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302079777% 




A 



1 





•* 't ■ » 



AN 



EXPLANATION 



OF 



ANCIENT ALPHABETS AND 
HIEROGLYPHICS, 



\ 



ANCIENT 

ALPHABETS 

AND 

HIEROGLYPHIC CHARACTERS 

EXPLAINED; 

wrra AK 

ACCOUNT OF THE EGYPTIAN PRIESTS, 

THEIR CLASSES, INITIATION, AND 

SACRIFICES, 

IN THE ARABIC LANOUAOB 

BY AHMAD BIN ABUBEKR BIN WAHSHIH ; 

AND IN BNOLISH 

BY JOSEPH HAMMER, 

SECRETART TO THE lUPERIAL LEGATION 
AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 



LONDON : 



PRIMTBD BY W. BULMBB AND CO. CLBVBLAND BOW ; 

AND SOLO BT O. AND W. NICOL, BOOKSBLLBB8 TO HIS 

MAJBSTT, PALL-MALL. 

1806. 



OXFORD ] 



8 JUL 1962 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 



Xhe original of this translation was found 
at Cairo, where it had escaped the researches 
of the French Savans^ who, though successful 
in collecting many valuable Oriental books 
and manuscripts, failed in their endeavours 
to procure a satisfactory explanation of the 
Hieroglyphics. Literary, as well as military, 
acquisitions excite great interest. After the 
harvest of the members of the French 
Institut, the less expectation there was of 
gleaning with success in the field of Egyptian 
literature, the greater satisfaction a discovery 



ii translator's preface. 

like this must give, and the more the acqui- 
sition of such a manuscript, equally new 
and interesting, deserves to be appreciated. 

The account of its contents and author is 
as follows: — ^The author lived a thousand 
yeanr ago, in the time of the cdXi^Ahdul Malik 
Bin Marwdn. His surnames would be suf- 
ficient to prove that he was a Caldean^ Na- 
hathean^ or perhaps a Syrian by birth, if he 
did not tell us himself that he translated a 
work treating on the hieroglyphics and secrets 
of Hermes, from his mother-tongue^ the ^a- 
batJiean^ into Arabic^ 

Ali Abdur-rashid Alha-koyi informs us in his 
Geography of Egypt (extracts of which are 
given by citizen Marul in the Egyptian 
decade) that in the year two hundred and 
five and twenty of the Hegira, a book was 
tbund in Egypt containing a notice of the 
construction of the pyramids and other Egyp* 
tian antiquities, written in unknown characters, 
and translated at last by a monk of the con- 
vent of Calmoan. This discovery proves to 



translator's preface. iii 

be coeval with the time our author wrote his 
book, which was finished in the year two 
hundred and forty one. 

It is very Hkely that he had the means of 
perusing this translation of the Monk. 

He deposited the original of the book be- 
fore us (as we are acquainted by himself) in 
the library of the caUf above-mentioned. 
This prince (one of the most enlightened of 
his dynasty) rivalled his great predecessors 
H6r6n Arrashid and MAm&n in the encou- 
ragement given to the progress of the sciences, 
and to the translation of mathematical and 
philosophical works from the Greek and 
Syriac into Arabic. 

Chalabizaade Hadshi Kkalfa^ the great 
Oriental encyclopaedist and bibliographer, 
gives us in his Bibliographical Dictionary an 
account of the works of our author, and 
mentions him as one of the most celebrated 
translators that ever enlarged the empire of 
Arabic literature by precious translations from 
foreign languages. 



/ 
J 



iv translator's preface. 

Having thus made the reader acquainted 
with the merits of the author, it becomes ne- 
cessary to say every thing that may be con- 
sidered essential on the merits of the work it- 
self; independent of the praises which have 
been bestowed on it bv diflferent Arabic au- 
thors, who never mention it without ex- 
pressing the utmost regard for it. 

Though according to the Arabic title it is 
supposed to contain only the explanation of 
unknown alphabets, it gives beside a key to 
the hieroglyphics^ and in the same chapter a 
curious account of the different classes of the 
Egyptian priests^ their initiation and sacrifices ; 
so that we may consider its contents under 
these three heads. 

Although it is difficult to say how many of 
the eighty alphabets herein deciphered may 
have been really used by nations, or how 
many lettera in every one alphabet may have 
been disfigured and misrepresented either by 
the want of sufficient information in our 
author himself, or by the ignorance and 



translator's preface. V 

blunders of the copyists; yet it is not pre- 
sumption to assert, that real truth lies at 
the bottom of most of them, and that those 
T¥hich were not alphabets for common writing, 
were used* as ciphers amongst different 
Oriental nations. The proof of which is evi- 
dent from the circumstance, that some aqiong 
these alphabets are -used even at this day 
amongst Turks, Arabs, and Persians, as a kind 
of secret cipher for writing, without being 
understood by the generality. The commonest 
of them is the alphabet called by the author 
the tree alphabet. 

The first three alphabets of the first chapter, 
viz. the Ctificj Magkrabin^ and NumeraU or In- 
dian alphabet, are universally known. 

Ctffic inscriptions are found through the 
whole extent of the ancient empire of the 
Arabs, in Arabia^ Persia^ Syiia^ ^gypU Sicily^ 
and Spain. 

The Maghrabin or Andalusian alphabet is 
the common character used at this moment 
in Morocco J and throughout the northernmost 
part of Africa. 



vi translator's preface. 

The numeral or Indian character is known 
to every true Arab or Fenian^ and to many 
Europeans; it is also known that in many of 
the Oriental languages, as well as in the 
Greek, alphabetical letters are used for num^ 
bers. The numerical signs, (called by us 
Arabic^ and by the Arabs more properly Jn- 
d/an numbers) used vice versa for letters, form 
an alphabet, which is generally known, and 
particularly used in the daftarddm^ or treasury 
office^ for accounts. 

The seven alphabets contained in the se- 
cond chapter merit the utmost attention from 
every Orientalist. The Hebrew^ Syrian and 
Greek are already known to us ; the Nabathean 
and Masnad or Himydric we have heard of 
in history; but the Lacam and Cerrebian 
alphabets are unknown even by name. 

The difference of the Hebrew, Syrian, and 
Greek letters from the usual alphabets of 
these languages may be, perhaps, mere mis- 
takes of the copyist, but in spite of this 
conjecture, they deserve the closest examina* 
tion, for the author, by birth a Caldean or 



TRANSLATOb's PB£FAC£. vii 

Nabathean^ must have been well acquainted 
with the original form of these alphabets. 

The HimyAric or Masnad alphabet is very 
often mentioned in Oriental and European 
books, but this is the first specimen which 
has appeared of it.^ 

Whether the Barrabi alphabet is the al- 
phabet of the people called Barrabars^ or 
whether the Lapami alphabet is originally an 
Abyssinian one, are questions difficult to 
decide. 

The alphabets of the thirds fourth^ fiflh% 
sLvthj uid seventh chapters, bearing the names 
of planets, constellations, philosophers, and 
kings may be considered as so many Oriental 
ciphers, which, at the time they were col- 
lected in this book, were, perhaps, named 

^'^As to the Himy&ric letters^ or tlio6e» which are 
i^ientioned by the name of Almasnad we are still in total 
darkness^ the traveller Niebuhr having been unfortunately 
prevented from visiting some ancient monuments in Yemen 
which are said to have inscriptions on them/' 

Sir William Jones's fourth anniversary Discourse. 



viii translator's preface. 

after some celebrated men, to whom their 
invention was ascribed. The names them- 
selves (as is commonly the case in all transla* 
tions from a foreign language into Arabic) 
are so strangely altered and disfigured, that 
it was possible, but in very few cases, to 
guess the real meaning of them, and to trans- 
late ihem with the true original name. 

The Mimshim^ antidiluvian, or primeval al- 
phabet deciphered in the last chapter, is 
highly interesting ; for it shows the transition 
of the hieroglyphics from being signs ex- 
pressive of words to the signification of 
simple letters; and the existence of such a 
hieroglyphical alphabet is suflSciently proved 
by the observations made on old Egyptian 
monuments ; it shows, at the same time, the 
different modifications of the old Syrian and 
Caldean alphabets. 

It is left to the reader to make the conr- 
parison between these characters and the 
known Oriental alphabets. 

We proceed now to the hieroglyphics called 



translator's preface. ir 

in Arabic Hermesidn alphabets^ from Hermes^ 
who, according to Oriental history, was the 
fiiiBt king of the ancient Egyptians. It is 
impossible to clear up entirely the darkness 
in which the history of this triple Hermes is 
involved. He is, however, evidently the 
Hermes Trismegistm of the Greeks, and- pos- 
sibly the same with the triple R&ma of the 
Indians. 

The old kings of Egypt are comprehended 
by us under the general name of Pharaohs. 
The Oriental historians divide them into three 
dynasties, viz, 1. the Hermesian ; 2. the Pha-- 
raoh^; and 3. the Coptic or properly Egyptian 
kings. To the first, and particularly to Hermes 
the threefold himself, they ascribe the tombs^ 
catacombs, temples, palaces, pyramids, obe- 
lisks, sphinxes, and all the royal, funeral, re- 
ligious, and astronomical monuments, which 
astonish the traveller in Upper Egypt. But 
incapable of distinguishing them, or of 
finding out their true appropriation, they 
believe all of them to have been constructed 



X translator's preface. 

for the purpose of hiding treasures, of raising 
spirits, of telling fortunes and future events, 
of performing chemical operations, of at- 
tracting affection, of repelling evils, or of 
indicating approaching enemies; and they 
call them, according to these supposed pur- 
posies, treasurexhambers, conjuring buildings, 
astrological tables, alchemical monuments, 
magical spells, talismans, and magic alarntir 
posts. 

The secrets of the contents of these monu? 
ments, or of the art« by means of which they 
are erected, were expressed, :as they believe, 
by the hieroglyphics upon them, which being 
invented by Hermes^ and kept secret by his 
descendants, were called the Hermesian al* 
phabet.* ' 

This specimen of Oriental writers being 
known to us, it is difficult either to confirm 



* This idea of impervious secrecy is obvious in the ex- 
pression come down to us of a thing being hermetically 
closed or sealed. 

As there occurs in the course of the manuscript a great 



trakslatoe's preface. Xi 

or to contradict the explanation of our 
author* 

1^ most reasonable objections which can 
be made against the explanation of many of 
the hieroglyphics is counterbalanced by the 
evident truth, that a great many of them are 
known to have been invariably used in 
astronomy and chemistry for expressing the 
same objects ; if the meaning of some of them 
does not prove satisfactory, there are others, 
to the truth of which no important objection 
— . ■ - 1 II * I ■ I ■ ■ II 111 ■ ■ ■ 

finmber of words relative to magical arte and charms, we 

submit here to the reader the translation of the principal 
ones: 

Treasure chambers. Compounds; philtres. 

Conjuring buildings. Alchemistry. 

Astrological tables. The kaowledge of spirits. 

Alchemical monuments. Planet-rings. 

Magical spells. Magic black-art. 

Talismans. Magician. 

Magic alarm-posts. Soothsayer. 

I nscri ptions. Priest. 

Secrete of the stars. Pyramids. 

Conjuring spirits. Secrete, mysterious things. 



Fumigations. 



c 2 



Xii TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 

can be made. Such are the hieroglyphics men- 
tioned to have been represented on the tombs 
for conveying to posterity the character, mode 
of life, and death ofthe .person buried therein. 
The seven figures (see hieroglyphics, original 
p. 124,) said to have been engraved on the 
tombs of men killed by violent death, show 
evidently the different modes of it: light- 
ning, decollation, bite of a serpent, death by 
a hatchet, by poison, by a poniard, or by 
strangulation. The same concordance be? 
tween the hieroglyphical sign, and the object 
meant, will be discovered by a close inspec-^ 
tion of the four tables of hieroglyphics. 

It will be sufficient to mention here a single 
instance of original merit, and a true disco- 
very made by this manuscript, viz. the name 
of one of the most interesting hieroglyphics, 
which, after the explanation given by the au- 
thor, is evidently what Kircher calls anima 
mundi^ but the ancient name of which never 
has yet been explained. It is written BaMmid^ 
and translated into Arabic by the word calf. 



translator's preface. xiii 

It is superfluous to recall here to the me- 
mory of the reader the great antiquity and 
mysterious sense of the idolatrous veneration 
la which this calf has been continually held. 
It is superfluous to repeat any thing that has 
been said on the worship of Apis in Egypt, 
renewed by the Israelites in the worship of 
the calf, and preserved at this moment in 
the mysterious rites of the Druses. Let us 
remember only a circumstance which shows 
wonderfully the concordance and relation of 
the name of BaMmld and its translation. 

Bahumed or Bahumet is related in the 
History of the Templars to have been one of 
their secret and mysterious formulas, with 
which they addressed the idol of a calf in 
their secret assemblies. Dijfferent etymo- 
logical explanations and descriptions of this 
word have* been brought forward, but none 
surely so satisfactory as this, which proves 
that the lemplars had some acquaintance 
with the hieroglyphics, probably acquired in 
Syria. 



iiv translator's preface. 

If, therefore, the explanation of the hiero- 
glyphics given in this book deserves attention^ 
the account of the four classes of Egyptian 
priests, their initiation, and sacrifices, is no 
less interesting. 

In what a curious and new light do the 
catacombs of Sacara, containing the mummies 
of birds, appear by the account of those 
animals being embalmed at the initiation of 
the priests, wrapped up in a greater or lesser 
quantity of linen, and deposited in pits? 

How evident does it become that the 
Judaic law of the first-born being offered to 
the Lord on the temple's threshold, is of Egyp- 
tian origin ? 

How interesting would it be to ascertain 
whether any of the thirty-two inscriptions 
seen by the author near Bagdad are actually 
to be found, or whether the shape of the 
lettersf of some pieces of poetry found by 
modern travellers in the neighbourhood of 
the ruins of Babylon, bear any resemblance 
to the Chaldeauy Nabatheauj Sahean^ or Curdic 



translator's preface. XV 

alphabets ? Certain it is that, though reason 
and fancy, truth and fable, may have con- 
tributed an equal share to the composition 
of this book, it must be considered notwith- 
standing as one of the most curious, the most 
interesting, and the most valuable manu- 
scripts that have been found among the trea- 
sures of the East ; and the translation, it is 
hoped, will be thought an acceptable gift to 
the curious and learned. 

Having lately found in the bibliographical 
work of Hadji Calfa, and in another Encyclo- 
pedia, some notices about the author of this 
Treatise, and some other of his works, I have 
judged tliat a transcript of them, with a 
translation, would not be uninteresting in this 
place* 

In the bibliographical and encyclopedial 

work of Hadji Calfa^ entitled, UJ ^ jyJaJl UJS 
^yil\ J c-;^^\ i. e. Elucidation of the Names of 
JBooks and Sciences^ we find under the article 
k::,wi^ Philosophyj where the names of the 
most famous translators under the califs are 



xvi translator's preface* 



enumerated, the following passage: ^ul^.^ j\^ 

Ljj^\ Ji LkJ' cr* ^ ^^^ ^^^ Waushih was 
employed in translating from the Nabathean into 

Arabic. 

In another encyclopedial work, the title 

J* 
of which is, ^^\ ^^ ^\yJ\ 4 f-^^ j^^ ^^^^ '^^ 

well-arranged Pearls of scientific Instruction^ 
we become acquainted with the titles of some 
other curious works translated by our author. 
Under the article L*^ Ac is the following pas- 
sage : \i^\ ^ .ul^^ J^ Jii ^^\ J,ju- U jiJl ^ ^^ 
And among ihe oldest books upon this 
science is the Sidrat ul muntahU (The Tree of 
Paradise) translated by Ibn Wahshih from 
the Nabathean. 

In the same work under the head \^a^ Is. 
Natural Magic^ (which they distinguish from 
ysr" or Supernatural Magicj) we are told that 
Natural Magic is divided into two branches^ 
the first treating of the knowledge of the 
particular properties of plants, metals, ani- 
mals, &c. ; and the second, of the composition 
and construction of artificial machines; after. 



J 



t&AK«£ATOil 9 ?R£FACE. xvil 



which the author says — 4 »jiJ^\ u^^t ^ j 
A-JL^ ^^\ i\3j ^ii\ <z^l^\ Jj« ^[ Among the 
hooks written on thejmt branch is that entitled 
Taqfindtj that is Putrifactions^ translated from 
the Nabathean by Ibn Wahshih. 

Finely under the head of isJii Is, Science of 
Agriculture^ as the mo$t classicalof all books 
is quoted iui^j ^^\ Ja JukuJt i>M\ The AgricuU 
ture of the Nabatheans^ a translation o/" Ibn 
Wahshih. A copy of this work, if I am 
not mistaken, may be found in the Bodleian 
library at Oxford. See also Herbelot under 
the word Falahat. 



Since writing the above, I have discovered 
that this rare book was not unknown to Kir- 
cher, who in his work on the Hieroglyphics, 
jinder the first paragraph, Qccasio hujus operis^ 
says: ^ Quatuor lustra jam prope eguntur — 
<c quo— Jlomam ut in obeliscis Romanis spe- 

D 



xviii translator's prepack* 

" cimen quoddani exhiberem hieroglyphic» 
^« interpretationis, e Gallia- vocor^ cujus lit- 
« teraturae huciisque incognitas ex pervetusto: 
^^ Jrabico codice instaurationem me molirl 
" fama ferebatur/* 

And farther below in the same epistola 
parcenetica talking of his means, and naming 
different authors, he concludes the enumera. 
tion by saying ; " quos inter principem sanh 
** locum obtinet Aben Vaschia/' Then again 
page 109 in the text naming his Arabic au- 
thors — ^^ Gelaleddetiy Aben Regel^ et Aben 
<' Vahschia de culturd. ^gyptiorum, et libra 
•« de antiquitatae vitae, moribus, litteris vete- 
^< rum ^gyptiorum, quos penes me habeo^ 
<< ex quibus hand exiguum ad Hieroglyphic 
^< cum institutionem subsidium allatum est*"* 
And then: " Nam -46en Wahschia — primus 
" jEgyptios libros in linguam Arabicam trans* 
«< tulit, quem nos Melitae inter spolia Tur- 
<< corum repostum singular! Dei providentift 
** arabicum reperimus." 

Now though these quotations shew that the 



TBANSLATOB's preface* X4X 

manuscript was not, as I supposed, unknown, 
yet they enhance the value of it by the worth 
attached to it by a man like Kircljer. The 
same work is now I believe at Paris, where 
there has lately been a great talk of the ma^ 
nuscript alphabets at the imperial library 
transported from Rome; which renders the 
publishing of it in England the more interest-- 
ing. Kircher found his copy at Malta amongst 
the Turks, and I this at Cairo amongst the 
Arabs. 

The author mentions his having deposited 
this work in the treasury of Abdolmelic in the 
year 214. Now the Calif just named reigned 
in the middle of the first century of the Hejira, 
and unless there was a public establishment 
of treasury or library founded by that Calif, 
and still bearing his name, wherein Ibn 
JVahshifi may have deposited it in the year 
214, long after the death of the Calif, it is im* 
possible to reconcile those dates, particularly 
as all my endeavoui^ to find anywhere else 
the time wherein Ibn Wahskih lived, have 
proved fruitless. 



XX TEANSLATOR^S PREPACIB. 



The following Table shewing the powers 
of the Arabic letters in Roman characters 
will be useful to those who may not be ac- 
quainted with them. 

\ aiif has the power of A* . . • 

c» bd ditto • B. 

CL^ ia ditto T. 

sa ditto 5, by some pronounced like ih in the 

ikiglish t^ord tiiink. 

^ jim has the po^er of J, EiigHsh. 

H| very much aspirated. 

KH, a guttural sound like the German dk« 

D. 

Z} by some pronounced Uke ih in tlie 

Exiglish word those* 
R. 
Z. 
S. 

SH, English. 

S, with a strong e(lK)rt from the throat* 
Z, with a strong eflbrt from the throaty 

by some pronounced like a d with 

a guttural sound* 
Ty with a guttural sound* 
Z, with a guttural sound. 
Ay with a strong efibrt from the throat* 



^ hd 


ditto 


^khd 


ditto 


dM 


ditto 


J zal 


ditto 


jr6 


ditto 


jz6 


ditto 


^jm sin 
tja shin 
^ sad 

^jo zdd 


ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 


I id 


ditto 


)a zd 


ditto 


tW 


ditto 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE* XXI 



^ gkayn has the power of GH, or nther the Northumbrian Ki 



^fd 




ditto 


F. 


Jt'lf 




ditto 


K, verjharS. 


C/fc^ 


kdf 


ditto 


K. 


^}l6m 




ditto 


L, 


A mm 
^ nun 




diUo 


M. 




ditto 


N. 


A wuw 




ditto 


W and u. 


jr kd 




ditto 


Hsoft. 


^Hd 




ditto 


Yand u 



en 



TH£ 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 

A RAisx to God, and health to his servants, who 
hare pure hearts^ Amen ! My object is to col* 
lect the rudiments of alphabets used by antient 
nations, doctors and learned philosophers in their 
books of science, for the use of the curious and 
studious, who apply themselves to philosophical 
and mystic sciences. 

Each alphabet is represented in its old shape 
and form, the original name of it recorded, and 
the power of the characters written underneath 
with red ink* in Arabic letters, to the end that 
they may be better distinguished. 

I have arranged the work in chapters, and 
entitled it. The long desired Knowledge of occult 
Alphabets aUained. With the aid of God ! 



^ This disdnctioD, for olmooi reasons, has not been imitatod 
in the printed copy. 

X 



Cs] 



AN 

EXPLANATION 

OF 

ANCIENT ALPHABETS AND 
HIEROGLYPHICS, &c. 



CHAPTER I. 

T'he three usual (OrierUal) alphabets^ viz : the Gufic« 
the Maghrabin, and the Indian. 

Section I. The Cufic alphabet. Our Lord 
Ismaei (peace be with him !) was the first who spoke 
Arabic, and who wrote the Cufic, of which 
nine diflferent sorts were used. The ground of all 
of them is the Cufic alphabet, known by the name 
of Siru (See page 4 of the Arabic text beginning 
from the right.) 

Section II. The Afo^Aroim (western) or Anda^ 
lusian alphabet, (v. orig. p. 5*) 



in 

Section IIL The Indian alphabet of three 
difierent sorts, (r. orig. p* 6, 7f 8.) 

CHAPTER II. 

The seven most celebrated old alphabets. 

Section L The i^rrtait alphabet, (v. orig. p. 9.) 

Section II. The old JToio/AMii. al^>fialiet^ (v. 
orig. p. 10 ) 

Section III. The Hebrew alphabet, (v. orig. 
p. 11.) 

Section IV. The Berrabian alphabet, (v. orig. 
p. 12.)- 

Section V. The Lukumian alphabet, (v. orig. 

p. IS-) 

Section VI. The Musnad or {Hamfraritic) al* 
phabet, (v. orig. p. 14-) 

Sjoction VIL The Greek alphabet^.c^mnonlf; 
called the alphabet oX ths philosophers^ (▼• ortg^ 

CHAPTER III; 

The particular Alphabets (or rather Cjrphers) of the 
seven most celebrated Philosophers, 

SficmaNL The alphabet of /fiprjMf^ (i^torig. 
p. 16.) 



Smtt 
orig. p. 

Skct 
p. I8.> 

Sect 
orig. p. 

Scot 

Skot 

P- «» •) 
Sect 

orig. p. MJj) 



9N^II. The al^liaibe« of CUmnitt^ (v. 

17.) 

OM III. The alphabet of Plato, (y. orig. 

«M. FV. The alphabet of fytk^ptw^ ^ 

19.) 

OM V. The alphabet of SuUimu, (r. ong. 

ON-VL The alphabet of JiMih0M»,('r. Of 1*]$. 
ON VU. The alphabet of AHttoOii (n 



GHAPTERIV. 

The four-and-twenty Alphabas^ (or rather CypHers^)\ 
that were used after the seven preceding^ hy the most 
celebrated Philosophers and learned* Men. 

SE€Ti<nf h The alphabet of Belinot^ the phi- 
iMopfaer^ (if. orig. p« S9l) 

SBcrioii Hi Another BerraUun alphabet in^ 
Iwited'bf the philosopher Soorid^ (r. orig. p>S4#)' 

SscTioif III. The alphabet oFthe philosopheiy 
Pherentius^ who wrote therewith his philosopbtcat 
booksei (v% orig. pt 95«) 



C6] 

Section IV. The Moallaky or suspended al- 
phabety invented by Piolom^ the Greek, (v. orig. 
p. 26.) 

Section V. The Marboot or connected alpha- 
bet, invented by Marconos ? the philosopher. He 
wrote therewith books on talismansj (v. orig. p* 
27.) 

Section VI. The Giorgian alphabet, invented 
by philosopher Marjands^ {v. orig. p. 28.) 

Section VII. The old Jfabaihean alphabet, 
(v. orig. p. 29.) 

Section VIII. The red alphabet, invented 
and used by the philosopher Jlfa^fV,(v. orig. p.30.) 

Section IX. The Talisman alphabet, invented 
by the Greek philosopher Ghdmighdshir ? (v. orig. 

p. 31.) 

Section X. The mysterious alphabet, invented 
by Heliaosh? the Greek philosopher, who used 
it in his books, (v. orig p. 32) 

SECTioif XL The alphabet of Costoodjis the 
Greek philosopher. He wrote in this alphabet, 
three hundred and sixty books on divinity, talis* 
mans, astrology, magic, influence of planets and 
fixed stars, and on the conjuration of spirits, (v. 
orig. p. S3 ) 

Section XIL The alphabet of Hermes Abootat 



in 

the philosopher. He wrote on the noble art (of 
philosophical secrets.) He constructed in upper 
Egypt treasure chambers, and set up stones con- 
taining magic inscriptions, which he locked, and 
guarded by the charm of this alphabet, extracted 
from the regions of darkness, (v. orig. p. 34-) 

Section XIIL The alphabet of Colphotorios 
the philosopher. He was deeply learned in the 
knowledge of spirits and cabalistic spells, in 
talismans, astrological aspects, and in the magic 
and black art Philosophers and learned men 
have used this alphabet in their books and writings 
in preference to others, on account of its different 
extraordinary qualities, (r. orig. p. 35*) 

Section XIV. The alphabet of Syourianos 
the philosopher, (v. orig. p. 36.) He wrote in 
this alphabet on astronomy, and the secrets of 
the stars ; on talismans, and their qualities ; on 
magic alarm-posts ; on the effects of planet-rings ; 
and on the. invocation and conjuration of spirits. 

Section XV. The alphabet of Philaos the 
philosopher, (v. orig. p. 37.) He invented mira* 
culous fumigations, marvellous compounds, talis* 
mans, and astrological tables. He constructed the 
treasure- chambers in the pyramids, and guarded 
Ifaem with the charm of wonderful alarm-posts. 



en 



ScosrioN XVL The alphabet of Diascoridis 
the philosopher, cofloiinQnljr cstUed the Tree aU 
phabet, (¥. orig. p. 38-) He wrote on treea, 
shrubs, and herbs, and of thfitr secret, useful, and 
DOUCMis /quaijtifis in this alphs^t, used since Jo 
their hooks by diSorent fduiosc^hers. 

SsGTioii XVIL The Davidim alphabet, (v. 
•rig. p. Si.) This alphnhet 9ras partioolarly used 
in India, and by many learned men in their wnk' 
ii^ on medicine, philosophy, and politics* It 
i» one of the most cdebcated alphabets. 

SaoTiON XVIIL The alphabet of /JlaMcr«<tfi 
the philosopher, (v. orig. p. 40.) The Greek 
philosophers delighted very much in this alpha-* 
bet, making use of it for the secrets and mysteries 
of their wisdom. They believed it to be the same 
with the Mercurial alphabet extracted from the 
regtcms of darkness. 

Section XIX. The alphabet of the Copktic 
JE^yplian philosophers, {y. orig. p< 4i«) In this 
Ihey noted their calculations and indications, and 
wrote the inscriptions on their treasuries, and the 
secrets of divinity. I^pkrim^ one of Noah*« de* 
fcendimts, invented this alphabet. It is even now 
used in calculatiosu 

Smtiojh XX. The farganiau alphabet, (v. 



C9l 

orig. p* 4S.) It was invented by seven Roman 
philosophers, who wrote a great number of books 
on chymistry, magic, and medicine. Their prin« 
cipal was DiojaneSy the great Roman king. This 
alphabet was much celebrated in his time, but is 
now forgotten. 

Section XXI. The alphabet of Zosimus^ a 
Jew philosopher, (v. orig. p. 43«) This alphabet 
was very much refined by the Hebrew philoso- 
phers, who made use of it for writing their holy 
books deposited in Jerusalem. 

Section XXIL The alphabet of Marshal the 
philosopher, (v. orig. p. 44.) He was a wise and 
learned man, who wrote on different arts and 
sciences. 

Section XXIII. The alphabet of Arcadjinis 
the Greek philosopher, (v. orig. p. 45.) He in- 
vented a great number of wonderful compounds, 
fumigations, royal theriacs, medicines, and efiec* 
tual remedies. 

Section XXIV. The alphabet of Plato the 
Greek philosopher, (v. orig. p. 46.) It is said 
that each letter of this alphabet had different im- 
ports, according to the affair and thing^ treated 
of. 



I 10] 



CHAPTER V. 

The Alphabets of the Seym Planets. 

Section I. The alphabet of Saturrt, (v. orig. 

p. 47.) 

Section IL The alphabet o{ Jupiter^ (▼. orig. 

p. 4S) 

Section III. The alphabet of Mars, or philo- 
sopher Behram^ (v. orig. p, 49-) 

Section IV. The alphabet of the sun, the 
lord of heaven, (v. orig. p. 50.) 

Section V. The alphabet of Venus^ AnaUis^ 
the celestial dancer, (v. orig. p. 51*) 

Section VI. The alphabet of Mercurjr or 
Hermes^ the secretary of heaven, (v. orig. p. 52.) 

Section VIL The alphabet of the mooUf 
(v. orig. p. 53-) 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Alphabets of the Twelve Constellations^ 

Section I. The alphabet of Aries^ under the 
influence of Mars, (v. orig. p. 54-) 



[Hi 

Section II. The alphabet of Taurus^ under 
the influence of Fenus^ (v. orig. p. 55.) 

Section III. The alphabet of the Gemini^ 
under the influence of Mercury^ (v. orig. p. 66.) 

Section IV. The alphabet of Cancer^ under 
the influence of the Moon^ (v. orig. p. 57.) 

Section V. The alphabet of Leo^ under the 
influence of the Sun^ (v. orig. p. 58.) 

Section VI. The alphabet of the Virgin^ in- 
fluenced by Mercury, (v. orig. p. 59.) 

Section VII. The alphabet o{ Libra, (v. orig. 
p. 60.) . 

Section. VIII. The alphabet of Scorpio, (v. 
orig. p, 61.) This alphabet was very much used 
by the Chaldeans in tbeir impressions on hidden 
treasures, and in their books and writings con- 
cerning the secret influence of the planet Mars. 
This alphabet was transmitted by spiritual inspi* 
ration throus;h Marshimine to the soothsaver 
Arbiasios, the JV^abathean. 

Section IX. The alphabet of Sagittarius, 
influenced by Jupiter, (v. orig. p. 62.) 

Section X. The alphabet of Capricorn 
under the influence of Saturn, (v. orig. p. 63.) 
This alphabet was particularly appropriated to 
the use of the Babylonian and Persian philoso- 
phersy who kept it as a great secret/ It was dis^ 



covered after their extinction in tlieir books, car- 
ried away by the Greeks. The Egyptian phiioso- 
phers nsed it afterwards in their astronomical 
works« 

♦ 

Section XL The alphabet of the sign Jquarius^ 
tinder the influence of Saturn^ (▼. orig. p. 64*) 
It was particularly used by the Chaldeans and 
Sabeans in their incantation books, and also in their 
inscriptions relative to the science of spirits. 

Section. XII. The alphabet of Pisces^ (v. 
orig. p. 65.) 

CHAPTER VII. 

Alphabets of ancient Kings^ viz: the Kings of Syria, 
the Hermesian Kings of Egypt^ the Pharaohs, the 
CanaaniteSy Curds, Casdanians, Persians and 
Cophts. 

Section I. The alphabet of king Berdois the 
Syrian, (v. orig. p. 68.) In this alphabet he wrote 
all his books on the minutiae of divinity, and 
natural law. 

Section II. The alphabet of king Resiut, the 
Egyptian Pharaoh, (v. orig. p. 69.) He constructed 
wonderful talismans and magical aiarm-posts. 
All of them in this ancient alphabet 



, [ IS] 

Section IIL The alphabet of king ISmas the. 
Hermesiatij (v. orig. p. 70.) He wrote two hun- 
dred books on astronomy, on the secrets of physic, 
and on the qualities of plants and minerals. 

Section I V, The alphabet of king Mehrarish^ 
(v. orig. p. 71.) He was a famous soothsayer, 
deeply experienced in philosophy and divinity. 
He wrote more than a thousand books on other 
sciences. 

Section V. The alphabet of king Taberinos 
the soothsayer, (v. orig. p- 72.) One of the alpha- 
bets used by the Pharaohs in their inscriptions. 

Section VI. The alphabet of king Diosmosy 
the Egyptian, (v. orig. p. 73.) He was one of the 
Pharaohs most renowned for magic, talismans, 
and astrological tables. 

Section VII. The alphabet of king Berhemios 
the Egyptian, (v. orig. p. 74.) This is one of the 
oldest alphabets used by the magicians and Pha- 
raohs in Egypt ; and it was transferred from these 
to the soothsayers of India and China. 

Section VIII. The alphabet of king Saaa, 
the soothsayer, (v. orig. p. 75.) He was one of the 
seven magicians, who were at the same time kings, 
doctors, soothsayers, magicians, and philosophers. 



Mrho governed and cultivated Egypt, and built the 
great towns subsisting till this day. 

Section IX. The alphabet of king Belbeis* 
(v. orig. p. 76.) He built a town Tour farsangs 
long, full of admirable works, and wrote a great 
number of books in this alphabet. 

Section X. The alphabet of king Cophtrim^ 
the Egyptian, (v. orig. p- 77.) He was a great 
master in the art of constructing talismans and 
admirable alarm-posts, treasure spells, and wonder- 
ful images. He wrote an Encyclopedia of all 
sciences in this alphabet. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Tlte Alphabets called Hermesian, viz. of the Disci- 
pies of Hermes, or the first djmasty of the Kings in 
Egypt, as we find them in the Writings of the 
Ancients. 

Every one of these kings invented, according 



* He was perhnps the founder of an old Egyptian town^ near 
Belbeis, the ruins of which have been found by the French. See 
the first Volume of the Decade Egyptienne. 



[ 15 1 

• 

to his own genius and understanding, a particular 
alphabet, in order that none should know them 
but the sons of wisdom. Few, therelbre, are 
found who understand them in our time. They 
took the figures of different instruments, trees, 
plants, quadrupeds, birds, or their parts, and of 
planets, an^ fixed stars. In this manner these 
hieroglyphical alphabets became innumerable, 
like the alphabets of the Indians and Chinese. 
They were not arranged at all in the order of our 
letters a, 6, c, ^, but they had proper characters 
agreed upon by the inventors of these alphabets, 
and which differed in their figure and order, viz. 
they expressed water by AAAA They understood 
the secrets of nature, and endeavoured to express 
every thing by an appropriate sign, so that they 
might express it by its appearance. 

Others followed the simple rules of geometry, 
deriving one alphabet from another, as the Coojic 
has been derived from the Syrian^ the Hebtew 
from the Chaldean^ the Latin from the Greek, and 
others, in this manner^ from some original. Who- 
soever wishes to become acquainted with all the 
nice points of the knowledge of alphabets, may 
inquire for the book entitled Solution of Secrets 
and Key oj Treasures by Jaber Hajran Essoofi^ whq 



[16 1 

enters into all the necessary explanations and de* 
tails of this art. Our object is only to mention 
the most celebrated of these alphabets of the 
Hermesians, (or hieroglyphics,) and to indicate 
their particular qualities; for nobody is capable 
of giving a satisfactory explanation of them alL 

God directs all things for the best. 

Section L Alphabet of the philosopher 
Hemies the great. 

This alphabet is used on the Obelisks ^ the Fyra- 
mids^ the inscription tables and stones ; the temples^ 
and other old buildings, from the time of the first 
Pharaohs, It does not consist in a series of letters 
like other alphabets, but in expressions composed 
according to the arrangement made by Hermes 
the great. These expressions consist in innumera* 
ble figures and signs, which are to lead the mind 
directly, and immediately to the object expressed 
thereby, viz : there is a sign which signifies the 
name of God Almighty, simply and alone. If 
they wished to express one of the particular attri- 
butes of God they added something to the original 
sign, and proceded in this manner, as you will 
perceive by the alphabet in question. 

It is divided into three series, beside the celes- 
tial or supernatural objects. Let us begin with the 



[17] 

celestial objects, and the . figures by which they 
were expressed in the Hermesian language repre« 
sented as we have found them. 



God. The Almighty. The AU-ClemenK The Avenger. 






Y 



The AU-Powerfol. The All-Merciful. The Nourisher. 



The Destroying* The Living. The Omniscient. Angel. 




^ 



DeriU 



light. 




o- © 



Sky. 



Star. 



Planet. 



^ 



Cloud. 




-^•^•l^ • ©-El 



Saturn. Jupiter. Mars. 



Son. 



Sun. 



r i«] 



i . ¥ • jJ^ ' ^ V^ 





Venus. Mercury. AriM. IVnniB. GeminL 

Cancer. Leo* Virgo. Libra. So<il)^. 

Sagittarius. Capricorn. Aquarius* Pisces. Fire. 

AWW . • . 

Water. Earth. The Four Eleuienls. 

These are the figures of such of the celeslial 
hieroglyphics, as we have been able to find and 
make out ; and now we are going to represent tne 
three other classes, according to promise, with all 
the different figures of the Hermesian alphabets* 
or hieroglyphics. 




[19 3 



THE FIRST SERIES, 

ffieragfy'phics to exjfress Words relativt to Anmat 

Actions and Affections. 

^.-y . ^. 4 . ^. 00 

life. Deatiu RichnesB. Poverty, Man. Woman. 

Plq^sacal Good. Physical EtiI. Moral Good. Moral Evil. 




Sin. Joy. Sorrow. Weeping. Intellects. 



SpiriU • Body. .Motion. Rest. Sleep. 

- /vv\ • [XX^ • J • 

fiekigAwaker Stupidity. Sag^ty. Action. Stroke. 




tap] 

• Y • § • 1=1 • ^ 

Oblivion* Understanding. Homilitj. WilU Obedience. 





• 01 • n1 • 

Cunning. Violent death. Imprisonment. Secret. 

bd • J4 'O • ® • n 

Hidden. Mad. Sick. Well. Stnxig. 

• 4 • 5^ • 1 • + • 

Offending. Cutting, Hangings Time* Hoar. 

• yP • HI • ^^ • (y 

Fortune. Science^ Ignorance. Error. Truth. 





^ . M • i • M -fed 



False. Number. Geometry. Government. Destructiom 
Building. Stone. Tree. Jewd. Bone. 



\ 



[«»] 




liorn. Blood. Phkgni. Ckoler. Bile. 

^ • <§) • D . 

White. Rcdnen. Blacknen* Tellowneas. Green. 

Extension. Nairowness. Injustice. Hostility. Theft* 
Justice. Burning. Law and Order. Going in. Going out. 




Standing. Medicine, Remedy. Walking. Riding. Counsel. 



DevotioQ; . Prayer. Contrition. High Priest. Government. 




Pious. Wicked. Learned. Just. Philosophy. 



/^.^^ "51 • ^ ■■ 

Eloquence. Opposition. FalMhood. - Scents of Nstnrs. 

Q • ^ • -^ • ^ 

C^uallies. Spiritual Secteti, Art. Weight 

^ . ^ . w . ^a 

Astnniomy, Talismans. Magic. Art of nhicQ and 

conjuring SpiiiU* 



Thi« figure is expressive of the most sublime 



fecrel, called originally Bahunud and JKharuf (or 
calQ, viz. T/u S^cr^t of the nature of the fyprtd^ or 
The Secret of Secrets^ or The Beginning and Return 
of every thing. 

To speak at length of this figure, is more than 
the liioits of this book allow. We refer the curious, 
who wish for more explanation, tp s^ book, which 
we have translated from our JVabalhean language . 
into Arabic^ and entitled : Sun of Suns and Moon of 
Moons^ illuminating the discovery of the Hernusian 
alphabets, or hieroglyphics^ where he will be com^^ 
pletely satisfied^. 

The Hermesians let nobody into the secrets of 
their knowledge but their disciples, lest the arts 
and sciences should be debased by being common 
amongst the vulgar. They hid therefore their 
secrets and treasures from them Uy the means of 
this alphabet, and by inscriptions, which could be 
read^ by nobody except the sons of wisdom and 
learning. 

These initiated scholars were divided into fpur 
classes. The first Class comprehended the sect of 
thtHar&misahAlhawmijrah^ynYioyitrt all descendants 
of Hermes the Great. They married daughters of 
their own race only, and never were allowed to 
have any kind of intercouse with strangers. No 



C«4] 

man in the world was acquainted with any of theif 
secrets: they alonie possessed them. They were 
the authors of the books commonly called the 
books o^Edris (Enoch). They constructed temples 
dedicated to spirits, and buildings of magical wis- 
dom. The few of those, who in our time are ac« 
quainted with this knowledge, live retired in some 
islands near the frontiers of China^ and continue 
to tread the steps of their forefathers.^ 

The second class of the Hermesians, called ^a« 
r&misah Alpin&waUiiijrah^ the sons of the brother of 
Hermes, whose name was Asclibianos. They mar- 
ried within their own families only, and far from 
giving their countrymen any kind of trouble, they 
became necessary to them in all their business. 
The difference between them and the former con- 
sisted in the use of perfumes allowed to them, and 
in the liberty they enjoyed to see their relations 
at the entrance of the sun into the several signs of 
the zodiac, and at the commencement of each sea« 
son. On the latter occasion they had a feast of 
1 even days. ThtAlhawmijrah^ on the contrary , were 

^ Perhaps the Brahmans may he here alluded to as the followers 
of the Herioesian philosophy. On the iotercoui'se between India, 
£g)'pt, and China, see Sir William Jones's Annual Discourses \x^ 
the Asiatic Researches. 



[25] 

continually occupied with reading the holy books, 
with acts of devotion, and with fasting. They had 
Only one feast in the year, lasting eight and twenty 
days (a morUh)^ beginning at the entrance of the sun 
into the sign Aries. At this time they approached 
their relations, and enjoyed perfumes and other 
pleasures of life. They confessed the unity of God 
the Creator of all things. Blessed be his Name ! 

They never communicated their secrets, and 
Hermetic treasures to any body, but they pre« 
served them from generation to generation, till 
our days. 

When a child Mras bom to them, the mother 
took it to the priest of the temple, where trial of 
the children used to be made. She laid it down 
on the threshold of the temple without speaking 
a word. The priest then came with a golden cup 
full of water in his hands, accompanied by six 
other priests. He said prayers, and sprinkled 
water over the child. If it moved, and turned its 
face towards the threshold, the priest took it by 
the hand, and conducted it into the interior of the 
temple, where there was a coflSn prepared on pur^ 
pose. There they said prayers and performed 
ceremonies for an hour. Then the priest covered 
the face of the child with a silk handkerchief; a 

u 



[26 J 

g^een one tor girls, and a red one for boys ; put 
it ill the coffin, shut it up, and took in his hand a 
stick with three heads made of silver, aad set with 
jewels and precious stones. 

Tlie father, mother, and relations of the child 
entered at this moment, and performed prayers 
and hymns in humble devotion. The priest then 
struck the coffin with his staff thrice, and cried 
out : *^ In the name of the Lord thy God who 
^* created and made thee, exist by his wisdom^ 
*' speak out the inmost secrets of the events of thy 
*' life I Amen, Amen, for ever and ever!'* The 
whole assembly performed seven adorations, and 
then stood up. The child said, *' Health and 
*• heaven's blessing to theeT' The priest returned 
his greetings, and said '^ What is thy name ? In 
*' what consists thy sacrifice, and what means of 
^^ subsistence dost thou desire ? At what hour hast 
** thou been adorned with this noble body, and these 
^* gracious features, (i. e. when wert thou born?) 
^^ Art thou to remain here as thy brethren, or art 
^' thou merely a travelling guest? I ask thee in 
*^ the name of God, the all-vivifying, the un« 
*^ changeable, the eternal One, without end or 
*' beginning, in whose power are all thiogjs visible 
** ^nd invisible^ the Lord of heaven and earth, the 



[27] 

** most High and supreme Being ; and I conjure 
^* thee to answer and promise, that as long as thoo 
*^ sbalt exist in this world, thou wilt never reveal 



«i 



our secrets to any stranger 



»» 



The child promised it in the name of truth, 
which is written on the table existing from the 
beginning of things, in the table of Fate preserved 
in heaven. The child was theu told, that he was 
received amongst the number of the wise** and 
learned, the sons of science ; or amongst the mas^ 
ters of mechanical arts and works. They coa^ 
versed with him on every subject. They put him 
different questions, and heard his answers. A 
priest standing by noted the answers on a table of 
stone, and hung, it up in the temple. 

After this, they called the child, opened the 
coffin, purified it with fumigations, and performed 
a sacrifice consisting of a quadruped, or a' bird. 
Thsy burnt the blood shed, purified the body, and 
wrapt it up in a piece of fine white linen an hun- 
dred and twenty fold for a male, and sixty for a 
female* They put it into a pot of earth, and depo- 
sited it in the pit of sacrifices. All this was per- 
fonued according to secret rites known to nobody 
but themselves. 

The coffin mentioned was made in the shape of 



[28] 

a little chest, of the length of the child, made of 
olive wood, and adorned with gold and precious 
stones. If the child happened afterwards to men- 
tion this mysterious reception, they rejected it, 
saying, '' This child cannot be trusted with our 
•* secrets and mysteries, for it may betray them." 
They afterwards brought forward some fault on 
which they grounded their exclusion. If the ini- 
tiated person had already grown up, and wished 
to withdraw from their order, he was sure to die 
within three days. 

One of their greatest secrets was^ involved in tlie 
sacrifice of their great feast. They took seven 
bulls and seven rams, and fed them with certain 
herbs, called Hashiskat uz Zohrah and Tdjulmalik 
and in their language Shikrek, during seven days, 
and gave them purified water to drink. The 
seventh day of the week they decked them out 
with gold and jewels^ and bound them in golden 
chains. The priests sung prayers, hymns, and 
psalms in the great temple. The people arranged 
in their different classes, worshipped God. The 
chief of the sacrificers advanced then, and made 
with the triple staff a sign to the bulls and rams, 
which, without any other action or impulse, were 
thereby delivered from their chains, advanced, and 



C«9] 

voluntarily stretched out their necks towards the 
sacrificer, who immolated them. The heads of 
the victims were put in the coffin, and the rest of 
their bodies embalmed with different kinds of 
drugs, as aloes, amber, musk, camphor, and sto- 
rox, and the great prayer began. 

Every priest appeared in the dress of his class, 
reading the holy books. They prostrated them- 
selves to the earth, remaining thus for a whole 
hour, and after they had raised their heads, the 
first of the sacrificers began to speak on all the 
events to be divined from this. He was followed 
by the second and third, and so on till the last. 
One of the priests wrote down every speech, the 
results of which they compared. 

As they practised different rites, the real im- 
port and meaning of which nobody could tell but 
themselves; and all this proves sufficiently the 
great care with which they kept their secrets 
hidden. They said, " These things are come down 
from our father Adant^ Seth^ and Hemus, or Edris 
fEnockJy the triple." There were sundry other par- 
ticulars worthy to be mentioned ; but we will not 
exceed the bounds of our expressed purpose. 

The third class was called Ashrdkiyiin (Eastern), 
or the children of the sister of Hermes ^ who is 



[30] 

known amongst the Greek by the name of TViV 
nugisios Thoosdios. Thi$ class was intermixed with 
some strangers and profane, who found means to 
get hold of the expressions of their hearts. Their 
sciences and knowledge are come down to us. 

The fourth class, denominated Mashhyun^ 
ftyalkers^ or peripatHic philosophers)^ was formed by 
the strangers, who found means to mingle with 
the children and family of Hermes. They were 
the first who introduced the worship of the stars 
and constellations, and who forsook the worship 
of the God of Gods. (Be his glory exalted — there 
is no other God but him!) From hence came 
their divisions, and every thing that has been 
handed down to us, proceeds originally from these 
two sects, the Ashr&kiy^n^ eastern, and Mash&Hfun^ 
peripatetic philosophers. 

Learn then, O reader! the secrets, mysteries, 
and treasures of the Hieroglyphics ^ not to be found, 
and not to be discovered any where else. For- 
merly a knowledge of them coidd not be acqiiired 
but by immense pains and expense, by a great 
number of years, and a long course of travels^ and 
now lo ! these treasures are laid open for thy en- 
joyment Take possession of them, keep and guard 
them inrith the utmost care and secrecy. Pro* 






isi] 

foundly learned philosophers and curious students 
only have attained this knowledge. Let us now 
proceed to explain the hieroglyphics promised 
above. 

SECOND SERIES. 

Hterogljrphics significani of Words relating to Trees 
and Plants^ and thiir Produce. 



Tree. Vine. Palm Tree. Fruit Tree. Wild Tree. 

Plants. Pot Herbs. Grass, Herbs. 

1 • • S • 

Poisonous Plants. Medical Plants. Olive Tree. The Lote Tree. 
Mallows. Barley. Com. Leaf. Flower. 

3 • t-u • V 

Root. Boie. Lint. Tamarisk. Mandragora. 









132 ] 

uu 



Cypress* Nut Tree. Fruit. Fruit. Peach. 

Gr^e. Pomegranate. Quince. Odoriferous Herbs. 

Basilicon. Ear of Conii Melilot. Goves. Indian Aloe. 

Spikenard. 

Endive. Lentil. Oil of Plants. Cinnamon. 

A species of Aloe Bezoar. Balsam. Teriac. 

called Ud-ul-Bark. 

Medicine, Remedy. Compound, Hot.. Cold. Wet. 

« 

Dry. Tender, Thin. Thick. Sweet. Bitter. 



rssj 



8o«r. DiaaoIv«d« CoU Clear. Corrobomtive. 

^uriiiedL Wdl^kme, Tempemle. Acrid. . Diyitig; 



•IMstilktiou. • SiibUttalioa. Reversiiig, SolutiMk Corniptiii^ 




r 



k^^^n 



"CaldmUion.- Tnturation. '^mading.- Siftng. Mixing, 



KXJLXJ ^ 





t 



m 



Oiling. Purifying. Boiling. Tying. 




S • if^ ♦ -^ 



Itfoistening. Salt. Vegetable Salt. Vq^bkWatev^ 



ExpressedJttke. Tarfd,A. 
I 



[34] 



?-^.H-m 




Apple. Kasfarat. A. Sesame* CiUon. Honeys 





Sabar. A. Myrrh* Safron. Gum Sandrei,' MimUd. Ai 



Gum. Mulberxy. Fig. Indian Spikenard. Pruin, Plum. 

Stonix. Frankincense. Civet. Musk. Amber. 

Laudanum. Pitch. Naptha. Manna. Hasak. Am 






A. 

AAA • /WV 



W 



M(imiy&» viz. Sweet Marjoram. ? GkdrUtin. A. 

the drugs used 
for embalming. 



f .^.Q-S^f? 



Rue. ? Onion. Linseed* Cotton. 



[35 J 



C • Y • w . S 

Sillu ZawmirdH.A. Swallow Wort. Sogar. 

An Herb. 

JXkarin. A. Khiku^dn. A. •Camomile. KtmtarufAn. A. 




/• • • 



^ 



AAA 
AAA 



Galiiigale. Mdzanyin, A. A Kind of Berry. A. 

Now we Lave to mention, if it pleases God, the 
hieroglyphical figures for minerals, or the Third 
Series of Hieroglyphics. 

The philosopher DUshdm mentions these signs 
in his book on the qualities of planets and minerals. 
He used this alphabet to design their,secret qua** 
lities. Learn it, and keep it well, O reader, for it 
is one of the profoundest secrets. 



ise] 



THE FOURTH SIRIE^. 



• « 



Hieroglyphics expressive of Wards, and Ideas belonging 

.to Minerals^ 



n. 



*if 



A Mine. Gold. 



O 



Silver: 




Stone. 



Serpentine Stone. Quicksilver. CiystaL 



o 



Mognesia. Marcq^He, Cold Maicasite. Bnwie* 





■^ • >> 



A 



A 



Jewel. 



9 



Brass. 



Talc. 



Tutly. 
X^ad. 



Cinnabar. Mineral Water. 


AntimoDy, 


<A) • ^ — ° • ^^ 




Magnet. Powder. Iron. 


Pure Iron. 





^s. • *€ 



Borax. Clay, Burnt Clay. 



Chalks 



Ashes. 



t«1 




YlHtp UmA S^. A^ : Barmdkan. A. Calcined Iren^ 
jtlkali. Bdr&L A. Allam. Natron. Verdigre^e. 

•^ • X • :3l(i ' rrm 

Firestone. Talc. TMr. A. Tin. 

Balkhash. A. Turkois. Green Vitriol. Borax. 

Unrefined Borax. Onyx. Ruby. Lapis LazuU. Emerald.* 

♦ • rn • K • ¥ • 

Kaddnu A; Cornelian. Coral. Nlwah. A. Sal Ammoniac. 
CM* . Orpimenty Aisenic. Red Orpiment. Red Clay. 






**■• 



[ 38 ] 

White Clay. BxAqf^dtfar. A. Glan. i7a;ar JabaHnm A* 

A Species of Green Stone. Sulphur. Sakhar. A. A Yellow Stonfw' 

£j^ • i^ • •fflh* • ^$^ 

Khamihin. A. A Kind of Emerald. Agate. A Green Stone. ' 

5 . ^ . 666 . ^ 

Adamantine Spar. Sawdn. A. Shdzanah. A. Serpent Stone. 



Bitumen. Diamond. A Censer. Iron chain. 

A Transparent Cutting of Solution of Trituration of 
Stone. Stones. Stones. Stones* < 





<^'i^'t't:i 



Engraving Ilajar^fis^ A Kind of A Snail Shell. Hqfar 
of Stones. sabqf. A. Shell. Hmji. J^ 



[89 J 



. A* Httjar^r* Htgar^ul'md. A. Coals. 

rakhvxt. A« 

Cracible. Artificial Well. KhirAiL A. Fixed Quicksilver. 
Trituration of Stones. Composition of Stones. Marble Stone. 







Calcination of Stones. Besoar. Silver Magnet. Blooid Stone. 

Hqjar^'Khattdf. A. Rain Stone. Rock Salt. Naptha Stone. 

Hail? 

KaUir, A. Hajar $am/nci. A. Serpentine Stone. Coliyrium. 





Jtmod. A. Instrument for Breaking and A Pestle and 

Cutting. Cleaving. Mortar. 



t-iol 






Kitabat'ul'Hqfar. A. Water springing Hercometry particals^y 

from thd Rock. applied to Stooe. 

Ani, nere 'end 4tilie fibres of the MerogtjnpfifcSf 
. which we have found, and can make out. 

We have mentioned only those we are certain 
of^ hut these wp know to* be exa^t and right. Per- 
haps every one of these figures may have had more 
than one signification, according to the differdht 
classes of priests, who wishing to hide their secrets 
one from thfc other, gav6 their *igns 
meanings. 

God is the leader to the best. 



t4U 



APPENDIX. 



*Hiia 



Antidiluvian Alphabets preserved bjr the JVabalheans^ 

Chaldeans^ and Sabeans. 

1 HE first called th^Shishxin alphabet^ was used for 
writing sentences of wisdom on clay, which being 
burnt became pottery (v. orig. p. 11 4*} 

The following alphabet was also used by the 
Pharaohs, who convinced of its being an antidilu- 
vian one, used to write with it the books of prayer 
and liturgies, which they used in their temples 
before their gods. 

I have myself seen in Upper Egypt, inscription 
tables and stones engraved with this alphabet. 
The Pharaohs firmly believed in its antiquity, and 
the Nabatheans and Chaldeans continued in the 
same opinion (v. orig. p. 115.) 

The original alphabets, from which all other 
ancient and modem ones have been derived, are 
no more than three. 



C 42 ] 

1» The old Syrian alphabet^ or the first original 
divine alphabet, taught by God th6 Almighty to 
Adam. 

2. The Celestial alphabet^ or the alphabet in 
vhich the books which Seth (health be with him) 
received from heaven were written. 

3 The alphabet of Enoch hvought down by the 
angel Gabriel. 

This opinion is generally received and agreed 
upon by different nations and sects. 

Chanukha has confirmed the truth in his books. 
Agalhodaimon is of the same opinion in his book 
on secret things. He says, that all divine (inspired) 
legislators have preserved their secrets in quo of 
these three alphabets. The indication of this gi^eat 
man was our guide, we have collected and copifd 
these alphabets, according to las opinions, and 
belief. Pay attention, in order that thou mayst 
walk in the right path. 

The Syrian alphabet had, according to the 
opinion of the most learned meuj the following 
characters (v. orig. p. 117)* 

These, however, were the figures of the letters 
in the earliest ages, which were changed by time, 
as you may perceive (v. orig. p.^ 118). 

Thi» is the alphabet in which Adam (peace be 



t4S] 

with him) wrote his books. Who says the con- 
trary says falsehood, and Gk)d knows the best. 

On the Shimshim Alphabet. 

It was inspired by divine revelation, and varied 
ID four different manners by the people who used 
it, viz. the Hermesians^ the J\rabatheans^ the Sabeans^ 
and Chaldeans. These are the four most ancient 
people, from whom all modern nations have deri« 
ved their writing. 

The characters of the Hermestans^ with the par- 
ticular names and powers of their letters. 

Character. Name. l^ower. 

I A^hum A. 



s 




III 

t 



Tawuk I or Y. 



Ka-a K hard. 



Ghiwa Qh. 



Bidam B. 



144 3 



Character. Name. Power* 

^ j Mghack K soft. 



Run R# 



8 Jahum J English. 



Shd Sli ditto. 



Danaz JX 



4 

fp Tanras T. 

X Hin H ^o//. 

I \ N. 

^ ■ p Thanad Th in ^tnl« 



C 45 ] 
Chancier. Name, Power. 



J Saparnta 

'^ Khayuti 





S. 



Kh. 



Zid Z. 

n Lighaf L. 

jf «SiA4>n (^) • 

^hp Hi, 

O Taibr (1,) T. 

IQIfln /&«/ H hard. 



[46] 



Cbaiacfer. Name. 



r 




I 







e 
I 





Zaiua 



cm 



Kam 



Pap. 



KH 



Ham 



J&yigh. 



Power. 



{J)Z. 



Gh English* 

A kind of hard K^ 



Jfa/im A kind afti.- 



P. 



A kind of K^ 



Zq^imap A kindofZ. 



A son 9/ soft H. 



Japlat A kind of J English, 

Jauiu A kind of compound ofPk^Z. 



J French. 



Many of theSe letters are not used either ia 
Arabic or Persian, except by those who have the 
knowledge of this language. They are arranged 
in a contrary order to that commonly received of 
A, B; G. The order in which they are disposed, 
is founded on the nature of their language. Un- 
derstand this, that thou mayst go the right way. 

The Nabatheans gave the preference to the 
fio^ures of animals, disposed according to their 
natural order, and each of these figures h^d its 
secret signification^ viz. 

If they wished to expness a powerful, brave, 
cunning, and avaricious king, .they painted the 
figure of a man with the head of a lion, pointing 
with one of his fingers to a fox before him. If 
they wished to express the attribute of under* 
standing, sagacity, and wisdom, they represented 
a man with the head of an elephant, pointing with 
one of his fingers to a sitting ape. If they wished 
to give him the attributes of justice, generosity, and 
liberality, they drew a man with a bird's head, and 
before him a balai^ce, a sun, and a moon. If they 
meant to represent him cruel, faithless, and igno- 
rant they gave him a dog^s, ass*s, or boar's head, 
with a pot of fire, and a sword before him. 

A sick, weak, and decrepid man was^ represented 



t4«l 

by the figure of a man, followed by the figdi-es 

Sf A 1 1 « and before him the figure of 

Satum^sometimeswith the figures ■ O i^/V\^ 

A man killed by violent death, was represented 
by the figure of a man with the head of an owl, or 
a bat, and behind him a scorpion with the character 

T0\\ and the figure of the devil behind him, with 

these characters ^ ^^Z^^>J IP I Vf •• 

If he was poisoned, he was represented with 
a crab*s, or beetle^s head, and a glass, or bowl. 



before him, and the characters 'J™"'? m 1 y 



Death occasionecl by plague, a hot fever, or cor- , 
ruption of the blood and the humours, was repre- 
sented by a man sitting in a chair, with an arrow 
in his hand and over his heid a upon the 

back of the chair, and before him the figures 



4 n J 




[49] 

Honours, authority, and a comfortable situatioDi 
were designed by a man holding in his hand a 
ball, or circle, upon his head a crown, before him 
a raven, and behind him a dog, with these charac* 
ters in a circle round them 



A man of perfect wisdom and understanding, 
accomplished in all his ways, and without the least 
blame, was painted with a beautiful face, with wings 
like an angel, holding in his hands a book, in 
which he looked, a sword and a balance, and he^ 
hind him two vases, one of them full of water, and 
the other of blazing fire. Under his right foot a 
ball, with a crab painted on it, and under his left 
a deep pot full of serpents, scorpions, and difie* 
rent reptiles, the covering of which had the shape 
of an eagle's head. 

See, my son! these are the secrets of these 
people, with which nobody was acquainted but 
themselves. I have seen, in one of the hierogly* 
phical buildings in Upper Egypt, the represent 
tation J am going to describe. 



[50] 

This building was a temple of the Lord Adonai^ 
whom sun and moon serve. It represented a coffini 
adorned with 'curious figures and admirable orna-* 
ments. A vine growing, with its leaves spread 
over it. The Lord (God) was standing upon the 
coffin, vf\\}[\ a staff in his band, out of the end of 
which a tree shot forth and overshadowed it. 

Behind the coffin was seen a pit full of blazing 
fire, and four angels catching serpents, scorpions, 
and other noxious reptiles, throwing them into it« 
On his head a crown of glory ; on his right the sun, 
and on his left the moon, and in his hand a ring, with 
the twelve signs of the zodiac. Before the coffin, 
an olive tree sprouted forth, under the branches 
of which different kind of animals were collected. 
On the left, and a little further back, a high 
mountain was seed, with seven golden towers sup- 
porting the sky. A hand stretched forth from 
this sky, poured out light, and pointed with his 
fingers to the olive tree. There was also the figure 
of a man, whose head was in the sky, and whose 
feet were on the earth. His hands and feet were 
bound. Before the Lord stood seven censers, two 
pots, a vase filled with perfumes, spices, and a 
bottle with a long neck (retort), containing storax. 
The hieroglyphic representing day, was uuder his 



[51 J 

right foot, and the hieroglyphic representing night, 
under his left. Before the Lord was laid, on a 
high desk, the book of universal nature, where- 
on a representation and names of the planets, the 
constellations, the stations, and every thing that 
is found in the highest heaven, was painted. There 
was also an urn filled half with earth and half with 
sand, (viz. the hieroglyphics of earth and sand 
being represented therein). A suspended ever* 
burning lamp, dates, olives, and in a 

vase of emerald. A table of black bazalt with 
seven lines, the four elements, the figure of a man 
carrying away a dead body, and a dog upon a 
lion. 

These, O brother, are the mysterious keys to 
the treasures of secrets, of ancient and modern 
knowledge. The wise may guess the whole from 
a part. It is impossible to embrace here the whole 
extent of this knowledge. We have here stated the 
ground of the business, giving the representation 
of things in general, their ends, courses, move- 
ments, turns, and returns, so that thou mightest 
easily and by degrees distinguish the one from the 
other, and at last become master of all the secrets 
of the world. These hints are sufficient for him 
who has organs, and an understanding heart. 



Here follows one of the hidden alphabets above 
mentioned (see orig. p. l20). 

The next following alphabet was used by the 
Sabeans in their talismans, magical alarm-posts, 
and astrological conjuration tables. 

Agalhodaimon says, that it is from this source he 
drew the art of his talismans, in which he is un« 
paralleled among either ancients or modems. 
Learn, therefore, and comprehend this alphabet, 
(see orig. p. 130.) 

The Chaldeans were the wisest men of their 
times, being well acquainted with every science 
and art. Their first equals and rivals were the 
Curds. But) however, there is as great a difference 
between these two nations, as between a glow worm 
and ^ fixed starj^ The first superiority the Curds 
had over tbem« was in agriculture and botany. 
They pretended to descend from the sons of Bine- 
shady and to have got possession of the books of 
Adam on agriculture, and of the books of Safriih 
and CoothamL They pretended to have all the 
seven antediluvian books inspired by heaven. 

They pretended to possess the art of magic and 

* Being impossible to render in English the likeaeas of sounds 
between turah and thura^ it has been thought proper to translate 
glaw-toorm and^xnsf stoTj instead of dust and Piciades* 



[53 3 

talismans, but this is not so ; for all these sciences 
were handed down to them from the Chaldeans, 
who first cultivated them. This pretension to 
the antiquity of their learning, is the reason of 
the inveterate hatred between the Chaldeans and 
Curds. 

The oldest Chaldean alphabet (see orig. p. 132). 

Another Chaldean alphabet (see orig. p.^133). 

Another old unknown alphabet (see orig. p. 134). 

This the Curds falsely pretend to be tlie alpha- 
bet, in which Binushdd and Massi Surali composed 
all their scientific and mechanical works. 

We are ignorant to what alphabet these letters 
belong, as we never could make out the language 
which they express ; but I saw at Bagdad, thirty- 
three inscriptions written in this alphabet 

During my stay at Damascus, I met with two 
books, one of them on the culture of the vine and the 
palm tree J the other on water ^ and the means ofjind- 
ing it out in unknown ground. I translated them 
both from the Curdic language into Arabic, for 
the benefit of mankind. This is the reason this 
treatise was not finished before. I finished it at 
last, with Heaven*s assistance, aflter one and twenty 
years, and have, by the grace of God, attained the 
object proposed. I deposited It in the treasury of 



[54] 

the Calif Abd'ul-malik bin Marwan: be his reign 
glorious, and may he be the everlasting column oF 
the faith ! 

Tuesday, the third of the month of Ramazdn^ 
in the year two hundred and forty-one after the 
Hijrahn 

Praised be God ! 



The first copy of the manuscript before us, was 
taken from the original by Hasan Bin Farajy Bin 
Alii Bin Dawud^ Bin Sinan^ Bin Thdbaij Bin Karra 
al Harrani^ Al Bdbalij An JVUkdnti Tuesday the 
seventh of the month of Rabi-uiakhir^ in the year 
four hundred and thirteen of the Hijrah ; and this 
copy (the one from which this was printed], which 
was made from it, was begun Monday the second 
of the month of Muharram^ in the year of the 
Hijrah^ one thousand, one hundred, aqd sixty-six. 
And it was finished on Friday, the tenth of the 
month of Jamddi ul Akliir^ of the same year. 

FINIS, 



Frinted bv W. fiulmer and Co. Clcvc!tnd-rowt 







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