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>L RESCAnCH UBRARlEa 




THE ANCIENT 

BRONZE IMPLEMENTS, 

WEAPONS, AND ORNAMENTS, 

OP 

GEEAT BEITAIN AND IRELAND. 



.\c.-.-.;^ 



THE ANCIENT 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS, 



AYEAPONS, AND OENAMENTS, 



OF 



GREAT BRITAIN 



AND 



IRELAND. 



BY 

JOHN EVANS, D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S., Pres. Num. Soc, &c 





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1881. 






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PKEFACE. 



The work which is now presented to the public has unfortunately 
been many years in progress, as owing to various occupations, both 
private and public, the leisure at my command has been but 
small, and it has been only from time to time, often at long 
interv^als, that I have been able to devote a few hours to its 
advancement. During this slow progress the literature of the 
subject, especially on the Continent, has increased in an unprece- 
dent<>dly rapid manner, and I have had great difficulty in at all 
keeping pace with it. 

I have, however, done my best, both by reading and travel, to 
keep myself acquainted with the discoveries that were being made 
and the theories that were being broached with regard to bronze 
antiquities, whether abroad or at home, and I hope that so far as 
facts are concerned, and so far as relates to the present state of 
information on the subject, I shall not be found materially 
wanting. 

Of course in a work which treats more especially of the bronze 
antiquities of the British Islands, I have not felt bound to enlarge 
more than was necessary for the sake of comparison on the cor- 
responding antiquities of other countries. I have, however, in all 
cases pointed out such analogies in form and character as seemed 
to me of importance as possibly helping to throw light on the 
source whence our British bronze civilisation was derived. 

It may by some be thought that a vast amount of useless 
trouble has been bestowed in figuring and describing so many 
varieties of what were after all in most cases the ordinary tools of 
the artificer, or the common arms of the warrior or huntsman, which 
differed from each other only in apparently unimportant particulars. 
But as in biological studies minute anatomy often affords the 
most trustworthy evidence as to the descent of any given organism 



VI PREFACE. 

from some earlier form of life, so these minor details in the form 
and character of ordinary implements, which to the cursory 
observer appear devoid of meaning, may, to a skilful archaeologist, 
afford valuable clues by which the march of the bronze civilisation 
over Europe may be traced to its original starting-place. 

I am far from saying that this has as yet been satisfactorily 
accomplished, and to my mind it will only be by accimiulating a 
far larger mass of facts than we at present possess that compara- 
tive archaeology will be able to triumph over the difficulties with 
which its path is still beset. 

Much is, however, being done, and I trust that so far as the 
British Isles are concerned, the facts which I have here collected 
and the figures which I have caused to be engraved will at all 
events form a solid foundation on which others may be able to 
build. 

So long ago as 1876 I was able to present to the foreign 
archaeologists assembled at Buda-Pest for the International Con- 
gress of Prehistoric Archaeology and Anthropology, a short abstract 
of this work in the shape of my Petit Album de Vdge du Brc/iize 
de la Orande Bretagne, which I have reason to believe has been 
found of some service. At that time my friend the late Sir 
William Wilde was still alive, and as the bronze antiquities of 
Ireland appeared to be especially under his charge, I had not regarded 
them as falling within the scope of my book. After his lamented 
death there was, however, no possibility of interfering with his 
labours, by my including the bronze antiquities of the sister country 
with those of England, Wales, and Scotland in the present work, 
and I accordingly enlarged my original plan. 

In carrying out my undertaking I have followed the same 
method as in my work on the " Ancient Stone Implements, &c., of 
Great Britain ; " and it will be found that what I may term the 
dictionary and index of bronze antiquities is printed in smaller 
type than the more general descriptive and historical part of the 
book. I have in fact offered those who take an ordinary interest 
in archaeological inquiry without wishing to be burdened with 
minute details a broad hint as to what they may advantageously 
skip. To the specialist and the local antiquary the portion 
printed in smaller type will be found of use, if only as giving 
references to other works in which the more detailed accounts of 
local discoveries are given. These references, thanks to members 
of my own family, have been carefully checked, and the accuracy 



PREFACE Vll 

of all the original figures for this work, engraved for me with 
conscientious care by Mr. Swain, of Bouverie Street, may, I think, 
be relied on. 

To the councils of several of our learned societies, and especially 
to those of the Societies of Antiquaries of London and Edinburgh, 
the Royal Irish Academy, the Royal Archaeological Institute, and 
the Royal Historical and Archseological Association of Ireland, I 
am much indebted for the loan of woodcuts and for other assist- 
ance. I have also to thank the trustees and curators of many 
local museums, as well as the owners of various private collections, 
for allowing me to figure specimens, and for valuable information 
supplie^L 

My warmest thanks are, however, due to Mr. Augustus W. 
Franks, RRS., and Canon Green well, F.R.S., not only for assist- 
ance in the matter of illustrations, but for most kindly under- 
taking the task of reading my proofs. I must also thank Mr. 
Joseph Anderson, the accomplished keeper of the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh, and Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A., of Cork, for 
having revised those portions of the work which relate to Scotland 
and Ireland. 

The Index has been carefully compiled by my sister, Mrs. 
Hubbard. As was the case with those of my " Ancient Stone Im- 
plements," and "Ancient British Coins," it is divided into two parts ; 
the one referring generally to the subject matter of the book, and 
the other purely topographical. The advantages of such a division 
in a book of this character are obvious. 

In conclusion, I venture to prefer the request that any dis- 
coveries of new types of instruments or of deposits of bronze 
antiquities may be communicated to me. 

John Evans. 

Nask Mills, Hbmsl Hsmfstid, 
Mureh, 1881. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

PAOK 

The Snccession of tho Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages — A Copper Age in ^Vmerica — 
Soiptural Noticoa of Bronze — Bronze preceded Iron in ancient Egypt — Bronze 
in ancient Greece — The Metals mentioned by Homer — Iron in ancient Greece 
— Bronzes among other ancient Nations — Use of Iron in Gaul and Italy — 
Disputes as to the three Periods — The Succession of Iron to Bronze — The Pre- 
ser^-ation of ancient Iron 1 

CHAPTER II. 

CELTS. 

Origin of the word Celt — ^Views of early Antiquaries — Conjectures as to the Use of 
Celts — Opinions of modem Writers 27 

CHAPTER in. 

FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. 

Flat Celts from Cyprus and Hissarlik — Discoveries of Flat Celts in Barrows — ^Thoso 
ornamented on the Faces — Flanged Celts — Those from Arreton Down — And 
from Barrows — Decorated Flanged Celts — Flat Celts found in Scotland — Deco- 
rated Scottish Specimens — Flat Celts found in Ireland — Decorated Irish Speci- 
mens — Character of their Decorations — Flat Celts with Lateral Stops . . 39 

CHAPTER IT. 

WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. 

Origin of the term Palstave — Celts with a Stop-ridge — Varieties of Winged Celts 
— ^Transitional Forms — Palstaves with Ornaments on Face — ^With Central Rib 
on the Blade — Shortened by Wear — With a Transverse Edge — Looped Pal- 
staves—With Ribs on Blade— With Shield-like Ornaments— With Vertical 
Ribs on Blade — With semi-circular Side- wings hammered over — Iron Palstaves 
imitated from Bronze — Palstaves with two Loops — Scottish Palstaves — Irish 
Palstaves — Looped Irish Palstaves — Irish Palstaves with Transverse Edge— 
Comparison wita Continental Forms 70 

CHAPTER V. 

SOCKETED CELTS. 

Terms, '^ the Recipient" and "the Received'* — Evolution from Palstaves — ^With 
^'Flanches," or curved lines, on the Faces — Plain, with a Beading round the 



CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

Mouth— Of a Gaulish typo— With vertical Riba on the Paces— With Bibs end- 
ing in Pelleta — ^With Ribs and Pellets on the Faces— With Ribs and Ring 
Ornaments— Variously ornamented — Of octagonal Section — ^With the Loop on 
one Face — ^Without Loops — Of diminutive Size — Found in Scotland — Found 
in Ireland — Comparison with Foreign Forms — Mainly of Native Manufacture 
in Britain — ^Those formed of Iron 107 



CHAPTER VI. " 

METHODS OP HAFTINQ CELTS. 

The perforated Axes of Bronze — Celts in Club-like Handles — Their Hafts, as seen 
m Barrows — Hafting after the manner of Axes — Socketed Celts used as 
Hatchets — Hafted Celt found at Chiusi— Hafts, as seen at Hidlstatt — Celts in 
some instances mounted as Adzes — No perforated Axe-heads in Britain — 
Hafting Celts as Chisels 146 

CHAPTER VII. 

CHISELS, GOUGES, HAMMERS, AND OTHER TOOLS. 

Simple form of Chisel rare — Tanged Chisels — Chisels with Lugs at sides — Socketed 
Chisels- Tanged Gouges — Socketed Gouges— Socketed Hammers — Irish Hajn- 
mers — Method of Halting Hammers — French Anvils— Saws and Files almost 
unknown in Britain — ^Ton^ and Punches — The latter used in Orna- 
menting — Awls, Drills, or Pnckers frequently found in Barrows — ^Awls used 
in Sewing — ^Tweezers — Needles — Fish-hooks 165 



CHAPTER Vm. 
SICKLES. 

Method of Hafting— Sickles with Projecting Knobs— With Sockets— Sickles found 
in Scotland and Ireland — Found on the Continent 1 94 

CHAPTER IX. 

KNIVES, RAZORS, ETC. 

The Socketed Form — Scottish and Irish Knives— Curved Knives — Knives with 
broad Tangs — With Lanceolate Blades — Of peculiar Types— Double-edged 
Razors — Scottish and Irish Razors— Continental Forms 204 

CHAPTER X. 

DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. 

Tanged Knives or Daggers— Knife-Daggers with three Rivets — Method of Hafting 
Daggers — Bone Pommels— Amber Hilt inlaid with Gold — Hilts with numerous 
Rivets — Inlaid and Ivory Hilts— Hilts of Bronze— Knife-Daggers with five or 
six Rivets — Knife-D^gers from Scotland — From Ireland— Daggers with 
Ornamented Blades — "With Mid-ribs — With Ogival Outline— Rapier-shaped 
Blades — Rapiers with Notches at the Base— With Ribs on the Faces — ^Rapiers 
with Oz-hom and Bronze Hilts — Bayonet-like Blades 222 

CHAPTER XI. 
TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS OR SPEAR-HEADS, HALBERDS, AND MACES. 

Arreton Down type of Spear-heads — ^With Tangs and with Socket — Scandinavian 
and German Halberds— The Chinese Form — Irish Halberds — Copper Blades 
less brittle than Bronze — Broad Irish Form — Scottish Halberds— ^glish and 
Welsh Halberds— The Form known in Spain — Maces, probably Mediteval . 257 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTER XII. 
LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS. 

PAOB 

Thdr Occurrence in British Barrows not authenticated — Occur with Interments in 
Scandinavia — The Roman Sword — British Swords — Disputes as to their Age — 
Hilts proportional to Blades — Swords with C^itral Slots in Hilt-plato — With 
many Kivet-holes — With Central Rib on Blade — Representation of Sword on 
Italian Coin — Those with Hilts of Bronze — Localities where found — Comparison 
with Continental Types — Swords found in Scotland — ^In Ireland — In f^ra^ce — 
Swords with Hilts of Bone — Decorated with Gold— Continental Tyi)es— Early 
Iron Swords 273 

CHAPTER Xni. 

SCABBABDS AND CHAFES. 

Shaaths with Bronze Ends — Wooden Sheaths — Bronze Sheaths — Ends of Sword- 
Sheaths or Scabbard Endft— Chapes from England and Ireland — Spiked 
Chapes — Mouth-pieces for Sheaths — Ferrules on S word-Hilts . . . .301 

CHAPTER XIV. 

SPEAR-HEADS, LANCE-HEADS, ETC. 

Different l^pcs— Leaf-shaped — With a Fillet along the Midrib — Ornamented on 
the Sockets^With Loops at the Sides — From Ireland— Decorated on the 
Blade — ^With Loops at the Base of the Blade — Of Cruciform Section near the 
Point — ^With Openings in the Blade — ^With Flanges at the Side of the Openings 
— With Lunate Op^ings in the Blade — Barbed at the Base — Ferrules for 
Spear-shafts — ^African Spear Ferrules — Continental Types — Early Iron Spear- 
heads 310 

CHAPTER XT. 

SHIELDS, BUCKLERS, AND HELMETS. 

Shields with numerous raised Bosses — ^With Concentric Ribs — ^With Concentric 
Rings of Knobs— Shields found in Scotland — In England and Wales — Wooden 
Bucklers^The Date of Circular Bucklers — Bronze Helmets — ^Their Date . 343 

CHAPTER XVI. 

TRUMPETS AND BELLS. 

Trumpets found in Ireland — ^Trumpets with Lateral Openings — ^The Downs Hoard 
— Itiveted Trumpets— The Caprington Horn — ^Trumpets found in England — 
Bells found in Ii^land Zo7 

CHAPTER XVII. 

PINS. 

Pins with Flat Heads— With Crutched Heads— With Annular Heads— Those of 
large Size — With Spheroidal Heads — With Ornamental Expanded Heads — 
Fran Scotland — From Denmark — Their Date difficult to detennino . . 365 

CHAPTER XVni. 
TORQUES, BRACELETS, RINGS, EAR-RINQS, AND PERSONAL ORNAMENTS. 

The Gaulish Torque — Gold Torques — ^Funicular Torques — Ribbon Torques— Those 
of the Late Celtic Period — Penannular Torques and Bracelets — Bracelets en- 
graved with Patterns— Beaded and Fluted — Looped, with Cup-shaped Ends — 
Late Celtic Bracelets — Rings — Rings with others cast on them — Coiled Rin^ 
found with Torques— Finger-rings — Ear-rings — ^Those of Gk)ld — Beads of Tin 
—Of Glass — Rarity of Personal Ornaments in Britain .... 374 



Xll CONTENl«. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
CLASPS, BUTTONS, BUCKLES, AND MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS. 

PAOB 

Difficulty in Determining the Use of some Objects — Looped Sockets and Tubes — 
Possibly Clasps — Pmoiated Rings forming a kind of Brooch — Rings used in 
HArness — Brooches — Late Celtic — Buttons — Circular Plates and Broad Hoops — 
Perforated Discs — Slides for Straps — Jingling Ornaments — Objects of Uncertain 
Dse — Rod, with Fig^ures of Birds upon it — ^figures of Animals . . . 396 

CHAPTER XX. 

VESSELS, CALDRONS, ETC. 

Fictile Vessels — Gold Cup — Bronze Vessels not found in Barrows — Caldrons found 
in Scotland— In Ireland — Some of an Etruscan Form — The Skill exhibited in 
their Manufacture 407 

CHAPTER XXI. 

METAL, MOULDS, AND THE METHOD OP MANUFACTURE. 

Composition of Bronze — Lead absent in early Bronze — Sources of Tin and Copper 
— Analyses of Bronze Antiquities — Cakes of Copper and Lumps of Metal — Tin 
discovered in Hoards of Bronze— Ingots of Tin — Methods of Casting — Moulds 
of Stone for Celts, Palstaves, Daggers, Swords, and Spear-heads — Moulds of 
Bronze for Palstaves and Celte — 'Die Harty Hoard — Bronze Mould for Gouges 
— Moulds found in other Countries — Moulds formed of Burnt Clay — Jets or 
Runners — The Processes for Preparing Bronze Instruments for Use — Rubbers 
and Whetstones — Decoration — Hammering out and Sharpening the Edges . 415 

CHAPTER XXII. 

CHRONOLOGY AND ORIGIN OP BRONZE. 

Inferences from number of Types — Division of Period into Stages— The Evidence 
of Hoards — Their different Kinds — Personal, Merchants', and Founders* — 
lists of Principal Hoards — Inferences from them — The Transition from Bronze 
to Iron — Its probable Date— Duration of Bronze Age — Burial Customs of the 
Period — Different Views as to the Sources of Bi-onze Civilisation — Suggested 
Provinces of Bronze— The Britannic Province — Comparison of British and 
Continental Types— Foreign Influences in Britain — Its Commercial Relations 
— Imported Ornaments — Condition of Britain during the Bronze Age — General 
Summary 455 



WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. 



The references are to the origiiial sources of such cuts as have not been engraved 
expressly for this book. 



CHAPTER ni. 

FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. 

IM. PAOB 

\. Cyprus 40 

2. Butterwick 41 

I. Moot Low 44 

Uew. Jewitt, F.S.A., "Grave Mounds," 

fig. 187. 

4. Yorkshire 45 

5. Weymouth 46 

6. Bead 47 

7. Suflfolk 48 

8. Arreton Down 49 

Archaologia^ vol. xxxvi. p. 329. 

9. Plymstock 50 

10. „ 60 

Arch. Joum., vol. xxvi. p. 346. 

II. Thames 52 

12. Xorfolk 52 

13. DorseUhiro 53 

14. Lewes 53 

Arch, Journ., vol. xviii. p. 167. 

15. By 53 

15- Baarow 54 

^'- Lias 64 

lo' Hhosnesncy 55 

1^« Drumlanrig 56 

^' Lawhead 57 

iVof. Soc. Ant. Scot. J vol. vii. p. 105. 

21- Nairn 58 

iW. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ii. N.S. 

22. Falkland 69 

2«« Oieenlees 69 

^ro€. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xii. p. 601. 

?*• Perth 60 

2* Applegarth 60 

**• Dams 61 

Proc. Soc. Ant, Scot., vol. xiii. p. 120. 

*7. Ballinamallard 61 

^- Korth of Ireland 62 

29. Ireland 62 

^^' Xipperary 62 

Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 410. 

^1- Ireland 63 



no. PAOB 

32. Connor 64 

33. aontarf 65 

34. Ireland 65 

WUde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 248. 

36. Ireland 66 

36. Trim 66 

37. Ireland 66 



38. 



»» 



66 



39. Punched patterns 67 

67 

67 

67 

67 



»» 



ft 
»» 
»» 
»» 



40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 

Wilde, " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," figs. 286 

to 290. 

44. Annoy 68 

46. Ireland 68 

46. „ 69 

47 69 



>» 



48. 
49. 

50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
67. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 



CHAPTER IV. 
WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. 
Icelandic Palstave . . . -, . 



»» 



>» 



71 

Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 74. 

Wigton 73 

Chollerf ord Bridge 74 

Chatham 74 

Burwell Fen 75 

Bucknell 75 

Culham 75 

Reeth 76 

Dorchester 76 

Colwick 77 

Barring^n 78 

Harston 78 

Shippey 79 

Severn 80 

Sunningwell 80 

Weymouth 82 

Burwell Fen 82 

East Hamham 83 

Burwell Fen 83 



XIV 



WOODCUT ILLUSTBATIOKS. 



no. PAGE 

68. Thames 84 

69. SUbbard 84 

70. Irthixigton 85 

71. North Owereby 85 

72. Bonn 85 

73. Dorchester 87 

74. Wallingford 88 

75. Stanton Harcourt 88 

76. Brasaington 80 

77. Bath 89 

78. Oldbury HiU 90 

79. Ross 91 

80. Honington 91 

81. Ely 92 

82. Bottisham 92 

83. Nettleham 93 

Arch. Joum.t vol. xviii. p. 160. 

84. Cambridge 93 

85. Carlton Rode 94 

86. Penvores 96 

87. West Buckland 96 

Arch. Joum.f vol. xzzvii. p. 107. 

88. Bryn Crilg 96 

89. Andalusia ........ 97 

Arch. Joum.f vol. vi. p. 69. 

90. Burreldalo Moss 98 

91. Balcarry 98 

92. Pettycur 99 

Arch, Joum.f vol. vi. p. 377. 

93. Ireland IOC 

94. „ 100 

95. , 101 

96. North of Ireland 101 

97. Lanesborough 101 

98. Trillick 102 

99. Ireland 102 

100. „ 102 

101 102 

102. „ 103 

103. „ 103 

104. „ 103 

105. Miltown 104 

106. Ireland 105 

107. , 105 

108. , 105 

109. Ballymena 105 



CHAPTER V. 

SOCKETED CELTS. 

110. High Roding 109 

111. Dorchester, Oxon 109 

112. Wilts 110 

113. Harty 110 

114. „ Ill 

116. Dorchester, Oxon Ill 

116. Reach Fen 112 

117. ,. „ 112 

118. Canterbury 114 

119. Usk 114 

120. Alfriston 115 



no. PAOB 

21. Cambridge Fens 116 

22. High Roding 116 

23. Chrishall 117 

24. Reach Fen 117 

25. Barrington 117 

26. Mynydd-y-Glas 119 

27. Stogursey 120 

•28. Guildford 120 

29. Frettenham 120 

ao. Ely 121 

31. Caston 121 

32. Carlton Rode 122 

33. Fomham 123 

34. FenDitton 128 

35. Bottisham 123 

36. Winwick 128 

37. Kingston 124 

38. Cayton Carr 124 

39. Lakenheath 125 

40. Thames 125 

41. Kingston 125 

42. „ 126 

43. Thames 127 

44. Givendale 127 

45. Cambridge 127 

46. Blandford 127 

47. Ireland (?) 128 

48. Barrington 128 

49. Houndfow 128 

50. Wallingford 128 

51. Newham 129 

52. Westow 180 

53. Wandsworth 130 

Arch. Joum.f vol. vi. p. 378. 

54. Whittlesea 130 

55. Nettleham 132 

Arch. Journ.f vol. xviii. p. 160. 

56. Croker Collection 182 

57. Nettleham 132 

Arch. Joum. vol. xviii. p. 160. 

58. UUeskelf 132 

59. Reach Fen 138 

60. Carlton Rode 183 

61. Arras 134 

62. Bell's MUls 18^ 

" Catal. Ant. Mus. Ed." 

63. North Knapdale 136 

64. Bell's Mills 186 

65. „ „ 186 

" Catal. Ant. Mus. Ed." 

66. Leswalt 187 

Af/r and Wigton CoU.^ vol. ii. p. 11. 

67. Ireland 188 

68. „ 138 

69. Belfast 189 

70. Ireland 139 

71 . 139 

wildo, '*' Catal.'Mu8.'R.'l. A.,'" fig. 280. 

72. Athboy 140 

73. Meath 140 

74. Ireland 140 

75. Newtown Crommolin .... 141 

76. North of Ireland 141 



WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XV 






PAOB 

177. Inland Ul 

178. 142 

Wilde, " Catol. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 276. 

179. Keitch 142 

Arch. Jouni,, vol. xiv. p. 91. 

CHAPTER VI. 
SOTHODS OF HAFTING CELTS. 

180. Stone Axe of Montezuma II. . 148 

181. kjman, Stone Hatchet . . . 148 

182. Modem African Axe of Iron . 149 

183. Stone Axe, Robenhausen . . . 150 

184. Bronze Axe, Hallein .... 152 

185. Baron, Briguo 154 

186. Edenderry 155 

Wilde. •*Catal. Mus. R. L A.," fig. 257. 

187. Chiuai 156 

188. Winwick 158 

189. Everlejr 163 

CHAPTER VII. 

CHISELS, GOUGES, AND OTHER TOOLS. 

190. Plyxnstock ....... 166 

Areh. Joum., vol. xxvi. p. 346. 

191. Heathery Bom 166 

192. Glenluce 166 

192* Carlton Rode 167 

193. WaUingford 168 

194. Reach Fen 168 

195. Thixendalo 168 

196. Yattendon 169 

197. Broxton 169 

198. Scotland 170 

iVw. Soc. Ant, Scot., vol. xii. p. 613. 

199. Ireland 170 

200. Carlton Rode 171 

201. We«tow 172 

202. Heathery Bum Cave . . . .172 

203. Carlton Rode 173 

204. Thomdon 174 

205. Harty 174 

206. Undley 175 

207. Carlton Rode 175 

208. Tay 175 

iVoe. Soe. Ant, Scot., vol. v. p. 127. 

209. Ireland 176 

210. Thomdon 178 

211. Harty 178 

212. „ 178 

213. Carlton Rode 178 

214. Tannton 178 

215. Ireland 179 

Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 66. 

216. Dowria 179 

Froe. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 65. 

217. Fresne la Mere 182 

218. „ „ 182 

219. Heathery Bum Cave ... .185 



no. PAOK 

220. Harty 186 

221. Reach Fen 186 

222. Ebnall 186 

Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd 8., vol. iii. p. 66. 

223. Upton Lovel 189 

Archaologia^ vol. xliii. p. 466. 

224. Thomdon 189 

225. Butterwick 189 

226. Bulford 190 

Archaologia, vol. xliii. p. 465. 

227. Winterboum Stoke . . . .190 

228. Wiltshire 191 

Archcdologia, vol. xliii. p. 467. 

229. Uangwyllog 192 

230. Ireland 192 

Wilde, " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig, 403. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

SICKLES. 

231. Moerigen 196 

Arch, Joum,, vol. xxx. p. 192. 

232. Edington Burtlo 197 

233. „ , 197 

234. Thames 198 

285. Near Bray 199 

236. Near Errol, Perthshire . . .200 
Froc, Soc. Ant, Scot,, vol. vii. p. 378. 

237. Garvagh, Dorry 200 

238. Athlone 201 



CHAPTER IX. 

KNIVES, R/LZORS, ETC. 

239. Wicken Fen 204 

240. Thomdon 205 

241. Reach Fen 205 

242. Heathery Bum Cave .... 206 
Froc, Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 132. 

243. Kilgraston, Perthshire. . . .206 

244. Kells 207 

245. Ireland 208 

246. Moira 209 

247. Fresn61aMdre 209 

248. Skye 209 

Wilson's ** Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. 

p. 400. 

249. Wester Ord 209 

Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. viii. p. 310. 

250. Reach Fen 210 

251. „ „ 210 

252. Heathery Bum Cave .... 212 

253. Harty 212 

254. Ireland 212 

255. Ballyclaro 213 

256. Reach Fen 213 

257. Ballycastlo 213 

2.58. Ireland 213 

269. Wigginton 214 

260. Isle of Harty 214 



WOODCUT ILl.USTKATIOKS. 



■Xt. AlUutUowt, Uoo '214 

362. Conle 315 

flv. Sor. Ant., 'ind S., vol. ii. p. 301. 

HX KcMhFcn SIG 

S«. Udv Low 216 

SM. Unnteralow 216 

a<«. Priddr 316 

ST. BalbUii 217 

Prmr. Sw, J«.'. *ti.'., ToL Tli. p. *76. 

MS. Bd^ul '217 

iVv. .W. .(■.'. Sm„ ToL I. p. 431. 

S». WiianrforJ 218 

X*. HMibtrr Bun Ckre . ■ 
KI. DeeIm.' 




CHAFEEB X. 



SM. HsDnncMoD Horn 



a*, toit Dpirn 233 

2H. Inaano -3S 

■ae, Bellwi 235 

Jmn.. i, J. mi? -*. Jm". '■flTt!a»i. 
SiL S.. roL ii- j.. IM. 

au;. 1t"J«iiC 235 

a^i. TTiiuOTUlef 236 

an.. Idnisftctti - -S" 

2V7. !(■■» 1k~ -"^ 



3W. lljiiMiii. 
». J'.>-iiar.'.v 



303. Magheiafelt 

Joam. S. E. and A. Aitor. af Irtla 
2nd S., vol. i. p. 286. 

306. Arreton Down 

307. Kinghom 

SOS. CoUoony 

309. Ireland 

Wilde'a " C«t«l. Mn«. B. I. A." fig. : 
311). Kilroi 

311. ThaiaeB 

312. Thstcham 

313. CoTeney 

314. Thamea 

315. Chattem 

316. Thetford 

317. Londonderry 

31S. tJEsane 

Wilde> " OitaL Moa. R. I. A.," fig. ; 

319. GalUiUy 

Jaum. R. M. and A. Attof. of Ir^i 

4th S., vol. iL p. I9T, 

320. Tippetarr 

321. Bv 

322. North of IlGland 

323. Ibtphoe 

CHAPTEB SI. 

TAXUED VNEi >'XK)r7i.!> DAGfiKBS, 
SPEAB- HEADS, HALBEHIW ASD UAl 

324. Amrton Down 

32j. Stratford Ic Bow 

326. Matlock 

327. Plvmrtock 

Areh. Jomm., voL xm. p. 349. 

328. AmtoD Down 

329. A-mp 

Slontdioa, -SvCT. Ftmitid."' fig. 13 

330. China 

3S1. Ireland 

332. Cavan 

333. Newtown limaT^dy .... 

331. Ballvgawlev 

33j. Falkland .' 

336. Stnimer 

Fr,^. .lot. Jut. Stnr^ vd vi. p. 41 

337. Harbynuiae 

3311. Shtopahiif 

' ., " *,Tol.Vi."p.'l8i. * 

340. (.-;-..: 1- >> 

TCJ. vi. p. 411, 

341. Ireland ......... 

WUde, --Catal. Mo*. E. I. A.," £{:. 1 

CHAPTEB Xn. 

I or-amrETt SWOKTIS. 

342. BaUeraea .... ... 

343. Barrow ■ ■ 

344. Kcwcasile 



WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XVll 



rw. VXQK 

345. Wcthermgsett 283 

M6. Tiverton 284 

347. Kingston 284 

348. Ely 286 

349. River Chorwell 286 

350. lincoln 287 

Proe, Sor. Ant.^ voL ii. p. 199. 

351. >\Tiittinpham 288 

352. Brechin 288 

35S. Edinburgh 290 

354. Newtown Limavndv . . . .292 

355. Lrland . . . . ' 292 

356 292 



357. 



»» 



292 



Vii Mnckno 294 

359. „ 294 

JoHrn. R.II. % A. Assoc, of Ireland, 

3rd 8., vol i. p. 23. 

360. Muckno 295 

.361. Mully lagan 295 

Journ. J?. H. ^ A. Assoc, of Ireland, 
4th S., vol. ii. p. 2.'>7. 

361 Mullylagan 295 

363. Ireland 296 

TOdc '^Catal. ]\Iu8. K. I. A.," fifr- 'i22. 



CHAPTEU XIII. 
SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. 

^4. Isleworth 302 

365. Guilafield 303 

366. River Iris, near Dorchcfltcr . . 303 

367. Ireland 303 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. U. I. A.," fig. 335. 

368. Stogwrscy, Somcisot . . . .304 

369. Brechin 304 

P,-ur. iVbr. Attt. Srot., vol. i. p. 81. 

•iro. Pant-v-Macn 304 

371. Reach Fen 305 

372. Cloonmorc 305 

Wild.'. ♦• Catal. MuH. R. I. A.," fig. ;J36. 

373. Stoke Ferry 305 

374. Kwlogue Ford, Troland . . .306 

375. Mildenhall 306 

376. Thames 307 

•^77. Isle of Hnrtv 308 



CHArj'p:K XIV. 

'^I'KAR-HEAD.S, LANCK-HEADS, KTC. 

''!?■ piames, London 312 

. '„ ^*"ph Gut 312 

•*3v- „ 3J2 

-!5i" 5^'«^Ji<^ry Bum Cave .* .' ! .* 312 
•*^2. Ncttlcham 314 

•lii '^^^^' "^o"''"-* ^*<>1- xviii. p. Ml). 

■**'^- Achtertyre 315 

"jo/'Jf- ^^' ^"l- Scot., vol. ix. p. 435. 

f I- ^orth of Irrland 316 

•'^•^- Nruark 317 



/> 



FIO. VAtiZ 

386. Reach Fen 317 

387. Ireland 317 

Wilde, "Catal. Mua. R. I. A.," fig. 367. 

388. North of Ireland 319 

389. Ireland 319 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 368. 

390. Reach Fen 319 

391. Thomdon 319 

392. Culham 320 

393. Athenry 320 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R.I. A.," fig. 382. 

394. ITietford 321 

395. Ijakenhoath 323 

396. Near Cambridge 323 

397. North of Ireland 323 

398. Ireland 324 

399. Thames 324 

400. Ireland 324 

401. Near Ballymena 326 

402. Ireland 326 

403. „ 326 

404. „ 326 

Wilde, " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," figs. 

385, 386, 378. 

405. Elford 327 

406. Isleham Fen 328 

407. Stibbard 329 

408. Ireland 329 

409. Lakenhcath Fon 329 

410. Nettleham. . 380 

Arch. Jouni., vol. xviii. p. 160. 

411. Enockans 331 

412. Lurgan 332 

Proc, &'oc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 65. 

413. Ireland 332 

414. Antrim 332 

415. 'ITiamcs 333 

416. Naworth Castle 333 

417. Blakehopc 334 

418. Whittingham 334 

419. Winmarleigh 335 

420. Burwell Fen 336 

421. Dcnhead 337 

" Catal. Ant. Mus. Ed.," p. 98. 

422. Specn 337 

123. Nettleham 339 

Arch. Joum., vol. xviii. p. 160. 

424. Guilsfield 339 

425. Glancych 341 

426. Fulboum 341 

427. Hereford 341 

CHAPTER XV. 

STUELDS, BUCKLERS, AND HKLMETS. 

428. Little Wittenham 344 

Mes8i*8. Jumes Parker & d'o. 

429. Harlech 345 

430. Covcn<\' 345 

431. „ 347 

432. Bcith 347 

■*"^3- J 348 



XVlll 



WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. 



no. PAQB 

434. Beith 349 

Af/r and Wigton ColLy vol. i. p. 06. 

435. Yetholm 350 

436. „ 350 

437. , 350 

Proe, 8oe. Ant. Scot., vol. v. p. 165. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

TRUMPETS AND BELLS. 

438. Limerick 357 

WUdc, "Catal. Mus. R.I. A.," fig. 360. 

439. Tralee 358 

440. „ 359 

441. „ 359 

Joum. R. H. and A. Assoc, of Ireland^ 

4th S., vol. iii. p. 422. 

442. Africa 359 

443. Dcirynane 360 

Wilde, " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.,'* fig. 529. 

444. Fortglenono 861 

Journ.R. H. and A. Assoc, of Ireland^ 

4th S., vol. iii. p. 422. 

445. The Caprington Horn .... 362 
Ayr and Wigton Coll., vol. i. p. 74. 

446. Dowris 364 

WUde, " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 523. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

PINS. 

447. Heathery Bum Cave .... 366 
Proe. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 130. 

448. Brigmilston 366 

449. Everloy 366 

450. Bryn Criig 367 

Arch. Journ., vol. xxv. p. 246. 

461. Taunton 367 

462. Chilton Bustle ...... 367 

Arch. Joum., vol. ix. p. 106. 

453. Ireland 368 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 452. 
464. River Wandle ...... 368 

Arch. Joum., vol. ix. p. 8. 

466. Scratchbur}^ 369 

466. Camcrton 369 

Both from Archaologia, vol. xliii. p. 468. 
457. Ireland 370 



458. 



tt 



370 



469. Cambridge 370 

460. Ireland 370 

Wilde, " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 447. 

461. North of Ireland 370 

462. Keelogue Ford 371 

Wilde, " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 449. 

463. Ireland 371 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A." fig. 448. 

464. Edinburgh 372 

Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., New S., vol. i. 

p. 322. 

466. Ireland 372 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 450. 



CHAPTER XVni. 

TORQUES, BRACELETS, RINGS, EAR-RI! 

AND PERSONAL ORNAICENTS. 
wio, 

466. Wedmore 

467. „ 

468. West Buckland 

Arch. Joum., vol. xxxvii. p. 107. 

469. Wedmore 

470. Yamton 

471. Montgomeryshire 

Proc. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iv. p. H 

472. Achtertyre 

Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ix. p. 4Zl 

473. RedhiU 

Proc. Soe. Ant. Scot., vol. i. p. 138. 

474. Scilly 

475. Lisa 

476. Stoke Prior 

Arch. Joum., vol. xx. p. 200. 

477. Stobo Castle 

Proc. Soc. Ant, Scot., vol. ii. p. 277 

478. Guernsey 

Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. iii. p. 344 

479. Cornwall 

480. Normanton 

Archaohgia, vol. xliii. p. 469. 

481. West Buckland ...... 

Arch. Journ., vol. xxxvii. p. 107. 

482. Ham Cross 

483. Heathery Bum Cave .... 
Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 13 

484. County Cavan 

485. Cowhuin 

486. „ 

487. Ireland 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.,** fig. 4 

488. Woolmer Forest 

Proc. Soc. Ant., vol. ii. p. 83. 

489. Dumbarton 

Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iii. p. 24. 

490. Cowlam 

491. Goodmanham 

Greenwell's " British Barrows," p. 3 

492. Orton 

Proc. Soe. Ant, Seot., vol. viii. p. 3( 

CHAPTER XIX. 

CLASPS, BUTTONS, BUCKLES, ANI 
MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS. 

493. Reach Fen 

494. „ „ 

496. Broadward 

Arch. Camb., 4th S., vol. iii. p. 364 

496. Trillick 

Journ. R. H. and A. Assoc, of Irelan 

3rd S., vol. i. p. 164. 

497. Ireland 

Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 4 

498. Cowlam 

499. Reach Fen 



WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XIX 



no. PAQR 

500. Edinburgh 401 

hoc. Soc. Ant, Seot.^ New S., vol. i. 
p. 322. 
301. Heathery Bum Cave .... 402 

502. „ „ .... 402 
Both from Proc. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., 

vol, iii. p. 236. 

503. Eutj 403 

504. Dreml, Amiens 404 

505. Abergele 404 

506. , 404 

507. „ 404 

508. Dreoil, Amiens 405 

CHAPTER XX. 

VESSELS, CALDRONS, ETC. 

509. Golden Cop, Rillaton .... 408 
Areh. Joum., vol. xxiv. p. 189. 

510. Kincardine Moss 410 

Wilwn, "Preh. Ann. of Scot.,'* vol. i. 

p. 409. 

511. Ireland 411 

WUde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A./' fig. 407. 

512. Ireland 412 

Wflde, •' Catal. Mus. R. L A.," fig. 409. 

513. Gapecastlo Bog 413 

CHAPTER XXI. 

MKTAL, MOULDS, AND THE METHOD OF 
MANUFACTURE. 

514. Fahnouth 420 

Arch. Journ., vol. xvi. p. 39. 



no, PAQK 

516. Ballymena 429 

516. Ireland 431 

517. „ 431 

518. Ballymonoy 433 

519. Broughshano 433 

520. Knighton 434 

521. „ 434 

522. Maghera, Co. Derry .... 435 

523. Lough Gut 436 

Arch. Joum.y vol. xx. p. 170. 

524. Campbelton 437 

525. „ 437 

526. „ 437 

Proc. Soe. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 48. 

527. HothamCarr 439 

528. Wiltshire 440 

529. „ 440 

Proc, Soc. Ant.y vol. iii. p. 158. 

530. Harty 441 

531. „ 442 

532. „ 446 

533. Heathery Bum Cave . . . .448 

Froc. Soc. Ant.f 2nd S., vol. ii. 
p. 132. 

534. Stogursey 450 

536. „ 460 

536. „ 460 

537. Heathery Bum Cave . . . .451 
Proc. Soc. Ant.f 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 132. 

638. Kirby Moorside 452 

539. Hove 452 

Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. ix. p. 120. 

540. Harty 463 



ERRATA. 

Page 117, under fig. 123, >r " Crishall " read ** ChrishaU." 
143, line 16, /or " Spain *' read « Portugal." 
207, ., 34, /or *'St. Genoulph" read "St. Genouph.'* 
215, „ 16,/or "St. JuHen ChateuU" read "St. Jullien, Chapieuil.' 
314, „ 3 from bottom, /or " Staffordshire " read " Shropshire." 
322, „ 4, /or " Suffolk " read " Sussex." 
336, ,. 20,/or " Staffordshire " read " Shropshire." 
452, „ 4 from bottom, for " Staffordshire " read " Shropshire." 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Having already in a former work attempted the arrangement and 
description of the Ancient Stone Implements and Ornaments of 
Great Britain, I am induced to undertake a similar task in con- 
nection with those Bronze Antiquities which belong to the period 
when Stone was gradually fidling into disuse for cutting purposes, 
and Iron was either practically unknown in this country, or had 
been but partially adopted for tools and weapons. 

The duration and chronological position of this bronze-using 
period will have to be discussed hereafter, but I must at the outset 
reiterate what I said some eight or ten years ago, that in this 
coantr}'', at aU events, it is impossible to fix any hard and fiast 
limits for the close of the Stone Period, or for the beginning or 
end of the Bronze Period, or for the commencement of that of 
Iron. Though the succession of these three stages of civilisation 
may here be regarded as certain, the transition jfrom one to the 
other in a country of such an extent as Britain— occupied, more- 
over, as it probably was, by several tribes of different descent, 
flianners, and customs — must have required a long course of years 
to become general ; and even in any particular district the change 
cannot have been sudden. 

There must of necessity have been a time when in each district 
the new phase of civilisation was being introduced, and the old 
conditions had not been entirely changed. So that, as I have else- 
where pointed out, the three stages of progress represented by the 
Stone, Bronze, and Iron Periods, like the three principal colours of 
the rainbow, overlap, intermingle, and shade off the one into the 
other, though their succession, so far as Britain and Western 
Europe are concerned, appears to be equally well defined with that 
of the prismatic colours. 

B 



>'/ 



2 urrBODucroRY. [chap. !• 

In thus speaking of a bronze-using period I by no means wish 
to exclude the possible use of copper unalloyed with tin. There 
is indeed every ground for believing that in some parts of the world 
the use of native copper must have continued for a lengthened 
period before it was discovered that the addition of a small pro- 
portion of tin not only rendered it more readily fusible, but added 
to its elasticity and hardness, and thus made it more serviceable 
for tools and weapons. Even after the advantages of the alloy 
over the purer metal were known, the local scarcity of tin may at 
times have caused so small a quantity of that metal to be employed, 
that the resulting mixture can hardly be regarded as bronze ; or 
at times this dearth may have necessitated the use of copper alone, 
either native or as smelted from the ore. 

Of this Copi^er Age, however, there are in Europe but extremely 
feeble traces, if indeed any can be said to exist. It appears not 
unlikely that the views which are held by many archaeologists as 
to the Asiatic origin of bronze may prove to be well foimded, and 
that when the use of copper was introduced into Europe, the dis- 
covery had already long been made that it was more serviceable 
when alloyed with tin than when pure. In connection with this 
it may be observed that the most important discovery of instru- 
'inents of copper as yet recorded in the Old World is that which was 
made at Gungeria in Central India.* They consisted of flat celts of 
what has been regarded as the most primitive type; but with them 
were found some ornaments of silver, a circumstance which seems 
to miUtate against their extreme antiquity, as the production 
silver involves a considerable amount of metallm-gical skill, and 
probably an acquaintance with lead and other metals. However 
this may be, there are reasons for supposing that if a Copper Age 
existed in the Old World its home was in Asia or the most 
eastern part of Europe, and not in any western country. 

The most instructive instance of a Copper Age, as distinct from 
one of Bronze, is that afforded by certain districts of North 
America, in which we find good evidence of a period when, in 
addition to stone as a material from which tools and weapons were 
made, copper also was employed, and used in its pure native con- 
dition Avithout the addition of any alloy. 

The State of Wisconsint alone has furnished upwards of a 
hundred axes, spear-heads, and knives formed of copper ; and, to 
judge from some extracts from the writings of the early travellers 

♦ iioQ posted, !>. 40. f Lutlcr, **rroliibt. AViscousiu." 



A COPPER AGE IN AMERICA. 3 

giTcn by the Kev. E. F. Slafter,* that part of America would seem 

to have entered on its Copper Age long before it was first brought 

into contact vdih European civiUsation, towards the middle of the 

siiteenth century. It has been thought by several American 

antiquaries that some at least of these tools and weapons were 

produced by the process of casting, though the preponderance of 

opinion seems to be in favour of all of them being shaped by the 

luunmer and not cast, Among others I may mention my friend 

the Hon. Colonel C. C. Jones, who has examined this question for 

me, and has been unable to discover any instance of one of these 

copper tools or weapons having been indisputably cast. 

That they were originally wrought, and not cast, is a i^rioA in 
the highest degree probable. On some parts of the shores of 
Lake Superior native copper occurs in great abundance, and 
would no doubt attract the attention of the early occupants of 
the country. Accustomed to the use of stone, they would at first 
regard the metal as merely a stone of peculiarly heavy nature, 
and on attempting to chip it or work it into shape would at once 
discover that it jdelded to a blow instead of breakiog, and that in 
feet it was a malleable stone. Of this ductile property the 
North American savage availed himself largely, and was able to 
produce spear-heads with sockets adapted for the reception of their 
shafts by merely hammering out the base of the spear-head and 
turning it over to form the socket, in the same manner as is so 
often employed in the making of iron tools. But though the 
great majority of the instruments hitherto found, if not all, have 
been hammered and not cast, it would appear that the process of 
melting copper was not entirely unknown. Squier and Davis 
have observed,! " that the metal appears to have been worked in 
all cases in a cold state. This is somewhat remarkable, as the fires 
Ti|)on the altars were sufiiciently strong in some instances to melt 
down the coj^per implements and ornaments deposited upon them, 
and the feet that the metal is fusible could hardly have escaped 
notice." That it did not altogether escape observation is shown by 
the evidence of De Champlain,+ the founder of the city of Quebec. 
In 1610 he was joining a party of Algonquins, one of whom met 
him on his barque, and after conversation " tira d'un sac une 
piece de cuivre de la longueur d'un pied qu'il me donna, le quel 

• "Preli. Copper Impl," Boston, 1879. 

t *• Anc. Men. of the Mississ. Valley," p. 202. 

t •* Les Voyages du Sieur dc Champlain," Paris, 1613, pp. 246— 7, cited by JShiftcr, 
op. rt/., p. 13. 

I>. •> 



4 INTBODUCrORY. [CHAP. I. 

estoit fort beau et bien franc, me donnant a entendre qu'il en avoit 
en quantity li ou il Tavoit pris, qui estoit sur le bort d'une rivifere 
proche d'un grand lac et qu'ils le prenoient par morceaux, et le 
faisant fondre le mettoient en lames, et avec des pierres le ren- 
doient uny." 

We have here, then, evidence of a Copper Age,* in comparatively 
modem times, during most of which period the process of fusing 
the metal was imknown. In course of time, however, this art was 
discovered, and had not European influences been brought to bear 
upon the country this discovery might, as in other parts of the 
world, have led to the knowledge of other fusible metals, and 
eventually to the art of manufacturing bronze — an alloy already 
known in Mexico and Peru.t 

So far as regards the Old World there are some who have sup- 
posed that, owing to iron being a simple and not a compound 
metal like bronze, and owing to the readiness with which it may 
be produced in the metallic condition from some of its ores, iron 
must have been in use before copper. Without denying the 
abstract possibility of this having been the case in some part of our 
globe, I think it will be found that among the nations occupying 
the shores of the eastern half of the Mediterranean — a part of the 
world which may be regarded as the cradle of European civilisation 
— ^not only are all archaeological discoveries in favour of the suc- 
cession of iron to bronze, but even historical evidence supports 
their testimony. 

In the Introductory Chapter of my book on Ancient Stone 
Implements I have already touched upon this question, on which, 
however, it will here be desirable farther to enlarge. 

The light throA\Ti upon the subject by the Hebrew Scriptures is 
but small There is, however, in them frequent mention of most 
of the metals now in ordinary use. But the word nipn?, which in 
our version is translated brass — a compound of copper and zinc — 
would be more properly translated copper, as indeed it is in one 
instance, though there it would seem erroneously, when two vessels 
of fine copper, precious as gold, are mentioned. J In some passages, 
however, it would appear as if the word would be more correctly 

♦ For notices of American copper instruments see, in addition to the works already 
quoted, Wilson, "Prohist. Man," vol. i. p. 206, &c. ; Lubbock, " Preh. Times," p. 268, 
&c. See also an interesting article by Dr. Emil Schmidt, in Anhiv.fiir Anth.y vol. xi. 
p. 66. 

t A Peruvian chisel analyzed by Vauquolin gave '94 of copper and "06 of tin (Moore's 
•* Anc. Mineralogy," p. 42). 

X Ezra, ch. inii. v. 27. 



SCRIPTITRAL NOTICES OP BRONZR. 



rendered bronze than copper, as, for instance, where Moses* is 
commanded to cast five sockets of brass for the pillars to carry the 
hangings at the door of the tabernacle, which could hardly have been 
done firom a metal so diflScult to cast as unalloyed copper. Indeed 
if tin were known, and there appears little doubt that the word 
Vt$ represents that metal, its use as an alloy for copper can hardly 
have been unknown. It may, then, be regarded as an accepted 
fiict that at the time when the earliest books of the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures were reduced to writing, gold,t silver, iron, tin, lead, and brass, 
or more probably bronze, were known. To what date this reduc- 
tion to writing is to be assigned is a question into which it would 
be somewhat out of place here to enter. The results, however, of 
modem criticism tend to prove that it can hardly be so remote as 
the fourteenth century before our era. 

In the Book of Job, as to the date of which also there is some 
diversity of opinion, we find evidence of a considerable acquaint- 
ance with the metals : *' Surely there is a vein for the silver, and 
a place for gold where they fine it. Iron is taken out of the 
earth, and brass is molten out of the stone." J Lead is also men- 
tioned, but not tin. 

Before quitting this part of the subject I ought perliaps to 
allude to the passage respecting Tubal-Cain, § the seventh in descent 
from Adam, who is mentioned as " an instructer of every artificer in 
brass and iron," or a furbisherll of every cutting instrument in those 
metals. This must, however, be regarded as a tradition incor- 
porated in the narrative at the time it was wTitten, and probably 
with some accessory colouring in connection with the name which 
Gesenius has suggested may mean scoriaritm faber, a maker of 
dross, and which others have connected with that of Vulcan. 
Sir Gardner WilkinsonlT has remarked on this subject that what- 
ever may have been the case in earlier times, " no direct mention 
is made of iron arms or tools till after the Exodus," and that 
" some are even inclined to doubt the barzel (bna), of the Hebrews 
being really that metal," iron. 

Movers** has observed that in the whole Pentateuch iron is 
mentioned only thirteen times, while bronze appears no less than 
forty-four, which he considers to be in favour of the later intro- 
duction of iron ; as also the fact that bronze, and not iron. 



• EzocL, ch. xxvi. v. 37. 

J Ch. xxviii. ▼. 1, 2. 

I Smith's " Diet of the Bible," «. v, 

•♦•«Ph6mcier,"iL3. 



t Numbers, ch. xxxi. v. 22. 
GeneeiB, ch. iv. y. 22. 
** Anc. Egyptians," vol. iii. p. 



4 



6 INTKODUCTORY. [CHAP. I. 

was associated with gold and silver in the fittings for the 
Tabernacle. 

For other passages in Scripture relative to the employment of 
brass or bronze, and iron, among the Jews, the reader may consult 
an excellent article by the Rev. John Hodgson in the first volume 
of the ArcJiceologm jEliana (1816), "An Inquiry into the Era 
when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron is now applied." 
From this paper I have largely borrowed in subsequent pages. 

As to the succession of the two metals, bronze and iron, among 
the ancient Egyptians, there is a considerable diversity of opinion 
among those who have studied the subject. Sir Gardner Wilkin- 
son,* judging mainly from pictorial representations, thinks that the 
Egyptians of an early Pharaonic age were acquainted with the use 
of iron, and accounts for the extreme rarity of actual examples by 
the rapid decomposition of the metal in the nitrous soil of Egypt 
M. Chabas,t the author of a valuable and interesting work upon 
primitive history, mainly as exhibited by Egyptian monuments, 
believes that the people of Egypt were acquainted with the use of 
iron from the da\\Ti of their historic period, and upwards of 3000 
years b.c. made use of it for all the purposes to which we now 
Apply it, and even prescribed its oxide as a medicinal preparation. 
M. Mariette,? on the contrary, whose personal explorations entitle 
his opinion to great weight, is of opinion that the early Egyptians 
never really made use of iron, and seems to think that from some 
mythological cause that metal was regarded as the bones of Typhon, 
and was the object of a certain repugnance. M. Chabas himself is, 
indeed, of opinion that iron was used with extreme reserve, and, so 
to speak, only in exceptional cases. This he considers to have been 
partly due to religious motives, and ])artly to the greater abundance 
of bronze, which the Egyptians well knew how to mix so as to 
give it a fine temper. From whatever cause, the discovery of iron 
or steel instruments among Egyptian antiquities is of extremely 
rare occurrence ; and there are hardly any to which a date can be 
assigned with any approach to certainty. The most ancient 
appears to be a curved scimitar-like blade discovered by Belzoni 
beneath one of the Sphinxes of Kai-nak, and now in the British 

♦ ** Anc. Eg>T)tiaiiP," vol. Hi. pp. 246, 247. See also " The Egyptians in the Timo of 
the Pharaohs," x>. 99. 

t ** Etudes sur TAntiqiiite Historiquo d'apres los pourccs Ep^ypticnncs,'* &c., 1872, 
p. G9. 

{"Catalogue do Boulaq,'* pj). 247, 248; Chabaa. p. 54. See also Emil Soldi, 
" L'Art Egypticn," 1879, p. 41. 



BRONZE IN ANCTENT EGYPT. 7 

Museum.* Its date is stated to be about 600 B.c.t A wedge of 
iron appears, however, to have been found in a joint between the 
stones of the Great Pyramid { 

Without in any way disputing the occasional use of iron among 
the ancient £^3rptians, nor the interpretation of the colours red 
and blue on the tomb of Rameses III. as being intended to repre- 
sent blades of bronze and iron or steel respectively, I may venture 
to suggest that the round blue bar,§ against which butchers are 
represented as sharpening their knives in some of the pictures in the 
sepulchres of Thebes, may have been too hastily regarded as a steel 
instead of as a whetstone of a blue colour. The existence of a 
gUd for the purpose of sharpening seems to imply not only the 
knowledge of the preparation of the metal and its subsequent 
hardening, but also of files or of other tools to produce the peculiar 
striated surface to which the sharpening property of a steel is due. 
Had such tools been known, it seems almost impossible that no 
trace of them should have come down to our times. Moreover, if 
used for sharpening bronze knives, a steel such as at present 
used would sooner become clogged and unfit for use than if em- 
ployed for sharpening steel knives. 

Lepsius II has observed that the pictures of the old Empire do 
not afford an example of arms painted in blue, the metal of 
weapons being always painted in red or bright brown. Iron was 
but little used under the old Empire ; copper was employed in its 
stead where the hardness of iron was not indispensable. 

However this may be, it seems admitted on all hands that the 
use of iron in Egypt in early times was much restricted, probably 
from some religious motive. May not this have arisen from the 
first iron there known having been, as it appears to have been in 
some other countries, of meteoric origin ? The Coptic name for 
iron, B€Nin€> which has been interpreted by Professor LauthlT as 
"the Stone of Heaven," strongly favours such a view. The 
resemblance of this term to BAA-N-FIC) the baa of heaven, or 1 
celestial iron, has also been pointed out by M. Chabas,** who, how 
ever, is inclined to consider that steel was so called on account of 
its reflecting the colour of the sky. If the iron in use among the 

• Catal., No. 5410. t Day, " Proh. Usg of Iron and Steel," page 14. 

X Day, op. eit, p. 32. § Wilkinson, op. eit., vol. iii. p. 247. 

II " Lea M6taux dans les Inscrip. Egypt./' 1877, p. 67. 

f «*Zeit8ch. f. ^gypt. Sprache," &c.*, 1870, p. 114. 

•• Op. cii.j p. 67. Dr. Birch translates ba en pe " heavenly wood " or " stone " {Arch.^ 
vol xxxviii. p. 377 ; Hierag. Diet.). See also a pai)er by the Rev. Basil Cooper in 
fraw*. 7)tTo». Aitoe., vol. ii. p. 386, and Day, "Preh. Use of Iron and Steel," p. 41. 



8 INTRODUCTORY. [CHAP. I. 

early Egyptians were meteoric, and its celestial origin acknow- 
ledged, both its rarity and its restricted use would be accounted 
for. The term " bone of Typhon/' as applied to iron, is given by 
Plutarch on the authority of Manetho, who wrote in the days of 
the first Rolemy. It appears to be used only in contrast to the 
name " bone of Horus," which, according to the same author, was 
appUed to the loadstone, and it seems difficult to admit any great 
antiquity for the appellation, or to connect it with a period when 
iron was at all rare, or its use restricted. 

Although the use of iron in Egypt was at an early period com- 
paratively unknown, that of bronze was most extensive. The 
weapons of war,* the tools for various trades, including those of the 
engraver and sculptor, were all made of that metal, which in its 
crude form served also as a kind of circulating medium. It 
appears to have been mainly imported from Asia, some of the 
principal sources of copper being in the peninsula of Sinai. One 
of the chief mines was situated at Sarbout-el-Khadem, where 
both turquoises and copper ore were extracted, and the latter 
smelted at Wady-Nash. The copper mines of Wady-Magarah are 
thought to have been workeil as early as the second dynasty, 
upwards of 3000 years rc. ; and in connection with ancient 
Egj'ptian mining, it is worth while again to cite Agatharchides,t 
whose testimony I have alreatly adduced in my " Ancient Stone 
Implements," and who relates that in his time, cit\;a b.c. 100, 
there were found buried in some ancient gold-mines in Upper 
Egypt the bronze chisels or wedges (Xaroiiif^^ -xpX'^^O ^f ^he old 
miners, and who accounts for their being of that metal by the fact 
that when those mines were wrought, men were in no way acquainted 
with the use of iron. 

In the seventh centiur}- B.C., however, iron must have been in 
jfenoral use in Egj-pt, for on the landing of the Carians and lonians,^ 
who were armed with bronze, an Eg}'ptian, who had never before 
seen men armed with that metal, ran to Psammetiohus to inform 
him that bnizen men had risen from the sea and were wastinsr the 
country. As Psammotiohus himself is described as wearing a 
l»n\zon helmet, the arms niontioiuHl would seem to have been 
oftt»nsivo rather than defensive. 

The souive whence the tin. whioh formed a constituent part of 

♦ nmlmii, «»;». riV., p. 47. Ia^jwuj*, op. cit., p. 57. 
t '• rhotii lUbliotluvn/' «vl. lOoa, ool. 134^. 
: " UorvHl.r lib, ii. 0. IVJ. 



h 



BRONZE PRECEDED IRON IN EGYPT. 9 

the bronze, was derived, is much more uncertain. Indeed, to judge 
from M. Chabas' silence, its name and hieroglyphic are unknown, 
though from some of the uses to which the metal designated by 
^ ^^ was appUed, it seems possible that it may have been tin. 

On the whole, to judge from documentary evidence alone, 
the question as to the successive use of the different metals 
in Egypt seems to be excessively obscure, some of them being 
ahnost impossible to identify by name or representative sign. 
If, however, we turn to the actual relics of the past, we find 
bronze tools and weapons in abundance, while those of iron are 
extremely scarce, and are either of late date or at best of uncer- 
tain age. So strong, in4eed, is the material evidence, that the 
late Mr. Crawfurd,* while disputing any general and universal 
sequence of iron to bronze, confesses that Ancient Egypt seems to 
offer a case in which a Bronze Age clearly preceded an Iron one, 
or at least in which cutting instruments of bronze preceded those 
of iron. 

Among the Assyrians iron seems to have been in considerable 
use at an early date, and to have been exported from that country 
to Egypt, but knives and long chisels or hatchets of bronze were 
among the objects found at Tel Sifr, in Southern Babylonia. The 
earliest bronze image to which a date can be assigned appears to 
be that on which M. Oppert has read the name of Koudourmapouk, 
King of the Soumirs and Accads,t who, according to M. Lenormant, 
lived about 2100 B.C. Dr. S. Birch reads the name as Kudur- 
mabug (about 2200 B.C.). Others in the British Museum are 
referred to Gudea, who reigned about 1700 B.C. 

The mythology and literature of ancient Greece and Rome are .so 
intimately connected, that in discussing the evidence afforded by 
classical writers it will be needless to separate them, but the 
testimony of both Greek and Latin authors may be taken indis- 
criminately, though, of course, the former afford the more ancient 
evidence. I have already cited much of this evidence in the 
Introductory Chapter of my book on Ancient Stone Implements, 
mainly with the view of showing the succession of bronze to stone; 
on the present occasion I have to re-adduce it, together with what 
corroborative testimony I am able to procure, in order to sliow 
that, along the northern shores of the Mediterranean, philology and 
history agree as to the priority of the use of bronze for cutting 
instruments to that of iron. 

• Trans. EthmU Soc,, vol. iv. p. 6. t Soldi, " UArt Eg>'pt.," p. 25. 



10 INTRODUCTORY. [CHAP. T. 

The Greek language itself bears witness to this fact, for the 
words significant of working in iron are not derived from the name 
of that metal, but from that of bronze, and the old forms of ^oXiret^ 
and j(jaXK€V€iv remained in use in connection with the smith and 
his work long after the blacksmith had to a great extent super- 
seded the bronze-founder and the copper-smith in the fabrication 
of arms and cutlery.* An analogous transition in the meaning of 
words has been pointed out by Professor Max Miiller. " The 
Mexicans called their own copper or bronze tepuztli, which is said 
to have meant originally lidtchet The same word is now used for 
iron, with which the Mexicans first became acquainted through 
their intercourse with the Spaniards. Tepuztli then became a 
general name for metal, and when copper had to be distinguished 
from iron, the former was called red, the latter black Ujmztli." t I 
am not certain whether Professor Max Miiller still retains the views 
which he expressed in 1864. He then pointed out J that "what 
makes it likely that iron was not known previous to the separation 
of the Aryan nations is the fact that its names vary in every one 
of their languages." But there is a " name for copper, which is 
shared in common by Latin and the Teutonic languages, ces, ceris, 
Gothic ais, Old High German er. Modem German Er-z, Anglo- 
Saxon dr, English ore. Like cltalkos, which originally meant 
copper, but came to mean metal in general, bronze or brass, the 
Latin ces, too, changed from the former to the latter meaning; and 
we can watch the same transition in the corresponding words of 
the Teutonic languages It is all the more curious, there- 
fore, that the Sanskrit ayas, which is the same word as aes and 
aizy should in Sanskrit have assumed the almost exclusive mean- 
ing of iron. I suspect, however, that in Sanskrit, too, ayas meant 
originally the metal, i.e. copper, and that as iron took the place of 

copper, the meaning of ayas was changed and specified 

In German, too, the name for iron was derived from the older 
name of copper. The Gothic eisai*n, iron, is considered by Grimm 
as a derivative form of aiz, and the same scholar concludes from 
this that *in Germany bronze must have been in use before iron/" 

Ikit to return to Greece. It is, of course, somewhat doubtful how 
far the word ^^oAa-o?, as used by the earliest Greek authors, was 

* XoXkevhv ^k Kai to fftcrjpivtiv tXeyov, Kal x«^«aff» tovq rbv ffidripov ipyaZofiivovQ 
(Julius l*ollux, ** Onomasticon," lib. ^'ii. cap. 24). 

t *' Lotturcs on the Scionco of LanjG:uago," 2nd S., 1864, p. 229 ; Tylor's ** Anahnac," 
1801, p. 140. 

I " Lectures on the Science of Language," 2nd S., p. 231. 



BRONZE IN ANCIENT GREECE. 11 

intended to apply to unalloyed copper, or to that mixture of 
copper and tin which wo now know as bronze. Mr. Gladstone,* 
who on all questions relating to Homer ought to be one of the 
best living authorities, regards the word as meaning copper : 
firstly, because it is always spoken of by Homer as a pure metal 
along with other pure metals ; secondly, on account of the 
epithets ipvBpo^y yvo^^, and vwpoyfr, which mean red, bright, and 
gleaming, being applied to it, and which Mr. Gladstone considers 
to be inappUcable to bronze ; and thirdly, because Homer does not 
appear to have known anything at all of the fusion or alloying of 
metals. The second reason he considers further strengthened by 
the probability that Homer would not represent the walls of the 
palace of Alcinous as plated with bronze, nor introduce a heaven 
of bronze among the imposing imagery of battle (II., xvii. 424). 
On the whole ho concludes that yaXKo^ was copper hardened by 
some method, as some tliink by the agency of water, or else and 
more probably according to a very simple process, by cooling 
slowly in the air.t 

I regret to say that these conclusions appear to me to be founded 
to some extent on false premises and on more than one misconcep- 
tion. The process of heating copper and then dipping it in water or 
allowing it slowly to cool, so far from being adapted for hardening 
that metal, is that which is usually adopted for annealing or 
softening it. While the plunging into cold water of steel at a red 
heat has the effect of rendering that metal intensely hard, on 
copper the reverse is the result ; and, as Dr. Percy has observed, J 
it is immaterial whether the cooling after annealing — or restoring 
its malleability by means of heat — takes place slowly or rapidly. 
Indeed, one alloy of copper and tin is rendered most malleable 
by rapid cooling. 

It has been stated § that bronze of the ancient composition may 
by coohng it slowly be rendered as hard as steel, and at the same 
time less brittle^ but this statement seems to require confirmation. 

According to some II the impossibility of hardening bronze like 
steel by dipping it into water had passed into a proverb so early 
as the days of iEschylus, but " '^oKkov ^cKpa^ " has by others been 

♦ ** Stu<lips on Homer and tho Homeric Age," vol. iii. pp. 498, 499. 

t The reference is to Millin, " Mineralogie Hom^rique," pp. 126, 132. 

J *' Metallurgy — Fuel, Fireclays, Ck)pper," &c., p. 6. 

\ Moore, **Anc. Mineralogy," p. 67. 

II 7?<T. Areh.^ N.S., vol. iv. p. 97 ; -/Esch. Agamem., v. 612. Professor Rolleston 
is inclined to refer the expression to tho "tempering" of \)T0i\7.e {Tranx. Brist. and 
Qhue. Arch, Soc, 1878). 



12 INTRODUCTORY. [cHAP. I. 

regarded as referring to the impossibility of dyeing metal* Some 
of the commentators on Hesiod and Homer speak, however, dis- 
tinctly as to a process of hardening bronze by a dipping or /3a^i/, 
and Virgil t represents the Cyclopes as dipping the hissing bronze 
in water — 

'' Alii stridentia tingunt 
-^Ira lacu " — 

but the idea of bronze being hardened or tempered by this process 
appears to me to have been based on a false analogy between this 
metal and steel, or even iron. The French chemist, Geoffroy, 
thought he had succeeded in imitating the temper of an ancient 
bronze sword, but no details are given as to whether he added 
more than the usual proportion of tin to liis copper, or whether 
he hardened the edge with a hammer. 

With regard to the other reasons adduced by Mr. Gladstone, 
it is no doubt true that -xoXko^ is occasionally spoken of by Homer 
as a pure metal, mainly, however, it may be argued, in conse- 
([uence of the same name being applied to both copper and bronze, 
if not, indeed, like the Latin " *«s," to copper, bronze, and brass. 
We find, moreover, that tin, for thus we must translate k-aaairepo^, 
is mentioned by Homer ; and as this metal appears in ancient 
times to have been mainly, though not exclusively, employed for 
the purpose of alloying copper, we must from this fact infer that 
the use of bronze was not unknown. In the celebrated descrip- 
tion of the fashioning of the shield of Achilles by Vulcan — which 
may for the moment be assumed to be of the same age as the 
rest of the Iliad — we find the copper and tin mentioned in juxta- 
l)Osition with each other ; and if it had been intended to represent 
llophaistos as engaged in mixing and melting bronze, the descrip- 
tion could not hrtvo been more complete.? 

XoAkoi' Kiv wvfil paXktv ilrcipca, Kaxnriryiov re. 

Even the term indomitablo may n>fer to the difiiculty of melting 
copper in its unalloyod condition. 

But tin was also us(»(l iu tlio ]un*o condition. In the breast- 
plate of AgjvnuMunon § tlioro wore ten bands of black k-vapo^, 
twelve of gold, and twonty of tiu. In his shield II were twenty 
bosses of tin. The cowsll on the shiold of Achilles were 

• Rosaig:nol, ** Los UvUxwx diuiH TAnt.," p. '^as. f - ^Y,n.r viii. 450. 

{"lUad," xviii. 474. J xi. 21. || xi. 34. •' xviii. 574. 



METALS MENllONED BY HOMER. 13 

made of both gold and tin, and his greaves* of soft tin, and 
the border of the breast-plate of Asteropseus t was formed of 
glittering tin. 

This collocation of various metals, or inlaying them by way of 
ornament, calls to mind some of the pottery and bronze pins of 
the Swiss Lake dwellings, which are decorated with inlaid tin, 
and the remarkable bronze bracelet foimd at Moerigen,? which is 
inlaid with iron and a yellow brass by way of ornament. 

With regard to the epithets red, bright, and gleaming, they arc 
perfectly applicable to bronze in its polished condition, though 
they ill assort with the popular idea of bronze, which usually 
assigns to that metal the brown or greenish hues it acquires by 
oxidation and exposure to atmospheric influences. As a matter of 
fact, the red colour § of copper, though certainly rendered more 
yellow, is not greatly impaired by an admixture of tin within the 
proportions now used by engineers, viz. up to about two and a 
half ounces to the i)Oimd, or about 1 5 per cent. As to the bright 
and shining properties of the metal, Virgil, when no doubt speak- 
ing of bronze swords and shields, makes special mention of their 

glitter— II 

** JEratajque micant X)elta}, micat oereus ensis." 

Indeed, the mere fact of the swords of Homer being made of 
XoXirov is in favour of that metal being bronze, as pure copper 
would be singularly inapplicable to such a purpose, and certainly 
no copper sword would break into three or four pieces at a blow 
instead of being merely bent.1[ 

The bending of the points of the spear-heads against the shields 
of the adversaries is, however, in favour of these weapons having 
been of copper rather than of bronze.** 

As to Homer having been unacquainted with the fusion or 
alloying of metals, it may fairly be urged that M^thout such know- 
ledge it would have been impossible to work so freely as he has 
described, in gold, silver, and tin ; and that the only reason for 
which Vulcan could have thrown the latter metal into the fire 
must have been in order to melt it. 

• " II.," x\'iii. 612. 

t xxiii. 561. For these and other instances see Prof. I'hilli}>6 in the Arch, Jouru., 
vol. xvi. p. 10. 
1 Desor et Favre, " Bel Age du Bronze," p. 16. 

] Holtzapffel, "Taming and Mechanical Manipulation/' vol. i. p. 271. 
3 - JEneid," rii. 743. % " Iliad/' iii. 363. 

••"IlViii. 348,vii. 259. 



14 INTRODTICTOKY. [CHAP. I, 

Whethur steel van designated by the term KvavtK is a matter of 
considerablti doubt, and certainly in later times that word was 
applied to a substance occasionally used as a blue pigment, not 
improbably n dark blue carbonate of copper. Assuming the word 
to mean a metal, the difficulty in re^rdiug it as significant of steel 
appears in a great measure due to the colour implied by the 
adjective form Kvapeov, being a dark blue.' If, however, it were the 
custom even in those days to colour steel blue by exposing it, 
after it had been polished, to a certain degree of heat — as is usually 
done with watch and clock springs at the present day — the deep 
blue colour of the sky or sea might well receive such an epithet. 
That steel of some kind was known in Homeric days is abundantly 
evident from the process of hardening an axe by dipping it in 
cold water while heated, which is so graphically described in tlio 



if Kvavov be really steel, we can also understand the epithet 
black t being occasionally applied to it, even though the adjective 
derived from it had the signification of blue. 

According to tlie Arundelian Marbles, iron was discovered b.c, 
1432,J or 'lib years before the taking of Troy, but though wo 
havo occasional mention of this metal and of steel in the Homeric 
poems, yet weapons and tools of bronze ai-c far more commonly 
mentioned and described. Trees, for instance, are cut down and 
wood carved witli tools of bronze ; and the battle-axe of UenelausS 
is of excellent bronze with an olive-wood handle, long and well 
polished. 

Before noticing further tlie early use of iron in Greece, it will be 
well to see what other authors than Homer say as to the origin 
and ancient use of bronze in that country. 

The name of the princii>al metal of which it is composed, copper, 
bears witness to one of tlie chief sources of its supply having been 
the island of Cyprus. It would appear that Tamassus in this 
island was in ancient times a noted mart for this metal, as it is 
according to Nitzsch and other critics the Temese II mentioned in 
Homer as being resorted to in order to exchange iron for j(a\xm, 
which in this as well as some other passages seems to stand for 
copper and not bronze. 

The advantage arismg from mixing a proportion of tin wiA 

" M. Ch. HouBsol in Jtti: -Iiv/k, N,B., vol 
* .4ic/,. fUr Aniliroji., vol. liii. p. 295 
1). .549. 




IKOK IK AKCIKMT GK&£C1S. Id 

copper, and thus rendering it at the some time more fusihlc aud 
harder, must have been known before the dawn of Grecian history. 

The accoonts given by early Greek ivTitors as to the first 
discoverer of the art of making bronze by an admixture of copper 
and tin vary considerably, and thus prove that even in the days 
whea these notices were written the art was of ancient date. 

Theophrastus makes Uelas, a Phrygian, whom Aristotle • regards 
as a Lydian, to have been tbe inventor of bronze. Pausanias t 
ascribes the honour of first costing statues in bronze to Rhoecus 
and Theodorus tbe Samians, who appear to have Hved about 
C40 B.C. They are also said to have improved the accuracy of 
casting, but no doubt tbe process on a smaller scale was practised 
loi^ before their time. Bbcecus and his colleague ore also 
reported to have discovered the art of casting iron,+ hut no really 
ancient objects of east iron have as yet been discovered. 

The invention of the metals gold, silver, and copper is also 
ascribed to the Idiean Dactyli,§ or tbe Telchines, who made the 
sickle of ChroDos {| and the trident of Poseidon.^ 

Though, as has already been observed, iron and even steel were 
not unknown in the days of Homer, both seem to have been of 
considerable ronty, and it is by no means improbable that, as 
apjiears to have been the case with tbe Egyptians, the first iron 
used by tbe Greeks was of meteoric origin. I have ekewhere ** 
called attention to the possible connection of the Greek name 
for iron (attijpoi) with aari'ip, often applied to a shooting-star or 
meteor, and with the Latin Sidera and tbe English Star, though 
it b unsafe to insist too much on mere verbal similarity. In an 
interesting article on the use of meteoric iron by Dr. L. Beck.tt of 
Biebrich on the Rhine, tbe suggestion is made that the final i/pov 
of autipov is a form of the Aiyan wia (conf. as, ivrie). Dr. Beck, 
however, inclines to the opinion that the recognition of certain 
meteorites as iron was first made at a time subsequent to the dis- 
covery of the means of smelting iron from its ore. 

Tbe self-fused mass or disc of iron,*? a6\ov outoxowcoc, wliich 
formed one of tbe prizes at tbe funeral gomes of Patroclus, may 
[Mjssibly have bcou niu-tijoric, but this is very doubtful, as the 
I of iron, and the trouble and care it involved, were well 

"Hirt. Nat.," lib. vii. t, Ivi. 6. t lib. \-iii. p. U, } 6. 

15. J K. } DiodoruB SiculuB, lib. v. c. 64. 
'■'- iv. i>. OSo, hI. 1807. 

n I)u!.," 1. 31. •• "Anc. Htonc Iniji.," ]■. .'i. 

■ "80, voL lii. p. 203. j; " Iliad," Ub. xraii- v, 820. 




16 INTRODUCTORY. [CHAP. I. 

known in those days, as is evident from the ei)itliet iroKvKfirp-o^ so 
often bestowed upon that metal. 

For a considerable time after the Homeric period bronze re- 
mained in use for offensive weapons, especially for those intended 
for j)iercing rather than cutting, such as spears, lances, and arrows, 
as well as for those which were merely defensive, such as shields, 
cuirasses, helmets, and greaves. Even swords were also some- 
times of bronze, or at all events the tradition of their use was pre- 
served by the poets. Thus we find Euripides * speaking of the 
bronze-speared Trojans, ')(<iKKeYxewv Tpwwp, and Virgil t describ- 
ing the glitter of the bronze swords of some of the host of 
Tumus. 

Probably, however, the use of the word ')(<iKk6^ was not restricted 
to copper or bronze, but also came in time to mean metal in 
general, and thus extended to iron, a worker in which metal was, 
as we have already seen, termed a j^aXA-eu?. 

Tlie succession of iron to bronze is fully recognised by both 
Greek and Latin authors. The passage in Hesiod,+ where he 
speaks of the third generation of men who had arms of bronze 
and houses of bronze, who ploughed with bronze, for the black iron 
did not exist, is already hackneyed ; nor is the record of Lucre- 
tius § less well known : — 

*• Anna antiqua, manus, imgues, dentesque fuenmt, 
Et lapides, et item sylvarimi fragmina rami, . . . 
Posterius ferri vis est, eerisque reperta, 
Sed prior smB erut qiiam ferri cognitus usus ; . . . 
Inde minutatim processit ferrous ensis, 
Versaque in opprobrium species est falcis ahenu), 
Et ferro coepere solum proscindere terras." 

The difference between the age of Homer and Hesiod in 
respect to the use of metals is well described by Mr. Gladstone. 
The former II " lived at a time when the use of iron (in Greece) 
was just commencing, when the commodity was rare, and when 
its value was very great ; '* but in the days of Hesiod ** ii-on, as 
compared Avith copper, had come to bo the inferior, that is to say 
the cheaper metal," and the poet " looks back from his iron age 
with an admiring envy on the heroic period." 

* "IVoad.," 143. . , , ,"*"** ^^^^^•'" ^^\' ^■"- "^'^• 

X *' Op. et D.," i. 150. ToTf S' ijv xaXicca /i€v r«vx*<* xA^kioi Si r« oUoi 

XaXKtft 6* aoyd^oiTo, ftiXa^ d* ovk Icrxf aiSfipog, 
^ Lib. V. 1282, et seqq, ' || " Juv. Mundi," 1869, p. 26. 



BRONZE AMONG OTHER NATIONS. 17 

Hesiod gives to Hercules* a helmet of steel and a sword of 
iron, and to Saturn t a steel reaping-hook. His remark that at 
the feast of the gods the withered + part of a five-fingered branch 
should never be cut from the green part by black iron, shows that 
this metal was in common use, and that for religious ceremonies 
the older metal bronze retained its place. 

Bronze was, however, a favourite metal with the poet, if not 
indeed in actual use long after iron was known,§ for Pindar, about 
RC. 470, still frequently cites spears and axes made of bronze. 

By the time of Herodotus, who wrote before 400 b.c., the use 
of iron and steel was universal among the Greeks. He instances, 
as a fact worth recording, that the Massageta,l| a powerful tribe 
which occupied the steppes on the east of the Caspian, made no 
use of iron or silver, but had an abundance of ')(<iKk6^ and gold, 
pointing their spears and arrows and forming the heads of their 
battle-axes with the former metal. Among the iEthiopians,ir on 
the contrary, he states that bronze was rarer and more precious 
than gold ; nor was it in use among the Scythians.** The Sagartii tt 
in the army of Xerxes are mentioned as not carrying arms either 
of bronze or iron except daggers, as if bronze were still of not 
unfrequent use. 

Strabo,++ at a much later date, thinks it worth while to record 
that among the Lusitanians the spears were tipped with bronze. 

But certainly some centuries before the time of Herodotus, and 
probably as early as that of Homer, the Chalybes on the shores of 
the Euxine practised the manufacture of iron on a considerable scale, 
and from them came the Greek name for steel, xa^y^-§§ Daimachus, 
in the fourth century B.C., records that different sorts of steel are 
produced among the Chalybes in Sinope, Lydia, and Laconia. That 
of Sinope was used for smiths' and carpenters' tools ; that of Laconia 
for files, drills for iron, stamps, and masons' tools ; and the Lydian 
kind for files, swords, razors, and knives. In Laconia iron is said 
to have formed the only currency in the days of Lycurgus. 

Taking all the evidence into consideration, there can be no 
doubt that iron must have been known in Greece some ten or 
twelve centuries before our era, though, as already observed, it 
was at that time an extremely rare metal. It also appears that as 

• "Scut. Hercnl.," v. 122—138. f "Theogon.," v. 161. 

: •* Op. et D.,'* V. 741. § " OljTnp.," od. i. 123 ; " Nem.," od. x. 113, &c. 

J Lib. i. c. 215. ^ Lib. iii. c. 23. 

•• Lib. iv. c. 71. ft Lib. vii. c. 85. J J Lib. iii. p. 208, ed. 1707. 

}} Bochart' 8 "Phaleg.," p. 208, cited in Arch, JEliana, vol. i. p. 62. 

C 



18 INTRODTJCrORY. [CHAP. I. 

early as B.c. 500, or even 600, iron or steel was in common use, 
though bronze had not been altogether superseded for oflFensive 
arms such as spear-heads and battle-axes. 

The tradition of the earlier use of bronze still, however, remained 
even in later times, and the preference shown for its employment 
in religious rites, which I have mentioned elsewhere,* is a strong 
witness of this earlier use. It seems needless again to do more 
than mention the bronze ploughshare used at the foundation of 
Tuscan cities, the bronze knives and shears of the Sabine and 
Roman priests, and the bronze sickles of Medea and Elissa. I 
must, however, again bring forward the speculations of an intel- 
ligent Greek traveller, who wrote in the latter half of the second 
century of our era, as to the existence of what we should now 
term a Bronze Age in Greece. 

Pausanias t relates how Lichas the Lacedaemonian, in the fifth 
centurj'- b.c., discovered the bones of Orestes, which his country- 
men had been commanded by an oracle to seek. The Pythia J 
had described the place as one where two strong winds met, where 
form was opposed to form, and one evil lay upon another. These 
Lichas recognised in the two bellows of the smith, the hammer 
opposed to the anvil, and the iron lying on it. Pausanias on this 
observes that at that time they had already begun to use iron in 
war, and that if it liad been in the days of the lieroes it would 
have been bronze and not iron designated by the oracle as the 
evil, for in their days all arms were of bronze. For this he cites 
Homer as his authority, who speaks of the bronze axe of Pisander, 
and the arrow of Meriones. A further argument he derives from 
the spear of Achilles, laid up in the temple of Minerva at Phaselis, 
and the sword of Memnon in that of iEsculapius at Nicomedia, 
which is entirely of bronze, while the ferrule and point of his 
spear are also of that metal. 

The spear-head which lay with the bones of Theseus § in the 
Isle of Scyros was also of bronze, and probably the sword like- 
Avise. There are no works of Latin authors of a date nearly so 
remote as that of the earlier Greek writers, and long before the 
days of Ennius, iron was in general use in Italy. If the Articles 
of Peace which " Porsena, King of the Tuscans, tendered unto the 
people of Rome " were as Pliny II represents them, the Romans 

• " Anc. stone Imp.," p. 4. t " Lacon.," lib. iii. cap. iii. 

t Herod., lib. i. c. 67. § Plutarch, " Thes.," j). 17, e, Ed. 1624. 

|i "Xat. Hist.," lib. xxxiv. cap. 14. 



USE OF IRON IN GATJL AND ITALY. 



19 



most even in those early days have had iron weapons, for they 
were forbidden the use of that metal except for tilling the ground. 
In RC. 224 the Isumbrian Gauls who fought with Flaminius 
were already in possession of iron swords, the softness and flexi- 
bility of which led to the discomfiture of their owners. The 
Romans themselves seem but to have been badly armed so far as 
swords were concerned until the time of the Second Punic War, 
about B.C. 200, when they adopted the Spanish sword, and learnt 
the method of preparing it. Whether the modem Toledo and 
Bilbao blades are legitimate descendants of these old weapons we 
Deed not stop to inquire. In whatever manner the metal was pre- 
pared, so thoroughly was iron identified with the sword in classical 
times that ferruw, and gladiua were almost synonyms. 

Pliny mentions that the best steel used in Rome was imported 
from China, a country in which copper or bronze swords are said 
to have been in use in the days of Ki,* the son of Yu, b.c. 2197 — 48, 
and those of iron under Kung-Kia, B.r. 1897 — 48, so that there 
also history points to a Bronze Age. But this by the way. 

Looking at the fact that iron and steel were in such general 
use at Rome during the period of her wars in Western Europe, 
we may well believe that had any of the tribes with which the 
Roman forces came in contact been armed with bronze, such an 
nnusual circumstance could hardly have escaped record. In the 
Augustan age the iron swords of Noricum were in great repute, and 
farther north in Germany, though iron did not abound, it was, ac- 
cording to Tacitus, used for spears and swords. The Catti had the 
metal in abundance, but among the Aestii, on the right coast of the 
Baltic, it was scarce. The Cimbrians in the first century b.c. had, 
according to Plutarch, t iron breast-plates, javelins, and large swords. 
The Gauls of the North of France had in the time of Julius 
Caesar t large iron mines which they worked by tunnelling ; the 
bolts of their ships were made of that metal, and they had even 
chain cables of iron. The Britons of the South of England who 
were in such close communication with the opposite coast of Gaul 
must have had an equal acquaintance with iron. Cnesar mentions 
ingots or rings of iron as being used for money, and observes 
that iron is obtained on the sea-coast, but in small quantities, and 
adds that bronze was imported. § S'trabo includes iron, as well as 
gold, silver, and com, among the products of Britain. In Spain, 



• See ZtiUeh.fSr £th.," vol. u., 1870, p. 131. 
X "BeU. GaU„" iii. 13 ; yii. 22. 

c 2 



t "Vit. Caii Marii," 420, *. 
§ Lib. V. 12. 



20 INTRODUCTORY. [cHAP. I. 

as already mentioned, iron had long been known, so that from the 
concurrent testimony of several historians we may safely infer that 
in the time of JuUus Caesar, when this country was first exposed 
to Roman influences, it had already, like the neighbouring coun- 
tries to the south, passed from the Bronze into the Iron Age. 

Notwithstanding all this historical testimony in favour of the 
prior use of bronze to that of iron, there have been not a few 
authors who have maintained that the idea of a succession of 
stone, bronze, and iron is delusive when applied to Western Europe. 
Among these was the late Mr. Thomas Wright, who has gone so 
far as to express * "a firm conviction that not a bit of bronze 
which has been found in the British Islands belongs to an older 
date than that at which Csesar wrote that the Britons obtained 
their bronze from abroad, meaning of course from Gaul." " In 
fact these objects in bronze were Roman in character and in their 
primary origin." As in the same page he goes on to show that 
two hundred years before Christ the swords of the Gauls were 
made of iron, and as his contentions have ahready been met by Sir 
John Lubbock, t and will, I think, be effectually disposed of by 
the facts subsequently to be mentioned in this volume, it seems 
needless to dwell on Mr. Wright's opinions. I may, however, 
mention that,+ while denying the antiquity of British, German, 
and Scandinavian weapons and tools of bronze, he admits that in 
Greece and Italy that metal was for a long period the only one em- 
ployed for cutting instruments, as iron was not known in Greece 
until a comparatively late date. 

About one himdred and thirty years ago,§ in 1751, a discussion 
as to the date of bronze weapons took place among the members 
of the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres of Paris, on the 
occasion of some bronze swords, a spear-head, and other objects 
being found near Gannat, in the Bourbonnais. Some antiquaries 
regarded them as weapons made for use ; others as merely made for 
show. The Count de Caylus considered that the swords were 
Roman, though maintaining that copper or bronze must have 
been in earlier use than iron. L^vesque de la Ravalifere main- 
itained, on the contrary, that neither the Greeks, Romans, Gauls, 
nor Franks had ever made use of copper or bronze in their swords. 
Tlie Abbd Bartjhflemy showed from ancient authors that the 

• Trans, Ethnof. Soc., vol. iv. p. 190^ Seo also Anthrop, Rev., vol. iv. j). 76. 

+ Trans. Eth. iSV., vol. v. p. 105 ; "P^h. Times," 4th cd., p. 18. 

{ Arch. Assoc. Journ.y vol. xxii. p. 78. 

§ See Rossignol, <* J^iQs M^t^ux dans TAjat/* p. 205. 



DISPUTES AS TO THE THREE PERIODS. 21 

earliest arms of the Greeks were of bronze ; that iron was only 
introduced about the time of the siege of Troy ; and that in later 
times among the Romans there was no mention of bronze having 
been used for weapons of offence, and therefore that these swords 
were not Roman. Strangely enough, he went on to argue that 
they were Frankish, and of the time of Childeric. Had he been 
present at the opening of the tomb of that monarch in 1 6 5 3 he 
would, however, have seen that he had an iron sword.* 

A still warmer discussion than any which has taken place in 
England or France, one, in fact, almost amounting to an inter- 
national war of words, has in more recent times arisen between 
some of the German antiquaries and those of the Scandinavian 
kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden. 

So early as 1860 t my friend Dr. Ludwig Lindenschmit, of 
^lainz, had commenced his attack on "the so-called Bronze 
Period," and shown a disposition to regard all bronze antiquities 
of northern countries as of Italian origin, or, if made in the coun- 
tries where found, as mere homely imitations of imported articles. 
Not content with this, he in 1875 + again mustered his forces and 
renewed the campaign in even a more formal manner. He found 
a formidable ally in Dr. Hostmann, whose comments on Dr. Hans 
Hildebrand's "Heathen Period in Sweden" are well worth the 
reading, and contain a vast amount of interesting information. 

Dr. Hostmann's method of dealing with Dr. Hans Hildebrand 
brought Dr. Sophus Miiller § to the rescue, vdth whom Dr. Linden- 
schmit 11 at once grappled. Shortly after Dr. Hostmann If again 
appears upon the scene, and before engaging with Dr. Sophus 
MUller goes so far as to argue that while Greek swords of iron 
are knoi^Ti to belong to the eighth century b.c., no bronze sword 
of that country can with safety be assigned to an earlier date than 
the sixth century, and, indeed, these may have been only weapons 
of parade, or possibly funereal offerings in lieu of efficient swords. 
Rector Genthe ** also engages in the fight upon the same side. 

These three antagonists bring Sophus Miiller tt again to the 
front, and as one great argument of his opponents was that bronze 
objects could not be produced vnth the finish and orna- 
mentation which is found upon them without the use of iron and 

• Cochet, **Lo Tombeau do Childeric," i. p. 17. 

t ** Sammlung zu Sig^nringcn," p. 153. 

X Arehir.fur AnthropoL^ vol. >Tii. p. 161. 

]Archii\, vol. ix. p. 127. || Op, cit., p. 141. H Op. ciL, p. 18.3. 

♦♦ Arch, fur Anthrop., vol. ix. p. 181. ft -i-f- ^^-j vol. x. p. 27. 



22 INTRODUCTORY. [CHAP. I. 

steel tools, he brings forward an official document signed by four 
authorities in the museum at Copenhagen, and stating that pre- 
cisely similar ornamentation to the S2)irals, zigzags, and punched 
lines which occur on Scandinavian bronze antiquities had been 
produced in their presence by a workman using bronze tools only 
on a plate of bronze. Both plate and tools were of the same 
alloy, viz. 9 of copper to 1 of tin. 

On this a final charge is made by Professor Hostmann '^ and 
Dr. Lindenschmit, the former of whom produces a kind of affidavit 
from the late director of the Polytechnic School at Hanover and the 
court medallist of the same town, to the effect that certain kinds 
of punched work camiot be produced with bronze punches, and 
the editors of the Archiv think it best to close the discussion 
after Dr. Lindenschmit's final retort. 

I have not thought it worth while to enter into all the details 
of this controversy, as even to summarise them would occupy 
more room than I could spare. It seems to me, however, that a 
considerable amount of misconception must have existed in the 
minds of some of the disputants, both as to the accepted meaning 
of the term Bronze Age, as applied not chronologically, but to a 
certain stage of civilisation, and as to the limitation of the objects 
which can with propriety be referred to that age. No antiquary 
of experience will deny that many bronze ornaments, and even 
some bronze weapons, remained in use long after iron and even 
steel were known, any more than he would deny that the use of 
stone for certain purposes continued not only after bronze was 
known, but even after iron and steel were in general use, and, in 
fact, up to the present time, not only in barbarian but in civilised 
countries. Our flint strike-a-lights and our burnishers are still 
of much the same character as they were some thousands of 
years ago, and afford convincing instances of this persistent use. 

The real question at issue is not whether any bronze weapons 
co-existed with those of iron and steel in Western Europe, but 
whether any of them were there in use at a period when iron and 
steel were unknown. Moreover, it is not a question as to whence 
the knowledge of bronze was derived, nor whether at the time 
the Scandinavians or Britons were using bronze for their tools and 
weapons, the inhabitants of Greece and Italy were already ac- 
qiiainted with iron and steel ; but it is a question whether in each 
ui£fidaal coontry there arrived a time when bronze came into 

* Anh»f, Atithrop.f vol. x. jjp. 41, 63. 



THE SUCCESSION OF IBON TO BBONZB. 23 

use and for certain purposes superseded stone, while iron and 
steel were practically unknown. 

This is a question to be solved by evidence, though in the 
nature of things that evidence must to some extent be of a nega- 
tive character. When barrow after barrow is opened, and weapons 
of bronze and stone only are found accompanying the interments, 
and not a trace of iron or steel ; when hoards of rough metal 
and broken bronze, together with the moulds of the bronze- 
founder and some of his stock-in-trade, are disinterred, and there 
is no trace of an iron tool among them — ^the presumption is strong 
that at the time when these men and these hoards were buried 
iron was not in use. When, moreover, by a careful examination 
of the forms of bronze instruments we can trace a certain amount 
of development which is in keeping with the peculiar properties 
of bronze and not with those of iron, and we can thus to some 
extent fix a kind of chronological succession in these forms, the 
inference is that this evolution of form, which must have required 
a considerable amount of time, took place without its course being 
aflFected by any introduction of a fresh and qualifying influence in 
the shape of iron tools and weapons. 

WTien, however, in various countries we find interments and 
even cemeteries in which bronze and iron weapons and instruments 
are intermingled, and the forms of those in bronze are what we 
hiive learnt from other sources to regard as the latest, while the 
forms in iron are not those for which that metal is best adapted, 
but are almost servile copies of the bronze instruments found with 
them, the proof of the one having succeeded the other is almost 
absolutely conclusive. 

The lessons taught by such cemeteries as that at Hallstatt, in 
Austria, and by our own Late Celtic interments, such as those at 
Arras, in Yorkdiire, are of the highest importance in this question. 

It is not, however, to be supposed that even in countries by no 
means geographically remote from each other the introduction either 
of iron or bronze must of necessity have taken place at one and the 
same chronological period. Near the shores of the Mediterranean 
the use of each metal no doubt prevailed far earlier than in any 
of the northern coimtries of Europe ; and though the knowledge 
of metals probably spread from certain centres, its progress can 
have been but slow, for in each part of Europe there appears to 
have been some special development, i)articularly in the forms of 
bronze instruments, and there is no absolute uniformity in their 



18 INTRODTJCrORY. [CHAP. I. 

early as b.c. 500, or even 600, iron or steel was in common use, 
though bronze had not been altogether superseded for offensive 
arms such as spear-heads and battle-axes. 

The tradition of the earlier use of bronze still, however, remained 
even in later times, and the preference shown for its employment 
in religious rites, which I have mentioned elsewhere,* is a strong 
witness of this earlier use. It seems needless again to do more 
than mention the bronze ploughshare used at the foundation of 
Tuscan cities, the bronze knives and shears of tlie Sabine and 
Roman priests, and the bronze sickles of Medea and Elissa. I 
must, however, again bring forward the speculations of an intel- 
ligent Greek traveller, who wrote in the latter half of the second 
century of our era, as to the existence of what we should now 
term a Bronze Age in Greece. 

Pausanias t relates how Lichas the Lacedaemonian, in the fifth 
century B.C., discovered the bones of Orestes, which his country- 
men had been commanded by an oracle to seek. The Pythia t 
had described the place as one where two strong winds met, where 
form was opposed to form, and one evil lay upon another. These 
Lichas recognised in the two bellows of the smith, the hammer 
opposed to the anvil, and the iron lying on it. Pausanias on this 
observes that at that time they had already begun to use iron in 
war, and that if it had been in the days of the heroes it would 
have been bronze and not iron designated by the oracle as the 
evil, for in their days all arms were of bronze. For this he cites 
Homer as his authority, who speaks of the bronze axe of Pisander, 
and the arrow of Meriones. A further argument he derives from 
the spear of Achilles, laid up in the temple of Minerva at Phaselis, 
and the sword of Memnon in that of iEsculapius at Nicomedia, 
which is entirely of bronze, while the ferrule and point of his 
spear are also of that metal. 

The spear-head which lay with the bones of Theseus § in the 
Isle of Scyros was also of bronze, and probably the sword like- 
Avise. There are no works of Latin authors of a date nearly so 
remote as that of the earlier Greek writers, and long before the 
days of Ennius, iron was in general use in Italy. If the Articles 
of Peace which " Porsena, King of the Tuscans, tendered unto the 
people of Rome " were as Pliny II represents them, the Romans 

• " Ano. Stone Imp.," p. 4. t " Lacon.," lib. iii. cap. iii. 

t Herod., lib. i. c. 67. § Plutarch, " Thos.," p. 17, r. Ed. 1624. 

II "Xat. Hirt.," lib. xxxiv. cap, 14. 



USE OF IRON IN GATJL AND ITALY. 



19 



must even in those early days have had iron weapons, for they 
were forbidden the use of that metal except for tilling the ground. 
In B.C. 224 the Isumbrian Gauls who fought with Flaminius 
were already in possession of iron swords, the softness and flexi- 
bility of which led to the discomfiture of their owners. The 
Romans themselves seem but to have been badly armed so far as 
swords were concerned until the time of the Second Pimic War, 
about B.C. 200, when they adopted the Spanish sword, and learnt 
the method of preparing it. Whether the modem Toledo and 
Bilbao blades are legitimate descendants of these old weapons we 
need not stop to inquire. In whatever manner the metal was pre- 
l>ared, so thoroughly was iron identified with the sword in classical 
times that ferruya and gladius were almost synonyms. 

Pliny mentions that the best steel used in Rome was imported 
from China, a coimtry in which copper or bronze swords are said 
to have been in use in the days of Ki,* the son of Yu, b.c. 2197 — 48, 
and those of iron under Kung-Kia, b.c. 1897 — 48, so that there 
also history points to a Bronze Age. But this by the way. 

Looking at the fact that iron and steel were in such general 
use at Rome during the period of her wars in Western Europe, 
we may well believe that had any of the tribes with which the 
Roman forces came in contact been armed with bronze, such an 
unusual circumstance could hardly have escaped record. In the 
Augustan age the iron swords of Noricum were in great repute, and 
farther north in Germany, though iron did not abound, it was, ac- 
cording to Tacitus, used for spears and swords. The Catti had the 
metal in abundance, but among the Aestii, on the right coast of the 
Baltic, it was scarce. The Cimbrians in the first century b.c. had, 
according to Plutarch,t iron breast-plates, javelins, and large swords. 

The Gauls of the North of France had in the time of Julius 
Ctesar + large iron mines wliich they worked by tunnelling ; the 
bolts of their sliips were made of that metal, and they had even 
chain cables of iron. The Britons of the South of England who 
were in such close communication with the opposite coast of Gaul 
must have had an equal acquaintance with iron. Cresar mentions 
ingots or rings of iron as being used for money, and observes 
that iron is obtained on the sea-coast, but in small quantities, and 
adds that bronze was imported.? Strabo includes iron, as well as 
gold, silver, and com, among the products of Britain. In Spain, 



• See ZtiUch.fir Eth,;' vol. u., 1870, p. 131. 
X "BeU. GaU.," iii, 13 ; yii. 22. 

c 2 



t"Vit. CaiiMarii,"420, *. 
§ Lib. V. 12. 



66 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. [cHAP. Ill; 

thought to have been found in the Tliamea,* it is the upper part of the 




blade that is decorated, and not the lower, which is left amooth. There 
is no central ridge, but the upper part has a ooane lozenge pattern 




CHARACTKR OF THBIR DECORATIONS. 



67 



transrerae tines. Possibly this roughening may havo aBsisted to keep tho 
}>Ude fast in the handle, though in producing it some artistio feeling was 
hmu^ht to bear. There is littlo doubt of this inatrumeat being of Irish 
nripin. 

Other celts, like Fi^. 36, have the upper part of tbo blade nlain and 
the lower omiunonted. This npccimen was found at Trim, Co. U^th, and 
is in the collection of Canon fcoonwoll, F.R,8. It will be observed that 
pren the cabled fluting of the sides ceases opposite the transverse ridgo. 

In Figs. 37 and 38 are shown two moro of these slightly flanged 
nniamented celts. The first is in the museum of the Soyal Imh Academy, 
and has already been figured by Wilde (Fig. 298). The lower part of the 
Uade is fluted transversely with chevron patterns punched in along the 
curved ridges. In the second, which was presented to me by Dr. AquiUa 
fimith, M.K.I.A., there is a fairly well defined though but shghtly pro- 
iwtiiiff curved stop-ridge, and the blade is decorated by boldly punched 
anta, lorming a pattern which a herald might describe as " per saltire 
argent and azure." The cable fluting on the sides is beautifully regular. 
Tu Ber. O. W. Brackenridge, of Ctovedon, possesses a longer Bi>ecimen 
(H iocbeB), found at Tullygowan, near Qracehill, Co. Antrim, the faces of 
which are ornamented with a nearly similar design. Canon Greenwell 
bu another example found at Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim. 

The patterns punched mion the celts of this type show a great 
Ttriety of form, and not a little fertility of design in the ancient 
artificers.* Various combinations of chevron patterns are the most 
frequent, diough grained surfaces and straight lines like those on 
Fig. 17 tiao frequently occur. Sir William Wilde describes them 
as hammend, punched, engraved, or cast. Most of the patterns 
were, bowerer, produced by means of punches, though it is possible 

eit in some instances the other ]>r')cesses may have been used. 
Kgi 39 to 43, borrowed from Wilde (Figs. 28G to 200), show 
Da of the patterns full size. The punch most commonly 



f§«Sl5 ittKCl'l'llCB ^'SSSSS /J' il 

nr. w. Fid. 41. Ke«. Fig«. 

i have resembled a narrow and blunt chisel ; but a 

fr-ponch, producing a shallow round indentation, wns 

i And possibly a somewhat curved punch like a blunt 

a canes the lines between the punched marks are, 

i, engraved. It is, however, a question whetlier 

S might not have been produced by a chisel used 

ft punch. Wliat were probably punches for 

," p. 3B9 «< •*(■ i " Vsllancej," voL ir. pL i. 9. 




22 INTRODUCTORY. [CHAP. I. 

steel tools, he brings forward an official document signed by four 
authorities in the museum at Copenhagen, and stating that pre- 
cisely similar ornamentation to the spirals, zigzags, and punched 
lines which occur on Scandinavian bronze antiquities had been 
produced in their presence by a workman using bronze tools only 
on a plate of bronze. Both plate and tools were of the same 
aUoy, viz. 9 of copper to 1 of tin. 

On this a final charge is made by Professor Hostmann ** and 
Dr. Lindenschmit, the former of whom produces a kind of affidavit 
from the late director of the Polytechnic School at Hanover and the 
court medallist of the same town, to the effect that certain kinds 
of punched work cannot be produced with bronze punches, and 
the editors of the Archiv think it best to close the discussion 
after Dr. Lindenschmit's final retort. 

I have not thought it worth while to enter into all the details 
of this controversy, as even to summarise them would occupy 
more room than I could spare. It seems to me, however, that a 
considerable amount of misconception must have existed in the 
minds of some of the disputants, both as to the accepted meaning 
of the term Bronze Age, as applied not chronologically, but to a 
certain stage of civilisation, and as to the limitation of the objects 
which can with propriety be referred to that age. No antiquary 
of experience will deny that many bronze ornaments, and even 
some bronze weapons, remained in use long after iron and even 
steel were known, any more than he would deny that the use of 
stone for certain purposes continued not only after bronze was 
known, but even after iron and steel were in general use, and, in 
fact, up to the present time, not only in barbarian but in civilised 
countries. Our flint strike-a-lights and our burnishers are still 
of much the same character as they were some thousands of 
years ago, and afford convincing instances of this persistent use. 

The real question at issue is not whether any bronze weapons 
co-existed with those of iron and steel in Western Europe, but 
whether any of them were there in use at a period when iron and 
steel were unknown. Moreover, it is not a question as to whence 
the knowledge of bronze was derived, nor whether at the time 
the Scandinavians or Britons were using bronze for their tools and 
weapons, the inhabitants of Greece and Italy w^ere already ac- 
quainted with iron and steel ; but it is a question whether in each 
individual country there arrived a time when bronze came into 

• Are/i»f, Aiithrop.f vol. x. pp. 41, 63. 



THE SUCCESSION OF IBON TO BBONZB. 23 

use and for certain purposes superseded stone, while iron and 
steel were practically unknown. 

This is a question to be solved by evidence, though in the 
nature of things that evidence must to some extent be of a nega- 
tive character. When barrow after barrow is opened, and weapons 
of bronze and stone only are found accompanying the interments, 
and not a trace of iron or steel ; when hoards of rough metal 
and broken bronze, together with the moulds of the bronze- 
founder and some of his stock-in-trade, are disinterred, and there 
is no trace of an iron tool among them — ^the presumption is strong 
that at the time when these men and these hoards were buried 
iron was not in use. AVhen, moreover, by a careful examination 
of the forms of bronze instruments we can trace a certain amount 
of development which is in keeping with the peculiar properties 
of bronze and not with those of iron, and we can thus to some 
extent fix a kind of chronological succession in these forms, the 
inference is that this evolution of form, which must have required 
a considerable amount of time, took place without its course being 
affected by any introduction of a fresh and qualifying influence in 
the shape of iron tools and weapons. 

\Vhen, however, in various countries we find interments and 
even cemeteries in which bronze and iron weapons and instruments 
are intermingled, and the forms of those in bronze are what we 
have learnt from other sources to regard as the latest, while the 
forms in iron are not those for which that metal is best adapted, 
but are almost servile copies of the bronze instruments found with 
them, the proof of the one having succeeded the other is almost 
absolutely conclusive. 

The lessons taught by such cemeteries as that at Hallstatt, in 
Austria, and by our own Late Celtic interments, such as those at 
Arras, in Yorkshire, are of the highest importance in this question. 

It is not, however, to be supposed that even in countries by no 
means geographically remote from each other the introduction either 
of iron or bronze must of necessity have taken place at one and the 
same chronological period. Near the shores of the Mediterranean 
the use of each metal no doubt prevailed far earlier than in any 
of the northern countries of Europe ; and though the knowledge 
of metals probably spread from certain centres, its progress can 
have been but slow, for in each part of Europe there appears to 
have been some special development, particularly in the forms of 
bronze instruments, and there is no absolute uniformity in their 



24 INTKODUCTORY. [CHAP. 1. 

types extending over any large area. In each country the process 
of manufacture was carried on, and though some commerce in tools 
and arms of bronze no doubt took place between neighbouring 
tribes, yet as a rule there are local peculiarities characteristic of 
special districts. 

So marked are these that a practised archaeologist can in almost 
all cases, on inspection of a group of bronze antiquities, fix with 
some degree of confidence the country in which they were foimd. 
To this rule Britain offers no exception, and though some forms of 
instruments were no doubt imported, yet, as will subsequently be 
seen, our types are for the most part indigenous. 

As to the ornamentation of bronze by bronze tools, I have seen 
none in this country on objects which I should refer to the Bronze 
Age but what could have been effected by means of bronze 
punches, of which indeed examples have been discovered in bronze- 
founders' hoards in France,* and what are probably such also in 
Britain. Such ornamentation is, however, simple compared mth 
that on many of the Danish forms, and yet I have seen the com- 
plicated Scandinavian ornaments accurately and sharply repro- 
duced by Dr. Otto Tischler, by means of bronze tools only, on 
bronze of the ordinary ancient alloy. 

But even supposing that iron and steel were kno>vn during some 
part of the so-called Bronze Age, I do not see in what manner it 
would affect the main features of the case or the interest attaching to 
the bronze objects which I am about to describe. " De non apparen- 
tibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio " is a maxim of some 
weight in archsBology as well as in law ; and in the absence of iron 
and all trace of its influence, it matters but little whether it was 
known or not,'except in so far as a neglect of its use would argue some 
want of intelligence on the part of those who did not avail them- 
selves of so useful a metal It will be seen hereafter that some of 
the objects described in these pages actually do belong to an Iron 
Period, and nothing could better illustrate the transition of one 
Period into another, or the overlapping of the Bronze Age upon 
that of Iron, than the fact that in these pages devoted to the 
Bronze Period I must of necessity describe many objects which 
were still in use when iron and st^el were sui^erseding bronze, in 
the same manner as in my "Ancient Stone Implements" I was forced 
to describe many forms, such as battle-axes, arrow-heads, and 
bracers, which avowedly belonged to the Bronze Period. 

• MoitiUet, '* Fondoric do Lumaud," 32, 33. 



THE PRESEKVATION OF ANCIENT IRON. 25 

A point which is usually raised by those who maintain the 
priority of the use of iron to that of bronze is, that inasmuch as 
it is more readily oxidized and dissolved by acids naturally present 
in the soil, iron may have disappeared, and indeed has done so, 
while bronze has been left ; so that the absence of iron as an 
accompaniment to all early interments counts for nothing. Pro- 
fessor RoUeston,* in a paper on the three periods knowoi as the 
Iron, the Bronze, and the Stone Ages, has well dealt with this 
point ; and observes that in some graves of the Bronze Period the 
objects contained are incrusted with carbonate of lime, which 
would have protected any iron instrument of the Bronze Period as 
well as it has done those of Saxon times. Not only are the iron 
weapons discovered in Saxon cemeteries often in almost perfect 
preservation, but on the sites of Roman occupation whole hoards 
of iron tools have been found but little injured by rust. The fact 
that at Hallstatt and other places in which graves have been 
examined belonging to the transitional period, when both iron 
and bronze were in use together, the weapons and tools of iron, 
though oxidized, still retain their form and character as com- 
pletely as those in bronze, also affords strong ground for believing 
that had iron been present with bronze in other early interments 
it would also have been preserved. The importance attaching to 
the reputed occurrence of bronze swords with Roman coins as late 
as the time of Magnentius cannot bo better illustrated than by a 
discovery of my own in the ancient cemetery of Hallstatt. In 
company with Sir Jolm Lubbock I was engaged in opening a 
grave in which we had come to an interment of the Early 
Iron Age, accompanied by a socketed celt and spear-heads of 
iron, when amidst the bones I caught sight of a thin metallic 
disc of a yellowish colour which looked like a coin. Up to 
tliat time no coin had ever been found in any one of the 
many hundred graves which had been examined, and I eagerly 
picked up this disc. It proved to be a " sechser," or six-kreutzer 
piece, with the date 1826, which by some means had worked its 
way down among the crevices in the stony ground, and which 
from its appearance had evidently been buried some years. Had 
this coin been of Roman date it might have afforded an argument 
for bringing down the date of the Hallstatt cemetery some cen- 
turies in the chronological scale. As it is, it affords a wholesome 
caution against drawing important inferences from the mere coUo- 

♦ Trans, Briat, and Glouc, Arch. Soc,, 1878. 



26 INTRODUCTORY. [CHAP. I. 

cation of objects when there is any possibility of the apparent 
association being only due to accident. 

In further illustration of the succession of the three Ages of 
Stone, Bronze, and Iron in Western Europe, I might go on to 
cite cases of the actual supeq^osition of the objects of one age 
over those of another, such as has been observed in several barrows 
and in the well-known instance of the cone of La Tinifere, in the 
Lake of Geneva, recorded by Morlot. 

It will, however, be thought that enough, if not more than 
enough, has already been said on the general question of a Bronze 
Age in a book particularly devoted to the weapons and instru- 
ments of bronze found in the British Isles. It is now time to 
proceed with the examination and description of their various 
forms ; and in doing this I propose to treat separately, so far as 
possible, the different classes of instruments intended each for some 
special jiurpose, and at the same time to point out their analogies 
with instruments of the same character found in other parts of 
Europe. Their chronological sequence so far as it can be ascer- 
tained, the position in time of the Bronze Period of Britain and 
Ireland, and the sources from which our bronze civilisation was 
derived, will be discussed in a concluding chapter. 

I begin with the instrument of the most common occurrence, 
the so-called celt. 



CHAPTER II. 

CELTS. 

Of all the forms of bronze instruments the hatchet or axe, to 
which the name of celt has been applied, is perhaps the most 
common and the best known. It is also probably among the 
earliest of the instruments fabricated from metal, though in 
this country it is possible that some of the cutting instruments, 
such as the knife-daggers, which required a less amount of metal 
for their formation, are of equal or greater antiquity. 

These tools or weapons — for, like the American tomahawk, they 
seem to have been in use for peaceful as well as warlike purposes — 
may be divided into several classes. Celts may be described as 
flat ; flanged, or having ribs along the sides ; winged, or having 
the side flanges extended so as almost to form a socket for the 
handle on either side of the blade, to which variety the name of 
jiaLstave has been given ; and socketed. Of most of these classes 
there are several varieties, as will be seen farther on. 

The name of celt which has been given to these instilments is 
derived from the doubtful Latin word " celtis " or " celtes," a chisel, 
which is in its turn said to be derived d cadaiulo (from carving), 
and to be the equivalent of coelunt. 

The only author in whose works the word is found is St. Jerome, 
and it is employed both in his A'^ulgate translation of the Book of 
Job* and in a quotation from that book in his Ej^istle to Pam- 
machius. The word also occurs in an inscription recorded by 
Gruter and Aldus, t but as this inscription is a modern forgery, 
it does not add to the authority of the word ** celtis." 

Mr. Knight Watson, Sec. S. A., in on interesting paper com- 
municated to the Society of Antiquaries of London,^ has given 

♦ Cap. xix. V. 24. 

t P. 329J. 23. NEQVE IIIC ATRAMENTVM, VEL PAPYUVS, AVT MEM- 
BRANA VLLA ADHVC, SED 3IALLE0L0 ET CELTE LITEKATVS SILEX. 
This inscription is said to have been found at Pola, in Istria. 

t Jhroe. Soc, Ant, 2nd S., vol. vii. p. 396. 



28 CELTS. [chap. n. 

several detjiils as to the origin and use of this word, which he con- 
siders to have been founded on a misreading of the word certe, and 
the derivation of which from coelo he regards as impossible. There 
can be no doubt, as Beger pointed out two centuries ago, that a 
number of MSS. of the Vulgate read certe instead of celte in the 
passage in Job already mentioned, and that in all probability these 
are the most ancient and the best. But this only adds to the dif- 
ficulty of imderstanding how a recently invented and an unknown 
word, such as celte is presumed to be, can have ever supplanted a 
well-known word like certe ; and so far as the Burial Service of the 
Roman Catholic Church is concerned can have maintained its ground 
for centuries. Nor is this difficulty diminished when we consider 
that the ordinary and proper translation of the Hebrew -jl?b is 
either " in ajtemum " or " in testimonium," according as the word 
is pointed "rjb or i^h, and that, so far as I am aware, there is no 
other instance of its being translated *' certe'* On the other hand, a 
nearly similar word, tD55 " with a stylus/* or, as it is translated, " a 
pen," occurs in the same passage ; and assimiing that this was by 
some accident read for "ivh by St. Jerome, he would have thought 
that the word for stylus was used twice over, and have inserted 
some word to designate a graving tool, by way of a synonym. The 
probability of such an error would be increased if his MS. had 
the lines arranged in couplets in accordance with its poetical 
character, the passage standing thus when un-pointed : — 

rrGV^ bnn tarn 

Very possibly the word used by St. Jerome may not have been 
celte but ccelo, and the comiption into celte in order to make a 
distinction between heaven and a chisel would then at all events 
have been possible. 

The other contention involves tw^o extreme improbabilities — the 
one, that St. Jerome, having in his second revision of the Bible 
translated the passage as " in testimonium in petris sculpantur," 
should in the Vulgate have given the inaccurate rendering ** certe 
sculpantur in silice ;" the other and the more extreme of the two, 
that the well-knowTi word certe should have been ousted by a 
word like celte had it been utterly new-fangled. 

Under any view of the case there are considerable difficulties, 
but as the word celt has now obtained a firm hold in our language, 
it will be convenient to retain it, whatever its origin or derivation. 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD CELT, 29 

It has been the fashion among some who are fond of novelties 
to call these instruments " kelts/' possibly from some mental 
association of the instruments with a Celtic or Keltic population. 
From some such cause also some of the French antiquaries must 
have coined the new plural to the word, Celtce. Even in this 
country it has been said "^ with regard to " the ancient weapon 
denominated the celt," *' Our antiquarians have commonly as- 
cribed them to the ancient Celtse, and hence have eriven them this 
unmeaning appellation." If any one prefers pronouncing celt as 
" kelt," or celestial as *' kelestial," let him do so ; but at all events 
let us adhere to the old spelling. How the Romans of the time 
of St. Jerome would have pronounced the word cceluvi or celtis 
may be inferred from the punning line of Ausonius with regard 

to Venus, t 

** Orta salo, suscepta solo, patre edita coelo." 

The first author of modem times whose use of the word in con- 
nection with Celts I can trace is Beger, who, in his " Thesaurus 
Brandenburgicus " J (1C96), gives an engraving of a celt of the 
palstave form, under the title Celtes, together with the follo^ving 
dialogue : — 

"Et nomen et instrumentum mihi obscurum est, infit Ar- 
CH-«0PHILUS ; Instrumentum Statuariorum est, respondit DuLO- 
DORUS, qui simulacra ex Cera, Alabastro, aliisque lapidum 
generibus csedunt et poliunt. Graecis dicitur ' Ey Konev^, qua voce 
Lucianus usus est in Somnio, ubi cum lusum non insuavem 
dixisset, Deos sculpere, et parva quondam simulacra adomare, addit 
tyKoirea yap tlvcl fioi Zov9y scilicet avunculus, id quod Job. Bene- 
dictus vertit, Celte data. Celte ? excepit Archjj:ophilus ; at nisi 
fallor hajc vox Latinis incognita est ? Habetur, inquit DuLO- 
DORUS, in versione vulgat& Libri Hiob c. 19 quamvis alii non 
Celte, sed Certe ibi legant, quod tamen minus quadrat. Quicquid 
sit, instrumentum Statuariorum hoc esse, ex formS, patet, figuris 
incidendis aptissima ; neque enim opinio Molineti videtur admit- 
tenda, qui Securim appellat, cum nuUus aptandi manubrii locus 
huic faveat. Metallum reposuit ARCHiEOPHiLUS, minus videtur 
convenire. Instrumentum hoc ex sere est, quod duritiem lapidum 
nescio an superare potuerit ? Uti lapides diversi sunt, regessit 
DuLODORUS, ita diversa fuisse etiam metalla instrumentorum iis 

♦ Rev. John Dow in Archcpol. Scot., vol. ii. p. 199. See also Pegge in the Arch., 
Tol. ix. p. 88, and Whitaker's " Iliflt. of Manchester,** vol. i. p. 24. 
t Epig. zxxiii. 1. 1. } Vol. iii. p. 418. 



30 CELTS. [chap. II. 

caedendis destinatonim, faeilfe cesserim. Vet. Gloss. Celtem 
inatimmentum ferreum dicit proculdubio qu6d durioribus lapidibus 
ferreum chalybe munitum servierit. Hoc autem non obstat, lit 
ffireum vel ceris, vel terns, vel lapidibus moUioribus fiierit adhibi- 
tum. Si tamen res Tibi minus probetur, me non contradicente, 
moUiori vocabulo yXixfmov ccelum poteris et appellare et credere. 
T\v(f)€ia etiam Statuarionim instrumenta fuisse, ex allegato mod6 
Luciano planum est, iibi Humanitas, ai me relmquis^ inquit, axij/ia 
ZouXoTrperre^ avaKyy^rj, koI /loyXia, koI y\v<f)€iay icat Konea^, koi 
k'oXa'jrrljpa^ tv rcuv xepoiv e^ei?, habit uin sennlem asaumes, Ve^fss, 
COELA, CELTESy Scalpra pi'ce manibus Itabehisy 

The idea of a bronze celt being a statuary's chisel for carving in 
wax, alabaster, and the softer kinds of stone will seem the less 
absurd if we remember that, at the time when Beger wrote, the 
manner in which such instruments were hafted was unknown, and 
that all antiquities of bronze were generally regarded as being of 
Roman or Greek origin. 

Dr. Olaf Worm, a Danish antiquary of the seventeenth centurj% 
was more enlightened than Beger, for in his " Museum Wormia- 
niim,"* published in 1655, he states his belief that bronze weapons 
had formerly been in use in Denmark, and cites two flat or 
flanged celts, or cunei, as he calls them, found in Jutland, which 
he regards as hand weapons for close encounters. He also was, 
nevertheless, at a loss to know how they were hafted, for he adds 
that had they but been provided with shaft-holes he should have 
considered them to have been axes. 

In a work treating of the bronze antiquities of Britain we must, 
however, first consider the opinion of British antiquaries, by whom 
the word celt had been completely adopted as the name for bronze 
hatchets and axes by the middle of the last centurj-. Borlase,t 
in his " Antiquities of Cornwall," 1754, speaking of some "spear- 
heads " of copper mentioned by Leland, says that by the spear- 
heads he certainly meant those which we (from Begerus) now 
call Celts. Leland's words are as follows : J — " There was found of 
late Yeres syns Spere Heddes, Axis for Warre, and Swerdes of 
coper wrapped up in l}Tiid scant perished nere the Mount in S. 
Hilaries Paroch in Tynne Works ; " so that it by no moans 
follows but that he was right in speaking of spear-hoads, for if 
there were any celts among the objects discovered they were pro- 
bably termed battle-axes by Leland. 

♦ P. 354. t p. 265. t " Itin.," vol. iii. p. 7. 



VIEWS OF EARLY ANTIQrARIES. 31 

Camden makes mention of the same find : * "At the foote of 
this mountaine (St. Michaers Mount), within the memorie of our 
Fathers, whiles men were digging up of tin, they found Spear- 
heads, axes, and swordes of brasse wrapped in linnen, such as were 
sometimes found within the forrest of Hercinia in Germanie, and 
not long since in our Wales. For evident it is by the monuments 
of ancient Writers that the Greeks, the Cimbrians, and the 
Britans used brazen weapons, although the wounds given with 
brasse bee lesse hurtfull, as in which mettall there is a medicinable 
vertue to heale, according as Macrobius reporteth out of Aristotle. 
But happily that age was not so cunning in devising meanes to 
mischiefe and murthers as ours is." 

Heame, the editor of Leland's ** Itinerary," took a less philoso- 
phical view of these instruments. Writing to Thoresbyt in 
1709, he maintains that some old instruments of bronze found 
near Bramham Moor, Yorkshire, are not the heads of British 
spears ; on the contrary, they are Roman, not axes used in their 
sacrifices, nor the heads of spears and javelins, but chisels w^hich 
were used to cut and polish the stones in their tents. Such 
instruments were also used in making the Roman highways and in 
draining their fens. 

Plot { also, at a somewhat earlier date, asserted a Roman origin 
for bronze celts, which he regarded as the heads of bolts, founding 
his opinion mainly on two, which are engraved in the Museum 
Moscardi. These, which are reproduced in the Archceologia, 
vol. V. PL VIII. 18 and 19, are of the palstave form, and were 
regarded by Moscardo § as the heads of great darts to be thrown 
from a catapult. A flat celt found in Staffordshire, II Plot takes to 
be the head of a Roman aecuris with which the Popw sIcav their 
sacrifices. 

Rowland.lf in his "Mona Antiqua Restaurata,'* 1723, suggested 
that looped palstaves fastened by a thong to a staff might be used 
as war flails. 

The imaginative Dr. Stukeley, in the year 1724, communicated 
to the Society of Antiquaries a discourse on the use of celts, 
which is to be found in the Minute Book of the Society. An 
abstract of it is given by Mr. Lort ** in his paper subsequently men- 

• " Britannia," ed. 1637, n. 188. 

t *'Thoresby'§ CJorreapondence,** vol. ii. p. 211. 

; « Nat. Hist, of Staffordshire,*' 1686, p. 403. 

} **Mui. Lud. Moflcard." Padua, 1656, fol. 305, lib. iii. c. 174. 

ll '^Nat. Hist of Staff.," p. 403. U P. 86. •♦ Arch,, vol. v. p. 110. 



32 CELTS. [chap. II. 

tioned. Dr. Stukeley undertook to show that celts were British 
and appertaining to the Druids, who, when not using them to cut 
off the boughs of oak and mistletoe, put them in their pouches, 
or hung them to their girdles by the little ring or loop at the 
side. In a more sensible manner he divided them into two 
classes, the recipient and the received ; that is to say, the socketed, 
in which the handle was received, and the flat and palstave forms, 
which entered into a notch in the handle. 

Borlase,^ notmthstanding that he was under the impression 
that a number of socketed celts found at EjimbrS in 1744 were 
accompanied by Roman coins, one of them at least as late as 
the time of Constantius I., did " not take them to be purely 
Roman, foreign, or of Italian invention and workmanship." 

He argues that the Romans of Italy would not have made such 
instruments of brass after Julius Caesar's time, when the superior 
hardness of iron was so well understood, and that metal was so 
easily to be procured. Farther, that no representations of such 
weapons occur on the Trajan or Antonine Columns, that few 
specimens exist in the cabinets of the curious in Italy, where they 
are regarded as Transalpine antiquities, and that none have 
been found among the ruins of Herculaneum ; t nor are any pub- 
lished in the Museum Romanum or the Museum Kircherianum. 
He concludes that they were made and used in Britain, but that 
though they were originally of British invention and fabric, they 
were for the most part made when the Britons had improved their 
arts under their Roman masters, as most of them seem too correct 
and shapely for the Britons before the Julian conquest. 

As to the uses of celts, Borlase cites the various opinions of the 
learned, and observes that if they had not been advanced by men 
of learning it would be scarce excusable to mention some of them, 
much less to refute them. They had been taken for heads of 
Avalking staffs, for chisels to cut stone wdthal (as such instruments 
nuist have been absolutely necessary in making the great Roman 
roads), as tools with which to engrave letters and inscriptions, as 
the sickles with which the Druids cut the sacred mistletoe, and as 
rests to support the lituus of the Roman augurs. After all, how- 
ever, Borlase himself comes to the somewhat lame conclusion that 
they formed the head or arming of the spear, the javelin, or the 

♦ " Ants, of Cornwall," p. 263. 

t Count de Caylus has, howeyer, engraved two wliich are said to have been found at 
Herculaneum. Ho thought that they were chisels {Etc, d'Ani.y vol. ii. pi. xciii. 
fig. 2 ; xciv. fig. 1). 



OONJECrrURES AS TO THE USE OF CELTS. 33 

urow, and thinks that Mr. Rowland comes the nearest to the truth 
of any author he has read, when he says that they might be used 
with a string to draw them back, and something like a feather to 
guide them in flying towards the enemy, and calls them sling- 
hatchets. He concedes, however, that for such weighty heads 
there was no occasion for feathers, and as for slinging of hatchets 
against an enemy, he does not remember any instance, ancient 
or modem. Some of the celts, moreover, are too light to do any 
execution if thrown from the hand. 

The Rev. Mr. Lort,* who communicated some observations on 
celts to the Society of Antiquaries in 1776, differed from Dr. 
Borlase, and regarded a large flat celt found in the Lower 
Fumess as manifestly designed to be held in the hand only, and 
much better adapted to the chipping of stone than to any other 
use which has hitherto been found out for it. He will not, how- 
ever, take upon himself to assert that some socketed celts, which 
he also describes, were designed for the same purpose. Appended 
to the paper by Mr. Lort are notices of several bronze celts, which 
at different times had been brought under the notice of the 
Society of Antiquaries. Some which had been exhibited in 1735 
were regarded by Mr. Benjamin Cooke and Mr. CoUinson as 
Gaulish weapons used by the Roman auxiliaries at the time of 
Claudius. Mr. Cooke, however, took them to be axes, and 
mounted one of them on a shaft, citing Homer as his authority 
for doing so, and speaking of the a^ivrjv evxoXtcov, 

The Rev. Samuel Pegge in 1787 makes some pertinent remarks 
respecting celts in a letter to Mr. Lort, which is published in the 
Archcgologia.'f He points out that from some of them having 
been found in barrows associated with spear-heads of flint, it is 
probable that some at least were military weapons. He also 
maintains that though the use of bronze originally preceded that 
of iron, yet that regard must be had to the circumstances of each 
country, so that it would not follow that a bronze celt found in 
Ireland was prior in age to the invention of iron. All that could 
be said was that it was older than the introduction of iron into 
Ireland, and when that was, no one could pretend to say. Mr. 
Pegge did not approve of the derivation of the name of celt from 
eeltia or ccdare, but thought it derived from the name of the 
Celtic people who used the instruments. In his opinion the 
instruments were not Roman, especially as they were frequent in 

• Areh., Tol. V. p. 106. t Vol. ix. p. 84. 

D 



34 CELTS. [chap, iu 

Ireland and in places where the Romans never were settled. The 
specimen on which he comments is of the palstave form, and, 
though it might be mounted as a tool, he thinks it could never have 
served as an axe, but it might have tipped a dart or javelin. 

Douglas*^ was of opinion that the bronze arms found in this 
country were not Roman, but that it was more reasonable to refer 
them to the early inhabitants, of probably not less than two 
centuries b.c. 

Mr. C. J. Harford, F.S.A.,t writing in 1801, expressed his 
opinion that a clue as to the uses of celts might be obtained from 
a consideration of similar instruments which had been brought 
from the South Sea Islands. " Our rude forefathers doubtless 
attached the celt by thongs to the handle, in the same manner as 
modem savages do ; and, Hke them, formed a most useful implement 
or destructive weapon from these simple materials." He thought 
that the metal celts might have been fabricated abroad and ex- 
ported to this country, just as we have sent to the South Sea 
Islands an imitation in iron of the stone hatchet there in use. 

Coming down to later times, we find Sir Richard Colt Hoare,J 
who discovered a few flat and flanged celts in the Wiltshire barrows, 
regarding them as for domestic, and not for military, architectural, 
or religious purposes. He thought that the flat form must be the 
most ancient, from which the pattern of that with the socket for the 
insertion of a handle was taken ; for among the numerous speci- 
mens described by Mr. Lort in the Archoeologia, not one of the 
latter pattern is mentioned as having been discovered in a barrow. 
As many were found in Gaul, he rather supposed that they were 
imported from the Continent ; or, perhaps, the art of making 
them might have been introduced from Gaul. From the method 
of hafting of one of those he found (see Fig. 189), he seems to 
have regarded the whole of them as chisels rather than hatchets. 

Sir Joseph Banks,§ m some observations communicated to the 
Society of Antiquaries in 1818, on an ancient celt found near 
Boston, Lincolnshire, pointed out the manner in which looped pal- 
staves could be hafted so as to serve either as axes, adzes, or chisels. 
He thought that they were ill adapted for any warlike purposes, 
and regarded them as tools such as might be used in hollo^ving 
out the trunks of trees to form canoes, and suggested that they 
were secured to their handles by strings tied round them in the 

♦ "Nsenia Britennica" (1793), p. 163. t Areh,y vol. xiv. p. 98. 

I "Ancient Wilts," vol. i. 1812, p. 203. { Areh,, vol. xix. p. 102. 



THE PRESUMED USES OF CELTS. 35 

same manner as the stone axes used in the South Sea Islands were 
&stened to theirs. 

About the year 1816 the Rev. John Dow,* in some remarks 
on the ancient weapon denominated the celt, advocated the opinion 
that it was an axe,' and probably a weapon of war. He also 
traces its connection with the stone celt, from which he considered 
it to have been developed. 

About the same year the Rev. John Hodgson, secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne, communicated to 
that society a valuable memoir in the shape of t"An Enquiry into 
the iEra when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron is now 
applied," of which mention has already been made in the Intro- 
ductoiy Chapter. He thought that celts were tools which were 
well adapted for use as wedges for splitting wood, or that with 
wooden hafts they might be used as chisels for hollowing canoes 
and for similar purposes, some instruments found with them being 
undoubtedly gouges. As to their date, he thought that bronze 
began to give way to iron in Britain nearly as soon as it did in 
Greece, and that consequently the celts, &c., found in this island 
belonged to an era 500, or at least 400 years, p.c. 

In 1839 Mr. Rickman J communicated to the Society of 
Antiquaries a paper on the Antiquity of Abury and Stonehenge, 
in the notes to which he propounds the theory that the socketed 
celts were used merely as chisels, with hafts of wood inserted in 
the socket They could be then either held in the hand or by 
means of a withe, like a blacksmith's chisel, while they were 
struck with a stone hammer. 

Among writers of comparatively modem times, the first whom I 
have to mention is the late Mr. G. V. Du Noyer,§ who in 1847 com- 
municated to the Archaeological Institute two papers on the classi- 
fication of bronze celts, which are still of great value and interest 
He traces the gradual development in form from the bronze celt 
shaped like a wedge to that which is socketed, and shows that an 
important element in the transition from one form to the other 
has been the method of hafting. He also enters into the subjects 
of the casting and ornamentation of celts ; and as in subsequent 
pages I shall have to refer to these as well as to the methods of 
hafting, I content myself here with citing Mr. Du Noyer's papers 
as being worthy of all credit 

* Areh4BoL Seoi., voL ii. p. 199. f Arckaol. JSlianat vol. i. p. 17. 

X Ar€h,f ToL zxViii. p. 418. § Arch, Joum,, vol. iv. pp. 1 and 327. 

d2 



36 CELTS. [chap. II. 

In 1849 Mr. James Yates communicated a paper to the Archaeo- 
logical Institute of a far more speculative kind than those of Mr. 
Du Noyer, his object being to prove that among the various uses 
of bronze celts one of the most important was the application of 
them in destroying fortifications and entrenchments, in making 
roads and earthworks, and in similar military operations. He 
confines his inquiry, however, to those which were adapted to be 
fitted to straight wooden handles. FoUowing in the steps of some 
of the older antiquaries, he appears to regard them as of Roman 
origin, and identifies them with the Roman dolahra, an instrument 
which he thinks was used as a chisel or a crowbar. In fact, he was 
persuaded that the celt was commonly used not as a hatchet, but 
as a spud or a crowbar. Had he but been acquainted with the 
ancient handles, such as have been discovered in the Austrian 
salt-mines and elsewhere, he would probably have come round to 
another opinion as to the ordinary method of hafting, though it is 
of course possible that in some instances these instruments may 
have been mounted and used as spuds. Had he practically tried 
mounting them and using them as crowbars, he would have found 
that with but slight strain the shafts would break or the celts 
become loosened upon them. And had he been better versed in 
archaeology, he would have known that whatever was the form of 
the Roman dolahra, or whatever the uses for which it served, it 
can hardly have diflfered from their other implements in being 
made of bronze and not of iron ; and he would have thought twice 
before engraving bronze celts from Cornwall and Furness as illus- 
trations of the Roman dolahra in Smith's " Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman Antiquities." 

The ring or loop, which so often is found on the side of celts of 
the palstave and socketed forms, was thought by Mr. Yates to have 
been principally of use to assist in carrying them, a dozen or 
twenty perhaps being strung together, or a much smaller number 
tied to the soldier's belt or girdle. He also thought that they 
might serve for the attachment of a thong or chain to draw the 
instrument out of a wall, should it become wedged among the stones 
in the process of destruction. 

The next essay on celts and their classification which I must 
adduce was written by the late Rev. Thomas Hugo, F.S.A.,* who 
followed much the same system as Mr. Du Noyer, so far as the 
development of the socketed celt was concerned, though he differed 

* Areh, Attoe. Jowm., 1853, vol. ix. p. 63. 



OPINIONS OF MODERN WRITEBS. 37 

from him with regard to the method of hafting, as he was persuaded 
tliat, in general, celts were mounted with a straight shaft, like spuds. 
He considered that the loop was not used for securing the celt to 
its haft, but for hanging it up at home when not in use, or for 
suspending it from the soldier's girdle whilst on the march. 

Mr. Hugo's paper was followed by some supplementary remarks 
from Mr. Syer Cuming, who suggests that a thong may have 
passed through the loop by which the weapon might be propelled, 
and contends that socketed celts are neither chisels nor axe-blades, 
but the ferrules of spear-shafts, which might be fixed in the 
ground, or even used at times as offensive weapons. 

The name of the late Mr. Thomas Wright* has already been 
mentioned. In his various works and papers he claims a Roman 
origin for bronze celts and swords, though admitting that they may 
occasionally have been made in the countries in which they are 
found. 

Among other modem writers who have touched upon the sub- 
ject of celts, I may mention that accomplished antiquary, the late 
Mr. Albert Way, F.S.A., whose remarks in connection with an 
exhibition of bronze antiquities at a meeting of the Archaeological 
Institute, in 1 86 1 1 are well worth reading. I may also refer to the 
late Sir W. R Wilde, in his " Catalogue of the Copper and Bronze 
Antiquities in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy," published 
in the same year ; to Mr. Franks, in the "Horse Ferales ;" to Sir 
John Lubbock, in his " Prehistoric Times ; " and to General A. 
Lane Fox (now Pitt-Rivers), in his excellent lecture on Primitive 
Warfare, section iilj 

Canon Green well, in his "British Barrows," § has also devoted 
a few pages to the consideration of bronze celts and axe-heads, 
more especially in connection with interments in sepulchral 
mounds. 

Foreign writers I need hardly cite, but I may mention a re- 
markable idea that has been promulgated by Professor Stefano de 
Rossi II as to celts having served as money, which has, however, been 
shown by Count Gozzadini to be unfounded. 

In conclusion, I may also venture to refer to an address^ which 

* Areh, AsMoe, Joum,, yoI. xxii. p. 64. 

t Areh. Joum., vol. xviii. p. 148, et teq. 

X Jour, Boy. Un. Service Jnst.y vol. xiii., 1869. 

{ P. 43, et $eqq. 188. 

II See Eetue de la Numie. Belge^ 6th Ser., vol. vi. p. 290. 

H Froe. Soe, Ant., 2iid 8., vol. v. p. 392. 



38 CELTS. [chap. II. 

I delivered to the Society of Antiquaries on the occasion of an exhi- 
bition of bronze antiquities in their apartments in January, 1873. 

In treating of the different forms of celts on the present occa- 
sion, I shall divide them into the following classes : — 

Hat celts. 

Flanged celts. 

Winged celts and palstaves, with and without loops. 

Socketed celts. 

What are known as tanged celts may perhaps be more properly 
included under the head of chisels, to which class of tools it is not 
unlikely that some of the narrow celts of the other forms should 
be referred. 

It is difficult to draw a hard and feist line between the flat 
celts and the flanged, and between these latter and the so-called 
palstaves. I propose, therefore, to include the flanged celts, which 
are not provided with a stop-ridge to prevent their being driven 
into their hafb, in the same chapter with the flat celts, and to treat 
of those which have a stop-ridge in the same chapter as the pal- 
staves, with and without a loop. In a subsequent chapter I shall 
speak as to the manner in which these instruments were probably 
hafbed. 



CHAPTER III. 

FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. 

Flat celts, or those of simple form with the faces somewhat 
convex, and approximating in shape to the polished stone celts of 
the Neolithic Period, have been regarded by several antiquaries 
as being probably the earliest bronze implements or weapons. 
Such a view has much to commend it, but, as already observed, 
it may be doubted whether in the earliest times, when metal was 
scarce, it would be so readily applied to purposes for which much 
of the precious material was required, as to the manufacture of 
weapons or tools of a lighter kind, such as daggers or knives. 

Among celts, however, the simple form, and that most nearly 
approaching in character to the stone hatchet, was probably the 
earliest, though it may have been continued in use after the 
introduction of the side flanges, the stop-ridge, and even the 
socket Some celts of the simplest form found in Ireland are of 
copper, and have been thought to belong to the period when the 
use of stone for cutting purposes was dying out and that of metal 
coming in ; but the mere fact of their being of copper is by no 
means conclusive on this point. 

A copper celt of the precise shape of an ordinary stone celt, 
6 inches long and 2^ inches wide, which was found in an Etruscan 
tomb, and is preserved in the Museum at Berlin, appears to have 
been cast in a mould formed upon a stone implement of the same 
dass. It has been figured and described by Sir William Wilde.* 
I have not seen the implement, nor am I aware of the exact 
circumstances of the finding. Celts may, however, like the flint 
arrow-heads inserted in Etruscan t necklaces of gold, have been 
regarded with superstitious reverence, and it does not appear to 
me quite certain that this specimen was ever in actual use as an 



(i 



Catal. Mas. R.I.A.," pp. 367, 396 (Etruacan CoU., Berlin, No. 3244). 
t '* Hone Ferales," p. 136 ; Arch, Journ., toI. xi. p. 169. 



40 FLAT AND FIAKOED CELTS. [cHAP. III. 

implement, and was not placet! in the grave as a substitute for a 
stone hatchet or Ceraunivs. 

However this may be, some of the earliest bronze or, possibly, 

copper celts with which we are acquainted, those from the excavations 

of General di Cesnola in Cyprus, and of Dr. Schliemann at Hia- 

sarlik, are of the simple flat form, and justify Sir W, Wilde* in his 

supposition that the first makers of these instruments, having 

once obtained a better material than stone, repeated the form 

with which they were best acquainted, though they economized 

the metal and lessened the bulk by 

^^^^ ^ flattening the sides. The annexed 

fl^^k ^^ cut. Fig. 1 , shows a celt from Cyprus 

^^^^H ^^ in my own collection, which in form 

^^^^H ^H might be matched by celts of flint, 

^^^^^^ ^H though it must be acknowledged that 

^^^^^H ^H the type in stone is rather that of 

^^^^^H ^^m Scandinavia than of Eastern Europe 

^^^^^^H ^^1 or the Levant. A slight ridge in 

^^^^^^H ^^M the oxide upon it seems to mark the 

^^^^^^H ^^M distance that the narrow end pene- 

^^^^^^^^ ^^M trated the handle Numerous tools 

^^^^^^^1 ^^M or weapons of the same form were 

^^^^^^^B ^^1 found by Dr. Schliemann t in his 

^^^^^^^H ^H excavations in search of Troy. They 

^^^^^^^H ^H were at first thought to be of copper, 

^^^^^^^^H Hi but subsequently proved to have a 

^^^^^^^^H nf small per-cent^e of tin in them. A 

^^^^^^^^ W number of flat celts, some short and 

Ks. i.-CTpnu. I broad, and others long and narrow, 

were found at Gungeria,J in the Mhow 

Talook, about forty miles north of Boorha, in Central India, many 

of which are now in the British Museum. On analysis Dr. Perey 

found them to be of pure copper. The same form was found at Tel 

Sifr, in Southern Babylonia. Some from that place, and from the 

island of Thermia,§ in the Greek Archipelago, are also in the British 

Museum. Nearly similar instruments, said to he made of copper, 

have been found in Austria,!! Denraark,1[ Sweden,** Hungary.tt 

• "Catal. M. R.I.A.," p. 366. f "Troy and ita RemaJDB," p. 330, 4c. 

1 "Cong, prtb.," Stockholm vol. i. p. 346. Proe. At. See. Btngal, May, 1870. 
I) Ptoc. Sat. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 437. || Kennar, " Arch. Funde," 1867, p. 29. 
fl Wonaae,"Nord. OUb.," Bg. 17S. "•"Cong, prfb.," Bologna vol. p. 292, 

tt "Cong, preh.," Bada Pest vol. i. p. 227. 



DISCOVERIES IN BABR0W8. 



41 



FV»ncfl,*ftnd Italy, t I have one 3 J inches long, from Royat, Puy de 
Dome. A large and thicker specimen is in the Museum at Toulouse. 
Theyhave usually a small per-eentage, 15 to 2 08 of tin in them.J 

I have already, in the Introductory Chapter, made some remarks 
on the probability of a copper age having, in some part of the 
world, preceded that of bronze, and need here only repeat that the 
occurrence of implements in copper, of the forms usually occurring 
in bronze, does not of necessity imply a want of acquaintance with 
the tin necessary to mix with copper to form bronze, but may 
only be significant of a temporary or local scarcity of the former 
metal I may also add that without actual analysis, it is unsafe, 
from appearance only, to judge whether copper is pure, or whether 
it has not an appreciable per-centage of tin in it. 

In treating of the different forms and characters of bronze celts, 
ud of the places and circumstances of finding, I think it will - be 
bcMt first to take those from England and Wales, then those from 
Scotland, and lastly those from Ireland. I begin with those which 
have been found in barrows in England. 

Fig. 2 repreaenta a flat celt found in a barrow in the parieh of Butter- 
wick, in the East Biding of Yorkshire, by the Eev. Canon Oreenwell, 
F.B.S., F.8.A.g It lay at the hips of 
the body of a young man, at vhose right 
hand the knife-da^er (Fig. 279) and the 
bronze drill or pricker (Fig. 22a) were 
found, accompanied by a flint knife 
formed from a broad external flake. In 
front of the chest were six buttons, five 
of jet and one of sandstone, two of which 
are figured in my "Ancient Stone Imple- 
menta." || The handle of the celt or ase- 
head could be plainly traced by means of 
a. dark line of decayed wood, and to all 
appearance the weapon had been worn 
■lung from the wust. " The blade is of 
the simplest form, modelled on the pat- 
tern of the stone axe, and may, it is 
probable, be regarded as the earliest 
type of bronze axe antecedently to the 
appearance of either flanges or socket. 
It IS 4 inches long, 2| inches wide at the 
cutting edge, and I^ inches at the smaller 
mi. IthanevidentiybeenfixedinloaBolidhandle toadepthof 2inches." 

• BkH. Set. (U Borda, Dux, 1878, p. S7. 

t "Cong, prth.," Copenhagen toI, p. 48-1. 

i Harlot, Mim. Soc. AnI. d« Iford. 1866—71. p. 2a. 

} " British Barrow*," p. 188, The cut is t'iy;. SB. 

i figs. 36a aod 370, p. 407. 




42 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. [CHAP. 111. 

A very similar discovery to that at Butterwick was made by the late 
Mr. Thomas Bateman in a barrow upon Parwich Moor, Derbyshire,* 
called 8huttlestone, opened by him in June, 1848. In this case a man of 
fine proportions and in the prime of life had been interred, surrounded by 
fern-leaves and enveloped in a hide with the hair inwards. Close to the 
head were a small fiat bead of jet and a circular fiint (probably a 
"scraper "). In contact with the left arm lay a bronze dagger, much Hke 
Fig. 279, with two rivets for the attachment of the handle, which had 
been of horn. About the middle of the left thigh was a bronze celt of the 
plainest axe-shaped t3rpe. The cutting edge was turned towards the 
upper part of the person, and the instnmient itself had been inserted into 
a wooden shaft for about 2 inches at the narrow end. The celt and 
dagger are engraved in the Archceohgical Association Joumalf\ and the 
former in the Archaologia.X It is about 5^ inches long, and in form much 
like Fig. 19. 

In a small barrow named Borther Low,§ about two miles south of 
Middleton by Youlgrave, Mr. William Bateman discovered a skeleton 
with the remains of a plain coarse urn on the left side, a fiint arrow-head 
much burnt, a pair of canine teeth of cither a fox, or a dog of the same 
size, and a diminutive bronze celt. In the catalogue of the Bateman 
Museum || this is described as ** of the most prmiitive type, closely 
resembling the stone celts in form," and 2 inches only in length. It is 
there stated to have been found with a fiint spear, but this seems to be a 
mistake for an arrow-head.^ 

Dr. Samuel Pegge,** in his letter to Mr. Lort already cited, mentions that 
**Mr. Adam Wolsey the younger, of Matlock in Derbyshire, has a celt 
foimd near the same place a.d. 1787, at Blakelow in the parish of 
Ashover, with a spear-head of fiint, a military weapon also." Not 
improbably this was an axe-head of the same class. 

A celt of much the same character as Fig. 2, but in outline more 
nearly resembling Fig. 19, 4f inches long and 2f broad at the cutting 
edge, was found in company with two diadems or lunettes of g^ld such 
as the Irish antiquaries call "Minds," at Harlyn, in the parish of 
Merryn, near Padstow, OomwaU, and is engraved in the Archaological 
Joumal.^^ The objects were found at a depth of about six feet from the 
surface, and with them was another bronze article, which was unfortu- 
nately thrown away. This was described by the man at work on the spot 
as "Hke a bit of a buckle." The discovery was quite accidental, and no 
notice seems to have been taken as to whether there were any traces of an 
interment at the spot, though the earth in contact with tlie articles is 
described as havine been " of an artificial character." 

It is a celt of tnis kind which is engraved by Plot J J as found near 
St. Bertram's Well, Ham, Staffordshire. He describes it as " somewhat 
like, only larger than, a lath-hammer at the edge end, but not so on the 
other," and regards it as a Homan sacrificial axe. 

One (4 J inches) was foimd on Bevere Island, Worcestershire. §§ 

♦**Ten Years' Diggings," p. 34. "Catalogue,** p. 75. Arch. Auoe. Journ.y 

vol. vii. p. 217. t Vol. vii. p. 217, pi. xix. 

t Vol. xUii. p. 446. § " Vest, of the Anta. of Derb.,'* p. 48. 

If P. 74, No. 11. H See ** Catal.," p. 32, No. 29. 

•• Areh., rol. ix. p. 85. ft Vol. xxii. p. 277. 
11 <* Nat Hist, of StaflFordflhire," tab. xxiii. p. 403 
ff Allies, p. 151, pi. iv. 11. 



DISCOVERIES OF FLAT CELTS. 43 

Others of the same kind have been found near Duxford, Cambs,* near 
Orappenhall, Cheshire ; f the Beacon Hill, Chamwood Forest, Leicester- 
ahire ; J and, near Battlefield, Shrewsbury, § in company with a palstave 
without loop, some sickle-like objects, and other articles. One, 9 inches 
kmg and 5 inches broad at the cutting edge, found in the ruins of Gleas- 
tom Castle, Lower Fumess, Lancashire, is engraved in the Archaolo^ia.\\ 

The celts found on Baddow Hall Common,^ near Danbury, Essex, one 
of which was 6 inches long and 3^ inches broad at the edge, seem to have 
been of this character. 

I have seen specimens of the same type from Taxley Fen, Hunting- 
donshire {4} inches long), in the collection of Mr. S. Sharp, F.S.A. ; and 
bom Haisthorp, near Fimber, Yorkshire, in that of Messrs. Mortimer. 

In Canon Greenwell's collection are three (about 4 J inches) foimd at 
Newbig^in, Northumberland, and others (about 5^ inches) from Alnwick 
and WaUsend. A specimen in the same collection (5^ inches), foimd at 
Knapton, Yorkshire (£. E.), has a slight ridge along the centre of the 
sides, which, as well as the angles between the faces and the sides, is 
indented with a series of slight hammer marks at regular intervals. 

Mr. Wallace of Distington, Whitehaven, has one (6J inches) from 
Hango Hill, Castleton, Isle of Man. 

I have myself celts of the same class from the Cambridge Fens 
(4J inches) ; Sherbum Carr, Yorkshire (5§ inches), found with another 
nearly similar; Swansea (4^ inches, much decayed); and near Font Caradog, 
Brithder, Glamorganshire (6^ inches), found with three others, and given 
to me by Canon Greenwdl, F.K.S., in whose collection the others are 
preserved. 

A few of these flat plain celts have been found in France. Some from 
the^departments of Doubs and Jura are engraved by Chantre.** One from 
Normandy, tt figured by the Abbe Cochet, seems to show some trace of a 
transverse ridge. One from the Seine is engraved in the *^ Dictionnaire 
Archeologique de la Ghiule." Another was found in Finist^re#JJ Others 
are in the Museum at Narbonne§§ and elsewhere. The form is also 
found in Spain, both in bronze and what is apparently copper. I have 
specimens rrom the Ciudad Heal district. 

The plain flat form like Fig. 2 is also occasionally found in Germany. 
One fnnn Ackenbach, near Homberg, is figured by Schreiber.|||| 

With nearly straight sides like Fig. 27, the form is not uncommon in 
Hungary. Some of these are very thm. 

Others of nearly the same form, but thicker, have been found on the 
other side of the Atlantic in Mexico, and many of the copper celts of 
North America are also of the plain flat t3rpe with an oblong section. 
This circumstance to my mind rather proves that the form is the simplest, 
and therefore that most naturally adopted for hatehets, than that there 
was of necessity any intercourse between the coimtries in which it has 
prevailed. 

Many of the flat celts are ornamented in a more or less artistic 

• Areh. Joum., voL vii. p. 179. t Op. eit., vol. xyiii. p. 168. 

; JProe. Soc. Ant., 2nd 8., rol. i. p. 44. j F. S. A., 2nd 8., vol. ii. p. 251. 

R Vol. V. pi. vii. i. p. 106. H Arch., vol. ix. p. 378. 

•• PI. ii. 1, 2, 3. tt " La 8eine Inf.," p. 562. 

XX " Mat^riaux," vol. iv. p. 526. §§ " Mat6riaux,'* vol. v. pi. ii. 2, 3. 

Ii "Die ehemen Streitkeile " (1842), Taf. i. I. 



44 



FLAT AHD FLANQBD CEIiT9 



[chap. III. 

manner on the fiu^s, or the sides, or on both ; hut before pro- 
ceeding to notice any of them, it will be well to mention another 
variety of the plain celt, in which the faces, instead of being nearly 
flat or uniformly convex, slope towards either end from a trans- 
verse ridge near the middle of the blade. This ridge is never very 
strongly defined, as the total thickness of the blade from ridge to 
ridge is rarely more than half an inch. The plain variety is some- 
what rare in Britain, but one ornamented on both faces will be 
described, under Fig. 5, and an Irish example is shown in Fig. 35. 
A lai^e doubly tapering celt (8 inches) was found at East Surby, 
Rushen,* Isle of Man. Some of those afready mentioned partake 
of this character. In Hoare's great work a specimen from the 
Bush Barrow, Normanton,t is engraved as being of this plain 
doubly tapering tj-pe ; but from the more accurate engraving 
given by Dr. Thumam t it appears that this instrument has flanges 
at the side, like Fig. 8, and must therefore be spoken of later on. 
1 now proceed to consider some of the flat celts ornamented 
with patterns probably producerl by punches, as will subsequently 
be mentioned. The first which I ad- 
duce was found with an interment, and 
the ornamentation is so shght that it 
is a question whether the celt ought 
not to rank among those of the plain 
kind. 

The late Mr. Thomas Bateman in 1846 
found what ho described as " a fine bronze 
celt of Dovol form " and " of elegant out- 
line " near the head of a contracted skele- 
ton in a barrow called Moot Low,§ about 
half -way between Alsop Moor and Dove- 
dale, Derbyshire. " It was placed in a 
line with the body, with its edge up- 
words." By the kmdness of Mr. Llewd- 
lynn Jewitt, r.8.A.,|| I am enabled to 
give a figure of this inatrimient in Fig. 3. 
Ah will be seen, it has slight flanges 
along the sides, and the upper part is 
w. i ornamented with short vertical lines 

punched in. 
1 Fig. 4 was found in Yorkshire, and is now in thf 
, The jiatina upon it has been somewhat injured, but 




"Fint Rep. Arch, Comm. I. of Man," pi. iv. 2. 
" Anuicnt WillB," vol. i. p. 302. pi. iiri. • 

" Vert. Ant. Dorb.," p. 68. " Catal..'" p. 7fi, No. 1 
'■ Orave-Diouniiii;' flg. 1H7. 



vol. iliii. p. iU. 



ORKAMRNTED ON THE FACES, 45 

the omamentatioD upon the faces is in places very veil preserved. It 
Gonaiflta of numerous parallel lines, eadi made up of short diagonal 
indentatioas in the metal, and together forming the pattern which will be 
better imderstood from the figure than from any description. Tke aides 
are omameDt«d by having two low pyramidal bosses drawn out upon 
them, leaving a long ooncave hexagonal epace in the middle between 




them. This celt has already been figured, but oa a much smaller scale, in 
the " Hone Ferales."* 

Tbia style of ornamentation on the sides is more conmion on Irish tiiaa 
on Bnglish or Scottish celts. One, however, 5i inches long, of the doubly 
tapering form with lunate edge, having the central portion of the blade 
omameated with a series of Unes in a chevron pattern, and having the 
sides worked into three facets of a pointed oval form, was found at 
'Whittington,j' Gloucestershire, and was presented by Mr. W. L. Law- 
rence F.B.A., to the Society of Antiquaries. The ornamentation is much 
• PL W. No. *. f Proe. Soe. Ant., and S., vol. i, pp. 236, 260. 



46 PLAT AUD FLAKOBD CELTS [clIAP. III. 

like that on Yig. 7, but between tbe ornamented portion of the blade 
and the eAge tbere ie a curved hollow facet, the ridge below which runs 
nearly parallel with the edge. 
The celt shown in Fig. 5 loight perhaps be more properly placed among 
the flanged celts, as, without having welt 
developed flanges along the sides, were is 
a projecting ndge running along either 
margin of ^o faces, in consequence of the 
sidea having been somewhat chamfered, or 
having hod their angles beaten down by 
liammering. It was found on Preeton 
Down, near Weymouth, Dorsetahiro ; but 
I do not know under what circiuustancea. 
It has become thickly coated with a dork 
sage-greon patina, which has in places 
been unfortunately knocked off. The 
beautiful original ornamentation of the 
celt has been admirably preserved by the 
patina. The greater part of the surface 
has been figured with a sort of grained 
pattern like morocco leather, probably by 
means of a punch in form like a narrow 
blunt chisel. The faces of the blade are 
not flat, but taper in both directiuns from 
a ridge rather more than half-way up the 
blade. Along the lower side of this some- 
what curved ridge, and again about un 
inch above the cutting edge, a bolt of 
chevrons has been punched in, having the 
appearance of a plaited band. Below the 
lower band the surface has been left 
smooth and unomamentod, so that grind- 
ing the edge would not in any way injure the pattern. The upper part of 
the blade has at the present time exactly the appearance of dark green 
morocco with "blind-tooling" upon it. No doubt many blades which 
were originally ornamented after the same fashion as this specimen have 
now, through oxidation or the accidental destruction of the patina, lost 
all traces of their original decoration. On this, where the patina has 
been destroyed, nothing can be seen of the graining. 

I have a flat celt from Mildenball, Suffolk (6 inches), in form like Fig. 
6, the greater part of the surface of which has been grained in a similar 
manner, though the graining ie now almost obliterated. 

In the collection of the Diie of Northumberland* is a large celt which 
appears to be of the flat kind, with the side edges " slightly recurved," 
and with the surface "elaborately worked with chevrony linos and orna- 
ments which may have been partly produced by hammering." It was 
found in Nortliumberland. 

Another belonging to James Kendrick, Esq., M.D., found at Eisdon.f 

near Warrington, is described as being " ornamented with punched lines 

in a very unusual manner." Another, of which a bad representation 

from one of Dr. Stukeley's drawings is given in the Arrhaologia, ia said 

• Arch. Ja«m., vol. lix. p. 363. t ^"h. Jaarn., toI. iviii. p. 169. 



< 




ORNAMENTED ON THE FACES. 47 

la bare been found in the long barrow at Stouebenge.* One 4^ inches 
long, the faces ornamented with a number of longitudinal cuts, was found 
near Sidmoutb.f 

In some inataneea the faces of the celts have been wrought into a series 
of slightly hollowed facets. One such from. Bead, Laucaahire, is in the 
Britiui Museum, and is engraved as Fig. 6. The central space between 
the two series of ridges and also the margins of the faces are ornamented 
with Bhallow chevrons punched in. The sides have been hammered into 




three fecete, and this has produced slight flanges at the margins of the 
bees. Hiese facets are ornamented with diagonal lines. This celt was 
found with two others, apparently of the same kind, and is described and 
engraved in Whitaker's "History of the Original Parish of WhaUey."J 
The autbor says that these instruments were from 9 to 12 inches long, and 
had a broad and narrow end, but had neither loops, grooves, nor any 
other contrivance by which they could he fixed in a shaft, or indeed 
applied to any known use. That in the British Museum was obtained 



48 FLAT AND FtAMGBD CELTS. [CHAP. 111. 

by the late Mr. Charles Towneley. The two othen were formerly in 
the collections of the Bev. Dr. Milles, P.S.A., and of Dr. Whitaker. 

I now come to the flanged celts, or those which have projecting 
ledges along the greater port of each side of the faces, produced 
either by hammering the metal at the sides of the blades, or 
in the original casting. As has already been observed, some of 
the celts which have been described as belonging to the flat 
variety might, with almost equal propriety, have been classed as 
flanged celts, as the mere hammering of the sides with a view to 
render them smooth or to produce an ornament upon them 
" iipseta " the metal, and produces a thickening along tlie margin 
which almost amounts to a flange. 

In the celt shown in Fig. 7 the flan^ are very slight, and are in all 
probability merely due to the hanunermg necessary to produce the kind 
of cable pattern or spiral fluting which is 
seen in 3ie aide view. The faces taper 
in each direction from a transverse 
ridge, and tlie blade for some distance 
below this is ornamented with an incuae 
chevron pattern. The blade towards 
the edge and above the ridge is left 

tlun. This specimen was found in 
uffolk, but I do not know the exact 
lopalily. It is in my own collection. 

Among nineteen bronze celts dis- 
covered about the year 1845 on the pro- 
perty of Mr. Samuel Ware, F.S.A., at 
PosUingford Hall,* near Clare, Suffolk, 
were several of this class, two of which 
(6^ and 5^ inches), now in the British 
Museum, are figured in the Archao- 
logia. One of them is ornamented with 
a chevron pattern, covering the part of 
the blade usually decorated, and having 
vertical lines running through the 
Fig. T.— BuSMk. i centres of the chevrons, and through 

the junctiou of their bases. The other 
is ornamented with a series of curved parallel lines running across the 
blade, as on Fig. 16. They have a slight projection or ridge at the 
thickest part of the blade, as have also two that are not ornamented, 
which likewise were presented by Mr. Ware to the British Museum. 

Another celt of this kind (4 J inches) was found with a bronze spear-head 
having loops at the lower port of die blade in the Kilcot Wood.f near 
Newent, Glouoestershire. The faces are ornamented with parallel rows 




• Prof. See. AnI., Ist S., vol. i. ] 
Wat Suf. Areh. Inst., vol. i. p. 26. 
t Prut. Six. Ant., 2nd S., voL i, p. 



83; Arch., vol, lui. p. 496; Frae. Bury and 



FLANOED CELTS FBOH ABBETOK DOWX. 



49 



at abort dia^oal liuoB, bounded at the lover end by a double aeries of 
dots, and a transverBe tow of diagonal lineB. 

In the remarkable hoard of bronze inetFuments diBcovered on Aireton 
Dovn, in the Isle of Wight, about the year 1735, were, besides the epear- 
faeods and da^er blades, of which mention will be made in subsequent 
diapten, four of these flanged celts. Of these one {6J inches) was orna- 
mented both on the face and sides, but is at present only known from a 
dimwing in an album belonging to the Society of Antiquaries. 




■Aireton Down. 



The othetB were plain, and of one of them a woodcut is given in the 
Ardtmologia, * which by the permission of the Council of the Society of 
Antiquaries is here reproduced as Tig. 8. It is 8 inches in length, and is 
one rf the lai^est of its class in the British Museum. As will he seen, the 
blade itself is of the doubly tapering kind. The others are 4^ and 4} 
inches long. They are said to have been found arranged in regular 
orfer,t and, as Mr. Franks has suggested, may possibly have been the 
(tore deposited by some ancient founder, which he was imable to reclaim 
from its hiding-place. 



• Vol. nxri. p. 32B. 



t Art\.,ro\.y.f. US. 



do FLAT AHD FIANOBD CELTS. [CHAF. III. 

In FigB. 9 and 10* are eliawii two more of these doubly tapering^ 
flanged celta, v}iich were found in tlie parisli of FlymBtock,f Devonshire, 
about a mile east of Freston. They lay beneath a £at stone at a depth of 
about two feet below the surface, together with fourteen other celts, three 
doggers, one of which is given as Fig. 301, a spear-head or dagger, 
shown in Fig. 327, and a narrow chisel (Fig. 190). All the sixteen 




FiB. 10.— Plynutock. 



wits are of the same general tynO' ^^^ '^'7 "* length from 3J iiiche.' to 
(ij inches. The extent of the flanges or wings also varies, and in some 
they project considerably, and are brought with m^at precision to a sharp 
edge. At tlio narrow or butt end, tho late Mr, Albert Way, who describeU 
the hoard, noticed a peculiar slight groove extending only as fur as the 



FLANGED CELTS FOUND IN BARROWS. 61 

commencement of the lateral flanges. The character of the groove is 
shown in the portion of the side view given with each figure. Mr. Way 
and Mr. Franks thought that the narrow end of the celt, when produced 
from the mould, had been slightly bifid, and that the little cleft had been 
closed by the hammer. My own impression is that these marks are 
merely the result of ** drawing down " the narrow ends with the hammer 
after their sides had been somewhat ** upset" or expanded by hammering 
out the side flanges. 

The sides of some of these celts have been hammered so as to present 
three longitudinal facets ; others have the sides simply rounded. One of 
the most interesting features of this discovery is its analogy with that 
already mentioned as having been made at Arreton Down. The greater 
number of the objects found at Plymstock were given by the Duke of 
Bedford to the British Museiun, and the remainder to the Exeter Museum. 

Four or five celts with slight side flanges were found in the Wiltshire 
barrows by Sir R. Colt Hoare. The largest of these (6J inches long and 
2^ inches broad) was found in 1808^ in a tumulus known as the Bush 
Barrow, near Normanton.* The following are the particulars of this 
discovery: — On the floor of the barrow was the skeleton of a tall man 
lyin^^ from south to north. Near his shoulders lay the celt, which owes 
its great preservation to having been inserted in a handle of wood. About 
eighteen inches south of the head were several bronze rivets, intermixed 
with wood and thin pieces of bronze, which were regarded as the remains 
of a shield. Near the right arm were a large dagger of bronze and a 
tpear-head of the same metal, fully 13 inches long. The handle of this 
oagger, marvellously inlaid with pins of g^ld, will be described in a 
subseauent chapter. On the breast of the skeleton was a large lozenge- 
ahapea plate of gold, ornamented with zigzag and other patterns, and 
near it were some other gold ornaments, some bone rings, and an oval 
perforated stone mace, the representation of which I have reproduced in 
my ** Ancient Stone Implements." 

We have here an instance of bronze weapons occurring associated 
with those of stone and with gold ornaments. Sir B. Colt Hoare has 
recorded some other cases. In a bell- shaped barrow near Wilsfordjf at 
the feet of the skeleton of a tall man, he foimd a massive hammer of a 
dark-oolonred stone, some objects of bone, a whetstone with a groove in 
the centre, and a bronze celt with small lateral flanges 3^ inches long. 
These were accompanied by a very curious object of twisted bronze, 
apparently a ring about 4^ inches in diameter, having a tang pierced with 
four rivet holes for fixing in a handle. In the ring itself, opposite 
the tang, is a long oval hole, through which passes one of three circular 
links forming a short chain. 

In a barrow on Overton Hill, J Sir R. Colt Hoare found a contracted 
skeleton buried either in the trunk of a tree or on a plank of wood. Near 
the head were a small celt of this kind, an awl with a handle (Fig. 227), 
and a small dagger, or, as he terms it, a ** lance-head." 

The occurrence of celts of this character is not limited to interments by 
inhumation. In another barrow of the Wilsford group Sir R. C. Hoare 
found, in a cist 2 feet deep, a pile of burnt bones, an ivory (?) pin, a rude 

• " Anc. Wilt*," vol. i. p. 202, pi. xxvi ; Areh., vol. xliii. p. 444. 

f "Anc. WiltB," vol.i. p. 209, pi. xxix. 

X ** Anc. Wilts," vol. ii. 90 ; Cran, Brit., xi. 7, where these objects are figured. 

£ 2 



S3 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. [cHAF. 111. 

ring of bone, and a small bronze celt, aW with aide flanges, and only 
2i inclieB long. 

Among other spedmene of thia form of celt may be cited one found on 
Flumpton Plain,* near Lewes, Sussex, now in the British Uuseum ; one 
(4 indies) found near Dover in 1856; and one (6i inches) from Wye 
Down, Kent, both in ihe Mayer collection at Liverpool. Canon Green- 
well, F.B.S., has one (3^ inches) from Uarch, Cambridgeshire. 

Flanged celts much like Fig. 9 have been found in France. Some 
from Haute-Saane,t Bbone, and Compi^gne ^ (Oise) have been figured. I 
have spedmens from Evreux (Enre), Amiens (Somme), and Lyons. 
The type also occurs in ItalyS in some abundance; it is found more rarely 
in C^ermany. || Examples from Denmark are figured by 8chreiber,*[[ 
Segested,** and Madeen.ff The form also occurs in 8weden.l| 

A peculiar form of flanged celt is shown in Fig. 11. l^e flanges 
extend as usual nearly to the edge, but at the upper part of the blade are 





set down so as to project still farther over the faces, though at a lower 
level. The ori^al was found in the Thames,gg and is the property of 
Mr. T. Layton, F.S.A. 

A small example, ornamented with a fluted pattern on the sides and witli 
the blade slightly tapering in each direction horn a central ridge, is shown 
in Fig. 12. The original was found in Norfolk, and is in the collection of 
Mr. fi. Fit«h, F.S.A. 

Another, decorated with a fluted chevron pattern on the sides, and with 
indented herring-bone and chevron patterns on the faces, is given in 
Fig. 13. This example was found in Dorsetshire, and is now in the 
British Museum. Li the same collection is a beautiful celt with side 

• Sun. Areh. Coll., vol. M. p. 288. 

t Chantra, " Album," pi. iv. 2, 3. " Cong, preh.," Bologna toI. p. 3.S2. 

I DUl. Arth. dt la Gauh. Sev. Arch., NTS., yd. liii. PI. i. fig- H. 

i Areh. Journ., vol. xxi. 100. Lnbbock'a "Preh. Times," p. 28, fig. 17. 

II Liach, " Fred. Frondsc," tab. ziii. 7. t Die ehemen Streitkeile, Taf . i. 5, 
•• " Olddag. to Broholm," pi. uiii. 6. tt " Afbild,," vol. ii. pi. xii. fi. 

" T " -n ,. •■ Bologna vol. p. 292. 



DECORATED VIAMGED CELTS. 



fluigea found near Brough, Westmoreland (6} inchea), wMoh has the 




Fig. 1>.— DoiHlnhin. 

portion of the bliide below the thickeet part omamentfid with a lozengy 

matted pattern much like that on 

Tig. $1, but with the alternate 

lozen^ plain and hatched. The 

hatching on some of the lozengea 

is from left to right, on others the 

A flanged celt of unusual type, 
the (ddee curiously wrought and 
engraved or punched, and the 
facM exhibiting a pattern of che- 
viony lines, is shown in Fig. 14. 
It was found near Lewes,* Sussex, 
sad is the property of Sir H. 
Shiffner, Bart. 

An example of nearly the same 
kind is shown in Fi^. 15, from a 
celt found in the Pens near Ely, 
and now in the museiun of Mr. 
Uarshall Fisher, of that city. Both 
faces are ornamented 1 
thickest part with broad indented 
lines, vertical and transverse, as 

will be best seen in the figure. jng. is.— ti>-. i 

■ AreK Jeum., vol, iviii. p. 167. Chiche«t«r vol. of jlreh Intl., p. 62, nhenc* this 

CBtisUkBIl. 




S4 



FLAT AND FLANGBn CELTS. 



[chap. III. 

The sides are hammered into three facets, each having a series of diagonal 
KTooves wrought in them. The two left-hand facets on each side have 
Uie grooves running upwards from left to right; on the third facet they 
run downwards, but at a much less incliuation. The punch with whim 
the grooves and ornaments were produced has also been ranployed along 
the inner angle of the fianges. 

A pretty little celt, ornamented with transverse ridges in the lower part, 
is shown m Fig. 16. The original was fomid at Barrow, Suffolk. 

Tho Eev. Canon Greenwell, F.E.S., possesses one (4| inches) found at 
HomcasUe, Lincolnshire, the faces of which are decorated in a nearly 





Fig. le.— BUTD^. 



similar manner; but the sides show a cable pattern, and there js a slight 
central ridge on the faces. 

A much larger specimen (6} inches), found near the Menai Bridge,* 
Anglesea, has also cabled sides, but the grooves on the faces are straighter 
and wider apart. 

A Danish celt, ornamented in a similar manner, is engraved by 
Madsen.t 

The celt shown in Fig. 17 is of somewhat the same character, but the 
transverse lines are closer and not continuous. They have evidently been 
produced by means of a small blunt punch, with the aid of a hammer. 
The original was found at Liss,{ near Peterafield, Hants, and is now in 
the British Museum. 

Flanged celts decorated on the faces are of rare occurrence in France. 
One of narrow proportions, and ornamented with lozenges and zigzags, 
was found at Mareuil-Bur-Ourcq § (Oise). 



i. p. 27S, 1 



i. p. 207. 



i. p. 167. 



CAFrriKOS FOR FLANOBD CELTS. 55 

The only iDstance kno^m to me in which the rough castings 
destined to be wrought into this form of celt have been found in 
Britain is one recorded in the Archeeologia Cmnhreiisia ' by the 
RcT. E. L. Samvell. At the meeting of the Cambrian Archieo- 
logic&l Association at Wresham, Sir R. A. Cunliffe, Bart., exhibited 
vhat had evidently been the stock in trade 
of an ancient bronze -founder or merchant. 
It had been found at Rhoanesney, near Wrex- 
ham, and consisted of six palstaves, all from 
the same mould, another somewhat slighter 
and broken in two, the blade of a small 
da^er, three castings for flanged celts, and 
the ehank of a fourth — all of them rough as 
they came from the mould. The cut given 
of one of the last-mentioned castings is here 
reproduced on a smaller scale as Fig. 18. It 
will be seen that a broad runner is left at the 
butt end, which was probably destined to be 
broken off; the sides would also be ham- 
mered, so as to increase the prominence of the 
flanges ; and the whole would be planished by 
hammering and grinding. All the specimens 
have the appearance of havinsr been washed 

■,». J V . ^L- J ■? / i- Rg.l8.-Blion««i»/. 1 

over with tin, but this deposit of tin upon 

the surface may, I think, be due to some chemical action which 
has gone on since the bronze was buried in the ground, and may 
not have been intentionally produced. 

A casting for a longer flanged celt found at Vicnne (Isfere) has 
been figured by Chantre.t 

Turning now to the flat and flanged celts discovered in Scotland, 
I may remark that the instruments of the flat form appear to be 
comparatively more abundant in that country than in England 
and Wales. 

In Fig. 19 is shown a remarkably well-preserved specimen in my own 
cidlectioii, wihich u said to have been found near Drumlanrig, Dumfries- 
shire. The sides present two longitudinal facets at a low angle to each 
other. In hammeiiag these the margin of the faces has been somewhat 
raised ; they are otherwise smooth and devoid of ornament. Other speci- 
mens have iliree facets on the sides. Instruments of much the same 
character have been found near Bi^arJ (6^ inches), Cult«r§ (5} inches), 



56 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS [CHAP. III. 

both in Lanarkelure ; on the farm of Colleonard,* near Banff (found with 
three vhich were ornamented) ; at Sluie on the Findhom.t Morayshire 
(two, einchee) ; near 
Abernethy,t Perth- 
shire (4 indies acrosB 
face) ; near Ardgour 
House, S Invemess- 
shire (5| inclies) ; 
the Hill of Fortrie 
of BalnoonJI Inver- 
keithney, Banffshire 
(5 J inches long) ; Ea- 
velston,^ near Edin- 
burgh (7 inches); 
CobbinBhaw, Mid- 
calder, Edinburgh 
(4J inches), in my 
own collection. One 
found in the Mosa 
of Cree,** near Wig- 
ton in Qalloway, has 
been mentioned by 
"Wilson, and is en- 
graved in the A^ 
and Wifflon Colke- 
iiiuM.tt Others from 
Inch and Lea wait, 
Wigtonahire, have 
also been figured.i^t 







Fig. IS.— Dnunluuig. 



Some of these 
blades, and not- 
ably the celts from 
Sluie, the Hill of Fortrie of Balnoon, and Ravelston, have been 
tliought to be tinned. Ad interesting paper on the subject has 
been written by Dr. J. Alexander Smith and Dr. Stevenson 
Macadam.§§ Their conclusion is rather in favour of the celts 
having been intentionally tinned, so as to protect them from 
oxidation and the influence of the weather. I think, how- 
ever, that the tinned appearance of the castings for celts from 
Rhosnesney affords a stmng argument against this feature being 
the result of intentional tinning ; for, if so, that metal would 



• Proe. Soe. Ant. Seat., vol. iii. p. 245. t P. fl. A, S. 


vol. iv. p. 187. and 


J F. S. A. S., Tol. IT. p. 380. { P. S. A. K. 


vol. ix. p. 182. 


I P. S. A. S., vol. ii. p. 430. 

1 Arth. Sal., Tol. iii. App. II. p. 32 ; P. S. A. S., vol. 

" "Preh. Ann. ofScot.,^'anded., vol.i. p. 381. 




iz. p. 431, 




t-t Vol. ii. p. 6. I 


Op. at., p. 7. 


ii p. a. A. S., Tol. ii. p. 428. 





FOUND IN SCOTLAND. 



67 



hftTe been applied to the blades after they had been wrought and 
groond into shape, and not to the rough caslin;^, from the Burftice 
of which the tin would be certainly retaoVed in the process of 
finlthing the blades. A bronze hammer from France in my col- 
lection has all the appearance of having been intentionally tinned, 
even partly within the socket ; but in this case the bronze appears 
unusually rich in tin, which was probably added in order to 
increase the hardness of the metal, and some considerable altera- 
tion of structure has taken place within the body of the metal, as 
the surface is fissured in all directions, something like " crackle 
china." 

la the Antiquarian Mueeum at Edinbur^ are other flat celte, some of 
them with slight flon^ at the edge, from Eildon, liosburghBhire ; Inch- 
nadamff, SutherlandBhire ; 
Dunino, Fifeehire; Vogrie 
•ad Batho, Midlothian ; 
Kintore and Tarland, 
Abeideenahire ; and other 
places. 

Some celts of this form, 
but with slight side 
flanges, have been found 
in the South of France.* 

A celt of this class, also 
in the Museum at Edin- 
burgh, is probably the 
largest ever found in the 
Ciuted Kingdom. ItislSg 
inches in length, 9 inches 
in its greatest Dreadth, but 
only 1| inch at the nar- 
row end. Its thickness is 
about g inch in the middle 
of the blade, and its weight 
is 5 lbs. 7 ozB. It is shown 
(m a scale of rather more 
than one-fourth in Fig. 20, 
for the use of the woodcut 
of which I am indebted to 
the Socie^ of Antiquaries 
of Scotland. It was found 
in diggiu{; a drain on the 
farm of LAwhead,! on the 
<onth side of the Fentland 
Hills, near Edinburgh. 

Some of the Scottish celts, both flat and doubly tapering, are ornamented 
on the faces. One with four raised longitudinal ribs, and two with a 




Fig. 9).-I*»heBJ. 



" MaKrisnx," vol. t. pi. ii. 6, 7. 



+ Froe. Soe. Ant. Scot., vol v 



, p. 105. 



FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. 



[chap. I 



series of short indsed or punched lines upon their faoee, were among 
those found on the farm of Colleonard,* Banff; another has shallow 
flutings on the blade ; another, £ 22, in the Catalo^e of the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh, is also ornamented with mdeed lines. One of 
those from 81uie,t Morayshire, is cited by Wilson. 




The tastefully ornamented celt shown in Fig. 21 was found near 
Nairn, and is now in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of 



DECOBATRD SCOTTISH SPECIMENS. OM 

^ to tlifl Omncil of whicli I am indebted for the um of tiie cut. 
The wreatbed lines appear to have been produced by a chieel-lilce punch. 
The onuunentatiou of both faces is almost exactly simUar. 

I have two flat eeltfl, both said to have beea foimd near Falkland, Fife- 
■hire, one of which (6f inchee) hag had grooves about half an inch apart 
worked in the faces parallel to the sides, so aa to form very pointed 
chevrone down the centre of the blade. The other (5 inches long) has 
had broad shallow dents about ^ inch long and ^ inch apart made in its 
fac«s, ao aa to form a herring-bone pattern. 

The doubly tapering celt shown in Fig. 22 is also said to have been 
found near Falkland. Below the ridge the face has been ornamented 




nith parallel belts of short, narrow indentations arranged longitudinally 
for about half the length of the lower face, but nearer the edge trans- 
Teraely. The sides are worked into three longitudinal facets. 

Of SoottiBh flanged celts resembling Fig. 9, the following may be 
mentioned. One found in Peeblesshire * (5} inches long, with a circular 
depression on one face); one from Longmau,t Macduff, Banffshire (3} 
indies long). 

Another of the same class, having a round hole at the upper part of the 
blade, ia stud to have been found in Scotland, and is engraved by Qordon.J 



60 FLAT AND FI.ANOED CELTS [CHAP. IIL 

A celt with but slishtly raised flanges and peculiar omameDtation is 
shown in Fig. 23. ft was found at Greenlees,* near Spottiswoode, 
Berwickshire, and is in the collection of Lady John Scott. There is a 
f ^tly marked atop-ridge, above which the blade has been ornamented by 
thickly set parallel hammer or punch marks. The sides are fluted in a 
cable pattern. Parallel to the cutting edge are three slight fluted hollows, 
and on the blade above are segments of concentric hollows of the same 
kind, forming what heralds would tenn "flanches" ontheblade. Whether 
in this ornament we are to see a representation of the "flanches" of the 
winged palstave like Fig. 85, auch as is so common on socketed celts, or 
whether it is of indepeuMnt origin, I will not attempt to determine. 




Fig. M.— Perth. 1 



tig. 2i.— Aptlegarlh. i 



A flanged celt with a slight stop-ridge, having the sides ornamented 
with a cable pattern and the faces with rows of triangles alternately 
hatched and pain, is shown in Fig. 24. The orinnal was found near 
Perth, j- and is in the collection of flie Bev. James Beck, F.S.A. A celt 
with five hatched bands surmounted by triangles, and wiUi the sides cable 
moulded, though found in Denmark,} much resembles this Scottish speci- 
men and some of those &om Ireland. Another with similar sides, but 
with the lower part of the faces ornamented with narrow vertical groovps, 
was found at Applegarth.S DumMesshire, and is now in the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinoui^h. It is represented in Fig. 25. 

' Proe. Sue. Ant. Sail., vol. lO. p. 601. I am indebted to the Council for the use of 

Yiii. p. 6. 

ii.pl. xxi. 7. See also '■ Ant. Tidak.," 1861-3, p. 24. 



FOUND IN IBELANO. 61 

AxoUieT decorated celt of the same character, though with different 
ornamentatioD, is showa in Fig. 26. The curved hands on the faces are 
ftsmed of lines with dots between, and the sidea have a kind of fem-leaf 
Httem upon them, like that on the winged celt from Trillick, Fig. 98. 
The original was found at Dams, Balbimie,* Fifeshire. 

A Teiy large number of flat celts of the simplest form have been 
found in Ireland. So numerous are they that it would ouly 
cucumber these pages were I to attempt to give a detailed account 
of all the varieties, and of all the localities at which they have been 
found. Sir William Wilde, in his most valuable " Catalogue of the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy," has placed on record a 




11 



Fig. 17.— BslliumiUud. 



large amount of information upon this subject, from which some 
of the facts hereafter mentioned are borrowed, and to which the 
reader is referred for farther information. Some of those of the 
rudest manufacture are fonned "of red, almost unalloyed copper."t 
These vary in length from about 2J inches to 6^ inches, and are 
never ornamented. 

In Fig. 27 ia shown a small example of a celt apparently of pure 
copper, which was found at BallinamaUard, Co. Fennauagh, and was 
kindly added to my collection by the Fail of Fnniskillen. I have another, 
more like Fig. 28, from Ballybawn, Co. Cork, presented to me by Mr. 
Bobert Day, F.S.A. 

A small celt of this character, from King's County, now In the British 
Huseum, is only 2^ inches in length. 

t. p. 120. I am iiidebt«d to the Council for the luon 
t WUde, p. 361. 



FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. [uHAP. Ill 



Fig. 28 shows a very common form of Irieli celt, in this inataiice made 
of bronze. The inetruments of this t;pe &re in general nearly flat, and 




Fig. ».— Motthatlrdiuicl. 1 



without any marked central ridge, such as ia to be obserred more 




Hg. 30.— TippwHry. 



frequently on the longer and narrower form, of which a remarkably small 
specimen from the collection of Mr, E. Day, F.S.A., is shown in Fig, 29. In 



DECORATED IBISH SFUCIHENS. 63 

Qua cue it will be seen ihaX the blade tapers botb ways from a low 
central rid^. Others of theee flat celts are in outline more like Fig. 20. 
One Buch, in tlie museum of the Boyal Iriali Academy, is 12} inches long' 
by H intJies broad, and weighs nearly 5 lbs. One in tbe British Museum, 
which, unfortunately, ia somewhat imperfect, must have been of nearly 
the same edze. The usual leng:tb of the celts like Fig. 28 is from 
4 to 6 inchee. One from Qreenmount, Castle Bellingham, Co. Louth, is 
enpared in the Arehaologieai Jbumal.* 

. Occasionally the flat surface is ornamented. An example of this kind 
[H inches) is given in Fig. 30, from a specimen found m the county of 
Tipperary,! and now in the British Museum. The surface has the patterns 
punched in, and the angles between the faces and the sides are slightly 
serrated. Some few Insh celts are slightly fiuted on the face, like the 
English specimen, Fig. 6. 

Another ornamented celt of this class, &om my own collection, is shown 
in Fig. 31. On tins the roughly worked pattern has been produced 




Kg. SI.— Inland. } 

by means of a long blunt punch, or possibly by the pane or narrow end 
of a hammer ; but it is far more probable that the former tool was 
used than the latter. The two faces are nearly alike, and the sides have 
been hammered so as to produce a central ridge along them. 

A large and highly ornamented flat celt in the collection of Canon 
Greenw^ F.B.8., is shown in Fig. 32. The ornamentation on each 
fac« is the same, and tlie sides have been hammered so as to produce a 
succession of flat lozenges upon tbem. It was found near Connor, Co. 
Antrim, with two others of nearly the same size, one of which was 

• Vol. xzvii p. 308. 

t .Arelt. Jtwn., toL vi. p. 410, For tha uie of Uiii cut I un indebted to Mr. A. W. 
taakm, P.B.8. 



64 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. [CHAF. UL 

scraped by the finder. The other is ornamented with a cross-hatched 
border along the tnargiae, and three narrow bands across the blade, one 
cross-hatched, one of triangles alternately hatched and plain, and one with 
Tertical lines. Parallel with the cutting edge, which, however, has been 
broken off in old times, is a curved band of alternate triangles, lUce that 
across the centre of the blade. Much of the surface ia grained by vertical 
indentations, and the sides are ornamented like those of Fig. 4. 




Fig. 8».— Connor. } 

In the celts tapering in both directions from a slight transverse ridge, 
the sides have often been "upset" by hammering, so as to produce a 
thickening of the blade at the marg^ almost amounting to a flange. 
Not unfrequently a pattern is produced upon the sides, aa in Fig. 33, 
where it will be seen that the median ridge along the sides ia interrupted 
at intervals by a eories of flat lozenges. The faces of this instrument 
below the ridge have been neatly hammered, so as to produce a kind of 
grained surface not unlike that of French morocco leatiier. This speci- 



DKOORATBD IRISH SFBCIHENS. 



65 



men, Thich U unusually large, waa found near Clontarf, Co. Dublin. 
The Mme kind of decoration occutb on the sides of many specimenB in tho 
moseum ot the Boyal Irish Academy.* 

The decoration of the faces often extends over the upper part of the 
Uade, though, vhen halted, much of this was probably hidden. In 
Rg. 34, borrowed from Wilde (Fig. 248), tliis peculiarity is well ex- 
hibited, like sides have the long loienges upon tnem, like those on the 
wit lost desuribed. 




rig. Sfc-Clontarf. 



The beautiful specimen shown in Fig. 35 was presented to me by Mr. 
Bobert Day, F.S.A. The aides have in this case a kind of cable pattern 
mvkod upon them. The ornamentation of the faces is remarkable a.i 
hsTin^ 80 many curved lines brought into it. The lower part of the blade 
has two ohallow flutings upon it, approximately parallel to the edge. 

In the case of a celt of much the same form and size (7} inches), which 

belonged to the late Rev. Thomas Hugo, F.S.A. , and was at one time 

• Emi Wilde, Fig. 249. 266. 



64 



FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. 



[chap. III. 



BCTaped 

border along the margins, and three narrow bands across the blade, one 
croea-hatehed, one of triangles alternately hatched and plain, and one with 
vertical lines. Parallel with the cutting edge, which, nowever, has been 
broken off in old times, is a curved band of alternate trianglee, like that 
across the centre of the blade. Much of the surface is grained by vertical 
indentations, and the sides are ornamented like those of Fig. 4. 




Fig. M,— Connor. | 

In the celts tapering in both directions from a slight tranBrerse ridge, 
the sides have often been "upset" by hammering, so as to produce a 
thickening of the blade at the margins almost amounting to a flange. 
Kot unirequently a pattern is produced upon the sides, as in Fig. 33, 
where it wUl be seen that the median ridge along the sides is interrupted 
at intervals by a series of flat lozenges. The faces of this instrument 
below the ridge have been neatly hammered, so as to produce a kind of 
grained surface not unlike that of French morocco leather. This speci- 



DKOORATBD IRISH SFBCIHSKS. 



men, vhich ia uiiuaually large, was found near Clontarf, Oo. Dublin. 
The same kind of decoration occutb on the udes of many apecunens in tho 
muBeum. of the Eoyal Irish Academy,* 

The decoration of the faces often extends over the upper part of the 
blade, though, when hafted, much of this was probably hidden. In 
Fig. 34, borrowed from Wilde (Fig. 248), this pecniliarity ia well ex- 
hibited. The sides have the long lozenges upon them, like those on the 
(«lt last described. 




The beautiful specimen shown in Fig. 36 was presented to me by Mr. 
Bobeit Day, F.S.A. The sides hare in this case a kind of cable pattern 
worked upon theuL The ornamentation of the faces is remarkable an 
having so manyourred lines brought into it. The lower part of the blade 
has two shallow flutings upon it, approximately parallel to the edge. 

In the case of a celt of much the same form and size (71 inches), which 

belonged to the latn Rev. Thomas Ilugo, F.9.A., and was at one time 

• Sm. WiWc. Fig, 2«9. 266. 



66 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. [CHAP. III. 

thought to have been found in the Thames,* it is the upper part of the 




I'iu. Uj.— IteLmd. % Vig. M.— Trim. } 

blade that is decorated, and not the lover, which is left smooth. Tliere 
is no central ridge, but the upper part has a coarse lozenge pattern 





Fig. S7.— Ireland. i liR. :iS,-lreLii..|, J 

hammered upon it, the centres of the lozenges being roughly hatched with 
• Areh. Joiiiv., vol. li. p. 295. 



CHARACTER OF THEIR DECORATIONS. 



67 



transYerse lines. Possibly this roughening may have assisted to keep the 
blade fast in the handle, &ough in producing it some artistic feeling was 
brought to bear. There is litUe doubt of this instrument being of Irish 
origin. 

Other celts, like Fig. 36, have the upper part of the blade plain and 
the lower ornamented. This specimen was found at Trim, Co. M!eath, and 
is in the collection of Canon (Sreenwell, F.R.S. It will be observed that 
even the cabled fluting of the sides ceases opposite the transverse ridge. 

In Figs. 37 and 38 are shown two more of these slightly flanged 
ornamented celts. The first is in the museum of the Boyal Insh Academy, 
and has already been figged by Wilde (Fig. 298). The lower part of the 
blade is fluted transversely with chevron patterns punched in along the 
curved ridges. In the second, which was presented to me by Dr. Aquilla 
Smith, M.K.I.A., there is a fairly well defined though but slightly pro- 
jecting curved stop-ridge, and the blade is decorated by boldly punched 
lineBy forming a pattern which a herald might describe as ''per saltire 
argent and azure." The cable fluting on the sides is beautifully regular. 
The Rev. G. W. Brackenridge, of Clevedon, possesses a longer specimen 
(^ inches), found at Tullygo wan, near Qracehill, Go. Antrim, the faces of 
which are ornamented with a nearly similar design. Canon Greenwell 
has another example foimd at Carrickferg^, Co. Antrim. 

The patterns punched upon the celts of this type show a great 
variety of form, and not a little fertility of design in the ancient 
artificers.* Various combinations of chevron patterns are the most 
frequent, though grained surfaces and straight linos like those on 
Fig. 17 also jfrequently occur. Sir William Wilde describes them 
as hammered, punched, engraved, or cast. Most of the patterns 
were, however, produced by means of punches, though it is possible 
that in some instances the other processes may have been used. 

Figs. 39 to 43, borrowed from Wilde (Figs. 286 to 290), show 
some of the patterns full size. The punch most commonly 






Fig. 89. 



Fig. 40. 



Fig. 41. 




o oo 
oooc 

o o o o 

O qO 
O O qO 

Fig 48. 



employed must have resembled a narrow and blunt chisel ; but a 
kind of centre-punch, producing a shallow round indentation, was 
also employed, and possibly a somewhat curved punch like a blunt 
gouge. In some cases the lines between the punched marks are, 
according to Wilde, engraved. It is, however, a question whether 
even the finest lines might not have been produced by a chisel used 
after the manner of a punch. What were probably punches for 

• See Wilde, " Catal. Mu§. R. I. A.," p. 389 et teq. ; " Vallancey," vol. iv. pi. x. 9. 

F 2, 



68 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS [CHAP. IIT. 

producing such patterns have been found in some English hoards, 
as will subsequently be mentioned ; and in the Fonderie de Lar- 
naud, Jura,* was a punch with an engrailed end for producing a 
kind of " milled " mark, either in the mould or on the casting. 
Another, with concentric circles, seems best adapted for impressing 
the loam of the mould. 

Some few of the Irish ornamented celts have well-defined stop- 
ridges like the English example. Fig. 51 ; but these will be more 
in their place in the following chapter. One or two other forms 
may, however, be here mentioned, though they approximate closely 
to the chisels described in subsequent pages. 

One of these is shown in Fig. 44, the upper part of the blade of which 
is, as will be seen, so narrow, and the instrument itself so small and light, 





Fig. 44.— Armoy. i Fig. 46.— Ireland. i 

that it is a question whether it should not be regarded as a chisel or paring- 
tool rather than as a hatchet. The blade tapers both ways, and the inci- 
pient flange is more fully developed above the ridge than below. The 
original was found at Annoy, Co. Antrim. It is much broader at the 
cutting edge than the blade from Culham, Fig. 55, to which it is some- 
what allied. 

Another Irish form of celt, or possibly chisel, tapers in both dir^tions 
from a central transverse ridge, near which there are lateral projections 
on the blade, as if to prevent its being driven into the handle. An 
example of this kind, from the museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, is 
given in Fig. 45. There are nine or ten in that collection, and they vary 
in length from about 3^ to 8 inches. Others are in the British Museum, 
one of which is more distinctly tanged than the figure, and the stops are 
formed by the gradual widening out of the blade, whicli again contracts 
with a similar curve, and once more widens out at the edge. This type 
is also known in France. Other varieties of this form are described in 
Chapter VII. 

* Chantre, " Altum," pi. 1. 9, 10. 



WITH LATERAL 8T0P8, 



A doubly tapering: blade in the museum of the Boyal Irish Academy, 
ahoim in Fig. 46, ^s a slight atop-ridge on the face, and also expands 
at the sides, though not to the same extent as the plain specimens just 
mentioaed. It is ornamented with straight and curved bands formed of 
chevron patterns. 

A double-edged instrument, also in the museum of the Boyal Irish 
Academy, has a stop-ridge on one of the faces only, as shovn in Fig. 47. 

An instnunent of the same form, but with stops at the sides instead of 
on the face, 4f inches long, | inch broad at the ed^es, and about | inch 
thick, was found at Farley Heath, Surrey, and is now in the British 
Uuaeum. 

A Danish instrument of the same kind is figured by Woreaae.* 





Flat cdtB of iron with lateral stops have been found in the cemetery at 
Hallotptt, Austria, as well as winged palstaves and socketed celts of the 
■aaifl metaL 

Some of tlie thin votive hatchets foimd at Dodona f are of the same form, 
and are significant of such blades having been in actual use in Greece. 

Id the next cliapter are deficribed the celts in which the side 
flanges have become more fully developed, so as to form wings to 
embrace and steady the handle, and the central ridge has grown 
into a well-marked shoulder against which the end of the haft 
could rest. 



• JVwrf. OlititftT, No. 176.* 



t Carapamw, " DoJtine," ]il. liv. 



CHAPTER IV. 

WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. 

To any one who has examined an extensive collection of the 
bronze instruments found in this country it will at once be 
apparent that in the class of celts designed to be fixed in some 
sort of haft, and not themselves socketed for the reception of a 
handle, there is a wide range of form. Any attempt, however, to 
divide them into well-marked classes is soon seen to be futile, as 
there is found to be a gradual transition from what at .first sight 
appears to be a well-marked form into some other which presents 
different characteristics. If, for instance, we take the side flanges 
as a criterion, we find them ranging from a mere thickening on the 
margins of the flat celts to well-developed flanges, extending along 
nearly the whole blade ; we then find them confined to the upper 
part of the instrument, and in some cases of great lateral extent, 
so as to be capable of being hammered over to form a kind of 
semicircular socket on each side of the blade. In other cases we 
find that the flanges have some part of their apparent projection 
due to a diminution in the thickness of the portion of the blade 
which lies between them. If we take as a criterion the stop- 
ridge, as it has been termed, a projecting ridge for the purpose of 
preventing the blade being driven too far into its wooden handle, 
we find the ridge in a rudimentary form in the blades which taper 
both ways ; next as a slightly raised ridge or bead running across 
the blade ; then as a better-defined ridge, to which, at last, greater 
development is given by a reduction in the thickness of the blade 
above it. The presence or absence of a loop at the side is, no 
doubt, a good differentiation, but as this is a mere minor accessory, 
and two celts may be identical in other respects with the excep- 
tion of one being provided with a loop and the other being 
without it, it does not materially assist in the classification of this 
group of instruments, although for convenience* sake it is best to 



ORIGIN OF THE TERM PALSTAVE. 



71 



treat of the two varieties of form separately. An additional 
reason for this may be found in the possibility that the loop was 
a comparatively late invention, so that the palstaves provided 
with it may be in some cases of later 
date than those without it, though 
the identity in the ornamentation of 
some of the instruments of the two 
classes, and the fact of their being 
occasionally found together, are al- 
most conclusive as to their contem- 
poraneity. 

In the present chapter I propose 
to treat of the celts with a stop- 
ridge, of the winged celts, and of 
those of the palstave form. 

The winged celts may be generally 
described as those in which the 
flanges are short and have a great 
amount of lateral extension. When 
these wings are hammered over so as 
to form a kind of socket on each side . 
of the blade, one of the varieties 
of the palstave form is the result. 
Tlie other and more common variety 
of the palstave form has the portion 
of the blade which lies between the 
wings or side flanges and above the 
stop-ridge cast thinner than the rest 
of the blade, thus leaving a recesS or 
groove on each side into which the 
handle fitted. 

I have already made frequent use 
of the term palstave, and it will bo 
well here to make a few remarks 
as to the origin and meaning of the 
word. The term palstave, or more 
properly paalstab, comes to us from 
the Scandinavian antiquaries. Their 

reason for adopting the term was that there is still in use in 
Iceland a kind of narrow spade or spud, which is known by the 
name of paalstab, and which somewhat resembles these bronze 




Fig. 48. Fig. 49. 

Icelandic "Palstavw." 



72 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [CHAP. IT. 

instruments. Woodcuts of two of these Icelandic palstaves are 
given in the Archoeological Journal* from drawings communi- 
cated to Mr. Yates by Councillor Thomsen, of Copenhagen. They 
are here by permission reproduced. The derivation of the term 
suggested in a note to the Journal is that j)aal comes from the 
Icelandic verb pula, or pala, to labour, so that the word means the 
" labouring staflF." But this appears to me erroneous. Pul, indeed, 
signifies hard, laborious work; but ^xcZi (at pcela) means to dig, and 
paU (conf. Latin pala and French pelle) means a kind of spade or 
shovel. The word, indeed, survives in the English language as peel, 
the name of a kind of wooden shovel used by bakers for placing 
loaves in the oven. The meaning of the term would appear, 
then, to be rather "spade staff" than "labouring staff/' unless 
the word labouring be used in the sense of the French lubourer. 

Mr. Thoms, in a note to his " Translation of Worsaae's Primeval 
Antiquities of Denmark," "I" says that the "term Paalstab was 
formerly applied in Scandinavia and Iceland to a weapon used 
for battering the shields of the enemy, as is shewn by passages in 
the Sagas. Although not strictly applicable to the (bronze) 
instruments in question, this designation is now so generally used 
by the antiquaries of Scandinavia and Germany, that it seems 
desirable, with the view of securing a fixed terminology, that it 
should be introduced into the archsBology of England." The term 
had already been used in 1848 in the "Guide to Northern 
Archaeology," J edited by the Earl of EUesmere, and has now, like 
celt, become adopted into the English language. 

I have not been able to refer to the passage in the Sagas men- 
tioned as above by Mr. Thoms, but whatever may be the original 
meaning of the word palstave, h; is applied by northern anti- 
quaries to all the forms of celts with the exception of those of the 
socketed type.§ 

Among English antiquaries it has, I think, been used in a more 
restricted sense. Professor Daniel Wilson II defines palstaves as 
" wedges, more or less axe-shaped, having a groove on each side 
terminating in a stop-ridge, and with lateral flanges destined to 
secure a hold on the handle. The typical example, however, 
which he engraves has neither groove nor stop-ridge, but is what 
I should term a winged celt, like Fig. 56. 

♦ Vol. vii. p. 74. t London, 1849, p. 25. t V. 59. 

^ See Nilsson, " Skandinaviska Nordona Ur-Invanare," p. 92. 
li " Preh. Ann.," 2nd ed., vol. i. p. 382. 



CELTS WITH A STOP-RIDGE. 73 

lu the present work I propose confining the term palstave to 
die two varieties of form already mentioned ; viz. the winged ceUs 
which have their wings hammered over so as to form what may be 
termed external sockets to the blade ; and those with the portion 
of the blade which lies between the side flanges and above the stop 
thinner than that which is below. 

The first form, however of which I have to treat is that of the 
celts provided with a stop ridge on each face. These are almost 
always flanged celts. 

A fine specimen, with the Htop ndge consisting of a straight narrow 
raised band across each face anii with a second curved band at some dis- 
tance below, is shown m Fig 50 It was found at Wigton, Cumberland, 




— Wiyton. 1 

and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.B.S. The face between 
the two bands has a grained appearance given it by hammering. The 
wings OT Bide flanges are also faceted by the same process. In the same 
collection is another blade (5J inches) of this form, with a small stop-ridge, 
and having the lower part ornamented with vertical punched lines, ^e 
sides have three facets, that in the centre ornamented in a similar manner. 
This celt was found at Rougham, Norfolk. I have a sketch of another 
(6J inches) found near Longtown, Cumberland, in 1860. 

I have a nearly similar specimen, but only 4 i inches lon^, from Stanton, 

Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire. Another (dj inches) with only a slight 

Etop-ridge was found at Aynhoe,* Northamptonshire, and is in the colkc- 

• Baker's " Hirt. of Norih," p. fiSS. 



74 WIXGED CELTS AND PAI,STAVES. [cHAP. IV. 

tion of Sir Henry Dryden. Fig. 51 ehowa a beautifully wrought and 
highly decorated flanged celt, provided with a somewhat curved stop-ridge 
connecting the two flanges. The two faces of the celt are ornamented 
with an interlaced pattern produced by narrow dents, with a border of 
chevrons along each margin punched into the metal. The flanges are 
worked into three facets ornamented with diagonal grooves, and the 
lower side of the sttip-ridge has a moulding worked on it. This fine 
exami>Ie of an ornamentM celt was found near ChoUerford })ridge, 
Northumberland, and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.R.S. 

A somewhat similar but unomamonted variety of instrument, partaking 
more of the ^talstave character, is shown in Fig. 52. The original was 




found in excavations at Chatliam Dockj-ard, and is now In the British 
Museum. Aa will bo seen, the recess for tho haft ends in a semicircular 
Btop-ridge. 

In Fig. 53 is shown a winged celt without stop-ridge found in Burwell 
Fen, Cambridgeshire, and now in my own collection. The side flangca 
or wings Imve been hammered into three facets, and are well developed. 
Tbf form of the blaile is otherwise that of a flat celt, except tliat tliort- is 
a slight irregularity in the sweep of tlie sides, which results fitun the 
hammering of thu "flanges. Tho form occ^nrs occasionally in Ireland, and 
one (41 inches) is flgured by Wilde.* Winged colts of nearly tho same 
form, but provided with a stop-ridge, are occasionally found. One of 
these in the British JIusoum, found at BuckncU, Hereford .shire, is shown 
in Fig. 51. The blade below tho stop-ridge is ,"„ indi thick ; above it 



'(.'at;.l. Miw. ]t. [. A.,' 



(, lig. 5 



' WINDED CELTS. 



oii]y{ inch. A celt of much the same character (7t inohea), found at 
WoWey, Warwickshire, is in the collection of Mr. M. H. Bloitam, I'.S.A. 





The double curvature of the sides may be noticed in the narrow chisel- 
lite celt shown in Fig. 55. The blade in this instance tapers both ways 
from a line just below the wings, but without there being 
any actual atop-ridge; a third slope is produced by the 
lower part of the blade haTing been drawn down by 
hammering to form the edge. The original was found 
at Culham, near Abingdon, Oxfordshire, and is in my 
own collection. 

I have another specimen, 4} inches long, and half 
u wide again aa the Culham chisel, which was found 
near Dorchester, Oxon. The blade at the lower end 
of the wings is an inch wide, but in the straight part 
between that point and the edge only a little more 
thao } inch wide. 

Although these instnunents are so narrow that tliey 
may be regarded as chisels rather than axes, yet from 
their general character ao closely resembling that of 
Fig. 53, I have thought it best to insert them here. 

A Scotch example will be subsequently cited. ^^ sa-cunam. t 

Another form of winged celt without stop-ridgG is shown in Fig. .^6. 
In this the blade is flat, and the wings, which form triangular projeciims. 



76 AVIKtiBD CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [cHAP. IV. 

etand at riglit uiigles to it. Had they been hauunered over to fonn 
BGiuit^iruutar rtK^eptaoIee on each eide of the blade tbe matrumeiit itquM 
liave beeu laoro propt'rly deecribed as a polBtave. It was found with 
others near Iteetb, in the North Hiding of Yorkshire, and is in the oolleo- 
tiun of Cunon Grecnwell, F.R.8., where are also other epecimenB of tliii 
iyjie from Linden, Northumberland (5J inches) ; Brompton, N.E,, Tork- 
^ure (3] inches) ; and Wolsiugham, Durham (5 j inches). 




g.K.^B*Hh. t Fig.AT.— DoKbotcr. i 



Fig. 57 shows a wiiig»?d celt with a broad low stop-ridge. The part of 
the blade above this is about ^ inch thinner than the part below, so that 
though transitional in character it belongs to one of the classes to which 
I would wislt to reetriut the term palstave. This specimen was found 
near Uorchester, Oxfordshire, and is in my own collection. 

I have a nearly similar ]>aistav6 (6 inches long) found in Wicken Fen, 
Cambridgeshire. In this the blade below the etop-ridge is J inch thick, 
and above it iS inch. In this as well aa in that from Dorchester the stop- 
ridge is well below the level of the side flanges. In one found on 
HoUingburj- Hill,* near Brighton, and now in the British Museum, the 
stop-ridge is nearly on tlie same level as the side flanges. It waa found 
in tlie year 1825, together with four looped armilla), a torque, and three 
spiral rings, which are said to have been arranged in a sj-mmetriral 
manner in a di.'prcwion dug in the chalk. Both the torque and the 

• Ar/h. Joiirn., vol. T. p. 324, 



TRANSITIONAL FORMS. 



77 



re were broken ; oud it is thought that this was done iatentionally, 

time of the interment. 

milar discovery is recorded as having been made in 1794 on the 

ock Hilla, when two large torques were found, within each of which 

laced a palstave. In this case, however, these instruments were of 

aped kind. 

iged celts of the type of Fig. 57 are of not unfrequent occurrence 

Iwid, though the stop-ridge is usually less fully developed. 

y also occur in France. One from Jonqui^rea* (Oise) has been 

1. I have a good specimen (6^ inches) from the Seine at Paris. 

rings are rather wider and the 

idge better defined than in the 

. One from Gaany ia in the 

un at Evreux. 

<ro are several in the GKittingen 

un, from a hoard found in mat 

jourhood. 

lally the stop-ridge is nearly on 

ime level as the part of the aide 

B on which it abuts, as will be 

n Fig. 58. This specimen was 

in the gravel of the Trent at 
ik, near Nottingham, and is in 
rn collection, llie blade imme- 
r below the stop is fluted, and 
ttom of this fluting tapers aome- 
in the contraiy direction to the 
Dg of the blade. The junction 
) fluting and the face produces 
liptic ridge of elegant outline. 
[ade ia % mch thick at this ridge, 
>ove the stop-ridge barely | inch. 

rather thinner near the stop- 

than somewhat higher up, so 
Jie blade would be as it were 
liled into the handle, if tightly 
I it. I have apecimens of much 
me type from Attleborough, Nor- 
i| inches), Newbury, Berks (6J inches), and Hay, Breckuockshire 
chea). A curious variety of this type found at Monach-ty-gwyn.| 
iberdovey, has on the bottom of one of the recesses for the handle 
iber of sunk diagonal lines crossing each other so as to form a kind 
;ice pattern. It seems to me that though this cross-hatching occurs 
ly one face of the palstave, it was intended rather as a means of 
; it a grip on the handle than as an ornament, for when hafted this 
if the instrument must have been concealed by the wood. Mr. 
'ell, however, regards it in the light of an ornament, 
in palstaves of this character are of not unfrequent occurrence in 
)rth of France. I have one from a hoard found at Bemay, near 
ille. With it were palstaves of different varieties, but none of 
irovided with loops. The form also occurs occasionally in Holland. 




Fig. 68.-CDlwkk. 



( Jr{A. de la Oaiil: 



ifA. C™»., 4th S., vol. ii. p. 21. 



78 



WIKGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. 



[chap. IV. 



In tho palatave engraved as Fig. 69, the half-oval ornament below the 
xtoii-tidge is preserved, but there is a raised bead round it. There is also 
a stigrht median ridge running down the blade. The joint of the two 
moulds in wliich it was cast can be traced upon the sides of the instru- 
ment, and it appears as if one of the moulds had been somewhat deeper 
than tlio otliur. The original was found at Barrington, near Cambridge, 
and is in my own collection. I have other specimens of the same type, 
and of nearly tho same size, from Swaffham Fen, Cambridge; and &om 
Dorchester, Oxfordshire. The semi-oUiptical ridge on the latter is larger 
and flatter than in that figured. Tho same is the case in a large sped- 
nion (0^ inches long) from Woeton, near Kobs, also in my own collection. 

1 hiLVo seen others from the Fens, near £1; (6j- inches), and from Mjlden- 
huU (Tij inches), in the collections of Mr. Marshall Fisher, of Ely, and the 
Itev. H. Banks, of Cottenham, near Cambridge. Anotier (SJ inches) 
from tho Cnrlton Bode find is in the Museum at Norwich. 





Onu from North Wales* (7J inches), in an unfinished statp, is in the 
llritish Museum. Another (6| inches) from Llanfyllin.t Montgomeryshire, 
\n hImii of nparly this typo. One from North Tj-ne (6^ inches), in the 
Nnwciiitld Musnum, Ims two of the looped ridges one below the other on 
i-iii'li riicn. In tliis tjT>e and in that subsequently described the ridgo at 
llin HJili'H of the semi -elliptical ornament sometimes dies into the upper 
piirtiif tlio blade. Tho variety like Fig. fl9 is also abundant in the North 
(if Kriiiii'i'. Tlicro were two or three in the hoard from Bemay, near 
AliliKvillo, nni] 1 huvp one frnm the neighbourhood of Lille. 

Ill Ii'ig. lid tlio same general type is preserved, but there is a vertical 
• ■' Hi.ni- Kcnuli^ii," pt. iv. 25. t JreA. Camb., Hh S., vol. viii. p. 209. 



PALSTAVES WITH ORNAMENTS ON FACE, 



79 



rib rmming down the middle of the 8eini-etli[>tical omamont below the 
stop ; and the median ridge alQng the upjitjr purt of the blade 13 more fully 
developed. In thia specimen, which is in my own collection, and was 
found at Harston, near Cambridge, there is an attempt at ornamentation 
along the sides, the angles of the blade having been hammered in such 
a manner as to produce a Beriee of small pointed oval facets along them. 

I have other specimens of the same type, but without the ornamenta- 
tion on the sides, from Burwoll, Quy, and Eeach Fens, near Cambridge, 
6 inches, SJ inches, and 6J inches long respectively. In that from Biir- 
well there ia no median ridge below the ornament. Canon Greenwell has 
line which was found with three others, one of them with a loop, near 
Wantage, Berks. 

A rather peculiar variety of this type (6J inches), found in Angloseu,* 
\ms been figured, as well as another 
irom Pciidinas Hill,| near Aberyst- 

«-ith. 

In palstaves of this class there 
ig often a slight projection on each 
of the sides a little below the level 
of the 8t«p-ridge. Below this pro- 
jection the aides are usually more 
carefully hammered and planished 
thui above it. 

In a narrow palstave of this class, 
found at Freelnnd, near "Witney, 
Oxfordshire, there are throe short 
ridges at the bottom of each of the 
receues for the handle, like those 
m a palstave from Newbury, sub- 
Mquently described. These woi-e 
probably designed to assist iu 
steadying the handle. 

ApaUtave (7i inches} from Cy- 
nvryd,t Merionethshire, appears to 
b« of this type. 

An instrument of this typo from 
Les AndelysS (Eure) has been 
figured. Another, with tlie vertical 
rib in the shield, from a hoard 

found in Normandy, haa been engraved by the Abb6 Cochet.|| 
from the Bemay hoard have a aimilar ornament. 

On some palstaves of this class there is a series of vertical ribs within 
(he semi-emptical loop, as will be seen in Fig. 61. This is taken from a 
specimen found at Shippey, near Ely, which is in the collection of Mr. 
Marshall Fisher of Ely, who has kindly allowed me to engrave it. I have 
one fnan Bottisham, near Cambridge (6J inches), on which there is it 
smaller vertical ridge, on each aide of the central ridge, within the orna- 
ment. Ono from Snettisham, Norfolk (6 J inches), like tliat from Shippey, 




Some 



• Arth. Cm*., 4th S., vol. 
t Meyrick's " CardigHjuh." 
; JrcM. Auoc. Jour*., vol, ] 
1 "L« Soine Inf.," p. 272. 



, p. 13. 



it Arm.," by Skplton, pi. ilvii. 1 



80 WINUED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [CHAP. IT. 

is ID the Norwiuh Museum. Another from Lakenheath, Suffolk (5{ 
inches), ie in the collectioa of Mr. Jamos Carter of Cambrid^;e. 

A ptdetave with thie ornament is in the Museum at Boissous. 

The tj-pe is also found in Northern Germany.* 

In some cases these vertical lines below the stop-ridce are not enclosed 
in any loop. In Fi^. 62 is shown an example of the Kind from a speci- 
men in my own coUection found in the Severn, near Wainlodes Hill, 
GlouceBter. It has a slight rib down the middle of the blade. One of 
the same class (6} inches), with four vertical stripes, found on Clayton 
Hill, Sussex, is in the coUection of Mrs. Dickinson of Ilurstpierpoint ; 




Fig. W.—ScntiL 1 Tig. e3.-8iinnin;mll. I 

four others (about 6J inches long), with five short vertical ridgea, were 
found with two of the typo of Fig. 63 in making the railway near 
BognoT, and are now in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. 

Another, apparently of the same type, found near Brighton, is en- 
graved in thp Siutej- Ai-eliaohgical CaUtctioni.] 

Another variety, having nearly the same gonernl form, but no elliptical 
ridge below the stop, is shown in Fig. 6.3, engraved from a specimen in 
my own collection, found at Sunningwell, near Abingdon. The end of 
the recess for the handle is somewhat rounded, and there is a well-marked 
central rib running down the blade. At tho upper part, near the stop 

n. Von.," vol. i. Heft. i. Taf. ir. 43. 



PALSTAVES WITH A CENTRAL RIB ON THE BLADE. 81 

ridge, there are also slight side flanges. The metal in the recess for the 
handle is thinnest near the stop, so as to be somewhat dovetailing. 

This is markedly the ease in a fine example of the same type (6^ inches) 

with the provenance of which I am unacquainted. In another, also in my 

own collection, found at Newbury, Berks, the side flanges of the blade 

are continued almost down to the edge, and the bottom as well as the end 

of the recess for the handle is roimded. Near the end of the recess are 

some slight longitudinal ribs, one on one face and two on the other, 

perhaps designed to assist in steadying the handle. The mouldings 

along the sides of the blade are often much more fully developed, like 

those on Fig. 77. 

Palstaves of this type have been obtained from the following localities : 
from South Cemey,* near Cirencester ; from the mouth of the River 
Wandle,! in Surrey, now preserved in the British Museum; from Bucks J 
(6 inches long), also in the British Museum; from Chichester; § Astley,|l 
Worcestershire ; Llangwyllog,^ Anglesea (6 J inches) ; from near Bognor,** 
Billingshurst,!! and liord, J J Sussex ; and Lovehayne,§§ near Broad Down, 
Devon (5^ inches) ; where several appear to have been found in the rough 
state in which they came from the mould. I have an example from the 
neighbourhood of Penzance. 

One (6J inches) found near Ashford, Kent, is in the Mayer Collection 
at Liverpool. One of the same kind was found with a hammer, a tanged 
chisel, broken spear-heads, and rough metal, in Burgesses' Meadow, 
Oxfoid. The hoard is now in the Ashmolean Museum. In three 
palstaves of this kind found in the peirishes of Uandrinio, || {| and Caersws, 
KontgomeTyshire, and St. Harmon, Kadnorshire, there is a hole in the 
metal between the two recesses for the handle iust above the stop-ridge. 
It has been thought by Professor Westwood that these holes were con- 
nected with the manner of fastening the instrument to its haft, but it 
appears to me much more likely that they arise from accidental defects 
in casting. This is certainly the case with two specimens of my own, 
which also have holes through the same part of the instrument, where the 
metal is thin. 

One (5 inches), rather narrower in the blade than the figure, foimd near 
Longford, Ireland, is in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. 

Palstaves with a central and two lateral ribs on the blade are of not 
unfrequent occurrence on the Continent, especially in the Nortli of France. 
I have examples much like the figure found in the hoard at Bernay, near 
Abbeville. Others, much narrower in the blade, have been discovered in 
large numbers in the North-west of France. 
Gennan examples have been figured by Lindenschmit.^^f 
In another variety the blade is nearly flat, having only a broad pro- 
tuberant ridge extending along the upper part to the stop. A palstave of 
this kind, found near Winfrith, Weymouth, Dorset, is shown m Fig. 64. 
In this, the metal between the side flanges tapers towards tlie top of the 

• Areh,, vol. x. pi. x. 2, p. 182. f Arch. Journ.y vol. ix. p. 8. 

X •*Hor» Ferales," pi. iv. 26. § Proe. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. v. p. 38. 

I AlUee, *« Wore.," p. 112, pi. iv. 4. 

f Arek. Joum.y vol. xxvii. pi. x. No. 3, p. 163. 

•• Sum. Areh. CoU.y vol. xvii. p. 255. ft Sms. Arch. Coll.j vol. xxvii. p. 183. 

XX S. A. C.f voL xxix. p. 134. {§ Trans. Lev. Aaoc.^ vol. ii. p. 647. 

I J ^Montgom. Collections," vol. iii. p. 435. 

5f "Alt. u. h. Vorz.," vol. i. Heft i. Taf. iv. 

G 



82 -WIKCBD CELTS AND PALSTAVES [cHAP. IV. 

inatrument, inatead of being of nearly even thickness, as is often the case, 
or thinnest near the stop-ridge, as it is sometimea. Close to the stop the 
metal is i inch thick, while at the top of the recess it comes to a nearly 
sharp edge. A palstave of this character was found on Kingston Hill,* 
Surrey, near Cmaaz'e Camp. 

In a specimen found at Winwiok,t Lancashire, the blade below the stop- 
ridge appears to be nearly flat. A broad flat ring of bronze, 1 J inch m 
diameter (Fig. 168), was found at the same time. It has been thought 
that this was attatihed to the shaft to prevent its sphtting. A palstave 
much like that from Winwick was found at Chagford, Devon, and is in 





Fig. OS.— Bumoll 

the possession of Mr. G. W. Ormerod, F.G.S. Another (6^ inches), from 
Ashford. Kent, is in tlio Mayer Collection at Liverpool. Another of these 

Elain palptaves, found near Llanidan,J Anglesea, with one of the looped 
ind somewhat like Fig. 76, ia engraved in the Archaologia Camhrernii. 

I have a palstave of nearly the same form, but with a more 
clearly defined semi-conicnl bracket below the stop, which was 
fouml at Massoyck, on the frontiers of Belgium and Holland. 

A short and thick form of palstave is shown in Fig. G5, engraved 
from a spocimeu found in Burwell Fen, Cambridge. On one of ita faces 

• Fror. Sof. Atil., 2ncl S., vol. i. p. R2. 

t Arrh. Atfor. Jonrn., vol. iv. pi. iit. p. 236 ; vol. xiv. p, a69. 

X STd Series, vol. liii. p. 283. 



it hsB the semi-elliptical ornament, with one vertical rib in it, below the 
itop-ridge. Od the other there are five ribs inetead of one within the 



I have another from BottiBham Fen (4| inches), not quite so heavy in 
its make, and perfectly flat below the stop-ridge. The ends of the recens 
for tiie handle are somewhat undercut, so as to keep the wood cloBO to the 
blade when a blow waa struck. 

The shortened proportions of these instnunents are probably due to 
wear. In this instance it is not improbable that the cutting end of the 
original palstave bas been broken oS, and the blunt end that was left has 
been again drawn to an edge by hammering. 

A form of palstave without any ornament below the stop-ridge is shown 
in Fig. 66. This specimen was found in 1846 at East Harnbam, near 





tTT.-BnnnU Fen. 1 

Salisbury, and is now in my own collection. The thickness of the blade 
below the stop is nearly i inch, above it but little more than i inch. The 
ndee are remarkably fiat. 

One, only 21 inehea long, merely recessed for the handle, found at 
Chatham Hill, Kent, is in tite Mayer Collection at Liverpool. 

This plain form with a square stop-ridge is found in France and in 
Western Germany. 

A long cbisel-like form of palstave is shown in Fig. 67, engraved 
from a specimeii in my own coUeetion found in Burwell Fen, Cambridge. 
It is ornamented with a semi-elliptical projecting ridge below the stop. 
The flanges at the sides of the recess have some notches running diagonally 
into them, so as to form a kind of barb, such aa would prevent the blade 
from being drawn away from the handle when bound to it by a cord. 

I have another nearly similar tool, also from the Cambridge Fens, but 

without any barbs. In a third, from the neighbourhood of Dorchester, 

a 2 



84 



WIXQED CELTO AMD PALSTAVES. 



[chap. IV. 



Oxon, there ore neitlier barbs at the sides nor any omament below the 
Btop>ridge. I have seen another of the 
same character (4i inches) which was 
found et Wolsonbury, Sussex, and is 
in the collection of Mrs. Dickinson. 
Another (4} inches), foimd in the 
Thames at Kingston, Surrey, is in the 
Unseum of the Society of AJttiquarieB. 
I have seen another (6i inches), found 
at Sutton, near Woodbrid^, Suffolk, 
in which there was a tongue-shaped 
groove below the etop-ridge, Uke Uiat 
oa the socketed celt, Fig. 148, but 
single instead of double. 

The Eev. James Beck, F.8.A. * has 
a palstave of this kind 6 inches long 
and H inch wide at the edge, with a 
projecting rib below the stop-ridge 
and also in the recess above. It was 
found at Westburton Hill, near Big- 
nor, Sussex. There are depressions 
on each side of the rib below the 
stop, forming an ornament like that 
on Fig. 81. 

A narrow palstave, apparently of the 
same character, found at Windsor,! 
is engraved by Stukeley. 

A very beautiful narrow palstave, 
found in the Thames, and now in the 
collection of General A, Pitt Rivers, 
F.E.S., is shown in Fig. 68. As will 
be seen, the angles are ornamented 
with a kind of milling, and the sides 
are also decorated with zigzag and 

t chevron patterns. 
In Fig. 69 is shown an unfinished casting for a 
palstave of unusually small size, which formed 
part of the great hoard found at Stibbard, J Norfolk. 
About seventy such castings were found, and about 
ten castings for Bpoar-heads (see Fig. 407). 
The form of palstave with the side wings or 
flanges hammered over so as to form a kind of 
semi-circular socket on either side of the blade, ie 
of rare occurrence in Britain, and is usually pro- 
vided with a loop. In Canon Gfreenwell'e collection 
is one (7 inches) without iiny ornament below the 
square stop-ridge, with the side wings slightly 
hammered over. It was found with othpre (with 
and without loops), together with a niould for 
palstaves (Fig. 527), at Hotham Carr, York- 
. shire, E. E. 

i., vol. iv. p. 442. t " Itin. Cur." Cent., ii. pi. icri. 

J AreS. Intl., Nonrich vol. p. xivi. 




PALSrrW-ES WITH A TRANSVERSE BDOB. 



In a lioaid of about sixty bronze objects found at Westow,* about 
twelve miles from York on tlie Scarborough Boad, was one palatave of 
thia kind, like Fig. 85, but without a loop, and about thirty socketed celts, 
Eiz gouges, a socketed chisel, two tanged chisels, and 
numexoua fragmentA of metal, including some jete or 
numers broken off castings. 

The type is of common occurrence in Austria, South Ger- 
many, and the South of France. 

Palstaves of the adze form, or having the blade at right 
angles to the septum between the flanges, are but very 
seldom found in Britain. A small specimen from the 
collection of Canon Greenwell, F.E.S., is shown in Fig- 70, 
It was found at Irthington, Cumberland. 

Another, from North Owersby, Lincolnshire, in the same 
collection, is shown in Fig. 71. It has a remarkably narrow 
i^sel-like blade. 

Irish examples will be subsequently cited. 

1 have, in Fig. 72, engraved for comparison a larger 

specimen in my own collection, which came from the Valley 

of the Bhine, near Bonn. One from Badenf is figured by Lindenschmit. 

Others have been found near Landehut, X Bavaria, and in Uie Bhine 
district. § One with a loop, from Hesse, {| is engraved by Lindenschmit. 





Tj. 71.— Sorth Owenbj. | 



Fig. 7S.— Bonn. 



• Areh. jittoc. Jeum., vol. iii. p. 68 ; Arch. Journ., voL vi. p. 381. 
t " Alt. n. h. Von.," vol. i. Heft i. Taf. iv. 48. 

X Von BrauDmnhl, "Alt. Deutachcn Grabmiiler" (1826), pi. i. 3; Sclireiber, "Die 
diem, Streiltrile," Taf. i. 13, Taf. ii. 14. 4 Diet. Arch, it la Oaule. 

i « Ait. n. h. Tor*.,- vol. i. Hett i. Tat. iv. 49. 



86 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [CHAP. IV. 

A long and narrow example of this type * was found at Villeder, near 
Floermely Morbikan, and has been figured by Simonin. There are speci- 
mens in the museimis at Bouen and Tours. Some have a loop on one 
face. A specimen from Escoville is in the museum at Caen. Several with 
and without loops have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings,f the 
type being tenned the Hache Troyon by Desor.J 

A beautiful palstave of the same character is preserved in the Antiken 
Cabinet at Vienna. Its sides are ornamented with four small sets of con- 
centric circles and a pattern of dotted lines, punched in after the instru- 
ment was fashioned. The form has also been found in Italy. § 

Palstaves without loops, but of which no detailed description is given, 
are recorded to have been found at the following places : — The Thames, || 
near £[ingston ; Drewsteignton,^ Devonshire ; Cundall Manor,** North 
Biding, Yorkshire; Aspatria,tt Cumberland; Ackers Common, J J near 
Warrington, Lancashire ; Bushbury, §§ Brewood, Handsworth, and a 
barrow on Morridgo, Staffordshire ; near Llanvair Station, || || Bhos-y-gad, 
Anglesea. 

Palstaves of which it is not specified whether they were provided with 
a loop or no, have been found in the Thames, ^^ near London ; the old 
Biver, Sleaford,*** Lincolnshire ; Canada Wharf ,ttt Botherhithe ; Wol- 
vey, Jf { Warwickshire ; and near Corbridge, §§§ Grlamorganshire (?) 

Plain palstaves without loops have frequently occurred with other forms 
of instruments in hoards of bronze objects. The following instances may 
be cited. Several were found with unfinished socketed celts, fragments of 
swords and spears, a socketed chisel, and lumps of metal, at Bomf ord, {| || || 
Essex. At Nettleham,^^^ near Lincoln, one was found with looped pal- 
staves, socketed celts^ spear-heads, and a tube, most of which will be men- 
tioned in subsequent pages. In the hoard at Battlefield,**** near Shrews- 
bury, a palstave without loop, a flat wedge-shaped celt, and three curious 
curved objects were found together. Other instances are given in 
Chapter XXII. 

The palstaves which are provided with a loop on one side 
present as many varieties as those without the loop. The same 
character of ornamentation occurs on the instruments of both 
classes. Indeed, for some length of time both forms appear to 
have been contemporaneous and in use together. 

Some of them are, however, entirely devoid of ornament, as will be 
seen from Fig. 73. This represents a palstave in n\y own collection 
found near Dorchester, Oxfordshire. The loop has unfortunately been 
broken off. At the stop the metal is 1^ inch thick, but the diaphragm 

♦ "La Vie Souterraine," " Mat^riaux," vol. iii. p. 100. 

t KeUer, 6ter Bericht, Taf. vii. 30; 7tcr Bcr., Taf. ix. 30. 

^ " Lc8 Palafittes," fig. 40. 

] Bull, di ralet. Ifal., vol. i. p. 10, Tuv. I. 9. 

II Arch. Journ.f vol. v. p. 327. 11 Arch. Journ.j vol. xxix. p. 9fi. 

*♦ Arch. Assoc. Journ.j vol. xiv. p. 346. ft Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 1G4. 

Xi Arch. Journ., vol. x>iii. p. 158. {§ Plot's " Nat. Hist, of Stuffordsh.," p. 403. 

nil Arch. Journ. f vol. xiii. p. 85. ^1F Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 63. 

♦*♦ Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 73. fft Froc. Hoc. Ant., 2ii(i S., vol. ii. p. 412. 

XXX Froc.lSoc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 129. 

6§§ Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 248. i||||| Arch. Journ., vol. ix. p. 302. 

tIHII Areh. Journ., vol. xviii. p. 159. ♦*♦* Froc. Hoc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 251. 



LOOPED PALSTAVES. 



betweeo the two recesses for the haft ia only | inch thick. This specimen 
is shorter than usual in the blade, which not improbably has been con* 
sidenibly worn away by use. 

A somewhat larger instrument, but of precisely the same type, found 
at Bamsbury,* Wilts, ia engraved in the Salisbury volume of the Arclueo- 
logical Institute. The Itev. James Beck, F.S.A., has one (6} inches) of 
oaiTower proportions, foimd at Pulborough, f Sussex. I have seen 
another from near Wallingford, Berks. 
Stokeley has engraved a somewhat simi- 
lar palstave found near Wiadsor4 

In some the bottom of the recesses, 
instead of being square, is rounded more 
or leas hke Fig. 52, and there is a pro- 
jecting bead round ita mar^. I have 
a narrow specimen of this kind 5| inches 
long and 1^ inch broad at the edge, 
found in the neighbourhood of Dor- 
chester, Oxen. 

A number of palstaves of this kind 
vers discovered in 1861 at Wilmington,! 
Sussex, in company with socketed celts, 
fragments of two daggers, and a mould 
for socketed celts. The whole of these 
are now in the Lewes Museum. 

In the hoard found near GiulsfieM,|| 
Montgomeryshire, were some instru- 
ment« of this kind, associated with Fig. ts.— Do 

socketed celts, gouges, swords, scab- 
bards, spear-heads, &c. Others from Strettou,^ Staffordshire (5| inches), 
and Lancashire ** (5 J inches) are engraved, though badly, in the Arehao- 
logia. Two others of this character (5 inches) were found on Hangletoa 
liown.tt n**"" Brighton, and another at Glangwnny, JJ near Caernarvon. 
I have seen others found at Sutton, near Woodbridge, SuiJolk. 
A larger example of the same type, found near Wdlingford, and com- 
municated to me bv Mr. H. A. Davy, is shown in Fig. 74. In this the 
blade is flat and wiuiout ornament. The short specimen shown in Fig. 73 
may originally have resembled this ; as such instruments must have 
been liable to break, and would then have beiin drawn out and sharpened 
in a curtuled condition; or if not broken would become eventually 
"stumped up" by wear. In the British Museum and elsewhere are 
many palstaves and celts which have been worn almost to the stump by 




re-sharpeni 
Nearly tl 



ling. 



Neany thirty palstaves, mostly, I believe, of this type, were found with 
about twelve socketed celts, like Fig. 116, and lumps of rough metal, 
near Worthing, in 1677. The whiue had been packed in an urn, of 
coarse earthenware. 

,, vol. iv. p. 442. 



• p. 112, Eg. 37. 

• " It. Cur"' Cent., ii. pi. icvi. 


t Proc. Soc. Anl., N.S., 




i Sua. Arek. Coll., vol. liv. p. 1 


.71 ; Arch. Joum.. vol. Ji. p. 19! 


1 Frtm. Bee. AhI., 2nd %., vol. 


ii. p. 251; Arch. Cami., 3cd 


'Montgoro. CoU„- vol. iii. p, 437. 
IVJ.V. p. 113. 




•• Ibid. 


ft Siat. Arch. Coll., vol. Wii. p. 


268. I; Areh., vol. Vli. p. 



88 WINQED CBLTS AND PALSTAt'ES. [CHAP. IV. 

Looped palstaves of Uie type of Fig. 74 are occasionally found in 
Treland. One with a email bead nmning down tt© centre of the blade 
found in Weet Meath is engraved in the Arehaologia.* 

One from Grenoble,t Is^e, is engraved by Chantre. 

Some palstaves of much the same general character have a median 
ridge, occasionally almost amounting to a rib, running down the blade 
below the stop. One of this kind from Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire, is 
shown in Fig. 75. On tho face of the recess there are some slightly 
raised ribs running down to the stop, which are not shown in the cut. ' 




P«. T4.— WallinEtDrd. t 



Two (6| inches) were found near Bolton Percy, Yorkshire, one of which 
is in Canon Qreenwell's coUeetion, and the other in the British Museum. 

Mr. John Brent, F.8.A., has an example of nearly tho same ty])e from 
Blean, near Canterbury, Another from Buckland, near Dover (fit inches), 
is in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. Due from Omberslcy, J Worcester- 
shire, appears to be of the same kind. I liave also a largo specimen 
{6J inchea) from Bottisham, Cambridge. 

In the palstave engraved as Fig. 76, the central rib down the blade is 
much more fully developed. It was foiind at Bras.siugton, near "Wirks- 
worth, Derbyshire, and is in my own collection. It is considerably under- 
cut at the stop, so as to keep the handle preesL-d against the central 
diaphragm of motul. 

• Vol. in, p. 84, 111. iii, I. t "Alliuni," pi. ii. 4. ; Allice, p. 108, pi. iv. 3. 



LOOPED PALOTAVE8 WITH RIBS ON BLADE. 



89 



A palrtave of the same cliaracter from Llanidan,* Auglesea, has been 
figured. It ia said to have been found with another without a loop. 
Anodier from Boston,!' Lincolnshire, ie engraved in the Archteologia. 
Others with the ribs veiy distinct were found in a hoard at Wallin^ton, 
NMihumberland, and are in the possession of Sir Charles Trevelyau. 

I have seen others of the same general character which were found at 
Downton, near Salisbuiy (5j inches), and at Aston le Walla, Northamp- 
tJ^Dshire. 

One with a narrower and more distinct midrib, found at Nymegen, 
Guelderland, Holland, ia in the museum at Leyden. 

In Fig. 77 is shown another Tariely which has two beads running down 
the ndes of the blade, in addition to the central rib. I bought this Bpecimea 





»t Bath, but I do not know where it was discovered. It is much like one 
which was fotrnd on the Quantock Hills, J in Somersetshire, and is engravwl 
m the Arehaologia. The side flanges are, however, in that case more 
iMBnge ahaped, and project to obtuse points about half an inch above 
|« (top. Two palstaves and two torques were on that occasion found 
hnried tt^ether, as has already been mentioned. One of the same type 
• (Si inches) from Elsham, Lincolnshire, is in the British Museum. 

One of narrower form (6i inches) but of the same character, found 
Wth socketed celts {some of them octagonal at the neck) at Hazey, Lin- 
wlnahire, is in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.R.S. 



■ Arch. Camb., 3rd S„ vol. j 



i. p. 102. 



90 WIXOED CELTS AND PAI^TATBS. [CHAF. IV. 

I hare nuotlier of Uie same type, but imperfect, which was found with 
ft plain bronze bracelet, and Tvhat from the description must hare been a 
tjiiiaU ribbuii-lil;e gold torque, at Winterhaj Oreen, near Ilmineter. I 
have a smaller specimen (5 inches) from the Cam.bi'idge Fens. 

The unfLnishou casting for a palstave of the type Fig. 77 (5J inches) 
was found with four looped palstaves, and one without a loop, and a 
spear-head like Fig. 4U9 at Sherford,* near Taunton, in 1B79. Some of 
the palstaves have a raised inverted chevron below the stop-ridge by 
vay of ornament. 

Palstaves of the same character, but without the loop, have already 
been described under Fig. 63. The looped type, like Fig. 77, occurs also 
in Ireland, t 

In the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of London is a heavy 
narrow looped palstave (8 inches by 2 inches) with this ornamentation, 
found in Spain. 

The central rib running down the blade is in many cases connected with 
some ornament below the atop-ridge. The ornament consists usually of 
raised ribs, either straight and converg- 
ing, as on Fig. 78, or curved so as to 
form a semi-elliptical or ehield-aha^jed 
loop, as on Fig. 79. 

The origin^ of Fig, 78 was found on 
Oldbuiy mil. Much Marde, Hereford- 
shire, and is in my own collection. I 
have a smaller example of the same type 
(6f inches) found at Hammerton, Hun- 
tingdonshire, as well as one from the 
Cambridge Fens (6 inches). 

One (6^ inches) found at Danesfield,^ 
near Bangor, has been figured. I have 
seen one found near Chelmsford (6} 
inches) with much the same ornament. 
One (6^ inches) in the Uuseum of the 
Society of Antiquaries, found in North- 
amptonshire, has the middle rib large, 
and the converging riba much slighter. 
There are some wMeh have only a slight 
central ridge on the blade, and are orna- 
mented wiA an indented chevron below 
the stop-ridge. I have one such from 
the Cambridge Pens, and I have seen 
Fig. 78.-oidbuii nui. i one (ej indies) which was found at 

Broomswell, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. 
A palstave of this character 6 inches long, found near tlie Upper 
"Wuodliouse Farm, Knighton, liadnorshire, is engraved in the Archaotogia 
<'ambren'iii.% The loop, owing to a defe<^t in t-astiug, is filled with metal. 
Six otliei-8 (6 inches long), api>arently of the same character, were found 
with some rough castings of flanged celts ut Iiho8nesney,|| near Wrexham. 
Two otlters (C inches) were found with a chisel and a sjwar-head, like 

" Pring, "The Urit. and Rom. on tlic aitu of TaiintoD," p. "G, pi. iii. 

t WildL'. "CuUl. Mua. R. I. A.," p. 381, fiR. 27a. 

I Arch. Cmb., 3rd S., vol. H. p. liiO. 4 4lh ^er., vol. vi. p. 29. |t Il.id., p. 71. 




PALSTAVES WITH SHIELD-LIKB ORNAMBKTS. 



91 



Fig. 407, at Broxton, Cheshire, and are in the collection of Sir P. de 
)1. Grey Egerton, Btirt. 

The type is found npon the continent. One from Normandy* has been 
engraved by the Abb§ Cochet. I have an example from the neighbour- 
hood of Abbeville, . 

One from near GiesBen, in the museum at Dannatadt, is figured by 
lindensclimit.t 

That with the shield-Bhaped ornament below the stop-ridge, shown in 
Kg. 79, is in my own collection, and was found near Boss. The central 
rib runs only part of the way up the shield. In a specimen from the 





Fig. TV.-BDU. i 

Cambridge Fens (5| inches) it stops short on joining the ridge forming the 
•liield. 

Id others it forms a heraldic pale running through the shield, as in five 
found at Waldron,! Sussex. 

A smaller variety, in which the vertical rib does not extend into tlie 
eliield, is shown in Fig. SO. This specimen was found at Houington, 
Suftolk. 

In some the shield-shaped ornament consists of m<^re1y two triangular 
depresrions. A palstave of this class, rather narrow at the stop-ridge, and 
*ith almost triangular blade, is shown in Fig. 81. The original, which 
is of more yellow metal than ordinary, was found in the neighbourhood of 

2'" , and is in the collection of Ur. Marshall Fisher, who has kindly 
ired me to figure it. In one such from Downton, near Salisbury, in 
tW Blackmore Muaeum, the faces of the diaphragm between the recesses 
tot the handle have raised ridges or ribs rumiing along nearly the whulu 



93 WINGED CELTS AND PAUSTAVXS. [CHAP, iV. 

length, five on one face and sis on the other. These are lon^r than in 
the Nottingham specimen shortly to he mentioned. 

In one found at Hotham Can* (SJ^ inches), Yorkshire, and now in 
Canon Oreenwell's collection, there is a bead running down the blade 
between the two depressions. 

This shield-shaped ornament belov the atop-ridge is well shown in a 
palstave from Bottisham Lode, Cambridge, engraved as Fig. 82. What 
may be called the field of the shield is on one face nearly flat ; on the 
other there are indentations on either aide of the central ridge. As will 
he Been, the extremities of the cutting edge are recurved, both in this and 
the specimen from Eobb shown in Fig. 79. It does not, however, appear that 
the instrumentB were originally east in this form, but the wide segmental 




Fig. a:.— Bottubsm. 

I, together with the recurved ends, seem to be the result of a constant 
hammeriug out of the blade, in order to renew or harden the edge. 
Though the hammer was thus freely used, the whetstone was employed 
both to polish the sides of the blade and to perfect the cutting edge. 

I have a French palstave found near Abbeville, almost identical with 
this in size and form. The shield ornament is, however, replaced by two 
triangular de]»rosaions with a rib left between them, like that on Fig. 81. 

In some specimens the ornamentation consists of a ^eater or less 
number of parallel ribs below the stop-ridge, as in that from Nottleham.* 
Lincolnshire, sliown in Fig. 83. With this were found two others and 



cA. Jeum., vol. i 



it. p. 160, irhence this 



IB roproduued. 



FALCTATBS WITH VERTICAL RIBS ON BLADE. 93 

a fourth without loop, two peculiar socketed celts, two apear-heads, and a 
ferrule, which will be suDSoqueiitly mentioned. They ore now in the 
British Museum. 

A nearly similar discovery was made in I860 uear Nottingham,* where 
> palstave was found similarly ornamented, but also having three ribs on 
the diaphragm above the stop-ridge. It was accompanied by sixteen 
Bocfceted celts, four spear-heada, a tanged knife, fragments of swords, a 
ferrule, &c. 

In Mj. Brackstone's collection was a palstave of the same tj^e, found 
neap mieskelf,! Yorkshire, in 1849, with two socketed celts, one of them 
of the peculiar type ahown in Fig. 158. 

I have a palstave found near Dorchester, Oxfordshire, of the same kind 
Bs Fig. 83, with three ribs below the atop-ridge. There are also side 





Fig. M.— >'clt 



flaages at that part of the blade of the same length and character as the 
ribs in the middle of the blade, so as virtually to make five nbe. 

Canon Glreenwell hasspecimensof this type (6^ inches) from Llandysilio, 
Denbighshire, and (6 inches) from TJbbeston, Suffolk. One (6J inches) 
from Keswick, Cumberland, in the same collection has the ribs IJ inches 
long. Another (64 inches) was found at Vronheulog.J Merionethshire, 

I have a veiy fine and perfect specimen (6J inches) from the Cambridge 
Fens, on whim the three ribs stand out in high relief and converge so as 
to fonn a triangle below the stop-ridge something like that on Fig. 78. 

" Proe. Soe. Ant., 2nd. S., vol. i. p. 332, 

t Arth. Joara., vol, i-iii. p. 99, and PriTSto Plate. 

; Arek. Cami., 4tli S., vol. viii. p. 209, 



94 WTKOBD CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [CHAF. IV. 

A palBtave, having a. series of riba upon the diaphragm as well as 
below the stop-ridge, is Bhown in Fig. 84. In this instance the upper 
series of ribs extends nearly to the top ot the instrumeat. It was probably 
thought that they assisted in making the haft firm to the blade. This 
specimen, which has been much cleaned, is in the British Museum, and 
as it formed part of the late Mr. Lichfield's collection it was probably 
found in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. 

The form of palstave, so common in France and Germany, with- 
out stop-ridge, and with the side wings hammered over so as to 
form a kind of semi-cylindricnl socket 
on either side of the blade, is rare in 
England. A specimen from the great 
find of Carlton Rode,* Norfolk, is shown 
in Fig. 85. There is usually at the top 
of the blade a sort of dovetailed notch, 
which may possibly have been made of 
service in hafting the tool. It originates, 
however, in there having been two run- 
ners by which the metal was conducted 
into the mould, which when broken off 
left two projections at the top of the 
blade. These being hammered so as to 
round the external angles and flatten the 
ends have come over towards each other, 
and made what was a notch with parallel 
FiB.ss—CM-iionHodf. i sides into one which is dovetailed. 
In this hoard were found numerous socketed celts, gouges, chisels, 
hammers, pieces of metal, &c. It seems to have been the stock in 
trade of a bronze-founder. Some other specimens from the same 
hoard will subsequently be described. 

Another palstave of the same character vas found, with many socketed 
celtii, fragments of swords and daggers, and rougli metal, at Cumberiow,t 
near Baldock, Herts. 

Three others were found in 1806, with two socketed celts, afragmentof 
a sworil, throe lumps of raw copper, and four gold armlets, on the boHch 
near Eastbourne, J immediately under Beachy Head. They passed with 
the Payne Knight collection into the British Museum. 

That found ■■ in an old wall, in Purbeck," S with the socket " douiU or 
rf/r/iferf Sy a partition" as described by Mr. Hutchins in a letter to 
Bishop Lj-ttelton in 1768, must probably have been of this kind. 

A good specimen of the same character but bent (5J inches), as well 

rol. ii. p. 80; Areh. Aitw. Jsurn., vol. i. 
" Catiil. Korwich Mus.," No. 9. 

1 Areh., vol. xvL p. 363, pi. livi{{. 

"' ■^"■-"" ** pi. XK. 6. 




IRON PALSTAVES IMITATED FROM BRONZE. 95 

•s part of another, was found at Wickham Park, Croydon, together with 
Beveral socketed celts. They are now in the British Museum. 

The upper part of a palstave of this character was found with socketed 
celts, gouges, &c., in the Hundred of Hoo,* Kent. It has been thought 
that this was cast hollow to receive a central prong, but the cavity is pro- 
bably due to defective casting. A broken instrument of this kind was 
found with socketed celts and metal on Kenidjack Cliff, f Cornwall. 

Palstaves of this type, both with and without loops, are much more 
abundant on the Contment than in Britain. Nimierous examples have 
been found in France, in Bhenish Prussia, and in the Lake habitations 
of Savoy and Switzerland. 

A Danish example is engraved by Worsaae, J and several from Germany§ 
by lindenschmit. 

Iron palstaves with and without loops, some of them closely 
approximating to the fonn of Fig. 85, but others more like the 
ordinary Italian form of palstave, with a broad chisel-Iike blade, 
have been found in the cemetery of Hallstatt. II In a specimen in 
my own collection the side flanges are ornamented with transverse 
ribs, precisely like those on some of the bronze palstaves from the 
same locality. In one instance the upper part with the flanges is 
of bronze, and the lower part of the blade of iron or steel. 

This form of instrument, with a section in the form of the letter 
H above, though easily cast, must have been extremely difficult to 
forge; and though we can readily trace its evolution in cast 
bronze, it so ill accorded with the necessary conditiofls for the 
profitable working of malleable iron that it seems soon to have 
disappeared when iron came into general use. The fact of the 
form occurring at all in iron shows that the iron instruments were 
made in imitation of those in bronze, and not the bronze in 
imitation of the iron. The same observation holds good with the 
iron socketed celts, spear-heads, and swords from the same 
cemetery. 

Looped palstaves, without sufficient details being given of their tyjies, 
are recorded to have been foimd in Harewood Square, London,^ Oxford,** 
DevonBhire,tt ^^^ with socketed celts, near Kidwelly, J J Caermarthen. 

A looped palstave rather Hke Fic'. 75 is said to have been foimd in a 
barrow near 8t. Austell, §§ Cornwall, in 1791, but no details are given. 

Palstaves provided with a loop on either side are of rare occurrence in 
the British Islands. 

A specimen found in 1871 at Penvores,||{| near Mawgan-in-Meneagc, 

• Arch. Cant., toI. xi. p. 123. f Joum. Roy, Inst, of Comw., No. 21. 

J Oldeager, fig. 1S4. i "Alt. u. h. V.," vol. i. Heft i. Taf. ir. 

I Von Sacken, "Das. Grab. v. Hallst.," Taf. vii. 

^ Arek. Joum.f toI. vi. p. 188. ♦♦ Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. ix. p. 186. 

tf Arch. Jaum.f vol. xiii. p. 86. XX Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. xii. p. 90. 

\\ Borlaoe, ** Neil. CJom.," p. 188. |||| Proc. Soe. Ant., 2nd R., vol. v. p. 398. 



WINGED CELTS AKD PAI.STAVES, 



Cornwall, is en^BTed as Fig. 86 
from Bra«Biiig:toii, Fig. 76, flie i 



£cHAP. TV. 



losely reBemblea that 
siBting in 





loop. This specimen, with another from Cornwall and two from Ireland, 
i exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries in 1873, and is now in the 
Kritish Museum. In the same collection is another, 6 J inches 
long, somewhat lighter below the stop-ridge, and having the 
central rib less fully developed on the blade. It was found in 
Somersetahire in 1868, in making the Cheddar Valley line of 
railway. Another found in 1842, near South Petherton,* in the 
eame county, is in the possession of Mr. Norris at that place. 

Another example, shown in Fig. 87 was found at Weat 
Buckland.t Somersetshire, and is ia the collection of Mr. 
W. A. Sanford. With it were discovered a torqiie(Fig. 468.) 
and a bracelet, (Fig. 481,) and also some charcoal and burnt 
bones, but there was no sign of any tumulus. Iriah speci- 
mens will be subsequently mentioned. 

Another two-looped instrument of a different character was 

found at Bryn Criig,J near Carnarvon, in company with a 

tunged knife and a pin with three holes through its flat head 

(Fig. 450). It is shown in Fig, 88, copied on a reduced 

BrjTi'Crti. ) Bcale from the Arehaological Journal. It resomblce a. flanged 

• Arch. Journ., vol. ii. p. 3S7 : vol. jl. p. 247 ; vol. iivii. p. 231). 
t Arch. Jouru., vol. xxxvii. p. 107. For tho use of thia cut 1 um indcbti^ to the 
Council of the Royal Archwological Inrtitute. J Arch. Jmira., vol. iiv. p. 2*6. 



PAL8TAVBS WITH TWO tOOPS. 



97 



««h except in having that part of the blade wluch lies between the side 
loops raised to the level of the flanges. 

In Franc© these double-looped palstaves are of rare occurrence, hut I 
have seen one much like Fig. 86 which was found in the Department of 
Haute Aridge, and is now in the Toulouse Museum. One from Tarbes* 
w in the £xposition des Sciences Anthropologiques, _ 

■t Fsria in 1S78. Another was found at Langoiran 
(Gironde). 

The form is much more abundant in Spain, but in 
most cases both the blade and the tang are long and 
Barrow in their proportions. An engraving of one from 
Andalusia is given in the Arckceological Journal,^ and is 
lure by permission reproduced as Fig. 89. I have one 
like it from a mine in the Asturiaa. One rather broader 
tnm the Sierra de Baza,^ Andalusia, has also been 
figured. A broken and unfinished double-looped pal- 
stave from Oriedo, now in the British Museum, has a 
cnp-ahaped projection at the butt end which has been 
filled with lead, possibly in old times, but for what 
purpose it is impossible to say. An engraving of one 
much like it has been published. § There are several 
I such in the Kuseums at Madrid, with the head of metal 
left on the a 



A 



The forms of celts and palstaves treated of in 
this chapter are found also in Scotland, though 
perhaps less frequently than those of the flat and 
flanged forms described in the previous chapter. 

Many so closely resemble English specimens 
that it is needless to give representations of them, 
as a reference to the figures in the preceding pages 
will sufficiently indicate their character. A^ffi^ l 

In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh is a winged celt 4i inches 
long much like Fig. 56, which was found on the top of a hill called Lord 
Aithnr's Cairn, in the parish of Tullyne3slo,|| Aberdeenshire. Another. 
S inches long, with the wings somewhat curved inwards, was found at 
Kenwell,^ in the parish of Camwath, Lanarkshire. Another winged 
tdt, 4 incheelong, was ploughed up on the estate of Barcaldine,** Argyle- 
iltire. 

In the same Museum are also winged celts (5 inches) from Birrens- 
vark, Ihimfrieeshire, and from the neighbourhood of Peebles, much like 
^t from Beeth (Fig 56). 

A chisel-shaped celt, in character much like Fig. 55, but having a slight 
*>p-ridge, was found in Burreldale Moss, ft Keith Hall, Aberdecn.shirc, 

• " JUtirisui," vol. liv. p. 192. 

t Gangais j Hsrtiiiez, " Ant. preh. c 

I ArtA. Jaum., vol. xxTii. p. 230. 

j Pnc. Sot. AM. Sat., vol. v. p. 30 ; WilsoD'a ' 

' Artk. Anot. Jaum., vol. ivii. p. 21 . •■ 

tf Aw. Snt. Ant. Seal., vol. zi. p. 163. 



S»(., vol. vi. p. lOi. 



98 WINOED CELTS AND PAIBTAVTS. [cHAP. IV. 

imd haa been Migraved by the Socie^ of Antiquaries of Scotland, to 
whom I am indebted for the use of Fig. 00. 

Ins palstave (6} inches) from Kilnotrie,* Croeemichael, Kircudbriffht, 
the lateral flanges are continued below the stop-ridge, and tliere le a 
median ridge down the blade. 

In Bomepaletaves in th,e British Museum, found between Balcarry and 
Eilfillaa, Wigtonshire, the stop-ridges inutoad of being at right angles to 
the face of the blade shelve outwards. One of them is engraved as Fig. 
91. The sides are hammered into V-shaped depressions forming a kind 
of fern-leaf [wttem along them. 

Two of these palstaves are Bgured on a larger scale in Hie ^i/r and 
Wigton CoUeciion».\ 

Another palstave from Windshiel, near Dunse, in the Antiquarian 
Uuseum at Edinburgh, has also the flanges somewhat hammered over. 





A palstave without loop, nnd which from the engraving appears to have 
a well-marked stop-ridge and to have the side flanges mucfi hammered 
over, is said to have been found near Tintot-top,l in Clydesdale. The 
description, however, says that it has no stop, otherwise the figure would 
abfflost justify an attribution of the inHtrument to Southern Germany 
rather than to Scotland. Another of much the same character, liut with- 
out iiJiy stop-ridge, baa been figured from Baron Clerk's § collection as 
having lieeii found in Scotland. 

Palstuvea witli a side loop have been said]| to be common in Scotland; 

• Wilson's " Proh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i, |). 3!C2, %. SO ; " Cut. Ant. Jlim. Kd.," E. 
48. __ t Vol. ii. pli. 8 and 9. 

I Arfh., Tol. T. p. 1)3, pi. viiL No. 2 ; Gough's "Cnuidpn," vol. i. p. ccvi. 

{ Uorilon'B "Itin. Sopteot.," p. llli, pi. 1. 6. 

I Areh. Aiaac. Joam., vol. ivii, p. ai ; Wilson, "Preli. Ann. of tit'ot.,"' vol. i. p. 383, 



SCOTTISH PALSTAVES. 



99 



but this can hardly be the case, as in the Museum of the Society of 
Aotiquaries of Scotland there are no authenticated examples. 

One from Aikbrae,* Lanarkshire (6} inches), like Fig. 77, has been 
figured. Wilson gives another example like Fig. 78, but does not 
f^j where it was found. The ** spade " he gives as his Fig. 59 is in all 
piobability Italian. 

A palstave rather like that from Balcarry, Fig. 91, but with u loop, is 
figured by Gk)rdonf as having been found in Scotland. 
What may be classed as a celt with two side loops, 
or possibly as a chisel, is said to have been found 
intneyear 1810 in a barrow near Pettycur,J Ftfe- 
akire. It is described as very strong, and the bend 
in the upx>er part, as seen in Fig. 92, is thought to 
be aoddentaL Wilson describes it as a crowbar or 
lerer, but as its total length is only 7^ inches it can 
hardly be classed among such instruments. 

A somewhat similar tool, but without holes in the || 'i 

side stops (7} inches), is in the Museum of the Boyal 
Irish Academy.§ 

Turning now to the instruments of this class 
discovered in Ireland, I may observe that it is 
80 di£Bcalt to draw the line between the flanged 
celts, tapering both ways from a central ridge, 
and those which have a slight projecting stop- 
ridge upon them, that some Irish instruments 
of the latter class have already been mentioned 
m the preceding chapter, to which the reader 
is referred for the more highly ornamented 
varieties. Other Irish types have also been in- 
cidentally cited. 

Some of the Irish palstiives mucli resemble 
English and Scottish types, but generally speak- 
ing there are sufficient peculiarities in their forms 
to enable a practised observer to recognise their 
origin. For several other varieties of form, besides those men- 
tioned in the following pages, the reader is referred to Wilde's 
Catalogue. 

Winged celts without a stop-ridge, like Fig. 53, have ooea- 
:uonaIIy been found in Ireland, and one is figured by Wilde. || I 
have one (5^ inches) from Annoy, Co. Antrim. The wide-spreading 
celt with a slight stop-ridge and segmental band upon the blade, 

• AreM. Asnoe. Joum., vol. xvii. p. 21. f " Itin. Septent.," p. 116, pi. 1. 4. 
; jirek. Journ,, vol. vi. p. 377 ; " C*t. Muh. Arch. Inst. Ed.,*' p. 27 ; Wilwm, " Preh. 
Ann. Scot./* vol. i. p. 386. 
k "CktaL," p. 621, fig. 394. || " Catal. Mua. R. I. A.," p. 373, fig. 2J8. 

H 2 



Fig. 92.— Pettycur. 



100 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [CHAP. IV. 

like Fig. 50, also occurs. A remarkably fine specimen from West- 
meath with punctured oroaments on the wings and at the lower 
margin of the band has been engraved by Wilde.' Some are 
without the segmental band. 

The type of Fig. 64 has also been found. I have a specimen 
(6 inches) from Ballinamallard, near Enniskillen. 

PfllataveB without a etop-ridge, and with broad lozenge-shaped winga, 
like Fig. 56, are of rare occurrence. One of nearly the eome type, but 
hannK a low projecting ridge between the wings, is shown in Fig. 93. 




I have another from Annoy, Co. Antrim {6 inches), with a still slighter 
transverse ridge, which forms the upper boundary to a shield-shaped pro- 
jection on the blade, on which is a central vertical ridge with two others 
on each side leas definitely marked. The base of the shield is pointed. 

A not uncommon type has a very high stop-ridge coming up to the 
level of the side wings, the blade above the stop-ridge being somewhat 
thinner than it is below. An example is shown in Fig. 94. 

I have another from County Antrim, in wliich the lower part of the 
binde has a slight median vertical ridge. 

In a palstave in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy,! with ellip- 
tical wings, a long fusiform boss has been cast in the centre of the blade. 
• " Catal. Mus. E. I. A,," p. 373, fig. 262. t Op. eil., p. 373. fig, 259. 



IRISH PALSTAVES. 



m 



In another instrument in the same collectjou the whole bUde ia 
thickened out bo aa to form the stop-ridge, as will be seen in Fig. 95. 

In other cases the ridge of the vinge is 
continued as a moulding on the face of the 
Uadfl, so as to enclose a space below the stop- 
ridge. From the base of this there sometimes 
proceeds a vertical rib, as seen in Fig. 96. 

Inverted chevrous by way of ornament 
below the stop-ridge are not uncommoa, 
•ometimes with a vertical rib in addition. 

Such compartments are often seen on the 
winged celts, with only a slight stop-ridge. 
Tig. 97 shows an example from Lanes- 
borough, Co. Longford, now in the collection 
of Canon Oreenwell, F.B.S. The compart- 
ment is ornamented with vertical punch 
marks. The outside of the wings is faceted 
after a fashion not unusual in Ireland, but 
there ia here a slight shoulder at the base 
of the central facet which may have assisted 

m nonring the blade to the handle. On a Fig. b5.— ireiud. i 

(pedmen at Dublin there ate on the otber- 

wiw flat sides elevated transverse ridges, which, as Sir W. Wilde* 
hu pointed out. may have served " to keep the tying in its place." 





102 WIKOED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [CHAP. IV. 

The sides of other specimenB of much the same type are otherwise 
fashioned and ornamented. Xn Fig. 98 is shown a celt from Trillick, Co. 

Tyrone, on the sides of which a kind of 

^^^^B A fem-Ioaf pattern has been hammered, 

^^^H^ ^ft or rather punched, not unlike the canr- 

^^^^H ^H ing on one of the stones in the great 

^^^^D ^^H chambered tumulus of New Grange. 

^^^^H ^^H The shield plate has two vertical hol- 

^^^HH i^^H lows worked on it. 

^^^H| ^^H The aide of a celt ornamented in the 

^^^^|h ^^^I same manner is engraved by Wilde.* 

^^^^^H ^^^m A smaU palstave, with two vertical 

^^^^^HB ^^^m grooves in the blade, is shown in Fig. 99. 

^^^^^^ft ^^V Another form of winged celt, with a 

^^^^^^^& ^B low stop-ridge and with a vertical rib 

J^^^^^^^^^L H passing through an inverted chevron 

^^^^^^^^^^ H "'^ ^^ blade, is shown in Fig. 100. 

J^^^^^^^^^^ 11 The original is in the collection of Hr. 

(^^^^^^^^ H Bobert Day, F.S.A. 

^^^^^^^^^^^ W The same style of ornament occurs 

" on palstaves of other forms-t 

tw. wt-Tnihck. ! j^;^ ^^g iuBtanceB, there is in the 

centre of the stop-ridge a kind of bracket on the blade, and the side wings 

are hammered over so as to form an imperfect socket. A small examjile 




of the kind is shown in Fig. 101. I have a larger specimen {■IJ inoliu^', 

from Trillick, Co. Tyrone. VallanceyJ engraves a palstave of this type. 

• " Cutal. Mus, li. I, A,." p. 379. Sg. 270, t Vallancey. vol. iv. pi, i. 7. 



LOOPED IKISM PAL8TA\'E8. 



103 



Othen vitli flat blades am] no brackets linre the Bide flsngee hammered 
OKT in the same manner. 

_ A fine example, in which tho conical bracket dies into the etop-ridge and 
»do flanges, is in the British Museum. 

Palstarea with a loop at the side are ant of such froquont occurrence in 
InUnd as those without, Wilde " has engraved a specimen (6| inches) like 
Rg. 77 as well as that t which I have here shown on a larger scale as 
^. 102. This latter has the wings well hammered over at the base, bo 
la to form a hind of socket on each side of the blade. It differs, however, 
from the Rnglinh and foreign specimens like Fig. 85 in having a well- 
nuuked shoulder or stop on the blade between the winge. 

fUstaves of nearly the same character, but without the loop, have 
lintAy been mentioned as found both in Ireland and Scotland. Others, 




Fia. IOt.-IreItuid. ( Fig, 103.— Ireluia. J Fly. iw.— IreLmd. t 



vith loops like Fig. 103, have a bracket on the blade between the 

A remarkable form with slight side flanges and no stop-ridge, from tlie 
Dublin Museum, is shown in Fig. 104. It is No. 630 in Wilde's Cata- 
]ogue. The sides have deep diagonal nott^hcs upon them and the upper 
part of each face is clieiiiiered, perhaps in order to assist in steadying 
the blade in its handle. 

Another noteworthy palstave, found at Miltown, Co. Dublin, is shown 
in Fig. 105. In this the side wingw are not hammered over, and the stop is 
supported by a conical bracket. The ehoidders, instead of being nearly 
square to the midrib, are inclinc<IupwardBat an angle of nearly 45°, soas ti> 
form receptacles in which the wedge-shaped ends of the split handle would 
)>e held tight against the blade. These inclined stops have been observed 
in othnr palstaves of different foniia, and Sir W. Wilde J lias called atten- 
tion to them in conne<>tion with a palstave much like that now under 
i.-un.tideration, but without any pn>jection or loop on the side. The most 
remarkable feature in the Miltown example is a projec-ting, slightly 

• P. 381. fig. 273, '■ P. 379, lig. 26o. J " Catal. JIub, R. I. A.," p, a77. fig. 2S8. 



104 TVINOKD CELTS AMD PALOTAVES. [cHAP. IV. 

curved apike or neb placed near the top of the blade rather above tke 
poBition usually c«!ciipied by the loop. At first sight it looks like an 
imperfect loop, but, on examination, it is evident that the castinK is per- 
fect ; and, on consideration, it seems clear that this projection wotud serve 
quite as well as a loop for receiving a cord to hold the blade back upon 
ite haft, while for the actual tying it would be more convenient, as Ihe COTd 
would have merely to be paisBed over a hook, and not to be threaded 
through a loop. In a some^^iat similar palstave (3f inches) in the Museum 
of the Hoyal Irish Academy* there is also a projecting neb, but aore 
semicircular in oumne. I am not 
sure that it was intended for the 
same purpose. A looped palitave 
of this type, but with the bottom of 
tho side socket more circular, is en- 



tho Bologna hoard have curved nebs 
on each ude instead of rings. In- 
stnunents of the same charicter, 
also from Italy, have been engraved 
by De Bonstetten,! ScliTeiber,§ and 
CayluB.II 

Double-looped palstaves, with a 

loop on either side, and in character 

like Fig. 86, are almost or quite as 

rare in Ireland as in England. The 

only specimon engraved by Wilde H 

is m the collection of Lord Talbot 

de Malaliide. It is 6} inches long: 

with the loops not quite symmetrical. 

It was supposed to be unique, I 

have, however, another specimen of 

this type (6| inches) found at Bal- 

Fig. i<«.-MUt™TL i lincolLg,** Co. Cork, in 1854, which 

was formerly in the collection of the 

Eev. Thomas Hugo, P. 8. A. It so closely resembles Kg. 86 that it is not 

worth while to engrave it. 

Another remarkable and indeed unique instrument, in the Uuseum of 
the Boyal Irish Academy.ft Is shown in Fig. 106. It is like a flat celt, 
but has grooves and stops at the side like a palstave with a transverse 
edge. Below the stops are two loops. The sides below the stops are 
ornamented with transverse hues, and on the face here shown there is a 
dotted kind of cartouche below tho stops, and a square compartment 
chequered in lozenges above them. This latter is wanting on the other 
fiico, but the corresponding cartouche below is divided into small lozeugew 
uUeniatcly hatched and ])lain. 

ij. 433, No. an. f Vol. iv. pi. X. 1. 

cI'Autiq. SuiB8i«," pi. ii. 6. Sco nliio jirc/i. Juurii., vol. vi. p. 377; vol 
XXI. p. 100. 
t "DiceliiT. Streilkeilp," Taf. ii. 8. 
H ■' CttUl. Ma*. R. 1. A.," p. 3H2, llg. 271 
" Pror. AV. ^nl., vol. iii. p, 222. 
tt "Cata!.."p. 621, flg. 3')3; Arri. J„ur„.. v,.l. viii. p. »1, pi, Sn. I. 




IRISH PALSTAVES WTTU TRAKS^'BRSE EDGE. 



Anotlier Irisli instrument of nearly the aame form, but without the 
giooTe* and stops at the eidee, Ib in the Bell Collection in the Antiquarian 




ng. 100.— Irduid. ( 



Fift. lOT.— Ireluid. i 



e of finding is uncertain. It it 



Idueom at Edinburgh ; but its exact pli 

■hoTD in Fig. 107, and, like 

that last described, has each of 

iufscas ornamented in a dif- 
ferent manner, 
The palstaTes with a traiu- 

Tcmeedgfl are of more common 

occurrence in Ireland than in 

England, but are even there 

Teiy rare. That engraved as 

Fig, 108 waa formerly in the 
coUection of the Rev. Thomas 
Hugo, F.8.A.* A similar tool 
is figured by Vallaneey-f 

I^e smaller specimen shown 
in Fig. 109 was found near 
Ballymena, Co. Antrim, and in 
in the collection of Mr. Robert 
Day, F.8.A- I have one from 
the North of Ireland (4 inches] 

with the stops lees diatinct. Fig. lUO.— IrelmnU. ( Fig. km,— llgUj-iueuB. i 

Another Iriah specimen (3 
inches] is tn the British Miiseum. In the Museiun of the Boyal Irish 
Academy are several varying in length from '2g inches to 5} inches. 
They are classed by Wilde* among the chisels. 

t Vul. iv, pi. I. 8. 




106 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. [cHAP. IV. 

In describing the various forms illustrated by the figures, I have 
from time .to time called attention to the analogies which thej 
present with other European forms, and it is hardly necessary to 
make any broad comparison of British palstaves and winged celts 
with those of other European countries. It would indeed be a 
difficult task to attempt, as in each country, if not in several dis- 
tricts in each country, the instruments of this kind are characterised 
by some local peculiarity. 

Perhaps it will be more instructive to mention certain conti- 
nental forms which are conspicuous by their absence in Britain. 

We have not, for instance, the southern French form with a 
kind of contracted waist and broad side flanges or rounded wings 
in the middle of the blade ; nor, again, the long narrow form 
almost resembling a marrow spoon ; nor that with the almost 
circular blade, much like an ancient mirror. Nor have we the 
German form, with the V-shaped stop- ridge, nor that in which the 
stop-ridge forms a circular collar above a blade with headings 
along the sides. Nor have we the common Italian form, with the 
blade like a long spud ; nor, again, the narrow Scandinavian form, 
which is often highly decorated. 

And yet, in comparing the instruments described in the present 
chapter with those of neighbouring countries, and especially of 
France, it will at once be remarked that, as might have been 
reasonably expected, the closest analogies are to be observed 
between some of those of England and France, while in the more 
peculiarly Scottish and Irish types the resemblances are more 
remote. It must, however, be borne in mind that there is good 
evidence in the shape of moulds and bronze-founders' hoards, such 
as will subsequently be mentioned, to prove that these instruments 
were cast in various parts of this country ; so that, though some 
palstaves may be of foreign origin, yet, as a rule, it was the 
fashion of the objects rather than the objects themselves for which 
the inhabitants of Britain were indebted to foreign intercourse. 
Even in the area now embraced by France there does not appear 
to have been any single centre of manufacture, but, taken as a 
group, the palstaves of the South, the North, and the North-west 
of France present some distinguishing characteristics. The same 
is the ease with the socketed celts of that country, the English 
representatives of which will be discussed in the next chapter. 



CHAPTER V. 

SOCKETED CELTS. 

TuE class of celts cast in such a manner as to have a socket for 
receiving the haft is numerously represented in the British Isles. 
In this form of instrument the haft was actually imbedded in the 
blade, whereas in the case of the flat and flanged celts, and of the 
80-called palstaves, the blade was imbedded in the handle, so that 
the terms, " the recipient ** and '* the received," originally given 
to the two classes by Dr. Stukeley, are founded on a well-marked 
dbtinction, and are worthy of being rescued from oblivion. 

Tliat the recipient class is of later introduction than the received 
is evident from several considerations. In the first place, a flat 
blade not only approaches most nearly in form to the stone 
hatchets or celts which it was destined to supersede, but it also 
requires much less skill in casting than the blade provided with a 
socket. For casting the flat celts there was, indeed, no need of a 
mould formed of two pieces ; a simple recess of the proper form 
cut in a stone, or formed in loam, being sufiieient to give the shape 
to a flat blade of metal, which could be afterwards wrought into 
the finished form by hammering. And secondly, as will subse- 
quently be seen, a gradual development can be traced from the flat 
celt, through those with flanges and wings, to the palstave form, 
with the wings hammered over so as to constitute two semi-cir- 
cular sockets, one on each side of the blade ; while on certain of the 
socketed celts flanges precisely similar to those of the palstaves have 
been east by way of ornament on the sides, and what was thus 
originally a necessity in construction has survived as a superfluous 
decoration. There is at least one instance known of the inter- 
mediate form between a palstave with pocket-Uke recesses on 
each side of a central plate and a celt with a single socket. In 
the museum at Trent * there is an instrument in which the socket 

♦ •* Matcriaux/' vol. iii. p. 395. 



108 SOCKETED CELTS. [gHAP. V. 

is divided throughout its entire length into two compartments 
with a plate between, and^ as Professor Strobel says, resembling a 
palstave with the wings on each side united so as to form a 
socket on each sida The evolution of the one type from the 
other is thus doubly apparent, and it is not a Uttle remarkable that 
though palstaves with the wings bent over are, as has already been 
stated, of rare occurrence in the British Islands, yet socketed celts, 
having on their faces the curved wings in a more or less rudimentary 
condition, are by no means unfrequently found. The inference 
which may be dra\vn from this circumstance is that the discovery 
of the method of casting socketed celts was not made in Britain but 
in some other country, where the palstaves with the converging 
wings were abundant and in general use, and that the first socketed 
celts employed in this country, or those which served as patterns 
for the native bronze-founders, were imported from abroad. 

Although socketed celts, with distinct curved wings upon their 
faces, are probably the earliest of their class, yet it is impossible to 
say to how late a period the curved lines, which eventually became 
the representatives of the wings, may not have come down. This 
form of ornamentation was certainly in use at the same time as 
other forms, as we know from the hoards in which socketed celts 
of different patterns have been found together. As has already 
been recorded, the socketed form has also been frequently found 
associated with palstaves, especially with those of the looped 
variety. 

The form of the tapering socket varies considerably, the section 
being in some instances round or oval, and in other cases present- 
ing every variety of form between these and the square or rect- 
angular. There is usually some form of moulding or beading 
round the mouth of the celt, below which the body before expand- 
ing to form the edge is usually round, oval, square, rectangular, 
or more or less regularly hexagonal or octagonal. The decora- 
tions generally consist of lines, pellets, and circles, cast in relief 
upon the faces, and much more rarely on the sides. Not unfre- 
quently there is no attempt at decoration beyond the moulding at 
the top. The socketed celts are, almost without exception, devoid 
of ornaments produced by punches or hammer marks, such as are 
so coniiiion on the solid celts and palstaves. This may be due to 
their being more liable to injury from blows owing to the thinness 
of the metal and to thoir being hollow. Tliey are nearly always 
provided with a loop at one side, though some few have been 



HEIR EVOLUTION FROH PALSTAVES. 



lOf) 



east without loops. These are usually of Bmall size, and were 
probably used as chisels rather than as hatchets. A very few have 
■ loop on each side. 

The types are so Tarious that it is hard to make any proper 
dusificatioQ of them. I shall, therefore, take them to a certain 
extent at hazard, keeping those, however, together which most nearly 
^roxioiate to each other. I begin with a specimen showing in a 
very complete manner the raised wings already mentioned. 

This inBtniment formed part of a hoard of colts and fragments of metal 
foimd at High Boding, Essex, and 
now in the British Museum, and is 
represented in Fig. 110. With it 
Tfts one with two raised pellets 
beneath the moulding round the 
mouth, and one with three longi- 
tudinal ribs. The others were 

Another (4 inches), with a treble 

moulding at the top, from Water- 

ingburj, Kent, was in the Douce 

■nd Meyrick CollectionB, and is 

now also in the British Uoseum. 
I have a German celt of this 

^pe, but without the pellets, 

loand in ThurinKia. Others are 

engraved by liindenschmit,* Mon- 
ism,! and Cbantre.^ I have a 

good example from Lutz (Eure 

et Loir). 
On man; French celts the wings 

are shown by depressed lines or 

grooves on the faces. I have spe- 
cimens from a hoard found at 

Dreuil, near Amiens, and from 

lAisancj, near Bheims. Others 

Tith the curved lines more or less 

distinct have been found in va- 
liooB parts of France. 

There is an example from Mauhn in the Museum at Namur, and a 
Dutch example is in the Museum at Assen. 

In Fig. in is shown a larger celt in my own collection, found in the 
neighbourhood of Dorchester, Oxou. The wing ornament no longer con- 
sists of a solid plate, but the outlines of the wings of the palstave are 
^lown by two bold projecting beads which extend over the sides of the 
celt as well as the faces. The socket is circular at the mouth, but the 
neck of the instrument below the moulding is eubquadrate in section. In 
the socket are two small projecting longitudinal ribs, probably intended 




Roding- 



• ■' Alt. a. h. v.," vol. i. Heft ii. Taf. ii. 6. 
t "Cong, pttk.," Bologn* vol. p. S93. 



" Age da Br.," ptie. i. p. • 



110 ROCKETED CEl.TB [cHAP. V. 

to aid ill Btpailying the haft. 8uch projectionn are not very uncommon,, 
and are aometimee more than two in number. 

A celt ornamented in a similar maimer, but with two raised bands near 
the mouth, was found with several other socketed celts and some pal- 
staves n-ith the wings bent over at Cumberlow,* near Baldock, Herts. 
Some of these are in the British Museum. 

Aiioth«?r with two small nelleta between the curred lines was found 
in a hoard at Beddinglon,t biirrey. 

Fi^. 112 represento another celt of much the same character, but with a 
balder moulding at top, and a slight projecting bead all round the instru- 
ment juat below the two curved linos representing the palstaTe Tings, 
wliivfa on those celts have just the appearance of heraldic "flanches." 
___^ On the face not shown there is 

/^l^^^ a triangular projection at the 

^H^^^^^B ^^^^^ top like a "pUo in diief " be- 

WQ^^^^^H ^^^^^^k tween the flanches. Inside tJie 

nH^^^V ^^^^^^^K socket there are two longitudinal 

^^^^^^ ^^^^^^Iv pivjections as in the last. The 

^^^^^^^^ original of this figure, which has 
been broken and repaired with 
the edge of another celt, is in 
the Blackmoro Uuseum at Salie- 
buTj, and was probably found 
inWUts. 

In the British Museum is an 
example of this type (4 inchos) 
which has on one face only a 
pellet in the upper part of the 
compartment between the two 
"flanches." It was found at 
Hounslow. 

Another (4 inches) &om the 

Ileathery Bum Gave, Durham, is 

now in the collection of Canon 

Greenwell, F.E.S. I have one 

with the pattern less distinct from 

a hoard found in the Barking 

— HdTty. i Marshes, Essex, in 1862. A celt 

much of the same pattern, but 

without the transverse Uno below the flanchee, was found on Plumpton 

Plain, t near Lewes. 

The same type occurs in France. I havo examples from a hoard found 
at Dreuil, near Amiens. The same ornament is often seen on Hungarian 
celts, though usually without the lower band. 

In Fig. 113 is shown one of the celts from tlio hoard discovered in the 
Isle of Harly,§ Kent, to which I shall have to miike frequent reference. 
Besides eight more or l*«s perfect unomaiuouted aocketod celts, various 




• Joati 



"Cmydon Prah. nml 11 



WITH CURVED 1 



111 



hunmerB, toub, and moulds, five celts of this type were found. Although 
BO cloael; resembling each other that they were probably cast in the eauie 
mould, in fact in that which was found at the same time, there is a con- 
eider&ble difference observable among them, especially in the upper part 
above the loop. In the one shown in the figure there are three distinct 
headed mouldings above the loop, and above these again is a plain, some- 
what expanding tube. In one of the otliers, however, there are only the 
two lowest of me beaded mouldings, and the upper half-inch of tli» cett 
first mrationed is absolutely wanting. The three otJiers show very little 
of th^ plain part above the upper moulding. As will subsequently be 
explained, the variation in length appears to be connected witli the 
method of casting, and to have arisen n'om a greater ]mrt of the mould 
having been "stopped off" in 
one caae than another. It will 
I« noticed that the "flanches" 
on theee celts are placed below 
the loop and not close under the 
cap-moidding. The beads which 
form them are continued across 
the eidee. Running part of the 

way down inside the socket are 

two longitudinal ridges which are 

in the same line as the runners 

by which the metal found its way 

into the mould. The verticil 

ridge above the topmost moulding 

shows where there is a channel in 

the mould for the metal to pans 

by. If the celts had been skil- 
fully oast so that their top was 

lerel with the upper moulding, 

netraces of this would have boon 

risible. 
In Fig. 114 is shown one of 

the plain socketed celts from the 

Mme hoard. The mould in wliich 

it was cast was found at the same 

time, as well as the half of a 

mould for one of smaller sine. 

The five other plain celts front 

(he same hoard were all rather lesn than the one which is figured, and 
appear to have been cast in three different moulds, as the beading 
round the top varies in character, and in some is double and not single. 
The two projections within the socket are in these but short, though 
strongly marked. 

In the British Museum is a celt of this kind, 4 inches long, found at 
Newton, Cambridgeshire, which on its loft face, as seen with the loop 
towards the spectator, has a small projecting boss \}j inch below the top. 

Five socketed celts of this plain chnmctor ('2J^ inclioH to 3J inches) were 
found togethor at Lodge Hill, Waddesdou, Bucks, in lH-5.5, and were 
lithographod on a private pinto by Mr. Kdward Rione. 
The outline and general character of tlie celt shown in Fig. 115 may be 




112 SOCKETED CELTS. [cHAP. V. 

taken as ropreeentative of one of the most common forms of English 
tiObket«d celt. This particular specimen differs, however, from the ordi- 
nary form in having a ridge or ill-defined rib on each face which adds 
materially to the weight and somewhat to the strength of the instm- 
ment. It was found near Dorcheeter, Oxon. 
A nearly similar oelt found in Mecldeaburg has been figured by Lisch,* 

A larger celt of the same general chanicter, found with s hoanl 

of bronze objects in Reach Fen, Burwell Fen, Cumbridge, is sliown 

in Fig. 116. This may also be regarded as a characteiistic specimen 

of the socketed celts usually 

« found in England, though the 

second moulding is often ab- 
sent, and thero is a consi- 
derable range in size and in 
. . the proportion of the width 

IU^t/KL ^0 t,lie length. No doubt 
^^^^^pi much of this range is due to 
^^H^HI some instruments having been 
^^^^^ more shortened by use and 

^^^^^^ft wear than others. The edge 
Ugj^^H of A bronze tool must have 

^^^^^1 been constantly liable to be- 
Vj^^^l come blunted, jagged, or bent, 

^^^^1 nnd when thus injured was 

^^^^H doubtless, to some extent, re- 

^^^^^K stored to it.s original shape 
^^^^^^^ by being hammered out, and 
^^^^^^^ then re-ground and sharpened, 
^■^^~'^"'' ^ii'^",™" The repetition of this process 

would, in the course of time, 
materially diminish the length of the blade, until eventually it 
would be worn out, or the solid part be broken away from the 
socketed portion. 

Celts of this gonf-ral character, plain with the exception of a single or 
double heading at the top, occur of various sizes, and Iiave been found in 
considerable numbers. In my own collection are apoeimens (.3 inches) 
from Westwick Kow, near Gorhambury, Herta, found with lumps of 
rough motal ; from Burwell Fen, Cambridge (!tj inches), found also with 
metal, a spear-head like Fig. 381 and a hollow ring ; from Bottisham, 
Cambridge (3 inches), and other places. 

In the Reach Fen hoard already mentioned were some other celts of 

• " Pfuhlbsuten, in M.," 1865, p. 78. 



PIAIN WITH A BEADING BOUND THE MOUTH. 113 

this type. They were associated with gouges, chisels, knives, hammers, 
andotiber articles, and also with two socketed celts, one like Fig. 133, and 
two like Fiff. 124, as well as with two of the type shown in Fig. 117, 
with a small bead at some little distance below the principal moulding 
round the mouth. One of them has a slightly projecting rib running 
down each comer of the blade, a peculiarity I have noticed in other speci- 
mens. The socket is round rather than square. 

I have other examples of this type from a hoard of about sixty celts 
found on the Manor Farm, Wymington, Bedfordshire (3 J inches) ; from 
BurwellFen, Cambridge (4 inches) ; and from the hoard found at Carlton 
Bode, Norfolk (4 inches). This last has the slightly projecting beads 
down the angles. 

Socketed celts partaking of the character of the three types last described, 

and from 2 inches to 4 inches in length, are of common occurrence in 

England. Some with both the single and double mouldings were found 

in company with others having vertical beads on the face like Fig. 124, 

and a part of a bronze blade at West Halton,* Lincolnshire. I have seen 

others both with the single and double moulding which were found with 

some of the ribbed and octagonal varieties, a socketed knife, pcurts of a 

sword and of a gouge, and lumps of metal, at Martlesham, Suffolk. 

These are in the possession of Captain Brooke, of Ufford Hall, 

near Woodbridge. Another, apparently with the double moulding, 

was found with others (some of a different type), seven spear-heads, and 

Dortions of a sword, near Bilton,t Yorkshire. These are now in the 

Bateman Collection. Another wilh the single moulding was found near 

Windsor. J Others with the double moulding, to the number of forty, were 

found with twenty swords and sixteen spear-heads of different patterns, 

about the year 1726, near Alnwick Castle, § Northimiberland. Some also 

occurred in the deposit of nearly a hundred celts which was found with a 

quantity of cinders and lumps of rough metal on Earsley Common, || about 

12 miles N.W. of York, in the year 1735. A socketed celt with the single 

moulding was found with spear-heads, part of a dagger, and some small 

whetstones, near Little Wenlock,^ Shropshire. Four socketed celts of this 

cla«8 with the double moulding were found, with a socketed gouge and 

about 30 pounds weight of copper in lumps, at Sittingboume,** Kent, in 

1828. They are, I believe, now in the Dover Museum. One (4J inches), 

obtained at Honiton,ft Devonshire, has a treble moulding at me top, that 

in the middle being larger than the other two. The socket is square. 

A plain socketed celt, 2 J inches long, was foimd in digsnixg gravel 
near Caesar's Camp, J J Coombe Wood, Surrey. It is now in the Museum 
<rf the Society of Antiquaries. In the collection of Messrs. Mortimer, at 
Fimber, is a celt with the double moulding (3 inches long), found at 
Frodingham, near Driffield, which has four small ribs, one in the centre 



of each side running down the socket. Another, with the double moulding 
(4 inches), and with a nearly round m 



~ , .- — - %^ 

mouth to the socket, was found at Tun 



• Areh, Joum,, vol. x. p. 69. 

t Areh. Auoe, Joum., vol. v. p. 349 ; Bateman, Catal. M. 60, p. 76. 

t Btukeley, "It. Cur.," pi. xcvi. 2nd. § Arch., vol. v. p. 113. 

11 Arch., vol. V. p. 114. 

S Hartuhome's "Salopia Antiqua," 1841, p. 96, No. 9. 

•• Smith's " Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 101. 

ft Engraved in Areh. Joum., vol. xxvi. p. 343. 

XX Pfitc, Soe, Ant,, vol. i. p. 67 ; 2nd S., vol. i. p. 83. 

I 



114 SOCKETED CELTS [CUAF. T. 

Hill, near Devizes, and b in tlie Blackmore Museum, where is also one 
found nenr ISath (3J inehee) with the moiJdings more uniform in size. 

A aocketed celt without any moulding at the top, which is hollowed and 
elopes away from the side on which is the loop, is said to have been found 
in a tumulus near the King Barrow on Stowborough Heath,* near 
Wareham, Dorset. 

Socketed celts of this character occur throughout the whole of France, 
but are most abundant in the northern parts. They are of rare occur- 
rence in Germany. 

The same form is found among the Lake habitations of Switzerland. 
Dr. Gross has specimens from Auvemier aud Moerigen.f which closely 
resemble English examples. 

A celt of the same general character as Fig. 114, but of peculiar form, 

narrowing to a central waist, is shown in Fig. 118. The original wa« 

found at Canterbuiy, and was 

kindly presented to me by Mr. 

John Brent, F.S.A. 

Broad socketed celt« nearly 
circular or but slightly oval at 
the neck, and closely resembling 
the common Irish type (Fig. 167) 
in form and character, are occa- 
sionally found in England. That 
shown in Fig. 119 is stated to 
have been discovered at the 
CasUe Hill, Usk, Monmouth- 
shire. 

I have seen another (3} 
inches) in the collection of Mr. 
R. Fitch, F.S.A., whidi was 
found at Hanworth, near Holt, 
Norfolk. 

Among those found at Gulls- 
field,! Montgomerj-shire, waa 
Fig. lis.— u«k. ) one of somewhat the same cha- 

racter, but having a double 




Fig. lis.— Cmterbuij. 1 



vith a nearly square socket, has above 
) moulding round the mouth, hke that on 
I looped palstaves, gouges, spears. 



moulding at the t«p. Another,| 
a double moulding, a cable mc 
Fig. 172. In the same board i 
swords, scabbards, &c. 

Another, that, to judge from a bad engraving, had no moulding at 
the fop, which was oval, is said to have been found und<>r a supjixised 
Druid's altar near Keven Hirr Vynidd,|| on the borders of Brecknockshire. 

Another varietj-, with n nearly square socket and Ion"; narrow 
blade is shown in Fig, 120, the original of which was found at 
Alfriston, Sussex. The loop is imperfect, owing to defective cast- 

• "Tlio Burrow Digftprs," p. 74. 

t GrosB. '■Df:ii:( Stations, ic," pi- ■- l-'i '8. 

t A.el,. Ciiui., 3nJ S., vol. i. p. 211, No. 4 ; ■• Montg. CoU.," vol. iii. p. 137. 

i Arch. Camb., ubi tup. Ko. 3. || Areh., vol. iv. p. 21, pi. i. fl. 



OF A GAULISH TVFE. 



115 



ing. The socket is very deep, and extends to within an inch of 
the edge. Instruments of this type are principally, if not solely, 
found in our southern counties. The type is indeed Gaulish 
rather than British, and is very abundant in the north-western 
part of France. It appears probable that not only was the type 
originally introduced into this country from France, but that there 
was a r^ular export of such celts to Britain. For I have in my 
coUection a celt of this type, 4} inches long, that was found under 
the pebble beach at Portland, and in which 
the core over which it was cast still tills the 
socket, the clay having by the heat of the 
metal been converted into a hrick-Iike terra- 
cotta. It could, therefore, never have been 
in use, as no haft could have been inserted. 
U is waterwom and corroded by the action 
of the sea, the loop having been almost eaten 
and worn sway, so that it is impossible to 
say whether the surface and edge were left 
as they came from the mould. In the large 
hoard, however, of bronze celts of this type 
which was found at Moussaye, near Pl^n^e- 
Jugon, in the Cotes du Nord, the bulk were 
left in this condition, and with the burnt 
clay cores still in the sockets. 

I have another celt of the same size and 
fonn as that from the Portland beach, which 
was found near Wareham, Dorset, and ap- 
pears to have been in use. 

Two found with many others in the New 
Forest* (3 and 5 inches lonf;) are engraved in 
the ArehiBolagia. The larger has a rib 3 inches 
long running down the face and terminating in 
ttn annulet. 

Others of the same type have been foimd at HoUingbury HiU,t and 
near the church at Brighton, :[ SuBse:i. 

Among the celts found at Kam Brc, Cornwall, in 1744, were some of 
this chajract«r, but expanding more at the cuttinf; edge. Others were 
more lite Fig. 124, though longer in proportion. With them are said to 
hare been found several Boman coins, some as late as the time of 
Conetantius Chlorus. Others (5 inches long) seem to have formed, part 




Fig. ISO.— AUriibni. 



• ^re*.,Tol.T.p. l»,pl. viii. 9, 10: Gough's 
t Sun. Arek. Call., vol. ii. p. 268, fig. 7. 
X Ibid., flg. 12. 



' Camden," vol. i 



116 



SOCKETED CELTS 



[chap. 



of the hoard found at Maw^n,* CornwaU, in which there was alao 
a fine rapier. Another, from Badi,t is in the Duke of Northumberland's 
museum at Alnwick. Another has been cited from Comwall-t 

Celts of this form are of rare occurrence in the North of England, 
but one, said to have been disinterred with Boman remains at Cheeter- 
le-8treet,§ Durham, is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Ne wcastle-on-T jne . 

Celts like Fig. 120 are of very frequent occurrence in Northern France; 
large hoards, consisting almost entirelr of this t?pe, have been found. 
A deposit of sixty was discovered near Lunballe || (Cotes du Nord), and 
one of more than two hundred at Moussaye, near Fl4nee-Jugan, in the 
same department. Most of the 
colts in both these hoards had 
never been used, and in a large 
number the oore of burnt clay was 
still in the socket. A hoard of 
about fifty is aaid to have been 
found near Bevay,^ Belgium. 

Plain socketed celts nearly square 
at the mouth have occasionally 
been found in Qermany. One from 
Fomerania** is much like Fig. 120 
in outline. 

The form of narrow celt, which I 
regard as of Gaulish derivation, is 
not nearly so elegant as that of a 
more purely EngBsh type of which 
an example is shown in Fig. 121. 
The origmal was found in the Cam- 
bridge Fens, and is in my own col- 
lection. Within the socket on the 
centre of each side is a raised nar- 
row rib running down 2 inches 
from the mouth, or to within J inch 
uf the bottom of the socket. 

The type is rare ; but a specimen 
(5 inches) of nearly the same form as 
the figure was found, with palstaves, 
sickles, &c., near Taunton, Somer- 
ECt.ft There is also a resemblance 
to the Barringfon celt, Rg. 148. 
I have already mentioned a celt with a moulded top, which, on one of 
its faces, is ornamented with a small projecting oohb. In Fig. 122 
is shown an example witli two pellets beneath the upper moulding. It 
was found with others at High Eoding, Essex, and is now in the British 
Uuseuni. Another with three such knobs on each face, placed near the 

" ^ri-iS., vol. ivii. p. 337. t jtrcA. Joimi., vol. ivii. p. 7fi. 

* ' -' ' ' ■ i. p. 172. i Arch. Joiirii., vol. irii, p. 7.5. 




CUnbridge 



Uigb BodiDS- 



J •' Miitcriaui," vol. i 

H LiiidcnBchniit, " Alt. u. h, Vore., 

•• "Ziitsth. fiirEth, 

+t A,el,. Jam;,., vol. 



Taf. i 



vol. i 



Il.ttii. Taf. ii. 4. 



WITH VERTICAL RIBS OK THE FACES. 



117 



top of the iiutrument, is shown in Fi^. 133. The original is in the 
Britiah Museum, and was found at Chnshall,* Eseex, where also Bereral 
plain celts with single or double mouldings at the top, some spear-beads, 
ind a portion of a socketed knife were dug up. 

A laigB brass ooin of Hadrian, much defaced, is said to hare been 
fonnd at the same time. Aa in other iastances, the evidence on this 
point is unsatisfactonr, aud if it could be sifted, would probably cany 
the case no farther than to prove that the Boman coins and the bronze 
cdta VOTe found near the same spot, and possibly by the same man, on 
the same day. In illustration of this collection of objects of different 
dates, I may mention that I lately purchased a fifteenth-century j'elon 
u having been found with Merovingian gold ornaments. 



• # 





Fig. IM.-Hc«di Fhl i Fig, ias.-Biirriiigton. 1 

Some of the Breton celts, in form like Fig. 120, have two or three 
knobe on a level with the loop. 

Another and common kind of ornament on the faces of socketed 
celts consists of vertical lines, or ribs, extending from the moulding 
round the mouth some distance down the faces of the blade. They 
vaiy in number, but are rarely less than three. In some instances 
the ribs are so slight as to be almost imperceptible, a circumstance 
which suggests the probability of celts in actual use having served 
as the models or patterns from which the moulds for casting others 
were made, as in each successive moulding and casting any promi- 
nences such as these ribs would be reduced or softened down. On any 
■ Neville's " Sepolcbm Expoaita," p. 3. 



118 SOCKETED CELTS [CHAP. V. 

other supposition it is difficult to conceive how an ornamentation 
so indistinct as almost to escape observation could have originated. 
There are some celts which on one face arc quite smooth and plain, 
while on the other some traces of the ribs may just be detected. 
The same is the case with some of the celts which have the slightest 
possible traces of the " flanches," such as seen on Fig. 111. The 
smearing of metal moulds with clay, to prevent the adhesion of 
the castings, would tend to obliterate such ornaments. 

A celt with the vertical ribs from the hoard of Eeach Fen, Cambridge, 
is shown in Fig. 124. There are slight projecting beads running down 
the angles. The three ribs die into the face of the blade. Another of 
nearly the same type, but with coarse ribs somewhat curved, is shown in 
Fig. 125. It has not the beads at the angles. This specimen was found 
in company with a celtvlike Fig. 116, and with a gouge like Fig. 204, at 
Barrington, Cambridge,^ and is in my own collection. 

Celts of wider proportions, and having the three ribs farther apart, 
have been frequently found in the Northern English counties. I have 
one (3J inches) from Middleton, on the Yorkshire Wolds, which was 
given me by Mr. H. S. Harland ; and Canon Greenwell, F.R.8., has 
several from Yorkshire. The celt which was foimd near Tadcaster,* in 
that coimty, and which has been so often cited, from the fact of its having 
a large bronze ring passing through the loop, on which is a jet bead, 
is also of this type. There can be Httle doubt that the ring and bead, 
which not improbably were foimd at the same time as the celt, were 
attached to it subsequently by the finder, in the manner in which they 
may now be seen in the British Musemn. A celt with three ribs, from 
the hoard found at Westow,! in the North Riding, has been figured, as 
has been one from Cuerdale,J near Preston, Lancashire, and one (4^ 
inches) from Rockboum Down,§ Wilts, now in the British Museum. 
One (3 J inches long) was found near Hull,|| in Yorkshire; and five others 
at Winmarloy,^ near Garstang, Lancashire, together with two spears, 
one of them having crescent-shaped openings in the blade (Fig. 419). 

Another was found, with other bronze objects, at Stanhope,** Durham. 

The celts found with spear-heads and discs near Newark, and now 
in Canon Greenwell's collection, are of this type, but of different sizes. 
That found at Cann,ftne£ir Shaftesbury, with, it is said, a human skeleton 
and two ancient British silver coins, had three ribs on its face. 

Several others were found in the hoard at West Halton,JJ Lincoln- 
shire, already mentioned. Others were discovered in company with a 
looped palstave, some spear-heads, ferrules, fragments of swords, and a 
tanged knife, near Nottingham, §§ in 1860. Seven or eight such celts, 
and the half of a bronze mould in which to cast tliem, were found with a 
socketed knife, spear-heads, and nimierous other objects, in the Heathery 

• Arch.f vol. xvi. p. 362, pi. liv. ; Arch. Journ.y vol. iv. p. 6. 
f Arch. Assoc. Journ.^ vol. xx. p. 107, pi. vii. 6 ; see also vol. iii. p. 58. 
J Op. cit.f vol. viii. p. 332, pi. xxxvii. 1 ; I*roc. Soc. Ant., vol. ii. p. 304. 
J " ilora) Ferales," pi. v. 7. li Arch. Assoc. Jottrn., vol. ix. p. 185. 

^ Op. cit., vol. XV. p. 235. ♦• Areh, jEUana^ vol. i. p. 13, pi. ii. 8. 

ft Evans' " Anc. lirit. Coins," p. 102. JJ Arch. Journ.^ vol. x. pp. 6i), 70. 

§§ Froc. So€. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 332. 



WITH VERTICAL RIBS ON THE FACES. 



119 



Bum Cave,* near Stanhope, Durham, of vhich further mention will 
eubaequently be made. Many have also been found in Yorkshire and 
Northumberland. 

The type is not confined to the Northern Counties, for specimens 
otcnrred in the great find at Carlton Eode.f near Attleborough, Norfolk. 
I have seen another, 4 inches long, which waa found with many other 
■ocketed celts and other articles at Martteshom, Suffolk, in the hoard 
already mentioned (p. 113). I hare one (3$ inches) from lilandysilio, 
Denbighshire. Another, with traces of the three ribs, was found at Pul- 
borongh,! Sussex. This apecimen is in outline more like Fig. 130. A 
socketed celt of this kind (5 mcheslong), withthreeparallelribson the flat 
surface, was found nearIiaunceBton,§ComwaU. 
Some long celts of the same kind were found 
at Kam Bre, in the same county, as already 
mentioned. 

In some celts with the three ribs on their 
faces, found in Wales, the moulding at the top 

IB hrve and heavy, and forms a sort of cornice 

round the celt, die upper surface of which ia 

flat. That engraved as Fig. 126 was found at 

Uynydd-y-Qlos, near Hensol, Glamorganshire, 

and is now in the British Museum. In the 

same collection is another of much the same 

character, but of ruder fabric, 4J inches long, 

with a square socket, found in 1849 with others 

aimilar, in making the South Wales Hailway, 

in Great Wood,|| St. Fagan'a, Glamorganshire. 

The loop is badly cast, being filled up with 

Canon GreenweU has a colt of this typo (4 
inehee), found at Llandysilio, Denbighshire, 
with two others having three somewhat con- 
verging ribs (3^ inches and 3} inches), a socketed 
knife, and part of a spear-head. 

Two others (5^ inches and 4f inches) wero 
found with part of a looped palstave % and a 
waste piece from a casting, and lumps of mctnl, 
on Kenidjack Cliff, Cornwall. Another (4 
inches) from Cornwall is in the British Mu- 
seum. One from Sedgemoor, Somersetshire, ia 
in the Taunton Museum. 

The three-ribbed type occurs occasionally in France. Examples are in 
the Muaeums of Amiens, Toulouse, Clermont Ferrand, Poitiers, and other 
towns. Three vertical ribs are of common occurrence on celts from Hun- 
gary and Styria. 

In some rare examples the three ribs converge as they go down the 
blade. One such is shown in Fig. 127. The original is in the possession 
of Sir A. A. Hood, Bart., and was found with twenty-seven other socketed 




.— llTiifild.jf-Obu. I 



• Proc. See. Ant., 2nd S., 
; Siui. Anh. Call., vol. ix 
I - HonB Fot»Io«," pi. V. I 



i Prac. . 
V Jeura 



Rog. Init. Con., No. 206. 



120 



SOCKETED CELTS 



[CHAF. ' 



celts, some of oval and some of square Beotion, two palstaTee, tro ffonges, 
two daggers, twelve spear-heads, and numerous &agmeuta of oelts and 
leaf-shaped swords, as well as rough metal and the refuse jets from cast- 
ings. The whole lay together about two feet below the sarface at Wick 
Park,* Stogursey, Somerset. 

in other rare instances there is a transverse bead ruimiiig across the 
blade below the three vertical ribs. The celt shown in Fig. 1 28 was found 
near Guildford, Surrey, and is in the colloctioii of Mr. B. Fitch, F.B.A. 

On other celts the vertical ribs are more or less than three in number. 




Tig. 127.— Btognr«y. 



A Specimen with four ribs, also in Mr. Fitch's collection, is engraved as 
Fig. 129. It was found at Prettenham, Norfolk. 

Others with four ribs occurred in the find at West Halton,t Lincoln- 
shire, already mentioned. One was also found at the Castle Hill,| 
Worcester, and another at Broust in Andreas,? Isle of Man. Examples 
with three and four ribs from Kirk-patrick and Kirk-bride, Isle of Man, 
are in the collection of Mr. J. K. Wallace of Uistington, "WTiitehayen. 

One (4 J inches) irith five ribs was found in the hoard at Mortlesham, 
Suffolk, also already mentioned. 

One {3f inches) with six small vertical ribs on the faces, found at 
Downton, near Salisbury, is in the Dlackmore Museum. In a celt with 

• Froe. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. v. p. *27. pi- i- 3. t -ireh. Journ., vol. i. p. 69. 

; Allies, "Wore.," p. IB, pi. i. 1. j ■• Ist Eep. Arch. Comin. I. of M..'^ pi. iv. I. 



WITH RIBS ENDING IK PELLETS. 



121 



•qnm locket from the Carlton Eode find there are traces of six ribs on 
one of the faces only. This speinmen, in my ova collection, is in good 
Koditiou, and the probability is in favour of this almost complete oblito- 
ntion of the pattern being due to a succession of moulds having been 
fanned, each rather more indistinct than the one before it, in which the 
nodd that served for the mould was cast. 

Celts doMlj resembling Fig. 129 are in the museoma at Nantes and 
Kirbonne.* 

Aa an instance of a celt having only two of these vertical ribs upon it, 
I may mention a larfi;e one in my own collection (4 J inches) found in the 





Fig. lao.— Bir- 

lale (rf FortUnd. The mouth of the socket is oval, but the external faces 
are flat, the aidee being rounded. The ribs run about 2^ inches down the 
faces, but the metal la too much oxidised to see whether they end in 
pelleta or no. 

It is not nnfrequently the case that the riba thus terminate in roundels 
or pelletB. That from the Fens, near Ely, which has been kindly lent me 
by Mr. Karshall Fisher, and is shown in Fig. 130, is of this kind, though 
the pellets are bo indistinct as to have escaped the eye of the engraver. 
This celt is remarkable for the unusually broad and heavy moulding 
at the top. The notches in the edge, which the engraver has reproduced, 
are of modem origin. 

The celt from Gaston, Norfolk, shown in Fig. 131, has also the three 
• " Matfrinnx," vol. v. pi. ii. H. 



122 SOCKETED CET.T3 fcHAP. V. 

ribs ending in pelletn, but there are short diagonal lines branching in 
eac)i direction from the central rib near the top. 

I have another of the same kind, but longer, and without the di^onal 
lines, from Thetford, Suffolk. 

A celt of this type is in the Stockholm Museum. 

In Pigs, 132 and 133 are shown two celts of this class, one with five short 
ribs ending in pellets, from the Carlton Bode find, and the other with five 
longer ribs ending in larger roundels, from Fomham, near Buiy St. 
Edmunds. The latter was 
bequeathed to me by my 
valued friend, the late Mr. 
J. W. Flower, F.G.8. 

It will be observed that 
in the Fomham celt the 
first and last ribs fonn 
headings at the an^ea of 
the square shaft. In the 
other none of the beads 
come to the edge of the 
face. I have a oelt like 
Fig. 133, but shorter (4 
incheB), from the hoard 
found in Beach Fen, al- 
ready mentioned. Another 
(4^ inches), in all respects 
like Fig. 133, except that 
the outer ribs are not at the 
angles, was found at 
Urough,* near Castleton, 
Derbyshire, and is in the 
Bateman Collection, where 
is also another (4^ inches) 
from the Peak Forest, Der- 
byshire. Canon Oreenwell, 
F.E.S., has one {4i inches) 
from Broughton, near Mal- 
ton, on one face of which 
there are only four ribs, 
and in the place where 
the central nb would terminate, a ring omauiont. The other face of 
the celt has only four ribs at regular inter\'(il8, ending in pellets. 
Another, similar (5 inches), was found in the Thames, near Erith.f I 
have seen another rather more hexagonal in eoctiou, which was found 
in the Cambridge Fens. 

Colts with vertical ribs ending in pellets are occasionally found in 
France. One from Lutz (Euro et Loir) is in the museum at Chateaudun ■ 
otljers are in that of Toulouse. Another with four ribs, found at 
Cascastel, is in the museum at Narbonuo. Canon Urocn\v(<ll has one 
from rOrieut, Brittanj-. 

I havo a RmaU oue like Fig. 120 in form, but barely 3 tucbes long, 

• Batemau'B " Calaloguc," p. 74; Marriolt's "Ant. of Lvme" (ISlOl ii 3m 
t Arfh. Ju»r«., vol. iviii. p. 137. '' ' ' 




Fig. 13V,— Caribju Rode. { 



Pig. las.— Fornhftin. \ 



WITH RIBS AND PELLETS ON TIIE FACES. 



123 



found near Saumnr (Heine et Loire). It has fire ribs, arranged aa on 
Kg. 133. 

Ad example with a far larger array of vertical ribs than usual is shown 
b Fig. 134. The ribs are arranged in groups of three, and each termi- 
nilea in a small pellet. The outer lines are so close to the angles of the 
cdt as almost to merge in them. This instrument was found at Fen 
Citton, Cambridge, andis now in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.E.8. 

On some celts there is, besidee the row of roundels or pellets at the end 
of the ribs, a second row a little higher up, as is shown in Fig. 135, 
vhich represents a specimen in the British Museum, from Bottisbam 




Lode, Cambridge. The sides of this celt are not flat, but somewhat 
ridged, so that in it« upper part it presents an irregular hexagon in 
section. There are ribs running down the angles, with indications of 
terminal pellets. 

In the Warrington Museum is a curious variety of the celt with the 
three vertical ribs ending in pellets, which by the kindness of the trustees 
of the museiim I have engraved as Fig. 136. It will be seen that in 
addition to the vertical ribs there is a double series of chevrons over the 
upper part of the blade. The metal is somewhat oxidised, and the pattern 
is mat^ rather more distinct in the engraving than it is in the original. 



124 SOCKETED CBLT9 [cHAP. V. 

This celt has already been fif^ured on a emaUer acftle, and waa found at 
Winwick,* near Warrmgton, Ijancashire. 

An omamentatioa of nearly the same character, but witiiout pellets at 
the end of the ribs, occurs on a socketed celt from Kiew.t Buesia. 

The vertical ribs or lines occasionally end in ring ornaments or 
circles with a central pellet, like the astronomical symbol for the 
sun O. Next to the cross this ornament is, perhaps, the simplest 
and most easily made, for a notched flint could be used as a pair 
of compasses to produce a 
circle with a well-marked 
centre on almost any ma- 
terial, however hard. We 
find these ring ornaments 
in relief on many of the 
coins of the Ancient Bri- 
tons, and in intaglio on 
numerous articles formed 
of bone and metal, which 
belong to the Bomas and 
Saxon perioda On Ita- 
lian palstaves they are 
the commonest orna- 
ments. But though so 
frequent on metallic anti- 
quities of the latter part 
of the Bronze Age, it is 
remarkable that the orna- 
ment is of very rare oc- 
currence on any of the 
pottery which is kno vn to 
belong to that period. 

A good example from Kingston, Surrey, of a celt with ring ornaments 
at the end of the ribs is in the Britiah Museum, and is shown in Fig. 137. 
Canon Greonwell possesses a nearly similar celt (5 inches) from Seamer 
Carr, Yorkshire, ttie angles of which are ribbed or beaded. A socketed 
celt with the same ornamentation, but with pellets having a central boss 
instead of the ring ornaments, is in the museum at Nantes. t It was 
found in Brittany. 

Some of the Brittany celts like Fig. 120 have one ring-ornament on each 
face, composed of two concentric circles and a central pullet. 

• Arch. Alloc. JoiirH., vol. XT. pi. iiiv. 7, p. 236; Arrh. Jonrn., vol. xv. p. 168. 
t Chaotro, " Age du Bronze," 2ine pBrtio, p. 284, fig. 81 ; Mem. da AnI. du KorJ. 
1872— 7, p. 116. 
X Chantre, " Age du Bronze," 2mc partic, p, 292, Gg. 13S. 




ng. 137.— Elngaton. 



WITH RIBB AND KING OKXAMSNTS. 



125 



On a celt found at Cayton Carr, Yorkshire, and in the collection of 
Canon Greenwell, F.R.8., there is a douhle tow of rin^ ornaments at the 
end of the three ribs. Below the principal moulding at the top of the celt 
is a band of four raised beads bv way of additional ornament It te 
shown in Fig. 138. A nearly sim^ar specimen is in the Museum of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

In a very remarkable specimen from Lakenheath,* Suffolk, preserved 
in the British Museum and engraved as Vig. 139, there are three lines 
fotmed of rather oval pellets, terminating in ring ornaments, and alter- 
nating with them two plain beaded ribs ending in small pellets. There 
are traces of a cable moulding round the neck above. 




In another variety, also in the Britieh Museum, and shown in Fig. 140, 
the three ribs ending in ring ornaments spring- from a transverse bead, 
between which and the moulding round the mouth are two otlier vertical 
beads, about midway of the spaces between the lower ribs. It is probable 
that Uiis celt was found in the Thames. 

Another of remarkably analogous character was certainly found in the 
Thames near Kingston,! Bn*^ i^ now in the Museum of the Society of 

• Frot. Soe. Ant., and S., vol. i. p. 106. 

t Fnt. Soc. ArU., vol. U. p. 101 ; 2nd a., vol. i. p. S3. See sbo Arrk., vol. xii. 
p. 4VI; and Fret. S«t. Anl., vol. i. p. 21. 



126 SOCKETED CELTS [ CHAP. V. 

Antiquaries. It is shown in Fig. 141, On it are only two descending 
ribs, ending in ring ornaments, tlie pellets in the centre of which are 
almost invisible; but above the transverse bead are three ascending ribs, 
which alternate with those that descend. All these ribs are double 
instead of single. 

In some rare iostances there are ring ornaments both at the top and at 
the bottom of the vertical lines, as is seen on one of the fbces of the 
curious celt shown in Fig. 142, where the usual ribs are replaced by rows 
of two (M- three slightly raised lines. On the other face it will be seen 
that the ornamentation is of a different character, with one ring orna- 




Flg.142.— KiDgiloa. i 



ment at top and tliree below, the two outer of wliich aro connected with 
ribs diverging from two curved linoa above. The original was found, 
with three others less ornniuonted, at Kingston,* Surrey, and is in tlio 
BritiBh Museum. 

A nearly similar celt from Scotland is dcHCribed at page 137. 

In another very rare specimen the vortical lines are replaced by two 
double chevi-ons of pellets, the upper one reversed. Tliere is still a ring 
ornament at the base, and lines of pellets running down the raai^ins of 
the blade. This spocimpn. shown in I'ig. 14a, was found in the Thames,! 
and is in tlie coll.'ction of Mr. T. Laj-ton, F.S.A. 



• P^ngraved aleo in "Hora) Ferales," pi. i 



+ Prae. Sat. AnI., 2nd fi., 



. p. 4^S 



VARIOrSLY OBNAMENTED, 



la Another equally rare form there is a treble ring ornament at the 
Imttom of a single central beaded rib, and at the t^ two " flanchea," 
represented hy double lines, as eliovn in Fig. 144. Tbe neck of this celt 
is in Bection a flattened hexagon. It wua found at Givendale, near 
Pocklington, Yorkshire, E. E., and is now in the British Muaeum. 

In the celt shown in Pig. 145 the central rib terminateB in a pellet, 
snd there are three curved ribs on either side. In this case the section of 
the neck of the blade is nearly circular. The specimen is in the British 
Museum, and was probably found near Cambridge, as it formed part of 
the Ut« Mr. Lichfield's collection. A celt ornamented in the same manner, 
but without the central rib, was found noaj- Mildenhall, Suffolk, and is 
in the collection of Mr. H. Prigg. 

Another (4 inches), also in the British Museum, has two ribs on each 



# # •• 




margin, parallel to the sides, as seen in Fig. 146. It was found near 
filandfoi^, Dorsetshire, in company with unfinished gouges, and ia 
remarkable on account of its having been cast so thin that it seems 
incapable of standing any hard work. 

It seems probable that the instruments from Blandford, now in the 
British Museum, formed part of a large hoard, for in the collection of the 
late Mr. Medhurst, of Weymouth, were a dozen or more of much the same 
ontline and character, liie section at the neck is a dattened hexagon. 
8ome have a straight rib on each of the sloping sides, as well as two 
curved lines on the flat face. Others have three lines, one straight and 
two cuiT'ed, on the fiat face, each ending in a pellet ; and others again 
have merely a central line on the flat face. 

A celt of nearly the some outline as Fig. 146 (4J inches), found at 
Gembling, Tork^ire, E. B., has slight flutings down the angles for 



128 SOCKETED CELTS [CHAP. V. 

about two-thirds of its length. It is in the collection of Canon Green- 
TFell. F.R.8. 

Another of these instrumenta, ornamented in the same manner, but 
havinK a ctirred edge, is shown in Fig. 147, from an original in the 
Briti^ Uuseum. It formed part of the Cooke Collection from Paraona- 
town, King's Counfy, but I doubt ita being really Irish. 

A rare form of socketed celt is shown in Fig. 148. The original was 
foiuid in the Fens, near Barrington, Cambridge, and is in my own col- 
lection. It has at the top of the blade, below the moulding, a shield- 
shaped ornament, of mui^ the same character as that on the palstaves, 
like Fig. 60, but in this case formed by indented lines cast in the 
metaL 



#11^ 



m 




IrSandt | Bami 





I noiuulon. i 



Another, of unusiially narrow form, found at Thames Ditton,* is in 
the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. 

A broader celt, ornamented with a rereraed chevron, formed of three 
raised ribs, and with short single ribs on each side, is shown in Fig. 149. 
It was found at Hounslow, with a flat celt, a palstave, and a socketed 
cult like Fig. U2, and is now in the Britisli Museum. 

A more common form has a circular socket and moulded top, below 
which the neck of the blade is an almost regular octagou. That shown 
in Fig. 150 is in my own collection, and was found at Wallingford,} 
Berks, in company ■with a socketed gouge, a tangf^l cliiael (Fig. 193), a 
socketed knife, and a two-edged cutting tool or razor (Fig. 2fi9). 

■. AnI., vol. iv. 303. 



■ OCTAGONAL SECTION. 



129 



One nearly sinular, suppoBed to have been fouud in Yorkshire, 
t(^;«ther with the mould in which it was cast, is eneraved in the Arckao- 
Itgia.* The mould was regarded as a case in which the instrument was 
kept. Another of the same bind seems to have been found, with other 
telts and fragments of swords and spears, at Biltan,t Torkehiro. I have 
Men another, 4 inches long, from the hoaid found at Martlesham, Suffolk, 
■Iresdy mentioned. A broken specimen, found with a socketed gouge 
ud an article like Fig. 493, at Bosebeny Topping,^ in CQev^aud, 
ToAshire, appears to be of this kind. Another (5 inches long), found 
it Ifinster, Kent, is in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. I have also 
one from the Cambridge Fens. 

In the coUectioQ of Canon Groonwell, F.E.S., are three socketed celta 
■ith octagonal necks, which were found with 
lAiiers, txrth plain and having three ribs on tho 
lace, together with a looped palstave, at Hoxey, 
Lincolnshire. Two of these are of the usual tjrte, 
bat the third (3^ -inches) is shorter and broader, 
resembling in outline the common Irish form, 
Fig. 167. A celt apparently of tlie type of Fig. 150, 
but with a double bead round the top, was found 
in the Severn, at Holt,§ Worcestershire. In the 
FauBsett Oollection, now at Liverpool, is a celt of 
this kind, with the angles engradod or "milled." 
This was probably found in Kent. 

A celt of this type, found at Orgelet, Jura, is 
figured by Chantre, || as well as one from the Lac 
ia Boniget.^ They have also been fouud in the 
Department of La Manche.** I have one from tho 
bend found at Dreoil, near Amiens, the neck of 
vhit^ is decagonal. 

N«aily the same form has been found in Swe- 

Another example, more trumpet-mouthed, is 
shovn in Fig. 151, from the eoUeotion of Canon 
OreanweU, F.B.S. It was found in 1868 in drain- 
ing at Newham, Northumberland. I have another 
of nearly the same form (4} inches), fromCoveney, 
in the Isle of Ely. Another, found at Stanhope.^ 
Durham, without loop, and with two holes near 
the top, was regarded as an instrument for sharpen- Fig. ifti.-NBi.hiuii. i 
tog spear-heads. 

Occasionally the neck of the blade is hexagonal instead of octagonal. 
In one found at 'l^-Mawr,§S on Holyhead Mountain, Anglesoa, the hexa- 
gonal character is continued to the mouth. The socket is of an irregularly 
Mjture form. It was found with a socketed knife, a tanged chisel, spear- 

• Vol. T. l(»,pl. vii,6. 

t Arcli. Auoe. Jtvm., vol. t. p. 349 ; Bateman's Catal., p. 76, No. 60. 

J Areh. Seat., vol. W. 88 ; Arch. JfSliaiia. vol. ii. p, 213. 

S Allien p. H9, pL iv. 8. II " AUram,"' pi. x, *. 

^ Op. cit., pi, 1». 8. •" iHm. Soc. Ani. JVwflt., 1827—8, pi. xvi. I. 

' ■ " Cong. OTih.," Bologna vol. j 
■re*. JBWM, ' ■ ■ ■- ' 



i: Arek. JSlUnm, vol. i. p. 13. pi. ii. 7. 
{} Anh. JimrH., vol. zziv. 266, pi. fig. 'i. 



130 SOCKETED CELTS [cHAF. V. 

beads, &c., which are now in the BritJah Museum. Thiafonaoccun mora 
frequently in Ireland. A nearly similar celt has been found in the Lake 
of Geneva.* 

Another celt, with the neck irreg^ilarly octa^nal, but with a series of 
moulding round the mouth of the socket, is shown in Fig. 152. The 
original le in the ooUection of Canon Greenwell, and formed part of the 
hoard found at Westow, in the East Biding of Torkahire, ateady men- 
tioned at p. 118. 

In Fig. 153 is shown, not on my usual scale of one-half, but of Dearly 
the actual size, a Teiy remarkable celt, which was found in the bed of the 




Fig. 162.— We<tow. } Fig. 163.— W«nd«worth. 



Thames t near Wandsworth, and was presented to the Archteological 
Institute. The original is, unfortunately, no longer forthcoming. It was 
4} inches long, and, besides its general singularity of form, presented the 
peculiar feature of having the hole of the loop in the same direction as the 
socket of the celt, instead of its being as usual at right angles to the blade. 
Socketed celts with a loop on the face instead of on the side are of ex- 
ceedingly rare occurrence either in Britain or elsewhere. That shown in 



WITH THE LOOP ON ONE FACE. 181 

Fig. 154 is in the Museum at Wisbech, and was found in company with 
three socketed celts, two gouges, a hammer, and a leaf-shaped spear- 
head at Whittlesea. The socket shows within it four vertical ribs at equal 
distanceB, with diagonal branches from them. These latter may have 
been intended to facilitate the escape of air from the mould. I am 
indebted to the managers of the Museum for the loan of the specimen for 
cngraTing. 

The type has occasionally been found in the Lake-dwellings of Savoy. 
In the Museum of Chamb^ry * there are three examples from the Lac du 
Bourget, and I possess another specimen from the same locality. Another 
(about 4 inches), from la Balme,f Is^e, is in the Museum at Lyons ; 
it is more spud-shaped than the En^sh example. Another, of different 
form, was in the Lamaud hoard, J Jura. One has also been found at 
AaTemier,§ in the Lake of Neuchitel. Another (4 inches), in the late 
H. Troyon's collection, was found at Echallens, Canton Yaud. 

One with curved plates on the sides, like Fig. 155, but having the loop 
on one face, was found near Avignon, and is now in the British Museimi. 
It has a round neck with a square socket. A smaller one, of nearly the 
same form, was foimd in a hoard at Pontpoint, near the River Oise. 
Another, with curved indentations on the sides, from the department of 
Jura,|| is in the museum at Toulouse. Socketed celts with a loop on the 
face have been found in Siberia.^ 

In some socketed celts the reminiscence of the ''flanches" or wings upon 
the palstayeB, of which I have spoken in an earlier part of this diaptor, 
lias survived in a peculiar manner, there being somewhat hollowed oval 
projections upon each side of the blade, that g^ve the appearance of the 
"flanchee" on the face, but at the same time produce indentations in the 
eitenial outline of the instrument. 

This will be seen in Fig. 155, which was foxmd with the palstave 
(Fig. 88), the socketed celt (Fig. 157), and other objects at Nettleham,** 
Bear Lincoln, as already described (page 93). Another of the same class is 
laid to have been found in a timiulus on Frettenham Common, ff Norfolk. 
Another, shown in Fig. 156, was in the Crofton Croker Collection. All 
thsae are now in the British Museum. The second celt from Nettieham 
(Fig. 167) shows onW the indented outline without any representation 
of ttie oval plates. Ine nearest approach in form to these celts which I 
have met with is to be seen in some from the South of France. These 
are, however, generally without loops. I have two from the departments of 
Haute Loire and Is^. One from Eibiers, in the department of the Hautes 
Alpes, is in the museum at St. Omer. Another is in the museum at Metz. 

A socketed celt, found at Aninger, and now in the Antiken Cabinet at 
Vienna, has large oval plates on each of its sides, which nearly meet 
npon the foces. 

In the collection of the late Mr. Brackstone was a remarkable celt, exhi- 
biting a modification of this form. It is said to have been found with a 
large socketed celt with three mouldings round the mouth, and a looped 

• Perrin, " Et. pi^h. de la Sav.,*' pi. x. 4, 5 ; " Exp. Arch, do la Sav.,** 1878, pi. vi. 
210; Chantre, '* Aibam," pL Iv. 3. 
t Chantre, "Album," pi. x. 2. J Op, eit.^ pi. xl. bis. 3. 

i Orosa, ** Deox Stations," pi. i. 17. 

q '• Hat^riaux," vol. xiv. pi. ix. 10. IF ** Materiaux," vol. i. p. 463. 

•• Areh. Joitm., vol. xyiii. p. 160, whence this and fig, 157 are borrowed. 
ff Arth, A990C. J<nirm.f vol. iv, 163 ; Arch. Inst., Norwich vol. p. xxvi. 

K 2 



133 SOCKETED CELTS [cHAF. V. 

palstave with tluee ribs below tbn atop-ndge, near Ulleskelf, Torkihire. 




Fig. IM. -CiDka CoUcctloii. 



ng. 1ST.— NctUAvB. 



Mr. Brackstone printed a lithographic plate of the three, from which utd 
from an engraving in tlie ArehttohgitA 
Journal* Fig. 158 is talcen. It wiU be 
observed that this celt is elaborately ot- 
namentod, even on the ring, either by 
(ingraving or punching. The origjnal 
is now in the Blachmoro Museum at 
Salisbury. 

A celt of closely allied charocter, with 
the lower part of the blade and the 
C-shapeil flunchoB similar to that from 
Ulleskelf, with the exception of the 
chevron ornament, is said to have been 
also found in Torishire. A woodcut. 
from a drawing by M, Du Noyer, will 
bo found in the ArehteoUyieal Ji»tm^.\ 
Tho iipper part is rectangular and 
plain, without any moulding round 
the top, and there is no loop. The 
original is 6 inches long. In general 
appearance and character this celt ap- 
proaches those of Etruscan and Italian 
origia ; but I see no reason why it may 
CTToncoualj stated to bo a>out 4 inchea in a sub- 




Fig. tM.— miMkclI. 



• Vol. Tiii. p. 91, 

sequent yoliimn (vol. j 

t Vol. viii. 91. 



WITHOUT LOOPS. 



not liftve been totind, as stated, in Britain, though, so for as Z baov, it is 
nnique of ita kind. 

The next class of socketed celts which has to be noticed consists 
of those in vhich tho loop is absent. No doubt, in some oases, 
this absence arises either A-om defective casting, or from the loop 
having been accidentally broken off, and all traces of it removed ; 
but in many instances it is evident that the tools were cast pur- 
posely without a loop. It seems probable that many of them 
irere intended for use as chisels, and not like the looped kinds as 
axes or h&tchets. The similarity between the looped and the 
looplesB varieties is so great that I have thought it best to de- 
sCTibe some of the instruments which may be regarded as un- 
doubtedly chisels in this place rather than in the chapter devoted 
to chisels, in which, however, 
snch of the socketed kinds as are 
nairow at the edge, and do not 
eipaad like the common forms 
of edt, will be found described. 

The Bmall tool ahown in Fig. loO 
OUT lafely be regarded as a cliisel. 
It doee not show the slightest trace 
U erer having been intended to have 
a loop, and is indeed too light for a 
Iialch^t. It was found with a tanged 
chisel, a hammer, numerous socketed 
crlts, and other articles, in the hoard 
bom Beach Fen, Cambridge, already 
mentioned at p. 112. I have seen 
toother, 2i inches long, with a 
somewhat oval socket and no loop, which was found in Mildenhall Fen, 
ud was in the collection of the Itev. 8. Banks, of Cottenham. 

A longer celt of the same character is engraved by Dr. Plot.* It was 
tent to nim by Charlea Cotton, Esq., and according to Plot " seems to 
We been the bead of a Boman rest used to support the lituus, the 
tranbe-torte, crooked trumpet, or home pipe used in the Boman armies." 
Anotker of nearly the same form was found on lieonHil],t near Camden, 
Qkincestershire. 

A celt or chisel of this character found at Diiren, in North Brabant, is 
in the museum at Leyden. 

Another was found at Zaborowo, J in Posen, in a sepulchral urn. 

A celt of the octagonal form of section and without a loop is shown in 
Kg- 160. It formed part of the great hoard found at Carlton Bode, near 
Attleborougb, Norfolk, of which some particulars have already been 
^Tm. ^e joint marks of the moulds are stilt very distinct upou the 




Carlton Bode. 



"Kit. Iliat. Staff.," 



i. 23. p. 118 



m 80CKETBD CELTS , [cHAP. V. 

sides. This specimen is In the Norwich Museum, and was kindly lent by 
the trustees for me to have it engraved. A nearly similar Scottish celt is 
shown in Fiff . 1 65 . A celt from the hoard of Cumberlow, near Baldock,* has 
been figured as having no loop, but I believe that this has arisen from an 
error of the engraver, as in a drawing which I have seen the loop is present. 

One of hexagonal section and socket from a hoard found on Earsley 
Common,t Yorkshire, in 1735, is engraved as having no loop. 

Celts without loops are not imcommon in France, and are often found 
of small size in Denmark. { 

Socketed celts have rarely if ever been found with interments in 
barrows in Britain. Sir R. Colt Hoare mentions ** a little celt " as 
having been found with a smaH lance, and a long pin with a handle, 
all of bronze, near the head of a skeleton, in a barrow on Overton 
Hill,§ near Abury, Wilts. The body had been buried in the con- 
tracted attitude, and had, as was thought, been enclosed within the 
trunk of a tree. It appears, however, from Dr. Thumam's 
account, II that this was a flat and not a socketed celt. It was a 
celt like Fig. 116, 3 J inches long, which is reported to have been 
discovered by the late Rev. R. Kirwan in a barrow on Broad Down, 
Farway,Devonshire.ir It is said to have lain in the midst of an 
abundant deposit of charcoal which was thought to be the remains 
of a funeral pyre. Mr. Kirwan informed Dr. Thumam that there 
was every reason to believe that the celt was deposited where found 
at the time of the original interment. No bones, however, were 
actually with the celt, which lay 1 8 inches from the central cist. 
A socketed celt with three vertical ribs, like Fig. 125, is also 
said to have been found with a human skeleton, and two 
uninscribed ancient British coins of silver, at Cann,** near 
Shaftesbury, in 1849. The celt and coins are now in the 
collection of Mr. Durden, of Blandford. In neither case 
are the circumstances of the discovery absolutely certain. 
A curious instance of the survival of the bronze celt 
as an ornament or amulet is afforded by that which was 
found in a barrow at Arras, or Hessleskew,tt near Market 
A^ki^^* Weighton, Yorkshire. It is only an inch in length, 
and is shown full-size in Fig. 161. With it was a pin 
which connected it with a small light-blue glass bead. It accom- 
panied the contracted body of a w^oman laid in a grave, and 

* Journ. Anth. Irut.y vol. vi. p. 196. f Areh., vol. v. pi. viii. 7, p. 114. 

X Segcsted, ** Oldsag. fra Broholm," pi. zxiii. 8. 

§ " Anc. Wilts," vol. ii. p. 90. | Arek., vol. xliii. 443. 

H Trans. Dtv. Attoe,, YOl. iv. p. SOO, pL iL I. 

*♦ Evans, •• Anc. Britiah Oofca^' P, .ltI.L.- ,^ ■ 

ft Areh. Jourm.^ voL XTiii»^||il|HMM|Mgmi^^^ p. 27. 





OF diiunutiTe size. 135 

laving with it a necklace of glass beads, a large amber bead, and 
k brooch, bracelets, ring, tweezers, and pin, apparently of bronze, 
lome of them ornamented with a kind of paste or enamel The 
natyority of the objects found in the group of barrows at Arras, 
9f which this was one, seem to belong to what Mr Franks has 
termed the " Late-Celtic " period, or approximately to the time 
>f the Roman inva«on of this country. 

Socketed cetts not more than 3 of an inch in length have been 
Found in Ireland, but with sockets large enough for serviceable 
handles, so that they might possibly have been used as chisels, 
rhe diminutive celts, about 2 inches in length, which have been 
found in large numbers in Brittany, and hare been r^arded by 
French antiquaries as votive offerii^, might also by some possi- 
bility have served as tools ; but this can hardly have been the 
case with the Arras specimen. A golden celt 
found in Cornwall is said to have been in i " 
possession of the Earl of Falmouth,* but nothing 
is known of it by the present Viscount Fal- 
mouth, and the statement in the " Barrow Dig- 
gers" is probably erroneous. 

It will be well to postpone the account of the 
different hoards of bronze objects, in which 
socketed celts have been found with other tools 
and weapons, until I come to treat of such an- 
cient deposits, though some of them have al- 
ready been mentioned. kS^jHSt. ^ 

Turning now to the socketed celts which have 
been discovered in Scotland, we 6nd them to present a considerable 
variety of types, though hardly so great as that exhibited by those 
irom Ei^luid, and the recorded instances of their finding are 
comparatively few in number. 

In Fie- 1 62 is ahown a socketed celt of the plain kind wliich was found at 
Bell's Uills,! on the Water of Leith, Edinburgh, in company with those 
g^iven OS Figs. 164 and 165. 

A celt found in a bog between Stranraer and Portpatrick, Wiston- 
shire,} like Fig. 162, but with a bead at the level of the top of the loop, 
has been figured. 

The nearly square-necked celt shown in Fig. 163 is of a broader type 
than ueual, and was found at North Knapdale,§ ArgyleBhJre. 

■ " Barrow Digijers," 1839, p. 72. 

t For the use of tlisae cut* I am mdebted U> the Societ}' of AutiquwiM of Scotland. 

J '. Ayr and Wigton CoU.," toI. ii. p. 10. 

} Fr«t. Soe. Ant., 2iid S., toI. tu. p. IBS. 



J have been the 

9 



136 SOCKETED CELTS [CHAP. V. 

Soclccted celtB with oval necks, and rsBembling the commcm Irisli type, 
Fig. 167, in form, have occasionally been found in Scotland. One (3J 
inches), with a double moulding round the mouth, was found on Arthiir'a 
Seat, Edinburgh. Another (3 in^ea) was found wIUi several other socketed 
celts and a spear-head near the Loch of Forfar. One of these, like Fig. 
ISO, has a round socket and a twelve-sided neck. 

A celt with a long socket andnarrow blade was found, with spear-heads, 
brouze armlets, and aome pieces of tin, at Achtertyre,* Uorajshire. 

Anotlier type, which appears to be more especially Scottish, has the 
omamenied moulding placed on the neck of the blade in such a manner 
as to run through the loop. One of this character, dug up near Samson's 
Bibs.l Arthur's Seat, E^burgh, has been figured by frofessor Daniel 
Wilson, A second {2i inches), with three raised bands passing through 
the loop, was found in the Forest of Birse,^ Aberdeenshire. 




Kg. i03,-Norlh KnapiUle. t *■«■ 



A tj'pe wliich is also common to England is shown in Fig. 164 from 
another of the Boll's Mills specimens. 

Others with raised lines on the sides are preserved in the museum at 
Edinburgh. One of these was found near the citadel at Leith.§ 

One (;i.^ inches), ornamented with four longitudinal lines on eacli face, 
was found in the parish of 8outliend,|| Cantire. Another (4 J inches), 
with traces of five ribs, three dowu tlio middle and two at tlie margins of 
ench fn^io, wns found at Hangingsliaw,^ in Culler parish, Lanarkshire. 

A third wit from Bell's MiUs is shown in Fig. 1C5. Tlitsis of the variety 
without the loop, and closely resembles tliat from the Carlton Eode 
hoartl. Fig. 160, the main ditferenco being that tlie neck is of decagonal 
iiisti'tiil of octHgiiual Bt'ction. 

MouUIh I'ur L-oIta of other patterns have also been fuund in Scutluuil, 



• Pro.-. &f. ^t«t.S.ul., vol. ix 


. p. m. 


t '■ Piuh. Ann 


J j: S. vf. S., vol. ii. p. 1.13. 




i j: .v. .*. s.. 


II /'. .S'. J. S., v.,1. iv. 11. 396. 






1 Arfh. Atsoe. J-iini., vul. x.\ 


i.pl.xi. 


.1.. 111. 



FOCMD IN SCOTLAND. 137 

aa vill Bnbsequeatly be seen. A modem cast from some moulds fouud 
■t Boeskeeu, BoBs-ahire, has been engraved by Professor D. Wilson.* It 
is of hexagonal section, and is ornamented on each face by two diverging 
ribs starting from, an annulet close below tlie moulding round tlie mouth, 
and ending in two annulets about two-thirds of the way down the blade, 
irhich expands considerably, and has a nearly flat edge. 

For the use of Fig. 166 I am indebted to the Councilf of the Ayrshire 
and WigtoDshire Arclueological Association. The original was found 
in a peat^mose near the farm-house of Knock and Maize, in Leswalt 
pariah, Wigtonshire, and is now in the cabinet of the Earl of Stair. Its 




lig. iea.-L»nic 1 

analogies with that found at Kingston, Surrey {Fig. 142), are very 
■thkiDg, while at the same time it closely resembles tho type exhibit«kl by 
the mould fima Boss-shire already mentioned. The occurrence of instru- 
ments of so rare a form at such a distance apart is very remarkable ; but 
it, as appears probable, the celts of this type are among the latest whiclt 
were manufactured, and may possibly belong even to the Late Celtic 
period, their wide dissemiuation is the lees wonderful. 

Socketed celts have been found in very large numbers in Ireland, 
upwards of two hundred being preserved in the Museum of the 
• "l^'h. Ann, 8ait.," vo). i. p. 384, Bg. 61. t " CuUctUonB," vol. ii. p. U. 



138 SOCKBTBD CELTS [cHAP. V. 

Royal Irish Academy ; and numerous specimens are to be seen in 
other collections, hoth pubhc and private. Mr. R Day, F.S.A., of 
Cork, has upwards of forty in his own cabinet. The Irish celts 
vary much in size, the largest being a little over 6 inches long, 
and the smallest less than an inch. The most common form is 
oval at the neck, and expands into a broad cutting edge. There 
is usually some kind of moulding round the mouth, giving the end 
of the instrument a trumpet-like appearance. The effect of the 




Fig. 167.~I»Iuid. 



moulding is not unfrequently exa^^rated by a hollow fluting 
round the neck, as in Fig. 167. 

Golte of this and some of the following types have been figured by 
Vallanoey.* 

In that shown aa Fig. 168 there is a slight shoulder below the trumpet- 
shaped part of the moutli, and the loop, instead of springing straight 
out from the neck, has ita ends extended into four ridges, ruiming over 
the neck of the celt like half- buried roots. 

An example of a celt with the loop attached in a similar manner h^g 
been engraved by Wilde.j Another (3J inchea) is in the coUection of 
Mr. E. Day, F.8.A. 



[. 1, 4, 



-V p. H3, Bff. aw. 



Tomm IN ISBLAHD. 139 

Hg- 169 shows a finely patinated celt, with a triple moulding 
below the expanding mouth, which was found near Belfast. With 
it are said to have been found a set of three gold clasps, or so-called 
fibulffi, with discs at each end of a slug-like half-ring (see Wilde, 
Figs. 594 — 598). Curiously enough, I have another set of three 
of these ornaments, also found together at Craighilly, near Bally- 
meaa, Co. Antrim. Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A., has a specimen which 
also is oDe of three found together in the Co. Down. It seems. 




therefore, probable that, like our modem shirt-studs, these orna- 
ments were worn in sets of three. 

A celt with four bands (Si inches) hae been engraved by Wilde.* The 
midclle member of the triple baud is often much ihe lar^et. 

A small esample of tiie same fype, but with a single band at tlie 
montli, is shown in Fig. 170. One from Co, Antrim, Ig inch long and IJ 
indi broad at the edge, is in the British Museum. 

These oval-necked celts are occasionally, but rarely, decorated with 
pttnu cast in relief upon them. One of them, in the Museum of the 
Kml Irish Academy,! '^ shown in Fig. 17 1 . 

uuide tlie sockets of most of the instruments of this class there are near 
the bottom, where the two sides converge, one, two, or more vertical 
riins, pvobahly destined to aid in steadying the haft, 
u some instances the upper member of the moulding round the mouth 



tiriM^-i 



i. Hoi. B. T. A..," p. 383, fig. ZSO. This cut is kindly lent b; Uie 



140 



SOCKETED CELTS 



[OHAP.T. 



ia cast in a caHe pattem. Fiff. 172 bLowh on example of Uiis kind tram 
Athboy, Oo. Moam, in the collection of Canon Greenvell, F.B.S. Otlien 
ore in the Museum of the Boyal Irish Academy. 

Socketed celts, with rerticu ribs on the faces, are of rare occtirrence in 
Ireland. A specimen from Co. Meath, in Canon Oreenwell's collection, 
is engraved aa Fig. 173. 

One (2| inches) found near Cork, and now in Mr. Sobert Day's oollee- 
tion, has six vertical ribs on each face, three on either margin. Tliej 
are placed close together, and vary in length, the outer one being about 
twice as long as that in the middle, which ie, however, nearly iliroe tinM 
as long as the innermost of the three ribs. 

I hare an example of theBamekind(2S indies), from Trillick, Co. Tyrone,* 



1 

Fig. 178.-Atbboy. ) 




in which there are five equidistant vertical riha on each face. The € 
has been much hammered, so as to bo considerably recurved at the eaSe 
Wildef has figured a much larger specimen (-li inches), with lliree vertical 
ribs, wliich cross a ring, level with the top of the loop, and run up to the 
lip moulding. Another,! with rectangular socket, has the ribs arranged 
iu tlie usual manner. In a few instances tlie ribs end in pellets, and ia 
one inatancc "Wilde § desrribes them as " ending in arrow points," 

A short l)ut broad socketed celt in the Petrie Collection has on each face 
six vertical ribs terminating at each end iu annulota. 

The socketed celts with an almost stjuare socket and npck are not bo 
common in Ireland «» tlioso of tlie broad type with an oval neck, but are 

• Kngmvva iu Jourii. Roy. llht. and Arrll. Ambc. of Ireland, 1th Sur. vol. v. p. 269. 
t l^'ig- «8^. { FiR. 284. i I'. <29. 



FOUND IN IRELAND. 



141 



yet not absolutelj' rare. Fig. 174 shows a good Bpecimen of this tj^ie. 
I hare another (3^ inches), from the neighbourhood of Belfast, rather 
vider at the edge, and with three flat vertical ribs below the neck 
moulding. 

Fig. 175 shows a short variety of the same type, from Newtown Crom- 
mohn, Co. Antrim. One from Trillick, Co. Tyrone (2^ inches), though 
DMriy rectangular at the neck, has an oval socket. 

Mr. Robert Day has an example (3i inches), from Dunshaughlin, Co. 
Heath, with two bead« round it, the lower one at the level of the bottom 
of the loop- This celt ia rectangular at the neck, though the socket is 
oral. 

Some few have grooves running down the angles. One from London- 
derry (4i inches) is in Mr. Day's collection. 
The long narrow celt with a rib ending in an annulet on the face, 

Xvod by Wilde as Fig. 283, appears to me to belong to Brittany 
: than to Ireland. 




Hg. ITS. Fig. .._. 

H«vtawik Cnnnmolln. | North of Ireland. ) 



An elegant tyge of socketed celt of not uncommon occurrence in Ireland 
i»diown in Fig. 176. The neck is octagonal below the rounded trumpet 
Oionth, which is ornamented with a scries of small parallel beads, between 
Aich a number of minute conical depressions have been punched, making 
Uw beads appear to be corded. Around the loop is an oval of similar 
pnch marks. A nearly similar specimen has been engraved by Wilde 
ICatel,, Fig. 276), who also gives one of the same general type, but 
^th two plain broad beads, altomating with three narrow ones, round 
tJw mouth (Catal., Fig. 277). It has a hexagonal neck. A celt (4i inches) 
fam Ballina, Co. Mayo, in the collection of Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A., 
Me an octagonal neck, and five grooved lines round its circular mouth. 

Canon (^eenwell has one of the tj-po of Fig. 176 {3J inches), with 
■Mugooal neck and five equal beads round the mouth, from Carlea, Co. 




142 SOCKXTED CSLT8, [CH\F. T. 

Longford, and (mother (3} iacheB), with ten small beads round a Bome- 
vhat ovai niouth, from Arboe, Co. l^roue. The neck of this latter it 
nearly rectangular. I have a celt of tida type from Balbriggan, Co. 
Dublin (3^ inches), with a hexagonal neck and a plain moutti. The 
loqp has root-Iike excrescences from it, as already described. 

There is one more Irish type of looped socketed celts which it will be well 
to figure, and to which Wilde has given the name of the axe-ahaped socketed 
celt, As will be seen, the blade is expanded considerably below ttie 
socketed part, and assumes a form not uncommon sjnong iron or steel 
axes. I have copied Fig. 17? from Wilde'e cut. No. 
281, on an enlarged scale. 

A socketed celt expanding into a broad axe-like 
edge is in the Pesth Museum. 

An analogous but narrower form is found in France. 
I have seen the drawing of one found at Fontpoint, 
OisoC?). 

Socketed celta without loops have not nnfreqneutlj 
been found in Ireland. One of this type has been 
figured by Wilde,* whose cut is, by the kindness of 
the CouncU of the Boyal Irish Academy, here repro- 
duced as Fig. 178. There are two others in the same 
collection. Another of the same length (2iV inches), but wider at the 
edge, was found in the Shannon, | at £eelogue Ford. A longer and 
narrower instrument (3j inches) of the same kmd has also been engraved 
byWilde-t Another has been engraved by Vallancey.g Others (2 and 
m inches) from Liebum and Ballymoney, Co. Antrim, are in the British 
Museum. The former has a small bead on s 
level with the base of the socket. The latter 
is oval at the neck, but oblong at the mouth. 
A bronze instrument of this form, but 
wider at the edge, was in common use among 
the ancient Egyptians, and has been re- 
garded as a hoe. 
A socketed celt without loop, but with two 

firojections on one side, from the Sanda Val- 
ey,|| Yunan, China, has been figured by 
Dr. Anderson. The edge is very oblique. 
An example brought from Tunan by the 
same expedition is in the Christy Collection. 
One from Cambodia, U without loop, but in 
form like Fig. 1 1 9, has been figured by Dr. 
Noulet. 

A very remarkable socketed celt without 

Fig. 17S.— Kerish. i loop from Java is in the Cabinet of Coins at 

Stuttgart. It expands widely at the edge 

and has three facets on one side of the neck, while the other is curved, 

so that it was probably mounted as an adze. The surface of the socket 

is not flat, but there is a V-shaped depression across it. 

• P. 384, fig. 273. t FriK, Soc. Ant. Seot., vol. li. p. 170. 

i P. 621, fig. 398. 4 Vol. iv. pi. ii. 7. 

II Bepoii on " Expedit. to Western Vunan," Calcutta, 1871, p. 414. 
S "Aich. du Mu9. d'aist. Nat do Toulouae," voL i. pi vi. 6. 




MAINLY OF NATIVE MANUFACTURE. 143 

Socketed celts with two loops haye not as yet been recorded as found 
nrithin the United Kingdom, though a stone mould for celts of this form 
Mras found at Bulford Water, Salisbury. In Eastern Europe the form is 
nore common. The specimen shown as Fig. 179 was found in the neigh- 
[>ourhood of Kertch,* and^is now in the British Museum. I have seen 
others ornamented on the faces, brought from Asiatic Siberia by Mr. H. 
Seebohm. Others from Siberia f have been figured. One of these is 
without loops, and has chevron ornaments in relief below a double 
oioidding. 

A socketed celt with two loops, and apparently hexagonal at the neck, 
found at Ell, near Benfeld, Alsace, is figured by Schneider.J 

I have elsewhere described a two-looped socketed celt from Portugal § 
'6^^ inches). It is like Fig. 120, but has a second loop. Another, of 
ngantic dimensions, 9i inches long and 3^ inches wide, was found in 
Bstremadura, Spain. || 

A two-looped celt with square socket and the loops at the jimction with 
\he flattened blade was in the great hoard found at Bologna. Only one 
af the loops, however, is perforated. 

In the museum at Stockholm are also some socketed celts with two loops. 

In looking over these pages, it will have been observed, that 
though socketed celts occur in numbers throughout the British Isles, 
j^et that those found in England for the most part differ in form 
Erom those found in Ireland, and that some few types appear to 
be peculiar to Scotland. Traces of continental influence are, as 
might have been expected, most evident in the forms found in the 
southern counties of England, and are barely, if at all, perceptible 
in those from Ireland and Scotland. Some few of the socketed celts 
from both England and Scotland are of the type Fig. 167 — a type 
50 common in Ireland as to be characteristic of it — and these 
ippear for the most part, though by no means exclusively, to 
iiave been found in western counties. Although, therefore, the first 
jocketed celts in Britain were doubtless of foreign origin, there 
was no regular importation of them for use over the whole country ; 
3Ut the fashion of making them spread through local foundries, 
md different varieties of pattern originated in various centres, 
ind were adopted over larger or smaller areas as they happened 
:o commend themselves to the taste of the bronze-using public. 
rhe use of socketed celts would, from their abundance, seem 
)0 have extended over a considerable period ; and from their 
laving apparently been found with objects belonging to the Late 

* Areh, Joum.y vol. xiv. p. 91. For the use of this cut I am indebted to Mr. 
L W. Franks, F.K.8. 

t Proe, Soe, Ant., 2nd S., vol. iv. p. 13 ; Arch. Joum.^ vol. xxxi. p. 262; Mem. des 
int. du Nord, 1872—7, p. 116, &c. 

X "Die ehem. Streitkeile," Taf. ii. 12. } Trant. Eihn. Soe., N. S., vol. vii. p. 45 

II " Cong, pr^h." Copenhagen vol. p. 352. 



144 SOCKETED CELTS [cHAP. V. 

m 

Celtic Period they must have been among the last of the bronze 
tools or weapons to be superseded by those of iron. A socketed 
celt, somewhat like Fig. 116 but more trumpet-mouthed, is stated 
to have been found in company with a looped spear-head, two 
pins like Figs. 4 5 #3 and 458, a bronze bridle-bit, and some por- 
tions of buckles of a late Celtic character on Hagboume Hill, 
Berks. These objects are now in the British Museum, and there 
seems reason to believe the account of their discovery given in 
the ArcluBologia* Some coins of gold and silver are said to have 
been found with them, but these are not forthcoming. Socketed 
celts have also been found associated with clasps like Figs. 504 
and 505 at Dreuil, near Amiens, while at Abergele such clasps 
accompanied buckles almost, if not quite, late Celtic iivQharacter. 

No doubt the final disuse of socketed celts was not contempo- 
raneous throughout the whole of the country, and their employ- 
ment probably survived in the north and west of Britain and in 
Ireland to a considerably later date than in the districts more 
accessible to Gaulish influences. The chronology of our Bronze 
Period will, however, have to be considered in a subsequent 
chapter. The transition from bronze to iron cannot so readily 
bo traced in this country as on the Continent ; but socketed 
celts, &c. formed of iron, and made in imitation of those in bronze, 
have occasionally been found in Britain. One (4 inches) with a 
side loop, and a part of its wooden handle, was found in Merioneth- 
shire, and is now in the British Museum. It has been figured 
in the Archseologia Cambrensis.t Another of the same type was 
found in North Wales. + 

I have one (5^ inches) with a rounded socket and no loop, found 
at Gray's Tliurrock, Essex. 

I have another (4 inches) with a square socket, from Pfaffen- 
burg in the Hartz ; and others of longer proportions with round 
sockets from Hallstatt. The metal has been carefully w^elded 
together to form the sockets, in which there is no slit like those 
commonly . to be seen in more modem socketed tools of iron. 
There are ornaments round the mouth of some of the Hallstatt § 
socketed celts, and both they and the iron palstaves are frequently 
provided with a side loop, in exact accordance with those on their 
analogues in bronze. Some of the socketed celts in iron from 

* Vol. xvi. p. 348. t 3rd S., vol. i. p. 250. 

X Proc. Soc. Ant.y 2nd S., vol. iii. p. olft. 
§ Von Sackcn, "Grabf. v. Hallst.," Taf. vii. 



FORMED OF IRON. 145 

the cemetery of Watsch,* in Camiola, are also provided with a 
loop. 

As an illustration of the view that similar wants, with similar 
means at command with which to supply them, lead to the produc* 
tion of similar forms of tools and weapons in countries widely 
remote firom each other, I may mention a socketed celt (10^ 
inches) found in an ancient grave near Copiapo, Chili, t In general 
fonn it is almost identical with some of the Italian bronze celts, 
but it is of copper, and not bronze ; and is not cast, but wrought with 
the hanuner. The socket has, therefore, been formed in the same 
maimer as those of the early iron celts firom Hallstatt, with which 
it also closely corresponds in outline. The surface, however, has 
been ornamented by engraving ; and among the patterns we find 
bands of chevrons, alternately plain and hatched, closely allied to 
the common ornament of the European Bronze Age. What is, 
perhaps, more striking still is that the Greek fret also occurs as an 
ornament on the faces. 

The method in which socketed and other celts were hafbed 
will be discussed in the next chapter. 

« DeKhsuum und Hochstettor, '*Piah. Ansied. a. Begr. statt. in Erain.," 1879, 
Tk!.xTL 
t St9. Arch,f Yd. xziii. p. 267| pi. Tiii. 



L 



CHAPTER VI. 

METHODS OF HAFTING CELTS. 

Any account of the various forms of celts and palstaves which 
have been discovered in this country, such as that attempted in 
the preceding chapters, would be incomplete without some observa- 
tions as to the manner in which they were probably hafbed or 
mounted for use, and some account of the discoveries which throw- 
light upon that subject. 

In a previous chapter I have cited numerous opinions of the 
older school of antiquaries as to the nature of these instruments 
or weapons, and the i^ses which they were intended to serva 
Many of these opinions are so palpably absurd that it is needless 
again to refer to them. Others which regard the instruments as 
having been mounted in such a manner as to serve for axes or 
adzes, for chisels, or for spud-like tools or weapons, have an 
evident foundation in the necessities of the case. There can, in 
the first place, be no doubt that celts and palstaves were cutting 
tools or weapons. There can, in the second place, be but little 
doubt that they were not destined for direct use in the hand 
without the addition of any shaft or handle. In fact, with the 
palstave and socketed forms, it is evident that special provisions are 
made for a haft of some kind. In the third place, this haft» 
whether long or short, must either have been straight or crooked. 
If straight, a kind of chisel or spud must have resulted ; if 
crooked or L-shaped, an axe, hatchet, or adze. 

It is possible that the same form of bronze instruments may 
have been mounted both with straight and with L-shaped handles; 
but, as will subsequently be seen, the probability, judging from 
what few ancient handles have been discovered, is that the great 
majority were moimted with elbowed handles as axes. At the 
same time, from the form and small size of some celts, especially 
of some of those of the socketed variety, it is probable that they 



AXES OF BRONZE. 147 

rere used as chisels. Indeed, judging from the analogy of some 
>ther forms, and from the discovery at Everley, mentioned at 
). 163, this may be regarded as certain. 

As the discoveries of the original hafts of bronze celts have 
principally been made upon the Continent, I shall, in treating^ 
)f this part of my subject, be compelled to have recourse to foreign 
rather than British illustrations. It will also, in speaking of the 
method of hafting, be desirable to make an attempt to trace the 
successive stages of development of the socketed celts ; and, in con- 
nection with this part of the subject also, foreign examples will 
lecome of service. 

And first, in illustration of the use of bronze blades as axes, 
lather than as spuds, or chisels of any kind, I may mention an 
instrument not uncommon in Hungary, and occasionally occurring 
in other parts of Southern Europe, which is perforated and 
rimilar in general form to our modem axe-heads of iron and 
steel. In Scandinavia also other varieties of these perforated 
axe-heads have been found. The common axe-like type has also 
been discovered among Assyrian antiquities. Another and distinct 
fonn which has been found in Egypt mounted as an axe or 
hatchet, with a wooden handle, is a fiat blade not unlike the 
ordinary flat celt, except that instead of tapering at the butt-end 
it expands so as to have two more or less projecting horns, by 
which it was bound against the haft in a shallow socket provided 
for it Egyptian axes mounted in this manner may be seen in 
many museums, and have been frequently figured in works on 
I^*ptian antiquities.* The blade of an axe of this kind, formerly 
in tiie collection of the Rev. Sparrow Simpson, D.D., F.S.A.,t 
and by him presented to the British Museum, bears an inscrip- 
tion in hieroglyphics upon it, with cartouches probably containing 
the name of a shepherd king of the sixteenth or seventeenth 
dynasty. In my own collection is another bronze blade of the 
same shape and size, and with the same inscription, except that 
the names in the cartouches are difierent. Unfortunately this 
part of the blade is corroded, but Dr. S. Birch thinks that the 
cartouches contain the name either of Ramses I. or of a subordinate 
Ramses of the eighteenth dynasty. The hieroglyphics are the 
same on both faces of the blade, but on one run from right to left, 
and on the other from left to right. A hatchet of the same form, 

• See "Mat^riaux,'* vol. v. p. 376. 

t Arch. Auoe, Joum., vol. xxiii. p. 293, pi. zv. 

L 2 



148 



METHODS OF HATTING CELTS 



[chap. VI. 



still bound to its haft, was found in the tomb of Queen Aah-Hotep,* 
of the eighteenth dynasty. 

Some of the stone hatchets from Ecuador, in South America, 
are also provided with projecting ears, and were tied against their 
helves in the same manner. 

The stone axe, said to be that of Montezuma II., preserved in 
the Ambras Museum at Vienna, and shown in Fig. 180, may also 
be of this kind. Copper or bronze blades of this crescent or 
cheese-cutter form, with two projecting lugs at the top of the 
narrow part of the blade, have been found in Peru. 




Fig. 180.— Stone Axe of Montenuna IL 

Broad blades of bronze, in form more like the ordinary flat 
celts, but with the projections at the top, have been found in the 
same country. I have one about 5 inches long and 3 inches 
wide, with strong lugs at the top 2 inches long. It came from 
Eastern Peru. 

Some blades of this form were hafted in a rather different 
manner, as will be seen by means of Fig. 181. 




Fig. 181.— Aymara Indian Hatohet. \ 



This represents an iron hatchet used by the Aymara Indians, of 
the province of La Paz, Bolivia, which was brought from that 
country and presented to me by my friend, the late Mr. David 
Forbes, F.R.S. In this form the handle is split, and the blade is 
secured by a leather thong, two turns of which pass under the two 
lugs of the blade, and thus prevent it from coming forward ; two 

* « Mat^riaiix," vol. v. p. 379, pi. xix. 7. 



IK CLUB-LIKB HANDLES. 149 

otiier turns pass over the butt-end, and thus prevent it from being 
diireu bot^vards by any blow ; while all the coils of the thong hold 
the cleft stick firmly s^ainst the two Jitces of the blade. Although 
no celts with the *r-8luiped butt^nd have been found in Britain, 
or, indeed, in Western Europe, I have thought it worth while to 
engnve this curious example of the method of mounting such 
blades, especially as the central projections of the Irish form of 
celt, like f^g. 45, may have been secured by thongs in a somewhat 
analogous manner. 

Tuniing now to the other British forms of celts, of which, as 
already obaerred, the flat and doubly tapering blades, like Fig. 2, 



nem to be the most ancient, it is probable that these were hafted 
by the butt-end being merely driven into a club or handle of 
vood, in the same manner as many stone celts appear to have 
been mounted. The modem iron hatchet, from Western Africa, 
shown in Fig. 182, will give a good idea of the manner in which 
tbe bronze celta that are so much Uke it in form were probably 
hafted. Another modem A£ican axe has been engraved by Sir 
John Lubbock.* It is, of course, possible that some of the ancient 
flat celts were mounted after the manner of spuds, aa is, by several 
German and Danish antiquaries, held to have been the case with 
those of the palstave form. It must, however, be borne in mind 
* " Piek. Timea," p. 29. For other ezamplt* lee Klomin, " AUgem. Cultnrwin.," 



150 METHODS OF HAFTINO CELTS [CHAF. VI. 

that as a rule the stone celts, which the earliest of those in bronze 
must in all probability have supplanted, were mounted after the 
manner of hatchets. Moreover, the few stone celts, the axis of the 
straight handle of which was in the same direction as the blade, 
appear to have been hafted with short handles as chisels, and not 
with long shafts as spuds. Among those found still attached to 
their hafts in the Swiss lake dwellings, some few were mounted in 
short stag's-hom handles as chisels, but the majority were fitted for 
use as hatchets, with a club-like handle, in which a short stag's-hom 
socket was mortised as affording a receptacle for the stone, harder 
and less liable to split than those of wood. In some cases, however, 
the handles were made from a bough of a tree with a short pro- 
jecting branch, which was cleft to receive the stone. One of 




Fig. 183.— Stone Axe, fiobenhausen. 

these, from Robenhausen, is shown in Fig. 183, which is copied 
from Dr. Keller's work.* 

In Britain the traces of the original handles of bronze celts have 
been not unfrequently found, though the actual wood had perished. 

In a barrow in the parish of Butter wick, t Canon Greenwell, 
F.R.S., found what he describes as " an axe-blade of bronze," 
engraved as Fig. 2, which lay with a skeleton, and " the handle, 
which had been under two feet in length, could be plainly traced 
by means of a dark line of decayed wood extending from the hips 
towards the heels ; moreover, from the presence of decayed wood 
on the sides of the blade, it would seem as if the axe had been 
protected by a wooden sheath. To all appearance the weapon 
had been worn slung from the waist." In this case the blade 
had been fixed, apparently after the manner of Fig. 182, into 
a solid handle to the depth of two inches, as is evident from the 
surface of the metal being oxidized on that part of the blade 
differently from what it is elsewhere. 

♦ ** Lake Dwellings/* Eng. ed., p. 110, pi. x. 16. See also xi. 2, and xxviii. 24 ; and 
Lindenschmit, *• Hohunz. Samml.,'* Taf. xxix. 4. f " British Barrows," p. 18b. 



AS SEEN IN BARROWS. 151 

In a barrow at Shuttlestone/ near Parwich, Derbyshire, Mr. Bate- 
man found about the middle of the left thigh of a skeleton a bronze 
celt, of " the plainest axe-shaped type. The cutting edge was 
tamed upwards towards the upper part of the person, and the 
instrument itself has been inserted vertically into a wooden handle 
bj being driven in for about two inches at the narrow end — at 
least, the grain of the wood runs in the same direction as the 
longest dimension of the celt.'' ''A fact/' adds Mr. Bateman, "not 
unworthy of the notice of any inclined to explain the precise 
maimer of mounting these curious implements." It may be re- 
marked, however, that no part of the handle itself, beyond this 
grain upon the bronze, was preserved, and that this direction of 
the grain of the wood would be quite consistent with the blade 
baving been mounted in a side branch from the shaft, after the 
manner of the Swiss stone celt shown in Fig. 183. 

It appears to me possible that in other cases where the marks 
of the grain of the wood, or even the traces of the wood itself, 
bave been found upon celts, running along and not across the blade, 
tbe somewhat hasty conclusion has been drawn that they were 
attached to the end of straight shafts instead of into side branches; 
and that possibly this opinion, when once accepted, may have 
affected insensibly the reports of the position of the blade of the 
celts with regard to the bodies with which they were foimd, and 
to the traces of their shafts. 

The opinion first enounced by J. A. Fabricius that the celt was 
the ancient German framea or spear mentioned by Tacitus, seems 
also insensibly to have affected observers. 

There is an account given by Thorlaciust of the discovery in a 
tomulus near Store-Hedinge, in Denmark, of a palstave with the 
wooden shaft an ell and a quarter long, into which the blade was 
inserted ; the wood, as might have been expected, running down 
between the side wings ; at the other end of the shaft there was a 
leather strap wound round for about a quarter of an eU. The 
wh(^ was so decayed that not the least part of it could be taken 
ont of the ground. Although nothing appears to be said with 
legard to the position of the palstave with respect to the shaft, 
this has been cited by Lisch X and others in evidence of this form of 
instrument having been mounted spud-fashion, as a kind of chisel- 

• " Ten Years' Diggings," p. 36. 

t Cited in Schreiber's **I>ie ehemen Streitkeile," Freiburg, 1842, p. 4. 

{ See liflch, ** Frederico-Francisceum," p. 38. 



153 METHODS OF HAFTING CBLTB [CUAP. VI. 

ended spear. A more cosclusive instAtice is that addaced by Westen- 
dorp,* who has figured a socketed celt without a loop, found in a 
fen in the province of Groningen, Holland, mounted in this manner 
OD a str^ght shaft. I have, however, already remarked that 
some of the socketed celts of this character were probably used as 
chisels. 

Whatever reliance may be placed upon the older discoveries, all 
those of more recent times are in &vour of the instruments of the 
palstave form having been mounted as axes, hatchets, or adzes. 
In the museum at Salzhu^, Austria, there are at least four crooked 
handles for this kind of hlade, found in the salt-mines of Hallein, 
one of which is shown in the annexed cut I am not, however. 



sure whether the blade was actually found with the haft in which it 
is now placed, nor, if so, whether it was originally in its present posi- 
tion with the loop outwards. It looks much more hke an Italian 
than a German specimen, which has been added to the haft in recent 
times, and it has not the appearance of having been exposed for cen- 
turies to the action of salt. It seems more probable that the salt, 
which has fortunately had the power of preserving the wood, would 
in course of years have dissolved the whole of the metal, assuming 
that at the time when the haft was lost, or left in the mine, a 
blade was still attached to it, than that it should have left the 
metal, as here, almost uniiyured. In this instance, moreover, the 
haft is perfect, and not, as in some of the other cases, broken, 
so as to raise an inference of their having been thrown away. 

■ •* ADtiquitoitan," iii. Stuck, p. 2g£. 



AFTER THE MANNER OF AXES. 153 

The position of the blade with the loop outwards is also sus- 
picious. 

A broken example of the same kind of haft, also from the salt- 
mines of Hallein, has been figured by Klemm,* and is to be seen 
in the British Museum. There are others in the museum at Linz. 

Handles of the same kind, intended for palstaves, have been 
found in the Italian lake dwellings. In some discovered in the 
"palafitta" of Castione,t the notch is in the transverse direction 
to the shaft, as if the blade had been mounted as an adze, and not 
as an axe. In others the notch is longitudinal, and not trans- 
verse. In one instance the side branch has no notch, but there 
is a shoulder on it, as if it had served for a socketed celt. 

A looped palstave, mounted in a similar branched handle, has 
been found at the lake dwelling of Moerigen,J on the Lac de 
fiienne. In this case also the loop is on the farther side of the 
shaft. 

That the flanged and winged celts and palstaves were, as a rule, 
destined to be mounted in the manner of hatchets or adzes, and 
not as spuds or spear-heads, is to some extent witnessed by the 
development of their form ; the progressive increase in the size of tlie 
wings and flanges, more especially about the middle of the blade, 
s^pearing to be intended as a precaution against lateral strains, 
such as the blade of an axe undergoes, rather than against a mere 
thrust, such as that to which the head of a spear or lance is 
subject. Of course the stop-ridge is a preservative against the 
blade being driven back into its handle, in whatever way it is 
mounted. But the flanges, at first slight, then expanding at the 
middle of the blade, then becoming projecting wings, and finally 
being bent over, so as to form side sockets on each side of the 
blade, seem rather the result of successive endeavours to steady the 
blade against a sideways strain. 

This development can best be traced in the series of flat celts, 
flanged and winged celts, and palstaves, discovered in the South of 
Fiance. 

Even the long narrow palstaves, which have so much the 
appearance of chisels, seem to have been mounted on crooked 
shafts. There is a long German § form with a narrow butt above 
the stop-ridge, and with but slight side flanges, which are con- 

* '* Allgemeiiie CulturwiMenschaft,'' pi. i. fig. 186, p. 105. 

t Strobel in BuU. di Falet. Itai., Anno i. (1875), p. 7, Tav. i. ; Anno 4to (1878), p. 46 
Tay. u. J Keller, " 7ter Bericht," Taf. xxiv. 17. 

t See lindenachmit, << A. a. h. V.," vol. i.. Heft. i. Taf. iv. 32. 



104 UETHODS OF UAFTINQ CELTS. [CHAP. VI. 

tinued down along the sides of the blade below the ridge, that 
seems much more like a chisel than a hatchet. The usual 
length of this form is about 6 inches, and the width at the edge 
about IJ inches, that of the butt-end, including the side 
flancbes, being about f inch. But that palstaves of this kind 
were mounted as hatchets will be evident from an inspection of 
Fig. 185, which represents a specimen in my own collection, 
found in the district of Baron, 
near Brigue, Valais, Switzerland. 
It is, as will be seen, in £m^ a 
socketed celt, but with the 
socket at right angles to the 
axis of the blade. The reason 
why it should have been cast 
in this manner is probably to 
be found in the fact that boughs 
of trees with a smaller branch 
at right angles to thorn are not 
easily met with, though such 
houghs are best adapted for con- 
version into the helves of this 
kind of hatchet. Some ingeni- 
ous bronze-founder of old times 
conceived the idea of producing 
a hatchet which did not require 
a crooked helve, but for haftii^ 
which any ordiniuy straight 
stick would serve ; and we have 
here his new form of axe-head. 
In practice, however, it was pro- 
bably found both to balance 
badly, and to be expensive in 
metal, and the design appears 
not to have spread, as up to 
the present time this specimen seems to be unique. The most 
remarkable features in it have still to be noticed. The pattern 
from which it was cast seems to have been a palstave already 
mounted on its haft, and we have here the smooth and rounded 
end of the bough, with the smaller side branch running off at 
right angles, reproduced in bronze. Even the baud by which the 
blade was secured in the cleft part of the handle is reproduced as 




SOCKETED CELTS USED AS HATCHETS. 155 

a spiral moulding. The banding which extends to the mouth 
of itte socket is also spiral, and probably represents a binding 
iDond the original wooden handle at the part where, from expe- 
rience, it was found most liable to break. The straight haft of 
this hatchet was secured in its place by a bronze rivet passing 
through the socket from side to side, which is still in its place, 
though all trace of the wood has disappeared. 

With this singular celt was found a small dagger, 6^ inches 
long, which had been secured to its hUt by four rivets, and a 
penannular bracelet decorated with ring ornaments. It is remark- 
able how well the discovery of this form of celt bears out the 
theoretical suggestions of Sir Joseph Banks,* Sir Samuel Meyrick,t 
Mr. Dunoyer,+ and others, including Sir W. Wilde. § Indeed, 
Dr. Bichard Richardson || many years ago advanced the same 
opinion as to the manner in which such celts were hafted. 

With regard to the usual manner of mounting those of the 
socketed form there can be but little doubt, as in some few 
instances the original handles have been preserved with them. 




Fig. 186.— Edendeny. | 



One such, found in the bed of the river Boyne, near Eden- 
deny, King's County, has been figured by Wilde,1f whose cut, by 
the kind permission of the Royal Irish Academy, is here repro- 
duced as Fig. 186. The helve is only 13f inches long, but 
seems well adapted to the size of the blade. So far as I know 
this is the only instance of such a discovery within the United 
Kingdom. 

In Fig. 187, however, is shown an Italian socketed celt of 
a common form, with the original handle still attached. This 
specimen is in my own collection, and was found about the year 
1872 in the neighbourhood of Chiusi, Tuscany. With it were 
another, also retaining its handle, a large fibula of silver, a scara- 
b&us, and many small square plates of bronze, each having a fylfot 

• Areh., vol. xix. p. 102, pi. viii. 6. 

t ** Andent Armour,** by Skelton, vol. i. pi. xlvii. 

J Areh. Jaum., vol. iv. p. 4. § " Catal. Mm. R. I. A.,** p. 367. 

I Uland's Itin., Heftme*fl ed., vol. i. p. 145. H P. 370, fig. 257. 



156 METHODS OF IIAFIIKC CBLT8 [OIAP. TI. 

cross upon it, probably the ornaments of a girdle All these 
objects bad been buried in an um, wbich was covered by a slab of 
stone, and most of tbem are to be seen in tbe Etruscan Museum at 
Florence. With the exception of a fracture not &r from the angle, 
the handle of my specimen is perfect. TTie preservation is due to 
its having been entirely coated with thin plates of bronze, the aides 
of which overlap, and have been secured round the handle by 



round-headed nails about J inch apart. This plating is turned 
over sqnnre at the end of the handle, where there is a little pro- 
jecting bronze eye, through which a ring may have pas-ied, so as to 
serve for its suspension. At the sides above the celt there are 
some larger round-headed nails, or possibly rivets ; and the end of 
the branch which goes into the socket appears to be secured by a 
rivet, which passes through from face to face. At the end of the 
handle itself, above the celt, is a nearly circular flat bronze plntc. 



AS SEEN AT HALLSTATT. 157 

with a Tound-headed nail in the middle to attach it to the wood. 
The fracture exposes the wood inside the plates, which has been 
preserved by the salts, or oxide, of copper. It has been thought 
to be oak. On the blade of the celt are some flakes of oxide of 
iron, as if it had lain in contact with some articles made of that 
metal Indeed, from the form, as well as from the objects found 
with it, the presumption is that this instrument belongs to quite 
the end of the Bronze Age of Italy, or to the transitional period 
between bronze and iron. 

It may be well here to mention that celts of iron of the flat 

iDffiiiy with projections at the sides like Fig. 45 ; of the palstave 

land, with the semicircular side sockets ; and of the socketed form, 

liBve been found in the cemetery at Hallstatt, in Austria, the 

moa rohes in which of Horr Ramsauer have been described by 

Buon Von Sacken.* These discoveries seem to show that all three 

varieties were still in use at the close of the Bronze Period. In 

the same cemetery celts of the two last-mentioned forms were 

found in bronze, and palstaves occurred with the wings formed of 

hionxe and the blade of iron. 

In 1866 I exhumed from this cemetery with my own hands, 
when in company with Sir John Lubbock, a socketed celt of iron, 
vith a portion of the haft still in it. The celt is attached to a 
hranch of the main handle, which projects at an angle of about 
80^. This has been split off from the handle, only a small part 
of which remains attached ; and it is this portion only of the 
wood which has been preserved by the infiltration of some salts 
of iron, while the rest, which was detached from contact with 
metal, has disappeared The wood of which the handle was 
made appears to be fir. On an iron palstave from the same spot 
it seems to be oak. On two bronze palstaves from France in 
my own collection, one from Amiens and the other from the 
Seine, at Paris, the portions of wood which still remain attached 
to the blades appear also to be oak. 

In the Hallstatt specimen the inclination of the blade seems to 
have been towards the hand, and the part of the handle beyond 
the branch which enters the socket presents some appearance of 
having been bound with an iron ferrule, probably with the view of 
preventing it from splitting. The projection is somewhat longer 
proportionally than that in Fig. 185, and the end appears to have 
been truncated, and not rounded. 

• " Orabfcld von Hallrt.,** p. 38. 




158 METHODS OF HAFTING CELTS [CHAP. VI. 

There have been in this country a few instances of the dis- 
covery of bronze rings in company with palstaves and socketed celts, 
and these rings may possibly have served a similar purpose, though 
it must bo confessed that such an use is purely conjectural. That 
shown in Fig. 188 was found in company with a bronze palstave 
without a loop, but much like Fig. 74, at Winwick,* near Warring- 
ton, Lancashire, and was kindly lent me by Dr. 
James Kendrick, who in 1858 1 suggested that 
it was a "sort of ferrule to put round the 
handle of the palstave to prevent the wood from 
splitting when the instrument was strucL" 
The ornament on the ring, somewhat like the 
" broad arrow " of modem times, is of much the 
"*^° same character as the shield-like pattern below 

the stop-ridge of some palstaves. In the British Museum is a 
stone mould from Northumberland for flat rings, 3 inches in dia- 
meter, and for flat celts ; but such rings probably served some 
other purpose. 

Another bronze ring, 1|. inches in diameter, was found with a 
socketed celt in the Thames,? opposite Somerset House, but here 
the actual association of the two is doubtful. 

I have already expressed a doubt whether the celt from Tadcaster, 
Yorkshire, and now in the British Museum, had, when found, the 
bronze ring with a jet bead upon it passing through the loop. 
The ring itself is made not of one continuous piece of metal, 
but of stout wire, with the ends abutting against each other, 
and nothing would be easier for the workman who found the 
three objects than to pass the ring through the loop of the 
celt and the hole of the bead. I have myself received from 
Hungary two socketed celts, each having imperfect penannular 
bracelets passed through the loop in the same manner, though they 
certainly had no original connection with the celts. It is, how- 
ever, but right to mention that in the British Museum is the 
upper part of a celt with an octagonal neck, found with other 
objects near Kensington, on the loop of which is a small ring, barely 
large enough to encircle the loop. Of what service this could 
have been it is difficult to imagine. 

If the association of the larger rings and the celts must be 
given up, it is needless to cite the opinions which have been held 

♦ Arch. Assor. Joum.y vol. xv. pi. xxv. p. 236 ; Arch. Jnurn., vol. xviii. p. 159. 
t A. A. J.y vol. xiv. p. 269. X ^rch. Journ., vol. x. p. 161, 



IN SOME INSTANCES AS ADZES. 159 

as to the use of the one in connection with the other. Some 
references are given in the note.* 

The early Iron Age of Denmark is no doubt considerably later 
in date than that of Hallstatt, but in several of the discoveries of 
objects of that period in Denmark socketed celts of iron have 
been found still attached to their helves. In the Nydam find, 
described by Mr. Conrad Engelhardt, the majority of the axes were 
of the ordinary form, with eyes for the shafts ; but there were 
some also of the form of the socketed celt, though without any 
loops. These were mounted as axes, and not as adzes, on crooked 
handles about 17 inches long. The helves of axes of the ordinary 
form were from 23 to 32 inches in length. In the Vimose find + 
there were several of these iron celts, one of which was thought 
to have been mounted on a crooked handle, but the others appear 
to have been mounted as chisels. 

The palstaves with the edges transverse to the septum between 
the side flanges seem to have been mounted in precisely the same 
manner as those of the ordinary form, except that when attached 
to their handles they formed adzes, and not axes. It has been 
suggested § that the palstaves of the ordinary form may also have 
been mounted as adzes, and probably this was so in some excep- 
tional cases. Mention has already been made of some Italian 
helves with transverse notches for the reception of the blade. 
Some of the flat celts may have also been mounted as adzes by 
binding them against the shorter end of an L-shaped handle, in 
the same manner as the Egyptians fixed their adze blades. 

In some palstaves, but more especially in those of the South 
of Europe, there is at the butt-end of the blade a kind of dove- 
tailed notch, which appears to have been formed by hammering 
over a part of the jets or runners of the original castings, which 
were left projecting a short distance instead of being broken off 
short at the blade. Whether the hammering over was for the 
purpose of rounding the angles or for that of forming this dove- 
tailed notch is somewhat uncertain ; it is, however, possible that 
one or more pins or rivets may have been driven through the 
handle, so as to catch the dovetails and retain the blade in its 
place. It is not often the case that this portion of the blade is so 

• Areh,, toL xvi. p. 362; Areh. Joum., vol. iv. p. 6 ; Klemm, " AUg. Kult. gesch.," 
^107. 
t "Nydam Mosefund," 1869—1863. Copenhagen, 1865. 
1 " Vimow Fundet " af C. Engelhardt, 1869, p. 29. 
! Wettropp in Froe, 8oe. Ant,^ 2nd S., vol. v. p. 335. 



160 METHODS OF HAFTING CELTS. [CHAF. VI. 

long that it would have gone through the handle and have allowed 
of a pin beyond it, as suggested by Mr. Dunoyer * in the case of 
a long palstave, with a rivet-hole near the butt-end of the blada 
A palstave, found in a tomb in the department of Loir et Cher,t 
by my friend the late Abb^ Bourgeois, is provided with a rivet- 
hole near the top, countersunk on either side so as to guide a 
pin into the place intended for it ; and it seems probable, as the 
Abb^ suggests, that this was connected with the securing of the 
blade, which is destitute of a loop, to the helve. Of six thin flat 
bronze celts, 7 or 8 inches long, from the Island of Thermia, j: or 
Cythnos, in the Greek Archipelago, which are now in the British 
Museum, three that are broad are provided with square or 
lozenge-shaped holes towards the upper end of the blade, and 
three that are narrower are without. A flanged celt from Italy,§ 
6 inches long, has a circular hole in the same position, which, 
may have received a pin. Some contrivance for keeping blades 
of smooth bronze fast in their handles must have been neces- 
sary or desirable from the earliest times. With stone celts we 
often find that the butt-end destined to be let into the wooden 
or horn socket was purposely roughened. With bronze, how- 
ever, such a process does not seem to have been adopted to 
any extent ; and probably with blades of bronze, so much less 
tapering than those of stone, the difficulty of keeping them in 
place was surmounted by attaching them with some sort of 
resinous or pitchy cement, A safe remedy against slipping out 
was no doubt found in the addition of the ring or loop to the 
side, which there can be but little doubt served for a cord to pass 
through, so as to hold the blade back to the handle. In a socketed 
celt, 5 J inches long, found in the Seine, at Paris, and now in my 
own collection, not only is the wood preserved in the socket by 
saturation -with some salt of copper, but within the upper part of 
the loop there are distinct traces of a cord which was apparently 
formed of vegetable fibre. The Irish palstave. Fig. 105, with tho 
curved projection instead of the usual loop, seems to show that it w€ts 
only against the upper part of the loop that the strain cama No 
doubt, however, there was more strength in the loop attached to 
the blade at both ends than in the mere neb or projection. Some 
Italian socketed celts have similar projecting nebs, one on either 
side. In the case of the palstaves and celts with two loops, i^ 

* yirrh. Jnttrn., vol. iv. p. 4, fip. B. f Revue Areh,., vol. xxi^. p. 73, pi. iii. 2, 

X Pt'oc. Soc. Aut.^ 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 486. § Arch, Joum,, vol. xxi. p. 100. 



NO PERFORATED BRONZE AXE-HEADS IN BRITAIN. 161 

• 

seems probable that the handle must have been somewhat pro- 
longed beyond the side branch, which received the palstave or 
went into the socket of the celt. 

It has been stated that some of the Spanish palstaves* with two 
loops were, when first discovered, attached to a straight handle of 
wood. But this opinion may have been formed from the grain of 
the wood impressed on the upper part of the blade running along 
and not across it. In the first account f given of the discovery, 
these palstaves were regarded as having been used for picking out 
the strata of coal, and one of them is said to have been firmly 
attached to a wooden handle by means of thongs interlaced and 
held by notches in the wood. This handle was described as 
having been straight, so that the instrument was fitted to be 
used as a crowbar and not as a hatchet. But inasmuch as the 
groove for the handle is only 2^ inches long and ^ inch wide, 
while the length of the blade projecting beyond the handle is 
nearly 5 inches, it is almost impossible for it to have served in 
this manner. 

Axe-heads of bronze of the modem form with an eye through 
them to receive a straight helve have not been found in this 
country, though, as already observed, they are not xmcommon in 
Hungary, Southern Germany, and Italy. That the form was already 
known in Greece in the Homeric Age is evident from the feat of 
skill in shooting an arrow through the shaft holes of a number of 
axe-heads, arranged in a row, recorded in the Odyssey. J I have 
in my collection a fine double-edged axe, or ireKeKw, from Greece, 
8^ inches in length, with a round shaft-hole ^ inch in diameter. 
I have also two from Salamis. 

Looking at the widespread distribution of perforated stone im- 
plements, especially battle-axes, throughout Europe, it seems 
strange that so few bronze weapons of the same class should be 
found. Possibly, however, these stone weapons may have re- 
mained in use even until the latter part of the Bronze Period, as 
they certainly did through the earlier part of it. In this country 
it seems doubtful whether any of the perforated battle-axes of stone 
belong to a time when bronze was absolutely unknown, as bronze 
knife-daggers, like Fig. 279, have so often been found asso- 
ciated with them in interments. Hungary is the country in 
which the perforated bronze battle-axes seem to have arrived at 

• Arch. Joum.f vol. vi. p. 369. t uirch. Joum.^ vol. vi. p. 69. 

X Lib. xix. V. 573. See also Lib. v. v. 235. 

M 



162 METHODS OF HAFTINa CELTS [CHAP. VI. 

their fullest development, many of them being of graceful form 
and beautiful workmanship. The perforated copper implements 
of that country were probably used for agricultural purposes, and 
I see no reason for assigning them to so early a date as the com- 
mencement of the Bronze Period of Hxmgary. They may, indeed, 
belong to a much later period. It is hard to accoimt for this 
absence of perforated axes of bronze in Britain, but various causes 
seem to have conduced to render their introduction difficult 
When first bronze came into use it must have been extremely 
scarce and valuable ; and to cast an axe-head in bronze, like one 
of the perforated axe-hammers of stone, would have required not 
only a considerably greater amount of the then precious metal than 
was required for a flat hatchet-head, but would also have involved 
a far higher skill in the art of casting. Moreover, the flat form of 
these simple blades rendered them well adapted for being readily 
drawn out to a sharp cutting edge, and when once they had come 
into general use they would not have been readily superseded by those 
of another form, hafted in a different method, even were that method 
more simple. If the bronze celts were mainly in use for peaceful 
industries, while the warlike battle-axes were made of stone, the 
progressive modifications in the shape of the former would be less 
likely to be affected by the characteristics of the latter. It must 
also be remembered that in France,* which then as now set the 
fashion to Britain, perforated axe-heads of stone were very seldom 
used, and those of bronze were in the north of the country 
unknown. 

But, to return to the celts of the British Islands, there can, I 
think, be but little doubt that the loop is, as already described, 
connected with the method of mounting these instniments on 
their hafts ; and is not intended for the attachment of a cord, by 
which they might be withdrawn and recovered after they had 
been throAvn at the enemy. Like the American tomahawks, they 
may, no doubt, have occasionally been used as " missile hatchets," 
the " missiles secures " of Sidonius ; t but the days of young 
Sigimer, whose followers were provided with these weapons, are 
many centuries more recent than those to which the bronze celts 
must be referred. 

In the same manner, any idea of the loops having merely served 

♦ ^Vhilo speaking of French ajlts, I may refer to a short Paper on the method in 
which thev wore hafted, ^Titten by the late M. Penguilly-rilai-idon. — liev. Arch.y 
2nd 8. vol.* iv. p. 32U. 

t Ep. 20, lib. 4. Sec Arch., vol. xxx. p. 492. 



AS CHISELS. 



163 



il 



for liu^finf^ these instrumenta at the girdle may be at once dis- 
euded. For such a purpose the projection which we find sub- 
stitnted for the loop would be useless, and the presence of two 
loops would be superfluous. 

On the whole, we may conclude that the majority of these 
iostruments were mounted for use, somewhat in the manner 
described, so as to serve as axes or adzes. A smaller proportion 
of them may, however, not improbably have 
been provided with short straight handles, to 
serve as chisels, especially the socketed celts 
of small size and without loops. This is the 
more probable as several socketed instruments 
closely resembling them in character cannot be 
r^arded as other than chisels and gouges. No 
example, however, of a socketed celt provided 
with a handle of this kind has as yet been 
found. The little instrument of brass fixed 
into a handle made of stag's horn, which 
was found in a cist in a barrow at Everley,* 
Wilts, by Sir R. Colt Hoare, has more the 
^ipearance of being a tanged chisel, such as 
will subsequently be described, than a flat colt. 
It is shown full size in Fig. 189, which I have 
copied &om Sir R. C. Hoare's plate. There 
were no bones or ashes found in the cist, but 
several pointed instruments, and what appears 
to be a kind of long, fiat bead of bone, as well 
u two whetstones of freestone, and a hone of 
a bitieiah colour had been deposited with it. , 

Professor Worsaae t has published an en- llll ,i .'In' 
graving of a narrow Danish palstave, which 
was found in a hiU in Jutland fastened to its 
bandle by three rings of leather. This handle 
wasstraight, but unlike that from Store Hedin- 
>g?, which was an ell and a quarter long, was 
not more than about 8 inches in length. In 
some other instances, he says, the blade has ng_ ie9.-ETHier. i 
been fastened to the handle by nails or rivets. 

I have already mentioned that some of the socketed celts of 
iron belonging to the early Iron Age of Denmark have been found 

• " Anc. Wai»," »oL i. p. 182, pi. vd. t " Prim. Ant. of Denmarli," p. 26. 

H 2 






164 METHODS OF HAFTINO CELTS. [CHAP. VI. 

mounted as chisels. A good example of one thus hafted has 
been figured by Engelhardt* The part of the handle which goes 
into the socket is tapered to fit it. Above this the handle ex- 
pands with a shoulder projecting somewhat beyond the outside oi 
the celt. It continues of this size for about 1^ inches, and is 
then again reduced to the same size as the mouth of the celt 
The whole of the handle beyond the metal is about 4 inches 
in length. 

Having said thus much with regard to the early iron chisels, it 
will, however, now be well to proceed to the consideration ol 
those formed of bronze, and of the other bronze tools found in 
this country. 

• " Vimofle Mosefundet/' p. 28. 



CHAPTER VII. 

CHISELS, GOUGES, HAMMERS, AND OTHER TOOLS. 

Although, doubtless, many if not most of the instruments of 
different forms, described in the preceding chapters, were used as 
tools, and not as weapons, yet in some cases, especially where they 
have been found in graves, it is more probable that they formed 
part of the equipment of a warrior than of an artificer. With 
regsad to the various forms of which I intend to treat in the pre- 
sent chapter, there can hardly exist a doubt that they should be 
regarded as tools, and not as weapons. Already in the Neolithic 
Period we find many of these forms of tools, such as chisels and 
gouges, developed ; and so far as hammers are concerned, it seems 
probable that for many purposes a stone held in the hand may 
have served during the Bronze Period as a hammer or mallet, just 
as it often does now in the age of steel and steam. I have else- 
where* mentioned a fact communicated to me by the late Mr. David 
Forbes, F.RS., that in Peru and Bolivia the masons, skilful in 
working hard stone with steel chisels, make use of no other mallet 
or hammer than a stone pebble held in the hand. 

The simplest form of chisel is of course a short bar of metal 
hrought to an edge at one end and left blunt at the other where 
it receives the blows of the hammer or mallet. Such at the 
present day are the ordinary chisels of the stone-mason, and the 
" cold chisel " of the engineer. 

Most of the Scandinavian chisels of flint are of nearly the same 
fonn as the simplest metal chisels, being square in section in the 
^pper part and gradually tapering to an edge at the lower end. 
Bronze chisels of this form are, however, but rarely met with in 
wiypart of Europe. One such, however, was found at Plymstock,t 

• "Anc. Stone Imp.," p. 207. 

t See Arch. Joum., voL xxvi. p. 346. I am indebted to Mr. A. W. Franks, F.R.S. 
tor the oae of this cut. 



166 CHISELS, GOUGES, HAMMERS, AKU OTHER TOOl^. [cHAP. VII. 

near Oreston, Bevonshire, in compODy with sixteen flanged celts 
like Figs. 9 and 10, three d^gers, and a tanged apear-head, en- 
graved as Fig. 327. It is shown in Fig. 190. Its length is 4 
inches, and the cutting edge is rather more than J inch in width. 
The late Mr. Albert Way, who describes this specimen in the 
ArckcEologiccd Journal, regarded it as unique in England ; and the 
form, so far as I am aware, has not again been found in this 
country. It is now in the British Museum. 

I have a large chisel of the same type, but apparently formed of copper, 
which woa fouud in the neighbourhood of Preasburg, Hungary. It is 
7^ inches long, about j inch 
square in the middle, and 
expands in width at the edge, 
wluch is lunate. Othera of 
the same form, 4^ inches and 
5 J inches long, also from 
Hungary, are in the Zurich 
Museum. Such chisels have 
also been found in the Swiss 
Lak e -d w ellings. 

A long chisel, formed from 
a plain square bar drawn to 
an edge, was found by Dr. 
Schliemann* in his excava- 
tions at Hissarlik. 

Bronze chisels of the same 
form were also in use among 
the ancient iWptlans. 

A smaller cEisel, conical at 
the butt end and jKWsibly 
intended for insertioa into a 
handle, is shown in Fig. 191. 
The original is in the collec- 
tion of Canon Greenwell, 
F.R.8., and was found with 
numerous other bronze antiquities in the Heathery Bum Cave, Durham, 
already so often mentioned. One rather larger, about 3 inches long and 
i inch broad, probably found in one of the barrows at Lakef or Dum- 
ford, is in the collection of the Eev. E. Duke, of Lake House, near Salis- 
bury. It may possibly have been a lai^ awl. 

An Aztec} chisel of nearly the same form as Fig. 191, and about 4^ 
inches long, contains 97'87 copper and 2-ia of tin. Another from Lima 
contains 94 copper and 6 of tin. 

The small bronze chisel from Scotland, shown in Fig. 192, exhibits a 
somewhat different type ; the blade tapering evenly away from the edge. 
The point which was intended to go into the liandle appears to have been 
"drawn down" a Uttlo by hammering, whicli has produced slight flanges 




Plrmaiock. 1 



Fig.IM. 



" Troy and its KcmainB," p. 332. 



t Jye/i., vol. iliii. p, 467. 



;1 Museo da Uexico," vol. i. p. 117. 



TAMGED CHISELS. 167 

at the aides. The edge has also been hammered. The original was kindly 
lent me b; the Bev. George Wilson, of Qlenluce, Wigtonsbire, and maa 
found, wiUt a conical button and a flat plate of cannel-coal or jet, on the 
SaodhiUe of liow Torrs, near Glenluce. Numerous arrow-heads and 
Sikee of flint have also been found among the sands at the same place. 

A flat chisel (4^ inches) like Fig. 192, but rather broador at the edge, 
vhich is Bomewhat oblique, was found with two flat sickles on Sparkford 
Hill,* Somersetshire. 

There ware some email chisels of this class in the Lamaud hoard! 
(Jura). 

Others have been found in the Swiss Lahe-dwellingB.J 

Two shorter edged tools, found at Ebnall,§ Salop, which have been 
deacttbed as chisels or hammers, seem rather tji have been punches, and 
will be mentioned subsequently. 

As chisels were probably used in ancient times, as at present, not 
only ID conjunction with a mallet, but also in the hand alone with 
pressure as paring-tools, it would have been found 
conTenient to attach them to wooden or horn 
bandies. Accordingly we find them both provided 
with a tang or shank for driving into a wooden 
bimdle, like the majority of modem chisels, and 
also, though more rarely, with a socket for the 
recqation of a handle, like the heavy mortising 
chisels of the present day. Chisels of the tanged 
variety vary considerably in size and strength, and 
in the restive width of the blade to the length. 

That shown in Fig. 192* ia from the great hoard 
diKorered at Carlton Itode,|| Norfolk, already mon- 
tioDed, and is preserved in the Norwich Museum. The 
marks of the joint of the mould are still visible on the 
<aog. It was found with numerous celts and gouges, 
a hammer, and at least one socketed chisel. Anothet c^SiJa^. j 

tanged chisel of nearly the same form and dimensions is 
^ in the Norwich Museum. It formed part of the Woodward Collec- 
tion, and was probably found in Norfolk. 

A chisel much more expanded at the edge, and also of lighter make, 
»ia found at Wallingford, Berks, in company with a double-edged knife 
or razor, and a socketed celt, gouge, and knife, of which notices are given 
in other parts of this booh. It ia engraved as Fig. 1 93, and is in my own 
(oUection, as is also the original of Fig. 194. This formed part of the hoard 
discoTered in Beach Fen, Cambridge, and was the only one of the kind 
there found. A socketed chisel-like celt from the same board has been 
■heady described and figured at page 133, Fig. 159. 

• Samer$el ArtA. and Nat. Silt. Proe., 1856—7, vol. vii. p. 27. 

t Chantre, " Albmn," pi. liiii. J Keller, 7tor Bcriaht, TtJ. ii. 31, 35. 

( Arrh. Jmm., voL xiii. p. 187 ; Proe. Sot. Ant., 2qU S., vol. iii p. 66. 

I AtcK. Joum., vol. ii. p. 80 ; Arch. Auoc. Jaunt,, vol. i. p. SO. 



168 CHISBI£, GOUGES, HAMMERS, AND OTHEB TOOU. [CHAF. TH. 

Tanked chisels have also occurred in rariouB other hoards of bronze 
antiquities. Some vere found vith numerous celts and other tools at 
Westow,* on the Derwent, Yorkshire, vhich fronL theircuTred edgee and 
general character the late Mr. Jamra Tates regarded as the tr/uXa xft"^" 
T^ioc, or chisel for cutting paper, mentioned 07 Philoxenus, and as the 
currier's chisel, imn-ordfiof, mentioned by Julius Pollux. If I vere to oSta 
an opinion it would be that any cutting tool of the Bronze Period in 
Britain was more likely to have been used for cutting leather than paper, 
the latter commodity being, to say the least of it, scarce in Britun at that 
time ; and, moreover, that chisels are generally used for cutting wood and 
not leather. 

In the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.E.S., are two of theee tanged 
chisels from Westow, about 4} inches long and 1^ inch broad at the edge. A 
small part of the blade below the round collar is cylindrical. In the British 
Museum is a small spedmen of this kind (3^ indies) from the Thames. 




FIs. ISe.— WallingfOid. | Fts. lH.-BeuhtteL f Fig. ife.— Tluiend^e. i 



In the M^er Collection at Liverpool is a specimen, 4 inches long and 
i inch broad at the edee, found near Canterbury in 1761. The coUar is 
flat above and almost nemispherical below. Another, with part of the 
tang broken off, and the blade 2} inches long and 1} inch wide, was 
found in the Kirkhead Cave, Ulverstone, Lanca^iire, and was described 
to me by Mr. H. Ecroyd Smith. 

Another, rather like Fig. 199, but broken at the angles, was found 
with spear-heads and a socketed celt at Ty MawT,f Anglesea. "What 
appears to be a cliieol of this kind (4J^ inches long) was found near 
Biggen Grange,! Derbyshire, and is in the Bateman (Aillection. Another 
was fomid at Porkington.S Shropshire, 

A fragment of a tanged chisel was found with a large hoard of broad 
spear-heads, &c., at Bcoadward, Shropshire. 

A remarkably small specimen from Thixendale, in the East Biding 
of Yorkshire, is in the collection of Canon Greenwell, who has kindly 
allowed me to engrave it as Fig. 196. The stop, instead of being as usual 

• jirrh. Joum., vol. vi. p. 381, 408; Arch. Aiaoe. Jour«., vol. iii. p. 68. 
t Areh. Jourr,., vol. Xliv. p. M3. 

i Batemaii'B " Cfttalo^e," p. 74, No. S ; '■ Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 8. 
J Arch. Joum., vol. vii. p. 19fi. 



CHI8BL8 WITH LUGS AT THE SIDES. 



169 



a circular collar, consists of a bead on each face, so that in the side view 
it appears as if an oval pin traversed the blade. 

Nearly siniilar side-stops are to be observed in the chisel represented 
in Fig. 196, which was found with two others (3$ inches and 4^ inches) 
in n hoard of bronze antiquities at Yattendon,* Berks, of which I have 
given an aooount elsewhere. With the chisels were instruments of the 
following forms, some in a fragmentary condition : flat celts, palstaves, 
socketed oelts, gouges, socketed and tanged knives, swords, scabbard 



Fig. 106.— Tattendon. i 



Fig. 107.— Broxton. 



Olds, Bpear-heads, and flat, conical, and annular pieces of bronze. The 
other two chisels from this hoard were more like Fig. 194. 

A very large example of a chisel of this kind is shown in Fig. 197, the 
original of wiuch was kindly lent me by Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, 
F.K.8. It was found in company with two looped palstaves and a spear- 
head near Broxton, Cheshire, about twelve nules south of Chester. 

An instrument of somewhat the same character, from Farley Heath, 
has already been described at p. 69. 

A tanged chisel, 5 inches long, and without any stops or collar, was 
found with other objects at Burgesses' Meadow, Oxford, in 1830, and is 
now in the Ashmolean Museum. 

• JProc, Soc, Ant,, 2n(i S., vol. vii. p. 480. 



170 



CHISELS^ GOUGES^ HAMMERS, AND OTHER TOOLS. [CHAF. TU. 



Tliis form of instrument occurs but rarely in Scotland ; but 
what appears to be a chisel of this kind is engraved by Wilson.* 
His figure is, however, a mere diagram, without any scale attached, 
and the instrument is described as an axe blade with a cross limb, 
or as a " S2)iked axe." Whatever its character, the original of the 
figure is said to have been found with other bronze relics at 
Strachur, Argyleshire. 

An example of a chisel of elongated form is in the Antiquarian 
Museum t at Edinbiu'gh, but it is uncertain in what part of Scotland it 
was found. By the kindness of the Council of the Society of Antiqua- 
ries of Scotland it is shown as Fig. 198. 





Fig. 196.— SooUand. i 



Fig. 199.— Ireland. i 



In Ireland they are much more common. There are thirteen 
specimens in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, as cata- 
logued by the late Sir William Wilde, + vary^ing in length from 
2 J to 6i inches. Some of these Irish chisels, which approximate to 
flat celts in character, have already been described in Chapter III. 

That wliich Wildo has given as his Fig. 395 is almost identical in 
form with the chisel from Ireland in my own collection which is here 
engravtHl as Fig. 199, though considerably longer altogether, and some- 
what loiigor proportionally in the tang. 

I have another example from Belaghey, County Antrim, which is 6f 
inches long, and much stouter in the tang and in the neck of the blade 
than that here figured. It is only 1 3 inches wide at the edge. 



♦ "Pn^h. Ann. of Soot.," vol. i. p. 381, fig. 54. 

t rroc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xii. p. 613. J " Cat4il. Mu8. R. I. A.," p. 520. 



SOCKETED CHISELS. 171 

Amonff those in the museum at Dublin is one which is decorated 
with knobs round the collar. Two others are figured in ** Hora) Ferales." * 
In the British Museum is one (4| inches) with a well-marked collar. 
Another, with the square tang broken off, has a loop at the side of tlie 
round part of the blade, which is 2^ inches long. This curious specimen 
was found near Burrisokane, county Tipperary. 

Another chisel (4| inches) in the same collection has side-projections 
only, like Fig. 195. 

Another (3^ inches), with a well-developed collar, is engraved in the 
Areheohgieal Journal.] The form shades off into that of the flat celts 
having projections at the sides. 

Others in the collection of Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A., resemble Fig. 196 
flinches) and Fig. 197 (6 inches). The latter was found at Kanturk, 
Co. Cork. 

Tanged chisels have been found, though not abundantly, in 
France. One from Beauvais is in the museum at St. Germain. 

The socketed form of chisel is by no means common in this 
country ; but some instruments, probably intended for use as 
chisels, have already been described among the 
socketed celts not provided with loops. These 
are all comparatively broad at the cutting edge ; 
but there is another variety, with a narrow end, 
fonned much like the modem engineers "cross- 
cut chisel," some specimens of which will be now 
described. 

That shown in Fig. 200 is from the great find 
of Carlton Rode, J Norfolk (1844), from which 
several specimens, including a tanged chisel (Fig. 
192*) and a socketed celt without loop (Fig. 160), 
have already been described ; and some other 
forms, such as gouges and hammers, have yet to be 
mentioned. The edcre is only -i^ths of an inch in ^ Fig. 200 

• 1 1 11 1 111 1 /. • Carlton Bode. \ 

Width, and the tool seems well adapted for cutting 
mortises. The idea of a mortise and tenon must be of very early 
date, as a mere stake driven into the ground supplies it in a 
rudimentary form ; and tools let into sockets, or having sockets to 
receive handles, aflFord instances of connections of the same kind. 
In our modem mortising chisels the cutting edge, instead of being 
in the middle of the blade, so as to have a V-shaped section, is 
usually at the side, and presents an outline like the upi)er part of a 
K, V , I have not met with this bevelled edge among bronze chisels. 

♦ PL ▼. 43, 44. t Vol. viii. p. 91. 

X Areh, Joum.y vol. ii. p. 80 ; Areh. Ammc. Journ.j vol. i. pp. 67, 69 ; Smith's " Coll. 
^," Toi i. p. 106 ; Arch.f vol. xxxi. p. 494 ; ** Howe Forales," pi. v. 40. 




172 CHISELS, GODGEB, HAHHBRS, AND OTHER TOOLS. [cHAP. Til. 

On the side of this Carlton Rode chisel may be seen the 
mark of the joint of the mould in which it was cast. The socket, 
as usual with these tools, is circular. 

A bronze chisel of the same form. 3| inches lone, vas found at Bom- 
ford,* Essex, in company with socketed celts, palstaves, fragments of 
swords, a broken spear-bead, and lumps of metal. It has alr^dy been 
figured. 

In the hoard found at Westow, Yorkshire, already mentioned, were 
two or three socketed chUels. One of them, 2} mches long, is engraved 
in the Arehaological Journal.^ That which I have here engraved as 
Fig. 201 18 probably the same specimen. It is now in the coUectioo of 
Canon Greenwell, F.R.S. Tanged chisels, gouges, and socketed oelto 
were found at the same time. 

In the same collection is a somewhat smaller chisel, the socket of which 
is square instead of circular. This was found in the Heathery Bum Gave, 
Durham, together wi& a number of 
objects, belonging to the Bronte 
Period, of which further mention 
will be made hereafter. Another, 
found at Eoseberry Topping, York- 
shire, is now in the Bateman Collec- 
tioD, at ShefBeld. A email narrow- 
edged chisel was found in a hoard at 
Ueldreth, Cambridgeshire. 

I am not aware of any socketed 

chisels of the narrow form having 

been found in Scotland. 

5L£i: * H«Sfr,&;™. i In Ireland they are rare, but in 

the collection of Mr. E. Day, F.S.A.. 

are a few specimens of undoubtedly chisel-like character. Tho broad 

celt-like form has been described in a previous chapter. 

In France they are also far from common. There are, however, 
two in the museum at Tours, found at the Chatellier d'Amboise. 
There is also one in the museum at Narbonne.J They have been 
found in Savo7,§ DoubB,[[ and Jura.^ 

Several have been found in the LiJte-dwelUngs of Switzerland.** One 
with a treble moulding round the mouth and a polygonal neck from 
McDrigcnfj' exhibits much taste in its manufacture. 

A number of chisels both of the tanged and the socketed forms were 
present in the great hoard of bronze oojecta discovered at Bologna. 

Socketed examples from Italy are in the museum at Copenhagen,|| and 
in the British Mueeiun. 

• ^rcA. JoUTH., vol. 
t ^reh.Journ., vol. 

I " llatpriaui," vol 

kEj:p. Arch, dt Sa 
IV.," pi, I. B. 

II Chantre, " Album," pi. 
•• Keller, 6tCT Boricht, 

Palafittpe," fig. 40. 

tt Deaor and Favrp, '■ I^ Bel Age du Br.," pi. 
II " Cong. Prfh.," CoiiOTihagpn vol. p. W6. 




vi'. p. 3B2. 
V. pi. ii. 12, 

,i,,187a,pl. 


See also ^r 
lu. No. 3 


■ch. 

;pi. 


ri. 215, 


216; 


, vol. Ui. 1 
Penin, " 


,.S8,%. 
Et. Prfh 


4. 

.de 


• pi. T. 7. 


38; 


7tcr Ber.. 


, Taf. vii 


H Ibid, 
i. 2, 3, 5, 


No. 

,&c. 


6. 

; Deaor. " 


Les 



TANGED GOUGES. 



173 



I hare some from Macarsca, Dalmatia, of which the sockets have been 
formed by hammering out the metal and turning it oyer, instead of being 
produced as usual, by means of a core in the casting. 

Socketed dusels from Emmen and Deume, MoUandy are in the 
museum* at Leyden. 

From North (Germany I may cite one (6^ inches) from Schlieben^f 
which is in the Berlin Museum. 

Others are engrayed by lindenschmit,} 8chreiber,§ and Lisch.|| 

One from Kempten, Bayaria, is in the Sigmaringen Collection.^ 

Gouges. 

Closely allied to chisels are gouges, in which the edge, instead 
of being straight, is curved or hollowed, so that it is adapted for 
working out rounded or oval holes. In some languages, indeed, 
the name by which these tools are known is that 
of " hollow chisels." It is an early form of instrument, 
and a few specimens made of flint have been found 
in this country, though they are here extremely rare, 
while, on the contrary, they are very abundant in 
Denmark and the South of Sweden. In the Scandi- 
navian countries, however, bronze gouges are never 
found ; and though gouges of stone were not unknown 
in this country during its Stone Period, their suc- 
cessors in bronze do not appear to belong to the early 
part of the Bronze Period, but, on the contrary, seem 
to be characteristic of its later phases. 

Of bronze gouges there are the same two varieties 
as of the ordinary chisel, viz. the tanged and the 
socketed, of which the former is far rarer than the 
latter. Indeed the only tanged gouge from Britain 
with which I am acquainted is that from the Carlton 
Rode** hoard, already so often mentioned, which is yik 203 
shown in Fig. 203. The original is in the Norwich ^^^^ x 
Museum, the trustees of which kindly allowed me to 
engrave it. As will be seen, it is of remarkably narrow form, 
especially as contrasted with the socketed gouge &om the same 
hoard shown in Fig. 207. There was a broken tanged gouge in 
the great hoard of bronze objects found at Bologna. 

• Jannflen'a " Catal.," No. 21. 
t Schzeiber, <«I>ie ehem. StreitkeUe," Taf. ii. 11. 
: "Alt u. h. Vora.," ToL i. Heft v. Taf. iii. § Taf. ii. 10. 

I ''FMer. Fnmciw.," Tab. zxxiii. 5. % lindeiischimt, Taf. xlii. 7. 

^ Arek. Jowm.y toL ii. p. 80 ; Arch, Assoc, /otim., toI. i. p. 61, 59 ; " Horse Ferales," 
Pl. T. 42. 



174 CHISELS^ GOUGES, HAMMERS, AND OTHER TOOLS. [cHAT 



Of English socketed gouges the most common form is that shoi 
Fig. 204, from an original in the British Museum, which was found 
a spear-head (Fig. 391), socketed knife (Fig. 240), hammer (Fig. 
awl (Fig. 224), and two socketed celts, at Thomdon,* in SufPolk. 1 
were six gouges of the same character, but of different sizes, in the 1 
found atWestoWjt Yorkshire, some of which have been figured. An* 
(3j^ inches) found with socketed celts and some curious ornaments i 
a large stone at Eoseberry Topping,^ in Cleyeland, has also been fig 
Another was found with socketed celts and spear-heads at Exning 
Suffolk. The cutting end of another was associated with socketed 
in the hoard discovered at Martiesham in the same county. Pa 
another was discovered, with a socketed celt, fragments of blades, 
rough copper, at Melboum,|| Cambridgeshire. Another was fc 
with socketed celts, spear-heads, and an armlet, within the encamp 
on Beacon Hill,^ Chamwood Forest, Leicestershire. Another, 

socketed celts, spear-heads, &c., at £bnf 
near Oswestry; and another (2 J inches), 
socketed celts, fragments of knives, a butt^ 
stud, and limips of metal, at Kensington. ff 
hoard is in the British Museum. A gouge 
found with four socketed celts and about 3( 
of rough copper in an urn at Sittingboun 
Kent. A plain gouge formed part of the 1 
found at 8tanhope,^§ Durham. A remarl 
fine gouge, 4^ inches long and nearly H 
wide at the edge, was found, with spear-h 
socketed celts, part of a celt mould, and li 
of metal, at Beddington,|||| Surrey. At Por] 
ton,^^ Shropshire, a gouge accompanied 
tanged chisel lately mentioned. In the 1 
found at Guilsfield,*** Montgomerj-shire, ' 
were two gouges in company with looped 
staves, socketed celts, &c. In my own coUe 
are three socketed gouges, about 3^ inches long, which form pa 
the hoard from Beach Fen, Cambridgeshire, in which were socl 
celts, socketed and tanged knives, and numerous other objects, 
some of the instances cited, as at Guilsfield and Ebnall, the upper pi 
the socket is beaded instead of plain. One of this kind from the I 
hoard already mentioned is shown in Fig. 205. There were two su 
the hoard, which comprised numerous socketed celts and the moulc 
them, and various tools of the bronze-founder. There were also th< 
halves of a bronze mould for such gouges which will subsequent 
described. In the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society 

♦ Arch. Joitm.j vol. x. p. 3 ; " Hone. For.," pi. v. 36. 

t Arch. Jourti.y vol. \*i. p. 381, 408 ; Arch. Assoc. Journ.^ vol. iii. p. 58. 

X Arch. Scot., vol. iv. p.^oo, pi. vii. 6; Arch, ^Eliana^ vol. ii. p. 213, pi. iv. c. 
\ Arch. Journ.y vol. x. p. 3. || Arch. Journ.^ vol. xi. p. 294. 
^ rroc. Soc. Ant., vol. iv. p. 323. 

♦• Arch. Journ.^ vol. xxii. p. 167; " IXokv Forjilcs," pi. v. 35. 
ft Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd 8., vol. iii. p. 232. 

XI Smith's "Coll. Ant.,*' vol. i. p. 101 ; Arch. Journ., vol. ii. p. 81. 
j§ Arch. ^Eliana, vol. i. p. 13, pi. ii. 12. 

II il "Surrev Aix^h. Si>o. Coll.," vol. ^-i. ^^ Arch. JoMrn., vol. vii. p. 195. 

•** Arch. 'Camb., 3rd S., vol. x. p. 214 ; "Montgom. Coll.," vol. iii. p. 437. 




Fig. 204. 
Tborndon. | 



Fig. 205. 
Uarty. \ 



SOCKETED GOUGES. 



175 



gouge from Bottisliam Lode (3 inches) with a slight shoulder about i i^^^h 
mm the top of the blade, the upper part of the neck being larger than 
the lower. One of three found in the Heathery Bum Cave (2^ inches) is 
•lao shouldered. Of the other two (Sf inches and 3^ inches) one is very 
tKgfatly shouldered. They are in the collection of Canon Qreenwell, F.E.S. , 
•I is also a plain example (3} inches) from Scothom, Lincolnshire. 

In the British Museum are the unfinished castings for two gouges, one 
2} inches long and fully i inch wide, and the other 3 inches long and 
I indi wide at the edge, which in both is but slightly hollowed. They 
were found with a socketed celt (Fig. 146) near Blandford, Dorset. The 
longer one is of yery white and hard 
braue. 

Two goug^ one 3^ inches and the 
other broader, but only 2 inches 
kng, found with various other ob- 
jeets at Hounalow; as well as one 
from the Thames at Battersea (4 
indbifls), are in the same collection. 

Two gouges (3^ inches and 5 
inches) were found, with a hammer, 
t spear-head, and a socketed celt 
vhh a loop on the face (Fig. 154), 
near Whittlesea. The whole are in 
the museum at Wisbech. 

Two from Derbyshire are in the 
Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. 

A socketed gouge of imusually 
long proportions is shown in Fig. 
206. It was foimd at Undley, near 
Lskenheath, Suffolk, and is in my 
own collection. Li the Carlton Eode 
hoard were also two long gouges 
with the hollow extending more 
neaily to the socket end. They are 
both rather trumpet-mouthed. One 
of them is 4^ inches long and A 
inch wide at the edge, the other 
4^ inches long and i inch wide. I have not seen the originals, but 
describe them from a lithographed plate. 

The broad short gouge shown in Fig. 207 is also from Carlton Hode. 
It is broken at the mouth of the socket, but I have, in the figure, restored 
the vtat that is wanting. The original was lent mo by the trustees of 
the Norwich Museum. Another* from the same hoard, about 3| inolics 
long, has the g^roove, which is wide and rather flat, extending only an inch 
upwards from the edge. 

Socketed gouges have been found, though very rarely, in Scotland. 
That shown in Fig. 208, the cut of which has been kindly lent to 
me by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, was dredged up in tlie 
river Tay.t This appears to be almost the only Scottish specimen 

• ^'Hore Fenlee," pi. v. 39. t iVoc. Soc. Ant, Scot., vol. v. p. 127. 




Pig. 808. Tig. Wr. 

Undley. i Carlton Bode, i 



Fiff. 206. 
Tay. i 







176 CHISELSy GOUGES^ HAMMERS^ AND OTHER TOOLS. [CHAP. VH'-' 

at present known. Professor Daniel Wilson* terms it " one of th^ 
rarest of the implements of bronze hitherto found in Scotland ;" 
but he adds that other specimens have been met with in the Tay. 
In Ireland they are conaderably more abundant, there being 
at least twenty specimens in the Museum of the Royal Irish 
Academy, one of them as much as 4} inches long. 

One, much like Fig. 208, has been engraved by Wilde as Rg. 899. 
Others are figured in the ArchiBological Journal \ and ** Horae FercQes." J 
In one of these, 2j^ inches long, the hollow is carried up to the collar 

round the mouth as a square-ended recess. One gouge 
appears to have been originally tanged. Several 
socketed gou^s from Ireland are in the British Mu- 
seum. Mr. K. Day, F.S.A., has examples from Mul- 
lingar and Derry, the latter with a collar at the top. 
They occurred also in the Downs hoard. A gouge | 
only 2^ inches long and unusually broad has a sniall 
loop at the upper end of the concave part. It is here 
engraved as Fig. 209, from the original in the Museum 
of the Hoyal Irish Academy. This may be the specimen 
figured by Vallancey.|| I have a specimen like Fig 208. 
Fig. S09.— iieiond. \ Sookcted gougcs are occasionally found in France. 

One, 4 J inches long, with two mouldings round the top, 
ornamented with faint diagonal lines, was found with socketed celts and 
other implements in the Conmiune de Pont-point ^ (Oise), near the river 
Oise, and is in the Hotel Cluny, Paris. Others from the Hautes Alpes** 
and from the Fonderio de Lcunaud have been figured in Mr. Ernest 
Chantre's magnificent Album. 

There are three with moulded tops, from the hoard of Notre Dame d'Or, 
in the Poitiers Museum. 

A fine gouge (about 5^ inches) with a moulded top is in the museum 
at Clermont Ferrand (Puy de Dome). A very fine French gouge of this 
character is in the British Museum. 

I have a specimen much like Fig. 208 found in the Seine at Paris. 
Others were in the hoard at Dreuil, near Amiens, and in a second hoard 
also found near that town. 

Large gouges with moulded tops, from the Stations of Auvemier,ff in 
the Lake of Neuchatel, and Mocrigen, in the Lake of Bienne, are in 
Dr. Victor Gross's collection. 

There was at least one socketed gouge in the great Bologna hoard. 

In Germany they are very rare, but one from the museum at Sig- 
maringen, with a somewhat decorated socket, is engraved by Lindenschmit. 
It was found at Kempten, Bavaria.JJ Others, from Diiren and Deume, 
North Brabant, Holland, are in the museum at Leyden. 

♦ " Proh. Ann. Scot.," vol. i. p. 388. t Vol. iv. p. 335, pi. iii. 1, 2, 8, 4. 

X Pi. V. 37. 38, 41. § *' HoraB Ferales," pi. v, 38. 

II Vol. iv. pi. ix. 5. 

% '* Horse Ferales," pi. v. 34 ; Rev, Areh,^ N.S., vol. xiii. pi. ii. x. 
•• PI. X. 6, and xl. 6. See also Mem, Soc. Ant, Norm., 1828—9, pi. xvi. 16. 
ft " Deux Stations Lacustres," pi. iv. 34. Keller, 7ter Bericht, Taf . vii. 4 ; De«or 
and Favre, " liO Bel Age du Br.," _pl. L 6. 
XX *' Alt. u. h. Vorz.," Heft. v. m iii 9, 10 ; «• HdhfloioU. Sunml.," pi. zlii. 7. 



SOCKETED HAMMERS. 177 

Aaooktted gouge, with the edge turned to a sweep of about 1 inch radius, 
ia k the muMum at Agram, Croatia. 
One from Siberia * has been figured by Worsaae. 

Hammers and Anvils. 

Another fonn of tool constructed with a socket to receive the 
iuuidle in precisely the same manner as the socketed celts and gouges 
is the hammer. It is worthy of notice that, though perforated ham- 
mers formed of stone are comparatively abundant in this country, 
jet that instruments of the same kind in bronze are unknown. It is 
ferae that what looks like a perforated hammer, said to be of bronze, 
was found in Newport, Lincoln, and is engraved in the Archceo- 
logical Joumal,-f but there is no evidence of its belonging to the 
same period as the ordinary tools formed of bronze ; and the 
suggestion that it may have been the extremity of a bell-clapper 
is, I think, not &r from the truth. It is very probable that many 
of the perforated stone hammers belong to the Bronze Period of this 
coontry, as do doubtless most of the perforated stone battle-axes or 
aze-hunmers; for in the early part of the Bronze Period it is likely 
that metal was far too valuable to be used for heavy tools and 
weapons, and even towards the close of the period it seems as if 
it was only the lighter kind of hammers which were formed of 
bronze. The heaviest I possess weighs only five ounces, and the 
lightest less than half that weight. As will subsequently be seen, 
it is possible that some of these instruments were of the nature of 
anvils rather than of hanmiers, but for the present it will be most 
convenient to speak of them under the latter name. 

The most conunon form of hammer is that which is shown in 

Fig. 210, from an original in the British Museum found at 

Thomdon,} Suffolk, in company with a spear-head, socketed gouge, 

socketed knife, and two socketed celts. The two hammer-like 

instruments engraved as Figs. 211 and 212 were found, with a 

Qnmber of socketed celts, moulds, &c. — in fact the whole stock-in- 

tndeof an ancient bronze-founder — in the Isle of Harty, Sheppey, 

tnd are in my own collection. The larger of the two shows a 

conaderable amoimt of wear at the end, which is somewhat 

*' upset" by constant use. The smaller is more oxidized, so that 

the marks of use are less easily recognised. The metal of which 

• iOn. 8oe. Ant. du ITord, 1872—7, p. 118. f Vol. xxvii. p. 142. 

t Ank. J(Mtm,f T<d. X. p. 3; Proe. 8oe. Ant.y 2n(i S., vol. iii. p. 66, where it ifl en- 
IMiifdlnaa; <* Hor« Ferales," pi. v. 33. 

N 



178 CHISBLB, GOUGES, HAMHKRB, AND OTHER TOOIS. [cti 

they axe formed Beems to cootain a laiger admixture of tin 
usual with tlie cutting tools; and I have noticed the same 
I some other instances, so that eren in early tii 




Fi».WO.— ThorndoD. 1 Fig. JU.-H«rty. i Fig. 111.— Hutr. 1 Fig. 213.-C«f 

singular fact must have heen known that by addii^ to 

the softer metal, tin, in a larger proportion than the oi 

usually employed for bronze, a much harder metal result 

the present time the extremely hard all 

■ for the specula of reflecting telescopes is 

by an a^nixture of about two parts ol 
and one part of tin, the two soft metal 
in these proportions forming an alloy 
as hard as hardened steel. 

In th.e Carlton Bodo find, of which mei 

already been frequently made, was a ha 

muclL longer proportiona than those from 

of Harty. By the kindnesa of tho triiHt«( 

Norwich MuBeum I have been able to engr 

Fig, 213. It expands considerably at tin 

Ae will be seen, the end is " upset " by use 

appears to be a hammer of much the eai 

but with the face still smaller, waa founc 

hoard of bronze objects, including palstave 

heads, flat sickles, a torque, &c., at Taunl 

is ahowa in Fig. 214. 

A hammer somewhat larger in its dimensions than Fi^, 21: 

type more resembliuf^ Fig. 212, having no ahniilder upon its b 

found at HoBoberry Topping, t in Cleveland, with a socketed celt, 




IRISH HAMMERS. 



179 



and odier objects. Another broken hammer was found, with a hoard 
of biooze objects, at Stanhope,* Durham. 

A miall hammer (2^ inches), found with ^ugee and other objects near 
Whittlesea, is in the Wisbech Uuseum. 

Another with a ciroular socket was in the hoard fouud in Burgesses' 
Ueadow, Oxford. 

A BmaLL one was found at Hugby,t and is in the possession of Mr. 
U. H. Bloxam, F.8.A. I have one (3 inches) found near Cambridge. 

I am not aware of any examples having as yet been found in 
Scotland. 

In Ireland they are rare, but four "round-faced socketed 
punches," varying from 2 to 4 inches in length, are mentioned in 
Wilde's Catalogue. These are probably hammers. 

In the British Museum are also several Irish hammers, oue of which in 
shown full size in Fig. 215, for the use of which I am indebted to the 





Fig. S1&— Dowri*. t 

Council of the Society of Antiquaries.} It is cylindrical in form, with 
two rings of projecting knobs around it. The end is circular and elightlv 
oonvex, and has a ridge across it, due to constant use. Another, found, 
with trumpets, spear-heads, and numerous other bronze relics, at I>owris,S 
King's County, is shown in Fig. 216, also lent me by the same CouuciL 
It is of a different type from any of the others, expanding beyond the 
■oekflt into a large n^t blade. It appears never to have been in use. 
Two other wma H Irish specimens, one with a long oval face, are in the 
Britiflh Museum. I have a hammer (2^ inches) much lihe Fig. 210, but 

• Areh. JBIiaHa, vol. i. p. 13, pL ii- 13. 

t Prae. Sac. Ant., 2nd S., vol. lii. p. 129 ; " Hora Fer.," pi. v. 32. 

X Pnc. See. Ant., 2iid 8., vol. iiL p. 66. } Froe. Sot. AM., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 4fi. 
N 2 



180 CHISELS, GOUGES, HAMMEBS, AMD OTHER TOOLS. [CHAF. VII. 

with the shoulder nearer the top, found with a socketed celt and some 
perforated and other rinffs, near Trillick, Go. Tyrone. I have also an 
imperfect specimen with the end expanded, but not to the same extent 
as Fig. 216. This was found with a broken sword, spear-heads, and a 
socketed knife, on Bo Island, Enniskillen, and was kmdly prociured for 
me by the Earl of Enniskillen. 

Socketed hammers have been found in several European countries. 
I have two from France. One of them (3^ inches),^ like Fig. 212 in 
foim, was found, with a spear-head, a double-edged knife, some curved 
cutting tools, and an anvu of bronze (Fig. 217), together with a large 
torque and a plain bracelet of gold, at Fre8n6 la M^, near Falaise, 
Calvados. The other (2 inches), stouter in its proportions and more 
like Fig. 210, was foimd near Angerville, Seine et Oise. A short thick 
hammer was found at Briatexte, Tarn.* 

An instrument in the Brituh Museum, in form much like Fig. 216, 
found at Yienne (Is^ ?), has only a small square hole in the socket, and 
may have served as an anvil rather than as a hammer. A hammer also 
witii expanded end was found near Chalon,t and another in the Valley of 
the Somme4 

A cylindrical hammer or anvil was found in the hoard of the Jardin des 
Plantes at Nantes. § 

Cylindrical hammers have been found among the Lake-dwellings of 
the Lac du Bourget,|| Savoy, one of them provided with a loop. 
M. Eabut, of Chambery, has a stone mould horn the same lake for 
casting such hammers. Another hammer-mould of stone was found at 
the Station of Eaux Vives, near Geneva. 

Li my own collection is one of these looped socketed hammers, nearly 
square in section, from Auvemier, in the Lake of Neuchatel. Others 
from Swiss Lake-dwellings, both with and without loops, are engraved by 
Keller. Professor Desor has a hammer expanding towards the end from 
the Lake of Neuch&tel.^ A hammer found at Moerigen** seems to have 
been formed from a portion of a looped palstave. The Lake-dwellers 
frequently utilized sudi broken instruments. Another hammer, from the 
Lake of Bienne,tt is hexagonal in section, and ornamented with reversed 
chevrons on its faces. 

They are occasionally found in Hungary. I have seen one ornamented 
with dievrons in reHef upon the sides. One with saltires on the sides, 
and some fragments of others, were in the Bologna hoard. 

The object engraved by Madsen t| as possibly the ferrule of a lance may 
be a hammer of this kind. 

A solid bronze hammer (4J inches), of oblong section, with two pro- 

i'ecting lugs on each side for securing the handle, found near Przemysl, 
^land, was exhibited at the Prehistoric Congress at Pesth. It was 

* " Materiaux," vol. xiv. pi. ix. 6. 

t Chantre, " Age du Br.," Ihre ptie. p. 38. 

X "Mat^riaux/^vol. v. p. 462. 

§ Parenteau, "Le fondeur du Jard. des Plantes;" "Materiaux," vol. v. p. 190, 
pi. viii. 10. 

II " Exp. Arch, de la Sav.," 1878, pi. v. ; Chantre, " Album," pi. v. 1. ; Penin, « Et. 
Preh. BUT la Sav.," pi. x. 6, 7, xix. 17. 

f Keller, 7ter Bericht, Taf. vii. 9. 

•* Desor et Favre, « Le Bel Age du Br.," pi. i. 9 ; Gross, " Deux Stations," pi. iii. 22. 

ft Desor, "Les Palafittes," fig. 47. tt " AfbUd.," vol. u. pi. 13, 15. 



METHOD OF HAFTING HAICMERS. 181 

loiiiid with a bronze spear-head, and is in the Museum of the Academy of 
Sdeooes at Oraoow. 

As to the maimer in which these socketed hammers were 
moonted we have no direct evidence. It seems probable, however, 
that many of them had crooked hafts of the same character as 
those of the socketed celts. It is worth notice that on some of 
the coins of Cunobeline * there is a seated figure at work forging 
1 hemispherical vase, and holding in his hand a hammer which in 
profile is just like a narrow axe, the head not projecting beyond 
the npper side of the handle. A seated figure on a hitherto 
onpublished silver coin of Dubnovellaunus, a British prince con- 
temporary with Augustus, holds a similar hammer, or possibly a 
hatchet, in his hand. But though when in use as hammers they 
were mounted with crooked shafts, it is quite possible that some 
of these instruments may have been fitted on to the end of straight 
stakes and have served as anvils. The Rev. W. C. Lukis, F.S.A., 
informs me that at the present day the peasants of Brittany make 
use of iron-tipped stakes, which, when driven into the ground, 
form convenient anvils on which to hammer out the edges of their 
sickles, and which have the great advantage of being portable. 
Though such anvils are not, so far as I am aware, any longer used 
in this country, traces of their having been formerly employed 
^pear to be preserved in our language, for a small anvil to cut 
md punch upon, and on which to hammer cold work, is still 
termed a " stake.'' 

It is worthy of remark that an implement of the same kind as 
these so-called socketed hammers, and made in the same manner, of 
a very hard greyish alloy, was found in the cemetery at Hallstatt,t 
and was regarded by the Baron von Sacken as a small anvil. A 
bronze file was found with it. 

It is also to be observed that of the two hammer-like instruments 
found together in the Harty hoard one is much larger than the 
other, and may have formed the head of a stake or anvil, while 
the other served as a hammer. Still, as a rule, a flat stone must 
have served as the anvil in early times, as it does now among the 
native iron-workers of Afiriea, and did till quite recently, for many 
of the country blacksmiths and tinkers of Ireland, t Among 
Danish antiquities some carefully made anvils of stone occur, but 

* Evans, *' Ano. Brit. Coins," pi. xii. 6. 

t •'Gnbfeld von Hallstatt," pi. xix. 11, p. 89. 

X WUde, <«Catal. Btone Ant in R. I. A. Mus./' p. 81. 



182 CHISELS, OOUOES, HAHBIBBS, AMD OTBEK T00L8. [cHAP. Til. 

I am Dot certain as to the exact age to which they should be 
assigned. 

Bronze anvils of the form now in use are of extremely rare occur- 
rence in any country. That figured by Sir William Wilde ■ appean 
to me to be of more recent date than the Bronze Period, and I am not 
aware of any other specimen having been found in the British Mes ; 
but as it is a form of tool which may eventually be discovered. It 
seems well to call attention to it by engraving a French example. 
This anvil is shown in two views, in Figs. 217 and 218. As will be 
seen, it is adapted for being used in two positions, according as one 
or the other pointed end is driven into the workman's bench. In 
one position it presents at the end two plane-surfaces, the one broad 




Kg. 818.— FreBi* U Min. 



and the other narrow, inclined to each other at an angle of about 
120 degrees, so that their junction forms a ridge. ITiis part of the 
anvil has seen much service, as there is a thick burr all round it, 
caused by the expansion of the metal under repeated blows. 
On the projecting beak there are three slight grooves gradually 
increasing in size, and apparently intended for swages in which to 
draw out pins. In the other position the anvil presents no smooth 
surface oii which to hammer, but a succession of swages of different 
forms — some half-round, some V-shaped, and some |/\|-shaped. 
There are also some oval recesses, as if for the heads of pins. The 
metal of which the anvil is made appears to contain more tin than 
the ordinary bronze, and therefore to be somewhat harder. On 
one face is the mark of the runner J inch in diameter, which 
was broken ofl' after the tool was cast. 



"C»tal. Mm. R. I. A,.'' i 



FRENCH ANVILS. 188 

This interesting tool was found with the hammer abready men- 
tioned, a spear-head, a double-edged knife or razor, a knife with 
the end bent round so as to present a gouge-like edge, and a large 
carved cutting-tool of the same character (Fig. 247), all of bronze, 
at Fresn^ la M^re, near Falaise, Calvados. With them was a 
magnificent gold torque with recurved cylindrical ends, the twisted 
part being of cruciform section ; and a plain penannular ring or 
bracelet, formed from what was a cylindrical rod. The whole 
find is now in my own collection. It is not by any means 
improbable that this anvil was rather the tool of a goldsmith of 
the Bronze Age than that of a mere bronze-worker. 

I have another anvil of about the same size, but thinner, which was 
foimd in the Seine at Paris. It also can be mounted two ways, but in 
each position it presents a nearly flat but somewhat inclined face, and 
there are no swages in the beaks, one of which is conical and the other 
nearly rectangular. 

M. Ernest Chantre has engraved two other specimens, somewhat 
differing in form, but of much the same general character. They were 
found near Ohalon-sur-Saone and near Geneya.* The analysis of the 
metal of one of them gives 16 parts of tin to 84 parts of copper. 

Another bronze anvil is in the museum at Amiens, ana a fifth, also 
from France, is in the British Museum. This has a flat projecting ledge 
at the top, and at rieht angles a slightly tapering beak. An anvil of the 
same kind, but without me beak, was found with other objects near 
Amiens, and is now in the museiun of that town. 

A small anvil without a beak, found at AuYemier,f in the Lake of 
Neuch&tel, is in the collection of Dr. Gross. A square flat anvil, some- 
what dented on the face, formed part of the Bologna hoard. 

In my own collection is what appears to have been a larger anvil of 
bronze, which was foimd, with other instnunents of the same metal, at 
Macarsca, Dalmatia. In form it is not unlike an ordinary hammer-head 
about 5 inches long ; but the eye through it appears to be too small for it 
ever to have served to receive a haft of the ordinary kind, though it 
probably held a handle by which to steady the tool when in use. One 
end is nearly square and but slightly convex ; the other is oblong and 
rounded the narrow way. Both ends are much worn. On one face and 
one side are rounded notches or swages. This tool has been cast in an 
open mould, as one face presents the rough surface of the molten metal, 
which contains a large proportion of tin. The other face and the sides are 
birly smooth. 

Saws and Files. 

While speaking of bronze tools, which up to the present 
time have not been noticed in Britain, but which may probably 
l)e some day discovered — if, indeed, they have not already been 
found — the saw must not be forgotten. 

• "Age du Br.," ptie. i. p. 39. 

t Kefier, 7ter Bericht, Taf. vii. 8 ; Grow, «* Deux SUtions," pi. iii. 28. 



184 CHISELS^ GOUGES, HAMlfEBS, AND OTHER TOOLS. [cHAP. VII. 

A fragment of what has been regarded as a rudely formed saw of 
bronze was indeed found, with a sword and several cdts, at Mawgaa,* 
Cornwall, and is now in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. It is 
4 inches by i inch, coarsely toothed, and the serrations appear to have 
been caet. I am, however, rather doubtful whether it was really a saw. 

Saws have been found both in Scandinavia and in France, in the latter 
coimtiT in hoards apparently belong^ing to the later portion of the Bronze 
Period. One from Kibiers,t Hautes Alpes, is about 5^ inches long and 
f inch broad, slightly curved, and with a rivet-hole at one end for attach- 
ment to the handle. Two from the '' Fonderie de Lamaud," X Jura, are 
neariy one-half smaller. There were five specimens in that hoard, and 
M. Chantre enumerates sixteen altogether from various parts of France 
and Switzerland. A fine specimen, with a rivet-hole for the handle, was 
found at MoBrigen,§ in the JLake of Bienne. 

The Scandinavian || type is of much the same character, though some 
are more sickle-like in shape, with the teeth on the inner sweep. 

A saw, found with celts, spear-heads, diadems, &c., at Lammersdorf, 
near Prenzlau, is in the Berlin Museum. A short one, with a rivet-hole 
for the handle, found at Stade, is in that at Hanover. 

A saw of pure copper was found in some excavations of dwellings of 
remote date at Santorin,^ in the Grecian Archipelago, in company with 
various instruments formed of obsidian. Some fragments of saws occurred 
in the Bologna hoard. Part of one from Cyprus is in the British 
Museum. A copper (?) saw from Niebla, Spain, 9 inches long, also in 
the British Museum, has the teeth arranged to cut as it is drawn towards 
the workman, and not when pushed away from him. 

The file is another tool of exceedingly rare occurrence in bronze, 
though not absolutely unknown in deposits belonging to the close 
of the Bronze Period. Sir William Wilde ** mentions " a bronze 
circular file, straight, like a modelling tool," as being in the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, but I have not seen the 
original and am not confident as to its age. A file ft was, however, 
found in the great hoard of the Fonderie de Lamaud, and another 
from the Lake-dwellings of the Lac du Bourget is in the museum 
at Chamb^ry. 

The early form of file is indeed much the same as that of a 
very broad saw, the toothing being coarse and running at right 
angles across the blade. In the cemetery at Hallstatt, ++ in Upper 
Austria, files of this character were found, several in bronze 
and one in iroa The bronze files are from 5 to 10 inches long, 

• " Catal. MuB. Soc. Ant.," p. 16 ; Areh., vol. xvii. p. 337. 
t E. Chantre, " Album " pi. xxv. No. 5. 

X Chantre, "Album," pi. xliii. § Keller, 7ter Bericht, Taf. vii. 11. 

II Woraaae, "Nord. Olda.," figs. 167, 158; "Cong. pr6h.," Stockholm vol., 1874, p. 
494. 

H " Comptes Rend, de I'Ac. des Sc.," 1871, vol. ii. p. 476. 
•• " Catal.," p. 697, No. 96. 
ft E. Chantre, " Age du Bronze," Uro ptie. p. 87. 
Jt Von Sacken, " Das Grabf. ▼. HalLrt," pi. xix. 12. 



SAWSy FILBS^ AND TONGS. 185 

and some which are flat for the greater part of their length are 
drawn down, for about 2 inches at the end, into tapering round 
files. In the Bologna hoard were several fragments of files, includ- 
ing one of a " half-round " file. 

Tongs and Punches. 

From our greater acquaintance with the working of iron than 
with that of bronze, there seems to us a sort of natural connection 
between the anvil, hammer, and tongs. It must, 
however, be borne in mind that bronze is a metal 
which instead of being, like iron, tough and ductile, 
becomes "short'' and fragile when heated, so that 
all the hammering to which the tools and weapons 
of bronze were subjected in order to planish their 
&ce8, or to draw out and harden their edges, was 
probably administered to them when cold. At least 
one pair of bronze tongs has, however, been found, 
which is shown in Fig. 219. This instrument 
was discovered, with numerous other antiquities, 
in the cave at Heathery Bum,* near Stanhope 
in Weardale, Durham, and is now in the collec- 
tion of Canon Greenwell. As half of a mould 
for socketed celts and some waste runners of bronze 
were foond, it is evident that the practice of casting 
bronze was carried on in the cave, and these tongs 
were probably part of the foimder s apparatus. 
Whether they were used merely as fire-tongs, or 
for the purpose of lifting the crucible or melting- 
pot, is a question. They appear, however, much too 
light to be of service for the latter purpose. 

In the museum of the Louvre at Paris are some 
Elgyptian tongs of bronze, which are remarkably 
similar to those from Durham. A workman seated HeatSjf b™. } 
before a small fireplace, holding a blowpipe to his 
mouth with one hand and with a pair of tongs in the other, 
is shown in a painting at Thebes, published by Sir Gardner 

Wilkinson.! 
What I have ventured to regard as another of the tools of the 

• Proe. Soe. Ani,y 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 127. 

t " Anc. Egyptiaiu," vol. iii. p. 224, fig. 375. 



186 CHISELS, OOCGBS, HAMMERS, AND OTHER TOOLS. [CHAP. Vlt. 

bronze-fouDder is a kind of pointed punch or pricker, of which mi 
example is given in Fig. 220. This, as well as another which had 
lost its point, was found, with socketed celts, gouges, moulds, &c., 
forming the whole stock-in-trade of a bronze-founder, in the Me of 
Harty, Kent. It seems to have been furnished with a wooden 
handle, into which the tang was driven as far as the projecting 
stop ; and its purpose appears to have been the extraction of the 
cores of burnt clay irom out of the sockets of the celts. That 
these sockets were formed over a core of clay inserted into the 



I 




ng. IS).-HutT. i Rg.I91.- 

mould is proved by numerous celts having been found with the 
cores still in them. The heat of the melted metal was sufficient 
to convert the clay into terra-cotta or brick, and in this condition 
the cores have been preserved. Some force was necessary to 
extract such hardened cores, and this could be well effected by 
driving in such a pointed instrument as that here figured. If the 
two prickers from the Harty hoard were originally of the same 
length, the broken one has lost a portion from its end exactly 
corresponding in length with the depth of the socket of the largest 



PUNCHES USED IN OBNAMENTING. 187 

celts found with it ; as if it had been driven home through the 
bomt day quite to the bottom of the socket, and then had been 
broken off short at the mouth of the celt in the vain endeavour to 
extract it 

Some small punches, without any tang for insertion in a handle, 
were found with socketed celts and numerous other objects in the 
hoard from Reach Fen, already mentioned. One of these is shown 
in Fig. 221. No moulds were discovered in this case ; and though 
the hoard has all the appearance of being the stock of an ancient 
bronze-founder, it is possible that these shorter punches may here 
have been used for some other purpose than that of extracting 
cores. The end of one is sharp, that of the other presents a small 
oblong face. It is possible that, like the instruments next to be 
described, these may have been punches used in the decoration of 
other articles of bronze. Mr. H. Prigg,* in his description of this 
hoard, has suggested such an use. The large end of the punch 
shown in the figure bears no mark of having been hammered ; it 
may, however, have been struck with a wooden mallet. Punches, 
more chisel-shaped at the point, appear to have been in use for 
producing the incuse ornaments which occur on so many of the 
flat and flanged celts. I am not aware of any tools which were 
undoubtedly used for this purpose having been observed in Britain ; 
but, as I have already remarked, there were found at Ebnall,t 
Salop, two short-edged tools, which may possibly be punches, and 
if so may have been applied to this use. One of these is shown 
in Fig. 222, the block for which has been kindly lent me by the 
CouDcil of the Society of Antiquaries. The other is described as 
of similar form but of rather longer proportions. They were found 
in company with spear-heads, celts, gouges, and broad dagger- 
blades ; but it does not appear that any of these were ornamented 
with punch-miarked patterns. The tools may, therefore, have been 
merely some kind of strong chisels, possibly used for breaking off 
the jets and superfluous metal from the castings. The thickness 
of the tool is rather greater than the cut would lead one to imagine, 
being J inch. These two tools have been regarded as ham- 
mers, or possibly weights. I have now spoken of them as punches, 
or possibly chisels, but it may be that after all it was the broad 
end that was destined for use, in which case they might be regarded 
as anvils. 

* Areh. Auoe. Joum.f toI. xxxvi., p. 50. 

t Froe. So€. Ant,, 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 66 ; Areh. Joum.f vol. xxii. p. 167. 



188 CHISELSy GOUGES^ HAMMERS, AMD OTHSB TOOLS. [CHAP. YII. 

Whatever the purpose of these particular tools, there can be but 
little doubt that punches were in use for the ornamentation of the 
flat faces and the sides of celts ; and it will be well to be on the 
look out for such tools when hoards belonging to the ancient 
bronze-founders are examined. For the most part, however, these 
seem to belong to a period posterior to that of the ornamented 
flat celts, though decorated spear-heads occur in them. 

Some of the punches from the Fonderie de Lamaud and from 
the Lake-dwellings may have served for decorating other articles in 
bronze. 

Awls, Drills, or Prickers. 

Allied to the pointed tools last described, but considerably 
smaller, are the awls, drills, borers, or prickers of bronze which 
have so frequently been found accompanying interments in barrows. 
No doubt such instruments must have been in very extensive and 
general use ; but it is only under favourable conditions that such 
small pieces of metal would be preserved, and when preserved it 
is only under conditions equally favourable that they would attract 
the attention of an ordinary labourer. It is, therefore, mainly to 
the barrow-digger that we are indebted for our knowledge of these 
little instruments. Many belong to a very early part of the Bronze 
Age, but the form continued in use through the whole period. 

A somewhat detailed essay upon them has already appeared in 
the Archceologia* in the late Dr. Thumam's admirable and ex- 
haustive paper on " Ancient British Barrows," from which I am 
tempted largely to borrow. I am also, through the kindness of 
the Council of the Society of Antiquaries, enabled to make use of 
some of the woodcuts which illustrate Dr. Thumam's paper. 
He distinguishes three types of these instruments, which, as he 
points out, correspond to some extent with as many types or 
varieties of the bronze celt. They are as follows : — 

I. That with a simply flattened end or tang for insertion into 
its handle. 

II. That with a well-marked shoulder, where the stem and tang 
unite ; the object being to prevent its passing too far into the 
handle. 

III. That with a regular stop-ridge, or waist, almost as marked 
as that in a carpenter's awl, as distinguished from that of a shoe- 
maker. 

• Vol. xliii. p. 464. 



AWLS OR PRICKEHS. 189 

One of the first type, from the Gblden barrow at Upton Lovel, is engraved 
Inr Hoare,* and is shown in Fig. 223. With it were two cups, a necklace 
of imber beads, and a small bronze dagger. It is almost the longest of 
tiMMe found by Sir B. Golt Hoare, wMch were upwards of thirty in 
lunber. The only longer specimen was found in a barrow near Lake,t 
Hid there also some beads and a bronze dagger accompanied the inter- 
ment It is considerably thicker than Fig. 223, and the tang for insertion 
in the handle is broader and flatter. A smaller awl of the same character 
was found in a barrow on Upton Lovel 
Doiniy^ opened by Mr. Ounnington. In this 
iutance were were two interments in the 
lune grave, and several flint celts and a 
perforated stone battle-axe were found, as 
veU as numerous instruments of bone, and 
t necklace of beads of jet or lignite. 

An awl of this kind (3iV inches) found, 
with a spear-head, hammer, knife, and gouge 
ol bronze, at Thomdon, Suffolk, § most of 
them already described, is now in the British 
Museum, and is shown in Fig. 224. 

Several such instruments, some of them 
not more than an inch in length, were found 
bf Canon Oreenwell || in his exploration of 
the Yorkshire barrows. In nine cases awls 
or prickers accompanied interments of un- 
bomt bodies, and in three cases Ihey were 
found among burnt bones. In most in- 
ftanoes instruments of flint were found with 
them. An aged woman in a barrow on Lang- 
ton Wold^ had three bronze awls or prickers, 
as wen as an assemblage of bone instru- 
ments, animal teeth, marine shells, and 
other miscellaneous property, buried with 
her. Dr. Thumam regarded these as drills 
used with a bow, but I think such an use is Fig. ns. Fig. m. Fig. 225. 
doubtfuL Some of the awls from the York- YJS^ ^ dS^'l ^'^ 
ihire barrows, instead of being flattened at 

(me end, are drawn down to a point at both ends, leaving the middle of 
banter diameter so as to form a xind of shoulder. These, I presume, are 
incToded under Dr. Thumam's Type 11. Sometimes this central part of 
the blade is square and sometimes the tang is square, like that described 
by Stukeley** from a barrow near Stonehenge as '< a sharp bodkin round 
at one end, square at the other where it went into a handle." 

An awl, square at the centre, and round at each end in section, is shown 
in Fig. 225. It was found by Canon QreenweU in a barrow at Butter- 
wick, Yorkshire, in company with the celt (Fig. 2), and other objects. 
The point has unfortunately been broken off. 

A typical example of Ihr. Thumam's second class from a barrow at 

* ToL L p. 99, pi. zi. The cut is from the Areh.^ vol. xliii. p. 466. 

t PL XXX. 8. X Arch,, vol. xv. p. 122, pi. iv. 5. 

i Areh. Jowm., rol. x. p. 3. || ** British Barrows," pattim. 

n Op. cit,, p. 13S. ♦• *« Stonehenge," p. 46, pL xxxii. 



190 CHISELS, GOUGES, HAMMSRSy AND OTHER TOOLS. [CHAF. 

Bulford,* Wilts, is shown in Fig. 226. Another was found at Beckhc 
ton, and a small pricker of the same type was found with a burnt ii 
ment at Storrington,f Sussex. like those found by Sir B. C. Hoare, 
was regarded as the pin for fastening the doth in which the bones i 
collected from the fimeral pyre. The fact of several of them having 1 
found still inserted in their hafts, as will subsequently be seen, 
suffice to prove that this view is mistaken. 

Several awls pointed at both ends were found by the late Mr. Bate 
during his researches in the Derbyshire barrows. lii Waggon Low 
the right shoulder of a contracted skeleton were three instrument 
flint, and a small bronze awl 1^ inches long, taperine each way from 

middle, which is square. Anomer, pointed at • 
end, lay with a drinking cup and a rude speaz 
arrow-head of flint near the shoulder of a yout 
skeleton in a barrow near Minning Low.§ Ano 
of the same kind was found in a barrow on ] 
Moor, II Staffordshire. Another was found with 
cined bones in a barrow in Larks-Low,^ Middle 
In several instances there were traces of a wo( 
handle, as was the case with one, upwards • 
inches long, which was found with a flint sp 
head, a double-edged axe of basaltic stone, 
objects of bone, among the calcined bones : 
sepulchral urn from a barrow at Throwley.** 

In a beurrow at Haddon Field ff there was a s: 
drinking cup near the back of a contracted skelc 
Fig. 226. Tig. 227. and beneath this an arrow-head of flint, an inc 
ford, i ^"stoito!"^ ment of stag's-hom like a netting mesh, and a br« 

awl showing traces of its wooden handle. 
In another barrow near Gotam, Nottinghamshire, {^ there lay neai 
thigh of a contracted skeleton a neatly chipped spear-head of flint, a: 
small bronze pin which had been inserted into a wooden handle. 

In a barrow near Fimber,§§ Yorkshire, opened by Messrs. Mortii 
there were found near the knee of a contracted female skeleton a ki 
like chipped flint and the point of a bronze pricker or awl. T 
another female interment in the same barrow a bronze pricker was f c 
inserted in a short wooden haft. The Britoness in this instance wo: 
necklace of jet discs with a triangular pendant of the same material. 
A bronze pin, 1^ inches lon^, accompanied by a broken flint celt 
some arrow-neads and flakes of flint, together with calcined bones, 
found in an urn in Havenshill barrow, || || near Scarborough. 

In some of the Wiltshire barrows more perfectly preserved han 
have been found. One of these, copied from Hoare*s ** Ancient!^ 
shire," ^^ is shown in Fig. 227. It was foimd in the King barrow ^ 
what was probably a male skeleton buried in the hollowed trunk oi 

• 

• Arch., vol. xliii. p. 466, fig. 163. f Stua. Arch. Coll., vol. i. p. 55. 

X "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 85. § " Vest. Ant. of Derb.," p. 41. 

II "Vest. Ant. of Derb.," p. 82. f Smith's "Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 60, pi. x: 

•• "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 155. ft Lib. cit., p. 106. 

XX "Vest. Ant. of Derb.," p. 104. 

§§ " Reliquary," vol. ix. p. 67. 

nil Areh. A880€, Jaurn.y vol. vi. p. 3. Hf Vol. i. p. 122, pi. xv. No. 3. 



AWUS USED IN SEWING. 191 

dm tree. With it was a curious urn of burnt day and two bronze daggers, 
one near the breast and the other near the thigh. The handle is 
detcribed as being of ivoiy, but I think Dr. Thumam was right in read- 
ing it as of bone. The awl in this instance is of the third type, having a 
wSl-marked coUar round it. Another of the same character, but retain- 
iig only a small part of the haft, so that the shoulder is better shown, 
HB found with burnt bones in an urn deposited in a barrow near Stone- 
lienge.* No mention is made as to the nature of the material of which 
the haft was formed. 

In the case of an awl of the first type, engraved by Dr. Thumam, and 
liero reproduced as Fig. 228, the handle is of wood, but the kind of 
wood is not mentioned. 

One or two bronze or brass awls with square shoulders are in the 
Hnseum of the Boyal Irish Academy.f Several awls with their original 
wooden handles have been found in the Lake-dwellings of 
SsToy,^ and others in hafts of stag's-hom in the Swiss Lake- 
dwellings. 

Whether the twisted pins from the Wiltshire barrows 
are of the nature of gimlets, as suggested by Dr. 
Thnmam, is a difficult question. I shall, however, 
prefer to treat of them as personal ornaments rather 
than as tools. It is possible that they may to some 
extent have combined the two functions. As to the 
instniments which I have been describing being piercing 
tools or awls, there seems to be little doubt ; and 
Mr. Bateman can hardly have been far wrong in re- 
garding them as intended to pierce skins or leather. 
Though not curved like the cobbler's awl of the pre- 
sent day, they are probably early members of the same 
fiunily. In Scandinavia these instruments are of 
frequent occurrence, sometimes being provided with ^i^, ^ 
ornamental handles also made of bronze. § They are 
m that part of Europe often found in company with tweezers and 
small knives of bronze, and all were probably used together in 
sewing, the hole being bored by the awl and the thread drawn 
through by the tweezers and, when necessary, cut with the knife. 
Possibly the use of bristles as substitutes for needles dates back to 
▼ery early times. 

In one instance at least tweezers have been found in Britain in 
company with objects apparently belonging to the Bronze Age, 
though no doubt to a very late part of it. Those represented in 

• - Anc. WUtft," ToL i. p. 164, pi. xrii. t WUdo*s " Catal.,*' p. 697. 

: Cbantre, « Alb.," pi. Ixiii. 

t Woraaaa, *'Nord. Olds.,'* figi. 274, 27S; Nilsson, <« Nordens Ur.-Invanare,*' figs. 



193 CHIBEL8, OOUOBS, UAUHKKS, AMD OTHBK TOOLS, [CH 

Fig. 229 were discoTered near Llangwyllog, * Augleses, t< 
with a two-edged r&zor, a bracelet, buttons, rings, &c., wh 
DOW in the British Museum. 

A more highly oroameoted pair of tweezers, with a broi 
found with a bone comb, a qnem, spindle-whorls, Ac, in a 
house near Kettlebum,t Caithness, belongs to a consideiabi 
period. 

The needles of bronze found in the British Isles do not at 

appear to belong to the Bronze Period, though some of thoa> 

on the Continent seem to date back to that age. Two are ei 

by Wilde,$ and there are altogether eighteen such articles 

Museum of the Royal Irish Acaden 

broken specimen (1^ inch) from th< 

hills near Glenluce,S Wigtonshire, ha 

flgured- 

Another useful article anciently 
of bronze — though perhaps not, 
speaking, a tool — may as well be 
tioned in this place ; I mean th< 
hook, of which, however, I am able 
but one example as having been (a 
the British Isles. This was found in I 
and ia shown in Fig. 230,11 kindly 1 
the Royal Irish Academy. 

Fish-hooks of bronze have been fo 
considerable abundance on the site of 
of the Swiss Lake-dwellings ; and it 
a little remarkable that in form m 
them are almost identical with th( 
fish-hooks of the present day. The barb, to prevent tl 
from struggling off the hook, is in most instances p 
and double hooks are occasionally found. The attachment 
line was, even in the single hooks, frequently made by a ] 
eye, formed by flattening and turning back the upper part 
shank of the hook. Fish-hooks were found in the Fond* 
Lamaud (Jura),11 and in the hoard of St. Pierre-en-Chatre ( 
Such are the principal forms of tools and instruments of 
found in these islands. Some of them, such as the socketed { 

• Arfh. Joum., vol. i]tii. p. 74. 

+ Pn€. Ste.AHl. &»(.,Tol. i. p. !66: AreA. J'mrH..xa]. x. p- 218, 

t "C»t«l. Ifoa. R. I. A., "p. fl47. J "Ayr Mid Wigton Coll.," vol. 

\ Wilde, " C&tal. Miu. K. 1. A.," fig. 403. f ChantK, " Age du Br.," l^re pi 



MOSTLY OF LATE DATE. 193 

hammers, and chisels, can only belong to the latter part of the 
Bronze Period, when the art of using cores in order to produce 
sockets or other hollow recesses in castings was well known. 
Others, like the simple awls so frequently found in company 
with instruments of flint in our barrows, appear to extend from 
the commencement of the Bronze Age to its close. 

There still remains to be described a class of instruments in 
use by the husbandman, and not by the warrior ; and as the 
present chapter has extended to such a length, it will be well to 
treat of these under a separate heading. 



o 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SICKLES. 

Sickles are the only undoubtedly ajsfricultural implements ixl 
bronze with which we are acquainted in this country. Already 
in the Stone Period the cultivation of cereals for food appears to 
have been practised, and I have elsewhere* pointed out a form of 
flint instrument which may possibly have supplied the place of 
sickles or reaping hooks in those early times. The rarity of 
bronze sickles in this country, as compared with their abundance 
in some parts of Southern Europe, is, however, somewhat striking, 
and may, perhaps, point to a considerably less cultivation of grain 
crops in Britain than in countries with a warmer climate, while 
the inhabitants were otherwise in much the same stage of civilisa- 
tion. 

The traditions of the use of bronze sickles survived to a com- 
paratively late period in Greece and Italy, and Medea is described 
by Sophoclest as cutting her magic herbs with such instruments 
(XctXifeoKTii/ TJfjLa cperravoi^ Toiia^)y and by Ovid + as doing it 
** curvamine falcis ahenne." Elissa is by Virgil § represented as 
using a bronze sickle for similar purposes — 

*' Falcibus et messso ad lunam quseruiitur aenis 
Pubentes herbsD nigri cum lacte venoni." 

When bronze sickles were used for reaping corn it seems to have 
bqen a common custom merely to cut the ears of corn from off the 
straw, after the manner of the Gaulish reaping machine described 
by Pliny, II and not to cut and carry away straw and ear together 
from the field. This practice will probably account for the small 
size of the sickles which have come down to us, unless we are to 
reverse the argument, and derive the custom of cutting off the 

• " Anc. Stono Imp.," p. 320. f Macrob. " Satom.,*' v. c. 19. 

: " Met.," Tii. 224. { "-Bn.," lib. iv. 618. 

II '*Nat. Hiflt.,"xviii. c. 30. 



METHOD OF HAFTTNG SICKLES. 195 

ears only from the diminutive size of the instruments employed 
for reaping. 

Bronze sickles were hafted in different ways, sometimes being 
fastened to the handle by a pin, either attached to the stem of 
the blade or passing through a hole in it, combined with some 
system of binding ; and sometimes being provided with a socket 
into which the haft was driven, and then secured by a transverse 
pin or rivet. 

The sickles with a socket to receive the handle appear to be 
peculiar to Britain and the North of France. The other form 
occurs over the greater part of Europe, including Scandinavia, and 
the blades, as has been observed by Dr. Keller, are always 
adapted for use in the right hand. Dr. Gross, of Neuveville, on 
the Lake of Bienne, has been so fortunate as to discover at 
Mcerigen, the site of one of the ancient pile-villages on the lake, 
two or three handles for sickles of this kind. A figure showing 
three views of one of these handles has been published by the 
Ro}'al ArchiBological Institute,* and is here by permission repro- 
duced as Fig. 231. This handle is formed of yew, curiously 
carved so as to receive the thumb and fingers, and has a flat place 
at the end against which the blade was fastened. In this place 
there are two grooves to receive the slightly projecting ribs wtth 
which the stem of the sickle-blade is usually strengthened. Dr. 
Kellert has suggested that the blade of the sickle was made fast 
to the handle by means of a kind of ferrule which passed over it, 
and was secured in its place by two pins or nails. 

The end of the handle forms a ridge, through which are two 
holes that would admit a small cord for the suspension of the 
sickle, and thus prevent its being lost either on land or water. 
We find this sailor-like habit prevailing among the Lake-dwellers 
in the case of their flint knives also, the handles of which were 
often perforated. 

There is a remarkable resemblance in character between this 
handle and some of those in use among the Esquimaux J for their 
planes and knives, which are recessed in tlie same manner for the 
reception of the fingers and the thumb. 

Some iron sickles, of nearly the same form as those in bronze 
with the flat stem, were present in the great Danish find of the 
Enly Iron Age at Vimose, § described by Mr. C. Engelhardt. The 

• Ank. Jmmt.^ toI. xxx. p. 192. t Keller, Tier Bericht, Taf . vii. 1. 

fi«IWi.Timee,"p. 513. §" Vimose Fundct," 1869, p. 26. 

o2 



196 S1CKI.EK [chap. VI 

chord of the curved blades is from 6 to 7 ioches in length, a 
one of the instruments still retained its origin^ wooden hanc 
This is hetween 9 and 10 inches long, and is curved at the p 
intended to receive the hand. The end is conical, like the hi 




of a screw, and is evidently tlius made in order to give a sec 
hold to the reaper when drawing the sickle towards him. Sicl 
with nearly similar handles were in use in Smaaland," in the So 
of Sweden, until recent days. 

• " Aiirbni;.:r for Oldkind,," ISdT, p. i.in. 



WITH PRCUECTIMO KNOI19. 197 

Of sickles without a socket but few have been found in Britain, 
md those mostly in our Western Counties. In a remarluible hoard 
found in a turbary at Edington Burtle,* near Glastonbury, Somer- 
Mshire, were four of these flat sickles. One of these had never 
beea finished, hut had been left rough as it came &om the mould, 
iDto which the metal had been run through a channel near the 
pCHnt of the sickla A projection still marks the place where the 
jet was broken off. As will be seen from Fig. 232, this blade is 




^.»I.— EdlDKtoa Boitle. 



pcDvided with two projecting pins for the purpose of attaching it 
la tlie handle. In this respect it differs from the sickles of the 
onlinaty continental type, which, when of this character, have 
Q^uiklly but a single knob. 
Another of the Edington sickles with a single projection is 



dhown io F^. 233. This blade is more highly ornamented, and 
liu i rib along the middle in addition to that along the back, no 
doubt for the purpose of increasing stiffness while diminishing 
"eight. Of the other two sickles found at Edington, one is im- 
[<erfect and the other much worn. Both are provided with the 
t"o projecting pins. 

Two other sickles found on Sparkford Hill.t also in Somerset- 
shire, present the same peculiarity. One of these nnich resembles 



198 SICKLES [chap 

Fig. 233, though neirly straight along the hack. The otl 
flat on both faces. Each has lost its point. A chisel-like to< 
found with them. 

With the Edington sickles were found a hroad fluted penaE 
armlet and what may have heen a finger-ring of the same pa 
a plain penannular armlet of square section, part of a light fun 
torque like Fig. 467, part of a ribbon torque like Fig. 46i 
four penaunular rings, some of them apparently made from 
menta of torques. 

Two other sickles of the same character, each with two 
jecting pina, were found in Taunton * itself in association 
twelve palstaves, a socketed celt, a hammer (Fig. 214), a fraj 
of a spear-head, a double-edged knife, a funicular torque 
4G8), a pin (Fig. 451), some fragments of other pins, and s. 
penannular rings of various sizes. 




All the objects found at Edington, Sparkford Hill, and Ta 
are now in the museum in Taunton Castle. 

A thinner form of flat sickle, if such it be, has been foui 
Kent. Among a number of bronze objects which were disco 
at Marden.t near Staplehnrst, there is a slightly curved blade 
a rivet at one end, which appears to present a sickle-like chai 
I have not seen the original, and as it is described as a knife- 
it may prove to liave been one, or possibly, what is of far 
occurrence, a saw. 

Of socketed sickles a few have at different times been dr( 
up from the Thames. One of these, found in 1850, is in mj 
collection, and is shown in Fig. 234. The blade, which is a 
as sharp at the back as at the edge, is not quite eeutnil wit 

■■ pi. 



WITH 8UCKETS. 



199 



socket, bnt so placed as to make the iDStrument better adapted for 
use in the right hand than in the left The socket tapera con- 
siJenbly, and is closed at the end. 

la another sickle found in the Thames, near Bray, Berks* (Fig. 235), ths 
•ocktl diee into the blade instead of forming a distinct feature. A third, 
(oimd near Windsor; and engraved in the Proceeding) of the Society of 
JMlijtiK-ia,\ closely reaembleB Fig. 234, but the end of the socket, instead 
uf bnng dosed, is open. The blade of this also ia sharp on both edges. 

One from Stretham Fen, in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquariau 
Society (about SJ inches), is of the same character. It has two rivet-boles 
in the socket. Another from Dovnbam Fen (5} inches) is sharp on both 
td«a. 

In the Norwich Museum is a sickle of somewhat the same character as 
Fig. 235, but the socket instead of being oval is oblong, and is placed at a 
lesa angle to the blade, which in this case also is double-ed^;ed. The 




Mcket is \i by iV inch, and has one rivet-holo through it. The curved 
biife from Wicken Fen, to be described in the nest chapter, much 
nwmblee this Norwich example in outline. Another sickle from Nor- 
1o\k\ was exhibited to the Axclueological Institute in 1851. Mr. Franks 
W shown me a sketch of another foimd at Doreham which has the 
ntenal edge of the blade extending across the end of the socket. Both 
«dgea of the blade are sharp. 

But few BJcMes have been foimd in Scotland. That shown in Fig. 236 
*u found in the Tar,§ near EttoI, Perthshire, in 1640, and has been 
described by Dr. 3. Alexander Smith. The block, which has been kindly 
lent me by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, is engraved on the 
«>»le of two-thirds linear, instead of my usual scale of one-half. The 
main difference between this specimen aud mine from the Thames (Fig. 

i. p. 378. 



300 stcKLBs [chap. vm. 

234) oonaiBta in the blade being fluted. AnoUiGr more rudely nude 
sitkle, found at Edengerach,* I^nmay, Aberdeenshire, has also ben 
engraved. This has a sin^e central rib along the blade and no rivet- 
hole through the socket. Perhaps it is an unfinished casting. 




ng. SI.-lTau bnl, FatUdn. 

In Sinclair's ' ' Statistical Aocount of Scotland " f it is stated that an 
instrument of this class was found at Ledbe^, Sutherlandahi re, and was 
pronounced by the Earl of Bristol, then Bishop of Deny, to whom it 
was presented, to be a Druidical pruning hook sunilar to several found 
in l^gland. 

In Ireland these instruments are much more abundant Eleven 
specimens are mentioned by Wilde + as being in the Museum of 
the Royal Irish Academy, and there are three in the British 
Museum, as well aa one in that at EdinbuigL 

That engraved as Fig. 237 is in the 

collection of Canon Green well, F.H.S., 

and was found at Garvagh, county 

Deny. Tlie blade is fluted somewhat 

like that of the Tay specimen. In 

one of those engraved by Wilde (Fig. 

405) it is more highly ornamented. 

In another the socket ia not closed 

at the end, but resembles that of 

^^^^^k the Windsor example already men- 

^^^^^P tionod. This appears to be the one 

^^^^^ engraved by VollanceyS who ob- 

jfTT. i screes that it was "tailed by the 

Irish a Suaru," and that it was used 

I, niisletoe, &c." In awother]| tho blade ffinns 




"to cut herbs. 



t Vol. xvi. p. 

; " t-atul.." p. o27. 

i " t'oll. de hob. Hil).," vol. iv. pi. I. 4. ]>. 61 

U t'ig- i06. I'omiHiru '■ Hum- Ki-rulcn," pi. x 



70CND IN ISELANU. 201 

I direct continiutioa of the aocket as in Fig. 238, whicli is engraved 
from a apecimeu in the British Museum, found neur Athlone, county 
Westmeath. 

Vatlancey, in his "Collectanea," has figured another. In the colloction 
of Ut, J. Holmes ie another example of this type. Another eickla 
of the same character as Fig. 237, found near Ballygawley,* Tyrone, 
hu ftlso been figured. This specimen is among those in the British 
UaHum. 

A socketed sickle, double-edged, and with a concavity on each side at 
the angle between the blade and the socket so deep as to meet and form 
k hole, was found in Aldemey, and ia engraved in the Arehaohgical 
AmeuAitM Ji»trnal.\ With it were found socketed celta, speor-heuds, 




Pig. ne.-AUilinw. 



ud broken swords and daggers. This may be regarded as a French 
Mher than an English example. 

In my own collection is another, from the Seine at Paris, about 7 ini'hes 
in length along the outer edge of the blade, which extends past the end 
of the socket. This still contains a part of the wooden handle, which hiis 
liwn secured in its place by two rivets, apparently of bronze. In general 
mtline this sickle is much like Fig. 234, but the blade is narruwi.T and 
nibte curved and the socket more tiattened. In the museum at Amiens 



Artk. JoiiTH., Tul, li. p. 1H6. Sw alHii Dublin 
iln," iJ. I. 18. 
Vol. m. p. 6. 



■ drth. J. 
tVol.£i 



202 SICKLES [chap. V 

is another sickle, in form closely resembling Fig. 234, but with a looj 
the back of the socket. M. Chantre in his magnificent work, ^*JjI 
du Bronze," does not specify this socketed type, though he divides * 
form without socket into five different varieties. The socketed fc 
appears to be quite unknown in the South of France, as it also is 
Switzerland. 

These three are the only instances I can cite of socketed sick 
having been found outside the British Isles, so that this type 
instrument appears to be peculiarly our own. The existence 
a socket shows that the form does not belong to an early peri 
in the Bronze Age, and the same is to be inferred from t 
character of the other bronze objects with which the Alderr 
sickle was found associated. 

Inasmuch as the continental forms are as a rule differ 
from the British, and as they are, moreover, well known, it v 
suffice to indicate some few of the works in which descriptions 
them will be found. Some from Camenz, in Saxony, have b< 
engraved in illustration of a paper by myself in tlie Proceedk 
of the Society of Antiquanes* 

Others from Germany, some of which are said to have Rod 
numerals upon them, have been figured by Lindenschmit.t 

Examples from Italy have been given by Strobel,J Gastah 
Lindenschmitjll and others. 

They have been found in great abundance in some of the set 
ments on the lakes of Switzerland and Savoy. It has been thou 
that the Lake-dwellers did not cut off merely the ears of their cor 
but *' that the straw was taken with it, otherwise there would 
have been the seeds of so many weeds in the corn.'' Diodorus Sieu 
however, who wrote in the first century B.C., tells us distini 
that the Britons gathered in their harvest by cutting off the e 
of com and storing them in subterraneous repositories. Fi 
these they picked the oldest clay by day for their food. Whet 
for thresliing they made use of the tribulum** that ''sh 
threshing instrument having teeth," before Roman times, is dou 
ful ; but that so primitive an instrument, armed with flakes 
flint or other stone, should have remained in use in some Medit 
ranean countries until the present day, is a remarkable instai 

* 2nd 8., vol. iii. p. 333. 

t " Samnil. zn Sigmar.," Taf. xli. ; *' Alt. u. h. Vorz.," vol. i. Heft xii. Taf. ii. 

} " Avanzi Prorom.," 1863, Tav. ii. 6, 7. 

? "Nuovi Cenni," 1862, Tav. iv. 17, 18. |! •' Sainml. zn Sigmar.." Taf. xli 

1! Stevens, *' Flint Chips/' p. 167. 

*♦ See Evans, ** Anc. Stono Imp.," p. 2jG. 



FOUND ON THE CONTINENT. 203 

power of survival of ancient customs. Such an instance 
stence in a primitive form much reduces the extreme im- 
iity of the use of bronze sickles in Germany having lasted 
time when Roman numerals might appear upon them. 
^ St. Andrew's cross and every straight line found upon 

instruments is to be regarded as a Roman numeral, and 
jcts bearing them are to be referred to Roman times as 
irliest possible date, the range of Roman antiquities will 
h enlarged, and will be found to contain, among other 

a largo number of the bronze knives from the Swiss 
sellings ; for one of the most common ornaments on 
ks of these knives consists of a repetition of the pattern 

KIIIIIXIIIII. 

were it proved that in some part of Europe the use of 
sickles survived to so late a date as supposed by Dr. Lin- 
nit, their great scarcity in the British Isles affords a conclu- 
jument against their being assigned to the period of the 
occupation, of which other remains have come down to us 

abundance. 



CHAPTER IX. 

KNIVES, RAZORS, ETC. 

It is a question whether, if in this work strict regard had been paid 
to the development of different forms of cutting implements, the 
knife ought not to have occupied the first place, rather than the 
hatchet or celt ; for when bronze was first employed for cutting 
purposes it was no doubt extremely scarce, and would therefore 
hardly have been available for any but the smaller kinds of tools 
and weapons. 

Both hatchets and knives, or rather knife-daggers, have been- 
found with interments in barrows ; but it seems better to include 
the majority of the latter class of instruments, which appear U^ 
occupy an intermediate place between tools and weapons, in the 
next chapter, which treats of daggers ; rather than in this, which will 




Fig. SS9.— Wicken Fen. 



be devoted to what appear to be forms of tools and implements. 
Some of these, however, like the celt or hatchet, may have been 
equally available both for peaceful and warlike uses ; and though 
I have to some extent tried to keep tools and weapons under 
different headings, it appears impossible completely to carry out 
any such system of arrangement. Xor in treating of what I have 
regarded as knives does it seem convenient first to describe what 
appear to be the simpler and older forms, inasmuch as there are 
other forms which in all respects except the shape of the blade so 
closely resemble some of the sockett^l sickles described in the last 
chapter, that tliey seem almost of necessity to follow immediately 



f^OCKETED KKIVES. 200 

in order. The first inEtrumcnt which I shall cite has sometimes 
indeed been regarded as a. sickle, though it is more properly 
''peakiDg a curved knife. 

It wsa found in Wicken Fen, and la now in the Muaemn of tlio Cambridgo 
Antiqu&rian Society, the Council of which has 
kindly permitted me to engrave it as Fig. 239. j.v 

It has already teen figured, but not quite aceu- '"a, 

ntely, in the Arehaologieal Journal,* the rib at 
dieback of the blade being omitted- I am not 
arare of any other example of this form of 
knife haTing been found in the United Kingdom, 
but a double-edged socketod knife with a curved 
blade, found in Ireland, is in the Bateman Col- 



The ordinaiy fonn of socketed knife has 
1 straight double-edged blade, extending 
ftom an oval or oblong socket, pierced by 
one or two holes, through which rivets or 
pina could pass to secure the haft. These 
holes are usually at right angles to the axis 
of the blade, hut sometimes in the same 
plane with it. 

FifT. 240 shows a knife with two rivet-holea, 
*liicli was found at Tkomdon, Suffolk, together 
vitli socketed celta, a spear-head, hammer, 
googe, and an awl, several of which hove been 
Sgored in preceding pages. Another (9 inches 
long), much like Fig, 240, but with the sides of 
the socket flat, and the blade more fluted, was 
fonnd in the Thames, and is engraved in the 
Areh^alogical Journal.^ Another, of much the 
wme size and general character, formed part of 
a hoard of bronze objects found in Reach Fen, 
Bear Borwell, of which mention has already fre- 
quently been made. It is in my own collection, ^^^^ __^_ 
and is sluiwn in Fig, 241. I have another, ^^TT^ Fig. hi — 
6i indies long, found m Edmonton Marsh. TGoradon. } Bach Fen. i 

A fine blade of this kind, with two rivet-holes 
in the hilt (HJ inches), was found in the New Forest, GLamoi^ansbire, 
ud was formerly in the Meyrick Collection.^ It is now in the British 
Uoieum. The blade has shallow flutings parallel with the edges. 

A socketed knife of this kind (4^ inches) was found by General A. 
IHtt Bivere, F.R.S,, in a pit at the foot of the interior slope of the rampart 
of Highdown Camp,§ near Worthing, Sussex. It may possibly have 
acmmpanied a funereal deposit. 

• VoL Tii. p. 80a. + Vol. ixriv. p. 301. 

X "Aae. AnvooT,'' pi. xlvii. II. i Areh., yiA. xUi. p. 75, pi. viii. 23. 



206 KSIVE8, RAZORS, ETT. [CH 

In Bomo inatanpes the two livet-holea run lengthways of the ova 
Mcket. One such, diBcovered with otlier objects at Lanant, 
(f)^ inches), ia engraved in the Arekaohgia.* It is now in the \ 
of the Society of Antiquaries. One like it was found on Holyhead 
tainit Anglesea, and is now in the British Museum. 

A fnigment of a knife of this Mnd is in the museum at Amie 
formed i>art of a Itoard found near that town. It has a heading 
mouth of the socket, and also on 
midway hotween the riTet-holes. 

Coninionly there is but a 
hole through the socket, especi 
the smaller spccimeas. VrnA 
in Fig. 242 is of this bind, b 
scnts the remarkable feature ■ 
ing U2>an each face of the soc 
small projecting bosses sim: 
livet-lieads. It was found : 
Heathery Bum Cave,J Durliar 
socketed celts, spear-heatls, ai 
merous other articles. Anothc 
the same cave (5| inches) 
plain and rather larger socke 
the collection of Canon Ore 

r.R.s. 

Of other specimens, but witUi 
small bosses, the following may 1 
tionod : — One (BJ inches long) fou 
eocketed celts, part of a sword 
and a gouge, at Martlcslinm, ■ 
and in the possession of Captain '. 
of Ufford IlaU. Two found 
Tliames near Wallingford.§ Anoi 
inches), from the same source. 
own collection. This was found 
socketed celt, gouge, chisel, an 
(Fitf. 209). One from IJandysili 
bighsliire. found with socketed ci 
a Bjiear-licad. is in Canon (iree 
r-ollcction. A knife of this ki; 
among the relics found above the 
mite in Kent's Cavcm, near Toiv| 
I hiiw a knife of this character \4J inches', but with the rivet-h 
ino with the edges of the blade, found in Dorset shir,-. 




t Areh.JfiHr 
It liy the Soi'if 



:. p, US. 111. ii.; "Cstnl. Ihis. Soc 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH KNIVES. iU7 

In Scottand the socketed form of knife is very rare. 

That ehown in Fig. 2J3 wus found at Kilpraston, Perthshire, and ie in 
thf eiiDertion of Canon Greonwell, F.R.S. It has a central rib along tlif 
Hide and two shorter lateral ribs, and in. somo respccta has more tin- 
ippearance of being a epear-head than a knifu. 

Wther, with the rivot-holo in the same pliine as tho blade, was found 
uw Compbelton, Argj-leahiro, and has boon engraved as a spear-head by 
Pnfessor Daniel Wi£on.* The discovery of a blade having its original 
luniile, as subsequently mentioned, proves, however, that some of thcso 
•re rightly regarded aa knives, though another form (Fig. 328) has moro 
the a]ipearance of being a spoar-hoad. The curved knifo with a socket, 
figiired by the same autlior,t can hanlly, I think, bo Scottish. 

In Ireland the socketed form of knife is more abundant than in 
either England or Scotland, No less than thirty-three such knivcw+ 
ire recorded by Sir W. Wilde, as preserved in 
the Museum of the Royal Irisli Academy, of five 
of which he gives figures. Many specimens also 
eiist in private collections. 

That shown in Fig. 244 is in the collection of Canon 
GreeQwell. F.R.S., and was found at Kells. Co. 
UeatL As will be observed, tho blade is at the base 
wmeirhat wider than the socket. The indented lines 
upon it appear to have been produced in the cast- 
iig. and not added by any subsequent proecss. A 
We of the same kind, found in the Bog of Augh- 
»De, near Atlilet^^ue, Co. Galway, is still attached 
to the original handle, which, like many of thoso of 
llie flint knives found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings, 
iiformed of yew. It has been several times figurod.§ 

I have a specimen of tho same character, but in 
ondine more like Fig. 240, 6 inchoa long, from the 
Xurth of Ireland. 

A knife of this kind, found in a hoard at St. Go- 
Boulph, ia in the Tours Museum. 

In some lastances the junction between the hlade and the socket 
is nuulc to resemble that between the hilt and hlade of some of the 
bronze swords and daggers, such as Figs. 2!)1 and 349. 

The example shown in Fig. 24-'5 is in my own ollec'tion. I do not, 
however, know in what part tii Ireland it was found. The rivet-hole is 
at the side, and not on the face, in which, however, there is a slight flaw, 
vhich assumes the appearance of a hole in the figure. In Canon Grcen- 
tbU'b collection is a nearly similar specimen (lOJ inches), found at Baltc- 
wgh, Co. Deny, with two rivet-holes at the side and the socket some- 
what ornamented by parallel grooves at the mimlh and at the junction 
*ith the blade. 

t Op. ril., p. 402. I " fttfal,," p. 46^. 
,Tol. xssvi. p. 330; '•Honr>Ferale«,"pI. ». 29'. 




W8 KNIVES, RAZORS, ETC. [( 

Oue of tho Bockoted knives in tlie Academy Museum at Dublin 
rivet-lioles on the face. Of the other 
two-thirds have a single rivet-holo on 
and tho other third one on the side. 

A lon^ blade, somewhat differing in i' 
from Fig. 245, was found between Lur 
Moira, Co. Down, and, It is stated, in ■ 
with tho bronco hilt or pommel showi 
246. ThoBe objects formed part of thi 
Collection, and are now in the Museur 
Royal Irish Academy. Two objects, 8< 
similar to Fig. 246, found with spear-] 
Cambridgoahire, will subsequently be mt 
A piece of bronze of much the same fon 
with 8 hoard of bronze objects at Uai 
Kent, seems to be a jet or waste piece 
casting. It has, however, been regardet 
of a fibula. 

The socketed form of kuife is hardly 
upon the Continent, though, as will ha 
observed, it has occasionaUy been foum 
Nortli of France. Among the fragnc 
metal forming part of tho deposit of an 
bronze- founder, and discovered at Drei 
Amiens, I have the fragments of tv 
knives. I have also a fine and entire sj 
OJ inches long, from the bed of the ■ 
Charenton, near Paris. There is a tri 
rib at each end and in the middle of thi 
through the fate of which are two riv' 
A portion of the original wooden handli 
in the socket, secured in its place by t" 
also apparently of wood, which pass thro 
rivet-holes. Another knife (6| inche: 
Fig. 241, but with only one rivet -hole, ' 
found in the Seine at Paris, and is no< 
collection. 

Several sock^'ted knives with curved 
have been found in the Swiss Lake-d^i 
and one siieh, found with the sickle 
mentioned, is in the Amiens Museum. 

There is anotlipr form of socketei 
which it will bo well here to mention. 
blade is sharj) on both sides, but 
of being Hat it is eun^otl into ii seti 
For a typieal exaiii]ile I niii obli^eVV 
recourse to a Freiioli spoeiiiien. 



That shown in Fij. "J4" 



.x.U,«,. 



:idx 



s£i= 



CURVED KNIVES. 



gold torque and bracelet, a bronze anvil (Fi^. 217), and other objocta, at 
Freene la Mclre, near Falaise, Calvados. It seems well adapted for 
working out hollows in wood. With it was found a small, tanged, single- 
edged knife, the end of which is bent to a smaller curve. 

An instrument of much the same character (4 inches) was found, 
with a bronze sword, spear-heads, &c., in the Island of Skye, and is now 




Fig. MS.— Moink 1 




Fig. M7.-tVHnilaM(n. ( 



in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. As Professor Daniel Wilson* 
observes, "m general appearance it resembles a bent spear-head, but it 
has a raised central ridge on the inside, while it is nearly plain and 
smooth on the outer side. — The most probable use for which it has been 
designed would seem to be for scraping out the interior of canoes and 
other large vessels made from the trunk of the oak." It is shown as 
Fig. 248. Another instrument of the same kind (4^ inches), found at 
Wester Ord, Invergordon, Eoss-shire, is engraved in the Proceedings oftke 





Fig. HS.— Skra. 



Society of Antiquariei of Seotland,\ and ia here by their permission repro- 
duced as Fig. 249. 
It seems by no means improbable that such instrumenta may have been 

• " Preh. Ann.," vol. i. p. 400 ; Proe. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. viii. p. 310. The cut is 
here reproduced \iy peTmiamon of SIosbts. Maumillau. 
t Vol. viii. p. 310. 



210 KNIVES, RAZORS, ETC. [ 

mistaken far bent spear-lieade, and that they are not quite so rare 

at present appear. 

Two specimens of the socketed form have bees found m the Li 

ment of the Eaux Yivee, near Creneva, and are now in the n 

that town. Another, with a tang, is in the collection of M. 

iioTgea, and was found among the pile-dwellingB near that plac 
A fragment of what appears to havo been one of these curve 

but with a solid handle, and not a socket, was found with gc 
various fragmenti 
slow, and is no 
British Museum. 
What seems 
tanged ciUTod hn 
kind formed pa 
great Bologna ho 

Another f< 
knife, which aj 
be intermediate 
those with sod 
those with men 
tang, is shown 
250. In this 
loops extendin. 
the blatle on eit 
which would re 
ends of the two 
wood or horn 
to form the hi 
that a single i 
ficed to bind t 
the blado betwi 
firmly togetlier. 

The original y 
in Eeaoh Fen, Ce 

Fig.*H)--E«chF™. i F« »Sl-Re«hF™ 1 .^^^^^ ^nd is nO' 

own collection. ' 
has the appearance of having been originally longer, but of b 
worn away by use. I know of no other specimen of the Id 
power to cast such loops upon the blade is a proof of no ordi 
in the foundor. 

A palstave with a loop of tliia kind instead of a stop or «i 
was found at Dousard,* Haute Bavoie. 

Another foim of knife or dag^r has merely a Hn i vnffl 

■■ Q umUg. " A lhaa." pi- tI. ! 




KNIVES WITH BROAD TAMOB. 211 

ctses provided with rivets by which it could be fastened to a 
huidle, in others without rivets, as if it had heea simply driven 
into a handle. 

The blade Bhown in Fig. 251 was found in the eamo hoard aa that 
^Bgiayed aa Fig. 241. The rivetA are fast attached to the blade, and 
the handle through which they pasaod was probably of some perishable 
inalerial, such as wood, horn, or bone. 

Another Made (5^ inches), with a broad tang and two rivet-holee, was 
found in the Thames.* 

In the Britiah Museum is a knife much like the figure, 8 Inches long, 
And showing three facets on the blade, found in the Thames at Kingston. 

The knife-blades with broad tangs, which were not riveted to 
their handles, were in some instances provided with a central 
Hdge upon the tang, which served to steady them in their handles, 
^nd in others the stem or tang was left plain. 

One of the former daaa, from the Heathery Bum Cave, ia shown in 
^ig. 252. It is in the collection of Canon Qreenwell, F.E.S. 

An imperfect hnifs of the same kind, found in Yorkshire, is in the 
Stwborough Museum. 

Another, with the edges more o^val, like Fig. 241, was found in the 
■aei^bourhood of fi^ttmgham,f with socketed celts and numerous other 
Ckbjects in bronv 

Another, bro4 at the base and more like a dagger in cbaraoter, was 
ffonnd with vaH as other articles at Marden.t Kent. 

More leaf-shaped and sharply pointed blades of this kind, probably 
^■^era rather than knives, have been often found in Ireland. One § 
Cl'^ inches) has been figured by Wilde. Another was in the Dowrie 
Sioaid. 

In the Isle of Haiiy hoard, already more than once cited, was a knifo 
-with a plwn tang, shown in Fig. 253. It has rather the appearance of 
larina boon made from the pomt of a broken sword, as the edgee of the 
tang nave been "upset" oy hammering. The blade itseu is now 
narrower than the tang, the result probably of much wear and use. 

The end of a broken sword in the Dowris hoard has been converted 
>nta a knife in a similar manner. In the collection of the late Lord 
^aybrooke is what appears to be part of a tanged knife, sharpened at 
us broken end so as to form a chisel. 

In Qie Beach Fen hoard was a knife (4J inches) of much the same 
«™artBr, but not so broad in the tang. 

A flat hUi^A with n tang for insertion in a haft must have been a very 
wly form of nii.tal tool. Among the Assyrian relics from Tel Sifr, in 
™utti Babylfiiiiu. Kuch blades were found, of which there are examples in 
«" R"'"h Museum, 

P.B.S., has two leaf-shaped blades of copper, with 
of bone rather longer than the blades, which were 
Ate Esquimaux. In form they resemble Fig. 257. 

J- ii. p. 229. t Prot. See. Ant., 2nd 8., Tol. i. p. 332. 
rir. p. 268.' i '■ Catal.," p. 487, fig. 366. 




KNirES, BAZOIU, ETC. 



[chap. 



It will now be well to mention some of the other Irish spe 
mens of this class. 

The knivw with the projecdng rib upon the tang are b; no me< 
unconunon, and there are severu in the Museum of the Bojral In 
Academy and elsewhere. Canon Greenwell has one (6| inches] fri 



Fir. SIA—Eeaamj Burn C^n 



I Fig. »a.-n«rty. } pig. a 



BaUynasereen, Co. Tyrone, much like that from the Heathery Bum Ci 
(Tig. 252). 

The knife or dagger with a plain tang and an omamentetl bli 
engraved ae Fig. 254 is in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Acader 
Another, simply ridged and with a single rivet-hole in the Umg, found 
Craigs,* Co. Antrim, is in the collection of Mr. R. Day, F.S.A. It is 1 
Tound-cnded than tJie blade with a central rib along it'and one rivet-h 
in the tang, shown in Fig. 255. This is in my omi collection, anil i 
found at Ballyclare, Co. Antrim. 

• Froc. Sot. Anl.,2aAii., vol, v. p. 209 (wooduul), 



KNIVES WITH LANCEOLATE BLADES. 



213 



old for blades of thia character will Hubsequently be mentioned, 
.er fonu of knife, unless possibly it was intended for a lauoe- 
shown in Fig. 256. This specimen is also from the Beaoh Fen 
ut is of yellower metal and oifferently patinated fiom the objects 
it^L it. Canon Gxeenwell has a knife of the same form (4 j inches), 
t Seamer Carr, Torkshire. Another, smaller (3| inches), is in 
ish Museum, but its place of finding is not utown. A nearly 
Jade, found near Balljcastle, Co. Antrim, is shown in Fig. 267, 
er esamplo of this form (Sg- inches) is in the British Museum. 
. WiMo* hfts fionirfid snmfi other exi 



of the same kind, from 
heads. They appear to 



. Wilde * has figured some other exai 
.ches long, which he regarded as art 
ever, too large for such a purpose. 
Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy is yet another variety, with 
9 pierced in the centre (Fig. 258). 



-BiUyetue. i Fig. SM.-Bxub FflL t Fif. la;.— BaUycutle, { Tig. 




re proceeding to describe some other symmetrical double- 
ilade3, it will be well to notice such few examples as have 
und of single-edged blades, like the ordinary knives of the 
day. Abundant as these are, not only in the Lake-dwell- 
Switzeriand, but in France and other continental countries, 
■e of extremely rare occurrence in the British Tales, 

g. 259 I have engraved a small instrument of this kind, found at 
ton, near Tring, Herts, the handle of which terminates in the 
[ an animal. It was therefore not intended for insertion into a 
some other material. 



"CateLHua. E. I. A.,' 



I, Gg«. 387, 388, 389. 



2U 



KNIVES, RAZOBS, ETC. 



[CHAF. 



I liave another bronze knife, rather longer and narrower, and witli * 
pointed tang, which is said to have been found in London ; but of QoM I 
am b; no means certain. 

The rude biife found with the Isle of Harty board, and shown full Btio 



FJg. JB9.— Wlmioton. { 

as Fig. 260, is the only oUier English specimen with which I am al^- 
quointed, but no doubt more exist. 

The only specimen mentioned in tho Catalogue of the Museum of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is in aU 14 inches long, with a thick 
back and notched tang, and of this the place of finding is unknown. 




Fig. 160.— Ids of Bartr. 

Professor Daniel Wilson * speaks of it as having been found in Ayrshire, 
and regards it as a reaping instrument. He also figures a socketed knife 
of much the same sixu from the collection of Sir John Clerk at Peni- 
cuick House, in which are also some tauged specimens. I cannot help 
suspecting that these ore of foreign origin. 

In Ireland the form appears to be at present unknown. 

la Fig. 261 is shown a knife of a form which is of extremely 
rare occurrence in this country ; 
though, a3 will be seen, it has 
frequently been found in France. 




The specimen here figured has 
been kindly lent me by Mr. Hum- 
plirey Wickham, of Strood, and was 
found with a hoard of bronze objects 
at Allhftllows, Hoo,t Kent. The 
hoard coiitninod socketed colts, giuiges, a epoar-head, fragments of 
Rwortii, and tJie objt'ct engraved as Fig. '2SG. Ono more crescent-like in 
fonu was found with a hoard of broiizo objects near Meldreth, Cam- 
bridgralnro. and is in the British Mueeum. 

Knives iif this kind were associated with celts, gouges, &c., in tho hoard 
• '• lYih. Aim. tHiit.," vul. i. p. <02. t -^rch. Cant., voL xi. p. 12S, pi. c 14, 



KNIV'ES OF PECULIAR TYPES. 215 

of Notre-Dame d'Or, now in Hie musetim at Poitiers. Two also were 
present in the Aldemey hoard found near the Pierrt du Villain." 

Some knives of this oharacter vere foimd with & hoard of bronze tools 
wnd weapons at Questembert, Brittany, and are now in the museum at 
Vannea. A broken one was in the hoard of the Jardin des Flantes, 
Nantee.f One from La Manche is engraved in the Mtmoirt of the Society 
«/ AiUifHariea of Normandy, 1827—8, pi. xvi. 20. A knife of this 
character of rectangular form, each side being brought to an edge, 
TM found with other bronze relics at Ploneour, Brittany, and is en- 
giared in the Arehteologia Cam^entii.t In character this knife closely 
tnemhles some of those in flint. § A hind of triangular knife of the 
time character was found at Briatexte|j (Tarn). One from the station 
of Gaux Vives, in the Lake of Geneva, has the face ornamented at the 
bloitt mai^in with a vandyke of hatched triangles. In some French 
niieties Uiere are rings at the top of the blade instead of holes through 
it In a curious specimen from ^t. Julien, Chateuil, in the collection of 
U. Aymard, at Le Puy, the edge is nearly semicircular, and there are 
o^t ronad holes through the blade as well as two rings at the bock. 
Some of the razors from the Lake-dwellings of Savoy and Switzerland 
ire of much the same character as these knives. I have a knife of this 
dui with a rather large triangular opening in it and two circular loops, 
bond at Bemissart, Hainault.^ Another somewhat difierent was found at 
Urine** (Tarn). 




lig. Ml-Cotlle. 

A Danish fj" knife of this character has five circular loops along the 
boUowed back. AMecklenburg|| knife has throe such loops and curded 
festoons of bronze between. 

The bronze knife or razor, shown full size in Fig. 262, was found at 
Cottle,S§ near Abingdon, and is now in the British Museum. It is of a 
pecnliar and distinct type, but somewhat resembles in character the 
oblong bronze cutting instrument found at Ploneour, Brittany, already 
mentioned. It is thinner and flatter than would appear from the figure. 
AlfMklenbuTgJIII knife or razor figured by Lisch is analogous in form. 

I have a rough and imperfect blade of somewhat the same character as 
that bom Coma, but thinner and more curved. It has no hole through 

• ArdL A—ai. Jomm., vol. iii. p. 9. t Parcntoau. " 3Iat6riaux," vol. v. pi. viii. 16. 
t M 8., vol. vi. p. 138. \ " Anc. Stone leap.," p. 304, Hg. 2aS. 

("lUUrisai," vol. liv. pi. ii. 4. 
t "Ann. do code Arch, de Mons," 1B57, pi. i. 6. 

•• "MaMrisni," vol. liv. p. 489. tt Woraaae, "Nord. Olds.," fiR. 160. 

It liMh, "Freder. Fnutdec.," tab. ivii. 10. 

\\fnc.8»c. JMt.,toAfi.,'to\. ii. p. 301. For the use of thia cut I am iodcUi-d to 
Ike Ooancn of the Sodetr. 



316 KI(I%'ES, RAZORS, ETC [cHAP. IX. 

it, but thickena out at one end into a short boat-shaped {m^jectiort aboDt 
i inch long. It was found near Londondeny. 

A diminutive pointed blade which appears to be too Btuall to have been 
in use aa a dagger, and which from the rivet-hole throng the taog can 
hardly have served as an arrow or lance head, is shown in Fig. 263. This 
specimen formed part of the Beach Fen hoard. A vei? small example of 
this kind of blad^, from a barrow near Eobin Hood s Ball, Wilts, has 
been figured by the late Dr. Thumam, F.8.A., in his second exhaustive 
paper on "Ancient British Barrows," pubhshed in the Areh^olcgi*,* 
from which I have derived much useful informatioii. 

A email blade with the sides more curved is shown in Fig. 364, which I 
have copied from Dr. Thumam's engraving-f The original was found in 
Ludy Tjow, Staffordshire. 

A smaller example, with a longer and imperforated tang, found in an 
urn at Broughton.t Lincolnshire, and now m the British Museum, has 
been thought to be an arrow-head ; but I agree with Dr. Thumam in 
regarding both it and the small blades described by Hoare§ aa arrow- 
heads, as being more probably small double-edged knives. 




Priddjr. 1 



Some remarks as to the almost if not absolutely entire nbsencc 
of bronze arrow-lieads in this country will be found in a subsequent 
pi^e. 

TliG larger specimens of tlicse tanged blades of somewhat tri- 
angular outline I have descril)cd as daggers, but I must confess 
tliat tlie distinction between knives and da^crs is in such ca-ses 
puroly arbitrary. The more rounded forms which now follow secin 
ratlier of tlie nature of tools or toilet iustrumcnts than weajions, 

Fif,'. 2fi.'i, copiisl from Dr. Tliumam's plntn, || represents what has been 
rfgiinlfd aa a razor bliido. It was found In a barrow at Wintersloiv, 



DOUBLE-EDGED RAZORS. 



217 



Wilti, and ill nor in the Aslunolean MuBeum at Oxford. Its roeemblanco 
to the leaf of rib-vort {Plantago media) has been pointed out by Dr. Tbur- 
nam, vfao records that it was found in an um with burnt bones and a set 
of beautiinl amber buttons or studs. He has also figured one of nearly 
the BBine size, but vith fewer ribs, from a barrow at Priddj, Somerset. 
This alu has been regarded as an arrow-head, though it is 3 inches long 
■nd H inches broad. It has a small rivet-hole through the tang. The 
oripnal is now in the Bristol Museum, and its edge ia described as sharp 
enough to mend a pen.* I have reproduced it iu Fig. 266. A blade of 
much the same kind was found in an um, with an axe-hammer of stone 
■nd a whetstone, at Broughton- in -Craven, | in 1675. 





Hl.Mf. 



E^ff.ll 



Cuon Oreenwell records the finding of an oval knife (2J inches) with 
Wnt bones in an um at Nether SweU,t Oloucostershire. 

A &nt blade, almost circular, with a somewhat longer tang than any 
Wfif^nred, formed part of the great Bologna hoard. 

* Artk. Jmnl., vol. in. p. 162. 

t 'nio«««by'B"Catal,,"m\Vliitakcr'flod. of ■■ Ducat. Lcod.," p. 114. 

I "Aritjih Bmtowi," p. 4te. 



218 KNIVES, RAZORS, ETC, [CHAP. IZ. 

These iDstruments are occasionally found in Scotland. Some 
of them are of rather larger size, and ornamented in a different 
manner upon the faca 

A small plain oval blade, whicli has poseibly last its taaff, wu foonil 
in a tuniuluB at LieraboU,* Kildonau, SuUierland, and has been figmed- 
Two oval blades were found with burnt bonea in uma near St. Audrein.'f 

Another, found in a large cinerary um at Balbl&ir,^ Snthwlandiihitgr 
is ehown fuJl size in Fig. 267. The edges are vety tlun and sharp, awS- 
the central rib shown in the section is ornamented with inciBed lines. 

Another blade of the same character, but ornamented with a lozei^ 
pattern, and with the midrib less pronounced, is shown in Fir. 268, aW 
of the actual size. It was found m a tumulus at Bogart,$ Bntherland. 




f 



FIj. !SS.— WaUIngfiud. ) Fig. 170.— HbbUmit Bon Ca*e. 1 



Another, apparently more perfect, and with many more lozenges in tbo 

SaHem, is engraved in Gordon's "Itinerorium Septentriontde." || He 
escribes it as " the end of a spear or Hasta Pura of old mixt brass, 
finely chequered." It was in Baron Clerk's collection. 

Tlko only English example which I can adduce was found with some 
sickles, a torque, and uumerous other obj ects at Taunton. It is of nearly 
the same sizp and shape as Fig. 267, but the centre plate is fluted with a 
slight ridge along the middle and one on either side, and is not orna- 
mented. It is described as a lance-head in the Arehaologieat Jbunuil.^ 

I an) not awiire of any such blades having ever been found in Ireland, 
in wltii'h ivuntry the plainer forms of oval razors also seem to be ex- 
tremely rare. 

In (.'nnim OrtH'n well's Oolleftion is an oval blade (4 inches) with a flat 
ceutnd rib. tujH<ring tu a point, running along it. It has no tang, but 

• /ViK\ Sof, .Inf. Scut,, vol. I. p. 43*. t Grv-nwdl, " Brit. Barrow*," p. *46. 

: iSw. «.«-. .Int. Snil.,'ivi.\'\l.\K\:6. For the use of this cut, as weU as figt. 268, 
2TI. '2'i. anil 27.1. 1 Mn indeMm) to the l^-ietv. 

} /W. .Siv. Ami. Una., vol. «. p. 451. ' 3 P- 116. pi. 1- 8 {1726). 

% \i)L xxivii. !■. fti, Srv olw IMns- " IWt. aiiJ Ri^m. Taanton," pL i. 4. 



SCOTCH AND IBI3H RAZORS. 219 

thm is a rivet-faole through the broad end ol tite rib. It was found ia 
u uni with burnt bonea at Eillyless, Co. Antrim. 

The form most commonly known under the name of razor is that 
ibown in Fig. 269, from a specimen in my own collection, found 
m tbe Thames, with a socketed knife and other objects, near 
ViUingfbrd. One of almost identical character was found at 
UBngwyllog," Anglesea. 




Pit. SIS.— Dantiu. | 




Vig. 174.— Inlud. 1 



Another, without midrib, from the Heather; Bum Cave, is, b; the 
penaianon of Canon Greenwell, F.B.8., shown as Fie. 270. 

An example from Wiltshiref in the Stourhead Museum (now at 
Deriue) is more barbed at the base and rounded at the top, In which 
tlieie is neither notch nor perforation. 

It is difficult to assign a use for the small hole usuaU; to be seen in 



* ArtJi, /»HrM.,Tol. 3 



i. p. 74; Arch. Cami., Sid 8.,yoL x. 



; Arei., vol. iliii. 



KNIVES, RAZ0B8, STC. 



[CHAF. 



these liladeB. It ma; possiblr be by way of preoaotion Bgainat t 

figaure in the blade extending too far, though in most oasee the notcha^K 
the end of the blade does not extend to the hole. 

Bazora of this character have been discovered in Scotland. TIb^h 
which are believed to have been found together in a tumulus at Bo\^^^i 
faouBes, near Dunbar,* Haddington ehire, about 1825, are shown in P ^| 
271, 272, and 273. They are all in the Antiquarian Museum, < 
Edinburgh, together with a socketed celt found with them. 

Bazors of the olaes last described have been found In Ireland, ^aad 
throo are mentioned in Wilde's Cataloguef of the Museum of the Bo^a/ 




Irish Academy, to the Council of which body I am indebted for the use of 
Fig. 274. The midrib of the specimen horo shown is decorated with ring 
ornaments formed of incised concentric circlos, an ornament of frequent 
use in early times, though but rarely oecTirring on objects of bronze in 
Britain. There is a large razor of this kind in the Museum of Trinity 
Cullego, Uuhiin. Several unomamented blades of tliis charoctor were 
j)resent in tlio DonTia hoard. Two which wore found in a crannoge| in 
Uie county of Monaghan were regarded as bifid arrow-heads. One of 
those {2g inches) is in the British Museum. 

r. p. *4Cli "Catil.," ; 



t P. 6*9, Jig. 433. 






CONTmENTAL FORMS. 



221 



9 of thiB kind, but witli a loop instead of a tang, and a hole at 
of the blade as well as one near the bottom at the notch, fraa 
Deume,* Guelderland, and is in the Lejden Uuseum. 
dy remaining form of razor which has to be noticed is that of 
■epresentation ia given of the actual size in Fig. 276. 
strument waa found at Kinloith,! near Currie, Edinburgh, and 
described and commented on by Dr, John Alexander Smith. 
3, besides being perforated in an artistic manner and having a 
16 end of the handle, is of larger dimensions than usual with 
its of this kind. The metal of which it is composed consists of 
;-97 per cent, tin 7'03 (with a trace 

'ds the only instance of a razor of 
3 having been found in the British 
he form much more nearly ap- 
one of not uncommon occiurence on 
incnt than any other British ex- 
id Br. Smith has illustrated this by 
ipanying figure of a razor from the 
;, near Nidau.t on the Lake of 
rig. 276). I have a razor of nearly 
form from tho Seine at Paris, and 
ive been found in various parts of 

arest in charactert« Fig. 275 is per- 

found in the hoard of Notre- Dame 

d preserved in the museum at Poi- 

■Btcad of the blade being a single 

it consists of two penannular con- 

ades with a plain midrib connecting Fig. ne.— Nidna 

,ich has a ring at the external end. 

jnent with the blade formed of a single crescent was found at 

nan example is in the Museum of the Deutsche Gesellechaft, at 




e next chapter I shall treat of those hlades which appear to 
3ns rather than tools. 



ra'a •' Catal.," No. 209. 
Sk. AhI. Seal., vol. v. p. 84 ; vol. x. p, 
of this and the following cut. 
eller, 5ter Bericht, Taf. xvi. 
lanlre, " Age du Br.," IJre psrtie, p. 71 
laUtSocdt' Ant. dt COueil, 1844, pi. i: 



141. I am indebted to the Society 



CHAPTER X. 

DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. 

Among all unciyilised, if not indeed among all eirilised nations, 
arms of offence take a {rt higher rank than mere tools and 
implements ; and on the first introduction of the use of metal 
into any country, there is great antecedent probability that the 
primarj" service to which it was applied was for the manufac- 
ture of weapons. So far as there are means of judging, a 
small knife or knife-dagger appears to have been among the 
earliest objects to which bronze was applied in Britain. Possibly, 
like the Highland dirk, the early form may have served for both 
peaceful and warlike purposes ; but there are other and appa- 
rently later forms made for piercing rather than for cutting, and 
which are unmistakably weapons. The distinction which can be 
drawn between knives, such as some of those described in the 
last chapter, and the daggers to be described in this, is no doubt 
to a great extent arbitrary, tad mainly dependent upon size. In 
the same way the distinction between a large dagger and a small 
sword, such as some of those to be described in the next chapter, 
is one for which no hard and fast rule can be laid down. 

Nor in treating of daggers can any trustworthy chronological 
arrangement be adopted, though it is probable, as already observed, 
that the thin flat blades are earliest in date. The late Dr. Thumam, 
in the paper already frequently cited, has pointed out that of 
bronze blades without sockets there are two distinct types. These 
are the tanged, which he regards as perhaps the more modem, and 
those provided with rivet-holes in the base of the blade, which 
seem to be the most ancient. I purpose mainly to follow this 
classification ; and, inasmuch as the tanged blades are most closely 
connected with the smaller examples of the same character, 
described in the last chapter, I take them first in order, though 
possibly they are not the earliest in date. 



TAMO^U KNIVES OR DAGGERS. 



223 



But tm its size, the blade shown in Fig. 277 mig:ht have been regarded 
fts a knife for ordinaiy use. The original was found in a barrow at 
Bonndvay,* WUts, oovered with a layer of black powder, probably the 
remains of a wooden sheath and handle, the upper 
outline of which latter is marked upon the blade. 
It lay near the left hand of a contracted skeleton, 
with its point towards the feet. Between the 
bones of the left fore-arm was a bracer.f or anu- 
giuad, of chlorite slate, and part of the blade and 
the tang of some small instrument, perhaps a 
knife. Near tbo head was a barbed flint arrow- 
head. 

A smaller blade X {^i inches), of nearly the 
lune shape and character, was found in one of 
Ihe barrows near Winterelow, Wilts, aa well as 
me more tapering in form. 

Another, from Sutton Courtney, Berks (6^ 
inches by 1{ inches), is in the British Museum. 

Anotlwr (6i inches) was found by Mr. Fenton 
in a borrow at Here r>own,§ WUts. In this case 
iln there was a stone bracer near the left Bide 
of the contracted skeleton. Another, imperfect, 
ud narrower in the tang, was found at Bryn 
Ciig.i Camarron, with interments. The double- 
looped celt (Fig. 8S) was found at the same 
^aoe. 

Canon Greenwell, F.It.S., has what appears to 
be a tanged dagger (6 inches) from Sherbum 
Wold, Torkehire. 

A blade of this character (10 inches) was found 
hj H. Cazalis de Fondouce in me cave of 
Bonnias,^ near Fonvielle (Bouches du BJione], 
•Hociated with instruments of flint. 

Smaller tanged blades, of which it is hard to 
say whether they are knives or daggers, are not 
nnoommon in France. Two are engraved in the 
"Uatlriaux."** I have spedmens from Lyons, 
and also from Brittany. 

Another form, which appears to be a dagger 
laOier than a knife, has the tang nearly as wide 
•I the blade, and towards its oase there is a 
■ngje rivet-hole. A da^er of this kind was 
fotmd witli a contracted interment in a barrow 
■car Driffield, Yorkshire, and an engraving of it 

* Jrtk., voL xliii. p. ISO, flg. \f^^, from vhlch this cut ie copied; " Wilts. Arch. 
■*(-," toL iii. p. 186 ; " Cnn. Brit.," pi. 42, xixii. p. 3. 
t "Adc. Stone Imp.," p. 3BI, fig. 35S. 
t Artk., ToL xliii. pi. ira. 2, 3, p. i4S. 
1 Hnre'B "Anc Wiltt," vol. i. H, pi. ii. 

tAnk. Jaum., vol. zxr. p. 246. 
Quutfte, " Ago da Br.," Ire partie, p. 91 ; Cazalis de Fondouce, " All&js cout. de la 
HeranCT^" pi- iv. 1. 
*• VoL xiT. p. 461. 



Kb- in.—BotmdnT. 



234 DAGGEKS AXD THEIR HILTS. — BAPIER-QHAFBD BLADES. [CKAP. Z. 

is given in the Archaokyia,* from which Fip. 278 is reproduced. It bad 
a wooden shoath as well as the wooden handle, of which a part is ahon. 
On the arm of tho skeleton was a stone bracer. 

Another, rather narrower in the tang and aboat 4^ inches long, vw 
found, with a atone axe-hammer, and bones, in an um within a bairowit 
Winwick,f near Warrington, Lancashire. One (2^ inches) witli a ant- 
hole in its broad tanff was found in an um on lAncaater Uoor.{ 

A dagger of nearly the same form but havinj; two Tivet-holei wtt 
found by the late liov. IL Kirwan in a barrow at Upton I^ne,§ Deron. 

One, only 3} inches long, and much like Fig. 278 in form, was found i> 
an um wim burnt bonee in Hoot Low,|| near Middleton, Derbyshire. 

Another was found with burnt bones in a bamwit 
Lady Low,^ near Blore, Staffordshire. The tati <i 
the nandle in tiiis instance was straight, and not hol- 
lowed. One (5| inches), with a broad tang, tluoiid 
which passes a single rivet, was found in the Thames.** 
It is now in the British Museum. 

What Sir B. 0. Hoare terms a lance-head (3 indiet), 
found witli amber beads in the Golden BaiTO«,ft 
Upton Lovel, appears to have been a knife-dagger d 
this character. 

A knife, 1 inch wide, which had been fastened to ib 
haft of ox-hom by a single rivet, was found by Cania 
Qreenwell in a bairow at Rudstone, Yorkshiia^ 
With the same interment was an axe-hammer of steiu 
and a flint tool. A blade like Fig. 278 ^3 inches), 
from the sand-hills near Qlenluce,§§ Wigtousbire, 
has been figured. 

Dnpgers, or poesiWy spear-heads, with a broad tang, as well as the 
moulds in whicti thoy were cast, were discovered by ifr. Schliemaun on 
the presumed site of Troy.]||| 

The more ordinary form of instrument is that of which the bWe 
was secured to the handle by two or more rivets at its broad base. 
Tliose may be subdivided into knife-daggers with thin flat blades, 
and daggers whidi as a rule have a thick midrib and more or less 
ornamentation on the surfiicc of the blade. The former varietj 
is now generally accepted as being the more ancient of the two, 
and may probably have served as a cutting instrument for all 
purposes, and not have been intended for a weapon. 

Fig. 279, representing a knife-dagger from a barrow at Butterwick,^^ 
Yorkshire, E.lt., explored by Cauon GreenweU, will give a good idea oi 

• Vol. itixiv. pi. XX, 8, p. 2S.i. 

t Areh. Auoe. Journ., vol, xvi. p. 295, pi. xxt. 9. 

X Afrh. Auoe. JeiiTH., vol, xxi. p. 160. { Traii: Sewn. Ante., vol. iv. p. 61^ 

II "V«Bt. Ant. Derb.," p. 61: Arch. JaMt-n., vol. i. p. 247; Batcroan's "Calal./'p. '■ 

H "Ti-nYunra' Digit.," P- 163; " CuUl.," p. 19. 

" Pfof. Snc. Aiit., 2nd S,, vol. iii. p. 15, tt ■' Anc Wills," vol. i. p. 99, pi. li. 

iJ ■■ llrilUh IdirrowK," p. 265. j} ''Ait and Wigton Coll.," toI. U. p, H- 

llil " Troy iiDd its Rcmaina,"' p. 330. HH " britieh BairowB," p. 186. 




KMPE-DACGERS WITH THREE KIVETS. 



225 



il form, thongli theso inBtrumenfa are not unfrequently mora 
>ointed. Thia specimen was found with the body of a j-oimg 
i had been encased in a wooden ebeath. The haft had been of 

which has jieriahed, though leaving marks of its testure on the 
blade. lu f no same grave were a flat bronze celt (Fig. 2), a bronze 
)r awl (Fig. 225), a flint knife, and some jet buttons. Another 

the same character, but rather narrower in its proportions, was 
1 a barrow at Eudstono,* Yorkshire. The handle had in this 

also been of os-liom. In the same grave were a whetstone, a 
, an ornamental button of iot, and a half-nodule of pyrites and 
IT striking n light. Of the winpe of the handles I shall Bubse- 
speak ; I will only here remark that at their upper part, where 
sped the blade, there was usually 
ircidar or horseshoe- shaped notch, 

instances very wide and in others 
row. This notch is ntora rarely 
it V-shaped in form. 
le of nearly the Rame form as Fig. 

with only two rivet holes, found 
rrow at lJlewbur\-,t Berks, is pre- 
i tlie Ashmoleun Sluscum at Oxford, 
also with two rivets, was found 
ite Mr. Batemnn in a barrow near 

LoWjI Derbjahire. Its handle ap- 

havo been of horn. Its owner, 

in a skin, had been buried enve- 

fem-loavea, and with him was also 
■onzo celt, a flat bead of jet, and 
scraper. Dr. Thumnm mentions 

§ otJier blades, varying from 2i 

6 J inches in length, us having been 
iriiig the liatemau e.tcavations, as " 

<no TJ inches long and sharply pointed, foimd at Lett Low,|| near 
■, Stafi'ordaliire. Of these twenty, sixteen were found with 

bodies and four with burnt. Some of tliese were, however, 
inged variety, nnd some fluted or ribbed. At Carder Low a 
:e-hammer of bo.'ialt, as well as a knife-dagger of this kind, 
I edges worn hollow by use, had been placed with the body. 
lO was the case in a barrow at Parcelly llaj', near llEirtington, 
ire. 

d Iiow, near Ilartington, there was a rudely formed "spear- 
f flint beside the knife-dagger, and at Thomctiff,^ on Calton 
offordshire. " a neat Instrument of flint." 

ue cases, though there were holes in the blade, there were no 
in them, which led Mr. Bateman to think that they were attached 

ish BaITOw^■' p. 261, 6g. 125 ; " Anr. Stono Imp.," p. 284. 

Joiirn., vol. V. p. 282; ^reh. Auoe. Joiirn., vol. »vi. p. 249. 

Aute. JoHrn., vul. vii. p. 217; Batcnian's " Catal.," p. 15; "Ton Yoars" 
34. 
- Ant. DptIj.," pp. 61, 63, 66, OR, 90, 9G: " Ten Yews' Dig.," pp. 21,21,34, 

113, U5, 119, UH, 160, 163; "Craii. Brit," pi, 13, xiii. 2. 
Team' Dig.," p. 215 ; Areh. Aiioe. Jevrn.. vol. iviii. p. 42. 
Ychth" Dig.," p. 119. •• ()p. ri(., pp. 67, 113. 

Q 




226 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS.— RAPIEK-SHAPED BLADES. [CHAP. X. 

to their handles by ligatures. In a barrow in Yorkshire,* Mr. Bxt" 
land found, with remains of a burnt body, a small bronze knife irhkiL 
still had adhering to it some portions of cord partly charred, apparently 
the remains of what had formed the attachment to the handle. PinB oi 
wood, bone, or horn were no doubt frequently used instead of metal riveti. 
Such pins seem to have been commonly employed for securing speiff- 
heads to their shafts. ^* An instrument of brass,f formed like a 8pea^ 
head, but flat and thin," was found in a barrow on Bincombe Down, 
Dorsetshire. ''It had been fixed to a shaft by means of three wooden 
pep;s, one of which remained in the perforation when f ouind, but on 
bemg exposed to the air feU immediately into dust." In certain dagger 
blades with four or more rivet-holes some are devoid of rivets, while 
there are metal rivets in the others. 

A remarkably small blade, only 1 J inches long, with two rivet-holes, 
was foimd in a timiidus in Dorsetshire.} Another (4^ inches) lay Trith 
burnt bones, in what was regarded as a deft and hollowed trunk of a tree, 
in a barrow near Yatesbury,§ Wilts. Another, more triangular in shape, ' 
and also with two rivet-holes, was found in a barrow near Stonehenge.i 

Another (2 J- inches) of the same character was foimd with burnt bones, 
a needle of wood, and a broken flint pebble, in an urn at Tomen-y-Mur,f 
near Festiniog, Merionethshire. 

Of knife-daggers with three rivet-holes found in our southern counties, 
may be mentioned one (Sj- inches) foimd with a drinking cup and a 
perforated stone axe, accompanying an imbumt interment, in a barrow at 
East Kennett,** Wilts. Another (4^^ inches), also accompanied by a stone 
axe-hammer, was found in a barrow called Jack's Castle, ff near Stourton. 
The body had in this instance been burnt. Another knife-dagger, alfio 
with burnt bones, in a barrow at Wilsford, J{ was accomx)anied by two flint 
arrow-heads, some whetstones, and some instruments of stag*s-hom- 
Another, protected by a wooden scabbard, was found in a barrow at 
Brigmilston.§§ 

What appear to have been blades of the same kind were foimd witli 
burnt bones in the barrows nearPriddy,|||| Somerset, and Ashey Down,^^ 
Isle of Wight (6 inches). The latter is tapering in form. One (7f inchest 
which shows no rivets was found at Culter,*** Lanarkshire. 

An unfinished blade without rivet-holes was also found, with castingT^ 
of palstaves and flanged celts, at Ehosnesney,ttt ii^ar Wrexham. 

From Derbyshire may be cited that from Carder Low, JJJ already de^ 
scribed, and one from Brier Low.gp Another from Lett Low, || || || Stafford- 
shire, has already been mentionea, as have been others described by Bate- 
man.'^ll^ One from a barrow at Middloton ♦*** was regarded by Peg 
as a spear-head. 



«* Arch. iHsU Salisb. vol. p. 110; ^ir^^'/r''''^jf Y'""' ^^' v'- 
ft Houre's - Anc Wilte," vol. i. p. 39, pi. i. ; .ir.A^ro/^, ^'ol xlni. p. 4.52. 
^^ '^Anc. WUts," vol. i. p. 209. ^^ '* Anc. ^\ ills, vol. i. p 185. 

*T /r^T Touni vol. xvi. p. 148, 151. ^1^ -Irch. Assoc. Jovrn., vol. x. ^,. . 

t:':^;,f"A::Z:trn., IV x™, p. 21 ^^-^-^f' '•th S vol v? „. 
^ + + .lr<-/i<r»/.. vol. xliii. pi. xxxrn. hg. 4. {^} Ibid. %. 3. ||l,l| Ibid., fi^ 

flfV" Ten W Dig.," pp. 21, 115, 119. "" Archil, vol. i.x. p. 94. pi. iii. 



METHOD OF HAFTING DAQQERfl. 



227 



orkshire Mr. Batemaa describes one (4^ inches) with a crescent- 
irk sbnwing iixe form of the handle, found with an extended 
: Cawthom* Another (6 or 7 inches), from a barrow near 
t had a V-shaped notch in the handle, to which had been 
small bone pommel. One from Bishop Wilton4 belonging to 
ner, has been engraved by Dr. Thumam. 

mtion of this pommel suggests that it is time to consider 
ler in which these blades were hafted, as to which the 
R of Sir Richard Colt Hoare in the 

barrows, and of Canon Greenwell 
if Yorkshire, leave no doubt. The 
sar in nearly all cases to hnve con- 
ox-horn, bone, or wood, sometimes 
le piece with a notch for receiving 
, and sometimes formed of a pair 
■ pieces riveted together, one on 

of the blade. The lower end of 
was often inserted in a hollow 
sually of bone. 

ture of tlie arrangement of the haft 
nod of two pieces will be readily 
d on reference to Fig. 280, in 

presumed outline of the original 
laft is shown by dotted lines, and 

by which the two plates of horn 
nd together are in the position 
nally occupied along the centre of 
The outline of the upper part of 
le, where it was secured by two 
the blade, is still visible, and is 

darker shading. The pommel at Fig. m-Heip«ih«p.. * 

end was attached by pins of horn 
»d, and not by metal rivets. A separate view and 
the pommel is shown in 
The original was found by ~" 

eenwell, F.R.S., with a con- 
iterment in a barrow at 
rpe,§ Yorkshire, at the open- 
ich I was present. As will 




Fig, l&t.—B.dperOioTpe. t 

I he seen, the blade has all 



are' Dig.," p. 206, 



t Op. cit., p. 226, 
This Bpecim^n has s 
the British Museum, 
Q2 



228 DAGGERS AND THEtB HII.TS. — RAP1EB-8HAPED BLADES. [cHAP 

the appearance of haviDg been much worn by use and repei 
whetting. 

Bone pommels of the same kmd have been frequently met wit! 
boiTOwi, but their purpose was not known to some of uie earlier exploi 
One from a barrow on Braesington Moor* is described by Ur. Batei 
as a bone stud perforated with sis holes, and was thoug^ht to have I 
intended for being sown on to some article of dress or ornament. Ano 
was found in a barrow at Narrow-dale Hill,t nearAlstonefield, and is 
described as a bone button. In both these instances the dagger il 
seems to have entirely perished. 

In a barrow subsequently opened by 'iSi. Ruddock near Pickering,} 
butt end of a dagger handle was recognised in one of these objects- 
this instance the pommel waa made of three pieces of bone fastc 
together by two bronze rivets, and having two holes for the peg8 
wuch it was secured to the handle. 





Fis. iSl.— Outon. 



Two others in sohd bono from barrows at Garton § and Bishop Wil 
Yorkshire, have been figured by Dr. Thumam. The former is here 
permission reproduced. That from the well-known Gristhorpe tumul 
near Scarborough, iu which the body lay in the hollowed trunk of 
oak-tree, is more neatly made, being of oval outline with a projoci 
bead round the base. It has holes for three pins. 

Another pommel of an ornamental character was found with bi 
bones in an um at Wilmslow, Cheshire, and is engraved in the Jon. 
of the Britith ATchmologital Astoeiaiion,\ from which Fig. 283 is 1 
reproduced. The receptacle ia so small that the haft to which it 
attached probably consiBted of but a single piece of ox-horn or wi 
It appears as if the mortise had been made by driUing three holes i 
by side. 

A very remarkable and beautiful hilt of a sword or dagger, formed 
amber of a riii red colour and inlaid with pins of gold, was found i 
barrow on Hammeldon Down,** Devonshire. By the kindness of 
Committee of the Plymoutli Athenieum I am enabled to give two vi' 

• "Catol.," p. 1 ; "Vest. Ant. Dorb.," p. 39. 

t ■■Catal.,- p. 12; "Vest. Ant. Dcrb.," p. 98. 

J "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 226. { Arch., vol. lUii. p. 41 

\ "Cran. Brit.," 62,4; '' Bcliqunty," vol. \-\. p. 4. 

H Vol. ivi. pi. 26, fig. 6, p. 288. 

■• Tram. Devon. Alloc, tol. *. p. 655, pi. it. 



AMBER HILT INt.AID WITH GOLD. 



attd a section of this unique object is Fig. 284. IssteBd of a socket or 
mortise, there is in this instance a tenon, gr projection, which entered into 
a toortiBe or hole in the handle. On each aide of this tenon is a amall 
moitiBe of the same lengiih, and through the tenon have been drilled two 
anitdl holes, one from each side, for pins tu attach the ponunel to the 
hudle. A small part of the pommel which was broken oa in old times 
seems to have been united to tiie main bodj by a series of minute gold 
mete or clips, but this piece has again been severed, though the pins 
toimd the margin of the fracture remain. This pommel seems dispropor- 
tioiiat«lj large for the slightly fluted blade, of which a fragment was found 
in the same bnrrinv. 




AgmaU object of amber, apparently the pommel of a diminutive dagger, 
*w found in a barrow at Winterboum Stoke,* Wilts. A small knife or 
■"•per, mounted in a handle formed of two pieces of amber, secured by 
t*o rivets and bound with four strips of gold, is also preserved at Stour- 
Wdf The blade is at the side like that of a hatchet. 

Amber was used fur inlaying some of the ivory hilts of iron swords at 
Hallstatt. 

The bronze object shown fuU size in Fig. 285 may not improbably be 
the pommel of the hilt of a dagger or sword. The hole through the base 
is irregular in form, and may be accidental. It was found in the hoard 
^t Beach Fen, Cambridge, in which were also the tip of a scabbard and 
wine fragments of swords, as well as two large double-edged knives. 



230 DAUQBRS AMD THBIE HILTS. — RAPIBR-SHAPBD BLADES. [CHAP 

A somewliat Bunil&r object is in the Mus4e de I'Oratoiie, at Nan 
Another, found at Qrfisine,* Savoy, haa been r^^arded as the tip ft 
scabbard. Another was found in the department of La Uanche.t 

What appeaTB to be the hilt of either a sword or dagger was fount 
a hoard of bronro objects at AUhallowB.J Hoo, Kent, By the kindnee 
Mr. Humphrey Wickham I am able to engrave it as Fig. 286. It i 
eisted onginaily of a rectangular socketed ferrule with a rivet-1 
througli it, and attached to a semictrculax end like the half of a groc 
pulley. The socket itself extends for soma distance into this sc 
circular part. From portions of a sword having been found wit! 
Mr. Wickham has regarded it as a kind of pommel. It may, howe 




Fen. i 

have been the end of a scabbard or a chape, and, if so, should have 1: 
described in Chapter XIQ. The knife. Fig. 261, was found in the s 

To return, however, to undoubted examples. The most remi 
able of all dagger handles discovered in the British Isles are ii 
obtained by Sir R. Colt Hoare from the barrows of Wiltshire. 

One of these, from a barrow at BrigmilBton,§ is here reproduce* 
Fig. 287, taken from the engraving in "Ancient Wiltshire. It is t 
described by the late Dr. l^umam: "It is of the tiiin broad-bla 
variety. The handle is of wood, held together by thirty rivets of broi 
and strengthened at the end by an oblong bone pommel fastened ^ 
two pegs. It is decorated by dots incised in the surface of the wi 
forming a border of double lines and circles between the heads of 
rivets." He goes on to say that a similar dagger of the broad van 
having exactly the same number of rivets, was found in one of the Dei 
shire || barrows. Two buttons of polished shale accompaaied this in 
inent. Another, from Gartoa,l| Torkahiro, in the collection of 
Mortimer, has thirty-seven rivets and two strijia of bronze at the a: 
of Uie handle, in addition to the four rivets for Bectiriiig the Made. ' 
bone pomuiel is shown in Fig. 28'2. 

■ " Exp. Arch, do k Sav.," 1878, pi. lii. 3.i7. 

t ■' Mem. Sw. Ant. Noim," 1827—8, pi. lii. 4, 5. 

1 Arci. Canl., vol. xi. p. 126, pi. c, 18. 

i " Anok'nt 'Wiits," vol. i. p. 186, pi. xiiii. : Jrch., W. xliii. p. 458, pi. xxxlv. : 

I Bottiiniui, " Vest. Ant. Durb.," p. 68. H Arek., vol. xiiii, p. 462, pi. uiiv. 



HILTS WITH NUMEROUS 1 



'iSi 



Another dagger, of somewhat the same character, -was found at 
Leiceeter, and is preserved in the museum of that town. For the sketch 
from which Fig. 288 is engraved I am indebted to Ur. C. Kead. In 
this instauce the pommel consists of two pieces of bone riveted on either 
aide of a bronze plate, which, however, does not appear to have been 
contiiiuouB with the blade. From the length of the rivets remaining 





Fi|. 987. - BrigmilatOD. 



in the blade, the handle appears to have beea somewhat thicker in the 
middle than at the sides. 

In the British Mu-seum is a dagger from a barrow nt Standlow, Derby- 
shire, with a bono pommel of nearly the same character as that from 
Leit-eater. 

Perhaps the most highly ormimented dagger handle ever discovered is. 



332 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. — R API EH -SHAPED BLADES. [cUAF. 

Ihat whiuh vas found b; Sir B. Colt Hoore in the Bush Barrow,* m 
Nonaanton, the lower part of which, copied from the engraTinK 
" Ancient Wiltehiro," is shown in Fi^. 289. A drawing of the woi 
dagger with its handle restored has been published by Dr. Thurnan 
The blade ia 10^ inches long and slightly fluted at the sides, so that it 
not, strictly speaking, a. knife-dagger such as those hitherto described. 
apj>earB, however, bi>st to call attention to it in this place. It lay with 
skeleton placed nortlk and south, with which were some rivets and t) 
plates of bronze, supposed to be traces of a shield. At the shoulders wa 
flanged bronze celt, like Fig. 9. Near tlie right arm was the dagger a 
" a spear-hrad " of bwn^.e. These were accompanied by a nearly squi 
]iliile of (bin gold, willi a projecting flat tongue or hook, which « 




tiiniit'iniimHiWiimiiiinii 



thought to have decorated the sheath of the dagger. Over the breast 
another lozenge-shaped plate of gold, 7 inches by 6 inches, the ed 
lapped over a piece of wood. On the right side of the skeleton wa 
stone hammrr,! some articles of bone, many small rings of the st 
material, and another gold lozonge much smaLLor than tliat on the bre 
As to the handle, 1 may repeat Sir Eichard's words : "It exceeds a 
thing we have yet seen, both in design and ese«!iition, and could not 
Burpussed (if, indeed, equalled) by tho most able workman of mod 
times. By the annexed engraving j-ou will iumiediately recognise 
British zig-zag or the modern Vandyke pattern, whicli was fm-nied. wit 
labour and exactness almost unaccoimtnble, by thousands of gold ri" 
smaller than tlio smallest pin. The head of the handle, thougli exhibit 

t -J-r^,. to!, xliii.pl, xisv. 



i AND IVORY HILTS. 



I BO rarietr of pattera, was also formed by 
the Mine Kind of studding. So very minute, 

[ indeed, were these pins, that our labourers 
had thrown out thousands of them with their 
■hoT«l8 and scattered them in every direetion 
before, by the neceReary aid of a magnifying 
slug, we could discover what they were, but 
fantanately enough remained attached to the 
wood to enable us to develop the pattern." 
Some of the pins are shonu in the ligiire 
below the hilt. 

As I>T. Thumam has pointed out, the 
ornamentation un a thin piece of metui (said 
to have been gilt), which apparently de- 
corated the hilt of a bronze dagger, foiind in 
I barrow in Dorsetshire,* is of the same 
thiincfur, though produced in a different 
miUDor. This da^^ is said by Douglas to 
We been " indsteil" into wood. It is nncer- 
tata whether this refers to the hilt or to the 
■Wath ; but in several instances remains of 
thesths have been found upon the bladea of 
daggers, some of which have been already 
•ddaced, and others will hereafter be men- 
timed. Sir B. Colt Hoare, in a barrow near 
Amesbniy,! found an interment of burnt 
bones, and with it a bronze dagger which had 
been "aeoored by a sheath of wood lined 
nth Ijneii cldth." A smalllaiice-head, a pair 
of iraty nippers, and an ivory pin accom- 
[oiiied the mtermeut. In one instance the 
voodof the sheath was "ftpparentlywiIlow."J 
I am unable to guarantee the accuracy 
of the representation of a large dagger 
vitli its handle given in Fig. 290, the ori- 
^nal having unfortunately been destroyed 
in a fire, I have, however, copied it from Dr. 
TliDniam's§ engraving, wluch was taken 
from a drawing by the late Mr. 8. Solly, 
I'.S.A.II It was found in 1845, in a barrow 
<a Soke Down, near Slaudford, Dorsetshire, 
•odisthusdescribedbyMr.Shipp: t "The 
(^■de is exquisitely finished, and the handle, 
vhich is ivoiy, as perfect and as highly 
pdished as any of more recent date. It was 
famd with two small bronze spear-heads at 
the bottom of a cist cut in the chalk, and 

• Donglaa, "Kenin," p. 163, pi. uiiii. fig. 3, 

t "Aac. Wilts," ToL 1. p. 207. 

1 Of. eil., p. 194. 

i Arth., vol. iliiL pi. zxiiv. 1, 

I Pnc. Soe. AhI., Irt a, vol. i. p. 76. 

' Areh. Anat. Jotirn., toL ii p. 96; vol. iv. p. 228. 




234 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. [cHAP. X. 

covered with burnt bones and ashes; and oyer it was an inverted uin 
of the coarsest make, iinbumt and unomamented." In Mr. Shipp's 
drawing the handle expands gradually to the base like the mouth of a 
trumpet. In a subsequent communication * Mr. 8hipp describes the two 
spear-heads as of iron. 

Mr. Solly f says that with it was a second small blade, also of bronze, 
which may have been a knife, and makes no mention of iron spear-heads. 
He also says that it lay beneath a stone more than a ton in weight 
Mr. C. Wame, F.S.A., has informed me that the spear-heads — ^if, indeed, 
such they were — were of bronze and not of iron. He has engraved the 
dagger in his Plate X.,^ not from the original, but from the figure in the 
Journal of the ArcJuBohgical Association. 

Hilts made of bronze, though of frequent occurrence in Scandinavia, 
the South of France, and Italy, are rarely discovered in England or Soot- 
land. That said to have been found at Bere Hill, near Andover, cast in 
one piece with the blade and with a raised rim round the margin, and 
studs like rivet-heads in the middle, has been kindly submitted to me by 
Mr. Samuel Shaw, its owner, and I believe it to be of Eastern and pro- 
bably Chinese origin. Near Little Wenlock,§ however, a portion of a 
dagger was found with part of the handle, in form like that of the swoid 
from Lincoln (Fig. 350), attached by four rivets. With it were a socketed 
celt, some spear-heads, and whetstones. 

A beautiful Egyptian || bronze dagffer from Thebes is in the Berlin 
Ikluseum. It has a narrow rapier-likeblade and a broad flat hilt of ivory. 

Others of nearly the scune character are in the British Museum. The 
end of the hilt is often hollowed, like that of Fig. 277, and the attach- 
ment to the blade is by means of three rivets. 

In Ireland a few daggers have been found with bronze hilts 
still attached. 

In the Museum of the Koyal Irish Academy is a fine example, which has 
frequently been published, and which I have here reproducei as Fig. 291, 
from the engraving given by Wilde, ^ but on the scale of one-half. BoA 
blade and handle are ** highly ornamented, both in casting and also by 
the punch or graver." 

A portion of a blade with a bronze hilt still attached was found near 
Belleek, Co. Fermanagh, and has been engraved in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Historical and Arch(Bological Associatmi of Ireland** The cut is by 
their kindness hero reproduced as Fig. 292. The handle is hollow, and 
the blade appears to have been originally attached by four pins or rivets, 
of which but two now remain. Possibly the other two were of horn. 

Another Irish form of hafted dagger has also been frequently pub- 
lished.f t It is shown in Fig. 293. VaUancey describes this specimen as 

• Arch. Assoc. Joum.y vol. ii. p. 100. f Arch., vol. xliii. p. 459. 

+ " Celtic Tumuli of Dorset," pi. ii. p. 17. 

] Hartshorao's " Salop. Ant.," p. 96, No. 7. 

II Bastian und A. Voss, "Dio Bronze schwerter dcs K. Mus.," Taf. xvi. 31 ; Wilkin- 
son's *• Ancient Egyptians," vol. i. p. 320. Another dagger with a hilt is figured at 
p. 23. 

H ** Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 458, fig. 334 ; *• HoraB Ferales," pi. vii. 14. 

♦• Proc, 4th S., vol. ii. p. 196. 

ft VaUancey, "Coll.," vol. iv. p. 61, pi. xi. 4 ; Gough's ** Camden," vol. iv. pl.x\*iii. 
4; Wilde, "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 467, tig. 354; '* Iloraj Fer.," pi. vii. 13. 



in (me piece, the riveta being either ornamental or intended to stop 
inrt the top of the scabbard. No doabt theae imitation rivets are 




Ig. fil.— Inland. Fig-. 0! -Belleek. i Fig. M3.-lre[iad. i 

" survivals " from those of the daggers, which were thus fastened 
)ir handles before it was found that it saved trouble to cast the whole 
e pit'ce. The hole in the. handle, the sides of which are left rough. 



236 DAtiUEKS ANU THEIR H1LT9. — RAPIER-8HAPBD BLADES. [cHiP. S 

waa probably filled by two slightly overiapping plates of wood or hot 
riveted together. > 

Another* (14^ inches) was thought to have the "loop-fashioned" 
handle fur suKjiending the weapon to a thosg or the belt. I think, 
huwevrr, that when ttie daggers were in use the handles were to all 
appearance solid. In oae found in Dimshaiigb- 
lin t crannoge, Co. Meath, there is a secbnd oral 
hole at the end of the hilt, whitJi may hare 
bfen used for auspension. 

There ia a good example of this type of dagger 
in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. 

A small dagger (7i inches), found near Balli- 
nnmore,} Co. Leitrim, has an extension of th« 
blade in the form of a thin plate with a button 
at the bottom ao as to form the body of the 
handle. In this part are two rivet holes for iht 
attachment of the plates of wood or horn to 
form the handle. 

Some handles of bronze knivea found in Scan- 
dinavia and Switzerland § ore formed vith aimilBr 
openings. Daggers with the blade and bandit 
cast in one piece have been found in the Italian 
tMvamare.W Ihaveadagger of thesamekiiidfroni 
Hungary. 

I must now return, from this digressitu) 
OS to the hafting of dag^rs, to the thin 
blades or knife-dag^rs of which I was 

speaking. 

Of those with four rivets but few can he cited. 
One of unusually large size is shown in Fig. 294. 
Tlie original was fomid by Sir E. C- Hoare in a 
barrow at Woodyates.^l It waa protected by a 
wooden scabbard. A perforatod ring and two 
buttons of jet, four barbed flint arrow-neoda. and 
a bronze pin were found with the same skeleton. 
This blade, like many others, is described as 
having been gilt, but thia mm hardly have been 
the case. Dr. Thumnni** has tested such bril- 

nB.SM.-W«)dyHt«. * ^i^„jjy poiiHiied surfacea for gold, but found no 
traces of that metal. 

A blade of this form is engraved in the " Biin-ow Diggers," ff l>it'* 
deficrlbed as a etone celt split in two. 

• ^rch. Jaiiru., vol. i. p. 181. 
t ■WiI<Ie,"C:itnl. Mus, R. I, A.." p. 466, fig. 3.53. 
t Wildc, "t^tiil. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 463, fig. 346. 

i "Cong. pr£h.," Stockholm vol., 1874, p- 621; KcUer'a '• Lnko- dwell.," Eng. fti-, 
pi. ili. u. 

I Strobol, "ATana Pwromnni," 1863, Tav. ii. 35: QaBtaldi, -'NuoTi Cenni," IMi. 
Tav. ii. 7. 

"^Vilt^■' vol. i. n. 239, ol, ixiiv. 

tt R 74, pi- ii. fig. 3. 




KXIPE-DAGGERS WITH FIVE OR SIX 1 



A nearly similar blade from Oofeli* (Lac de Bienne) is 



[ to be of 



.pper. 



1 Fig. 295 is shown a blade with five rivets, from an interment at 
Homington.t near Salisbury, which is now in the British Museum, 
side is still highly polished, with on ahnoet 
of the hilt is very distinct upon it. 

One of more pointed form, and with a 
hilt, was found with an unbumt body ii 



r-like lustre. The mark 



[lore V-shaped notch in the 
a cairn at North Charlton, 





Vig. iWi.— Sociiligli 



•II II' 



Fig. 300.— Idmiator 



Northumberland, and is in the Greenwell Collection in the British Museum. 
The portion is broken oS in which were the rivets. 

Occasionally the surface of these thin blades is ornamented by en^aved 
or punched patterns. The decoration usually consists of converging bands 
of paraUel lines. The example given as Fig. 296 was found in a barrow 
at IdmistoD, near Salisbuiy, and is now preserved in the Blackmore 
Masemn. ii one found in Dow Low,I Derbyshire, shown in Fig. 297, 
there are three parallel lines on either side which meet in chevron. This 
blade has two rivets. 

In a barrow near Maiden Caatle,§ Dorchester, opened by Mr. Syden- 
ham, there lay in the midst of ^e ashes two bronze daggers. One 

• OroH, " Dmut Stations," pi. iv. 3. 

t JVoe. Sue. AhI., vol. iv. p. 32S ; " Hons Peralcs," p. \S9, pi. vii. 21 ; ^rch., vol. 



238 DAGGERS AND THEIR HTLT& — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. [cHAP. 

(4 inches) has two lines ongraTod on it, forming a ohevion parallel wit 
the edges; the other (5^ inches) is described as ''curiouslj wrougii 
chased, and gilt." This latter, to judge from Mr. Wame's engravin| 
has a slight projecting rib along the middle of the blade, between tw 
others converging to meet it near the point. The space on each side o 
the central rib appears to be decorated by small circular indentations. 

One from another barrow in Dorsetshire * has a treble chevron on th( 
blade and a straight transverse groove between two ridges just above th( 
hilt: 

A small blade found in an urn at Wilmslow,f Cheshire, seems to hav< 
a single chevron upon it. 

A dagger from a tumulus at Howolinghen (Pas de Calais), and now ii 
the museimi at Boulogne, is of this character. It has double lines to tb. 
chevron and four rivet-holes. 

Another was found with an interment at Hame } (Hautes Alpes) L 
company with other artidles of bronze. It has six rivet-holes. A narrowe 
blade and more of the rapier shape, with four rivet-holes, was found i 
the Marais de Donges § (Loire Inferieure). 

A dagger much like Fig. 296, but with a double row of rivets, ha 
been found at Mcerigen, || in the Lac de Bienne. 

A dagger with a pointed blade having two parallel grooves just with£ 
each edge was found with other dagger blades, flat celts, flint arrows 
heads, &c., in the tumulus of Kerhue-Bras, Finist^re.^ It has a plai 
wooden handle, to which the blade is attached by six rivets. The characte 
of some of the other blades is peculiar. 

A beautifully patinated dagger (7 J inches) from the Seine at Pane 
now in my own collection, has six rivet-holes at the base, as in Fig. 296 
and is of nearly the same shape, though rather more sharply pointed 
One of the rivets which remains is i inch long. The blade has upon it i 
small low rib on either side running paraUel with the edge. On th 
inner side of the rib there is a groove, on the outer side the blade is flat 
The edge itself is fluted. 

I have a small thin blade (4| inches), like Fig. 298, found in th 
Palatinate, which has four rivet-holes at the base. There is a band c 
five parallel lines running along each edge, and in the centre of the blad 
a chevron with the sides slightly curved inwards formed of two simila 
bands. The lines seem to have been punched in. The mark left by th 
hilt is like that on Fig. 296. 

What appear to be knife-daggers, some of them with notche 
at the side for the reception of rivets, have been found with intei 
ments in Spain, and have been described by Don Gongora ; 
Martinez** as lance-heads. 

Knife-daggers of much the same character as the Englisli ha\ 
occasionally been found in Scotland. 

• Arch. Joum.y vol. v. p. 322. 

t Areh. Assoc. Jourv., vol. xvi. p. 288, pi. 25, fig. 6. 

X " Mat^riaux," vol. xiii. p. 155. 

§ Rev, Arch.^ vol. xxxiii. p. 231. 

II Gross, " Deux Stations," pi. iv. 4. 

f "Mat^riaux," vol. xv. p. 289. 

•♦ "Ant. Preh. de Andalusia," pp. 97, 106. 



n 



KNIFE-DAGGERS FIU>M SCOTLAND. 



That ekawn in Fig. 298 was found in a Btoae ciat in a cairn at Cleigh," 
^>dL Nell, Ai^lesMre. Along the margin of the original handle is u 
Gne at small indentations made with a pointed punch. 

Auodier (4^ inoheB) was found in a cairn at Linlathen,! Forfareliire, 
loRether wiUi a " diiikking cup." Particulars of die finding of several 
■Ana, with interments in sepulchral cairns, have been g^ren l>y 





Tig. BI.—Dow Low. 



Fiff. aiS.— CldBb. 1 



*». Joseph Anderson t in an interesting iiaper, to wliich the reader is 
Maiwd. 

Ilireo others, from Dnmilanrick.S near Callander, Perth (4} inches, 
'^ rivets), Croesmicbael, Kirkcudoright- 
^ian, and Callachallj, Island of Mull, are 
>& the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 
'Another, apparently of the samo typo, was 
Wid in a cairn at Colle3sie,|| Fife, tbu 
Wdle of wluch appears to have been en- 
isled hy the gold fillet shown in Fig. 290. 
^e alieath seems to have been of wood covered with cow-hide, the hairs 
on the outride. 

In Ireland the thin iint blades are of rare occurrence. Canon 
Greenwell, F.R.S., has one from Co. Antrim (4j inches) with 
three rivet-holes, and witli a V-shaped notch in the mark of the 
bwdle. 

There is a bim of blade which appears to bo intermediate bettreen tho 
iat knife^daggers and those to which the name of dagger may more 



• ftw. Soc. Ant. Snt., vol. x. pp. 8i 
tv tlu OM of thU and the follonring 
t Pne. Ste. Ant. «nrf., vol. lii. p. 419. 
( P. S. A. 8., TOL »u. p. *56. 



4 J9. I am inilctited to the Council of the Society 



240 UAGGEKS ANB THEIB HILTS. — KAPIBR-SHAPKD BLADES. [CHAP. X. 

X>roxKtrl7 be applied, irhich aro either conBiderably thiokOT at tia centn 
than towards the edges, or else have a certain number of strengtheBiiig 
ribs miming along the blade. This interniediate form has a nngb 
narrow rounded rib miming along the centre of the blade. That slunrn 
in Fig. 300 is an example of the short and broad TBiietr of this kind. 
It was foiind in a barrow at Musdin,* Staffordshire, and luu a splendid 




} Fig. 30j.— Wintetboiimii Btoke. ) 



pntina, rivalling malachite in colour. The relation of the dagger to any 
intomieut is uncertain. 

A dagger of this class, but more jwiuted and with two parallel lines 
ougmvod on each side of the niidnb, was found by Canon Greenwell, 
F.li.S., in one of the barrows eaUed the Three Tremblers,! Yorkshire. It 
showed trat-es of both its handle and shoatli. With it wa| a beautifully 
flaked large flint knife. 

A more ^Jointed blade, with the central rib much less pronounced, and 



• Batcman's '-Ton Yenis' Diggings 
Hp. 182, from which my cut IB copied, 
t " British BatTOws," p. 3Se ; Areh. Journ. 



U8; 



Dgravoil in Areh., vol, xliii. p.Wl, 
txii. p. 213. 



DAGGERS WITH ORNAMENTED BLADES. 241 

the notch in the hilt more distinct, was found with a skeleton in a cist 
Mt Cheewick,* Northumberland, and is now in the Ghreenwell Collection 
in the British Museimi. It has been carefully polished. 

Another, with a small, well-defined central midrib and two rivets, was 
fonnd by Canon Greenwell in a barrow at Aldboum, Wilts. It accom- 
panied a burnt body. 

Some of the Italian dagger blades are provided with similar midribs. 

Of the English weapons just described some closely resemble in 
character the much larger blades of whicli I shall subsequently have to 
Bpeak, and which not improbably were those of some form of halberd or 
battle-axe. 

A much longer and narrower form, in which the central rib is partly 
the result of two long lateral grooves along the sides of the blade, is shown 
in Fig. 301. This was found with two otliers at Plymstock,! Devon, in 
cwnpany with flanged celts, a chisel, and a tanged spear-head or dagger. 
Fig. 327, and is now in the British Museum. 

1 have a much smaller blade, of somewhat the same character (4^. 
inches), but imperfect at the base, found in a barrow near Cirencester ; 
and one smaller still (4^ inches), from a small barrow near Ablington, 
Cirenoerter, Gloucestershire. This latter appears to have had two rivet- 
holes. 

A beautiful example of the form of dagger of which Sir Eichard C. 
Hoare found numerous examples in the Wiltshire barrows is shown in 
K^. 302. It lay with burnt bones in a wooden cist in a barrow near 
Vinterboom Stoke. ^ With it was another, which was, however, broken, 
•n ivory pin and tweezers, and two small pieces of ivory with bronze 
riyets, wmch were supposed to have appertained to the tips of e^ bow. 
They may more probably have formed part of the hilt of the dagger. 
Ilie blade is ornamented with parallel lines as usual, but it also has a 
series of fine dotted lines. 

Two other blades (8^ and 8 inches), less highly ornamented, and one 
^ them atraighter at the edges, were found with a skeleton buried in 
^hoQowed trunk of an elm- tree in the King Barrow, § Winterboum 
Stoka. With one of these at the breast of the skeleton were traces of a 
inodaa scabbard, with indentations which were thought to have been 
gOL The handle is described as having been of box-wood, and rounded 
Wmewhat like that of a large knife. The other dagger was at the thigh. 
On the breast was also a bronze awl with what is said to have been an 
inay handle (Fig. 227). 

Dr. ThurDamll thinks it not improbable that one of the blades 
nay have been a spear-head for use in the chase. In writing of 
hese blades he observes, " Where two are found with the same 
Qtennent they are not exactly of one type, but one is light and 
hin and of greater breadth, the other strengthened by a stout 
aidrib relatively heavier and of more pointed or leaf-like form ; 
he rivets also are larger. In such cases the former may, perhaps, 

• Raine, " North Durham/' p. 235. 

+ Areh. Journ., vol. xxvi. p. 346 ; Trans. Devon. Assoc., vol. iv. p. 304. For the nse 
f this cut I am indehted to Mr. A. W. Franks, F.R.8. 
X " Anc Wiltft," vol. i. p. 122, pi. xiv. { Ibid., pL xv. jj Areh,, vol. xliii. p. 456. 

R 



242 DAGOEB8 AND THEIR HILT8. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. [CHAF. X. 

be supposed to be the dagger, the latter the spear." Sir RichBid 
Hoare in some cases discriminates between the spear and the 
dagger when two blades were found ; and Mr. Cunnington 
observed in a barrow at Roundway,* Wilts, that a pointed blade 
only 3 inches long with three rivets had a wooden shaft about 
a foot in length, which, as Dr. Thumam remarks, could not have 
been the haft of a dagger. 

The fact that many of these blades bore traces of having had a 
sheath is in favour of their being daggers rather than spear-heads, 
though it must not be forgotten that Homer t describes Achillee 
as drawing the spear which had belonged to his father from its 
sheath — , c^, • / 

Eic apa avpiyyo^ TrarptiHOv itnraaur tyxpfi. 

Though Sir Richard Colt Hoare at first regarded all these blades 
as spear-heads, he observes, about two-thirds of the way through his 
first volume, t "daily experience convinces me that those implementiS 
we supposed to be spear-heads, may more properly be denominate^ 
daggers, or knives, worn by the side, or in a girdle, and not affixes' 
to long shafts like the modem lance." Further on, however, ki 
mentions a " spear-head " from a barrow near Fovant,§ having tha 
greater part of the wooden handle adhering to it, so that the mo(3 
by which it was fastened was clearly seen. From the figure givc5 
in the Archceclogia, and in an impublished plate of Hoare, th: 
seems, however, to have been a dagger rather than a spear. 

Other blades of much the same character, found at Everley and Lak« 
Wilts, and West Cranmore, Somerset, are figured by Dr. Thumam 
This latter was found by my friend the late Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.6 
It is straight at the bottom of the blade, which went only ^ incs 
into the handle at the part where the usual semicircular notch wa 
formed. There was a single rivet on either side. The one preserved : 
^ inch long. Another, from Lake,^ is given by Hoare. It was foun 
with burnt bones and was accompanied by a whetstone. 

Others have been found in a barrow at Ablington,** near Amesbun 
Wilts, and at Rowcroft,tt Yattendon. Berks {H inches). 

A fine blade of this character (9^ inches long), with three rivets, we 
foimd near Leeds. The midrib ends in a square base. It is not unlili 
the blade of a halberd. 

A hafted blade of the same kind,** from Bero Eegis. Dorsetshire, hs 
already been mentionetl ; as well as the doooration of the hilt of one 
the same form. One (9 inches) was found in a barrow at Came,§§ a* 

♦ TTiV/ji Arch, Mag,y vol. vi. p. 164. t Iliad, lib. xix. r. 387. 

X V. 185. { 0/1. cit,, p. 242. 

;' Arch.y vol. xliii. pi. xxxiv. fig. 4 ; xxxv. figs. 2, \. 

•1 " Auc. AVilts," vol. i. p. 211, pi. xxviii. •• Arch, Joum,, vol. x. p. 248. 

tt Ar.h. AitK-c. Jonrn.^ vol. x\-ii. p. o34. *l Ante, p. 233. 

J} Arch. Journ.^ vol. v. p. 322. 



DAOGEBS WITH MIDRIBS. 243 

ohibited to the Archieological Institute. Mr. Warne,* howerer, records 
tk finding <k tvo at tJiat place. One seems to have the midrib dotted 
ant with small indentations. 

ITuit shown in Fig. 303 {which is copied from Dr. Thoraam's f engrav- 
lag) is from Oamerton, Somerset. It is remarkable as having a kind of 
Mamd midrib beyond the parallel grooves which border tho first. As 
<»ul it has but two rivets. 

A bronse da^ier (fij inches) of the Wiltshire type was found in the 
vaD-known barrow at Hove4 near Brighton, in which tho interment had 
Wa made in an oak cofBn. 
in imber cnp, a perforated 
Ame axe-hajnmer, and a 
; Tbetrtone had also been de- 
posited with the body. 

In a blade of this class (7 
iticliM), found with burnt 
bones and ohippinKS of flint 
in a banow at Teadington,§ 
the midrib appears to be 
fomed of three beads. 

Another (9 inches) formed 
Pnrt of the Arreton Down || 
and, of which more will here- 
•*ter be said. The blade 
i« ornamented with delicate 
flbtiags and carves, and the 
Ukidrib ends in a cresconted 
«<Jlow exactly opposite to the 
^Msal notdi in the handle. 
^U« specimen is now in the 
^Biitiah Uosenm. 

Abronze da^er (6J inches) 
"•■itfi three rivets, of which 
*5w blade has much suffered 
KKm decomposition, was 
f«Qnd with a lump of iron 
Pfritee within an urn in a 
KMnow at Angrowse Uul- 
lim.^ ComwalL A dagger blade of nearly the same kind, but with six 
•irets, found in a barrow at Camoel,** Finist^, is in the museum at 
the Hotel CInny, Paris. 

I have a da^ser (9 inohes) much like Fig. 302, only somewhat more 
^w, found in tie Seine at Paris. It has had three rivot-hoIeB, and on 
tin blade are two bands of four lines parallel with the edge. 

nie strengthening of the blade is somettmea effected by forming it 
litii three or more projecting ribs instead of a single midrib. In 
^. S04 ia shown a dagger blade in my own collection, found not far 
• "Celtic Tmn." pt. i. p. 36, pi. i. K uid O. t AreM., vol- iliii. p. 4S3, fl)r. 15", 
I Jrtji. /oMW., vol. xiii. p. 1B4; vol. XT. p. 90: Shu. Arrh. G>U., toL ii. p. 120. 
I Smrtf Artk. Soc. Tnuii., vol. i. ; Areh. Jaiirn., vol. xjii, p. SOS. 
I Jreli.,T<A. xxitL p. 328, pi. UT. fig. 6; '• Hone F«r.," pi. rii. 18 
'BoriMB. "N«ni»Com.," p. 238. 

' 't, " Alt. o. h. Voir.," vol. i. Hett a. Taf. ii. 1. 
R 2 




244 DAGGER8 AND THEIR HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. [cHAP. 1 

from Cambridge. On either side of the central rib and along the out« 
margin of the two other ribs are lines of minute punctures by way o 
ornament. 

A somewhat larger blade (Sf inches), from Little Cressingham,* Noi 
folk, has two deep furrows, one on each side of the broad central midzil 
and beyond these again two lateral ribs. This was secured to its hilt b 
six rivets, three on each side. It was found with a contracted mal 
skeleton, accompanied by a necklace of amber beads and some article 
made of thin gold plate. 

A dagger with a central rounded midrib, and apparently two laters 
ribs like those on Fig. 304,. was found in a barrow near Torrington, 
Devon. It has three rivets, by which it was attached to a wooden handle 
and the blade showed traces of a wooden sheath, which like the hand! 
had perished. 

A very small dagger or knife, with apparently a well-marked centri 
rib, found near Magherafelt,J Co. Londonderry, is shown in Fig. 3C]^« 
It has a haft of oak attached, which is thought to be original. Ai^ 
pins or rivets that may have existed are now lost, and possibly what we'a 
used may have been formed of wood or horn. Some thin wedges of oe» 
appear to have been used for steadying the blade in the haft, the upp^ 
part of which has somewhat suffered from fire. 

One of the daggers from the great find at Arreton Down,§ Isle <^ 
Wight (9f inches), has the blade strengthened by three raised ribs. It i 
shown in Fig. 306. It was found with several tanged blades lik^ 
Fig. 324, some flanged celts, and other objects. In a blade (9 inched 
in Canon Greenwell's collection, and found at Ford, NorthumberlanJ 
there are two slight ribs about f inch from the edges and parallel tc 
them. There are punctures along the sides of the ribs. 

Possibly some of these weapons may have been halberd blades, suet 
as those hereafter described. 

Another form of dagger widens out considerably at the base, so as t( 
give the edges an ogival outline, and this form passes into what hav< 
been termed rapier-like blades. As is the case with the leaf-shape< 
blades, which will presently be described, some of these latter are s< 
long that it is hard to say whether they ought to be classed as swords o 
as daggers. 

The example engraved as Fig. 307 is from Scotland, and not England 
the original being in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. It wa 
foimd in 1828 upon the farm of Kilrie, near Kinghom, Fifeshire. Th 
blade, as is usually the case, shows a central ridge upon it, but is als 
ornamented with parallel lines engraved on either side, which is a f eatur 
of far less common occurrence. 

A plain blade of the same character (7 J inches), but narrower in it 
proportions, was foimd at Bracklesham,|| Sussex. It has as usual tw< 
rivets only. 

I have another (7i inches), showing four facets on the blade, fron 

• Proc. Soc. Ant.f 2nd S., vol. iv. p. 456 ; Arch., vol. xliii. p. 454, fig. 158. 
t Trans. Bevtm. Astoe., vol. vii. p. 104. 

X Journ. Royal Hist, and Arch. Assoc, of Ireland, 2nd S., vol. i. p. 286, whence thi 
cut has heen kindly lent. 

§ Arch., vol. XXX vi. p. 328, pi. xxv. 6, from which the cut is copied. 

II Dixon's "Geol. of Sussex," p. 12; Arch. Journ., vol. viii. p. 112; Suss. Arch 
Coll., vol. ii. p. 260. 



DAGGERS WITH OOIVAL OUTLINE. 



iham Fen j the two rivet-boleB cut through the marpn of the base, as in 

g. 304. 

I have Been others from the Cambridge Fens. 

Another (13J inches) with four rivets, and more nearly approaching 

9 rapier form, was found in the Thames at Ditton,* Surrey, and was 

nested to the British Museum by the Earl of Lovelace. Another of the 




e character {7 inches) was found in the Thames near Haidenhead.f 

another (8 inches) at Battersea.} 

•no [9J inches) wiUi two rivets, and the base forming half a hexagon, 

found at New BiIfon,§ near Eugby. I have another of nearly the 
.e form (7J inches) from Waterbeaci Fen, Cambridge. 

Rg. in Areh. Journ., Tol. lii. p. 
A. A. J., vol. xiv. p. 329. 



246 DAGOEKS AMU THEIE ItlLTS. — RAPIER-8HAFBD BLADES 



In eome the blade is oinamented by ribn cast in r^ef ant 
ing. A good example of the kind from the collection of Mr. 
F.S.A., is shown in Fig. 308. It was fonnd in the old castle ( 
Co. Bligo. Oneof mu(£ the same form as the Wiltshire da^i 
found in the Thamee,f near BJchmond (7-^ inches), has ai 
Tandyke border and hatched diagonal bands. The blade is si 
but not otherwise ornamented. It is now in the British Mi 
{H inches), ornamented at the base in a dmilar manner, but 





Fig. MC-Iidud. t 

broad tang and one rivet-bole, was found on Kekington 
WeetmortJand. 

A blade (7 inches) also ornamented at the base with a vain 
was found at Pitkoithly, Perthshire, and is now in the 
IMinburgh. 

Many blades ot daggers from Germany are ornamented. 
most beautiful that I have seen is that in the museum 
Camiola. Another (11 J inches), with the hilt complete, an 
and pommel-plate beautifully ornamented, was found near Vi 
Sockes poiuts out that from the shortness of tlie hilt it is p: 
these daggers were held in the same manner as among tlie '. 

• J"™. Sac. ^nl., 2nd S., vol. v. p. 268. 

f Areh. Juurn., vol. si, p, 79; " Horno Forales," pi. vji. 10. 

I Pfbc. ,Sw. AnL.'iaA. %., vol. ii. p. 370. 

{ Von Katkca, " Die FundenanderLanguQ WiinJ bti Wiuntr i^iula. 



EAFI£R-SUAFEO BLADES. 



247 



it da;, with the two first fingers not round the hilt, but stretched 

blade. 

museum of ihe Boyal Irish Academy* is a broad dagger blade 

long, and engraved with a kind of Vandyke pattern at the baae. 

nented portion is shown full size in Fig. 309, kindly lent me by 

my. It is rather remarkable that the ornaments should extend 

' the base, as they must have been intended to be free of the 

lich, in consequence, it would appear that only a small part of 

can have been inaerted. The sidesof tlie socket in the hilt may, 

have extended some 

ip the slop: 

e of the bla 

Amented blade of 

ngated form (16| 

I engraved on the 

e- fourth in Fig.310. 

lund at Kilrea, Co. 

1 is is the collection 

Greenwell, F.B.8. 
a Vandyke pattern 
base, which ia not 
the cut. 

a plain blade (14 
ith merely a central 
d with two rivet- 
tch ia also from Ire- 

of much the same 

nail English blade 
of the same charac- 
ire no rivet-holes at 

1 from the Thames f 
nary rapier shape is 

the scale of one- 
Fig. 311. It ispro- 
h two rivets, and 
notches at the side 
se aa if to allow of 
ITS being passed 
the hilt to steady 

< of the same form 

'), but with only two rivet-holea at the base, was found at the 

he Castle Tump," Newohurch.t Badnorehire. 

shaped blades from 8^ inches to ISj- inches long, found at 

uchty, Fife ; at Fairhohn, Dumfries- shire ; and near Ardoch, 

i, are preserved in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 

2 represents a small blade of this character dredged up from the 
ad Avon Canal, between Theale and Thatcham, Berks, and 
" Catal.;' 




248 DAGGERS AND THEIK HILl-S. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. [CHAP. X. 



given me by Mr. W. Whitaker, F.G.S. The two little notches at the 
side of the base are peculiar. 

A number of blades of this character, but without these small notches, 
have been found in the Cambridgeshire Fens. Mr. Fisher, of Ely, has 
four, varying in leng^ from 8 inches to 9 inches, about 2 inches wide at 
the base and 1 inch in the middle of the blade. They all have two rivet- 
holes, in some of which are rivets f inch long. 

Two blades found at South Kyme,* Lincolnshire, seem to have been of 
this character. Another (13J inches) was found at Corbridge,t Northum- 
berland, in company with a leaf -shaped spear-head. One from Burwell 
Fen, in my own collection, has three rivet-noles, in which are still two of 
the rivets, of which one is formed from a nearly square piece of metal. 
A long blade of this kind (16J^ inches), but with the blade tapering more 
gradually from a rounded base, was dredged from the Thames | near 
V auxhall. Other rapier-shaped blades (18f inches and HA inches) hav® 
been found in the Thames near Kingston. § 

The base of these blades appears sometimes to be disproportionately 
broad with regard to the blades themselves. An example from Covene^ 
near Downham Hithe, Cambridgeshire, is in the collection of Mr. Fishet^ 
of Ely, and is shown in Fig. 313. This widening was no doubt intended 
to aid in 8tead3dng the blade in its hilt. 

I have a dagger of the same form (8 inches), but with a more tapering 
blade, found in Waterbeach Fen, Cambridge. Another (11 J inches) ' 
from Harlech, Merionethshire, is even narrower in the blade than th^ 
Coveney example, but it has lost its edges by corrosion. 

Some blades, from 12^^ inches to 15^ inches long, and rapier-like ini 
character, from Maentwrog in the same coimty, are engraved in the Archao^ 
lopiayW and are now in the British Museum. The rivet arrangements vary. 
A spear-head, with loops attached to the blade, was found with them. 
One of them has notches at the sides of the base, as in Fig. 311. 

One 14} inches long, and of much the same outline, but flat in the 
centre instead of ridged, was found at Fisherton,^ near Salisbury, and is 
in the Blackmore Museum. Another of the same character, but broad 
in the blade (16J^ inches), was found in the Thames.** 

Canon Greenwell has two rapier-like blades from the Thames, 17^ 
inches and 15f inches long, from Sandford. With the latter was found 
a leaf -shaped blade (19 inches) with two rivet-holes in the base. 

Such blades are almost long enough to be regarded as swords. 

A weapon of this form (16J inches), with the blade reduced in thickness 
towards the edges, and with two large rivets, one of them still tn sttu^ 
was found in the Thames, and is now in the British Museum. Another in 
the same collection (12 J inches), from the Thames at Kingston, is much 
narrower at the base. 

A blade of this character from Blair Drummond Moss was exhibited 
in the museum at Edinburgh, and is preserved at Blair Drummoud 

House. 

The type occurs in France. One found at Auxonno,f f Haute Saoue, is 
in the St. Germain Museum. 



* Arch. Journ.y vol. x. p. 73. 

X Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. iii. p. 60. 

II Vol. xvi. p. 365, pi. Ixx. 

** Op. cit.y p. 158. 



t Arch. Jottm.t vol. xix. p. 363. 
§ rroc. Sac. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 83. 
II Arch. Journ., vol. xWii. p. 160. 
ft Cliantre, "Alb.," pi. xvi. 2. 



RAPIERS WITH M0TCHB8 AT THE BASE. ■iio 

V, rather shorter and broader, with two riveta and two notches 
dea of the base, waB found in the bay of Penhouet* (Loire 
■e). 

9 examples from 
e at Paris, and 
a the neighbour- 
\jmens. 

le cases the rivet- 
throueb the mar- 

I appear some- 
have been cast 

p rounded notches 

ase to receive the 

istead of having 

rilled or cast in 

'hat shown in Fig. 

of this charai-ter, 

IS found in the 
at London, It 

en to me by Mr. 

■h Smith, F.S.A. 

f the same charac- 

> also been found 

Tham.eB. One of 

16| inches), of 

he same type but 

unded at the lower 

he wings, is In the 

Uuseum. 

1 Oreenwell has a 

.f this type (8 J 

found near Meth- 

orfolk. 

•cimen of this form 

les) from Edington 

Somerset, is in the 

1 at TatmtoQ. 

ide from Inchigec- 

. Cork, figured in 

ehieohyieal Journal, 

be notched in a 
manner. Another 
rent form, but ap- 
7 notched after the 
Lsbion, is engraved 

1 of the rapier-shaped blades, and especially those of larger size, 
seem intermediate between swords and daggers, are ornamented 







+ Vol. X. p. 73. 



250 BAGGERS ANU THBIR HILTS. — RAPIEE-8HAPED BLADES. [CHAF. X. 

as well as strenfi^ened by a projecting midrib, while their weight is 
diminished by nutings along either side. A beautiful exam]^ of 
this kind, found at the bottom of an old canoe, between the peat ind 
clay, near Chatteris, Cambs, is shown one-quarter size in Fig. 315. 
I have another (14 inches) with the midrib not quite so prominent, and 
with the rivet-holes cutting the margin of the base, found at Aston 
Ingham, Herefordshire. A portion of another was found near Wator- 
beach,* Cambs. 

A broader blade of the same character (12} inches), with two very lai^« 
rivets, was found in the Thames at Kingston, and is now in the Britisl^ 
Museum. A narrower blade (12 inches) with the rivet-holes cottiaS 
through the base, was found at CsBsar's Camp, Famham, Surrey, and S.« 
in the same collection. 

A long blade of this character from the Thames (21 inches long acB-^ 
2| inches wide at the base), with central ridge and slight flutings at tb*^ 
edges, may more properly be regarded as a sword. It is in the Briti^^ 
Museum. 

Six blades, all of the rapier character, but varying in details, and fro^^^ 
12 inches to 22 inches in length, were foimd at Talaton, Devonshire-^-^^^ 
Some moulds of stone for blades of the same kind were found at Hennoc^^^ 
in the same county, and will subsequently be described. Anoth^^^ 
blade (17 inches) was found at Winkleigh,J near Crediton, Devon. 

A blade of the same character from Ireland is given by Vallanoey.^^^ 
A fine specimen from the same country (18 inches) is in the Britis^*^ 
Museimi.ll What appears to be a part of a blade % of the same kind ha ^-^ 
been regarded as a kind of ** steel '* for sharpening other blades. ^ 

A rapier-shaped blade (21 inches) with two rivet-holes was found, witk^ 
socketed celts and a palstave, at Mawgan,** Cornwall. 

Blades of this character are also found in France. Two from th^^ 
departments of Aisne and Somme,tt have been fig^ured. One (20 inche^^ 
long) is in the Museum at Nantes. 

A rapier blade from the Chauss6e Brunehault, and now in the Boulogn< 
Museum, is almost like a trefoil in outline at the hilt end. 

A stiU longer blade of this character, which perhaps ought with greater* 
propriety to have been classed among swords, is shown in Fig. 316 on^ 
the scale of one-fourth. It has unfortunately lost its point, but is stilL 
17} inches long. It woidd appear to have been originally about 20^ 
inches long, as shown in the fig^ure. The blade in tms case has three 

Projecting ribs between which and again towards the edges it is fluted, 
t was found in the Eiver Ouse, near Thetford. The imperfect rivet- 
holes at the base appear to have been cast in the blade, and the mecuis 
of steadying it in its hilt must have been but inadequate. Such weapons, 
however, can only have been intended for stabbing, and not for striking. 
Another blade of similar form, but with perfect rivet-holes, was 
found in the fine earthwork of Badbury, Dorsetshire, and is in the 
collection of Mr. Durden, of Blandford. It is 23^^ inches long and 2-A 
inches wide at the base above the rivet-holes. 

Blades of this kind are occasiontdly found in Ireland. In the British 

♦ Arch. Joum.f vol. xii. p. 193. t Arch. Joum.y vol. xxiv. p. 110. % Op. cit^ p. 113. 

§ ** Collect.," vol. iv. pi. xi. 10 ; Gough*8 " Camden," vol. iv. pi. xviii. 10. 
II " IIoraB Ferales," pi. vii. 23. IF Areh. Joum.y vol. ix. p. 186. 

♦• Arch.f vol. xvii. p. 337. ft Diet. Arch, de la Gaule. 



LONG RAFIBR-SHA?£D BLADES. 



251 



fueom is one (9 inches) with deep notches for the rivets, found in 
ithkennan Bog, Co. Tipperary. 

Nearly all the rapier-shaped blades which have still to be noticed may 
\ regnrdcd as prooably those of swords rather than of daggers. That 



fig. 81A.— Chatterii. \ 



Fig. 816.— Thetford. \ 



Fig. SlT.'Londonderry. \ 



loim in Fig. 317 is in my own collection, and was found near London- 
nry. The method of attachment to the hilt by two rivets fitting into 
Itches at the sides of the base of the blade is the same as in some of the 
lorter weapons already mentioned. 
Another (19 inches), found at Killeshandra,* Co. Cavan, has similar 

♦ Wilde, " Catal.," p. 448, fig. 326. 



252 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. [CH 

notches at the sides, but the base is somewhat differently shaped, 
of these rapier-shaped blades have been found in Irelan* 
Canon Ghreenwell has one (27^ inches) which was bou 
Scotland, and probably found in that country. 

A blade (14 inches) found in the Loire, and now in the I 
Museum, has side notches of nearly the same character aE 
in Fig. 317. 

The finest example of the rapier kind ever found in L 
is that shown in Fig. 318, which by the kindness of the 
Irish Academy I here reproduce from Sir W. Wilde's 
log^e. It is no less than 30^ inches long, and is only \ 
in width at the centre of the blade, which has a strong m 
It was found in a bog at Lissane, Co. Derry. I have a 1 
found at Noailles, near Beauvais, Oise, France, identic 
form and character, but only 23 J inches long. Were ; 
that the rivets are wanting. Fig. 318 might have been 
from the French instecid of the Irish specimen. 

Another narrow blade, with a heavy rounded midrib 
inches long and 1} inch broad at the base), was found in 
at Galbally, Co. Tyrone, and had at the time of its disc 
the original hilt attached. There also appear to have 
some remains of a scabbard, but this is uncertain. Th 
has been engraved in the Proceedings of the Royal Hiitorid 
Archaeological Society of Ireland* and is here by their kin 
reproduced as Fig. 319. 

Mr. Wakeman, of Enniskillen, in his interestinj 
count of the discovery, describes the material of \ 
the hilt is formed as bone, or rather whalebone, 
blade and haft are, however, now in my own colle( 
and I think there can be no doubt that the materi 
the hilt is in reality a dark-coloured ox-hom. On 
Danish blades I have seen the fibrous texture of 
substance still shown by the oxide or salt of the n 
forming as it were a cast of its surface, which has 
lasted the horn against which it was originally fori 
There are no traces of the rivets in the Galbally liil 
that probably pins of hard wood served to secure 
the blade. 

Some Scandinavian daggers have been fouuOL 
their handles of horn still attached. One fron^ u. \ 
in Hassl6f,t South HallanJ, Sweden, had x\^*5?» ' 
sheath with a long rectangular end of bron^^-vi v: 
served. The length of the sheath is about. \n 
of the blade of the dagger. 

* 4th Sorios, vol. ii. p. 197. 

t "Hallanda Fommiimee-Furenings Aarskr.," 1S69. p. 




RAPIKR WITH OX-HORN HILT. 



e bronze hilts for the long rapier-like blades are rare, but not 
own, 

e of these blades, found in the Co. Tipperary,* has ita hilt still 




1^. ns.— OilbaUT. i 

ied by metal rivets, as shown in Fig. 330. The hilt is hollow and ii 

^d«. " Catal.," p. 458. Sg. 333. from which the fig. in the t«it ii copied m i 
'n«t Urger soUe; " Horse FecaJeit" pi. vii. 16. 



254 DAOOSRS AND THEIR HILTS. — IUP1EB-5HAPED BLADES. [CHAF. I. 

nnw open at the end, though probably, as "Wilde mggests, originally doaed 
by a bone stud. 

The hilt of a eword in the museum at Tours ia joined to the blade in 
much the same fashion, but has a mere indentation instead of the centnl 
semicircidar notch. The body of the hilt is engisved with bands of 
trianglos and circlea. 

A rapier-ahaped blade, irith a bronxe hilt 
of nearly the same form, bat with aix nntt, 
is in the museum at Narbonne.* Anotba 
nearly similar was found at Che]rloiiiiet,t 
Haute Loire. 

Some Egyptiaii bronxe da^en hare tin 
hilts f ormM m the same style. 

In another form, the blade of which i> 
more leaf-shaped, like the ordinaij bronn 
sword, the means of attachment to the haA 
are merely slight notches at the ddee. Thtt 
shown in Fig. 321 is only 1 1 inches Img, but 
the edge has been removed for about 1^ indi 
from the base, showing the portion wbii 
presumably was inserted in the hilt. Ths 
original was found near Ely, and is in tlu 
collection of Mr. M. Fisher, of that town. 

I have a small specimen of the same kind 
(6} inches) from f^irdham, Camba. 

A more leaf-shaped blade (14 inches), with 
rivet notches at the side of the base, vu 
found, with Ieaf-Bh^>ed spear-heads, it 
Worth, J Washfield. Devon. Possibly this, 
as suggested by Mr. Tucker, F.8-A., wm 
onginfdly a sword from which the hilt vu 
Fig.aso.-TitpmtT. ( broken. 

A blade more like Fig. 321 (IS^ incbM 
long and 1 inch broad) was found in the Mardyhe, near Grays Thvi- 
rock,§ Essex. Some of the weapons of this kind, like one from tha 
Thames at Kingston (11} inches), appear to have been made from brokra 
sword or rapier-like blades. 

A long- tanged form, of which it is soroetimes difficult to say whether it 
is ft sword, a knife, or a dagger, is of not unfrequent occurrence in 
Ireland. That shown in Fig. 322 is in my own collection. 

I have another found near Armagh (8^ inches), which is rather broader 
in ifa proportions. It has a diagonal row of circular indentations across 
cRch side of the blade just above the shoulders. Not improbably theM 
and other specimens originally existed in a somewhat different form, bwt 
having been injured at their base were refitted with a tang for attach- 
ment to the hnft instead of being secured by rivets at the sides like those 
last mentioned. 

Pome Danish dag^ra are provided with merely a slight tang like that 
of a modem chisel. 

• " MHteriaiix," toI. v, pi. ii. 1, t " Matferiani," vol. i. p. 370, 

* Arrh. Joun., vol. ixit. p. 120. 

5 Arfh. Jeam., vol. xxvi. p. IBl ; Froc, Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 406. 




BAYONET-LIKB BLADRS. 355 

Another form of blade is more of the nature of a bayonet than of a 



Fig. 321.— Ht. 1 Fig. aM.-NorthofIrelMJd- ) Fig. 318,— n«I>(loa. 1 

.pier, yet this would appear to bo the proper place in TMch to notice it. 



256 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. [CHAP. ] 

The example shown in Fig. 323 is in the collection of Canon Gh*eenwd! 
F.B.S., and was found at Kaphoe, Co. Donegal. 

The section of the blade is nearly square, and the faces are omamente 
with parallel engraved lines. It ends in a tang with a single hoi 
through it, and with it was found a ferrule of bronze for receiving the en 
of the handle. 

In the Royal Irish Academy Museum is another blade of the sair 
character, 33 inches long and nearly square in section, but having tt 
faces fluted. With it was a ferrule, 3 J inches long, having four ribs i 
the base, with hollows between. It has one rivet-hole through it. Tk 
specimen was found in a bog near Glenarm, Co. Antrim. 

From the ferrules and general form of the blades it is probable thi 
they were lance or pike heads rather than of the nature of swords c 
daggers. The ** javelin with loop" found in Monaghan, and engrave 
in the ArcluBologiciU Journal * seems to be somewhat of the same nature. 

It may possibly be the case that some of the other blad< 
described in this chapter have served as the points of spear-lil 
weapons, though, from the hilts being discovered with so man 
of them, there can be no doubt that the majority must be regarde 
as having been the blades of daggers or rapiers. Among model 
weapons we have, however, some which, like the sword-bayone 
are intended to serve a double purpose; and though there a 
be little doubt as to the true character of the knife-daggers, it 
hardly safe to assert that all the dagger-like blades were withoi 
exception mounted with short hilts as poniards, and that none we 
provided with straight shafts as pikes, or placed transversely ( 
a handle to serve as halberds or battle-axes. 

The weapons described in this chapter probably range over tl 
whole of the Bronze Period of Britain. The knife-daggers, whii 
have almost exclusively been found in barrows, often associate 
with other weapons formed of stone, may be regarded as amoi 
the earliest of our bronze antiquities ; while the rapier-shap 
blades, though of rare occurrence in hoards, appear to belong to 
period when socketed celts were already in use. Of the dagger-lij 
blades, in whatever manner they were mounted, a considerab 
number belong to an early period. The analogies of the differei 
forms with those found upon the Continent have already from tin 
to time been noted in the preceding pages. 

♦ Vol. iii. p. 47. 



CHAPTER XI. 

TAKOEO AXD SOCKiSTED DAGGERS, OR SPEAR-HEADS, HALBERDS, 

AND MACES. 

Before passing to the leaf-shaped swords, which would seem 
Jiaturally to follow in order after the blades last described, it will 
*^ well to notice two sets of weapons which, though in many 
'''Aspects identical with daggers, may in the one case have served 
^s spear-heads, and in the other most probably as the blades of 
l^^e-axes or halberds. To the first of these two classes the term 
** Arreton Down type " has been conventionally applied, as it was 
^the hoard found at that place that the largest proportion of such 
Weapons occurred; and, indeed, until that discovery the type appears 
^^ have been unknown. 

The tanged blades are still rare, but have now been found in 

^veral other places besides the Isle of Wight. The centre of the 

^lade is usu^ly thick and strong, showing a central ridge and 

leaving the sides more or less decorated with flutings or lines 

^here the metal is reduced in thickness. The tang, unlike that 

^f the daggers described at the beginning of the last chapter, is 

long and narrow, and tapers away from the blade. At its end is a 

wle for a rivet or pin. In one instance a ferrule was found upon 

the blade, as will be seen in Fig. 324. This figure is copied from 

^t in the ArduBologia* which is taken from a drawing made in 

1737 by Sir Charles Frederick. Upon the ferrule are a number 

^ raised bosses in imitation of rivets, but there seems to be no 

rivet-hole in the ferrule itself, though there is one in the end of 

the tang of the blade with the rivet still in it. 

Accounts of the discovery of this and other weapons at Arreton 
Down, near Newport, in the Isle of Wight, were communicated to 
the Society of Aiitiquaries in the years 1735 and 1737, and the 
latter has been printed by Mr. A. W. Franks, F.RS.t At least 

* Vol. zzxri. pi. zlv. 2. t Areh.y vol. xxxvi. p. 326. 

8 




3S8 TAKQBD AKD SOCKKI'ED DAGCBHS, ETC. [CHAF. It 

sixteen articles were found ia a marl-pit, and they are eaii t» 
have been arranged in a regular order. Of these, nine were of thii 
tanged type, but varying in details. One (Fig. 328) was proTided 
with a socket ; two were di 
blades, already mentioned (one of 
which is given in Fig. 306), and 
four were flanged celta, like Fig. 8, 
but varying in size. Six specitnem 
from this hoard are now in the 
British Museum. Mr. Franks, in the 
paper already mentioned, i^ardi 
these tanged weapons as speu- 
heads, and is I think right in lo- 
doing ; the blades, however, present 
such close analogies with the daggm 
from the Wiltshire barrows, and the 
socketed variety (Fig. 328) is » 
dagger-like in character, that it is 
hard to speak with any d^ree of 
confidence upon this point. 

In 1855 Mr. Franks observed 
that the type was quite new to him, 
but since that time several other 
specimens have been found besides 
those from Arreton Down. One of 
these, discovered in the River Lea 
at Stratford-le-Bow, Essex, is now 
in the British Museum, and is shovni 
in Fig. 323. As will be seen, it 
has a rounded midrib, with several 
parallel grooves on each side of it 
engraved or punched on the blada 

Some of the weapons from* Arreton 
Down are of nearly the same descrip- 
tion, but the midrib is more ridgeo, 
and ia ornamented with rows of engraved or pimohed dots. One has 
a double creecent-ehaped line of dots punched in at the base of the blade. 
I have a blade (10 mches) of the same form and character, but without 
any engraved dota upon it, from Burwell Fen, Cambridge. The parallel 
flutings on the blade appear to have been produced in the casting, ami 
not by engraving or punching. The hole in the tang was also made b 
• Arch., vol. xxxvi. pi. iiv. 1 ; " Horas Ferales," pL yi. 21. 



THE ABRETON DOWN TYPE. 



•eing irregular in foim. It is nowKere I^bb than i inch 
Another weapon (7^ inches) of the Bame character, but 
ihout any fluting, waa found near Newbury,* Berks. 

es are of extremely rare occurrence in Ireland, but 
i) closely resembling Fig. 325 was found in the county 
ath, and is now 
on of Mr. Robert 
of Cork. 

ifferent variety of 
1 in Fig. 326. It 
g the centre, and 
Dn each side run- 
to the edge, such 
Eord facility for 
te edge by ham- 
The end of the 
broken off at the 
s said to 
r Matlock, 



ad i 






mch broailer and 
8 on each side of 

inches), found 
Fen, is in the 

e Cambridge An- 
.ety. 

imilar blade, but 
ght channels on 
itend of one, is in 
at Copenhagen, 
havo been found 

these blades, but 

lateral flutings, 
ter similar to Fig. 
d near Preston, J 

1 of Plymstock, 
s shown in Fig. 
jw in the British 

this instance, as 
'own, the accom- 
les were flanged Fi». sm.- 

9, of which there 

and three dagger blades (: 

(Fig. 190). 




). There was also a 



il. svi. p. 322, pi. 26, No. I. 

tiHgea vol., p. 183. 

i. p. 349. For tbe uso of thU cut I a 



I indebted to Ur. 



260 TAGGED AND SOCKETED DAGGBIU, ETC. 

Two apecimens from Suffolk (8 inches and 10^ inches), 
from Hindesham,* formed part of the collection of the late 
copp, and are now in the British Museum. 

One of the Arreton Down f specimeiiK, without^ ferrule, is 
this type. 

Id the Arreton Down hoard there was a single ex 
weapon of this kind which was pro 
a socket for the insertion of a hand 
instead of having a tang. Fig. 32i 
fi*om the engraving published in tl 
logia.* As will be observed, the soc 
made to abut on the blade, much aft( 
ner of a dagger handle, and has ci 
two bosses in imitation of the hea<i 
for securing the blnde. A weapon i 
which there can hardly be a doubt is ■ 
from which Sir Charles Frederick mad 
ing for the Society of Antiquaries, 
Canon Greenwell's collection, and I I 
other example. It differs from th 
knives in the character of the blail 
thicker and more highly omamentcti 
of the daggers from the Wiltshire barr 
ther it was itself intended to be a 
whether it was the head of a spear 
will not attempt to determine. 

Wiat has somewhat the appearance 
weapon of the same character was fmiii 
near Campbeltown. § Argyleshiro, togct 
bronze aword. It may, however, as alread 
be merely a socketed knife. 

A very beautiful weapon of this kind if 

seum ftt Ijiusauiio. The blade is oniiiiii 

what in the enmo manner as that of Fi^ 

Kg. sss,— Anrton socket is shorter and ornamented with pi 

^■"^ * and bands of triangles, alternately hatt'lie 

There appear to be six rivets, and wl 

termed the hilt has a deep half-oval notch in it. like that wl 

mon on swords and daggers. The margin of this notch is de* 

punctured dots. It was, I believe, found near Sion. \'alaii 



iiri. pi. JL3V. 3; "Ho™ FiralM,' pi. vi. 25. 

vi. p. 328, pi. i\T. 3. 

"Prali. Ann.," vol. i. p. 390; C»t«l. Mm. Arch. Imt., 



SCANDINAVIAN AND QBRMAN HALBERDS. 



ot what may have been the omamentB of a sheath, and also with 
g narrow celt, flanged at the upper part. The general resemblance 
een the Swiss and the English specimens is very remarkable. 
I Egyptian * blade, with the side edges slightly curved inwards, and 
the socket rather shorter than in Fig. 328, is in ' 
aq. It is attached to the socket by three rivets. 




Fi«. S».-Anip. ) 

^ e second series of blades of which it is proposed to treat in 
aad Mli^v."^ usually from six to sixteen inches long, rather 
^ oase, and not unfrequeiitfy curved lonfritndinally. This 



t unfrequeiitfy c 
"UatiiiBuz," vol. t. jil. i 



262 TANGED AND SOCKKTED UAOOER8, ETC. [cHAP. ZI. 

latter circumstance, as well as their shape and weight, proves that 
Honio of these broad blades were not intended for use as daggers ; 
and this being admitted, it seems to follow that others, which 
resemble the curved blades in all respects except their curvature, 
must be regarded as belonging to the same class of weapons. 
What these weapons were may I think be best shown by some 
examples from Scandinavia and Northern Germany, which also 
show the manner in which .similar blades were attached to their 
shafts so as to form a kind of halberd or battle-axe. 

That which I have selected by way of iUuatration is one that is engraved 
in l>r. Os<;ar Uontelius' " Sveriges Fomtid," * who has kindly lent me tlie 
block of ¥ig. 329. In this instance the scale adopted is one-third linear 
measurfl. In A is given a view of the upper end, seen from above, and 
in II a view from Ix'hind tlie blade, showing tlie great projection of the 



rivet-like knobs. The handle as well as the Wade is in bronze. This 
specimen was found at Arup, in Scania. Another is engraved in Liscli's 
" Frederico-Francisceum." t It was found, with two others, at Blen- 
gow, near Buckow, Mecklenburg Schwerin, and is regarded by Lisch as 
a kind of battle-axe, or possibly as a "commander's staff" or b&ton of 
hoaonr. GooiJ examples of the same kind are in the museums at Malmoe 
and Kiel, and others have been described by Klemm.J Two have been 
found n(!ar Nea Euppin. Others are in the Schwerin fifuseum. 
Another, with n separate socket, having three rivot-Uke bosses upon it. 
is in the Berlin Huseum.§ There can be little doubt that this last-men- 
tioned weapon is a representative of an earlier form, when the shaft was 
merply of wood and the transverse blade was secured in it by means of 

• Fii-. 131. + Tftf. vii. 1; mill, I; " Ilonr Feralcs." pi. i. 2, 

I "HsiKih. ilcrOpnn. Alterth.."p. 209. Soe niso Prpiwker, " Ulioke," Tnf, iii, 44 f. : 
Klemm. "Alli?. Ci.Itiim'iss." p. 112. 
J Bastiun unJ A, Vmw, '■ UI» llronzc St'hverttrr d.'S K. Mid.," Taf. vi. li. 



IRISH HALBERDS. 263 

rets. An intermediate form, in whieli the blade fits into a kind of 
»rk bronze socket for receiving a shaft, is preserved in the Berlin 
I* 

stance of the use of an analogous form of weapon in another part 
'orld is afforded by some bronze blades from China, of which one 
sented in Fig. 330. For the loan of the original of this figure 
idebted to Mr. A. W. Franks, F.E.S. As will be readily seen, 
de is adapted for bein^ attached at nearly a right angle to a 
ito which the flat tang oehind the stop-ridge would be inserted, 
i blade would then be secured in its position by laces or straps 
through the slots at the base of the blade. The antiquity of 
japons in China it is hard to ascertain, but they probably date back 
•iod many centuries remote from the present day. 
•al of them are engraved in a Chinese work on antiquities, "The 
Study," to which Mr. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S., has kindly called 
ntion. What appear to be bronze spear-heads and swords are 
in the same work 

onze weapon of the same kind, but with a socket, which, like 
de, is highly ornamented, was found on the Yenissei,t in Siberia. 
3 the figure of a kind of antelope projecting from the socket oppo- 
> blade. Another, from Viatka, in Russia, has the head of an 
in the same position. 

ron weapon with a socket at right angles to the blade, from the 
Perm, appears to be a halberd of much the same kind, 
form of weapon closely approximates to the Australian "malga" § 
lome other wooden weapons in use in New Caledonia. 

I is in Ireland and Scotland that the most characteristic of 
herd blades have been discovered, it will be well to com- 
with the examples from those countries rather than with 
rom Enirland. 



'O' 



g. 331 is represented a fine specimen of a form not unusual in 
, tliough the central rib is somewhat more ornamented than is 
ly tlie case. The rivets, as usual, are three in number, and are 
eserved in the blade. In this case they are about f inch in 
ir and J inch between the heads, which are about f inch in 
T and have been carefully hammered into an almost hemispherical 
The midrib ends abruptly in a straight line where it abutted on 
ift. The metal appears to have a considerably less proportion of 
opper than is usual with bronze weapons. It looks in fact almost 
re copper. 

coj)pory appearance is by no moans uncommon in these blades. I 
aother specimen of the same form (9 J inches), but without the bead 
midrib. It was found at Letterkenny, Co. Donegal. A specimen 
ike Fig. 331 is termed by Vallancey,|| ** the brass head of a I'ua^h 

orte Ferales," pi. x. 3 ; Von Ledebur, ** Konigl. Mua.," p. 15. 
ateriaux," vol. viii. pi. xvi. 14 ; vol. xiii. p. 232 ; Chantre, " Age. du Br.,** 
tie, p. 283 ; Mem. des Ant, du Nord, 1872—7, p. 116. 
itech. fur Ethnol.,*' vol. ix. 1877, Proc, p. 34, Taf. vi. 3. 
A. Lane Fox, *' Prim. Warfare," lect. 2. 
'i- Hib.," vol. iv. p. 62, pi. xi. 11. 



TAKOED AND SOCKETED DACQERB, ETC. 



[CHAF. II. 




^. 






Q" 



raiha, a s|eneral name for the w 
axe." "The lai^ riretB of thii 
weapon show it was mounted on > 
veiy strong; shaft." 

Sir W. Wilde has descnbed, 
under the two distinct headingi 
' of " Broad scythe-shaped Swonb,' i 
and " Battle-axes," the wefl|>oiA 
which I have here classed toge- 
ther. Of the former he mentioDS 
forty-one specimena in the l£u' 
seum of the Royal Irish Acs- 
demy, of the latter but two oi 
three. Tlie " swords " • he de- 
scribes as thick, heavy, and rouxi^- 
pointed, averaging about 1^ 
inches in length by about 't 
inches in breadth at the ba9« > 
twenty-two of the blades bei«iB 
curved. With the strong bhwi^s, 
however, he classes some whic*' 
are quite thin and flat, and whi*''^ 
have more the appearance ** 
having been intended for dagger^ 
The curved shape is much agairJ** 
their having been attached t*3 
staves " spear-ways ;" so th-f'' 
Wilde's other suggestion of tli^ 
scythe-shaped swords having been 
mounted like axes, or " sfBxed to 
long handles like modem hal- 
berds," seems much more rea- 
sonable. As to the shorter and 
broader blades, whether curved 
or not, he appears to have liad 
no donbt of their bt'ing a kind of 
batlle-axcs. 

Wihle has inferred from the 
largo size of the rivets, some 
bi'ing \\ indies in length and 
t. H. I. A.;' (i. 44it. 



COPPER BLADES LESS BRITTLE THAN BRONZE. 265 

nearly 1 inch across the burr or head, that they must have been 
attached to massive metal handles, of which, however, no frag- 
ments have been preserved. If this view had been correct, the 
disappearance of the handles would be a remarkable circumstance ; 
but the large rivets appear rather intended for securing the blades 
to wooden shafts, the disappearance of which from ordinar}'^ decay 
is exactly what might be expected. In one instance there are 
large conical washers or broad rings of bronze li inches in diameter 
beneath the rivet-heads, and these in the case of a metal hantlle 
would have been superfluous. 

Wilde appears to me to have fallen into another error with 
respect to the antiquity of this form of weapon.* Arguing from 
the fact that many of the specimens are formed either of red bronze 
or of pure copper, he thinks it probable that, like the celts of 
that material, they are of immense antiquity. And in another 
place he says that their antiquity may be gathered from the fact 
of many being of copper, the use of which metal invariably pre- 
ceded that of bronze. As I have already had occasion to observe, 
it is perfectly true that many of these blades have the appearance 
of being made of copper, but the absence of tin in their composi- 
tion has not as yet been proved. Even were they of pure copper the 
form and character of the blades show them to be derivatives from 
the dagger, as the dagger itself sprang from the simpler knife; and 
the cause for using a less proportion of tin, or indeed none of that 
^etal in them, appears to me to have been the wish to make them 
^^ brittle than if they had been of bronze. A weapon used as a 
Wtle-axe would not be less deadly from having a somewhat duller 
cutting edge than if formed of bronze, and should it get bent in 
^ encounter, the straightening of it might quickly be efiFected, 
while the loss of a blade by its breaking would be irreparable. 
I have elsewhere contended that the Hungarian perforated double- 
^lided axes (like pickaxes) of copper, with but Uttle or no tin in 
them, were made of this material, not because tin was unknown, but 
hecause the ductile and malleable copper was found better adapted 
for certain purposes than the more fragile bronze. In the same 
Dumner copper rather than brass sets or punches are in use among 
engineers at the present day, when an intermediate piece of metal 
is required to convey the blows of a hammer to an iron key or 
other object which would be injured by receiving the blows direct. 
Sir William Wilde, in his Fig. 360, has shown a hollow tube of 

• P. 449. 



TAKGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS, ETC. 



[chap. 



broiizfl as forming the Imndle of a wide halberd blade; but tA»i 
juxtfiposition of the two objects has been questioQed. Not o^^kl 
are the projecting spikes upon the tube somewhat inconsist^sT 
with its use as a handle, but from a comparison with some 8inw.3.< 
objects since discovered there can be no doubt of the presuKz^* 
halberd shaft being in reality a portion of a trumpet 




Tlie blade which is figured in counectioii with this handle was found 
near Koacrea, Co. Tipperary, and closely resembies Fi^. 332 both in fonn 
and size, beino^ 7| inches long and 8| inches wide at the base, in which 
are two rivet-holes and also two notches in the margin. It has a kind of 
treble midrib. The blade shown in Fig. 332 has but a single midrib, but 
near the edges and following the same curve is a minor ri^e. A section 
is given at the side of the figure. The original was found near Cavan, 
and is in my own collection. From the absence of rivet-holes it seems 
doubtful whether it was ever mounted on a shaft so as to form a complete 
weapon, unless, indeed, tlie sliarp bnse was merely driven into the wood. 
The metal appears to have a larger admixture of tin in it than ia usual 
in the seythe-like blades. I am not aware of the existence of any other 
specimens of this very broad form besides the two now mentioned, 

A curved blade, of much the same section as Fig. 332, hut 15}- inches 
long and 3^ inches broad at the base, found at the foot of Slieve Kileta 
Hill, Co. Wexford, is in the British Museum. It has three stout rivets. 



IRISH HALBERDS. 267 

31ie long and narrow blade shown in Fig. 333 BePmfi also to belong 




Fi?. 3».— BillraiwlsT. 



268 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS, ETC, [CHAP. XI. 

to the Gaten>ry of halberds, tbong'h the rivet-hoIeB are smaller than uau £>!. 
and the blade itaeU thiimor. It is strengthened by a number of sm^l 
converging ribs formed in the casting, instead of by a broad midrib, a.K3d 
is also straight and not curved. The uriginal vns found near Newtowni 
Limavady, Co. Derry, and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.E- S. 
The shorter and much more massive blade shown in F^. 334 is also zn 
Canon Greenwell's collection, and was found at Ballygawley, Co. Tyroo-e. 
It has probably seen much service, as what appear to have been tbe 





original three rivet-holes have in two cases been partly closed by hammer- 
ing, while in the third the base of the bkde has broki^n away. In order 
to mate use of the weapon, three fresh holea have been drilled rather 
farther from tlie base, in which the rivets are still preseiTed. 

yome of the Irish * blades are more rounded than this at the point, and 
have been secured to the shafts by foiir rivet* arranged as in Fig. 336. 
There ia also occasionally a shoulder between the blade and the part let 
into the liaiidle, as in that from Stranraer. 

• Conf. Wilde, ap. cit., p. tS9, figs. 350 and 3o7; and - Hone Kit.," pi. i. i3 



SCOTTISH ASD EKGLISH HALBERDS. 



la Fig. 335 is bLmwr another blade much like that from Ballygawley, 





n». tSI. —Slhjiaiigga. ) 

but fooiid near Falldand, Fifeehire. The metal appears to be nearly 



270 TANGED AND SOCKBTEU DAGGERS, ETC. [CHAP. XI. 

pure copper, and it i8 doubtful whether it ever had more than one rivet- 
nole, though there are notches for the reception of two besides the rivet 
still left in the blade. It would, however, be fairly secured in its handle 
by a second livet in the notch on the left, while a third at the back of 
the midrib would prevent the blade from being driven into its handle by 
a blow. 

In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh are several of these halberd- 
like blades, some of them curved. One from Sluie,* Edinkillie, Elgin- 
shire, is 1 1 by 3^^ inches, and has four rivet-holes arranged in a semi- 
circle. It was found with two flat celts. Three others, from 10 to 13J 
inches by 3 inches, were found together at Kingarth,f Bute. They are 
described as of reddish bronze. 

The original of Fig. 336 was foimd near Stranraer, J Wigtonshire, and 
is now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. It is 12^ inches long 
and 4^ broad, and weighs nearly 1} lbs., so that if mounted as a halberd, 
it must have been a formidable weapon. The rivets are an inch in 
length. 

In England and Wales the blades which can with any degree of 
confidence be regarded as those of halberds are by no means 
common. I think, however, that the example from Harbyrnrigge,§ 
Crosby Ravensworth, Westmoreland, shown in Fig. 337, must be 
looked upon as a halberd rather than as a dagger. It is in the 
collection of Canon Green well, F.R.S. 

Another blade of much the same character is shown on the scale of one- 
fourth in Fig. 338. It was found in Shropshire, || but the exact locality 
is not known. Another (11 J by 4 inches), bearing much resemblance to 
that from Shropshire, was found near Manea,^ Cambridgeshire. It is 
provided with four rivets, and has a small rib running down the thickened 
centre of the blade. It is now in the Museum of me Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society. 

The late Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S., bequeathed to me a blade of this 
character (9 J by 3 J inches) thickened out in the middle like Fig. 334, and 
with three large rivet-holes in the base, which is somewhat of a trefoil 
form. It was found with broken sword-blades and spear-heads at Stoke 
Ferry, Norfolk, and appears to be formed of copper. 

The only Welsh example which I have to mention was found in the 
parish of Uansanffraid,** Cwm Deuddwr, Radnorshire. It is 9 inches 
long and 4 inches wide, and weighs 15 oz. In form and character it closely 
resembles the Irish and Scotch specimens (Figs. 334 and 335), having 
a plain midrib, bevelled edges, and three rivet-holes. 

A large blade, with a strong midrib and three rivets, found in 
Zealand, and engraved by Madsen,tt niay have belonged to a halberd of 
this class. 

• Proe. Soe. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p. 187. t Ibid.f vol. iv. p. 396. 

X Jbid.f vol. vii. p. 423. I am indebted to the Council for the use of this cut. 

§ Proc. Soe.* Ant. f 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 258. 

jl Arch. Journ., vol. xi. p. 414 ; vol. xviii. p. 161 ; Proc. Soc. Ant.^ 2nd S., vol. v. p. 403. 

f Arch. Journ.f vol. xu. p. 193 ; " Hone Far.," pi. x. 7. 

♦• Arch. Camb.f 4th S., vol. vi. p. 20 (figured). 

ft " AfbUd.," vol. ii. pi. xi. 14. 



MACES, PKOBABLY MEDIJEVAL. 



271 



I h&ve already raeutioned the halberd blades from Scandinavia 
and North Germany, and have seen but one example from any of 
the western countries of Europe. This is from Spain, and was 
found near Ciudad Real. It is about 8| inches long, and more 
T-shaped at the base than any British specimen, the blade 
suddenly expanding from 2 inches in width to o. In this 
expanded ji&rt are the usual three rivets, each about 1 inch in 
length, llie discovery of a weapon of this type in Spain seems 
to lend support to those who maintain that there was some con- 
nection between the Iberians and the early iohabitants of Ireland. 
The curious similarity of some of the Portuguese forms of flint 
arrow- and javelin-heads to those of Irelimd is also worthy of notice. 




Fig. IM.— Udgate. 



Besides the battle-axe or halberd there is another form of 
weapon for hand-to-hand encounters — the mace — of which it 
will be well to say a few words ; for though I do not for a moment 
believe that the bronze mace-heads so frequently found in this 
and other European countries belong to the Bronze Age, yet by 
many they have been classed among the antiquities of that period. 
These weapons vary considerably in size and weight, but the cuts 
will show the more common forms. 

That shown in Fig. 339 is in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, and ia stated to have heen found at Lidgate,* Suffolk. In the 
Ueyrick f Collection is one precisely sim i la r , which was brought from 
Ituy. The mace to which these dentat«d rinses were attached ia thought 
to have been a kind of "morning star" or flail. Others from Lauark- 



• AreA. /•ttm., toI. ri, p. 181. 



t Skdtoa't U«7rick, yol. i. pi. xlv. 



272 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS^ ETC. [cHAP. XI. 

shire * are of similar character. Professor Daniel Wilson refers these to 
the time of the Boman occupation. 

I have three heavy rings with four long and eight short spikes each, 
from Hungary. 

Another form is provided with a socket, and is evidently intended for 
mounting on a straight staff. That shown in Fig. 340 was foimd in a 
well at Great Bedwin,t Wilts, and is now in the British Museum. 
Another of the same class, with a longer socket, is in the Museum J of 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society; and two are in the collection of 
Mr. M. Fisher, at Ely. Others have been found in London, § and at 
Stroud, II Gloucestershire. 

An Irish example from Wilde % is shown in Fig. 341. There are three 
such in the Museum of the Academy, varying in length from 2 to 5 inches. 
One from Tipperary ♦* (4 inches) is of the same kind. 

I have specimens of this kind from Hungary, one {4i inches) with 
three rows of four spikes, and one (4i inches) with five rows of five 
spikes. I have eaiomer ht)m the Seine at Paris (4i^ inches) with six 
longitudinal ribs instead of spikes. 

Lindenschmit f f has figured seven examples, from various parts of 
Germany and Italy, some more or less similar to each of^the three figures 
I have given. Some of these are decorated with spirals in relief. Lisch X\ 
has also engraved some specimens. 

In the British Museum §§ are some foreign specimens decorated with 
patterns of a decidedly mediseval character. 

An instrument of this kind, with eight lateral spikes and a long iron 
spike coming out from the end, was found with numerous medisBval relics 
in the ruins of Soborg,|||| in North Zealand. Such a discovery seems to me 
conclusive as to the date to be assigned to this class of weapons. 

I must apologise to the reader for this digression, and now 
proceed to the consideration of the leaf-shaped bronze swords, 
which are far more closely allied to the arms described in 
Chapter X. than to the objects which have been discussed in the 
present chapter, 

• Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 111. f Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 411. 

I Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 302. 
f Arch. Assoc. Joum.y vol. i. p. 249, vol. iii. p. 60. 

II Arch. Journ. f vol. xviii. p. 160. 

IT " Catal. Mu8. R. I. A.," p. 493, fig. 361. I am indebted to the Council for this cut. 
•• Proe. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. v. p. 12. 
ft "Alt. u. h. Vorzeit," vol. i. Heft viii. Taf. 2. 

XX " Frodor. Francisc./* Taf. xxv. 13, 14. §§ Proc. Soc. Ant., nbi sup. 

JIH Annalen for Nord. OldkjTid., 1851, Taf. v. 1. 



CHAPTER XII. 

LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS. 

Among ancient weapons of bronze, perhaps the most remarkable 
both for elegance of form and for the skill displayed in their cast- 
ing are the leaf-shaped swords, of which a considerable number 
have come down to our times. The only other forms that can vie 
with them in these respects are the spear-heads, of which many 
are gracefully proportioned, while the coring of their sockets for 
the reception of the shafts would do credit to the most skilful 
modem founder. Neither the one nor the other belong to the 
earliest period* when bronze first came into general use for weapons 
and tools, the flat celts and knife-daggers characteristic of that 
period being as a rule absent from the hoards in which fragments 
of swords and spear-heads are present. 

There is also this remarkable circumstance attaching to the 
bronze swords, viz., that there is no well-authenticated instance t 
of their occurrence with any interments in barrows. It is true 
that Professor Daniel Wilson J speaks of the frequent discovery of 
broken swords with sepulchral deposits, and mentions one found 
alongside of a cinerary urn in a tumulus at Memsie, Aberdeenshire, 
and another which lay beside a human skeleton in a cist under 
Carlochan Cairn, Cannichael, Galloway. But one of these dis- 
coveries took place so long ago as 1 776, and in both cases there may, 
as Canon Greenwell has suggested, either have been some mistake 
as to the manner of finding, or the connection of the sword with the 
interment may have been apparent rather than real. A portion of a 
sword 6i inches long, said to have been found in a cairn at Ballagan,§ 
Strathblane, Stirlingshire, in 1788, is in the Antiquarian Museum 
at Edinburgh. A " sarcophagus with ashes " is said to have been 
in the cairn. Another sword, broken in four pieces, is said to 

« Cool. OreenwaU, ** Brituh Barrows," p. 49. t Op, cit., p. 44. 

t " Freh. Ann. of Soot," toL L p. 394. { Areh, Scot,^ toI. iiL App. p. 67. 

T 



274 LEAF-SHAPED SW0KD6. [CHAP. XIL 

have been found in a barrow in Breconshire.* Another, found at 
Wetheringsett, Suffolk, is said to have lain fourteen feet deep in clay, 
with a great number of human bones, but no pottery or other 
remains. In this case, however, there is no mention of a barrow. 
The sword is elsewhere said to have been found in a sandpit, t 

In Scandinavia, however, bronze swords have not unfirequently 
been found with interments in barrows ; and inasmuch as the 
owners of the bronze swords in Britain were, after death, in all 
probability interred, either in a burnt or unbumt condition, there 
appears no reason why in some instances their swords may not ! 
have been buried with them, though as yet the evidence of these 
weapons having been found in tumuli, is fiEir from satisfactoiy. 
Possibly at the time when the swords were in use the practice of 
erecting moimds over graves had ceased, and there are now no 
external marks upon the ground to indicate the graves of tho 
warriors who wielded the bronze swords, and who have thu^ 
escaped disturbance in their " narrow cells *' from the hands o^ 
treasure-seekers and archsBologists ; or possibly the custom O^ 
burying weapons with the dead may at that time have ceased. 

But not only has there been a question, as to what was the methoC^ 
of interment in vogue among the owners of the bronze swords 
but, as already mentioned in the Introductory Chapter, seriou^ 
dispute has arisen whether the swords themselves are not Roman,^ 
or at all events of Roman date. The late Mr. Thomas Wright t^ 
was the most ardent advocate of this latter view, and he has been to^ 
some extent supported by Mr. C. Roach Smith. § The contrary 
view, that the swords belong to a Bronze Age before the use of^ 
that metal was superseded by that of iron, has been ably advocated 
by the late Mr. A. Henry Rhind, F.S.A.Scot.,|| and Sir John 
Lubbock IF It seems almost needless for me here to enter further 
into this controversy, in which, to my mind, as already stated 
in the Introductory Chapter, the whole weight of the argu- 
ment is in favour of a pre-Roman origin for these swords in 
Western and Northern Europe. There was no doubt a time when 
bronze swords were in use in Greece and Italy, and the substitu- 
tion of iron or steel for bronze, so far as we can judge from the 
early iron swords found in the ancient cemetery at Hallstatt and 

♦ Arch. Aisoc, Journ.y vol. iii. p. 60. f A. A. J., vol. xv. p. 230. 

X " On tho Truo Assignation of the Bronze Weapons," &c., Trans, Ethn. Soe,, N.S., 
to', iv. p. 176. The Celt, Roman and Saxon, 2nd Ed. p. 7, et neqq, 

§ " Catal. Lond. Ant.," p. 80. || Proe. Sor. Ant. Scot., vol. ii. p 72 

H **Preh. Times," 4th Ed. p. 17; Trans. Ethn, Soc., N.S., vol. v. p. 105. 



THE ROMAN SWORD. 275 

elsewhere, involved little if any alteration in the fonn and character 
of the weapon, which was better adapted for thrusting than for 
striking. Even here in Britain, by the time when the Roman 
invasion took place, not only were swords made of iron in use, but 
the form of what is known as the Late-Celtic* sword was no 
longer leaf-shaped, but slightly tapering, with the edges nearly 
straight almost as fieur as the point. Among the Romans it 
would seem that more than one change was made in the form 
of their swords after the introduction of iron as the material 
from which they were formed. As Mr. Rhind has pointed 
out, Polybius speaks of the swords wielded by the soldiers of 
iEmilius at the battle of Telamon, b.c. 225, as made not only to 
thrust but to give a falling stroke with singular effect '' During 
the Second Punic War, however, which immediately succeeded the 
battle of Telamon, the Romans adopted the Spanish sword," the 
material of which we have no difficulty in definitely ascertaining, as 
"Diodorus Siculust particularly mentions the process by which the 
Celtiberians prepared their iron for the purpose of manufacturing 
swords so tempered that neither shield, helmet, nor bone could resist 
them." How far their process of burying iron underground until 
a part of it had rusted away would, in the case of charcoal iron, 
leave the remaining portion more of the nature of steel, I am un- 
able to say. Perhaps the amount of manipulation in charcoal 
necessary to restore the rusted plates to a serviceable condition 
may have produced this effect of converting the iron into mild steeL 
The steel of the sabres made in Japan, j: which will cut through an 
iron nail without their edge being injured, is said to be prepared 
in a similar manner from iron long buried underground. 

Most of the bronze swords are shorter than those of the present 
day ; but the Roman sword would, in the time of Julius, appear to 
have been longer than ours. Otherwise Cicero's joke about his son- 
in-law, Lentulus, would have but little point, however small in 
person he may have been. Indeed, Macrobius§ expressly s%}'s that 
it was a long sword that Lentulus was wearing when Gcero made 
the inquiry. Who has tied my son-in-law to a sword ? 

The swords in use among the Britons at a somewhat later period 
appear to have been of great size, for Tacitus speaks of them as 
ingentes " and " enormes." They were also bluntly pointed, or 
sine mucrone." Such a description is entirely inconsistent with 

* See " Hand Fenlee," pit. xiv., zv., and xviii. t Lib. v. c. 33. 

t Beckman, ** History of InyentioDA," vol. u. p. 328. § ** Saturn.," lib. ii. cap. 3. 

t2 



« 



276 LXAF-^LkFD sw»& [chap. xn. 

the ftwm and me of oar bmae swmiaL thciiigii it nu^it wdl lefier 
to 9omft of die iroa biaiies of tiie Lise^Tdtie Fioiod. which are Sfi^et 
in length. OrhiTs are. hower^r. shorter. 

Of the compazadre nrirr oc fanxue swords in Italy, and of their 
abundance in ScandmaTia and Iidaod. eoontzies nerer oocnpied 
by the Romans. Sir John Labboek^ has already qwhen ; and he 
has alao sommanzed the reasons which conTince him, as they do 
me, that onr bronze wes^wns cannot be refenned to Roman times. 
I win only repeat one of the argmnents. of whk^ perhaps not 
snffieient use has faeiai made. It is that at the time when Jnlins 
Caesar was inTsding Britain, and its inhabitants were thus for the 
first time brought in contact with Roman weapons^ inm had been 
so long in nse for swords in Italy that the term for the weapon 
was "fernun." 

Another feature in bronze swords, which has been frequently 
commented on by archsological writers, is the comparatiyely small 
size of the hilt. *^ The handles are alwavs yery small, a hct which 
tends to prore that the men who used these swords were but oi 
moderate stature." f '* The handles ol the bvonze swords are veiy"^ 
short and couLl not have been held comfortably by hands as large 
as ours — a characteristic much relied on hv those who attributes 
the introduction of bronze into Europe to a people of Asiatics 
origin. ^ 

I must confess that I regard this Tiew of the smallness of the 
hilts as being somewhat exaggerated My own hand is none of 
the smallest, and vet where the bronze hUts of the Danish and 
Hungarian swords have been preserved I have no difiSculty in 
finding room to clasp them. The part of the hilt where it expands 
to embrace the base of the blade was, I think, probably intended 
to be within the grasp of the hand, and not to be beyond it as a 
guard. In the case of some of the short dagger-like weapons it 
seems possible that the projecting rim, which forms a kind of 
jK^mmel at the end of the hilt, was intended to rest between the 
fourth and the little finger, and thus to assist in its being grasped 
finnly when in use as a stabbing weapon. WTien the plates of 
horn or wowl, which, as we shall subsequently see, once covered 
the hilt portion of the sword, have perished, it is hard to realise 
wliat was the exact form of the hilt ; but it is quite evident that 
we must not assume that because the bare bronze does not fill the 

• " Proh. Timoii," p. 22. f Woraaae's " Prim. Ant. of Denmark," p. 29. 

X Lubbock, "Preh. Times," p. 32. 



HILTS FBOPORTIOKAL TO BLADES. 277 

Iiand so as to give it a good grip> the same was the case when it 
had a plate of some other material on each face, which also possibly 
projected beyond the sides. 

There is, moreover, one peculiarity about the hilt-plates of these 
swords which I have often pointed out by word of mouth, but 
which I think has not as yet been noticed in print. It is that 
there is generally, though not universally, a proportion between 
the length of the blade and the length of the hilt-plate ; long sword 
blades having as a rule long hilt-plates, and short sword blades 
short hilt-plates. So closely is this kind of proportion preserved, 
that the outline of a large sword on the scale of one-sixth would 
in some cases almost absolutely correspond with that of one which 
was two-thirds of its length, if drawn on the scale of one-fourth. 

This relative proportion between the length and size of a blade 
and its handle is by no means restricted to the swords of the 
Bronze Period, but prevails also among various tools, such as the 
saws and chisels of the present day. If, for instance, we were to 
argue from the saw-handles in a carpenter's shop as to the size of 
the hands of the carpenters, we should soon find ourselves in 
difficulties. The handle of an ordinary hand-saw is sufficiently 
large to admit the hand of any one short of a giant, while the 
orifice in the handle of a small keyhole-saw will not admit more 
than a couple of fingers, and the handles of saws of intermediate 
size range between these two extremes. This fact suffices to incul- 
cate caution in arguing from the hilt-plates of the bronze swords 
as to the size of the hands of those who used them. It is a 
question which will be more safely determined on osteological than 
archffiological evidence ; but, owing to the remarkable absence of 
bronze swords from the interments in our barrows, it may be some 
time before a sword and the bones of the hand that wielded it 
are found in juxtaposition. 

Professor Rolleston* has well said, " I am not quite clear that 
this bronze sword, leaf-shaped or other, has always a very small 
hilt." "At any rate, there can be no doubt that in this country the 
skeletons of the Bronze Period belonged to much larger and 
stronger and taller men than did the skeletons of the Long Barrow 
stone-using folk who preceded them. In some parts of England 
the contrast in this matter of size between the men of the Bronze 
and those of the Stone Age is as great as that now existing between 
the Maori and the gentle Hindoo." 

* Ihint, Briit, and Olcm, Arch, Soc, 



78 LBAF-BHAPED SWORDS [CHAP. XII. 

The stature of several of the men interred in the Yorkshire 
barrows, examined by Canon Greenwell, was not leas 
than five feet nine inches, and the bones of the hands 
were proportional to those of the bodies ; but, unfor- 
tunately, no bronze swords accompanied them, though 
many of the interments were of the Bronze Age. 

The usual form of sword to which the term " leaf- 
shaped " has been applied is that shown in Fig. 342. 
Their total length is generally about 2 4 inches, though 
sometimes not more than 16 inches, but they are 
occasionally as long as SO inches, or even mot& 
The blades are in most cases uniformly rounded, but 
with the part next the edge slightly drawn down so 
as to form a shallow fluting. In some instances, how- 
ever, there is a more or less bold rounded central rib, 
or else projecting ridges running along the greater 
part of the blade near the edges. They differ consi- 
derably in the form of the plate for the hilt, and Id 
the number and arrangement of the rivets by which 
the covering material was attached. This latter, as 
will subsequently be seen, usually consisted of plates 
of horn, bone, or wood, riveted on each side of the 
hilt-plate. In rare instances the outer part of the 
hilt was of bronze. Of the scabbards of such swords 
and the chapes attached to them I shall subsequently 
speak. 

The Bword shown in Fiff. 342 was found about the year 
1864 in the Thames, near Battersea Bridge, and is now in 
my own collection. Its length, is 25^ inchee, and the blade 
is 2^ inches broad in its broadest part, though at the top of 
the hilt it is 2| inches in breadth. Just above this point 
the edge of the blade has been removed ao as to form two 
broad notches, the object being probably to save the band 
of the warrior from being cut should the sword be drawn 
back in his hand, there Deing apparently no transverse 
guard. The hilt has been attached by rivets or pins pass- 
ing through three longitudinal slots, which have been pro- 
duced in the casting, and not subsequently drilled or made. 
The hilt-plate expands into a kind of fish-tail termination, 
which was probably enclosed in a pommel-like end formed 
by the plates of horn, or other material, of which the hilt 
was made. 
^ I have another sword, about 21 inches in length, which 

**itt^l'*^ ^aa found in the year 1851 near the circular encampment 



WITH CENTRAL SLOTS IN HILT. 



&t Hawridge, on the soath-eastem border of Buckingham- 
diire. The hilt-pUte ia of the same character as mat of 
Fig. 342, but the lower slot ia longer and the upper ones 
■hortOT. In the latter were found the bronze nveta for 
faataning on the hilt. Thig blade ia figured on a small scale 
in the Profeedingt of the Society of Antiqaariet.* 

Another eword (22 inches) of the same character, with 
three pointed oval slots for the rivets, waa found at Wash- 
ingborough,'!' Lincolnahire. Two other leai-ahaped sworda 
were found near the same spot. Another (24 inches), found 
near Midsummer Norton,^ Somerset, haa the central slot 
nearly rectangular. 

The central slot is sometimes accompanied br two or more 
rivet-holes in the projectiag wings of the hilt-plate. A 
Bword (24 inches) with two rivets was found between Wood- 
lands and Ghissage St. Michael, § Dorset. Another, broken, 
was found, with fragments of others, socketed celte, spear- 
heads, a sickle, and other objects, near the Pierre du Villain, 
Aldemey.ll 

'" ■ incl , 

1 Collection, has a long rectangular slot and 
four rivets. One of two (24 inches), found in broken condi- 
tion, with a spear-head and two ferrules, on Fulboum Com- 
mon,** near Cambridge, waa of thia type. Another, from 
Aldreth, Cambe. (23}- inchea), is in the Museum of the Gam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society. 

I have an example, originallT 26 inchea long, found with 
a leaf-nhaped spear-head near Weymouth. 

The type occurs also in France. I have one (18} inches), 
with a slot and four rivets, from Albert, near Amiens. 
Another waa found near Argenteuil,|t Seine et Oiae. I 
have seen a bronze sword from Spain, also with the three 
dots. 

In the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.R.8., is a re- 
markably fine sword (27J inches) from Barrow, Suffolk, in 
which the long slot in the hilt-plate is combined with ten 
small rivet-holea. The central ndge on the blade ie well 
pronounced, as will be seen by Fig, 343. The blunted part 
of the blade near the hilt is engraved or milled diagonally. 
The number of rivets is here larger than usual ; but in a 
Bword (2Si inchea) from the Thames, near Yauzhall,^^ there 
are five rivet-holea in the centre of the plate in lieu of the 
slot, and four in each of the wings— thirteen in all. In 
onothw (23^ inches) from the same locality there are eleven, 

>. 216. 

" " p. 263 ; vol. XV. 230. pi. 23, 6. 
X Somertt Areh. and N. H. Sot. Prut., vol. xxii. p. 70, pi. iii. 

IAnk. Auoe. Jount., vol. xv. p. 2i9, pi. 23, 3. 
Of. at., vol. iii. p. 9. 
1 Op. eit,, vol. xiv. p. 328, pi. xxiv. 6. 
•• jirdi., vol. Di. p. B8, pi. iv. 
tt St. Arth., N.S., vol. V. pi. ix. 1. 
It Artk. Ante. Jaum., vol. iii. p. 60. 



280 LEAF-SHAPED 8WOBD6 [CHAP. XIL 

three in each wing and five in the centre. One ^27 inches) from the 
Thames, in the Museum of the Society of Antiquanes, has ten rivets, of 
which four are in the centre. 

Another (28^ inches) with ten riyet-holes, four in the hilt-plate and 
three in each wing, was found in the Thames* in 1856, and is in the 
British Museum. 

A sword from the Eoach Smith Collection (20f inches) has a well- 
marked midrib to the blade, which is somewhat hollowed on either side 
of it. The hilt-plate has the central slot and four riyet-holes, in which 
two riyets remain. 

In the British Museum is another sword (27f inches) of much the same 
form at the hilt, but with ten riyet-holes, three in each wing and four in 
the central plate, which is prolonged beyond the fishtail-like expansion in 
the form of a flat tang, 1 inch by f inch. It was foimd in the Lea,t near 
London. The lower part of the hilt has been united to the blade by a 
subsequent process of bumine^ on, as will shortly be mentioned. 

This prolongation of the hilt-plate is not singular. In the Bouen 
Museum is a sword with thirteen riyets which exhibits this peculiarity. 
The same exists in a Swiss Lake ^ sword, and is not imcommon in swords 
found in Italy. 

Another sword from the Thames (23 inches) has fiye holes in the hilt- 
plate and four in each wing. The blade, which expands from 1^ inch 
near the hilt to 2^ inches at two-thirds of its length, is ornamented with 
a single engrayed line skirting the edge. 

In the British Museum is another remarkably fine sword from the 
Thames, ornamented in a similar manner, but with a slot in the hilt-plate 
and three riyet-holes in each wing. The blade is 24i^ inches long and 
from li inch to 2f inches wide. 

Ano^er, from Battle, Sussex (29^ inches), has eleyen riyets, three in 
the hilt-plate, which is in form much like that of Fig. 343. The blade is 
drawn down towards the edges. The lower end shows where the runner 
was broken off after it was cast, and is left quite rough, thus raising the 
presumption that it was covered by some kmd of pommel. Five riyets 
are still preserved. 

A sword from the Medway, at Upnor Beach, is 31^ inches long and 
li inch wide at the broadest part. It has no less than fifteen riyet-holes 
for the hut, in three groups of five each. 

One from the Thames (28 1 inches), with plain blade and thirteen riyet- 
holes, has fiye small rivets still in situ. 

More commonly the rivet-holes are fewer in number. One (24^- inches) 
in Canon Green well's Collection, from Broadway Tower, Broadway, 
Worcester, has nine rivet-holes, three in the tang and three in each wing. 
One from the Thames at Battersea § (26 inches), and one from Ebberston, 
Yorkshire, in the Bateman Collection, have the rivets arranged in the 
same manner, as has one which was found near Whittingham, || Northimi- 
berland, with another sword subsequently to be described, and also with 
three spear-heads. 

♦ See "HoraB Fer.," pi. ix. 2, p. 161. 

t Froe. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 60 ; Areh, Joum.y vol. xix. p. 91. 

X Keller, 8ter Bericht, Taf. iii. 1. 

j Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. xiv. p. 329 ; op. cit., vol. xxii. p. 244. 

IJ I*roe. Soc. Ant.y 2iid S., vol. v. p. 429. 



WITH MANY RIVET-HOLKS. 



281 



ve one (19 inclies) with eight rivet-holes, four in the 
and two in each wing, found near Cambridge. The 
appear to have been either made or enlarged by a 
naving been driven through them, the rough burr 
Left on. On either side of the central ridge of the blade 
s a pair of engraved lines parallel to the ed^es and at 
i inch distant from them. The base of the blade next 
pansion for the hilt has been neatly serrated or en- 
1, like that of the sword from Barrow, but in this 
ransversely. Unfortunately this blade, which is beau- 
patinated, has been broken into three pieces, 
ich swords of this class, both with a ceni3*al slot com- 
with rivets and with rivets only, are by no means 
mon. Specimens of each, from the department of 
dt Oise, are figured in the ** Dictionnaire Archeologique 
Gaule." One with a slot and four rivets is in the 
m at Nantes. Two with seven rivet-holes were found 
Nazaire-sur-Loire * (Loire Inferieure). 
m is, indeed, a more usual number for the rivet-holes 
ny of these higher numbers. In Fig. 344 is shown a 
;ample of a sword with seven rivet-holes, found in the 
near Newcastle, and now in the collection of Canon 
^ell, F.K.S. It is 28 inches in length, and has a bead 
just within the edges, which is somewhat exaggerated 
figure. The hilt-plate is provided with slie-ht flanges 
;aining the horn or wood that formed the hut, and has 
circular notch at the base, possibly for the reception of 
. See Fig. 356. 

^ord from the Thames near Battersea (28 2 inches), in 
*itish Museum, is of nearly the same form as Fig. 344, 
e end of the hilt-plate has no notch, and there is no 
• running down it. The hilt has been fastened by 
rivets, which fit tightly in the holes and are nearly aU 
ition. Their ends have conical depressions in them, 
pimch had been used as a riveting tool. In some the 
have been closed by a hollow punch, so as to leave a 
stud projecting in the middle of each surrounded by 
hollow ring. Some French swords present the same 
irity. 

vord of the same form (23j^ inches), but with a plain 
and only five small rivet-holes, was found in the Med- 
: Chatham Beach, and is now in the same collection. 
It seems to have been burnt on. 

word of this form (25^^ inches), with raised ridges 
)1 to the edges, has a rounded end to the hilt-plate and 
'or six very small pins or rivets at the base and for one 
>ne. The hilt-plate has been much hammered. It was 
in the Thames. A second (24 j^ inches), almost identical 
ry respect, has retained five of its pins, 
re are two swords in the Norwich Museum, each of 
with seven rivet-holes, both 21^ inches long, but the 

* £ev. Arch., vol. xxxiii. p. 231. 



Hg. 844.— New- 
oaetlt. i 



282 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS [CHAP. XII. 

one found at Woolpit, Suffolk, and the other at Windsor. One of 
the swords found at Fulboum,* Cambridge, had its rivets arraliged 
as in Fig. 344. The blade is somewhat fluted between the centnl 
ridge and has smaller ridges running parallel to the edges. An- 
other (23j^ inches), found in Glamorganshire,! is of the same character. 
Another like this was foimd in the bed of the Lark,t at Icklingham, 
Suffolk. 

I haye two swords (about 23 inches) with seven rivet-holes, which were 
found with spear-heads, a halberd, and other objects at Stoke Ferry, 
Norfolk. They are unfortunately broken. One of them appears to have 
been a defective casting, and to have wanted a portion of its hilt-plate. 
This has been subsequently supplied by a second lult-plate having been 
cast over the broken end of the original plate, a hole m which has been 
stopped with a rivet, which has been partly covered over by the metal of 
the second casting. This is not an unique instance of mending by 
burning on additional metal. I have a small leaf -shaped sword (17i 
inches), for whidi I am indebted to the Earl of Enniskillen, found near 
Thomnill, KiUina, Co. Cavan, which has in old times had a new hilt-plate 
cast on the original blade in this manner. 

Other sworou3 with seven rivet-holes arranged as in Fig. 344 have 
been found near Alton Castle, || Staffordshire, and at Billinghay,§ 
Lincoln. 

A sword with six rivet-holes (23 inches) was found near Cranboume,^ 
Dorset. Another of the same length was dug up at Stiff ord,** near Gray's 
Thurrock, Essex. Another (20j^ inches) was found in the Severn f f at 
Buildwas, Salop. The rivet-holes are two in the middle and two in each 
wing. 

A leaf-shaped sword, the hilt broken off, but the blade still 22^ inches 
long, was found with a bronze spear-head, a palstave, and a long pin, in 
the Thames, Jf near the mouth of the Wandle. It is now in the British 
Museum. 

A sword with the hilt-plate like that of Fig. 344 has been found in 
Bhenish He8se.§§ 

Another variety of the sword has a strong central rounded rib along 
the blade, of which kind a good example is shown in Fig. 345. The 
original is in the collection of Mr. Eobert Fitch, F.S.A., who has kindly 
lent it to me for engraving. It was found at Wetheringsett,{||| Suffolk, 
and is said to have had remains of a wooden hilt and scabbard attached 
to it when found. Human bones are also reported to have been found 
near it. It is 25^ inches long, with engraved lines on the hilt, and 
has only two rivet-holes besides the ceni3*al square-ended slot. 

Mr. Fisher, of Ely, has a sword of the same character (25 inches), but 
with four rivets and a slot, found in the Fens near Ely. 

A fragment of what appears to have been a sword of the same character, 

♦ Arch., vol. xix. p. 66, pi. iv. ; Skelton's "Meyrick's Anc. Armour,'* pi. xlvii. 14. 

t Arch. Joum.y vol. iii. p. 67 ; Arch., xliii. p. 480. 

{ Burif and West Suff. Proc., i. p. 24. § " Reliquary," vol. iii. p. 219. 

II Arch.f vol. xi. p. 431, pi. xix. 9. 

51 Arch, Assoc. Joum., vol. xv. ^. 229, pi. xxiii. 2. 

♦• Proc. Soc, Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 406; Arch. Joum., vol. xxvi. p. 191. 

ff- "Horse Fer.," pi. ix. 6, p. 162. XX Arch. Joum., vol. ix. p. 7. 

§§ Lindenschmit, **A. u. h. V.,'* vol. i. Heft iii. Taf. iii. 6. 

Iljj Areh. Assoc. Journ. ,yol. iii. p. 264; xv. p. 230, pi. xxiii. No. 4. 



WITH CENTRAL RIB OS BLADE. 

b two liret-holea inetead of the central slot, was 

vith socketed celts and spear-heads at Bilton,* 

ire. 

e a fragment of a blade of this kind in the Seach 

ird. Another fragment, from Chrishall, Essex, is 

British Museum, as is also one found under 

Head.f It has two rivet-holes in each wing, 
Tee considerably larger in the centre. They ap- 

be cast, and not drilled. With this fragment 
)und palstaves, socketed eelte, lumps of copper, 
d armlets. 

type also occurs in France. I have a specimen 
le Seine at Paris, with the hilt and lower part 
identical with Fig. 346, but the blade does not 
in the same manner, and has two lines engraved 

side of the central rib, the inner pair meeting 
rib some little way from the point, the outer con- 
» nearly the end of the blade. 1 liavo fragments 
ord of similar character from the hoard found at 
near Amiens. The fragment from Beachy Head 
mentioned may possibly be of Gaulish origin. 

in Italian oblong bronze coin or quincussis, 
les by 3^ inches, and weighing about 3^ lbs., 
'epresentatioD of a leaf-shaped sword with a 
rib along the centre of the blade, and in 

character much like Fig. 345. A specimen 

coin 13 in the British Museum,+ and bears 
he reverse the figure of a scabbard with 

sides, and a nearly circular chape. Another 
' the same type, engraved by Carelli,§ has a 
;imilar scabbard on the reverse, but the swonl 

obverse is either represented as being in its 
■d or is not at all leaf-shaped, the sides of the 
)eing parallel. The hilt is also curved, and 
! a cross-guard. In fact, upon the one coin, 
ipon has the appearance of a Roman sword 

and on the other that of a leaf-shaped sword 
Qze. These pieces were no doubt cast in 
t, probably in the third century B.C., but their 
Lion to Ariminum is at best doubtful From 
I varieties of sword appearing on coins of the 
."pe, the inference may be drawn either that 

* Arek. Allot. Jmtm., vol. v. p. 349. 
h Are!,., vol. jri. p. 363. 
n-^i „»n_ n . ._ n., Kg. M5.— WethM- 



384 LEAF-SHAPED BWORD0, [cHAF. ZII. 

Bt the time when they were cast, bronze swords were in Umbiu 
being superseded by those of iron ; or that the type originaliy 
referred to some sacred weapon of bronze such as is represented 
on the coin in the British Museum, but was subsequently made 
more conventional so as to represent the sword in ordinary use 
at the period. 

The sword witii a central rib was sometimes at- 
tached to the hilt in a different manner from any 
of tlie blades hitherto described, as will be seen 
by Fig- 346, copied from the Arehaologieal Auo- 
eiation Journal.* This sword was found at Tiver- 
ton, near Bath, and it is provided with, four 
rivets, a pair on each side of the continuation of 
the central rib along the hilt-plate. Human re- 
mune and Btag's-homs are said to have been 
found near it. 

In the British Museum is a blade of the same 
kind (194- inches], with Bemicircular notches for 
the four rivets. It was found in the Thames at 
Kingston. Another from the Thames (21 inches) 
has the two upper holes perfect. 

Leaf-shaped swords of the ordinary type also 
occasionally had their hilts attached m tiie same 
manner. Fig. 347 shows a blade from the 
Thames,! "^^^ Eingeton (16^ inches) with the 
rivet-holea thus arranged. I have another, from 
the Hugo Collection (18 inches), found in the 
Thames about a mile west from Barking Greek.J 
which has had four rivet-holes arranged in the 
same manner, though the maigins are now broken 
away, so that only traces of the holes remain. 
Another apparently of this type was found in 
Lincolnshire.! 

In Canon Greenwell's Collection is a leaf-shaped , 
blade of the same character (15} inches), which, 
however, has only two rivet-holes, one on each 
side of the hilt-plate. It was found at Sand- 
ford, || near Oiford, together with a rapier-shaped 
blade. 

Another variety has a narrower tang and rivet Tirfnon.' ) Ki^tS;. t 
holes in tie median line. A blade of this kind, 

which is in Mr. Layton's Collection, was found in the Thames at 
Greenwich, and is engraved in the Arckaologieal Journal.^ 

Before proceeding to the consideration of the swords with more perfect 
hilts and pommela found in England, it will be well to give references to 

• Vol. iv. p. 1*7 : vol. iu. p. 33). 

t Areh. JoHrn., vol. v. p. 327 ; Pmc. Sac. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 83, No. U. 

J Fror. Sot. A'll., 2nd S., Tol. i. p. *4- 

! Arri. JaurH., vol. lix. p. 91. H Arek. Jeurn., vol. ixiiv. p. 301. 

It Auth. iMt. Jwra., vol. iu. p. 230. 



LOCALITIES WHERE FOUND. 285 

ome of the other instances of leaf -shaped swords found in this country 
nd in Wales. Several have been found in the Thames * besides those 
Iready mentioned. Others have been discovered in the Isle of Portland ; f 
it Brixworth,! Northamptonshire ; and in the sea-dike bank between 
?leet and Gkldney,§ Lincolnshire. Two, one with the chape of the 
icabbard, of which more hereafter, were found at Ebberston,|| Yorkshire. 

Two were foimd at Ewart Park,f near Wooler, Northumberland, one 
of which is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 

Some fragments of swords, regarded as bein^ of copper, were found, 
wiUi spear-heads, celts, and lumps of metal, at Lanant,** and also at St. 
Hilaiy, Cornwall, about the year 1802. 

There were also some fragments in the Broadward find,ff Shropshire, 
which consisted principally of spear-heads and ferrules. Occasionally a 
ooQsiderable nimiber of swords are said to have been foimd together. 
No less than twenty are reported to have been discovered about the year 
1736 near Alnwick Castle, |^ in company with forty-one socketed celts and 
ozieen spear-heads ; and two broaa swords, one sharp-pointed sword, a 

SEur-point, and a socketed celt were found '* in a bimdle together " at 
bleside, Westmoreland, §§ about 1741. 

Two swords, some spear-neads, celts, and other relics were discovered 
at 8henstone,|||| StafPorashire, in 1824. Near them are said to have been 
aoflaie fragment of human bones. Some swords are reported to have 
heea found in a marsh on the Wrekin Tenement, ^^ Shropshire, with a 
oelt and about one himdred and fifty fragments of spear-heads. 

Two swords and a fragment of a third were found in the Heathery 
Bom Gave, in company with numerous bronze and bone instruments and 
a gold armlet and penannular hollow bead. Most of these objects are 
now in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.E.S. Three swords were 
foond atBranton, Northumberland, and are now in the Alnwick Museum ; 
where are also two which had pommels of lead, and were found with 
two rings near Tosson, parish of Eothbury, in that county. Another, 
which was also accompanied by two rings, were found near Medomsley, 
Durham. These rings may in some manner have served to attach the 
•words to a belt. 

Most of the swords found in Wales appear to be in a fragmentcuy 
condition. Engravings of some leaf-shaped swords are said to exist on a 
rock between Barmouth ♦** and Dolgellau, North Wales. 

A fragment of a sword was found, with a bronze sheath-end, looped pal- 
staves, spear-heads, and a ferrule, near Ouilsfield,fft Montgomeryshire. 
Fragments of three swords were found, with lance-heads, ferrules, a chape, 
and other objects, at Glancych,^ f{ Cardiganshire. They appear to have 
had six rivets. 

• Areh. Joum,, vol. xviii. p. 168 (24J inches) ; Arch. Assoc, Joum., vol. xxii. p. 243 ; 
AnKj ToL zzyL p. 482 (said to have had a bone or wooden hUt when found). 

t Areh, Jowm,^ vol. xxi. p. 90. % Areh, Assoc. Joum,^ vol. ii. p. 366. 

i StiUceley, "It. Cur.," vol. i. p. 14. || Areh, Assoc, Joum,, vol. xvii. p. 321. 

% Areh, ASiiana, voL i. p. 11, pi. iv. 3. •• Areh., vol. xv. p. 118. 

tf Areh, Can^,, 4ih S., vol. iu. p. 363. XX Areh., vol. v. p. 113. 

§J Areh,, vol. v. p. 116. |||| Arch., vol. xxi. p. 648. 

VI Areh,, voL xxvi. p. 464. *♦* Areh. Joum., vol. ix. p. 91. 

ttt Proe, Soc, Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 260 ; Areh, Camb., 3rd S., voL x. p. 214. 
XXI Arch. Cmmk,^ Srd S., vol. x. p. 221. 



286 LKAF-8HAFBD SWORDS [cHAP. XIL 

English swords, with the hilts, or pommels, or both, formed of 
broQzo, are not of common occurrence. The first which I hi« 
selected for illustration hu 
j the side edges so Btiai^ 

that it hardly beloi^ to 
the class usually known » 
leaf-shaped. Thehilt-plrte 
is peculiar in having well- 
developed side flange! 
which expand at the base 
so as to form an onl 
pommel. The hilt has u 
usual been formed of two 
plates of bone or wood, 
which have been secured 
to the hilt-plate by six 
rivets. This sword, which 
was found in the Fens, 
near Ely, has unfortu- 
nately lost its point, but 
is still 19^ inches long. 
It was lent me for engrav- 
ing (as Fig. 3-* 8) by Mr. 
M. Fisher, of Ely. In 
some Dimish examples the 
high flanges of the hilt- 
pljites are covered by thin 
plates of gold, beyond 
which, of course, the hilt 
of Wno, wood, or horn did 
not pn^jeot, and no doubt 
in ihis ini>tanoe also the 
si.ii- rt:Hig>.'s wore left vi- 
sil>'o and not in any way 
iwt'rt\l. They are up- 
war\is of 4 inches in 
IiHirth, so that the hilt 
^t t^::M tit into a large 

;"". bu; very in:i"n-i;inj: swoi\I »;;h a jvriVvt bronze hilt 
imel is fiiowu in Fig. S4i>. It «-as found in the River 



i 



WITH HILTS OF BRONZE. 



287 



rell,* and is now in the Museum at Oxford. It was kindly 

Qe by Professor Rolleston for the purpose of engraving. The 

length of the weapon is 21 inches, of which the pommel and 

v^hich is adapted for a decidedly large hand, occupy about 5 

3. The hilt has the appearance of having been cast upon 

[ade, and seems to be formed of bronze of the same 

cter. There are no rivets visible by which the two 

igs are attached the one to the other. 

im of opinion that the same process of attaching 

ilt to the blade by casting the one upon the other 

n use in Scandinavia and Germany. Some of the 

e daggers from Italy seem also to have had their 

cast upon the blades in which the rivets were 

ly fixed. 

the British Museum is a sword blade with slight ribs 

the edges, retaining a portion of the hilt, which is cast 

Bparate piece and attached to the wings by two rivets. 

said to have been found in the Thames.f The hilt has 

bs round it at intervals of about half an inch apart. 

a fragment of a sword blade, ornamented on each side 

ive parallel engraved lines, the upper margin of the hilt 

'ked out by a raised and engrailed line of the same form 

upper end of the lult of Fig. 360. It was found in the 

near Wieken, Cambs, with a part of a scabbard end, 

heads, and other objects now in the British Museunf. 

remarkably fine sword, found in the River Witham, J 

Lincoln, in 1826, is shown in Fig. 350, for the use of 

I am indebted to the Council of the Society of Antiqua- 

The original is in the museum of the Duke of Northum- 

id, at Alnwick. It presents the pecidiarity of having 

>irals attached to the base of the hilt with a projecting 

etween them, the whole taking the place of the pom- 

The blade appears to be engraved with parallel linos 

her side of the midrib. These spirals are of far more 

on occurrence on the Ck)ntinent than in Britain, and this 

., though found so far north as Lincoln, is not impro- 

of foreign origin. 

eral such have been found in France. One with the 
s but a different form of hilt was foimd at AH^, 

)ronze sword foimd in the Rhone at Lyons, but now in 
useum at Rennes, || Brittany, has a nearly similar hilt and pommel 
s three raised bands on the lult, but no pin between the spirals 
of the swords from the Swiss Lake-dwellmgs have similar hilts 



Fig. 860. 



vm, Anthrop. Intt., vol. iii. p. 204. t " Horae Fer.,** pi. ix. 9, p. 162. 
•c. 8oe. Ant.f vol. ii. p. 199. § lUv. Areh.^ N.S., vol. xxiv. pL 

Antre, '< Alb.," pi. ziv. bit, 3; Diet, Arch, de la GauU. 



XXV. 3. 



288 



LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS 



[chap. I 











They have been found at Concise^* in tl 
Lake of Neuchatel, and in the Lac < 
Lui8sel.t 

Another of the same kind is in t! 
Johannemn at Gratz, Styria. The san 
form was also found at Hallstatt} An 
other was found near 8tettin.§ Anothe 
from ErxlebenJ Magdebui^, is in th 
Bnmswick Museum. 

The hilt of a sword with spirals an 
a central pin was f oimd in the g^reat Bo 
logna hoaid. A perfect example is in th 
Boyal Armoury at Turin.^ 

There are several swords with this kin 
of hilt in the Museum of Northern Ant 
quities at Copenhagen,** some of whi< 
are figured by Madsen.-ff The spirals a 
sometimes found detached. A highly inl 
resting paper by Dr. Oscar Montelius i 
the different fonns of hilts of bron 
swords and daggers is published in t] 
Stockhohn volume of the Congress i 
Prehistoric Archfeology. JJ 

The remarkable sword with a somewl 
analogous tennination to the hilt, shoi 
in Fig. 351 , was found at Thrunton Farm, 
in the parish of Whittingham, Northu: 
berland, and is in the collection of Lg 
Eavensworth. With it was found anotl 
sword already mentioned, a specur-he 
with lunate openings in the blade (F 
418"^. and some smaller leaf -shaped spei 
heads. They are said to have been 
foimd sticking in a moss with the poii 
downwanis, and arranged in a circle. T 
pommel end of the hilt is in this instaz 
a distinct casting, and is veiy remarkal 
on account of the two curved horns c 

• KoUor, :xeT Boncht Taf. in. 4 ; Ster Bene 
T»f. iii, W : I\>^-ir and Favre, *• Le Bel Age 
Br.." pi. V. 10; Trovon, ••Habit. Lacust 
pi. i\. IL 

t KtUt r, Tt*r B.. Taf. xxiv. 9. 

* Von Saokcn, - Gnibf. v. Hallst,** pi. v. 10. 
M.indonsv-hn;iU "A. u. h. V.,** Heft i. T 

IK I. 

I " iVit>'^*h. fur V*.lhn.." rcJ. Tii. Taf. x. 2. 

^ - BuU. ai r.^U t. It&l-." anno ii., p. 26. 

•• ** Ai:.^s for Nord. Oidk.," pi. B. iv., 40 

AVorsAJic, " Noixi. Old*.." fig*. 135, 136. 

t-^ " ,\fiv;*d," vol. ii. pi. ▼. vi. 

* * i\ ss*. 

J^* 7Sv. S/v*. -4*»f.. 2nd S,.ToL T. p. 429; **1^ 
For,;* pi. ix. fif. 31, p. 161. 



I^OUND IN SCOTLAND. 289 

tending from it, whioh are somewhat trumpet-mouthed, with a projecting 
cone in the centre of each. 

In Scotland a number of bronze swords have been found which 
bear, as might have been anticipated, a close resemblance to those 
from England. 

That shown in Fig. 352 was found in a moss at Leuchland, Brechin, 
in Angus, and is now in the collection of Canon GreenweU, F.E.S. Its 
length is 26^ inches, and the six rivets for attaching the hilt are still in 
the hilt-plate, which is doubly hooked at the end. A rib from the thicker 
part of the blade is prolonged part of the way down the hilt-plate as in 
tig. 344. Another sword, broken at the hilt, but still 26^ inches long, 
iras found on the same farm. A find from Brechin is mentioned further on. 
1 sword with four rivet-holes, like those from Arthur's Seat, found on the 
^orders between England and Scotland, and engraved by Orose,* has the 
ame peculiar end to the hilt-plate, as has one with five rivets from 
lethlick, Aberdeenshire, now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 
hrose has also engraved two, each with six rivet-holes in the wings and 
wo or three in the hilt- plate, foimd in Duddingston Loch,f near Edin- 
urg^h, as well as the hilt-plate of another, foimd near Peebles, with slots 
1 tne wings and a slot and rivet-hole in the tang. 

Some fni^ents of swords from this loch are in the Antiquarian 
[ueeum at Edinburgh. Almost directly above Duddingston Loch, on 
jrtliTir's Seat,]: two other swords were foimd during the construction of the 
tueen's Drive. They are 26^ inches and 24 ^ inches long, in outline 
ke Fig. 342, with one rivet-hole in each wing and two in me centre of 
le hilt-plate. 

Two (23} inches and 20^ inches) of the usual character, with nine rivets 
nd hilts much like Fig. 354, have been found in Lanarkshire. § 

In Gordon's ''Itinerarium Septentrionale" || a sword (24^ inches) found 
eax Irvine, Argyleshire, is engraved, as is also one (26 inches) found in 
rraham's Dvke near Oarinn, which is said to be in the Advocates' Library 
t Edinburgn. The figures do not seem accurate, but show seven rivets 
a one and three in the other. Gordon makes no doubt that these swords 
ire Homan. 

Other specimens have been foim'd at Forse,^ Latheron, Caithness (25 
nches), near the Point of Sleat,** Isle of Skye (22^ inches), with two 
ipear-heads and a pin. Another was found in Wigtonshire.ff 

In the Antiquarian Museum are specimens from &e following counties : 
Aberdeen, Argyle, Ayr, Edinburgh, Fife, Forfar, Kincardine, and 
Stirling. 

In peat, atIochdar,|^ South Uist, were found two swords like that from 
Arthur's Seat, the hilts of which are said to have been formed of wood. 
A leather sheath is also reported to have been present. 
A bronze scabbard tip, such as will subsequently be described, was 

• *'Trettiae on Anc. Armour,'* pi. Ixi. 1. f Op. eit.^ pi. Ixi. 2, 3, 4. 

X Wilion'i "Pwh. Ann.," vol. i. p. 362, fig. 62. 

\ -^rck, Auoe, Joum., vol. xvii. p. 210, pi. xx. 10, 11. || PI. li. 2, 3, p. 118. 

J iVw. 8de. Ant, Scot., vol. ii p. 33. •• P. 8. A. 5., vol. iii. p. 102. 

tt Ayr and Wigton Coll., vol. ii. p. 14. JJ Prof. 5oc. Ant. Scot., vo^ vi. p. 252. 

U 



290 



LHAF-SHAFBD SWOBIM 



[chap. J 



found, with four bronze Bvords (about 24 indiu) and a loif^ KtearJuid, 
neiLT Brechin,* Forfarshire ; and in Corsbie Moea.t L^erwood, Berwick, > 
bronze aword and epear-head were found, the former naving, it 18 Bsid, * 
Msbbard, apparently of metal, but ho much corroded aa to fall in jfteoai 
on remoTal. This also maj have been of leather stained hy the metoL 
A Bvord with a large pommel (24 inches), closely resembling Fig. 3S), 
was found, together with two other sword 
blades (one 25 inches with slots), a scab- 
bard end, and two bronze pins, with Uige 
circular flat heads, at Tarves,t Aberdeen- 
shire. Borne of these were presented to du 
British Museum by the Earl of Aberdeen. 
There is a recess on the hilt-pl»te t<a the 
reception of the horn or bone of the hilt, 
which was fastened by three riretB stiU 
remaining. 

Another sword, the blade 22 inches long, 
the handle, including a round hollow pom- 
mel, 6^ inches, was found in Skye, and is 
engraved in " Pennant's Tour."§ It shows 
four rivet-holes arranged like those in the 
sword from Arthur's Seat, so that the hilt 
was probably formed as usual of horn or 
wood and not of bronze. 



A few other swords with pommels to 
their hilts have been found in Scotland. 
That shown in Fig. 353 was found in 
Edinburgh,!! with, it is said, thirteen or 
fourteen more, a pin, and ring, and a 
kind of annular button, of bronze. It 
is now in the Antiquarian Museum at 
Edinbui^h. The hilt appears to have 
been added to the hilt-plate by a sub- 
sequent process of casting. The pom- 
mel has been cast over a core of clay, 
which it still retains within it. An- 
other of the swords (2 4 J inches) has 
the Iiilt-plate pierced for six rivets. 
Two others which have been examined 
are imperfect. 

Mr. Joseph Anderson, who has dc- 
that this liilt must have " been cast in 
word which liad the grip mode up of 



i 



scribed this find, points out 
a matrix modelled from a s 

• Froc. Soe. AnI. Seet., toI. i. pp. 
t Prof. Soc. Atit..vo\. iii. \y 121, 
{ Vol. ii. p. 33*, pi. iliv. 



, rol. xLiJ. p. 203. 
■•pi. ii. *, p. 161. 
(. Seet., Tol. liii. p. 321. 



FOUND IN IRELAND. 29^1 

two convex plates attached on either side of the handle plate, and 
their ends covered by a hollow pommel" — in fact, from such a sword 
as that from Tarves, already mentioned. He also observes that the 
holes in the hilt are not rivet- holes, and thinks that they may have 
been caused by wooden pins used to hold the clay core in position, 
for the handle as well as the pommel is hollow. I am rather 
doubtful as to the accuracy of this theory, as such pins would, 
I think, produce blow-holes in the metal in casting. There may, 
however, have been clay projections from the inner core which 
would leave holes such as these, into which studs of wood, bone, 
or horn might afterwards be inserted by way of ornament and to 
add firmness to the grip. For details of the finding of from 
thirty to forty bronze swords in Scotland, the reader is referred 
to Mr. Anderson's paper. 

The bronze leaf-shaped swords from Ireland, of which nearly or 
quite a hundred, either perfect or fragmentary, are preserved in 
the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, have been treated of at 
some length by the late Sir William Wilde,* whose Catalogue 
the reader may consult with advantage. In general appearance 
they closely resemble the swords from the sister countries, and vary 
in length from about eighteen to thirty inches. The blades are 
usually rounded on the faces, or have a faintly marked median 
ridge, and are slightly fiuted along the edges. This fluting or 
bevelling is sometimes bounded by a raised ridge. The form 
with a rounded rib along the middle of the blade is almost un- 
known. There is considerable variation in the form of the end 
of the hilt-plate, in which occasionally there is a deep V-shaped 
notch, or several smaller notches. The most common termination 
is that like a fish-tail as seen in Fig. 354. The number of rivet-holes 
is various, ranging from four to eleven. There are occasionally 
slots t in the hilt-plate and in the wings at the base of the blade. 

They have been found in most parts of the kingdom. 

A common type of Irish sword is shown in Fig. 354 from a speci- 
men found at Newtown Limavady, Co. Derry, in 1870. One 
wing of the fish-tail termination is wanting and has been restored 
in the sketch. The nine rivet-holes seem to have been cast 
and not drilled, though they may have been slightly counter-sunk 
subsequently to the casting. The hilt-plate is slightly fluted, per- 
haps with the view of steadying the hilt. In a fragment of a 
sword found with spear-heads, a socketed dagger, and a fragment 

• "Cmtal. Mai. R. I. A.," p. 439. t Op. fit, p. 454. 

U2 



392 L8AT-SHAFBD SWOHDS [cHAF. XU. 

of a hammer on Bo Island, Enniskillflu, there are fire deep flutings 



Fig. Mi.— Inlnnd. 1 



FOUND IN IBEtAND AND FRANCE. 293 

on each side of the hilt-plate. As is the case with some of 
the English examples already mentioned, this hilt-plate has been 
joined to the blade by some process of burning on. One of the 
four rivet-holes in it has been partially closed by the operation. 
Sir William Wilde has noticed that several of the leaf-shaped 
swords under his charge had been broken and subsequently 
" welded " both by fusion and by the addition of a collar of the 
metal which encircles the extremities of the frt^^ents. The term 
" welding " is, however, inappropriate to a metal of the character 
of bronze. 

In the British Museum is a sword of this type with nine rivet-holea 
(25 i inches), found near Aghadoe,* Co. Kerry. 

In the small Irish blade of much the same type (Fig. 355) there are only 
three rivet-holes, which have been cast in the blade, a fourth having from 
some cause been filled up with the metal, though a depression on each 
face marks the spot where the hole was intended to be. 

There were several swords, mostly broken, in the great Dowris hoard. 
Thej had a rivet-hole in each wing and two or three in the hilt-plate. 

Some of the bronze swords found in Ireland attracted the attention of 
antimiaries upwards of a century ago. Gbvemor Pownall described two 
fomia in a bog at Cullen, Tipperary, which are engraved in itieArehaoloffia.\ 
They are 26^^ inches and 27 inches long, and one of them is of the same 
form as the Scotch sword, Fig. 352. Yallancey^ has also figured one 
(22 inches) with eight rivets. 

From among those in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy I have 
selected two for engraving. The first, Fig. 356 (26^ inches), has had its 
hilt attached by a number of very small pins instead of rivets of the usual 
size. The second, Fig. 357, is a short blade about 19^ inches long, with 
a central rib extending down the hilt-plate, in which there are four rivet- 
holes, two on eacti side. 

A bronze sword from Polimac, Haute Loire, now in the Museum at 
Le Puy, Haute Loire, has its hilt-plate like that of Fig. 356, but has only 
four rivets. Another with seven rivets was foimd in a dolmen at Miers,§ 
Lot. Another with six rivets from the Department of Jura|| is in the 
museum at St. Gbrnudn. 

Another from near Besan9on,^ Doubs, has six small rivets. One found 
at Alise Ste. Heine,** Cote d'Or, has four rivets only. 

The type also occurred at Hallstatt,tt and in Qermany.|{ 

At least two swords have been found in Ireland still retaining the 
plates of bone which formed their hilts. By the kindness of Mr. 
Robert Day, F.S.A., I am able to reproduce full-sized figures of 

• *«HarB FeralaB," pi. ix. 7, p. 162. t Vol. iii. p. 366, pi. xix. 

iVol. iy. pi. vii. 1, p. 60. 
De BoDstotten, <*£8Bai sur les Dolm./' 1866, pi. ii. 2; Bev, Areh,, N.S., toI. xiii. 
p. 188, pL T. D. 

I Cluuitre, " Alb.," pi. rvi. 1. ^ Diet. Arch. d€ la OauU. 

♦• Mtv. Arch., N.S., vol. iv. pi. xiii. 23. ft Von Sacken, Taf. v. 2. 

:; lindensohmit, '< A. u. h. Y.,'* toL i. Heft iii. Taf. iii. 6. 



SM LBAP-8HAFBD BWORDS [cHAF. XII. 

both sides of one of the most perfect specimens, as F^ 358 and 




Vig. aJ8.— Miickno. { Fiy. 3R>.— Muckno. { 

359, which have already appeared in the Journal of the Royal 



•WJTB UILT9 OF BONE, -395 

Historical avid ArduEologiccU Association of IrelaTid.* The sworti 




Fif. an.— Huokuo. 



itself, shown on a small scale in Fig. 360. was found in Lisletrim 
• 3rd 8., Tol. i. p. 23 ; 2ivl S vol. vi. p. 72 ; ■' Beliqiiuy," vol. x. p. 65 



S96 LBAF-8UAPED SWOXDS. [CHAF. XII. 

Bog, Mackso, Co. Mousghan. It is 24^ inches long, with a thick 
midrib running along the blade. The plates of bone which are 
Btill attached have been pronounced by Professor Owen to be 
mammalian, and probably cetacean. It will be observed that at 
the wings of the hilt-plate the bone projects somewhat beyond the 
metal. The same pecuharity may be observed in the bone hilt 
of a sword found at Mtillylagan,* Co. Armagh, which has som«- 
what the appearance of having been carved at the end next the 
blade into a pair of rude volutes. It is shown full-size in 
Fig. 361. Ilie sword itself, on a small scale, is shown in 
Fig. 362. In this instance the bone projects beyond the sides 
of the hilt-plate. I have not seen the specimen, which ta pie- 
served in the collection of Mr. A. Knight Young, of Monaghan.t 
A bronze sword with six rivets, found near Kallundborg, Cenmark,* 
had the hilt formed of wood. 

As is the case with several of the bronze swords discovered in 
Scandinavia, some of those found in Ireland seem 
£imB to have been decorated with gold upon their hilts. 
KBH On one of the rivets of a sword found in a bog 

kEJH near CulleD,§ Tipperaiy, was a thin piece of gold 
e|,B^^ weighing upwards of 12 dwts. Another sword, II 
K'^^H found near the same place in 1751, had a plate of 
K.^^M goiij on one side which covered the hilt ; at the end 
'landT was a small object like a pommel of a sword, with 
three links of a chain hanging from it. The whole 
weighed 3 ozs. 3 dwts. 1 1 grs. In this bog about twenty bronze 
swords were found at intervals, besides about forty pieces of hilt- 
plates in which the rivets stood. In one swordU there was a recess 
near the blade, i^x^x^^ inch, in which was "a piece of pewter 
which just fitted it, with four channels cut in it, in each of which 
was laid a thin bit of fine copper, so that they resembled four 
figures of 1." 

A fragment of a blade which Wildo " considers to be that of a 
sword, is decorated with raised lines and circles in relief, which 
were cast with the blade. A portion of it ia shown in Fig. 363. 
As the whole fragment is only 4-i inclies long, it may have formed 
part of a socketed knife or some other instrument, and not of a 

" /our. Soyal HM. i Arch. Aunt, of Inland, 4th S., vol. u. p. 267. I am indebted 
to the Council for the use of tha cut«, 
+ Op. fit; 4th S., vol. i. p. 505. I " AarboRer tor Nord. Oldk.," 1871, p 15 

i Arey, vol. iii. p. )fl3. I lb-. P- 364. n Ih., p. 335. 

• • "CitaX. Hui. B. I. A.," p. 44fl,flg. 822, hers hy penniMion reproduced. 



CONTINENTAL TYPES. 297 

Bword. A part of a spear-head, with a series of ring ornaments 
engraved on the blade, was in the hoard found at Hajmes Hill, 
Kent.* 

There is considerable general resemblance between the bronze 
swords found in the British Islands and those of the continental 
countries of Europe. The similarities with those from France 
have already been pointed out. Several with ornamented hilts 
have been figured by Chantref and others. One has a hemi- 
spherical pommel and a varied design on the hilt 

The bronze swords from the Swiss Lake-dwellings J have fre- 
quently bronze hilts, like those of the swords from the South of 
Franca In some instances the hilt-plate has side flanges, with a 
^central slot or line of rivets, and rivets in the wings. In others 
the broad tang forming the hilt has two or three rivet-holes. In 
some hilts cast in bronze there is a recess for receiving a piece of 
horn or wood. The blades have frequently delicate raised ribs, 
sometimes six on each face, rimning along them. 

The bronze swords of Italy§ present several varieties not found 
in Britain. The sides of the blades are more nearly parallel, and 
many have a slender tang at the hilt, sometimes with two rivet-holes 
forming loops at the side of the tang, sometimes with one rivet- 
hole in its centre. In some the blade narrows somewhat for the 
tang, in each side of which are two semicircular notches for the 
rivets. In some Italian and French swords the blade is drawn out 
to a long tapering point, so that its edges present a somewhat 
ogival curve. 

A fragment of a very remarkable Greek sword from Thera II has 
a series of small broad-edged axes of gold, in shape like conven- 
tional battle-axes, inlaid along the middle of the blade between 
two slightly projecting ribs. 

The double-edged bronze swords found by Dr. SchUemannf at 
Mycenffi are tanged and often provided with pommels made of 
alabaster. The hilts and scabbards are in some cases decorated 
with gold. The blades are usually long and narrow, though some 
widen considerably at the hilt-end, so as to form a broad shoulder 

* Arek, Joum,, vol. xxx. p. 282. 

t ^'Aj^duBr./' 1^ ptie. p. 106 et teq. ; Alb., pi. xv. bit, 2; De Ferry, ** Macon preh.," 
pL nxix. 

1 KeUer, jNMfMN. 

I See Gaitaldi, " loonografia,'* 1869, Tav. viii. ; PeUegrixii, <* Sepolchreto Preromano," 
1878, TtLY. m., It. Qooadini, '* Mors de Cheval et r£p^ de Rorzano," 1876. 

I •" AarUg. t Kord. Oldk.," 1879, pi. i. 

n ^^Hyernm and Tiryn^" 1878, pp. 281, 303, &c. 



298 LBAF-SHAPEO SWORDS. [CHAP. XII. 

to the tang. Swords appear to have been much rarer on the pre- 
sumed site of Troy. 

There appear to be doubts whether the beautiful bronze sword 
in the Berlin Museum,* reported to have been found at Fella^ in 
Macedonia, does not belong to the valley of the Rhine. 

Bronze swords have but rarely been found in Egypt. In my own 
collection, however, is one which was found at Great Ejmtara durii^ 
the construction of the Suez Canal. The blade, about 17 inches 
long, is leaf-shaped, and much like that of Fig. 360, but more 
uniform in width. Instead of having a hilt-plate it is drawn down 
to a small tang about ^h ^^^^ square. This again expands into 
an octagonal bar, about 4 ii^^^h in diameter, which has been drawn 
down to a point, and then turned back to form a hook, probably 
for suspending the sword at the belt. At the base of the blade 
are two rivet-holes. The hilt must have been formed of two 
pieces which clasped the tang. The total length of the sword 
from the point to the top of the hook is 22|- inches. I have 
never seen another similar example, but a bronze sword blade, 
presumably from Lower Egypt, is in the museum at Berlin. It has 
an engraved line down each side of the blade, and its sides are 
more parallel than in mine from Kantara, already mentioned. 
The hilt is broken oflf. A German sword from the Magdeburg 
district, with a tang and two rivet-holes at the base of the blade, 
closely resembles mine from Egypt, except that it has no hook to 
the tang. 

The bronze swords found in Denmark t and Northern Germany + 
have often side flanges to the hilt-plate, like Fig. 348, occasion- 
ally plated with gold ; but the blades are generally more uniform 
in width, and have the edges straighter than those from the United 
Kingdom. Some blades have a simple tang. On a very large 
proportion the hilt formed of bronze (or of some more perishable 
material alternating with bronze plates) has been preserved. The 
pommels are usually formed of oval or rhomboidal plates with a 
central boss, and are generally ornamented below. 

Some of the swords found in Sweden and Denmark have been 
regarded by Dr. Montelius§ and Mr. Worsaae || as of foreign 
origin. 

* Bastian und A. Voss, " Die Bronze Schwcrter dcs K. Mus. zu Berlin," 1878, p. 56. 
t "Atlas for Nord. Oldk.," pi. B, ii., iii., iv. ; Woraaae, " Nord. Olda.," figa. 114 



to 137 



X Lisch, " Frf>der. Franciso.," Tab. xiv., xv. 

S "Cong, preh.," Stockholm vol. i. p. 506. || " Cong, preh.," Buda 



Peat vol., p. 238. 



EARI.Y IRON SWORDS. 299 

A bronze sword from Finland with a flanged hilt-plate and 
eight rivet-holes has been * figured. 

In Germany t the bronze swords present types which more 
nearly resemble those of France and Denmark than those of the 
British Isles. Those with a flanged hilt-plate are found, however, 
both in Northern and Southern Germany, as well as in Italy, Austria 
and Hungary. Others have long and narrow tangs, but a large 
proportion are provided with bronze hilts, usually with disc-like 
pommels. These hilts conceal the form of the tangs. Some few have 
spirals at the end of the hilt, as already mentioned, and one from 
!l^randenburg, in the Berlin Museum, has a spheroidal pommel. In 
some of the bronze hilts there are recesses for the reception of 
pieces of horn or wood, as on some of the French and Swiss swords. 

Iron swords of the same general character as those of bronze 
have been found in the ancient cemetery at Hallstatt and else- 
where. Those from Hallstatt + are identical in character with the 
bronze swords from the same locality. In one instance the hilt 
and pommel of an iron sword are in bronze ; in another the 
pommel alone ; the hilt-plate of iron being flat, and provided with 
rivets exactly like those of the bronze swords. In others the 
pommel is wanting. I have a broken iron sword from this 
cemetery, with the hilt-plate perfect, and having three bronze rivels 
still in it, and the holes for two others at the pommel end. The 
blade has a central rounded rib along it like Fig. 345, but with a 
small bead on either side. I have a beautiful bronze sword from the 
same locality, on the blade of which are two small raised beads on 
either side of the central rib, and in the spaces between them a 
threefold wavy line punched in or engraved. In this instance a 
tang has passed through the hilt, that was formed of alternate 
blocks of bronze and of some substance that h&s now perished, 
possibly ivory. A magnificent iron sword from Hallstatt, now in 
the Vienna Museum, has the hilt and pommel formed of ivory 
inlaid with amber. 

The late Celtic iron swords found in Britain have been described 

by Mr. A. W. Franks, F.R.S., in an exhaustive paper in the 

ArchcBologia,i in which also the reader will find many interesting 

particulars of analogous swords found in continental countries. 

Several iron swords have been found in France with flat hilt- 

• xCong. ^ir€h.,*' Copenhagen vol., p. 449. 

t See Bashan nnd A. Yoss, *' Die Bronze Schwerter dea K. Mua. zu Berlin,*' 1878. 
J Von Sacken, "Grabf. v. Hallat.," Taf. v.; Lindenachmit, "Alt. u. h. Vorz.," 
Tol. ii Heft L Tal. V. 4 Vol. xlv. p. 251. 



800 LXAF-8HAPXD SWORDS. [CHAP. XIL 

plates and rivets exactly of the same character aa those of the 
bronze swords. Nine have been discovered in tumuli at Cosne, 
Magny Lambert, and elsewhere in the department of Cdte d'Or. 
Others have been found at Cormoz, Ain; and at G^dinne, ia 
Belgium. There can be but little doubt that M. Alexandre Bertrand* 
is right in assigning the French examples to the fourth or fifth 
century B.C., and in regarding them as direct descendants from 
the bronze swords of ordinary type. He adduces, also, the remark- 
able fragment of an iron sword with a bronze hilt found m the 
Lac de Bienne, which is in exact imitation of a bronze sword with 
ribs on the blade, as an additional proof that these early iion 
swords are the reproductions, pure and simple, of those in bronze, 
and fabricated from the metal then recently introduced into the 
West How far back in time the use of bronze swords in Qaul 
may have extended it is difficult to say, but the varieties in their 
types testify to a lengthened use before they began to be super- 
seded by those of iron. 

I must, however, now describe the sheaths by which these 
blades were protected. 

* Biv. Arch,f N.S., vol. zxvi. p. 321. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. 

Although the sheaths which protected the daggers and swords 
described in the preceding chapters consisted probably for the 
most part of wood or leather, yet in many instances some portion 
of the scabbard and its fittings was made of bronze ; and to the 
description of these objects it seems desirable to devote a separate 
chapter. It is rarely that the metallic portions of the sheaths 
have been found in company with the blades ; but in one instance 
at least a portion of a sword blade has been discovered within a 
surrounding sheath of bronze ; which, however, does not extend 
the full length of the blade, the upper part of the scabbard having 
probably been formed of wood. This discovery proves that the 
short bronze sheaths, which are usually from 8 to 1 2 inches long, 
belonged to swords, and not, as at first sight might be inferred 
from their size, to daggers. 

In France some much longer bronze sheaths have been found 
with the swords still in them. The most noteworthy is that from 
the neighbourhood of Uz&,* Gard, now in the Mus^e d'Artillerie, 
at Paris, which is decorated with transverse beaded lines alter- 
nating with ornaments of concentric rings. This scabbard is longer 
bv some inches than the blade it contains. In fact, in no instance 
does the point of the sword appear to have reached so far as the 
end of the sheath. Another sheath found at Cormoz (Ain) t is in 
the museum at Lyons. 

In a few instances the wooden sheaths of bronze swords have 
been found entire. The finest is that from the Kongshoi,+ Vam- 
dnip, Ribe, Denmark. It was found with a body in a tree-coffin 

* *'HonB Fenles," pi. Tiii. 7; Chantre, *' Age du Br.,*' Ibre ptie., p. 108; Linden- 
■chmit, « A. n. h. V.," vol. ii. Heft i. Taf. 3. 

t Chantre, op, eit., p. 136. 

t Madien, " Afb.," vol. ii. pi. rii. ; Lindenschmit, ** Alt. u. h. Vorz.,*' toI. ii. Heft i. 
Tmf. ill. 1. 



SCABBARDS AKI) CHAPBt. [CHAF. Xin. 

Tbie sheath is about a fifth longer thtiD the blade of tin 
Bword, and is carved on both foces, though more hi^; 
decorated on what must have been the outer &ce, thin 
on the inner. There is no metal mounting at either 
end. Another scabbard found in the Treenhoi* \i 
likewise of wood. Its chape also is formed of some 
hard wood. It has been lined with skin, the hair to- 
wards the blade of the sword. This sheath is about 
an eighth longer than the blade of the sword. 

No doubt many of the British sheaths were made 
of wood alone. Others, though partly made of that 
material, were tipped with bronze, the metal beii:^ 
secured to the wood, or the leather, if that material 
was used, by a small rivet which passed diagonally 
through the metal. As Mr Franks t has pointed out, 
the presence of this rivet-hole would have been suffi- 
cient to show that these objects are not dagger sheaths, 
as some have thought, for the rivet leaves too small a 
part of the bronze receptacle available for a blade even 
as long as that of an ordinary digger. The discovery 
already mentioned places this question beyond doubt. 
The bronze sheaths of the iron swords and da^er^ 
of the Ijate Celtic Period are of a different character 
from those I am about to describe, and are made of 
sheet bronze, and not cast in a single pieca 

In Fig. 364 ie ehnwn a portion of a sword blade, with 
tlio scabbard end still in position, which was found in the 
Thames near Isleworth, and is in the collection of Mr. 
T. Layton. F.S.A.J This scabbai-d end has a central rib 
and two other alight ribs along each margin in order to give 
it strength, and, as wiD he seen from the figure, probably 
extends at least 6 inches be3-ond the end of the sword, thus 
giving an opportunity of securing tlie metal end to the 
wooden or leather scabbard at a place where the blade would 
not interfere with the paasago of a pin or rivet. 

A scabbard end of much the same form (ISi inches) 

is shown in Fig. 365, It was found with fifteen others, eome 

broken, near Guilsfield,§ Montgomery-shire, together with 

looped palstaves, spear-heads, &c. It has a small rivet-hole 

UcwoTtii. ) about half-way along it. Another, {| somewhat straighter 

• SladBen, op. til., pi. v. 

t "Hone Feralea," p. 1S9. See tUm Areh. Journ., vol. xtxiv. p. 301, fig, S. 
J Prac. Soc. A»l., 2nd 8., vol. v. p. i04. 

} Prai. Sof. Am., 2nd S., rol. li. p. Ml ; Arrh. Cami., 3rd S„ rol. X. p. 214 , 
" Montgom, Coll.." vol. iii. p. 43". 

f, Areh. jBun., vol. x. p. 2S9, wheoca this cut ii taken, bv pvnnuaion of Ur. Fraoln. 



ESnS OF SWORD-SHEATHS. 303 

(12^ inches), found with a bronze buckler in tbe River laie near Dor- 
oheater, Ozon,* is shown in Fi^. 366. It is now in the British Museum. 
There ia a small riTet-hole passing transversely through it. Several f 
other sheath ends of the same kind are preserved in the same collection. 
One, imperfect, from the Thames at Tedduigton (10 inches], with ribs along 
Uie middle and edges, has a hole for a diagonal rivet, and retains a frag- 
ment of wood inside, as does also another from the Thames at Loudon, 
whioh has a very slightl; projecting midrib. A third, of the same 



Fig. 8M.-Oallrfleia. I Fig. 39a,-Hi™ I«ii>, Kg. 3OT.-Ireliuid. i 

character (lOJ inches], from the Thames at Chelsea, has a small end plate 
seoored by a central rivet. This has traces of either leather or wood 
inside.J In another, also from the Thames (7 j iuches), the end plat« has 
been cast with the sheath, and there is a wooden mting secured by a 
diagonal rivet. The opening is nearly flat. 

Si some there is no rib down the middle, but merely a projecting ridge, 
and in others no rivet-holes are visible. 

This straight form of scabbard end has been very rarely found in 
Ireland. The only specimen mentdonod by Wilde is by permission here 
reprodaced as Fig. 367. Another (5^ inches) was in the collection of 
Mr. Wakeman, of Ennisldllen. 

• Proe. 8oc. AhI., iii. p. 118 ; Areh., vol, iivii. p. 298. 

t AreA. Jeitm., vol. ni. p. 201. Sea " Horn Fer&lea," pi. ix. Ho. 10 to 14, and C. 
H. Smith, " Coll. Ant.," vol. iii. p. 72. 

; Aw. See. Ant., voL iiL p. 118. 



304 SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. [cHAP. Xnt 

A ecabbard end of mucli the Bame general charaoter ob that fnoi 
Ouilsfield, but ohorter and brooder, is shovn in Fig. 36B. It waa fonod 
at Wick Park, Stogurae^, Somerset,* with palataves, socketed oelta, gougOi 
epear-heads, and migments of swords, together with jets fnnn codingt i 
and rough metal. 

Scabbard ends occur also in Scotland, for one nearly irim'lw to these la^ 
(5} inches) was found with four leaf-shaped swords and a large "pea^ 
head, all of bronze, at Cauldhame, near Brechin, Forfarshire, f Tb-SJ 
are now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. The soabbaid is ^ 
permisBion of the Sooiety of Antiquaries of Scotland here shown as Fie. 
369. Another scabbard tip in the same museum is rather shorter. It 
was found at Qogar Burn, near Edinburgh, together with a sword and > 





Fig. 368.— SWguiwr, Somernt. I Fig. SOT.— Brechi 



penonnular brooch of bronre and a small penannulor ornament of gold. 
A Sootcli specimen from the farm of Ythsie, Tarves, Aberdeenshire, is 
in the British Museum. It is like tliat from Brechin, and is S^ inches 
loiig. 

The straight form of scabbard end has been discovered, though rarely, in 
Northern IVauce. One from Caix, Somme, is engraved in the Dictionnairo 
Arch6ologique de la Gaule. A fragment of another, more like Fig. 365, 
has been found near Compiegne (Oiae). 

A still shorter form is shown in Fig. 370, the oripnal of which was 
found at Pant-y-maen, near Qlancych, Cardiganshire, J together with 
broken swords, apear-heads, and ferrules, as well as some small rings. 

■ Prof. Sos. AnI., 2nd S.. vol, v. p. 427. 

t Froc Sou. AnI. SnI., vol. i. p. 181 : Arch. J->«rn., vol. liii. p. 203 ; '• Catal. Mm. 
Arch. Iwt. Ed.." p. 24. 

; Arfk. Comh., 3rd S,, vol. x. p. 221, whencp the figure i« copied. 



CHAPES FROM ENOl.AXD AND tRELANQ. 



305 



A still more simple form, and one more nearly approaching the modem 
chape, haa occasioTiallj been found. That shown as Fii>. 371 formed part 
of the hoard found in Beach Fen, Cambridgeshire, which comprised also 
some fragments of swords. It is of especial interest, as the sniall bronze 
nail which served to fasten it to the wooden scabbard was found with it. 
This nail is shown above the chape in the figure. 




ig.ari.— BdubFen. t 



Another chape of the same kind, but more like Fig. 372 in form, was 
found at Haines Hill, near Hythe, Kent,* with a perforated disc of bronze, 
like Fig. 503, and some other objects. 

Fig. 372, kindly lent by the Eoyal Irish Academy, shows a chape found 
at Cloonmore, near Tomplemore, Co. Tipperary.f This form seems to be 
of very rare occurrence in Ireland. 

It has, however, been found in Savoy, J and in the Swiss Lake -dwellings. 



<^ 




t 

An Fpg li ih form, which is, I believe, as yet unique, is shown in Fig- 
373. It was found, with several broken swords and apear-heads, at 
Stoke Ferry, Norfolk- It is ornamented with a neat fluting, produced 
apparently by means of punches. The rivot-holea are at the aides, instead 
of t>eing, as usual, on the face. 

• Mii. Jeum., vol. ux. p. 280. t Wilde, " Catal. Mm. B. I. A.," p. 461, fig, 336. 
t ■* Eip. Arch, de U Sb».," 1878, pi. xii. 354, 356. 



306 SCABBARDS AKD CHAPK9. [CHAP. XUI. 

A curious Boeteted object in bronze, found near Piltown,* in the 
barony of Irerk, Co. Kiltenny, has been regarded as the Iiaft of a 
dagger. It is rectangular in section and expanding at the baee which 
is dosod. But from its analogy with some of the scabbard ends lately 
desmbed it aeema possible tbat it formed part of a . sheath. The 
objection to this view is that the breadth of the socket is much greater 
than usual with these chapes. The zig-zag and other ornamentation upon 
it is described as having been engraved with a fine point after the object 
was cast. The lower face is not ornamented. 

The form is not unlike that of the end of the scabbard of some modem 
African leaf-shaped swords of iron, as to which Mr. Syer Cumingf has 
remarked, that while the point of the blade is as sharp as a needle, the 
base of its receptade measures nearly 3 inches across. It is possible that 




Fig. ST4.— Ktclogna Font. Ireluid. 



Fif. 3TK.— UildsnIiaU. 



the object engraved as Fig. 286 may be intended for the end of a scabbard, 
and not for that of a hilt, but this can only be determined by future dis- 
coveries. 

Another Irish form is shown in Fig. 374, the original of which was 
fqund at Keelogue Ford, in the Shannon, and is in the Eoyal Irish 
Academy. In this instance the chape has assumed a kind of boat -like 
form with pointed ends. As Sir W. WildeJ has observed, the indenta- 
tions at the top mark the overlapping of the wooden portion of the 
scabbard, which was fastened to the bronze by two slender rivets, so that 
the ends projected about au inch on each side. 

Fi^, 375 shows an English scabbard tip of the same class, though 
differing in details, which was found in the neighbourhood of Mildenh^, 
Suffolk, and is in the collection of Mr. Simeon Fenton, of that town, to 
whom I am indebted for permission to engrave it. The surface of tiiis 
chape is beautifully finished, and the raised rib round the semi-circular 
notch is dehcately engrailpd or "milled." Tliere is a single minxite 
hole for a pin or rivet on one face only. As will be seen, this English 
example closely resembles that from Ireland shown iu the previous 

Such projections as those on the chapes of this form would 
appear to be inconvenient ; but in another variety the projectin" 
vol. i 



SPIKED CHA1>E8. 



ends shoot out into regular spikes, the ends of which are tipped 
by a small button. In some cases the length from point to point 
is not less than 8 inches. There are several in the museum of 
the Royal Irish Academy. Sir W. Wilde considered that the 
bronze sword was suspended high up on the thigh and not allowed 
to trwl on the ground, so that these projections would be less in 
the way of the wearer than might at first sight appear. The 
lengthening of these points may have been the result of a kind 
of prehistoric dandyism, analogous to that which led to the 
lengthening of the points of boots and shoes in England at the 
beginning of the fifteenth century.* Specimens of these still exist in 
which the points extend 6 inches beyond the foot, and it has been 



asserted that they had to bo chained to the knees of the wearers 
to give them a chance of walking with freedom. 

Though chieflj funnd in Ireland, this elongated fona of Rcabbard ban 
oooasionallf been discovered in England. Fig. 376 repreeents a specimen 
bom the TbameB, now preserved in the Britiiih Museum. 

Another example, but slightly more cmred, was found with a bronze 
ewoid at Ebberston, Yorkshire, and is in the Bateman Collection.! It has 
been figured. The rivets for attaching it to the wooden scabbard are still 
in pontion. 

Tbla type of scabbard end has also been found in France. In the 
Unsenm m Bourges is an example about 6^ inches long, much like Fig. 
376, but rather more Y-shaped. Another, more like the figure, was found 
with a bronze sword, near Marsannet (Drome), and a third in the tumulun 
of Bar6aia § (Jura). Another was found at the end of an iron sword 
in a tumulus at Uons || (Auvergne). 



* iUrholt'l " Cortimie in England," p. 382. 

t ^rei. Anoe. Jtum., vol. xiii. p. 321, pi. 30, fig. 2. 

■ Chantre, " Age dn Br„" lire ptie. p. 138. Xer. Arch.,V.% 



1 \jiMiarB, - Age an Dr., 

f Diet. Ank. d» U Oimlt. 

I "HbUiuiix," vol. ziii. p. 64. 

8oe. Ant. de Fruce, 1B7S, p. M. 



See nlso & paper b; U. Alex. Bertrand, 
"Mater.," toL it. p. 162. 

X S 



, p. 306. 

a th« Bull. 



308 SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. [CHAF. XLU. 

It is to be observed that the ends of some of the knife sheaths of the 
Early Iron Period * expand in somewhat the same manner, so as to 
assume an anchor-like appearance. 

A bronze bouterolle or scabbard tip of a very peculiar type, the sides 
being elongated and flattened out so as to form two sickle-shaped wings 
curving upwards, was exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries in 18671 as 
having been found in Britain. A fig^e of it was to have appeared in 
the Archaoloaia, but has not yet been published. Perhaps there was 
room to douot its English origin. Certainly the description, with the 
exception of the sickle-shaped wings curving upwards, agrees with a form 
of wiiich several examples have been found in Germany and in France.| 
6ome of these are sharp at the end like a socketed celt, with two ex- 
panding sickle-like win^, but their purpose as chapes has not always 
been recognised. One &om Hallstatt is described by Von Sacken § as a- 
cutting tool to be attached to a thin shaft. There clre two in the MuseuuS' 
at Prague, found at Komo and Brasy. 

One from Oberwald-behrungen is in the Museum at Wiirzburg.^ 
Another is at Hanover. 

The fact that traces of wooden sheaths to daggers have been found 
the Wiltshire and other barrows has already been mentioned, but 




Fig. 877.— lale of Harty. { 

bronze fittings have been found with them. There are, however, some 
objects which may have served either as the mouth-pieces of sheaths for 
daggers or small knives, or as ferrules for their hilts. 

One of these from the Harty hoard is shown fuU size in Fig. 377. 

Another of identically the same character, but rather shorter, was 
found, with a bronze knife or dagger and nimierous other articles, at 
Marden, || Kent. It was regarded by Mr. Beale Poste as the mounting 
of the top of a dagger sheam formed of leather. 

Another was found with various other relics near Abergele,^ Denbigh- 
shire. 

Some elongated loops formed of let are of a shape that would have 
served for the mouth-pieces of sword scabbards, but whether so fragile a 
substance was used for such a purpose may well be questioned. They 
may have been merely ornamental. One about 3 inches long, found in 
Scotland,** has been regarded as a clasp for a belt. Possibly these objects 
in bronze may, after all, be of the nature of slides or clasps. 

Another loop, more rounded at the ends, found in the peat at Newbury, ff 

♦ De Bonstetton, "Rec. d'Ant. Siiisses,'* Supp., pi. xxi. 1 ; Von Sacken, "Grabf. v. 
Hallstatt," Taf. \'i. 11. 

t Proe. Soe. Ant.y 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 618. J Rev. Arch,^ N.S., vol. zxxix. p. 305. 

{ ** Das Grabfcld von Hallstatt," p. 155, pi. xix. fig;. 10. 

II Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. xiv. p. 267, pi. xiii. 6 ; Wilson, ** Preh. Ann.," vol. i. p. 441, 
fig. 82. 

U Arch. Scot.y vol. i. p. 393. ^ *♦ Arch.^ vol. xliii. p. 656, pi. xxxvii. 3. 

ft Arch. Anoc. /oMrw., vol. xvi. p. 323, pi. xxvi. 6 ; Proc. Soe. Ant.y 2nd S., vol. iv. 
p. 521. 



FERRULES ON SWORD-UILTS. 309 

Berks, has been described as a slider for securing some portion of the 
dress, or for passing over a belt. Not improbably this is their true inter- 
pret€ition. Some omer slides are described at p. 404. 

Some bronze objects of nearly similar form, but about 3 inches in 
length, found with late Celtic remains, have been regarded as the cross- 
guards* of dageers or knives. 

In my own collection is a fine bronze sword from Denmark with broad 
side flanees to the hilt plate, on the blade of which is a bronze loop about 
i inch wide, rebated for the reception of wood, but without any rivet- 
holes. Each face presents four parallel headings. For some time, in 
common with some Danish antiquaries, I regarded this loop as the mouth- 
piece of a scabbard, for which it appears well adapted ; but I now find that 
such a view is erroneous, and that this loop is the ferrule for receiving 
'the ends of the plates of wood or horn which formed the hilt. For in 
the barrow of Lydsh6i,f near Blidstrup, Frederiksborg, was a bronze 
sword with a similar ferrule upon it, and the remains of the plates of 
liom beneath it still in position. One of these Danish ferrules is of gold.^ 
A sheath § from a barrow at Hvidegaard, made of birch wood with an outer 
and inner casing of leather, has a leather band for the mouthpiece, and 
a leather eve for receiving the belt. Some small sheaths for bronze knives 
and for a flint dagger f oimd at the same time are simply of leather. 

• Arch. Inst., Tork vol. p. 33 ; Arch,y vol. ziv. pL xx. 6. 

t "• Atlas for Nord. Oldk," pi B ii. 2 ; Worsaae, ** Nord. Olds.," fig. 116 ; Madson, 
**Afbild.," vol. ii. pi. xi. 1. 

iBoye, ** Oplvi. FortegnelBe over det K. M.," p. 31. 
^'Azmalen for Oldk.," 1848, p. 336; "Atlas for Nord. Oldk.," pi. B. ii. 7; 
Wonaae, <'Nord. Olds.," fig. 119 ; Madsen, ** AfbUd.," vol. ii. p. 9. pi. iv. 8. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Spear-heads, Lance-heads, etc. 

There can be but little doubt that one of the weapons of offence 
in earliest use among mankind must have been of the nature of a 
spear — a straight stick or staff, probably pointed and to a certain 
extent hardened in the fire. The idea of giving to such a staff a 
still harder and sharper point by attaching to it a head of bone or 
of stone, such as is still commonly in use among many savage 
tribes, would come next. And, lastly, these heads or points 
would be formed of metal, when its use for cutting tools and 
weapons had become general, and means had been discovered for 
rendering it available for this particular purpose. In the earlier 
part of the Bronze Age, when bronze was already in use for 
knife-daggers and even for daggers, it Avould appear that the spears 
and darts, if any such Avere in use, were in this country still tipped 
with flint. How long this practice continued it is impossible to 
say, and it is even doubtful whether any bronze spear-heads were 
in use before the time when the founders had discovered the art 
of making sockets by means of cores placed within the moulds. 
It is, however, not impossible that some of the blades found in the 
Wiltshire barrows, and the tanged weapons which have already 
been described in Chapter XL, may have been the heads of spears 
rather than the blades of daggers ; but even at the period to 
which they belong the art of making cores must have been known, 
as the ferrule found at Arreton Down, and shown in Fig. 324, will 
testify, as well as the hollow socket of Fig. 328. 

In the South-east of Europe and in Western Asia, as in Cyprus 
and at Hissarlik, tanged and not socketed spear-heads have been found 
in considerable numbers ; but such a form is of very rare occur- 
rence in Europe, and is unknown in Britain, unless possibly some 
of the blades already described as knives or daggers, such as 
Fig. 277, were attached to long rather than short handles, and 



DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPEAR-HEADS. 311 

iliould, therefore, have been treated of in this chapter rather than 
n that in which I have placed them. If spears were deposited in 
the graves with the dead, the shafts must in all probability have been 
broken, for as a rule the graves for bodies buried in the contracted 
position are not long enough to receive a spear of ordinary length. 

In the case of some few ancient socketed tools of bronze, the 
socket has not been formed by casting over a core, but a wide 
plate of metal has been hammered over a conical mandril so as to 
form a socket like that of many chisels of the present day, and of 
the iron spear-heads of earlier times. I am not aware of any 
bronze instruments with the sockets formed in this manner ever 
having been found in this country. In all cases the sockets have 
been produced by cores in the casting, and in many spear-heads 
the adjustment of the core has been effected with such nicety that 
a conical hollow extends almost to the tip, with the metal around 
it of uniform substance, and often very thin in proportion to the 
size of the weapon. 

The heads of arrows, bolts, darts, javelins, lances, and spears so 
nearly resemble one another in character, that it is impossible 
to draw any absolute line of distinction between them. The 
larger varieties must, however, have served for weapons retained 
in the hand as spears, while those of small and moderate size may 
have been for weapons thrown as lances, or possibly discharged as 
bolts or arrows. In length these instruments vary from about 
2 inches to as much as 36 inches. 

Sir W. Wilde* has divided the Irish spear-heads into four 
varieties, as follows : — 

1. The simple leaf-shaped, either long and narrow, or broad, 
with holes in the socket through which to pass the rivets to fix 
them to the shaft. 

2. The looped, with eyes on each side of the socket below and 
on the same plane with the blade. These are generally of the 
long, narrow, straight-edged kind. 

3. Those with loops in the angles between the edge of the 
blade and the socket. 

4. Those with side apertures and perforations through the blade. 
To these four classes may be added — 

5. Those in which the base of each side of the blade projects at 
right angles to the socket, or is prolonged downwards so as to 
form barbs. 

• « Catal. Mu8. R. I. A.," p. 496. 



312 SPEAK-U£ADS, LAMCB-HEADa, BTC. [cHAP. ZIT. 

A remarkably fine specimen of a broad leaf-shaped spear-head of 
the first class is shown in Fi^. 378. The original was found in tin 




Fig. 378.— Tluun™, LonJf 



Fig.38[.— H«Uiei7B< 



Thames at Tjondon, and still contains a portion of tlie wooden shaft 
Bmoothly and carefully pointed. The wood is, I think, ash ; 



LEAF-SHAPED SPEAH-HEADS. 313 

Mid my opinion is supported by that of Mr. Thiselton Dyer, F.R.S., 
who has kindly examined the shaft for me. There are no traces 
of the pin or rivet, which in the spear-heads of this character 
appears to have been formed of wood, horn, or bone, rather than 
of metal, probably with the view of the head being more readily 
detached from the shaft, in case the latter was broken. I have, 
however, a leaf-shaped bronze spear-head of this class, found in 
the Seine at Paris, in which a metallic rivet is still present It is 
formed of a square rod of bronze, which at each end has been 
hammered into a spheroidal button, of at least twice the diameter 
of the hole through which the rivet passes. Portions of the 
wooden shaft are still adhering to the rivet. The wood in this 
instance also appears to be ash. 

I have a rather narrower spear-head of the same type as Fig. 378 (lOJ 
inches), found with a bronze sword near Weymouth ; and another identical 
in type with that from the Thames, but only 9 inches long, found in the 
county of Dublin. 

Others of nearly the same form (12f inches and S} inches) were found 
with a bronze sword in an ancient entrenchment at Worth,* in the parish 
of Waahfield, Devon. 

Another spear-head of this type from the Thames f (13^^ inches) is in 
the British Museum, as are others (13 inches and 10 incnes long). 

A remarkably fine bronze spear-nead, found in Lou^h Gur, Co. Lime- 
rick, with the lower part of the socket ornamented wim gold, is of much 
the same form as Fig. 378, and is shown on the scale of one-fourth in 
Fig. 379. The ornamented part is shown on the scale of one-half in 
Fig. 380. It is in the collection of General A. Pitt Eivers, F.R.S., who 
has thus described the socket.^ Around it, ** at top and bottom, are two 
ferrules of very thin gold, each f inch in width. Each ferrule is ornamented 
with three bands scored with from four to seven transverse lines, and 
separated from each other by two bands scored with incised longitudinal 
lines. The two ferrules are separated by a band about -A* iuch m width, 
in which longitudinal lines of gold have been let into grooves in the bronze, 
leaving an intervening line between each of the gold lines." Most of 
these gold strips have, however, now disappeared. The shaft of this spear 
is of boff oak 4 feet 8^ inches long, but though its authenticity has been 
aeoepted by many good judges, 1 must confess that I do not regard it 
as me original. Some other spear-heads ornamented with engraved lines, 
but not with inlaid gold, will oe mentioned further on. I may incidentally 
recall the fact that the gold ring or ferrule aroimd the spear-head of 
Hector is more than once mentioned by Homer. § 

vdpoi,0€ Sc Xa/Aircro Sovpos 

Another fine specimen of a spear-head with a long oval leaf-shaped 
blade in Canon GreenweU's Collection is shown in Fig. 381. It was 

• Areh. Jowm.y vol. xxiv. p. 120. t "Homb Fer.," pi. vi. 29. 

X Joum. BthnoL Soc., 1868, N.S., vol. i. p. 36. i Iliad, vi. v. 319 ; viii. v. 494. 



314 



BFBAB-HBAD3, LANCE>HEAM, BTa 



[CUAF. XIV. 



found with several others varying in length from 6|uidhe6to 11} inclies, 
and numerous other articles of bronze and bone, in the Heatheiy Bum 
Cave,* Durham. As ^ill be seen, the blade is continued as a alight 
narrow projection along the socket as far as the rivet-hole. The edges 
are somewhat fluted. 

A spear-head of nearly the same form (10^ indiw) 
wae found in a peat moes near the Camp OraveSit 
Bon-castle, Cumberland. Another was found in ft 
hoard at Bilton, Yorkshire.} 

A very fine example (about 15 inches), aa well u 
a smaller one of the same type (about 8 inches), and 
one with lunate openings in the blade (Fig. 418), 
were found with two swords (see Fig. 351) neai 
"niiittingliamig Northumberland. 

I have others (9 inches to 11 Inches) found with 
broken swords at Stoke Ferry, Norfolk, and from 
the Boach Fen hoard. The same form occurs in Ire- 
land. I have a fine specimen (8^ inches) from 
Athlone. Another (13^ inches) is engraved by Wilde 
as hisFig. 362. A very narrow spear-head, 14}- inches 
long, and only If inch wide, said to have been found 
in a barrow near Headford, Co. Oalway, is in the 
British Museum. 

A spear-head of this character from the Thames 
(16^ inches), not fluted at the edges and quite plain, 
is in the British Museum. The blade is only 2^ 
inches wide. 

One from Stanwick, Yorkshire (8 inches), is in the 
British Museum, as is one ( 1 1 inches) from Bannock- 
burn. Scotland. An Irish specimen (10 inches) is 
devoid of rivet-holes. 

Another sj)ear-head of nearly the same type, but of 
smaller dimensions, is given in Fig. 382. It was 
found, with some other spear-heads ( Fig. 410), 
socketed celts (Figs. 155 and 157), palstaves (Fig 83), 
and a ferrule, to be subsequently mentioned, at Net- 
tleham,|| near Lincoln, in 1860. They are now in the 
British Museum. 

Others of the same type have been found at 

"Winmarleigh^ and Cuerdale,** Lancashire, at Ward- 

low,+t Derbyshire, Little Wenlock.JJ Staffordshire 

r Windsor §§ (7 inches), at Bottisham,|||j Cambridge, and 



Mettlehun. i 



(8 inches), n 

in Herts-HK 

* Dawkina, 



Cave 



r.:, vol. I 
+ A,c/i. Aaoe. Joiirn., vol. v. p. 349. 
\ Proc. Soc. AiU., 2nd S., vol. v. p. 423, pi. iv. 

II Aiek. JaurH., vol. xviJL p. 169. I sm indebted to Mr. Franbs for the v 
blc«k. 

H Jreh. Aisoe. Johth., vol, iv. p. 235, pi. xxiv. 3. 

[. p. 332. t+ Op. c 



\X HartBhomo'8 " Salop. Ant.," 

III! Afch. Attof. Joum., vol. liv. p. 3B1. 

If Skelton'a " Meyriek's Anc. Ann,," pi. 



ii Stukeloy'a ■■ It. Cur.," pi. 91 



WITH A FILLET ALONQ THE MIDBIB. 



315 



I have one from the Biyer Lea* at St. Uorgaret'e, Herts, and others 
from Reach Fen, Oambridfiie. 

Others were in the GiuTsfield hoard,')' and in that of Paiit-y-maen,J or 
the Olaucych hoard. One from the latter hoard is about 11 inches long. 
Another, more like Fig. 386, about 4 inches. With them were found 
fragments of swords, a scabbard tip, some rings and ferrulBS. Others 
(9 mches and 5 inches) were found, with a socketed 
celt and knife, a tanged chisel, and other objects, at 
ly MawT,§ on Holyhead Mountain. 

Five were found in the hoard near Stanhope, || Durham, 
with socketed colts, a gouge, &c. 

Of Scottish specimens the following may be noticed : 
one from Lanark^ (6f inches), which has been figured ; 
two (7f inches) rather long in the socket, found with 
a bronze sword and a long pin on the Point of Sleat,** 
Isle of Skye ; one {6 inches) from Balmaelellan.tt New 
Qalloway. One (5^ inches) from Duddingaton Loch, 
Edinbuivh, is in the British Uuseum. 

Leaf-Biiaped spear-heads auch as Fig. 382 are of 
frequent occurrence in various Mrts of France. A 
number were found at Alise Ste, BeineJJ (Cote d'Or), 
several of them ornamented with rings round the 
sockets. 

Ther also are found in the Lake-dwellings of Switzer- 
land G§ and Sayoy. Uany of them have parallel rings 
rouna the mouth of the socket by way of ornament. 
They also occur in G«rmany |||| and Denmark, ^^ One 
from Northern Germany, still containing a part of its 
wooden shaft, has been engraved by Von Eatorff.*** 

Those from Italy and Greece have very fre- 
quently facets running along the midrib which 
contains the socket 

In Fig. 383 is shown a variety (Hi inches) with a 
projecting fillet running down to the rivet-holes as in 
Fig. 381, which, however, in this case forms the texmi- aS^^. ( 

nation of small beads runnine along the sides of the 
central rib. There is also a beading running along the midrib. The 
original was found, 'with another spear-head, plain, a socketed celt, some 
bronze rings, and fragments of tin, at Achtortyre,ttt Morayshire. Mr. R, 
Day, F.B.A., has a nearly similar spear-head (5 inches), found in Dublin. 

• J-rne. See. Ant., vol. iv. p. 279. 

t Proe. See. Ant., ind S., vol, ii. p. 251 ; "Montgom. CoU.," vol. iii. p. 437. 

JJ.reA. Ctimt., Srd S., vol. x. p. 221. i Areli. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 2(4. 

Areh. .Xliana, vol. i. p. 13, pL i. H Anh. Anoc. Journ., voL ivii. p. 110. 

•• JVoc. Sot. Ant. Seol., voL iu. p. 102. ft Proc. Sac. Ant. Son., voL iv, p. 4 17. 

II Sev. Arc*., N.S.,vol. iv. pi. uii. 2— H. 
f f Keller, pauiM. 

II Ton Braunmiihl, " Alt Deutschen Orabmiiler;" Schreiber, '■ Die diern. Streit- 
kBile,"Taf, ii, 19; Liich, "Fred. FranciM.," Taf. viii. 
11 Wonaae, "Hord. Olda.," flg. 190. •" "Heidniwh. AlUrth.," Taf. viii. fig. 1. 
ttt P. 8. A. S., vol. ii. p. 436. The out has been Idndlj- lent by the Society. 



BPEAR'IIEAUS, I.ANCE-HZAIX!, STC. [CHAP. SIT. 

A more elongated form, with the projecting part 
of the Bocket considerably shorter, is shown in 
Fig. 364, from a Bpecimen. found in the North of 
Ireland. A spear-head (20 inches) of the Bame 
form of outline, but with a slight ridge running 
the whole length of the eocket from its moutlk to 
the point, was found at Dltton,* Surrey. It is now 
in the British Museum, having been presentod by 
the Earl of Lovelace. 

Another ( 14 j inches) in the same collection, found 
in the Hiver Thames,^ near the mouth of the 
Wandle, retains a portion of the original wood in 
its socket. It was found in company with a bronze 
sword, a palstave, and a long pin (Fig. 454). 

One of much the same form as the figure ( 1 1 inches) 
was found at Teigngrace, % Devon. It has a delicate 
bead running down each side of the midrib, and 
continued as a square projection below the blade. 

Canon Greenwell has a long epeor-head (14^ 
inches) from Quy Fen, with grooves running up the 
blade at the side of the socket. The ends of the 
blade are truncated so as to leave projeotiona on 
the sides of the socket above the rivet-hole. These 
are slightly ornamented. 

I have seen another spear-head (11^ inches) with 
the base of the blade abghtly truncated in a aimilar 
manner. It was found near Eastbourne. 

This elongated form is of common occurrence in 
Denmark and Korthem Germany, § the necks being 
usuoUv ornamented by dolieate punch-marking or 
possibly engraving. 

A broader variety, with the socket considerably 
enlarged in the piirt extending below the blade, 
is shown in Fig. 385. The original was found in 
company with other spear-heads like Fig. 382 from 
5| inches to lOg inches long, two socketed celts with 
three vertical fines on the face like Fig. 125, and 
two somewhat conical plates with central holes, near 
Newark, and is in the collection of Canon Oreen- 
well, F.E.8. 

A spear-head (6} inches) not quite so broad in its 
proportions, said to have been found in a tumulus, 
iioar Lewes, 11 Sussex, is in the British Museum, as 
is another (6^ inches) found near Bakowell, Derby- 

• Areh. Joum,, vol. x 
f A.J.,volix. p. 8. 
26 inthuB long. 

I Ti-an: Brron. Askc, vol. vii. p. 199 ; Proc. Soe. Aitt., 2nd 
S., vol. i-ii. p. 40. 

j Worsaae. " Nord. OlJs.," egs. 185, 186 ; " AUau for Xoni. 
Oldk.," pi. B 1, 16. 

II •■ Ho™ For.," yl. vi, 28. 



VAR1XTIB8 OF T.EAF-SHAFED 8PEAK-HEAD8. 



317 



A spear-head of tlie Bamo ^neral outline as Tig. SB5, but with the sides 
of the socket etraighter, was fotmd with others, as well as with 1 6 socketed 
celts, a knife, fragments of swords and of a quadrangular tube (qy. a 
scabbard ?) and a long ferrule, near Nottingham.* 

It is often the case that the sides of the upper part of the blade are 
nearly straight, and the socket itself appears large in proportion to the 
width of the blade. Such a spear- or lance-head from the Beach Fen 
hoard is shown in Fig. 386. I have several others from the Fen districts, 
as w^ as one of a shorter and broader form (5 inches) with a large 




Fig. aSG.— Beuh Fn. i Fig. 38>.— Irduid. i 



socket extending only an inch below the blade, found at Walthamstow, 
Essex. 

A spear-head from Unter-Uhldingenf exhibits the same narrowness of 
blade in proportion to the size of the socket. 

In some cases the blade and socket are of nearly equal length. 

Fig. 387 is here by permission reproduced from Wilde's Catalogue, Fig. 
367. It is only 3i inches long, and may have been the head of a dart or 
javelin rather than of a spear. I have an oiample of nearly the same 
form and size from Co. Dublin. One in the Bntish Museum is only 
2 inches long, though the mouth of the socket is | inch in diameter. 



• Aw. See. Ant., Znd S., vol. i. p. 332. 



t KeUer, eter Bericht, Ts(. i 



318 SPEAR-HEADS, LANCE-HEADS, ETC., [CHAP. XIV. 

Some of these very small weapons may possibly have served to point 
arrows. In the Norwich Museum is a head like Fig. 387, but with the 
blade shorter in proportion and narrower, the total length of which is 
only HI inch. The blade is ^ inch wide, and the socket is only f inch 
in external diameter. A bronze arrow-head is said to have been found in 
the Isle of Portland,* but particulars are not given. Another small point, 
in form rather like Fig. 386, and only 3^ inches long, was found at Llan- 
y-mynech Hill,t Montgomeryshire. Another, 3^^ inches, was found near 
-Pyecombo,J Sussex. 

One 4 inches long is said to have been found in Yorkshire. § 
Some double-pointed arrow-heads of bronze are mentioned as having 
been found in Ireland, || but in point of fact these were "razors" like 
Fig. 274. 

In this country,1f however, and not improbably in others, during 
the period when bronze was in use for cutting tools and the larger 
weapons, flint still served as the material from which arrow-heads 
were usually made. Such a method of taking the census as tliat 
devised by the Scythian king Ariantas would in Britain have 
produced but small results ; at all events, but few of the inhabit- 
ants Avould have been able each to contribute his bronze arrow- 
head. Many of the bronze arrow-heads found on the Continent 
appear to belong to the Early Iron Age, but it is mainly in 
southern countries that they have been found. 

In Egypt** and Arabia they have occurred of the leaf-shaped as 
well as of the three-edged form, which latter is common in 
Greece. 

Some spear-heads appear to have had the form of their point somewhat 
modified by grinding, as if from time to time they became blunted by use 
and required to be re-sharpened. A kind of ogival outline such as is 
shown in Fig. 388 appears, however, to have been intentional. The 
oi ig:inal was found in the North of Ireland. 

This ogival outline is of frequent occurrence among the bronze spear- 
heads from Himgary. 

The lance-head shown in Fig. 389, also from Wilde (Fig. 368), has the 
blade of a trapezoid rather than of a leaf-shaped form, and in general 
character more nearly approaches the looped variety, Fig. 397, than those 
now \inder consideration. The socket also appears to be qiiadrangidar 
rather than round. 

It will now be well to speak of some of the spear-heads of this 

* Arch. Journ.y vol. xxi. p. 90. 

t " Montgom. Coll.," vol. iii. p. 433; vol. xi. p. 205. 

+ Sms. Arch. Coll., vol. viii. p. 269. 

§ Arch. A,t.toc. Joitrn., vol. xx. p. 107. 

II Arch. Jouni., vol. iii. p. 47. lliero is an article by Mr. Du Xoyer on the classifica- 
tion of bronze arrow-heads in vol. vii. p. 281. 

H See •' Anc. Stone Imp.," p. 328. 

•* Arch. Jouni., vol. xiii. pp. 20, 27; vol. xxii. p. 68; Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. 
p. 187 ; Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 222. 



ORNAMEKTBD ON 1 



class which have either their sockets or their hlades ornamented 
by engraving or punching. 

In Fig. 390 is shown a spear-head from the Beadk Fen hoard, the 
nature <rf the ornamentation on which will be seen from the cut. 
The five bands, each of four parallel Unes around the socket, have 
the appearance of being engraved ; but I think that this is not actually 
the case, but that the li^es nave been punched in with a chisel-hke punch. 




Ncrthoflnlud. i Inland, i 



Fen. } TbDTDdon. i 



The short transverse dotted Unes have probably been made with a serrated 
punch. 

Another spear-head, with ornamentation of a nearly similar character, is 
shown in Fig. 391. This example was found at Thomdon, SuffoH,* in 
company with a hammer (Fig. 210). a knife (Fig. 240), a gouge (Fig. 
204), and an awl (Fig. 224), the whole of which are now in the British 
Museum. Another in the same collection from Thames Ditton {6\ inches) 
has three sets of three rings each, with short vertical lines above the 
upper ring. 

A small lance-head of this tj-pe (4^ inches), found at Ingham, Norfolk, 
with socketed celts, has one band of four parallel lines round the socket. 
It is now in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. Another from the Broad- 
ward hoard (Shrop8hire)t has two bands of four, and one of two rings, 
lor. Fer.," pi. vi. 27. 



320 B7EAR-HEADS, LA.NCX-HEAD9, ETC., [CHAP. XIT. 

the latter cloHe to the mouth of the socket. A eecond in the same faoud 
Hbowe eight ritiga near the mouth of the socket, and a line running dowa 
each Bide of the midrib prolonged bulow the blade aa f ar as Hie rivet-bole 
which it endosee. A spear-head from the hoard found at Beddingtoo, 
near Croydon,'* is ornamented in nearly the same manner. It was found 
with a gouge, socketed celts, a portion of celt mould, &a. That fnn 
Culham, near Abingdon, shown in Fig. 392, has three sets of fourrin^ 
and one of two, as well as some Terti<»l dotted lines above the upper ring. 
In this case the bands seem to have been punched in with a semlel 
punch which produced four short hnes at each stroke, and by skilful 
manipulation these short lines were made to join so as to form a oontinumu 

I have a spear-head from Ijakenheath, Suffolk (5J inches), with » 

small raised band cast on the socket just below the riret-hole. 

A epear-hoad (6^ inches) in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 

found near Forfar, is ornamented with 

two bands of three parallel lines round 

the socket. 

The sockets of some Irish spear-heads 
are highly decorated. That of a long leaf- 
shaped specimen from Athenry, Co. Gal- 
way, IS shown in Fig. 393, kindly lent me 
by the Boyal Irish Academy. It is Fig. 
362 in Wilde's Catalogue, in which also 
some other examples are engraved. The 
chevron ornament and the alternate direc- 
tion of the hatching are highly charac- 
tenstic of the style of the Bronze Period. 

A similar decoration is found on English 
speoimena. One found at Bilton, York- 
sh]re,t with other apcar-hoads, fragments 
of swords, and socketed celte, has round 
the socket three bands of triangles alternately hatehed and plain, and 
the blade is ornamented with a single row of the same kind on each 
side of the central rib. One from Edington Hurtle, Somerset (-ij inches), 
in the Taunton Museum, has a band of hatched triangles above three 
bands of jiurallel lines with transverse lines between. 

A broken spear-head from the Broadward J find has the blade orna- 
mented in the same way. A row of plain triangles is left on each side 
of the midrib, while the rest of the blade is hatched, the set of parallel 
lines in each point between the plain triangles being alternately to tlie 
right and te tlio left. 

A frajjment of a blade from the Ilaynes Hill hoard, § Kent, has ring 
ornaments engraved along each side of the midrib. 

As has already been observed, the edges of tliis class of spear-heads 
are not unfrtHjiii>ntly fluted, but it mvasionaUy happens that the whole 
blade is omanieiitcd by minute ribs and flutingp.s. The spear-head 
(lOJ inches) found with two swords and two ferrules at FiJbourn, Cam- 
bridge,|| affords an example of this kind. On each side of the central rib 




CiShiun. \ 



• Aniltraon'B " Trovdon Prch. and Roi 
t Arfh. ^»w«. Jauni.. vol. v. p. 3*9. 
i Arch. JoHi-n., vol. m. p. 282. 



-p. 11, pi. i 



VcA. Cfl«A., 4th S., vol. i 



WITH L00P8 AT THB SIDES. 321 

containing' the socket are two sharp ridges one below the other, next 
comee a hollow fluting, then a ridge, and then the fluting wliicb forms 
the edge. To judge from the engraviag, another found at Gringley, 
Nottinghamshire,* must also have been fluted in a somewhat similar 
manaer. 

The discovery of other leaf-shaped spear-heads witb rivet-holee through 
the sockets is recorded to hare been made at the following places, and 
many others might no doubt be added to the list ; the Thames, near 
Batt«rseaf (16} inches); near Wallingford ]: (7^ inches); and KingRton § 
(8J and 7-fy inches) ; two (7J inches and 6 Inches) were found near Tod- 
dington, Beds ; {] at Beacon Hill, Chamwood Forest, Leicestershire,^ two 
(7^ inches and 6( inches) were found with a socketed celt and gouge. 
Others were discovered near Tarlet, Stafford- 
shiro;** near Alnwick Castle ft (sixteen with 
celta and swords) ; Tronhoulog, Merioneth- 
shire ; XX ^'^^ Loug7 Common, Aldemey §§ (one 
with blade ornamented). 

The spear-heads of the second of tlie 
classes into which they are here divided 
are those with loops at the side of the 
projecting socket. These loops are usually 
more elongated than those on socketed 
celts and palstaves, though they probably 
served a similar purpose, that of securing 
the metallic head to the wooden handle. 
The metal of which the loops are formed 
has frequently been flattened by hammer- 
ing, so as to reduce the projection of the 
loops beyond the socket ; the flattened 
part is often wrought into a lozenge form. 

The strings which passed through these 
loops were probably secured to some stop ^ -Theiford i 

or collar on the shaft, and may have been 

amu^^ in some chevron-like pattern with which these lozenges 
coincided. There are usually no rivet-holes in the spear-heads of 
this class. 

A specimen exhibiting these lozenges, and with the blade of nearly 
the same form as those of the spear-heads of the first class, is shown in 
Fig. 394. The upper part of ^e midrib containing the socket is riilge<l, 
so that the section near thepoint is almost square. The socket is sliglitl; 
fluted round the mouth. The original was found at Thetford, Suflolk. 

A spear-head of the same typo, but with only a single large loop, found 

• Artk., vol. «vi. p. 361, pi. Uiv. 1. t r>or. Soe. Ant., toL iv. p. 214, 

t F. a. A., 2nd 8., vol. iv. p. 280. k P- S. A., 2nd 8., vol. i. p. 83. 

1 Arei^ vol. xxvii. p. IDS. 1 P. S. A., vol. iv. p. 323. 

•■ Plot's " StafFord.," p, 404,pl. xxxiii. 8. t+ Areh., voi. v. p. 113. 

U Arei. Garni., 4tti S,, voL viii. p. 210. H ''"'A' -^-ot- Jvirn., vol. iii. p. n. 



323 SPEAR-HEADS, LAKCB-HEADS, ETC. [cHAP. XIV. 

in Glen Kenns, Ghdloway, is engraved in the Archaoloffia,* but it Beems 
probable that the figure is somewhat inaccurate. 

Another ^5^ inches) with two loops was found at Han^eton Down, 
8uffolk.f Another (5^ inches), rather more elongated than Fig. 394, was 
foimd at Trefeglwys, Montgomeryshire.^ Another from Sbirewood 
Forest is engraved in ilie Arehaologia,^ It has a slightly ogival outline 
on each side, a peculiarity I have noticed in other specimens. An example 
given in the same plate seems to have lost the flat part of the blade. 

I have one (6^ inches) from Fyfield, near Abingdon. 

Mr. M. Fisher has a specimen from the Fens at Ely (5f inches), with 
the midrib ridged like Fig. 396. 

One from Hagboum HUl, near Chiltem, Berks, || is reported to have 
been found with a socketed celt, a pin like Fig. 458, and another like 
Fig. 453, together with a bronze bri(Ue-bit, and some portions of buckles 
like those of the late Celtic Period. These are now in tne British Museum. 
A few coins of gold and silver are said to have been found at the same 
time. 

One (6 inches) wfiw found at Chartham, near Canterbury.^ 

One, 5 inches long, from the Thames, is in the British Museimi. It has 
a small ridge or bead along the mid-feather. The loops have a diamond 
engraved or punched upon them. 

In one from Beckhampton, Wilts ** (4f inches), the side loops do not 
appear to be flattened. 

The form is of not unfrequent occurrence in Ireland, though perhaps 
that with the raised ribs on the blade, like Fig. 397, is more common. 

In one instance (13^ inches) f f the loops upon the socket are not opposite 
each other, though, as usual, in the same plane as the blade. 

A small specimen (5j^ inches) from Fairholme, Lockerbie, Dumfries- 
shire, is in the British Museum. 

A small example of this type (about 3^ inches) is in the collection 
formed by Sir R. Colt Hoare at Stourhead, and now at Devizes, and in the 
same case with the dagger blades. It has been figured by the late Dr. 
Thumam tJ in his valuable memoir in the ArchcBologia, and is thoueht by 
hiTn to have been found in a grave with burnt bones in one of the Wilsf ord 
barrows near Stonehenge. 

There is a diminutive variety of this class of weapon with two loops, in 
which the blade is extremely narrow, like that from Lakenheath snown 
in Fig. 395. I have another, 4f inches, with even a smaller and shorter 
blade, from Cumberland. 

Canon Greenwell has one only 3 inches long, f oimd near Nottingham. 
It has three parallel grooves round the socket mouth. One, 4 J inches, from 
Ashdown, Berks, is in the British Museum. 

A fragment of another of very small dimensions was found at Farley 
Heath, Surrey, and is now in the British Museum. 

A lance-head with a more leaf -shaped blade (6 J inches) is said to have 
been foimd in a tumulus at Craigton, near Kinross. §§ 

* Vol. X. p. 480, pi. xl. 5. t Sussex Arch. Coll,, vol. \\\\. p. 269. 

1 *' Montgom. Coll.," vol. iii. p. 432, and vol. xii. p. 25. 

\ Vol. ix. p. 94, pi. iii. || Arch.y vol. xW. p. 348, pi. 1. 

% Arch. Assoc. Journ.y vol. xvii. p. 334. *♦ Arch. Inst., Salisb. vol., p. 110. 

ft Wilde, "Catal. R. I. A.," p. 496, fig. 363; "Hor. Fer.," pi. vi. 15. 

n Arch., vol. xHii. p. 447 : " Anc. Wilts," vol. i. p. 208. 

§§ Proe. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xi. p. 168. 



WITH LOOPS, FROM IRELAND, 



323 



An Irifth example, 2| inclieH long, and comparatively broad in propor- 
tioD to its len^h, has been regarded as an arrow-head. It was found at 
Olonmel, Co. Kpperary.* It has probahly been broken and repoint*d. 
An esample much like Fig. 395 is engraved by Wilde as his Fig. 379. 

In some cases there is a ridge TunuiQg along the whole or a great part 
of the midrib on the blade so ax to make the section near the poiat almost 
cruciform. An example of this kind from the neighbourhood of Cam- 
bridge is ehown in Fig. 396. In this case the side loops are unusually 




North oflnluid. i 



near the mouth of the socket, the cavity of which extends about half-way 
along the blade. Canon Greenwell has an example of this type (6i inches), 
from Langton, Lincolnshire, with a longer socket, and the loops about 
half-way along it. 

This ribbing along the midrib is of frequent occurrence on Irish spear- 
heads, and was probably intended to strengthen as well as to decorate 
the blade. The projecting ribs on the flat part of the blade were also 
probably added for the same purpose. Fig, 397 shows a spear-head with 
"lorth of Ireland. The blade is carried down 



these ridges, found in the North o 



rui. p. 187. 



SPEAR-HEADS, LANCE-HEADS, ETC. 




[chap. XIV. 

BB B slight projeolion 
along the socket until it 
nieot« the side loops, tbe 
outer faces oi whidi an 
expanded into losengei. 
I have a shorter ex- 
ample (5^ inches) fraia 
Old Kilpatrick, Dum- 
bartonshire, Scotland; 
one from Termon, Co- 
TjTone, is engraved in 
the Arehteoloffieal Jour- 

In some the blade ii 
proportioiially wider and 
eihorter. I have one 
from near EnniekiUeii 
(7i inches), in which the 
blade between the socket 
and the ribs is so thin 
that two long holes have 
been eaten or worn 
through it, giving it the 
appearance of belonging 
to the perforated dasa 
to bo subsequently de- 
scribed. 

An Irish specimen 
much like Fig. 397 is 
engraved in " Hotte 
Ferales." f 

A small broad-bladed 
form is of very common 
occurrence in Ireland. 
An example is given in 
Fig. 398. Another Is 
engraved by Wilde ( Fig. 
369). Some have two 
diagonal ribs on each 
mde of the blade instead 
of only one. A rather 
more pointed form is 
given by Vallancey.J: 
There are others figured 
in the " IIoho Fe- 
rales." § 

This tj-po is of rare 



FiS, SD9.— Tlmr 



DECOHATED ON THE BLADE. 



325 



occurrence ia England, but ono (4i inchefl ?) much like Fig. 398 was 

plouB^hed up at Heage,* in the parish of Duffield, Derbyshire, and 

another (4^ inches) waa found near Lincoln, f 

A gracefully shaped spear-liead, with parallel beadiugs upon thebhide, 

and having veiy flat loops with pointed oval faces on the socket, was found 

in the Thanies, and formed part of the Koach Smith CoUection, now in the 

British Museum. It is shown in Fig. 399, and appears to be unique of 

ita kind. A plain spear-head (7 inches) of much the same form, and 

another of the same length, but wider and flatter, were found at Edington 

Iturtle, Somerset, and are now in the 

Museum at Taunton. 
A very remarkable specimen in the Boyal 

Irish Academy is engraved as Fig. 400. 

It has already been figured on a small scale 

by Wilde, who thus describeB it : J "A long 

narrow spear with concave or recurved 

Hides, and long lozenge-shaped loops on 

each side of the socket, where the circular 

form of that portion of the weapon becomes 

angular. Narrow lateral ridges connect 

these loops with the base of the blade, 

which has hollow bevelled edges, and is as 

sharp as the day it came from the mould. 

The socket margin is decorated with a fillet 

of five elevations, and a double linear en- 
graved or punched ornament forming a 

triangular pattern like that seen in some 

antique gold ornaments. A sharp ridge 
extends along the middle of the socket fr<nn 
the loops to tne point, on each side of which, 
aa well as in the angles between the blade 
and the socket, there are lines of small oval 
punched indentations apparently eifocted by 
the hand." 

In one of the looped forms both the 
blade and the socket are often higlily orna- 
mented. The socket port is made to appear 
somewhat like a haft to the blade, as in 
the Arretcm Down specimen (Fig. 328), and 
the blade itself has ridges running nearly 
parallel to the edges, the midrib being 
almost square in section. An example of this kind from Ballymena 
is, by the kindness of Mr. H. Day, F.S.A., shown in Fig. 401. As will 
be seen, the socket, blade, and exti^nial faces of the loops are all orna- 
mented with engraved and punctured lines. A beautiful example from 
Ireland (6J inches), the socket engraved irith a double ring of chevrons 
near the middle, and a single ring near the base, and also ornamented 
with dotted circles and lines extending down the blndo, is in the 
Britash Muaenm. It has two knobs on each side of the socket simulating 
rivets. 

. p. 280 ; '■ VtBt. Ant. Derb.," p. 9. 

V. p. 285. t " Catal. Mus. H. I. A,," p. *9(i. 




836 SPEAR-HBADB, LANOE-HEADS, BTC. [cHAP. XIV. 

Other TorietieB vitli the midrib more rounded are ^vea by Wilde,* 
and two of his figures are, by the kindness of the Coimcil of the Boysl 
Irish Academy, here reproduced aa Figs. 402 and 403.f The original of 
Fig. 402 is 5 inches long. It has " a central circular Btnd opposite ths 
base of the blade, beneath which there are a series of minute continnoiu 
lines margined on both sides by a row of elevated dota." The socket ami 
the outer surface of the loops are also highly decorated. 

Fig. 403 is 7^ inches long, and is also artistically ornamented. 




rig. lOE.— Inland. ] 



Fig. tun.— LcUnd. ( 



An example of this kind is given in " Hortc Ferales." J 

Oiiu (5i inches) from the Dean Water, Forfarshire, is in the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh. The blade is uniamented by incised lines and 
punctiilations. 

Fig. 404, also kindly lent by the Royal Irish Aeademy (Wilde, Fig. 378). 
shows a smaller and a plainer type. 

An unomaniented lance-head of this type (5 iuches) was found at Peel,|| 
in the Isle of Man. Another, 5| Indies, with three bands of parallel 
lines round the soc'ket, was obtained at Douglas, Lanarkshire.§ 



' n. vi. II.. 

J Areli. A,ac. Jom- 



WITH LOOPS AT THE BASE OF THE BLADE. 



327 



The Bpear-heada of this claes vith loops at the side of the sockets are 
almost unknown out of the British IsUaos. In my own oolleotion, how- 
ever, is one from the Seine at Paris (6^ inchee), almoat identical in 
form with Fi^. 394, but with the lozenge-shaped plates forming the 
loops somewhat wider. 

A highly omam.ented Bpeax-head from Hungary,* preeerved in the 
Uuseum at Buda-Fest, has small semicircular loops 
at the sides of the socket. 

The third class of spear-heads consists of 
those with loops at the base of the blade con- 
aectiDg it with the socket. There are many 
varieties of this clasx, which includes some 
of the most elegant forms of these ancient 
weapons. The reason for adopting this par- 
ticular kind of loop appears to be that ihey 
were, when thus attached to the blade, less 
liable to be broken oS* or damaged than when 
they formed isolated projections from the 
socket The spear-heads were also more readily 
polished and furbished when the socket was 
left as a plain tube. 

The loops are very frequently formed by the 
continuation of two ribs aloDg the margin of 
the blade, which are curved inwards from the 
base of the blade until they join the socket. 

A good example of this formation of the loop is 
shown in Fig. 405. The original was found at 
Elford, Northumberland, and is in the collectioii 
of Caaon Greenwell, F.B.S. 

Another of nearly the same form, but without 
the ribs on the blade, was found near Lowthorpe, 
Yorkshire, £.B., and is in the posaeesion of Mr. 
T. Boynton, of Ulrome Orange. 

The very graceful apear-head shown in Fig. 406 
was found at Isleham Fen, Cambridge, in 1863, 
and is a remarkably fine caatiug, the cavity for the 
reception of the shaft being no less than 12^ inches ^- W.-EUnd. i 

in length, and perfectly central in the blade. 

I have another spear-head of the some type (IB inches), probably from 
the Thames, almoat aa well cast, but rather heavier in proportion to its size. 
There are traces of wood in the socket, as is also the case in another of the 
■ame form(Hi inches) dredged from the Thames atBattersea,f and now 
in the Bateman Collection. The wood has been thought to be ash. 
Another similar, but originally about 20 inches long, was found in the 



SPEAR-HEADS, LANCE-HEADS, ETC [CHAP. XIT. 

TliameB near Itunnymode; * and another in ttie col- 
lection of Qenerol A. Pitt Rivets, F.B..8., 17 inchea 
long, was found at Hampton Court. 

Another (13J inchea) from the Thamee at Thames 
Dittou is in the British Museum. 

One (15^ iaches) from Bottiaham Lode, Cam- 
brid^, is in the Britifih MuBeum; as is another (14^ 
inches) from the New Itiver Works, Pentonrille. 
1 have seen othora from Covene^ Fen (16J inches, 
&[r. Fishtir), and from Woolpit, near Bury St. 
Edmunds (B J inches). The blade of one (llg inches] 
without the socket was found at Stanwick, York- 
shire, and ia now in the British Museum. 

One (13J inches) was found with three rapier- 
sliaped blades near Uaentwrog, Merionethshire, and 
is in the same colleutton.t 

Anutlier, broken, in tlie Museum at Taunton, is 
said to have been found in the Roman viUa at 
Wadsford, Combe St. Nicholas, near Chard. Its 
original length must have been about 18 inches. 

In the Bpocimen from Stibbard, Norfolk, [ ahovn 
m Fig. 407, the ribs upon the blade are less distinct, 
und the loops are widened out so as to show a 
lozenge form when the edge of the blade is seen. 
This spear-head was found with nine others and 
about seventy palstaves about ItiOG, and ia in the 
stattt in whiuh it left the mould, having never been 
tiuished by hammering and grinding, though the 
I oro has been extracted. I have seen a specimen iu 
the coUuctiou of Mr. J. Holmes, found at Morley, 
ntar Leeds, in which the hammering process had 
been applied to a part only of thu blade, which 
had ovideutly broken in the operation. The partly 
tiuisbed base and the imtmished jKiint were found 
together. 

An Irish example of this form has been engraved 
by Vallancey.§ 

This tyjie is rare in France, but a specimen is in 
the Museum at CarcasHoime (Aude), and another in 
that at St. Germain. 

In some spcar-heads of nearly tho same form 
there is a raised bead ruuning down the midrib as in 
Fig. 408. This beautifully finished weapon was 
bought in Dublin, but I cannot say iu what part of 
Ireland it was found. 

A smaller and broader apecijuL'U (7 inches) iu 013- 
C'ollectiiin was found at Clough, near Antrim. 

• Arrl.. Auttc. Jour., viA. xvi. p. 322. 

t Arch., vol. ivi. p. SUu, pi. lax. 3. 

; Arch, lost,, Kurwich vol., p. xxvi. AnothEr fruiii 
this huanl is in the Brit. Mub., •' Mor. J-'er.," pi. vi. 22. Sir. 
KrnakB thinks that the mould was in four pieces hesideB llw 
core, but on this point I nin rather douWful. 



rig. *».— Ji/fft.iEi Ten. 



OF CBOCIFOKH SECTION NEAR THE POINT. Oiv 

have another (lOJ inches) from the nortli of Ireland in which the 
rib half-way (uong the blade expands to form an edge almost as sharp 
hat at tlie sides. Near the point the Hoction ie cruciform, as in 




Flg.*W.-I.ikMili«th. 



spfar-head found near Hay, on the river Vt'ye, and now in the Museum 
B Society of Antiqiiarios of London, pn-^cnte the Bam« peculiarity as 



' ancient bronze spcur-heude from Oliina* i 
* Arrh. Jaurn., vol, xi. p. 415. 



330 



8FBAR-HEADS, LANCE-HRADS, ETC 



[chap. XIT. 



central ridgea of the same kind on the blades. Th^ have bnt one loop, 
and that ia on the face, and there ia a deep notch at the mouth of toe 
docket. 

The long bladcH are often more leaf-ehaped and leaa truncated at the 
base than that shown in Fig. 406. A very lara^ specimen of this kind 
from Lakonheath Fen is shown an the aaile of ^ inch in Fig. 409. The 
point is unfortunately lost, tnit is restored in the engraving. The midiib 
containing the socket is ridged, and the outer faces of the loops expand 
into the diamond form. 

One of nearly the same character (22^ inches), found 
in the Thames at Datchet, forma part of the Boach Smitli 
Collection,* now in the British Museum. Another (lU 
inches) was found with palstaves at Sberfordit neu 
Taunton. 

A specimen in the British Museum (15j inches) has 
an ornament of hatched chevrons round the base of 1^ 
socket, and the lozenge-shaped flanges are also orna- 
mented with hatched open maacles. 

A apear-head of the same form (IS^ inches) boa 
Ireland I has the ridge decoral«d with lines of dots, and 
the socket with hands and a chevron pattern. A 
plain specimen, no less than 26{ inches long, found at 
Maghera, Co. Londonderry,§ has been figured by 

wade. 

In others tlie midrib ia conical, and the blade nearly 
flat, or with only a shallow channel along the sides of 
the midrib. One such from the find at Nettleham, Lin- 
colnsliire, II now in the British Museum, is, by the kind- 
nesa of Mr. Franks, shown in Fig. 410. I have one 
nearly aiuiilar (9i inches) from Edmonton Marsh. One 
(7^ inches) from the Thames at Lambeth is in the 
British Museum, as are others from the same river 
varying in length from 9 to 15J inches. 

One from Speen, BerksH (7 inches), is of the same 
character, as is one (SJ inches) from Crawford, Lanark- 
shire.** Another (9 inches) from Horsey, near Peter- 
borough, Hunts, has been engraved by Artis-ff 
Another (IC^ inches) from the Severn at Kempaey, 
Worcestershire, II appears to have been of tliis type. 
I have seen others Irom the Cambridge Fens. One (5^ 
inches) from Edington Burtle, Somerset, is in the Taun- 
ton Museum. 
A spear-head of this character (lOJ inches), with the farces of the loops 
lozenge- shiiped, was found witli two looped palstaves and a chisel 



NetUebu 



- ■■ CaU!. Mu8, I*nd. Ant.," p. 83. X... 3:( 

t I'ring, '■ Brit, and Roiii. Tannton," pi. jii. 

: ■■ Uoite Fer.," pi. vi. iO, 

J " Catal. Mua. R. I. A.." fig. 366, p. 4M6 ; 

il Anl,. Jouni., vol. iriii. p- 160. 

% Afth. Jitoe. Jmrix., vol. ivi. p. 322, pi. > 

•■ Op- cit., vol. ivii. p. 110, pi. xi. 3. 

tt "' Durobrivic," p. Ivi. 4. 

j; Ai-ck. Joiii-u., vqI. iii. 331 ; Allies, " Woi 



Wmi 0FENIK03 IX THE BT.AD?:. 



{Tig. 197) at Broxton, about 
twelve mileB south of Cheater. 
It 19 now in the collection of Sir 
P. de if. G. Egerton, Bart., who 
haa kindly shown it to me. 

Spear-heads of this character 
are occasionaUj found in Scot- 
land. Two from Wigtonahire * 
have been figured. 

The form is common in Ireland. 
I have one 12 inches long from 
one of the northern counties. 

A apear-head (6J inches) with 
smaU projecting loops at each 
side of the blade was found near 
Hawick, Boxburghahire.t 

In Fig. 411 is shown a remark- 
ably fine spear-head in the collec- 
tion of Canon Qreenwell, F.R.S., 
which exhibits the peculiarity of 
having the loops formed by the 
pndongation of small ribs on each 
ride of the midrib, and of having, 
in addition, a rivet-hole through 
the socket. It was found at 
Knockans, Co. Antrim. 

An Irish Bp6ar-head( 1 4} inches) 
with loops at the lover end of 
the blade, and the socket pierced 
for a rivet, was exhibited to the 
Ardueological Institute in 1656.^ 

The fourth class of spear- 
heads, those with openings in 
the hlade, may ^ain be sub- 
divided into those in which 
the openings appear to have 
served as loops for attaching 
the blade to the shaft, and 
those in which these apertures 
seem to have been mainly 
intended for ornament, or pos- 
sibly for diminishing weight. 

Of the former kind appear 
to be those which have merely 
two small slits in the lower 



• Ayr Mid Wi|!ton Coll., vol. ii. 
t Prae. Soc. AM. Scot., vol. v. p 
; Arth. Jtam., vol. x<ii. p. 366. 



p. 13. 




l*i|[.«ll,— Knoekaiu. i 



832 APEAR'HEADS, LANCB-HBADS, ETC [cHAP. XIT 

part of the LWe, such as would soem &daj>tcd for the iDsertioD 
of a cord, lliuse holes ore usually protected b; 
jirojections rising from the blade on the outer side 
of the holes. 

A fine HjKiar-Iicad in my own collection thus per- 
forated, found noar Lurgan, Co. Armagh,* is shown in 
Fig. 412. It is 2-1 inches iu length, and 3} inchttsia 
extreme breadth. 

The opeuingB are about 17 inches from the point. 
An Irish friend has suggested that they were for th« 
reception of poison, but after the blade had penetrated 
neventeen inches into thu human body such an use of 
poison would proliably be supi-rHuous. 

A xpcar-head of the same fonn (1!)| inches) was 
fiiiind cm the hill of Rosele, DulFue, Morayshire, f and. 




WITH FLANUKft AT THE SIDE OF THE OPEMNCS. 



333 



■w in tho Elgiii Museum. Anotlier, broken, but still lOg inuliee long, 
found with a rapier-shaped blade at Corbridge, Northumberland.* 
-oken specimen was found in the Isle of Portland, j- 
siiear-head (10 inches) with small openings in the blade was found, 

paletaveB, socketed celts, rapiers, bracelets, and a ferrule, at 
lington, Northumber- 
, and ia in tho ])ob- 
on of Sir Charloa 
■elj-ui. 

a "oyod" speur-hcad 
nches long was found 
the Thanies near 
:hot,J but wliotlior it 
of this or some other 

I cannot say. On" 
K-hes) witli two holes 
ho base uf tho leaf 
■e the ferrule was 
d near Speen, JJerks.§ 

broader form (13 J 
es) from Ireland is 
■aved by WUdo (Fig. 
, and another broader 
is shown in my Fig. 

This has a rivet-hole 
he front of the socket, 
ell as the holes in the 
e. This is abo in the 
lin Museum. 
1 some instances the 
e is very mui'h shorter 

Eroportion to the 
of the socket, as 
be seen in Fig. 414, 
>riginal of which was 
d in tliP county of 

in Green well's coDec- 

remarkably fine Eng- 
examplo of the same 
. is shown in Fig. 415. 
specimen was found 
e Thames, and is now 
le British Museum. The small projecting flanges at the side of the 
i in the blade are very strongly marked, and form circular discs 
1 seen with the edge of tho spear-head towards the spectator, 
le simplest of tlio forms, in which the holes in the blade appear to be 

• .Irfh. Jouru., vol. xix. p. 3G.1. 
t Ibid., vol. XXV. ji. i9. 
i Arek. Auw. Ja«m,, vol. v. p. 81). 
} Ibid., vol. ivi. p. 250. 




Fig. ilS.— Xnirorih CuUa. 



334 



SPEAK-HEADS, LAKCE-HRADS, ETC. 



[chap. : 



for ornament rather than use, ii that in -which there are two drculir or 
oval holes through the blade, one on either aide of the midrib oontaimw 
the eocket. The spear-head shown in Fie;. 416 was found near Navmoi 
Castle, Cumberland, in 1S70, and is in me collection of Canon Orsen- 



Fig. 118.— Whittinghiun. ) 



irell. In general form it resembles tlie type, Fig. 381. It is provided 
with ft rivet-hole throiiph the socket. 

Some Italian spear-heads have two circular holes in the blade, bwt 
nearer the base. 

In the epear-head shown in Fig, 417 there is no trace of a rivet-hole 
in the socket, the end of which, however, is broken, and the two oval 
orifices in the blade are placed one somewhat below the other. This 



WITH LUNATE OPEKING3 IK THE BLADE. 



s found at Blakehope, 



The more truly characteristic spear-heads of this class have two 
crescent-shaped or lunate openings, one on each side of the mid- 
rib containing the socket, which thus is 
made, as it were, to reappear in the 
middle of the blade. There is usually 
a riTet-bole in the projecting part of the 
socket below the blade, so that these 
openings must be regarded as ornamental, 
or else as intended to diminish the weight 
of the weapon. 

The original of Fig. 418 was found about 
1847, near Whittingham, Northumberland,* 
in company with Bome other spear-heads and 
two swordfl, and is now in the poBsesaion of 
Lord Ravensworth. The surface of the blade 
ia ontameated by being worked into steps or 
terraces, and the socket by bands of parallel 

A rather longer specimen was found, to- 
gether with a plain leaf-shaped spear-head 
and five socketed celts, at Winmarleigh, near 
Garstang, Lancashire.! ^7 ^^ kindness of 
the curators of the Warrington Museum I am 
enabled to give it as IHg. 419. It is 19J 
inches long. There are small ridgea by the 
side of the midrib and round the margin of 
the openings. 

Another like it, but only 15| inches long. 
. was found with a socketed celt near Middle- 
ham, Yorkshire. 

Some fragments of spear-heads of this cha- 
racter were found with other bronze anti- 
quities in Duddingston Loch, Edinburgh. J 

The same form has occurred in L'eland.g 
A fine example (14 inches) from a hoard at 
Downs, King's County,|| is in the British 
Museum. 

A spear-head of this ^pe, about 3 inches 
long, is in the Boucher de Perthes Collection Fig. «[».— wmmuieigb. i 

at Abbeville. 

A spear-head smaller than Fig. 419, but of the same general character, is 



" Pne. Soe. Anl., 2nd S., vol. v. p. 429. 

t Arek. Attot. Joam., vol. iv. p. 234; Arch. JourH., 

t Qrote'» " Treut. on Anc. Armour," 1786, pi. lii. 6. 

{ VJUncey, "CoU. Hib.." vol. iv. pi. li. 7. 

II " Hm» F«r.," pL vi. 16. 






SPEAH-MEADS, LAKCE-HEADS, ETC. 



[chap. : 



shown in Fig. 420. It was found in! 
yfvU Koii,OtLinbridge, about 1869. 
is a double bead uong each side of < 
midrib, and the blade is in two b 
or torracps. Around the crer" 
itliaped opening' Uie beading is gr. 
or milleci transversely. A proje 
is carripd down along the socket 
the blade, bo as to allow the rivet-I 
to be inado in it. The socket extendi] 
to within 1^ inches of the point. 

A spear-head of nearly the seuw 
size, with the openings soniewlat 
smaller, but ornamented in a aimiliil 
manner, was found with celts, pal- 
staves, gouges, swords, scabbards, St., 
at Quilsfield, Montgomeryshire ,• i' 
1862. Another, broken, was foundi 
the same time. Another was 
hoard at Little Wonlock, Staffoid- 
ahjrc,t but does not appear to hare 
been oninmented. There was a frae- 
ment of another, plain, in tho Brotw- 
ward J find. 

In the Antiquarian Muaeiun at Edin- 
burgh ore some spear-heads of tbii 
charatter, with the openings on the 
blade rather longer in proportion- 
One was found in the bottom of 
a cairn at Highfield, Urray, ixar 
Dingwiill, EoBa-8liire.§ Othors were 
foimd in Roxburghshire and Stirling- 
Some of the spoar-heads of tliis ty]W 
which have been found in Ireland an" 
liighly omanionted. A very fine s]M*ci- 
men given by Wilde (Fig. 374) has 
several mouldings with a kind of cable 
pattern u|Kin them. Otlu!!* have t'ir- 
cidar perforations in addition to the 
lunate o)>eiiings; and in one instum^)' 
the socket is decorated with bands and 
vertical lines (Wilde, Fig. 372). 

A .iinall lance-head from Jelabupy. 
ItusHia, II with <«mparatively larfif 
crescent -shaped openmgs tn the bliidc, 
lias boon figured by Worsaao. 

Tim cut for Fig. 421 la kindly Irnt 
mo by tlie Society of Antiquaries of 



., 2nd S. 



vol. i 



p.yn 



BARBED AT 1 



The original, 19 inches lon^, waa found with a bronze eword 
i, Cnpar-AnguB, Forfarahire,* and haa unfortunately been 
iroken. As 




tlie Severn, 

i. p. 391 ; "HortB Fer.," pi. vi. 23; "C«W. Mua. 

. p. <04, pi. iii. 11; Arch. Attof. Jaum,, toI. Xti. 

.,■• pi. vi. 26; Allies, 



" Arch, last.," York vnl., pi. i 



338 SPEAR-HEADSy LANCE-HEADB, ETC. [CHAP. XIT. 

Another (10} inches), found in the Plaistow Marshes, Essex, andnov 
in the British Museum, has a rivet of bronze 2} inches in leng^ BtQl ib 
the rivet-hole. Curiously enough this long rivet appears to be a specialiky 
of this class of weapons. Some of this type, together with some fragmflnti 
twisted and adhering together as if partially molten, were found in the 
Thames at Kingston,* and in one of them was the bronze rivet. These 
are now in the British Museum. Some broken barbed spear-heads of 
larger size (about 14 inches), also with the rivets still in position, were 
found with bronze ferrules at a spot called '* Bloody Pool," South Brent, 
Devon, t 

Another (7 inches), found at Pendoylan, near Cardiff, Olamorganshire,^ 
has an oval socket pierced on one side for a rivet, which, however, is 
wanting. 

Canon Greenwell, F.B.S., possesses an example much like that from 
Speen (lOJ inches) found in Yorkshire, near the river Humber. 

In the Broadward find § (Shropshire) were several spear-heads of this 
type, mostly retaining their bronze rivets. One of them, about 6 inches 
long and 3 inches broad, has the base of the blade at right angles to the 
socket, and not sloping downwards. Several bronze ferrules were included 
in the hoard. What appears to have been a discovery of netirly the same 
character took place in a bog on a farm called the Wrekin Tenement,! 
also in Shropshire, where a celt, a small number of swords, and about 
one hundred and fifty fragments of spear-heads were foimd. They are 
described as beinff for the most part about 8 inches in length, and having 
rivets of bronze through the sockets. I have not met with the type in 
Scotland or Ireland. 

It has been suggested that these weapons were fishing spears, and 
certainly their barbed form, so distinct from that of the more 
common spear-heads, raises a presumption that they were intended 
for some special purpose. It appears to me, however, as it already 
has done to others, that such weapons are too clumsy to have been 
used for the capture of fish of any ordinary size, and would have 
made sad havoc even of a forty-pound salmon. If they were used 
for the chase at all, it is more probable that they were intended for 
attacking large four-footed game, such as wild oxen, either by 
thrusting or darting, and that the weapons were left in the wound, 
the shafts encumbering the animal in its flight. If, as would 
probably be the case, these got broken by the animal, the long 
rivets were well adapted for being removed so as to allow of the 
broken shaft being taken out, and would again serve to retain a 
new one. 

Mention has already been made of ferrules having been frequently 

* rror. iSnc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 125. 

t Arch. Jouru.^ vol. xii. p. 84 ; vol. xviii. p. 160. 

1 Ibid., vol. xiv. p. 357; vol. xviii. p. 161. 

I Arch. Camh., 4th S., vol. iii. pp. 339, 347. 

II Arcfi.y vol. xxvi. p. 464. 



FERRULES FOR SPEAR-SHAFTS. 



339 



rered in company with ordinary spear-heads ; and from this 
and the size and character of the ferrules, the inference has, 
much probability, been drawn that they served to tip the lower 
of the shafts of spears and lances. 

le illustrations given in Figs. 423 and 424 will serve to show 
sual character of these objects. They vary in length from 
t 16 inches down to 8 inches, and are 
b f inch or less in diameter. They are 
Qade from a flat piece of metal turned 

but are cast in one piece, having been 

carefully "cored." The metal, espe- 
' near the mouth, is very thin, and there 
ually a small hole nearer this end than 
►ther to allow of a pin or rivet being 
ted to keep the ferrule on the shaft. 

9 original of Fiff. 423 (8^ inches^ was 
[ with spear-heads and other articles at 
Bham, near Lincoln, and is now in the 
»h Museum.* 
e 14 inches long, bluntly pointed at the 

was foimd in the Thames, near London, 
is now in the British Museiun. It has a 
m of the wooden shaft inside, which ap- 

to be of beech. The hole for the pin is 
visible in the wood, but the pin has 
led. It may have been made of horn. 
;. 424 is on the scale of one-fourth, the 
lal being 14 inches long. It was found 
eleven others, varying in length from 10 

inches, and with spear-heads and other 
es, at Guilsfield, Montgomeryshire. f 
other ferrule (9^ inches) was found, with 
-heads, socketed celts, &c., near Notting- 

t 

iir such (about 7 inches) were found, with 
•heads, &c., at Bloody Pool, South 3rent, 

ion Greenwell has a specimen from Antrim 

ches), the end of which is worn obUquely, as if by trailing on the 

id. It has a single rivet-hole. 

'ery long ferride of this kind (14^ inches), but with a small disc at 

Me, is in the Museun^ at Nantes. It was found in the bed of the 



ii 



Fiff. 
!fettl( 



423. 



Nettleh&m. \ 



Fiff.4M 
OuUflfi 



eld. I 



rch. Joum,f vol. zviii. p. 160. I am indebted to Mr. Franks for the nae of this 

•or. Soc. Ant.f 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 250; vol. v. p. 422 ; Areh. Camb., 3rd S., vol. x. 

; " Montgom. Coll.," vol. iii. p. 437. 

oc. Soe, Ant., 2nd S., voL i. p. 332. { Areh. Joum., vol. xii. p. 84. 

z 2 



340 SPEAR-HEADS, LANCE-HEADS, ETC. [CHAP. XIT. 

A shorter form, somewhat expanding towards the base, is shown in 
Fig. 425. This, together with three others, none more than 4^ inches 
long, was found, with spear-heads, &c., at Pant-y-maen, near GlancjcL* 

In the Broad ward find f were six tubes, varying in length from 6 to 
2 inches, of which one only was of this type. Some were bo small that 
the diameter did not exceed J inch. 

A small ferrule of this kind was in the hoard found at Bedding^n, 
near Croydon, | and part of one in that of Wickham Park. The latter is 
now in the British Museum. 

What appears to bo a ferrule of this kind, but more widely expazided 
at the end, like Fig. 425, is described in Gordon's *'Itineranum Septen- 
trionale " § as ** a Koman tuba, or trumpet." 

Another of these expanded ferrules is in the Museum of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society. || 

In the Fulboum find ^ there were two ferrules expanding at the base 
to about 2 inches in diameter, which were regarded by Dr. Clarke as 
having been the feet of two spears. He points out that similar feet for 
spears may be seen represented on Greek vases.** The ovpia)^ or 
a-avpomip of Homer ff appears to have been more susceptible of oeing 
driven into the ground. This point at the base was sometimes used for 
fighting when the spear-head proper was broken. 

Among the African tribes on the shores of the Gambia, the spears, as 
Mr. Syer Cuming JJ has pointed out, have a chisel- or celt-like ferrule at 
the base of their shafts ; and this fashion extends all across Africa to 
Madagascar, §§ and recurs in Borneo. 

Some Danish ferrules |||| present the same peculiarity of being chisel- 
like at the base. 

Another form, more spherical at the base, is shown in Fig. 427, copied 
from the Archmohgical Journal.^^ The original, with several others, was 
found at St. Margaret's Park, Hereford. The socket tapers to a point 
1^ inches from the extremity. 

A nearly similar ferrule, but with a slight cylindrical projection beyond the 
spherical part, was found with other bronze objects at Lanant, Cornwall.*** 
A kind of pointed ferrule of a nearly square section, with the faces 
hollowed, wliich was found near Windsor, ftt and is now in the British 
Museum, not improbably belongs to a later date than the Bronze Period. 

In the Museimi of the Royal Irish Academy are several ferrules, 
apparently for the end of spear shafts, some of which are said to have been 
found with spear-heads. Many of these have ornaments of a late Celtic JJ J 
character upon them. Others §§§ appear to have been made from plates 
turned over and soldered, and not to nave been cast hollow. Both of these 
kinds are of more recent date than the Bronze Age. 

* Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. x. p. 221. f Tbid., 4th S., vol. iii. p. 353. 

I Anderson's *' Croydon rrch. and Itom.," p. 11, pi. iii. 6. 

^ P. 116, pi. 1. 7. II Arc/i. Journ.^ vol. xii. p. 96. 

H Arch.^ vol. xix. p. 66, pi. iv. 10. 11 ; Skolton's ** Meyrick's Anc. Arni.," pi. xlvii. 12. 

*♦ Arch, ubi sup., *' Millin, Peinturcs de Vases," tome ii. p. 25. 

ft *' Iliad./' lib. x. 153 ; lib. xiii. 443. Jcc. 

XX Arch. Aitsoc. Jonrn.y vol. xv. p. 235. §} " Preh. Cong.," Norwich vol., p. 77. 

nil Worsaao, "Nord. Olds.," fig. 191 ; "Atlas for Nord. Old.," pi. B 1, 22, 23. 

11^ Vol. xi. p. 55. *♦• Arch.f vol. xv. p. 118. 

ttt Arch., vol. V. pi. viii. 16. 

XXX Wilde, " Catal. Mus. R. J. A.," figs. 390, 391. ^ Op. cit., p. 517. 



CONTINENTAL TYPES. 



341 



Taperinff f errulee of bronze occur in Itftly, and a pointed iron ferrule, 
probably belonging to a barbed jarelin of Boman age, was found in 
the river Witham, near Lincoln.* 

A ferrule, about 3 inches long, with parallel lines engraved round it, ia 
in the Museum at Clermont Ferrand. Another, more conical, is in that 
of Narbonne.f Some with expanded button-like ends have been found 
in the Lake-dwellings of Savoy. Several ferrules, some of them very 
short, were found with bronze spoar-heade at Alise Ste. Beine (Cute d'Or).} 




Fig. US.— Oluercta. i Fig. 4sg.— Fulbonm. ) Fig. 437.—lientoii. { 



Others, some of them ornamented, formed part of the great Bologna 
hoard. 

A ferrule was found with a bronze spear-head, between 23 and 24 
inches long, in the Alban Necropolis, and is figured in the Archaoloffia.^ 
Padre Oarrucci regards this spear as neither Greek, nor Etruscan, nor 
Latin, but Celtic. 

Although the simple leaf-shaped spear-headufrom the British Isles 
present close analogies with those from the other parts of Europe, 
yet for the most part those of the other types, with loops to the 
sockets, with openings in the blade, or of the barbed class last 
described, present peculiarities of their own. Several of thesu 
types appear, indeed, to have been evolved in Britain or in 
Ireland, and the differences they exhibit from the ordinary conti- 
nental types are more marked than in any other class of bronze 
+ " Matiriaux," vol. v. pi. ii. 26. 



342 8PEAR-HSADS, LANCE-HEADS, ETC [CHAP. XIT 

weapons. Though loops are such a common adjunct to the socketed 
celts of other countries, yet looped palstaves are comparativdy 
rare abroad. At the same time, as will have been seen, hardly any 
examples of looped spear-heads from foreign countries can be cited, 
while in Britain, and more especially in Ireland, they are yerr 
abundant. This fact, in whatever way it is to be accounted for, 
affords a most conclusive argument against assigning a Roman 
origin for our bronze weapons ; a looped spear-head, so far as 1 
am aware, never having been discovered in Italy, and but very 
rarely even in GauL ' The spear-heads with the smaU apertures 
in the blade appear also to be of an indigenous tjrpe. 

Some of the iron spear-heads from Hallstatt and elsewhere baye 
been made in imitation of those in bronze, and have been welded 
along the whole length of their sockets in a manner which dis- 
plays the highest skill in the smiths. But, unlike the iron 
palstaves and socketed celts, none of the spear-heads are provided 
with a loop. In later times the sockets of the iron spear-heads 
were left with an open slit along them, a method of manu&cture 
which produced an equally serviceable weapon, and involved &r 
less troubla 

As to the position in time which spear-heads occupy in the 
Bronze Age, it is probable that it is towards the close rather than 
the beginning of that period. Not only are spear-heads almost, if 
not quite, absent from our barrows, but the skill involved in 
producing implements so thin and so truly cored could only have 
been acquired after long practice in casting. The objects to be 
considered in the next chapter are also of comparatively late 
date. 



CHAPTER XV. 

SHIELDS, BUCKLERS, AND HELMETS. 

Having now described the various weapons of offence of which 
in early times bronze formed the material, it will be well to 
examine the arms of defence fabricated from the same metal, and 
presumably of the same or nearly the same age. 

The shields first in use in Britain were probably formed of 

perishable materials, such as wicker-work, wood, or hide, like those 

of many savage tribes of the present day ; and it can only have 

been after a long acquaintance with the use of bronze that plates 

could have been produced of such size as those with which some 

of the ancient shields and bucklers found in this country were 

covered. They would appear, therefore, to belong to quite the 

close of the Bronze Age, if not to the transitional period when iron 

was coming into use. There are, indeed, several bronze coverings 

of shields of elongated form, such as those from the river Witham* 

and from the Thames,! with decorations upon them, in which red 

enamel plays a part, that have been found associated with the 

iron swords of what Mr. Franks has termed the Late Celtic Period. 

Those, however, which appear to have a better claim to a place in 

these pages are of a circular form. 

That which I have shown in Fig. 428 is now in the British 
Museum, and has already been figured in the Archceologia^t and 
described by Mr. Gage. It was dredged up from what appears to 
kave been the ancient bed of the river Isis, near Little Witten- 
kam, Berks, not far from the Dyke Hills, near Dorchester, Oxon. 
It is about 13i inches diameter, not quite circular in form, though 

• "HoraB Fer.," pi. xiv. ; Arch., voL xxiii. p. 97; Proe. Soc. Ant., voL iv. p. 144; 
Skelton'B ** Meyrick's Anc. Ann.," pi. xlvii. 7. 

t " HorsB Fer.," pi. xv. ; Arch. Amoc. Journ.^ vol. xiv. p. 330. 

1 Vol. xxvii. pi. xxii. p. 298; "The Barrow Diggers,'* pi. ii. 1, p. 73; Worsaae, 
** rrim. Ant. of Denm./' £ng. ed., p. 32. I am indebted to Messrs. James Parker & Ck). 
for the use of this block. 



344 



!JIIIEI.I)S, mCKLEKS, AKl) HBLUBTS. 



[chap. I 



probably intended so to be. The nused bosses hare all beeo 
wrought in the metal with the exception of four, two of vhicb 
form the rivets for the handle across the umbo, and two othen 
serve fts the rivets or pivots for two small strajjs or buttons rf 
bronze on the inner side of the buckler. Such buttons occur on 
several other examples, but it is ditHcult to determine the exact 
pnr])osc which they served. Front the jiaius btkeii in this instance 
to eoncenl tlie heads of these pivots on the outside, by makiDg 
them take the form and plaec of bosses, it would appear that they 
were necessary adjuncts of the shield, and ^tossibly in some way 
connected with a lining for it. Such a lining can hardly have 




Ftg.iiS.- 



been of wood, or many rivet or pin holes would have been neccssnry 
fur sccunug the metal to it. It may be that a lining of hide was 
moulded while wet to the form of the shiekl, and that these 
buttons served to keep it in place when dry. In one case " it is 
said that some tilirous particles resembling leather stiU remain 
attached to the inside of tlic shield. In general the metal is so 
thin tliat without some lining these bncklers would Iiavc afiorded 
but a poor defence against the stroke of a sword, spc-ar, or arrow. 
In tlii.s Little Wittenham example, and possibly in some others, it 
is probable that the shield itself was larger than the bronze plate. 
Anntlier view is that these buttons fjistened a strap for carrying 
the shii'kl when either in or out of use. 



I. li. U. and A. Ainoc. of Ireland, 1th S., V. 



■. ]'. 188. 



SHIELDS WITH CONCENTKIC I 



340 



Anotlier buckler, in Lord Londosborough'a eoUection, 14 indies in 
diameter, witli two ciruIeB of siuall bosses divided by a raised band. 
is stated to have been found with a large bronze speor-head at Athenry,* 
Co. Galway. Two of the bosses of ths inner circle are the heads of 
riveta for securing the handle. A much smaller buckler, or centre of 
a buckler, only 9J inches Jn diameter (also with two rings of boaaes), 
presumably found in the Iais,f near Eynsham Bridge, is in the Museum 
of the Sociely of Antiquarios, It has a slightly conical boss, surrounded 
by a circle of smaller bosses between two raised ribs. There is ako a 
raised rib round the margin formed by turning over the metal towards 
the outer face. In the outer ring of bosses two are missing at the places 
where, no doubt, were formerly the rivets of the buttons or loops. 

A shield in the British Museum (21 inches), found in the Thames, has 
four rows of bosses, about an inch in diameter, and the same number of 




Fig. 4S».— B«il«ch. 

raised rings. The inner set of bosses abuts on the umbo. There is a 
mai^nal rim about an inch beyond the outer ring. This shield a)>pearB 
to have had two buttons, which as usual are nearly in a line with one 
of the rirets which fasten the handle. One of these loops remains secured 
by a large-headed rivet matching the bosses. There is at least one hole 
through the shield which may have resulted from a spear thrust. 

The rivets which secure the handle have heads made in imitation of 

la some the decoration consists of a series of concentric ribs or beads, 
as in that found in a peat moss near Ilarlech,^ which is shown in Fig. 
439. Its diameter is 22 inches. The heads of the four rivets for 

• "Horn Fct.," p. 167, pi. xi. 1 ; Arch. Journ., vol. liii. p. 187. 

t Op. eit., p. 167. pi. li. 3 ; " Catal. of AnU., &c., of the boc. Ant.," p. 17. 

XAn/t-Jaurn., ti^ viLp. 77, whence the cut u copied ; "Hor. Far.," p. 167, pi- xi. f. 



346 



SHIELDS, BUCKLERS, AND HELMUTS. 



[chap. XV. 



holdins the handle and the two buttons are in this esse visible in tha 

spaces Detivc* II the ribs. 

Another of the »ame pattern was discovered in eompasy irith tiist 

shown in Fig. 430, iu Coveney Fen,* near Ely, and is now in the Huseun 

of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. The metal of which it is fbimed 

has been found on analj-His to contain — 

Copper 87-55 

Tin 11-72 

Nickel 0-40 

99-67 
The prcsenco of the nickel is probably duo to impurities in the ore from 
whicn tlio copper was extractinl. 




The second Coveney shield is shown in Fig. 430. | The ornament in 
this instance is of a very peculiar eliaraeter, and appears to represent 
two snakes, one long and the other short, twisted about into a sj'mmetrical 
pattern. They are of the ampAub^naWnd, with a head at each end. Tlie 
two outermost ribs, one of thorn at the margin, are continuous. Tlie 
rivets for holding tho handle are visible, as are also tliree on either side 
cunniicted with the inner buttons, that in this case have been regarded as 



t Coijii'U from Pail. Cami. Aiit 



i. Mi» 



SHIELDS WITH CONCEHTBIC RINGS OF 1 



347 



loopa by which the ahield was euapended. The buttons have a small 
hole through them, as will be seen by Fig. 
431. la front of each ia a pair of Bmall coni- 
cal studs, oF which the purpose can now 
hardly be determined. Mi. Qoodwin thought 
that they might be intended to prevent a 
thon^ which passed beneath the buttons from 
slippmg away from them. 

The type of shield, of which the largest ^' "'-c™-»^ t 

Ditmtier Iios been foimd in the British Isles, is that having 





348 EIIIEUIS, ItUCKLERS, AND UELUKTS. [cBAP. XT. 

series of conceDtric riDgs, from about twelve to thirty in numbtf, 
and between them circles of small stuilf. 



A very fine example of this kind uf ehjeld is preserved ia the] 
of the Society uf AntiquarioH of London.* and is shown on the Kileitf 
one-aixtli, togt'ther witii some of its details on a, larger scale, in Figs. 4Si, 




FlE-U^k-Bcitli. I 



43.1, and 431, for the use of which I am indi-hted to the Council of thcAjT- 
ahirt' and AVigtonsliiro Arthteologic-al Aesoi'iatiou-t 

A figure of the sliifld has been ^ven by Profossor Danit-l Wilson. + 
but the illustratiiius hero given will convey a niutli more accurate 
imnreMsion of its diiiracter and details. 

Though there is bdiiik diwrcpancy as to incnsurement, there is little 
doubt that this ia the sliield found about tlu' yfur 1 780 in a pi*t moss on 
II farm called Lujjgtonrigge. in the )Miri!*li of lietth, Ayrshire, and pre- 
sented to the Soiiiiy of Antiquaries by I'r, IVrris.g who was informed 



' vol. i. II. fiO. * 



i! (IcaLTiUid thii bMl-IiI. 



I •• Uinutu Ituok i>f tjuc Aut.," 



SHIELDS FOUND IN SCOTLAND. 349 

that four or five others of the same kind w^re diecorered at the eame 
time. A portion of the jnargiu of the shield is shown of the full size in 
Fig. 433, and the handle across the inner side of the boss on the scale of 
one-half in Fig. 434. These figures give so complete an idea of the 
original that it seems needless to enter into further details. It is, how- 
ever, well to call attention to the fact that the handle of the buckler, 
which ia made from a fiat piece of bronze, is rendered more convenient to 
grasp, and at the same time strengthened, b; its sides being doubled 
over, and thus made to present a rounded edge. It is secured to the 
shield by a rivet at each end. About midwa; between the edge of the 
umbo and that of the shield, but placed so that one of the rivets of the 
handle is in the same line and midway between them, have been two 
rivets, each fastening a short button like those on the Coveney Feu shield, 
of which at present only one remains. The rivot-hole for the other has 
been dosed by a short rivet. 



Fig. IM,— Beith. 



Other shields, almost identical in character, have likewise been found 
in Scotland, one of which, by the kindness of the Council of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, is shown in Fig. 435, on the scale of one-sixth. 
A portion of the margin is shown full size in Fig. 436, and the interior 
of the umbo in Fig. 437, on the scale of one-fourth. Itwas found in 1837, 
together with another, in a marshy field near Yetholm, Boxburghshire. 
These shields have been described in a paper by the late Mr. W. T. 
MOulloch,* of some of whose references I have here made use. 

One of these Tethohn shields is 23^ inches in diameter, and has thirty 
concentric rings of convex knobs alternating with projecting circular 
ribs or beads ; the other measures 24 inches across, and has twenty-four 
rings of both knobs and ribs. In the centre of each ia a hollow circular 
umoo 4 inches in diameter, with a handle riveted across it. 

Another shield of the same character was found at Yetholm f in 1870, 
near the place where the two others were discovered. It is 22J inches in 

• Proc. Sac. Ant. Srvl., vol. v, p. 165. Sco also Tr. R. Uiit. omf Arch. Ante, of 
Ireland, <th 8., vol, iv. p. 487. 
t /Vue. See. Ant. Scot., vol. riii. p. 3S3. 



SHIELDS, BUCKLERS, AND HBI.METB. [cBAF. IV. 



diameter, with twenty-nine concentric nngs alternating with tlie oiul 
Btnall knobs. The hoaa in S^ inches in diameter 




SHIELDS FOUND IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 351 

At the bcLck of each of these shields, about midway between the centre 
and the rim, are the usual small movable tongues of bronze, which have 
been supposed to serve for the attachment of a leather strap by which the 
shield might be slung round the body. Mr. Jeffrey, F.S.A. Scotland, of 
Jedburgh, who described this third shield, has pointed out that there is 
too little room beneath the tongues for a strap of any kind. 

So far as at present known these are the only instances of bucklers 
of this kind having been discovered in Scotland. 

In England and Wales several such have been found. One was in the 
Meyriok Collection* at Goodrich Court, and is now in the British 
Museum. It is about 26^ inches in diameter, with twenty concentric 
circles of knobs and ribs between, and is in all respects like those just 
deeoribed. It was found about 1804 in a turbary near Aberystwith, 
Cardiganahire. It has had the usual buttons, one of which remains. 

Another example f of the kind (25^ inches), with twenty-seven con- 
centric ring^, was also in the Meyrick Collection, and is now in the 
Britiah Museimi. It was found in a peat moss at Moel Sinbod, near 
Capel Curig, Carnarvonshire. It has one of the usual loops and the 
riyet of the other. Sir Samuel Meyrick had heard of another shield, 
duff up near Newcastle-on-Tyne, which the owner, wishing to gratify 
all nifl friends, cut up like a cake, and sent to each a slice. This may be 
the shield found at Broomyholmo, Chester-le-Street, Durham, of which 
a fragment is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. 

Another now in the possession of Sir Edward Blackett, Bart., was 
foimd near Corbridge, Northumberland. 

Fragments t of two other shields of the same character were also 
found m Northumberland, at Ingoe, in the parish of Stamfordham, about 
two miles north of the Eoman w^. They were originally about 20 inches 
in diameter, and like so many others were discovered during draining 
operations. 

Another buckler of the same character was found in the Thames § at 
London, and passed into the British Museum with the Hoach Smith 
Collection. This specimen is 21 J inches in diameter, and has eleven rings 
of the small bosses upon it separated by concentric ribs. A curious 
feature in this shield is that the places to which the usual little buttons 
were attached have been neatly cut out, leaving triangular holes. There 
is also a third hole of the same kind. In one place also there is a hole 
through the shield, such as might have been produced by the thrust of 
a bronze spear. Close by this hole is a clean cut, such as might have 
been made by a sword. The plate of bronze has been turned over on to 
the iaeef so as to form the outer rim. 

A cinmlar shield, || with twenty-six concentric rings of studs, was dredged 

3f together with a leaf -shaped bronze sword, from the bed of the Thames 
Woolwich in 1830. 

A thin bronze plate from the Thames, 1 9 inches in diameter, convex, 
and with small knobs round the margin, is in the Mayer Collection at 
lirerpool. It has been marked with the hammer, possibly in imitation 

* Areh.y voL xziii. p. 92; " Anc. Arm.," by Skelton, vol. i. pi. xlvii. 4. 
t Areh,f vol. zxiii. p. 95. X Arch. Jwrn,, vol. x\'iii. p. 167. 

§ "Hop. Fer.," pi. ix. 168 ; C. Roach Smith, "Catul. of Lond. Ant.," p. 80, 
I C. Boach Smith, ubi tup. 



352 SHIELDS, BUCKLERS, AND HELMETS. [cHAP. XV. 

of basket-work, and has been mended in one place in ancient times. It 
may be the bottom of a caldron, and not a shield. 

Another buckler, 26 inches in diameter, having twelve concentric raised 
rings with the usual knobs between them, is also said to have been found 
in the Thames* between Hampton and Walton, in September, 1864. 

In draining a meadow at Baglcy,t about five miles from Ellesmere, in 
Shropshire, another of these circular bucklers was found. This is 23 
inclies in diameter, with an imibo of 4 inches, €ind has twenty-six con- 
centric circles, with the same rings of knobs between them as on the 
other examples. It has tlio iisual holes for the rivets of the small buttons. 

Another, found on Burringham Common, J Lincolnshire, in 1843, is 
26 inches in diameter, with an umbo of 4| inches, and only nineteoi 
concentric circles with intermediate rings of knobs. The boss of this 
shield is conical rather than hemispherical. It is now in the Museum of 
the Koyal Irish Academy. A shield of this kind 20^ inches in diameter, 
having thirteen concentric circles of small bosses and raised rings be- 
tween, was found at Sutton St. MichaeFs, Norfolk. § 

In the collection of Canon Greenwell is the bronze boss of a shield 
nearly 5 inches in diameter, probably intended for the centre of a wooden 
buckler. It has three small holes for nails or rivets in the rim. In one 
place there is a square hole, apparently made by a thrust from a spear. 
This boss was found at ITarwood, Northumberland. 

Shields like Fig. 435, with several concentric rings alternating with 
small knobs, are rare, but by no means imknown in Ireland. One (27i 
inches in diameter) was found in a bog near Ballynamona,|| Co. Limerick, 
and has been figured. As usual, it has the two movable loops or buttons 
at the back. There is a little patch of bronze over a small irregular 
hole in the shield, such as an arrow or a javelin would make. It is 
soldered on with a metal which is stated to be bronze, but which I 
imagine must be some more fusible alloy of copper. This shield is now 
in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, and in their Proceedings ^ is 
stated to have been found in Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, but this must 
be an error. 

The central portion of a bronze shield, including the umbo, was found 
at Toome Bar, Lough Neagh, and is now in the collection of Mr. 
William Gray, of Belfast. 

A somewhat doubtful instance has been recorded of the remains of a 
bronze shield having been found with an interment in a barrow. Sir E. 
Colt Hoare, in his examination of the Bush Barrow, Norman ton,** found 
a skeleton lying from S. to N., and about eighteen inches S. of the 
head " several brass rivets intermixed with wood, and some thin bits of 
brass nearly decomposed. Those articles covered a space of twelve inches 
or more ; it is probable, therefore, that they are the mouldered remains 
of a shield.'* Near the slioulders lay a flanged bronze celt like Fig. 9. 
A large dagger of bronze, and what Sir Eichard calls a spear-head of the 
same metal, but which was probably a dagger, the inlaid hilt (Fig. 289}. 

• Pror. Soc. Attt.y 2iid S., vol. iii. p. 518; v. p. 363 ; Gent. Mag., Doc, 1866, p. 771. 

t Prnc. Soc. Ant., 2iid 8., vol. iii. p. 200. 

X Arch. Assoc. ,7ouru., vol. iv. p. 395; Froc. Soc. Ant.. 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 200; Proc. 
Rot/. Irixh Acad., 1874, p. 277. § Arch. Assoc. Jnur., vol. xxx\-i. p. 165. 

IJ Journ. Royal Hist, and Arch. Assoc, of Ireland, 4th S., vol. ii. p. 118, and vol. iv. 
p. 487. ^QQArch., vol. xliii. p. 480. 

f Vol. X. p. 155. ♦* " Anc. Wilts," vol. i. p. 203. 



THE DATE OF CIKCULAR BUCKLERS. 353 

a stone hammer, and some plates of gold aooompanied this interment. 
It ;s much to be regretted that more is not known of the real character of 
the object with the rivets, but their presence shows that it could not have 
been a shield such as those here described, in which the only rivets are 
those securing the handle and the movable buttons. 

The umbo of a Late-Celtic shield was among the objects found at Polden 
Sill,* Somersetshire. 

Some wooden bucklers have been found both in Scotland f and Ireland, 
)at it is hard to determine their a^. 

Mr. Franks X has already remanced that bronze shields are of far less 
ommon occurrence on the Continent than in the British Isles. He dtes 
hree from the Copenhagen Museimi,§ one of which, about 27 inches in 
liameter, has five concentric ribs round the boss and ten sets of knobs ; 
hese, however, are arrans^d in such a manner as to leave a star of eight 
ays of smooth metal radiating from the boss. The other two are less 
ike the British in character. A fine shield in the Stockholm Museum, 
dth swan-like figures upon it, has been thought to have been imported 
rom Italy. II 

One found near Bingen, on the Khine,1I about 15} inches in diameter, 
las merely four raised concentric ribs. There are two small bowed 
landles secured with two rivets, each in about the same position as the 
usual button. They seem certainly intended for a strap to pass through 
hem. There are, however, two other rivets in the shield to which 
aovable buttons may possibly have been attached. 

The Italian shields mentioned by Mr. Franks are of a different type. 
)ne in the British Museimi (34 inches in diameter) has a very slight 
>o68, and is ornamented with concentric bands of sphinxes and omer 
iesigns. 

As has already been observed, it is somewhat hard to judge of 
he date of these bucklers. I am not aware of any portions of 
hem having been found in the hoards of metal in which fragments 
>f swords frequently occur. Still in the case of the shield dredged 
ip off Woolwich the sword which accompanied it was of bronze, 
hough of course there is no evidence of the two having been lost 
>r deposited together. The whole character, however, of the 
ornamentation and workmanship is, I think, more in accordance 
nth the Bronze Age than with the Late Celtic or Early Iron 
Period, though the shields probably belong to the close of the 
Bronze Period. 

Circular bucklers, or targets, no doubt remained in use until a 
considerably later date, but it seems probable that some other 
naterial than a thin plate of bronze was used for their manufac- 



♦ Areh,j vol. xiv. p. 90. pL xviii. f See Areh, Seat,, vol. v. p. 217. 

t u Hor. Fer. '* d. 166. 

j Madaen, " Aflnld.," voL ii. pi. xvii. ; "Atlas for Nord. Oldk.," pi. B, v. ; Worsaae 
" Prim. Ant. of Den.," Thorns' ^ag. ed., p. 31. 

Ckmg. pr6h.,'* Bologna vol., p. 294. 

lundenachmit, <' Alt. n. h. Vorzeit,*' vol. i. Heft xi. Taf. 1, 4, and 5. 

A A 



|"C 



354 SHIELDS, BUCKLERS, AND HELMETS. [CHAF. XT. 

ture. Professor Daniel Wilson* remarks that on the gold coins of 
Tasciovanus, Cunobeline, and others of our native rulers contem- 
porary with the first intercourse with Rome, the shields borne bj 
the warriors are either long and double-pointed, or, if round, laige 
and disked, and of very different construction from the Luggton- 
rigge shield. On one coin of Cunobeline, however (Evans, pL xiL 
14), the horseman bears a circular buckler, which, so £ur as can be 
judged from so diminutive a representation as that given on the 
coin, would be about 2 feet in diameter. On two small gold coiitt 
of Verica,t recently published, the horseman carries a target of 
somewhat larger proportions. Somewhat smaller circular bucklers 
are carried by the horsemen on certain S2)anish coins,* probably 
of the second century b.c. One of these shields shows four 
smaller bosses, arranged in cruciform order around the central 
boss ; another seems to be plain except the umbo and a project- 
ing rim. 

This buckler is no doubt the Cetra, or Castra (Kcurpea, Hesych.), 
in use among the people of Spain and Mauretania, which was 
usually made of hide, among the latter people sometimes of that 
of the elephant. Ca)sar§ speaks of the "cetrata) Hispaniae cohortes," 
and Tacitus II mentions the Britons as armed " ingentibus gladiis 
sine mucronc et brevibus cetris." It does not appear that the 
Romans ever earned the cetra, which has been by Livy compared 
to the pelta of the Greeks and Macedonians.^ The clipeus appears 
to have been larger in size, and to have been held on the arm 
and not by the handle only. 

But whatever shields may have been in use in this country at 
the time of the Roman invasion, I am inclined to refer these 
circular bucklers to a somewhat earlier date, as already in Caesar's 
time iron was fully in use for swords and for cutting purposes 
generally ; and, as has already been observed, the shields with 
which the early iron swords are found are of a different form 
from these. As is the case with bronze swords, such bucklers are 
never found with interments, and those discovered seem to have 
been lost in the water, or hidden in bogs, rather than buried as 
accessories for the dead. 

The skill requisite for the production of such bucklers must 

* '* Prch. Anu. of Scot.," 2nd cd., vol. i. p. 39S. 

t Xum. Chron.t N.S., vol. xvii. pi. x. 7 and 8. 

X See Arch. Journ.., vol. xiii. p. 187. 

$ " De Bell. Ov.;' i. 30. 48. I| " Agrir.," 36. 

^ See Smith's " Diet, of Ant./' *. r. Cetra. 



THB DATE OF BRONZE HELMETS. 355 

lave been great, and the appliances at command by no means 
contemptible. The whole of the work is repouss^ and wrought 
vith the hammer, and not improbably the original sheet of bronze 
rom which a shield was made was considerably less in diameter 
ind also much thicker than the finished shield. To produce so 
arge a casting of such even substance, and yet so thin, would I 
.hink be beyond the skill of most modem, and probably most 
incient, brass-foimders ; and moreover there is no appearance on 
Ae shields, of the metal having been cast in the form in which 
it now appears. 

While still upon the subject of defensive armour it will be well 
bo say a few words about bronze helmets, though there is good 
reason to believe that in this country at all events such objects do 
not belong to the Bronze Age properly so<5alled. Indeed the 
earliest known bronze helmets in some other countries, such as 
those from Assyria and Etruria, appear to belong to a time when 
iron was already in use in those countries. The date of an Etrus- 
can helmet of bronze preserved in the British Museum* can be 
determined with precision, for an inscription upon it proves that 
it was offered in the Temple of Zeus at Elis, by Hiero, Tyrant 
of Syracuse, from the spbils of the Etruscans after the naval battle 
of Cumae, which took place in B.c. 474. It is of simple form 
with a brim around it. Those which have been found in Styria 
and Germanyt are in some cases half ovals in form, sometimes 
with a knob at the top, without any rims round the opening, but 
with a certain number of small holes for the attachment of cheek- 
pieces or appendages of other kinds. These may belong to a true 
Bronze Period. Others, like those from Hallstatt, J have rims and 
even ridges for crests. 

In the Salzburg Museum is a fine helmet without a rim, but with 
an ornamented ridge and cheek-pieces. It was found, with twelve 
others now at Vienna, at Mattrey,§ between Innsbruck and Brixen. 
One of these bears an Etruscan inscription upon it. According to 
Pliny, " the ancient inhabitants of Brixen came from Etruria" 

Even in the time of Severus, the Britons, according to Herodian,ll 
made no use of helmets or cuirasses, though they wore an iron 
collar round the neck and an iron belt round the body, and re- 
garded them as ornaments and signs of wealth. 

♦ " Horse Feralea," p. 168, pi. xii. 1. 

t Lindenschmii, " A. u. h. Vorzeit/* vol. i. Heft xi. Taf. 1. 

: Von Sacken, " Grabf. am Hallst.," Taf. vui. 6, 6. 

\ Proe. 8oe, Ant., vol. i. p. 167. II Lib. iii. c. U. 

A A 2 



356 SHIELDS, BUCKLEB8, AND HELMETS. [CHAP. XV* 

The following English and French helmets of bronze may jusl 
be mentioned. 

(1.) A holmet of hemi-sphorical form tapering to a projection, pierced 
nbovo to roceive a crest or ornament, the extreme height being about 
K j inches, and the diameter at the base nearly the same. This was found 
in Moorgate Street, London.* 

(2.) One found in the Thames,! near Waterloo Bridge, withprojecting 
horns and ornamented with scroll-work and red enameL This is un- 
doubtedly of the Late Celtic Period. Some Etruscan helmets also beu 
horns, but more curved in form than those on this helmet from the 
Tliames. 

(3.) Another, more conical in form, and with a semicircular plate at 
the back, locality unknown, but probably from a river.} This was in the 
Meyrick Collection, and is now in the British Museum. 

The helmets found on Ogmore Down,§ Glamorganshire, appear to be 
of much later date. 

A holmet from Auxonne, Cote d'Or, has been figured by Chantre.| 
Another was found with various bronze antiquities at Theil^ (Loir et 
Cher). 

* Proe, 8oc, Ant., 2nd S., vol. ill. p. 518. 

t Proc, 8oc. Autf 2nd 8., vol. iii. p. 842; Waring's ** Ornaments of Remote Ases,** 
pi. xci. 10. 

1 /Vof. Soc. Ant.f 2nd S., vol. v. p. 362. 

I Arch.f vol. xliii. p. 663, pi. xxxvi. H « Albom,'* pL zvL Ht. 

% Chuntro, ♦• Ago du Br.,'^ Ure ptio., p. 146. 



CHAPTER XVI 

TRUMPETS AND BELLS. 

Anothjsb instrument probably connected with warfare, though 
not strictly speaking an arm either of offence or defence, is the 
trumpet, of which numerous examples in bronze have been found, 
especially in Ireland. It is very doubtful whether the greater 
part of them do not belong to the Early Iron Age, rather than to 
that of Bronze ; but as it seems probable that some at least belong 
to a transitional period, and it is possible that others are of even 
earlier date, they could hardly be passed over without notice in 
these pages. 

There are two distinct classes of these instruments, so Seut as the 
process of their manufacture is concerned, viz. those which are 



Ffg. 488.— Limerick. i 

cast in one piece, and those which are formed of sheet-metal 
turned over and riveted to form the tube. There are also two 
distinct varieties of the instrument, viz. those in which the aperture 
for blowing is at the end, and those in which it is at the side. 

Sir W. Wilde, in his Catalogue * of the Museum of the Royal 
Irish Academy, has devoted several pages to a detailed description 
of the trumpets found in Ireland, to which the reader is referred. 
Those which he figures are all curved, some almost to a semicircle, 
others to a more irregular sweep. Some straight tubes which 
were found in company with several curved horns he has regarded, 
but without sufficient cause, as the portions of a '* commander s 
staff*," or of the handle of a halberd. One of these is shoi^Ti iu 
Fig. 438, borrowed from his Catalogue.! A similar straight tube, 

♦ P. C23 et S0qq. J t Fig. 360, p. 492. 



358 tri:mpets and bells. fciup. xvl 

(S3f inches,) found with trumpets at Dunmauway, Co. Cork, is novin 
tho British Museum. The earliest known instance of the discoveij 
of such instruments is, according to Wilde, that recorded hySii 
Thomas Molyneux," in 1725, of a "short side-mouthed trun^" 
being found with others in a mound near Carrickfergus, which wu 
then regarded as of Banish origin. But so early as 1713 Mr. F. 
Nevill described eight bronze trumpets found at DungmmoD.t Co. 
Tyrone. In 1750 thirteen or fourteen more curved bronze horns 
were discovered between Cork and Mallow, three of which are 
described and figured in the " Vetusta Monumenta"^ 

There is a remarkable resemblance between these trumpets and 
three of those found near Chute Hall, Tralee, Co. Kerry, and 
described by Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A., in the Journal of the Royai 
HUtoricai and ArcJuEological Association of IreUmd.^ By his 
kindness I am able here to reproduce his cuts as Figs. 439, 440, and 
441. It will be observed that in two of them the ends are open, 




¥ig. 4:iB.— Tral«-. 

SO OS to be adapted for the reception of mouth-pieces, and that the 
end of the other is closed. In this there is a lateral opening to 
which to apply the mouth. It is on the inner curve of the trumpet, 
but in some other cases it is at the side. As Mr. Day has 
observed, there are rivet-holes at the wide ends of two of the 
horna, as if for securing some more widely expanding end, while 
in the more bell-mouthed examples no such rivet-holes are present. 
The trumpet shown in Fig. +40 is made of two pieces which fit 
exactly into each other, one of them being nearly straight. The 
length of this instrument, taken along the external curve, is 
50 inches, and its bell-shaped mouth is 4 inches in diameter. It 
will be seen that at the mouths, aud in other positions on these 

• " Diseouriw uc 
I Vol. ii. pi. lu 
j 4tli S., vul. ui 



TKUMPETS WITH LATEBAL OPENINGS. 



359 



three trumpets, there are small conical projections or spikes always 
in groups of four. Mr. Day has suggested the possibility of these 
being added to give effect to blows with the trumpets in case it 
became necessary to use them as weapons of offence. He has also 
pointed out the remarkable resemblance between the horns with 
the lateral openings and the war trumpets in use in Central Africa, 




«A%*«« 



Figs. 4i0 and 441.— Tnlee. 



which are made from elephants' tusks. One of these is shown in 
Fig. 442, also kindly lent by Mr. Day. The conch-shell trumpets 
of Fiji have also lateral openings. 

As will subsequently be seen, trumpets of the two types repre- 




ir.Q.«.w. 



Fig. 442.— Africa. 



sented by Figs. 439 and 440 have been found associated with bronze 
weapons. 

To return to the trumpets from Cork described in the " Vetusta 
Monumenta." Two of these are formed, like Fig. 440, of two pieces, 
and are open at the end, which may have been provided with some 
kind of mouth-piece. The other, like Fig. 439, is cast in a single 
piece and is closed at the small end, but has a large orifice at the 
side like the Portglenone specimen Fig. 444. Both are provided 



360 TRUMPETS AND BELLS. [CHAP. XVL 

with a number of coDical projections by way of ornament round the 
mouth, and one of them has similar small spikes in other po6itioii& 
With them were found some pieces of straight tubing, which were 
also decorated in a similar manner. The horn with the side aperture 
is provided with a ring for suspension, Uke Fig. 439. Some of the 
straight tubes have a sliding ferrule upon them also furnished witli 
a ring. 

Sir W. Wilde observes of a horn about 24 inches long with the 
aperture at the end slightly everted, as if for holding the lips, that 
it requires a great exertion even to produce a dull sound with this 
instrument. As to those with lateral apertures 2 inches long on 
the average, and 1^ inches wide, he says that ** it is not possible 
by any yet discovered method of placing the Ups to this mouth- 
hole to produce a musical sound ; but, as conjectured by Walker 
in 1786, these instruments might have been used as speaking- 
trumpets, to convey the voice to a great distance as well as render 
it much louder." 

In one instance of a trumpet, like Fig. 439, being broken 
across the mouth-piece, it has been repaired by a process of burning 

together, like that adopted 
's^w .-sav (IH^ J^ in the case of broken 

swords * previously men- 
tioned. The mended por- 
tion is shown in Fig. 443,t 
borrowed from Wilde. This 
trumpet was found at Derrynane, Co. Kerry. 

A trumpet, broken across the middle and mended in a similar 
manner, formed part of the " Dowris find," from which a number 
of specimens are preserved in the British Museum,? and others 
are in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. The metal of 
which most of the articles in this hoard are formed has a peculiar 
golden lustre which is thought to arise from the admixture of a 
rortain proportion of lead. A horn analyzed by Donovan § gave : 

Copper 79-34 

Tin 10-87 

Lend 9-11 

99-32 

* V. 282. 

t \Vild«s lig. /i2U, p. 592, kindly lent by tho Council of the R. I. A. One of Mr. 
Day's truin]»ets is alHO patehtid. 

I Arch. Jouru.y vol. xii. p. 90. Tlicro is an article on Irish trumpets by l^r. Petrie 
iu tho J)ublin /Vwwv Journal^ vol. ii. See alao J'rov. It. I. A., vol. iv. pp. 237, 423. 

J Vou Bibra, "Die Wt. u. Kupf.-leg.," p. 140. 




THE D0WHI8 HOARD, 361 

The find took place at Downs, near Farsonstown, in 
King's County, and comprised, besides trumpebs and socketed 
celts, a casting for a hammer-head, a socketed knife, tanged knives, 
razors, a broad rapier-shaped d^ger-blode, broken swords, a 
d^ger formed from a part of a sword, spear-heads both leaf-shaped 
and with openings in the blade, vessels of thin bronze, rough metal, 
some rattles or crotals, such as will shortly be mentioned, a pin 
with a hook somewhat like a crochet-needle, and some rubbing 
stones for grinding and polishing. There may have been other 
articles, but those here mentioned are represented in the portion 
of the hoard now in the British Museum. The association of 
trumpets with such a series raises the presumption that some of 
them at least belong to the close of the Bronze Age proper. 

Borne ot these Downs trumpets are engraved in the " Howe Ferales," * 
and one of them belong;ing to the Earl of Bosae is peculiar as baying two 




lig. iM.— Porlslnuma. 

loops opposite each other above and below. A detaclied portion of 
another consieta of a nearly straigM tube, 9 inches long, expanding at 
each end. 

Another alieh^ differing example with the opening at the aide is also 
figured bv Kr. B. Day, and here with his penniBsion reproduced. It 
was found At Fortglenone, Oo. Deny, and meaaures 24^ incheB along the 
convex maigin. 

The other finds of tmnpeta have been for the most part isolated. Host 
of those I am about to cite have already been mentioned by Wilde. A 
fine specimen, like Fig. 444, is figured by Vallancey j- and in Oough's 
"Camden's Britannia,"! Three others and a portion of a straight tube were 
found in the county of Limerick g in 1787, Others have been foimd near 
Killamey ; || Cornaconway, Co. Cavan ; Kilraughts, Co. Antrim ; Dia- 
mond HiU, Killeshandra ; Crookstown and Dunmanway, Co. Cork. 

• PI. xiiL 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, t "Coll. llib.,' vol. iv. pi. vii. 2. 

1 Vol. iv. ij. lia 2. i Tram. ff. /. A., vol. ii 

I Wilde'i " Cfttal. Hub. R. I. A.," p. 624 rf tqq. ; Jeir. S. S. and A. A. of Irttand. 
4Ui S„ vol. iii. p. 422 X ««9V. Sma^naUUterJcurn.Bf Anh.,\im, vol. viii, |>, S9; 
■ml " HcntB F«nlM," p. 172. 



3C2 TsnHPzrs and bbua [chap. m. ' 

As the riveted variety of trumpet appears from its ornamentation to 
lieloTig to tlie I^te Celtic Period, a short mention of it will suffice. One* 
f oiuid near Armagh, and now in the Museum of the Boyol Irish Academj, 
Lus at the end a disc 7} inches in diameter, embossed with the peculiar 
scroll patterns characteristic of that peiiai 
Another is no less than 8 feet S indui 
along the oonvex margin, and oonsuts <i 
two portions made of sheet broiue, sack 
turned over to form a tube, and having the 
abutting edges riveted to a iang ateip of 
metal extending along the interior of the 
tube. This stnp of bronze is only half an 
inch in width, and has two rows of minnto 
rivet-holes in it, the rivets being placed 
alternately. Their circular heads are on 
the inside of the tube, and bo minute an 
the rivets, that there are no lees than 638 
of them along the seam. It is, indeed, not 
unlike a modem riveted hose pipe of leather. 
In what manner such an ingenious and 
complicated piece of riveting oould have 
been effectetf is, as Sir W. Wilde remsrb, 
a subject for speculation. 

These riveted trumpets appear to be 
uuknown in Britain, and the cast-bronze 
variety ia extremely scarce. A fine and 
perfect specimen found at Caprington, 
Ayrshire, has been engraved for the 
AjTshire and Wigtonshire Archoeological 
Association,! and is here, by the kind- 
ness of the Council of the Association, 
reproduced as Fig. ii5. It was found 
some time before 1654, on the estate 
of Coilsfield, in the pariah of Tarbolton, 
in Kyle, but is known as the Caprington 
horn. According to Mr. R W.' Cochran- 
Patrick, F.S.A., it has been described by 
Sir Robert Gordon in Blaeuw's Atlas J 
and by Defoe.S This horn ia 25 inches 
in length, and is the only s]>ecimen re- 
r.i.iis. ii^i.»pruigwiiiiuni. » ^.^pjej (.q hiXYe bceu found in Scotland. 

'I'lie metal of which it is formed has been analyzed by Professor 

Stevenson l^lacadam, antl consists of — 

■ Wilde, 630 el iigg. 

t " Collectionl," vul. i, p. 7-1 ; Prim. Sot. AnI. Seal., vol. nii. p. 666. 

J Vol. vi. p. 60. { " Tour through BriUin," vol. iv. p. 131). 



TRUMPETS FOUJJD IN ENGLAND. 363 

Copper 90-26 

Tin 9-61 

Loss . *13 



10000 



English trumpets of bronze are of extremely rare occurrence. 
One found in the river Witham, Lincolnshire, has been figured 
in the PhiloaaphicaZ TransactioTis,* and is nearly straight for the 
greater part of its length (about 28 inches), curving upwards near 
the end into an irregularly-shaped expanding mouth. It has an 
ornament or crest like a mane along the exterior curve. In form 
it is not unlike the camyx which is brandished by the horseman 
on the coins of the British princes Eppillus and Tasciovanus.t and 
which also appears on some Roman coins and monuments com- 
memorative of (Jallic and British victories. The metal on analysis 
gave copper 88, tin 12, and the tube was formed from a hammered 
sheet and soldered with tin. It not improbably belongs to a 
period not far remove<l from that of the Roman invasion of this 
country. 

Another, with two joints and a perfect mouth-piece, is said to 
have been found at Battle, Sussex, and has been engraved by 
Grose. + A bronze horn about 3 feet 7 inches long, found in 
Mecklenburg, § is not unUke the Scotch horn in character, though 
smaller at the wide end. The curved bronze horns or " lurer," 
found in Denmark, II have usually broad bossed flanges at the 
wide end, and most resemble the Irish Late Celtic trumpets. 

The use of war trumpets among the Celtic population of 
Western Europe has been more than once mentioned by classical 
writers, and passages from them have been cited by Mr. Franks 
and others. Polybiusif speaks of the innumerable trumpeters in 
the army of the Celts, and Diodorus Siculus ** says of the (iauls 
that they have barbaric trumpets of a special nature which emit a 
hoarse sound well suited to the din of battle. The Roman lit mis 
in use for cavalry seems to have been of much the same shape as 
the camyx, the end of which latter was in some cases made to 
resemble a fanciful head of an animal. The continuance of the 

♦ VoL Ixxxvi. 1796, pi. xi. ; " Hons Fer.," pi. xiii. 2 ; Arch. Joum., vol. xviii. p. l.'iO. 

t Evaiu, ** Anc. Britiah CoinB," pL iii. Xo. 11, and pi. v. No. 10, &c. 

1 *'Aiic. Armour," pL xiii. ; Gough's "Camden," vol. iv. p. 231. 

( Lisch, «• Fred. Francisc.," Tab. ix. 3. 

I "Atlas for Nord. Oldk.," pi. B, vu. ; VVoreaae, " Nord. Olds./* tigs. 199—201. 

% lib. u. c. 29. 

** Lab. V. c. 30. So« also livy, lib. v. 37 and 39. 



364 



TBUMPEnS AND BSLLB. 



[CHAF. 1 



same chantcter of iDBtnunent into the Early Iron A^, and the 
lutvaoced art Bhown in producing such castings as the trampeCi 
from Downs and elsewhere, go to prove that they must bel(Hig 
to the close of the Bronze Period, if, indeed, some may not mon 
probably he placed in a period of transition from Bronzo to Iron. 
Another form of instrument intended for produdng sound, if 
not indeed deserving to be classed as a musical instrument, is the 
bell, or rattle, formed of a hollow egg-shaped or pear-shaped piece 
of bronzo, with a pebble or piece of metal inside by way of 
clapper. 

The only examples which I am able to adduce are those which 
formed part of the Dowris hoard, one of which is represented in 
Fig. 440.* There are three such in the Mu- 
seum of the Royal Irish Academy, and four in 
the British Uuaeum. With the latter is a smaller 
plain bell of the same character and two un- 
finished castings. Sir W. Wilde observes that in 
costing, the metal appears to have been poured 
into the mould by an aperture at the nde, 
through which the core of clay that contuned 
the metal clapper was broken up. The mould 
was in two halves, and the rings and staples at 
the ends were cast together. In the perfect 
examples at the British Museum, the sides of 
the holes by which the core was extracted have 
been hammered ti^ther so as in some coses 
to be almost closed. In one instance there is 
some appearance of the sides having been brazed tc^ether. 

The sound emitted by these bells is dull and feeble. Like the 
modem horse bells, a number of them may have been hung 
together, and not improbably employed in a similar manner to 
attract the attention both of the eye and ear. 

23. whence this cut ib roproiluoil. 




CHAPTER XVII. 

PINS. 

Pins for the purpose of fastening the dress or the hair seem to 
have been in use from very early times. Made of bone,* they have 
been found associated with polished stone implements, and pins of 
the same material are of extremely common occurrence with 
Roman remains, and are not unknown at the present day. In 
the same manner, pms of bronze or of brass have remained in use 
ever since their first introduction during the Bronze Period, and 
it is, therefore, by no means easy, and, indeed, often absolutely 
impossible, to assign a date with any degree of confi- 
dence to such objects when found by themselves, and 
not in association with other remains of which the 
antiquity can be more readily determined. In the 
case of small or imperfect pins there is considerable 
difficulty in distinguishing them from awls, such as 
have already been described in Chapter YII. In other 
cases, it is often difficult to say whether bronze pins, 
certainly of great antiquity, are to be assigned to the 
Bronze Period properly so called, or the Late Celtic or 
Early Iron Period. Heathery 

In describing the objects of this class, it will, per- 
haps, be best to take first such examples as have been found in 
the exploration of tumuli or in direct association with bronze 
weapons or instruments. 

Among the numerous relics found in the Heathery Bum Gave, Durham, 
were a large niunber of bronze pins, of which one, f 3( inches long, is 
shown in Fig. 447. Canon Oreenwell has eleven others from 3 inches to 
5f inches long, with flat heads, all from this cave, as well as one which 
has had its end hammered flat, and then turned over into a loop, so as to 

* GreenweU, *• Brituh Barrows," pp. 15, 31. 

t iVvf . 8oe. Ani,, 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 130. I am indebted to the Council of the Society 
for the use of this cut. 



366 



P1N8. 



[chap, xtil 



form the head. A socketed knife and many other objects from this csTe 

liave been described in previous pages. 

Four imperfect bronze pins, without heads, the long^est 3{ inches kng, 

were found in the hoara at Marden,* Kent, with a sickle, dagger, and 

other objects. 

What is termed part of a bronze pin, some chipped flints, and long 

ribbed beads of pottery, were found in the barrow (»lled Matlow Hi]l,t 

Cambridgeshire. Another, also frag- 
mentary, was found with a flake of 
calcined flint, four jet beads, and bunt 
bones in a barrow on Wykeham Moor,} 
Yorkshire, by Canon Gh*e6nweU. Otlun 
are mentioned by Bateman ; § but in all 
these cases, as Canon Green well) has 

Eointed out, the presumed mas may 
aye been awls or prickers. The litde 
pin found with a lance-head, a snudl 
urn, and some gold ornaments at Upton 
Lovel,^ Wilts, may haye been of the 
same character, as also other pins men- 
tioned by Sir R. Colt Hoare.** A "fine 
brass pin " is described as hayinff been 
found with glass, jet, and amber beads, 
together with burnt bones, in a barrow 
near Wilsford.ff A yery fine one in a 
barrow at Lake,Jt which, from the en- 
graving, was probably an awl. The 
long pin with a handle found with a 
bronze celt and lance-head, or dagger, 
in a barrow at Abury,§§ may also nave 
been a tool of that kind. The bronze 
pins recorded to have been found in a 
barrow at Bulford,|||| Wilts, likewise 
seem to come under this category. 

In a barrow at Brigmilston ^^ an 
interment of burnt bones was accom- 
panied by a pin of twisted bronze, 

r> inches long, in the form of a crutch, the head perforated (Fig. 448), a 

small dagger of bronze, and two whetstones. 
A smooth pin of the same character and nearly the same size, but 

broken, was found in a barrow at Normanton,*** in company with burnt 

bones, two bronze daggers, a whetstone, and a pipe of bone. 

The curious pin, with two rings at the head, in each of which is 

another ring (Fig. 449), was found by Sir R. Colt Hoaro in a barrow near 

* Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xiv. p. 259. f Arch. Jouni.y vol. ix. p. 227. 

X Arch. Journ.y vol. xxii. p. 247. 

\ " Veiit. Ant. Derb.," p. 34 ; "Ten Years* Dig.,** p. 130. 

II " Brit. Barrows," p. 366. f Arch., xv. p. 129. 

*♦ " Anc. Wilts," vol. i.pp. 206—208. ft Op. cit., p. 207. 

XI op. eit.j p. 210. The references to the plate are somewhat confused or confusing. 
f§ " Anc. Wilts," vol. ii. p. 90. |||| Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 319. 

nil ** Anc. Wilts," vol. i. p. 194, pi. xxiii., here copied. Sec also yirrA., vol. xliii. 
p. 467. ••• *'Anc. WilU," vol. i. p. 199, pi. xxiv. 




Fip. 448. 
BrigmilBton. i 



FifT. 449. 
Everley. \ 



PINS Wim ANNULAR HEADS. 



367 



Sverley. The interment seems to have been in the hollowed trunk of a 
tree, but the bones were burnt. With them was a dagger with three 
TiTetB, and this instrument, which is described as having been in a sheath 
of wood lined with doth. Its purpose is difficult to determine. 




FSg. 4B0^Bryn Crftg. i Fig. 451.— Taunton, f 



Fig. 462.— Chilton BnsUe. \ 



Another pin (4^ inches), with a bi-lobed head and three perforations, 
was foirnd with a two-looped palstave and a knife with an mterment at 
Birn Crug,* near Carnarvon. It is shown in full size in Fig. 450. 

Fins with large rings for their heads have occasionally been found. 
One such from Taimton,t 7| inches, is shown in Fig. 451. It was found 

* Areh. J9um,f vol. xzr. p. 246. I am indebted to the Institute for the use of 
this cut. 
t Areh. Jomm,^ vol. zxxvii. p. 94. Pring, <* Brit, and Rom. Taunton," pi. ii. 



368 



P1N8. 



[chap. xvd. 



with palatavos, a socketed celt, rings, and other objects. 
The part forming the pin is bent, it would appear inten- 
tionally, but for what purpose it is difEcult to guess. 

Another with a straight pin was found at Chilton Bustle,* 
8onierHetshire. The annular part is divided in the middle, 
and is flat and thin. It is shown full size in Fig. 452. 

Another object of a similar character, but with the ring 
larger (being oval and 4^ inches by 3 inches) and with the 
pin part shorter, was found in a barrow between Lewes and 
lUrigiiton,! with a long pin, to be subsequently mentioned, 
and a pair of looped bronze bracelets, like Fig. 482. These 
are now in the museimi at Alnwick Castle. Another (6 
inches, with ring 2 inches in diameter), probably from a 
Wiltshire barrow,]: is in the collection at Stourhead. 

A pin of the same character from the Lake -dwellings of 
Savoy has been figured by Rabut.g 

Another form has a smaller ring at the top, and the pin 
beneath is usually curved. Fig. 453, from Wilde, || shows 
an example of this kind. One of the two pins reported to 
have been found with bronze bridles and buckles of '^ Late 
Celtic " character, as well as with a bronze lance-head and 
socketed celt, at Hagboum Hill,^ Berks, was of this type. 
The other had a flat head. 

I have a pin of the same kind (4 J inches^ foimd at Holt,** 
Worcestershire. It has, however, a small cross, formed of 
five knobs, attached to the front of the ring. It was found 
in the bed of the Severn, and was presented to me by Mr. 
G. Edwards, C.E. The pins of this character seem to belong 

to quite the close of the Bronze Period, if 
not indeed to the " Late Celtic." 

A much larger form of pin appears, from 
its style of ornamentation, to belong more 
truly to the Bronze Period. That shown in 
Fig. 454 was, indeed, found with a bronze 
sword, spear-head, and palstave, in the 
Thames at the mouth of the river Wandle,tt 
Surrey, and is now in the British Museum. 
It is 7f inches in length, and the bulging 
portion in the centre is pierced probably for 
some moans of attachment. The point, Mr. 
Franks thinks, was purposely curved. He 
regards the pin as having been intended to 
adorn the hair or fasten the dross. 

Another pin, of much the same feushion, 

12^ inches long, also has the point curved. 

The bulging portion is in this instance nearer 

the head, which, moreover, has a piece of 

^"r^d.* amber sot in it, and there is a small loop on 




Fig 
River 



Wandlc. 



* Arch. Journ., vol. ix. p. 106. t Sms. Arch. Coll.^ vol. ii. p. 265. 

X Arch.y vol. xliii. p. 469. § 2emo M6m., «' Album," pi. xi. 17. || Fig. 4o2. 

f Arch., vol. xvi. p. 348, pi. 1. *• AlUes, "Wore./' p. 149, pi. iv. 7. 

tt Arch. Journ.f vol. ix. p. 8. I am indebted to Mr. Franks for the use of this cut. 



PINS WITH SPHEROIDAL HEADS. 



369 



B of the pin, as in Fig. 457, instead of a hole through the bulging 
This specimen was found in a mine near the river Fowey,* at 
1 of ten fathoms from the surface, when a new work was begun for 
ng after tin ore. 

long pin already mentioned as foimd in a barrow near Lewes f has 
»anaed head with a boss upon it, and about 4 inches below, an 
)nted lozenge-shaped plate, beneath which is a small loop for 
aent. 

e pins of the same chcuracter have been found in the Lake-dweU- 
France, Switzerland, and Italy. 

ir^ bronze pin, 13^ inches long, found on Salisbury Plain, ^ is 
ed as having a flattened head, ornamented on one side witii a 
.. This which is now in the British 
m is, however, of the late Celtic 



Is by no means impossible that 
larger and heavier pins may at 
have served as piercing-tools and 
ais weapons. The stiletto sur- 
as a ladies' piercing-tool, but no 
t the present day would " his 
s make with a bare bodkin ; *' 
1 there was probably a time when 
tiletto and bodkin served a double 
;e, and were used, as occasion 
require, either as weapons or 
s. 

iler pins, ornamented at the blunt 
ive not imfrequently been found, 
agment of one discovered by Sir E. 
oare in a barrow at Scratchbury, is 
ed in his impublished plate, and 
50 been figured by Dr. Thumam, 
§ in his memoir so often quoted. It 

reproduced as Fig. 455. Another from a barrow at Camerton,|| 
et, has a hollow spheroidal head, with a double perforation. The 
nd upper part of the stem are decorated with parallel rings and 
hatching, as may be seen in Fig. 456. In character this pin 
dsembles some of Uiose from the Swiss Lake-dwellings. 
ry similar pin was obtained £rom a barrow near Firle,^ Sussex, by 
ntell. 

e pin, nearly 12 inches long, with a head of this shape, was found 
miskillen. The upper part of the pin is ornamented with groups 

., vol. xii. p. 414, pi. li. 8. f Suss. Arch, CoU.^ voL ii. p. 260. 

Soc. Ant.j 2nd 8., vol. iii. p. 469. 

., vol. xliii. p. 468. I am indebted to the Council of the Soc. Ant. for this and 
cut. 

. Som. Arch. Soc.^ vol. viii. p. 46. 
rhumam, ubi sup. (Uorafield, " Lewes," vol. I 48, pi. iii. 12). 

B B 



Fig. 456. Fig. 466. 

Scratchbury. \ Camerton. f 



370 



[chap, t 



of five Bmall beadinga round it, mid between these are spiral ribs, fons 
many threaded screws alternately nrht- and left-handed.* 

A long pin from Qalway, \ of idiich the lower part ia twiBted i 
a spiral, haa a head with a notch in it, much like that of a mod 
screw. 

The pins with Bpherical heads, omameiited by circular holes, v 
concentric circles around them, so common in the Swiss lAke-dw 




Fig. «7. 




,\ 



lieland. J 



ings, are as yet unknown in Britain. I have, nevertheless, a por 
of what appears to be the large spherical head of a pin, which fon 
part of the hoard found at Dreuil, near Amiens. Instead of h( 
however, it has bosses at intervals, with concentric circles ro 
them. In the spaces between are bands of parallel dotted liu 

. Bf Ireland, i Sec. vol. t. p. 97. 

liv. S. % Like Keller, " Lako-dwellings," pi. xixi 



PIN3 WITH VLATTEMED HEADS. 



371 



Some of the Swiss pins have knobs of tin, or some other metal 
than bronze, and even red stones inlaid in the perforations, so that 
not improbably those which now show merely holes in the metal 
may have been inlaid with hom or some perishable material. 

Pins with flat heads, sometimes of large size, are of not unfre- 
quent occurrence, and appear to belong to the Bronze A^. 

An Irish example with a small loop at the side is shown in Fig. 457, 
from a specimen m m; own collection. It has apparently at some time 
bean longer. Some Oerman pins* are provided witli side loops in tho 
same manner. 

A large pin, 8^ inches, with the upper part beaded, and witii a small 
side loop, waa in the hoard found near Amiens, and is preeerved in the 
museum of that town. With it were socketed celts, a dckle, &o. 

A pin of the same general form, but 
without any loop and with a more 
ornamental head, also &om Ireland, 
is shown in Fig. 458, and an English 
example, found near Cambridge, in 
Fig. 459. 

One with a plain flat head, and 
11 j inches long, is figured by Wilde 
(Fig. 446). 

Similar pins with flat heads have 
been found in the Late-dwellings of 
Savoy and Switzerland. 

The large flat heads are often 
hi^ily ornamented. 

The pin from Ireland, of whi^ the 
head is shown in Fig. 460,t one-third 
of the actual size, is 13^ inches long. 
This cut and Figs. 453, 462, 463, and 
465, are kindly lent by the Boyal 
Irish Academy. ' 

The ornamental expanded heads, 
which usually have a conical projection in the centre, are more fre- 
quently turned over so as to be in the same plane as the pins and be 
visible when stuck into a garment. Fig. 461 is from a specimen of my 
own found in the North of L^land. 

Fig. 462, from Wilde,} shows a small pin of the same kind, found at 
Keelogue Ford. 

Occasionall]^ the head seems disproportionately large to thepin. 

That of wmoh the highly ornamented head is shown in Fig. 463, § is 
only 5^ inches long, while the head itself is 2^ inches in diameter. 

A grand pin of this kind from Ireland, with the head 4| inches in 
diameter, and the pin 10} inches long, is in the British Museum. The 
face of the disc has five concentric circles upon it, with triangles, squares, 
and ring ornaments between them. 

• Lisoh, " Fredor. Frandsc.," Ti 
XOp. «t(.,p. 5fiS,fig. 419; Jour 
i Wilde, flg. 448. 




Ftg.Ml.- 



'mStT* 



'^;i 



T 



372 rats, [chap. xn. | 

A Soottish specimsB of the same chazaoter m Fig. 4SS (9 isoliBi]^ 
found at Taires, AberdeeiiBhire, together with bronze swoida, u in thi 
same collection. The head is If inchea in diameter. AnoUieT of ft» 
■ome tjpe from Ireland * is aaid to have had the cone originallj giH. 

The head of another, which waa found with a number of bronze nradi 
at Edinburgh,! is shown in Fig. 464. This diaooyety Beems to prove dut 
the pine of thiB tyye belong to qoite the latter part of the Bronze Periiid. 

Pine with flat heads turned over eo as to lie parallel witli tlieir Btemi 
are of common occurrence in DonmarlcJ The; are usually omameoted 
with conoentric riba, and the heads are sometimes plated wiUi gtdd. Ha 
Btoms are also often decorated. 

Another form of pin hcts a cup-ehaped head, not unlilce the I 




Fig-. 4(M.— Bdlnburgfa. 



of the large gold clas^a, like drawer-handles, so frequeaUy found in 
Ireland. One of these is shown in Fig. 465, borrowed hum Wilde.§ 

An example of this kind was found in the Heathery Bum Cave. 
Another pin of this t^pe, 10^ inches long, with the cup-ahaped head J inch 
in diameter and i inch deep, with a small cone projecting in the bottom 
of the cup, was found with a bronze sword and two speor-heads in peat 
near the Point of 8Ieat,|| Stye. 

Sir W. Wilde has given figures of numerous other types of pins, 
but they nearly all belong to a later period than that of which I 
am treating. That from a brooch at Bowermadden, Caithness, 
engraved in the Proceedings of the Society of ATitiqiiaries of 
Scotlawl,^ is also of later date. Altogether the subject of pins 
belonging to the Bronze Age in the British Islands is one of 

• Joum. Areh. AiKC. of Ireland, 2nd S., vol. i. p. 194. 

t Froc. Sac. Aiil. SmI., N.S. vol. i. p. 322. For the loon o( this block I aia indebted 
to the Council of the Sodetv. 

• Worsane, " Mord. Olde.," fig. 239. 
II I'riK. Set. Ant. Stot., vol. iii. p. 102. 



i " Catol. Mus. R. I. A.," u. 66», fig. 450. 
n VoL ii. p. 247. 



THBIR DATE DIFFICULT TO DETEBMINE. 373 

b, in the present state of our knowledge, it is difficult to 
. satisfactorily, so few of the more highly developed types 
Qg been found in actual association with other bronze relics. 
Ingland especially the rarity of bronze pins, as compared, for 
kuce, with their abundance in the Lake-dwellings of Southern 
)pe, is very striking. As will subsequently be seen, there is 
ly as great a scarcity of bracelets and of some other oma- 
bs. It may be that for personal decorations the jet and 
er, which during our Bronze Age were so much in fashion for 
ments, suited the native taste better than decorations manu- 
ired from the same metal as that which served for tools and 
)ons ; and that when metal was used gold had the preference, 
he same time, for useful articles, such as some kinds of pins, 
ze mav well have served, and it is to be observed that no 
decorated with gold have as yet been found with bronze 
)ons in Britain^ though they have occurred in other countries. 



CHAPTER XVIIL 

TORQUES, BRACELETS, RINGS, EAR-RINGS, AND PERSONAL ORNAMENTS. 

Although some of the pins described in the last chapter were 
destined for ornament rather than for use, they cannot as a class 
be regarded as purely ornamental. The collars and armlets, to 
which the present chapter is to be devoted, must, I think, be con- 
sidered as essentially ornaments, though possibly in some cases 
affording protection to the neck and arms. The modem epaulette 
was originally intended for the protection of the shoulder, though 
now, as a rule, little better than an ornament. 

The torque, or tore, takes its name from the Latin torqiu^, 
which again is derived d torquendo. This word torq'nea was 
applied to a twisted collar of gold or other metal worn around the 
neck. Among the ancient Gauls gold torques appear to have been 
abundant, and to have formed an important part of the spoils 
acquired from them by their Roman conquerors. About 223 B.c. * 
when Flaminius Nepos gained his victory over the Gauls on the 
Addua, it is related that instead of the Gauls dedicating, as they 
had intended, a torque made from the spoils of the Roman 
soldiers to their god of war, Flaminius erected to Jupiter a golden 
trophy made from the Gaulish torques. The name of the Torquati, 
a family of the Manila Gens, was derived from their ancestor, T. 
Manlius,t having in b.c. 361 slain a gigantic Gaul in single com- 
bat, whose torque he took from the dead body after cutting off the 
head, and placed it around his own neck. 

On some of the denarii of the Manlia family + the torque forms 
a circle round the head of Rome on the obverse. Two interesting 
papers " On the Tore of the Celts," by Dr. Samuel Birch, will be 
found in the Archceological Jaunial.i 

Although these gold torques in many instances undoubtedly 

* Flonifl, lib. ii. c. 4. t Aulas Gollins, lib. ix. c. 13. 

X Cohen, " M6d. Cons.," pi. xxvi. 5. § Vol. ii. p. 368 ; vol. iii. p. 27. 



TORQUES OF GOLD. 



375 



T)elong to the Bronze Period, they are sufficiently well known to anti- 
quaries to render it needless for me here to enter into any minute 
description of them. The commonest form presents a cruciform 
section, so that the twist is that of a four-threaded screw, and at 
either end there is a plain, nearly cylindrical bar, turned back so 
as to form a kind of hook. I have a fine example of this kind of 
torque, found with a bronze anvil (Fig. 217) and other bronze 




Fig. 466.— Wedmore. i 

instruments and weapons at Fresn^ la Mere, Calvados. A similar 
but smaller gold torque was found near Boyton, Suffolk,* which is 
said to have had the extremities secured together by two small 
penannular rings of gold, embracing the two terminal hooks. 

One 42 inches long was found on Cader Idris ;t others in 
Glamorganshire;^ at Fattingham, Staffordshire ;§ and in several 
other parts of Britain. Some fine examples of these funicular 



♦ Areh., Tol. xxvi. p. 471. 
X Op. cit.y Tol. xxvi. p. 464. 



t Areh., voL xxi. p. 657« 
} Op. eit.f Tol. xIt. p. 96. 



376 TORQUES, BRACELETS, RINGS, EAR-RINGS, SIC. [CHAP. XTIIL 

torques of gold, as well as of other varieties of the same kind rf 
ornament, are in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Aoademy at 
Dublin.* 

The torques formed of bronze are, as a rule, thicker and balkier 
in their proportions than those of gold, and the ends are asoally 
left straight or but slightly hooked over so as to interlock. They 
are never provided with the projecting cylindrical ends already 
mentioned. 

The form most frequently discovered in the British Islands is 




Fig. 487.— Wedxnore. i 

that known as funicular, one of which is shown in Fig. 466, 
copied from the Archceological Association JoumaLf 

The original was found with two others at Wedmore, Somersetshire. 
One of these is of the same type, but of smaller size, and not quite so 
closely twisted, as shown in Fig. 467 ; and the other is made of a flat 
ribbon of metal, f inch broad, twisted, as shown in Fig. 469, which is 
copied from the same plate as Figs. 466 and 467. 

From another account of these torques, J it appears that they were found 
near Heath House, in the parish of Wedmore, and that with them were 
two celts and a few amber oeads strung on a wire. This latter, to me, 
sounds doubtful, as the wire is probably a later addition. The weight of 

♦ See WUde'B " Catal.," p. 70, et seqq. ; and " Vetusta. Monum.," vol. v. pi. xxix. 
t Vol. xxi. pi. xii. 2. { Arch. Joutn., vol. vi. p. 81. 



FUNICULAR TORQUES. 877 

the largest is said to be ^ pound, of the seoond 2 ounces, and of the 
smallest 1^ ounce. 

Another torque of the character of Fig. 466, about 9 inches in diameter, 
was found with a bracelet, Fig. 481, and a two-looped palstave, Fig. 87, 
at West Buckland, Somersetshire,* and is in the collection of Mr. W. 
A. Sanford. It is shown on the scale of one-third in Fig. 468. 

A portion of another torque, but of slender make, was found at Pen 
Fits, t in the same county ; and another, somewhat imperfect, near 
Edington Burtle. J With the latter was a portion of a ribbon torque like 
Fig. 469, two bracelets, some rings, and four palstaves. 

Two very fine torques, like Fig. 468, 8f inches in diameter, were also 
found in Somersetshure on the Quantock Hills, § in 1794. Within each of 




Fig. 488.— West Buckland. i 

them is said to have^been placed a looped palstave, like Fig. 77. The 
weight of one of the torques is reported to have been nearly 2 pounds. 

In the collection of the Bev. £. Duke, of Lake House, near Salisbury, 
are two fine torques of this kind, one large and heavy, and the other 
smaller and more slender, which were found near Amesbury. With them 
were several spiral rings closely resembling Fig. 489. 

Two others foimd with armillsd in Dorsetshire || are now in the British 
Museum. The larger of these is closely twisted, and about 7^^ inches in 
diameter. The smaller is thicker, and shows a coarser twist, and is 
about 6} inches in diameter. The armillaB are penannular and of rhom- 
boidal section. 

* Areh. Joum., voL xzxvii. p. 107, whence this cut is lent by the CoondL 
1 8om, Areh. md Nat. Sitt, 8oe. Froe.y toL vii. p. 27. 

X Op, eit.f Tol. T. 1864, p. 91. f Areh.j vol. xiy. p. 94, pi. zxiiL 

I Jhroe. 8c€, Ant,, yoL i. p. 234. 



378 TORQUES, BRACELETS, RINGS, EAR-RINGS, ETC. [CHAF. XTIU. 

Two small torques, some bronze rings or bracelets, and a palstaTe 
are recorded to have been dug up in Woolmer Forest, Hants. * Two 
spiral ring^ were found with them. 

In the collection of Mr. Durden, at Blandford, are several spedmens 
found at Spetisbury, Dorset, f 

I have a thin torque about 6{ inches in diameter, but unfortoxiatelj 
broken, foimd in Burwell Fen, Cambridgeshire. 

In some instances the plain ends of the torque are left without hooks. 
Buch is the case with the fine collar found, with four looped armlets and 
a palstave without loop, at Hollingbuiy Hill, J near Brighton, which is 
now in the British Museum. On each extremity was a spiral ring of 




Fig. 469.~Wedmore. i 

bronze, considerably larger than the rod forming the torque, and a thiid 
ring is shown in the published drawing. The palstave, which is broken 
in the middle, apparently on purpose. Lay within the circle of the torque, 
which also was broken across the middle. At regular intervals round it 
lay the four bracelets, which resemble Fig. 482, and var}' somewhat in 
weight. 

Tno third of the torques already mentioned as found at Wedmore is 
shown in Fig. 469. 

It is of a type which occurs more frequently in gold than in bronze, 
and in the former metal has often been found in Scotland. Several 
such were discovered under a large stone at Urquhart, Elginshire. 
Others have been found at Culter, Lanarkshire ; § Belhelvie, Aber- 

♦ Arch. Assoc . Journ.^ vol. vi. p. 88. t Arch. Assoc. Journ.^ vol. xxi. p. 232. 

X Arch. Journ., vol. v. p. 323; Areh.f vol. xxix. 372; Suss. Arch. Coll., vol. ii. 
p. 2G7. 

§ Arch. Assoc. Journ. , vol. xvii. p. 211, pi. xxi. 2. 



RIKBON TORQUES. 379 

deeDHhire ; Little Lochbroom, Bose-Bhire ; Itaimocli, Perthfiliire ; and 
elsevhere. Some of these are in the Antiquarian Muaeom at Edinburgh. 

There are three or four such in the Museum of the Boyal Ineh 
Academy. 

A gold torque of this claaa found at Clonmacnoiee,* King's County, 
has oval balls at each end instead of hooka. 

So far as at present known, the funicular torques of bronze are 
more abundant in the southern and western counties than in tho 
other parts of England. They appear to be unknown both in 




Scotland and Ireland, thoi^h torques of Late Celtic patterns occur 
in those countries. 

The inference is that, although socketed celts are rarely if ever 
found with them, these twisted neck-rings belong to the close of the 
Bronze Period, and were introduced into Britain from the Continent. 
The form is, however, rare in the North of France, and the nearest 
anali^ues to the English torques with which we are acquainted are 
to be seen among those from Northern Germany and Denmark. 

The Danish form, with broad expanding ends terminating in 
spirals, and the derivatives from It in which the spirals are repre- 
sented by solid cast plates with volutes upon them, are nevertheless 
unknown in Britain, as is also that with the twist alternately to 
the right and to the left. 

• Wilde, " Catal. Mub. R. 1. A.," p. 74, fig. S03. 



380 TORQUES, BRACELETS^ RINGS, EAR-RINGS, ETC [CHAF. XVIII. 

Another form of bronze torque found in Britain is made from 
a plain piece of wire, hammered out at each end into a broad, 
nearly quadrangular, plate. 

That shown in Fig. 470 lay near the head of a contracted skeleton at 
Tamtou, four miles from Oxford, at a B];>ot which seems to have beea s 
prehistoric cemetery. I obtained it through the kindness of Vroienat 
llolleston when visiting the place. The ends are ornamented by ^ftminw 
marking. In a line with the wire forming the torque is a slightly raised 
flat band peinpendicularly fluted ; the expanding parts above azid bdov 
are fluted horizontally. A herald would engrave ** azure, a fesse gpdea" 
in the same manner, but with the lines much closer together. Two 
torques of the same character, found at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, are 
in ^e Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 

The form probab^ belongs to the dose of the Bronze Period, if not 
indeed to the Late Celtic or Early Iron Age. 




Fig. 471.— Montgomeryshire. § 

A torque about 5 inches in diameter, described as of copper, made of 
a simple wire, with the ends turned back so as to form hooks, and on 
each a lenticular button of metal, was found near Winslow, Bucks, * and 
may also be Late Celtic. 

Another form of torque is made from a stout wire expanding into small 
flat discs at the end, a type which is also common among bracelets both 
in bronze and gold. A torque of this kind, together with a bracelet, is 
shown in Fig. 471, kindly lent by the Council of the Society of Anti- 
quaries. 

These objects were found with seven others in the parish of Llanrhaiadar- 
yn-Mochnant, Montgomeryshire, f One of them is said to have had 
pendants upon it. Several of them were too small to have served as 
torques for the neck, and were most probably bracelets or anklets. To 
these penannular ornaments I shall have to refer further on. 

♦ Arch.y vol. xi. p. 429, pi. xix. 3. 

t Proc. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iv. p. 467; «*Montgom. CoU.," vol. iii. p. 419 ; vol. iv. 
p. 247. 



LATE-CELTIC TORQUES. 381 

The other varieties of torques found in Britain seem decidedly to 
belong to the Late Celtic rather than to the Bronze Period, so that a brief 
notice of them will suffice. They are frequently made in two halves, 
hinged or dowelled together, and are often decorated with a series of 
ornamental beads. 

A collar found in Lochar Moss, Dimifries-shire, is now in the British 
Museum.* About one-third of it is formed by a solid piece of bronze of 
flat section, having the face ornamented wiUi a peculiar wavy pattern 
and the outer rim with cabled lines. The rest consists of fluted melon-like 
beads with pulley-shaped collars between them. They appear to have 
been strung on an iron wire. 

A portion of another collar found at Perdeswell,f Claines, near Wor- 
cester, has the iron wire still preserved. The ornamental beads are flatter, 
with leaf -shaped projections upon them, and between them are smaller 
pulley-like beads. 

Another, formed in much the same fashion as that from Lochar Moss, 
was found at Mow-road, Bochdale, Lancashire. X This was in halves, 
dowelled together with iron pins. 

Another, entirely of bronze, is made in two pieces, one part re- 
sembling a row of beads, the olher engraved like a closely plaited cord, 
and was foimd at Embsay, near Skipton, Yorkshire. § 

A torque, weighing no less than 3 lbs. 10 ozs. avoirdupois, was found 
in the parish of Wraxall, Somerset. || This also is in halves, with pins to 
form the joint. It is described as appearing to have been adorned with 
precious stones. Possibly, like some other objects of Late Celtic manu- 
facture, it may have been inlaid with enamel of different colours. 

Bracelets of the same type as the torque and bracelet shown in 
Fig. 471 have not unfrequently been found in Britain, though, 
perhaps, they are less common in bronze than in the more precious 
metal, gold. 

They are sometimes slightly hollowed at the expanding ends. One 
foimd with the hoard at Marden, Kent,^ is of this kmd. Another plain 
penannular bracelet tapers off at the ends instead of expanding. This 
latter is too small for an adult person. 

One found, with various olher bronze relics, at Ty Mawr, on Holyhead 
Mountain,** expands at one end and tapers at the other. As is often the 
case, the inner side of the ring is flatter than the outer. 

One, 2f inches by 2 inches inside, expanding at each end, was in the 
Heathery Bum Cave hoard. 8ome others were also f oimd there. 

Li some instances the section of the metal, instead of being rounded, is 
nearly square. Two such, tapering towards the ends, were found in Dor- 
setshire, ff with the torques already mentioned, and are now in the British 
Museum. 

♦ Arch,,Yol, xxxiv. p. 83, pi. xi.; Proe. Soe, Ant., vol. ii. p. 148; Areh.,Tjan. p. 400. 

t Areh; vol. xxx. p. 664. 

1 Arch,, vol. xxT. p. 696 ; Areh. Joum., vol. xviii. p. 167. 

J Arch,, voL xxxi. p. 617, pi. xxiii ; Arch. Joum,, vol. iii. p. 32. 

I Arch,, voL xxx. p. 621. 

Y Arch. Auoc, Joum,, vol. xiv. p. 268, pi. xiii. 2, 3. 

•♦ Arch. Joum,. vol. x. p. 367 ; vol. xxiv. p. 264. 

tt /Vw. Soc. Ant., vol. i. p. 234. 



382 TORQUES, BRACBT.ETS, RINGS, BAR-RIHOS, im?. [cHAP. XTin. 

Three plain penannular bracelets were in the hoard of palsttTOS and 
socketed celts found at Wallington, Northumberland. 

Several have been found in Scotland. Two such braoelets, the om 
slender and the other thick, were found at Achtertyre, Morayshize,* in 
company with a socketed celt^ a spear-head, Fig. 383, another spear-heid, 




Fig. 472.— Achtertyre. i 

and some fragments of other bracelets and of tin. One of these is shown 
full-size in Fig. 472. 

Another, 2^ inches in greatest diameter, slightly thickened at the ex- 
tremities, was found in a peat moss at Conage, BanfPshire.f 

Other penannular armlets, one of which is shown as Fig. 473, were 




Fig. 473.— Redhill. i 

found with socketed celts at Redhill, Premnay, Aberdeenshire, J and are 
now in the Antiquarian Museimi at Edinburgh ; as is another found with 
burnt bones near Preston Tower, East Lothian. 

This very simple penannular form of bracelet is found all over the 
world, and is indeed the form of necessity adopted wherever it became 
the fasliioii to wear thick metal wire round the arm. It was common 

♦ Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ix. p. 436. t P. S. A. S., vol. iv. p. 377. 

X p. S. A. iS., vol. i. p. 138. 



PENAKNULAR BRACELETS. 



383 



among the ancient Assyrians, and several bronze bracelets of this form 
from Tel Sifr, in South Babylonia, are in the British Museum. The 
hammered copper bracelets of North America* are usually penannular. 

Two very massive penannular armlets, formed of roundea bronze fully 
i inch in diameter, and weighing about 12 ozs. each, were found with 
an agate bead and a spindle-whorl in a tumulus near Peninnis Head, in 
the Scilly Isles.f One of these is shown in Fig. 474. 

An imperfect armlet of thick bronze wire was found in a barrow at 
Wetton, t by the late Mr. Bateman. 

Four plain armillsB of bronze found with the spiral rinp^, Fig. 489, and 
with a palstave, in Woolmer Forest, Hants, are also m the Batoman 
Collection. § As already mentioned, two small torques and a celt are said 
to have been found wim them. || 

Ornamented bracelets, such as have been foimd in abundance in the 






Kg. 474.-Scaiy. i 



Fig. 475.— lin. i 



Swiss Lake-dwellings, and such as are common in most continental 
countries, are scaroe in Britain. 

In the British Museum are two bracelets, slightly oval in section, and 
engraved with parallel lines, chevrons, &c., as will be seen by Fig. 475. 
They were found at Liss, Hampshire. Though the two ends are brought 
more closely together than usual in continental examples, the general 
character of these bracelets is much like that of some French and German 
specimens. The patina upon them closely resembles that on the celt Fig. 1 7, 
also found at Lisa ; so they were probably deposited together. 

A curious penannular armlet with flat broad ends, and ornamented 
with punctured markings, was found with another armlet of smaller 
diameter, but plain, more massive, and broader, together with the remains 

• Schoolcraft, " Ethn. Res.," vol. L p. 92 ; Squier and Davis, " Anc. Mon. Miss. Vail.," 

p. 204. 

t Areh, Joum.j vol. ix. p. 96 ; Proc, Soc. AtU,, 2nd S., vol. v. pp. 406, 422 ; Borlase, 
"NffiniaCom.," p. 162. 

♦ "Ten Years' Digg.," p. 167. 

1" Catal.," p. 22 ; Proe. Soc. Ant., vol. ii. p. 83. 
Areh. AtBoe. Joum., voL vi. p. 88. 



384 TORQUES, BRACELETS, RINGS, EAB-RINGS, ETC. [CHAF. XVUI. 

of a skeleton, at Stoke Prior,* WorceBtershiro. It is now in the Britiib 
Uueeiim, and is represented in Fi^. 476. It may belong to a later period 
than that of whioli I am treating^, and is ixiHsibly Saxon. 

Fig. 477, kindly lent by the Council oi the Society of Antiqnaiiesof 
Scotland, shoirs another fonn of armlet, made from a bar of nearl; Mmi- 




circular section, lK<nt into a circular form. The orig:inal, together iritb 
another of the eanie kind, were found near Stobo Caatle.f Peeblee-ahin^ 
beneath a dat ntone, and lying on a large boulder, under which wu ft 
collection of email stones, burnt and with apparently caldned bonM 
among them. 

Another anulet (3 inches) of the same type was found with an aia 




containing burnt bones in a cairn in the parish of Lanark.^ A bronze 
spear-head is stated to have been found with it. 

One of the braeelets from the find at Camenz.§ in Saxony, is of nearly 
the same tytie. 

Two circular armlets, one with the ends slightly apart, were found in 
Dorsotsliire, one in the piirish of Milton. || I have nn imiwrfect armlet of 
this kind, found with a palstave, at Wintorliny Groon, llminster, Somerset. 

• jfrvh. Jovrn., vol. xx. p. 200. Tho Coanfil of the Iiislitulu Imvv kEndly lent this 

t JVoe, Soe. Ant. Scot., vol. il. p. 277. 

t Arch. Aitor. Juurn., rol. xvii. p. Ill, pi. lii. 2; vol. x. p. 8. 

iProc. Soe. Anl., 2iid S., vol. iii. p. 332. 
•' ]J;in-cw Diggers," p. 77, pi. v. 14, 15. 



BEADED AND FLUTED BRACELETS. 



A penansnlBr armlet of bronze, with oompreesed oval knobs at the 
extremitieB, waa found by Mr. F. C. Lulde, with a jet armlet, in the 
cromlecli of Za Botht qui umne," in Guemsef, and ia shown in Fie. 478. 
The scale has been said to be one-third, thoug'h from information Kindly 
famished to me by the Hot. W. C. Lukis, F.S.A,, it appears to be one-half. 

A somewhat different and more elegantly ornamented armlet from 
Cornwall f is shown in Fig. 479. 

A bronze armilla, made from a flat ribbon of metal, i inch broad, and 




Wig. 4TU.— CoruwiJl. i 



Tig, 47B^-OiieRi»T. i 

ornamented outeide with a neatly engraved lozengy pattern, was found 
with an interment in a barrow at Castem,! near Wetton, Staffordshire 

Another, about I^ inch wide, ornamented with four parallel bands of 
Teitical lines, with ohevrons at the end, was found in a barrow at 
Normant<m,g Wilts, endrding the 
arm of a skeleton, and is shown 
in Fig. 480. In tliis example the 
ends overlap. 

Another, with a seriea of small 
longitudinal beads or mouldings 
upon it, was found near Lake, 
wilta, and is in the collection of 
the Bev. £. Duke. Some plain 
penannular bracelets from that 
district are in the same collection. 

An armlet of nearly the same 
character, but narrower, was found 
in Thor's Cave,|| near Wetton, 
Serbyehire. Bemaina of Late 
Celtic and of Boman date were 
found in the same oave. 

A fluted bracelet was found with rings and other objects at Edington 
Burtle, Somersetshire.^ 

A bracelet of bronze, of which soma of the fragments are represented 
in Fig. 481, was found with a bronze torque and a two-looped palstave 

* jtrek. Auoe. Jvum., vol. iii. p. 344 (I am iiidebt«d to the Coimcil tor the om of this 
cot) ; Areh., vol nixv. p. 247 : " Anc. Stone Imp.," p. 417. 

■f Pnc. Sot. Ant., 2nd B., vol. v. pp. 406, 430. 

t Bateman, 'tkTen Yean' Dig.," p. 107. 

jHoarfl'»"Anc. WUta," vol. i. p. 160; ^«*., vol. iliii. p. 489, fig. 172. I tun in- 
debUd to the Council of the Soc. Ant. for the use of this cat. 

I "Reliquary," vol. vi. p. 311, pi. ii. 1 ; Dawtina, "Cave ' 

1 Bom. Areh. mini ^■(. Siil. Sen. Prot., vol. v. 1864, p. 91. 
C C 




386 



TORQUES, BRACELETS, RINGS, EAR-RINGS, ETC. [CHAP. XTHI. 



at West Buckland,* Somersetshire. It is flat on the inside, so that the 
omameiits appear to have been cast in a mould, though subsequently the 
more delicate work was added by means of punches or ffravers. 

Another form of bracelet, probably of earlier date tnan some of those 
represented in the previous figures, is of the type shown in Fig. 482. It 
consists of a long oar of bronze, either circular or subquadrangular in 
section, doubled over so as to leave a broad loop in the middle, and then 
curved roimd so as to form the bracelet, the two ends of the bar being 
bent over to form a hook, which engages in the central loop. That 




Fig. 481 .—West Buokland. i 

shown in the figure was formerly in the collection of the late Sir Walter 
Trevelyan, and is now in the British Museum. As will be seen, the 
edges are in some parts minutely serrated. The original was discovered 
with two others, and a ring of the same metal, in a moss at Ham Cross, 
near Crawley, Sussex. 

Four others, forming two pairs, neatly placed round a torque, were 
found at HoUingbury Hill,t near Brighton, as already described. They 
are now in the British Museum. I have seen two others of the same 
kind which were found at Pyecombe, Sussex. They are in the collection 





Fig. 482.— Ham Croes. i 



Fig. 483.— Heathery Bum. ^ 



of Mrs. Dickinson, of Ilurstpierpoint. Another was found in a barrow 
near Brip:hton,J with the long pin already mentioned, and is now at 
Alnwick Castle. This was slightly ornamented with a kind of herring- 
bone pattern. 

Bracelets constructed on the same principle are sometimes formed of 
mucli thinner wire. One from the Heathery Bum Cave, § already so often 
mentioned, is shown in Fig. 48.3. 

♦ Arch. Jonru., vol. xxxvdi. p. 107. I am indebted to the Institute for the nso of this 
cut. See Fifrs. 468 and 87. 

t Arch. Jouru.f vol. v. p. 323. 

t Arch. Afn*oc. Journ., vol. i. p. 148 ; Sws. Arch. Coll., vol. ii. p. 260. 

\ Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 131. For the use of this cut I am indebted to the 
Council of the Society. 



LATE-CELTIC BRACELETS. 387 

Another of the same size and character, but made of even thinner wire, 
was found with a bronze razor, a button, and other antiquities, in the bed 
of a stream near Llangwvllog Church,* Anglesea. These objects are now 
in the British Museum. The type is not confined to Britain, for a bracelet 
clasping in the same manner was found in the Lac du Bourget.f 

Penannular bracelets, like Fig. 473, with the ends slight^ expanding, 
have been not imfrequently found in Ireland. One engraved by Wilde J 
is described as of pure red copper. 

In many there are large cup-shaped ends at about rifi;ht angles to each 
other. One from Co. Cavan is shown in Fig. 484. I have another of 
the same type, but much smaller and lighter, from Ballymoney, Co. 
Antrim. 

They much resemble the manillas or ring-money in use on the West 
Coast of Africa, but are more cup-shaped at the ends. It appears possible 





Fig. 484.— Co. Cavan. f Fig. 486.— Cowlam. f 

that, like some large Irish rings which will subsequently be described, 
they are not actually bracelets. The other armillae engraved by Wilde 
appear to be of later date than the Bronze Period. The same may be 
said of the elegant bracelet shown full size in Fig. 485, which is certainly 
Late Celtic. It was found by Canon Green weU, F.R.S., on the right 
arm of a female skeleton in a barrow at Cowlam,§ Yorkshire, and is 
similar to some found at Arras, || in the same coimty. 

Another somewhat plainer bracelet, with a short dowel at one end, 
fitting into a socket at the other, so as to form an almost invisible joint, 
was foimd with a fibula, Fig. 498, on the skeleton of an aged woman in 
another of the Cowlam^ barrows, and is shown in Fig. 486. 

Another bronze armlet of the same period was found in a barrow in 
the parish of Crosby Garrett,** Westmoreland. It encircled the right 
arm of a skeleton, and is penannular, ''oval in section, and imoma- 
mented, except in having a series of notches along both edges." 

♦ Areh. Journ., vol. xxii. p. 74. 

t Perrin, " Etude, prfli. sur la Sav.," pi. xviii. 6. 

X " Catal. Mu8. R. I. A.,** p. 670, fig. 479. } " BritiBh Barrows," p. 210. 

II " Cran. Brit," pi. xii. B 4 ; Jrch., vol. xliii. p. 474. 

1 Greenwell's " British BarrowB," p. 209. •♦ Op. eit., p. 386. 

C C 2 



388 TORQUES^ BRACELETS^ RINGS^ EAR-RlNOS| ETC. [CHAP. XYIIL 

Many bracelets of Late Celtic date have been found at yariouB timet m 
Scotland. Some of these are of very ornate design, and extremely 
massive; while on others a repouni pattern has been worked upon a 
' plate of thin bronze. Such bracelets hardly come within the scope of 
the present work, but a few references to engravings of tham are sab- 
joined : — 

Abojne, Aberdeenshire {Areh, Joum,^ vol. xxii. p. 74 ; Wilson's '' PreL 

Ann. of Scot.," vol. ii. pp. 136, 139). 
Alvah, Banffshire {Proe, 8oe, Ant Scot, vol. vi. p. 11, pL iii. 1). 
Muthill, Perthshire, now in the British Museum {Arch., voL zzviii. 

p. 435). 
Flunton Castle, Kirkcudbright {Areh. Joum,, vol. xvL p. 194; iV^. 

Soe, Ant. Scot., vol. iii. p. 236). 
Strathdon, Aberdeenshire {Proe. Soe. Ant. Seot.y vol. vi. p. 13, pi. iii. 2). 




Fig. i86.-€owlam. \ 

Among hoards of bronze antiquities belonging to the latter part 
of the Bronze Period, rings of various sizes are of not unfrequent 
occurrence. They are usually plain and of circular section, as if 
formed of a piece of cylindrical wire, though actually cast solid, 
and do not for the most part seem to require any illustrations. 
Some also are lozenge-shaped in section. 

In the hoard found at Harden,* Kent, there were six perfect bronze 
rings, varying in diameter from IJ to IJ inch. In the Heathery Bum 
Cave were numerous rings of circular section, and varying in thickness 
from i inch to IJ inch in diameter. Many of these are now in the collection 
of Canon Green well, F.E.S. One, 2^ inches in diameter, was in tlie 
hoard found at Westow,t Yorkshire, and may have been an armlet. 
Several stout rings, about 1 inch in diameter, '* probably cast in moulds," 

♦ Arch. Assoc. Journ.j vol. xiv. p. 258. t Arch. Assoc. Journ.y vol. iii. p. 59. 



HOLLOW RINGS. 389 

were found with various other antiquities in bronze at Ty Mawr,* Holy- 
heady and a number of rings of various sizes, from f inch to 1^ inch in 
diameter, were found in the deposit at Uangwyllogyf Anglesea. There 
were also three small rings in the great hoard foimd at Fant-y-maen^ 
Olancych. 

Several rings, some of lozenge-shaped section and of delicate workman- 
ship, were found in thehoard at Taunton, § with the pin and other objects 
alreadv mentioned. 

Such rin^s may have served various purposes, but were probably tused 
as means of connection between different straps or accoutrements. Canon 
Greenwell has called my attention to two separate instances of two rings 
being foimd together, in company with a bronze sword, in one case 
near Medomsley, Durham, and in the other near Eothbury, Northumber- 
land. 

The rings found with remains of chariots at Hamden Hill,|| near 
Montacute, Somersetshire, appear to be of Late Celtic date, and to be 
hollow. A hollow ring, however. If inch in diameter, and made from 
a strip of bronze, fashioned into a tube 
and left open on the inner side, was 
found with a socketed celt, a gouge, 
and other objects of bronze, at Mel- 
bourn,^ Cambridgeshire. Many of 
those from the cemeteiy at Hallstatt 
are of this kind, wrought from a thin 
plate of metal. Some hollow rings 
from Ireland will subsequently be 
mentioned. 

Near Trillick,** Co. Tyrone, a pin 
passing transverselv through the body ^^^^ 

of two rings (see Fig. 496) was found, ^ 487.-i»iand. | 

and with it two large rings about 3^ 
inches in diameter, and four smaller, about 2 inches. These latter appear 
to be hollow, with probably a day core inside. With these objects a 
socketed celt and a bronze hammer were foimd. 

Nearly six himdred bronze rings are in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish 
Academy. 

Some of the Irish rings are cast in pairs, like a figure of S.ft Others 
of large size have smaller rings cast upon them. That shown in Fig. 487, 
borrowed from Wilde, {{ is 4^ inches in diametor, with rinfi;s of 1 j^ inches 
diameter upon it. Sir W. Wilde was inclined to regard it as a bangle 
with two rinfips by which to suspend it, but this appears to me very 
doubtful. I have an almost identical example of the form from Bally- 
money, Co. Antrim. 

A ^Id ring, 4^ inches in diameter, with a single small ring playing 
upon it, from the great Clare find, is figured by Wilde.§§ He states that 

♦ Areh. Joum., vol. xxiv. p. 256 ; Areh.^ voL xxvi. p. 483. 

t Areh. Jowm.j vol. xxii. p. 74. % Areh. Camb.^ 3rd S., vol. x. p. 224. 

i Pring, *' The Brit, and Bom. on the Site of Taunton,'' p. 60. 

I Areh.f vol. xzi. p. 39. % Arch. Joum., vol. zi. p. 294. 

** Joum. Mist, and Areh. Assoc, of Ireland, 3rd S., vol. i. p. 164. 

ft « Vallancey," vol. iv. pL xiv. 8 ; Wilde, " Catal. Mus. B. I. A.," p. 678, Ag. 490. 

It " CataL MuB. B. I. A./' p. 670, Ag. 480. 

ff " Catal. Mus. B. I. A.," p. 46, fig. 673. 




TOKQCIS, SKACtaXn, BTNOS, KAK-KIMOI, RO. [CHAF. ZTIII. 



e oocftBioiiaUy obsrared sonlpbuod vpim Hu InMb 
of the statnea of aadent Bcoimii geaenls, tlie omall zing being tUadui 
to tiie dieoa." 

Some few bronze omaments, wliich have been thoagbt to bs 
finger lingB, have from time to time been found aamoiftted vidi 
other objects of tbe aame metal, such as annleta, torques, Ac 

One found with the atmleto and paJotavea in Woobuer Vt at^* Hnt^ 
as ahwady mentioned, is shown in Fig. 4S8. It ha> been Harmed faom a 
Bmall quadrangular bar of metal, (rrlindrical at the anda, twisted afb* 
the manner of an ordinal; torque, and eabeeqnantlj ooiled into a ^inl 
ring. Mr. Bateman f deeoibee it aa a finger ring. With it WM aho 
another twisted bronze ring of the same iSid, bat of only <me ocaL It 
appears doubtful whether theae rings were not more of the nature ct 
ornamental beads. It will be remembered that three spiral rinn of ti» 
same kind, but plain and of about four coils each, were found on th* 





Flff. 4B8.— Wodmn Fgnit. 



Tig. lea.—Dambiiaa. 



extr^nitiea of the torque disoorered at Hollingbuiy Hill,} Sussex. They 
were conuderably too laige to fit on the torque, and were r^arded as 
intended in some way to lasten the garment Some ringa of this kind 
were found with torques near Ameebury, as already menaaned. A ring 
of a mngle coil, but made from a twisted bar like that in the figure, was 
in the hoard found at Cameni,§ Saxony, in which also were tagments 
of torques. 

I have three small twisted penaonular rings of gold which were found 
with a small torque of the same metal near Garoaasonne, Aude. They 
are of different sizes and weights, but are all too small for the fiiiger or 
for ear-rings. One of them is indeed too small to pass over the re-ourred 
end of the torque, but the ends may possibly hare been pinched together 
since it was found. I am not aware that any of the rings were ever 
actually upon the torque, though I have reason to believe they were 
found with it. 

Mr, Franks has recently presented to the British Museum a gold torque 
from Lincolnshire, which has three banded rings of gold, strung Uke 
beads upon it. 

* Pref. See. Ant., vol. ii. p. 83. The cnt u Idiidlj lent bj the Council 

t " Qital.," p. 22. t Sip., p. 378 ; Arci. Journ., rol . v. p. 323. 

i Fnt. Set. All., 2nd 8., vol. iii. p. 332. *^ 



RINGS FOUND WITH TORQUES. 391 

Some small penanniilar rings found on a gold torque at Boyton have 
already been mentioned. 

The penannular rings so often found in Ireland, and commonly called 
ring money, may after all be of the nature of beads. 

The large hollow penannidar ornaments made of thin gold, and nearly 
triang^ular in section, seem also to be of the nature of beads or possibly 
clasps. Straps passed through the narrow notch would require some 
trouble to take out ; but still such beads could be dislodged from their 
string without its ends being unfastened. The ornament shown in Fig. 
489 was found near Dumbarton.* 

Others, similar, have been found in Anglesea, Heatheiy Bum Cave, 
near Alnwick, f and in other places. They occur also in Ireland^ They 
have frequently been found associated with armlets. Some Egyptian 
rings of camelian, ivory, and other materials have similar notches through 
them. They have, however, been regarded as ear-rings. 

Bronze finger rings seem to have been in occasional use. 

In a perisned urn with burnt bones, found with several others, one 
containing a barbed flint arrow-head, in the cemetery at Stanlake,§ 
Oxfordshire, there was a spiral bronze finger ring of the plainest form, 
the only fra&;ment of metal brought to light during nearly a month's 
excavations by Mr. Akerman and Mr. Stone. What may have been a 
finger ring was also found in the Heathery Bum Cave,|| Durham. It is 
formed of stout wire, the ends expanding, and slightly overlapping each 
other, and is i inch in diameter. 

In the hoard of bronze antiquities found near Eding^n Burtle,^ Somer- 
setshire, were several small rings ; but with one exception they are hardly 
such as could have served for finger rings. This exceptional ring is 
penannular,' and fluted externally like the bracelet found with it in the same 
hoard. The form is not unlike that of the gold ring engraved by Wilde ** 
as his Fig. 609. 

Another form of ornament, the ear-ring, appears to have been 
known in Britain during the Bronze Period. In two of the 
barrows on the Yorkshire Wolds, explored by Canon Greenwell, 
F.R.S., female skeletons were found accompanied by such orna- 
ments. *" 

In a barrow at Cowlam,tt ''touching the temporal bones, which were 
stained green by the contact, were two ear-rings of bronze. They have 
been made by beating the one end of a piece of bronze flat, and forming 
the other end into a pin-shaped termination. This pin had been passed 
through the lobe of the ear and then bent round, the other and flat end 
being bent over it. Thus the ear-ring must have been permanently fixed 
in the ear." One of these rings is, by Canon Greenwell' s kindness, shown 

* Proe, Soc, Ant. Scot,, vol. iii. p. 24, whence this cut is borrowed. 

t Areh, Joum,f vol. ziii. p. 296. 

t " Catal. Mua. K. I. A.," p. 36. 

\ Areh.f vol. xxxvii. p. 368. 

I Proc. Soc, Ant.y 2nd 8., vol. v. p. 426. 

if 8om, Arch, and Nat. JRist. Soc. Proc.y vol. v. 1854, p. 91. 

»• «* Catal. Mas. K. I. A.," p. 81. 

tt " British BaiTOWB," p. 223. 



392 TORQUES, BRACELETS, KINQB, KAK-BING3, ETC. [CKAP. XTIII. 

aa Fiff. 490, 8a is one from Goodmanham,* in Fig. 491. In the lottn 
cose there was a bronze awl, or drill, behind the bead ; the eBr-ring ban 
figured was at the right ear, and its fellow, in a more broken oonaitiDii, 





lay under the left shoulder. The better preserved of the two is bo 
vnat imperfect, and ma;, I think, have formed a perfect cirole w 
wbolo. 

Ur. Bateman records finding in a bairow called Stakor Hill,t i 




Pig. *M.— OrtoD. } 

Burton, a female skeleton, "the mastoid bones of which were dj'ed 
green from contact with two small pieces of thin bronze bent in the middle 
juBt sufficiently to clasp the edge or lobe of the ear." With the skeletoii 

••■Brit. Barrowa," p. 324. 
Clarendon Pn'as. 
t "Tfn Yvan' Dig-," p. 80. 



For Fig. 491 I am indebted to the Delegatt-a of lie 



EAR-RINGS. 893 

lint ''javelin head/' and Mr. Bateman considered the interment 

le oldest he had met with in which metal was present. 

ay of illustration, a much longer form of trough-shaped ear-ring 

adduced, though the metal in this instance is gold and not bronze. 
Lown in Fig. 492 was found with another in a stone cist at Orton, 
hire.* 

ems possible that a lunette or diadem of gold was buried with 
ax-rings, 
ir of circular embossed plates, with a beaded ring on each and a 

disc above, were found in a tumulus near Lake, Wilts, and have 
garded as ear-rings. They are in the collection of the Kev. E. 

le Museum of the Boyal Irish Academy f is another gold ornament 
same form as Fig. 492. It is, however, smaller, and the lower 
at present flat. Gk)ld penannular rings of torque-like patterns, 
. at each end, and which may have been ear-rings, and not bead- 
laments, are not uncommon in Ireland and Britain.! Kings of 
the same kind are still in use in Northern Africa. Plain double- 
. penannular ear-rings in bronze are also found, but I am uncertain 
e period to which they should be assigned. Some appear to be of 
iate. § 

'e a pair of ear-rings of circular form from HaUstatt, about 2 inches 
eter, of hollow bronze, made from a thin plate, and with one end 

which fits into a socket at the other end. Other ear-rings of 
II from the same cemetery, have a small ring encircling them, to 
in one instance, three small spherical bells are attached. 
lo Laibach Museum are some bronze ear-rings of the Early Iron 
uch like those from Good man ham, but broader, 
migs of the Bronze Period appear to be almost unknown in France. 

however, specimens foimd with a hoard of bronze socketed celts, 
nts of swords, spear-heads, bracelets, and a variety of other objects 
Lil, near Amiens, about 1872. 

• are two in number, in form like Fig. 490, but rather shorter, 
them is coiled up, and the other has Qie broad part nearly flat. 
1 ornamented with some parallel lines stamped in across the broader 
Several small hollow and some solid rings, circular, semicircular^ 
ttened in section, were in the same hoard. 

le few objects of bead-like character have from time to time 
bund in barrows and with other bronze objects. Dr. Thur- 
describes a tubular bronze bead, IJ inch long, found in a 
7 in Dorset, and now in Mr. Durden*s collection. He thinks 
sad mentioned by Sir R. Colt Hoare as found in a barrow 
•"ovant •* may have been the spheroidal head of the bronze 

* Proe, Soe. Ant. Scot., vol. viii. p. 30. 

t WUde. " Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 40, fig. 670. 

I Op. cit.f p. 38. 

9 Arch. Joum.f vol. xix. p. 88. 

II Von Sacken, " Grabf. v. Hallat.," Taf. xvii. 4, 6. 
^ Arch., vol. xliii. p. 470. 

♦♦ " Anc. WUt8," vol. i. p. 243. 



'M)i TORQUES, UKACELETS, RINGS, EAR-RINGS, ETC. [cHAP. XVin. 

pin witli wliicli it wns found. Some beads of amber and jet were, 
lu)W(^vcr, discovered with it. 

A iiotcluMl lu^ad of tin, liko a number of small beads strung together, 
ii(H*oni])ani(>(l ii little pin of coppor or bronze, most probably an awl, and 
Honio conical buttons of bone or ivory, in a barrow on Sutton Yemey 
l>own,* in which thort^ had been dei)08ited a burnt body. Hoare aaji 
that "it is the imly article of that metal we have ever found in a barrow." 

Small beads, or more probablv drum-shaped buttons of gold, as sug- 
ptHtinl by I>r. Thumam.t have also been found in the Wiltshire bairowi. 

n««ads fonuinl of joints of encrinites. with others formed of burnt dsj, 
as well as a utH'klace forniiHl of the shells of dentalium, were found in 
a lmri\>w m^r WinterlKmni Stoke. ^ Glass Wads of the notched form 
have Ueen foimd with burnt interments, and frequently with bronze in- 
struments in others of the Wiltsliire l»arrows.§ Other beads have spiral 
ornaments in white u^Hm a blue gn^und. A blue glass bead, with three 
yellow spirals on it. was found with the ]X)int of a bronze blade in a cist 
with burnt Innit^s in a l^irrow at Kddertoun. Eoss-shire. Such beads, 
known as Olachan Nathairt>ach.^ or ser^^nt stones, have been used as 
vhanns for dis<>{ist\i ^^ttle and other evils. 

lila«s K\ids with the same spiral oniamentativm have been found in the 
ivmetory at HaIlstatT« and their prt^s^mi"^ in these graves certainly affords 
an anr^iiuon! for assigning :}ie:n to a i.omp:iratively late period, or at all 
event* to a time when iViiur.onv w::h :he Oontiaen: was well established. 

Aiuov.c the objtvt* four.d at Exn:r.i:. S-.iiolk,** are some ••curious 
buIU^ " \\;:h cL-iv v\>rt^ l^u: ::;tv av.vdr :o In-I^Mu: :o a U:er date. 

O* :v ,> • •»• >» --.i ». * -•- \ ^>» s.^. ..r --->* A*^ .>^ CS.311- 

u:::.^\:a i:u: >»i::r;r.A:*..: i.;:* .s:s;r.>; :: >-. \:r.v- :;rzi> c-: torques 

........> ». «... ...>-. A... . .,*- -^ -- ..\ .. .■Ti'S;^. . .^.•- -gfi ■- J_i» 1 • i, 

p. - ■ . « 

^,, , .■•^ .*, «... ... •^i -^ .,_-* •»_ , ... .'.^. '.. . .^^ _ - »f • i — ^^ 

J . r*. . -i .^ .'.*. ■- .."••,',. . "-,' "^ . ~ . .:." ."^i j. ;»j" 5"*- -~ 

- . > ,v -. ' V . :" - .- :^ ^ :•- ^ ^ - - ■^. -.;..■.■> i.:.M2i ^ . : 









,■.1- I.lB* _ . .. , . . 



ABSENCE OF CONTINENTAL FORMS. 395 

spiral ornament which in some countries is characteristic of the 
Bronze Period may be said to be absolutely imknown in Britain. 
The nearest approach to it is the ring ornament formed of concen- 
tric circles. 

The bracelets formed of cylindrical coils of wire are also un- 
known, as well as those of hollowed bronze with discoidal ends, 
such as are so common in the Swiss Lake-habitations. Decorated 
pendants, like those which are found in Switzerland and the South 
of France, are also wanting. Altogether the bronze ornaments of 
Britain are neither abundant nor, as a rule, highly artistic; and it 
would appear that here, at all events, the serviceable qualities of 
bronze were more highly appreciated than its decorative lustre. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

CLASPS, BUTTONS, BUCKLES, AND MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS. 

There still remain to be noticed a number of objects in bronze, of 
some of which the precise nature and use are now hardly sus- 
ceptible of being determined ; and of others but so few examples 
are known that they are best placed in a chapter which, like the 
present, is intended to treat of miscellaneous articles. It has 
occasionally been observed of antiquaries that when at a loss to 
explain the use or destination of some object of bronze or brus, 
their usual refuge is in the suggestion that it formed some portimi 
of harness, or was what is termed a horse-trapping. To judge from 
what may be seen on the dray-horses and waggon-horses of the 
present day, future antiquaries, in examining the relics of the 
nineteenth century, will have some justification in assigning a vast 
number of forms of ornamental pendants and tongueless buckles 
to this comprehensive class of trappings ; while a number of 
curious instruments of brass and other alloys, some of them not 
unlike complicated dentists* instruments, will probably be given 
up in despair, though now in most cases susceptible of being re- 
cognised by the adept as destined to extract cartridges or their 
cases from breech-loading guns. If these puzzles await future 
antiquaries, those of the present day must be pardoned for occa- 
sionally being at fault as to the destination of some ancient 
instrument or ornament, and they may even be forgiven for 
making suggestions as to probable uses of such objects, provided 
they do not insist upon possibilities being regarded as strong pro- 
babilities, much less as facts. 

In Fig. 493 is shown full-size a mysterious obje(»t, c-onsisting of a tube 
with a slight collar at each end, having on one side a long narrow loop of 
solid metol sub-quadrangular in section, and on the other an elongated 
oval opening, a part of the side of which has been broken away. It was 
found with a number of socketed celts, knives, and other articles in the 
hoai'd at Beach Fen, Cambridge, already often mentioned. With it was 



LOOPED SOCKETS. 



o another smaller object of the same kind, shown in Fig. 494. This, 
irever, has the orifice in the front, and not at the side opposite the 

S, the section of which in this case is circular. One end of the tube 
ugged up with a bronze rivet. The mouth of the oval opening is 
igh, and has no lip to it, as in the other case ; and within the tube 
>re are remains of wood. I have a broken specimen found at MEdton, 
ir Cambridge, of the same character as Fig. 493, but with the loop 
md in section, and both shorter and stouter. The end of the tube is 
rt with a flat plate closing the aperture, except for a central hole about 
nch in diameter. I hare another specimen much like Fig. 493, but 
) loop is longer and flatter, and beneath it the tube has a long oval 
ening with a lip around i^ as well as a somewhat shorter openmg on 
i opposite side of the tube. The loop also has a deep groove on its 
ler side extending its whole length. I am not sure wnere this object 
g found, but there is little doubt of its being English. 
An object like Fig. 493 was found with socketed celts, gouges, and ham- 




JIB at Roseberry Topping,* Yorkshire, in 1826. With them was a flat 
ladrangular whetstone (?) and fragments of a flat plate of bronze, the 
da hollowed and with crescent-shaped openings or lunettes in them, 
d with staples for attachment at the comers. There are three nvet-holes 
the convex side of the lunettes. 

Anotherobject of the same kind was found with a socketed celt, ahoUow 
ig, gouge, &c., at Melboura,t Cambridge. There were two of these 
>ped tubes found wittk spear-heads, socketed celts, broken swords, &c., 
ar La Pierre du Villain, f Longy, Aldemey. 

In the great hoard of bronze apear-heade, &o., found at Broadward,§ 
iropshire, was a short object of this kind about 1^ inch long, with the 
)p as large in diameter as the tube and extending the whole length, so 
• Arfli. ^liana, vol. ii. p. !13, pi. iv. ; Arch. Seel., vol. iv. p. 65, pi. vii. 
t Arrh. JouTn., vol, xi, p. 294. J Areh. A-tor. Jaun., vol. iii. p. 10. 

i Arek. Can^., 1th &., vol. iii. p. 3S4. I am indebted lo the Council of the Cambiian 
ch. Ajsoc. for th« om of this cut. 



398 CLABP9, BUTTOITS, BUCKIX9, VTC. [CBAT. XtX. 

as to give it the fonn of the letter D. The orifice of the loop is aij 
^ inch long. This epecinieii is shown in Fig. 495. Another secnutD 
have been found at the same time. 

A fragmeat of another was in the oolleotion of the 
late Loi5 Btajbrooke. 

An example, like Fig. 493, but somevhat brokoi, 
was in the deposit of Notre-Dame d'Or, now in tha 
Poitiers Museum. 

Another (2j inobes), almost identical witli Fig. 491, i 
was found in a board with other objects near Ami«ot, 
and is now in the museum of that town. 

Another of mucb the same kind waa f oand tt Ja 
Pamelle, Mancbe.* 

I have an object from the Seine at Paris, which 
appears to belong to the same class as the tubes lately 
described, though without any loop. The tube is in 
this instance about 3 inches long, with small Sxagai 
at each end ; and through the middle of it is an vrsl 
opening about 1 inch by f inch, with mouth-piecw 
standing out on each side of the tube, making tha 
whole length of the oval cross-tube thus formed 
nearly H inch. Each mouth-piece bas two parsllel 
beads running round it. I am at a loss to ageign ■ 
purpose to it. 

lliose with a loop seem to me possibly intended u 
clasps for leather straps or beltp, one end of which 

nsed through the metal loop and was sewn or 
:ened to the stra^ so as to form a loop of leather, 
while a corresponding loop at the other end waa in- 
serted into the oval moutb-piece, so that a pin paiwd 
down inside the tube would go through it and secure 
it. This pin need not have been of metal, but of 
some more perishable material. 

The objection to this view is that the side orifico 
in the tube is not in all cases opposite to the loop, bat 
in one instance at least at right angles to it. A second 
suggestion ia that they were loops in some manner 
attached to wooden or leather scabbards of swords, 
which could at any time be detached by withdrawing 
a pin that passed down the tube. Whatever purpose 
they servefl, they do not appear to hare been perma- 
nently attached to any other article, as in uo instance 
have any rivet-holes been observed in them. 

Some of the hollow rings found in Ireland with 
transverse perforations through them, appear also to 
. have been made for attachment at will to leather or 

F.K.w8.-rnm.k. i ^j^j^ j^y jj^g^^g ^^ ^ pin passing through the cross- 
holes, which at once converted the rings into brooches or buckles of a. 
peculiar kind. 

ThispurpoaobasalreadybeensuggestedbyMr.T.O' Gorman, int]w Journal 
of the Moyal Hiitorical and Arckxologieal Auoeiation of Ireland.] He tliere 
•Jf™.&if.Jn(.AorBi.,1627— SipLx™. 1 3rdS.,vol.i. p. 164, whence thecutiaborrowed. 




RINGS WITH TRANSVERSE PERFORATIONS, 399 

escribes a bronze pin with two thick bronze rings upon it, which was 
>und with two large rings of bronze, four rings of about the same size 
9 those on the pin, a large socketed celt, and a bronze hammer, in what 
ppears to have been a sepulchre near Trillick, Go. Tyrone. These objects 
re now all in my own collection, and, as will be seen in Fig. 496, tnere 
in be no doubt of an efficient form of double buckle being presented by 
18 pin and rings. Whether it was used for fastening a doak or tunic, 
s suggested by Mr. 0' Gorman, or for some other purpose, I need not 
bay to examine. I think, however, that the discovery of the pin and 
operated rings in juxtaposition throws some light upon the character of 
ther rings with cross perforations, of which many have been found in 
reland. One of these is shown in Fig. 497, borrowed from Wilde.* I 
aye one of precisely the same character, 2i inches in diameter, with a 
ross perforation through the two projecting mouth-pieces, slightly oval, 
nd about the size to receive a common pencil. YaUancey f has figured 
thers, in one of which there is a cross-pin with a 
mall ring at each end, somewhat like a horse's bit.{ 
Hhers, with numerous small loops round the circum- 
erence, and with central bosses secured by pins, or 
ccasionally with cross arms within them, appear to be 
f later date and to have had bands of chain-mail 
attached. In some of the plain rings, however, there 
9 a portion of a strap of bronze left, which Sir W. 
^ilde regards as havmg served to connect the ring- 
hains, of which he thinks that coats of mail were SfialS.* k 

aade. Under any circumstances, these perforated 
ings seem to come under the category of fastenings or clasps, to which 
he looped tubes already described may also be referred. 

A perforated ring was in the hoard found at Llangwyllog,§ Anglesea, 
Jready mentioned. 

Large rings, such as those described in the last chapter, may 
Jso have served as connections for bands or straps. 

There is, indeed, numismatic evidence that among the Ancient 
Britons, shortly after the time of Julius Csesar, rings were em- 
Joyed as connecting links between the diflferent straps forming 
he harness of war-horses. On a gold coin of Verica,|| engraved 
m the title-page of Akerman's "Ancient Coins of Cities and 
?rinces," and now in my own collection, there is on the reverse 
i warrior on horseback. The engraving of the die is exquisitely 
ninute, and the warrior s saddle is shown to be secured by four 
firths, and by straps running from it round the chest and the 
lind-quarters to keep it in position. On the shoulder and the 
launches there are rings to which these straps are joined, and 
rom each of these rings another strap runs down to pass below 

• "Catal. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 679, fig. 494. f Vol. iv. pi. xiv. 

X See Wilde's **Catal.," p. 576 et seqq. 

f Arch, Joum., vol. xxii. p. 74 ; Arch. Canib.y 3rd S., vol. xii. p. 97. 
I Type of EvazLB, *< Anc. Brit. Coins," pi. ii. 9. 




400 CLASPS, BOTTON8, BUCKLRS, BTC. [CHAP. XII. 

the body of the horse. Each ring, therefore, has three stnpi 
secured to it, one nmning forwards, another backwards, and the 
third downwards. Rii^ with three loops for straps attached 
occur among Etruscan Antiquities.* 

Of brooches proper, with a pin attached by a spriog or faioge, 
and secured by a lia.sp or cntch, none are, I think, knowD in 
Britain which can with 
safety be assigned to sn 
earlier period than the I^te : 
Cehic. 
That BhowQ in Fig. 49S ' 
Fig.«6.-Co,Um. i wa* found by Can«.6reei.- 

well, F.R.8., in a barrov m 
(he parish of Cowlam,f Yorkshire, together with an armlet (Fig. 486) 
and a necklace of glass beads, on the brMlj of an aged woman. The 
pin wan of iron, which had replaced the original of oronEe. I hare i I 
somewhat similar brooch from Sedmore, near St. Austell, Cornwall, u | 
well as one of lon^r form and with a larger disc, which was found 
in a Iwrrow near Bridlington, together with two remarkable burkln ' 
formed of penannular rings. These were described by the latii Mr. 

Thomas Wright J (who has figured them) as ud- , 
iloubtedly Koman, but their character is decidedlj | 
" Ijute Celtic." Other broochen of the same charaeier 
as the figure, foimd in the Thames, Jjondon, and near 
AvebuT)-, Wilts, are in the British Museum. 

Another article in use for fastening or attach- 
ing parts of the <lress is the button, which 
claims a high antiquity. I have elsewhere 5 
described sorae made of stouc and jet, in which- 
a V-sJinped perforation in the body of the buttoi> 
aftbrdcd the means of fastening it to the dress- 
In the bronze buttons it legitimate loop or shanl^ 
is found, which is cast in one piece with th^ 
Ijuttou itself. 

In Fig. 499 are shown three full-size views of one of 

twobrnnKe buttonsfrom t he E each Fen hoard in my own 

nSi' ¥ea. i coUeetton. There ia a sharj>noHS and smoothneHS about 

their faces which suggests tlieir having been finished 

by some process of turningor rotarj- grinding. Tlie (cufn:' and raised bandw. 

thoupli similar, are not identical in tfic two, or it mipht have been thought 

tlint they were cast in anii'talmould. Foiu-othorswcrefoundat the same time. 

A button of almost tlic sumo size and jiattum was f<iund with a razor 

and other objwts at Llangwyllog, Angleseii-H One of the same character, 

• ,^rrh. .ituf. Jnurn., vol. xxwi. p. 110, + " British Bnrrow»," p. 20n. 

I '• E-i-vivfl on Arrh. Sub.," vol. i. p. 25. j ■■ Anp. Slone Imp.," i>. 407. 

II Areh. JuHFH., vol. iiii. p. 74 ; Arfh. Cumi., 3id S., vol. lii. p. 97. 




BDTrONB WITH CONCBHTRIC FLOTIMQa, 401 

at of largier size (If inch), was found -with a gon^ socketed celta, 
0., at Kensmgton.* It haa a central boss and two raised ridgee. Both 
lese buttons are now in tlie British Uuseum. 

In the Hea&er; Bum Care, Durham, was a small button, f inoh in 
ameter, with one loop at the back ; and another larger ( 1 1 inch), with 
re loops at the back, one in the centre, and the four others at equal 
istancee around it forming four sides of an octagon. This larger button 
u a eeriee of concentric rings or grooves on the face ; the small one 
IS a central pointed boss witb one groove around it. 
Bonie curious buttons, like half barrek in shape, were found with a 
Mtrd of bronze objects at St. Genouph (Indre et Loire), and are 
reserved in the Museum at Tours. Numerous buttons of drcular form 
ive been found in other parts of France. 

Buttons of various sizes and shapes have also been found in abund- 
ice in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. 

A clay mould, apparently for buttons of this kind, is in the Museo 
ivico at Uodena. 

In the cemeteiT at Hallstatt immense numbers of small button-like 
ejects have been found, some of the warriors' coats having been completely 




udded witli them. Some of these are not more than i inch in diameter, 
larly hemispherical, and with a email bar cast across them inside. 
A peculiar annular button with two loops at the back, found with 
■onze swords (see Fig. 353) and a flat-headed pin (Fig. 464) at Edin- 
irgh.t is represented in Fig. 600. The original is now in the Anti- 
larian Museum at Edinburgh. It has been thought to be the mounting 
a belt. 

Bronze discs of laiver size than any ordinaiy buttons or daspe are 
casionally found. One such, 3i inches in diameter, with tliree con- 
ntric circles engraved on one of its faces, was discovered at Gastell y 
ere, Merioneth^iire.} Another was found at Woleonbui^ Hill, § Sussex, 
third, about 5 inches in diameter, with raised concentric rings upon it, 
in the Scarborough Museum. One found at Inis Kaltra, |{ Lough Derg, 
!itween Clare and Galway, has been figured. It has a hollow conical pro- 
iction like the umbo of a shield, surrounded by five concentric raised 
ngB, the interval between the second and third being about double that 
etween any other pair. The inner side has grooves corresponding with the 

• Prae. Soe. Ant., Jnd 8., vol. ili. p. 232. 

t Fret. Bee. Ant. Seat., U.S., vol. l., p. 322, whence this cot il borrowed. 
; Areh. Jeum., vol. zi. p. 179. f Itnd. g Areh. Joum., voL iz. p. 200. 

D D 



402 



CLASF8, BUTTONS, BUCKLES, ETC. 



[Cl 



external ridges, and across the inside of tlie hollow ambo is a small iw di 
of metal. The diameter of this omament is 4 j inohes. It is now in th 
British Uuseum. In many respects sach discs resemble the bo-obUm 
tutuii of the Scandinavian antiqnariee, though the long-pointed form tm 
not been found in the Britieh Islands. 

An irregularly rounded flat plate of bronEe, about 5 inches b; Si, 
and 1 i in<£ thick, apparently htuomered out, was found with leaf-ahapal 




F«, UI.— Bntherr 



ei>ear-heads and a sword at Worth,* Devon. I have a round flat piste, 
aoout 6^ inches in diameter and i inch thick, found near ClougE, Co. 
Antrim, which bears deep hammer marks in sets of parallel grooves on 
both faces. Perhaps such plates were destined tJ3 be stiU further drawn 
out into sheets for the manufacture of caldrons or other vessels. 
In the Heathery Bum Cave, already so oft«ii r 



( plates, with a 
middle, and four loops cast c 



I, were about 
ound their edge, a small hole in the 
n at the back. One of these ie ehown in 
Fig. 501.t With them were found about 
the same number of broad hoops, of whidi 
an example is given in !Fig, 502. These 
are dexterously cast in one piece, with s 
groove inside corresponding with the raised 
central ridge on the outside. Their dia- 
meter is only about 4jt inches, while that of 
the discs is about 5 A inches. It is diffi- 
cult to see any connection between the two 
forms, though from the correspondence in 
their numbers a connection at first sight 
seems probable. The hoops have been spoken of as armlets, but I can 
hardly regard them as such. Most of the specimens are in the collection 
of Canon Greenwell, F.R.8., though thanks to his kindness I have an 
example of each ; and two hoops and a disc are in the British lUuseum. 
Canon Greenwell has two other discs of a somewhat similar character. 
found with spear-heads and socketed celts near Newark. They are 51 
'■' I raised rib round the margin and a central 




— Uea1bei7 Hun 



inches in diametei 



• Arch. Jawi., vol. uiv, p. 120. 
+ iVor. Soe. Ant., iod S., vol. iii. p. 236. 
me by ths Council of the Society. 



This and the foUaving ci 



■e kindly l«nt 



SLIDES FOB STRAPS? 403 

I. The surface, instead of bein^ regularly convex, rises more rapidlj 
towards the centre, so as to make a kind of cone with hollowed sides. 
93iere are no loops nor an; means of attachment on the int«rior. It may 
^e that a shank was riveted through tlie central hole, as was the case 
'Vith some analogous conical objects from Hallstatt. 

Without espreesing any definite opinion on the subject, I may call 
•ttention to a certain analogy that exists between these hoops and discs, and 
Ihs hoops and axle ends of Gaulish chariots of the Early Iron Age. The 
Uvea of the' wheels of the ohariot found in the tomb of la Qorge Ueillet* 
(Uame) had bronze hoops on either side of the naves, and an ornamented 
{date at each end of the axle. The hoops, however, are made of plates 
tiveted together, and were not cast in one piece, and the centre of the 
Jdatee is open, though crossed by an iron pin. 

Rn^ments of what may have been discs of the same kind, with a hole 
Ot the oen^ and four small bosses at intervals around it, were found 
ia the hoard at 8tanhope,f Durham, which comprised spear-heads, celts, 
ftc, much like those in the Heathery Bum Cave. 

Similar large discs with concentric cirdes upon them, and having loops ' 
&t the back, have been found in various parts 
Of Francs, Switzeriand, and Italy.J 

Another and smaller disc with a central hole, 
luving a short collar round it, ia shown in 
tig. 503. This is only the rough casting ; and 
at one time I thought it was merely a waste 
Jiiece or jet from Xhe foundry, as it was dis- 
ooverod with moulds, celts, &c., in the Isle of 
Hattjr hoard. Another diso of the same kind 
was, Dowever, found with the hoard ctf bronze 
•t Tattendon, § Berks, which shows so much ^^^^^ 

finish all ovot that it would seem to have been ^ los.— Hutr. 

adapted for some special purpose, and not to 

have been merely a piece of waste metal. Another disc of the aame kind 
was found in the ho^d at Haynes Hill, {| Kent, and was regarded as part 
of an utensil. Mr. Franks ii^orms me that an example with a rather 
longer tube has been found in Brittany. In the Yattendon hoard were 
also some &agmente of thin bronze plate very highly planished on one 
face, and a hdlowed conical piece of bronze, not unlike an extinguisher; 
but tiie purpose for which eiUier of these was intended is a mystery. 

Betuming to bronze objects which appear to be in some manner con- 
nected with straps, I may cite some loops or slides of which an example 
ia given in Fig. 504. llie original is aot in this case English, having 
formed part of the hoard found at Dreuil, near Amiens. But a specimen 
ot the same size and shape, though rather more convex on the faces, is 
in Lord Braybrooke's collection at Audley End, and was, I beHeve, found 
with other tronze objects, including a hollow ring, in Essex. At first 
sight auoh objects might appear to be intended for mouth-pieces of scab- 
bards, but on trial I find that the opening ie not wide enough to allow of 
tlie passage of a sword blade, much less to admit of a tlucknesa of 

• Fonrdrignier, "Double Sip. G«uL,"' 1878, pi. t. and ri. 

t -ire*. JEUif. vol. i. p, 13, pi. ii. 14. 

i See Cluiitre, "Age du Br.," ISre ptie., p- 15S. 

I JVm. Him. Ant., 2nd S., vol. vii. p. iSfi. 

I Areh. Jmtrn., vol. xxx. p. 282, fig. 3 ; Anthrap. Iiut. /mm., vol. iii. p. 230. 
D D 2 




404 



CI.A8PS, BUTTONS, BDCKLE8, ETC 



[chap. in. 

leather or wood in addition. They seem more probably to be ilidet, mcb 
aa might have served for receiving the two enOB of a leather belt. 

In the Dreuil hoard wob also a flat kind of ferrule, about 2^ inohci 
wide and closed at the end, which ma; have aerved as a sort of ta^ or 
end to a broad strap. There were also socketed celts and knives. 

In the same hoard was a loop fluted on one face, like Fig. SOS, hut 
with four divieione instead of three, and 2}- inches wide. The loopt 
shown in Figs. 509 and 906 formed part of a large hoard found neu 
Abergele,* Denbighshire, and described in the Arehaehgia, whence m; 
outs are copied. There were present in the hoard forty 'two loops or sUiIm 
of this kind, though of varioue widths, as well as eighteen buttons, a reel- 
shaped object like Fig. 377, and numerous rings, some of them almost like 




buckles in shape. There were also several double rings fitting the ons 
within the other, the inner about 1 1 inch in diameter and the outer about 
2^ inches. They are cast hollow, and on the inner ring is a loop wliioh 
fits into a hole in the outer ring. In the same hoard was the remarkable 
object shown half-sisie in Fig. .507. It consists of three pairs of irregular 
oval plates with loops, through which is passed a bar of bronze, Mr. 
Franks, who has descrilied the hoard, says that " the loops show marks 
of wear, and the whole wa.s probably a jingHng ornament to be attached 
to horsG-hameas. Objects of the same nature have been found with 
bridle-bits, and are engraved in lladsen, Afbildnjnger.] and in Worsaae's 
Noritiile Oldnager, Fig. 260." 

These examples, however, do not present siich close analogies with the 



OBJECTS OF UXCBBTAIN USE. 405 

Welsh BpecimeD as do some interlinked rings witli flat pendants found at 
PloneouT,* Brittany, with looped palstaves and a flat quadranguhu* knife. 
Some other analogous objects are mentioned by M.Cliuitre,t vhohoHalso 
described sevOTal titlrum-UkB instruments, to which U. de Mortillet I is 
inclined to assign an Eastern origin. 

BoTerting to the Abergele hoard, I may add that Mr. Franks regards 
it OS belonging to the close of the Bronze Period, and conjectures that 
most of the objects which it comprised formed part of the trappings of a 
horse. 

Bronze bridle-bits, such as have been found in various parta of the 
Continent, § have vetT ratelv been found in Britain, tliough occasionally 
discovered in IrelancL In tiie British Isles they appear for the most part, 
if not in all cases, to belong to the Late Celtic Period. 

Another form of bronze objects of uncertain use is shown in Fig. 508, 
which is taken from a French and not an English original. This formed 
part of the Dreuil hoard ; and as in so many respects the articles com- 
prised in this deposit present analogies with those found in England, it 
appeared worth while to call attention to tliis particular object. It is a 
kind of semicircular flap, with a hole 
runningthrough the beaded cylinder at 
top. What was its purpose I cannot 
say, though I have a thin gold plate of 
the same form, but decorated with ring 
ornaments, that was found at Hallstatt. 
It may be merely a pendant. 

Among other miscellaneous objects 
of bronze may be mentioned an article 
td twisted bronze already cited at p. 51. 
It has a flat tang for insertion into a 
handle, in which are four rivet-holea. 
Beyond the handle project two twisted 
bonis, which seem to have nearly or 
quite met, so as to form a somewlmt heart-shaped ring. In the centre 
opposite the tang is a long slot with a chain of three circular rings 
at^ched. The wnole covers a space of about 6^ inches in length by 4J 
inches in breadth. With Sir R. Colt Hoare, "Heave to my learned 
brother antiquaries to ascertain" what was the ancient use of this 
singular article, which was found in a barrow at Wilaford,|| with a stone 
hammer, a flanged bronze celt, and other objects in company with an un- 
burnt body. 

Portions of three sickle-like objects, with a kind of square tang, 
through which is a large hole, were found with a palstave and a flat celt 
and many other bronze antiquities, near Battlefield, Salop.^ These 
measure about 7 inches by 7^ inches, and their purpose is as much 
veiled in mystery as that of the Wilsford relic, witii wnich they present 
a slight analogy. 

The flat annular and horseshoe -shaped plates — the one 13 inches in 
diameter, and the other 2 feet 1 inch long — found with an oblong cup- 

• Anh. Camb,, 3ni S., vol. vi. p. 137. t " Age do Bronze," Idre pUe., p. 168. 

t Rev. Atilhrvp., 1BT6. toma iv. p. 6S0. 
f Seo Chantre, "Age du Br.," li 
II "Anc. Wilti," vol. i. p. 209. 




406 CLABP8, BUTTONSy BVCKIMB, SIC [CBAF. XOL 

shaped boss on the hQl of Benibhren,* in Loohaber, appear to me to be 
pro baUy Late Celtic 

Some of the curious ipoon-like aitiblest of Immao oonawonaTly fomid 
in all parts of the United Slingdom may also bdong to the Late Oeltie 
Ferioc^ and most of thmn probably to quite the dose of that period, if 
not to a later date. 

The remarkable bronze rod, about 18 inches long, with small figorss 
of birds and pendent rings upon it, found near jMllymon^,^ Goimly 
Antrim, is probably of later date than the Bronze Period : as are also 
the curious figures of boars and other animals found near Honnslow.J 

In concluding this chapter, it may be observed that although 
I haye attempted to give in it some notice of yarious forms of 
bronze relics of many of which the use is uncertain, yet that I do 
not pretend that the list here given comprises all such objects as 
have been discovered in Britain. In several hoards of bronze 
there have been found portions of thin plates and fragments of 
objects the purpose of which is unknown ; and I have thought it 
best not to encumber my pages with notices of mere fra^ents 
about which even less is known than about the mysterious articles 
to the description of which, perhaps, too much space has already 
been allotted. 

* I*lroe. Soe. Ant. Seat,, vol. ri. p. 46. 

t See Arek, Joum., yoL xxri. pp. 35 and 62 ; Proe. Soe, Ant. Seot.^ toL y. p. IH; 
0, R. Smith's '* CataL London Ant.,^' p. 82 ; Areh. Comb., 3rd S., yoI. Yiii. p. 208 ; toI x. 
p. 67; ** Hot. Fer.," p. 184. 

X Trans. Kilkenny Areh. Soe., Yol. iii. p. 66. AnntUerfor Oldk., 1836, p. 176. 

f Free. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., yoL iii. p. 90. 



CHAPTER XX. 

VESSELS, CALDRONS, ETC. 

Of the various forms of fictile vessels which were in use at the 
same period as daggers and other weapons formed of bronze, it is 
not the place here to speak. Much has already been written on 
the subject, not only in various memoirs which have appeared in 
the proceedings of our diflferent Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Societies, but also in several standard archaeological works. For 
the pottery found in the tumuli of this country I would more 
particularly refer to Canon Greenwell's " British Barrows," and to 
Dr. Thumam's "Paper on the Barrows of Wiltshire," published 
in the Archceoloffia* Both these authors agree that none of the 
pottery from the barrows has been made upon the wheel. The 
greater part of the fictile ware with which we are acquainted was used 
for sepulchral purposes, and there appears good reason for supposing 
that much of it was manufactured expressly for the dead, and not 
for the living. Still there are a certain number of examples known of 
what has been termed culinary pottery, some of which have been 
found in barrows, and some in the remains of dwellings of the 
Bronze Period. This pottery, unlike the sepulchral, is devoid of 
ornament, and is well burnt, " plain, strong, and useful," but it 
is also made by hand. Some of the pottery from the Swiss Lake- 
dwellings is, however, ornamented in various ways, but the 
potter's wheel does not seem to have been in use. t And yet, in 
more than one instance, there have been found in barrows in the 
South of England weapons of bronze, accompanied by vessels of 
amber and of shale, which have all the appearance of having been 
turned in a lathe. Of some of these vessels I have given figures 
in my " Ancient Stone Implements," + and also stated the parti- 
culars of the discoveries. I have also mentioned the discovery of 
a gold cup in a barrow at Rillaton, Cornwall, which was accom- 

♦ VoL xliii. t Lubbock, « Preh. Times," 4th ed., p. 223. } P. 399 ft stqq. 



408 



-vmmEU, cujxatan, iic. 



C" 



panied by what i^ipeacs to have been a bionxe dagger.* Aa Ak 
Teasel is of metal, I have here reproduced the eat as Elg. 609. 
It seems to me probable that the same kind of vesael which «■ 
made in the nobler metal may also prove to have been made in 
bronze, althoogh as yet no examples have been discorefed. Tlis 




han^g cup3 of bronze of which many have been found in Scan- 
dinavia, and at least one example in Switzerland, are at present 
not known to have been discovered within the British Isles. 

It was probably not until nearly the close of the Bronze Period 
that the art was discovered of hammering out bronze into suffi- 
ciently large and thin lamime for the manuEocture of cups and 
1 celt by Mr. Eimn. Se« Jrf*. J*mm., voL air. p. IBB 



CALDRONS FOUND IN SCOTLAND. 409 

It would be impossible to cast the metal so thin as even 
ployed for shields, and before ingots or flat plates, like 
ready mentioned at page 402, could be thus drawn out, an 
tance with some process of annealing must have been 
It is a remarkable fact that the same process which has 
3ct of hardening steel has exactly the contrary eflfect on 

and to some extent on bronze. Steel when heated to 

and then dipped in cold water becomes so intensely hard, 
)ls treated in this manner have to be somewhat tempered, 
3ned by heat, before they can safely be used; while to 
copper the usual method adopted is to make it red-hot 

it in cold water. In whatever way the metal was drawn 
ae of the large vessels of the transitional period between 

and Iron, such as those from Hallstatt, are wonderful 
3s of skill in working bronze. 

)st the only bronze vessel found in a barrow in England 
iron handle to it, showing that it could not belong to the 
Age properly so called* It is, indeed, somewhat doubtful 
: it accompanied an interment. In the centre of a low 
near Wetton,* Staffordshire, about a foot below the surface, 
teman found "two very curious vessels," one about four 
ligh, and of rather globular form, carved in sandstone, and at 
ance of a foot from it the other, "a bronze pan or kettle four 
ligh and six inches in diameter, with a slender iron bow 
ucket handle. It has been first cast and then hammered, 

very slightly marked with horizontal ridges." It was 
1, and above it were traces of decayed wood. There appear 

been some remains of burnt bones near the surface of the 

This bronze vessel is somewhat like the lower part of 

nary flower-pot in form. In Mr. Bateman's Catalogue t 

a note to the effect that this object is " probably Romano- 
" but I have thought it best to cite it. 
ral caldrons made of thin bronze plates riveted together 
ien found in Scotland, in some instances in company with 
weapons. 

uddingston Loch^ near Edinburgh, together with swords and 
3ad8, were some bronze rings and staples similar in character to 
taclied to the rim of a large bronze caldron found at Famey,§ 
but there is no record of any caldrons. Others of these rings are in 

'Ten Years' Dig.," p. 173. t P. 21. 

Jvilson, "Preh. Ann.," vol. i. pp. 360, 408. 

Wrley's " Dominion of Famey ;" Areh. Joum., vol. iii. p. 96. 



410 VESSELS, CALDBONS, BTa [CIUF. XX. 

the Andquarian Uuaeum at Edinbiwli, two of which were foond wifli llu 
large caldron here figured (Fig. SIO) in the Moss of KJncardiite,* nen 
Stirling, in the year 1768. In this case no weapons appear to haTS beeB 
found. At the aide is a broad band emhoesed with cnnlea. This VMul 
is of large size, being 16 inchee high, 16 inches acroaa tiia nunttli, ml 
25 inches in extreme diameter. 

An imperfect caldron, with handles of the same kind, was found at 
Killcerran, AvrBhire, with Bocketed celts and fragments of sworda. 

Others of tiiese caldrons, but little differing in form from those found 
with bronze relica, hare been accompanied by varioos tools formed of 
iron, as, for instance, those found at Cockbumspatb, Berwiokahire ; and 
in Carliuwark Loch, Eelton, Kirkcudbright. There can, indeed, be litde 




doubt that such vessels, if belon^ng to the Bronze Age, are to be 
assigned to the close rather than to the beginning or even middle of that 
period. 

Several such caldrons have been discovered in Ireland. 

That shown in Fig. 511 is about 21 inches in diameter and 12 inches 
high.'!' It is composed of a number of piecea of t^"'" bronze, each averaging 
3^ inches broad and decreasing in length near the bottom. " ^ese 
plates bear ihe marks of hammering, and are joined at the seams with 
rivets averaging about half an inch asunder. These rivets have sharp 
conical heads extemally, and some were evidently ornamental, as they 
exist in places where there are no joinings, and in the circular bottom 
portion they are large and plain. The upper margin of this vessel is 
24 inches broad," and corrugated. " Its outaide edge next the solid hoop 
has a double line of perforations in it." It was in a vessel of this kind 
that part of the great Dowris hoard of bronze antiquities was deposited. 

The metal is said by Mr. UcAdam, in a paper on " Brazen Caldrone," 

" WilBon, op. til; Tol. i. p. 408. I am indebted to Menrs. llacmillan 4 Co. for the 
use of this cut. 

tWilde, "Catal. Man. K. 1. A.," p. 628, fig. 407. This cut has been lent me by the 
Council of the Academf ■ 



CALDRONS FOUND IN ENOLAMD. 411 

published in the UUter Journal of Arelueology,* to be thinner than any- 
thing of the kind used in our modem oooking vesselB, while the eurfacea 
are almost aa eren and level as that of modem sheet brass. 

Another caldron from Dowris, more nearly hemispherical, alao vith 
two rings, is in the collection of the £arl of BoBse. A specimrai from 
Fam^ n&8 been already mentioned. It resembles Fig. 511. 

In uie collection of Mr. T. W. U. Bobinson, F.8.A., ia a remarkablv 
fine and perfect caldron, closely resembling Fig. SU, found in the parish 
of Ballyscnllion, Co. Antrim, in June, 1880. The foUoving are its 
dimensions : — 

Diameter at top 18 inches. 

Width of rim .... 2i „ 

Extreme diameter 

Height .... 

Outside diameter of rings 



4i » 
The rings are about ft inch wide and of this section |-|>. 



Although no such vessels have been found in barrows in Eng- 
land, they are not entirely unknown in this country. 

A very fine caldron of this character, about 21 inches in extreme 
diameter and about 16 inches in height, was dredged up in the Thames 
near Batteraea, and is now in the British Uuseum. It is formed of two 
tiers of plates above the oonoave bottom, and has had two rings at the 
mouth, one of which, about 5 inches in diameter, remains. The rings are 
of this section |+, which combines great strength with economy of metal. 

The expanding rim of the mouth is supported on four small brackets, 
pierced so as to leave a saltire ornament in each. The rivet-heads are 
about ^ inch in diameter. From these brackets two strips of thin brass 
mn down about 3 inches, each ornamented with a fern-leaf pattern. 

The bottom of another caldron, from Walthamstow, of about the same 
mze, ia also in the same collectiou. The metal is remarkably thin. 

The two rings of such a caldron, 5^ inches, of this section \^ , found 

near Ipswich, are in the British Museum. The semi-cylindrical beaded 

brackets through which they pass and a part of the rim are still 

attached. Anouier ring was found with a hoard at Meldreth, Cambs. 

• Vol. V. p. 83. 



412 



VESSELS, CALDRONS, ETC. 



[chap. XX. 



In some vessels very larse sheets of bronze have been used. That shown 
in Fig. 512, also from Wude,*is 18^ inches deep, but was formed of thiee 
2>late8 only, one for the circular bottom and two for the remainder of the 
vessel. At the neck is a stout bronze ring, over which the plates are 
turned. '^ It originallj stood on six feet, eaich forming an invOTted cap." 
It has suffered much from wear, and has been carefully patched in 
several places. The metal is very tough and of a rich golden colour. It 
is composed of — 

Copper 88-71 

Tin 9-46 

Lead 1*66 

Iron Trace 



99-83 
Among three bronze vessels from the Dowris find now in the British 
Museum is one of the form of Fig. 512, 16 inches high. 

The form is almost identical with some 
of the bronze urns from the cemetery at 
Hallstatt, of which several appear to be of 
Etruscan fabric. 

Another vessel of the same character 
was found in a tumulus in Brittany, f aud 
contained burnt bones. 

In the collection of Canon Greenwell, 
F.R.S., is a vessel of hammered bronze 
of the same character as the figure, but of 
rather broader proportions, being nearly 
17j|^ inches high and about 16 inches in 
diameter; at ike shoulder the neck con- 
tracts to 13 inches. It has the usual two 
massive handles ; and at the bottom is a 
fiat ring with arms across it like a four- 
spoked wheel, rather more than 9 inched 
in diameter. The arms are ribbed longi- 
tudinally, and the ring has concentric 
ribs upon it, except at the junction with the arms, where there are 
cross-ribs. There are five rivets in it, one in the centre and four in tlie 
ring opposite each end of the arms. This vessel, which has been patched 
in more than one place, was found with numerous other bronze objects 
in the Heathery Bum Cave, already so often mentioned. 

A remarkably fine specimen of a vase of this character, found in 
Capecastle Bog, near Annoy, Co. Antrim, is in the collection of Mr. T. 
W. U. Robinson, F.S.A. It formerly belonged to Mr. William Gray, of 
Belfast, who kindly allowed me to engrave it as Fig. 513. Its dimensions 
are as follows — 

Ileight 17^ inches. 

Diameter of mouth . . . 13 
Diameter at shoulder . . loj 
Diameter at bottom . TJ 

The weight is 5 lbs. 9 ozs. The plates of which it is formed are care- 
fully riveted together, and are of large size. Some holes wliieh have 

• Catal. Mu8. R. I. A., p. 631, fig. 409. f Htv, Arch., N.S., vol. xxvi. p. 326. 




Fig. 512.— Ireland. 



>♦ 



J » 



J' 



CALDRONS FOUND IN IRELAND. 413 

tpparently been worn by use have been caref uUt patched. All the upper 
part of the reuel above the ehoulder iedecorated by email raised bosses pro- 
duced by means of a punch applied on the inside of the vessel, and below 
the shonlder is a aeries of triangles embossed in a similar manner forming 
a kind of vandyke collar round the vessel. This character of ornamentation 
is very characteristic of the Bronze Period, and though not nnoommou on 
oms formed of burnt clay, hEts not, I think, been before observed on those 
made of bronze. 

The bottom of the vessel is se- 
cured by a ring and cross piece of 
bronze forming a kind of four- 
spoked vbeel, as shown in the 
lower figure. The rings for 
(uspension are solid, and hang 
towanls the inside of the vessel. 

As will be seen, there is much 
analogy between this Irish vessel 
and that from the Heathery Bum 
Cave last described. The latter, 
liowever, is without ornament. 

These conical vessels are 
probably earlier in date than 
the spheroidal caldrons. 

Whether either were actu- 
ally manufactured in Britun 
and Ireland is an interesting 
question. There can, I think, 
be little doubt that the conical 
form originated among the 
Etruscans, whose commerce 
certainty extended to the 

northern side of the Alps.' Kg. 8i!i.-cp««u. Bof . 

One of the upright vases 

found at Hallstattt has animal figures upon it almost undoubtedly 
of Etruscan work, though showing some signs of Eastern influence 
in their style, and bronze helmets bearing Etruscan inscriptions have 
been found in Styria. On the other hand, M. Alexandre Bertrand 
and some other antiquaries are inclined to believe in a more direct 
commerce with the E^t along the valley of the Danube or Dnieper. 
The finding of vessels of the same form in Brittany, England, and 
Ireland seems to point to a more western course of trade, always 
assuming that these objects were imported. That some of them 

• A p«per on " Etnucan Commerc* with th« North," by Dr. HeraiMUi Oenthe, irill 
httaand'mibeATcUv./iirAHt' 
t Von Suksn, " Du GnM. t 




414 VBS8BLS» CAUOBOMSi lIC. [CHAP. XL 

may have come from abroad appean in the highest iegne piobabk 
Not impoBcdbly the cb8 vnypovtaJhvm of Csosar may refer to a ooih 
tiniiance of such a trade. Bat whether there were no bnnm- 
smiths in the British Isles capable of imitating such prodncts of 
skill is doubtfiiL The bronze shields which are of essentisUy 
indigenous character exhibit an amount of dexterity in prodadog 
thin plates of bronze quite sufficient for the mannfactore of such 
vessels. Moreoyer, the handles of these British and Irish vessds 
are formed by rings, while those of the vessels from southon 
countries are loops like the handles of pails or buckets. The 
spheroidal caldrons are also of a form and character which appeals 
to be unknown on the Continent, and are therefore, in all probs- 
bility, of indigenous manufacture. 

The careful manner in which some of the vessels are mended 
affords an aigument that such utensils were rare and valuable ; 
but it also shows that the native workmen understood how to 
make thin plates — ^unless these were portions of other vesaelfr— 
and at all events how to rivet plates together. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

METAL, MOULDS, AND THE METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. 

Having now passed in review the various forms of weapons, tools, 
ornaments, and vessels belonging to the Bronze Period of this country, 
it will be well to consider the nature of the metal of which they are 
formed, and the various processes by which they were produced 
and finished ready for use. Some of these processes, as for instance 
the hammering out of the cutting-edges of tools and weapons, and 
the production of ornamental designs by means of the hammer 
and punch, have already been mentioned, and need be but cursorily 
noticed. The main process, indeed, of which this chapter will 
treat is that of casting. 

Bronze, as already stated, is an alloy of copper and tin, and 
therefore distinct from brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc. 
Many varieties of bronze — or, as it is now more commonly called, 
gun-metal — are in use at the present day ; and one remarkable 
feature in bronze is that the admixture with copper of the much 
softer metal tin, in varying proportions, produces an alloy in most 
if not all cases harder than the original copper ; and when the tin 
is much in excess, as in the metal used for the specula of tele- 
scopes, so much harder that, d priori, such a result of the mixture 
of two soft; metals would have been thought impossible. The 
following table compiled from a paper in Design and Woi^k, 
reprinted in Martineau and Smith's Hardivare Trade Journal,^ 
^ves some of the alloys now in most common use and the 
purposes to which they are applied : — 

Per cent. 
Tin. Copper, of Copper. 

• - ^Qg 90-76 J '^ common metal for cannon and machine 

( brasses, used also for bronze statues. 

11 99 := 90* ) 

11 96 — 89-72 1 ^^"^■™®**^ proper, used for cannon. 

J, 84 — 00.44 J Used for bearings of ™^hinery, frequently 
^ ( called gun-metal. 

* April 30, 1879. 



Tin. 
11 


Pereent. 
Copper. of Copper. 

72 = 86-75 


11 


60 = 84-50 


11 


44 = 80-00 


11 


48 = 81-35 


11 
12 


36) (-76-69 
36)®'|7500 


11 


24 = 68-57 



416 METAL, MOULDS, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. [cHAP. XIL 



Bather harder. 

Harder, not malleable. 

Used for cymbals and Chinese gongs. 

Very hard, used for culinary veeseLB. 

Bell-metal. 

Yellowish, very hard, sonorous. 
. . 4 — or -66 ^ ^^®ry white, sometimes used for specula with 

~~ ( some other slight admixture. 

I.ord Rosse, however, in (tasting specula, preferred using copper 
and tin in their atomic proportions, or 6821 per cent of copper 
and 31*79 of tin. 

The addition of tin, while increasing the hardness of copper, 
also renders it more fusible. In small proportions it but little 
aftoots the colour of the copper,* and it is difficult to recognise its 
presence from the physical characters of the copper, except from 
that of inoreaseil hanlness. WTiat appear, therefore, to be coppff 
instruments may. and indeed often do, contain an appreciable 
admixture of tin, which, however, can only be recognised by 
anjilvsis. 

IVsides the suj>eriority of one alloy over another, it appears 
probable that the metlu>l of treatment of the metal may some- 
what atVeot its pn^porties. M, Tresoa+ found that a gun-metal 
oast by Messieurs I-aveissiere. consisting of — 

Copjvr 89 47 

Tin 9-78 

Zine 0-66 

Load 09 

was superior in ail rvsp^vts to oithor the oomnion gim-metal A or 
the ph^-fcSphv^r-brvM^./o R oas: at Rv^ir^-s ;he constituents of which 



wt n^ as follows : — 



A 

V V » • V • V . 

T-.r. 



1 •■•'. • 



1 


;»o .;o 


* 


> ^i 




•' •:? 


%■* ■» 


• ' :>l 




.1' ' 






LEAD ABSENT IN EABLT BRONZE. 417 

The results of both ancient and modem experience as to the 
proportions in which copper and tin should be mixed, in order to 
produce a tough and hard though not brittle metal, appear to be 
nearly the same ; and nine parts of copper to one part of tin may 
be regarded as the constituents of the most serviceable bronze or 
gun-metaL 

In the following table I have given the results of some of 
the more recent analyses of bronze antiquities foimd in the United 
Kingdom, and have omitted the early analyses of Dr. Pearson* 
in 1796 as being only approximative. I have arranged them so far 
as practicable in accordance with the different forms of the objects 
analyzed ; and one feature which is thus brought out tends strongly 
to confirm the conclusion which has been arrived at from other 
premises, that certain forms of bronze weapons and other instru- 
ments and utensils are of later date than pthers. 

It will be seen, for instance, that in the flat and flanged celts, 
the palstaves, and even spear-heads, lead, if present at all, exists in 
but very minute quantity ; whereas in the socketed celts and swords, 
which are probably later forms, and especially in those from 
Ireland, this metal occurs in several cases in considerable pro- 
portions. 

This prevalence of lead is very remarkable in some of the small 
socketed celts found in very krge numbers in Brittany, ^hich 
from their diminutive size have been regarded as " votive" rather 
than as destined for actual use. In some of these Professor 
Pelligott found as much as 28*50 and even 32*50 per cent, of 
lead, with only li per cent, or a small trace of tin. In others, 
with a large per-centage of tin, there was fi^m 8 to 1 6 per cent, 
of lead. Some of the bronze ornaments of the Early Iron Period 
also contain a considerable proportion of this metal, which, in the 
early Roman as t ftud its parts, is found to the extent of from 
20 to 30 per cent. Although some such proportion as 9 to 1 
appears to have been aimed at, there is great variation in the 
proportions of the principal ingredients even m cutting tools of 
the same general character, the tm being sometunes upwards of 
18 per cent, and sometimes less than 5 per cent, of the whole. 

This variation was no doubt partly due to occasional scarcity of 
tin ; but, as Dr. W. K. Sullivan has pointed out,§ there are two 

• I%U. Tram., 1706, toL IxxxW. p. 395. 

t Caiantre, '* liAge du Br.," 1^ ptie., p. 62. 

1 J. A. PhilliM, Q. /. CAmn. Soe., toL It. p. 266. 

f (yOairfB "^lann. and Cost, of the Anc. Iriah," toL L p. ccoczx. 

E £ 



418 METAL, M0UIJ)6, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. [CHAF. XXI. 

Other causes for it : first, the separation of the constituent metals 
in the fused mass, and the accumulation of the tin in the lower 
portion of the castings ; and, second, the throwing off of the tin 
by oxidation when the alloys were re-melted. M. Dusaussoy* 
found that an alloy containing 90*4 per cent, of copper and 9'6 
per cent, of tin lost so much of the latter metal by six ftiaions that 
it ultimately consisted of 95 per cent, of copper and only 5 per 
cent, of tin. 

With regard to the early soiurces of the copper and tin used in 
this country, and in general through Western Europe, it will not 
be in my power to add much to what has already been published 
on this subject. 

It seems probable that gold, which commonly occurs native and 
brilliant, was the first metal that attracted the attention of man- 
kind. The next metal to be discovered would, in all probability, 
be copper, which also occurs native, and has many points of 
resemblance with gold. 

The use of this metal, as I have observed in the Introductory 
Chapter, no doubt originated in some part of the world where, as 
on the shore of Lake Superior, it occurs in a pure metallic state. 
When once it was discovered that copper was fusible by heat, 
the production of the metal from some of the more metallic-looking 
ores, such as copper pyrites, would follow ; and in due time, cither 
from association with the metal, or from their colour and weight, 
some of the other ores, both sulphuretted and non-sulphuretted, 
would become known, f 

When once the production of copper in this manner was 
effected, it is probable that the ores of other metals, such as 
tin, would also become known, and that tin ores would either 

♦ O'Cuny, op, eit., p. ccccxviii. 

t For an interesting essay on the sources of bronze, see Prof. SrdliTan in the Intro- 
duction to 0' Curry's ** Blanncrs and Customs of the Ancient Irish," p. occcTii. See 
also H. H. Howorth, F.S.A., on the •* Archajology of Bronze," Tratu, Ethnol. Soe., 
vol. vi. p. 72; Sabatier, " Production de Tor, do I'argcnt, ct du cuivre," &c., 1850 ; Von 
Bibra, "Die Bronzon und Kupferlegirungen," 1869; De Fellcnberg, •* Bull, de hi Soc. 
dcs Sc. nat. de Bemo," 1860 ; Wocel, " Chemische Analyson anb. Bronze legirungen," 
in Sitz.-Ber. phiL hist. Classe. Acad, der Wiss. Wien. Bd. xvi. 169 ; " Keltemes, Gw- 
manomos og Slavemcs Bronzer," in Antiq. Tidskri/e., 1862—64, p. 206 ; Morlot, ** Los 
M6taux dans T Ago du Bronze," Mem. Soe, Ant. du Nord, 1866—71, p. 23 ; Wibol. " Dio 
Cultur dor Bronze-Zeit Nord und Mittol Europas," 1865 ; Von Cohausen's Re\'iew of 




Mortillet, " Origine du Bronze," Htvfi^ d'Anthrop.y vol. iv. p. 
Annals of Scotland," and *' Prehistoric Man." 



650 ; Wilson, " Preh. 



SOURCES OF COPPER AND TIN. 419 

treated conjointly with the ores of copper, as suggested by 
. Wibel, so as at once to produce bronze ; or added to crude 
pper, as suggested by Professor Sullivan ; or again, be smelted 

themselves so as to produce metallic tin. At what date it 
s generally known that '' brass is molten out of the stone "* is, 
wever, a question difiScult to answer. 

Native copper and many of its ores occur in Himgary, Norway, 
^eden, Saxony, and Cornwall ; but copper pyrites is far more 
aerally distributed, and is found in most countries of the world. 

far, therefore, as the existence of this metal is concerned, there 
s no necessity for the Britons in Caesar's time to make use 

imported bronze, especially as tin was found in abundance in 
mwall, and long before Caesar's time was exported in considerable 
antities to the Continent. And yet his account may to some 
tent be true, as a socketed celt of what is almost undoubtedly 
eton manufacture has been found near Weymouth, t and several 
itruments of recognised French types have been found in our 
ithem counties. Bronze vessels also may have been imported. 
Copper and its ores are abundant in Ireland, especially 
pper pyrites and gray copper. 

Although tin was formerly found in abundance in some parts of 
ain, and also in less quantity in Brittany,^ there can be but 
tie doubt that the Cassiterides, with which either directly or 
iirectly the Phoenicians traded for tin,§ are rightly identified with 
itain. But, with due deference to Professor Nilsson and other 
tiquaries, I must confess that the traces of Phoenician influence 
this country are to my mind at present imperceptible; and it may 
lU be that their system of commerce or barter was such as 
tentionally left the barbarian tribes with whom they traded in 
ich the same stage of civilisation as that in which they found 
em, always assuming that they dealt directly with Britain and 
t through the intervention of Gaulish merchants. 
The argument, however, that the Phoenician bronze would have 
en lead-bronze, because the Phoenicians derived their civilisa- 
»n and arts from Egypt, and had continual intercourse with 
at country, where lead-bronze was early known, appears to me 
uting in cogency. For though the Egyptians may have used 

^ Job, chap, zxviii. v. 2. 
' P. 115. 

: Comptes Rendua, 1866, vol. bdi. pp. 223, 346. 

) The doubts raised by the late Sir G. G. Lewis on this point have been dealt with by 
John Lubbock, ** Preh. Times," p. 63 ei seqg. 

£ £ 2 



420 ^OTAL, WyOUm, AHD MXIHOD of XAVUFAfiXUBaL [CBAF. hl 

lead-bronzes fixr statues and onuunents, the 'Bgjptian dagger* 
analysed by Vaaquelin gave copper 85, tin 14, and Iran 1 per 
cent, and diowed no trace of lead. Of one point we may be fiafy 
certain, that the discoyery of bronie did not originate in the Bntidi 
Isles, but that the knowledge of that useful metal wis commii- 
nioated from abroad, and probably from the neighbooxing ooontiy, 
Franca When and in what manner that and the other ooontriei 
of Western and Gentral Europe deriyed their knowledge of brooiB 
it is not my intention here to discuss. I will only say that the 
tendency of the evidence at present gathered is to place the origiiial 
source oi bronae, lil^ that of the Aryan fiunily, in an Asiatic n^diflr 
than an European centre. 

The presence in greater or less proportions of other metab thaa 
copper and tin in bronae antiquities may eventually lead to tin 
recognition of the sources jGrom which in each ooontiy the 
principal supplies of metal were obtained. Pro fo sao r Sidlifaa, 
in the book already cited, aniTSS at the following amoqg 'other 
conclusions from the chemical foots at his command : — 

1. The northern nations in ancient times used only true bronies 
— 4ho6e formed of copper and tin— of greater or leaser poritj 
according to the kind of ores used. 

S. Many of these bronxes ccmtain small quantities of lead, zinc, 
nickel* cobalt, iron, and silver, derived from the copper from which 
the bronze was made. 

S, Though some bronaes may have been pioduced directly hj 
melting a mixture of coppw and tin ores, the nsoal mode d 
making them was by treating fused crude cc^per with tin-stonat 
In latiar times broiiae was made by mixing the two metals 
together. 

4. The copper of the ancimt bronzes seems to have been 
smelted in manv difiereni loeaKties. 

Some analyses of hronae antiquities found in oilier eoontries are 
given in the works indicated belov.^ in additicm to thoee men- 
tioned on pa$^^ 41S. 



ANALYSES OF BRONZS ANnQUTTlBS. 





. 










_, 






^ 




i 




1 


i 


1 


1 


i 


i 


1 


l' 


■a 


1 


1 


i . . 


86-98 


12-57 








0-37 






99-93 


B 




90-13 


9-82 




Twos. 












100-00 


A 




89-33 


e-20 




0-34 










0-2* 


99-11 


A 




8119 


18-31 


0-76 














lOO-SS 


D 


Tork- 


























81-Ifi 


12-30 


2-63 


Tt. 


0-13 




0-07 






•96-28 


A 


tib^i. 


90-69 


7-4* 


1-28 


Tr. 


Tr^ 


Tr. 






Tr. 


99-41 


A 


























83-Gfi 


1102 


3-20 


0-6S 


^34 








98-79 


A 


icklow 


88-30 


10-92 


O-IO 


Tr, 










Tr. 


99 -J2 


B 




9£'64 


4-56 


0-25 








0-02 






100-47 


B 


"rial 


8S-23 


13-11 


1-14 












0-15 


99-63 


F 


., near 


























85 33 


1420 


0-29 


Tr. 


0-27 




0-04 






HOO-13 


A 


(f) ■ 


99-72 
















-28 


100- 


A 




87-97 


tl-3fi 


0-28 










Tr. 


Tr. 


99-60 


B 


Mean), 


























89-69 


9-69 




0-33 










Tr 


99-61 


A 




88-61 


9-30 


2-30 














100-lt 


D 


M^) 


91-79 


8-17 




Tr. 










Tr. 


99-9S 


A 




87-07 


8-52 


3-37 










Tr 


99-96 


B 


M^q) 


SS'G3 
88 '63 


10-03 
8-54 


2-93 

2-83 


0-« 










99-03 
lOO-OO 


A 
E 




83 GO 


6-lS 


8-35 


J-OO 










lOO-OO 


E 


tmd . 


86-28 


12-74 


0-07 


0-31 




0-09 








09 19 


B 




84-64 


U-01 




Tr. 










Tr 


9816 


B 




88-42 


11-28 




Tr. 


0-29 


0-39 








100-29 


a 


I . . 


95-86 


2-78 


0-12 


1-32 












100-07 


B 


Fen . 


87-50 
87-56 

79-34 


11-72 
10-87 


9-11 




0-10 










9912 

99-87 

9932 





p 


<i . . 


92-89 


6-16 


1-78 














99-S2 


D 




84-08 


7-19 


B-53 


0-03 












99-33 


D 




88-71 


9-48 


1-66 














9s-ei 


B 



r. J. A. PhillipB, see Quart. Jtvm. Clmtt. Soe., Tol. it. p. 276. 

W. Mallet, Tram. B. I. At., vol. uii. p. 324. 

H. Henry, F,E.8., Pttb. Cami. Ant. Sac., No. av. p. 13. 
T. George Wilwm, Wilson's " Preh. Ann. of Bcot," vol. i. p. 374. 
rot. Davy, „ „ „ „ 

r. Donovan, „ „ „ „ 

le Fellcnberg. 



When a freahlj-broken frogmant of it ii eiuninad nnder a low magnifr- 
ii seeD to conaiit of a metallic nat-work endoaiiiK distinct and perfacUy 
l« of cuprite, Burroiuided by a greTilli white lubitance which it chieflj 
I. In tjiia alio; the nickel, Bilver, and iron are eTidentlj aoddetttal im- 
the lead is no doubt an intantioiial ingredient." The ■pecifle giBTitj 
ition a about 7-26 only. t Specific gravity 8-69. 



432 METAL, MOULDS, AND MKTHOD OF MANUFACTCRE. [CHAP. XXI. 

I have here given most of the trustworthy analyses already 
published, and have only added two new analyses kindly made for 
me by Mr. J. A. Phillips, F.G.S., of a socketed celt from York- 
shire and of a small dagger from Newton, near Cambridga 

Those who wish for detailed mformation as to the composition 
of the bronze antiquities found in other countries are referred to 
De Fellenberg's essays and to Von Bibra's comprehensive work* 

The copper which was used by the bronze-founders of old times 
appears to have been smelted from the ore and run into a shallow 
concave mould open at top, in which the metal assumed the form 
of a circular cake, convex below and flat above ; but before 
becoming sufficiently cold to be quite set into tough metal, these 
cakes seem as a rule to have been disturbed and broken up into 
numerous pieces, better adapted for re-melting than the whole 
cakes would have been. This method of breaking up the solid 
cakes wliile hot saved also an infinity of labour ; as to cut such 
masses into small pieces when cold would, even with modem 
appliances, be a difficult task ; and with only bronze and stone 
tools at command would have been nearly impossibla Many of 
the cakes are, however, interspersed with cavities formed in the 
metal, and in some cases there seems reason to think that this may 
have been produced intentionally, so as to render the breaking of 
the cakes even when cold more readily practicable. 

Many of the blocks of metal cast in rough moulds, and known 
by Italian antiquaries as ces signatum, have a similar broken 
appearance at the ends. Professor Chiericit has suggested that 
the moulds in which they were cast were of considerable length, 
and that from time to time clay and sand were thrown in so as to 
break the continuity of the metal, which indeed was poured in at 
intervals, after the insertion of the sand or clay,t to form the break 
in the mould. 

Some pieces of metal which have been regarded as ingots, and 
which not improbably are really such, have the form of a double- 
ended axe with a verj^ small shaft hole. They have been discovered 
with several of the bronze-founders' hoards in France. D^- 
V. Gross, of Neuveville, has a fine example of this kind found ftt 
Locras, in the Lac de Bienne.J It is about 16i inches long and 
4 J inches wide at the ends, the hole through the centre being 

* ** Die Bronzen und Kapferlegirungen,** Svo. Erlangen, 18S9. 
t Buil. di PaUtnol. Ital,, 1879, p. 169. 

X Chantr(3. '' A;^ du Br.," l^reptie.,p.S6: ''AUi./' ffL aEgfly|MMP"B^''^ ''^ 
pi. i. 1. Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd Ser., toL toL p. 




LUMPS OF ROUGH METAL. 423 

inch in diameter, and the weight of the ingot, which is of 
pper, is about 6^ lbs. 

^h lumps of metal have frequently been found with deposits of 
implements in Britain, these latter being sometimes in a 
it or broken condition, and apparently brought together as 
.al for re-casting. In other deposits the instruments seem 
i ready for use, or again they are in an unfinished condition, 
circumstances of these discoveries, however, go to prove that 
3 in fact the stock-in-trade of the ancient bronze-founders. 
3 or waste pieces from the castings, of which I shall subse- 

have to speak, are often found mixed with the rude lumps. 
Limps have usually the appearance of pure copper, and in 
iises have proved to be so on analysis. 
5 copper cakes appear, however, to belong to Roman times, 
ffer in shape from those already described, in being of nearly 
ickness, but with the edge inclined as if they had been cast 
all frying-pan. They are from 10 to 13 inches in diameter 
out 2 inches thick ; and on more than one found in 
sa* there are inscriptions in Roman characters. They 
rom 30 to 50 lbs. 

ag now to the instances of lumps of rough metal being found 
»nze weapons and tools, the following may be cited, though other 
s are given in the tables at page 462 : — 

it, Cornwall,! heavy lumps of fine copper, found with broken 
. celts, &c. 

[jack Cliff, Cornwall, { with palstaves and socketed celts, 
ilary, Cornwall, § lumps weighing 14 or 15 lbs. each, said to have 
ind with spear-neads. 

Worthing, Sussex, several lumps of metal, with palstaves and 
[ celts. 

ey Head, || three lumps of raw copper, apparently very pure, 
staves, socketed celts, &c. 

Park, Stog^ursey, Somerset,^ with palstaves, socketed celts, 
jwords, spears, &c. 

iton Hill, Surrey,** with socketed celts, fragments of swords, and 
tad. 

ngton, Surrey,! t ^^ mould, socketed celts, gouge, spear-heads, &o. 
hiam Park, (>oydon, Surrey, J J with palstave, gouge, hammer, &o. 
ibury, near Welwyn, Herts, §§ lumps of metal with damaged 
i celts. 

Camb.f 4th S.,'vol. ii. p. 69, vol. viii. p. 210 ; Pennant's " Tour," vol. L p. 63 ; 
•m., vol. xxix. 194 ; iVw. 8oe. Ant., 2nd 8., vol. v. p. 286. 
•t vol. XV. p. 118. ' X Journ. Roy, Inst, Comu?,, No. xxi. 

, vol. XV. p. 120 (Leland). H Arch,, vol. xvi. p. 363. 

8oc, Ant., 2nd Ser., vol. v. p. 427. ** Areh, Jaum., vol. xxvi. p. 288. 
P«y Arch. CJolL, vol. vi. J J Anderson's " Croydon," p. 10. 

». /ouni., vol. X. p. 248. 



424 METAL, MOULDS, AND METHOD OF MANX7FACTUBB. [CHAP. XXL 

Cumberlowy Herts,* with palstaves, socketed celts, fragments of 
swords, &c. 

Westwick Bow, Hemel nempsted,-|^ several lumps, with socketed celti. 

"EUmdord, EBsex,^ lumps of metal m waste pieces and imporfect caflt- 
ings, imtrimmed socketed celts, ftc. 

Fifield, Essex, §upwards of 50 lbs. of metal, with socketed celts. 

High Boding, Essex, || with socketed celts, &c. 

Kensington,^ with socketed celt, gouge, &c. 

Sittingboume, Kent,** with socketed celts, gouges, ftc. 

Meldreth, Cambs,ft with socketed celts, chisel, ring of caldron, ftc. 

Carlton Bode, Norfolk,|| lumps of metal, with so^eted celts, goujOB, 
&c. 

Helsdon Hall, Norwich, §§ pieces of copper, socketed celts, ftc. 

Earsley Common, York, || || several lumps of metal, with nearly a hunlred 
socketed celts. 

Martlesham, Suffolk, ||[^ a large quantiiy of metal, iaduding some lunps 
weighing 5 or 6 lbs., with socketed celts, gouge, &o. 

West Halton, Lincolnshire,*** with socketed celts and broken sw«rd. 

Boseberry Topping, Yorkshire, fff with socketed celts, gouges, hammer, 
&c. 

In the Heathery Biim Cave, Durham, and ia the GhiiLsfield find, there 
was iQ each case at least one lump of metal. 

Besides the cakes of copper, bars of that metal appear to have been 
hammered iato an oblong form, and then cut into leng^ths of fitim 4 to 
5 inches, weighing each about i lb., and in that state to have served as 
the raw material for the bronze-founders. Thirteen of these short ban 
were found at Therfield, near Boyston, Herts, JJJ and Dr. Percy found 
on analysis that they contained about 98}^ per cent, of copper with a 
small alloy of tin or antimony, probably the latter. Some fifteen or 
sixteen '^ pieces of lon^ triangular brass" are described as haying 
been found with about the same number of colts at Hinton, near Christ- 
church, Hants. §§§ These bars ** seemed to be pieces of the metal out 
of which the celts were cast." 

In Scotland some '^ lumps of brass" were found with the swords, 
spears, &c., in Duddingston Ix)ch.|||||| Probably other lumps of metal have 
been found in that country, but they seem to be scarcer in Scotland and 
Ireland than in England. 

Although, as already observed, Spain may have been the 
principal Western source of tin in early times, and possibly 
Malacca1I111[ in the East, the trade with Britain for that metal must 

♦ Joum, Anthrop. Inst.f vol. vi. p. 195. f Penes m^, Arch. Joum,f vol. xi. p. 24. 

t Arch. Joum.f vol. ix. p. 302. § Arch.f vol. v. p. 116. 

II In the British Museum. f JProc. Soe. Ant.t 2nd Ser., vol. iii. p. 232. 

♦* Smith's " Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 101. tt In the British Museum. 



IX Arch, Joum.y vol. ii. p. 80. §§ Arch.f vol. v. p. 116. 

II II Areh.f vol. v. p. 114. 
f f Penes Capt. Brooke, TJflford HaU, Woodbridge. 

•♦♦ Areh, Joum., vol. x. p. 69. fff Arch. uEluinOf vol. ii. p. 213. 

■ XX ^*'^' S'>^' Ant. J 2nd S., vol. i. p. 306 ; Arch. Journ.f vol. xviii. p. 86. 
{5 Areh.f vol. v. p. 115. 

II Wilson, " P. A. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 348 ; Proe. Soc. Ant, Scot., vol. i. p. 132. 
HUH Crawfurd, I^ans. Eth. Soc., vol. iii. p. 360. 



1 



DISCOVERIES OF TIN IN HOARDS OF BRONZE. 425 

ive commenced at a very remote epoch. We might expect, 
lerefore, that fragments of tin would be frequently found in the 
d bronze-foimders' hoards. But though lumps of copper have 
) often been discovered in them, tin is at present conspicuous by 
3 absence. The only instance to which I am able to refer is the 
5covery at Achtertyre,* Morayshire, of four " broken bits of tin," 
I company with socketed celts, spear-heads, and bracelets. These 
leces seem to be fragments of a single bar which was about 
inches in length, of oval section, and somewhat curved, and in 
eight about 3 oimces. Though spoken of as tin, the metal is in 
ct a soft solder composed, according to Dr. Stevenson Mac- 
iam, of — 

Tin 78-66 

Lead 21-34 



100- 
his, he points out, is a more fusible alloy than the ordinary 
[umbers' solder, which consists of 1 of tin to 2 of lead, and 
Lses at 441 degrees Fahr., as it contains nearly 4 of tin to 1 of lead, 
id would fuse at 365 degrees. Whether this bar was intended 
>T use as solder, or represents a base tin exported to Scotland 
om the tin-producing districts, is an interesting question. Pro- 
8Sor Daniel Wilsonf has called attention to the tsict that in all the 
ronze instruments foimd in Scotland which have been submitted to 
[lalysis lead is uniformly present, though in varying proportions, 
olderingj is considered to have been entirely unknown in the 
ironze Age, and even during the earlier times of the Iron Age ; 
at the art of burning bronze on to bronze was certainly known, 
ad instances of its having been practised are given in preceding 
ages. 

Some fragments of pure metallic tin have from time to time 
een found on the Continent. A small hammered bar found at 
le Lake-dwelling of £stavayer,§ and analyzed by M. de Fellenberg, 
'as free from lead, zinc, iron, and copper. 

Besides being found in Cornwall, tin occurs in France, || Saxony, 
ilesia, Bohemia, Sweden, Spain, and Portugal It also occurs in 
Itruria,1[ and is said to be found in Chorassan.** 

♦ Proe. 8oc. Ant. Scot.^ toI. ix. p. 436. t "Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 376. 
t Labbock, «Preh. Timea," p. 44; Yon Sacken, "Das Grabfeld yon Hallstatt,'* 
. 118. § Keller, 3er Bericht, p. 93. 

I *< BCannen and Customs of the Anc. Irish,'* O^Cuny and SolUvan, p. cccczix. 
IT <«Ck>ng. pr^h.," Bada-Pest, vol. i. p. 242; Engimer, March 26, 1876. 
*^ Arch, fur Anth., vol. ix. p. 265. 



I 

426 MXTAL, MOULIM, AND METHOD OF MAMUrACTDRB. [CUAF. XU- ] 

This metal is said by DioDysius* to have been struck: into com 
&t Syracuse, but oooe such are at present known. Among the I 
Ancient Britons,t however, tin coins cost for the moat part in 
wooden moulds were in circulation, not in the tin-producing dii- 
tricts, but in Kent and the neighbouring parts of Enghuid. Their 
date is probably within a century of our era, either before or after 
Christ 

A large ingot of tin, in shape like the letter H, was dredged up 
in Falmouth harbour.^ It is 2 feet 11 inches long and alxnit 
11 inches wide, and 3 inches thick, and, though a small piece lua 
been cut off at one end, it still weighs 158 Iba It is shown in 
Fig. 614. The late Sir Henry James, F.R.S.,S has pointed out 
that the form in which the ingot is cast adapts it for being hud in the 
keel of a boat, and for being slung on a horse's side, two of them 




Bg. •U.-rsJimnith. A 

thus forming a proper load for a pack-horse. He has also su^ested 
that this was the form of ingot in which the tin produced in 
Cornwall was transported to Gaul, and thence carried overland, ti 
described by Diodorus Siculus, to the mouths of the Rhone 
Curiously enough this author speaks of the blocks being in the 
form of astragali, with which this ingot fairly coincides. Other 
ingotsll of tin of different form have also been found in Cornwall, 
but there appears to me hardly sufficient evidence to detennine 
their approximate date, and I therefore content myself with men- 
tioning them. A lump cast in a basin-shaped mould, with two 
holes in the flat face converging so as to form a V-shaped receptacle 
for a cord, is in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. 

What apiiear to be ingots of copper rather than votive or mor- 
tuary tablets have been found in Sardinia.Kond in their form present 
a close analc^ with this ingot of tin, though they are of much 

• Jul. Pollux. •' Onom," lib. ii. c. 6, p. lOBfi. 
t EvanB, " Coins of the Aqc. Brit.," p. 123. 

I Arch. Journ., vol. mi. p. 39 ; vhence the cot is borrowpd. 

\ Arth. Jimm., vol. »»viii. p. 198. S*e al«o Arch. Joum., vol. ivi. p. 7, for an intor- 
erting p*pel on Ancient Ifetellurgr, b; tbe late Prof. J. I'hillipa. 

II Arch. Jotim., vol. HI. p. 39. 11 Spano, '■ Paluuetnol. Sanla," p. 26. 



METHODS OF CASTING. 427 

er dimensions. Both the sides and ends curve inwards, the 
L at the ends of some being semicircular. They are counter- 
ed with a kind of double T. 

to the method of melting the metal but little is known. It 

5 probable, however, that the crucibles employed must have 

vessels of burnt clay provided with handles for moving them ; 

for pouring out the metal small ladles of earthenware may 

been used. At Robenhausen,* on Lake Ffaffikon, Switzer- 

small crucibles of a ladle-like form have been found, in some 

with lumps of bronze still in them. Crucibles without 

ies have been discovered at Unter-Uhldingen,t in the Ueber- 

r See. 

le methods of casting were various. Objects were cast — 
In a single mould formed of loam, sand, stone, or metal, 
the upper surface of the casting exhibiting the flat surface 
of the molten metal, which was left open to the air. In 
the case of loam or sand castings a pattern or model would 
be used, which might be an object already in use, or made 
of the desired form in wood or other soft substance. 
In double moulds of similar materials. The castings pro- 
duced in this manner when in unfinished condition show 
the joints of the moulds. When sand was employed a 
frame or flask of some kind must have been used to retain 
the material in place when the upper half of the mould 
was lifted off the pattern. The loam moulds were pro- 
bably burnt hard before being used. In many cases cores 
for producing hollows in the casting were employed in 
conjunction with these moulds. 
In what may be termed solid moulds. For this process the 
model was made of wax, wood, or some combustible 
material which was encased in a mass of loam, possibly 
mixed with cow-dung or v^etable matter, which on 
exposure to heat left the loam or clay in a porous condi- 
tion. This exposure to fire also burnt out the wax or 
wood model and left a cavity for the reception of the metal, 
which was probably poured in while the mould was still 
hot. 

John Lubbockif regards this as the commonest mode of 
Lg during the Bronze Age, but so far as this country is con- 

^eller, ** Lake-dweUings," Eng. ed., p. 54. t Op, eit,^ p. 118. 

X " Preh. Tunes," p. 40. 



! 



428 METAL, MOULDS, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. [CHAP. XXI. 

cerned it appears to me to have been very seldom, if ever, in use. 
Except in highly complicated castings, such as ring within ring, no 
advantage would be gained by adopting the process, as the same 
result could usually be obtained by the use of a mould in two 
halves, while the pattern would then be preserved. In comparing 
a number of objects together, though, like the six hundred and 
eighty-eight specimens of celts in the Dublin Museum, no two may 
appear to have been cast in the same mould, it does not follow 
that this was actually the case, for allowance must be made for 
hammering, polishii^, and ornamenting, which were subsequent 
processes, and also for wear at the edge. Even in castings from 
the same metal mould there will be considerable variations, from 
differences in the amount of coating used to prevent the hot 
metal from adhering to mould, and the length stopped off by the 
core. But of this I shall shortly speak. 

The moulds formed of burnt clay have but rarely lasted to our 
times, though some have been found on the continent of Europe. 

One for a perforated axe found among the remains of Lake-dwell- 
ings near Laibach, in Camiola, is in the museum of that towa 
Others will subsequently be mentioned. 

The single moulds found within the United Kingdom are all of 
stone, and are adapted for the production of flat celts, rings, 
knives, and small chisels. In some cases it is hard to say whether 
a mould was intended to be used alone or in conjunction with 
another of the same kind, so as in fact to be only the half of a mould. 

The single mould, which I have engraved as Fig. 615, was 
found near Ballymena, Co. Antrim, and, as will be seen, is for a 
flat celt of the ordinary form. The material is a micaceous sand- 
stone, which a recent possessor of the mould has thought so well 
adapted for use as a whetstone, that the mould is in places scored 
with the marks where apparently a cobbler s awl has been sharp- 
ened. A celt cast in such a mould would be flatter on one face 
than the other, and be blunt at the ends, though much thinner 
there than in the middle. Before being used it would be sub- 
mitted to a hammering process, which would render the tw^o faces 
nearly symmetrical, and at the same time condense the metal and 
render it harder and fitter for cutting purposes, especially at the 
edge which was drawn out. In an Irish specimen in my collec- 
tion there is in one face a deep conical depression, apparently 
caused by the contraction of the metal in cooling. It was probably 
necessary to add a little molten metal to the casting while cooling 



8IN0LE HOULDS FOR FLAT CELTS, 



order to avoid Buch defects. The sides as well as the &ces of 
ise plain celts have asually been wrought with the hammer, and 




seems probable that some even of the flanged celts were ongi- 
U^y pltun castings in an open mould. 

Moulds of the same kind have been found, though rarely, in 
iigland. In a field near Cambo,* near Wallington, Northumber- 

* jtrtA, ^liana, vol. iv. p. 107 ; Areh. Jotim., voL x. p. 3. 



430 UTAi., MoruM, AHD nmoD of luinmonin. [a 

land, was foand s block of sandstone luTUig on ooe hob two I 
moulds for flat celts of different sizes, and on the otlier &oe a 
such mould, and alao cHie for a fiat ring. It is now in the I 
MusenoL 

Stone blocks with moulds cat in ibem have been finmd in Soodani j 

One with a monld lot a lai^ oelt in the oeuke, and naar h in am 
oomer of the alab a nunild for a voy moall oal^ was foond ia a naa 
near Kintorei Aberdeeaahin.* 

Another large Uock, forming the end of a da^ near Sfanail^ 
Argyleshireit US nine depreasiaaa in it in the tonn of flii eetti^ irinA 
may have been used as monlda. Thej are barefy an tiffiiOk ol m iaA 
in depth, and on this aooonnt hare been thongbt to be netotial mgewa 
tstiDne rather tiian moulds. With a metal to impertea^ ^nd aa mdled 
bronze, castings oould be made thicker tiian ttie depth of flu wywilds. sad 
it is by no means impossible that Uiis stcnte and anottiBg' ^nrmjag psjt ti 
the same oist may nave been intended for tbe prodootiam of oastinp. 
The seoond slab of atone mar have served fw osstang piaa. 

Tbe atone moulds from ImduiK, near Oimo, Aynddrsk^ and Attxd, 
Aberdeenahire,^ with d op r o ss i ons m Tariona forms upon tfimn, notimpn- 
bably belong to a later period than that of whioh I am traatla^ 

A mould for easting rinn, 2^ inohea in diameter, foapd rtKHnHMH 
InTemess-shire, is in tae Haseum at Edinbnr^ 

One for two fiat oelta on tlie one face, and for a laxnt oab sad 
perhaps a knife on the other, is in tiie Aiitii|iiyji^ffl If iiwmiii st 
Edinburgh.|| 

These moulds are more abundant in Ireland. 

One in the Bd&st Museum,^ polybedial in shnte, has monlda WKm four 
of its faces for flat celts of different sizes. In the w-*«»"«" QrJlentirm i> 
a slab of schistose stone (7 inchea by 6 imdiee) with &ne Bash monUi 
upon it. It was found near Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim.** 

On a slab in the Hueeom of the Boyal Irish Academy ff tiun in 
moulds for two flat oelts, and alao for ooe with a stop-ridge and a loop- 
It would appear as if the founder must have poeeessed a seoond half d 
this latter mould. 

Two moulds formed of stone, and amnrently intended for flat V 
slightly flanged celts, have been found at Bodio in the Lego di Yaiese-tl 

Moulds for palstaves and socketed cella hare been found both tt 
stone and of bronze, but it will be well to reserve the latter until 
all the forms of moulds made of stone hare been considered. Soch 
celt moulds hare alwap been made in halves. 

• rnr. St. Ail. Snt., vol. ii. p. 3S, toL vi. p. 209. 

t Jamrm. STAmI. St., vol. ii p. 34) : Five. Sar. Jut.. 3iid a, ToL IT. p. ilL Jm- 
Atmr. Joam.. <rol. uiTi. p. 146. Only KTen drpmnoiu an then imi^btL 
X iVvr. Set. AmI. SnI., vol. i. p. 4S. 
( Ibia.. vol- iv. p. JS5. ■nd V. p. 109. 

I IWd., vol. ii. p. U ; Wilson. •' Preh. Ann . " lol i. p 34J, pL •■ 
t Anl,. /Nm.. vdI. iv. p. Ui. pi. n. i Wildr. - Catol. Moa IL & 

» - c>ui.." p. TK. tt wudo-i •^^^gm 




DOUBLE BTOHE MOULDS FOB PALSTAVES. 431 

"La Fig. 516 is shown the half of a mould for palataveB, which is now 
in the MuiMiun of the Boyal Irish Academy. The other half is with it. 
They are formed of sandstone. It is uncertain in what part of Ireland 
they were found. 

Another mould, formed of mica schist, and now in the British Uuseiun, 
was found in the river Bann, and was intended for short palstayea about 
3^ inches loi^. 

The half of a mould for castmg palstaves of a somewhat broader form 
was found near Lough Corrib, Galway,* and is in the Antiquarian Museum 
at Edinburgh. Another has been engraved by Dunoyer,! who has also 
figured a nwuld for a looped palstave, from the Museiun of the Univer- 
sity of Dublin. A stone mould from Ireland, for palstaves with double 





Hff. 51«.— Inlud. i 

loops, is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. As the halves of 
these stone moulds are rarely made so as to oe dowelled together, 
they are almost always of exactly the same size externally, so as to be 
readily adjustable into their proper position when tied together for the 
reception of'the metal. 

The half of a mould for a small palstave, with transverse edge, is 
shown full size in Fig. 917. The origmal is of green schist, and is in 
the Boyal Academy Uuseum at Dublin. It is remarkable that a mould 
for so rare a form should have been found. A stone mould for trans- 
verse palstaves of the same kind has, however, lately been discovered in 
the Lao de Bienne J by Dr. V. Gross. 

On the Continent stone moulds for ordinary palstaves have been found 



} " Lea demiirsa trouvBillea di 



loKenne," 1879, pi. i. 10; "Mftttrian*." 1880, 



432 METAL, MOULDS, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTUBX. [CHAF. XXL 

in some numbers, especially in the Lake habitations. In the mnseom at 
Geneva are sereral from the Station of Eaux Yives. The wings as oxiginallj 
cast were vertical to the blades, so that they might be withdrawn from 
the mould, and they were subsequently hammered over to form the side 
pockets, as in Fig. 85. 

Moulds for looped palstaves have been found in the Lao du Bonrget, 
Savoy.* One of them is in my own collection. A broken mould for a 
palstave was found at Billy (Loir et Cher).t 

Others have been found in Hungary.} 

A few stone moulds for casting socketed celts have been found in 
England. The half of one, apparently for celts without loops, was found 
near Milton, Dorsetshire, § and is now in the Dorchester Museum. It has 
several holes on the face of the slab, as if for the reception of dowels, on 
which the other half of the mould would fit. 

Li another instance a set of moulds has been formed of three slabs of 
stone, and would produce two varieties of socketed celts, one half of the 
mould of each being engraved on the two faces of the central slab. It is only 
this central piece which has been preserved. It was, I believe, found at 
Bulford Water, near Salisbury, and not at Ghidbury Hill, near Everlej, 
as stated in the ''Barrow Diggers." || On one face is the mould for a 
single-looped socketed celt about 4^ inches long, of oblong section, with 
three vertical ribs on the face ; on the other is that for a double-looped 
celt of the same character, but about 5^ inches long, also with three 
vertical ribs. This mould is formed of some varie^ of greenstone, and 
is now in the collection of the Kev. E. Duke, of Lake House, near 
Salisbury. 

Stone moulds for socketed celts, with vertical ribs upon them, have been 
found in the Lacustrine Station of Eaux Yives, near Geneva. There are 
often moulds on each face of the stones. 

Others in sandstone for socketed celts have been found in Hung^ary.f 

Several moulds for such instnuuent^ have been discovered in Sweden.** 
One with diagonal air-passages, like those in Fig. 521, is in the Copen- 
hagen Museum. 

Stone moulds for socketed celts have also been found in Scotland. 
Two pair from the parish of Eosskeen, Iloss-shire,f f have been figured by 
Professor Daniel Wilson. They are for looped celts rather wide and 
straight at the edge, about 5 inches long and of hexagonal section. The 
castings from the one are plain upon the faces ; in those from the other 
there are three annulets connected hy raised ribs, much the same as on one 
face of the celt from Wigton shire (Fig. 166). These moulds had the two 
halves dowolled together when in use. On one there appears to be a 
second mould for a small flat bar. 

In Irehmd stone moulds for socketed celts are rare, and they appear to 

• Exp. Arch, di- hi Sav., 1878, pi. iv. 187 ; Chantro, "Alb.," pi. lii. 

t *» jMateriaux,'* vol. x. p. 112. I " Materiaux," vol. xii. p. 185. 

§ "The liarrow Diggors," p. 76. pi. v. 10. It is bo badly drawn thatit might be 
takt-n for a broken mould for a pal.-^Uive. Arch., vol. xxviiL p. 461. 

II ^"- 78. . „ 

% llampol, "Cut. do I'Exp. prchist.," 1876, p. 134; "Ant prOLda U Bwgn»; 
*' Materi.iux," vol. xii. p. 184. 

♦♦ Wittlwk, •* Jord-fvnd frin Warend'e fdrhiat Tid^" WVft H^ _..^ 

ft '' Preh. Ann. of Soot.," vol. i. p. 846, fig*. 48 M^JilHJfe.tt i^''** •«■**» 
from one of the moulds. 




STOKE MOULDS FOB DAGGERS. 



433 



baT« been for the most part cast in sand or loam. There is, however, in 
the Uuseum of the Koyal Irish Academv,* the half of a mould of this 
kind made of mica slate, and much worn by age and exposure, apparently 
intended for a ribbed socketed celt. It has dowel-holes on the face of the 
sUb. 

The mould, or more properly half of a mould, for a taneed knife, with 
a central rib along the blade, is shown in Fig. 518. It is of close- 
grained sandstone, and was found near Ballymoney, Co. Antrim. The 
surface on which tiie knife has been engTaved is ground very smooth, as 





if to fit anotitsr half mould. In this other half there was probably little 
more than grooves for the central rib and tang, as the mould at the edge 
of the knife would produce a casting fully ^ inch thick, which would 
require a good deal of hammering out. 

Pig. 819 shows the half of a mould for a dagger blade of elegant 
fono. It is of mica slate, and was found near Broughshane, Co. Antrim. 
It k atxmt 1 inch in thickness ; and on the other face are moulds for a 
ll'flit eihisel with side stops, in total length about 2| inches, for a 
*'* ' IT oelt-like tool about 1^ inch long, and an unfinished mould 
(rf « flat ring. 

•Wildfl, "C«l«I. Mus. E. I. A.," p. 91, fig. 73. 



434 mrAL, houlim, ahd hstbod of uxmwjuanm^ ' [cbat. hl 
Stone monlda for da^m have been ftnmd in flw T^flTJin tmtw m m*,* 



s 






In Figs. 520 and 521 I have reproduced on the scale of one-fourtli 



the engravingB of two stone moulds which were found 
• Oturtaldi, " Nuovi ceuni," 1662, Tav 



r Knighton, 



STONE MOULDS FOB 6PEAR-BEAD8. 435 

7ut in the parish of Hennock, near Ohudleigli, Deron, and are pub- 
ished in. the Archaohgieal Journal.* They are of a light g^raenish 
uicaceouB echist, Buch as occurs in Cornwall. The lai^ one ib 2^ inches 
s length b; 3 inches in its greatest width, the smaller is 2\i inches long 
ind also 3 inches wide. When found the two halves of each mould were in 
ipposition ; the longer mould placed vettioally, the shorter horizontally. 
Als will be seen, they are for the production of rapier-shaped blades. 
[n the smaller is a series of small channels, to allow of the escape of 
lir during the process of casting. On the larger, by the side of the main 
mould, is a second, which would produce a slightly tapering casting, 
ribbed longitudinaUyon one face 
md flat on the other. It is difE- 
^t to judge of the purpose for 
which it was intended, but it 
may possibly have been at once 
an ornament and a support for 
the scabbard of the blade. 

Some fluted pieces of bronze, 
such as would be produced from 
a mould of this kmd, are in the 
museum at Tours, found In a 
hoard at St. Genouph. 

A mould for a short leai-ehaped 
sword has been found in ire- 
land.t 

A stone mould, formed of 
ffreeD micaceous schist, and 
found at Maghera, Co. Derry, 
is in the collection of Canon 
Greenwell, F.R.S., and is 
shown in Fig. '522. As ■will 
be sees, it is for a spear-head 
of the ordinary Irish type, 
with loops on the socket. 
These, however, were pro- 
bably flattened down during the finishing process. The outside of 
the mould has been neatly rounded, and has shfdlow grooves in it 
to assist in keeping the string in place with which the two halves 
of the mould were boimd together when ready for use. 

In the same collection is the half of a mould for spear-heads, from 
Armoy, Co. Antrim. It is much like the figure, but 7f mches long. 

I have the half of a mould for a nearly similar spear-head, made of 
light brown stone, with the sides left square, and not rounded. This is 
also from the North of Ireland. It is oifBcult to understand the manner 
in which the cores for forming the sockets of the spear-heads were sup- 
ported in the moulds. Possibly email pins of bronze were attached to the 

• VoL ix. p. 186. t ■I'™- *■» -i"'- du Sari, 1912— V, p. H2. 




Fig. 6U.— H*«ben. 



436 METAL, HODLDS, AND METHOD OF MANDFACIURE. [CHAP. XXI. 

clay core, which kept it in podtioii, but which during the casting proceea 
got biimt into the molten metal. I have, however, found no actual traces 
of such a contrivance. On examining broken spear-heads it will some- 
times be found that the socket core inside the blade, instead of being simply 
conical, has lateral projections running into the thicker part of the blade. 

A mould for spear-heads of the same kind as Fig. 521, found near 
Claran Bridge,* in the barony of Dunkellen, Co. Galway, has at the base 
two pin-bolea about 1 inch long and J inch in diameter. Their axes are 
parallel to that of the socket. These may possibly be connected with 
the steadying of the core. 

A stone mould found at the edge of Lough Bamer, Co. Cavan.f and 
now in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, is quadrangular in 
section, with moulds for very small lance-heads on three of its faces. On 
the fourth there are marks of a worn-out mould. The corresponding 
halves have not been found. Such instances of several half-moiudB on a 
single block of stone are not nnfrequent. 




Hg. 5XS,— Lougk Oi 



A moiety of a stone mould for casting spear-hends of various 
sizes, and also pointed objects, "possibly," though not probably, 
"arrow-heads," was found at Lough Gur,+ Co. Limerick, and is now 
in the British Museum. It is a four-sided prism, 6) inches long 
and 2J inches broad at one end of each face, and 1| inch at the 
other. A second similar prism would, it has been observed, give four 
perfect moulds for casting spear-heads slightly varying in form, but 
in each case provided with side loops. These loops are as usual 
semicircular in form on the mould, and were no doubt destined to 
be flattened in the usual manner by a subsequent process of ham- 
mering. There is one special feature in this mould, viz. that at 
the base of the blade there is a transverse notch in the stone. 
evidently destined to receive a small pin, which would serve to 
keep the clay core for the socket in its proper position. There is 
a similar transverse notch in one of the smaller moulds for the 
pointed objects. This mould is shown in Fig. 523. 
• An-/,., vol ^v. p. 349, pi. xjtxiv. 1, 2. 



STONE MOULDS FOR SPBAK-HEADS. 



There is a Bimilar notch in a mould for leaf- 
shaped epear-faeadB without loops in the Preueker 
Collection at Dresden. It would seem as if the 
pin which formed the hole for the rivet was also 
of use to support the core. Another such mould is 
in the museum at Modena. 

There are similar notches in a atone mould for 
spear-heads, in one of burnt clay for nocketed 
knives, found at Mcerigen, in the Lake of Bienne, 
and in one found in the Lake of Yarese.* 

A small Irish mould for casting broad leaf-shaped 
lance-heads without loops is in the Antiquarian 
UuseunL at Edinbui^h. 

A mould of much the same character as the 
Irish examples was found near CampbeltOTi,t 
in Kintyre, Argyleshire. It is formed of dark 
serpentine, and one of its halves is shown in 
Fig. 524. On the same spot were found two 
polished stone celts and another stone mould 
for spear-heads, in two portions, also of ser- 
pentine, shown in Figs. 525 and 526, both 
sides being cut for moulds, one for a looped 
gpear-head and the other for one without loops. 
Dr. Arthur Mitchell, who has described this Fi«- 6m.-c™pWioo. ( 
find, says that in this second mould the two halves are not alike. 






* Ranchet e Begazzoni, Aiti delta Sue, Ilal. de i: 
t Proe. 8oc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 4B, pi. vi. I 
We of these tour blocks. 



Fig. tM.— CunpbeltoD. t 
nut., vtA. ui. 
m iDdcbted to the Council for the 



438 BCETAL, MOULDS, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. [CHAP. XXI. 

as in the one first described. In this case one-half has the shape 
of the spear-head deeply cut into the stone, so as to mclude the whole 
thickness of the edge of the spear, and the other side has simply 
the midrib alone cut on it, and the rest of that side of the mould 
is gently bevelled towards the edges, the result of which simple plan 
is that when the two sides are laid together a perfect mould is 
made, the two sides of the casting being almost exactly alike, less 
labour being thus required than in forming an outUne exactly 
alike on both sides of the stone mould, and the result being 
equally satisfactory. 

An English, or rather Welsh, quadrang^ar mould, much like that 
from Lough Gur, was found between Bodwrdin ♦ and Tre Ddafydd, 
Anglesea. It is formed of hone-stone 9^ inches long, with the sides 
tapering from 2 inches to Ij^ inch. It is adapted for casting looped 
spear-heads of two sizes, and what has been regarded as a double-looped 
celt. The fourth side has a conical fi^ove, and may be the complement 
of another more defined mould, as is the case with Fig. 525b. It has 
been thought to have been for a spike-like javelin. What has been 
regarded ad the mould for double-looped celts seems also to be the shallow 
hcuf of a mould for spear-heads. In the museum at Clermont Ferrand f 
there is an analogous stone mould for palstaves of three types and a 
point or ferrule. 

Of other stone moulds, I may mention one for casting buckles of a 
kind like those from Polden Hill, which was found at Camelford, Corn- 
wall. J This is not improbably of Late Celtic date. 

I have a flat oval slab of compact grit, about 2 inches thick, having on 
one face a mould for a thin oval plate of metal about 5 inches by 4J inches, 
and on the other a mould for a rather thicker oval plate, about 6 inches 
by 4i inches. It was foimd near Nantlle, Carnarvon, and was given me 
by Mr. R. D. Darbishire, F.S.A. I am uncertain as to the period to 
which it ought to be assigned. 

Of foreign moulds of stone besides those already cited, I may mention 
some for double-ended hatchets and for flat celts which have been found 
in the Island of Sardinia. § 

A number of moulds formed of stone, principally mica-schist, were 
found by Dr. Schliemann || during his excavations on the presumed site 
of Troy. They were for casting flat celts, tanged spear-heaas or daggers, 
and various other forms. Several of the blocks had moulds on both sides 
and ends, and served for casting as many as a dozen different objects. 

The moulds made of bronze which have been found in this 
country are for palstaves, socketed celts, and gouges only. They 
appear to be more abundant in England than in any of the neigh- 
bouring parts of Europe. At one time the whole school of English 

♦ Arch. Jouni.f vol. iii. p. 257, vol. vi. p. 385 ; Lindenschmit, "A. u. h. V.," vol. ii. 
Heft. xii. Taf. i. 5. 

t Arch. Journ.j vol. xviii. p. 166. 

X Proc. Soc. Ant.y vol. iv. p. 148. \ Spano, " Paleoetnol. Sard.," p. 27. 

II "Troy and its Remains," pp. 82, 110, 139, 173, 261, &c. 



BRONZE MOULDS FOR PALSTAVES. 



antiquaries regarded the moulds for socketed celts as cases or 
sheaths specially prepared to hold such instruments." To Vallancey, 
I think, belongs the credit of being the first to recognise their 
true character. In writing about the half of a bronze mouhl for 
palstaves found in Ireland, he observes,! " Dr. Boriase and Mr. 
Lort had seen brass cases of these instruments, which fitted them 
aa exactly as if they had been the molds in which the instru- 
ments were cast. I cannot conceive why these gentlemen hesitate 




BS7.— Bothui Cut. 



to call them molds, as a certain proof that they were manufactured 
in Ireland, where the Romans came not, either as friends or foes, 
the molds are found in our bogs ; they are of brass also, mixed 
with a greater quantity of iron, or in some manner tempered much 
harder than the instruments." I am not sure that the latter 
remark as to the comparative hardness of the moulds holds good 
in all cases, otherwise the correctness of the opinion expressed by 
Tallancey, now about a hundred years ago, is undeniable. 

■ Soe Atxh., vol. T. p. IDS ft tqq. t " Collectanea," vol. ir. p. £9. 



440 UETAL, MOULDS, AND METHOD OF UANUFACTDRE. [cHAP. XXI. 

In Fig. 527 are given three views of one half of a complete mould 
for pivlstaves, which was found with a hoard of bronze objects, includ- 
ing seven palstaves without loops, at Hotham Carr, in Yorkshire, RR. 
It is in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.RS. Among the 
palstaves which were found with it only one was in an un- 
damaged condition. As will be seen from the figure, there are 
projections or dowels on the face of this half of the mould which 



fit into corresponding dep 




Fi«. a<&— Willihin. 



the counterpart, so as to 
steady the two halves when 
brought together and keep 
them in proper position. At 
the top is a cup-shaped 
cavity for the reception of 
the metal Any portion of 
the casting which occupied 
this part of the mould was 
broken off from the palstave 
when it was cool, and was 
kept for re-melting. Such 
waste pieces, or jets, firom the 
moulds are of common occur- 
rence in the old founders' 
hoards, and some will be 
subsequently noticed. 

Another mould for simple 
palstaves was found in Danes- 
tield. near Bangor,* in 1800. 
It is for a blade rather wider 
at the edge and narrower in 
the shank than that produced 
bvthe Yorkshire mould. With 
it wa$ found another mould for 
e. One half of each pair of 
her half in Lord Bray- 
<\{ a bronze mould for a 
t holow the 6top-ridg«, 
wd* lately in the coliec- 



a lotii>«d {utlstave of about the same 
moulds i* in the British Museum. an« me 
brvx.ke's ,^>U.H■tion at Audley lid. The h^ 
simple ivitsiave. with a shii'ltl-shape«l oniaii: 
was iV.uud ill In'land.t One of the same fcii 
tioH of Mr. Stevenson of l.isbimi. 

In ilie British Museum is snother mould for K^iptvl ]>alsiaves. which ia 
shown in Vijrs. ftiS and 5-Ji>. (or iho us,» of which I am indebted to the 
Oouui :1 iif the Si>fiei yof Antiquaries. ; The orifla.il was found in Wiltshire. 
It i# ri'injirkiiMe a* beariuj: on (\»t'h of its halves i^ands evidendy cast from 
aitual twine wliiih has bivii uivm the m>>iel : but the Sands on the two 



.i?. i-U ) 



i, p. IM; ,1-.- 



BROKZU HOULUS FOR SOCKETED CELTS. 



441 



not coiDcide, being on the one placed higher than on the other. 
are also joggled together in r singular manner. A& to the 
wording, it may be that the model of the first half of the motdd 
3d of claj, which when dry, in order to prevent its being broken, 
in to the palstaTe on which it had been shaped, and was thus 
ji clay or loam ; and that afterwards, when the second half of 
1 had to be cast by a similar process, the model for it was tied 
half-mould already formed, me binding being in contact with 
f the band already in relief upon ttie back and sides of the half- 

. palstave moulds formed of bronze have been found in different 
in Europe. 
* " ' ' ' 1 the Saone, for looped palstaves, is in the 




r bronze mould from the neighbourhood of Qriinberg.lf is in the 
kt Darmstadt. 

ire several bronze moulds of this charact«r in the Museum of 
Antiquities at Copenhagen. 

js. 530 and 531 are engraved the halves of two moulds 
ng socketed celts of diflerent sizes and patterns, which 
nd with a number of other relics in the Isie of Harty, 
, and are now in my own collection. I have alr«acly 
account of this discovery elsewhere ; •* but as it throws so 

■e. " Albmn," pi. i. ; " Age in Br.," 16re. ptia., p. 26. 
'■oc. Ant.. 2nd 3., voL v. p. 433. 

3er Bericht, p. 109, pi, vii. 43 ; Troyon, "Hab. Lao.," pi. i. 16. 
tchmit, " Alt, u. h, V.." vol. ii. Heft, itii. Tal. i. 3. 

. und A. VoRfl, " Die Bronze-acliwerter des K. Miu. su Berlin," Til. xiv. 9. 
iKhmit, uH tup., Taf. i, 4, 
Sue. AnI., 2nd S,, vol. t, p. 408 ; " Cong. pr*h.," Stockholm vol. i. p. 446. 



443 lfXTAT« IIOCLDB, AHD KITHOD OF If AVUTACTCSK. [CKAP. ZKL 

mucfi light upon tbe whole process of casting as practiBed towazdi the 
close of the Bronze Period, it will be desirable to give a somevhtt 
detiuled account of the entire find and ita teachings in this jdaee. 
The hoard, which may very fiurly be described as the >toe^4D- 
trade of an ancient bronze-founder, consisted of the following 
articles — 

Both halves of the mould, Fig. 530. 
5 celts cast in this mould and a fragment. 
Both halves of the mould, Fig, 631. 
1 celt cast in it. 

One-half of a snudler mould with a portion of a lead lining 
adhering to it, as kindly determined for me by Dr. J. Percy, F.B.& 
8 celts, more or less worn out, apparently cast in it 

2 laige celts from diSienot 
moulds. 

2 small socketed celts from 
other and different moulds. 

Both halves of a gouge mould, 
Fig. 532. 

2 gouges, both from one 
mould, but it is doubtfiil 
whether they are from this. See 
Fig. 205. 

2 pointed tools, Fig. 220. 
1 double-«dged bufe, Fig. 
253. 

Fi,. BBL-H«^. 1 1 single-edged knife, Kg. 260. 

1 perforated disc, Fig. 503. 
1 ferrule, Fig. 377. 

1 part of a curved bracelet-like object of doubtful use, with, 
small hole near the end. 

1 hammer or anvil, Fig. 211. 

1 small hammer. Fig. 212. 

2 pieces of rough copper. 
1 whetstone. Fig. 540. 

Of the largest mould itself, Fig. 530, not much need bb 
The dowels on the face of one of the halves have been mndl k:^^ 
by oxidation, so that the two parts of tlie mould do not nc^-.,^"" — 



well together as they did originally. On the outside of e 
are two projecting pins intended to hold t 
which the two parts of the mouli 





THE HARTY HOARD. 443 

A.S will be seen, the mould itself is somewhat bell-mouthed. Of 
the ornamental " flanches " on the celt, I have already given the 
history at page 108. The instruments east from this mould, and 
present in the hoard, are five in number, four in fairly perfect 
condition, and one broken in two in the middle. Though cast in 
the same mould, no two are absolutely alike. Not only do they 
vary in width at their edges — the natural result of one having 
been more freely hammered out than another — but in the upper 
part, to which very little has been done in the way of hammering 
or grinding since the celt left the mould, there are striking differ- 
ences. As will be seen, the mould is calculated to produce three 
parallel mouldings round the mouth of each celt ; but in one of 
the castings only two of these mouldings are present ; in another 
there are three, and there is metal enough beyond to represent 
half the width of another moulding. In two others the length is 
equivalent to nearly another moulding, so that the celts appear to 
have four mouldings round their mouths ; and in the fifth celt 
there is a collar of plain metal extending f inch beyond the three 
bands (see Fig. 1 1 3.) On comparing this instrument with that 
first described, the difference in the length above the loop is 
upwards of ^ inch. This difference can only be accounted for 
by a difference in the arrangement of the mould and core at 
the time of casting. On comparing the interior of one celt with 
that of another, it is evident that the core was not produced in 
any mould or core-box, as the small projecting ribs of metal left as 
usual to help in steadying the haft vary in number and position. 
In the case of the celt broken in two in the middle, the core has 
been placed so much out of the centre that there is a large hole 
in the casting where there was not room for the metal to run. 
The system adopted appears, therefore, to have been much as 
follows. 

First, the mould was tied together in proper position, and loam 
or clay was rammed into it so as tightly to fill the upper part. 
The mould was, secondly, taken apart — and the clay removed 
and probably left to become nearly dry. Thirdly, the lower part 
of the clay was then trimmed to form the core, a shoulder being 
left which would form the mould for the top of the celt. The 
upper part of the clay would be left untouched, beyond having 
two channels cut in it to allow of the passage of the melted metal. 
Fourthly, the mould would be tied together again with the pre- 
pared core inside, the untrimmed part of which would form a 



444 METAL, MOULDS, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. [CHAP. XXI. 

guide for its due position in the mould. Fifthly, the mould would 
then be placed vertically, probably by being stuck into sand, and 
the melted metal would be poured down the channels. When cool 
the runners thus formed would be broken oflf, and the finactured 
surfaces would be hammered or ground. The knife found with 
the hoard was probably used for cutting the channels and trimmiiig 
the core. If such a process as that which I have described were 
in use, it is evident that the chances would be much against the 
shoulders of the clay core being always cut at exactly the same 
place, and we have at once a reason for the variation here ob- 
served. 

There is another cause for slight variations in the sharpness of 
the mouldings and the other details of the castings. In order to 
prevent the molten bronze from adhering to the bronze mould, the 
latter must have been smeared over with something by way of 
protection, so as to form a thin film between the metal of the 
mould and that of the casting. Modem founders, when casting 
pewter in brass, or even iron, moulds,* ** anoint" the latter with 
red ochre and white of egg, or smoke the inside of the mould ; and 
our plumbers prevent solder from amalgamating with lead by 
using lamp-black and size, or even by rubbing it with a dock-leaf. 
No doubt the ancient founders had some equally simple method, 
such as brushing the mould over with a very thin coat of marl. 
Turning now to the second mould, Fig. 531, it wull be seen tliat 
just below the mouldings there is accidentally present a sharply 
defined small recess ; the impression, however, of this recess on 
the celt cast in this mould is not nearly so sharp, probably in eon- 
sequence of the mould having been smeared as lately suggested. 
It will also be noticed that though there is a double band of 
mouldings in the mould, there is but one and a fraction on the 
celt itself, which is shown in Fig. 114. 

The outside of this mould is provided with three knobs to keep 
the binding cord from slipping oft'. The other and smallest half- 
mould has a single projection in the middle, like an imperfectly 
formed loop. The three celts which were apparently cast in this 
mould show great uniformity at their upper ends, and to the 
reason for this I think the lead adhering to the mould furnishes a 
clue. It is evident that if, in preparing the cores, instead of 
beginning by having the mould empty and ramming clay into it, 

* lloltzappfel, "Turning and Mech. Manip.," vol. i. p. 321; Areh. Journ., vol. iv. 
p. 337. 



THE HABTY HOARD. 445 

which was subsequently to be trimmed, the founder placed a celt 
in the mould, its socket would act as a core-box or mould for a clay 
core which would require no further trimming so far as the part of 
forming the socket was concerned. On opening out the mould 
this core could be withdrawn from the socket of the model celt, 
and when dry would be ready for use. Perhaps in the celts with 
long and not highly tapering sockets there would be a difficulty 
in getting out the clay unbroken, and the process would not be 
found to answer ; but in the case of the small celts there would 
probably be less difficulty. In this mould I think we have the 
remains of a celt formed of lead, an instrument which would be 
utterly useless as a cutting tool, but which might well have been 
made and kept as a core-box. The very fact of its being made of 
another metal would prevent its being confounded with the other 
castings and being bartered away ; while in the first instance a casting 
in lead might have been made on a wooden jcoie, which could pro- 
bably be trimmed to the exact shape required more readily than one 
of clay. I have elsewhere* called attention to the fact that wooden 
moulds were in use among the Ancient Britons for the casting of 
coins formed of tin. Several socketed celts made of lead have from 
time to time been found, though not in association with bronze- 
founders' hoards, and have been a great puzzle to antiquaries. One 
found at Alnwick, t near Sleaford, Lincolnshire, was thought to 
have come from a barrow. One found with bronze celts in the 
Morbihan, is in the collection of the Rev. Canon Green well, F.RS., 
but it is doubtful whether it was used as a core-box. The use 
which I have suggested for them is at all events one that is 
possible, but we must wait for further discoveries before accepting 
it as the only cause for their existence. 

A mould for sword hilts found in Italy,+ and now in the museum 
at Munich, is formed by three pieces of bronze, even the core by 
which the cavity in them was produced being formed of that metal. 

But that the cores were frequently if not always made of clay, 
and not, as has been sometimes supposed, of metal, is proved by 
the numbers of socketed celts which from time to time have been 
found with the cores still in them, though this, it is true, has been 
the case in France rather than in England. In the great hoard of 
socketed celts found near Pl^n^e Jugon, in Brittany, the majority 

♦ «* Anc. British Coras," p. 124. 

t Proc. Geol. and Polyt, Hoe, of Yorkshire, 1866, p. 439. 

X Lindenachmit, " Alt. u. h. Vora.," Heft. i. Taf. ii. 10, 11, 12. 



446 KXTAL, MODUM, AHD HXIHOD OF MASTTTACrnBI. [CHAP. ZIL 

were as they had come from the mould, with the day oores stiQ is 
them, burnt as hard as brick by the heat of the metaL I harg 
already mentioned this fact in describing the tool from the Hai^ 
hoard, which appears to have been tued for extracting the coim 
I have also described the anvil, if such it be, and tibe K ft mr n f, 
F^ 211 and 212, by means of which, probably, the edges of tba 
celts were drawn out and hardened. I will now add that the eek, 
Fig. 114, is too long and too broad at the edge for Uiat part of 
it to enter into the mould in which it was cast. This shows how 
much its edge was drawn oat by hammering. The final sbaip- 
s no doubt effected by tiie whetstone, fig. 540. 





Tig. BtC— Hutr. I 

The other mould from this hoard is almost unique of its kuuL 
Two views of each of its halves are given in Hg. 582. Originilly 
there was a loop on the back of each half, but irom one this hss in 
old times been broken off. The arrangement for carrj-ing the core is 
different from what it seems to have been in the other moulds. Then 
is in the upper part of the mould when put together a transvene 
hole, which would produce what may be termed trunnions on the 
clay core, and assist materially in holding it in proper posiUoa 
during the process of casting. From the upper surfaces of the i 
gouges found with the mould, it appears that there were t** \ 
channels cut for the runners of uietal, one at the middle o( ( 
half of the mould, so as to alternate with I 
through which the air could escape ^ 




BRONZE MOULDS FOB GOUGES AND CELTS. 447 

lat appears to be part of a mould for gouges was found in the 
of Notre-Dame d'Or, and is now in the museum at Poitiers, 
ust now return to the other examples of moulds for socketed 
¥hich have been found in this country. 

f with external loops on each half, like that on Fig. 532b, was foimd 
)oped palstaves, socketed celts, and broken dagger or sword blades, 
inungton,'*^ Sussex, and is now in the museiun at Lewes. All these 
3, as is the case in many other hoards, had been deposited in a vessel 
rse pottery. 

ther mould, found with eleven celts and fragments of weapons at 
,t near Norwich, has smaller and broader loops near the top. On 
ide of the f 6u;e of one half, a Httle distance from the actual mould, 
»ughly following its contoiu:, is a shallow groove, into which iits a 
ponding ridge on the counterpart. The outer face of each half is 
ented with two slightly curved vertical ribs, one on each side of the 
md joined at the base by a transverse rib. It is for casting celts 
4^ inches lon^y and of the ordinary form. 

»ther mould, for celts with an octagonal neck, was foimd on the 
ock Hills, { Somersetshire (and not in Yorkshire), and is now in 
itish Museum. The halves are adjusted to each other by a rib and 
), as on that last mentioned, and the back is ornamented with a 
ar raised figure with three vertical lines and a straight transverse 
) the top, and two hues at the bottom running up to the central 
d line so as to form on each side of it an angle of about 120^. 
I junction there is a ring ornament, and two others near the angles 
1 with the side lines. This mould has a transverse hole at the top 
lat in the gouge-mould already mentioned. 

»ther mould, also in the British Museiun,§ is for celts with three 
d ribs on the face. This likewise has a transverse and nearly square 
t the top, and also recesses in each half -mould, so as to give four 

of support to the core between which the channels for the runners 

be cut. On the outside, near the top, is a loop, and near the 
1 two projecting pins to retain the string. This appears to be the 

from Yorkshire belonging to Mr. Warburton, figged by Stukeley.|| 
I half of another mould for celts, of nearly the same character, was 

in the Heathery Bum Cave,^ already so often mentioned, and is 
L in Fig. 533, for the use of which I am indebted to the Coimcil of 
Kjiety of Antiquaries. 

)ther moidd was found in the fen at Wa8hingborough,**near Lincoln, 
ler, from Cleveland, ff found with chisels, gouges, &c., is in the 
lan Collection. 
»art of another was found in a hoard at Beddington, Surrey, {{ and a 

M. Arch, Coll., voL xiv. p. 171 ; Arch. Joum., vol. xx. p. 192. 

rcA., vol. xxii. p. 424 ; Arch, Journ., vol. vi. p. 387 ; " Arch. Inat.," Norwich vol., 

i. I have assumed that the mould described in these passages is one and the 

«*., voL V. pi. vii. ; Arch. Journ., vol. iv. p. 336, pi. iii. 6, 6, 7, 8. 
Jl. J9mm., voL iv. pi. ii. 6, 6, 7, 8. || " Itin. Cur./' pi. xc\'i , 2nd ed. 

AiU.f 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 132 ; Arch, Journ., vol. xix. p. 368. • 
., fol. xviii. p. 166. tt Ibid. 

" Sqc Coll.," vol. vi. 





448 HBTAt, HODLM, AMD UBTBOa OF mBITACrQBB. [CHAF. XXL 

fragmestof another tt Wlddum Fttric, CnjAoa. Thu latter u now u 
the Britiih ICuseiim. 

A hronze moiJd for socketed oelts, foQiid at Eikraflt, iras in the otdleotioB 
of the late Dr. Hngo OXtthe, of Coli^iie. TTpon the outside tliere an 
■ix ribe vith ring omamonts at the ends, divergiiig from a loop in tit* 
centre. 

A bronze mould ftortocketedoeltB, omamentedirithT-ahapedliiiea, and 
found at Gnadanfeld,* in Upper Silesia, is in tlie Beriin Museum. 

Another bronze mould iritti an external loop, alao for Booketed oelta, mi 
iouad in OotIand,t and is in the Btookhohn lloMum. 

A maffnifioent mould for socketed oelt* vas found in the Gotentint in 
1827. It has broad loops outside either half, vith three prooossoa from 
it running up and down tiie mould. 

A bronze mould for epeap-heads vas ex- 
hiUted in Paris in 1878. A part of another 
iras in the Laznand hoard, and is now in 
the museum at St Oennain. ' 

Thet« were some fragments of bronie { 
moulds in the great Bolopia hoard. 

The process of castai^ bronze iostni- 
ments in loam, clay, or sand must have 
been much the same as that in use at 
the present day ; bat it was very narely 
that the mould connsted of more or 
less than two piecea On a great many 
bronze instruments the joint of the 
mould is still visible; and in some of 
the lai^e hoards, such as those which 
have been found in the North of France, 
we see the castings just as they came 
from the moulds, except that the runnerii have been broken off. 
For socketed celts there were usually two runners of metal ; for 
palstaves sometimes two, and sometimes only one nearly t^e full 
width of the upper part. It is not uncommon to find castings 
which show that the two halves of the mould or the Basks have 
slipped sideways, so that they were not in proper position when 
the casting was made. 

I have a palstave from a lai^e hoard found near Tours, in which 
the lateral displacement of the mould is as much as a quarter of an 
inch, so that there is what geologists might term a " fault " in the 
casting. The metal which has been in contact with what was the 
face of the mould is smooth, and appears to have been cast against 

'* BaatiRD nnd A. Voss, " Die Bronze-Bcbwerter d<M K. Uub.," p. 76. 
t Ulfepaire, "Sventlo Fomiaker." pi. i-iii. 93. 
t Milt. Sot. Amt. Stria., 182T-8, pi. xi-iii. 



n^. sst.—HMSmr Bi 



MOULDS FORMED OV BURNT CLAT. 449 

clay. A considerable variety of patterns was in use by the founder 
to whom this hoard belonged, and they appear to have been of 
metal and not of wood, some of the palstaves having been appa- 
rently cast from tools already shortened by wear. 

That castings were occasionally made even from tools already 
mounted in their handles is proved by the Swiss hatchet, 
Fig. 185. 

Some portions of moulds formed of burnt clay were found 
with broken palstaves, socketed celts, gouges, knives, spear-heads, 
daggers, swords, lumps of metal, runners, &c., at Questembert, 
Brittany, and are in the museum at Yannes. 

Part of a mould for spear-heads formed of burnt clay was found 
in the Lac du Bourget ;* but the most interesting discoveries are 
those which have been made by Dr. V. Gross at the station of 
Moerigen,t on the Lake of Bienne. He there found a considerable 
amount of the plant of an ancient bronze-foimder, all of whose 
moulds, however, were either in stone or burnt clay, and not 
formed of metal. The stone moulds appear to have been princi- 
pally used for the plainer articles, such as knives, sickles, pins, &c., 
while for articles with irregular surfaces, or requiring cores, clay 
was preferred. Of clay moulds Dr. Gross recognises two types : 
one formed in a single piece, which could serve but once, and which 
was broken in extracting the casting ; and the other, which was 
composed of two or more pieces, and which could be used over and 
over again. Of the first kind there were two examples — one for a 
socketed chisel and the other for a socketed knife. The form of 
the mould for a chisel is nearly cylindrical, with a funnel-shaped 
opening at one end, at the bottom of which are two holes leading 
into the interior of the mould. The clay between these two holes 
forms part of a conical core. Such a mould would give the idea 
of its having been formed on a model of wax on the system known 
as that of dre perdue ; but this appears not to have been really 
the case, for on examination the mould itself appears to have been 
originally formed of two halves, or valves, formed of fine clay, 
which had been well burnt, and these when put together had been 
surrounded by an external envelope of coarse clay, which held 
them and the core they enclosed in their proper position. The 
core itself seems to have been T-shaped, the ends of the transverse 
line being triangular and fitting into corresponding recesses in the 
valves of the mould. 

• Chantre, " Alb.,** pL liv. 6. t KeUer, 7ter B«richt, p. 16, Taf. xrii. 

G G 



460 MBTAL, MOULDBy AND METHOD OF MAHUFACTURB. [CHAP. XXL 

The bestrpreserved mould of the second kind was one for a 
socketed hammer, which was also provided with a core of the same 
kind. It seems to me, however, that the distinction drawn by 
Dr. Gross between the two classes of moulds does not really exist, 
as by enveloping such a mould as that for the hammer in a 
mass of clay it would be transferred from the second dass to 
the first 

Clay moulds for socketed- celts have been found in Hungary.* 

In some Scandinavian examples! of what appear to have been 
ceremonial axes there is merely a thin coating of bronze cast over a 
day core, but no such specimens have as yet been found in Britain. 
That bronze so thin could have been cast shows wonderful skill 
in the founder. 

The heads and runners, jets or waste pieces, from the castings 
were reserved for being re-mdted, and are frequently found in the 






Fig. 684.-^togiizMj. I Fig. fi8&— Stogutwy. | Fig. Sas^-^toganey. ^ 

bronze-founders' hoards. They are of course of various sizes, 
but are usually conical masses, showing the shape of the cup or 
funnel into which the metal was poured, and having one, two, or 
more processes from them showing the course of the metal into 
the mould. 

Figs. 534, 535 and 536, all from the same hoard, found at Stogursej,^ 
Somersetshire, will give a fair idea of the general character of these 
waste pieces, or jets. They are shown with their flat face downwards, 
or in the reverse position to what they occupied when in the molten state, 
and exhibit one, two, and four runners from them respectively. No less 
than fifteen of these objects were found with this deposit — six with one 
runner, three with two, and six with four. 

Jets of metal, for the most part with two runners, were found with the 
Westow hoard, § Yorkshire, those of Marden,|| Kent; of Kensington;^ 

♦ " Mat^riaux," vol. xii. p. 184. 

t " Aarbogerfor Nord. Oldk.," 1866, p. 124. 

X Proc. Soc. Ant,, 2nd 8., vol. v. p. 409. 

{ Areh. Journ.f vol. vi. p. 382; Areh. Assoc. Journ., vol. iii. pp. 10 and 68. 

II Arch, Assoc. Joum., vol. xiv. p. 258. 

H Froe. Soc. Aut.f 2nd S., vol. iu. p. 232. 




JETS OE WASTE PIECES OF METAL. 451 

and of Hounslow. Those from the two latter deposits are in the British 
Museum. 

Another waste piece, IJ inch long, with two rimners, was found in 
the Heathery Bum Cave,* and is shown in Fig. 537. 

A very symmetrical jet, circular, with four irreg^ularly conical nmners 
proceeding from it, was in the hoard found at Lanant,f Cornwall, and is 
now in the Museimi of the Society of Antiquaries. 

Another oval head (2 inches long), with four runners from it, has much 
the appearance of a sword pommel. It was found with socketed 
celts on Kenidjack CHfP,^ Cornwall. 

A perforated disc, with a coUar round the central hole (Fig. 503), 
which at one time § I regarded as a waste piece from a casting, I have 
now reason to think was prepared for some special 
purpose, as at least one object of this class has been 
found with the runners removed, and in a finished 
condition. See page 403. 

The conical lump of metal found with the hoard 
at Marden,|| Kent, and described as '^ a very rare 
species of fibula," may be the head of metal from 
a casting. „ ^' ^l' 

Some conical funnels of burnt clay, found in the 
Lake-dwellings near Laibach, have been regarded as having served to 
receive the metal in the casting process. 

Bunners of the same character as those already described have been 
found in diiferent countries, including Denmark^ and Sweden.** 

We must now briefly consider the processes to which the cast- 
ings were subjected before being finally brought into use. Where 
the objects had sockets cast over clay cores, those cores had to bo 
removed, probably by means of pointed tools, such as that already 
described under Fig. 220. Where they were solid they seem in 
most cases to have undergone a considerable amount of hammering, 
which both rendered the metal more compact, and to a certain 
extent removed the asperities resulting from the joints in the 
mould. With edged tools and weapons, whether socketed or not, 
the edges especially were drawn down by means of the hammer. 

These hammers, as has already been shown, were occasionally 
themselves of bronze, and so also were some of the anvils. It is, 
however, probable that in most cases both hammers and anvils were 
stones, either natural pebbles and flat slabs, or occasionally wrought 
into special shapes. In South Africa at the present day the iron 
assegais are wrought with hammers and anvils of stone. Judging 
from the imfinished condition of the tools and weapons in some 

• Ptoe. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 132. I am indebted to the Council for the use of 
this cut ; Areh. Journ,, vol. xix. p. 358. 

t Arch,, vol. XV. p. 118, pi. ii. J Joum, Roy, Inst, of Cornwall, No. xxi. fig. 4. 

f •* Petit Album," pi. xxv. 6. || Arch. Anoe. Journ., vol. xiv. p. 260. 

% Worsaae, " Nord. Olds.," figs. 213, 214. •• MonteUus, " La SuWe pr^h.," fig. 40. 

gg2 



453 METAL, MOULDS, AND UETHOD OF HAKUFACTCRG. [cBAP. XXI. 

of the old bronze-foimdera' hoards, and from large deposits of 
socketed celts having been found with the clay cores still in them, 
it seems not improbable that the founders often bartere