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Full text of "Ancient Egyptian, Assyrian, and Persian costumes and decorations"

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A 

TECHNICAL HISTORY 

OF COSTUME 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN, ASSYRIAN, AND 
PERSIAN COSTUMES 



In Prbparation 

ANCIENT GREEK, ROMAN AND 
BYZANTINE COSTUME AND DECORATIONS. 



EUROPEAN COSTUME FROM THE 
THIRTEENTH CENTURY TO THE 
COMMENCEMENT OF THE SEVENTEENTH 
CENTURY WITH DECORATIONS. 



TYPES OF INDIAN, PERSIAN, CHINESE 
AND JAPANESE COSTUME AND DECORA- 
TIONS. With Notes on Various Additional 
Types of Primitive Garments. 



AHZXICA . . 
AVBTkA&ABIA . 
CANADA 4 . . . 
taiUA 



agexts 

THK MACMILLAN COMPANY 

Utit6 FifTII AVKNUB, new YORK 
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

•or FLINUKKS Lake, MELBOURNB 
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OP CANADA. LT^ 

St. MaktixTs Housb, 70 Bond Strkbt. IukonFO 
MACMILLAN A COMPANY. LTD. 

Macmilxan Building. HOMBAY 

9f>9 I»OW bA2AAC SIRBBT. CALCUTTA 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN 

ASSYRIAN AND 
PERSIAN COSTUMES 

AND DECORATIONS 

BY , 

MARY G. HOUSTON 

AND 

FLORENCE S. HORNBLOWER 



CONTAINING TWENTY-FIVE FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS, 

SIXTEEN OF THEM IN COLOUR, AND SIXTY LINE 

DIAGRAMS IN THE TEXT 






A. & C. BLACK, LIMITED 

4, 5 y 6 SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W. i. 

1920 



INTRODUCTION 

If this work is to be kept within its limitations, it is 
naturally impossible to give a complete survey of all the 
varieties of the various styles. To get this knowledge 
it will be necessary to consult the works of reference, of 
which lists are given in each section. On the other 
hand, the special aspect of the work is more fully treated 
than in any other accessible book upon the subject. 

Every illustration of costume given has been actually 
cut out and made up before being sketched, except 
in a few cases which are of the nature of duplicates, so 
that by following the directions given it will be easy 
for anyone to reproduce them in material. Where 
decoration is required, the exact drawing and colouring 
of the various styles of Historic Ornament, which are 
the work of F. S. Hornblower (who has also coloured 
the costumes where necessary), will enable such details 
to be appropriately applied. 

Throughout the book, the illustrations are given 
by means of facsimiles of drawings by artists of the 
various centuries, so that a historic survey of the 
History of Figure Drawing will be included. Where 
the drawings of primitive artists do not clearly express 
the ideas intended to be conveyed, a modern drawing 



vi INTRODUCTION 

of the garment on a dress-stand will be used for 
explanation of the measured drawings of the cut-out 
garments. The growing appreciation of the beauty 
and value of the earlier and more primitive systems 
of cutting shown in modern dress designing for the last 
decade, when the so-called Magyar blouse (really the 
simple tunic common to all primitive folk) began to 
be popular, will make the present volume a con- 
venient form of inspiration for designers ; also, where 
more exact reproduction is needed, as in theatrical 
work, pageantry, and so forth, the careful working out 
of the details of cut and decoration will expedite 
production and save hours of fruitless searching in 
reference libraries. 

To the Art Student, in addition to the always inter- 
esting history of costume, the development of the Art 
of Representation, as shown in the illustrations of these 
volumes, which is so strangely repeated in the personal 
history of every young person learning to draw, will be 
attractive and instructive. Finally, in connection with 
the history lesson in the ordinary school, teachers will 
find the illustrations clear and helpful, especially if 
dramatic representations are attempted. 

MARY G. HOUSTON. 



CONTENTS 

FAGC 

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME - . . 1 
ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME ... 43 

ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME - - - - 75 ^ 



vu 



-LIST OF PLATES 



IN COLOUR 

PLATE 

I. Ancient Egyptian Goddess - - - 

II. Ancient Egyptian Queen 

III. Ancient Egyptian Decoration 

IV. The God Osiris 

V. Ani, a Scribe - 

VI. Thuthu, Wipe of Ani - - - - 

VII. Ancient Egyptian Decoration 

VIII. Ancient Egyptian Queen 

IX. Ancient Egyptian Decoration 

X. Ancient Egyptian Priestess - - - 

XI. Ancient Assyrian Personage - - - 

XII. Ancient Assyrian Decoration - 

XIII. King Assur-nasir-pal - . - - 

XIV. Queen of Assur-bani-pal 

XV. Ancient Assyrian Jewellery and Tassels 

XVI. Darius, King of Persia - - - - 



7 
9 

13 
15 
17 
21 
23 
25 
29 
33 
51 
61 
63 
71 
73 
81 



Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3. 
Fig. 4. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

IN THE TEXT, OTHER THAN PLANS 

Tunic with Braces - . - - 
Tunic with Short Sleeves - - - 
Sleeveless Tunic - - - - 



11 
11 
11 



IX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— cow/irm^rf 

PAQII 

Fig. 5. Robb, Undeapbd ------ 14 

Fig. 6. Robb, Dbapbd and Girded - - - - 18 

Figs. 7, 8 and 9. Three Views op a Draped Robe - 19 

Fig. 10. Robe Dbapbd on a Woman - - - - 20 

Figs. 11 and 12. Two Skirts and a Cape - - - 27 

Figs. 13, 14 and 15. Skirts, Cloaks and a Cape - 31 

Fig. 16. Shawl or Drapery 32 

Figs. 17 and 19. Two Drapings op Shawls - - 35 

Fig. 18. A Simple Shawl Drapery - - - - 37 

Fig. 20. Draping op a Cloak 38 

Fig. 21. Military Corselet and Apron-like Appendage 39 

Fig. 22. Robe with Corselet and Girdle \ - - 39 

Figs. 23, 24 and 25. An Indian Sari ... 41 

Figs. 26, 27 and 28. Threb Views of a Shawl Drapery 49 

Fig. 30. Belted Tunic and Small Shawl - - 58 

Fig. 31. Belted Tunic with Fringe Draping - - 55 

Fig. 32. Short Tunic with Small Shawl and Belt 57 

Fig. 33. Tunic Draped with Shawl - - - 59 

Figs. 34, 35 and 36. Folded Drapery over Tunic - 65 

Fig. 37. Folded Drapery over Tunic - - - 67 

Fig. 38. Semicircular and Folded Draperies - - 67 

Fig. 39. Richly Decorated Tunic - - - - 69 

Fig. 40. Robe, Belted and Draped - - - - 80 
Figs. 41 and 42. A Drapery in Ancient and in 

Modern Drawing ----- 83 
Figs. 43 and 44. A Drapery in Ancient and in 

Modern Drawing 85 

Fig. 45. Short- Sleeved Coat over Tunic - - 87 

Fig. 46. Overcoat, Short Tunic and Trousers - 89 



» 



LIST OF GUT OUT PATTERNS OR 
PLANS OF GARMENTS 



PAOl 



Tunics, with Braces - - - - - 8 and 11 

Tunic, Sleeveless ----- n 

Tunics, with Sleeybs ----- 11 and 69 

kobbs 14 and 80 

Skirt 26 

Cape - - 26 

GoiJiAB 26 

Shawls or Draperies 34, 35, 37, 41, 49, 50, 62, 67, 82, 84 

Cloak 38 

Corselets 39 

Coats - - - - - . - - - 86 and 88 

Trousers 88 



XI 



LIST OF DATED GARMENTS 

ILLUSTRATED 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SECTION 



3700 B.C. 


- 10 


2500 B.C. 


- 16 


1700 B.C. 


- 8 AND 10 


1600 B.C. 


- 36 


1500 B.C. 


- 10 


1450 B.C. 


16 AND 20 


1300 B.C. 


- 36 



1200 B.C. 




38 


700 B.C. - . - 




6 


550 B.C. - 




36 


Fourth Century 


B.C. 


30 


First Century 


B.C. 


8 


A.D. 200- 




30 


A.D. 1920 




40 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN SECTION 



2500 B.C. - 

1000 B.C. - 

Ninth Century b.c. - 

Eighth Century b.c. 

Seventh Century b.c. 



- 48 

- 60 
52, 56 AND 62 

- 58 
68 AND 70 



ANCIENT PERSIAN SECTION 



Eighth Century b.c. - 

Sixth to Fifth Centuries b.c. 



. 84 
80, 82, 86 AND 88 



DECORATION 



Ancient Egyptian Decoration 
Ancient Assyrian Decoration 



13, 23 AND 29 
61, 6^ AND 73 



WORKS OF REFERENCE 



- 5 AND 47 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

OF 

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

CUITING OUT 

As far as the cutting out of ancient Egyptian costume 
is concerned, we may divide it broadly into four types 
— namely : (1) The type of the tunic. (2) The type of 
the robe. (3) The type of the sMrt^ with or without 
cape. (4) The type of the shawl or drapery. The 
one or two varieties which occur in addition to these 
may be found in miUtary dress and adaptations from 
the costumes of other countries. All the varieties 
above referred to are described in detail in this volume. 

DECORATION AND COLOURING 

Though we find Egyptian costume in many instances 
decorated all over with woven or printed patterns, 
decoration in the main was confined to accessories such 
as the head-dress, collar, and girdle, these being often 
painted, embroidered, beaded, or jewelled. See various 
examples given. The colouring which was usually. 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

though not invariably, confined to the decorations con- 
sisted of simple schemes, variations of the hues of red, 
blue, green, yellow, and deep purple described on p. 66. 

MATERIAL 

The material used in the costumes was chiefly linen. 
In the most ancient types it was of a fairly thick, coarse 
weave ; but in the later examples a fine thin linen, 
loosely woven so as to appear almost transparent, was 
used. The Unen has often a stiffened appearance, and 
also gives the idea of having been goffered or pleated. 

DATES 

The earliest types of costume were the tunics ; mid- 
way come the robes and skirts, and the draped or shawl 
type of costume appears the latest. However, the 
older types of costume did not disappear as the new 
ones were introduced, but all continued to be worn 
contemporaneously. The dates of most of the costumes 
in this volume are given with their description, and have 
been verified at the British Museum. 

MEN AND WOMEN: THE DIFFERENCE IN 
THEIR DRESS 

It can easily be gathered from the illustrations 
that the types of costume worn by both sexes were 
4 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

very similar. The high waist-line prevails in feminine 
dress, while the male costume, if girded, was generally 
confined about the hips. 



Egyptian Works oj Reference. 

Prisse d'Avennes, " L'Art Hottenroth, '' Le Costume" ; 

Egyptians"; Racinet, "Le Costume Histori- 

Leeman, "Aegyptiche Monu- que"; 

mente"; Sir J. G. Wilkinson, "Ancient 

Rossellini, " Monumenti Egitto"; Egyptians "; 

British Museum Handbooks and Reproducti(Mis. 
These reproductions have lately been augmented and for those 
who cannot visit the Museum will be found most useful. 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate I. 

Plate I., which dates 700 B.C., is an exact copy of an 
Egyptian drawing. It will be noticed that the Egyptian 
method of representing the figure is a pecuUar one. A 
modem representation of the same type of dress is 
shown in Fig. 2, and the plan of cutting in Fig. 2a. It 
should be noted that this plan — namely, a tunic with 
braces — is in some instances shown with the braces 
buttoned on each shoulder at the narrowest part. This 
illustration is given as a type of Egyptian dress decora- 
tion, which would be either printed, painted, or 
embroidered on the garment. It might be considered 
that this type of dress more nearly approaches the skirt 
than the tunic ; but reaching, as it does, to the breast- 
Hne, and comparing various examples which, as it were, 
gradually merge into the sleeveless tunic which again 
merges into the tunic with short sleeves, the present 
classification will be found to be the most convenient. 



PLATE I 




M.O.H. del. 



A GODDESS 



F.8H. pirup. 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate II. 

Plate .., whicn aatcs i., - ,.c. also 
is an exact copy of an Egyptian ^^ w ; 
wearing a species of tunic ch br" ''^s \? 
The striped decoration upon th' n: 
by the line<^ mother type ox jug^ptian 
the drawn-i .irt. The oi' '^ of +b' 




:, easi' 

Plate . 
of this 
represented 



:ury B.C., 

' woman 

Fig. 1). 

* j^ested 

:amely, 

n don can 

''ood by a 

rapery on 

le original 

3 *:he figure is 

with a lofty 



Fig. 1 



head-dress in addition to the 
fillet of ribbon and the 
golden asp here shown, but 
for the sake of getting the 
figure on a scale large 
enough to show clear details 
the head-dress is omitted. 
The person represented is 
said to be Cleopatra dressed 
as a goddess. 



PLATE U 




M.G.E. del. 



I '.S.I I. jiinje. 



A QUKEN 



ANCIENT EGYFriAN COSTUME 



Figs. 2, 3, and 4, dating 1700, 1500, and 3700 B.C. 
respectively, are wearing dresses of the first great type 
of Egyptian costume — namely, the tunic type. They 
were made of fairly thick linen. Fig. 2 is put on by 
stepping into it and pulling it up. Figs. 3 and 4 are 
put on over the head ; the measurements given will fit 
a slim figure without underclothing. The origin of 
Fig. 2 was most probably a piece of linen of the same 
length as this garment but wide enough to lap about 
half round the figure and have a piece tucked in at the 
top to keep it closed. This sort of tight drapery is 
quite commonly worn by negresses in Africa to-day. 
We also find it on some ancient Egyptian wooden 
statuettes, the drapery being of hnen while the figure 
only is in wood. 



10 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 






Fig. 3 



M" s" 1^: 



T 



Fig. 2a 



22' 
Fig. 3a 




Fig. 4 



^ 9!^- , IJi" 




Fig. 4a 



11 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate III. 

It will be noticed that the Egyptian dress decoration 
is chiefly confined to the collar, which will be seen 
in wear on Plates V., VI., VIII., and X. The patterns 
were either embroidered, painted, beaded, or jewelled ; 
the favourite Jotus flower is almost always in evidence 
in the designs (see a, b, c, and d on Plate III.). On 
this plate also will be seen several other characteristic 
borders (f, g, h, i), and two all-over patterns (k, e), which 
were probably either stamped or tapestry-woven on the 
dress fabric. The colouring of these patterns is chiefly 
taken from painted representations of persons and orna- 
ments. To arrive at the exact colouring used if the 
garments were decorated with dyed materials the 
description of the types of colours used in dyeing 
ancient Assyrian and Persian costumes, see p. 66, will 
give a more exact notion of what was worn. We have, 
in the British Museum, actual examples of dyed wools 
and coloured beads used in dress decoration. 



1« 



PLATE III 




f.n.u. jtc. 



DETAILS or DECORATION 



13 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate IV. 

Plate IV. belongs to the next great division of 
Egyptian costume, which may be called the " Type of 
the Robe." This illustration shows it in its simplest 
form — namely, ungirded. To understand the quaint 
Egyptian drawing of Plate IV. a reference to Fig. 5 is 
necessary, which is a modern drawing of the same 
costunje. As will be seen from the plan, Fig. 5a, this 
garment consists of a piece of material twice the height 
of the figure and folded over in the middle ; a hole is 
here cut for the neck and, in addition, a short slit down 
the front to allow of the garment being pulled over the 
head. The material is sewn up the sides from the 
bottom, leaving a space at the top for the passage of 
the arms. A garment similar in type to this is worn at 
the present day in Egypt and Syria, and also, strange to 
say, by the natives of Brazil. 

This robe should be compared with that worn by 
Darius, King of Persia, later in this volume. 



Musicians are often 
represented wear- 
ing this robe, some- 
times rounded off 
at each side of the 
hem so that it does 
not trail as it does 
on Fig. o. 





Fig. 5a 



PLATE IV 




M.G.H. del. 



THE GOD OSIRIS 



F.S.H. ftmx. 



15 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate V. 

• Plate v., dating 1450 B.C., shows the same robe as 
Plate IV. worn in a different manner. In this case the 
garment is left open down the sides, the front half is 
taken and pinned at the back of the waist, and the 
back half is drawn towards the front and girded with 
a wide sash measuring 32'' x 120'', as shown in Plate V. 
and Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9. It should be noted that Fig. 6 
is a modem drawing of Plate V. ; also the costume 
upon p. 19, which dates 2500 B.C., gives three different 
views of the same dress, a costume which emphasizes 
the love of the Egyptians for drawdng up the dress 
tightly so as to define the limbs at the back and allowing 
great masses of drapery to fall in front to the feet. To 
adjust the sash or girdle on Plate V., commence at the 
right side of waist drawing the sash downwards to the 
left and round the hips at back, next draw upwards 
across the front from right to left and round waist at 
back and tuck the remaining length of sash in front as 
shown in Fig. 6: 



16 



PLATE V 




F.S.H. pinx. 



ANI, A SCRIBE 



17 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 




Fig. 6 



18 



ANCIENT EGYFnAN COSTUME 




Fig. 8 



19 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

Plate VI. is an illustration of a robe worn by a 
woman 1450 B.C., and Fig. 10 is a modern representation 
of the same robe. It will be noted in this case that the 
front half is not pinned behind the back, but is kept 
quite full in front, and that the back half, instead of 
being girded by a sash, is drawn round and tied in 
a knot just under the breast. 

This robe on women is also sometimes tied with 
a narrow girdle under the breast instead of the edges 
being knotted. 




Fig. 10 



20 



PLATE VI 




M.Q. H. del. 



THUTHU, WIFE OF ANI 



F.8.H. pinx. 



SI 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate VII. 

The decoration on this plate shows the detail of the 
characteristic Egyptian winged globe (a), hawk (b), 
and beetle (scarabaeus) (c). Plates I. and VIII. are 
examples of the application of winged decoration upon 
Egyptian costume. 

Three other geometrical borders (d, e, and f) and 
two all-over patterns (g and h) are given ; g shows an 
example of the well-known feather or scale pattern ; 
h (which is similar to e, Plate III.) is a favourite 
geometric motif, and was often printed or painted 
on garments. A very charming effect also of this 
pattern was a tunic entirely composed of beads, or 
beads and reeds, and worn over the garment shown on 
Fig. 2, p. 11. Several beaded networks of this type may 
be seen on the mummies in the British Museum. 



22 



PLATE VII 




JP-.b.U fee. 



DETAII-8 OF DECORATION 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate VIII. 

The third outstanding type of Egyptian costume 
may be described as the "Type of the Petticoat 
and Cape" (the petticoat was sometimes worn 
without the cape). Now this petticoat or skirt, 
as shown in Plate VIII. and Fig. 11, consists of 
a straight cut piece of material threaded through 
at the waist with a narrow strip which is knotted 
round the figure to keep the garment in position ; 
the cape-like shoulder drapery is an oblong piece 
of stuff, to drape which take the corners d and e 
of Fig. 11a in your hands and twist them till the 
triangles a, b, c, and d, e, f, have become cords, and 
then knot as shown in the diagram. ~ In the skirt piece, 
Fig. 11b, sew together the two short sides. As will 
be seen in the illustration, a long knotted girdle about 
100 inches in length is worn over the skirt. It passes 
twice round the waist, and is knotted at the back as 
weU as the front. ^In Plate VIII. the deep ornamental 
collar is worn over the cape. The collar, which was 
fastened down the back, is shown in plan (Fig. lie). 

Fig. 12 shows another method of wearing a similarly 
cut but rather longer skirt ; in this case there is no waist 
cord ; two pieces of the upper edge about half a yard apart 
are taken in the hands and twisted, one is crossed over 
the other and tucked inside, the other is pulled up and 
24 



PLATE VIII 




M.Q.H. del. 



Jf'JSM. pinof. 



A QUEEN 



25 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

forms an ear, as shown in sketch. This particular 
draping is the inspiration of the decoration on Plate II. 
Similar drapings without the twisting were worn both 
by men and women. It is interesting to note that a 
practically similar garment is worn in Burma at the 
present day by both men and women. 




Fig. 11a 




Fig. 11b 




Fig. lie 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 





Fig. 11 



Fig, 12 



Compare Fig, 12 with Plate 11. where the drapery 
here given has suggested in its lines a decoration of 
stripes. 



27 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Plate IX. 

The noteworthy details of the decorations on this 
plate are those illustrated at a and b. These are 
appendages from girdles such as worn by male figures ; 
an example is Fig; 21. The material of this appendage 
may be possibly of painted leather, wool embroidered 
linen, or linen with metal mounts. Many beautiful 
painted illustrations of this girdle appendage are to be 
found in the British Museum ; e is from a feather fan. 



28 



PLATE IX 




f.S.IJ. fee. 



DETAILS OP DECORATION 



«9 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

Fig. 13 is an Egyptian woman's costume dating 
1450 B.C. ; she is wearing two garments — namely, a skirt 
and cloak. This skirt, which is frequently worn alone 
without the cloak, as shown in Fig. 12, is cut to exactly 
the same width top and bottom. It is wide for the 
figure, and the superfluous fullness is caught up in each 
hand in the act of putting on. The upper edge of 
garment is drawn tightly round the figure just under 
the breasts ; the portions held in each hand are then tied 
together in a knot. In Fig. 13 the cloak is knotted in 
with the skirt ; this cloak is simply a rectangular piece 
of material. It will be noted that Figs. 13', 14, and 15 
all show the popular Egyptian effect of drapery drawn 
tightly round the back of the limbs and falling full 
in front. 

Fig. 14, which dates a.d. 200, shows a Roman 
adaptation of the same costume. The figure wears 
underneath a long tunic, and over this, tightening it in 
at the waist, an Egyptian skirt ; a small Egyptian scarf 
is knotted to the skirt in similar fashion to the costume 
in Fig. 15. All the garments worn by Fig. 14 are 
rectangular pieces of material ; the tunic is two straight 
pieces of stuff sewn up the sides ; the top edge is 
divided into three parts by pinning; these openings 
form the neck arid arm-holes. 

Fig. 15 is a Greek costume of the fourth century b.c. 
in which the Egyptian influence is equally strongly 
marked ; in this case, again, the garments are all rect- 
30 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

angular pieces of material, the sleeves in one with the 
tunic. To knot the cloak to the over-skirt, as shown in 
this figure, the fullness of the over-skirt should be 
bunched up in one hand ; the two corners of the cloak 
are taken in the other hand and twisted together round 
the skirt in a knot. 




Fig. 14 



di 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

Plate X. 

Plate X. shows the fourth division of Egyptian 
costume — namely, the " Type of the Shawl or 
Drapery." Several varieties of this type are illustrated 
and described on pp. 33, 34, and 35. 




Fig. 16 



S2 



PLATE X 




F.i'.II. pitn. 



A PRIESTESS 



33 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

The fourth division of Egyptian costume is shown in 
the examples on Plate X. and pp. 33, 34, and 35. 
These are the draped or shawl type of costume. 
They have many resemblances to the draping of the 
well-known Indian sari of modern times. Compare 
these with illustration of sari (p. 39). The ingenuity 
displayed in the draping of these costumes can only be 
realized when they are actually done upon a model. It 
should be noted with regard to all Egyptian costumes 
of the more fully draped type that the entire draperies 




Figs. 16a and 17a 

seem to radiate fron^ one point, usually a knot at the 
waist, with very beautiful effect. 

To drape Fig. 16, which is a modern drawing ot 
Plate X., tie a cord round the waist, tuck in corner b 
(see plan. Fig. 16a) at left side of waist, pass round the 
back and round the right side to front again ; make 
some pleats and tuck them in in centre front of waist, 
then pass rount! back again to right side ; catch up the 
whole drapf y and throw it upwards from right-hand 
side of waisL i der left arm-pit, pass on round the back 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 




Fig. 19a 



The width 46" will drape a tall figure, say 5' 6" in hefrt»t.+"The drapery 
should be narrower for a lesser heif 



35 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

and over the right sheulder towards front, then throw 
the remaining portion of garment across the chest and 
backwards over the left shoulder ; take comer a and 
bring it round under right arm-pit, release corner b 
which you first tucked in, and tie it to corner a. The 
corner c will hang down in a point at the back. 

To drape the costume on Fig. 17, which dates 1300 B.C., 
take the comer a of Fig. 17a and hold it at right side 
of waist in front, pass round the back and round the 
left side to front again, tuck in some pleats in centre 
front, and pass on round the back to left side of waist 
under left arm towards the front ; catch up the entire 
garment and throw over the right shoulder, pass the 
upper edge of the garment round the back of the neck 
and over the left shoulder and downwards across the 
breast to right, where the corner b should be tied to 
corner a. Comer d hangs down in a point at the back. 

For Fig. 18, which dates 1600 b.c., take the corner a 
of Fig. 18a and hold it at right side of waist in front, 
pass the edge a-b round back of waist to the left side 
and across the front of waist, pass it round the right 
side again under the right arm towards the back and 
upwards over the left shoulder; tie the comer a to 
corner b in front. 

For Fig. 19, which dates 550 B.C., tie a waist cord, hold 
corner a of Fig. 19a at left side of waist in front, and 
throw the whole garment upwards over the right shoulder 
to the back ; take the comer c, bring it round under the 
36 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



right arm, and hold it along with the comer a ; draw the 
edge a-b, which stiU hangs over the right shoulder, down- 
wards across the back to left side of waist. Bring it round 




Fig. 18 



82* 






Fig. 18a 

to front of waist and pin it 
to the comers a and c at the 
left side of waist in front, 
passing the garment on 
round the front ; tuck in a 
few pleats in centre front 
into the waist cord, then 
pass it round right side of 
waist and upwards across 
the back over the left 
shoulder, downwards across 
the breast to right side of 
waist ; here pass a loop of material over the left wrist as 
shown in diagram ; now pass a girdle round the waist 
over the entire drapery, knot it at right side of waist, 
confining the drapery as illustrated in Fig. 19. 

37 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 



Here are three other varieties of Egyptian costume. 
Fig. 20, which dates sixth century B.C., is an 
arrangement of a cloak worn by a man (Plan 20a). 
Fig. 21 shows an interesting cross - over garment 
sheathing the upper part of the body, worn by a 
Warrior King, 1200 b.c. It was probably made of 
leather or quilted linen (plan, Fig. 21a). This figure is 
also wearing one of the characteristic belts with append- 
ages (for detail see Plate IX., a and b). Fig. 22, 
which dates 1300 B.C., is wearing a robe, as previously 
described on Fig. 6, but in addition has a stiff corselet 
(Plan 22a) of leather or quilted linen which is fastened 
at the side ; the date of this figure is 1300 b.c. 




48*- 



S8 



88 



Fig. 20 



Fig. 20a 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

1^ 




Fig. 21a 



c 




Front 






a 


a 


Back 


) c 


\ 




. ♦'. 




/ 


\ 




/ 


J 










h 


b^ 




I 


















1 ° 



Fig. 22a 



89 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN COSTUME 

A COMPARISON 
THE INDIAN "SARI" 

Before passing from Egyptian costume, it seems 
interesting to compare the accompanying illustrations 
of an ordinary present-day draping worn by women in 
India. This long shawl drapery (the " sari ") presents 
extraordinary similarities to some of the ancient 
Egyptian shawls or draperies already illustrated. 

The method of draping is as follows : Tie a waist cord ; 
take the corner b and fix it to the right-hand side of 
waist, then pass the edge b-a across the front of waists 
round the left side towards the back, and round the 
back of waist again to the right side ; now take up some 
pleats in the drapery and push them inside the waist 
cord in centre front of waist, then pass on the drapery 
round the waist to back and round to the right sdie 
again. Now catch up all the remaining drapery and 
throw it upwards across the chest over the left shoulder. 
Let the comer c hang down the back, and bring the 
corner a round towards the front of waist and tuck it 
in at the left side of waist, so that it will have the 
thrown-over portion to the right of it. This completes 
this draping of an Indian sari. The width of this sari 
will drape a figure of 5' 4", most of those worn by Indian 
women are narrower. 



40 



A COMPARISON : THE INDIAN SARI 





Fig. 23 



Fig. 24 



Fig. 25 



d 

Length 4'>^ Yds, widfh 39in. 

Fig. 2dA 



41 



I 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

OF 

ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 

CUTTING OUT 

There are practically only two types of garment 
generally found in the representations of ancient 
Assyrian costume: (1) the shawl, and (2) the tunic. 
These vary in size and proportion, and are worn either 
alone, but more generally in combination. 

DECORATION 

Except in the earliest examples, decoration is lavish 
in Assyrian costume ; in fact, the costume of a King 
when at its richest may be said to be absolutely covered 
with ornament. Jewellery, woven and embroidered 
patterns, and fringes are used in the utmost profusion. 
See the illustrations of the most characteristic orna- 
mental details of this style. 

45 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 

t MATERIAL 

The materials used seem to have been of linen and 
wool. The skins and furs of animals and metal were 
also in use, but chiefly for military and hunting costume. 

DATES 

The earliest type of costume here shown is a rather 
elaborate shawl drapery worn without any tunic under- 
neath. Later comes the tunic with various fringed 
shawl draperies worn in addition, and some of the latest 
types have the tunic worn alone without the shawl 
draperies. The dates given for the costumes illustrated 
in this style have been verified at the British Museum. 
It should be remembered, as in the case of ancient 
Egyptian costume, that the dresses changed very slowly 
indeed, and most styles of this era were worn literally 
for hundreds of years. 

MEN AND WOMEN : THE DIFFERENCE IN 
THEIR DRESS 

The representations of costume which Assyrian art 
has left us are almost entirely those of men's dress. 
Two examples of women's dresses are shown in this 
volume. The first wears a plain ungirded tunic and 
46 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 

a simply draped shawl covering the figure partially. 
The second is the dress of a Queen, and has the tunic 
almost entirely covered with a voluminous shawl. The 
wide belt with narrow belt over it seems to be confined 
to the men's costume, as also the tighter and scantier 
shawl draperies which exist in singular variety. 



For Assyrian and Ancient Persian Styles consult : Layard's ** Monu- 
ments of Nineveh"; Flandin and Coste, "Voyage en Perse"; Botta, 
"Monuments de Ninive"; Victor Place, " Ninive et Assyrie"; Perrot 
and Chipiez, "History of Art in Persia"; Racinet, "Le Costume 
Historique "; Hottenroth " Le Costume." Also reproductions and 
handt>ooks of the collections in the British Museum. 



4n 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Figs. 26, 27, and 28 : This drapery is from the figure 
of the King Gudea, 2500 B.C. (see British Museum). 
To drape, place the corner b of Fig. 26a under left 
arm-pit, and draw the edge b-a round the back of 
shoulders under the right arm-pit, across the front of 
chest, and round the back again, and under the right 
arm-pit once more ; then throw the edge b-a upwards 
across the chest and over the left shoulder ; the corner a 
will then hang down the back. Take this comer a and 
tuck it in at the right side of breast, as shown in illustra- 
tion (Fig. 26). It should be noted that, unless the left 
hand is raised, the left arm and hand are entirely covered 
by this drapery, the right arm only being left free for 
movement. This dignified drapery presents points of 
similarity to the Roman " toga " of a much later period. 



48 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 






Fig. 26 



Fig. 27 



Fig. 28 




49 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Plate XI. — This type of dress, which in the British 
Museum is described as worn by "a Mythological 
Figure in attendance upon King Assur-nasir-pal," ninth 
century B.C., might be dated about 1000 B.C., as follow- 
ing the usual custom of the ancients who dressed their 
sacred figures in the costume of some previous genera- 
tion as a rule, consists of a simple tunic with short 
sleeves, and reaching to the knee, cut in similar fashion 
to the Egyptian ; then a small shawl (Fig. 29b) is 
wrapped round the hips, beginning with the corner a on 
right hip, and passing the edge a-b across the front 
towards the left and round the waist. The triangle b-e-f 
can be tucked in at waist-line ; then the wide belt, 
probably leather, which is coloured buff in the illustra- 
tion, is put on and kept in position by the narrow belt, 
which is coloured red ; this belt is much better seen in 
Fig. 80. Lastly, the large shawl (Fig. 29a) has the 
comer b tucked in to narrow belt at left side of waist, 
and the edge a-b passed round the back towards the 
right side of waist upwards across the chest, and hangs 
down the back over the left shoulder. The original of 
this figure is winged, the wings being omitted here. 




w 



t¥ 



at 



m>, 



>. 



50 



illlllBgginiiDiiiuiijiiUJifiwuiilOW 



60* 
Fig. 29a 



40" 



Fig. 29b 



PLATE XI 




M.G.n. del. P.S.H. pinx. 

MYTHOLOGICAL PERSONAGE 



51 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Fig. 30 represents King Assur - nasir -"^al (ninth 
century b.c.) wearing a tunic of similar type to Plate XI., 
but long. Tied at his waist and covering the back half 
of his figure is a small richly decorated shawl about 
20 inches square. Note the tassels hanging from right- 
hand bottom comer ; these would be the same on the 
left-hand bottom corner. He also wears the belt 
mentioned in connection with Plate XI. The wavy 
tassels which look hke horsehair hang from his sword 
belt ; a tassel also hangs from the back of his necklace, 
and two ribbons from his cap-band. Note the similarity 
of this cap to the so-called fez or tarbush worn in Assyria 
at the present day. 



52 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Fig. 31 : The point to be noted in this figure is the 
arrangement of a fringe drapery which goes once round 
the waist, is thrown over one shoulder, and hangs down 
the back. 



54 




Fig. 31 



56 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Fig. 32 : This man, in hunting dress, ninth century 
B.C., has a small scarf, fringed only at the ends, wrapped 
tightly round the limbs, reaching to the knee. 



56 




Fig. 32 



57 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Fig, 33 : This woman, a captive of Sennacherib who 
reigned in eighth and seventh centuries b.c., wears a 
long tunic, and over it a long shawl fringed at the two 
ends and measuring 50"x80". To drape this shawl, 
place one corner under the left arm-pit and draw it 
across the back under the right arm-pit, wrapping it 
once round the body ; draw it across the back and up 
over right shoulder. A corner of the fringed end will 
hang down in front of the right shoulder. 



58 




Fig. 33 



69 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Plate XII. 

Plate XII. shows a number of characteristic Assyrian 
ornaments. 

a, The sacred tree. 

b, c, d, e, f, Repeating patterns on costumes, 
g, h, i, j, k, 1, Borders on costumes. 

m, One of the many rosettes much used in Assyrian 
decorations. 

These should be compared with the decorated 
costumes shown in the plates ; they would be either 
woven or embroidered. 



60 



PLATE Xir 



1 fci 


i i:j I 


B""fc- 


: D 


: o\ : 


: [c 


; ■ 1 ] 


. Ll ' 


. L 


: |d] 


: P : 


: [c 


'.."L-J 


.- LL. 


I 


: D 


: a : 


■ E 


: n ■ 


. 11 


M 



^^^^^^^■^ 








■^ 



m 


npi^n 


g 


°iai°i 




a 

D 


@ 


3 


m : 







D [o_| n 


tf 


a|tf]D 1 




D 

a 





D 

a 


^ 







DJQla 


D* 


D|lf|of 




o 
K 


f7?l 


a_ 

JtX. 


m 1 






F.5.F. /cc. 



DETAILS OF DECORATION 



61 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 

Plate XIII. — A facsimile drawing, from an enamel 
tile, is one of the many representations of the King 
Assur-nasir-pal, ninth century B.C. The description of 
his dress will be better understood by referring to 
Figs. 34, 35, and 36. The King wears over his long 
tunic a very beautiful and dignified shawl drapery, which 



g*" 




Fig. 34a 

is fringed, recalling certain Egyptian types already illus- 
trated, and, indeed, has points of similarity with certain 
Greek and Roman draperies. To drape this shawl (see 
Fig. 34a) fold over on the line e-f so that e-f, a-b, 
hangs down outside; then attach the cord e-g as illus- 
trated, and hold g at right side of waist in front, throwing 
the rest of the shawl backwards over the right shoulder. 
Draw the edge e-f round the back of neck, and form a 
62 



PT.ATR XTTI 




m.a.U. del. F.S.H. pinx. 

KINO A9SUR-NASIR-PAL 



63 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 

sling over the left arm, as sho^vn. To complete the 
draping, continue to pass the edge c-f round the waist 
towards the right, passing under the right elbow, then on 
round the back and left side until it reaches about 6 inches 
in front of left side of waist ; now fold the remainder of 
drapery underneath, as shown in the drawings, and tie 
a cord round waist to keep all firmly in position ; knot 
the end of the cord e-g to this waist cord. Fig. 35 
shows the back view, and Fig. 36 shows the drapery 
thrown off the left shoulder to give freedom to both 
arms. Figs. 34 and 35 only giving freedom to the right 
arm. If the cord e-g is pulled down so that e touches 
the waist, then both shoulders will be covered by the 
drapery. Fig. 34 is the most usual arrangement of this 
type of drapery, but in looking at Plate XIII. closely it 
will be seen that the modern drawing (Fig. 37) is a more 
exact rendering. This drawing is from a draping of 
the same shawl as Fig. 34 is wearing, but the fold- over 
is somewhat deeper, the point e is tied closely to waist 
belt, and the drapery is rolled at waist while it is being 
adjusted. When worn thus, with a roll, the drapery 
will remain in position without the waist cord being 
tied over it, but it is more secure when it has been 
thus confined. Fig. 38 is still another variety of this 
type of draping, and is taken from a small statue 
of Assur-nasir-pal in the British Museum ; there we 
have two shawls, one square and one semicircular (see 
Figs. 38a and 38b). To arrange this drajery, take the 
square shawl and fold outwards about 20 inches, as at 
e-f. Tie a waist cord on the tunic, and tuck the corner 
64 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTlJME 




Fig. 34 




Fig. 36 



Fig. 36 



65 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 

f deeply into it at left side of waist cord ; then draw 
tightly round the figure in front and round again across 
the back of waist till the left side is reached again. 
Now double about 6 inches of the shawl inwards, and 
tuck again into waist cord. Take the semicircular 
shawl g-h, and attach the cord to another waist cord, 
throw backwards over the right shoulder, and arrange a 
sling over the left arm as before in Figs. 34 and 37. The 
corner h of the shawl shows in front about 8 inches 
below the waist towards the left. Tie the second waist 
cord tightly over this shawl to keep in position. 

NOTE ON THE COLOURING OF ANCIENT ASSYRIAN 
AND PERSIAN COSTUMES 

Though we do not possess the actual specimens ot 
these costumes, still we can infer from the lavish orna- 
ment, and, from references in the Hebrew Old Testament 
writings, that rich colouring prevailed. The dyes were 
probably similar to those of ancient Egypt, and this 
table will suggest the particular hue of each colour : 

Ancient Egyptian and Assyrian Dye Colours 

Blue : Usually rather a dark indigo, sometimes paler. 
Red : Much like the colour known as Indian red. 
Yellow : Similar to yellow ochre. 
Green : Much like the paint known as green bice, but 

rather more dull. 
Purple : Dark, and quite a brownish hue of purple. 

All these colours could be used as embroideries 
on a white or natural coloured ground of Unen, the 
embroideries being of wool. In other cases the whole 
garment might be coloured throughout. 
66 




ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 




a 

A 1^ 



Fig. 87 

fiif/fii'i(W;imi-i!r'iiwniiii:-.'riii'r.'iHPHf'iiM'::l'r'il! 



Fig. 38 




Fig. 38b 



67 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Fig. 39 is the tunic of King Assur-bani-pal, seventh 
century b.c. It will be noticed that it is cut very much 
in the same manner as the Egyptian tunic ; the neck 
opening, vi^hich is a slit large enough to admit the head, 
does not show in the drawing, but three buttons on either 
side of neck will be seen. A row of fringe decorates 
the bottom, and the whole is richly embroidered ; over 
this tunic were worn the wide and narrow belts. 



68 




■WIIBIgMMWIIlllBHIjIMpiiMJM/iWMiiiiM 



■IWMWIMflBIW I IMM I M I i a iMMIMMIMMllMIMIM I I M 



^AAAAAAAAAAAA/ 



IIM m MI M II MIIMIWIWIWI I BIMI iai WIMIMIIIIMI iai 



i. ^t, «?e. £*«. ^t«. ^e. .AC. »^e. •.v^ .^e. 
? ***• •Si* ^K* ^i5» ^i» u^ -ifc* "aj* -ss* •! 




Fig. 39 



69 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Plate XIV. 

Plate XIV. is the Queen of Assur-bani-pal, seventh 
century b.c. She wears a similar tunic to the King, but 
the sleeves reach half-way down the lower arm; her 
shawl, which is fringed all round, would measure 
50" X 130". It is wrapped once round the lower limbs, 
and so covers the bottom of her tunic ; it is then wound 
round the upper part of her body in similar fashion 
to that of the woman on p. 59, save that it goes in the 
opposite direction. 



70 



PLATE XIV 




M.G.E. del. F.S.U pinx. 

QUEEN OF ASSUR-BANI-PAL 



71 



ANCIENT ASSYRIAN COSTUME 



Plate XV. 

Plate XV. shows further details of Assyrian decora- 
tion ; attention may be particularly drawn to the varied 
forms of the tassels. 

a, b, c, Bracelets, 
d, e, f, Ear-rings. 

g, h, i, j, Tassels from costumes and harness on 
horses. 

k, Winged globe. 

1, Palm tree. 

m, Lappet of a King's tiara. 

n, Bronze vessel. 

o. Sword handle. 



72 



PLATE XV 




DETAILS OF DECORATION 



78 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 



A \ 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

OF 

ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 

ALSO INCLUDING TWO EXAMPLES FROM 
CAPTIVE NATIONS 

CUTTING OUT 

The garments illustrated in this style are of four 

types ; of these, three have already appeared in the two 

previous styles — namely, the type of the tunict the 

type of the robe, and the type of the shawl or drapery. 

In ancient Persian costume we come for the first time 

to type five : the coat. We may refer here also for the 

first time to the wearing of trousers, for these are 

usually shown worn with the coats in ancient Persian 

costume, and a diagram is given on p. 86 showing 

one of the earliest known methods of cutting these 

garments. 

DECORATION 

Ancient Persian decoration was so exceedingly similar 
to ancient Assjrrian that it does not seem necessary to 
illustrate it. We do not find, however, that ancient 
Persian garments were ornamented to anything like the 
same extent as ancient Assyrian ; the frequent fringes of 

77 



-7 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 

the ancient Assyrian costumes were not nearly so 
lavishly employed in the ancient Persian style. 

MATERIAL 

Linen and wool were most probably the chief 
materials used in ancient Persian costume, but there 
are indications that leather may have been rather 
extensively employed in the more tight -fitting 
garments. 

It must not be taken that either in Assyrian or 
ancient Persian dress the garments fitted as smoothly 
and tightly as might be imagined from the sculptured 
and painted representations ; it is true folds are some- 
times indicated, but the chief concern of the artists of 
both styles was to show the human figure and richly 
decorative ornament. 

DATES 
The illustrations here given of ancient Persian 
costumes date about the sixth and fifth centuries b.c. 
with two of neighbouring nations dating eighth century 
B.C. and sixth and fifth centnries b.c. respectively. 

MEN AND WOMEN : THE DIFFERENCE IN 
THEIR DRESS 

There is not sufficient information to form a definite 
picture of the women's dress of this period and style ; 
78 



I 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 

most probably it was a simple tunic and shawl like that 
worn in Assyria, but an interesting fact is that we have 
a representation of the Queen of a Persian King who 
reigned in the fifth century a.d. who is wearing trousers, 
which, it will be remembered, are worn by Persian 
women of the present day. In this connection it may 
be noted that the history of costume, as developed 
through the use of woven materials, presents a much 
more simple aspect than the history of those styles 
bearing evidences of having been first cut from leather. 
A moment's reflection will make it clear that in the 
case of woven stuffs the most economical system of 
cutting, and indeed the most obvious, for the primitive 
dress fashioner, was based on the rectangle. On the 
other hand, the fashioner of leather garments would 
naturally try to fit the human body with, as it were, a 
second skin, hence trousers and tight-fitting jackets may 
appear in very early civilizations. 

For list of authorities see Ancient Assyrian Costume. 



79 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 



V 



Plate XVI. is a representation of Darius, King of 
Persia, sixth and fifth centuries B.C. ; he is wearing the 
Median "Robe of Honour." It will be seen from the 
plan (Fig. 40a) that this robe is sewn up each side, 
leaving a space of 20 inches on either side for the hands. 
Like the Egyptian robe, the material required is twice 
the height of the figure, the material is doubled, a neck- 
hole cut, and the garment is pulled on over the head. 
The Persian or Median method of wearing the garment 
is unique : a girdle is tightly bound round the waist, and 
then the robe is pulled up at either side over the girdle 
so as to produce the very elegant effect shown in 
Plate XVI. and Fig. 40, which is a modern drawing of 
the front view of Plate XVI., the result giving great 
freedom to the arms. The King seems to have two 
robes of the same cut, one under the other. 




BI ATE XVI 




M.G.H. del. F.S.H. pinx. 

DARIU8, KINO OF PERSIA 
G 81 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 



To arrange the drapery, dating sixth to fifth centuries 
B.C., on Fig. 41, take the corner b of Fig. 41a in the 
left hand, letting the rest of the drapery fall down the 
back, draw the edge b-a across the back, then under the 
right arm-pit across the chest, and throw the corner a 
upwards and over the left shoulder ; a will hang down 
the back. It will be noted that this garment is weighted 
at the corners ; this keeps it in position. 

Fig. 42 is a modern drawing showing the garment in 
front view. 




82 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 

Fig, 43, dating eighth century b.c., is wearing cloak 
(see Fig. 43a) partly fringed. It is worn much in the 
same manner as Fig. 41, but in Fig. 43 the comer a is 
thrown backwards over the left shoulder, and the edge 
a-b is passed across the chest and under the right arm- 
pit, then drawn across the back, and the corner b falls 
down in front of the left shoulder. 

This costume is not Persian, but that of some nation 
to the east of Persia in northern Asia Minor. The 
wearing of boots with upturned toes as here shown 
seems to have extended from Persia across northern Asia 
Minor to the Mediterranean even as far west as Italy. 

Fig. 44 is a modern drawing showing the garment in 
front view. 



I 



c 






b 




p. 


1 


64- 

64" 


t 


1 

1 

s 

1 


s 


% S) 


' .mTtrrnflfl^SKv^ 


[ 



84 



Fig. 43a 




Fig. 43 



85 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 



Fig. 45 is wearing a short-sleeved coat over a tunic. 
The edging shown is probably uncut fringe ; in reality it 
would not fit the figure neatly, as the ancient artist has 
indicated, but would hang rather loosely. 

Fig. 45a shows the method of cutting. 

The costume is considered to be that of a Jewish 
captive of the Persian conqueror and dates sixth to 
fifth centuries b.c. 



6" 



o> 



■^ 







24" 
Fig. 45a 



z 



86 




Fig. 46 



87 



ANCIENT PERSIAN COSTUME 



Fig. 46, which dates sixth to fifth centuries B.C., is 
wearing over a tunic and trousers (see Fig. 46b) an 
overcoat with a set-in sleeve (see Fig. 46b), turned-over 
collar and cuffs, and tied in front with ribbons. The 
plan (Fig. 46a) shows one of the earliest known methods 
of setting in the sleeve ; the collar in this plan is 
represented turned forward and lying flat. 

The tunic worn by this figure, under his long over- 
coat, and also the trousers would most probably be of 
leather. 



28- 




Fig. 46b 



88 




Fig. 40 



89 



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THE BIBLE 

A HANDBOOK FOR BIBLE STUDENTS 

Crown 8w., cloth bound. Containing 48 Full-Page Illustrations from 

Photographs. 

Daily News. — "This is a book of great interest." 

Edinburgh Evening News. — " Mr. Baikie has a clear and graphic style, and 
altogether this book is a well-written and up-to-date summary covering a wide field." 
Liverpool Courier. — "A volume heartily to be commended." 



THE STORY OF THE PHARAOHS 

A SHORT HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT 

Large Crown 8w., cloth hound. Containing 31 Full-Page Illustrations 
from Photographs, and 49 Illustrations in the Text. 

Pxford Magazine. — "While the latest conclusions of archaeological investigation 
are embodied in the narrative, all unnecessary details are omitted, and the story flows 
on with ease and rapidity." 

Aberdeen Free Press. — "At once popular and scholarly, and of great service. The 
main facts have been woven into a narrative of marvellous vividness in which accuracy 
has not in the least been sacrificed to effect." 



THE SEA-KINGS OF CRETE 

AND THE PREHISTORIC CIVILIZATION OF GREECE 

Large Crown Svo., cloth. Containing 32 Full-Page Illustrations from 

Photographs. 

The writer's aim in this volume has been to present to the general reader, 
in an untechnical and readable form, the results of the various explorations 
which have recently done so much to enlarge our knowledge of the great 
prehistoric civilization which preceded that of classic Greece, and on whose 
ruins Greek culture, as we know it, arose. The ancient legends pointing to 
the existence of a great sea-power in prehistoric Crete are narrated, and a 
short account is given of the civilization assumed in the Homeric poems. 
Thereafter, the work of Schliemann, leading to the discovery of the Myce- 
naean culture, is briefly described, and, turning to Crete itself, an account is 
given of the remarkable discoveries at Knossos, Phaestos, and elsewhere, 
which have revealed the relics of the wonderful empire of the Minoan sea- 
kings with its advanced civilization. 

PUBLISHED BY 
A. & C. BLACK, LTD., 4, 5 & 6 SOHO SQUARE, LONDON. W. 1 



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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



Houston, Mary Galway and 
Homblower, F. S. 

Ancient egyptian, Assyrian 
and Persian costumes 






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