 762 and died October 
8, 1823. 

Their fourth child of a family of fifteen children was Margaret Weeks, who 
married, second, Abel Willard Atherton, from whom the writer is descended. 

Major Lemuel Weeks was a wholesale merchant in Portland, Maine, and at 
different times was in partnership with Ins brother-in-law Captain Daniel 1 ucker, 
his son-in-law George W. Duncan, and last with his son William Weeks. 1 le 
owned a large number of vessels, some having the names of his children. 1 lu 
store was at King Street, now India Wharf, and he lived at first at the junction of 
Federal and Middle Streets, and afterwards he built a large three-story house at 
the foot of hulia Stieet, in which house he died in 1821. 

This house stood where the Grand lunik Railway Passenger Station now 
stands, and in 1853 when the land was needed lor that purpose, it was sawed in 
two and moved in halves to the east side of Green Street below Portland Street. 

Lemuel Weeks was one of the Separatists, who withdrew from the hirst 
Parish Church in I 787 and organized the Second Parish Church in 1 788. 

He was one of the first Board of Managers of the Portland Benevolent 
Society, organized in 1803. 

In 1807 he failed in business in the commercial disasters of that year, as did 
most of the merchants of the town. 

He was interested in military affairs. He was commissioned Captain of 
.Artillery in (he Second Brigade. Sixth Division, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 
October 30, 1791 ; was promoted Major of Artillery. Second Brigade, I welfth 
Division in I 798, and was discharged with the rank of Major bebruary 3, 1816, 
after a service as an officer extending through twenty-five years. (Records of the 
Adjutant General's Office, Massachusetts.) 


He served in the War of 1812, in the service of the United States, for the 
defense of' Portland, as follows: from August 2, 1814 to August 31, 1814, as 
Major of a detachment of artillery stationed at Foil Scammell in Portland I larbor; 
and second as Major of a Batallion of Artillery lor shore defense from September 
7 to October 27, 1814. He received pay for these services from August 2, 1814, 
to November 2, 1814. (Records of the Adjutant General's Oliice, War 
Department, Washington.) 

Major Weeks died at Portland, Maine, August 28, 1821 

Major Lemuel Weeks was a son of Lemuel Weeks of Falmouth (Portland). 
Maine, wiio was born about I 727, and Margaret Gooding, his wife. I le was 
a merchant. 

Lemuel Weeks was a son of William Weeks, born at Boston, lebiuary 20, 
1689-90. died at Falmouth (Portland). Maine, about 1749 or 1750. His 
wife was Saiah 1 ukey to whom he was married December 3, I 724, "both of 
Dorchester." 1 hey moved to Falmouth soon after their marriage. He was a 

William Weeks was a son of Ebene/er Weeks, born at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, May 15, 1665, and Deliverance Sumner, his wife, who was born 
March 18, 1669 and died, a widow, March 21,1711-12. He was a tailor 
and removed to Boston soon after his marriage. 

Ebenezer Weeks was a son of Ammiel Weeks, who was born in Fngland 
in 16 33. He came over with his parents soon after October 1636 and the 

family settled in Dorchester. Ammiel's wife was Eh/abeth . She dud 

April 10, I 72 3 in the ninetieth year of her age. He died April 20, 1679. I le 
was a prominent man in church and town affairs and probably inherited the calling 
of land surveyor from his father. 

Ammiel Weeks was the son of George Weekes of Salcombe Regis, Devon- 
shire, Lngland, who came over to New England soon after October. 1636 at 
about the age of forty years, and Jane Clap, his wife. I hey settled in Dorchester, 
Massachusetts. She was born in England and died August 2, I 668. George 
Weekes died December 28, 1650. His widow married Jonas Humphrey, who 
died March 19, 1662. George Weekes was a man of superior culture for his 
time and was much interested in church, town and school affaus. I le was a 
farmer and a land surveyor. 





Abel Willard Atherton, the eldest child of Di Israel Atherton and 
Rebecca (Stevens) Prentice, his wife, was born at Lancaster, Massachusetts, 

July 4. 1777. 

He passed his boyhood days in Lancaster. I le entered 1 larva rd College in 
I 795, at the age of eighteen years, of which college his father was a graduate; 
but on account of an attack of sickness he left college soon thereafter and engaged 
in business in Boston. He joined a partnership under the firm name of ( ram, 
Poor & Atherton, for the transaction of business in London, England. 1 le went 
over there and also traveled on the continent, but the London venture failed and 
he was thrown upon his own resources. He returned to Boston, and soon after went 
to Portland. Maine, with letters to Major Lemuel Weeks, a prominent wholesale 
merchant and importer of that town, f le was introduced al the home ol Major 
Weeks, and soon fell in love with one of the daughters, the young and beautiful 
widow, Margaret Duncan, with one child, Margaret Elizabeth Duncan, who later 
married William 1 yng Smith, Esq., a lawyer of Portland. She was a devoted 
step-daughter, and says of him "he never was a society man, that is, il was not to 
his taste; was not a politician, but before Maim- became a State, lie was elected 
from the Distnct to the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts as 
a representative, and he was not decidedly a military man, but formed a Rifle 
C ompany * * * composed of the finest young nun of Portland." 

lbs marriage to Margaret Weeks, the young widow ol Lieut. Geo. W. 
Duncan U. S. A., took place at the home of her father, Majoi I cnuiel Weeks on 
July 2, 1809, Rev. Mr. Ichabod Nichols officiating. Mr. Nichols had just ben 
settled as "Colleague Pastor" of the First Parish in Portland. 1 Ins was Ins first 
marriage ceremony and his son, then unborn, married a daughter of tins union. 

Mr. Atherton was prominent in organizing the Portland Rille Corps above 
referred to; and on April 10, 1810, he was elected its hist captain. 

During the War of 1812, as a bombardment of Portland was (eared, 
especially in view of its destruction by a British Heel in the War of the Revolution, 
the local authorities and prominent citizens look active measures to resisi such an 
altack. The Portland Rifle Corps was undei arms a great part of the time ready 
to answer a call, and ihe streets of Portland look on the appearance of an armed 

In the famous fight between the "Enterprise," Captain Burrows, of our 
Navy, and the British ship "Boxer," Captain Blythe, olf the harbor of Portland, 
Maine, on September 15, 1813, the victory was with ihe "Enterprise," but both 
Captains were killed, their bodies were brouglil ashore and Hoc buried side b> side 
in the Eastern Cemetery of the town, with full military and civil honors. Ihe pro- 
cession was under the command of Captain A. W. Atherton. 

From the records of the War Department at Washington we learn the 




Captain A. W. Athcrton entered ihe service of the United States Septembei 
16, 1813, ,is Captain in the 3ul Regiment (Col. Nichols) oi Massachusetts 
militia. He was detached on special service, stationed at Fort Burrows in the. 
harbor ol Portland, and was discharged Novembei 24, I HI 3. He again entered 
the service of the United States September 7, I HI 4 as Captain ol the Portland 
Rifle Corps ol the above named regiment, which organization was called into the 
United States service for the defense i>l the town of Portland, and he was dis- 
charged September 9, 1814. He also served as aide-de-camp on the stall ol 
Major General Richardson for the defense of Portland from Septembei 10, I HI 4 
to Novembei 9, I HI 4. 

His title of Colonel came from Ins services as aide-de-camp. 

Col. Allieiton entered into the dry good business in Portland, but tin- 
disasters to business in general from the embargo overtook him also. 

About 1816 lie moved with his family to Prospect, Maine, where he estab- 
lished fisheries, was elected Clerk ol the Courts and began to prosper; but on 
August 16, 1821, he died at the age of lorty-four years, in the prune of his life, 
at Castine, Maine, from yellow fever, contracted a few days before his death, 
while having the deck of a vessel taken up in an examination of its condition. He 
was interested in the vessel as an owner and il had been recently engaged in the 
West India trade. He was buried at Castine, Maine. 

He had seven children, four born at Portland. Maine, and the others at 
Prospect and at Castine, Maine. His daughter Sarah, who married Dr. George 
Henry Nichols, was the mother of the writer. 

Col. A. W. Atherton's father was Dr. Israel Atherton, born Nov. 20, 1 741 , 
died July 20, 1822, an eminent physician of Lancaster, Massachusetts. I le was 
graduated at Harvard in 1 762 and was the first regularly educated physician in 
Worcester County. 

Dr. Israel Atherton was the son of Col. Peter Atherton of Harvard, Massa- 
chusetts, born May 12, 1705, died June I 7. I 764, and Experience Wright, his 
wife. He was a Colonel of the Massachusetts militia, a Justice of the Peace and 
a representative to the General Court of Massachusetts bom 1 iarvard in I 740 and 
again in 1 764, and he died while in attendance there. I le was a blacksmith by 

Col. Peter Atherton was a son of Joshua Atherton and Mary Gulliver, his 
wife, a farmer and tanner of Lancaster, Massachusetts. He was born May I 3, 
1656, and died 1721. He served in the Narragansel campaign. 

Joshua Atherton was a son of James Atherton, and Hannah — his wife, the 
immigrant ancestor, who was born in England I 62 5 and died 1710 at Sherburne, 
Massachusetts. He was a farmer and tanner and settled first in Dorchester. Mass- 
achusetts. 1 le took up lands in Lancaster and moved there with his family, but 
Indian depredations caused him to return to Dorchester. 1 le subsequently disposed 
ol Ins properly to his heirs by deed and with his wife went to Sherburne, Mass- 
achusetts, to live with his daughter, Deborah, who had married Captain and I lon- 
orable Samuel Bullard of thai town. 1 le and his wife died there. 


riDajoi^CScncval TRathanicl jfoleom 

0obn TTa\>lov (3tlman 

oilers of tbc "Revolution 


THESE SHORT BIOGRAPHIES were prepared for the Year Book for 
1902 of the Society, Sons of tin- Hcnoluiioii in Hje S fate or California They 
were collated from various records in the possession of the writer for 
the purpose of having a fuller account of the public services of the subjects of the 
sketches, than he knew to exist in any one article. 

The Directors of the Society have kindly consented to the reprinting of these 
articles for priva'e distribution amcrg the descendants of those whose services 
are recorded 

Among the authorities drawn upon for the Information are Gov. Chas H 
Bell. Hon Ghas. S Daveis. Mr. F. M Colby, the Gilman and Folsom Genealo- 
gies and the Literary Gazette of Concord The writer has not hesitated to use 
the words of the autnorlties in many instances. 

Redlands. California 
June 28 1902 

* * 

* * 

•x- # 





.NATHANIEL FOLSOM, the son of Jonathan Folsom 


and Anna Ladd, his wife, was born in Exeter, Now 
I [ampshife, in 1726. 

Nathaniel was fourteen years of age when his father, 
who was a farmer, died, leaving a large family, some <>l 
them quite young. Nathaniel learned a trade and became 
a good mechanic, but his tastes led him to a military life, 
and he was earl)' made an officer of the militia. 

In 1755 he was in command ol a Company ol the New 
Hampshire Regiment which marched through the woods to 
join the forces of Gen. Sir William Johnson in the "Crown 
Point" expedition. Upon their arrival, the New Hampshire 
troops were stationed at Fort Edward, and on the Sth of 
September, a scouting party having brought in news ol 
burning Wagons in the road, Captain Folsom, with his 
Company and part of another, was despatched to ascertain 
the cause. He fell in, soon after four o'clock in the after- 
noon, with the retreating army ol Dieskau, near Bloody 
Pond, and immediately engaged in battle until night. 

Tlu' enemy then continued their retreat, having sul- 
fered heavy loss, and Folsom returned to camp, bringing 
with him, besides his own wounded, many prisoners and 
all the enemy's baggage and ammunition. By this brilliant 
exploit, with a loss of only six men ol his command ol one 

hundred and twenty men, against 1,000 of the enemy, as 
well as by liis conduct through the campaign, Captain B\ri- 
sum gained the reputation of an energetic, skilful and brave 

Upon liis return from this campaign he engaged suc- 
cessfully in mercantile business, but kept up his interest in 
the militia. Hi- was appointed Major in 17<>7, ami soon 
after Gov. John Wentworth made him Colonel ol a Regi- 
ment. In 1774 he was appointed Justice of the Peace. Al- 
though the Government showed him marked favor, Colonel 
ITolsom, from the beginning of the contest with the Crown 
as to taxation, took decided ground against the Stamp Act 
and joined his countrymen in all later remonstrances. 

lie was for several years prior to the Revolution a 
member of the Assembly of the Province and was a promi- 
nent member of the opposition, or liberal party. He was a 
member of the Assembly in 1774 which came into conflict 
with Gov. Wentworth as a result of its decision to corre- 
spond with other colonies as to their grievances against the 
ministry. The Governor dissolved the House ami dispersed 
them as a treasonable gathering. They met immediately 
thereafter at a private house and issued a call to all the 
towns of the Province to elect deputies to meet tor the 
choice of delegates to a general congress. Eighty-five del- 
egates chosen therefor by the different towns met in Exeter 
on the 21st day of July, 1774, and chose two delegates to 
the General Congress to be held in Philadelphia. Colonel 
Nathaniel Folsom was one of the two elected, and he at- 
tended the Congress. 

After his return to Kxeter, lie took command of an 
armed ami mounted force of prominent Exeter men to pro- 
ceed to Portsmouth to guard the return of a party which 
made a successful raid upon Fort William and Mary to ob- 

lain the supply of guns and ammunition stored there. This 
plan had been secretly and carefully prepared by some citi- 
zens of Exeter and vicinity for the purpose ol obtaining 
munitions for the conflict they so clearly saw must come. 
Col. Folsom's advocacy of his countrymen's rights, and es- 
pecially his connection with this raid upon Fort William 
and Mary, an overt act ante-dating Lexington, cost him 
his roval commission as Justice oj the Peace. 

He was again elected to the New Hampshire Assembly 
in 1775, and, the Liberal party being dominant, he was cre- 
ated, in recognition of his military ability and patriotism, 
Major General of all the troops of New Hampshire, three 
Regiments of which were encamped around Boston. Heat 
once repaired to Cambridge and took command of the New 
Hampshire troops then in the field. He served in the Siege 
of Boston, being stationed at Winter Hill. He remained 
in the held until Congress adopted the army, including his 
three Regiments, and appointed its commanders. ( ien. Fol- 
som then returned to Exeter and to continued hard work m 
the public service. He was retained as Major General oi the 
State militia which was continually kept in readiness lor 
active service. More than fifty times during the war, de- 
tachment.- from his command were sent to the front. 

Early in 1776 the State Legislature elected (ien. Kol- 
som a Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, an office which 
he held, l>eing a part of the time its Chief Justice until 
his death in 17 ( ><>, and in 1776 he was chosen one oi the first 
Councillors of the State. 

During the war of the Revolution he was also four 
years a member of the Committee of Safety, was repeatedly 
chosen to the Legislature, and in 1777, and again in 177V, 
as elected a delegate to the Continental Congress, in 


which he took his full part. 

On tin.' loth of January, 1778, Congress appointed Gen. 
Folsom our ot a committee ot live ol its members to proceed 
to Valley Forge to inspect the army and its conditions, and 
to report as to reforms required to secure future efficiency. 
The) remained nearly three months in camp and their re- 
port was adopted almost in its entirety by Congress. Gen. 
Washington had no warmer supporter than Nathaniel Fol- 

The enumeration of the many public offices, embracing 
judicial, legislative and executive duties, held at the same 
time by Nathaniel Folson during the war, although not un- 
common as to the two branches last named, pointed to a de- 
fect in the constitution of the State ; but the perfect confi- 
dence reposed in Gen. Folsom 's honesty and patriotism si- 
lenced all opposition as to him. 

Nathaniel Folsom married, tirst, Dorothy Smith, by 
whom he had six children, the third child, Deborah, marry- 
ing John Taylor Gilman, of Exeter. Dorothy Folsom died 
February, 177n. He married, second, Mrs. Mary (Sprague) 
Fisher, by whom he had one daughter. 

Nathaniel Folsom died the 2<>th of May, 1790, in Exe- 
ter, New Hampshire, his native town and the home oi his 
ancestors for three generations. A contemporary notice 
describes him as exemplary in all the relations oi lite, a 
faithful public servant and a sincere Christian. 



♦IMlCIloLAS OILMAN, the twin of Colonel Daniel Gil- 
man and Mary Lord, his wife, was horn in ICxeter, 
New Hampshire, October 21st, 1731. 

In 1755 he marched as Lieutenant <>l the First Company 
of the New Hampshire Regiment, commanded l>\ Colonel 
Peter Oilman, his uncle, to join the operations around Lake 
( Jeorge in that year. 

Prior to the Revolution he held uiauv important civil 
ami military appointments under the Wentworths. He 
was. however, an ardent supporter oj the protest against 
Stamp duties, and especially against the duties on tea m 
I 77o. In 1774 some prominent citizens formed a plan to 
strip L'U't William and Mary, in Portsmouth Harbor, ol il- 
arms and ammunition lor use in the conflict that seemed 
sure to come. Col. Nicholas Gilman was one ol the armed 
party from Lxeter that inarched to Portsmouth to cover 
the return of the successful raiding part\ on their ivaj up 
river in boats with their captured powder and guns. 

When the war of the Revolution broke out, Nicholas 
(iilman had wealth, ability and a great name, and he threw 
them all into the scale for the patriot cause. 

At the commencement ol the Revolution, he was com- 
manding a Regiment ol State militia, and he held his coin 

muixl during the war. Detachments of his Regiment were 
from time to time despatched 1>\ him for active duty in i Ik- 
held, luit it i> not known that he served a> Regimental com- 
mander in any campaign. In the autumn of 1777, at what 
seemed an urgent call, Col. John Langdon organized an in- 
dependent Company ot light infantry, composed oi nun ol 
rank and station in the community. Col. Langdon was the 
Captain and Col. Nicholas Gilman was the Lieutenant, oi 
this Company. They marched to Saratoga to join Gen. 
Gates in his work of capturing Burgoyne's army, but the 
decisive battle had been fought before their arrival. Their 
term ot service was thirty-two days, including thirteen 
days allowed for travel home, a distance of Jot) miles. 

From early in 1775 to the time of his death, in 17S.}, 
Col. Nicholas Gilman 's whole energies and tune were given 
to the cause of liberty; he was elected treasurer ol tin- 
State in 1775, and continued to hold the office, by success- 
ive re-elections, until his death in 1783. He was Receiver 
General of the State, Continental Loan Officer and a mem- 
ber ot the Committee of Safety, from 1775 to I7J-U, and 
Councillor of the State from 1777 until he died. 

Nicholas ( id man married, December -!lst, 175J, Ann, 
the daughter of Rev. John and Elizabeth (Rogers) Taylor, 
of Milton. His wife died March 17th, 1783. Three oi his 
sons took prominent parts in the patriotic cause. Nicholas 
Gilman died in Kxeter, New Hampshire, April 7th, 17<5.v 


J.'j.»V^AYi.Oa MA'"!, 

v.. ,■ bt;, ^the c. • - 



<X()HN TAYLOR GILMAN, the oldest child of Colonel 
*-J Nicholas Gilman, and Ann Taylor, his wife, wasl>orn 
in Exeter, New Hampshire, on the l'Mh of December, 1753. 
IK' was brought up with no more education than the 
unusually excellent common schools of Exeter afforded; but 
his inclination and public duties and responsibilities led 
him in alter years to become not only a student but a leader 
in the educational development ol his State. 

At an early age he became interested in ship-building, a 
prominent industry of Exeter at that time, giving also a 
part of his time to agriculture and to trade. I »n the 13th 
1 January, 1775, he married Miss Deborah ITolsom, one ol 
his early school mates, and daughter <>t Major General Na- 
thaniel Folsom, of Exeter. 

On the morning of April 20, 1775, at daybreak, the 
news arrived of the battle at Concord. All Exeter was at 
once astir, and by nine o'clock ol that morning one hundred 
and eight men stood in arra\ before the court house, armed, 
equipped and provisioned for the march to Cambridge, the 
appointed meeting place lor the minute men. John Taylor 
Gilman, the happy husband of only a lew months, and onh 
twenty-one years of age, was one ol them ami had been one 
of the most active and energetic in getting the company so 


promptly into the field. They had not even chosen a leader 
when they came together. Willi acclaim James Hackett 
was declared Captain and they started at once for Cam- 
bridge, a distance of fifty miles. The company spent the 
firsl night al Andover and arrived in Cambridge at two 
o'clock in the afternoon <>l the next day. They were as- 
signed to quarters in one ol the buildings oi Harvard Col- 
lege. The next day they elected permanent officers and 
John Taylor Gilman was chosen First Sergeant. The 
Company, as such, remained in Cambridge but little more 
than a week, the immediate danger having passed. John 
Taylor Gilman returned to Exeter, and from that time un- 
til the end of the war he devoted much of his time to the: 
patriot cause. He entered immediately upon duly as 
Commissary in supplying the three New Hampshire Regi- 
ments then in the field and in assisting his father, Colonel 
Nicholas Gilman, in his offiicial duties. 

On the 18th of July, 1776, John Taylor Gilman was se- 
lected lor the honor of reading the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, which had just arrived by express messenger, to the 
assembled State and Town officials and citizens. This he 
did with clear tones, except at one point, where for a time 
his patriotic feelings interfered with his powers oi speech. 

In 177 ( > lie was elected a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Legislature, and in 1780 he was chosen from that body 
to serve on the Committee of Safety, which continued in 
session during the Revolution. In L780 he was the sole del- 
egate from New Hampshire in the Hartford Convention. 
In 1781, Mr. Gilman was elected to the Continental Con- 
gress and was re-elected the succeeding year, lie was the 
youngest man in Congress during his second term, but he 
took an influential part in the proceedings. He voiced New 
Hampshire's vote to prosecute the war to an honorable and 


Massiifbnsftt: Rail, Rtiri'arti £cllrgc, 

(.'Vaipico iir l ; .m,nl!r h.u Continental droop: 
Pun in the ik'.K 01 Boston. 

successful cud, and took a strong stand in favor ol main- 
taining our boundaries and fisheries. 

In 1783, immediately after the reception ot tin- prelim- 
inary Articles of Peace, he was ('ailed home by thcdeathoi 
his father, and in June was chosen Treasurer ol the State 
to succeed him. He showed remarkable ability as a finan- 
cier and was continued in that ollice by successive re-elec- 
tions until 1786, when he was appointed one ot the Com- 
missioners to settle the war accounts ol the several States. 
The duties were laborious and ill health at one time led 
him to tender his resignation, but he was persuaded by 
( ien. Washington to continue his labors lor a while longer. 
( hi his final resignation he was re-elected Treasurer ot the 
State, which ollice he held until he was chosen Governor. 
He was a member of the New Hampshire Convention on 
the adoption of the United States Constitution, which met 
in Exeter the 13th of February, 1788. The records of this 
Convention have not been preserved, but the discussion as 
to the adoption was a prolonged one and much opposition 
was manifested. At an adjourned session, alter a recess 
of four months, it was finally adopted, and it is said that 
John Taylor Oilman, the delegate from Exeter, was one ol 
the most influential in bringing about this result. 

John Taylor Giltnan was a Federalist iii politic^ and a 
firm supporter of the administration ot George Washing- 
ton. In 1 7 U 4 he was elected Governor of the State and for 
ten successive years thereafter he was re-elected to that 
office. In 1805 he was defeated lor re-election by the can- 
didate of the Republican party. He afterward, in 1810, 
represented Kxeter in the State Legislature for one year. 
In IS 1 2 his name was placed on the electoral ticket lor De 
Witt Clinton for President. In 1813 John Taylor Gilmaii 
was again elected to the governorship, again in 1814, ami 

1 1 

in 1815 he \v;is elected Governor for his last term, declining 
a re-nomination in 181<>. He had been eleven years success- 
ively elected Governor, and afterward for three successive 
years. As Governor during the war <>t 1 SI _J, he managed 
the affairs of the State with energy and skill, directing his 
almost exclusive attention to military affairs. Attacks 
were expected from land and sea. Under his orders more 
than 10, 000 men gathered to meet the enemy. But the 
danger passed and New Hampshire was not invaded. 

The latter part oi Gov. (iilman's life was spent in the 
rural occupations that he loved and in the cultivation of 
the social relations for which his hospitable home had long 
been a center. 

lie was President of the Hoard of Trustees of tin- Phil- 
lips Exeter Academy from 1796 to 1S27, when he resigned. 
Dr. Phillips, its founder, in the exercise of the power re- 
served to himself and his successors as President of the 
Hoard, had named Gov. Gilman to succeed him; hut Gov. 
Gilman, in a well considered letter at his resignation of the 
office, declined to accept the right of naming the President 
to follow. He was also Treasurer of the Academy for a 
long term of years. The site now occupied by the Acad- 
emy was given by him. Gov, Gilman was for a hmir time 
a Trustee of Dartmotth College, and in 1815 this College 
gave him the degree of LLD. 

His first wife, Deborah Folsom, died the 20th of Febru- 
ary, 1791. There were five children by this marriage. The 
oldest child and only son, John Taylor, horn in 1779, was 
graduated at Dartmouth College, in 17 ( )(>, and died unmar- 
ried in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1H0S, where he had 
gone hoping for benefit to his failing health. His four 
daughters, Ann Taylor, Dorothea Folsom, Mary and Eliza- 
beth Taylor, named in the order oi their birth, married 


scholarly men, and all except Mary left children. Ann 
married Hun. Nicholas Emery, of Portland, Maine, a grad- 
uate tit Dartmouth College and a Judge of the Supreme 
Court ot Maine. Dorothea married Re\ Dr. Ichahod Nich- 
ols, a graduate of Harvard College and for nearly fifty 
years the pastor of the First Church in Portland, Maim-. 
Man married Joseph (i. Cogswell, LL.D., a graduate 
• it Harvard College, a prominent educator, holding tor some 
time a professorship in Harvard, and for many years from 
its foundation, Superintendent and Librarian of the Astor 
Library in New York City. Elizabeth married Honorable 
Charles S. Daveis, a graduate of Bowdoin College, a prom- 
inent lawyer of Portland, Maine, distinguished as a leader 
in equity and admiralty practice, and who served liis State 
eminentl) in the negotiation.- which finally resulted in the 
Ashburton Treaty. 

Gov. Gil man married, second, Mrs. Mary Adams, and 
third, Mrs. Charlotte Hamilton, who survived him. There 
were no children by the second and third marriages. 

Gov. Gilman was six feet in height, of portly figure 
and ol light complexion. He was famed, even in the day 
ol courtly manners, for the dignity of his bearing and life. 
He wore the old costume, long waistcoat, breeches and 
queue, to the last. 

John Taylor Gilman died on the 31s1 day of August, 
1828, in Exeter, the town of hi- birth, ami hi- remains 
were laid beside those ol his ancestors in the old burying 
ground of that town.