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M 5.1+17.7 L''< 











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VOL. I. 




.FA5.V/7i> C) 





. '>8KBM., Pnnicr> LitdcQiiiin Stwety Holbom. 



tribes of Britain, and enlightened all by the rays of the literature of Rome, 
even more enlightened still by the bright beams of the Gospel, sunk back 
into the darkness neariy of their original history ; and owe the main 
knowledge of their own annals immediately after the Roman departure, 
to those rude barbarians who had come from the shores of the Baltic, 
and whom they had half raised into knowledge, while these had wholly 
depressed them into ignorance. So much heavier is the scale of ignorance 
in man, than that of knowledge ! This we see strikingly exemplified 
in the early history of Cornwall ;* with which in general we can begin 
only where the annals of its Saxon invaders b^n ; and for which, as 
the sun of history was then set among the CJomish themselves, we can 
derive an illumination only from the very moon, that was then shining 
with the rays of the sun, faint, indeed, in the reflection^ yet serving to 
dispel the darkness. 

By this kind of moonlight I mean to direct my course in making ijiy 
survey of the ancient cathedral of Cornwall. * Yet I hope to collect the 
beams 60 carefully into one focus, as to find them combining into some 
degree of lustre, and lighting me with truth along the winding path- to 
my point. In that hope, therefore, I set out; expecting, however, 
tiot to find my point within the petty circle of any one parish, or even 
the ample orbit of a whole county, but to trace it steadily across the 
island, and to pursue it occasionally into the continent. - 


The Saxons, who had come as auxiliaries to the Britons, but turned 
their arms against their employers, had gradually won Jtheir way by 
battles and by sieges, by victories and by conquests, from the eastern 
coast of Kent, over the whole nearly of Roman Britain, from* the brink of 
the Channel on the south, to the friths of Forth and Clyde on the north. 
Then, with that spirit of hostility which is ever ready in the vitiated 
lieart of man, they had turned their arms against each other; and the 
< seven 


seven kingdoms which tiliey had erected upon the ruiiis of the British 
empire, contended together for a suptqmacy over all. The first and 
weakest of all the seven (Kent) had a full right, in reason, to this 
honour: but how little does reason avail to convince, when power is 
prompt to decide! In that decision, the kingdom of the West Saxons^ 
the very neighbours of the Cornish, was finally successful. The honour; 
so obtained, rose into power ; and their capital, Winchesteb, became 
THE METROPOMS OF ^LL Ebfglano *. Thus did the whole weight of 
England • appear to centre now in the very vicinity of Cornwall. But 
this was hardly effected, when the reduction of the little kingdom of the 
Gomish, apparently menaced by an union of the Saxons under one head 
ft) near, was prevented by a very extraordinary incident. A new swarm 
of Saxons, as it were, came from the same shores, and began the saiae 
invasions, under the new appellation of .Pane3. . These ftlsp made .their 
way with fire and sword, through all the Saxon regions of the island. 
-These, too, fixed themselvies in s^ttlema^nts of conquest, upon various 
parts of them. Yet the genius of West Saxony struggled with vigour 
against them ; even recovered all their conquests from them, and brought 
all the Danish settlers into submission. Thus was the reduction of Corn- 
wall again menaced, by the reviving supremacy over all England in its 
near ndghbours the West' Saxons^ 

* This metropoHtical sovereignty of Winchester, which lasted from the days of Egbert^ 
and his reduction of the Heptarchy into one kingdom, in 827, to the settlement of the Con« 
fessor uponThomey isle, aboiit 1046 (Saxon Chronicle, Gibson), that first commencement of 
Westminster (and the consequences of which, if it had been continued to these days, fancy 
may readily picture to itself in the changes that it would have wrought, upon the relative states 
of Winchester and London at'present), has scarcely a shadow now remaining of itself* The- 
only memorials, slight as they are, I Suppose to be ihe statute of Winchester, as it is called, 
tliough ** made at Westminster 8 die Octobris, an. 13 E. I. — An. Dom. 12855" and what 
is known only by custom in its appellation, being never noticed in the early parts of our 
ktatute-b6ok, teifag, indeed, Superseded there by the measpre of London (anno 31 E. t. and 
anno Dom. 1302)5 yet so familiar to us in every quarter of the kingdom at present, ihe 
Winchester Imshei. This is first noticed by its proper name, in ai Ch. II. chap. viii. as '^ the 
'^ standaixl marked in his Majesty's exchequer commimly calied iht* Winchester THeasure, 
'^ containing eight gallons to the bushel,'* and existing still the only legiU measure for corn 
throughout the whole kingdom. . 

B 2 In 


In this state of the conntij, when the only remams of unconquered 
Britons sufvived in Cornwall, in Wales, and in Cumberland; Athelstan, 
the son of Edward, and the grandson of Alfred, ascended the thnme of 
West Saxony in the year ©25 f. The next year he married his sister 
Eadgytha'to Sihtric, the Danish sovereign under him of that Northum- 
bria, which had been for some time Danish; who, fearing the power or 
spirit of his acknowledged lord, and ofiering to renounce the Danish 
p^nism which he had hitherto retained, solicited by proxy and in per- 
son this close connexion with Athelstan;};. But such was the instability 
of the barbarian's mind, and such the precipitancy of his measures, that 
he soon repented of what he had done, divorced himself from his queen^ 
and flew off from his Christianity, restoring the native idolatry of Den«» 
taark, and renouncing the supremacy of Athelstkn§. All this^ indeed^ 
Was executed with such a rapid revolution of ideas, that the whole 
passed within the compass nearly o^f a single yew*. Such conduct natu<» 
tally excited the highest indignation in the breast of Athelstan. As a 
brother, as a king, and as a Christian, he had the strongest reasons for 
that resentment against Sihtric, which he immediately displayed by 
marching with an army towards Northumbria. But Sihtric died before 
Athelstan reached it; as cowardly as he was base, I suppose, dying from 
mere fear of the lion which he had roused by his injuries, and which he 

. t Sax. Chroti. 

% Malmesbury, f« 27 ; Savile) and Mat. Westm, 360, London^ 1570. Conceraing Malmes- 
bury, thu€ panegyrically, and yet justty, does Leland speak : '^ Qaoties in manus sumo 
^^ (sumo autem cum frequentUain^d turn lubemissime) toties vel admirari coger hominis 
^^ diltgentiaoi, ftliciialem, judicium ; dilagJientiBm, quod passim ostendat se ingentem bononim 
<' autonrai mimerum k^gisse; felicitatem, quod illonim degantiam et nenros semulus ipse in 
f^ suiselucubrationibus belli exprimat; judicium denique,qu6d multa abaliis temere scripta 
^' ad ihcudem fevocci, rtvoealaque hici et yeritati r^stituat.'' (Commentarii de Scriptbribus 
Britannicis, by Hall, Oxford, 1709, p« 19$.) But bebold the close of this magnificent euio-* 
gium^ ^'Obiii vet6 Meikhii^i'' (at Malmesbury), ^* ubi et sepultus fuit: sed ciim ego 
<' Buper Metldtmi essem, et locum eyus sepuItursB qussrereifiy iam oiscunis suis numachk fiiit^ 
M ^i unusanttditr UMiltm mmen in memerU reiiMerii.'^ (?• 196.) So precarious is fasM 
in the mouth and tiiemory of fnttn I 
. § M. WestminMer, 360* 
• Malmesbury, f. 27. ** Post annum/' 


kfidw to be advancing with vengeance on its brow towards himf • He 
thus took refuge from Athelstan, in the grave; but Godefrid^ his son by 
a former marriage, remained. This son had certainly engaged with his 
I^rther in the rebellion against Athelstan. He had also instigated his 
father, probably, to the divorcement'of the queen his step-mother, and to 
the supersedence of Christianity again by the paganbm of Denmark. He 
had accordingly taken posnssion of the throne on the death of his father^ 
and ccMitinued the rebellion which his father had began | : but now, as 
Athelstan approached, Godefrid, conscious of all his ounces, and sensible 
of his great weakness, Aed from York the metropolis of Northombria t 
then T6rk opened its gates to the Saxons. Their monarch aflterwards 
took the castle, which the Danish kings had erected for their residence ; 
divided the very ample booty within it, which Gbdefrid in the hastiness 
of his ffi^t had left behind him, man by man to his soldiery; and, in the 
warmth of his resentment gainst the £imily of Sihtric, or in the heat of 
his resolution to terminate the Danish sovereignty of Northumbria for 
ever, levdlled the whole palace to the ground §. 

t Malmesbury, f. 27, f^ VitS deturbatus ;*' M. Westminster, 36b, " Mirabiliter termE* 
** navit," and " Male periit.'' 

X Florence of Worcester, 348, London, 159^, ^^ Guthferdo qui patri in regnum 6U<> 
** cewerat." 

§ Maknesburf, f. 27. The site of the palace or castlie, I suppose, is what Leiand thusr 
notices : '' The plotte of this castelle is now caullid the Old BeUe, and the area and ditches 
** of it do manifesteley appere/' (Itin. i. 58, edit, third, 1770.) Of Leland's learning the 
literary world talks loudly, and I shall have a thousand occasions to speak hereafter* Bu^t of 
what is infinitely superior to learning, the goodness of hisheart, or (to use a more proper ex* 
pression) the dignity of his spirit, the world says nothing, and I wish to speak here. Bale, io 
a letter to him, therefore flattering him probably^ yetby the very ffatjtery proving what cha^- 
racter he wished to bear, writes thus of him : '^ Carnalibus curis aRenus, tuiqiie ^uodam* 
** modo oblitus^ honorepa spernis, spemis etdivltias^dum, parvula cellft siepius inclusus, diisi 
'^ prodesse^tuduerisassidue." (Lives of Leiand, Heame, and Wood, Oxford, J772> i- 86,} 
Accordingly Ldand himself cries out in this elevated tone of voice, concerning a scholar sue* 
^asively nuuie archbishop^ patriarch, and cardinal t '* Ecce blandientis fortunae munera, q«i- 
^ bus quoa vult beat} qvaanquam, si mi hi liceret dicere citra ofiensam quod sentio, tantum' 

abest ut bi^usmodi soriis hoaii.n€A bealos putemj ut mecRocritatem tutam et frivatam Imgl 

praferofm.^ (De Scripts Brit. 340.) MECirii> bt cum Jovb, sbntit* 





Having tiohe* this^ with the same resolution or irr the same lesentiqeat; 
he advanced to Bamborough in Northumberland ; which was the origiof I 
capital of the Northumbrian kingdom, when the kingdom was only a 
county, and Northumbria confined to Northumberland. This was 
still maintained for Godefrid, though he himself had fled farther to the 
north H ; ' but Athelstan took it*, and pursued his successes by folio wijjig 
Godefrid to his place of retreat This you^g prince, whom we migh( 
pity as unfortunate if we did not consider him as guilty, had pqw de- 
serted Northumbria entirely, and taken refiige with Constantine king of 
the Scots f; the dominions of Scotland then coning no lower than the 
friths of Forth and Clyde, and there meeting the dominions of Northum- 
bria. Athelstan therefore sent his ambassadors to this king, demanding 
the royal refugee from him, and denouncing war against him if he re- 
fused to comply J. Constantine refused, for Athelstan marched on. In 
that vigour of resolution, and with that promptness of action, which, seem 
to have strongly marked the character of this Saxon monarch,^e invaded 
the country of the Scots. Constantine engaged him in the field, l^ut 
Athelstan was victorious §. This blow humbled the honest pride of the 
Scottish sovereign. He found himself obliged to do what he had 
honourably refused before. He prepared to deliver up the king who 
had fled for refuge to him; but took care probably to give him notice of 
his preparation. Godefrid escaped, and threw himself upon the honour 
of an adjoining sovereign. He had little choice to make ; but he n6w fled 
to a king much less able to protect him than the Scottish, yet marked 

IMalmesbury, f. 27. 

• Florence, 348, ** Aldredum— de regi4 urbe— expulit." 

t Malmesbury, f. 27. 

X Malmesbury, ibid, * 

§ Florence, 348, " Kegem Scotorum Conslantlnum — ^praeliovlcitet fugaVlt/* Tine Saxon 
Cbronicic says, that Athelstan invaded Sc.otlapd with forces by lanH and sea, and ravaged 
much of it; two circumstances undoubtedly false, as contradicted equally by the tenour ana 
by the dates of the facts here. He advanced oply towards Scoon, I apprehend, then the seat - 
of the Scottish sovereigns, and ever since ihereforp the scene of theif coronation ; andi in thgr 
^ame train of moulding the past events of history iii order to plea'se the present genersKion of 
readers, of stifling facts in order .to flatter foDy, the Scottish' Chronicle had suppreskd this 

whole transaction. Boccius, iv. 21, 24« ' * . • . ' ^ 



eyt'bjf fiiqi^ (t apprehend) for a high spirit of heroism aftd honour. This 
wa^ f^ug^iua, E.wen, or Owen, the sovereign of Cumbria ||, whose 
kingdom appears, fjpijj, tlie present history ,• to. . have been merely the 
CQunty of Qumberland, and whose capital equally appears; from that^ as 
TVcfU as'ott^r authorities^ to h^ve been Penrith*. 

" ' « I ' / '  ; • « . 

y Ath^lstaA accordingly sent his embassadors to Owen, as he had sent 
to Constantine before. Owen refused, like Constantine ; and Athelstan 
l^egan his march into Cumberland. Owen was unable to face hin^ in the 
fii;)(t j as Constantine /aced; and Athelstan marched towards the capital, 
]i^i|JbK>ut 69Countering any opposition. Owen therefore was obliged to 
3Ub9|it, li^e Constantine ; and prepared, hke him, to give up his royal 
jrefugee'f . But Godefrid again fled; now took the desperate resolution 

|] I^alpieil^pry^ f. 27^ '^ Eu^oiium, regum CMipJ^rQfuni ;" aiid Leiand's C<>llectinie4f ir 
33P/ edition secoipd, 1770, from a chronicle now unknown, *< Owino rege Cumbrorum/' 
BoeciH3, iv. 24, in t^e sottisbhess of falsification, makes Owen a king from the donation of 
Cohstantine. * 

« '• llichardfi's Wehh Dicrionary , '^'Penthyn Rionedd, the 8cat of the pritieea of Cumbria.' 
The full name of Penrith, iherefpre, n Pienrhyn I^iooedd, now contracted into Pen Ritfa» • It 
lyas apparently at first the name of the strong castle, belonging to the king, standing (like ou^ 
own Penryn in Cornwall and Penrin Point in Flintshire) at the tennination of a ridge of liill, 
and thence overlooking the plain or beach below. (Leland's Itin. iv. 52, vii. 58, 60 j Cam- 
den, 639, edit. 1607 ; and Cough's Camden, iii. r88, 189.) The other half of a'name so» 
extraordinarily preserved in the Welsh aiamiscriptiv, refers to the quality of ttie stones and soil 
with and on which it was built ; Ruanaidh (Irish) signifying red, reddish, and Rionnadh 
(Irish) redness ; terms that are now found only in the irish branch of the British language,, 
because they have been contracted in Welsh, in- Cornish, in Armortck,. into Rhydh or Rcthe 
(see Leland's (tin. iv. 56), Rvdh, Ryudd ;. and Penrhyn Rionedd, by this process of contrao* 
tion, shrinking up into Pen Rith, but still meaning the Red Pr-omioenoe. '^ Penrith," notes 
Camden with his usual sagacity, ^' id est,, si e Britannica. lingua, interpretaris. Caput vel 
'* Collis Ruber; rubet enim terra, et saxa e qui bus construitur.'' Mr. Pennant, in his 
Scotch Teur of i769,-*ii. 43, octavo, argue» this castle,, by inference from a recbrd, to be 
of no high antiquity, and not existing even as^ late as the reign of Henry II L when, its 
British appellation proves it to have been built in the time of the Briiom^ when it is actually 
xnentUmed ia the British manuscripts of Wales as the i»eat of the British kings of Cumbria^ 
.and when therefore Mr. Pennant's record can only shew it to have lain dismantM in the time 

• m 

t Malmesbuiy> f. 27^ 


of making a grind push for the recovery of hij Northumbriaii royalty; 
entered the country, accompanied only by one friend, the constant com^ 
panion of his person, and the unshaken sharer of his misfortunes ; yet 
was instantly jmned by several of his natwe subjects, the Danes. With 
these he advanced boldly to the walls of York, the posses8i<m of which 
would give him great advantages. He tried by entreaties to win over 
the citizens, those natural defendants of a city vHien etei^y citiaen wa« a 
lioldier, and the artificial idea of a garrison of r^ulars was yet unknown. 
But no entreaties could prevail upon them. He had recourse to threats ; 
and threats were equally ineffectual. He was in no ^capacity either to lay 
formal siege to it, or to give it a bri* assault. He was obliged to abandM 
his enterprise, and to dismiss, his soldiery ; was then seized witfc his 
friend, and thrown into prison; but found means with him to elude his 
jailors, and escaped. Such are the strange vicissitudes of an adventurous 
life! Yet he retained so much of thfe mean and Danish turn for piracy as 
to embark in a piratical expedition upon the sea ; soon lost his friend by 
shipwreck ; suffered great hardships himself, by land or by water; but aj 
lust, with one of those turns, equally sudden* and violent, which alw^&ys 
mark the mind of barbarians^, repaired as a suppliaAt-*-to the very couit 
of Athelstan himself. There he was received in amity, and entertained 
with magnificence by this honourable, this splendid monarch, who had 
been bred a scholar, even aspired to be an author, and was therefore 
/ making tlie laurels of learning his shade against the heats of war*. 

* Leiand de Script. Brit. 160 : ^ Liquet EtbelstanuftibondrumlibrDnntn fiiisBe anaKOfiin^ 
'' eutidemque (utego inde coRigo) rem litereritm coluisse. Subservient '€t noftne opiwom 
** cujusdam non iti-eroditilaudatorris Ethehtani versiculi : 

<* Extimitit rigidos, ferul& crepitonte, magistros ; 

'^ Et, pofaAs avidis doctrtnae melhi tnedullis^ 

^' Decumt teotros, sed tioii paeriltter, annos. 
•« At qua Gulielmua [Malmesburiciiais] adfert, longfe (inquam) certtora sunt. Scribil «ciikt 
'' Ethebtanum usttmfuisse cnkemo, atque adeo se yidme tUrtrum ab eo seriptum, quamviB ia 
** Hlo Latifut Ungtue puritaiem defUereU Ergone expungeran ex erudttorum albo toBta 
** priucipis nomen, parvii imperfecti styli nfaculft aaperaum ? Non ceiti, otnn tnagnis virii 
'^ Tel tentaTifse ut l4itine scriberent non leve ^it. Mihi eqnidem mfrum irtdetnr, <qao paotD 
^< aliquid lingua peregrini exarare potuerit ; prsesertim^ cum es^et tot Danicarum irniptii^AUM 
<< procellb impetitug.^" 

4 unlettered 


unlettered guest, however, by another revolution of mind as violent and 
as sudden as the former, in four days grew tired of the scene, returned to 
his shipsy and recommenced his piracies^. 

In the mean time Athdstan had reached the vicinity of Penrith, and 

took up his head-quarters to the south of the town, upon the river Eimot 
there, and within the walls of Dacor castle : but Constantine had gene- 
rously come into Cumberland with his faiftily to procure a peace for 
Owen ; had come probably in the very army of the Saxons, the very so- 
ciety of Athelstan ; and now repaired certainly to Owen in the castle of 
Penrith, to recommend submission to him. In Owen's situation, little 
urgency would be required. The only difficulty would be, the preserva- 
ticm of his honour to Aim, who had taken refuge under it. But this dif- 
ficulty was removed probably by acting as Constantine had acted before, 
hy ^ving Godefiid an intimation of his danger, and suggesting an im- 
mediate flight to him. Then Owen came out of his castle with Con- 
stantine, and waited upon the Saxon sovereign at Dacor, on the twenty-;' 
fdnth dgy of July. Such confidence had Owen, like Godefrid and Coni- 
stantine, in the honour of Athelstan ! Passions at once so ferocious and 
so generous do the agitations of war produce in the mind of man ! Th^« 
they both entered into a submissive kind of alliance with him, and swore 
to the fiiithful observance of peace towards him. But in orcjer to lend 
this compact of amity an indissoluble firmness, the binding obligations of 
Christianity were called in ; an infant son of Constantine^s, who had 
singularly been brought with him in this very view, was now baptized ^ 
4ind Athelstan stood godfitther to himf . 


• Malmesbury, f. 27. 

t Florence, 348: '^ liomnes, ubi se videnint non posse strenuitati illius re8istere,pacein ab 
^' eo petentes, in loco qui dicitur Eamotum quarto idus Julii convencrunt,'' &c. Malmes- 
bury, f. 27 : *' Ad locum qui Dacor vocatur venientcs,*' &c* 

This Eugemos, £wen, or Owen, I believe to be the very personage, to whom belongs a re- 

malleable sepulchre in Penrith churchyard, which has never yet been endeavoured to be his- 

' toricalty approprialed. This is sdd, by tradition, to be <^ the grave of one Sir ^wm Cflesaritis 

^^ knight^ in old time afamxms tporrt&ur of great strength and -^stature (the grave being 

^< abont fifteen feet long)^ who lived in these parts, and killed boars {and rvbbersy" Gough, in. 

vouv C 289} 



TCH*J». R 


So far hare I brought Atheistan on his way, in his march ofconquests^ 
towarcj Cornwall ; and so particularly have I delineated his m^ch, in* 
order to throw a just light over this illustrious conqueror of the CornishI 
The very object of his expedition, indeed, was now obtained ; but his* 

* _ _ 

ifSg] " in the forcM of Engloivood, wluchmwch infested tile country," (Gibsoq, z.■\to^K^^ 

This story is " univcrsaHy credited by the vulgar inhabitants of Penrith/' (Archceologia, iL 

48,) ** The common vulgar report is,'* says another writer, •' tha* one Ewen or Otuen Caesa- 

•* riu8, a very «xtraordtnafy person, famous in these parts -for kanting and Jt^kting^ about 

^ 34001 year»ago, whom no hand but the band of death couki overcome, Itea- buned in this- 

^ plaoe« That there oiighi be in restoie timet) in these regions, men. of las^ge gigantic 6guhc% 

^ as thece are now near the Mageltantc Straits," an assertion, let us remember, long priojr 

tojhe repent discovery of them by Captain Byron ; ^' and that they might qffect Roman sur* 

''ttame5a^4£^i;zc]f2a;z5, as- the Atnerieans about Darien do Spanish^ needs not either to be 

* discussed ot denied." (Dr. Todd in Pennant, i. 270, 271.) Thi* traditton faa^foeen so far 

^toafirmed in digging, Ibait '' the great long hand-bones of a man, and a broad-awoid,," faave 

henk found in the grave* (Goijgh, itiv i-Sq.) Nor was- the person, whoever he was» buned^^ 

.4ere *' about ^400 years ago." He was a (MristioMf as appears from the crosses on the piU 

lars at the bead and fbo% of his grave. Bishop Lyttehon', indeed, ia Archaeologia, ii. 48^ 

speaks only of ^^ a cross, which appears towards the summit of one of the pillars ;** but one 

cross is ad competent as two, to prove the Christianity of the interred : yet evtn tht? fiishop*S' 

4>wfl plate shews a oross upon both. So inattentive ean^ antiquaries be at times, tO' the evf* 

.dence %thkh they produce themsehest Dr.. Todd alsonotioes b^A^ as '^^ im) large stone pIF^ 

'^ lars, — cntcitUed towards the top ;'^ and Ml*. Pemiant equaNy described both^ as having < 

" the relievo of a cross upon them." (ii. 40.) The person buried here thus appears evidently 

to have been buried, when Christianity had hetnestallishedy even wheii chnrehyairds kadheet^ 

set outfw sepulture^ This the site, the pi^llars, and the crosses, all unite to shew : and the 

^ery name unites with the history, to prove that grave the sepulchre of this kipg, OwenC^sU" 

tens, who lived at Penrith ia a ^riod when Cbristi:anity was.a9 much established as it is now^ 

and churchyards were equally the repositories of the dead ^ when the Roman name of ^nge- 

nkis Jiad been form^ by the Britons into the seemingly British appeUatioq of Eufen, or 

Owen', when too the additional name of Csrsaridi^^ like that of Cessaryeid for the Romany in 

the old manuscripts of Wales (lUcbards), was assuwed and'given to signify his Roman .er^in- 

Thus Ambrositts Aureliauus, the son of a British Iting, ^^ parer^ti.bu^ purpura ninjiri^i^ in* 

^ dutis" (Gale, 2ivO» ^as a Roman by descent^ <^ Aomax^ gontis" (ibid.J. 




43ictivity df spirit had been whetted by his etertlons, and brought to a fine 
edge b^ hi» sucoessea. lie therefore went on to a new enemy in the 

There were sei'cral kings in North- Wales at this period ; these he re- 
quired to wait upon him at Hereford. Impressed with a strong sense of 
* his power, tliey actually came at his. requisition. Then he ^manded 
that they ^gfhodkl own him for t%eir pajramount lord. They had aheady 
done this in fact^ but were now called upon to do it in form ; yet so 
much more powerful is form than fact upon the mind of man, they were 
Averse to do it. They were obliged, howcvery to submit* ; and Athel- 
Stan, with an edge strll finer upon his sprits, flew to a new enemy fiuther 
in the south. 

South- Wales had only one king at this period, though North- Wales 
had several* Be was denominated by the Saxons the sovere^n of Wenty 
because his capital, called Caer Guent in Welsh, or Venta Silurum in 
liatin, w^ called Went in English* But his personal appellation was 
Werf, He was more resolute than his brothers of North- Wales ; fc* 
fused the submifi^on wMch they had made, and came into the field with 
an army against Athelstan, headmg his victorious Saxons. Atheistan and 
liis Saxons, however, became more victorious still, Wer was beaten in 
battle, and compelled to submit '!j^. Atiielstan then punished his re- 
sistance, by ^men^bering hi« kingdom ; took from him all that narrow 
region which lies between the Severn and the Wye, being the famous 
forest of Dean, made this river to . be what it has been ever since, the 
eastern boundary of Soutli- Wales ;. and annexed that region of forest, as 
it has remained ever since annexed, to the En^ish county of Gloucester §. 


• Malmesbury, f. 27, "North-WaHensium." 

t Florence, 348, " Regcm Uuentorum Wer;" M. Westm. 360, ^* Wlferthutn," a 
Saxon namcj " regem Wentorum ;" and Hoveden, f. 242^ Savile, " Regcm— Wentorum 
*' Wuer/' 

J Florence, 348, " Wer praslio vicH et fiigaviL'* 

§ Malmesbury, f. a8, " Amnem M^aiam Hmitem." Hence Griffin king of South- Wales, 
with some pirates from Ireland^ in 1049 invaded England at this, quarter. '^ Rex et ipsi pariter 

C 2 ^ flumen^ 


But Altheistan had not yet completed his circuit of hostility round the 
island. Floating on a high sea of ambition, and borne on with violence 
by the tide of his successes, he now pushed up to the very margin of th« 
island in the south. Triumphant over the Danes, the Scots, the Cum- 
brians, and the Welsh, he marched with all the splendour of victory, and 
all the power of an empire, to attack the Cornish. Of these, by an 
astonishing fatality of illiterateness, we have not one native history, one 
native law, or even one native coin. We therefore know nothing of 
them in general, as I have intimated already, but what their enemies have 
been pleased to tell us. This, however, is very little as national intelli- 
gence; it is confined to a few solitary incidents, such as (to pass over 
some that are only of slight consequence, or may be noticed hereafter) 
the devastation committed by Egbert in 813, by over-running the 
country ** from eastward to westward*;" the battle fought by his forces 
at Camelford in 823, in which the silence of the Saxon Chronicle con- 
cerning the issue, under the hands of that partial sagacity which is keenly 
on the watch to convert even silence into evidence, would intimate the 
Cornish to have been victorious, but is directly contradicted by another 
history, which says the Cornish were slaughtered f; the battle fought by 
Egbert himself in 835 against those Britons and Danes united, who had 
entered and ravaged England, but had retired at his approach, were pur-- 
sued into Cornwall, were overtaken at Hengeston Hill, and there beaten 
with a considerable slaughter J; with two that I am now preparing to 
relate ; so forlorn and abandoned does Cornwall appear upon the face of. 
our island history § ! 


*' flamen, quod Weage nominatur, transeuntes, Dunedbam incenderunt,'' burnt down the 
town of Dean, ** et omnes quos ibi reperiebant perimerunt." (Florence, 409.) 

* Saion Chronicle. Gibson has translated ^' eastward" by ** australi'' (for ^^ orientali") 

t Sax. Chron. says only, that there was a battle j but Florence adds, that the Cornish 
*' caesi sunt." (P. 287,) 

I Sax. Chron. and Florence, 291. 

§ To these incidents, from Saxon historians, let me just add one that comes apparently 
from a Welsh pen, and has never been noticed before. ^^ Ivor, Cadwaladri filhis,*' says Le- 
land in extracts from an anonymous chronicle of Wales, ** successit. Obitt Cadwaladrus 

'* anno 

CRAfr 1.1 . HISrcmiCAZ^LT SXmVETED, 13 

At that grand aera of confusion to half the gIobe» the dissolution of the 
Roman empire, and the settlement of barharians within it, new nations 
of natives seem to emerge. into notice, as new appellations supersede the 
old, even in regions which were familiar to us before. The Britons of 
Kent, Sussex, and Wiltshire, of Bedfordshire, Cheshire, and Devonshire, 
of Somersetshire, Cornwall, and all England indeed, arise before -us on 
the pages of history, under the new denominations of Weaks, Bryt- 
wealas, WyUse, or Walena*. The Armoricans of Gaule come to us in 
the same " questionable shape," seemingly dilierent from themselves, 
and actually w^earing the di^uising' title of Britons. The latter incident 
therefore haS' given rise to a report of an embarkation which was never 
made in 9ur island, and of a settlement which .was never attempted on 
the continent. The fabulists on both sides of the Channel are loud in 
their assertions of a large migration across it, of which they cannot pro- 
duce one historical evidence, and for which they have only the shadowy 
authority, of a name. They might with equal judiciousness assert an 

^'annoDom. 680. — Bellum apud Heyl in Comnlid. Bellum Gard MailJanc. Bellum Pentun* 
^' In his bellis, regnante Ivory Britones vicerurU SaxofiesJ' (Itin* viti. 86.) IVhere this 
battle was fought at Heyl in Cornwallj is pointed out to us by a circumstance, slight in itr 
self, but usefiil in apphcation. Dr. Borlase is the only person who has observed, that *' at 
'^ the mouth of this Heylford river,*' which peninsulates the region of Menege from the 
rest of Cornwall, and issues into the sea a little to the south-west of Falmouth, ^' there is a 
*' creek still called Forth Sausseuj or Saxon's Port." Yet this creek does not, as the Doctor 
argues, '* thereby shew itself to have been fortnerly Jrequenied by the Saxons," as it proves 
itself to have been merely used by them* Much less does it appear to have been ^^ frequented. 
*^ in the time of Constantius and his brothers." (Borlase's Antiquities, 302, edit, second,) 
This is much too early a date, for the Saxons frequenting a creek so remote and western as a 
Ck)rnish one. It was in fact used by them about three hundred years later. Then they 
landed here, were here attacked, and here defeated with a slaughter so memorable as to fix the 
name of the Saxon Port for ever upon the place, and to be recorded with two other de- 
feats of the Saxons in the same reign, even by the pen of* a Welsh chronicler. The histori- 
cal notice coines with a decisive sway to mark the signification of the name ; and the name 
comes with a striking propriety to indicate the sense of the notice* The port lies . on the 
northern side of the Heyl, but in the Great Map of Cornwall has no denomination at all : it 
has none, even in Borlase's own abstract of that map : it is marked, however, in the former 
as a nameless creek a little east of Durgan. 

• Sax, Chron. p, I4> I5> «o, Z2, 25, 70, 39, 45, 5c, 70, and 23, af. • 

irrupti jn 



irniption of the WeUh. into Kent, and a settlement of the Waliobn» in 
Cheshire*. These new appellations w«rc borne equally with the olit 
during the existrnce of the Roman empire ; were onlj less familiar than 
the* old, at thh period ; and came from various causes - to supersede the 
okl, ia thai. The Britons of Kent were denominated Welsh, whale the 
Romans possessed the island; and were therefore noticed a» Wdlah, at the 
commencement of Saxon hostilities agamst themf. It was tbeir generic; 
nanut • indeed, while that of Cantii was m[erply their provincial or na- 
tional one; they, and all the other tribes which opposed C2esar in his 
50CO7Mf^ expedition, being equally denominated by* the very G&ronicle c£ 
the Saxons, Bry t-walas; even all the tribes south of Severua^a whU^. 
being said in the same Chronicle to have had this waH erected by Scvenisi 
for them as Brit-walum ; and even all the tribes south of both the waHs^ 
Antoninus's, equally with Severas's, being averred as Biyt-walB0>to have; 
implored assistance from Rome in 443 1. So the Gauls of Arinorcca were 
called Britons asraredly, as some Gaxils of Picardy certainly w«re § ; and 
as all the Gauls of our island avowedly were, at the time of the Roman 
reduction of them ; yet were, from some circumstances unknowa to us> 
gefierally called Armoricans then ; and,, from others equally unknown,^ 
were commonly entided Britons afterward. 

Thus the Britons, to the west of the S.evern and the Dee, were denomi- 
natedWealas,orWelisse,by the Saxons ||;. are therefore denonunated Welsh 
by ourselves; and, even as early as the sixth century, entitled their own 
country Wallia of Wales %, yet have in all ages retained equally their 
primary names of Brython and Brythoneg, for themselves and for their 
language. Thus also the Britons of Cornwall, bearing the general title 
4of Welsh, were dbtinctively entitled, at times, the Western Welsh, as 

* Sax* Cbroo. af. 
t Sax. CliroQ« 14. 
% Sax. Chnm. 2, 7, 1 1. 
$ Carte, i« 56. 
}| Sax. ChroQ« 1Q5, 163. 

•^ Taliessin is cited by Dr. Davies, in his Welsh Gfammar, as calling his own eountry:^ 
»dth a singular sort of mgefmoyuaneas, ^ GwyU Wallia,'' or ^' Wild Walea,'* 



SBAp/ 1.11 V mwxomc^hr «w««jEi>r 

4te Britons of WaJea twpe the Northtira*; y^et were f>c<:a3iQiMU^ caHed, 
ji6 the j»OTP we»t€sriy Cornisb. forraerly ware, -tibe <parti«ibii, or Goaitt- 
bdans; their country being oondidjered to to tfce bom }<)p iten«>ii of Bri- 
tain, as CornwaJl waa •called ia its* own Jtanguage, or Kemw^ aa His 
still called in its.kimdre^.Wiguage the Welsh -f. And atjast, by the du- 
^cationof <me nai^e tM^on the other; do pn^fi%ing jfiLmmc to. ff^ia, the 
land and the natives were denominated Conssv-^QAhi^iA^ or Cob^^Wjulu, 
and CotLV-wAhiMK, or CoitsrisH. fidt, hy the very saiine prooesa of 
critical chemistry, the Gallic region at that aoogle of France wbkfa coraS* 
isg[K>nds with this angle of Britain, assumed the very same ^piellation tif 
Comu-gcUlia, or Ceirn-'tvall* A religious clergyiman of the name of 
Paul or Paulinns^:, who (afterwards lent his uame to that city ^ Bue^- 
tagne in which he presided as a bishop, St. F^ul de J^eoa§, ai>d baa 
equally lent it to one of our parishes in Cornwall, denominated Paulin in 
Pope Nicholas's Valor, but in Henry's, as ic^ popular langoagenow, Paul ; 
is aaid to haye lived a hermit in the sixth century '/ upon the i«l|e of Osa^ 
^' wtiicb ia separated in a direct passage from the continent i^Armorka^ 
f^ called CoiCNU G^i.Li£,.by a sea of sixteen paces {{/* In the ^same^ea- 


• Sax. Chron. A. D- 8a8, « North- Wealas ;" A. D- 835, ^' Wcst-Wealas ;*• FTo^ 
rence, 348, " Occidenialium Bjitonuui;" jj^i, " Occidentalium Britofium terrfun <}ua& 
Curvalla vocatur ;" Malu>esbury, f. 27, <* OccivkiUales Britones ^ui Gorjowallofi&es v9!CAa* 
" tur;''and f. 28, " Aquiloa^irifcuA Britanni8*'fpj. those on tbeWy^ , 

+ Cornwallia caikd " Coruubipnsis rejip," 10.eariy.a3 tie .sixth eexituFy, and by the 
writer of what is styled the Register of Ll^aff. Usiier's Bxiu £cdes. Aut.p. 290, ediit. 2d^ 

% Usher, 252. 

5 Usher, ibid. _..',. 

^. I Usher, 290, fipom Ayjnoinw. ^< ]U> Q^-r^insylft* q«J<P i co*j|JwaU,^roi9rf<jan«. re- 

gionis terra, quam Cornu Gallise nominant, pelago sexdecip p^ssiiuna . iti transvQfjsiun 

porrecto sejungitur." What name this- isle of Osa now be^rs, l^ i|»f se cj^^ojns ascertjain. 
It is -^rtainly not Aix, as the correspondency of names leads the mind directly to ^ppose^ 
because Aix is in the pjoviace of Poiloii, not prftagnej.bapg at the mouifa qf the Cbarente, 
the river leading.upto Rocjtifort, ' a^auredly .t)ie ijde ijenorainaled Ssjintes, fram. the 
xesideQce of t^is and other saints iipop .it,« It li^s a Uttlf^ the/South of t,be op<?i^ii^ /m(o 
Brest harbour, ai^4|Ver^ near tbe ^hore; bei»g formerly caJM, I si^pose^Jik^.the isle iif^tl^e 
Charentc, ^Osa^ or Ai?., /^* j?te des S;>i»ts.— Ji'est aeparce d*une poiiitp^^ U Brtta|ne, dans 
/He4io€e8ede KFrnper, que par un canal d'environ 4000 toites^'^ or nearly five miles. 




tury, the sixth, one Budic is said expressly to hive been bom " in Cofeinj- 
" GALLIA;** to have gone into South- Wales; to have there received an 
embassy " from his native r^ion of Cornu-gallia/* inviting him " to 
*' receive the royalty of ArmortcaC' to have reigned accordingly *' oyer all 
'* Armorica\' and to have been visited by a Welsh bishop at " Cornu- 
*' GALLIA, vi^hich was afterwards called Cerniu Budic," from him*. Com^ 
wall J therefore, was the appellation for the whole province of Bretagn^, 
and has surprisingly remained the appellation fttr a prni to the present 
<lay ; a peninsular projection of the coast to thje south of Brest, and near 
the city of Quimper, being called, though little known to be so, Cor- 
KdUAiLLE, or Quimperentin now ; just as our Cornwall is called Comaille 
in French at present, and " Cornu Galliae" in Latin by an English 
writer of the twelfth century +. 

Nor is this all the similarity between the two ^^ chops of the chan- 
nel/* The Damfioman Britons of Devonshire, and their region DomnO" 
nia, aTs called in the middle ageis, were answered by the region Zfow- 
nonee^m the north of BretagneJ. T^ie saints of Cornwall were by the 


(D*Anville*s Motlce de Tancienne Gaule, 596.) The sea has plainly gained upon the isle 
Vitice l\\t days of Paulinus; and thus lias'fomied the breakers so formidable to a coasting 
navigation here, with a channe! between the isle and the Continent, deep enough (a^ the ex- 
perience of our own sailors has very recently proved) to float one of our forty-gun ships of 
war- Yet D'Anville (727) fix^s Osa ^t Ushant, from strangely reading the sixteen paces 
of Aymoinus into twenty-six miles. Ushant was really nahned so, a^ Occident; Nennius 
noticing Armorica, or Bretagne, as '^ad Cumulum occidentalem, i. e. Crut-Ochictenil^*' fbf 
Crug Ochident. CC. xxiii.) 

^ Usber^ 291 ; '^ Natus de Comugallia;— de nativa su& regione Comugallii; — ^ad reci- 
piendum r^um Armoricas gentis; — per totam Armoricam tcrram; — Comug^Iliam^ quae 
** postca vocataCeriitu Budic." 

t Malmesbury, 18 and .19, " Cofnu Galliae." 

' X Histoire de Bretagn6, par Dom Qui Alexis Lobineau, 1707 ; a work more dign^&ed in 
the encouragement than in the execution, if I may judge from the earlier part of the whole, 
torn. !• 6. ^' Lc nom de DomnofiSe, que lesf Bretons dcnnerent 'a la partie septentrionale 
'^ de la province." (i. 91.) '^"Tcute la Domnon^e,'c*e8t a dire, les dioceses de S. Brieuc, dc 
" Treguer, de Dol, et deS. Malb.'*' In the Life of I^aul, thebi8h<»p of Leon^ we find him 
atteoded at one time by ^' 'Indiial<i coghomento Candido^ D&moQonensif patriae magiia ex 

' « parte 

Armoricans adopted for their saints^ and assumed for their cotmttj-^ 
fnen§. Even particular appellations of places are exactly the same in 
both regions II . The communication between Bretagn^ atid our Corn- 
wall appears to have been great in the sixth century *, to have been con^ 
tinued for several centuries afterwards f , and to have lasted as late as the 
middle of the sixteenth J; even (I suppose) till the incorporation of 
BretagmJ into the realm of France in 1532, annihilated eventually all pro- 
vincial connexions, and absorbed them in the general interests of na- 
tional policy. Tliat, howe%"er, did not (as may be presumed by those 
who never contemplate more than a single grain of sand at a time, who 
therefore do not ever consider it as in union with the whole mass) generate 
the identity of names in the two regions, but continue them ; did not 
finite with the identity of language, just as wonderfully preserved in 
Bretagn^ as in Cornwall, by the long detachment of both from the rest 
vf <he country, to create, but to trammif, local appellations exactly the 
same in both. Just in this very manner we see at or about the con- 
cluding residence of the Romans upon the isle, Cimbri in Cornwall, 
Cymro in Wales, and Cumbri m Cumberland § ; Oimabii, or Cornabii, 
in Scotland, with Camabii, or Cornavii, m Cheshire, and C^rrnabii ih 
Cornwall; Damnii or Damnonii, in Scotland; Damnii in Ireland; Jhrni- 
nonii, Domnonri, or Dirmnonii, in Devonshire [f. So clearly was all this 
coincidence of appellations derived, not, as nodding criticism or di^m- 

parte dace nobillMtno*" (ITsher, 29a.) Malmesbury, 18, '^ Domnonia quseDevenescldfe,'* 
Florence^ 362, '^ In Domnoniai et in ipsA Cornabi&*'' 

§ Histotre de Bretagne, i. 9, 

I Histoire, i. 92, ^' Kcrahes, autrement Carhais*" So Carbayes in Cornwall is sorne^ 
times written Cherryhayes* See also iv. 5^ hereafter, for CcrsulU 

* Usher, 290. 

t Usher, 293* 

X Ldand's Itin. ii. 114. 

$ In LUvarcb Heti, a bard of Cumberland, but a refugee in Powig, we have the latter 
country called " Powys paraduys Gymri." (Lhuyd, 259.) 

I Ptolemy, Bichard, and Solinus. These and other variations of the last name, as Donit, 
Dumnani, Dumnunnii, in Ravennas and Antoninus, serve to evmce, that Danmonii, as it 
has been recently affected to be read, and as lUchard^s map actually reads it, is only a false 
formation of the word« 

T0L« I. D ing 


ing tradition would willingly surmise, firom the successive propagation of 
colonies, but, as all the facts unite to attest, from the sami^ circumstances 
attracting the same appellations in the same language! The last name 
in all its variations originates from a circumstance still existing univer- 
sally among the natives; the practice of fixing their houses in the bottoms^ 
to shelter themselves from the winds, that beat with uncomrtian violence 
upon this exposed point of the island; a practice familiar to this, with 
other regions of the isle at first, but presei^ved still in this, because of 
that violence. In the other regions, the wild elements of the isle have 
been tamed, by the excision of those woods or forests, and by the drains 
ing of those manshes, mosses, or lakes> which were continually engen- 
dering cold and wind; while the protrusion of the land in one long, but 
gradually contracted prominence from Somersetshire and Dorsetshire, 
to meet the extended waves of the vast Atlantic, and to encounter the 
storms of the stormiest part of it, the Bay of Biscay, is a geographical 
particular which must remain for ever*. 

Thus circumstanced, the Damnonian Britons to the tenth century 
maintained their ground against the Saxons, as far to the east as the 
river Exe. Such wei;e the dimensions of Cornwall in 927 1 The Cornish 
then preserved nearly all their old possessions safe from the rapacity of 
their S^on auxiliaries. Their capital, Exeter, they had lost ; but they 
had equal access to it with the Saxons themselves, it being all open or 
un walled, and had equal habitations in it-f-. In. this manner had the Cor- 
nish and the English lived for some generations; mixing together at this 
common point of their confines, and preparing their spirits gradually for 

•Dufti (W.)i8clcep, asDoun (A.) is, and Dvvnfder (W.) depth or deepness,. Dyfuciut (W.) 
Devonshire, Dyfet (W.) the Demetse of Wales, and the Dobuni alias Boduni, the inhabit- 
ants in the bottoms of Gloucestershire, as opposed to the dwellers on the Cotsvvold hills, or 
to the Otadini of Northumberland. Yet the Osti-Damnii of Strabo probably, and tbe Fir- 
Donihnon of Ireland, certainly are derived from colonies^ as the accompanying. Fir-Bolg of 
the latter equally are. History is thus to be the leader^ not (as she is too often made) 
the follower, of Etymology. 

t Malmesbury, 28, " Excestra, quam ad id temporis aequo cum Anglis jiire inhabi- 

<< tirant." 

5 .... ^j^jj 


a fiill incorporation. But Athelstan now came. He^ wanted not to dis- 
turb the serenity, yet resolved to have his sovereignty acknowledged by 
the king of Cornwall, as it had already been by the kings of Wales. 
HowEL was then king J; bearing a name as familiar in Cornwall still, as 
it formerly was in Wales. But our Howel was as little inclined as his 
brothers of Wales, to own the supremacy of Athelstan. He even came 
into the field, like the king of South- Wales, to engage in battle with the 
Faxons. Athelstan, therefore^ attack^ him with vigour§; The battle 
was plainly fought near Exeter, and probably upon Haldon Hill- Howel 
and his Cornish were beaten, asWerand his Welsh had been before I|. 
This victory was decisive; aU resistance was xrushed at onoe,' and the 
crown of Cornwall became subordinate to the crown of England. Corn- 
wall also, like South- Wales, lost much of its territories. With its share 
of Exeter, it lost all its land betwixt the Exe and the Tamar. All De- 
vonshire now became for ever a part of England. The Tamar no^ 
formed, as it forms at this day, the contracted limit between England 
ai^d Cornwall*. And this was the aera of the first subjugation of the 
Cornish to the English -f-. 

, Yet the subjugation was little more than nominal in its efficacy. It 
affected the sovereign, but reached not to the subject. It deprived the 
former of that independency, which is generally so dear to the heart of 
every individual^, and so material in its consequences to a sovereign. But 

X Florence, 348, " Regem — Occidentalium Britonum Huivalum" He is called Humval 
by M. Weslm. 360; Hawaldy by Hoveden, 242 ] Huwal^ by the Chronicle of Mailros, 147, 
Oxon, 1684 ; and Hoel by Higden, 262. Gale, vol. i. I note vol. i. of Gale, though the 
title- p»ge promises only one volume, and has deceived many by its words; because the 
very next page speaks of volumes two: ** continentur in prima vohimine," &c. *' conti- 
nentur in sectmdo volamine,'' &€. This real king of C<Mi3waII is all unnoticod by Dr* Bor* 
lase^ 410, while a number of imaginary kings or princes is specified by him ; just as the idol 
was worshipped, while the Deity was forgotten. 

§ Malmesbury, 27, 28, ^* Impigre adorsus." . 

I Florence, 34?," " Huivalum — praelio vicit et fugavit.'' The name, then, wbuld be 
derived from the incident, Heehdon corrupted iHto Hal-don. • • 

• Malmesbury, a8 : " Ab Excestra— cedere compuHt^ tertninum provinciae .su« cilra 
^ Tambram fluvium statuens." 

t Higden, 263, " Cornugalliam subegit." 

D 2 S\icll . 

30 THE ejasEjymAz ov cokkwali: [chap. i. 

such an MMlepen^encj is only a feather of giass^ gfittering' in the cap of a 
subject, and reader at every motion to drop into pieces. Yet nationaJt 
pride useiulfy considers it in an important light ; thinks it as solid as it 
is glittering, and frequently exerts itself with a virtuous energy, to pre- 
serve or to recover it. Howel and his C5omish appear to have done so at 
present, as we find Atbdstan entering the country, mn£ years aftenoardy. 
traversing it with an army from end to end, then embarking his foFces 
at the western extremity of it, and with them reducii^ the Sylley isles. 
These were an appendage to Cornwall, which must always haye belonged 
to its domain. These, theref<Mre, had submitted in Q27, with the rest of 
the kingdom ; and could only be in arms against Athelstan at present, 
because afii Cornwall was. The Cornish had thrown off their con- 
strained submission to the English. Athelstan had entered their country,, 
to reduce them. Then their king Howel, like Godefrid of Northumbrian 
Constatitine of Scotland, Owen of Cumberiand, and the kings of Wales,. 
found all active resistance v^n. For that reason, no battles were fought 
by him at thi» invasion. Had there been any, history must ha^e 
noticed them as it notices the ofne before. Hi^ory in general, and 
the history of this period in particular, is nothing more than a nar- 
ration of battles. The Cornish, like the Northumbrians and Cumbrians, 
submitted every where without opposition. Athelstan advanced towards 
the Land's End, in order to embark hia army for the Sylley isle& About 
iZ-tiA^of^rt^. four miles from it, but directly in the present road tp it, as he was 

equally pious and brave, he went into an oratory, which had been 
erected there by a holy woman of the name of Burien, that came from 
Ireland, and was buried in her own chapel. Here he knelt down in 
prayer to God, full of his coming expedition against the Sylley isles, and 
^uj^Ucating for success to it; then, in a strain of devoutness that is little 
thought of now, but was very natural to a mind like his, at once m;um^ 
ficent and reHgious, he vowed, if God blessed his expedition with suc- 
cess, to erect a college of clergy where the oratory stood, and to endow it 
with a large income. So, at least, said the tradition at St. Burien*s 
itself, no less than two centuries and a half ago ! And a tradition like 
this, with all the eongruities of history upon it, and with that coikteral 
support from history in the main point, which I shall soon produce, be- 


comes historf itself. He set out with bis armament for Sylley. From 
the necessity of crdssing the sea, and so trying his fortune upon a new 
element, the success appeared dubious, even to the vigorous nnnd of an 
Athelstan. He succeeded, however; reduced all the isles, and returned 
victorious to the Land's End. He bad thus completed the conquest of 
Cornwall. He su^red, indeed, the sovereign of it still to retain the 
name of sovereign for his life ; as, in a charter given by Athelstan; in 
838, and dated at Dorchester, the names of some " sub-reguli/' or sub- 
ordinate kingis who subscribed it, are '^ Eugenius/' the king of the Cum- 
brians before, and " Howell,*' the preceding king of the Cornish J. But 
Athdbtan exercised all the rights of sovereignty himself. This he did in 
intention^ when he vowed the college to St. Burien; and this he did in 
act, wlien he ordered it to be erected on his return. He went to the 
pratory of St. Burien again ; presented thanks to God for his success, 
where he had prayed for, it ; ordered a church to be erected there for the 
use of the parish, and a college of clergy to minister in it; assigned i£ 
a quantity of lands, that had fallen to him by right of conquest, for its 
endowment ; and gave it the privileges of a sanctuary. But, what forms 
a strong proof of the general justness of the tradition, tfie church is 
actually noticed in Doomsday Book, about a hundred and thirty years 
only after this period, as a college of canons^ even then, possessing 
9n estate denominated Eglos^Burietiy from its attachment to their 
churoh, yet exempt from all assessments whatever. This even conti- 
nues to the present moment a royal Jree chapel in the patronage of the 
crown, and with a jurisdiction so independent of the ordinary, that the 
only remaining member of the whole body, its head the dean, receives 
his institution, and takes his oaths before the king himself, as his or- 


J Malmesbury, lib. v. De Pontif. in Gale, i. 364. *' Subscripscre sub-reguli, Eugenius, 
** Howell, Morrant, Indoal." The two laBt were assuredly kings of North- Wales. 

} LeIancUft Itin. iii. i4 : '* S. Buriana, an holy woman of Ireland, sumtyme dwellid In 
this place, and there maiie an oratory. King Etbdstan, founder of S. Burien's college, 
and giver of the privileges and sanctuarie to it. King Etfaeistan g<nfng hens, as it .is said, 
onto Sylley, and returning, made^ exvoto, a collegie where theoiatorie was.'' Camden, 







[char. 1. 

All this denotes.the high exertion of sovereignty by Athelstan in the 
liveliest colours. He seems to have then made a triumphant progress 
through the countiy, and to have marked his movements by equal acts of 
pious liberality in equal displays of his Cornish sovereignty. The tov^m 
of Padstow, in the days of Leland, considered Athelstan to be " the 
*' chief gever of privileges onto it*;*' that is, as appears from the same 
language concerning the college and church of St. Burien itself f, to be 
the builder, of its church, the erector of its college, and the presenter of 
the lands to both. He thus became the second father of the town. " This 
'* toujiy^ adds Leland, " is atincient, bering the name of Lodenek yn 
" Cornische J;" which intimates only the quality of its site, and signifies 
merely the bank of the river on -which it stands §. That this was a port- 
town In the days of Cornish independency, is confirmed by an incident 
©f the sixth century. In 5 1 8 Pctrock, the son of a king of Cumbria, 
who had resigned his right of succession to the throne, in order to form 
himself with some others into a monastic society ; who had afterwards 
gone over to Ireland, spent twenty years there in the cultivation of letters 
or the study of the Scriptures, and then retired into Cornwall; landed at 

136 : ** Viculus nunc illi insidet, St. Burien's, olim EgUs BurienSy i. 0. Ecclesia Burienae,— 
• " dictus, Burieiiae religiosae mulieri Hibemicae sacer. — Huic, ut fama pcrhibet, asyli jus 
*^ concessit rex Athelstanus, cum e Syllinis insults htc victor appulisset, Ceftum est, ilium 
** ecceUsiam htc construxisse^ et sub Gulielmo Conqucstore canonicorum hie fuisse collegium, 
" et territorium adjaeens ad eos spcctdsse." Doomsday Book, fol. 121 : " Canonici S. 
" Berrione tenent Eglos-berriCf quae fait libera tempore regis Edwardi. Ibi est i hida, 
'^ terra viii carucatarum. Ibi est dimidium carucatse et vi villanl et vi bordarii et xx acrce 
" pasturse. Valet x solidos. Quando comes terram accepit, valebat xl solidos." See also 
Tannei's Notltia Monasiica for Cornwall, edit. 1787, by Nasmilh; and my v. 1. hereafter. 

• Leland's [tin. ii. 114. 

t Leland's Itin. ii. 18 : " King Ethelstan, founder of S.Burien's college, and — giver of 
'^ the privileges — to it." 

^ Itin. ii. 114. 

§ Lhed-ytnW (Welsh) is the coast or border of a country (Lhuyd under OraJ, Llydaw 
(Welsh and Cornish), of or belonging to a shore, latinized into Armuirc-/^/Aa;za in the 
middle ages (Usher, lag), Leiewiccion (Nennius, xxiii.), LeteoCf Lati, Letavienses (Usher, 
itid.J , Lidwiccium (Sax. Chron. p. 88, 1 15), the inhabitants of BreUgne, and Ladu or Ladn 
^Borlase)^ a hank. Lodenek, therefore, is the brim or brink of the water. 



this port- town, as history unites with tradition to shew*. In this state 
Athelstan found the town, carrying on an intercourse with Irelandf , 
and buik upon the bank of the Alan ; but he most probably settled a 
COLONY OF English at it, as the ancient and Cornish name of the town 
was now thrown off by the inhabitants ; and as the town now took the 
new, the English appellation of its second founder, being called, says 
Leland, *' yn Englisch, after the trew and old writinges, Adelstow, 
*' Latin^, Locus Athelstani J.'* This assertion of Leland' s, however 
extraordinary in itself, however unnoticed by Dr. Borlase, yet so signally 
coinciding with history, is decisively corroborated by the testimony of a 
record ; the church of this town being noticed as late as Pope Nicholas's 
Valor in 1292, by the title of " Ecclesia de Aldestowey instead of 
^^ Adelstowe^.'^ For that very reason, by the saint superseding the 
sovereign, the name of Adelsfow has been since commuted into Petrock-^ 
stow, or Pad'Stotv ; and this Cornish town bears a name that is half of it, 
if not the whole, purely English at present |(. 

The tow^n of Bodmin also, in Leland' s time, retained a grateful memory /g 
of Athelstan s kindness to it. That '* toune," he says, '* takith king 
" Edelstan for the chief erector and gyver of privileges onto it^." This 
was eriually as at Burien, by founding its monastery, and so creating its 

* Usher, 292 and 526, from Tinmouth's Life of Petrock, and from Leiand's account of 
him in his treatise De Script. Brit. But in Leland's Itin. viii. 54, we have these extracts 
from an ancient Life of Petrock, the very authority on which Tinmouth perhaps, and Leland 
certainly, writes : '* Fix VitaPelroci, * Petrocus genere Camber [Cumber], Petrocus 20 annis 
" studuit in Hibernia*," &c. Tradition still reports the fact of his arrival at Padstovv. See 
chap. iv. sect. vi. hereafter. 

t This intercourse continued to the days of Leland, Itin. ii. 114; though it is all lost 

j: Itin. ii. 114. 

§ See Wilkins*s Concilia, ii. 180, for settling the varied date of this Valor, 

IJ Camden, 140 : " Pacf^/ou/— con tracte pro Pelrock-stow, ut in Sanctorum histonis legi- 
'* tur.^' Leland's Itin. ix. xxxii. : ^* Adelstow, id est, Aedelstani Locus, oppidum piscato- 
*' ribus cognitissimum, quod viilgo Padstow vocatur, argumentOy et quidein inaniftstOy est 
*^ victoria," of Athclstan's yictotioUS reduction of Cornwall. 

^ Leland's Itin. ii. 115. 



town. *' The first founder/' adds Leland from the very chaxitrs of dona* 
tion to the monastery, ** wa* Athelstan ;*' then annexes on the margin 
what marks the actual year of the foundation, and serves to ascertain the 
identical year of all these transactions ; his pen giving us these numerals 


thus corrected, " An*. * 926 f .'* 

^^C}^A/yru!uy^ . Yet another e\^ent of history coincides with all in its general notation, 

and confirms all by its particular adjunct. Athelstan appears from his own 
charter, existing at Saint German's in the days of Leland, to have thert 
made donations of lands to the church, and to have ihere given a bishop 
to the diocese, in the same year ©36, but on the fifth of December 
in it J. 


The entire conquest of Cornwall being thus shewn to have been made 
by Athelstan in 93O; and Athelstan being thus proved to have signtdized 
the year of his conquest, by the wise measures which he took in that year 
for securing them, by conciliating his newly-acquired subjects, with acts 
of pious Uberality to their country, and with deeds of devout reverence to 
their saints ; I go on to point out what was the seat of the Cornish 
bishoprick, St. German's or Bodmin, before or under this new supremacy 
of England. Gross mistakes have been made upon the subject, but I hope 
to rectify them. The study of antiquarian literature is yet in its infancy 
only among us ; and the manly deduction of inference from premises ju- 
diciously stated, has been little practised hitherto by our antiquaries. 

To St. German^s^ as Camden tells us, *' the bishop's see was trans- 
^^ lated/* from what place he. does not express, but certainly means from 

t Leland's Coll. i. 75, ^' PruDiu fundator ^thelsianus.'* 

X ColL i. 75, '^ Ex charts donat. /StheUtani anno D°^ 936^ nonis Decemr 

5 Bodmin^ 


Bodmin, " for greater safet}' in the time of the Danish wars;" though, 
in the very line preceding, he acknowledges St. German's to be merely 
" a village" at that period. Where then could possibly exist *' the greater 
" safety" of the see§ ? " The bushopes sea," with more explicitness adds 
Norden, who wrote his work in 1584, '' was planted here [at St. Ger- 
^' man's] in the Danish troubles, brawghte hytherjram Bodman;^ or, as 
Norden writes still more explicitly in another place, '' one Herstane, 
** about a' 906, was consecrated bushop" of Cornwall, *' whose see was 
'* at Bodmyn, and called St. Petrocks, whiche churche, with the cloyster, 
♦* was consumed by the Danes, and then was the see removed to St. Ger-- 
^* mans^.*' But Dr. Borlase subjoins to both, with an astonishing confu- 
sion of ideas, what tells us nothing besides the translation of the see from 
Sodmin to St. German's. ** King Athektan/' he cries, ^' is said to have 
«' appointed one Conan bishop here (A.DvQ86). King Edred, brother ^^^^ Cmc€^. 
^* to Athelstan, who b^an his reign in g40, and died in Q55 (Spefed; 

$ Camden, 139: ^' S. German's viculum, ad quern in Danico turbine sedes epiBcopales 
^^ timor transtulit.' ' In 138 he speaks concercring Bodmin ; '' Clarius olim [fuit] dignitate 
'^ episcopali — ; verum postea — episcopalis dignitas ad S. Germans fuit franslata." Gib* 
son, 21, translates ^.' viculum" in the former passage, ^' a Utile village/' Mr. Gougfa, i. g, 
renders it equally '^ a little village." But both have thus shewn themselves inattentive to 
their author's language, he adding a word of diminution to the term when he means to cou< 
tract the idea. Thus in 541 he calls Holyhead in Anglesey, ** /ewtti5 viculus." Yet Mr. 
Gough, ii. 566, translates this equally *' a little village;" and Gibson, 8ia, renders it 
'^ a small village." Camden distinguishes, but they will not discriminate. Mr. Gough 
particularly appears here, what I believe he may be fairly pronounced in general, a translator 
of Camden — from Gibson ; avoiding some gross mistakes in Gibson, but setting his feet 
carefully in Gibson's steps ; yet he has once tripped dangerously, by not so setting ; when 
what Gibson, p. iv. renders " except the olive, the vine, and some other fruits peculiar to the 
** hotter climates, Britain producetb all things else in great plenty," Mr. Gough translates 
in this astonishing manner, i. 11, '* besides the olive and the vine, and other fruit-trees 
'* natural to wanner climates, the soil produces corn in considerable quantities." Here 
almost every variation from Gibson is a deviation into error; but the first is so monstrously 
erroneous as to make his author speak the very reverse of what he means, even to plant 
Britain with '* the olive, the vine,, and some other fruits peculiar to the hotter climates." 

* Speculi Britannise pars 93 and 32^ rightly supposed in account of the author prefixed^ 
from the mention in Dedication to James I, of meeting Don Antonio in the West, to have 
been written in 1584. 

VOL. I. E Chron. 




Chron. p. 34^), is also said to have ordained St. GermatCs to he a 
bishop's see ; but, as all histories agree, that the bishop of Cornwall did 
not remo/vefrom Bodman till the year 98I, it is very unlikely that t;hcre 
*' should be a bishop here before that time, as bishop Tanner rightly ob^ 
*^ serves f ; neither does it seem necessary that there should be two 
bishops in so narrow a slip of land as Cornwall, and but one at Crediton 
for all Devon, a country of so much larger extent. The following par- 
ticulars may serve in some measure to discover the truth. I find Edred 
'* a benefactor to the see of Bodman ; for Henry III. confirmed to the 
" monks there the manor of Newton, in the same manner as king Edred 
*' had granted[/ it J. Very likely this was given in order to augment the 
*' revenues of the bishopric there ; and, for tlie same reason, he m^ht 
*' have appointed the bishop of Bodman to be bishop of St. German's too. 
*' Again: Conan is said to be the name of the first bishop, placed here by 
^' king Athelstan. I find also that Conan was second bishop in the see 
" of Bodman, in the time of king Athelstan ; it is possible therefore that 
'* Athclstan might annex his new priory of St. GermcLU to the see ofBodn 
'* man, for the better maintenance of the episj^opal dignity, and [might 
*' have] ordered also that St. Germans should partake of- the episcopal 
" title ; by which disposition I imagine that Conan, at that time bishop of 
'' Bodman, became bishop of Bodman and St. Germans too ; — and this 
" might ^ve occasion to the mistakes of St. German's being one bishopric. 

t Tanner's Notitia Monastica, Cornwall, St. German^s : '* King EtheTstan \%saidio have 
** made one Conan bishop here, A. D. 936 ; though it seems more probable that the epis- 
** copal see for Cornwall was not fixed here till after the burning of the ^)i8hop's house and 
'^ cathedral church at Bodmin/^ We thus see the grand authority on which Dr. Borlase 

X Tanner, Bodmin, though the Doctor has no reference, *' Mon, Angl. — tom. 11. p. 5, 
** cart. 57. H. J, m. 9. confirm, cartam Eadredi regis priori ct canonicis de Bodmine, de 
<* manerio de Niwetone." Thus afl the Doctor's reasoning is either Tanner's own,' or 
founded upon Tanner's notices. ^ 

A Jove principium; Musae Jotis omnia pkna. 
But let me add, in order to prevent an immediate mistake in my reader, that Dr. Borlase 
proves " Edrid a benefactor to the see of Bodman,'' by adducing a donation from him *"* to 
«* the m^nks there," or (as the deed of donation more explicitly speaks itself <« priori et 
** canonicis de Bodmine." 




'' and Bodman another; but theie things I offer only as conjectures* ^ 
I shall not stop to expose this mass of conjectures, all pleading a false ) 

probability of reason against a positive assertion of history, all founded 
upon a false assumption, and all tending to a false conclusion. I shall 
only shew the realit}% and leave these reveries to die away at its side. 

*' In the division of the Wcst-Saxon bishopric/* as Malmesbury in- 
forms us, ^' this is observable, that be who had his see at Winchester 
*' possessed two counties, Hampshire and Surry ; the other, who had his 
" at Shirebum, possessed Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Berkshire, Somer- 
'' setshire, Devonshire, and Ck}rmvcdl--On the death of Ethelward," 'vu. ^^if^ cv^ 
bishop of Sherbbrn, " the West-Saxon episcopate ceased for seven years> tloi A^^^^av^Jc^- yo j . 
^' under the compelling violence of hostility. But at last Pleymuhd, 
*' archbishop" of Canterbur)% " and king Edward the son of Alfred, 
*' obliged by the threats and edicts of the Pope — , appointed five bisho^ps 
" instead of tw o, EUiclm to the church of Wells, Edulf to that of AtliJAto^ 

" Crediton, Werstan to that of Shireburn, Athdstan to that cfCwnwalU ^^*^ 
*^ Fidestan to that of Winchester. Ethelm therefore had Somersetshire, 
** Edulf Devonshire, Athelstan Cornwall-f.'' That Cornwall /Ae» formed, 
or was then to form, a bishopric of itself] is evident from this appoint- 
ment of Athelstan to it, and of Ediilf to Devonshire. This was so early 
as 910, because Fidestan, we know, '* feng to biscopdome on Winte- 
" cestre," or became bishop of Winchester in that year J. But it must 

have X 

* 'Borlase, 38^^ 

t Malmesbury, f. 140: ^' In divisione WesUSaxontcl episcopatus, bee observatum palani 
^^ est, ut qui Wintonise sederet, haberel duos pagos, Hamptonensem et Sudreiensem; alter . 
'^ qui Schlreburnias, haberet Wiltunensem, Dorseteasem, Beruchensem, Sotnersetensem, 
DoQinotTiensem, Cornubiensem.*' Malmesbury, 142 : ^ Sighclmo sQcoess(t£tbe1wardus, 
quo mortuo cessavit episcopatus West-Saxonum annis septem, vi scilicet hostilitatis 
cogtnte. Postmodoni vero Pleymundus archiepiscopus, et rex Edwardus, filius Elfredi, 
^^ minis et edietis Jt'ormost Papae coacti, quinque cpiscepos pro duobus faceFe,-«^theImum 
^ ad Wellensem ecclesiam, Edulfum ad Cridiensem, Werstanum ad Schirebumensem> 
'^ Athelstanum ad Cornubiensem, Fidestaaum ad Wintoniensem* Habebat ergo Ethelmus 
*' Somersetam, Eldulfus Domnoniam, Athelstanus Cornubiam.'* 

^ Sax. Chron. This dale in a work of such authority as the Chronicle, with the suppres- 
sion of the name of Formosus^ as then pope, who died in 896, removes at once all the 

s a difficulties 





have been a part of one, many centuries before. As the Britons, on the 
Roman dereliction of the island, naturally lost the Ronum divisions of 
provinces, and relapsed again into their only divisions by realms; so, 
every realm becoming a bishopric, Datnnonium formed at once a king-- 
dom and a prelacy. Thus does the episcopate of Damnonium tnount 
up for its origin, even to the middle of the fifth century ! This had its 
seat undoubtedly at £:xeter, equally the capital of the realm and the 
metropolis of the bishopric; continuing to have it as long as the kingdom 
of the Damnonii continued entire^ But when Damnonium, east ^ the 
Exe, was reduced by the Saxonfe, and Exeter itself was possessed otily in 
part by the Cornish, under the permission too of the English; a new 
capital and a new metropolis must have been appointed, by the Dam- 
nonii west of the Exe. At what time this event happened, and Exeter 
lost its civil with its spiritual supremacy over Cornwall, we may ascer* 
tain by these successive incidents of history. 

*^9^^ ^ In 577, ** Cuthwine and Ceawlin fought with the Brytons, and slew 
■i^ScLT^^rrvL^ " three kings, Commail and Condidan and Farinmail, in the place that 

*' is called Deorham,'* Durham near Marshfield in the south of Glou- 
cestershire, and not far from Bath; *' and took three chesters, Gleawan- 
•* cester,'* or Gloucester, *' and Cyren-cester, and Bathan-cester," or 
Bath§. The Saxons thus entered upon the north of Somersetshire, in 
their way towards Devonshire. In 584, " Ceawlin and Oiitfia," the 
same as Cuthwine before, " fought with the Bryttons in th^ place that is 
'* named Fethanleag; and Cuthan was there slain: and Ceawlin took 
** many towns, and spoils and treasures without number, and then returns 
'* to his own a^ain^'^ This was plainly, from the last stroke, not an in- 
vasion of conquest, like the former, but an incursion for plunder only: 

difficuhiea which have been so powerfully raised against the common date of 905 for Uua* 
fact, by the worthy, acute, and judicious Wharton, in his Anglia Sacra, i, 55^ 5554 He- 
inclines to 909 ; yet Wilkins, in Concilia, i. 2oi> ao2, goes back to 905, without noticing 
the reasons of Wharton against it. Thus is knowledge kept by the leaden weights of D^i<> 
gence, in a continual state of oscillation, 

$ Sax. Chron. . » 

I Sax. Ctiron. 



and an iacursion so ^ into the conntry of the Britons, that a retreat 
back from it into the English possesaions was considered as an incident 
memorable enough for notice, even in so compendious a history. The 
ficenaof the battle>- therefore, was not, as has been hitherto supposed, 
Fretheme on the Severn; but some place of the name of Featley, if the 
old appellation is still preserved, or of some name a little similar, if 
that is lost, and certainly very far within the possessions of the Britons 
at the time. For these reasons I suppose the bold incursion to have 
reached as far as Chudleigh in Devonshire, the latter half of this appel-» 
lation being the same as the latter half of the other, and the place itself 
about nine miles to the west of Exeter; the Saxon king and his brother 
to have been there encountered by the Damnonii, and the brother slain ; 
peaultn himself to have been very severely handled, yet to have made 
good his retreat with all his plunder; and the old name of Fethan-hag^ 
or Feat^lejjf, to have been superseded among the Saxons afterward, in 
consequence of Cuthas or Chutas death and burial there; by that of 
Chif^d-leighj'. So the castle in the Isle of Wight, which was taken 
from the Britons by Cerdic in 530, and given to his nephew Wihtgar, 
an appellation then, perhaps, the same as ffTdtaker now ; is denominated 
by the Saxon Chronicle in the very year 530 itself, fFiktgara'^byrig, 
Caresbrook castle at present, merely from the circumstance of Wihtgar 
being buried there in 544 J. But this incursion was followed by its 
natural consequence, an invasion. In 614, '* Cynegils,** king of West- 
Saxony, *' and Cwichelm** his son, " fought at Bramdune,*' Bampton 
upon the river Batham, in the north of Devonshire, on the confines of 
Somersetshire, and along the very line of the Saxon progress from Bath 
towards Exeter; '' and slew two thousand and forty-six of the Weala,** 
or Welsh of Cornwall§. They gained the battle ; counted the slain of 
their enemies, and then, in aU probability, reduced the whole country to 
the east of the Exe. We accordingly find the east of Devonshire so far 
under the power of the Saxons in 765, that one of their royal family, 

t Malmesbury, f. 5, calls him expres&Iy ^' Cuda;*' and Huntindo% t 180, Savile, caih 
him « Cutha," and " Chuta/' 
X Sax. Chron. 
§ Sax* Cbroiu 

4 who 


who had been slain at Merton in Surry, was brought to Axmimter for 
intermeat*. We even find the inhabitants so thoroughly anglicized 
before the days of Athelstan, as to have forgotten all their British affec- 
tions, and to have adopted all the Saxon. In 851, 1' Ceorl, alderman,** 
or Saxon governor of East-Devon, '* with the shire of Defena, fought 
*' the heathen Danes at Wicgan-burch," or Wembury, near Ply- 
mouth, ^^ made a great slaughter of them, and gained the victory -f; 
But at an earlier period, in the year 833, we see them actually irwading 
the country of their Cornish brethren, and SLCtixoiily pushing into it as far 
as Camelford in Comwalll That year " the Weala fought, and the 
^' Defna, at Gaful-fordX^' 

In this condition of Devon and Cornwall, the former consisting only 
of the smaller half of Devonshire, yet assuming the title of the whole, , 
and the latter comprising all the great remainder ; the unsubdued Dam- 
nonii necessarily formed a new capital for their kingdom, and a new see 
for their bishopric. They appointed, I believe, Leskard for their capi- 
tal, and Saint German's for their see. 

Leskard appears to have been so from its name ; Lys or Les signifying 
in Cornish, a manor-house; in Armoric a royal house ; and in Irish that 
best preserver of the old British, a fort. Kuirt or Kuird, also in Irish, 
the same word as court in English, and pronounced as court is in the 
North of England, cart, imports a palace. I^skard thus means what 
the Irish so recently had, the court at the castle. " There was a castel," 
says Leland, it having sunk away in its own antiquity, as early even as 
his days, *' on an hille in the toun side by north from S. Martin,'* the 
parish-church. *' It is now al in mine. Fragments and peaces of 
** waiiUes yet stonde." But now the castle is clearly demolished; the 
church having been formerly rebuilt with its stones, /^I believe, a school 
havii^g been more recently, erected upon the ground with them, ^nd 
no appearances remaining of its existence, except in a slight, crum- 
bling fence of stone upon two sides, too slight and too crumbling evcF to 
have been an original part of the whole, " The site of it is magnifi- 

• Sax. Chron. t Ibid. % Ibid. 

** cent. 


'* cent, and looketh over al the toun. This castdlc was the erks of 
'* Cornwall §•'* 

But why then was not the see settled with the court, at Leskard ? On 
the same principle, assuredly, of a monastic sequestration ^vm courts 
and crowds ; upon which, when another see was added to that of 
Winchester, the metropolis of West-Saxony, it was settled at Sher- 
ijorn*. Yet I can give a still stronger instance: in the same spirit 
David, bishop of Caerleon, during the sixth century, transferred the see^^fe 
Mcnevia, a village situated at the peninsular extremity of Pembrokeshire^ . 
eifposed therefore to all the rage of all the Atlantic ; and lent it its pre- 
sent name of St. David's f. This devotee's humour actually became so 



§ Leland's Itin. iii. 39. 

* Malm^bury^ f. 140 : ^' Viculus^ nee habiUotium frequentia, nee positionis gratifty 
'^ suavis; in quo mirandum et pene pudendum, sedem episcopaleni per tot durasse secula." 
So solliary a place Malmcsbury wonders to have been selected for the see of a bishop. The 
very solitariness was the leading principle in the selection. But there was an additional 
reason^ that amid many sites of solitariness pointed out this, f' John Myer, abbate of Sher- 
^^ bunie, said, " as Lc^aiid tells us in Itin. iii. 127, ^* that he had redde in Latine bookes of 
*< his house, that Sherburne was caullid Clare Fons.'* But the abbot bad not observedj that 
it was denominated Pons Argenteus in this passage of ancient biography, which has been 
equally unobserved by all our critics in antiquarianism, yet shews us Sherborne noticed in 
history for the first time, and suggests the special cause of its being raised into a' see. *' Ex 
** Vita Edmundi Martyris : * Edmundus et Bidwoldus filii Alkmundi ex Sivar&. Offa, rex 
'* Est-Anglorum peregri proficiscens, ad cognatum suum Alkmuoduoi, in Saxonia [Wes- 
*' sex called here Saxony, as opposed tajj^^rcia] comniorantem, p^rvenit, ibi^ue Edmun* 
'' dui4>e}us filium in beredem adoptavit.* Ex Viti Edwoldi fratris Edmundi : ' Edwoi- 
*' dus vitam heremiticam duxit apud Fontem Argenteum in Dorsetshir\" ([tin. viii. 74.) 
Sciji bujm in Saxon is the clear, bright water* The cell at it was assuredly, as the only one 
there, " St. John hermitage by the mille, now down.'* (Itin. iii. ia6.) lliis hermit drew 
some monks, probably, and then bishops, after him to the place. 

t Usher, 44,. ^a, 253. Girakius Cambrensis, ip Itin. Cambrias, m* !• Camdeni Norma* 
nica, &c. p. 855, speaks thus of the translation : *^ Prior ille locus — longi metropolitans^ 
^ sedi plus congruent ; hie etenim angulus est supra Hibemicum tnare remotissimus, terra 
'< saxosa, sterilis, et ihfoecunda, nee silvis vestita, nee tluminibus distincta, nee pratis ornata, 
^ ventis solum et procellis semper exposita-»-» $ ex indtisirii namque-t;iri sanctiiaUa sibi de^ 

legerunt hobiiacula^ ui popular e$ sIrepUiis subterfugiendo^ vitqmque^ eremitkam lofigi pas^ 

torali preferendoy* &c. 

5 frequently 

i.-- , „ 

- at^t'C^cir 


frequently e^ercrsed^ that aflterthe Conqiiest a formal canon was n^ide b}^ 
a council in England, for counteracting the long-continued operations of 
it, and removing all the sees back from villages into cities J. 

On this principle being separated from the royal seat, why was not the 
episcopal fixed at Bodmin? " At Bodmin,*- intimates Malmesbury, " it 
'^ was fixed ;" and any intimation from him carries great weight with it. 
^^^v.^^^^ " The seat of the bishopric^" he tells us, " was at the town of St 
oC^^y^ *^ y Petroc the Confessor. The place is among the northern Britons^ upon 
-t6-^0^i,£oL4^f^ the sea, near a river which is denominated Hegelmithe," pr Heyl- 

mouth§. But here he has blundered egregiously in the form irf bifl 
intimation, and that blunder takes off much from the authority of the 
whole. He points at Bodmin in intention, but indicates Padstow in 
reality; confounded by the double monastery of St. Petpockj He ^Aere- 
fore pitches the episcopal residence ^^ among the nartherH Britlwis** of 
Cornwall, and " upon the ^ea** there^ But, by an additional' blunder, 
he undesignedly pitches it at St. Ives, as " near a river which is deno- 
'^ miiiiated Hegelmithe," or Heylmouth, Hayle being the very appel- 
lation of the river at St. Ives. Dr. Borlase, indeed, endeavours seem- 
ingly to salve the last of these blunders, by supposing the Heylmouth to 
mean the mouth of the Alan at Padstow; this river, as he boldly affirms, 
being '* formerly called by the name of Hayle, or Heyle, a common 
" came for any river*.** Yet the endeavour only shews the impositions 
that the mind* often pots upon itself without knowing them* The Doc- 
tor saw the Alan meant, yet the fifeylmouth tnerttioned ; and, with- 
out attending to the accumulation of errors in Majmesbuiy here, ooldly 
supposed, then more boldly averred, the Alan, which was actually called 
the Camhala or Camel formerly, to h^vej beeni formerly denominated 
the Hayle or Heyle. With such an avf^rment in the very fece of 

fact, it is hardly worth while to notice a reasonings peculiarly- absurd, 

. • • • 

I Malmesbury^ 14a : ^' Sub qiio ci^ai ex caooaum^ decrelto ediotuna :es8§t> ut ^e^es cpisccv* 
^^. porum ex villrs ad urbefl migrareat/' ,::[ j 

§ Malmedimry, 146 : <f Qmd aptid Sanciiun . PMx^(>cum Coofessore^i fuerit epi$copat\ja 
^* sede^. LQcixB.e&t apud aquilonales. Br\UQO(» supjna me^re, jqxia fluinei\vquod diciMif He^ 
*« gelmithe." 

• Borlaai^ 379, 38o» 
• ^ ^ ..^^ c.e...^f^U^ -.^^C^^^^ Sy^ c^ <n^-/'-:^which 


*^. //<9 ^ fi,fU..,^j6L:tL e c^^j^Co^r^ . ~ 2^ 6lCv<oc . ^ Qaitu**^, 


wHich argues the Alan to have been called the Heyle, or Hayle, because 
this was, " a common name for any river/* and therefore could not be the 
proper name of the Alan, or of any other. But a geographical blunder 
in Malmesbury, enhanced as it is by an absurdity of language, in speak- 
ing of " a river which is denominated Hegel- wi/Ae/' or Heyl-wiowf^, is 
thus, made by the Doctor the basis of an historical assertion. And the 
substance of what Malmesbury here says, is actually transmuted by the 
wizard's wand of this antiquary, in a silent consciousness (I believe) of its 
numerous deformities, into something totally different from what it 
was made by its author ; into an evidence of what is not believed even 
by the antiquary himself, into an indication of Padstotv instead of Bod^ 
min, and consequently into a settlement of the see at the former , not at 
the latter^. 

Malmesbury, indeed, was seduced from all propriety of reasoning and 
of speaking, by that private history of Glastonbury abbey, which h^ ap- 
pears to have adopted for a true narration, even of this early period. In 
it he found the saints Petrock and Patrick confounded together; St. 
Patrick landed upon the shore of Cornwall instead of St. Petrock; even 
landed, and having a church where he himself places the church of St. 
Petrock, at Hayle-mouth. In such a maze was Malmesbury' s under- 
standing, at the moment of writing this sentence; and into such a laby- 
rinth has he led Dr, Borlaset}; ! 


t Bfdase, 379, 380 : *' The place where this house was situate, was called, anciently, 
*' Loderick ; the bouse itself, LaSenac ; — it stood on the north sea, at the mouth of a river y the 
** place called then Heile-mouth^ by Malmesbury , lib, ii. Hegelmith: the river was what we 
^' now call the Alan : — this church was called afterwards, by the Saxons, Padstow." 

X Usher, 455, 456 : ** Patricium nostrum monasticam Glastoniae vitam coluisse, Malmes* 
'* buriensis auctor est [in Galeo, i. 300] : de primo ejus ad locum ilium accessu, ex Glas- 
^ toniensium Jidcj ista referens : * Extremis diebus Britanniam remeans, priorem (metro- 
*' politani pallii, ut in magna Glastiniensi tdbuli additum hic est) celsitudinem saluta- 
*' tionesque in foro respuens, super altare suum Comuliam appulit : quod usque hodie apud 
" incolas [of what place in Cornwall ?] magnae venerationi est, turn propter sanctitudinem 
<^ et utilitatepi, turn propter infirmorum salutem. Inde Glastoniam veniens','' Sec. The 
story of this altar belongs, undoubtedly, to the saint of Padstow ; Peftock and Patrick being 
the very same appellation^ only varied by the broad or the thin pronunciation of the second 

YOii* I. F letter. 



Yet, amidst all this confusion of history and geography in Malmes- 
hury, he could not but listen to the voice of others, and could not but 
record their report. At the close he subjoins this remarkable observa* 
tion, which serves to check the precipitancy of error in him, and ought 
to have checked the repetition of it in the Doctor; which balances the 
assertion before, that the see was at Bodmin; as it makes the scale now 
hang even between it and St. German's. For he thus cites the report 
of others, without any reprehension, though in direct contradiction to 
his own; *' some say, that it [the see] was at Saiiit German* s, near the 
river Liner, upon the sea in the south §." 

ktter. Dr. Borlase accordingly speaks of this altar expressly, as belonging to kis Patrick, and 
our Petrock ; averring in the text, that St. Patrick was *' in Cornwall, and bad an altar and 
*^ church there dedicated to him, and much reverenced for the sake of this excellent pastor;'* 
then subjoining in a note, that ^^ the legend says he was wafted over from Ireland into Com- 
^* wall upon this aliar, which was greatly frequented and reverenced for that reason." (P. 369.) 
<^ Sequentia hsc/' adds Usher, <' ex jam dicto Glastiniensis ecclesup antiquitatum Ubelh 
^^ deprompta, adjungas licet :-<-' cum S. Patricius, a Celestino Pap& missus^ Hibernicos ad 
** fidem Christi convertisset, atque eos in fide solidasset, — ^Britanniam rediit> et in parium 
*^ qui Haite-mont [Haile-mout] nuncupatur, appulit'^ ob cujus reverentiam sanctitatisq. ex- 
" cellentiam, ibidem statuitur ecclesia S. Patricii [Petroci] nomine, propter ejus merita et 
^* frequentia miracula, instgnita\** Malmesbury, we see, was thus misled in history and in 
geography, by the confused notions of this Glastonbury historian ; to confound St. Petroci^ 
with his predecessor St. Patrick, not indeed to call the church of the former what the Glas* 
t<?nbury historian calls it, St. Patrick's, but to speak of it by its own proper name of St. Pe- 
trock, yet with that historian to bring St. Patrick to it, and to land St. Patrick where he 
himself places the church of St. Petrock, at Haile-mouth. But Dr. Borlase receives all 
without distinction, only omitting in silence the strange reference to St. Ives. ^* The first 
^ religious house,'* he says, 379, 380, " which we read of [as] founded in Cornwall, was 
^' that erected by St. Patrick in the year 432. The place where this house was situate was 
'^ called anciently Loderic ; the house itself, LafTenac-^. Hiis church was called afterwards, 
*^ by the name of St. Patrick ; and 1 should think the town was afterwards, m comme- 
** moration of this saint, called by the Saxons Padstow, or Patrick-stow," when Patrick-, 
stow it never was called, though a note adds, « the Irish calling him Padraick,'* Usher, 
p. 895 ; when the vulgar abbreviation at present is Paddy, for an Irishman, as a disciple 
of Patrick : " others think it called Padstow from St. Petrock j" Dr. Borlase thus com- 
ing to the true account at last, and, like the glow-worm, carrying light in his tail to soften a 
little the darkness around him. 

^ Malmesbury, 146: <^ Quidam dicunt fuisse ad Sanctum Germanum, juxtafiumen 
^* Liner, suprji mare in australi parte." 

4 He 


He even sets down this report in a previous part of his history, with- 
out the slightest reference to others, and with ajl the appearance of con^ 
viction impressed upon himself. The kings of West^Saxony, he there 
says, among other counties, ruled '* in Domnonia, which is Devene* 
^' schire, and in Comubia, which is now called Cornwall ; and there were ^^^^ Jj^jl. octr 
*^ then two bishopricks, one at Crediton, the other at Saint German's; J. <J«vv>x^*'vtKi . 
** now there is one, and the seat of it is at Exeter*." The author thus 
shews us the original impression made upon his mind from the records 
of history; the obliteration made unwarily of it, by some false notices 
immediately before him then; and the return of his judgment at last, to 
what he had nearly lost in the crowd of notices which had pressed upon 
him since; a return as partial as his recollection, but carrying a plain 
tendency to his positive opinion at first. He set out on his historical 
journey, over an open country; saw the hill to which he was travelling, 
all drest out in full sunshine before him; but immediately entered a 
forest that intervened, lost his object in the woods around him^ and, 
when he reached it at last, had a >iew not half so distinct as his former 
one, catching only a gleam from recollection of that vision, which had 
shone so bright to his eyes before. 

Nor is this merely the solitary evidence of a single historian: others 
unite with him. All, indeed, combine their testimony with his, who are 
accurate enough to name the specific see of Cornwall. These all, how- 
ever, are only two. But, as they are all who specify, so do two form a 
decisive addition of strength to the original witness. One of these is 
Rudborne, who wrote about 1440, when the see of Cornwall had ceased 
to exist for ages, at either St. German's or Bodmin. He tells us of many 
persons appointed to bishopricks by Pleimund, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and Edward the son of Alfred; but speaks of one of these bishopricks 
expressly, as *' the Cornish see, or the see of Saint German's^. The 
other is a writer of the same date nearly, speaking of the same set of new 

^ Malmesbuiy, i8 :. '^ la Domnonia quae Deveneschire, et in Cornubia quae luruc Cornu 
'^^ Gallic dicitur ; eraintq. tunc duo episcopatud, unus in Credinton, alter apud Siuictuin 
<^ Gennanum : nunc est untis, et eat aedes ejua Ezonise.'' 

t Wharton's Anglia Sacra^ u zxo: ^^ Ad Comubieitfein slve ad Sanctum Germanum/' 

F 2 prelates. 


prelates fixing four of their sees at Dorchester, Selscy, Winchester, and 
Sherborn, but then adding thus: ^' the king and bishop also erected three 
*' collegiate churches into cathedrals, the first of which was the colle- 
^' giate church of Saint German in Cornwall, at which they placed a 
** fifth bishop J." So egregiously have the modems been deceived, as 
to imitate and adopt an accidental wryness of neck in this Alexander of 
history, even to continue adopting and imitating, though he himself 
united with his courtiers to convince them, that it was mrely acci* 
dental and temporary ! 

Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile. 

That the see, indeed, was not at Bodmhi, may be shewn by authority 
-^^^UyU^^ even more decisive than either Rudborne's, Malmesbury's, or any his- 

z6i^ Ajui^nn^U^db^^ torian's. From the reduction of East-Devonshire by the Saxons in 6 L4» 
o^ s.q^c4Ji.ar9x., the Cornish must have had an episcopate as well as a royalty for them- 
selves. We accordingly observe the former, noted above in g i o ; yet 
in all the interval between both, and down to the days of Athelstan in 
030, Bodmin had no existence as a town, none even as a village, but was 
merely a hermitage through the whole period. Athelstan, say those 
best authorities that we can possibly have, the ancient charters of dona* 
tions^ founded a monastery at Bodmin, " in a valley where Saint Gu- 
*' RON," the patron- saint and the denominator of the parish of Gorran 
near Mevagissey, " was living solitarily in a small hut, which he left and 
" resigned to St» Petroc§/' This appears, from its position in the valley, 
to have been upon the site of the present churchyard; and it is pleasing 
to contemplate in this glass of history, the area of a town once the 
ground of a hermitage. But we can be still more particular. What 
attracted St. Guron to the ground,, in addition to the general woodiness 

X Wharton^s Anglia Sacra, i, 555": " Ulterius — rex et episcopus tres eccTesias collegiatas 
^ — in cathedral'es ecclesias erexerant; quarum prima fuit ecdesia coUegiata S. Germani ia 
*^ Cornubifl, in qu§. quintuni posuerunt episcopum." 

f Leiand's CoH. j. 75: " In vallc, ubi S.^ Guronns [fuit] solltari^ degens in parvo 
" tuguria, quod rclioquens tradidit S, PetPoco/* He went, probably, and settled in Gorran 
parish, which was therefore denominated front him ; residing (I suppose) at Polgorran, or 
Gorran's Pool, a little north from the church-. This church bears the name of St. Goran, 
ID the Valor of Henry VHU but is called ** ecclesia Sancti Geroni*' in that of Pope Nicholas* 



and general solitariness of it, was that perpetual, that necessaiy accom- 
paniment of a saint's hermitage in our island, a fine fountain of water. 
This remains to the present moment, at the western end of the church- 
yard, near the western door of the church; and so points out the imme- 
diate site of the hermitage, with the strictest precision. The spring is 
so copious, and the water is so good, that it is carried for a few feet 
under the ground of the churchyard, and discharged into a stone hasin 
on the outside, to the amazement of all who consider not the careful 
conveyance of it through the churchyard, undisturbed by the digging 
of graves, unpolluted by the proximity of the dead, and protected at the 
fountain by an arched building of stone, wdth a door to it constantly 
locked; but to the sensible satisfaction of all the adjoining part of the 
town, which prefers the water of this spring to that of any other in 
the neighbourhood** 

This ran waste between the woods and the hilb, till it engaged the 
notice and invited the residence of St. Guron, in the end of the fifth cen- 

* Carew's Surrey of Cornwall, 123, edit. 1769: ^^ Their conduit water runneth thorow 
<^ the churchyard^ the ordinary place of buriall for towne and parishe. It breedeth, there* 
'^ fore, little cause of marvaile, that every generall infection is here first admitted and last ex* 
** eluded." Norden, 72, evidently from Carew's manuscript : ** A small brookc" is at 
Bodmin, ^^ runinge — thorowgh the chupcheyarde, wherdeade bodyes are interred; by reason 
*' wherof the water cannot be salutarie,.and that, no dowbte^ maketh the towne often subjecte 
'' to longe and greyvous infections/' It is curious to observe in these two authors, how 
readily the human mind takes up an hypothesis from a superficial view of things, ihQu fancies 
incidents confirmatory of it,^ and goes on to repeat the tale of falsehood with all the facts of 
experience crying out in a loud voice to overpower it. Bodmin is knowniohe as healthy 
as any town in the county. It has only one apethecary^s shop within it ; and a physician of 
eminence there is reported to have exclaimed in a vein of jocularity against ^ dreadful 
, healthiness of it ; just as Dr. Arbuthnot is reported, to have said of Dorchester in Dorsetshire, 
where he was once settled, and whence he was met galloping away, that it was a town at which 
a man could neither live nor die, — ^' At Frome, in Somersetshire,'^ says Leland, vii. 99, in a 
strain wonderfully according with the circumstances of Bodmin^ ^' there is a goodly large 
<' paroche churche in it,, and a ryght faire springe in. the churche yarde, that by pipes and 
^' trenches is conveyde ta divers partes of the towne,** See also Gostling's Canterbury,. 375^ 
376, edition 2d, for conduits of water carried through the churchyard of the cathedral, tO' 
all the ofiices of the monastery, the kitchen^ the bakehouse^ and the brew bouse. 


tuiy^ or at the beginning of the sixth; as St* Petrock came into Cornwall 
in 518+. Such was Bodmin then J. ^ 

S Tk^^c^ ^^^ ^^ ^' ^^ change much in its condition. St. Petrock brought 

with him onfy three persons, his pupils in learning, hLs disciples in reli- 
giousness, and his intended companions in solitude. '^ With these he 
^' settled," adds Leland, from other authority, " in a monastery of the 
^' apostolic order, which he built in Cornwall some miles from the Severn 
'^ shore^;* the northern sea of Cornwall being then denominated, as it still 
is, the Severn sea. Thus the place of St. Petrock*s settlement was n^t, 
as it has been hitherto fixed*, though very incongruously with all hlB 
edbeme of sequestration, at a port of passage from Ireland^ and in the 
toum of Padstow. It was some miles within land, and at the solitary 
valley of St. Guron's hermitage. He turned the single hermitage into a 
social one, by rebuilding it on a larger scale, and then inhabited it with 
his three companions. He therefore settled, as St. Guron had settled 
before, on the western end » of the present churchyard, and close to the 
fine fountain. " S. Petrocus," notes I/cland, concerning the church of 
Bodmin, ^' was patrone of this, and sumtyme dwelled /Aer||." There he 
lived and there he died; Leland again informing us, that " the shrine 

t Usher, 526. 

% Yet, " here," says he who has only the credulity of fancy without the irradiation of it 
(Hals, in his Parochial History of Cornwall, p. 17), ^« undoubtedly stood the temple of 
'^ Apollo, which, our annalists tell us,'* with equal ignorance and falsehood, ** was built in 
^* Cornwall by Cunedag, in the year of the world 3172 — ; this temple of Apollo was the 
*' seat of the Cormsh bishops, or druids^ of the druids lefore, and of the bishops after 
«f Christianity.*' 

£t quicquid Graecia mendaz 
Audet in historii. 

§ Usher, 292 : '' Ibi, ut Lelandus rem narrat (Jo. Balaei Scriptor. Britann* centur. i« 
*^ c. 60), ' in ccenobio apostolici ordinis, quod in Comubid. aliquot passuum millibus a 
** Sabrino littore adificabat, discipulos habuit Credauuni, Medanum, et Dachanum'.'* 

• Camden, 140 : ^« Padstow contract^ pro Petrockstow — , a Petroco quodam Britannico 
'* in sanctos relato, qui hie Deo vacavit." Usher, 292: *^ Locus autem, in quo Petrocus 
" consedit, — ^hodie Padstow nominatur." Borlase, 380; ^* Others think it called Padstow 
*' fipom St. Petrock, who settled— and buili here.'\ 

( Itin. ii. X14, 




^* and TtTMBE of S* Petrok yet stondith in thest part of the chirche§.'' 
Nor let my Cornish reader think, as I thought before I examined the 
point, ttiat this tomb and shrine of St. Petrock were placed in what 
Lebokl also calfs '* a cantoarie chapel at the east ende or* the church*. 
The chapel is actually what Mr. Hals mentions, as " in Bodmin church- 
" yard,'' at some distance from the church, and as *' a well-built school- v 
^ house built over a spacious charnel-house, or grot, where are piled up 
the dry bones of such men and women as are found in new-made 
graves, now commonly called the bone-house -f;" and the school shews 
itself at the first glance to have been a chapel raised upon a lofty arcade, 
that is nearly buried now in the rising soil, but was originally a walk, 
then became a bone-house, and is now a privy; the chapel itself being 
ascended by a flight of stone steps, entered by an arched door of stone 
peaked, having two arched windows peaked on the north, with two on 
the south, and ending in a large arched window peaked on the east, with 
three stone stalls peaked near it, as seats for the three chantry-priests. 
But St. Petrock' s tomb and shrine were within the church, and in the 
ea^ern part of it. There, indeed, William of Worcester found a chapel 
before the days of Leland, then called St. Mary's, as the whole church 
was then dedicated to St. Mary equally with St. Petrock; and, as Wil- 
liam tells us, *' St. Petrock lies in a fair shrine within a chapel of St. 
'** Mary," that has no length noted like the church, from east to west, 
but " is in breadthy' from north to south, " about twenty-four steps J". 


$ Ttin. ii. 114, and ix. xxxii. : '' Locus — ^illustris, cum monumento Petroci, turn," &c. 

^ Itin. ii. 1 14. Notwithstanding this notice in Leland, Tanner has totally omitted that 
chapel, even in Nasmith's edition. He has also omitted St. Pctrock's chapel^ notwithstand- 
ing Leiand's equal notice. 

t Hals, 20. 

X Itineraria Simonis Symeonis et Willelmi de Worcestre, Nasmith, Cambridge, 1777, 
p. 100, 101 : ** Latitudo capellse Beatas Mariae continet circa 24 steppys. — Sanctus Pctro- 
** cus — jacet in pulchro scrinio apud Bodman ccclesiam, coram capella Beatae Mariae.'* Thi» 
author, whom I now cite for the first time, is no very respectable writer"; but he has many 
notices of use, and travelled near a century before Leland; as he says, p. 368, '* 1473, die 
*< 10 August!, presentavi W. episcopo Wyntoniensi, apud Asher, librum Tiillii de Senec- 
" tute, per me translatum in Anglicis, sed nullum regardum recepi de episcopo,*' Happily 



l^ere also was a chapel existing to the year 1770* entered by a door 
on the south side of the altar, and ranging parallel with the altar behind, 
only about three feet wide and nine long; covered with a salt-pie roof 
of shingles that sloped to the altar window, and had there a gutter of 
lead for conveying rain-water from it. There are the ends, with 
the side still remaining without, as well as the doorway apparently 
closed up, in that sort of sunken opening to a cellar window, which the- 
Londoners, with a barbarism peculiar to themselves, denominate an area; 
the earth on the outside having swelled up, from burials, to such a 
height here, as to be level nearly with the pitch of the ancient roof, 
and to have reduced a chapel into a mere fosse. We thus perceive, 

that when the present church was erected, about the year 1125, in all 

III -1 — - ' "~ 

the loftiness and grace which now fix it by far the finest church in the 
county :{;; so much of the old chapel of St. Pet rock, as contained his tomb 
and shrine, was left out of reverence to his memory, and his tomb with 
his shrine was carefully preser^'^ed in it to the Reformation, even through 
the Reformation to the time of Leland. But what had been spared by 
the wasteful hand of mischief in the first reformation, has been since 
destroyed by the spades and pickaxes of the second; those fanatics of the 
seventeenth centuiy, I suppose, who defaced a Uttle the tomb of bishop 
Vivian there, as a monument of superstition ; utterly levelling the tomb 
4^ St. Petrock to the ground, tearing down his shrine with its statue 
from their position over the altar-tomb, and not leaving a trace of any to 
be seen now*. Thus was the chapel latterly considered only, as a ves- 

for the present generation of clergy, this is not the case now ; but every ray of literary merit 
th;^t d$rt8 out among them^ is marked by the watching eyes of our prelates, is caught care- 
fully in their ready mirror of patronage^ and reflected back with additional lustre^ upon the 

X Leland's Itin. ii. 114 : ^^ The paroch chirchestandith at the est ende of the town^ and is 
a fair large thyng." Leland*s Coll. i. 76 : " 25 regis Henrici i™ [A. D. 1125] quidam 
Algarus, cum conniventi& episcopi Exon. Gul. Warwest, obtinuit licentiam a rege,'* &c. 
Hals^ 19 : '^ Algar— , at his own proper cost and charges^ re-edified the — church — atBodman, 
" as it now stands, consisting of three roofs, each sixty cloth-yards long, thirty broad, and 
" twenty high ; so that, for bulk and magnificence, it is equal tQ the cathedral of Kirton, 
f^ and little inferior to that of Exon," 

* This tomb, says Hals, ao, was ^^ somewhat defaced in the interregnum of Cromwell^ 



CHAP. I.] H<ST€)aiC4f«LT SURVEYED. 4^ 

try, perhaps, for thp clergy once, was in fact used as a kind of lumber- 
rpom to the church J ^nd all knowledge of its dedication to St. Petrock^ 
of its ever having a shrine or a tomb within it, was thoroughly effaced 

from the minds or memories of the inhabitants, till I came in the au- 


tumn of 1 7Q5 to search foB the chapel, and by searching taught the in- 
habitants to discover it for me. But the building, from its own antiquity, 
from the mass of soil which had been accumulated around it, and from 
the lowness, the meanness of its roof, had previously appeared so rude to 
the eye, that its original dedication being now forgotten, and its original 
memorials now removed, reverence had no longer a power to save it : ig- 
nor^ncCii in the^h^pe of an official, ordered it to be unroofed, and all tra- 
dition of its eadstiE^ce would soon have vanished into air. Tet it isQO* 
ticed in another place by Leland, as V a carnarye chappfell in thff 
^' chyrchf/' What, however, w a *' carnary" chapel? We are ready 
to suppose^! ©oce, that it is a chapel dedicated to some purposes of de- 
YOtioQ^ wl^ich ^e now forgotten in the mutation of our minds, and in 
the yariation Qf ov^v devotioqs, since the ]R.eformation. So apt are wq 
to rat our idleness on our ignor^ce, and to suppose a point inexplicable 
because we will not seek for explications! Leland speaks m a thbrd 
place of " SL char nel chapelle ;'^ which was not a mere charnel-house, as 
\n the same spirit we may fondly presume it to be, because it is expressly 
noticed by Ldand immediately afterwards, to be one " to the which 
♦< was gyven the profite erf a chapelle at Bay worth J." A carnaiy, or 


'^ as a superstitious monument." It is defaced, in the chenibims that overshs^dowed his face 
with their wings, being so broken off as to leave only a part of their wings behind them; 
in the fingers being destroyed, that belonged to the hands closed in the act of prayer ; and ia 
a part of the inscription round the rim.^ But, what has never been noticed, this tomb has 
been removed from its original site. '' Ther lay buryed,'' says Leland, in Itin* iii. 12^ 
^ before the high aliare^*^ now in the northern aiUj " in a high tumbe of a very darkesch 
^ gray marble, one Thomas Viviane prior," &c. We have just such a removal at Wells, in . 
Leiand's Itin. iii» 12^: '^ Ad Boream Radulphus de Saiapi4 episcopus Wellen. Hie antca 
^ tumulatusyiiiV ante supremum altare, sed tumulus obfuit celebrantibus mioistris." 

t Itin. iii. I2. 
• } Ibid. ibid. So in iii. 58, we find upon a tomb in Exeter cathedral, '^ fecit capellan> 
^* camari^ in coemiterio.'' In iii. 99, vve have ^^ a fair chapelle" at Wiaghe^ter ; *^ under 
V it ia a vault for a camarie/' or charnel-house ; as '< there be 3 tumbes of marble, of 

VOL. X. » *' prestes 



charnel chapel, therefore,, was one that had a priest with an endowment 
belonging to it, and was the repository of a sainfs bones. Thus the " car- 
*' narytf chappell in the chyrch" of Bodmin, was that very chapel which 
I have just described, within which was the tomb of St. Petrock, and to 
which, therefore, the title of a chapel carnary, or chanielj was familiarly 
given before the Reformation, as a note of distinction from, dnd a mark' 
of eminence above, the common herd of chantry chapels §. 

*^ prestes custodes of this chfltpelle/' So, likewise, in the same page, we have ^^ a chapelle 

*' with a camary," or cbarneUbouse under it. In iv. 124, we have *' a charnel chapell ;'* 

and in Stowc's London, 356, we have " a charnell under the chapell," built about 1282. 

y^/\xij^(/yL> % The name of Ftvian, for this prior of Bodmin, seems to concur with the name of Bod- 

y^ ^^ > min itsdf, in fixing him for an original native of that coonty, in which the family of the 

^^^^^^ ^ Vivians is so numerous and so respectable at present. The appellation is accordingly con- 

%Mf^ <H^M^ sidered by the linguists of Cornwall, to be purely Cornish in itself. « Vyvym/' says Bor- 

lase^ ^^ little water 'y the name of a family" (p. 462). ^' Chuyvyon^^ adds Pryce, with 
more harshness in the derivation, ^' to scape^ to flee : from hence the fiaimily Vyvyan is sup- 
'^ posed to take its name, for tleeing on a white horse from Lioness, when it was overflown ; 
'< that person being at that time governor thereof; in menlory whereof this family gives a 
<' lion for its arms, and a white horse, ready caparisoned, for its crest/' These etymologies 
seem to demonstrate the Cornish quality of the name, beyond a possibility of doubt. The 
former appears peculiarly easy and just, while the latter is supported by an appeal to the 
tradition, and a reference to the arms, of the very family. Yet, after all, the name of Vivian 
is not Cornish. It is only one of the appellations, begun among u^ originally by the resi- 
dent Romans, and continued among us afterwards by their descendants in Britain* The 
Abbe Fvaiani, a dignitary at St. Peter's in Rome, was seized in 1796 as one of a body of 
republicans, combined to make an insurrection there. In 1177, we find ** Fivianus, cardi- 
*« nalis tituli S. Stepbani, et apostolica sedis legatus," at Whitem, in Galloway, in the Isle 
of Man, and in Ireland. (Leland's Coll. iii. 320.) We even find a f^ivian, a respectable 
man and a knowing lawyer, at Rome, in the fifth century : '* Data siquidem supplicatione 
'^ conquereris,'' says Theodorick the king to John the head physician, in a letter, ** virum 
^' spectalnkm Vivianum, legum qrtificio quo collet ekUum, personam tuam objectis crimi- 
'< nationibus insequutum, eteousque perventum utindefensus, contra juris onUnem, vicarit 
'< urbis Jtomir, sententi& damnareris.^' (Cassiodori Chronicon, iv. 41.) But let me ascend 
to the very meridian of Roman greatness, for the name ; by observing that it appears as a 
pranomen evep in Tacitus, and that he nbtices " Viviamts Annius*' as the " gene? Corbu* 
<* lonis,** in the very reign of Nero (Ann. xv. 28). I thus restore the Vivians of Cornwall 
to their true dignity of descent, a descent from the Roman conquerors of Britain^ and a 
dignity not comoMliaiifcabk, I bdieve^ to any other family in the whole island^ at present. < 



But, as Leland subjoins from the charter again, " St, Petroc professed 
*^ a monastic life under the rule of St. Benedict, at Badndn, as then oi^i^^^u^'tUy 
'^ called*." The valley then took a name, and the cell of the hermit £^ /i<tt/tyu^ , 
monks lent its own appellation to it, Bod-min; or, as this name was at 
the time pronounced, like Ladock changed into Lazock, and Bryttonec 
into Brezonec, at present ; and, as the name is found actually written in 
the charters, Bos-mana, the mansion of the monks f. The ground, how* 
ever, was still solitary, and had in it a mere hermitage; that selected for 
its sequestraticm from the world, amid the woods which hung down from 
the hills on either side, and threw their shade of solemnity across the 
valley; but this barely a monastic hermitage, in the bosom of these em- 
bowerii^ woods. In the satrie condition it remained to the reduction 
of Cornwall. The " rule" of St. Benedict, adds Leland from the very 
diarter still, '' so dedicated to monastic discipline,*' and for that reason 
(I suppose) denominated the apostolic order before, '' the monks there 
^' pursued even to the time of Athebtcm'^.'' The king then pulled down 
the cell of these four hermits, and erected a regular monastery; shifting 
the ^te a little, fixing his monasteiy just without the south-eastern end 
of what is now the churchyard, and leaving the scene of St. Petrock*s 
hermitage, vrith the ground of his well, for the ample area of that 
chufch of his, which he i^ade equally monastic and parochial^. There 


* Coll. i. 75 : ^^ S. Petrocus nKmaeticam profc€sus vitam «ub regula D. Benedict!, apud 
^* Bodminaxn tunc temporis vocatam.'' 

t Coll. i. 75 : ^^ Bosmana, id est, manftio monachorum." The full name is Bos-ma* 
pach, which is the same in Armoric and Irish, but would be Bod-mynach in Welsh; and 
appears from Bos-mana and Bod-min in the charters to have been equally so in the Cornish 
then, and to have been then pronounced min and mana. -'^ Z was never used in the 
^* Welsh, but occurs frequently in the Cornish for dh; as Ea^ewon, Jews, for EdAewon, and 
** «en enevon, for dAon anevon, to our souls." (Pryce, 15.) 

X Coll. i. 75: << Quam r^gulam usque ad tempus Athelstani, monasticx dicatam disci- 
^^ plinae, monachi ibidem tenuerunt.** 

§ " This church — ^," notes Mr. Hals, 20, '* after dissolution of the prior)' — , was con- 
<^ verted to a parochial church for the town and parish of Bodmaiu'' Yet it was, as i hare 
here named it, parochial from the very beginning. So Leland tells us concerning it in his 
time, that '^ theparoch chirch standith at the est end of the town,*' and that ^' the late priory 
^' stoode at the est ende of the paroch chirch yard of Bodmyne." It was even as parochial^ 


o 2 converted 


the house continued, to the Reforination. *^ The tate priory of blake 
" canoni/' cries Leland concerning what was aheady alienated in his 
time, ** stood at the est ende;*' or " at the est south est*' end, as he 
speaks more precisely in another place, " of the — chirch yard of Bod- 
*' myne*/* - But it ha« lent its appelktion of priory to the gf rtuiid, ^f en 
now when all traces of the priory-house exist only in two pillars of 
moorstone, one tall and large, with it carvfed icapitai, but the other low 
and slight, with a capital all plain; jn the remembered position of the 
priory chapel, on the northern side of the house; and in the abundant 
discovery of bones lately by sinking a cellar near it-f. This king Mras there- 
fore considered in the chartfers, and is called expressly by them, " the 
" first founder JEthelstan $•" The social hermitagfe Was considered only 
as the single was, as a mere hermitage in itself. Only admitting four per- 
sons instead of one, and only under a settled rule of bonduct for all. 
Athelstan*s construction thus ranked in time, fbr the very commence- 
hietit of the monastery. I have also noted before, that the town of 
Bodmin, in Leland*s time, retained a grateful memory of Athelstati's 
kindness to it; a village soon rising in the vicinity of the royal morias* 
tery, and the village extending afterwards into a town. This ** iourie of 
Bodmyn," as I have previously shewn Leland to tell us in his Itinerary, 
takith king Edelstane for the chief erector and gyver of privilege* 
'' onto it." Bodmin then could not possibly be, what it has been inva* 

converted from a rectorial to a vicarial church, before the Valor of Pope Nicholas was made 
in 1292. Mr. Hals himself, however contradictorily, allows it was. ^^This prioral rector^ 
*< church,'' he tells us almost immediately after he had said the other, ** long itf&ireiU disso- 
*' iution, was converted by the prior into a ricarage church ; for, in the inquisition of th^ 
** bishops of Lincoln and Winchester, — Eccles* de Bodtnan — was taxed — vi L. xiii S. iiii IX 
^* Vicar ejnsdem nihil, propter pauperiatem" So completely and so speedily docs Mr» 
Hals refute himself, yet remains seemingly all unconscious of what he is doing at the mo- 
ment ! But the words of the Valor are not cited fairly, though the unfairness affects not 
my argum^i. They arc really these : '* Eccl. de Bodmytna, vi. li. xiii S* iiii D, Ficar 
'* ejtudem, xl S.'* 

* Itin. ii. 114, andiii. 12. 

t Hals, 20 : ** The priory-house — is yet extant, though hts [the prior's] domestic cbiq)- 
<^ pel and burying-place be delapidated and demolished/' The whole has been recently Re- 
built ; one single arch remained to 1 794. 

J Coll. i. 75 : *' Primus inndator iBthelstanus/' * 

4 xiably 


cBAP. l] niwromioALhY suryetedc 

riably supposed to the present moment^ the primary seat of our Cornish 
episcopate, and the jsole seat till ^gSl. In Ol4, when a new seat was 
formed equally for the episcopate and for the royalty, Bodmin was only 
a liermitagfe. Bbdmiil continued a hermitage only to the year gsO; 
and no cpisco]^te amid panibly bejuted at it> even so late as this Tery 

ytWP§/*' aECTIOW 

§ A strange. a<ka runs throu|^ all the writers, Ihat'St. Petrbck died and was buried al 
Tadsiwv ; the natural consequence of the error, in supposing him to have settled there. 
Thus Usher, 292 : '^ Postquam hie [at Padstow] cum sociis suis per irigmia annos esset 
'< commoratus," &c* Dr. Borlase, therefore, of necessity bows before the tripos, and re- 
ceives implicitly tbe 6racu}ar Jtictum. At '^ Padsibw,** he tdls us in 380^ '' St. I^trock 
^ setUca — f tod built kere; an^, after ihirif years^, died ind was buried bere^ iL D. 564.*' 
Or>. as ifae Doctoir writes mbre cireumstantiidly in 374 beforcj <' he settled in a m&lu^tenf 
*' {Called l^pre^histinie liodeqc and Laffenek," when in 379, he says, '^ the plflce where this 
^^ house was situate was called, anciently, Iioderic, the house Laffenac '" so contradictory can he 
be in so short a compass i ^^ but from his natne (as some think) Petrocstow, now Padstow ;-— 
^' and having resided there for thirty years, died about the year 564, was buried,'* &c. Yet, 
M the whik, the authorityof history^ and the evidence of remains, stand in triumphant array 
against them. I have already produced that auihorily and this evidence, in the text. But Usher 
kindly furnishes us with additional authority, against himself and his humble adherent the 
Doctor. ^' In editis historiarum floribus," says Usher, 293, concerning M. Westrn. 353, 
** sedes ilia episcopalis fuisse dicitur ^ apud S« Potrocum de Bodwini','' where the mode of 
writing the personal name is just as I suppose it to have been originally, Patroc-stow, Pod- 
itow ; ^^ vel, ut locus est legendus, apud 5., Petrocum ie Bodminu Bodmanise enim vel 
<' Bodrainise in Comubii amdiium fuit olim corpus S. Petroci : quod, mde furto ablatum^ 
<' ad S. Mevennii [S. Mein] in Armoricft Britannia monasterium translatum, et Henrici II* 
** Anglorum regis mandato restitutum fuisse, inanni mclxxvii. historia Rogerus Hovede» 
*^ nus ita narraty* 8cc. Dr. Borlase s^w this opposed evidence, and therefore says, 372, '' St* 
^^ Petroc Was buried Jirst at PadstoiVy and afterwards translated to Bodman priory, dedi- 
'^ catec|to him;'' and adds, 3^0, "^^ the monastery of Pddslow htitig near the sea shore, and 
^< exposed to the piracies of the Saxonsy and after them of the Danes, tb|s monks removed to 
^^ Bodman, and, bringing the body of Petrock with them, the church there was dedicated to 
** that saiM, who passed some part of bis retirement in thUplme" All these incidents are 
absolutdy ^Ise, in their very substance ; except only one, the retirement. of St.. Filrock to the 
sife of Bodmin, which is yet false in its statement oP some part, and direitly ccnBtradictsd by 
the assertion from the Doctor before, of his spending thirty years at ^Padstow, and there 
dying. But, as this allowance of some part was made to meet these h'^orical accounts a 
little, which affirm him to have .lived euHrely at^odmin; so all the olhf ra are actually fa- 
bricated by Dr. Boriase himself, to cover the violent, disrpptiou of the histOQ'. made by a . 
vein of untruth^ and to imite the two extremities together* 




[chap. I. 




: Having divested Bodmin of its pretensions^ let us turn to its only 

rival St. German's. This appeals to have been an actual see at the very 

time that the social hermitage of Bodmin was beginning to expand into 

a just monaste^}^ ^* St. German's/* notes Leland, *' was in the time of 

Etkelsfan an episcopal seeK' But his authority for this assertion was 

one, which is decisive in itself, as it is taken from the very charter 

of donations made by Athelstan. This king, the charter tells us, 'Njrec/erf 

in the church of St. German one Conan bishop, in the year of our 

Lord 986, on the fifth ofDecemher^T St. German's, therefore, was 

actually a see when Bodmin was none ; when Bodmin had no escistence 

as a town, or even as a village ; when it had only just risen out of its 

humble nest of a hermitage, and just put forth its pinions to mount into 

S-ejL. ^Si^.*u?dt^ a monastery. St. German's, consequently, was the original see of Com- 

^»^^y,(J£A/f»^^«'>vJ^ wall, foimded about the, year 0i4, when Leskard became the residence. 

^^^* of Cornish royalty ; the king and the bishop retiring equally, to a distance 

from the Saxons on the Exe; and remaining equally at this distance, to 
the very reduction of Cornwall. Then the episcopate was still conti- 
nued at St. German's, and the royalty at Leskard; as Howel still re- 
mained sovereign, and Conan was now made prelate. Conan was so 
made assuredly, in supersedence of the existing bishop ; Athelstan exert- 
ing his right of conquest, in the act of supersedence. 

Nor was the civil sovereignty permitted to exist, I believe, beyond the 
single life of Howel. Dr. Borlase, indeed, remarks, that *^ when Ead- 
f^ gar was taking pleasure on the river Dee, in the year 973, and, sitting 

In Gibson, 23, is a refereflce to Leland concerning Bodmin church, by mistake placed to 
Padstow. This error is corrected by Mr. Gough, i. 19. But he has adopted all the errors 
of Dr. Borlase, in full tale and weight. 

Quid te ej^empta jurat sphiis de pluribus uaa \ 

 Coll. i. 75 : *' Fuit tempore Ethelstani sedcs episcopalis/' 

t ColLi. 75: <^£x charta donationum Ethelstani. 'Erexit in ecclesil S« Germani 
'^ quendam Coo^num episcopum, anno !> 936^ honis Decembris'/' 


*' in the stern of his boat, was rowed along by eight Mngs, who were 
'^* subjects to him, Cressy (p. 878) says, upon what authority he does 
'^ not 'mention, that Dufihal, one of those kings, was king of West- 
^' Wales. — Fery Ukely, this {king] might be Eadulphus," .though Cressy 
calls him expressly, DufEhal, and the Doctor has himself recorded £a* 
dulphus as earl immediately before J. In this passage I know not which 
to admire most, the confusion of ideas which makes an earl a king, and a 
king an earl, Eadulphus Duffnal, and Duffhal Eadulphus; or the credu- 
lous reliance on such an authority as Cressy's, for such a national fact; 
or, the absolute' falsity of the whole, as referring to Cornwall. But 
I can compose these dashing waves at once, by the difiiision of a little 
oil over them§. One of our original historians shews the account to 
be absolutely false, specifying the kings and their realms thus circum- 
stantially: " Killed, king of the Scots; Malcolm, of the Cumbrians; 
" Maco, king of Man, and of very many isles; Dtrfnal, king ofDyvod,^* 
or South Wales ; '* Siferth and Howel, kings of [North] Wales; James, 
^' king of Galloway ; and Jukil, of Westmorelaiid*/* The very passage 


• X Borlase, 410, 411 • 

§ This principle in physics, so much the boasted discovery of Dr. Franklii^ and so highly 
reprobated before as one of the incredible mysteries of Pliny, was familiarly known to the 
liighlanders of the Western Isles^ near a century ago. '' The steward of Kilda who lives in 
** Pabbay,'' as Martin tells us, p. 48, edit, ad, <^ is accustomed in time of a storm, to tie a 
*^ bundle of puddings made of the fat of sea- fowl, to the end of his cable ; and lets it fall 
** into the sea, behind the rudder : this, be says, hipders the uMsvesJrom breaking, and calmf 
*^'the sea.** Thus does that first of hypocrites in political life, as Franklin is represented by 
those who best knew him to have always been, appear to have been^an hypocrite even in his 
literary pursuits, and to have stolen his first hints in the present case, from a publication as 
popular as it is amusing. 

* M. Westm. 375 : '^ Kenedo scilicet rege Scotorum, Malcolmo Cumbrorum, Macone 
'* rege Monae et plurimarum insularum, Dufnal rege Demetis, Sifertho et Howel regibus 
** Walliae, Jacobo rege Galwalliae, et Jukil Westmariae.*' What corroborates this evidence 
in two names, is a deed of Edgar's in Monasticon, i. 16, 17 ; to which the subscribers are^ 
*' Kinadius rex Albanix," and « Mascusius archipieata.*' Cressy says thus : " Duffnall 

(king of West. Wales), Siferth (king of South- Wales), Howal (king of North- Wales), 

Inchil (king of Westmoreland), and James (king of Galloway)." It is very observable, 
that Cressy begins with citing M. Westm. for '^ king Edgar, simamed the Peaceable,'' so 
translating the words <^ rex Eadgarus Paci&cus 3'' then twrns nff from the explicit passage 



adduced by Dr. Bprlaee for the coalin«ancfe of kings; ii| Cornwall^ wbmi 
it is stated in its legitimate form, ^4 ^^^^ ^^^ g^nuii^ signification^ 
not only does not prove his point, but pr0vei3 the diiiect contrary to it. 
The non-appearance of a king of Cornwall, or ff^eat .W^les^ amor^ 
those subject kings of Edgar's, who take in the xyhole compass of tl^ 
island; proves no king to ha^e existed in Cornwall at the time, any 
more than in each of the six kingdoms of the heptarchy, and all these 
kingdoms to have been governed at the time by earls or dukes. Thus 
did the royalty terminate with Howel, in Cornwall ! The palace of 
Leskard was then seized, by the Saxon kii^, I apprehend; and the 
kings of Cornwall, now reduced into, earls, yet still ret^tining the lan- 
guage of royalty, were forced to settle upoa the new ground of Lest*- 
withiel; that having nearly all vanished in the body of it, 260 years 
ago, having vanished in all of it now, and /^having its exti^rior W9ill$ 
standing loftily erect at preseirt. This, I am informed, is actually deno*- 
minated thepalqee in the records of the town. The very ground, tpOj, qb 
which it must have been originaUy placed, that ojn the western bank of 
the brook dividing the primary part of Lestwithiel from the parish of 
Lanlivery, that on which stands a large part of the present, a secondary 
sort' of town, and the mere production of the palace itself; is entitled to 
this day from itf as lying on the declining foot of a hill, Pen-kenejc, or 
Pen-hmh, the hili of i\m king-;!*. And the name of Lestwithiel itself 

4 » 

here cited from Matthew, and there standing only $ few lines above, to lose himself in the 
vague accounts of Florence and Hoveden. He thus seems to play at llindman*s buff' wi A 
himself; these two historians specifying the five last of the royal rowers thus : ^< Dufnallus> 
'f Siferthus, Huwallus, Jacobus, Inchillus" (Florenqe, 359) ; '* Dufnal, Sifrethus, Huwal- 
'^ dus. Jacobus, Inchillus" (Hoveden, 245). Jukil is the name, assuredly^ so illustrated 
by the virtues of that honest whig, Sir Joseph Jekyll* 

t '^ Penknek by Lestwithiel ;^Penknek is yn Lanleversey paroch." (Leiand's Itin. iiii 
35 ) 80 we have aif entrenchment near Bodmin, denominated Castle Kynock; Kynog 
(Welsh) signifying a sovereign, and being abbreviated in Irish into Cing, or King, our Eng- 
lish name for a monarch | as Kynech, by another kind of abbreviation, is here contracted 
into Knek. Hence we see it actually called Pen*ktfnek, in a charter from Richard earl of 
Cornwall : ^^ < Penk^nek, nunc pars burgi de LostwithieV discemitur rivulo ab altera parte 
<^ burgi/ £z chart! Richardi comitis Comubisyde libertatibus de Lostwithiel el Peoke^ 
^^ nek,'' (Leland's Itin* iii. 196.) 



points out the veiy founder of the house upon the hiU-foot, as it sig- 
nifies Withiers palace ;{;• But the position of this at the foot of a hill, 
along the maigin of a brook, sallying down the hill, and close to what 
was a previous town§, shews it to have been built when wars were 
ceased, when the country was reduced by the long-threatening reducers 
of all the Britons to the east, and when a castle was no longer neces- 
sary for a palace. Yet with the remains of the ancient ideas, and with a 
partial attachment to the former modes of royalty, even this palace was 
built assuredly, as it certainly remained to the fifteenth century, in the 
form and with the appellation of a tower or castle*. With the same 


X Lestwithiel, or (as Ldand writes the name, Itin. vii. 121), Loswithiel, or (as he also 
writes it In the same page) Last JFhithiel, nearly as it is popularly pronounced at present; is 
Lys or Les, a palace : as '^ Les-guenllean*' is ** Palatium Vendoleiue,'* in Leland's Itin. v. 
59, with that intermediate d or t, which is occasionally omitted in, or occasionally thrust 
into Cornish words, and WUhiel^ a name still regaining as a parochial one in Cornwall. 
The parish is marked in its church thus by the first Valor, ^' ecclesia de Withiel ;" and in the 
second thus : '^ Withioll, alias Withiel/' But the name is a personal one in Ireland, as I 
•hall shew in ¥• i. at the end. It is even borne by some of the Cornish, at this day. But 
of the toxd intruding into the body of a word, we have a striking instance in the name of 
a Cornish promontory, wUhia the parish of Gerens, on the southern coast, Vtdn Vaifo, 
when the real name is Pan Van, or little headland : so likewise we have Pe^fen-mean-due 
Point close to the Land's End, on the north ; ToUPenwitb more distantly on the south, and 
Vedn Boar Point, east of the Lizard. In Pryce, 17, also, we have, with another view, 
^ Luys^ grey, now Lu<2zh ; Guoys, blood, Guc^zh ; Krery, to believe, Kri^^zhi ; An Drenses^ 
^^ the Trinity, An Dren<2zhez ; Bohosak, poor, Boho^fzhak ; De Bisy, to pray, Dhe 
*^ Pirfzhi.'* But, as he adds afterward with a dieect view to tbi^, '* D is inserted — often be* 
*^ fore a middle », and more rarely before r; as Da^no, under him, where formerly Dano; 
^ and Dhe Medra, for Da Mira, to behold.*' The instances in the former set shew the 
interposition to be equally before an « or a is } and Les/-withiel shews it to be equally after 
them* — The present ruins of the palace are principally a part, which was latterly fitted up 
for a shire-hali, but fitted up before the days of Leland. " By the shyere bawl," says Leland 
concerning this very palace, " appere ruines of auncyent buyldingcs." (Itin. vii. lai.) Yet 
even that part became so ruinous at last from age» that a new shire-hall was forced to be 
built on the ground adjoining to it. ' And now the whole appears a mass of walls, more or 
less antique in their appearance, more or less erect in their stature, but watered by that Kvely 
brook which once scoured the offices of the palace, and still parts the parish of Lest withiel 
from the parish of Lanlivery^ ^ 

$ The real Voluba of Ptolemy's Geography and Richard's xvith Iter. 

* It is thus noticed by William of Worcester; ** Turris Bfe-kennok," a name miswritten 

vol'. !• H for 


ftleas, and in the same modes, a palace castellated equally in site as in 
form, Was raised within the immediate vicinity; and Restormel be- 
came the companion of Lestwithiel, the equal seat of contracted royalty* 
In that dialect of our primaeval laCnguage, in which (let me observe 
again) the British is most faithfully preserved at this day, Restormd 
would be Uis Tor Mealy and import the Kings Thwer HilL This was 
the summer-residence of the earls of Cornwall, I suppose, and Lestwi- 
thiel palace the winter; just as we see John of Gaunt, at a later period, 
inhabiting the castle upon the summit of the hill at Lincoln, but inha- 
biting equally *' a winter palace that he built in the lower part of the 
" town, of which there are still some remains; remains, that shew he 
" was well acquainted with a style of building far different from that 
*' of the ancient keep on the hillf/* This practice of having a winter 
and a summer residence, the natural suggestion of feeling in a climate 

for P^n -kennok, ^' al antique prope Lastydyall, nuper Hugonis Curteney." (P. 96.) It is 
also called a castle like Restormel, in p« 164; ** Castrum Restormalle prope villain prope [su- 
^^ perfliious] Lascudielle, Castrum AlasimdieUe, in Comubift; ambo,^' &c. William even 
tells us, *^ per relacionem Benedicti Bernard Arniigert," u;Aen.the prgsent structures at botk 
were built ; '^ ambo fundantur per Ricardum regem Alemsnnis, fratrem r^s Hearici 
*^ Tertit/' fldmund his son succeeding him in the earldom, A. D* 1^72 (Collect, ii. 459)^ 
was the last earl who inhabited either of them ; as William remarics, p. 96, thus : ^' Cas- 
'^ trum Restormalle stat prope Lascudielle, in parco principis, quondam Edmundi comitk 
'* Cormibia, ubi manebat," Dr. Borlase, therefore, is so far happy in his conjectures, 
p. 357, that Richard actually built at Restormel, and that Edmund wasactually the last earl 
residing in it. Only, Richard did not make the '^ additions,'' because he made the. original*; 
and equally at Lestwithiel, as at Restormel ; and Edmund was the earl who added the 
<^ chapel,'' the ^' gateway," and the ^* large windows in tht ramp%rt«wall," to the original 
castle of his father. Yet the two twin palaces did not continue to the last, sharing with 
each other in their fortune of sorrow or of joy. Lestwithiel palace, from its low, snag 
situation, at the side of a town, and on the margin of a brook, continued to be inhabited 
long after the palace on the bleak, dry prominence of a hill had been deserted ; the last ia* 
habitant of this being Edmund, who died two centuries nearly before William's visit into 
Cornwall " but Hugh Curtcney" having then been " lately" an inhabitant of thai, who 
succeeded his father as earl of Devonshire, in 1419, lived, before, in all probability, aa 
*^ Hugh Curteney" merely, at Lestwithiel, and died in .1422. (Collins's Peerage, vi. 462^ 
463, edit. 4th.) In Carew's Rate, i. 91, we have '^ Manerium de pen^Kneth/' (or Pen^ 
kneif '^ et Restormel," the two houses composing one manor» 
t Arch. vi. 264. 



like ours, was begun within this island by the Romans^ in their summer 
camps, and so was regularly continued by the Britons even in the 
warmest r^on of the whole, the region which so happily inhales the 
soft breezes of the west, and is thus protected from all those \iolent 
rigours of frost that oppress the rest of Britain. On this Roman prin- 
ciple, were these two contiguous palaces of Cornwall erected by the 
British earls, as is evident at once from the British appellations of them 

To shew with what fondness the kings of Cornwall, even in their 
confessed reduction into earls or dukes, and their removed residence to 
Lestwithiel, kept up a soothing memory of their royalty, which they 
once possessed; we need only adduce a pompous kind of pageantry, 
exhibited yearly thfere through so many ages, and under so many dis- 
couragements, till it reached the times of observation, and was recorded 
by the pen of antiquarianism. *^ There was of late years,'* says an 
antiquary, '* a custom observed in this towne among the carle's free- 
'' holders of the towne and manner, yearely upon Little Easter-Sunday 
*^ (as they call it), with verie royall solemnitie. Upon which day the te- 

X Restormel ca^de is well described by Dr. Borlase in 356-358; but he has been 
strangely inattentive to all the original history of it. Even the recent is equally overlooked. 
^' There is a castel^'^ says Leland^ in Itin. iii. 35^ ^' on an hil in this park of Restormel^" 
a park now turned into fields^ ^^ whcr sumtymes the eries of Comewal lay. — A chapel of the 
^* Trinite in the park, not far from the castelle." It was at the foot of the hAl, and for the 
use of those retainers of the castle, who formed a kind of village in the base court of it. The. 
extent of this base court, says Carew, 138, '' is rather to be conjectured then discerned, 
** by the remnant of some fewe mines, amongst which [is] an oven of 14 foot largeness" or, 
as Norden writes more precisely, p. 59, ^^ of 4 yardes and 2 foote diameter," the common 
oven for the family above, and for the servants below. But the erection of a chapel in it, 
though' originally for the family, as well as the servants, shews it to have been an ample 
court. This chapel continued in use, when even the family chapel '^ cast out" of the castle 
^« a newer work then i^" was '* now onrofid j" and when " the base court'* was yet stand- 
ing, but " sore defacid," even to the days of Ldand (ibid.) And from this chapel of the 
Trinity, a house built upon the site of it by a late lesser of the court and castle, was de- . 
nominated Trinity till a very few years ago; when it reverted to the more magnificent ap- 
pellation of the castle, the base court assumed the title of its principal^ and the building was 
denominated Restormel House, 

H 2 '* nantes 





** nantes assembled themselves, and one of them JttcAy chosen as it 
" came by turne, neatly attired, and as well mounted as heimighte, 
" having a crown on his heade, a cepter in hu hande, with a sworde Borne 
*' before him, rode throwgh the towne; the rest (mounted also) attend- 
'* inge an this counterfecte prince, to th6 church, wher the minister, 
*' with greate cerimonie, mett him, and verie reverendlj man d him into 
^^ the churche; and when dyvine exercise was done, he was likewise 
*' accompanied back agayn to ahowse, prepayred for his entertaynment ; 
wher, with greate cates and all daynties, with his sewer, taster, and 
other princelyhe attendantes, being [he was] - served with hnelinge at 
*' giving the cupp, and suche lyke. — It seemeth, that this devise was not 
'* without approbation of some former famous founders, who noedowbt 
'' firste invented it to sett fourth the royalties of Cornwall, and the honor 
'* of that dukedome, or was imposed as a service, wherby they hdd 
** their freeholdes §.*' All the features and Hneaments of this pageantry 
are too expressive in themselves to admit any doubt concerning its iin* 
port. It is the evident memorial of the tomb, the banner, anc} the 
escutcheon of buried royalty ; instituted at first by the royal earl, it was 
continued by his successors. On the octave of Easter, the concluding 
day of the Easter festivity, he rode in parade through the town, with all 
the emblems of royalty abput him, attended by all his principal tenants, 
went to the church, returned to the palace, and then dined in publlci 

§ Nordeii, 58. As Norden visited Cornwall personally, hia account is equally authentic 
tvith Carew's ; but let us here state the laner as confirmatory of the former. '^ Upon Little 
** Easter Sunday," says Carew, 137, *' the freeholders of the towne and manour, by them* 
'^ selves or their deputies, did there assembly amoi^gst whom one, as it fell to bis lot by 
^' turne, bravely apparelled, gallantly mounted, with a crowne 00 his bead, a sceptter in bis 
'^ band, a sword borne before him, and duti&lly attended by all the rest also on horseback^ 
*' rode thorow the principall streete to the churche ; there the curate, in his beat beseene> 
<^ solemnely received him at the churchyard stile, and conducted him to heare divine 8er« 
" vice : after which be repaired, with the same pompe, to a house fove-provided for that pur- 
'' pose, made a feast to his attendants, kept theiables end himself e, and was served with 
*' kneeling, assay, and all other rites due to the estate of a prince : with which dinner the 
^ ceremony endid,, and every man returned home again. The pedigree of this usage 10 
*' derived from so many descents of ages, that the cause and authour outreach remem- 
*' brance : howbeit, these circumstances offer a conjecture, that it should betoken the rey- 
'^ ahies appertaining to the hopour of CornwalK The << custom'' was ^^ only of bte days 
*•* discontinued." 

4 W^ 


with all the pomp of royalty, the sewer, the taster, and the cup-bearer 
kneeling. The ghost of departed sovereignty thus hovered around the 
body which it formerly inhabited, still retaining a Hvely remembrance of 
its past connexions, still cherishing the fire of ambition in the very ashe» 
of it, and longing to see them rekindle into a flame again ; and the Saxons^ 
the Normans continued the custom, because they fbund it a custom, be* 
cause earls, either Norman or Saxon, love to assume the appearaiioe of 
royalty if they can, and the ancient practice countenanced them in 
assuming it here. So established for ages, the pageantiy survived whcA 
the princes were deceased, and the tenants continued what their lords had 
practised as well as patronized If. • 

Of the British earls of Cornwall, Dr. Borlase specifies several by name ^^-^^^ *^ 
as dukes* ; but these are merely the creatiu-es of imagination, in himself 

or in others. Thus we have " Alpsius, duke of Devon and Cornwall,** 

without any authority alleged at all. We have *' Orgerius — , duke of ^2iL^6^^^t^ 
'* Devon and Cornwall,'* on the authority of that very historian, who, ^^<^^-^ 97^ i 
even as cited by Dr. Borlase himself, only styles him earl of Devon-f . We ^^-^^^^-^^^^^^ 
have also ** Eadulphus, son of Ordgarus,** noticed on the same authority; J^ fl«w^ 

though he \% not even mentioned by that historian as earl of Devon, much 
less as earl of Cornwall, being merely mentioned as a son to the earl J. 
And we have finally *' Aylmar, alias Athehnar,— earl of Cornwall,'* on 
the evidence of a charter in the year 1002, relating to Whorwell monas* 
tery in Hampshire ; one of the subscribers to which is ** I Ethelmar 

I We have even a festivity similar to this in practice, and only a little dissimilar la pur- 
pose, at the city of Bath. ^' King Eadgar,'' as Leland informs us, '^ was crowtid with much 

joy and honor at S. Peter's in Bath ; wherupon he bare a great zeale to the towne, an() 

gave very great frauncheses and privilages onto it. In knowlege wherof they pray in al 

their ceremonies for the soule of king Eadgar. And at Whitsunday-tydcj at the which 
^' tyme men say that Eadgar there was crounid, ther is a king electid at Bath every yere qf 
*' iho tonnes men, in the joyfulle remembraunce of iing Eadgar j and the privileges -gyven to 
•* the toun by hym. This king isfestid, and his adherentes, by the richest menne of the toun.'^ 
(Ttin. ii. 68.) . ^ 

* Borlase, 410, 411. 

t Malmesbury, 146 : '* Ordgavum comitcm Domnoniensem/^ 

X Malmesbury, 146 : «' Filii ejus/' 


** mmtster. 



^* minister,'' without any the slightest reference to Cornwall, and with 
the attendance of no less than fourteen others, equally subscribing as 
ministers, but designing themselves merely to be thanes^. These mis- 
named earls of Cornwall, indeed, are all of them c(ynfessedly Saxons, be- 
'xsause the two first of them are considered by the Doctor himself as earls 
of Devon equally with Cornwall. The name of the very first, Alpsius, is 
apparently Saxon; it being equally the name of a bishop of Dorsetshire, 
who died in 95 8 II . Even the name of the last, Athelmar, is acknow- 
ledged by the Doctor, and must be acknowledged by all to be equally 
Saxon : yet Dr. Borlase has crowned all his mistakes by one gross con- 
tradiction to all; on the authority of Camden noting another earl '* of 
*^ the royal British blood,'' after Athelmar, after four successive kings of 
England, and even after *' Algar," who " founded the abbey of Bruton 
^' in Somersetshire," or *' Odda," who *' was constituted earl over," not 
Cornwall, but. *' Devonshire, Somersetshire, Dorsetshire, and Wales ^, 
and calling him *' Condoms, alias Cadocus, la^t earl of Cornwall" in that 
blood. In thus acting he is as unjust to Camden as he is contradictory in 
himself. Camden alleges merely, that '' of the earls of British blood 
'* only Candorus, alias Cadocus, the last earl of Cornwall, is mentioned by 
\* modern writers^.'' He does not aver the point, he only cites authority 
for it. He refers to modem writers for the suggestion. This reference 
too is the more remarkable, as it was not in the first editions of his work; 
the passage in 1594 running thus: *' Of the earls of British blood only 
'^ Cadocus, the last earl of Cornwall, is mentioned -f.'' Camden was 

§ Monasticon, i. 258. 

I Florence, 355 : '^ Alfsius Dorsetensium eplscopus obiit." This is nearly the same also 
with *' AlfsinusDorobemensis archiepiscopus." ("Ibid J 

fl Borlase, 411, says, *^ Algar — 1046, — ^ Odda constitutus fuit comes super Defema* 
*' shire, Sumerset, Dorset, and OferWealas' (Sax. Chr. ad pag. 1048),'* when the page 
cited is the year in reality, when the mixture of Latin and English in a passage marked as a 
citation is very strange, when the ^^ OferWealas" is only the same in the original as ** Super 
^' Wallos" in the translation, and when the context shews it clearly to have no connexion 
at all With Cornwall. 

* Camden, 142: ^^£ Britannici sanguinis comitibus solum Candorus^ alias Cadocus, 
^^ ultimus Comw^Iliae comesj 11 recentioribus memoratur.'' 

t P. 130. 



drawn away, like Dr. Borlase, by the confident assertions of some ro- 
mancing moderns, but did what Dr. Borlase did not, recovered himself 
afterwards, put a proper mark upon his assertion, and founded it on its 
Teal basis of merely modern authority. He thus shewed his suspicion of 
the whole. But Dr. Borlase comes, adopts his suggestion, rejects his 
suspicion, yet rests all upon his testimony. The passage, however, thus 
cited by Dr. Borlase, and thus failing him, for one point, operates 
strongly against him in every other. Camden, in both forms of his sen- 
tence, shews us by his restrictive *' only*' he knew not, whatever Dr. 
Borlase may know, of any other Briton mentioned even by the modems 
as earl of Cornwall. Yet, as we have seen before, Wfthiel was plainly &oot£^^l4^^^^^^. 
one, and the very first. Pontius also appears from the same sort of evi- 
dences to have been another earl, and probably the second. At the mouth £i?t^ ^>u^2^ . 
of Lestwithiel river, and for a signature of Lestwithiel's jurisdiction over 
it, is what is traditionally denominated Pontitis's Crass ; being a cross 
upon the left-hand rock, defining the limit of the town*a jurisdiction, 
and standing the bound of the town's annual excursion by water towards 
the sea. It is plainly therefore the signature of an authority over this 
tide-river, conceded by some earl who lived in the palace here, and who 
favoured the town at its side. The Roman name of Pontius is derived 
from the British period of our history, like that of Ambrosius Aurelianus 
in the beginning of the sixth century, and that of Etigemus Ccesarius near 
the middle of the tenth. The name of Pontius continued even ^^ family 
appellation in the island, down to the middle ages ; Thomas Pontius 
being abbot of Canterbury in the fourteenth century J, and Nicholas 
Pontius a member of Merton college in Oxford at the beginning of the 
fifteenth §. Thus a Roman name, which has been jxistly cons^ed to 
In&my in the commencing annals of our religion, appears to have beeti 
borne even by the true professors of Christianity in England and in Corn- 
wall, many ages after the departure of the Romans from our isle. The 

X Leland De Script. Brit. 332, 333. So we have, '^ Pontius ex LoDgobard& fiHus," 
governor of Tripolis for the Christians, in the first crusade (Malmesbury^ f. 86)^ and 
^' Poncius — dictas^ aichidiaconusde Penbroc^" in Wales (Wharton's Anglia Sacra^ ii. 482).. 

$ Ibid. 399. 



nsLme, however^ was anglicized into Poncy || , and frenchified into 
Ponce% ; the former, a name not absolutely unfamiliar to our ears at pre- 
sent in PouTicy ; and the latter, in the days of Leland, applied with a vul- 
gar corruption to our cross at the mouth of Lestwithiel river. " The very 
^' point of land at the east side of the mouth of this haven," says Leland, 
'' is caullid Pontus [Pontius' s] Crosse, vulgo Paunch Crosse*." Such 
wereplainly two of Cornwall's British earls, both unknown to the pre- 
tended enumerators of those earls, and the only earls that are known by 
name ; Condor, or Cadoc, or any others mentioned by moderns, being all 
the non-entities of fable : and it comes from those or other earls residing 
in their palaces of Penkenek or Restormel, that Lestwithiel has now the 
honour of being the metropolis of Cornwall, preserving the standard 
weights and measures for the county, retaining the hustings of election 
for the county members, and keeping the courts as well as the prison of 
the stannaries within it, together with the private right of anchorage in 
the river, and the liushellage of all measurable commodities in the town 
of Fowey at the mouth of it. Leskard must have been the metropolis 
originally, as Launceston must have been the metropolis since. The latter, 
indeed, is so far the metropolis still, as to have the session of the itinerant 
judges within it alternately with Bodmin, even to have had it exclusively 
of Bodniin, till the party-spirit, predominant through all the government 
. of the first George, wanted to punish the opposed party-spirit of Laun- 
ceston, so called in Bodmin to share the consequence with Launceston, 
and extended the privilege of the earl's town, in a paroxysm of ignorant 
anger, to an abbot*s. 

^^^Sjej^oct The Cornish episcopate thus survived the Cornish royalty, and con- 
J. cj«;i/>»uxvMf , tinned when the royalty was shrivelleii up into an earldom, but survived 

and continued only at St. German's. How wildly then does Dr. Borlase 
aver concerning Bodmin, that *'as this was the most ancient society"*' of 
monks or clergymen, "and most flourishing, in Cornwall, and placed con- 

(I Thorn in Twisden, 2066, ao67, " Thomae Poncy.'* 
f Pontius Pilate is called Ponce Pilat in the French Creed. 
• Itin. iii. 37. 

'* veniently 




veoiebtly for that pui^ose ; Edward the Elder settled here the episcopal 
see, A. D. 0O5f /' He alludes to that appointment of Athelstan as a 
biitbop for Gorhwall, which I have shewn before to have been made in 
Ql^, ^uid wluch ^ea^ies no one see iti all m Cornwall. W^ therefore 
need only to observe in addition to this remark, that the appointment was 
void^and unmeaning in its effect, as Comtvall was not iken reduced. 
TieitK3bmwall, indeed, was then considered by the Saxons as in some 
Tifeasurc subject to them, is evident from the very terms in which two 
9axons, Bede actually living about two centuries before, and Malmesbury 
writing in West-Saxony itself about two centuries after; speak of the 
Cornish, as having " fallen to the lot of the West-Saxon kings/' as *^ not 
*' to be forced by violence, but led by reasons, from a schism,** which the 
Saxrnis supposed them to form, and even expcessly as *' subjects to the 
'^ West-Saxons J/' Yet this consideration appears to have been merely 
speculative, from the declaration of iMalmesbury in another place, that 
*' Egbert gave the first proofs of his prowess in stAduing the Britons who 
*' inhabit that part of the island which is called Corn wall §;'* and from 
the assertion of the Saxon Chronicle in harmony with it, that *'he ravaged 
** the country of the West-Wealas from rastward to.w^estward|| ;" when 
ravaging or subduing the region, of themselves, in their natural course, 
and Muthout the interposition of some other facts to divert them from it, 
shew the natives not to have been previously subjected. But it is stiH 
plainer, from the Cornish rejection of a Saxon bishop, endeavoured to be 
imposed upon them by king Edward in gio; from Athelstan's call upon 

f Boriase, 380. * 

% Malmesbury ifi Gale, i. 349: '^ Qui North»WalIi> Id eat, aquilonales B^tones," lie 
certainly means the West- Welsh, as the very Britons here tneant^ are expressly called in the 
corresponding portion of the Saxon Chronicle, ** parte West-Saxonum regum obrcnerant," 
wliile llie real North-Welsh could not possibly have so fallen, all Mercia lying between West- 
Saxony and them, while, indeed, the West- Welsh alone could, as the only Britons border- 
ing upon West-Saxony j — *' non vi cogendos schismalicos, sedTatioaibus ducendos/' Bede's 
Hist. V. 18, '^ eonim qui Occidentalibus Saxonibus subditi erant Britones." 

§ Malmesbury, 19 : '' Egbertus — prima virium documenta in Brittamio6^ cjfii earn iiisidte 
^* partem inhabitant, quae Cornu Gallife dicitur^ dedit } quibus subjugatis," &c. 
' .]| Sax. Chron. A«'i>; &13. 

yoL- I. J them* 

I ' 


tfacm to aeHliowtedge Ids supremacy in 027; from tfaeir wibsial to do 
ao ; from their advance into the field to engage his armj ; 60m their de*- 
feat, their tenkporaiy submission, and their absolute reduction inoSO. All 
shews Edward's appointment of a bishop for ComwaH to havei)eea'mftde 
only from that principle of usurpation upon the Comisfa, whidi was 
founded on the real weakness, seeming ^ubmistton, and timorous amity, inr 
the Cornish towards the Saxons. Thus in 8O7 Alfred, only nineteen years 
of age, went a-hunting into Ck>mwall, withoiKt any fear in himsdf, or anjr 
restriiint from others ; then turned aside one day to pay his devotions to 
Gop in a church there, and earnestly supplicated GO0 in it fer a particu** 
lar blessing^. All this carries the appearance of as much amity, or as 
much submissiyeness, in Cornwall towards the Saxons, as could be shewn 
even hy the Saxons themselves : yet we see the appearance stifl rtnmger 
in another incident. Neot, the Tsry near relation of Alfitd^ came also 
into Cornwall, even settled as a monk, and Hved as a saint, in the heart of 
it ; died there, was buried there^ and consigned his own name to the 
placed. We actually see the appearance stronger still in a third incident. 
t/^^v^, Alfred nominated Asser^ his chaplain and historian, to the bishopric of 

/iuk^ ^<£a^e;^fe> Exctet, as Asser himself tells us ; and thus shews the episcq^ seat of 
^^^A*^'"^ ^^^^ Devonshire deciavely to have then been as I have placed it, and as all 
^/.ju' aaaIj analogy teUs us it must have been originally placed, at that capital of the 

DamHonii, though it was soon afterwards transferred to Crediton, " with 
'^ all %t» diocese, which belonged to Alfred in England and in Cbr»* 
** wall^.'* The kings of West-Saxony therefore, as early as Alfred and 
before his son Edward, considered Cornwall to be distinct from their 
realm of England^ yet a part of their general dominions ; ccmsidered it to 
be under their own prelate of Exeter ; and so, by virtue of that principle, 
which gave the patronage of all ecclesiastical benefices to those who 
originally endowed them with lands, nominated a bishop for Cornwall in 
design by nominating one for Devonshire in fact. Then Edward came, 
appointed one for Devonshire by itsd^ and therefore appointed another 

f Asmttf 4<>, Wise* 
* Ibid. ibid« 

t Ibid, 51 : '^ Dedit mibi Exanceastre, cum omni parocbia qute adlse petliadbat ih.SaK>iiift 
<< et m CorDubi&/' 

» for 


foff Cornwall bj itaelf. If then with Dr. Borlase we repute thete nomi- 
nees of the Saxon kings, to be actually bishops of Cornwall; we ot^t to 
begin much earlier than the Dbctor*s 906 or my Qio, and moimt up t6 


Ajuer as well as Athelstan for one of our Corrash bishops. Aified^s or 
£dwaffd*fl bishops, however, were only nominal prelates of Conmall; tlife 
Jcings of Cornwall still retaining the power of appointment to their own 
bishoprics, and the diocese of Cornwall still remaining independent of 
the see of Devonshire. This the whole tenor of the previous hbiiorf 
shew4> and this the whole of the subsequent will confirm. Nor is the 
coming of Alfred into Cornwall, or the settlement of Neot in it^ of any 
more moment against this double histmy, than the Cornish community 
of posseasion with the Saxons in Exeter would be against the certain 
right cf the Saxons to the whole of a dty, vrfaich was the seat of their 
Devonriore prelate, and so their ecclesiastical capital for Devondme^ to* 
tsetjber with ComwaU:{;. 



BntAHmt the monastery of Bodmin was, what Ik. Borlase asserts it to 
be, ^^ the most flourishing in Cornwall,*' as early as Q06, must cany aii 
astonishing soiund in it to the ears of those who have just heard demotif- 
stratiTdy^ that there was no real monasteiy at Bodmin till ga6, and that 
the valley of Bodmin before was merely a hermitage for four persons. 
f* Here,^* adds Dr. Borlase however^ '* the bishops of Cornwall resided 
*' till the year 98 1, when the town, church, and monastery being burnt 

down by the Danes, the bishops removed their seat further east^ to St. 

German's on the river Lyner. iThc monastery seems to have continued 

in ruins for some time, and went into the possession of the earl of 
^' Moreton and Cornwall at the Conquest §." That the main substsmce 
«f all thisis£dse history, we have seen befiire ; yet letussee it again* 

The destruction of Bodmin in 08 1 is all founded upon a gross misr 
apprehension. In that year, says Florence indeed^ '' the monaitery of 
^* St. Petroc the confessor in Cornwall was laid waste by the pirates, 

t Maloittbiiry^ aS : ^^ Excestre^ qaam ad id iempork asquo cum Angli? jure inhabita- 
•* rant.- . ,. . 

$ Boriase^ 380. 

12 *' who 


^otuiUtoto-f «>wha laid waste Southampton (ftte year befoile ; who afterwards," after 

aUjticuM^ ' «acking Southampton, ** did in Devonshire, and in Gbmwall itself; collect 

4y fu^u^Ou <** freqtaent plunder along the Shores of *hi sea || /*. . Butthis incident has 

£^ ^Sl . -auo rdbidbk to '£ocfi7m2 ; it refers 'only X^Q.yPc^tmv.^ TKhe- express restric- 

iibn: df diese piratical ravages to '* the sharqi'of 'thej$ea,?'» confines it de- 
termiftafoly to the latter. The moniistciy which was built by Athelstan 
Vith the monastery of Bodmin, in honour eqi*ally of St» Petrock, who 
landed at Padstow, and in subjection also to that of -Bodmin whifre^^he 
' liied, was ere<rted. upon 1rh6 site of that ^' beauti&l house m the neigh- 
f* boUrh<i»d, like a caStle," as Camden says for the first iime in iOo?, 
*^ which N. Prideaux, a gentleman of an ancient name and family, iatel^ 
*^ bxnlt in those western parts.^." This site is familiarly and coBkKjtiially 
denominated Pfoce, but more formally in the writings cbftcfeminj^ it 
(1 understand). P&ce Norm ; tlie word FIM in Cornish originally sigiti"- 
fying a Palace in English, and so (in that derivative spirit of prdpiie<y 
among the monks formerly, which yet we ridicule among the Italians at 
present) giving the appellation of Place occasionally to a gentlefinKan's 
house in. Cornwall, or in England; but lebming jet liast *o si^ifyiA 
Welsh, what Place signifies in i English, tiie residence of SLOy one; 4ht 
humble abode of a very hermit, nay even the very space that, is occupied 
by any thing *. Plds Noun, therefore, imports the place or palace of the 
monks f . '^Dm. place coniing to the Prideatixes with the superior man- 

|. Florence, 362 ; '^ Sancti Petfocj confessorjs monasterium in Comubia devastatum est^^ 
*' piratis, qui deinde in Domnonia,.et in ip^4 Cornubii, circa ripas maris frequentes praedas 
^ agcbant.** So Hbvedenj 245, likewise, and M. Wtstm. 379.' 

^ Camden, 140 ^ " Spetiosae aBd<;s tnstiaf ^a&i^Ui' adju«cta», qwas imper N. Prideauxj an- 
'^ tiqiH oomtDiSt^et nobilitatie^ iD-hoc ccvidoo tractu extruxit.'*'* The notice isntotiatfae 
edition of 1590, p. 122, and not in that of 1594, p. 126. 

* Lhuyd'3 Archaol. aSa. So Place, a cell of monk* fown^rly at St. Anthony neaftSt. 
Mawes, and again at St. Anthony near St. German's. So ^^ Place Amidowe," near Den- 
high in North- Wales ; " the name declarith it to have beene the place of an hercmite.'*^ 
(Ldand*8 Itin% v. 59.) Palaoe^nd PJac^are so troly Rdman-British, that- nerthortjf thfem is 
discoverable in the Saxon, though the latter is so familiar in the English, 

- i NonTtus in Latm is a-monk, and Nonnct^ niin ;' both derived from the Jaliguage of that 
origihaLsealof nuns and monksjKgypt, Hence come A'i/nwwze^ for monks^ in some Latin 



sion of Bodmin, and carrying all its rights with it to the new possessors^ 
gave to this only branch sun-iving of the male Prideauxes, a familj purely 
CornL^ in its origin, settled originally at Prideaux Castle not .&r from 
St, Austle, and there ending in an heiress under the reign of Henry VI., 
the loi*dship of the town and the patronage of the church of Padstow, for 
a younger son ; while the elder possessed the great tithes of the parish, 
with the great tithes and patronage of Bodmin church : and as we have 
seen Padstow substituted for Bodmin before> when the town meant is 
said to have been some miles from the Severn shore ; so we find Bodmin 
substituted for Padstow now, when the town is declared to have been 

upon the shore of the sea J. . 


; ^Nor does the monastery of Bodmin,, whatever Dr. Borlase may affitm; . 
^^\4eem to have oontinued in ruins for some time;*' nor go,. either 
suxned'or not ruined, ** into the possession of the earl of Mdreton and 
'* Gorawall at the Conquest." These incidentar notices in Dn Borlase 
are just as erroneous as the main substance has appeared befoi;e. . Since 
the monastery was tio/ reduced into ruins in gsi, it coidd not ^'continue 
''in ruins for some time'' afterwards^ There is indeed no semblance, Jio 
shadow, however slight and faint, of any such continuance. Tlie'rao* 
nastery actually appears in Doomsday Book, all erect and entire as early 
as the preceding parts of William's reign, as early as Harold's reign pre- 
ceding then^, ev«i as early as the reign of Edward antecedent to both; aU 


caoonsof'the^Saxon clntsch (Wilktne'^ConciIifi, 1^979 '' Monacbi se» Niinnones/.' Caoaa 
xix. A4 D. 747) ; Noum^ in Saxony for *' juniores in monadteriis priores ast^(e'' (M^o^ing); 
JViy/i iaJSax/Dn,i&s-'ApupiUQ»" /t6ie^ ) and iVtiit^ JV«Yiai0, $^mm« .. Hence uo4oulilV^(1^9 by 
mislaLiogtbeiseamng of tbe^word, c^ma* ** Nunnys" at Bojqain priory in i^lfinci's Itin. ik 
X15. The word Ntmn therefore for a nun or monk, must formerly hs^ve rbeeu in tbt Britisk 
language ^ thopgh: Ihia l^^^al- appelkiion at >l^d$tow ■. is the* only ,«ne i kaow,^ in. which. h bow . 

occurs amongst all the diafectfi of the JSriti^V 

X' CaRew«43> ^^ Ideaft«WiU. [de GampoAroulphi} tenet in >Pri(/#a» feodum i?;449 ^'haeres 
f< TluMoacde Pfi4i»x.\V^vf^ in Aoswbygbergy i.feod. paru..:'* 47, , ^< Pnidi/?iix. .•" 5r, 
<' RiogeruftiPr Miyos :? 59> - D^miii^uaTbonias de Ptidias.'! And,- »ays.-the Bj^onetage, ». . 
516, ^dU**l^4i.5'Mni^.the informali^a of the fiimily: <Mn this family P.rideaux Castle con*- 
** tinued till temp. Hen. VI., when it went ^way with a daughter and heir^ married ,ta 
*' 13iom^ Hede of West: Herle ia the county of Northumberland." 




the time possessed of many estates, with some little encroachments upon 
them in the reigns of Harold and William, even at the period of Dooms* 
day Book itself, not gone ^^ into the possession of the earl," and only de* 
prived of some few lands by his violence. ** The church of St Petroc^'* 
says the J'ecord, '^ holds Bodmine,--^there has Saint Petroc lxviii houses 
and one market §. Tfie church itself holds Lanwenehoc — . The 
church itseff holds Rieltone— . Bemer holds under Smnt Petroc 
Lanchehoc ; Caduualant h^ it under the Saint in the time of king Ed^ 
ward -r-. Earl Moriton hokls under Samt Petroc Tiwarthel ; Algar 
held it in the time of kimg Edward — . The sanie earl holds under 
'* Saint Petroc Eihill ; a thane held it in the. time of king Edward-^-^ 
" The same earl holds under Saint Petroc Calestock ; a thane held it in 
^' the time of Ung Edward — . The same earl holds under Smnt Petroc 
" Cai^u; a thane held it in the time of kir^ Edward^'^y The 
reoord thus goes on for five manors more. ** Richard holds under Smsd 
*^ Petroc Tuigoil ; Godric held it under the Saint in the time of king 
^^ Edward — . Machus holds under Saint Petroc Fosnewit; he himself 
^ held it in the time of hng EAvard-^. Saint Petroc himself h<dds 
^ Elil — . Saint Petroc himself holds Widie — . Saint Petroc hiinseif 
'* holds Tretdeno-r-f .'* The record at last comes to some lands taken 


( The bouse, having been '' lately built'' before 1607^ and with the largeness or strength 
^f a ^^stle, cantK>t be expected to shew any marks of the monastery. But just before you 
reach the gate in the outer wall^ is now one house, and lately were two houses, very old, an 
apf^arent appendage to the monastery, and the very abodes of s<»ne families (bat lived upon 
4hf broken meat dispensed at this gale : and the outer wall itself appears also to be very oM, 
a door-way being seen closed up^ tiie original entrance to k before you reach the gate; and 
the whole wall, I believe, except the gate^ except the battlements^also, being the onginal 
fence of ihe monastery. • 

'* Doomsday Book, fol. lap: ^'Eccla S. Petroc tenet Bodmiae—^ ibi babet S.Petioc 
'' Lxvin domos et unum mercatum — • Tpsa seccla tenet L»iwcDehoc«— • Ipsa ssccia 
^^ tenet Biekone — • Bemer tenet de &. Petroc Lanchehoc, Caduualant teneh*t de Saacto 
^^ T. R. E.— <:«mes Moriton. tenet de S. Petrooo Tiwarthel, h\ga teatcb^t T. R. £.— Tdetn 
<^ comes ^enetdeS.PetToco EHhill, unustatnustenebatT. R»E. — Idnn comes tenet ds S* 
-^^ Petroc Calestock, umis tainus tenebat T. R. E. -* Idenk cmdcs tenet de S« Petroe Cbigau^ 
^' Hnus 4ainus tenebat T. R. E.'^ 

t Ibid. ibid. ^'lUcardus tenet de4S. PetrocoTurgoir; Godric teaebatdeSancldT.R. £*---* 




eHAP. 1.] ftlSTORICALLT StfaVEtfeD* C4 

ftway from the diurch. ^* Earl Harold took from Saint P6trd6 litojtistly 
^* one hide of land, ybr t/;WcA king William commanded a judgment to he 
'^ heldy and Me Satnf to be re-semned hy the justiciary J/' *' From the 
•' church of Saint Petroc has been taken away Cudiford, — the king holdt 
** i^§ ." Thus the exemplary act of justice done by William before, ap- 
pears merely to hare been done because it was against Harold; and the 
sacrilegious violence of Harold is here repeated, even by William himself 
Kor was William the only plunderer of the church* The earl imitated^ 
hia sovereign, and the sacril^e of both is registered for ever in this human 
Book of Doomsday. ^' These lands mentioned below have been taken, 
away from Saint Petroc, earl Moriton holds them, and his men under 
Mmjl.'* Yet these consist oiJy of *' one virgate of land/' of " half a. 
hide/' and of another ^' viigate; of half a hide'^ i^in^ of *^ half sl 
hider' Gtxce mofie, of a third ^* vhgate,** and of a fourth^. I^ch are 
the slencfer portions of land which Dr. Borlase had worked up into all th^ 
manors and estates belonging to Bodmin prioiy. He had thus, with the 
magic of a hand making modern improvements in grounds, expanded his 
Wook into a river, ai^d set his vessels at anchor upon it. But^ howeverv 
agreeable such a deception may be in such improvemaits, it is all fraudu-^ 
fence and iabification in the scenes of history. *' All the land»^ above-* 
" described Saint Petroc held in the time of Mng Edward. These lands 
'* never paid geld but to the church itself*.'* In so flourishing a con- 
dition does the priory appear upon the face of this record, at the very 
time when Dr. Borlase represents it as in ruins!. So richly endowed does 

^ Mftebne Miet de S. PMroco FMncwit, i^ tentbat T«R.E. — ^Ipse Sanctos Pdtto teneti 
^ £lil— » IfMe Sanctus Petfoc Maet Widie^. Ipse Sanetus Pttroc tenet Tretdeno/' 

X DMoMday Baok^ foU iflo: *^ Comes Haraldus abstulit S. Petro kJAiBteibidam terra,. 
^ pffo qolf W. Re« pneecpk jtrdicamenliun tenerr^ et Sanctoni per jotticiaiii rasaisiri.'' . 

§ IbkU 'MA, '« £te Mcfa S. Peiroe aUata est Cmlifotfd^, rex tenets.'' 

fJbM.ibid. ^ HfliiQ&a^scrip.ta't6rnaaaii%abkif»S.Fetroca, GmitB MoritoA. tittet, et j 
^ iMttiines ^m da ecx" 

f" Ibid. ibUk ^'kh-iwa vitgata ta na ; . nH>Hti<gidia bida lerr«»^;. in—ana virgata; 
«c H»rflh>-^^ kirHiifiiidia^Mda tema^} ittt^*<KmyU bWa te rtr <! $ laM-uoa tirgata ttrre^ ; . 

^' IMd/ ihM^ «' Oftiaes aupetiuiy dtoefiptaa4erni#feMbiif T.Ii«£« Sancttts PetxocttS^ Vt^* 




it also appear ttt the very moment when the Doctor seqacstcjrs all its pro- 
perty> and resigns it up to the rapacious hands of the earl ! But alter all, 
and to complete the sum of all, about the year 1 125 " Willyam Warie- 
** wist bishop of Excestre," as Leland notes, *' erected the last foundation 
V** of diis priory, and had to hymself^^vt of thauncient ^tic^s of Bodxnyn 
'* monasterief ." So utterly false is Dr. Borlasc s account of the Con- 
quest a3 afiecting Bodmin ; one of several instances serving to shew» 
how much our history of that period for the nation at large remaini^ t« 
this day distorted by pppul^f.^ror^acid discoloured with vulgar folly J. 

' .Nor 

r . ' • 

t Leland's Itin. H. xic, 

t Yet Dr. Borlase's account is (derived (I believe) from an author, truly respectable, but 
uncited ; Lelatid himself, who has furnish^ us in; bis Ilihierary with such an ^videnc'e 
agahiat the Doctor, thus wandering away intp his mistake io Another work. ** Oomes Mori*- 
'^ duaen^is,'' be there says^ f' — >fauum Petroci pr^tdits spoliavit omtiilus'' (De Script* BtfU. 
6i)* A reference h^s also been made to this passage as containing a certain fact, by the in- 
genious .writer of '^ Some AccQunt of the Church and Windows of St. Neot's in Cornwall, 
London, 1786;" the writer saying thus of the earl in p. 3, ** Leland informs us, that he 
seized— on all the lands betenging to the monastery of St. Petroc in Bodmyn/*— Of the 
other instances alludedto in the text, the tale of the curfeu is one. The appointment of tUs 
was not, as it is generally believed to have been^ an act of tyrannical oppression upon the 

Who, shivVing wretches, at the curfew sound 

Dejected shrunk into their sordid beds, 

Andy through the mournful gloom, of andent times 

Mus*d sad, or dreamt of better. ' 

It was not even, as has been recently and more rationally believed by a few, a deed of defence 
against fires by putting them out for the night j the very term cauvre-fou, or courfeu^ .no\ in- 
dicating any ex^iWfon of fires at all, as both the interpretations suppose, but. merely the 
covering them up for the better preservation of them against the morning, as is stiU practised 
in many parts .of England every night. In truth, it was merely a mode of civil economy^ for 
the regulation of the hours. In the fashion of spending the day then, a bell at |he 
evening was just as proper and expedient to announce the hour of japing to bed, as a, beHat 
five in the morning was for proclaiming the hour of rising from bed. Both theriefore^aiv 
almost equally continued among 'iiSi to. the present d;iy. — So likewise, says an author concern- 
ing the «ame E^gli^b 4iQder the Conqpest, f^ \% grew to be cusjtomaxy with this ^n£orluQ#t» 
^* race, whether remaining at home, or seeking shelter in the woods, A> /mrricMdfi. th^^d^m 
'^ ^ery night^," 9iS if doors were opt. ^eryrngfet jbarricaded equally .brforc.ttffCqn^ufat, 
'^ and at the same time invoke the prfitsction if the. Almighty in prayer^ a^ unc^}.fup i^jfffen 

** seeing 


Nor has the removal of the see from Bodmin to St» Germanr*$ In p8!, 
as asserted by Dr. Borlase, any other ground to rest upon, nor does it pre- 
tend to have any, even in the misinterpretations of history, than his equally 
asserted ruin of Bodmin itself. That is merely an inference from this ; 
an inference wholly presumptive, from an incident totally false. But the 
presumption is refuted at once by a record, which shews us the see of St- 
German's existing near half a century before, as we have already seen, 
and even specifies the very clergyman then nominated to fill it. It is 
again refuted by a second record, which sinks in date below, while that 
rises above the year 981, thus hedges in the year on both sides, and 
exhibits Bodmin to us in Q04, actually associated ivith St. Germans in 
the designation of the Cornish see. So thoroughly is this imaginary no- 
tion the very reverse of truth ! . The town had now risen by the side of 
the monastery at Bodmin, and both were considerable enough to receive . 
tliis honour at present ^f For the love of the holy confessor Germanus, 
'* and of the blessed excellent Petroc," cries Ethelred king of England, in 
9Q4, only thirteen years after Dr. Borlase avers St. Petroc's monastery at 
Bodmin to have been reduced to ruins, and to have continued '^ for, some 
*' time^' in those ruins.; " I have granted the bishopric of' EaMred the 
** bishop (it is in the province of Cornwall)^ that it be. subject to him and 
*' all his successors, that he himself is to govern and rule it as his diocese, 
that the place and government of St. Petroc is to be always in his 
power, and in the power of his successors*." This is plainly an an- 

** seeing the next day^* when, for the common credit of the Saxons as Christians, we must 
believe they equally every evening " invoked the protection of the Almighty in prayer," and 
when we know they were expressly required by their clergy., *^ every one'* to *^ pray for him- 
^' self twice a day ut kast, that is, morning and evening." ^TheodulPs Capitula, A. D. 994^ 
Johnson.) Yet, to shew how high the spirit of popular absurdity can ascend, our author 
adds thus: " A practice this,'* says M. Parisy " which continues even to this day (1252), 
** though the dangers are past ;" as if the custom of praying every evening, and every evening 
shutting up doors, had never been known in the Christian world before the late period of the 
Conquest (see Mr. Newcome's Ancient History of St. Alban's Abbey, p. 42). The Conquest 
seems to have so strongly affected the minds of our countrymen with terror, that even now 
they can see nothing but spectres and demons dancing in the shade of it. 

* Monasticon, i. 227 : ** Pro amore^-sancti confessoris Germani, necnon et beaJi 
'^ exijmii Petrbci,«-*-donavi epiacopium Ealdredi episcopi (id est in provincii Coruubi^), ut 

VOL. I. K ** —ait 



nexation rf the monastery of Bodmin to the episcopate of St, German's. 
The mention of Germanus, the mention of him in the jKr*/ place, and the 
omission of all subjugation of St Germans monastery to the bishop, 
concur to prove the bishop already settled at St. Germans, and theref&r^ 
' possessed qf' authority already over the monastery there. At the same time 
•the very different conduct of the charter, in ordering " the place and go- 
•* vernment of St. Petroe, — to be always in hispatver, and in the power of 
*' his successors/* is strikingly contrasted with this^ and marks the actual 
subjugation of Bodmin monastery at the time, to the bishop of St. Ger^ 
mans. This bishop " was still to have his diocese in the province of 
*' Cornwall, — subject to him and all his successors,*' and " he himselF^ 
was still ** to govern and rule it as his diocese.'* No change was made 
in the jurisdiction and seat of the bishop. This was still left at St. Ger« 
man's, and that was still allowed to be commensurate with Cornwall* 
But the monastery of Bodmin was now annexed to the see, the name of 
Bodmin was now subjoined to that of St. German's, and the bishop be-* 
came by this concession from the crown, the prelate of Cornwall under 
the combined titles of St. German's and of Bodmin ; just as, by the same 
sort of annexation formerly, the see of Litchfield is now entitled Litch- 
fidid and Coventry. 

In such an inverted position has the history of the Cornish episcopate 
been hitherto exhibited to the world ! All this has resulted from one 
false assumption ; and a wrong step at the outset has plunged all our 
writers into a wilderness of errors. That the see was originally at Bod- 
min, was taken up for a real fact by Malmesbury, in an extraordinary 
paroxysm of confuaon, in a half-conscious contradiction to his own aver- 
ment before, and therefore with a hesitation ' of spirit natural to such a 
state of mind. His authority, though balanced by the weight of the true 
opinion, placed by himself from others in the opposite scale ; though even 
thrown up into the air by his own positive averment before ; though 

•* — Bit ei — subjecta omnibusque posteris ejus, ut ipse gubernet atqcie regat suam parochiam^ 
u — locusque atque regimen Sancti Petroci semper in potestate ejus sit successorumque 
*« lUius." 



fixed for ever immoveable there by the concurrent testimony of two 
other historians, by the records of St. German's abbey, and by the me- 
morials of Bodmin priory ; was weakly, wildly believed to prepon- 
derate. The settlement of the Cornish see at Bodmin was transmitted 
from pen to pen without examination. Then the whole system of his- 
tory was obliged to be reversed, in order to accommodate tlie acknow- 
ledged facts of it to this believed falsity. The sun was compelled to go 
back in its course, and to travel from \\ est to east, in order to suit this 
new position of the heavens*. 

* Let me here notice one very remarkable point in the true history of Bodmin that is 
wholly unknown to the writers of the county, yet is still cognised by the long-reaching 
memory of tradition at the town, is soon recorded in published annals, and serves to com- 
plete an observation of some consequence which I have made before. At the Conquest, as 
we have seen, Bodmin contained only sixy-eight houses within it; but it greatly increased 
afterwards. This the number of churches and chapels in the town, at the time of Leland's 
visit to it, forcibly suggests to us. There was, besides the priory or parish-church, " at the 
** est endeof the town," and besides ** acantuarie chapel at theste ende of it ;" " a chapei 

^* of S ," of St. Leonard, I believe, as the statue of a saint is still remaining in Bodmin 

with S. L. on the back, ^^ at the west ende of the toune." There was also the church 
«* of Gray Freres," now the shire-hall, " on the south side of Bodmin town," founded in 
1239 (Worcester, 99) ; and there was ** another chapel inBodmyn, beside that in the west 
** ende of the toune" (Itin. ii. 114, 115) ; the very church of Berry on the north, now re- 
maining in its tower alone^ but formerly receiving its appellation from that bury or camp 
once there upon the height, to which the name of Castle-street for the eastern end of the town 
still refers, and formerly communicating its own appellation to the valley of Burg-umb be- 
low ir. But I have still better authority for the populousness of *Bodmin once, than mere 
suggestions from Leland. ^^ In registro apud Bodman ecclesiam Fratrum Minorum,*' says 
William of Worcester, citing a register in that very church of the Gray Friars above : 
<' < Magna pestilencia per universum mundum, inter Saracenos, — et postea inter Christianos ; 
<' incepit primo in Angli& circa kalend. Augusti, et parum ante Nativitatem Domini intra- 
<< vit villam Bodminise, ubi mortui fucrunt circa mills quinoentos per estimacionem ; et 
** nuvneT\i%Jratruin defunctorum a capitub generali Lugduniae celebratum [celebrato], anno 
** Christi 1351, usque ad aliud scquens capitulum generate, fuit dejratribus\" the Grayer 
Minor Friars every where, " ' tres-decim millia octingenti octaginta tres, exceptis sex vicariis*," 
(P. Ill, 1 13.) How populous must Bodmin have then been to suffer such a sweep as this^ 
fifteen hundred of its inhabitants carried off by a plague 1 But now we can see for the^rf^ 
time the propriety of that remark in Norden, which says Bodmin^ ** hath bene of larger re- 
<< ceite than now it is, as appeareth by the ruynes of sundrye buyldings decayde." (P. 72.) 
We also see doubly evident the folly of attributing this decay to a local unhcaltbiness which 

X a does 


does not exist. The secret ground for such a charge now appears to have been olily a sick* 
ness particular and temporary, that pulled down Bodmin, indeed from ita proud pre*eminence 
in the county, to ita present mediocrity of consequence within it, but involved equally wiih 
the (own the whole county, the whole island, and the whole continent. It was during this 
pestilence that seven thousand persons died at Yarmouth in Norfolk under the year 1348 
(Worcester, 344) ; and that ^fiy thousand were buried on the site of the present Charter- 
house in London, under 1349 (Stowe's London, 477, 478). This pestilence, says Stowe^ 
477, '< entring this island, began first in Dorsetshire; then proceeded into Devonshire [and 
<^ Cornwall], Somersetshire, Gloucestershire, and Oxfordshire, and at length came to Lon- 
<< don ; whereupon Ralph Stratford, bishop of London, in the year 1348, bought the Charter- 
" bouse land above." 






X HAVE now shewn from the certain reports of history, that the original 
cathedral of Cornwall was at St. German's. I therefore proceed to a 
new kind of testimony, in favour of the same point. The very church 
of St. German's concurs with all at this day ; there we see the cathedral 
existing with all the signatures of a cathedral to the present moment; 
while the church of Bodmin exhibits no signs, and so preserves no tra- 
ditions of any episcopal pre-eminence that it ever enjoyed by itself or 
with another; the church of St. Germalk's presents various relics, and 
retains various traditions of that cathedral dignity which it long maih* 
tained without a partner, and even with a partner maintained in a high 
tone of superiority over all the churches of CornwalL The church of 
Bodmin indeed, aa I have previously noted*, was rebuilt about 1125 ; 
and aU traces of its episcopac}'^ may have then perished, with its episcopal 
church: but as this church became episcopal after it was built, and 
merely as a cathedral subsidiary to^ St, German's, it could never have had 
any original emblems of its episcopate, and most probably had never any 
permanent at all ; if it had ever possessed such, they would have been 
protected in the demolition, we may be sure, with a solicitude similar to- 
what was shewn,, concerning the chapel of St. Petrock : and the tia- 
dition, which has fled equally with the signatures themselves, wouldl 
then have been cherished with peculiar liveliness, by appealing continu- 
ally to those sensible vouchers for its veracity.. 

The church of St. German's consists at present of a nave and two aile^,. 
almost entirely built of a stone brought from a quarry about four miles 
off, that is called from its ,position TartonDo\yn. The nave is entered 


* Sec i, 3, before* 



under a large portal from the west, flanked on the north and south with a 
tower. Both these rise square about two thirds of their height, even to 
the entablature of each ; both are asserted by tradition to have then 
formed an octangular turret for the remainder, and that on the north 
5*o<.<;£tovK fcw^ gj.jjj {QYtns one. The southern tower and southern aile composed 
n^uJatMSA^jfuo., ^^^ SMALL CATHEDRAL. Thesc arc apparently one whole in themselves. 

Close to this tower on the south, and with it forming the western termi- 
nation of that aile, is what was the primary portal of the cathedral ; 2^ 
small porch of an oblong square, with one door to the west, one to the 
south, and a third on the east into the church ; it was therefore the one 
only entrance into the church originally, but equally from the south and 
west. The ground on both sides has risen so veiy high since the con- 
struction of the church, that there is now a descent into it of one step by 
the western doorway, and of three by the southern ; though there still 
remains, as there must always have been, a descent of four from it into 
the church. This strongly marks the antiquity of the building. The 
tower adjoining to the porch has a small arch facing the aile, and had a 
large one looking north, but now closed up. The aile itself is only the 
breadth of this tower and that porch, about six-and-twenty feet only. So 
narrow was the catliedral of Cornwall ! But the whole is apparently di- 
vided, as a complete church of itself, into two parts, the body and the 
chanceL The former runs on with the breadth above, about eight-and- 
forty feet ; but then contracts into a breadth of twenty-two and a half 
only for a length of thirty-seven. 

At the upper end of this chancel, is what was apparently formed for 
^ ^/u;(i !%fvox^, and is popularly considered as the bishop's throne, being a rounded 

niche a foot deep in the very substance of the eastern wall, evidently made 
with ity and fixed in the middle between the two windows there. It is 
about six feet in height, with two and a half in breadth, having a stone 
seat at the bottom, and this raised six feet nine inches above the level of 
the floor. At the head of this niche within are some sm^W filets of stone; 
and a small dove of stone, as the emblem of the Holy Ghost, in the centre. 
On each side of the niche without are the remains of a staff carved on the 
wall, carrying a cross-piece on the top, and presenting the appearance of 

S a tall 

# * 


a tall crutch ; tb^ true crozier of antiquity, as I shall hereafter shew*. 
Directly over the piche is equally carved upon the wall, but riemains 
more evident to the eye at present, a large and tall mitre, surmounted 
by a cross. 

Near this, but in the southern wall, is another niche, equally coaeval 
with the wall itself, yet much lower in elevation, and very different in 
form : it is not rounded at the back and top, but flat behind and arch- 
like above, having much ornamental carving on some small pillars that 
are tied by a, fascia of stone into a neat kind of arch, or (to express my- 
self for once in language mere technical in itself, but more obscure to the 
generality) the arch, which appears to have been formerly scalloped, rests 
on three clustered columns upon each side, while the pediment over the 
arch, and the fineals of the buttresses at the sides, are richly purfled^ as 
beneath the arc^ is an drnament of quaterfoils : and this niche carries, 
equally with tha^ a stone seat at the bottom. This then I consider, 
without any aid from tradition, and from the mere analogy of the whole, ru^^^^j^^^^ 
to be THE STALL es* THE CHAPLAIN ; the ouly officer under the bishop, 
then attending continually upon him, but acting equally as a chaplain^ 
and a chancellor to him^ Thus the kings of Wales retained only one 
clergyman in the train of their court, as late as the tenth century ; who- 
was generally callied the offeiriady or the administrator of the Eucharist ; . 
who was to bless the meat at meals, chant the Lord's Prayer, and then 
sit down at the table opposite to the master of the king's hounds. He 
ranked in dignity next to the very prefect of the palace ; was always to 
be about the person of the king, as one of his inseparable attendants ; . 
and with those two officers immediately below him, the steward and the 
judge of the household, was to keep up the dignity of the court, in 
determining such causes as the king did not attend himself. He was also 
to reside in what was denominated the chaplain's house, together w ith 
his scholars, that were training up for orders under him ; and for that 
reason assuredly was to present, just as our lord chancellor for a similar 
reason, but under greater restrictions, . presents now to churches in the 

• Chap. iii. Sec. 2. 




royal patronage*. We find also our Saxon and Norman kings, attended 
each like the British with a single chaplain only. Thus Ingulphus speaks 
of '* the presbyter of the royal palace,*' in the days of Edmund Iron- 
side -f*; the Saxon Chronicle notices one GifFard in the reign of Henry I. 
as *' the king's hird-clerc/* or family-clerg}'man:{:; and the same Chroni- 
cle again notices, in the rdgn of the Conqueror, several bishops elect, as 
what the notice immediately preceding shews them to be, succesiively the 
king's chaplains, or " the king's clerks§/' Just so we find Canute, when 
sovereign of all England, represented by the same Chronicle, as giving a 
church of his own foundation to " his own priest ^ whose name was 
/' Stigand |j." But, to come doser to the point, we see as early as 710 
*' Acca, Wilfrid^ 8 priest*' consecrat-ed to the bishopric that Wilfrid had 
held before ^ ; and in 085, upon John « resignation of the bishopric of 
York, ''Wilfrid his priest'* consecrated to it**.. So accurately is a 
single seat formed, for the single clergyman then attendant on the 
bishop 1 

Nor are seats of stone for bishops and their accompanying divines, 
however strange they may seem to my readers here, wholly unknown and 
unnoticed in other parts of the island. In the chapter-house of Tavistock 
abbey, a structure of great beauty, formed as round as a compass could 
possibly form one, yet now ruined, were "36 seats in the inside, wrought 
'* out in the wails, all arched over head with curious carved stones W^ 
But, in the chapter-house belonging to the cathedral of Elgin in Scot- 
land, are still '' five stdls cut by way of niches for the hishop (or the dean 

• Leges Hoeli Boni, Wotton, 18, 14, 19, 23, 30, ig.' Offeiriad is rendered generalty 
Priest f but in strict propriety means what i have stated >t to fncan ; as Bora Offeren is th« 
'bread administered in the Eucharist, p. 98 and \%u 

t P. 499, Savile. 

X Sax. Chron. p. 225, 

% Ibid. p. 1 86. 

I Ibid. p. 151. 

^ Ibid. p. 50. 

*♦ Ibid. p. 46. 

ft Leland's Coll. vi. 260. ' 


*^ in the birilxop*a abscoice), and the dign^ied clergy, to nt in; the middle 
*^ stall for the bishop or dean is larger, and raised, a step higher, than the 
" odier four*/' These symfaafize sufficiently with ours at St. Geirman's, 
to shew the general use of ours. These, however, are not in the churchy 
but in the chapter-house. In the abbey-church of Glastonbury, upon 
the remaining wall of the quire oh the south, but between the first and 
wcfNQd window (I think) from the east, is a little kind of canopy formed 
by two slender piUais that run up the side of the wall, and unite in a 
peak at top, where tradition fixes the throne of the abbot f. But in 
Exeter cathedjcal, on the southern side of the altar, and below the ascent 
to it, are three regular stalls of stone (narrow, tall, and carved), tradition- 
ally reported to be the same which are historically known to have existed 
near the altar, ^d in the middle one of which Edward the Confessor 
with his queen actually installed Leofric, to give him possession of his 
new«^reoted prelacy ; the king, adds tradition, dien placing himself in 
the easterly stall, but the queen taking her seat in the westerly J : and 
in the cathedral at Rochester are equally three stalls of stone, on the same 
side of the altar as those at Exeter, all distinguished by shields of arms, 
and one of theta by the very arms of the see §. All shews a stone stall 
for a buhop, to have been not imcommon formerly near the altar of his 
cathedral ; yet as seats of stone for the prelate and his chapkiin near the 
altar, ours at St. German's I believe to be unparalleled in all the 

In the body of this chureh, and near the eastern end of- it, is a door- 
way now closed up, apparent within the church, but more apparent at 
unplastered without. This is reported by tradition to be the very 

• Shaw's History of Moray, ay 8. 

t Wc may the less wonder at a throne for an abbot, when we know he had his '* abbot's 
*^ inn,'^ now the Qeorge, an old and curious building, in the towns and bis '^judgment- 
*^ hall," where he tried and condemned offenders : part is of the same style in building, oma-- 
m^ed (tike thai;) with arms in. stone over the door, yet in appearaiKe not so old or so Urge 
4S that. 

4: Monasticon, i. Ta^j and the present work, iii. 2« vii. i» 

VOL. I. h door. 



his palace a little distant. It now has the ground without by length of 
time raised nearly to a level with the crown of the arch, but kept off from 
the church by a wall and a fosse. 

%rn^ ofi^ J^*^ ^y ^^ ^" ^^ ^^^t is an arch in the church- wall within, which 
fhiAkoja. tradition notes as the tomb of the bishops. This consists of a cover- 
ing-stone, which seems to have large letters upon it, running in four 
lines for the length of the stone, and all parallel. These, however, are 
only the hollows, by which four brass plates have been £EU5tened to the 
stone with melted lead ; some of the lead still remaining in the hollows^ 
So we see iron rings fastened with lead in the sepulchral chest of the 
Saxon bishop of Winchester, Swithin, during the ninth century *. But, 
^hat is very remarkable, this covering-stone appears upon examihatibn 
to have been laid over the tomb, as the throne, the stall, and the door- 
way, must have been formed, at the very time when the wall was built ; 
:being now inserted into the body of the wall, at the two ends and on the 
iiirtber side. The fourth line is more, than half buried within the wall, 
and the fourth plate must have been affixed while the wall was in buikl'- 
ing f . It could therefore be merely general in its inscription, and the 
plates with particular inscriptions could be only three. This shews it to 
i)e a mere cenotaph, prepared at the construction of the church, and indi* 
eating the sepulture of the bishops near it. Accordingly, upon removiiig 
a part of the front stone below, which has some plain carving upon it^ I 
found the whole substance of the seeming tomb to be merely the wall of 
the church, very hard, quite solid, and only built in the form of a tomb. 
So built it was, that those might have ah honourable memorial of their 
sepulture, who were to act in so dignified a relation to this church ; and 
who, by being buried in the body of the church, beneath the floor of it, 

'^ MaTmesbury, f. 139: ^^Annulos ferreos violenter cum plumbo laptdi sepulchri a& 
« fixes/' 

+ How erroneously therefore has Mr. LethteulKer conjectured thu», m Arch. 11. 2971 
" Upon the whole, where we have not a positive date, I should hardly guess any brass plattt 
«* 1 met with to be older than 1350, QXiAfew so old.** By such random guesses as this,.- all 
antiquity is contracted to a span, and ages are squeezed with the Iliad into a nut-shell ! 



would otherwise have no monumental memorial at all. Some of them 
w^ere buried (I believe) about a yard directly to the north of this monu- 
ment; and there I explored the ground with an iron bar, in search of 
their stone coffins ; but when this told me there were none in the 
groimd, the search was discontinued. The only relic, indeed, which 
I expected to find in the coffins, was the ring that each of the prelates 
had formerly worn. 

Rings are derived to us from a custom, as universal as the love of or^- 
nament among the nations of the earth, and common to the Romans^ 
the Gauls, or the Britons; while the mode of wearing them is wholly 
Roman among us at present, and has always been so since the Roman 
conquest. This we may collect from several circumstances, little in 
themselves independent of each other, but uniting in one testimony. 
The Romans wore rings even so familiarly upon their thumbs, that» 
among many evidences of the bodily hugeness of the emperor IVIaximius 
the elder, his thumb is recorded to have been so large, as to bear upoa 
it his queen s right-hand bracelet for a ring*. We correspondently 
find, *' upon rebiiilding the abbey-church of St. Peter, Westminster, by 
" king Henry III.,'* that ^* the sepulchre of Sebert, king of the East- 
*' Angles, was opened, and therein was found part of his royal robes, 
" and his thumb-ring, in which was set a ruby of great value." Wq also 
know ** an alderman*s thumb-ring'' to have been an object familiar to 
the eyes of Shakespeare f. This practice continued among us long after 
the days of Shakespeare ; an alderman's thumb-ring continuing to be ixo- 
ticed for its singularity, as late as the middle of the seventeenth century J^ 
But the Romans also placed the ring upon one of their ^w^er*, the large 

• •  • 

• Hist. Aug. Scriptores, 606. Capitolinns. *' Pollicc ita vasto, ut uxoris dextrocherio 
*^ uteretur pro annulo.'* 

t Arch. iii. 390, Sir Joseph Ayloffe, and Shakespeare's Part ist of Henry IV. act \i. 
scene iv. *^ When I was about thy years, Hal, I was not an eagle's talon in the waist ; 1 
*• could have crept into any alderman's thumb-ring."> 

t '' An alderman's thumb-ring is mentioned by Brome, in the Antipodes j 1640 — ; again 
*^ in the Northern Lass, 1632— j again in IVtt in a Constable, 1640." (Johnson's and Stee- 
** vens's edition^ *793* vol. viii. 468.) ' 

L 2 Statues 


Statues in bronze of emperors and empresses at Portid haring each of 
them a ring upon the fourth finger § ; and PHny informing u$» that " the 
'* custom was originally to wear it upon the iSinger next to the least, 
*' as we see in the statues of Numa^ and Serrius TuUius*/' The cus- 
torn of the kings was thus revived by the emperors, and conttnued 
very late. But, in the interval between the revived and the Qriginal 
custom, the ring was put by the Romans on the fore^^mger\ " the very 
*' images of the gods," says Pliny, " carrying it on the finger next to the 
** thumbf ;" and a Roman monumoit remaining, in which a man ap- 
pears actually putting a ring upon the fore-finger of a woman, in the 
act of marrying her J. We accordingly uge rings vapon both theie 
fingers at present. But we denominate the fourth particularly, just 9& 
the Romans and the Saxons did, the rivg-fingerj as being that on 
which the ring is placed in marriages § ; while the native BritohB, like 
the native Gauls, wore the ring upon the middle finger alone, the very 
finger which alone was excepted by the Romans Jj, Thus, in 1012, on 
removing the bones of Dunstan at Canterbury by four men who had been 
the depositors of his body before, in what is called a mauaoleum^ and who 
now opened it; *' they found the bones more valuable than gold and 
^' topazes, the flesh having been consumed by length of time, and recog* 
" nised that ring put upon ^his Jinger when he was committed to the 

§ *^ Les plusgrandes statues en bronze a Portici, representent des empereurs et des impe.- 
** ratrices, et il n'en est aucune qui ne soil audessus de la grandeur naturelle ; mai»— elles ne 

presented t de remarquable, que Vanneauplaci an doigi annubtirede h, main droite de qoe]^ 

ques-uns des empereurs/' Encyclopedie Methodique, dix-huitieme livraison, Antiquitis, i* 
Anneau* bague. p. 184. 

* Pliny, xxxii'v i : '^ Singultn primo digitis geri ipos Aierat, ftti sunt minings proximi^ 
*' sic in Numse et Servii Tullii statuis videmus/' 

t Ibid. ibid. ^^ Postea [digi tol poUici proximo induere; etiam deorum simulachris.'^ 

X Montfaucon, iii. part ist, 11, 17. I refer to the translation by Humphrey s^^ 1721J1 9$ 
more within the reach of a country clergyman's purse, than the original, with its French 
and Latin expensively doubling one over the other. I so refer generally^ though I occa- 
sionally cite the original as consulted by my friends for me. 

$ Rubric to our marriage service directs th« ring to be ** put-^upon the fourth finger 
*' of the woman's left hand." 

II Pliny, xxxiii. i : <^ Gallue Britanniseque in medio dicimtuv use } hie nunc sohs ex^ 
■«« eipitur.'' 

*' grave. 


«£CT. 1.] mSTOniCALLt SURVEYED. fj 


** grave, Tvhich he himself is reported to have made in his tender years*/* 

The bones were then transferred to Glastonbury, and 172 years after-* <£;^^^*A**^ 

ward again found there; the explorers coming to '' a ct^nofwood, '^'^^^^^ 

** bound firmly with iron at all the joints/' opening this, seeing the bones 

within, *' with his ring upon a particular bone of his Jinger; and, to 1 

^* take away all semblance of doubt, discovering his picture within the 

*^ coffin, the letter S, with a glory on the right side of the coffin, the 

" letter D, with a glory, on the left-f-." The ring was put upon the 

finger of a bishop at his burial, because a bishop always wore a ring 

in his life; and because he wore it, as queen Elizabeth wore 000 

through life with the same reference ta her kingdom, in token of \m 

marriage to his diocese. Thus, when .Egelric, a monk of Peterborough) 

was made bishop of Duiiiam, in 1048, and afterwards resigned his 

biebopnc in favour of his cousin Agelwin, another monk of Peter borougbi 

he is reported, by Ingulphus, to have '' resigned up his ring to his c<XMh 

*' sin J." Brithwold, who became bishop of Salisbury in 1045, is reported^ 

in redeeming some lands from the crown for the abbey of Glastonbury, 

when a farthing (a fraction then much more valuable than now) was 

deficient ^' in the payment of the sum stipulated; to have magnifi* 

^' cently thrown Ms ring into the mass, and to. have shewn the devo- 

" tion which he had for the abbey, by exhibiting the workmanship i^poa 

** it§." Bishop Ednod also is attested, ** in the battle at Assandun, 

* Malmesbury, Gale, i. 302 : '^ Ossa Sancti Dunstani super aurum et topazium pretiosa, 
'^ reperiunt, came tam diuturni temporis spatio Tesoltit& — • Annulum etiam digito Sancti 
^' ciim sepulturae traderetur impositum, quern et ipse aetate teneriori fecisse dicitur, recog- 
*' noscunt/' 

t Ibid. Gale, i. 304: " Locellum ligneum,"Terreft'compagine undique consolidalum,-^ 
^^ aspiciunt— 5 thecam aperientes, sacratissimi bcati Dunstani ossa reperiunt, simulque an« 
<' nulum suum super quoddam os digit! — ; et, ad omnem ambiguitatis nodum absolvendiim, 
*^ picturatn vident inlrinsccus, et S cum titulo in dexirft parte locelli, D cum titulo in sinistra/' 
Joannes Glastoniensis, in his Historia de Rebus Glastoniensibus^ i. 145, Hearne, 1726, 
says : /' ostenditur dictus annulus in thesaurarift Glastoni as, usque in hodiermim diem.*' 
John brings down his history to 1493. (i. 283.) 

J Savile, 510: ** Germano suo suum annulum resignavit/' 

§ Malmesbury, Gale, i. 326: *< Sicut dicunt, cum dc redemptione obohia deessfefyVir 
'' magnificus annulum suum creditoribus projicieos, devotionem quanx in Glastoniam- habe« 
^' bat, operis testabatur exhibitione." 

/ ' ^' between 


" between king Edmund and Canute, to have been slain by the Danish 
*' soldiers of Canute, while he was chanting the mass; first his right 
"hand,** that was lifted up in prayer, " being cut off close to his ring^ 
" and then his whole body mangled *.*' All shews us what we should 
assuredly have met with in this episcopal grave, coffins of wood 
bound firmly at the joints with iron, and the bones of a bishop in each 
of them, if we had been searching within two hundred years after the 
burials; or, perhaps, a ring to every bishop, at the distance of time in 
which we explored the ground. This uncertain chance I willingly lost, 
however, in what I thought an honourable delicacy of respect to re^ 
mains, which must have been disturbed by any farther inquisition. Con- 
tent to have searched for the bones in some repository of a permanent 
nature ; I desisted when I found there was none. Only I wish to ob- 
serve at the close, that this cenotaph of the bishops concurs with the 
door, the stall, and the throne, to prove the whole church an episcopal 
dnCy at the very construction of it\. 
TtUuf ^^»*^-^ ' - Nor need we, with an antiquary's imbecility of mind, to regret the 
cU- %ri Eiiot'. loss of such a ring ; because lord Eliot, the present proprietor of the 

abbey once annexed to this church, still preserves one in his possession. 
It was found in the earth some years before my search, when piy lord 
was reconstructing the southern front of the abbey. It is of silver gilt, 
presenting the appearance of two hands joined, two thumbs attached 

• Historic EUiensis, Gale, 1.497 • *' 1" htWo quod fuit inter jEdmundutn regem ct Canutum 
^' apud Assandiui, dum missatn cantaret, a Dpis Canutl sociis, prius dextera propter annu* 
*^ lum amputate, deinde toto corpore scisso, interfcctus est.** Mr. fientham, in his account 
of Ely Cathedral, p. 89, renders the words *^ propter annulum" in this schoolboy manner; 
/f forthe sake of a ring:" as if his whole hand would be cut off, for the sake of what was 
upon his finger only. Mr. Bentham might as well have averred, that <^ his whole body 
^' was mangled for the sake of a ring." 

t Wharton's ^nglia Sacra, i. 632, 633, In 1190, '^ ad notitiam suam pervenit, et epis- 
* <« coporum ceterorum in festo suo apud Ely secum existcnlium," on William Longchamp's 

taking possession of his bishopric; ^^ quod sepulchrum Galfridi prsedecessoris sui fuit vio- 
*^ latum, quoniam annulus pontificalis, quern sepulturae tradilus habuit in digito, fuerat 
/* latenter subtractus. In pulpitum ascendentes episcopi violatores^ tarn fi^cieutes quam 
f5 conseotientes^ sub anatbemate conclus^runt." 



tipoa one end of the rim, and the tips of the fingers coining up on the 
other. This has been therefore asserted by some antiquaries, particu- 
larly by the late Dean Milles, I understand, in the usual largeness of 
language (I believe) from antiquaries toward the rest of the world, to 
have been a parish wedding-ring; that, by which all couples were 
married, and of which, though there must necessarily have been one in 
every parish, only two or three are said to be preserved at present. 
Such a circumstance alone throws an air of gross suspectibility, over 
the whole; when so many thousand rings must have existed in the king* 
dom, yet Sip few are preserved; and when so many are preserved out of 
so few that belonged to kings or to bishops. But the fact is, that the ex- 
istence of parish-rings (if ever supposed in reality) is all the dream of 
slumbering aqtiquarianism. Not a canon, not a rubric is to be founds 
commanding parishes to keep such rings. Even the veiy form of mar- 
riage, which was in the Sarum Liturgy before the Reformation, which 
is what was used over nearly the whole of England, over Wales, and 
over Ireland, long before, being composed by Osmond bishop of Sarum 
about the year 1080*, speaks directly to the contrary, and proves the 
wedding-rings to have been, as they now are, private property, or per« 
sonal decorations. In this, there is a formal benediction of the ring at ^yrto^M^i^^ 
every marriage, before it is put upon the finger of the bride ; an act su- 
perfluous to be done, and impossible to be ordered, if fhe same ring 
was always used. This benediction was made, in two supplications to 
God. The former of them rv»ns thus, in English: " O Creator and 
*' Preserver of the human race ; Giver of spiritual grace ; Bestower of 
eternal salvation : do thou, O Ix)rd, send thy blessing upon this ring, 
that she tvho sfiall wear it, may be armed with the virtues of celestial 
defence, and be sufficient for her own eternal salvation, through 
'* Christ our Lord f." Here we see, that the bride was to carry away 

* Kiiyghton, Twisden, c. 2351 : ** ComppsuU Hbnim ordinalem ecclesiastici officii, quem 
^* consueiudinarium vocant ; quo fere nunc tota Anglia, Wallia utitur, et Hiberma/' 

i Nichols on Common Prayer, 2d edition, 1712. Matrimony. ^^ Creator et Con- 

^* servator humani generis, Dator gratis spiritualis, Largitor asternac salutis, tu, Domine*, 

<' ihitte benedlctionem tuam super hunc annuium ; ut qus ilium gestaverit sit armata vir- 

*^ tute coelestis defcnsionis^i et sufficiat illi ad salutem seternan^; per Cbf istum Dominum 

•* nostrum.'^ 

the . 



the ring with her after the service was finished, as she carries it at pre- 
sent; and was to wear it upon her finger for the rest of her life, just 
as at present she wears it. But the latter prayer runs thus: '* O Lord 
*' Christ, bless this ring^ which we bless in thy holy naine» that what^ 
^* soever woman shall hear it away may be in thy peace, and remain in 
*' thy good- will, and in thy love live and grow, and go on to old age, 
*' and be continued for a length of days, through Jesus Christ our Lord J.'* 
So plainly was the ring borne away by the bride, that the prayers of be- 
nediction are both of them founded upon the fact, and in reality are be« 
nedictions upon the hearer only§. It was, indeed, from this very form 
of the bride's not putting on a ring for the short interval of the marriage- 
service, then resigning it up for the equally short use of the next bride; 
or, as must have been the case of numerous weddings ih the same moi- 
ments, of transferring the ring hastily from hand to hand, and never 
suffering it to rest at all upon any ; but of the bridegroom's bringing his 
own ring, and of the bride's wearing it on her hand through life, as a 
part of her new property, or as an ensign of her new state; that 
bishops or king^came to have a ring put upon their hands, at taking 
possession of their offices ; to wear the rings upon their hands, as equal 
ensigns of their marriage to their dioceses, or kingdoms ;• and even to 
wear them with such a rigid fidelity as to be buried with them. 

X Nichols on Common Prayer, ad edition, 17 12. Matrimony. " Bene, Christe, dic^ 
^^ Domiiie, hunc annulum, quern nos in tuo sancto nomine benedicimus, ut quascunque 
*^ eum portaverit iua pace consistat, et in tuft volufiiate permaneat, et in tuo amore vivat, et 
^^ crescat, et senescat, et multiplicetur in longitudinem dierum, per Dominum nostrum 
'^Jesum Christum." The elision, of heneSXc into hen^^ and die with Christe inter- 
posed, is very extraordinary; but the application of an accusative case to the verb^ 
however offensive to a classic ear, is common to this Latin prayer in the Sarum 
Liturgy ; to the Latin graces at our colleges in Oxford, and to all the Latin of the middle 
ages. The famous tapestry of Bayeux in F|^nce, Coaeval with the Conquest, and relating an 
incident at it, says, ** hie episcopus potum et cibum benedicit.*' See it in p. 20 of Appen- 
dix to Anglo-Norman Antiquities, by Dr. Ducarel, 1767. Our forefathers were, much 
to their honour, careful to say grace at their meals ; but even their bishops said it in false 

§ The marriage-service ajso in the church of Rome to this day is so far the same exactly, 
that the officiating clergyman equally blesses the ring in a prayer, and that this prayer equally 
has the words, " quae eum gestaveril' / in it. See Rituale Romanum, Antverpise, 1669, p. 
as4, 255. 

4 Tet 

Yet let me note one clrcunostance mote concerning lord Eliot's ring.' 
The marriage-ring of the Romans was iron, as late as the days of Fliny *. 
But it became gold afterwards, even so long before the days of Tertul-^ 
lian, that he mistook the new custom for the old one, and thought the 
ring had always '.been made of gold f . It was equally made so among 
the Saxons^ as the Saxon appellation for our ring-finger demonstrates at 
once, being simply gold-fynger. And from the Saxons has descended, 
in the mere pourse of traditionary practice, without any impulse from 
written authority, the plain gold ring df our marriages at present J. In 
this view of the varying metal, the real marriage-rings appear to have 
been distinguished from the metaphorical, by one grand difference in the 
composition of them ; these being formed only of silver gilt, while those 
were fabricated of gold § . What we should have found therefore, if we 
had ransacked the ground with a more irreverent curiosity, would have 
been one of those rings of silver gilt, a metaphorical ring of one of the 
bishops. Such a ring had been already presented to the eye of ariti- 
quarianism, without the irreverence, and by mere accident in lord Eliot*s. 
Buried with the bishop to whom it belonged, and proving one bishop to 
have been buried without the church, it had mixed with the earth when 
his coffin was broken by accident, had been thrown with the removed 
earth to the surface, and was there picked up by the hand. 

Such are the luminous evidences, that the church of St. German's bears 
in its bosom, of that cathedral dignity which it very anciently possessed 

• Pliny, xxxiii. i : " Etiam nunc sponsa anulus ferreus mittitur." 

t Tertulli^ln Apol. c. vi. : ^ Circa feminas quidem ettam illamajoniin instituta cecid^hint^ 
^* quse modeslise, quae sobrietati patrocinabantur ) cum aurum nulla norat^prseter unico digito 
** queni spofisns opptgnerasset pronubo armulo.*' 

X Among the Romans, even the iron ring of the bride was to be plain, *^ isque sine gem- 
**ma." (Pliny, xxxiii. I.) 

§ The ring at first, according to that oracle of canon-law, Swinburne, was not. of gold^ 
but of iron» adorned with an adamant. Swinburne thus coofounds the Romans with the 
Saxons, gives the iron ring to the Saxons when it belongs to the Romans only, yet seems not 
to have known at all of the gold ring among the Romans and Saxons, but has fixed a diamond 
in that iron ring of the Romans^ whi^h n^ver had a gem in it^ and which shews the gold 
ring to have equally had none* 

yoL. !• M over 


over all Cornwall ! Evidences fliey are, that, like a catoptric glads, at 
once receive, reflect, and redouble, the bright beams of the sun of 


In the common mode, indeed, of estimating the age of buildings by the 
round or by the peaked arch, that prevailing a century below the Con- 
Jhc^. quest, this commencing at the end of that ; the cathedral dignity of our 

church cannot he very ancient, and we must reduce the origin of it con- 
i^derably. The two external doors of the porch hgive both of them 
peaked arches, though the southern of them is but slightly peaked. The 
4oor into the church has a rounded arch ; but in the tower the small axch, 
gnd the large one, are hoih peaked. The window over the porch, now 
blocked up, but apparent within the church, and more apparent without, 
is also^eaAe^^ The first window in the southern, wajl. is rqmuled ; the 
second vei:y sharply />ea^ec/ ; the third more peaked; the fourth veiy 
slightly ; the fifth very sharply, and exceedingly fretted in the stones of 
the compartments by age ; the sixth, a very large one, is ^tightly peaked 
within, where the whole arch is seen, but is now formed without into 
two windows of moor-stone, while the other windows are of the same 
with the church, the stone of Tarton Down ; and those consist each of 
three long, narrow, parallel compartments, with round heads to them. 
In the eastern wall are three windows, two below and one above; the 
two being at the sides of the throne, and the other merely QK)dern in its 
fashion, a transome window in a wooden frame, denominated therefore 
the Presbyterian window by some, but very recently altered back into a 
form of antiquity by lord Eliot, from some remains found in the ruins of 
that chancel, which I shall speedily notice. Both the windows at the 
sidles <^ the throiMe are shfurply peaked. The chaplain^s stall is sharpiy 
peaked also, and the bishop'^ doorway ia peaked a Httle. All these peaks^ 
in the arches should tell us, according to the received opinions, what the 
tenor of the M(hole building absolutely denies. Those opinions let Mm 
announce, who is the latest writer upon the subject,, X tjxiijl; ; w^, h^*. 

4' }»fijen 


bMA tikMA bito fi^Utation by this credit<}f having receired some notices 
ftom M*. <3*ay, that were apparently of tw great monient in themsdres, 
and oAly the satttie in consequence as What were supplied by others* ; who 
had HOt '^^dgouF of intellect enough to think freely for himself, and is only 
^acing^ we may therefore be sure, in the very harness or with the very 
bdte of the common stagers on the rOad. " It is proper to observe," Mr. 
Benthiam tells us in his History of Ely Gathedral> ** that the general plan 
^' and diiftposition of aO the principal parts, in the latter Scuton and ear- 
*</i*^fiVbmfl» churches, wasthe^aiwe — ; the arches and heads of the 
*' dh4rs and unndrnm were oZ^.of them ctVcw/ar f /* In " the works of 
** thte Ndrmans,*^ he adds at another place, the *' pillars were connected 
tc^ther by vattoui arch«, all of them drcuiar % /' And '* I think we 
may vehtuire to «ay,*' he subjoins At a third, ** that the. circtdar arch, 
** roknd^hMdedl doot6 and Vvindows, — were universalis used by them to 
^' the endQf king Henry the Firsfs reign § ." But' these opihionSi how- 
ever received dommonly, however echoed backwards and forwards by our 
atitiqu^e<(> are all fidse ih themselves^ refuted at once by the aspect of 
^B» very chutiih, and dcrubly refuted by a variety of other buildings [| . 



t • 

» »•» • • r 


* ^^ My grateful acknowledgments,** says Mr, Bentbam tiith^If in hU preface, p. Hi. 
*^^ah5 tfne to the Rcr, Mr. Gole of MUtob near Cambridge, to tlie Rcv; Mn Wai+en, 
*' prebendary of Ely, and to Thomas Gray, Esq. of Pembroke-hall, for their kind assistance 
<^ in several points of curious antiquities, to the Rev. Mr. Hughes," ^c. Yet Mr. Mason led 
the way to that error, *aslfa his Memoifs Of Grky, 340, he dlleges, on the authority of this 
acknowledgment, that Mr. bentham*s tetharkS-^dnVey many stotilonetits of Mr. <* Gray/' 

t Bentham, 3a. 

X Ibid. 33. 

1} 't'^bih iWr.-6fenrfiam*s acknowledgmfeiit* concerning Mr. Gray we iind,' thai the seriir- 
'^ehtsof tb^ lat^ei^iipon ^^ origin of the peiked irfch wfere in general unison with those of 
the former. Acdordingly we hear Mr. Grdy himself, p. 295, saying, " the vaults under 
^ the choir'* of York Minster •' are truly Saxon, only that the arches eiVQ pointed, though very 
^^ obtusely ;" p. 296, adding, ** in the beginning ot fleiiry the Itfd's reign-^all at once come 
"in the tall picked arches ;** and p. 295, declaring, ^^ in this rcigii it was, fhat the beauty^ 
*' o/thc tjothic jfrchitecture began to appear:" Mr. Gray however, though Mir. Mason to- 
tally overlooks the circumstance; v^ifries much from'^r. ftehlhapfi'in the reign assigned ; Mr. 
'Gray' specifying the third ftenry's reign^^ and' Mr. BeiiiKarrf ih^JitsL 

M 2 ^ ic ^out 





"* About the jear of Chrbt 182/' remarks mx withor very baj^y and 
Ytry judiciously, amid many assertions ingenious but arbitraiy, .and some 
conclusions refined but erroneous, ^^Antinous, the favmirite of tjbe em- 
peror Adrian, was drowned in the Nile. This prince, to perpetuate 
his memory, founded a city in Egypt" at the point of the Nile where 
he was drowned, ** and called it after hia name.*' As this iiifcideat is 
the foundation of the whole reasoning, I here establish it upon tlK au- 
thority of Dio, who says Adrian " re-«ected in Egypt that city, i^hich 
'' was denominated from Antinous^;*' and again, isipon the. better testi- 
mony of a writer nearly cotemporary with Adrian, who adds that Adrian 
** built the city bearing An tinous's appellation f." This. city is niea- 
tioned by Ptolemy as hiltvw UoXiu ot Antinopolis> the capital of a district 
lying along the eastern bank % ; aod has tramftnitted its remains under 
the title of Ensineh to the present times §. '' Pere Bemat miidc draw^ 
*' tng"^ (ffits ruins, which art in the third tome of Montfaucon*s Antiqui- 
^' ties ; among them is the pointed archy'' in a fine old gateway, formed 
aAer the usual fashion of triumphal arches amoiig the Ronu^nsi lus having 
one lofty avenue through it in the centre, . and a lower upon each side, 
but terminating all three in a peaked arch above. This, however, is 
** not perfectly Gothic, but that called constrasted,** and very sharp in 
the peak|[. See the plate here. <' Another comtrg^ffed arch appgara 




* Dio,.lxix* II59» Reimar: £» }f ry AfyW7w «m rv Avlupov woft^o^t'tffif f^wnehfuftn roXir. 
.'fi Eusebius £ccl. Hist. iv. 8, Reading, IloXiy ixVey cflrwwfioy Aylvof<,froin Ffegesippus.. 
% Ptolemy, iv. 5, p. 121, Berlius. 
$ Pocockc, i. 73, 

I Rev. Mr.Ledwich of Dublin, in Archseologia, viii. 192. The reference to Montfaiiconp 
should be, as Mr.Ledwich very obli^ngly informed me by letter ia^swering my inquiry, ta< 
the third tome of the Supplement, p. 55, page 156, Paris, 1724; ^here we have this descrip- 
tion in Latin : ** Porta ilia quae ad meridiem jespicit, gu^eque in tqbulS sequenti repnesenta" 
/tir,''and thence copied in the plate here, ^' est quasi triumphalis arcus, in quo tres amplse> 
sunt ports fiorntcibus inslructSB. Media autem porta lalitudine viginti duos r^ios pedea 
'^ habet,.altitudine quadraginta. Duabus pocro ligneis foribus ferro operlis claudebatur, qux* 
" inferiori s&vo Cairum translatae sunt, uit fornicem quemdam obstruerent, dictum Bab Ea^ 
zouAiLB, prope sedes magni prsepositi. Ambae vero portse a lateribus altitudinem.habent 
viginti quatuor circiter pedum, latitudinem decem vel duodecitn pedum ;, supra iilas autexn 
mioores januasj visitur ceu fenestra qusedam quadrata^ quae latiiudine gortas inferi^s poai* 






'* in die SyrkK M.S.'* of the Erangelists at Florence, written A.D. 580, 
and full of jnctures exhibited in twenty-six leaves*. And •* in a very cu- 
** lions manuscript which I' was once favoured with a sight of/* says 
another writer who happily harmonizes with both these evidences be- 
fore, a manuscript '^ containing an account of the late earl of Strath- 
morels travels through Spain, mention is made of a singularity ; for in 
the aqueduct neat Segovia, which was undoubtedly built in the time of 
IVfl^aw," an emperor, the immediate successor of Adrian, *^ there are 
some pointed arclies f /* 






'* In Horsley,*' adds Mr. Ledwich, " are .Komon sepulchral stones with 
pointed mchesS* In this vague mode of reference, which is becoming ^fT^^^^^ 
so indoleirtiy fashionable, yet is so thoroughly incompatible with the JtirTxJt^. 
purpose of proving in contradiction to popular opinions, Mr. Ledwich 
appedls to no stone in particular. But there are no less than deven in 
Horsley, No. 33 of Scotland, No. 90 of Northumberland, and No- 3g, 
71, 7,fl, of Cumberland, No. 7 of Yorkshire, No. l of - Lincolnshire^ 
No. 11, aiQ, of Somersetshire, and No. 1 of Middlesex; all sepulchraK 
There is also a monument with a pointed arch. No. 1 of Scotland, in- 

'^ tas non exsequat. Totius porr6 sedifi^it latitudo est sexaginta sex circiter pedam, profunda* 
^ tas autem qiiindeeim aut Yiginti, altitudo quadragiiUa quinque. Duae facie%octo parastra- 
*' lis Cbrmthiis cxornantur, a medio ad basim usque striatts. Capttellorum anguli usque 
'f lideo erumpunl et extenduntur, ut hinc occaaione sumpta Arabes seu Mauri illam portatn 
« vocaverint Abou el Querourif sive Portam Cornuum. E regione illarum octo paraatarum,. 
'' quinque sexve passibus intercedentibus^ octo columnss erant Corinthian ex candido lapide 
'' erects, quatuor pedibus columna sofa alta erat. Unaquseque cofunina «c 

** ^inqne lapidtbus erat, striataque aH im& parte adusque medtuui. tL temporum injuria 
^* ilixsas manserunt dux columnae, stylobatis suis insisleiites ; quas urbeoi respiciunt. Duae 
^' alie plusquammedii sui parte sunt dirulae. Earum vero quss agros rcsf^lciunt, quseque 
*' notantur, ne rudera qnidem comparent."' I have left a blank above for a word evidently 
deficient. The French has the same deficiency, ** huit colonnes Corinthiennes de pierre 
** blanche avoient ete elevees de quatre pieds de fust/*' But a note adds thus, " II' y auae. 
" faute d'impression dans I'original.'* 

• See Mr. Ledwich in Af^h. 170, for the date of thi^ MS. There he has also delineated ta 
vs four of the arches in that MS., but has omitted the cohstrasted arch» ' 

' * • J • 

\ Arch. iv. 410. 





ecribed to Titus MUvs Hadriantis ; having on it '^ a pediment supported 
'^ by two Corinthian pilasters channelled,'' seeming therefore to coin^ 
cide strikingly in form and in time, with what" Montfaucon s autfaot 
notices, " the Corinthian pilasters striated" in the ruins of Adrian's An- 
tinopolis *. But the inscription at fiill length is to Titus .£lius Hadrianus 
Antoninus Piaw, and is commemorative of the wall erected in his reign 
between the friths of Forth and Clyde f . We have likewise the goddess 
Minerva sculptured upon a rock near Chester, with a canopy of a pointed 
arch over her head J. Yet on these instances, however numerous, we 
can hardly ground any reasonings concerning the use of the pointed arch 
in buildings here. But we have one stone in Horsley, which exhibits the 
pointed arch in so regular a form of an arch, and with accompaniments so 
purely Gothic in their very aspect, as arrested my eye more than thirty 
years ago, as must arrest every eye that views it, and loudly tells what so 
many years ago I resolved some time or other to proclaim from it, the use 
of the pointed arch in the Roman buildings of Biitain. It is hb No» 14 
of Scotland. *^ This is,^' says Horsley, a '' sepulchral monument, but im- 
^' perfect. It stiU remains at Skirvay, about a mile and a half west frodoi 
^' Kilsyth, — dug up at a place a little east from this house, I suppose at 
^' Barhill Fort, or near .it," upon Antoninus's wall. " The name of the 
^^ person for whom it was erected, was Yerecundus, who probably died 
^' young ; |tnd therefore the stone is adorned with a garland«T-*« The 
'^ f^pe of the stone at top is somewhat peculiar^^^y So little did the 
sight of the original, so little did the very delineation of it, carry ft) thfe 
mind of this excellent antiquary, wliat it so obviously carries to every re- 
flecting mind, the impression of an arch truly Gothic upon a monument 
certainly Roman ; that he only noticed something pecidiar, in the shape of 

* Horsley, 194 ; and Mountfaucon's Supplement, iit. 156 : *^ Parastratis Corinthiis exor- 

^' nantur, a medio ad basim usque striatis.'' 

t The inscription is t}iis : ^^ Imperatori Cassari Tito iBlio Hadriano Antoninb Augusto 
Pio, patri patrise, vexillatio legionis vicesimas Valentis victricis fecit per passus quater 
mille quadringentos undecim.'* The stone ^' belongs to the first fort that has been at the 

^*' west end of the wall^ near Old Kirkpatrick." (Horsley, 194.) 
;f Horsley, No. 4, Cheshire, and p. 316. 
f Horsley, 199, and 198. 





the Stone at top } The strongest light of evidence shines in vain upon any 
mind, that is not ill the general habit of opening its eyes to evidence, and 
is not also disposed by some previous considerations, to receive the parti- 
cular evidence at the moment. 

The arch here is equally regular and sharp, consisting of three ribs 
united, all curving into one peak above, arid all sweeping downwards from 
k in one pillar upon each side. The whole, indeed, is drawn upon a 
jimall scale, because the confined space of a gravestone made this neces- 
sary : yet the whole is exhibited in so full a proportion, and has been pre- 
served in such a state of integrity, that we see it in all its principal parts 
completely, Oily the legs of the pillars have been abridged a little of their 
length, by a piece of the stone having been broken off at the bottom, and 
carrying away the rest of the inscription with it. The interv^ between 
the legs is filled up with D- M. for Dh Mambtis in one line ; With the 
personal name of -VEREC, in a second ; and with the continuation of it 
CVNDAE, in a third ♦. The person therefore is not a man, but a woman. 
The reference to the Di Manes, however, seems to mark Verecunda as a 
Heathen ; yet there are signatures upon the stone that point her out for a 
Ghristian. There is a garland engraved upon it, as there equally is upon 
another gravestone found at the same place f . Nor is there ^^e grave- 
.stone more among all the monuments in Horsley, charged with -a garland. 
Christianity, indeed, has alone found out the happy art, of taking away 
the natural mournfulness of death in general, of turning it into a giound 
of triumph, and of crowni;Qg th^ gravestones of its professors with the 
garlands of victory. Accordingly we find upon the accompanying stone, 
even in Horsley's description of it, '* a garland, two branches, probably of 
*' cypress, and ttuo globes qiiartered^,^^ or, as the eye tells us at once, 
two crosses, owe upon each, side of the upper part of the garland, and the 
cypress branches on each, side of the fo^er,. signifijcant embkms of the tri- 

•' Goiigh*s Britannia, lii. pUte xxv. p. 359. ... * 

t Hor8l€y> N)0. 13 of Scotland ; and Goiigh, plate xxiv. p. 358. The inscription upom ihist 
i% ** Du Mt. S4n»w/' m Hprsby.;. but iik Qough, « D. M. Salmanes/' 

X HoMkyi 199* I*^- UQf Scaawwl. 




umph of Christianity over nature *. Just so we find on this gravestone^ a 
garland dirpctly under the peak of the arch, and a cross a little higher upon 
each side of it- The cross precedhig is formed only of tWQ lines, cutting 
each other obliquely, yet equidistantly ; but the cross on thk is a more 
formal one, composed of two lines cutting each other at right angles, and 
of a third cutting both obliquely at theii^point of contact -f-. The person 
thus buried appears to have been equally a woman, with the person under 
the preceding gravestone ; Verecunda and Salmane forming the two 
first Christians, that we know by name to have existed in Roman Britain; 
both women, both buried at the same place, and both bearing crosses on 
tlieir gravestones ; the female sex, let me say from the full conviction of 
my mind, having in all ages shewn more of religiousness than our own, 
more of the soft sensibilities of feeling, and therefore more of propensity 
to a devoutness of soul, to an awful consideration of the world of spirits^ 
or to a solemn reverence for the Father of spirits J. 

* Such a cross is on monuments confessedly Christian, in Lelandl's Itin. ii. 135. 

t Mr. Gough having given us draughts of these two monuments, a little different from 
Horsley's in the crosses, I have formed my description from both. But see another cross^ 
described in iii. 3, hereafter. 

X Leland De Script. Brit. 17, 18; Usher, 5; Stillingfleet in Origines Britannicae, 43,44; 
and Carte, i. 134, believe the Claudia of 2 Tim. iv. 21, to be the Claudia JKufina of Martial, 
iv. 33, xi. 54 ; and Carte supposes the latter, who was certainly a Briton, to be the daughter 
of king Cogidunus (sirnamed Claudius upon a monument) in Britain. These aUo believe 
Pomponia Graecina, that wife of A. Plautius, propraetor of Britain, who is so strikingly to 
the eye of a Christian delineated^ as " insignis femina^ — superstitionis externa rea," to 
whom/Monga — aetas ct cmtirma tristitia foil" (Tacitus Ann. xiii. 34), to have been a 
Christian. This is assuredly true, but that certainly false. The very praises of Rufina by 
Martial prove her to be no Christian : and Graecina is a woman, as far as we can judge^ 
purely Roman, a native of Rome, even a resident of Rome only. But let me remark in a 
strain of Christian triumph^ upon the character of Graecina as a Christian, how little Tacitus 
thought when he drew the character, that he was delineating one who had dignity of mind 
to embrace a religion in the first moments of its appearance, and had fortitude of spirit to 
profess a religion under every discouragement from the world, which, however it might ap- 
pear to some grovelling souls, the mere politicians of earth, and the limitary intelligences of 
this petty orb, did yet open the vast scenes of eternity to our views, present the interminable 
happiness of them to our hopes^ and provide even miraculous assistance in grace for our ac* 
quirement of their happiness 3 thus uniting heaven and earth in one chain of blissful reli- 
giousnessj and calling down the lustre of that by anticipation to gild the gloom of this. 

^ The 


The Roman Vcrecundisi, indeed, appears from all to have been buried l^ ^ 
at a church within, and under an arch of it, that had just such a pointed 
curve as this. Those stood, in all probabiKty, at Kilsyth itself, as the 
€tone is now at Skirway, about a mile and a half tvest from Kilsyth ; as 
it is known to have been found at a place a little exist from Skirway; and • 
as the British name of Kihythy so analogous to the names of Irish cathe- 
drals, or Highland churches at present ; Kil-kenny, Kil-laloe, or Kil- 
fenora, Kill-choUim kill, Kil-chovan, Kill-chiaran, or Kill-han Alen, in 
the single isle of Jura, proves a cell of peace to have been Greeted there 
for a church in the time of the Britons*. It was erected there in that 
mixed interval of time, when Christianity began to impress her victo- 
rious banner the cross upon her gravestones, even to erect churches 
for the public devotions of her^ disciples; when burials began to be 
made within her very churches "f;, and when the heathen style of fune- 
ral inscriptions, in its best meataing (as here) of reference to the ghost of 
the deceased :|:, was yet retained upon her graves. Such an interval it 
is religiously pleasing to observe, in the private history of Rome, but at 
a period a little later than our own. Then, as Zosimus the heathen 
tells us about the year 394, " when Theodosius the elder— came to 
" Rome, and infused into all ranks a contempt for the sacred worship 
of heathenism, refusing to supply the rams for the sacrifices out of 
the treasury; the priests and priestesses were driven away, and the 
^* temples were deprived of all servijce. Then, therefore, in a ridicule of 
*' them, Serena," the daughter of Theodosius, and the consort of Sti- 
licho, " desired to look into*' a temple situated upon moimt Palatine, 
" the temple of the mother of the gods," Cybele alias Rhea ; " and bc- 
" holding upon the statue of Rhea encircling the neck of it, an ornament 
'*' worth;y of the divine worship paid her, she took it off from the statue, 

• cm (I.) is a cell or a church, and Sitk (1.) is peace. See Martin, 243; and I^cohn^ 
kiU is merely the isle of Columbus's church, p. 256. 

t Breval's First Travels, ii, 324: " The following Christian monument of great anti- ^ 

*^ quity,*' is " in one of the arches of the great church'' at JBria in Portugal, *^ ji. JV. ^ 

<< Severtis Presbit^ famulus Chrisli, vixit ann^ i*v.> requievit in pace Domini xu Kai» 
" Novemh. ei-a dcxxii.** 

X Horsley, 199. ... 

VOL. T. . K " ^^Bld 



' *' and put it round her own neck. And when one of the vestal vu-gins/* 
not (as we suppose at first) one from the temple of Ve^ta in the ad- 
joining parts of the Foram, but an actual priestess of Cybele, occa- 
sionally considered by the Romans as a vestal too, *^ one that had been 
'* left" out of the priestesses of this very temple, " and who was now 
*^ grown old," the last vestal that is mentioned in the Mstary of Rome, 
'* reproached her to her face for the impiety; Serena treated her with 
f' uijurioufi language, and ordered her attendants to turn her out of the" 
^' temple. The woman^ as she was going down the steps, imprecated 
'* every evil that such impiety deserved, to fall on Serena, her husband, 
^' and her children. But Serena, taking no account of her imprecations, 
'^ retired out of the temple afterwards, decorated with the ornament §." 
In such just contempt was the mighty mother held by the rising 
spirit of Christianity, as to have her temple deserted by all her wor- 
shippers, to retain only one old priestess ia attendance upon a service 
no longer performed, .and to have her very image, solitary as it stood in 
the locked-up fane, even stripped of its necklace by a visiting princess 
for an ornament to h/?r own neck; or, as Jerome, a Christian, more 
comprehensively, and therefore more significantly, says about the same 
period^ " the gilded Capitol is now squaUd; all the temples of Rome are 
" covered with smoke," from the sacrifices, " and with cobwebs," from 
the neglect; *' the whole city is moved from its foundations; and the 
'' crowds, that used to flow in tides to the altars, half-overset at present, 

^ Zosimas, v. 051, Oxon, l6jg s Oli etoioerua o vpnT^vlnfrnf ?»>^tJ» xitlsXafi, hlbU thj Hf/obi etytruH 

KftliXi/iTflwiJo ^f wa0^( t^e^ytoi ra Tfp,fMi. toIi tw»u» iiri<)fiX«<r« T^Toif, «) Znpiva t« M/lf*w Ai» fCwXndn. 9i«- 
cetfAtn h Tw TWf P4«f ctyei\iJLa\ 'Vcpijui/ASfey tvi m rp«x^^ xo<r/*o» td> ftswt; txUmn fl»|t«» •y«-«MW wipcX«r« 

fty)i} xala «rpccrr&y rqy d^^fCuav, tvffivCf»rt re, mu uiriXotwia^t iia rwy iro/unvwy ixiXeuo'e*. « }f, x»lu>^x, ««» 

Xoyoy, ayfxa^pu rov Tffx.fyc(, fyx«XX«^t^o/xfiyYi rw xo(r^. In MontfailCOn*8 Allt. Expl. I. II. 6. WB 

have the lions of Cybele with the figure of Vesta cipon a lamp, and a statue of Vesta with 
the towers of Cybele on her head. Cybele and Vesta wei* considered equally as the earth, 
and had, therefore, an inter-communion of attribuies, as well as appellations. So confounded 
wa? the very theology of heatliepism, in its very ideas of its gods ! From this temple on 
mount Palatine, Cybele is called ♦* Palatina" in an ancient inscription 5 a circumstance^ that 
has escaped Montfaucon in i. i^ 4. See ako v* pt« ad^ ii. 4. 

^* nm 


" run to the [churches containing the] tombs of the martjnrs*." In 
this period of struggle between Christianity and heathenism, between the 
good sense of Heaven and the nonsense of earth; when the eagle of 
Heaven, as in one of Virgil's similes, had seized the serpent of earth, 
had infolded it wuth his feet, and pierced it with his talons, had seen it 
writhing in its wounds, and heard it hissing with its mouth, to fix its 
deadly fangs upon him, but had pressed it the more severely with his beak 
to subdue it completely, and at last was beating the air in triumph 
with his pinions f; the adoption of D. M. upon monuments plainly 
Christian^ appears very manifest j;. 

* Hieron. Epist. ad lactam, Opera Omnia^ edit. Francof% u 35 : '^ Attratum squakt 
Capitoliym, fuligiae et arancarum telia omnia Rome templa co-operta sunt, movetttr urbs 
sedlbus 8uia^ et inundans populus ante delubra sexniruta eurrit ad martyrum tumulos/' 

t ^neid xi. 751, judiciously varied from Iliad xii. 200* 

Utque Yolans alte^ raptum ci^m fiilya draconem 
Fert aquila, implicuitque pedes, atque unguibus hssit j 
Saucitts at serpens sinuosa rolmnina versat, 
Arrectisqne hoiret squamis, et sibilat ove, 
Arduus insurgens ; ilia baud minOs uiget adunco 
Luctantem rostro, simul acthera verberafc alls. 
Hand aliter praedam Hburtum ex agmine Tarchoa 
Portat orans. 

X Mabillon^in Iter Italicum, 73, 136, notices two funeral inscrrptions from Fabretti, '^ un» 
** cujusdam martyris epitaphium — lapidi marmoreo ioserrptum,-haben8 ex aUeri parte frag- 
** mentum sodalitii Paganorum sub deo Silvano/' saying there are many such in Rome; 
*' altera inscriptio— solemnem Paganorum diis manibus dicationem, etsi hominis sit Ckri&, 
tiani, exhibct." The Pagan and Christian parls are these, *' D, Ma. Sacrum> ' and " In 
pacem cum Spi-rita [Spiritu] Sancta [Sancto] acceptum.** He also mentions another, as 
apud Smetium,"' with " D. M." and " Bonae Memoriae*' upon one side, and Al^jba, 
Om^a, on the other. But such inscriptions prove nothing for our present point, Fleet- 
wood, however, in his " Inscriptionum Sylloge, London, 1691," p. 345, gives us one that is 
plainly Pagan and plainly Christian, at once ; " D. M. Aurelio Bafco vita integerrimo mo- 
•* ribusc^e ornato, qui se, quietioris perfectiorisqye vitie desiderio, ex negotiis civilibu^ ift 
<* quihus fuerat cum laiide versatus, Jovis Op, Ma, beneficio, ducto, hie in spe resurrectionis 
«f quiescent!, focus publicedatus est/' In p. 450, he mentions another, " D. AT. S. Filio 
*^ dulcissimo Niceroti parentes fecerunt tVt Deo," In p. 502, he cites a third, *♦ D. M. . '. 
<< Januarius Exorcista sibi et conjugi fecit/' 

N 2 '' One 




*' One example/' subjoins Mr. Ledwich very jusdy, concerning peaked 
arches/ ^' and there must have been many now fallen a prey to the 
'* ravages of time, tvoidd haoe been suffidcnt to have proved their exists 
** ence and use*.'' But, in order to preclude the necessity for such an 
appeal, however just, to these instances let me add another : in that 
church of the Holy Sepulchre, which the empress Helena built with so 
much magnificence at Jerusalem, which every Christian of sensibility 
contemplates there with so deep a reverence of soul at present, and in the 
very chapel over that *^ holy cave, which she decorated first of all, as, 
" in some measure, the head of allf ;** amid the round arches that ap- 
pear on every side of the church, that particularly support the dome 
over the sepulchre and its chapel, we see the doorway into the chapel a 
tall arch peaked, and shcarply peaked too:|:. The peaked arch, therefore, 
appears demonstrably to have been introduced among the Rolnans, how- 
ever it has been denominated Gothic. It was used by an empress at 
Jerusalem, in her glorious zeal for the new religion of Christianity, 
though at the declension of Roman architecture. It was also used by 
an emperor in Spain two ages before, in all the splendour of that archi- 
tecture. It was again used by a prior emperor in Egypt, but still under 
all the splendour of that architecture, and with all liis idolatrous extrava- 
gance of r/jspect for a deceased favourite; and it was finally used so much 
in our Roman-British churches, even within the distant region of the 
&rther wall, but about the ver}' period of the empi:ess's" use of it at 
Jerusalem ; when, as Gildas tells us expressly of the British Christians, 
^' they renew their churches that had been thrown to the very ground; 
** they found, raise, and finish grand churches in honour of the holy 
'^ martyrs^ and every where display (as it were) their victorious ensigns §," 

• Arcb* viii. 193, ' 

t Eufcbiug in Vita Consiam. liL 33, Reading, u 597: Tu t^iIo; vvri^ riw» NfftotXn*, r^ 

t Pococke, ii, part isC, p. 16, plate iv. No. D. 

4 Gilda«, c. viii. «« Rcoovant ccclegias ad polum tisque deiCruc^t; basilicaf laoctorom 
«♦ manyruro fundant, constrnunt, perliciunt; ac vckit victricia signa passim prdpulant/' 
For my interpretation of lasilic(Pf see Eddius, c. avi. in Gale, L 59; where we have the old 
eatbedral of York, that was built by PauHnus at the conversion of Edwin, called ** basi* 
"lii^/' or "basilica oratorii Dei;*' and where we have also the old church at Rippon 
egfially denominated a ** baiiiicar" 




Ktcr» ii»] mfToatcAi^iAlr itTEVET]iD> q» 

as to be delineated upon a Romim gravestone there, exajctly like one 
oi our catliedrul arches at present. 

; But let us push the point of oujr argun^eotiS^iU farther in Britain. We 
bave a church remaining to this day at Cartterbuiy, which we know to 
have be«i built by the Romans, and see tOihave pointed arches. " There 
*/ was," fiays Bede concerning the arrival of Augustin at Canter- 
bury in 5Q7f *^ near the very city*, ttpon, the eastern side of iti a chuicfa! 
^' built in those forrtier times, in which the Romam/.y^t inhabited, j^. ^iji^*2ti*4 C^i**^^ 
Britain^ and theri^dedicbted to' the)b0nour of St. Martin; in which 
thatqueeii" of Ethelbert, king of Kent, •* whom we have previously 
^' noticed to. have been a Christian, used to o£Fer up her devotions," 
together with hei? ; Christian ittttoi^nts, under the ministry of the 
bishop^ her chaplain*, ^^hx this, therefore, they themselves," " Au- 
gustin and his coUeagaes, ^^ began at first to assemble, to sing, to 
'* pray, to consecrate the eucharist, to preach, and to baptise f," This 
church is (a^ it w^^) miraculously preserved, like our own at St 
German s, to the present moment. In the middle of it is a font very, 
lacge, carrying a venerable face of antiquity in its form, and, from the 
whispers of a tradition that hardly presumes to use a bolder* tone> 
supposed to have been the very font in which they thus baptized some 
of the king's subjects, yea even finally baptized the king himself jl* 
The church also is half-buried in the seal thrown up by die hand of 
time against it ; the two doorways on the south, pne into the chsai* 
eel, the other into the body of the chiu'ch, having the ground be- 
fore them raised more than half way up to the crowns of their arches. 
Its walls, too, exhibit those sure signatures of Roman architecture, 

* Bede, i. 25 : ^ Quam ti, conditione 4 parentibus acceperat, ut ritiim fidei ac religlonis 
^' 8uas cum episcopo quem ei adjutoreip fidei dederant, nomine Liudhordo, inviolatum ser- * 
^ vare lic<ntiam haberet," 

t Bede, i. 26: ^* Efat autem prope ipsam civitatem, ad orientem, eccledia in hono^em 
^' Sancti Maitloi antu|tiifeus facta, dum adhac Romani Britatiniam incolerent ; in qua regitia^ 
<* quam Chiristianam fuisse praediximus, orare consueverat ; in h&c ergo et ipsi primo con- 
^ venire, pMllere, orare, inissas ftcere, pracdicare, et baptizare cceperunt, donec,*^ 8cc. ' 

X Bede, uz^i ** Donee, rege ad fidem converso, roajorem," 8cc. ^* ipseetiam mtcr alios 
^^ cftdeos baptiaatds est,'' 

1 Roman 



Roman bricks used in theircomposition ; not used only here and there in 
the composition, as the relics of some former building, but used regur 
lai-ly in courses throughout the whole, except only where the hand of 
reparation has been busy in two places, and not merely in the chancel, 
but in the body; used too in both with such an uniform porerty of style, 
as proves both to have been of one age and one hand, a mere countiy- 
chapel of the christianized Romans. Yet, in this very chapel, we 
have the two doorways rounMy arched, and the windoivs all arched in 
peaks; one in a repaired part near the western end, small, narrow, and 
modem; another about the middle, taller, wider, and ancient; a third at 
the west end of the chancel, tall> narrow, and modern, but having dose 
to it on the east the plain traces of another, now closed up and short- 
ened in repairing Ais part of the church, with a fifth near the eastern 
end, large, wide, and ancient ; yet aH of them peaked, the ancient less 
sharply than the modem, but s^H peaked^. Here, then,* we have a 
building under our own hands, as it were, proved historically by our do- 
mestic records to be a work of the Romans, yet exhibiting to the veiy 
eyes of the present generation, at the very metropolis ecclesiasttcal' of air 
the kingdom, the peaked arch in its windows with the round arch in its^ 
doorways. Such critics, however, as love to shew their sagacity in their 
scmples, to display their force in their feebleness, and to entangle 
themselves like flies in the slightest cobweb, will object to the identity of 
the present building with the building raised by the Romans. But the 
objection is a cobweb too slight to catch any except the feeblest of 
flies. The difference of the present structure from the Roman, is not to* 
be suggested only. It must be proved, before it can be admitted. The 
feir presumption of reasoning is always in favour of possession. The 
contrary is therefore to be shewn ; yet it cannot be shewn here. 
The identity stands evident, upon every circumstance of the building ; 
and history unites with aspect, to proclaim it a Roman construction,, 
We thus see the Romans discovering their use of the» peaked arch in 
their buildings, not merely at the distance of Antinopoli&, or Jerusalem, 

§ Somner's Canterbury by Battely, part ist, p. 34; parted, p. 175*176; Stukeley'& 
Itin. 117; and Gostling's Walk in and about Canterbury, editio^j ad^ 1777, 24-26; with 
j^Iate 48 of Stukeley. 



or even Spwn from us, but in our own island, in the south of it,' in tlie 
Teiy province of passage between it and the continent; even there, not 
merely in a delineation of a single church-arch upon a single gravestonej 
but in real arches, in several arches, in all united into a church existing 
at this moment*. In 

* I have not produced another ar^ment from a building bearing the {lame aspect as St« 
Martin's, because it has not a purely historical authority for its construction by the Romans* ^ 
Yet it was so constructed, I am firmly persuaded. For this it carries the authority of that 
tradition, which is little less than history ; is oral history instead of written, is much more 
liable, therefore, to be corrupted, yet is history sttll. *' Erat autem,*' says Thorne, from this 
lower kind of history, ^ non longe ab ipsft civitate ad orientem, modio kiaere inter eccle- 
^^siam Sancti Martini et muros civitatia, phanum sive ydoluai aitum, ubi rex Ethelbertus 
^^ secundum ritum gentis suae solebai orare, et cum nobilibus suis dxmoniis et non Deo 
** sacrificare; quod fanum Augustinus ab inquinamentis et sordibus gentilium purgavit, et, 
*' simulachro quod in e4 [eo] erat confracto, synagogam [diaboli] mutavtt in ecclesiam [Dei], 
** et cam in nomine Sancti Pancrasii Mattyris dedicavit ; et h«c est prima ecclesia ab Au- >S, 2%t/rte-^wu' CfuknA^^ 
^' gustino dedicata.'^ (Twisden, 1760*) Nor is this relation at all contradictory, asSomner (zM^*r\XiMyxA^. 
pretends it is, to the narrative of Bede; Thome not alleging, as Somner represents him to 
allege, that this was the first church in which Augustine celebrated mass, St. Martin's being 
certainly the first, but the first which he dedicated, because it was dedicated before St. 
Saviour's. ** I will grant," adds Somner, with great ingenuousness, *^ that a chapel of 
** that name, of no small antiquity, there was sometime standing, where a good part of her 
*^ ndns are yet left, built almost wholly of Briton or Romany* ilhat is, of Roman-British, 
*^ bricks infalliby^emains of antiquity/' (Ibid, ibid.) * ^^ Without the town," remarks Le« 
land, ^< at 5. Pancrace's cbapel and at S, Martinets, appere Briton brichesy (Itin« vii. 145.) 
There are, as Stukeley notes in Itin. Cur. i. 123, '^ the walls of a chapel said to have been a 
*' Christian," a b.eathen, ** temple lefore St. Augustine's time, and r^-consecrated by him to 
'' St. Pancras, A great apple-tree, and some plum-trees, now grow in it. The lotver part 
^' of it is really old, and mostly made of Roman brick, ai^ thicker walls, as all substructions 
^^ are, than ttie superstructure. There's an old Roman arch in the south-side toward the altar, 
*^ the top of it about as high as one's nose, so that the ground has been much raised. ; The 
•^ present east window is a poiktbi> arch, though made of Roman brick-^. Near it, « iittle 
^* room said to Have been king Ethelbett's Pa|fa» chapeL However it be, both these j and the 
i^ wall adjoining, are mostly built of Roman brick ; the bredtk of the morter is rather more 
♦*thanthe bricks^ ^uifull of pebbels,* as Roman tnortar always is. The larger buildings 
therefore, was the Pagan temple, and the 2^55^ near the east window was the royal closet of 
Ethelbert, the Saxon king of Kent, and of the British kings bofore him, during the reign of 
heathenism. Yet the east window, though visijsly Roman with all the parts in general, the 
ijpper as well as the Io\<*cr, and though apparently Roman in itself, too, as ^^ made of .Roman 

«' brick" 


In that manner being begun among the Romans^ in thai; being dif« 
fused along Roman Judaea, Roman Egypt, Roman Spain, and Roman 
Britain ; the peaked arch went on of course through those ages, which 
succeeded the fall of the Roman empire, which are with a peculiar pro- 
priety denominated the Gothic, and have ignorantly been made to father 
it by giving it their appellation : yet the respectable author so much cited . 
before, Mr. Ledwich, does not allow it to have thus gone on. No ! he 
breaks the thread of continuance short at once. From the monuments 
urged by himself, specifically at Antinopolis, and generally in Britain, he 
infers only — ^what? — '' the probability of their serving as models, after a 
" lapse of yeari, for a«ctt/ style*," (filter et idem! But when does he 
suppose this new^old style to have begun ? It '* seems," he says, '* to 
** have begun about A. D. looo.'^ Yet he instantly adds what proves it 
to have begun before, and what is of great moment in our present inquiry^ 
" The arches of churches on the coins of Berengarius, king of Italy," who 
became king as early as 888,^ ^^ and Lewia the Pious," who became em* 
peror in 814; " and those in the Menologium Graecum, Urbini, 1727 ; 
" shew the strait arch was in use in the ninth and tenth centuries," con* 
sequently on^ or two centuries before A. D. looo, or the commencement i 
of the eleventh century. Thus does the continuation of the arch from 
the Romans become more apparent, especially as Italy was the scene of 
some of these constructions upon coins. " On a coin of Edward tht 
*' Confessor^ in Camden, is a pointed arch; the church there is supposed 
" to bp that of Bury St. Edmund, repaired by him," who came to the 


^ brick" entirely, shews even to this day a pointed arch. Nor let us leave these two builcU 
ings so totally undistinguished as they are leFt by the antiquaries of Canterbury, so confomided 
by Stukeley, and ao vmappropri^ited by a)l, without producing a testimonj^ for their connezio» 
that lies ob(vioos on the page of Somner. *^ Hamond Beale,'/ he cries, .considering it only 
to perplex himself, and jto make him answer as Thorne's what is merely this Hamond's,. 
^^ —anno i49a gives by his will to the reparation.of Saini Pancrace bis chapel within the pre* 
*^ cinct of St. Augustin's churchyard, and of the chapel where St. Augustin^' js falsely said 
to have ^^ first celebrated mass in England, annexed to theforfoer, 3I. 6s. 8d.'' (Somn^, ibid.) 
I thus do what the local antiquaries were not able to do, explain their own remains, vindicate 
their own traditions, and discover another arch of a pointed form among the Romans of tb^s 
99in city. 
 Arch. viii. 193. 





4lurone in 1041-1 042 f. " As all our ancient historians resent his at- 
tachment to the Normans, among whom he was educated ; it is likely 
he satu this neiv arch upon the continent, and introduced it into his^ 
*' tvorks : it must therefore be earlier there than the date of its adoption 
•* herCy and may be of the age before assigned for its revival J/' This 
very ingenious and very learned author has already shewn, that ** the 
*' straight arch was in use'* on the continent, *' in the ninth and tenth cen- 
^' turies ;" and, as to the island, in his reference to " Roman sepulchral 
stones with pointed arches" in Horsley, which are all British, has said 
one example — ^would have been sufficient to have proved their existence 
*' and use" in Britain. I have also proved by a specific example in 
Judaea, bya'^s^ond in Spain, and by a third in Britain, " their existence 
*^%hd use" throughout the whole empire of Rome. Tet now Mr. Led- 
wich, unconscious indeed of some of these facts, is for burying both the 
British and the foreign gothicism of arches in the grave of time, merely 
—that he may raise it to Ufe again. But an order of architecture, once 
lost, is as little hkely to have been recovered in those ages of barbarism ; 
as the soul, if once laid to sleep with the body by the hand of death, ac- 
cording to the wild fancies of some that it will be, is to be awakened 
again : the revival of either must be an actual creation of it. The soul 
therefore, lapped up in its own immortality as armour of proof against the 
weapons of death, continues to exist, is found and felt to exist while the 
man is awake, and even exists (we find) where it is frequently not felt — 
under the body'« death of sleep. Just so is the Gothic architecture. Found 
existing first among the Romans in Egypt ; it went on undoubtedly in 
Egypt, in Judaea, in Spain, in Britain, in all the parts of the Roman em- 
pipe ; not the legitimate, the original, the severe architecture of the em- 
pire, but the pleasing, the fantastical, the affected ; repeatedly observed 
at times in the ages immediately succeeding the empire, and so known 
to have existed in the period between both. From the elevated mount 
of history, we catch a view of the current in different points ; and though 
vc cannot trace its line rf progression with our eye^ yet are sure the 

t Arch, viii, 193. 
I Ibid. ibid. 

V^L. I. 



eunnj gleams that we see of its waters^ are only the parts of one con- 
tinued whole. 


But as ke proceeds, to whom I owe so much information, and with 
whom antiquarianism has here taken such an uncommon circuit of 
erudition, " some architectural novelty seems to have made its appear- 
^* ance at this period," about A. D. looo, " as may be collected from the 
*' words of Glaber Rudolph, a Benedictine monk and cotemporary ; and 
^* churches, no doubt, to<Jk the form of this fashionable innovation'' of 
^ peaked arches *• Mr. Ledwich has very fairly given us the passage in 
Rudolph, at the bottom of his page ; and I find it to i>e what I am sorry • 
to pronounce it, all foreign to his purpose. *' Below 4^ thousandth 
'^ year/' as I translate it literally, referring the original still to the bottom 
of the page, '' when notv the third year was almost come, it happened m 
'^ nearly all the earth,'' by which he means only all Christendom, ** but 
especially in Italy and France, that the grander churches were fonmed 
anew^y I have thus endeavoured to preserve in my translation 
that equivocality of expression in the principal word, which is in the 
original, and has imposed upon Mr. Ledwich. He applies the new 
formation in the passage, to the introduction of the pointed arch on 
the continent ; yet that is here fixed to the years 1 002-3 ; and this 
has been previously proved by Mr. Ledwich himself, to have been 
there " in use in the ninth and tenth centuries" before. So unfor- 
tunately contradictory is our very searching and very successful antiquary 
in his evidences ! But the present evidence has really no connexion 
with the subject. It cannot possibly have any reference to pointed 
arches, as the innovation then introduced on the continent; because 
pointed arches were there, in the two centuries immediately preceding ; 
nor does the passage relate to any innovation of architectures at all. It 
speaks only of an innovation of buildings ; not of doors, not of windows, 
not of pillars, not indeed of any parts of a building, but of the whole. It 

• Arch. viii. 193. 

t '' Infra millesitnum, iertio jam fere immioente anno, contigit in universo pene terrarum 
*• orbe, praecipue tamen in Italia et Galliis, innovari ecclesiarum basilicas.*' (iii. c. 4, apud 
Du Chesne^ Hist. Francor. Scriptores, iv. p. 27^ 28.) 

1 • therefore 



therefoFe means apparently the re^eomtrtiction of the^vhole^ the reifijwa^ 
tian of the greater churches, amd this called innmmiion by Rudolph. It is 
actually denominated innovation by ottr own Ingu]phu3> about the same 
period^ and again by our own historian of Ely, a Httle later ; while it is 
^ually denominated renovation by our Gildas a few centuries before, and 
even by the historian of Ely in another place %. A spirit then appeared 
in all the Christian world, says Rudolph, especially in France and Italy, 
which caused the grander churches to be rebuilt ; and we shall doon fiaid 
the same spirit prevailing speedily afterwards in England. 





But as Mr« Led wich pursues hb mixed maze of erudition and ingenr- 
ousness till he has neacly lost himself in his own labyrinth, ^' a drawing 
^' of the sanctuary at Westminster in the ftrst volume of the Archaeolo- 
gia> supposed to be constructed by Edwavd die Confessoc, has pointed 
arches ; and [thus] audsentic evidence corroborates what has been ob- 
•^served on this coin," the coin-, of Edward die Confessor before, carrying 
the figure of a church with a pointed arch upon it, '* as well as the notice 
*^ in Rudolph." There is a litde impropriety here in speaking of " this 
coin," when it is at such a distance behind; and in deducing " authentic 
evidence" from a building, only ^^ supposed to be constructed by Ed- 
"•' ward." But I attend Mr. Ledwich in^ his farther progress. " The 
^* church of Eirkdalci mentioned by Mr. Brooke," and proved by a Saxon Kc^^J^-oO^-^ , 
inscription to be a Saxon church §, ^' has also the pointed arch, and is of 
^^ the age of the Confessor |J." The church of Aldbrough inHoldemess too, J}iM>irtin.^L. 
let me add, which is equally mentioned by Mr. Brooke, which is equally 
proved by a^Saxon inscription to be a Saxon church, and appears equally 
to be of the age of the Confessor, has' on the south side of the nave two 
arches sharply pointed, with the Saxon inscription immediately between 

:|: Ingulphus, f. 500 : '' Jussit cruces lapideas teraiinorum innovari, et longins a ripis flu* 
"** vionim, — ne forte— in flumina corruerint, prout aniiquas cr uces, — ibidem aliquando ap* 
<' positas, intellexerat cormisse." Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 603 : " Ecclesiam ipsam, ab 
*^ Inguare deatructam et per centum annos desolataai,--^iligenter kmovavii 3'' 613^ ^' Eccle- 
*^ sidmrsntwans*** , Gildas, c. viii* <^ Rsmnmit ecdesiaa**' 

^ Arch. V. iSSL. 

|. Arch. viiL 192^ 293*. 

6 2 them ; 


them J and on the south side of the chancel a doorway, the arch of which 

is richly laced with zig-zag mouldings, but still m&re sharply pointed %. 

S.j6&oui^, And, to note only one instance immediately below the Conquest, in that 

new part of the abbey-church at St, Alban's, which I shaU hereafter shew 
to haye been erected between the years 1077 and 1093 ; while in the old 
parts " the arches are semi-circular," and '' there is no arch but the 
'* plain semi-circle,'' in that " the pointed arch is to be seen in all tlie 
*' several specimens of good and complete building *^" 



I submit it with great deference to the judgment of the [Antiquarian] 
Society,'' finally subjoins Mr. Ledwich, always learned and always in- 
genious, " whether the novum germs cedificandi of William of Malmes- 
bury, applied to the architecture of the Conqueror's reign, does not im- 
ply something more than extent and magnificence ; and whether, to 
complete the idea of a new style, we ought not to take in the pointed 
*' arch and Gothic ornaments f .'* Mr. Ledwich thus closes his course of 


f Arclu vi. 39* Mr. Pegge, in Arch. vii. 86-89, has only trifled in endeavouring to 
' object. 

• Mr. Newcomers Hist.^ of St. Alban's Abbey, p. 45, 95, and vi. 2, hereafter. Yet we 
are told by Mr. Newcome himself^ in p. 95, << that we m^ here plainly discern the error 
'^ of those critics in architecture, who assert that the pointed arch arose first in. the time of 
** Henry IIL" [he means Henry I.], *' and is seidom found in earlier constcuctionsj" a state- 
ment surely very inaccurate in point of language I ^^ whereas, in this- structure, the pointed 
*^ arch is to be seen in all the several specimens of good and complete building ; and the same 
'^ was undoubtedly erected in the time of the Omquert^ and his sons/* William and Henry, 
*' before 1115," the fifteenth year of the^rj^ Henry* s reign. How very confusedly is all 
this said and meant I But, worse than all I the grand point in the whole is directly contra- 
dicted by Mr. Newcome himself in p. 502, and what is here noticed as an '^ error," is there 
asserted for a truth. *' In the time of Henry Third/* he there affirms without hesitation, 
*' — the semi'Circular arch gave way to— the pointed arch.'* He seems to have had Mr, 
Gray and Mr.Bentham befbre him at once, to have listened now to one and then to another, 
but between both to have been so confounded as to become contradictory to both and to 

t Arch. viti. 193. This application of the passage in Malmesbury is much more rational 
than what the celebrated Thomas Warton of Oxford, a writer of considerable taste and 
talents, but only half an antiquary in erudition, had previously made in bis Observations, on 
the Fairy Queen of Spenser, " The Conqueror," he says there, ii, 186, edit, ad, 1762, 

^* imported 


arguments, and (as I add with a reluctant hand) thus rounds his circle of 
contradictions together. He now suggests the pointed arch to have been; 
introduced into England in " the Conqueror^ reign," when he has pre- 
viously proved it to have been introduced in the days of the Confessor^ 
He nmv pleads for the Conquerors introduction of it ; though " it is 
** Ukely/* he has said of the Confessor before, " he saw this new arch on 
" the continent, and introduced it in his works." He now argues for the 
first appearance of this arch in our churches, as uniting with " Gothic or- 
'* naments" to form that " novum genus aedificandi," which Mahnesbuiy 
ascribes to the Normans of England after the Conquest ; yet has abso- 
lutely precluded all possibility of admitting his own hypothesis, by ap- 
pealing for a pointed arch in a church, to a coin of the Confessor, to a 
drawing of the sanctuary at Westminster built by the Confessor^ and to a 
representation of Kirkdale church constructed in the days of the Con- 
fessor. But such contradictions are incident equally to genius and ta 
learning, when either of them is strongly on the quest after a favourite 
game ; and are peculiarly incident perhaps, when learning and genius 
are hunting, as here, in one couple together ; yet not more pertinent ta 
the point is the extract from Malmesbury, than the citation from Rudolph 
before : they both, indeed, relate to one object, but at difierent periods 
and in different regions. Rudolph says, that in A. D. 1002-3 all over 
the world almost, but especially in Italy and France, the grander 
churches were rebuilt ; and Malmesbury adds what is the sequel to. this 
intimation, that as Italy (I suppose) had begun the practice, and France 
had followed her in it, so the Normans of France settled it with them- 
selves about sixty years afterwards in England. The Saxons, says 
Malmesbury, " spent all their estates in feasting within small and petty. 
" houses, much unlike the French and Normans, who gave moderate en- 
" tertainments in ample and superb edifices ;'* and, as he subjoins at some 
distance afterwards, in the very same tenour of observation, under the 
Normans '*you may see everywhere churches in towns, minsters in villages 

f^ imported a more npagnific^), though not a difierent, plan — }, the style then used consisted 
" of roMwd arches, rottnd-A^acfed windows,'* &c. *^ This has been named the Saxon stylcj^ 
<' b^ing the national architecture of our Saxon ancestors-—; for the Normans only extended 
" its proportions;, and enlarged its scale/* 

** and 


^^ amd cities, rising iti a newfohn qf construction X^ Tliere the union of 
tJw tv^o parts 3h^w3 the meadiing of the latter decisirely. But still more 
decisively does it appear, from another passage in another place of his 
works ; when he speaks erf a church, built (as tradition said) in the days 
vA Ina, " the eastern ead of which has kUely been carried much Jiirther 
^^f[^wardy by the ambifiom fondness fw tiew construclmis^'' Thus^ 
and only thus, were raised what this vejy hisfcoriaa has made one of his^^ 
personages to denominate,, m anotlier place ; the " pompaticse «des/* 
or pompous churches,, of the Normans || • ^' The new form of construc- 
^^ tion*' therefore appears to be, not a variation in the mould of the arch, 
a substitution of the point^^d for the romad, but something more striking 
to the eye of history, an addition of size in their new churches. The 
jenovation of the churches upon a lai;ger scale had bepm on the conti- 
nent about 1002-5, but was tjhen confined to grandfer chjurches. It had 
now proceeded so rapidly there^ that, on its importation into England by 
the Normans, it extended itself not merely to grander churches in cities^ 
but to those io villages, even to common churches in towns,, and to all of 
them in allparts of the kingdom* In the space only oi jifty-jmr years: 
after the Conquest, and at the very period of Malmesbury's writing, had 
that spirit so diffiised itself, and had those e&cts been so produced hy it. 
You may see,** he cries, " every where churches in towns, minsters in vil- 
lages and cities, risi?7g in anew form of construction;" like the eastern 
end of the church above, carried on to a greater lenjgth^ and like the pri- 

J Malmesbury, f. 57 : *' Parvis et abjectis doniibus totos sumptuB a'bsumebant, Francis et 
'* Normannis absimiles, qui amplis et superbis aedificlis modicas expensas agunt. — Videag 
^ ublquc in villu ecclesia«, in vicis et urbibus mbnasteria, novo »dificandl genere ccTnsur-^ 
'^ gere/' Mcnasteria I translate Minsiers, because this word is the relatire to that, com- 
pcehends ^qualiy the cathedral and coHegiate chuccbes, is thus the middle term appropriated 
hy our Saxon ancestors to both, and is still preserved colloquially among us in Rippoa 
Mimier^ York Minster^ Wi/iburn Minster, and West Minster, 

^ Malmesbury, lib. v. De Pontificibus, Gale,i. 354: ** Hujus orientalfem frontem nu|)er 
*^ in roajus porrexit recentis a&dificationis ambitio.^' 

I Malmesbury^ f, x6d, &vi}e : ^' Nmnoverat ilb ft^iciiim morumotas^pompaticaassdey 
f « eonstruerc." 




vate houses made ample edifices, in the room of the petty that were there 

The use of the peaked arch then, if we go upon those facts which 
alone ought to fix our faith, is prior to the Conquest within this island. 
The church of Kirkdale, the church of Aldbrough, the sanctuary of 
Westminster, and the coin of the Confessor, shew the arch to have been 
used here in the Confessor's days. The appearance also of the peaked 
arch, in the «npress Helena's magnificent church of Jerusalem, upon a 
monument of the Romans in the north of Britain, and in a remaining 
church of theirs within the south, proves it to have been equally used 
here. as early as the days of the Romans. Then the old cathedral of St. 
German'^s comes in to fill up the vacuity of the ages between, and forms 
an intermediate link in the chain of transmission betwixt the Romans 
and the Confessor. A^Tiatever antiquity of an earlier nature it may chal- 
lenge, certainly built as early as the conquest of Corn wall, certoiw^ coaeval 
in existence with Athelstan^s appointment of a bishop there under 036 ; 
it is prior to the reign of the Confessor by more than a century, and co- 
temporary .with any coins of ^he tenth century, representing a churck 
with peaked arches upon the continent** x 


% Malmesbttry, f. 98, appears writing, '^ nsqiie ite annum vicesimum,'^ and (as an appa^ 
fentljv later copy reads) Correcting *' utqae in annum vicesimuiji oe/ai;2^m/' of Henry L*^ 
reign^ A. D. iiaaor 1128. 

• Dr. Ducarrel, in his Anglo-Norman Antiquities, p. 10a, observes, ^* Pointed Bvthts-^, 
*^ I apprehend, were not introduced till near the end of the twelfth century/' a few years 
prior to the reign of Henry III. : and p. 103, adds, '^ the plain round arch may therefore be 
** deemed xhQfmhian of the Con^eror's reign," So saying, he in general speaks only as 
others are talking around him. But he carries an imprndence peculiar to himself in so do-* 
Ittg, as tn p, 59 he tells us, •^ King William the Conqueror built a stately palace for hift. 
«' own residence," at Caen ; *^ several parts of it still remain, particularly one apartment^. 
** which is very large, and makes a noble appearance;" aikl as in hi* plate of this *' part of 
** the ancient palace of William the Conqueror at Caen," the very numerous windows, 
running in two tiers, filling up nearly the whole extent of the wall, and therefore coaeval cer- 
taialy with the wall itself, are actually all peaked (n their arehee^ In p. 104^ aW he conjee-- 
tures poiitted zrcheA ip the same* building with rvM^ t^ hwirk the farmer as additims made 
to the latter } when in that very plate of William's palace OTfee areh upon the groMd-Jhor^ 
• * ' the 




But let not the assertion of Malmesbury, concerning the comparatirc 
«mallness of the Saxon and Norman churches, be taken without con- 
siderable allowances. He has certainly overcharged his picture of the 
Saxon with shade : he has even - thrown such a vast profusion of shade 
over it, as to cover and conceal the light of truth. In proof of this, I need 
appeal only to some descriptions of Saxon churches ; and such an appeal 
is necessary to the very illustration of my present survey -of the Cornish 

Qk,c<rrciti^ y{^ first find them decorated richly with silver, gold, or jewels ; and 

urJ^^iJA^^, j^^y therefore be sure in general they were temples worthy to be the re- 
positories of such valuable oblationsi\ Thus the church of Ramsey abbey 
had ^' a tablet of wood in the front of the higher altar, finely ornamented 
^' with broad and solid plates of silver, as well as gems of various kinds 
'' and colours J.". Thus also the church of Ely received from Edgar as 

the doorway up into the great tower, is rmmi amid all the pointed arches ahovcj and with one 
pointed arch directly over it in the same tower; when alio, in this very page 104, he notices 
'* the wegt front of the church of Pont-Audemer, where the middle window hath a pointed 
'^ arch, and is wider than the two side ones, which have round arches." A fixed principle, 
taken up without examination, aad impressed upon the mind by continual transmission from 
mouth to mouth, or from pen to pen, hangs like a leaden bias upon the reason, «nd draws it 
off continually into obliquities of movement. In the very plate too which Dr^ Ducarrel 
himself gave to Mr.Bentham'sa<?countof Ely cathedral, the old conventua] church appears 
lat the part^aid to be rebuilt during 1 102, with two round-headed windows within arches of 
A peaked form. See p. 09. The Doctor, indeed, and Mr« Bentham, in deference to all their 
betters, mistake the predomrHmcy of the peaked arch for the origin of it;j and date the iniro^ 
duftion of the peaked to ihe round, where they should fijc thjp supersedence of the round by 
the peaked; thus inverting the course of the cur-renti and placing the springs of the Nile at 
Ihe seven mouths of it* 

t See Arch- iv, 55^68, for Mr. Pegge's judicious iUustration of the state of ^* Saxon jewelry 
ff previous tp tbeneigix of Alfred;" ao illustration u^fiilly according with what I shall now 

% Hist* Ramseieosis, c» 54* Gale, i. 4ao; '^ Tabulam ligneam in fronte eminentioris al« 
<^ taris — , amplis et solidis argenti laasims, cum varii tarn eoloris quim generis geminis 
'^ [gemmisji insigniter perornavit.'^ 

a present. 



a present, '' his own cloak, formed of fine purple, and intei'wovpn 
"throughout with threads of gold in plates, like a coat of mail§/' 
M^lmesburj himself informs us concerning the church of Sherborn, that 
Sighelm, bishop of it, was " sent over sea* by Alfred to Rome '' with 
'* some of the king s alms, and even to the Christiasis of St. Tliomas in 
'' India r that " with a wonderful success, which must excite admira- 
'' tion in the present age," excite it even in our own, after a complete 
discovery of those Christians and this country, " he actually penetrated 
^' into India, and on his return brought back the exotic gems [as well as 
'' the aromatic liquors], with which the country abounds;" and that 
^' some of the gems ^re yet seen in the monuments of Sherborn church || ." 

We actually find ji Saxon abbot of St, Alban's, during a general famine, f^. u'^Miix,^^ . 
layin^r out in relieving the poor, '* the treasure long before rescjrved for 
" the fabrication of the church, — ^with the vessels of gold and silver be- 
'' longing to his own table, as well as to the church; retaining only some 

§ Leland's Coll. ii. 593 : ^'ExAnnalibus E^iensb Monasterii* ^ Idem rex chUmidem 
^.suani, de insigni purpura, ad tnodum loricae auro undique contextam, illuccontulit'." 
MK Bentham has -strangely translated the words thus^ ^< bis own royal robe xjf purple^ em* 
'^ broidered with gold," p. 78, 

II Malmesbury, f. 141 : " Sighelmus trans mare causft eleemosytiarum regis, ct etiam ad 
*' Sanctum Tbomain in Indiam missus, mira prospcritate, quod quivis in hoc seculo miretur, 
*^ Indiam penetravit; indeque rediens, »exotici generis gemmas" [and " liquores aromatum," 
as he interpolates in f. 24], ** quarum ilia humus Ferax est, exportavit* Nonnullce illarum 
*^ [gemmarum] adhuc in ecclcsin^ monumentis visuntur/' This hint of aromaii^ liquors 
from India, is peculiarly curious, I know of none which can answer the hint at present, 
except that extract from the blossom-bunch of the cocoa-tree, which we denominate armack. 
This answers completely, and this alone I suppose to be meant. We thus obtain a very 
•early intimation of (he use of this fmely flavoured liquor in England. The extract appears to 
have been known among us so early as the reign of Alfred, and this worthy sovereign drank 
arrack'^ thousand years nearly before his subjects of the present generation. Alfred's quan« 
tity of. arrcick, however, must have been very small j being all brought over land from India, 
and consequently within a small vessel. It was then considered undoubtedly as the choicest 
. of all liquors^ the very vepenthes of the ancients ; though we are now so familiar with it, that 
the appellation^ for arrack dropping fresh from the wounded bunch, is used |K>pularly among 
us for another liquor, even the farmers of Cornwall drinking toddy composed of ^«fi^y and 

VOL. I. 




" precious gems, for which lie did not find purchasers, arid some* noble 
" engraved stones,, which we commonly call cam^oes ; of which a great 
'^ part was reserved for decorating the shrine of St. Alban, when it 
" should be framed ^/* 

To these evidences, so strikingly attesting the commercial wealtfh of^ 
the Saxons, and so strongly indicating the peculiat splendour of their 
C/unf-tfiun^. churches, I shall add only one more. The founder and abbot of Groy- 

land, in the reign of Edgar, assigned for the service of the eucharist there 
" one cup of gold, and two phials of silver gilt, modelled in the form of 
*' two angels, with enchased work upon them ; and two basins of silver^ 
" wonderful in their workmanship and size, very finely enchased witb 
" soldiers in armour ;. all which vessels Henry, emperor of Germany, 
'* had formerly presented to him, a^id up to the time of presenting bad 
*' always retained in his own chapel ♦^." . 

f M.Paris, 995: ^^Thcsauram ad fabricam ecclesie diu ante reservatum, cum — vasit 
*' aureis ct argenteis, tarn suae mens® quam ecdesias deputatis, in pauperuni expcndit tuaien- 
" tationenv; retcntis tantummodo quibusdam gemmis preciosis, ad quas non invenit empto- 
^' rea, et quibua [quibusdam] nobilibus iapidibus insculptis, quas [quos] canuBeas vulgariter 
^^ appellamus, quorum magna pars, ad feretrum decorandum, est reservata." We thus find 
our present term of cameyo, used so early as the Saxon times^ It was derived to us originally 
from the Elast, in camcea, the Orienlal name of a kind of onyx, found in Egypt, in Arabia, in 
Persia, and in the East Indies, But it was applied by the Saxons,, we see from this passage, 
*^ nobilibus Iapidibus insculptis/' jusim the sense in wJiich we apply it now. For the inter- 
course, which could bring the gem and the name among the Saxons, we have seen sufficient 
already* We find cameyoes also in other monasteries, being mentioned so late as the Re- 
formation, and then specified as antiques^; becaus^, at the general plunder of our churches 
by the rc^al felon in sacrilege, Henry VIII. we see '^ delivered unto bis majesty the 
^' xxvi day of June, anno xxxii" of his reign, 154I9 ** a great amatist [amethyst], a great 
^^ saphire, certain cuwewes or aniicks/' &c. ** parcels of such stuffs as came from the cathe^ 
*^ dral ckurch of Lincoln,'' (Stevens's Additions to Monasticon, i. 83.} 

* Ingulphus, 504 : '^ Calicem auceum, et duas phialas argenteas et deauratas,. ac in £ormam 
*^ duorum angeiorum opere cslatorip fabrefactas, et duas pelves. argenteas, miri operisac 

magnitudinis, pulcherrime cselatas cum militibus armatis. Quae vasa universa impe- 

rator Alemannise Henricus aliquando contulcrat^ et usque ad illud tempus semper in sua 
'« capelli reserv&raU'' 




seoT* IH.] • insTORicAi-i:.Y surveyed. 107 

Nor let us suppose such vessels to have been merel}' foreign, and 
therefore rare. We find a remarkable instance to the contrary, even ia 
a dignified clergyman of the Saxons. The famous Dunstan '' was blessed c5\ St4^.^'&^. 
'* with such a natural genius, that he readily comprehended very acutely, 
^ and retained very firmly, any subject ; and, though he was superbly 
** great in other arts, yet he attached himself with a peculiar affection 
*' to instrumental music ; taking the psaltery like David, striking the ^ 
^ harp, modulating the organ, touching the cymbals. "Being besides 
^* dexterous in every manual operation, he covldform pictures or inscrip- 
'* tions, imprint them with a graver, upon gold, silver, brass, or iron, and 
'^ indeed execute any thing. He also fabricated bells and cymbals*.^* 
We even find that appellation of filagree, by which we at present dis- 
tinguish the finest part of ojnr workmanship in silver, the open and thread* 
like vermiculations of the graver ; actually used and actually well known 
within a few year« after the Conqu^st# in the moat northerly parts of the 
kingdom ; the historian of Hexham church informing us, that one who 
bad been chaplain made a return for kindnesses received, ^' in a beaut^id 
'' piece of filatery, namely, a silver cross, in which the relics of the 
*^ holy confessors and bishops, Acca and Alchmund, were nootained^t*/^ 


* Twisden's Decern Scriptores, c. 1646, Gervase: ^' Erat ita naturali preeditus ingenio, ut 
^^ facile qnamlibet rem acutissime intelligeret, firmiasimi retinerel, et, quamvis altis artibus 
'^ magnifige poUeret, musicaoi.tamen, earn videlicet quae instnimentis agitatur, 8peciali^]u&- 
'^ dam aflTectionevendicabatj aicuX David jpsalterium sumens, citbaram percutiena, modifiana 
<' organa, cimbala tangens* Preterea manu aptus adx)mnia, facere pofcuit picturam, jiteraa 
'* formarey'scapello imprinKre, ex auro, argento, xre, et ferro, et quidlibet operari. Signa 
" quoque et cimbala faciebat," 

i Twisden, c. 305, Richard : ^^ Fecit jgitur .illam [redditionem] ciiiii quodam pulcbro 
^^^fiUUeriG, 6cilii:et cruce argentefl, in qu& sanctorum confcasorum et episcoponum, Accae 
^< et Alchmundi, rejiquias cootinebantur;" or, as the title to the chapter aays, ^' per puU 
".chram phiiacierium." So in ** Gregor. Regist. lib. 12^ epist. '],'^JUcderia — ^ id est, 
^' crucem cum ijgno sanctae crucis Domini." (Spelman.) The term therefore js not, as tht 
joquisitive reader naturally aui^ses at first, a derivative from filum, and descriptive of the 
thread-Iik^ vermiculations^ but pbylQct^rium, phUaciery, or filatert/^ as a vessel pf siFver, 
pi/erced in lattice-work, to shew the relics which it enclosed, and so coming to signify in 
Jiligranne, French, in fiUgreen, JiUigree, English, what it now signi^cs. The ancient 
^Jlague waa sooietiaies in gold also, as we have *< philaterium aureiimp cujus pretium crat 12 

Fa *' marcarum 


And to mention bne instance more of Saxon workmanship, as more 
J^^^^dtr^^ apposite to the present point, Ethelwold, abbot of Abingdon, in the reign 

of Edgar, " gave the church one golden chalice of immense weight, in 
*' honour and reverence to the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ,'* 
with ** three cirosses very finely formed of pure silver and gold:— he also 
^^ decorated the church with texts, as wdl in pure silver as in standard 
" gold, and with very valuable stones, with censers and phials, basins of 
" cast metal, and chandeliers of molten silver : — he made two bells, as is 
*' reported, with his own hands, and placed them in the monastery toge- 
'* ther with two others of a larger size,, which even the blessed Dunstan^ 
'* is said tor have made with his awn hands. — ^He &nally fabricdfed a cer-* 
'* tain wheel full of bells, which he denominated the golden wheel, be- 
" cause of the gilded plates on it ; and which, he ordered to be turned 
*^ round aiid rung upon festivals, to excite the greater devotion*." So 
much were the churches in our island then decorated with the choicest 
productions of the fine arts, and many of these productions fabricated by 
the hands of the Saxons themselves ! But let ii§ come still closer to the 
point, ^nd see how the. Saxon churches were actually built. The autho- 
rity of such an historian as Malmesbury is not to be opposed without 
po^tive pro5f adduced against it f . * 


«* marcarum auri," at Ramsey. (Lelan4'8 Coll. li. 587.) So in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 
6o4,Ve have concerning Edgar, *^ dedit etiara de swilcapella capsideset pAtfa/eriaj" in i» 
633, concerning a bishop in the reign of Richard L, that he gave to Ely cathedral, ««-capsam 
^ argenteam cum Jilatorio aureo;*' and in i. 634, concerning a third bishop, that he gave 
^* \\.Jilaieria plilchre fabrefacta cum lapidibus, sub quibus iieliquise S. Thomae martyris et 
*^ aliorum sanctorum conlinebantur." 

* Monasticon, i. 104: ** Dedit — calicem unum aureum immensi ponderis, ob honorem 
•* et rever^ntiani corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Jcsu Christi j— dedii etiam tres^ruces 
** admodum decoras ex argentoet auropuro. — Omavit etiam ecclesiarti textis,.tam ex argento 
^' puro quam ex auro obrizo, pariter et lapidibus preciosissimis, thuribulis, et fialis, pelvibus 
*' fusilibus, etcandelabri^ ex argento ductilibus — . Fecit etiam duas campanas propriis ma- 
*? nibus^ut dicitur, quas in hac domo posuit cum aliis duabus majoribus,,.quas etiam Beatua 
*^ Dunstanus propriis manibus fecisse perhibeter. — Praeterea fecit-— quandam rotam tintinna-* 
<* bulis plenam, quam auream nuncupavit propter lamina# ipsius deauratas, quam in festivis 
<« diebusad majoris excitationem devotionis reducendo volvi constituit." 

t One thing i« recorded of the famous lady Godiva, buried at Coventfy, by Malmesbury 

himself : 




Aldred, the lasl of the Saxon archbishops of Tork, when lie was only 
bishop of Worcester, was sent ambassador by Edward to the emperor of 
Germany; afterwards, when bishop of Hereford, crossed the sea, passed 
through Hungary, and reached Jerusalem, " which not one of the arch- 
" bishops or bishops of England," says an author, " is known- to hare 
•' done before ;^ and, soon after his return, was raised to the see of York 
by the Confessor. Then he " enlarged the old church of Beverley with -/^et^e^tAy 
*' the addition of a new chancel, and built the whole church from this 

chancel even to the tower constructed by his predecessor Kinsius, in 9. 

very wonderfiil manner ; with that kind of pointing over head which* 

is called ceiling, variously bespangled, and bedropt with gold. Above 
*' the door of the quire, also, he caused a pulpit to be made with in- 
" comparable workmanship, of brass, silver, and gold ; he erected an arch 
'* on each side of the pulpit, and a taller arch in the middle over the pulpit, 
^' bearii^ a cross at the top of it, and all made^ like the pulpit^ of brass,. 
** silver, and gold, in German work*.'' So early did the Germans practise 
the art of inlaying brass with silver and gold; so early, also, did our am- 
cestors begin to imitate this " German ' work,." it being assuredly 




-^^ Com rhesauros ibi vivens totoB congesskset^ jam jajnque morrtura^ circuhtm gemmamm,. 
^ quern j(/o insuerat, ut singtdarum coniaciu singulas oratianes incipiens numerum non pr^e^ 
^' termiiteret ; hudc ergo genimarum circuluin, collo imaginis sanct^e Maris& appendi jiissit'' 
(f. 165). ThiB is a bead-roll, at once the roost ancient, I suppose, and the most sumptuous^ 
I believe, that is recorded in our history. And<the historian says, in another place, that the 
whole monastery was built in 1043,,^' tanto auri et argenti spectaculo, ut ipsi parietes eccle- 
^' sise angusti viderentur thesaurorum receptaculis, miraculo porro magno visentium oculis" 

• • Twisden, c. 170 1, Stubbs: '* Quod nullus archiepiscoporum, vel episcoporum Anglise 

^* dinoscitur eatenus fecisse.f C. 1704: ^' Veterem ecclesiam a presbyterio usque ad turrim ab 

'^ antecessore suo Kinsio constructam, superius opere pictorio quod ooelum vocant, auro 

^ multiformiter intermixto, mirabitt arte conslruxit. Supra hostium etiam cbori pulpitum, 

^ acre, auro, et argento, opereque incomparabili, fabricari fecit; et in utr^ue parte pulplti 

^ arcus, et in medio supra pulpitum arcum eminentiorem, cruceni in summitate gestantem, 

*♦ similiter ex aorc, auro, et argento, opere Teutonico, fabrefactos erexit." So.M. Paris, 

1054, as it is printed, but 1062, as it ought to be, '^ pul]pitum in medio ecclesise cnnv 

^ magna crnce suft^ Maria quoque, et Johanne,'' &c.. 




brovght by Aldred from Germany, when he returned from his embassy 
to the emperor, it being undoubtedly used by Aldred At Beverley, wheii 
he rebuilt the church there; and so large, so decorated, was this Saxou 
church of Beverley f ! But 

t In Arch. ix. 117, Mr. Pownall says, ^' Here is the first, and, as far as I can find, the 
" only nientiou made of the Teutonic order, expressly described as a fabrication of frame- 
*« work, — limber, building ;" when the account is all confined '* expressly" in Mr, Pownall's 
own citation to a cross, *' crucem in summitate gestantem, — opere Teutonico fabrefac^ 
^* tam\*' when in the original it is extended to a cross and some arches, '^ arcus, et — arcum 
'* eminentiorem, crucem, opere Teutonico /air^c^os ;" and when, in the original equally 
with the citation, all .are " expressly described as a fabrication," jiot of yraw^ or timler 
work, hut oimeialy " ex ,acre, auVo, et argento^ opere ll^uJtonico fabrefactos," Yet on this 
basis, rotten as it is to the core, and dissolving into dust under the pressure of a finger, does he 
found an hypothesis: *^ that, the churches throujghout dl the northern parts of Europe be- 
*^ ing in a ruinous state, the Pope created several corporations of Roman or Italian archi- 
** tects and artists f* when Mr. Pownall's own -reasoning requires they should not be Roman, 
fto/be Italian, but Teutonic or German. '' The common and usual appellation of this cor- 
^' poraiion in England, was that of the free and accepted masons" (p. 117, 118); an appel* 
lation, surely, that betrays them to be purely English in their origin. ** My notes and me • 
^' morandums inform me, that this corporation was established about the time of the early 
^ parts of the reign of ehry III. of England." (P. 121.) Yet the first mention of iheto 
which Mr. Pownali himself can adduce, *' is in a law of the 3d of Henry VI.;" and this 
mention proves them undeniably to be English. ' ^^ Whereas," says the statute-book in our 
own language, <^ by the yearly congregations, and ^confederacies .made by the masons in 
'^ their general chapiters and assemblies,- the good course and cfieot oflhe statutes of Ak* 
^< bourers be openly violated and broken ;" those confederacies and congregations are fur- 
bidden. The quality of these " artists" and '* architects" was .merely that of** labourers," 
then; and their appellation then, as now, was solely that of ** masons.'' It was so in 
English ', it was equally so in French; the same law speaking of them in Mr. Pownall's own 
quotation, as, «* Us masons" (p. 119). Their origin, therefore, is no more derived from 
Rome, Italy, or even Germany, ihan it is from the moon. Yet, to shew how wits, like 
giants, can pile mountain upon mountain, tUl they reach the region of the moon itself:; M'T. 
Pownall sufo)oins, in p. in, that ** the Gothic architecture used * citra Alpes moutes',*' 
came forward into practice as a ** regular established order about" .the beginning of .the 
third Henry's reign, when he himself has been Just finding it as ** the Teutonic order," in 
the reign of the Confessor, (wo centuries before; and when, all the while, the '^ Teutonic ex« 
** ecuting" was confined entir<dy to brass, silver, or gold. Nor are the *^ mwoo$" lo fce coo^ 
founded, ao they have so frequently been, with the Fleming8> vv^ho were Jotvited hither, as 
Miebttecis. (Arch. ii. 12*) Thrse were architects^ while those were nji^rc *^ labourers." Be* 




But let US turn to the church ofRippon, at a much earlier period. 7tifu<T^^, 
There, says the attendant and survivor of the famous Wilfrid, he, in the 
year 670 J, " built a minster of polished stone, from the foundations in 
'* the earth to the, summit of the whole, reared it upon various pillars^ 
" raised it high, and completed it. When the house was finished, he 
*' invited against the day of the dedication, the most Christian kings 
" Eagfrid and JElwin, brothers§, with the abbots, prefects, subreguli, 
"and all the persons of dignity,, who all convened at the chwxh. He 
'* consecrated the house to the Lord, by dedicating it to St, Peter, and 
'* the prayers of all who should make responses in it ; dedicated the 
" altar and its pediments to the Lord; covered it with purple interwoven 
'* zvith threads ^gol4, aiobd completed all by administering the eucharist 
*' there to the persons present., — He also gave^ among other donations 
for decorating the house of God, a present unheard of by our times 
before, a kind of prodigy ; ordering a copy of the four Gospels to be 
" written for it, in letters of the purest gold, upon leaves of parchment, 
purpled in the ground, and coloured variously upon the surface. And 
he commanded jewellers to bind all the books in the church's library. 

hold, then, t&e gFprious beginners of the Gothic order of architecture in England'. They 
first appear as early as the eleventh century, all wrapped up closely in German frocks; re- 
appear in the thirteenth, all folded loosely in Roman gowns ; andnsappear again in the 
fifteenth, without any disguises, English masons dressed in English habits, stripped to their 
waistcoats, b/andishing their trowels, and wearing their leathern aprons. Behold, too^ the 
mighty fathers of those free and accepted masons, who were'onceso very numerous among 
us, who are still so respectable in many of their members, yet, in a strain, of romancing 
foolery trace up their origin to the clouds; but who were mere masons,, mere labourers, three 
or four hundred years ago, combined together for the purposes of their manual employ, as 
we now see tailors, or shoemakers, combined at times, and, like them, presuming to pre- 
scribe Irates of wages to the public for their manual labours. See No. II. in Appendix, 
here, for some more remarks on the origia of Free Masons^ 

X Bede, 751. ' ' 

5 We thus see the nradem title of the kings of France^ attributed by one writer to two 
princes of Nofthumbria,. many centuries ago; sa in Ingulphus, 497, we see the collective 
appellation, which JaiAes the First very wisely gave to the whole of this island, then united 
into one whole^ for the first time during sixteen hundred. years preceding, and probably 
during some hundreds before; actually anticipated by Edred, the sovereign only of tbt. 
keptarchy,, <' Ego Edredus rexy— Jliagn^f ^^ Britarmue temporale gerens imperium.." 

'* gildj 



[chap. H, 


^' gild them ivith the purest gold, and emboss them tvitJi the dearest gems. 
'* All of these donations, and some others, in testimony of his blessed 
*' memory, are preserved to this day in ourvJmrch*.'' So capacious were 
jsbme churches of the Saxons, and so niagt>iiicent were tfhe Saxons in the 
decorations of some of them ! 

We actually Toehold some decorations, more, that are very striking in 
themselves, and not confined to a single church, but extended to two. 
Canute is reported by Malmesbury himself, to have visited the tomb of 
Edmund Glastonbury, and to have thrown over it ^' a pall, in- 
'^terwovcn (as it stems) with the vari^ated feathers of the peacock f." 
^^j^6^i^o£Su Adhelm, adds the same Malmesbury, in another plfpe concerning a Saxon 
fffJhUuti^. in the reign of Ina, went to Rome, and officiated at the altar in the La- 

teran there, " in a garment which is called a casula^ and whijch, at the 
end of the service, " he threw off behind ; a garment," evidently open 
before like a modern surplice, and more recently denominated a ohesuhle 
among us, '' of which it is uncertain whether he carried it with him 
^^ from England, or borrowed it there for the time, and," what proves . 
he did not borrow it, hut brought it with him, '\ which is still pre-' 
'^ served among us; being made of the most delicate threads, saturated 
'* tvith the dies of the shell-fishes, and ther^brje of a purfile colour^ whiJe 

* Eddius, c. 17. Gale, i. 59, -60: '^ In Hrypis hafiilicam cum polUo lapida a funda- 
mentis in terra usque ad summum jeedificatam, variis colttmnis-^sufiiiltam^ in ahum 
etexit, et consunimavit. Jam postea perfect& domu, ad diem dedioationi^ jejus invitatis 
rfegibus Chrisiianissimis Eaglrido et JSIwino fratribus, cum abbalilms, pracfectisque, et 
'' sub-regulis, totinsque dignitatis personis ; simul in unum convenerunt ; consecrantea 
^ domrnn Domini, in honorem Sancti Petri — dicatam, precesque in e4 popnlorum Bufira* 
*' gantium ; attarc quoque, bum basibus suis, Domino dedicantes, purpurSque aurb — texlA 
** iaduentes; populique communicantes omnia canonice coropkverunt>--adden» quoqne 
** aanctus pontifex nosxcr, inter alia dona ad decorem domus Dei, inauditmn ante aeoulis 
'^ nosttis, quodda'm miraculirm ; nam qtiatuor Evangelia, de aoro purisBimo in membranis 
*^ depurpufatis, cdoratis, scribere jnssit. Necnon et biblioibecam libromm eornm omoem, 
^^ de auro purissimo et gemmia preciosisBimig fabrefactam^ compagiuara ioclusores' gemma- 
^^ rum praecepit : qu» omnia, et ailia nonnuHa^ in testimonium beata» mesoorneejusi io 
'*' pcde^iA noBtra usque hodie recofldtrntar/' 

t Gale, i, 323 : <' Pftlltatn Teriicoioribns penrffl psvonmn, utvidoliir, iBtcxtujn/' 

1 *' the 



^^. the black circles upon it hare .variom peacocks, imaged out to a spa- 
*' dous length within themX'' These 

X Gaje, i. 351 : " Missi dlct&, vestem quam casulam vocantpost terga rejecit — : haec 
'^ aiitetn vestis, incertum an ab Anglia secum delata, an ibi ad tempus commodatay hactenus 
*^ apud DOS habetur:— est autem fill delicatissimii quod, conchyliorum fucis ebrium, rapuerit 
*' colorem coccinenmy habentque nigral rotulae intra se effigiatas species pavonum longitudi- 
^^'nis spatiosae." The camla was not an alb, being expressly distinguished from it by 
Malmesbury, in Gale^ i. 325, ** Albam — , cappas — , casulam/' Spelman says, ac- 
cordingly^ *^ Ort. Vocab. Casida a — cA^5ut&, et Dictionar. Vet. *^ Anglo-Lat. Chestble, 
^^ casula*" It was plainly in Adhelm's case, a garment only for officiating ; as Adhelm is said 
^^ to have thrown it off behind, when he had said mass/' It was, however, not what SpeU 
man's ** Ort, Vocab. Casula" calls it equally, ** a little cope, or chesuble/' It was too 
large to* be a cope, and mu^h too large to be a little cope. This is plain from the descrip«' 
tion of Adhelm's casula, with '< various peacocks imaged out to a spacious length," within 
some black circles upon it. This is also plain from an ancient description of the casula ia 
general, ihat^ ^* instar parvse casae, totum hominem tegit.^ (Spelman from Balbus.) The 
garment, therefore, was one, which hung all over the body like a present surplice, was like 
this worn only for the hour of ministration, and then, like the modem surplice, cut open 
before, could be thrown off behind. Yet it was certainly not a surplice, as, in the form of 
degrading an archbishop, Xhe ** super-pellicium" is mentioned first, afterwards comes the 
^' alba," and then the ^'planeta," or casula. {Spelman under Mampuhs,) It was merely a 
chesuble. Yet Mr. Bentham interprets it, without.any seeming suspicion that he can be 
wrong, not a chesuble, not a surplice, not a cope, but a cassod. ^^ On inspecting the body 
*' of Wolstan, archbishop of York," he says, p. 91, " they found it quite decayed; but the 
f ^ clothing, particularly the cassockj* casulum, '^ and archiepiscopal pail affixed to it with. 
^' gilded pins, and the stole and maniple— entire." That casula should signify, at once, a 
i^Ae^tti^Z^ and a co^^ocA, is impossible ; in fact, it signified only the former. It was a dress 
^om merely in officiating; as •* casula dicitur vulgo planeta," " presbyteri," says Balbus, in 
Spelman, and as planetas, adds St. Jerome in Spelman again, is ^' tunica qua utebar iu 
'' ministerio Christi," and the reason for finding the casula with the pall, the stoic, 
and the maniple, on archbishop Wolstan, is sufficiently explained to us in this passage 
concerning archbishop Becket, whom the attendants hastily buried after his murder, 
fiays W* Fitz-Stepben, in Sparkes, 89, ^' ipso eodem in quo ordinatus fuit vestimento^ 
^^ alba — , superhumerali simpllci,*' the tippet still worn by proctors and preachers at 
Oxford; ^ chrismatici, mitri, stol^ mapula [manipula], quas omnia reservari prae- 
*^ ceperat, forte in diem sepulturae suse ; supra quae habuit archiepiscopaliter tunicam, 
'^ dalmaticam, casulaw, pallium cum spinulis, calicei;n, chirothccas, annulum, san- 
^ dalia," .&c. So perplexed are our antiquaries, at present, with the names of ccclesias^ 
tical garments that must once have been very familiar! Such an influence, indeed, has 
our necessary revolt from popery to protestantism had upon the mind of the nation, that anti- 
quaries are obliged to explain toUie learned the meaning of those names, which must oitco 

VOL. !• ' a hav 

• i 


These instances would be sufficient of themselves; but I add one 
more: the Saxon queen of Canute " toraught, oAth her own hands, a fine 
*' piece of purple, surrounded on every side tvith a border qfgpld fringe, 
*' and ornamented ai several parts of it hy extraordinary worhmansMp 
*' with gold and predous gems, as in stories*, and presented it to the church 



Let us then attend singly to the size of the Saxon churches ; for that 
purpose enter Hexhan church particularly, and survey the structure of it. 
This, says a cotemporary historian, is one *' the deepness of which in 
" the ground, all with the rooms founded of stones admirably polished, 
*' but ha\ing above ground one room of many parts, supported on va- 
" rious columns and on many underground chapels, yet possessing a 
'* tvo^iderful length and height of walls, and, by various passages winding 
" in lines, carried along spiral stairs, sometimes up, sometimes down *.** 


have been as well known to the vulgar, as the very garments themselves. The oldest chesuble 
mentioned in our annals, I believe, is one in the Life of St. Wenefred. (Leland's Itin. iv. 
137.) But the chesuble of Adhelm, mentioned above by Maimesbury as existing to his 
time, existed equally to the time of Leland, the very reverence for founders and saints proving 
an elegant spirit of virtu to the monks ; ^^ Mailduni--Hi£2A2^c monachi sui patroni moni- 
^ menta ostentant, nempe sacram vesiem, qui indutus missom celebrare 5o2^&a/.«-*H8Sc,'' this 
and other relics, *^ ego nuper Meilduni vidL*' (De Script. Brit. 100.) — For a cassock, see vi. 
t, hereafter. 

f Gale, i. 502^ and Wharton's Angla Sacra, i. 607 : '^ Insignem — ^purpuram aurifrisio 
*^ undique cinctam fecit, et [per Gale] partes auro et gemmis pretiosis mirifico opere, velut 
'' tabulatis, adomavit, illicque obtulit ; ut nulla alia in Anglorum regione talis opens etpretii 
** inveniatuT.** Of this says Mr. Bentham only thus : *^ One piece of purple cloth, wrought 
*' with gold, and worked in several compartments with gold, and set with jewels, such as 
^' there was none like it for richness in the kingdom.'' (P. 95.) It remainectto the days of 
the historian, the 9th of Henry I. 1109, V quae penes nos hactenus reponuntur.'* (Whar- 
ton, ibid.) 

* Eddius, c. xxir. : ^' Cnjus profunditatem in terra, cum domibus mirifici politis laptdibus 
'^ fundatam, et super terram multiplicem domom, columnis variis et porticibqs multis suf* 
<^ fultam, mirabilique longitudine et altitudine murorum ornatam, et variis linearum [linea* 
^ rium] anfractibus viarum, aliquando sursum, aliquando deorsum, per cochleas circumda- 
^* tarn/' That ** porticibus," here means underground chapels, is plain from the word 
^< suflfultam'^ applied to them^ and applied to them equally as to the pillars. Mr* Bentham^' 

p. 22, 



This i$ a delineation, we must fed, that would even accord with any of 
our cathedrals at present •f . But the author closes his account with a 
declaration of a very extraordinary energy and comprehensiveness ; " nor 
^' did I ever hear of any other house on this side of' the Alpine mountains^ 
** built equaJ tdth this%'' Where then are the small churches with 
which Malmesbury has comparatively characterized the Saxon aera of our 
history ? We g?e the Sax:ons erecting some, superior in form and in 
magnitude to any out of Italy, that source of revived grandeur in archi- 
tecture to all Europe, But perhaps, as a Saxon is the describer, he may 
have carried his description beyond the truth ; not from any desire of am- 
plifying, only from the natural wonder of a man accustomed to small 
churches, at a church a little larger, though not very large. To a pigmy 
amid a race of pigmies, the common stature of man might appear gigantic 
tallness. Let us see, therefore, how a Norman describes this very church 
of Hexham ; and whether then, under the fair glass of truth, it contracts 
into a church a little more than small. 

'* The deepness of the church,'* says Richard, the prior of it, about a 
hundred years after the Conquest, " he [Wilfrid] founded belotv with 
♦' great labour, in crypts and oratories subterraneous , with winding pas- 
** sages to them § /* But as the author proceeds, ^* the walls he erected 

p. 2^, renders the words *^ variis Hnearum [linearium] anfraclibus," as if they were distinct 
from *^ viarum aliquando sursum aliquando deorsum per cochleas circumdalam^" in this 
wild way, ** surrounded with various mouldings and bands curiously wrou^t ;*' then adds 
-thus, «« and the turnings and windings of the passages,*' &c. He did not understand the 
sentence, he guessed at the meaning, and he missed it totally* 

t W. Fitz-Stephens, in Sparke, 86, for Canterbury cathedral : *< Crypta erat prope, in qu4 
^••multa, et pleraque tenebrosa, diverticula. Item erat ihi aliud ostium prope, quo per coclcam 
"^^ ascenderet ad cameras et testidunes ecclesise superioris*'* 

% Eddius, c xxii^ : " Neque ullam domum aliam citra Alpes montes, talem wdificatam 
*' exaudivimus/' 

$ Twisden, c. 290 : " Prafunditatem ipsius ecclesiae criptis et oratoriis subterraneis, et vi- 
'* arum anfractibus, inferTus cum magnft industrid fundavit.*' Mr. Bentham thus wildly 
renders the words ^ *^The foundations of this church-— St. Wilfrid laid d<ep in the earth, for 
^ the crypts and oratories, and the passages leading to them, which were there with great 

a a ** exactness 


*' of immense length and height, supported on columns of squared^ varied, 
*' well-polished stones, and divided into three stories || /' *^ THe walls 
^^ themselves,*' he adds^ " with the capitals of those columns by which 
'* the walls were supported, as also the coved ceiling of the sanctuary, he 
*' decorated with histories, staiues, and various figures projecting in sculps 
" tare from the stone, with the grateful variety of pictures, and with the 
^^ wonderful beauty of colours %.'' *' He also," subjoins the writer, 
*^ surrounded the very body of the church, with chapels lateral and sub- 
*' terraneous on every side ; which, with wonderful and inexplicable ar- 
*' tifice, he separated by walls and spiral stairs above and below */' 

" But 

'* exactness contrived and huilt under ground,'^ (P, 22.) For fear of stumbling upon straws,' 
the cunning witch flies on her broomstick over them. 

y Twisden, c. 290 : '^ Parietes autem quadratis et variis et bene politis columpnis,'' not 
squared columns, as the words do naturally signify, but, as the words of Eddius before sbew^ 
of columns of stones squared and polished, ^< suflfuhos, et tribus tabulatis distinctos, im- 
'^ menste longitudinis et altitudinis erexit/' Yet Mr. Bentham translates thus, p. 22: 
'^ The walls, which were of a great length and raised to an immense height, and divided into 
^ three several stories or tires, he supported by square and various other kinds,*' as rounds 
angular, triangular, or multangular, " of well-polished columns.'* 

^ Twisden, c* 290 : ^' Ipsos etiam, et capitella columpnarum quibus sustentantur, et ar- 
^' cum sanctuarii, historiis et imaginibus, et variis caelaturarum figuris ex iapide promineuti* 
*^ bus, et colorum grati varietate mirabilique decore, devoravit." 

'^ Ibid, ibid.: ^^ Ipsum quoque corpus ecclesise appenticiis et porticibus undique cir- 
*"* cumcinxit ; quse, miro atque inexplicabili artificio, per parietes et cochleas, inferius et su- 
perius, distinxil." The mention of *^ crypts and oratories subterraneous" before, and of 
winding passages to them," confirms the . interpretation which I have given to the word 
Porticibu5"~in Eddius before; and the use of the very same word here, as uniting with 
Appenticiae," to express rooms, that '* surrounded the body of the church on every side,", 
yet were separated from each other by walls and by stairs, by stairs from the rooms above, 
but by walls from each other above and below, doubly confirms it. The word poriicus is also 
in Bede, v« 20, for the same object; but has never yet been understood, I believe, either here 
or there. Mr. Bentham has particularly puzzled himself about it, translating it " Portico," 
then proving it to be within the church, and therefore speaking of ^^ the portico or isle.". 
(P. 19, 20.) Yet so much better calculated to win upon the world, is a plain meaning than 
a dubious one, however^ erroneous in itself the former may be, however contradictory in the 
author : the last interpretation of a portico into an aile has been adopted by others, and is be- 
ginning to circulate as the legitimate, the acknowledged interprftation of it. ' ^* There were 
** porticoes iOi: to^falls," says Mr. Shaw, describing the cathedral of Elgin in his History of 









But in the very stairs and upon them/' the author goes on, *^ he 
caused to be made of stone ways of ascent, places of landing, and a va- 
riety of windings, some up, some down, yet so artificially, that an in" 
numerable multitude of men .might be there, and stand all about the 
•' very body of the church, but not be visible to any that were helom 


" With 

Moray, p. 277, ** on each side of the church, eastward from the traverse or cross, which were 
*^ eighteen feet broad without the walls J* The author then speaks of " windows in the poT' 
•* ticoes/-' and of windows *^ above the porlicoes,"''^As to the ^^ appenticise,'' or lateral 
chapels here, I shall speak to them again in Sect. 4, and iii. i« Yet here let me observe^ 
that they additionally serve, as meaning lateral chapels themselves, to fix the porticoes for the 
ch^pds 70ider ground ; for what Camden, in edit. 1607, has called very properly ^'crypto- 
<* porticus,'* as St. Faith's chapel under St. Paul's, p. 306. This meaning of the word con- 
tinued among us below the Conquest. Thus when the church of Ely was burnt by the Danes iif 
870, as the historian of Ely tells «s about the year 1109, ^^^ of the clergy returned because 
the enemy was gone, '^ patched up again the porticoes of the church, and performed divine 
*^ offices in them." Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 6oa : *^Porticus ecd'esiaK resarcrentea^ divi- 
^' num officium solvebant," But what,were these porticoes P The whole church was bumf 
down, *' ecclesia — igne consumpta est,'* and *' flammA et ferro cuncta consumuntur" Yet' 
let us not rest wholly upon general expressions, so apt in cases of distress to be too big for thcr 
fact ; but let us estimate the ruins by the repairs. From these all the parts above ground ap^ 
pear to have been Ifeft with frightful chasms in the walls, and with littleor no roof over head. 
The new abbot '* ecclcsise suae viriliter instabat; ex parte enim lapsa, velut nova, non sine , 
" grandi labore adimplevit, ac deinde tectis reparatis quce fuerant igne consumpta/* &c. 
i. 604. The ailes then were still roofless equally with the nave, and, as being extrinsic to the 
nave, musf have been more .exposed still to the chasms in the walls. The ailes therefore 
could not possibly be the porticoes that had been patched up ; the underground chapels 
alone could be ; and the chasms in the walls of the ailes wereao many, that the reparation of 
them is denominated a new construction ; ^' tempi um rursus tedificatum," ibid. ibid. See 
Mr. Bentham, 70, 74, all erroneous on the point: 

t Twisden, c. 290, ^91 : ** In ipsis vero cochleis, et super ipsAS, ascensoria ex lapide, et 
" deambulatoria, et varios viarum anfractus, modo sursum, modo deorsum, artificiosissime' 
*^ ita machinari fecit ; ut innumera hominum multitude ibi existere, et ipsum corpus ecclesiaer 
^' circumdare possit, cum a nemine tamen infra in e& existentium videri queat." Mr. Bentham' 
translates thus in p. 22 : ^' Within the staircases, znA above them, he caused flights of steps 
'* and galleries of stone,*' Mr. Bentham transferring '* ex lapide" to *^ deambulatoria," so 
leaping over the intermediate *' et" with them, and attaching that to ** deambulatoria," 
which is seemingly attached to *' ascensoria" in the original, but in reality belongs to all, as 
all were equally of stone, *' and several passages leading from them,** passages leading from' 

— passages! 


1 1 8 THE CATBIWR AL OP CORNWALL . f Cft AF. . 11^ 

" With Very great attention and address/' as the writer closes his ac- 
count, " he also formed very many oratories, very private and very hand<>- 
*^ some, above and below, in the very chapels subterraneous [and lateral] ; 
^' in which be ordered altars, wdth their accompaniments, to be placed. 
*' From this circumstance, some of those oratw^ies even at this day rear their 
*^ heads, like so many towers and bulwarks. — Nor do we dwell on the 
*' multiplied and very curious construction oj buildings y which waste and 
'' devastation have demolished ; though very numerous foundations are 
*' to this day found there, on every side. For, as ancient histories and 
<* chronicles testify, of the nine minsters over which Wilfrid was a father 
^* and a patron, as also of all the others throughout tlie whole of England; 
'^ this surpassed all, in judiciousness of disposition, and in fineness of 
^* fabrication. Finally, no such coidd then be found on this side qf the 


*— passages \ ^^ both for ascending and descending, to be so artfully disposed, that multitudei 
^^ of people might be there, and go round the churchy' a most ridiculous interpretation of 
'^ ipsum corpus ecclesijs circumdare," and one that shews the translator caught not a glimpse 
of his author's meaning, ^^ without being seen by any one below in the nave," when the 
words of the original are, ^^ anemine tamen infra in ed [ecclesi&] existentium,'' and mean the 
persons- below in the cliurch, in the underground chapels of it. ^' Multitudes of people,'' 
and especially as the version ought to have been, '^ an innumerable multitude of men,'' could 
stand only where they are expressly placed, *^ in the body of the church;" and these, so 
placed, could not be seen from the imder-croft. But Mr. Bentham has transposed the whold 
scene, placed the multitudes in his private passages, and fixed Xhefew in his nave/ He has^ 
indeed, been hurried away into a total misconception of his author's meaning, by never ad- 
verting once to the oratories under the church, and by therefore supposing the stairs down to 
them to be merely those narrow and concealed galleries which are formed high in the walls of 
most of our old minsters, as private passages for the workmen in repairing the loftier parts of 
them. The whole substance, indeed, of Richard's description of Hexham church, is thus 
condensed by Malmesbury in his account of the old cathedral of London ; ^* tanta cripta laxi- 
^^ tas, tanta ^pfirfori^ adls capacitas, ut cuilibet popuU multitudini videatur posse sufScere" 

(f. I3S.) 

X Twisden, c. 291 : ^< Oratoria quoqne quam plurima, superius et inferius, secretissima et 
** pulcherrima, in ipsis porticibus" [and, as the words " superius et inferius" before shew 
should be added, et appenticiis'], " cum maximft diligentia et cautel4 constituit ; in qui- 
^* bus altaria — cum eorum apparatibus— praeparari fecit. Unde etiam, usque hodie, qu»- 
^^ dam illorum ut turres et propugnacula snpereminent. Multipliccm et curiosissimam aedi- 

** ficiorum 


This delineation is uncommonly fuU^ uncommonly precise; and re* 
minds us strongly in the subterraneous crypts with oratories in them^ of 
our late cathedral of St. PauFs, with Jesus chapel and St. Faith's church 
in ^* the crowds" under it§; or of our present cathedral of Canterbury, 
with its " under-croft,'* and Walloon church below. The Saxons, we 
see, very early built churches upon the models, on which the finest of our 
cathedrals have been since built. Even the very appellation ot crypt, 
from which the names of under-cro/? and crowds are by an anglicized 
pronunciation derived, was familiar to the Saxons ; as is evident from the 
retention of the name in those disguised forms amongst us, from the use 
of it by the historian of Hexham before, so soon after the Conquest, and 
from the very declaration of the historian of Ramsey, that king Canute 
built a nunnery in Ramsey isle, and ^' the crypt, which had been formed 

'^ 6ciorutn stnicttiraps, qu« vastatio et vastiias delevit, supersedemus } cam tamen funda^ 
^' menta plurima adhuc ibi pagsim reperiantur. Sicut enim aatiquas historiae et chronica tefi-* 
'' tantur, inter ix« xnonasteria quibus prxdictus praesul pater et patronus praeerat, et inter 
^^ omnia alia totius Anglis, artificiosa compositione et eximi^ pulchritudiae hoc praecellebat; 
'^ denique, citra Alpes nullum tale tunc temporis reperiri poterat.^' Mr. Bentham renders 
4bc words thus, p. 22, 23 : <' Moreover, in the several divisions of iht porticoes or if /^,botl| 
^' above and below, he erected many,'' &c* What are the '^ divisions" of an '' isle" iu a 
church, either '^ above" or "below ? ". They seem to be the fortuitous creations of a dash- 
ing chaos in the mind. So thoroughly, indeed, was this writer in a chaos of intellect, as to 
the import and tendency of these descriptions, that was an architect to build, supposing any 
could build, this church anew upon his description, the original architect could not possibly 
fecognise his own in it ', and the whole would appear to Mr. Bentham himself, even to all the 
world, a mass of parts without relation to each other, amere mockery of building, a very Babel 
of confusion. 

§ Stowe's London, 354, 355 : *' Under the quire of Paul's is a large chappell, first dedi^ 
*^ cated to the name of Jj?5w,— confirmed the 37. of Hen. VI. as appeareth by his patent 
^' thereof, dated at Crowdowae — •*' In this patent the chapel is said to be ^< io a place 
^' called the Crowds of the cathedrall church of PauPs in London ;" and a guild to be be- 
longing to it, ** which hath continued long time peaceably till now of late." But *^at the 
•* west end of this Jesus cbappell, under the quire of Paul's, also was and is a parish-church 
** of St. Faith, commonly called St. Faith under Paul's, which served (a3 still it doth) for the 
*^ stationers and others, dwelling in Paul's chprchyard^ Pater-noster-row, and the places 
*' neefe adjoyning. The said chappell of Jesus being suppressed in the reigne of Edvv. the VL,. 
" the parishioners of St. Faith's church were removed into the same, as a place more suf- 
^^ ficient for largenefts and lightsomnesse, in the yeere 1551 ; and so it remaineth." 

5 " under 


under the great altar of the church itself, remains undemolished to this 
day in our cemetery, an index and a witness of the building || /* 

Nor does the church of Hexham appear to have been the only one of 
grandeur and elegance among the Saxons. We have already seen it was 
not. We even see here, that Wilfrid, the prior and builder of this, had 
equally other minsters, " over which he was a father and a patron," and 
on which also he employed his magnificence or taste. We likewise see, 
that there were many other minsters in England then, as well as these, 
which might pretend to raise their heads in some degree of competition 
with it, though they could not be allowed to rival it. And we have 
finally that high-toned declaration repeated again in our ears, which 
says, ^^ no such [chiirch] could then be found on this side of the Alps.** 
So little do we find the fame of our Saxon minster contracted, by passing 
from Saxon into Norman hands, that it seems rather to be enlarged hf 
the Norman, beyond the dimensions given it by the Saxon ! 

I might additionally notice the Saxon minsters of York, of Rippoa 
again, of Thorney, and of Malmesbury ; all as described by that very histo- 
rian, who has insinuated rather than asserted the churches of the Saxons 
to be small ; and who plainly means no more, we now see, than that they 
were generally enlarged by the Normans *. I have thus produced enough 


I Gale, 1. 437 • " Crypta, quae subtus majus ipsius ecclesiae altare fuerat, gusdetn asdificii 
^' testis et index, in coemiterio nostro hddieque indemnis perdurat.** 

* Malmesbury, f. 148 : ** Basilica, quondam ab Edwino rege monitu Beat! Paulini in Eio^ 
*^ raco facta, tccto vacabat ; parictes semiruti, et ruinam plenam minantes, solis nidis avium 
*^ serviebant. Pro indignitate rei pontifex interno dolore commolus, materiam solidavit, cul- 
'^ men levavit, levatum plumbeis laminis ab injuria procellarum munivit,'* &c. ** Sensit et 
" Ripis industriam antistitis ; aedificata ibi a fundamentis ecclesia, mirofornicum iTiflexu, la- 
'^ pidum tabulatUi ptyrticuum anfrachu" F. 168: " Quid dicetur de aedificiorum decore," 
at Thorney f *' quae solum mirabile, quantum inter illas paludcs solidum, inconcussis funda- 
'* Tnentis sustinet P'* Gale, 1. 349: " Fecit ergo ecclesiam [Adhelmus]'* at Malmesbury j 
^^ eiaemque alteram contiguam— , cujus nos vestigia vidimus; nam fa^amajoris ecclesiae fabri- 
^^ ca, Celebris et iUibata, nostro quoque perstitit aevo, vincens %decore et magnitudine quicquid 
^' usquam ecclesiarum antiquihisfactvm viselatur in Anglia, Ad hoc ergo templum exqui- 
^i fiilius aedificandum, post lapidemn tabulatum/* a roof of stone, as in ** lapidum tabulatu '' 




ifor the satisfaction of my reader, and for the purposes of my under- 
taking. I shall therefore cite only the attestation of H:his historian him- 
self, to this very minster of Hexham, this queen of all the minsters in 
England, even of all on this side of the Alps, for judiciousness of dispo^ 
sition, and for fineness of fabrication. Even he speaks of it in these mag- 
nificent terms: ^' These," he cries, "the buildings raised ?i;7VA a, Mreafen- 
^' ing height of waits, and carried round by divers winding passages along 
*' spiral stairs, it is wonderful how elegant he made : doing much, indeed^ 
" under the direction of his own taste, but much also under the control 
*' of workmen, whom the hope of his munificence attracted to Mm from 
*' Rome. A report was then popular and very loud, which has even 
made its way into the page of history, that; there was no such building 
any where on this side of the Alps. At present, those who come from 
^' Rome allege the same ; so that such as behold the fabric at Hex« 
*^ ham, COULD swear they had the Roman ambition op ARCHrrsc- 
*^ TiTRE IMAGED OUT BEFORE THEIR EYES. So much elcgance is left upon 
*^ the face of the buildings, after all the numerous injuries of time and 



At Rtppon before^ '^ sine ulU pariimonid sumpturum [sumptuuin]^ aggercbatur oopia Tigno* 
** mm," Sec. 

* Malmesbur}', f. 155: *' Ibi sedificia ininaci altitu^ine muroruin erecta, et diversis an* 
^^ fractibus per cochleas circunducta, mirabile quantum expolivit, arbitratu quidem multa 
'^ [agens] proprio, sed et caeinentari6rum, qiios ex Rom& spes munificentise attraxerat, ma* 
^ gisterio. Ferebaturque tunc in popblo celebre, scriptisque etiam est inditum, ntisquam . 
*^ citra Alpes tale esse asdificium. Nunc qui Rom& veniunt idem^allegant, ut, qui Hangus- 
^^ taldensem fabricam vident, ambttionem Romanam se [sibi] imaginari jurent. Adeo tot 
*^ temporum etbellorum injuria^ veniistatem asdificils non tulere." This church remains in 
part to the present day ; and the crypt under it was accidentally discovered in 1726. '^Thc 
** cathedral/' says Dr. Stukeley concerning this church, *' is a large, lofty structure in the 
•^ chancel ; but the body or west end, and the two towers, are entirely demolished : it was 
** collegiate} a great building, called the College [still remains]. Between it and the 
*' church are [rather] cloisters, now a garden. — Here has been much old-fashioned painting 
" upon wainscot and stucco, of bishops, saints^ kings, and queens ; but, to the loss of his* 
*' tory, defaced. This town was undoubtedly Roman.— On the site of the cathedral once 
^' stood a Roman temple. Digging for a foundation of a buttress to be built on the west 
f' side of the steeple," and consequently within the old bodyoi the church, *' they opened a 
*' vault,** the head of one of the spiral staircases, *^ which descends under the church,'^ the 

vol. X. Ji chanccj 


Thus is that rery historian himself in full unison with Richard and 
with Eddius^ in his praises of this Saxon church for elegance and for 
grandeur: thus does he particularly harmonize with both, in that deep 
bass of panegyric, the exaltation of it above all the churches out of 
Italy** s£CTio2r 

chamrel of it^ '^ to a subterraneous oratory,**^ the crypt^ origtually divided into matqr oratories*- 
** This place was built out of the ruins of the temple. Over the inward entrance to the 
'* vaults" the doorway from the landing to the stairs, ^< is laid flat a fine Roman inscription ; 
^' the report of which led us down thither, though t/ie passage to U was as bad/' as low and 
2Utfrow> *^ as that of Poole's Hole, Derl^shire. — Over the n6xtr door, hw^ down,** the 
doorway opening from the stairs into the crypt, ^^ a large stone is set perpendiculaK^ and half 
^* of it cut away, in nature of an arch—. Upon the walls of the crypt,, we saw many Roman 
^' fragments ef mouklings> and carved work, with bits of fluted and' cabled pilasters. Jn^ 
^* searching about the oratory/' the crypt, that nest of oratories, ^'we fbund^a very fine 
^* altar, 4ilmo6t entire, bdd sideways into the very foundation. — This church is a very venfi^ 
f* rahle and ntAle Saxon structure, find may serve for a specimen of the manner- of raising 
^< those fobrics at that time of day " (Itin. Curios, ii. 62, 63.) See also, Horsley^ 247^ 
for this crypt. Infinitely false, therefore, is that assertion of Somner's,. in bis- account. of 
Canterbury, i. 86 ; Battely's edition : ** Before the Normans' advent, most of oar monas- 
** teric» and church •buildings were of wood, — and-^upoa the Norman conquest-«>gave 
*' place to stone-buildings raised upon arches, a form of structure introduced by that 
^* nation.'^ This* appears so extravagantly wild and ridiculous, after what I have proved « in 
the text, that be who once denied all power of movement in many or he who<»now a;*^^^ hta 
soul to be merely material, caiv hardly be more so. Yet the materiality of man's soul has 
been argued, and the power of movement in hrs body has been denied by Mr. Warton, itk 
his short but much admired digression upon Gothic architecture, and in this poor echo of 
Somner's voice of follyr *^ The Nonnans^ at the Conquest, '^ he cries, *' introduced arts 
*^ and civility,'* as aliens to the isle 3 ^' the churches,- before this> were of timber, or other'^ 
^* wise of very mean construction.'' (ii* 185, 186.) That Sonmer should sa write, is to be 
pardoned; yet, that a Warton should, is unpardonabfe- The critic^ therefore, may ex*- 
claim with Caesar, ^^ £t tu. Brute?" But authors, like conspirators, at timeSj draw in one. 
another to the violation of all justness, and ta a confederacy against all right. 

* The Saxons were even so far refined^ as actually to have vinatauds among them.. A* 
controversy, indeed,, was carried on a few years ago, beween two members of the Antiqua* 
rian Society, concerning the existence or non-existence of vine}'ard8 formerly in England,, 
One of these gentlemen, Mr. Pegge, produced a multiirfictty of proofs in favour of their ex* 
istence ; the only proofs that could be produced for an ancient incident,, extracts firom his- 
torical or other records, remains of names ; and relics of traditions* (Arch. i. 319^ j^a,. 
iii* 53' ^^0 'I'be other gentleman, Mr. Barrington, opposed this host of evidences, prih- 
cijpally by shewing, what every one knew before^ that it might possibly la all m host of mis- 





Many of the Saxon churches then were large and ample,- raised 
iipon fine models ot architecture, supported by fine rows of pillars, and 
rearing thdr heads on high. But let me now apply the conviction that 
we have gained of this, to the elucidation of thejiistory of our Cornish 
cathedral. This is also a Saxon church; but in apart that I have not 
ffet described: and I now proceed to prove it Saxon f. 


hAe$^ because die word wine has been applied lo cyder> to mead, or to perry (Ar^h. iti. 67# 
95); and> as he iptght, with equal propriety, have urged> to malt liquor too, the Myo»x^iw>9, or 
barley -wine of some writers; and even, as good housewives could have told him, to the very 
fruits of the garden, the very flowers of the field, or the very sap of the trees. Yet neither of 
these authors found any evidence for the existence of vineyards among the Saxons \ and the 
latter of them actually alleged the want of any Sax(m term for the grape, as an ailment 
against its Saxon cultivation (iii. 89)$ but the allegation is wholly untrue, the&txons really 
having the Saxon terms, ^n, for wine; ^/i- Z/man, for grapes; IVimsm^ for a tavern^ 
with fVin-britta, for a tavern-keeper, &c. &c. Yet, to sweep away all this dust of sophis** 
try from the face of reasoning, and to exhibit the truth in its full fairness of demonstration, 
let me here produce a /(Ut, a Saxon fact, and produce it from the best of all historical author 
rities. In the Danish part of the Saxon period, says he wha wrote so early as 1 120, foncern-* 
ing ^ own monastery of Malmesbury, '^^ eodem tempore venit ad locum quidam mona* 
•' chus Gaacus, nomine Constantinus ; — ^hic primus autor vivem tmti" not of vine- 
yards in general among the Saxons, but of that in particular at this monastery ; '^ quae, in 
*^ colle monasterio ad aquiloncm vicino sita, flukes duravit annos — : festorum dierum 
'^ in orationibus consumebat ferias, cseterorum in vinejk oi>erb totas consumebat 
" horas." (Gale, i. 370, Malmesbury,) Here the Graecian birth of the monk, and his 
own working in the vineyard, prove it to have been a real one; the continuance of it for 
several years, shews it to have been cultivated when the Grascian was dead : and the easy 
mode in Malmesbury of noticing the whole, proves vineyards in general, real or genuine 
vineyards, to be familiar when he wrote, both to himseVf and to his expected readers; fami- 
liar to the Normans now, familiar to the Saxons before them : such virtue is there in this 

short passage ! 

f Mr. Bentham, who has magnified the difference of size in the Saxon and Norman 
churches, beyond all proportion, gives this as his grand reason : that *^ the Saxon churches 
S4 were-— frequently begun and finished in Jive or six years, or less time"' (p. 33); while the 

R Z Normans, 







[CBAP. H. 

Parallel with the part that I have described, but longer at the western 
end, and very much longer once at the eastern, is the present nave. 
Nor let us, with the sensitiveness of a half- taught antiquary, shrink back 
at the production of the word nctve, for a part of a church of the Saxons. 
It, and its cor-relative term ailes, were applied by the very Saxons, and 
even by the very Romans, themselves. Thus the historian of Ramsey 
speaks of the abbot and monks there, •* on St. Michaers day, perform- 
ing the evening service, and, according to the custom derived frorn an-- 
tiquity, proceeding into the nave of the church to their station before 
" the cross J." The church, also, erected by Lanfranc, at Canterbury,. 
9fter the Conquest, is described by Gervase, the historian of the cathfe- 
dral, as having " the body of the church divided from its sides, which 
^' are called aire,** ailes, or wings §• But let us mount up at once to^ 
the Romans, whose alphabet formed nearly the whole of the eccle- 
siastical language of western Europe, and from whom, therefore, both 
tliese appellations are apparently deduced. The first church of Canter- 
bury, says Eadmer, " was the work of the Romans, as is testified in the 
" history of Bede; and was in one part formed upon the model of the 
•^church of the blessed prince of the apostles, Peter," at Rome. — " To 
^^ these altars was an ascent of some steps from the quire of the singers, 

Kornians, he adds, ^^ laid put their whole design at first, scarcely (we thay imagine) with a 
" view of ever living to see it completed in their lifetime,'* but " carried" it ** on as far as 
*' they were able, and then left'* it *' to their successors to be completed." (P. 33, 34.) Yet, 
to shew how arbitrary the assumption, and how false the assertion is, the very cathedral of 
Canterbury, rebuilt by Lanfranc, one, surely, of the pre-eminent constructions made by 
the Normans, was finished; not by hi« successors, but by himself; not by himself, through, 
a long life of forty or thirty years, but in little more than the short compass only of seven, 
** jEdificavit et curiam sibi," says Eadmer, his cotemporary, p. 8, Selden, *** ecclesiam 
** prieterea, quam 5pa/fo septem annorum k fufida,mtni}S Jerme totam perfectam reddidit.'* 
Malmesbury praises him accordingly, for the very quick dispatch which he made in the 
work: " illc, deturbatis veteribus fundameniisy suscitavit in ampliorem statum omnia; 
** ignores majore pulchritudihe, an velocitaie, auxit enim bonse voluntatis gloriam celeritatis 
** industria" (f. 118, misprinted for 122). 

X Gale, i. 451 : '< In die — Sancti Michaelis, fratribus vespertinam syntaxim celebranti- 
«* bus, ct, juxta consuctudiuem antiquitus usitatam, ad stationem ante crucem in navem 
*' ccclosiae procedentibus." 

§ Twisden, c. 1294 : <* Corpus ccclesiae a Buis lateribus quae alae vocanlur -dividebat/' 

'* which .HrSTORICALLT «rRVETEIh 125 

*^ which-— was built below like that of, St. Peter's.'^ He also notices 
^^ the nm)e'* or '' hall of the church/' and '' the ailes'" of itf^. So early 
were ailcs and a navie introduced into our greater churches^ even by the 
Romans themselres ; so invariably did th^ continue there, through the 
period of the Saxons ; and so historically do we account too for the Ro- 
man appdlatiohs of nave and of ailes still remaining among us ! 

But the nave at St. German's originally v«rent on, as the nave of all our pL/J ^ 
greater churches went, and as the nave of the Roman church at Canter- ^^ O^^f^ 
bury went also, into a quire or chancel, as now called, a presbytery, as 
called by the describ^r of the Canterbury church, or a sanctuary, as called 
by the historian of Hexham ; names, all derived equally with those, ^nd 
with this the finest part of our greater churches generally, from the lan- 
guage, the modes, ' and the architecture of the Romans *. The chan* 
eel at St. German's, however, now survives only in the memory of tra- 
dition, and in one or two incidental notices of history. *' A great part, of* 
this '* chauncel," iiotes Carew, " anno 15Q2 fel suddenly downe upon a 
" Friday, very shortly after publicke service was ended" in it> public 
service being then kept up in the church, upon a Friday as well as a Sun- 
day, being kept up, as it had probably bgen before the Reformation, with- 
in the chancel particulariy, and*, as instantly appears^ being numerously 
attended by the people there; *^ which heavenly favour of so little respite 
*^ saved many persons* lives,, with whom immediately before it had been 

t| Twisden,.c, 1291, 1292 t *♦ Erat — Ipsa ecctesia— ',.sicut in historiis Baeda testatur; Ro- 
•* manorum opcre facta; et, ex qiiidam parte, ad imitationem ecclesiae beati apostolorum 
*' principis, Petri. — Adhaec altaria nonnullis gradibus ascendebatur a choro cantoruni — . 
f* Subtus erat ad instar confessioniiJ Sancti Petri fabricata.'* He then speaks aUo of 
^' aulae ipsiu&,'^ called " aula ecclcsiae" just before, called "navis" by Gerrase concerning 
the very same church in ۥ 1290, and again called by Gervase " navis vel aula ecclesiaa" in 
c. 1293. In c- i292,Eadmer mentions ♦* ecclesiae alas,*' in the very same church.. 

 Twisden, c. 290: ** Arcum sanctuarii,'* for Hexham church. C. 1291, Eadmer: 
*' Majori altari, quod in orientali presbyterii parte parieti contigaum — erat;** C. 1289- 
1 291 : *^ Chorus — ille gloriosus,'* was consumed by fire in 1174.' Themonksth<jrcfore re- 
moved the bodies of Dunstan and Elphege in their coQins> '< d& choro extraxerunl,'' and 


posuerunt m navi 


3 •' stuffed. 



'^ stuffed f /* Such an incident, coming so near to the times of reforraa* 
fion, could not be occasioned by the principle, to which it has been 
hitherto refetred ; a neglect in the new possessors of the adjoining 'priorr» 
in the newpatrohs of tliechurdi,0T in the new clergyman nominated to 
the church itself |. It must'have been the result, either of some sihking 
in the foundations, or. some over-pressure in the roof. It was seemingly 
of the latter, as the consequences of the fiiil were removed by a repara- 
tion immediately ; as *" the devout charges of the parishioners,!* adds 
Carew, "'quickly repayred this ruine§r* But it was actually of the 
former, as the removal was only for the present, and the operative cause 
of all went on to repeat the injury, till it has terminated in the demolition 
of the whole chancel. The ground of the. church and <:hurchyard is not 
very dry in general ; but at the south-eastern at^le of the nave without^ 
at the very point of union between the nave and the chancel, it is peculi- 
arly wet, a large drain remaining there at present, a certain evidence of 
the long-prevailing moisture in the soil. This drain falls into a sewer o€ 
the house, at the eastern end of the latter : but it is so large in itself and 
8o old in its existence, that the common people of the town consider it as 

't Carew, 109. 

% Willis'sNoutiaParliainentaria, 17x6, 11.150, 151.: ^^ At the dissolution,'^ — other partg 
6f the church, and the chancel, have been suffered ^' to go to ruin, insomuch that great.part of 
<< the latter falling down," &c. Mn Willis's account of this church is the more to be de* 
pended upon, as he personally visited it, as he was a near relation to the Eitots at it, and as he 
continued for some time inspecting it. But his account is not inserted in the later editions 
of bis Notitia, *to Xhe puzzling and perplexing of all who do not know that he deserted his 
original plan, and formed a new one. *^ If it be inquired,'' he says In his preface to that 
contracted edition whichhe published in 1750, ^' why I do not proceed in the sameinethod 
'' that.I took in my two first volumes of my Notitia Parliameniaria ; the great expense it hath 
*^ already created me, and may farther occasion, heyond my present ability to bear, will be a 
^/ sufficient, as it is really a true, apology. It is not easy to conceive the expenses, pains, 
*^ and trouble, attending searches of this nature; .and I wish I could as well contiiiue to sup* 
*^ port thai expense, as I have been hitherto free in giving my time and trouble to the pablic." 
(P. X.) This apology is unhappily too ^^ sufficient," and that it Is ^^ true " reflects disgrace 
upon <' the public." Mr. Willis was therefore compelled to check these useful excursions 
in his ftUure progress. He.eveft cut off those in the past, and threw them into a distinct 
publication, a History of Abbies, in two volumes octavo, 171 9* 

§ Carew, 109 • 

a subter- 

_ ^ 


a subterraneous road for the bishop from his palace to his church. Several 
yards higher up in the hill, and nearer to the road from the town, are 
some springs, wliich are now drawn down by pipes across the site of the 
chancel, and furnish the principal supplies of water to the house. This 
humidity, predominating at tliat particular . end of the church, accounts 
decisively for the fall of the chancel ; while the coseval aave still stands 
from the greater dryness of its site, but stands (as I shall soon noticespar** 
ticularly) leaning upon one side ; and the south aile continues all erects 
in defiance of its greafter antiquity. The nave l^ans to the north, the 
chancel therefoDe leaned probably the same way, and the south aile is 
prevented firom^ so-leaning. by having the nave upon that side. The faU 
too was principally wthere the drain now is, and where I suppose the 
springs to have soaked into the ground ; the middle part of the chancel 
rearing up its walls so lofty and so sound, ^within these few years, as to 
carry a. roof of slate and to be usedr-for a brewhouse ; while the parts 
more- remote from and the parts nearer to the nave respectively, shewed 
•nly some ragged remains of a wall on each side. All were wildly over* 
grown with ivy, that sure sigoature of the " cruda senectus" of antiquity 
in buildings. But all were levelled to the groimd, and their very founda^ 
tions dug up, when the whole ground adjoining ta the church upon three 
sides, was laid not long since into a kind of lawn. . Not one trace of' it 
appears at present, and a smooth coat of grass covers all the site of that 
shancel; which meastju'ed while it stood, about fifty ••five feet in length and 
twenty-four in .breadth JL- 

Yet it. was luckily visitedby Leland'more than forty years before its 
first. fall; thoughinot (^ his* words seem in sound to import) even before 
the dissolution, of the priory adjoining. In *' a towne cawledS. Ger-r 
^ mayns,'* he • teUs us> . *^ —is now a priori of blake dbanons,'' meaning 
not the priory itself but. the priory church, as the words immediately fol-r 
lowing shew us ; ^* and a paroche chirche i/n the body of the same,'* as I 
shall sooa remark to be actually the case with the church ^. ^^ Besida 

H^. Willis, 151; 

^ So ift Inland's I tin. li. 75^ conceming Bbdmiii^ ^^I saw-no tunbes ia^ the p^o^ 
f' [church] very notable^ but Thomaa Vivianes '^ still remaining in the church • 

'' the 


'* the hye altate of the same priory [church], on the ryght hand, ts a 


*^ TUMBE A XI. BISHOPS PAYNTED with their NAMES and VERSES, as token 
*^ of 80 many bishops biried them, or that ther had beene so many bishoppes 
" ofCornwalle that had theyrsecte [>seate] tJieer^f.'" This fact fixes the 
date of the chancel, and shews it to have been built with its nave, before 
the see wa^ removed! from St German's, and consequently (as I shall 
point out hereafter) before the Saxon empire had fallen J . The nave and 
chancel, therefore, vrere built by the Saxons, The nave accordingly ex- 
hibits two or three features plainly Saxon in itp aspect; the pillkrs being 
massy, 'and the roof lofty. The whole too is a hundred and tWo feet 
in length within the walls § ; and at the eastern end without, on the 
southern side, it has a seam of separation betw^n it and the south aile ; 
which proves to our very senses, the posterior erection of that to this. 

Within a little to the west of the present altar, where the screen be- 
tween the nave and the chancel must once have ranged across the church, 
.and in .the north wall of the nave, is a low Opening for a doorway, just co* 
vered by the wood*'Wt)rk in the bak pew, and giving admission up a spiral 
staircase on the other side* This is comprized within a rounded, yet an- 
gular, projection of stone in the north aile, still mounts lijp within it as 
high as the top of a thick ledging in the wall on the southern side, and has 
its head-stone of an entrance into a gallery once there about five feet 
above'the ledging. There tradition faintly reports an organ to have for- 
merly stood. So at Padstow church in this county, which is not Saxon 
indeed, being rebuiltassuredly when its superior church of Bodmin Was, 
as constructed in the same length and loftmess a little abated, is a ceiling 
very handsome in itself, laid out in pannels of wood, and « tufted with gilt 
knots at the angles, over that interval between the nave and the chancel, 
which was filled (as tradition says) with aii organ-loft, and §till shews? in 
the north aile a doorway up to it. Nor were organs imknown in* the 
superior churches of the Saxony *' Dunstan,'* says Malmesbury, " in 

t Leland*8 Ittn. vii. X22« See also my vit 4, and vii. I, hereafter* 
i See my viu I. . .' • 

' $ WilUs^ 151. 

" the 


f^CT. IV.] mSTOItlCALLY StHtVEtED. 120 


** tbe munificence of his spirit to many places, loved frequently to make 
^* presents of such things as were then objects of high marvellousness in ^V 
*' England^ and displayed at once the taste with the dignity of the pre- 
** senGen Amongst these he gare'* to the church of Malmesbury " an 
'* 0R0AN> in which, through pipes of brass formed upon musical pro- 
^ portions,. 

^^ The bellows breathe the long-collected winds. 

** There he imprinted the following distich on the brazen pipes r 

^^ I, Dunstan, give this organ to the fane ; 
• *^ May he, who robs it, ne'ter to heav*n attain • ! ** 

Otgkis thiis mount up in England, as high as the reign of Edgar. On his 
death, adds the History of Ramsey, " all England was disturbed, the quire 
'* of hionks was turned to mourning, the organ to tfie voice of lament 
'* /er*-^.** In the reign of Ethelred his successor, a benefactor gave 
^^ thirty poimds" to Ramsey *' for fabricating organ^reeds of copper, 
** which were fixed into their holes within their nest in a thick row; 
*' abcyoe one of the spiral stairs ; were played on festival days with the 
*' strong breath of bellows, and uttered a most sweet melody, with a far- 
^^ resounding clangor if/' Even as early as abbtit the yfeir flso we gee 
organs so familiarly known to the Saxoris, that d Mercian ^rl thus 

* Gale, i. 366 : ^' Ideo in multis loco [locis] munifictis, qiise tunc in Aoglift magni miriv 
^ cull essent, decusque et ingenium conferentis ostenderent, offerre crebro} inter qaie,*-<rf 
^' organa, ubi per lereas fistulas, musicis mensuris elaboratas, 

'* Dudum conceptas follia vomit anxius auraii; 
'^ Ibi hoc distichon laminis sereis impressit : 

^ Organa do saocto pnesal Dunstanus Adhelmos 

V' Perdat hie aeternum, qui vult hinc toUeie, regnnm ! ** 

Dnnstah even made two fineofgaaa with bis owtt hand: ^^ fecit oi;gaoap^Uo pTfecipua.**. 
<G4le, i, ja4.) . 

t Gale, 1.412; <^ Tot&— Anglii — ^perturbatft, cum vertereitur in luctmn chorus monaA 
^' chorum, organa in vocem flentium.*' An allusion is made to Job, xxx« 31 ; but a reference 
38 plainly kept up to objects before the eye. 

X Gale, i. 420 : '^ Triginta — libras ad fabricandos cupreos organorum calamos erogavit^ 
'^' qui in alveb suo super unatn cotlearum denso otdine fbraminibus insidentes, et diebus 
^< fi^s ioMium ^pinhfnsntb fortiorA poMati, prscdtilcem mebdiam ftt clangorem longi&s r(* 
<^ sonantenx ediderunt«" 

' ' ' Yoi. \. .« alludes 


alludes to them in his description of those joys of futurity, to which the 
tinvitiated soul of man naturally leans forward with rapture ; *' as life 
^' carnally slides away to ruin, we should hasten with all our speed to the 
** pleasant fields of unspeakable joy, where the angelic organ of jubilee 
^* hymnings — is taken deeply in by the ears of the blessed * /* But, in the 
reign of Edgar, we see such a double kind of organ at Winchester cathe- 
dral, as England cannot equal even at present ; this gigantic instrument 
having twelve bellows in one row above, andjimrteen in another below, 
these alternately blowing with vast power, and requiring seventy stout 
men to manage them f • From the description of both the organs at 
Ramsey, from the seeming intimation of ^' such things'* being then 
** objects of high marvellousness in England/' and from the express 
declaration that one of them was " played on festival days ;" we mi^ht 
infer, that organs were very rare and uncommon then, even in our supe-> 
rior churches. But when we mark the historian of Ramsey, describing 
the general grief gf England for the death of Edgar, by the quires of our 
imnster-monks being turned to sorrow,, and the organs to tones of lament-r 


* Gale, u. 3*45 : *^ Quia ipsa ruinosa camaTiter dtlabrtur^ sumthopere fcstinandum est ad 
^ amceDaindiclbilisIaetitbe arva^ ubi angelica bymnidicse jubilatioais oi^ana — auribus feU« 
^ cium hauriuntur/' 

t Leiand's CoIL i. 252 : ^^ Ex Epistola WoUtani Mooacbij Pnecenioiis Veatanae Ecdesiarj^ 
^ ad iElphegum Episcopum Ven tanum/** 

*^ ^ Talia et auxisds hie ot]gaDa qualia, nus^ant 

" Cernuntur, gemina constabilita sooo. 
^ fiisseni supri sociantur in ordine folleti 

*^ Inferiilksque jacent quattuor atque decern*. 
.^ Fladbus alttrnis spiracula maxima leddunt^ 

** Qyosagluntvalidi stptuaginta.viri\" 

^ia poetica) epistle appears from two lines subjoined to have beeo written as eaiiy as tfie 
reign of Ethelred, the second son of Edgar^ who succeeded hia father in the throne three 
years after the father's death r 

^ * Regis EtheTredi visu cemente modesti^ 
^ In regni solio qui snperest hodie'l*'' 

.This wonderful organ, I believe^ is not noticed l>y any other writer ; yet I suppose it to hav6 
remained till the grand, rebellion^ when the rtbd soldieiB are known to have destioye4 the 
pigan of this cathedral. 


• • • 


ation ; when we see organs alluded to two or three ages before, as 
making a part of the choral harmony of Heaven ; and when we behold 
such a prodigy of an organ at Winchester, in the days of Edgar ; we find 
them considered as equally a part of our minster-service with the quire 
itself, as equally a part -then and now, as even constructed at times upon a 
scale of magnificence, to which tve can only look up with astonishment, 
and in which tve se^ even the mighty organ of Ulm in Germany, that 
portentous construction of modem times, shrink up into insignificance 
before this organ of Winchester, ashamed to boast any longer itssivfeen 
pairs of bellows against twenty-six. 

Nor let an obstacle occur to our progress in conviction, from the ap- 
pearance of the wall, the doorway to the stairs, and the opening above 
them into the oi^an-loft at our cathedral. The wall, indeed, is so thick 
as to cover in part the very capital of the pillar immediately on the west ; 
and therefore appears to have been formed, posterior to the plan drawn 
for the building, even during the very moments of erecting the wall, in 
order to admit the making of a doorway through it. The stairs too^ 
which, in the mode {practised at most of our greater churches, should have 
winded up the inside of one of the pillars, push out in an awkward pro- 
tuberance into the aile : and the square doorways, that are now universal S^a/ui^AjuuU^ 
among us, very extraordinarily make their appearance here ; the door- ^^^>^''^^^^^^^^^ . 
way through the wall being absolutely sqdbre in the head, and the door 
at the top of the stairs being nearly so. Yet\he whole is still Saxon. The 
lowness of the doorway through the wall stifws it to be veiy ancient, sa 
the ground can have risen so high merely from continued ages of burying 
there. The fondness for 6rgans too, so peculiarly evidenced by the 
Saxons above, carries us of course to the constructors of the nave and 
aile, for the erectors of an organ-loft in them. The staifs, indeed, were; 
not winded in a spire within a hollow pillar, because of the danger pro* 
bably that might result to the whole building from such a pillar, upon 
ground that I shall soon shew to be swampy all along this side of it. For* 
the same reason probably, all idea of an organ-loft was resigned when the { 

nave was planned; and yet was admitted again, when the nave was fabri- ! 

cated here. The only mode then remaining for the purpose, wajs what j 

4s 2 we i 


we see to have been actually practised, to build here a solid wjjl of great 
thickness for the suppt)rt of an organ-loft, to leave an opening, in the wall 
-foT a doorway, and to push out a staircase upon the other side. The pil- 
lars on the west Imving been previously settled in their places, the thick 
wall necessarily came advancing forward, encroached upon the side of 
the nearest pillar, and usurped on the very capital of it. Nor will th^ 
squareness of the two doorways avail in impeaching their pretensions to 
a Saxon origin. Such doorways are not so modern as is popularly 

We find one very early in England, the door into the cathedral ofEljf 
at the west end of the cloister, where the sweep of the round ai^h is 
filled up with stones carved into figures, and the whole terminates in a 
right line below, supported by two heads for brackets, as well as by the 
interior pUlar of the doorway *. 

We even find another in that conventual church of Ely, which was 
£»wided so early as 673, and repaired so early aa Q70 ; the northern door 
there being a round arch again, filled up again with stone, though without 
any carving of figures upon it, and the supplement again resting in a 
right line, upon the interior part of the wall, as well as upcA two 
brackets f • One great use of the square head in a door, therefore, ap- 
pears to have been for filling up the concave of the arch ; but to have 
been introduced among us in this form before the Conquest, and to have 
been continued in this form through all ages since ; to have been con- 
tinued for doors of less significance, the northern or the. southern side 
door, or perhaps some petty doorway within, while the arch itself waa 
retained in its full compass and orbit of grandeur^ for the great or weatem 

door at the end 1 • 


* Beatham, 35, plate vit. 

t Ibid. 29, platfi V. Se^ also.p^ 54 and 74. 

% Arch. vi. 246, refers us to *' the door of an old S^scan tower of a church at Lincoln^'* 
which is a round arch filled up and made square. " There is also," adds ^47, " a remark- 
** able specimen of this kind,— even of an imitation of a ispccies of flat transome stone across 
^ the lower part of an arch, preserved in the enriched portal of Barfmtoa chuFcb in Kent.*' 




J^etltt }& not content oui^lves with carrying the origin of ouf square- 
lieaded doors even so very high. We can prove them to be still older, 
Jn thftt very arch, which forms the doorway into the chapel over the 
Hioly ^puichre, and which we have noticed before as sharply peaked ; 
>ve «ee the tmrye of the head filled up with stones, Uke the two at Ely 
hefojre> and the peak thuB reduced into a square. We also behold twq 
windows in the chapel, that are now clo^d up, but were as regulap 
squares as ajjiy of our own are at present *. We equally observe the two 
round arches at the grand entrance into the church, to have been filled 
up with stone in their sweeps, to terminate in a rectilinear " transome 
*' engraven with historical figures," and to rest with this upon *' three 
*^ columns of marble,'* composed eadi of three pillars, and all decorated 
with Corinthian capitals -f . In the remains Qf that temple also, which is 
ItiU viisible in part at Kismes» which is traditionally asserted to have been 
Diana's, hAt by Montfaucon is believed from its number of niches to have 
been a pantibeon, and was assuredly, like Montfiiucoi;i's own temple of Mi- 
nerva Medica at Rome, the one as well as the other; Diana, like Minerva, 
being the principal divinity, yet letting other divinities shate tlie worship 
with her, these placed in the shallower niches at the sides of the temple, 
but that with her in the two deq) niches at the upper end ; we a^ the 
windows all square, and its entrance reduced from an arch into a square 
by a transome;]; . We thus find the square door, that vve are so apt to date 
at a very low period, even just a little before our own times, to have 
been in use among the Romans, as early as the fourth century. 

But we can actually ascend with it a couple of centuries higher, and 
place it in the meridian bhze of Roman architecture, In that very 

See also figure xltt. at p. 304, for a round arch in a window of Canterbuty caodje, (equally 
iqnAK^ with a tnu)900ie stone. Aiwl in p. 377 we observe ^' aamalldooribaviiEig a semi* 
^^ circular arch, crossed by a transon^e stone- in the ancient Saxon siyle/' as delineated ia 

plate LV. D. 

•* Pococke, II. part 1. p. 16, plate iv. No. C. 
t Sandys's Travels, 125. 

% Montfaucon, paf^ i. ii. 3, pl^le 3, fig. g, for ^' a section of it^'^ ^d a '^plan accural^y 
^ delineated by the 9j^der ^^M* F^^^^^h bishop of ^isQies/' 

4 ' Ahtinopohs* 



Antinopolis, which gives us so ckar a sight of the peaked arch^ we catch 
an equal sight of the square doorway, and square window. Thus, 
immediately over the two side arches engraved in plate i. p, 84, before, 
are two windows opened through the substance of the wall, each an ob- 
long square, each appearing like a superior window among the modems, 
and each regularly cased with stone like a modem window. - ^^ I Imd a 
'' view,'* says Pococke, also, *' of a very fine gate of the Corinthian 
*' order, of exquisite workmanship," of which he gives us a plan and up- 
right. He thus exhibits, unconsciously to the astonished eye, a Romati 
gateway of the first form, consisting, like the gateway before, and like 
all the gateways among the Romans, of three principal parts, a middle, 
with two side passages; the middle very tall, yet a regularly oblong 
square; the side not so tall, but as regularly square, with even a modem 
pediment over both of them *. Even in Pompeii, which v^as buried 
with showers of ashes when Herculaneum was deluged with a torrent 
of lava, in the year 79 ; we find a private house with a square door, a 
square window on each side, and two square doors at a distance, leading 
into offices. We find also, at the temple of Isis jthere, and in the build- 
ing over the well of it, a square doorway again, with a pediment over 
it. And we find at a villa near the town, a long arcade, ending one 
way in a room with a large bow tmndoiv, in which were found fragments 
of large panes of glass ; having several rooms opening with it into a gar- 
den and court, but richly omaqpiented with paintings, as fresh as the day 
they were executed ; and having an open terrace above, ,that led to the 
greater apartments of the house; all, with the arcade itself, shewing 
only doorways square in the head, except at the two ends of the arcade, 
each of which presents a round arch to the eyef . And we finally find 
that delicate effusion of taste and genius, which cardinal Richlieu wanted 
to transport entire as a fine decoration even to Versailles itself, which 
also (as all the world must say with another cardinal, Alberoni) requires 
a box of gold to cover it from the injuries of the very air, and which is as 
probably from its elegance of form^ as from its inscription conjee turalJy 

• Pococke, i. 73. 

t Arch. iv. 164, plate x.; 165, plate xi.; 171, plate xvil. The building over the well is 
Mlle4 a temple } 166 and 173; when it was only an appendage to the temple. 




recovered, of the very Augustan age; is entered by a door from the 
portico, quite square in the head if. So very different does the* square- 
headed door or gate appear, from what I myself supposed it at first ; 
not modern, not even of the middle ages, but of the Roman period, 
and even of the fiist century in that period§, 

Ijfor must we even stop here : the square-headed door is the first door 
of antiquity, derived from the first principles, and forming the first 
style of architecture in the world; the arch, either round or peaked, 
l^tog merely a scientific improvement upon that. Thus, when man in 
his primitive state of simplicity, with few tools, little consideration, and 
no experience, came to rear for himself a house, which should afford 

X See a good drawing in A Year's Journey through France, and a Part of Spain, by Philip- 
Thicknesse, i. 98, edit. 3d, 1789; and a still better in Montfaucon, part i. ii. 18, plate 13, 
%« I. See£iIso in the lattef*, ibid. ibid, plate 5, fig. a, 3, 4, 8, 10, and 13, for the square, 
doorway^ of other temples at Rome, and various figures in plates 6-13. 

$ Mr» King, the worthy, the ingenious, the judicious Mr. King, ia Arch. vi. 237, 238^. 
was so little apprized of this practice among the Romans, in Constan tine's reign, of reducing 
arches into squares by the insertion of a transome stone, as to write thus : ^^ Although there 
*' IS a stone arch turned over it," he says of Connisborough castle, in Yorkshire, ** m imi'- 
^^ taiion, probably, of those which had been seen in Roman buildings ; yet the nature of 
^' such an arch seems hardly to Have been understood^ nor was it trusted to ; for, directly 
^' across the diameter, and underneath it, is placed a great transome stone, like a beam; and. 
'^ the space between it and the arch is filled up with stone- work, as if to assist the arch in 
•^ supporting the wall above/* ** The front of this fire-place," he adds, in 240^-T** is sup- 
^^ ported, }ust like the door of entrance, by a wide arch, not trusted to as sufficient for th^ 
^^ purpose, but having two great transome stones running across under it. To this rude imi* 
^* taiion of the Roman arch is jpined," &c. '< There is a narrow doorway,'' he says, ia 
041, '^ where the arch was either forgotten or thot^t quite useless, and where a transome. 
** stone alone covers the top of a window." '^ The window," he adds, in 242, ** like the 
^^ doorway underneath, has an handsome arch at top, but has, moreover, just in the same 
'^ manner, the assistance of a great transome stone." And in 246, he proceeds to shew, 
*' in what manner the transome w^ by gradual degrees left out, and the iiattish under-arch. 
^ substituted in its room;" he thus inverting the very order of history, and making the. 
stream flow back to the source. Yet, how mapy antiquaries, old. as well as young, have 
triumphed at reading these passages^ with a supen'or air of wisdom, in their own acquaintance 
with the mechanic powers of a Roman arch, and in the simplicity of these barbarous age»^ 
for not knowing them ; wheny all the while, the transome stone waa used by. the very 
Bomans themselves^ at times^ in their owa. arches..'jl' 1. *— ••• 

iad THE CATbEDftAB Ol^ ii6ftJSWkLh f Ctf A^. Jft 

Binl the shelter that an arbout could n6 Idnger lend, against the cold of 
the rittft h, or the rains of the south ; he naturally framed his doorway 
into it, with ttV-o posts erected perpendicularly, and one laid across them. 
By this means he formed that square-headed doorway at once, to which, 
in a very extraordinary revolution of taste, modem ages hare now re- 
turned with one consent. Man has gone round the whole circle of 
architecture, and come back at last to the very point from which the 
earliest ancestors of his race set Out. 

But let us attend to our own island, particularly : there we find thiar 
antediluvian and native order of architecture, actually appearing among 
our British fathers. The vergjirsi temple of the Briton^, indeed, formed 
with any ideas of grandeur, that at Abury, in Wiltshire, we see to have 
been composed of vast rough blocks of stone reared upon their ends^ 
lifting up their tall heads, spreading out their broad sides, but coiuiected 
only by the circular figure in which they ^f¥dtt ^rrarigfcd, and by the 
lofty mound with which they were enclosed. Yet, as soon as the idea 
of a connected edifice occurred to the minds of the Britons, we see their 
Abury improving into a Stonehenge; the shapeless immensity of its 
rocks moulded by the chisel into square columns, and one column laid 
upon two other^, to form an entrance every where around. The square- 
headed doorway thus appears in the first attempt at a regular building 
made by the genius of Britain ; arid we are now raodeliing our doors^ 
^ier all our acquaintance with Roman archiibecture^ just as our savage 
ancestors taodelled theirs^ before they knew any thing of it. But ifi 
this we are partly doing what the Romans thenis^elveiS did before! tts. 
The Romans used the square door and the square window occasionally^ 
together i with the peaked arch, and even with the round ; ajnd we have 
only carried this Roman license so far, as to use them without a mixturtf 
of either, even to the supersedence of both in our domestic bttildings. 
So little reason have wfe to be startled at a isquire-hfeaded door, in a 
l^uilding maintainjc^d to be Saxon! feuch a door is primitive, is l(oman> 
ia Saxon ;. ^nd ha$ been tranfifmitted to us through the Sai^qns, from the 

Romans, feven ^m the very first ancestors of our. whole race ^. 


* In Nordea's drawings of Egyptian buildings^ we frequently meet with the square door- 


Thus erected at first, and thus ascended from the nave, the gallery 
came projecting over the nave, at St. German's, while the organ faced 
equally, I suppose, to the nave and to the chancel. Nor was it destroyed 
there, I believe, by those whom we have such pregnant reasons for sus- 
pecting of such an act, those reducers of man to the abstract nakedness 
of his nature in devotion, though not in life, those jarring elements of 
our Protestant orb, those haters of all harmony, and those proscribers of 
all pomp in the public worship of God, the i Presbyterians of the last 
century. It was destroyed, I apprehend, at an earlier period eyen by that 
leaven of Presbyterianism, which fermented occasionally in the very 
Reformation itself;* did so even among the English, but swelled and 
heavedi and spread its sour influence with peculiar malignity, among the 
Scotth, Ckir fanatics were, in general, a full century behind the Scotch, 
in this folly of gloominess; yet, here and there shewed particular evi- 
dences of its existence among them. The position of the bake pew, so 
directly before the doorway, and, in all probability, fixed there (as I 
shall hereafter sKew *) within a few years after the Reformation, con- 
firms me in that opinion. The gallery, the organ, were then destroyed ; 
both were gradually forgotten afterwards ; and, at the close of nearly 
two centuries and a half, nothing might well remain of either, but in the 
faintest murmurs of tradition. These induced lord Eliot and myself, in 
May 1793, to explore the rounding protuberance of the north ailc. 
The cap of plaster at the head of it, we ordered a mason to break 

way to them ; but I shall notice it only in such as have some strong mark of antiquity upon 
them. Thus in plates cv. cvi. among the reputed ruins of ancient Thebes, we see two 
doors, an arcade and a portal, all square-^headed. The portal even appears covered with 
hieroglyphics, in cix. In cxv. we have an ancient temple atEssenay, the ancient Latopolis, 
and the rectilinear entablature, all charged with hieroglyphics; in cxviii, at £ldfu, or Apolli- 
nopolts, two doors, and both square, the massy and high kind of towers at the sides covered 
with hieroglyphics; in cxxxii« the ancient temple of the serpent Knuphis, upon the isle 
Elephantine, all loaded with hieroglyphics, and all square in the openings; in cxxxvii. a. 
portal and a door at the isle of Phile, both square-headed ; in cxii. at the isle Ell HeifF, be- 
yond Syene^ th'e temple of Isls, with its principal entrance, a square portal, and a square 
door upon each side of it ; and <other temples^ with similar portals, or similar doors, iq 
cliv* civ. 
t Chap. iii. Sect. 3^ at beginmng. 

VOL* I. T open 


open ; and then, by the help of a candle introduced, he beheld the 
stone steps below. He let himself down through the opening; pursued 
the steps to their termination at the hahe pew; found the top of the 
doorway nearly as high as the top of the pew, and reascended the 
steps to a head-stone for another doorway through tlie wall above ; and, 
by taking off a very little of the wood- work in the pew, the top of the 
doorway appeared visible in the nave itself; the pew having been 
placed so hastily against the doorway, as not to admit the seemingly ne- 
cessary precaution of walling or plastering mp the doorway first. 

But these stairs, let me farther observe, come out rounding into that 
northern aile, which carries all the features of a Saxon one. We have 
seen Richard the Norman, prior of Hexham, describing the fine church 
of Wilfrid there, and making Wilfrid *' surround the very body of the 
** church with lateral chapels," it having a south aile as well as a north. 
These ^* lateral chapels," as I must now remark, he distinctly charac** 
terizes with the appropriate appellation of '* appenticiae," appendages, 
pentices, or (as we have now vitiated the word), pent-houses J. . He 
thus points out the form of the ailes in the Saxon churches, very signi- 
ficantly; and shews them to have been, in fact, mere pentices to the 
nave. Just such a building, exactly, is the north aile of this diurch; 
*' low and narrow," says Mr. Willis himself, who never thought of its 
Saxon origin, '* and the roof slanting §," presenting, indeed, from its 
low pitch and its sloping roof, the very idea of a pent-house, to every 

Qcv^ oj^ In this view of the ages of the church, we see the nave, the north 

aile, and the chancel, the fabrication of the Saxons ; the work of Atljel- 
stan, therefore, about 936. We thus find a churchr worthy of a kii^ 
worthy of an Atheist an, worthy of the conqueror of Cornwall. To this 
the Norman *' ambition" of adding to the Saxon churches, was com- 
pelled to be content with adding only, I suppose, the octangular tower 
at the north-western end, with the grand portal between it and the 

i Twisden, c. ^90 ; *' Ipsum quoque corpus ecclesise appeaticiis— circumcinxit.^' 
§ Willis, 151. 




south-western tower. That tower, notes Mr. Willis, very j ustly, " is a 

" great ornament to the west front;'* with *' a very antique portal'* ^^^^^^^^ 

between it and the other tower, making the whole '^ look very majestic 

" and cathedral-like*." 

The portal bears above what is denominated a Catharine-wheel cross; 
a cross within a wheel, and what was reported by the late Dean Milles 
(I understand) to be a mark of the highest antiquity in any building. 
Yet this report, if real, only proves the confusedness of antiquarian rea- 
soning, at times, of knowledge without accuracy, and of erudition 
without judgment. No symbol upon a building can prove the aged* 
ness of it, unless the symbol be not only antique in itself, but confined 
to antiquity. Even if this kind of cross be the first and earliest that 
was adopted, yet, if it was also continued in the ages subsequent^ it 
will as soon prove a building to be of the last period as of the first. 
The fact, however, is, that this kind was not used in the first, as the 
cross of Constantine is a very different onef ; and that this, too, was 
actually used in the later ages, as the portal cannot possibly be older 
than the church itself, yet, while the portal carries a Catharine- wheel 
cross, the church bears a common one just above it. 

The portal is round in the arch, and has mouldings on it, either . ' 

plain m themselves, or variations of the zig-zsig^ with a narrow band ^ 

without the whole, that is now defaced much, but appears to have been 
formed of foliage. This, therefore, is such a portal^ as from its curved 
concave is universally denominated Saxon by our antiquaries, yet ap- 
pears either with or without carvings, to be, in fact, derived to us 
wholly from the Normans. Thus we find a portal at the western end of 
that cathedral of Rouen, in Normandy, which was begun aboMt the year 
990, and finished in io63 ; flanked, too, like our own, by two towers; 
and, what is very remarkable, though a merely casual addition of coinci- 

• Willis, 151. 

t Described by Euscbius, in Viti Constaut* i* 31 9 voK i. p> 516^ aud delineated from a 
coin ia Goevius's Thesaurus, x. 1529. 

T 2 dence. 


dence, two towers that are not imiform ; even a portal at the north end 
of the cross-aile, and a portal at the south end of it, each equaUy flanked 
with two towers*. We see another at the west end of the principal 
church in Pont-Audemer, an ancient town of Normandy; and, like our 
own at St. German's, with " three windows ovep the portal, the middle 
*' window wider than either of the two side ones;" but that carrying a 
pointed arch,'* and these shewing " round arches,'* while our arches are 
all round f. We find at Bourgachard, a village of Normandy, '* all 
*' the windows at the west end small and narrow, having round arches,** 
like our own^; ** as hath also the west door,** like our own, " which 
" is moreover adorned with mouldings,** like some of ours in the zig- 
zag form;};. So the parish-church of St. Saviour at Caen, which is a 
very ancient building, exhibits a portal on the^ west, with a large, plain, 
peaked arch, and a kind of slender steeple on each side of it %. The 
large and magnificent abbey of St. Stephen in Caen, which was fi^unded 
by William in 1 o64, two years before the Conquest, and of which the 
church was dedicated in 1077, eleven after it, has a great door at the 
western end, ornamented with various mouldings, and flanked with two 
towers §. The abbey of the Holy Trinity, in the same city, which was 
founded by Matilda, the consort of William, about the same time 
that William founded St. Stephen's, and was endowed by her with great 
munificence in 1 082, has equally a grand door on the west> ornamented 
much more richly with mouldings, but flanked equally vrith two 
towers II ; and the cathedral of Bayeux, which was erected in 1159, bas 
a portal in the western end, void of ornaments, peaked in the arch, as 
the whole church is, and flanked by two towers % . These instances 
abundantly prove the taste of the Normans, both biefore and after the 
Conquest, for portals, carved or uncarved, to the western end of their 
churches, and for towers to flank them. But the Temple church in 
London, which was finished in 1 184, and consecrated in 1185**, pre- 

• Ducarrers Anglo-Norman Ant. 12, 13. 

t Ibid. 46. % Ibid. 45, and loi. j Ibid. 74. § Ibid. 5i,and iw. 

I Ibid. 63, and 101. % Ibid. 77. 

*• Ldand's Coll. i. 107 : ^^ Templim juxta Fletestreete Londini.— Heraclius patriarcha 

*« Hierosolymitanus consecravit, 1185; 32 H. a. • .. . • Templum vetus in Holhurm 

*^ Londini,— CoUapftum est etdeaolatum an, 1 1849 31 H. 2." 




senO us with a western and- carved portal^ purety English, of the same 
period ; thus exalts our reasoning into reality, and proves the Normans 
to have introduced the portal of their own country into England. Away, 
then, with all that ascription of our western portals to the Saxons, 
which has hitherto prevailed among our antiquaries, and taken away the 
portal at Iffley, near Oxford, the portal of St. Leonard's near Stamford*, 
with various others, without argument, without authority, from the 
Kormans, their rightful proprietors! The portal of St. German's> 
then, was an addition made to Athelstan's church by the Normans, 
who also built a new tower, in order to flank the portal properly, 
and so render this conformable to those in their own country. 


Thus formed, the tower has two arches, facing exactly as those of 
the other; one looking towards the other tower, and one looking up 
the aile. It has also an opening high in the southern face of it, to 
correspond with an opening once existing, now closed up, but still appa^- 
rent, at the same height, in the opposed face of the other, which must 
have served for a window in this, yet was imitated in that^ when, from 
the faces of both being now Iwrought within the church, it could not 
have served any purpose at all, but merely one of correspondency. 
The roof of the church, too, between the towers, over the portal, and 
for several yards of advance up the nave, lately carried an elevation 
tvithin, that was visible to every eye; but because it affected the voices- 
of the singers immediately under it, has been lately levelled by a thick 
ceiling of plaster ; yet it carries one very visible at this moment, unth^ 
cut, and forms a fall in the slating of twenty or twenty-five inches in 
depth, at the union of this part with the rest. We thus find an evidence 
addressed to the senses, of the posteriority of the portal in time to 
the nave, with which it is now associated; and (as I wish to remark 
additionally) the earth had lately grown up so high upon the sides of 
the portal, from the large accretion that was found there, of lime and 
stone used at the construction of it, that the base was buried no less 
than five feet six inches deep in the accumulated soil, apd the damp* 

 Ducarrel, loi, 


142 THtf CAtttEbBAt at eoHttH^Ahh [cftAP. 11, 

of this has fixed itself in Such a manner tipon the stones, as is probably 
indelible for 6ver. Such in elevation of the grbund was evidently 
designed by the Normans, because they hid thrown their stone and lime 
there at the constnaction of that end of the nave, and because they affected 
a descent into their churches. '^ The entrance,'* remarks Dr. Ducarrfel. 
^^ is always by a descent of three or four steps; contrary to the assertion 
** of Mr. Stavely, that the Normans made their churches with ascents 
^' to them-f*/* But the earth was raised still higher to the right and kft 
of the portal, wheite the necessity of maintaining a road of entrance, 
and the deSire of maintaining it in a descent, could not operate; merely 
from the consttot repetitiori of burials there, and from the continual 
addition of human mould to the other. The ground was thus level, or 
nearly level, with those windows of both the adjoining towers, which 
are now about twdre feet above it. In the mass so amazingly heaped 
tip at the northern tower, but about twenty feet from it, were actually 
Seen, very fetely, in formiftg a drain frotn the portal, five or six coffins 
of stone, all lying in a line at the side of tlie drain, and were left there 
undisturbed, about two feet below the present surface. All shews the 
portal to be vety antique, and all proves it to be Of Norman antiquity* 

The portal, thdn, being Nortaan, while the nave. With its north aile 
and chancel, is Saxon, SVe see, with additional lustre, to what age we 
must refer the only remaining part of the whole, the south aile. Tliis we 
have found, before, to have been originally one complete church of itself; 
to have been Also constfuctfed with a throne for a bishop in the body 
of the eastern wall; with a stall, supposed for his chaplain; with a 
doom^ay for his own admittance from his palace, and with an arch oyer 

t Ducan-el, 97. l?he passage ruliB thus in Stanley's History of Churches in England, 
edit. 2d> 1773) p. 151 : '^ ^^^- Saxons made theirs^ generally, ivith descents into them^ and 
•* the Normans, contrarily, with ascents." Nor is this position, apparently false as it is, to be 
wondered at in a writer who, with a credit for giving good information, does so frequently 
obtrude upon us bad ; who writes with confidence, because he writes in igrlorance 5 who 
%pedki frequently without authority, yet as frequently mismterpnets hk authority wb«n be 
refers to it; who is therefore too rash, too inaccurate, too injudicious, or too ignorant, to 
be any longer considered with respect by rfeal antiquaries. 

5 a seeming 




a seeming tomb, to mark his own place of septilture, in the substance of 
the southern. Yet, we now see it was not built by Athelstan, because 
Athelstan built the nave, the north aile, and the chancel. It wa&, 
therefore, prior to them and to him : it was the church of a bishop 
when' Athelstan built the other parts of it ; when he built a church, 
wordiy, in his ideas, to be the episcopal see of Cornwall ; and when he 
left the prior church of tlie Cornish bishops, out of reverence for their 
memories, to stand as a south aile for his own. It is, therefore, the 
very church which was erected by the Cornish, when they set up a dis- 
tinct episcopate amot^ them ; the Jirst, tlie last cathedral of Corn- 
wall. But, what is very surprising, a tradition still remains at St. Ger- 
jfiSLiie, as an intimation is also given us by Leland, uniting to confirm 
this conclusion, though neither the one nor the other has been yet cori- 
mdered, in its obvious consequences. ^"Before the dissolution," says 
Mr. Willis, " this church was, as Leland tdls us, " divided in two 
parts; the great south isle, or (as strangely denominated besides) 
nave, with a tower at the west end of it, serving for the use of the 
•* PARISHIONERS ; and the middle isle, or nave,^' as if there could bctwa 
naves in one church; "together with the low north isle, and tower at 
'^ the west end thereof, with the chancel or choir, being appropriated to 
'* THE USE OF THE CONVENT J." Mr. Willi s has here re\^€rsed the natu- 
ral order of things, and made that .echo .of history, tradition; to speak 
njore fully than the voice itself. There is, aays this voice in rLeland,. 
a priori [church] of blake chanons, and a paroche xhLtche yn the 
body of the^amey This general notice is detailed by tradition, in 
all the ample form in which Mr. Willis details it. When Athelstan, 
therefore, constructed his nave, north aile, and ehan(rel, in addition to 
the jepiscopal doLurch eousting before; he built all for the use of the 
clergy, whom he attached in a college to the church, and whom he 
fixed in a collegiate house adjoining to it; bdt left the previous part of 
the church to the uee , of those, by iwrhom it had been used before, 
the bishop, his chaplain, and the parish. Such a superadded evidence; 
have we here, in this slight circumstance, of the great, the long-conti- 
nued priority of the south aile to the north and the nave ! 

X Willis, 150. 






But, l)efore I conclude the chapter, let me notice three particulars 
of church architecture, visible at other churches, and not found at this : 
one is, that this has only towers, not spires, to it. " Spires,'' indeed, 
says Mr, Warton, ^' were never used** at all ** till the Saracen mode 
^^ tooh phice,'' from the crusades. '* I think we find none before 1200. 
*' The spire of old St. Paul's was finished 1221 ; — the spire of Nor- 
" wich cathedral, about 1278. Sir Christopher Wren informs us, that 
the architects of this period, — ^' ' affected steeples' ,' not spires ^ as Mr. 
Warton fancies him to say, " * though the Saracens themselves used 
" cupolas'.'* But— I cannot help being of opinion that, though the 
'' Saracens themselves used cupolas, the very notion of a spire was 
** brought from the East, where pyramidical structures were common^ 
and spiral ornaments were the fashionable decorations of their 
mosques, as may be seen to this day," in their minarets^. Thus are 
our spires deduced, with a seeming decisiveness, from our crusades in die 
East. Yet, the deduction is evidently false. We find them in Normandy, 
before the very crusades. The cathedral of Rouen was begun about 
tbeycar 990, and was completely finished in 1063 ; but " the transept 
" of the cross forms a beautiful lantern, over whicli stands a very 
** lofty «pire, three hundred and eighty feet in height, which is a great 
" ornament to the church -t-.** The abbey of St. Stephen's, at Caen, 
b^un m 1064, and finished in 107 7, has its west end " flanked with 
" two towers— ,eacA surmounted with a spire of remarkable height,** 
lightness, and elegance %. The cathedral of Bayeux, too, erected in 
1 159, has its portal on the west, " flanked by two square towers, each 
'* of which terminates in a very lofty steeple;' the author means a 
spire^ as his very plate shews §• And the remains of the Conqueror's 
palace at Caen, in which (according to tradition) he entertained with 
a sumptuous banquet his own mother, on her re-marriage to the Count 
de Conteville, many years before the Conquest, appears still to have five 
slender turrets at its sides, all topped with short spires || . These are plain 
proofs of the existence of spires, long before the crusades. Spires, therefore, 

• Warton on Spenser^ ii* 195, 196, from Wrcn'« Parentalia^ 305^ 

1* Ducarrel, 12, 13. % Ibid. 5Q^ 51^ and plate. § Ibid. 97^ 98. 

H Ibid. 59j plate. 



eame not from the Saracens to us ; nor yet did they come from the 
Normans. They were in Normandy before the Conquest indeed, and 
they appear in England soon after it. But they came to both from one 
common fountain of all: refinement in general, and of architecture in par- 
ticular, Italy ; the very term by which we distinguish this pyramidal kind 
of steeple, being merely (as the judicious Skinner observes) the " Italian 
" spira, pyramis, turris fastigiata.*' Nor is the term solely Italian. It is 
equally Latin, though in this signification not classical ; distortedly bend- 
ing to import " a round pyramid,'* as Johnson observes concerning the 
derivative English, '* — ^perhaps because a line drawn round and round in 
** less and less circles, would be a spire." Accordingly, in that very cu- 
rious because very ancient view of Rome, which is given us in the Notitia, 
the only perspective indeed that we have of this imperial city, the other 
view of it on the pavement of a temple at Rome being merely a ground- 
plan  ; amid much indistinctness of vision, yet with a prominent view 
of the Pantheon, we behold two tov^r-like buildings, actually surmounted 
with round pyramids , behold an apparent church just without the walls 
having a tower taitk a short blunt spire to it, even again behold within 
the walls the apparent tower of a church, shooting up into a tall spire, and 
carrying a cross on the top of it\. All shews the use of spires among 
the Romans, very satisfactorily. But in the Notitia is a perspective of 
another city, Achaia being delineated as a female personage with her 
proper attributes, and in the back-ground of the picture appearing a view 
of a city, Corinth assuredly, the capital of the province ; in which the 
loftier buildings only are seen of course ; but out of five towers that are 
seen, three seem to have sho7^t spires, and two have spires as tall, as taper,. 
as conspicuous, as any of our own'\.. I thus account for the present use 
of spires, among ourselves and among the Saracens, derived equally to 
both from the Greeks through the Romans ; beginning among ourselves 
particularly at the same time with towers to our churches, though much 
rarer probably in their use ; and continued by the Saracens, not inno- 
vating certainly in all points> as they have been wildly supposed to be, 
even retaining Roman mosaics, even copying Roman grotesques,' even 

-  Graevius, iv. 1954. 

+ Panclrollus at the begiunmg. 

X Ibid. 70. 

VOL. I. 




14tt ♦he cathedral op CORNWALL [CHAP, H* 

copying all the singularities of their architecture, perhaps from the Egyp^ 
tians, with that very invention of the Greeks, an arch§. 


fio Another deficiency at St. German's is a form of internal disposition in 

c^yiff^ CA^f*.^, our parish-churches of Cornwall, which is retained by many of the old 

among us, which I hear to be still retained equally by some in Devon- 
shire, but which I have never found noticed in any either here, or there, 
or elsewhere. The churches consist in their original state of a single aile 
generally, and of a projection running at right angles from if ; that con- 
stituting the body of the' church, and this composing the lords chapel. 
The projection exists large and striking in my own church, in that of 
Veryan, that of Philley, that of St. Ewe, and in those of Lamorran, St. 
Just, Tregoney, &c. But then the projection, being now or formerly en- 
dosed with rails as a chapel, and having only a direct view across the 
body of the church ; an opening was made through the substance of the 
wall upon one side, to give the family kneeling in the chapel a view of the 
altar. This opening has been closed again, in some churches; as at 
Veryan it appears to have been filled up, when the chapel was converted 
into a belfrey, and what was a belfrey before became a porch to the 
church* At Tregoney the opening for sight has been enlarged into a gal- 
lery for access towards the altar, by tearing down the wall, rebuilding it 
with a tall arch, and forming a low avenue into the chancel under a wall 
sloped out into the churchyard. At Truro likewise the chapel has been 
destroyed for the construction of a northern aile ; only the western part 
of its partitioning wall has been left, with its arch of entrance on the 
east ; low, indeed, in its pitch, yet not lower than the side-door on the 
south ; and the upper half of this arch is left open for the common 
people, who now sit where the family of the lord ortce sat, to see the 
pulpit on the opposed side of the church, and to hear directly the clergy- 
man preaching from it. But in other churches, particularly my own, 
this opening remains as it was originally, a mere avenue for the eye to- 

§ Swinburne in Spain, i. ;288 ; 280, plate; and Pococke In Egypt, i. 215, 220. Compare 
the pillars and capitals in the former, i. 280, wiih those in the latter,!. ai6, 217. The very 
miinarets are structures between towers and spires, being spires in form but towers in fact, as 
' men stand on them^ and proclaim the hours of prayer. 



wards the altar ; not large, but rounding, about the height of the head to 
a.kneder, and pointing immediately to the altar. All these circumstances 
unite to mark its designation ; to shew it calculated for presenting a view 
of the priest at the altar, in the act of elevating the sacramental elements, 
for the invoked consecration of them hy the Holy Ghost. This elevation 
was at once primitive, popular, and proper, being still traceable in all 
the liturgies of the primitive church *, being retained for many ages after- 
ward, and appearing strictly proper in itself, when material substances 
• were to be made the awful conveyancers of spiritual benefits, and the 
Holy Spirit was supplicated to make them such. We even see the prac- 
tice more plainly, in an accidental intimation given us by Flonis, the very 
ancient enlarger of Bede's Martyrology, from the still more ancient acts 
of a bishop in the days of Constantine •; of whom it is said, that " at the 
"hour of breaking celestial bread, when, according to the sacerdotal 
** custom, he-tvith elevated hands offered up the Host to the Third in the 
** Godhead for his benediction," &c. -f-. TTie usage, indeed, was retained 
among us till the Reformation, when the first lituigy of our Edward, in 
1549, preserved the prayer of oblation, but ordered it *' to be sayed 
" turning still to the altar y without any elevation, or,'* as the order use^ 
fully adds in reference to our present point, ** shmoing the sacrament to 
'* the people J /* A little before this event had Truro chtirch been built, 
and a little after this must Tregoney have been altered. Truro church is 
of the elegant sort of Gothic which took place among us in the reign of. 
Henry VIL, and which, perhaps, might be wished to have still continued - 
among us, as happily uniting the solemn solidity of the Gothic with the 
luminous lightness of the Roman. Atcordingly, in that window of the 
south, which is the third from the east, is an express date of 1518: yet 
this church, though so late, had its chapel, and consequently its opening; 
that now superseded by the end of the new aile, this now screened from ^ 

♦•See a Collection of the principal Liturgies, iified by the Christian Church in the Cele^ 
btation of the Holy Euqh^rist ; with a Dissertation upon jthem ; by Thoniias Brett, L. L. D. ; 
1720, p. 9, I7f 45>&c. of the Liturgi^ ; p. 103, 104, of the Dissertation, 

t Bede, 418 : '^ In hor& confractionis panis coelestis, dum dc more sacerdotali bostiam 
^^ elevatis manibus Tertio Deo oblatam.benedicendam ofTerret," &c. 

J Brett, 134, of Lilurgtes. 
• • u 2. view 


view by plastering and by monuments ; because the elevation was ^till 
continued. But at Tregoney the opening was changed into an avenue, 
because the elevation was now forbidden. Previously to this the eleva- 
tion had been considered as an act of peculiar solemnity in the very 
solemn service of the eucharist, as what peculiarly tended 

To swell the pomp of dreadful sacrifice. 

*' I believe," says a poet, a critic, and a Protestant, *' few persons have 
*' ever been present at the celebratifig a mass in a good choir, but have » 
'* been affected with awe, if not with devotion § /' Yet wliat is t:he most 
affecting part of the whole, let his own anecdote proclaim. '* liord 
*' Bohngbroke," adds the same author, '' being present at this solemnity 
'* in the chapel at Versailles, and seeing the archbishop of Paris elevate the 
•' host, whispered his companion the marquis de *****, ' If I were king 
"of France, I would always perform this ceremony myself || .*' To see 
this act therefore, was sure to be the wish of all in the congregation ; yet 
was denied to the very family of the lord himself, from the very position 
of his chapel. To retain the position, but preclude the denial, the wall of 
the chapel was left open near its union with the chiurch, and a visto was 
formed for the eye to the altar. Such a visto must once have been uni-- 
versal in and out of Cornwall, where the lord's chapel so projected from 
the parish-church : and, as the projection was not confined to Cornwall, 
the visto (I hear) is still to be found in Devonshire : yet even in Cornwall 
it is vanishing away, and has never been noticed by the antiquaries of 
church-architecture before. At St. German's and all the larger churches, 
it cannot appear, because they have no lord's chapel at all. It can appear 
only in those that have one, and that have one forming (as it were) a 
single arm of a cross to the church. 

The third deficiency at St. German's is more imaginary than real ; yet 
has been . reported so confidently for real, as to demand my particular 
notice here, in order to clear up confusion, and to rectify erroneousness, 
even with those very antiquaries through Vhom I receive much of my in- 

$ Warton's Essay on Pope, i. 325, edit. ad. | Ibid. 325, 326, 



formation. These have been long proclaimiiig to the world; &nd pro^ 

claiming ^"ith a tone of authority seemingly jast, that such an entrance 

as our own into the church was denominated the parvis among our att* ^ctn/trii. 

cestors. Yet whence could an appellation^ so strange to our ears, and 

so perpl^mg to our understandings, be derived f Not from paradise 

undoubtedly, as Spelman in a high fever of fancy dreams, and dreams for- 

sooth ! because the porch is to the church what paradise is to heaven ^; 

not ^^ a parvis, pueris" there taught, as Watts, in a paroxysm of learning 

rim m^d, Affirms *. It resulted from a circumstance in the internal di^^^ 

position of oui* churches,, that is rarely found at present, that is equally 

with the name unknown at St. German *s> but was naturally characteristic 

enough to attract a particular title once. 

ThQ parvis in the church was plainly a school; as a poor clerk of France.^ 
says M. Paris under 1250, was forced to drag on *' a starving life in the 
*' parvis f keeping a school, and selling petty books -f*.'* It thus formed 
such a part of the building, as we still see in some churches of Normandy; 
the portal *' at the north end of the cross aile'* in Rouen cathedral, being 
to this day *' called Le Portail des Libraires,^* or the porch of the book- 
sellers ; not, as has been surmised, " from its opening into a place w^her6 
^' formerly stood several booksellers' shops," but, as the name and thehis*- 
tory unite to shew, from its being the scene of such portable shops it- 
self J. . Such shops we see still continued in the streets of London, by 
men who shew us in lively portraits the originals of all our stationers, 
with their rubric posts, at present* We see them still nearer to the 
level of those, in the humbler stationers attending after dinner at the halls 
of our colleges in Oxford, ranging out their libraries of a score of pam« 
pl4ets t^on the ground, and carrying off their unsold stocks in the package 
of a basket. Thus did the name of parvis become the hereditarjr and 
statutable distinction at Oxford, for what in common language we de- 
nominate the Schools there ; those places of exercise for the literary 

l| Speloitn ! ^^ Contraci^ 9 Lat, Paradiwwi— i. e, utrium ecdeitie/' 
* W«nd, Glofii^riunii to bit Mt P»n« ; *^ A p4rvb puaris ibi ^octift/' ' 
- i Parity ^o ; ^ Scbelti exeri^eiif, vcnditU in p»ivisio libeilisy vium haMicata/^ 
} Ducarrel, 13, 

1 gemus 


genius of that university^ in which this eagle beats his young pinions 
and strains his young eyes, for a flight towards the noon-day sun of 

EquaUy transferred was the name of parvis, as Watts in a moment 
of more sobriety thinks, to those scholastic exercises of young lawyers,, 
which were formerly termed moots, as the cases proposed in them were 
termed moot-points §.. But, as the fact appears undeniably to haii^e been,^ 
the very place that was the station of these booksellers^ was equally made 
a court of judicature^ like Westminster Hall at present, and all the serious 
warfare of the law was prosecuted in it^ This we see by reflection from, 
that only mirror, which 

Catches the mannert living as they rise,. 

wJbich retains them faithfully upon its surface afterwards, and is always 
exhibiting them to the attentive eye ; the allusive language of our ances* 
tors.. Thus a Serjeant at law, now our highest dignitary in the scale of" 
acting lawyers,, but formerly (as the name shews) a mere apprentice to • 
the trade of law, is thus complimented by Chaucer for his knowledge and 
experience^ as actually the highest dignitary even then i 

A- Serjeant at law ware and wise,. 
That often bad been at the parvise | •. 

But Fortescue, that grave and learned judge, speaks exactly in the same 
tone of language- with the comic bard ; describing those who had any 
*' pleas** or suits in the court, as " going away to the parvis, and there - 
" consulting with their Serjeants at law or other counsellors ^/* Botfo 
these notices intimate the high consequence of this court in the portal, the 
general resort (rf* the people to it, and the great abilities of the lawyers in 
it. Tet all seems ta have vanished from the page of historyj^ and to have 

§ Watts r ^ Etiam et in collegiis jurisperitomm nostratium, exercitium sive collbquium 
^' studentium juniorum the parvise vocabatur, quod nunc moot dicimus/' 

I) Watts was the first who cited these linesy and he cites themirom Chaucer,' Ptotog. ^ 
^ Watts from Fortescue, cap, 51 ; *' Placitantes tunc &e divertunt ad paryisum, consu- 
** lentes cum servientibus ad legiemeialiis consiliariis suis/' Staveliey^ I59^.tunui tto plea 
into pleadings^ and so mars the meaning. 



left not a trace behfaid. But that it has so left or so vanished, is only the 
vision of idleness, unwilling to exert itself in inquiries, and therefoie 
hanging lazilj over supposed vacuity. 

There is a passage in one of our ancient historians, a private, a local 
historian, and consequently more an historian of manners than a public, a 
general one ; which comes up to the height of both these notices, satis- 
iSictorily accounts for them both, and so lays open a point new but 
striking, very curious but very important, in the economy of our ancient 
constitution. ^' Of two towers at the middle of the length" of Canter- 
bury cathedral, says Eadmer in his description of it just after the Cbn- 
quest, ** one on the south had in its side the principal door of the church, 
^^ which door is often mentioned by name in the laws of our ancient kings; 
** by which laws it is decreed, that even all suits of the whole realm, which 
/^ cannot be legally determined in hundred or county courts^ or ^certainly 
" decided in the kings own court, must have their determination here as 
*' in the highest court of the king*.'' This is a declaration, amazingly 


* Gervase, 1292, Twisden: ^^ Sub medio longitudinis aulas ipsius duas turcet erant,-— > 
'^ quarum una, quse in austro erat— >, habebat— -in latere principale hostium ecclesie^-^quod 
<« ^n antiquorum legibus regum suo nomine saepe exprimitur; in quibus eciam omnes 
^< querelas totiuB regni, quae in hundredis vel comitatibua, uno vel plpribus, yel certi in dftik 
** regis, non possent legaliter diiEniri, finem inibi, sicut in curjil regis summi [summ^}^ spr* 
^< tiri deberediscemitur/' These words were not understood by him, who first produced 
them as relative to the parvis; Staveley rendering them thus in 160, ^* That all the difTerences 
"^^ in the hundreds were there determined, as in the king's court." But Selden, who^ 
duced them before without any reference to the parvis, saw. their import thoroughly, and criet 
out with amazement at it ; ^' Impense miranda est jurisdictionis beic prodigiosa ampliludo,' 
*^ aec sane minor, ut verba sonant, quim si dixisset sommum ibi, quoad cansas etiam teliua 
*' regni omnimodas, imo et regiis superius, tribunal arohiepiscppalc ibi locum tunc habuisse.. 
<^ idque in legibus^ quas diximus, discemi. Res quidem aliunde perquam inaudita, et jurt 
<' apud majores nostros, tum regie tum populi, quale tunc et semper postea viguisse recipi- 
** tur, undiquaque jdissona." (P. xUv* xlv. Praefatio toTwisden.) 'Ytt Sddea does, as every ' 
man of sense must do. fle believes the account, howevet extraordimiry, upon the credit of ' 
«n historian so grave and so faithful ; he cited Eadmer : ^' Adeo fidelis tamen ac gravis mibi 
scriptor est Eadmerus." He says, (p. xliii.) " ut de re ipsft— dubitare nequeam." Bat 
qponam in opuscuk) acripserit bo€£admerus,mihinondttm'Constat. Certc nee in historift 

*• ejus * 



jwegnant with inteUigence and novelty. The judicature of the church 
appears evidently to have hcen the high cotirt of chancery then in the 
kingdom. " All suits of the whole realm/' which either could not be 
determined in the courts of the hundred or the county, as courts having 
not a legal competency of jurisdiction over them, or could not be finally 
decided in the king's bench of the dayi, were decided "and determined in 
that *' highest court of the king/* which was held in the southern portal 
of Canterbury cathedral, and therefore had the archbishop undoubtedly 
presiding in person at it f . For this reason it is noticed equally by a 
bard and by a judge^ that speaking the language of the multitude, but 
this the language of the law ; as the grand court of appeal to the whole 
nation, as the grand court for numerousness or selectness of lawyecs, as 
therefore the natural representative of all the courts. 

Yet at what period did commence, and in what period did conclude, 

this very extraordinary judicature, which has so long lain hid from our 
eyes in the clouds of our own ignorance, or in the fumes of our own in- 
curiousness ? It commenced undoubtedly with the very commencement 
of Saxon Christianity, and it concluded not for four ages after the Con- 
quest. Mentioned by Eadmer about the year 1 1 oo, without any note of 
its diminished authority ; we find it about the year 1250, still existing at 
Canterbury, still appearing as a grand court of appeal, and still attended 
by a number of counsellers. Petrus Blesensis, a chaplain of the arch- 
bishop's, and archdeacon of Canterbury, yet living regularly in the palace 
with the archbishop, during the life of Becket ; in some epistles which he 
p;ubhshed speaks incidentally of '^ a college even of counsellers flourish- 
'* ing there,** and ^* of himself a considerable member of it,** probably 
therefore in the very palace of the archbishop ; adding, that " all the 
•* knotty questions of the kingdom are referred to us J /* So strongly has 


^^ ^yw novorum, nee in Anselmi Vit&^-reperitur. Suspicor equidem S. Wtlfridt archiepis- 
<< copi Ebocacenm Vttse, ab eo conscripts, illud esse insertura. Vitam illam Qondum vidi/' 
(P. xUi« zliii.) 

t Hence Selden calls it *' tribunal archiepiscopale." 

X Selden, p. xlv* : ^< Collegium ibi florere ostendit etiam juriQ-consultorum, quorum ipse^ 
f ' >magaa pars^ et * omoes,' inquit, ^ quaestiones regni nodosae referuntur ad nos\'' But, as 




tiie sun of history shone upon the court, without illuminating the dark- 
ness of it to the blind optics of our antiquarian critics ! The court con- 
tinued even to the days of Chaucer and of Fortescue, the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries ; with a high degree of brightness beaming around its 
head, yet all wrapt up in a thick gloom to the dim eyes of antiquarianism. 
Thus the island of Madeira appeared for a long time to an adjoining isle, 
a mere cloud of darkness, impenetrable to the rays that shewed it rising 
up from the sea, and reaching as high as heaven ; when all the while it 
was only a mountainous land, with a thick wood upon it. Selden 
at last saw and confessed the court, ' but stared at it for a prodigy ; 
just as that island, on a nearer view, was thought to be peopled by 

Yet still how came this court, so visible, though so unseen for ages, to 
be denominated the parvis ? The same historian, who exhibits the 
court itself in such magnificent colours, will help us to explain the name. 
The door at which the court was held, he tells us, '* was anciently ^ and 
^' even now is, denominated by the English the southern door — ; but 
^ another tower has been built on the northern side, opposite to the former y 
^ having the cloysters, in which the monks conversed, ranging about the 
*' sides of it,** and consequently with a door opening into them. " In the 
former, forensic suits and secular pleas were prosecuted ; but in the 
latter,'' as the author astonishingly proceeds to lay open the very school 
of the portal with which he began, " the more adult monks," not 
*' children*' therefore §, not " parvi pueri,** either clerical or laical, as 
has always been hitherto supposed, but solely '* monks,** solely '* adults** 
among them, and solely '* the more adult*' of the number, " were traiiied 
*' up night and day hy turns,'' not in the common, the secular principles 
of literature, but, as better became men preparing for orders, *' in learn- 


Selden remarks, ^^ degebat Petrus ille ut minister ac famulus, etiam et archidijaconus. Can- 
^' tuariensis, in aedibus archiepiscopi illius; quod vitae genus omniuo aulicum tunc erat splen* 
, *' didissimumque/' 

§ Staveley, 157: "There was a certain part of the church anciently called the parvis, 
" that is, a— part of the church set apart and used for the teaching oijckitdren in it/' 

VOL. !• X '^ ing 




" ing the offices of the church^ /* We thus find the school and the court 
very fortunately united together in one church. Yet let us not leave this 
northern door^ as it is so very important in our intended explanation of the* 
name, to the seeming dubiousness of an inference ; wrhen we can prove 
its existence at once. '* In 1299, the 9th of September/* says another 
historian, '' Robert archbishop of Canterbury celebrated the espousal* 
between king Edward and Margaret, sister to the king of France, ai 
that door of Christ-church in Canterbury, wh^h is towards the cloy** 
ster ^ ." That marriages M^ere made at the church-door formerly, was 
well kndwn to antiquaries ; but no antiquary has yet produced this 
illustrious passage in proof of the point. The two doors therefore were . 
like the two towers in which they were '' opposite'* to each other. The 
space between them, we see, had a school or " parvis** at one end, and a 
court or *' parvis" at the other, not kept in the same portal, as has been 
always believed, and as I believed myself when I began my researches^ but 
at two portals directly opposite. A visto was thus formed for the eye across 
the breadth of the church; and this visto is what the Normans expressed by. 
par-vis or seen-thrmigh, jnst as vis^d-vis signifies any thing opposite at pre- 
sent, and as a small carriage, holding two persons opposed to each other, is 
denominated a vis-h-vis among ourselves. Here then is the mightymystery 
dissolved, that has hung so long like a spell upon the name of parvis for 

I Gervase, 1292: '' Antiquitus ab Anglis, et nunc usque, StiMdWr^ dicitur ;*-aIta vcr& 
<' turris in plagi aquilonali, e regtone illiua, condita fuit,— claustra in quibus monacht con« 
^' versabantur bine inde habcns. Et sicut in ali& forenses lites et secularia placita exerceban* 
^* tur, ita in - istA adolescentiores fratres in discendo ecclesiastica ofEcia, die ac nocte, pro 
** temporum vicibus instituebantur.'' So the most westerly part of the church at Glaston- 
bury is said by tradition to have been appropriated foi^ the education of some who are de« 
nominated children ; but these appear to have been young monks. 

% Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 51 : '< Anno mccxcix. v. Id. Septembr^ archiepiscopuf 
'* Cantuariensis Robertus celebravit sponsalia inter pr«dictum regem Edwardum et Mai^are- 
" tarn sororem regis, Franciae, in ostio ecclesiae Christi Cantuariensis versus claustrum." 
By this door Becket went from his palace into the church, followed by his murderers.. ** In 
<* claustrum monachorum cum venissemus," says one of his attendants, '^ voluerunt mona- 
*< chi ostiam post eum acclaudere,** but he would not permit them j " intratum est in eccle* 
<^ siam istam ; iturus ad aram superius,— jam quatuor gradus ascenderatj cum ecce ! ad ostium 
*< clauslri— adest,*' Sec. Sparke, 85, Vita S. Thom«. 

a part 


a part of our churches, and defied all the wizard powers of antiqua- 
rianism ! It signifies solely a visto through the church. It was not con- 
fined therefore to the porch, even to the lower end of the church at large, 
as has been always asserted, and always believed, hitherto *. We see 
the visto at Canterbury cathedral across the middle. The parvis, how- 
ever, was frequently at the western end of the church, and consequently 
without any visto at all ; even extended with the crowds repairing to it as 
a court, and communicated its oame to an enclosure appendant to this 
end. Thus at the only church in Normandy, in which I know the ap- 
pdlation ofpmrvis. to be stiU retained^ it is retained only by this appendant 
part ; as at Rouen, '' adjoining to the west end of the cathedral, is a lai^e 
*^ square piece of groimd, enclosed with a stone wall," the atrium of the . 
church at this end, and therefore *^ called to this day parvis or otVre f .*' 
From this position it is, that parvis, in the present language of France, 
signifies not sl visto through a church, not a portal at the end of it, but 
merely a place before a portal. And thus at last we find the appellation, 
which has been wildly attached to most of our churches, and wildly 
affixed to the western portal of them, incident only to such as liad a visto 
across tl^ir breadth, affixed only to one church in fact through all the 
kingdom, and from its attachment to the school with the court of this, 
lending itself through the celebrity of its school to the Schools at Ox- 
ford, even diffusing itself witii the splendour of its court over all the 
kingdom :|:. 

* Watts : ^^ Sane aliquando pars quaedam in inferiore navi tcdesissf-^the parvis dicebatur.'* 
Staveley, 159, 160: '^ Most churches, especially the greater ones, have a north door and a 
*^ south door towards the nether end of the church, and one of them just opposite to the 
** other, whereby a passage or thoroughfare is made through that part of the church — ; now 
*< the lowest part of the church next to the doors, was called rtie par»isJ^ 

t Ducarrel, 13: AitrezX present signifies the closet of a house, but (as the analogy tells 
us) of a clo$et prx^fmg over the Yttrium, and ibence of any room of a bouse. When we 
once discover the radical idea, we thence trace the ranuficalions with certarnty. 

X SUveley, ir6oj l'6f , refers to Simeon Dunelooiensis, 35, Twrsden, Sqt a court similar to 
that at C^nfterbury • 3ut Smioon's cpvir) i« only Bi^iil^fy as b^ing in |l dburck* UyvB^ in a 
country church, *^ non longe ab urbe — ccclesiani 5" and it was a court merely occjtsioila] in 
itself, because uaexpeeied by tl^ priest, the periodical oourl of a man0rv .: 




|CHAP, Ilf. 



L^ the preceding account of the Saxon churches, we see underground 
'yio thA^jf^o^ chapels, or (as they were then called at times) porticofes, belonging 
J .Ci^^f^A'vuii^yyA . equally with " appenticiae*' or side-chapels to them. We may see them 

again i|^ Wilfrid's church at Rippon, as described by Malmesbury himself, 
where the church is said to have been " built by him from the founda- 
'^ tions, with a wonderful bowing of arches, a roofing of stones^ and a 
'^ winding of porticoes,'* or underground chapels *. These also appear, 
though the circumstance has never been noted by any writer hitherto, to 
have; been constructed originally for confessionals. The first church of 
Canterbury, that which was built by the Ramans, says Eladmer the onfy 
describer of it, had " an ascent of some steps from — what the Romans 
" call a crypt or confessional ; ** and this, he adds, " was built below like 
" the confessional of St. Peter's" in Rome f . ^' There was/* says the 
same author concerning a church on the continent, a certain crypt — , 
'^ which, according to custom, obtained the name of a confessional X *^ 
The shadiness of an undercroft seems peculiarly calculated for a work, at 
which our Protestant prejudices are apt to start away into suspicions and 
surmises ; into suspicions of what abuses may be engrafted upon it, and 
into surmises of what actually are. Yet as an exercise of casuistry, as an 

* Malmesbury, f. 148 : '* jfidificata ibi a fundamentis ecclesiae^ miro— fomicum infle»i^ 
" lapidum tabulatu, porticuum anfractu.^' 

t Twisden, 1291: '< NonnuUia gradibus aseendebatur a choro cantonim^ quam criptam 
'< vel confessionem Romani vocant ; subtus erat ad imitationem confessionis Sancti Petri 
<• fabricata.'^ 

X Wharton's Ar>glia Sacra^ ii, 195 ; «' Cripta quaedam crat — , qui locus cosfessiosis no- 
'^ men pro more obtinuit.'! 



act of private monition, and as an operation of personal remonstrance, it 
is found abroad to be expedient in itself; though (equally with all other 
exertions of authority ) it is certainly liable to much abuse, subjects the 
clergy* to much trouble in the matter, and exposes the clergy to much 
censure in the manner. It was therefore directed to be performed at first 
within the walls of the church, in order to throw a greater sanctity over 
the deed; but within the chapels of the crypt, in order to give a greater 
privacy to it. Nearly so, within the remains of that fine dilapidated 
mansion of the Tregyons at Golden in Cornwall, which was in building 
at the very period of Leland's visit into the county § ; upon the left side 
of the gateway is the chapel, but on the right what tradition reports to 
have been the chaplain's apartment, and within it a small room half under- 
ground, with no light into it except through the opened door, and with 
two -stone seats in it, reported equally by tradition to have been the con-- 
Jessional of the family || . And in the nunnery at Littlemore near Ox- 
ford, where " the chapel is now standing," with " the nunnery itself, at 
*' least a very great part of it, aU rebuilt in the reign of Henry III. ; 
'' amongst other rooms of the nunnery there is one above stairs, all dark 
*^ and entire, whictis that in which the nuns used to make their confes- 
" sions to their ghostly father *." I thus account for a ^5*struction, that 
has long perplexed all our antiquaries ; and account for it in a manner 
peculiarly suggested by its nature, as well as historically true in itself f. 


§ Leland's Itin. iii. 28 : '^ Mr. Tregyon bath a maner place rtcbely begon and amply^ 
^' but not ended, caullid Wulaedon alias Goldoun/' 

II I owe this intimation to the late vicar of Probus^ the Rev. Mr. Seccomb.^ 
* Itin. ii. 15a. 

t ^* I happened to be present," says one, ** whilst the service was read in the French lan- 
guage,^ at the Wallon church of Canterbury ; '^ but though the day was bright, it was 
difficult to' distinguish the countenances of those who were present." (Arch. viii. 445.) 
The author then mentions the crypt under St. Paul's. '* A third instance of such a subter- 
raneous church," he adds, ** is to be found in the cathedral at Glasgow. Now It so bap- 
pens, that each of these crypts are [isj situated under the choirs of their vespective catbe- 
'^ drals." Yet where should they be, but under the most elevated part of the cathedrals I 
*^ Erasmus says," as another telb us of 4he Canterbury crypt in Arch. x. 46-48, *^ that the 
*^ eastern part" of the crypt ^' being somewltat obscure, till lights were brought he could not 
^* view to .advantage x\i^ elegant chapel of the Virgin Mary" there. The writer therefore 



But Athelstan constructed no undercrofts to his church, for a reason of 
a striking nature. When the Britons of CornM^all first fixed a church 
upon the site, they, did as the Britons and Saxons of Cornwall equally do 
to this day, overlook all fear of dampness fn the predominating dread of 
winds : they therefore chose a ground sheltered from the winds, though 
it was moist in itself, for the position of their church ; and the Saxons 
chose another more moist but more sheltered, even the site below the 
church, for their college. Accordingly a drain has been found requisite 
by lord Eliot, as I have hinted before, to run from the northern tower anji 
along the churchyard, in order to draw off the natural moisture of the 
ground, and divert it from the church. My lord has even found his 
house, the Saxon college, from the door westward nearly up to the end of 

Assigns a reason for the darkness, which is none at all; that this crypt was '* designed to have 
'^ a constant conimdnication with the vaults" more easterly, and might tberefore have bten 
enlightened from them. Even supposing that to have been once designed and then omitted, 
of which this author gives no proof at all ; yet the question still recurs, and the answer is 
still wanted, why the darkness was not removed by some new expedient. ** The French 
*^ church is, however, less lightsome than it was formerly, in consequence of the ground 
** without it being considerably raised.'* This reason can have had only a slight influence, 
as we see the darkness of the place in the days of Erasmus. Even our author acknowledges 
it afterwards to have been so dark from the first, as hardly to admit the celebration of service 
by the light of day, and therefore to h^ve wanted the assistance of lamps* '^ In these 
•* crypts," he concludes, *' there miglit, in general, be light sufficient for the celebration of 
"divine rites; and, in compliance with the superstition of the age, there were lamps burn- 
" ing at the several altars/' The intimation is annihilated by the afisertion; and, if lamps 
were wanted, there was not daylight siafficient. Yet, what shews the assertion fwt to be 
true, we have just seen even ** the elegant chapel of the Virgin Mary" there, too dark to be 
viewed by daylight, and requiring lights to be brought. We see also again in the much ear- 
lier days of Becket, that " the crypt had many turnings in it, and most of them ghomyJ' 
(Sparke, 86 : '* Crypta — , in qui multa, et pleraquc tenebrosa, diverticula/') And the crypt 
of St. Peter's at Rome, the very model or pattern of our original crypt at Canterbury, is so 
verj' dark at this moment, <* that there is no seeing any thing without the light of a torch." 
(Keysler's Travels, translated 1760, ii, 260.) " To the crypts under the choirs of cathedrals 
** specified" above, finally remarks our author, " may be added that at Rochester, con- 
" structed by Ckmdulph." But Leland tells us of another under Winburn minster, as 
'' the cryptes in the est part of the chirch is an old peace of work." (Itin. iii. 86.) At Exeter 
also we find " cripta ejusdcm ecclesias," the cathedral. (Monasticon, i. aai.) Aod at 
Brisiol we find two churches with crypts. (Leland's Itin. vii. 90.) 

5 his 



his gallery there, built upon piles driven into the mud of the sea-beach; 
though from that door eastward, all along the eastern end of the house, it 
was raised upon a rock. And every eye may discern, what shews the 
swampiness of the ground along this side of the church, in the strongest 
light, that the nortJiern arches of the nave have all gone off from their 
perpendicular, are now leaning a little toward the house below, and, if 
the northern aile with its buttresses did not check the tendency, would 
lean considerably. Yet we cannot believe these buttresses to have been 
raised by the Normans,, for shoring up the then inclining nave. We 
find, indeed, at the ancient royal abbey of St. Audoen in Normandy, that 
*' the walls of this church are eased on the outside by thuty-two arc-- 
" boutants or buttresses, placed at equal distances, and so contrived as not 
** in the least to impede the light from piercing the windows*." We 
see also buttresses between the windows, at the ancient palace of the Con- 
queror in Caen,, and at the cathedral church of Bayeux -f* • We even 
seem to have borrowed the very appellation of buttresses from the Nor- 
mans of France % • Yet, however this may be true and that is certainly 
so, the use of buttresses is very ancient among us. We behold them at 
the north aile, coaeval undoubtedly with the aile and the nave. We see 
them again at the south aile, equally coaeval with the aile itself, used 
therefore by the Britons of Cornwall in the seventh century, and received 
by them with all their architecture from the Romans themselves § • And 

• Dncarrel, 47. 

t Ibid. 59 and 78. 

X The name comes to us, I believe, from a word no longer existing in the language, yet 
leaving its family of words behind it ; arc-boutant a buttress, because buttresses used to ter- 
minate, as they still terminate at times, in a half-arch ; ahoutir to border or abut upon, 
abouiissement bordering or abutting upon, boutisse a stone laid across, b&utoirj biUe, a farrier's 
buttress. Buttresses seem to have been used originally, at the end of buildings. Hence are 
dorivcd the French ideas above, and our own of the butt end of any thing. The earliest 
mention that I have noticed of buttresses in our island is this, concerning lateral, not final, 
buttresses, even some at the angles of a tower : '< Turris manerii dc Howndesdon per iiii mil* 
** liaria de Woar vill^," Ware in Hertfordshire ; "^-in quolibet Tatere dlctse turris sunt vri 
** botras^es msLgnsd latitudinis/* (Itineraria — W. p. 89.) 

§ The term in Saxon was probably spuvj and in British spin- (T.), still used for a siiore or 
piop among our builders; just as eperon is used by the French at present* 



the inclination of the arches has been gradually growing, from the erec- 
tion of them by Athelstan to the present moment % . 

- . . A. Yet though Athelstan, for the swampiness of the soil, built no porti- 
^^^ coes or underground chapels ; he raised his pentices for confessionals. 

Thesey equally with thosCy were always separated from each other an4 
from the nave by walls. A separation from the nave, however, is a cir- 
cumstance unknown to all our critics in church-architecture : but it .is 
very apparent, in the report of history, and in the view of remains. Wil- 
frid, in building the church at Hexham, says the Norman describer of it, 
*' surrounded the very body of the church with pe7itices and porticoes oii 
" every side, tvhich he — separated hy walls *.'* In the choir of Conrad 
that was raised at Canterbury, says Gervase, '^ there was a wall, which 
*' divided the body of the church from those sides of it that are denomu 
" nated ailesf.^* " There were," adds Shaw in his description of Elgin 
cathedral, " porticoes or to-falls on each side of the church, eastward 
" from the traverse or cross, which were eighteen feet broad without the 
*' walls ;*' and there was, '* besides the great windows in the porticoes, 
^ — a row of attic windows in the walls, each six feet high, above the 
" porticoes ;** he confounding the pentice with the portico, giving the 
name of portico to the pentice, but shewing the pentice to be divided 
from the nave by walls |. And, in the relics of the abbey-church af 
Reading, the remains of this dividing wall still salute the eye, still attract 
the wonder of spectators uninformed of such a separation in other 
churches, and unable to account for it in any § . . Accordingly, all access 


^ This has even gone on so rapidly since I wrote the account above, that in 1803 the 
whole of the aile has been taken down, and the services of the church have for a twelve- 
month past been transferred to a room in the house. — ^July 16^ 1804. 

* Twisden, c. 290: ^' Ipsuni — corpus ecclesie appenticiis et porticibus undique circum- 
^* ctnxit, quse — per parietes — distinxit." 

t Twisden, c. 1294 : <^ Murus erat — , qui— K^orpus ecclesise a suis lateribus quae alie vo- 
^' cantur dividebat." 

J Shaw's Moray, 277. 

§ Arch. vi. 65, sir Henry Englefield : '* There is a circumstance which is really very sin- 
^^. jgular, in thcL disposition of the walls of the [abbey] church 5 that is, that the side-ailes seem 




to Ottr pentices was originally from tvithout, there was no communication 
betwixt them and the church tvithin, while the rooms themselves were 
equally small and dark, each being divided from the nave by a wall be- 
tween the pillars, which still remains at the site of the organ-loft. Near 
the western end of this aile, about six feet only from the northern tower, 
appear the plain vestiges of an ancient doorway in the outer wall ; that 
was about eight feet high, with something more than three wide, had a 
round arch above, yet is now formed into a modem kind of window with 
narrow parallel compartments, but must have led into a small room there 
between the door and the nave. A few yards to the east of this, and di- 
rectly opposite to the new-discovered staircase of stone, was another 
door, the customary entrance into the church for the Eliot family, within 
these few years ; some stone steps mounting up to the level of the floor, 
a round arch (equally as in the former doorway) still appearing over head 
within, the same sort of modem window filling up this as that, and all 
marking out to us the room of a second confessional. But at the eastern 
end of this was very lately another room, only a few feet square, having 
no outlet at all, having only a small window-like opening on the south, 
and approachable only from the aile by a doorway that still remains/ that 
proves itself modern by the letters R. S. cut in the stones of it, and shews 
the partitioning wall to be equally modern with itself. Thus partitioned, 
however, from the rest of the aile, this room was considered as the tomb- 
house of the Scawens once existing at Molinek in the parish ; but being 
taken down a few years ago, when lord Eliot purchased the estate at 
Molinek, and a buttress being erected upon the ground to secure this 
angle of the church from warping, not the least vestige of a grave was, 
discovered, though the whole floor of the room was necessarily turned up 
in the operation. Yet the room was undoubtedly , destined for this pur- 
pose, when the partitioning wall was . erected, and the recording letters 
were inscribed upoja the doorway ; or an appropriation, so antique in its 

" to have been separated from the rest hy continued xvallSf which still are in some parts three 
*^feet above the turf-, this, indeed, I cannot account for." Yet how easily does the textaic- 
count for it here ! * Mr. Bentham even says, p. 29, that in the first churches ** their porti- 
*^ coes,'' or ailes, ^' weroopen — towards the navd*" So requisite was "a new account of our 
ancient chu/cbe^^ to clear away the falsehoods of the old ! 

VOL. I. Y origin. 


origin, would ncrer have been conceived by the common people : but 
still it was never used. Previously, indeed, to the erection of the par- 
tioning wall, it must have been all open to the aile, was in fact a mere 
part of the second confessional, and shews us very clearly the original na- 
ture of both. There was no light admitted into either from without, the 
present windows into the aile being all apparently modem, and two of 
them being evidently doorways at first. Yet some was admitted from 
tvithin, as the window-like opening in this room must have looked for- 
merly into the chancel, looking latterly into the interval between the 
present altar and the late teewhouse. So, at the cathedral of Elgin be- 
fore, we have seen the " to- falls" running *' on each side of the church, 
** eastward from the traverse or cross.*' Thus the absolute darkness of 
an unwindowed room was qualified a little, by the introduction of a 
secondary light through glass, from the softened gloom of the church it- 
self. The shade was now strong enough to throw an air of deep solem- 
nity over the intercourse ; while the view into the church called in all the 
ideas of religion, and diffused a solemnity still deeper over all. So hap- 
pily does the soul derive her tempers from the feelings of the body at the 
moment ! So happily also is the et/e adapted to take in impressions from 
matter, and fix them upon spirit! 




" Entirely demolished," says Mr. Willis in 1716, '' — ^is [are] the roof 
and lofts of the north tower, though the walls yet stand. In it were 
[was] before the dissolution a set of bells, which were, as the parishio- 
** ners have a notion, carried to the neighbouring chm^ches." If they were 
so carried, as the tradition leaves us little doubt but they were, we m^ be 
sure they were carried only because they had been sold. We know not 
ngich indeed of the horrible rapacity for gain, which actuated the hearts 
and impeHed the hands of the busiest of our reformers. Tet a few in* 
stances will teach us. At Dale in Derbyshire, *' anno 1450 [l54oJ the 
** abbey c/ocA sold for six shillings ; the iron, glass, paving^stones, and 
^* gravestones, sold for eighteen pound ; the cloyster sold for six pound i 
^' here were su bblla weigliing 47 cwt." At Darleigh in the same 
co«nty, ^^ anno 1540 the Umbs and the wAdfe ekureb were soM for tufeidtf 
" pounds, the cloyster for ten pounds, the chapter^houae for twenty sfdl^ 

4 ^' &ngs ; 



'' lings; hste Atas thai received for six bblls forty •fire pounds, one 
^^ shilling, and ten pence." At Delacres in Staffordshire, *' the pcmer- 
*^ ment o/i the abbey-cAurcA, iks, roof, and gravestones, were sold for 
*' 13/. 0#. 8e/. anno 1540 ; here were then six bells, weight fifty hun- 
" dred, which were valued at 37/. 10s.'' At Merival in Warwickshire, 
^* the whole buildings of the abbey, valued I540 at 135/. I2s. 2d. ; four 
^^ BELLS, valued at 30/. ; six gravestones with brasses on them, sold for 
'^ 6s. ♦.'* So, on July the 5th, 1542, was '' sold to Henry Crips of 
^^ Burchington 'and Robert St Leger of Feversham, certain bell-metal, 
" containing twenty-four thousand, six hundreth, one quartern, twenty 
'^ and one pounds, in waight ; being parcel of the five bells late in the 
^^ greftt belifjrage of Christ-church in the city of Canterbury -f- /' But let 
OM enlarge this catalogue; of iniquities, by the addition of one more. Near 
to the scb^l in St, Paul's churchyard at London, says Stowe, was 
a gr^t aa^ high clocMer or belUhouse, foure-square, builded of stonr, 
and in the same a most strong frame <^ timber, with four^ bells, the 
* grmiest that I have heard ; these were called Jesus Bells, and belonged 
to Jesiis cbappelL The saxne had a great spire of timber, covered with 
lead, with the image of St. Paul on the toj> ; but was pulled down by sir 
** IVCles Partridge, knight, in the reigne of Heary theEighthe. The com- 
'^ mon speech then was, that hee did set ^ne hundred pounds upon a cast 
^*' of dice against it, and so wonne the aaid elochier and bels of the king ; 
^< and then, canAsmg ihebels tobe broken aa the^ hung, the rest was pulled 
*' downe X •** ^ Shr Thomas Audley," adds Stowe concerning one of the 
more digmified wretches that were satisfied to receive a reward for theii. 
^STrices to ds^ king» by sharing at second hand in his robberies upon the 
jtb.iircfai> ^^ ofiexed the great ckurcbqftJm priorie^' Chri6t-dburch on the 
ri^ithhandwiilhin Aldgi^* '' with a ring of nue beils well tuned, — to 
*^ iSat padsMkoneiB oi St« KiAharine Cbrist-ehmrch, in excban^ for their 
«< smaU parish-chiiu\d»4 mimdiag to have pulled it dowi^e, and to have 
^^ buiJkkdbtfaeM towaird^ the street;'' and on their refusal, '"^ foure the 
^ grtak&tt'' bdla ^' were swce sold to ^ pari&b of Stebunhith,'^ or $t^- 


'4^ See Tanner, p. xxxiz. xl. xlvi* zlviii, Mr. Willis's own notices, 
t Batteljr, a4« % Stowe^.357. 

Y 2 ney. 




ney, " and the five lesser to the parish of St. Stephen in Coleman-street*/' 
To so abominable an extent did the spirit of vulgar sacrilege then go ! 
Yet thus to expose the nakedness of our reformers before the startled eye 
of the world, becomes a duty necessary to our own honour, to vindicate 
ourselves firom participating in heart or head with the perpetrators of such 
enormities. The finest monuments of religion, we see, were considered 
by these Goths and Vandals of our own country, not with any respect for 
them as fine, not with any reverence for them as religious ; but, in a gross, 
pedlar-like barbarism of thought, as so many pounds or so many yards of 
a commodity saleable at a shop. 

Tet, as Mr. Willis proceeds concerning the northern tower of our 
church, '^ this was undoubtedly a clock-house to the parish, and served 
*' to the use of the prioiy ; which, being dissolved, rendered (in the 
*' opinion of sacrilegious persons) this building altogether needless f ;" or 
(to speak in a style more consonant to facts) capable of being profitably 
plundered. This, however, was *' undoubtedly** no " clock-house to 
" the parish;^ since Mr. Willis has already told us from Leland and from 
tradition united, that before the dissolution it was always " appropriated 
" to the use of the convent.** Accordingly, the course of Mr. Willis's 
own argument here concurs with that declaration before, though he 
speaks himself in so different a language now ; as the prioiy '' being 
" dissolved,** he adds, " rendered (in the opinion of sacrilegious persons) 
*' this building altogether needless.** So inseparably united with the 
priory does this building appear, even in Mr. WiUis*s own ideas ; at the 
very moment in which, by a strange singularity of confusedness, his ar- 
gument revolts from them and from the truth ! Tet it was- not, as Mr. 
WiUis in a moment of confrision peculiarly confounded intimates 
equally, common to the priory and the parish, by being *' a clock-house 
" to the parish,** and yet " serving the use of the prioiy.** What I have 
already said, proves it to have been wholly an appertinence to the priory, 
in Mr. Willis's opinion before and in reaKty. As such an appotinence 
only, could it have been considered as '^ altogether needless** on the dis- 

• Stowe, 146.. t Willis, 151- 



solution of the priory, or would it hare been actually deprived of its bells. 
It was therefore the belfrey of the priory, as the other tower was what 
it still continues, the belfrey of the parish. It had over it a '* roof;" it 
had in it " lofts,** with a *^ set of bells,** and so was (we may be sure) 
in its disposition within, as it was in its configuration without, exactly 
conformable to the other tower with its six bells at present. It was^ 
however, stripped of its bells at that grand interval of rapine and ravage, 
which commenced with the dissolution, which " broke up the fountains 
*' of the great deep** of avarice in the heart of man, and deluged the 
whole world of Reformation with a flood of sacrilege, till the violence 
of the hurricane was a Httle abated, till the property seized by villainy 
was wanted to be secured by law, and the estates dedicated to religion 
had settled secure in the hands of their laical plunderers, their laical 
solicitors, or their laica] purchasers. Such an interval happened here. 

On March the 2d, 1530, ^ng Henry VIII. that robber of the Ska^vim^tuIa^ «f 
church, and that oppressor of the state, compelled the prior and his tAa. ^^F^U^^ . 
subordinates to yield up Athelstan's coDege, with all its estates, into /5"S^. 
his hands : one king taking to himself, what another had given to God. 
In those hands it remained, amidst all the wild profusion very naturally 
generated by successful robbery, through the astonishing length of no 
less than — three whole years. Then^ in the style of the times, whea 
the king*s servants were ever ready to solicit, and the king himself was 
ever prompt to bestow, two of his servants, John Ridgeway and Walter 
Smiith*, waited at the door of the king*s apartment against his coming 
out of it ; probably after he had been banquetting very plentifully, and 
therefore was in high good humour for giving. But let me relate the 
anecdote, as it shews us the full soul of Henry and his courtiers, in the 
very words of the first communicator, and with the very tone of tradi- 
tion to bim. " John Champemowne sonne and heire apparant to sir 
'* Philip of Devon,'* says Carew, '* in Henry the 8. time, followed 
" the court, and through his pleasant conceits, of which much might 
*' be spoken^ wan some good grace with the king. Now, when the 

" * Willij^ I43, 

> ^ golde^L 


<' golden showrc of the dissolved abbey-lands, rayned wqinere into every 
*' gapers mouth, some 2 or 3 gentlemen, the king's servants, and naaster 
*< Champecnownes acquaintance, waited ^t a dooFC where the king was 
*' to passe forth, with purpose to beg suqh a matter at his hands. Our 
** gentleman became inquisitive to know their suit; they made strange 
^' to impart it/* At a time when so mw^h was asked and so much 
obtained, when the king appeared like another Jupiter descending in 
showers of gold into the lapa of hi* favourites,; Champernown saw 
they-had a solicitation to make, and wisl^ed tQ be admitted into a partner^ 
flhip with them. They were shy of reveajing the objects of their suit, 
that they might keep all the success of e^^ecution to themselves. Buf 
an incident happened, such as frequently deoides tli^ fate of empire ; that 
disclosed their objects without their QOQimutjiicationi in an instant, and 
gave him a sha^ in their success without their consent. " This while,'* 
adds Carew, " outcomes the king: they kneele down; so doth master 
'* Champemowne; they preferre their petition} the king graunts it ; they 
^* rendfer humble thanks; and so doth M. Champernpwne. Afterwards, 
*^ he requireth his sha^; they daoiy it; he a^eales to the kii^; the 
** king avoweth his equall meaning in the largesse ; whereqn the over- 
*' taken companions were faynp to c^lot Mm this priory for his part^ 
** agf^t*" .Such a sweeping donation must this have been, when a 

t Qarew, io9« As a kiad of comment to this text, let me just add what Leiand and 
aoolber tell us incidentally, and briefly thus : ^' There was,'* says the former, *' t place in 
** Burford^ callyd the priorie. Horman, the king's barbar, hathe now the lands of it." 
(Itin. vii. 73.) The barber took hU majesty by the nose very much to bis own advantage* 
Sec also^ iv. 7a, for a nunnery givei^ to a groom- porter. See, likewi^, Newcotqe, in bi^ 
Histoiy of St. Alban'f Abbey, 520, for some of its lands beiag given to one who was ^' groom 
** of tbc privy chamber, and horler^Xi^ porter to the kUig ;" forothers given to his sergeant 
^^ of tht buck'hounds } and given to both, as ^ there is ground sufficient to shew,'' ibr 
<f wages" due. '^ Tenements'' are mentioned byStowe, 144, '^ some time belonging to a late 
<' dissolved priory, but since possessed by Mistris Comewallie», widow, and hisr heires, bjf thf 
'* gift of king Henry the eighth, m retuard of^fine fmdtUngs (as it wa^ commoqly said), iy 
^ her madey wherewith jAe had prefienied Aim: such," and so horrible, indeed, ^' was the 
** princely Hb^rality of those times" of rapacious, sacrilege. But, could we trace the ocjcu- 
pations or characters of others to whom the nunneries or the monasteries were given away^ 
we should, probably, find those distributed fm}UQPtIy to the whores, and these to the 
ddaucj^s of the court. 


iter, t.] RisroiticAxxY vxTRvzrnD. lOf 

third person, an accessory, an accidental one, received out of it, against 
the will of the others, the priory of St. German's for his share ! Such 
an execrable scramble was now made amopg all the retainers of the 
court, for the spoils of religion and the church! To so little purpose 
did the king dip his arms up to the very shoulders, in the foul and 
venomed cistern of sacrilege, only to stand, like a bfind Fortune on a 
wheel, to give away all as importunity kneeled, or as opportunity sup-* 
plicated before him, and then to become, by the judgment of folly upon 
sin, more needy than the very men whom he had so' cajHiciously 
enriched J I. Mh 

X In the statute, c« xiii. 31 H. VIII. for the dissolution of monasterieis, tnony abbots art 
said, at the very outset, ** of their own free and voluntary minds, good wills, and assents, 
<' without constraint, coaction, or compulsion, of auy manner of person or persons,'^ tQ 
have given up their houses and lands to the king : so founded on falsehood is the dissolution ! 
But then the statute goes on to confirm those monasteries to the king, and '^ also all 0/^— « 
'^ which hereafter shall happen to be'' freely given like thoscy as we expect the sequel 
simply to be, but as it b, in fact, to be ^' dissolved, suppressed, renounced^ relinquisbed,ybr-> 
^^feiUdy given up, or hy any taker mean c&me unto the king's highness.*' Such a direct 
acknowledgment of violence intended^ and such an indirect one of violence actually sheu/n, 
have we here : m fall contradiction \o the free consent, asserted at the beginning * But it 
finally shews us, that the duke of Norfolk and lord Cobham had respectively been licensed 
'* by his Grace's word, without any manner of letters patents, or other writing,'* to *^pur^ 
^* chase and receive" the monastery of Sipton> in Suffolk, and the college of Cobham, ia 
Kent, and confirms them to those lords, respectively, as being ^* now dissolved." Such a 
monument of folly, impudeitce, and tyranny combined, is this sweepmg statute i Yet, let 
tttc here notice, briefly, the additional robbery of sacramental plate, committed upon the 
churches by this royal pkmderef. Thus we find, '* delivered unto the king's majcstie, x^ 
^ die Mail, anno xxxi." of his reign, 1540, " a small crosse of golde with one image, gar- 
•* nished with xv emeralds, sir garnets, and certayne smalle perles, parcel of such stufle a*^ 
" came to hi* Grace's use, as well by the surrender, as by the visitation of dfv6r8e religious 
** howsese and cathedral chirches in the west partes — : the same day of the same stuffey 
•* four CHALICES of golde, with four patHNTTs [patens] of golde to the same, and a spoone 
•* of golde, weinge ail togeithers an hundred and six ounces : —The first day of October, xxx 
•* yere— , a chalicb, gilt, weighing fourtie nnces,-*-a chalicb gilt, with a paten, weinge 
•• twenty and six ance» di.— , another chalicb with a paten, gilte, weinge twentye andi 
•* thfe* nnpces dr.;-^the twenty sixth day of February, anno x^xi,-^a chalice, with a 
*'rATSN of silver, and gilt-— j the twenty seventh die of April, antfoxxxii', — a CI^alicb. 
^ giii, paittt d( snch stu£fe as eaxHe from ChrfiBt*churcb, in Canterbury ;-^tfae same dxy,r^ 

•* a. cba^ 



Mr. Ghampernown was of a family that had marked itself out to the 
historical eye of religion, by its religious donations ; an ancestor of his 
being the founder of Trewardreth monastery in our own county; and 
this " Sonne and heire apparant to sir Philip of Devon," in that awful 
wheel of Providence, which shews us wise men and fools, honest men 
and knaves, religious and sacrilegious men, succeeding one another in 
the same family, now hastening to reverse the pious liberality of his 
ancestor, by taking as much property from the church as the other 
had given to it§* He thus got the priory of St. German's: butas^in 
the midst of the general rapacity, an awful terror for sacrilege hung 
upon the minds of the solicitors, these or their immediate heirs fre- 
quently transferred their possessions to others, and Mr. Ghampernown* s 
heir* sold his to Richard Eliot, Esq. of Devonshire; the representative 
of a family which had flourished there for eight or ten generations 
before, and had married into several families of note in that county f. 


^' a CHALicB with a patten^ g'^lte,'' 8cc. Sec. (Steevens's Additions to Monasticon, i. 83, 86.) 
Thus did our Henry command the chalices and the patens to be taken from the altar of the 
Lord, and placed upon his own sideboard; becoming a second Belshazzar by the act, and 
ranking nearly in equal pre-eminence of sacrilege with him. 

$ Leland's Itin. iii. 47 : At Modbury, in Devonshire, ^^ Campernulph is now chief 
" lord — . There w(is another house of the Campernulphes more auncient, caullid Camper* 
/* nulphe, of Bere.— Ther is one of the Fortecues dwelling in Modbury, whos father had to 
^* wife the mother of syr Philip Cbaumbume, now lyving.'* 14: " Carapernulphus, alias 
<' Chambe[rnon], dominus de Trewardreth, [et fundatpr] prioratus monachorum^ qui post 
"domini*;^*^'?"^.^Tmanerii. Nunc [Campernulphus dominus de] • ^^.^'"jy. [Devonia].'* 
This extract from a record precludes all the doubts reported in iii. 32, whether Campernul- 
phus, or Cardinham^ or Arundel of Lanherne was founder. Campemulphus was, while 
Arundel or Cardinham could only be benefactors. 

* Carew, 109. 

t Willis, 144, 145 : ** Anno 1433, temp. Hen. VI. Walter Eliot was returned among 
'< the gentry of Devonshire ; and to this family, as should seem by the arms, was allyM sir 
" Richard Eliot, made by king Henry VI IL one of the justices of the King's Bench ; who 
f* was, as I take it [and as the fact certainly is, see Leland's Coll. iv. 141], father to the 
*^ famous sir Thomas Eliot. This sir Richard, by his will, which I have seen, appointed 
<* his body to be bury'd in the cathedral of Salisbury, anno 1520, of which church Robert 
i< jaiot dy'd a dignitary, anno 1562, who was unkle, as I guess by the pedigree, to Richard 

^' Eliot 



Thus the Eliots came into the estate by purchase. Tet Richard, who 
went immediately to reside in the priory, appears to have been so little 
satisfied even under the right of purchase, with the previous relation of 
the house and lands to the chiirch; that he affected to suppress its very 
appellation of priory, and to supersede it by the imposition of his family 
name ; that, for this purpose, he took advantage of its position at the 
head of a natural bay, dignified this bay with the too presuming title ^ 
of a i)ort, and then gave the convent that unmeaning appellation which 
it retains at this day, of Port Eliot J. 

When he came, however, to reside in the house, let us, with more 
satisfaction, remark from Carew, his cotemporary, the priory still, " by 
^' the owner s charity, distributeth, pro virili, the ahnes accustoviahly 
^* expected and expended at such places ^J** He thus kept up, even to 
the daysi of Carew*s writing, all the charitable dignity of the prior him- 
self, and precluded all perception of loss to the poor, in the substitii- 


** Eliot, who not long after seated himself here." (Willis, 145.) "These gentleman,'* adds 
Hals, 1^3, " / take to have been of Scetch original, and so denominated from a place called 
** Elliott, near Dundee, in Scotland ; and their descent of latter time from the Elliotts of 
** Devunshire, Berkshire, or Cambridgeshire f of which last county one sir Thomas Eliott, 
*^ knt. was sheriff, 24 Henry VIII. also 36, This gentleman wrote a book called ' Defen- 
" sorium bonarum Mulierum;* the Defence of good or virtuous Women. But that which 
^* made him most famous, was, he writ and composed the first Latin and English Dictionary 
** that ever was seen in England, about the year 1540." " Thomas Elyot,'V as another 
author subjoins, *^ obliged our countrymen with the publication of a Latin and English Dic- 
** tionary, printed at London in the year 1542, in folio, under the title of Bibliotheca £Uot»« 
*' — ^This author was born of a knightly family in Sz^/fbZ*,— died in March 1546, and was 
** buried at Carleton, in the .county of Cambridge.*' (Ainsworth's Preface to ist edition.) All 
shews, we cannot travel beyond Devonshire with any degree of certainty, for the origin of 
this femily. 

:{; ** The priory-house,'* says Hals, 142, " before its dissolution, was called Porth*Priour, 
** or Port-Priour — . It's now, after the name of its owner, transnominated to Port or Porth 
*' Ellyot." But, as Carew remarks, the ** Priory, — at the general suppression, change 
*' ing his note with his coate, is now named Port Elliott.'* (F. 109.) ^* This priory," 
adds Willis, who married into the family, << upon Mr. Eliot's purchasing it, wis 
<' named Por,t Eliot : since when, this appellation has so far prevailed, that Port EUot has 
^' been inserted in the maps, as if it was a particular vill." (P. I44«) 

$ Carew, 109, 

VOL. I. z lion 


tlon of a laical for an ecclesiastical prior. He tbetefore began, pro- 
bably, that attention to this fine structure, which was certainly shewn 
by the ecclesiastical, which seems to have been followed by the poste- 
rity of the laical after him, and is eminently displayed with all the fond- 
ness of an antiquary, all the taste of a scholar, and all the reverence of a 

Christian, by his ennobled descendant the late lord*. 


But before he came, in the three years of Henry's possessing the 
-priory, in the thirty or forty of Champernown's and his heir's holding 
itf , rapine had full power to execute its work of wastefulness. Those 
bells were taken down from the priory tower, which had been put up 
by the Normans, the builders of it, and equal lovers of bell harmony 
with the Saxons. " The Normans," indeed, we find, in their own 
country at present, " are strangers to the ringing of bells harmoniously 
^' in peals, as is doue in England; it being their custom to ring no 
*' more than three bells at any one timeJ/V Even the French them- 
selves " have no idea of ringing bells harmoniously in any part of 
'^ France^/* ^ut, as I hope I may say in a jocular travestie of Horace, 
being myself a fond admirer of the melody of bells, Softened down by 

* Biphaid Eliot, esq. '^ was buryM in this chureh of St^ Germtn*8 June 24, 1609/' 
John, his fon« afterwatds sir John, '< by the iDquisition taken after his death«»is said to 
*^havc dy'd Nov. 27—1632/' His son and heir *^ was buried here, near his grandfather^ 
^^ at the iipperend of the south isle-*-:of this churchy March 25^ 1685/' His onlyson^ 
'^ Daniel E^iot^ esq. my father-in-law^ departed this life about the 60th year of his age ; was 
^^ buried among his amcestors^ October 28 j 1702. This gentleman^ in regard he had only 
^* one daughter^ namie4 Katharine^^ and married te Willis ; <' bequeathed his estate in order 
** to keep up the name of his fan^ily^ to Edward Eliot^ grandson to Nicolas Eliot^ fourth 
^ son of sir John Eliot, knt. aforesaid." (Willis^ 145, 146.) ^' Edw^ Eliot^ esq.'* adds* 
Hals^ 143, ^< is now in possession ef the esWe ; he married the daughter of Craggs,'* the 
secretary of state, and had by her one child^ James, who died unmarried ; when the estate 
went to Richard, fris uncle, then living at Molinek, in the parish, and his son died- a few 
joionths ago in possession of it, Edward Craggs Ellot^ lord Eliot. 

t Willis, 143. 

J Ducarrcl, 98. 

^ Tbtcknesse^ ii. 65^ 

ft distance 



a distance of position^ and more fond in the days of youthfbl, but 
serious sensibility ; ^ 

Grsecia capta fenim victorem cepit^ et arte* 
Intulit agresti. 

The Normans of England heard the harmony of our bell-towers; 
were delighted with its soothing, mellow, melancholy tones, and^jSio con- 
^ued it to the present times. Of this we have a remarkable evidence^ 
at the very moment. *^ He caused twogrecU bells to be jmade,'' says 
IngulpHus, a Norman prior of Croyland, just after the Conquest, coii^ 
ceming z! Saxon prior, about a century before y 'V which he named Bar-> 
" tholomew and Betteline, and two middle bells, which he called Turkc- 
^* tyl and Tatwin; and two lesser bells, which he entitled Pega and 
V B^a; but lord Turketyl, the abbot, had previously caused one very 
gr«at beU to* be made, GutUac by name ; which being now united with* 
the bells aforesaid,*' as this Norman exclaims, with the soul of a Saxon 
ttansfused into him, '' all formed a woNOERt'XJL p£al of harmony, 
*' nor was tjbere then such a set of tuneable* bells in all £ho-» 
^* LAND*." And so thoroughly was the love of bell-harmony diffused 
through the whole kingdom, that John Major, the Scotch historian 
of the sixteenth century, describes it in terms seemingly raised Beyond 
the truth by his astonishment at it. In St. Edmundsbury, he cries, 
^^.is reported to be the greatest.bfell of all England;" tkougia^^Mn Eng^- 
'' land is a vast number of bells of the finest tone^ because England 
** abounds with the materials for bells ; and, as they are rgpor^d tp ex^l 
^y all mankind in music,*' 3, compliment to our national ^nius, very* 
amazing in itself, and peculiarly amazing for the time ; yet- pivvioualy' 
founded by our author, not on! mere report, but upon Ms owri' opinion i 
^* so likewise do they excel in the soft and ingenious 'modulation qf^ 
** their hells. Not a village of forty houses you see, withfxut five helfs* 

* Ingulphus, 505 : ^' Fecit ipse fieri duas magnas cainpanas, quas Bartholomaeum et 
^^ Bettelinutn cognominavit, et duas medias quas Turketulum et Tatwinum vocavit,. et duaa 
^ minorea quas Pegara et Began) appellavit. Fecerat antea fieri domifui» Turketulus. abbas* 
^ unam maxioiam campanam, nomine Guthlacum; qua cum praedictis campanis compo- 
'' ftilSy fiehat mirabilis harmonia^ nee erat tunc tanta consonantia campanarum ia tot& 
« Anglii^" 

X 3 ** (xf 

Ij;^^ THE CATI^EDJ^AI-r P?- ^iOJWpW'A^L [cKAP- III^ 

':i9f *h^:i^^^J^^^ ' ^ ^" ^^^^i^ w^sipu-hou§f5 c^f . any size, you 
^' will always Kear /Zie wo5/ agreeable chimes playing every third hour,^ 
** While I was studying at Cambridge, upon the great festivals I spent 
*^ very many nights ivithout sleep, listening to the pelody of the hells. The 
*^ university stands upon a river, and the sound is the sweeter from the 
*«' undulation of the water. Tliereareno bells in England thought supe-^ 
." rior-to those of Oseney abbey," near Oxford. '* Wlien they want to 
'/^^ibrra a fine tone, with the common materials they mix a quantity oj 
'^ mfver. '" The^idloons and the Flanderklns are said to observe the same 
^♦-ruleas the English,^ in theii* sweet-toned bells^/* This account of 
<jur own fbtfdness and that of our fathers, for 

^ , . So nousical a discord, such sweet thunder. 

> * 

as ^fwe produced by the fine lone^ of dur chiirgh^betls. Is truly striking 4o 
ii|rifiii]:id> yet little known to the public iit large. ' . This fondness now ap-' 
peaisto have commenced before the Conquest, to. have gootie on unintbr*-' 
rupted by it> and/ at last to have replenished almost all our church-tbwetvt 
froin :the cathedral and the conventual down to the'parocfaialy with ]^eah' 
df he]ls;i \ '.»: , .-.''. "."^ • - • * 

But letme ad|J to this account of our bells in general, by noting the size* 
c^ some of , them in particular. At Westminster abbey, says an author 
oitht /Qz^r/£en^icenturv. ^' are two bells, which ove?^ all the bells in tht 

• t 


^ John ^fljdrlJe 6^stU Scotoram> lii. r, fol. xxxviii. t ^' Illic fertur esse maxima cam- 
^'.panarum \oi\ps Aiiglrae. In Angli& <iampanarum optime resonantium ingens est copia, 
^'..quia campanarum materia Anglia abundat. £t sicut In musici. casteros mortale^ antacd* 
^^ ier^ dicuntur, ita in (paQap^narum.dulci et arti^iosa ipoudiidt^Voae* NuIIurp vioi^ ;d.domQ<^; 
ff rum,. sine quinque campanis suavissime spnantibus, ipyepies; et in q\\&Iibet • a)icujus« 
^' maj^ttudihis vill& semper, de tertia in tertiam, chimam dulcissimam audies. Duoi stu^ens^ 
" Cantabrigiae efam, in magnis festis plurimam nocfem insomnem duxi, ut campanarum 
^' melodiam audirem. Super flumen universitas stat^ proptere.a ex aquae redundanti& soous 
** est suavior. Campanis caenobii de Osneia nullae in AngliS. meliores putantur. Cum.dijl-i 
^< cetn sohuni exposcant, cum campanarum communi materii argenti copiam miscent,, 
•' Similem ritum cum Anglis in dulcibus campanis, Valenschseneni et Flandri tener^ 
'< dicuntur." Fol. viii. he says positively of the English, ** in Europa, opinione inefi, ii^, 
*' inusic& sunt primi." 

" woi^ld 



if'fftWf/^ obteifi ^he pfe?§dei%GeiHi-¥<f)nderflil #i«« and aottnd*/.l * YAt.^i 

IfnpTif #iK*2h'iir*wit:,4fetmedy frodi' a writer of the iwelflhh^at^tiAq 

90itl)^dt9i of 'C&nterbwy the prioc^ Conmd^ &ied in the ckck^boiise'fiiw 

^seo^e^h^jfi'gft^beH^i.ofy/h^^ vei^mTed eight men, tvM), dtAem i^ 

each^ the^fourtb «itei^e», aad the fifth even twenty-four^ ta riag^ diesnv^ 

W^B tlittS;S0^Qi to tnouht the climax of size in bells, and to stand at thfe 

Yery susomit cif it* - Yet we dornot, as we can mount still higher, A suc-< 

Cee4ii?g;^or/in thevebysame cetit«iy, feet ujp.a bell in the clock-housei 

winehcdomanded no less thaA two-and'r4hitty men to ring it ^ . In what 

exbct degnfetiofi comj^atison to this stands that great bdilat St Patil-s; 

^hich^announces the death of the bi^op or -of any of the royal femitf;' 

oy that still greater, I belieye, which by the hundred and one str<»kes of ittf 

cfaqpper proclaims to the colleges at Oxford the hour of shutting the gates^ 

in ^ the evening ; L leave others to detebfmine. Certainly aU of a' speeiiied 

sis* above- ooillXniue rising in ascate of grsuideui' till' they haife risen v^ry^ 

high{ aadtheIa9rtyLbelieve> standsr^at aiheight of nyagni6:cence, iStiperibjK 

tO'either that at St. Paul's, or to ihls which has th« repute of being »the^ 

Iflfrgestit^ England at preseiYty th<| c«kbmred^2^»M'of ^(l^brd^^^ t^ditionalljl 

Idf^Wn tx) be'a4eriHra[tite iiAm the ai^oining abbey of Oisini^, 'a*d there^^ 

fbre tihiting Ottoe with'bther& t*i6i«^^ highly. «tofliiJ 

ifitt^ed'b^^'MajofaltevW '^o: ^'-!r-. [-rrnilrtc) '^ ' '* . : / m.-' 

t^i^ «f^ tain^eirs, of .the 

l)eU-«i;a9p\f'^n4pf tb^l^ng^^ when the b^l^ithenvrf 

sjajv^f ^eriC'tyei^.ojred^ With s^cl^tPMhjdqfXi^ty of fraud di4 pne e^EJ^i 
l€g€i?iMii^)Pl^iftii^9^- :\^ith.j^iJiP^,jliii^t^:strides too was iiap^9ito 
^y^mx^ .^ fhe .d«mqlitf9%!?fa4if n^X^^^m tower !.^ Thus,, inde^,, 
^«fa^:itjPF9J^?^lyM8ft^STO it? T^ews,.if, 

' * Ttin.^Simonis Syfneonis, piiblishe^ witfirw, of Worcester,' pi 5 : ^ Ubi sunt duoe cam- 
** parti,'' cpie'lAter omncs zmm^i campanas priniatem obtinent, in magnitudtne et iti'sotto^ 

f't)Wi^PMon'^ADgIia Sacra, k 137 : Quinque signa per-maxitna, quoru?) prut)ui9bi,$iyii||leri 
^* Mcundiioi X, tertium xi,.quartum viii, quintum vero xxiv homines, ad sonandum trahunt.^' 

^4 Ibi^ 3ft-^^^^i3%°*Mn^H-iiiagiiu^ iltBoiLtrigiioiadc^olioxxiiQ^ adidn&n* 

^-'draiTtnAiQiti'''' " '• {'* '■\ .^.70'.":- 1**.// '11 'jJoafi ai'ii -'.{. " :i •'- •• * . 

,:,../- 4 Mr. 


Mr. Eliot had not come to reside in the priory, and with the spkit of H 
priocprotdcted the orphan church. The staircase withitt appears tnttcb 
k^ured at present, entire, indeed, at the top and bottom, bn€ broken in 
the middle, being at the north-western angle. About fifteert^ year^ ago 
It was cveir beginning to separate from the walls, and threateaiilg>tb bring 
down all that angle of the tower with it. Lord Eliot therefbrr applied a 
remedy to the disorder, fixing two st2x>ng beams at right angles from 
wall to wall, bolting them together with iron, and so preventing any part 
of the wall or staircase frcam starting. My lord also put a new raof ofleir 
th6 whole, to keep the timbers dry. Before, as thfc, whole interior of die 
tpwer was exposed to the weather, and as the church was also exposed 
trough the two arches of the tower below ; these bad been naturaHy- 
dosed up, with a supplemt^oiiial wall of stone and mortar. They thus re- 
mained just apparent to the eye within the church, but unseen from with-^ 
out, except through the dark and narrow windows, till October l ygs ; 
when that represei^tative of the prior in oil ecdesiastical rights oyer the 
church, my amiable and worthy friend the Rev. Mr. Penwame, to whom 
I owe much of local ii\formation in the present work, at the suggestion^ 
of lord EUot and myself, permitted a square doorway to be cut through 
ti)e supplemental wall of the southern. archy for the fujyi inspection, of the 
tower within, and for the continual exhibition of the. two 2Crdie$, both, 
handsome, both pointed there: nor does any thing seem to be now wanted 
for the presenration of a towfei', ii6 Abaridoned to' desolation- throiigh inore 
tibian two centuries before; than witti an hbndui^ble sacrifice of si^htHfaess' 
to safety, to tear away the ivy richly feaWfling' around it, whrcK- fends it* 
indeed the venerable sur of ahtiquity/but'is fcbntributin^ airthe whifg W 
make it more an antiquity thati ever, by feeding liplon the heart of ita- 
eement, thrusting its roots between the stones in search of this, and keep^' 
ing the damp of the weather in a cohtinued^rrosion of both j':tha*'th*' 
tower may remain for two or three ages longer, to ornament the mqpt 
Conspicuous view of the church, to lend a fulness of dignity tp this most, 
dignified part of the whole, and to exhibit it in all its original cDm^krte-^' 
ness to the eye*« ,. t . '^ttEeifldN 

- . * Having repeatedly meai^tied the J^te ford EUot with honour in the text, I tAnst bete do* 
justice lo him and to myself in a note. He was my original instigator for writing'thefrcitfPl^ 

.; wjork«, 


SECT. 11.1 

9 * 



r-^^ ^ ^ SECTION ir. 

*' The south isle cnid nave,^^ remarks Mr. Willis, still continiung the 
misnomer which he began before, '' appears to be tlie iiewesi buildingf ." 
So much was the judgment of this antiquary seduced by his eye, tliat he 
has selected the demonstrably oldest part of the whole for the newest i 
There is a lightsomeness in the aspect of this oldest part, which may na- 
turally seduce an eye not directed by historical reasoning. From its rela- 
tion probably to the Romans in its constructors the Roman Britons, it 
carries an illuminated face with it ; even now when its western window 
has been closed up, and when it has been also deprived of all its northern 
windows, by the collateral addition of Athelstan's church to it. The 
gloominess of this forms a strong contrast to the luminousness of thaty and 
therefore casts an air of superior freshness over it. Gloominess seems to 
have been affected in our churches, by both the Saxon and the Nonnan 
constructors of them ; not merely in their practice of shading the win- 
«dows with paintings, but in the fewness, the contractedness of the 
windows themselves. We see this exemplified by. our own churchy 
where the nave, erected by the Saxons, had not a single window along its 


vorlc. In a visit to him, solicited by himself, I threw out some remarkft as I viewed the 
•church concerning the age of it ; which my lord ipolitely ^lestlotied, and I deliberately 
maintained. This led me to put my ^seiAiments ^upon paper, aird my lord exuhed probably 
in his finesse pf dra^n^g «ie out. But when tke ardour of my mind, kindling like a chariot- 
wheel with its own movements, pushed me on to prosecute my survey, and my essay had 
awelled into a book ; my lord began to foresee the consequence to himself. * He apprehended 
a design upoji hisjinances. Nor would he spare money for literature^ for literature even <:on- 
ceming his favourite church. He therefore refrained from all intimations that wodd <!ost him 
any thing, while the work was under my hands. Even when I had finished it, he expressed 
no wish for perusing it in manuscript ; he put forth no finger to push it into publication. 
He abandoned it to its fate, without ant solicitude felt for it, I believe; without one inquiry 
made about it, I know« The solicitude was suppressed, and the inquiry was precluded in a^ » 
cautious deKcacy for his purse. He wished to he a patron without any expense (^patronage* 
Nor would this work, so abandoned byJiim, have ever been published by me, if my lord 
had not died, if my indignation at such treatment had not been buried in his grave, and if 
^t th^ «ame time I had notaccidentally becbtne rich enough to risl^ the expense rnysdf. 
t WiUis, i^i. 


1^'^ THE CATHEDRAL O^ CORNWAtt [cbXV. tit. 

whole range ; and the portal adjoined by the Normans had onlj three 
windows over the entrance, short, narrow, even half-buried in their own 
lead. In the same strain does Leland remark, that " there is but* one 
*^ paroch church in Leominster, but it is large, somewhat darJce, and of 
•' ancient buildinge ; insomuch that it is a great likelyhood that it is the 
" church that zaas somewhat afore the Conquest ^'^ So the abbey- 
chiirch of Waltham in Essex, which was built by Harold in I0O2, in the, 
interval almost betwixt the Norman and Saxon j)eriods, appears from the 
remains of it at this day to have been ** a Gotliic building, rather large 
^^ than neat, firm than fair, very dark, save that it tvas helped again by 
" artificial lights ^ .'^ All our old churches are so gloomy in general, 
that every lively spirit necessarily feels a sensation of religiousness, at the 
veij entrance into them. Ouf own at St. German s is even so gloomy, 
with the addition of an altar- window where the chancel once com- 
menced ; tliat a window has been latterly opened in the ceiling for the 
benefit of the clergyman officiating in the desk or pulpit. Previously to 
this relief, in our church as well as in others, the officiating divine must 
generally have gone' through the serviQe, not indeed from that exertion 
of memory, which is generally made at present in the reputedly extem- 
poraneous sermons of the continent, but by that shadowy sort of illumina- 
tion, which candles awfully diffiise over the evening service of our greater 
churches in winter. This practice began very early in the temples of 
Christianity ; an express mention being made by some canoQS, that from 
their spirit, or from their age, or from both, were thought worthy to be 
denominated apostolical, and are certainly some of the most ancient 
among Qiristians, of '* the oil for the lamp,*' even iii the service of the 
eucharist || . We accordingly see Conrad the prior of Christ-church in 
Canterbury as early as 1 IO8-9, giving to the cathedral /' a candlestick of 
wonderful greatness, composed of brass ; having three branches upon 
one side with three upon the other, all issuing from their proper stem 
" in the middle ; and so being capable bf ^admitting seve7i^ wax-lights into 

% Itln.iv.9j. , _ 

. § Steevens's Additions to MgoBst^con^ iii. 113* 
I Cotekriue's I^atres Apostolici, ii 437. 


« it.** 


f* it ^ v" This had only one range of receptacles for candles, and was not 
suspended ky a chain^ but raised Upon a pillar, and do had one receptacle 
x^ihii ccntne^ But <^ers had three ranges^ like our present cluipdeliers, 
yet still raised iipon a pillar^ and stiU having, owe receptacle in the centre; 
Tlnu( in the daapeLat Glastonbury abbey,. :be6ide5 the Easter candle, one 
hundred and twenty pounds and a half in weight, besides foiir other sorts 
©F candles; as quarter of a pound, half a pound, a whole pound, and three 
pouoids.eadhl: there was a candlestick of thtee ranges,-. the lowest holdn 
ing ten candles, hut all holding twenty-five> each half a :potind in weight; 
and on certain festivals; *' all the ranges" were lighted, with '^ the middle 
^' candle at the top of them/* All these candles too were not even the 
mould that we generally burn in our parlours at present; were not even th^ 
spermaceti/ that we ^ present bum in some of our churches or chapels ; 
but were the most elegant, the most expensive of all, candles of wax. 
The use of these was so regular and steady, that language, which (like 
some substances in mities) catches the impression of e«ery object long in 
contact with it, "still shews us the impression when the object is gone i 
and the very s^ppellation fof a church-candle among our ancestors, wa4 
merely a wax-light. And what is now the highest luxury of refinement 
in our drawing-rooms, was then the ojrdinaiy decoration of our superior 
churches or chapels i we expending upon ourselves, what our ancestors 
gave to God *. . So^much did the Normans and. Saxons love a gloom 
in their churches, softened down by an artificial light ! Yet the taste of 

f Wharton's AngUa Sacra^ i. 137; ''Candelabrum mirae magnitudinis^ de aiirichalco 
** fahrefactum, habens tres hinc et tres indq raxnos, ex medio proprio prodeuntes stiptte, linde 
*' septem recipitccreos." - * . . 

• Joann^iGljtatoniensis, 358: " Gomvieiiido liMkarii.sive cereorum in ecclcsia Glasto- 
^ nien8i.->-P^neter eereinki pa9ofaslem,/]ui continet cxx^librps ^t dimidiam, quatiior sunt gener^ 
*' cereorum.. I^mnumn|ajoris ' forms- [scilicet] de tribus Jlbris. Secundum processionaliiim, 
'' 3. de uuk Iibr&. Tercium de dimidi& Iibr4, Quarlum minoris form^, s. de uno quarterio, 
*' Adjicienduip eliam, quod tres sunt'* — p. 359-^-*' ordines eorundem cereorum. Prima* 
*' m m /raWiiw, continentibus xxvcereo'i, quemlibet de drmidlft librft. — In omnibus iiii*^' 
<* cappi^ acccndi d\^tnt xmnes ti^al^s, comixient'es^xxv «^rea3r" V, 360 : '^ Inferior trule^^ 
" continens x cereos." P. 361 : " Cefeus medius super trabem." Wharton's Anglia 
^acra^ 1.^90^ under a.)ie9riflQieaarl]^.a%n^5:j;ffjj^^ai^^ ^ip^t^aiensi ecclesis-- 

'^ candelabrum arge^tjmri.c^xsi\\}fx^\i^\% qys|Isa n^ocip int/fpl^^^vjdiB^a^ pretiosissima 4t 
** aurichalco.*' , • 

* • VOL, !• A A i: the 

|'78 THE VA¥II&«»lbJkL or CCWQTWALI, [qHAP. Ill* 

the Britons app^rs Yerjr different, less judRcteus, Btid more modem ; 
neglecting ail appeal to serssatton, perhaps because it is not s^itimcnt 
forsooth^ thus abstractiiAg man with a kind of Quaker's logic into a iiein|^ 
merely spiritual, and throwing as gay an irradiation of dayli^at over a 
church as oveir a drawing-room. This appears abo the more singular in 
the Britons, because tde Romans we see coinciding with the Nomona 
and Saxons, in their k>ve of gloominess for their temples ; in their fond* 
ness, therefore, (or die n^ii^ed ma^ of light and ^iade> which is predaioed 
by an artificial imitation of day. That stem monument of majesOy in 
building, the Pantheon at Rotne, has almosit all the darkness of a funeral 
vault within. Even that elegant casket of ardiitectiire, that line^ £Uagvee 
model of a temple, executed in stone instead of silvMr, tiie maisimquamk 
tof Aries, received no daylight into it originally tuft froni* the opened 


So officiating, in what habit, .-or dness did the clergyman appear for* 
merly, witluh our own aad other oh«t:ebes } This is a point little known 
to even the antiquaries among the cle^^ thems^lYesv I knew it not vfi^ 
any exactness, till my subject stiggested gay inqmty : and what has^ven 
me knowledge, will give knowledge (I j^mm€}to4^fker8. 

A clergyman, then, is istiU enjoined by the muxacipal laws of ^ocur 
church, whenever he. oonsdcBates die fendiarist, ito wear ''« white \i^i^ 
*^ plain, with a vestment or cope;** while the assistant clergymen, if 
any, are to wear " albes with TUNACLEsf . The very appellatiohs of 
these garments proclaim their antiquity to our ears, ^nd the long dIsusQ 
of them compels even dergy i»en to sedk their jnature in bosciks* From 
these we leam^ that the kjjb is 910/ wiiat €rmn now I felt mjsxM stroiaigly 
inclined to suppose it was, only the surplice under a less ^iffiiiliar name; 
especially when I observed the first litujgy of Edward VI. ordering a 
bishop to wear at the communion " a surplice or alb, and a cope or 


*' vestment t .** The alt^ indeed> uias a kind of ^surpJi<;e> but veiy distinct 

t Wlieatly'8 lUttonal IlhiMrfttioD, a fiHf<ourite booklRrith me 10 Ae niore'flmns and ^ 
ihank God) the more early psft i>f ttif70tt6i> tdiu 7tb; ft 6a aad »03« 
} Ibidt io%» 

2 < <fi^m 

SBCT* ir.] iriSTOftlCALLT 8URVSTED. If 9 

fiidbi it, heivg less loose ia Its form, bmmd about the miMIe like a cas^** 
sock, and eitlier tight in the sleeves like a cassock, or gathered ! at the 
wrist like a shirt § . It thus became so similar to a surplice, that the real 
distinction was sootier lost in the little di&rence, the surplice more easily 
usurped upon the alb, and the alb more readily sunk into disuse ahiong 
ns^ The same fate has be^i shaved by the vunacle, and we now know 
it only to. hare been a smaller sort of co?b(| • 

The cope itself, to which we are tbos referred for the tunacle, remained 
in our churches nearly to our own times. Wktts, the republisher of 
Matthew Paiis*s two Histories in 1 084, attests die cope to have been 
generally worn at tt^ time in our chur^dliHserrice 1|* It is even reported 
td have been retained in the cathedral at Diirbam, as late as the prvssent 
generation ; and the reliques^ oi tbe last wet of eopes^ I understand, are 
atill shewn in the warirobe tkem* Of i^nally tiie cope was a garment, 
«ommdn among the laity nale or femate, and denominated merely from 
Its essentia] appendage, a cap or faood ; as tbis, by lying back upon the 
aboulders, hae lent its af^Pation eqpiadly 6a the aimilariy posited cape of 
our coats ^. In I IQI a bishop flying out of En^and, says M. Paris, dis^ 
gvuded himself like a woman,^ ^ putting on a womans gown of gceeu 
^ Willi a eopdjthat is^ a iiood] of the «sa(ne colour 'f*" Heniy IIL also, 
^)ommandiftg tbecleigy of Londcm to meet bim at St* Fku]*a^ ^^ all clad in 
^' a lestival fovm with murplioea and eop$i,*' for receiving a reputed por- 
HoA of ouv S*?iow's blood, just sent 1)^ fbom Jerasakra ; fac appeared 
Kknadfaf for Canying to W-estOikister abbey the fine vase of crystal con- 
Gaining it, '* drest in a humble habit, a poor cope without a hood % /' 
Even Chaucer mentions as riding-^habits among the genteeler laily of his 

-§ Omtad's Rationale in Wheatly, 107 ; and Spelman under Alia. ^ 

I WheaUy, to8. 

f M* fans, QkMAiiiwb Qt^ : ^^ ]^ Jk^gSi^V^ ^^ adhuo its 4je9pis] uti^nar/' 

* Watu's Glossarium, Capo. 

t M«.fiflevtf> 139 : ^' MirMBa ia fmmfm i99^ii!Ktitf tmif^ i^djk^iipfam^ k^V^j cspsm" 

^ X Jbid*.6ifM.i ^^:H9im^Mmt^^Mii^^ «wfaH»tiim w if cm 99fm im:9^&i^¥>*'' 

-AA'ii' 0WBL 


own time, " coaps/' and " semi-coap» § ; " the latter, I suppose, a kind 
of modern spmu^ers with hoods. 


Yet how were the copes worn, by either the laity or the cl«-gy ? I had 
always supposed them, till I came to examine now, a kind o( woman's 
cloak, fastened under the chin, receding from the breast, and resting 
upon the shoulders : but they were worn and formed in a very di&rsnt 
manner. They were worn as a carter s frock is at present, as a clergyman's 
gown formerly was, as the latter continued to be in some of our schools 
(I apprehend) to the end nearly ofttbe seventeenth centiuy || , and as the 
suiplice was within our own memory, by putting the head through an 
opening in the middle, and letting the garment hang down from the 
shoulders. The last, indeed, was so regularly wotn in an unopened form 
within these forty years, that a shrewd parish*clerk of the no|rth of lSsi%^ 
land, who had often assL^ed in robing academics and non-aoademics, used 
to discriminate these from those by their want of adroitness in the ne- 
cessary acts, of laying hold upon one side of the collar with the teeth, of 
thnisting the arms through the inverted sleeves, then with both hands 
gathering up the rest into a roU, and so tossing it over the head without 
discomposing the hair- Henry L says Matthew Paris accordingly 
concerning the cope in ild5, "putting on a new robe of scarlet, and 
being accustomed (whenever he had one), to send another from the 
same cloth reverently to. his brother/' duke Robert then his blinded pri«* 
soncr, ** when he attempted to ptt on the cope, found that ^ti%nc^ at 
'* the hood whidi is commonly called the collar in French, toot^ght firt* 
'^ him, bdrst a stitch of the sewing in the attempt, therefore laid it doWjtt, 
'^ and said. Let this hope be carried to my brother the duke, because he 
"has a smaller head than mine*/* So evidently was the cope ia 

... :, ,. , . drcswig 

$ Watts's Glossary, the source of almost all my intelTigeDce concemiiig copes. 

I Watts's Glossary, Capa : '^ Clatisa^— let toga oKm, imo et adhiiic inscholft unl aut aReriL 
*' in AngliA nostrft, uti audivi/' 

* M* Paris, 6i : ^' Cvtm re| novam robam de scarleto stkmens *(assuetu8 de e6dem paatio, 
•* quoties et illc sumpscrit, ffatri suo reverenter traiismittert), capum conaretur induere,Hjtiod 
*« invenit introiium caputii,*^ called merely «f capvifium" by Matthew Westminster* 'p. 34, 
pan aecttxida^ ^< qui galerum vulgariter Gallice appellatur, nimia arctum ; inde contigit, 

«« quod 



dressing put on over the head^ and by an opening barely BufBciept to 
admit the head through it ! In this manner was it equally put. on by the 
clergy, we may be sure; the mode being borrowed with the mantle 
irom the laity. Even when the laity had thrown the mantle aside, the 
clergy still retained it on that principle of propriety, which has given 
them almost all their distinctive dresses> by opposing the gravity of 
steadiness to the levity of innovation, even in fashions. So put on, it 
^ung over the arms, but (like a woman^s cloak at present) had holes in it 
undoubtedly for the emissioij.of the arms, and then fell (as it still falls on. 
the continent, I apprehend) down to the knees^ 

But on the same principle of general inflexibility to the fluttering vari- 
ations of fashion, when the laity opened their copes before, tbe clergy 
still kept theirs closed. Even canons were made, expressly requiring 
them to use closed copes, *^ especially in the church *•.** There th^ 
were worn over the surplice;. a& in 1237 the pope's legate is said by 
Matthew Paris, to have entered St. Martin's church in London <^ dressed 
*' in his pontificals, a surplice ; upon it a choral cope furied with various 
"skins, and a mitre f J' Yet since ^hion will finally predominate ov^r 
the clergy as well as the laity, and even ought in strictness of propriety tp 
predominate at last, that the clergy may not appear toa much insulatecjl 
from the laity around them ;. the open copes were adopted in time by 
the clergy, were even adopted with a Eaical addition made to them in 
consequence of their openness. Being no longer suspended steadily 
from the shoulders, they were provided with sleeves for their supporters. 
Thus another legate is recorded by the same historian under 1^258, to 
have entered London with a trainr of twenty horse behiad,. and with 

ten domestic ^hslplains at his side^ the latter " all proudlY eneircled with 


^^ quod unam 8utura& puncturam tantfim confringens, earn clepo8uit> et aft, Haec capa d^feratuF 
'f danda fratri meo duci^ q^ii argmtius me caput habet*" Now collier is French for a^ 

• Watts^fi Glos8$cy% 

% ^..Pafis^ 357 : .Pontificallbus-se iaduit^ SciUcet superpelliceo^ et desuper capa chorali'^ 
i< pelUbua variis fuurrat&> elt^xxulTi.'^ ' . 


% 1 


^* 'cdp^ of \ii6 bfest fHoreen^ fiv« of tt^cm cMiei^^ aiid five «feft»j *." "Hifc 
closed, we see, were not sleeved^ and the sleeved were not dosed. 

feut whether closed or sleeved, they were used in the chureh upon fes- 
tival days only, «vtEta such days as wete more than ordinarily festivaL This 
We leim fronl onr general and reiy useful informant concerning this 
dress, the historian Matthew Paris ; who, in his prfvate history of St, 
Athati's abbey, tells us of *' six waits^sandles ordered to be burnt** in tha 
fchurch there ^' AijKm the festivals in c6pe&^,Mid on the very highest of 
*' thcmf !" They were used too ^ early as 1240, with fine fringes of 
gold upon them. Accordingly the pope, notes Paris, *"* beholding on the 
^' ecciesiastical ornaments of ^me Englishmen, as on their choral aspes 
^* and ihitres, vcfy desirable grfd*fti!rtge, asked where It was maauikc-* 
*^ tur^ : and being answered, In England, cried out> Tfuly England is 
*' bur ^tflen of delights J /* TTius did the richness of our manu&c-^ 
f Ur^s, even it that e^ly period, engage the adimkation of Roman ei^ance 
itsiit] and t^uB did the sjptendour of our ecclesiastics in their habits, e&« 
fcted ev6to the fkpal ambition of pomp ih chureh-dresses ! Yet we &id 
that sptehdoui- a*d that rtchmess in one instance at least, fnountfaig much 
%efbhd iSven this high J)itch of ecdesiistieaL kmny in ditiss. Conrad, the 
famous piAor of i!Jhrist-chureh in Canterbury, under the weight of memj 
inisfortunes, ^caiteed a most costly Cope to be made, Wtttfaefd without on 
^ atl sides with threads of the purest gold, having below in a range att 
*' round a hundred and forty beHb of 'silver g^, and shewing some Vtty 
'^* valuable stones between them § .'* This Cortrad, ^ho was reaHy a 

* itL P*rit, 9ir6 : ^ YMlt Lonodtniixn ciini ^bti e^tataturis, bqos teitlia collatenli^ 
^ 6€to [dctem} tapis, ridelic^ qtrinque claogis, el ^uinqM matucatily de'c^ptinio morelo so» 
*' perbivit redimita." I guess at the meaning of '^ moretum/' 

t P. 1055 : ^' Sex cereos, in festis qute in cappis fiunt^ et maxime pracipuis, accen- 
•' dendos/' 

X p. 616: ^* Videns in iatriquorum Angliebirbfn orii^tliMtis eetkriastittft, vttpbtt ki tapis 
^ choralibus et infulia, ^turi frisia concupiscibilia, tnterrogavit ubinam facta fuissent. Out 
** resphosum est. In Anglia. At ipse, Veri hortus noster delitiarum tfk^^ik^^ - 

§ Wharton's Anglia Sacra, u 1 J7 : *' C^pp^Ah^iretiosil^rifflAm'tnttfique €^ ittif^ptiris- 
'^ simo contextam, inferius et per circuttiim cxl nolas argetlUM fCd flttuttttts MSMfhlis 
'* nohnuUis- lapidibus pretiosissimis interposit^, fieri fecit.'' 


gi*Q^-aFchitect,'and actuallj plaiuaied w^at w^ called yf^^iic it continued 
^lias glprk>i»s qiHr<e at Cimterbaiy cathedral, soeii)^ to ha^'^ been ,pec;idiari7^ 
ibfHl ^f loiueic, baQg;if)ga fijage of no kss tinxn a hundred ap^ fioirty beU^ 
to hi^cQfe., But, in doii^ thi$, J^ copi^ ooierely the preacriptions of 
•Gqd 4» his hijgb'priest an&ng the Jews ; when he orderjs *^ thp rohe ojf 
*^ the cphod " for Aaron^ to hav^ '* beneath upon tbe.hevi of it'— pome- 
^^ gratnates*-*-^ :aiid bells of gold between thein round about,, a ^Iden bell- 
y and a pqen^gfanate,. a golden bell and .^ pooaegiranarte/' so that '^ hi? 
f-^ sound shall be beard when he goeth in unto the bfity place befpxe thf 
''I^d, and when he Cometh out*;* - 

So settled as ow copes weue within the very sanctoary of the chi^rchi 

no storm o^ riplenee (we are ready to suppose) could baye^ever torn theoii 

from the sides of the altar, except that g]:and storm pf the Heformatioiu 

Yet thii^ as l.ha^^ already diewn, did not tear them away. ^Hiey sur?- 

Tived the s;tormV and liye even in our phurch-fbrmul^ry at present. Bup 

theBe they live in vain. They have gsadually been disused by f he cjei^,, 

.and lare hardly known to them by i»ame at present. Xbe tide of nationsyi 

ideas had for ages been runnit^g strong in favour of £xteraal reljgiop, c£ 

solejinn services in the .churdi, and %f pompous habits qn the* ^ujrp|^ 

men officiating in them.* This flood b^an to turn at the Refpnnation^ 

it has been efobcng away ever since. The powerful and continued sucr^ 

^n, tberefoFe, b»8 carried down tb^ cb^nuel, ^uEid absorbed ij»^ &e oeean,. 

the very xsope of our canons and rubricsv llie intdllecjt of n;ijaa. id thu^- 

'influenced by the mere accidents of social life,, by the fluctuations o|i 

^general optnion, and by the varying phases of the moon;. Some jadverr 

tkemerds (as they were called) being made by gjoeea Elizabeth, in tli^^ 

seventh year of her reign, yet meant for laws to the church by this ever- 

*liypocntical woman, and received^as laws by a e&ajwdii timnplbd under the* 

feet of thb termagant tyrant ; surplices wett^n^oined to be used in aU the 

4»rdinary services of the diurch, and copes were confined to the eucha**- 

rist f . But, in that change of the public mind which commenced at the 

Reformation, the very eucharist itself began to be deserted. The !Puri^ 

* Exodus^^xxifiirji, 3l>34r«nd 3S* 

t Wheatljr, itH. 



tdns among us felt the ferment t^f irreverence, so sharply impregnating 
their understandings and affections ; that^ during their tyranny of twelve 
years ov^r the university of Oxford in the seventeenth century, the cucha- 
rist wa* never administered once in the cathedral of Ghrhst- church, was 
nevei"* administered once in the chapels of All Souls, New, Jestis," and 
probably other coHeges, was never administered once in that church of the 
whole university, St. Mary*s ; though it was before on the first day of 
every teriii at the university-church, in every month within the chapels, 
and upon every Sunday in the cathedral *. The irreverence, indeed, was 
at that period working so violently among them, as to form the very 
leven which separated some of their own votaries from them, and com- 
bined these Puritans of the Puritans into those most paradoxical of all 
characters in the kingdom ; those slyest children of craft in business, 
those wildest children of enthusiasm in religion ; those tialf Christians, 
and half Deists ; from a very Christian principle, and from teiy fanati- 
cism in it, made half Deists ; who still remain among us under the ap- 
pellation of Quakers, but who, to the astonishment and terror of all 
Christendom, have actually rewowwcerf the eucharist in full form. Even 
the church in the growing irreverence, though it has not gone the hor- 
rible lengths of the dissension, yet has run a course among its laity, 
that is amazing to every well-taught Christian ; and has felt the eucharist 
shamefully deserted, by the generality of them. In tfcis conduct even 
the clergy have been so far participant as to leave off by degrees the ap- 
propriate dresses of the communion ; to divest the eucharist of its peculiar 
pomp, in albs, in lunacies, or in copes ; and thus (as it were) to save the 
eucharist itself in the threatened wreck, by throwing all its distinguishing 
decorations overboard, 

Sttch were the dresses, in which the clergy officiated ever since the 
Reformation, within our cathedral of Cornwall. But let us attend to 
another circumstance of divine worship there; the use of incense within 
it. The use we see expressly enjoined by Cod in that ritual, which alone 


• Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, p* 143 5 a work pregnant with anecdotes of that cen- 
tury ; and a kind of true sanetology, ibr the coDfescors or martyrs of the church of England 
during it. 


9&CT. Ifc] ] • : HtefoRlCAXf T .SURVETEO. .- ^, XB5 

0f ,ail the nitital^ Vff{^\^.W9^^ badrfcUe.jbyfnoujF to. (^C; prescribed. >jf /Goo? 
himself. la this^jSTi^ h,ear J^oses tipW, '^^hpu.shaltraake an altar to turn 
i^ce»^e.upof^;?an4 /Aaron shall burH thereof sweet incense every 
morning;; y;\^\^^ dre^^i^th^ the. lamps, he shall burn incense upop it ; 
f^ and wh^i^^arj^n ligj^teth Jthe lamps at even^ he shall burn incense \x^on 
*' it ; a perpeti^l^infipn^p b^o^^, the Xjord, tkrougJiont your generations^ ^\ 
This, incense is expire^ljr pfdered in a, previous passage, in a passage 
n9ticif^ ^incense fo^-t^ first time ^t^o be " spices fgr — sweet incense f; '* 
and are expressly announced in the execution, to have .been \' the pur? 
*' incense of sweet sfnces according to the' work of the apothecary :f.'* 
Nor let us suppose in the degrading* taste of such,' a^ thinb only of cor- 
poreal points in objects of a spiritual nature, and fancy every circum- 
stance of worship appointed moare from attention to man, than fi'bm 
reverence to Goi>> 'that this requisition of iixee&se was madeto^overobnae 
the smdt of the beasts slain for sacri^cedhthe templk> and. ti keeprtti^ 
rank oddtifs of a skughterhoui9e:fiH)m kiiagu^ of the wotr 

;shippe]:s^^ W^^eelhedncense .required «yvhf a no ten^le.was yet built, 
when a tent composed the onjy.fime/'of Gb]> then, existing . among the 
Jews) afid when^coosequendytnaioffibsing .biU; inoense was to be: made 
"within it §c>irl^0r was kniobla(ioniiofiince!nfie peculiar to Xhe^ pep^;i^ 
Gfodi It wai'commdn to all the- nations of heathenism. Thi^>fwei see 
ifirbm- the •very code that presoiibeft incense to the^Jews? prescribing ;it in 
so easy a'mamneir, as shews it to^ heave been ,&mUiar to the >mind of Moses 
at the time || ; and speaking of ^' the altars for incense,*' erected by 

• +**H)id, XXV. 6. . . ...;••. 

X Ibid, xxxvii. 29. The meaning' of this is explaiti\?d by xxx. 34, 3/: '< Take iinto 
'' thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha,'and ^IbaMiisi^ Atse -swtet •spices with'pu(e fttftk* 
*^ incense; of each there shall be a like weight; and thou shalt make 'it a peF^ifi^> i^con^*- 
*^ fection after the art of the apothecary/' This^Mas^ on pttlA' of deatb^ to be made fei ihc 
altar alone. . * r - . ' . . •■ ' 

'"$ Exodus, xl. 5 : ^^ Thou shalt set the attar of gold for the incemeh^^re the ark oFihe 
*< testimony, and the hanging of the door to the tabernacle;' and thou shalt set the aliar'of 
V« JAtrnt^offerlfig before the door of thi faberftacle.*^ • • • ' *' 

[ ^ Exodni, ixy. 6> ordering ^^ oil for the light^ spices for anointing oil^ aixd for sweet in-* 
**' cerise.** • '• • •• 'i.i  • ' • 

VOL. I. jm ' . the 

the heathens aroiihd theih*. Accordingly, we find tbtt templei§ of hea-* 
thenism having incense btdrnt within them, at the religioas services (^ 
the Greeks. • In proof of this t nefed Ottly nientiott, thaTthfc tcry terms 
iised nlost familiarly for sactificiial Worthip hy the Greeks, do, in their 
primitive import, signify inferely ah oblation of incense -t". We even find 
the altars of incense in the templeft, so early as the vwy days of Hoincr; 
Jupiter retiring, in the Iliad, to " Ida bf tnany ^ntains, the mother of 
'' wild beasts, even to Gargams, whej^ wad the grove of his tempk, and 
^^ his altar breathing incense^ 

Ta^ccfo^ eyQa h oi rsiispc^ Bm/ao^ re hrnug %. 

Yfet, whence was the Inceitse derived? In all the countries adjoining 
to Arabia, it was ^erivwl from this native region of pei^me^. When 
600 cotidctodended to preteribe a componsition &x ilicense ^i^en his 
altar, to oitiier spkes lie ^resbly added ^^ pure finmkinoeme/^ fiuti. 
?' t» What purpwse»" tay% QxA at pother tioke to the Jewa, indignant nt 
a itWCMcfd, me^ly eact(MiAl> sh^twn hira, ^^ cdmfeth there to me ineense 
*^ from Sheha, and the swiet ^cane from "k far country ||?** Sabaea in 
JImMsi, is eqtlail^ p3x>c}aitti6d by tiie faeathcins to have aupplied them alse 
«^h their incense^ ; evbn ^' the sweet cane** of Scripture had been brought 
ttt Rome, in ^ tcfds of frahkihcense,'' aoeariy as thedaysof Pliny*; and 
•* wben Atesamder the Great,' • says Pfiny, '* was heaping incense with- 

* a Chion. zxx* 14, xxxiv. 15 ; Jeremiah, xt, 12, 17; dnd xlviii* 35. 

t ^vm, to sacrifice, betrays its original meaniogin that of its derivatiyes^ Ov»» an odorifeioiis 
tree} Ounatf odoriferous; 0\fn?^ the bag in which incense was held; OvuXvp^T*, the inceoBe. itftetf; 
^ W | iht san^tf ^ Ovimui, fci^Mf^ a censer; Q0JM4 incense:; Ov/Ma^A, tpfAio^ic, incense ; ^itgm'kfiiu^' 
a oea«er ; Ovftimk^ to offer 4Qoense; ^mAk» odoriferous; dvnufy the same; Ov«|m^ incense.. 
. % Iliad viii. 47, 48. 

I EkochM^ XXX. 34$ «ad Jentaiah ri. ^o. 

§ Virgil: '^ Mittunt sua thuraSabei;" and PKny, xii. 14: '^ Thura, prseter Aratbiamir 
^' !BUUts, ac Ik Artfbite q^detn universss ; in medio yv^ ferc'suat atramitsev-pagus SabaBomm^ 
•' eapile r^gni ScA>cftft— ; r<gio eorum tbuwifera, Saba appeUaU/' 

^ PItny, xii. 14^ << Virgin etiam thuris id Bos^comaseantibus/' This is caMed *' sweet 
^.^itaBlafMu^" ifi^xcMkis, ^x»« 113 ; ia Cadkiel^ xxfii. ^a, we see the spices were brougbc to Tyre p 
^* The merchants of Sheba and Raama,. they were thy merchants ; they occupied j& thy &ii# 
•' With cAi?/'^ a2/ J|>ices.": 

4 tt out 

^' 9Ht parsimony ^n t|i^ 2|lt^, hU tUl^r I^pnides toM bim, that he shoql^ 
'( auj^Jicate if efuren in «o prof i^ a majpj^er, f^^e?) he had conquered tk^ 
'^ region whw§ ino^m^ grew; »n4 whjen Al^??»i^4er had made himself 
/^'lawejtef qf4^i|^, h^ sent hi? tj^t-qr 9 sl^iprlo^d of incense, exhort^ 
^^ ipg hiu) to bie Uhf^ in hjbs adpr^tion of the g6dsf .** Tet the incense 
of Aiabia, FUq^v U^ uB| was pqt introduced into use sq e^rly as« the 
Trojap war J; igrhei) we h^ye already seen it in f^mili^r use, four hun- 
dred yeai» before, At » very early period, however, the cedar and the 
iitron gave (shflf fn^$ to be bm*pt for incei^se§» There w^$ even one 
tree, which assumed, to ijbself the supereipinent appellation of the incense- 
tree, and thenforf qppe^s to h»ve been burnt in the wood itself, like 
*' the sweet cane** pf Scripture, at ^crificep. ** The tree Jl^ai' says 
Pliny, " was known to Homer ; by the Greeks it is called ®uou' or Qup^, 
as some copies read, the divine, or the incense; " by others Thya," the 
very same app(dlation,^.'<0e, €h<»; " this, then, Homer reports to he burnt 
^' in the banquets of that Circe^ whQm he tvished to he considered as (jl 
^' goddess, to the conviction of a gross error in those who under5tan4 
^' mere odours under tha^ word ; though, in the very same Ui^e, hp 
** speaks of tiae cedar and of thf l^rch with it, so m^ifesting hiHiself 
^' to speak of trees alone ||/' This tr^e grew about the temple of Jupiter 
Hammon, and within the interiors of Cyrene^, It is even yet known 
under d)e title of Thuy4, as 4 native of warmi cof^itries. But the nafnc 
of this tree betrays anpth^r secret, telling us that the very term for incense 
in Greek, really means dimnef Qei^y, or &yoy; and that even the approprisqtjs 

t Pliay, xii* 14 : ^' 4-kl^^dip Mzgpo ip puaritift aine parcinoaia thura ingerenli fris^ 
^ p»dagGgu8 LeoQtdes dixer^it, ^t illp modp, cum d^yicis^et tbi|rifera3 gentec, supplijcaret; 
^^ ut ille Ai:4bil potiftMa» tb^fe pQUSMoi myepi )d»i^( ei, exhoirtatus ut lai^a deps adorafet^*' 
t Pliny, xitj. |. ^ Biacisifipippii^tts^oii-^rtbufe^pp^^^ 

§ Pliny, xiti. i : << Qedri-^t ditri suora^;! ih^U^mp^ u/l 9^<pn8^ fumo convolutupi qi- 
<< dorem verius iquim odoneffi. n^ven\nt/' 

I Pliny, xiii. 16 1 ^^ThjAMi^^ q^m. Notf .ftiai;n Hopic^ofUitj dtiot [Dal. tv"] Grmdk 

'** vocatur, ab ^is thy a ; banc jgit^f w^ p^pi^ un tradtt iti dfiicij^ Cjrces^ iQu&in deain 

•'<« volcbat in^Ugi ^ atiagOD ei rove Hf^r^xn, c^i p^or^^nta v^ eo yoc^bulo ncctp iun^ | cuoi 

• ^« pnMevtim in efidem veriu PQ^w Imf^^e VR^ ^a^ajt, ia quo mapifi^toqi eat d^ arbjC)* 

^* Qbus JUntiiai locutam/' 

f Pliny^ 3uii« i4« 

B B 2 title 



title for the Arabian frankincense among the Latins, TTins, is merely the 
Greek 0uo^, and signifies merely the thing divine*. At last, however, 
from the growing acquaintance that commerce formed amohg the na- 
tions of the world,' lapping round the globe in a chaih of gold, the trfees 
of Arabia were found to be particularly calculated fot intense ; and that 
predominating business of the world then, the worship of God, instantly 
appropriated the knowledge to itself. But the timber was now spared, 
and the gum alone was used, as creating less of a disajgreeable smoke, 
and generating more of an agreeable odour. From that period to the 
present, Sabaea, or Sheba, has supplied all the heathen, all the Christian 
world with incense; and has thus had the honour of sending np its 
spicy gums for more than three thousand years, in oilerings — *^ a sweet 
** savour** unto G6d. 

m • ' 


Hence have been derived into our language the terms inceme and cen- 
ser , the incensum and incensorium of the Latins, still retained in the en* 
c'enso and incensorio of the Italians. Incense, however, was not intro-- 
duced into the tertiples of Christianity very early. It could not be, in- 
deed, till temples were built; till the upper rooms of houses had been 
superseded by large structures erected for the purpose ; till the solemnity 
of temple- service was nationally transferred to the service of our churches. 
A(5cordingly TertuUian, at the end of tlie second century, says in his 
Apology for the Christians, ** Certainly vee do not buy incense, the obla- 
•' tion of it being generally the act of individuals ; and, if Arabia comr 

• HasseJquist, indeed, says thus, 250 : '^ The gum" Arabic acacia " is gathered in vast 
,f' quantities from the trees growing in Arabia Petrses^, near the north bay of the Red Sea, 
^ at the foot of moiint Sinai } whence thty bring the gum thus (frankince»se), so called hy 
*f the dealers in drugs in Egypt ^ from thur and thor,'* as answering to thus.thuris, ** .which 
** is the name of a harbour in the north bay of the Red Sea." But this naroeAvas given it, 
j>robabIy, at first, by the Greeks of Alexandria, the 'original marl of firaakiDcenae. (Pliny,, 
xii. 14: " Arexandriae — thura interpolantur") j and, .certainly,. ages before: any such har- 
bour as Thbr or Thur existed, for the importation of the gum, across tfaiei Red Sea into 
Egypt.' Frankincense was brought out of Arabia so late as the daya^of .Phriy^.notfrom any 
•* bay of the iJed Sea,*' to Egypt, but over- land to Gajeain Jud»a; ** cvehinoripotesfc nisi 
*' per Gebanitas, — caput eorum Thomma abest a Gazi, no^/rt /t^om in Judac&.0(jpid»^. 
^' Ixxx. xxvii, millium passuum, quod dividituc in mansimes camehrum-bsii.** . » 

*^ plains^ 


" plains of this, the Sabasans shall know the Christians eipend their 
" wares at a higher price, and in a larger quantity, for embalming their 
" dead, than the heathens in fumigating their gods */' Incense was 
not adopted t?ien in Christian worship ; but it was immediately after 
the establishment of Christianity, ** incense'* being expressly mentioned 
in the second of those apostolical canons, which are citied by name as early 
a5»394 f ; andthe "incense" being then confined, as now, to the eu- 
charist J. It thus began with the establishment of Christianity, and went 
crt with it through the ages afterwards. In our own coimtry, and under 
the year 1141, a monk of Durham describes the profanation of St. Giles's 
church near that city, which had* been garrisoned by one party and 
stormed by another, in these terms: '^The violators of peace lighted 
-*^ fires in the church, and offered up the smell of the meat which they 
'^boiled, instead of the odours cf incense ^^ . But in our own,.'and proba- 
bly in other countries, incense was of a double kind, domestic and 
foreign. The foreign was dear, even at Rome, and in Pliny's time || . 
This would naturally preserve the cedar arid the citron incense fr:Qm ber 
ing superceded entirely and universally by the Arabian* The last^ in all 
probability, were used only within superior temples or cburchies, and the 
.inferior \Vas perfumed with the others only. This at least was obviously 
the case in our British isles* Here the cones of firs were burnt in most 

* Apologetlcuff, xlii. : '* Thura plane non emimus ; si Arabiae queruntur, seient Sabiei 
*^ pluris et carior^a suas mcrces Christianis sepeliendis profligari, quani diis fumigandis/' 
t Cotelerius's Palres Apostolici, L 424. 

:^ Ibid. 437: 9vp»/A« T*i OxoMpw TD$ u»i »f»(po^ciiy OF, as Dionysius Exiguus renders the passage 
about 525, ** thymiama, id est, incensum, tempore quo sancta celebratur oblatio." (Ibid, 
tbid.) Incense is still confined to the eucharist ; and Mr. Pope accordingly says in bis de- 
scription of high mass^ 

When from the censer clouds of fragrance roU^ 
And swelling organs, &c. 

The second canon, indeed, is urged by some to be interpolated here. But Interpolations must 
be proved before they can be alleged. Mere suspicions and surmises are only cobwebs to 
catch flies. 

§ Wharton's AngUa Sacra, i. 714: *^ In loco, pacis violatorea focos accendebant^ nidorcfr 
^' carnium quas coquebant pro tbimiatum odoribus adolentes/' 

II Pliny, xii. i*4, 



of our dnrrchcs ; and those who have dcperienced cone» in the grate» of 
our parlours, know they make a fine fire» and throw out a fine aromaiic. 
I kam the fact, however, of their being burnt for ineenae in our 
churches, from a single solitary passage, accidentally noticed by my eye 
in Giraldus Cambrensis. " The numerous woods oif Ireland,*' remariu 
this author, *' abound in fir, the mother ofincerUe and franUneeMe % J"* 
Tet the gum of Arabia was still used, in superior churches. This I know 
from a very early period of our history, even as early as the reign of Al^ 
fred ; that king one day presenting to Asser, then only an abbot in Wales, 
•' two monasteries — , and a very costly pall of silk, and a strong mans 
*' burden of incbnse */' That incense was used among the Britous\»' 
fore the Saxons, is evident from the Roman names for it, and the oenser 
still remaining in the British dialects ; Utys and Thysser in Welsh, En- 
hois, Inkois, and Inkmslester in Cornish ; Tais, T\dsken, Tuiskcan, and 
Tmrieval tn Irish f . And it was this distinction of incense into fordgn 
jgt domestic, I appfehend, which has produced that otherwise unaccouiit« 
able variation of titles for it in our language, incense and Jranhtn-' 
sense ; titles not always kept distinct, but plainly meant to be so ; the 
former being a name common to both, and the latter an appropriate 
name for the foreign. Tet this is not appropriated, as Skinner dreams, 
because the gum is burnt with a frank liberality on the altar ; or, as 
Johnson dreams in the same tenour of reveries, with a nearer approach, 
however, to reason and reality, from its frank distribution of odours ; ' but 
from its coming to our Saxon ancestors, I believe, through the country 
of France, the Franc-land of the Saxons^ So it even comes to our neigh- 
bours at present ; as " the greatest part is carried," even now, from Cairo 
in Egypt " to MarseiUes'' in France, *' whence it is by the Dutch car- 
** ried to Muscovy;** and " a large quantity is burnt by the Muscovites 

f Camden's Anglica, &c. 739 : " Abundat abiete sylvositas Hiberniae, thuris et incensi 
•< matre/' 

* Asser, 50 : *^ Mihi eodem die tradidit-*duo monasteria**, et aericum pallium valdi 
*' pretiosum, et onus viri fortis de incenso/' 

t Lhuyd under Thus Thuribulum. Richards's Dictionary and O^rien's are both defec- 
tive here ; the former omits both the Welsh words^ and the latter has only the Irish SnU 

<« and 

saOT* n.] RnrromxcAiXT Bxjvn,ja>. 19 1 

^ and Roman Catbolics in their ckurches % •** fFe, in oar extended com«- 
fiierce, might bring it directly from Cairo : but growing inore penurious 
in our worship of God^ as we become more expensive in attentions to 
oursehreS) iiwer4ing the diaracter which does high honour to the earlier 
Romans, of being ^^ frugal in the mans^ment of their houses^ but mag-* 
^' nificent in the economy of their temples §./' and siiJdng in religioua 
dignity of sentiment infinitely lower than the very heathens themselves ; 
ever since the Reformation we have ceased to use it even in our royal 
chapels. Thus^ whatever w^e may hear of tiie churches abroad, Greek or 
Romish, whatever we may read of the {uraotice of angels in Heaven, yet, 
even at the chapel-royal, never does ^* the smoke of the incense — ootne 
^* with tbe prayers of the saints," and '^ascend up before GoD)f ;*' dis-^ 
pensing itB grateful odours around, so uniting with music^ with paintings, 
to gratify an the dignified, the inteilectual senses of the body, and to wrap 
Ae wbole man into that whidi is his highest feeling, as. well as his 
greatest 0ory, an ecstacy o£ devotion towards Grax % /* 

With this incense in the church, and with those robes on the officiatot 
in it, '* at the upper end of '^ what Mr. Willis calls its *' south iaie and 
'' nave,^ as he remarks, '^ near the high altar,, are niches handsomely 
^' carved in st6ne, together with an ancient monument under an arch in 
^^ the wall, erected here after rebuilding this part^." All this is an accu^ 
mulation of errors. The *^ niches, handsomely carved in stone,*' are ap* 

X Ha«iiclquist, 297. 

) SaHust in CatiUna, is. : *^ In BuppUciis cfeonim raagiiiffci, dbmi parci;'^ 

I RcT. 'viit. 3, 4* 

f As an additional pioof of the caaimg f>f mcense loto Britain, let rae »oliee this passage 
ia the Description of London by Fitz-Stephens I '< A(f banc urbem, ex omni natione quse 
** sub coelo est, navalia gaudeift institotes,*' those cf Marseilles- particiriarly for the incense, 
** habere commercia : 

•• Anmm mlttit Arabs, Bprcies « fkira S^heut.** 

Pe^'l ^itiofk in 1 772. ^ These artictes, which were then very >aK«ble,'* before we 
opened a direct communioation w^th the spice- i:ilaDd8 of the East-Indies, ^'carne trom 
•* Arabia FeUx, and the countries stiH more eastern,'* even the very Spice-isknda thertraelves 
(I suppbsfe), ukimtftely, i* to Alexandria^, and f^ce were imported " by MarsciHes '^^ iinift* 
i^Etirope.'* T¥^'snjate 10 kts^nmliftioii^ p. 4Qk .'.;).. 

• Willis, 151, 15a,. 



parently the throne and the stall, thus slightly noticed' by; the ufi^tin-^ 
guishing pen of a writer ; who, if he had known their real quality, would 
have piaocd himself with an antiquary's satisfaction- in the seat of the one; 
and have knelt with an episcopalian's reverence at the foot of the other^ 
He considered them only as mere ^' niches/' so lost the reverence in his 
Hiattention, and missed the satisfaction in his ignorahce. Antiquaries are 
generally supposed by ^' the million," to view objects through a mi- 
croscopic glass, thus to see much more than nature presents to the naked 
eye, and indeed to talk of beholding what *' the great vulgar and the 
** small" can never believe to exist. But we here find an antiquary, who 
has reversed the case entirely, whose microscope is as dull as the com- 
monest eye, and who could not see what was apparent before him. He 
looked at a niche, but beheld not a throne. He viewed it, but surveyed 
not the expressive accompaniments of it. He saw not the tnitre particu- 
larly at the top of it. Though this is no less than three feet six inches in 
length, from the base to the summit ; though the cross upon the summit 
is no less than one foot in length ; though both come projecting from the 
wall, and both stand conspicuous to the eye, with a window oh each side 
of them ; yet he saw them not. Minds not informed with antiquarian 
knowledge, though manly in their general exertions, and practised in in- 
tellectual exercises, are apt to impose upon themselves for fear of being 
impfosed upon by antiquaries, and take refuge in a kind of wilful blind- 
ness from the dreaded credulity of antiquarianism. But that an antiquary, 
one so much an antiquaiy as to be deservedly smiled at for his credulity 
by many, should not see even while he beheld, is a very singular phe- 
nomenon in the reigns of literature. Yet even he wanted some bjfother- 
antiquary to stand by him, as Michael stands by Adam iti Milton : 

then purge with euphrasy and rue 

The visual nerve, for he had much to see. 
And from the well of life three drops instih 

Tor want of this, missing that grand accompaniment the mitre, he 
mig^t well miss the others, the small dove over-head, the tall croziers 
rat the sides, and even the high elevation of the whole niche above the 
level of the floor : yet all should have united toj flash conviction in a 



Stream of lightning on his mind, to rouse him from the letharg}^ of v\il- 
gar spirits, and awaken him to the reality displayed before his eyes* 

But imawakened, unroused, he appears to have gone on, walking in 
his sleep, stumbling at every step, and plunging out of one difficulty into 
another. He must hav^ heard the tradition concerning the tomb, the 
throne, the door, and the palace, of the bishop ; yet he turned a deaf ear 
to the sound, notes not the palace or the door at all, notes the tomb only 
lbs '^ an ancient monument under an arch in the wall," and notes the 
throne, the stall, as merely two ** niches." So much were his eyes and 
his ears in a conspiracy together against the truth ! Thert his under- 
staoding suvk. at last into that pitfall of incredulous credulity, to suppose, 
even to a(er, the tomb and the niches were " erected here after rebuilding 
^^ this part." . He thus supposes b reiuiMng, for which he attempts not 
to produee any the most hypothetical reaton ; and avers, what' he pre- 
tends not to prove by any the most frivolous e^dence. No rebuilding 
appears to have ever taken place. Tlie door of the bishop, now blocked 
up by the.rising earth without, of itself proves that none has : nor would 
even a rebuilding, if as real as it is imaginary, at all solve those difficulties 
concerning the niches and the: arch ; for the solution of which it seems to 
have been fancied by Mr. Willis. The arch and niches were " erected 
"here," he ' says, ." o^er rebuilding this part.^* If they were thus 
erected, they could not possibly be wrought into the very substance of 
the wall: yet so wrought we have actually found the tomb; and so 
wrought are the door, the stall, the throne, apparently to every eye. 

Let us attend, however, to one more mistake in Mr^ Willis, because it 
may equally deceive. " Over which," he subjoins concerning his niches 
and monument, " were painted, I presume, those effigies of bishops 
** mentioned in Leland, which it is a great pity should have been de- 
^ faced*." The want of preciseness her^ is as remarkable as the absence 
of truth. He specifies not, over which of the three he fancies the images 
to have been placed ; and he unwittingly, intimates, that they were over 

• Willis,. 1 5^, 

VOL. It c c all* 


all. With 80 much confuscdness of ideas and terms, we must not expeet 
any justness of reasoning. Mr. Willis, indeed, has applied to the south 
aile, what Leland has confined to the chancel, and what can suit the 
chancel alone, '* Beside the hye altare of the same piory," says le- 
land, ** on the ryght hand ys a tumbe yn the wafle with an image of a 


*' bishop, and over the tumbe a xi bishops paynted*,** &c. We thus 
find the paintings were over the tomb. Biit was this tomb thskt in the 
south aile ? It certainly was not ; it was in the " priory'* part of the 
church, while that is in the parish part. It was '* beside the hye altare,'* 
while that is nearly half the length of the church, from any altar that 
could ever have been in the aile. There was, indeed, m> *' hye altare'' in 
the aile, there could be none, though Mr. Willis has previously ^ven it 
one, and (as now appears) from the meditated transfer to the aife, of this* 
passage in Leland concerning the chancel ; because there could be only 
one when the aile was a church of itself> and there could be no *^ hye 
'^ altare" while there was only one ; because too, wh«i the church was 
turned into an aile, " the hye altare" was certainly placed at the upper end 
crif the chancel, and only an inferior altar could then have remained here. 
So many mistakes in his account of this church has he made, who in 
general merits high commendation from all his brethren of the antiqua* 
rian family, whose knowledge was considerable, whose industry was un- 
remitted, and who by both is holding out the torch to thousands at 

Yet let me add concerning the throne and its accompaniments, that 
these were so loudly pointed out by tradition to be what they plainly are, 
a j to attract the notice, and call out the zeal of the Presbyterians in the se- 
venteenth century. Highly charged as the Presbyterians were with electri- 
cal fire, against popery, and against what their Bedlamite ideas had asso- 
ciated with it, prelacy ; a bishop's throne, a bishop's mitre, a crozier, and 
across, the last from the same insanity of associations combined in- 
vidiously with the three others, wore sure to draw forth the sparks in 
great abundance, and feel them discharged ii;i a burst of lightning. They 

* • 

* Leland's Itin. vii. 122. 

2 accw^i^ly 

Act. II.] BisTORicAzxr burvetbd. iq$ 

accordingly went to work, with the seeming animosity of heathenism 
against Christianity, to demolish the cross, ^ the croziers, and the mitre 
here, by chipping them with adzes, and levelling the projection of them. 
They have thus effaced some parts of the croziers, and taken off much 
firom the bold relievo of all. But, as all were formed of very hard stone, 
the labour became too tedious, fanaticism languished in its Gothic exer* 
lions, and indolence had recourse to a more compendious process. Th^ 
luckily resolved to conceal what th^ could not easily destroy. They 
filled up the deeper part of the throne, even the deeper part of the stall 
adjoming, with a wall of stone ; and they covered the mitre, the cross, as 
well as the upper end of the throne, with the arms of the state. Then 
too, undoubtedly, were the four plates torn off from the tomb of the 
bishops ; as the farther of the four, from the wall resting upon one side 
of it, must have required some extraordinary violence to extract it. Nor 
let us impute any of those rude and anti-christian outrages upon these 
venerable monuments, to the influence of that son of the first Eliot, who 
is so well known as a patriot in the days of Charles, under the knightly 
title of sir John. He died long before, in November i6S2; and hisson, 
then in his twenty-first year, appears not to have taken any part in the 
civil confiisions afterward, not even serving in the parliament of 1 04 1 *. 
All was done assuredly without any encouragement from Port-Eliot, per- 
haps with remonstrances from it, by that wild zeal against monuments of 
antiquity, which always actuates the vanity of vulgar reformers, and 
which was thrown into a sharp ferment in the Presbyterians, by their just 
abhorrence of popery, as well as by the native sourness of their own 
spirits. Thus was the depth of the stall and throne, the upper half of 
the latter, but the whole of the cross and mitre, concealed for a great 
number of years ; even till the Rev. Mr. Trevanion, who died minister 
here in 1 772 aged about thirty-five only, began to explore the walls, foF 
what he must have learnt merely from tradition to be there. He probed 
the niche in the eastern waD, he probed the niche in the southern, with 
his penknife, as the first instrument ready to his hand at the moment ; 
fbxmd the adventitious wall witliin both, procured a mason, and set him. 

• Wiir«, 146, 153, 

C C 2 ' to 


to clear both from their presbyterian obstructions. Then, in the progress 
of discovery, in the puBSuit of light breaking in upon him, he took away 
that screen of dust and darkness, the royal arms, from the mitre, the 
cross, the croziers, and the throne. So very early, indeed, as Mr. Willis's 
visit to this church, and before the year of his publication 1716,. we see 
the throne equally apparent to the eye with the stall ; and both therefore 
described by him as ^* niches handsomely carv'd in stone,'* " at the upper 
'^ end" of the aile, ^^ near the high altar." They were both apparent, 
though much contracted in their depth, and so, perhaps, seeming to be 
niches only. Yet the croziers, I am forced to say, could not be covered 
when the hollow of the throne was manifest, however reduced; and must 
have been obvious with all their defacements, upon each side of it. These 
therefore should have led the critical sagacity of antiquarianism, to trace 
out the design of the hollow, to pursue it under the royal arms, thus to 
anticipate the exploring hand of Mr, Trevanion, and to make his discovery 
of the croziers, the mitre, the cross, and the throne. A critical antiquary 
should be in sagacity, in struggles, and in success, like that celebrated 
general of Greece, Aristomenes ; who, being taken prisoner by his, ene* 
mies, precipitated with fifty others into a deep dungeon, and the only 
one of the number that escaped death in the fall, had sufficient quickness 
of perception to see a fox feeding upon the carcases, and sufficient pre- 
sence of mind to meditate his deliverance by it ; seized it therefore with 
one hand by the mouth, and Math another by the tail ; then let it, lead 
him to the narrow opening by which it came in, followed it into the 
opening holding by its tail, thus wriggled slowly with it through the 
winding hole, at last saw light, dismissed his guide, worked his way 
safely into liberty, and to the astonishment of his enemies, who supposed 
him long since incorporated with the mass of carnage in their dungeon, 
appisared at the head of his soldiery again, to be victorious again with 
them* But Mr. Willis was not an Aristomenes ; he had no fox to guide 
him ; b^e had no sagacity to make it his guide, if he had found one ; he 
saw the opening, but pressed not in ; he even beheld the light, but pushed 
not for it ; he sunk under his difficulties, despairing of all relief, and not 
trying for any ; he either looked not under the arms, or saw nothing there 
to inform him. He thus left & young antiquary to do, w^hat he should 



have done himdelf. And could he now behold, what Mr, Trevanion has' 
done ; see the croziere, the throne, the mitre, the cross, and the stall, all 
e:diibiting themselves in their full dimensions to the eye ; hear the corro- 
borating reports of tradition concerning alJ, concerning also the tomb, 
the door, and the palace; then be told the precise relation of each t9 
each, with the full reference of all to the church, as the ancient cathe- 
dral of Cornwall; he would stand amazed at his own want of attention 
to objects so apparent in themselves, he would be fixed in astonishment 
to find his eyes had been so dim, his ears so dull. 

And knowledge at each entrance quite shut out. 

But he would triumph through all his antiquarian ^eelings^ at the hapr 
pii^ess of the whole discovery. 

fHien the crozier became a mark of episcopacy, I know not; as X Q^t^i. 
see no traces of it in the earliest antiquity. It was originally, I believe^ 
the mere walking-stick of our aged prelates, religiously decorated with a 
cro9s at the top, and so forming the first crutch-stick ever used. Accords 
ingly, the crozier, even of so late and so active a prelate as Becket, whicfa( 
was preserved as a relic to the Reformation, is noticed by Erasmus tof 
have been merely *' a cane, plated over with silver, light in its weight g 
** plain in its appearance, and no taller than to reach up from the ground 
*' to the girdle ^.^^ It thence became a baton of honour, and w:as lengthened 
into a crutch-staff, for an ensign of episcopacy. Thus we find the pa- 
triarch of Abyssinia carrying in his hand a staff formed into a cross, even 

• Somner, 95, from Erasmus, in Peregrin. Religionis ergo : " « Ibidem vidimus peduvt 
'^ divi Thomae, Videbatur arundo, lamina argented. obvestita, minimum erat ponderis, 
*< nihil 'op^ris, nee ahius^quam usque ad cingtilom'4'' We can even trace this crozier, till 
it was eagulfed in the swallow of Henry's avarice ; a note of the time mentioniDg, as de« 
livercd to the king on April the 27 tb, 1541 » with other articles from Christ-churchy in Can-* 
terbury, ^^sl staffs garnished with silver, called Thomas £ekket*s siaffe,** (Steevens's Additions, 
to Monasticon, i. 86.) I know not that any writer has ever noticed the chair of Becket, as, 
preserved for a relic at Canterbury ; yet it seems to have been, from this additional article 
in ibid. 87 ; " Item, delivered more unto his majesty a chair of woode, covered' with crym- . 
'♦' sey [crimson] velvet, and the pomells jgid handells thereof garnished with silver, parcetl. 
*< of stick stuffe as came from Canterlrurye*^' 

\ yevy 


very recently. The Greek archbishdp of Philadelphia too, says an 
author who saw him in the seventeenth century, ** had a long stafi> black, 
*' and silvered over ; the top of it was like a crutdi-f.'' Even in our own 
country, and in the late days of archbishop Chicheley, upon his monv^ 
jnent existing at his cathedral of Canterbury, we see his crozier exhi- 
bited, and find it *' is as substantial as that of an halbert, as tall as 
*' the man' himself, " and has a cross at the topT so being, in fact, the 
very configuratibn of our croziers at St. German's J. Such was the ori- 
ginal form of the crozier; the same in Africa, the same in Asia, and the 
same in Europe ! But, in Europe, the form has been varied ; the cross 
at the top being curved into a crook, and the whole denominated a 
bactilum pastorale, or pastoral staffs, in a fanciful allusion to the care of 
bishops over their flocks. The allusion gave rise to the form, and the 
fancy started forth into a reality. In this form have been almost all the 
croziers of our island, for some ages. Yet, as the very appellation of 
crozier in English, and of crosse in French for it, proves it to have been 
formed originailly with a cross at the top ; so do the two croziers, ex- 
hibited on the walls of St. German's church, and the two once existing, 
or now exhibited at Canterbury, come in very usefully to corroborate the 
proof, to shew us the crozier in its primitive form, and to carry this form 
up to an eariy. period in our own country. 

' — . _ 

"We even see the croziei* retaining this very appellation and form, 
among the Britons of Wales, at a period verj' early. "In this province 
of Warthrenion," says Giraldus Cambrensis, about the year 1175, con- 
cerning a region near Radnor, " in the church of St. Germamis,'' our 
own saint, whom we know to have personally visited that region, '* is 
'* found a staffs which is said to have been that of St. Cyricus," a 
saint having equally a relation (I believe) to Wales and to Cornwall, 
being bom, probably, in Cornwall, as he has several churches dedicated 
to him in it § ; but being a bishop in Wales, as his crozier was left to 


t Arch. i. 344, 
% Gostling, a86. 

§ So Luxulyan is dedicated to St. Cyricm and JuHeta, and Vepe to St. Ciriciua, zs the 
satne is varyingly written } or, as Leland moi'e varyingly wFites tb« name^ ^^ in the middle 

« of 



this church, ancl having, perhaps, his crozier left there by St. (jermanus 
himself; " at iht toi^ it is protended a little on both sides in the form 
^^ of a cross, covered afll round with silver and gold ♦/* This is for the 
oldest crozier, I beheve, that is noticed in the whole isle. We afterwards 
see the crozier familiarly mentioned in those Welsh laws of the tenth 
oentury, which are mere transcripts in their substance fropi the ancient 
ihstitutes of t»he Britons f; find it distinguished by the same appellation 
of a stqff^y as St. Cyric's^ and therefore have a right to infer it still retaining 
the same configuration as his. *^ If two ecclesiastics," says the code of 
Howel Dha, " having the privilege of the bagl,'' baculum, or staff, 
'• either bishops or abbots," just as the French speak of an abbot, mitr^ 
et crossi, mitred and crozicred, " are engaged in settling boundaries ; 
^"^ he, whose state is superior to the other^s^ shall determine, on oaU» 
being first takea Qpoa his^q^/ and his Gospel, which hagl and Gospd 
shall be both there when the oath is taken J." •* A church," adds the 
code,*^* has one prerogative above the king's court; that, in settling the 
*^ limits of lands, it shall swear first, provided it has the privij^e of the 
" hagl and Gospel §," " When the church determines," the code do- 

^^ of tbU creek," what Leland calls ^ S. Carac creek,'* Tunning out from Leryn creek^ « 
between St. Veep and Lestwithiel, '^ on the north side was a litle cdle of Sainct Cyret 
'^ and Juletta, k>ngging tp Montegue [Montacute] priory,*' in Somersetshire ; '^ from the 
<^ mouth of S. Carak pille,'' Scc.(Itin. iii. 37) \ but called ^^ prior. S. Cyriaci^** in Itio* yiii. 
66. From the union of Julieta to Cyric or Cyret, in two of these notices, the saint seems 
to have been a married one, and to have been, therefore, put into the calendar of Cornwall . 
tvUk his wife. Just so^ the saint of Probus parish, in Cornwall, Is popularly denominated, 
at that season when he is principally mentioned, the days of the parish-feast, Probus (tnd,. 
Grace i and the saint, also, of Veryan, equally unknown with Probus, I understand to have, 
been lately exhibited in painting upon one of the windows, with his wife at his side. So well 
known is St. Cyric in Cornwall ; but in Wales is almost wholly unknown at present, only ^ 
one church, Langurrick, in Montgomeryshire, acknowledging him. (Leland's Itin. v. 86, 
and Liber Regis.) 

* Camdeni Anglica, Normannica, &c. p. 8ai : *' In htc eadem provinci& de Warthre- 
^'jiion [sceNennius, c. xh.\ in ecclesi& videlicet SanctJ Germani, baculus, qui Sancti Cy» 
<* rici dicitur, invenitur ; superius in crucis modum paulisper utrinque protensus, auro et air- 
" gcnto undique contectus/' 

t Hist, of Manchester, i. viii. 3, octavo, 

I Wotton,.4S3- 
§ VVotton/i53. 



Clares again, ^' the bounds shall be settled'* by the blshyp as is meant, but 
*' by the bagl and Gospel," aa is expressed; the bishop being familiarly^ 
designed by those two well-known memorials of his quality*. To 
mention only one instance more : Howel Dba is said expressly for the 
formation of this code^ to have assembled men " who had the d^nity of 
** the bagl, bishops, archbishops, abbots, and learned doctors ;" or, as 
another manuscript reads with more propriety and explicitness, *' all 
*' churchmen that had the privilege of the bagl, namely, the archbishop 

" of St. DauidTs, the bishops, and abbots,. aiid priors f/* 

' • • • 

• Wotton, 172. 

t Wotton, 4 : *' Bagl,'* which here he renders *^ Virga,*' and fancies ^^ a verge or mace f^ 
.jdirectly contradicting the whole current of analogy in the text, in his own translation, and in. 
one of his own notes. There, p. 172, he remarks, '' Baculum hie videturesse pedum pas* 
^y toraU** In his own Glofisary, too, at the end of all, he speiJcs thus* in a positive tone of 
voice, while be explain^ *' bagl ac cfflsngyl" to he ** ped$im pastorale, ei'Evaihgcliaan; 
^^ dicitur de episcopis et abbatibus, qui jus coram se gestandi Evangelii eipfdi babueruut.'* 
^P. 557O Wotton was uninformed at his outset concerning' the meaning of the word, and 
therefore rendered it a verge or mace ; but became acquainted with the meaning as be pro- 
ceeded, and with some little dubiousness translated it a pastoral crook ; yet, at the condu- 
%ion, rose into full assurance, without any dubiousness explaining it to mean a crook. This 
firogress and march of the mind is a very natural one, what happens continually in literary 
pursuits. The only strangeness at present is, that at the conclusion he did not turn back to 
p* 172, there to change the old dubiousness into his new certainty ; and that then he did not 
still inbre turn to p. 4, there to alter the verge or mace into what he now knew it should be, a 
crook. — In the same strain he censures the word priors, and makes the persons lawyers, 
with Blegfind at their head (p. 6) ; when^ in p. 4, he makes Blegorid expressly to be a cler- 
gyman, even archdeacon of Llandaff; when, in the very reading that he prefers, ** the. 
" bishops, archbishops** in the plural, though there was only one in all Wales, " abbots * 
^* and learned doctors," are all expressly said to have had *' the dignity of the lagV* (p. 4) ; 
and whet), in one of his copies, there is a reading that speaks for its own propriety, tells ex- 
plicitty they were " churchmen who had the privilege of the bagl,*' and then recites them by 
name, as '' the archbishop of St. David's, the bishops, the abbots, and priors'* (p. 6). 
That " prior was not a name in use during the age of Howel," as Wotton alleges in p. 6, 
is most probably not true in fact 5 priors appearing at Canterbury so early as 1088, appearing 
as priors are ranged in Howcl's laws, distinct from abbots, but inferior to them, as officers 
livell known there, coseval with abbots, probably, and certainly of a long standing. (Sax. 
Chron. 179, 180.) The abbot is as old as the monastery there (Bede, 38, 39, 209, 294; ;' 
and the prior is asserted by archbishop Baldwin in the twelfth century, to be equally old 
(Twisden, 1304, Gervase: ** Ab antiquis temporibus— positio ct depositio prions, sub- 
prioris'.'). See also Benlh^m for Elv, 125, 126. 

» We 

* HISTG^l^Aitr ^tfrfVEYECf. !^' 

I. I 

 We thus see the' crozier retaining its priinitiYe aj^elfation of a staff, 
^nd therefore infer it 'from St. Cyric's before, to preserve equally its pri- 
^mitive form of dhe, among the Britons of Wales to the tenth centiiry. 
•feut W We the inf(iiterice tfeniarkably donfirmed, by a yariiltibn that ^ took 
plate iri the very hime, when the form came to'^be^vaVied. ^Whit Wis 
tiearly a crutch-staff, was naturally denommated a&flg-/,or istaff; biit^ when 
It was turned into a crook, it was as naturally denominated a canibaca. Or 
crooked starfl' : The cfbok superfieding the cross at fhe top/ the 1^f)pellif- 
tion of ca'm6(icd "i^erseded the of iao^/'for i{*;' iiiiii t^A flfid 

'nearlV the sime mutaifibrr of naities with thef sarfid 'Vtrridtioii bf fornis 
among ourselves. We firs^ find * the original form wdth \tne original 
name, among the Sixons and early Normans. So late as the reigh' of 
kuftisrandVfiW the f^'i}ox!i4, the Saxbn Chroriicle liotic^' thatkin^ 
to'liave t^ken^tiie'bisttiptid bf ThetFcird^from one HerWt, hf siyingife 
de^liVea^fti<i^l'sfif)^ bF^^'his^^#t.'' In tbeiucc^^^^^ reign of Iftnrjr 
and the year 1 102, the king is equatty declared to have deprived many 
clergymen, both French and English, of their staffs, and their *' Wee,** 
of their episcopal quality and episcof^ Jdngdmlii, th6ir f es^ective blshi^p* 
^4;; > ^M^, y^W^H ^e sljijape y^'^^^^ ysi^i^ the 

name ;!tlie name being . coothmedjao l^ter^ in the Saigon ChroniQle, and 
the ^ shape varying just abo\it the same year. In sthe only r^presenta^- 
tion that -We hate <^fth6^1«3tMng Of the Saxons in England, Hai'old, 


^-' 'i 'J J»/ 

1 1 

: .1 

.f .J 

'* Hoelt Bom dicit'uV jJfo e^iscopb, iel' kltater ^phcophli functo jurisdlHione, lUpoie qui 
*^ laculo pastorali insignitur^ queirt co' seculo caMocayn vocabanl.** Thfere' is no such 
word as camboca io be fouHd m Welsh at present; though it actually appears, as we here 
find jfrom SpelAiaftV i^' *<>thfe copies of liowel'^ Xawsl So deficient m *i(s very enumeration 
of ^ordS^ li theVcfry b^stLexicbri'tliat wie had of Welsh^ UichdMs's; before \i'e were Favoured 
VitHthelJexitfOn now*ih*pubrication liy Wiiliam O^en, t"; S/A.' BuVCaw, 'cr6oked> anil 
Back, the same in Cornish as Bagl'in Welsh, the same, therefore, in' Welsh formerly', would 
compound Into cam-baca, OT'carn-boca m Latin, and signify a crooked staff. The word had 
been inserted in some copies of the laws, and' Spelraan had met with a copy bearing it, as 
one more faofiliif to the* ey€ and War iifteir tHc fofm had beea varied, than the original bagl 

vas. / ' "■* "''^  ^; ;'"'•'" "»■•; "■' '-' ••'''•-' 

t Sax.Chron.'pl'ioo." ' ' ' *" ' '" * u . .. , ' 

J Sax. Chron, p. aio. 

VOL. I. * . ' ' ' pb which 


which is a beautiful illuminated drawing in a prayer-book of Harold's 

own century, the eleventh ; two bishops, one upon each side, appear 

each holding up his right hand to bless, and e^ch having in his left a 

crozier, exactly similar to our own at St. German^s, tall and crutch-like§- 

We also see Odo, bishop of Bayeux, in Normandy, represented upon his 

seal as equally holding up his right hand to bless, and as equally having in 

his left a crozier exactly the same in shape with our own *. . But Anselm» 

vho became archbishop of Canterbury in 1093, five, years before the 

death of Odo, is exhibited upon his own seal equally in the act of blessings 

and equally with a crozier in one hand ; yet a crozier^ no longer crossed 

or crutched at the top, and actually curved into a crook there f . Anselm 

thus stands before us, in all probability the iQjj$t introducer of the crozier- 

crook among us» and in full certainty th<e ^t who is 1uio:yni to carry i%, 

the, siiperseder of the crozier-staff in his^o^y^fi .practice, the superseder of 

it in others by imitation, and the abolisher almost of the very qiemoiy of 

it within a couple of centuries afterward %. 


f Ducanel, p. i, preface^ vt» * 1 . . . 

• Dacarrel, 75 ; pre&ce, \u ; and Arch. i. 536. , . . , K • 

t Docarrel, 59. See'Sax. Ctiron. p. 198; for Anselm ;' and !lf almesbury,' f. 63,'ferOdo/ 
A crosier of the original form assaredly, and' one certainly very remarkabk in itself w thus 
mentioned by Simeon Dunehnensis in some account of Odo; ^qnsedam etiam.ex onut- 
'< mentis ecclesin [Dunelmerisis], inter quse et hofmhtm pasiorakm materia et arte miran<- 
*' dum, erat enim db saphiko pactus, prac&tus episcopus abstultt/' (Twisden, c. 48.) 
The whole crass or cruick part, I presume, was formed of one occidental sapphire. 

t Of this we have a remarkable proof. ^ There are " within the cathedral of £^ 
^^ —eight pieces of sculpture, one <m mich side of the pillars that support the dome and 
^* lantern ; all of them historical, and relate [relating] to the history of our St, Etheldreda.*' 
(Bentham, 52.) To know the age of these sculptures, which have som^ crosier-ovoks ia 
them, we must not refer to the general construction of the church, uader the.yeara 1081- 
1215 (ibid. 107, 108, 117, 118, 143, 14s). No ! We must go much fower^ " In the be- 
ginning of the year 13^2, — the old tower in the middle of the chuRcb suddenly falling 
down, mined also the choir that was under it. The sacrist, to whom the care, oversight, 
and repairs of the fabric belonged, the same year formed the design and plan, apd laid tbs 
" foundations, of that more convenient as well as more elegant kind of structure in its room, 
which we now see 5 it is of an oct<^on form supported by eight pillars, covered with a 
dome, and crowned with a spacious kmtem" (Ibid. 157.) This then is the date of the^ 
sculptures, as it is the date of the pillars on which they are found ; though Mr. Bentham haa 
strai^ely left us to settle by ourselves the age of those very sculptures^ which he thought il 






But let me now turn to the mitre. This kind of ej^iscopal coronet, -^^^^zfex. 
which has been for ages appropriated to the heads of bishops, which is 
still worn by officiating bishops on the continent, which was formerly 
worn by our own, and is retained by them in signature or representa- 
tion at present, makes its historical appearance in our island, even among 
the Saxons. Thus Elphege, who was appointed archbishop of Canter- 
bury in 1006, is recorded to have continued through the whole day on 
high festivals, in the same dress in which he had officiated at the altar be- 
fore, '* robed in white, covered with a pall over that, and having a mitre 
" tied upon his locks ♦/* Nor is this the* only mention of that episcopal' 
ornament in the Saxon period, Tfie historian of Ramsey, writing, pet- 
haps, after the Conquest, as his history is continued fey his own, or an- ' 
other's hand below this aera+, but using dertainly the language which* 
had been long familiar to the ears of scholars ; says that Etheric, a young 
monk of Ramsey, who was at last made bishop of Dorchester by Canute, 
was by his virtues preparing himself from his youth for the episcopal 
dignity ;. and expresses this sentiment in these words, *^ was preparing 
^< for himself the pont^ai diadem ^ /* Oswald^ successively bishop of 

worth while to delineate and engrave for his readers. From them we now learn, that, in a couple 
of cedturiesj the new crozier was become so familiar to the eyes and minds even of scholars, aft 
to have buried nearly all memory and extinguished nearly all knowledge of the old ; to have 
been thus put into the bands of prelates before the Conquest^ of prelates four centuries before ^^ 
and so IP have beep apparendy considered by the sculptors^ by their directors^ or1)y botb^ as , 
the NormaUi the Saxon, the primitive crozier of the church. There are therefore no less thaa * 
six crozier*crooks, in three sculptures of plates xi, and xii. ; though these refer to events in the 
biography of St. Etheldreda, happening about the middle of tht seventh century. Yet in one « 
of plate xii. the sculptor, or the director, had such an insight into the erroneousness of the 
form ill the three others $ as to desert it, to sh^pe his crozier in the mould of antiquity, and « 
to put a regular crozier-staff, tall and crutch-like, but with the top rising above the cross* 
piece, into the hands of an abbot. See No. 7, p» 58. 

* Twisden, c. 1649: << In vestitu candido, desuper amictus pallio, mitri cssarie con- 
•< strictus." 

t See Gale's account of him. 

X Gale, i. ^34 : << Pontificale9i sibi infulam pr^paravit/' So, at the general wreck of 
ecclesiastical antiquities in the storm of the Reformation, we find brought to the sacrilegious , 
king ** s^ pontifical of gold, wherein is set a great saphire, boith^' it and across ** beinge 
«« parcells of such stuffe as came from Wyncbester/' (Steeyens's Additions to Monasticon, 
i, 84.) 

 i> D 2 Worcester 


Worcester and archbishop of York, died in 992 § ; w^ J)Ufied ;in the 
cathedral, which he built himself at Worcester : but left,, as Stubbs in- 
forms us, '^ his diadem of purple colour," )\:hich was therefore fabri- 
cated of cloth J and not of metaU as the^latcf:ij(jitres al^w^ys were of- silver 
gilt, I believe, and as the onlj' miU'c,(Ia4g>pifcheiid)*no>T remaii;ung, in the 
kingdom, that of Wickham at New College in Oxford, : is at present; 
" decorated with gold an4 gems; ta be preserved at tliis day iBt,the cjhurch 
^\ of Beverley, and to shine still with its original, l^eautj {[ /' \ Wceyea 
find an abbt^t of ply in ^le same iteign of Cku^utie, presenting, mjjny fiae 
dresses iof theoJ^ci^^ting abbot and mooiks, anfong which w^ 'f ^.^iadem 
*' of diTubjf colo^,*^ equally fabricated therofor^ of cloth, '' 6tiffeaed out 
** behind,'* as cfo^A,''^by wonderful Workmanship with flowers both 
,"»abpve ai>d , below,, but guarded Woo? with |gem$a^dgo^d in q kind of 
" roof-woi;k ^./^ Eyen that yelry cloak ^f putple, wlnich Edgsu*} fi^iod to., 
wear himself, but presented to: .the church of ;Ely, '^ wa,&',* (s^yst positively: 
the historian of Ely) ^^ made into 4^iadem.* .*' Tfeeae notice^ are as cu- 
riou§ in their fjuali^y, as they are new in tlieir;eqi:hibition tQ ithc; public,. 

de)Q(matrate!t^e]»9t^9is ©fiiSexoii mitres evm i&£9CiQ WH^eiy olearly^of * 

their materials and their ornaments \ .. 

' «• Sax. Chron. ' '' ' 

I Twisden, c. i(>f)^v ^ Hujds'infiila ptirpurca, ct auro,*genitnis ornata, et priscft purchH* 
•• tudinc fu%ida, Bcverlacensi ailhiic rekrvatur eccleslft/' Th6 list ihade' at the ferfoi'ma- 
tidn, of .'objects ;f&rplunfler tfebnging to tWe cathedral of Winchester, riiVntloh's "^'^rte 
^ simuSng mittes of s^er gHt, gafnisbed'iyltli pearls and pVecioVisstones,^ Itrtii", ten otii' 
^m'xirts,'* Tioi km^ngf not ^iii^ty'hnX "'gariiishcd with pearls aiid^Slones afiir^ifle old 
^^fasMonJ^ (Hist.* of Winchester, i. a6.)' 

^' Gale, i. 504: ^ Infull rube&j mirando bpere subtuset desiiper floribus retro extensa, et 
** velut qu6dam tabulatu 'geiilmis ei auro ante munitiis [munita*].'* This donation, from one 
of his own abbots to bis cfwXh thurch ^tid monastery, is'totally omitted by ihe historian of all^ 
Bentham, 92-97- * *J '•* ' , ^ ' ' ' * 

* Seeii. 3, before, 'and Whatton's Anglia Sacra^ 1.6641 ^' De qua infuh facta est. 

t I might have adduced as a proof of the early use of mitres among the Saxons,' that a 
statue of St^Erkenwald, who was bishop of London about 674 (Bede,. iv, 6), was kept there 
to th^ Reformation with a mitre on his head and a crozier in tiis haiid ;. as- tlten was seized 
by thfe king ^^'an ima^ge of Seynt Erkenwaldt with his idyter atid Crosier gilt/* (Steevens's- 
Additions to Moitasticod, i. 84.) But, as the argument •mu8t"ha\'e heeh JTounded upon the 
identity of dress in the statue, from the first to the last, I declined, to use it*. 

2 Nor 

1 .».-•• _ I 


• ^ 


Nor need we be an^pous about the British existence of mitres ; though 
we have. proved the mitre ©n the wall of our St, Gernian*s church, to be . 
coaeval with the church itself, and have referred the construction of the 
cburdi, to the Britons of the seveqth century. This personal decoratioit 
©f- the officiating. prelate of our religion, was introduced among, us.. un- 
doubtedly with the establishment of o\ir religion itself, from the continent 
©fthftRvmaa empire ; when the zeal that induced the insular^ the, con- 
Idnental n^tiyesto eijibrace Christianity, equally induced them to- honour 
th% Mastcf i|i his niinister, to throw a particular lustre of dignity over the 
prelates, to seat their persons upon thrones, and to cover their heads with 
erowns. Thus we find in the very first periods of established Christi- 
anity, that bishops were distinguished by having a seat in the church, 
which was denominated a throne ; as Eusebius calls the seat of the bishop 
at Jerusalem " the apostolic throne,!' because the apostle James hadsitten' 
\tt it, and as Gregory Nazianzen entitles the seat of the prelate at Alexan- 
dria, for a similar reason, '* the throne of St. Mark J /* Just so we see 
the bishops ia general addressed by compellations referring to their 
mitres ; the coqamon form being nearly such as. we now use toouv kings, 
to supplicate them by their crewn, or to sue to the cvoto7i upon them ; this 
very form appearing in Sidonius ApoHinaris, Ennodius, Austin; and 
Jerome, the very citizens of that empire in which the Britons were 
equally included, the very members of that church into which the Britons* 
bad been equally initiated, apd only speaking the current language of all* 
the empire^ all the church, for a century or two before-§ . 
' - • Yet 

% Bingham*8 Origines Ecclesiastrcae, i. 127, ia8> edk. ad, 1720. 

§ Bingbam, L 124, 125 : *' Sidon. lib. 6, ep, 3, * Auctoritas coronae tuse', &c. Idtm, 
** lib. 7, ep. 8, ad Euphro^ * De minimis rebus coronam tuam, maximisque, consulerem/ 
^^Ennod, nb..4, ep. 29, ad Symonaclib. 5, ep. 17, ad Mttrcelllnum,*' &c. &c.. Bingham,, 
whose learning is greater than his judgment, argues against the word corona signifying a 
mitre in the passages- above* But both his arguments revolt from their master, and turn their 
force agaii3st him. '^ Savaro and some others fancy,'' he cries in i. 125, " it respected the 
*^ ancient figure of the qlerical tonsure, by which the hair was cut into a round forjn from. 
'* the crown of the head downward^*" Yet, as he subjoins himself in 127, this " tonsure," 
though " sometimes called corona, — ^was not peculiar to bishops, but common to all the 
" cl^gy*** An address to bishops therefore by such a reference would have been so far 
from **• prefacing the discourse with some title of honour,'* which Bingham himself, in 125, 



Yet Still a question recurs to the inquisitive mind^ when and* from 
whence this peculiar kind of crown was selected, as an ornament to the 
heads of bishops. This question I wish to* answer satisfactorily, because 
Montfaucon has erred egregiously concerning it, and his authority i^ likely 
to carry a sinister influence upon my readers. •'' The episcopal mitre," he' 
avers, '^ six or seven centuries ago was only a bonnet or cap unth a sharp 
« pointy and not '' the mitre of these later ages || ." This averment/ 
however, is very false. In contradiction to it, I need only appeal to the 
mitre on the walls of our own church. That refutes the assertion di-' 
rectly. That cannot be later than the throne, over, which it is carved ;l 

expressly states the other to be, that it would have been a degradation, and have levelled the 
bishops with the merest monks. We might as well believe, that the compellation was by 
the crown of their head, and so have put them at once upon a footing with all mankind. ^^ It 
'^ seems most probable,'* for this reason (I suppose) adds Bingham in 126, '' that it was no 
^^ more than a metaphorical expression, used to denote the honour and dignity of the episoo- 
'^ pal order." But this it could never have denoted, unless it referred to some decoration of 
dignity and honour used before. To solicit a king by his crown is proper, because he wears a 
crown ; but to solicit any person by the crown which he does not wear, would be only bur- 
lesque or ridicole : and as that piety, which gave a throne, would naturally give a crown to a 
Ushop ; so we find both among the Christians of the Roman empire. 

\^ Montfaucon's Ant. Exp. i. i. 3, So in ^' Encyclopedie Methodique,'' published at 
Paris in 1789, under Miire, ^^ la forme de cet ornament n'a pas toujours ete la meme,'* and 
^< les mitres, que Ton voit sur un tombeau d'eveques a S. Remy de Rbeims, ressemblent plus 
^ a une ooefle qu*a un bonnet.'* Just in the same manner, upon the sculptures that are on 
some pillars in Ely cathedral, are the heads of two bishops wearing conical caps, the very 
mitres assuredly of Montfaucon and of St. Remy. (See Beniham's Ely, p. 48, No. x, a.) But 
then ihese sculptures I have lately shewn to be as recent as the fourteenth century. Even 
with these figures upon some of the sculptures appear heads equally episcopal, as having each 
a crozler borne by an ^tendant close to it, ornamented with the 'present mitres. (See ibid, 
p. 54, plate xi. fig. 5, and p« 58, plate xii. fig. 7.) The conical cap therefore appears to 
have been not the same with the mitre, but a diflTerent kind of bead -covering *, used indeedf 
upon solemn aets of office equally with the mitre, as it is used by the very bishop who is pro- 
nouncing the benediction, in the marrrage-service of Etheldreda and king Egfrid (Bentham, 
p. 48) ; yet used only as we see coronets actually used by two croziered persons (Benthamj 
pu Sli)f and as we also see even a flat cap with a double string of beads, used by a third 
(Bentham, p. 58J. Thos^ therefore can no more be mitres than thes0. But the appearance 
of those upon the heads of bishops accounts at once for the erroneous suppositioa of their 
being nutr^ f« 



spd neither of them can be later than the episcopal dignity, once attached 
to the church: that therefore cannot be less than "six or seven centii- 
^^ ries*' old J as I shall hereafter shew the dignity to have been taken 
away; more than seven centuries ago * . But we can happily mount to 
a much earlier period, and Montfaucon: himself shall aid us in our ascent. 

GemmeuB i6te tibir mikg et hostts ent* 

*^ We come n6w/ says this very extensively learned writer, '^ to the 
** most curious and singular representation of the Syrian goddess/' 
Cybele ; *' this is the inscription. Mater Dear. Mater Syrice.^ The figure 
^' \& very extraordinary and remarkaUe in all its parts. Sh« is in a sitting 
*^ posture, and hath upon her head an EPKCOPAiL mftrb,. adorned on the 
'^ lawer part with towers and pinnacles — -. The goddess wears a sort of 
*^ surplice, exactly like the surplice of a priest or bishop; and upon tho 
^' surplice a tunic, which falls down to the legs ; and over all an episco^ 
^' pal cope, with the twelve signs of the zodiac wrought on the borders. — 
f\ 'Piifl figure, if it be indeed antique, re^^resents Nature—. ff^hcU gives 
^^ us room tasuspect isy that we &ad this figure only in some drawings of 
•' Firco Ligorio, an ancient Neapolitan painter," who lived about two 
centuries ago f ; and who says '^ he copied it from an antique of Yir* 
'' ginio Ursini, count of Anguillanu This is that Firro Ligorio, whom 
^^ that skilful antiquary Raphael Febretti frequently blames,. in>hi» hook 
*' of Trajan's pillar, but chiefly in his large collection of inscriptions^— 
*' But what increases our suspicion the more isj^ we observe nothing of this 
** JAnd in the habits of Cybele, or any other deity^ Nevertheless^ Bellori> 
^' a very skilful antiquary, hath published it, and without intimating any 
*' manner of doubt concerning the truth of this monument J'/* Bellorii 
in my opinion, shewed the judiciousness of his mind by this manner of 
acting. The monument is assuredly genuine. Singularity can never 
prove spuriousness : if it should, there could not possibly exist in the 
world such a monument as an unique. Nor can any censure from Fabretti 
upon Ligorio suffice to make us disbelieve the latter, when he says that 
y he copied it from an antique;" and especially when he adds, that tliis 

* See vii. i% 

f; Moatfaucon AnU Exp. lii* iii, i6« 


% Ibid, i. i. 3^. 



very antique was in the possession '* of Virginio Ursiia, count of Anguil- 
*^ lara.'* Even Montfaucon himself, however modesty however timid, 

• • • 

who therefore pronounces the monument *^ very doubtfaP at the head of 
his chapter ; yet comes at the close, we see, to rest upon the opinion of 
Bellori, to praise Bellori's &kill ih 5Qch monuments, and to refer without 
reprehension to Bellori, for his pablicatioa of it without one expression 
of doubt. The grand reasons in Montfaucon's mind for doubting at all, 
were his full conviction, that the mitre of a bishop only a few ceritufies - 
ago was different from this, a conviction wMch I have shewn to be all 
•erroneous ; and a persuasion equally full, which I can equally prove to be 
erroneous, that we observe " nothing of this kind,** no mitre particularly, 
** in the habits of Cybele/' The very appeilation of mitre is derived 
from the language, as the very «» of a vutre is found in the practice, of 
the priests or priestesses of Cybele. 

She and they were all Phrygian together, and wore what they called 
the mitra in Phrygian, as the appropriate, exclusive symbol of all ; the 
fnitre being originally a bonnet for fetnales in Phrygia §, therefoire worn 
by herself, and so worn by her feminine priests after her. This appears 
from some lines in Virgil, which Montfaucon has astonishingly -overlooked: 
There the rough African, larbas, thus sneers at iEneas and his TVojans as 
Phrygians, as the votaries and priests of the Phrygian Cybele : 

Et nunc ille Paris, cum ^emtViro comitata, 
Mceonii tnentum miirA, crinemque madeateoi^ 

So expressly is the 7nitre denominated the M^imiari, as the institttted 
<!nsign of Cyhele^ the daughter of Maeon! Stj plainly- did the eunuch 
priests of Cybele m the days of Virgil at least, and for such a time before;, 

§ Ovid: », . 

• • * « - 

........ Picta redimitus tempofa r7iitrd 

Assimilavit anum. ' * 


t*Hny/xxxv. 9: ^« PolyenotusThasiuS— primus mulieres lucidi'veste pinxit, capita carum 
*< mitris versicoloribus operuit,'' &c. * 

H yEncid, iv. ai5*ai7, 



as could authorize even a poet to place tibe fact coteraporary with the 
Trojan war, move in their ministries to their goddess ; with mitres placed 
«qpon their heads, hut tied under their chins^ exactly like the mities of 
Our bishops ! Virgil has even applied the sarcasm a second time, and 
made Turnus like larbas to insult oyer the Trojans in a strain of allusion 
to the Phrygian priests of Cybele : 

Vobis picta croco tXfvlgenH murice vestis ; 
Desidise cordi ; jmai indulgere choreisj 
Ex tunicse mtmcas et babent redimicula mit&ou 
O vtrh Phrygi^r, neque enim Phrygef, ite per alta 
Dindyma^ ubi assuetis biforcm dot tibia cantum ; 
Tympana^ vox^ luxusque vocat Berecynihia mairis 

Tlie Trojans thus appear a second time insulted as Phrygians, as therefore 
the worshippers of the Phrygian goddess, as consequently having priests 
emasculated, effeminate, clad in tunics half purple, half saffron in colour, 
with long sleev^es to them, crowned with mftres that had long strings, 
and dancing on the mountains of Phrygia, Dindymus, Berecynthus, or 
. Ida, to the united sounds of their own voices, of their double flutes, and 
of their drums. 

Such was evidently the ori^ of the mitre, Phrj'gian in its veiy name, 
sacerdotal in its very rise nearly, but, together with the siuplice and the 
cope, even divine at last in its application ! The mitre afterwards passed 
with the cope and surplice, as habits august in themselves and consecrated 
to Deity, into tie service of a priesthood formed with views of a much 
more dignified pature, acting' for purposes truly sublime and sacred, 
fixing indeed (as every priesthood must fix) its feet upon earth, but rear- 
ing its head to heaven. Nor can any objection be made in morality to 
this translation o^ the ornaments * ; except from that fatuity of fanati- 
cism, which considers every object once applied to wrong purposes as 
thoroughly vitiated in its substance ; which once turned Christmas-day, 

f iBneid.ix. 6i4*62i. 

* Montfaucon, u part ist, i. 3 4 ** Pirro Ligorio pretends, the Chcistian bishops borrowed 
^* thehr habits irom them.'' 

V-OL. I« £ £ a$ 


as a day of lasting occdsionalty abiiiird^ into a blasphemous'kind' ^ fast; 
Nf^hich therefore coiild net sufifer either priests, or sacraments 'or^dle^d- 
tions, any religion, any government, even any aotion ©r drcsB at all, to-be 
contimced among mankind; which must, indeed, have consigned the 
earth to flames and man to perdition, at the very first inbodnction of ski 
into the world. And as we find the priests'of C^bele renvaining beyond 
the establishment of Christianity in the empire ; so we see St. Austin de- 
scribing them at the end of the fourth century, nearly as Virgil describes 
them before the commencement of the first ; without the mitre indeed, as 
now, perhaps, with the cope and tlie stirplice of the statue translated 
already to the true religion, ivithout also those long-sleeved tunics of saf- 
fron and purple colour, of which the statue wears one between the cope 
above and the surplice below ; jet as " effemvnate fellows, consecrated 
*' to the great mother contrary to all decency, eitheij in men or tvomen^ 
being still the '^ semiviri" of Virgil, "wno w;ent up and dpwn'Carthage,^' 
such was the tolerating spirit of Christianity towards them! with dances, 
songs, pipes, and drums assuredly,,^ in former times, certainly '^ with 
*' perfumed hair,'' the very " crines. maderites''* of Virgil, /^ w;ith 
*^ faces painted white,*' as women tricked out for a theatrical shpw, '^and 
** with an effeminate mien,'^ like the eunuchs employed in the choral 
services of Italian cathedrals at present ; " obliging the people to sup- 
" port this infamous life with their bounty,'* every month*. 

, • t ft. 

Yet let us seek an origin for mitres, at once more honourable an^ more 

ancient than this.. ^' TTie kings of the Orientals," says Philo, ^.hayebeen 

" in the habit of using a. kidari$,'' or mitre, *' fpr a diadem rj-." By 

" the kings of the Orientals,*' Philo means the sovereigns .of Persia, who 

actually used a mitre for a crown, actually called it a A?^an5, apd^ actually 

used it more in the shape of the present mitre than of the Phrygian : tlje 

latter was nearly, what Montfaucon falsely says the former was a few 

centuries ago, " on^ a bonnet or cap with a sharp point;" being only a 

round cap, rising to a short blunt peak at the crown, and there dropping a 

* Moot^ucon, i. part isr, i. a. . 

f De Yiii Mosis, iii. 671: Ktiufn ya^ m rtn 'Emw fiaa^Xui atU JtaJVipalof ittAttai xi^^* * • 

5 little 

s««r» n;J . ' HWPORi€A-LtT«sirmvBTED. * tut 

little forwardtl :{:. But ^ Persian waslikl^lhe ]ufefie|^i mitccy ctaii^u^ 
stiffly without any drop, and spiring into a sharp p^int §• . Thia fi>rm o£ 
a mitre^ however, was appropriated to the kings ; the subjecta^ing con« 
fined to mitres tha^ bent down to their fordbeads or their eyebrows {|; 
Accbrdikigly' we know the very priests to have worn metres flat in their 
appearance above, and- resembling turbans in their configuration %. Andjr 
at some distance from the ruins of F^rsepblis, are h\iman :figures stiU cot 
in the face of a rock; one representing a man with something like a 
tcarban on his head, another with the appearance of a present mitre on 
bis, but leaning his hand on the guard o£ a great swot d *« < 

We h^vS thus puihed up the current to the fountam ; yet still we havfi 
not reached the* original source of the mitre, as a tiard for tbe heads of our 
Christian prelates. This source lies concealed: in a period of time much 
more removed from the present, with a ^ people much more related to 
Christianity, and among a priesthood the immediate predecessors of the 
Christian. So eariy as the year of the Exodus, 1491 years before Christ; 
God condescended to prescribe the nature aibd shape of the vestment* 
for his high-priest. '* These are the giirments,*' he says to Moses, 
^* which they shall make, a breast-plate, an ephod, and a robe, and' a 
*' broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle ; and they shall make holy gar- 
ments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that they may minister unto 
me in the priest's office. — Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and 
ghtve upon it like the engravings of a signet. Holiness to the Lord ;— ^ 
** thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre ; uporl 
*' the fore-front of the mitre it shall be ; — thou shalt make the mitre of 
♦' fine linen, and — shalt put the mitre on his head, and put the holy 
*^ crown," the plate of pure gold, '* upon the MITRE'i^" Nor was this 
denominated a mitre in our translation, merely from that accidental asso- 
ciation of ideas which had prevailed from the use of mitres among our 
bishops, for some ages antecedent to the translation. It is §0 dcnoiQi* 

X See the bonnet sculptured on ^ Romati stone, in Horsley's Cheshire, No. v. 

{ Ant. Univ. Hist. v. X2i, • 

H Ibid. ibid. if IbH. plates 31, 32.  Ibid, 118. 

t Exodus, xxiriii. 4, 36, 39, wtx, 6, So Leviticus, vUi. 9 : ^ ThcgoWen plate, the holy ci»tm.**f 

E E 2 nated 


'ttf. THE CAnnikAL O? CORlfWALI. [cHAP. IIS. 

nated expressly by PlutardiiF ; while the Hebrew appellation is wiwf- 
nepheth, referring only to the roll of linen, sixteen cubits in length, that 
was wrapped rimnd and round into this tiara * • But the miti e of Mosea 
here is plainly one for Aaron and for his sons, for the high-spriest equally 
with the other priests. Yet the high-priest*s *' mitre** is distinguished 
by a diflferent name, from the ^' bonnet** of the common priest f ; and 
was therefore different, either in form or in fabric. In fabric it is dif- 
terent, being made of a linen finer in its texture, and peculiar in its title^ 
Shah being supposed to be a fine sort from Egypt ; while the linen of 
the bonnet is of a more common kind, and therefore denominated Bad ^ . 
But how was it difierent in form ? w^gainst a host of opponents, I main* 
tain, that the difference was really what the very appellations of mitre 
and bonnet suggest it to have been. The latter, says Josephus, is '^ not 
*' conical § •** But the former, he subjoins, " has over the latter anodier 
sewed, fabricated of purple in stripes ; a crown of gold runs round it^ 
with letters engraved upon it in three rows ; and at the top op th£ 
WHOLE is displayed a cup op gold, similar to that in the henbane 
plant;** which, as he additionally subjoins, ^^ has a cup as big as a joint 
of the little finger, but carrying with it the circumference of a howl^^ 
This therefore was plainly in the form of a Persian kidaris, or a present 
mitre. And Fhilo unites with Josephus, to call it expressly a kidaris. 
" The high-pridist puts upon his head,** says the former, without hesita-* 
tion, without qualification, ** a kidaris for a diadem ; so asserting him-* 
^' self as one consecrated to Gon, whenever he officiates in his character 
^^ of high-priest, to be superior to all, not merely private persons, but 
^' even kings themselves *♦.'* And when *' Alexander** the Great " saw 


* AiDSworth on the place. 

f £xoduS| xxviVt. 40: ** For Aaron's sons— 4ffme// shalt thou make — ^ for glory and for beauty..'^ 

) Ant Univ. Hist. v. 75. 

) Ant. ill* 3* HiXov ommw. 

II lUd. 7. Yrif at/Iop h avvt^fetiuwi ilf^, t{ vaxiyOif rnrMxiX/AifOf* vifn^iloei h rtfcwof Xf^^^i **^ 

** De Viti Mosis, iii. 673 : KAi^n h o^i heAtiiahs nrAOim ^ m^dXiff inusum rev ttftffjttgot %f 0m, 
m4* u xffm iic«i1ai> Yfofc^uy «Mni»W, mm ^n fium tU^lm^ oTgui mu ^Qam. The Vulgate accordingly, 





Rl8^tmiCALI*T 8VR?KT£I>« 


^ jet at a distance the multitude** of citizens ^^ in tvJdte vatmenU^^ tlie 
gurpUees still worn by the laical as weU as clerical retainers of our greater 
diurches, '' and the priests preceding them in their lawn dresses/' dresses 
still continued partially by our bbbops in their lawn sleeves^ '' and the 
" high-priest'* preceding all " in \n^ purple robe bedropt with goid/* a 
colour equally worn by our bishops in their purple coats^ " harii^ a 
^* kidaris on his head^ and a ductile plate of gold upon the kidaris ; on 
'/ which latter was written the name of God/* as we read in Josephus*s 
history, and thus catch the high-priest, the priests,, with the multitude of 
Ctthers, probably Levites, all marching in a picturesque procession from 
Jerusalem, to supplicate Alexander for the city which he was bent to 
sack ; *' Alexander advanced alone, worshipped the name, and prevented 
** the high-priest's salutation by his own*/' So much in this accidental 
review of the Jewish clergy do we see concerning the Christian, an^ so 
frequently do we recognise the dresses of these in the habits of thosel 
The high-priest then dmong the Jews, and after him the high-priest 
assuredly among the Persians^ distinguished themselves from the common 
priests among both, by raising the turbans of the latter into mitres for 
themselves ; so opened a readier road for niitres to the heads of the kings 
of Perria, because the Jewish originally was king as well as high-priest ^ 
and again transferred mitres from their own heads to those of our high«>- 
priests, their natural imitators as their legitimate ^successors in the royalty 
of religion f. 

So originated, the mitre is found veiy early in the East and in the West t 
appearing on the heads of those who succeeded St. James in the episco- 
pate of Jerusalem ; appearing equally on the head of St. Peter, ift an an- 
cient figure more than a thousand years old, over the gate of the monas^ 

though in nviii. 37, it was ** tiaiam,'* and in xxix. 6, even ^ mitras," yet actually uses ** cidarim'* 


* Ant. xi. viii. 5. yo^ AXi|ay3{0«| {li rpffJkt thn to jlu? wXftot o roi^ \nnu^ wa^t^ nrc it u^u^r^otoMa^ 
a rmt^ fiv^amui mJUnf tw h. «>(X^t(i» 1* rp vatui^tm neu haxff^ <r^^ mm nri riK m^MAm f^orU Tqy xi&i^, ka* 

v^lp; ntnraawlo. 

t ^ow falsely then do all the delineations, all the descriptions of the bigh-priest's dress, 
lepresent both it and him ! 



mf of Owbie near 'Amiens in Fitince-; and appearing afco in the ^atitiqtie 
portraits of the bishops^ or popes of Romef . It is also mehtioned ex>-. 
pressly as a mitre, by Tbeodulphe, a poetical bishop of Orleans, who^died' 
about tbe year 821, and of whose Works Father Sirmond gave an-ieditibft 
in 1646; the bishop speaking 'thus of another bishop in one of. hiis* 

A shining ?»»i/y« therefore grac*d his head $• .^ » 

Ehjucttfuajtr ^ "now leave, these facts, to produce their full conviction upon the 
^^^^^^.^^^e^. mind of my i*eader;'and pass on to another, concerning the kmdrec! 

assignment of tSrones to bishops. One fact speaks more loudly to the* 
understanding than all the reasonings in the world. — ^At the first i^d- 
construction of the ruined churches of our religion, arid in the description 
whfcli is given us by Eusebius, of one of these built at Tyre tinder the 
authority of Constantine, about the year 315; we see, '"' when the buildei* 
bad firiished' the temple, and decorated it with thrones ykry Ibjfy in 
honour of those ivhowei^e to preside in divine offices ^ and with i^toolk 
ranged in a becoming order along the whole church ; additionally tof 
^* ill, he placed the holy of holies, the altar, in the middle, arid then 
*' secured from the access of the multitude all this part of the church,* 
which' was denominated the ascent from the step or steps leading up id 
it, *' with a net- work of wood,'* those wooden cancelli, which gave this 
part in the west of Europe the still-preserved name of chancel § . This 

t Encyclopedic Methodique: ^< Le Pere Martenne, dans son Traiti des anciens Rites de 
^ HEgfisfi^ !dit qti'il est cbfisU^^tque la mitre a ete de I'usage des Jjerusalem^ i(uc- 
<< cesseufs de S. Jaques : on te voit par une lettre de Tbeodose, patriarche de Jerusalem,, a S.. 
'^ Ignace, patriarche de Constantinople, qui fut produite dans le huitieme confile general. 
*^ II est encore certain, ajoute lenieme auteur, que I'usage des mitres a eu lieu dans les eglised 
•'^d'occident;' Idng-temps'^'avaftt I'an 1000 ; il ©st aisc de le prouver par une ancjenne figor^ 
*^ de S. Pierre, qui est au-devant de la porte du monastere de Corbie, et qui a plus de millc 
** atis, et par Ifes anciens portraits des papes, qui les Bollandist^s ont rapportcs.'* 

X Ibid. ibid. : *^ Theodulphe, evequc d'Orleans, fait aussi mention de la mitre dans onede 
** ses poesies ; ofi il dit,' en parlant d'un eveque, 

** lUius ergo caput resplendens mitra tegebat.'* 

§ EusebTus tlist.'x. iv. voT. i. p. 474: To» ywv ^^n^l^s(r«J, O^voig ti roti ayuWif si; tn» tw? ir^iJpw rt^n^' 

KM Tpcxrsli ^A^^ot^ if t»{e4 Tpij jtofcd* o\b kk1» to flrffTof, jioo-ftr^as' i<p* ccv»ct, ri tw ayiw 07^*9 Qyo-ianjgiOf, ^» 

j£i(ru 06k"> aw&lr KMr VaJi,* wf' ay ui rot; VoaXojj oKrolit, Toij awo fvXtf isgif^parlj Jutjvoij. Scc also \he 

plan, 472. ;"^ 

- church 




chiircb iti«general cbrresponds exactly with our own at St. German's. The 
dhaticdl here rises by a step from the nave ; the throne, the stall ard 
i^t\Ajilit,'tkkv6pon one- side of the altar> that beyond it; and the mark 
0(? thift {)artiti^ding ccmceUi still remains in a taU seam upon the plastedng 
df t^e ^southeittii iwalL 

t • 

Accordingly, ip' ^that Roman church at Canterbury, which under the 
Saxons^ became jftiemetropblitan church of England, and dcmtim^dsb tiU 
itwin irehUilt by the Normans in the twelfth century ; we ifihd ! " a poo* 
^^•tificai chair,*?: not made of wood, like the episcopal throne th^re'*, but 
*^ constructed in ^detent workmanship,** says'Eadmer, "elf great stones 
^ and :cenient fb" rThis ^colilesTery near to our own. at StcGerinin's, in 
tive subittanue and fashidn-of 4t> but wasindt> Uke oiirs^ (cdserdl flKritb iiib 
structure, being only formed by the Saxons, i?i^hwr they^masdb tibeidburch 
a metropolitan. So necessary, indeed, did the Saxons, from the Christians 
if the isle and of the* contfaient, consider a throne in the cathedral to an 
episcopate over the diocese, that, when the Confbssbr settled the i&plsoo^ 
pate of Devonshire, &c. in St. Beter s Church at Bxeter, he. did so* byJiil 
and his queen's! placing )ihe bishop 'formally in that episcbpalchair]; whieb 
iremains within the church to the present day :J. . .Even the- reify appel- 
lation of a bishop's {See for the scene of his residence, is desrred so^j^ly 
froin this sedes tor stot of the bishop in the cathedr^ligtiandifroii^ ^haft 
omission of .the intermediate letter in prohunciation, which wa^prol^ably 
common to the Romans, which was certainly common to the Britoxvs apd 



* Soamerja jC!iaiierbury, i. .93 : *^ Above tt^ese stalls, qo the south side of the quire^^ standa 
'i t^ arclibbhop's wpo^en s^a^.or chair, sometime richly gilt and otherwise well set forth, 

but now nothing specious through age and neglect. .It is a close seat, made after the old 
^ fashion of such stalfs, called thence Faldlstoria: only in this they difier, that th^ tvere 
*^ made moveable ; this is fixed/' On the coming of a new archbishop to take possession, 
the archdeacon inducts him into and seats him in ^'tbe episcopal throne«nd chair, and Ihete- 
^ by pfuts him into the real and aettiahpoasession of all the rights 9iad jariadiolions of his 
^'bi^liopric, as being diocesan oFthe Me of'Canterbury«'' ^ii* &6j - , . . 

' t Tyisden, o. 1292: ** Cathedram' pontificalem. decent! opere-ex nM^s kpidibu^e^ 
V memento cdnstructam.'' • !,-;..: 

i t See ii. i, before. 

§ Gale^ i. 5^, Eddiua*: ^'Sedes episcopafisj** 59^ ^< Sedem epiicopL'' 



the Saxons ]| . Accordingly in the Saxon Chronicle, that sure re;^ter <^ 
the language of England in the times of the Saxons, we meet with 
manj notices to this efiect. In g84, Godwin, the new bishop of Win* 
Chester, is upon the feast* of St. Simon and St. Jude '' seated on the 
" bishap'StoV^ there, the stool or throne of the bishop in that cathedriil, 
as in 791 we have Jdng-stole for a royal throne. When Paulinus re- 
turned out of Yorkshire into Kent in 033, the two prelates there re- 
cdved him with honour^ and gave him '' the biakop^settk in Rochester/' 
Paulinus had received from king Edwin of Northumbria, in 020 before^ 
^ the bUhop'Settle* at York. Ethelbert, king of Kent, in 0o4, gives to 
Justus ^^ the bishop^aettle'* in Rochester, and to Mellitus ^' the bishofh' 
^^ settle^* in London. Sideman, bishop of Devonshire, dies in 077, and 
desires to be buried at Crediton, ^' his bishop^sfol ;** and in 1086, we 
are told of Odo, that '^ at Baycux was his Ushop^stol,'' 

Bttt let me note one point moie, concerning these seats of episcopal 
royalty. The *^ pontifical chair*' of Canterbury was placed in the time of 
Eadmer, the only mentioner of it, at the very west end of the cathe- 
dral. '^ The end of the church,** built by the Romans, he says, at the 
close of his movements from the east, ^^ was meed with an oratory of 
'^ Mary, the blessed nwther of God ;«— upon one side of which was an 
^ altar, consecrated in reverence of our Lady herself; — ^when the priest 
^ performed divine offices at this altar, he had his &ce to the east, and 
behind to the west the pontifical chair, this far removed from the 
Lord*s table, as wholly contiguous to that wall of the church which 
" toent round the whole temple**^ This seems a strange position for the 
throne^ and utterly incompatible with all our previous ideas of it. But 
there was a singular reason for the last. The " pontifical chair,** which 

I HisL of Mancheater, ii. 239, octavo. 

* Twitdeo, c. 129a : '^ Finift ecdesias oraahatur oratorio beatae Matrts Dei Mariae-*; in 
^' cujus parte oriental! erat altare, in veneratione ipsius Dominas consecratum — i ad hoc 
f' aka»c ciiin sacerdos ageret divtna misteria, faciem ad orientem versam habebat, post st 
** ver6j ad occidentem, cathedram pontiiicalem, et banc longe a dooiinica mensA remotam, 
^ utpote parieti ecclesis qui totius templi complexio erat omnino contiguam/' See alsa 
a long oole coocerning the jpeaeral purport of this passage^ in vi. a, hereafter^ 


t , 


« • « 


could have been, fabricated only when Canterbury cathedral became me- 
tropolitan, had in Eadmer s time been superseded by a '^ patriarchal 
^^ chair/' a throne of the same nature under a different designation, placed 
exactly as we should expect it to be placed, while the other was 
banished to a chapel at the opposite extremity of the church. And, 
while the pontifical was destroyed when the cathedral was rebuilt by 
the Normans * ; the patriarchal remains to this moment, " There was 
•" a wall of marble plates," says Gervase, a cotemporary with the erec- 
tion of the new church, ** which went round the quire and the — high 
" altar dedicated in the name of Jesus Christ— ; upon this wall, in the 
" roundii^ of it, was behind the altar, and ofp.osite to it, the 
" chair of the patriarchate framed out of one stone ; in which, by the 
'^ custom of the church, the archbishop tised to sit on principal festivab 
** at the solemnity of mass, even till the consecration of the sacrament; 
^* and then they descended by eight steps to the altar of Christ •[•.'* By 
** an ascent of eight steps towards the east,** adds Battely, *' behind 
<^ the altar, we come to the archiepiscopal throne, which Gervase calls 
f* the patriarchal chair; it was made of one stone: in thi» chair the arch* 
'* bishop — ^was wont to sit, — ^until the consecration of the host ; then he 
*' came down to the altar, and perforrtied the solemnity of consecr^- 
*' tionj.'* All this Mr. Battely states him to have done, from the evi* 
dence of Gervase, without once reflecting, that nothing of this is possible 
to be done in the new position of the c^r ; without considering for a 
moment, that the chair now stands behind the sereefi of 0ie altar, and 
then stood upon the wall of the screen, in the rounding of it, just behind 
the altar itself. " The choir is separated from the side-isles,** adds Mr, 
Gostling, '* by a wall— of stone, not marble, as Gervase represents it, 
" — solid to about eight feet high, above which was the patriarchal 

* Sotnner, ii. 8, and plan. 

t Twisden, c. 1294 : " Murus crat tabulis marmoreis compositus,— chorum cingens et 
^'altare magnum in nomine Jesu Christi dedicatum—; supra — murum in circinMione il]&, 
^^ retro altare ejt ex opposito ejus, cathedra erat patriarchatus, ex uno lapide f^cta ; in qua sedere 
" solebant archiepiscopi, de more ecclesise, in festis prsecipuis inter missarum solennia, 
^' usque ad sacramenti consecrationenl j tunc enim ad altare Christi p^r grjadus octo de-p 
** scendebant.'^ 

X Somt^er, ii. 11* 

, TOL. I. F p ^' chair^ 





** chair^ ascendible by a$ many steps, and'* now ^f «f a range of open 
''Gothic work for about six feet more, finishing at the t(^ with a 
*' battlement. — ^The patriarchal or metropolitical chair is of grey marble 
*^ in three pieces, carved in pannels; the seat is solid from the paye* 
ment,— The place where this chair * now *' stands, is between the 
altar and the chapel of the Holt/ Trinity. --^ In this the arch- 
bishop (or his proxy) is placed with much ceremony*,** in that 
form of induction into all his rights as archbishop over the pro- 
vince f, which carried a great propriety with it, when the chair 
was thus raised conspicuously upon the wall immediately behind the 
altar, but appears truly burlesque at present, when the chair is removed 
out of the quire entirely, placed behind the very screen of the ahar, 
even thrust into a void place between the altar and a chapeL Thus, 
however, we have an altar and a throne at Canterbury, agreeing very ex- 
traordinarily with our own St. German*s* Our throne indeed is 
wrought and worked into the church wall, while that was merely move^ 
able in itself, and merely placed upon the top of the altar-walL Yet 
that was placed, like ours, immediately beyond the altar, and as- 
cendible by several steps from it ; by as many steps in number as it was 
feet in height, eight in all, and so shewing ours, which is nearly seven 
feet in height, to have had, probably, seven steps to it. There the pre- 
late of Cornwall continued, assuredly, like the archbishop of the pro- 
vince, during the whole of the eucharistic service to the consecration 
of the elements ; and then descended by the steps to the altar itself^ 
followed by the chaplain from his stall near the southern end of the 
altar. The throne therefore stood *' behind the altar, and opposite to 
*• it ;'* the altar-rails receding equally from the stall and the throne, to 
leave an interval of ground behind them J. In 

^ Gostling, p. 246, 279, 280, 281, 279. See plate also, 279. 

t Somner, ii. 86. 

% *' In the cathedral of St. John at Lyons,— the episcopal throne is raised on four steps- 
" at the end of the absis," behind the altar. *' In the cathedral of St. Maurice at Vienne> 
« the archbishop is thus seated — . The cathedral at Rheims affords another example—. It 
'* is thus at Laon, Soissons, &c. and seems nearly the general custom, — Such is the sittwtioa 
** of the archbishop of Cambray, when poniificaUy officiating 5 as may be seen from the 
<^ placing bis cbair^ always fixed in the sanctuary, on the epistle side^ baring — it» iack to the 





In the first churches of our religion after its adoption by the empire, 
the upper end of the chancel commonly terminated in an apm, abm^ 
or semicircle beyond the altar; and the throne of the bishop was placed 
within it, with the seats of its presbyters a little Unver at his side. In 
the church built at Tyre about the year 315, as we have seen before, 
were '* thrones very lofty in honour of those who were to preside in 
^' divine offices,'* that is, of the bishop and his presbyters. Hence 
Kazianzen, speaking of the presbyters as '* the rulers of the people,** 
and " the venerable senate*' of the church, calls their seats " the second 
** thrones,'* as thrones lower in their position than the high throne ^f 
the bishop ;{:. Hence also the same tnshop speaks of himself as ^^ sittii^ 
" upon the throne above,'^ and of his presbyters as *' seated heihiv him^ 
** at his side §." From this position of the seats and of the throne, we 
see the altar could not be dose to the eastern wall, but stood aft a little 
distance from it, to leave room for the throne and seats 1>ehind it. Ttie 
altar was thus insulated in the ancient church, and Synesius accordingly 
says, on his flying to sanctuary he would take shelter in the church, " and 
*^ encircle the altar*.** This account of the primitive churches in the 
East, quadrates so exactly with our own at St. German's, tha| I need 
not point out the tesemblance. They differ from ours in one point only, 
they ending in a semicircle behind the altar, and ours in a right line. 
The semicircle, however, was so much adopted even in Britain, ik»k^ 

^< east. In the fisunous cathedral at Rouen, which has flourished from the fiurth age, are 
^' also the remains of the throne, occupying its so frequently instanced 8ituation.-<-ThuSf 
*^ also, is situated the patriarchal throne atRotne — . Formerly, in the cathedral at Norwich, 
*^ the bishop's chair was placed between the easternmost pillars of the presbytery, — and 
** immediately behind the high altar ; it was ascended by three steps, and raised so high, that,. 
'^ before the erection of the rood-loft, the bishop could see directly hi a line through the whole 
•* church." Arch, xi, 322-324. 

\ Naz. Carm* Iambic, 23: xi^An f*iy« 1« iiy\%^% 9f§»m ^iXsyxflt^ ^•v vpei^oi rfwCv^u^ Snfim 
yt^MTMt. Bingham, iii. 185. 

§ Nazian* Somut Anastas. torn. ii. p* 7^ * £(c04aMuripOpeyo^----oii!cfioi»/ui^'Iff«Of9vfrSjpio«froyif«M'i 
fTQijuiyiK iiyifi^i(« Ibid* 18 6* 

* Synes. Catastasis, p. 303 : ZvuXtfcroijau to dvciarnpua. So at Exeter cathedral, as late as 
Lelaod, '^ bidiop Sta{rfetOQ madfr--the riche fronte of stone woiice at the high attare'^, and 
^< also made the riche iiilver table im Ihi midle of it«'' (liin, iii. 66*) 

F V 2 {lerhaps^ 





m • 


perhaps, the British church at Canterbury, certainly Lanfranc*s re-edi- 
fication of it, was turned semicircular at the eastern endf; that the old 
conventual church of Ely, founded in 673, was equally so turned; and 
that a reconstiiiction of this part, made about 1102, was so tiuned like- 
wise J. The adoption was even carried so far in one solitary instance, 
that the western end of a church at Abingdon was made equally serni^ 
circular with the eastern §. This mode of terminating what is always 
the upper end of such a building, as the entrance was always (hke ours) 
from the west, and what is actually the most dignified part, the kebhip 
of the wholes was dictated by the finest feelings of taste. A semi- 
circle seems to retire from the eye, to deny it rest, and to go on in an in« 
terminable line, like a piece of water artfully disposed so as to be seen 
sweeping round a point, then vanishing from view, and promising a 
length of course beyond, while a flat line stops the eye at once, 
leaves no scope for fancy, but presents the whole in a single glance, like 
the piece of water ending at a high bank within view. Yet, though. the 
principle was felt, and the practice adopted in Britain, it was not adopted 
generally. • The present cathedral of Ely, the present cathedral of 
Canterbur}% and almost all our cathedrals, I believe, end in this abrupt 
manner on the &st : even so ends our own cathedral of St. German's^ 
This effect was produced in the other cathedrals, by an humour which 
appears to have been very prevalent, that of prolonging the church into 
a chapel to the east of the altar, while, in our own, it was the very re- 
sult of the original plan itself, the wall being raised from the first as fiat 
as it now is, for the still-remaining throne of the bishop in the niche 
within it* 

jf > 

We thus behold a throne and a mitre, two accompaniments of the 
Saxon and of the British prelacy; derived to the Britons, derived to 
the Saxons, together with their religion,, from the usages on the coa- 
tinent *• 

• « * 

t GostKng, 226. 
J Benthatn, 29. 

$ Monastkon, i. 98 : ^^ Habebat in Tongitudine, c. et xr, pedes, et erat rotundlmii tank 
*' in parte occidentali quam in parte orientali." ^ 

• At Temple Bniero, in lincolosbire^ sayt. Iielgnd^ at Itin, i. ^o^ *^ there be gical and^ 

«< vaate 


fBCT« m.} 




When .the prior and his society lived in their coll^pe adjoining^ they 
repaired in formal procession to the church on Sundays and holydays^ 

> I suppose^ 

i^ vaste buildinges^ but rude,— -and the este ende of the temple is made opere ^rcutari 
^ de more •••••;" not '* Templariofum^^- as the churches of the Templars are whole 
roitnds in themselves, like that cathedral of theirs in England, the oM Temple church 
ia London, and therefore cannot turn either cicci||ariy or semicircularly al the easiem 
or at the western end, cannot, indeed, have any end at all ; but ** antiquorum,*' I conjec- 
ture, as we have seen the fact to be above. " One of the old churches'' at Nor^thampton, 
** St. Sepulchre's," cries Dr. Stukelcy, " seems to have belonged to the knights hospitaler^ 
^^of St. John of Jerusalem [the knights templars}, of a circular form; there has been 
<< another tackt to it, of latei* date, with arquire and steeple, a3 to that at Cambridge^ of the 
'^ same name and figure, so a new tborch has been added to tht old, at the Temple> in Lon* 
^* don. Another such, I am told, ia at Gtuldford^ which are aU of this sort that I know of 
^* in Englands." (Ttin, Cur. i. 3.) He foqgets the main ehurch, the old Texnple clfUrch in 

> * * • • • 

Fleet Street, and the still older in Holbom; the former still existing, the latter once exist* 
ing <^ round informey as the new T^ple by TempleBarre, and the other Temples in ^gland*^*' 
(Stowe, 486, 48^7 •) '^ I suspect," adds Stukcley, *< these are the most ancient churches in 
^' England, and probably built in the later times of the Romans for Christian^ servicje, at least 
<^ in the early Saxon times." (Ibid.) How rcishly adventurous I They cannot be older than 
the Templars themselves, who began only about A. IX 1 1 18* That chuFch^ *^ at London, 
•* was their chiefe house, which they builded qfier theformeofihetempleneeretOj^dStetth^iona 
*pr the dohie over, <^iAe5eptt^fireofourLordaLJerusalem« They had also their temples in Cam* 
^< bridge, Bristow, Canterbury, Dover, Warwicke." (Stowe, ibid.) That dome stands upon pil* 
lars, which compose about three fourths of a circle i while the Temple itself is an oblong, ending 
seimcircularly on the etist. Nor let us lull ourselves into a dream, of supposing, this church 
not to be the same that Helena built : as an author has done in Arch* vi. ^68. There, in an- 
essay on the origin and antiquity of round churches, Mr. Essex,^ the anrhitect^ argues the 
' present church not to be the same y because Bede describes it as a <^ round church, which; 
** diflfers very much from the present building*" Bede only describes it as Sto^wfl.bas just 
described it, and as all ages have combined to describe, while, ibey ienitafed it^ from the pro^ 
minent, the principal part of the whole, the dome. Eycn Ifir. Essex himsalf aUows tha 
justness of this remark in. a subsequent page, however contradictory the aUowance is to bis 
argument here. ^ The church of St. Sophia in Constaatinopla,'' he says in p. 170,/^ tvas 
'^ first built by Constantine ; which, being covered with an hemispheric^ dome, is 2y Bede 
^^ called a round church.** So decisivdy b Mr» Essex's argument refuted at opaej by. that 

• ncsy 


I suppose, and entered it, of course, by the only access immediate into 
the priory part of the church, the folding-doors of the portal on the west 
Yet they moved not to it under^ any range of cloisters from the college, 
asTVIf. mllis conjectures they didf, an^ as^ appeabancesj^ny ; there 
*- being no mark upon the wall of the church to shew the union of a 
cloister with it, and no traced of a foundation appearing in the ground 
V below^ on removing the great swelling of earth at the base of the portaL 
The prior and society then walked up the nave ; he took his seat in a 
stall of the chancel ; the clergy took theirs immediately adjoining the 
chancel; and the clerks, the servant^^ those qiore distant from it As 4 
rule for our ideas upon this po^t, let us just glance at the church of St. 
John in Beverley ; which John, archbishop of York^ in the eighth century, 
enlarged (as Athelstan enlarged St. German*s church), for the monastery 
that he adjoined, by annexing a choir to the church ; then assigned the 
xectQX, noyv made prior, a place in his* new chmr, and provided for tbe 
se^m. presb^tere. and as many clerh^ whom he associated with him in 
this monastery, and a nunnery adjoining that place in the nave, which 
the re<?lor used to bccupy before J. , But when the.priory was dissolved 

very force of truth which yet was too weak to preclude it ! But upon this surmise, so rashly 
taken up, and so unconsciously abandoned^ Mr. Essex, in p. 109, argues another church buiit 
by Helena oii mount OJivet, to have been destroyed^ since Bede's description of it ; as Bedc 
calls it round, when it is octangular. Mr. Essex thus raises an evil spirit of scepticism, to 
haunt the world of antiquarianism. But he is kind enough in act, though not in intention, 
to lay the' spirit' again, as ht]a.\A it before. . Bede's round church of St. Sophia, he says 
himself, p. 170, ** id not of that form within,** and therefore is without^ And Bede's round, 
church on mount Olivet, he equally owns, '< is octangular on the outside, but is'* actually 
^' circular within.*^ So happily does <mr Mercury grasp his magic wand, and exert bia 
magic power, here ! 

Turn tirgatn cipiti hic animus ille evocat Oreo' 

PaHentes^ alms sub triKtift tartara mittit ; 

Dat somnof adimitque^ et Inmlna morte resignat. 

 WilU#, 150. 

t Leland's Col. iv. ^ too : (^ Ex libro incerti autoris de Yitft Joannis Archieptscopi Ebon 
«^^^ ^ JoaniMB ^ reperit in Beveriic; ecd. parochialetn, S. Johanni Evangel. sacram,-<^-eccle- 
^f siam Attctam in menasteritim convertit, et iionachis anignavit.-^CSiorum ted. de novo 
^ ibi conatruxit, habente priori cedes. S. Joaisn. bcum in navi eccl/.** ' pe then built ntor 
it what he afterwards turned into a tiiinn«ry. «« * Assockvit mohastcrils istis septem prcst)y- 
^^ ttroh c( tatidem cleiicos, injia^ ecd. S. JoamiisV^ 



at the Reformation^ and all the old iBstitudon of things was changed^ 
an invanon was soon made> I believe, without authority from the king, 
without concurrence from the Champemowns, and merelj in the in- 
nomting spirit of the times, upon the coU^ate parts of the dnirch ; 
the laical gentlemen, who had sitten with their families for ages in the 
souih aile, boldly transferring their seats into the nave. This was cer- 
tainly not done, when Leland visited the church about 1541, ^nd called 
it ^' a priori [church] of blake dbanons, and d paroche cMrehe yn the 
^' body of the same/* But all was done, I cosvjecture, before Mr. Eliot 
came to the convent several years afterward; though the thanceh was 
still left to the new prior, his wife, and his children, a society and a 
principal very difierent firom the derical before : for,, in consequence of 
the chancel's falling down about two years afterward, and in spite of all ^««^;^' -^ ^ ^"^ 
reparations, soon sinking into final ruin, the very family of the Eliots 
possesses not, what fdl the other families of gentry in the parish possess, 
an appropriated seat in the nave, and has been obliged to form itself one 
in a side*chapeL When: Mr. Eliot came to reside, therefore, he saw" 
the encroachment, and overlooked it. Time had lent some sanction to 
it ; and, as a '* novus homo** in the priory or the church, he could 
not exert himself to repel it. In such a situation as his, with. such ideas 
concerning it as were then prevalent all over the country, the strongest 
mind would repose in a modesty of spirit ; and an incidental injury 
otfered to himself would be tolerated, from a consciousness of the general 
ii^ustice done to the clergy. In this strain of modesty, too, he would 
naturally avoid the proper parade of the college, aad walk to his prior's 
stall in the chancel ; not by the grand door of the portal, which, from 
the Reformation to the present moment, appears to have been seldom 
entered, except for burials ; but by a door which I have .already no* 
ticed, as one of the two communicating witihi the «ide«>chapels from 
without, as, indeed, the very door used by his descendants £nr thdr 
entrance into the church, within these few years. Then^ a tall^ square 
doorway was cot through the wall of partition betwixt' the sido^chape) 
atdr the nave, whic^ aktU appears, though shghtly fiUed ixp ogsin, and 
stands, almost diroctly opposite to that door of entEanoe^. The wall df 
partitaoD hoe was made peculiarly tiu£k, aal haTC[ obserred faefiire, £or 
' ' 4 admission 





admission of va door through it, and of stiairs at the back of it, i^ to the 
0i^h-l6ft ; and the tall doorway, therefore, is two feet seven inches in 
depth.- But the improvidence of cutting it so very tall, no less thafniihe 
feet-twto inches in height, with the view of making the entrance (1 si^- 
pose) as^'conspicuous as it ^as convenient for the laioal prior j eten under 
the precautioh of cutting it most disproportionally narrow, only two feet 
four inche& in width, made the rest of. the walljon the east, 1 apprehend, 
i^on begin to fail : an elliptical arch has been there formed, springing 
from the sides, of tfaci capitals of t^^o pillars, very diffi^rent from all the 
QtheiB^ much massier, and tmich shorter. This being formed, a much 
better entrance, was now made for the Port-Eiiot family into the nave'; 
which continues to be their enti?ance at present, when their chancel is all 
levelled with the ground, M^hen their pew is about the middle of this aile, 
and when they now enter the aile to their pew at the door inscribed/^. S. 
The tall, square opening, cut through the thickness of the wall before^ 
thus became useless, and was dosed up as it still continues with a coat of 
mortar, upon the aile side. But as this coat is only four inches thick, 
and the wall is two feet seven, in the recess on the nave side afe lodged 
some remains of the chancel that I now come to notice. 


: These are between fifty and sixty squares of a tesselated pavement, 
which are laid by the care of lord Eliot, as a flooring for this recess in 
order to their preservation. They were found about the same number of 
feet to the east of the present altar, to which the chancel is known to 
have extended. They were in all probability, therefore, the flooring of 
the grotmd close to the old altar there. They are each about ^w inches 
square, with a ground chiefly red, but presenting colours white and 
yellow to the eye ; stamped also with flowers or figures of various shapes, 
yet carrying no particular reference with them. Just sudi, or nearly 
such, we find in the great guard-chamber and the barons* hall, within 
the palape Df^iWilliam the Conqueror at Caen in Normandy. " Round 
^/ the whole of the room," says Dr. Ducarrel concerning the former, 
'^Euns a stone beiidi, intended for the convenience of the several persons 
<^ adding duty thetein. The floor^is paved wtth tiles, eacth near fhtr 
^f indws aquarc-*p». Eight xow8 of thesetiles, running from east to west, 




** are charged with different coats of arms, generally said to be those 
*' of the families, who [which] attended duke William in his in- 
^^ VASION OF England. The intervalg* between each of these rows are 
filled up with a kind of tesselated pavement ; the middle whereof re- 
presents a maze or labyrinth, about ten feet in diameter, and so artfully 
♦^ contrived, that, were we to suppose a man following all the intricate 
** meanders of its volutes, he could not travel less than* a mile before he 
*' got from the one end to the other. The remainder of this floor is 
^^ inlaid with small squares of different colours, placed alter- 
'^ nately, and formed into draught or chess boards, for the. amuse- 
'* ment of the soldiery while on guard */' 

Nor let my reader start aside into a disbelief of the whole, as cotempo- 
rary with William the Conqueror, on perusing this last declaration ; and ^^T^q^^TZ 
point at the existence of a chess-board upon the tiles, as a sure proof of ^ ^^ 
their being later than William. The honourable Daines Barrington in- 
deed, in a set treatise upon the origin of chess, has laboured to prove it 
introduced into the West from Constantinople, at a period of time much 
later than the Conquest. '* It Is possible^'' he remarks, '' that chess might 
" be known in England, in the next century after the first crusade had * 
*' taJcen placed which began in the outset of the crusaders under the 
month of March 1096 f , and end^d some years after the commencement 
of the twelfth century, or (as Mr. Barrington evidently means) in the 
twelfth century itself;' " but, as I would rather suppose, during the 
'^^ thirteenth century, upon the return of ^Edward the First from the Holy 
Land, where he continued so long, and was attended by so many 
English! ;** Edward setting off for the Holy Land in May 1269, and 
returning in August 1275 §. In this, however, as in all the principal 
points of his treatise, Mr. Barrington has been satisfactorily reftited, I 
think, by an author in the English Review for January and February 
J 792 II . But to the arguments there adduced for the early introduction 

• Ducarrrel, 59. t Malmesbury, 75. J Arch, ixi a8. 

§ M. Westm. 349, '363. 

)| See the articles copied^ with notes, ia my Appendix here^ No. h ^ 

VOL.* U Q Q of 

206 rnt cATaEDRAL 4>v coritwall rcHAv. m^ 

of chess into England, let me add some evidences that aw aH lonoticed 
by this writer. When Becket was made chancellor just after the coro* 
nation of Henry IL in 1 154, and more than a whole century befoce Ed-- 
ward's expedition, *' he diverted himself,'* says his biographer, cetempo-^ 
rary, and secretary, *' very much, but in an easy way, not with a min<E 
*^ set upon the work, in hawking and in hunting; and, with atonescfhm 
•* different colours, 

*^ He played the baitles of the amimsh'd Ireve^.'* 

This passage is sufficiently explicit of itself, in its intimation of " the bat* 
•' ties of the ambushed brave," as exhibited in a game ; and in its specifi- 
cation of " stones of two different colours,'' as the weapons vvith which 
those battles were played. But, to preclude all possibility of doubt, I 
<*' subjoin an incidental passage in the very same author, concerning .the 
very same personage ; which carries in it the appropriate appellation of 
the game, retained with so much softening in the French eckec and our 
chess, but preserved w^ith all its original orthography in the German 
scach or scach-spil for the game, or scach-tafel for the board *• Beckett 
** when chancellor," says his historian, " was cionfined for some time 
** with a severe illness, in the monastery of St. Gervase at Rouen ; twj[^ 
" kings came together to visit him, the king of France, and the king of 
England his sovereign ; he liaving at last a tendency to health, and be- 
ing upon the recovery, was one day playing at cliess f ." This demon- 
strates the ^* stones" and tlie " battles" before, to refer directly to chess; 
and the game of chess to have been so well known at the time, that de- 
scriptions, which may seem vague or unspecific to some at presents 
pointed it out significantly to aU then. Their familiarity with the gam^ 

% Sparke, 14 : ^ Ludebat pkrmnqae, sed peifi)nctoric,'noii deditft operft, in avibus coelf^ 
** et canibus venatici»; et m eakuti» bicolonbus 

** Insidiosornm ludebat bella latoooum." 
The line i» bovroM^ed from Miflial', %w. %o* / 

* Spelman's Glossary. j> 

t Sparke, 17 ; << Fuit aFiqiiando graft tentus fnCrmhate cancenariiis, Rotlioroagi, apud 
*' Sanctum Gervasium; venerunt eum duo reges sioiul videre, rei Franconnn et rex Ang'o- 
'^ rum dominus sous; tandem dispoaitus ad samtatem^ el conYi;lescen8> un&dierum scdit ad 

4 •cnoiioied 


jsntbled them to understand the desiiription at once. Haying only the 
game of « chess among them^ any general description was precise and 
points enough to indicate it* Not needing to guard against any confu- 
sion of ideas^ from the congeniality of any other game to chess ; their 
writers used only general descriptions at times. And as the occasional 
lise of the appropriate appellatibn for chess, binds down for ever those 
general descriptions to this particular object, even in the ieai^ of modern 
readers ; so the very manner of those descriptions, unspecific as it may be 
to some, then proves the great £uniliarity of the game, to their own times, 
or to thek immediate readers. 



But in that famous treatise concerning the exchequer, which has been 
improperly attributed to a Gervasc of Tilbury, and was certainly written 
by tMie^ who Was an odEcer of the exchequer in the early part of the reign 
•f Henry II. % ; the origin of the name of exchequer is stated to foe tins: 
^^ No truer reason for it occurs to .me at present/' adds the writer, a co^ 
temporary witb Becket and wi£h Becket's historian, '' than that the 
** table there carries the appearance i^7Ae game ef chess ; — for, as m ^^ 
'^ game qf chess ihete are eertain ranks qfcombatanis, and these 'proceed or 
'^ etop by certain laws and uf eertam Umits^ some presiding, and others 
assisting ; so in this some preside, some assist, officially, and no mie is 
at liberty to go beyond the constituted laws. — ^Again : as in the game a 
'^ battle is fought between the Jsings, so in this there is a conflict and battle 
^^ jprtno^aUy between two, the treasurer and the sheriff §/' Thus does 



X Madox, in his History of the Exchequer, has published this treatise, iu 349-45^9 ^^^ 
prtfixed a dissertation for ascertaining the author, his age, &c. The author was not Ger* 
* ¥ase of Tilbury, a name of nobody (349-344), but Riohsntl Fltz-Nigell, bishop of London 
in the reign of Kchard I, and treasurer for many years to Henry II. (344, 345O He was 
Sten vioe-treasurer occasionally, in Ihe early part of this Heniy^s reign ; he himself declaring 
expressly he had supplied at times the place of Nigell, bishop of Ely, and treasurer in his ab^ 
jBence; and this Nigell dying in 1 169, the 15th of Henry (337)* And he himself also declares^ 
ke began to write, or-to think of writing, ** anno ^ii. regni regis Henrioi Secundi'' (SS^)- 

§ Madox, 353: '^ Nulla mihi [ratio hujus nominis] verior ad presens occurrit, quanr 
^^ <fidd seaccarii lusilis similem habet forroam— • Sicut enim in scaccario lusili quidam 
^* ordines sunt pugnatorum^ et certis legibus vel limiUbus procedunt vel subsistunt, pra^si* 

Q a a '^ dentibus 



the author allude to the game of chess so plainly, describe it so clearly^ 
and name it so expressly, that every thinking reader must be astonished 
to find any attempt made in the very face of it, for dating the origin of 
chess in England a whole century later. His manner shews the game to 
have been very familiar to him, and to all at the moment ; as his applica- 
tion of the game to explain the title of thSt exchequer, which he himself 
refers by tradition to William the Conqueror, to the very period of the 
Conquest, even to a previous exchequer in Normandy, carries the whole 
up to an sera, two centuries prior to Mr. Barrington*s, and coinciding with 
the date of William's palace in Normandy ||. 

Tet let us not rest the point upon a mere inference, when we have a 
positive proof for it. Robert, who was made bishop of Hereford jKve or 
six years only after the Conquest, " was very well skilled in all the liberal 
" arts," says Malmesbury ; *' he particularly knew chess-' as one of the 
liberal arts! ! ! " and the computations of the moon, and the course of the 
*' celestial stars^." We thus rise on the basis of fact itself, nearly up to 
the period of Dr. DucarreFs chess-board; and instantly tower above it. 
In the reign of Canute, who came to the crown near half a century be- 
fore the Conquest, a bishop late at night (as the historian of Ramsey tells 
us) " found the king yet relieving the tiresomeness of a long night, with 

*' dentibus aliis el aliis pracedentilus,'* the context requires assidentiltts ; ^^ sic in hoc qui- 
'^dem [quidam] . president, quidam assident,. ex officio, et non est cuiquam liberum leges^ 
** constitutas excedere. — Item : sicut in lusili pugn& commlttltur inter reges, sic in hoc inter 
** duos principallter conflictus est et pugna committitur, thesaurarium scilicet et vice- 
" comttem.'* 

H Madox, 359 : ** Ab ipsi — regni conquisitione per regem Witlelmam factA ccepisse 
^* dicitur, sumpla tamen ipsius ratione a ecaccario transmarino/* So the clergy, monastic * 
and secular, at the Conquest, says Malmesbury, used to pliiy at chess ; ** caaum cursibus 
*^ avocari, avium prsdam raplu aliarum volucrum per inane 8«qui, spumantia^ut t^r^m. 
'' premere, tesseras quaiere** (f* ii8, misprinted for 122)* Becket's practiae before fixes 
.this to be chess, '^ ludebat in avibus cceli, et canibus venatici^, el in calouti^bicoloribua;.'^ 
the last (we shall soon see) being denominated '^ tesserae," as here« Yet because I want 
not the argument in my text,. I only make the observation in my notes. 

^ Savile, 163: << Omnium liberalium artium peritissimus ^ abacum pradcipue^ et luAa** 
<' rem compotum, et cuelestium astrorum cursum, rimdtu^.". 

•' the 


*' the game of tester €B or ches9 ♦;'* So striking a proof have vre .under 
our eyes here, of the early knowledge of chess in England ; and so much 
more erroneous than ever is Mr. Barrington's late introduction of it into 
this 'kingdom ! « 

But we can proceed still higher up the current of Saxon antiquity^ and 
even reach the lower of its two sources, for the appearance of chess upon 
the continent. The writer in the English Review has pointed out the higher 
of those sources, by shewing chess to have been originally derived to us 
through the Romans from the Persians, and in logO to have been prac* 
tised by a Saracen general of Persia. But John XV. pope of Rome, 
and the writer of a kind of manifesto to all Christians against our Saxon 
sovereign Ethelred under 091 ; in his youth, and therefore veiy many 
years before^ stole away from France into Spain, '* principally intending 
^' to learn astrology, and other arts of the same kind, from the Saracens. 
*^ —Coming to them, he gratified his wishes. He there, by his know- 
*' ledge, excelled Ptolemy in the use of the astrolabe, Alcandrasus in the 
•* intervals of the stars, Julius Firmicus concerning fate. — Arithmetic, 
*' music, and geometry, he so imbibed, that he shewed them to be below 
** his genius ; and very carefully did he call wholly back into 
"France arts which had now been for some time obsolete 
'* there. He was certainly the first who stole the chess from the 
^^ Saracens, and (in the abbey oT St. Maximin near Orleans) for paying 
" chess ^ve rules which ^re scarcely understood by the most 
^* practised chesi^-players at present f." This is a very extraordi* 


*. Gale, i. 442 : '* Regetn adhuc tesserarum yel scaccorum ludo longioris taecfia noctis re- 
^' levantem invenit.*'  « 

t' Malftiesbury, 36 : " Animo praecipue jntendens, Bt afttrologiani,.et caeteras (id genus) 
'< a#tes, a Saracenis addisceret. — ^Ad hos — perveniens, desiderio satisfeciL Ibt vicit scientift 
'' Ptolemseum in astrolabio, Alcandrsuni in astrorutn interstitio, Julium Firmicum in fato* 
^' — De arithmetica, music&, et geometric nihil attinet dicere, quas ita ebibit, ut inferiores 
'^ ing^niq suo ostenderet,et magna indastria revocaret in Galliam omnino^ ibi jampridem ob» 
'' soletas. Abacum certe primus a Saracenic rapiens, regiilas dedit, qu% a sudantibus aba- 
*^ cistis vix iutelliguntur.''— Malmesbury afterwards notes, that John published his rules for 
chess in the xnonasteryof St. Ma:iii^ia ^ear Orleans; /^ babebat comphilosophos etstudi- 

** orunai 

SSa THE, Kxmatvsikis op Cornwall [chap« iok 

nai-y pasnge inBeed^ and has bcfen vtry lextrao Winarily OT«rlooked hither-^ 

to. It shetVB chess th have beeil very fhuch prdcti^ in England, le/bre 

the author wrote, befbre thfe year 1 1 28 at farthest. It shews chess also to 

have been so much practised in England and on the continent, befbite the 

jear gg l at least, and very many years before ; that a set of rules was 

drawn op by John for playing it, yet not a plain stet as for mere novices 

in the game, but so deep and so comprehensive in themselves, that the 

most prabtrsed pkyers in the days of Malmesbury could scarce understsuoRl 

theat And it ^finally shews, that though the Romans first intf od<lt$ed 

chess into this island, as the English Reviiswer (I think) has fully j^roved; 

yet, with other arts of niore consequehcte introduced by tfaem^ it luiid 

'' for some time" grown " obsolete,'* or little practised in tibe tenth cfen- 

taipy, botil within England, and within that couhtry of France which has 

heea the trairisittitter of all the arts to England. It waA tii^n rftvived in 

bbtfi coiimtries again, by an accidental derivation of it thitougfa iitc vigour 

of one entefpbisiH^ genius, from the Saradens of the East, at that time 

fthaslfets of SpaSft. Yelt eveh this deritation attests the previous existaloe 

of 5t. CJhesshaid merely " for some tiftie" before become *' obsolete/* 

The Rodia!^ If&circe of the current had been in a great measure, hnkt not 

eAtirely, "chdked up ; the >cuwent still creeping on in private and subter*- 

^Aieous rill's, thot^ the xspen stream was no longer seen to jfiow-; and 

ev^this ¥eyototi«ftL tiaving taken place, only ^^-fbr some tiirie** beftj^rei 

Btit noWthe Mfbteri^iiecMis rills broke cbt again im a loWer .part of the 

j^tovtnd, the private sflf cams all ttoited with the new one, *nd the current 

xhsta'htfy rose into isufficient strength, to flow onnnimpeded, unimpaired*, 

lis low as our own age. In saying this, I complete the history of chess 

within thb kingdom ; and shew decisively by an accumulation of evi- 

deuces, that chess was known in this country, as well as Normandy, long 

before the construction of the Conqueror's palace at Caen there, long 

therefdre J^^c the laying of the chess-board floor in the great guards 



^' onim sodos, Condtantinum abbateni monasterii Sancti Maxlmini, quod est juzta Aureli- 

^^ jooj, apud quern edidit regulas de abaco,*^ &c« 

X Inldand's Coll. iv. 97, 98, are some notices of and extracts from an ancient wodt^ 

^< ex libro veteri, quern mutud aumpsi a Taleboto/' ibat again shew the knowledge c^ chess 



But !Dr. DiicaiT^ also speaks of this floor; as ^' formed into draught qf 
'^ cbess boardt;^ while Mr. BarriogtoQ says the game of draughts ^' is 
^' very imoicnt; bears a consjidi^able affipity to chess^ and eq^tally requires 
«< a.dheqnered l^oard §•" Yet Mr. Barrington^ as we have already seen, 
has such aa unh^py propensity to puzzle himself^ and such an unfortu^ 
nate dexterity in perplexing his readegr ; that we have reason to suspect 
liie dashing hand of confusion employed by him even in this slight aver* 
ment. Draughts^ indeed, are plainly not very ancimt^ *and merely a 
modem derivative from chess. They are not noticed by any ancient 

toimt faeen fiunillar io tl)e days cf tjbe Saxons. The Tplume was composed of two dis^ 
tinct worka : one was^ *' Carmina Abbonis Monaghi> Natione Itali, Numero septuaginta, 
'^ djsdicaia vero Domino Ditnsiatio, Epis^po Anglo" dedicated abroad to Dunstan^ then 
bishop of Worcester, as he was made in 957 (Sax. Chron.), or bishop of London, as he was 
also made in 958 (Hist. Rams, in Gale, i. 390), and not yet archbishop of Canterbury, as he 
i»as made in 961 (Sax. Chron«). The pther work is thus mentioned : ^^ Ibidem. Doctissima 
^^ Tigtira edita a Bryghl&rdo, Monacho Ramesiensis Coenobii, de Concordii Mensium et Ele- 

*^ mentorum Ibidem. Calendarium, in quafesti Dies per singulos Menses Carminibus 

*^ notantur. Vid^tur (quamvis pro certo a$rmare noo ausim) hoc Calendarium a Bryght* 
^* ferdo fuisse scriptum — ." Then comes the Calendar, followed by this remark, *' post 
^^ hsec, multa sequuntur de circulo paschali, et de abaco,'' a term (we see from Malmes- 
bury in the note immediately preceding) nearly as appropriate for chess in the middle ages^ 
as soacehia Jlt3elf, '' insuper de asse et de ejus partibns.'' 3ut, to shiew the age of Brygt- 
ferd more plainly, let me cite Leland*s other account. of him in bis Commeptarii de Script. 
Brit« one more chronological and more peremptory than this: '^Brightfertus, monachus 
^* Bamseganus, vel, ut quidam volunt, ThoVneganus," he says in p. 171, placing him ap* 
parently about the reign of Edgar and the days of Dunstan, as placing him next but one 
after a *^ writer'' patronized by Odo, the immediate predecessor of Dunstan in the arch* 
bishopric, '* secutus religios2 sue aetatis studia, ad malhesbi^ acerrimorwaii iugeniorum exci* 
^'. tiifricem,'* Lejand thus speaking from tbo^ prejudices of his edupition, which are so pre«> 
valent at Cambridge now, and very remarkably appear .here to have been as prevalent in the 
days of Leland, ** animum appHcavit. In quo eruditionis genere sic postea enituit, ut artem 
<' per se claramy depictis graphice organis, et additis commentariis tum doctissiipis tuni luci- 
^' dissimis, clariorem redderet. Illustravit praeterea scholiis, non de trivio petitis. Bodes 
** Gk$m^j^\^J^^^mKDecJjaf^r490r^ in quo, di^m lempo^a supputat, facili qstcndit 
*< quantum in expedita numerorum ^jrajL^^i^e valefet. ]M[ulta tl't de cjirc^lo pafjcbali, ,de 
'" AlMpo,.4e.^j^c.,4t^S»J«!MM» H^ candido.Talboto^.higBHpe.mciJoci 

''^ilit^e. 4^9}H»is^ Ubnim niMUid Jflcffij. ^t l^ice£(Hff^ Vf^ti .ayi^.Mlw>^ .^tg9».prp^^ 
§ Arch* ix. 32, 

. , » writer. 


writer, and have no ancient appellation common ttf'us With other na- 
lions. The oldest mention of them that Mr. Barrington himself pro- 
duces, is so late as the reign of Richard III. ; When lady Motley is:8aid 
to have ^' had no harpinges or lutinges during Christmas, but playmg: at 
^^ tables and chess ||." By the French they are denominated ic/iOflse^, or jeu 
de dames, not, as Mr. Barrington alleges, because '* the common pieces, 
'* by reaching the top-square of the antagonist, become queens ^ ," which 
forms no interpretation of the name, dames not signifying queens ; but 
because the French consider the pieces moved to be women,, and so call 
the crowned pieces' queens, as we consider all to be men, and call these 
Mngs. Thus dame, a woman in French, comes to signify a man there, 
damier the board on which the men are moved, daTnes the ^me itself, 
and dame-'dam^e, properly a woman of quality, the man tcihged in the 
game. But they are denominated among ourselves, by the various ap- 
pellations of tables, which speaks its import at once, of draughts, from 
the men drawn up in military array; both derived purely from the 
English language, from modern English too * ; and of chequers, which is 
equally English, equally modern, but decisively marks the relation olf 
draughts to chess in their origin. They are, indeed, ,a merely spurious 
kind of chess, an European, a modem simplification of the game of Asia; 
and such a simplification, as has reduced the. elaborate, the complicated, 
the manly operations of one game, from the indolence, studious or 
yawning, of later times, into the go-cart movements of an infant's pastime 
in the other f • 

Yet, as Dr. Ducarrel proceeds in his description of the great guard- 
chamber and the barons' hall at Caen, the latter '* is paved with the same 
^* sort of tiles as the ^rmer ; but with this difierence, that instead of 

II Arch. ix. 30. 

f Ibid. 26* 

* Ibid. a6 : ''I do not know, from what nation we have borrowed this term of drafts.^ 
Some objects press too much upon the eye to be seen. 

- t This indolence is strikingly attested by the popular report^ that a game at chess may 5e 
transmitted as an inheritance for grandchildren to finish ; though ** most chess-matchft 
« ^re decided in an hour, and perhaps never exceed two, unless the players take a nap Ve^ 
♦* tween the moves," (ix. 30.) 


4S£CX. III.] nifiTOEICALLt SXTKVfi^TEO. . 223 

'' coate of arms," which are generally said (as we have heard before) to QaxA^hfdkmA 

be those of the families attending duke William in his invasion' of Eng* 

land, '^ they are stained with the figures of stags and dogs in full chase. 

*' The walls of this room KcmKo have been adorned/* as the floor of the 

other actually is, " wixii escutcheons of arms,." belonging equally (we 

must infer from analogy) to the families of those who attended' William 

into England, but here " painted in heater shields, some of which are 

** stUl remaining,'^ and therefore carry the seeming into certainty. *' It 

*' was in this guard-chamber, and the barons* hall adjoining, that king 

'^ William the Conqueror, as tradition tells us, in the most sumptuous 


*' manner entertained his mother Arlette with her wedding-dinner, on 
^ the day of her marriage to Hailuin count de Conteville, by whom she 
-<* had Odo, bishop of Bayeux %;'* who was old «iough to go in William*d 
-army to'the conquest of England, who was also old enough to be a bishop 
then, and whose mother's marriage to his father must therefore have 
Ibcen many years before, when William was no king and only a duhe^ • 
W« tfaiiw see traditfott cQQ.cui!rii;)g^ with TOCcuuMi, to mark these rpoms 
built ' and these tioors laid, several years before the doiK^KSt. Nor let trs 
Ibe beaten off from this conviction, by an objection which Dr. Ducarrel 
Jias proposed himself, immediately afler the last passage cited from him; 


DURING HIS [William's] reign ;— and that therefore it is more probable 
this pavement was laid down in the latter part of the reign of king 
' John, while he was loitering away his life at Caen with the beauteous 
Isabel of Angouleme, his queen, during which period the custom of 
WEARING OF COATS OF ARMS," either as family or as personal distinctions, 
*^ WAS iNTtODUCfiiD Q /' Tbis objection the authw proposes agamst him^ 
w^, and never attempts to unswer ii. He conjures up a ghost to haunt ^ 

him, and endeavours not to lay it again : I shall therefore try to do this 
for him : it is a ghost of the same complexion with that before ; and 

§ . iEor !^ Odo> bbh6p of B$i)^ux>'' htmg pKsesI M Uwf btHle pf Htstiogs, s^ Dr. DucaN 
«d hiiDtdf ia fu 79* 
* I Ducan«lj.6o« 

VOL.1, J ' * HH may 


* • 


may be as effectually laid as that has been, thfough it asks a hnger charm 
for the work : 


Sunt certa jpiacula, qose* te • 

^ Ter pure lecto poterimt recireare libeHo» 

The use of armorial bearings was first upon shields; as the pannel or 
compartment within which the bearings are painted, is still called a shield 
or an escutcheons But it was afterwards upon eoat-armour too; and 
therefore we call the bearings a coat of arms. In both cases, the depicted 
ensigns were denominated amis ; . because they were depicted upon that 
weapon of defence a shield, and upon th^t; coat of defence a mail. We 
thus see devices upon shields, at the very invasion of England by Wil- 
^Ay^MjC-'/^^i-fe^^.Jiam, and in that very tapestry of Bayeux, whidi is an historical work 

requally delineating as describing, being woven (according, to the report 
of tradition) by the hands of William's queen and her ladies** 


^ DuearreF, 79, 80 : '' Tbe ground of this piece of wor& (which is extEemety vahiabfe^ as 
^ preserving the' taste of those tiroes in designs of this sort) is a white linen cl6tli^ or canvas^ 
^ one foot eleven inches in depth, and two hundred and twelve fee.t in length. — Tker9 is a 
/' T§e$ived tftadition^ that queen Mtitilda, wife of the Cwiqiieror, and the ladies of her courl^ 
tvove this tapestry with their own hands. — In an old inventory of the goods of the cathedral 
of Bayeux, tafteri in the year 1476, this piece of needlework,*^ a&this woven tapestry is 
wiiscalled by Ducarre), " is entered thus, * anc tcnte trefr longne et etroite, deteHe a broderic 
•* 4i ymagtsct eserpteaulx, faisans representations du conquest d' Jngleterre' — J* Yet to out 
astonishment the Doctor instantly informs us^ ia despite 0/ record and of tradition,, that 
•• the priests of this cathedral,, to whom I addressed myself for a sight of this remarkable 
*' piece of antiquity, knew nothing of it. The circumstance only of its Being annually hung 
•' up in their church, led them to understand what I wanted; no person there' knowing, that 
•* the object of my inquiry amj tvays related to William the Conqueror J' This -is^ plainly 
written in that air of superci4rou6ness, with which we of this* island faavirto^' oAcQ aflbcted la 
look down upon the ignorance of the clergy in France, and from which the falsehoods . p^* 
dominant in conversation have too often stolen into writings to degrade them% The igno- 
rance^ here charged, is Impossible to he true as stated. '* By tradition,"' adds Mr. LethieuU 
fier in a dissertation upon the tapestry, ^* it is called duke William's toilkt, and said to 
** be the work of Matilda his queen, and the ladies of her court, qftep Kte obtawedike crown 
of England," (DucarrePs owa Appendix, p«.2») Accordingly, when >' an illuminiled 
drawing of one part'' had been found ^^ among the manuscripts of the famous Monsieaff 
'< Foucaut," about seventy-four years since; and Montfsiucon <' wrote to «vefy part of 
«' France^" wilk which Foucaut hsd beeo «oiuie€ted^ to get intelligence of the ori^aal s he 




In this singular kind of iUuminated manuscript, cotemporary with all^ 
that it records, and therefore a witne$s bf the highest author! tj^ having* 
been drawn up from some narrative written for the purpose ; we see; 
Guy earl of Ponthieu seizing Harold the moment he lands on the coiist, 
and tlw four men, who followed Guy on horse}>ack to assist in the seizure, 
carrying shields all charged mth devices. Of these the first appears to be 
a dolphin ; the next is a number of small rays of the sun, issuing out^of a 
cloud on the di^t^ side of the field ; the third is what is cailai a cross 
patfee; and the fei^rth adog-f-,' So, in two pennies of silver minted at. 
Rouen by Wiifiam duke of Normandy before his conquest of England,^ 
we have a cross pattee in the centre of each, and one cross upon. each, 
having four'half-moons Withiti its four quarters, while another has in its 
quarters three and a fleur-dc-ly s J . The two messenger^ of William .to 
Guy demanding th^ release of Harold, are also represented bearing each a 
dolphin on his shield, but one facing to the sifiister and the other to, the 
dexter side of the field §. And, to mark the precise fidelity with which the 
tapestry proceeds ; to shew the justice which it means to practise, in allot- 
ting to every man concerned his actual share of thj? business; William de- 
livers his message to one man of dwarfish stature inmiediately close to him, 
and to two much taller men close behind the other; the three accordingly 

was instantly informed by (me of the clergy of Bayeux, that die original was preserved in 
the cathedral there; that the part drawn was <* about thirty feet iq length, and one foot and a 
<^ Jb^ broad," not (as Dr.Ducarrel writes above) '^ one foot eleven inches ;'' that the rest 
was <^ two hundred and thirty-two feet long;'* thai the whole therefore was two hundred 
and sixty-two feet, not (as Dr. Ducarrel measures it) '* two hundred and twelve feet, in 
^ length;" but that ** the most ancient account they have of it," th^ ipvcntory of 1476, 
says it was ^' repte^tntaitions de la conquest d* Angle terre." (DucarreKs Appendix, p. i, 2.) 
80 inaccurate, so contj;^dictqry is the Doctor here! Montfaucon, however, having thus 
found his way to them by the torch of tradition, and seeing them by the daylight of his- 
tory, too important records to be left any longer in danger of ilestructiop, delineat^^d, en* 
graved, and published them, in his -^^Monumens de la. Monarchic Fran^oise." Smart 
jLethieulKer^ e$q. wrote a description of them, and Dr. Ducarrel published it in his Appendix. 

t Ducarrel's Appendix, No. i^ plate, page 4, 5. See also plate, page 25, as hereafter, 
noticed.^ .-• ' 

- J DMcafreJ;3J^d49.: . c. * ^ • 

§ Plate, page 4, 5. Here the tapestij^f lias^madf a transposition of the events, the.niessen^ 
gers delivering their message,' then riding to deliver it, and then receiving }t, ^^ 

H H 2 appear 


appear delivering the message to Gny, one speaking, another standing 
behind, bnt the third, the dwarf, holding their horses by the bridles, and 
having his name Turold over his head ♦. One of the taller men,, as they 
are all three receiving the message from William, rests npon a shield 
charged with an animal, that we see a little from its appearance here, and 
see still more from its reappearance as they are riding, to be a dolphin f» 
Harold is thus surrendered up to William by Guy, vre see Guy surrender--^ 
ing him, and a person immediately behind William bears in his shield a 
winged dragon ;{; . William carries Harold to his own palace, then sitft 
upon his throne in form, and receives Harold's message from king Ed* 
ward ; Harold being attended by four men, all having shields, one with « 
St. Andrew's cross upon it, a second with three bezants crossing the £eld 
in a line above, then one upon each side of a plate below, and tht ee in a^ 
triangle below all, with a third and a fourth shewing only a single bezant 
at present, upon the sinister side of each §. So of the two silver pennies* 
mentioned before, as carrying each a cross paftee with half^moons and m 
fleur-de-)ys in the quarters upon one side, each carries on the other a cros^ 
pat tee with a bet ant in every quarter of it ||. Then William and Harold 
appear marching out against Mount St. Michael, cross a river just be- 
yond it, and are some of them unhorsed in a quicksand ; when ihe shield 
of one of them is seen upon the sand, charged with a regular square, 
seemingly a fort with a tower at each angle %, two bezafifs crossing the 
field ^boif>e, and four di^osed in a kind of lozenge below ** William, 
and Harold attack Dinant ; one of the besieged stands high, and sl^ws 

* Plate, pages 4, 5, and ^. This Turold is not improbably the ** TbraUbs^ de PapiKoa,'''^ 
who is a witness to a charter froai the Conqueror to the church of Durham. (Leland's Coll. ii*. 
385.) In the charter itself he appears signing as ^' Turoldus de PapilioiL.'' (MoMsti4 
con, i. 44.] 

i Plate, pages 4, 5, and 9. 

2 Plate, page 9, and the Saxon standard in pikfe 27. 

^ Plate, page 9* The f apesiry has here made one shield mcM jAian it ha» made attendants^ 
but a blank onel . 

I Ducarrel, plate iii. p. 49. 

^ This fort is like the blockhouse once at Plymouth, a *^ castel quadrate^ hovisig at eche 
•* corner a great round tower." (Lelatid'p Itku iii. 4-) 

•• Plate, page 9, 

2 his 


Ikis ^dd 'wkh a St. An&rew's cross upon it ; four, others stand' behhanl 
him, and shew the traces of a St. Andrew's cross upcm each of their 
shields ; while two. of the besiegers below are setting fire to the town 
with torches; and have a shield behind feitber, charged with a St. An- 
drew's cros9 hke 4the others. Only of the two' last, this has two* bexant&r 
one oyer the other, in three of its quarters,, had therefore (I suppose) in 
all once ^ and /^^ with equal regiilaritj has two, one oyer the other, in 
the two opposit<e quarters dexter and sinister ^. William appears to re- 
ceive the keys of the town, with a erms patonce on his shield, three 
ihe!sani9 hi. one curve above it, and three in anbthen below it;, while im- 
mediately behind iatn are two» warpiors> both bearing St- Andrew's 
erotses upon their sbieldsy and one shewing 2Lbewmt upon eadi side of the 
upper litnb of his f. So far we see devices upon shields, almost as fre-* 
quent upon the continent then^ as they are now ; and the use of armorial 
cttsigu» there, almost as regular in itself, even as diversified in some of it» 
signatures, as it is within our own island at presents 


' But let us enter the island, vnth this beraldric luminary shinihg bright 
befoye ns ; only noting in our passage to it, that on the stem of the large 
vessel on which WiJfiam is going to embark,, appears a. shield with a St- 
Andrew's cross, bearing four bezants ^^ two and two,, in the sinister 
quarter- that on the stem of the vessel immediately ahead of it, is 
another shield with the same kind of cross,, bearing four bezants, twft 
and two, nearly opposite in the dexter and sinister quarters ; that on the 
stern of the third are two shields more, one having four bezants, two and 
two, but the other having six in a circle about a plate ^.^ Now we see 
William'^ warriors, instantly after disembarcationt, pushing on for 
Hastings ; while one of them has a shield marked with seven bezants, 
three, two, and two, in three successive Knes §.. Harold is reported td. 
be approaching with his army, the Normans march out from Hastings to ' 
fight them, William appears interrogating one Vitalis what intelUgence he 
brought concerning then>, and VitaMs bears a shield of teur bezants, two;, 
four, in two lines above opiate, three, one, in two lines below it % This. 

* Plater page 9«. t Ibid. % PlaU^ page ^ 7. 

§ Ibid. , I Platq^ p»^ 90". 



mentidri of a particular person, subordinate' in ^ua&itj^and* ikidmbwa 60 
history, unites with die specifimtkAi of another before, one stiJl nvMSe. 
subordinate in quality, but marked by his low stature, to $bew with what 
fidelity and accuracy the ta{)rati^ .proceeds to dejtail the incidcints : an4 
the . attrihutmn of armori^l/en^igte . to the fojmet* she^s them to 'hav«) 
been equally appropriate ?with the name to the bearfcrof "both. The next 
but one after Vtialishas bezants upon his shield, tWo no*r, but ibrmerly 
(as appears from their position) three, in one line, three more ^ 41 second,, 
three in a third, and one in a fourth *. This person, is plainly, from the 
strange sort of helmet wlii«k b«[ wears, and which giyeft him to our eyes, 
all the appearance. of weiring A rwig, the- rory same pierbon who is repre- 
sented on the landing and at the hanquetting, with jtbisi inscription over, 
him, .Hie est Wadard^ but with no4evice upon his shield •: $19 ,fae is here 
represented again, witiiput any name, but with his device f • So mt^^r^. 
changeable do. devices and names appear, in tbis instaiice ! The ea&^ 
Aext changes to Harold's army ; a warrior is beheld upon the wa|ich^. 
holding up his right hand in admiration of what he sees, William's army 
undoubtedly^ and bearing eight bezants in a shield' on lus left ^rm,' three 
in a slight curve above, one upon each side of a pkU$y with two, one, in 
two lines below J. Another warrior appears immediately afterwards, 
but with his back turned to the former, bearing a shield of bezmts, two 
and two above a plate, two and one below it ; telling Harold of William's 
approach, and pointing with his finger backwards to the warrior on the 
watch, >as the author of his intelligence, and the person by whom he was 
sent §• Harold himself appears receiving the intelligence, pointing forward 
with his. jinger as to the warrior on the watch, and bearing nine bezants 
on his shield, one above a plate, one vpop each side of it, three, two, and 
one, below it jj.. William harangues his; soldiery, they prepare for battle, 
they advance, on horsebafck ; b^t the English meet them on foot. The 
foremost man of the English appears with a St Andrew's cross upon his 
shield, three bezants in a line above, one (originally two, I believe) o^, the 
dexter side, two still on the sijaister, and ^ne below ; the shield having 
two arrow* from the Norman ajchers,. infixed into it-^. The second 

' • Plate, page a 2- J Plate, page 22. , | Plate, page oa, ^ 

t PJale, pa^ 17. ' • ^Jlbii. ' -^ * f Plalej plate 25. ' 


* ••« 


tnan has the safaoe sort of cross^ with only oi^ bezant below ^. The third 
has no crosa^ but two Norman arrows and six bezants, two, two, and two, 
'obliquely 'ranging down the shield f . The fourth has two, two, and one, 
|>Iaced as obliquely |. The.&fth and sixth have two bezants, one above, 
tlie'oth^r below, bfut those near the middle of the field, and these near the 
upper end of it §. The seventh has four bezants, two and two ; the 
eighth has three (two> one) ; and the ninth has seven (two, three, two), 
with a Norman arrow sticking in the second line |f . So carefully aire the 
shidds diversified one from another, even among the English warriors ; 
and vy strongly does the care of diversifying indicate a r^ular, a steady 
appropriation of the ensigns to persons ! The English army is made im* 
mediately to £Eice about, in order to exhibit the Normans again to our 
view ; and. the English no^ ^pear with shields all blanks because their 
ensigite have beeh'displarjred before. Only in the border below, which 
here begins (like the mafgin of some books} to be equally historical with 
the work itself ; among many dead and all English^ because all on foot^ 
lies one covered- with a shield to mark out who he is, of four bezants above 
a plate, two and onebdow it^. The Norman warriors are now ex* 
hibited> five in number, all having shields, and aQ bearing ensigns upon 
them. The first has ten bezants, four in a Hue above, three in a triangk 
below, and three in another below that**. The second has only two 
bezants above a plate, and none below it "H". ' The third has five in a 
circle about apkUe "1%. The fourth has six in a circle about the same ob- 
ject §§. And the fifith has a cross, with ubezant in each quarter of it 
But the tapestry now becomes still more particular^. 

Levine and Gurd, the two brothers of Harold, are killed as they fought 
on foot. Levine appears pierced with a lance under the r%ht shoulder, 
but .Qucd. by, a lance in the. neck. The slayer of both is exhibited several 

* Plate, page 25. 

t Ibid. 

t Ibid. 

§ Ibid. 

H Ibtd. 

q Ibid. 

•• Plate, page 25. 

tt Ibid. See it again in plate, page 27. 

tt Ibid. 

§§ Ibid. 

m Ibi£ 



limes^ yet each time is marked by the same bearings in liis dbdeU, iwm 
'bezants zhove a plate, one on each side of it^ and two beVyvr ; m order to 
shew decisirely who he is^ aod to give faim tl^ iull honour of his con^^ 
^ct in that day's victory. He first appears pierckig leFitie in^er tht 
ah^nlder, and cairyii^ a shield of wliidii we can see only the mider^-sidet 
famt, for this yery reason, hid sSfiidld is pia?oed m the border imniedBaftdby 
bciow,, ^di the ptlier side upward. It is placed there^ e?ren twice ; the 
^first time, cofveDing the dead body of a inan in armour, Levine widoubt^ 
ediy 4 then a second time, and very near, fyii^ig ^y ^ body in anbour widi 
the head sepafated £tom the rest ; but, both ^times, foearipg the samie 
iezoMts in the same disposition of them, to ascertain completely who 
kifUed LeviDe and cut off his head. The same Norman instantly ^peaors 
again in this peeuUai: ikind of histoey, beaoring the same beMtnts in the 
some ydi^poftidoii agatfir and fighitihg .with Onrd ; the latter arabed widi 
along laneeanda biossy shield, faatvmg thrastliis lanoe into the breast of 
the>fo(rmer^ while tlie former has thrast his mto the neck of GunL But 
th^ same Norman instantly appears once more, marked hy the same bear* 
ingSy and o^i^ed in the same %lit wilfh Oord, who has now dirown 
afway his shield, whkh is placed in the border, has. thrown away his lanoe 
too, "whick is placed partly under dK belly of the Norman horse, is wield*- 
ing a battle^aixe in imc £gUFe,.but in smother immediately behind isfaUing 
to the ground ; yet is shewn imder all these variations to be Gurd, by the 
bearings upon the shield of his antagonist, and by tihe lance of this anta* 
goni^t being thrust, into his tieck^. So ap^n^priate. So distinguishing 
were armorial ensigns then to and of the warriors^ in Ecigi^nd and ia 
Normandy ! So much, indeed, were they then .what they are at present, 
badges known to the generation passing, badges sure to be known by 
the generations succeeding; or they would never have been inserted with 
40 much attention, and repeated with so much formal}^, hi a work 
calculated for future as well as present generations ! 

Behind thjese is an Englishman on foot, with a sword in his h^nd and 
shield on his arm, bearing bezants obliquely placed, two above, one 
(probably two, as one is hid, I believe^ by his arm) in the ipiddk, and 

• Plate, page 25. 



two below ; the very man^ who appears the third in the group before, 
with the same bearings^ and two arrows sticking in his shield *. A Nor* 
man succeeds on horseback, with eleven bezants on his shield, four in one 
line above a piate, two on each side of the plate, and two, one', below 
it f • A Norman horseman is seen fellen to the ground, and by hisn is a 
shield to shew who is meant, having the same sort of sun s rays issuing 
out of a cloud iqx>n the dexter side of the field, that we beheld with one 
of Guy^s men before X* The EngHsh appear rallying, and three of them 
strnid upon an eminence, fighting with Normans on horseback ; two of 
the three (as being brothers, I suppose) bearing the same ensigns on their 
shields, five bezants, one, three, one ; but the third bearing only three 
bezants, two, one §t A Norman hors^nuin is seen thrusting his lance 
imto the body of an Englishman, equally as the other Englishmen here 
without armour ; aod bearing bezants in the same number, and with 
tfeie same disposition, as the two Englishmen before j|. This identity is 
nemarkable, ytt not the only one that I shall notice in the tapestry. 
Another Norman succeeds with five bezants, two, one, two ; and his 
shield appears again in the border no less than three times, once covering 
9n Englishman in armour, but without a horse, to shew what Norman 
killed the Englishman ; then covering a Norman who has just fallen ex- 
piring over the head of his horse, to point out the Norman himself aa 
killed at last ; and finally held up by an Englishman on foot but in ar- 
mour; to shew he killed the Norman ^. As such clear and certain signa- 
tures, as speaking so determinately to the eyes, and appealing so decidedly 
to the knowkdge, of all inspectors, do these bearing continue to be used 
in this historical tapestry ! 

On the right of these is another shield in the border, with three bezants 
running perpendicularly down the field of the escutcheon ; to shew the 
owner, who lies close to one side of it, with his head cut off, and with a 
sword on the other side of it, then a well-known owner, an4 plainly an 
Englishman as he has no horse by him, to have been slain ^t that stage 

* Plate, page 25, t Plate, page 25. See plate^ page 4, 5^ before* |( Plate, page 25. 
t Ibid. § Platej pa^ 25* f l\^. 




of the battte *. Odo is then exhibited twice, once as brandishing his 
club, afterwards as holding Im club and beckoning the Normans to ad-^ 
vance. William also is seen throwing both his arms abroad, as conjurin]^ 
the Normans to rally ; but holding in one hand his standard, all stream- 
ing to the wind. Both reanimate the Normans. The horsemen are 
pushing on, the archers are letting fly their arrows in the border, and the 
English are hard pressed. Four of thiem appear in armour ; the last 
falling headlong to the earth without any shield, but lying dead in the 
border with a bossy shield close' to him, euch as we have seen before, yet 
still with no bearings upon it ; the first being armed with a sword, and 
bearing on his shield what we have not seen lately, though T^esaw it so 
frequently once, a cross, a St. Andrew's cross with a bezant in each 
quarter of it ; the second brandishing a battle-axe, and exhibiting <fee 
very same bearings as before ; and the third bearing a St. Andrew's cro8s> 
with no bezants to it at all f . From the sameness of bearings in the 
second with the first, and from the immediate proximity of one to the 
other, I again suppose the owners to ho brothers. But, a^ both are Ex- 
actly the same with those of an evident Norman before, and as just before 
we find both an ^Englishman and a Norman bearing three bezants each 
upon his shield, disposed in the very same manner, we find an identity of 
armorial ensigns to have occurred so early even as that period ; Saxon and 
Norman families to have even then had a community of arms; a per*- 
plexity to have thus begun, which has ended in a fantastic derivation of 
Saxon families from Norman, among ourselves ; but the queen herself to 
have adhered amidst the perplexity, to truth and to fact. Another 
Englishman, with his shield at his back, a St. Andrew's cross upon the 
shield, and bezants most irregularly disposed in the quarters of it, two in 
the first, one in the second, five in the third, and one alone in the fourth ; 
is wielding his battle-axe against a Norman horseman, armed only with a 
sword, and with a shield of three bezants in a curve above a swan t . A 
Norman is then seen on horseback, with a shield of three bezants ih a 
curve above, like the former, but with no animal below,* with only 
bezants, two, one, there § . So closely were the arms of one warrior 

 Plate, page 25. f Ibid. % Ihti. $ Ibid. 




asaiinilated^ at times^ to those of another ! Yet, so hicdij does thld 
loom- wrought chronicle distinguish in general between them ! and bo 
boldly does it bring them close together, to shew it ifee« didtinguish 
them ! 

The deatli of Harold is coming on, that grand consummation of vic- 
tory to the Normans. Three Englishmen in armour, and on foot, are 
opposing the Norman horseman before. The foremost of these is pro- 
tending his lance against him, and bearing a St« Andre w*s cross upon a 
shield, that is quartered with as much of heraldric formality as a modem 
escutcheon, having in the first and third quarters respectively three 
bezants in a curve, but in the second and fourth only one bezant each*.- 
The next behind is the great standard-bearer of England, grasping with 
his right hand the staff of his standard, which is rested upon the 
ground and bears the Saxon dragon above ; yet carrying on his left a 
shield, that is a half-moon in form^ has a long spikf^ projecting from the* 
boss, and shows three bezants in a kind of triangle upon the upper half, 
but four in a kind of lozenge upon the lower f . This shield, thefe- 
fore, must have been as well known at the moment, to be appropriated 
to this Saxoq, and to be characteristic of him; as the standard was to 
be characteristic of, and appropriated to, his very office. Behind him 
is the king himself, his standard-bearer not merely stepping before him 
in the moments of danger, but his own station being ordinarily as VjBg, 
between what was called the standard as the king*s own, and the dragon 
as the standard of the nation J. Yet he himself is not now (as we have 
seen him before) on horseback, with a lance in one hand, and a shield 
upon his shoulder, of nine bezants, with a plate §• He is on foot, with 
a lance protended by his right arm^ and a shield hanging upob his left^ 
of a St. Andrew's cross ; one bezant in each of the first, second, and 
fourth quarters, and five bezants, two, two, one, obliquely in the third *. 

* Plate, p. 27. 
.t Ibid. 

X Huntindon, 208 : " Loco regio— , quod erat ex more inter draconcin et insigoe quod 
** vocatur Slaniard." 

§ Plate^'page 21. • 

• • • 

• Plate, page ay. 

112 - He 


He had 'been unhorsed^ probably, in fihe battle ; had therefore Io6t his 
own shield, and had taken up another s. The owner of this is pointed 
out, by the preservation of the bearings upon it ; as Harold himself is 
decisively indicated under the disguise, by the largeness of his stature, 
and by the name of Harold rex ini^ribed directly over his head. But 
the standard-bearer appears dangerously wounded by the Norman horse- 
man above, the lance of the latter running through the neck of the 
former, and the point coming out behind. This is a capital inci- 
dent, in the closing part of the battle. The tapestry, therefore, 
dwells upon it, and in the only manner in which tapestry can dwell, by 
a msffk of progression,4ind a signature of appropriation. The man who 
stands grasping the staff of his standard in the higher line of th^ work, 
is thrown forward to the ground in the lower, to shew he was killed; and 
to shew, likewise, who killed him, he is thrown under the head of the 
Norman's horse, with his dragon close to the fore-feet of the horse ♦* 
^e death of Harold then follows : the position of the warriors is 
changed. Another Norman on horseback, having a sword instead of a 
lance in his hand, has been engaged with Harold, no longer armed with a 
sliield and a lance; but having, as in a desperate situation, seized a battle- 
axe, now sinking with the axe in his hand towards the ground, and bear- 
ing over him the words interfectus est. He appears again in the border, 
$m fpiite dead; while close by him is a shield of four bezants, two and 
tW0, to denote the Norman who killed hhn, who is not denoted in the 
regular line of the work, but who bears the same arms with the seventh 
Englishman in the Saxon group before f ; yet the same that appear at 
the stem of the third vessel of the Normans ;{:. The English still make 
a stand, the Normans on horseback attack them, and one of the latter 
shews a shield charged with thirteen bezants, three, four, above a plktey 
three, two, one, below it ; while another of them has only two in one 
line above a jp/a/e, but none below it§; being the same person that we 
have seen the second, in the Norman group before [^.^ 

Here the work ends, leaving some figures that were never finished, 
and not going on (as was plainly intended once) to the coronation of 

* Plate, p. 27. t Pl»te, p. 45. J Mate, p. 17. J Plate, p. 27. | Plate, p. 45. 

4 William 

fkCT. nij SriffrORICALLT 8imY£TEl>4 245 

WiUiam at ^Westminster*. But we thus see the use of armorial devices, 
common to WiHiam and to Harold, common to the Saxons, to the 
Normans, and to the French, at and hefore the Conquest; even as dis- 
tinctly characteristic of particular vrarriors then, as ever they wrere in any 
future period of our history. The arms, therefore, of Normans in the 
great guard-chamber and barons* hall of William's palace at Caen, 
tiiose of the latter being in what are denominated by Dr. Ducarrel heater 
shields, as almost all those in the tapestry are upon shields, not square 
at the upper end, like present heaters, but as, perhaps, ancient heaters 
were; roxmding there, then contracting gradually at the sides, and end- 
ing in a point below ; may be all that they are considered by tradition 
to be, an original decoration of the floor and walls ; from their connexion 
with the palace, shtmid, in all right reasoning, be so considered, unless- 
there was positive proof to the contrary; and, from their connexion* 
with the tapestry, as well as the palace, mtist be actually considered so 
at present f. Bub 

* Ib this^ stage of the work. It appears to have been diacontinued*^ Then, bemg foimd 
vpon admeasurement to be casually as long as the nave of the cathedral at Bayeux, it waa^ 
be^ed^ probably, by Odo, the bishop of this church, and half-brother to William^ r 
as a hanging for the nave* It has, therefore, been used as a^ hahging for it, immemo- 
rially. On St. John's day, and during the octave annexed to it in the Romish liturgy, it* 
is there hung up as a peculiar decoration for a particular festivals It is accordingly noticed* 
in the old inventory of 1476, as ** une tente — , lequelk est tendne environ la nef de 
^ Teglise, le jour et par les octaves des reltques*^' All the vest of the yeiir it is " carefully 
^ kept locked up in a strong wainscot press''' within a chapel. (Ducarrel^ 79.) And this- 
careful keeping has united with that annual airing, to preserve the tapestry in its present 
state of perfection. K is said, however, to have narrowly escaped destruction in that bursts 
of barbarism, which recently broke out like a volcano in France,, from the fiery materiala* 
•Thberty^ and raged with papticnlar fury under the government of the wretched Robespierre- 

t '^ A few years ago,'' says Dr. Ducarrel, p. 60,, '^ four of these tiles were brought to* 
^ England^ one of them was- soon after. presented to my worthy friend; Horaoe Walpole> 
'^ esq.; and the other three are now in my own possession." Twenty of the tiles were taken> 
up in the summer of 1786, presented to Charles Chadwick, esq. of Healy Hall in Lancashire,^ 
and exhibited in two drawings to the Society of Antiquaries, some time afterwards*. But, as^ 
the arms upon the tiles- were repeated upon two diflerentrowsof tiles ;:as ^' ces xxecussons,!' 
•ays an. iosortption now put up in the cloisters,, by the monks of the abbey to which these 
remains belong, '^ sont plus ou moins repetes sur deux bandes de xviitoises de long;" Mr«. 
Henniker procured. sixteen, of the second row,, some few n^onths afterward. . He then drew 



But let us notlwve the ^oiat, even here. So long aiid^g(QS|5ly mir* 
taken as it has been, let us mount a few ages higlier jbo'jUie countrjr of 


up a treatise on them, and printed it for distribution among his friends; which I have never 
seen, and know only from an antagonist. Frpm the latter I find, that the former maintained 
in it, as I have done, the use of arms before the Conquest; and appealed, as I have equalty 
done, to the tapestry of Bayeux in proof of the point, but appealed also to the Ely picture, 
which I have not done, and cannot in any propriety do. (See Bentham's Ely, Appeodix, p, 
3. 9,) His antagonist replies, that he has *' examined the engravings of the Bayeux 
" tapestrv very minutely," but is " sorry" he " cannot find the least trace of what" he 
** would venture to call coats of arms." Indeed, '^ there are upon it," he owns, '^ spurs, 
^ buckles, sword-chapes, and other small articles yiir less than armorial bearings." This 
ogic 18 admirable. Because the arms are not tricked out in all the magnitude of modern 
arms, they are no arms at all ; and the amallness of a man annihilates :hi8 very nature. But 
*^ spurs, buckles^ sword*cbapes, and other small articles,^' it aeems, are 710/ '^ armo^^ial bear- 
^^ ings," in the opinion of this herald ; when they actually appear in several bearings at 
present, have equally appeared forages, and when one of them, the buckle, appears in one of 
his own coats at Caen. (Seethe Gent. Mag. lix. 211, 212, shield 2d, in drawing, andlx. yii-) 
Nor has the author *' examined" the tapestry in the engravings, ** very minutely," what- 
e¥er he may say ; there being no spurs, no buckles, no sword chapes, upon the shields in it, 
and there being coats of arms (as we have seen) repeatedly there. Yet he contends, tb^t 
ooat-armour, if used, was not hereditary at the Conquest (p. 711); when, to complete 
the confusion that he has made before, in lix. 212, he really appropriates some of his own 
ooata at Caen to English-Norman yami/ie^, sa still hearing them^ and when, in Ix. 711, be 
equally appropriates one of these very coats to a French-Norman ^omi/y, as equally bearing 
ii slilL The arms, then, are as old as the palace, and the palace as old as tradition makes 
it. ^' Ces XX paves," say the monksj as they record the tradition, '^ ont ete releves d'une 
<^ des salles de Tancien palais les dues de Normandie a Caen, autour de la quelle avoient ete 
^ peints les ecus de seigneurs, qui avoient accompagnes le due Guilleaume a la conqiiete de 
*M'A.ngleterre." (P. 212.) 

Since I wrote the paragraph above, even in January 1795, Mr. Henniker published that ac- 
count in the form of a letter, with a letter additional, under the title of " Two Letters on the 
*^ Origin, Antiquity, and History, of Norman Tiles, stained with armorial Bearings." In 
this work Mr. Henniker, now Mr. Henniker Major, refers the commencement of arms 
among us to the feudal tenures (p. 16, 19), and to the introduction of these tenures into Eng- 
land (p. 20-22); appeals to the Bayeux tapestry, but not very minutely or very* forcibly, for 
arms (p. 24-28), ascribing toDucarrel what belongs only to Lethicullier (p. 25, 26) ; appeals 
to the Ely picture, but very slightly <p. 31, 32) 5 and shews several families, Norman or 
English, to bear the same arms as those on the tiles, adding four mgre to the sixteen (p. 34- 
45, misprinted and transposed for 43, 48, 49, 52-54, 55-6'* 68, 71-73, 73, 74, 74, 7Sj 75- 




Prance, that parent at once of population and refinement to this island, 
which appears to have attained the character that it lately bore, of supe- 
rior polish in manners, even as early as the ninth century*, in order 
to shew more clearly still the erroneousness of all those antiquaries, 
who have reduced the commencement of escutcheons and of arms to a 
period below the Conquest. I shall, however, adduce only one monu- 
ment for the purpose. This is the famous arch of Orange, which in 
another work I have shewn to have been erected by Domitius j®no-' 
barbus, about a hundred and twenty years before our aera'f. In this mo- 
nument, though about twelve hundred years prior to the tapestry, we* 
have many shields equally charged with devices or arms. This may 
seem astonishing to most of my readers, but is actually true in itself. 
Upon the eastern face of the arch we have three compartments, each- 
containing a trophy, with a shield on either side, andjfbw^ of the shields* 
apparently, all six seemingly, decorated with figures, not reducible, per- 
haps, to any in the present system of heraldry, bat probably trunks of 
frees with branches, transverse or lateral J; and certainly, as appears from- 
iFlorus's very early account of these trophies, Barbarian or Gallic^; 
On the western face are two trophies, with two shields exactly the Same^ 
and one above, seemingly Roman ||. Upon the northern are three tro- 

91.) ^^ There have been other armorial bearings,^' adds the author^ p. 91^ '^ io the same 
'^ building from^which these tiles are taken, now effaced by age. La Rocque, in the second 
'^ vol. p. 1291, asserts, that he had, seen the arms of Percy, viz. a shield sable, with a chief 
*' indented Or." But, as the author subjoins in p. 107, ** Robert Wace, who lived in the 
'^ time of our Henry the First — , when this poet describes the battle of Walesdunes, fought 

ft ^ 

''in 1046, — says that there was no baron, — who had not his gonfdron (standard-bearer)^ 
^* following him, and that every one [all of them} bad their arms painted in different man^ 

^' mrsr 

• Gale, i. 360, Malmesbury : " Carolus [Calvus]— , cum vidisset— Johannem [Scotum] 
^ quiddam fecisse quod Gallicanam comitatem offenderet," &c. 

t Course of Hannjbal^ I*. 36*39- 

i Breval's Second Travels^ ii. 144, 145, and plate. 

J Florus, iii. a ; " Saxeas ' erexere turres, et desnper exornata drmis hostililiis tropsea 
*' fi;ccre." Mr..Powoallj in his Antiquities of Provence, 8cc. first suggested this useful appU-' 
<atiqn of Floru^, p, .2^. 

& See B)rf val's plate« 



phks, with twelve shields, all ^ually Gallic, therefore, some presentii^ 
the same devices as the preceding, others exhibiting similar, but one bear* 
ing a large circle within it *- On the southern are three trophies and 
seven shidds more, the latter equally Gallic, therefore, with all the rest, 
bearing devices similar to, or the same as, the others, only one of them 
bearing a kind of gate upon it-f*. These Gallic shields have two among 
them inscribed with Roman names, Manus and Caius, but name» 
adopted, u ndouhtedly, by Gauls, as the sludds are Gallia, and inscribed 
upon the shields apparently to denote their Gallic owners |, Others 
bear names that are as evidently Gallic as the shields themselves, Udillo, 
Dacurdo, Kodagus, and BoJuacus; all written, like the Roman before^ 
in Roman characters, within an adscititious bordejif§. But we have 
actually one shield, that has a regiUar coat of arms upon it; a stork itik 
the first and fourth quarters^ with a kind of small whidmill saik croMH 
in£f each other, so used (I suppose) on board the Gallic vessels here 

presenaed, on the second and third U. All this must certainly appear 
astonishing to our minds, when we recollect what Dr. Ducarrel and t^ 
beraldric antiquaries are continually averring^ about the kte origin of 
armsf. Yet 

• See Brevars plate. 

t See the same plate, 

X BrevaT, 149, and Pownall, a6, plate also, p. 25. 

$ Breyal, 149, 150; Powriall, 26. Let me add, however, iq opposition to Breval, 150, 

that the Bituitus of the history cannot be the Boduacus of the arch ; because Bltiiitus was in 

the battle against Fabius, not in that against Domitius. The latter '^ adversus Allobrogas 

'* ad oppidum Vindalium feliciter pugnavit^'' while the former '^ adversus Allobrogas^ et 

** Bituilum Arvemorum regem, feliciter pugnavit,*' (Livy's Epitome, hi.) 

11 See Pownall's plate 25. 

% Mr. Swinburne, in his Travels through and from Spain, ii. 445, arguing against the 
ascription of the arch to Marius^ and aiming to reduce the date of it as low as Adrian, or the 
Antonines, terminates all his reasoning with this fundamental assertion ; that, in the time 
even of Marius^ ^^ Rome had not then deviated so much from the austere simplicity of her 
^* republican principles^ as to suffer her generals to erect trophies of their victories.*' In 
modem reasoning, assertions merely gratuitous are often brought forward as conclusive ail- 
ments. We see one so brought here; and, to shew how false it is, I need only repeat at 
targe what I have partially cited before from Florus, as lelative to this very arch and another 2 

"^^ ufriusiiue 

' Yet, hb, csrry that origin to its full poiirt of remoteness^ let me in con- 
clusion remark with Mr. Pownall, that, in this Gallic memorial erected 
by Roman hands so many centuries ago, almost '* each boucler** [an 
JEn^i^^mtviiW0»ld have said^ buckkr] '' seems to have its charactemtic 
^- OKtfk a^ du4inetw& engraving on it, according to the custom of the 
^ Gauls and Germans, and indeed of all military nations ; w^hich was ex- 
" pressed,, not only by lines, but colours*.^* Mn Pownall here cites in a 
npt^ what is so happy an evidence of his assertion, that it ought to be ex- 
9lt^d miP the text. '^ Nothing was so conspicuous in the triumph/* 
Fkntia teUs us, ^* as king Bituitus himself in those variou^ coloured arms, 
in which he had fought f ." And the Germans ^* distinguish their 
sJHelds,^* adds Tacitus, ^* with the choicest colours X*" .But, as Mr. 
pQwnaJil proceeds very judiciously in the general sentiment, '* this hearts 
'^ ii^ of a national, a fam^y% and even a persomd, distinctive mark 
^ amoogst warrioTHiatioiis, km tdways been, and is, common to all people in 
•' every stage of civilization. Warriors, in that state which we call savage, 
*' observe this custom. The savages of America do at this day, what th^ 
" roving savagjes of Rome, and those of the North, did formerly. They 
'V{these] took for their diistinctive mark the eagle, the boar, the dog,*' and^ 
as he should in consistency have added, the stork § ; '^ these [those] take 

^' utriutque vlctorUe quod qiiantiiin<{ue gaudium fiierit, vei hinc existimari potent, quod et Do« 
^* inutua.£aobarbn8 et Fai>iu9 Maximum ipsis quibus dimicaverant lecia, saxeas erexSre turres, 
^ ct desuper exorhata aimta hostilibus tropiea, fixere $ quam hie inoa iouskatus ftterit oostris," 
not because they ivene republican^ forsooth 1 an intimatioii worthy only of a Bedlamite 
Ffencbman at present } but *^ nunqnam enim populus Romanus hoatibua dooiitis victoriam 
^* fuam exprobravit,*' a position equally Jaise in &ct, yet much more fionours^ble in sen- 
timent. ^ 

• Pownall, 25. 

t Floras, iii. 1 : *' Nil tarn conspicuum in triumpbo, quam rex ipse Bituitus discoloribus 
** in armis — , qualis pugnavcrat/' 

X Tacitus De Mor. Germ. § 6 : <' Scuta autem [tantum] lectissimis coloribus dis* 
<* tinguuntfc^ 

§ <' A stork, the proper emblem of migration, and pecuKarly of migration from winter 
«' regions to those nearer the sun.'* (PowAall, 36.) 


VOL. 1. KK '^somrf 


** some bird or beast, according to the idea of the cbafactct iPfidcb; ihey 

** would express II ..** 


I Pownall, 25, 16. This author knew nothing of BrcvaHi pKatM aiu^Braral^s descnptiOto 0f 
• the arcb, therefore takes bo notice of them in bia emtmerattoa %f writera and dtaigner^ p. a2, 
a J, and thus has missed what I may fairly call, I believe, the beat representation of the arch ever 
yet given, with the best account before Mr. Pownall's own. The author also sees not the 
name of Caius, seen by Mr. Breva! there; and reads the other names of Mr..Breva]^ Mario 
or MarcOy Ducado ox Ricard, Urdlus, Aitby Sacrolitig, and Roduacus (a6, 27). In this 
opposition and encoonter of readings, which* of them shall we prefer? Not his surely^ wtioi 
assigning thearcfa to Fabius when it belonged to Domitius^ actually spieS'-onecharaqleristic 
circimiatance of Fabius^a victory in Oomitius's arch. But indeed Mr. Pownallia even toa- 
lively and too ingenious to* be consistent and uniform. He aay» in my text above,, that 
^ thia bearing of a national', a family, and even a personal, distinctive mark has always beeo^ 
« and is, common to all people in every stage of civilizatioa;" yet Re ihstantiy adtid, that 
^ the civilized Romans abided not by these silly marks- ;'*' and- he equally adda, that ^ ihKs, 
^' before writing was in common use, was of courseand neceasity (he study and peouitar buair 
*^ neas of the heralds of aa army» but thai* this pictuu^wriling, since elementary writing andl 
'* names are the common and the proper modes of communication and distinction^, should 
^ become,, in all the pomp and circumstances of savage manners, a science of high name 
*' called Heraldry, re toaabaurd* for any thing but the poverty of pridcj^ The period runs off 
Mrith all -the graceful rapidity of a fine race-horse upon the tupf ;: 

Qoadrupcdante putrem sonitu quattt angnla campiim ;* 

and it reaches the goal, in a career of triumph. But unferUinataly the poor animal has ^ven 
bis back a fataV strainy by bis exertions. What has ^' mlwrns been, eon'mon to alt people 
**' in every stage of civilization," was actually, despised as *^ siJIy** by *^ the chrilixed Ra- 
mans/' and really had its birth ^^ befDre writing was in. common, uae/' even in all the 
pomp and circumstance of savage manners." This is a splendid, instance of thai ineteoroua 
kind of composition^ which bursts out in a. blaze, then loses itself in its-own smoke, and) 
when ii bursts out^ again, appears to have migrated into an opposite point of the heavens.* 
1'he fact is,, that Mr. Pownall begaa with considering the distinctions of arms, as maintained 
rn all ages of civilization; that he afteru'ards reflected, they were fgund also among savage 
nations > that his train of ideas took fire sA the neflection,. and bhzed out in making the 
civilized Romans despise these distinctions, so throwing abuse upon heraldry as founded only 
on savage manners. Such gK)ss contradictions is a* mind like Mr.. Pownall'S)^ brilliant, re- 
fined, and learned, capable of admitting within so short a compass.. But let n^. advert to 
another set of them. In p. 28, 29, Mr. Pownall argues,, that the arch wiasi noi '^ erected, to 
4* the honour of the victory gained by Marhis over the Cimbri and Ambropes," b^Bcause then 
" we should have seen amongst the iorphees the bull*s head,** the ensign of the Cimbri* Yet 
in p. 25 he says, that ^' each bonder seems to have its characteristic mark and distinciive 

" engraving 


Even in our own country, let me subjoin, in order tor>brtng the whole 
home to ourselves, we find armorial bearings in use among us beforeihe 
Conquest. In that church of Aldbrough within Holderness, which I 
have noticed before as proved to be Saxon by a Saxon inscription on its 
trails', and which exhibits the inscription engraved upon the southern wail 
of the nave, ruiining round a stone that projects about two inches from 
the wall, and has the area within divided into eight segments by lines 
from centre to circumference, merely in the ancient mode of delineating 
the cross of Christ, is within one of these segments, but near the bottom 
of ^the stone, what is denominated even by a herald " a rude figure, con*- 
^' po9tA of six lines croosing each other at right angles^/* -So nuiph 
does misapprehension disguise objects by description ! The object is ap<- 
parently to the eye a port*cullis ; that armorial bearing, which became 
die characteristic ensign of the house of Lancaster particularly, and i» still 


^ engraving upon it, according to the custom of the Gauls and Germans ;'' in p.. a6 be adda, 
that '* the savage of America do at this day, what the roaung savages— of the North did foF- 
'f marly ;" in p. 27 assert^ with regard to Sincroling, a name read by him op l/txt ar<;h, that 
Ijsig is a termination commonly used among the northern people, to express descendants or 
emigrating colony;" in p..S5, 36, remarks concerning the Gallic names oh the arch, that 
^' he thinks they belonged to some of those people'' [a note here specifies ^^xhk CimbK'^ ex- 
pressly], ^* who, coining from the North, were sdtlM on the coast in^A^ofUinc^and Poictou,* 
«t\^6untr!e8 so called from these settlers, as .ilcA«y.«i%w, «the<trib«Sof thffiT^nes, in later' 
'^ times called Danes;'' ^nd in p.,36 observes fifially, that the device i^pon one of t^he shiel^s^* 
'^ a stork, the proper emblem, pf mi^a/fpi, and peculiarly of migration from winter regions 
*^ |o th^e nearer the sun,** confirms him in his opiniop* . Thus the argument derived from 
the absence of the bull's head among the hostile ensigns on the arch, is first precluded in 
p. 25-27, then proposed in p." 48, ig, and theii rejected rfgain in p. 35, 36, while Mr* Pownall 
is whdlly *uhcon«^)6us of all ; the Cltnbriv' in' full despite of the argument, being held akid. 
held to have been the.nation beaten in the victory commemorated upon it. Contradictions 
80 striking as these, ar^ the deatb^wouods of a^n author, inflicted by his own hand; and 
garry him at once, ^itb self-rnujx)er on his head, to the bar of condemnation. 

* Mr. Brooke, Somerset HeraU, and a man of considerable abilities, in Arch, vi. 40, 41, 
and plate : ** The three crosses combined," as Mr. Pegge calls the four lines intersecting 
each other at the centre, ** in the area of the stone, may probably allude 10 the Trinity," 
(Arch. vii. 89.) ]But in ii. 1, before, we have a cross nearly similar, yet formed only of three, 
lines ; and a second, formed only of two. V{t see that therefore to be merely a single cross, 
a little more involved and complex cban t/iese, but still in the very form of them. 

K K 2 ' retained 


retaiinied by its descendants the dukes of Beaufort;, wily ^mfhoui tfie 
square piece of timber tliat now guards th€ aides of it, withmU the rings or 
the chains that now aie attached to the corners, and in its ancient^ priafH* 
tive fashion among us. The figure is apparently armorial^ as it was evi- 
dently intended to unite with the inscription, in 3hewing hj whom th^ 
cj^urch was built. The builder assuredly lived in a eastle at Aldbroi^fa^ 
which is found existing a few years afterward f ; and therefore took the 
port-cuUis for his badge, just as the founder of the house of Lancaster 
took it afterwards, from his castk of Beaufort in Anjou* Nor let it be 
pKsumed in the vanity of ignorance, whida is almost always attributifig^a 
sitaguJaDtnvention to modem times, that a port^tcullii^ is merely a^mod^n 
defence for an ancient gate. It is plaiiily an ancieiit one, derived to us. 
ffom those who' certainly had castles in the island, the Romans or Romaa 
Biiitons X ; and transmitted through the Saxtms to ourselves. The Rqt. 
mans had the port-cullis in use, so early as the days of Hannibal ; when 
he sent a party of Sx>man deserters to enter Salapia in Italy by night aa^ 
Romans, and when these, says Livy, fo«ind ^' the gate was closed as tie 
** cafardct'ivcts let down; this the garrison partly rmse hy levers'^ -ki a 
windlass, '* partly lift by r'c^es^^ fastened to the ends'and to the winifflassi 
" so high tha»t the deserters cotdd pass under it' 'erecf ;, the way: was 
\' scaiCi^eLyopeiied enough, vs^heq the deserters r^sh in eagerly through. 
M.the>gate; but when nearly six hundred had entered, therope by wJmh 
'^ the tataract was suspended, being suffered to rujiback, it fell down with' 
** a great noise ^'^ Here wef see Wie* modem port-cullis in fuil'fbrtii 
among the aiicients. We also see' the Roman nature of the name, Vqrka 
Ciausa ; in Frenjch, Porfe d\Efluse, now applied only tp a sluice or flood- ,. 
gate by the Frcnch> the very object- to: whieh; equally as to a port-cuIUs^ 

t Arch. VI. 45, 46, 47 : *' In early times," nays Mr.Brboke himsdf, p. 49, " before 
the use of autographs, and when seals were the only evidence, we find our ancestors were 
much more tenacious of such [armorial] ensigns, than of their nominal appellation.* 
X Nennius, c. ii. p. 98 ; '* Cum innumeris castellis ex lapidibus et lateribus fabrieatis/' 
$ Livy, xxvii. 28 : " [Porta] Cataract& deject4 ciausa erat ; earn partim vectibus levant, 
'' partim funibus subducunt, in tantum altitodinis, ut subire recti possent; vixdum satis 
" patebat iter, quum perfugse certatim riiunt per portam j et qutim sexceati ftrme intrasseaC, 
<' remisso fune quo suspensa erat, cataracta magno sonitu ee<5tdit«'^ 

^ 2 was 


was Cataracfia affplled b^ the Rdma»s ^ and in Welsh, What is obvioudy 
the very scMice of our Eoglisb appellation> Parth-cwHs, a gate being 
Portk in Welsh, and Cwlu literally a closer, but lai^gdy a wear, a cata- 
ract, and even by itself a part-«Gullis. Little reason therefore have we to 
fear 'finding a port-^mllis among the Saxons, though the Frendi have so 
&r lost the name and the origin, as to call it only Heroes a harrow, op 
Sqrradne, the harrow of the Saracens* Being the ancient closer of a 
castle^gate, it became the natural symbol of a castle, was therefore vsed 
as such by John of Gaunt from his castle in Anjoo, and had been pre- 
viously 'Used by Ulf from his castle of Aldbcough. This latter castle vras 
soon taken from the &mily of Ulf, in the violence of the Norman: con«> 
quest ; and the family theitefore, though restored in its dignity,, yet not 
reinstated in its castle, retained not the cognizance afterwaids ||v. Ba^ 
previously to this humiliation of the hoitse, the porfc-collis sencd ds an; 
useful indkatioa of the founder ; and he, who is simply denomihated Ul£ 
in the inscription, is by the cc^aizance marked out to be Ulf, the lord of 
thfe castle. We tluis £nd mi armorial ensign even in the times, of the 
Sasions^ used as famiHady andzeasily as in: our o!wn> to denote afarticular 

Yet let us mount still higher. In Neraiius, wha wrote about 630 ^ ; 
Of in his Eniarger, who interpolated under 898^; we find Arthur re^ 
ported 'Mn the battle of Castle 'Gunnioa, tO)have^r»e tlie ima^e of the 
** crwB cf. Christy and of the perpetual PCirgin St Mary, upon his 
^ shoulders:;'* or, as another historian writing about ) 120, and calling 
it merdy the image of the Vir^n Mary, more pointedly says, to have 
borne it ^^ fastened to bis armour/* or, as a third writer speaks ab6ut the 
aapie year, in a starain of expJicitness more consonant with historical pro- 
priety, '' to have had a shield on his shoulders, on which was painted the 

I Arch. ?i. 43, 45, 48/49. 

^ Tlie hbtory comes d6wn ia thehst ehaptet, the 6^th, to the baptism of Hdwin king of 
Northumbria ia627. (^^^'^ HisU ii. 4.) This marks the general aera of bis writing very 

^ Neaniu^^ 93^ 94: '^Octmgentesimo qinnqudgesimo octavo aimo Dominican Incar* 
" nationis." 

^ image 


♦* image of St Mary, the Mother of God;" " and the Fagans were 
'' turned to flight that day, and many fell, and a great destnrction came 
" upon them, by the virtue of the im^e of " our Ix)rd Jesus Christ, 
" and of his holy Motiierf /* This shews us veiy livclily the great rtea- 
son, why the cross was so much borne as we have seen it before by war- 
riors ; men very naturally deviatii:^ into a too confident but a still re- 
ligious fashion> of transferring an aid merely spiritual to a purpose tvhoUy 
teoipond, when the battle is between Christians and Christians, but /ra^* 
spiritual as well as temporal, when the battle is, as in Arthur's case it 
was, of Christians against Ps^ns. Arthur therefore took for his cogni- 
sance on his shield, our Saviour upon the cross, and the Yiigin Mary at 
the foot of it ; moved through the ranks as he gave his orders, bearing 
his shield upon his shoulders ; and modestly attributed his great victory 
at last, not to his own good mans^ment, but to the Providence of Gov 
in general, to the power of our Saviour and his Mother in particular, so 
pourtrayed upon his shield. Arthiur thus acted like a Crusader, though 
ages before Crusades b^un ; and felt, I doobt not, an energy from the 
act, that braoed his arm, that strung his heart, that gave him at once the 
calm dignity of intellect and the impelling fervour of passion, that thus 
made him more a hero than mere nature could ever have made him. 

The floor of duke William's palace then at Caen in Normandy, whal** 
ever Dr. Ducarrel, in a mere echo of the common babble of antiquaries, 
may repeat to the contrary, might be many ages older than tradition re- 
ports it to be^ notwithstanding the armorial distinctions delineated u^n 
it. This floor, let me repeat from the Doctor, " is paved with tiles — ; 

eight rows of these tiles are chaiged with diflerent coats of arms — ; 

the iatenrala between each of these rows are filled up with. a kind of 

t Nennius, Ixiii. : ^' Bdlum in Castello Gunnion, in quo Arthur portavit imaginem crucis 
^ Christi, ct Sanctn Marise semper Virginis, super humeros suos ; et Pagani versi sunt in 
^' fugam in illo die, et multi ceciderunt, plagaque magna super eos vcnit, per virtutem 
"Domini Jcsu Christi, sanctaeque suae Oenitricis;'' or, as M^ilmesbury adds, Arthur 
acted tliai day " fretus imagine Dominicae Matris, quam armis suis insuerat'* (f. 4) ; or, as 
ao author in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, ii. 658, writes, " humeros etiam suos clipeo profegit, 
<^ quo imago S. Mariae, Dei Genitricis, depicta constitit.*^ 

** tessdated 


8KCT. in*] 6UEVETfi0, 360 

^ tesselated pavement ; the middle whereof represents a itoaze or laby- 
'* rinth, about ten feet in dkmeter^ and so artftillj contrived, that were 
^* we to suppose a man following all the intricate meanders of its volutes, 
'^ he could not travel less than a mile before he got from the one end to 
*' the other." This maze was made, we may be sure, in representation 


of that usual appendage once to all our grander pleasure-grounds, the 
winding labyrinth. At Hampton Court, in a wilderness of ten acres, is 
'* a labyrinth possibly as old as the time of Henry VIIL As this is per- 
" haps the only such garden-device, now remaining after the devastations 
** of Messrs. E^ent and Brown,. I shall mention some particulars relative 
*' to it. The tvindtng walks amount to half a mile, though the whole ex^, 
^* tent is not perhaps more thaaa quarter of- an acre;. said there is a stand 
adjacent, in which the gardener places himself, in.order to extricate you 
by his direction, after the stranger acknowledges himself to. be com- 
pletely tired and puzzled.^ — Switzer,** in his Ichnographia Rustica^ 
3 volumes octavo>. " condemns this labyidnth. for having bufc/twr stops, 
'^ whereas he had given a plan for one v^ith kvent^ *.!' Such, tesselated 
pavements^ however, as this which had the maze in th^ middle of it, rcamci 
to us opiginally from. the Romans ; and the Rofnans had them from their, 
general masters in knowledge, the Greeks. " Pavements had their rise,*/ 
says Pliny, '* amon^ the Greeks, being. elaborated by art in the manner 
of a. picture,, till the lithostrota,*' or floors formed of inlaid stones, " ex- 
pelled them^ — ^Thepavements first formed, I believe, are what we are 
" nciw recalling into use, the barbaric and the tile-made, i)avcd with 
" beetles inltaly.. This vvc may conclude from the name itself," of Bar- 
baric. " 0«e so. wjQught at Rome was first made in the temple of 
" Jupiter Capitolinus, after the commencement of the third Punic war. 
"But that pavements were frequent before the war with the Cimbri 
" afterwards, to the high gratification of taste, is evident from that line 
*' in Lucilius, 

'' PavexnentB inlaid, and wormM all o*er witlrart f/' 


* Arcbtviu i^S> 1165 Mr. Barrington. 

f Pliny, xxxTi. 25:^* Pavimenia originem apud Grsecos babent^ elaborata arte picturse- 
<< rauone, daneo litbostrota cxpoUre earn. — Pavimenia crtdci primum facta,' ^uae- nunc revo* 
^' camua^ harbarica atque subtegulanea^ in Itaiii fistucis pavita : bo€ certe ex nomine ipso 
; *^ intelligi 

350 THB eATflCMtAL OF eORHWALL {tCRA.?; tll^ 

Tbe lines of Luciliud himself are rather more aj^KMite stiH : 

• ••••.. Small sqoanBs « • . « 

InUid by paving, tod wcnn'd o'er widi iMt, . 

Forixi'd ia ooe whole X* ' ' . « 

®ut '' tfie lithostrotd,"' or floors formed of inlaid 'stones, ddiJs PGnj, 
^* began now under S5 lla with crusts of stone very small indeed ; and 
*' that, which he laid-in the temple of Fortune at Prseneste, remains to this 
" day. Then pavements were raised from the ground, transferred to 
^ rooms with vaults under them, and made glassy. This is a very late 
^ invention ; as Agrippa, who painted the tile-floors in his baths at 
^ Rome wnth enamel, and decorated all the walls with whitewash, would 
^ certainly have foamed his chambers with glassy floors, if that invention 
*' had been th'eii known §/', These four sorts of flooring we surprisingly 
find afl together, in the great jguard-chamber and barons* Kail of Wil- 
Ham, which wen rooms upstairs, and had waiting-rooms (now granaries 
equally \i^hh diemselves) under diem. In the guard-chamber ^' tbe 
** floor is paved with tileSy baked almost to a, vitrification.^* A part also 
is; ^ <9[aborated hf art in the manner of a picture," as " eight rows of 
'* these titles — are charged With different coats of arms,** and as those in 
the barons^ hall " are stained with the figures of stags and dogs in full 
** chase/* Another part exhibits ^'the lithostrota," or floors formed of 
inlaid ^ones, as " the intervals between each of these rows are filled up, 
^ with a kind of tesselated pavement/* We have also here 


fMntelligi potest. Romas scatpturatum in tetnpio Jovts Capitolini sede, pritnum Return est 
" post tertium PunicuQ) bellum initum, Frequentata vero pavimeata ante Cimbricuin^ 
*^ inagn^ gratift aniraomm ; indicioeat Luctlianua iUe versus, 

^ Arte paFimeiita atque emblctnata vermiculata." 
{ Lucilius, 

Tesserulae • • • • . • . • • 

Arte, f)avimento, atque emblemate vermiculato, 


§ Pliny, xxxvi. 25: "Lithostrota coeptavere jam sub Sylld, parvulis certe crustis; extat 
^^ tiodieque, quod in Fortunae delubro Prasneste fegit. Pulaa delude es bumo pa[vimeat^ ; in 
«f cameras traasiere 6 vitro; novUmm est hoc invenlua^ Agr^ppa c^rt© in tbermis qiias 
<< Rom® fecit, figKnum opus encausto pinxit ; in reUquis, ^Ibwi deooravit ; nan dubie 

*« vitreas fac^urus cameras, si prius inventuni id foiiset.'' 





-• • 

• • • Small squares • • 

Inlaid by pavings and wormM o'er with art, 
Form'd in one whole ; 

as the middle of this tesselated pavement represents, what exactly meets 
the veiy terms of Lucilius, and what therefore I suppose Lucilius to have 
actually meant, a maze or labyrinth ; such as we know to have been 
framed in Lemnos, in Crete, and in Egypt, composed less artfully than 
ours of great buildings, yet wound so well in all the spires and folds of 
an artificial serpent, as not to be traced without a clue. We see also the 
lithostroton agaii>^ in that judicial chamber without the prcetonum at 
Jerusalem ; at which the president of the province sat in state upon his 
tribunal, and for which we are obliged in our English Bible to use only 
the simple appellation of pavement*. We see it once more it), those 
" inlaid square pieces of coloured marble in floors," says an author who 
Wrote, I believe, about the year 1716, '* such as were lately discovered at 
■" Blenheim-house,'' on pulling down (a few years before) that hunting- 
seat of our Norman and Saxon kings f . But we see it finally in the tiles, 
which bave been equally discovered in the Saxon chancel of St. German's, 
so very like in one grand point to the tiles of the great guard-chamber, 
which are "baked almost to a vitrification;'* so very like too, to the 
'* glassy floors" of Pliny; being covered over with a thin coat of vitrir 
fied or glassy matter on the surface, thin enough to be transparent in it- 
self,, and to shew the flowers or figures below. 

This sort- of ornamental pavement, in its introduction at Rome, was 
first employed in decorating a temple. Thus " the barbaric and the 
'' tile-made," which Pliny's cotemporaries, he tells us, ''are now recallihg 
*' into use," and which therefore prevailed, I suppose, so much as from 
their remains we find them prevailing, through three or four ages after- 
ward, was first laid '' in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, after the com- 
'* mencemcnt of the third Punic war/* Thus also " the lithostrota be- 
*' gan — under Sylla ; and. that, which was laid in the temple of Fot^tune 
'' at Praeneste, remains to this day." Such facts do honour to the head 

* John, xix. 13. A»0orf«1cN 

t Ainsworlh undw Crustd', the only preserver ofUhe fact^l believe. 

VOL. I. I.L 


558 THE jCA<ttES»tAf- -OP COBIW^Mfl- [cHAP. iH* 

and heart of the Romajojs ; a reyCTeiieefor the Great Lord of all, being 
one of the justest sentiments a»d finest feelings in the soul of man, one 
that most exalts even while it humbles the soul, one that raises the soul 
nearest to a level with the adoring, yet dignified, Intelleets of Heavien* 
So applied to the decoration of temples at first, the art x>f making what the 
Romans called mudve, and we with some deviation from diem denomi* 
nate mosaic^ was transferred afterwards to ornament the houses of pro^ 
vincial presidents, the very paidlions of generals, and the verijr parlours erf" 
private gentlemen. Julius Caesar, as Suetonius informs cis, always " car- 
-•* ried about with him in his expeditions, pavements tessdated and cut'* 
for the flooring of his tent*. We are finding such pavements conttnu- 
^ly, in all the Roman p^rts of our own island ; not confined to baths, as 
die popular opinion of our antiquaries too narrowly confines t)|em, biit 
the fixed carpetting of Roman or Roman'-British parlours, suspended 
upon low pillars of brick or stone, and so haVf ng a fire oocasionally 
Jighted wtder them from without for the sake of wwmtlsu The Roniailfis 
4:hus avoided all that inconvenience of smoke, to which our modem par- 
lours are exposed ; but lost all that a domei^tic man feels so grateful to his 
spirits, the cheerfulness of a fire burning brightly before him ; and did 
not ev«i:gain the warmth, which our boarded floors and our woollen or 
silken carpets now give us. These carpets betray themselves, by tieir 
tessertB or squares, to b6 a mere imitation of the tessdated fiacrings of 
antiquity ; as the pavements vitrified or glazed are still imitated, in our 
.floors so glossy as to be slippery, and even so slippery at times, as to re- 
quire the use of chalk, delineating a fantastical kind of scroll-work upon 


them. The same are equally found upon the continent, though not so 
often as in Britain, I believe, with these subterraneous stoves under 
them ; the difference in the climate causing this variation in the struc- 
ture. " We discover works of mosaic,*' says the French historian of 
Lyons, *^ in almost all the ancient towns ; but principally in those which 
^* were ** the principal towns of the country, *' Roman colonies, as 
^* Lyons, Aries, Narbonne, Nimes, Orange, Frejusf ," &c. But floors of 


* Suetoaiufi, c. 47 : ^< In expcditionibus tessellata et sectilias pavimenU circutntulisse/' 
t Histoire Literairc de ia Ville de Lyon, par fe P. de Colonia, in 2 vols, quarto, 1728, 
i. 240 : ^^ On trouve de ces ouvrages i la mosaique presque dans toutcs les viltes anciennes, 

** mats 



masdc stiil continued to be used' iA tempim} asr ifti 16IS6 « ftoor was 
found under s vnxywd at Ljons^ that hod a^ waU ooyeM»d witii inlaid 
wurk^ of umfwcU, mub exhifaited the SgUffg^ of a f€aa[iale Hannes, a Ctt]^id> 
a Satyif, with a Silvanui.^ •' This pavement/' says tie historian,- '^ which 
^ is about twentf fwC in length and ten in breads, is happily presei^ed 
^' entire : it is composed of small tilesf in squares of di^rent but nattir^ 
colours, curiously arranged, bat bound together by a cement, ot father 
gumt so ddicate, that unthdifficuUy cun ytm perdeite the Joints in if, 
yet so strong as to resist the infuries of either air of time. The middle 
^ of this parement is filled up with a square, three fttt loiig and fout 
^* broad;*' where those ridiculous deities of heathenidtn, those mockeries 
even of the moclD-cfivinities of the pagans, were all %cHred forth as olyects 
of w^ofship to the deranged mind of man i^. This shews the taste and 
ingenidudness with*whieh these mosaic flocM continued to be made for 
tempiesi But the ingeniousness and the taste were naturally tr^sferred 
to churches; when all the goblins and all the fiends, that had so long 
walked the earth tuider the daxicness of paganism, were chaSed away by 
the bursting sun oi Christianity. " The pa'tement of our church of 
Aisnayi" the historian of Lyons again tells us, " close to the high 
altar,'' just as the pavement in St. German's chutch was founds but 
hefate the high altar," a notice which fixes the precise position of the 
other at St. German's, ^' is wholly mosaic." So we find a mosaic to 
have been laid, before the high altar at Westminster abbey, before the 
altar at the priors chapel in Ely, and before the high altar at Worcester 
cathedral ;- bdng at Worcester composed, like: our own, of painted squares 
of brick, and shewing one of the squares still upon the ^^f step ; thus 

^^ mais 6iir tout dans celles qui ont ete des colonies Romaines, cotnme Lyon, Aries, Nar- 
'* bonne, Nimes, Orange, Frejus,*' &c, 

t Histoire, i. 237-239 : ^' Le pave, qui a environ vingtpiedsde longueur sur dix de lar* 
^' geur, est h^ureusement reste tout entier. Ce pave est compose de petits carreaux de diverses 
*^ couleurs naturelies, artistemeut arranges, et lies ensemble avec un cement ou plutot un 

mastic, si delicat, qu'a peine eh apper9oit-on Ics jointures, et neantmoins si fort, qu'il * 

resiste aux injures de Tair et du temps. Le milieu de ce pave est renipli, par un quarre de 

trois pieds haut [long] et de quatre^c large." 

L. L 2 forming; . 




forming, in all thote churches, the immediate approach to £he altar %. 
*' We see there/* adds the historian of Lyons, and means in the middle of 
It, " the figure of archbishop Amblard,'* who caused this church to here- 
built in- the terUh century, or rather (as the author corrects himself after^ 
wards) pof)e Pascal, Who , coriseci^ated it in the twelfth^ in lloO, and 
^'.who holds a representation of the church in his hands^*' formed of 
^mall, black stones ; *' a verse written equally in mosaic, but half fretted 
/' a^ay by time, informs us that it was pope' Pascal II. who consecrated 
It it*." This church of Aisnay, therefore, was rebuilt about the same 
time that our nave, our chancel, and our north aile at St. German's were 
cdnstructed ; and the mosaic was placed there, just after the consecra- 
tion. But we find even in a church at Lyons a mosaic, which is con- 
sid^red as still older. '* The. church of St Irenaeus," the hist^iiaQ as- 
sures us, ^* w^ also paved, anciently with, mosaic. A part of this 
*' pa^wment remains for our inspection at present, preserved: under the 
'' planks that cover it ; and we may read upon it eight leonine verses, 
\^ which are judged hy their style to be of the tenth or eleventh cen- 
'*' turyf:" So late did the use of those mosaic flows continue in our 


t Mr. Goughin Arch. X. 154: " The floor before the altar," says Thomas concerning 
the cathedral of Worcester, '• seems to have been paved with painted quarries of hricki and 
*' some of them -with coats of arms as in Malvern church: one still remains on the first step, 

bearing quarterly," &c. (P. 82.) 

* Histoire, i. ^40 : ** Le pave de notre eglise d'Aisnay, pres du grand autel, est tout a la 

mosaique. On y voit [au milieu dece pave, ii. 31] la figure de Parchevfeque d'Amblard, 
" qui fit rcbatir cettc eglise, donl il tient la representation entre les mains. Un vers ecrit 
•^ aussi en mosaique, niais a demi ronge par le temps, nous apprend que ce fut le pape 
'' Pascal II. qui la consacra. 

" * Hanc aedem sacram Paschalis papa dicavif." 

Histoire, li. 30 : ** II est vrai qu'Amblard fit rebatir dans le dlxleme Tcglise de Saint 
** Martinj" in Aisnay; which had been ruined by the Saracens "dans le huiticme siecle;" 
but was not consecrated till A. D. 1 106. fP. .31-33.) " L'inscription qui accompagne cette 
** efBgie mosaique, me faitxiroirc que c'est celle du pape Pascal, dont on lit le nom encore 
*' bien entier et bien marque dans ce vers,*' &c. (p. 32) ; " — on voit efKgie du pape 
" Pascal IL qui est placce devant le grand autcl '* (p. 31); ''Ma representation de d'eglise 
** faite avec ce meme pave de petites pierres noires'" (p. 34, from Spon). 

t Histoire, i. 240 : " L'eglise de Saint Irenee etoit aussi autre-fois pave a la mosaique. 
^ II nous Teste encore adjourdhui une partie de ce pave, qu'on conserve sousdes planches qui 





churches, which now constitute one of the grand decorations of them at 
Rome; being transmitted fitomthe.Romans and their temples, but generally 
transmitted, as we even ^ee in some mosaics still existing at St. Peter's 
in Rome, with the foul adherenq^s of that barbarism, through the hands 
of which it was conveyed} pajnjRg the area of some churches at Rome 
in part or in wholfe, but in French, in English churches paving only just 
before the high altar ; paVirig ' tfiat part in France with a mosaic, ii(Jt 
very fine, as I infer from all suppression of praise by the historian con- 
cerning it, and indeed rude in itself, as I equally infer from the rude 
manner in which the verses are written upon it J ; even paving, the im- 
mediate approach to the high altar at St, German's, with squares of mo- 
saic still more rude in all probability ; but paving thai certainly (ifier 
the consecration ii\ 1 1 oO, consequently in the tivelfth century, and thif 
assuredly at the very construction of the chancel, in the tenth §• 

^' le couvrent, et sur lequel ont lit huit vers Leonins, qu'on juge a leur stlle etre du dixieuie ou 
'' du onzieme siccle.'^ 
X Histoire, ii. 34, exhibits them, and they are, says the author from Spon, ^^ ecrits d'un 
caractere fort embrouille,'' the letters being '^ caracteres Gothiques qui la [inscription] 
composent, et gui en rendent la lecture assez difficile/' (P. 34 and 35.) 
§ In Arch. x. 152, Mr. Gough, in proof that Constantine the Great transferred mosaics 
from temples, very usefully for us appeals to '' the mosaics, with which the dome of the 
^' church of St. Constantia in the Via Nomentana at Rome was decorated by him (Ciampini 
^^ Vetera iEdificia, partii. p. 1-5, Rom. 1699); which were probably removed from some 
*' pagan temple/' 

At St. Peter's in Rome are some " subterraneous vaults, which are full of excellent mo- 
*' saic — ^ formerly the pavement of the old church of St. Peter. — ^l^his pavemei^ is sup- 
*' posed to have been made, in the time of Constantine the Great. — ^This curious art" of 
working in mosaic '^ has been greatly improved during these two last centuries, as may le 
'* seen by the coarse works of the old small cupolas in St. Peter's ; where the studs are made 
*^ of bwnt clay, and varnished with several colours on the surface only ; but they are gradu* 
'< ally taken away, to make room for the finer work of later times." In the Clementine 
>chapel at St. Peter*s, '^ a mosaic work, representing St. Peter and St. Paul, is said to be eight 
^* hundred years old." At the church of St. Paul without the walls of Rome, " the mosaic 
^' work on the arched roof is of so old a date as the time of Leo the Great ; and| according 
'^ to the following inscription near it, was probably done at the expense of Placidia, sister to 
^' the emperors Honorius and Arcadius \ 

^* Flacldiae pia roens opens decus hoc faciebat, 
'* Suadet pontificis studio splendtre Leonis." 

Keyslef* Travels, ii. 260, 2.74, 275, 262, 246. 


202 THE CMOSMikL 09 CQHSfWitttL {ORAF. HE 

^< Thech]ireli.of;9t. Urbano aUo C^Orclfai wm a fteinpit cyf' Batehiia^ an4:graeeful ndm^ 

>* are it& remains, 1 1 is built of bj\^ with strisogtb and 8oiidUy« The mosaic in the arched 
^^ ^0^ and bet?veen the. double row of pillars,. is finely done. Here^'' becausein a temple of 
Bacchvis^ because a temple dedicated to the.encouragement of drunl^enness as an indulgence^ 
to the exaltation of dfunkenness as a viftae, to the worsifip of dhmkenness as a very dtitj^, 
are representattons of the vtnt^e through all it» prqgitw } the whie^press is paittcntaflf 
worth (Aserving^ The different'%ureB of birds^ hagp as Jife^ . aiedeginlly exeoited $. and. 
<^ (he pheasants^ superior to the others.'' (Mra»IAUtf> Hi* 50«X 



ABCT. k] ' MfnOKieMAT 0VltVBTE^ S6S 

4 1 



X HE name of Saint German is associated with the history of our 
Cornish church; not merely by the casual connexion of his being the 
-denominating saint of it ; but as that traditional history sayTs, which 
often so usefully supplies the 4efects of written records, from his actual 
residence in the parish, irom tluer. personal view of hi$ holiness, and from 
the remembered utility of his vigit. He came into Britain at the solicita- 
tion of the British clqrgy^ to unite with them in repelling a heresy;, which 
iwas spreading over the island, and was denominated Pelagianism from %'^ct^<^^«'**^'^^>v. 
its founder. This was that proud heresy which has frequently appeared 
since in the Western church ; though it has never produqed again such ^ 
solicitation, and such a mi^ssion, as this. The children of the wt)rl(f, 
grown too wise, forsooth ! to perplex their understandings, generally, 
about errors in theology, and very ignorant concerning their quality, 
their importance, or their obliquity ; in the conceitedness of their igno- 
rance, stare at the mention of such bustle about such an object. Just so, 
a. peasant of the Hampshire coast is said to have stared with surprise, at 
the bonfires made by the Isle of Wight, on the restoration of monarchy 
in i66o; to have passed over to the isle with the amazement of curiosity, 
in order to inquire the cauAe-; and, on being told that the king was 
come Hack, to have asked, w4th equal astonishment of mind and fatuity 
*of face, where he had been then. But, what aggravates the ridiculousness 
of this rising spirit, these sons of earth instantly turn to objects infinitely 
trifling in themselves; agitate their minds, and harass their spirits, in 
chasing the straws,, the chaff, or the gossamere, that are perpetually 'float- 
ing in the world of politics ; just as if the peasant, who wondered at 
iKmfires made for a restoration of chureh and state, should instantly, om 

X his 


his coming back, have kindled those bonfires himself, which peasants do 
in many counties, for a blessing upon his apples, or for a return of sum- 
mer. Pelagianism was a heresy that did not presume to deny the fact 
of the fall of man,- but ;was unwilling to allow the legitimate conse- 
quences of it. Pelagianism asserted man, though fallen, still to retain in 
himself that independent power of becoming religious, which he cer- 
tainly possessed' before his fall ; not to need, therefore, that supernal aid 
which tt^e code of revelation denominates .the gracfe of God, and which 
our own feelings tell us is requisite to come in as auxiliary to a reason, 
once competent to the office of directing man, but now debilitated in all 
her commanding energies, by the predominance of passion*. This he- 
resy, which flattered man with a faculty that he .once had, arid so raised 
Jiim in fancy above the principal humiL^ation of his &11, was ad- 
dressed directly to his pride/ thus reared.itself (like the serpent before the 
i^l) haughtily upon its own spires, and (like that serpent again) suc- 
ceeded in seducing the understanding of man. In vain did Scripture, 
in vain did experience, oppose their united voice to the delusion. It 
spread wildly through the island ; the more wildly, perhaps, because 
Pelagius, who has lent his naihe to the heresy, was a Briton by birth ; so 
that the clergy of Britain, still faithful to their great trust, were com- 
pelled to call in foreign auxiliaries to their assistance f. 


,,• Usher, 170. V .. ' . ) • 

t That he was a Briton, is plain from St. Austin \ " Pelagium— credibaiis, ul ab illo dis- 
'* tingueretur qui Pelagius Tarenti dicitur, Britonein fuisse cognominatum ;" from Prosper, 
in hrs Chronicon, " Pelagius Srfta dogma nominisrsui — excrit;'* from Prosper again dfe 
Ingratr cap. i. and 34, 

" Pestifero vomuit coluber sermone Bntanmts^ 
And ^* I procul insana impifttas, artesque malignas 

" Aufer^ et authorem comitare exclusa Britannum, — Usher, iii, 1 12, • 

But that he was denominated Morgan in his native language of Brit^un, as he is seemingfy^ 
believed by Usher, 112, and boldly pronounced by every scribbler of history, is all a wild 
dream of sagacity on the scent for imaginary likenesses. Even if Morgan could ever be 
allowed to mean, what without great violence it cannot, the same as Marigena in Latin^; 
yet the natural import of it is very different, it being merely the inverse of Can-m&rf and there- 
fore, with Can-mor^ signifying great head. But every Briton had not a British name, after 
the Romans came 3 as we have seen Eugenius Caesarius with Ambrosius Aureliaaus before^ 



*' An embassy directed out of Britain," says an author so nearly co- - ., >-> 
temporary with the facts specified by him, that the memory of Ger- . ^^T^^^^^ 
manus was yet fresh in the mouths of all, and several still survived who ^^^ • -, ^oe> 
had seen him alive J, *^ announced to the bishops of France that the Pela- 
" gian pervcrseness had infected the flocks widely in their districts, and 
" that the Catholic faith ought to be very expeditiously supported. Upon 
'' this account a large synod was convened; and, by the judgment of all, 
" two glorious luminaries of religion, those apostolic priests Germanus 
" and Lupus, who inhabited the earth bodily, but dwelt in heaven spi- ^ 
" ritually, are universally solicited and besought to go into Britain : and 
" the more pressing the necessity appeared, the more promptly did these 
^* heroes in devoutness undertake the business ; the keenness of their faith 
*' outrunning the celerity required by this§.'* They accordingly landed 
'in Britain during the year 429*; Lupus, says his ancient and particular 
biographer, ** having then been two years" only " bishop of Troyes,*' 
in Champaigne, as being very young in comparison with his colleague, 
yet " powerful in understanding, celebrated for eloquence, eminent for 
*' holiness,'' and coming with " Saint German," who had then been 
long bishop of Auxerre, adjoining in Burgundy, and was *' a man 

and shall see Constantine with others hereafter. The British Pelagius was so called, assuredly, 
as the Pelagius of Tarentum was by the Greeks, with whom be lived as a native of the sea* 
coast; and so called at the very period in which he was admitted a monk at Jerusalem.. 
(Usher, 113, for his being a monk, and 135, for '^ Pelagius-— Hierosolymis constiti^tus/') 

X Usher, 175, 176 : ^* ^ Cum per ora cunctorum sancti recens adhuc spiraret memorial 
^^ pluresque qui eum d^entem in seculo viderant superessent'." 

$ Usher, 176: '^ '£x Britannia directa legatio Gallicanis episcopis nunciavit, Pelagianam 
^' perversitaiem in locis suis late populos accepisse, et quamprimum fidei Catholics debere 
*^ succurri. Ob quam causam synodus numerosa collecta est} omniumque judicio, duo 
<' preclara religtonis lumina universomm precibus ambiuntur, Germanus et Lupus apo^to- 
** lici sacerdotes, terram corporibus coelum mentis possidentes. Et qttanto laboriosior neces** 
*' sitas apparebat, tanto earn promptius heroes devotissimi susceperunt ; celeritatem negotii 
'^ fidei stimulis maturantes\'' In this passage Usher reads '' ^ mentis'," and notes on the 
maigin, '^ mentibus Baron, male ;" when the justness of Baroniua's reading is apparent of 
itself, and is confirmed by this passage in Huntingdon^ 1941 '' Beda semper menie inhabitata, 
^ coeli conscendit palatia/' 

 Usher, I75# 

TOL. I. jw M. ^'replete 





[chap. IV. 

*' replete tvitk all perfection and spiritual grace; while both were united 

-*' with one spirit, and co-operated with one zealf /' 


Then, as Constantius, the nearly cotfempora^^ historian of Germanus, 
goes on, ** these apostolic priests quickly filled the island with their con- 
versations, with their preachings, with their virtues : and when 
they were daily surrounded with flocking crowds, the word of God 
^' was disseminated, not only in the churches, but also through the 
" streets of the towns, through the lanes and villages of the country, 
*' through the wilds and mountains ; so that the faithful Christians were 
*' established every- where, and the perverted recognised the truth under 
" their correcting tongues .|. There was in them, as in the apostles, a 
*' glory and an authority derived from conscience, a power of teaching 
*' from their literature, a lustre of virtue from their merits, and an addi- 
" tional honour sat upon preachers so great, from their assertion of 
*' the truth §. The whole country, therefore, passed readily over to 
" their sentiments. The preachers of the sinister persuasion lay lurking 
^' in secret, and, like the malignant spirit, lamented the loss of the 
*' crowds escaping from them*. At last, after long meditation, they pre- 
" sume to engage in conflict. They come forward, ostentatiously shew- 
" ing their wealth by the splendour of their dress, surrounded by many 
'* flatterers; and* choose to run the risk of an encounter, rather than 
" incur from the people whom they had perverted, the reproach of not 
" replying, lest they should seem to stand self-condemned by their 

t Usher, 176 : << ^ Exacto biennii spatio, cum esset [Lupus] pollens ingeiuo, cl&ma elo^ 
^ quio, sanctiute precipuus, cum S. Germano tolius perfectionis et gratiis spiritalts plena, 
•* — -uno spiritu juiicti, el pari vokmtate Concordes'." 

X Usher, 176: *' ' Britauniarum insulam-^-raptim opinione, prtedicatione, virtutibus ioh* 
*' pleverunt. £t cum quotidie irruente frtquentii stiparentur, divintis sermo non toluxn in 
** ecclesiis, veri^m etiam per trivia, per rura, per devia diffundebatur ;. ut passim^ el fidele? 
*' CaihoUci firmarcntufy-et depravati viam correctionis agnoscerent'." 

^ Usher, 176 : ^< < Erat in illis> apostolorum in9tar, et gloria et authoritas per conscieotiaait 
'^ doctriAa per literas, virtutes ex mentis ; accedebat pnsterea a tantis auctoribus assertia 

•* ventatis . 

> » 

• Usher, 176: " * Itaque regionis universitas in eorum sententiam prompta trtitfierat* 
«< Latebant abditi sinistra^ persuasionis autbores, et, n^ore maligni spiritus> genMhant 
'^ perire aibi populos evadeBte6\'' 

** silence. 


*' silence*. A multitude of men, apparently immense, \VaS collected 
'^ at the place ; excited by the report, and bringing even their wives, 
*' their children, with them f . The people were present, in order to be 
** spectators and judges J, The parties stood forward^ discriminated by 
*' the difFerence of their condition ; here was divine authoritv, there hu- 
" man presumption ; here belief, there unbelief; here Christ, there 
** Pelagius, for the preacher §. Those most blessed priests gave their ad- 
<^ versaries the first liberty of speaking; which they took, in engaging 
*' the time and the ears of the audience, long but emptily, with mere 
** naked words II . Then the venerable prelates poured forth the tor- 
*' rents of their own eloquence, w ith the thunders of the apostles and 
" the evangelists %. ITieir own words were mixed with the word of 
*^ God, and their strongest assertions were followed by the testimonies of 
*^ Scripture**. Vanity is confuted, unbelief is convicted; so that,bytheirin- 
" ability to reply, they pleaded guilty to every objection. The arbiti^ting 
*' crowds can scarce withhold their hands, but testify their opinions by 
** their acclamations-f^.^' This conference appears very clearly from tradi- 
tion, to have been held in the most celebrated of all our ancient towns ; that 

* Usher, 176 : ^' ' Ad extremum, ctiuturn^ tneditatione concept^ praesumunt inire con* 
^' flictum. Procedunt conspicui divitiis, veste fulgentes^ circumdati assentatione multorum ; 
^' contetitionisque subire aleam maluerunt^ quam in populo quern gubverterant pudoreoi 
^' taciturnitatis incurrere; ne viderentur se ipsi silentio damnavisse'/' 

t Usher, 176 ; '^ ' Illic plane immensa mullitudinis numerositasj etiam cum conjugibus 
*' ac liberis, excita convenerat'." 

X Usher, 176: " ^ Aderat populus, spectator futurus et judex'/* 

§ Usher, 176: '^ ^ Adstabant partes^ dispari conditione dissimiles: hinc divina auctori* 
^' tas, inde humana prsesumptio ; hinc fides^ inde perfidia ; hinc Christusj inde Pelagius, 
^' auctor'." 

II Usher, 176: '^ ^ Primo in loco, beatissimi sacerdotes pjrasbucrunt adversariis copiam 
'^ disputandi ; quae, sol^ nuditate verborum, diu inaniteret aures occupavit et tempora\'' 

^ Usher, 176 : ^' ' Deinde antistites veneraudi torrentes eloquii sui^ cum apostolicis et 
" evangelicis tonttribus profuderunt'/* 

•• Usher, 176 : '* * Miscebatur sermo proprius cum divino, et assertiones violentissimas 
** lectionum testimonia sequebantur*." " x 

tt Usher, 176: ^' * Convincitur vanitas, perfidia confutatur; ita ut ad singulas verboruni 
'^ objectiones reos se, dum respondere nequeunt, faterentur. Populus arbiter vix manus con- 
'^ tinet; judicium cum clamore testatur'/' 

M M 2 Verulam, 



[chap. IV, 

Verulam, which now exhibits only some shadowy appearances of its 
former existence; but amidst them presents the ruins of a chapel, con- 
structed on the very ground upon which Germanus stood when he spoke 
ai the conference, and still retaining his name ♦. So much did Ger- 
manus eclipse his associate, by the splendour of his reputation, and so 
thoroughly was the whole success attributed to Germanus ! 

The work which had carried him and his associate into Britain being 
thus executed, they returned to the continent. Yet Germanus was 

,^^^ soon called upon a second time. " News is brought out of Britain,'* adds 
^^^^..^ .^c^v.^^ , Constantius, '' that the Pelagian perverseness is again difiused by a few 
4-47, " preachers. The supplications of all are once more conveyed to this 

*' most blessed man, that he would come to secure the cause of God, 
'' which he had formerly won. With this petition he hastily complies, 
'*' being delighted with the labour, and willingly spending himself for 
'* Christ-f-.*' Lupus did not accompany him, though he was still alive, 
and even survived Germanus thirty years J. But Germanus was ac- 
companied by one who was Lupus's scholar, Severus, ** a man of all 
" sanctity," as Constantius describes him ; " who, being then conse- 
" crated bishop of Treves, was preaching the word of life to the inha- 
*' bitants of Germania Prima§." This second expedition was per- 
formed in 447 II . " In the mean time," as Constantius proceeds, " the 
** wicked spirits, flying through the whole island, with unwilling pro- 
** phecies, announced the coming of Germanus; so much that Elaphius, 
" a certain chief of the region, hastened to meet the saints without any 
•^ information from a visible messenger^. The whole province follows 

'' him ; 

* Usher, 1 76. 

t Usher, 205 : " ' Interea ex Britanniis nuncifltur, Pelagianam perversitatem iterato, 
<* paucis auctoribus, dilatari. Rursusq^ue ad beatissimum virum preces omnium deferuntur, 
*^ ut causam Dei, quaro prius obtinuerat tutaretur. Quorum petitioni festinus occurrit^ 
<' dum et laboribus delectatur et Christo se gratanter impendit'.*' 

X Usher, 205. 

§ Usher, 205 : " ' Totius sanctilatis vir, qui tunc Treveris ordinatps episcopus, gentibus 
c» Pmnse Germaniae verbum vitas prxdicabai'." 

II Usher, 204. 

f Usber^ 205 : ** ' Interea sinistri spiritus^ pervolantes per totam insulam^ Germanum 

" venire 

I I 




*^ him; the priests come; the multitude meets them^ without any pre- 
vious intelligence; immediately those pour out a benediction upon 
these, and preach the word of God to them*. Germanus finds the people 

*' continuing in that beUef, in which lie had left them. He, and his asso- 

** ciate understood the fault to be that of a few ; seek out the preachers^ 

" find, and condemn themf . — ^They then turn to the people, preaching 
to them the necessity of correcting prevarication. The preachers of 
the depraved doctrine, therefore, being banished from the island by the 
sentence of all, are brought to these priests to be transported by them 

** into the regions in the Mediterranean ; that the country may be ab- 
solved, and the offenders be reformed J. This was done so very use-^ 
fully, that even now,'* about forty years afterward §, " the faith re- 
mains unpolluted in those parts ||.'' But this second conference, like 

the first, was held at Verulam, assuredly ; as there, and there only, is any 

tradition or any monument of Germanus's. preaching. 







In these two expeditions into Britain, which were better than the 
military which so loudly fill the trump of history, as directed to higher 
objects, and as terminating in grander circumstances ; how much farther 
than Verulam, that farthest readi of Caesar's iexpeditions> did Ger- 
manus penetrate into the island ? Constantius carries him expressly to 
Verulam^, and, in Usher's opinion, into North-Wales**. Nennius, or x/^ -n^r-^^^^^^^ • 

<< venire invitis vaticinationibus nunciabant; in tantum, ut Elaphius, quidam regionis illius 
'^ primus, in occursum sanctorum sine v\\k manifest! nuncii relatione properaverit'.'^ 

• Usher, 205 : " * Hunc Elaphium provbcia tota subsequitur, veniunt sacerdotes, occur- 
«* rit inscia multitudo ; confestim benedictio, et sermonis divini doctrina, profundilur'/* 
^ t Usher, 205 : " ' Recognosclt populum in e& quam reliqiierat crechilitate duranteny 
*« Intelligtmt culpam esse paucoruni, inquirunt auctores, invcntosque condemnant'." x 

% Usher, 205 : " • Pr«dicatio deinde ad plebem, de praevaricationis emendatione, converti- 
'< tur; omniumque sententii pravitatis auctores expulsi ab insuli, sacerdotibus adducunlur^ 
" ad Medilerranea deferendi \ ut et regio absolutione, et illi emendatione, fruerentur'," 

J Usher, 2o5, 

II Usher, 205 : *' * Quod in tantuiti salubriter factum est, ut in illis locis etiam nunc fides 
•* intemerata perduret*/' 

^ Usher, 176, 177. 

*• See a dissertation in Appendix to the present work, Nq. III. upon a piece of history, id 
which folly and falsehood have united to dress up this apostolic bishop as a warrior.. 



his enlarger, states him positively to have gone into '' the region of the 

*^ Povisi/* or Powis-land, at one time; to have been in *^ the region 

v4v JVx^t^/^wft/. " which is called Guenedh," or North-Wales, at another; and to have 

gone at a third '' to the region of the Dimeta?:," or South- Wales, 
*' upon the river Teibi*." The tradition at St. German's, too, con- 
curs with all, to bring him irito Cornwall, and to fix him as a 
visitor in our parish. ^* During his stay here [in Britain] this [second] 
^^ time," says Mr. Willis, concerning the parish, " he is likewise re- 

J^^^^uyUAJtxZd^/^ PORTED TO HAVE VISITED THESE PARTs" of Comwall, *' and TAKE* UP 


*^ jSEVERAL STORIES J." All, indeed, is corroborated by another tradition m 
the adjoining parish of Rame, which forms the western point of Ply- 
mouth sound, in its denominating promontory the Ram-head, and of 
which the very church is dedicated to his memory still ; that at Rame 
he departed out of Comwall, thence (as the gigantic language of romance 
speakB) striding across,' the channel, and (as the historj^ veiled in this 
mist of romance intimates) taking his departure for the continent, at 
the mouth of Plymouth sound §. 

* Nennius^ c. xxxv. p. 107 ; Gale, L : ^* Omnis regio Povisorutn" fsee Pennant's Tour in 
North-Wales, ii. 112, for the extent of Powis*laod), and Usher, 206, on c. xlv.; c. xltv. 
p« lie: *< Usque ad regionem guae vocatur GuennesV* (or Otksnedi, as we have in p. 116, 
*^ regione Guenedotae,'* and *' Guondotias regionis," in jc. xl. '* illam regionem qu© vocatur 
'* Guoienit," marked by the *' montibus Heriri,*' or Snowdon, and denominated expressly 
'* Wynez,*' by an ancient bard in Owen's Dictionary, 1793, under Brodawr; " Guenez," 
too, by Lhuyd, in bis Archoeologia, 223), and '* Cair-Guorthigim," with Camden, 478, 
479; Gibson, 700, 701; Pennant, ii. 213; Gough, ii. 465, 466; c. xlix. ** in regione. 
<* Dimetorum juxta flumeh Teibi," and Usher, 206, 207. 

J Willis, 141. 

§ Usher, in 184, cites an old Life of St. Brioc, that saint who has given name to a pa- 
rish in Cornwall first noticed in the last Valor, St. Brooke, near Wadebridge ; for this saint 
being '* e provincia Corticiana, nobili editus stirpe, a sancto Germano Autissiodorensi, fidem 
** Hi dissenjinante orthodoxam, in Galliam abductus," where he has given name to St. 
Brieu, on the northern coast of Bretagnc. This province Usher thinks, with Camden, to be 
^he county of Cork in Ireland (p. 165). But Carte, i. 185, very judiciously objects, that 
jSt. German never disseminated orthbdoxy in Ireland^ and so could not carry St. Brioc from 
Cork. He therefore interprets the region to be Cardiganshire ; a county which unites ,with all 
the notices here, and was actually called Ceretica at this period. Paternus, says Camden him- 

S self, 




. ^p . ^' ^ SECTION II. 

For what purpose he penetrated thus into the island, the whole tenour ^ 
of the history evinces decisively : yet, to the astonishment of all who can l^^^^^^^^^^^irju^^ktr 

think as well as read, the very writer of the history has at one time re- ^^^eoufd 
presented the object to be very different from what it appears to be at all 
other times, upon the face of his own narrative. Two expeditions, 
calculated solely and exclusively for recalling the established Christianity 
of Roman Britain from an error in opinion, against which the established 
clergy of the country were struggling ineffectually with their own 
powers, are made in one of them, and at one part of Roman Britain, to 
terminate in a conversion of the inhabitants from Heathenism to Christi- 
anity, and a general initiation of Pagans by baptism into the church of 
Christ *. This is so apparently false in itself, so directly opposite to the 
course and current of his own facts, yea so violently l)ome down by the 
whole weight of general history, that it is amazing to think how any man 
with half a dozen ideas could be capable of such a gross contradiction ; 
and that it is astonishing to find, how many have been induced to adY)pt 


self, p« 518, '' Cereiicwrum (ut habet ejus vita) ecclesiam et paseendo rexit et regendo 
'^ pavit ;'' the see being fixed at Llan Badem Vawr ia Cardigaoshire. S^e also Usher, 253, 
275, 439 ; and Leland's Itin. viii. 54, for Ceretia. 

Id Nennius, c* xlv* : <' Guorthemir, — in synodo babitft apud Ouarlhemiaun, — ad pedes 
^ ejus sancti [German!] cecidit veniam postulans ; atque pro illati a patre suo — Sancto 
<* Germano calumnift^ terram ipsam, in qui prsedictos episcopus obprobrujin tale sustinuit^ 
<* in seternum suam fieri saoxivit. Unde et in memoriam Sancti Geraiani GiUtrermiaun ^'^ 
or, as the name is written before, and as it therefore should be written here, Guarthemioiin, 
** nomen accepit, quod Latine sonat Calumnia pste retorta ;'^ Gwarih (Welsh) signifying 
reproach, scandal, and the other word being, not (asLhnyd in Gibson, c. 701, interprets it) 
jEn/aum just, because! know of no such word, and^ if I did, it would not an8>A'er the idea^ 
a just reproach being indeed the very opposite of a reproach justhf reidfrted; but ErniWf 
Ernywiantj meaning the same then as Dieniwo now does, to save harmless, to indeAinify. 
\Vc find accordingly *• in hac e&dem provinci& de tVarthrenion** near Radnor, " ecclesia— « 
*' Sancti Germani." (Giraldus's Itin. Cambriae, 821.) "Necdum nomen intercidit — , sunt 
*' cnim qui existimant Guthrenion castrum ex ejus ruderibusextitisse," rather to have been 
the very same, " quod anno MCCI Walli — solo complan&ruDt/' (Camden^ 479.)' 

* See No* lU. in my Appendix* 

. . his 


his contradiction in repugnance to his history, to take the Roman Britons 
for Pagans while they actually professed Christianity, actually had a 
clergy, actually had this clergy, using every endeavour to preserve them 
from Pelagianism, But the world of letters is composed principally of 
men, that read, that write, yet never think. Amongst these I am obliged 
to particularize Dr. Borlase, not indeed as seduced directly by Constan- 
tius, for he seems to know nothing about him ; but as acting under the 
influence of the general seduction, as strengthening tliat influence by 
some secret propensities within, and as from both representing the 
Cornish at this period, in a state of absolute heathenism. " In the re- 
*^ mote comers of the island," he cries, " druidism had taken deep root,'* 
as it had equally taken in the interiors of the island, as indeed all religions 
estabUshed for such a number of ages must necessarily take in both, " aiid 
•' it would not gwe way to weak efforts : hence it is, that after the Roman 
*' empire, and much the greatest part of [Roman] Britain^ had been 
" Christian, we find many martyrs suffering death in Cornwall, for the 
Christian faith; and hence it is*' also, *' that in the latter end of the 
fourth, during all the ^fifih, and most part of the sixth centuries, we 
find so many holy men employed to convert the Cornish to the Christian 
religion f .** This is all as much a mistake in reasoning and in facts, as 
Constantius's is an error in consistency and common sense. Nor let us 
disdain to prove it is. 





Only I would first observe, that Dr. Borlase, who finds druidism 

taking such a deep root, and laying such a vigorous hold, in and upon 

the soil of Cornwall, finds the same druidism very feeble in its hold, and 

Very shallow in its root, upon the ground of Paris in France. Within the 

/ii^ay^ i^eoiy cathedral of Notre Dame there, as the earth was broken up in the month 

ajt?lo^2>cuy^^^f March 1711, to form a sepulchral vault for the archbishops of Paris ; a 

I(xrv4^ , heathen altar was discovered at some depth, consisting of four stones, of 

which each had four faces. The first stone had this inscription upon one 
face, Tib Caesari Aug Jovi Optum Maxsumo WP Nautae Parisiac 
UBLicE" posiERUNT ; but also had grouped figures of men armed with 
helmets, spears, and shields, on the other three faces ; with these words 

t Borlase^ 368. 


SBCT. II.] ' Hr8T01IICAX.Lt StrBVBTto* 2^3 

dverhead* on the third and fourth, Eutise Senarii Felo. The second and 
third stones had simple figures with inscriptions over them, as Fofcanus, 
Jwis^ Bima, Castor y Cimunnos, See. And the fourth, upon eadi face, had 
grouped '%ures prettj similar to those on the first All this therefore, as 
good sehse, unvftiated by erudition, tvould instantly pronounce, indicates 
the altar to hare been erected by the boatmen of Paris, and the grouped 
figures to be the very boatmen themselves, marching in solemn procession 
vrith military array to that Pantheon kind of temple which they had con* 
tributed to btiild en the present site of the cathedral, and to that Pan- 
theon kind of altar which they had united to erect within it. But Dn 
Borlase's Celtic genius spurns at such low ideas, and his druidical fancy 
mounts up to the clouds at . once. He considers the g^oupefi figures to be 
all Druids, departing under the pf osoriptioi^ of the emperor Tiberius, and 
in fuUiMateh for some happier clime with all the symbols of druidism in 
their hands. He thus contradicts the very inscription referring all to tht 
boatmen, and proves the departure of druidism from Gaule by a monu- 
m^t actually charged with druidical deities. This is the very frenzy of 
antiquarianism. But> what aggra:rate» this moodiness of mind in the 
Doctor, he shews the draidieal heathemsm of the Gauls, yielding verily 
to the equally irrational heathenisrti of the Romatis, flying at once befofre 
the frown of the profligate Tiberius, and tremulously retiring to th6 
mountains of Cornwall^ of Mona^ or of tjbe moon ; wliile he describes, the 
druidism of CornvMall, asanothet religibnl in itself, or actuated by another 
soul, as stfugglitig even against Christianity, victorifously resisting the 
preachings of its clti*gy with the lives 6f its professors, even resisting- all 
the thunder of its ^ miracles, ^nd jail t|je lightning of its doctrines; for 
many ages. The opposition i be tyvr^e^^ these: two accounts is glaringly 
gjjeat, and of itself proves one Af tbenik to be:abaokitdy:faJbso& . They are 
T>oth false,' indeed. * The* Gallle drUidnm did not so tremble or 90<fly, as 
the Doctor surnAses from his wild miste^-esentatibri of the altar, the very 
altar itself shewing the direct contrary;* nor was the Cprhish so still enhr 
ohstinat;e^aS{the Doctor, ayers, as I deny, and^ J jQft^v" PrP^^^d to deny i|j 
full form ♦;. • i : :....:») , For 

• _ .... g , • 

* MoDtfaucon, it. pt. 2. v» 4. He thinks the \\P to be the last leUer of mam : but I think it 

' to be mp in a complication, and to mean temp, for tempktm. Borlase, 1 53, sees ^< plain signs 

VOL. I. N N ** of 


Gfin^^ti::K^cjeif ^^^ *hi^s purpose I shall not recite such authorities, as shew ixidividiial 

c^ ;^-»x.^?«^v" Britons to have been converted to the Gospel, but such as prove the 

/i>UtcUy^^ <3rospel to have been received id those Roman provinces of Britain, oC 

which Cornwall was an integral part; Grigen, who wrote befove the 
middle of the third century, intimates *' very many ' of the Britons, 
Germans, Daci, Sarmatae, or Scythae, to have w>t heard then the word of 

« of the Druids giving way t9 the imperial edict,*' turns the spear of one into a ^' firga Su 
<« vinatoria perhaps," of a second into a ** torch'—, a aymbol of their holy fires," and th# 
shield of each into << an octangular kind of plate," << rather som^ musical instrument of the 
'^ barda, or, perhaps, some tablet on which they were used to cast their— lots in divination;" 
making a young man " perhaps— a Druidess ;" giving to an old man '* the magic circle, of 
*^ which — ^the Druids were extremely fond," when it is only the hoop of such a round coracle 
probably, as is still used upon the Severn ; and placing upon the head of another << the ap* 
^^ pearance of a diadem," instead of a beli^et. Never did systematic prejudice luxutiate in 
richer folly, than it here does. — But let me in addition explain, whs^t neither Borl^se^ nor 
Montfaucon have pretended to understand; the words over the third and fonrtii faces of the 
first stone. £VRIS£, as the word is exhibited by Montfaucon, who professes to have taken 
all necessary* care for having the drawings made as accurate as possible, and not TVRTS£, as . 
Borlase exhibits it, is merely the same word in Gaulish as Eburovice, now Eureux; and sig- 
nifies WATBRMBN* Then SENANI, as In Mont&ucon ag^n, not ENANI, a» in Borlase^ 
the same word with Seims or Shannon^ the name of a river in Ireland, imports the Sequana 
or Seine, the river of Paris. And V£LO, as Montfaucon's plate represents the word, not 
VEILO, as Borlase's does, is the god Belus of the Gauls, answering here to the Jupiter of 
the Latin inscription, and the same with that Beal or Betl, whose feast is kept, and whose 
fires are lighted, on the first of May in Ireland to the present period. The words, therefore^ 
present a very fair meanmg. This is the first point to be secured, in interpreting, aa inscr^i*. 
tion. They also say in Gaulish, exactly what the others say in Latin ; that *^ the watermen, 
"^f the Seine," the very " nautse Parisiaci" before, then called at Paris as we now call our 
boatmen at London watermefif ^^ built this temple to Belus," a name, says Montfaucon^ 
himself, used for Jupiter, for SatUm, for the Suii, and for almost ail the deities (i, pt. 2d, 4; 
2), but here used in the truest propriety for Jupiter alone* This coincidence of the GauUsb 
inscription with the Roman, decisively prov^f the justness of my inte.i)>i«taMpn. A^d the JT 
b so fm^uently substituted for the J3, even iq,the Latin language, that we can be no more 
f^urprised at Felo for JBelo, than at Vene for £ene, Lioertus for Lifortus, and Incomparat;ilis 
for Incomparaiilis, ** The Greeks and Spaniards often pronounce the J3, we find, as a F 
' «« consonant, and the Britons — used formerly no other than B of'JKr,'aa neither doe the trish 

<< at this day : the F of the modem Welsh was anciently expressed by B or M, anii is still 
« so by the Irish, as W, j^al, lu Vbhal, aa apple." (Lhuyd, ai, Comparative Ety- 
uioiogy.) ' ' 



the Gospel, as '* very many;** of the Britons were PIcts ; but jfiost to have 
heard, as all the provincials, and among them therefore the Cornish of 
course, actually had. '^ When did the land of Britain/' he then asks 
triamphUDt^j " ever agree in the religion of one God before the com- 
*' vug of Christ f ? " All this 19 as clear as it ip important. Yet Tertul- 
lian, who wrote near half a century previous to Origen, corroborates hm 
meaning very strongly, fixes it very pointedly just, as I have fixed it, .and 
even adds very greatly to the import of it ; telling us, that " the parts of 
" Bri^in, which were inaccessible to the Romans/* the regions of the 
Picts, " were subdued to Christ J/* This passage, with every deduc- 
tion that may be made for the natural exaggerations of oratory like Ter- 
tuUian's, brief, brisk, and brilliant, shews the south of Britain to have had 
multitudes ^f Chnstlans within it, as even the north had numbers; and 
ComtaaJl to have certainly received *' the golden day** of the Gospel deep 
into its bosom, w:hen even Caledonia itself had. Accordingly, on the 
elevation of Christianity with CoQstantine to the imperial throne, as our 
own countryman Gildas informs us, '^ all the pupils of Christ in Britain, 
after a long but wintery night, with joyful eyes receive the temperate 
serene light of the air of heaven ; rebuild the churches that were torn 
*' down to the very ground ; lay the foundations of large churches, in 
" honour of the holy martyrs ; rear them, finish them, and every where 
*^ display (as it were) their victorious standards ; celebrating the feasts'* 
of the church, " performing the sacred rites" of it, '* yea all rejoicing 
'* as sons fostered in the bosom of their mother the church §." What 


t Usher, 74, from Tractatus 28 in Mattbasum : ** ^ Quid dicanius de Britannis aut Ger- 
'< manis, qui sunt circa oceanum, vel apud barbaros Dacos, et Sarmatas, et Scythas ? quo- 
<<rum plurimi nondum audierunt Evangelii verbum? — Quando — terra^Britanntse, ante ad- 
•^ ventum Christi, in unius Dei consensit religionem' ? ** I cite Usher for these and other 
passages, because he has judiciously brought them forward, and because Dr. Borlase, in 
his coming references to Usher, ought to have considered these extracts in him. Decisive in 
ihemselves, they are doubly decisive against Dr. Borlase. 

' J * Usher, 75, from Tcrtull. lib. advers. Judaeos, cap. 7 : '* ' Britannorum inaccessa Romania 
*• loca, Christo ver6 silbdita*;** 

§ Usher, 103, from Gildas, c. viii. : *^ * Laetis luminibus omnes Christi tyroncs, quasi post 
^^Kyemalemac prolixam noctem,- tempcricm hicemque serenam aur» coelcstis excipiunt; 

N N 2 ** rcnovant 


• ' « 


these churches were we know, because we know who ^ere the mwiftyn, 
even Albanus of Verulam, Aaron and Julius of Caerleon || ; two of them 
apparently Romans in their names, one of them apparently named When 
he was baptized, and all three assuredly Romans from their residence at 
Caerleon or Verulam. We actually know, three churches to hare been 
Tory early erected, in honour of these three martyrs %. Bede attests one 
of them to have been really erected at this period * ; and Gildas equally 
attests all to have been so f . Thus widely had our religion spread itself 
over the provinces of Britain, not confining its operations to the south- 
eastern parts of the island^ but difiusing its strength, propagating its in- 
fluence, and generating martyrs, in Wales as well as Hertfordshire w 
ISIiddlesex, in that Britannia Prima which included Cornwall within it, 
even in that Britannia Secunda which comprehended all Wales. ; before it 
tired out the Herculean arm that was grappling with it, and rose with 
renewed vigour from every throw to the ground ! Thus generally was it 
then professed, were its churches erected, its martyrs honoured, its festi- 
vals observed, and its rites admmistered ; all over the country, from the 
Clyde into Kent, from the Forth into Cornwall I But we particularly find 
its usual polity established, in its primitive institution of bishops. This 
"we have seen in part already. But at the council of Aries in 3 1 4, we see 

'< renovant ecclesiaa, ad solum usque destnictas ; basilicas sanctoniin martynim fundant, 
^ construunt, perficiimt, ac velut victricia aigna passim propalant; diea fesios oefebraht; 
'' sacra muudo corde oreque ooafieiuat; omnea exultant filfci^ gremiaac si matrix occleske 
^ confoti\" 

I Usher, 89. 

f Usher,. 90, ftom Giraklus CamBrensis Itin. Cambrias^i. 5 : ^* *Egr^p» in h&c urbe,^ 
Carleon, ** aiUiquis temporibus fuerunit ecclesiae } una Julii martyris— , altera veisQ Besui 
•* Aaron socii ejusdem nomine fundata'/' 

• Usher, io4> from Bede, i. 7 : ** *Redeuntc temporum Cbristianorum screnkate, cijclesii^ 
^ mirandi operis, atque ejus martyrio condigna^ ezstructa'," at St. Alban's near Verulam. 

t Gildas, c« viii. r '* Clarissimas lampades sanctorum martyrum nobis accendit^ quontnL 
^' nunc corporum sepnliuTtB et passioTium loca^si non lugubri divortione barbarorum— civi- 
'< bus adimerentur, non minimum intuentium mentibus ardorem divinae charitatia i»cute» 
** rent ; Sanctum Albanum Verolamensem, Aartn ct Julium Lagionum.urbis civca>*-7dicO«? 
Gildas uses tbe plural uumber, for the churches of the mariyrs taloen from the Britonai$ but 
appears from the very course of the history^ to i)»eaa only one^ Su Albania. CaeHeon wa$ 
not taken, till many ages afterward. 

5 assembled 


assembled with the other bishops, no less than three from Britain; and 
we know the very cities, which were the capitals of their sees. One of 
these prelates was, ** Eborius the bishop of the city of York, in the pro- 
'* vince of Britain ;** another, *' Restitutus the bishop of the city of Lon- 
" don, in the province above-mentioned ;.*' and the third, " Adelfius the 
^* bishop of the colony of Londoners y^ that is, of Richborough in Rent^ 
then the colony of those soldiers of the second Augustan legion, who 
had beeti transplanted from London J. We here find the church of 
Britain settled in all that plenitude of polity, in which the church of Eng- 
land appears at present ; every province of Britain having its prelate, eveiy 
civil metropolis being formed equally into a spiritual one, York standing 
as the see of Maxima, London presiding over Ravia, but Richborough 
reaching out her episcopal sceptrey from the South-Foreland and the 
Thames-mouth to Cornwall and her western isles. At the peculiarly 
necessary council of Nice in 325, at the council of Sar£ca in 347, at the 
council of Ariminum in 359 ; the bishops of Britain we know in general 
to have been equally present §. But let us particularly remember that 
very curious article of intelligence, which Gildas has^ given us of the first 
introdtiction of Arianism into this island ; intelligence which (Hke 
the account of Pelagianism before) proves Christianity to have previously 
flourished much within it. " This pleasiiig union of Christ the head 
•' and of the members,** says the historian,. " continued'* in Britaiiv 
** till THE Arian unbeliep, like a fierce serpent, vomiting its transmarine 
** poisons upon us, destructively separated brethren who were in unity 
** before H ;** or, as Bede repeats from him in a somewhat difierent tone 

X Usher, 104, from torn. i. Concilior. Gallisp, edit. Paris, an. 1629, pag. 9 :. ** f Ebo- 
^< rius, episcopus de civitater Eboracensi, in provinciaBrilannii; Restitutus, episcopus de 
'^ civitaU Londonensit pravinciA supra scriptA ; Adelfiu0> episcopus de colonic Londinen*^ 
<' stum ' ;" and Hist, of Manchester, ii. 19a- 1959. octavo^ 

$ Usher, 105, io6. 

I Ufiher^ 106, from Gildas, c. xix. : ^ * Mansit haec Cbristi capitis nieinbrofunique con<^ 
<< soaaotia suavis, donee Ariiana perfidla, atcox ceti anguis, transmarina nobis evomcns 
^' vencna, fratfes in nruim babitantea exitiabile faceret sejungi'/' In my Origin of Arianism^. 
451, I translated the words ^' Arriana perfidia'' literally ; but have been now taught by fcbf 
language of CoAstantius before^ to see they mean not perfidy but tmhelief.. 

I of' 


of voice, though exactly with the same combination of ideas, '* this peace 
" continued among the churches of Christ that were in Britain, even to 
*' the times of the Arian madness, which, when it had corrupted the 
'*• whole world, infected even this island so much sequestered from the 
'^ world, with the venom of its^ error ^.'* In so pointed a manner did 
the believing world of Christians formerly reprobate that " sort of half- 
'' way house** to absolute infidelity, as Arianism is most characteristi- 
cally called by a writer ; who, with a spirit of religion, warm yet just, 
rational yet scriptural, affectionate yet judicious, manly, bold, and bright, 
has lately addressed the nation upon the declining state of Christianity 
among us, and entitled himself to the applause of eveiy^ friend to religion 
in the isle * ! In so pointed a manner did particularly the Christian 
Saxons, the Christian Britons, reprobate it ! But the council of Nice in- 
terposed to crush, and actually crushed for thirteen hundred years, this 
most impertinent of all impertinent heresies ; which presumes to think, 
that even the inspired writers of the Scripture, either did not understand 
the nature of God so well as the Arians do, or did not express it so pro- 
perly as the Arians could have done; which is therefore engaged in a per- 
petual warfare with the words or the ideas of Scripture, by remarks re- 
pugnant to every principle of common sense in criticism to fritter away 
their meaning, by new modes of ptmctuation to make them speak non- 
^sense rather than their obvious sense, or, when both these frauds fail, vio- 
lently to eject whole tsentences out of the Scripture ; is thus labouring, 
with a little of the insolence of the ancient giants, and with much of the 
impotence of the ancient pigmies, to pile hillock upon hillock, to heap 
mole-hill upon mole-hill, in a petty sort of hostility against Heaven. But 
this Arianism of our British fathers demonstrates the establishment of 

% Usher, io6, from Bedc Hist. i. viii, : ^' ^ Mansit — haec in ecclesits Christi quae erant 
^' in Britannia pax, usque ad tempora Arrianse vesanise ; quae, corrupto orbe toto, banc 
** etiam insulam, extra orbem tarn longe remotam, veneno sui infecit erroris\" 

 Mr. Wilberforce, in his Practical View of the prevailing religious System of professed 
Christians, p. 475, edit. 4th, 1797* ^" ^'^i* Praise I note not a few faults in the work, re- 
sulting from the author's prejudices of partiality towards the Dissenters. They are lost to my 
eye, in the lustre of his excellencies, 



Christianity among them ; equally as the revived Arianism of our oWa 
days demonstrates that establishment among ourselves "f. 

S. TTifb^cr^, 



Nor can the facts allied by Dr. Borlase be of the slightest weight \xt 
the balance against this frill and heavy scale of evidence. The first fact -^tyi/a^^ 
alleged is this, " that, abmt the year 411, St. Melor (although son of "TtT^jf 
^' Melianus duke of Com\;9^1) suffered martyrdom ;'' alleged upon the 
authority of Capgrave, and the testimony of Usher J . Let us therefore 
examine this testimony and that authority. ^^ Philip Ferrars, in his Ge- 
** neral Catalogue of Saints,*' says Usher concerning St. Melor, at the 
third of January calls him MeHor ; and notes him Jrom John Capgrave, 
^ to have sufiered in the year 411; though Capgrave declares him to 
have terminated his life by martyrdom, on the ^rst of October, in tfie 
very commencement of Christianity accepted by. the Bfitons^.'' Sa 

^ falsely* 

t Having here cited the authority of JBede for the first time particularly, and having occa- 
iTion to cite him very particularly hereafter, I subjoin in this note one remark concerning 
bim. The name of Bede is repeated with applause by every tongue, that speaks^of our earlier 
history. Bede however, liet me observe, was not merely great as a writer, but, what is in*- 
finitely more in itself^ was truly good as a man. The trying hour of death shewed bim to- be 
so. The particulars of hb death are detailed to us by a scholar of his. And the account 
concludes thus ^ ^' Omnes autem qui audiere vel videre beati patris obitum, nunquam se vi- 
^' dtsse ulluQi alium in magna devotione ac tranquillitate vitam sic fihisse^ dKcebaht; quia^' 
^ sieut audisti, quousque anima in corpore fuit, ^ Gloria Palri,' et alia qusdam eecinit spin- 
^< tualia, et expansis manibusDeo vivo et vero gratias agere non cessabat/' (Leland'6*Co)L 
iv. 80 ; and Simeoa Dunelmensia, i. 15, Twisden^) 

X Boriaae, 369. 

^ U3her^a4i: ^^ Meliorem eum appellat PhiTIppus Ferrarius, in Catalbgo Sanctorum: 
^^ generali, ad diem iii* Januarii ; et anno ccccxi. passum fuisse ex Johanne Capgravib an- 
^ notatf quanquam Capgravius calendis Octcbris nsartyrio vitam ilHim fimisae, ditaat,. in 
** ipsis Christtanx fidei a Britannis acceptae primordii»»'' — '' John Capgrave,. provincial of 
'^ the Augustine friars, and confessor to the fambus Humphrey duke of Gloucester, epito* 
^* missed Tynmouth's book," the Sanctilogium Briiannw by John of Tinmouth^ y^t in ma- 
nuscript; ^' adding here and there several fancies and interpolations of his own. It was 
'< translated into English by Cazton^ and.firat printed iathe year 1516 j. since which it ba^ 

<* been 


falsely i$Fernir»*8 Catalogue drawn up, ae not to b^ fnithful to the very 
author that it cites for its facts, to assign them dates very difierent from 
what the author assigns, and, in the very moments of reference to him, 
whirl away his facts from their place to one later by two or three centu- 
ries ! So much of the same spirit too has Dr. Borlase imbibed, by keep- 
ing company with Ferrars, aJid by finding he accidentally soothed him in 
some prepossessions concerning the continuance of dniidism here ; that, 
though he refers to Usher and appeals to Capgrave, yet he minds neither 
the one nor the other, slights the falsification in. Ferrars pointed out by 
Usher, and, in the very act of ap^l to Capgrave, takes up Ferrars's ^si- 
fication for Capgrave*s assertion I This was done merely, because the 
falsity was more ductile to some cfaima^ras of the Doctor's own, tbdn the 
truth would be. He appears, indeed, half-conscious of the fraud that he 
was putting upon himself and upon his readers. He therefore adopts the 
date which Ferrars assigned for the martyrdom, with some marks of diffi-^ 
dence; and dubio.usly fixes " €ixmt the year 411,** what Ferrars positivdy* 
places ^' in the year 411.'* And all forms such a splendid instance of 
un^thfulness in the Doctor to the very authorities upon which he pro- 
fesses at the moment to write ; one occurring at the examination of tlie 
veryjint fiict which he alleges, as should make us examine his other alle^ 
gations with the strictest scrcrity. 

Yet let us not proscribe all at once, what the Doctor has said upon the 
point ; and think we have for ever annihilated thCwhole story, as relative 
to ComwaU in the ffth century. The Doctor, who shewed his haif- 
consoiousness before in his dubiousness of date, who yet fixes the .date in 
thejfl^A century, as " about the year 411;" afterwards becomes so much 
alarmed by his own suspicions, as to reason himself into the error, and ib 
argue for the correspondency of Capgrave*s date with Ferrars' s. '♦ Cap- 
" grave," he cries out, '* says that this happened soon after the Britans 
^' bad received the Christian faith ; by which Britans he must mean the 

i . 


been frequently reprinted, both here and beyond the seas, and is common in the Ikmilies of 
our gentlemen of the Roman communion/* (Nicholson's Eng. Hist. Library, ii. 31, 
edit. 1696.) Yei I have never met with it, and never met with any man who had, Lknow 
only, that there is a copy in the Bodleian, No, i. ii. Tho. Scld. fol. 1239, 

" Cornish, 

^ 0)mMA« fer ^Ad others had b^n corwerteA above two hundred years he* 
*^Jore *.'* Dr. Borlase thus argues from the wrong against the right ; 
BXi^from the fact which should have convinced him of his error, reasons 
to fix himself more deeply in it Such is the wild whirl of his ideas at 
the momept ! By some strange disturbance in his judgment, he con- 
siders the date which the falsifying Ferrars has attributed to Capgrave, 
that of the year 411; as Capgrave's own date^ and as irrefragable in it- 
self On this hollow ground he takes his stand, fixes his engine, and thea 
strains his cords to wrench the rectilinear language of Capgrave into all 
his own or Ferrars*s obliquities. '* \Ji^hi^n in the beginning of the Chris- 
^* timifaithy* Capgrave tells us, not confining his remark to Cornwall, 
not restricting it even to. Britain, but making it as broad and general as^ 
the universe itself, '* the apostolical doctrine was Spread into all nations 
*' over the world, the Gentiles of Britain/* not of Cornwall particularly, 
but of Britain at large, ^' were converted tp the faith ; and many believ- 
** ing in the Lord, and practising the apostoUcal precepts, shone with va- 
*' nous and miraculous virtues ; of the number of which we confidential 
** believe the blessed Melor to have been one. For the blessed Melor was 
•* of a noble family in Britain, his father being Melian, who pos- 
"^sessed the dutchy of Cornvrall f /' Dr. JBorlase'§ attempt therefore to 
make Capgrave mean the Cornish only, when he speaks in positive terms 
of '* the Qentiles of Britain" at large, is equally violent and simple, be-* 
traying such a debility of intellect as would bend to any force of hypotl^e- 
sis, and such a ductility of faith as would ply with any impulse of temptn 
ation. But a mind coloured over with the tincture of druidism, and 
viewing objects through a druidical spectre-glass, beholds all nature under * 
a wonderful transfiguration; views Druids moving in their mystic 
rounds, within the very churches of Christianity ; what is nfore, sees one 

• Borlase, 369. 

t Usher, 241 : '^ ^ Dum in exordio,' inquit, ' ChrUlIanas fidei apostolica doctrina 
^' per orbeoi terrarum in omnibus gentibus diSunderetur, conversa est Britannise gentilitas 
** ad fidem ; et multi Domino credentes', et apostolica praecepta seqiientes, variis virtutum 
^ miriacuHs fulserunt ; de quorum numero beatum Melorum fidenter credimus extitisse ; fuit 
^ enim beatut Melorus de nobili Britannorum genere, cujus pzicv Melianus ducatum Cor^' 
« nubiac tenuit'." ' • 

VOL. I. 00 smsm 

sld^ THE cAiskDRAL OP cohtwacl [chaf. it. 

#mall an^le of the island, always coming forward to the eye ag thd 
whole, and Britain in all her ample dimensions contracted into the nar- 
row nook of Cornwall. 

Nor could this saint have ever heen supposed to be the son of a duke of 
Cornwall, till Cornwall had been reduced from a royalty to a dukedom ; 
and till it had been reduced so long, that petty antiqiiariies knew not it had 
ever been a royalty at all. Then a Capgrave, gleaning the field of historj^ 
with the borrowed hand of tradition, picked up the story of his birth 
and of his sufferings very honestly, referred them to their natural place ia 
our history, and only erred with the vulgar in making his father a duke^ 
instead of a king of Cornwall. 

So pregnant with folly is this first proof in Dr. Borlase, of martyrs suf- 
fering for Christianity in Cornwall during the fifth centuiy ; and so io^^ 
tally inapplicable is the whole, to the point intended to be proved by it T 
But let us grapple with the Doctor, in a still closer contest upon die 
point ; and give him that Cornish hug at ohce, which, like the wand of 
the magician, 

• • • Can unthread Ae joints^ 

And cratnble all the ainews, 

^^<.c€.<«<.c^-*«^^ ^ Melor,'* says an ancient history of his life, as extracted by Leland^ 
(j^ ^ruMy. « was the son of Melian king of Cornwall ; Haurilla, the daughter of 

^ earl Rivold, and born in Devonshire, was the mother of St. Melor ; 
'* Rivold,*' the son of the other Rivold and the brother of Haurilla, <' be* 
'^ came the murderer of his brother** Melian, " and the invader of Com- 
'^ wall ; he deprived Ma nephew Melor of one foot and one hand : Mdor 
was bred up in a monastery — ; Melor, at the suggestion of his tmde 
Ri^ld, was murdered by his own foster-father Cerealtine*/* Melor 
therefore was the son, not of a duke of Cornwall, as no duke existed there 

• Leland'a Itiii. iii. 194 : '« Ex Viti S. Melori« * Melorus, filius Meliani regis Comubiat* 
<^ Haurilla, comitis Rivoldi filia, ip Devonia orta, mater S. Melon. Bivoldua, frft,tricida, et 
<.< invaaor Cornubis, nepotem auuni Melorum altero pede et mauu altera privayit. Mdor^ 
<< enutritus in cceDobio — • Melorus, consilio Riboldi patrui sui, a nulritio suo, Cerealtino^ 
*^ occisus est'.** 




SBCr. Xn.] HISTOtfCALLT SI71tT£TSd« 23$ 

far Bges after Melor^ but of a king. Nor did he, as. Dr. Borlase and hn 
authors agree to intimate, ever su^r martyrdom for Christianity. He 
died under the hand of that ambition which is so wildly fermenting in 
the heart of man at times, and now acted (he daemon so savagely in this 
king of Devonshire* Melor's maternal uncle invaded the coontiy of 
Cornwall, seized the person of Melor's father the king, and murdered 
him ; but was content for the present, with oqly maiming Melor himself 
by cutting off one hand and one foot ; yet afterwards instigated the very 
jnan, who by the custoais of Britain was next to Melor*s own father in 
Tdationship to him, eiren his fbsterr&ther, to murder him. Sudx a com* 
^lioadoo of vilbinies meeting in the murder of Melor, the son of a king, 
m king himself by the murder of his father, and a Christian as bred up in 
a monastery ; induced the Christians of Cornwall, his and 1^ fathers 
sabjects, to consider him as a martyr in tiKir minds, and to rank him as a 
martyr in thdr calendars. We have an instance exactly similar in our 
Saxon history ; vThen Edward, the young and amiable son of Edgar, was 
in 078 assassinated by the queen his step-mother, to make way for her 
own son to the throne; and when the whole church of the SaxonsT 
united, to renter him asa saint, to han/>ur him ajs a inartyr *. But we 
.have a similar incident in a region still nearer to us; the St. Sid well of 
Exeter being the daughter of one Boina there about the year y^^o, and, as 
such, the heiress of his khds in the eastern suburb oi the city ; but being 
murdered, like Edward, by a step-mother for the sake of those lands, be- 
ing on that account reverenced for a saint by the Christians of the place, 
and having a church dedicated to her memory at it, as the scene at once 
of her life, of her martyrdom, and of her sepulture f . Dr. Borlase there- 

* Sax. ChroQ. and Brompton inTwisden, 873, 874, ^^Mardrem.** 
t Leland's Itin. lii. 60 : '* Thesuburbe^ that lyith without the est gate of Excester, is the 
^' biggest of all the suburbes of the towne, and berith the name of S. Sithewelle, where she 
^^ was buried, and a chirch dedicate ther to her name/' Ibid. ibid. 62 : ^^ Ex Vit& Sanctas 
^' Sativola^. ' Benna pater Sativolse. Sativola nata Exonise. Sativola^ dolo novercx, a 
*' Feni8ec& amputato eapite occisa, ut suburbana prsedia ei prseriperet. Fons Sativo]^ • 
^' Ecclesia constructa in honorem JSativolse*/' Creasy, p. 594, from the Martyrologmm, 
£xe8 this incident about the year 740. Worcestre, 91 : '^ Sancta Sativola, virgo canonizata, 
<' jacet in ecclesi& Sancti Volse [Sanctivoix] civltatis Exonis ultra pontem [portam] orien* 

•* talem/' 

002 fore 


fore has been just as much imposed upon by the mere sound of a word, 
in this first instance of Comish martyrdom for the Gospel, and in this 
first proof of Comish violence against Christianit)r ; as if he had adduced 
the fact of SidweU's or Edwird's murder, for an equal proof of hea<- 
thenism in Dorsetshire or Devonshire, and had urged it as an instance of 
a Saxon martyrdom for the Gospel. 

S.h^^^^ffi^^ We see this principle of canonizing sufierers for martyrs, carried 

•to so high an extreme of amiable compassion, in our own region of 
Cornwall itself; that we find " St. FUloc, a hermit and martyr, bom 
" of Irish paroits, but of the parish of Lanteglos, where Walter bishop 
*' (flf Norwich was bom in the said parish, one mile from the town of 
'* Fowey ; and the said saint has his feast observed, on the Thursday 
'* next before Whitsunday.— St. WifllowwdiS beheaded by Mdyti his re-- 
** lation, near the place where Walter bishop of Norwich was born ;'* 
that is, near the mill, as Walter was a son to the miller, where also the 
saint had his hermitage: '^ and he,** like St Dennis of France, and St. 
Genys of Cornwall, '* carried his head** after death, and carried it even 
*^ to the bridge of St. Wyllow, by the space of half a mile, to the place 
" on which the said church is founded in honour of him ;** the chapel 
of St. Wyllow, of which we know from another writer, and to whicli 
our informant has only alluded tacitly in his intimation of its feast be^ 
fore ♦. But 

* Itineraria, 113: '* Sanctus Vylloc, heremita et tnartir, natus de Hibemii, de parocfai^ 
^' Lanteglys, ubi Walterus episcopus Norwicensia fuit natua in dicti parochia, p^ unum 
*^ miliare villae de Fowey ; et dictus sanctua habet festum ejus cuatoditum, die Jovis proxime: 

*^ ante festum Pentecosten Memorandum, quod Walterus episcopns Norwicenai^ 

'' fuit natus in dict& vill&,'' Lanteglys villa, just mentioned before, *^ et fuit filiua molen-^ 
'< darii. Sanctus Wyllow fuit decapitatus per Melyn ys kynrede, prope locum ubi episcopua 
'^ Norwici Walterus fuit natus ; et portavit [suum caput] usque pontem Sancti Wyllow, per 
** spacium dimidii miliaris, ad locum ubi dicta ecclesia fundatur in suo honored' Leiand'a 
Itin. iii. 37 : ^^ From Bodenek to Pelene point, a quarter of a mile, and here enterith a pilleor 
*' creek half a mile up into the land* At the hed of this pille is a chapel 0/ St. Wtlowy and 
<< by it is a place caullid Lamelin," Lan Melin, or Mill Close, << lately Fougging to Lamelin* 
^* —On tbe south side of this creke is the paroch chirch, cauHid LantegFise juxtaFawey/* 
Itineraria, 135: *' In Britannia, Sancti Genesir martins, qui ob capitis truncationem •.»«.• 



But we see this principle eren in the very incident of Cornish history 
primarily before lis; when one who was certainly an equal sufierer with 
Meloi;, who must have been equally a Christian with him, even his father 
Melian, that had bred him up in a monastery, was equally sainted with 
him. Thus a Cornish church in the west is denominated " Mullyan/* 
by the later Valor, and said to be dedicated to " St. Mellan,** but is 
called expressly by the earlier, " ecclesia Sancti Mellani ;'* while a church 
in the east is entitled by that, '' St Mellyan aliis St. Mellyn ;" and 
by this, " ecclesia Sancti Mellani." 

So extravagantly false does Dr, Borlase*s assertion finally appear, that 
" St. Melor, although son of Melianus du^e of Cornwall, sufiered 
" martyrdom," when Melor, in reality, suffered merely a murder, wl^en 
his father suffered equally with him, and when both safiered onkjr from 
that ambition which has been making 8uch vaaxtyts in eveiy age of 
Christianity since f! But^ 

*^ in ecclesiae [ecclesia] canonicorum Lanceddon • • • • Et iiierant iii fratres sub XH>iniBe 
'^ Sancti Genesii^^t unusquisque caput suum portabat^ unus archiepiscopus Lismore." Tbis 
last circumstance shews them all te be Irish saints $ and the local mark ** in Britannia'' is 
only in opposition to thi» preceding it, '^ in Hibemi& translatio Sancti Genesii Lismorensis 
<< archiepiscopi, 6 vel 5 nonas Maii.'' At the church of Launceston was also *< translatio 
*^ capitis Sancti Genesii martiris 14 kal. Aug/' Between Mont Martre and Paris was lately 
a statue of St. Dennis^ now swept away (I suppose} with ten thousand objects of a much 
better quality, carrying his head under his arm like a chapeau de bras. And St. Genys is^a 
parish' on the northern coast of Cornwall^ between Tintagell and Bude Haven ; being that 
very point of our region assuredly, at which St. Grenys and his two brothers were beheaded 
like St. Wylbw, but, like him, as equally Irish with him,' and coming with him,* probably, 
from Ireland, beheaded only by private malignity. The church of St. Genys was appro* 
priated to Launceston church; and for that reason, was <' the translation of the head" of 
St. Genys observed as a festival, in the latter. 

+ So in LeTand*s Itin.' viii. 73, we have this notice: *'Ex Vit4 S. Clitanci. * Clitan- 
<< cus, Southe^Walliss regulus, inter, venandum a suis sodalibus occisus est. Ecclesia S« 
" Clitanci in Southe-WalHa." — ^But all this story of Milor and Melian is astonishingly trans- 
ferred in some confessed legends, from Cornwall to Bretagn^. *' Ce seroit ici le li^u de parler 
'*< de Gralloti compte de Comouaille,** on the continent, — ^* de Daniel, Budic, et MeKau suc- 
«< ccsseurs de-Grallon, des cruautez de Rivod Jrere de MeUau, du martyre de Melaire Jils 
^' de Meliau/' &c. j ^^ mais en veritc il y a si peu de fonds a faire sur les legendes qu^sont 

" le& 


But, as Dr. Borldse instantly proceeds to a second incident, perhaps he 
may be more fortunate in this. ** By persisting in their dimdism/* he 
Bays, and speaks only as before from the plenitude of his own antiqua- 
rian ideas, all inflamed with writing so much about druidical remains^ 
real or supposed, and aH swelling out into this protuberance of ^dse history, 
that druidism was more predominant and more rooted in Cornwall, than 
in any other region of Britain; " the Britons of Cornwall drew the at^ 
" tehtion of St. Patrick that way, who about the year 432, with 2o 
" companions, halted a little in his way to Ireland on th€ shores of Com- 
" wall, where he is said to have built a monastery. Whether Saint 
^' Gebman was in Cornwall at this time, I cannot say,*' though the 
tradition is recorded so strongly by Mr. Willis, and in such a work as his 
account of a Cornish parish; an argument of the Doctor's neglect in con- 
suiting even local accounts for his local history ; ^' but, according to 
Usher, he .was either in Cornwall or Wales; Jar St. Patrick is said 
' ad prseceptorem suum beatum Germanum divertisse, et apud Britan* 
nos in partibus Comubias et Cambrias aliquandiu substitisse ;' or, as 
'* the words literally translated, run, * to have turned aside to his pre- 
** ceptor, the blessed Germanus, and to have staid some time among the 
" Britons in the parts of Cornwall and of Wales' X*'* TWs all^tion, 
however, is all as unfortunate as the preceding. 




That " the Britons of Cornwall drew the attention of St. Patrick, 
*^ that wayT that " he halted a little on the shores of Cornwall; yet 
*f is said to have built a monastery' there; that the Britons of Cornwall 
drew him into the country, " by persisting in their druidism/* yet *^ he 
*' halted but a little" among them; '' built a monastery,'* but made no 
converts ; that, however, he actually came merely to visit ** his pre- 
*' ceptor the blessed Germanus," and actually ^' staid some time'' with 

<^ tes seul metnoires dont on pourroit tirer ce que Ton aoroit a en dif«, ffx*U vaui mieux s^sn 
<^ taire tout a fait.** (Lobineau, i. 9.) The oaly excuse for this fdsificaJtkm of history^ if, 
what was in all probability the very cause of it, a confusion made in the mind by the two 
Comwalls, and a consequent traaitfer of &cts fv^m the EogUsb Cornwall to the French. . 
I Borlase, 369, 

5 him; 


him ; yet that then he staid not in Cornwall positively, but *' dther 
" in Cornwall &r Wales/' and (as the author unconsciously corrects 
himself afterwards) in both, even '^ among the Britons in the parts of 
*' Cornwall, attd 6f Wales;" all carries such an amazing train of con- 
tradictions upon the face of it, as shews us chaos in all its wildest com-, 
motions, billow dashing against billow, and the whole whitened over 
with fragments of broken waves. — ^Let us, however, examine these 
fragments one by one, as well as we can. 

That St. Patrick is '* said'* to have built a monastery, is derived only 
from the vulgar error which I have previously pointed out, of confound- 
ing St. Patrick with St. Petrock ♦. That St. PSatrick was ever in Corn- 
wall, is collected, indeed, from the words of Usher, translated above. But' 
then these are the words of the Index only, and end with another word, 
'* traditur," annexed, which Dr. Borlase has wholly suppressed, which 
yet throws a dubiousness over all the preceding, refers solely to the evi- 
dences in the work, and leaves Aese to carry merely their due weight 
with the readerf . Dr. Borlase, however, cites the Index instead of the 
work itself, maims the body of that by lopping off an important limb, 
and never consults the evidences in this at all. We, therefore, must 
do what he ought to have done. Then we find the passage to which 
the reference is principally made, running thus in Jocelin, as he describes 
the journey of St. Patrick from Rome to Ireland. In his way, says this 
his best biographer, '* he turned aside to visit him who had bred and 
'* educated him, the blessed Germanus J;" then certainly not in Cornwall, 
as Germanus certainly came not into ComtvaU so early as '* about the 
*' year 432 ;** but at his see of Auxerre, in Ftance, as the non-specification 
of the place sufficiently implies of itself, and as Usher has actually inti- 
mated in some words which Dr. Borlase has suppressed again. They 
are these that I mark with Italics; '' turned aside to visit the'' bkssed 

• Sec i. 3. 

f Usher, 516 : '^ ^ Pairicitts, cum xx--coitiitibia6,-Hnetituto in Hiberniam itinere, ad-» 
** beatum Germanum— dircrtisae^ ei apud Britanooa-^-aliquamdiia substitisse traditur.' 44, 

«* 238, 4^8, 43*> *«•" 
X Usher^ 436 : ^^ ^ DiYcrlit-<--ad beatum Gennanum^ nuirilorem ct eruditorem suum'.'^ 

** Germanus, 



" Germanus, bishop of Auxerre\'^ Usher also confirms this inter^ 
pretation in another passage^ in which he observes some part of a pe- 
riod in the saint's Jife must be assigned^ not any to his visit of St. German 
in Cornwall, but " all to his stay at Auxerre with St. German J J' Yet, 
as he expressly tells us at the very place, " Jocelin, with others, shews 
^* us, that this very famous prelate of the church of - Auxerre— 5/ai^ at 
*' home^ both when he sent Patrick to Celestin," at Rome, " accom- 
panied by his oldest presbyter, and when be again took leave of him 
after his return from i2o?iie§." Jocelin certainly shews the latter visit 
to have been at Auxerre, by the veiy tenour of his narration ; saying that 
*? Patrick hastened hi* return * from Rome " towards Ireland, with the 
*^ twenty men celebrated for the goodness of their lives and the great- 
^ ness of their wisdom, who . had been deputed by the popis himself 
^' to assist him/* that '^ yet he turned aside" in France " to the blessed 
'^ Germanus, who had bred and educated him,yh9m whose liberality he 
^^ received chalices and sacerdotal vestments, a variety of boohs, and other 
*^ articles belonging to the service and ministry of the church*.'* So 
.much worse than n^ligent does the Doctor here appear! so easily have 
we whirled away his Cornwall, and settled it in the heart of France ! 

In vain then does the Doctor maintain, from the Index of Usher, that St. 
Patrick came into Cornwall, and continued some time in it Those, who 

Thus catch the eel of science by the tail, 

are often deluded in their grasp, as they find it, in spite of all their 
elForts, writhing and wriggling out of their hands. Tet, when we turn 
to the testimonies in the body of Usher s work, we find one evidence 

t Usher, 516 : ^* Ad beatutn Germanum Autissiodorensem episcopum divertisse,** 
t Usher, 435 r *' Autissiodoreasi apud S, Germanum incolatui as«ignandum censemus/' 
^ Usher, 438 : ^^ Ceieherrimum ilium Autissiodorensis ecclesiae antistltem — domi man* 
^ sisse, et quum Patricium ad Celestinum una cum seniore suo presbytero mitteret, et quum 
*^ eundem Rom& redeuntem itenim a se dimitlcret^ praeter alios ostendit Jocelinus." 

 Usher, 438 : " < Versus Hiberniam, cum viginti viris viti ac sapientii praeclaris, ab 
^' ipso summo pontifice sibi deputatis in adjutorium, regressum maUiravit i divertit autcm ad 
^* B. Germanum, nutritorem et eruditorem suum, ex cujus munere aecepit calices et vesti- 
^^ menu sacerdoulia, copiam codicum, et alia quae pertmentad cultumet mioblerium eccle- 
^* ^iasticum'/' 


SECT, 111.3 HISTOMCALLY StntVEYEl>. 28© 

for St. Patrick's visit in Cornwall, even that of archbishop Anselm ; but 
of Anselm opposed by all other evidences, and of Anselm abandoned 
even by the credulity of Dr. Borlase himself. Under all these circum- 
stances of disparagement, however, let us just stop to examine it for the 
sake of purging the history more thorot^hly. " That glorious and ever* 
*' memorable confessor St. Patrick," affirms Anselm, " while he staid in 
the country of Cornwall, intent upon holy actions ; was admonished 
by the voice of an angel to go into Ireland, in order to preach the faith 
^' of Christ in it : then — he arose without delay, and repaired to the 
** place poined out to him by God*.'* lu this relation we see Stv 
Patrick, residir^ in no specified part of Cornwall, but there receiving 
the first warning from Heaven to go and preach the Gospel to the Irish% 
Yet this is contradicted directly by all the biographers of St. Patrick^ 
who declare, with one voice, that he went from Rome to preach to the 
Irish f : amd by Nennius or his enlarger, tjbe oldest of them all, who par^ 
ticularly asserts him to have received bis angelic monition in Rome X^ 
This contradiction, therefore, breaks the spider s thread of authority in 
Anselm, directly; and turns the residence of St. Patrick upon the shores 
of Cornwall,, occasioned by we know not what, and calculated in bis 
coming into the oounty like Cato^s into the theatre, merely for his going 
out again, into a mere nothing, the poor impertinence of fable^ and the 
aiiy gossamere of ignorance §. 


s Usher, 439 1 '^ ^ Gloriosiis et prasdicandus ubifue Domini confessor Patricius, cdm in 
^^ Cornubiae pariibus Sanctis actibus oioraretuf^ intentus, admonitus est voce angelicft, ut 
*^ Hibernis insulam, iidem Christi in e& praedicaturus, adiret. Tunc — sine mori surrexit> 
^' et locum sibi praesignatum a Deo— ^xpetiit'.'' 

t Usher, 436-438- 

X Usher, 437 : ^< ' A Ccelestino pap& Romano, et angelo Dei cui nomen erat Victor 
*^ monente^^—mittitur'/' Giraldus Cambrensis (Usher, 439) asserts him to have received 
•the angelic monition 4t St. David'a in Wales. Local atlacbmeats form a centre of gra* 
vitation in history at times, that violently attracts the whole system to it, and throws all the 
operations of all the orbs into disorder. 

$ Borlase, 369, 370^ slightly notes another visit by St. Patrick into Cornwall. As, 
however, he cit^ no author for the visit, there is no need to oppose him. <' Earth's basif, 
*^ built on stubble,"' falls back into chaos^ of course. But I have previously shaken it into 
Atoms, in rnele lo i, 3. 

VOL. I. P P Left 




Let us, therefore, go on to Dr. Borlase^s third proof. Of the scho- 
lars of St. Patrick, he tells us, " Fing?irus,** who is called also Guigner, 
and now Gwinear in a parish of Cornwall adopting his appellation, 
" froin Armorica, whither the like druid superstition, which had over- 
'* spread all the west,** just as it had overspread all the ecLst too, both 
of Gaule, and of Britain, " had probably called him," when Christianitj 
had certainly triumphed over druidism in the we$ty equally as in the east^ 
af both ; " passing into Ireland his native country, and finding it, by the 
^' labours of St. Patrick and his priests, thoroughly coavected to Chris- 
** tianity," as if he, who was one ©f the scholars of St. Patrick^ a native 
Irishman, and therefore (we may bfe §ure) one of his most active agents 
in converting Ireland, should not have known this before, ^' gave up his 
" right to a crown, by that time fallen to him upon the decease of his 
'* father Clito, and with his sister Piala, eleven bishops, and, a numerous 
^' attendance^ all baptized [and some of them consecrated] by St. Patrick^ 
^' came into Cornwall ;** not to retwre into solitude, as St^Petrock appa*^ 
rentfy came, and as the facts (if true) will compel us to suppose these 
came, but, as the Doctor's argument infers and his eondasion speaks out^ 
to convert the CiDmish to the Gospel ; ** and, landing at the mouth of the 
'* river H»jrle, was there put to death with all his company by Theo- 
** dorick king of Cornwall, jforjfJ^ar lest they should tumhissubjficfsfrom 
" their ancient religion %** 

For this the Doctor again quotes Usher, and not Usher in his Index,, 
but in the body of his work *. So quoted. Usher certainly is very re- 
spectable authority, and Usher's witness says all that the Doctor alleges 
from Usher. But his witness is only the convicted Anselm again, and- 
Anselm again opposed by Jocelin the biographer of St; Patrick. Jocelin 
mentions not Fingar's return to his native country of Ireland ; mentions 
not his resignation of a crown in Ireland ; mentions not his^ leaving Ire-»- 
land '* with his sister Piala, eleven bishops, and a numerous attendance;** 
mentions not his coming, with them into Cornwall ; and mentions not his 
or their being murdered in Cornwall Jocelin does not mention Fingar 

\ Borlftee^ 37c* ' 

• ** Uslier^ cap. xyik p. 869»''; 




at all : nor does any author notice him, before the falsifying Anselm ; 
who has attributed to him that very act of reverence towards St. Patrick, 
in rising to the saint oh the saint's coming into a large assembfy^of the 
Irish, and giving him his seat, which Jocelin attributes to Dubtag a capital 
bard f . Nor has Dr. Borlase acted more honestly in this reference to 
Usher, than he acted in the one immediately preceding. He has totally 
suppressed that half-brand of reprobation, which Usher has put upon the 
forehead of the whole. He has related as certain under the sanction of 
Usher's name, what Usher has actually detailed as dubious and suspect- 
able. He has thus abused the authority of Usher, and imposed upon the 
credulity of his reader, at once. Usher relates the whole from Anselm ; 
and then subjoins this significant caution, that ** he leaves the credit of 
^' the relation to the testimony of the relator J.*' By this stroke he shews 
hts own opinion to be in unison with that of every man, who knowa any 
thing of the religious state of Britain at this period* 

But with or without Usher, We must violently drive away these poor 
ghosts of murdered saints, which have been conjured up by the wand of 
that necromancer Anselm. They have at times haunted the benighted 
jscene of histdiy ever ^ince : yet they have only just shewn their pale faces 
hitherto to the clouded moon, then vanished instantly away, and retired 
into their proper invisibility again. They have now, however, with Dr. 
Borlase, come forward in open day, beneath the beams of the sun, even 
in the midst of meridian splendours, to stalk along the stage, to unfold the 
tale of murders never committed upon them, and to point their fingers at 
the monarch tvho never martyred themn 

• t Usher, cap. XTii. 442, 443. Opus.tripartitum de VI ti Patricii says he was ^^ ^ Ercus. 
<^ Bomine, filim Pcgo%'' and ** ^ in civitate Slaniac,' eum * ad coelestia migravisse,' Jocelinus 
*^ etiam confirxnat/' But Probus in his Life of St. Patrick calls him '' ^ Dubtag poetam op* 
•' timum',** even the Opus Tripartitum calls him afterward '* 'Dubtachus filius Vulgayr'," 
which shews the same person to be meant under both the names j << qui deinde^ ut Jocelinus 
*' addit, * haptisatus et in fide Christi confinnatus^ carmina — in usum meliorem^-com- 
^' posuit*.'' Then comes the fabling Anselm^ and '' Fingarem sive Guignerum, cujus acta 
'^ ille descripsit^ primum et solum Patricio assurrexisse narrat.'' Anselm : ^^ < hie de uni* 
<^ versis solus sancto assurgens Pajtricio'/' &c. 
% Usher, 451 : <^ Fide narrantibus relict&«" 



Such tFen are the facts alleged by the Doctor^ to prove the persevering- 
druidism of the Cornish, as low as '^ mwt part of the wcth century ; " 
when the very latest of them is fixed by the Doctors own author, Usher^ 
to come no lower than about the year 4GO5 a little beyond Ihe middle of 
the fifth § ; and when all of them appear to. be only the shadowy ere- 
atioDs of the fancy. Yet the restriction of druidism merely to ^^ most part'** 
of the sixth, I believe, arises wholly from the secret influence of one fact^ 
that Dr. Borlase has omitted to notice in his narration here, and has thrown 
into a corner in his chronology afterwards ||:. The m^netism of this in*^ 
cident was felt, I suppose, as soon as the ioQideyit its^f was discoveced^^ 
It was then found strong enou^ I a^pidbend, to repek him firom a part 
of the sixth century, and to change the whole, as I presume his laogui^ 
once to have run, into most part, as it now runs. But let us see this fact,, 
as it is an extraordinary one in itself, and the finist evidence that Br. Bor-^ 
lase could find, of the prevalence of Christianity ia Cornwall; yet more- 
fully than we find it in the Doctor himself, ev^n with some accompani-^ 
ments, illustrative or coi^rmatory, of which he had hardly a glimpse. 

An q>idemical disease breaking out ia Walesj Kkc ^eyfeUow fever of 
the West-Indies in izg3-lS02, and actually called' by an appeUatioA 
nearly the very same> the yellow plague^;, whieh spread it9 ravageft^ 
over the country : ** Tehau, bishop of Landaff,^' nephew to David the 
great denominator of St. David's, *^ embarked/' says an ancient history 

$ Usher, 5^1 r *' CeocLX. — ^Circa hec— tempera, Fingarem give Gu^erutn, ex Britan*- 
'' nia Armoricft in patriam rever9um>.Hib€r&iain legibus Christt subditam invenisse,'' &c« 
'^ Ansel mu8 narrat/*^ 

II Borlase, 408^ 

% Usher, 40, 41, from GiralJus Cambrensis : ** ^Ingruente per GamBriam— pcste quft- 
•* dam, qui catervatim pkbs occubuit, quam flavam pestem vocabant, quam etphysici icle- 
«* riciam dicunt passionero'. — ^^Pestis ista^—tBritannis^ a' flavo colore quo affecii morbo tinge- 
*' bantur, y gall velen/* or the yellow plague, ^ appellata." In the book of Landaff, says- 
Richards, ball is used for a plague, but *' corrupUy for fnaU.*^ Th« word is really either 
mall, or ball, or gall, without any corruption. ' 





of him^ inserted in what is named the Register of LandafF, ** with some :/^^A^ %£^ 
•* of his suffrag&n bishops, men of the other orders of ecclesiastics, and ^1:4^^1 
*' laical persons of both sexes, men and women," for Dole in Bretagn^, m^ UU c^o^ 
the archbishop of which was Sampson, his countryman of Wales, and his fU^^^^^^^, 
fellow-pupil under Dubricius there, *^ He came first to the region of ^^^ ' 
•* Cornwall, and was well received by Gerennius the king op that 


This was in 588, and is a sufficient evidence of the establishment of 
Christianity in Cornwall tjien. *' The saint went thence with his com- 
pany to the people of Armorica, and was well entertained by them 
continually. There he and St. Sampson planted a great wood of 
** orchard-trees, about three miles in length, that is, from Dole even 
to Cai ; as the very groves are honoured with their names even at this 
day, being called the Orchards of Teliau and Sampson. Ever since that 
time has the see of Dole been honoured and celebrated by the testi- 
** mony of all the Armorican Britons, for the conversation of the vene- 
•* rable St. Teliau* In the mean time, while these things were done and 
transacted, it happened that Christ, in his compassion, ordered the yel- 
low plague to depart and vanish out of all Britain. On hearing this^ 
♦* that faithful leader Teliau was exhilarated, though moderately ; yet 
under the admonition of the Holy Spirit, sending messengers inta , 
France, beyondl the Alps into Italy, or wherever he knew his com- 
" patriots to have fled, diligently collected them together ; that, now the 
^' pestilence had ceased,^ they might all return under the panted peace,. 
•' from all quarters to their own homes. At last, having prepared a great Jfku?C^>s^ AZd 
" bark> after a completion of seven yeara and seven months, which he had -^-d^^fec^v*.^, 
•' spent in the country of Armorica, he entered the bark, with many 6^^ ^ 
doctors and some others who were bishops. In this they all arrived at 
THR PORT called Dinoerein, king Grrrnnius then lying in the last ex-- 
treme€flife\ who, when he had received the body of the Lord 
^ from the hand of St Teliau, departed in. jot to the Lord *J* 


 Usher,. 535, •^Dftxxxrm;'^ 534, *'Dxcvr;**^ 290, ** ' Siirrcxif— Sdnctu* Trfiaus,. 
*' adducens secum quosdam suflfraganeos episcopos auos, et c»teroruni ordinum viros^ cum^ 
^ utriusq^csejuis komiiiibii0> viris elmttUeribus* Etdevenit priinitus ad Cornubiensem re- 

" gioncm^ 





^lH4^jaa^uu/y^. This Gerennius, as Dr. Borlase very properly remarks, *\ lived at Din- 

" gerein, i. e. the fort of Gerennius ; M^hich most likely ivas somewhere 
*' near the church, called from this prince ^as *tis supposed) Gerrans; 
• '^ and gave name to the harbour, thence called Dingerein Port f /' Thi^ 
is very happily said. O ^ 9m omnia ! The very Din-Gereixi, or the fort 
of Gerennius, now remains in its ground-plot within the parish of 
Gcrens, though at a great distance from 4he church, and is the very site 
thus described by Leland, *^ About a myle by west of Penare," notes thisr 
very useful antiquary in a passage wholly unobserved by the Doctor, ** is 
^' ^fwce^ or strong hold, ^^ xiere the shore in the paroch of St, Gerons; 
'* It is single diky*d, and within a but shot of the north side of the same, 
*^ apperith an hole of a vault broken up by a ploi^^h yn tylling. This 
" vault had an issue from the castelle to the se : and a little by north of 
*' the castelle [are] a 4 or 5 borowes or cast hiUes J/* 

This "castdle'* or ''force^' still shews its earthworks conspicuous to the 
eye, ** about a myle by west of Pcnare^** and ** nere the shore,** being on 

^ gionem, ei*bftie susceptiM est a derennio, rege ilUus pairisc,— ct tractavk iUuin ct suum 
^* populum cum omni honore. Inde pecrexit -sanctus cum suis comitibus ad ArmorJcas 
" gentea, et bene continuo susceptum est ab eis. Ibi ipse et S. Sampson plantaverunt mag* 
^' num nemus arboreti fructiferi, quasi ad tria miniaria,id esl, aDol usque ad-Cai ; et deco« 
*' rantur ipsa ncm^ra eorum nomine, usque in hodiernum diem ; vocantur enim Arboreta 
^^ Teliavi et Sr.m8onis. Et ex illo tempore, et deinceps, «epi«copattis Dolcnsis decoratur et 
*' celebratur, sub testimonio omnium Armoricorum Britonum, ob conversat'ionem et rcveren* 
^< tiam Saaoti Teliftvi, Jnterea jdum hiec agerentur et tractarentur, contigit quod Christus 
^'.per«misericordiam suam pEsciperet, ut ilia prxdicta lues quae flava dicebatur exiret et 
'' evanesceret de£ritanni& insula tot&. Quo audito, fidelis ductor Teliaus in modicum ex- 
'' hilaratus, et Sancto Spiritu summonitus, missis legatis in Franciam, et ultra Alpesln Ita- 
^' liam, et quocunque cognitum sibi erat eos aufugisse, recollegit compatriotas diligenter in 
** unum ; ut omnes^ extinct^ pestilenti:^, cum 4aik pace per omnia redirent ad prqiria, 
'' Demum .preparatl magna barci, peractisque septem annis ac septem mensibus, quos S. 
^* Teliaus duxerat in Armorii::anorum patri4j intravit in earn cum multis xloctoribus et qui- 
*' .busdam aliis, episcopis ; et applicuerunt in portum vocatum Dinerein, rege Gcrennio in 
'^ extremis tum posito ; quijaccepto corpore Domini de manu S. Teliaui, Isetus migravit ad 
^ Dominum'/* Por TcHau's relationship to David, for Sampson, and for Dubricius, 'see 
Usher, 4* . , 

t Borlase, 408, | Lcland's I^a, iii» 30, 31* 



the exterior rim of the sea's sldpitig bank^ about a mile and a quarter to 
the north of Gerens church, close at the left of the road from Tregoney to 
St. Mawes, and just upon the Tregoney side of Trewithien, " in the pa* 
** roch of St. Gerons." The military aspect of it at the mar^n of the 
road attracts the attention of every eye, and solicits the curiosity of every 
mind : but it has hitherto solicited and attracted in vain. For years, as I 
have been riding by it myself, I have felt a strong desire, and have formed 
a full resolution, to return at a future hour of leisure, and to explore its 
nature carefully. Yet I should probably have gone on through life so 
feeling and so forming, if my present undertaking had not found it with- 
in the sweep of its vortex, and so drawn it into the centre of its waters-. 
My examination of the antiquity thus became necessary, to the complete- 
ness of my work. I tjien found the fortress standing upon the southern 
side of a little eminence, and viewing the ground to fall &om it gently 
on the south to.Trewithien, but sharply on the east to the sea. The whole 
is nearly circular, about an acre in compass ; a fair level, formed by arti- 
ficial soil accumulated upon the ground, and denominated the plain fami- 
liarly by the farmer, to distinguish it from the rest of the field at the head 
of which it lies. Up this field is the approach to it, where it comes for- 
ward to the eye as an eminence raised by the hand, with a tall bank de«^ 
scending steeply from it. But at the northern end of the bank is the en- 
trance into it, wound with great artifice about two sides of it ; a broad 
fbsse there opening upon you, carrying a rampart on each side, and: still 
shewing at the mouth of it the remains of that cross rampart^ which 
once united with gates to secure this only avenue into the castle. The 
fosse has been scooped out with great labour, and the earth of if thrown 
upon the area within ; which has made the remaining soil of it very shal- 
low. It thus proceeds with a rampart of nine or ten feet in height, on the 
right and lefi: ; that on the left the mere fall of the area, but that on the 
right a regular bank of earth, perpendicular without, yet sloping within, 
carrying two or three eminences in its line, that spire up like so many 
turrets of earth, and have been long supposed by the noticing, neighh 
bours to be stations for sentinels. In this manner the fosse reaches the 
south-western air^le,. when the bank of the area instantly reclines mtp a. 
smooth ascent of nine- or ten feet in bijeadtbi, and so marks the vecy 




«itrance into the castle* With $uch address and ingenuity was the 
avenue up to it managed, by the original constructors of it ! This 
striking feature in the complexion of the building, very plainly indicates 
it to have been constructed at a period when the violence of war was 
swayed by the wisdom of policy, when warfere had been improved into 
a system, and the mind predominated strongly over all the modes of de- 
fence. The rest of the area is left to its own securities, its elevation above 
the ground adjoining* the gentle £sil on the soiith, and the sharp descent 
on the east. It has therefore no fosse in front and upon one side. Thus 
is the whole as Leland describes it, ♦' sii^le diky'd,*^ or having only one 
ditch about it But what lends a fulness to the evidence, dose by it on 
the north, in the lane leading along it from the road towards the sea, 
upon a small vacancy of ground at the. union df both, were within 
memory some of those ^W or 5 borowes or cast hilles,'' which Leland 
places " a little by north of the castelle ;" one of them very Jarge^ all of 
them assuredly the sepulchres of the family once resident within it ; as 
upon the formerly probably was fixed the beacon, that has lent the appel- 
lation of Beacon-hill to the vacancy, has communicated the title o[ 
Beacon-close to the field immediately adjoining on the north, and occa* 
fiionally extends the former appellation to the fortress itself. 


*' Within a but shot of the north side of the same,** as Leland adds in a 
language of mensuration allusive to archery, once therefore as familiar as 
archery itself, but now with archery nearly lost, and meaning as far as a 
shaft used in shooting at a butt can carry point blank, or, in other words, 
about twelve-score yards from the north side of the fortress * ; *' apperith 
'* a hole of a vault, broken up by a plough in tylling. This vault had an 
** issue from the cctstelle to the *e." Here we have a very extraordinary 
discovery. Yet Leland saw it with his own eyes, as he isays the '* hole 
**' of a vault'* yet " apperith." A subterraneous passage had been 
formed in the ground, from this fortress along the land immediately ad- 
joining on the north, and t(t<the sea at its eastern side. But it had been 

* Sbalcespeare, Hen. IV» Part ad, ix. 127: **Dcad! he shot a fine shoot:— John of 
<< Gaunt lov'd him well, and betted much money on his head. Dead !— he would have 
*< clapped i'ik* chut at tu/elvesecre.'' See also Part ist, Tiii. 485. 

1 formed 

fDrmed so slight in itself, and so shallow in the ground there> as to have 
been opened by the plough m tilling ; the coulter dipping a little lower 
than^usual/ tet»rii^,up some of die coveniig stones, and disclosing the 
*chaty*€l to the Aye. It then appeared, howeTer, to the very judgment of 
aLefani, anWident ^' vault ;** an exca^mtion much larger than the mere 
•channel of a Mtwor to the castle ; a passagi^ ample and vaulted. It ap- 
peared ^o to him, evidently extendttig one way up to the castle, and 
another way down to the sea ; and he thought the discovery considerable 
enough to be recorded even in his brief chronicle of incidents: yet, as 
Iceland usefully subjoins in the masigiti, *^ [a mile] dim. irom this,** by 
which he means a mile and a half x^y ^< [tbeie] is another mn *.....,'' or 
•** in the feyde/' as Stowe reads the words, .;" of an hille : . . ^^ . , are a 

'^' quarter . ;\ ?^»1"^ . . . from the lordship of thy," Trc- 

withyen, ^' sumtyme the [Archd]ekens'*' of Ruan lianyhome oistle^ 
-•' now{Gorbctt]e8 and Tpe{gions] X^^ , This seoaid "hole of a vault," 
which equally " had an issue from the castdte to the se," and was 
-equally "a quarter of a mile** from Trewithien, is apparent still whea 
the other is lost. The father ran towards the sea throu^ ground still 
fcar&y and loose, oft^t) lulling away in the clitii^, and always admitting 
badgers to burrow in it "; was discovered in its course by an accident no 
longer remembered, yet is now lost equally to the eye and to the memory 
itself. But this remains from the rocky nature of tibe ground through 
which it was cut, comes out therefore to the eye " in the syde of m 
'^ MUe," opening through the side of the hill-cliff in what is commonly 
called the Mermaid's Hole, and engaging the speculations of the neigh- 
bourhood greatty. The mouth of it is large enough to admit a man 
walking erect; hi\e been often entered by the steps, of timorous curiosity, 
and even pursued by "some of a. more daring spirit for forty or fifty yards 
Up into the land : bt that distance, from the falling-in of the roof, it con- 
tracts very mUch, Obliges a person to creep, but allowed a boy in that 

. t So la ii'u {i6f. •' There lyi^i a \\i\\e cape pr'.foreland 'within the haveji" of falmouth, 
*^ a mile , dim." ftom and ^'g^^most again .Mr. Kiligrcwels house, caullid Penfusis.'* 
29 : " From S. Just pille or creke to S. Mandiius crekc is a mile dim.*^ 302 "From S. An- 
" tonife Point at the mayn se to Penaie Point a 3 7niles dim*** 
' X The hooks are in the printed copy, the words overhead are sapplied by me. 

'•' VOL. t Q Q posture 


posture not long smce to push some yards farther up it; who crept 
hastily back, however^ in a fright at encountering two otters there. 
Fos:es ha\^e ecjually been faund in it at times. Some sheep also are said to 
have been drowned in it a few years ago, by the influx of tiie tide catching 
tihtem there. And it takes its appellation of Mermcad^s Hole, fiiom the 
idea of this modem Venus of the sea, w ith her comb and her looking- 
glass, entering it upon the top of the tide ; so low does it lie in the side 
of the cliff! 

Yet for what purpose could these two tunnels have been formed? 
Even the smaller of them spears too lai^e for a sewer, and the bigger 
of them is very much too large. They both moved in a direction like*- 
wise, too long in itself, too diverging from the castle, to be sewers. Nor 
would there have been two sewers. 'One alone would have sufficed^ tmve 
gone a few yards, perhaps, underground from the castle, and then have 
dismissed its con tents to find their way, by flowing in some open channel, 
or by tumbling over the cli£& to the sea. These were therefore that cau» 
tious provision of private sally*ports, of which we hear so much by tra* 
dition at some of our ancient castles, and kam enough from history to 
credit its report. Thus, at Launceston castle in our own county, tra^ 
dition pronounces with a firm tone of voice, that there was a subterra- 
neous way out of the keep, diving down through the body of the hill, and 
emerging in the country below : some cany it into the town, and others 
into the fields at the back of the castle ; but all «re so fully convinced 
of its existence, that they say it commenced in the keep under a blue 
stone, and went from this to its termination. At Restormel castle also, 
•which was erected equally by the lords of the county, and constructed 
upon a plan of defence nearly the same, a subterraneous road- is so far 
known by tradition to have penetrated through the heart of the hill, from 
top to bottom ; that the very opening at the bottom is reported with 
confidence to this moment, though tradition presumes not to point a sure 
and steady finger at the place. To cut such a winding passage through 
the rock, must have been a work of considerable difficulty ; yet no diffi-^ 
culty could deter men who had the force of a whole county at their com- 
mand; who studied every art of war^e with particular attention, and 



»RCT. nr.] HisTonicALL'T %xmrEf&>. Itff 

practised every labour of warfare with peculiar promptness : and sncb al 
dark, subterraneous wicket, which was calculated only for the last.HK^- 
ments of distress, and reser\'ed as a means of escape under the pressure of 
desperate necessity^ would naturally be known to few, be kept as a 9(b6tet 
ih the breast of the principal officer, begin in some sequestered t^om 
within, and terminate in some sequestered place without ; op^n;aft its* 
outset under a blue or a black stone in a locked-up chamber, and end at tts 
vent under a bank, under a bush, or under a thicket : there thfe Bft^t 
might never be seen by any but one of the garrison, and heretix6 mdtlth 
of it would present merely the appearance of a drain. AH this - we see 
livelily exhibited to our eyes in a single Incident of our natibnal 'Hisfory. 
The castle of Nottingham, which we know to have been maintained %y 
thfe Danes and besieged by the Saxons, so early as the year 808 *, had 
j.ust such a subterraneous conveyance as this out of it. Upon the western 
side of that irock on which tlie castle rears its head, was a cave of dismal 
aspect, leading into a narrow gallery that had been hewn through the 
earth stony or loose in a very uneven manner, till it reached the rock it-^ 
Self. Into this it entered at the foot of a pair of st^rs, ascended up It by 
the stairs, and came out within the keep or chief tower above f. '^* ThewJ 
^^ is,'* say^ Leiand, describing the castle as it then stood, and ipedking 
from traditions then unmixed with romance, " a chotlea [cochlea or 
'* spiral stairs] with a turret over it** in the chief tower or keep; ^^ wher 
*^ the keepers of the castelle say Edward the Thirde*s batid came up 
^' through the rok, and toke the erle Mortymer priso*i€f. Ther is yet a 
'* fair staire to go down by the rok to the ri^ of line J.** This passage 
still remains, winding through the upper part of the rock without stmrs^ 
and walled up for the remainder, but was wholly unknowri to all-^eitept 
the constable of the castle, in 133o. He then stole out of the cttstic to 

• AB«€f, 19, 20« 'I 

t Higtory of Edward IIL by Joshua Baeoes, i698g p. 481. i aa4.C4rt^ ih 46tfj.4ofe tfas 
copyist of Barnes* , 

X Itin, i. 107. The keepers h^ not then forgotten so far their tale, ^ to tell What they 
told to Camden afterwards. ** In superior! — castri parte quae sdblime in rupe surgit, per 
^ gradut in— camerani subterraneam — devenimas, quzxn Maf'timer^s Hole yocanf,^qaodf<| 
** ed delUuU Rog^us ille,*' Sec. p. 4jl3- 

Q Q 2 Edward 

THE €JlfmM»SLAl0 OF GOUTWALL [<FH^» rf». 

SdiVard In the neigh^bourhood^ led Edward's party at midnight iota that 
caiMi, along tiiat g^Uerj, and up those stairs, surprised the qaeeii> suiv 
prised; Mortimer^ and fixed the appellation of Mortimer s Hcle upon the 
paqsi^e ever« since §. Such a private sally-port had the royal castle of 
^QtiW^^wn^i and the nearly royal castles of Launceston or Restonnel^ be* 
loftgwgfto.each of them ! Put our royal castle of Gerens was n^iagiii* 
ficenll)li:prQyid«d wiUi a couple for greater security ; each taking sa 
QhlifUQift r^tige, as to run about three quartei:s of a; mile before it reaches 
iltfhmii^ I. flftch,.^hIerefore diverging so widely from the oth^, as to hai^ 
be^nrM^hj^T Qkpuths '' a mile dimid. from'' each other ; and each issuing 
in ^ i>0ening to the sea, which would seem from the divergence, the obr 
liquj^)fj:OF-tike length, to. have no connexion with the castl?, or if, thought 
fonneetiedf«a9:ponQected they must certainly appear pn reflection^ tp l^ 
menelytl^fv^s of drains from it i » • 

« This then was the Dsn-^Gerein of the Landaff" Register, standing ^pon 
l^gh'grpuiid neur the clt& of the sea, lending its own appellation to tjie 
fiifejrQVndinghsQT of Creek Stephen, alias F^i^qwer, below, causing it to 
h^cajied *\ i^pQrt of Din-Gerein,'' an4 being in reality i^hat ihpyery 
i^ifim signifies ia British, the 'f Din" or Castle of '' Gerein/', lo^ this t^e 
king hospitably entertained bishop Teliau with his company, A. J)% ^^ ; 
ther^jSyiqg by sea Wal^s into Bretdgn^, and putting by the w»y into 
that port. f. In; this. too th« bishop, on his return seyep y^arp^^prwa^ 
9dmini£!teF6d.the «ucfaari^t t^ the l^g, then on the awfiil b^d i^.d^t^ ^ 
i^id in this, almost immediatdy afterwards, the king, r'' darted in,jpy 
^/. to the Locd// The ki^g their^ore had beep long 4 Qhristiap, ^n, wm^^ 
^^f^^fUfkfimim Chrisjti;s^n ; even well known to the clergy of fFales^ fpr*^ 
Hivow^d Christian^ But he ^f^as ^ven more, than this. Axnid subjects 
professing Christianity equally with himself, he stood so conspicuous in 
his life and spirit as to be revered for his devoutness, and to be sainted for 
his holii)0«s> imtnedkitely af^itwards amcmg them. 

His body, indeed, was removed by his son asii^redly, and interred in the 

* ••«• »» ' ^ (.1 

parish of Vieryao i the son living there in a castle constructed nearly on 

5 Barnes, 48 ; and Carte, it,. 405, 406k 


the saiiwiiibddra&iDin-'Geretfi/aBd thietefo're placij^ his &th<r ki a most 

dignii^d mdnufiieiit near hini. In that parish, and within an estate called 

G wendnttth *, . ]$! afid/d detioiiiinated Baraughrcloae from an oval en- * 

tranchfiiellt there, repiited .by tradition and repeated by remains to h^ye 

been a^dastle i dK^side o^a b&il having been ^uced to a sloping level for 

the area ^f it,., fiome^ihat similarly to the ground at Gerena ; the whole 

too, like thatj: being nearly an acre in extent, and having its avenue, like 

the avenue of^ tlg^, winding cautiously! in a fosse about a great part of it^ 

before it pce^unkes to eniar. ThAft foast^way mounts up the hill from the 

baseof the:eminehce> clippjkig . in, the .fxdinence on both sides, in^provr. 

ing ipi depth asi it gakxs in asee»t,and entering the «rea by ita only gateway 

on 4i!^.south*east above. ThiftfortrBsftb93eyknaasumed.aU the importanoe^ 

which Din-G|nreiA itaelf oncn.posscfistd, of communicating its Qwn mtfx^ 

ta the port^tmder it ; the kiit\fadng>. dboominafaed e9r4Ulto;th«8e lat»r d^^p^ 

'' Qwindruith>-! or ?^Gwyrtd|»jythV.bay f, jthe b^y.of/^he wMt^ samjk 

Here thei«foce I appnehei^ ,th^ son of Geri^fn to Imve resided, at the 

drnthofihis-royalfathferj ;tti4 hither rl 4;>elieve }u^ t;Q have transferred 

the remains <^if the kingjin prdeij tp bury th^w in- t^tfg^^^tj^lwww np^ 

th^fBoroi^h^close, wbiefoiis «p apparently front its. size th^^^pi^phf e of 1^ 

king. Iti3 one of the largt^t bfuirows in Efigland^ being about S79 fciet 

in (qrcumference at tl^ baae^ while diat amazing mass of accqmulated 

moul4^ Silbiuy-hiU, is only abqut. 50o4i- It was originally cajled t]^^ 

Cftvn^^ as the estate enpl99ing,it is still dewj^inated Capff,^ i^nd.jEis it i§ Qoinn^uL. fU^oLccn, ^ 

popularly styled itself at^pre^ei^it from a beApQqj.qrPc)ted •up9n \^^ Carm 

J^^ncon; the appropriated term fqif a barrow beipg still, Cfl:n^ iq/VV'^elisb, 

In .ap^Iogical strictness, indeed^ Came signifies cjue made of accumulated 

stones, so shews this kind of barrows to be prior in time to any other> b\it 

in use and practice imports also one composed of earth, like this. Nor 

did the .^Mhion crfi buryifig in, barrows .twminate with ikfi* rQ(gpi-of 

faeatfaentsml . U wtmt pn eqUaUy under Christianity. Qtto,4ngle fyei^ 

demoMtrates this. The barrow of Yortigern^ that famqvS;,mpo^r«b q£ 

* ' 

white beach below it, the white sands of Pendowcr. 

t Norden 55, and Map of Powder Hundred there. , ^ 

± Stukel^y's Abury. 43. 


362 THE CXtKtWiHC W OatOnTALV [c<AF^ IV; 

all Roman Britain about the middle of the fiftti century, wm pia,ced 
among the mountains of Caernarvonshire, waft there opened durtnig ^he 
kst century, and found to be a collection of gnlall stones, ai ours is of 
loose soil, covering a* chest or coffin of stone, as ours assuredly covers,, 
rfnd so forming the strongest protection possible to be formed for the bod/ 
of the king within. But the fashion went on with the nati\'e8 of Ire^- 
land, Wales, and Scotland, for ages afterward; even still remains inaliu^ 
siveness of expression or in similarity of practice among them; to this 
day *« It even remaitis unnoticed among our9ohe$ at the present mo^ 
ment ; those commonest of all barrows, as requiring the least labour in 
making, the long, being still exhibited to every eye, aad, still striking the 
eye of aotiquarianism particularly, in the long rolls of earth over giaves 
within our country churchyards. But what serves to appropriate this 
monument to tliat'king> tradition taik&pf a!£oo^ enfterii^ the barrpw, to 
be there buried viiih its oar^ of silver and its 'BiJ^i ij^' gold. The tra« 
ditionary tale is so deeply stamped upon the popular imagination, that, on 
a reported design in me to explore the interiors of the barrow lately, the 
fkrm^servants began to rS^uest their masters for a holyday, in order to see 
this buried boat unearthed* The royal remains were brought in grtat 
pomp, probably by water, from Din-Gerein on the western shore of the 
port, to Carne about two miles off on the northern ; the bai^e with the 
Toyal body was plated, perhaps, with gold in places, perhaps, too, roWed 
with oars, having equally plates of silver upon them ; and (be pomp of 
the procession has mixed confusedly with the interment of the body, on 
the memory of ti^dition. Thus was the monument fixed here, in order 
to be near the son, near his palace, near the descendants of him and the 
inhabiters of it 

Sueh honour was paid him by his own fitmily; but still greater vras 
paid him by his subjects. Din-Gerein, which appears from his name in 
its to have been constructed by him, was now deserted at his death, and 
therefore took the appellation which it bears with some fields about it, 
Curgurell, or the Court-castle Walls ; the walls rising in ruins, and the 

* HisU of Manchester, ii. 139-14I1 octavo. 


«CT.»IV.] HiarORICALLT swiixED. 803 

clay or the lime mortar^ or both, mixing with the mould of the area» to 
give it that richness of vegetation which it now possesses ♦• Yet; soon 
after his burial, and while the celebrity of his religiousness was still im- 
jHTSsed upon the minds of the many, the church of Gerens appears to 
have been built, and to have, ' therefore^ adopted his sainted name. His 
name is the same with, though his person is very different from, that of 
Gereinte, king of Wales, who lived a little afterwards -f; that of Gerunfy 
who wa3 actually a king of Cornwall, and lived a whole century after- 
wards |; or that of Gereifit ap Erbyn, who was equally a king of Corn- 
wall, and Kved mtnsh nearer to 588 than either§. Hence the church is 
' called, in the Valor of pope Nicholas, " ecclesia de Sancto Gerenrfo,'* and 
" ecclesia de SanctQ Gerundo;'' but in the Valor of Henry VHT, 
as it now is, Gerens. And the parishioners carefully observe the day of 
his death to the present time, though they have long forgotten bis me- 
mory ; keeping the feast of their sainted monarch, on the Sunday imme- 
diately succeeding the loth of August, a season of the year very favour- 
able -for the prosperous navigation of his Vl^elsh visitors from Bretagne, 
yet very unfavourable for the observance of his feast-day, because of the 
harvest, and so proving more strongly the i oth of August to be the very 
day of his death. The festival of a saint is fixed by custom, with a d^- 
nity of spirit that the Gospel alone could infuse into the mass of man- 

* In the legal papers of the estate the name is so written/ not Corgurrell, as in the great 
map of Com wall. Cur is a court (Pryce), being merely the Latin Curia; but Gur is thus 
derived: Cader (W.)f Cathair, Cahir (I.), Caer (W.)^ Caer, Geere (C), is a fortress, all im- 
plying war in the radical idea } as Cad (W.)> Cath (T.j, and Cad (C), is a fight ; and so 
producing a word, unknown in this sense to the British vocabularies, yet evidently existing 
in the British language once, Gaer for war, Thus,^ Tre-gaer, a local name frequent in 
Cornwall, signifies the war- house or castle. Guerre is still French for war, and ** Din 
•* Guayr Giiarth Berneich,'* or *• Din Guo Aroy" for ** Din Guoaroy," was the British 
appellation for Bamborough castle in the days of Nennius, importing <^ the War-town, the 
** capital of the Bernicii*' (Nennius's Appendix in Gale, i. ii6, 1 17) 5 and the terminating 
syllable is Gual (C.) a wall, pronounced as wall is in Burralls, for Burgh- walls^ at Ba|}i> 
and in gunnel^ for gun-wall, on board a ship. 

t Sax. Chron. 50, and Ilunlingdon, X9J. 

X Usher, 478, 540/ 

§ Sec ne;ct note, 

ii inU ; 


kind; Tfot iipcm liis fairthdaj; not upon any daj of memorable activity 
in his life, hut upon the very day of his death; the day on which he 
yielded to the superinduced principle of corruption 'in- our bodies, Imi 
the. day also on which he rose in his soul supwior. to corruption, trium-j 
phant over sih/ a companion for ai^lsy and a favourite with God**' I 


* Gcrelnt ap Erbyn was the father, probably, to our Cerein, however the genealogies. of 
Cornwall may assign him another father. (Borlase, 467, 408.) Concerning him, Lhtiyd, ^39, 
2^40, very cottvttidogjy remarks, that there is a iilace in Corowall, << called T>ev Grbiif,' 
which ^^ might be so detiominaled from bis father." Tbf^ is hm aenr* jBt. AjHstle, and 
another near St. Neots. The latter is called Trcr^Erbyn Park* Bot be obsenres ^ddi** 
tionally, that ^* there is,'' also, *^ yet in Cornwall a place called Gereni wbichir iheir modems 
^^ pronunciatiofi of Gerein^, they constantly changing / into s." Pryce takes no notice at all 
of this mode of pronouncing the /as fin Cornish. He only mentions, mA inddentaTIyi 
too, 4bat <' £i/^tM/A-*-b«s been changed \u\q Bkqueih.** But this mOanc^'tonicttrsHvitb 
Gnenedhi pronounced as Quenesiy Welsh, to shew the mode was common lo bodk dialeoti; 
Tbe authority, indeed^ of Lbt^d alone is decisive, for the Cornish ^^conataatly cbaogfi^ i^ 
'* iqto s.'* Nor was this mode, however Lhuyd declares that it was, merely f' mojdera/' 
Tli^ concurrence of the Welsh with the Cornish in it, proves it. not to be ^ modem ;" and 
the Cornish pronunciation we see at once to be ancient, in the same appellation being written 
so disBimilarfy asGereint, 6eretild, Oerennius, or Gerens. Thi^ Gereini ^Erbyn, BowevtrJ 
Lhuyd calls *' a nobleman of Cornwall cr Devon, about the year 540;'.' and similarly adds,; 
he*< wasof tbe (orcfenf, of Devon." In so speaking, Lhuyd relies on *a. poem orLlowarcfa-> 
Hen, a Welsh bard, in which this king is said to be of tbe ^< Dyvneint." Tbe poem has 
been recently published, and translated among the ** Heroic Elegies and othe^ Pieces of I^y* 
^^ warcK Hen, by William Owen, 1792." In this lamentation upon CcreinVs death, he is 
styled " " TywysdwgDyviiaint," in the original, and *^ Prince of Pcvon*' in the translation. 
But when Llowarch wrote, and (as I shall soon shew) for two centuries after^-ard, Dyvnemt 
or Daninonia certainly included Cornwall with Devonshire, and did not become the exclu* 
sive denomination of Devonshire, till some time afterwards. Kor was this hefo'^Iain U& 
both' Mr. Owen and Mr. Lhuyd seenx to insinuate) in any navql laiile, against the Saxony. 
No such battle is known in the whole history of the Saxon invasions | nojr vviTi tjhe name of 
ijongborfh For the place at which he was killed, however it may signify onip-harlour, prove 
any such. It proves the hattle only to bave been at some great harbour, then denominated 
Longborth. And the whole tenour of the elegy proves it to have been up9n land there, 
Gerciht and his enemies being equally mounted on horses. 'It was fougdt while Arthur 
was the " emperor and conductor of the toil of war." It was foujgbt, therefore, n9t at Lon- 
don, as has been generally supposed from some trifling consonance of pames| not at 
Portsmouth, as Mr. Owen less idly conjectures, but at Plymouth, probably, as the Porth 
LfOng or Longborth of jDa;?2;zo7{iaj at Wcmbury, perhaps, on the eastern side of Plymouth 




So plainly was he, so plainly were they, all Christians at the very time! 
But, with the commencing incident in my history of Cornish Chris- 
tianity, let me couple, as in some measure a part of it, an incident re- 
lative to the same region of Cornwall, belonging nearly to the same pe- 
riod of time, and strongly confirmatory of the whole. 

Under the year 564, according to the Gallican martyrology, or (what 
is the same in effect) under 570, according to Usher; died a religious 
native of Britain, who is better known in France than in his own coun- 
try, but who has left some memorials behind him in Cornwall, that have 
never yet been applied to history. Saint M aclovius, St. Malo, St. J, "yyiouic . 
Machutus^ or St. Machu, for he is known by all these names abroad, is 
said by this Usher and that martyrology, to have been bom in Glamor* 
ganshire, but by his own biographer at Caer Went in Monmouthshire, 
and to have passed into an isle near St Maloe*s in Bretagn^, that had 
been latterly denominated Aaron, from some saint who had settled there 
before, but originally bore the appellation of Canalchius. There he 
lived a9 a hermit, till the fame of his devoutness was diffused over the 
country, and the king, the clergy, the laity, all united with a zeal which 
appears amazing to an age buried in worldly selfishness, to place such a 
saint in episcopal authority over them. Partly by force, partly by per- 
suasion, he was induced to become the bishop of the city of Aleth, dis- 
tant about two miles from him, then the metropolis of Bretagne, and 
the residence of the king. The son of this king afterwards treated him - 
so injuriously, that he abdicated his episcopate^ abandoned his city, and 

Sound, noticed as Wicgan-beorcbe in Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 851 , the scene of a battle then . 
^Ith the Danes, but like Parrot-mouth in Somersetshire, and Carrum in Dorsetshire, both . 
ie^ual scenes of battles with the Danes, having had its appdlation before, and being called 
Wicgan-beorcbe, from this wic or battle with the Britons. ' , 

VOL. I. E a took 



took refuge with a brother bishop at Saintes, in Aquitaine*. Thither 
his spiritual subjects followed him, with professions of their penitence 
and with supplications for his return. He returned, was well received^ 
and continued* with them a little while; then went into Aquitaine ta 
die, died, and wa3 buried, there. But such was the opinion of his pla- 
cability, his devoutncss, and his holiness, entertained by the people of 
his own city for ages afterward; that in the twelfth century they^ 
transferred their city and his see, to the very isle on which he had lived, 
as a hermit ; and gave them both, the appellation which the isle must 
have had before, that of St. Maloe's, from him. Such waa the bishop 
ofBretagn^f. But 

* This sa'mt baa been dreat up by* his early biograpber Btfi, and by his Tate biogfapber 
John of Tinmoutb, m eoloucs funiished only by their own characters ; aaiavoldng a curse* 
upon his persecutors of Aleth* (Coll. ii. 432; Usher, 277; and Cressy,. 254*) But the GaU 
lioan martyrolog}*, with a contrariety to them^ which proves Us owa veracity^ says that he^ 
** although so disgracefully and ui^ustly exiled^ was not luimindfuFof his ftock^ but^ for • 
^ gettmg att injuries^ — dagly invoked <mr Lord^s clemency for the conversion of thai stub* 
*' lam people.'* ( Cresay, 2SA») And the Aibattjucat parts of the saint's history in the tex^ 
all unite to confirm the report of the Gallicaa martyrology« '^ However/' as Creasy re^ 
marks with a sarcasticalness directed by propriety, *' the centiiriatorsof MagdeburgLcha^ 
^* ritably remember only his cursing, and not his prayers*'' (P. 254.) They might be igno-- 
rant, or they might be wilful; whichever they were, they plainly inverted the blazoned por* 
trait of the saint, and then remarked how all his glory was laid low. 

t Ujher, 532, 377, 40; Creasy, 253,254; and Ldand's Colt, ii* 430-453^ m r^* T8e 
island of^his retirement in Breti^ne is ifoi specified by the Gallican martyrology.; ff.apeQifioc^ 
by his biographer in Leiand, but fij^ed as his place of retirement after he became bishop* Ik 
was clearly so, before. The town of Aletk, too, is averred to be a desolated eity by his^ bio- 
frapher ; yet is made by hini> in union with Usher's and Cressyli authors^ the see of th» 
bii^op. In perusing such pieces of history, the mind must be kept ever awake, and seltei 
those incidents alone which crttlciiKn can combine into history* *' ^S. Machutus venit' ad 
** AaroA in8qlam> el iHft aliquamdiu mansit'/' (ColK li* 431.) ** * Princtps> qui tuno daur 
^'•Britanniss-^nomine Judicbael erM^ electione populi et sacerdotum consensu, in honoretiv 
^^ episcopatus cathedrae Aletis civitatis "eum subKmare volens, ad se acc«r5fri jussit'/' (Ibid«; 
^' ibid.) <' < Britonum episcopi, videlicet Sampson, Machu, Patemus'/* (Sec (Ibid. 432.^ 
** ' Rethuualdus, filius Judicel, regis Britonum ; hie S. Machutum sede et fundo vicino spo* 
"*'< liare satagebat. — Reduuallus filios Judicael interficere studebot — ; unus filioruni JudicaeT^ 
<« confqgitns ad eellam 5. Machuii-y' in the isle of Aafon, ^^ ^ inde distractus, a ReduuaQo 
^< intesfectus'/' (Ibid* ibid*J << < Cknalchius insata nrnc S» Machuti nomine dicta'*" (Ibid*^ 

a . ibid«) 


Bot let me now- attach hhn in Mie period of bis life, to our own 
CornwalL *' Maohutus/* says his biographer, ** came to Careulf, where 
**;he ifsstoredm dead young man to Irfe.^- But where was this? The 
.very .nest words will shew us. ^^iCunmor,*^ adds the biographer, " was at (Bouruyr^j^^i 
•*' that time duke of /Ac Damnoman regitm^.'' 'Nor let my reader be 
-^toFtled at -my arguing Gorsult to be in Cornwall by proving it to be 
'*' in theDamnonian region/* That this region was actudiiy inclusive 
ofiGornwall, is tplain from the ^ery name elf that prince of' the regi(m, 
^ing found -upon a wptdehnd monumMt in Gonnwaflf. Cornw^ill^ 
indeed, "was not ^merely included within the circuit of ^Damnonia, as I 

ibid:):But thiaisonly.theidle;of 'Aaron. (Uiher^^j^ ; :0nes9y> ^54*) '* ^Npac'^'' sbewa tl^ 
isle .to have luid the owie of fiuMiJae'4|i^f^0rlhe«see>wasrNiiioved from ^ktb; ai ihe 
author^ in p. 43Qj . speaks of ^eth as .s({/^ 9\miinf^ JuxdJtiUiA see, <* Saos qui diocesia 
^^ Aletis civitatis colimus'/' 

• Leland's Coll. 'ii. j^2 : **^ ^"Machutus — venit ad Corault^ ubi juvenem defunctutn 
^^ yiim reiftituit. - Cutimor dux* tune temporis Domnonicae regionU*/' 

.f Gihaon^iCfS: ^' In the highway, near iFj0wy,.ia a ^tone eommoaly called the 'long 
^'jfcne, oa whieh i» tUa inacripfeiKHij Oimsifu hwJfitoUjCui^omni JUius^ for the u; in Cuno* 
^' mori muBt4ieeda be a «i reverse^ythe lettecto^bei^^gjbut lately introduced into any alphabet. 
^' This man's name in British^" by means Welsh^ '^.was Kirys op Kynvor; and 
'^ it ts probable th^t Pdl-Kirys (a village within half a mile of this stone) received the name 
*^from' him/^ Borlase, 392 1 *^ ^ A mile off (vix.^^fit>m Castle-dor), b a broken crosse/ says 
«< Ldand, < thas inaerlbed : Catimor £t /Uius mmJtomiMA ChidlUi' but Mr. Lhuyd, #bo 
^ wii»l)etleraQquain(ed wlifh the old cbafaeter> mds the inscripftion. (as published in Cam- 
*'.dea fioom his. papers. (p. .18), Cirusius hicjaoet [jacit] — Cunotuori^tHS. The^same learned 
*^ person— ;/ttf/fy thinks the u/ to he a m reversed, the w being but lately introduced into 
" the British alphabet. — This monument — wasremoved about twelve years since, from the 
<^ four cross-ways, a mile and a half north of Fawy, and lies now in a ditch, about two 
«< bow-shots iartfaerto' the north, in the way frotti'FaM^(to:Ca8tled6r.---Mr.— Lhuyd — in a 
'^ letter— says, that this inscription is probably of ihQ^tk or sixth century. Mr. Moyle, 
^ an iris Jetter onilhisiioscriptbn, saye, '^^ ^ the lettets reaenUe the common inscriptions of 
«^ the fourtk.uA Jifth oenfeury'.*' How. stiikii^gly do the remarks of Mr. Lhuyd, a mu«h 
superior judge to Mr. Moyle, coincide with the general date here assigned to the royalty Df 
Cunmor, in -Cornwall ! .Dn Borlaae, bowever,/wandera away to>^^ Kinwarwy, son to Awy, 
<^ aJoid of Oomw«tt,^Viwho^acconlingtoIl(iwlaBd,(t55aiid i83,fiaminghim Kynfarwy^ am 
ijf Jkny op Utikitnfiigy *^ gave aameio.a chusch in Aaglesea, which was biiilt A. D. 630." 
More jndieioustyjlie observes inoi note, that<^^< Conmor w48 4 n>yal name anumg the 
tf ancieait Seola/' aiid ia so osed in ibepotma of Ossian* 

^BR''2- haYc 


have alleged before, but as I now allege additionally, was even cdled 
Pamndnia exclusively, in that period of its history antecedent to the reign 
of Athelstan, in which it extended its authority beyond the Tamar to the 
east, even up to the very Exe itself; and in which, embracing all the 
west of Devonshire with the full compass of the present €omwallj it 
naturally retained still the original appellation of Cornwall and Devon- 
shire together. Thus Adhelm of West- Saxony, addressing a letter ta 
the king and the clergy of Cornwall in 705, directs it expressly " to my 
** glorious lord Geruntius, king of thp western kingdom, — aad likewise 
Qo>u<^'^^ ^' to all God's priests inhabiting Danmonia*.'* Corsult, therefore, was 

in *' the Damnonian region'* of Cornwall. Nor let us be driven from thia 
conviction by what such will object, as have not vigour of intellect suf- 
ficient to form a decisive opinion, as therefore hang hesitating in perpe- 
tual doubt, and, like the ass between the two buncQes of hay, are unable 
to incline on either side of a question; that there is a Carseult and a 
DomnonSe in the veiy region of Bretagnd» in which Machutua was living 
at the time; and that there is even a Comw or CStmo-mairr, in the same 
region. But, seemingly balanced as the probabilities may thus be, 
there are some circumstances which weigh down one of the scales to the 
ground* The site of Corsult is fixed by the narration, not in Bretagn^, 
but in some other region to^ which the saint came, ^ in his way to his 
*' own country" of Wales-f* It was, therefore, not in the Damnon^ of 
Bretagn^, but ** in the Damnonian region'^ of Britain. And, while 
Cono-mmtr, or Comor, is confessed by the very historian who mentions^ 
him, to be merely the hero of a legend:}; ; the Cunmor of the narration 
is- actually recorded in that best of all registers, a sepulchral inscriptioa 
upon a stone " in the Damnonian region" of Cornwall itself. Where 

* Cressy, 48 1. This Geruntius is that •* Geroncius rex,'^ as the names shew, who " dedif' 
^^^acniff,*' probably Maker, " de v. hid. juxta Thamer^* to Sherborne church. (Monas^ 
licon, i. 62.) 
t Lelaod's ColL ii. 432- 1 *^ Mocfauttw, patrian^ suam repetitufus,. venit ad* CersuItJ' 
X Lobineau, 1*9 : '^ Ce seroit idle lieu de parler de— rorigine du fanieux Comor ou Co«> 
no-maur; mats en verite il y a si pea de fonds a faice sorles lfigendes,.qui sontles.seuls* 
memoires dont on pounoit tirer ce que Ton auroit, a. en dire,, qu'il vaut mieux s'en taire 
'< tout a fait.*' In i. 2, he mentions CarsuU, as about a league fxoxa Diaanj^ and takiqg iU- 
appellation from the Curiosolates. Dmimnk I bate noticed ia u a^ before^ from his L 6. 



m our region it was, the following notices clearly intimate. ** From 
'^ S. Juste pille or creke/' as Leiand tells us in hb minute description of 
Falmouth harbour, on the east, '^ to S. Manditus [Mauditus] creeke, is 
•' a mile dim. The point of the land* betwixt S. Just creke and S. 
^' Maws, is of sum cauUid Pendinas ; on this point standith as yn the 
** entery of 5. Maws creeke, a castelle or forteres late begon by the king. 
" This creke of S. Maws goith up a 2 miles by est north est into the 
^' land~-. Scant a quarter of a mile from the castel, on the same side, 
^* upper into the land, is a praty village or fischar toun with a pere, 
^^ cawlid S. Maws; and there is a chapellb of htm, and his chair£ 
'* OP STOiTE a litle without, and his welle. They cauUe this sainct 

^ there S. Mat ; he was a bishop in Brftain, and [is] painted 

'*^ as a schole-master*/' The name of this saint is so disfigured by pro- 
vincial pronunciation, both in Bretagn^ and in Cornwall ; that we should 
hardly recognise Maclovius in Machutus and. Machu, if all the names 
were not used by the saine biographer for the same person -f, and 
should never believe St. Maudite, St Mat, or St, Mawe of the island, to - ^' '>>iccoi>^^ 
be the very Machu, Machutus, or Maclovius of the continent,, if the 
forjner had not been averred to have been what we know the latter w»^ 
a bishop in Bretagnd. This stroke of traditional history rivets all the 
links of intelligence, into one chain. With this around us we recog- 
nise, we revere, the saint of Wales, and the prelate of Bretagn^, as once 
a resident upon the shores of Cornwall, and at the side of Falmouth 
harbour. The well, the chair, and the chapel, like those of another 
saint upon another part of our coast, as I shall speedily shew J, combine 
to mark the residence of the saint at the place. He came to Corsult 
— ^in the '' Damnonian region,*' in that half of it which is now called 
Cornwall, and in that part of this half which was then denominated 
Corsult, but is now the parish of St. Just §. In his way from Wales^ 

^ Leiand'sltin. iii. 29, 30* 

t Leland's Coll. ti. 430-43^: ^'Machutus — , S. MacTou— ^ Machutus — , Macfiti.''' 
This has occasioned an author, in Usher, 40, to make Machutus and Maclovius- into, different 
saints, and so to discriminate a man from himself. 

4 Section 7th of this chapter. 

{ So we have Car^dla in Su Dennis^ and Corsullm in St» Kett nt.^ 


2AO THE.,CAff«P»iMIr ^ -CfeMfWiILL [Cm^^^iV. 

imdoubtedly, Avken be bad Ifiisvse for raoh a wen^^ ^ebd ^10/ (^ Ihs rbi0«> 
igrqpha' says) onwsome occasiox&alveturnrto ^sJes.§, «i^Aofi»he ivras too fiAij 
employed for sucb a business ; he settled at a pQiutx)f Abe^aeafihore.iuiis; 
i^etx all solitaiy 4n itself; and inerelya lotig, ^It^ing^ttesceat^of teck to 
jthe water, with a broad lofty beatbat the back iafdt» I tbalieve^^fdogAp^ 
pellation to tbe whole |j. 

Thus settled, he was x^ot, indeed, under the prc^ieeiiQn of king^fierin* 
nius hinuelf^a$ tbenliviqg in bis j^stleabmit foiir miles from ^St. MmreV. 
From the collated chronolo^ of 4he king a»d tbe saint, tfieMittius ap- 
pears to have been bardly yet^born *, He was un^r'the pvotoelion of 
some king 'earlier 4han GeFennius, his father probabIy> Gerdiit ap £f byn; 
The existence K)f a well ctmibined^with the solitkrmessiof^bei^e, 4uid 
with the -warmthtof^^fecky bank £Eioing <lie nbon-day^»Hi, itoimv&te hit 
settlement at thiB particular:^ound. There beflv^red as aJiuaut ; ibraoH 
ipg himself -a chair in the rock -aboipe the wellfw his enjoffment of tthe 
wamn sifeuakkm, in oecasioi^ suPi^eys'of^tbe ciseiek midWhib^^of <the faar«* 
bour upon bis-right, and^of the sea in front ioffthe^ktter/tbeb«U^asaii)i^ 
as soUtany' almost 4U3 ^h^ ve;y siteitself. 

ThencQ, however^ tbe^ffime^of-his sotndtity difiused ilsdf over thendi^ 
bourhood^ as we have previously iseen itdolmthe'vieinttDrof StiMido^a; 

^9 ^CoU. ii« 439-: *' MacAutUf, patriam-tfiasirrepctiturtis, toAt aid'Oirsulu'' 
II Cor (W.j is a/naoor, and Sull (C.) (xmspipuons. << So St.Miofaaere Mount wa»OR«; 
^< ginally called in British Din-std,' * s^ys Borlasetn^ his ScillyJsles, p«^ : yet (as I add) not 
^< i. e« the hill belonging or dedicated to the sun,'* but with a meaning mueh nearer to4he 
kvcl of common 8ense,'the Conspicuous Hill. The name of the Sylley Isles themselves, in- 
teipr0ted by Boria^, ibid, %&Suikh into flat rocks *^ of or dedicated to the sun," is derived 
rnei^ly from Che natinoal poBscBSors of the isles, the Silui^ of Wales. (See my JjrdfiuiBe Hitt« 
of the Britons asserted, p. 89, edit. 2d.) So little does etymology, under the guidance of good 
sense, appear what it is in the management of the generality, a mere meteor .generated (by a 
^llision of atoms ; but a light, sober and steady, a beam *of the sun reflected by the moon, 
and usefully supplying tfie place of a^stronger illumination! 

• Machutus is said to have lived 133 years (C!oll. ii. 4%%)^ yet died in 564 <^:S^<^l ^ 
have acted as bishop of Aleth for near forty years (431), aiiid U> bavecOBtkiiied atSaintet 
seven years before he returnedHo Aleth , (Ushery ^77, 4178). 




StCT. T.] mSTOfttCALLT SVttVSTSD. 311 

the world of Christiaiis <fen turnmg^ with attention and reverence to eveiy* 
cbftfacter particularly religious^ considerii^ themselves only as citizens of 
earth for a few years, and habitualj^^ looking forward in their ho{>es or 
fears to another country, as Aeir permanent habitation, as their everlast- 
ing residence. He thus became troubled probably with the resort of 
people to him, removed across the channel to find a more sofitary situ- 
ation, and settled in an iminhabited islet for the effectual preclusion of 
^ visits. Tlie shortness of the passage into France, and the known pre- 
dominance of Christianity equally in Cornwall as in Wales, had, in all 
probability^ brought him hither at first : and he now took the short 
passage which he had formerly intended to take, crossing over directly 
to the opposite shore of St. Maloe's. ** Greffe islet,'* says Leland con- 
cerning what is denominated the Gray in ouf maps, and the Gull Rock in 
our conversation, a little to the east of St. Mawe'i5> ** — ^lyith northe from 
** the Farti^f a point or foreland in Britain/** now Le Fbur to the east of 
TJsfaant,. I believe, ** bytwene the tuich is the entery of the sieve of the 
^^ ocean; and betwixt Fome and Gref is a v. kennynges,** or a hundred 
miles in Leland's rate of estimation f ; *' and fiere is brevissinms t)rajectus 
^* by estimation, from Comewalle into Britain eontinentes [continent] J.'*' 
Of, as a writer almost a century older says, " the isle of Greef is situated 
" in ComMwU, near the priory of monks ©f Trewardteth, near the tow9 
of Fowey, three miles to the west ; and the said isle lies opposite to the 
country of BretagnAy called Le Foomei and the isle of Ushand lies in 
'^ sea^bcmrdv or (to speak il^glish) south and north, by the distance of the 
^* breadth of the narrow sea, called otherwise the Channel of Flan- 
*' ders, by the space of five kenyngs ; and every iennyng contains sevejf, 
'* leagiieSp that is^ one and twenty mks; from which they are lo* 
*^ miles §/'' After his removal, the hefmitage, the ehais, and die well,.' 


t Leland's Ittn. iii. I^9 : " Scylky is a kenoing^ that is ta say, about a xi^ roilesr/ ' now: 
twenty- seven,. ** from the very weateat^ pointe of Cornewaulle/' 

X Itin. Hi. 30. In viu 120^- it is thus neniioned ^so 3 ^* In the mydde wajii bfetwepe* 
^< Falemuth andOudmau is an islet or rok berying gce9se,.cawM Greffe, a^^lacxes^abowt^'^' 
now hardly' oo^;. '< but standyng yn theiniddes^ torring up right j. tbei: bredellL ya the islar 
« se fowlc." 

I Itiserar. Willelmi de Worceatre^ p, iio ; ^^ Insula de Gieef scita est in Cornubil^ 




\ » 



appear to have been visited and admired for his sake, the admiration of 
his character naturally attaching to every object connected with it, and 
the body being honoured from respect to the soul that lately inhabited it. 
After he was dead and sainted, this admiration of course rose into 
reverence, the well was visited in greater crowds, the chair was viewed 
with deeper respect, and the hermitage was entered with devouter awe. 
This gave a commencement to the town, the votaries of the sainted her- 
mit settling in houses around his hermitage, and the hermitage itself being 
reconstnicted into a chapel for their devotions. Thus continued all to 
the Reformation, the reverence having its foundation in religion, and the 
devoutness rearing its head towards heaven ; when, amidst the many 
blessings attendant upon that revolution in the church, one evil jprevailed 
in slighting the characters of the saints ; in withdrawing the honours 
paid to their names, even in dilapidating or desecrating the fanes dedi- 
cated to their memories. At the Reformation the well was stiil attended 
with a respect that was called, and perhaps had mounted into, super-^ 
stition ; the chair still remained all of solid stone in the cemetery of the 
chapel, reported even then by tradition to have been frequently used by 
the saint ; and the chapel itself still exhibited a portrait of its patron, 
'^ painted as a scholemaster," in the loose gown, I beUeve, still worn fre- 
quently by schoolmasters in the north of England, yet equally worn by . 
clergymen of the north or south in their studies at present ||. 

^'JQxta prioratum monacborum de Trewdreth, juxta villam de Fowey, per triamiHiaria ex- 
** parte occidental! ; et dicta insula jacet ex opposite patriae Britanniae, vocatae Le Foome. 
'' Et insula Ushand jacet in le seeboord, Anglice, south et north, per distanciam latitudinis 
" de le narrow see vocatum aliter Le Channel de Flaunderg, per spacium v. kennyngys ; et 

quilibet kennyng continet vii leucas, id est, 2t milliaria; unde sunt cv milliaria. Hec 

habentur per. informacionem Roberti Bracey, consanguinei mei, apud Fowey/' Crib, 
Greab (C), is the comb of a bird. ^^ Hence the rocks, called the Crebs in many places, for 

that they appear like the comb of a cock at low water." (Pryce.) Hence crib an tshyi (C.) 
the ridge of a house \ and hence also the Gteeb, one headland in Gerens parish^ a little to 
the west, and another near Porthluny to the east, of the Greef, Gref, or Gray. 

I Leland^s Itln. ix. xxii. " Fanum Mauditi j*' xxxv. " Saincte Maws ;*' p. 84, ** Mauditi 
<< Castrum, vulgo Saincte Mawes — • Incolas ostentant in cdemiterio, fano adjacently catbe* 
^< tfratn ex solido saxo, qu& frequenter sedebat, fontemque superstitione celebrem.*' 




But now^ when the ** praty village or fischar toun wiCh a pe^e** has 
been exalted into a parliamentary borough, as it was for the first time in 
the 5 th of Elizabeth % ; being then probably in tlie^ee what it still is in 
the royalty i as it probably was during the days of St. Machu or St. Ma we, 
the property of the crown ; and Elizabeth, from her political foresight of 
the ascending scale in the balance of our constitution, wisely securing the 
right of suffrage for the roycd towns or villages; almost aU is gone* 
A craving spirit of venality, once implanted in the breast, and always to- 
be fed with the rapine of elections, superinduces a gross, grovelling 
earthliness of soul, that is brutally forgetful of the past, brutally hostile 
to all memorials of it, and brutally gratified only by the paltry present. 
Only the well appears cut deeply in the living rode, on the right of the 
road into the village ; running endlong into the heart of the rock, arched 
over for its whole length, and faced with a slightly peaked arch of stone. 
The water is good, but rather hard ; and the fountain is still denominated 
pre-eminently above others that are in the village, St. Mawe*s Well. 
Close to it on the south, but lower on the descent of the hill, was t^e 
chapel, well known by tradition to have been such^ and reported by 
that tradition to have fallen into ruinSy before the aged-seeming stones 
were worked up again into the present dwelling-house. Some of these 
stones are said from their quality to have been brought, with the stones in 
the doors and windows of the parish-church about a mile to the norths St. 
Justus, from a quarry near St. Austle, fifteen or sixteen miles off*. A pillar 
about three feet long, and multangular in its form, now lies as the comer- 
stone of the house against the fall of the hilL Another of the same size 

% Willis, ii. 166-170. 

• This is the same quarry, I presume, which is mentioned by Leland's Itin. iii. 31, thus : 
'' There is a fair quarre of whit fre stone on the shore betwixt Pcntowen and Blak-hed, 
'^ whereof sum be usid in the inward partes of S* [Mawes] forteresse; and Pendini^s castelle 
^< is of the saqfie stone, except the wallinge/' It is also noticed by Carew thus, << Pentuan 
'* [stone] digged out of the sea cliffes, and in colour somewhat resenibleth gray marble'^ 
(p. 6) ; and by Norden, as <' the best free stone that Cornwall yealdeth, and the moste of 
^* the churches and towrcs thcrabout were buylded of them" (p. 61). And this circumstance 
accounts for what nothing else can account for, the strange position of St. Justus church with 
its parsonage at the bottom of the bank shelving down to an arm of Falmouth harbour, even 
on the very brink of the water. 

VOL. I. s s and 

hih THE cXthedral* op coRii Wall [6ukK - rr^ 

^d form Is remembered to have been ttsed th th6 wills'j l?rith a third, 
Reported at the time to be the fontj but having no bason on it fbr the bstpi- 
iismal water, and being therefore the mere pillar of the font* Upon th* 
floor of the house still fehlains th^ pavement of the chapel, tovered ovet 
(in the growing tenderness of the times) with a fiew fLobi of boards, but 
known to be a blile stone cut very nicely into sqiiaresv On the north 
side of the house, the antifeht wall of it remained pretty entire within 
these few years> and had a small window* in a Gothid ai^h of stone curi- 
ously wrought. Over the wdl, iddng the northern sid^of the cbapel> 
and two or thtee yards above thie level of it, was the chapel-ya^rd '; still 
remaining ih an open area abbvfe the well itself, but built upoli for the re^ 
mainder. ITie buildings, however, Vere raised within tnemoiy, anJ 
human bones were dug up in laying the foundations*. Thfese buildingt 
are styled in their leases expressly thfe chapel-yard tenement^ and the 
house adjoining is styled trs expressly tiie chapel tenement ; both bdoiig^ 
ing to 6ne persoh. Sir. Buller, to whose "ancestors (1 suppose) they wcM 
given at fhe Tleformatibn f ; and *bdth being for that reason, as not 
equally with the rest 'of the village in the fee bf the dro^ii, shut out cun* 
Wngly by Elizabeth, as they still cbntiilue,' frdm the j^afe of the borougtk 
But the stone-chaii^ and the portrait of -thfe saint have been so Jdng det 
hiolished, that tradition knows nothing concerning either. They wert 
therefore destroyed probably, not indeied in the first paroxysm of .re* 
formation under Henry VIII. as Ldland then could hot have setn tbetn, 
but In that second which took place soon afterwards under Edward and 
Elizabeth :|: , deriving strength from the first, shewing an additioncd 
violence^ and threatening destruction to all literature, all religion, all 
Christianity, among us ; till the church of England arose like a phoenix 
from the ashes of its parent, and almost as miraculously, to restore 
literature, to re-establish religion, and to re-invigorate Christianity j, to 
last therefore (1 hope and'trust) as long as Christianity itself lasts in our 

t Tanner knows* nothing about the chapel, except that he strangely supposes it' to be Su 
Matthew's; and then says what directly refutes his supposition, that '* St. Mawes Uppears 
^* in the Exeter Registers—^ to be no other than a corruption of Su Mauduit's.*' See his 
Cornwall, No. xvii, 

X See sec, 7 th. 

* isle. 

isle, and then to enshrine her remains in the temple of Religious Fame 
for ever. Thus, in strict propriety, the well is all that we see at present 
of St. Mawe's memorials here. So much longer is preserv^ed by man, 
what ministers to his bodily necessities, than what refers to his spirittial 
wants : what serves the petty ends q£ thu short day of our beiqg, tha^ 
what promotes the awful purposes of an etermiy iu the next. So much 
too is the gtoius of this boroi^h-viilage altered, from what it . originally 
was ; that its d»habitants a» turoed frcxia ibeing the just admirei?, the rer 
ligious reverers, of dieir .sainted jhenh^, into jmen ujQcoxiscious of hi^ 
merits, ignorant even of his existence, and staring in amazement at any 
inquiries ernioerning him or his §« . 

' $ Mr. Willis, 'in ii. t68, Mfs,'^' there bett^>in<)?e towi^ j^this name in Cornwall, it may 
'^ (Hiscle the greatest pretender to antiquities, .unacquainted in this countiy, to distinguish 
^' them," when the main assertion is astonishingly false, there being no other town, village^ 
or place, so called except this ; ^' as well as discourage an indifferent person, disappointed 
<^ in receiving any satisfaction from his repeated inquiries." The inhabitants of St. Mawe'ts 
thus appear to have been eighty years ago, just as they are now, incurious and unknown. YeX 
4they had knowledge and curiosity enougbt aa I 0Q(d from. a notioe latent jn additiopa toMf. 
Willis's vohime at the end, to inform him at last, ^' there is .a place calVda chapel near a 
f* well, in. the town, now dwelling-houses." (P. 544.) But Mr. Willis has principally erredj 
in preferring the false and dubious account of Itin* ix. 84, to the true and certain one of lii. 36. 
— In Hals's time was observed, at St. Mawe's, ^' an annuall faire on Friday next after Luke's 
'<^' day" (Hals's MS.), which day is the i8th of October. Yet St. Machutus's day is in t^e 
Gallican martyrology the 15th of November (Creasy, 153), and is equally so in. our ovm 
ciJendars. Thut is the parish-feast of St. Just^ held on the Sunday next after. St. Luke's 
day ; held for some years past at Midsummer by the borough, in consequence of a shoal of 
pilchards being lost from the absence of the boatmen at the feast in the cA^/rcA-^oi^/n; but 
always observed in October by the parish, and now beginning to be re-obscrved in October 
by the borough.— Yet let me add, injustice to the inhabitants of St. Mawe's, and in com- 
pensation for what 1 have said against them ; that, however incurious, however.unknpwiog, 
tbeyjnay now be 'cenceroing their own antiquities and history, they are particularly em^iieot 
.as pilots ; pushing out in their boats to any vessel in want of their aid, with a boldness that 
is often strained into rashness, but with a skill that often turns their rashness into just confi- 
dence, yet too often with a fortune that buries their confidence or their rashness in the ocean, 
'Many are the families that have lost a father, a brother, or a son, in this employ,, so n^ijessa^y 
in itself at the mouth of such a very frequented harbour as Falmouth, so useful in its oper«)« ' 
tions upon the ships coming to it, and so gainful in its rewards to themselves* : 




This incident carries \is back a considerable way toiUMsrds the heart of 
the sixth centuiy, even into or above it. But I shall reproduce ap inci- 
dent now, that will lead us back to the very comfnencenumt of this cen- 
tury. I have previously noticed Sawt Petrock to have landed at Pad- 
stow in the year 5 1 8 || ; and I now mean to apply the fact, as a proof of 
the predominance of Christianity in Cornwall at the time. 

St. Petrock came not, as Dr. Borlase in all this sleeping part of his his- 
tory dreams, '^ to preach the Gospel," or to ^' labour in the word of 
*' God ^.'* He came only to sequester himself from the world, to retire 
into some solitude of Cornwall, and to resign himself up to all the un- 
interrupted abstractedness of devotion *. That indeed he, who veas a 
native of Cumberland, and had been a student for twenty years in Ire- 
land, should seek for a soUtude in any other country, seems extraordi- 
nary to reason, when reason is not influenced by fancy. But in such a 
plan of sequestration from the world, however religious, however digni- 
fied, however angelic, in the spirit proposing it ; yet fancy has a consi- 
derable influence. The more remotely the scene of solitude is fixed from 
places familiar to the mind, the more completely it seems to answer the 
wishesof a soul, aspiring to throw off the impediments of common society> 
to rise above the gross atmosphere of common conversation, and to 
niount up into the pure aether of a contemplation of angels, a contempla- 
tion of God, even an awful union with them in the adoration of Him. 
Cowley, we all know, when he wanted to withdraw from the world on 
motives not so high set as these, had once formed a schen^e of burying 
"himself in the wilds of America ; yet actually found a solitude sufficient 
"for all his purposes, a sepulchre for the living bard, in the very neighbour- 
hood of London, and at the very village of Chertsey. But we see this 
reasoning still more powerfully confirmed, by a still stronger incident of 

I Chap. i. sect. 2d. 
f Borlase, 372, 380. 
• C^uulen therefore §By%, 140, that he in Cornwall ** Deo vacavit/' 




antiquity itself^ by men relinquisliing this rcrj Ireland for the sake of koltf 
seclusion from their relatives^ and actually coming into ComwaU^ when 
Christianity is confessed by Dr. Borlase himself to have been fulfy 
established over the whole of his region of persisting druididra. In 80 U 
says the Saxon Chronicle, " three Scots came to Alfred the king from. 
^* Ireland, in one boat without any rowers [without any sails] ; they bad 
stolen atvay from Ireland, because they would for the love of God go 
abroad J they cared not whither. The boat, in which they put out, wjw 
made of two hides and a half; and they took with them meat j|Qr sevea 
days ; and they came in seven days to land among the Cornish ; an4 
" they went soon io Alfi*ed the king. TTiey were thus named, Duibslane, 
*' and Macbeth, and Maelinmun f .*' With this spirit, but under a soberpr 
impulse of it, St. PetrocJ^ came from Ireland to Cornwall, landed at Pad- 
stow, and removed to Bodmin; preached not, and attempted not to 
preach, to the inhabitants of the country, any more than Gowley meant 
to have preached to the natives of America, or thanMaeIinmun,Macbethy 
and Dubs]ane, meant to preach to the Cornish or the Saxons ; but se- 
questered himself immediately with his three companions^ in a solitary 
valley at Bodmin, and in the hermitage of St. Guron there %. This fact ^(^aC^^^ 
implies of itsdf, that the Gospel had been already '' preached" in Corn- 
wall, that *^ the word of Goo'* had been already adopted there, and that 
the Cornish were kno>yn in Ireland^ to have been already folded under 
some shephei^d or bishop <^ Christianity ; when, indeed, the remote 
Britons of Ireland had all been, it is a strange paradox in antiquarianism 
to suppose, and a most ridiculous solecism in history to assert, that the 
neighbouring Britons of Cornwall had not been. But the very incident 
of St. Petrock*s visit, even according to Dr. Borlase himself, proves they 
had. He landed at Padstow, as thf Doctor intiflmtes, and actually found 
a CHURCH there, of which we have the very name preserved- by the 
Doctor, Lqffenac. It is very amazing, in truth, that Dr. Borlase should 
acknowledge this fact, when it is so subversive of all which he has just 
spoken, concerning St. Petrock coming ** to preach the Gospel'* among 
the Cornish, and to ** labour in the word of God," by converting the 

t Sax. Chron. and Florence, 328, *' sine velo." 
X See cbap, i. sect. 3, before. 




Coiiihh to tt. Yet he ^v^n enters into ad 6xp}ana(;ieii of die name^ . and, 
m^rprets it in b tnanner : equally subversive of his ptecedkig positions ;. 
fdsolving it cittofer ihtto LanMenei the chiirch of stone, or into JLam 
Mufiaoh the chiirch of monks §. Oh either intei^retationi the DDctar> 
eOA^^sses A cUardh 06 have been existing at Fadstow for the jmblic devo-« 
tiorts of Chnstiaiiitjr^ alt the very time that St, Petrook landed in the porty 
tVeh a&eariy as tbkyeftr SiS^ Afid the interpretations given unite witb 
t!h<^ fisfct coitfessed/to prove against the Doctor the public prpix^ssion o£ 
C%i4Mrlttftity in Cori]!vraIl> long before St. PetrOek came into the country > 
^^f^ to tefoiitfii^niitmwlfhw own assertions coneeniiiig the design of 
Bt. !l^<^6<fle*6 >cmtAi^, in the Mkst, the clodest^ and the most ^pointed 
ManA^. l^j^eriel- liefbrej; I alindst bielieve, vi^as 

An eagle^ towering in i(s pride of place^ 

)>rotight dtiWh so decisively fix)ni its flight towaids the suti^ by ^i arrov7 
^thj^red from its own wing. 

T^t the f)ofttor is even morfe' contradictory to himself than* I have 
shewn him & be* He not merely refutes by a fact, what he has asserted 
ih pai*ticular conceiftiing Bi. Pkrock:; but even annihilates all that he has 
inalntaihed in getietal, of the contiriuance of druidiam '' during all th^ 
^^^jvfth, and most of the sixth, centuincs/' Both general and particular he 
tmeonsciously sweeps awa^ toj^ther, by averring this^ church whioh St. 
TPetrock fourid at Padstow in* 518> to have bden evien "'erected by St- 
^' Patrick in the year 432 j| /* So very inconsistent can a little confusedr 
ness of understanding make a man ! He actually appals in form to 

 § 'feolrla^e, 379, 380 : '" The first religious house that we read of [tt] founded in Con^ 
'<« wall, was that— ^called ancleiHly-^Latftoac;* either from the churcb-s being built with 
•* stone—* [quasi Lan-inenek], — or— ^quasi Lan-manach, the church of the monks. — ^The 
'* town was afterwards — called — P&dstow — * Sahit Petrock — settled in the same house.'* 


P. 372 : " He settled in a monastery, called before his time — Laffenek" 

Jl Borlase, 379. A note says, '^ prohally the same that St. Patrick bad founds in the 
<< year 432:'" B^t the text maintailis its usual tone of confidence^ and speaks without bese- 
tation of " the monastery erected by St, Patrick, and that which St. Petrock afterwards Kvcd 
« and taught in." 

:. . • i - ■• ' Usher, 

.Ulher^ for St Pftti^k's ^Kct^oa of ^chprch in Cornwall finder that year; 
' citing his veiy vfor^B thus, *'* wh^re (to wit, in Cornwall) and at JS^, 
^* David's > they report him' to. have hwlt 4 jnooastiery'^/V His appeal 
-tmly ^Fves to aggisi^Tiite;' hi;i iecoufiistency . ^ XhiE^ erection of a ckurph, tlia 
. amstructi^n. of a moAa^terff, is certainly a d^i^ve i$vidence for the public 
profeasion of Cbriatianity in the ooufttiyi 

< •• ' * . • 


, I mean not, howrever, *o rajse the temple of tmth ypon the piUar^ pf 
^^Ifidiood. Dr. Borlase 10. here a^ unjust »8 hp i$ inconsistent, nnd alleges 
•^Vsher ibr what be never say^ orvmeans to sayj TJjsher neya ^asserjting hijofi,- 
-jKlf, never .referring to -others as asserting, jthat St. Patric|s:, about -^32, 
^bnik a monastery in Cornwall. Usher only refe;rs to some as eajving, th^t 
fit Patrick, in his way -from France to Irelgyad, " tarried awhile among 
:^ t^e Britons of Cornwall /(ndl Wahsy wvssRy wen at Sakit Dfivid^s, th&y 
/* import him to have built a mona^ery */* This is ;the cl^ar, the iiten)l 
riinpoFt of the Latin words in Usher, and the specifiqation ^f St. David a 
Hdiews it the certain one: yet jDi:. Borlaee, with a schoolboy's 
^poverty of ideas in interpretation, considers. St « David'<s as jso/ ipcluded i^i 
'Wales, but opposed to Cornwall ; so believes, pr pretends to believe, on^ 
.monastery erected at St David's in. Wales, and another at some .luy 
tfipecified place in Cornwall. He thus shews his. judgment vv;arped and 
bent and distoited, .by the false fires :of a local {mtiqu^ry^; a sacrifice being 
made by him of all understanding, upon the mean, the mud-formed altar 
"of local attachments. Had the Doctor turned from the index back to the 
*work, pursued the references in that, and examined the testimonies in 
this; a task, imposed surely upon every citer of every book, yd as easy ip 
.itsex^utionas it is requisite in itself; » he would tben have found that 
Anselm, the only relator of St. Patrick's visit io.Coimwalh says npt one 
word of his erecting a church, or of his building a monastery, there-, and 
that the only monastery or church, which Usher's witnesses affirm St. 
JPatrick to have built, was not in Cornwall, but (as the language of his 

% Borlase, 379, in a note; '^ ' Ubi (in Cornubi& scil.) et iM^neviae coenobium con- 
• *f 8truxi86<i fcnint.' .Usher, p..iiQo%" 

• Usher, 516: '^ A|)ud Britannos in partibus Cornubias et Camh'ia, ulij et Menevis^,. 
f* coenobium eum construxisse ferunt^ aliq^aoidiu substitisse troditur." 
I ' ; 5 * ' index 


inder denotes) at St. David^s in Wales f . So very careless could Dr. 
Borlase be in writing a work, which has been exalted by the praises of 
tnen just about the same level of intellect with himself, as one of the most 
satis^ctoiy histories of a<:ounty that ever was written. Dr. Borlase, in- 
deed, does not ever mislead us by any meteorous flashes of genius ; seldom 
darts upon us, with even the bright effulgence of an Italian sun ; but 
commonly moves, like the generality of our British suns, behind a trans-- 
-parent screen of clouds J. Yet for such a luminary to fiiil us ^regiously, 
to cany the delusiveness without the blaze of a meteor, or to be fre- 
quently wrapt up in darkness with hardly one eruption of radiance, is veiy 
extraordinary. The great virtues of Dr. Borlase, as a writer, ought to be 
fidelity and judiciousness; but, as we see in all this portion of his Instory^ 
his fidelity is frequently violated, and his judidousness is more frequently 
betrayed, by the perfidious impotence of his prejudices. The fact is, that 
St. Patrick (as fiir as historical testimony goes) nev^r was in Cornwall, 
and (as far as probability weighs against weak eiidence) never wag m 
Wales also. I shall therefore take no advantage of Dr. Borlaae*s con- 
cessions at one time, so contrary to his assertions at another. I have 
noticed them, to shew him to my readers in his assumed dress, and to ex* 
hibit him in what I must unwillingly call his fooFs coat of many colours. 
But, having done this, I shall rest my own history upon better ground^ 
upon ground firm in itself, and reaching in its foundations to the centre. 

t See particularly Usher,.439 : ^^ Qui — ^Davidio Menev^nsts vi^am descripsere, Ricemar- 
^^ cbus Sulgent filius, Giraldus Cambrensis, et Johannes Tinmutbensis, Patricium Vallem 
'< Rosinam sive Meneviam in Cambria — sedem sibi eligere voluisse, atque ab eo portu (mu* 
^' (ato postea comilio) in Hibemiam trajectsse assemnt.'' 

I Once he writes so agreeably, that I cannot but produce the passa^ to my reader, though 
it be in another work. ** Shall we attribute this variation'' in the forms of mundic, and in 
their similarity to plants, to animals, to fancy-formed figures, or to the objects of science, 
^^ to a plastic power superintending the congress of fossils, and sporting itself with natural 
" or preternatural representations ; or shall we rather say, that the Great Power, which con- 
^' trived and made all things, needing no delegate, artfully throws the flexile, liquid materiab 
'< of the fossil kingdom into various figures, to draw the attention of mankind to his works, 
'^ and thence lead them, first to the acknowledgment, then to the adoration of an Intelligent 
** Being, inexhaustibly wise, good, and glorious ? Doubtless these are the works of thai 
** same Lover ofshape, colour^, and unifoi-mity, that paints the peacock's train, that vehis the 
"/wyjp, that streaks the zebra.'* (Nat. Hist, 142.) 

• / 


When St. Tebeock landed at Fadstow about 5 1 8, he certainly found a 
<:HCTRcn there, and he certainly found it denominated Laff£Nac §. Here 
therefore we find Christianity openly professed, worship openly paid to 
our Lord, even a temple openly erected for him, and this, in the very 
spirit of the ages avowedly Christian, lending its own appellation to the 
town itself || . We thus see our religion happily triumphii^ in Cornwall, 
30 early as the year 518, so much earlier indeed as the church was old in 
that year; and (^splaying its victorious banners in the erection of 
churches, in the imposition of sainted names upon them, in the very de- 
nominadton of towfis and parishes from them. Yet, with all this evidence 
l^efore us. Dr. Borlase contrives to pick up some suggestions that shall 
andulge his own attachment to the doctrines of druidism^ and still main- 
tain the AoiMmr of Cornwall in continuing its devotion to ^em. '^ When 
^^ Sl Petvock came last to Miait tiie Comidli BriUms about the middle of 
"^^ the sixth century, A. D. fiis;,** says the Doctor,—" Tendurusi, a njan of 
^/ a sav^e and cruel dispontion, aad probab^ a heathen^ was Jdi^ %y 

The '' last*' visit of St Fetrock is thus dated about 557» and the first 
about &19 ; because the saint is described by John of Tinmouth^ in a 
Tambling dispositioo that is all incoQipatible with a studious life oftwei^ 
years in Ireland before, and an hermitical life of thirty aitcanvards in 

§ Camdea, 140 : ^^ PAdstow-<^coiitiact;e pro PetrockAow (ul in Sasctorum Hiitoriis legi- 
*' tur) aPetroco quodam Britannico inter sancios relato, qui hie Deo vacavit ; cunx antea«7- 
*^ Laffenac vocaretur,*^ The meaning of the name Lqffenac^ I believe, is the latter of tbo 
two significations suggested by Dr. Borlase, Lan Mmtach, or the church of monks. So Bod" 
nuinach appears varied in pronunciation into Bod^venah (Borlase, 379). And, by that aup- 
;|»reision of the letter n in pronunciation also, which runs equally through the Latin, the 
.English, and the British ; forming Convmientia into Covenant, Convenius into Covent or 
Coventry, or Oovent-garden, Lan Moran, or Lan Mahe, or Lanrake, or Penryn, the names 
of three parishes and one town in Cornwall, with the analogous Penrith in Cumberland, into 
Lflmorrant or Lavale, or Larake, or Pe-ryn, or Pe-rith (Leiand's Itin. iii. 28, vii. i20j 
vii. 60) ; and is therefore noted at times in writing* by a mere stroke over the two letters ad- 
joining ; Lan Manach would melt in pronunciation into Lawenec, the name of a parish tiow 
in Cornwall, Jjwertnec^ like Bod-venab for Bodmin, and Laffetwti the name of the church 
at Padstow. 

I Camden, 140 : ^^ Padi/ot(^"^9tea^Ira^i»iic vocaretur." * 

i| Borlase, 408 and 572. 

VOL. I. T T Cornwall^ 


Cornwall, to have gone away for Rome, &c. Nor is he pretended to havtf 
set out for Rome, as Dr. Borlase, in his desire to disguise the strange in- 
compatibility of the incident with his former life, ventures to insinuate, 
because Rome was '' the chief university of the empire *,'* but merely 
because it was in his way to Jerusalem. This city he is pretended to have 
visited from it ; though the visit is totally suppressed by the Doctor, bow 
beginning to shrink from the incredible tale, now refusing to proceed 
any farther with it f . The saint is even said by the same bicgsapher, to 
the amazement (I doubt not) of all my readers, to have pushed on from 
Jerusalem as far as the East Indies y to have lived a solitary hermit in an 
island there for seven years, and then to have returned ta his three discK 
pies in his hermitage at Bodmin X* . St. Fetrock therefore must hare beea 
about SEVENTT years of age, when he set out on this astonishing expe* 
dition, and more than seventt-seven when he again set out on his re* 
turn ; at such an advanced period of life travelling so many thoasand 
miles forward, to enjoy — ^what he was enjoying at Bodmin, and travelling 
so many thousand miles back again, to enjoy — what he had been thirty 
years enjoying at Bodmin before. This, this, with the gross contradic- 
toriness of all to a life of fifty years spent in studious or religious seques^ 
tration, is sufficient to annihilate the credibility of the whole story; 
framed as it is from that flimsy texture of authority, the fabulous John of 
Tinmouth. This, indeed, is so flimsy, even in the opinion of Usher, that 
he has fixed his broad arrow of condemnation upon the story ; adding 
thus at the close of the whol^ " if we can give credit to these narrations 
/' of John Tinmouth §/* But Leland, who has written an account of St 
Petrock, and whose accuracy of information is equalled only by his fidelity 
of relation, totally omits all these eccentric adventures ; thus purges the 
biography, of what is very degrading to the character; and makes 
the saint to pay only one visit into Cornwall, to come^^ to stay, to die 

there [j. 


 Borlase, 372. 

t Borlase, 372 : '* Afiter paying a visit to Rome^ he returned into Cornwall" 
I Usher, 292. 

$ Usher, 292 : '' Si Johannis Tinmutbensis narratiopibus fides sit adbibenda/' 
»|| Leland De Script. Briu 61 • In Leland's Itin. viii, 54, we have these extracts made 



, St, Pctrock, however, adds his lying biographer, on his return into 
Cornwall found ^^ Tendurus reigning there, a man fierce and savage in 
** his manners ^." Dr. Borlase therefore supposes him to have been 
^' probably a heathen ;" with a compliment unintended, I believe, to the 
humanizing powers of Christianity, which I wish was altvaysyxst\ but 
with a design certainly of wresting the quality .of the character, to the 
purposes of his own hypothesis. The Doctor, too, supposes him a 
heathen, when his argument requires he ^should prove hint one ; he 
having undertaken to prove what we have seen him assume brfore, that, 
from the attachment of the Cornish to their druidism, " in the latter end 
" of the fourth, during all the fifth, and most part of the sixth centuries, 
'^ we find so many holy men employed to convert the Cornish to the 
*' Christian religion/' But suppositions are more ready instruments of 
action than proofs ; and, eager in his work, the Doctor took the tools 
that he could mo9t promptly find. Yet either suppoaitiqns or proofs 
must have equally failed him here. That this sovereign was no heathen, 
all the circumstances of the history demonstrate. When St. Pctrock 
landed in 5 1 8, he not only found a church erected at Padst^iv^, found s^ 
hermit living at Bodmin, and fixed himself there as a hermit Mpith three, 
others, but lived with them there for thirty years together. During 
bis residence there# and early in it probably, he found that " in the veiy 

by Leiand '^ Ex Vit& Petroci . • • • 'Petrocus Romam petiit, Petrocus Rom& revergus est ad 
*^ 8uum moaasteriuai in Cornuhi^'/' These assert the excursioa of St. Petrock from Bod* 
min to Rome, but deny the farther excursion to Jerusalem, the still farther to the Indies, and 
the settlement for seven years in an Indian island. This life therefore appears to have been 
the groundwork for all Tinmouth's account; the coloured canvass, on which he boldly 
•ketehed his extravagant portrait. He found the expedition to Rome there, and with all the 
laih dexterity of a forgei extended it to Jerusalem, to the East Indies, to the island therei 
Yet that both the life and the additions were equally fabulous, and were considered as equally 
fabulous by Leiand himself, is apparent from Leland's own life of St. Petrock; in which he 
has omitted equally the journey to Rome, and the peregrination to the £ast. There were 
frequently, I believe, two lives of a saint, one fabulous, the other genuine. This was the 
case particularly with Petrock ; and Leiand, who met with the genuine after he had made 
extracts from the fabulous, rejected this as fabulous, and drew up his life from thai as 
f Usher, 29a : <* Tendurus^ vir atrox et ferus moribus.** 

X T 2 " neighbour* 

334 THE CATaElUtAL OV COttZTVALI. [cffAK n*. 

^' neighbourhood one Samson, coii^icuoua Itke Petiock for his pietj^ 
^' had chosen himself a place, in which be liyed as a hermit*' too * ; his 
hermitage being in the present parish of GuUant or Giant assuiedlj, a& to 
St. Sampson the church there is dedicated, and as the ecclesiastical ap- 
pellation of the parish is St. Sampson's f . This incident unites with all 
before, to shew Christianity, and not dmidism, the leli^oa of the 
country at the beginning of the sixth century. Nor is Tendurus a 
heathen, even upon the face pf Tin mouth's own history. The v«y con* 
tinuance of St. Petrock's cell under him, the very return of St. Pctrock toi 
it, and the very residence of St. Petrock in it till his death, all prove he is 
not. Even the very silence of the biographer, in not noticing the 
heathenism when he notices the savageness, again proves he is not. So 
completely false is the Doctor's supposition in every view of it ! 

But indeed the biographer has injured the king, and tramposed the 
history ; mentioning Te^durus as king on the pretended return of St. 
Petrockf when Tei/durus, as his name should be written, was actually 
king at bis first landing, and when as king he actually shewed great 
civility to St. Petrock. " When Petrock was come to maturity of years,'* 
notes Iceland in his useful abstract of his life, '^ he left his country, and 
sailed with a fair gale to Ireland. There, glowing with an uncommon 
degree of fondness for studies, he had the most learned teachers ; nor 
^^ did he desist from the work, before he had spent the whdie of twenty 
" years in the perusal of good authors. The treasure, collected by this 
" laborious attention to knowledge, was found at last ; and, that it might 
^' be no longer concealed, the finder transported the treasures of Ireland 
^' into Cornwall, and exhibited them conspicuously to all : at that time, 
^' two petti/ kings reigned in Cornwall, celebrated in fame, Tqeo^ore and 
*^ Constantine ; by the liheraliiy and piety of both whom being assisted, 

* Usher, 092 : '' In proximft viciDi& Sainton quldam, sanctitate item conspicuus, sedem 
** sibi elegerat, in qu& solitariam vitam duceret." 

t Omiited in the first Valor, as a part of the parish of Tywardretb, probably ; it is thus 
mentioned in the second, ^' St. Sampson's, alias Golant, or Giant, Cur. Pri. Tywardretb 
" Prop." It is also called " S* Sampson," or «« S. Sampson's," in,aa ancient rate for the 
paytoentof fifteenths in Cornwall. ^Carew^ 91 and 95 ) 

* 4 ' , "he 



*^ he received a pTcxe very Jit for bmlding a monastery, — ^to which the 
*^ monks gave the name of Bosmanach in their native langu^e *." Here. 
then the whole air of mjstery is dissipated, the enchantment raised bj 
that falsifying magician the biographer is dissolved, and the history shews 
itself in all the colours of reality,. Christianity, not druidism, was the 
religion of the country at St. Pfetrock's vfeit to it ; the saint of Cumber- 
Ian J, with his three conipanions from Ireland, was well received by 
Theodore and Constantine, tfiat the father having relinquished, the activi- 
ties of government to this, the son„ though still retaining the rights of ^ 
sbvereign with the precedence of a parent ; and had land allotted infime** 
diately for his hermitage, by this king acting in the name of that. Th^ 
appelladbn of Tendurus therefore appears to be nothing more than the 
mikake of the eye for Tewdurus, Tudor, or Theodore. Only Tinmoutli 
has made one blunder a({ditionaI to all, in confounding this Constandne of 
St. Fetrock, who was reigning the assessor of his father in $1 8, wit^ the 
Constantine of Gildas, who was reigning by himself in 564; in con- 
founding '^ the very pious father noticed by Gildas, with tihe profligate 
and murderous son mentioned by him ; anct in so laying upon the head of 
Theodore as the principal in the sovereignty^ what was meant for th^ 
inistaken assessor in it *^. Thus ha9 he attributed that ^' fierceness and 

'*• savagent$$^ 

^ Lehnd Dt Steript Brkc 6» :. ^^ Ubl nialuroft pervcnerat a«J aiiiios, r«lJct& patiift,. in HU 
^ bernUm sccundis veqiis navigavit^ Ibi, ftiuApntm inaolijk) quodam conflagrana amoren 
*^ praeceplores eximie dootos excoluit ; ntc manum prius de tabu]& austulijt^ quam totos vi-^i^- 
^ ginti annoa in-ketione bononua autonim ezegtsset. Qu^aitiM h&c labcwiosl^ sciential the-' 
^^ saurus curk, tandem inventus est ^ qui jan^ ne delilereC^ inventov Hibemicaa gaisaa in Co«% 
M rinlam traBsti^> et vidcndas omnibua exhibuijb. jRegnabant eo in C«rini& svculoji duo • 
¥ regoli, famdrcelebres^ Thcodotua ^t Constantinus ;. quoniBi cum liberalitate turn pietatci 
<^ adjutue, locunv condeodo aptiasimum mooasterlch^accepi^ cui,QOiQ«n patri4 lingua JSos*^ 
^ nu^MicA 1^ monachia iaditum/' 

t^ Gildaa^s k%si(3rjf was written, aa he tsUa u6 hiouelf in e. %%\L brty-finir. years after thc^ 
battle of Badon, or in the year 564 (Uaber, 526, 5217, 53a} ; and his $pMe ih» same year^,. 
i' hoc anno'' (Gak,. i, i&). fhi$ therefore << found'' Constaniine^ ml <aa X>r. Borlaae saysj^ 
408} << in the yeiur 583," bi|l nineteen yeas s preceding^ It found him^ and (as H^dition re-* 
ports) brought htm to a ym\ se^se of hia proA^a^y. ^ Unum ex iia [regibus]/' aaya^ 
Gak| i. praefatio ad lectoremy f* ad sanam mentem revocavit \ nam in ^6dam cbronico^ 
^ Canabrico legi de Canataiiliao qjuem. Gildas iacaepuit|. * Coiuretaia CoqitacilMaL ad Dorni*^^ 

« num V'^ 


^' savSgeness t)f manners** to Theodore, to which he has probably no 
right, and of which very much certainly belongs to the younger 0>ii* 
stantine ; giving those qualities to the grandfather^ which the graadson 
had ^one, but which even the grandson himself had not at the time 
assigned, the arrival of St Petrock, That assassinator of two youths in 
the very temple of God, at the very altar of God, under the very robes of 
the officiating abbot, and in the very arms of their mother there * ; that 
man therefore, who was very truly '' fierce and savage in his manners ;*' 
whom Dr. Boriase in strict consistency must therefore believe to be a 
heathen, even though we find with him a very temple of God, a very altar 
of God, and a very abbot officiating in his robes ; even he was not yet 
bom probably. Ilis " very pious father ' was yet a mere associate with 
his father, in the toils of go\'«rnment ; and with him the protector, the 
patron, the friead of St. Petrock, as well as St. Petrock s three com- 
panions f ^ . -So 

'^ num*.'^ Dr. Boriase accordingly considers hlai as a saint, and even (in his wild way of 
making martyrs, borrowed^ however, from tbe Romish calendar without any acknowledg- 
ment) a very martyr for the Gospel. (Itinerar. W* de Worcestre, p. 107, *' Sanctus Constan* 
«^ tinus rex et tmriir") Gildas*s epistle, adds Dr. Boriase, ^^ made such an impression oa 
^ him, that be turned monk — . He is supposed to have suffered martyrdom, and is there^ 
^fore reckoned -a saint. We have a church dedicated to him.'' (P. 408.) That he suffered 
martyrdom as a Christian, it is ridiculous to suppose ; when he had been himself a king 
.professing Christianity, and when his subjects were all Christians. (Gildas^ 18.) He xadst 
have been the son too of St. Petrock' sConstan tine, that ^'piissimus pater" of tbe Coosun* 
fmeofGildas. (P. 18, 19.) 

' * Gildas, 18: '* In dnarim venerandis matrum sinibus, ecclesias eamalisque, sub sancti 
^ abbatis ampbibab,-— inter ipsa— -sacrosancta altaria," &c. 

t How Constantino the king became a martyr, we know not. He certainly could not be* 
'tome one, in the just sense of the word. He was killed therefore by some one in his retire* 
ment, out of resentment for the past. But where was his reUrement ? Not, as we naturally 
suppose at first, in tbe parish denominated from him. At the church of this parish was no* 
^ religious bouse," as Dr. Boriase, misled by Tanner, supposes there was. (P^ 390.) The 
very words of Doomsday Book, cited by him to prove there was, prove tbera was none* 
^^ Sanctus Comtaniinus,'' a language appropriated to a church merely parochial, while the 
collegiate or conventual church is distinguished by the addition of *^ Clerici,*' or *^ Cane- 
s' nici," of the saint, ^^ habet dimidium hkisa terras," &c. And tbe Vabr of pope Nicholas 
concurs, noticing << ecclesia Sancti Constantini" just as it notices ail merely parochial 
#hurches» But at another point of Cornwall was it| that Constantine lived as a hermit^ even 



So completely have we proved, in opposition to seming anthoritj, in 
contradiction to gross falsehoods carrying the forged stamp of authority 
upon them ; that, when St. Petrock landed in Cornwall about the year 
5 1 8, he landed in a country all Christian, inhabited by Christian subjects^ 
governed by Christian kings, replenished with hermitages, churches, and 
monasteries of Christianity *. 


Yet let us trace the current of Dr. Borlase^s evidences a little higher up 
the channel of time, and mount along the channel nearly to th(S very 
point of Germanus's visit into Cornwall. 

'* Rngarus," Guigner, or Gwinear, says the Doctor (as we have sees ^* 5^^5^ 
before), ^^ with his sister Fiala, eleven bishops,, and a numerous at«^ 
'* tendance,, all baptized [and some even consecrated] by St. Patridc, came 
'' into Comwall> and, landing at the mouth of the river Hayle,. was. there 
put to death in the year 46o, with all his company, by Theodorick king 
of Cornwall, im fear lest they should turn his subjects from their an* 
cient religion***^ But> as he also subjoins immediately^. '' ohout the same 


ftt St. Merin near Padstow. There, and there only, ^ is yet extant Saint Gmstaniine's 
^' IVell, strong built of stone, and arched over ;'' as near it are *' the mines of an old churchy 
^ cbapell, and cemitery pertayninge therto, dedicated to St. Constantine;" a chapel (1 pre- 
sume) to Padstow, as St, Merin is no parish in pope Nicholas's Valor j the original chapel 
of the district, as tradition points its finger at it for the original church of the parish ; and-a* 
chapel nearly buried now ia the encroaching waves of the sea. (Hals VMS.) 

* At u 3, before, I have shewn in opposition to a. prevailing error, that St. Petrock at his 
death was buried, not at Padstow, but at Bodmin.. . In confirmation of thi€ L new add, that 
bis three companions appear also to have been buried at Bodmin. *^ Eitat Petroburgi libel* 
^^ lus de sepulturA sanctorum Anglorum, ex quo liquet Credanum,** not the denominator or 
Creed church near Grampound, which is called ** ecclesia Sanctaa Credae'^ in pope Nicho- 
ks's Valor, ^' Medanum, et Dachunum, viros sanctitate vktse illustres, et Petroci imitatores,. 
** in Bosmanach fuisse sepultos.'' (De Script. Brit. 6i.) See also that very hook,, in- ex- 
tracts made by GoU. i. lo) ^' S. Petrocus, S. Credanus, S. Medaaus^ et S. Dacbuna vir, ia 
*^ Botiaeme/' Bodmin^ <^ in Comubia." 

** time 


i'^. time came orer from Ireland St Bkeaca (now <^led B0e%) attended 
'/^ with many saints, among whom were Sinninus/* alias Senanus^ says a 
•note, •' the abbot, who had been at Rome with Patrick, G&rmocrus, an 
** Irish king (as tradition says), and sereral others. She landed at Rwyer 
- *' on the eastern bank of the river Hayle, in the hundred of Fenwith* 
" where Theodorick (or Tudor) had his castle, of residence, and slew 
" great part of this holy assembly 0180*.** To the first part of this account 
I have replied already, and shall liereafter reply again "f-. But I mean to 
answer the last at present. 

This, however, referring to <io authority, I considered it for aome 
time, as capable of no refutation. Secure in its own airiness of sub- 
' stance^ I cried# it bids defiance to all criticism; 

For it 16, as the air, invulDefable, 
^ ^ And our vain bjowi malicious mockeiy. 

'fiut 1 afterwards discovered the evidence^ upon which the BoctAr 
Vgtounds his relation ; though, either wilfuUy or n^ligeady, be sup- 
^presses all acknowledgment 'of it. In Leland^s Itinerary we have some 
extracts out of a life of Breaea, which are the more valuable because 
the life is since lost, I hfSxye, and aAe tiie veiy fii^undations of the 
Doctor^s edifice, f sh^ produce them^ in order to destroj his edaSttp 
and to expose the mode of architecture in which he has presumed to 
biiild npon them. " Breaca/' says the cited biographer eonoenting one 
who bad been in the nunnery of St. Brigid^ within the friiAi county 
4)f Meath, '^ came into Cornwall accompanied by xnanj s^nts,; amon^ 
^^ whom were fiinnin, the abbot, who had been ji^ Eome with Patrick, 
*' Maruak the monk, Oermoch the king/' not merely what Ur. Bor- 
^ lase represents him, *' an Irish king, as tradition iroy^/'lbut positively a 
king, as this history says, equally Irish with the rest, ^ and,** as the 
Doctor adds« ^' several others ;** but, as this history very usefully speci- 
fies besides Maruan before, ^' Elw^n, Creweisnap Heia^aX^'' These 


• * Borhie, 370. t See y. i. 

I Leland'a Itin. ili. 4 s " fix VitS Ssncte Breacm. * Campus 8ft$c» In Hibemi&'j" m, 
Usher, 361, 362, <^ ^ in quo Brigida oratorium conatruxit, ^t poftcs:iiUMiii8tmum»iQ q^ 

w fcil 




are all names^ so celebrated for ages in Cornwall, as to have had churches 
and parishes fot ages denominated from them. ^' Breaca landed hear ^5S<A.<r6?ti>-fc^ 
*' Revyer with her company, a part of which/* not a " great part/* 
as the Doctor alleges, but only *' a part," as the history avers, '^ was 
^' killed by T^wder*/' Now '^ Revier," adds Leland, in an explanatory 
remark, ^' was a castle of Theodore's, on the eastern side of the mouth 
of the Hayle river, at present (in the opinion of some persons, buried 
in the sands f ," which have buried not a little of the lands adjoining, 
yet began to drive only about the year 1520. Tradition, indeed^ re- 
ports at the neighbouriijig Lanant, that the driving began in a deluge of 
sands, so violent and so sudden, as in the compass of two nights to bury 
many of the bouses. The lower parts of these have actually been found 
since in digging, and even with furniture in some of them. Accord- 
ingly, Leland informs us, that in his time, so near to the very com- 
mencement of the ravages, " most part of the houses in the peninsula,'^, 
pn which the adjoining St. Ives stands^ " be sore oppressid qxMver^ 
*' coverid with san^^es, that the stormy windes and rages castith \fp 
f^ there; this calamite hath continuid ther little above twenty yeres : the 
^' best part of the toun now standith in the south part of the peninsula, 
^^ up toward another hille, for defence from the sandes J.'* Ox, 2^ Carew 
notes a little later in time, " the light sand, carried up by the north 
*^ wind from the sea shore, daily continueth his covering, and marring 
** the land adjoynant ; so as the distresse of this deluge drave the inha*^ 
*' bitants, to remove their church as well as their houses§.  Or, as 


^' full et S. fircaca. Breaca venit ia Coraubiam comitata multis -Sanctis, Inter quos fuerunt 

f' Sianinus abbas, qui Romas cum Patricio fuit, Maruanus monachus, Germochus rex^ 

^ Elwen, Crewenna, Helena'/' 

' * Leiand's lMn« iii. 4. '^ ^ Breaoa appulit sub Revyer-cum suis^ quorum partem occidiv 


t Tbid. 16: *^ Revier x:a8telkrm Theodorit in oriental! jparte ostii Qayie ilu., nunc^ uV 
^' quidam putant^ absorptum a sabulo." 


4 iC^rew> 148.. S9 TUlprden, 4a, rem^tl?* ,of " Vny-juxta-Lalant/' ih^i *< of latfr^(h» 
f' Bande-rrbatb — buried muche .of tbeJandeand bowses^ and many devises, tbey.uselopre- 
f^ vent the objsoffpation [absorptiop] of <h^ churches" and,^8j oijservjw jqf i^jrg;>j 4bft/' ibe^ 
«' parish" is <^ almost drowned wi^b the aea sand*-^, in fpcb sorte^ ai| tfy^ .ip^^^^lmifSiiW^ 


Dr. Borhse suljoins to both in his Natural Histoiy, '^ from the mouth of 
'* Hcyl in Penwith, along to Bude Haven, Cornwall has lost a greai 
" deal rf arable ground on the northern coast, by means of the blown 
^' sea-sand, which is 8till increasing in the parishes of St. Ires, Lanoant^. 
*' Fhilac, Gwythien, St. Agnes, Piran Sa^id, Carantoc, Cuthbert, Pad- 
♦' stow ; and the sand spreads evert/ where, but where the height of 
" the cliff protects the land from its invasion $/* These sands come all 
from the west, and are found upon examination to be merely the shells of 
the ocean^ reduced into powder by collision between the waves and 
the rocks, then thrown up by the tides upon the beach, and finally 
blown by the winds upon the fields. Yet this torrent of fleeting par- 


tides has been latterly begun to be stopped, even the covered land to be 
reclaimed from the waste again, by planting rushes upon it to fix the fly-- 
ing soil^ then spreading a coat of grass over it in some places, and so 
turning the barren wilderness into an useful dairy-ground. Amid this, 
range of salt sand and powdered shells, on the east of the Hayte river^ 
and on the north of Phillac creek from it, still remains the Revyer of the 
history, no longer a castle, but still an estate; deformed only in popular 
pronunciation into Rovier, yet known to be denominated Rmer in the 
legal papers of it, and actually denominated R^er,, Revier, River, op 
Ryvyer by Leland§. Here,, 

*« bene once Bheiy forced to refnm/e their ckurcK*^ In the Sutnte Book, Philip and Mary,, 
cap. xi. ^' The great hurt, uusance, and losses, that cometh and chaoceth to the queen's 
^' highness and her subjects, by reason of sand arising out of the sea^ and driven to land by 
** storms and windSf whereby muck good ground ly tng oh the sea coasts in sunAy places of 
^ this realm, and especially ia the county of Glamorgan, is covered with such sand rising 
*^ out of the sea, that there [is] no profit of the same, to the great loss of the queen's high- 
** ness and her loving subjects, and' more is like to issue if speedy remedy be not therein pro* 
^' vided," Commissioners of sewers are authorized to provide one *' for (he withstanding 
'' and avoiding the outrageous course and rage of the sea.'' This overflow of sand upon 
Glamorganshire appears to^have been later in ils date than that upon Cornwall and its bks. 

t Nat. Hist. 74. 

§ Leiand's Itin. Hi. r8: ^^ Revier Castel— , now, aa sunt- thinks drounid with' sande. 
** This was Theodore's castelle. — C&yl castelle a mile by est from Kiver — , Nikenor, a two 
•** miles from Ryvier,— Carnbray — a mite west of Revier toun.'* — A similar torrent has op- 
pressed the Sylley isles. At St. Martin's^ say» Borlase, 53, ^^ the higher parts are all onp 
^ common, the surface being either too stoney and shallow to make arable ground, or 

^ • <^ twered 


Here, then, we havtj two 'martyrdoms inflicted u{)Oh ' tyiro part:ies of 
Christians, both parties arriving about the same year, 40o, both comiBg- 
from the same country, Ireland, both landing at the mouth of the same 
river of Cornwall, and both murdered by the same king of Corriw^* 
The two tales are so exactly the same in their beginntn|r, their middle, 
and their end, that credulity itself can hardly sdoth its mind into a belief 
of their difference, and criticism must pronounce them to have been the 
veiy same originally. The story of Fingar, as we have seen before, rests 
upon no other authority than that of a convicted falsifier^ Ansdm; 
while the story of Breaca, as we now see, is founded upon tht evidence 
of an ancient biographer. That, therefore, is merely ^M, varied by 
falsehood, distorted by ignoitoce, and now running in one screw of 
curves around the right line of this. But let me make another remark : 

** covered with scmd blown infrom some northern coves : however^ whM^bas buffered eo much 
*^ from the sand informer ages/' the author referring the commencement of this dry deluge 
to a period much earlier than the year 1520, ** has in length of time contracted soil enough 
^^ to form a turfy pasture, on which the inhabitants keep many sheep, the sheep-run being 
^^ two miles long; but, below this turf, there is nothing but sand ^br a great depth,'' Thi« 
shews the deluge to have commenced at the isles earlier than on the continent of ComwalU 
At the isle of Samson,' <' the sand," be adds in 63, '' sotAe of the bKgfatest edour I saw in 
all the islands, has been blown up' by the nortbem winds, and covered grecU pott of that 
which is called the Brehar hill of Samson ; it is blowh off again ifn some little breaks atiS 
^^ channels of the hill, where I saw hedges of stone six feet under thecotmnoh run of the 
^^ sand-banks." This unites with the notice preceding, to shew, that the deluge hefe wa% 
much earlier than at St. Ives. But, as Borlase subjoins in 67, ** In several places I ex» 
<' amined their sand, and found it to consist of small gr^el^ mostly broke off (as it seemed 
^' to me) by the violence of the sea from the moorstone, which lines the shores of all Che 
^^ islands in great plenty. The ^nest sand — ^is found only in Porthmellyn cove, on St. 
^' Mary's. Upon examining this by a microscope, I found it to consist of globes of white 
^ transparent crystal, and tatcortalk." The particles of the torrent, therefore, are as differ- 
ent from those on the northern coast of Cornwall, as are the beginnings of the two torrents. 
Yet another dehige has commenced at the isles, I believe, the same with our own on the 
continent. This, however, is only noticed in a slight manner by Borlase, and seems from 
his notice to be but recent in its date. <' In one part only of St^ Mary^Sf' he observes, in 
67, '< they have a shelly sand ; and those who carry on the lest husbandry use this ^ and find 
*^ their account in it," while the generality use the other, though '< certain it is that all 
'< their moorstone sand contributes to vqgetation no longer than whilst it retains the sail 
^^ which it brings from the sea.'' 

u u 2 the 


the " Theodorick king of Cornwall," in- both these tales, is nothing- 
more or less than the very Theodore of Tinmouth before, *^ fierce an^ 
** sayage in his manners/* accordfng to Tinmouth, but, in feet, a pro- 
fessed Christian, the soTereign of pcofessed Christians, the father of 
a " vcty pious" prince, and the patron of St. Pet rock, on his arrival* 
irota the same country, Ireland. Thus we ha^'e *'' Teudric, or Theo- 
^ doric," king of Glamorganshire,, in Wafes, about this veiy period;' 
who resigned his crown, retired into a hermitage, but was forced' 
into the tumults of life again by a Saxon invasion, headed those vete- 
rans who had always been victorious under him, attacked the pagans^ 
beat them, but vra& mortally wounded in the action, and so fell a re- 
puted martyr for Christianity*. Dr. Borlase himself, therefore, cdlls 
our king of Copnwall, " Theodorick, er 2Wt>r;" the biographer of St^ 
Breaca denominates him simply ^' Tewder;" and Leland denominates 
him' as simply *' Theodore." The very name> by its dferivatibn froirf 
the Greek church, and by its reference to Goo, of itself proves him 
to have Been, what so many other evidences have united to prove him,, 
a Christianf •. , Sucl> 

* Uftber, ^9*, from the Rbgi«ter of Landaff : ^' Glamorganiae eo tempoi^ rex erat Teiidria 
*' 8tve TheodoricQs, de quo in eddem rcgesto legtmus: ' Rex Teudric — regnum suum com-' 
** mendavit filiosuo Mourico, et vitam eremitalem in rupibus Dindym coepit ducere. Qui 
^< cum easel iavu&i]]&^ cosperunt Saxooea terram suam invaders— • Dequo Teudric dice- 
f* baot, cum regaum suum teueret, qued nunquam vktus ab hostibus fuerar, sed semper 
'* victor—'," Aod, as Godwin continues the narrative, *^^ huno— iavitum sul ab erema 
*^ abdttxeruat, qui Tinternss, juxta Vagam fldvium, oceurrentem hostem magpio prslio fudit. 
" Sed accepto in capite vulnere (quod eum non latuit) mortifero, reditum maturavit ui inter 
" sues expiraret','* yet,. ^ ' ad confiuentes Vagse et Sabrinse spiritum emisit. Quare eo ipso 
" in loco<— ecclesioia excitata, cadaver, loculo inditum estsaxeo; quern nuper, seu casucon-^ 
'^ fractum seu vetustate fatiscentem, dum refiei curarem, oisa reperi, post mille annos ne 
" minitmim quidem comumpia^vulnefis immanis tanqtum reoenter facti in eraniorentanenia 
" vesligio. — Loco a poskeris nomen antiquitus impositum, Mffrihir-Tewdrick, quasi dicas 

Martyrium Theodorici, quern, quod in hello ceciderit contra Christiani nominis hostea 

gesto, pro martyre duceudum arbitrati sunt. Postea vera contraclius Merthiru appellari 

ctepit, et deinde (sicut hodie) Mathetn'.''^ 

t In Cornwall, we have a local appellation,, exactly similar to that in Wales, and'indl-* 
'JTj^n^fe^. eating some incident of a similar nature. Meriker, a cbapelry at one angle of the very 

large parish of Probus, in its « name— refers to the — guardian saint of the church, wbo^ 
" it seems, was murdered and slayne for the Christian religion as a martyr, y'lz. one Saint 

" Cohan, 


Such a man, and such a king,, cottld not have slain either ^* a part** of 
St. Breaca's company, as her biographer witnesses him to have done, of 
the whole of St. Gwinear's, as Anselm in his new work of ^superfoetation 

^ Cohany a Briimtie of this parish — ; whose little well and consecrated chappeU aQiiexed 
'^ thereto, was lately extant upon the landes of Egles Meriher barton, — though now in a 
^* manner demolished by greedy searchers for money. I take this martyr to have been slayne 
'^ by the Saxons, upon fore-thought malice." In a record of " X480," the saint is expressly 
styled " St. Cohan, martyr of Merther." (Hals's MS.) This unknown saint appears from 
his well, to have lived as a hermit at the place ; and from the tradition, to have been slain at 
his hermitage, not, indeed,, by the pagan Saxons in some very early invasion of Ccmiwall, as 
no such invasioa appears either certainly or probably to have been made, but in some personal 
pique by thatprivate Saxon, assuredly,, who at Athelstan's conquest of Cornwall, settled in 
the house so singularly denominated Tre^Sawsen, or the Saxon's house, and lying about a mile 
to the south of the well. From his murder and bis character, as. a hermitand'a saint, he was 
honoured for a martyr by the neighbouring Christians, just as we have seen Edward, Sid<L 
well, Melor, and Meiian, honoured before. His hermitage afterwards, as we have equally 
seen practised at St.. Mawe8,.became a *' consecrated chapell,'/ and was therefore <' an- 
^' nexed" to the well. The well was thus formed like one equally noticed by^ Hals in the 
adjoining parish of Kenwyn : '* St. Clare's consecrated and wa]t<bd well, chapelwise-luilt.** 
And, as **" tempore James 2d', some of the inhabitants'*^ of Kenwyn " pulled down the walls, 
*^ and totally defaced the chapeUwell, in quest" of money concealed there ; *' and probably 
^* succeeded',** so, from that example and this success, the chapel and well at Merther were 
** lately — in a manner demolished by g;reedy searchers for money. *^ The record of 1480^, 
ta which Hals refers us above, is one of 1484; the composition made between the vicar of 
Probus and thejnbabitants of Merther^ concerning the chapel at Merther ;, and in this' the 
chapel is denominated <* Capella Sancti Coani, martyris, de Merther." This chapel is also 
spoken of there, as •* Instauri capelke S'» Coani,*' and " capellae sive instauri^** our 
English words, ^ in store,'* being first rendered into Latin as in Worcestre, 88 : <^ habuil 
*' instaurodfi auro Francisein cistft — circa septem millia marcanim;" or^ as in Wharton's > 
Anglia Sacra, i. 771, " mstaurum, quod habuit in Werdall — tunc (ut aestimatum fuit) bene 
*' valebat 4oo.marcaset amplius;" being then used as in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 483, 
*^ omne illorum instdurum abstulerunt,'* " in i. 756, '* totum instaurum ;** and in Wil- 
kins's Concilia, ii. 140, *' de eoclesiarum instaiero-i^ms cuslodes-^uolibet anno compotum 
^' fideliter reddant, — nee ipsum instaumsn in aliq^ usus nisi ecclesias ullatenus 4:onvertatu^,"' 
{br the contingent benefactions made to the *^ truncus,'* or trunk, which the clergymaa 
of thjs church alone i$ here permitted to set up f9r receiving benefac^ons; and thence, 
coming from the treasury of a church, to signify (as in this record j a church itself. Yet 
neither the Benedictine (the second) edition of Du Fresney's Glossary, nor Carpcntier's . 
Supplement-to 4t^ notice tbi9 last significatipa ^f the word. Our record alone does this. 


t^on the original story describes him doing; " for fear lest they should 
** turn his subjects from their ancient religion," They and be were 
already turned, and had all equally renounced the stupid sottishness of 
druidism for the illuminated good sense of the Gospel ; the blackness of 
knidnight darkness just rendered more visible by the twinkling of two 
or three stars of heaven, for the bright efiulgence of the Gospel-sun. 
He actually slew *' a part," however, of Breaca*s company, a small part, 
a part so very small indeed, that we hardly can even conjecture of whom 
in particular it consisted. But he hurt not the large remainder ; he 
touched not a hair of their heads, and seized not a thread of thmr gar- 
ments. He even assaulted the other or others, from some misconcep- 
tion of their quality, from some misapprehension of their design, and 
from some su^icion that they were pirates, landing under the walls of 
his castle by night, in order to surprise it. He instantly discovered his 
mistake, probably, but not before he had killed one or two of their 
party, sent, perhaps, as messengers to the palace, in order to explain the 
cause of their coming ; there run through the body by the sentinels, in 
the first and hasty tumult of alarm; yet having breath enough left them 
before they^ied, tasay who they were, and who hhe was. 

Theodore would then receive them with the hospitality and the 
respect that was due to the sex of some, to the rank of several, and to 
the religion of all. We accordingly find in this very life of St. Breaca, 
that he gave them their fuUiiberty of acting; that be permitted them 
to travel over his country as they pleased ; that he allowed them to 
settle as they liked in any part of it: to build hermitages, or to erect 
churches, agreeably to their fancies. This part of his conduct forms a 
full and pregnant evidence singly as it stands in the Life, detached from 
all other testimonies; of his own Christianity, of the Christianity of his 
subjects, and of the public profession of Christianity by both before. 
But Dr. Borlase, with more policy than probity, has suppressed the 
narrations which prove this; and for the same reason, I fear, has sup- 
pressed all reference to the narrator, even for the facts which he himself 
recites from him. Let me, however, produce what he has thus con- 

-" Breaca," 

'* Breaca/* adds the biographer^ as cited immediately afterwards by j', ^^^i.^.ck.^u^, 
Leland, ^^ came to Pencair/* a hiU^ as Leland notes, in the parish of 
Pembro ; " and came to Trenewith," a little from the parish-church of 
^mbro*, as Leland equally notes, where the parish^church stood before it 
was removed to Pembro *• Breaca thus moved unmolested across the 
breadth of the kingdom, and went from the northern to the southern sea 
of it She moved also, accompanied by the Irish king ; as Leland speaks 
of *' S. Germocus, a chirch 3 miles from S. MichaeFs Mont by est south 
<^ est, and a mile from the se ; his tumb is yet scene tker. S. Germok ther 
" buried. S. Germoke's chair in the chirch-yard. S. Germoke*s welle a 
** litle without'the chirch-yard f /* The well and the tomb are now lost, 
overlooked and forgotten in the frigid philosophy of Protestantism to« 
wards all relics of ancient saints, and in the idiot contemplation of Ger- 
mochus as an ancient Papist. . Yet what is called his chair remains in per-- 
feet preservation, a covered seat of moorstone at the north-*eastem conm 
of the chapet-yard, turning its face toward the south-west, having its 
front supported by three stone pillars, which form two elliptical arches 
of six feet in height for the entrance, presenting a boich within more 
than six feet long, but divided into three, compartments, for the king (as 
tradition says) and his two assessors^ yet shewing two smaller pillars, one 
upon each side of the king's seat. These unite with the end-walls of the 
whole, to compose threb elliptical arches ; at . the centre of the middle 
acchis a. man's head cut in moorstone with a coronet upon it; in the 
front also, at the very summit of this building, is another head, smaller in 
size, but equally wearing a coronet J. This therefore is apparently not 
that original chair . of rock, which we should have viewed with more 
veneration in its rude and rustic simplicity of style, than we can view 
this pompous and magnificent seatw T^at however, in an equal piety of 

* -Leland V Itin. iii. 15: <^<Breaca venit ad Pencair. Breaca venit ad TrenewUbV^ * 
Ibid, i^: ^^Pepciur, an.hille in Pembro paroch, vulg6.S. • •». . [Breag'a].-<*-Trenewitb^ , 
'' a liule fram the parocb [cbMrcb} of Peoabro, wher tbe patoch cbircb.[was] or. ever it was > 
^^ aet at Pembro." 

t Lelaod's Itin. iii. x6. 

X From the iafocmatipa oC.thc.lhinlung and judicious r^tofr x^f tbe pariah^ tb^ Bev. Mr.. . 



spirit and poverty of taste, has been put for thU ; and by a faiiiiiy of Mil- 
liton, which is said with truth to have hved at Pengersick about half 4 
mile from the chapel, but is also reported with falsehood to have built 
' this chair for the convenience of resting themselves when they came to 
the chapeL They built it undoubtedly in honour of Geimochus, and 
since the days of Leland ; fiis chair of Germochus being ^* in the church- 
" yard/' and theirs out of it 4 his having been destroyed by those who 
destroyed the chair of St. ]Mawe, the fanatical part of the Protestants in 
the reigns of Edward and Elizabeth, and theirs supplying its plape §. So 
much a friend to Christianity was that king of Cornwall, who thus per- 
mitted his brother-king of Ireland to settle in peace and solitude under 
his protection! But ** Breaca,'' adds another biographer, the writer of 
the life of one of her companions, St. Elwin, as he is also cited by Le- 
land, '* ERECTED A CHURCH in Trcncwith,*' a place (as Leland has al- 
ready told us) in the parish of Pembro, " and Talmeneth," a place (as he: 
now telb us) in the same parish || . This therefore is our present parish 
of Breag, the secular name of which thus appears to be Pembro, as that of 
Veryan is Elerkie. The highest hill in this parish is denominat6d Tre- 
gonin Hill at present, from the principal house and estate upon it, once a 
place of very considerable importance, as having a lai^e building and a 
chapel at it. 'On a part of this estate is a tenement called Castle Pencayre, 
running up to the summit of the hill, and there bordering upon a circular 
kind of fort at another part of Tregonin, extending above a hundred 
yards in diameter, fenced (as appeared lately in dicing) by two walls of 
mafionry, with a ditch between them wide enough for three men to stand 
abreast in it, but now defaced by persons on the quest for tin, and for 
treasure supposed to be buried there. This ther^ore is plainly the very 
V Cair Kenin, alias Gonyn and Cowi;?,'* or *' the Castle of Conan/' in Le- 
land, which ** stoode in the hille of Pencair; there yet apperith 2 

§ Leland^s IUd. iii. 14: <^ Milatan dwellith at Pergroinswik," in p. x6, called '< Gar- 
^•^ik«, alias Pengaraike." This family ended in heiresses under Elizabeth. (Carew, 152.) 

y Ibid. 15, 16: "'Breaca aedificavit eccl. in Trenewith et Talmenetb,' ^ftt legttur in* 
-** Vit&S. Elwiui.— Talmeneth^ a mansion-place in Pembro." 

* "~' • "diches" 

• • • 

BECT. VII.] ni9T0RtCALLT SCrftVETSl>« 837 

•' diches %.** The castle was afterwards, in a less perturbed state of the 
Cornish kingdom, changed into a hoiKse, and removed lower down to 
Tre-gonin ; this retaining still the appellation of reference to Conan, but 
carrying not the some appearance of hostility with it. Much lower thaa 
Pencayre, and about two miles from it^ is Tre-newith^ or the New House; 
an accompaniment to tlie church when it was set originally here, and a 
site peculiarly pleasant for both. Between Tregonin and Trenewith^ 
nearer to the former tlian the latter, being from the latter a mile at leasts 
is the estate and vilh^e of Talmenethr now denominated Tolmenor, 
rtanding high on the siiie of Tregoniii Hill, and preserving the original 
dame of the hill, the name which it bore befofe Conan built his castle, 
Tal (C. and W.) high, Mynydd (W- and C.) a mountain. This is evi- 
dently the Pembro of Ldand, to wfaidi the churdi was removed from 
Trenewith ; Pen Bre (C. and W.) signifying the mountain-height, and so* 
answering to Tal Mynydd. The name of Pembro, indeed, is now li)st, 
fitnn that principle of inattention to the Cornish langui^,. which has 
pervaded the whole mass of the Cornish people at present, and vitiated 
Talmeneth into Tolmenor. Yet we liow understand 6com all, wluit « 
really meant by the strange expression of Breaca*s building a church '^ in 
*' Trenewith and Talmeneth;** it meaning merely, that Breaca ** built 
" the church ajT Trenewith a^ Talmeneth */* a site so anciently selected 
for it upon its removal, that tradition is totally silent concerning its prior 
petition, and that even inquisitiveness, for vi'ant of Leland's intelligence, 
fidsely believes its site to have been always the same f . Breaca thus ap* 
peai^ to have bound a church already erected, and to have erected 
ANOTHER BY TRANSFERRING THAT. She rebuilt the old church of the 
parish upon a new site, at her own expense ; as she appears from the pre- 
sence of an Irish king in her company, to have been a woman of con- 
siderable fortune. She thus settled near the beginning of the famous 
indent into tlie southern shore, so deeply scooped out (as appears from 

f LfelancPg Itm. iii. 16 : *< Castrun ConanI*' on the nrargiiu " Sum say ihat Conan had 

«^ a SUA caulHd f rfstrtime/* 
* Ibid, ts :"**'*'Breaca a&dificavit eccl. in Trene*<?rth 6t [ad] Talmeneth'/' 
t For the local cirpt^pistances here» I am indebted to the Rev. Mr. Marshall^ late rector of 

ttienarish,;equally friendly and judicious* 

VOL. I. XX tradition. 



tradition *, from remains-f-, and particularly from the insulated state of 
that '* Rock in a Wood/' which has given it the name of Mount's Bay) 
by the working billows of the sea alone ; so famous therefore for wrecks, 
from ships being drawn by the influx of the tide into it ; and so infa- 
mous also for the conduct of its inhabitants towards the wrecked, This^ 
conduct probably attracted Breaca to the parish, to reform what is so 
hostile to every principle of Christianity, so brutal to the owners of ship» 
or wares in danger of being lost, so barbarous to the men, women, of 
children, in the very act of perishing ; and what still remains a strongs 
brand upon the fronts of the parishioners, in the eyfes of all the other 

S. Cm^-vvv^^ . (^Ornish at present. With her settled Gennochus £he king; even afr 

Germo a little on the west, but in her parish of Brekg. Crewrnne set- 
tied at Crowan near both, a church still dediciited to St. Crewennc, and a> 
little on the north. But others of them seem to have separated to a dis- 
tance from all, Sinninus to St. Sennan, in the parish of Burien; Helen.* 
to Helland in tl^ east, a parish near Bodmin, originally denominated from^ 

^gc^-vvd-'*^**^^ {Aid still dedicated to her ; Maruan, not to Morwinstow on the north of 

Stratton, as the ^name may lead us to suppose, tUl we find this pariah is 

denominated from a female saint, Morvenna, but to Lan Moran, popularly^ 

Lamorran, in the two Valors Lamoren, the parish and church of St. M6- 

xT. .A'Uf^^^^ ren X\ and Elwin to St. Allen, or (as called in the early Valor) St. Alun, 

dedicated to St. Alleyn. So widely did these Irish saints spread them- 
selves over the country ! So evidently was the king of Cornwall then, so 
evidently were his subjects too, all professors of Christianity ! And ^: 
clearly does that narration of facts, which has been; produced by Dr. Bor- 
lase to prove the continuing druidism of Cornwall in 460, prove directly 

* Camden, 136 : ^* Sinus lunatus admiuitur, Mount^ay voeant, in quo oeeani^xn, a^o 
'^ cieatu irrucBtem, terras deroersisse yama obtinet/' 

i Leiand's Itin. iii. 18 : '^ There bath bene mtick land devourid of the sea, betwixt JPen^ 
** saTides and Mousehole» Ther is an old legend*' or church* lesson for the feast ^^ of S*. 
*^ Michael, [which speaketb of J a taunlet in this part now defaced, and lying under the 
<< water/' Itin. vii. 118 : '^ In the bay betwyxi the Mont andPensants, be fownd neere the 
M lowe water nnarke rootes qftrees^ yn,dyvers places^ as a token of the ground wasted/* 


X Leiand's Itin. itt, 28 : *' CauUtd La Mofan creke of the chirch of S. Moran." 



the reverse; when it is detailed in all its amplitude of incidents, when the 
whole is allowed to he greater than a part ;- and evince the predominance 
of Christianity over druidism, from the one end of Cornwall to the 
other*. ^ • 


\s this manner did dfuidisna expire through all Cornwall and through 
all Britain ! Yet it has kft some faii^t traces of its long existence among us, 
in our retention of customs not wholly divested of their idolatry, and in 
our continuation of expressions Jialf-idolatrous at present. Even a fond- 

* A$ ta the partcrf Breaca'a-oompany^ that was uawarily slaiQ by Theodore ; because they 
are not specified inlhe Life of Breaca, we can barely conjecture who they were. They were, 
I conjecture therefore, two saints thus named by William of Worcester. ** Sanctus Justus S^ MaMam » 
" MARTiR," he says, " jacet in parochi^ Sanc/i Yow/ ; distat a Pensans versus occidentem 
" per '5 miliaria, super littus occidentaKssimae partis Angliae." (P. 126*) " Sanctus Morta- j; Oyj artii^^-i^ , 
^^DUsfMoTRANUS] VLh^mvKy* hc adds, '^ est in parochift Sancti Mortani [Motraui] ; dis- 
f^ tat ultra vil I am, Pensans per 4 miliaria, super littus maris." (P. 126.) These are ranked as 
martyrs^ we see, in (hie Sanctologies of Cornwall ; yet have no history appendant to their 
names. These stand recorded .as martyrs, but were made martyrs we know not when or^ 
why. We may therefore refer them with full propriety to this ruling incident in the history 
of our Cornish saints, in which we know some to have been slain, and are'sure the sfoin- 
wouM be considered as martyrs. We thus find martyrs ivUhout names in one part of ouY 
narration^ then find martyrs with names, but without any narration annexed, and finaljy fill 
up the chasm in titaf by an ii^ertion.from ihi$^, taking the names of the one, attaching the 
narration of the other, so making two incomplete notices unite into one complete. In re- 
verence to their remains as martyrs, the body of St. Motran seems to have been begged by a 
parish a little distant to the south-west, to have been buried in its church, and therefore to have 
lent it his name, now varied a- little into " ecclesia Sancti Maderni" in the firsr^, Valor, but 
into ^^ Madern, alias St. Madecn," in the second. .In the same manner the, relics of St. 
Just^ his brother in martyrdom, were carried to the parish-church directly beyond that to the 
west, and gave it his own appellation ; which is popularly pronounced at this day in Corn- 
wall, not St*.3^ei/, as William represents it above, but St. Ysty or rather St. Esty a RonVan 
name adopted by him at baptism in supersedence of his Irish name before. I thus accmmt 
for two saints that are well known, by the denominitioDB of their parishes in CgrnwaiU and 
one of them even as the denominator of two parishes; but the history of both whom haa 

been hitherto hid in the darkness of mid nigh t« 

X X 2 • noss 

340 TOB «ATHf3»tAI. OP CO«|NWALL \ [g«AP« IV* 

aqsp for druidisin at large has lately prevailed among xxb, in an e^traordi-r 
hxry di^^pve ; the reading part of the nation taking their tpne of think*- 
ing or talking from o^r writers, and the^e, like our delineators of natnraJt 
religion^ tricking out their 

Idol of Majesty Divine 

Jii all the borrowed decorations of Christianity itself Men, who were^ 
impressed with a masculine reyerence for Christianity as the sun of the 
soul in illumination ; mAi, who felt a dignified fondness for Christianity 
as the life of the soul in exhilaration, have recently seemed to fall in love 
with druidism by looking long upon its face ; and have thus described a 
mere heathenism, that participated in all (he idolatries of heathenism, 
that was even deformed with some scars of idolatry peculiar to itself, tx> 
be what was essentially opposite and avowedly opposed to it,, a kind of 
patriarchal religion, a sort of anticipated Christianity. Under this wild ec- 
centricity of learning itself, Dr» Stukeley is well known: in a sermon over a 
deceased clergyman, to have ventured with the approbation of manyy of" 
even myself also, then very young, upon denominating the divine a 
druid. Mr. Collins the poet has even presumed to fix the title oiz^dmut 
xxpon the head of his brother-poet Thomson ; the name of druid fi^ten^ 
ing strong upon the fancy of a poet, and his untutored intdlect cbnibund* 
ing a druid with a bard. Then came Dr« Borlase, a Christian firm ii^ 
feith and steady in practice, yet rising into the temerity of telling us^ that 
** in the remote comers of the isknd druidism had taken deep root, and it 
** would not give way to weak efforts*' from Christianity iteelL And 
Mr. IMacpherson, a man of brighter genius than Dr. Borlase, more bold 
in his spirit, more irreligious in his aJSections, took a laiger scope in his- 
vindication of British heathenism, by denying the Britons tahave been 
idolaters a« all ^. In this state of the national mind^ had the insanity of 
IrVance been transplanted into the soil of Britain, we should have had, per- 
jiaps, a krpd of modified madness among ourselves; and instead of the 
horrors of annihilation aijthoritatively denounced to mankind, or the very 
front of atheism impudently tvmed up in defiance against Heaven, we 
should have had druidism, with all its &>oleries of grosewt idokiAiy, and all 

^ Hist, of Manchester^ octavo,. ?oK it. p«^9i«^ 


iecr. vtih] mtfmacALLt ntnrttti}. ift4| 

Its saingaioarineM of httman sftcrifiees, establidhed in dor iAe ag^n. IBnt 
as the wiidfiie of passion for dmidifim had not such a scope of mLscluef 
given it, and will probably be eictingiiished fbr ever by these anitnadver'- 
sions upon it, we can with more calmness e<xGitem|Aate som^ ^cs of. 
druidism among us/ innoxious of themsdves^ though not innocent iii 
their nature, directly calculated to catdi the eye of a druidlGal antiquary; 
yet not noticed by the pen of any hitherto^ 

The fires of May-day are well known to; antiiqiMnies^ ap the Beal-tine' 9>t*y-i^ 
of Ireland ; being lacge fires upon the hills %hted on that day by the ^^^^ * 
druids, and giving the appellation of Beai-tint tx> tiie day itself in the 
Irish language at present. These consisted each of two fires together, 
and all the cattle of the counxy,. being driven between the two> thua^ 
** passed through the fire" to this seemingfy mild Moloch of Britain^ 
Belus or the Sun ; the cerehaony being considered only as a sort of re- 
ligious consecration of them to the Sun, and an useful amulet of protec- 
tion for them from all contagious disorders through the year*. Tet 
heathenism could not lose its dreadful sanguinariness, ahd di^jdisii^ 
wo^uld not resign its bun^n sacrifices. Whatever antiqimies have dar^ 
to announce of these May-day fires,, as if this was the whole of what was 
done in honour of Belus ; yet much more was done,, I find upon examir 
nation, and the Belus of Britain was actually the very Moloch of Canaan 
in sayageness. Language is often expressive^ where history is silent; and*, 
a cloud reflects the radiance of the sun, when its orb has sunk below the 
horizon. '  In those days," says Martin concerning the days of diiiidismi 
from tradition in the Western Isles of Scotland, yet is not fully sensible- 
himself of the import of his own information, ^* malefactors were hurnp 
*^ between two fir e%^\ those very fires of Belus,^ concerning which he had> 
been speaking immediately befpre, and to which what he speaks immedi- 
ately afterwards is ctf" course referred; ^ hence j when they would express 
^ a man to be m a great strait y they say ' he is bettveen the two foes of 
** jBe/*f ;" Persons condemned to death as oblations to Belus, it is plaim 

* Bishop Obrien'ft Irish Dictionary, Paris,. 1 768, quarto, under BeaUtine. . 
t P» 105, cditr ad; 

2 from 


Ixotn ih^ -pi^werhud Adture cff this lahguage, were /regtie>}% tied to a 
stake in the narrow interval between each firfe, and there roftsted to death 
by the operation of each; a sacrifijce peculiarly hotrible to our minds^ and 
'^n ey^la^^^i^ i^jfgface upon t]^ . memory • of drui^ml So apparently 
doQS this «$light jntimajtion ihew us the druidical Belus, worshipped 
nearly; and, pa^haps, wholly> as was 

Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood 
Of human sacrifice, and parents' tears, 
• Though for the noi^e of drums and timbrels toiid 
Therr cl^ldnen's cries unheard, that paaa'd through fire 
To his grim idol. 

Yet, to shew how tenderly the spirits of authors feel at present for the 
honour of heathenism, let us obser\'e the conduct of Dr. Ne^'ton himself, 
the grave, the learned, the theological author, in his annotations upon this 
text of Milfoil ; as he first notes Moloch to be called horrid^ " because of 
** the human sacrifices^ which were made to him^'^ who is supposed by 
some (he says) " to be the same as Saturn, to whom the heathens sacri- 
"ficed tkefr Qkildren, and by others to be the suriy^ to whom we see the 
dfuids here offering human sacrifices. " Not that,** he adds in contra- 
diction equally to Milton and to himself, '^ they always actually burnt 
" their children in honour of this idol ; but sometimes made them only 
** leap over the flames y or pass nimbly between two Jires,'* as the druids 
made the cattle pass. Yet Mgloch, he instantly sub;oins, was ah idol, 
•' having — his arms extended^ to receive Xht miserable victims which were 
^' to be consumed in thejlamesy A valley near Jerusalem, he says also, 
*' was called — Tophet from tlie Hebrew Toph a dmm, dioims and such- 
'** like noisy instruments being used to, drown the cries of the miso^able 
*' child? en, who were offered to this idol'' And '* Gehenna — is in several 
" places of the New Testament, and by our Saviour himself, made the 
'' name and type of Hell, by reason of the fire that ivas kept up there to 
" INIoloch, and of the horrid groans and outcries of human sacrifices^ So 
plainly is Dr. Newton's tenderness repelled, by the very facts which he 
produces together with it ! Yea, so plainly was the Belus of Britain the 
very Moloch of Canaan, by not having " malefactors** merely, but chil- 

dfeh devoted as malefactbirs, sacrificed to him ! ' So plainly too tiid- the 
Sntons '' sacrifice their sans and then* daughters xinto demls, and shed in^ 
** nocent- bloody even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, whom' 
'^'they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; and the land was 'polluted 
^^imthbloodr - «. 




Thef e was, indeed, another kind of worship paid to this devil, infinitely 
mord harmless in itself. This was not, vve may be sure, " from* the cus- 
tom^ practised by the druids in the? isles," as Martin* avers it wasj ♦^o^* 
extinguishing all the fires in ^^ parish titatil the iythes were paid*\ and*' 
upon payment of them the fires were himdied in each family , and never 
" till then X^ Such a rule could never have bee«i- instituted before parishes 
were formed and tythes established by Christianity. But as Keating him- 1 
self expressly remarks concerning May-day, ^' all the inhabitants of Ire^ 
'' land quenched their fires on that day, and Jnndted theih agaih oat of 
**• some part of the fire'' of Beal §• This^ custom was afterwards converted^ 
probably, as Martin's intimation suggests to u8,anto a political engine for 
compelling the payment of tythes before May-day. The' fires Wert con- 
tinned in Ireland, we know, for ages aftei? Oferistianity was- professed ; 
and the political application of theto by Christianity seems hfcre tabe at* ' 
tested in the isles. Such were the' relics of druidism, as remaining mixed- • 
with Christianity in the isle8> and mixed or unmixed in Ireland ! ? • t— • 

.11: ";• • : ^ . t 

• Nor were nor are all relics^ of druidsm coftfinetf, eithet to* Ireftrnd^-bt^^ 
to the isles. Some still adhere to the language of Firmee, and some stilL 
hang upon the language of England : yet they have never been* pointed:' 
out, in either tlie ohe or the other. . * 

Thereisapettykind'of oath arrfoDg^tfie piioplfe olfTrahce; whidh- the': 
vulgar speak without meaning, and the gentry hear without understand- 
ing, while- both understand it to mean an oath of affirmaltion or an excla-- 
mation of swearing. Parblieu and Sacreliflieu are two terms of averment^ 


I 1 


• • 

X ?• 105, edit. 2d. 

§ Bishop Obrien'8 Dictionary under JSi^df-Z/h^ itselH 

( > 1.1 


3^^ THE eATHXHBA^L 0.7 eOR]fW4LL [CHAP* IT* 

vcHiy-eoaifiKin in the rapid rarpnses of coftrersmlion among them» refers 
liiijg «:Q^ca9Jtf to sometUng sacred^ aod canyiog expressly the name of ai 
sacred person. The name and the inference are equally o^ and to this 
^eiy god Belus, still pronounced Beul in Irish^ but onee by transposition* 
pronounced Bdeu in Gaulish, I believe, and since contracted into jBfei* in 
the celerity of conversation. So we have Blatv-mon or Bleu-mon in 
Welsh, iknd .^tf-mon or BkiO-^jRon in Cornish, for a Moor or an Ethio* 
|uwi» W {I suppose) a Man of the Sun ||. This Bfm or Beleu had been, 
^^onaiderofi sacr^ as a god^ and as a god made the objeot ^ miM er 
oatht, imiong the druidioal heathens of G^ule ; even far thai reasot^ as 
tdigii^n itself cannot soon obliterate the still-recurring usages of Ian- 
gu^e, cootinued $aered and an obfect through all succeeding ages to the 

^Sfeuct^. ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ uiothcr depity of dmidtcal heatheiussH we English- 

n^ea have a curse among us, that had its ^urce among our Kmotest aii-» 
ceatoffs^ and has come down, to us on the. cunienjt of familiair conversa- 
tion. . *^ ]c>eiipe takt you,*^ we all know as an ^eeration aierely ^brtive 
in iln^, ^ a»>aii ejcecration too frequent 09 our tongues^ and referring 
evidently t^ some daemon or deity now forgotten. Skintner recognises 
the.^xeciMtioa from. Junius, then refers it with Junius to the Saxon Daer^ 
a spectre, a. phantpm^ and . finally interprets thi3 mere phantom or merei 
spectre, with a most hardy violence, into *' the Devil** himself. But the 
nam^, saya Dr. Johnson^ is written ^' P^ise mor^ properly than Deuee^ 
** Junius,. from DushiSy the name of a certain species of e^il spirits ;'* and 
signifies " the Devil." We are thus referred to a Saxon word. Dues, 
that (as Skinner confesses) occurs only in Junius^ and to another word, 
or the same, Diisius, that has not even its language assigned ; for the ori- 
ginal signification of Deuce asa spectre or as a spirit, and for the posterior 
as the Devil bimself* All proves no satisfactory etymon to have been yet 
discovered. 3ut tlaqre is one, I thinks in the a|>peUation qf a Jpritish 

I » < » • • • , 

• « • 

1 Richards poles the fbraicr, though Owra omits it; and Pryce omits the latter, though 
Lhuyd (233) notes it. We have also Manac (Welsh, see Lhuy4* V8)> Mon (Annoric)i 
and Man (Erse)^ for bmnaii,k,iqd in gCAers^i. . . 




deif?/, the deity of a whole natfon of Britons, even of the Bligantes of 
Yorkshire. At Gretland near Halifax there, " on the summit of a hill 
*' inaccessible on every side but one,'* and therefore the site of a camp 
assuredly, " was dug up this votive altar'* of the Romans, as in a Ronuin 
camp assuredly, *' inscribed (it seems) to the topical god of the Bri- 
'* gantes ^." Tlie material words of the inscription are these: *' Dui Ci. 

ATT ' 

" Brig, et Num. q^/* to the '' Duis of the state of the Brigantes and 
•^ to the Divinities of the two Augusti," Antoninus and Geta mentioned 
upon another side as then consuls *. Here, therefore, we have the very 
deity before us that was adored by the idolatrous Britons at first, that in a 
strange facility of faith was adopted afterwards by the Romans into their 
growing family of deities, and has been transmitted to us from both as a 
deity, to whom vows were made as altars were erected by both. Yet 
what is the import of this appellation ? ^^ Whether/' says Camden, 
** that Dui be God himself, whom the British," more properly the 
Welsh, *' now call Diw^ or whether he be the peculiar local genius of 
^' the Brigantes, let the learned inquire f ." But '' Mr. Ward thinks,'* 
as Horsley informs us, that '* Ditr, the name of this British deity, is a 
*' corruption of A«;^, which (as Hesychius says) was the same as Zfi^^ — ; 
'^ and the Britons could not but frequently hear the name of this deity 
" from the Greeks, who came hither with the Romans, as we find by the 
^ Greek inscriptions J." Thus too much learning serves only like too 
much light, to dazzle the eye, and to mislead the man. This very god 
of the Brigantes, this very Jupiter of the Greeks or Romans, is actually a 
goddess, and is therefore denominated Duis. In the two only dialects of 
the Celtic which have preserved the appellative for this deity, we have 
Duw (Welsh), Doe (Armoric), signifying God, Does or Doues (Armo- 

4| Camden, 563 : ^' Ad Gretland, in cacumine montis in quern nullus nisi un& parte ac- 
^* cessug, efibssa fuit baec ara votiva deo civitatis Brigantum topico, ut videlur, posita/' 

* See It in Camden, 563 ; and in Horsley, plate xxxiv. 

t Camden, 563: ^^ An vero Dui illud sit Deus, quern Dm nunc.vocantBritaniUj an pen* 
^^ culiaris Brigantum genius topicus, disquirant doctiore^" 

X Horsley, 313. 

VOX. J. T T ric). 


lie), and Dummies or Dntvies (Welsh), signifying Goddess, Accord- 
ingly we find an inscription equally votive as the preceding, but dis- 
covered close to the Picts Wall in Cumberland, and addressed expressly 
*' to the goddess iiyniph of the Brigantes," even *' for the safety of 
^' Plautilla the consort of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Severus Anto- 
*' ninus — , and all his divine house," by a " qwestor devoted to the deity 
^' of Augustus ^." So far had spread, with the successes of the Brigantes, 
the worship of their goddess ; in the mean propensity of mankind to ido- 
lize success, that worship sallying forth from the wildft of the West- 
riding, and from the cathedral of the worship perhaps (as the name sug- 
gests) at Deivsborough near Wakefield || , to the vicinity of Lancashire, 
and into the north of Cumberland. We even find another proof of that 
propensity and this worship, in an inscription discovered at Chester, " to 
•' the goddess nymph of the Brigantes*/* We find even a third in 
Scotland ; at Middleby in Anandale being discovered under the year 
1732, within the ruins of a Roman temple that was only 36 feet by 12 
without the wall, a statue of a goddess exhibited at full length as in a 
niche, wearing on her bushy but curled head of hair a helmet, that was 
crested with leaves of olive above, and encircled with a mural crown 
below ; having wings to her shoulders, a belt about her middle, and a 
shield by her side, a spear in her right hand, a globe in her left, and a Gor- 
gons head on her breast, with an inscription at her foot which at once 
appropriates all as *' sacred to BrigarHia, and erected byAmandus thear- 
" chitect under the injunction otSlic empewn Julian i\** Thus had the 


§ Horsky,^69: " Dcae Nymphae Brig, quod voverat pro salute Plsuiillae Co. Invictas 
" Dom, nostri Invicti Ipip. M. Aurelii Severi Antonini Pii Fel. Caes. Aug. totiusque donuis 
" divinse ejus M. Cocceius Nigrinus Q. Aug. N. devotus libetis susceptum S. Laeto ii.** 
See also Gibson's Camden at the end for Holland's insertions. 

I Camden, 565: " Dewsborough sub colle excelso positum; an nomen habuerit aDoi 
<< illo qiiem modo dixi deo topico non dixerim^ nomen sane non abludit^ sonat enim Dui^ 
*^ Burgurn.'' 

* Horsley, 315: ^^ Deae Nymph® Brig." ' 

t Horslevs plate xxxiv. Scotland^ one added with two others after the narration wai^ 
printed^ and with them therefore not described by it^ p. 207. But Mr* Qough in his Bri- 

2 tannia^ 


Dms of the Brigantes in Tork8hire> from the cdnquests of those Bri- 
gantes over Lancashire, Cheshire, Cumberland, and Anandale, all at- 
tributed assuredly to the influence of ifefer patronage, become '* the god- 
** dess nymph of the Brigantes'* in two of these conquered counties, and 
at last " the goddess Brigantia'* herself in one of them. She was from 
those very successes worshipped, with peculiar reverence, by the very 
Romans ; having a vow recorded formally upon an altar to her, for all 
the imperial family at one time ; having a statue erected to her in a Ro- 
man temple, by the express order of an emperor at another : she was 
actually dressed like Pallas herself, but like a Pallas victorious over the 
world ; and was restored therefore by an emperor with peculiar zeaU 
when he wanted to make his subjects as vile apostates as himself from 
Christianity. Yet at last she appears to be only the Deuce, that (without 
knowing who or What or whence she is) we bandy about in our conver- 
sation at present. 
So completely has this specifes of heathen stupidity which we call 
druidism, a species indeed less stupid than most others, as retaining that 
vivid element of all possible religiousness the immortality of the soul, yet 
so sottish as to debase it with the transmigration of souls, and so sensu- 
alized as to institute clubs.of husbands using the wives of all in common, 
been swept away from our minds or memories throughout Cornwall and 
throughout England ; that even antiquaries can catch a glimpse of 
it only in those cobwebs of Kistorj^ which grow gradually finer as 
they are left to be extended, and at last assume a brilliancy of co- 
lours from their length of continuance, the very customs of our an- 
cestors, or the very suggestions of our language ! So happily did the 

tannia, iii. 323, has described it from Pennant's Appendix to Tour, Part ii. 1772, 409 ; and 
adds thus, " it is pity Mr. P. did not procure a correct drawing of this curious figure," Is 
Mr. Cough's then this or another ? The inscription is ^^ Brigantiae S» Amandus Arciiectus 
*^ ex imperio Imp. I." 



Sun of Wisdom arise upon the besotted world in the form of Chris^ 
tianity, when 

now went forth the morn, 
Such as in highest heav'n^ array'd in gold 
Empyreal ; from before her vanished nighty 
Shot through with orient bean\8« 



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