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■ ;.»■■■■ -.. - "• 




i ^ 

-• • •! 

Max itUnta ai/iunxi f-i^U-rS omnfil«,i^iiiltt\ 


H I S T O R Y 










Ify Mr. COLLIN, 

talt PHK^al tf tit Univerfy */ Paru, Vnftgtr 4 Eltjutnu \n tit Rys! 
CdbgÊ, aad Sùmiir »f tb* Ryal Aeainy of Jnferiftioiu and BtUet Ltiira. 

Tranflated from the French. 


VOL. I., 


— 4 

Muted for J. tnd F. RiviNGTON, R. Baidwin, Hawis, Clarki ir.J 


S.CiowDsii, C. RiviNCTOM, B. Law, G.Robjnsun, Carna.^ and 

Ntw«SKY> Z, StUART and J. Knox. 



TI-.S I.'RV" yn^v 


Is 1921 L 

» » " ■ ■ <> ■' • 

A D V E R T I S E M E N T. 

rHBSE Eight Volâmes 12 mo, with ùitRmawHifioijf /• 
th End 9ftbi CMtmottwtaltbf in Ten Volumes 8vo ; the 
^Jh9y 9/ tbi Arts ami Scienctt rf tbi Ancitntt^ Three Volumes 
ifO; and l\kt Mabod of Studying tbi Bellii Lettres, Three Vo« 
8vo ; compleat Mr. RolItn*9 Works. 

N. JL Mr. Crémier has continued Mr. Rolbn^i Roman Wflw)^ 
ontaining the Hiftory §/ tbi Roman Emperors ^ frem Auiufins /• 
hnjiantinif in Tin Volumes^ O&avo. 



Parisr. i Sept. T729» 

I HAVE read) by order of the Lord-keepér« amanafcr!] 
entitled, ^htAncUnt Hiftory tf the Egyptians ^ Cartbagituan 
\^fyfiâMSiSàtylmUHSiMiJiSiPefJuinst Macidonians muiGrteiSf h 
In this work appeal? Ae fame principles of religion, of probir 

«nd the &me happy endeayOurâ to improve the minds of youtl 
inrhich are fb conipicQOQs in all the writings of this autho 
The prefent work is not confined merely to the iûftruâioii < 
young people, bat may be of fervice to all perfons in genera 
who will now have an oppcotunity of reading, in their natii 
tongue, a great number of curious events, which before wti 
kaowA to few except the learned. 




THE Proprietors of this edition of Rollings Ancient Hiflcwy 
beg lea?e to inform the PuUick» that it was publiihe^ 
by the authorat different times» and, as he himfelf acknow* 
ledges» opoD no certain plan of execution. This rendered it 
aeceflary for him to ei^it a particular prefkce or intro^adUon 
to each pablication ; but the whole being now compleated» 
the editors have combined all his introduftion into one» and 
iiave omitted fiKh paflages as were either ûipeiâuons or redua» 

Upon a moft careful perofal af the anthor*s general prefcce» 
they were in forae doobt whether the fame might not be entireljr 
fiipprefled without any detriment to the work. The reputmioa 
•f the author, the pie^ of his fentiments, which cJalh with 
ao profcfioB, even of Proteftaet ChriiHanity, and the bene- 
iroten^ of his intention» determbed them to give it to the 
MUidt with biK a vtry few alterations» which they dare to 
usf Mr. RùUim would have approved of had he beta now alive 
«M in this couatfy. 


FrèflB the dc&ltory manner in which the original was Irft 
pnbliihed, as abeady mentioned» the editors found it expedient 
to give the author's introdnélory obfervations and difcour(ès a 
new but regular arrangement, the propriety of which they» 
humbly hope mud be obvious to every . readei», e^ecially as 
they have preferved all the original ideas» obfervations» and 
criticifms of the excellent author^ ^ 

A I A L£ 

[ vi] 

A LETTER, written by the Right Reverend Dr. Francis 
Atterbury, late Lord Bi(hop of Rocbefter, to Mr.. 
RoLLiN, in Commendation of this Work. 

^evtrinde atqui EruditiJJiwu Vir^ 


CUM, monente amico qaodam, qui juxta xdes toas habi* 
tat, fcirem te Pariiios revertiiTe ; ilatai faluutam te irrt 
ut primùm per valetadinem liceret. Id ofHcii^ ex pednai in* 
*£rmitate aliqnandiu dilatum» cum tandem me impleturam fpe* 
rarem, fruftra fui ; domi non eras. Reftat» nt quod coram 
exequi non potui, fcriptis faltem literis prseflcm ; tibiqoe ob 
ea omnia, quibus à te auAus fum, bénéficia, grates agam» 
quas habeo certe, & femper habiturus fum, maximas» 

Reverà mnnera ilia librorum nuperis à te annis edi^orom 
egregia ac perhonorifica mihi vifa funt. Multi enim facio» 5r 
te> vir prxflantiflime, & toa omnia quaecunque in ifto litera» 
rum genere perpolita funt ; in quo quidem Te cseteris omniboa 
ejnfmodi fcnptoribus facile antecellere, atque t,îk enn^em àt 
dicendi & fentiendi magiftrum optimnm« prorsfts exiftimo : 
cûmque in excolehdis his ftudiis aliquatitulum ipfe h opera U 
tcmporis pofuerim» libère tamen pronteor me» toa cum legam 
ac relegam, ea edodlum eiTe i te, non fol&m quss nefcieDam 
•prorsûs, fed etiamqosBanteadidiciâemihi vifos fan. Modeftd 
itaque nimium de opere tno fentis,^ com juventttti tantùm inftt» 
• tuends elaboratum id «fTe contendis. Ea certe fcribis, qu« à 
viris iftiofniodi rerum hand tmperitis, cum voluptate & fruAu 
If gi pofTunt. Vetera quidem U, fatis cognita revocat in mem^* 
riam ; fed i tare vocas, ut illuftrec, ut ornes ; ut aliquid vetuf* 
tis adjicias quod novum fit, alienis quod omnino tuum : bo- 
nafque piâuras bona in luce collocando effids, ut etiam iis, à 
quibus ia^pinimc confpedae funt, clegantiores tamen folitô ap- 
pareant, U placeant magis. 

Certe, dum Xenopbontem facplus vcrfas, ab illo & ea quae 
à te plurimis in iocis narrantur, & ipfum ubique narrandi mo« 
dum viJeris traxifTe, (lylique Xenophontci nitorem ac venuf« 
tam (Implicitatem non imitari tantùm, fed plane aflequi : ita 
ut fi Gallicc fciflet Xenophon, non aliis ilium, in co argu- 
roento quod traitas, verbis ufurum, non alio prorsûs more 
fcripturum judiccm. 

Haec ego« baud a/Tentandi eausâ (quod vitium procul à me 

abeft) fed verè ex auimi fententiâ dico. Cum euiin pulchris à 

- u donis diiatus ûm, quibus \\ eodem, aut in alio quopiam 


dâriii» gene itfereikclii imjpateffl me ieati^ vottd tamen 
rqpenfi ttgi te aikilfli |nidqiie teftimotMom firoierrér A te 
Sdâû itltem' akanttibalo» etfi perqtum diffimtU» tenoflërari. 

ftrgjt, vir doâe âdmodim ^ veneraade, de bonis \iteris$ 
ÛM nvAC ni^kâis pàfim & (]^tet» Jace&C» bene mefert i pef^tf 
iventtttem GalHcam (^aando lllo foluffimodo te utilem efle 
it) optimts k prUceptit it exempUt infoMare. 

Qood Qt fadai» atittii astatts turn elapfit tfiultoi a4jicUt 
%tet itibtte decttMndbtts ÙMxa te pmfiet atque bcôîamem; 
toc ex luumo optât ae totet 

•^ - • 

Tat obfenrintifimtti* 

ytAHiiievft RorriRstf^ 

Ynftibmn te Aetem pott Ma ih&t mihl ainictta ille nofter 
tti tibt vitiAOl eftr C^m fiattserti tetitm qtio die ftdfutttrai 
hUïïà figfttltftbh. Me. teni aanii AftQMe debtlitatttm» 
lÉiidotttbQttê fffiéiiii éomi tavnieii 




A LETTER wrlnea by t1i« Right Revtrend Dr. FnAircit 
ATTtRivitr. lare Lord Bifliop of Rocheftcr» Xm Mr» 
RoLtJir, in ComfflenditloQ of this Work. 

Jtinnremi and mtfl Liârmd Sir, 

WHEN I wii informed by i friend who livci ntir yoOf 
that yoti wcro returned to Paris^ I relbUed to wait on 
yoU| ai foon as my health would admit. After having; beca 
prevented by the gout for fome time, I wai in hopei at length 
of paying my refpr^ti tQ yoo at your houie, and went thither» 
tut found )rou not at home. It ii incumbent on me therefore 
to do that in writing, which I eottld not in perfon, and to re- 
turn you my acknowledgments for all the favot^s you have 
been deafed to confer upon me» of which, I beg you will be 
aflurcd, that 1 Ihall always retain the moA grateful fenfe. 

And indeed I efteem the books you have lately publiibedA 
as prefents of exceeding value» and fuch as do me very great 
honour. For 1 have the higheft regard, mod excellent Sir, 
both for you, and for evcr^ thing that comes from fo mafterlf 
a hand as yours, in the kind of learning you treat t In which 
I muft believe that you not only excel all other writers, but 
are at the fame time tne beft mafter of fpeaking and thinking 
well I and I freely coafefs that, though I had applied fome time 
and pains in cultivatinft thefe ftudiis, when I read your volumes 
over and over again, I was infiruûed in things bv you, of 
which I was not only entirely ignorant, but fcemed to myfcif 
to have learnt before. You have therefore too modeft an opi- 
nion of your work, when vou declare it compofed folely for 
the inftrudtion of youth, what you write may undoubtedly 
be read with picafure and improvement by perfons not unac- 
quainted in learning of the fame kind. For whiift you call to 
mind ancient fa£ls and things fufficiently known, you do it in 
fnch a manner, that you illuftrate, you embellifli them i flill 
adding fomething Dew to the old,^ fomething entireljr your own 
to the labours of others : By placing good pi6lures in a good 
light, YOU make them appear with unufual elegance and more 
exalted beauties, cvea to thoA who have feen and Audied them 

In your frequent correfpondence with Xenophon, you have 
certainly extra^ed from mm, both what you relate in many 
places, and t^tty where his V9ry manner of relating i yoti, 
fetm not only to.bave liniutpdi btt^gtcalaed Che Aining ele* 


fmce and beautiful fimclicity of that ant!ier*a ftjrie : So Att 
ad Xenophon excelled m the French huguage, m xny judg- 
ment, he would have ufed no other words» nor writtea in an/ 
other method, upon the fubjedt you treat, than you have done. 
I do not fay this out of flattery (which it far from being my 
vice) but from my real fenfe and opinion. As you have en- 
riched me with your fine prefents, which I know how incapa- 
ble I am of repaying either in the fame or in any other kind of 
learning, I was willing to teftify my gratitude and affection 
fbr you, and at lei^ to make yoa fome finall, though exceed- 
ingly unequal, return. 

Gro on, moft learned and venerable Sir, to deferve well of 
(bund literature, which now lies unlVerfally negleAed and de» 
fpiièd. Go on, in forming the youth of France (fince you will 
have their utility to be your fole view) upon the beft precepts 
and examples. 

^ Which that ^ou mav effeCt» may it plekft God to add many 
yean to your life, and during the courfe of them to preferve 
yoa in health and iaftty. This is the earneft wiih and prayer of 

Your ffioA obedient Servant^ 

FaAifCis RofiBip 

F. 9. Our friend, your neighbour, tells me yon intend to 
dine with me after the holidays. When yo^ have fixed upoQ 
thm da^, be pleafed to let him know it. Whenever you come» 
yoa will be fure to find one, fo weak with age and ills as I am4 
at home. 

Cicmfir 26, 1 731* 


I ', ■. '■' n 

INTENTS to Vol. L 


ftE ufejhln^i of prù/ane bifiory^ ^tclaiy nnfiti fêgâfêl f9 

religion • • • Page 1 

igioH • • ft tt XXtl 

' ftafis * • • kicviil 

tnatbtnià . • . • • ibid* 

tf Baccbui' • . • • , XXX 

of Sleujtt • • • XXXli 

garSi orailiS^ &0i • • XXXVt 

gun m^ m m XXXftt 

ulit • • • ■ )4 

f gûmu ^d têmhfi , • • • ' Mk 

fiKiblttift 9rt%mhlMli • > liil 

f^Ung - • • U\ 

ning^ 9rtbêtf/lui • • Ivlil 

fpuncrêtium • •. .• Mnt 

f i^i/fMt or fuoii • • ibid* 

€ fentatbhm « « « Ix 

ces « • • • ibid* 

e foot race • • • \x\\ 

e horfcrraces • • • Ixiii 

e chariot-races i • » » ibid, 

e honours and rewards granted to the vigors Ixviii 
[fferent tajie of the Greeks and RomanSf in regard to their 

lickjhoivs - - - ]XX 

/ prizes of «iv/V, and the Jhoixjs and reprefentations of the 
ttre - , • Jxxiii 

\ordinary pajjion of the Athenians for the entertainments of the 
y» Emulation of the poets in dlfputing the prizes in ihof§ 
'•cfentations. À port idea of dramatick poetry Jxxiv 

igin and proprefj of tragedy. Poets *who excelled in it at 
fCMJ ; JFfhiytus^ Sophocles, and Euripides Ixxvî 

t ancient, middle, and new comedy • Ixxxvii 



The thtêtr$ •/ tht ênàtnts dtfcrihtâ • Page idf 

€a%ftt of th$ itgiiiifûey ami iorrstftiâit of tbi Athenian fim 

Ef9<hai 9f tbi Jnmjb bi/hvy 

Rêmnn hijhry 
Tht origin anil cofié/ition of tbi Elotéêf $r Htlotâ 
Ijcurgutt tbi LaciJamonian Innvgivir 
Wmr bft^»ftn tbi Arnva tmd tbi hm aè Êt m o ni ant 
Wnrs bttiAjfin tbi m^ffiniam nnd Laaébtpuniûns 
Tbtfirft Mtfftnian njuar 
Tbi feconél Mtjffinian mjor 
Tbi kingdom of Egypt 


Mncidonia • 

.Tbraci and Bit by nia 
iCingi of Bit hy ni a • • • 


Potttut • «^ 

Capp'adoeia • 

Arminta • 

Tyrants of HtracUa 
Kings of Syracnfi 
Otbir kings 














cxxvl ' 









• Tbi anciint biftory of tbi Bgyptiat^^ 


Tbi difcriptiofC of Egypt^ *mfitb an acconnt of nubM is 

and ritnarkabli in that conntry • 

C H A f • !• Tbiiais . » • 

II. MiddiiEgvpt» erHtptanomis 
SxcT. I. TbioMfit 
II. Tbi pyramids 
III. Tbilabyrintb 
\V , Tbi laki rf Mmis 
V. Th innnJationj of tbi Nili 
I. Tbifonrciif tbi Nila 
a. Tbi eataraBs of tbi Nib -^ 

3. Cat^is of tbi inundations tf tbi Nib 

9ft cwrion^ 








r. V. 4. Tbi tim wtd tûntimutnci tf ibi twÉiuiûthnt 

5. Tbt beighvftbeitMHétaffOtu - 13 

6. The canals of the Vile^ ami fpiral fumft 14 

7. Th fertility eaufed hy ihe KiU - 15 

8. T*wû different prcj^effs exhibited fy tb$ Nth 17 

9. The canal forpièd by the Nilif by nvhUh a cam* 

munication it made betnnwi the t^tnaffoi ' ibid* 
A IP. III. Lower Egyft - - ' it 

PART n. 

the manner t and cuftom of the Egyptians . . « tz 

A F*' I* Concerning the kings and gêvemment • 2J 

n. Concerning the friefts andreHgion of the Bgypth 


C T» I. The nnorjhip of the various deities - JO 

II. The ceremonies of the Egyptian fanerais 3 J 

A P. in. Of the Egyptian fildier s and nuoT • 38 

IV. Of their arts and fcienois . - . xg 

V. Of httjbandme», Jhrpherds, and artifimi 41 

VI. Of the fertility of Egypt ' • 45 

PART iir, 


hifiisry of the kings tf Egypt ^ «^ 54I 



• h^ory of the Carthaginians - * 83 


thecharaaer, manners, religion, »nd government of the Cat'' 

haginiOfis . - - lOld. 

CT. I. Carthage formed ttfter the model of Tyre, ^ nuhiib 

that city was a colony - - ihw# 

n. The religioà of the Cartbétghtietns a 84 

IH. Form of the government tf Carthage * 89 

Thefifitts • - 9^ 

Thejenato -* * J?} 

Tbepoopk • T ^ ÎW. 

I Sect. 


S 1 c T« m. Thi trihmal of tbt hundred - Page 

Tb$ dtfeâi in thi gûvtmment of Carthage 

IV. Trade of Carthage^ the firft jiurce ùf its weedib . 
P^yeer - - 

V. The minis rfSpaint the fec9ndfinrci of the riches ^ 
fwoer of Carthage 

VI. War. • . 

VII. Arts and fnences * - . ] 
VUIt The charaQert mannerst and qnalitia of the C 


P A R T II. 

The hijiovy of the Carthaginians 

C H A P. I. The foundation of Carthage^ and its progrtfs^ 

time of thi firft Fnnick war 
Cenquefts of the Carthagimans in Africa « 

Chap. O. The hiftory of Carthage» from the firft Punick « 

to its diftruQion 

A R .T I C L E I. 

The firft Pnuick fwar - - • 

The Lièyan war ; or; againft the Mercenaries 

The fécond Punick war * - 

The remote and more imsmdiate caufes of the fécond Punick * 

The war proclaimed - 

The beginning of the tecond Punick war 
The pajpsge of the Rh^ne 
' The march after the hattU of the Rhone 
The fajage over the, JIft 

Hanméatenters Italy . - - 

The battle of the camahry wear the Ticinus 
The battle of Trebia - 

The béUtle of ThraJ^ni 
HannibaPs conduis with refpeS te Fabius 
Tbeftate tf affairs in Spain 

The baitle of CasméÊ • - - 

Hannibal takes up his winter^quarters in Capud 
The tranfaSi9nt relating to Spain astd Sardinia 
illfucti/t of Ikmbal. nefieges of Capua etnd Rem : 


Tki dffiât 4iml dutfb êftJ^tmm Scifi^s in Sfmn fage U% 

À/dmM • * 311 

ic^ mfMirj all Spain. // t^fêhUié offfiil» aad/ails iM Africa. 

Btamial $4 ncalle4 * * * 214 

bHirvirw iwwfcn Hamribal and Sdfiê in Afrits foUrwiJ ly a 

imtlt ^ • , * 218 

dpfoci €9iulndul ietnveiu iit Carftapnians and tbe Rmam. Tb§ 

fnd ûf tbi fécond Punick nf?ar • ♦ ' %2q 

4/bmrt refit àion en tbi govtrnmnii tfCartbaftt in tbe êimi ef tbe 

Jkand fnnifk vfor • • r ^'3 

P R B- 



( I 

P R E F A C E. 

hi Ufifulntfi •/ P leo ¥ A HE Hi < 1 » r » (/>rjr/4/^ vnith n^ 
: . <' ^^ /^ RrLi6iO0i 

THE ftudy of ptoftne hiftory tw)uW be J^*^ •> \^ 
unworthy l>f i fcriout- Mtcfition, ;tnd ;g;''X^^^^^^ *£ 
ft confidcMble length àt time, if it ^^;^„ j),^ ^5^.^ 
1^ confined to the diy knowl«d^ ht indent ^uogf, 
nnfiiâtonB» and k\k vnpIeAfîng enquiry into 
Ée aertt when each of them happened. It little concernt a» 
lo knowft diat there' wai once fucn men ti Alexander, Csfari 
àriilidés, or Cato, and that they lived in thi» or that period t 
diat the empire of the AflVriani made wav for that of the Ba- 
bylonians» and the latter vor the empire of the Mcdes and Per^ 
Baot, who were themfeWea fubjcé^ed by the Macedonians, as 
ikele were aftcrwatda^ by the Romans» 

Bût il highly concerns us to know, by what '• TA.vtf»/«e/ 
idcehodB ihofe empires w'tré founded ^ thie ftep* .J^./J^^.r^ 
by* which they rofe to the existed pitch of gr«n- *' ' '^^ * 
dewrwe fo much admire: what it was that con (lîtuted their true 
|;lory and felicity, and the caufes of their decienfion and fall. 
It is of no lets importance to ftudy atten- ^^ ^j^ -^^ 
lively the manners of different nations ; their ani charatier of 
genius laws, and cuiloms; and efpecislly to nations, and of tbt 
•oouaint ourfelves'With the character and dif- ^rtat p^om tUt 
potition, thetnlent», virtues, and even vices of ^^wr»»'^**"» 
fhpie men by whom they were governeJ, and whofe good or 
bad qualitic:i contributed to the grandeur or decay of the dates 
over which they preflded. 

Such arc the pjcat objcfls which ancient hirtory prcfents i 
exhibiting to our view all ihc kiiiguoms and empires of the 
world ; and, at the fame time, all the great men who were 
any ways confpicuous ; thereby inllrurting us, by example 
rather than precept, in the arts of empire and war, the prin- 
ciples of government, the rules of policy, the maxims of civil 
fociety, and the condud^of life that fuits all age!> and conditions. 
Wc .icqui re, at the fame time, another know- 3, ibe orig'm 
ledge, which cannot but exc«te the attention of end progni's of 
all pcrfonswho have a taftc and inclination for artsanilri^nreu 
polite learning ; I mean, the manner in which arts and fdences 
Vol. L 1^ were 


'^féte loveated» caki? ated» «nd iinproved 3 fv« Aère difc 
»Qt) tr«cc «9 i( were with the eye, their origio and prog 
an j perceive, with admiration, that the nearer we appi 
th<^e countrittivhich ^i^tre onoc inhabited by the font of p 
in thij^catct perfeélt^ we find tke arta and fcienctt 1 an( 
thi*y fccm to be either negleAed or forgot» in proportion t 
rcanotcnefs of nation* from them ; fo that, whf n men atten 
10 icvive thofe arts and fcienctis they were obliged to go 
10 (\\e fource from whence they originally flowH. 

I "Xwe only a tranficnt view of thefe object, though fo 
ini]n)rtant, in this pJnco» becaufe I have already treated 
^iih feme extent clfcwhere *• 

4. 7r* Ufi't^ ^^^ another objeA, of infinitelr greatei 
ir^*,rf>rria:/y, the poftance, claimi oar attention. For althi 
.tir.^^iinn hrtwm profnnc hiftory treats only of nationi whc 
f.t.rt/anUf'./aHt itninbcd all the chimiaras of a fvperAitioat 
*'^j^*"y^ ^ ilnp ;. and abandoned themfelvci toall the 

j;;iiluritic9 of w))ich haman nature, after the fall of th< 
uun, became capable ; it neverthelefi proclaims univerfall 
^rcjintii) uf the Almi(\hty, his power, his jvftice, and a 
<k\\, the admirable wil'dom with which ki«. providence go' 
Ihi* unîverfe. 

if the I* inherent conviction of this laA troth rai(èd, ac< 
in^ to Cicero's obfcrvation, the Romans above all othei 
lions ; we may, in like manner, afSrm, that nothing * 
Mllory a greater iupcriority to m.iny other branches of li 
lure, ih;in to iVe in a manner imprinted, in almoft every 
i>f ir, the precious footfteps and fhining proofs of this 
tiuth, o'fs:. that Gud difpofes all events, as fupreme Iok 
fovcTcigo ; that he nlone determines the fate of kings An< 
duration of empires ; and that he, for reafons infcrutab 
all hut himfolf^ traitsfcrs the government of kingdoma 
one nation to ^inother. 

//r prfjSJed tt We difcovcr this important truth in g 
i/# titjfôfitn of back to moft remote antiquity, and the o 
riK-n,aj)ntbfjlwiU ^^f profane hirtory ; 1 mean to the difpc 
€f tlie poderity of Noah into the feveral countries of the 
vherc they I'cttleJ. Libf*rty, chance, views of intercft, 1 
For certain countries, ond fuch like motives, were, in oui 
appearaucc, the only caufcs of the different choice which 

• F«;. m. «■</ IV. oftUmttba 

Lftnjit ftt, N 

f * Picutt ac rtli|ient» atvat hac 
fsfitada \^9à dtoru» immor-. 

talium aumine omnia rcgi gu 
rique perCpexiinui, omnei 
nationefque fuperavinus. Ot 


lade in thefe varioui migrations. But the fcrSptores înforiÀ 
m» that amidft tht troobk and oonfufion- that followed the 
udden change in the language of Noah^s defcendants, God 
prefided inviubly over all their counfels and deliberations ; that 
nothing was tranfaded but bv the Alrnighty's appointment : 
and that he only guided * and fettled all mankind, agreeably 
to ttato diâacea of bit mercy and jufticc : (a) TJht Lord fcatttred 
them mirmd from thence upon the fat t of ibt tarth. 

It is true indeed that God, even in thofe early flges> had a 

ÎecoUar regard for that people, whom he was one day to con- 
der as Us t>wa. Me pointed out the country which they were 
to inherit ; he caufed it to be pofTciTed by another laborious na- 
tion» who applied thcmfelves to cultivate and adorn it ; and to 
improve» by all poflible methods, the future inheritance of the 
Ifradites, He then fixed, in that country, the like number of 
families» as were to be fettled in it, whrn the fons of Ifrar? 
Aoald» at the appointed time, take pbHlflion of it ; and did 
aetfuArany of the nations, which were not fubjc^t to the 
corfe pronounced by Noah againft Canaan, to enter an inhe« 
ritance that was to be given up entirely to the Ifraclice^. 
-f ^uûndo di'oidibmt AUiJJimus giMts^ quana'n ji*parnèat fihcs Adamt 
cofMituU tirminos populorum juxta numerum jllmum. I/rael. But 
this peculiar regard of God to his future people, does not in*^ 
tcrfere with that which he had for the reft of the nations of the 
earth, as is evident from the many paffagcs of fcnpturc, which 
teach OS» that the entire fucceifîon of agc5 n prcftr.t to him ; 
that nothing is tranfadled in the whole univcrie, but by his 
appointment ; and that he direfts the feveral events of it from 
age to age. {b) Tu a Dtus con/ptSior ftculorum, A fuulo ^ffur 
inftculum rt/picis. 

We muil therefore confider, as an indif- C9tl tnîy hat 
putable principle, and as the bafis and foun- fi^*d tbe fate •[ all 
dation to the iludy of profane hiftory, that the Zf^»\^r T* 
providence of the Almighty has, from ell cter- peo/,fe, afj the 
nity, appointed the ellablifhment, duration, ftign •/ bit Sn^ 
and deftruAion of kingdoms and empires^ as 
well in regard to the general plan of the whole univcrfe, known 
only to God» who conftitutes the order ^nd wonderful harmony 

a 2 of 

(tf) Gen. xi. 8, 9. (k) Ecrlef. vvxîx. t^. xitTîii, 15. 

• 1'bi ancimtt themfeheif a^ecrdtrg | •] ffi'fn tl" Afcjl fCigh tli'rtdt/i tie 
fo Pindar, (Olymp. C5d. vii.) bas rr- nathns, and Çiparaud t}>r hns cf Aiam, 
taimed f0iit idea, tbat the differ/ion of ff itji'gned the humh *•( tffpnph ac» 
imn nvat fi9t the tffeii of cbame, bat rordify^ to the nur-hn nf the ciilii-m nf 
tbat tbp bad been Jet thti in different \ 1ft art nohimA^ la,i in •vieno,) 'J bit it 

e9Mmfei,i bf tbi appt/tntmtttt tf frovh 

one of H^rf*f<rf»yc#*)»#^f {nvhieh apport 
vety natural) tbeu 11 ^. in to tbiipa^tg^t 


of its feveral parts; as particularly with refpeA to the pe 
of Ifrael, and fiill more with regard to the Meffiah, and 
ellablifhment of the church, which is his great work» the 
and defignof all his other works, and everprefent to hiifi] 
(0 Nçtum à/eculû eft Domino eùus/uum. 

God has vouchsafed to difcover to us, in. holy (criptup 
^art of the relatioi^ of the feveral nations of the earth t€ 
own people; and the little fo difcovered, ;diff'ufes. great | 
over the hiftory of thofe nations« of whpiif we .(hali have b 
ver>' imperfcfi idea, unlefs we have recourfe to the îdÂ) 
writers. They alone difplay, and bring to light, the it 
thoughts of princes, their incoherent prcjeâs, their foe 
pride, their impious ^nd cruel ambition : They reveal 
'^Vve caafes and hidden fprings of viApriei and overthrows; 
the grandeur and declenfion of nations; the rife and ruL 
Rates ; and teach us what judgment the Almighty forms I 
of princes and empires, and confequentlyt what idea wci 
Il Ives ought to entertain of them. 

Powerful kings Not to mention Egypt, that ferved at fit 
0Pf>At:udtopuntj[k the cradlc (if I may be allowed the exprefl 
flr protea IJrael. xo the holy nation ; which afterwaras WJ 
l^ind of fevere prilbn, and a fiery furnace to * it ; and at 
the fcene of the mofl ailonifhing miracles that God ever wroi 
an favour of Ifrael : Not to mention, I fay, Egypt, the mi| 
empires of Nineveh and Babylon furniQi a thoufand prool 
the truth here advanced. 

. Their moft powerful monarchs, Tiglath -Pel afar, Salmans 
Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, and many more, were, in G 
hand, as fo many inftruments, which he employed to pu 
|he tranfgreflicns of his people, {d) He lifted ap ëtt etifign t 
nations from far ^ and hijfed unto t him front the (nd of the tartà 
iomok and receive his enters. He himfelf put the fword into t 
|)ands, and appointed their oparches daily. He breal 
courage and ardour into their foldiers ; made their an 
indefatigable in labour, and invincible in battle; and fpi 
terror and condernation wherever they diredled their (leps. 

As their conqueils were fo rapid, this ought to have gi 

them fome glimpfe of the invifible hand which conducted th 

But, fays one of thefc f kings in the name of reft, (r) i^ 

Jirength of mj band I have done it, and by my nvifdom ; far j 


{c) Aâi Kr. i8. (<i] ITai. r. 26, 30. z. %%, 34. xiiî. 4, 5. {e) 

* i wf/7 hrht^jcM wtfrtm under the 

ktzàafê 9f the Eayptiams, mud I wi.V 

M ùv: if ibeir èçnd^e, out ^ the 

ir9H furnace, even out of Egypt^ 1 
vi. 6 Deur. iv. 10, 
-f Sennaiberth^ 


t ■ ■ . 

' * And 1 have removed the hounds of the peofky end have 
ihtir treafureiy and I h.rve put dovcn the inhabitants like a 
f man. And mj hand bath found as a n^ the riches of the 

And as one gathenth €^gs thai are Irfi^ htwe 1 gathered 
ttirthf and there ivas none that moved the ivingt or opened 
ith^ or peeped. 

(his monarch, To augud and wife in his own eye, howf 

appear in that of the Almighty ? Only as a fubnltern, a 
t lent by his mafter : {f) The rod of his anger ^ and the ftaff 
hand. God*s defign was to chaflife, not co extirpate hi9 
în, fiat Sennacherib {g) had it in his heart to di\firoy and 

all nations. What then will be the iflue of this kind ot 
k between the defigns of God, and thofe of this prince f 
the time that he fancied himfelf already pofTefled o^ 
tcm, the Lord, with a fingle blaft, difperfri all his proud 
; deftroys, in one night, an hundred and foiirfcow 
nd of his forces : * Putting a hook his nofe^ and a hridU 
Ups^ (as though he had been a wild beafl) he leads hint 
;o his own dominions,, covered with infamy through ther 
of thofc nations, who, but a little before, had beheld/ 
I all his pride and haughtinefs. 

mchadnezzar, king of Babvlon, appears (lill more v!iibl)C 
icd by • providence, to which he himfelf is an entire 
nr, although it prehdes over all his delibcrationSi AoA 
lines all his anions. 

Bdog come at the head of his army to two highways^ 
e of which lead to Jerufalem, and the other to Rabbah^ 
lief city of the Ammonites, this king, not knowing 

of them it woald be bed for him to ftrilce into, debate^^ 
ne time with himfelf, and at lad cail lots, fiut God 

it fall on Jerufalem, to fulfil the x^enaces he had pro- 
td againft that city, *vix. to deftroy it, to burn the 
S and drag its inhabitants into captivity. 
One would imagine, at firfl fight, that this king had 
prompted to befiege Tyre, merely from a political view, 
lat he might not leave behind him fo powerful and welU 
4 a city ; neverthelefs, a- fupcrior will had decreed the 
f Tyre. God was rcfolvcd, on one fide, to humble th« 
of Ithobal its king, who fancying himfelf wifer than 
t, whofe fame was fprcad over the whole Eaft ; and 

a 3 afcribing 

ÏAÎ. X. 5. (^) Ibid. Ter. 7. {h) lbi4. ver. It. (I) Isck. ia2« 

(A) Ibid, xxvi, xxvii, xxviii. 

rtfi(/> thy rflfTi againft ne, and 

u'.t ij f«»« fc/» mint earj, 

I mfhi put my ho9k info thy 

nrfft nni my hridlt in thy llps^ and f 
wtll tmrn tbtt hack èy the «Mjf îy wHok 
tbcu camffit a Kingi six» %%% 

Mu P » E F A C «. 

i^2 h] m frmnnxUy to city, 90e ftom provinôe-ct) profi^M 
juàiiuing naticns hcfotc htm, loêjgf^ing tbrhtrntifkhtgif hrêokimg \ 
fil as gates cf hrajî^ cutting injtàtàtr tie èan éf iroMy throwici 
down the walls and bulwarks of cities, and -potting him i 
pofleffion of the trtafures of-dettkni/s^ and tki Inidem fichis < 
J'ecret places, 

{q) The prophet alfo tells tis the. caufe aad nottfc of a 
theiè wonderful events. It was in order to ponifli Bahylot 
and to deliver Judab, that the Almighty condoâs Cyras, fte 
by (lep, and gives fuccefs to all his en ter pri aits, (r) I bet% 
raiffd him uf in righte^ufnejs^ and I.^ili^reS^U his «nkyj.— — 
Fur Jacob my fermantes Jake y and î/ràel mifte eleB, But thi 
prince is fo blind and ungrateful!, that he does not know hi 
mailer, nor remember his btrnefaâor. . (s) I have /iirnmmed ihtk 
1 bough thou haji not ku9'9>u me.^-^J girdeu thUf tifoitgh thorn he^ 
wot kmnvn me* 

ji fine image tj Men feldoift Ibrm to thcmfelvesa right jodg 
th* rtgal office. ment of true glory, and thr dories e&totial \ 
/ega) power. The fcripture only gitet as t fall iàet of diffl 
and this it does in a wonderfol maoaer, (>) under the -iroig 
of a very large and flrong tree, whofe top reaches to heatei 
,«nd whofe branches extend to the extremities of thé canh. / 
its foilage \i very abundant^ and it if bowed down with fm 
it conAitutes the ornament and felicity of the plains aroand i 
it fupplies a grateful ihade, and a /ecure retreat ' to beafts ^ 
avery kind : Animals, both wild and tame, arje ftfely lotfgc 
under its hofpitable branches ; the birds of heavea^dwejl in tl 
boughs of it, and it fupplies food to all living creatures. 

Can there be a more j a ft or-more indraéUve idea of tl 
kingly office, whofe true gran dear and folid glory does 1^1 
conMin that fplendour, poai|>, and magnificetice whith fa 
raund it ; nor in that revereDca and- exterior homage wjiich ai 
paid to it by ïabjeéls ; but in the real fervices a«-d folid ad^ai 
tages it procures to nations, whofeî'fupport, defence, -feeuril 
and afylam it forms, (both from in nacareamd incitation) j 
the fame time that it is the fra^tfol fource of ter-rellrial bleffini 
of every kind ; efpecially with regard • «o Xhe popr apd weal 
who ought to find, beneath the (hade and proteâion of royalty, 
fweet peace and tranquillity not to .be interrupted or diflorbec monarch himrelf facrifices his ear(ei,; ai[id- expeii^na^ 
alone tKofe fioi»s . and tcmpcjU U^W w^cJi hé .ihaltera 1 

••* Mcthrti 

(f ) If*, alv. 13» 14. {9) Ib!d« 13, ^ (t) JUd. ^ 5. (r) Oi 

9' It E F A- C. K. li 

■ ■ « 

• Methinks the feality of this- noble image, and the çxecntioii 
of chis great plan (religion only excepted) appears in the go* 
^mment of Cyrus, of which Xenophoo has given us a plc- 
tare, in his beautiful preface to the hiftory of that prince. Hi 
las there fpecified a great number of nations, which, thougli 
far diftant one from another^ and difièring widely in their man» 
nersy cuiloms, and language, were however all united, b^ th^ 
fame fentiments gf efteem, reverence and love for a pnncet 
whofe government they wiihed, if po£ible, to have continued 
[ox: ever» fo much happinefs and tr^qguillity did they enjo]^ 
under it *. . 

To this amiable and falutary government, ^ j^fi *^ •/ 
let us oppofe the idea which the facred writings '*'. «|»f ««'«>'' ^ 
pve us of thofe monarchs and con^juerors. To "*^'f^"y* 
much boafted by antiquity, who, in (lead of making the hap- 

Îineffi of mankind the fole obied.of their care', were prompted, 
/no other motives than thole çf interefî* and ambition, (v) 
The holy Spirit reprcfents them under 4hç fyjnbbis of monftera 

Enerated from the agitation of the i(ea^ from ,the tumult, con* 
Con and dalhing pf the waves one againd the other;, and. 
junder, the image of cruel wild beafls, wnich I'pread terror and 
^folation iipiverrally,. and are for fver gorging themfelvea 
wi^h'hloodfind ilaugjiter ; bears^ Hops, iigers,. and leopardST 
fioffjkrong and expreilive is, this colouring ! 

.'^eirerthtlefs, it is often from fuch deftruAive models,- that 
jtfae rules and maxims of the education generally beflowed otu 
the chiildren of the great are borrowed ^ and It is the(b ravagera 
of nations, (h;.re Tcourges of mankind, they propofe to make- 
.them referable. By inipiripg them with the fentiments of tc 
^jilD^lefs ambition, and ^helove of falfe glory» they become. 
.{to btorro.w. an expreilion. from fcripture) (a) joung lions ; tèt^, 
U^tmja catch the fvcy^ and de'vour min'^iolay luafie cities y to turn 
Uutds and tliiir fatnejs iuto dijolation hy the noi/e cf their roaring- 
A-nd when this young lion is grown up, God tells us, that the- 
noife df his exploits, and the renown of his vidlories, are 
.nothing but a frightful roaring, which £lls all places with ter~ 
lor and defolation. 

The examples I have hitherto mentioned, and which are 
extracted from the hiiiory of the Egyptians, Aflyrians, Baby- 
lonians, and Fcrfiansj prove fufficiently the fupreme powen- 
cxcrcifed by God over all empires ^ and the relation he thought 
£t to câablifii between the reil of the nations of the earth> and; 

a 5 his 

(») Dan. VÎÎ. (;*) Eielc. xtx. 3, 7, 

* *El^(yy^.ô«l {Ttdu/Mta* f/uCaXi7v To^'auTnv tS flravTAi avrf p^a^/Cf^daiJI^f kfk^ 
9f «VT« >^«/iAp i{ivy »i;Cip>»^ai, 





vis own peculiar people. The fame truth appean as confpi* 
cuoufly under the kings of Syria and Bgypt, Aicceflbrs of 
Alexander the Great : Between whofe hillory, and that of tbe 
Jews under the Maccabees, every body knows the clofe con- 

To thefc incidents I cannot forbear adding another» which 
though univerfally known, is not therefore the lefs remarkable; 
I mean the taking of Terufalem by Titus, (j ) When he hid 
entered that city, and viewed all the fortifications of it, this 
prince, though a heathen, owned the all- powerful arm of the 
God of Ifrael ; and, in a rapture of admiration cried onU 
** It is manifeil that the Almighty has fought for ns, a^d hsi 
** driven the Jews from thofe towers, fince neither the otmctt 
** human force, nor that of all the engines in d^e world, ccoU 
•• have cfFcaed it." !- 

Cod has ûhwM Befides the vifible and fenfible^conneéHonof t: 
^tjpcfed of human facred and profane hiftory, there if another ^ 
êventsyrttathvehf to more facrod and more diftinél relationf widi 
ïf œT ^^ '^' rcfpeft to the Meffiah, for whofe coming the 
Mejftab. Almighty, whofe work was ever prefent to 

his fight, prepared mankind from far, even by the ftate of 
Ignorance and diflblutenefs in which he fufiered them to be 
immerfed during four thoufand years. It was to (hew the ne- 
ceffity there was of our having a mediator, that God permitted 
the nations to walk after their own ways ; and that neither the 
light of reafon, nor the dictates of philofophy, could difpd 
their clouds of error, or reform their depraved inclinations. 

When we took a view of the grandeur of empires, the ma* 
jefly of princes, the glorious aétions of great men, the order 
of civil focieties, and^the harmony of the different members of 
ivhich they are compofed, the wifdom of legiflators and the 
learning of philofopners, the earth feems to exhibit nothing 
to the eye of man out what is great and refplendent ; never- 
.thelefs, in the eye of God, it was equally barren and nncolti- 
vated, as at the firft inllant of the creation by the Almiffh^ 
Jiat, («) The earth *was without form awd void. This 
is faying but little : It was wholly polluted and impure (the 
reader will obferve that I fpeak here of the heathens) and ap- 
peared, Tt God, only as the haunt and retreat of ungrateful 
and perfidious men, as it did at the time of the flood, {a) T|ie 
.earth was coirupt before God, and was filled with iniqaity. 

Ne'verthelefs the fovereign arbiter çf the univerfe, wno, por- 
fnaut to the dictates of his wifdom, difpenfcs both light and 
ctknifs, x^nd knows how to check the impetuous torrent of 

(y) J^fefh, I. iii. c. 4^) («} Geo. i. y («) Chip. vi. ii. 


aman paffi^ns» would not permit mankind, though abandoned 
H the atmoft corruptions, to degenerate into abfelme bftrbarity» 
nd brutalise themfelvef, in a manner, by the extinHion of 
lie firft principles of the law of nature, as is feen in iuveraj 
avaee nations, ^uch an obftacle would have retarded to» 
ancn the rapid courfe, promifed by him to the firft preacheia 
rf the do^tnne of his Son. 

He darted from far, into the minds ef men» the rays of 
everal great truths, to difpofe them for the reception of othect 
>f a more important nature. He prepared them for the in- 
Iruâions of theGofpcl, by thofe ot philofophers ; and it was 
vith this view that ôod permitted the heathen profefTors to 
rxamtne, in their fchools feveral queftions, and efta^lifh feverat 
principles» which are nearly allied to religion ; and to engage 
the attention of mankind, by the fpirit and beauty of their 
difpotations. It is well known, that the philofophers inculcate 
in every part of their writings, the exilleoce of a God, the 
neceflicy of a Providence that prcfides in the government of 
the world, the immortality of the foul, the ultimate end of 
man» the reward of the good and punifhment of thewickedv 
the nature of thofe duties which conftitute the band of fociety, 
the ch araser of the virtues that are the bafis of morality, a» 
prudence, juilice, fortitude, temperance, and fuch liketruths^. 
which, though incapable of guiding men to righteoufnefs». 
.yet they were of ufe to fcatter certam clouds, and to difpcl 
jcertain obfcurities. 

It is by an effed of the fame providence, which, prepared, 
from far, the ways of the (^fpjrl, that when the MefBah rv^ 
Tealed himfelf in the flL-fli, God had united together a grerit 
number of nations, by the Greek end I.ucmi tonrues; and had 
fubjeâed to one moniirch, fir-Tn the orcan to i?ie Itupl.r.iA- ^ 
all the people not uiiired by lani>u:ioe, i]i ♦)rdcr to f^'wc 9..vt\c.^tc^ 
free courfe to the preaching of the aj^iî/tiffs. Whf« proFi«r 
hiilory is fludied with juJ|^nient and nuiturity, it muÛ lead n-s 
to theic refieclions, and point out to kT«r. ihe manner in whi- h 
the Almighty makes the cmpirci of the curih Asbfcrvicnt to ilirt 
xcii>n of hib Son. 

It ought likewife to teach us the v:ilue of sjl Fxt^fhr f,iir-. 
that glitters mod in the eye of the world, and '-l^"^!^ ' '^' '«'^ 
is moll capable of dazzling it. \^ilrMjr, forti- ^"''''^'* 
tude, (kill in government, profound policy, xntrit in rr.îif»»- 
ilracy, capacity for, the moit âl)flrurc fcicnccî, brauty of gf nits-'* 
«ftiverfal taûe, and perfc^Rion in all arts: Thi'fe are the o)>- 
je6h which profane hiftory exhibits to ns, which excites cf.: 
admiration» .ind 'often our envy. But at the; faoic time thi 

a 6 i:^/;^ 

iKi r R B F A Cf E. 

very hiftory might to remind at« that the Almighty,- cf«t^*fiMb> 
the creation, has indulged to bis enemies all tlK>fe 1 inint^^^ 
lities which the world cfteemr, and on which it &tqiMn3jr'ta>' 
Stows the higheft eulogioras ; and, on the contraryi mktit 
often refufes them to his moft faithful fervsnts, whoni he-Mh 
dues with talents of an infinitely fupcrior natore, thoogk OMl 
neither know their value, nor are defirons of them. {tj-fla/jlM 
thai people that it iujuch m tufe : Tta, baffy à tka^ft^^ iHif^ 
CututbtUrd. < 

nt mufi m9i hê I (hall condade this firftpart of my t)rtlaci 
i^Mfyft iff PMT with a reflexion which refolts oatlmlly fi«iit 
^fiauffi of tbm. ^i^jt Yk%% been faid. Since it is certain, ihit 
ail tbefe f reat men, who are fo much boafled of in. proftat 
hiftory, were fo unhappy as not to know the true God, .and l^ 
diipieafe him ; we ibould therefore be particularly careful BOt 
to extol them too much. * St. Auftin, in his'Reiraâions, le^ 
. pents his having laviHied fo many encomiums on Plato, aid 
the followers of his philofophy ; becaufe thtfe, i«y8 h^ 
were impious men, whofe dcôrine, in many points^ was dM^ 
Uary to that of Jefus Chrilh 

However, we are not to imagine, that St. Aoftin fuppofei it 
to be unlawful for us to admire and perufe whatever is either 
.beautiful in the aûions, or troein the maxims of the l^eathemL 
Jfe t only advifes us to correô all fuch things as are faolty, 
and to approve whatever is conformable to the right and the 
juft in them. He applauds the Romans on many oceafions, 
and paiticularly in his books (r) DeCi<vitaii Dei, which is one 
of the laft and the finefl of his works. He there ihews, that 
the Almighty raifed them to he vidorious over nations» 
and fovereigns of a great part of the earth, becaufe of the 
gentlenefs and equity of their government (alluding to the 
happy ages of the commonwealth :} Thus beftowine on vir* 
tues, that were merely human, rewards of the fame kind with 
which that people, though very judicious in other refpeâs» 
were fo unhappy to content themfelves. St. Auftin therefbre 
does not condemn the encomiums which are bellowed on the 
heathens, but only the excefs of them. 

Students ought to take care, and efpecially we, who by the 
duties of our profcâîon are obliged to be perpetually convert 


(A) Pfal. cxHv. 15, ff)Lib..v. eip. 19, «t, ^f, 

'* Laus îpfa, qoa PJatonem ve) | Chriftiana doArioa. M4trûS»\,\* c, tv 
Platonicos feu acaderoicos phil'ifopbos ^t^- : j --* 

tanivm extuli» quantum ionpios ho- 
mines non opoituii, non immeiitc 
oiihi difplicuit; prftfertim qaorum 
^MDiaa crrorct mas^oa defeodcnda eft 

•f Id in qooqQe corrigeodum, 
piavum cA ^ tjuod aotem. nûum eft, 
approbacduin. . Dt^tfi» «MT, />«M(| 
U vil« c. i6* 


Kl with lieathcn authort, not to enter too far into the fpirit 
'them ; not to imbibe, anperccivtd, tiieir fentiments» t^ 
riihing too great applaufes on their heroes ; nor to give in ta 
CçflSes which the heathens indeed did not coniider as fuch^ 
icanfe they were not acquainted with virtues of a purer kiiid». 
»iie perfons» whofe friendfliip I efteem as I ought, and for 
hofe learning- and judgment I have the higheil regard, have* 
lund thia de»ô in foinc parts of my work, on the Met M êf^ 
a€biug oMd ftmâfing tbt Btllts Lutus^ &c. and are of opinion» 
lat 1 nave gone too great lengths in the encomiomi I bcftov 
B the iUnftrious ipen of antiquity. I indeed own, that the 
Kpreffiona on-thofe occafions are fometimes too ilrong and too« 
nguarded : However, 1 imagined that 1 had fupplied a pror 
cr correâivc to this, by the hints with which I have inter* 
perfied^ thofe four volumes \ and- therefore, that it would be 
nlv lofing time to repeat them ; not to mantioa my havings 
ùd down» in diâ«rent phices, the principles which the fathera 
if the church ellabHQi on this head, in declaring^ with Su 
Vullin, that without true piety, that is, without a fincere wor- 
hip of God, there can be no true virtue ; and that no virtue- 
:an be fuch, whoiê-objeâ î» worldly glory ; a truth, fays this. 
Father» acknowledged univerfaliy by thofe who are infpired. 
vith real and folid piety. (d)UlMcl confiât inter omms •verncitn' 
\ioSt memimm fim vtra pittaU^ id eft Dei 'vrro cuhu^ 'vtram pvjft 
ffmairewrtutfrn ; nee earn veram ejfe^ quaneio filnrur /ir*uit huffumtt^, 

(/) When 1 obferved that Pcrfeus had not refolution cnou^^h 
:o kill himfelf, I did not thereby pretend to ju4lify the practice 
>f the heathens, who looked upon fuicidc as lawful ; but 
Smply to relate an incident, and the judgment which Paulus 
Jsinilius pafTed on it. Had I barely hinted a word ortwo againft 
that cuilom, it would have obviated all miitake, and left, no 
room for cenfure. 

The oftracifm, employed at Athens againft perfons of the 
^reateft merit ; theft connived at, as one would imagine, by 
Lycurgus in Sparta ^ an equality with regard to polTcfiions 
dtabliHied in the fame city, by the authority, of the Aatc, and' 
:hings of a like nature, miiy admit of feme difiiculty. How- 
ever, I (hall have a more immediate attention to thefe * par- 
liculars, when the courfo of the hiftory brings me to them ;, 
2nd fliall be proud of receiving fuch lights as th(» learned and 
unprejudiced may pleafe to communicate. 

{d) Dt CMtati Dei, Lib. iîî. c. 19. (*) Vol. Vlf. 

* Thit Air» Rùilië baidone admlrablj in the fixerai voiumet ef bit ^M 



In a work like that f now offer the pubJick, intoided more 
immediately for the inf^rudion of youth» it were heartily to 
be wiihed, there might not be one îinf^Ie thought or expreffiom 
that could con^tribute to inculcate falfe or dangerous principles^ 
When I firft fet about writing the prefent hillory, i propoM 
this for my maxim, the importance of which i pei:fo^y con» 
cetve, but am far from imagining that J have always cAiervcd 
it, though it was my intention to do fo ; and therefore bn this, 
es on many other occafions, I (hall Hand in need of the. rear 
dor's indulgence. 

As I write principally for the inflruAion of youth, and for 
perfons who do not intend to make very deep rdfearchea inco 
ancient hiftory, I fhall not crowd this work with a fort of eriL- 
dition, that otherwife might have been in trod aced natarallj 
into it, but does not fuit my purpoie. My de£gn is, in &vinf 
m continued feries of ancient hiftôry, to extraâ n-om the Greek 
and Latin authors all that I (hall judge moft nfeful and enter* 
Caining, with refpeô to the tranfaâions, and moft inftniâivt 
with regard to the reHeâions. 

I wim it were poflible for me to avoid the dry ftcrility of epi- 
tomes, which convey no diftinéi idea to the mind ; and at the 
fame time the tedious accuracy of long hiftories, which tire the 
reader's patience. I am feniible that it is difficult to fteer ex^ 
aûly between the two extremes; and although, in the two 
parts of hiftory of which this firft volume confifts, I have re- 
trenched a great jDart of what we meet with in ancient authors» 
they may ftill be thought too long : But I was afraid of fpoiU 
jng the incidents, by being too ftudious of brevity. However, 
t;^e tafte of the publick (ball be my guide, to which I ihali 
endeavour to conform hereafter. 

I was fi> happy as not to difpleale the publick in my firil * 
attempt. I wifh the prefr nt work may be equally fuccéfsful^ 
but dare not raife my hopes fo high. The fubjedis i there 
treated, «u/'as. polite literature, poetry, eloquence, and curious 
pieces of hiftory, gave me an opportunity of introducing int^ 
It, from ancient and modern authors, whatever is moft beauti* 
ful, affeding, delicate and juft, with rogatà both to thought 
and expreffion. Thé beauty and juftnels of the things them* 
ielves, which I ofibred the reader, made him more indulgent 
to the manner in which they were prefented to him; and be* 
fides, the variety of .the fubje^ fuppjicd the want of thofa 
ptLces which might be expeded from the ftyle and compofîtion. 


• 7be Method ùfteâthtngandûu^' 
rtg the Belles Lettret, Ac, TtbtEnglifi 
irMjlasio» {iMfturvolumn) of tkit «»• 

fir A» Bettefworti Bud C. liUihf 

Fêttr noJier»R9%/a% 


!* R E F A C E. xt 

But I have nm cbe fame advantage in the prefent work, :the 
choice of the fubjeâs not bein|r entirely at my difcretioD. In 
ft feries of hiftory, an author is often obliged to introduce % 
great many thingathat are not always very aflFe^ing and «tgree^ 
'blet efpecially with reeard to the origin and rife of empires; 
."which parts are generally over- run witb thorns» and o&'cr very 
few flowers. However, the fequal iurniOies matter of a m0tp 
pleating nature, tnd events that engage more Arongly the fei^ 
<der*s attention ; and I ihall take care to make ufe of whatever 
at noft valuable in the beft authors. In the mean time, I m^t 
intreat the reader to remember, that in a wide-extended and 
beautiful region, the eye does not every where meet with qoU 
den harvefts, fmiling meads, and fruitful orchards $ but lees, 
at different intervals, wild and lefs cultivated traâs of land. 
And, to ufe another comparifon after * Pliny, fome trees in 
the fpring emulojufly (hoot forth a numberlefs multitude of 
bloflbms, which by this rich drefs (the fplendour and vivacity 
of whofe colours charm the eye) proclaim a happy abundance 
in a more advanced feafon : Whilft other f trees, of a lefs 

fay and florid kind, though ihey bear good fruits, have not 
owerer the fragrance and beauty of bbfToms, nor feem to 
fliare in the joy of reviving nature. I'he reader will eafily ap- 
ply this image to the compofitlon of hi (lory. 

To adorn and enrich my own, I will be fo ingenuous as to 
confefs, that I do not. fcruple, nor am 1 aihamed, to riSe 
wherever I come ; and that I often do not cite the authors 
from whom I tranfcribe, becaufe of the liberty I take to make 
feme flight alterations. I hi|{e made the bed ufe in my power 
of the iolid reflexions that occur in the fécond and third parts 
cf thebifliop of t Meaux's Uni^ver/al Htficr^t which is one of 
the mod beautiful and moft ufeful books in our language. I 
.kave alfo received great afilAance from the learned I)eaQ Pri- 
dcaox's CoHHteiion cf the Olti and Ne^ Teftameni^ in which he 
has traced and cleared up, in an admirable manner» the parti- 
culars relating to ancient hiilory. I flisll take the fame liberty 
with whatever comes in my way, that may fuit my defign, and 
contribute toits perfcéiion. 

I am 

• Arborum floi, eft pirni vfrls în- 
élcioin, 4e innî rrnafcfntit) floigtu- 
4tMin M borum. Tunc f^. novas, «liaf 
Mie ^ttàm iiiot, oA^jidutit, tunc va- 
flit colorum pi^uriu in rcitamen iif- 
q«ic luiuriant. Srd hoc negutum 
plerifqiif. Mon rninn rmnu flnr^nt, 
et faol uinci ^uicdMiii^ <)ux^ue iion 

fenthnt faudîa annorum ; nee ul}« 
flore eshiUr»ntur, natalcfvepomorum 
rectirfut aniiuna ve'ficolori nuntio 
prornuciint. l*lim* i/^. //«i/. J. 
c. 15. 

f At thtfig'trttu 



I am feiy fenfible, that it is not To much for a pferfboVre* 
putation to make ufe of other men's laboun, and thatknui 
a manner renouncing the name and quality -of author. Bot I 
am not over fond of that title ;. and ihall be extremely well 
pleafed» and thick myielf very happy, if I can but dcierw^ 
the name of a gov>d compiler, and fupply my readers with a' 
tolerable hiftory, who will not be over foiicitous to cnqaiit 
what hand it comes from^ provided they are but pleafed whhi^ 

I cannot determine the exaâ number of volnmes which thii 
work will make ; but am perfuaded there will be no M» >thai 
ten or twelve*. Students, with a very moderate sqpplicatioi^ 
may cafily go through this courfe of hifiory in^a year, «dthoot 
interrupting their other ftudies. According to my plan, my 
work fhould be given to the higheft form but one. Youths ia 
this clafs are capable of pleafnre and improvement from thii 
Biflory ; and I would not have them go upon that of die R^ 
mans, till they (tndy rhetorkk. 

It would have been ufeful, and evea neceffiiry, to liave gi» 

yen feme idea of the ancient authors from whence 1 have ei^ 

• trafled the following materials. But the courfe itfelf of the 

hiftory will fhew this, and naturally give me an opportaniqf! 

of producing them. 

Ibi judgment In the mean time, it may not be xmpmperi ifl> 
,mfeevii>ttùf,rm jgjçg notice of the fuperAJtious Credulity «bjeâcd 
%odi'u"^^a^* to nwft of thefc authors, witlvreg^rd to au'gurieK 
tract's of the an- aufplcics, prodigics, dreams^ and oracles. And 
(uHfs. indeed, we are fhocked toiee writers, fbjudic^ 

eus in all other t^efpeéls, lay it down as a kind of Jaw, to re*. 
late thefe particulars with a fcrijpnlous accuracy ; and to dwtH 
gravely on a tedious detail of low, ridiculous ceremonies, foUl- 
as the flight of birds to the right or left hand, figns difcoveiM: 
in the fmoaking entrails of beafb, the greater or lefs greediaefr 
of chickens in peckingcDrn, and a thonfand fuch abArdiliaiJi 

It mull be confefled, that a reader of judgment «aanoi^. 

without afloniflimenr, fee> the moft 'illuftrious peribns ajii«iig 

the fltncients for wifdom and knowledge ; generals who were- 

the lead able to be inflcenced by popular opinions, and ttoft- 

tenfible how nccefTary it is to take advantage of aufpicious mo- 

^ments ;.the wifefl; councils of princes perfectly well (killc4in! 

.the arts of government ; the moll auguu àiTemblies of jgf^^- 

fenators ; in a word, the moll powerful and moil leaiued nai^ 

•ons in all ages ;• to fee, I fay, all thefe fo unaccountably weal»,. 

as to make the deqfion of rhe g reat^fl' affairs, fuch as' the dêL 

daring of wir«. the giving battle, or purfuing a viûory, deV 

* R È T A C E. 5n»I 

^nd- on - tht trifling prâôîces and cufloms above-mentioned-; 
deliberatiqns that were of the utmoft importance, and on Which 
tlic fate and welfare of kingdoms frequently depended. 

But, at the fame time, we mud be To j aft as to own, that 
their manners, cniloms, and laws» would not permit men, iû 
thefe agesy to difpenfe with the obfervation of thefe praflices : 
That Mucation, hereditary tradition tranfmitted froin immC"* 
norial timei the aniverfal belief and confent of diiFerent na« 
^on^ the precepts, and even examples of philofophers ; thai 
ail thefe, I fay, made the pradtitesin queftioh appear venerable 
in their eyes r And that thefe ceremonies, how abford foever 
they may appear to us, and are really fo in themfelves, <oa- 
"ftituced part of the religion and publick worfhip of theancients«i 

This was a.falfe religion, and amiftaken wOrihip; and ye^ 
the principle of it was laudable, and founded in nature ; thfg 
4lmi was corrupted, but the fountain was pure. Man, whe^ 
tbandoned to his own ideas, fees nothing beyond the prefeift 
■loment. Futurity is to him an abyfs irtviuble to the moft eagle* 
-eyed, the moft piercing fagacity, and exhibits nothing, on 
which he may ûx his views, or form any refolution with cer« 
taint3r. He is equally feeble and impotent with regard to the 
execQtion of^ his defigns. He is fenfible, that he is dependent 
tntiMy on a fnpreme power, that difpofesall events with al^- 
4bl«te nthority, and which, in ipite of his utmpft efforts, an{l 
^.^the-wiflom of thie beft 4M>ncerted (chemes, by only raifink 
•thfl'nnallellôbftatles and flighteft modifications, renders it in^ 
^Myffible for him to execute his meafures. 

This obicnrity and weaknefs oblige him to have recourfe t(> 
a-fcperior knowledge and power: He is forced, both by his 
mnâediate* wants, and the lirong defîrè he has-to fncceed in all 
his undertakings, to addrefs that Being, whom he is fenfiblb 
li'aa refervied to mmfelf alone the knowledge of fatnrity, and 
the poVrer of difpofing it as he fees fitting. He according!^ 
-diredb prayerar, makes vows, and ofiisr facrifices, to prevail, if 
poflMe, with the Deity, to reveal himfelf, either in dreams^ 
in oracles, or other figns which may manifcft his will; fully 
convinced that nothing can happen but by the divine appoint* 
ment ; and that it is a man's greateil intereft to know this fit*' 
preme will, in order to conform his aâions to it. 

This religious principle of dependence on, and veneration 
of the Supreme Being, is natural to man : It is for ever im- 
printed dâep in his heart; he is reminded of it, by the inward 
flènfe of his extreme indigence, and by all the ôbjeéls which 
farronnd him ; and it may be affirmed, that this perpetual re- 
courfe to the Deity, is one of die principal foondations of re- 


• •• 

xvui P R B P A O B. 

iigion, and the ftroogeft band by which man ii naited to hii 


Thofe who were fo happy as to know the true God» acd 
were chofen to be his peculiar people, never failed to addrefi 
him in all their wants and doubts, in order to obtain hii 
■fuccour, and the manifcftation of his will. He accordingly 
>as fo gracious as to reveal hioifclf to them ; to conduA then 
.by apparitions» dreams» oracles» and prophecies ; and to pro- 
tea them by miracles of the moft adoniihing kind. 

But thofe who were fo blind as to fubflitute faHhood in the 
place of truth» direded themfelvet» for the like aid» to ûdÀ- 
tioiis and deceitful deities» who were not able to anfwer their 
cxpeAations,, nor recompenfe the homage that mortals paiii 
them» any otherwife than by error and illufioo» and a frau- 
dulent imitation of the condudt of the true God. 

Hence arofe the vain obfcrvation of dreams, which» fron i 
fuperlliiious credulity, they millook for falutary warnings from 
heaven ; thofe obfcureand equivocal anfwers of oracles^ beneath 
whofe veil the fpirics of darknefs concealed their ignorance; 
and» by afludied ambiguity, referved to themfelves an evafioa 
or fubterfugc, whatever mijght be the ifFae of the event. To 
;this are owing the prognoilicks» with regard to futurity» which 
sncn fancied they fhould find in the entraiU of beafts» in the 
flight and finding of birds» in ; the afpeft of the planeti, in 
fortuitous accidents» and in the caprice of chance : tnofe dreact 
ful prodigies that filled a whole nation with terror» and whkhi 
as was beneved» nothing could expiate but mournful cereinoiiie% 
and even fometimes the effufion of human blood : In finé| 
thofe black inventions of magick, thole dcluiiont» inchan(- 
jnents, forcerics» invocations of ghofls» and many other kiiuil 
of divination. 

All I have here related was a received ufage» obferved b| 
the heathen nations in general ; and this nfaee was founded 0|i 

aU-, : • f r.i "it. i» i»i«t_ • il . 

fuch noble inilrudllons ; inflrnûioas admirably well adapted to 
form the great captain» and great prince. He exhorts him» 
above all things» to pay the highefi reverence to the gods ; and 
not to undertake any enterprize, whether important or incon- 
£derable, without firll calling upon» and confulting them ; he 
enjoins him to honour priefts and augurs, as being their mi- 
niÂers, and the interpreters of their will ; but yet not to trufl 
or abandon himfelf implicitly and blindly to thefflj till he had 


^ * Xtnopb, in drop, 1. Î. p. iç, «"î- 


■ • • • 

arnt every thing relating to the fcience of dmnation» of 
.es and aufpices. The realbn he gives for the fabordi- 
I and dependence in which kings ought to live with re- 
o the gods, and the neccffity they are under of confultine 
in all things, is this ; how clear-fighted foever mankind 
»c in the ordinary coarl'e of affairs, their views are alwavi 
larrow and bounded with regard to futurity ; whereas tne 
, at a fingle glance, takes in all ages and events» As the 
fays Carobyies to iis fon, art eUrnaU they im^w equalhf all 
» f^fi* P^'ffi^U o^à te cerne, With regard te the mertali ivho 
*} thmf they gave falutarj ccunfeh to the/e *whom they ape 
i to favour t that they may not he ignorant of ^what thines 
ughf, or ought not to undertake. If it is ohfervedy that tlf 

do not give the Hie counfels to all men^ vue are net to viondtr 
finct no nectffity obliges them to attend to the voelfare of thofi 
/, on nvhom they do nàt vânchfafe to confer their fmtfomr, 
:h was the doétrine of the moft learned andmofteq- 
med nations, with refpe^ to the different kinds of divi- 
n ; and it is no wonder that the authors, who wrote the 
y of thofe nations, thought it incumbent on them to give 
:a£t detail of fuch particulars as conftituted part, of tn^ir 
on and worihip, and was freqoently in a manner the fghl 
eir deliberations, and the ftandard of their con du{l« *'I 
fore was of opinion, for the fame reafon,' that itWbnld 
e proper for me to omit entirely, in the enfoiiig hiftd^, 
relates to this fabjedl, though I have however retrenched 
at part of it. 

-chbifliop Ufher is my ufual guide in chronology. In the 
*y of the Carthaginians I commonly fet down four a^ras : 
year from the creation of the world, which, for brevity 

I mark thus» A. M. thofe of the fotindation of* Car- 
; and Rome; and laftly, the year that precedes the birifh 
:r Saviour, which I fnppofe to be the 4004th of tWc world ; 
ein I follow Ufher and others, though they fuppofb it io 
lur years earlier. 

e (hall now proceed to give the reader the proper preli- 
ry information concerning this work, according to the 
- in which it is executed, 

3 know in what manner the dates and kingdoms were 
jed, that have divided the univerfe ; the fteps whereby 
rofc to chat pitch of grandeur related in hidory ; by what 
Families and cities or.ited, in order to conAitute one body 
ciety, and to live together under the fame laws and a corn- 
authority ; it will be necefTary to trace things back, in a 
Dcr, to the iiifancy of the world, and to thofe ages in 


XX IP R. E F. A C E^ 

which- manktntSy being difperrcd into different re^Sonsi (aAt^r 
the confuiion of ton[;ues) began to penplc the earth. 

In thefe earJy age:> every father was the (uprcnu* head of hit 
family ; the arbiter and jud^e of whatever ccnteds and divi- 
fions n^i^rhtarife within it; the natural le^^iflator over his littlo 
ibdety,; the defender and protestor of tholo, who, by their 
birtht education and weaknci's, were under his protv'éllon and 

But although t^cfe mailers enjoyed an independent authority^ 
, they made a mild and paternal ufe of it. So far from being 
jealous of their power, they neither governed with haughtinefs» 
nor decided with tyranny. A^^ they were obliged by neccffity- 
to aiTociaic their family in their domeltick luboursi they am 
. fummoned them together» and afkcd their opinion in matter! 
of importance. In this manner all affairs were tranfadlcd (a 
concert, and for the .common good* 

The laws which the paternal vigilance eftablifhed in tM» 
little diwneflick fenate, being didtated in no othçr view, fawt to 
promote the general welfare ; concerted with fuch children m 
were jcome to years of, maturity, and accepted by the inferiorif 
with a full and free confent; were religioufly kept and pre* 
ferved in families as an hereditary polity» to which they owed 
/their peace anji fecurity. . 

But di^çrent motives gave rile to afferent Iawi« One miir, the |;>irth of a£fû-born fon, refolved to didinguipi 
him fron^ hi^ future children, by beilowing on him a mofC 
confiderable (hare of his pofTcflions, and giving him a groatçr 
authority in his family. Another, more attentive to the in* 
tered of a beloved wife, or darling daughter, whom he wanted 
to fettle in the. world, ;bought it incum,bent on him to fecare 
their rights, and increfff. their advantangcy. The folitary and 
^cheerlets ilate to. w^ich ^wife yvould be reduced, in cafe f^e 
Ihoald become a widow, .aflfi^âed more intifn^tely- another man» 
and aude .him ppovidei befot«hand,.4or. «be inbâftence i^d 
comfort of a woman who iFormed his felicity. 

In proportion as every family increafed, by the birth of chil- 
dren, and their marrying into other families, they extended 
their little domain, and formed, by infenfible degrees, towpi 
and cities. From thefe different viciHs, i^nd others of the like 
nature, arofe the diftcrent cuitoqis oi,aaaoni» as well u th^ 
n|ghta» which are various. 

Thefe focietiei growing» in pracefs-ofitinie, very numeroua ) 

. and the fkntiliei. being divided into variops branches, each oJP 

which had its head, whofe different intercfls and cbara6ù(n 

might intcr^pt the general u^nqaiUity ; it was neccfTary /o 


P R E F A-C E. 


etatràftbne peifon vriih the^goTèrment of the wboTe, in order' 
to unite all thefe chiefs -or heads' under a fingle authority, and 
to maintain the publièk peace by an uniform adminiftration.' 
The idea which men ilill retained of the paternal government, 
and the happy eSic&s they had -experienced from it, prompted 
them to choofe fVom among their wifcfl and moil virtuous men»* 
him in whom they had obferved the tendered and iffoft fatherlr' 
difpofition. Neither ambition or ca^al had theleaftihaf^'in this 
choice ; probitv alone, mditTfe reputation of virtue and' equity^' 
decided on theie occaiibnsy and gave the preference to the moff 
i^orthy •. . • 

To heighten the luftre of their newly- acquired dignity, and' 
enable them the better to put the laws in execution, as well ar' 
to devote themfelves entirely to the publick good ; to defend' 
dife ftate a?ainflf the invafions of their neighbours, and the fac-^ 
doni of difcontented citizeiis ; the title of king was beftowed' 
ttpon them, t throne was eredled, and a fceptre .put into theli' 
hands ; homage was paid them,- officers were* ilffignéd-, aticF 
guards appointed for the fecurity of their perfons; tributer 
were eranted ; they were invefted with full powers to admi^ 
sifter jnftice, and for this pu rpofe were armed with a fword^. 
hd order to reftrain injuftice, and pnhi!(h crimes f . 
. At ûrik, ejery city had. its particular kin?, Who being mo!# 
iblicitoui of preferving his dominion than'of ^largirig it, cdn- 
flned his ambition within the limits of his nadVe icoùntiy. fiut 
ùit alAoft unavoidable feuds which break out between neigh-* 
boors ; the jealoufy againft a more powerful king; the turbu« 
lent and reftlefs fpirit of a prince; his martial .dif^ofitioh,- or 
thirft of aggrandizing himfelf and difplaying his abilities ( 
gave rife to wars» which frequently ended in. the entire Tub» 
j'êâibn of the varqutfhed, whofe citiçs were by that m^ns po& 
itffed by the vi^or, and increafed înfenlïbly his dominions, 
t fhus, a firft viiftiory pairing" the way to a fécond, and making 
a prince more powerful and enterprizing, feveral cities and 

Provinces were united under one monarch,- and formed kîng* 
oms of a greater or Icfs extent, according to the degree of 
ardour with which the vidlor had pufhed his cônquefts. 

The ambition of Come of thefc princes being too vaft to cofl» 
£ne itfelf within a iingle kfngdôm, it broke over all bounds» 


^ Quot ad faAîçîum hnjus nuA- 
jeAsttis non ambitio popularii, fjtà 
fpectaia intrr biinuf moderatio pn>ve- 
hebat. Jw/iiH, I. i. c, i. 

"f F'nei imperii tutrri magis quàm 
profeire mos ^rat. Intra i'uam culqt-.e 
yatfiam rcgaa fioicbancur. J'*Ji'w* 


1. Î. C. I. ^ 

X Dcmirii proxlmî^, cum «ccef- 
fione TlriunD fort -or ad alios iranHret^ 
8c proxima qii«rq-je victoria inftru- 
mencum fequeaiisefTei, coiius otUatA 
populos rubegic. Jufiin* ibid* 

■tiv. P;ft E F A C.B. 

• ■ 
r ■ - • 

I. TK^GaEAtEs. Asia» which begins at' the titer Ix 
'tilt chief provinces are, Gedrosia^Carm A NIA, Arachc 
pRANGiANiA» Bactriana, the Capital of whichwas Bai 
$OGDiANA, Margiana, Hyrcania^ near the Cafpiaii 
^RTdiAy Media, the city Ec&àtanà ; Persia, the cici 
Per/efûltj and Eljmais ; Susiana, the city of Su/a ; Assy 
ibe city of Ninea;àb, fitaatedon the nv€r Tigris i Me sop* 
MIA, between the Euphrates and Tigris'^ BABTtoif iA| tE 
àf BâhyîoH on the river Euphrates. 

II. Asia between Pontus Euzinus akd thbCas 
Si M Therein we may diftinguiih four provinces, i. ' 
-^His, the river Phafis^ and mount Cauca/us. 2. Ibi 
|. Albania ; which two lad mentioned provinces now 
pii'rt of Georgia. 4. The greater Armenia. This i's 
ifated from the lefler bjr the Eophrates ; from Mefopotam 
iàoantTaurus i and from AiTyria by mount Niphates. Its 
4Fe Jftaxaia 9Jxà jTigraflocertéi^ and the river Araxu 

âiroogh it. 


ITI. Asia Minor. This may be divided into fbiir c 
parts, according to the different fituation of its provi^hces. 

I. Norfbwiiréi% on the fliore pf Pontm Euxinus ;.PoB 
Hfidfr. three different names. Its citief i^re, Trapexjijs^ m 
from whence are the people called Chalyhes or ChaUai ; 
mi/^^i 3 cî^ on the river TherMi^êM^ and famous for h 
' been the abode of the Amazons. Pafnlagonia, Bithy 
^^: cities of which are, Nicia^ Prufu^ Niumedia^ Cbalceà 
iMito 4{>;Conûantijiopie, zivà Herachéi* 
•I i fi|«, Uyft'WéUFd^ éû^Bg dqwn by the ihgres of the ÏE^eai 
MxMAji' of which there are twp. The Lbsver, 10 ' 
flood CfStiaiSt Lampfacus^ Parium^ Myda^ opposite to { 
/fom which .4t îsiêp^rated only by the Dafdanelles.; DavA 
^igétàm^ IUm% or Tr9y ; and almoft on the oppoiite fid^ 
Jittle iÂitid of Tijudos* The rivers are, the ^r^/^, th< 
nitfiti a^ the Sitmis. Mount Ida. This region is foro^ 
4all^ Pbrygia niinor» of which Trcas is part. 
: : TM Grbatbr Mysia. Amtandros^ Trajmapolist AÀ 
tium^ Pergamus. Oppofite to this Myfia is the ifland of 
;9^S:; the cities 0f whirh w^^ Mitbfmna^ where the cele 
yAHi^n, was born \ .a^id Mitjltue^ whence the whola iflao 
tb called. 

^OLXA. EUa, Cuma, Phocaa* 

f tL t f A C Ê. Ittt 

¥b;itA. "SiKymaf Clazomnétf Teoj, LebeJur» Cohfie^, Èphefutt 
PrieMi, Miletus» 

Car'ia. Laodicea^ JiUicchia, MéLgri^m^ Jlmiàmia. T)i4 
ûftT Méeandif. 

Doris. HaUcarnaJfus^ CkiJor. 
J Oppofice to thde foar lad countries, are tUe iflands Chtos» 
\ tAMOSvPATHMOSyCos ; 9«d lôwcr tCwards the footh, Rhodes« 
< ' 3. Snub^ard^ along thé Mediterranean ; 

• LVciA» the cities of which arc, Tetfneffhst Pat ara. The 
I Ti^t 'Xanthus* Here begins mount Taurus^ which rans the 
I whole length of Afit, «nd a/Tames different names, according 
., to the feveral co«ntries through which it pafles. 
>x " pAMtHTLiA. i^erga^ Afpettdus^ Sida, 

'I CiLkCf A. SeliKctétf CotyeiurMf Tarfits, on the Hve^ Cyinas. 
Ï Oppofice to CUicia is the ifland of Cjfràs. The cities are» 
Sûlamisp JmaiiuSf and Paph&s. 

4. jU^fqt the baûb of iht Eâphrattf^ g^îtsg op northttard ; 
The Lissai AattaNiA* Comafias Araby%a^ lAeliiem^ Sa^ 
fa!a. The nttt Mtïàst which empties itfeif itico the Ea« 
{. hlanA: 
I Cappa^ocia. Irhe tWes whereof afe, ifëoeétJareà^Vofkvm 
fonti€ë9 Siia/iàf iiiafiopoiis^ Dioeafafeai Cafarea^ othet^iivs 
called Mùautca^ and iydna. 

t«YCAOKiA and IsaukiA. Icomrnn^ T/auria% 
'PialDiA. Seliuàa and AMîochia of Pifidia. 
CroiA* Its cities are, Tbyatira, Sardis^ Philadelphia, 'thé, 
Hvcti are« Cajufimi and linmès, itto which ùkcPaûoUt cmptî^' 
icftlfl Mount Sifyiui and Tmâltu, 

PiMTlsiA MA^oâk ijnkada, ^pamèà% 

Z Vf. StmiA, no«ir «tmeit Surras tailed ïitiitt t^e ftomai! 
\ emperors the £4/^, the chief provinces^ of which are, 
;« t. Palest iliB> by which name is fometfrnes Underflood al! 
^ ittdea. Its cities are% Jirufidem^ SàmO-la^ And Cafarea Pa» 
J- Ufitma. The rircr Jordan waters it. The name of Pa!eftitie 
ii^tlb given to the mndof Canaan, which extended along the 
^ Mediterranean \ the chief cities of which are, Ga'za^ Jfcalofr^ 
ji jtx^tut^ Accarcn^ and Gath. 

•s %. Phobnicia, whofe cities are, PtoUmais^ ^yre^ Sidoit^ and 
\i Btrftus, \\\ mountains, Lihamu and AntiUbanus. 

3. Syria, properly fo called, or Antioch en a ; th ' c es 
^hereof are, Antiochia^ Apamiat Laodicea^ and ScleUcia, 

4. CoMAGiNA. The city of Samc/ata^ 

^ Voi. ft, b 5. COEL 

xxvi P R B F A C R. 

* 5. CoBLOSTKiA. ThecUiciarCf Ztugma^Tbap/acus^ i 
mjra, and Dama/cm^ 

V. Arabia Pbtraa. Its ciciei are» Pttrjfi^ Ma Bo/ 
Mount C^/. Deierta* Foilix. > , 

Of Rilighn» 

Ic is obfervable, that in all a^s and regtoni the fffveral 

tions of the world, however various and oppofite in their < 

îaékrs, inclinations and manners, have always united in 

en'cntial point ;. the inherent opinion of an adoration due 

fuprcme being, and of external methods nece/Tary to evid< 

(uch a belief. Into whatever country we caft our eves, we 

priefts, altars, facrificcs, feAivaU, religious ceremonies, tenif 

or places consecrated to religious worfhip. Jn every pe< 

we difcover a reverence and awe of the aivinity ; an bon 

and honour paid to him ; and an open profeflion of an er 

' dependence upon hiro in til their undertakings and neccdii 

in all their advcrfities and dangcis. Incapable of themfe 

to penetrate futurity, and to aiccrtain events in their own 

vour, we find them intent upon confulting the divinit) 

«)r;(cles, and by other methods of a like nature ; and to n 

his protefiion by prayers, v.owr, and ofFcrings. It is by the / 

jiipreme authority they believe the mod folemn treaties 

rendered inviolable. It is it that gives fanâion to their oa 

and to that by imprecations is referred the punifliment of ; 

i;rime8 and enormities as efcape the knowledge and po\v< 

men. On their private occafions, voyages, journles, marrii 

difeafes, the divinity is Aill invoked. With him their e 

repad begins and ends. No war is declared, no battle fou 

no enterprise formed, without his ^id being fird implored 

which the elor^ of the fuccefs is conflantly afcribed oy pub 

aé^sof thanlcfj^iving, and by the oblation of the mod precioi 

the fpoils, which they never fail to fet apart as the iodifpen 

right of the divinit)^. 

Tl^ey never vanr in regard to the foundation of this 1h 
If fome few ^erfons, depraved by bad phUoTophy, pre! 
from time to time to rife up againit this doétrine, they arc 
mediately difclaimed by the publick voice. They com 
fingularand alone, without making parties, or forminfilt 
I'he whole weight of the pi^blick authority falls upon th 
a price is fet upon their heads ; wbild they are univerfall; 
garded as execrable pcrfons, the bane .of civil focietyi 
whom it is criminal'to Have any kind of commerce. 

PREFACE; «vît 

So general, (o uniform^ To perpetual a confent of all the na* 
tîons of the univerfe, which neither the prejudice of the paf- 
ilonst the falfe reafoning of fome philofophers, nor the authority 
and example of certain princes^ have ever been able to weakea 
or vary» can proceed only from a firfl principle^ which (hares 
Ln the nature of man ; from an inherent (enfe implanted in his 
Meart by the author of his beine ; and from an original tradi* 
lion as ancient as the world itfeff. 

Such were the fource>ftnd origiil êf th< religion of the an* 

cients ; truly worthy of man, had he been capaole of perfidin^ 

in the parity and fimplicity of thefe firA principled : But the 

errors of the mind, and the vices of the heart, thofe fad 

cfFeds of the corruption of huntail nature, ilrangely disfigured 

their original beauty. IHiey are but faint rays, fmall fparks 

of light, that a general depravity does not utterly extinguiih ; 

bot, they are incapable of difpelHng the profoAind darknefs of a 

nighty which prevails aJmoil urviverfally^ and prefents nothing 

to yiew bat abfardities, follies, extravagancies, licendoufnels 

and diforder ; in a word^ an hideous chaos pf frantick excefTcS 

and enormous vices. 

Can any thing be more admirable than thefe maxims of 
Cicero* ? That we ought above all things to be convinced that 
there is a fupreme being, .who prefides over all the events of 
the worlds and difpofes every thing as fovereign lord and ar« 
biter : That it is to him mankind are indebted for all the good 
they enjoy : That he penetrates into, and is confcious of, what- 
ever paffes in the moil fecret recefTes of our hearts : That he 
treats the jaft and the impious according to their refjpeflive 
merits : That the true means of acquiring his favour, and of 
beingpieafing in his fight, is not by the ufe of riches and mag- 
nificence ill his worihip, but by prefenting him an heart pure 
and blamelefs, and by adoring him with an unfeigned and pro* 
found veneration. 

Sentiments fo fublime and religious were the refult of the re- 
Deûions of the few who employed themfelves in the ftudy of 
the heart of man, and in tracing him to the firfl principles of 
his inflitution, of which they flili retained fome happy, though 
imperfe£l ideas. But the whole fyflem of their religion, the 
tendency of their publick feafls and ceremonies, th^ foul '^f 

b 2 the 

• Sit hoc jam à prîncipîo perfua- 
fum civib'is : dominos tffh omnium 
rerom tc jn ideratores deos, eaque ^uae 
geruntur eorum geri judicio ac mi- 
mine ; eofdemque uptime de génère 
hominuin mereri | Sc, qualis quifque 

fit, quid agit, quid in fe admlttat« 
qua mente, qua pietate religiones co.* 
lat, intueri ; piortimque 8c impiorum 
habere rationem — Ad. divos adeunto 
caAè. Pietatem adhibento, opet amo- 
f entOi Cwt dt leg, 1, ii, n. 15 & 19» 

«wHl ? R È P A C Ë. 

the Pagan theology, of which the poets were theonlV'teacfcefl 
und profefTors, the very example of the gods, whole violent 
|>HfHon5, Scandalous adventaresi and abominable crimes, werl 
celebrated in their hymns or odes^ and propofed in fbme mea- 
fure to the imitation, as well as adoration of the people ; thell 
\verc certainly very unfit means to eAlxghteli the tninds ci* ffiei% 
nnd to form them to virttre and morafity. 

U is remarkable, that in the greateft foleofnicies of the Pagalk 
religioni and in their mod facred and reverend myâeries» fai^ 
from perceiving any thing to recommend virtue, piety, or thé 
praAicc of the mod cHential duties of ordinary life, we find* 
the authority of Idws, the Imperious pdwef of cuâofti,. the pre« 
fence of magiftratcs, the afTembly of all orders of the ftate^ 
the example of fathers and mothers* all cônfpire to train up i 
whole nation from their infancy iti an tmpurt and facrilegiou 
%\or(hip, under the nànle, afid in 4 Manner under the fnnâioA 
of reijoinn itfelf ; as we fhall foon fee in the feqûd. 
•^/ After thcfe general rcfleftions upon Paganifm, ft is time ta 

Îrocet'd to a particular account Of the religion of the Greeksi 
(hall reduce this fubjré^^ thotigh infinite in itfelf, to foofr 
urtklos, which are, i. The fealls. Ï. The oracles, augurs, - 
«nd divinations. 3. The games aftd combat). 4. The pubP* 
lii:k [hcfJi and reprefcntations of the theatre. ÎA each of theft 
Hfti^lc's, 1 ihall treat only of what appears lAoft wofthy of thé 
rcaoci's curiofii;y, and has mod relation td this hiftory^ t omit 
faying any thing of facrifices) hsvikrg given a fuffident idea of 
Ihcm * c/fcwhcrCé 

0/ fj^e ftafii. 

An ittfi'^ifft fttrmber of fcafts were celebrated ifl the feteraf 
cities of Greece, and efpecially at Athens^ of which I fhaJl 
only dc fori be three of the mod famousi the PaMtthenean the 

fcalb of iJaccbas, and tbofe of Eleufis. 

This fead vvas celebfated at ^thens in hoiioUr of MinerVi^ 
ihc tutelary goddcfs of that city, to which die gave her f name. 
As well as to the fead we fpeak of. fts inditution was ancient, 
àird it ^vas called at ftrd Athenea ; btft^aflef Thefetis had unitca 
the fevcral toMvns of Attica into Oae city^ h took the name of 
Kmafhtnca. Thefc fcads were of two kinds, the great and 
the Icfs, vl^hich were folemnized whh almod the fame cere* 
n)^llIcs ; the lefs animally, and the great upon the expiratioii 
(fi f^tty fourth year; 



In ùtcfe ff afts were exhibited racmg» the gymftaftidt c«m« 
ïïtSf and the contentions for the prizes of mufick-a'nd poerry^* 
'en commiffaries ele£led from the ten tribes» prefided on thi» 
scafioD to regulate the forms, and diflribute the rewards to 
le viâors. This feftival continoed (everal days. 

The firft day in the morning a race was run on foof, each 
r the rqnners carrying a lighted torch in his hand, which they 
.changed conttnoally with each other without ii>terrcpting^L 
icir race* They ftarted frcm Ceramicits, one of the fuburbsi 
F i^thenSg and croiled the whole city* The firft that came to 
le goal, without having pot oat his torch, carried the prise. 
I the 9^efiiooo they ran the fame eourie on horfebaclc. 

The gymnadick or athletick combats followed the races» 
*he place for shat exereife was upon the banks of the PHfrus,^ 
froall river^ which runs through Athens^ and empties itfelf 
ato the ksL at the Piraeas. 

Periclo inilituted the prize of mttfkk. T» this difpi>fe wrre 
log thep^raifes of Harn>odiii6 and Arin^ogiton,. who d.'Iivered' 
Uhçns from the tyranny of the Piûilratides ; to which wasi 
fterwards added the eulogium. of .ThraHbulw, who cxpeJlrci 
be thirty tyrants. The(è difpates were not only warm nmongilt 
be ^mficiaDs» bat much more fu ainpngft the poets, and it tvasb 
^ghly gloftOBS to be declared vi£k)r invthesK ^(chyles i? re- 
tf>rced to hare died with grief U:poa iceing the prize ad}u'JgecB 
Sophocles, who was much younger than bimfelf. 

Tbefe exerciies w<ere followed by a general procefiion, whereini 
k fail was carried with great pomp and ceremony, onwh-cl»* 
I'ere carioufl/ delineated the warlike actions of Pallas againû; 
ÏC Titans and Gianta. That iai-l was afExed to a vtÛ'il^ whicl^ 
l'as called by the qame of the goddefs. The vefkl, eqiiippcd^ 
vitb fails* and with a thoafand oars, was conducted froin Cerami-^ 
us to the temple of Elcuiis,. notiby horfes or beads nf draughty' 
mt by machines, concealed in thç^ bottom of it, whica put \h&- 
tars iA motion, and made the vefTel glide along. 

The march was folemn and majeiliifk. At the head of it were* 
Id men, who carried olive-branches i^. their hands, SaXXoCopo»;- 
od thefe were chofen for the goodnefs of their fhape, and the» 
igoar of their complexion. Athenian matrons», oi gpeat age,, 
lio accompanied them in the fame equipage^ 

The grown and robufi men formed, the fécond cîafâ, They»^ 
/ere armed at all points, and had bucklers and lances. Afterr 
hen came the ftrangers that inhabited Athens, carrying mat-^. 

aks, indruments proper for tillage. Next followed thet:^ 
Itf ni^iQ wopien of the fame age, attended h^ the Coteigners.' 

b J «^ 


of their own fex, carrying ve£els in their hands for the dramng 
4)f water. 

The third xlafs was compofed of the yoang perfons of both 
fexes» and of the heft families in the city. The youth wore 
veils, with crowns upon their heads, and fang a peculiar hymn 
in honour of thegoddefs. The maids carried baflcets, in which 
were placed the facred utenfils proper to the ceremony, covered 
with veils to keep them from the fight of the.fpediators. Tht 
perfon, to whofe care thofe facred things were intruded, was 
to have obferved an exaél continence tor feveral days before he 
touched thera, or diflributed them to the Athenian virgins; 
* or rather, as Demoflhenes fays, his whole life and condoâ 
jought to have been a perfedt model of virtue and parity. It 
was an high honour to a young woman to be chofcn forû) 
l^oble and auguft an office, and an infupportable affront to be 
deemed unworthy of ic. We have (een that Hipparchas treated 
.the £{!er of Harmodius with this indignity, which extremely 
^ncenfed tbe-confpirators againil the Pififtratides. Thefe Athe- 
nian virgins were followed by the foreign young women, who 
-carried ymbrellasand feats for them. 

The children of both ùxçs clcfed the pomp of the proceffion» 

In this auguft ceremony, the ^ot^Mki were appointed to fiog 
.certain verfes of Homer; a manifeft proof of their efiimatioii 
for the works of that poet, even with. regard to r^igiOB* 
Jiipparchus, Ton of Pififtratus, firft Introduced that caflom. 

I have oblerved elfewhere, that in the gymnaftick games of 

this feaft an herald proclaimed, that the people of Auienshad 

conferred a crown of gold upon the celebrated phyfician Hif>« 

pocrates, in gratitude for the fignal fervices which he had 

^rendered the date during the peililence. 

In this feftival the people of Athens pnt themfelvet* and 
the whole repnblick, under the protedlion of Minerva» the 
tutelary goddefs of their city, and implored of her all kind 
of profperity. From the battle of Marathon,, in theib pab- 
lick a£ls of wor(hip, exprefs mention was made of the Plataeans» 
and they were joined in all things with the people of Athens. 

Feajts cf Bacchus* 

The woribip of Batchus had been brought oat of £]^pt to 
jllthens, where ieveral feads had been eftablifhed in hongarof 
that god ; two particularly more remarkable than all the reft, 
called the great and the lefs feafts of Bacchus. The latter were 
a kind of preparation for the former, and were celebrated in 


• Oix' <»f MifJft^w» hfJLt^w aciBfxin lynvM fAiw9, iHJÀ rit BUjê 9kw %ym* 
iSu DeoQoft* in excrcma Arïfiocratia* 

P" R B F A C B. xxxt 

(he open field about autumn. They were named Leneâ« from 
B Greek word (a) that fignifies a winc-prcfs. The great feafts 
were commonly called Dionyfia, from one of the names of that 
god (^), and were folemnized in the fpring within the city. 
. in each of the fe feafls the publick were entertained with 
games, (hews, and dramatic k reprefentations, which were at- 
tended with a vail concourfe of people, and exceeding magni- 
icence, as will be feen hereafter : At the fame time the poet5 
difpuced the pfize of poetry, fubmitting to the judgment of 
arbitrators, exprefsly chofen, their pieces, whether tragick or 
comick, wliich wece then reprefentcd before the people. 
■ Thefc feails continued many days. Thofe who were initi- 
ated! mimicked whatever the poets had thought fit to feign of 
the 2od Bacchus. They covered themfelves witl^ the flcins of 
wildbeaib, carried a thyrfus in their hands, a kind of pike 
with ivy-leaves twined round it. They had drums, horns, 
pipes, and other inllruments {Proper to make a great noife^ 
an^ wore upon their heads wreaths of ivy 2»nd vine- branches^ 
and of other trees facred to Bacchus. Some reprefented Silenusy 
fpme Pan, others the Satyrs, all drefTed in fuitable mafquerade. 
Many of them were mounted on afiTes ; others dragged * goats* 
along for facrifice». Men and^women^ ridiculouAy transformed 
IS this manner, appeared pight and day in publick ; and imî- 
fatiog drankennefs, and dancing with the mod indecent pof« 
tave»f ran m throngs about the mountains and forells, fcream* 
ÎDg and howling furioufly ; the women efpecially feemed more 
outrageous than the men, and quite out of their fenfes, iiw 
their f funout tranfports invoked the god, whofe feaH they 
celebrated, with loud cries ; êùoT Banxf* ^' '^ '^«(X'> ^^ 'loCaxx^t 
or ÏV 'Bimyf, 

This troop of Bacchanalians was followed by the virgins of 
the nobleft families in the city, who were called uamÇopot, from 
carrying bafkets on their heads, covered with vine and ivy* 

To thefe ceremonies others were added* obfcene to the lad 
cxcefs, and worthy of the god who could be honoured in fuch 
A manner. The fpeftators were no fchifmaticks : They gave 
into the prevailing humour, and were feized with the fame 
frantick Ipirit. Nothing was feen but dancing, drunkennefs, 
debauchery, and all that the mod abandoned licentioufncfs 
jcould conceive of gro/s and abominable. And this an entire 

b 4 • people» 

(a) Anvof. (è) Dîonyfus^ 

•" Goats tvere faerifced, becaufetbey ! <i»x, thefe ftsfts were Jj/linguijbed hytti 
JMkJ the vines, riamee/Orgia, *Ofyhf ire^furor, 

•f From this fury of the BatchaMÎi- 

xxini ? R E F A C K 

f eopie, reputed the wifeft of all Greece» neè only fbfert^s 
I ur admired and praOifcd. I fay an entire people 5 for* Plato» 
freaking of the Bacchanals, fays in direô tesm^, that he ht4 
feen the whole city of Athens drunk at once» 

(() Livy informs us, that this licentioufnefs of riieBacchanalL 
ans having fecretly crept into Rome, the moil horrid difordera 
were committed thereunder the cover of the night $ be£dct 
which, all perfons, who were initiated înto thefe impure and 
i^borolnable myfteries, were obliged, under the moft horrid 
imprecations, to keep them inviolably fecret» The fenate^ 
being apprized of the, pm a ftoo to thofe facrilegioos 
i:&[\s by the moil Severe penalties ; and arfl baniâied the pracn 
lifers of them from Rome, and afterwards from Italy. Thcf^ 
ix^isip:<Èb inform us, -f how far a miltaken fcnfc of religioDj, 
that covers the greateft crimes with the facred namç çf thçPi* 
\irjty> is capable of mifleading the mind pf pan. 

l^he Fsafi of EUvfii. 

Tliere is nothing in all the Pagan antiquity mwe celebrated, 
tVan the feaft of Ceres Eleufina. The ceremonies of this fcfti* 
val were called, by way of eminence, the myileries, from be- 
in^, according to Paufanias, as much above all others, as (h^ 
|i[Ous are above men. Their origin and inftitution are attri- 
buted to Ceres herfclf, who, in the reign of Erechthetts,-comijig 
10 EJeufis, a fmall town of Attica, in fearch of her daughter 
iVcferpine, whom PJuto had carried away, and finding thé 
country afilifted with a famine, (he invented corn as a remedy 
for that evil, with which (he rewarded the inhabitants. J She 
not onfy taught them the ufe of corn, but inllrufled them la 
the principles of probity, charity, civility, and humanity; 
iVom whence her myfleries were called ^ic^%(^% and Initia* 
To thefe firil happy leiTons fabulous antiquity afcribed the 


(#; LÎV. I. xixtf . n. S, iS. 

ut appeliantur, ita re Tera prindpit 

.vitar cognoYimus. Cic* \Au dc k|« 

n. 36. 

•ta ^ions-iA /uiSutfrar. Lib. i. de leg. 
p. 63?. 

f Nihil in fpcoiem fallacius tR Teque Ceres, & Libera, quama. 
quam prava rcligio, itbi de^xum ou- facra, ijcut opinionrs hoiainuin afr 
men praBtcadiiur fcclcfibvaw^ Liv. '*'' ' ' * '" * 

xxxix. p. 16. 

\ Multa eximîa dMnaqwe tîdcn- 
tiir A'heme luae pcperiffe, attjue in 
vltam KominuQi atfulifle ^ torn nihil 
melius illis myfteriis, quibus ex agrefli 
immanique vita eiculci ad bmrani* 
t^tcn & miti|ati fiunu;» initia^uc 

reiigiones ferunt, longe maxinis at* 
queoecaltifliaBis certmoliiUccntliieiH- 
lur : à quibus initia vi:c atque vidut, 
; legum, morum, manfuetudiait, hu« 
manitatis exempla homiaibus & c'xwim. 
tatious data ac difpcrtita effe dicon^ 
tur. /</. CÛ. 10 f^(rr% d€ fiff^ 
n. i8#. ' ' ' 

kaartitjf politeoefe». andiirbftnixy» fo remarkabfe attosgâ th« ^ 

Tbcfe myfietles were divided into the lefs and the greater ^ 
of which the former ferved as a preparation fyr the latter.. . 
Tiic Icis were Cblemnized in: the raonth AnfchefterioD„ whichi 
aafivcrs to oa^ November ; the greaxin the month Boedromion«, 
or Aogoil. Only Atheniaas were admkted to thefe my.Hei ie& ;; 
hmt ot them eacb fex, age» and condition had a right to be- 
jeceÎTed* All Grangers wece abfoluxely excladed;. (6 thai^er-* 
çtiles, Caftor, and Pollux^ were obliged to be adoptcTT 5y^ 
Athenians, in order to their admiffion ;. which however extendrd: 
only to the leiïèr myHeries.. I (hall coniider i^riiicipally the: ^ 
gceaty which were celebrated at Eleuilsw 
. Thd/è wbo^manded to be initiated into the m ^ ware obliged^ ^ 
before thcjr reception» to parify therofelvcs in the leflcr myilc- . 
lies, by bathing in the river IliiTusy. by faying certain pray,ers^ 
oftbring facrifices» and« above all, by living in.llriû contipcnce 
dqring an interval of tin:\|e prefcribed them. That time was>. 
employed in inflra^ng thçm in the princiglea and eleiaeBt& of ' 
the facred dofb-ine of the great myfheries. 

When the time for their initiation arrived;. the^wereBrooght 
kito the temple > and. to infpire the greater /everenee andî 
terrof,. the ceremony was performed in.^e night^v Woodcriul 
things pafled upon thisoccafion.. Vifions werâfèén, and voices. 
]leard of an extraordinary kind. A fudden.fplcndor ejscpelVd 
the dar.knefs of the place, anddifappearing immediaterv,.added4 
aew horrorj» to tho gloorav Apparitions, clapsi of thunder,. 
tarthqiiakes, imprioved the terror and amazemcntr.;. \>hil{l.the^. 
perfon admitted,, flupid,. fweating through fear, hesrv^ irem- 
Uing the myfterioos volumes read to him, if in fuch a con- 
dition he was capable of hearing at all» Thefe nofburnal rites^ 
were attended with many diforders, which, the ft¥crc Iav> of* 
£lence, impofed on. the perfons initiated, prevented f^oni 
coming to light-,. • as St. .Gregory. Nawanzen obrervc3u Wliatt 
cannot fupcrftition effe^l upon, the mind of. man,, when onca- 
his imagination is heated?. The prefident in this ctr( mc'-v 
was called Hiérophantes-, He wori^ a pecjuliai habit; and was. 
not admitted to marry. The fiil^ who fcrveJ in this Kuîu^inn, 
ard whom Ceres hcrfwlf inllructec], v^as Eirmolpus ;• from v\vlioim 
his fucccflbrb were called Euniolpides. Hehad three CGlUzigues;^ 
[<ij ortc who carried a. torch ; another Oii herald, (rywhofe- 

b. 5., oiHcft: 

(J) Lalh'^^, ff) Kr.av^». 

Of*;. ùar4cr>.laa^ui. 

jtAf- "P R E F A C £* 

office was to pronounce certain myfterious wordi ; and a third 

to attend at the altar. 

HefidcB thefc officers, one of the principal magiftrates of 
the city was appointed to take care that all the ceremonies of 
this fcaft were exactly obfervcd. He was called the king (/}'» 
and was one of the nine Archons. His bufinefs was to offer 
prayers and facrifices. The people gave him four affiftants 
(^)» one chofcn from the family of the Eamolpides, a fécond 
from that of the Ccrycians, and the two laft from two other 
families. He had, befides, ten other miniilers to aflift him in 
thcdifchargeof his duty, and particularly in offering facrifi- 
ces, from whence they derived their name (i»). 

The Athenians initiated their children of both iexes very 
early into thefe myfleries, and would have thought it criminal 
to have let them die without fuch an advantage. It was their 
general opinion» that this ceremony was an engagement to 
lead a more virtuous and regular life; that it recommended 
them to the peculiar protcflion of 'the goddeffes, to whofe fer« 
vice they devoted themfelves ; and > as the means to a more 
perfcfè and certain hanpinefs in the other world : Whilfti on 
the contrary, fuch as had not been initiated, befides the evils 
they, had to apprehend in this life, were doomed, after theb 
-defccnt to the (hades below, to wallow eternally in dirt, filth» 
and excrement, (i) Diogenes the Cynick believed nothing of 
the matter, and when his friends endeavoured to perfuode hi» 
to avoid fuch a mibfortune, by being initiated before his death 
— " What," faid he, ** fhall Agcfilaus and F^paminondas ii» 
** among (I mud and dung, whilfl the vileû Athenians, becaufe 
" they been initiated, pofTcfs the moft didlnguifhcd 
■** places in the regions of the blcfled ?*' 6ocrates was not more 
credulous ; |ie would not be initiated into thefe myfteries^ 
which was perhaps one reafon that rendered his religion fnf- 

(>f) Without this qualification none were admitted to enter 
the temple of Cerev ; and Livy informs us of two Acarnani- 
SMs, who, having followed the crowd into it upon one of th^ 
f<'nfl d.iys, although out of miftakc and with no ill defign» 
were both put to death without mercy. It was alfo a capital 
crime to divulge the fecrcts and mylleries of this feafl. Upon 
this account Diaporas the Melian was profcrlbed, and had a 
reward fct upon his head. He intended to have made the fecrct 
cofl the poet ilifrhylus his life, from fpeaking too freely of it 
in foinc of his tragedies. I'he difgracc pf Alcibiades pro* 


(/) B^fTiXiic- (|] *F.iri.uiX4Tai. (b) 'U(9W9la, (f) Di€»|ca« 

'l.4en. i. VI. p^. 32{9. ^kj Liv. U xxxl. n. i^. 


cqeded -from the fame caufe/ * Whoever had violated the Te* 
csec, was avoided as a wretch accurfed and excommanicated» 
{I) Paufanias in ieveral. paflages^ wherein he mentions the 
tqpdple of Eleufis, and the ceremonies pradlfed there» ilopa 
fhDft^.and declares he cannot proceed, becaufe he had beea 
forbacl by a dream or vifion. 

This feaft, the modt celebrated of profane antlquier, was of 
nine days continuance. It began the fifteenth^ of the month. 
Boedromion. After fome previoas ceremonies and facrificea 
on the fijrft three days, upon the fourth in the evening began 
t]]e procefiion of tie Ba/ket ; which was laid upon an open 
chariot 'flowly drawn byo^cen f, and followed by great num- 
bers of the Athenian women. They all carried myfteriou» 
b^fkets in their hands, filled with feveral things, which they 
took great care to conceal, and cpvered with a veil of purple* 
This cer«ilnony reprefented the baflcet into which Pro/perpine 
wèx the lowers ihewas gathenng when Pluto feizedand carried 
her oiF. 

. The fifth day was catted the day of the Torches ; becaufe at 
night the men and women ran about with them i a imitation of 
Ceres, who having lighted a torch at the fire of mount JEtn^L, 
wandered about from place to place in fearch of her daughter. 

. The fixth was the mofl famous day of all. It was called 
Jacchus, the name of Bacchus, fon of Jupiter and Ceres» 
whole flatue was then brought out with great ceremony, crown- 
ed with myrtle, and holding a torch in its hand. The pro- 
ceffion began at Ceramicus, and paiHng through the principal 
places of the city, continued toÉleufis. The way leading to 
It was called /i&^^^r^^<ii;^y, and lay crofs a bridge over the 
river Cephilus. This procefiion was very numerous, and ge- 
nerally conMed of thirty thoufand perfons. (m) The temple 

b6 • . of 

(i) Lib. i. p. s6, »-T. («)H^r.1. vUi. c.€5.Kix. p.>595^ 

• EA & fideli tuta (jlentio .a 

Merces. Vetabo qoi Cereris Acmm 
Vulgarit arcans. fub iifdem 

Sittrabibus, fragiUxnque mccum 
fiolvat phaWum. ffor» Oà, II. 1. lij» 

Safe is tbt filent tcngui, vihicb none can blarney 

The faithful fecret merit fame: 

Btnt jtb one roof ne'er let bim refi vfitb me, 

Wbo Ceres myfteriet reveals ; 
Jn onefrcH bark ne'er let us put fofea, 

Nor tempt tie jarring winds imtè fpreading fails', * 

•f Tar<JaqiicEleufinaematrie voUentiaplauftra. 

^, ^ yirg,Gtcr, Uh, i. Tcr, i6^' 

Ibe EUuftrian m^.tber^s myfl'i 4 car ' ^ 



frxxyl P R E F A C E; 

«r EreufT)» where it ended; was large enoagh to cohCnn- tll^^ 
>vhoIe muhitade ; and Scrabo fays, .its excentwts eqo«l to that-' 
of thcatrcsy. which everybody knows» were, capablrof' holding: 
a much greater number. of! people.*. The whole way refoundeif 
with the found of. trumpets» clarlonsr and other mufical-in-- 
liiumcnts. Hymns were fung in honooroFthe goddefibs, ac—- 
companicd with dancing, and other extraordinary marks of^re-- 
jaicing. The- rout bcfore-memioned, through the faered way 
iind over the Cephifus, was the ufual way : But after the La-- 
cfdxmonians in the Peloponneiiàn war had fortified Decelia,.,- 
the Athenians were obliged; to* make their proceffioa by' feai, 
till Alcibiades re-eHabliltfed the<ancieni cnflora. 

The fcvetyth day was f^lexn-nized by games» and the gym*' 
Dailick combats, in which', the vrdor was rewarded with 8r 
meafure of barley ; without doubt;, becaofe it was at-Eleufi»- 
the goddefs hr^ taught Jhe method of* raifing that grain, and* 
the ufe of it. The two'foitowing days wercempk>yed in-fome- 
particular ceremonies» neither important norVemarkable. 

During this feflival* it* was. prohibited, under very* greati 
penalties, to arneftt any pcrfon wfaatfoeter, in order to their- 
wingimprifoncd, o^ to prefent any bill of complaint- to the- 
îudges. It-waà regu1;u-ly. celebrated every fifth year, that is,.- 
aftcr a revolution of: four years ; and no hiflory obferves thatr 
it was ever interrupted, excep^ upon the taking of Thebes by- 
Alexander the Great (it). The Athenians, who- were thea» 
upon the point of celebrating the great myfleries^ were-fo raucli*' 
afi^eâèd with the ruin of that city, that they could' not.refolve* 
in fo general an afHIéllon to folemnize a fefliva!, which breathed; 
nothing but merriment and'rejplciivg (0)4. Ittwas continued} 
clown to the "time of the Chriftian eràperors ; and V.alentinian. 
would have abolifbed it, if Prsetextatus, the proconful off 
€r/eece, had not reprefented in the moft lively and affcéliug; 
terms, the univerfal forrow whicl) the abrogation of that ft^jki 
^yoold occafion among the people ; upon which it was fuflTered) 
to lubf^il. It is Aippofrd to have been finally fuppreffcd by. 
Theodoûiu the Great -^ as were all the. red. of: the I^agan fcH- 
lemniiies* , . *' 

Ni^tbingn more frequently mentioned in^ anci^t hlftory*, 

than oracles, augurs, and divinations. No war-was made, or.- 

^lony fettled ; nothing of con fcq^ien ce was undertaken, either 

publick or private, without the gods being firft confi:)ted«. 

^his was a cuilom. uaiverfally eUahliihed amongft the Egyp^ 


^1^, rittt, in vit* Alex. p,. d^ju If^ Zo^, hifti LiVf 

> R E P A C E. xrmrf? 

iao» Aflyrian» Gredan^ and Roman nations ;• which is 'n(K 
hoobt a proof» as has been already obferved, of- itt being de- ' 
ived from ancient tradition, and that it had its origin in the^. 
cligion- and worlhip of the true God. It is not indeed ta be 
HieftioBCdy but that God before the deluge did manifell hisi 
vill to mankind in different methods, as he has iince done- to 
ns people, fometimes in. hit own perfon and w/vâ njo^e, fome- 
îmcs by the miniftry of angels or of prophet» infpired-by him- 
^If, and at other times by apparitions or in dreams. When 
:he defcendants of Noah difperfed themfelves into different re- 
gions, they carried this tradition along with them, which was 
svery where retained, though* altered and corrupted by the^ 
}arknefs and ignorance of idolatry. None of the ancients 
liave infilled more opon the neceflity of confulting the godson>' 
ill occafions by augurs and ocacles than Xenophon ; and he * 
fbands that neceflity, a« I have more than once observed clfe- 
Arhere^ opoa a priaciple' deduced from the* moH refined reafon- 
md diifceraraent. He reprefents^ in lèverai places, that man- 
af himfelf if vér^ frequently ignorant of what i's advantageous^ 
M* pernicious to him ; that far fnofltbeing capable of-penetrating;^- 
the future^ the préfcnt itfelf efcapes him, fi> narrow and fhort-' 
fightedishe in all his views; that the fligheft obdacles can^' 
fruftrate hifi great^d; defigQ« f that only the divinity, to whom/ 
afl ages are prefent, can itnpart a certain knowledge of the- 
future to hiqd ; that no othei^ being has power to facilitate the 
fucccefs of his enterprizes ; and that it is reafonable to believe^ 
he will guide and proteA' thofe, who adore him with the pureil 
affeélion, wlto invoke him at all times with the greateft con* 
ftancy and fidelity^ and CpnfiUt him, with moil fincericy and^ 

0/ jùtgursé 

What a reproach is it to human reafon, that fo bright and* 
bmioous a principle (hould have given birth to the abfurd rea- 
br.ings, and wretched notions- m favour of the fcience of 
iiigurs and foothfayors, and been the occafion of efpoufing 
vith blind devotion the moll ridiculous pueriliiies : To make- 
he mod important affairs of flate depend upon a bird's hap- 
>fining to fing upon the ri[^ht or left hand ; upon the greedinefs- 
.f chickens in pecking their grain ; the infpeftion of the cn- 
rails of beads ; the liver's being entire and in good cortduion,. 
vhich, according- to them, did fometimes entirely difappear, 
vithoat leaving any trace or mark of its having ever ru'ofilled Î 
t'o thcfc fuperflitious obfervances may be added, actidentjil 
«ACouutcr;»^. words fpcken by chAnce^^ and afterward» turned. 

Jf. iii.O. 


attxvîii R E F -A C E. • 

into good or bftd prc&get, forebodingSt prodigitia.moiiitenr 
èdip^SyCOisetit every extraordinary phsnomcnon •'every anfoit^ 
fcen accident* with an infinicv of chimasrat of the like nature. 

Whence could it happen, tlTat fo many great men, iUttûrion»- 
general»» able. politician 9» and even learned philofophert» hav» 
aâually given into fuch abfurd imaginations; Plutarch» ia 
particular^ fo eftimable in other refpe^Si.ia to be pitied for 
his fervile obfervance of the fenfekfa cuftoms of the Pagan 
idolatry» and his ridiculous credulity' in dreams» iignat gnd 
prodigies. He tells usifomewlieie» that he abftained a great 
while from eating egg^ upon account of a di'eam» with which 
lie has not thought fit to make us further acquainted. 
. The wifeft ol the Pagans did not want a juft fen(è of the 
art of divination» and often fpoke of it to each othiBr» and 
even in publick» with the utmoft contempt, and in a manner 
fttfficiently expreftve of its xidicule. The grave cenfpl- Cato 
was of opinion, that one foothfayer could not look at another 
without laughing. Hannibal was amaxed at the fimplicityof, 
Prufias» whoni he had adviied to gire battle, «poll hi« being 
diverted from it by the infpeekion of the entrails -of a viAim. 
'* What''» faid he, ** have you more confidence in the liver of 
'f a beaft» than in fo old and experienced a captain a» I am ?^ 
Marcel Ins, who had been ûre time; conful» and was augur» 
faid, that he had difcovered a method of not being pot to a 
ftand by the finiiler flight 6f birds» which- was» to luep him» 
ielf clofe (hot up in his litter. 

Cicero explains himfelf upon augnry without ambiguity oi 
referve. No body was more capable of Ipeaking pertinently 
upon it than himiclf (asMf. Morin obferves in his diflertation 
upon the fame fubieft.) A$ he was adopted into the college 
of augurs, he had made himfelf acquainted with the moA 
concealed of their fecrets, and had all poffible opportunity of 
informing himfelf fully in their fciencer That he did fo, fuf- 
ficiently appears from the two books he has left us upon dtvina* 
tion, in which it may be faid he has exhaufted the'fubjeâ. la 
his fccond, wherein he refutes his brother Quintus» who had 
efpoufed the caufe of the augurs, he difpotes and defeats hia 
falfe reafoning» with a force, and at the fame time with fo re> 
fined and delicate a raillery, as leaves us nothing to wifh ; and 
he dciiion(liatc9 by proofs, that rife upon each other in their 
force, the faliity, contrariety, and impofiibilty of that art» 
* But what is very furprizing» in the midft of all his arguments, 


^ Errabat rnuUigin rebus antîqiiî- I vet TetnOate ImfnutatiAi TÎHcmiis. 
tas : qmm vcl ufu jaoo, vel d^dtrina, | RetlACtur lutem- et ad opinionem 


p. R ET A -X: -IS,. xxxU 

le takes occafion to blame the generals and magiflrates, who 
^n important conj un âiires had contemned the prognofticks ; 
ind maintains,- that the a& of them, as ereat an abufe as it 
vas in his own fenfe,. oueht never thelefs to oe refpedied out o£ 
regard to religion, and the prejudice of' the people. 

All that I hav.e hitherto faid tends to prove^ that Pa^anifm was 
divided into two Teas, almoft equally enemies of religion ; the 
DOC by their fuperflitious and blind regard for the augurs, the 
other by their irreligious contempt and derillon of them. 

The principle of the firft, founded 09 one fide upon the 
ignorance and weakness of man in the affairs of life, and on 
the other upon the prefcience of the divinity, and his almighty . 
proWdence» was true ;, but the confeq/uence deduced from it,» 
IB regard to the augurs, falfe and ahfurd. They ought to have 
proved that it was certain, the divinity himielf had eUablifhed 
thefe external figns to denote his intentions^ and that he had 
obliged himfelf to a pundual conformity to them upon all oc« 
fions r Bat they had nothing of this kind in their fyftem. The 
aogors and ibothfayers therefore were the efiEeâ and invention 
of the ignorance, raihnefs, curiofity, and blind paffîons or 
man,, who prefumed to interrogate God, and would oblige 
him to give anfwers upon his every idle imagination and un* 
jaft enterprize. 

The oUiers, who gave no real credit to any thing advanced 
by the fcience of the. augurs, did not fail however to obferve 
their trivial ceremonies out of policy, for the better fubjefling 
the minds of the people to themfelves, and to recoof ile them 
to their own purpofes by the afliflance of fuperflition r But by 
their contempt for the augurs, and the entire convidlion of 
their falfity, they were led into a difbelief of the divine pro- 
vidence, and to defpife religion itfelf; conceiving it infepa- 
rable from the numerous abhirdities of this kind, which ren- 
dered it ridiculous, and confequently unworthy a man of fenfe* 
Both the one and the other behaved in this manner, becaufe 
kaving miilaken the Creator, and abufed the light of nature, 
which might have taught them to know and to adore him, 
they were defervedly abandoned to their own darknefs and ab- 
Aird opinions ; and, if we had not been enlightened by the true 
/eligion, even at this day we might have given ourfelves up ta 
the fame fuperiUtions. 


«ulgî, êc ad magnag utîlitates reîp. 
mos, rcligio, difciplîna, jusaugurum, 
col'e.ii ■ii£toriia6. Nec vrio non 
fmnt fiipplicio digni F. Claudius, L. , 
Juniuf confulcf, qui cootra aufpicia { 

navîgâruntt Parendum enîm fuît 
religion!, nec patrius mos tam con" 
tumaciter repudiandus. Divin, !• ii» 
n. 70, ju 

xl P R if F A C E* 

Of Oradu. • 

No country was ever richer in» oriiU)reprQJoAiva*orora 
than Greece. I (hall confine myfelf to. thofe which wen 
mod noted. 

The otaele of Dodona, a city of the Moloffians, was n 
celebrated % where Jupfter gaveanfwers either by vocal * o 
or doves, which had alfo their langnage, or by relbani 
bafons of brafs» or by the mouths of pnefts and priefieilè 

(^) The oracles of'Trpphonius io Bteotia» thoagh he 
cnly a fîmple hero, was in ^reat reputationr. After-many 
liminary ceremonies, as wafhmg hi the river, offering facnf 
drinking a water called Lethe, from its qoality of mal 
people forget every thing, the votaries wentr down intc 
cave by fmall ladders throogh a very narrow- pafihge. At 
bottom was another little cavern, of which the entrance 
aîfo exceedbg fmail. There they hy down upon the groi 
with a certain compofirion of honey in each hand, which i 
were indiYpcnfibry obliged to carry with them. Their 
were placed within the opening of the little cave ; which 
no foon'er done, than they perceived themfelves borne ini 
with great force and velocity. Futurity was there revealec 
them ; but not to all in the fame manner. Some faw, ot 
heard wonders. From thence they returoed quite ftapij 
and out oC their fçnfes, and* were placed in the chair of H 
xnofyne, goddefs of memory ; not without great need of 
dfTi (lance to recover their remembrance, aftec their great 
ti{;ue, of what they had feen and heard; admitting they 
feen or heard any tHing at ali. Paufanias, who had confu 
that oracle himfelf, and gone through all thefe ceremonies, 
left a mod ample defcriptibn of it ; to which Plutarch (^ ) a 
feme p^rticul'fir circumftances, which Fomit, to avoid "^ tedi 

(r) The temple and oraQle of the Branchida in the neî 
bourhood of Miletus, fo called from Branchus the fon 
Apollo,, was very ancient, and; in great efteem with all 
loniahs sm^ Dorians of AT^g. Xerxes, in his return fi 
Greece, burnt this temple, after the priclls had delivered 


• Ci^) P«"^an. !• »«• P ^o«- ^^» Cfl Pl"^' ^ B*a, Socr. p, 590. 
Ileiod. 1. i. c 1Ç7. Strah. 1. XIV. p. 6}4. 

• Certain injlrumfrts Vfte fafientd phereft, wi;./» had ghvm .ncm fi 

tt the topi :if oaht wW-^ lei^gjfhaktn^ faiuloui traditivt tf-dtvtt th^tij^ 

(y îh tojnd, «r h frmê otftr txestis, Ir wûi eâfyjo makt tbcfe kraxtn it 

fevered a rowfuMfiund, Strriat oh» fiund l>y Jome fecrtt »tMr.s, û»d U 

J.rt'ti, ttiittbtjjmewordin theTteJ- nihat fyn-fitatlcn thiy fhaftd Ifj 

PREFACE.. xfi 

ures to him. That prince, in return, granted them a^ 
>li(hincnt in the remoteft parts of Ada, to fccuro thtm 
lift the vengeance of the Greeks. After the war w<:s (^ver» 
Milefians re-eHablifhed that temple with a magnîHccnce». 
:h» according to Strabo, furpafFed that of all the other 
pies of Greece. When Alexander the Great had over-* 
»wn Darius» he utterly deft royed the city, where thepricfls 
nchidx had fettled, of which their defcendants were at that 
e in aduai poffeflioD, punilhing in the children the facrîlç*» 
us perfidy of their fathers. 

/) Tacitus relates fomething very fingular, though not very 
babie, of the oracle of Claros^ a town of Ionia, in Afia 
lor, near Colophon. *^ Germanicus," ùys he, ** went to 
ronfult Apollo at Claros. It is not a woman that gives th« 
infwers there as at Dclphos, hut a man, chofe out of cer« 
tain families, and almoft always of Miletus. It fufficcb xo' 
let him know the number and names pf thofe who come to 
confult him. After which he retires into a cave, and having^ 
drank of the waters of a £i3ring within it, he delivers an* 
fwers in verfc upon what the perfons have in their thoughts, 
though be is often ignorant, and knows nothingofcompofing 
in meafure. It is laid, that he foretold to Germanicus his 
fnddcji death, hot in dark and ambiguous terms, according 
ta the cuftom of oracles.'^ 

I omit a great number of other oraches, to proceed to the 
3ft famous of them all. It is very obvious that I mean the 
icfe of Apollo at Delphos. He was worfhipped there undejp 
e name of the Pythian, derived from the ferpent Python, 
tiich he had killed», or from a Greek word, that ilgnifies to 
iqnire, wâf^^ becaofe people came thither to confult him» 
roa thence theDelphick priefteis was called Pythia* and the^ 
mies there celebrated the Pvthian game&. 
Delphos was an ancient city of Phocis in Achaia. It ftood 
>on the declivity, and about che middle of the mountain Part 
iflus, built upon a fmall extent of even ground, and fur- 
rnnded with precipices, that fortified it without the help of 
t. (/) Diodorus fays, that there was a cavity upon ParnafTus» 
om whence an exhalation rofe, which made the goats danc9 
id fkip about, and intoxicated the braio. A fliepherd having 
^preached it, out of a defire to know the caufes of fo extra* 
rdinary an effedt, was immediately fei^ed with violent agita<« 
ons of body, and pronounced words, which, without doubt» 
e did not underftand himfelf ; however^ they foretold futuruy^ 
others made the fame experiment, and il^ was foon rumoured 

(f) Tacit. Annal. I. ii. c. s^ (0 Uk» aiv». p. 427, ^iZ.^ 


dirooghoat the ncighboaring countries. The cavity 
k>nger approached without reverence. The exhalati 
concluded to have fomething divine in it. A prieflefs \ 
pointed for the reception of its efFei5ls, and a tripod 
«pon the vent, called by the Latini Cortina, p<rrhaps £i 
ikin (u) that covered it. From thence (he g^ave her < 
The city of Delphos rofe infenfibly round about thl: 
where a temple was ereâed, which at length became ver 
nificent. The reputation of this oracle almoU e^Faced 
leafl very much exceeded that of all others. 
• At hrd a fingle Pythia fofficed .to anfwer thofe who c 
confult the oracle, not yet amounting to any great nu 
But in process of time, when it grew into nniverfal rej 
fecond was appointed to mount the tripod alternately w 
frft» and a tnird chofen to fucceed in cafe of death, or • 
There were other afiiftants befides thefe cor attend the P) 
the (anéloary, of whom the moft confiderable were calh 
phets (jr) ; it was their bufmefs to take care of ^e Can 
and to make the infpeaion^ into them. To thefe the d< 
cf the enquirers were delivered either by word of moi 
in writing, and they returned the anfwcrs, as we fhal! 
the fequel. 

We moft not confound the Pythia with the Sibyl of D 
The ancients reprefent the latter as a woman that rove 
country to country» venting her prediâiont. She was 
itme time the. Sibyl of Delphoe, «Erythrae, Babylon, 
and many other places, from her having refidcd in them 

The Pythia could not prophefy till ihe was intoxica 
the exhalation from the fandhiary* This miraculous ' 
had not the effedk at all times and upon all occafions. 
god was not aiwavs in the infpiring humour. At firft 
parted himfelf only once a year, but a leneth be was pr 
upon CO viiit the Pytheaevery month. Alfdays were a< 
per, and upon fome it was not permitted to coniiilt the 
Thefe nn fortunate days occaiioned aaorade's being g 
Alexander the Great worthy of remark. He was at D 
to confute the god, at a time when the prieftefs preted 
was forbid to aik him any queftions, and would not ent 
temple. Alexander, who was always warm and tenaciout 
kola of her by the arm to force her into it, when ihe crii 
Jhf my/oMf jbM are M$t to h$ nMid I or, Myfim^yom ur§ 
ciUi! Upon which words he declared he would have no 
oracle, and was contented with that he had roceivod. 

P R E F'a'c e/ xlîîf 

'he Pythia, before fhe afcended the tripod» was a long time 
taring for it by facrifices, purifications, a fail of three days, 
many other ceremonies. The god denoted his approach 
he moving of a laurel, that ftood before the gate of ihe 
pie, which (hook alfo to its very foundations. 
.5 foon ^ as the divine vapour, like a penetrating fire, had 
ifed itfelf through the entrails of the prieftefs, her hair 
i upright upon her head, her lookrgrew wild and*furious, 
foamed at the mouth, a fudden and violent trembling feized 
whole body, with all the f fymptoms of di(lra£lion and 
zy. She uttered at intervals fome words almoil inarticulate^ 
ch the prophets carefully collefted. After fhe had been 
Ttafn time upon the tripod, (he was re-conduâed to her 
, where fhe generally continued many days, to recover hcr- 

of her fatigue, and as Lucan fays {y)^ fudden death. 

often either the reward or punifhmeat of her enthuHafm : 


^ummis auf pœna tji mors immatura réceptif 
iut pretium^ 

[The prophets had poets under them; who madfe the oracles 
> yerfes, which were often bad enough, and gave occafioo 
kf , It was very forprizing, that Apollo, who preiided in 
choir oAhe moies, fht>ula infpire his prophetefs no better. 
: Plvtarch .informs ns, that the god did not compofe the 
fea of the oracle. He inflamed the Pythia's imagination, 
I kindled in her foul that living light» which unveiled alt 


(7 ) Lib. V. 

• Cui talU fan^ 
Ante fores, fahito non vultos, non color Qnui, 
Woo cvfiipte manière coma: fed peûus anhejom 
Sc rabie fera corda tamcDt; majorque videri, 
Kec Diortale fonaas, afflata eft namioe quando 
Jam propiora dei. f^i^g* ^»» 1* vl. ver. 46— 51* 

Hfoice^ and with a nohU tranquillity of 
kebaviour, Another dtftingm/hing mark 
is, the damons giving their oracles i» 
fecret places, èy-ways, and in the ob' 
fcurity of caves ; whereas God govt hip 
in open day, and before all the vforldm 
I have not fpoke in feçret, in a dark 

f* AmoM0 the varioms marh which 
i bag given us in the Jcriptitres to 
mruifi hi» oracles from tbofe of the 
if, the fury or madnifs, attributed 
Virgil to the Pythia, Ac. rabie fera 
da lumen t, is one. It it I, fays 
/, thctfbev) the faljbood of the di- 
€r9 p'r édifiions, and give to Jucb as 
imo, the m-tions of fury and mad- 
I ; 0r, according to ifs,. xlrv. 25» 
at fruftr^teth the tokens of the 
', and maketh diviners mad. In- 
id of vthich^ the prophets of the 
r God confantty gave the divine an- 
vrt im am efual and calm tout of 

place of the earth, Jfa. xlv. 19. I 
have rot fpoken in (ecrct from the 
beginning, Tfa, xlviii, i6. So that ' 
God did not permit the. devil to imitée 
bis oracles, tvithMt impofing fucb con» 
ditions upon him, as might difiinguijk 
between the true andjalfi infphraù^nm. 

icliv PR E > AC I. 

futurity to her, The words (he uttered in tlteheit of In 
thudafm» having neither method nor conneAioni «nd co 
only by (hrt«, (o ufe that cxpreiTioni (z) from the bottc 
bcr Homach» or rather from her belly» were coIleAed witl 
by the prophets» who gave thçm afterwards to the poets 
Uirncd into verfe. Thefe Apollo left to their own geuio 
natural talent»; as we may may fuppofe he did the Pi 
when (he compofcd vcrfcs, which though not often, hao] 
fometimcs. The fubftance of the oracle was infpired by Aj 
the manner of cxprcHing it was the prieftçfi'i gwn i Theoi 
were however often ^ivcn in profc. 

The general char.iéUriQicKS of oracles wtre * ambSc 
obfcurjty, and convertibility, (to ufe that ejipreffion) & 
one aniwer would t^grce with fjveral various, and fomc 
dirciHy oppofitc, events. By the help of this artifice 
dormons, who of themfdves arc not cap.iblc uf knowing 
rity, concealed their ignorance, and amufed the creduli 
the Pa^Nin world. When Crocfus was upon the point o 
vading the Mcdcs, he confulted the oracle of Dclphos 
the fuccefs of that war, and was anfwered» that by paffin; 
ri,ver Halys, he would ruin a great empire. What empire 
own, or that of his enemies f He was to guefs that ; but v 
ever the event might be» the oracle could not fail 6f bein 
the right. As mueh mfiy be faid upon the fame god'a u 
to Pyrrhus, 

jf:c tr, jEaefduf Ro*nanos vinctre foffi^ 

J repent it in Lntin, becaufe the cquivoealitjs which eqi 
implies, that Pyrrhus could conquer the Romans, and 
Homans Pyrrhus, will not fubfid in a tranjlation. \J 
the cover of fuch ^ambiguities, the god (luded aU dificuJ 
and was never in the wrong. 

Jt mull, l^owever, be confefted, tfiat (bmetimes the ao 
of the craele was clear and circomftantial. I have repci 
in the hiilnry of Croefus, the ftratagem he made ufe c 
aflurc himfcif of the veracitv of the oracle,, which was, t< 
mand of it, by his ambaiTador, what he was doing at a ce: 
time prefixed. I'he oracle of Delphos replied, that he 
ciufMig a toreoife and a lamb to be dreft in a veAel of b 
which was reaUy fo, (a) The cmperof Trajan made a 

{:d) *£r>/crr(^v09(. (tf) Kffacrob, t^f. Satnrnil, c. tiUU 

^ Q^od fi •llquii (iixrik malt» ab 
idol. I file prarditU) hoc fciendun), 
^uaJ fciBpcr mendiclum Junterlnt 

TuiitAti, A fie icmeutiat umperiiîAt, [ utsmftti •/ Cmfui snl ffTÀMix 

at, feu boni feo mali qoM acei 
uttoonqut poflit inttlli|i. Hkp 

V ft fc If A 6 ft. 3tfV 

retff a^ob ttie god at Heliq)o1is» by (ending them â letter * 
^ed up, to which he demanded aa anfwer. l^he oracle made 
o other returo» than to comtnad a blank paper» well folded 
nd fealedy to be delivered to him« Trajan, upon the receipt 
f it» was firack with amaeemeht to fee an anfwer . fo corre« 
pondent with his own letter» in which he knew he had wrote 
lothipg. The wonderful f facility» with which Daemons caa 
niiiafer themfelves almoft in an inftant fl-ohi place to placé» 
nade it not tmpoflible for them to give thc^ twd related atiiwert; 
knd ieem to foretel in one country» what thejr had feen, iii 
mother ; whith is Tertullian^ opinion. 

Admitdng it to be troe» thatfome oracles have bèeil followed 
fTCcKcïy by the e?enb foretold» we may believe» that God» to 
sonifli the blind and Ikcrilegloas credulity of the Pagans, has 
Kmietioies permitted thediaenilond to have a knowledge of things 
to come, end to foretel them dillin£ily enough, which coh- 
in^ of (jod^ though very mtjjch above human comprehenfion, 
is fivqaently attefled in the holy fcriotbres. 

It has bcin ^uelllonedi whether the oracled» tnentioned in 
profane hiAoryi ihould be icfcribed to the operatioil) of daemons» 
or only to the malignity and imp6ftu>e of mètié W^ndale, a 
)Dfutch phyficlatii has ihaintaitied thâ fattei- ; ân^ Monfieur 
Fonteneile» when a young man^ adopted that opinion^ in th^ 
per-fuafioB (to ufe his own words) that il ^as ihdîfferënt» as to 
the troth of Chrîïlianîly* Whether the oracles Were the éfFeft 
of the agency of fpiHts» of a feHcs of iitipofturcs. Father 
Baltus» the Jefuit» ptofeitor of the holy fcriptures in the uni- 
verfity of Stralburgfi» has refhted thetn both in a very folid 
piece» wherefti he d^onftrates invincibly, with the unanimous 
«Qthoritv of the falhets» that the deviîs were the real agents in 
the oracief . He attacks» with ei^ual force and Aicceis» tlve 
yaflinefs and prefumpltion of the anabajptiil pbyiician, who» 
calling in queftxon the capacity aiid difcernment of the holy 
^c6lorsk ^bfurdly endeavours to efface the high i2ea all true 
believers have of thofe great leaders of the church, and to de- 
preciate theit- venerable authority» which is To great a difHculty 
to all who deviate from the principles of ancient tradition. 
And if that was ev6r certain aod confcntaneOus in any thitig» 


• // «tof CiffiifKârf fb nnfuU the 

Fàanty quain ènuntîant. Velocity» 

liraele fy Jtafed letters, vbich were laid divinitas crrditur, quia fubHantia ig- 
hp9w tbf altar of the g»d unopened. iforatur. — C«ter\inn tefludmem deco- 

-f- 0«nAJs ^iritus ales. 11 :c A <)"* ^^^ car'nibns perudis Pyrbiiik co 
tftfieli &r-dst«none8. I^*t«r momrnrt) modo renandiivu, qnn fapra dixim<i9. 
ubi^oe funti totua orbis illii locus Mom^nto apud L^diuA legist* 7tfr« 
bn«s ell : ^\à obi geracur Cam f«ciJt ] tuL in Jj>oipg^ 


it is fo in this point ; for all the fathers of the church, t 
cccleftaflical writers of all ages, maintain, and atteft, that 
ikvii was the author of idolatry in general^ and of oracles 
particular. ' 

This opinion does not oppofe the belief, that the priefts i 

prieftefles were frequently guilty of fraud and impoftare in 

anfwers of the oracles. For is trot the devil the father ; 

■prince of lies ? In the Grecian hiftory we have feen more t 

XHitt the Delphick prieftefs fuffer hcrfelf ta be corrupted 

^prefents. It was from that motivé, fhe perfuaded the Lacei 

monians to afiiil the people of Athens in the expulfion of 

thirty tyrants ; that (he caufed Demaratus tb be divefted of 

royal dignity to make way for Cleomenes ; and dreft ap 

oracle to fupport the impodor of Lyfander, when he endeavov 

to change the fucceffion to the throne of Sparta. And I 

apt to believe, that Themiftocles, who well knew the ; 

portance of aéllng againfl thePerfians by fea, infpired the 

•with the anfwer he gave, to deftnd themfel'ves 'with nnalls of 10 

{b) Demoflhenes, convinced that the oracles were freqoe; 

fuggeiled by paffion or intereft, and fufpefting, whh real 

that Philip had in(lru£led them to fpeak in his favour, bol 

declared, that the Pythia phiîîpplxed^ and bad the Atheni 

and Thebans remember, that Pericles and Epaminondas, 

Head of liilening to, and amndng tUeibfelves with» the fri 

lous anfwers of the oracle, thofe idle bugbears of the bafe 

cowardly, confulted only reafon in the choice and executioi 

their meafures. 

The fame father Baltus examines with equal fuccefs the 
fation of oracles, a fécond point in the difpute. ' Mr. "W 
dale, to oppofii with fome advantage a truth fo glorioui 
Te fus Chriû, the fubverter of idolatry, had falfified the fl 
of the fathers, by making them fay,^ that oracles ceafed free 
at the froment of Chrift^s birth. The learned apologift for 
fathers (hews, that tbey all alledge oracles did not ceaie 
after our Saviour's birth, and the preaching of his gofpel ; 
on a fudden, but in proportion to his falutary doArines be 
known to mankind, and gaining ground in the world. 1 
'unanimous opinion of the fathers is coi),firmed by the ui 
'ceptionable evidence of great numbers of .the Pagans, 
agree with them as to the time when the oracles ceaiëd. 

What an. honour ta^he Chriftiain religion was thb û\^ 
'împofcd upon the oracles by the victory of Jefu s Chrift ? Ei 
ChrilUan had this power, (r) TertuUian, in one of his x 
logies, challenges the Pagans, to make the experiment, 


tjb) Plut. in Dcmofih. p. 854» (c) Tertoll, in Apolog« 


Ofifents that a Chrillîao ihould be put to death» if he did not 
blige thcfe givers of oracles to confer-^ thcmfclves devils, (y) 
»aélaotîus informs us, that every Chnftian could filence them 
y only the fign of the crofs. And all the world knows, that 
fhen Julian the Apoftate was at Daphne, a fuburb of Antioch» 
:> confult Apollot the god, notwithftanding all the facrificet 
ffered to him» continued mute, and only recovered his fpeeck 
o «nfwer thofe who enquired the caufe of his filence, that they 
Quft afcribeit to the interment of certain bodies in the neigh- 
bourhood. Thofe were the bodies of chriHian martyrs, amongft 
vbich was that of St.3aby]as. 

Xhis triumph of the Chriflian religion ought to give us a 
loe fenfe of onr obligations to Jefus Chrift, and at the fame 
Ime, of the darknefs to which all mankind were abandoned be« 
bre his coming. We have feen, amongft the Carthaginians % 
fathers and mothers, more cruel than wild beafts» inhumanly 
l^ivine up their children, and annually depopulating their ci-> 
Uesy by deftroying the moft florid of their vouth, in obedience 
to the Dloody dilates of their oracles and falfe eods. The 
viâim^ were chQfen without any regard to rank» iex^ aee, or 
condition. Such bloody executions were honoured with the 
name of facrifices» and defigned to make the gods propitious. 
f* What greater evil,'* cries Laâantius, *'could they infli^ia 
" their mod violient difpleafure, than to deprive their adorers 
'* of all fenfe of humanity, to make them cut the throats of 
'* their own children, and pollute their facrilcgious hands 
** with fuch execrable parricides !'' 

A thoufand frauds and impoilures, openly dete^ed at Del- 
phos» and tytry where elfe, had not opened men's eyes, «or 
in the leaft diminilhed the credit of the oracles, which fubfifted 
«pwards of two thoufand years, and was carried to an incon- 
ceivable height, even in the fenfe of the greatcil men, the mod 
profound philofophers, the moil powerful princes, and gene* 
rally among the moil civilized nations, and fuvii as Valued 
chcmfelves moil upon their wifdom and policy. Tiie eilimation 
they were in^ may be judged from the magnificence of the 


(^) Lib. de vert faptent. c* xxviî. 

* Tan barbaros, tarn immanes 
-futHe homine*, ut parricidium fuum, 
id ea icrrum aiqur excciabile humnno 
fenrri fjcinus, fjcrificium vocarcnr. 
Ciiia leneras a*qiie tnnoccnies animas, 
'^ac iTJX'mè rft Ktn» parcntihiis <iul 
cior, fine uilo r(*i'pc£lu pirraiit ^x 

tinpietuotfiminAaitatemque omnium (colibus lpoli«nt, Ltf^^nM. 1. i. c. 

beAiarnm, qu.*? tamen fcetut Aioi 
aa»anc, feri:ate fuperarenc. O de« 
mentiam infiinalii'im ! Quid illit 
iftt dii ampliu6 f.iccrc potreiic fi eflcnt 
iruillimi quam faciunt propiiii f 
Ci.m fuos cultorrs parriridiis inqui* 
nint, orhitatibus muéVant, hum^ni* 


itim 1^ k ft !? A c È. 

temple of Dclphos, and the tmmenfe riches amalltid to 9. 
through the fuperftitioas creddHty of nations and monarch:!. ' 

(e) The temple of Dclphos having been burnt ahouc thi 
fifty-eighth Olympiad, the Amphyétions^ thofc celebrated 
judges of Gfccce, took uprin themfelves thecare of rebnildiB| 
it. They agreed with an architeA for three hundred talentsi 
which amounts to nine hundred chonAihd livres. The dtid 
of Greece were to furnifh that hm. The inhabitants of DeU 
pho8 were tuxtd a fourth part of it, and tnade .gatherings ii 
fill part5, even in foreign nations, for thatfervice. Amans, at 
that time king of Egypt, and the Grecian inhabitants of hiir, 
country, contributed confidcrable fums towards it. The Alc^' 
meonides, a potent family of Athetis, were charged with cké- 
condud of the building, and made it more magnificent hf 
con-fideraM ? additions of their own» than had been propoM 
^ the modcU 

Gygcs, king of Lydia, and Crdefus, one of his Aicceflbrsi 
tnrichcd the temple of Dclphos with an incredible number of . 
preYents. Many other princes, cities, and private perfoni, hf 
their example, in a kind of emulation of each other, hid 
heaped up in tripods, vcfTels, tables, fhields, crowns, chariots^ 
and llatues of gold and filver of all fixes, equally infinite ia 
«Nimb<rr and value. The prefcnts of gold, which Crcefaionlf 
made to this temple, amounted, according toHerodotm (fu 
tia upwards of 254 talents; that is, about 762,000 French 
'^Kptcs * ; and perhaps thofe of filver to as much» Moft of (hef& 

Ïrefents were in being in the time of HrrodotQS. (^^ Dio* 
orus SicuKis, adding thofc of other princes to them, makes 
their amount ten thoufand talents, or thirty millions of livres f. 

(f) Amonçd the ftatues of gold, confecrated by Crcefus in 
tlie temple of Delphos, was placed that of a female baket, of 
"^hich this waft the occafion. Alyattu?, Crccfus's father, having 

married a fécond wife, by whom he had children, (he con^ 
trived to gel rid of her ion- in-law, that the crown might de- 
fc<rnd to hrr own iiTue. For this piirpofe (he engaged the femak 
baker to put poifon into a loaf, that was to bo ferved at tht 
young prince's table. The woman, who was (Iruck with hor* 
ror at the crime, (in which (he ought to have had no part at 
all) gave Crcefus notice of it. 1 ne polfoned loaf was f<;rved 
to the ouccn's own children, and their death fccured the^rown 
to the lawful fucccfibr. When he afcended the throne, in 


(t) Weroé. 1. ÎÎ. t, i?o. & 1. i, e. 6i. (/) Lib. i. c. 50, 51. (f) DIoJi 
2. fcvi. p. 453. {h) Plut. de I*) th. oUc. p. 401. 

P R B F A C S; xU* 

tîtpude to His benfaarefs, he ercûed a flattie to Ber in the 
iple of Delphos. But may we conclude that a perfon of fa 
an m condition could dcferve fo great an honour? Plutarch 
Wers in the affirmative, and with a much better title, he 
a, than many of the fo- much- vaunted conquerors and heroes, 
o had acquired their fame only by murder and devaftatioo. 
it js not to be wondered, that fuch immenfe riches Hiould 
ipc the avarice of mankind, and expofe Delphos to being 
q^uently pillaged. Without mentioning more anciest cimes, 
Txea, who invaded Greece with a million of men, endea* 
ored to feize-upon the fpoils of thhs temple. Above an hun« 
sd years after, the PhocLans, near neighbours of Oelphos, 
andered it at feveral times. The fame rich booty was the 
le motive of the irruption of the Gauls into Qrcece under 
-ennos. The guardian god of Delphos, if we may believe 
ftorians, fometimes defended this temple by furprizing pro* 
gtes ; and at others, either from incapacity or çonfuûon, fu^ 
red hiiafelf to be plundered. When Nero made this temple, 
< fâtnoos throughout the «niverfc, a vifit, and found in it five 
andred fine brafs (lacues of itluilrious men and gods to his 
ki^g, which had been confecrated to Apollo, (more of gold 
od ûlver having undoubtedly difappearea upon his approach) 
t ordered them to be taken down, and (hipping them on board 
is veflels, carried them with bim to Rome. 
Thbfe who would be more particularly informed concerning 
le oracles an^ riches of the temple of Delphos, may confuU 
nne difTertationi upon them, printed in the Memoirs of the 
cfademy of BeJIes Lettres {t) ; oT which 1 have made good ufe^ 
CGOrding to my cuftom. 

Of the Games and Combats, 

Qtmes and combats made a part of the religion, and had a 
lare in almoll all the fcHivals of the ancients ; and for that 
eafoii it is proper to treat of them in this place. Whether we 
dofider their ori^rin, or the defign of their inflituiion, wc 
itll not be furprized ai their being fo much pradifed in the 
tîi governed ilatrs. 

Hercules, ThvfLUs, Caftor and Pollux, and the preateft 
rrocsof antiquity, were not only the inftitutors or rcûorers of 
icnit but thought it glorious to Ihare in thc-excrcife of them, 
tJ meritorious to fuccccd therein. The fubduersof monfters, 
id of the common enemies of mankind, thou;>ht it no diù 
'ace to them, to afpire at the vidories in thefc combats ; nor 
lat the new wreaths, with which their brows were encifckd 

Vol. I. c i^ 

(0 Vol. UU 

I Preface. 

in thefolemnizition of thcfe^ames^took any toftre from* 
had before acquired» Hence the moâ fam^^us prêts n 
connbats the fubje^l of their verfes ; the beauty of who 
whilH it immortalized themfclves, iêemed to promife 
DÎty of fame to thoiê whofe victories it fo divinely c< 
Hence arolb that uncommon ardonr, which animated a 
ro imitate th£ ancient heroes, and, like thrm, to 
themfelves in the publick combats. 

A rcafon more lolid, which rcfuhs from the nature 
combats, and of the people who ui'cd them, may be 
their prevalence. The Greeks, by nature warlike, an 
intent upon forming the bodies and minds of their y* 
trodoced thefe exercifes, and annexed boboors to 
Order to prepare the younger fort for the profeflion of 
confirm their health, to render them ftronger and mor 
to inare them to fatigues, and to make them intrepid 
fight» in which, the ufe of f re-arms being then u 
the ftrength of body generally decided the vidtory. Th 
tick exerctfes fupplied the place of thofe io ufe amc 
nobility, as dancing, fencing, riding the great horfe, 
they did not confine themfelves to a graceful mcin^ n 
beauties of a ihape and face ; they were for joining ft] 
the charms of pcrfon. 

It is true, thefe exercifes, fo îUudrîous by their : 
and fo ufeful in the ends at fird propofed from ther 
dated pyl^lick mailers, who taught them to young per: 
praftîfing them with fuccefs, nadc publick (hew and 
lion of their (kill. This fort of men applied theoifeh 
to the practice of this art, ar*d carrying it to an exc 
formed it into a kind of fcience, by the addition of i 
refinements ; often challenging each other out of a v 
latton, till at lengih they degenerated into a proi 
people, who, without any other employment, or mej 
btted themfelves as a fight for the diversion of the 
Our dancing-mafters are not unlike them in this refpe 
natural and original defignation was to teach youth a 
manner of walking, and a good addrefs ; but now we 
mount the ftage, and perform ballets in tht garb of co 
capering, jumping, ikippin^, and making variety o 
unnatural motions. We (hall fee, in the lequel, wha 
the ancients had of their profeiFcd combatants and v 

There were four kinds of games folemnixed in Grti 
Oijmfickt ^ called from Olympia, otheiwife Pifa» a 
Bli&io Peloponntfas». near which they were cekbra 

the expiraâon of every four years, in honoar of Jupiter Olym- 
BtcuA. The Pytbicà^ facred to Apollo * P^thius» fo called 
from the Terpen t Python, killed by him; they were alfo cele* 
brated every four years. The Nimaan^ which took their name 
froni Nemaeav a city and foreft of Peloponnefus and wer« 
either ioftitated or reftorcd by Hercules, after he had flain th« 
lion of the Nemaean foreft. They were folemnized every two 
y^rs. And laftly, the JJfbmiam^ celebrated upon the îfthmus of 
Corinth, from four years to four years, in honoar of Neptune. 
(i) Thefeoi was the redorer of them, and they continued even 
•fcer the rain of Corinth. That peilbns might be prefent at 
thefe poblick (ports with greater quiet and fecurity, there was 
a general fufpenfiou of arms, and cefTation of hoftilities 
tbroaghont all Greece, during the time of their celebration. 

•In cbefe games, which were folemnized with incredible mag* 

nificence, and drew together a prodigious concourfc of fpefta* 

tors from all parts, a ample wreath was all the reward of the 

viâors. In the Olympick ginies it was compofed of wiTd 

olive. In the Pythick of laurel. In the Nc*maean of green 

parfley (/) ; and in the lllmihm of the fame herb. The in- 

-ftitators of thefe games implied froni thence, that only honour, 

and not mean and fordid intereft, ought to be the moti\:e of 

^reat a6tioni. Of what were men not capable, accu domed co 

aâ folely from To glorious a principle t (;/r) We have Teen in 

the Periian war, that Tigranes, one of the moft confidcrable 

captains in the army of Xerxes, having heard the prizes in 

the Grecian games defcribed, cried out with aftonifliment ad- 

drelling himfelf to Mardonius, who commanded in chief, f 

HiavtMt / againft lohaf rmn art you haaing ut > înfenfibU to in^ 

Unft^ they combat only for ghry ! Which exclamation, though 

looked »pon by Xerxes as an efretfl of abjed^ fear, abounds 

with fenfe and judgment. 

{») ft was from the fame principle the R'-imans, whîift they 
bellowed uponotheroccafionjcrownsof gold of great value, per- 
fideJ always in giving only a wreath of oaken leaves to him who 
faved the Ufe of a citizen. ** Oh manners, worthv of eternal 
•' remembrance !** cries Pliny, in relating this laudable cuflofB» 
•• O grandeur, truly Rortjnn, that would affign no otht:r re* 
•• ward but honour, for the prefervation of a citizei ! n fer- 
•* vice, indeed, above all reward ; thereby fufHciently arguing 

c 2 ." it 

(I) Pauf. 1. ii. p. 88. (/) Aplum. (m) Herod. 1. Tili. c. 88. 

^ (sj riia. J. xvi. c 4. 

* Stverêf rtMjhnt 0rt given for tb'it 

yjfiixktmyf tly Ay&um «rai5rr«*, ax>a 

iu E F A C E. 

** it their, opinion, that it was criminal tc fave a ma 

•* from the motive of lucre and intereft I" O mores ^ter. 

tiuita of era honors folo dona<verint ; {ff cum tcUqmas corom 

jLommetuI furent, falmtem ct^is in preiie ej/e mluerhu^ clara fr 

fer<van quidem heminem nef as ejfe hurt cav/a I 

Am^figSi all the Grecian g^ mes, ^ the Olympick he 
deniabiy the £ril rank, and that for three reafons. The 
'Yacred to Jupiter the greatell of the gods ; inAituted b 
cules, the firft of the heroes ; and celebrated with mor^c 
and magnificeAce^ amidil a greater concourie of fpedtato 
all parts, than any of the refl. 

(0) If Paufanias may be believed, women were pro 
to be prefent at them upon pain of death ; and during 
continuanct, it was ordained, that no woman Ihould ap 
.the place where the games were celebrated, or pafs on tl 
of the river Alpbeus. One only was fo bold as to viol 
}aw, and dipt in dlfguîfe amongft the combatants. £ 
tried for the ofience, and would have fufFered for it, ace 
to the law, if thte judges, in regard to her father, her fa 
and her fon, who had all been vi£lors in the Olympick 
had not pardoned her ofit:nce, and faved her life. 

This law was very conformable with the Grecian m 
amoogft whom the ladies were very referved, feldom ap 
in publiclc, had ieparate apartments, called Gyno'cea^ an 
eat at table with the men when Rrangcrs were prefent. 
certainly incon/iftent with decency to admit them at d 
the games, as thoieof wreflling, and the Pancratium, ir 
the combatants fought naked. 

' (/) 1"^^ i^Tùt raufanias tells us in another place, t 
prieftefs of Ceres had an honourable feat in thefe gami 
that virgins were not denied the liberty of being pre 
them. For my part, I cannot conceive the reafon of i 
coniiftency, which indeed feems incredible. 

The Greeks thought nothing comparable to the vM 
. thefe games. They looked upon it as the perfeâfon o 
and did not believe it permitted to mortals to defire an 
beyond it. * Cicero aiTures us, that with them it was 
honouraUe than the co;ifular dignity in its original \ 
with the ancient Romans. And in another place he fa 
to f conquer at Olympia^ wasalmoû, in thefeofeof t 

(•) Pwfan. I. ▼. p. «97. {p) IWé. 1. ▼!. p. 381. 

* OlyflDptoram viâoria, Grarcit 
«;oafuUto8 ille antiquut vi4e^tur. 
^uj. Shutji* lib. ii. n. 41. 

t OTynpionicain €0s «pud Gnscat 

prope majus fuit & gloria 
Romie triomphaffe. JPr 

F R Ê F A C Ë. mf 

dans, more great and j^lorioas, than to receive the honour of' 
a^ Crioniph at Rome. Horace fpeaks in illil llronger terms upon 
iMs kind of vi£lory. * He is not afraid to fay» thnt it exalts 
tbe nfiâor above human nature ; they ^were no longer men hut gods, 

Wc (hall fee hereafter what extraordinary honours were paid. 
Co the viâor, of which one of the moll afFc^ing was, to dat^ 
Cbc year with his name. Nothing coald more cfFedlually en- 
liven their endeavours, and make them regard lefs of expences, 
than the aiTarance of immortalizing their names, which, for 
the future, would be annexed to the calendar, and in the fronc 
of all laws made in the fame year with the vit^ory. To this 
iBOtive may be added, the joy of knowing, that their praifes 
would be celebrated by the mofl famous poets, and (hare in 
the entertainment of the mcil illuftrious aifemblies ; for thefe 
odkt were fung in every houfe» and had a part rn every enter- 
tainment. What could be a more powerfu-l incentive to m 
people» who had no other obje^ and aim than that of human 
glory ? 

I Qiall confine my (^If upon this head to the Olympick games» 
which continued five days ; and (hall defcribe, in as brief a 
Banner as poflible, the feveral kinds of combats of which \!ii^y 
were eompofed. Mr. Burette has treated thie fubjedl in feveral 
difiertations^ printed in the Memoirs of the Academy of Bellis 
Lettrai wherein purity, perfpicuity, and elegance of ilileare 
•oited with profound eruaition. I m-ake no fcruple in* appro- 
' priating to my ufe the riches of my brethren ; and, upon tbi» 
lobfeâ of tlie Olympick games, have made very free with the 
late Abbe Ma('s remarks upon the Odes of Pindar. 

The combats, which had the greateft (hare in the folemnit/ 
of the publick games, were boxing, wreRfling, the pancratiùm^ 
the dHcus or quoit, and racing. To thefe m-ay be added the 
eiercifes of leaping, throwing the dart, and that of the tro- 
choj or wheel; but as thefe were neither important, nor of 
lay £reat reputation, I (hall content myfelf with having only 
amttoned them in this place. For the better methodizing the 
\ Particulars of thefe games and exercifes, it will be necefTary to 
' b^in with an account of the Athletx, or combatants. 

• Of the Athktte^ or Combatants. 

The term Athletse is derived from the Greek word a5^f^•. 
which (igniâes labour, combat. This name was given to thoi'e 

c 3 wha 

• % Palmaque nobilis 

Tcrrarum domioos evf hit ad dc«s. Od^ i, Hb, r« 

Si\e ^uts EIca doiTium reJucit 

PélAa ccdcAci» OJ. ii . lib* 4» 


who exprdfcd thcmfclvcs with dcfign to difpute the prizes bk 
the puliliik The arc hy \^hich they fcrmed themfclvet 
for thef'c encounters, was called Gyinnadick, from the Athletat'i 
praAifing naked. 

Thofe who were d^^figned for this profcffion frequented» from 
their niofl tender age, the Gyninari* or Pal%ftrae, which were 
a kind cf academici maintained for that parpofe at the publick 
cxpence. In thefe places, fuch young people were under the 
dirré\ion of different mailers, who employed the mod efFeélaal 
methods to inure their bodies for the fatigues of (he publick 
games, and to form tliem for the combats. The regimen thcf 
were under was very hard and fevcre. At firll they had no 
other nouridinicni but dried Hgs, nms, foftchcefe, and a groli 
heavy fort of bread, called ^a^at. They were abfolutely for- 
bid the ufe of wine> and enjoined continence; which Uoiacc 
cxpreiTcs thus (/), 

Qui fludct optat^tn curfu contigere metam 
Mult.i tulic fccitque puer, fadavil êc alftt» 
AbÂlinuib vcnerc & vino. 

ff^a, in iL* Oljtnpuk race^ the pr'tKi *W9uld gaiitf 
Has horntfrom tarly ytiuth fatigut and fui H f 
ExK'e/t cf hfMt and cold hat •fun tn^d^ 
Lê^t^sjhJ^nejs banijVd^ ana tbt glafi dtnfd% 

St. Paul, by an allufton to the Athlète» exhorU the Cèria- 
thians, near whofe city the Iftbmian games were. celebrated» to 
a fober and penitent life. Thofe <iu^ ftrivfy fays he» fi^ thi 
mafierjp are temperate in all things : New they do it to oitsiw s 
tùrrnpùhîi crowth hut tve an incorruptible. * TertuUlan vSt^ tht 
fame thought to encourage the martyrs. He makes a eooH 
parifon from what the hopes of victory made the Athlete e»* 
dure. He repeats the fcvere and painful exercifes they were 
obliged to undergo; the continual anguiih and conflraint» ia 
which they paffed the bed years of their lives ; and the voluo» 
tary privation which they impofed upon chemfelves» of mil that 
was mod afteâing and grateful to their paillons. It is true» 
the Athleta: did not always obferve fn fevere a regimen» but at 
length fublHtuted in its (lead a voracity and indolence extremely 
remote from. it. 


{f) Art. Poet. ▼er. 41s 

* Kempe enim tt Athlcr» I'rgre 
■•ntur «d fttiAiorrm difciplinaoi, ut 
wboiiK«ii^Kajidofaceati contiocniiix 

à luturia, à cibît Iclioribaa, â pola 
jiicundiore ; copon'ur, rnitian'.ur» !*• 
tigantur. TtrtuL ad Mértjr^ 


Tfcc Athlftx, before their fxercifes, were ruhbed with oils 
and ointments to make their bodies more fupple and vigorous. 
At iirft they made ufe of a belt, with an apron or fcarf faftened 
to it, for their more deccnl appearance in the combats ; but 
one of the combatants happening to lofc the viftory by thit 
covering's falling off, that accident was the occafion of facri- 
Ccing raodelly to convenience, and reirenching the apron for 
the future ; the Athletx were only naked in fomo exei cifes, a4 
wreftliirg, boxing, the pantratium, and the foot- race. They 
praâifed a kind of noviciate in the GymnaAn (of ten months, 
to accomplifli themfelves in ihe feveral exertifcs Hy alfidootrt 
application ; and this they did in the prefcnce of fuch, as cu=- 
nofity or idlenefs conduced to lof^k on. But when the cele- 
bration of the Olympick games drew nigh, the Athletx, who 
were to appear >n them, were kept in double exerciie. 

Before they were admitted to combat, other proofs were re« 
quired ; as to birth» none but Greeks were to he received.^ It 
was alfo ncceiTary, that their manners fiiould be unetception* 
able, and their condition frte. No (Iranger was admitted ta 
combat in the Olympick games ; and when Alexaliderr the foit 
of Amyntas king of Macedon, prcfented himfelf to ilifpMte 
the prize, his competitors without any regard to the royal 
^S'^^^y» oppofed his reception as- a Macedonian» and confe- 
f uencfr a Barbarian ancf a ftran^er ; nor coald' the Judges be 
èrevaileé upon to adm{t him» till he had proved in d4Xe fornr 
lis family originally defcended from the Argives« 

The perlons who preiided in the games» called Jgwoihet^p. 
4fUothet^^ and Hellûnodiae^ regiftered the name and country 
if each champion ; and upon the opening of the games an 
kerald proclaimed the names of the combatant». They were 
Vhen made to take an oath, that they would religioufly ob» 
lerve the feveral laws prefcribed in each kind of combat» and 
10 do nothing contrary to the eftablifhed orders» and regula- 
tions of the games. Fraud, artifice» and exceflive violence, 
were abfolutely prohibited ; and the maxim fo generally re- 
ceived elfewhere» that it is indifferent whether an enemy ia 
conquered by deceit or valour, was banifhed from thefe com*- 
"bats. The addrefs of u combatant, expert in all the tarns of 
his art, who knew how to (hift and fente dexteroufly, to put 
the change upon his adverfary wiih art and fubtlety» and ta 
improve the lead advantages, muft not be confounded here 
with the cowardly and knavilh'cunning of one, who, viithout 
regard to the laws prefcribed, employs the mod unfair means to 
yanquKh his competitor. T(»ofe who difpute the prize in the 
icveral kinds of combats» drew lots for their precedency in them. 

c'^ It: 


It if time to bring our champions to blows^ ani tè ran «fti 
the ilifFcrcni kind^ uf .comkits in which they exercifed the» 


Of }Vrt'ftîing. 

Wrefllisg is one of the mod ancient excrcii«s of whicli wc 
îave any knowledge, having been pradifed in the time of thi 
patriarchs, as the wreftling of the angel with Jacob proves (rj. 
Jacob fupported the angel's attack fo vigorouflj, that, pc^ 
Ci'iving he could not throw fo roagh a wreftlcr, he was reduced 
to make-him lame by touching the iioew of hii thigh» which 
immediately fhrunk up. 

WreAling among the Grerkf*, as well as other nations» v» 
praflifed at firft with fimplicity, little art, and in a natnra] 
manner; the weight of the body, and the ftrength of the 
jnofcles, having more fhare of it, than addrefi and fldJK 
Thcfeus was the firft that reduced it to method» and refined il 
with the rules of art. He was alfo the firfl who eftabliihed thi 
publick fchools, called PaUtftra^ where the young people had 
mafters to inftrud them in it. 

The wreAlers, before they began their combats» were rabbcd 
aM over in a rough manner, and afterwards anointed with oils, 
which added to the ftren^th and flexibility of their limbs. Boi 
as this unAion, in making the ikin too flippery» rendered i 
diftcyU for them to take good hold of each other* they rem» 
died that inconvenience, fometimes by rolling themfelvet ii 
the dull of the Palsflric, fometimes by throwing a fine fam 
ikpon each other, kept for that purpofe in the Xyftae» or ptuti 
coes of the Crymnafia. 

I'hns prepared, the wreftlers began their copbat. The; 
were matched two againfl two, and fometimes feveral couple 
contended at the fame time. In this combat, the whole ain 
and defign of the wreftlers was to throw their adverfary upoi 
the ground. Both flrength and art were employed to this pen 
pofc : Thev feized each other by the arms, drew forwardi 
pufhcd backwards, ufed many dillortions and twiftings of th 
body ; locking their limb» into eac h other's, feizing by th 
necic, throttline, prcfllng in their arms, ftruggling, plying oi 
on all iides, lifting from the ground, daHiing .their heads to 
gcthcr like rams, and twiding one another's necks. The mol 
cnnfidcrable advantage in :lie wreiftler's ait, was to make him 
felf mailer of his adverfary's legs, of which a fall was th 
immediate confequcnoe. From whence Plautus fays in hi 


(r) Gea. xtiii. 14. 


^feodolas, ()>eakiDg of wine, • He is a ilangerous nvriftUr^ ht 
rrfimtly ukts 9nt ij the heels. I'he Greek terms £vtmX(^fv^. 
md mu^ut, and the Latin y^orà /uppiantaret Teemed to imply»» 
hat one of thefe arts confided in ftooping down to feize the 
tntagonift under the foles of his feet, and \tk raifing them up- 
Ogive him a fall. 

f» this manner the Athletsr wreftled ilanding, the combat- 
ïoding with the fall of one of rhe competirors. Bot when it 
lappeoed that the wrcftler, who was down, drew his adverfary 
ilong with him, either by art er accident, the cOmbsrt coo- 
in oed npon the famd, the antagonifls tumbline and twining 
with each other in a thoufand different ways, till one of them - 
got uppermofl and compelled the other to afk qaarter, and' 
confefied himfelf vanquiOied. There was a third fort of 
nnreilling, called 'ANpoxfl»pi^fAo<, from the Athlet»'s aûng only ^ 
their hands in it, without taking hold of the body as m the 
ocbcr kinds ; and this exercife (erved as a prelude to the greater 
combat. It confided in intermingling their fingeri, and iiv 
fi|iieezing them with all their force y in puihing^^ one another, 
t^ joining the palms of their hands together i in twilling their 
ingers» wrifts, and other joints of the arm,, without the ailiil-^ 
•nee of any other member; and the vi^ory was hisj who*. 
oUised his opponent to afk quarter. 

'Vnt eorobacaots were to fight three times fucceffively^ and to 
Arow their antagonifls at leall twice, before the prize could be 
acljodgcd to them. 

{i) Homer describes the wredling of Aja:f and UlySes ; 
Ovid, tbat of Hercules and Achelous ; Lucan, of Hercules, 
lod Antsaus ; and the Thebaid of Statius, of Tydeus and* 

The wreftlcrs of greateft reputation amongfl the Greeks, 
were Mik) t)f Crotcn, whofe hiilory I have related elfewhere at 
large, and Polydamas. The latter, alone and without arms, 
killed a furii us lion upon mount Olympus, in imitation of 
Hercules, whom he propofed to himfelf as a model in this 
a^ion. Another time having feized a boll by one of his hinder 
lcc>s, the beall could not get loofe without leaving his hoof in- 
}.ih hands. He could hold a chariot behind, while the coach- 
Dan whipt his horfes in vain to make them go forward. Da- 
riu . Mot.^ius, kinçof Perfia, hearing of his prodigious ftrength, 
wjs uefirnus of ieeing him, and invited him to Sufa. Three 
foldiers of that prince's guard, and of that band which the 

c 5 Perfiana 

t») IVud. J. xiiii, ve»-. 708, Ac, Ovid. Metam. 1. ix. vtr. 31, dec* 
Pharf. 1» iv« v^i* 61 1. Stir. t. vi« ver. 147. 

* Capiat ped.:; piiinàm, luâator d«lofui eft» 

hiiî PREFACE. 

re::': r.9 called iMmm9ruK cftccmcd the inoft warlike of thei^ 

ti : : : : . v. ere unlered to fill «poA him» Ouf cbunpion fought 

a::d KÎ.l-.i :;.riB all three. 

0/ Bt^mgt 9rtheCiJlmu 

Boxiag is i combat at handy Mows, from whence icdcrivet 
its name. The cjnibataiits covered their fifts with akindof 
oienfive arms, ckileJ Ctfius^ aod their heidt with a. fort of 
leadier cap, ro tiefcod t;.eir temples and ears» which were not 
eipoffé to btows, and to deaden their violence. The Ccftn 
was a kind of eattDtlet, or glove, made of ftrapt of leather» 
and plated with brafs, lead, or iron, withinfide. Their ofe 
was to ftrengthen the hands of the combatants, and to add 
violence to their blows. 

Sometimes the Athlete came immediately Co the mofi viokal 
blows, and began with charging in the moft furiout manner» 
Sometimes whole hours paHed in harraffing and fatiguing each 
other» by a contioual exteniion of their arms» rendering each 
other's blows inefiedtual, and endeavouring in that manner of 
defence to keep 06' their adverfarv. But when they fooghr 
with the utmofl fury» they aimed cniefly at the head and face» 
which parts they were moil careful to defend, by cither avoid* 
ing or catching the blows made at them. When a conbatanl 
came on to throw himfelf with all his force and vigoor upon 
another, they had a furprizing addrefs in avoiding the attack», 
by a nimble turn of the body, which threw the imprudent 
iadverfary down, and deprived him of the viétory. 

However fierce the combatants were againft each other» their 
being exhaulled by the length of the combat» would frrqoentlv 
reduce them to the necrlfity f'f making a truce : Upon which 
the battle was fufpended for feme minutes» that were employed 
in recovering their fatigue» and rubbing off the fweat in winch 
they were bathed : A fur i^hich they renewed the fight» rill 
one of them, by letting fall his arms through weaknefs» or by 
fwooning away, explained that he could no longer fupport 
the pain or fatigue» and dcflred quarter; which was con fefing 
himfelf vanquiih.d. 

i^^ was one of the rudcit and mod dangerous of the 
gymoaAick combats;. becauTe, bcfides the danger of beio^ 
crippled, the combatants ran the hazard of their lives. Thev 
iomeiinics fell down dead, or dying, upon the fand; thoogk 
thai frldom happened, except the vanquifhed pcrfcn perfimA 
too lone» in rot ..«.kno\\Iedg*ng his defeat : Yet it v/as commoo 
f(«r :h- îii to quit the f.ght with a countenance io disfigured, 
'hat il ^:»'« i>v«t laf} to know iLem afuiwards; carrying awav 


r E r A er K ^r 

hnn di« fti b of thôr vigorou refififtnçci fiieb m 
I ud xonti I in the face,, the loA of a» *fti thm 
caBckc4w. ueir jawi bnkciir or (one mre cenfider- 

fod » tlM pom, both Lada and Greek, fcnral à*- 
Q»(rf chit Uad of combat. In Hosmt, tbacofBpM» 
nndMt (*) iirTbaot» of Pollnxaad Amycuij ia 
Miw ftliodÎM, Iks ùm oaule of Polbuc. and AinJMtt 
gU, that of DsMS ana lUlIui ; and in. titatiw» iMr 
«i FlaocM, of feraral otau conbataat^ 

Of lie fsMMEliM. 

: Pancr^Lium (a) wm b called fron two Gmfi «K»^ 

ligriify that [he whole foice of tk*' bodj wà BCCCfluy 
rcKdiog in' ir. It Doited boxing and mottisg-^B tu 
ighr. botrowifig froinoitt'mmunttrot itagffUig ||m 
i£, and rnom the other,, ike art of dealing bh>Mk uàm 
ng them with fuccers. In wreilling'itwai not pemltM^ 
ke with the hand, nor in boziag to feiw Mck oikM* îp 
inner of the wreltlcrs :. Bat in the Paocratiiiai, U yp 

]y all5vvcd 10 make uTi.' of aUthegrtpet aDdaniScct «f 
iagi bat the haodi and &et, ni even the teetb ind nail^ 

bt eawiojwd to cooqiier an ■Diagani£ 
■ combat wai the moft rode aod aaneeroui. A Pancra- 
I tke Oljmpicic gameit (called Arrlchion, oeAmekioai}- 
«ing'himfelf almoA foffbcated by hii adverlary, wiio hadi 
ft bold of him by the throat, -at the Ijune time th«t her 
fta by the fbor, broke one ef bit tntm^'t toetf tke ex-', 
aagtulk of which obliged him toalk quarterac the vcrW 

Anit^hion himfelf expired. The Aeocothcts crowae^ 
lion, though dead, and proclaimed him viâor: Pkilo- 

bat \ehjK a very lively dcrcriptloo UF a. painting, whiÛL 
mted this combat. 

0/ lit Difiti, tt ^ùt 
: Difons was a kind of qaoit of a ronnil fem, made- 
met of wood, hot more frequently of ftone, lead, ur 
netal ; as irour or braf*. Thofe who ufed this exerciir 
called Difcoboli, that 19, fllngera of the Difcui. The 
C aartifuiAtt, which fignifies i»mt uf»m th* fi>»tdiirs, given 
iftnmwBt by Homer, fnfficicntly fhewi, that it wWof 
^\ a weight to be carried from place to place in ths- 
â baod» 

AtpmiiKlt. lik il. «mU. La. tb^U. 1. lb 


hands only, and that the Ihoulders were neceflliry for the l'ap- 
port of luch a burden any fpace of time. 

The intent of this excicife, as ot almoft all the others» wis. 
to invigorate the body, and to make it more capable of fop*.. 
porting the weight, and ufc of arms» In war they were oftcft 
oi)ligecl to carry fuch loads, as appear exceifivd hi thefe days». 
either of provi fions, fafcines, pallifadcs ; or in fcaling of. 
walls, when, to equal the height of them, ieveral of the be* 
fiegers mounted upon the (houlders of each other. 

î^he Athleta:, in hurling the Difcus» put themfelvea into tho 
bell pofture they could, to add force to their call. They ad- 
vanced one foot, upon which leaning the whole weight of their 
bodies, they poifed Hie Difcus in their hands,, and then whiiU 
ihg it round fevtral times almoll horizontally» to add force to 
its motion, they threw It olF with the joint ftrength of hands,^ 
arm:$, and body, which had all a fhare in the vigour of the 
4ifcharge. He that Hang the Difcus fartheft waa the vi£lor. 

The mod famous painters and fculptors of antiquity, in their' 
endeavours to reprclent naturally the attitudes^ of the Difcdboli,, 
have left poUerity many mafl^r-pitces it), their feveral arts. 
Quintilinn exceedingly extols a ilatue of that kind, which- 
had been finifhed with infinity care and application by xhe 
celebrated Myron : • ff^hai can ht more fnifitdy «r exprefi mwi 
happily the mufcular dijhrthns of the hoJy in tbi, e^trcijjt ùf tea 
DiJciU^ than the Dijcohulus ef. Myrcfi f- 

Of the Pentatblum, 

The Greeks gave this name to an ex^rcife compofed' of five 
others. It was the common opinion, that thoie five exercifei 
were wrcilling, running, leaping, throwing the dart, hnd the* 
Difcus^ It was believed that this fort of combat was decided' 
in one day, and fometimcs the fame morning ; and' that the- 
pri^c, which was lingl^, could not be givjcn but to the viâor 
in all thoie cxercife:». 

The excrcire of leaping, and throwing the javelin, of which- 
the firil confided in leaping a certain length, and the other ia< 
hitting; a mark with a javelin at a certain dillance, contributed 
10 the formiiTg of a foldier, by making, him nimble and a^Uvft 
in battle, and çxpcrtin faaging the fpcar and d^rjE. 

Of all the exercifes which the Athlctie cuhivatçd with to 
«kuch pains and induliry for. their appearance in the publicll 


* t)iii<l tarn diUcrtngi k cl»Wa|uin> %uaBD c/l iiilDircpbol«s.MjrroiÙlf 
liA iè^. it. <i</. 13* 

P» R E F A C E.. lyj 

games, tanning was in the higheft eftimation, and held the- 
Soren^oft rank. The Olympick games generally opened with 
races, and were folemnized at firft with no other exercife. 

The place where the Athletaeexercifed themfekes in running,, 
was generally called the Stadium by the Greeks r as was that 
wherein they difpnted in earned for the prisw. As the lifts or' 
conrfe for tbefe games was at firft but one * Stadium in length,. 
k took its name from itsmeafnre, and was called the Stadiam,, 
whether precifely of that extent, or of a mnch greater. Under 
that denomination was included not only the fp ace> in which* 
the Athletae ran, but hlfo that which contained the fpedlators* 
of the gymnaftick games. The place where the Athletx con- 
tended, was called Scamma, from its lying lower than the reft 
of the Stadium, on each fide of which, and its extremity, rari- 
an afcent or kind of terrafs, covered* with feats and benches,, 
vpon which the fpedlators were feated. The moil remarkable' 
parts of thoStadiam were its entrance, middle, and extremity. 

The entrance of the courfe was marked at firft only by a line^ 
drawn on the fand, from fide to fide of the Stadiam. To that 
at'lenetfa was fubftituted a kind of barrier, which was only 9 
cord m-ained tight in the front of the horfes or men that were* 
^ to- ran. It was fometiraes a rail of wood. The opening oi 
this barrier was the fignal for the racers to ftart» 

The middle of the Stadium was remarkable only by thecir- 
cumflance of having the prixes allotted to the vigors fet up* 
(here. St. Chryibilbm draws a fine comparifbn from thia- 
toltom. A$ the juigUy (sty 5 he, intlfe ract$ and other games ^ 
êÊCpê/t in the mtdft of the Stadium^ to^ the wetv of the champions^ 
thf €ro'umj 'which thty are to receive ; in like manner the Lord, iy 
the wtomth of his frofhets, has f laced- the frizes in the midft of 
the courfe, «which he deigns for thoje <who have the^ courage to con^- 
itnd for them. 

At the extremity of the Stadium was a goal, where the foot: 
races ended, but in thofe of chariots and horfes they were to 
nittfevcral limes round it, without ftopping, ai>d afterwards, 
conclude the race by regaining the other extremity of the lifts, 
from whence they ftarted. 

There were three kinds of races, the chariot, the horfe, and 
the foot-race. J fhall begin with the laft, as the moft fimple, 
natural, and ancient. 

I. Of 

* T'bé Stadttim toas a.lanJ-meafure sonfidering tbt difference hetween the 
omêHgP tbo Greekty and wnst according Greek and Roman fo6t ; befidti vfbicb^ 
te Herndotng, 1. ii. <r. 14^,. ^ hundred the meajure of the Stadinm variety ac» 
feet in extent» Plioy fayt, lib. ii. c. 1 cording to the difference of timet and: 
%^4 thai it Vf as fix hundred and twenty - placet* 
fm% 7bo{i two outbçn m^, agree, [. 


The runoers, of whatever number they were» nips< 
felves in a line» after having drawn lots for their 
^ Whxlft they waited the fignal to dart, they pradtlicd 
of prelude» varioiu motions to awaken their a^vicy, 
keep their limbs pliable and in a right temper. Th 
t^emfelVes breathing by (tnall leaps, and making littl 
£on», that were a kind of trial of their fpeed and 
Upon the fignal's being given, they flew towards thegc 
a rapidity fcarce to be JFoliowed by the eye, which w: 
to decide the viâory : For the AgoniÂick laws pn 
■pen the BK)^ infamous pcnakies^ the attaining it by 

In the ftmple race,, the extent of the Stadium was- 
once» at the end of which the prize attended the via 
is, he who came in firft. In the race called aUva^» t 
petitors ran twice that lengthy, thar is» after having ai 
the goal, they returned to the banâei^ To tbefe may I 
A third fort, called AoXi^o^ which was the longeit o 
its name impliei. and was compofed of feveral Dtauli. 
times it con fifted of twenty- four Stadia backwaods^ s 
wards» turning twelve times round the goal. 

There were runners in ancient times» as wolf amo 
Creeks as Romans, who were much celebrated for the 
ne(s. (x) Plioy tells us» that it was thought prcdij 
Phidippides to run eleven hundred and forty Stadia 
tween- Athens and Lacedxmon in the fpace of two d 
Anyftls of the latter place» and Philonides, the runner 
der the Great, made twelve hundred Stadia (z) in o 
from Sicyone to Elis. Thefe runner» were denominated 
fAtfCi, as we find in that paflage of Herodotus (a.)» whi 

. {») Pllow I. TÎÎ. c. sen. {j) 57 UagÊiÊk (k) 

|]i) Herod. 1. Ti. c. io6* 

• Tunc rice citato» 
Explorant, acuuaqoe grades, Tariafque per arte» 
KiÂimulant doâo j^ngu^ntia membra tomulta, 
Popiitc nunc llexo fidunr, ouac lubrica font 
Pcâoracoliidunt p)aiif«i ; none ignea tollnot 
Crnrt» brevemque fugam nee opino fine reponunf. 

Stat, Tbtb, Vih* vi. nn^ 
Thiy try J thty roum thitrjpetdi mitk marktis arts \ 
Téiir Isnguiei Utm^s thty frimfH f u3 thtW parts, 
JNntt wit à kemt bamSf ami-^ rbt prafiit\i cr9V>d^ 
Thty fit ; H.wfirûim their h"gt, and fij ut alcuJt 
J^tw aJhDrtJiight with fir > y fiêps ti ty trûxt^ 
Jkdmith a-juddenjicp ahriJg* the mimick fed* 

P R B F A C s. 

lioBt Phidippides. In the confolate of Fonteiui and Vipfanus» 
in the f«ign of Nero, a boy of nine years old ran feventy-five 
Iboofand paces {à) between noon and night. Pliny adds» that 
in hb time there were runners» who ran one hundred and fixtp 
thooTaiid pace» {c) in the Circas. Our wonder- at fuch a pro* 
dUgious fpeed will increafe, (continues he) (d) if wertfle^^ 
that when Tiberivs went to. Germany to his brother Drufus». 
then at the point of death» he could not arrive there in left- 
than four and and twenty hour», though the difiance was but 
two hoodred thoufand pace», (/) and he ran with three poib-> 
chai&t * witk the «tmoft diligence. 

t. Of tbt Jkr/eraeer^ 

The race of a (Ingle horfe with a rider was Ibfs celebrated 
\j the ancienti» yet it had it» favourers amongfl the rood con* 
iderable perfons, and even kings themfelvcs, and was at» 
tended with ancosunon glory to the vidior. Pindar» in hi» 
frft ode, celebrates avi6lory of this kind» obtained by Hiero» 
king of Syracufe, to whom he gives the title of KîXik» that is» 
FiOêr im tit hof/ê-ract;. which name was given to the horfe» 
carrjing only a fingle rider» KA^Iif. Sometimes the rider led 
anodier horfie by the bpidle» and then the horfes were called 
Bjfiilt§ru, and their riders De/ultoref; becaufe, after a number 
ot turns in the Stadium» they changed horfes, by dexterouHy 
vaulting from one to the other. A furprizing addrefs was ne« 
ceflSiry upon this occaiion» e^ecially m an age unacquainted 
with the ofe of ftirrups» and when the horfe» had no faddles» 
which Sill made the leap more difficult. In the armies there 
wtn alfo cavalry t called Dtfuitorts\ who vaulted from one- 
koffe to.anothei^ as occafion required» and were generally Nu- 

3-. Of the Cbarict-raets» 

This kind of race was the moil renowned of all the exer^ 
cifes ufed in the games of the ancients, and that from whence 
mod honour redounded to the viétor» ; which is not co be won- 
dered at, if we confider their origin. It is plain, they were* 
derived from the confiant cudom of prinees, heroes, and great 


[k) "to Uûgua% {t) Mort than 53 lêûiuu* {i) Val. Mu. 1. v. c. 5» 

(0 67/M^irri 

* He had M^ a luiit and ont offictr 
with bim. 

f Nccomnei Nuinidw in dextro 
local! corou, fed <]uibus defultorum 

im aioottai biaoi iraheatibui c^uos^ 

inter tccrrîmtm fcpe pugnain, In re». 
cenrrin equum ex folfo armatis tian» 
fuliaic mos £rat : (anta «elocitas ip* 
fii, taoique docile Cf^uorum geuui tup 
Liv» lib. xiiij. 


mtm^ ef Kghting in battle upon chariots. Homer has 
fintty of examples of tiiis kind. This being admitte 
caftom, it is natural to (bppoie it very agreeable to th* 
foes, to have their charioteers as expert as pofible in d: 
as their fuccefs depended, in a very great roeafare, opt 
addrefs of their drivers. It was anciently» therefore, o 
peHbns of the firft confideration, that thii office was co: 
Hence arofe a laudable emulation to excel others in the- 
gniding a chariot, and a kind of neceffity to praâtfe i 
much, for the attainment of it. The high rank of th 
ions, who made ufe of chariots, enifoble, as it abv^s ha 
an exercife peculiar to them. The other exercifes were a< 
to private foldiers and horfemen, as wreftiing, ronnin* 
the fingle horfe-race ; but the ufe of chariots in the fie 
always referved to princes, and generals of armies. 

Hence it was, that all thofe who prefented' themfe! 
the Olympick games to difpnte the prize in the chariot 
were perfons coniiderable either for their riches,, theii 
their employments, or gneat actions. Kings themfel^ 
pired pafBonately to this glory, from the belief that th 
of viôor». in thefe games, was fcarce inferior to that o 
qneror, and that the Olympick palm added new dignity 
^lendors of a.throne. Pindar's odVs inform us, that 
and Hiero,. kings of Syracufe, were of that opinion. ] 
fius, who reigned there long after them,, carried the far 
bition much higher. Philip of Macedon had theiê vi 
ftampt upon his coins, and feemed as much afiéâed with 
as with thofe obtained againft the enemies of his ftati 
All the world knows the anfwer of Alexander the Great 
fubjeâ. When his friends aiked him, whether he wou 
pnte the prize of the races in theiê games ? 27/, faid 
kings *werefo be my antagonifts. Which (hews, that he 
not have difdalned ihefe exçrcifes> if there had been co: 
tors in them worthy of him. 

The chariots were generally drawn- By vsfo or four 
placed in a row ; bigtt^ quadriga. Sometimes mules fi 
the place of horïtt^ and then, the chariot was called 
Pindar, in the fifth ode of his firft book, celebrates om 
mis, who had obtained a triple victory ; one by a chariot 
by four horfes, rtlçiinru ; another by one drawn by mules, 
and the third by a Angle horfe, nS^, which the title 
ode ezprefles. 

Theie chariots, upon a fignal given, f!arted togethe 
icalled Carceres. Their places were regulated I 

M Plat, ia Ales. p. 66^ ^ 

^ R E F A C E. Ixr 

which was not an indîflféreot drcumftance as to the y\€tory ^ 
ïor htïng to tarn round a boundary, the chariot on the left was 
Bearer than' thofe on the right» which in confec^uence had » 
vreater compafs to take, ft appears from ieveral paflfages in 
Pindar, and efpccially from one in Sophocles^ which 1 fhali 
cite very foon, that they ran twelve times roimd the Stadium. 
He that came in &r(l the twelfth rowid was viftor. The chief 
ate coiififted in taking the bed ground at the turning of the 
boundary : For if the charioteer drove too near it, he was in 
danger of dafliing the chariot to piei^es ; and if he kept too 
wide of it, his aeareft antagonid might cat the way upon him, 
and get ibremoft. 

It is obvions that the/e chariot* races could not be run with- 
<m fome danger ; for as the * motion of the wheels was very 
lapid, and grazed againft the botuidary in turning, the leaft 
error in driving would have broke the chariot in pieces» and 
night have dangerouOy wonnded the charioteer. An example 
ef which we find in the Eleélra of Sophocles, who gives an 
admirable defcriptron of this kind of race run by ten competi- 
tors. The falfe Oreftes, at the twelfth and laft ronnd, having 
od] V eae antagonift, the reft having been thrown ont, was 19 
onfortonate as to break one of his wheels againft the boundaiyr 
and falKo|[ out of his feat entangled in the reins, the horjet 
dragged him violently forwards along with them, and tore hinr 
10 pieces ; bat this very feldom happened. (/) To avoid fuch 
danger, Neftor gave the following diredions to his fon Antiloi^ 
diQs, who was going to difpute the prize in the chariot- races». 
^ My ibn," fays he, ** drive your horfes as near aa poflible tor 
** the taming ; for which reafoR, always inclining your bodjr 
** over yonr chariot, gel the left of yonr competitors, and en- 
" coaraging the horfe on the right, give him the rein, whilffe 
^ the near horfe, hard held, turns the boundary (b clofe to it, 
** that the nave of the wheel icems to graze trpon it ; but have 
*' a care of running againft the ftone, left you wound yoor 
^ horfes, and dafti the chariot in pieces. '* 

Father Montfaucon mentions a difttculty, in his opinion^ 
very confiderable, in regard to the places of thofe who con- 
tended for the prize in the chariot- race. They all ftarted in* 
deed horn the fame h ne, and at the feme time, and fo far had 
no advantage of each other ; but he, whofc lot gave him the 
£rft place, being neareft the boundary at the end of the career, 
and having but a fmall compafs to defcribe in turning about it, 


(/) Horn. II. 1. Txiii ver. 3')4, &c. 

•O aiettqiic fervidii Evittti rotis. Horat, Odt i» 
Hkt g9olfi>unn*d bj tbi hurning wbeclu 


Imd lefs way to make than the fécond, thtrJ, fourth, lix, eljptf» 
cially when the chariots were ii raw n by four horfesy which took 
up a greater i'pacc between the iirA and the others, and obliged 
them to make a lart^er circle in coming round. ThtS'advaB* 
tage twelve times together, as it mnft happen, admitting ÙM 
Stadium was to be run round twelve times, gave fuch a fajj^ri* 
ority to the firil, as feemc-i to afTarc him infdttibly of the vie* 
tory again (l all his competitors. To mc it fcems, that the fleeu 
nefs of the hones, j<:ined with the addrefs of the driver, might 
countervail this odds ; either by getting before the firtt, or by 
taking his place ; if not in the firll, in foroc of the fubfcqtfent 
rounds ; for it is not to be fuppoied, that in the progress ef 
the race, the antngontiis always continued in the fame ordet 
they darted. They often changed places in a (hort iittenral of 
time, and in that variety and vicifntude confiiied all the diftr> 
fion of the fpeélators. - ' 

It was not required, that thofe who difpQted the ? iflor^ 
ftoold enter the lifts, and drive their chariots in perfon. Thctf 
being fpeâators of the games, or fending their horfes tbithei^ 
was fofficient ; but in either cafe, it was previenily neceAkiy 
to regifter the names of the perfons, for whom the horfitt woo 
to run, either ia the chariot or fingle horfe-races. 
. ( r) At the time that the city of Potidsa fiurresdfMd tft 
Philip, three cooriera broQ|^ht him advices ; the M, that ém 
Kiyritna had been defieaud m a great battle by his geoenl Fir- 
Biento ; the lecoad, that he had carried the prixe ol the borfr» 
tace \ii the Olympic k garnet; and the third, that tbequaa» 
was delivered of a fon. Plutarch feemt to infinaate, thai PiUl^ 
was equally delighted with each of tbefe circnmftancea». 
• {b) Hierofent hoffet to Olympia, to raa fer the prixBt aaé 
caufed a magni/iceut pavilion to be ereâed for thtm. ÛpM 
this occa&on Themiflocles harangued the Greeks, to-peifaad» 
them to pull down the tyrant^s pavilion, who bad rcfoftd kb 
aid aj^nll the common enemy, and to hinder hit korfet fiooa 
fanning with the reft. It does not appear that aay rc|^anl w» 
kad to this remontrance; for we find by one of Pindar'e odea» 
compofed inr honour of Hiero, that he won the prise ÎA dbt 
fqueftrian races. 

(/) No one ever carried the ambition of makuir a great i» 
gure in the public k games of Greece So far as Aicibiadei» ia 
which he dilUnguiflied himfelf in the moft fplendtd manner, 
by the great number of horfes and chariots, which ke kcfl 
only for the races. There never was either private perfim or 


( jf ) Plut. in Ale*, p. 66é. {jti Plut, ia Thoûft f. st4* 

(!) PlttC. îaAUttud. p. 196» 


king ÙM feat» as he did, feven chariots ut once to the Olym- 
pick games, wherein he carried the £rft, fécond, and third, 
prizes i an honour no one ever had before him. The famou» 
poet Enriptdes celebrated thefe vid^ories-in an ode, of which 
Plntarcb has prefcrved a fragment in*vit Alcib. The vi£lor> 
after having made a fumptuous facrifice to Jupiter, gave a mag« 
irificent feaft to the innumerable multitude of the ^c^ators at 
the pannes. It is not eafy to comprehend, how the wealth of 
I private perfon (hould fufRce to fo enorm'ous an expence : But 
Aaiifthenes, the fcholar of Socrates, who relates what he faw> 
informs as, that many cities of the allies, in. a kind of emu* 
lation with each other, fuppliçd Alcibindes with all things ne» 
ceflary for the fopport of fuch incredible magnificence. jEcJui- 
pages, horfes, tents, facrifices, the moft exquiftic provîfions, 
the mod delicate wines ; in a word, all that was necefTary to 
the fopport of his table or train. The pafi*age is remarkable^ 
fcr the fame anthor afTures us, that this was not only done 
when Alcibiades went to the Olympick games, biK in all his 
military expeditions and journies by land or fca. '• Wherever,** 
Ays he, "Alcibiades travelled, he made ufe of four of the 
** allied cities as his fervants. Ephefus furnifhed him with 
'* tents» as roaj^nificent as thofe of the Perfians ; Chios took 
'• eare to provide for his horfes ; Cyancam fupptied hrm with 
^ ftcrifices, and provîfions for his table ; and Lelbos gave 
*' him wine, with all the other necefiaries of his houfe.^ 
' I moft not omit, in foeakiag of the Olympick feames, that 
di« ladies were admitted to difpote the prize in them as well 
•t tluB men ; which many of them obtained. (I) Cyni(ca» 
Ifter of AgdSlaos, king of Sparta, firft opened this new path 
éf glory to her fex, and was proclaimed viârix in the race ot 
chtriou with four horfes. (/) This viâory» which till then 
bad DO example, did not fail of being celebrated with all 
poffible fplendor. {m) A magnificent monument was ereâed 
m Sparta in honour of Cynifca ; and the Laced »mdnians^ 
Aoo^h otherwife very little fenâble to the charms of poetry, 
ippoiDted a poet to tranfmit this new triumph topofterity, and 
to immortalize its memory by an iafcription in verfe. (a) She 
fcerfelf dedicated a chariot of brafs, drawn by foor horfes, in 
the temple of Delphos ; in which the charioteer was alfo i^e- 
prefented ; a certain proof that (he did not drive it herfelf. 
U) In procefs of time, the pi6lure of Cyaifca, drawn by the 
famous Apelles, was annexed to it, and the whole adorned 
with many infcriptions in honour of that Spartan heroine. 


(I) PtofSA. 1. iii. p. 171. (/} Pag, 28S. (»} Paa. vjx. [n] U. 1, v» 
h V^^* (*) ^* 1* *!• P* 144* 

kviii F R E F A C S, 

Of tht bofÊOun anJ rtwarJi gratiUéi to tbi <viêt§ru 

Thcfe honours und rewards were of fevera] kindf. Thv 
fpcftator» acclamations in honour of the viéiors were only • 
prelude to the rewards diTiened them. Thefc rewards wcrr 
difirrent tvrcaih) of wild olive, pine» parflry» or lavel, «•• 
cording to ihedifterent places where the games were celebrated» 
Thofc crowns were always attended with branches of palmy 
that the vi^rs carried in their right hands ^ which cufionir 
according; to Plutarch (/), arofe, (perhaps) from the nature 
of the palm-tree, which difplays new vigour the more endea* 
▼ours are u(cd to cro^ or bend it« and is a fymbol of the 
champion's courage and reiiilance in the attainment of the 
prize. As he might be vi£lor more titan once in the fame 
games, and fometimes on the fame day, he might alfo receive 
several crowns and palms. 

When the viiflor had received the crown and palm, an herald^ 
preceded by a trumpet, conduced him through the Stadium, 
and proclaimed aloud his name and country, who pafled in that 
kind of review before the people, whitil they redoubled their 
acclamations and applaufrs at the fight of bim. 

When he returned to his own country, the people came ool 
in a body to meet him, and condndled him into the cityr 
adorned with all the marki of his vi^lory, and riding apon • 
chariot drawn bv four horfes. He made his entry not throagk 
the gates, but tnrough a breach purpofely made in the walls. 
Lighted torches were carried before him, and a numeroni traift, 
followed to do honour to the proceflion« 

The athlctick tiiumph almoft always concluded with feaiU 
nade for the vigors, their relations, and friends, either at the 
expencc of the publick, or by particulars, who regaled not 
only their families and friends, but often a great part of the 
fpefUtors. {q) Alcibiades, after having facrificed to Jupittr» 
which was always the firfl care of the victor, treated the whole 
aiTembly. Leopron did the fame, as Athenaeus reporu (r) f 
who adds, thatEmpedocIc» of Agrigcntum, having conqncrcd 
in the fame game», and not having it in his power* bong 
a Pyth.igoreaii, to rrgaN: the people with flcih or fi(h, he 
cauied an ox to be made of a pafte, coropofed of myrrh, incenfCr 
and all forts of fpijces, of which pieces were given to all who 
were prefcnt. 

One of the moft honourable privileges granted to the athle- 
tick victors, was the right of taking place at the poblick 


, (# ) Symf of. i. fill, qurft. 4. (y.) Plut, in Alcib. p. 196, (r) Uk. 


rafoes. At Sparta it was a cuflom for the king to take them 
frith him in military expeditions, to fight near his perfon, and 
to be his guard ; w)iich^ with reafon» was judged very honour* 
able Anotlier privilege, in whidi the ufeful united with the 
honourable, was that of bein^ maintained for the red of their 
lives at the oxpence of their country. (/) That this expence 
might not «become too chargeable to the flate, Solon reduced 
the penfion of a viflor in the Olympick games to five hundred 
4rachm;c'8 (/) ; in the Iflhmian hundred (j^) ; and in the 
fell in proportion. The vij^or and his country confidered.this 
|)enfion lets as a relief of the chanipion''s indigence, than as a 
«nark of honour and didindion. They were alfo exempted 
ùota all civil offices and employments. 

The celebration of the games being over, one of the firft 
applications of the magiflrates, who prefided in them, was to 
inicribe, in the publick regifler, the name and country of the 
Athlete who had carried the prizes, and to annex the fpecies 
of combat in" which they had been viflorious. The chariot- 
race had xhe pteference to all other gnmes. From whence the 
liiftorians, who date their faâs by the Olympiads, as Thucy- 
dides, Dionyfius HalicarnafTus, Diodcrus Siculus, and Paufa- 
nias, aJmoft always exprefs the Olympiad by the name and 
country of the viflors in that race. 

The praifes of the vîélorious Athletaewere amongjft the Greelçs 

one of the principal fubjedts of their lyrick poetry. We find» 

that all the odes of the four books of Pindar turn upon it, each 

of which takes its title from the games, in which the comba* 

tants fignalized themlelves, whofe vi^ories thofe poems cele* 

brate. The poet, indeed, frequently enriches his matter, by 

calling in to the champion^s affidance, incapable alone of in- 

fpiring all the enthàfiaim neceiTarv, the aid of the gods, heroes» 

and princes, who have any relation to his fubjeft; and to fup- 

port the Bights of imagination, to which he abandons himfeîf. 

Before Pindar, the poet Simonides praflifed the fame manner 

of writing, intermingling the praifes of the eods and heroes 

with thofe of the champions, whcfe viÛories ne fang, (x) It 

is related upon this head, that one of the vigors in boxing, 

called Sopas, having agreed with Simonides for a poem upon 

his vid^ory, the poet, according to cullom, after having given 

the higheft pmifts to the champion, expatiates in a long 

digreffion to the honour of Cailor and Pollux. Scopas, fatis- 

£ed in appearance with the performance of Simonides, paid 

him however only the third part of the fum agreed on, refer* 


(i) Dîog. Laerr. in Solon, p. 37. '/I 250 fivns, ^u) 50 Iront, (x) Cic« 
éc Out, i. ii. A. 35%, 353, Pbctf» 1, ii. fa|i« 24. QuiniiU I. si. c, a. 

Ixx P R R P A. C B, 

ring liim for the rvmainJcr to tht Tyndaridei» whom 1 
celchrutrd fo wrll. And he wa« well paid their pan in 
if wet may believe the reque!: For, at the feaft given I 
chAm|)ion, whild the gucfti were at tablci a frrvant ci 
SimoiiiJtn, and tnldhini, that two men» covered with di 
fwc;itp wrre at the door, and defired to i'peak with hin 
huAe. He had fcaice (et hii foot out of the chamber, ii 
to go to them» when the roof fell ini and crufhed the 
pion with all hit gueiU to death. 

Sculpture united with poetry to perpetuate the fame 
championi. iitatuei were erected to the vi^or», efpecii 
the Olympiciv gamcH in the very place where they ha 
crowned, anJ iometimei in that of tneir birth alfo ; whi 
commonly done at the ex pence of their country. A mon 
ihitueâ which adorned Olympia, were thofe or feveral cl 
of ten or twelve year» old, who had obtained the prise 
age in the Olympic Ic gamef. They did not only raii 
inonujiiCQti to ihr chumpioni, but to the very horfes, tn 
fwifmef) they were indebted for the Agonilhcic cn»wu 
(y) l'aufania» mcntionb one, which was eudi'd in hoaoi 
niftre, called Aura, whole hiltory ii worth repeating. 
)as, her rider, having fallen off in the beginning of th 
the mare continued to run in the fame manner af If 1 
been upon hrr buck, blie outilii|'t all the reft, and uj 
found uf the tiuntpet^, which wa» ufual toward the end 
r«ue to anintate the competitors, (he redoubled her viae 
courap.e, turned round the goal ; and, as if flic had be 
fible of the victory, prefeuted herfelf before the judgei 
gaiuci. I'he ililAïan:» declared IMiidolas vi^or, with per 
Co eretfl n monument io hiuifelt and the mare, that had 
htm fo well. 

Tift' JiJ\rei$i tnjit tf thi Grtekt ntid Rùmanh '^ ft^i^rél 

lick piikiu 

Defore I make an end of obferving upon the eonihi 
games, fo much in edimation amongll ine Greeks 1 b 
reader*» permilFmn to make a refledlion, that mav fc rve 
plain the different charaAers of the Greeks and Rumani 
regurd to this fubjedt. 

The moft comnum entertainment of the latter, at wh 
fuir (ex, by nature tender and compnfTionate, were prr 
thninpft. was the combats of the gUditors, and of mc 
bear» and lions i in which the cries of the wounded and 
and the abundant ciiufion of human bloodf fupplied a c 

(^) Lib. vh |. )«lk 


ijpeêliiclc for a whole rcoplf, who feafled thrir crnel eyes with 
the favage plt-afurt of (ct'inir men murder one afiother in cool 
blood; and in ihe of ttie perfccutions» with the tearing 
in pieces of old men and infunts, of women and tender virgins, 
whofe ages and wcakncis are apt to excite coropaffion in the 
fcardeft hearts* 

In Greece thefe combats were abfolutcly unknown, and were 
only in: rodaced into fomeiitiesy after their fubjeélion to theRo* 
man peopl;. (s) The Athenians, however, whofediflingaifhing 
cbaracltriiliclcs were benevolence and humanity, never admit» 
ted them into their city ; and when it was propofed to intro- 
duce the combats of the gladitors, that they might not be out* 
done by the Corinthians in that point, Firji fhro-Tv ifonjuftf cried 
doc an * Athenian from the midft of the aflembly, ràrâw 
^nom tbt altar i irefitd abovt a tbeufand years ag§ by oar anctfiwr$ 
t9 Merty. 

It mull be allowed, in this refpc^, that the condu^ and 
«iiciom of the Greeks was infinitely fupertor to that of thte 
Romans. I fpeak of tfie wifdom of Pagans Convinced that 
die imiltttade, too much governed by the objects of fenfe to 
be fofiiciently amuitd and entertained with the plea fu re»- of the 
Bnderdanding, o^uld be delighted only with fenfible objedié» 
both nation» were ftudious to divert them with games and 
flicws, and fuch external contrivances, as were proper to ^St^ 
Ihe fenfes. In the inllitution of which» each follows its 
peculiar. genius and difpofition. 

The Romans, educated in war, and accuftomed lo battles, 
fctained, nocwithftandin ;; the politenefs oix>n which they piqued 
themicJves, fomrthingof their ancient ferocity ; and hence it 
was, that the effuGon of blood, and the murders exhibited in 
their publick ihows, far from infpiring them with horror, was 
a grateful entertainment to them. 

The infolcrit pomp of triumphs flows from the fame fource, 
and argues no lefs inhumanity. To obtain this honour, it was 
sece/Tary to prove, that tij^ht or ten thoufand men at lead 
bad been killed in battle. The fpoils, w hich were carried 
with To much ofti'ntation, proclaimed, that an infinity of 
honcft fanniies had been reduced to the iitntnil mifery. The 
inniimerablc troop of captives had b^n free perfons a few days 
befoie, and were often diiHngai(hahle for honour, merit, and 
virtue. The reprcfcntation of the towns that had been taken 
in the war explained, that they had facked, plundered, and 


(«) Luciin In vit. DemonaA. p. 1014. 
• h was Demcrtnx, a celebrated I heen. He Jhuri/hed hi the reign 9/ 
fhiUj'>fber, ^bife dijnflt Lu<ian bad \ Mmreift A/êrelm, 

*lxzii ^ PREFACE. 

burnt the moA opulent cities ; and either ddlroycd or enj 
their inhabitants. In fine» nothing was mcMne inhuman; 
to drag kings and princes in chains before the charioi 
Roman citieen, and to in fuit their miifortimcs and humii 
in that publick manAcr. 

(a) The triumphal arches, eredled under the emperors, 
the enemies appeared with chains upon their hands and 
could proceed only from an haughty fiercenefs of difpr 
and an inhuman pride, that took delight inimoiortalizi 
ihame and lorrow of fulijcéled nations. 

I he joy of the Greeks after a viûory wn far more 8 
Thev ereded trophies indeed, but of wood» a matter 
^iurable ; which would foon confume ; and thofe it was 
bited to. renew. Plutarch's rcafon for this is admir; 
^fcertimc bad deflroycd and obliterated th« marks of diii 
and enmity, that had divided the people, it would hav* 
the excefs of odious and barbarous animofity, to have tl 
of re-eflabliihiog them, and to have perpetuated the n 
brancc of ancient quarrels, which could not be buried tc 
in iilencc and oblivion. He adds, that the trophies ol 
^nd braf«, fince fubilituted to thofe of wood» reflect no I 
upon thofe who introduced the cullom. 

(^) I am pJeafed with the grief of Agefilaus's counte 
after a confiderable vi^iory, wherein a great number 
.«nenties, that is to fay, of Greeks, were left upon the 
ond to hear him utter, with fighs and groans, theie woi 
full of moderation and humanity : '* Oh unhappy Grei 
** deprive thyfelf of fo many brave citizens, and to < 
'** tliofe who had been fuiEcieiit to have conquered s 
••Barbarians I" 

The fame fpiric of moderation and humanity prevai 
the publick (hews of the Greeks. Their feliivals had n 
mournful or affliûive in them. Every thing in thofe 
tended to delight, fricndlhip, and harmony : And in th( 
iilled one of tae grcatell advantages which refulted to C 
from the folemnization of thefe games. The republicks 
rated by dillance of country, end diveriity of interefts, ] 
the opportunity of meeting from time to time, in th< 
place, and in the midft of rejoicing and fedivtty, allied 
fclves more ftriflly with one another, apprized each 
aguinll the Barbarians and the common enemies of their I 
And made up their diâferenccs by the mediation of fome i 

(tf) Plut, in Qurft. Rom. p. «7). {é) Ibid, in L«con. Apophthefm 

PREFACE. Ixiriii 

Mt hi alliapce with them. The fame language, manners, 
iwriBces, exercifes, and worftiip, all confpired to unite the 
evenil little ftates of Greece into one great and fonnidnble 
lation ; and to preferve amongft them the fame difpofition, the 
fame principlei, the fame zeal for their liberty^ and the fame 
paffion for the arts and fciencei^ 

ty* tbi prtKis of njDÎtf nnd iht Jhvws and nprtfentaiions of the 


I have reCerved for the condufion of this head another kind 
)f competition, which does notât all depend apon the ftrength, 
léISvity, and addrefs of the body» and may be called with 
rcflbn the" combat of the mind : wherein the orators^ hiftorians» 
md poets, made trial of their capadties, and fubmitted their 
HodoCUoRs to the cenfure atid judgment of the pUblick. Thd 
emulation in this fort of difpute was moft lively and ardent» 
u the victory in quedion mieht jufUy be deemed to be infinitely 
fupcrior to all the others, oecaufe it aSefts the man more 
nc^arly, is founded in his perfonal and internal qualities, and 
decides the merit of his wit and Capacity ; which are advan* 
ta^s we are apt to afpire at with the utmoft viyadty and paf- 
fioo, and of which we are at leaft of all inclined to renounce 
the glory to others. 

It was a great honour, and at the fame time a mod fenfible 
pleafare, for writers who are generally fond of fame and ap* 
plaufe, to have known how to reconcile the voices in their 
favour of fo numerous, and fele£t an aiTembly, at that of the 
Olympick games i in which were prefent all the fineft geniufles 
of Greece, and all the beft juages of the excellency of a 
work. This theatre was equally open to hiftory, eloquence, 
and poetry. ^ 

(c) Herodotas read his hiftory in the Olympick games to all 
Greece, aflemblcd at them, and was heard with fuch applaufe% 
that the names of the nine Mufes were given to the nine books 
which compofe his work, and the people cried out wherever 
he pafled, TJbat is he, nubo has lurote our hifiery^ and ceielratid 
wr glorious fuccejres againjt the Barbarians fi rxcet1c9ftiy» 

All who had been prefent at the games, did afterwards make 
evcrv part of Greece refbund with the name and glory of this 
iduitrious hiflorian. 

Lucian, who wrifei the fafti have repeated, add'» that aft:r 
the example of Herodotus, many of the fophifts and rheiori 
cians went to Olympia» to read the harangues of their com 

Vo lit I» d pofing ; 

. (€} Luciaa. in H«ro4. p. 6aa« 

hxÎT P R *£ F A C ï. - 

y.ofing ; finding that the ihorteft and mofi . cectaîa sietliiB A ' 
iicquiring a great reputation in a litde time. 

( ./ ) .Plutarch obferves* that Lyfias the famooi Athenian oifr 
tor, contemporary with Herodotus, pronounced a (beech, in the. 
Ohmpick ^ames, wheKin he .congratulated the ôteeka upon 
tiicir reconciliation with each other» and their havine united tê 
j^'.Juce the power of Dionyfius the Tyran t, as iiponthe greatdk 
liction they had ever done. 

(,) We may judge of the paffion of the poets to fignalitt 
1 iivmrdvc's in thefe lolemn games, from that of Dionyfius him: 
jclF. That prince, who had the fooliih vanity to believe liiÀ; 
I'cif the molt excellent poet of his time, appointed readefSi 
c::I1ed in the Greek ^x-i^oùï^ {J^haffodifis^ to read feveral piece; 
of his cvimpofing at Olympia. When they began to pronounce 
the vcrfes of the royal poet, the ftrong and harmonious voices 
of the readers occafioncd a profound (ilènce, and tKey were 
iicTrd atiirll with the grcatcll attention, which continually dê- 
«crcafcd as they went on, and turned at lai! into downright 
horfc laughs and hooting; fo miferable did the verfes appear 
(/*) lie comforted himfelf for this diigrace by a viâqry he 
r^ained fomc time after in the feaft of Sacchub at Athens, in 
^vhich he caufcd a tragedy of his con\pofition to be repre(ented« 

"1 he Jifp^ics of the poets in the Olympick games were no- 
tl inir, ill comparifon with the ardour and emulation exprefTed 
) V tium nt Athens ; which is what remains to be faîd upon 
:!iis ri:i)it<^, and therefore I Hiall conclude with it; taking 
ijccafion to give my readers, at the fame time, a fliort view 
')r' the iliow^; and reprefentations of the theatre of the ancients. 
J'liofc, wRo v.'ould be more fully informed in this fubjedl, wifl 
j'.ikI I: treated at large in a work lately made publick by the 
: cvcrend father Brumoi, the Jefuit; a work which abounds wick 
profuiind knowledge and erudition, -and with reflexions entirely 
; e\v, deduced from the nature -of the poems of which it treats^ 
i fnail make confidcrable ufib of that pioce, and t>ften wtthott 
Citing it \ which is not uncommon with me. 

Eyircxordir.ary fajjion of the Athenians for the entertainments of the 
J. iJ/e. Efuultition cf the poets in difputing the prizes itt tbùfi 
ri'i^rrjhiîaticns, A jhort idea of drarnatick poetrj\ 

No people ever exprcflcd fo much ardour and pafGon for the 
cr.tertair.m'jnts of the theatre as the Greeks, and efpecially 
ihc Athenians. The rcafon of which is obvious : Ne people 
ever demon (Irated fach extent of genius, nor carried fo far the 


( â ) Piut. de vit, Orat. p« 836, (0 Diod. !• sir. p. 318^ (/} Ibid. 

¥ R £ P A C B» \m 

^p of etofaenoe and poef^» tafte for the fdeneeis, jHflnefs of 
ÂÛmcntSf elegance of car^ and delicacy in all the refinements 
TUmngomfc* * À pooj woman» who fold herbs at Athens, dif- 
.ilgiiuiicalrheo^hraflus to be a (Iraneer, by a Angle word which 
€ made «fe of in cxpreiEng himfelf. The common people 
roc the iragedki of Euripides by heart. The genius of 
tvfry iiatidn exprtfles itfelf in the peopled manner of pafling 
;Vieir time» ana in their pleafares. The great employment 
iiyl delight of the Athenians were to amufe thcmfclvcti 
w^k worfcs of witf and to judge of the dramatick pieces, thnc 
were aâed by the pablick aittbûrity feveral times a year, efpc- 
dally at the feafti of Bacchu»» when the tragick and comick 
poeta dUputed for the prize. The former ufed to prefcnt four 
of their pieces at a time ; except Sophoclest who did not think 
€t, to continue fo laborious an exercifei and confined himfelf 
to one performancei when he difputed the prize. 

The ftaite appointed judges, to determine upon the merit of 
the tragick or comick pieces» before they were rcprefcntcd iil 
the fedivals. They were a£ted before them in the pre fence of 
the people; but andoubtedly with no great preparation. The 
judges gave their fufFrages, and that performance! which had 
the moft voices, was declared viàorieus» received the crown as 
fuch, and was received with all pofiible pomp at the expence 
of the rcpublick» This did not^ however» exclude fuch pi :ce ., 
ai were only in the fécond or third dafs. The bell had n.»^ 
always the preference t For what times were exempt from 
party» caorice, ignorance, and prejudice ? {g) ^liaa is very 
angry with the judges, who, in bne of theie difputes, gava 
only the fécond place to Euripides. He accufes them of judg- 
ing either without capacityi or of giving their voices for hire. 
It IS eafy to conceive the warmth and emulation, which thefc 
diTputes and publick rewards excited amongft the poets, and 
how much they contributed to the perfedioni to which Greece 
carried dramatick performances. 

l^he dramatick poem introduces the perfons themfclve;, 
fpeaking and ailing upon the Aaget In theepick, on the con* 
trary. only the poet relates the difiFerent adventures of his cha- 
raiîUrsi. It is natural to be delighted with fine defcripLions of 
events, in which illuilrious perfons and whole nations arc in- 
tcrcdcd; and hence the cpick poem had its origin. But we 
.tre quite differently affcdlcd with hearing thofe perfons them- 
fclves» with being confidents of their moll fecrcc fendmcnts 

d 2 and 

• Attlci invi Thfophr«Oum, ho- I unlus afleflatîone verb!, hofpitefll 
minanâUo^uidifcftifliflOUffif aAAOttu \ dixit. S^int, 1, viit, c, x, 


and auditors and fpedlttors of their refokdons» esterpdtc 
and the hippy or unhappy events attending than. To rea 
uiul fee an a£Uon> are quite different things : Vfe are infinite 
more moved with what is aéled, than with what we read. Tl 
1'pcdator» «{^eeably deceived by an imitttion fe nearly ai 
preaching life, millakes the piânre for the orieinal, andtninl 
the object real. This gave oirth to dramatics poetry» wh» 
includes tragedy and comedy. 

7 o thefe may be added the fatyrick poem» which derives i 
name from the fatyrs, rural gods, who were the chief charaâc 
in it ; ^nd not from the yo/rr/, a kind of abnfive poetry» whù 
has no refemblance to this^ and is of a much later date. Tl 
tatyrick poem was neither tragedy nor comedy» but Ibmethif 
h(H\veen both, participating of the charafter of each. Tl 
poets, who difpttted the priée, generally added one of the 
^Mcccs to their tragedies, to allav the grave and folemn of tl 
cne, with the miith and pleafanny of the other* There is b 
< uc example of this ancient poem come down to us, wh^ch 
ihc Cyclops of Euripides. 

J (hall confine «nyielf upon this head to tragedy and corned] 
which had both their origin amongft the Greeks, who looki 
opon them as fruits of their own growth, of which they cou 
Pi. ver have enough. Athens was remarkable for an extraoni 
Tiuiy appetite of this kind« Thefe two poems, which were 
lon^r tjjiie comprized under the general name of tragedy, i 
itivcd there by degrees fuch improvements, at at length nil 
thiM to their lafl perfe^oa« 

T'A: origin and frûgre/s •/ tragafy. Pêitf nvh ixtelM /« it 
Athens I i£s€HYLU8, Sophocles, inM^EuaiFiDBS. 

There had been manv tragick and comick poets befi 
Thefpis ; bot as they had altemi nothing in the original ru 
fuf m of this poem, and Thefpn was the firft that made a 
improvement in it, h* was general] v efteemed its invent* 
lit tore him, tra;^edy was no more than a jumble of buffc 
uJrs in the comick ftyle, intermixed with the fin£ing oi 
chorus in praife of Baechus ; for it is to the feafts of that g( 
c<>lrbratcd at the time of the vinti^» that tragedy q\ 
its birth. 

{fA La tragédie, informe U grofliere en nuflant» 
N'etoit qu'un fimple chœur, où chacun en danfani» 
Et du dieu des raifins entonnant les louanges» 
b'c^rçoit d'attirer de tcrtiks vendanges. 

(«} Bf Ucao Art, Focl% CMit» ifl. 

? R s F A C 1. lBi?aE 

I^ k vin & la joie éveillant les efprits. 
Du plas habilexhahtre i» bcwc etoh le prix* 

Formhfs andgrnfs dfJ trageify anfit, 
Afimfic chorus^ ratbtr mad than «wifi j 
Fcr frmtful *vtntages thi dancing throng 
Mom^d to t ht god ^grapes a drunken Jong t 
Wild mirth and «wirn/uftain^d thefrantick note^ 
And the htft Jtnger bad thi frize, ^ g^at^ 

lliefpis made fevenj alterations în it^ wbict Horace cîr- 
fcribes after AriOotle^ in his Art of Poetry. The • fixft was 
to carry bis aftors about in a cart> whereas before they uCed 
to fing in the ftreets» wherever chance led them. Another was 
' to^bave their faces fineered over with wine- lees inûead of a£ling 
without difgiriie as at firft. He alfo introduced a ch a rafter 
among the chorus, who, to give the a6lors time to red theto- 
lelvea and to take breath, repeated the adventures of feme 
illuftriotts perfon ; which recital^ at lengthy gave place to thç^ 
fobjeâs of tragedy. 

(i) Thefpis fut le premier, qui barbouillé de Ue, 
Promena par les bourgs cette heureufe folie, 
£t d'aâeurs mai ornév chargeant un tombereau» 
Amufa les paiians d^un fpeâacle nouveal^. 

Firji The/pis y /meer^d fwith lees, and nxotd of art^ ^ 

Thi graiejflul folfy *vented from a cart \ 

And as hir tawtidry aSors drove aBoui^ 

^he fight *was nen^f and charmed the gaping rout, 

« - 

(i) Thefpis lived in the time of Solon. That wife leptflator» 
upon feeing his pieces peiformed^ exprefîed his diflike, ty 
ftrtkinghis fta^'againft the ground; apprehending, that th^t ^ 
poetical fidlions, and idle dories» from mere theatrical roprc- 
fentations, would foon beconie matters of importance, ai>(l 
have too great a ihare in all publick and private aifair?. 

d 3 It 

(f) Boileau Art. Poet. Cant. V\u (h) A, M. 34^0. Ant. J. C. 564, 
Plot, in Solon, p. 95. 

* Ignotum trsgica genos inviniHe canavn» 
Dicitar, Sc pUuftris vcxiflfe poema ta Thefpis^ 
Quae canerent agerentique perunûi fscibus ora. 

Hor. di Art. Tott, 
H'bim Tbiffit firft txpoCi tbt tragkk muft, 
Jtmde were the affort, and a eart the f%enet 
Wher4 gbaftly faeetf Jfm^^d tuitb lees of vttnef 
Wrigbtid tbi ciUdrtBg and amui'd the crtwd. 

RoicoflBi Art of Poet, 

tanriii F R I P A C t. 

It is not (b eafy to invtnr» m to improve ttie ahvendbos < 
other;. The altcKitiona Thefpis miide in tmgfdy, cave rooi 
lor .lùchylu9 to make new and more confidcrablc of his owi 
He was born at Athens» (/} in the firft ycsirof the fixttcth Ol^n 
piad. iletook upon him the profeuiou of arms» at a tin 
whrn the Athenians reckoned almoA as many heroes ns citizen 
He was at the battles of Marathon» Salami^i, and Platna» whci 
he did hi5duty. Dut his difpofition called him el/rwhcrc» and pi 
hîi;> upon rntcrinp^ into another couHc («), where no Icrsgloi 
was to be acv]uired i and where he was fuou without any con 
petitors. As a fuperior genius» he took upon him to rcforfl 
or r.itht r to cieate trigedy anew ; of which he has, in coi 
rit'iKMco. been always aeknowledced the inventor and fathe. 
l-\ titer Hrunioi, in a diilcr tut ion which a'bounds with wit an 
*>,oovl tVnic, explains the manner in which JEfchylua conceive 
the true idea of tragedy fiom Homer's epUk poems. Thi 
}occ himfclt' ufed to favi that his works were only copies i 
rciiovo of Homer's draughts in the Iliad and Odyfley. 

Tiiigcdy therefore t(M>k a new form under him. He gavei 
innfks to his adders, adorned them with robes and trains, ai 
iividr thrm wear bufkins. Inilead of a enit, he eredled 
th'Mtrc of a moderate extent, and entirely chnnged their IhU 
uliid) ftom W\\>fr merry and burlefquei as at firU^ b«can 
lu.iji-trKk and ferious. 

( t) KfchVIe ddns Ic choeur jetta les perfonages : 
D'un mafque plus honnête habilla les vifagcs : 
Sur les ais d*un theatre en publia exhaufsc 
rit paroitrc Tapeur d'un brodequin chauTsé. 

Frtm Jb!/cùyius tbê tborus Itarnt ntw gran : 
he *vni*/f'wifh ificent majks thi «t:hr*ifo€tf 
V'aught bim in hujkinsfirft to trtud tbt jlëgt^ 
And rait^d a tbtatrt to fUit/i tbt ëgi. 

But that was only the external part or body of traged}r. 
foul, which was the moft important and eflential addition 


(/) A.M. 3464. Ant. J. C. 540. (m) a.m. 3514. Ant. J. C% 4 
(11) Boileio Art. Poet. 

e Pod hunc pcrfon» pilltf^ue repertoi honeftiR 
ifCfchylui. ft modicii inflrifit pulpita ti|riiit 
Et docuit ;n»gnumque I'^qui, nitiquc eoihurnOi Kw» dt Art, p9#r« 

7hit JFj\hylfit (with \$i'nnHi»n\fêW, 

And hmlt éftagtt fiend •ui 4 dttenidn/i, 

JtrQiigbt vixardi (in 0.tMlUr di/gvife) 

And takght mm bm toj^ek, and tntt to mB* Aofcom. A rt. Pact» 

■F Tt ^E T? "A 'C 'E l)«îk 

JE^fèbjrliiSf cohfiffitd ia the viraâtf and fpiric of the aftion». 
iaftained by the dialogae of the perfoas of the drama introduced. 
b^ hiBKi in the artftS working' up of the greater paffions, efpe- 
«ally of terror and pity, that, by alternately affli6ting- andi 
agitating the foul with moamfnl or terrible objeâs,,. produce a^ 
grateful pleaiure and delight from that very trouble and emo- 
tion ; in the choice of a fubjeél great, noble/ afFeding,. andi 
contained within the due bound» of time^ place, and a^ion ;; 
Jji fine» it is the condudl and difpofition of the whole piece,, 
which, by the order and harmony of its^ parts, and the ffapp^ik 
connedUon of its incidents and intrigues, holds the mind oH. 
the fpeâator in fufpence till the cataftrophe, and then reilores- 
him his tranquillity, and difmiiles him: with fatisfafbon* 

The chorus had been cftablifhed before iSfchylus, as- Iv 
(Qompofed alone^ or next to alone, what was then called 
tragedy. He did not therefore exclude it, but, on the con- 
traryj thought Hi to incorporate it^ to fing as chorus be- 
tween the adls. Thus it fupplied the interval of refting, and; 
was a kind of perfon of the drama, employed * either in giving 
ùfeful counfels and falutary inftruâions, in efpouiing the party- 
of innocence and virtue, in being the depofitory of fecrecs,, 
and the avenger of violated religion, or to fuflain all thofe 
charadlers at the fame time, according to Horace. The cory- 
phaeus, or principal perfon of the chorus, fpoke for the re(^. 

In one of i^fchylus's pieces, called the Eumenides, the* pon- 
reprefencs Orefles at the bottom of the flage, furrounded by (he. 
furies, laid afleep by Apollo* Their figure mufl have been* 
extremely horrible, as it is rçlated^ that upon their walking- 
and appearing tumoltuoufly on the theatre, where they wero 

d 4 to> 

* A Ch>rif partes chorat oflciumque virile 
Defendat, neu qviâ medios intercinat aâui, . 
Quod non propofito conducat, Sc hsreat apte* 
llle 'bonis faveatque, & concilietur amicis, 
It regat iratbt, Sc amet peccare timentes* 
llle dapes laod'et, menfc brevis ; ille falubrem 
Juftttiam, legefque, & apertit otia portii. 
ille tegat commifla, deofijue precetur Se orct, 
Uc redeat raiferit, abeat fonuaa /operbis* Her» de Arte PHh 

The ch«rut pould ptpphf wbai aSicn wofidf 
And batb a gtiurQut om manh fan ; 
Bridits wildrâgtf hvu r'tgiabonelly^ 
Andpr'iR ébf&vttnee'of hnfortial itwp 
S^riety, fuurity, anépioce, 
jÊnd btgt tbi gâdi to turn blind Fortune t wbteft 
.To réifitbt vtretcbfdf and full davn tbt froud ; 
But notbtng mujl befung bttvfein tbi afftf 
Bui tebat fmt wty conducts H th floe» 

Hofeom. Art of Poctiy tfaitfl 

Inrx P R B P A C B. 

10 aiï' IS a chorut» fomt womon mircarrkd with th 
atiil (cvrral children died of the frighc. The ch< 
time confiiled of fifty aélon. Aftor this accidcntp 
duccd to fifteen by an cxpreff Uw, and at lenf»ch tc 
I have obfcrved, that one of the alcerutioni madt b 

' I 

in tragedy, wai the maflc worn by his a^lori . Thefc 
iU4(k» had 110 rciembJance to ourt, which only covi 
but were a kind of cife for the whole hi*ad, and whi 
the feature*, rrprricnicd the beard, the air, the 
even the ornaments ufcd by women in their hi 
'I hcfe mafka varied according to the différent piece: 
iiéieà, Thry are treated at Ur^^ in a difcrtatic 
Bciindiri*»t infcftcd in the Mcmoira of the Academ 
Lettres (tf), 

7 coiiltj never comprehend, as I have obferved rife 
in fpcukiiig of pronunciation, how maiki came to < 
Kmi^; upon the liage of the ancient! ; for certainly I 
ii<>( br uirJ, without confidcrably flattcaing the Tpi 
li^tioii, which is principally exprrfTed in tnc cr>untc 
fc'it and mirror of what pafles in the foul. Dors i 
h:ipprti, that the blood, according to its bcin^^ put 
\>y (llitrri*ni iiafllons, (omciinics rovers the face wit 
éUi\ riiodilt l^Iufli, rutnct»mi*st;U(names it with the he 
:tiMi fury, foinctimc^ retires, liuving it pulr with fe 
C'lhcrit, djifiifcs a calm aiul amiable ferriiiiy over it ? 
iH^Mionsâre Itiongly imaged and diflin^uiflud in 
t^(n(^ of ihc f;ice. 'J*hc rn;i(k deprives the fratut 
rnui^y i>f lan^^u^ige, and of that life utid foul» bv < 
the i'uithful interpreter of all the fentimcnts of the 
do t)(i( vvoiulcr, thciefoie, ni Ciirro's reinaik upon 
of Kuivius •. •• Our unicllois," fays he, •* weic be 
'* tliiin we are. 'i'hey could not wholly npptove ev 
** hinifc-JI, \vhil(( h^ performed in a mafic.'* 

yKkl))lus was in the lute pofVcffion (if the ^lory oj 
with ulmolt every voice in his favour, when u youn^r 
his uppciLinie to difpute the pulm with him. Th 
pho(.r*:i. lie w:is bom Nt CN)louoH, u town in Atti 
ferond year of the feventy fiirt Olympiad. Hi fs 
bUckfmith, or one who kept people of that trade t> 
him. His liil erttiy was n hulter piere. Whrn, 
occafion of Cyinou's huviag found the boucs of Th 

(«) Vol. IV. (f ) Msprmr •fTM.H^g, |be. Vol 

• QtiA m»llui i\n^t\ lUiTriMS, qui | mainoptft Uudibaiit, 
^(uastim» M AefiittAi» fuUsoi» | Ora/. a. aai, 

PREFACE. '*xmi 

tihexr being brooght to Athens» a difpate betveen tlie tragick 

J)octs was appointed, Sophocles entered the lifts wiih ^Ahy- 
Ms, and earned the prize againft him. Th,c ancient vlAury 
laden till then with the wreaths he had acquired, believed 
them all loft by failing of the laft, and withdrew in difguft 
into Sicily to king Hiero, the protestor and patron of all the 
learned in difgrace at Athens. He died there foon after in a 
very fingular manner, if we may believe Suidas. As he lay 
aimp in the fields, with his head bare, aja eagle, taking his 
bald crown for a ftone, let a tortoife fall upon upon it, which 
lulled him. Of ninety, or at leaft fcveuty, tragedies, com' 
pofed by him, only feven are now extant. 

Nor ha?e thofe of Sophocles efcaped the irjury of time bette c, 
though one hundred and (eventeen in number, and according 
to fome one hundrbd and thirty. He retained to extreme old 
Mge all the force and vigour of his genius, as appears from a 
arcumftance in his hiftory. His children, unworthy of fo 
great a father, upon pretence that he had loft his fenfes, fom- 
'noned him before the judges, in order to obtain a decree, th^t 
his eftate might be taken from him, and put into their haads. 
He made no other defence, than to read a tragedy he was at 
that time compofing, called Œdipus at Colonos, with which 
the judges were fo charmed, that he carried his caufe unani-» 
inonfly ; and his children, dètefted by the whole aftembly, got 
nothing by their fuit, but the fliame and infamy of fo Bagrant 
an ingratitude. He was twenty times crowned vîâor. Some fay 
he expired in repeating his Antigone, for want of power to re- 
cover his breath, after a violent endeavour to pronounce a long 
period to the end. Others, that he died of joy upon his being 
declsired viflor, contrary to his expedation. The figure of an 
hive was pbced upon his tomb, to perpetuate the name of bee, 
which had been given him, from the fweetnefs of his verfcs.: 
Whence it is prob:^ble, the notion was derived, of the be^s 
having fettled upon his lips, when in his cradle, (f ) He dieJ m 
Sn his ninetieth year, the fourth of the ninety-third Olympiad, 
after having furvived Euripides fix years, who was not fo old 
as himfelf. 

(r) The latter was born in the firft year of the feventy- fifth 
Olympiad, at Salamin, whither his father Menefarchus end 
mother Clito had retired when Xerxes was preparing for his 
great expedition againft Greece. He applied himfelf at fit ft to 
pbilofophy, nnd, amongd others, had the celebrated Anax^- 
goras for his mafter. But the danger incurred by that great 
man, who was very near being made the vidim of his philo. 

d 5 fophlcti 

(f) A, M. 3599» Aat, J, C. 405. (r) A. :A, 3514, Ant.J. C. 4 o. 



fofhicAl tenets, îccUned him to tlie ftody of poetry, h 
covered in hioifclf a senios for the drama, nnknown t< 
ar &rû ; and exsployed it with facb focccfi, that he CDtei 
lift? with the greateâ maften» of whom we have been fpei 
* His works lufiiciently denote his profbond applicati 
philo(bphy . They abound with excellent maxims of moi 
and it is in that view Socrates in his time, and f Cicer 
after him, fet fo high a value apon Euripides. 

One cannot fniSciently admire the extreme delicac 
pre «Ted by the Athenian audience on certain occafion 
their felicitodc to prcferve the reverence doe to moralit] 
tur, decency, and juftice. It is fiirprizine to obfer 
warmth with which they onanimoufly reproved whatever i 
inconfiHent with them, and called the poet to an accoi 
zt, notwithftanding his having the beft fbanded exculë, in 
fuch fentiments only to perfons notorionlly vidous, and a^ 
by the mod nnjuft paflions. 

Euripides had pot into the month of Bellerophon a po 
panegyrick upon riches, which concluded with this th 
Rtibe$ are tbt fupreme go9dof human racff amd^mith nafix 
tkt admit aÙQH €f the gedt and men. The whole theacce 
ont againfl thefe expreffions, and he would have been ba 
direftly, if he had not defircd the fentence to be refpi) 
the conclu fion of the piece, in which the advocate for 
periihed miferably. 

He was in danger of incurring no common inconven 
from an anfwer he makes HippoHtus give his mother, 
her rep refen ting to him, that he had engaged himfelf 
an inviolable oath to keep her fecret. Mj tongue^ it i 
fronounced that oath^ replied he, hut my heart gwve no conjee 
This frivolous diftinclion appeared to the whole people, 
exprefs contempt of the religion and (anility of an oatl: 
tended to banim all fincerity and faith from fociety, ai 
commerce of life. 

Another maxim X advanced by Eteocles in the tragedy 
the Phoenicians, and which C^far had always in his moi 

* Sententiit denfus, & in îis quae 
» Tapifntibus fonrpene ipHf eft par. 
S^intit. i. X. c. I. 

^ Cui (Euripidi) quantum crrdas 
nrfdo; ego certe Angulcs eius verfut 
Annula tcAimcaia puto. kptf, viii. 
/. 14. ad Féml. 

t Ipfe au*cin foccr (Cxfar) in ore 
frmpcr CracCoi vertus Buripidei, de 
l'iiwfèiffit habcbatj quoi dicAin ut po- 

tero, incondite foftaft, fed t 
Its pofTit iatclligi. 

Nam» fi T-olandunn eft ji 
nandi gratij \io!aodum eft \ : 
bu9 picatem colaa. 

Capitali< Etercles, rt\ pot 
ripides, qui id unom qucd < 
fceleratiflimum fuer»l C&cefCr, 
!• iii. a» %u 

P Tt T F a X «. toxin 

•do left |ierUiciptis. "Ifjuftice tkof U wéattd ai att\ it is nEtbeft 

^m fhhki is iH quifiian ; U 9thir refp^as, let it he duly rtvertd. It 

4t Iftghly criminal in ^Ëteôcles, or rather in Euripides, fa)^» 

<^!tem, to mafec'âri'exteptîon in that very point, wi»crcin fuci» 

•Violation is' the bighseft cnme that can be committed. Ëteocles 

is a tyrant, and (peaks like a tyrant, who vindicates his unjuft 

tOtaidaa by a faRe tntdm ; and it is not ilrange, that Caefar, 

%fto was "a tyfaiit by nature, atid equally unjnft, flionld app)y 

the fentiments ofaf pribCe, whom he fo much refembled. Buc 

TItriyac b ^axlcable in Cicero, is his falling upon the poet 

"«klmlblf, 'atfd'innputing^to him as a crime, the having advanced 

Hd {>eriiicious a'priiici^le upon the ftage. 

(i)' Lycur^s, ' tlie orator, who lived in the time of PhiKf and 
•^AlêïanâtrtheGréttt,' to reanimate the fpirit of the tragick 
«"^bets, cànfed'tHl-ee ttâtiles of brafs to beereded in thrMame 
/bf the J^eople to 'JEfCbyhis, S<»faOcles, arid Euripide» ;; and 
'having ordered their ti^rks to oe tratifcribed, he appointed 
• 'them to be câréfttDy -pftkrreà ataiongft the publick »- 
"xhives, from whcfhde they Wei« taktfn from time to time to be 
Head ; the players ndt being permiited toreprefent Chen» 6n 

The reader expéfis no dotil>t, after what has been fafd upon 
^'tbe tblto-pôets, \vte Irifèiitéd, improved, and carried tragedy 
Co its perfeâio'n, that I 'ihOnld obfervp upon the peculiar e^:- 
"cellendes of their ftyle and chiradler. For that X muff refer 
-'to father BrutnOi, tf^ho will do it moch better than it is in Ay 
■'tKKver. AH:er'')iavih^ laid down, as an' undoubted principtc, 
iliat the epick ']6bein, 'that is to fay Homer, pointed out the 
Way for the tragick poets, and having demonftrated by reflec- 
tions drawn from humannature, upon what principles, and by 
what degrees, this happy imitation was conduced to it» end, 
lie goes on to defcribe tne three poets, upon whom Ke treaty in 
the mod lively and (hining colours. 

Tragedy took at firft from iEfchyl us, its inventor, a much 
more lofty (lyle than the Iliad ; that is, the magnum Icqui men- 
tioned by Horace. Perhaps iEfchylus, who was its author, 
was too pompous, and carried the tragick (lyle too high. Ic 
is not Homer*s trumpet, but (bmething more. His foundings 
fweiling, gigantick diâion, refembles rather the beating of 
drums and the (bouts of battle, than the nobler harmony and 
£lver found of the trumpet. The elevation and grandeur of 
his genius would not admit him to fpeak the language of other 
men, fo that his mufe ièemed rather to walk in llilts, than in 
the bttikias of hit own invention. 

d 6 , Sophocles 

{») n»t. la vit. X. 9Mt. p. S41. 

Ixxxîv PREFACE. 

Sophocles undcrftood much better the true etcellence of the 
dramatick llyle : He therefore copies Homer more clofely, lad 
bl(fnds in his diâion that honeyed fweetnefs, from wheace he 
was denominated the Bee, with a gravity thai gives his tragedy 
the mod ell air of a matron, compelled to appear in pnblick 
^ith dignity, as Horace cxprefFes it. 

The (lyle of Euripides, though noble, is lefs removed from 
the familiar ; and he feems to have affeéled rather the pathetick 
and the elegant, than the nervous and the lofty. • g 

As Corneille, fays Mr. Brumoi in another place» after haviog 
opened to himftlf a path entirely new and unknown to the 
ancients, feems like an eagle towering in the clouds, from the 
fublimity, force, unbroken progrefs, and rapidity of his flight; 
and, as Racine, in copying the ancients in a manner entirdy 
his own, imitates the Iwan, that fometimes floats upon the aify 
fometimes rifes, then falls again with an excellence of motiea, 
and a grace peculiar to herfelf ; Co ^fchylus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides, have each of them a particular tower and method. 
The fir (I, as the inventor and father of tragedy, is like a 
torrent rolling impetuoufly over rockst .forefts, and precipices; 
the fécond re?embles a * canal, which flows eently through 
delicious gardens ; and the third a river, that does not follow 
its courfe in a continued line, but loves to turn and wind his 
filver wave through flowery meads and rural kenes. 

Mr. firumoi gives this charaéler of the three poets, to whom 
the Athenian flage wai ûidebted for its perfeâion in tragedy, 
t iEfchylus drew it oilt of its original chaos and confafion» 
and made it appear in fome degree of luftre ; but it fiill re- 
tained the rude unfinifhed air of things in their beginning» 
which are generally defeâive in point of art and method. 
Sophocles and Euripides added infinitely to the dignity of 
tragedy. The fly le of the firft, as has been obicrved, is more 
noble and majeftick ; of the latter, more tender and pathetick; 
each perfeû in their way. In this diverflty of character, it is 
diflicult to refolve which is mofl excellent. The learned have 
always been divided upon this head ; as we are at this day, 
in regard to the two poets of our own nation» whole tragedies 


* / (annot nil wbeîber the idea of 
• ranal, thac flows gently through 
dfliciotii ffsrden*, mof properly imply 
ttft cbaraffer of Setbcjitt xvbicb u 
p^fulmrly diflinfui/bed by mMneft, 
grmr^Jtur, and elevation. Tbat of am 
im/ftuoiii end rapid firtam, wbofo 
làhn/etf fr^m the vulcMt of tbtir nt- 

thn art hud, and H bo heard afar •§% 
feemt ta me a mere fnitable iaisgê §J 
tbjt poei. 

f Tragceiliat primut ia hKCfll 
^fcbylus protolk ; fublimii, ft |ra- 
it grandiloqunt (mpa iif(|OC a^ 


vitiom ) fed rudis in picfifi|i»c U ia* 
compofitiis. S(ijÎMtU» K !• c. I» 

PREFACE. ixxxv 

ave made our ftage illaitrious, and net inferior to that of 

I have obferved, that the tender and pathetick difiingoifhes 
be compofitions of Euripides, of which Alexander of Pherae, 
he mod cruel of tyrants, was a proof. That barbarous man» 
ipon (ecing the Troades of Euripides aded» found himfelf fo 
Doved with it, that he quitted the theatre before the conclunon 
>f the play ; profcfllng, that he was alhamed to be feen in 
:ears for the diftrefs of Hercules and Andromache, who had 
never (hewn the lead companion for his own citizens, of whom 
he had butchered fuch numbers. 

When I fpeak of the tender and pathetick, I would not be 
Doderiiood to mean a paflion that foftens the heart into effemi* 
nacjr, and which, to our reproach, is almoil only received 
ispon our ftage, though rejeâed by the ancients, and condemned 
by the nations around us of greatefl reputation for their 
genius, and talle of the fciences of polite learning. The two 
great principles foi^ moving the paifions amongft the ancients, 
were terror and pity (/). And indeed, as we naturally deter- 
mine every thing from its relation (o ourfelves, or our parti- 
cular intereft, when we fee perfons t)f exalted rank or virtue 
finking under great evils, the fear of the like misfortunes, 
with which we know that human life is on all fides invefled, 
leizes upon us, and from a fecret impulfe of felf-love, we find 
ourfelves fenfibly atfeéted with the diftrefifes of others : Befides 
which, the (baring a * common nature with the red of our 
Ipecies, makes us fenfible to whatever befals them. Upon a 
fCiofe and attentive enquiry into thofe two payons, they will 
be found the mod important* aâive, extenfive, and general 
aSeâions of the (bul ; including all orders of men, great and 
fmall» rich and poor, of whatever age or condition. Hence 
the ancients, accuftomed to confult nature, and to take her 
for their guide in all things, conceived terror and compafiion 
to be the foul of tragedy ; and for that reafon, that thofe 
affections ought to prevail in it. The paflion of love was in 
DO efiimation amongft them, and had ieldom any (hare in thçir 
dramatick pieces ; though with u» it is a received opinion, 
that they cannot be fupported without it. 

It was worth our trouble to examine briefly in what manner 
this paflion, which has always been deemed a weaknefs and a 
blemiih in the ereateft characters, got fuch footing upon Ckur 
ftage. Corneille, who was the fird who brought the French 
tragedy to any perfection, and whcjn all thereit have followed, 


* Hoow Um : huouni nihil à me alieauiii potOt 7<r, 

Ixx?fvt PREFACE. 

found thr whole nation enamoured to madneA of romanidet, 
ai^l little «Jifpf/fc'd. to admire any thing not rcfembling them. 
From the délire of plcafing his audience, who were at the fame 
time liis jud^^es, he endeavoured to move them in the manner 
they hnd htrcn 3ccj1t')med to be affected ; and, by introduciiig in hi^ fcenes, to bring them the nearer to the predominant 
talU* of th'! ape tor romance. From the fame fourcc arofe that 
multiplicity of incidents, epifndes, and adventures, with which 
C'jr tiagitk pieccb are crouded and obfcured ; fo contrar)' to 
prnbibiiity, which will not admit fuch a number of extraor- 
dinary .ir.d fur prizing events in the Ihort fpace of four-and- 

ten: up.-^n the marvellous, than upon the probable'and natural. 
IJoth the Greeks and Romans have preferred'the iambickto 
the heroick verfe in their tragedies, not only as at the fkrft it 
has a kind of dignity better adapted to the ftage, but whilft it 
approachcî nearer to profe, retains fufficiently the air of poetry 
to pleafe the ear ; and yet has Coo little of it to put the audi- 
ence in mind of the peer, who ought not ro appear at al! io . 
reprefcntations, where other perfons are fuppofed to fpeakafid 
a^. Monfieur Dacier makes ti very juft rcfledlion in thi$ rc- 
{pc£i. He fays, that it is the misfortune of our tragedy "to 
have almnil no other vcrfe than whà( it has in common with 
cpick poetry, elegy, paftoral/fatyr, and comedy ; whereas the 
learned languages have a great variety of verftfication. 

This inconvenience is highly obvious in our tragedy ; which 
cannot avoid being removed by it from the natural and pro- 
bable, as it obliges heroes, princes, kings, and queens, to 
exprcfs themfelves in a pompous drain in their familiar con- 
VL-rfation, which it would be ridiculous to attempt in real life. 
The giving utterance to the mofl impetuous p.^flion5 in an oni- 
form cadence, and by hemiflichsand rhimes, would undoubtedly 
be tedious and off^rnfive to the ear, if the charmb of poetry, 
the elcpancc of expreflion, and the fpirit of the fentiment!, 
and perhnps, more than all of them, the rcHlUefs force of 
cuflom, had not in a manner fubjc^ed our reafon, and illuded 
our jud2,nu'nt. 

It wai not chance, therefore, which fuggefted to the Greeks 
the uff of iambicks in their tragedy. Nature iifelf feems to 
have di6\ated that kind of verfe to them. Inlhurfed by the 
fame unerring guide, they made choice of a dilf.-rent vcrfiTi- 
cation for ih»: chorus, nior ■ capable ofatfefting, and of biing 
fang ; bc'juufc it \va:> ncccfTary for the poetry lo Hune cut in ail 
3 iw 

PREFACE* Iwcxvîî 

iti tuftre, wh!lft the free converfttion between the real aAbfs 

was fufjpended. The chorus was an embelli(hment of the re» 

pjefentatîon, and a relaxation of the audience, and therefore 

' lequircd more exalted poetry and numbers to Aipport it, when 

«nited with muiick and dancing. 

Of the ancieni^ middle ^ ' and new comedy. 

' Whilft tragedy arofe in this manner at Athens, comedy» th« 
fecond fpecics of dramatick poetry, and which, till then, had 

' keen much neglected, begantobe cultivated with more atten- 
tion. Nature was. the common parent of both. We are fen- 

',. ably affcéied wkh the dangers, diftrefTes, misfortunes and, in 

J" a word» with whatever relates to the lives and condudl of 
iliuftrious pcrfons; and this gave birth to tragedy. And we 
are as curious to know the adventures, tondue, nnd dcfedVs 
of our equals ;: which fupply us with occafions of laughing, 
and being merry at the expencc of others. Hence comedy 
derives itfelf ; which is properly an image of private life. Its 
defign is to expofe derc£ls and vices upon the (lage, and by 
siExing ridicule to them, to make them contemptibtp; and 
confoquently, to inilru^ by diverting. Ridicule therefore, (or» 
to exprefs the fame word by another, Pleafantry) ought to pre* 
vail in comedy. 

This poem cook at different times three different forms at 
Athens, as well from the genius of the poets, as from the in- 
fluence of the government ; which occafioned various altera- 
tions in it. 

The ancient comedy, fo called * by Horace, and which he 
dates after the time of ^fchylus» retained fomethrng of its 
original rudenefs, and the liberty it had been ufed to take of 
buffooning and reviling the fpedlators from the cart of Thefpis. 
Though it was become regular in its plan, and worthy of a 

Îjreat theatre, it had not learnt to be more referved. It repre- 
ented real tranfat^ions, with the names, habits, ge(lure5, and 
likcnefs in ma Acs, of whomfocver it thought fit to facrificc to 
the publick divcrfion. In a Hate where it w«»8 held good policy 
to unmaflt whatever carried the air of ambition, iingularity, or 
knavery, comedy aflumcd the privilege to harangue, reform, 
and advifc the people upon the mod important occafions, and 
iiiterelh. Nothing was fparcd in A city of fo much liberty, or 
rather licence, as Athens was at that time. Generals, magi* 
ftratcs, govcrnmcDt, the very gods» were abandoned to the 


• Siiecrffit vcU> hii com«dia non fine mult» 

Lauàc. f^r, in Art» fcett 

Ixxxvîîî PREFACE. 

p(.cL*s iatyrîcil vein ; and ail was well receired, provided tlic 
cuiiicJy was diverting, and the Accick fait not wântîne- 

(.<) Ill <me: of thcl'c comedies, not only the priell of Jupiter 
detcrmiiicà to quit his fcmcc, bccaufc more facrifices are ijot 
ottVrcJ (1) the ^'OlI ; bat Mercury himfclf comes in a (larvin? 
coiidltiv.n, to fcjk his fortune amonglt mankind, and offers to 
iVivc a*» a ('oit^r, iutilcr, bailiff, guide, door-keeper ; in (borti 
in any capacity, rather than to return to heaven. In another 
(.v\ (he lame gods in extreme want and necefllty, from tho 
birds having built a city in the air, whereby their provifiont 
are cut ofV, and the I'mokc of incenfe and facrifices prevented 
from afcending to heaven, depute three am bafladors in the 
name of Jupiter to conclude a treaty of accommodation with 
the bird^, upon fuch conditions as they (hall approve. 'I'ho 
chamber of audience, where the three famifhcd gods are re* 
ceived, is a kitchen welMlortd with excellent game of all forts. 
Here Hercules, deeply fmitten with the fmcll of road- meat, 
which he apprehends to he moreexquifite and nntritious than 
th:it of incenie,- begs leave to make his abode, and to turn the 
fpi(, and afTill the cook upon occpfion. 7*he other pieces of 
Ariilnphanes abound with Arokes (1111 more fatyrical and fcvcre 
upon the principal divinities. 

1 am not much furprized at the poet's infulting the gods, 
and treating them with the utmoA contempt, from whom he 
had nothing to fear : Hut I Cannot help wondering at his 
having brought the moll illufiric us and powerful pcrfons ef 
Atru'iis upon the ftagr, and that he prefumed to attack the 
gnvernnK'iit iifelf, without any manner of rcfpeél or rcfcrve. 

Clccn, having returned triumphant, contrary to the general 
cxpcftaiion, from the expedition againfl Spha£leria, was looked 
upon by the people as the greatcfl captain of that age. Ari- 
flophane^, to let that bad man in a true light, who was the (on 
of a curlier, and a currier himfelf, and whcfc rife was owing 
folely to his temerity and imprudence, was fo bold as to make 
him the l"ubjeé\ of a comedy (jr), without being awed by his 
power nm\ reputation : Hut he was obliged to play the pait of 
Cleon hi m Tel f, and appeared for the fir 11 time upon the liage 
in that character ; not one of the comedians daring to reprclent 
him, nor to expofe himfi'lf to the refontment of 16 formidable 
an enemy, llisi face was fmecred over with winc-leis ; becaufe 
noworkuLin could be found, that wi uld venture to make a 
malk rrfembling Cl'vn, a? was ufual when perforas were br^'UrhC 
upon the llagf*. In this piece he reproache» him with embiz- 
aling the publick treafures, with a violent paf&on for bribe» 

(»] I'lutui. [m) 7tt Binfi, I J ) 7b4 Kniihtt. 

î P R £ F A C B. hnaax 

\ «nd piefentSt vinth craft in feducing the people, and denies him 

^' tlie glory of the aôion at SphaAeria, which he attributes chiefly 

L to the mare his collegae had in it. 

! . . In the JciféomiaMs, he accufes Lamachus of having been 

. made jreneral, rather by bribery than merit. He impatcs to 
him his youth, inexperieoce, and idlenefs ; at the fame time that 
he» ,and many others, convert to their own ufe the rewards ^e 
only to valour and real fervices. He reproaches the republicic 
with their preference of the younger citizens to the elder, in the 

' government of the ftate, and the command of armies. He 
tells them plainly, that when the peace (hall be concluded» 

. neither Cleonymus, Hyperbolus, nor many other fuch knaves» 

- all mentioned by name, ihall have any Iharc in the pobliclc 
nflTairs ; they being always ready to accufc their fellow> citizens 

• of crimes, and to enrich themfelves by foch informations. 

In his comedy called the Wafps^ imitated by Racine in his 
Flrndtmrs^ he expofes the mad pailion of the people for pro- 

• fiecntions and trials at law, and thé enormous injuftice frequently 
committed in paiTing fentence and giving judgR>ent. 

The poçt (»), eoncerned to ice the republicic obtain ately 

- bent upon the unhappy expedition of Sicily, endeavours to 
excite in the people a final difgul^ for fo ruinous a war, and 

, to iofpire them with the defire of a peace, as much theintrveft 
of the viétors as the vanquillied, after a war of feveral years 

. duration, equally pernicious to each party, and capable of in- 
volving all Greece in ruin. 

None of A riftophanes's -pieces explains better his boldnefs, 

, in.fpeaking upon the moil delicate affairs of the date in the 

. crowded theatre, than his comedy called Lyfiflrata» One of 
the principal nfagiftrates of Athens had a wife of that name, 
who is fuppofed to have taken it into her bead to compel 
Greece to conclude a peace. She relates, how, during the 
war, the women enquiring of their huibands the refait of their 

. counfels, and whether they bad not refqlved to make peace 
with Sparta, received no anl'wers but imperious looks, and 
orders to meddle with their own affairs : That, however, 
they perceived plainly to what a low condition the government 
was aedined ; That they took the liberty to remondrate mildly 
to their huibands upon the rafhnefs of their counfels ; but that 
their humble reprelentations had no other cHr^ than to offend 
and enrage them : Thar, in fine, being confirmed by the 
general opinion of all Attica, that there were rto longer any 
men in the Aae, nor heads for the adminidration of affairs, 
their patience being quite exhaufted, the women had thought 


(«} TheFeacu 

xc P R E P A C B. 

it propter and advifrable to take the government upon t! 
fclvc^, and prclervtf Greece, whether it would or no, 
the folly and madncfs of its rcfolves. "■ For her part 
** declares, thùt (he has taken pofEiffion of the city and 
•* fury, in onltT,** fnys (he, *• to pievent Fifanderandhis 
*' icdera:L5. the four hundred aJminiftraiors,. from exc 
" trciible> accord in{» to their cudom, and from robbing 
'* j'liblick r.i ul'uiil." (Was ever any thing fo bold r) She 
on with proving, that the women only are capable of rctri« 
atlUir.-, by this burloTque argument; that admitting thin 
be in fuch a (late of perplexity and confufion, the fex, a 
to mod to untangling their threads, were the only perfo 
ice chom right again, as being belik qualified with the nec( 
«liJicls, temper, and moderation. The Athenian poli 
Lfc thus made inferior to the abilities of the women, v 
iiic Only rcprofcnrcd in a ridiculous light, to turn the de 
upon tbcir hulhands in the adminillration of the governn 

Thcfc cxtrai^h from Arillophanes, taken*almo(l wor 
uord from father l]rumoi, feemed to me very proper 
right undcrftanding at once of that poct*s charader, an» 
gor.iiis of the ancient comedy, which was,^ a*, we fee, 
latyr M the mod poignant and fevcre kindv that had all 
to itiVlt an i-ndcpcndency from, refpedt to perfons, a 
which nothing was facrcd. It is no wonder that Cicerc 
(itmns fo licentious and exceilive a liberty. * It misb 
fays, have been tolerable, had it only attacked bad cit 
and fcditious orators, who endeavoured to raife commoti( 
tiiJt llace, fuch as Cleon, Clephon, and Hyperbolus ; but 
a Pericles, who for many years had governed the coir 
wealth both in war and peace with equal wifdom and autl 
(he n.ight have added, and a Socrates declared by Apol 
wilcll of mankind) is brought upon the Hage to be laugh 
by the puMick, it is as if our Plautus, or Naevius, had 
upon the Scipioes, or Ca:cilius reviled Marcus Cato i 

That liberty is ftill more ofiVnfive to us, who are bo 
and live under a monarchical governmont, which it far 
being favourable to licence. Bat without intending to j 
tAc coududl of AriAophancs, which, to judge properly of 


* Quern Ill^non attgit, vel potlus 
^ucm oon vrxavit ? Efto, popularei 
homincf, improbus, in remp. feiti- 
tiofof, Cleor.em, Clcophonrcm, Hy- 
fcrbolodi \'jp(it t patiamur — Sed Peri- 
cUm. cum jim fujc civiiati m^uma 
auâoriiate pluiitno» aooos doni Se 

belli prrfuiflef, viblari verfi 
eos agi in fcena, non plut 
quam n Plautui noAer voluifl 
NvTia» P.,&Cn. Scipfon^ a 
.cilius M. Catoni maledicerc 
Jr^^fm, Cit, it Rtf, iik iv* 


Étoiicxcufiibley I think it would be necefTary to lay afide the pre- 
Vodices of nature, nations, and times, and to imagine we live 
wi thofe remote ages in a Âate purely democratical. We muH; 
'Bot fancy Ariftophanes to have been a perfon of littk confe- 

* l|aence in his republick, as tne comick writers generally are ia 
; "•ttr days. The king of Perfia had a very different idea of him. 

Sa) It is a known (lory, that in an audience of the Greek am- 
laiTadors, his firft enquiry was after a certain comick poet 
L (meaning Ariftophanes) that put all Greece in motion, and 
^«ve fuch efFèélual councils againll him. Ariftophanes did 

* that upon the ftage, which Demollhcnes did afterwards in the^ 
^■■" pnblick affemblies. The poet's reproaches were no lefs ani- 
!**a[iated than the oi'ator's. His comedies fpoke a language that 
^>bccame thexroonfcls of the republick. It was addrcffed to the 
S tàtnc people, upon the fame occafions of the ftatc, the fame 
" 'means to fucceis> and the fame obftacles to their meafures. Ia 

Athens the wliole people were the fovereign, and each of them 
- had an e<iual fhare in the fupremc authority. Upon this they 
■" wctc continually intent, were fond of difcourfing thcmfelvcs» 
and of hearing the (entimcnts of others. The publick affair* 
r' were the bufmcfs of every individual ; in which they were de- 
.' £rous of bting fully informed, that they might know how-to- 
condudl* themfelves on every occafion of war or peace, which 
freq^uently offered» and to diflinguifti upon their own, as well 
as upon the deftiny of their allies, or enemies. Hence roCe . 
' the liberty, taken by the con^ick poets, of introducing the 
-' affairs of thé ftate inta their performances. The people were 
lb finr from being offended at it, or at the manner in which 
thofe writers treated the principal perfons of the (late, that 
they conceived their liberty in fomè meafure to con fill in it. 

Three * perfons particularly excelled in the ancient comedy;. 
EupoHs, Cratinus, and Ariftophanes. The laft is the onlv 
one of them* whofe pieces have come entire down to us, and,. 


{a) Arîftoph..în Acharn» 
^ Eupolit, ttque Cratinui, Ariftophanefque poetae, 
At<}ue alii, quorum comœdia prifca vlrorum ef^. 
Si quis erat dignus defcribi, quad malus, aut fur, 
Quoi mœchus foret, aut ficarius, aut alioqui 
Famofus ; mulca cum Hbertate notabant. Hot, Sai» IV, /. i-, 

H^tb Arijhpbanes^fafyrkk fage, 

fyhen ancient comedy amuCd the aggp. 

Or Eup9lii\ or Cratinus* wit j 

jtad othrrs that sll-licens^d pctm neurit ; 

If ont t worthy to be fii€%un^ efcaf>ed tbe fceno^ • 

Hiftillkk knave, or thief of lofty man j 


xcii PREFACE. 

ont of the great number of thoTe» eleren are all that 
He flouriflied in an age whenXjreece abounded with gn 
an J was contemperary with Socrates mnd Euripides, « 
furvived. Daring the Peloponnefian war* he nade hb 
figure ; lefs as a writer to amnfe the peopk with his c( 
than as a cenfor of the government, retained co rtii 
fiatCy and to be almoft the arbiter of his country. 

He is admired for an elegance, poignancy, and hap 
cxprefCon, or in a word, that Attick fait and fpirit, 
the Roman language could never attain, and for * wh 
ilophanes is more remarkable than any other of th 
authors. His particolar excellence was raillery. N 
touched the ridicule in characters with fuch fuccefs, 
better how to convey it in all its full force to others. Bi 
neccfTary tQ have lived in his times for a right tafl 
works. The-fubtle fait and fpirit of the ancient raill 
cording to Mr. Brumoi, is evaporated through length 
and what remains of it is become flat and infipid 
though the (harped part will retain its vigoor thi 
all ages. 

Two confidcrable defcCls are juftly imputed to tl 
which very much obfcurt, if nm entirely effjce hi 
Thcfe are,*' low buffoonery, and grofs obfcenity; wl 
jedlions have been oppofed to no purpofe from the cha 
his audience; the ^ulk of which generally confi(le< 
poor, the ignorant, and dregs of the people, whom 
It was as neccfTary to pleaTe, as the learned and t 
The depravity of the inferior people's tafte, which once 
Cratinus and his company, bccaufe bis fcenes were no 
comick enough for them, is no excufe for Aridoph 
Menander could find out the art of changing that g 
tafte, by introducing a fpecies of comedy, not altog 
moc^eft as Plutarch feems to infinuate, yet much chat 
any before his time. 

The grofs obfcenities, with which all Ariftophanes'; 
dies abound, have no excufe ; they only denote an « 
ITbertinifm in the fpeâators, and depravity in the poei 
ucmoit fait that could have been btftowed upon them 

ITbf hofe aiulCrtr toai drawn firth tojlghl ^ 
The fecrtt murtb'rtr trtmbliug lurked the night \ 
Vice thy' dit f elf i and each amhitiouijfork j 
jtll baldly branded tuitb the poet*t mark, 

* Antiqua comodia ûncerftQk illim fiuflsonls Attici grttiam 
Sttinet. Si^intVU 

IP R E F A C E. 


Seritnot the cafe, would not have atoned for laughing 
f» or for making others laugh» at the expence of decency 
^good manners *• And in uiis cafe it may well be faid, 
u were better to have no wit at all, than to make To ill a 
of it f. Mr. Brumoi is vety much to be commended for 
having taken care, in giving a general idea of Arifto- 
iies's writings» to throw a veil over thofe parts of them» 
: mi|;ht have given offence to modedy. Though fuch he- 
iour be the indîfpenfible rule of religion, it is not always 
^nred by thofe who pique themfelves moft on their eruditi- 
and fometimes prefer thé tide of- Scholar to that of Chrif- 

lie ancient com«dy (bbfifted till Lyfander*s time, who, 
B having made himfelf mailer of Athens, changed the form 
he government» and put it into the hands of thirty of the 
cipal citizens. The fatyrical liberty of the theatre was 
ifiveto them» and therefore they thought fit to put a (lop 
• The reafon of this alteration is evident, and makes 
1 the reflexion made -before upon the privilege of the 
8» to criticife with impunity upon the perfons at the head 
hé ^ate. The whole authority of Athens was then in- 
d in tyrants. The democracy was abolifhed. The people 
no longer any (hare in the government. They were no 
t the prince ; their fovereignty had expired. The right of 
i£' their opinions and fuffrages upon affairs of (late was at 
nS ; nor oared they either m their own perfons or by the 
Sp prefnme to cen(ure the fentiments and conduct of their 
éH. The calling perfons by their names upon the dage 
prohibited : But the poetical fpirit foon found the fecret 
lade the intention of the law» and to make itfelf amends 
the redraint it fnffered in the neceility of ufing feigned 
I». It then applied to the difcovery of the ridicule in 
wn charaâers, which it copied to the life, and from thence 
lired the double advantage of g^tifying the vanity of the 
:s» and the malice of the audience, in a more refined man* 
: The one had the delicate pleafure of putting the fpefla- 
upon goefling their meaning, and the other of not being 
aken in their fuppofitions, and of affixing the right name 
:he charaflers reprefented. Such was the comedy, Ance 
ed the MiJdU ComeJjf of which there are fome in (lances in 


Nimivm riiHi pretiara eft, fi \ Non pejus duterîm tard! ingerJi 
ifitii impeodM conâtC B^intiU efle qittm mali, ^mmt'di /'^« î« <• 3* 


It .continued till the time of Alexander the ûreàf* wliql 
ing entirelv aiTured himfelf of the'empire of Oreeoe by 
defeat ^ the Thebans, occafioned the puttHig ai check i 
the licence of the poets, which increafed daily. From tii 
the Nenu Comedy took its birth, which was onl^ an imitadc 
private life, and brought nothing upon the ûage with fei 
names, and Atppoiititious adventures. 

{d) Chacon peint avec art dans ce nonveau miroir 
S*y vit avec plaîiir, #u crot ne s*y pas voir. 
L'avare des premiers rit du tableau £dele 
D'un avare louvent trace fur fon modèle t 
£t mille fois un fat, ^nement exprimé. 
Méconnut le protrait fur lui-même formé* 

In tbU netw glafs^ <whilfte4tcb bim/elf furtHfji'd^ 
Ht fat ivitb pleafure% iho* ijimjelf ^wàs plafd": 
^be mîftr grinttd nvbilji afvatict -was dranv/tf 
Nor thought the faithful likenefs nvas his oivti 


His oivn dear felf no imaged fool could find ^ 
But f WW a thou/and other fops dcfigr^d. 

This. may properly be called fine comedy, Tind is tli 
Menander. Of one hundred and eighty, or rather eight 
corditig to Suidas, compofed by him, all of which Terc 
faid to have tranilated, there remains only a few fragi 
The merit of the originals may be judged from the exec 
of their copy. Quintilian, in fpèaking of Menander» 
afraid to fay, that with the beauty of his works, and the I 
of his reputation, he obfcured, or rather obliterated, the 
ef all the writers in theYame way. He obferves in ai 
pafTage, that his own times were not fo * juft to his mi 
they ought to have been, which has been the fate of 
others ; but that he was fulHciently made amends by tl 
vourable opinion of poflerity. And indeed Philemon, 
mick poet of the fame age, though prior to him, was ] 
red before him. 

^'he Theatre of the Ancients defcribed. 

I have already obferved, that\/Efchylus was the firfl 

der of a fixed and durable theatre adorned with fuitable 

rations. It was at firfl, as well as the amphitheatres, c 

fed of wooden planks ; but thofe breaking down, by 1 

too great a weight upon them, the Athenians, exceHive 

(J ) Boileau Art. Poet. Cant. iii. 

* Quidam, ficut Meoander, jufti- I judicia fuat coiifectttit ^f 
ora pofterotum, quam fux aetatis, | ili* c* 6. 

^lireil of.drâmatickrepreièntationsy were induced by th»t 
Indent to ereA thofe foperb (IrttâMres, which were- imit&ted 
PU'wards with fo much fplendor by the Ronsan magnificence. 
ImtJ Audi fay oi^ihrn, has almoft as much relation to 
•.ftoinany as the Athenian theatres; and is extracted en^ 
Shf. finoin Mr« Boipdin's learned diflertation -upon tht theatre 
'tbejincieocs (f), who has treated the fubjedl in all its ex^ 

X*he theatre of the ancients was divided into three prîtidpal 
fts ; each of which had its peculiar appellation. The di- 
ioD for the a^ors was called m general the fccne> or ftage<$ 
It for the fpeâators was particularly termed the theatre^ 
ich muft have been of yaft extent (/), as at Athens it was 
kable of containing above thirty thouOtnd perfons ; and the ' 
lieftra» which amongftthe Greeks was the place afllgned for 

pantomimes and dancers, thodgh at Rome it was appro* 
ated to the fenatorsand veftal virgins. 
The theatre was of a fernicir.cular form on one fide, and 
tare on the other. The fpacc contained withi'n the femicir- 
B was allotted to the fpe^ators, and had feats placed one 
we anotherto the top of the builiiing. Thefqnare parti in 

front of it, was the adors divinon ; and in the interval, 
;weeB both'» was tAe orcheflra.' 

rbe great theatres had three rows of porticoes, raifed one 
an another» which formed the body \jt' the edifice, and at 
I utme time three drfferent ilories for the fears. From the 
;hcil of thofe porticoes the women faw the reprcfentation, 
fcred from the weather. The refl of the theatre was unco- 
rd» and all the bufinefs of the ilage was performed in the 
sn «ir. 

Each- of thefe ilories confided of n\tit rows of featSi includ* 
r the landing- placet which divided them from each other, 
1 ferved as a puilage from fide to fide. But as this landing- 
ice and paflagetoolc up the fpace of two benches, there wero- 
ly feveo to fit upon, and confcqucncly in each llory there 
re fcven rows of feats. They were from fifteen to eighteen 
:hes in height, and twice as'inuch in breadth; fo. that the 
rotators had room to fit with their legs extended, and with- 
t being incommcded by thofe of the people above them, no 
>t- board s Ixîing provided for them. 

Each of thefe Aories of benches were divided in two dif- 
rent manners ; in their height by the landing-places, calle 1 

(*) nUmoirtêf the Acad. o/Infcr'tjf^, &C, VqI. I. r« 13^» *C. (/) Stri ' . 
X. p. 393. Herod* li viii* c. ^5. 


1)/ the Romini Pré€tinfHôn$Si and in their circamfert iK 
fevcrid (lair-cafeti pccwUar to each ftory» which interl 
them in right Wnth tending towards the centre of the tl 
f^ave the form of wedgei to theqoantity of feats between 
Irom whence they were called Cunii% 

Dchind thefeftoriei of feati were covered galleriea» tfa 
which the people thronged into the theatre by great 
openinf;», contrived for that purpofc in the walls next th( 
I'hofe opening! were called Fomitpria^ from the multiti 
the people crowding through them into their placet. 

Ai the a^lors could not be heard to the extremity 
theatre, the (>reeks contrived a meant to fupply that < 
and to augment the force of the voice» and make it mo 
tin^l and articulate. For that purpofe they invented a k 
large vciTclfl of copper, which were difpofed under the f< 
the theatre, in fuch a manner, as made all foundt (Irikt 
the car with more force and diAinAion. 

The orcheHra bring fituated» at I have obferved» bi 
fhr two other part» of the theatre» of which one was cii 
ami the other fquare, it participated of the form of eac) 
ocrupted the fpace between both. It wat divided into 

The firft and mod confiderable wat more particularly 
x\\c orchcflra, from a Greek word (/) that fignifiet to 
It was appropriated to the pantomimes and dancers, a 
all fuch iubaltern ad^ort at played between the aâs, and 
end of the reprefentations. 

The frcond was named Sv^IXh, from its being fquare, 
form of an altar. Here the chorus was generally placed 

And in the third the Greeks generalTv bellowed thei 
phony, or band of mufick. They called it Mnrnimv, fr 
bcinff fituate at the bottom of the principal part of the tl 
which they Ailed the fcencs. 

1 Atall defcribe here this third part of the theatre, 
the fcenesi which was alfo fabdivided into three di 

I'ho ArA and moA conAderable was properly calk 
fienc!i, and gave name to this whole divifion. It occups 
whole front of the building from fide to Ade, and ^ 
place allotted for the decorations. This front had two 
wings at its extremity, fiom which hung a lar^e curtail 
WH4 Irt down to open the fcene, and drawn up betwei 
aCla» when any thing in the reprefcaiation anade it neçcAl; 

{g) 'OfXfifûéH 

» R B F A C S. <cvii 

t tkoni, called by the Greeks indifferently vponimv^ 
Eft»» and 1^ the Ronaans Fro/ceuium, and Pulfi/um, was 
lopen fpace in front'of the fcene, in which the aétor$ 
méc their parts, and which» 6y the help of the deço« 
I» reprefented eithef the publtck place or forum, a com* 
itet, or the coontry ; but the place fo reprefented was 
I ia the open air. 

s third divifion was a part referred behind the fcenes, and 
by the Greeks ma^Kfitm, Here' the aélors dreiTed them- 
< and the decorations were locked up. In the fame place 
ilfo kept the machines» of which the ancients had abun- 
Ui their theatres. 

only. the porticoes and the building ùf the fcene were 
If it was neceflary to draw fails, faflened with cords <o 
, orer the reft of the theatre, to fcreen the audience front 
Uit tif the fun. But as this contrivance did not prevent 
«Cy occafioned by the perfpiration and breath of fo nume- 
tn afièmbly, the ancients took care to allay it it by a 
of rain ) conveying the water for that ufe above the por* 
9 which falling again in form of dew through an infinity 
ill pores concealed in ih€ (latues, with which the theatre 
idea, ;did not only diffufe a grateful coolnefs all around^ 
ie moft fragrant exhalations along with it ; for this dew 
Iways perfumed. Whenever the reprefentations were in- 
>ted by ftorms» the fpeâators retired into Uie ponicoe 
d the feats of the theatre. 

e paffioQ of the Athenians for reprefentations of ttài 
it not conceivable. Their eyts, their ears, their imagi- 
I, their underftanding, all (hared in the .fatisfaâion. 
Ag gave them fo fenfible a pleafure in dramitick per* 
nces, either tragick or comickf as the ftrokes which were 
I at the affairs of the publick ; whether pure chance oc^ 
led the application, or the addrefs of the poets, who 
how to reconcile (he mod remote fubjefts with the tranf* 
IS of the republick. They entered by that means into 
cerefts of the people, took occafion torfooth their pafTions» 
rize their preteniions, juHify, and fometimes condemn, 
:onduâ, entertain them with agreeable hopes, inllruél 
in thei- duty in certain nice conjunélures ; ineff^daf 
they often not only acquired the applaufcs of the fpec- 
, but credit and influence in the publick affairs and 
îla: Hence the theatre became fo grateful, and fo much 
ncern of the people. It was in this manner, accordino* 
e authors, that Euripides artfully reconciled hi i traged? 
L. L e ot* 

xcviîi PREFACE. 

of ' l*al;imedei with the fentence paflS;d «^ainft Sccrelci 
« «nilluftrioui ejeample of antiquity» the into 
€>i a HiiUifophcr, ApprefTrd by a vile malignity fuf»! 
A2»&iiilt him by power and fiiAion. 

Accident w».-> often the oecafioo of fuddcn and unfoi 
applications which front their appofitcner» were very i 
able to the people. Upon this verfe of ^fchyiu» in pn 

m*Tit hi I dtfift 

f\ot to apftar^ hut b$ tU greai ami g^nit 

the whole audience rofe up, and unanimoufly applied 
.Ariitidci (/). The fame thin;; happened torhi)opo:mcu 
Nrinaun gamej. At the indnnc tie entered the théâtre^ 
il rie:, were (inging upon the Aage : 

lie eomet, to nvbom nue cwt 

__, y — 

Our itétrr/Yf the ttoblejl good beloiv 

All the Greek» cad rhtir eyes upon Philopcrmen {m) an* 
clapping of hand», and acclumation» of joy, exprciTtd 
Vî-!l^•ratlOll for th: hero. 

I») 111 the i'dtiic manner at Rome, durinc^ the banlflim 
( It tin, when iomc vcrfr* of f Acciusi wnich reproachi 
^ iirr-kii with thi'ir ingratitude in fuffering th<: b.ininim 
'I rlamou, wtrc repeated by ^Efop, the beil a^tor of hiJ 
they drew teari fjom thr cyc% of the whole aflcmbly. 

Upon anf», though very different, occrtfi/^n, the F 
people applied to Pompey the Great fome verier to this 

{q) ^ lit our unhappine/i bat tnadt tbet great \ 

and then addrcfliug to the people^ 

'I be time Jhall come nnhenyriu Jhal! late deplore 
So gfteit a power coi>JiJcd to Juch^handt ; 

the rpcéiatora obliged the aClur to repeat thefe verfei i 

(/) Mut. In AriO'iH. p. 310. (m) IMd. InPbilopam. p. )<it* ( 
if. 0)4'. (Ill' Sr«t. 0. ift'j. I a]. [u) lbid,A4 AtliC. 1* it. fifif. 19, 

• // /.' M'*! ctrlê'm mfbttber ilh pie/i wai pntr er ptftfi^r to the 1 

.V« tuiit» 

•\ O iitttrArin'i Argivt. \i\Ane% Clt»\\, Immfmorei bcatâcJI^ 
|.4ii.aif Itviitii, ii«i;l.- pcUi, pal/um i*uuiiai. 


^n fir the retre/enfations of the Theatre, one of tht principal 
tau/ii of tbt degeneracy and corruption of the Athenian ftate. 

When we compare the happy times of Greece, in which 
trope and Aiia refounded with nothing but the fame of the 
wiifta victories» with the later a^es, when the power of 
itUp and Alexander the Great had m a manner fubje^ed it, 
\ mail be furprized at the (trange alteration in the affairs of 
It repablick* Bot what it moil niaterial, is the knowledge 
the caufes and progrefs of this declenfion ; and thefê Mr. de 
Dorreil has difculTed in an admirable manner in the preface 
his tranflation of DemoAhene&'s orations. 
There was no longer at Athens any traces of that manly and 
goroas policy» equally capable of planning good, and re- 
eving bad fuccefs. Inilead of that» there remained only an 
:onfiilent loftinefs» apt to evaporate in pompous decree*». 
ley were no more thofe Athenians» who» when menaced by 
leiage of Barbarians» demoli(hcd their houfcb to build (hips 
th the timber» ' and whofe women ftoned the abjc«5l wretch to 
aihy that propofed to appeafe the grand monarch by tribute 
bomaee. The love of eafe and pleafure had almoft entirely 
tiAgaimed that of glory» libertv» and independence, 
PcrkleSy that great man» fo abiblute» that thofe who envied 
D treicÂl him as a fécond Piliflratus» was the fird author of 
«degeneracy and corruption. With the dciign of concili;(tit)g 
; favour of the people» he ordained» that upon fuch day:; as 
mes or facrificcs were celebrated» a certain number of oboli 
3uld be diJlributcd amongft them ; and that in the a/Temblics, 
which affairs of ilatc were to be tranfaéted, every individual 
nild receive a certain pecuniary gratification in right of prc- 
)€«• Thus the members of the repuhlick were (eien for the 
H time to fell their care in the adminiilration of the govern* 
;nt» and to rank amongd fervilc employments the moil noble 
liions of the fovcicign power. 

Ic was not difHcuIt to forefee where fo exceffive an abufe 
mid cn<i ; and to remedy it, it .was propofed to eflablifh a 
lid for the fupport of a war, and to make it capital to advife» 
lon any account whatfocvcr, the application of it to other 
es : Btit, notwithftandin;^, the ahufc always fubfifled. At 
il it fcemed tulerablc, whilil the citizen, who was fupported 
thepublick cxpence, endeavoured to deferve its liberality by 
ung his duty in the field for nine months together. Kvcry 
le was to ierve in his turn, and whoever failed was treated as 
dcferter without dillinâion : But at length the number of the 
ftiifgrcflurb carried it ;&gain(l the law ; and impunity» as it 

e s com* 

• I 


il'. :.LC aroic principally cneir pamon» or rainer irr 
{'uLiick (htws The death of Epaminondasy which (i 
J iOmife them the greateil adTantage, gave the final i 
c.'.cir r-jir. Lud dedru&ioo. " Their courage," fays Ji 
•* did r;ot lurvivc that illuftrioas Theban. Free tVoni 
** who kept their emulation alive, they iunk into a le 
*' r.cti. aii'j effeminacy. The funds for armaments by 
** i\:L were i'oon lavifhed upon games and feafts. The 
** SLï.Qiu.J:zx*i pay was diAribu ted to the. id le citizen, c 
*' in ÛjÛ luxurious habits of life. The re^« refentatioi 
•* th^'a:re v>eie preferred to the exrrcifcs of the camp. 
*« âr.d îîîiliîar/ knowledge were entirely difregarded 
** c;)ptair.s were in no eftimation ; uhihl good poets 
** cellent comcdi::r:S engrofîed the univcrfal applaufe. 
Kyiravagaijce of this kind makes it eafy to compi 
what muhitudes the people thronged to the drama 
foroiances. As no expence was fpared in embellifliii 
exorbitant fums were funk in the fer vice of the 
•* If," fays Piutarch (^), '* what each reprefentats< pitccL coit the Athenians were rightly cj 
it would appear, that their cx pences in playing th' 
nnlians, the Pha. icians, Œdipus, Antigone, M< 
Lic6ira, (tragcdic: vvriiten either by Sophocles or E 
•* v^src i;rcaicr, than thcfe which had been cmployi 
•* the Darbaiians in defence of trc li-crty, and fo; 

< t 

PREFACff. tï 

terfere with the affairs of the publick^ nor the necefTary^ 
tpences of the government." 

After al)»" fays Plutarch, in a pafTâge which I have alrc&J/ 
I» •* of what utility have thefc tragedies been to Ailjcns^ 
lough {o much boaited by the people, and admrrcd by the 
sft of the world ? Wc find, that the prudence of Themiflo 
Lei enclofed the city with ftrong walls r that the fine *:.fl': 
ltd magnificc^nce of Pericles improved and ador?'"«l it j. 
bat the noble fortitude of Miltiades preicrved i*. Ii^'< ;:y ; 
nd that the moderate conduct of Cimon nf j-ifi-: it tlio 
m pire and government of all Greece." Tl ii»c wife ami 
oed poetry of Euripides, the fublime dif^ion of Sophocles^ 
lofty buflcin nf ifLichylus, have obtained eqml advantajir.cS' 
the city of Athens, by delivering it from TinpendTng cala- 
ieiy or by adding toits glory, I confent (in iMutarch*fr words, 
I ** dramaticlc pieces fhould be ranked wirh trophies of vie- 
ory, the poeiick pieces with the fields of battle, and the 
^mpofittons of the poets with the j;reat exploits of the 
generals." But what a comparifon would this be? On the 
fide would be fren a few writers, crowned with wrcarhs of 
» and dragging a goat or an ox after them, the rewards and 
:imt affigned them for excelling in tragic k poetry : On the 
fff a train of illulhious captains, furroundcd with colonies 
■ded, citiet taken, and nations fubjeded by their wifdom 
I Valour, it is not to perpettratc the viélorîes of ^fchylu» 
I Sophocles, but in remembrance of the glorious battles nt 
rathoAy Salamin, K.irymendon, and many others, tlut fevis 
feafti are celebrated every month by the Giecians. 
rheconclufion of Plutarch from hence, in which we ouohr 
Igree with him, is, thnt it was the higheil imprudence in 
• Athenians, to prefer pleafure to duty, the pfifli^>n for the 
atre to the love of their eountry, trivial reprcfcitntion^ to 
application to pui)Il k bufincfs, and to conluinr, in uftlci:» 
^nces and dramaiick entertainments, the funds intendrc^- 
the fupport ot flemh snd armies. Maccdon, .tiil then cl» 
re and inconfidcrable, well knew how to take adv^jnta^^e of 
f Athenian indolence and effeminacy; and Philip, in- 
lAed by the Greeks ihemfelve5, amongit whom he had fop 
eraJ years applied himfelf fuccefsfully to the art of war» wa^ 

e 3 not 

rc9mm antca Macfdonum norrrn 
èmérgeret ; & Philippui.obff s iri<*nnia 
Thcbii habitus, Epammondic £c I'c- 
I lopid« virtiitibus crudttut, fcg'^ijrn 
lit Th ^imT^f, I MacedonicGrircnae Afiar ccrvicibu&^ 

Qj«b«n rehui rffe^iim f#, nt I vflof jugum fervlinti», iropori»-ict, 
r oaia Giscoiuxn^ lorduiian Si ob- [ 'Juft» \, vi, c. 9. 


not long before he gdve Greece a msAcr, and fttbjcfte 

t!.c* \r»kc, as we (hall fee in the fequel. 

1 ::in now to open fan entirely new fcene to the reader's 
hut upv^onhy his curiofity and attention. We have fee 
i'.itCï uf no grtût cnnfîderatîon, Media and Pcrfia, i 
thciTMclws far and wide, under the condu^ of Cyrus» 
torr('!)t of dcvourit:g fire, and by amazing rapidity cc 
nud r>t! .i'.rj many provinct-s and kingdoms. We fhall ft 
lirit va.i viKj'ire Tiling the nations under its dominion i 
lien, ;hc IVriians, Mcdes, Phœnicians, Egyptians, B, 
iii:;ii<i, Indian!», and many others, and falling with all the 
(;f All. I Dn4 the £afl upon a little country» of very fm; 
:ct.r, a:.d deUitutc of all foreign a (E (lance ; I mean G 
^, on the («nc hat>d, we behold fo many nations i 
i<;;'..i}ii r, fiieli I reparations of war made for feveral year 
i; rtii>ch diii'icrcc ; innumerable armies by ft*a and land 
ivch tU'cu i':» the iea could hardly contain ; and, on the 
haiid, two wciik cities, Athens and Lacedxmon, aban 
Ky all tlicir allies, and left almoft entirely to tbemfelTei 
wc not rcafrn to believe, that thife two little cities are 
to Ik utterly deflroyed and fwallowed up by fo formida 
ciciiiy i nnd that there will not be fomuch as any footfl 
tlM-m left remaining? And yet we (hall find that they 
viiiuritiUi I and by their invincible courage, and the i 
t. .nlis they gained, Loth by fea and land, made the I 
I fV{jlio l.iy afidc all thoughts of ever turning their arms i 
(Jfcccc Miy more. 

I'hc I.inoty of the war between thePer(ians and the G 
will illullratc the truih of this maxim. That it is not the 
l.tT, liut the v:ilour of the troops, and the condnfl 
jenerals, on which depend the fuccefs of military cxped 
'f he reader will admire the furprizing courage and intre 
(.f tlie great men at the head of the Grecian affairs, 
pr iiher all the world in motion againd them could dejeé 
iî>e j^reateft of mibfortiines difconcert ; who undertook 
..n handful of men, to make head againft innumerable ai 
\\hc, notwithllanding fuch a prodigious inequality of 
diiill hope for fuca'fs; who even compelled vi£lo-y to c 
on the fide of merit and virtue; and taught all fucci 
genrrr.cions what infinite refouKes and expedient:; are 
f<>und in prudence, valour,^ndeiperience ; in a zeal for) 
and our country ; in the love of oar duty ; and in all tl 
tiinents of noble and generous Ibuls. 

This war of the Perfians againft the Grecians \nll b 
lowed by another amongft the Greeks themfelvcs, bu 


iry différent kind from ùie former. In the hitter^ there will 
arce be any tftiotit, but what in appearance ire of little con- 
:qiiencc, and'feemingly unworthy of a reader's curioHty^ who 
i tbnd of great events : In this he will meet wl^h liitlc btftdes 
rivate quarrels between certain cities^ or fome fmall cc^nimoci. 
wealths; (bme inconiiderable fiegesy (excepting that oï' S\rn- 
lafey one of the mod important related in ancient hillory) 
iMmgh feveral of thefe fieges were of confider;{ble dur.niori ; 
bme battles between armies, where the numbers were ihi all, 
ind but little blood (bed. What is it then, that has rendered 
thefe wars fo famous in hiftory ? Sallufl informs us in thcle 
nrptds ; *• • The anions of the Athenians doubtlefs wercgrc;K» 
■• aod yet I believe they were fome what lefs than fame !;< f\r 
'* having os to conceive of them. But becaufe Athenj» ),:-.[ 
•• noble writers, the a6ts of that rcpublick arc 
■• throughout the whole world as the moft j^lorious ; «mJ ili« 
'* gallantry of thofe heroes who performed them, h:\:> \\i\d riic 
•• gobd fortune to be thought asiranfccndcnr ;:: the cloque iicc 
•• of thofe who have ddcrioed them.'* 

Sallud, though jealous enough of the [;lory the Romans If *<! 
acottired by a feriesof diilinguifhed indiens with which thir 
hi Aory abounds, yet he does ju (lice in this pafTage to tt.c Grr- 
ciana, by acknowledging, that iheirexploits were truly grt-ataiid 
illaftrious, though fomewhat inferior, in his opinion, to thrir 
fime. What h then this foreign and borrowed lollrc, whkh 
foe Athenian anions have derived from the elcquenceof iht ir 
hiftorians ? It is, that the whole univerfe agrees in iooki:..; 
«pon them as the greateft and moft glorious that ever wtrt- j^e»- 
lormed. Per terrarum orhem fuBa pro masimis c^'U- 
trwttur. All nations, fcduced and enchaitted as it wtrewirli 
the beauties of the Greek authors, think that people's eypluics 
fbperior to any thing that was ever done by any other natoi;. 
This, according to S.illuft, is the fervicc the Greek authors 
have done the Athenians, by their excellent uniiner of de- 
Icribing their allions; and very unhappy it is for us, that k>\\t 
hiftory, for want of tîie like cfTiHance, has Ic/t a thoulsnd 
bright aâions and fine faying? unrecorded, wliich wuuld hiive 
been put io theftrongeft li<^ht by the ancient wriicis, and have 
done great honour to our country. 

c 4 V>\\\, 

* Alhcfiienrnim rfi gcD^p, fcutî 
tfDClifllmo, fati^ amplar magnifiers- 
que facffunt ; vcrùm »1 qiun'o miio- 
fcf tamcB, quàm fiina t'cran'.ur. Sed 
quit provcAfre ibl fcript rum magna 
iogcni«i per tcr;aru>n orbcai AlhcuL* 

enfjum fafla pro maxîmîs ccl' liran'ur. 
ha cnrom, q-J* ft-ine, vi'tus tanta 
habeior, «juanfum cirnvfibi-. poMirre 
eatdllfJT r^xlsiA i'^t^n^'* kW..*/' ir 


I'u;, hovvrvrr this l>c, it muA he confcned. that we are not 
:il\v;i)b to jii'i;'/.- of (he value of an a^ion, or Kh« meril of the 
J. (-:.'' 'II- '.* ho h.itl (harcd in it» lyy the importance of the evcDt» 
it i& i .:h( I i:i lucli little fiepr» aitc) enneigements» as wc find re* 
i-' :v.j ill the Kji'.oiy 1 1 (he Peloponnefian war, that the con* 
ùiiCt ;.ii ) :i bill tier; of n ;;etiiTù) are tiuly confpieuous. Accord* 
i!.j;Iy, it i.'. nbferved, that it wns chiefly at the head of foiall 
:r:i..i', itiiil in (oiintriis of no great extent» that oor bcft 
«•rir? l-, (if the: Irjft .éj>,c liininguiflicd their cnpaciiy, and be- 
h.:v(-.i wirh a '.oiul'i^t not inferior to the moll celebrated cap* 
i:i(.u ol :i'iiii]uity. In a<!ti( ns of this foit, chance has no 
U.uir, :.\,d cf t!, not cover nny ovcrfights that arc cominitied. 
1 vciy (LinjjT is condiiwU-d and carried on by the prudence of 
tr ' ] t i;.;i\il. Hi' is truly the foul of the army, which neithci 
: ; , rii niov{!,, hut by his dîreélîon. He fees every thingt 
i.î.'i !■ J !' It Ml »v« -y w}t( jfî. Nothing cfcapes hi!» vigilance and 
i.*i- I îi n. i'vCty.. arc fe:ironahIy given, and fcafonably exe- 
cu:'u. ill r'r<-, Ihatagcms ; filfe marthc5» real cr feigned; 
:i;L.ick^ encampnicnts, (lec^impmcnts ; in a word, every thing 
li'l't'iiJv u[i:n him alone. 

Cmi tiii account the readiog of the Greek h'Horîan.*» fuch ai 
'i'Mi. y.!i.!f5, Xcnophon and Polyhius, is of infinite ferv ice to. 
..'.m:> t tl.'.crs ; bn'ïufe ihofe hiiloiians, who were alfo ex» 
. . 1 (lit coiMiiianJiT'', enter into all the particulars cf the mill* 
c y :••', .;?.({ îcid thr reader;:, ns it were by the hand, through 
. .1 :l. u ^rs .iiul I'.iitli's il.ry dilcrî'oc; (hewing chcni, by ine 
V :; I ; I « i tlio ;*u;tcil lyntrals (»f antiquity, and by a kind 
vl : I.!.', ipatcd ex|:ciltucc, in what manner war is to bo 
i.-.rt Ic .1 on. 

N r i:i it only wi;h ref^ard to military exploits, that tho 
(iiiii.în hillory aiîurcis us fuch excellent models. Wc (hall' f:nd cilcbrati'd le^nflators, able politicians, in:<ginraies 
l> to for govi'ri.nient, rii'n that have cjLcellid in all arts and 
l( i iiciv, philofophei- that carried their cnquiiies as far asuai 
p( ill I II- in thofe (.ivly a;>e: , and who have left u& fuch maxims 
cd moraliiy, as n\any Cloiilians ought tc blulh at. 

If (he viuues related in hiilcry may ferve us for models io 
till- ioihiulI of our li\es ; their vici's and fnilinps, on the other 
h.iM.I, are no Ids pr> per to Caution aad inllru^> us ; and the 
Ihi^t icr,aid, which an hiilorian is obliged to have ' r truth, 
will iu)t allow him to diiTi'inblc the latter, nut of fe.n- ot eclip- 
fjng the I nil it' of ihc former N' r ooes what I here advance 
ccnir.tiiti'l ihc rule laid dowt) by IMutarih ij), on the fame fub- 
ji«.'l, in his preface to the life of Cimon. He requites, that 

(f) In Cm. p.479i 4^o« 


aie illoftrions aétinns of great men be repreiènted în their fui? 
Bgbt: But as to the faults, which may fometimeiv efcape theiu 
through paffion or furprîze, or into which they mrty be Jrawi> 
by' the neceiBty of affairs, * coniidering there raiHcr as a r-r- 
lain degree of perfeâion wanting to their virtue, than jti • ic v 
or crimes, that proceed fromnny corroption of chehcift ; i\n:\\ 
imperfeéiions as thefe, he would have the hiftorian-, to^t of com. 
]Mffion to the weaknefs of human nature, which prod aces no- 
thing entirely perfeft, content himfelf with t<»achinjr vi ry 
fighdy ; in the fame manner as an able painter, when- he ha% 
a fine face to draw, in which he finds fome little blemifii or 
dtfeâ, does neither entirely fupprefs it, hor chink himfeir 
•bilged to reprefent it with a ftriâ exa^nefb ; becaufe the one 
womd fpoil the beauty of the piôure, and the other would 
deftroy the likenefs. The very comparifon Plutarch ufes» 
Itew5» that he fpeaks only of flight and cxcufeable faults^. But 
tstD aâions of injuftice» violence, and brutality^ they oughc 
net CO be concealed, or difguifed on any account ; no can we 
fqppofe, that the fame privilege fhould be allowed in hidory as 19. 
in painting, which invented the f profile, to reprefent the fide» 
face of a prince who had lofl an eye, and by that means inge-> 
nioofly concealed fo difagreeable a deformity. Hiftor'y, the- 
moft eflential rule of which ia fincerity, will by no means ad« 
aiis of fuch indulgences, that indeed would deprive it. of ii9- 
gieateft advantage. /. 

Shame, reproach, infamy, hatred, and the execratfons of 
the publick, which are the infeparable attendants on criminal 
and brutal anions, are no lefs proper to excite an horror for 
vice; than the glory, which perpetually attends good ac^ion*'^ 
isio infpire us with the love of virtue. And thefe, aca)rding^ 
tat Tacitus, arc the two ends, which every hiftorian oughtîvt 
propofe to himfelf, by making a judicious choice of what is 
njoll cxtrordinary both in good and evil, in order to occurion 
tlkSt publick homage to be paid to vittuc, which is juitly cir^ 
la it ; and to create the greater abhorrence for vice, on accoutit 
ci that etciiial infamy that attends it. 

The hillory I write only furni flies too many exampîrs of ir-e 
liUter f.)rt. With refpcfl to the Perfians. it will appear î>.' 
ii'hat is faid of their kings, that thofc princes, whole poutr 

e 5 I'i^ 

■f- Habci in pidur^ fpecîein tota 
finies. Apellri tamen imagnirem 
ilotiyrni lattfft tantûm altero oflen- 
4it, Mr arnifTi ocuUdeformicaslaterirt 
Sçimii. 1* il c. I J. 

X Exequj frn'entias haud irft.Oii» 
nifi inHgnet per honef^-um lut nou 
bili iledecore : quod price .pu iuTi mu 
nus aunalium leor ne viru'i'.s (i c^u 
tur, uique p:avis di£Hs Nf^i'qup »jt 
poftrritaie ^' infjrDiànic(u& lit. 1 aJC 
Jr.nal, I. iii, c. C5. 

cvi r R i: F A C E. 

bas r.o other bouiuh but ihofe of their will, often abnndon 
themlclxo lo ull ihrir pniiioiis ; that nothing is more diificulc 
ti..4n CO ret: (I the drluTioiLs of a man'b own greatnefs, and 
ihf ll-iuiic.s of ihoff that furround him; that the liberty of 
jMi.iifvipp^ all onc\s iJcfiris, ::nd of doing evil with jiiipuiiity, 
is .1 ilan^.trous fituation ; that the betl difpofi tiens can hardly 
\vii}-,/..Mul fuch a temptation ; that» even after having preftrved 
tîrniliKf. ill the hti;inning, they are infenfibly corrupted by 
i .'I tufs and itu-minacy, by pride, and their averfion to fmcere 
ccuLiûIs; :ind that it rarely happens they are wife enough 
to confluer that, when they find themfclves exalted above 
all lawb .?nd ri'ftraint!>, they Ihind then moll in need of mode- 
ration and wifdom, both in regard to themfelvcs and others; 
Mu! that in fuch a fituation they ought to be doubly wife, and 
cioubly Ihong, in order to fet bounds within, by their reafoD^ 
to a power that has none without. 

With rd'jail to the Grecians, the Peloponnefian war will 
Oiew the niiUrablc cfFctfl» of their iiitelline diviiionh, and the 
fatal (xrrflli. into wiiich ihcy were led by their ihirll of do- 
minion : bcen('> of injullice, ingratitude, and perfidy, toge* 
iher with the i.pcii violation of treaties, or mean artifices and 
unworthy trickb to elude their execution. It will (hew, hovf 
icandalou/ly the Lacedemonians and Athenians debafed them- 
itlvc.^ to the iîarbarians, in ordiT to beg aids of money from 
I hem : II -w fliainifullv the prcr.t deliveicrs of Greece re- 
r.nuncca ihc ^Jory of all their pa;l labours and exploits, by 
Ih.oping liiul iniiking their court to certain haughty and info-- f.i;i.i| ic, aijd by going fuccfllively, with a kind of emo- 
hition, to implore the protc<îli(>n of the common enemy, whom 
they iia-.l fo often coiiqueicd ; and in what manner they em« 
ployed the fucfouri thiy obtained from them, in opprefling 
their aiicii'iu allies, and extending their own territories by un« 
jull and violent methods. 

()ii lv)iii fides, aiul f.Mnciîmes in the fame perfon, we fhall 
find aùuprizing mixture of good aiul bad, (?f virtues and vices, 
of glorious actions and feiitiment? ; and fomctimef, per- 
haps, we fiîall be ready to afJc ourfelvet, whether ihrfe can be 
the fame pcifons and the lame people, of vvhom fuch difTercnC 
things aio leliitod ; and whether it be pollible, that fuch a 
bright and fliining light, and fuch thii'k cloudb of fmoak and 
dark'nef: , proceed from the fame fund ? 

The Perfian hillory includes the fpijce of one hundred and 
f.'venii'cn vears, durinir the reiyns of fix kinps of Perfia : Da- 
nus the firll of the name, the fon of II\llnfpes; Xerxes the 
iîill ; Al taxerxts, furnamed Luiigimanu^ ; Xerxes the fécond ; 

3 iio^di- 

PREFACE. cvii 

Sogdianus; (the two laft of which reiencd but a rfry li tie 
time ;] nnd Dariu*» the fécond, commonly called Darius No. 
thos. This hillory begins at the year of the world 3483, and 
extends to the year 3600. As this whole period nnrurally di- 
vides itfelf into two parts, 1 fhall alfo divide it into two dif* 
tind bociks. 

The firft part, which confifts of ninety years, contaîn* from 
the beginning of the reign of Darius the firft, to the forty- 
iecond year of Artaxerxes, the fame year in which the Pel ;- 
pcnneiîjn war. began; that is, from the year of tljc world 
3483, to the year 3573. This part chiefly contains ilie dif- 
ferent and expeditions of the Pcrfian s a^nr.îk Grei.ce, 
which never produced more great men and great events, nor 
ever difplayed more confpicuoas or more fol id virtue*. Hvie 
you will fee the famous battles of Marathon, Tiiermnpvla;, 
Artemifa, Salamin,. PIata;a?, Mycale, Hurymedon, ts'r. livre 
the mod eminent commanders of Greece fignalized their coi:> 
rage; Miltiades, Leonidas, Themiftocles, AHftidcs, Cimoii, 
Paofaaias, Pericles, Thucydides, l^c. 

To enable the reader the more eafily to recollcA ii'hat pnfi^ d 
within this fpace oOime among the jews, and nHo amon;'. ti #r 
Romans, the hiftory of both which nations is entire!)- foreign 
to that of the Perfiaos and Greeks, I (hall here fct down in few 
words the principal epochas relating to them. 

Epoebas of the Jfwijh hijfcry. 

The people of God were at this time returned from their 
Babylonifli captivity to Jerufalem, under the condufl of Zoro- 
babel. Uflier is of opinion, that the hiftory of K ft her ouj».ht to 
be placed in the reign of Darius. The Ifrarlitcs, ui<dc. liic 
fliadf)w of this prince's protcAion, and animated by the warm 
exhortations of the propncts Haggai and Zechariaî), did ai i.jt 
finifh the buildine of the temple, which had in'(T'U;)i-r : 
for many yeafs by the cabals of their enemies. /. ^jv-mv -. 
was no Icfs favourable to the Jews than Darius : Ilr? ^-.t^ of M 
fent Ezra to Jerufalem, whoreftorcd the pub'ifk worfiiip, îukI 
the obfervation of the law ; then Nchcmiah, who cîujîrd w;'!]s 
to be built round the city, and fortified it a^'^ainft the attacks 
of their neighbours, who were j?:;lou? of its reviving grtat- 
ncfs. It is thought that Malacl»i, the Infl of t!)" pro, ;.«.• • ., 
contemporary with Nchcmi^ih, or that he proph'jfi«.d not h^ng 
after him. 

This interval of the facred hiftory extends from the reir>n 
of Darius I. to the beginning of the reign of Darin N('t. iu^ ; 
Ibatiftofay, from the year of th; world 34S5, to tiir ic... 

c 6 -.;8 


i , 

crîiî PREFACE. 

3;f?i. After which the fcriptare it endrtly filent» t 
time of the Maccabees. 

Epbocas of the Roman bifiory* 

The firft year of Darius was the 233d of the baild 
Rome. TarquiD the Proud was then on the throne, an 
ten years afterwards was depofed, when the confular | 
ment was fubllituted to that of the kings. In the fucc 
part of this period happened tfie war againft Porfenn 
creation of the tribunes of the people ; Coriolanns's 
among the Volfci, and the war that enfued thereupo 
wars of the Romans againft the Latins, the Vejentc 
Volfciy and other neighbouring nations; the death < 
ginia under the Deccmvirate ; the difpntes between the 
and fenate about marriages and the coufolihip, which 
oned the creating of military tribunes inllead of confuls 
period of time terminates in the 3 23d year from the foui 
of Rome. 

The fécond part of twenty-feven years, extends fn 
43d year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, to the death of 
Nothus ; that is, from the year of the world 3Ç73» to t 
3600. It contains the nineteen firfl years of the Pelopo 
war, which continued twenty-feven, of which Gree 
Sicily were the feat, and wherein the Greeks, who had 
triumphed over the Barbarians, turned their arms agair 
other. Among the Athenians, Pericles, Nicias, and 
ades ; among the Lacedaemonians, Brafidas, Gylippi 
Lyfander, dillinguiihed themlelves in the mod extrao 

Rome continues to be agitated by different difputes \ 
the fenate and people. Towards ihe end of this pcric 
about the ^^oth year of Rome, the Romans formed tl 
of Vtji, which latted ten years. 

(/) 1 have already obfervcd, that eighty years after the 
of Troy, the Heraclides, that is, thcdefcendants of H 
returned into the Peloponnefus, an'd made themfelves 
of Lacedxmon, where two of them, who were brothe 
firthcnea and Procles, fons of Ariftodemur, reigned joi 
gether. . (a) Herodotus obferve?, that thefc two brothe 
during their whole lives, at variance; an^i that almofl 
defcendants. inherited the like difpofi-tion of mutual hat 
antipathy ; To true it is, that the fovereign power wi! 
of no partnerfhip, and that two kings will always be tc 
for one kingdom ! However, after the death of thefe t 

(f) A» M. 1900. Ant. J, C. |ro4 (»} LIS. vi. c. 50 


lefcendants of both ftîll continued to fway the fccptre jointly : 
Knd what is very remarkabli?, thefc two branches fubriftcd for 
aear nine hundred years, from the return of the Heraclides 
nto the PcloponnefuSy to the death of Cleomenes, and fup* 
Dlied Sparta with kings without interruption, and that gene- 
rally in a regular fucceflion from father to fon, efpecially in 
the elder branch of the family. 

ne Origin and Condition of the Elota^ or Helots, 

When the Lacedaemonians Arft began to fettle in Peloponne- 
fasj they met with great oppofition from the inhabitants of the 
country, whom they were obliged to fubdue one after another 
"by force of arms, or receive into their alliance on eafy and 
equitable terms, as the paying them a fmall tribute. Strabo 
(x) fpeaks of a city, called Elos, not far from Sparta, which» 
after having fubmitted to the yoke, as others had done, revolted 
opeoly, and refufed to pay the tribute. Agis» the fon of Eu- 
nftheoes, newly fettled in the throne, was fenfible of the 
dangerous tendency of this firft revolt, and therefore immedi- 
ately marched with an army againil them» together with Soiis 
his collègue. They laid fiege to the city, wliich after a pretty 
long refiilance, was forced to furrender at difcretion. This 
prince thojight it proper to make fuch an exaniple of them, a« 
Ibould intimidate all their neighbours, and deter them from 
the like attempts, and yet not alienate their minds by too cruel 
•a treatment ; for which reafon he pot none to death. He fpared 
the lives of all the inhabitants» but at the fame time deprived 
them of their liberty, and reduced them all to a date of flavery. 
Prom thenceforward they were employed in all mean and {tx^ 
vile offices, and treated with extreme rigour. Thefe were the 
people who were called Elorse. The number of them exceed^ 
ingly increafed in procefs of time, the Lacedamonians giving 
undoubtedly the fame name to all the people they reduced to the^ 
fame condition of fervitude. As they themfelves were averfe to ' 
labour, and entirely addi^cd to war, they left the cultivation 
of their lands to thefe flavcs, afligning every one of them a 
certain portion of ground, of which they were obliged to carry 
the prodifAs every year to their refpeélive maftcrs, who endea- 
voured l)y iill forts of ill ufage to make their yoke more grie- 
voua and infupportablc. This was certainly very bad policy,' 
and could only tend to breed a vaft number of dangerous ene- 
mies in the very heart of the flatc, who were always ready to 
take arms and revolt on every occafion. The Romans aé\cd 
more prudently in this refped ; for they incorporated the con- 

(;v) Lib. viii. p. 365. Plut, in Lycurg. p. 40. 

cr P R R F A C K. 

q 1 ■ J î.'iîî'ir.s in 10 their flare, hy ifTodating them tic 
t: • l('i\. ( I thrir tiiy, and ihertby converted ihcm, from etc* 
Zi ..:•, ii.i'j r^rcthreii and fellow-citizens. 

L V c u i« c u s t^e Laciéf^mûnian laivgiver, 

( v) ].*:rytion, or F.urypon, a> he i» named by others, fiK* 
C'.t'Lii-ti ^''ûs. lu order to gain his f^ople'i affection, nndrea< 
(icr lii'. {'overnnicrt .i^rceablc, he thought fit to recede in foiM 
p(»i[it' ft am the abfolute rower exercifed by the kings Lis prf- 
ci'ccfiir : 'I li rcrdcrcd his name fi dear to his fuhjccU, that 
.'ill l.i;. iuLCcfiors were, from him, called Kurytlonides. But 
thib relaxation gave birth to horrible confudon, nnd an un- 
bounded licentioufncfs in Sparta» and for a long time occafi- 
oned infinite niifchie/s. Thfc oeople became fo infolent, that, 
n'iihing could reilrain them. It Eurytion'^ fucceflbrb attempted 
to recover their authority by force, they became odious ; and- 
if, through complaifnnce or weaknefs, they chofe to dincmble, 
their niildncfs fervcd only to render them contemptible; fo that 
order w;»: i:i a manner ;'.l)oliihcd, and the laws no longer re* 
gar Jed. 'i i'.cfc confufions haftcned the death of Lycurgu^'i 
f::thr r, wliofe name was Eunomus, and who was killed in an 
iiiiuiic^lion. Polydc<^tes, his eldefl fon and fuccefTor, dying 
foori nfitr witli*ut children, every body expeéled Lycurgtti 
would have been king. And indeed he was fo in cfteâ as long 
;is the pre^Miancy of his brother's wife was uncertain ; but as 
foou :is that was manlfefl, he declared, that the kingdom be- 
longed lo her child, in cafe it proved a fon : And from that 
moment he adminiilercd the government, as guardian to his un- 
born nepli'-w, under the title of Prodicos, which was the name 
given by ti)e to the ^;uardians of their kings. 
When il.i cliild wa.s born, I,ycurgus tock him in his arms, 
njivl (ii(cl oui to the company that was prcfcnt, BehoItU "^ 
LtfTti^ lJ' vV/k/vr/i/, this itt-ivlorn child is ycur king : And at the 
funic ;nnc he put the infant into the king's feat, and named 
him (.'haîil;iu.s, becaulc ol ihe joy the people ex prefled upon 
CKi:tiu)u of his biiih. The reader will find, in the feconJ 
Vi'liinie i'f fhi:« hidory, all that relates to the hillorv of Lycur- 
gii., ilie reformation he made, and the excellent laws he cHa* 
lliilu-.l in Sp.iiia. A^Hill.ius was at this time king in the elder 
Li.inih el the l.imily, 

I' at' /rtnvfet //»ir *//j;/j*«'j nuJ :h€ I.fUi'ili'mot::{itts, 
(v^ S.. me lime after this, in the ui'Mi of 'J'heopompu^, a 
war bi«'k^* out between tiu: i^ reives ar.d L.:ced;rnionians, on 


^ ) Iviur^. p. .)o, ■>) fJcroJ. 1. i. c, iz. 

' P R B R A G B. «i ort. 

Mt i>f 'Ifiitlè €craiitry,.calM.Tli)nfi, thtt lay upon^he 
llei of the«v# ftatet» aiid to wUchr <ttch of them pret<ode4 . 
gMv. When the two«niiittiwere. ready to engage, it was . 
iti oa both fidet^ in order to fpare die effoiion of blood* 
the quarrel fiuMiU be decided by three hundred of the 
ei inen.on both fide» s and that the land in qoeftion (hould 
DNTihe furoperty of the tideriout party. To leave the 
laeanii more looni' to engage, . tbe^ two ^rmtet. retired to 
rdiftaMie*- Thofe genesoot ehampions then» who had all 
enrage of- two mghty< arflûet,, boldly, advanced towards . 
odMT» and foQj(ht witk fo-mnoh relbUition and focy. that 
ifhole number, except three men, two on the fide of the 
res, mad one on that o( the LtfcedsmOniaas, lay dead 
fKe &ot I and only the night, parted the». The two 
wp»ihKHcing.fipon thenslidlves as the conquerors^ made whaf • 
diey.cônldtoAegostftcarry thenewj: The fingle Laco* 
Wf3aM^ Othryades byname, infiead.of retiring,'^ripttha- 
kodiet of tM Ar^ves^ and carrying their arm into the • 
ifaeflBonian camp, cominned in. his poft« The nenday.. 
va armies retnrned to the field of battle. Both fides laid t 
.' daim to the the viâory : The Argives, becanfe they had 
of their champions left alive tmui the enemy^ had ; the . 
dmaMmtans, becanfe the two Argives that remained alive , 
md t whereas their fingle foldier hadremained^iafter of the : 
of battk, and had carried roff, the fpoils of the enemy.: , 
art» they conld not determine the difpnte without €oming> 
other engagement. Here fortune deitlared in favour, or 
«ncedsemonians^ and the little territory of Thyreftwas.tho » 
t of their viâory. But Othryad^, not able to bear the 
rhtsof forviving his brave companbns, or of enduring t 
ight of Sparta after their death, killed himfelf on the 
Seld of battle where they had fought, refolving to have 
ate and tomb with them. « 

Jfiars httwan tbt Mefinians and. LactiUtfrèmatn» . * 

iiere were no left than three (everal wars between the lAtf* 
ns and the Lacedaemonians, all of them very fierce' and 
ly. Mefiènia was a country in Peloponnefus, notfar well- 
, from Sparta ; it was of confiderable Hrengtb, and had its 
particular kings. 

Thtfirfl'MtJJtnian'watt , 

) The firft MefTenian w^r lafted twenty years, and broko. 
he fiscond year of the ninth Olympnad. The Lacedaemo* ■ 

A* If* 3t^i« 4At. J. C« 743i Paursa, h it. p«' axé— a^ç. JuAiei 


rt\r« prrtfrdfd to Inve R:cri%cU i«vcnl cocfidcraKfe : 
t *'ii chc MciT^niAn*. aoJ «on^ft others. th»t ot hiivii 
k: /i: d. -«c^'^cri rj\t:h«^t bv th« inhftbi»ni$ i^l* Mcllèma 
t:vry w .! ;. acccrJirg to «ruAom. to a temple. ilcod 
bor.:;::3 of the two nitionss as sUo that of the mui 
Tc!cc!r5. li.cir kir^. which was a cvniV«)Qcncc of the 1 
rrv:b.ibly a lieiVe et extendînf» their do en in îon, aod of 
a te:r::ory wh:ch Uy (6 convenient for them» might 
true eau te of the war But be that as it will, the wai 
ou: in the reign ci Poly corn» and Theopompus, ki 
Sparta, at the time w hen the office of archoo &t Athc 
tt:I! dccecnial. 

{I) Eaphaes» the thirteenth defcendant from Hercule 
then king of Meflenia. He gave the command of his a The Lacedxmonians opened the campaigi 
the ilege of Amphea, a fmall» inconfiderable citv. 
however» they thought, would be very proper to make : 
of arms. The town wa< taken by ttorm, and all ihe \ 
tants put CO the Iword. This £rft blow let red onîv to a 
the MeiFenians, by (bowing them what they were to expo 
the enemy, if they did not defend them ici ves with ^ 
The Lacedemonians, OMtheir part, bound themtVIvcf 
oath, not to lay down their arms, or return to Spar 
they had made themfelves mailers of all the cities and 
belonging to the Meiienians ; foch an aifuraucc hiid i 
the fucceis of their arms, and oi' their invinciMc coura 

(r) Two battles were fought, wherein the lot» w:«s 
equal on both iîdcs, Eut after the iccond. the Melfcnia 
fcrcd extremely through the want of proviiions, which 
oned a great defer tion in their troops, and at iatl brou^ 
plapue among them. 

Hereupon they confulted the orade of Delphos. win 
rc^cd them, in order to appeale the wrath of the pods, i 
op a virgin of the royal blocd in facrlnce. Ariliomenej 
was of the race of the Epvtîdrs, offered his own Oauehtei 
Meflonians then confidering, that if they left j-arvlfons 
their towns, they fhould extremely weaken their anr 
folveJ to abandon all their towns, e.xicpt Ithoma, a litth 
fentcd on the top of a hill of the fatr.c name, about whic 
encamped and fortiâed thenitelvcs. In thi< ficnntioi 
fexcn years fpcnt, during which nothing pafitvi bwi ftigl 
laifhes on both fides, the Lacedxmonians not daring 
that time to force the enemy to a battle. 

(à) Paofao. 1. If. p. tx3— aaC (c) Ibid. p. aa7*-2 34 

P R Ë » A C K. cM 

Indeed, ihey almoft defpaired of bcinr» able to reduce them ; 
or was there any thing l)Ut the oblif^ation of the oath, by 
rhicli they had bound themfrlves, that made thrm continue 
7 burthenfome a war. (//) What gave them the greatcft un- 
gfiucrs, wa.s, their apnrehrnfinn, left thctr abfence and dif- 
ance licm their wivci tor fo many years, and which mif>ht flill 
»ntiikuc many more, (hould deftroy their families at home, 
uid leave Sparta deftirutc of citi'/cns. To prevent tlil^ mif- 
fortune, they frnc home fuch of their folilicrsi us were come to 
the army, finer the fore- mentioned outh hud been taken, and 
made no fcruplc uf proilicuting their wives to tlicir embrai-rs. 
The cliildirii fpritn^ from thefc unlawful copulations, 
lyere called I'artlicniata;, h name given them to denote the in- 
fjmy of tlicir l)iich. As foon as they were ;rrown up, not lirin^ 
able to riidure fuch an opprobrious dillini^tion, thry banilhrd 
tlicmfchcs from Spart.iwitli one confent, and, under thr con- 
dut of * iMialantnu», went and fettled at Tarentuin in Ituly, 
afiCr driviii;; out the nncient inhabitants. 

(f) At, in the ei^',hth year of the war, wliii h wns the 
thirteenth of Kuphae»*B rcifMi, a fierce and bloody b.iitlr \k.\h 
fuught near Ithuma. KupliacA picreid (}ir()ii;>li tlic h.-iii.tliotis 
ol 'i'hcopompus with too much heat and precipitation for a 
king, lie (here received n multitude of wound;:, fivciulof 
i^hich were mortal, lie fell, and iecmcd top.ive up the jiholK 
Whereupon wuoderful ciibrts of couraj^e wrrc exeilird on ho\.h 
fidei ; by the one, to carry off the Iciii)* ; by the otiier, to iltvc 
him. Cleonnib killed eight Spartans, who were diajMiin^i Iiim 
alung, and fpt)iled them of their arniN, which he conmiitti-i) to 
the cullody of fome of liin foldiers. lie hiniiclf r'.-eeived (evc- 
ral wounds, all in the forepart of hi^ body, which \vai a cer- 
tain proof, that he had never turned his back upon h/:: enemies. 
Ari!U)tnencs, fip.hting on the fame oci';tfion, and lor ihr 
end, killid five Lactd/ruionian.i, whofc (poil', hr iil-.cwi.'c cn- 
ricd of!', without tcceiving any woumi. In ihoit, tlu* Itiiif^ 
was faved and carried oil' by ihr Mr/I'rnlaif. ; litid, all^'led 
and bloody as he wa:j, he e.^ptc-Hed }M-'*:it j ly that ihcv had not 
been worded. Arillomrnc., aftrr iht- l),<ttl(^ wa. over, incl 
C'lr>Mini*, who, by reafon <ii his wound-». Kudd iiciihri w.tlk 
by hinti'-li, nor with the ailiilancc of ilu It- tliar h-nt him ih'-ir 
handi. I Ic therefore took him upon hi'i Oiould'.M.'i, without 
C]uiit:ii^'^ hi:i arm», and carried him to the camp. 


(.1) Pi it. I. XV, p 778. (r) pjufin, I. IV. I». »11, î-JS* l^'*'**t 

ill M.i|.. 

• £1 K'p.njiii ficuiii Licuni rura IMuljntu. ilir, Oo. vi. 1. x« 

cï-î !• p. F F A C E. 

K:. r-' jr, h* L'.t ir.c I.'iccdemoiiian':, lorjlc their kîng Thw» 
;4rn . . :. '.. .h ;. vr.r,rir <;f Juj.itcr an«i Ithomi, facrificfd three 
\ .1 :.•: : : f.. .», .-im^n'^ wh'-m thrir kinr wai the princip?.l 
v: » .... . .'i.y .iî'T, Arill'i'icrnu-i facrihccd hiinfclf uponlhe 

r •:.../ oî . . '^iij'/'r." .'. iiic«jr.foriiiity to ihc anTMcrof an oracle. 
iJ.:.:..: .,.:■. iÀ% luv.cca'jr, Lutwiihout taking upon him the tiile 

C.t r ' / 

' s. .'. ■'•'•r } '. «!'-•':, (hr- M'*. never hnd anv fuocrOin 
i)i' ira:* ; . . 1 :*r ! . ::.ii t!.» riJ'-îvc. in a vcrv wrcrrlifil and hope- 
I-.- < .. . I., li' :.v rt''i.i.''d \ I ;h«: la!! cxirt-niity, ai-.i utirrly 
«i M '' ^'^•" '•» *"'*> •'•' -in ioi.»*l hhoma, and fled la 

Ij- ;. ' ! • . .r .il! r, .: . ;.#trr i..".trt if ro ilif-m. The ri'v uaa im- 
I.. -it;!.;, r.:/ i, ;..•.] ;xli îi.'- p'.oplo tliac rcrni.iinrd {iibmitted. 
'J r.' / .• .■ I.I.I I': ' ; t-i.^.^ii/,'* i V i.;i:h nfvrr ui fnr(" ihr patiy 
i,ï ... .... ' •!.! ni'yiii.iii-., ;•..,'! i.rvf-r lu r«-\n|i Irmi ihcm : Avery 

III- Î .'. r ■• * îu'i'iM, («rilv pr' p'T tn make lîifm add ilic puili of 
J*' I .; . ' ) rl. XT ifl/i'Iiio:.. Their new niallrr^ împ»»î'rd no 
Ï ... :'■ ;. /i: \\.- :\\ \ l.c' t <.;.' f.'ed ch'-n'.t.-Ivrs wiîh «^Mij;înjj 
X .' : i. . ■'. (..'■ ;' .;.!:. .î-.:.!''' < f.r- Ii.Jf !•( t'i- CO!n liu'y 

Il «11'.: r:-i fvr. i. : vi-il. If 'A.i- i-Kt-wifr llinii'.iif.!, tiia*. ihe 
Nil!.':. ., , i- l'i ■.*■:•. i:iu w "..*\\^ iIi(>iiKi attnid, in !r»o;irn- 
iL./. :. ■ î.i'-ra.'. (f li.*: kiuf);.';, or chief liii/cr^ of 
'■{ .:;.; ; \v..:'ii ti.c LjCi:d:e-ii.(.iii;t{i:. probably lo(>ki*d upon .l« • 
II!. II!: (li :')': «.liiers dcpcndriice, and a.N a kind of homai^e 
j.:i 1 ir» :i. -ir nati' !i. (i) 'J l.ii-> ended the firll Mcllcnian wai» 
.tiiti Ji.i....^; iallcd twenty yt::ii''. 

^l'hc ftcrnd h'.. j ml an tvar, 

(il 'l'\'- It'ii'.tv uiih whi^h :h'j Laccd.vmonîans treated the 
M' il ■■ ! I. at fin'!, wa;. f-f no î,)Ijiî daralion. W hc.j oi.ce ihcv 
f'Miru! [Ir wlwlr ciuiiitiy Ita.l luhmîtted, and tluii^ht ilu* pci pic 
iiM ap..!!( (»f ;*iviii«/ thein any further trouble, tlicy rciurn^t! to 
ihcii i..'.fi! iliar.iflcr ««finîtjli nfc and hant',hiine(: , ihat often 
lîi; ■ lui.iî.il iiifct j'U'ltv, an<! fon.''tiinfs t\rn iuîo fcrotitv. 
Iiifli-ail (.1 tiv aiiui- i!ir v.iint.ii-]u\i uiih l:i;u!nrf., :\% fliel.d^ and 
«ill.r-, .nul c inîr.î-.ruijp»- I'." jintlt* ^îelho.^^ :o win ih»'ftf ihcv 
h. II! inluiiuti U\ futi"'-, iluy ù-ruu-d inicMU upnn iioihi:i{* acl 
a;yi..\ .iiin/, liti il y«>ke, «lul r.iikinp, ihem feci the wholcwei^ht 
<«i (:ibi« iîii>i». 'VUvy 1.11. i hr.ivy laxes upcn li.em, delivered 
ih'iii up ti» t!ir av.m'te (»f i\w CidleibMs t)f tluifc laxes, giie 
iii> r.ii 1(1 :iu-n toinplaiiic.-., rcuvicred thcni no jullice, ircjtcd 

the ai 

U') r. . .1.11.1. ,v, p.,.j|.-;47. [i) A. M. «îiSt, Ani J. C. 7ii. 

PR E P A C É. txfîf 

tbem lilce vile flaves» tnd committed the moft crying outrages 
ijgainft them. 

Man» who is born for liberty, can never reconcile ^imfelf 
to fervitade : The moft gentle (lavery exafperates,. and provokes 
Aim to rebel. What could be expe£lcd then from focrael a 
ene» as that the MeiTenians groaned under ? After having en- 
dured it with great uneafinefs * near forty years» they s^folved 
to throw off the yoke» and to recover their ancient liberty. 
(/) This was in the fourth year of the twenty-third Olyrhpiaa : 
The office of archon at Athens was then made animal ; and 
Anaxander and Anexidamus reigned at Sparta. 

The Meffenians firft care was to ftrengthcn themfclvrs with 
the alliance of the neighbouring nations. Thcfc they found 
well inclined to enter into their views, as very agreeable to 
their own intcrefts. For it was not without jenlnufy and ap<. 
prehenfions» that they faw fo powerful a city rifing up in the 
midd of them, which manifeftly feemed to aim at extending 
her dominion over all the reft. The people therefore of F.lis, 
the Argives and Sicyonians, declared for the Mc(rcnî;«n8. But 
befure their forces were joined, a battle was fought between 
the Lacedaemonians and Mcileniaiis. f Ariilomenes, the fécond 
of that name, was at the head of the latter. He was a com- 
mander of intrepid courage, and of great abilities in war. 
The Lacedaemonians were beat in this engagement. Arillo- 
mèncs, to give the enemy at firft an advantageous opinion of 
his bravery, knowing what influence it has on the fucccfs of 
future entcrprizes, boldly ventured to enter into Sparta by 
night, and upon the gate of the temple of Minerva, who was 
furnamed Chalcioecos, to hang up a ftiicld, on which was an 
infcription, fignifying, that it was a prefent offered by Arillo- 
nenes to the goddefs, out of the fpoils of the Lacedxmonians, 
This bravado did in reality aftonifti the Lacedaemonians. 
But they were flill more alarmed at the formidable league that 
was formed againll them. The Dclphick oracle, which they 
confultcd, in order to know by what mcnns they fhould be 
fuccef&ful in this war, diredled them to fend to Athens for a 
commander, and to fubmit to his counfcl and coiulu^. This 
was a very mortifying ftep to fo haughty a city as Sparta. Ihit 
the fear of iuLurring the god's ilifplcafure by a dircd difobc- 
dience, prevailed over all other confiJcrations. They fent rm 


(/) A. M. 3-570. Ant. J. C. 684. % 

• Cum r^r compliircs annos jriav'u I bi»^(im iri(la\:iAnt, '/«/;?,«. 1. lU. c. ^ 

frr .■■•iili' V'-tl'f-r.i ; vit!t»il 1 I -f /!.\trtfin>T to /,f.;.i/ /ijff'iiyt 

r.i'.fiJguc c.ic-.ivi;.ifi'. niali perp- in \ tfcrr un.'s n» tber /hi/l-mefin in tif /i'j^ 

•ileal, l'ualjnfi4mi?«narunn».iVicMian) [ M,j]'tn:an %vm, Uiid. 1. xv. p. 3;^. 

— *«f hit É iÎlU > kl 
f4 AARWAndk tk 

r "A C ^, 

i«, rook tfccir king TJi 

■ihl|ttM>Ri>, bcriiicrdth 

Anr kin^ arai ihc prlit'c] 

boificM bimfclf ttpoo 

lo tWanfacrnfânorai 

Ukii^ apoB him the i 

t« a *<ty arrctcKcJ and ho 

<i6oMt ifcnr Attsdnrd lihomji^ and Red 

«laavm laiu* m tfcrm. Tb« rirv wm i 

±»i tA tbc p«iaplt lUt rmiiDcd (iibnltl 

. . ;r f» .i«th Mvrr 111 ferfnkc the p 

mrf Ell rrivli fnUB iSrm : A * 

.-T7 (\i m»kc them add ihc |{atlt 

PR E ? . 
ike Ttle lUv«, aai comr-ir-a: 
t them. 

1, whfi 13 hotn for liber», :=r 
jcaile: T'nemnft^niteilin;-^ 
t rebel. '''A'liac cndld be «tes 
t that toe MejTenians pniMit 3 
it wiiii jnu 'ineatlnefi * nor ^ 
.«> ',(f rn« «ike, smt to -eai-; 
i-. *!.'! in ■îie fwr*h veirrf:»-! 
ffiee if (.''■.Kftn at Ailim -ni 
n-l^ir 4.-.': Ar.^ii'ïiiniu n^fre; -r 
! MefÏKn-ani lînï annu-ifar 

,wn ir.t*r»lh, fir it «a tbt 
tfi', [r>ac chey &wrn TB»r; 
fcf thtm, which maaifn^ a 
ininiijn (.»tr HI ûk9±. ",t 
'gi«t) and Sicfwuxe a.iai.. 

cxviîi PREFACE. 

embafly therefore to the Athenians. The people of Ai 
were iomewhat perplexed tt the requeft. On the one \ 
they were not lorry to fee the Lacedamoniani at war with 
ticighboariy and were far from defiring to furailh them « 
Çood genml : On the other» they were afraid alfo of dif 
ing tSe god. To extricate themfeWes oat of this difil( 
they offered the Lacedsemonians a perfon called Tyrtzus. 
was a poet by profeflion, and had fomething original i 
turn of his wit, and difasreeable in his perlon ; for h 
lame. Notwithfianding thefe defcâs» the Laccdcmonia 
ccived hini as a general, fent them by heaven itfelf. 
facccfs did not at firft anfwer their expedtation» for th< 
three battles fucccfllvcly. 

The kingi of Sparta, difcouraged by fo many difap 
ments, and out oi all hopes of oetter fucccfs lor the f 
were entirely bent upon returning to Sparta, and mai 
home again with their forces. Tyrtasus oppofed this < 
very warmly, and at length brought them over to his op 
lie fpokc to the troops, and repeated to them the verfes \ 
made on the occafion, and on which he had bellowed 
pains and application. He £r(l endeavoured to comfort 
for their pail loiics, which he imputed tn no fault of i 
bul only to ill fortune, or to fate, human w 
can furmount. He then rcprefentcd to them, what a flii 
would be for Spartans to Ay from an eaemy ; and how gl 
it would be for them rather to pcrifh fword in hand, in û{ 
for their country, if it was fo decreed by fate. Then 
all danger was vanifhed, and the gods, fully fatisiied ai 
pcafed with their late calamities, were entirely turned U 
liJc, he fee vidory before their eyes as prefent and c< 
and as if llic herfclf was inviting them to battle, (m) J 
ancient authors, who have made any mention of the ilil 
charadler of Tyrta:us's poetry, obferve, that it was ful 
certain fire, ardour, and enchufiafm, that animated the 
of men, that exalted them above themfelves, that infp 
them with fomething generous and martial, that exting 
all fear and apprehcnfion of danger or death, and made 
wholly intent upon the prcfervation of their country an< 
own glory. 

l'yrtaîua's vcrfcs had really this efFed on the foldieri 
thi.s occafion. They ail dcfiicd with one voice, to inarch : 
the enemy. Jicing become indiiFcrcnt as to their lives 

(m) Plat. 1. i. de Lcgib. p. 6iO. Plot, in Agid. 8c Cleom. p. 8c 

• Tyrt.eiifquc miires animui in inirtia bclU 

Ycifibui exacuit. iV, im Art» Pytt* 


) thoughts bat CO fecare themfelves the honour of a bu- 
To this end they all tied ilrings round their right trniff 
ich were infcribed their own and their, fathers names, 
if they chanced to be killed in the battle, and to have 
ices fo altered through time,, or accidents, as not to be 
Qifluble» it might certainly be known who each of them 
f ibffe marks. Soldiers determined to die, are very va« 

This appeared in the battle that enfaed. Jt was veiy 
', the viâory being a long timedifpnted on both fides*; 
lift the Mettenians gave way. When Tyrtxus went af- 
ds to Sparta, he was received with the ^rcatell marks of 
tioD, and incorporated into the body of citizens. 
I gaining of this battle did not put an end to the war, 
had already lafled three years. Ariflomenes, having af- 
d the remains of his army, retired to the top of a moun- 
»f difficult accefs, which was called Ira. The conquerors 
»ted to carry the place by aflault ; but that brave prince 
ed himfelf there for the fpace of eleven years, and per- 
l the mod extraordinary allions of bravery. He was at 
>liged to quit it, only by furprize and treachery, after 
; defended it like a lion. Such of the Meflenians as fell 
ie hands of the Lacedaemonians on this occafion, were 
d to the condition of the helots or (laves. The reft fee- 
;ir country ruined, went and fettled at Zanclc, a city in 

which afterwards took its name from this people, and 
lied Meflana; the fame place called at this day Meffioa. 
nenes, after having conduced one of his daughters to 
s, whom he had given in marriage to the tyrant of that 
thought of paffingoii to Sardis,and to remain with Ardys, 
f the Lydians, or to Ecbatana, with Phraortes, king of 
ides ; bot death prevented the execution of all his defigns. 
The fécond Meflenian war was of fourteen years dura- 
nt tT.cicd the firft year of the twenty-feventh Olympiad. 
:rc w;i3 a third war between thcfe people and the Lace- 
lians, which began both at a time, and on the occafion 
>rc:ac earthquake that happened at Sparta. We ihall 
of thîs war in its place. 

:hillory, of which it remains for me to treat in this work, 
of thf fucCffTors of Alexai>dcr, and comprcliends the 
of tv,o hundred and ninety-three years ; from the death 
t monarch, and thcc(>mnicnccm«'nt of the reip^n of Pco- 
he fin of Lagus, in K;':vpt, to the dcaih of Cleopatra, 
hat kingdom become a Roman province, under the em- 


(n) A, M. 3:^34. Ant. J. C. 670, 


TliH )iitir)ry will prefent to our view a feries of all tbecri 
.which i.:ii:>!ly nrif'c from inordinate ambition ; fcenei of jci*| 
loufy, and ;irriidioun condafl; treafon, ingratitude» and 
inf; abufcA of fovcrcign power ; cruelty» impiety» an ntMT 
ohlivion of the natural fcntimentt of probity and honour, witk 
the violation of all laws human and divine, will rife befOKOfc 
Wc ihuW behold nothing but fatal di (Ten fions» deft ru£livewai% 
and dreadful revolutions. Men, originally friends, broaglC 
up ro^rthrr, and natives oH the fame country, companions ii 
the l:inic ihuyvTs, and inflruments in the accompli Jnment ft 
the f.iinrcxpioitr, and victories, will confpire to tear in pieM 
tlin nil pire tlicy had all concurred to form nt the expence of 
tli«:ir l>l(>oJ. Wc (hall fee the captains of Alexander facrifict 
the iTKJthcr, the wivcn, the brother, and fillers of chat prioca» 
to their own ambition ; and without fparing even thofe 10 
whom th'-y cither owed, or gave, life. Wc (hall no loneer be- 
hu]i\ (liolc {Mdiioufi limes of Greece, that were once fo pro- 
clu^tivrc nf yjv:\t men, and great examples; or, if we fliouM 
hfipprti to (lifcovcr fonic traces and remains of them» they 
will 'Mily rcft-mbic the ^'learns of lightning that fhoot along iB 
a rapid track, and are only remarkable from the profound 
daikiicfi tliat prcccden and follows them. 

[ ;irkiiowli-iJ)i;c myCelf to be fufficiently fcnfible how much a 
writn i . to be pitied, for being obliged to reprefent homu 
rature in fuch colours and lineaments as difhonour her» and 
which occafion inevitable diHailc and a fccret aflliétlon in the 
niindfi of thofe who are made fpedlators of fuch a piAure. Hif* 
tory lolcs whatever i*. moil afFc^Ung and moil capable of con* 
vryiii}', pleai'urc and inilrudion, when (he can only produc» 
tliofe efieéts by infpiring the mind with horror for criminal 
actions, and l)y a repreientation of the calamities which ufu- 
iillv fucceed them, and are to be confidered as their juft pa- 
iiiihment. It is difficult to engage the attention of a reader, 
for any conftderablc time, on objects which only raife his in- 
<li^^n;ition, and it would be affronting him, to (eem Ucfirous of 
diiluadiii^r him from the exccfs of inordinate pallions, of which 
he ronfcive» himfelf incapable. 

What mf.-ins is there to prefcrvc and diffufe the agreeable 
thmtioh a narration, which has nothing to offer but an uniform 
il lie. <if viees and {«rratcrime.s ; and which makes it necefllary 
to riiirr into :i pariicular detail of the anions and charaflcrs of 
men horn for the cnlamity of human race, and wliofe very 
iianif '. (iiniiKi nor be tranfmittcd to pollerity ? It may even be 
thoiiplit (I:!n;>r(()U'<, to familiarixc the minds of the generality 
oi mankind to uninterrupted (ccncs of too fucccf>ful iniquity; 




• .be fmefii defcribing cbe onjifft fucceTs wbicb 
I on tbolb iÛoKn s crîminalty the long daratloii of whofe 
mtf -being ft nûy attended with ^he privileges and' 
bef Tirtae» may be thought an imputation on prondenoe» 
ifMis of weak onderftaMioes* * 
kiààorff which (eeaa likely to prove very diiagreeable» 
khiieiiîbss I h«re joft mentioned, will become more fo 
te obfcurity and confufion in which the feveral tranf^c* 
«ill be involved» and which it will be difficolt» if not 
lUe, to remedy. Ten or twelve of Aleacander's cap-' 
wove ea^^^ed in a courfe of hoftilities againft each other» 
a partition of his empire after his death ; and to fecure 
elvifs feme portion» greater or lefs, of that vaft body. 
imes feigned fi'iends, fometimes declared enemies» and 
m coDtinnally forming different parties and leagues» 

are to fubfift no loneer than is confiftent with the inte« 

* each particular. Macedonia changed its mafter five or 
oes in a very ihort fpace ; by what means then can order 
erfpicuity be preferved» in a prodigious variety of events 
re perpetually crofiins and breaking in upon each other ? 
idet wnich» 1 am no longer fupportcd by any ancient au* 
callable of conduMng me throueh this darknefs apd 
!on. Diodoms will 'entirely abandon me, after having 
mj guide for fome time ; and no other hiftorian will ap* 

take his place. No proper feries of affairs will remain ; 
rcrai events are not to oe difpofed into any regular con- 

1 with each other ; nor will it be poffible to point out» 
die motives ^o the rçiblutions -formed,, or the proper 
1er of the principal a€ton in this fcene of obfcunty. • I 
myftlf happy when «Polybius» or Plutarch, lend me thçîr 
ice. In my account of Alexander's fuccefTors» whofe 
ftions are, perhaps» the mod complicated, and perplexed 
f ancient hiffory» Ufher» Prideaux, and Vaillant, will 
f nfual guides; and, on many occafîons, I ihall only 
îbe Irom Prideaux; but, with all thtfe aids, I (hall not 
fe to throw fo much light into this hidory as I could 

it a war of twenty years, the number of the principal 
titers were reduced to four ; Ptolemy, Caffander, Se< 
» and Lyfimachus : The empire of Alexander was di- 
ioto four fixed kingdoms, agreeably to the predidion of 
I» by a folemn treaty concluded between the parties. 
of thefe kingdoms, Egypt, Macedonia, Syria, or Afia, 
lave a regular •fucceffiou of monarchs, fufficiently clear 
iftinô; but the fourth, which comprebendcd Thmçe, 
Lt L f wiik 

cvvîî P R V- P A C V.. 

uiih parc ni' itie Lcfler Afia, mid fonte neighboariflj 
vtii(r>, will fuft'irr « number of vNrJatiani. 

A*! ilir tiiiij'dfim of K};y]it wa» ftthjr^l lo the feweftd 
lirt.iulf I'tolciny, who wiit rlUblifturJ tlitre at i govcr 
I III- iii-at)i («f Alcxmulrr, rcuincci the poHrnion of ic rv« 
iiik! 1« ft it K» hi» poilcriiy. Wc ftiall, thcrefurep coniiil 
piiiit r At i\\r halift of our chroiiologyp tfid our fevcral < 
111 II h^ fiKrcl fri)iii hiiii. 

The huh volume loniaiiii the rvenl» ftrr the fpau 
htiiidirii and twrniy venrti, uiidrr Che four firA kin^of 
•<'/.-/:. i'ltilrniy, I he iDn ui Lyf^ui, who reigned thiil 
yiMiâ ; i'liflrtiiy i'hihidcl|)hu4, who reigned forty ; 1 
i'.vci;»rtrn, wlici tri^^Med twcnty-fivc ( and Ptolemy IMûl 
wiicfr rr'tyii cotitinurd irvrntrcn. 

Ill fjidri lotliinw fbiiirli^ht into thehiAory containti 
in, I ih;ill, in tlic hrll pL'if.e, f^^ive the principal event 
in a ( lii(>ii<'lo)i(ii'ul alwid^^meni. 

Iniiodiiitoiy to which, Iniuil dcfireihe reader to acc< 
ni<* in fntiir trilc^lioni» whiih have n(»K efcupcd W 
ÏUtiUitt, wiih rrJAtion to AK'xunder. 'i'hif princt*, w 
ih' tiiofl irniAviitd nnd illullnouft conciucror in all hilto 
ili^ {.ill rrion;iii'li of hia rttce. Macedonia, hi« anctcm 
doni, wIikIi hiii uncdlor» had ^overnrd fur fo many ag 
itiv.iilrii iri)ni all cjuaitcrti. m ii vacmt fucccilion s :ind 
hrfd loii^ lirrn u |»icy to the Uron^cfl, it wai at lull tut 
to iinoihrr f.miily. if Alexander had cotuinued paii 
Mairdonia, the vr.indrur ol hi* empire would not have 
iltr dnil)iiion of liib captuinn ; and he uiighi have irar 
ilic Iccpfr J of hi» prof^miioitt to hii own Jcfccndunti : 
he Iki'I lid prrdiibcd aiiy boiuuU to hu j)owcr, he wa 
ncMal in the drftru^lion of hi» houfe, and we fluiH bel 
rxinnnnaiicni ol hi&familyp without tlic le^lt rein:iînin 
ni th>:ni iniiiltoiy. i Ji» i-otu|uel(i occfifioneJ n vail rli 
blood, and luiiiifhed hi.i captain» witli a preCrxi li^r nil 
one aiiothiT. Thc'fr wrir tlie Wfc^U that flowed fr 
biMflcd biavrry of Alexander, or rulhrr from that bi 
wliiih, undrr the p,liltriiiio| name» of ambition and 
l|.if';iil the drfolafioMh of lue and fword throu;(h win 
vinica, without the lr:iil provouttion, und fhed ihc b 
iiiiiliiiuclrb who h.itl iirvri injurrd him. 

VVc* arc not to inia^Mii'-, however, that providence tbi 
tlirh* rvr^nib to chunic, but, na li wai then preparing al 
ftii ihi* apmc)Hcliiiip, apprnruncr of the Mcfliah, it wat 
i., unite all thr nations, that were to Ic fiill enlightcni 
tlir ^oijiclp l)y the u(e of one and the fame InnguagCp 

* P R E F A C E. cyxiii 

t of Gre^>: And the fame providence made It necef- 
thiein to leait^this foreign tongue, b^ rubjeAiitjg theia 
flbifters as fpoke no other. The Deity , therefore» by 
ncj of this language, which became more common and 
U than any other, facilitated the preaching of the apofr 
id rendered it more uniform. 

partition of the empire of Alexander the Great, among 
eraU of that prince hmnediatdy after his death, did 
fift for any length of time, and hardly took place, if 
rpt Egypt, where Ptolemy had firfl eiUbliflied himfelf^ 
the throne of ^kich he always maintained himfelf 
: acknowledging «oy fuperior. 

This partition was not fully regulated and fixed, till af- 
battle of Ipfus in Phrygia, wherein Antigonus and hif 
netrius, furnamed Poliorcetes, were defeated, and the 
loft his life. The empire of Alexander was then di- 
nto four kingdoms, by a folemn treaty, as had beea 
I by Daniel. PtolemyHiad Egypt, Lybia, Arabia, Cœ- 
and Paleftine. CafTander, the fon of Ancipater, ob** 
Macedonia and Greece. Lyfimachus acquired Thracet 
a, and fome other provinces on the other fide of the 
ont and theBofphorus. And Seleuous had Syria, and all 
It of Afia major, which extended to the other fide of 
phrates, and as far as the river Indus. 
hefe foitr/kingdoms« thofe of Egypt and Syria fubiiSetf, 
without any interruption, in the fame families, and. 
I a iong fucceflion of princes. The kingdom of Mi^ 
k had feveral mafters of different families fucceifively. 
f Thrace was at lull divided into feveral branches, and 
ger conflituted one entire body, by which mcani aU 
>f regular fucceflion ceafed to fubf>(l. 

I, Th kingdom ^f Egypt, 

kingdom of'Kgypt had fourteen monarchs, Includiq^ 
:ra, after whofe death, thofe dominions became a pro- 
f the Roman empire. All thefe princes had the com* 
me of Ptolemy, but each of them was likewife diftin- 

by a peculiar furname. They had alfo the appellation 
des, from Lagus the father of that Ptolemy who reigned 

in Egypt. The fixth volume contains the hi (lories of 
hefe kings, and I fhall give their names a jlace here, 
e duration of their reigns, the /ird of which commenced 
ately upon the death of Alexander the Great. 

f 2 Ptolcn^y 

(o) A, M. 7t> . Ant. J. C. 100. 

çtmy P R E F A C B. 

{fi] Ptolemy Ater, He reigned thirty-eight jtàn and 

f.i:n • mniuhs. 

(y) l'ioUiny Philadelphus. He rdgned forty yèart» incliuk 
ii.jT ti:c two years of his rei^n in theTife*tiine of his father. 
(') J*t(>1>'my r.vcrgetes rciened twenty-fiveyeart. 
(.^ i\<.k;ny I'hilopator reigned feventeen. 
{:, ru>k'my Kpiphancs reigned twenty-four. 
[:,) i'tolcmy PiiJIomecor reigned thirty-four. 

JI. The ^ingilom of Syria. 

Tl.'j kir.g'lom of Syria had twenty-feven kion ; whick 
Tr::!;(.^ it cviiicnt, that thfir reigns were often very mort: And 
i> liucJ fcvci al of thcfc princes waded to the throne through the 
b! jO(\ of their prcdeccftbrs. 

'I'hcy nic ufually cailrJ Selcucides, from Selncns, who reigned 
thr f.iil ill S/ria. Ililiory reckons up fix kings of this name, 
:.[:(! i)-i;t(.'i'n who nrc called by that of Andochns ; but they 
:..(• 1.11 (lii'iii^uinied !>/ différent furnames. Others of them 
faillit! (.! fli fieront nnmrs, and the laftwas called AntiochusXllI. 
V. i:i) tlic ruriiaiiic; of Hpiphanes, Afiaticus, and Comroagenei. 
1;: his rci^i) I'ompcy reduced Syria into a Roman province, 
«thir it liud been governed by kings, for the fpaceof two has- 
«iinl iirid tif'iy years, according to Eufebius. 

'i'hc kiniTb of Syria, the tranfaflions of whofe reigns are 
contciincJ in the fixth volume, are eight in number. 

(x) Selcucus N leaner. He reigned twenty years. 

\y) Antiochus Sotcr, nineteen. 

(s:) Aniiochus Thcos, fifteen. 

(/i) Sdeucus CallJnicus, twenty. 

\ù) Selcucus Ccr.mnus, three. 

\r) Aniiochus the Great, thirty-fix. , 

{J) Sel'-ucus Philnpater, twelve. 

(/■; Antiochus Epif hanes, brother of Seieucuà Fhilopator» 


III. The kingdom of Macedonia» 

{f) Macedonia frequently changed its mafters» after the 
folcmn partition had been made between the four princes. 
Cafl'ifidcr died three or four years after that partition, and left 
three fons^ Philip, the cldeA, died prefently after his father. 


(f) A. M. 3680. (f) A.M. 3718. (r) A.M. 3758, (j) 
A. M. v'3. (0 A. M. 38C0. (») A.M. 3814. («J A. M. 37C4. 

r.; A.M. 5-34- (r)A.M.3743. (a) A.M. 3758. (^)A.M. 
'. yy.. ((-)A.M.372tJ' (i)f.M.38i7. (0 A. M. 38191 
.■/•; A. M 37^7. 3 

P R E F A e 1. t»l^ 

JThe otiier two ton tended for the crown withont enJoyiBg it» 
both dying fooii after without îfTue. 

(g) Deffletria^ Poliortetes» Pyrrhus, and Lyfimachus, made, 
themfelvet mailers of all» or the greateft part of Macedonia ; 
Ibmetimes in conjun^on» and at other times feparately. 
• (ifr). After the death of Lyiimachus, Seleucuspo/IbiTedhlsifelf 
of Macedonia, bnt did not long enjoy it. 

(r) Ptolemy Ceraunus having (lain the preceding prînre,^ 
firis^d the kingdom» and pofTeiTed it atone but a yery fhort 
time, having loft his life in a battle witii the Gauls» who h^d 
made an irruption into that country. / . 

(i) Softhenes, who defeated the Gauls» reigned but a ihcrc 
time in Macedonia. 

(/ ) Aotigonus Gonatas, the fon of Deihetrius Pollorcetes, 
obtained the pe^eable poiTeffîon of the kingdom of Macedo- 
nia» and tranfmitted thofe domlnioni to his defcçndants, after 
lie had reigned thirty- four years. 

(ai)He was fucceeded by his ibn Demetrius, who reigned 
tea years» and then died» leaving a fon naoied Fhiiip^ wha 
was bnt two years old. 

(») Antigonns Dofon reigned twelve years in the quality of 
gttardian to the young prince. 

^ (0) Philip, after the death of Antigonus, afcended the thrcgne 
at the age of fourteen years, and reigned fomething more than 

, (/} His fon Perfens fucceeded him, and reigned about eleven 
years. He was defeated and taken prifoner by Paulus Emi- 
lius ; and Macedonia, in conlequence of that vi£lory,was ajdd*^ 
éd to the provinces of the Roman empire. 

IV. ne kiugiom of Thr^c^, and Blthyma^ &c. è 

This fourth kingdom, compofed of feveral feparate pro- 
vinces very remote from one another, had not any Aicceffionof 
princes, and did not long fubiift in its firft condition ; Lyii- 
machus, who firtt obtained it, having been killed in a battle 
after a reign of twenty years, and all his family being excer-* 
aiinated by aflaffînations, his dominions were difmemberedr 
aad no longer conftitnted one kingdom. 

Befide the provinces which were divided among the captain» 
tf Alexander, there were others which had been either formrd 

f 3 before» 

. 'fi) A. M. 3710. (h) A. M. 3713. (Î) A. M. 3724. (*) 
A. M. 3^s6. (/) A.M. 3738. («Ja.M. 376i, (•) A, M.3772.. 
(•) A, M. y 84, (f) A. M. 3824* 

cxxvî PREFACE. 

K-fori% OT were then tr-fffd into different and xisdcpcncfnt 
Cirecian Hate*, whofe pt'Uf^r gieatly increafed in procefs of 

Xir^f 9/" Hi toy ni a, 

iq) Whilrt Alexander wns cxfcndiro; his conqnefls in the 
F.'iîJ, y'petl'.e? had laid tiit* fouiid.iiinns of the kingdom rf 
'Biiriyi.ia. It is not certain who ' is Zypeihes wns, unkfs we 
may conjci^hire uith Pr.ulanias that he was a Thracian. His 
fucu'fl'.ri. however are bcitrr known. 

fr' Nicmnedes 1. Thif prince invited the Gauls to aiTift biov 
ap.iii.!l his brother, with whcm he was engaged in a war. 

f''i Pi u Has IF. furnamed rhc Hunter, in whofe court Han- 
rl::tl took refu;^e, ai*d cffillc i him with his counfels, in his- 
aar aj*ninlî lùinieocs II. kinî> oî Pergamus. 

Nicon.edcs II. v* as kiMiif by his fon Socratea. 

Niconu'ties lîf. wasaiTiihd hv tht Romans in his war with 
îv 'li:!C<itt.s, and btquerithed to (hem at his death the kingdom 
oi .'>l:h;. :,'.!, a; a tertimoni.l of his gratitude to them; by 
a l.ich nieai.!) ct.efe territories became a Roman province. 

K'ngs cf Fcrgamus, 

T)i*5 kinc:dom comprcheocicd only one of the fmalleft pro- 
v; ot MyTn, on the coall of the iEgean fca, againU the 

'/' '['} is l-ingjora v/ns founded by Fhilatera, an eunuch^ 
V iin ) ,\.\ \ c. ri Û iVrvant t > Docima, a commander of the troop* 
* f Ai.iii:' T.a. . Lviimachus ccnfidcd to him the treafures he 
ji.kI d< pi liitd in the caftle of the city of Pergamus, and he 
) rtûir.e miller !)o:h of thcfe and the city after the death of 
s!iat prince. lie governed thfs little fovereignty for the fpacc 
cf twenty years, and then left it to Eumenes his nephew. 

(u) I. enlarged his priiicipalityr by rhe addition 
of fevcral cities, which he took from the Idngs of S^'ria, hav- 
ing defenteJ Antiochus, the fon of Seleucus, in a battle. He 
reigned twelve years. 

(ly) lie was fucceedcd by Attalus I. his coulin-german, who 
£n*unu'd the title of king, affr he had conquered the Galati" 
ans ; and he tranfmittcd his dominions to his pollerity, who 
enjoyed them to the third generation. He ailifled the Romans 
in their war with Pliilip, and died after a reign of forty-three 
year;;. He left four Tons. 


(7) A. M. -j6S6. (r) A. M. 3-a6. CO A. M. ^«40. (f) A. .M, 
3-zi. Ant. J. C. zî'v (»; A. M. 3741. Anf. J. e. 263, (w) A. M. 
3;6j. Ant. J. C. 241, 

PREFACE. cxxvii 

^ • 

(x) H» fucceflbr wasEumenesTI. his elded fon, who founded 
le hmow library of Pergamas. He reigned thirty-nine 
^ars» aoid left the cro\vn to his brother Attalus, in the qua* 
Bby of guardian to one of his fonj, whom he had by Strato- 
jittice» the fifteV of Ariarathes king of Cappadocia. The Ro- 
'SÉant enlarged his dominions conftderably, after the vidory he 
^iPcained over Antiochus the Great. 
•r ij) Atcalus II. efpoufed Stratonice his brother's widow, and 
^jmc extraordinary care of his nephew, to whom he left the* 
^Iprown, after he had worn it twenty one years. * 
* (x) Attains HI. furnamed Philometer, diftingoilhcd himfelf 
L%y his barbarous and extravagant condud. He died after he' 
r tad reigned Ave years, and bequeathed his riches and domi- 
Biooa to thé Romans. 

(a) Ariflonicus, who claimed the fucceifion, endeavoured to 
defend his pretentions againil the Romans, but the kingdorai 
of Pergamus was reduced, after a war of four years, into a 
Koman province. 

Kings of Fortius . 

ip) The kingdom of Pontus in Afia minor was anciently 
difmembered from the monarchy of Pertia, by Darius the fon 
of Hyilafpes, in favour of Artabazus, who is faid, by Tome 
hiftorians, to have been the fon of one of thofe Perfian lordt 
who confpired againil the Magi. 

iPbntos is a region of Afia minor, and is tituated partly alongf 
tbe coaft of the Enxine fea (Fortius Euxittus) from which it de- 
rires its name. It extends as far as the river Halys, and even 
to Colchis. Several princes reigned in that country tince Ar* 

(r) The fixth monarch was Mithridates I. i^ho is properly 
confidered as the founder of the kingdom of Pontus, and hi^ 
name was afTomed by the generality of his fucceflbrs. 

(^) He was fucceeded by his fon Ariobarzanes, who had 
governed Phrygia under Arraxerxes Mnemon, and reigned 
twenty fix years. 

(r) His fucceflbr was Mithridates II. Antigonus fufpeftine, 
in confequence of a dream, that he favoured Caflander, had 
determined to dedroy him, but he eluded the danger by flight. 
This prince was called Krirri?, or tJbe Founder^ and reigned 
thirty-five, years. 

f 4 Mithridates 

(jf) A, M 3S07. Ant. J. C. 197. (y) A. M. 3845. Ant, J. C. 159, 

(a;) A. M. 3866. Ant. J. C. 1 38. {a) A. M. 387 1 . Ant. J C. 1 3 ^, 

\Jk) A. M. 3490. Alt. |. C. <14. (1:) A. M. 3600. Ant. J. C 404.. 

§/) A. M. 1641. Ant. J. C. 363, (#) A. M. 3667. Ant. J. C. 337. 



(/ M':hridatcs III. fucceeded him, added CâppadocSa ui 
!'.•: !...;. na ;o his dominions, and reigned thirty-fix yean. 

Aki r ihe rciens of two other kings, Mithridatei, the great 
fr.i. :.:}.'.r cf Mi:htida(e^ the Great, afcended the throMi 
rr.l • ; •hici a tijo;>hrfr of Sclcucus Callinicns, king of Syrili 
h-, yM. M he ha J î.ar.Jicc, who was married to Antiochui thl 


i \ ua5 fucccrJcd Lv his fon Pharnaces, who had fomi 
li ' ;.L": i.î v.-iih t!".r kinr;i of i'ergamus. He made himfelf 
nil i-r I I Mr.opc, which afterwards became the capital of thl 
kin;; :o:ii ot Trntus. 

\ii r r.iin re! M ith ridâtes V. and the firll who was called 

I in -i! :o the Komnn5, hccaufe he had affii'ted them againft 

( /iKiiù/ini.ins in ilic third Punick war. 

(/'• !f. U.I. fmrdcj by his fon Mithridatet VI. furnamed 

r V'T r. :*- i- i t; r forçât Mithridates who fuflained fo lOAg 

•1 ...If ...^i. iic Ki il, i:ij, and rtigncd iixty-fix ycari. 

A'rff^s rf Citfpadocia, 

r{r:Iv^ (; i'î.V'HM u«. that Cippadocia was divided Into 
^ .,...■ i... I i.'pK >, i r r,.'\» ; '•:*K'ni'-, under the Per/ians, as it alfo 
^. r;*^ I ■ ■'« ■ ii"« r. ';;v **'.';> ,^. 05. 'ihe innriiirr.e part of Cappado* 
'<" • î ' • - •* .. • .V . { IVrtii- : The other traÛs conllitut- 
y C'l," • ' «I*. jv»^'..rl\ 1.^ c;l:od, cr the Cr.ppadocia major, 
'' ^ ;. ^ < .Mi:.t!.- .ii« >';. r.-ii'dri i', and to a great diilancc be-» 
' ' . J if- 
' *v VVI:c-n Aî<\an.}rrVcsrî-iir.« ôî\îd*d the provinces of his 
• .'itf a::T(m;» ihrnM.l\.>. C^»p;M^!oc;a uas governed by a 
^ ^ jj r-£rn.d Aiijiôiî.is. Tcuiici'. s attacked and defeated 
'' " J :*■/'" "^yY^^ ^'^ taulcrd him lo Ik iVvji. 
• ' ^. :L:: A'iarathcs ic-eiucic^ ih*^ kin;>dom of his father 
: J ..'c-r this event, and cll.ib'.ithcd hiiiifclf fo cficélu- 
' . :-• ■- '-*f: it to his polK-riiy. 
: - -';^---y cf hii fucceflurs ;iirunv:d the fame name, and 
' - ■- • p-3ce in the fcries of the hillory. 
^ ..v 1, jr^r the death of Archclau.s the laft of its 
. :n. . ;-'.-j.ince of the Roman empire^ as the red of 
, * "" - *;i j-bou: ihclame linie. 

> oa, (^) A. M. -?«!(). Ant. J. C. i?c. 
+. (i; Sirab. 1. xii. p. 534, /^j 

r R B F A C. 1, cxi^ 

nk, a rift country of Afia, exteniling od each flile of 
kratu, w» conqaered by the Perfiani ; after which it 
nhttÏA, with the refl of the empire, to the Maccilo- 
ind at laft fell to the Ihare of the Romans. It w» go- 
In a great length of time by iti own kinjr), the moll 
■b]a of whom wai Tif^ranes, who erponfcd the dtugh- 
le great Mithridatet king of i'untus, anil wuiflllb^n'- 

I a long war whh the Roninns. Thia kingdom fup- 
itfelf many years, between the Roman and Piirthia» 
, fometimes depending on the one, and fomctiaics on 
r, till at laft the Romans bfcame its inafters. 

King! tf ipifiii. 

II il a province of Greece, fcparatcd from Theiliily 
Mdonia by mount Pindiu. The moft powcifiil pwpW 
CooDtry were the MoloÛlar.s. 

kings of Epiras pretended to derive their di-rctut from 

.the Ton of Achilles, wha tllablilhed himfrlf in that 

, and called themlclvci j£addes, from Mixas tha 

thcr of Achilles. 

The genealogy of the laft kings, whQ were \\^t onl/ lb- 

I of^this country of whom any account» iciii-iiii, is va- 

relaCed by authors, and conl'equetitly mull hn dubious 


ibas afcended the throne, nfier a long fucceSion of 

and as he was then very ycung, the (Intea of Epirusj 
re fenfiblc that the welfare of the people ilcpiiiided on 
(per education of their piiiicts, lent biiti to Athens, 
vas the refidence and centre of nil the arts and fcirncts, 
■ to cultivate, in that excellent fchool, fuch knowledge 
leceiTary to form the mind of a king. He there li^rned 
of reigning efttiftually, and " as he furpalled all hia 
sin ability and knoutedge, he was in confequence in* 

more clieemed and beloved by his people than thajr 

n. When he returned from Athens, he made lavvsi. 

led a fenaie and m<igillracy, and regulated the form of 


tolemu^ whofe dau^^hier Olympias had rrpoufed Philip 

Maccdon, attained an equal Iharc in tbc Kgal govern* 
Diod. 1, VTi. p. ^f•%. JuAIn I. tiii. e. fl. Prut. In Pfrrlia. 
alvd»âi«t Di'Joilbuii taato A|itCiar popalofuit, J'fii't l.ivUfa 

0Ôac> P % E' F A C E. 

ment of Arymbas hit Aitr brocher, hy the credit of hit Ton 
law. After the death of Arymbai, Àacidet his fon ought to 
have been his fucceiTor ; but Philip bad fiill the credit to pAo- 
cure, his expnliion from the kingdom by the Molofllans^ who? 
eftablifhed Alexander the fon of Neoptolemos (bk monaroh db 

Alexander efpoufed Cleopatra the daughter of Philip, and 
marched with an army into Italy» where he loft his lifeia tkr 
country of the Brutians. 

i£acides then afcended the throne, and reigned without aay 
aflbciate in £pirus. He «fpoufed Phthia the daughter dT: 
Menoa the ThedaJian, by whom he had two daughters» Dc^. 
damia and Troida, and one ion, the celebrated Pyrrhus. \ 

As he was marching to the afliilaiiceof Olympias, his tioopt 
mutinied ngaind him, condemned him to exile, and flaughtcm 
moil of hl:> friends. Pyrrhus, who was then an infaot, happily 
efcaped this maHTacre. 

Neoptolcmus, a prince of the blood, bar whoft particnikf 
extraélion is little known, was placed on the throng by thf 
people of Epirus. 

Pyrrhus, berng recalled by his fubjeé^s at the age of twelft 
vears, firfl fharedthe fovereignty with Neoptolemos ; but haT« 
2ng afterwards diveûed him of his dignity, he reigned «lone. • 

{m) This hiflory will treat of the various adventures of this 

f rince. He died rn the city of Argos» in an attack to make 
imfelf mailer of it. 

Helen us his fon reigned after him for (bme time* ur Epimr» 
which was afterwards united to the Roman empire*. 

Tyrants of Heractea. 


Heraclea is a city of Pontus, anciently founded by the Bc80« 
tians, who fent a colony into that country by the order of an 

in) When the Athenians were viûorious over the Perfi«ss« 
had impofcd a trib^ite on the cities of Greece and Afit 
minor, for the fitting out and Aipport of a fleet intended 
for the defence of the common liberty, the inhabitants of 
Heraclea, in confequence of their attachment to the Perfianst 
were the only people who rcfufed to acquiel'cc in fo jaft a con- 
tribution. Lamachus was therefore fent againft them, mod hd 
ravaged their territories ; hut a violent temped having deftroyed 
his whole fleet, he beheld himfelf abandoned to the mercy of 


(m) a. M. 3733. Ant. J. C. ft;!. {j) Jttftin..UjnL c 

Diod, 1. jiv, p. 390t 

* ' 'I ■ î ' * "• "J 

P R E F A C F. . . ctxf 

Ople» whole natural ferocity might well have been in-, 
bjr the fevere treatment they, had lately received. But 
bad recourfe to no other vengeance but benefaAioni ^ 
niibed him with proviGons and troops for Ifis retttrn»^ 
'e willing to confider the depredations which had been 
ted in their countrv as advantageous tq them» if they, 
d the friendihip of tne Athenians at that price. , 

»ome time after this eventr the populace of Heraclea 
a violent commotion againfl the rich citizens and fena-. 
ho having implored aflifhince to no effeét» firft front, 
tens the Athenian, and afterwards from Epaminendaa, 
eban, were neceffitated to recall Clearchus a fenator tOk 
efence, whom themfelves had bani(hed ; but his exile 
Ither improved hit morals nor rendered him a better ci- 
lan he was before. He therefore made the troubles^ in 
be fotfnd the cily involved, fobfervienr ta his deiignr of 
ing it to his own power» With» this view he openly^ 
îd n>r the people» caufed himfelF to be in veiled with the 
i office in the magiftracy, and afl\imed a fovereign aU'^ 
' in a (hopt time. Being thus become a profefTèd tyrant/ 
vere no kinds of violence to which he had nor recourfe; 
^ the rich and the feoators, to fatiace his avari^ andf 
r. He propofed for his model Dionyliu» the Tyrant»* 
ad eilabhihed his power over the Syracufans at .the fame 

pr a hard and inhuman fervitude of twelve yeais^ two 
^zens, who.were Plato's difciples, and hid been in* 
d in bis maxims, formed a confpiracy againdClearchut»* 
ew him ; but though they delivered their cpuntry fronii 
rant, the tyranny dill fubfilled. 

Timotheus, the fon of Cieafchus, «flumed his place, and* 

id his condud for the fpace of fifteen years. 

He was fiicceeJed by his brother Dionyfins, who wa» 

ger of being difpo/TeAed of his avthority by Perdiccat ; 

this laft was foon deilroyed, (r) Dionyfius contraâed ik 

(hip with Antigonus, whom he affifted againft Ptolemj^ 

Cyprian war. 

%.M. 3640. Ant. Js C. 364. (f>) M Me 165t. Ant. Ji C. ^f9i 

M. ^067. Ant. J. C. 337. Diod. 1. xvi* p*435. (0 Diod« 

p. 478. 

endienfet honaftiorem bene- pulttionem impenfaai exiaimentet- 
uàm uhionii occafionem rati, fi. quoi hoftes habuerânt,, tmico» 
^ .cemmcat'but auxiliifque rcddidiffent. ^tiJHiu 
ant t bene a^roriim iuonim po- [, 

Cxxxti P R E F A C S. 

He efponlcd Amaftrii» the widow of CratertMi and dati|;ht« 
ef Oxiathreiy the brother of Dariui. This alliance infoîjtd 
him with To moch courage, that he alTunicd the title c^ b%p 
and enlarged his dominions by the addition of feveral plactt 
which he Teized on the confines of Heradea. 

{s) He died two or three years before the battle of Ipfas, aal 
after a reign of thirty-three vcars, leaving two foot and I 
daughter under the tutelage anci regency of Amaflri"-. 

1 his princefs was rendered happy in her adminiAration, bjr 
the afFcétion Antigonus entertained for her. She founded a 
city, and called it by her name ; after which flie traufpbatcd 
thither the inhabitants of three other cities, and cfpouicd L/« 
fimachus, after the death of Antigonus. 

Kings §/ Syrafuji, 

(/) HierOy and his fon Hicronymusr reigned at Syracifc| 

the firfl fifty-four years, the fctond but one year^ 

(») Syracufe recovered iti liberty hy the death of thehft» 
but continued in the intereflof the Carihagininns, which Hit* 
ronymus had caufcd it to efp<:)ufc. His conduél obliged Mar- 
cellus to form the fiege of that city, which he toc»k the fblioi»- 
ing year (<w). I fliall enlarge opon the hiftory of thefi: tuo 
king» in another piacfl. 

Othir Kings. 

• Several kings likewife reigned in the Cimmetinn Bofphoroit 
as alfo in Thrace, Cyrene in Africa, Paphlagonia, Colchis, 
Iberia, Albania, and a variety of other pl.icc^; hur their hil^ 
tory is fcry uncertain, and their fuccefTions have but little re- 

• Thcfe circomftances are rery difRsrent with refpeft to the 
kingdom of the Parthians, who formed thcmfelves, as we (hall 
fee in the fequel, into fuch a powerful monarchy, as became 
formidable even to the Roman empire. That of the fiaflrîaos 
received its original about the fame period ; i Ihall treat of 
each in their proper places. 


(i) A. M. 3700. Ant, y. C. 304* (0 ^' M. 171 $• Ant. J, C.96^ 

{u) A« M, 3780, Aat. J. C. a»4. (w) A. M* 3791, AaU J.C» %tp 



EkodO . ... franeif. An. 1608. 

Tbwctdides. Âpud 1 

'. XsNOPHON. Lutetia , '• 

^Jitituiini, An. 1625. 
|( PoLYBiKS. Turifiis, Ad. 1609. 

DtODORUt SicuLUs. Hanavia, TjfiiWttbtUaiiii,Ati, l6p4> 

pLUTAiLCHUs. Lui€ii*PariJî»riimapudSKUtMltmGfae*fim 
An. 1614. 

Stkabo. Laiiiia Pari/wnM,Typiirtglii, An. l6)0> 

!Athinav9. LMgdttul, An. t6ti. 
Paujaniai. Ham-viitiTjphWtchtlittnii, An. iSij. 
, Appianvs AlhkasdIK. Àfud Heurte. Sttfhin. Aa,%igtt 

, Plato, ^jmifufl Joawi Strrani iatirfiitatitiu. Jfud Nnf 
ticum Stffbanum, An. 1578. 

Ariitotelbs. luittiiÊ fari^nm, efuJ Sacitiatm Gr^es- 

rum EMiionum, An, 16191 

fiocRATEs. jfpMd Paulum Stipbanum, An. 1604. 
1 DioGENS) L/ituT IV a. Jf lui liniritviiStffiamaii,Aa.ts9ii 


• r 



mmmmmmm i i i i 





HALL divide what I have to fay upon the Egyptlmé 
ito three parts* The firft contains a concife deicription of 
lie different parts of Egypt» and of what is moft remark- 
bte in it. In the fecond I treat of the cufloms, laws and 
Bligion of the Egyptians; and in the third» I give the 
iAery of their kings. 


Di/crifticn 0/ EGYPT : JFtfb an Accomt of ^baiever k 
moft curious and remarkable in that country. 

GYPT comprehended anciently» within limits of 
A no very great extent, a * prodigious number of cities» 

* - and an incredible number of inhalntants. 

It is bounded on the eaft by the Red-Sea and tht 
of Suez ; on the fouth by Ethiopia» on the weft hf 
yt» and on the north by the Mediterranean. The Nil€ 
s from fouth to north» throagh the whole country» about 

hnndred leagues in length. This country is inclofed on 
Il fide with a ridge of mountains» which very often leave^ 
veen the foot of the hills and the river Nile, a tra£t of 
kind» of not above half a day's journey in length f» and 
etimes Icfs. 
)n the weft fide» the plain grows wider in fome places^ 

extends to twenty-five or thirty leagues. The greateft 
idth of Hgypt is from Alexandria to Damiata* being about 
^ leagues. 
''OL. I. B Ancient 

It is related that wndtr Amafis, I f A dày*t journey U 24 -ûflirti, et 
wen tmtenty tboujand inbabUed | |} Engii/0 miUt 0»4§ fB^'ttr» 

'",/ t^/lf _.////i 


I cifflity feet •. The emperor Atguftus, having made Egypt 
rovmce of the empire, caufed thefc two obeli ucs to be tranf- 
rted to Rome, one whereof was afterwards broke to pieces. 
I He dorft not venture upon a third» which was of a mcc- 
am fize. It was made in the reign of Ramlfcs : It is fald 
It twenty thoufand men were employed in the cutting of it. 
mftantiusy more daring than ^uguflus, ordered it to lie re- 
>ved to Rome. Two of thcfe obcliiks are ftill feen, as well 
another of an hundred cubits, or twenty-five fathoms high, 
d eight cubits, or two fathoms in diameter, {m) Caius Csel'ar 
d it oroughl^from Egypt in a fhip of fo odd a form, that, 
cording to Pliny, the like had never been fcen. 
£vcry part of Egypt abounded with this kind of obeliiks ; 
ejr were for the moft part cut in the quarries of Upper Egypt, 
here fome are now to be fcen half finifhed. But the moll 
onderful circumilance is, that the ancient Egyptians ihould 
ive had the art and contrivance to dig even in the very qiinny 
canal, through which the water of the Nile ran in the time 
r its inundation ; from whence they afterwards raifed up the 
>lumns, obelifks and flatues on f rafts, proportioned to their 
eight, in order to convey them into Lower Egvpt. And a» 
le country abounded every where with canals, there were few 
lacet to which thofe huge bodies might not be carried with 
lie ; although their weight would have broke every other 
ind of engine. 

Sect. ir. Tht P T R A M I D S. 

r) '\ Pyramid Is a folid or hollow body, having a large, 
Xm. and generally afquare bafe, and terminating in a point. 
There were three pyramids in Egypt more famous than the 
'fty one whereof § deferved to be ranked amoiip^ the fevcn 
onders of the world ; they did not Hand very far from the 
cy of Memphis. I ûiall take notice licre only of the largeft 
f the three. This pyramid, like the rett, was buHt on a rock, 
iving a fquarc bafe, cut on the outfide as fo many ilep^, nnd 
rcreafing gradually quite to the fummit. It was buiit with 
ones of a prodiçrlous fize, the ieaft of which were thirty fcrr, 
roughi with wonderful art, and covered with hicro^lyphick^. 

B 3 According 

(/) Plin, 1, xi»vi. c ?, 9» (w.«) Plin. l.irxxvi. c. q. («) flcrui^ 

ii.c. 124, aec. Pu'i). 1. i. p. ^9 — 41. IMin. lib. xxxvi. c. !•• 

// i» proper to ohfer-viy once for aU, 
.Jt a*i Egypt 'un luhity 4/ctorMfij^ to 
ir, (îrej%'est was one foot ning in^ba 

•\- Raffs art piece i kf fiat t'tmlnr^S/k 
togethiTy to ciirry f^oiJs c/l rïviru 

% Vide Died. Sic, 

M. <lc OiMclIru rf the a£iM!c«y nf ft 


t «T ihc liai* 


' ' An bufiiitd thoufjiuJ men wvtBca 
tLit woit. «riL! wcrr iclicvcti crfry iIubO*" 
niuuLcf. Ten tcsiji^L-AC yraii acK fpcfl ïi 
Ikmcj, eiihEf îa Anbia ur Fthiopâu, Mdt 
n* Pgypti ani) Mïnt)> ye»n more ta bsili 
rîifÏK, ike ia^it oi whlcli eonujaeJ- niunl 
aaamiimiT. Thrre « u cvpfcflctl oa tlw n't 
cfimfitm, liir fun» it coli <m\j rs |ftr})Cfc, li 
ib» like, for ibe wvikmeii ; tcul the »Iw|b t 
hatténi * uleauDT Giver, tlut Is, fournà] 
itifinraod FtcncH llvrci ; from ivhtDCE it MU 
«vhflt iTïHruintlic wWc tnuil h«vcflmoM*_, 
bwcb wrre tite fsm^nt l'.grp''"" pviaiaU-, 

iir.ic ami ikf Baiiurian». Dut *i:ai cffirtt» (bti 
joak<, xhtit r'jrtiinBocf«,tviII «Iwaj^t appt*r. TIlêÂj 
nere tomb) ; and then it fîill t» bcYccn, io the nUi 
hr^eftt an empty {êoulcbrc, eut nut of onr tetirt 
l^Tl'e fret dccj) and bioad, anJ a little above Ax feet^ 
Thoi «U this buflle, all thîi expence, tnd all ibe lifati 
nftiiy ihoufand men, ended in prcKUiisf; a prioce. io 
aoil altncill boundloft pile of building, a littk vault & 
length. Btliilci, the king* who bum tbeft fyiamldt, I 
set in (heir power lo be baricd ta (hem s and fe aid oc* 
the fepukhrc ibey had brnll. The nublkk bitrej wH 
incurred, by renton of their unhi-aid-Af cruelties ta tl 
jcfta, in Uyioe fach hnvy ulki upon them, oixaliai 
bring interred in Ibmc obfcurc place, to pieicnt the 
from beiof capofcd to the fury and re njeAnte of tbc p 

• jihtit i^eeeL fitrt. 

■f Sirthtmuiui th'J'tnlitut Lib. tvii. p. lat 




. J 




!.- . 
1 . 

I- A 

,f 1 

i ; 

I» .1 

■' • 

o p E c Y p r- / 

I' Thii laft circomftancey which hiftorians hare taken par- 
ar notice of, teaches ai what judgment we ought to pafs 
lefe edificei, fo much boafled of by the ancients. It is 
uftco remark and efteem the noble genius which the Eeyf- 
had for architeâure ; a genius that prompted them From 
arlieft times, and before they could have any models to 
ito,to aim in all things at the grand and magnificent ; and 
intent on real beauties^ without deviating in the leaft from 
ble fimplicity, in which che Bighefl perfeûion of the art 
(Is. But what idea ought we to form of thofe princes, 
confidered as fooething erand, the raifing by a multitude 
mds, and by the help of money, immenfe ftru^ures, wichr 
9le view of rendering their names immortal ; and who did 
cruple todeftroy thuufands of their fubjeâs tofatisfy their 
glory I They diiFered vcrv much fi'om the Romans, who 
lit to immortalize themfelves by works of a magnificent 
p but, at the fame time, of pubhck utility. 
} Pliny gives US| in a few words, a juft ideaof thefe pyra* 
, when he calls them a fooli(h and ufelefs ojftentation of 
/ealth of the Egyptian kings ; Regum pecuni^ otUfa ac 
ùfttntcuio. And adds, that by a juil puniihment their 
ory is buried in oblivion ; the hi(iorians not agreeing 
ig themfelves about the names of thofe who firft riifcj 
: vain monuments. Inter ecs non confiât a quîLusfaâla-Jïtiif 
Ifno Citfuobliteratis tanta njanitatis auéicribuf» In a word, 
'ding to the judicious remark of Diodorus, theinduilry of 
rchiteâs Of thofe pyramids is no lefs valuable and pralf^'* 
by, than the defign of the Egyptian kings contemptible 

It what we (hould mod admire in thefe ancient monuments, 
he true and (landing evidence they ^Ive of the (kill of the 
)tians in aflronomy ; that is, in a fcience which feems in- 
bleof being brought to perfedlion, but by a long feries of 
I, and a great number of obfervations. M. deChazelles, 
I he meafured the great pyramid in quedion, found that 
bur fides of it were turned exadly to the four quarters of 
/orld ; and confcquently (hewed the true meridian of that 
. Now, as fo cxaét a fituation was in all probability pur- 
y pitch'd upon by thofe who pil'd up this huge ma(s of 
s, above three thoufand years aeo ; it follows, that during 
ig a fpace of time, there has oeen no alteration in the 
ÎD8 in that refpeét, or (which amounts to the fame thing) 
I poles of the earth or the meridians. This is M. de Fon- 
le s reuMirk in his eulogium of M. de Chazelles. 

B 4 Sect. 

(0) Diod. lib. i* p. 40* (/) Lib. axivi. cup. xt« 


sect.iii. rbe la by R I NTE. 

{/)f T 7 IÎ AT has been faîd concerning the jodgmeiitfl 
V V t u;.;?it to form cf the pyramids» may aîfo be ippW 
t' \\ïc i .Vyrinth, which Herodotus, whofawit» aflfuresusml 
fli.î ir. re ri:rprîfing \\\zr. the pyramids. It was built at thenol 
fciithfiii part of the Ir.kc clMocris, whereof mention will be 
r*..!de prwili.tîy, rear t^jc tc^vn of Crocodiles, the lame wià 
/lifinoc. 1: was net fo much one fingle palace, as a magnifi- 
iLiit ;"îîc coinpof.d ofiwcîvc prjaces, regularly difpofed, whick 
had a ccmrr.unicaticn v. icb each other. Fifteen hundred roofflH 
în:crî::L;lVd \%uh terr.ifi*es, were ranged round twelve hallsyand 
d'û^ver.d no cutlet to fuch as went to fee them. There w«« 
i!:c llLc nurribcr of buildings under ground. Thcfe fubtent* 
jic.v? ihiiiuircs wrre defigned for the burying-place of dtl 
ki'^-5, :.r.d (who can f|-:ak this without confuficn and withoot 
«îî'.^î rii^r- the blir.dnefs of man !) for keeping the facredcnv 
cK.;i.«\ wîiich a nation, fo wife in other refpe^s, worfliipped 

!ii ou!.,T to vint the rooms r;nd halls of the labyrinth, it wa ! 
rv..w ::*:.; y . as the reader will naturally fuppofe, for people CO j 
tc'.kc the fame precaution as Ariadne made Thcfeus ufe, uh» 
jiL was ob'iî^:e'J lo go and hcjht the Minotaur in the labyrinth of 
Crtie. ^ irgi! delcribes it in this manner : 

j'f.v.:\:j i/.-f Cntr.n hwjrinih cf oUt 

ITitb 'Zi\!Kj\iK^ rL'dvs, ami manj a ^vinMng foLi^. 

J -I ii r: u Kii i'rrcr, ivhicô dmy^d recti s : 

1^01 far frcir, deuce hd graifd the ivend^rouj maztf 

-/ thrujr.iid ihcrs^ a tbcufanJ ivinding jways^ 

(r) Ut quondam Greta fertur labyrinthus in alta 
Parietibus textum cœcis iter andpitcmque 
Mille viis habuiile dolum, qua figna fequendi 
Falleret indeprCRlus & irremeabilis error. 
(ji Hie labor, illedomus & inextricabil is error. 
Dxdalus ipfe dolos tedli ambigefque refolvit, 
C.Tca regcns Êk> veiligia. 


f^> Herod.I. îl.c. 14$. Diod.I. !. p.42« PHn. I. xxxvi. c. ij. StrjW« 


-Sect. IV. Tie Lake of M OR R 1 5- 

"^HE noblefl and mod wonderful of all the ftrudlarey 
^ or works of the kings of Egypt, was the lake of Moe-.. 
iccordingly, Herodotus confiders it as vaftly fuperior cb 
rramids and labyrinth. As Egypt was mjore or lefs fruit-- 
proportion to the inundations of the Nile ; and as^ in- 
noods, the too general flow or ebb of the waters were = 
ly fatal to the lands ; king Moeris, to prevent the(è Vno' 
leniencies, and corredl, as far as lay in his power,'. the- 
larities of the Nile, thought proper to call art to the 
ice of nature ; and fo caufed the lake to be dug, whicb' 
rards went by his name. This * lake was about three* 
ind fix hundred iladia, that is, about one hundred an*U- 
r French leagues, and three hundred feet deep. Two 
lids, on each of which ftood a coloÏÏal ilatue, feated Of^ 
ne, raifed their heads to the height of three hundred feet, 

midfl of the lake, whilll their foundations took up the 
[pace under the water; a proof that they w^re jere/fle4 
: the cavity was filled, and a demonHratibn' triat a lake 
ch vaft extent was the work of man^s hands, in one 
;'s reign. This is whatfeveral hiflorianshave related con- 
ig the lake Moeris, on the tcllixnony of the inha-bkanty of 
tuntry. And the biOiop of Meaux, in his difcourfe ^a 
:rfal Hiftory, relates the whole as fadl. With reeard t({ 
f, I will confefs, that I don't fee the leaft probability ia 
s it poflible to conceive, that a lake of, an hundred ancl 
f leagues in circumference,, could have been dug in th^ 
of one prince ? In what manner, and where, could the 
taken from it be conveyed ? What (hould prompt the 
tians to lofe the furface of fo much land ? By what arts 
they fill this vaft tra£l with the fupcrfluous waters or the 

Many other objections might be made. In myopinioi 
'ore, we ought to follow Pomponius Mela,, an ancient 
apher ; efpecially ashis account is confirmed by feveral 
rn travellers. According to that author, this lake is but 
:y thoufand paces, that is, fevcn or eight French leagues 
cumference. (a) Moeris y aliquamio campus ^ nunc lacus^ *vi* 
millia taj/uum in circuitu fat ens, 

B 5 Thii 

HcroJ. 1. ii. c, 140. Strab. 1. xvli. p. 787. Diod. 1. i. p. 47, Pliji, 
. 9. Pomp. Mela, J, i, («) Mela, 1. i. 

"vk Hcro^i ii\i D^Q^%' Piiftjf cigreaalmofi 'with thtm, ^ 


This lake had a communication wiih the Nile», by I pi 
canal, four leaguct long *» and fifty feet broad. Great Ink 
cither opened or fhat the canal and lake» as there wuoccifa 

The charge of opening or [hutting them amounted to i 
talents, that it« fifty thoufand French crownt f. The ik 
of this lake brought the monarch immenfe fums ; bat iud 
life related to the overflowing of the Nile. When it rofe 
high, and was like to be attended with fatal confcqoenccs, 
fluiccs were opened i and the waters» having a free paflkge 
the lake, covcrM the lands no longer than was neceflary t< 
rich them. On the contrary, when the inundation wat 
tow, and threatened a famine ; a fufficient quantity of n 
by the help of drains, was let out of the lalce, to wate 
lands. In this manner the irrtvularities of the Nile wen 
tctUd ; and Strabo remarks, that, in his time» under I 
niu5, a governor of Egypt, when the inundation of thi 
was twelve cubits, a very great plenty enfued ; and even 
it rofe but to eight cubits, the dearth was fcarce felt i 
country ; doubtiefs, becaufe the waters of the lake mat 
for thofc of the inundation, by the help of canals and dra 

S s c T. V. Tii ImundaiiM tf thi NILE. 

TH P. Nile is the greatell wonder of Egypt. As it fl 
rains there, this river, which waters the whole co 
ly its regular inundations, fupplies that defeA, by hringii 
a yearly tribute, the rains of other countries ( which n 
poet fay ingenioufly, Tht £ljftt'an fmftitnt^ èow gnat ^ 
aAr drpught mof Atj mt^tr imflon Jitfitir/vr rain* 

AriJa mec plttxth fufflUat btrha Jwvi t« 

To multiply fo beneficent a river, Egypt was cut Into 
l)erlefs canals, of a length and bread tli proportioned t< 
iTifièrent fituation and wants of the lands. Tne Nile br« 
iertility every where with its falutary llreoms s united citit 
with another, and the Mediterranean with the Red<>Sea ; i 
tained trade at home and abroad, and fortified the kin; 
agatnil the enemy ; fo that h was at once the nourlfhe 

f^rote^orof Egypt. The fields ^ere delivered up to it 
he cities that were rais'd with immenfe labour, and Soo< 
illttds in the midft of the waters» look*d down with joy o 


• Eiilr^fio9 ftadii. I ëftflèet thtfi wtrfy # Ovid, it 

&<«ics (N«t. Q^û* I. i»»^ StJ 

O F E G Y P T. If 

which were overflowed, and at the fame time enriched 
I Nile. 

is is a general idea of the natare and effets of this rirer, 
oas amonethe ancients. But a wonder fo alloniftiing in 
and which has been the obje6l of the curiofity and admi- 
of the learned in all ages, Teems to require a more par« 
defcription, in which I fhall be as concife as poflible. 

»• The/ourci ûf the Nik. 
ancients placed the fources of the Nile in the moon tains 
moon (as they are commonly call'd) in the loth degree 
th latitude. But our modern travellers have difcoverect 
ey lie in the 1 2th degree of north latitude : and by that 
the^ cut off about four or five hundred leagues of the 
which the ancients gave that river. It rifes at the feet 
eat mountain in the kingdom of Goyam in Abyifînia, 
vo fprings, or eyes, to fpeak in the language of the 
S the fame word inArabickfignifying eye and fountain, 
prings are thirty paces from one another, each as large 
Df our wells or a coach-wheel. The Nile is increased 
any rivulets which run into it ; and after pafling through 
ia in a meandrous courfe, flows at laft into Egypt* 

2. The cataraéls of the Nth. 
: name is given to feme parts of the Nile, where thft 
fail down from the deep rocks *. This river, which at 
ded fmoothly along the va(l défaits of Ethiopia, before 
s Hgypt, pafTcs by the catara^s. Then growing on a 

contrary to its nature, rapine and vioTent in thofe 
vhere it is pent up and reflramed ; after having at laft 
h rough all obdacles in its wa^r, it precipitates from the 
fome rocks to the bottom, with fb lottd a no^e» that it 
I three leagues off*. 

B 6 Th» 

tpÎQnt ram (Nilum) cata- 
obilit infigni Tpedlaculo lo- 
lUic eicitatis primum a^uis, 
tumultu leni alveo duxerac, 

& tonens per malignos 

profilit, difllmilis fibi 

«elBétatusobftantia, in vaC- 
adinem fubito dc(!irutus ca- 
» ingenti circuinjacentium 

ftrrpitu ) quern pcrftire 
Perfîi collocatr» non potuiC) 
liduo fragore auribus, 8t ob 
HIS ad quu-iiora tranflari** 
aculft fluminif noretiibilem 
\ audaciAm' accc^.i». Biai 

parvuta navîgîa confceAdoAt, MTirai 
alcer navem regit, alter txbaunt. De» 
inde multum inter rapidam infaniam 
Nili at reciprocos fiuéiut volutati, 
tandem tenuiffinno» cinales tcfient, 
prr quos angufta rupium effugiunt « Be 
cum toto flumir»e câufi naviginm ru* 
COS manu tempérant, magnoqve fpcc- 
tantium meiu in carat nixi, cum jom 
adploravcrîa, mrrtofiiiie afque obrutos 
tanta mole credidcris, longe ab eo iti 
ouem ceciderant iooo navigant, torw 
menti modo mifli. Nee mergic ca* 
den» undu» fed plan's aqiMs trahit» 
I, Sum. Nar. %<^ 1* iv« e. a^ 

; as an arrow. '1 he affrighted fpeétator imagines they a 

■ tn be f wallowed up in the precipice down which t 

uhen the Nile, reflored to its natural courfe, difcov 
ag&ioy a: a confiderable diflance, on its fmooth and i 
ttrs. This is Seneca's account» which is confirmei 

* modern travellers. 

] 3. Cau/es cf the inundatiùns tf the Nile» 

[x) The ancients have invented many fubtil rcafon! 
Nile's great increafe, s s may be feen in Herodotus» ! 
Siculus, and Seneca. But it is now no longer a macti 

i pu te, it being almoll unxverfally allowed» that the im 

J of the Nile are owing to the great rains which fall i 

. pia, from whence this river flows. Thefe rains fweil 
a degree, that Ethiopia firft, and then Egypt, arc oy< 

\ and that which at firft was but a large river» rifes lik 

and ovcrfprcads the whole country. 

{y) Strabo obferves, that the ancients only guefsM 
inundations of the Nile were owing to the rains whic 
great abundance in Ethiopia ; but adds, that feveral 
have fince been eye-witnefies of it ; Ptolemy Phih 

*' who was very curious in all things relating to arts and 

having fent thither able peribns, purpofely to cxai: 
m H c ter, and to afcertain the caufe of fo uncommon 
jnarkable an effedl. 

tkc -Tuu 1 • 
a ; and : on igiy i sllcn ob < 
rife in th£ lun o£ 74. bwt fii wlf « 
Lxft, cliit ic probably don t yet ovf iflbw ita naalM.. ., -^ 
UnnDdatian bappeni not tiu «bolit the tnà of June» ai 
"ibc three following Diontbi, xccording toHerodotuf^ . j ■ 
I muD point out to {1 1 »' confalt tbftoriftiliilt*. &< 
ifUon in [bis place beiwcn Herodstu aatkutodonu 
liide ; aad en the other between Siniboi "PUhjfi ud < «*. - 
Thefe lail fnanen very mash tbe continatKe dt tbe -iu «^ 
|(ion ; acd £ippofe tbe NUe to drMT off torn the 1 «•>«» 
laoiiths or a hundred dayk Atid tbstwbkh ada»i »: 
rtdcy. if. Pliny (eeias w gronndbit ojnxitoO: 1 ih» F 

tf Herodotus : la icium éiaim rttmotur Nt 1 

liera, at Iradit Heredotut ttMUSmi £ti, I li b 
Ac reconciling of this cQDiraAâionh s -. 

;. Tâe btfgbtef fbiiwiuidàtiiiitit. ■ > 1. : ^ :> 
*Tbe juft height of t^ Ihandatibn, tacordûr to ^107, Ift- 
juteen cubits. When rE rifei buif tc twehr« or UÏKees>, 'C ll^ 
■nine is threatened; and ffhesitçxceedsfixteeiifâieKiBdÀiigtf^:, 
it muft be remembered, rïl» a cubit- ia «fcot- and fcil£ (lAi' 
'The emperor Julian i^kcs notice, ins letter n'Eddidtn plienft: 
V,of Egypt, that the height of the Nile'i ontiowit^ uNM fifÏMh 
-fcnbiti, tbe icth of Sepieioberi in 36** tht anaeoU'io^i^: 
iftgree entirely whli one &noAer, «of wttb the moderii^ lri^< 
ireganl to the height of tbe ÎDnndttioB ; "bnt the diSe^nu !•> 
not very confîderable, anditiBy proceed, ik Attm thedi^riiy 
between tbeaacientand modern meafurei, wbicbiit is hard to^ 
.•fiimsie on a èxeà and c«i:tain foot ; ». fcota tbe caroleffnêïi of; 
^•be obfarutor; and hiflocians ;- 3. from the real difference qT* 
.tfafe Nlla'-s incretTe^ which wai not Co- great. the nearer, it a^ 

.- {^ A a the richciof Ëfyptdependedon tbe inundàtîbo ^ 
■be IjUIev all the ciroiiaflâncei and different deg^s- of its ii^ 

(i) D!4di 1. Î. pi ij, 
luocccioi cgbhii r>niem friwrt^la 

quinilMiin ftcnritilcm, 1 
liclut tSa. U V, 0^, 


crcafc have been carefully confidered ; and by a long feriei 
leeular obfervations» made during many years, the inundam 
. itfelf dilcovered what kind of harveft the enfuing year mt 
likely to produce. The kin^s had placed at Mrmphit a mctik-^ 
fure on which thefe different increafes were marked ; and fnm W^ 
thence notice was given to all the reft of Egypt» the inhaUi w 
tants of which knew, by that means» beforehand» what thcjf F 
might fear or promife themfelvcs from the harveft. (c) Stnba 
fpeaks of a well on the banks of the Nile near the town of 
Sycne, made for that purpofe. 

The fame cuftom is obfcrved to this day at Grand CaifO^ 
In the court of a mofque there ftands a pillar, on which ait 
marked the degrees of the Nile's increafe ; and common crien 
everyday proclaim in all parts of the city, how high it is rifea* 
The tribute paid to the grand fignior for the lands, is fettled by 
the inundation. The day it rifes to fuch a height» is kept as a 
grand felHval ; and folemnized with fire-works, fcaftings» and 
all the demonllrations of publick rejoicing; and in the remotcÉ 
ages, the overflowing of the Nile was always attended with aa 
nniverfal joy throughout aU Egypt» that being the fountain 
of its happinc(s. 

{d) The heathens afcribed the inundation of the Nile to 
their god Serapis ; and the pillar on which was marked the in- 
creafe, was prcfcrved religioufly in the temple of that idol. 
The emperor Conftantine having ordered it to be removed inti> 
the church of Alexandria, the Egyptians fpread a report, that 
the Nile would rife no more by rcafon of the wrath of Serapis; 
but the river overflowed and increafcd as ufual the following 
years. Julian the apoftate, a zealous protestor of idolatry, 
caufcd this pillar to be replaced in the fame temple, out ot 
which it was again removed by the command, of Theodofins» 

6*. The canals of the Nile and fpiralfHmfs* 
Divine providence, in giving fo beneficent a river to Egypt», 
did not thereby intend, that the inhabitants of it fliouid bit 
idle, and enjoy, fo great a blefling, without taking any pains. 
One may naturally fuppofe, that as the Nile could not of itfelf 
cover the whole country, great labour was to be ulêd to facili- 
tate the overflowing of the land» ; and numberlefs canals cut» 
in order to convey the waters to all parts. I'he villages» which 
£ood very thick on the banks of the Nile on eminences» had 
each their canals, which were opened at proper times» to let 
the water into the country. The more (iillar.t villages haii 
theirs alfo» even to the extremities of the kingdom. 1*hus the 

* |c} Lib» Xi\u p» 8x7* (^ Socrat, 1, i» mS» S««qpB, I. v» c, ^ 

O F E G Y P T. If 

Mteri were fucceflively conveyed to the moft remote placet* 
Pcribni are not permitted to cut the trenches to receive the 
rmteri, till the river is at fuch a height, nor to open them al« 
•gether ; becaufe otherwife Tome lands would be too jnocb 
iwrflowed» and others not covered enough. They begin witla 
ipening them in Upper, and afterwards in JLower Egypt, ac- 
DOrding to the rules prefcribed in a roll or book, in which all 
ke meafures are exadUy fet down. By this means the water 
J difpofed witik Aich care, that it fpreads itfelf over all the 
Andi. The countries overflowed by the Nile are fo extenfive» 
md lie fo low, and the number of canals (b great, that of til 
die waters which flow into Egypt during the months of June». 
fàly» and Augoil» it is believea that not a tenth part of them 
icmches the fea. 

Bnt as, notwithdanding alf thefe canals, there are abondance 
■f hiffh lands which cannot receive the benefit of the Nile's 
overflowing $ this want is fupplied bv fpiral pumps, whith are 
torned with oxen, in order to bring the water into pipes, which 
Wnvey it to thefe lands. (#) Diodorus fpeaks of mch an en« 
gine (caHed Cochlea JSgyptia) invented by Archimedes in hie 
tvâTcls into Egypt. 

^. Tbe fertility eaufei hy the A7//» 

There is no country in the world where the (oil !s morefroIU 
loi than in Egypt ; which is owing entirely to the Nile *• 
For whereas other rivers, when they overflow lands, wafh awa/ 
end exhaufi their vivifick moifture ; the Nile> on the contrary» 
by the excellent fltme it brings along with it, fattens and en* 
riches them in fuch a manner, as fufiiciently compen&tes for 
what the foregoing harveil had impaired. The hufbandmaB^ 
in this country, never tires hlmfelf with holding the ploughj^ 
or breaking the clods of earth. Asfoon as the Nile retires, he 
has nothing to do but to turn up the earth, and temper it witli 
e little fand, in order to lefTen ks ranknefs ; after which he 
fows it with great eafe, and with little or no cxpence. Two 
months after, it is covered with all forts of corn and pnlfe» 
The Egyptians generally low in O6lober and November, ac- 
cording as the waters draw oiF> and their harvcll is in March 
jmd April. 

The fame Umd bears. In one year,^ three or four different 
kinds of crops. Lettices And cucumbers are fuwn firfl; thcA^ 
corn; and^ after harvcll> ievcralibrts of pulfe which are pecu- 


(#) Lit», t, p. 30. & liU ▼. p. 313. 

* Cum cjTt^ri itmnesitblitant trri«» \ — Tta ]uv»t «iroi dual mi tx caufis. i^ 

U cvifcerent ; Nilut adeo nihi) ^xedit 
êcc abrsilit^ ul cttfttra udjiciit viiof. 

i|iicd inundiit, &qiiod ubiinul» Snug^^ 


liar to Fjçypt. As ihc lun U oxtrcmely hot in this country, lié I 
r.ûi:.i iu!l VL-j\ iVlJoin in it; it is natural to fuppofc, that t)il| 
inri'i WMiil.i ÙMM be parchcJ, and the corn and pulfe burnt ap f 
by rol\:oahln» a hcjt, were it not for the canals and rcfervoiil' 
^\\\i which Kciypt abour.dâ ; and which, by the draius froa 
theHce, amply iupply wherewith to water and refrefh the fieldi 
and ^aiJeuk. 

The Nile contributes no lefs to the nourifhxnent of cattle, 
^'hich is another iV^urce of wealth to Egypt. The Egyptian 
In'^in t.^urn iliem out to gral's in November, and they grazctill 
the enJ ot Maich. Words could never exprefs how rich their I 
p.iiUiri\s arf ; aiul how fat the flocks and herds (which, by rei- r 
Ikm i>f the mi Ui nefs of the air, are out night and day) grow ii ' 
a very little time. During the inundation of the Nile, they 
are fed with hay and cut ûra^v, barley and beans, which are 
tlicir common ibod. 

Ai^nan c::Mii«>t, lays (/) Corneille le Bruyn in his Travebi 
help obfcrviiig ciu* admirable providence of God to this countryi 
who fendb at a hxcd fcafon fuch great quantities of rains ia 
ilthiopla, in order to water Egypt, where a ftiower of rain 
fcarce ever i'.Ms ; and who, by that means, caufcs the drlcil 
and moil faiulyfoil, to become the richeft and moil fruitful 
country in tlie univerfe. 

Another thing to be obfcrved here, is that, (as the inhabit 
€ant,s fay) in the beginning of June and the four following 
months, the north-ealk winds blow conflautly, in order to keep 
back the waters which othcrwifc would flow too faft ; and to 
Liader them from difcharging îhemfelves into the fca, thccn« 
trance to which thefe wind^ bar up, as it were, from thcin. 
'ï\\c anciiMUit have not omitted this circ uniltance. 

{i^) 'I'lie lauic providence, whofe wayi are wonderful and in- 
finitely various, uifplaycd itfelf after a quite diifercnt manner 
in PalefHne, in remlcring it exceeding fruitful ; not by rains, 
which fell durini» the courfc of the year, as is ufual in other 
places ; nor by a peculiar inundation like that of the Nile in 
kgypt; but I7 fcuiing fixed rains at two feafons, when the 
people were obedient to God, to make them more fonlible of 
their continual dépendance upon him. God himfelf commands 
tfiehi, by his feivant Mofcs, to make this réflexion. (») 7ri 
iiifu' ^luLrther thou goejl in to ff^Jt'ffs iiy is net as th'e land of Apy/^f 
from ivir/itf jr tarait out^ 'ivlurf thcu fotvctijf thy fetit unti lui- 
tifidji it nvitli thy foot ^ us a fur tien of herbs: but the land -whit htt 
ye ^ê io pi/Pjs //, is a land of bills and l'alltyi^ and drinkitb «lea- 

if) Vol. it. (g) Multiforais fipicntia, /f>, iii» io«. (f) Peut» xii 

O F E G Y P T- •>? 

)i*r êf the rain ofhtavtn. After this, God promifc» to çîve his 
people. To long as they fhall continue obedient to him» the 
^krmer and tht latter rain : The firft in autumn, to bring up 
Ac corn ; and the fécond in the fpring and fummer, to make 
it grow, and ripen, 

8. Tivo different pro/peels exhibited By the Nile, 
Therecannot be a finer fight than Eygpt at two feafons of 
Ihli year *. For if a man afcendsfome mountain, or one of 
Che largefl: pyramids of Grand Cairo, in the months of July 
Ûd Augull, he beholds a vafl fea, in which nuknberlefs towns 
and villages appear, with fevcra! caufeys leading from place to 
place ; the whole in terfperfed with groves and fruit-trees, whofe 
tops are only vifible, all which forms a delightful profpe6L 
"This view is bounded by mountains and woods, which terrni- 
sate, at the utmofl diilance the eye can difcover, the moil 
beautiful horizon that can be imagined. On the contrary, ia 
winter, that is to fay, in the months of January and February» 
the whole country is like one continued fcene of beautiful mea- 
dows, whofe verdure, enamelled with flowers, charms the eye. 
The fpeâator beholds, on every fide, flocks and herds difperfed 
0ver all the plains, with infinite numbers of huibandmen and 

fardcners. The air is then perfumed by the great quantity of 
lofToms on the orange, lemon, and other trees ; and is fo pure» 
that a wholefomer or more agreeable is not found in the world-; 
ib that nature, being then dead as it were, in all other climates^ 
ftems to be alive only for fo delightful an abode. 

9» The canal formed èy the NiUt èy nxjhich a communication î$maâ9 

betiveen the t*wo/eas» 
(/) The canal, by which a communication was made between 
the Red-Sea and the Mediterranean, ought to have à place 
here, as it was not one of the lead advantages which the Nilt 
procured Kgypt. Sefoftris, or, according to others, Pfammc^ 
tichus, firft projeftcd the defi;^n, and begun this work, Necho, 
fucccfTor to the laft prince, laid out immenfe fums upon it, 
and employed a prodigious number of men. It h faid, that 
above fix fcore thoufand Egyptians perifhed in the undertaking. 
He gave it over, terrified by an oracle, which told him that he 
would thereby open a door for Barbarians (for by this name they 


(r) Herod. I. u c. 158. Scral>. 1. xvli. p. S04. PJIn. 1. xvîî. c. 19, DIod* 
If I. p. 19. 

• nil facîw pulchfrrima efl, cum 
Jjini fcio agroitNiiusingcnir. Latent 
carnpi, opertxque funt vajles: oppida 
infiiianrar mocfo extant, Nullum in 
awdiicmoeifj aifi peroavigis, com- 

mercîum eit: majorque eft Jaetitit 
in gentibus, quo minus terrarun fua* 
rum vidcQt* Sintf», Nat» S^uaft^ 1» ivt 

C. 2, 


called all fbreîgnen) to enter Egypt. The work wai continiaf 
b)r Dariu^ the firfl of that name; but he alfodcfiAcd from it» 
■pon his being told, that as the Red-Sea lay higher than Egyptt 
it would drown the uhole country. But it was at laft finifliei 
nndrr the Ptolemies, who, by the help of floieesi opened or 
Aui the canal as there was occafion. It began not f^r from the 
Delta, near the town of Bubaile. It was an hundred cobkir 
that i&, twenty- five fathoms broad, fo that two veiTels mig^ 
pafs with eafe ; it haJ depth enough to carry the largeft fliipi; 
and was above a thcufand ftadia, that is, above Afty leaguo 
long. This canal was of great fer vice to the trade of Egypt. 
But it il now almoft Ailed up, and there are fcarce any remaii» 
•f it to be fcen. 

CHAP. iir. 


T A M now to fpeak of Lower Egypt. Its (hape, which m 
1 fern hies a triangle or û, gave occafion to its bearing the 
latter nainc, which is that of one of the Greek letters. Lo«t< 
E^^ypt roroi!; a kind of ifland ; it begins at the place where the 
Mile is divided into two large caiiah, through which it emptie) 
itfclf into the Mediterranean : The mouth on the right-hand 
is called the Pelufian, and the other the Canopick, from t^vo 
cities in their neighbourhood, Pelufium and Canopus. now 
called DamiettaandRofctta. Between the fe two large branches» 
there are five others of lefs note. This ifland is the beft cnlti- 
vatedp. the mod fruitful, and the richeft in Egypt. Its chief 
cities (very anciently) were Heliopolis, Heracleopolis, Nan- 
cratis, Sais, Tanls, Canopus, Peluflum ; and, in latter times, 
Alexandria, Nicopolis, Ùc. It was in the country of Tanii 
ihat the Ifraelites dwelt. 

(k) There was at Snis, a temple dedicated toMInerra, wha 
is fuppofed to be the fame as lAs, wKh the following infcrip- 
tion : / am ivhatfver hath bctn^ and /V, and Jkall bi\ and M 
mortal hath yet pierced through tbi *util that fiiTonds me*, 

(/} Ueliopolis, that is, the city of the fun, was ib called 
from a magnificent temple there dedicated to that planet. 
Herodotus, and other authors after him, relate fome particulars 
concerning the Phcenix and this temple, which, if true» would 
indeed be very wonderful. Of this kind of birds, if we may 
believe the ancients, there is never but one at a time in the 


(I) Plutar.în \M, p. 3 $4. (/) Strab. !• ifii. p. S05. Htrod. l.U.c. 7}. 
FliA« 1. !• c. a. Tacit* Ann* It vi* c, t8« 


world. He is brought forth ia Arabia» lires five or fix him-* 
^dred years» and h of the fîze of an eagle.^ HW head is adorned 
with a Âîning and moft beautiful creft ; the feathers of his 
Beck are of a eokl colour» and the reft of a purple ; his tail is 
white, intermixt with red> and his ejces^ fparkling like ftari» 
When he is old, and finds his end approaching, he builds» 
keft with wood and aromatick fpices». and then dies. Of his 
bones and narrow» a worm is produced» out <^ which. another 
nœntx is formed. His firfl care is to folemnize his parent's 
•bfequies» for which pnrpofe he makes up a ball iir the (hape 
tf an tggp with abundaace of perfumes of n^rrrh as heavy at 
he can carry, which he often aiTays before- hand ; then he 
. makes a hole in it» where he depofites hb parentis body» and 
dofes it carefully with myrrh and other perfumes. After this 
be takes up the precious load on his (boulders» and fiying to 
4he altar of the fun, in the city of Heliopolis» he there burns it. 
Herodotus and Tacitus diipute the truth of fome of the cir« 
cnmftances of this account» but feem to fuppofe it true in ge« 
aend. Pliny, on the contrary j^ in the very beginning of bis 
account of it, infinuates plainly enough» that he looks upon the 
whole as &bulous ; and this is tte opinion of all modéra 

This ancient tradition» though grounded on an evident falf- 
bood» hath yet introduced into almoft all languages, the cufloiii 
of giving the name of phoenix to whatever is angular and luif 
common in its kind : Rara avis in terris^ (m) fays Jnvenalt 
fpeaking of the diihculty of finding an accompliihed woman in 
all refpms. And Seneca obierves the ikme of a good man K 
MThat is reported of the fwans» nu». that they never ^fing 
but in their expiring moments» and that then they warble verjr 
sielôdioufl3r, is likewife grounded merely on a vulgar error ^ 
and yet it is ufed» not only by the poets» but alfo by the ora- 
tors» and even the philofophers. O mutis quoque pifcibus donatura 
rfod^ fi Hheat^ fonum, (») fays Horace to Melpontene. Cicercr 
compares the excellent difcourfe which CrafTus made in the 
ftnate» a few days before his death» to the melodious finging of 
a dying fwan. Ilia tanfuam cycnea fuit di^vini hsmim's njox &f 
êratio. De Orat. 1. iii. n. 6. And Socrates ufed to fay» that 
good men ought to imitate fwans, who perceiving by a fecret 
inftind^, and a divination» what advantage there is in death» 
die finging and with joy. Pro'videntes quid in m»rSi boni fitp 
mm cantu ii voluftatc noriuntur. Tufc. Qu. 1. i. n. 73. I 


(at) Sat. vi. (») Od. iii. 1. W. 

* Vtr bonus tan ci to nee fieri ^« I nlv» Umt\ anna ^uiogentdUns aa^'' 
t»A» oec intdJJai— tan^uam Phœ- | ttir. JT^. 41* 


lhf.ij;'!it lîiî'. fliori Ji/ri-nion niî^ht bc of" fcrvicc to youth; anJ 

rctllIM t. eu 1(1 lllV LiljCiH. 

It u.:s ill '' iliî:(|Hi!is th.'.t an ox, under the name of 
Mi.cvi . wj' un:ii:l,'j: :! a- .1 j'-ul. C'aiiibylc"*, kill*» of Pcf/iJ, 
rvcrciu .1 h. i.-i i l!r«',i u • " •' ' " î^is cîty ; huriiiiig ihc templcii 
dfiîioîiiîii::.; ilir p.;I.n.<»., :iml «Irllnnlii;» ihc in«.^lt precious mo- 
irnu.:;'.. cf .Miiiipiity i.i it. '1 }*<'rc art? f!ill co be fccn ibme 
ciiuii.k-. \\l.iLli tK.:]it.'(! hi.s Airy; aiul others were brought 
fn :r :l<.'-iuc U) lli iiu*, t<) v\)iich ciiy tliey arc an ornament even 
ai till i!..\ . 

A!.\.iii.î;i:i, bulli !'V AlfX-imfer the Great, from whom tt 
)i.i.! It ii.iiiK-, \ ici .i!i!ti)!l ill ina^Miiflcence v\'ith the ancient cities 
(t r.i'\{t. Il :i..p '^ ttuir il.iys journey tVum Cairo, and was 
f.)i:iir:iy the ihirf mart cit all the c.iîlern trade. {/) The 
iiii-icli.Li: 'i.e. wvir i:>iln:id d at Portiis IVluris f, a town on iht 
^miUtu io;:!l t I ihi- Red Sea; Ironi \v}»fnec ihey were brcui*ht 
UP* II i..:.ifl-. f«.» a ti un of l'hcbaî-:, calli-d C'opht, and convened 
c)i>\\u (hi* Nile ti) Alexandria, whither merchants re for ted from 

Sill ]MI(*. 

Il i*. well known, tliat the Kail- India trade hath at all times 
riMichc-il tiutf'.- V. ill) lairieil it on. 'I'his wn.N the chief fountain 
ci(' ihr v.ill III :llul(*^ tliat Sohtmon umallrd, and which enabled 
Itiai ti) I iuKi ifie iiuiMiifiient temple of reruHtlem. (^) David» 
bv hi . iMu]iu-i!n.> K'.uni.i-a, becanir mailer of I'.Iath and F.fion« 
y/*:ri, two li.un (iiuaicd on the eallern fhore of the Red-Sea. 
J'i«»ni ih.(finp ;>nit', [r) SuliMimn ieni iîce?$ to Ophir and 'far- 
♦l;":lh. wfiiil. a!\\.iv«i liKUi.'ht hack ininienfc riches*. This 
Il illiii: :i!ter i.-ulin.; been «njoyed fome lime by the Syrian», 
*\li(i iri'..ii:i il I- i:iii.i:i. ftiilied Irum them to the Tyrians. (-) 
'i'heu* I'oi .'.'I ili(ii- nierch:uuiiie conveyed, by the way of Rhi» 
ni'Colii'.i. [:\ Um p irt town lyin^; heiwev-n the confines of Kgypt 
luiiî I'.ili-ihi.:*} Ill J y re, fiom whence they dillributed them all 
civri the v.rl. Til v.t'ilJ. llereSv the Tyiians enriched them- 
felve*. « \.» r.lîMi'lv, under the Peiliun empire, by the favour 
liiid pioi'.ii Ml of whole niitnauhs they had tlie full ponfeflion 
tit till t!. <«!'-, l!iir when the ^to]en^e^ had made themfelves 
in.ilb I- ol I v; I, ti.ey f<u>n diew all this trade into their kin^- 
i! Ml», b\ Imiivjiiv'. lîeunice anil other portion theweltern fi(ie 
oK tf.e K- .1 ''MM. luhMi)Miij« to I'l'.ypl ; and lixed their chief 
Itiari al .Vievaiuliia, whlcli thereby rofe to be the city of the 


(.0 r.trjh. I. t*i!. I». 8. >, (/») Sinb. 1. xvi. p. 7î;i, (^) 2 Sam. viii. 14. 
(r) I Kii.f. 1^. i'l (i) Sti*l». I. x\i. P.4S1 

• i/.-j^Jf |H i-r 1 . V...'if .);.■> 7.1. V»l/ 1 

j»!..krti t.tirft nlA'i.-fti. ttvi i'k^JreJ 
Cvimcvi. Vtfl. 1. nd aiut. 740. aqV 

D F E G Y P T. 2i 

6 world. There it contînned for a great 
'; and all the traffic k, which the wellem 
from that time had with Perfia. India» '* 
:eni coafts of Africa, was wholly carried 
-Sea» and the mouth of the Nile, till a 
a little above two hundred years fin ce, of 1 1 

f by the cape of Good Hope. After this» j ■ 

ome time managed this trade ; but now it v ' ^.. 
afTed wholly by the Englifh and Dutch, 
of the Eail- India trade, from Solcmon^s II 

age, is extrad^ed from Dr. Prideaux (/}. 
eniency of trade, there was built near 
Hand called Pharos, a tower which bore I ! 

the top of this tower was kept a fire, to 
died by night near thofe dangerous coafls» 
fands and fhelves ; from whence all other 
the fame ufe, have been called, as Pharo t ■'■ 

.^he -famous architect Sodratus built it by 
Philadelphus, who expended eight hun- 
it •. It was reckoned one of the feveA 
d. Some have commended that prince» 
rchitedl to put his name In the infcription 
the tower inllcad of h h own f . It w^ ^ 

, according to the manner of the ancients. 
fxiphanis F. Diis Ser*vatorihus pro na^vtganti" \ \ 

be Cnidian, fon of Dcxiphanes, to the pro- \ 

:he ufe of fea- faring people. But certainly 
vtry much undervalued that kind of im« 
nces are generally very fond of, to fuiFer» 
Id not be fo much as mentioned in the in- 
ice fo capable of immortalizing him. [x) 
Lucian concerning this matter, deprives 
(ly, which indeed would be very ill placed 
informs us that Sodratus, to engrofs the 
: noble flru(5lure to himfelf, caufed the in- 
hin name to be carved in the marble, which 
ed with linK, and thereon put the king's 
Toon mouldered away ; and by that means» 
>; the architedl the honour with which he had 


(u) Stral). 1. xvlî. p. 719* Plia* 1. xizri. t»f.u 

>. 706. 

quod in ea permifetît Softrarî Cnîdii 
architc^ Aru^toS I 

tjand crofontp 
oleicsi regis, 







flattered Iiimfclf, fervcd only to difcover to future ^gei liii 
mean fraud, and ridiculous vanity. 

Riches failed not to bring into this city, as they ufuiUy do 
in all places, luxury andlicentioufnefs^ fo that the Alexanariaa 
volupcuoufnefs became a proverb *• In this city arts and 
fcienccs were alfo induftrioufly cnltivated, witnefs that ftatdy 
«difice, furnamcd theMufeum, where the literati ufed tomceti 
and were maintained at the publick expence ; and the famooi 
library, which was aucrmented confîderably by Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, an J which, hy^ the magnificence of the kings Ui 
fucceilbrs, at lail contained feven hundred thoufand vouimei* 
(j) In Cxfar's wars with the Alexandrians, part of this libraiy, 
(ficuats in the f finichion^ whkh coriifted of four hundrd 
Choafand volumes, was unhappily confumcd by fire. 


Of thi MANNERS ami CUSTOMS tf th 


EGYPT wai ever confidered by all the ancients, as Al 
moft renowned fchool for wifdom and politicks» and the 
fource from whence mod arts and fciencrs were derived. Thb 
kingdom bellowed its nobleft labours €nd fined arts on the Im» 
proving mankind ; and Greece was fo feniibleof this, thatiti 
xnoll illudrious men, as Homer, Pythagoras, Plato % even iB 
frreat Icgiilators, Lycurgus and Solon, with many more whom 
It 15 needlefs to mention, travelled into Sg>'pt, to complett 
their ftudics, and draw from that fountain whatever was moft 
rare and valuable in every kind of learning. God himfelf hit 
given this kingdom a glorious tcftimony, whenpraifingMofes, 
he fays of him, that {x) Im -was learned in all t£e <w(fi/om cf tk 

To give fomc idea of the manners and cudoms of Egypt, I 
fhall confine myiclf principally to t'icfe particulars : Its kings 
and government; prieds and religion; foldiers and war; 
fcienccs, arts and trades. 

The reader mud not be furprized, if he fometimes finds, in 
tlie cudoms 1 take notice of, a kind of contradiction. This 


(y) Plut.mCcf.p. 731, Seneca de trtnqaill. (») AAi 

* Nc Al<>x4ndrinii quidem per- I f  qu^rttr or dhfjfi9n tf iki ek^ 
^ittenda delicits, i^intU, | 9f ^UenandrU* 

mxttg,- either ^ «be diiTérence of coontriesand 
wUcn aid aocalways fblIoWt]lefaine ufages; ortoHm. 
«rajr of thiiikiog of the hiftorumi sAota I copy. 

{;'- •• C H A P. I. 


H E Egyptians w«re the firfi people who rightly isndeiu' 
iftood the roles of ^vernmeat. A nation to graVe anl 
IS immediately ipecéived» that the^roc end>of polideks isk,* 
ikc-life eafy» 4md a f>eople happy* • 
lyilio -kingdom was hemtitary ; but according to (to) Diode*, 
ttie Egyptian princes condoaed themrelves ift a Utotéai 
nor from; what is ofualiy feen in other monarchîcf» v^hm 
llprwriiiçeacknowledges no other rule of his- aâions, bot hi» 
iMMIlJ^ ^I and pieaiure. Bot here, kinff s were mider «reater 
Spri&it from thelaws, than their fnbjeSs. They had fome 
hsiifînilir ones digefted by « former monarch ^hatcompofel 
Eutof thofe books, which the Egyptians cdkd facred. Tbna. 
pviry thing bring fettled by ancient cufton^ they never foogbi; 
bo fife in a diffevent way from their anceftors. 
S No flaTct)rtbf«igner was admitted into the immediate fer« ^ 
^^'^ 0f the prince ; fach a poll was too important to be inn 
' to «ly perlons, except thofe who were themôftdîA; 
ed hf their bixA, and had received tbe«K>ft excellent 
m; to the end that as theyiiad the liberty of appfoach* 
kfag*s peribn, day and night, he mij^ht, from men Bi 
i» hear nothing which was unbecoming the royarmt* * 
I or have any fen&nents inftilled into him, but fuch aa 
!0f anobleand generous kind. For, addsDiodorus, iî 
SS'VViy raiely feen, that kings fly out into any vicious excefs» 
-«deft thdfe who approach them approve their irregularities, or 
Jute as inftraments to their paffions. 

The kings of Egypt freely permitted, not only the quality 
3l|nd proportion of their eatables and Hqtdds to be prefcribed 
iÙtnL -(a thing cuftomary in Egypt, the inhabitants of which 
i Hie idlibber, and whofe air infpired frugality) but even that 
«U dieirhoura, and«lmoft every aâion^ fhould be under tho 
«egdlitioii of the laws. 

in 'the morning at day -break, when the head is clearest 
maà thethooghts mpft unperplexed, they read the feveral lettera 
ftey teceived; to form a more juft and difl'inél idea of the 
,:|flâuri which were to come under their confideration that day* 

. (#4 piod. 1. }« p. 63» arc* 

i • 


virtues ; obferving that he was religious to the gods, 
to fnen, moderate, jud, magnanimous, fincere ; an 
to falfhood; liberal; mailer o? hispailions; punifhing 
with the utmoll lenity, but bonndlels in rewarding meri 
■ next fpoke of the faults which kings might be guilty o 

\ . fuppoied at die fame Ume, that thev never committe 

! except by furprize or ignorance ; and loaded with impre 

•<' fuch of their minifters as gave them ill coanfel, and fup 

] ' or difguifed the truth. Such were the methods of con 

I infliudlion to their kings. It was thought that repi 

j would only four their tempers ; and that the moft efïèdi 

tiiod to infpire them witn virtue, would be to point 
them their duty in praifes conformable to the fenfe of th 
and pronounced in a folemn manner before the gods. 
the prayers and facrifice were ended, the counfels and 
of great men were read to the king out of the (acred 
in order that he might govern his dominions accordine t 
fiiaxims, and maintain the laws which had made lus 
cefTors and their fubjeéts fo happy. 

I have already oblerved,. that the quaitity as well as < 
of both eatables and liquids were prefcribed, by the laws 
king : His table was covered with nothing but the moi 
mon meats; becaufe eating in Egypt was designed» 
tickle the palate, but to fatisfy the cravings of nature. 


dd be an herd of robbers rather than a kingdom^ (hould the 
^kbe unprotcAed, and the powerful enabled by their riches 
3 credit, to commît crimes with impunity. 
Thirty judges were feledted out of the principal cities» to 
m a body or afTembly for judging the whole kingdom. The 
bee, in filling thefe vacancies, chofe fuch- as were moil re* 
amed for their honefty ; and put at their head, him who was 
»ft diftinguiihed for his knowledge and love of the laws, and 
I had in the moft univerfal eileem. By his bounty, they had 
«noes affigned them, to the end that being freed from do- 
ftick cares, they might devote their whole time to the exe<» 
ion of the laws. Thus honourably fubfifted by the gene* 
ity of the prince, they adminiftered juftice gratuitoufly to the 
yple, who have a natural right to it ; among whom it oughtr 
have a free circulation, and, in fome fenfe, among the poor 
ire than the rich, becaufe the latter find a fupport within 
mfelves ; whereas the very condition of the former expofcar 
m more to injuries, and therefore calls louder for the pro- 
Mon of the laws. To guard asainil furprize, affairs were 
jifaûed by writing in the afTemblics of thefe judges. That 
scies of eloquence (a falfe kind) was dreaded, which dazzles 
B nînd, and moves the pafiéons. Truth could not be ex- 
eflèd with too much plainnefs, aa it was to have the only 
ay in judgments ; becaufe in that alone the rich and poor^ 
e poweifol and weak, the learned and the ignorant, were to 
id relief and fecurity. The prefident of this fenate wore a 
liar of gold (et with precious ilones, at which hun;^ a figure 
prefemed blind, this being called the emblem of truth. 
hen the prsfldent put this collar on, it was underdood as a 

al to enter upon bafinefs. He touched the party with it, 

o waa to gain his caufe, and this was the form of pafHng^ 

The moft eicellent circumftance iu the laws of the Egyp- 
ins, was, that every individual, from his infancy, was nur- 
red in the ftrideft obfcrvancc of* them. A new cullom in (r> 
gypt was a kind of miracle. All things there ran in the old 
lannel ; and the exadlnefs with which little matters were 
Ihered to, preferved thofe of more importance ; and indeed 
3 Dation ever preferved their laws and cufloms longer than 
ie Egyptians. 

Wilful murder was puniflied with (//) death, whatever might 
c the condition of ;he murdered pcrfon, whether he was free- 
ornor otherwife. Jo this the humanity and equity of the Kgyp- 
.ans was fuperior to that of the Romans, who gave the maltcr 

Vol. I. C a» 

(c) Plttt. ia Tim* p. 656* (^ Diod. 1. i. p. 70* 



an abfolute power as to life and death over his lUve. 
emperor Adrian indeed abolifhed this ]aw ; fromanopb 
that an abufe cf this nature ought to be reformed, let its; 
cjuity or authority be ever fo great. 

(0 Perjury was alfo puni(hed with death, becaafetlnK 
attacks both the gods, whofe majefiy is trampled apon b 
yoking their name to a falfe oath ; and men in breakin 
flrongdl tie of human fociety, viz. flncenty and honeft) 

{^f} The falic accufer was condemned to undem) the p 
jncT.t, which the pcrfon accufed was to have fuflfred, k 
accuTation been proved. 

{g) He who had negleAed or refufed to bve a mai 
whtn attacked, if it was in his power to aifift him, was pu 
AS rigorouHy as the afTafTin : But if the unfortunate 
could not be fuccoured, the offender was at leafl to 
peached, and penalties were decreed for anynegleâi 
iciud. Thus the fubjeélt were a guard and protection 
ai.other ; and the whole body of the commanity onited i 
the dcfigns of the bad. 

(/j) No man was allowed to be ufelefs to the (lace ; ba* 
mnn was obliged to enter his name and place of abod> 
publick rcgilkr, that remained in the hands of the mag 
and to annex his profeiTion, and in what manner he live 
fuch a one gave a falfe account of himfelf, he was inmci 
put to death. 

(f ) To prevent borrowing of money, the parent of 
frauds, and chicane, king Afychis made a very judidoi 
'i'hc wifeil and bell regulated liâtes, as Athens and Romi 
found inlupcrablc difficulties, in contriving a jull medii 
rcllrain, on one hand, the cruelty of the creditor in the ej 
of his loan ; and on the other, the knavery of the d 
u ho rcfufcd or neglc£led to pay his debts. Now Egypt 
wife cuurfe on this occafion ; and without doing any inj 
the perfonal liberty of its inhabitants, or ruining their fa 
puriucd the debtor with inceil'anc fears of infamy from 1: 
liniully. No man was permitted to borrow money « 
].:i\sriing to the creditor the body of his father, whicl 
iv^ypiian embalmed with great care; and kept revere 
in hi ■ houfe (as will be obferved in the fequcl) and th< 
niicju be eafily moved from one place to another. 
was tqually impious and infamous not to redeem (c 
pi-eLi(.u& a pledge; and he who died without havîn 


{f) Pig. 69. {/) Idem. (f ) Idem. (L) Idem* (i} Her 


1 this dnty, was deprived of the cdHomary honouti 
the dead *. 

Diodorus remarks an error committed by fome of the 
a legiilators. They forbid, for inftance» the taking 
[to fatisfy debts) the horfes, ploughs, and othet impie* 
>f huAandry employed by peafants ; judging itinhomaa 
ce, by this fecarity> thefe poor men to an impoffibility 
barging their debts, and getting their breaa : But. at 
ne time they permitted the creditor to imprifon the 
;s themièlves* who only were capable of ufîng thefé iia«- 
its ; which expofed them to the fame inconveniencies; 
the fame time deprived the government of perfons wh"?» 
ed, and are nece/fary, to it ; who labour for the pùb-*» 
lolument, and over whofe perfon no private man has zny 

•olygamy was allowed in Kgypt, except to priefts, who» 
marry but one woman. Whatever was the condition of 
man, Whether (he was free or a Û3,Vk, her children were 
i free and legitimate* 

One cuftom that was praâifed in Egypt, mewed the 
ad darknefs into which fuch nations as were mofl cele^ 
for their wifdom have been plunged ; and this IVas tlie 
ge of brothers with their iiilers, which was not only 
lied by the laws, but even, in fome meafure> was a part: 
r religion, from the example and pradlice of fuch 6^ 
^s, ks had been the ntofk anciently and univerfally 

in Egypt, that is, Ofiris and Ifis. 
A very great refpeft was thçrfe paid to old a^e. The 
were obliged to rife up for the old» and on every occa* 
> reiign to them the mod honourable feat. The Spartans 
ed this law from the Egyptians. 

virtue in the higheft elleenv among the Egyptians, was 
de. The glory which has been given them of being 
)ft grateful of all men, (hews that they were the beft 
dof any nation, for focial life. Benefits are the band of 
} both publick and private. He who acknowledges f^^ 
loves to do good to Others ; and in banifhing ingrati- 
he pleafure of doing good remains fo pure and enga2;*ng', 

C 2 that 

od. L Î. p. 7t, (/) Idem, p. 7*t («) Idem, p. iî. (») Hcrùi, 


I lalif put the ichole fepul.bre 
htor into the priver of (be cre- 
bo remm/eJ to his fnor. Icufe 
of tio father : U he I'elu.r le 

father* i ftpulrhrt or sny otl^r ; end 
ivhi JÎ be éi-jiJ, be TViti not p.'nvirted 
!'j bury ar.y petf)n ticfcnjen jrom 6 m. 
Mrîs aii\ sxinx YÊ>et.]»:ravT. »r>-i 
Tx,>:ç xv;t i : t /.« r -/>'.'. • xfi»* 


i. .-.'ji ;< •• '• /* , r.rjiwc'T V. »-.''t .5:5 Î'. -iti. 


that ît îs impoiTible fos a man to be iniênfibleof it: Bi 
kir.d of gratitude gave the Egyptians a more pleifiagC 
fiction, than that which was paid to their kings. Prii 
v.Mill living, were by them honoured as fb many vifiblen 
f. mations of the deity ; and after their death were moore 
the fathers of their country. Thefe fentiments of refpcfi 
tv.'ndcrnefs proceeded from a (Irong perfuafion» that thediv 
hintl'If had placed them upon the throne, as he diftingn 
t .cm fo greatly from all other mortals ; and that kings 
liic moll noble chara6leri(licks of the fupreme Being, i 
p -wcr and will of doing good toothers were united in 
p CI fens. 


Ccncirtiing thi Priests and Rbliciov ti 


PRIESTS, in Egypt, held the fécond rank to V 
They bad great privileges and revenues ; their lanJi 
r^empted from all impofls ; of which fome traces are (e 
f icnefis, where it is faid, (o) Jofepb made it a Uvw o*vtr tk 
, /' Efjjft, that Pharaoh Jkculth bave the fifth part^ except tk 
If tbi pricjîs cnly, avhich became not Pharcob*s. 

The prince ufually honoured them with a large (hare i 
confidence and government, becaufe they, of all his fab 
liad received the bed education, had acquired the gr 
knowledge, and were mod flrongly attached to the k 
pjrfon and the good of the publick. They were at one an 
i'.ime time the depoû taries of religion and of the fciences \ 
to this circumflance was owing the great refpeél which was 
them by the natives as well as foreigners, by whom they 
alike confulted upon the mofl facred things relating t 
rnylleries of religion, and the moâ profound fubjeâs ii 
fcveral fciences. 

[p) The Egyptians pretend to be the firft inflitutors o 
tîvals and proceflions in honour of the gods. One felHva 
celebrated in the city of Bubade, whither perfons re{ 
from all parts of Egypt, and upwards of feventy thou 
bciides children, were fcen at it. Another, furnamet 
featl of the lights, was folemnized at Sais. All pei 
throughout Egypt» who did not go to Sais, were oblig< 
Klumioate their windows. 


(f) Gea« abriit 16, {f) Herod L ii. e. 6o» 


DiiFerent animals were facrificed in different countries s 
le common and grneral ceremony was obfervcd in all 
cei, a»/», the laying of hands upon the head of th^* 
I, loading it at the lame time with imprecations ; and 
)g the gods to divert upon that vidtini, all the calamities 

might threaten Egypt. 

It is to Egypt, that Pythagoras owed his favourite doc. 
>f the Mciempfychofis, or tranfmigration of fouls. The 

tans believed, that at the death of men, their foul» 
migrated into other human bodies ; and that, if they had 
/icioub, they were imprifoncd in the bodies of unclean or 
»py beatld, to expiate in them their pad tranigrefHon.» ; 
lat after a revolution of fome centuries, they again uni- 

other human bodies. 

e pricds had the pofTcflion of the facred books, which 
ned, at iarcro, the principles of government| as well ru 
vderies of jivine worfliip. Both (j) were commonly iu- 
1 in fymbols and enigmas, which, under thefe veils 

truth more \cncrable, an J excited more ftrongly the 
ity of men. 'I'he figure of Ilarpocratcs, in the Egyp- 
antluaries, with hh finger upon his mouth, feemed lo 
ite, tliat myrtciics were there indofcd, the knowledge 
lich was revealed to very few. The fpliinxes, placed at 
itrance of all temples, implied the fame. It i» very \\"V. 
n, that pyramids, obdifks, pill4r.s, ilacues, in a w(>u!, 
blick monuments, were ufually adorned with hicn-^Iy- 
fl, (hat is, with fymbolical writings ; whether thefe v^^rc 
iters unknown to the vulvar, or figures of animals, which' 
cd a hidden and parabolical meaning» (/) Thus, by a 

was fignified a hvely and piercing attention, bccau(lr 
reature naa a very delicate hearing, {u) The ftatue «{ 
[C without hands, and with eyes fixed upon the ground, 
tlized the duties of thofe who were to exercife the judici- 

'ould require a volume to treat fully of the religion of 
gyptians. But 1 lliall confine niyfclf to two article?, 

form the principal part of the Egyptian religion; and 
ire the woiilnj) of the difFcreut Jcuic:>, and the ceromo- 
:lating to funeral.^. 

C 3 Skct. 

bid. c. 39. (r) \y\o6. 1. i. p. TR. (j) IMut. <)o IHd. it Out* p, ^5^, 
S)iinpul. 1. iv. p, 6>'. {u) 111. de Ilid. p. 35;. 


S E c T. I. Of the moûtfiiip of tbi various D E i T liSi 

NEVRR were any people more fuperftitioui thin di 
Kgypcians ; they had a great number of gods, of difo 
rent orders and degrees^ which 1 fiiall omit, bccaufc tbey h^ 
long more to fable than to hiflory. Among the refl, two wot 
àjiiiverfally adored in that country, and thefe were Ofirii ill 
.IHs, which are thoii;rht to be the fun and moon; and indeed 
the worfhip of thofc planets gave rife to idolatry. 

Bcfidcft thcfc gcjds, the Egyptians worfliipped a groit nun- 
ber of btalèa ; as the ox, the dog, the wolf, the hawk, the 
crocodile, the * ibis, the cat» (ic. Many of thefe beafts wci» 
the objets only of the fupcrftition of (bme particular citki; ; 
and whjifl a people worfliippcd one fpecies of animals as godft ' 
th'^ir neighbour:» had the lame aninial gods in abominatioot ' 
'i'his wa» the fource of the omtinual wars which were canid 
«Ml between one city and another; and this was owing to ths 
talfc policy of one of their kings, who, to deprive them it 
the opportunity and means of confpiring again» the ftate, en- 
deavoured to amufc them, by engaging them in religious C0B> 
\c(i^. I call this a falfc and midaken policv, becaofe it direâly 
Thwarts the true fpirlt of govemment, the aim of which iflf 
re/ unirc: nil in members in the (Irid^efl ties» and to nalcealliti 
nr'T.p,ih rnnfilt, in the pcrfedl harmony of its feveral parts. 

Kvrry nati<iri had a great zeal for their gods. Jmottgut^ fays 
i.k) ('iirro, it is lery tammcn to f^o tent fus rohhej^ and ftêtwn 
turned off \ hut it luas ntnjtr anonvfif that any perfin in EgjfÊ 
rvcr alufed a crocodile^ an ibii^ a cat ; fir its inhabitanti nstomi 
have /yffered the moft extreme torments^ rather than bê guilty td 
J M h J au liege, (jr) It was death for any periba to kill one of 
ùaW animals voluntarily ; and even a punifliment was decreed 
ay, ai lift him, who fhould have killed an ibis, or a cat, with or 
witKcut deiign. (z) Diodorus relates an incident, to which 
he himfelf was an cye-witncf:!, during his (lay in Egypt. A 
Koman havitig iiindvfrtently, and without defign, killed acati 
the txaffxratcd populace ran to his hoiife; and neither theai^ 
thdfliy t^i the king, who immediately detached a body of his 
iruarcis r.'ir the wxror of the Roman name, could refcue the 
uiifortui.aTc criminal. And fuch was the reverence which the 
£;rypciaii'^ hud for thefe animals, that in an extreme famine 
Che y chcfr tu eat one another, rather than feed upon thtif 
im.'tgiiied dcitlet. 


(s) Dr naf . Oror. 1. i. n. 84. Tufc. Quicft. 1, v. Ht l\. (jr} Hcro4. li 

ÎÂ. c, 6f. (fcl Di'id. I. i, I». 7^ 7 J. 
• Ce i^ytiion Jtufk, 

*Ot|t-'rH-t KÔTPTIANfc rr' 

,1 or all theft inimaU, che ball Apit, called Kptplrai'liy 
inekt, wm the mall (amoatt Magnlfloent tnD|»H wef$ 
Id to him i exiraurdinuiyboman wen paid hÎBWbîte-llè 
I ind ftill erenter after hll dettk. Bnpt wentlhei^ JMto 
Ktil mournitig. His obrcaafn were («UBtrixedirilbbr'lt 
Up » il harJIy credible. Id the rtitn of Ptolemj' Lùni» - 
nil Apii dying of old :ige *, iIm nneril poaip, benao 
rdiniry cxpcnco, amountsdto npwardtof fifty tkovlnd 

E^ctnwng f. ATter the lift kononri htd been paid to th^ 
éd god. the next care WM to provide him i facceilbr, 
■II Egypt was fought thro' fer (bat pwiMle. He wu 
m by certain fif;ns, which dillngwflied.biai fnm all Otbc^ 
^> or thai rpecjes ; upon bit fbrebetd, wu to be ■ wfcla 
in form of ■ crefcent; oa hit back* At figtiM of «A 
i upon hi» tongue that of t beetle. A* fiMn ai b« wu 
I, ntearniiiK gave pUce a jor j and nodiiil( was heard, 
[ part» of Egyp'- ''°< fciUvau iod ririoicisg*. The bmt 

, ntearniii» gave pUce a joi 
lart» of Egypi. tnt felUw - -, -. 
lu broiteht to Mcmphii, tetainpoOefioBof Mad^nitr. 
Iiere inualled with ft giLtt aamberof ecrenMMlei. Tm 
^will finil herciifter, that Canbjrfei, at lia matntnn 
■t/ortnnate expedition a,ffàa& Ethii^ia, fnding all tht 
ciaoi ia iranfporti of jar fer their new god Apti, asd 
inin* that this was iniciiaéd u ^n inTnlt Bwwhii auifer* 
I. killed, in the firli Hartaof hU hrj, the youoft bull, 
by that meani had but a SiortnjOTnwatof hii dmaitf, . 
h pUic, that the golden calf let «p Mar moajit Sinai by 
(ïaelites, ivat owing to their aboda la B0p*> and an 
cion of the ^rod Apit; s* well ai dwfc wUu ««« afkef ,' 
b ftt up bv Jeroboam, {Me bad rcAdcd a coafiderablf 
^la Egypt) m the two rxiiwsUfacf Ae)tiu|doiBof Unci. 
hrEgyfttani, not conieatcdwitkeAring taceaA WaaU 
, carried their folJy to fueh an aaetft, ai to afcribe a di* 

B- to the pulfe and roots of their nrdeni. For thia they 
genioully r<ptoaced by th# làtyrOt. 
: Viv hu mt htari nukm t^^irtahu mn m**/, 
ffftar «MigAr pâà itr fMmtitifiui koM fitm'it 

M HmoI. L hi. a, v}, ht. f. f(, DM. 1. 1. Plia. 1, TÎfl. c. 4». 

émmfti*m*»uumifiur*\ fbaw «■ 
lefttoawamtM^toiandtrel f ^ 

Nth, ValBfi BrttilBiM, qntlla «i 
pMHfta mUi t L'lKDJIIofl (darrt 
I Ull ram btiTM tsrfsaUbN nkh 


Hen Itis gorged wih nMll-grcnum firptms^ thtrt 

fbi Croccdi/f ccmmands religious femr : 

Where Mem non' s flat ne magic à Jirimgs i^fpirt 

Wiib 'vecal j'ounàs^ that emulate the lyre ; 

jîui Thehes^ /uch fate^ are thy di/aftrcus tttrtu / 

jN'onv prtftrate o*er her pompous ruins mousrns % 

ji monkey 'god ^ prodigious to he told! 

Strikes the htholdfr*s eye nvith hurnijh*d gold: 

V^o god/hip here blue Triton^s fcaly herd^ 

TV'f ri*ver progeny is there preferred: 

^hrtugh io^wns I)iana*s poiver negleûed lies^ 

h 'here to her dogs afpiring temples rife: 

^nd fl:Gu^d you luks or onions eat, no time 

H'cud e.xpictc the facrilrgious crime» 

Jlfligiohi nations Jure^ and bleft abodes^ 

11' here ev\y orchard ii o*er-run iiith gods* 

It is adonifhing to fee a nation, which boafted its fapei 
Above all others with regard to wifdom and learning, 
blindly abandon- itfclf to the mofl grofs and ridiculoas 
ilitions. Indeed, to read of animals and vile infedts, hi 
cii with i-eliglous worfhip, placed in temples, and main 
villi great care and at nn extravagant expence * ; to rcac 
thofe who murthcrcd them were punifhed with death \ ar 
thcfe animals wore embalmed, and iblemnly dcpofi 
ii;mbs, Mllir.ura them by the publick ; to hear, that this 
v.îi;;iiîCi.' c.iiriivl to luch lengths, as that Iccfcs and « 
were acknowh Igtd ns deities ; were invoked in ncceflit) 
depended upon \cy fuccvour and proteélion ; are exceflcs 
we, at this dillance of time, can fcarce believe; and yc 
have the evidence of all antiquity. You enter, fays {b) L 
5nio a magnificent temple, every part of which gliilcri 
gold and iilver. You there look attentively for a god, a 
cheated with a flork, an ape, or a cat ; ajufl emblem, 
that author, of too many places, the mailers of which ; 
from being the brightell ornaments of them. 


1Effîi:ie9 fjcri nîtet turea cercopitheci, 
Pimidio mnpcnr refonant ubi M«mnone chords, 
Atque vctus Thebe centom jacet obruta portii, 
Jlltc cnfrv)lcos hie pifcem fluminis, illic 
Oppida totj cancm venerantar, nemo Dianam. 
Pornim fc carpc nrf^s violare, ac frangere morfo* 
O r.inéljs grntcs, qu.bui haeo nafcuntur in hortii 
Numina ! Ju^ten, Sa 

* Dîodo'us njf.'msy that in his timt, I bttndrtd tbtujand rmviij, or a 
iM ettpeaa jmcu^icd to nn ieji tban ont \fler/iK^* Lib. i, p. 76. 


Ks) Several reafbns are given of the worihip paid to animals 

^hc Egyptians. 
*ïhe firft is drawn from the fabulous hiftory. It is pretend- 
^ that the gods, in a rebellion made againd them by men, 
^ into Egypt, and there concealed themfelvcs under the 
XV of dif^rent animals ; and that this gave birth to the 
Or(hip, which was afterwards paid to thofe animals. 
The fécond is taken from the benefit ^ which thefe feveral 
aimais procure to mankitid : Oxen by their labour ; fheep 
W their wool and milk ; dogs by their fervicc in hunting and 
oarding houfes, whence the god Anubis was reprefented with 
dog*s head : The ibis, a bird very much refembling a ftork, 
ts worfliipped, becaufe he put to flight the winged ferpents, 
itb which Egypt would otherwife have been grievoufly infefl- 
I; the crocodile an amphibious creature, that is, living alike 
x>n land and water, of a fufprifing flrength and fize f , was 
DrÛiipped, becaufe he defended Egypt from the incurfions of 
e wild Arabs ; the ichneumon was adored, becaufe he pre- 
mted the too great increafe of crocodiles, which might have 
oved deftruflive to Egypt. Now the little animal in queflion ' 
les this fervice to the country two ways. Firft, it watches 
e time when the crocodile* is abfcnt, and breaks his eggs. 
It does not eat them. Secondly, when he fleeps upon the 
inks of the Nile, (which he always does with his mouth 
leo) this fmall animal, which lies concealed in the mud, 
aps at once into his mouth ; gets down to his encrailsj 
hich he gnaws ; then piercing his belly, the ikin of which 
▼ery tender, he efcapes with fafety ; and thus, by his addrefs 
id fubtilty, returns vi(^orious over fo terrible an animal. 
Philofophers, not fatisfied with reafons, which were too trifling 
account for fuch ftrange abfurdities as difhonoured the hea- 
en fyftem, and at which themfelves fecretly blufhed ; have, 
ice the eftablifhment of Chriftianity, fuppofed a third reafon 
r the worfhip which the Egyptians paid to animals;» and 
rclared, that it was not offered to the animals them- 
Ives, but to the gods, of whom they are fymbols. {^) Plu- 
rch, in his trcatife, where he examines profefledly the pre- 
niions of Ifis and Ofiris. the two moft famous deities of 
e Egyptians, fays as follows. **^ Philofophers honour the 
image of god wherever they find it, even in inanimate be- 
ings, and confcquently more in thofe which have life. We 

C 5 ** are 

{c) Died. !. i. p. 77, See, (d) Pt %^2^ 

• Tpfi, qui irridentur /EyypvAf 
lliixi bcl'uam niii ob al'-^uapi u!J- 
a'eni, quam ex ra capc/enr, coiift". 

ivcrunt* Cit,. lib, i. De ra:u-j \ ii. c. 16» 

Derr. n. fci, 

f ï^'k'i i\ acccrdïr.g to Hf ogp'us, 
h r; rrot than. 17 çub'gi ixir.rrt, I. 


1 I «c CÎOQS ilones in the world ; the worfldp muft not be 

! ^' to the fiatuei, for the deity does not exiil in coloor 

** \y difpofed, nor in frail matter dellitute of fenfe \ 
;i I *• tion/' (#) Plutarch fays in the fame treatife, '* thî 

i • ** fun and moon» heaven» earth» and the fea» are coe 

I ! *' all men» but have different names according to the di 

^' of nations and languages ; in like manner» though 
^' but one deity, and one providence which govt 
^* univerfe» and which has feveral fubaltern miniftei 
** it; men give to this deity, which is the fame, 
^* «ames ; F.rd pay it different honours» according to 
^ and colloms of every country. **^ 

fiut were thefe refiedlions which offer the moft ratic 
dication po£ible» of idolatrous worihip» fufficient to c 
Jridicttle of it ? Could it be called a raifing of the divi 
l>utes in a fuitable manner» to direâ the worlhipper t( 
and feek for the image of them in beafts of the moft 
contemptible kinds» as crocodiles», ferpents» and cat 
«aot this rather degrading and debaiinç the deity», oi 
«even the moft.fiupidy ufually entertain a much grc 
I '' more augnfl idea ? 

However» thefe philofophers were not always fo jv 
afcend from fenfible beings to their invifible autho 
iicriptures tell us» that thefe pretended fages deferved 
count of their nride and ingratitude, to be ( fYrivfn 




■ I 



fihok fervent pfct^» 9Xid rigorous penance» have done fo 
]umoar to the Chn&ian religion. J cannot forbear givinj^ 
I famooi inftance of it s and I hope the reader will excoie 
iad of digrefiion» 

The great wonder of Lower Egyptt fay» Abbe Flcory 
I Ecclcfiafticai Hiftory» was the city of Oxyrinchpt, 
rd with monks» both within and without, fo that ther 
nore nnmeroos than its other inhabitants. ^ The publico 
»9 and idol temples» had been converted into monafte» 
and thefe likewile were more in number than the |)rivate 
k The monks lodged even over the gates» and in the 
I. The people had twelve churches to afiemble in» «z* 
e of the oratories belongine to the monafteries. Ther^ 
twenty thoufand virgins and ten thoufand monks in thi» 
svery part of which echoed night and day with the praifes 
>d. By order of the magiilrates» centinels were polled 
gates» to take notice ef ^1 Grangers and poor who came 
he city ; and thofe who firft received them» were obliged 
)vide them with all hofpitable accommodations. 

c r. II. Teg Cermoniis of the Egyptian F u n b a a L s. 

all now give a roncife account of the funeral ceremonlies 
' the Egyptians. 

e honours which have been paid in all ages and nadoni 
Ï bodies of the dead ; and the religious care taken to pro* 
lepulchres for them» feem to infinuate an univerfal per- 
a» that bodies were lodged in fepulchres merely as a de* 
or truil. 

; have already obferved, in our mention of the pyramids» 
what magnificence fepulchres were built in Egypt r for 
;s» that they were ere^ed as fo many facred monuments, 
led to tranfmit to future times the memory of great princes i 
were likewife coniidered as the manfions where the 
was to remain during a long fuccefiion of ages : {b\ 
reas common houfes were called inns, in which men were 
ide only as travellers^ and that during the courfe of a lifer* 
1 was too fhort to engage their affedlions. 
hen any perfon in a family died, all the kindred and^ 
is quitted their ufual habits, and put en mourning ; and.' 
Ined from baths, wine, and dainties of every kind. Thi»' 
ning held forty or feventy days>; probably according ta 
uality of the perfon. 

C 6 Bodie» 

il) Tom^ V. A. 25i a6. (^ Di^d. U i».p^ >7>^ 


(0 Bodiet were embdmrd three different ways. TkeiL 
naoniAceDi wti beftowcd on pcrfo» of diAmguUhed lOi 
sndihe cxpence aiaoiiiitcd to i talent of filver, or thr» [hav-J 
find French livres *. 

(it] Many handi were employed in this cerenoDy. Sdm 
drew the brain throueh tbe noflrili, bj an îaftraaMI u 
for that purpofe. Ot^eri emptied the bowels Mtl ÛtltflinOt_ 
ly cutting a hole in the tide, with an Ethiopian Sonè Uw wul 
•s (harp as a rasor; after which the carilles were fiReS wiiH| 
jierfumes and varioai odoriferoos dnwi. .As this e 
<n'hich u-as necefTarily attended with lone diilèâioRs] fttmilfl 
In Tome meafure cruel and inhnnun ; the perfons etnp^ ' 
■-■' It foon as the operation was over, ud were porfjur' 


Aones by the Aanders-by. But thofe who embalmed ti 
were honouinbly treated. They filled it with myitlh]^ 
mon, and ;<II fom of fpicei. After * ceitain time, tM 
was fwnclied in lan'n filletSi which wereglaed together « 
Irind of very thin gum, and then cruftrà them over with li- 
mait txijuifiie perfumes. By this meani, it U faid, chat C(i( II 
entire figure of the body, the very linéaments of the face, mi I 
«he hairs on the lids and eye-brows, were prtferved tn tlwir i 
vatura! pcrfeClion. The body thus embalmed, was delivered 
10 the relation;, who (hut it up in a kind of open chcA, fitted | 
«vaflly to (lie lize of the corpfe ; then they placed it apright ' 
againit the wall, either in feyulchres, (if iliey had any) or in | 
their houfea. Thefe embalmed bodies are new what we call I 
MiiiniTiii.-s, which arc Hill brought from Egypt, and arc found 
in the cabinets of the curious. This fhews me care which the | 
Egyptians took of their dead. Their gratitude to their de- i 
cea fed relations was immortal. Children, by feeing tbe bo- r 
dies of rhelr ancedors thus preferved, recalled to mmd tbdii I 
virtue.; for which the publick had honoured them; aiod wet* | 
excited to a love of. thofe laws which fuch excelleot perfooi ! 
had left for their fecurity. We Snd tliai paît of thefe ceremiK ' 
nies were performed in the funci^il honours done to Jofeph in 

1 hnve fnid that the public!; recognized the virtues of deceal^ 
ed pcrfonf, becaufc that, 'before tliey could be admitted into 
the facred afylum of the tomb, they underwent a folemn trial. 
And this circumAatice in the Egyptian funerals, fa one of tbt 
«i(il( rematkabL- to be found in ancient hiftory. 

It was a confolatioh among the heathens, to a dying man> 
M leave a good name behind him; and they imagined thai 

{k) cidd. I, i. r- II, 

.is^f./^n.p 4A. 

• ■ < f 



the only httmàn bleffins; of which death ctnaot itpîwé^ 
{ut the Egyptians woold not fufler praifes to bebeftowed - 
iminately on idl deceafed perfons. This hohoof was to 
ained only from the publick voice. Th» aflembly of 
dges met on the other iide of 8 lake whtth they croflÛ ' 
3at. . He who fat at the helm was. called Charon, in the 

he was brotrght to his trial. The pnblick accafer was 

If he proved that the deceafed had led a bad life, his - 
ry was condemned, and he was deprived of burial. The^^^ 

were aife6ted with laws, which extended even beyond 
ive ; and every one, ftruck with the difgrace infliâed on ' 
ad perfon, wAs afraid co refleft difhonour on hia owtt ^ 
7, and that of his family. But if the deceafed perfotr* 
»t conviâed of any crime, he was interred in an hononrw- ' 
anner. * ^ 

111 more aftonifhing circumftance, in this publick inqueft' - 
he dead, was, that the throne itfelf was no proteaion 
t. Kings were fpared during their lives, becaufe the 
k peace was concerned ii^ tms forbearance ; but their 
f did not exempt them from the judgment pafled upon 
id, and even iome of them were deprived of fepnhnrè*'^ 
uftom was imitated by the Ifraelites. We fee, in fcrip* 
hat bad kings were not interred in the monument» of 
mceftors. This praâice fuggefted to princes, that if ' 
lajefty placed them out of the reach of mens judgment^ 
they were alive, they would at laft be liable to ttf 
ieatn fhould reduce them to a level with their fid)jeâi« 
m therefore a favourable jjàdgment was pronounced on 
ifed perfon, the next thing was to proceed to the cere» 
t of interment. In his penegyrick, po mention wa» * 
)f his birch, becaufe ever/ Egyptian was deemed noble 
lifes were confîdered as jufl or true, but fûch as related • 
peribnal merit of the deceafed. He was applauded foF 
1 received an excellent education in his younger years ; 

his more advanced age, for having cultivated piety 
s the gods, judice towards men, ^entlenefs, modeft)^ 
Ltion, and all other virtues which ^conllitute the goo4 « 
Then all the people fhouted, and beflowed the higheft . 
ns on the deceafed, as one who would be received, for.- 
nto the fociety of the virtuous in Pluto's kingdom, 
conclude this article of the ceremonies of funerals, rC; 
)t be ainifs to obfcrve to young pupils» the different 


manners with which the bodies of the dead were treated by A» 
ancients. Some, as we obfenred of the Egvptians» cxpoU 
them to view after they had been embaImM, and thos pn« 
(erved them to after-aget. Others, as particnlarly thello- 
anans, burnt them on a funeral pile; and others again, Ud 
thrm in the earth. 

The care to preferve bodies without lodging them in tmnbi, 
appears injurious to human nature in general, and to thofe 
pcrfons in particular for whom this refpeA is defigned ; be* 
caufc it ex poles too vi£bly their wretched ftate and d!dformityi 
fince whatever care may be taken, fpcAators fee nothing hat 
the melancholy and frightful remains of what they oace wsr. 
The cuftom of burning dead bodies has fomething in it end 
and barbarous, in deftroying fo haftily the remains of peilbas 
once dear to us. That of interment is certainly the mol 
ancient and religious. It reftorcs to the earth what had besa 
taken from it; and prepares our belief of a fécond reftitotiot 
of our bodies, from that duft of which they were at M 

CHAP. m. 

Of thi Egyptian S o l D i B a s and W a !• 

TH £ profeffion of arms was in great repute imong the 
Egyptians. After the facerdotâ families, the mm il-^ 
luftrious, as with us» were thofe devoted to a military life. 
They were not only diliinguiflied by honours, but by ample 
liberalities. E\-ery (bldier was allowed an Aroora, that is,., 
a piece of arable land very near anfwering to half a French 
acre *, exempt from all tax or tribute. Befides this privilege^ 
each foldier received a daily allowance of five pounds of bread,. 
two of fiefli, and a pint of wine f • This allowance wu 
fufficient to fupport part of their family. Such am indulgence 
made them more affeélionate to the peribn of their prince, nd 
the intereils of their country, and more refolute in the ddfènce 
of both ; and as (/) Diodorus ob&rvesa it was thought incon* 


i. p. i7« 

the etywflop ùftbtWird à^9f^, iêvê' 
trmnjlattd tt h^ hauftrum m èmcltt, mt^ 
Lucretiui, lib. ▼• 51. êtktn èfhwfh^ 
adrmught f fup» Hcrodotnt )Gw«, fMr 
dUcwaMt mt0t p9tn taiy » tie fw» 
tbmjmnd wrdi^ tghê ëttê»dtâ Jiiâfi 
{)f «» liMi KiMgu I*ihk U». w sAS». 



^ I'toelve Arouris. Jhi Egyptian 
4iffourt was loooo Jqmart cuhits, 
equal U three rudt„ tw9 fwcbit, 55 ( 
Iqnsrt feet of our meafure. 

"f 7be Greek is, oUtu riro'Uftç 

àfi^nftçt wlfich fim» bave madt t$ 

^gfi/y a determinate quantity of wine, 

^ tf«|L ubtà iifuidf ttbtrt, n^strdu^ 


at with good policy» and even^ commoB fenfe, to commit 

defence of a coantry» to men who had na iptereft in i;a 

^edenration • 

. (m) Four kmared diouiknd feldier» were leept in continoid 

~r; all nadvet of Egypt, and trained op in the exaâeft 

cipUne. They were inured to the fatigues of war, by a 

we and rigorous education. There is aa art of forming the 

y at well as the mind. This art, loft by our iloth, waa 

I known to the ancients» and efpecially to the Egyptians.. 

Soot» horfe» and chariot races, were performed in Egypt with 

^vonderfttl agility» and the world could not ihew better horfe« 

a than the Egyptians. (») The ficvipture in fieveral placea 

•ka adTantageoufly of their cavalry. 

Military laws were eaûly prefer vcd in Egypt» becanirlbaa 

ived uem from their fathers ; the proiemon of war» as all 

n» being tranfmitted frtmi father to fbn. (•) Thofe wh» 

lad in battle» or discovered any iigns of cowardice» were only 

diftinguiihed by fome particular mark of ignominy ; it bein^^ 

akoaent more adviieable to reftrain them by motives of honour» 

Ihan^ the terrors of puniihment« 

• But notwithftandittg this» I will not pretend to fay», that the 
Egyptians were a warlike people. It is of little advantage ta 
kave regular and well-paicf troops ; to have armies exercifed 
ID peace» and employed only in mock fights ; it is war alone» 
and real combats» which form the foldier. Eg^pt loved peace^ 
becanie it loved juftice» and maintained foldiers only for its. 
fixurity. Its inhabitants», content with a country which 
akonnded in a4 things» had no ambitious dreams of conqodk 
The Egyptians extended their reputation in a very dii&rent 
aianixer» by fending colonies into all parts of the worlds and ' 
with them laws and politenefs. They triumphed by the wif-^ 
dam of their coanfels» and the fuperiority of their knowledge ;. 
and this empire of the mind appeared more noble and glorious 
to them» than that which is atchieved by arms and conqueft» 
Bnt neverthelefs» Egypt has given birt)i to illuftrious conque* 
rors» as will be obferved hereafter» whea we come to treat o£ 
its Kings. 

0/ tbtir Arts Mi Sci^iircis* 

TH E Egyptians had an inventive genius» and turned it 
to profitable fpeculations. Their Mercuries filled E-> 
gjpt with wonderful inventions» and left it almoft ignorant of 


igê) liBm4«.LIi».€« il^iti^Sr (•) Ctat,.i« S..Iiii» iia?i»9. (») Diod. p. 70- 


noihinr, which could iiccnmplifh the mind, or procure eife aii 
happiiiH'i. The ciifcovercr» of any ufeAil invention receifcdf 
IkkIi livin;; and cicad, rewards equal to their profitable laboark 
Tt is ihi% con fee rated the hooks of their two Mercuriei, aad 
Oamprd them with a divine authority. The firft librarici 
wric ill ]''f;>'pt; and the titles they bore, infpired the reader 
with ail ca^'rr defire Co enter them, and dive into the 
frcrei'. ihry contained. They were called the • •fictfir ikt 
i^r/r/im r,f tht j'ottl^ and that very juflly, becaufe the loul wii 
thcie cuii'd of icnorance, the mod dangerous and the parent 
of all her mnladicii. 

Ah thrir country was level, and the air of it always fèrett 
and iir.(lr>udf'(l, thry were fome of the îix^ who obferved the 
cnnrfrs r>f thr plnnctK. Thefe obfervations led them to regu- 
Lite tlic year t from the coiirfc of the fun; for • as Diodonn' 
obfcrvr'., thrir year, from the mn(l remote antiquity, wii 
conij'ofcil of tbriT hundred fixty-five days and fix hours. To 
iidjull tlic proprrty of ihcir lands, which were every year co- 
vered by tlic ovrrflfiwing of the Nile, they were obliged to 
have ri-(r<inrc to furvcy. ; and this firft taucht them geometry. 
Thry wcrr j'rrat ohfrrvcrs of nature, which, in a climate \o 
fcrcfic, nnd under fo intenfe a fun, was vigorou:# and fruitful. 

I'.y this fhidy and application they invented or improved the 
fcicner c)F phyfick. The fick wrrc not abandoned to the ar« 
biirary will .ind caprice of the phyfician. He was obliged to 
follow f'Kf d nilr:., which witc the obfcrvations of old and 
cxpcricii(cd pr»<^titionerf, and written in the facred books* 
While tlifTc rnlcs were obferved, the phyfician was not an- 
fwrrablf for thr fiif erf'. ; othcrwife a mifcarriagc cofl him his 
life. Tiiis I tw clicckcd indeed the temerity of empiricks ; but 
then it inij'.hi prevent new difcoveries, and keep the art from 
iittainin^ to its jufl perfection. Kvery phyfician, {f) if Hero- 
dotus may be credited, confined \\v> pradhce to the cure of one 
clifcifc only ; one was for the cyQb^ another for the teeth, and 
io on. 


(/.) L. ii. c. J?4, 


t ^ •• 

I // ti'iU r',t jrfm furpr'ifing thnf the 
I'.f}frt,;r::, ',iho ivtrg tie m'-fl atu'ufit 
€kj^t'i-rri t,f ll-e irlrjtml hr.ti/.fi', p 'tulâ 
i»ve atriiifd ti tk'n knçtuffitf^r j ^viffi 
it it i',n/i/frrf.!f that tif iunsr yritr, 
fr«Jr yjr ij hy thr (irrik\ and Komam, 
tfouyh It aff-fiit: fo \n,t.niien\rnt atui 
irr^yuliir, j'.'j I'jnt m-tntl rlrft a htt'tV' 

^kuiët fjitiott t9 ib9 tiy^tuini* It 

wi 7 tif fear at f'JI /if ht, hy eahyhtinjf 
th'ir tntrn a/atiimif that ih^Ji vuhp f^ffk 
divided the year in ttit mannfr, nvert 
nfi ignorant, that to three hundne Jutty^ 
five dftyi, jume l$yri mf(ff 19 he addtd^ 
to^erji fuit with the fun, ILfie tnly 
rrrtr luy, |M the fyf^ftùfilit>n, that §n^ 
fix ln;nt nioere W/tnting \ whereat a» 
addiiiQH tf almtji glpytB mimun mtn 
vii$ n^uifitêt 


'What we have faid of the pyramids^ the labyrinth» and 
bAC iuSnite namber of obeliiks, temples, and palaces, whofe 
feècioas remains ftill flrike with admiration, and in which 
réw difplayed, the magnificence of the princes who raifed 
lléiii, the fkill of the workmen, the riches of the ornaments 
SCb^d over every part of them, and the jafl proportion and 
tifol iymmetry of the parts in which their greateil beauty 
filled ; works, in many of which the livelinefs of the co- 
remain to this day, in fpite of the rude hand of time, 
kifiich commonly deadens or deflroys them: All this, I fay» 
liews the perfection to which architedlure, painting, fculpture, 
Uid all other arts, had arrived in Egypt. 

(y) The Egyptians entertained but a mean opinion of that 
ton of exercife, which did not contribute to invigorate the 
body, or improve health ; nor of mufick •, which they con- 
■dered as an ufelefs and dangerous diverfion, and only fit to 
•nervate the mind. 

C H A P. V. 



Artificer 9. 

(r) TTUfbandmen, fhepherds, and artificers, .formed the 
J. X three clafTes of lower life in Egypt, but were never- 
thdefs had in very great edeem, particularly hufbandmen and 
fliepherds. The body politick requires a fuperiority and fub- 
oimnation of its feveral members ; for as in the natural body, 
the eye may be faid to hold the firft rank, yet its luflre does 
not dart contempt upon the feet, the hands, or even on thofe 
parts which are lefs honourable. In like manner, among the 
Egyptians, the priefts, foldiers, and fcholars were diftinguifh- 
ed by particular honours ; but all profeffions, to the meaneft, 
had their fhare in the publick efteem, becaufe the defpifmg 
any man, whofe labours, however mean, were ufcful to the 
fiate, was thought a crime. 

A better reafon than the foregoing, might have infpired 
them at the firft with thefe fentiments of equity and modera- 
tion» which they fo long preferved. As they all defcendcd 
from t Cham their common father, the memory of their 
•rigin occurring frelh to the minds of all in thofe firft ages, 


(f) Diod, 1. Î. p. 73. (r) Diod. 1, Î. p. 67, 68. 

8^Ç9f iwafx^f^i ÂXXÀ 1^ fihaZtfit «; | f Or Ham* 

]»rovcling or lordid. tiy this means arts were rai: 
htgheft perfcélton. The honour which cherifhed I 
with every thought and care for their iniproveme 
man had his way of life afligned him by the laws, 
perpetuated from father to fon. Two profeiTions a 
or a change of that which a man was born to« wei 
lowed. By this means, men became more able an 
employments which they had always exercifed fro: 
fiincy ; and every man adding his own experience 
his anccilorsy was more capable of attaining perfe 
particular art. Befides, tMs wholefome inftitution 
been cftabliihed anciently throughout Egypt» eztli 
irregular ambition ; and taught every man to fit do^ 
cd with his condition, without afpiring to one mo 
from intereft, vain-glory, or levity. 

From this fource flowed numberlefs inventions 

Srovement of all the arts, and for rendering life m( 
ious, and trade more eafy. I once could not beli 
Diodorus was in earncft, in what he relates con 
Egyptian induflry, viz. that this people had found 
by an artificial fecundity, to hatch eggs without tl 
the hen ; but all modern travellers declare it to 
which ccrtaînlv is worth v our curiofitv. and is faid 


'Hr^ii. Aixint ten da^s are beftowed io heating thefe 
^ and very near as much in hatchine^ the eggs. It is 
^■teriaining, fay thefe travellers» to OMerve the hatching 
Mbb chickens, fome of which ihew at firft nothing bot their 
•a others but half their bodies, and others again come 
t oot of the egg ; thefe laft» the moment they are hatch- 
vmke their way over the unhatched eggs, and form a 
rting fpeélacle. (/) Corneille le Bruyn, in his Travels» 
Ddlleded the obfervations of other travellers on this fob* 
' (m) PHny likewife mentions it; but it appears, from 
I that the Egyptians, anciently, employed warm dung, 
ovens to hatch eggs *. 

have faid, that hufbandmen particularly» and thofe who 
B care' of flocks, were in great efteem in Egypt, fome parts 
t excepted, where the latter were not fuf^red f. It was, 
led, to thefe two profeflions that Egypt owed its riches and 
ity. It is aûoniihing to refledk what advantages the Egyp* 
11, by their art and labour, drew from a country of no 
It extent, but whofe foil was made wonderfully fruitful by 
inondations of the Nile, and the laborious indnftry of the 

t wUl be ahxrays fo with every kingdom, who& govemofs 
eâ all their adHons to the publick welfare. The culture of 
Is, and the breeding of cattle, will be an inexhauftible 
d of wealth in all countries, where, as in Egypt, thefe 
fitmble callings are fupported and encouraged by maxims 
ftate and policy : And we may confider it as a misfortune, 
I they are at prefent fallen into Co general a difefteem ; 
igh it is from them that the moft elevated ranks (as we 
ea them) are fumiihed not only with the necefikries, but 
a the delights of life. << For, /aj^i Abii fUury, in hi» 


{t) Tom. II. p. 64. (at) Lib. x. c. 54. 

of 'tbt child Jbe bad then in htr wemh \ 
and v>ê are told^ fayt P&y, that Jhé 
was not deceived» U it prohahle mr^ 
Rolltn may bave met n»itb fome otben 
place in Pliny favourahU to bit fenti» 
ment, though after fome [earth I cmntu» 
find any, 

"f H^gherds, in particularj bad 

nt W^rdt êf PHny referred t9 by 
r Hffffw ûre thefe» Nuper inde for- 
s imrcntsmy ut Ova in calido lo- 
tmpofita paleis igne oruidico fort» 
:nr homioe Terfantr, pariterque 
fato dl« illinc erumperct fœtus. 
fptaki of this invention as mtdern, 
fetwn tê refer it to the curiefity of 
ts the weather of Tiberius Cafar, 
If de/Sroms of having a male-child, 

Mi egg into her bofomt and ^en 
pMrteatuith it, delivered it to one of 

MIS- augury to guejt at the fe» 

general ill name throughout Egypt t» 
they had the care offo impure an amimsJ, 
Herodotus (). ii. c. 47.) teils ut, thai 
thty were not permitted to enter tha 

vfomeu to preferve the beat. This > Egyptian Tetnpfet, nor would etny ato» 

fvve them bit daughter in marriage» 


people a wealthy cirizsn enervated with flotb, 
I t " chç pullivic, arid void cf all merity has the p 

t ** merely [j,::^.u\t ho has jr. ore money, and lives a 

; •* a II J dcligh'Jui life. 

I** iJiit let u. image to ourfelves a country where i 
'* dif?' Tcnce h not made between the fevrral cc 
i. ** where tic life of a nobleman is not made to 

i'.ilentfs and doing nothing, but in a careful prefc 

hib liberty; that is, in a due fuhjeftton to the 

** the conflitutioM ; by a man's fubfiding upon his e( 

** out any dépendance, and being contented to enj< 

{ '* with liberty, ratlicr than a great deal at the price 

j . *' and bafe compliances : A country, where doth» ef 

*^ and the ignorance of things necefTary for life, ai 

'* their juft contempt; and where pleauire is lefs va! 

health and bodily ilrength : In fuch a country^ i 

> - "much more for a man* s reputation to ploujg;o9 i 

! > ** flocks, than to wafle all his hours in fauntenng fi 

'* : '< to place, in gaming» and expenûve diverfions." 

need not have recoorfe to Plato's commonwealth for 

of men who have led thefe ufeful lives* It was thw 

greatcfl part of mankind lived during near four thoafa 


le heat and harden of the day, and jpays Co great « propcrtion 
'the national taxes, (hould meet with favour and encourage- 
int. But the kind and good intentions of princes are too 
en defeated by the infatiable and mercilefs avarice of thofe 
\lvlio are appointed to colleél their revenues. Hiflorv has 
r-^M .jmfinitted to us a fine faying of Tiberius on this head, {x) 
^plh prefeéi of Egypt having augmented the annual tribute of 
^jdw province» and, doubilefs with 

province» and, doubilefs with the view of making his 
irt to the emperor, remitted to him a fum much larger than 
*^ya9 cuftomary ; that prince, who in the beginning of his reign 
-^âïought, or at leaft fpoke juftly, anfwered, • Tîat if was tis 
^^'é^gn not to Jlajf but to Jhear bis Jheep. 


C H A P. VI. 
^^ Of tbi V%^TihiT Y of EGrPT. 

^ T T ND ÈR this head, I fliall treat only of fome plants pt« 
m \J caliar to Egypt» and of the abundance of corn which it 
H^. produced. 

a; Papyrus. This is a plant, from the root of which ihoot 
^ out a great many triangular ftalks, to the height of fix or feven 

* cubits, (y) The ancients writ at iirfl upon palm leaves ; next 
1^(1 on the infide of the bark of trees» from whence the word libor^ 
1^: or book, is derived ; after that, upon tables covered over with 
'■^. wax, on which the chara6lcrs were imprefied with an inftru- 

* imeal called Stylus, fharp-pointed at one end to write' widi» 
; and flat at the other, to efFace what had been written ; which 
^ favc occaiion to the following expreflion of Horace. 

Sx^ flylum vertas, iterum quas digna legi fint 

Scnpturus : Set. x. ver. ya. 

Ofï turn jour fljU^ if you defire to njorito 

things that *will hear a fécond reading ■ 

The meaning of which is, that a good performance is not 
to be expedled without many corrections! At laft the ufe of 
' paper f was introduced, and this was made of the bark of 
Papyrus, divided into thin flakes or leaves, which were very 
proper for writing; and this Papyrus was likewife called 


{x) DIod. 1. Ivîi. p. 608. (y) PHn. 1. zliî. e. ti. 

* KilftrQai fAÎi T« VféÇAxa, àxx.* in | wbicb betng laid on a tablt^ and motfi 

Av^ùfiff^at 0ixo/Â.ai, Diod. 1* Ivii. 

^ Thi Pâpyrut was divulfd lato thin 
§Êkn (/«!# whith k naturally ^rted) 

ened Vfitb tbt ghttnêui waters of tbê 
Nile, were afterwards freffid together^ 
and driod j« tbi fun* 


Kondum flumineas Memphis contezere byblos 
Noverat. L 

Memphis m$ ret intiv not to Jorm im lesvis 
^be vnatry Bjhlos^ 

Pliny calls it a wonderful inTention *» (b ufeful to lifie, 
it prefervcs the memory of great a^onsy and immcsl 
thofe who atchieved them. Varro afcribes this invent 
Alexander the Great, when he built Alexandria ; bat ! 
only the merit of making paper more cammon» for the 
tion was of much greater antiquity. The £une Plin] 
that Eumenesy king of P-crgamus» fubllitated parchni' 
i!ead of paper ; in emulation of Ptolemv king of 
whofe library he was ambitious to excel py this in^ 
which carried the advantage over paper. Parchmem 
ikin of ^ (heep drciTed and made £t to write upon. 
called Pergamenum from Pergamus, whofe kings 1 
honour of the invention. All the ancient manufcripts 
ther upon parchment, orTclIum which is calf-(kin» and 
deal bner than the common parchment. It is very cu 
fee white fine paper, wrought out of filthy tvffi picke 
the flreets. [%) The plant Papyrus was uieful likei 
fails, tackling, clothes^ coverlets, \ât. 

Linum. l^lax is a plant whofe bark, full of fibres ot 
is ufeful in making fine linen. The method of maki 
linen in Egypt was wonderful, and carried to fuch pei 
that the threads which were drawn out of them, wer 
too fmall for the obfervation of the fharpeft eye. Prie 
always habited in linen, and never in woollen ; and i 
the pricil:>, J3ut ail perfons of diIlini5tion crenerally wo. 
clothes. This flax formed a confiderable branch of th< 
tian trade, and great quantities of it were exported . 
reign countries. The ipaking of it employed a great 
of hands, efpecially of the women, as appears from that 
of Ifaiah, in which the prophet menaces Egypt with a 
t)f fo terrible a kind, that it ftiouid interrupt ei'ery kin 
bour. (a) Moreover^ they thai tuork in fine ftax^ and t 
nveave net-work fljall be confounded. We likewife find i; 
ture, that one efFecl of the plaeue of hail, called dowi 
Mofes upon Egypt, was the dcdruflion of all the flan 
was then boiled. This tlorm was in March. 

(x) Plin. 1. VÎX. c. w («) Ifa. xiz. 9» (&} Bio4. is 

^ Poftea promifcuè patuit ufus rei, I Chtrte ufu maxioK hoatl 
^1 conftat immortalitas hominum. | ftat in ncmoiia. 


%yflnt. (r) This was another kind of ilax extremely Ane 
" finall» which often received a purple dye. It was very 
; and none but rich and wealthy perfons could afford to 
it. Pliny» who gives the Arfl place to the Afbeflon or 
^^Afleftjnmn (i . ^« the incombuftible flax) places the Byffus in 
^^bencstt ranks and fays, that it fcrved as an ornament to the 
k appears from the holy fcriptures that it was chiefly 
Egypt cloth made of this fine flax was brought. (/) Fim 
mdth hrnitrti tvork froih Egypt* 
I cake no notice of the Lotus or Lote-tree, a plant in great 
joeft with the Sgyptiani» and whofe berries ferved them in 
CNrmer^imes for bread. There was another Lotus in Africa, 
l^rhich eave its name to the Lotophagi' or Lotus-eaters ; be- 
taiift they lived ^pon the fruit of this tree, which had fo de- 
lidoat a taile, if Homer may be credited, that it made the 
Iters of it forget all the fweets of their native country f , aa 
lyfl'et found to his coft in his return from Troy. 
in general, it may be faid, that the Egyptian pulfe and 
Jimits were excellent; and mighi, as Plinv ( obferves, have 
fttftced fingly for the nounfhment of the innabitants, fuch waa 
their e^tcellentqualicy^ and fo great their plenty. And indeed 
working men lived then almofl upon nothing elfe, as appears 
;^ from thoib who were employed in building the pyramids, 
it Befides thefe rural riches, the Nile from its fifli, and the 
P'.fttneit it gave to the foil for the feeding of cattle, famiihed 
|i the tables of the Egyptians with the moft exquifite fifh of 
1^ every kind, titià. the moft fucculent fle(h. This it was which 
r nade the Ifraelites fo deeply regret the lofs of Egypt, when 
Il ÙLtf found themfelvcs in the dreary defert. Wbo^ fay they 
« in a plaintive, and at the fame time feditious tone, ^e) ft>alt 

(r) PHn. ibid. {i) Ezek. zxvil. 7. (0 Niiinbi xu 4, 5. 

/i fiax it now fiutid §ue, tvbieh i$ 
frôlf atûinfi tbt 'oioUnct •f firt j k 
is tailed living jCoK^ and we have 
feen table napkins of it glowing in the 
fires of wr dining rooms ; and receiv- 
ing a luftre and a cleannefs from 
fiâmes, which no water cmld havt 
given it* 

* Proxtinut ByKino mulierum 
maxime delktls gesito : inventum 
Jam eft ctiam [fcilicet Linum ] ^uod 
.'Ignibus non abfumctur, yivum id 
vocant, ardentefque in foci s con- 
virioTQin ex eo vidimus mappas, 
Ibrdibus exuflifl fplondefcentes ig- 
ei magif, c|uam polTcnc aquii* r. e* 

Où» It* àwayftiKm vaxiv nùtUf, ovH »if0>9iM« Odyfl*. 2x. ven 94, 95^ 
M4 9ti Tiff Xvroio ^»yci/f, rof 910 haQnrM* vcr* iota 

t .^ypttia frugam ^uidem lerti- I poCRt, tantt eft ciboram 9x herbit 
Hflîmai led «t propc Tola lis carere J abundaaUt* Pan* !• ikî« c, i|« 



ivt us f.tjh fù eat f Wi rtwurnhn the JUjh nahkh ivt ai îâ\ 
'g\pt frttly ; tbt cucumbers amd meUms, and the iaksi âni 
4n:ens, ard tbt garlick. (^) TFt fat hy the Jiefih'f^ts^ emd m 1 
gat bnad to the fitU* 

But the creac and matchlcfs wealth of Egypt arofefronil 
corn, which, even in an almoft uni ver fa 1 famine» enabled it I 
fupporc all the neighbouring nations» as it particularU ell 
under Jofcph's admininiihation In later ages it wastneiM 
fource and mod certain granary of Rome and ConllantiiiO{lB.| 
Jt is a well known dory, how a calumny raifed againftSLl 
Athanafius, 'vit:, of his having menaced Conftantinople, M 
irr the future no more corn (hould be imported toicfm 
Alexandria; incenfed the emperor Conftantine agaioft tkl 
holy bifliop, bccaufe he knew that his* capital city could M 
fubhll without the corn which was brought to it from Egyj 
1'hc fame reafon induced all the emperors of Rome to take 
(;rcnt a care of Kgypt, which they conildered at the narfi 
aiiochcr of the world's metropolis. 

Ncvcrthclcff , the fame river which enabled this province 
fubfill the two moil populous cities in the world» fometii 
reduced even Egypt itfclf to the moll terrible famine: Ani 
Is ail oni filing that jofeph's wife forcfight» which in frui 
years had made proviAon for feafons of (lerility, (hould 
tiavc hinted to thefe fo much boalled politicians» a like < 
Qgaind the changes and inconflancy of the Nile. Pliny 
his panegyrick upon Trajan» paints with wonderful ftrer 
the extremity to which that country was reduced by a fan 
under that prince's reign, and his generous relief of it. 
reader will not be difpleafed to read here an cztraâ of it 
which a greater regard will be had to Pliny's thoughts, 1 
to his cxprelTions. 

The Egyptians, fays Pliny, who gloried that they ne 
neither rain nor fun to produce their corn, and who beli 
they might confidently con ceil the prize of plenty with the 
fruitful countries of the world, were condemned to an u 
peeled drought, and a fatal llenility ; from the greateft pa 
their territories being deferted and left unwatered by the I 
whofc inundation is the fource and fure ilandard of 
abundance. I'hey then * implored that aiTillance from 
prince, v^hich they ufed to expe\ïil only from their river. 
delay of their relief was no longer, than that which em| 
cd a courier to brin^ the melancholy news to Rome; anc 


(g) Exod. ivi. 3. 
* Inundatione, id eft, uberutt regio fraudatSf fie •pfA Cafaris 
^viCf «t (olct sflMca AittiBt 

01^ tttfi ÊGVf TtAlirà. 49 

ut iintgineé» thtt this misfoitoDc had befalleâ them 

dtRinguiA with j^itatd^ lâftre» the generofity. and 

8 of Cefar. * It was ao ancient and general opinfoti^ 
' city coald not fiibfift without proviitons drawn from 

l^is vain and prottd notion bôalled, that diough it 
(â[i»ertd| it nevenhetefs fed its con(J[nerOrs $ that, by 
/ its rii^ef , dtheir âb&nd^nce x>r fcarcity were endreljr 
fpofal. But we tooVtr hai^e milrned the Nile his Owh 

9 and given him back the provifionn hé fent Us. Lee 
ptians be then convintedf by thett own ei^rience» 
ty are liot neceSary to us, and are only our vaflalf» 
li know that thei)r mips* do not fo much briii|; as thdf 
tt we ftand in need or, as the trib\ite whickg&y ower 
td let them nevet fôr^, that we can do witHmt them^ 
t thev can Aeyer do without us. This mdft fruitful 
ft had been ruinédi had h not wore the llomni chains» 
yptians, in their fovtreign« had found a deliveter, ani 
r. Aftonilhed at the nght of their granaries, filled 

; aAy laboor of their own, diey were at a 16fs to know* 
a they owed this forttra and sntuitous plenty. The 
of a peoplty at fuch dmaUce Ironll us, iind which waa 
lUy ûoppté, ferved only to kt them feel the advantage 

k lender our empire. The f Nile may» in other times^ 
bfed Ihote plenty on E|f pt» b\it never hiore glorjf 
u May hénven, content With this proof of the people** 
e» and the prince's generofity^ rellore for ever back p9 
.ts ancient fertility. 

'1i Ift|>roach to the Egyptians» for their vain and fooliflt 
with regard to the inundations of the Nile, points 
of their taoft {peculiar charàfterifticksi and recalls to 
id a fine parage of Esekiel, where God thus fpeaks to 
Ï, one of their kings» {J^) BehoU Î am àgainfi theCf Fba» 
t rf ^iyP^> '^^ S^f^^ Dragon that lieth in the midft of 
ri, 'Oihich hath faiS^ l/N ri'vtr is mj own, and I heem 
firnvfjtlf, God perceived an infupportablc pride ia 
Irt of this prince : A fenfe of fecurity and confidence 
inundations of the Nile, indeperideot entirely on the 
:es of heaven i as though the happy effects of this 
• I* I> inun* 

vtkoertt antiquittï urbem 
nifi opibus i^gypti »li fuf- 
t am poiTe. Superbiebat 
k iaibleni iiatio, <)uod vie- 
iMcm («ptilum oaiceret ta- 
itifuë iafuQ nùininè, m 

(^} Etck. XXÎX. 3, 9, 

fuis mahîbui, vel abhndadtla oodri 
vel fames eflbt, Refudiniui Nilo fuai 
copias. Recep it frumenta que mif»» 
rat, deportatafque fliefiés retexiftf 

f Nilu8i£gypto^fiidein f«p«^ ftd 
gloHftaoftrs aua^usmkriiorfluair- 


5^ HISTORY OF THE been ouing to noching but his own care tti 
I. !•« 11 r, or thoic of his prcclcccflbrs : J'ùe river ù mÎKt, aUl 

'•-iff ' » m\ . , «•• 

il' Î. IL- I liMuIinle tins fécond part of the manners of lie 
I;;:;. 1 I .:î-, 1 lîiink il iiicunibnit on inr, to bcfpcak ihcalKi*!: 
li. i. c f ir.y rcailcib todirtViciitpaHagts fcaitered inihchilloryof|. 
Al r;:!i..iv., |;»c()b, Joùph, and Mofcs, which confirm andil- 1 
i;.:!..iic p.irc of what wc meet with in profane authors opoi 
th. . lîi!i*.cl. They will there obferve the pcrfcdl polity wbick 
rt i;.'.nj.i iii i'.:;vpt, bnth in the court and the rcll of the king- 
ci. :;i ; îlic vipih'.ncc of the princc, who was informed of 2l 
tr.nilaciicns, had n regular council, a chofcn numl>er of mi- 
iiilu'i', armioi o\i:r well maintained and difcipli.ncd, andof 
K\v:y oiuTr of i'«'l.ii''ry, horfe, foot, armed chariots; inten- 
l.ip.i. in .'ill t'.c provinces; overfeers or guardians of the 
[-.ihl'tk gi an a ries; wife and exaét difpenfers of the con 
|rKi«»iJ in them; a court compofed of great officers of the 
CHMvn, a capcîiin of his guards, a cup-bearer, amaftcrofkii 
pmiiv ; in a word, all things that cumpofe a prince's houlhoU, 
îiii.l iiMîllituie a maoniiicent court. (/) But above all ihcfc, 
the ii-;iJrrs will admire the fear in which the thrcatnings of 
Cj'uI v/ere held, the infpedor of all acHons, and the judgeof 
liiiij,., ihemlelvc. ; and the hoiror the iv^yptians had foradul* 
»'. r. , whieh w.i. acknowledt'id to be a crime of fo heinous l 
)i:.inie. il;at it alone waa capable of bringing dcftrudtion on» 

V A R r THE T H I R D. 

ri.c II I s 'I' O R y ./ de K I N' G s B/ F, G Y P T. 

it oloiioiis to loll* iilelf in an abyfs of infinite agcb, a«ï though 
it (eenicii to c.irry ii:i pn-tenfions backward to eternity. (<] 
Accnrdinj; to its own hillorian-i, full, gods, and afterward: 
demi-j^odh or heroes j^ovcrncd it fucceflively, throui»h a ferici 
of more than twenty thoufand years. Hut the abfurdity o 
this vain and fabulous claim, j.s eafily difcovercd. 

To î^ods and demi-god.'i, men fuccccded as rulers or king; 
in Kgypi, of whom Mancihon has left us thirty dynailies oi 


(i) Gen. xii. lo, 26. {h) D^od. 1. i, p. 41. 


ties. This M^nethon was an Egyptiai> hîgh-prîcft, 
er of the facrcd archives. of Egypt, and had b^cn 
in the G.redan learning : He wrote a hillory of 
rhich he pretended to have extrafted from the writ- 
!ercurius and other ancient memoirs, preferved in the 
)f the Egyptian temples. He drew up this hiftory 
reign, and at the command of Ptolemy PhiladeJphus. 
rty dynafties are allowed to be fucceilive* they make 
s of time, of more than five thoufand three hundred 
the reign of i^lexander the Great ; but this is a ma- 
gery. Befides, we find in Eratofthenes *, who was 

Alexandria by Ptolemy Evergetes, a catalogue of 
ht kings of Thebes, all different from thofe of Ma- 
The clearing up of thefe dilHculties has put the 

) a great deal of trouble and labou?. The moft effcc- ^ 
to reconcile fuch contradidions, is, to fuppofe with 
the modern writers upon this fubjedl, that the kings 
lifferent dynafties, did not réîgn fucceffively after one 
but many of them at the fame time, and in different 
of Egypt. There were in Egypt four principal ay» 
(lat of Thebes, of Thin, of Memphis, and of Tanis, 
t here give my readers a lift of the kings, who have 

1 Egypt, moft of whom are onîy tranfmitted to us 
lamès. I fhall only take notice of what feems to me 
>er, to give youth the necefTary light into this part of 
)r whofe fake principally 1 engaged in this underiak- 

I (hall confine myfelf chiefly to the memoirs left u« 
otus and Diodorus Siculus concerning the Egyptian 
thout even fcrupuloufly preferving the exaélnefs of 
, in the beginnings at leaft, which are very obfcure ; 
ling to reconcile thefe two hiftorians. Their defign, 

that of Herodotus, was not to lay before us an exadl 
the kings of Egypt, but only to point out thofe 
vhofe hiilory appeared to thein moil important and 
. I (hall follow the fame plan, and hope to be for- 
r not having involved either myfelf, or my readers, 
inth of ahnoft inextricable difHculties, from which 
apablc can fcarce d.ifengage themfclves, when they 
) follow the fei ies of hiftory, and reduce it to fixed 
In dates. Hie curious may confult the learned f 

which this fubjcd is treated in all its extent. 

D 2 I am 

\rian of Cyrene, 

in Mariham'^ Chronic, 

ber Pezron, the Dijjci' 

tation of F. Tourncmlne, and Abbé 
Sevin, &€* 


I am to premife, that Herodotos, upon the credit of Ae 
Foyptian priefts, whom he had confulted, gives as a gnu 
i.unil'cr of oracles, and fingular incidents» all which, thoHgk 
he rJi-tes them as fo many fadls, the jadicioas reader W]«I 
c-;:^.!v ciifcover to be what they are, I mean fiâîons. 

'r..u hinory of Egypt comprehends 2158 years, ind 
i r. .inrr.Wy divided into three periods. 

i i:L- t'.nl bcoins with the eilabliihment of the Egyptian mo- 
r lire ;.', by Menés or Mifraïm, the fon of ^/) Cham, in tbe 
I ( ..iw.: tlic world 1 8 1 6 ; and ends with the dellruélion cf t^at 
z.. !::.!Liiy by Canib)rcs, king of Peril a, in the year ot ckc 
Vi rl i ;,.v79. Tills hril period contains 1663 years. 

1':::; lecond period is intermixed with the Perûan and Gre- hiilory, extended to the death of Alexander the Greats 
i^iiich h.!{^pened in the year 3681, and confequently inclodes 
2t 2 yearj>. 

The third period is that in which a new monarchy was 
fi)invjd in l^gypt by the Lagides or Ptolemies, defcendants 
tnKv J :igus ; to the death of Cleopatra the laft qneeo of 

1 ^'vpt in 3974, and this lafl comprehends 293 years. 

I ih.ill ROW treat only of the iird period» referving the t«-o 
( :.hcrt icr the JEtsls to which they belong. 

7^^ K 1 N c $ •/EGYPT. 

{ r) TV /T I^' N £ S. Hidorians are unanimonfly agreed, ths: 
WX Mènes was the firll king of Egypt. It is pretended, 
^-if. :.(:: )vi:liou: foundation, that he is £e fame ^th Mifraïm, 
' .\' [\.n of Cham. 

'^ii.-i.'n wats the fécond fon of Noah. When the family of 
;.!'^ I i:::t, af:cr the extravagant attempt of building the tower 
?'t lîjlcl, difpcried themfelves into different countries» Cha^i 
..:i:c(i CO AiVica, and it doubtlefs was he who afterwards was 
'^ orfliippcd as a god, under the name of Jupiter Ammon. 
[■ ! hrJ four children, {n) Chus, Mifra'im, Phut» and Canaan. 
(. !.ws fa tied in Ethiopia, Mifra'im in Egypt, which generally 

2 '.ailed in fcripture after his name, and by that ot Uam * 
4. . t.ithcr ; Piiut io».k pofTffion of that part of Africa, which 
ii'.s v.;.:l.'ard of lilgypt ; and Caijaan, of the country which 
}. il .c<: L.'ie hli na.r.o. Tho CTlnaanites are certainly the 
f..:::c ]^tv;^*lj, who arc Called a!inoll always Phoenicians by the 


(;• r. i7..-;. («;. A. M. t1 C. .-.rr. J. C. 2iS8. (») Or Cyfo, Gen. x. 6. 
• 7Vf ;-*^, :;'./':•'■ '.:'r..'t V. !■'■'■ uf.'r^.iny of Plutarzh, it nutti caVti 
» ;-;^ ■ -.inn t: ." .' d I't limtnn rlr Xr/.i:a, CIikùj^ ty an êaïy orraptLn 
ri...l \\\, 'ui^ (Mi i: Mij c j -y lie /ibu\:j, ar.d tiiifcr Ctjm er Hatu 



Grttkst of iK/hich foreign name no reafon can be given, any 
iK>re than of the oblivion of the trne one. 

(#) I return to IVfifrann. He î» agreed to be the fame with 
Ifenesy whom all hiftorians declare to be che ftrft king of 
Egypt, the inftitutor of the worlhip of the gods, and oi^' the 
ceremonies of the facrifices. 

BusiRrs, feme ages after hrm» built the famous city of 
Thebes, and made it the feat of his empire. Wd have elfc- 
vhere taken notice of the wealth and magniicence of this cit> ■ 
This prince is not to be confounded with Buiiris, fo infamous 
for his ^cruelties. 

OsTMANDYjis. (/) Diodorus gives a very partîcahr de 
feription of many magnificent edifices, raifed by this king ; 
ime of which was adorned with fculptures and paintings of e::- 
qoiii te beauty, reprefenting his expedition againft the Baari-jtisr 
H people of Afia, whom he had invaded with focr hundred 
tlioofand foot, and twenty thoufand horfe. In another part of 
tte edifice, was exhibited an aifembly of the judges, wboil- 
prefident wore, on his breafl, a pi^are of truth, with hrrcyc!» 
mat, and himfelf furrounded with books ; an emphatick ct»- 
Iblem, denoting that judges ought to be perfedlly verfed in chtr 
bws, and impartial in the adminiftration of them. 
' The king likewife was painted here, ofterfng to the gocl^s 

fold and filver, which he drew every year from the mines of 
gypt, amounting to the fum of fixtecn millions *. 
Not far from hence, was feen a magnificent library, tl f 
eldcû mentioned in hiftory. Its title or infcr^pticn on lie fro: ^. 
was. The offUe, or treafuty^ for the difeafa cf tie fouL Ne;»r ir 
Hfrre ftatueb, reprefenting all the Egyptian gods, to each of 
whom the king made fuitable offerings; by which he feemc«l 
to be defirous of informing pofterity, that his life and xwm. 
had been crowned with piety to the gods, and judice to men. 

His maofoleum difcovcred an uncommon magnificence ; it 
«as encompafTed with a circle of gold, a cubit in brcadtlU 
and 365 cubits in circumference ; each of which (hewed the 
rifing and fetting of the fun, moon, and the reft of the pla- 
nets, (y) For fo old as this king's reign, the Egyptians divid- 
ed the year into twelve months, each confifting of thirty days; 
to which they added every year five days and fix hours. The 
fpeôator did not know which to admire moft in this (lately* 
monument, whether the richnefs of its materials, or the genius- 
and induftry of the ar tilts and workmen. 

D 3 UcHO- 

(0) HfTod. 1. ii. p. 99. Diod. 1. i. p. 4», Q») DIod. 1. i, p« 44, 4^. 
(f ) ^*'' ^"' Ifaac Newton*s Chrontkgy^ p. 30. 
* 7brtt thoufand two hundred mynadt (^ Mins* 


•' • T * c f: o r. E u 5, one of the fuccefTors of O.'ymandyas, bmlt 
t:. c :y <f Mtmphis. This city was i ço farJongs, or more 
if..;:î <: veil leagues in ciicumference, and ilood at the peint cf 
th' Dc!:;}, ir. [hat part where the Nile divides itfeif iriio fevtrêl 
I r:. '.(:.'!* ( r ilrcar.ii. Scuthwârd frcm the city, he raifeda 
Ni r;, l.i Î: r. ' !i-. On the rij^ht and left he dug very deep mcas 
So rtcc:\L* li'.c liver. Thcfc were faced with Acne» and ruled» 
r.cir the c:;;., \vj lirong caufcys ; the whole defîgned tofecore 
t.'^e c::v iVi;::i chc ir.undations of the Nile, and the incurtiotfs 
i \ the- i'i.L!r.y. A city fo advantageoufly fituated, and foftrongly 
\ " ;l, li.-.t it \%2s almcft the key of the Nile, and, by tail 
n!'.:.i. , ccnin.Dn-Jtvl the whole country, became foon theoTaal 
rt-::.]c:.:v.* cf the Egyptian kings. It kept pofTefiion cf this 
I., r.o-, till it was forced to refign it to Alexandria, built by. 
.•\.' \n: w'.r the (ircar. 

.'.' ? t:s. This king n^ade the famous lake, which went 
1 r. : ....:..£*, 3:iii vv;:crcvf ir.ention has been already made. 

• ';'>pt ::2 1 icr.îj been oovered by its native princes, wkea 
Pr.::;*:'. ci.ll'.d (Hycfos in the Egyptian 
If-;:.'. ::f r.\ Arabia or Phcenicia, invaded and feized i 
<• ! ; r: f ]o'.vrT I'-^'vpt, and Memphis itfeif; but upper 
i • :* ; r... j.i- Î uricf)i:t,ucrcd, and the kingdom of Thebes 
* ■ ;; '-• ; ti.i t:jc .'ti;;:i of iicll-uris. Thcfc foreign princes go* 
K'.if": r-o'.ut iC'z wais. 

; ! ' li/r ' hv cf liicfe princes, called Pharaoh in the fcrip- 

♦■ •■■ •':. :. .':j'j c r:jmnn to ali the kings of Egypt) Abraham ar- 

: :!:.rc •..•.: i:is vvifir S;ir.ih, who was expo fed to great 

.■ isi, t-fi ::l{.( 'I'-.t cf cxcidifuc beauty, which reaching 
f'.c \ rirj'..'-: «...r» (he vv:.s hy him taken from Abraham, upon | 
ihc ijprM.îi'.:'., :i...: ih'; wa:, not his wife, but only his filler. 

.V; Tit r. T M M .'} ois, or Aniofis, having expelled the Shepherd- 
t.\\ i'î, r'.'it.»r.ed in L'-gypt. 

{x J-cng after hi\ r-.ii-.n, Jofeph was brought a flave into 
I'l vrr, i»y P»ni'î IOr.:i(!:t.!'.i merchants ; fold to Potiphar ; and, 
\.v :i jerie: of wthderful events, enjoyed the fupreme authority, 
I y ]'.\^ being riirl'ed to the chief employment of the kingdom. 
I ihall p:ifs ever his hillory, as it is fo univerfally known. 
But inuil Cuke notice of a remark of Jullin (the epitomizer of 
Tro;;u , iVmpeius ( vî, an excellent hillorian of the AugulUn 
îijie) t.-a:. that Joleph the youngeft of Jacob's children, whom 
lii:> brciiiicn, fired by en\y, had fold to foreign merchaati, 


/r; \)\>,\ ('.40. ,'f' A. M. iq-.'j. Anr. J. C. 2C-4. (t) A M, ac?^. 
A- f (. Î. ■- . C/iri. I". 1 ■.\ 2.. (y) i*. ^'. 11-9. .^nt. J. C. xS: ;. 
fv, .\.M. 1/ w. Anc. J.C. i-.'.i. 'v) Lib. xxxvi. c, z» 


endowed from heaven •with the interpretation of dreams» 
I knowledge of futurity, preferved, by his unconaraoa 
nee, Egypt from the famine with which it was menaced» 
^as extremely carefled by the king. 
Jacob alfo went into Egypt with his whole family, which 
/ith the kindefl treatment from the Egyptians, whilft* 
h's important fervices were frefh in their memories. But^ 
bis death, fay the fcriptures, {a) there aro/e up a neiv king^ 
* kneiAj not Jofeph, 

Rameses-miamun, according to archbiOiop Uiher, was 
ame of this king, who is called Pharaoh in fcripture. 
igned iixty-fix years, and opprefled the Ifraelites in a 
jrievous manner, [c) He /et over themtajk-mafters^ to affliél 
fwith their burdens^ and they built for Pharaoh treafure- 
t , Pit horn and Raamfes — =— and the Egyptians made the chil- 
f I/rael to fer<ve nuith rigour^ and they made their lives hitter 
hard bondage ^ in mortar and in brick, and in all manmr (f 
e in the field \ all their /er*v ice ^w herein they made themjerxn^ 
vitb rigour. This king had two fons» Amenophis and 

Amenophis, the eldefl, fucceeded him. He was the 

.oh> under whofe reign the Ifraelites departed out of 

t, and ,who - was drowned in his pafTage through the 


Father Tournemine makes Sefoftris, of whom we Ù\'A\ 

immediately, the Pharaoh who raifed the perfecuiion 
(I the Ifraelites, and opprelTed them with the moil painful 

This is exadlly agreeable to the account given, by Dio- 
, of this prince, who employed in his Egyptian works 
breîgners ; fo that we may place the memorable event of 
aflage of the Red-Sea, under his fon Pheron J ; and the 
5ieri(lick of impiety, afcribed to him by Herodotus, greatly 
thens the probability of this conjedure. The plan I 
propofed to follow in this hiftory, excufes me from enter- 
to chronological difcuflions. 

Diodorus fpeaking of the Red- Sea, has made one remark 
A^orthy our obfervation; a tradition (fays that hillorian) 

D 4 has 

A. M. 2298. Ant. J. C. 1706. {a) Exod. i. %. (b) A. M. 2427. 
, C. 1577. (f) Exod, i. II, 13, 14, {d) A, M. 2493. Ant. J. C. 
(tf) A. M. 2513. Ant. J. C. 1491. (jT; Lib. iii. p. 74. 

tji'tn afcribes tbh gift of beavtn 
'>b*t »'ill in magical arts* Cum 
I ibi irtes {£gypto fc.) folerti 
> percepifTet, Sc*:, 
eb, urbes thcfaurorum 70 urbes 
li. Tbeff citici were appointed 

to preferie, as in a fiore-boufe^ tie 
corny oil J and other produSs of Egypt. 

X T^bii nawfbfars a great re femblan,^ 
to Pharaoh, Jo comttnn to the Igjptiw 


has been tranfmitted through the whole nacioo, from fathexto 
Ion, !cr inany ages» that once an extraordinary ebb dried up 
the il-a, io that its bottom was feen ; and that a violent flow 
îrimediaicly after brought back the waters to their former 
chaniicl. It is evident, that the miraculous paiTagc of Mcfes, 
over the Red- Sea, is here hinted at ; and 1 make this remark, 
J urpcfcly ro admonifh young fludeuts, not to flip over, in their uf authors thefe precious remains of antiquity ; efpe- 
«i.illy when they bear, like this paiTage, any relation to re- 

A;:hbi(hop Ufher fays, that Amcnophis left two fons, one 
called Scrothis or Seiodris, and the other Armais. I'he Greeks 
cal! hini Be!-js, and his twofons Egyptus andDanaus. 

(f) Sf<csiris was not only one of the moft powerfol 
kipgs of Kgypt, but one of the greateft conquerors that anti- 
quity ho:A[s of. 

His l.::hiT, v^heiher by infpiration, caprice, or, as the 
Fgyptian^ lay, by the authority of an oracle, formed a defi» 
cf making his fon a conqueror. This he fet about after tne 
Kfvptian manner, that is, in a great and noble way; all the 
iTaîc-children born the fame day with Sefoftris, were, by the 
kire's order, brought to court. Here they were educated 35 
ir they hnd been his own children^ with the fame care be- 
iîcwcd on Sefoftiis, with whom they were lodged. He could 
1 r J.» i:::ve çivcn him more f.iithful minillcrs, or officers 
V'. lùiTc zcaî.uîfly (îefired the fuccefs of his arms. Thechicf 
i ..': of their cdacation was, the inuring them, from their in- 
2. c\, to a hard and laborious life, in order that they might 
' ..• fj ay be capable of fuftaining with eafe the toils of war. 
'l: cy \\e'e never fufFered to eat, till they had run, on foot or 
Voi.e-h.KÎ:, a confiderable race. Hunting was their moft 

(•:) /i. liar; remarks that Sefoftris was taught by Mercury, 
V o ii.iitii.;." d him in politicks, and the arts of government. 
'i; is l\ijrci:ry, is he whom the Greeks called T rifmegiftus, 
,. t. tiii:i' c:er.t. Egypt, his native country, owes to him the 
ii,v«r:: R (f almcft every art. The t\vo books, which go 
Lr "jr his Prime, bear fuch evident chara<5^ers of novelty, that 
11. •: :cr^c:y is no longer doubted. There wa-^* another Mer- 
cury, who alfo was very famous amongft the Egyptians, for 
his" knowledge ; and of much greater antiquity than hira 
in qucfiv)n. Jamblicus, a prieft of Egypt, affirms, that it 


fr^) y.^rrt], 1. '■] cap. Tca, 110. Diod, 1. i. p, 48^ 54. (A) Tàft^futA 

•!x,'itrjt:''-)i(. Lib. I2> c« 4* 


caftomay with the Egyptians, to pubKiih all new books or 

nttons under the name of Hermes or Mercury. 

/hen Sefoftris was more advanced in years, his father fcnt 

againft the Arabians, in order that by fightine againit 
3» he might acquire military knowledge. Here the younn^; 
ce learned to bear hunger and third, and(ubdued anatioin 
:h till then had never been conquered. The youth cdu- 
i with him, attended him in all his campaigns, 
ccuftomcd by this conqueft to martial toils, he was next 
by his father to try his fortune weftward. He invadtdi 
'a, and fubducd the greatcll part of that vaft continent;. 
) In the time of this expedition, his father 
, and left him capable of attempting: the greatcft en ter- 
es. He formed no lefs a defign than that of the conqueft 
he world. But before he left his kingdom, he had. jpro- 
d for his domeftick fecurity ;. in winning the hearts of his 
i£ks by his generofity, juftice, and a popular and obliging 
viour. He was no lefs ftodious to gam the afiedion of 
officers and foldierc, who were ever ready to (hed the laftt 

of their blood in his fervice ;. perfuaded that hb enter- 
iê would all be unfuccefsful, unlefs his army ihonld be 
hed to his perfon, by all the ties of efteero, aneâion, and 
eft. He divided the country into thirty-ûx governments» 
ed Nomi).and beftowed. them on pofons of merit, and 
noft approved fidelity. 

the mean time he made the requifite preparations, levied 
8, and headed them with officers of tne greateft bravery 
reputation, that were taken chiefly from among the youths^ 
had been educated with him. He had feventeen hundred 
lefe officers» who all were capable of infpiring his troops 
refblution, of difcipline, and a zeal for the fervice- 
leir prince. His army confided of fix hundred thoufand 

and twenty-four thoufand horfe, befides twcnty-fevea 
and armed chariots. 

f began his expedition by invading Ethiopia, fituatsd to 
buth of Egypt. He made it tributary, and obliged the? 
m of LC to furoifh him annually with a certain quantity of 
ft ivory, and gold. 

Î had fitted out a fleet of four hundred fail, and ordering 
fail to the Red-Sea, made himfclf mafter of the iflcs and 

lying on the coafts of that fea.. He himfelf heading his 
army, over-ran and fubdued Afia with amazing rapidity,. 
)icrccd farther into India than Hercules, Bacchus, and in 
times Alexander him/cif had ever done; for he fubdued 

D s the 

(i; A M. 1$! , Aiît, J, C. 1491- 


i*.c couhcrics l>eyond the Gauge?, and advanced as far as Ùit 
Ocir.i.. Otif mny juJge from hence how unable the more 
rt ii -^'-lurirj; countries were to refill him. The Scythians, u 
i'ar us :hc river Tantiu, Armenia, and Cappadocia were con- 
«:i.\ rcJ. IK- left a colony in the ancient kingdom of Cokhos, 
l';;ci:L-ii t^ the enîl of the Black-Sea, where the Egypti» 
CLi'ii r.*< ;.ni manners have been ever fince retained. Herodo- 
t;j; !'.:v.- in Aiia Minor, fioni one Tea to the other, monuments 
r*' I '• vUorie^. In fcvcral countries was read the foltowicg 
i r fv. rip 1. n c n q i avcn c n p i 1 1 ars : Sf/cJIris, kitt^ of kings^ ami W 
t- '" y , <..lJ::tA tins ccuviry /j? the po*wer of bis arms, Sach 
} T! ' V. i'- lound even in Thrace, and his empire extcaded 
:-i "î t! ' (i;in';es to the Danul)c. In his expeditions, fome 
r:î'./r!î l^r;ivcly ilcfcnded thtir libcrtit's, and others yielded- 
\\\tv\ up wiihout making the Itall refinance. This dilpariiy 
•w;i5 ctr.jtcd by him in hiero^lyphical figures, on the moru- 
irenîs crc^ed lo perpetuate the remembrance of his viAories, 
:ij;r'\":ibly lo the K^'vpiian pra^ice» 

I hr Icarcity or provifions in Thrace flopped the progrefsof 
Km CI nquelh, and prevtnu'd his advancing farther in Europe. 
Oi.e remarkable circnmllance is obferved in this conqueror, 
u'hortvcr cr.ce tliciight, as others had done^ of prefervinghis 
acc^'iiritions ; but coutemintr himfelf with the glory of having 
hjlrdiicd ;.nd dci^oilcd To many nations; after having made 
Ailtl h.ivcck up :irid down the world for nine years, he con- 
Sued iiiniftlf almofl within the ancient limits of Egypt, a fnv 
r.r\jrli boil ring provinces excepted ; for we do not find any traces 
i^i floriicps of this new vmpire, either under himfelf or hii 

I-Ic rciurr.ed there fore laden wish thefpoilsof the vanquilhcd 
r.aticnî -. drPi'cin'* nftor hiri a numbcrlefs multitude of cap- 
\\\K?, ;.i:o tovcrcci with f^reater j^Iory than his predeceffor* ; 
rr.i»" î.l' ly 1 nuan which employs ib many tongues îind pers in 
\': praiic j v, hich inMkics a great number of provinces in a 
*f\;i:îe v\:y, i^nd is oflcii procîuélive of numberlcfs calaniitir*. 
il. riwa'^ird hib r-fîiccrs ar.d rolaitr;; with a truly royal magni- 
fi-v.^r'"'.*, in proportion to their rauk and merit. He made it 
; c:ri hi- \\ -.iure and iluty, to f vu the companions of his vic- 
X- :y i:î '\;ch a (0:icliticn î^^ min;htcnablf them to enjoy, durir«;^ 
:;.. r.rî.-' Tiller of thf ir «.':iys, a calm and eafy rtpofe, the juir 
rcu ;.'.'. ot hs;r pall ir il.». 

\.'i:'T rf; î.r.l fi hinillî:", for ever careful of hi? own rt^^i' 
f.-.'.-M-r,, :j;-.i k'.il rr.CTc of T:iikii.j.' \\\ power advantage(U> ii> 
h. • :... j: (ftt, I •; I ?'..'î.'y"d th'.* r( j^jIc vlili^h |x*ace allowed hin*. 

^iRg S^b FE or YP t. '59 

^f^fpti i italizing his namt ; works/ in which 

'lâtMd im ly-oT'tnewôrkmdB was more admired, than 
liJAmeir fi Which had fa^een expended on them. 
|[^Ab htit!d)iMl faÉioifs temples» railed as fo many monmnents 
gradiaideto the tutelar gods of all the cities, were thefirft, 
we)l as the i^oft illaftrious tefUmonies of his viâories ; and 
i^'took care to pubHui in the inicriptions of theof» that ihefe 
' l\tf works had been compleated without the affiftance of 
of his fttbje^s. He made it his tlory to be tender pf 
I, and to employ only captives In thefe monnments of his 
k^néfts. The fcriptnres take notice of fbmtthing Hke this, 
ere they- (peak of the bdfdings of Solomon *. fiot he was 
Specially ftudious of adorning and enriching the temple of 
lAcânarffclnfiifm, in acknowledgment of that go.d's ima- 
mry proteeHoa^of him, when,, on his return from his er pe- 
stons, his brother had^a deilgn of 'deftrbying him, in that 
'yQr« wi^h his wife and children^ by letting ^e t^ the apart* 
*TienT wSèrè" he ifhen Iky. " ' ,' v . . * 

'Hîs'great work was, the raifing, in every part of Bgypt, a 
bflfiderable number of high banks or moles, on Which new 
rôties were built, in order for them to be a fecority for men 
^Ûd^beaftsi during the inundation of the Nile* 
\^^^Ptbm1âtiùp}ni^'zsj3f^9 the fca,.he cut, on bftth fîdies of 
y^mé yîVfcrv a great number of canals, for -flic coitveniency of 
i^'ilriidé»'ànd tl^e conveying* of provffionsi and it^r^the {etuing 
p^ ieaiyicorre:(pobdéhce between fûch cities as were moft diftant 
l-tnA'ant tmother. Befideis the advantages of trafffick,' Egypt 
r was, by thefe canals, made inacce^ble to the cavalry of its 
%nem!b8,~ which before had fo often liajraâed it;* by repeated 
. wiurfibns. 

*' Jtte went ferthcr i^To fecure Egypt from ^ the rnrpads of its 
nairer ioeighbours, the Syrians and AraUans, hé,ibrlîfted all the 
eallern coafl from.Pelufium to Heliopolis, that |}, 'for t^pwards 
Vf feyen leagues f. . .' ^ 

Sefoftris might -have been confidered as one of the mod 
illnftrioos and moft beaded heroes of antiquity, had not the 
loftre of his warlike * actions, as well as- his pacifick virtues, 
bctn tarniihed by a third of glory, and a blind fbndnefs for 
l»s own grandeur, which made him forget that he was a man. 
The kings and chiefs of the conquered nations came, at dated - 
limes, to do homage to their vidlor, and pay him the appointed 
tribute. On every other occafion, he treated them wtt^ fome 
Jiuoi^nlty and gen'eroûty. Bat when he* went to the temple, 

D 6 . or 

• t Cbfon, vHi, f. Sat 9/ ^Bt)tfer9am*iferHtwrk, 


w rvKxt^ hu upiul, heutkpcd tbcCe priacc*. fmi 
10 t>r tuindTcd ighUcut. iDAcvlof horfcat mm) taL 
ftlf «po» hU being tkui dri«a by dw lonl> and (btci 
•Ibu lUktwni, Wkat I anmaftriuprisedat. b. tlutJ 
AaaU ittik thli bûlib aD<i inhamw vaoit/t amoflf 
mbltio ulioBi of tbii pnii«c. 

(4) Br ii>2 grynn Uioii in hi» old >gc< be difpaiched kiaftSt 
•fur barini tcigncd ilvirty- three jr^ari, and left hù Icinf^ 
■ iiiâiuKl]r iic^ Hi> cmpt'c ticvenhcldt aid noi reach !|i]r<nd 
tbc ItTiitth gcMMiiod. Bq; then Rill tvBiiincd, To low a< a* 
nixnof Tibcriiii, miifiDtbcctit tnoaumcnti, wliàch lliew«d iw 
cxKni of ¥,gvft undei (/] Srlolliii. mi iht 'uantttk uiliui» 
«kich were pud la il *. 

i ftour go Wk to liiine faâs wlikh ftovld have I>c«« mn- 
tio^ briorc, » they fcllont inthii pctKKl. but wcreomiatrft 
in biiet tbdt 1 Rijght Bot bnaii tike ureid of ihe tftâoq', ti4. 
tlter«fer« will uni; be 0(il|r glanced at. 

Abcui the £ra in cimflion, tbo Ecyptiau Ceuled tlicmfel'O, 
in divcn p«rti of the e^rth. (a|] Tne colony, which Cravfi 
led out uf Egypt, built t^vcUe cittOi or tuthcr To ipany tovcv 
of which he conpoled the kissdotn of Atheni. 

We obfcrvcd, thai the Vothct of Se^o|Ui^ called by tV 
Creslce Dan:ii{F, had fornied a dcligii to murder bim. in hit. 
reiutn ta HgvpC, from hU cooquelb. (a) But being d<fe«t4 
in hi) homd prcijeA. hcu» obliged to fly, Ue thercupu 
Kcired to PeloDOnncfu), where he leiacd upon the kingdom nf 
■AtgtM, which bcca founded nboaf f^ur hundred yean bt^ 
ifirtt by loach u», 

■ (ej Bt-'imtj, biQiher of Amcnophi», fo infamoa) tnocg 
thr ancienia for liii crueitiei. eKcrcifrd hii tyranny at ihitf 
tiraeon ihc batiktof (he Nilei and lurbaroullir che tlic thraitt 
of allforcigotriwho Innded in biï coonlry ; Teû wstprablblf 
during ihe abfcnceof Sdbllrit. 

I/) Atiiqt the fame time, CâJmiu brought from Syria int». 
U'ecce,, ihc iovcnuoo of leitcra, Some pretcad, thai tfaefa 
cbai.iflerx flf letiCM uere Ivgypiiant Ittd iha^Cadnui hlmftlf 
vi»i a native of Egypti ami n"t of Phtsniciat and the Egyp* 
ti«Ti>, whi> iilcribe cp themfclvfi the invention of every aili 
and bonA a greater uotjiiuity ihau nny other natroni gîvt to 
iheii Mivcury. (he honour of invention lettei;s. MoA of th« 
{*] Tjcii. Aan^I..iI. c &g. (/) Ttcii. An. 1. <r. [•■) A. M. M4I. 
In) A M. a5ja. £., A- M. nj). ^j A. M. >s<tV- 

• Lfirhiniur iaJifli twitibiu iti- t vit't r»^ ih nitttii by>f^« ««i* 
*Tit» — h.gj ntlnui nn|n**(t qu»qi I ftl^i^ mtimn, wtiit %H't ■* i»- 
uu'ic \i Nfibotun But poitniU Ro- \,/*'i»' •* 'H' •«•off I* ttrJWrilM 
M'ai ]ubtii;i» — ^(rititf m filltii, [ mJ Xtmifsv^i, 

K I N G S; O F B Q Y P T. 0» 

iBAHied * tgrec» tkat Cadmus carried the Pbcnntcian or Syrian 
kccecs into G.ieecc» and that thofe leucrs were Hebraick ; the 
Ifebrews, as a fmall nuioa,. being corpprebeodcd under the 

Eneral name of Syrians. Jofeph Scaliger, In bis. notes on the 
M'OQÎcon of Eafcbiu», protres, that the G/eek letters, and 
ihoie of the ^tin alphabet (mmcd from thein, derive their 
Miginal ftom tlie ancient Phœniciun Iciicrs, which are tlue 

• frme witH the S^m&ntztit. and were ufed by the Jews befone 
. tlM^Babylonilh captivity. Cadmus carried only iixtecn letters f 
■ Into. Qrcece, eight otbera being added afterward^. 

n\. I return, to the hiftory of the Egyptian kings, whom I Aialli 
]||efi6tf^r rank, in the fjime order with Herodotus. 

(f) P^Ei^N fucGceded Sefodris in bis kingdom» but not in* 
kif glory, (r) Herodotus relates but one o&ion of his, whictt 
•8kw^ how greatly he had degenerated from the religious iên-^ 
timei^ts of. his father. In an extraordinary inundation of the 
Nilea which exceeded eighteen cubits» this prince enraged at 
die. wild, hay ock wiiich.was n^ade by,h, threw a javelin at tLe 
liver», as if he intended thereby to chaftife its infolence ; but. 
Vaa himfelf immediately puniflied for his impiety, if the hi£.. 
•Iprian miiy be credited» with the lofs of fight. 

• (/) Proteus. {; He was of Memphis, where in Herodo- 
|pa*f time,, his temple was Hill (landing» in which was a chapel 
dedicated to Venus the Stranger. It is conjeâured that this. 
Xcnof wsu Helen. l?or».in u^« reign of this monarch» Saris. 


(f) A,M. S547. Ant. J. C. I457* (r) Herod. 1. s. e. 11 1. Diod, J. i« 
1^.54* (') ^* ^' *^^* ^'^^^ J* ^' i^04« Herod. J. ii. e. it2, 129. 

Tbi r$aier him conjuh, tn. tbh 
Mtj^t tV90 Uarn$i dijftrtationt of Abk/ 
HtnsuiUtt ififertei in tbi fécond 'volum* 
^ The hiAory of the «cademy of. in- 

•\ ThtfiMtion Utter t hrougbt by Cëd' 
WfMê into Greece are a, 0, y^ i, g, i» 
«y >, /M, »> 0, fr, p, r* T, u, Pala^ 
meiief, at tbe Jiege of Troy t i. e. uf^ 
Vfûrdt of two hundred and fifty years 
lower loan. Cadmus, added tbe four f^- 
l/wsng, ^, fl, <t>. X* and Simonides. a 
U»g time after, in-v^nted tie fçur others, 
mumrlyt 1», «, i '[> 

I'l don't think myfclf ùhlige4 fo enter. 
here iMtoadiJiuJfion wbjib would be 
attended ViitUytry^ Vphxing diffUuiiiet, 
Ûtou^d I pretend to reconcile thtferiet, or 
JuetiffibH of the kinHf as ^imtn hy lie 
rodotttt, niiitb the opini'.n ff ariLLiftjoff 
i/fher» TbH lufi fuf^pofest with a grat 
w^nyêtbfrUarnti men, that Sifo/hit it 

tbtfon cftbat Egyptian king, wbcftffii.. 
drowned in tbe Red'Sea, vfbofe reign-, 
nvf^ confequently bavi begun in tbe year 
of the world 1^13» emd continued till: 
tb$ year 2547, finte it. lafUd tbirty- 
three years, Should we alkw fift^i 
years to the reign of Pberon bis joitp 
there tuouldfiill he an interval of abovo . 
tnvo hundred years between Pberon and. 
Proteus, who, according to Herodotus 9 
fucceeded immediately tbefirfi\ fince Pro- 
teut livid at the time oftbefitge of Trry, 
which, according to U/ber^ was take/t 
An. Mun. 28.10. I know not whether 
bis almofi total filrnce on the Egyptian 
kings ufter Sefoflris, was fiwing to bit 
fenfe of this difficulty, I [uppofe a long 
interval to have been bettueen Pberoit 
and Proteut ; accordingly Diodorut 
(lib. cliv.) fills it up with a great 
many kingi ; and the fame maft befaieL, 
of fame of tbf following km^t^ 

'Ihc Cinoptck ; ami fmm (bence wm conJn^i^ to fnim a 
Wfmph", nlio rrproiclwd him in the f1r>>nt;rl) wimi fiirU> 
bafe nrriidr (lid cnilt, in (tcnling (he ififeof hit htid, tti 

Vilh h<r ■)! ihr r^iU {d hit liaufe. He addt-d, tlut th< odf 
tnfim why hr did not punifli him wiih dnch {:.» hi» mmtdt» 
fcrv«d) *M, brciufr the Knyptian» did noi ture io imbrw 
Ihaif h.iTiiI* in thr blood lEf Itnngr A ; Th*r he wnatd k««f 
Hilen wiiti ftU ihc rlcbei iKat wf re btt-ught wirti her, râ «ilhr 
la Kflare ihcm to tli<;ir owner : Thai ai Tor him («If (Ptritlk 
Sinft cither (]Uit hii tloniinlori io ihrrC (jny>, nr mptA ta l« 
ire»l«d a* «n enemy. The king't oidrri»»! obeyed Pjrii cb» 
tinofd hii vnyagc. »nd Brrired ai Tmy, « hither he wm cWth 

Îurrued hy the OrcrioB srm)'. The Orccitt lunimnrtnl i)b 
'rojiiti IQ furrendcr Htlen, atid with her, all the uearumtf 
whlchhnhufbsnd had hrrn plumlertd.'ThfTtuiantanrAerH, 
that nfither Hrirn, tfor hrr tirafiife', were in their d(y. 
And indeed w» it it all I'lhely, hy Hrrndtitui, that Prit», 
who wai f<i wife an old prinCe, IIiodIi! ehofr to feu ht> chiMnt 
anil country dL'Uroyïd bcftire hi» eyrt, ratbrr (hin civette 
Greelti ilic juft und rearonalilc (uUhRka ihey defired } Ett 
it was to no patm(e for them ifr afiîmi with an eoth, iht 
Helen wm not in tnrircity ; die Grcekj, bein[> firmly [MrruiM 
rhtt ihey were iritiei) wiih, prt/IRrd fibdinitierv in their M- 
teltef. The deity, cr.niinuet tlic fiimc hirttrian, tieinjf rrl^ltW 
that the Trnjxnti by the total jEttraflign of iheîr city, IftoiM 
icach tticaS'ii^bied wQiId thi> le(!j)ii* : Tiii\t en a ATcaiwtt 

Jtai ATTENritD WiTltAdtilllArAHTiltcnALI-UNItrlUllin 

FROM THE nrrhuDiù caot. Mtnebu), fn his letani frcii 
Trny, culled at tho couri of king I'rutri», who rc!lote4 bin 
Helen with all her tintfH>v. ilcrodniui jiravrs. fmm iuw 
ftOhgti in Homer, that the voyage of ftnt to B^pt wai «ot 
anknown to tliii poet. 

KHAMfiiMiTVi. The trenrury biilt by tbu king, whi 
who w«i the ricbcft oFi^ll hit preJetrfibtt. aod hîi defcmtinm 
kell, ai they arc related by (.') Herodotui, ha"e fo much lit 
air of romaDCe and ËJtion, chut they delcrve no Rieniioa 

I'ilj the reign of ihii kin;, there had heeo fome ibadoWi ai 
leaR, ot ju(l)i;e and roodecation, in E|;ypt i but in the iMt 
Jblttiwing Kignr, violence aiiit ciudtjr viurfci ihcir plarci 


|l) L.II, I. Ml, Mf 

r I N GS OF E G Y P T. ,6$ 

(m) Cuboi>8 and Ce F h re nus» Thefî: two princes^ who 
jiflMrere truly brothers by the fimilitude af their manners, feem 
!|tD kave ftrove which of them Ihould diitinguifh himfelf mofty 
^hf a barefaced impietv towards the gods, and a barbarous in- 
iknmanity toymen. Cheops reigned fifty years, and his brother 
ivCcphrenus fifty- fix years after him» They kept the temples 
:ftot during the whole time of their long reigns ; and forbid 
'.the offering of facrifices under the ferere peaahies» On tke 
;>ather hand, they opprefTed their fubjeds by employing them 
tsin the moft grievous and ufelefs works ; and facrificeid the Hves 
i^Af nnmberlefs multitudes of men, merely to gratify a Isnielefs 
wWnbition, of immortalizing their names by edifices of anenor* 
jltiaous magnitude, and a booTidlefs expence. It is remarkable» 
;!^'^at thofe (lately pyramids, which have fo long been the ad* 
itration of the whole world, were the efie^ of th« irréligion 
^9nd mercilefs cruelty of thofe princes. 

(x) Mycbrinus. He was the fon of Cheops, but of a 

character oppofite to that of his father. So far from walkings 

r- k his fteps, he 'deteiled his condod» and purfued quite 

Î-ëiiBerent meafures. He again opened the temples of the god?» 
Titftored the facrifices, did all that lay in his power to comfort 
I* -àis fubjedts, and make, them forget their pad miferies;; and 
'.-believed himfelf fet over them for no other purpofe bat toex- 
trcife judice, and to make them tafte all the blefiing» of aa 
equitable and peaceful adminiftration. He heard their com» 
'plaints, dried their tears, eafed their mifery, and thought him> 
lelf not (b much the mafter as the father of his people. Thia 
procured him the love of them all. Egypt refounded with his 
praifes, and his name commanded veneration in all place». 

One would naturally have concluded, that fo prodent and 
hnmaiTe a condudl mud have drawn down on Mycerînas- the 
proteélion of the gods. But it happened far otherwife. Hi» 
misfortunes began from the death of a darling and only 
daughter, in whom his whole felicity confifled. He ordered 
extraordinary honours to be paid to her memory, which were 
ftill continued in Herodotus*s time. This hillorian informa 
OS» that in the city of Sais, exquifite odours were burnt,, m 
the day-time, at the tomb of this princefs ; and that it wa» 
illuminated with a lamp by night. 

He was told by an oracle, that his reign would continue but 
(even years. And as he complained of this to the god?, in 
enquiring the reaibn, why fo long and profperous a reign had 
been indulged his father and unele, who were equally cruel 


(») Herod. 1. ii. c. 124^ idS. Dioi, 1. i. p. 57* («^^Ikrcxl. Kii.p, ijçy 
140» Ditd.- 9 5.^ 


«nd iiBPious ; whiift his own, which he hid endette 
carefully to render as équitable and mild as it was pol 
him to doy (hould be fo fliort and unhappy ; he was t< 
that thefe were the very caufes of it. it being the wil 
gods, to opprcrfs and afHiA Egypt, during the fpac 
yrais^ as a puniihment for its crimes; and that h 
which wai appointed like thoi'e of the preceding mo 
be of Au y yi'ars continu:ince, was fiiortened on a( 
his too great Icniiy. Mycerinus likcwife built a pyn 
much interior in dioicn fions to that of his father. 

( y) A} Ycii II. lie encdUd the law relating to loa 
forbid n dm to borrow money, without givine the ( 
of hit father by way of fecurity for it. The Taw ad 
in cafe the fon took, no care to redeem his father's 
rcAoring the loan, both himfelf and his children 
deprived for ever of the rights of fepulture. 

lie valued himfclf for having furpaflfed all hit pn 
by the building a. pyramid of brick, more magnifiée 
king was to be credited, than any hitherto feen. T 
ing infcription, by its founder's order, was engravec 
Compare mk not with pyramids built oi 
which i as much exctv.ll as jupitkr does 


If we fuppofe the fix preceding reigns (the exaf 
of fome of which is not Axed by Herodotas) to have 
one hundred and fevcnty years, there will remain a 
of near three hundred years, to the reign of Sab 
Ethiopian. Jii this interval I ihall place a few circ 
related in holy fcripture. 

I») PuAPAOfi, king of Egypt, gives his daoghti 
riafie to Solomon king of Ifraei ; who received her ii 
of Jerufalcm, called the city of David, tilL he had 
a palace. 

Sesach or Shifhak, otherwife called Sefonchis« 

(a) It was to him, that Jeroboam flcdi to avoid 
of Solomon, who intended to kill him. He abode 
till. Solomon's death, and then returned to Jerufale 
nutting himfelf at the head of the rebels, he won fr 
Loam the fon bf Solomon, ten tribes, over, whom h 
himfelf king. 

(y) Hrrod. 1. ii. c. i^6. (jl) A. M. 1091* Ant. J« C. IC13 
Hi. J. (#) A. M. 301b. Am. J. C. 979. 1 King» li 40. «a 

* 7^# rrmëhder if ihi îmfiFiftwH, \ («r>»>d«c l»{U9«*) "ut V 
01 w* Jad a in Herodotus, îi*~for | which ftuck t6 th(A\; aj 
i«in pluAKÎni; hina Mlei éùmn to the t thil funa, 

bi.uoai of the Iskc, dzcw brklu [. 

] IMG s OF Egypt: ii 

SttM an ikc fiftk year of the reign of Rehoboto»; 

i agatntl Jenifiikni» Mcanie the Jews had tranfmftd 

the Lord, {è) He caoie with twelve huniJred enariott 

r» and ûxty thoa&nd hoife. He bad brought naraberleft 

Uodei of people» who were all * Libyans, Troglodyte 

wiiopians. ne feize^ upon all the ftrongefir cities of JtH 

and advaoced as. far h Jenifalem. Then the king, and 

tincet of Iffael» having humbled themfelves and a&ed the 

îàUn of the God of Iirad ; he told them» by his prophet 

iiah» that Jie would not, hecaufe they hnmbled themfelve»; 

rhcm all as they had defenred ; but that they (hould 

fervants of Çefach : in order that they might Anew tho 

ice of hisfir*vicif mtd thefir*Qice of tb$ kin^tkms #/* A&e f 

_ . Sefach retired from Jerufalem, after haying plundei^ 

r. vcafares of the hoafe of the Lord, and of the king^i 

|c ; he carried off every thing with him, amd evem âlfithè' 

fiMf ff goU ivbitb ^ohm9H tad madt. 
Zbrahi king of Ethiopia, and donbtleft of Bgyçt 
^4ltf fame time, made war upon Afa king of Jadah. Hta 
oonfifted of a million of men; and three hundred chariots 
Afa marched againft him» and drawiffg up his army 
f battle, in full reliance on the God whom he ferved : 
\JjaKAt faya he, it is nothing for thee to help whfther with 
winy» or. with them that havo no power. Hdpuis, Q 
llt^m owr.God» for we reft on Aee» and in thy nawe>^ go^ 
agunft this mnltitode % O Xiord, thon art oor God, let no| 
man prevail againft thee.** A prayer offered up with fnch 
oog nith was heard* God ftrack the Ethiopiana with te^> 
ttvs they fled, and all were irrecovefably defeated, being 
wjf^ned hefin the L^rd^ and hefm bit bûft. 
: ^ {J) Ah Tsis» He was blind, and under his reign 
.* Sabachvs, king of £thie|>ia, being encouraged by an 
oracle, entered Egypt with a numerous army, and • poffefiedt 
Jiimfelf of it. He reigned with great clemency and jufticew 
Inftead o£ patting to death fuch criminab^ as had been fen* 
teaced to die by the judges, he made them repair the caufeys, 
on which the refpe6live cities,, to which they belonged, werr 
fitnated. He bqilt feveral magnificent temples, and among 
die reft, one in the city of Bubafte, of which Herodotus gives 
a long aod elegant defcrîption. Ahtx a reign of fifty, years^ 


{h) A. M. 303 J. Ant.. J. C. 971. 2 Chron. jcU. 1—9. (c) A.M.3o6y 
4^ot. J. C. 74(. xCbron. xiv. 9—13. {d) Herod. 1. ii. cip. 137. Diod«. 

• 7'bt Engjtfi ^^nfan of the BthU | the E»hîopîan«. 
jfiffMplha. Uubiffu, thç Sukkiims, aad | f Qf"* ijf fb* khigdmt of tbof 

66 II r S T O R Y O F T H E 

which was the time nppointod by the oracle, he retired vdIqb* ] 
tarily to his oUI kinj^lom of Kthiopia ; and left the ihronecfli 
I''y»ypt to An\ii>, who, Jurini; this time, hnd concealed bin* | 
felt in the kns. [r) It is lu-lievcd that this Sabachus wasdft 
fame uiih SO. whofc aid was implored by Moflica kin^ol 
Ilriicl, aj^ainll Shalm.inatl'r king ot Afiyria. • 

Sf 1 MON. lie reigned fnirtccn years. 

(/') lie is the fame with Scvechu.^, the Ton of Sabaconec 
Su:tl the F.tMopian, who reigned fo lonp; over Bgyrt. Thil 
prince, i'o far from ditcharf^ing the finuHions of a king, w 
aml)itioiKs of thoi'e of a prioll ; he caufmg himfcif to he cog 
fcc!.tted hi^'h-priell of \ ulcan. Abandoning himfcif cniirel 
to fuperlUtKMj. he nri^li-cled to defend his kingdom by force 
ami;) ; paxinir no re)>.:rd to military men, from a firm pcrfu 
iion thai he tl.ould rever hive occafion for their aflilUncc; 
theivTorc w.i- fo l..r Irvin endeavouring to gain their affeiVic 
thai he deprived them of their privileges, and evendifpoflel 
them of fueh lands, ;is his prcdccrnbrs had given them. 

lie was fo(.n made fenfible of their refentment in a wart 
broke out fuddenly, and from which he delivered himfelffol 
by a miraculous protcdion, if Herodotus may he credit 
who intermixes his account of this war with a great m; 
fabulous particulars. Scnnacharib (fo Mcrodotus calls i 
prince) king of the Arabians and AfTyrianF, having entc 
Kyypt with a numerous army, the Egyptian officers and fold 
rcfufed to mnreh ap.ainll him. The high-priefl of Vul( 
being thu; reduced to the grcateft extremity, had rccourfe 
his god, who bid him nu defpond, but march coura^eo 
ogainll the enemy with the few foldiers he could raife. Set 
obeyed the god. A fmall number of merchants, artific 
and others who were the dreg.s of the populace, joined hi 
and with this handful of mrn, he marched toPclufium, wl 
Scnnacharib had pitvhed his camp. The night fc^îlowinj 
prodigious multitude of rats entered the enemy's camp, 
gnawing ti) pieces all their bow- firings and the thongs ot' t 
jhields, rendered them incapable of making the leall defe 
Being difarmcd in this manner, they were oldiged to iîy ; 
they retreated with the lofs of a great part of their foi 
Sethoii, when h^: returned home, ordered a llarue of bin 
to be fet up in the temple of \"ulcan, holding in his r 
hand a rat, and ihcfi* \s0rd5 ilHiini' i^it of hi» mouth ; 1 

THK MAN WHO «li IIOI. D:. MK 1. 1 A U N TO U li V t R K ^ CK ' 

cons •. 

(e) A, M. ^i-f). Aiit. J. (J. 7i^, z King: xvii. 4. (/) A, M, 3 
Ant. f. C 710, 

K ! N O s O F E G Y P T. «f 

t It very obvious that thit llory, as relAtcd here from Hero- 
liti it an alteration of that which It told in the fécond booic 

^i^S'* ii) ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^» ^^^^^ Sennacharib king of the 
Syrians» having fubdued nil the neighbouring nntiont» and 
led upon all the cities of Judah, reu)lved to bcftcgc Hese- 
ih in Jcrufalem his capital citp". The miniders of this holy 
ig, in fpight of his oppoAtion, and the remoniliatvcei of 

prophet I fdiahi who promifcd them» in God*s mime, » 
t and certain protc^ion» provided they would trull in hint 
y» fent fccretly to the Egyptians and Kthiopiuni for fuccour. 
ctr armies being united, marched (o the relief of Jerufaleni' 
he time appointed, and were met and vanquifhed by the 
yrian in a pitched battle. He purfued them intaEgypt^ 

entirely laid walle the country. At his return from thence» 

verv night before he was to have given a general aflault 
^«ruialcm, which then feemed loiè to all hopes, the dertroy» 

angel made dreadful havock in the camp of the Afly* 
19 1 deftroyed an hundred fourfcore and five thoufand men 
fire and fword i and proved evidently, that they had mat 
!bn to rely, at Hcickiah liad done» on the promife of the 
i of Ifrael. 
Phil it the real faA. But at it wai no wayi honourable to» 

Egyptians, they endeavoured to turn it to their own ad- 
^^S^9 by difguinng and corrupting the circumftancei of it. 
verthelefi the footlleps of thia hiftory, though fo much de- 
ed, ought yet to be highly valued» as coming from an hif» 
Ian of 10 great antiquity and authority as Herodotut. 
The prophet traiuh had foretold, at fevernl timet, that thi» 
lediton of the Egyptians, which had been concerted» fstm^ 
-ly».with fuch ]/rudence, conducted with the greateft fkllU 
1 in which the forces of two powerful empires were united» 
order to relieve the Jcwt, would not only be of no fervire 

Jeruiiilcm, but even dellruiVivc to lip.VPt ilfrlf, whofe 
)n^ctl ciiicit would he taken, and its inhabttant.s of all agca 
\ (exes led into captivity. Sec the iPih, igth, 2oth, 30lh» 
[1, W«'. chapter!» of the fecontî book of Ringn, 
It was doubtlrf-i in i)ûs priioJ, that the luin of the famoui 
y No- A mon * fpokcn ol by the prophet Nahum, happened* 


r# #^7V«. •/(»„•» i h,>"ilr»».! 
I tÊjUrtPéf'ii fihiif iM tie f^l.uftvhftf 

,'»v ff M fir nvifU Jn/'ittr* /^« 
7 /'•./•, t M hat tin^ pUff wh(t t ^hit^nÀfi 

\v4x timt hftit! Vftk,fpt tbn* 'We» 


That prophet fnys, (i&) that Jbe njttas carried away^xk 

jcung chiliren lAurt dajhtd in pitcn at the top of aU the Jit 

that the enemy caft loti for her honourable men^ and that i 

grtut men ivere hound in ehains. He obferves, that all 

misfort lines befcl that city, when Egypt and Ethiopia wi 

finngtb \ which feems to refer clearly enough to the tii 

which we are here fpeaking» when Tharaca and Setboi 

united their forces. However, this opinion is not withoai 

diificuhlcs, and is contradidled by fome learned mei 

fufHccs for me, to have hinted it to the reader. 

(/) Till the reign of Sethon, the Egyptian priefls con 
thrtc hundred and forty-one generations of men ; which 
eleven tlioufand three hundred and forty years ; allowing 
generations to an hundred years. They counted the like 
bcrof piiclh and kin^?;. The- latter, whether gods oi 
had fu* .ecdcd one another without interruption, nnd 
name ui Piromis, an Egyptian word fienifying goc 
virtuous. The Kf-;. P'iin prieds (hewed Heroaotus thre 
d.'cd and forty-on-. v den coloiTal (latnes of chefe Pircn 
laiigcd in order i-^. >. ;reat hall. Such was the folly 
Egyptians, to lof :1' mfelves as it were in a remote ant 
to which no oth^ i ]^ pie pretended. 

(i) Thar AC A. :le it was who j<mied Sethon, w 
Ethiopian arm/. .x> relieve Jerufalem. After the dt 
Sethon, who \:\/\ i'at fourteen years on the throne, 1 
afccndcd it. :.: : reigned eighteen years. He was t 
Ethiopian '''if;-; who reigned in Egypt. 

After ) ir (iw. t-i, the Egyptians, not being able to agre 
the fucc'M' li, were two years in a ftate of anarchy, 
which licrc rverc great diforders and confufions among 


{T. At lail, twelve of the principal noblemen, con 
togctii'.T, fcized upon the kingdom, and divided it into 1 
parts. It was agreed by them» that each fhouîd gov 
owu diQrifl with eqiial power and authority, and that 
fliculd attempt to invade or feize the dominions of a 
They thought it necefTary to make this agreement, and 
it with the mod dreadful oaths, m elude the prediftioi 
oracle, which had foretold, that he among them who 
offer his libation to Vulcan out of a brazen bowl», ihou 

(*) iii. 8. to. (i) Herod. 1. ii. cap. 14*. (A) A. M. 9199. A 
70c. Afric. «pud Synrrl. p. 74. (/) A. M. 3319* Ant. j. C. 6S5 
i. iL capc 147» 15a. Di^. 1. i. p. 5^. 


Ibvereignty of Egypt. They reigned together fifteen yrart 
le otmoft harmony : and to leave a famous monument of 
r concord to pofterity» the^ jointly, and at a common ex- 
*£t built the famous labyrinth» whkh was a pile of build» 
confiding of twelve large palaces, with as màv edifices 
sr ground as appeared above it. 1 have fpoke elfewhere of 

'DC day» as the twelve kings were aflifting at a folemn and 
odical facrifice offered in the temple of Vulcan, the prie^» 
ing prefented each of them a golden bowl for the libation» 
was wanting; when * Pfammetichus, withont any deiign« 
»Ited the want of this bowl with his brazen helmet (foreack 
Bone) and with it performed the ceremony of the libation. 
• accident ftruck tnc reft of the kings, and recalled to their 
BOry the prediction of the oracle above-mentioned. They 
ight it therefore ncceiTary to fecure themfelves from hi» 
oupts, and therefore, witn one confent, banilhed him into 
fenny parts of Egypt. 

kfter Piammetichus bad pafled fome year« there» waiting a 
Mdrble opportunity to revenge himfelf for the affront which 

been put upon nim, a courier brought him advice, that 
ten men were landed 'in Egypt» Thefe were Grecian (bl« 
%, Carians and lonians, who had been caft upon Egypt by 
yrm ; and were compleatly covered with helmets, cuiraffes 

other arms of brafs. Pfammetichtts immediately called to 
id the oracle, which had anfwered him, that he (hould be 
roared by brazen men from the fea-coaft. He did not doubt 

the predi6lion was now fulfilled. He therefore made a 
rtie with thefe ftran^ers ; engaged them with great promifes 
Ray with him ; privately levied other forces ; put thefe 
ieks at their head ) when giving battle to the eleven kings» 
defeated them, and remained fole poftefTor of Egypt. 
'sAMMRTiCHUS. (m) As this prince owcd his prefervation 
he lonians and Carians, he fettled them in hgypt (from 
ich all foreigners hitherto had been excluded;) and, by 
^ning them fuflicient lands and fixed revenues, he made 
m forget their native country. By his order, Ej^yptian chiU 
n were put under their care to learn the Greek tongue; and 
this occafion, and by this means, the Egyptians ocgaa to 
'e a corrcfpondcncc with the Greeks ; and from that iEra, 
Egyptian hiftory, which till then had been intermixed with 
npous fables, by the artifice of the pricds, begins, according 
Hercdotus, to (peak with greater truth and certainty. 


{m) A* M* 3334* Ant. J. C. 670. Herod. 1. ii, c. 15], 154* 

* lit tUâi §nt ef ih liviht^ 


As foon as Pfaninictichus was fettled on the throne, lictt 
g.ijvcJ in uar againtl the king of Aflyria, on acconnt of A 
iiinics of the two empires. This war was of long condnouK 
Kvcr fince Syria had been conquered by the Aflyrians, ! 
K'l'tinc, being the only country chat fepa rated the two kii 
doiris, was the fubjed of continual difcord; as afterwards' 
tu ecu the FLolcmit's and the Seleucidx. They were e 
nail y contending for it, and it was alternately won by 
lUonger. Pfammetichus, feeing hiinfelf the peaceable polli 
of all Egypt, aiid having rcllored the ancient form of gov 
met *, thought it high time for him to look to his fronti 
and to fecure them againll the Ailyrian» his neighbour, w 
power increafcd daily. For this purpofe he entered Pale 
at the head of an army. 

Pel Jiaps we are to refer to the beginning of this war, a 
cidcnt related by (//] Diodorus : That the Egyptians, prov 
to fee the Ci reeks poftod on the right wing by the king hi 
in preference to them, quitted the fervice, they being up^ 
of two hundred thoufand men, and retired into Ethiopia, y 
they met with an advantageous fcttlement. 

(c) Be this as it will, Pfanimetichus entered Paledinc, i 
his careei- was (lopped by Axotus, one of the principal 
of the country, which gave him fo much trouble, that h 
forced to bcfiege it twenty-nine years, before he could ta 
This is the longed fiegc mentioned in ancient hillory. 

I'his was anciently one of the five capital cities of thi 
liftines. The Egyptians, having feixed it fome time b 
had fortified it with fuch care, that it was their ftrongel 
wark on that fide. Nor could Sennacharib enter Egypt, i 
had firll made himfelf mailer of this city, which was 
by Tartan, one of his generals. (/») The AflTyrians hat 
ftficd it hitherto; and it was not till after the long fieg 
now mentioned, that Egypt recovered it. 

In this period, the Scythians leaving the banks of the 
IVla:otis, made ?.n inroad into Media, dcft-atcd Cyaxarc 
king of that cf liinry, and laid wade ail Ufjicr Afia, of 
they kept pollef^ion during tweniy-cii»lit y ars. They f 
their cor.queils in Syria, as far as to the fionticrs of 1- 
Bur Pramriieiichus marching out to meet them, prevailed 
by hi- piL-ftnts and intreaiies, that liicy advanced no faj 
f.nd by that nicans delivered his kingdom from thcfe danj 

(n) Lib. i. p. Ci. (o) Diod. c. 157. (f) Ifa.xx.i. Herod, l.i. 
* 7i is revolution hef^pened about feven yean afur tit ca^tivitj 9/ A. 


g) Till his rei^n^ the Egyptians had imagined themfelvet 
»e the moft ancient nation upon earth. Pfammetichus was 
TOUS to prove this himfclf, and he employed a very extraor- 
ary experiment for this purpofe ; he commanded (if we 
"y credit the relation) two children, newly born of poor pa- 
iUf to be brought up (in the country) in a hovel, that was 
be kept continually inut. They were committed to the care 
a (hepherd, (others fay, of nurfcs, whofe tongues were cut 
fc) who was to feed them with the milk of goats ; and was 
cnmanded not to fufFcr any pcrfun to enter into this hut, nor 
tnfelf to fpeak even a fuigle word in the hearing of thefe 
ildren. At the expiration of two years, as the fhepherd 
II one day coming into the hut to feed thefe children, the]f 
th cried out with nands extended towards their fofter-father» 
ricst bi'ckos. The (hepherd furprisccd to hear a language that 
II quite new to him, but which they repeated frequently 
xrwards, fcnt advice of this to the King, who ordered the 
ildren to be brought bcforehim, in order thathe himfelf might 
witnefs to the truth of what was told him ; and accordingly 
ich of them began, in his prefence, to Hammer out the founas 
ove-mentioncd. Nothine now was wanting but to enquire 
bat nation it was that ufed this word ; and it was found, that 
e Phrygians called bread by this name* From this time they 
sre allowed the honour of antiquity, or rather of pHority, 
bich the Egyptians theinfulves, notwithftnnding their jealoufy 
' it, and the many ages they had pofie/Ted this glory, were 
iliged to nTign to them. As goats were brougnt to thefe 
tildren, in order tlvat they might feed upon their milk, and 
ftorians do not fay that they were denf ; fome arc of opinion, 
at they might have learnt the wordlfeÂ, or liààoi, by mimick- 
g the cry of thofc creatures. 

I'fammetichus died in the 24th ye^r of Jofias king of Judah^ 
id wa.s fucceeded by hib fon Nechao. 

• Necmao. (r) Tiiis prince is often called in fcripturc 

lie aitcinpi'd to join the Nile to the Rcd-Sra, by cutting 
taniil from the one to the other. 'J'hey îire fcparated at the 
dance of at leall a thoufand iiadia | . After an hundred and 


(^) rierod. 1. ii. c. 2, 3. (r) A, M. 8S. Ant. J. C. 616. Hc^rod. I. i, 

• Ih h ealltd Naho in the Eng^IiJ}j 
trfion of tlf ffiptum, 

f j1J.'9W'infr (ji«; frft (nr liç^«- 

ttriCMi pti(tt) to è,uh fljdium, the | the Ferfign^ ^^ XU C. <58« 
fêttci wiii ^# X 18 Englifif miiet^ and 

a little abante one- third of a mil ft 
ïlfKidùiui fay it ff'at this defgn ivat 
uftemoardi put in execution by Daritu 

riicjr fvttir.f{ nut, returned lo V^'^ypt through Û 
itWiiMuT. 'I'hii wki a very extr;&ordinary voyag 
u hi: II UifT (0tnp2ir% wa» not known. It wa» macT 
idituric^ U-forc V'ako (!c iiama» a Portugucfe, 
11.;'^ the Cape of dood Hope, in the year 1407) 
vc r V f.iuie way to r;iil to the Indies, by whicn ih 
h:ul come from thence into the Mediterranean. 

(/; The iSabylonian^ and Mede^ having dcflro; 
and with it the empire ol the Aflyrians, were th( 
{ft formidable, that they drew upon themfelves ll 
;:ll their ijei|',hlx)ur8. Nechao, alarmed at the 
vaiicrd to the Kuphrate», at the head of « powe 
rider to check their progrcTs. Jofiah, king of j 
moui lor hi^ uncommon piety, obferving that he 
ihiou|^h judea, rcfolved lu oppofe hii paffage 
view, he raifrd all the forces of his kingdom, ai 
klf in the valley of Mcgiddo, (a city on this fid 
It}iifMij[r^ tu tlie tribe of MitnalTch, and called 
1 1( lodotuB.) Nechao informed him by a herald, 
U'tpiiy.e W2h not defigned againll him; that he h 
riiic» ill view, and that lie had undertook this 
ii:tnic cif Cîod, who wab with him ; that for thtb 
vif'd Johah not to concern himfelf with this war 
11 olheiwifc should turn 10 UU difadvantage. He 
w.u iiui moved bv llir(c leafbns : he was feniiblc 

IbdiiOj M: ^ irtAorf» condiitted kit iliarcht 

' ^Nhruoed t He defeated tke Bab/- 

I took C^ un» ■ WB aty in diae cotmtiy t *Ad 

to kimftlf ÛM foi by a ftrone tamibiit 

10 hit awtt Ungdofl w j tog been aSienc thieo 

mf Being informed in hU march bomei^ard» that Jehoao 
■tattfed himfelf to be proctaîmed king at Jêrnfalem» with» 
m Mt afcing his confentt he commanded htm to meet 
m Riblah in Syria. Thé unhaop^ prince wai no fooner 
'' dieret bnt he wai pnt in cnams by Nechao^s order» 
tprifixier to Egypt, where he died. From thence par* 
kit march, be came to Jerufalem, nvhere lie gave the 
r to Btialdm (called by him Jehoiakim) another of Jofiah'a 
in the room of hit brother ; and impofed an annual tri« 
on the landj of an hoadred talents of filfer, and one 
of gold*. Thit being done» be returned in triumph to 


Herodotus, mentioning this kihg*s expedition, and ther 
|ojrr gained by him at f M agdolus, (as he caQs it) fays, tbat 
[^onerwards took the city &i4ytif» which ho reprewnti oi 
iMé in the mountains of Palemne, and oonal vs c^nent to 
MBa* the capital at that time not only of Lyâi^M iKit of all 
liiCifMKr: This defcription can Aitonlv jçiMU^^t whidi 
É fitoated in the manner above deferibed, and was theft ,tbo 
1^ city in thofe parts that could be compared to Sardis. It 
poart befides from fcripture, that Nechaqi^ aAcv his vidory, 
m this capital of Judea ; for he was the/f jft perfon, when 
«vo the crown to jehoiakim. The'very name Cadytis, 
feioi in Hebrew fingnifiet tbe Holv, pmnts clearljr to tho 
grof Jerolidem, at is proved by thekaraed dean Pndesiix t* 


Js9 4 B%. nlii. f )• 15. a Ptral. atxvl. t, 4. (ir) Ub* U* c« 159» 
^'ntHértm fimur tslem, aec§rdbig to Dr* CumhrUndf it tfëtpaltnt iê 

ê fid takm âccêrdhf i$ tht fimê • - - $07 ^L 151. 7^.} 

holy city, Ù hurt tbtt titU ufnn the 
(oifii, and thtAtktl «M4 infcribeti Jeru- 
falem Kedumai i. r. jeryfa!»» rbf 
^acttfworjbip tiail Ifraet, bth, jit Itngtb Jtffalimt fir brroUy 
mmdf/Hitgyi/bêdfrmtbtr^ 0/ tbt fskf, wai ùmitted, and tfily KahiAia 
bS h fb^tfitbet Holy, and in tbt rtjtnud, Tbt Syriaek h,vtg the frg. 
i TijUmtm VMS iélltd Alt Htikko- vMling Uniuagt in HtrodoHt't nmf, 
ftt Uutbê €Uy tf btltntfi, §r tbt XUm/>^ ly. s cbênge in that disUn t(^ 

Fe w I, B 

{ frtm tbt timt tbtt Soltmofif hy 

^ rftUn tbt HiPiv «w* vfnvmvfif %/j 

mutf khttmph, bêdmadajtrujûlm 
I tmmtm tlaet&'Kûir&yi to tit Ifi'aeL 


( t; Xabopolafler, king of Babylon, obfendne thatfincetfa 
t.-i!;::i-:; of Carchcmifli by Nechao» all Syxia and Palefiine h» 
r....Ntii 0Û' their allegiance to him ; and that his yean andii 
fi;::.iiicâ would not permit him to march again ft the rebels à 
] V : i\ :. , he tlierefore aflbciated his fon Nabuchodonofbr» or Neba 
« i. ...i.czzar, with him in the empire, and fent him at the hw 
c ! ;.n army into the fe countries, (z) This young prince m< 
c;i:.:\;i the armyof Nechao near the river Euphrates, recovod 
C.ivh.cmiih, and reduced the revolted provinces to their alloi 
• .i.incc, r.s (•:) Jeremiah had foretold. Thus he difpoAU 
ihe E^ypti::ns of all that belonged to them, from the *littk 
(/' ii\Lr of Egypt to the Euphrates, which comprehcodedil 
Svria ar.d Paicltine. 

N«.hao dying after he had reigned fixtten years^ Icftdi 

kin^' Jem to hi& fon 

is ■ %: MIS. (c) His reign was but of fix years, and hituf 
h:i.< lc:i us nothing memorable concerning him, except thiCk 
xii.KJe an expedition into Ethiopia. 

it uas to this prince that the Eleans fent a iplcndid embif/i 
afitr having inlUtuted the Olympick games. They had cfa> 
bliihcd the whole with fuch care, and made fuch excellent M» 
^ulations, that, in their opinion, nothing feemed wanting > 
Their pcrfcdion, and envy itfelf could not find any fault viA 
ihcm. {^) However, they did not defire fo much to havcdi 
epiuion, as to gain the approbation of the Egyptians, whi 
were looked upon as thewifeil and moil judicious people in tkl 
world. Accordingly the king afTembled the ikges ot his ni* 
tion. After all things had been heard, which could be&idil 
favour of this inilitution, the Eleans were aiked, if theddmi 
anii foreigners were admitted indifferently to thefe games î > 
which an Aver was made, that they were open to every oob 
1 o ciiis the Egyptian replied, that the rules of juftice wobU 
have been more (Iriflly obferved, had foreigners only beet; 
admitted to thefe combats; becaufe it was very difficult for dl 
judges, in their award of the victory and the prise, not fiofal 
prejudiced in favour of their fellow- citizens. 


ty) A. M. 3397. Ant. J, C, 6o7« («) Jer. il?i. %, Ibc. (#) sKinl 
«xiv. 7. {à'j A rivo Egypti* (c) A«M. 3404* Ant. J.Ci 6oo» Hook 

1. ii. i. 160. (</) c. 160. 
Ot in'r th, was made Kedutbâ\ and 
iifodctui ft'ifinf it a Greek termination, 
1: "vas ivnt KÂ^rtÇf $r Cadytit, Pri- 
(ieaux's Connection of the Old and 
New Tcfttmcnt, Vol. 1. Pait I. p. 80, 
81. î^vo Edit. 

• Tbii tittle river cf Egypi, fo often 
.Viennoned m J^riftkiey as tbc btundt^y anuiig teem iyhi^ 

9/ Pafo/liMi t&wtrdi Effftp - 
tbe Niie, kut a /mmO rèwtr, fM 
running through tht dtfgrt that I9 ^ 
twxt tbofe two Httkmtt «Mt «aopriji 
the common boundary of étth» So fii 
tbe land, which bud buH /ns^ S 
tbt fofterity ofAbrthmm, niûàk 


ApRisr. (#) In fcriptnre he û called Phanoh-Hoplira ; 
>tod, facceedine hit father Prammis» reigned twenty-fife yean* 
'* Durîiig the nrft years of his reign» he was as happy as any 
^ his predeceilôn. He carried his arms into Cyonis ; befieged 
M^ dty of Sidon by fea and land ; took it, and made hinfcl^ 
«after of all Phœnicia and Paleftine. 
..' So rapid a fuccefs elated his heart to I prodigioos degree^ 
;#ad, as Herodotus informs ns» fwdled him with lomvch pridtf 
ted infataation» that he boaâed» it was not in the power of 
ï^lw gods themfelves to dethrone him t fo great was'the idea he 
JuEd formed to himfelf of the firm eftabulhment of his own 

Ewer. It was with a view to theiê arrogant conceits, that 
ekiel put the vain and impious words following into hia 
^oach : (f) My river is mine oiAmp and I bave made it for ftyfelf^ 
Sat the true God proved to him afterwards that he had M 
Auifter, and that he was a mere man ; and he had threatned 
feim long before, by his prophets, with all the odamities her 
^vaa refolded to bring upon him, in order to punifh him for hif 

^ A little after Hophra had a(cended the throne» Zedekiah {£)^ 
•Idog of Judah, fent an embafly» and concluded t mutual alii- 
«Dce With him ; and the year rollowing, breaking the oath of 
fidelity he had taken to the kingof Babylon> he rebelled openly 
again il him. 

Nocwithilanding God had fi) often forbid his people to haVd 
W courfe to Egypt, or put any confidence in the people of it> 
teitwithftanding che repeated ddamitid in which they had been 
jttirolired, for their having relied on the Egyptians^ they (Ull 
■^MNight this nation their moft fure refuge in danger; and ac^ 
JCOrdingly could not forbear applying to it. This they had 
•already done in the reign of rae ho^ king Hezekiah ; and 
which gave occafion to God^s meflage to his people, by the 
«louth of his prophet Ifaiah {h). ** Wo to them that go dowft 
«• to Egypt for help, and (lay on horfcs and trufl in chariotsit 
V becaufe they are many ; but they look noc unto the holy 
«* One of Ifrael, neither feck the Lord. The Egyptians are 
*' men and not God, and their horfes fieih, not ipirit : whea 
" the Lord (hall ftretch out his hand, both he that helpetk 
^ ihall fall, and he that is holpen fhall fall down, and t .ey 
** fliall fall together." But neither the prophet nor the k'ng 
were heard ; and nothing but the moft fatal experience ould 
•pen their eyes, and make them fee evidently the tru h of 
Cod's threatnings. 

E :t The 

(«) A* M» H'o* Ai't. J. C« 594. Jer» x'iv. 90. Herod. !• ii. c. 16 
Piodi 1» ii. p* 72. {/) xxix. 3. (4) Bsdt« XfUi 15* {h) xx? • j 


if JrttmiiJf t" 


The Jewi bchxred in tbe ««ry fame maanrr on Uiln 
2c<icki3h, DOtwitb Ran ding all the re mon A ran cet of Ji 
to (be contrvy, rdblvcd to conclude an alliance wth ikt 
Egyptian mosaKb, who puflV<i up wiih tlir fuccef* oT U* «Mb 
ébJ coniidcnï ^at noihing coold mîfl tiii pon-er, iethni 
hiatftU (he pnuttor of Kraci, aiMi promifcd to deliver ti fraa 
the tytutny of NtbucV>dciiioror. Bmc God ofTciulcd ikit | 
Bidfial ha<l rhu^ dared lo intruse htaifclf inm hii plicr, t» 

reAcd hi* mtÀaà to anotKer prophet ti rollowi. I'j " Smc^ 
mm, {el ihy face agunfl I'harioh king of Eg} pt, and fr» 
^^ pbef)' azaioil liim, and agaSnft all tgypt. Speak andA». 
** T}iu! faith the Lord God, 3ehoId. 1 am aMinll thee. Fk>- 
•* raoh Icing of Egyçt. the ertat dragon tfauTicth in the nid 
** of bis rivert, which hath faid. My river i* my own, vt 
•■ I have made it for myfelf. But I will p«i boob b 
" ihy iaws," t^-. Ceci, after cocoparing him to a nei 
which Dreak» andrr the man who Icirs Dpon it, aivd oninm 
his band, add», [i) " BeMd, I «ill biing a fword gra 
*' thee, and cut oW man and lieaK out of thee ; the UnJtf 
*' Egypt ^^1 ^ dbfolatc, and (bey fhilt know that 1 an ite 
•• Lord, becaafc he hath faid. The river is mine, andllM 
•• madeit." The fame (/) prophet in fcvcral fuccctdtnf dap 
ten, continues to foricl the calustttes with wlikh Efrpc M 
' going "* I't orefwhelmed. 

Zedekiah «as far horn giving credit to thefe pwdi fttm . 
AVhen he heard of the approacn of the Egyptian aray, mi 
Ciw Nabacbodanofor raile the fie» of Jcrufalcmi be laabel 
that hiidetiverance was compteated, ard anikipatcda trivDft. 
Hit joy, however, was but of fbort duration i for the Ed^ 
tlaiii feeitig the Chsldean» advancing forward again. dioMl 
dare to encounter fo numerom and well-dir^ipliaed an arajr. 
Im) They therefore marched back into their own country, M 
left the unfortunate Zc<iekiah (^ipored to all ibe daneenrfl 
war in which they themfelveji bad involved hitn. NaCuetol» 
nofor again fat down before Jerofalcm i took and burnt it, ■ 
Jeremiah had prophefied. 

In) Many yean after, the chaftifemenu with wtiicllOal 
had threatened Apries ( Pharaoh -Hophra) began to fall «p«i 
him. For (he Cyrenians, a Greek colony, which had fmU 
in Africa, between Libya and Egypt, having fêtaed upon aal 
divided atnong ihemfelver: a great part of the country beleng* 
ing to thcLibyaai; forced thcfc nations, who were lltiu diA 

PI«k. «ilfc a. I. 4. (1} oi«, t, ». (fl Oaf 
A.U M.t. Aot.T.Cjtt. J«.™.li.ll.7. 


;k>JIèflèd by violence, to throw themfelves into the armi of 

Sis prince, and implore his proteâion. Immediately Apries 
Bt % mighty army into Libya, to oppofe the Cyrenian Greeks ; 
lat talis army being entirely defeated and almoft cut to pieces^ 
ifce Egyptians imagined that Apries had fent it into Libya, 
Maly CO get it deftroyed ; and by that means, to attain the 
imver of governing his fubje^s without check or controul. 
Fhis refleûion prompted the Egyptians to (hake off the yoke 
RFliich had been laid ^n them by their prince, whom they now 
soniidered as their enemy. But Apries hearing of the rebel- 
btOB, difpatched Amyûs, one of his officers to fupprefi it» and 
brce the rebels to return to their allegiance. But the moment 
flkmafis began to make his fpeech, they fixed a helmet npoa 
his head, in token of the exalted dignity to which they in- 
feeaded to raife him, and proclaimed him king. Amafis hrar- 
ing sLccepted the crown, (laid with the mutineers, and con* 
Brmed them in their rebellion. 

:" Apries, more exafperated than ever at this news, fent Pater* 
liciius, another of his great officers, and one of* the principal 
lerda of his court, to put Amafis under an arreft, and brine 
Idm befcire him ;^but Paterbemis not being able to execute his 
teounands, and bring away the rebel, as he was furrbunded 
wish the inftrnments of hit treachery, was treated by Apriet 
mt hia return in the meft ignominious and inhuman man«er ; 
far his sofe and ears were cut off by the command of that 
prince, who never confide? ed, that only his want of power had 
■tevenied nis executing his commiffion. Se bloody 4a outrage, 
Smc fo a Derfon of fuch high diRinâion, ex^iperatcd the 
■emtiaas io much, that the greateft part of them joined the 
ieCdif end the infnrreâion became general. Apries was now 
fciced to retire into Upper Egypt* where he fupp<^ted himfelf 
lome yean, during which Amafis enjoyed the reft of his do* 

The troubles which thus diftraâed Egypt, afforded Nabu* 
ekedonofor a favourable opportunity to invade that kingdom | 
sari it was God himfelf infpired him with the refolution. This 
prince, who was the inftrument of God's %rath (though he did 
BOt know himfelf to be fo) againft a people whom he was re- 
irived to chadife, had juft before taken Tyre, where himfelf 
end his army had laboured under incredible difficulties. To 
fccooipenfe their toils, God abandoned Egypt to their arms. 
]| is wonderful to hear the Creator himfelf deliver hia thoughu 
ea this fubjeéL There are few paflages in fcripture more re- 
aaHeable than this, or which give a fironeer idea of the fu« 
premt authority which Godcxereifes ever w the princes and 

S ) kingdomi 


kingdoms of the cmrtli. (o) '* Son of man» (fajrs tbe AV 
'* niig}.:y to bis prophet Ezekiel) Nebuchadnezzar kisg of 
*' BuDvlur. caufed hi& army to ftrvc a great fervicc agaiil 
" Tyius : Lvery head was made bald» and every (houldeniu 
peeled * : Yet bad he no wage;, nor his army, f f*^ ^ 
icrvice he had ferved ag&inft it. Therefore thus faitbtk 
Lc.-J God, Behold 1 will give the land of Egypt untoN^ 
bwchadr.ezzar king of Babylon, and he (hall take hermtil- 
t.Tuiic, ai.d take her fpoil, and take her prey, and itihill 
be the Vi igcs for his army. I have given him the land of 
E[;;. :i for his labour, wherewith he ferved aeainft it» b^ 
Lik'Jz they wrought for nie, faith the Lord God." Saji 
rir.'.iK'jf pr*-; .ct, (/) *' He fhall array himfelf with the line 
*' '-' ^-^><"^> cs a îhepherd putteth on his garment, and ke 
" :: a'.i go forth from thtr.ce in peace." Thu* fliiill be load 
h'.n c!f with booty, and tfius cover his own (houlders, acd 
tl.Mc (S jjii fold, v,îth all :hc fpoils of Kgypt, Noble ex- 
piv.r:.L;! wliich (h(.vv the prodigious eafe with which all tlic 
jo-./cr LPsà riches of a kingdom arecariied away, when God 
aj ]•'.::.:: the rcvoluiicr. ; ai.d Hiift like a garnimt, toaoev 
cri r, who h⣠no more to co but to take it} and cloathhio- 

IC ' > til k«| A ^m 

1 1.: iiin • of Babylon taking advantage therefore of theia- 
t . !:.L- iiviiicns, which the rebellion of Ama/is had occafioncd 
.. .'.;.; ^.:r.;:d^m, marched thither at the head of his army. He 
1-' . ..',.'. j"4'ypt from Migdr 1 or Magdol, a town on the froa- 
:, : <.i 11, a*. f'T as Syere, in the oppcfite extremity where it 
L :...ii on Ethiopia. He made a horrible de vacation where* 
( VI! l:c came; killed a great number of the inhabitants, and 
i.'iwc.e i'uch dreadful havock in the country* that the damage 
could liOt be repaired in forty years. Nabuchodonofor, havinf 
]oad.:d his army with fpoih, and conquered the whole king« 
doin, c;.:i:e to an accoinniodation uiih Amafis; and leaving 
him (lb hi'j viceroy there, returned to Babylon. 


(o) xxix. ]8, TÇy io« (p) Jeren. xliii. i%, 

• Tie LaldntÇi of the hea.-it ef the 
JSahy Uniantf iwai cwing to the prtjj'ure 

t.f il.'.ir hclmtn \ and tifir peel':d 
{:. .'ild'-T'. to tbtir carrying hafl.fti cf 

tartf , and larps piecei of timSer, to 
j'.in *J\re to I Le comment, Baldnejt 
ivat itjrif a badge if /iavery ; and^ 
y^r'ei tij the peeled fliouloers, jbeiui 
liât tit lanqutror^i army Jul jined tv^n 
the m'Jt jefuile lalourt in tbit memorable 

' ^ F^r tbt ketttr underjlanding êj 

tbh paffa^e, tife are tt kmn¥, tbtt 
l^'at'ucb*d^nof>r jufiaified im^rtdiaU. 
bardflfips tit' tb' Jitge of 7yrt ^ éii 
that iL'hen the l^rlar.i Jan» tkimjtiztt 
c/fftfy arret kcd, the nobles tomtmté 
tbtmfehfes, and their ri.beft efiteU, m 
Jbip-board and rtfired into ttter tj/andi» 
So tbdfu:tt.Hi\'akurhotUttoJor tock tli 
cityt be fur.d nubing to rtcomfenfe tit 
ioffn, and the iroubUi te hgd MBderptf 
in tbit jHge, S. Hîcroa. 

1 iNOs OF Botri^^ rr 

AMtkt Hfepkrt) now tcAvbg the place wkere 

iBoièi ■ Blfy ftdtittced towards the fea^coaft 

f'W Id ^ft ;) and hiring an army of Cariarrs^ 

^, and oaher fomgnera» he marched again ft Ama&p; 
tM^^^ht near Mem hia; bot being overcome, Apries; 
^nf pnfiMer; ctrri< to the city of Sms, and there, 
in hia own palace. 
Alndghtjr Ima given» by the month of Jits prophet», an 
ling relation of the feveral clroimftancei of this mighty 
Jt waa he who had broke the povirer of' Apries, which 
lb formidable; and put the fword into the hand gf. 
onoibrt in order that he mi^ht chadife and humoTe: 
fhtr prince, (r^ ** I am, faid he» againft FharaoW 
, of Egypt» and- Will breakhis arms wiikh were ftrong» 
now are broken ; and I will caafe the (Word to faH oui; 
M hia hand.^/) ** But I will ftrengthen the arms of th« 
Idttff of Babylon, and put my fword into his hand.— (/)* 
Am they ihall know that I am the Lord/' 
Hé ennmeratei the towns wliich were to^^AIl a pey to th«, 
tÊon s (e) Pàthrot» Zoan» No, (called in the valgate^lex» 
E^} Sin» Aven» Phibefeth» iic \ 
MBe takea notice particularly of the unhappy end, to winchi 
im- captive king tnonld come. . (x) ** Thus faith the Lord» ' 
fÂmU I will give Pharaoh- Hophra» the king of Egypt». 
I^M'Âe'hand of his enemies» and into thé hand of thron. 
I^aiat ftek his life.*» 

Elf be declares» that during (brty years the Egyptian» 
be.omtflfed with every fpeaes or calamity» and bc^ re- 
' I01O deplorable a ftate, (j) ** Tfiat there (honid b* no^ 
r^ a prince of the land of Egypt.^ The event ver!ii .'d 
i^ptopbecy. Soon after the expiration of thefe fbfty years». 
^^fpt wtw made a province of tne Perfian empire, and ha» 
leca governed ever (ince by foreigners. For iincc the ruin of 
kt Pteriian monarchy, it has been fubjeâ fucccflively to t!le 
HlMedoniana» the Romans, the Saracens» the Mamalukes» andl 
lUy to the Turks» who poflefs it at this day. 

(a^ God waa not lefs punftuel in the accomplishment of hi» 
jbtiphecies» with regard to fuch of his own people», as had re- 

E 4 tixudu 

SM-HlMé. 1, Si. c. i6)» 169. Diod. 1. 1. p.7f • (r) Cxek. mac. is. 
Vw. 14, (r) Ettk. XXX. 15. (») Vor. 14^ 17^ (*) J%rtai[.«Mf. jo^ 
Back. Bxx. 13. (s) Jerem. xliii, xliv. 

* ikêmt ghen the wdmes •/ thifê tgainfi AvtUp Htlh/>9iit \ ttgùnfi Phi^ 
WttmmtitÊyJh»d inourEniljjfb^Hr» Mtb^ Puhifimm {Bwkéft end kf^ 
pM. Ib th« wuripn ûfi printed a^mjf t£«fi lafl nêmu th^ art mentiëtd In r#» 
9aa% TmU i sgmi^ Skn, Ptk/um i lêriginëlM 


tired, contrary to his prohibidon* intoEgypt» after the I 
•f Jerufalem ; and forced Jeremiah along with them, 
inftant they had reached Egypt, and were arrived at Ti 
(Or Tan Is) the prophet, after having hid in their preien 
God's command) ftones in a grotto» which was uti 
king's palace ; he declared to thena, that Nabachodi 
iiould foon arrive in Egypt, and that God would ellabl 
throne in that very place ; that this prince would lay wa 
whole kingdom, ana carry fire and fword into all places 
then^elves ihould fall into the hand of thefe cruel eo 
when one part of them would be maflkcreed, and t) 
lifd captive to Babylon ; that oply a very fmall n 
Should efcape the common defolatioa, and be at laft reftc 
their country. All thefe prophecies had their accomplii 
ia the appointed time. 

(û) Amasis. After the death of Apnea, Amads b 
peaceable poiïefTor of Egypt, and reigned forty years o 
He wof , according to {6) Plato, a native of the city of 

(c) As he was but of mean extra^on, he met with 
fpvO, but was only contemned by his fubjc^ in the begi 
of his reign: He was not infenfible of this i but neven 
thought it his interell to fubdae their tempers by an 
oarrîage, and win their afFeAion by gentlenefs and reafoi 
hud a golden ciller n, in which himfelf, and thofe perfon 
were admitted to his table, u&d to wafh their feet : He t 
it down, and had it cafl into a (latue, and then expofc 
new god to pnblick worfliip. The people hafied in cro 
pay their adoration to the ftatue. The king, havinjg aflc 
the people, informed them of the vile ufet to which this 
had once been put, which neverthelefs had now their rel 
prodrations z The application was eafy, and had the c 
fuccefs ; the people thenceforward paid the king all the i 
that is due to majefly. 

(J) He always ufed to devote the whole morning to p 
affairs, in order to receive petitions, give audience» pros 
fentence, and hold his councils: The reft of the day wai 
to pleafure ; and as Amaiis, in hours of diverfion, wj 
tremely gay, and feemed to carry his mirth beyond due be 
his courtiers took the liberty toreprefent to him the nnfui 
nefs of fuch a behaviour ; when he anfwered, that it v 
impofTible for the mind to be always icrioas and intent 
buiinefs, as for a bow to continue always bent. 

(a) A. M. 34 35. Ant. J. C 569. (S) In Tim. (cj Herod» 1. IT. 
{dj Ibid. cap. 73. 


IMima All kti« who obHftd Ak iRlubiti&ts of tvtrjr lows» 

inr ihtir ^aati in a book kept, by the mâtlftrAto m thtc 

Bftft wkh ibtir piofUbn» and mânotr oflWing. Sotoa 

id tliti eottom «mong hit hwt. 

IniUc many flmnificem tcmpltii oiJi^ially at M% tho 

of hk birth. Htrodotaa admirtd trpcdaUy a cbapti 

^ fbnaad of oat Angle ftonc, and which waa twtaty-OMr 

til * Id front, fearitf n in depth» and eight in height i ite 

nftoni within were not quite fo large : It had beealmmghl 

Blephantlna, and two thoufand men had imiployed threo 

ii in conveying ic along the Nil^* 

kttafii had a great efteem for the Greelei. He granted theafe 

■ privtHgei I and permitted fach of them aa were defirona of 

tu in wpt» to live iii the city of Naiieratlii (b famoui (b# 

ilMMWur. w&en the reboildingot the temple of Delphi, whiok 

* hmn burott was debated pn» and the expence waa com« 

at three hundred orienta t» Amafia farnifiied the Del- 

with a Tory conAderable Aim' towardi difeharging thalt 

which was the fonrth part of the whole charge. 

^Ht made an aUIance with the Cyrenlaati and married • 
■ft ftoa aoMng them. 

S: Ha h ûk$ only Iting of Egypt who eontt^ered Ao ifland of 
EhMroa and maae it mbmary. 

evader hii reign PyAagorai cama faieo Egypt» being recooi^ 
' A 10 that monarch by the fhmoua Polycraleat tyraat of 
» who had contraAed a ftieadflm with Amafie, and wtt 
neatioaed heieafW» Pythagorea» tforing hia itay in Egypt 
Initiated fa all the myfteriei of thecoantry i aari InftracW 
At prtcfta ^ whatevee waa moft abftruA aad imporuat 1w 
idigioa* It wai here he imbibed hIedoAriaa of l^ 
ipfycholh or traaimigraiioa of feak. ^ 

la the exnedirioa ia which Cyraa conqaered ib great a nan 
af the world, Egypt doubtlele wai iabdued, like the reit of 
alia ntovincei \ ana Xeaophon declarea thia in the beginning 
af UeCyroDedia or iaftitmioa of that prince |. Prebably» 
ir that the forty yeara of defohtioni which had been pro>> 
fled by the prophet* were expiredr Egypt beginning gra* 
aally to recover ii(blf, Aaufia ihoali oa tha yokci and re» 
aoverad hi» liberty. 

Accordingly we And, that oaa of the Irft cares of CambyCre 
iha fca of Cyrui» after he had afcead^d iha thcoae» waa to carry 

a Tèê r«Mf it êmMPm é êhUm I *AWfi luifaCAf M M dii^iH^A»» à 




hL> arms into Egypt. On hit arrWal cbcre, Aoufis was jtS 
dead, and fuccceaed by his Ton Pfammenitus. 

{i) PsAMMENiTus. Cambyfesy afterhaving gained a batdct 
purfued the enemy to Memphis ; befieged the city, and (boa 
coolc it : However, he treated the king with clemency, granted 
him his life, and &(Ggned him an honourable penfion ; but 
being informed that he wzs fccrctly concerting meafures to re- 
afcend his throne, he put him todesrth. Pfammenitm reigced 
but fix months : AH Egypt fubmitted Immediately to lU 
viflor. The particulars of this hiftory will be related mon 
at large, when I come to that of Cambyfes. 

Here ends the fucceflica of the Egyptian kings. From tiui 
sera the hiflory of this nation as was before obferved» willbi 
blended with that of the Perfians and Greeks, till the doÂ. 
of Alexander. At that period, a new monarchy will arifeii 
Egypt, founded by Ptolemy the fon of Lagi)s, which will coa- 
ti nue to Cleopatra, that is for abont three hundred years. I 
fhall treat each of tbefe fobjedts, in the feveral periods to«iû()i 
tl)ey belong 

(f) A» M. 3749. Aai. Jm C ^*^. 


V = 



:: — ; r 








fc— ——^1—— ■*———— — ■ I III ■♦ 

t is HALL divide the following hiflory of the Carthaginians: 

' into two parts. In the firil, I (hall give ageneral idea of tb* 

manners of that people,, their charader, government, reli- 

«on» power» and riches. In the fécond, after relating, im 

' Sw wprds» by what fteps Carthage eftablifhéd and enlargedl 

Mto power» I iball give an account of the wars by. wiiidi it 

beoune fo famous. v 





Qmtbûgêfêrmed after the model of Tyre, of ^wbicb that cilj warn 

a colony;, 

TH E Carthaginians were indebted to the Tyn'ans» noCr 
only for their origin,, but their manuers, language,. 
cuftbms, laws, religion ; and their great applicatioa< 
10 commerce, as will appear from every part of the feqaef;. 
They fpoke the fame langUtige with the Tyrians> and thelc the; 
bme with the Canaani tes and Ifraclites, that is> the Hebrew? 
tongue, or at lead a language which is entirely derived fromi 
it« Their names had commonly fome particular meaning :: 
(il) Thus Hanno fign'ified gracious^ bauntifitl\ Dido, amiable ^ or 
nvell helonjed I Sophonilba, one ivho heps fuithfuUy her hujband^s^ 
(écrits. From a fpirit of religion, t6ey Jikevvirc joiued the 
name of God to their own^ conformably to the genius oï the 
Hebrews. Hannibal, which anfwers to Ananias, fignifies Baal 
\pr the Lord} hat bit» gracious tome, Afd tubal, anllvenog l6 
AMli^t» implies the Lord ivill be our j'uccour. Ic is the fnme 

£ 6 witiB 

[a) Bocbut. Fait II. 1. il. c. |6« 


wiKh Other nanet. AdlMbal» Maharbalt MailluialM] 
The Mrd Poeni, fram whkk Pvnick is derived, it tlM 
with Piiœai or Phœnîcbns, bMauft thejr came origintU) 
Phœnicti. In the Poranlai of Plaoc», is a feene writ 
the Punick tongue, which has very mach exercifed thelcsr 
But the Arift anion which alwajrs fubfifted between the 
nicisni and the Carthaginians, u fBll more remarkable, 
Whrn Ctmbyfes had rcTolved to make war upon the 
the Phosnicians, who formed the chief ftrenj^th of hii 
told him plainly, that they conid not ferve him againft 
councrymrn ; and this declaration obliged that prince 
afide his UcfiitQ. The Carthaginians, on their fide, were 
forgetful of the country from whence they came, and to 
they owed their origin. U) They fient regnlarly every ) 
Tyre, a (hip freighted with prefenti, as a qnit-rent or acl 
lcd);incnt paid to their ancient country ; and its tutela 
had an annual iacrifice ofFered to them by tho Carthagi 
who confidercd them at their proteâors. Thoy never tai 
fend thither the firft fruits of their reventes i nor the ti 
the rpoils taken from their enemies, as offerings to Hci 
one of the principal gods of Tyre and Carthage. Th 
rian.1, to fccure from Alexander (who was then Defiegin{ 
citv) what they valued above all things, I mean tnclr 
rhd children, lent them to Carthage, where, at a tin 
the ill habitants of the latter were involved in n furtoui 
they were received and entertained with fiich a kindnel 
gcncrofity ai might be expelled from the moft tende 
opulent parent. Such uninterrupted teftimonief of a 
and fmciTC gratitude» do a nation more honour, than theg 
ion([ue(ls, and the iixoH glorious vidlories. 

S K c T. IT. U%t Rblioion c/ ti^ Cartmaoinia 

IT appear:! i'roni Irvrrsl paflagcs of the hillory of Car 
that its gi'nerals looked upon it as an iadifpenfible di 
begin and end all their cnterprizcs, with the worQiip < 
grds. {J) iJuniilcar, father of the great Hannibal, ' 
he enieted Spain in an hoftile manner, oflêrcd up a facri 
the gods ; and his Ton treading in his Heps, before h 
iipaln» and iiian*hcd again (I Rome, went to Cadis in or 
fuy the vow» he made to ilvrcules ^ and to offer up new 
11» caic that god (hould be propitious to him. (t) Aftc 

(i) Pfrrnd. U iiU c. ir-^Sf. fc) Pol^b. 044. Q^Cuft. I. m^c 

(W) Liv. L \*i, a. I. IbiJ. n. at» («) Liv. I. xxiii. n. 1 1. 

• ràtjtr/l f,'tni êf tèeJSftk éii» tfaitfklid int^ U^ àj Pttit, la ta 
éêtk^f hn MlptlléMiiU 


kude of Cann», when he acqaainted the Carthaginiant with 
the joyful newi, he recomlnended to them abo? e all things the 
cthring up a thank%ivliig to the immortal gods» for the feve* 
ml viôories he had obtamed. Frë kit t^mih Mgut vi^iriii 
want m ifi grant Mit imnêrtalUtu agi haiiriâttt. 

Nor was this religioiis honouring of the deity on all occafioi^»- 
am ambition of particular perfdns only; but wu the genina 
ind difpofition of the whole nation. 

^f) rolybias has tranfmitted to ita. à treaty of peace con^ 
bliMed between Philip» foh of Demetrius kinfl; of Mscedon» 
md the Carthaginians, in which the ^reat reipeéi and vene» 
msion of the latter for the deity» their inherent perfuafion that 
the gods affift and pre£de over human affairs, and pfuticularly 
wwfT the folemn treaties made in their name and prefence» are 
ftfongly difpiayed. Mention is therein made of five or fix 
lUEereat orders of deities ; and this enumeration appears rtry 
ncraordinary in a publick inftmment» fach as a treaty of peace 
Mudiided between two nations. I will here prefimt my reader 
with the very words of the historian» as it will give feme idee 
of the Carthaginian theologr. Thit trtaty nvas conciuJtid im tit 
frqfiniê §/ JnfiUr^ ^vm» ami Jpolh ; tntbtfrtfimt of the danton 
atgittimt {Jialfûm%) oftbt CartkariniatÊtf êfHtntiltt andJolaut ; tk 
Êàê priftmcirf Mart^ Triton^ anIViptwM% in tbtfnfinct of all the- 
tÊmfiékraiê godt oftbg CartbagimoMt ; amdeftbtjim^ tbt moon^ arnt 
tkê nirêb- ; m tbt frefinct §ftbt rivert^ swMr» and wattrt ; in tb§ 
fr^ftnci if aU tUfegodt wbg pêfifi Cartbagt : What would we 
aow fay to an rnftrument of this kind» in which the tutelar 
aneels &nd faints of a kingctom ihoald be introdaced F 

The Carthaginians had two deities» to whom they paid n 
SDOire particularworfhip» and who deierve to have Ame mentio» 
made of them in this place. 

The firft was the goddefs Coeleftis, called likewife Urania or 
the Moon, who was invoked in great calamities, and parttco» 
hurly in droughts^ in order to obtain rain : ig) That very vin* 
gin Cœleftis, favs Tertulliant the promifer of rain, Ifia ipfit 
mirgo eeeleftis flwviarum fêlltciatrix* Tertulltan fpeaking of 
this goddefs and of ^(cnlapius, makes the heathens of thafr 
sige a challenge, which is bofd indeed, bot at the fame time 
very glorious to the caufe of Chridianitv ^ and declares, that 
any Chriilian w4io iirft comes, (haU oblige thefe falfe gods to 
confefs publickly, that they are but devils; and confents that 
this Chriftian fiiould be immediately killtd, if he does not ex-^ 
tort fuch a confei&oa from the nu)ath of thefioigod». f!fifi f9 


(/) I» vil» 1^. 69), Sdlt»OsoBOf • {g) A|olo|. c» aiUi» 



é^mtmi tf/ffi /atrial Chm/liai» wuiairi u 

iUiiCix'^xm fr*fa/iJiMi /atgiiitm /Mmiiie. „, 

wile makci rrri|Hiai mttitioa af thit ■Iciiy. (6) IfSti ii mi» 

Carita^'f Thit w«i iloubiicli the r>n>c deity, whi» (0 
^enniûli hilU f^ fuua V^ ^««v>i «nd who wot held b n 
ibiich (tvurrntn by tlic JcmjIIi wonicu, ihai tbey addrcflcdilAr 
ncciifr, [iourcd am diinlc-ofTrnng*, and 

ukïJ iot tier Willi Uxit own hnmJi, ut fjariaat pU>rmHit rmt 
eccim 1 

; thi}' had tiiltd in iti thty had bees opprem 

Mil i and Irom wV m thrv bn«ittd ijieir hxriDg rcccim ill 
foioner (li, whtlll tbcjr |uid her » rcgutar « " 

with mi^fwtiunt* oj eicry kind. 

Tlie Ictond deity parittrularly adored by ili« Carihij^iaiiUt. 
ud in whoJc hoooiuiiunuo f.icrîAuu were oitërcd, «a* Saiiwiu 
kiiowo lu rciiplsrc by tlic ramc of Molocli i and tbii worlki|k 
failed finn Tyre to Cmthagc. Philo quoiet ii pulTage fra» 
baa dtovuai lion, which fticwt that the king* of Tyic. ta gjai 
daiigrrt, ufv-d to (âciilï^c ibcir Tont to apoctfe the aajtei oftha 

ÎÇkI) 1 asd tbai odo of ibem, by thij aClioiik procurM hinfidt 
îvinc honour*, and wii> warlliipped as a god, under tbc ma» 
of the planet tiniurn: To thU doubtlcfi wit owing the fkUtafi 
6alurn'iil<;v(iunng h t« own children, Particul» peKooViWbn 
they were deCtoui nf averting any great calamity, took ih* 
Cttnc mi'tliuj ) uud in imiiHiion of llieii priocci, were lb Tn]t 
(upi'jllitioun, that Tuch At bad no children, purchalVd tKofeof 
the poor, in Order that they might not be deprived ol the mctit 
of luch 3 faïriftcCi Thia cultam prevailed long imooj^ thft 
Photnicijtit aod Canianitcs, from whom tJie irrae]ite> botrovel 
)[, ttvouch (gitiid cxpreftlji by hcavett. At lîrft children wen 
inhumamy burnt, eiilier in a licry furnxce. like thofn iB Ù» 
valley of Hinrion, \Q often mcnciuncd in fcripture t or in t 
flamiiij; llaiue of Saturn, (rf) The crict of theie unbapy* 
viAiniJ were drowned by the uniiitciruptcd noift ofiirumtaM 
Uumpetd. Mothcri ' made it a merit, and a pait of tLeu M- 
tiginn, to view thU barbarotin fpedadc with dry eyci, ud 
without lb much at a groan ; an<l if a tear or a figh jtole frtm 
iheni, (he fucrifiec wai lefs nccepiable to the deity, aad 
all [he efTeai of U were entirely lo», (/} Thi« ftrenglk 
<tf mind, or rather favage bubarity, wi* c.nrried lofacb bzcmi. 

(1) In Pr>lm ae.It. [i) lei. *il, xl. «lit. i;-*]. (I) ftat. * 
fupvDU.p. iri- (0 TotuJ.^aAfulat. 
• n.«.rAi.ii M ( ^«.( Jxi^il»- i I j-tr. wQulj htM Ixea nolfal |a a, 

Ati.^^t^. &t. ■^.ltnéfUU.f, A»; *<>ifi,Hthitkllim^t»mlm 
•./J...;l»J *j,*.«i«u«««Wft« Uio^!«fc Fliit,d»brM«UM%. 
Wm j é ilea or • tiiir /*ili*^ fitm I ^^ 

CcAit T H A 6 IN IAN S. 

i^f^fintk mothers would endeavour with embraces and kifless 
%^lipAi the cries of their children ; left, had the viâim beea 
mfffnà with an nnbecoming grace» and in the midft of tears» in 
Aoold anger the god : Blanditiis luS ofculis comfrim^m 'uagi^ 
tmh Me iihiUs . b^a zMmolaret^ (m)* They afterwards con-i 
Wittd themlelves with making their children pafs throiigh thQ 
Mf0l, in which they frequently periflied» a^jippears from avérai 
MP^ges of fcripture^ 

(is) The Carthaginians retained the barbarous caftom of 
USeriiig ham^n facnfices to their gods» till the ruin of theiir 
^fXf * ^ An aâion which ought to have been called 4 facrilegs^ 
Qtfiiier tka» a*' iàcrifce. SacriUgium vertus qu^/a^um.. It waa 
^tjpended only for fome years» from the fear they were undei^ 
fK drawing apon theraielves the indignation and anns of Pa^ 
An I. idnç of Perfia, who forbad them the ofering up ot 
koman facnfices» and the eating the fiefli of dogs ; (9) Bu^ 
Bey foon refnmed this horrid pra{^ce» fince» in the reign of* 
ffnfiSf the fuccei^r to Darius^ Gelon the tyrant of Syracufej^ 
iog gained A confiderable vi^ory over the Carthaginians ia 
'1y, fl&ade the following condition among other articles of 
le he granted them» *vi%. That no mon bwnMt/açriJue^JhottUb^ 
rdi^ SatttTH, And donbdefs» the praâice of tKe Carthagi^^ 
kSt çn this very occa&sn» made Gelon ufe this precamionv 

8) For during the whole engagement» which laQted from mpm- 
g dU night» Hamilcar» the fon of Hanno thei^ genera]» was 
■erpetoally o^ering up to the godi» faicri£ces of living men^ 
flio'werç thrown on a Haming pile; and feeing his troop*^ 
Ipqied and. pt^t to flight,^ he hu^elf luihçd i^^ the pile» it^ 


(m) Minut, IcUi;, (n) ^Cort 1. iv* ۥ 5* (a) Piott de fera viadic^ 
tnm, p. 552* (f) Hero3![ U vM. c, iBj* 

* ii ^f^ari from TtrtuUian't ApO' , cur country are noUneJfeSy who Vfêrethtk 
tlg^B f^^ fti' barbartut cuftom pre- I aShr» of ihh execution at the comm^uid 
wmltd in Africa, long after the ruin of \ of thisproconful, TertuU. Apology 

CÊTtàage, Infantes penes Africain. 
Satamo immolabaatur palam ufque 
ad proconfujatuiQ Tiberil^ q.uieoAkm 
fiKCrdotes in eifdem arboribus templi 
l^i obumbraticibi^ik iceleram vaivis 
Crvcibuf expofuit, tefte militia [. ttiiae 
floârae, q^oae id ipfam munus illi pro* 
confuli funAa e4, /. e, chiidrtn xuere 
fruhùckiy facrificed to Saturn, down to 
kba proconfHlfifip of Tiberius, who 
ifamred the facnfifing priefit tbenfjel-ves 
m fht trtet xobiebfbaded their temple y 
m om fo wunj croj/èt, raifed to exptate 
Ijjfàr crjmt, of which, tb^ militia of 

c. 9. lw> Iforned men are at 'variance 
about the proconTul, and the time of ifi^ 
government, oalmufiui confefj'ei bit 
ignorance of both ; but rejets the au.' 
tbority of Scaliger^ who» for procon» 
fulatuin, reads proconfulem Tiberii,^ 
and tbinkt Tertullian, ivben he ivrit. 
bis Apology^ had forgot his name» 
However this be, it is certain that tbei 
memory of the incident here related bjf.^ 
Tertulliany was then recent y and ptO' 
bahly the witntfje^, of if bad not biett; 


•rder that he might not fuirive hi» own diigraoe ; tad t 
tingvifhp fays Ambrofe, fpeakingof chbaftion» widi his 
blood this facrilegtoas fire» whM he fbaad thai it hac 
proved of fervice to him *• 

In times of peflilencc f thef «fed to facrifice a gfeat na 
of children to their gods, unmoved with pity for a tendei 
which excites compafllon in the moft cruel enemiei ; thus 
xng a remedy for their evils in guilt it(élf ; and endeavo: 
to appeafe the gods by the moft fhockine kind of barbari 

{y) Diodorus relates an inftanceof this crueltv which fl 
the reader with horror. At the time that Agatnocles wa: 
going to beAege Carthage, its inhabitants» feeing the < 
mity to which they were rednced, imputed all their misfor 
to the juft anger of Saturn, becaufe that, inflead of off 
up children nobly born, who were ufually facrificed to hii 
had been fraudulently put off with the children of fiave 
foreigners. To atone tor this crime, two hundred childr 
the beft families in Carthage were facrificed ta Saturn g b 
which, upwards of three hundred citizens, from a fen^ of 

fuilt of this pretended crime voluntarily facrificed themfi 
Kodorus adds, that Sarnrn had a brazen ftatoe, the ban 
which were turned downward ; fo that when a child wai 
on them, it dropped imaec&tcly into zn hoHow» when 
a fiery furnace. 

Can this, fays (r) T^otarch, be called wopfhipping the g 
Can we be faid to entertain aa hoftoorable idea of shem, 
fuppofe that they arc pleafed with flaughtcr, thirfty of hi 
blood, and capable of requiring or accepting fiich ofFeri 
(i) Religion, fays this judidous author, is placed bet wee r 
rocks, that are equally dangerous to man, and injurioi 
the deity, I mean impiety and fimerftition. The one, 
an nffcdlatton ef free- thinking, believe» nothing ^ and 
Other, from a blind weaknefs believes all things» Impiet 
rid itfclf of a terror which galls it, denies the very exillen 
the gods : whilft foperftition, to calm its fears,, caprici 
lorges god3, which it makes not only the âieads, but 


if) L»n. p. 756*. (r) De fuperf|îtk>Be, p. 169^17^ (t) Id 
CamiJI. p. 131. 

* In ipfcs quo9 adolebat ft^t pre- 
cipitavit ignes, ut eoa tcI cruoM fuo 
cxiinguerer, quos fibi aihil profiufle 
COgnoverac. S. Amb% 

■f* Cum pefte hborarent cruenta 
ficrorum religtone tc fcelere pro re- 
jnedU ufi funt. Quippe homines at 

yiûiaas iouBoUbaat 4 ]mf9km^^ èi çrtmk 

(quit rtaa etiam hoftiam ini''e 
«Ham profocat) aril ailmovf Inn; 
ceivi deorum fanguine eorum 
/rrntei, pro «piwram vita dii m; 
rogari folent» J^ftin. 1. xviii. 
Tke Cëuli as veli as Gtrmant m 
fmcrific* witu, if Di9yyjùn mid ^ 

. t 

^C TH A 61 NI ANS. tf 

aad modi crioiet* (/) Had it not been better» 

lie ftrdii r, Canhaginiai^ to have bad a Critiaa, a 

p ai leiipen and andifgDiied athofis for ikàr 

\, tbaa fo bare eâabliflicdfe frantick and wicked a re* 

? Coald die iTyphoos and tbe giants» (the open enemiet 

[Odi) bad ihtf sained a viAc^ omr them» hare efta« 

«ore abominable facrificei ? 

were the fcntiments which a headien entertained of 
part of the Carthaginian worihijpu Bat one would fcaroe 
m that mankind were caj^able or fnch madnefrand tttnwfm 
do not generally entertain ideas fo deûruâive of all thoft 
ja wbidi natare cmifi aa moft facred; as to facrita^ 
^■munder their children wicn thdr own own hands ; and to • 
them in cool blood into fiery fomaces ! Sach fentimctota 
lb naaatiiral and barb ras a kind» and yet adopted Iqr 
Unol^nadons» and even b]f thofe that paiTed for civilised» aa 
mm Pheraicians» Carthaginians» Gaols» Scythians» and even 
Wim Greeks and Romans ; and confecrated by cuftom during a 
|b#( feries of ages, can h e been infpired by him only» wha 
rinae a murderer tern the b ling ; and who delights in nê^ 
W>Qg bat the humiliation» ^ jr» and perdition of maiu 

,' 8s CT* Iir. Firm ë/tii GOYE^LViâMT ê/ CKKTUkOEt, 

^W^H S government of Carthage was foanded opon prin^ 

^JL ci[des of the moft confammaie wifdom» and it it wtlli 

iSam that (a) Ariftotk ranks this lepiibHck in tbe nambor of 

jhoie that were bad in the greateft efteem by the andeatSt 

ipdadûdiwasft'tolerveasamodelfbrotheit. Hegronnde 

rVe opinioa on a refleâion» which does great honoor to Car» 

["^agrj by remarkiM» that fipom its fbmidation to his tima 

\ Mil is opwards of £re hundred years) no confiderabk feditioa 

Ipd difturbed the peace» nor any tyrant opprefled the liberty ' 

c!f Carthage. Indeed» mixed governments» Aich as that of 

•Carthage» where the power was divided betwixt die nobles 

and the people» are foojeéi to two inconveniencies ; either of 

degenenting into an abufe of liberty by the feditions of the 

populace» as fireqnentl]^ happened in Athens» and in all the 

Grecian lepublicks ; or into the oppreiBon of the publick liberty 

W the tyranny of the nobles» as in Athens, Syracufe, Corinth» 

Thebes, and Rome itfelf ander Sylla and CscTar. It is there- 

tmt aiving Carthage the higheft praife to obferve, that it had 

Ibond out tbe art» by the wifdom of its laws, and the bar* 

IMny of the diffèrent parts of its government» toihun» darinf 

(/) De foperftjtlonc» (m) thnp.U U^. ii» 


fo lonj; a ferics of years, two rocks that are fo daogeroos» 
ou uhich others fo oi'tcn fplit. 

U were to be wiOied, that fome ancient author had left v 
accurate and regular dercription of thecuilomsand laws of 
famous republick. For want of fome fuch afliftance, wc 
only give our readers a confufed and impcrfcA idea of tl 
by ci»lTecting the fL-veral pafliages which lie Scattered up 
down in authors. Chriftopher Hendrich has obliged the li 
cd world in this particular ; and his * work has been of 
fervice to me. 

(x) The government of Carthage» like that of Spart 
Rome, united three different authorities, which counter| 
and gave mutual affilia nee to one another. Thefe autk< 
were, that of the two fupreme magiftrates called SufTei 
that of the fonate ; and that of the people. There aftei 
was added the tribunal of One Hundred, which had 
credit and inllucnce in the republick. 


The power of the Suffetes was only annual, and the 
thority in Carthage anfwered to that oî the confuls at Ri 
In authors they are frequently called kings, •liflators, c 
bccaufc they exercifcd the fundions of all three. Hiftoi 
not inform us of the manner of their ele£lion« The 
empowered to aflemble the fenate ||, in which they pr 
propofed fubjeds for deliberation, and told the voices \ 
they likewifc prefided in all emergent and dacifive di 
Their authority was not limited to the city, nor confi 
civil affairs : 'Fhey fometimes had the command of the i 
We find, that when their employment of Suffetes ea 
they were made praetors, whofe oâice was coniiderable, i 
empowered them to prefide in fome caufes ; as alfb to p 
and enafl new laws, and call to account the receivers 
publick revenues, as appears from what Livy {y) relate 
ceriiing Hannibal on this head, and which 1 ihall take 
of in the fequcl. 

[x] Polyb. I. vi. p. 493* {y) L. xxtiiu n< 4.6, 4.7 

^ It h entitled. Carthago, five Car- { baiitur. C^r; Nep» inmts A 
thaginenfiiim rt-f^iublica, &c. Franco- 
furti ad Oder^ni, ann. 1664. 

•f I'hit name h derived fn m a word, 
^tkb^ %vith the HtbrfOit and Phteni' 
tiant, fgnijiet judgci. Sophetim. 

X \h RumJe cnn fuies, Ac Cartka J § Cum SuB'etes ^ jut 4i 
ginc quouiioM aoAiû biai le^s creo- I conccdiifent. Id, !• aisiv. ^ 

c. 7* 1b9 great Haimibal < 
one of the Suffcteu 

H Seofttum itaque SoSctii 
«eiut confulare imperium a 
erat, vocaverunt. Ltv. !• xi 


Tie Senate. 


>enate, compofed of perfons who were venerable oir 
of their age» their experience, their birth, their riches, 
ecially their merit, formed the counfel of ilate ; and 
' I may ufe that expreifion, the foul of the publick de- 
ins. Their number is not exactly known : It mnft how* 
re been very great, fince an hundred were feledled from 
in a feparate afTembly, of which I fhall immediately, 
laiion to fpeak. In the fenate, all affairs of confequence 
bated, the letters from generals read, the complaints 
inces. heard, ambaffadors admitted to audiences and 
* war determined, as is feen on many occasions, 
^hen the fentiments and votes were unanimous» the. 
lecided fupremely, and there lay no appeal from it; 
here was a diviiion, and the fenate could not be brought 
reement, the affair was then brought before the people, 
the power of deciding thereby devolved. The reader 
ly perceive the great wifdom of this regulation ; and' 
>pily it was adapted to crufh fa^lions, to produce har« 
wd to enforce and corroborate good comofels ; fuch an 
r being extremely jealous of its authority, and not eafily 
d upon to let it pafs into other hands. Of this v^ 
nemorable inflance in (a) Polybhis, When after the 
tkc-battlei fought in Africa, at the end of the fécond^ 
war, the- condition s of peace offered by the vi£lor, were 
the fenate ; Hannibal, obferving that one of theTenators 

thent, reprèfènted in the ftrongeft terms, that as the> 
F the republick lay at ftakè, it waa of the utmpft im* 
t for the fenators to be unanimous in- their refolntions^ 
mt fnch a debate from coming before the people ; and 
ed his point. This doubtlefs laid the foundation in the - 

of the republick, of the fenate's power, and raifed its 
7 to fo great a height, (è) And the fame author ob- 
in another place ; that whilfl the fenate had the add- 
ition of affairs, the (late was governed with great wit 
nd fuccefsful in all its enterprizes. 

The People. 

pears from every thing related hitherto, that fo low as 
e's time, who gives fo beautiful a draught, and beftows 
e an eulogium on the government of Carthage, the 
fpontaneoufly left the care of publick affairs, and the 


rtft. loc. tit. («] L. XV, p. 706, 707. {h) Polyb. L vi. p. 4941 


chief adminlllration of chem to the fcnate: Andtbisi 
which made the repoblick fo powerful. But thinei d 
«ftcnih'ards. For the people grov^*n inlblcnt by urir 
and con que lis, aud forgetting that they owed chefe Uefli 
the prudent conduâ of the Teoate, were defirous of hi 
ihare in Uie government,» and arrogated to themicWes 
the whole power. From that pericâ the publick liu 
tranfaâed wholly by cabals and faâions ; which P 
iffigns as one of the chief caufes of the rain of Carthi 

The Tribunal of tbt Hukdkbp» 

This was a body compofed of an hundred and fear ' 
though often, for brevity fake» they are called the V 
Thcic, according to Aridotlc, were the fame in Cartha^ 
Ephori in Sparta ; whence it appears, that they were i 
to balance the power of the nobles and fenate : But \ 
difference, that the Ephori were but five in numt 
elected annually ; whereas thefe were perpetual, and < 
wards of an hundred. It is believed, that thefe ce 
are the fame with the hundred judges mentioned bv (< 
who were taken out of the fenate, and appointea tc 
into the conduû of their generals. The exorbitant 
Maeo's family, which, by its engrofling the chief empl 
both of the date and the army, had thereby the fole 
and management of all affairs, gave occafion to this 
nient. It was intended as a curb to the authority 
generals, which, whilft the armies were in the field 
mod boundleis and abfolute ; but, by this inftitntioi 
came fubjed to the laws, by the obligation their 
were under, of giving an account of their aélions bel 
judges, on their return from the campaign, {d) Ih 
ita in bilU imperia cogitwrenty ut d^m jniitia Itgtfyui n 
Of thefe hundred and four Judges, five had a particnl 
didlion foperior to that ot the reft ; but it is not km 
long their authority lafted. This council of five was 
council of ten in the Venetian fenate. A vacancy 
number could be filled by none but themfelves. T 
had the power of chufing thofe who compofed the cc 
the hundred. Their authority was very great» and 
reafon none were eleâed into this office but perfcns ol 
mon merit : And it was not judged proper lo annex m 
or reward to it ; the fingle mouve of trie publick goc 
thought a tie fufficient, to engage honeft men to a conf 

(ff) Im xis, c. !• A. If« 3<09« A, Carth. 487. {i) JviHn 

C A RTH A O IN I A N S. ^1 

fol di&hargc of their duty. U) PolyUag, iiil hit ac* 

the ttking of N^w Carthage by Scipio» cUftinguilhet 

ifo orders of magiilrates eftablimed in Old Carthage |f 

r$, that among the jprifoners taken at New Carthage* 

magiftrates belonging to the body or aflenblv of old 
tiff r^pavUç] ib he calls the council of the hundred | 
» of the fenate [U tni tvyttXnre.] (/) Livy mentioni 

fifteen of the fenators ; but, in another place, hk 
e old men ; and tells us» that thev formed the moA 
; council of the government, and had great authority 
late. * CurthaginUnfes-^Oratons ad poiem petimlam 
iginta feniorum principes* Jd trot fanûiui apui iUu torn» 
uximaque ad ipjum/euatum regendum vis, ^ 

[(hments, though coaliitu ted with thegreateft w93on^ 
afteft harmony of parts, degenerate however infenfiblr 
rder and the moft defboctive licentioufnefs. *The& 
vho by the lawful execution of therr^powerwei»<i 
tranfgreifors, and the gi-eat pillars of juuicei abtting 
loft unlimited authority^ became fo many petty tyraatt* 

fee this verified in the hiilor^ of the great HannibaJj» 
ring hb praetorlhip, after his return^ to Africa (gk 
rail his credit to reform fo horrid an abafe ; and nadt 
rity» which before was perpetual, onlyannwd» aboqi 
Ired years from the firft founding the tribunal ol tlil 


tle,«mong other refle&ions made by him on the govern» 
Carthage, regiarks two great deftds in it, both whkh| 
inton, are repugnant to the views of a wiie lawgivifk 
maxims of good policy. 

rft of thefe defeats was, the invefting the fame perfoa 
èrent employments, which was confidered at Carthagà» 
of of uncommon merit. But Ariftotle thinks thU 
vaûly prejudicial to a community. For, fays this 


• p. S14. Edit. Gronov. (/) L« xivi. n. 51. n. i6» 
308s. A. Carth, 68t. 


Roll in migbe bave taken 
me civii ejicert wb9 were 
St Carthage* with a p^wer- 
f the cenj^t if Rome, tê 
t memmn rf the citixant. 
of tbefê effort têek from 
tie fatètr ef Ua/inibeSt a 
fouti, ttêmêd AJdrubal, en 
iàe» Bmikm vtu tmre 

familier with tbtt youth than wot 
eonfflent with mod^y^ Irat pr«terea 
cum eo [Amilctrt J adolefceoi iUuflris* 
ft formofut HafdriiSal, quein Aoa« 
nulli dilifi turpiot, i]uaiii par erat ab 
Amilcare, loquebantiir-.*Quo fa^m 
•eft at à prcfeAo morom HaCdrubal 
cum eo vetaretur cfle» Cini. Hep» im 
Fits JftmikerU* 

him by lb dilHnguifhing a preference; and alw 
with jcaloufy, Jitconient, and murmurs. 

The fécond defect taken notice of by Ariftotle 
m«MU of Carthage, was, that in order for a ma 
Aril polh, a CCI tain cilate was required (befidc: 
confpicuoui birth.) By which means poverty 
pcrfons of the moll exalted merit» which he < 
great evil in a government. For then, fays h 
wholly difregarded, and money is aD-powerfu 
things are attained by it ; the admiration and d 
ieize and corrupt the whole community. Ad 
when magiHrates and judges are obliged to pav 
their employ ments> they icem to have a righl 

There is not, I believe, one inflance in all antl 
that employments, either in the ftate or the co 
were fold. The cxpence, therefore, which Arij 
here, to raife men to preferments in Carthage» 
be uiidcrilood of the prefcnts that were given, ii 
cure the votes of the e)c£lors ; a pradlicCp as Pol; 
very common at Carthage, where no kind 
judged a difgrace *. It is therefore no wonder» 
Ihould condemn a praflice whofe confequences, î 
may prove fatal to a government. 


Aftte to tke govenunent, inclines them to maintain peace 
1 order in it, and to fupprefs whatever may tend to ieditioa 
1 rebellion* 

Àriftotle» in conclading his reHedions on the repablick of 
ttbage» is much pleafed with a cuilom praétifed in it» ^îz, of 
kding from time to time colonies into different countries ; 
i in this manner» procuring its citizens commodious fettle- 
îats. This provided for the neceifities of the poor, who, 
daily with the rich, are members of the (late ; and it dif- 
irged Carthage of multitudes of lazy indolent people, who 
tc its difgrace, and often, proved dangerous to it : It pre- 
Dted commotions and infurre£lions, by thus removing fuch 
tibns as commonly occafion them ; and who being ever un^ 
y ander their prefent circumilances» are always ready .for 
lovations and tumults. 


I c T, IV. Trade 0/ Carthagb, /^/ /rfi fource êf 

its ^wealth and pon»er, 

"Commerce, flri^tly fpeaking, was the occupation of 
^ Carthage, the particular obje^ of its induftry, and 
peculiar and predominant charaâeriftick. It fornied the 
Wteft ftrength, and the chief fupport of that common- 
alth. In a word, we may afHrm that the power, the 
Bqnefts, the credit, and glory of the Carthaginian*, all 
■led from trade. Situated in the center of the Mediterranean» 
d ftretching out their arms eaftward and weft ward, the extent 
tlieir commerce took in all the known world ; and wafted 
to the coads of Spain, of Mauritania, of Gaul, and beyôad 
Straits and pillars^ of Hercules. They failed to all conn- 
it» in order to buy, at a cheap rate, the fuperflnities of 
ny nation ; which, by the wants of others, became nccei^ 
ies, and thefe they fold to them at the dearell rates. Froan 
jypt the Carthaginians fetched /ine flax, paper, corn, fails 
d cables for (hips ; from the coall of the Red-Sea, fpices, 
inklncenfc, perfumes, gold, pearls, and precious flones ; 
un Tyre and Phœnicia, purple and fcarlet, rich (luffs, ta- 
ftry, coflly furniture, and divers very curious and artificial 
irks; in fine, they fetched from various countries, all things 
It are abfolutely neceffary, or capable of contributing to ea&, 
cnry, and the delights of life. They brought back from the 
sftern parts of the world, in return for the commodities car* 
d thither, iron, tin, lead, and copper: by the fale of 
•iê various commodities, they enriched themfelves at the 

See of all nations ; and put them under a kind of con* 
ion^ which was fo much the furer, as it was fpontaneous. 

3 I» 


In dins becoming tkn fiiAon urf wgtuu of al 
had made themfelvei lorda of the feai die Imi 
die eaft» die weft» and footh logedMr s and die 
of dMir oommanicadon | fi» dSii Caiduge rafe 
mon citY» and dm center of die crade» of nil 
which the fea froarated from one anodicr. ^ 

The moft oonnderable peribnaees of the dty w( 
to trade. Thejr applied themfelfet to it ai mdi 
meancft dtisens ; and their great wealth did i 
lefs in love with the dili^cei patience, and 
nre neceiSirv for the acqoinng tlicta. To this 1 
«rapire of the (ea, the iplendor of their republic 
able to difpnte for the liiperiorit]r with Rome id 
devation of power, which forced the Romani 
bloody and doabtfnl war, for upwards of forty 
to humble and fubdue this haughty rivaU I 
even in its triumphant ftate» t&oueht Carthage 
entirely reduced any other way, uian by depri 
of the beneit of its commerce, by which it hi 
enabled to refift the whole ftrength of that migl 

However, it is no wonder that, as Carthage i 
lier out of the greateft fchool of traffick in tne 
Tyre, ihe IhouTd have been crowned with fndh 
interrupted fuccefs. The very veffels on whic 
had been conveyed into Africa, were afterward 
them in their trade. They began to make fctde: 
coafts of Spain, in thofe ports where they unloac 
Tlie eafe with which they had founded thefe ft 
the conventendes they met with, infpired them \ 
of conquering thofe vaft regions ; and feme tin 
CartJ^^9 or New Carthage, gave dteCarthann 
in that country, almoft equaito that they enjo} 

S a € T. V. ne Minss §/ Spaih, ficmtlfim 

mnd Ptmur of Ck%t H KQZ» 

{h) 7^1 ODOR US juftly remarks, diat the 
JL J mines found by the Carthaginians in 
inexhaoftible fund of wealth, that enabled then 
long wars againll the Romans. The nadves 
ignorant of thefe treafures, (at lead of their 
that lay concealc<l in the bowels of the earth. *! 
r" Tîade t*»c '^îrcovery ; and by bartering fom< 
V . . *-^- •' '• V€'U;« met:. I. which the native 
tv.' i:V i îr.hîÛLC wealth. The 

C Alt T H A GINt ANS. 97 

from AAt eacample» when they oonqoered'tbtt 
; as did the Ronuni afterwardf , when they had dit- 
1 the lacier or it. 
The laboor empbnred to come at thefe mint; and to dig 
)ldandiU?erontof dien» was incredible* Fortheveint 
A metalf rarely appealed on the fqperfides : they were 
fbught Snr, ana trac d tfaroagh frightfol deotht, wher# 
often floodt of water itopped the minerif and feemed to 
t all fntore pnrfaits. Bat avarice ii as patient in under- 
fatigues, as ingénions in finding expedients. By pomps» 
Artnimedes had invented wiien in Egjrpt, the Romaiia 
Is threw np the water ont of thefeioiid of pits» and 
dndned them, Numberiels mnltitodes of flaves perifhed 
''^ mines» which were dog to enrich thdr matters, who 
them with the otmoft mbarity, fiiroed them by heavy 
to labonr, and gave them no rnpite either day or night* 
lyfnns, as quoted by Strabo, fays, that in his time, up* 
of forty thoofand m were employed in the mines near 
'Carth^Êùi and fumi] d the Romans tftry day with 
•five Aonfand drad or eight hundrra fifty-nine 

I, (even fliîllîngs an< nx-oence *. 
>mvft not be furprited to M the Carthaginians, foon after 
\fp€9Èti defeats, (ending freft and numerous armies again 
^ the field ; fitting one mighty fleets, and fupportin^, at a 
"^jexpeace, for many years, wars carried on by them m far* 
It countries. Bnt it mull furprize us, to hear of the Ro- 
4oiDg the iàme ; they whofe revenues were very ioicon- 
ible before thofe ^reat cooquefts, which fubje^ed to them 
mo$ powerful nauons ; and who had no reiources, -titlM^ 
n trade, to which thev were abfolute ftrangers ; or fW>m 
Id or filver mines, whicn were very rarely /bund, in Italy, 
B cafe there were any ; and confequently, the expences of 
Hfliich mud have Aval lowed up all the profit. The Romans, 
n the frugal and fimple life they lead, in their zeal for the 
Miblick welfare, and their love for theii' country, pofiefTed 
hods which were not lefs ready or fecure than thofe of Car* 
Aoage, but at the fame time were far more honourable* 

S E c T. vr. W A a. 

CARTHAGE muftbe confidered as a trading, and at 
the fame time a warlike repubiick. Its genius and the 
sature of iu government led it to trafiick ; and the neccillt^ 
Vol. I. F ^ (lie 

(r) Diod. Hb. iv. pt 311, &c« (i) Lib« Ui. p. 147^ 

• s $,000 dracbmat '•^ An Attick\:^td» \ ^"ii^'fi ffonrv, (onjtjuently 
êrsfkmé, according to Dr. SerMrd\%^tQQOZiZ^r^l, -jt, tdi 


l^e Cwiliagiiiijni were under, firfi of <lcfcodiiigTl__ ,_,.^ 
KgitiiA the neighbouring oitioct, «niJ wfteiwartli a delÎM tl 
cxtepding their commerce »nd empire, led them towir. Tlii 
double idea givei u), in my opinion, the tiuo flan tt>d du. 
nârr of the CsrLhiginian rcpublick. Wc bare aiitaay fp^ 
of iij commerce. 

The Riiliiaiy power of the Cirtfaiginiani cooJîftcd in ihnr 
»!Iiarcci«iiib king» : in iributJtry DJtion», fn ni whieii Aq 
dicw both inen and muncy ; in feme troops uitrJ fivm ano» 
ihdrown ciliien» ; »n(l in inerceniry fnijicripurch^fcdof aciril> 
boaring flatc», without their being oblJEcd to levy oi exttm 
thctn, bcciulê ihty were dlteady well difciplînetl and iitund 
to the fabpueiof war; ihey mating choice, in Gven-caaei.7, 
of fuch foloicri ai bad thegreatcti merit and rcpuiatiôo. 'Tirj 
drew from Namidta, 3 nimble, bold, impctut^m, and ud»- 
fiti^ahlc cavalry, tvhich formed the principal flieogihcfduii 
■fmies ; from ihe Balearian iilci. the rood expert dingen ■ 
the world ; from Spain, a flout and invincible iiifantry ; ùm ^ 
thccoallsof Genoa and G^ul, troops of koown niowr; 4^ -^ 
from Greece itfelf foldieri ÉI for all the variout operaûcM 
of war, for the field or the garrifons, for befirgiog or deftai- 
iog ci lits. 

in this manner the Carthaginia;» fcnt out at once vomtt^ 
trmiei, coDipofcd of Ibldiers which were the flower of all lb 
armies in the univerfe, ivtihout depopdiiing cither tbcii Eddi 
or cities hy new levies j without fufpendiog thcîr manufiflgra, 
or diAurbing the peaceable ariiÉcer; wittiout ir.ierritptingthar 
commerce, or weakening their navy- By venal bleod tb» 
l^nlTeCl'd ihemfelves of provinces and kirgdoms ; aud mtW 

..i :._. the inftrumenis of their grandeur and glory, *>k 

nee of their own, but lh«r ttionry j anâ e«i 
ick they earned on witli fùràfl 

If the Carthaginians, in the courfe ofa war, fullainedfiin 
lolTes, thcic were but s: fo many fortign accident*. wbiciioi!|r 
grazed, as it were, over the body of the Hate, but did R« 
jnake a deep wound in the bowels or heart of the rcpublii 
ThefE lolTcs were fpeedily repaired, by futni ariftng out of i 
flourilhing comaierce, as fioai a perpetual fiuew of war, Vj 
which the government was furnifbed with new fupplies fur tit 
purcbafe of mercenary forces, who were ready ai the 6rtlfiun- 
mons. And from the vaft extent of the coalli ■hich tbsC•^ 
thagioiant poltcired, it waiearyforihcni to 1e*y i» a *vty link 
time, a funcient number of lailors and rowat for thm wDrfcbt 
6 * ^ 


mt their fleets, and to procore able pilots and experienced cap* 
hdos to condilét them. 

fi*' Bttt as thefe parts were fortùitoufly brought together» they 
4id not adhere bv any natoral» intimate, ornecefiary tye. No 
Mmmoa and reciprocal intereft nnited them in fuch a manner, 
ib'SB to form a folid and unalterable body. Not éïSe individuah 
IrfHhefe mercenary armies, wiihed fincerely the profperity of 
tte ftate. Tkey did not aft with the fame seal, nor expo(é 
#eiiifelves to dangers with equal refolutîon, for a republic^ 
flhich they confidered as foreign, and which con^quently was 
ilkUfierent to them, as they would ha^e done for their native 
Aiiintry, whofe happinefs conftitutes that of the feveral mem- 
hen who compofe it« 

V In great reverfes of fortune, the kings (/) iff alliance with 
$nt Carthaginians might eafily be detached from their intereft, 
rithcr by a jealoufy which the grandeur of a more powerful 
lrt£fhboar naturally gives ; or from the hopes of reaping greater 
livantages from a new friend ; or front the' fear of bN^ing in- 
tolved in the misfortunes of an old ally. 
^ -The tribotary nations, being impatient under the weight 
Mid dUgrace of a yoke which had been forced upon their uecks, 
pmaiiy 'flattered themfelvet with the hopes of finding one lefs 
|ftllise inr changing their mailers ; or, in cafe fervitude was 
iMJi^oidable, the choice was indifferent to them, as will appear 
Srom many inftances in the courfe of this hiftory. 

The mercenary forces, accudomed to meafure their fidelity 
faiy the largenefs or continuance of their pay, were ever ready, 
in fhe leau difcontent, or the flighted expectation of a more 
bonfiderable flipend, to defert to the enemy with whom they 
had joft4>efore fought, and to torn their arms againlt thofe 
irlio had invited them to their afliltance* 

Thus the grandeur of the Carthaginians being fuflainedonly 
by thefe foreign fupports, was fliaken to the very foundation 
Hfheti therwere once take away. And if, to this, there hap- 
pened added an interruption of their commerce (by which 
only they fubfifted) arifing from the lofs of a naval engage- 
0ient, they imagined themielves to be on the brink of ruin, 
mnd abandoned theipfelves to defpondency and defpair, as was 
tvidently feen at the end of the aril Punick war. 

Ariflotle, in his treatife where he (hews the advantages and 
defeats of the gover-ment of Carthage, finds no fault with its 
keeping up none but foreign forces ; it is therefore probable, 
that the Carthaginians did not fall into this pra^ice till a long 
time after. But the rebellions which haraflcd Carthage in its 

F 2 later 

W ^ Sj^^tOit and Aîafiniffd, -I * *V^f^ '^ ^ 


].i: r years ou^ht to have Uttght itt citizeas, that no miftrici 
;•( .onip:!ral:lc to thofe of a government which is fapportti 
(•:.'. l\v torcip,ncrs ; iïnce neither zeals fecurity» nor obedienoe 
Cu . 'k' crpeAed from them. 

L.-c was not the cafe with the repnblick of Rome. Ai 
t!-.? Romans hod neither trade nor money, they were not abk 
to hire forces, in order to pnfh on their conquefts with tki 
fame rapidity at the Carthaj^nians : Bat then, as they pro- 
cured every thing from within thcmfclves s and as all the pird 
of the ftate were intimately united ; they had furer refoorca 
in great misfortunes than the Carthaginians. And for this 
rraion, they never once thought of fuing for peace after ùâ 
battle of Canns, as the Carthaginians had done in a Icfs im* 
rnint'nt danger. 

The Carthaginians had bcfides a body of troops, (which 
was not very numerous) levied from among their own citizem: 
and this was a kind of fchool, in which the flower of their 
nobiiicy, and thofe whofe talents and ambition prompted them 
to ci pire to the iirfl dignities, learned the rudiments of the art 
of From among thefe were fele^led all the general ofi- 
ccTs, who were put at the head of the different bodies of theii 
K..'cr5, and had the chief command in the armies. ThisB^ 
non was too jealous and fufpicious to employ foreign generali. 
H:i: thev were not fo diAruilful of their own citizens as Rone 
;.r:(! Arhens ; for che Carthaginians, at the fame time that they them with great power, did not guard againft theabufc 
they might make of it, in order to opprefs their country. 
'.he command of armies was neither annual, nor limited u 
.il. y tinu*, as in the two rcpublicks above-mentioned. Mmj 
friit-iuU held their commiflions for a great number of years. 
(i:;ic'i till the war or their lives ended ; though they were fli! 
.-iccouiiiublc to the comnionwealth for their condudl ; and Habh 
t'i l)c recalled , whenever a real ovcrfight, a misfortune, or th< 
(j]>cjior iiîicicil ui' a cabal, furnifhed an opportunity fer it. 

ÎT c.if 

S E c •^. yU. Arts anii Sciences. 

T cannot be faid that the Carthaginians renounced entire!) 
lory which rcfults from fludy and knowledge. Th 
i....!ini; -t Mafinifla, ion of a powerful king*, thither fo 
( :i .11, s;.v".5U:) luom toLciicve, chat Carthage was providec 
V li» .:! '/M{ ::';î.: iclio')!. (m) The gre..t Hannibal, who ii 
uU rciuch^as an ornament to that city, was not unacquaintec 


(«i) Nepos in vita Aflnibalii* 

C A R T H A G I N I A N 8. /oi 

with polite literatare» at will be feen hereafter, (ft) Mago, 

another very celebrated eeneral, did as much honour to Car- 

fÊÈMge by his pen, at by hi6 vidories. He wrote twenty-eight 

volumes upon huibandry, which the Roman fenate had in fuch 

•fteem» that after the taking of Carthage, when they preferred 

^1^ African princes with the libraries rounded there, (another 

yroof that learning was not entirely baniihed from Cartha(to) 

they gave orders to have thefe books tranilated into Latin *, 

Aoogh Cato had before written books o.n that fubjed. (r) 

There is llill extant a Greek verfion of a treatife drawn up iy 

Ifanno in the Punick tongue, relating to a voyage he made (by 

^der of the fenate) with a coniiderable fleet round Africa»' for 

Ae fettlirig of digèrent colonies in that part of the world. 

This Hanno is believed to be more ancient, than th^t perfoii 

et the fame name, who lived in the time of Agathocles. 

^(f) Clitomachus, called, in the Punick language,, 
ihis a great philofopher. He fucceeded the famous Carneadc*i 
whole difdple he had been ; and maintained in Athens the ho- 
9Dor of the academick fed. f Cicero fays, that he was ^ 
«tore fenûble man, and fonder of lludy than the Carthaginians 
lienerally are. . (^) He compofed feveral books, in one of 
, #hich he drew a piece to confole the unhappy citizeps of 
Carthage» who» by the ruin of their city» were reduced to 
; flavery. 

* I might rank among, or rather place at the head of,, the 
; fttitert who have adorned Africa with their compofitions, the 
.triebrated Terence ; himfelf being iingly capable of reflediug 
: infinite honour on his country by the fame of his produfiiou.s 
; if on thb account Carthage, the place of his birth, ought not 
ID be left confidered as hit country than Ro^e, where he wa^ 
tdocated, and acquired that purity of fiile, that delicacy and 
elegance, which have gained him the admiration of all fuccced* 
ing ages, (r) It is fuppofed, that he was carried off when an 
Infant, or at leafl very young, by the Nuniidians in their xn-^ 
curfions into the Carthaginian territories ; during the war car- 
ried on between thefe two nations» from the condufion of the 
fecond, to the beginning of the third Punick war. He was 
Ibid a flave to Terentius Lucanus, a {^oman fenator, who, 

E 3 after 

(s^ €ic. 1. i. De orat. n. 14.9, Plin. 1. ivîîû c« «. (0) Voff. 
Or. I. iv. {t) Plut. De fort, Alex. p. 328. Utog. Lieit. in 

(f) Tlifc. Q^mA, I. iii. a. 54. (r) Saet, in th. Tcrent. 


^ nêjt bêêkf xoert writ iy Mégo |/ar/^, tb9 Latin toêfméde* 
Iv têt Fmàkk taiÊitmgu amd trsMÉatid | f Cliiomtchus, homo J 
hiê Ontk èf Céjput Dknf/ùn ùfUtka, t ut Foinui te valde Audiofui te 


•firr ([tvlnft him «o evccllrat c(*vciiinit, gave 
RDd f sikij Kim bf liUoAD ntcic-, ta wa* then ihr cùflnn. 
«r*i uniied in a vtij Siifl rrirmlDiiji Miib the ûioc.t; tkàpla 
VkffiianuN, ttii Larllut j ■"<' >' wi ■ voinmun rv^n »i Hunt. 
t)i4i ha bad (h« «Itfhinii- e( ihrTc iwti jtirut men in tiini|>i'(iag 
hi) [ilacc:). The pntt, (a (ai frnm tndrnvoin nj; lo ÂtH* > 
npoti T' lilvincafenui to him, made a mrril al ii. Only ix 
«I hit corut^ir) aie cxcani. BaB\e tuthori, nccorttin); Co !>U- 
icniui, (the wiitcr of hit \Uk) (ny, ihnt in hit triurn TfOB 
Crcecci «'hither he h*d mide a voyage, he lofl 3 bandfetl ud 
eight comediet tranfljied from M<naitdcr, and could tint Tuf- 
vive an sccidtiit which muft HAiurally ifflid^ httn in a fenlitiU 
ntunncr j but ihit incident it not very well founded. HoH'tfti 
ihit bo, he died in the year of Rome 594, und<r the eowraf' 
fhip a( Cncit» Corntliui D(iUbell;i. and M. I-'uI«iii). (£C4 
■ttiily-4vc yriTt, tnd ronfrqarnily »B^ botn amB j6o. 

It muA yti be confr/Tid. noiwiihlUnding all we h»vt hiS, 
Oiat thrre ever wai a real fcarcity of learned tncn in Car- 
thii[;e, Tince !l f^arce lutnilhed three vr (vur unien of rcpucii 
lion in upward* of iêven hundred yrart Aliticugh ib« Cu> 
UiaBiniani held a currerpondcnte kviih Gtciee and the mal 
tivtiined tia:ioni, yet this did nut excite them 10 boiiow fitw 
IriHnin^. u being foreign to their views of trade ajtd «to- 
itirrte. Elcxjucnce, pociry, hidory, fctm lu have liee» liitif 
kno*n among then. A Catlhaginiao philcfophcr wai CO» 
iidcicd ai a fort of prodigy by the learned. Wfuit then wimU 
an allronomcr or a {jcameirluan have been thnu^bi j I liOM 
not in what repiiiaiion phyliclt. which Ii To advanta^coai • 
life, was ai Carthage j or the civil hw. fo ntccflAiv 10 fotit%t. 

Aa work* of wit were ^enualty had in fo ntucn difitsirli 
lh< education of youth mult necenarilv have been very tinprft 
fcdt and unpolilhed. In Cartha|>«, tne llutty and knowlodj* 
of youth were for the moll port ccnfiocd lo «vricing, ariiha»' 
title, book keeping, and the buyina and frllin|t gooili i fni 
word, to whatever related tu iraAick. But (wlitc learnivfi 
hiltory, and phi1ofaj>hy, were In Hltle repute among then. 
Thcfe were in later yeart, even prohiLiited by the lawi, whlA 
rxprertly forbid any Cnrihaginian to learn the Cîrcek longMi 
Irft it might qualify them for carrying on a dangerout eotn- 
Jpundeocs with the enemy, either by Jcticr or woMol'inmith*- 

■ Fiftam hntta» tanrultnin m 1 Inirrprjt» pefltt. Jtfia, t. n. «. 1. 
VÙ> pod» Cirih<cir.|>-Bllt mt Uttm I »-i ^/.-ih- f*< 'mT" •f '*•• '—• 
Cticiiiul htmani Du^n'i no lut I ft a I'tafttUt nrrrffnJri't ImaM 


Now what could be expe&tà from fuch a caft of mind ? ' 
Accordingly, there was never feen among them, that elegaficd 
•f behaviour, that eafe and complacency of manners, am) thofe 
'ftDtimeots of virtue, which are generally the fruits of a liberal 
éducation in all civilized nations. The fmall number of great 
Éaeo, which this nation has produced, mufl therefore nave 
owed their merit to the felicity of their geoius, to the iingu- 
larity of their talents, and a long experience, without an^ 
great affillance from inftruétion. Hence it was, that the merit 
^ the greateft men of Carthage was fullied by great failingr, 
low vices, and cruel paflioDS ; and it is rare to meet with anv 
fohlpicuous virtue among them, without fome blemifh ; with 
any virtueof a noble, generous, and amiable kind* and fnp' 

E^rlted by clear and lading principles, fuch as Is every whe le 
and. among the Greeks and Romans. The reader will per- 
ceive, that There fpeak only of the heathen virtues, and agree- 
able to the idea which the Pagans entertained of them. 
T meet with as few monuments of their (kill in arts of a left 

Kbie and neceifary kind, as painting and fculpture. I find. 
Iced» that thev had plundered the conquered nations of a 
Kieat aaQy worlcs in both thefe kinds : but it does not appear 
at tkey themfelves had produced many« 
From what has been faid, one cannot help concluding, that 
lettfick was the predominant inclination, and the peculiar cha- 
Baâeriftick of the Carthaginians ; that it formed, in a manner, 
ike bafis of the date» the foul of the commonwealth, and the 

Kd fpriog which gave motion to all their enterprises. The 
ba^lnians, in general, were fkilful merchants ; employed 
wtfBlUf^ in traffick ; excited flrongly by the defire of gain» and 
ÉMeaiine nothing but riches ; direfting all their talents, and 
|4aciliff uieir chief glory in amaffing theih, though at the fame 
^'^ chey fcarce knew the ufe for which they were defigned, or 
to afe them in a noble or worthy manner. 

Sa CT. VIII. 7%# Character, Manners, tf«^ Qualities 

0/ thi Carthaginiaks. 

IN the enumeration of the various qualities which Cicero * 
afiigns to different nations, as their diflinguifhing eharae- 
lerifticks, he declares that of the Carthaghiians to be crafv 

' £ 4 (kill» 

émd DktyBni tbt tyrant of ticify ; the 
ftrmrt iy litttri written in Cruk 
{imkiib 0jttrwardi Ml into tke bands of 
ik* Csrtiaginiûnt) baving informed tie 

£iai of tbt v/ar defigned againft bim 
kit country ; ont of batroato Hanno 
gmtrai^ 19 wbm bê wai «a onemy^ 

* Quim volumus licet ipfi n«e 
amemuf, tamen ncc numéro Hifp»* 
not nee robore Callof, nee eallidicac« 
Panos, fed pietare ac religione, Ike* 
omnet itoteioatioaefquefupcraviaiau- 


{kill, ndcUcfs, induftry, cunning, calliditas \ which coubtlefi 
appcûrci! in uar, but was (till more confpicuou5 in the reft of 
tht-ir cv r.ilui^ ; and this was joined to another quality thatbczri 
a\iTy rear relation to it. and is Aill Icfs rcpatablc. Craft 
and cuniiiiig lead naturally to lying, hypccrifv, and breach 
vS {\v\\\ ; ;ind thefe, by acciidrming the mind infenfibly to be 
Ics uiupulou^ with regard to the choice of the means for com- 
p.*r.n^: Its dcfigns, prepare it for the bafeft frauds and ther.ct 
|vrt: Ju i:> actions. Thi.s was a!fo cr.e of the charadleriilicki 
ut t) (- C:.ith;4ginian8 * ; ûnd it wa; fo notorious, that to ficriity 
SkV.y rtn.^fkiihit i^ijhtn:!'h\ it was ul'ual to cail \l Pamek hir:k% 
j.,it* l* ; and to denote a A/i..*i-:/>&, àectttf'ui n',Kû\ no M- 
j •! Hion \^a^ thi ught more proper and exnphatical than taif, a 

Aiî f xctiKvc ihinl liir, ar.J an immocerate Iv'^ve cf pr:£% 
fc. ci-Uy gave occalioi; in Carîhage i:> the coimniiting bnicir.4 
i:i .1 i .iC'.ion5, One finglc txaniplo uill prcvo thi^. In tbe 
c.ii:c . f a truce, grar.icil by Scipio, to the f.iir.eft intreatics of 
V T'^^icinians, ft mc Rom::n vcîTc1>, bting d;ovc by a ftcra 
€'■ I* CI... iff of Carthage, wcie ui/A-d by order of the fcrzH 
ai.v' J to; il f , who could not luiRr fo templing a prey toefcLpf 
\\.v:v. Î hvv were rcfo^'ed i"» ^ct nicnev, though the marrcr 
c I iK^i-.iiir.» It were To f^anùalcus. | The injiabiiantsof 
Cart!i:'gc', even in St. AulHn's lime, (as that fjather inf^^rni 
i.s) n^ovvcd on a panic u'lar occàûcn, that they ilill retained 
parL ot rhif charai^\crililck. 

[s) But thefe were not th( only Mcmifhes and faults of thi 
Cr.iihaginians. They had ft>ir.ething riuflcrc and iavage il 
their ili(pofiti<>n and r,er.iu5, a haughty and Imperious air, X 
fori < f krocity, whicr», in il^ nrft darts, 'was deaf to either 
ronfoii cT reniontlrances, and plunged brutaiiy into the ntmoft 
cxccfl'cs of vioienrc. The p<ople, cr.wardly and grovelirj 
under apprehenfions were fiery and cruel in their tranfports; 


(i) Pliit. Dr giT. Rep. p. -99, 

• Csirîh^jcnifnfc» fiauduknti & 
mri AAtQ-^ntuïùt Br vatVxp xnrca'o- 
run: 3H*enaruTT.quefcrnnonihu8 4d ftu 
(iiwn tail':"ci quvAu* ctipidiuir voca 
Laiitir. Cii,-. crat. ii. iff RmU. n. 94. 

-j Magiltratus frnatum vicatr, po- 
pulus in ciiriar veftibolo frcmere nc 
taiit.i rx ucuht manihufqijr amilterc- 
tur prjrdj. Confenfum eft vt, ftc. 
X.k'. I. «XX. n. t4. 

I yi m^unt thank bad fromifed the 
iitizem cf Cartbjgft to difintr to tiem 
ttiir m.Ji /tit ft tbcugbts, in caf* tttf 

XV "uU .-?/n^, en a day appointe J, ta tt^f 
i-ut. B^ing jU met^ Le in'J them, 'hij I 
tvere dejireui f buy cheap, smj Mi dur. | 
Et'trf wtt/n't cenjcience pleaded ghiby U 
the c':irgei and the mommtelank vii 
diitri[J'e.i \,nttb fipphuje and hnibttr. 
Vili vulti» cmere, & care vendcrr ; in f 
quo diAo Icviifimi fccn ci ommtt ia« | ] 
men confrientiat invenerunt foati , 
eiqiie vira ie lamrn improvifa dicenti * 
admirabili fjf oie plauferunt. S, M* 
gufi* 1, liii. dt Trmit, c. 3, 

C A t'TJKA.OIMI AN€. i^ 

ÙnÊ fade tiiBe tkat thty Ovmbled under thdr maftiftintni* 

were vkcaded m their turn, by their miferable vaiulf • In 

wt fee the.diffinence which éducation makes between one 

ion and another. The Athenianii whofe city was always 

fnfidered at the centre of learning, were naturally jealous of 

authority» and diftcult tp govern; but dill, a fund of 

nature and humanity made them compaffionate the mif- 

ines of others, and be indulgent to the errors of (heir 

»rs. Cleon one' day defired thcaflfembly, in which he pre- 

I, to break up ; becaufe, as he told them, he had a facri- 

^^ 10 offer, and niends to entertain. The peoole only laughed 

-^iho requeft, and immediately feparated. Such a liberty, 
'fkjM Plutarch, at Carthage, wou^d have coft a man his life. 

. .(/) Liyy makes a like refleAion with regard to Terencitit 
{4^arro. That general, being returned to Rome after the battle 
" Cannie, which had been loft by his ill condaû, was met by 
ions of all orders of the ftate, at fome diftance from Rome { 
' thanked by them, for his not hairing defpaired of the com^ 
iwealth I who, fays the hiftorian, had he been a general of 
Carthaginians, muft have expend the moft fevere punifh- 
It» Cet 9 fi Cartbagiminfium iudor fuiffitt nihil ncl^Mium 
^pUciifvnt^ Indeed a. court was eftabliflied at Carthage, 
"^ ere the generals were obliged to give an accoont of their 
iduâ ; and they all were made refponfible for the events of 
III fucoefs was pfiniihed there as a crime againft the 
} and whenever a general loft a battle, he was afmoft {iire« 
|At his return, of ending his life upon a gibbet. Such wasthe 
'Saiioas, cruel, and^barbardus^ifpofitionof theCarthaginiaEnf« 
j^ho were always ready to flied the blood of their citisens ai 
jmII as of foreigners* The unheard-of tortures wl^h they 
^Mule Regulus fuffer, are a manifeft proof of this, aflertion ; 
and their hiftory will furnifti us with fuch infiances of it, as 
not to be read without horror. 


THE interval of time between the foundation of Car- 
thage and its ruin, included feven hundred year;, end 
Itoay be divided into two parts. The Arft, which is much thp 
(aoffcft, and the Icaft known, (as is ordinary with the btgiunings 

F 5 9f 

(r) Lib. KAii. n. «t. 


of ji!l n.itr*.) cxtrnds to the firil Punick war» and ukci Dpfivt 
).iii!.]iitl and fi{>hiyawo ytut%. The fecund, which endue 
t^M! liiiliuctidii of Carthage» contains bu( aa hundred tad 

ti^^ittccn y cat It, 

C H A P. I. 

Tie f ur.da'l'^n of Q .\ % r ii a ^ fi, an J its prùgrefi till the lim 

fj tht Jitft Pmmtk *warm 

(' \ I' 'I* n A Ci F. in Africa was a colony from Tyre, ik 
f '• .: I' i.'V. lu'd city ai that tiineforconimercein the world. 
'J.:i- II..' ' 1./, Irf'v- Taniplanttd another colony in:o thai 
c t:' t;y. .. ! •' u IjuiIi IW.c.i *, made farnnu'^ hy ihcdcâthcf 

tKi' ici 1 Laic), w!i() for this icafon is ^eneralJy called Cato 

I ' : 1 { ' . . fî • . 

Ai:»li«" fWUf^rvf MiTy much wîih rfj^arcf to the aera of thf 
f(ti:. ..i'..t.:i o\ ii.iiii\..yr |*. It 1% v. (lil.'i'.ult mtitter, and nor 
\f-r .- III. ''-r'.il, ((* irconcile the ni ; iA loa'l, a^^ri-eably to lU 
I III !. i ! rldwn hy mc-, it i'^ fiiMuicnt p kn^w, within a fe# 
yc If ., (■■(- iiiiK* ill which that ciiy wa» t uilt. 

('«/ ' .1 ri }>:-.;'« exiileil a little above feven hnndred yean, b 
wn*. >! ::i</Vi'il iindrr th'* coiifiilate of Cn. Lcriiulu«. and L 
Miin.:i>iu-., ih<- ^'1^(1 ycarof Romet .^^',9th of the worM, sr.i 
141; I r I 'if ('i.rin. 'I'lii: foundation of it may thrrefore he ùxtà 
:\i tiic y< .4r ci thr wr.ijd ^icH, when JoaHi wn*. kini{ of Judab* 
()H yraiï before the building of Konit» and 846 before oaf 

l.\j The foundation of Cartha|»c is afcrihrd tu TJifa a I'yriia 
print lis, hitter known by the name of Dido. Itlif#fial, kifg 
ui Tyrt'f and father of the famous Jcxcbcl, caJled in fcri;<tari 



{y) I.iw. E/i». I. n. (») jMfl'n. 1. 
p. I. S(i4b. I. XVII. |i. :ij4. I'4"'r(. I. 

* thii4.'<('»r hi|L'» aii<l.i« iiidyiw, 
aifihir * IM.'ji'i 'iliii-. Ciiii'li'ir , ill 1 
Idioi'iitii .it iiilig'iit, \.yr fuo. Vim 

éf il fum 'u •■ , unil h* I h hui/i I y i^èmtil 
tt'ir I , //•■ /srjt I riêt,%»/Htil hy Léifb'ijfile, 
tie t'-JI iy If. «/•«•« 

I Oui i—init)n»t'* ll'ivwrl §mdea- 

y/o'iit\ In mr.n.t.'r f/r iktrr iftffrremi <!<• 
êÊHifift if the fêunJ.ii^M bj i'arii Jwe tn 
titt /ui/ivury II. iMmrr, H§ J"y*t fl***^ 
»h§ tvivM tin/.Jini if lifrr fatU. vi«. 
€W/i'<ff , or I he f>iii I une hvîhfinj^ 1 aJu i« • 
<*f l« it, wilti ^ MH'^ '* ^*^ 

iviii. c. 4> 5, 6. App. dc tcli'o r..a« 
1. i. 6. 

htin fit ft hut h i Mesura, àuJt «ffff 
an J in reffuft if ('• rfun. • 't/itti tif H*9 
'J'trwrtt ir Kéftihâih ) mm,l Byrjm, w 
ihr tiiitdtl, huilt li^ fof all, uaU fm^ 
b.ihN hy. DUh. 

Cttih^Ht loayt'e tviih .4f*fiam, «mi 
hyiti Jifim )•••/' I hefufi lit i.i^i''/ if 
'Irofi Mf^aiiÊ, ft itrrriff^mti ttfitm I 
In'f'iut, lf'«i /i« // an huiuirgil mnrtf- f 
Jryr yt0H htrr , ">'/«» l9 uj^rtt tlfllè * 
Afrffiin«/rr, f.iii-J ly J^J'f^^*) W^l 
hmilt itn huhdrtil Jutty/ht ytMk êjm 


r^HriUbtaT, was her gicac grandfather. She married her near 
.wiatioa Acerbas» called otherwife Sicharbas and SichaeaSy* 
n extremely rich prince» and Pygmalion king of Tyre-war 
%far brother. This prince having pat Sichsas to death, iiif 
krder that he might have an opportanity to feize hia iniimcnfe 
"^tpeiaTures f Dido elnded the cruel avarice of her brother, hy^ 
[^thdrawing fecretly with all her dead hnfband's poflcffions*^ 
lifter having long wandered, ihe at laH landed on the coailof 
^ihe Mediterranean», in the golph wherp Utica ftoodf and W 
nbe country of Africa, properly facalledi; diftant almoft fif^n' 
f^miles from Tunis, fo famous, at this time, for .its corfairs-^ 
ted there fettled with herfew followers, after haying porchafed* 
Jbtne lands from the inhabitants of thr country f. 
^ Many of the neighbouring people, invited» by the prolpeft 
cf. lucre, repaired thither to fell to thefe foreigners the necef^ 
Aries of life ; and ihortly after incorporated themfelvet witfr* 

Sliem. Thefe inhabitants, who had been' thus gath^ied from* 
ifferent placée, foon grew very numerous. The citizens of 
i0cica coniidering them as their countrymen, and as defcendcd^ 
ïrom the fame common ftock, deputed envoys with very con« 
ji|^derable prefenti, and exhorted them to build à Cjky in the 
jolace whertf they had firft fettled. The natives of the country».. 
ftom*the edecm and reibe£l frequently (hewn to ftran^rs, made 
iShem the like ofiers. Thus all things con(^inng with Dfd6'A 
"^riews, ihe built her city, which was appointed to pay an annual* 
tribute to the Africans, for the ground it ftoodupon ; and called 
Carthada {, or Carxhage, a name tKat,.in the Phodnician aad 
Hebrew tongues (which have a gveat affinity) figni&es the New 
City. It is faid that when the foundation» were dug, a horft'a^ 
fcead was found, which waa-tfaoughta goodemen^ andapre-^ 
^ige of the future wadike genius of that people |^, 

E 67 Thîa 

• izo Stadia, Serab. I. zfv. p. 6S7« 
"f- Somt authors fa^ that Dido pui 

trick on the natives^ by dtfiriMg to this tali of the tbomg is genera!^ #x- 

f4trcbafr of tlim for her iuttnded JettU- 
wuHt^ or.ty fo muihland at en ox s 
m^euld eniompaju Tbt re^uefi was 
êhiugbt too moderate to he denied» She 
tnen cut, the hide into the fmmile/f tbongs ; 
'm»d, wiihtbem, tncompajftd a large 

() FfFodere leco fignuoii qudd regU J«DO. 
jMc:i...-ârar, caput acris equi ; t^ttk nc fore bello 
S^e^iÂis, & facilein viAu per Tecula gentexn. 

Ifl^g^ j£Mé U u )rcr. 447* 


traif ilf^ gnundf on which Jbe iuilt a' 
citadel called fiyrfa, from the bidi^ Mitf 

fkded by the learned j who ohjerve^ 
that the Jiehre^ W0rd Boûra, whieb 
Jhnifes a fort if cation f gave r^ fo tbt 
Greek word Byrfa, wbi^ is tki 
of the citadel of Carthage, 
X KûrtbaHadatb^Hadtba» 


This pnnceff was afterwards courted by larbcs kîngof Gc« 
tulia, an J tbreatcncd \^ith a war in cafe of refufal. Dido, 
who had bound herfclt' by an Oiiih not to confcnt to a fécond 
marriage, being incapable of violating the faith fhc had fwom 
to Sich.TUs, denrcd time for deliberation» and for appea(in| 
the manes of her fitll huiband by facrifice. Having therefore 
ordered a pile to be raifcd, l\\c afcended it ; and drawing out 
a dagger which flic had concealed under her robe, llabbcd her* 
felf with it •. 

Virgil has made a great alteration in this hiftory, by fup- 
pofing that JEncMt his hero, was cotcmporary \iith Diuo, 
though there was an interval of near three centuries between 
the one and the other ; the a:ra of the building of Cariha^ 
bring fixed three hundred years lower than the deilruflioc of 
Troy. This liberty is very excufable in a poet, who i.^ net 
tied to the fcrupulous accuracy of an hiftorian ; wc admire, 
with great rrafon, the judgment he has (hewn in his pUn, 
when, to affeé^ the Romans the more, (for whom he wrote) 
with his fubjc^, he has the art of introducing into it the im- 
placable hatred which fubfifted between Carthage and Rome, 
and ingcnioufly deduces the original of it from the very remcx 
foundation of thofc two rival cities, 

Carthage, whofe beginnings, as we have obferved, wrre 
very weak, grew larger by infenfible degrees» where i: uaa 


Vbe TjfrUnt hndini mar tbh hdy grcyni^ 

Jtitd digging bertt a prcJp*tout emtnffundi 

From undtr earth a umrftrt beadthty dri^o, 

*rbtir gro^vtb smd futurt fwtuM* tùf*rtjhtvt i 

'2 his fated jign tbetr founUriJ'i Jtno gtve^ 

Of a jùl fruitful^ and a people b rave, D > y d I K . 

^ Ibc ftcry^ at it h tctd more at 

lar/i^r in 'JkJIin, (I. xvîii. C 6.) « tlis 

— /.if/-.n, king cf tbe MaurhanianSf 

ftnd.r.g fjr ten (f tbe print ipal Cattba- 

f'.iiar\ demanded lUdo in martioge^ 

ibr:,it.*i.r.^i to ,i*\hre «'jr agxiinji ber 

fi ...'. 7 i7 ttfuitil\ the timh.tjJUdori 

f'trp^ ..•..■•./ to del: iff ibt fr.ejjage of 

îariu.t tjd Itr , [^tvi.'bVuiùcU, honcOy) 

that lie \\.iii.rii to hj«c fome prilon 

irnt iiim, who was cipable of civi- 

l:/!'n^' .ind polifhing htn^frlf and hi$ 

>\'i i-.«ns ; but thai there was no I'ol' 

iàh'.l.ty cf fîiiiiini^ any Oanhjgitiian, 

who would hr willing to qiiti his na 

ti\( I'acc kiui Uindred, tiT tiir lon 

*■ ifa Ion r( T-arlurian», who «^rit a» 

'lavage as ihe wiidcA beails. IJere the 

fueen with iadignatiçm intertnpri 
tbem, and afiting^ il ihry were t<>( 
afliamed to lefule living in ary irijn* 
ner, which might he bcneiiiij! 10 
their country, to which tlicv vwi 
even their livci: 'I hey them delivtui 
the king's méjuge ; and fid »er ici then 
à paitein, and facrifice herfclt* to he? 
country '• welfare. Dido beirg tht» 
enjnaredf talhd en Si^bérns xviib t<M 
and lamentations^ and anfwered, tbst 
fhe wouM (o v^here thrf'tr of ^n 
city called, /it tbe exftration ef ikftt 
tncntbtt /be afantUd tbe j ti,e; sni 
tvitb ber hfi ète.t'b tell tiy ftr^jfu jht ii'«ij g^i'fg t9 hir bajland éi 
tt-.y tad ordind btr% 

e A l:TH A GI^ I AN'8.* ^^9 

0mni$d:. But ill /icHiitBkMi urai not long confined tb Afndk* 
STbo tnhabiuntf of this «mbidous cny, extended their ooQ(|iièfii 
pJMK)E«irg]^, by invading Sardinia, ièmnf agréât part of ^icify» 
/|id#edacipg alftoft ail Sf^in ; and bavang fest jpowerfol colo« 
j|iif>6very where^ they enjoyed the empine of the ftat for moM 
Hen fix hundred yeart ; and formed a ttato wfiich was able 19 
^É^Qte. pre-eminence with the greateft empires of the world» 
ilgr their weaUhf their commerce, iheir numerous arn^ieit their 
ffeamidable fleets, and above ail, the courage and ability of 
jOusir caotains. The dates and circumftancet of many of diefii 
dlUMuelts are little Icnown. I.ihali cake but a tranfient hotite 
it them, in order to enable my readers to form fome idea of 
tke countries,' which will be often mentioned in the courfe of 
^ji hiApfy» / 


CcnqueJIs of thi Carthaginians in Africa. ., 

; ij) The firft wars made by the Carthaj^inians, wepe to fiy 
Jdicmfelves from the annual tribute whioh they had engaged 10 
•ay the Africans, for the land thefe had permitted them t0 
pitfle in. This conduct Joes them so honour, as the fettlemeoc 
was granted thcni, upon condition of their paying a tribute* 
One would be apt to imagine, that they were defiroos of cover- 
ing the obfcurity of their original, by aboliihing thil proofs 
it. But thoy were not fucceinful on this occafion. The Afri- 
cans had judicc on their fitie, and they profpered accordingly* 
the war being terminated by the payment of the tribute. 

(«) The Carthaginians afterwards carried their arms aeainft 
the Moors and Numidians, »nd won conquefts . from DOth* 
Being now emboldened by thefe happy fuccefies, they (hook 
o^ entirely the tribute which gave fo much uneafinefs'*» and 
jToflened tncmfelvcs of a great part of Africa. ' 

(a) About this time there ârofe a great difpute between Car» 
thage and Cyrenc, on account of their refpcAive limits* 
Cyrette was a very powerful ci/y, fituaied on the Mediterranean, 
towards the greater Syrci.^, and had been built by Battus the 

It wai agreed on each fide, that two young men fliould fet 
out at the ume time, from either ciry ; and that the place of 
their jmeetiog fliould he the common boundary of both Aates. 
The Carthaginians (thefc were two brothers named Philarni) 


(jr) Joilin. I. viv. r. i. T») Ibid. c. i* (a) Saljuft de bdlo Jugurth* 
m. 77. Valer. Max« I. v. c 6. 

* Alrl coaipuia aupinUittm uibii coadits Ctrtbsainltafibus ftmittert» 
Jufim, !• six, c. 1, 


made the mod hade ; and their anugonxfts pretendiog tbtf 
foul play had been ufedi and that thefe two brothers above- 
ricntinneJ, had fet out before the time appointed, refttfed 
to iland to the agreement, nitlefs the two brothers (to le- 
mofe all fufpicion of their unfair dealing) wouhi confent to be 
buried alive in the place where they had met. They acqaiefced 
with the propcfal, and the Carthaginians erefted, C'.t thatfpoi^ 
two altars to their memories, and paid them i!i*'Ine honours ia. 
their city ; and from that time, the place wis called the altars 
of the Phllrni, Ara: Philarnorum*, and fcrv*:d as the boundary 
of the Carthaginian empire, which extended from theccet»*. 
the pillars of Hercules. 

CoKquefis ofthd CarthaciniaicsiVSa rdinia, ^t, 

Hidory Joes not inform us exaÛly, either of the time wlijn 
the Caithaninians entered Sardinia, or of the manner they got 
poircfiion ot it. {h) This ifland was of great ufe to them: 
and, during all their *Aars K';'piicd them abundantly with 
provifions. It is feparate ; fruukCorftca by a lirait of about 
three leagues over. The metropolis of the (bjthcrn and aol 
fertile part of it, was Caralis or Calaris^ now called Cagliari^ 
On the arrival of the Carthaginians, the natives withdrew to 
the mcufitains in the northern parts of the ifland, which are 
atmoft inacceflible, and whence the enemy couKi v.ot diflc/ge 

The Carthaginians fcized likewifeon the E;. !<??.• ■-, rowcaPed 
Majorca and Minorca. Port Ma^^on, in thr.* ■;•.:•. . flanc, vva 
fo called from Mago, a Carthcinii:i:in gent"..\', whj firU -mat 
ufe of, and fortified it. [c) It is not known u ho thi^ M^ga 
was ; hut it is very probable that he was Hai.iiihal's brother» 
This harbour i*^, at chi^day, oue of the molt confide:.tble io- 
the Mediterranean. 

(</) Thtfc iHanJs furnifhfd tne Carthaginians wîl*» thr moft 
expert (lingers in the world, who d,\l them grep.t fervicr in 
buttles and lieges They Hung large Hones of .ib^vc a pt und 
weight ; and lometimes threw leaden bullets f witn fo much 


(h) Sfrab. I. T. p. 214.. DÎ CÎ. I. v. p. 296. ^-) LW, 1, uviii. a. jj, 

((/} Oiod. 1. V. n. 293. and 1. xit. p. 7^1, Liv. <«co citato. 

• Tltje piiUrt •werr 'A jïi.,.,\:7 \n \ \ L.-uuefclt eicufTa ^lans fun*^' 
Straboi ivi:e. So:, C\ ^r^^i-fn '..■■„- j at attritu afti.' \c]\xt iriie, oift" 
jircadlt ti he :br .ity id: i was n- ) i. e, Tkt ball, wbtu shvnfn fr 
tien:fy loliei* Fbii^norun* Atr ; fut \ Jlir.v, tjij/olvet . ami, by the f ■ 
utters htn^.e it loai Nafi ur ^lon I 'L- ,iir, runs ai if it n»ai m. . . ^.i^ 
ftuattd a liiiU "Meft of jircttiiia, in- tit. . icacc. QnaeA» Nat« !• lit C, ^/. 
gulib of HiJra. [ 


^^vidlence» that th^ would pierct even the ftrongeft helniets> 

l^wMs, amd tuira&»; and were fo dextrous iu their aim, that 

4lMqr fcarce ever mi&d the blow. The inhabitants of thefe 

^itiiida were accnftotned» from their infancy, to handle thr 

.^ttng ; for which purpofe their mothers placed^ on the bougk, 

•^ a high tree», the piece of bread deûgned for their children*» 

tnesk^m; who were sot allowed a triorfel, till they had. 

'ftipaeht it down with their flings, {e) From this pradtice thefb 

fflands were called Baléares and Gymnafiae by the Greeks ; 

hecaufe the inhabitants ufed to exercife themfelves fo early iiv 

fiaging of ftones *.. 

Cottqmejls of the. Ci^itTHAGiMiANS in Sfain, 

Before I enter on the relation of thefe conquefts, I believe i^ 
iHU be proper to çive my readers fome idea of Spain. 

if) Spain is divided into three parts» Bœtica, Lufîtaniaj^ 

» Bœticay fo called from the river Bcitis {g)^ was the fouthem 
^iriiion of «r, and comprehended the prefent kingdom of 
tB^anada, Andalufia» part of New Caftile, and Eilremadura». 
Ciadiz» called by the ancients Gades and Gadira» is a town 
Cciiat<:d ic a imall ifland of the fame name» on the wefterrr 
Mai: of Andalufia, about nine leagues from Gibraltar, {b) It 
ik well known that Hercules extending his conqueft» to thia 
place, halted» from the fuppofuion that he was come totheex^ 
nmity o£ the world. lie here ere Aed. two pillars as monument^ 

(«} Strab. ]. î«î. p. 167» (/] Cluver. I.Ji. c !• {•) G'liadalqutfirw 
1^) ttraè.l.i!i. p. 171. 

* Btcbart detiia tbt name of tbefctto tbefi iffanjs) wbt<b J ètpt wUl»êt 

Uléiiidsjrtn: tioo Fhctrii-ian ivirdi, Bëal 
jarg, or r:aficr in the art cf jlingir.g. 
^Tbtsflrergtbens tb: autboriiy tf Strati , 

«2z. that tbt' ir.tjri.'anu learnt tbeir an 
tie rtofti.iaKs, wbo Wire on^f 

jiml ten iifiiU mort proh^:blê^ %fiben «ut 


0dd t'W9 more obfervatto:: [J^rr.. r 
dud f tbi ^refut fur^oj'tf hut ttltiih^ 

fe un.ntertatning f tbe reader. 7%é^ 
Jirp is, tbat tbefe iJHandi were once Jb 
inftfied witb rabbitt, tbat tbe hbabi' 
tarn t s cf it ttp^lud to Rime eitber for aid 
agai/tfi- tbem, or otberwife defired nen» 
tuiyitutionst iuCAhXia-Bat yà^ vvf tmm 
^<w»» TtfTwv, tboje creatures having 
e'jtSêd them out cf their old ones. Vide 

eenJiJirtiai hotb tbe Hit '^eivtsmd Vite» *Strab. Plin. 1. v.ii. c. 55, Tbe fécond 

mià^ns exieied in tbn art. The .Ha- obfervation is, tbat tbefe ijlanders were 

karian pings would annoy am- enemy 'ntt omfy expert Jlin^er s . hut likewife est 

either near at hand, or at a difi^me. 'ct lient fwtmmen i wbiib tbev aretotbi 

lient fmtmmers j whitb tbey are to tbt» 

Every Jlinger carried tbree of tbfm ;i:\,:.:yy by tbe tejiimony of our country wiam 
war» One bung from the necky a fee r.ù Bidduipb, nvbc^ in bis Travels, inform» 

usy tkut being hecalmed near thefe ijland». 

frem the %oaifiy and a tbirj to ?i carried 

bs tbe Land, To this fj'-: r:c !-aiif t? .1 woman Jwant to him out of onê^oÉ 

, inf» 
e ijlan 
of om 

them, with a ba/kit of fruit ttftii^ 

■ET — rv .- T - 


F «f hb innonei. pnrfiuni id tl» tuflom of that a|tc. 

I place kM alwafi ictaiacd Uic lume. Utouyh timehs^ 

Idefliovci' rSHV pillon. Auihcci arc Jiviiird in aiii:iii>n. i 
rcganltiilt<t: )tlu> wlxn: theie pilbii wcti; rieflrj. ji^ Ba 
wrai ih« muii liuiilut, ùtt wnttbicfi and awft [Wt>uhMi fwllf 
[ Spain. Il tonlaionl t#a Itundicd citiu, and waa âhabueé bf 
I II» TunlfUni. or Toidsli. On the bank* of tba fioait fttM 
I -tkrcc U(|;r ciiici, Ciâulo inwarda tbe foarcCi Coatebl toair 
d«wa, the caÛK place of Lncan «ml the two Scseca't t (l'If 
iIiA>alu (/). 

Lufitinii il bounded on the weft by iKe Occui, tm ibe Mnft 
by tht liver I>utiui 1/;, and on ibc fouth bj the rivrr Abu [at. 
Between th«fe ittio livcn il the Taffiu. Lo/iunU urai mhmii 
raw callctl Poitugal, wi<h part of Old am! New CaiUlr. 

Tarracoira Mmprchaodcd the rrll of Spun, thai ti, tb 
kiiigJeini of Murciaand Vilcniia, Catalonti, Amj^n. N» 
varre, Hifiray, ihcAituriai, Gillida, die kin^Join of L«ai 
mid [be grtatdl part of ibe two CiDilf*. Tarraco («}, a Mtj 
conliciciabio city, j^tie iu name to ihat pan of Spain. tiOf 
nc» i: U^ Biircinci {«). In iiarne makei It coiij<auted, Ùâ 
il wai biiilt by Batctii, father of the grcsi Haonibal. Th 
ntoft rennwacd riaiioni of 'I'airacofiia, were the Ccltibvri, fa» 
^ond the river Iheiut (^) ; the Ckntabri, whcteBifcaj oar 
im; thcCarpciaii. itlioiccapii,iiwitT"Woi [h«0«iMni,tAi 

S(>ain, aboun>>ing ibiih mino of gold and filver, ,and p» 
pled with 4 ma'iiol race «if men, had (otficicoE to excite ood 
the ai'iritc and ambition nf ihc Canliavintani, «hn were BC(f 
of 3 mercantile than uf a wiilike diimfition, eren fron li< 
«exiii» and conllitaiioii of i heir rcpuolitk. They da«btk6 
knew thai iheir Phitnteian nncelion, (>i [j) Diodorui rtli») 
taking advini<ig« nf the happy ignorance oF ihe Spaiiii/i>> 
mith rcK^rd lo the iinmcnie richct which were hid ia ikt 
bowel«of tbeir Isndi, fir ft took from them ihcfe ptrciaatitty 
fure», in exchange for coRimoditict of [he I^McA «aluc. T^ 
likeivife forefaw, that if ibcy could once fuhdue tht* eonawft 
It would furnJlh them abundantly with well-difciplined imf* 
for the conquell of other natioiii. ai nfhiallv happened. 

(r) The occalion of the C^nltaglnians lirfl' )indio|[ in Snlja, 
wm to aflill the ïiihubîtanti of Cadiz, who were invades by 
the SpaiiifirJi. Thut city, in well at Utica andCarthaae, w» 
a culriny of 'I'yre. and even more ai>cieni ihui ciihrr ol then. 
The Tyriani having built it, dtabliihed there die wniDtip of 

{() «■'•>«. I. i'l'p.M«— t4i. (i]t<«ill<. (/}niiM^ ((.) <]«•«••» 
(-j T....»,.. ,.| «...^i™. ,f,l%,„. (,JL.». Mu. itifiêlB.>T. Ï. y Diud, i. *. f too. 


lei ; and crtâcd in his hononr, a magmficent temphL 

became famoui in afcer-agci. The fuccefs of this firft 

iition of the Carthaginiaiis, made them defir cos of carry* 

d|etr arms into*^aiii-. 

tt is Qçt exaâly known, in what period they entered Spiûn, 

*^ *7;Éar they extended their firft- conquefts. It is probable 

were flow in the beginning, as the Carthaginians ha^ 

with very warlike nations» who defended themfelves with 

f«(bIation and courage. Nor could they ever have ac^ 

blifiied their defign, as {s) Strabo obferves, had the Spa- 

Bs (nnited in a body) formed but one ftate, and mutually 

[ftcd one another. But as every canton, every people wei«. 

l(«ly detached from their neighbours, and had not the leaft 

sfpondence with them,' the Carthaginians were forced to 

oe them one after another. ThiscircumHance occaiioned> 

one hand, their "ruin ; and on the other, protracted the war» 

snade the cohqoefts of the country much more difficult T S 

tfdiogly it has been oi>(èrvedit that though Spain was the 

proviace which the Romans ii\yaded on the continent. It 

the laft they fubdued t ;. and was no^ entirely fubjeàed 

their power, till after Jiaving made a vigorous oppofitionfor 

i«f arda of two hundred years. 

f^ «pptan from the aoa)unts giveir by Polybius and Livy, of 

^~ wars of Hamilcar^ Afdrubal,^ and Haojiibal in Spai^ 

b will foon be à)c«itiooed ; that the ar^s of the C^rthagi- 

I Hwi not jiiade.aiiy cpnfiderabje progfefs in, that cound^y^ 

tliit period, arid ti4t tha gies^& part of 'Sp^O was .thef 

^qiiered* But in tweaty years time they coapleatèd the 

left of almoft the whole country. 

At thé time that Kanniharfet out for Italy, all the coaft 

j^fAfirica, from thePhilaenorum'Arae^, by the great Sortis, to thi 

Miara oJF Hercules, was fubjedl to the Carthaginians. Pafr 

|faig through the firaits, they had conquered all the weftera 

naft of Spain, along the ocean, as far as the Pvrenean hills. 

•The coaâ which lies on the Mediterranean, had been almoft 

vbolly fobdued by them ; and it was there they had built Car-' 

thagena; and they were mailers of. all the country, as far aa 

thif river Iberus, which bounded their dominions. Such was» 

àt that time, the extent of their empire. In the center of the 


(s) L. ill. p. 158. (r) Polyb. 1. iii. p. içs*!. î. p. 9. 

• Such a divjfitm 0/ Britain retërdtdt 
0Êi et the fame time facUitattd the eon 
fa^ 9f it to the Romsns, Dnm (inguli 
fnfoaot univerû TÎncuotur. Tacii, 

f Hifpania prima Romanis Initt 
Provincitrum-()tt« qui<km contincntit 
fint, poOrema omnium pcrdomita tft» 
Liv» 1. zxf lit. n. ii. 




coanlry, {oiat natio») had inàetd iirJd mit sgaioA 
«iibrn, and toald noi be fabdoed by ihein. 

Ctiqutjit d//^CAKTKAciKiAirif/i StctLr. 

Tbe wan which th« Carthaginians carried on In Skilr uc 
fnore known. I fhall here relate rboft which were waged fmil 
the (tign of Xerxes, who firft prompted the Carthaginians ta 
carry their arms into Sicil/, nil the lirft Puaick war. Thi* 
takes up near (wo hundred and twenty years, vix. frotn dw 
year of the world 3520 to 3738. At the breaking out of thffe 
war), Sytaeufe, the mod conriderable a; well si molt poweifil 
city of Sicily, had invellcd Gelon, Hiero, and ThrifybEJm 
(three brothers who focceeded one another) with a foi-trtijB 
power. After their deaths, a democracy cr popular govcte- 
mcnt was efiabliflied in that ciiy. and fubfilleJ above f»;j 
years. From this time, the two Bioityfius's, Tiinoicon ui 
Agaihaclca, bore the fway in Sjtacufe. Pyrrhus wa* afttr- 
waids invited into Sicily, but he kepi puflcliion of jc On)f ■ 
few year;. Such was the government of Sicily during ibi 
wars, of which 1 am g( ing 10 ireai. They will give us gita 
light wiih regard to the power of the Carthaginians, u ihc 
lime that ihey began to be engaged in war with the RQmam. 

Sicily U ihc largeft and moft cocGderable ifland in th« M» 
diterranean. It is of a triangular form, and for that na&t 
was called TrinacrJa and Trlquetra. The cfaftern ûde. «rhiel 
faces the Ionian or Grecian Tea, extends from cape Pactiynos 
(a) to Pelorum {x). The mofl celebrated citica oa tliia coal 
are Syracnfe, Taurotneniam, and MeHini. Th« nortben 
coaft, which looks towards Italy, reaches fron cape Pelom 
*o cape Lilybiura {y) . The moft noted cities on tni» coaA wî 
Mylae, Hymera, Panormus. Eryx, Motya, Lilybaum. Tkf 
foothern coaft, which lies oppofite 10 Africa, extends from caja 
Lilybzum to Pachynum. The. molt retnarlcable cities otk thil 
coaft are. Selinus, Agrigenlum, Gela, and Camarina. Til» 
iHand is fcparated from Italy by a lltait, which ia abotit 1 milt 
and"'a half over, and called the Faro or Urdtof Meffio». {t) 
The pafTage rrom Lityba:um to Africa is but ijoa furiofifii 
thai is, about feventy-fiue leagues. 

{a) The peficid Jn which the Carthaginian» Srft carried ihe* 
arms into Sicily is not exaflly known. All wc arc ccttaln of 
is, thai they were already poÛcCed of fooie piVL of il^ ai the 

{>.) P^fTirn. (xMlFua. (^) Cipe Bc^a. (>> Stn^ >■ 4. 
». 3S7. («1 A, M. ÎS01. A.Citih. J4J. Kem*^ •4S. A«. j. C. 91^ 

f slfb. J. ill. p, 145, & fE^ £lit. GtgiiDi. 

C A R T H A G IN TA N 8. iif 

time that they entered into a treaty with the Romani i the fame 
year that the kinga were ejipelledi and confttU appointed in 
their room» <vi«. twenty-eight yean before Xerxes invaded 
Greece. This treatyi whicn i« the fit ft we find mentioned to 
kave been inade between thrfe twvi nation», fpealcs of Africa 
ftnd Sardinia an poflenVd by the Carthaginians ; whereas the 
convcntionsi with rcgtird to Sicily, relate only to thofe p»ru 
•f the iflaod which were fubjeA to them. By this treaty it ii 
«ipref»|y ftipulatcd» that neither the Roman» nor their allies ' 
ftaU fail beyond the fair Promontory ^, which was ver^ near 
Carthage ; and that fuch merchants» as (liall refort to this city 
fcr tramck, fliall pav only certain duties as are fettled in it (4). 
(c appears by the fame treaty, that the Carthaginiant 
ivere particularly careful to exclude the Romans from all the 
fountries fuhjedt to them i as well as from the knowledge of 
that wai tranfadiag in them : ns though the Carthaginians, 
ivta at that timei took umbrage at the rifing power of the 
komans { and already harbourca in their breafts the fecret feeds 
•f the jealoufy and difHdence, that were one day to burft out 

tlong and cruel wars, and which nothing could extinguiih 
t the ruin of one of the contending powers} fo fierce were 
ft^ir mutual hatred and animofity. 
' (c) Some years after the conclufion of this firft treaQ^, the 
*'~~^hagiaiani made an alliance with Xerxes king of Perfia« 
\ Drincei who aimed at nothins lefs than the total extirpa- 
w the Greeks, whom he conndered as his irrtconcileaole 
Mfailta« thought it would be impoffible for him to fucceed 
yi,' hU enterpriae, without the ainftance of Carthage, whoCi 
ippwtr aade it formidable even at that time. The Carthagi- 
iUmat who always kept in view thejiefsgn they entertained «f 
i^ing upon the remainder of Sicily, |treedily fnatched the 
ftvourable opportunity which now prelented itfelf for their 
COAplcating the redu^ion of it. ^ A treaty was therefore con-» 
eluded s whereb)^ the Carthaginiant were to invade» with all 
their /orces, thole Greek» who were fettled in Sicily and Italy, 
during which Xerxes Hiould march in perfon aeainll Greece 

The preparations for this war laAed three ye;irs. The land* 
army ainouuied to no Icfs than three hundred thoufand men. 


(I) Polyb. I. iii. p. 146. (1) A. M. j^to. Ant. J. C, 4^4* Diod. 

L il« P* t» 16, k 1». 

tritt n»hh^ My mff ft th* /tMrA» /• 

m,tt hntr •/' f A#f> ftf tNtty^ Foly U l.liU 
p. 147. 2 dit. OlOAQV» 


The fleet confiftrd of two thoufand (hips of war, «nd U] 
of three thoufand iVnall vcflels of burden. Hamilca 
moll expcMienccd captain of his ave, failed 'from Carthaj 
this form ilia ble army. He landed at Palermo *, and 
refrefhini^ his troops, he mjrchcd again fl Hymera, a c 
far iiiilnnc from PaL*rmo, and laid fiege to it. Theror 
commanded in it, fc-ins^ himfelf very much ftraitned, 
Gel on, who had poilciUii ri rift- If of Syracufe. He fl' 
mediately to his rtlief, wiih f.fty thouiand foot, and fiv 
fand horj'e. His arrival ijifufed new courage into the Ix 
who» fl om that time, made a very vigorous defence. 

(Jclon was an able warrior, and excelled in ftratager 
courier was brought to him, who had been difpatchei 
Selinuntum with a letter for Hamilcar, to inform him 
day whtn he might cxpe^^l the cavalry, which hé had dez 
of them. G el on drew cut an equal number of his ow 
ient them from his camp about the mne agreed on. 
being admitted into the enemies camp, as cortiing fro 
nuntum, 'rufhed upon Hamilcar, killed him, and fet fir 
Ihips. In this critical coiijiiu^ure, G «.ion attacked ^ 
his forces, the Carthaginians, who r.t tîrll made a gal 
fillancc. But when the news of their general's dea 
brju^^ht them, aud they (jlw all their tlèct in a bla7.< 
courage failed them, and tlicy ikd. And now a d 
fi^iighter cnfued ; upwards of an hunvlred and fifty tl 
being flain. The rcil of the army, having retired to 
where I.hey WîL'C jr. waiU of cVrfy thing, CUuId HOt 
long defence, and fo were forced to furrciider ât diA 
This batile was fought the very day of the famous ai 
Thermopylx, in which three hundred Spartans f, with 
crifice of their lives, difputed Xerxes's entrance into G 

When the fdd news was brought to Carthage^ of the 
defeat of the army ; coniternation, grief, and defpair, 
the whole city into fuch a confufion and al^rm as are nc 
exprodl'd. It was imagined that the enemy was alread) 
gates. The Carthaginians, in great revt-rfcs of fortune, 
loll their courage, and funk into the oppofite extreme 
mediately they ienl a i^eputation to Grlon. by which tl 
fired peace upon any terms. He heard rheit i.*nvoy8wit 
humaniiy. The compleat viélory he h:\d ^^aiijcd, fo fa 
making him haughty and untrs^èlabk, hud only increa 


• Tbis tify L .ji.'fd in Let!» Pa nor 

•f* Htfldet the ;^oo Sf^jrtjns, tic Ttrf 

7CO, f'tu\hmnd<tiêdwUh'Lt9 
this mimorûhi* àjttle» HcfO 
c, aoa— ati* 

C A T H A O I N I A N ft lif 

«ftd r e¥«tt towtrda chi eiMiny. Hé derèfort 

tbei s 1 » Bpoii ao other cooaittoiit than thei|r 

two Uoi a ^ ulenti towtrdi the expence of the war* 

tmtt reqaiieil thei to build two templei, where the 

kCy of this peace iboala be depofited» ud eirpoTed ai aU 

\mê to pahlicK yiew. The Carthaginiani did not think this 

r parchafr of a |)eace, that wai fo abfolutely ntcoRkry to 

a Ain, and wh^ch they hardly darft hope for* GitffH 

ton of Hamilcarf parfutnc to the unjtift cusom of the Car* 

i;i|niatta» of afcribini to tlie general the ill fuceeff of a war^ 

asking him fufier tor it, was pnniflied for his father's mif* 

~^^f and ^t into baniÂment* He paftd the 'remainder 

days at SeUauntitm, a city of Sicily. 

'^Ôicion, on his return toSyracofe, convened the people» and 

~*tid all the cftizens to appear under arms. He himfelf 

d the' aflembly» unarmed tiid without his |;uards» and 

gave an account of the whole conduft of his life. Hie 

i met with no other infierrnption» but the publkk teffik 

BCi which were given him of gratitude and admiration* 

far from being treated as a tyrant and the oppreSbr of hie 

itry's liberty, he was epnfidered as iti benetK^or and de^ 

er I allt with an onanimous voice, proclaimed him king i 

the crown wns beftowedf after his death, on his two 

fliers, . 

Ê{f) . Afler t])e memorable defeat of the Athenians before 
jr%tu(^i where Ni'ciai periihed with his whole fleet; tht 
tiefeiUnt, who had declared in favour of the Athenians agidnft 
s Syracufani , fearing the refentment of thetr enemies, and 
ing attacked ,by the inhabiunts of Selinmitom, implored 
thn Old of the Carthaginians, and put themfelves and cityv 
«nder their prote^on. ' The laft mentioned people debated 
feme time, what courfe it would be proper for them to take, 
the affsir meeting with gseac difficulties. On one hand, the 
Carthaginians were very dcfirous to poiTefs themfelves of a city 
which lay {o convenient for them ; on the other, thev dreaded 
the power and forces of Syracufdf,' who had fo lately cut to 
pieces a numerous army of the Athenians; and become, by fo 
'ihininga vl^ory, inore formidable than ever. At laft, the luft 
of empire prevailed, and the Segellans were promifed fuccours» 
The ccnidoÔ of this war was committed to Hannibal, who 
kid been invefted with the higheil dignity of the itate, being one 


" (f) A.M. )592. A. Cirth. 4,^4. Rome, 336. Ant. J. C. 41». Dk>4« 
!• aiii. p. ir<9— 171. 179—186. 

• ^n Axtilck /her faiaitf ëcctrditig (q Dn BtritarJ^ h to6 1, 51. Cênfefmiittf 
%f,00 tahttt it ^li, ^00 1* ] 



of the Saffete». He was grandfoo to Hamilcar, 
defeated by Gelon, and killed before Utmcn 
Gifeo, who had been condemned to exile. He 
fired with a dcfiro of rerengin^ his family and 
of wiping away the dilgrace ofthe la'ft defeat, 
great army ai well as fleet under his command* 
a- place called the •XPIr//0/'i^//K^iriMr, which eav< 
city» afterwards built on the fame fpot. His i 
was the Hege of Selinuntum. The attack and 
equally vigorous» the very women (hewing a 
bravery above their fex. The city» after -makii 
iilbncj, was taken by dorm» and the plunder o: 
to the foldiers. The viflor exercifed tne moft li< 
without (hewing the leaft regard either to age or 
mitted fuch itihabitants «as had fled» to continv 
after it had been difmantled ; and to till the lai 
tion of their pa)'iDg a tribute to the Carthaginia; 
liad been built two hundred and forty-two years 

Himera» which was. next befieged by Hannil 
wife taken by ftorm» and more cruelly treated 
turn» was entirely razed, two hundred and forty 
foundation. He forced three thonfand prifoners 
kinds of ignominj and puni(hments» and at 
them on t^e very (pot where his grandfather had 
Gelon's cavalry; to apip^a(e and fatisfy his i 
blood of thefe unhappy viflims. 

Thefe expeditions bein^ ended, Hannibal re: 
thage» on which oCcadon the whole city came ou 
and received him amidft the moft joyful acclama 

{/) The fucce(res reinflamed the defire, and r 
fign which ihe Carthaginians had ever entertain^ 
po(refiîon of all Sicily. Three years after, t 
Hannibal their general a fécond time ; and on h 
preat age, and refuftng the command of this v 
him for lieutenant, Imilcon» fon of Hanno» c 
mily^ The preparations for this war were equ: 
defign which the Carthaginians had formed^ 
army were foon ready, and fet out for Sicily, i 
their forces, according to Timaeus, amounted to 
thoufand ; and, according to Epborus» to three 
fand men. The enemy, on their fide, had put 
a pofture of defence, and were prepared to give 
nians a warn) reception. The oyracufans bad f< 

(/) Diod. ]. xlii. p. ftoi— 103. .to6-i>aii« at 

GAR T H A G I N I A V S. ilf 

D Order to levy forces among them ; and to All; tho 
Sicily» to exhort them to exert themiblves vif^Qtouuy^ 
ce of their Jtberties. 

;eDtiun expelled to feel the firft fury of the emcmy^ 
y was prodigioufly rich *» apd ârongly fortified» It 
itcd'» as were Himera and Selinantam* on that coaft 
9 which faces Africa. Accordingly, Hannibal opened < 
paign with the fiege of this city. Imagining that h 
•regnable except on one fide, he turned his whole/orco 
r* He threw up banks and terraAfis as high as the 
ind m^de ofe, on (his occafion, of the rubbifii.and 
ts of the tombtt ftanding round the city, which ktk had 
led for that purpofe. Soon after the plaguy inftfied 
Yt and fwept away a great number of the fotdiefs^ and: 
tral himfelf. The Carthaginians interpreiced this dtf-» 
a puniOiment inflided by the gods, who revçnged ia 
loer the iiyuries done to the dead, whofeghoiU many 
they had ieen ftalking before them in thenight^. Na 
nba were therefore demoliihed, prayers were ordered 
ade according to the praâice of Carthage ; a child wa» 
i to Saturn, m compliance with 4 nxott inhumanly* 
ions cuftom i and many viâima were thrown iniA the 
loour of Neptune. 

itfieged, who at firft had gûned ièveral advantagee^ 
laft to prefied by famine, that all hopes of relief feem- 
•erate, they refolved to abandon the city. The foilow«i 
ht was fixed cTn for this purpofe. The reader will 
f image to himfelf the grief with which thefe mifer* 
»ple muft be feized, on &tit being forced to lea^ve their 
richjpoffefiions» and.jtheir country; bat • life w^s ftill 
o them than all thefe. Never was a more melancholy 


^nry fetulchral wmtuwunts I five bundrtd Jbîfwrtckti citiktns êf 
< wtagnificence and luxury of GeiSf applying to kirn, iverê boënt'tfiiUf 

re/ievtd i and tvery man fvf plied vfUk 

hey being adùrnedwi'b Jiatues 
nd horjts. But the wealth 
left generofity of Celliar, one 
liitan/tt is almoft incredible, 
iutd the feople %vub JpeSacUt 
, Audt Junng a famine , pre- 
r titixens frcm dying with 
'i gave porti^s to poor maidenst 
a the unfortunate from tuant 
r : He bsd built toufef in the 
te emtntry, purprfeij fnr tbe 
tion %f Jlrur.gersf wbêm be 
éijfêd vn^b boMd/me prefettts. 

a cloak and a ^^t out of th tvardrnbeg 
Diud. 1. xiii. Vakr. Max. 1. iv« cult. 
Empedocles the pbilof»pber, born h 
jigrigentum, has a memorable faying 
concerning bis ftUcw citizens \ That the 
Agrigu;) fquan 'ered their iqone/ 
fo exceflivcJy every day, at if thcf 
expe^ei it coi/i« nsver be cihaiArdi 
and built wi Ji UicU fQlidii) and irrg* 
nificence, as if the/ tjiàovghw ti^ 
(hottld Uve for ever. 


fp«£)u1c fecB. To omit ihc reft, a crowd of «romen, } 
in Wan, vivre f>«n drageing nfcer ihem their htlplcf; isfann, 
Id order to Jecufc ihem hom the brutal fury of the vifior. fi<il 
tin mofi vrievoui ciiCumttance wai the nceefiiiv ihty wm 
andcr of leaving behinj ihcm ihc «ged and ilcic, who wet 
unable cither to fly or to make the leall icriilancc. The iu> 
happy exilci arrived at Geli, which wni the nearefl city îi 
cheirway, and there received all the coml'orci they could expcS 
in the deplorable condition to which they were reduceil. 

In the mean time Imilcon entered the city, and murJird 
all who were found in it. The pluncier tvai inimcnfely rid, 
«od fui:h ac might be cxpei^ed from one of the mofl opoltn 
ciiiet of Sicily, which contained two hundred thouland ioka- 
bilanii, and had never ben bcfie^ed, nor confc^uentty plun- 
dered before. A numberlefi mulucudeof piflures, vales, wt 
flaiuei of all kinUi were fuund here, the citiecnt havioj m 
cxquirue lallc fur the polite ani. Among other curiofidet «o 
the famous bull * of PhaUrit, which wai fent to Carthage. 

The fiege of Agrigfniutn had Ulied eight moathj. ImilM ■ 
made his Ibrcei take up their winter-quirtcri in it, to m 
them the neceflary refreiliinent ; and ku this city (iftcrlaTiil 
it entitcly in mint) in the beeinniflg of the fpHng. Heahtr- 
wards befieged Gela, and toolc it, ngt with Sanding the faceaun 
which were trruught by Olonyfiua the tyrant, wSo had Kteai 
upon the gotrerntnent of Syracnfe. Iniiicon ended the war hf 
«treaty withDionyliut. The artlcleiof it were, that tkeCw^ 
thaginiani, befide» their ancicttt ac<]utlitioni in Sicily, fliodl 
Itillpoflef] the coantryof the Siraniens f , Selitiunttim. Ant- i 
genium, and Himera ( at likewile thn of' Gelo and Camanni, 
with leave lor the inhalntan» to refidc in ilieit rcl'peAive dis- 
mantled citiei, on condition of ibeir p.iyiitg u tribute wCn* , 
(hage: That the Leuntinei, the Mefirniani, and all the Ska- 
liani Ihould retain their own Uwi, and prcfcrvc their libnq j 
and independence : Latlly, that the Svracufuoi Diuuld &ilI«M^' 
linue fubjcd to Diotiyfius. After this treaty was concloited, 
Imilcoti roiurned to Carthage, where the plague flill maii 
dreadful havock. 

(s) Dionyfiue had concluded the late peace with tticCwiha* 
giniant, in no other view but to get time to cflabliûi hbnnr 

■ Till it'/, «lilt ttbtr Jfnb bi'i | Clc. I. It. in Vimm.r. i) 
^CattMfi in lit thhi fk»itk **r.\ 


lorlty» and make the neceflaryr preparations for the war, 
ch he meditated again 11 them. At he was very feniible 
f formidable thofe people were, he ufed hit utmoft endea- 
rs to enable himfelt to invade them with fuccefs ; and hia 
gn was wonderfully well fcconded by the eeal of his fubjeéts* 
5 fame of (his prince, the llrong defire he had to diflinguifh 
ifelf, the charms of gain, and the profpedl of the rewards 
ch he promifcd thofe who fliould (how the grcatcH induflry ; 
ited, from all quarters, into Sicily, the moll able artids and 
kmen at that time in the world. All Syracafe now became 
L manner a common worklhop, in every part of which mea 
e feen making fwords, helmets, (hields, and military en- 
68 ; and in preparing all things^ ncccflary for building iliipa 
fitting out fleets. The invention of five benches o7 oars» 
i^inqtitrêmes) was at that time very recent, for, till then» 
\f clirec {b) had been ufed. Dionvfius animated the work- 
1 by his prcfcnce, and by the appiaufes he gave, and the 
nty which he bellowed feafonably ; but chiefly by his po* 
ar and cngagina; behaviour, which excited more (Ironglf 
n any other condu^, the indullry and ardor of the workmen* 
the mod excellent of whom, m every art, had frequently 
honour to dine with hiitK 

Vhen all things were ready, and a great number of forcrs 
I been levied in différent countries, he called theSyracufans 
ether, laid his deiign before them, and reprcfentcd the 
rthaginians as the profefled enemies to the Greeks ; that 
/ had no lefs in view than the invafion of all Sicily ; the 
jeâing all the (vrccian cities; and that» in cafe their 
grefs was ^ot checked, the Syrncufans themfelves would 
n he attacked ; tliat the reafon why the Carthaginians did 
attempt anyenterpriae, and continued una6tive, was owing; 
Irely to the dreadful havock made by the plague among; 
m ; which (he obfervcJ) was a favourable opportunity fir 
SyracuHms. Though the tyranny and the tyrant were 
lally odious to Syracui'e, yet the hatred the people In qveftioa 
e to the Carth:iginians, prev:iiled over all other confidera- 
is ; and every one, guided more by the views of an inte- 
ed policy than by the di6lates of juflicc, received the fpeecfc 
h appluufr. Upon this, without the leafl complaint made 
treaties violated, or making]; a declaration of war, Dionyfiua 
cup to the fury of the populace, the perfons and poilêinont 
the Carthaginians. Gre.u numbers of them refided at that 
e in Syracule, and traded there on the faith of treaties, 
now the common people ran to their houfes^ plundered 
(oL» 1. G tbvir 

otkuwUkitU ihkCutluif hniM fcud ia iIimb J 

ariiCBiin. Tlui new» fyttti n gcnerd »Im 
pccialty when iliry >tflt£tcJ on ibc Tm) coo 
titty w'rrr pedu';«J. 

Dioiiyliiit -^pcnnl the campai {[n with tbc G 
which Vit ihe BugJzîDc of ibc Cdtthtgiituin 
Ik bHieted the lown w iib (o mucli vigour, thu ï 
Âr ImiîciiD, the Cuibagîntui admiral ro i 
bntugbtfoiu-ird biicnpnc*. biiierct] ibvfUcc 
liig'>«in>i advanced towen fix ItcrJet high to 
■ Doo wbecl'] «nd of an cqodl height «ilh ihri 
tnefe towen he gicaily Konuycd tht bclîcged, v 
chiT]^ of vuUcy» of airow» and Aono, fiat 
pulu'». an enDine ■ at that time of lute învei 
tbeciiv, nfier having made a lonj; ami «iroroi 
talicn by ttorat, and all the inh.ibiunt^ of tt |t 
thofe excepted, who took fanfluaty in ibe 

Cluodcr of i( wu abandoned to the foldlrri i 
:av;iig a tl/onj gairifoo aod i irully govcnior 
to Syracufe. 

{i} The follawing ^rlrailcon Ixlog appoii 
Eulfetr?, ti luincd to Sicily wuh a far grMter an 
He Undcd at Pale/mot, took fcvcral dtie». 


o ibme authors, of three hundred thoufand foot *« and three 
boafand horfe was feen marching forward on the other fide of 
he city. Imilcon pitched his tent in the very temple of Ju- 
licer ; aftd the reft of the army encamped at twelve furlongs, 
M* about a mile and a half from the city. Marching up to it, 
(diilceii offered battle to the inhabitants, who did not care to 
I the challenge. Imilcon, fatisfied at his having extorted, 

it were, from the Syracufans, this confcflîon of their own 
■fcaknefs ai:d his fuperiority, returned to his camp ; not doubt- 
ing but he fhould foon be mailer of the city ; confidcrine it 
already as a certain prey, which could not poâlbly cfcape him. 
For thirty days together, he laid walle the neighbourhood about 
Syracufe, and ruined the whole country. He pofTefTed himfelf 
of the fuburbof Acradina, and plundered the temples of Ceres 
Bod Proferpine. To fortify his camp, he beat down the tombs 
which ftocNd round the city ; and among others, that of Gelon 
and his wife Demarata, which was prodigioufly magniftcent. 

But thefe fuccefTes were not lading. . All the fplendor of 
Ait anticipated triumph vani(hed in a moment, and taught 
auinkind, fays the hiflorian (/), that the proudeft mortal» 
1>laftéd fooner or later by a fuperior power, (hall be forced to 
COflfefs his own weaknefs. Whilft Imilcon, now mailer of 
•Imofl all the cities of Sicily, expe^ed to iiuiih his conqu<:ils, 
by the redudlion of Syracufe, a contagious diflemper feized his 
army» and made dreadful havock in it. It it was now the 
nidft of fummer, and the heat that year was excciliv^e. The 
iafe^on began among the Africans, multitudes of whom died, 
without any poffibility of their being relieved. Care was taken 
at firft to inter the dead ; but the number increafing daily, and 
the infcâioD fpereading very fail, the dead lay unburied, and 
the iick could have no aifillance. This plague had Very un- 
common fymptoms, fuch as violent dyfenteries, raging fevers, 
burning entrails, acute pains in every part of the body. The 
infe^ied were even feized with madncis and fury, fo that they 
would fall upon any perfons that came in their way, and tear 
them to pieces. 

Dionyiius did not lofe this favourable opportunity for attack- 
ing the enemy. Imilcon's army being more than half con- 
quered by the plague, could make but a feeble reiillancc. The 
Carthaginian mips were almoil all either taken or burnt. The 
inhabitants in general of Syracufe, their old men, women, and 
children» came pouring out of the city, to behold an event, 

G 2 which 

(/) Diodous. 
• Stau âatbûrs fay hut thirty tbou ' acurt, a tlf feet which hh kctf u^ 
jMudfitTf which ii tht more jrAahle [ the tj-jun h jia 'luai jo J^nnuui.^ t» 


iktiidi to ibm sppeued nlracatoai. Witb li 
liCjiitD. itcTinnked iha luular sod«orilieirci[]r, fcrfi 
rcrcngtd the fanAîiy of toniOc) sud [omb*. Mtucbth ' 
ia brui^iljr riotdted b]r dftte Bubuna». Nlgiit cocni 
|*Mh pjm« terirtd! when Iniilcon, takine theoppatw .. 
«bii iT'Ort fafpcnfiao of liolUlttics, teat loDianyéài, fcalan 
to arty f>*tL with him ihc Iwiill reniaù» uf hit (kn'.rrriuB^, 
»*ilb en offn ol ibrcc hunJccd uhfnti *, whidi wji ill tîi 
Ipecic lie ii*d then left. PcnnilScio cooldaol; be ohiiôintAl 
iti: Canhagioiïnt, with ihboDi Iinïlcon Hole away in (!:«n^kt 
\ mil) left tfcc iti (0 the menj of the <oaquctor. 

ilo (iicbiiiibapriycircaDkAancctdid tbeCArdiigiiiiangcMnl 
•kbo > few Jif ( before bid been To prood and baachiy, ruiii 
tton Sftacula. Bîttcrtf bet^'ailtni; lût own faic, b<ic imfitri 
f\i i)i3t Ol' iiu coanuj-, be with \ht moA icfolent fury^ iraU 
ibc j^odi a ihcfolc author) of hit miironuDei. " TbeaKSh 
" cODtiniicd he, miy indrcd reJNce at oar miiny, btu hni > 
" DO rcofon to glory in il. We rctnm viâoriout over tbel^ • 
■■ naaÙBi, and are only dercatcd by the plague. tiofKK 
" added lie, of the difaflcrtoDchet me fo much » m/fnrririll t 
" fomiiny gallant men, and by being rcrcTved, noili»» >^ 
" C'tnitbrift of life, but to be the fpon of fo dire a aduaîni 
" i^owever, lînce I have brought back the miserable rmn* 
'■ nf an »sxay, which had been committed to mv care : I cm 
■- ).x\e noilung to do, but lo follow (he brave ûildutn wba lit 
'- dc»i before Syracufe i mi to Ihcw my coaniry t lut I Ai 
" not ûirvive them ont of a fontlneft of li/e: but tneici; ■ 
" pfeferïc ih« troops which had efcaped the plague, tirm :W 
'' fury of tbe enemy, to which lay more early death wotU 
" have abandoned them." 

lleiiig nowartivedin Carthage, which he lôqiulorerivlielMJ 
viith grief and dcfpair, he entered his houle, Ibnt hit 4agii 
n^ajtill liic ciiizeni, and even his own children i and thcacn 
hiiiikli the fatal Itroke, in compliance with a pntâice toiiMl 
ihe lieiihcfii falfely gave the came of couragCt tbougb it «ifc 
in reality, noMher than a cowardly defpair. 

But the calantitica of ihit unhappy city did not Hop hmi 
frr tnc Arric^m», who from time immenvnial had ban an \wt 
plui'.ible hatred to the CatihagiaiaBs, being uant exafjpenui 
In furv. becaole tiieir countryoicn had been left boliind, Jtl 
rxpofed to the munhering fword of tlic Syracufaon ; all^bh 
iu the aiotl frantick manner, found Che alarm, take up uaa, 
M.u after feizing opoti Tiuiii, march dire^y it> Carthage, • 
.in* flamber «f more than twohnndred thonlaiid texn. _Tf 


'ns now gave themfelves up for loft. This new Sncidi-nt 
:onfiiicred by them as the fad elfte^ of chc wrath of ihr* 

which puriued the guilty wretches even to (Jarthavi* 
s inhabitants! efpecialiy in all publick cnltimitirs, cani^il 
fuperUition to the greatell excefs, their ttrll cnro wïa^ U' 
ife the ottVnded gods. Ccics ami Profcrninc wor/ Jciiie . 
till that timei had never been hoard or in At'ricn. l>ii' 
to atone for the outraee which hnd hccn done thoiii, n« 
lunderin^of their temples, ma(i[nîiiccnt llatue? were oiViMv-v^- 
leir honour ; pricUs were (<* levied from among tht* in^* : 
igallhed families of the tity ; fncriAccs and viMiju^i. .<. 
nf[ to the Greek ritual, (if i may ufc thatexpreJÎion) wîVv- 
'd up to them ; in a word« nothinji; was omirtcd \\hl.. .. 

I be thought conducive in any manner, to appcaio th ' 
/ ^^ddeifcs and to merit their favour. After this, il:.: 
xc of the city was the next ohjcrt of their «re. H.ippily 
le Carth3f>^inianS| this numv'rouï army had no leader, hut 
like a body uninformed with u fonl ; no pr<wif^>n^ m* 
nry engines ; no diicipline, or fuboidi nation were tWv. 
ig them : every man fetling himfelf up for a general, or 
ling an iadepenvlencc from the retl. Pivifions thortr«)i( 
iC in this rabble of an nrmv, and the famine in>Mealirii: 
. the individuals of it withdrew to their rcfpc^Uvc hi^ne^p 
Iclivercd Carthage from a dreadful alarm. 

le Carthaginians were not difcour.ijted by their latr 
er, but continued their enierpiizes on Sicily. Ma<^o ili.*;; 
'al, and one of the SuHVtes, loti a gr^Mt battle, and hi. 
And now the Carih.ii^inian chiefs demanded a pcu'e^ 
h accordingly was granted, on condition of their ev;u'n.i! 

II Sicily» and defraying the e\|)ences of the war. ^!u^ 
nded to accept the on the terms it was oA'ered ; bn* 
Tenting, that it wjis not in their power to deliver up ilie 
<, without tiril obtaining an order from their republiv I: ; 
obtained lb Kuig a truce, as ^nive them time tiitheimi t. i 
ne to C?.irth.i^\e. Oiuipg tins interval, they vail'i d an.\ 
i^lined new tiv»i»|>s, iwer which M«^\o. Ion of hi:n whu i».iil 
laiciv kiihd, was appointed j»eni'ial. Me w.u vei v Vvni '»^, 
if gieai ai>iiHu\s anil leputation. Maj»o arrived in SuiK, 
at the expiration o\ the truce, he g:'ve HionvtVus b;'.:ile . 
hich Lepiinns *, one of the generals of the latici, va» 
d. and up\varJ>of fourteen thoufand Syrucul'ans left diad 
e âeld. By ihi> victory the Carthaginians obtained an 
urable peace, which lelt them in the poflelHon of all they 
iu Sicily, with even the addition of fomc llronghold ; 

C; ) fiCivdvs 

vîeeof die deptrwre of dte Jntiy trmrCamof 
if] C*rlh»z'^ bad, Cook tilar, anoth^ caUm 
wiiti. Ttw pUgiK£Oi into the cii]'. iodmadti 
Panick utrott, ud viclcn Ko «r rienzy. True 
the kcMli of tlx âtAnapcrnl g viho rallyiDg, T 
vnt of ikm houTca, u if ibc cik*); had (.ilccn t 
or wounded aJI wbo uahippily ranic in ihcir wa 
uni and Sardiniani voM very aillingl/ liavc 
ponunity to Quke oS' a ycil(« tvMch wai fo ha\ 
DUI boiK.wcrc fubjcdcd, and reduced to ih' 
DionyHui fanned it cbii time an cntcriiilu:. In 
&aic viewi, whkh wai ri]U4liy unfucccftful. 1^ 
time iftcr, und wu) fuccccdi'd by Iii4 fan ctf the 
. We have alu-sdy uliea oClice c( tbc firii In 
Ctjtbaginun» concludcd with the Raman*. The 
which, acoiidinit to Orofiuf, wu conclud<4 in Ù 
ihc fuutidation <if Rome, and canfequeplly kboi 
WG now fpdking of. Tbii fécond trtAiy v/tt 
fame uiih liiG Ënl, except ihM ilie inhiUitint 
Uùea wefe cxptefsly eom^Mehcuded inii, aoil j 

(;) After the death of ih« elder Dionj-fiu. 
tnvclvcd ù £icu uouhltt, DionjAui [he'yonc 

CAR T-H A G I N I A N S. 127 

been expelled, rellored himfelf by force of arms, and exercifed 
great cruelties there. One pare of the citizens implored the 
aid of Icetes, tyrant of the Leontines, and by defcent a Syra»' 
CDlan. This Teemed a very favourable ooportunity for the 
Carthaginians to feize upon all Sicily, and accordingly they 
Ant a mighty fleet thither. In this extremity, fuch of the 

gfracufans as loved their country beft, had recourie to the 
orinthians, who had often afiiiled them in their dangen ; and 
were, of all the Grecian nations, the moft profefTed enemies 
to tyranny, and the moft avowed and moft generous aftertors 
of liberty. Accordingly the Corinthians fent over Timoleon, 
a man of great merit, and who had fignalized his zeal for the 
publick welfare, by freeing his country from tyranny, at the 
«xpence of his own family. He fet fail with only ten (hips, 
and arriving at Rhegium, he eluded, by a happy ftratagem, 
the vigilance of the Carthaginians; who having been informed, 
by fcetes, of his voyage and deiign, wanted to intercept his 
paflage to Sicily. 

Timoleon had fcarce above a thoufand foldiers under his 
command ; and yet, with this handful of men, he advanced 
boldly to the relief of Syracufe. His fmatl army increafcd 
perpetually as he marched. The Syracufans were now in a 
defperate condition, and quite hopelefs. Thev faw the Car- 
tbaginians mafters of the port ; Icetes of the city ; and 
Dionyfius of the citadel. Happily, on Timoleon's arrival, 
Dionyiius having no refuge left, put the citadel into bis hands, 
with all the forces, arms, and ammunition in it; and cfcaped 
by his alTillance, to Corinth *. Timoleon had, by his emif- 
laries, reprefented artfully to the foreign forces in Mago's 
army, (which by an error in the conftitution of Carthage before 
taken notice of) was chiefly compofed of fuch» and even the 
ereateft part of thefe were Greeks ; that it was aftoniftiing, to 
Me Greeks ufing their endeavour to make Barbarians mailers 
of Sicily, from whence they, in a' very little time would pafs 
over into Greece. For could they imagine, that the Cartha- 
ginians were come fo far, in no otll^rview but to eftabliflb Icetes 

■to- G 4 tyrant 

• TJeri he prefervtd fùmt rtJMlant^^ Cor'mtbf and ùjk'tig hîtn bozy h^ came to 

9f bit former tyranttf^ by turning fcbool-' lofe fo cwfiitrahU a trinc'ipùVvj' 'as bad 

majïir ; anA ixernjinf a difcxpfme over keen left him by his fitter ; be anfwe^dj 

boyi, when be could no longer tyrannixe That kit fatter bad indeed' left' him tbe 

9vtr men* He bad learnings Mnd was inheritance, hut not the fertmne %uhicb 

9mce o fcbolar to Plato, whom bt caufed \ bad pref^rved bctb bimfeif and that — 
ie come again intoSlily, notwitbjianding \ However, fortune did him no great in* 
the unvf or thy treatment be bad met ivitb y jury f in rcpltring bimontbedungbUI^ 
J^om DionyfiuCi father, Phi/ip king of \ from which Jbe had raifcd bii father* 
Maitdon me^iini httn in tbe freett at \ . 

waudltie t-frivÉonùt (fee lïntcâcË fâfiêdt)p«nl) 
ury dcuà. His body wu kone upftn a mUow>, m 
pdhliclc fprftacle to the people, (r) New foiecf 
Cirtkajc, attà a greater nod more povoful deet d 
<mn icni to Sicily. Il confined of two hMHltvd 
bef liei a ihoafantl ininfpont : anil the army am 
ward* of feTtnt'' thoBUod aicii. Tliey tuidec 
under the eomtnaml nf Hamtkai and Hamiitwl, 
toattatk the Ccrinhiani fiiii. I'imoleon dM 
but marched cut to meet t.^gp^ And now, fucli 
ficrnaiion of S^raLsic, tlint, (>rall the forces v 
that ciiy, only three thoaJâoA SyrttaraQ!, and I 
ncfceniri» followctl him ; a*^ a. ihoufaod of < 
leried upon the march, cut of (<»t nf iho^ (Un] 
coing tû encoonter. Timotcon, hiwevec, wta do 
Cotexhoning the remainder of his forces to ex< 
counigeoafly for the fsfety and Hbcniei of tfceir 
ihem againll Che eonny, whcfc rcndcxvout he 
fnritifci iv;» on the bink.i of the little ti»er Cri 
prnrfd at the fitft rcfjitlion an inexcnfatilc Mly 
army !o numeroui ts that of the enemy, MitbttiJ 
thtjtiund foot, and i ihonfindhorfa; ButTiniobc 
ihA fctatery, n>ndadlc(l by firodccce, t* faptrivi 
rcîtf^t on ïhe cvuraee of his fiildicr?, who fi^eme 
die rathvr thaa yield, and wiih nidnox deauuid 

C A R T W A G r V r A X s. 129 

applauded and admired ny all mn, when -hey fhonld frj 

Corinth only, among nil the Grecian caic, a ornecl u> 

temples, not with the fpoilb of Griece, and ^fferinjr» 

in the blood of its citizens, and thereby fit only to prc- 

thc fad remembrance of their ioflfesy but with ihofc of 

iriuns, which, by fine infcriptionj, difplayed at once the 

igc and religion 3 gratitude of thofe who had won thery 

hefc infcriptJonj> imported, 7'hat the CorhithiattSy and Ti- 

H iheir gemral, ^fur having freed i be Grrcks fettled in S:ii(y 

tbi Carthaginiam Wêkit hëd buug ub tbefe atMS in their 

ftp as an eferttal atàaowledgment of ile fa*vcur and gooUnO 

e gods, 

tcr this Timolcon leaving the mercenary troops in the 
liaginian territories» to wafle and dedroy them, returned 
racufe. On his arrival there he banifhed the thoufand 
rrs who had deferted him ; and took no other revenge 
the commandiag them to leave Syracufe before fun-fct. 
^ tkb victory gained by.tlM Corinthians, they took a 
: mmig ciiies, which oblifèé lit Carlbagifiians to fuc for 

rail appearances of faccefs andathc Carthtgfnlnns vigo- 
r tattrt themfelveSv to raifil powerful armies both by land 
tta» and behave wiek infolencc and cruelty in profpcrity r 
ce nanner their courage would fink in unforcfeen adier- 
y their hopes of new refources vanifli, and their grovel in;; 
condelcenid toaflc quarter of the mod inconfiderable enem\ * 
Ihanefislly accept ^the liardeil and moft mortifving con- 
ns. Thofe now unpofcd were, that they ihould pofTcfs 
the lands lying beyond the river Halycus * ; that th-.'v 
[d ^Ive all the natives free liberty to retire to Syracul'e 
cheir families' and elfeâs ; and that they Ihould nei^r 
Inoe in the alliance, nor hold anycorrefpondcnce witH^e • 
Its of that ci:y. 

boat this cime, in all probability, there happened at C^r- 
e a memorable incident, related J^y (/) Jultin. fiunnu» 
jf its moll powerful citi7cns, formed adcfign of /ei/.in^ 
\ the repiiblick, by dellr/- ^ ing the whole fenate. liff choiV 
he execution of thi:> bloody fcene, the day on which hif 
h tcr was to be married, on which occafion he dcfi^ined x-j 
e the fcnators to an entertainment, and there poifonthrni 
The confpiracy was difcovercd ; but lianno had fuch 
it» that the government did not ilarc tofuniih fo execrable 

G 5 a 

(r) Juflin. 1. 111. c. 4. 

TBii r'tver : rr* far f^om /^^r-getrum, U it .aVti Lycui h P.V./of-- i-J 
ir<i^ lût tkii is îl ought a m-.fiAfx 


1! I s T O K Y OF T FT 
^crrmei Th«in»giflmi;» cnnienicii th«infclr« wJ , _^,„ 
mtlDK ii. by »n orJtr which fntltM}, in gcncni, loo |rui 
Ppi.i)rai£ixiier at wtMjaft, an<l fintlcj the espEnct na tbei^ 
l^'-ouitijin. HaiiBu fetiitx ''<* ftning'tn tlrruiinj, ttfolt«d d 
BtplwT Ofen forct, «mJ for ihal figrpofe »rBirii bII ibt lb*tt 
ItuwcTcr, he iru n^rn lirCcuicrtJ ; and to rfcapt |TseiiAnn^ 
f tfitiinl wlih liceal}- tlHiuftod aimcj fl.iTCi, ta a (ifllc l!nt*u 
I 1WT)r AfMicly roftibcij ; >od iKrrc ciulciirourctl, b«( «ithoit 
J Jbccrf, to cn|>*j;c In hit rebellion tb« African». «Mi like 1» 
[ of MtaiiiaoU- He afterwardt «• ju taken pritoBet and onH 
l fo Orthjj;c, where, »fie» b<ini[ whippeil, hb eyeinttip» 
L pui. Lit irmi (fid ilii^ht broke, hi* Irfr ukcn away tape- 
to^ fen» of (he F«of)lc, mil Ml \ynij, ill cotn wiib llnco. kwi 
L OB a gibbet. Hii children and all bit relaiioni, ihoagh àtj 
Y li«d not joined In hii Roïli, fliaicd in hU pooiflini"' "**" 
1^ werr all fcntrnccd lo die, in order (hit not ■ 6r- 
I Ui family might be left. cilScr to imiiaic hit (ti> 
y kitdeath. tnch wat the BfR'ut and oft nf mii .: 
1 tha{;iniani t etfet fevere tea rtnlfm in their pur.- i - 
I cartied ihrm to the. extrenict ot rintKir, ami ms.k- iiifin nim 
t cvenioiheiiinocrni, wiiToûf^cikicig ikc luA regard lO.f^iliil, 

I moderation, or graliludi?. *' 

(u) I come now lo ihc war» Tulbined hv the Cantm'tiniM, 
I Id Africa iirdfu well s'. in 5icil>*, »gund AgatAKtei, «klti 
f «xercifed rhctr arm< during f«>erjl ytiri. 
k Thit A{»hoctci wai a Sitiliin. «f obiVuro bî^l^, inJlp* 
' fortune •. Soppoilcd at firft by the pcMer of die Carihami- 

!■ Bni, he invitded ilie lovcreiVnijr of oytiKulë, sod made Bin- 
ielf¥crit. In the inlSncy ti( hii nrrnci-, ihr Car(lia|iti- 
Knt kept him wftbin b'juiida, nod Hanint.Nr their chief ft»i«d 
hj^to agree to ft peace, ««hich rrHorcd iraoqoilUty to SkSf- 
BoThe roon infringed the articl*^ of tt. luid dcdartd «tf 
agniiilt the Ca>iha|iiibii5 themfelveg, who, under (he tondlft 
«t Hioilkar, «biaiucd a ligiial v'lAary ovct him {• ''■i^ f°^ 

C A R TH.A G I NI A N S. 131 

'kim to /hat himfdf up in Syracufe. The Carthaginians pur- 
fued hira thither, and laid fiege to that important city* which, 
.if they could have taken, would have given them poiTeilion of 
ijOJ Sicily. 

Agathocles, whoTe forces were ([reatly in fierier to theirs, and 
^ko faw hîmfdÛ^ deferred by all l^is allies, from their abhor- 
rence of iiis horrid cruelties, meditated a deûgn of fo daring, 
.and, to all appearance, fo impraûicabte a nature, that even 
iaccefs could nardly gain it belief. This defign was no lefs 
4iiao to make Africa the (eat of war, and to l^fiege Carthage, 
.'■C a time when, he could neither defend himfelf in Sicily, nor 
fuftain the fiege of Syracufe. His profound fecrecy in the 
execution is as aflonifhing as the defig-n itfelf. He communi- 
cated his thoughts on this affair to no pcrfon whatfoever, but 
contented himielf with declaring, that he had foand out an 
Jofallible way to free the Syracufans from the dangers that 
Inrrounded thcnu That they would be but a little incommoded 
with a flioxit fiege -, but that thofe who could not bring themfel ves 
.to this refolotioa^ might freely depart the city. Only fixteen 
knndred perfons quitted it. He left his brother Antander 
tlicre, with foxces and provifions fufHcient for him to make a 
lUwt defence. He fet at liberty all flaves who were of age to 
bear arms> and, after obliging them to take an oath, joined 
them to his forces. He carried with him only fifty talents * to 
fiipply his prefent wants, well afllired. that he fkould find in 
ÛM enemy's country whatever was neceflary to his fubfiflence. 
He therefore fet fail with two of his^ fons^ Archagathus and 
Ueraclid^s^ without letting one perfon know whither he in< 
tended his courfe. All, who were on board his fleet, believed 
that they were to be conduced either to Italy or Sardinia, in 
order to plunder thofe countries, or to lay wrjle thofe coaHs of 
Sicily which b:flonged to Carthage. The Carthaginians, fuc- 
prized at fo wiexpe^ed a departure of the fleet, endeavoured 
to prevent it ; but Agathocles eluded their purfuic, and made 
fox the main ocean« 

He did not difcover hisdedgn till he got into Africa. There« 
affembling his troops, he told them, in few words, the moiivct 
which had prompted him to this expedition. He reprc(t*nt(*(f, 
that the only way to free their country, was to carry the wur 
among their enemies : That he led them, who were inured to 
v^ar, and of intrepid difpoficions, againil a parcel of enemies 
who were fbftened and enervated by eafe and luxury : That the 
natives of the country, opprefl'ed with the equally cruel and 
ignominious yoke of fervitude, would run in crowds to join 

G 6 with 

^ 50,000 Freaib crovfns^ or lifi^oLJItrilng^ 


rlhun M A» Arit nnvi of iti*!r nmvjl : Ttrat tW hoU^ 
Âpiriumpi would «ntir>)r éifcunuii thr C«tthagi«iin4 
Were •boMtWr hk^ r«p«rf J to t^prl m) «ncmjr at tbtn | 
1b £nci t&Al »OcntcipriM-coiid poi£blf b« inor* idraïKi 
«r konwankU thu tht) J laee ihT whole wcalib of C«| 
Wcwld faccoOM liie prcfrif the vM^of, «hnfc MvriiM Wll 
wiiM wJ admirril by lilelt »nlirr<iv Tht laMt^n 4| 

lhcmiy«.«lm-Iv".^"'..nt w-V-.,, -,,,1 ,:.,,.,-,f..,.f 

IbtCc rxt/W>rdin*f^ ith<B»vniciia ot natural ana ufnl iflrf 
^Millicafbj' tbnr mtlbCnvtri) rarr^nîtliKi • kn^artncm 
^uni, «bicti freifatntly ««Ir* mhrr (Wpfrrf rr hriUft 
aiotthn|KKtaDt <niF«priAfi, 1' ... - Jj 

4nw^*s U)ufm;i) ol )lt>fi.TJi it 

•riipCnalwaytfiNinnld (nim- •« 

luppinffft «ra* tiiking it' Ic-iv ^ X 

t9 thnn. . J 

I UTiling M) ralditritn tlicvtrad àiTft&tion ht «rtlhedj 
)i>- r\ni:t]i<d, aJmmt it titr Tamr iMr, n ftconJ '"^ 
-.. ^-. ft «m rnnro «laHnj; iikI baMnh»)-; lh-»ii wm l>i> tirftl 
Il i. r«ff>if>j| thrm nvfr ii]h) AfH», i '■ ■ . 'ul 

'.'■) (I'ip )n hii Hfct. Mimy'mdi- 
iiMjM'.ikin *j)l6it. Hr hill iicil etiF ; A 

whr-e liir (hint coalil Hr tn fifrtr- f* '' 

ini.lltrt nf tTir itt, fhry Mould ni-t h .^ >] 

IrlvrtittunrdtJlvI^pf till Acre. mIiicI <» 

ihirlnUrpAlliricr. In ciil» he hail I-: > 

iicMfliiry in itilbiid it, lir would hi>i 4 

^mhich Wat iii£onAd<rilil<r M th' Ml at^ ,'<ii •( oat # 
I'Qwrr td mnko Itiy iidVtmaM ttotn iMi •i)rvp«fVd d1\M 
■ the TuCtidV of Which deptnied enttrelv cm tile - (U tfuiefl 
«l(;()i)r of lliQ CNecutlnn- l.iflly. hi- wju dtfirov» of j 
hlk felJitrt under a nrrrfllty of cnt>c]<itrln)ti lir Itiri 
110 othtf rft'ujjo but *Ulorf. A t»rodigio«i «)Hrt|;« w 
inty to wfi(k ii[t liii itTiny to fnh a r«Uutû>n. 
nlicari^ |in-pi.r(it nil huoHicfri, vvtio were nrtlrcly dt^ 
111) frrt^ci-, Riid iTLi-ivrdtMrfi/ hHpn-triMi ht Ç»>c rtWn 
tli<-n cmn'* lViil<l«nt}r Into the nKttahiy iviili > cToaii «jM 
liPiid, drclftd in n mipftlflofnl Habit, ftml *iih t)T«Wf r" 

îiuïiouf oC I mnil wIm' >«'é p(rf'»ft lOperfnriTi fbmt 
. ^dtrinORT. imi adibrOing himrfir (n ihc «iikfiiWf, ' 
k^ Wf, fay» he, Icfc b/râcu(fi kAd wcit wttrnl/ fvrruidj 


^*- an'eihy ; In this fatal neceiTicy I applied myfclf toCeresand 
^ Proferpine» the tutelar ilivinicie!; of âicily ; and promifcd» 
éf tkat if they would free us from this imminent danger, X 
.^'- would burn all our fhips in their honour, at our firll land- 
^* ing here. Aid me therefore, O foldicrs, to dirchai|;e my 
^•' vow ; for the goddefies can eaftly make us amends tor thit 
*f facrifice." Ât the fame time, taking a Hambeaa ta ki« 
lijind, he.baftily led the way^ and Ayine on board hb oWa 
ihip« fet it on fire. All the officers did the like, and were 
fihearfully followed by the foldiers. -Ihe trumpets founded 
from everv quarter, and the whole army echoed with joyfuJt 
ihouts and acclamation^^ TJie Hect wab foon con fumed. I'he 
foidieis had not been allowed time to reflet on the propofal 
«lade to them. They all had been^hurried on by a blind and' 
Um^tuoQs' ardour ; but when they had a little recovered their 
v«afon, and furveying in their minds the vad ocean which 
-érparared them from their own country, fuw themfeWcs in that 
C\ the enemy without the ieafl r:fource, or any mjeans of 
«ricaping out of it ; a fad and melancholy filence fucceeded the 
'(riiiirporr o\ joy nnd accclamations, which, but a moment be- 
fore, had been fo general in the army. 

Here a^ain Agathocles left no time for reâefïion. lie 
«laiïched hit arnav towards a place called the (# reat Cityi which» 
4va8 parr uf the domain of Carthage. The country^ through 
which they marched to this place, aifordcd the mod delicienia 
and agreeable profpcd in the world. On either fide were feea 
large meads wutcred by beautiful dreams, and covered with 
innumerable flocks of all kinds of cattle ; country-feats built 
with extraordinary magnificence ; delightful avenues planted 
with olive and all forts of fruit trees ; gardens of a prodigiouA 
«xtcnc, and kept with a care and elegance which gave the eye 
• fciifible pleafure. This profpedt re-animated the foldiers. 
Thi-y marched full of courage to the fi^rc^t city, which they 
took fword ill hand, and enriched themfclves with the plunder 
^>i' it, which was entirely abiindoncd to thejn. Tunis, which 
was not far diilp.nt from Carthage, made a^ little refinance. 

The Carthaginians were in prodigious alarm, when it was 
known th<it the enemy was in the country, advancing by hafty 
Inardiei. This arrival of Agathocler. made the Cartliat^inians 
conclude, that their army before S^racufe had been defeated, 
and their ili-ct loil. The people ran in diforder to the /'r<:at 
fquare of the city, whil/t the fenatc afTembled in haAe and in 
a tumultunuii liiaiiuer. Immedi.itely they deliberated on tht 
means for prclcrvin^r the city. They had no army in iradinei» 
to oppufc lIac uicmy ; and their imoûncoi danocj- did x*ot j:cr- 


bilhcJntrly t^ taitt the 6n«i«y, id 4, ■'àb fi^ift i 
• mf Ihcir forcH in cdct of biiile. * Agaibcwlu 
bui ihintm or r«uttRti ihuuljnd men. Tb« fig 
Uil ■iv«}>fli(iar« f<][Kl mfiicd. Hanao. wtib hii 
(ih« Hi'wcr of ili« Carthagtniin foree») luog Tult 
•f ittc Gretlti, and rofnetimn (imke ibrirnblo 
ovcrwhf linfd with a thowcr of dond, asd covctM 
'ke IcH fword in haiK). Bnmilcar might bkve chi 
'afi^inri ; but he had private and prrfotial nmù 
lain ■ m9rv fur hii country. He thtttfott Uich 
iviire with the force* tindi-r lii» cominand. and 
■hy Ac wlwlc inay, whkh, by thai mean), wai i 
Ine litld In A<;athocIcg. Ai'ler pDrfoiai; the eaei 
ke triarnrtl, and plundntd the Cartbaglitian cai 
'thoi>f;vnd P»ir cf maiuciu were found in tti tit 
Carthnginiax had foroilied ibenifcUca, in ibe fj 
«r th<ir tiikins many prifonen. By (his viAor^ 
epliununity oT Cak nç; a g^t*»* nwnbtr of A«a 
«lany African! joined thr «lAor. 

(_r) This drfteni of Agaihneks into Africa, ùi 
la Scinid the dcfîgn of making a likt sctempt t 
Kpublick, and fmin the fame placi. WhcTcf«(l 
KPnbio). whoafcribed lo Rrncrtiy hisdefigo afi 
litt (eat of the Wit, h« forgot not to nmntioii Ag& 
tiiRdtice in fivour of hii ctiterpttze ; a«d lo It 


• . ■ ■• _ 

(«) While the Carthagini.-ini were thus waritiTy attacked by 

ihcir enemies, embafTadors came to them frôm'Tyre. They 

came to implore their fuccour againft Alcxandcf the Great» 

who was upon the point of taking their city, which he had 

long beficged. The extremity, to which their countrymen 

[for To they called them) were reduced, touched the Cartha- 

gibiani as fcnfibly as their own danger. Though they were 

unable to relieve, they at leaft thought it their duty to comfort 

them ; and fending thirty of their principal citizens, by thofé 

deputies they exprefled their ericf, that they could not fpare 

them any troops, hecaufe of Sie prefent melancholy ^tuation 

of their own affairs. The Tynans, though' diCippointed of 

the only hope thev had left, did not nowcver defpond ;. 

they committed their wifes, children *, and old men, to the- 

carei of thefe deputies ; when, being delivered from all in^ 

quietude, with regard to perions who were dearer to them thau' 

■ny thing in the world, they had no thoughts but of makîÂg 

■ refolute defence, prepared for the word that niig^lh^^jj^n» 

Carthage received tnis afAi6led company with all pb/tible marks- 

bf amity, and paid to guefts who were fo dtfar and worthy of 

tompaflion, all the fer vices which they cèuld have e^pedled- 

from the mod affectionate and tender pr rents. 

Quintus Curtius places this embafTy from Tyre to the Car- 
Ihagmians at the fame time that the Syracufans ravaged Africa, 
ana were before Carthage. Bat the expedition of Agathoclet 
againû Africa cannot agree in time with the fiege of Tyre, 
which was tç'jjuty years before it. 

At the famr^time this city was folicitous how to extricate 
itfelf from the difficulties with which it was furrcui ndcd. The 
prcfcnt unhappy Hate of the rcpubliclc was con/Mcred as the 
effeâ of the wrath of the gods : And it >\ns acknowledged to 
be juftly dcferved, particularly with regard to two deities, to 
whom the Carthaginians had been wanting with refpeil to 
duties prcfcribcd by their religion, and which had one.* been 
obferved with great exa^ncfs. It was a cuflom (coeval with 
the city itfelf) in Carthage, to fend annually to Tyre (the 
mother-city) tlic tenila of all the revenues of the republick, as 
an offering to Hercules, the patron and prote«rt<^r of both Tyro 
and Cartli.'igc. I'hc domain, and conieqtiently the revenucé 
of Carthage, having increafcd confidcmhly, the portion or 
fliare, on the contrary, of the god,, had been lefToned ; and 
they were far from remitting the whole tenth to him. They 


(») Diod. 1. xvii. p. Ç19. Qnint. Curt. 1. iv. c. 3» 

* TZf riujxf j yuvaM^f jur^^, fome cf tltir w'rvts end (biiJrtn, D:o4« 
It xvii— xli. 

Uftgeu ... 
{^cml<^M with a failure of paying (O the J 
ifhiih thcv ihon^Tii nett due to Mm i ^iid al 
hotirît di'nlinff wuii (rjtatd lohin, by ihclr hat 
in ihiif rtcriCccs dùMrcn nf Cave» or l>«;|^i 
iliat putpt-iV, in ll)c Kjcm of tbnk nahlv Lo.-i 
lH( Buil( uf fo tiiM tiJ an îrapiety. a Oicrifict wt 
bkody r>*f. f* "^'■' liunJrcJ children of iht 
'|ipik;.N> of ihi c liunklrcJ pcircni, ia a fenlV 
IIÇ|^A, oJfcifd ihcmfi-Ivej vcilutiurily » vift 
b/ ibc «Crfna af (kcii li!aud,'tlie wiaih of ihi 

c»r ia (kOy, with tlic newt of what Iiaii bn^' 
ïnii >l the Tutne time, tn fcquell )(nmediat|$ i 
«leputici were cttinnixndvd not to sicotion 1^ f 
ihoclc!) i but {pKiii dtonitaxjnporK, ibacKthi 
idcfcated, Til foictf nil cut ^f, and hi» wlioTe lie 
tnriKojiiiNflt 1 end, in cnnAnnationcf (fiUrcf 
the iron» of tlic vcfl'eli pretended la be taken, ) 
Mrerully fent to him. 1 he troth of th)j nfi 
all doubled io Syracufc -, the sa»y>TUy were for i 
nivhen a E»Uey of thirty onn, built iu huile by . 
rived ill the port, »na ihruugh grtM dî^nilth 
Içrccd its way to (he befieged. The aéwg'ofAj 
iorr immeOiMielf Acw ihrouzlt the city, And ic 


t enemies hands, was put to death *. Hamilcar^s head wa» 
kC iinincdiatcly toAgathoclcs, who, advancing to thcenemy*»» 
^p, threw it into a general confternatinn by (hewing the 
3U of this general» which nianifclled the meiantlioly fituation 
their ai^airs in Sicily. 

(^) To tbefe foreign enemies was joined a domeftick one» 
ich was more to be feared, as being more dangerous than 
r others ; this was Bomilcar their general, who was then in 
Qeifion of the firil employment in Carthage. He had long 
ditaied how lo make himfclf tyrant, and attain the fovc- 
gncy of Carthage; and imagined, that the prefent trouble» 
cred him tlie wi(hed-fbr opportunity. He therefore entered 
; city with thi^ ambitious view ; when,» being feconded by a 
all number of citizens, who were the accomplice» of thi» 
>eI]ion, and a body of foreign foldicrs, he pfoclaimed him-^ 
f tyrant ; and made himfelf literally fuch, by cutting the 
roats of all the citizens, whom he met with in the llreets» 
tumult arifing immediately in the city,, it was at firft thought 
AC the enemy had trikcn it by feme treachery; but.when* il 
IS known that Bomilcar cuufcd all this diilurb^fice.hheyciurjg 
L-n took up arms to repel the tyrant, and iVoin the tops of 
c. houfes difcharged whole volleys of darts and llonrs upon 
e heads of his fgldicrs. When he faw an arn.y marching \i\ 
dcr againfl him, he retired with his troops to :i:i cniinciKf, 
ich dcfign to make a vigorous defence, and to (ill hi** life as 
*ar as poifible. To fpare the blood of the citizens, a t!/-iu-r:il 
irdon was proclaimed for all who would lay down th< ir arms. 
hey furrendercd upon this proclamation, and all etijoycd the 
SDcfit of it, Doroilcar their chief excepted ; for he, .Mocwiih- 
anding the general indemnity promifed by oath, was con- 
emncd to die, and fixed to a crofs, where he fulKned the moil 
«qui Ate torments. From the crofs, as from a roilrum, lic 
arangued the people ; and thought himf<.l! jnfUy impox d 
J reproach them for their injulHce, tln.i» i .jm w, tudc*, r.-. .r- 
dy, which he did in .'in hilloricnl dct^*.. .(Jimt many î • < iioiis 
cnerals, whofc ferviccs they had r ocd ur'i an mini- 

us death. lie expired on the en* nidll uu ie i xha, [-, 

. xgaihoclcj 

(h) Died. p. 77c) — "K ■ .(tin. I. xx'.'i. .'. 

* //* 'nhli €tutil^ ttrturej t:' . '. ■ W4i.i.'«-L.r /^-v ■.; . I .-Hfr •U\9riiinfr tO 
ted, and Jt* met iviih tif I'iA> . lUfif .///•' .//..' i:sv;iii»mtfi\» 

ii f.'l!:%o t'ltiz-enit 'fffttdf^ .it /.} <;. . //i'.'. ■.'■ ur -.rttt'i n, t to ur p 

ufiinSUiiy, had prbh.i! !< ..' .a,- i f'.r 1 nil l nurrpit an.' luw. ilt \ 'ft 

im. at titni. Hfn\n'ti.2s (■ j(.t,f!t • ij'/i' j/"'''« I»nm. I. xx «. ;, 

d^/c 10 he ot.*u lu ut lie Li,i,i ff il" 1 ■ ■ '" " /"•" ■'• '«!;/'■ e ii>tn r.ny 
rty^attdli/fifjQiitl't vùt^'S ij'/l'i-jtfiaic I man ^t'oui'd jo jjr tuum^b i%'tt tbt 

ttMdjr* be ilnlKafémi Vy'tûm in «t4« 

anny mighl he cTitiiely nt hi' devation. I» 
now jnintJ in alliance wkli Aj^xthoclci, a 
kuldi hill ndiniiccJ 111) g&rriran*. He faw tl 
in a dfKjrilhicig condition, and ilierefare tho 
look aficr ihob of Eiicily ; accordingly he h 
and kfi hi» African army to tl^e Gftrc of his 
Hit tcnnwn. And the repori of bi« vi£lorif*. 
On the nrws of bit arrivai in Sicily, many 
liiin ; bui bsd newt Toon recalled him t6 Afr 
lud quite changed the fuce of ihiuf^ ; and 
rndravaurn were incapHbIc of relloriiig ihtf 
condiiir^n. AH hi* (lionr hold» had Turrende 
the Aftlcan) had dcTcttcd him ; feme of hii 
tiid the remainder unable to make hcaâ sgs 
«hm; acifcamftflncc ttiiit WM Aill «orfe, I 
tranfprFri them inio Sillily, the enemy bcinj i 
himfelf uiiprofiJed of fliipj : he could noi 
jie4CC or ircuty wjih ihc liarbaiianj, finee he 
in fo outragc'juj a manner, by hii beiej the É 
to make » defcent in their country. In t 
thoughi only of providing for hii own fafctj 
with a variety of adventur^i, i)ii> bufedefi 
luid peifiJioui bcirnyer of his own children, 
him [0 thr wild fury of hî4 difappointcd'fo 
from the dan jtrs wliich hangover him, sndj 


! n this pcxiod may be placed another incident related by 
The fame of Alexundcr*s conqucfts made the Cartha- 
& fear, that he, veryprobahly, mieht think of turning 
ns towards Africa. The difallrous fate of Tyre, whence 
'Tcw their origin, and which he had To lately deflroycd; 
uildinç of Alexandria upon the confines of Africa and 
t» as if he intended it as a rival city to Carthage; the 
irrupted fuccefles of that prince, whofe ambition and 
fortune were boundlefs ; all this juftly alarmed the Car- 
iiians. To found his inclinations, Hamilcar, furnamcd 
lanus, pretending to have been drove from his country by 
:abals of his enemies, went over to the camp of Alex- 
r, to whom he was introduced by Panncnio, and offered 
his ferviccs. The king received him gracioufly, and had 
ral conferences with him. Hamilcar did not fail to tranf- 
to his country, whatever difcoveries he made from time to 
, of Alexander's defigns. Nevcrthelefs, on his return to 
hage, after Alexander's death, he was confid'-'rcd as a 
lyer of his country to that prince, and accordingly was 
10 death by a fentence, which difplaycd equally the ingra- 
and cruelty of his countrymen. 

I I am now to fpeak of the wars of the Carthagini.nns in 
V, in the time of Pyrrhus, king of Ëpirus. The Romans, 
bom the defigns of that ambitious prince were not un- 
vn, to ilrengthen tliemfelves againfl any attempts he might 
e upon Italy, had renewed their treaties with the Cartna- 
ins, who, on their fide, were no Icfs afraid of his crofTing 
Sicily. To the articles of the preceding treaties, there 
added an engagement of mutual aiTiil.ince, in cafe either 
le contriving powers (hnuld be attacked by Pyrrhus. 
'') The forefight of the Romans was very jull ; for Pyrrhus 
ed his arms againfl Italy, and gained many vidlories. The 
haginians, in conffquence of the lad treaty, thous^ht 
ifelves oblij^ed to aifîlt the Romans ; and accordin^Hy fent 
I a fleet of fix-fcorc fail, under the coinniiiiul of Mago. 
> general, in an audience before the iinaic, ii^'iiificil to 
1 the concern his fiipr^Mon tocjk in ll»e war, which tijcy 
d was Carry litg on again lb tlic Romans, and oH'cred thnn 


I fuftin. i. «X Î. c. 6. (e) A. M. ^717. A. CartL. q<».). A. Ron». 471, 
J. C. »77, Poljfb, 1. iii. [t.^i^u. EJil. Cronov. (/) Juflin. I. »viii. 

with ibt mtjl ra.'khjr f'a'w:, Mérr.on | P,f"f ih ,ha'b, be r fioreii ff*e dtmê* 
tXcittdtQ tbitii^d by Jrtbu^Mhut, \ tt.uif tn the prsfk. It it ai'/.-rvaHe, 
iftn êf j^iatbçclrt, whom be tie tint JulxnUr ratl-t 'Infiut) nndl^n* 

'/' - - 

r /• éefemt •f the jhufffi-n, m 
tr ^J hit 9tLer J'en ^'iga:b\icUi, 

Jêriéi J'f.iyrer in ail tie mattfiul ^AtU af 
tbit tyrant's bjftory. 

Pf^fl K I s T O R ^' OK T IT ^^^1 

•ffer af the Catllugioiwu, bM U prefeai ihoKglit Etl 
clinc i(. 

it) Majto, fonic(l:.y»afier, Kiuirctl to Pvnhu», tfm 
fcoM of ofknnji «he meiliiition nf Carihij^e fur tumiHilfa 

JuuTcl with ihc Kcmaiui but In MatUy to To and hi— 
iftiiver. if potEWo. hii dc^xnt wiiii legard tn HcUj, 
icoflimon biiK lepoiitd he vm going tu tnvaù*. They 
«frùd UuirîlhcrPvriliai wiheRciBiini woald incerfcic* 
i£iin of ihït liUnil, aiikl ttuifpid force* thiiher for 
«tuSof it Add. imJecil, the Syrkcafaiu. who bid t 
i- me^Kà («T fomt ùmt by (he CjnthA^iniuM, bad frni fi 
F ibr lÎKfoiir to Pyrihus. Thii nrir-ee bad a pattieiiU» i 

ivTpoure ihcif inicr«1>. having mained Lananii, daugta 
MXlhoclei, by nhom he bad a foa namtd Alrxantirr. ^ 
ln« failed fiom 'rarsotutn, (-aiTtd I be Strait, and ar 
SiaUy. fiii coitqucfl] at (irtlwere fa raptJ, that he kl 
(^haginiaiu, id the nhole iHAnd, cnlv the ftbglr r 
L'l)b*um. rie then laid fegt ro it. bJt meeUng 
vigcrout leftlUnce, «a» aWf,tû to brfafc up ; not to ( 
(hJl Eh« jffrrnt arccBity «f Itii ttfuin ealUd b'tn back lo 
where hi" prcfcnce watabfolaicl) neccirary. Not wai ' 
(> in Sicily, whidi, on his depatlwf.TitornwJ loihenl 
pf its Ibrracr hihUmi. Thu» iw ioft tb;^ iflind with th* 
capiJity ihAi he haj won ù. âi bï wa» «iTtbatkiog. 
*!■» cyct batfc to Sicily, {i) tPk^i a fin, fi>ld 'fhia>U ', 
Xa lhof<; 4l)i>ut him, ^^ iv<? Umr ilit Carriaiinittiu naJ ■ 
Ili> prediClinn wa^ fnon veifficd. 

Atier hit deci.irtuier rbc chief publi<;k cmpto^mcet of 
tfiSe W15 Gontcrrcd on Htero,. tvho afierwanf* obtaiv 
name inil dignitv ot kiug, J>y the noiteiJ folfrace* 
Vili'irn*, fa )(reat1y hnJ hJH ([gv^romenc i>UalUv H r * 
fotntcd to carry on the *»r «f»inrt in (^afthapt.Jîi 
«btained fotvr&t (KJvaui^iTr' ' nvat lh^-:i:. But OO'V a c< 
intercttrc-LUiited ihcm u^aiitA a '.f v *oetny, f^Io bsj 
•pjiear in Sicily, m( J julHy «lattned both : T Vreff «ri 
Ronrnni. wJio. hav'ifg crufli*-^ all lh« «ntroicf •tAnf' 
kiihcito excicifeii il*eir aiitu îiTltïty ilfclf, Wcu now \ 



OQgTi to carry them out of it ; and to lay the foundation of 
%t vaft power there, to which they afterwards attained, and 
which it was probable they had even then formed the de«- 
;n. -Sicily lay too commodioas for them, not to form a re- 
lation of eilablHhing themfelv^s in it*. They therefore eagerly 
Etched ihis opportunity for croiTing into it, which caufcd the 
ptvire between them and the Carthaginians, and gave rife to 
e Punick war. This I ^all tre^ of m(^e at large, by relatinjg; 
e canfes of thac war. 


hi hifiory ijfCARTHACB, from the firft Funick War te ttt 


rH£ plan laid down by me for the profecvtion of th» 
hiflory, does not allow me to enter into an exaét detail 
' the wars between Rome and Carthage ; fince that relates 
ther to the Roman hiilory, which I fhall only traniiently and 
rcaiionally touch upon. My bufinefs is to relate fitch fads 
ily, as may give the reader a juft idea of the republick^ 
hofe hiflory lies before me 4 and thi'S I may do, by confining 
yfelf to thofe particulars which relate chieiy to the Cartha- 
nians, fuch as their tran fanions in Sicily 9 Spain, and Africa^ 
hich are fufficiently extenfive. 

I have already obferved, that from the firfl Punick war to 
le ruin of Carthage, there were an hundred and eighteen 
^s. This whole time may be divided into five parts or 

I» The fird Punick war laûed twenty-four years* 34 

If. The interval betwixt the firll and fécond Punick J . 
war, is alfo twenty-four years. J ^ 

HI. The fécond Punick war took up fcventcen years. 17 

IV. The interval between the fccond and third, is 7 
forty-nine years. J ^^ 

V. The third Punick war, terminated by the de- 1 
(Iruftion of Carthage, continued but four years, > 4 
and fome months. 3 





Thr frjt P U M IC K H'nr, 
I /"T^HC lirll Pmii< k war ainia ffwit the rotlwiiil wl 

^ tktKl». th< Skili«B ir'*"'» iu'idg mtcicil at tfittb* 
Itcffina, ih«y ftion «fer witidiM-ii [/»rt of ihr lawnlm^M 
mit Uif f«B. in»<ri*J ibcii wiirt, Uixd the'r HT'ili, w* 
Btùnfii foie malien cf ih«i j(nfwnt»n< tU)-. Ihty »»•» »"•' 
thf nime of M#aiviiiirf. J» nnttartnit of ibcm, tni»)^ 
•ffiilaocc, a Rtiirmu lif;)iia fiM ff4 in ll>c bmecrwIiMi 
the liir 0<' Hhr^ium, l>'i:<g <tirr/lly apptifii« M Mif» 
Ikï mh» ftOc III tl.e Rjbu. Thde two otrUiota tion, 

Eoniog oat iDwhti. hmmt u lali lofnudabtc to tb«r « 

•••« gi«ar nmonpe uuJ unoûiMÙ both ti> ise Synca^H 
C'lil'tginiBi», Mho wiJIcKi'd nn« pirr or Sickly. AA 
Rbiiiaiii hail pK ha of ihc cnuni» they hul lb Imi| 
Kndcil wtih, anti funifuliilr "* i'y'^buii ihey bt|iBn 
it titneioull thtit citiscni u accuuni. who (ltd lettictl 
felv». nor iikO ytart, ni Rhcginm, in fecrwt imlircM 
• naniicr. Attoidingly, ihcy look tliecit]r> and bl 
tkc aiutk. lb* ^ftAui pan of ih« tnlubiuntt, wlw, 
.Willi «ei|iJÎ>. k^fpuj(bt 10 ikc laflgâfp: Throe k»dl 
yntic Icfi, vilw were cirtied to Umbr, «tiipprd, and th 
Ikktv bcbcailcd in ihc famm. Tke vkw which the I 
had lo Biikiti^ (hi* binodf ctecution, wa», lo pmvc I 
allici ihcir D«n ftnttt'tty and innocrncr. ftlicgiutn I 
mcdi^uly tcRo/rd u> ii* lawful miITcITmi. The Man 
who wrte tunfidcnbly wc»krnf<I, •( well hy the ruin ' 
coufcdciiiie city, at by the lufiu fuflRSned frora th« Sjrf 
uho bul hlt\y placed Hiero al ihclr licad, thpaght it 
provide for their own M<iy. |lMldi«il)on)aiifiDg amoi 
one purl furrtr><lflred the cilMlel to the Catthegintani 
the other cilled in the Rr^mani tn their affiftaiicci and 
to put ibrni in ptiÙxBàun ul ihtir ciiy. 

(i) The affair wu debtiMl in tka Rnm^ii CeRite, 
bring coalîdercd in all iii lighti, tt apiteared to hi 
diflkultlei. Ononehand, itwai tbuughi bi(e, end al 
■BwoiihjF o[ the Roman vicur, Tor ibctn lo undertake 
thedcTeiKe of trniton, «hofc perlidy wai e»âly I 

'ktkti of the Rbcgiui, whom th< Rotuu baa j 


A. Horn- 4M. Am. J. C.sloi I 


xemplary a Teverity. On the other hand^ it was of 
•ft confequencc to ftop the progrefs of the Carthagi- 
ho, not, iatb&ed witn their conquefts in Africa and 
id alfo made themfelves mailers of almoft all the iHands 
irdinian and Hetrurian Teas ; and would certainly get 
into their hands* if they fhould be fuflîsred to poflefs 
es of M^rillna. From thence into Italy» the palTage 
(hort ; and it was in fome manner to invite an enemy 
3ver, to leave him that entrance open Thefe reafons» 
b ftrong, could not prevail with the fenate to declare 
r of the Mamertines ; and accordingly, motives of 
ind juftice previdled over thofe of intereft and policy. 
he people were not f • fcrupulous ; for, in an affembly 
his Aibjed^, it was rcfolved that the Mamertines (hould 
J. The conful Appius Claudius immediately fct for- 
:h his army, and boldly crofTed the Strait, after he 
an ingenious ftratagem, eluded the vigilance of the 
nian general. The Carthaginians, partly by. art and 
r force, were driven out of the citadel ; and the city 
lis means furrenJercd immediatel)Lto the conful. The 
nians hanged their general, for having given up the 
I fo cowardly a manner, and prepared to befiege the town 
their forces. Hiero joined them with his own. But 
j1 having defeated them feparatrly, raifed the fiege, and 
e at pleafure the neighbouring country, the enemy not 
o face him. This was the firft expedition. which the 
made out of Itafy. 

doubted *, whether the moti/es which prompted the 
to undertake this expedition, were very upright» and 
;onformable to the rules of ftridl juftice. However 
their paftage into Sicily, and the fuccour they gave 
habitants of Mefilna, may be faid to have been the firft 
which they afcended to that height of glory and gran- 
yr afterwards attained. 

liero, having reconciled hîmfelf to the Romans, and 
nto an alliance with them, the Carthaginians bent all 
ughts on Sicily, and fent numerous armies into that 
(«) Agiigentum was their place of arms, which, being 
by the Romans, was won by them, after they had 
it feven months, and gained one battle. 


f. 3741. A.Carth. c?-;. A. Rom. 585. Ant. J. C. 613. Fiontin. 

, 1. i. p. 15—19. {n) A. M. 3743* A. Rom. 487. 

'ttmaiiir Pokrd exMUntt this quëftiçn i« bh rtÊUêrkj tpê» P^/jféiwtg 

i-e rtti 

tlnccvni . t^f year buh 

Ufc»* i;| ' i!v. whkh ftr*( 

WW Ofit --Jr-.. r,.'*' .iiT-lif-, 

Iknw roim ; and to ike mr. < 

tOarffS who «WK 13«çhl Ï17 . 

Imtiwa » ifcem twiort, i» i!.. ...Jv....,, .. 

tktkfc of (allict. Tt<^ lowcn wvre ftited ( 
anij taii|kl, M if thr' tt-rJ ^^^^ tardllhtd wi 
ikcoilirl'm Wk*--' ' ■'- ■'- -m duwi 
iRd tlua to ikirif '.u f'jtw, 

motion. ilt«(n(t;i ' rKcri 

In tw-umiMttk', w<e ..I, (ndti 

S*1lkt HWK bmli I »<i iti<r i.nic time ka 


.«*A T.HAÔtMif.ANi:. ,. t4Ji 

Knôton br tl of thf (^) Conroi (Cr^^uf #f Cr/»y/) bjr 

p of wbiUh y apptod the cnemy'i ihipi» boarded 
Wl fmacdl , ««ââte (o clofe engigemenc. The fignal 
iâftf wai gfarcil'. The Canbagiouui fleet confifted (u aa 
dMd tbiriy iail» onder the cofnmaad of (fannibal ^» 
nCdf wit on board a gaUey of <even benches of oari^ 
bid Doca behmged to Pyrrhui. The Canhaginianf^ 
d'eipiAog enemief Who were utterly unacqoain^ with 
lin, ijnagined that their very apf^earance would put 
to lUght, and therefore came forward boldly, with little 
atioB of fighting } but fiirmlv imag^nin? their ifhould reap 
oib; which they had already devoured with their eyet» 
WfftJievertheleff a little furprized at the fight of thô 
•AMfttfoned engiaeiy railed on the prow of everyone pt 
«ttiy'i ibipi, and which was entirely new to them* But 
^hmifliment increafed, when theyiaw thefe engiifes drop 
ai.oncei and beinjr thrown fprcibly into their vcflels^ 
Irtbem in Qȕte of au refiftance* This changed the form 
rengagement! and obliged the Carthaginians to. come to 
engagement with their enemies» as though thejr bad 
t'tnem on Mni* They foon were unable to fuHain the 
; ef the Roman veffels , upon which a horrible flaughjer 
It and the Carthaginians loft fourfcorc vtcflels, amonj{ 
^u the admiral's galley/ he himfelf efcaping with difh- 
In a fmall boat. 

9onfiderable and unexpeded a viflory^ raSfed the cotfragt 
I Romans» and feemed to redouble their vigour for the 
nance of the war. Extraordinary honours were beftowed 
illittiy who was the ftrft Roman that had a naval triumph 
dhbn» Befides which, a roflral pillar was ere^cd ii^ 
noqr. With a noble infcription; which pillar is no# 
iifr tn Rome f . 

During the two following years, the Romans grew in- 
y ftrongcr at fca, by their gainina; fevcral naval viélories. 
lefe were confidered by them only as cfl'ays preparatory 
f great defign chey meditated of carrying the war inco 
f and of combating the Carthaginians in their own 
y. There was nothing the latter dreaded more ; and 
at fodangcrous a blow, they rcfolved to fight the enemy, 
rer might be the confcqucnce. 
t. I. H The 

\p) Polyb. 1. 1, p. 31* ff) Ibid. p. 34. 

^$rêni fir Jon frm the grtat 


^fUUrt art ېlUd Roaratc, 

frm thi btakt tf Jhifi, mi:,b jUh 
tbej %utrt ekitnttdp KvUf «• 


eRomaa» lud eleâai M Adl-ai Rrgula^ _. 

Vj-IUu (cniiilt for ikii jeu. Thrir Hcrt confillcd ol . 
IsnUml iod ihjrg^ reficlt, OA board of which ivcrc oae tuiudn^ 
■ai fafty tfiovfind nes. r»ch vrlTrl having throe haniùii 
tc-airt, i»ii aa him^^ lod i»my roIJicn. That of At 
CvtlMgiouiu. coainudcd by Hftnno and HamiUit, U 
Mrcnry ««fiiU mon than ihcRomuM, >?)■) a gfi:iitcr numWtf 
■Ktt In ptofortioa. Tlie t«o r!mi dmc io iighi orucliMkr 
«ear EtaocEUo in ^àlv No fn4n CoulJ bcltdJ two Cuch l«> 
Biiitble aiviu, cr be a fftaatar uf the cxCrai^rdioarv ptq» 
n(ion\ tlicv njJc for figbùsg, withoat being under laoïeCt* 
Cera, ca <rrin£ tiie àingrr which meoioed iwo or ibc Mt 
ptMnhl Chitri in iIm ikk'iî. Ai ihe courage on both Ua 
wjsc^iat. and «o f^rat dir^iviiy in ihc rotcei. tbe Ëekt ru 
oUlîtiaM, «ad Uk «Ktor; luce duublful ; but at )afi tbeCli- 
ihagiaUt)) *«re mt^çomc. \1otc than hxiy of ibttr ftffi 
were akea bj Ae ea<my, ind thîrtv Tuak. The Romiu «t 
tureulf -fiMi, coccDc of wbkh «ra» taken by the Carih;ij>i<ÉtM 

(i) The fiiiil of liât rîQcty, ai the Romins had dcilglfi 
if. «ai ihdr failing to Afiica, after hiving rcEttto their Sifs 
■aii [•rundeij ilwiu with aII nercSiuki for carryiog on a l<*{ 
war ta a li3;Ti{>n coontrr. Tbey laodetl happily in Afiic^ 
Kid begun the hir br uking a icwn c^SIrd Civpea, ubcV 
lad a coatmoùiuDï haTirn. From cbcDce, after havieg Cent tt 
ciprelt 10 Rucic, to give advice of their lai\i'ivg, «m io ■*■ 
ceivc orders from the letiaie, ihej ovrr-ritn the open couaoti 
ID which ihey luiile terrible bavock ; bringing away wbJf 
Suv:ks of cattle, and twenty lboufki.iI prifonert. 

(/; The eatprtfs /etura«d in the a.ean time witb the ordtn rf 
til e fen ate, which were, that Régulas ibi^uid cooiiruc to co»- 
nard iheaimiei in Africi, with the title of Pioeonful; w4 
that his collègue Ihould return uûh a gitai part of the Cm 
and the forces; leaving Régulai only forty TeiTeU. iUat 
thciiirai:d foot, aad five hundred ItoitV. Their leaving (he Uicet 
wicli fo few Ihipi and iroopi, was a vitible reDunetacion of ikt 
■dTar.iiges nhidi might have been MpcAcd Horn thitdcli^tu 
ipon Africa. 

The people at Rome depended greatly on the crvurigriM 

F iSBïlicies of Regulu^ ; and ihe city wm in uoiverfal joy, s^fca 

. itwas known that he was cnminucd in the command in Africa} 

bi) but be himiêlf was afilifl'd on that account. Wkm mm 

i3 brC'Uglit him of it, he wrote t<? Rome, and defiiet), in ttK 

>ngtlt ternis, thai he might be appointed a facuflùr. **'" 

A Kain.4}j, Polfb. 1. 1, p. It. (t) I 
A. Ki.B.41,4. (hj ViL Mm. 1. 1*, c. ft 


Met rea(bn wai,* that the death of the farmer who rented hit 
|roundi» having given one of his htrellogs an opportunity of 
Earryiog off all tne implements of tillage ; his prefence was 
peccflary for taking care of his little fpot of ground (it being 
tet feveo acres) which was all his family fubiiilcd upon. But 
ibe fenate undertook to have his lands cultivated at the pub- 
lick cxpence ; to maintain his wife and children ; and to in* 
drmnify him for the lofs be had fullaincd by the robbery of 
Mf hireling. Thrice happ^ age ! in which poverty was thus 
l^ad in honour, and was united with the mofl rare and uncom- 
BOD meriCt and the higheft employments of the (late! Rcgulus» 
ibtu freed from his domeftick cares, Lent his whole thoughts 
on difcharging the duty of a general. 

(jr) After tucing feveral cailles, he laid ftcge to Adis, one of 
Ae ilroDgeft fortreiTcs of the couhtry. The Carthaj^Jnians, 
iOUifperated at feeing their enemies thus laying waile ihcir lands 
mt picafure, at laft took the field, and marched againft them» 
$0 force them to raife the fiege. With this view, they poûed 
dbcmfelves on a hill, which overlooked the Roman camp, and 
was convenient for annoying the enemy ; but at the fame 
Jsme* by its fituatiooi ufelefs to une part of their army. For 
Ae ftrength of the Carthaginians lay chieBy in their horfcsand 
tlephants, which are of no fervice but in plains. Regulus did 
•pt give them an opportunity of defccnd log from the hill ; but 
Caking advantage of this eAcnttal midake of the Carthaginian 
^nerals, he fell upon them in this pofl ; and after mectin? 
with a feeble reûflance, put the enemy to Bight, plundered 
their camp, and laid walte the adjacent countries. Then, 
kaving taken Tunis *, an important city, and which brought 
Urn near Carthage, he made his army encamp there. 
' The 

(jt) I'olyb. I. 

• /• tbt interval httnvixt the At' 

far tun of ManliuË and the /akififf of 

Tymitt wt are to plan tbt memoruhli 

ttmkai of Rtfulut and Ih whole armyt 

ntritb a jerptnt ^f fo prediyhui a fxe, 

éàêi the fabuloui one of Cadmut ts batdly 

tmapûrahle to it, I'bejiory of this fer- 

/*»/ wai eJeganrh writ by Uvy, but it 

U ntnu loft, fuller iut Maximut Ictu- 

tvtr partly repai't tbat loft j and in the 

/ft/f cbapttr of bit frft bookf givei ut 

iiii metount if tbii munfter from Lwif 

bimfelf-^Hi [Liny^ fays, tbat on the 

éa/Ui êf Mairadaf {an jifriian rtvtr) 

Î. p. Jf— 36. 

lay a ferf>(nt tf Ç^ mormout a fixe ^ that 
it kept the nxHole Roman armf from 
coirinv to thr river, Several foldiert 
bad hrm l/i.riid in tbf tnide lavtrni of 
its Iftlly, and many pt'JJ'd to d'.ath in 
the fpiral tJumei «,/ its tail, Ut flin 
luat mpenetiabl, tQ darn^ and it itgo 
wtib repeat /d tt.dfa'vourt thit Pcnet^ 
flung ff'.m military in^in i, at lufl killed 
it. *rie firpini thin exli/'ifcd tt fiybt 
that ti-at mere terrihle to tb: R'man 
cthortt and lefr'icnt, than tie» Carthu^ 
\t\ef. 11 e fireen t (f tie river *#/ # 
d^cd wi'b ill lUid, and iLefttmb rf 
H z if 

^4^ U 1 S T O R Y O F IP H P. 

1*1. " rnrmy wrrc in ihr iitmoft alarm. All things had fee» 
li.i ill wiih ihrni, thtir forces had been dcfeitnJ bvfcl 
. I n:ii. nnd ui'UHriU iif two hundred towns had fiirrrndent 
t t r (..)tif lur. Hrl'hlr.s, the Numidians maile greatei 
'' 111 ilii*ir tcnitoiir'. thnn even the Rninan^. Thtjtt 
; ''.CSV iiKKiM'it to fiT their capital befirgril. Andthcti 
<ii V..I-. ill! u .tli'.t hv tlir coniourfr of pcafants with thcl 
'.Mill hlMirn, uliu (ÎkIck] from all paru lo C^irthagefb 
: M Inch y.wv lirin nu'Liiuhnly apprchenfion» of a Umin 
• •I A O'-yy. I'.r^Mihr., .'ifrjiid of haviu)^ the glory 
K :i. I 'III fi"ii' htn hy .1 fiufrfTor, made fome pmpob 
< t:,i]|,..| <ii,.ii til ()ir v:iiM)uifhrd enemy ; hut ihrcon 
^; iii.l !•• liir.i, they could not li lien to them 

.IT • 
f I 
I. . 
I • 

4 :| 





I. . 

f ■ . 
» • 


I:. ! 



I I I 

II - I 


■ i] Inn li-inj» fooii ma fier of Carihaur, ki 

• pi\ tlilnt; in hi. \\ in. nds ; but, by an infatu 

I iili'i W ill'-'I;- fniiii p/eat and uncxpr^Ut 

.•I -i III in \\ii!i li.iiir.liiiiirfs ; and prrtiMidrd iha 

'iiil' I' lii^m. to jMiil'i'., fuij>ht Cti br riltcmcdi 

'■ :«'i il^i l.-n!)'f iiiiult, '/'/•/tf f/'Ê'v ow^ht rith.r io tvtf 

'•■ ".■-••. f tr .-i;; /,; luhnit to thf ^I'tf.ior •. So hard 

i- hij .1 II .turn! unly fn d then rrlcntinent, and msd 

• •. il . : i.> Xw livor»! Ill hantl, than to do any lhin| 

• •■' : ! I. I'll ■ fiii:;i tlir iiijMiiiy nf Carth.i^»e. 

! I» i'.' I ii.»l ( VII' in-iy, ihry rrcrivrti, in the hap 
. : •. .! I iiiI'M- Mill lit I'f nii\:Ii.iiy (roop.s out ol 
'.il \.ii.'liij'| v. t \ I..ut't-.riiioni:iii .u ihr ir head, «^hl 
. I iiii.iinl \\\\\% I'-ii ijilii.r cif Sp.iiin, .iiid learnt tbi 
. . m ill. I' I'c u .\ii.l ivrfllrni iVhiud. When hi 
.!i'' ■ I II . '.mm:1,:ii. I -f (III- 1. ill h title, which were tPÎc 
■ ■• I. •.»■■( !• ; li.îii clcMilv iliUiinnl the oi i tfltin of it 
\ ii !v ii.:« I n r i hin.lrM in thr (lu ii>i(li cf Car 
I I •! |v)!, mil irpr.tlcd il often, ill th 
. "I i!i i'!iu- .. that the ini..ti-r(ui-.('^ «if th 
". I.- i>^\ii)» I'liindvlo the jniMp.iiiiv of (hci 
<' •> (.tni< W l.ill l( the r.ii ci( (he pub 
(f. id il \\ii.- Iliiiik with ilicni, ani 
i>i i>-i-ii • .11) ' '.iikiii^ with liini. if 


..I i:- 

llii.'.M- ••. 

i :■■■ 1 




: < I ! •! Ill- I'l 'linivi \\-:ii lilt II (iioii^; and eominvini 
I'.it i\r-i:»'iii. vcMiiniKU'd bv (!.e ^'t n< r.d.^ wt t 


1 1 

'• . ■ . • f I T. .ti /| » #.'' r, 
■ ' I ' ■■'<• "I* •HI 

f' i, 

>: w . tf It 

'■■• /■'."•• m**-/f,'9, in th§ erirù.'f ^hf 

tf' » M*'-. ft'=i ,!*pftl.J) III I «!• m'I it 
A" tf :- ».■ •»• I- . 

* «\r. ti-. ■i;^()HC ^ 1(N.v» ft irMi 
I». i'ir|>i^^Kri», Dl0.uLkU>|i J,XJ|UI 

CrAA T H, A G I N I A N 5, m 

de » tivtr/imtl wd.hH proved as cleaily to tlie Cflupi;;i». 
tbyacan^aa oppofite io the former, ihey wuuM noi uniy 
{M dieir dpqiiiitoni^ but- >iiivc the enemy out «f ibnn,. 
f Ipccch revived ttç courage and hopes of the Carchj^ int>~ 
t «if3 jfanibippiu wa* iotj-catïd, mid, is T^mic ir^arufQ, 
|M)> to accept "W command of the army. When the tjpt» 
fnwrfyft, in bii cxercifing of th<--ir forces. nc^r ttk;, (Uy* 
nuno" in which he drew them upin ordet of luiile. maà* 
II «dvan.ce or ittrut on the £rlt ugna!, lile ojF with cukIcv 

«z|(cdicioii : io & word., frûm all tha evuluLioips aç^ nvuve- 
Itt of the military art ; t^^ ivcre ilr.ack with slioBtllimeni, 

O'iviicd, diat, generals which C^nhnge lia4 bi^f-, : 
fOdqc(^d|. IcBCfV nothtag in comparifon of Xanchippvj^ 
"he officen,. foldiera» and evcTy one were log «i -idï^iri^eAs 
I what' il very, qncommon, jvaU>i\i'/ gavr nn iilUy tO' it i 
fear of the pre&nt danger, ac J the love of tifnit country^ 
iqgt without donbt, all oihcr feottments. Tlie gluoiny 
bastion, wl)ich had before fciiid the whole aimy. wa» ' 
It^ed by joy and alicrity. The foHiers were utge^a \a,bp.' 
^pinft the enemy, in the firm afîursnce [a thay, faid) -of, 
Iff TÎAorïous' under their new leader, and of obJiter^iog 
atfgraee of former déJÈata. Xanthippo» didnoi fufci bb£i? 
nif to cool; and thç iigbt of the en«niy only inihined it,' 
i^.}\£w»t 84t. within litue more thau twelve huiidted pacei ' 
iiftp, he bought proper to call a caundl of,, in ocdsi 
IViK 4 relpeâ, to iKe GaTthagÎAiao generals, by conjjjl^ag.- 
Br All un^Dimoully joiniKl in opinio^ with- Hr^ i iifPV- 

&th^. rcJô)v.eâ to give t'hf enemy bntile die fylloving aay^ . 
Cftftlvtgiman auny WAS compofGd of ty>'el^c ihçur^nsL . 
, £>«- thoiUând horfe, and abciit an huadici^ el«jihn;it5.; 
It of the Bomans. as near as may be giiElied from vjihatj 
I before, (for folybius givei no dewmiiiate-,nuil>^}:iCCtn-^7' , 
d of fifteen thoufand foot, and three hiu>i]«ed tioriç, ., ;Jt 
: maft be a noble fight to fee. two arv4>if>i iicft '^?'f^ft^ 
1 numbers, buicompofedof brfv&loldtens, and coq^qpi)^;^ 
my able generals, engaged in bâttlq. In thofq tf)Du]tpttj|, 
tt, where two or three bandrçd ihou&tJii a^e çngaa^-^l^ 
1 fide;, confuAon is inevitable ; and it if dijlicnlt, |mid&',^ 
lûnd evenci, where chance generally feems to havefhe s^ ■ 
tue ovu council, to difcever ibe tc^e merit of co)niiigç(!cNy 
the real caufes of vi^ry. But in fach'-eugagepicnti. 4J|| 
bcibre uj, nothing çfcapes the cuiioCiy of'jbe r^^t^ ^ fiof, 
Jesrly fees the difpo^tion of the rwa a^mit^; imMiji.Tj m^ 
OA l^ars the orders given oyt by the geperfti.; fo^w^'ftt)^ 
nfOvcmciiHof tbçarioy ; difcoreu f^p^l>)p}^l^|àe|(ô»,. 


K Ibc Tivlti R« botli Mn i ud ii tkmbr qitalificii 

I wiih icruinfyi tli* mufci towkkk tbr riflory 
I •wirfi. IbcfaccHtcf ihlt builr, hoorotr iiu 
f miy «ppMf. from iSf fmilkr nurobrr of the cooibiiuu, •» 
ncvrnBclcG 10 4ltciJ« the f>ie of Canhavr. 

Tbe <lir|iv6ti(ia rf bnitt armln vu » inltowf. Xiailiiu* 
4kw up all hit r'cphartti In fruDt. Bthind thtfe, m M> 
dift-iGtr, he placed tite C>nh*[iniso infititrv ïi> one hoff* 
phitinr. Tnt foreign iiwipi in the Caritisjintin femcrMH' 
poiln), one p*[t of ibcffi On the rtgbi, bciwceit the pbablir 
and thr horfr ; ind iheoiker, compofcd of llght-uiMd U> 
dien, JnpUtooii, «t the head of ih« two wiftc« of ikrcsniiy. 
On the ftde itf the Ronuna, m th^ ipprcbcitdcd ibe(a>' 
phinii moS, Rtjtulut, in provide igilDH ihcm, poAcd im 
Itghi-atmrd faldtrra, on ■ Itnr, in the AtNii (tf the lepiM. 
Jn the rrvnf thele. he placed the cobnin (lOc behind HMtfa, 
und the tank un (be «>injri. In thai fltaiteiiinj; the fre«l4f 
hii iniin batlle, to civc it norvdepih. he indectl lork ■ )iC 
prctBOiioti, fafi PolybÎBt, ■[ainl ibc elrphxni* i bnt be M 
not provide fat the tnnjualîiy of bit cavalry, erhich wiinocb 
infcrictr tii numbcri t« that of the citesiy. 

The twn iiiniid bcinr ihni drawn up, waited only firr li* 

tij^flil, Xjnihippai ordeird the cicphaoti tr>«dvuce, CD bntlt 

il.G tftnk» of the entmy ; nnd cotnmatidi the two wingi nf tM 

eavalfy to charge the Rnniani in flank. At tlie fiote time, 

ike Inner, t1.ifl)in|; their armi, and Ihuuting after the niniMr 1 

of their counirv, advaitce tf^ainn the eneoiy. Tiieir onbi 

dM not flnnd the onlVi lonf-, it bciof- fu miicb inferior to ib« . 

of the Cxthaciitian:. The iof^intry inOie left win*, to ivoid 

ike «tuck oAhe elephiaU, and mew huw little %ey fated' | 

tbenerceii.ifieawhn forttted iheeneniy't it)ihl winy, itnckaï^ 

■ pDtt it to fli{hi, and purfaei it toiKccinip. Tbirik ia iIkM I 

tBt)k(, who were opfofcd to the rlephann, vmt brain ui^ 1 

nod under foot, after Bshting fairantly ( aad tho ret of Ùt 

main body flood firm for fonie time, by rejifcn of tu groU 

4epih, But the rear being Xtitkcd in flivk tn- (he cn««7S < 

cavalry, and obliged to filce abom and rrcnve it t and (liw , 

who had broke through the elephantt, cotning 10 (be phalisi 

of the Cirihaf^iiiiitii, which had not yti tn^ngeti, and wUd 

received thrm in good order, thr Romain were routed on all 

I tart, ind entirely dtfextcd. The grejirft part of them were 

I truOied to death t>y the cnotmnm neiehi cf the clephanta : 

I «id the temHinder, ftgndii>{> in their tank», were Ihot tbtoi^ 

k ftnd throuch uiiih arrowt froto the enemy'» horic. OAl)r 1 

£t)aU number ficd ; «nd « ihey ntic in u open counny, ih« 

>9«f( , 


and e1q>tiaols killed a great part of them. Five Bondred 

BID who went off* with Régalas^ were taken prironerii 

him. The Carthaginians loà, in this battle, eight hun- 

mercenaries, who were oppofed to the left wing of th.è 

; and of the latter only two thoafand efcaped, wbo^ 

thesf pttffuing the enemy's risht wing» had drawn t^em-^ 

out of the engagement. Alithe reft. Regains and thofe^ 

with him excepted, were left dead in the field. The 

âioafimd, who bad elcaped the daughter, retired to Clypea» 

were faved in an alnsoft miraculoas manner. 

Carthaginians, after having ftripped the dead, entered 
age in triumph, dragging after them the unfortanatd 
Ids, and five htmdred prifoners. Their joy was Co much 
jpreatoy as^ but a very few days before, they had feen 
'ifelves opbn the brink of ruin. The men and women, ol^ 
Toong people crooded to the temples, to retiirn thanks to 
immortal gods ; and feverai days were devoted wholly to 
rities and rejoicings. 
Xanthippus, who had contributed fo much to this happy 
nge, haîd the wifdom to withdraw (hortly after, from the 
^rehenfion left^ his glory, which had hitherto been unfuliied, 
igbt, after thh ûr& glare of it, infeniibly fade away, and 
ye him expofed to the darts of envy and calumny, which 
Tthr dangerous», bot moft in a foreign country, when à 
I flaods alon^ nnfapported 'by friends» relations, or any 
JMybtos tells OS, thatXantUppn^'s departure was related in 
»fiiianner, and hè promiifes to take nbticeof it in 
place : but that part of his hiftory has no% come dowii 
We read in (jr) Apptan, the Carthaginians, excited by 
and 4eceftable jealoufy of Xanthippiis's ghory, and nn^ 
to bear the thoughts that they (hoold ftand indebted ta 
ll^HUta for their fafety ; upon pretence of conducing him, and 
his attendants, back with honour to his own country, with 4 
MUneroos convoy of fhips*; they gave private orders to hav^ 
then all put to death in their pafTage ; as if with -him they 
could have buried in the waves for ever the memory of his fer- 
•vices, and their horrid ingratitude to him *• 


{y ) De Bell, Pun. p. 30. 

* Tint perfiJitëi affion, as it is related 
êf ^ft êaa , mty poj/ihfy he true^ when 
mtt tat^Utr the cbaraher of the Car- 

sImHMmi, wbo were certainly a cruel .^. ^ _^_. _, , ^. .^ _,_ 

mm trêâctêrtus feefie. But, if ii ^e\ the cbaraQir and bft êf JCambif^U 

fa^, ont %o9uU vtemier v)hy Polyhim 
Jbould refervi for another eccafiwt^ the 
relation of an incident, wbicb coma im 
moft property bert^ as itfaiJhfS ai 


!1 I S T O R Y OF T H E 

'll.îs battle, f-yr. (r) Pol'hius, though nr*l To conildtn 

n::.! y ethers T\\Ay ;,Lt turr/iu; .try falutary ïrjlîrucî'rjt.' ; i 
::iMs :h.:: ;iiith(ir, i' the preaicil bt-ncfit thatcaxi Lc rc.>p.- 
lî.i- :î î'y it" iii:ic ry. 

I ,.'}, l\f^i}l«.î ..r.y man put nyTvut coufdcncc. in prefer 
jl.'^i-, .Mir ( c Î;î.s con fui -j red li-.r f.,re oi Rî'f;;Ii;.: 
yt •.(.•:•:;, ii!'. «!■••.: \;itii \i^C'jry, inixOinMc to ihr cci/j 
.i!.». i.'i :.'" i. :.'i ti.vir rtiinnllrufiffs, Taw hir/;rclf a ic. 
:«!: r \;i iju.f.ri L. ;i i;n, ar.'l ninilj their prifoii'jr. Ha 

* :• r-.v.: c î'.:ii.w niltciion to Scipin, uhcn hccxhr-rtcd ;. 
Sk) ! I- ti;iy/;'.ti v. i:h the fucnh of 1»:.». ;nins. Reouluf., f 
\ iL.'J l..;vu li'.i. rtccràfci Mnonotl ihc few iriftancis cf 
::.:.i Icliiily. l:c, afii;r il.c \i':(»ry obiriincd in th 

* iMitry, j'.-.inicd cur faihcr.s the pi ace which ih«y fue 
' : p...i!r,' i.o b^'un-is ti hi-. ai:;biiiun and thL* infoît 
Î-... I.: , liic grCtUr j»is prolptrit/, the more igr.omiiiio 

J «I :;•»: fîcnr.d }I:îCî', the friith f-f ihc faying f f F.urip 
Kt-::: :»(.ii \u i'.j fiill c;:tciit, 7^/i/ ofie ^t.y^ hta-^ is ivcnh 
/ »•, /;;>;..'.' t- A fir.glc Kirin iicrc changes the uiiolc I 
: . (ill cr.;' hiMid, hi- ifrflais troo^^r which wc*rc :1 

i..» i: . .l/I'j ; ( n t:.': c>il,c:r. he revives the courage ( t a ci 
,.\ i.,i:;y, ih^: \v::i fcizcd with aHoiiiflimeiitanJ dtfpair. 

I.;. /' ./,v. //■ -./ / i . ■.': ;.,.«.'/ I. /i ir.g 

t '•';; Zif/ï ?^ fi.e f- t'-T ,■•» « d.Jftrti.t 
J- -î I fr'.m :h:\t .'•» • : / ». /■ / 1* iî / / 1- tii i'j 
./;L'ian. 7'-. // '; /./ t'.r uiH, that I: 

i é 

Ji i;>'..i r.'i great dtpih '•/ f'^l^ y '^ tk>e 
C'ftf.f- iymani, to ttùe ti':: n: th'd tj 
t-.j.4t^hii, fintt '.•'/■ n /■ v. ry ùthni 
tiffr'.', ishiffinrr'''' linf 'r t: ^-n'u e 
7i .."..,' i . m '■ f\rr:fti f'tr i \- fUj.'r ■ ..',., 
net or.iy Llinjriff hut all in JJUivntt ;• Lt ti.ur-fiti.!^ wrcLUl tic f-*f- 
te'i-e of i7.-*n a /i rrti, ir /'/• cf :r.i 
Jin, ^e i:.ïfll, :■ .ri I.-, /; fftt- tjT t3tr.:\^ 
tir jti*.fnu:i':*i :f f i'.r'.^J '.re. 

• Ir T I ..'. 4 \i II i'.i» • iri f f'/.f 
* " n-r :i M. Ai ;i .■ cjicnWir-, i ii.u • 
Crf'îrn; ttïra f'-iili:i- (i vi«.*',r i ;»• «l'u 
p-fcntil.','. ■'■•■fir ct |';:»il»«% .•/■'i.'.. 
Î CiJ n. »i f'.'iijri.L'o tjH 1" Il MJiii-": 
rm-.', i.<« c tliiljT.H-» ».n<Mf irm f»- j 
tor jiLitir , ';u<4.o altiu, iLiU s ciiil, ^ 

p. -j6, 37. 
to fird''ii rorrul*. /.»i/. !. x»y 

^''l'fnç *•**. /r w *^' f ■ t if :r.' 
' .k.- nvict In tf. i: p w c ri :' u 
t'tfore) uf a nrijlilf rf iLr le . 
fib Jin f iM bti trarji.tit 1 -f a 
if I'Jyi/'tut ii,finii:tr.^ Xjti-L ff 
l-li't-^t >s '•' -I 'Lv 0.*. Àf". f'.," 

it tiu: ■ ^. .■ii/dii/>>tf : I 

[ .ij . • . .•. Î . Isr^rc ^ iil.* I 
liji ■ . cuidaji t'lii I I' J 
\\r k'.i:cifil;n;i f.rc : Vi : "iL J 
n-!' fl rti. J .' * "jf- Ii rr.rri c' 
•.f*u', ff'ir'r.n, /t^reet'.'y v. 
suhote il'i*f.\'ir una} c. 
il'ftffnt, J lake the /*«/• /" tin 
t^h*, A HMD loriicd (i\ iL<- * 
d.^i I'll lîT, M i pra|-or'ir:n>l.i 


Suth, as Polybius obfcrvci, h ihc ufc ..vhich ojplj V». '^'J; 
tpMie of the lludy of hiilory, 1 c-r iU:c \n ii ^^ U'o \vv/^ vf 
acquiring improvtmcnt and jiijlru^t»');!, fi.-ll by i^iit*-; ''»\^ii ■'<•. 
perichcr, and fecondly by tii-ari f.thn ni-»». it i'» mu:) ••'•'j'^'', 
wife and ufeful to improve by C/iLcr lur.n'i nilfLi^Miigt . 'Ji'«i'. "j^ 
our own. 

I return to Regalas, that I may Iw :t fiuiîlt v. hat. f'-* ]' *'. 
Um ; Polybius, to our great diriJpj;oiuui\, ukiii^ v'-«^ '.r. ■::■.'■;*. 
notice of that general *, 

(a) After being kept fomc ycnrs irj j.rifon, i :r wJi'. iU.t f:>. 
Rome to propofe an exchange cf priii :,'j;s. iu: i -<» ""';, 
0|>liged to take an oath, that he wî.ulu :( 'ur:i i», ( : <t ; j y'^^ 'y^ 
qnfuccefsful. He then acquainitd the icn.iic v.'ii\ ii : *■■■[ j '•'* 
of hii voyage'; and being invited ly thun to jjivj i..:. c;..:.:. .• 
freely, he anfwered, that he tould no longer cU. ii '■', 'S^'. ,*'' ' 
liaving toil both this quality, and thai of a K''ni;^n • JLiiXi:,, 
from the time that he had fallen into the bauds uf i>î^ < i'<^r, 

H 5 V«ivi^ 

(a) A. M. 3755. Ai Rom. 499. .Apphn. do HfUo Pun. p. i» 3» ^'^t" 
On* i> iit* n. 99, too. ' Aul. Oel. 1. vi. c. 4. Senec. Ep. 9:). 

y^r the redempM» f*f bh" bujl 4«//. w/i# 
0/" /i"»/?" died by tie fëirrity of bis \m'' 
prifonmrnt -y and tlfoibfrt hy the tor^ 
bf the Jenaie, 'irho detfjîed tbt erucUy%^ 
Jurvivcd and iv^t recovircd to hfàh9% 
U'bii treatmert rf the tû^thft'î, arfd *éBê{ 
rejentmer.t *f it^ jtnntt nv tf*ai a» /«*r»' 
found a third arframeiU cr prrfuw/9t*^. 
againfi the truth '.f li'u fiery cf t^fji^', 
/«J, tvliih it tb'/i urged» ^•^^f^^H'» 
dying in hit c.if-ti'vity ly the ufval ici/rp 
of ntityrr, his 1' ft. tlui frujint^d vf 
her hof>es nf ih,: rtdeemn/ bm by /*«• 
<liiHfrr (,f her ra/'tivetf treai^d then' 
'ui h tie t trr.'iji harbutiiy, in ('.rjiqn,Jiu • 
of her hellrf rf tre i!l ttfa^e rot/ifh Pi*,-, 
f^t/lut had It tlftd. 'ïhr J^narè f:ftt(^ 
thitn ff. t/t'iifr the tiuil ''f hijl'^ry, cf ai'^ry ni/ub her for it^ to g'it'r fon/t ' 

colour to Irr ctufl'iet^ ji>e ^an/e 4»e> 
api'ir.g htr ac<juaïr.ianre ^xd kindrtd^ • 
that her bujl'ur.d drJ i» tki ••*"».y f <*}' • 
fo/fy related. 7hii, Ik-, ell cihir re- ^ 
I cut y in. 'reefed g''t',*i'('l!y\ end, fr.iin 
thf ratiott/il ha.'r.:l h*":'.uxf the C(fr*fha • 
friniani and R'jmtjr.i x-^t^" rahh o^ * 
p_4 net ally /tclirved hy tie lafrt, lifv.i\ 
far thii il r on- lu ft tf a;yihft the nji:* . 
m'-nitt »f fu"f juch ^'^iyj'y ff '/let 4si 
Cicero and />' ntca {to fay f!-'i*\^ ^' ^Br 
J^^ht tiffaiiji iiicily, tiftcr thi: " f-.rtune p.eft, it Itfi t(, the ]ydgf''.^nt ¥^'él^t 
«j Rejriikfi oflj) fut W6 if CI ffttndi leader, • - ,.iA ■•. 

• ^bij filemt of Polybius, bat frt' 
^iniiced a great many learned men againji 
mmPt of the fiories toM cf Regulu»*» 
émféar^ui treatment, after te wat taken 
by the Cartbaginians, Mr , R ollinf freaks 
90 further of this ma'ter, end therefore 
I Jkali give my reader the juhftame of 
%t;ta it brought againjl the general be- 
tkf of tbe Koman xvrirers ai tv-ll lij- 
triant at fjett) and if /Ij^iun on this 
fubjefi. t'irfh, it it uryid, that Poly 
biyi 'U'fit V(ry ferfihie ti nt the firy of 
fbtfe cruelties nvas falfe y nnd there 
f¥ti. that he wi^^ht r.ot d.f'/ the 
JHwtanSf ly contrai. 'ici teijr jd ^etitral u 
tell ft he ih'ii'' rafter to /.r J.'cnt on 
Rrgului cf'ir he 'U'Ji /,.<.»•/» piijlner. 

nubi h letV'ii (9 fltif:t nn chf t iter, 1 his 
0/in'yn is fiirif.„r t^ei^h rnrd (jay tl e 
adx'erfa'its cif this heluf) ly a Jragment 
»jf Dicd'irui, 11 ''(/> (ijyi, thai the 'ivifr 
af Re^ul.,\, t^- ijf^'-iot d of tie death of 
her hujhard in ianha^e, oriflftoredf as 
fiee imapined, ly hirlarcus ufaae, per- 
fuadid h'r fvr,^ to revenue the fate rf 
tbeir fatter t Lf the truel treatment of 
i^oi'di aptivn [iht^uji^ht to. t-e 
Boflar and Hamil ar ta! en in the fea 


i N 

1^-4 H I S T O R Y C F T H L 

nnrs; but he did not rcfafe to ofTcr his thoughts as a privât; 
perfon. This was a very delicate afFair. Every one wai 
fouchid with the inist'uriunes of Co great a man. He needed 
only, i'ays Ciccio, have fpoke one word, and it would ha?e 
rclUncd him to his liberty, his eftate, his dignity, his wifr, 
his chililrcn, and his country ; but that word appeared to him 
contr:iry to tho honour and welfare of the llatc. He therefore 
plainly Jccl.ind, that an exchange of prifoncrs ought not to 
vc r.) much a^ chou^^ht of: that luch an example would be of 
f.ual c(Mi((-v]ut'ncc tu the republick : that citizens, who had to 
bait!) furrindcrcd their arms and perfons to the enemy, were 
unworthy of the loall compaflion, and rendered incapable of 
frrviiii» their country : that with regard to himfclf, as he was 
fo far advanced in ycar5, his death ought to he confidered as 
nothing ; whereas they had in their hands fevcral Carthaginian 
gci-.eruib, in the iiower of their age, and capable of doing 
their country great fcrviccs for many years. It ivas with diffi- 
culty thai (he iVnatc complied with fo generous and unexampled 
a couiiùl. (^) I'hc illuHrious exile therefore left Rome, ia 
order to return to Cartilage, unmoved either with the deep^. 
aflliclion of his friends, or the tears of his wife and children, 
although he knew but too well the grievous torments which 
were prepared for him. And indeed, the moment his enemies- 
faw him returned, without havine obtained the exchange of 
prifoncrs, they put him to every kind of torture their barbarous 
cruelly could invent. They imnrifoned him for a long time 
in a diimal dungeon, whence (after cutting off his eye-lids) 
they drew him at once into the fun, when its beams darted the 
ilrongell hent. They next put him into a kind of chril fluck 
full of nails, whofe points wounding him, did not allow him a 
moment's eafv.- either day or night. Laflly, after having been 
]on^ tormented by being kept for ever awake in this dreadful 
foituie, liis mcrcilrfs enomirs nailed him to acrofs, their ufual 
punifhrocnt, and left him to expire on it. Such was the end 
ef this great man. Ills enemies, by depriving him of (bme, 
days, perhaps years of life, brought eternal infamy oil 

(c) The blow which the Romans had received in Africa did 
not difcourage them. They made greater preparations thaa 
)>ef(}rc, to recover their lofs ; and put to fea, the following, 
cam^xiign, three hundred and iixty veflels. The Carthaginians 
failed cut to meet tbrm with two hundred ; but were* beat in 
an engagement fought on the coalls of Sicily, and an hundred 
Ahd fourteen oï their fliips were taken by the Romans, Thefe 

^k) iUnu 1. lii. Oa, J. (0 Poljk 1, flu. p. 37. 


Anied into Africa to take ia thé few foldiers who had efcapcd 
the parfuit of the enemy, after the defeat of Regulus ; and 
kaid defended themfelves vigoroufly in * Clspea^ where they 
bad been unfuccefsfuily befieged. 

Here we are again ailonifhed that the Romans, after fo con^* 
fiderable a victory, and with fo large a fleet, fhould fail into 

âfrtca, only to bring from thence a fmall garrifon ; whereas', 
ky might have attempted the conqueft of it, iiincc Regulus^ 
with mnch fewer forcesj had almoft compleated it. 

{éi) The Romans were overtaken by a ftorm in their return^ 
which almoil deflroyed their whole fleet. (/) The like mif- 
fortune befel them alfo the following year. However, they 
eoAfoled themfelves for this double lofs^ by a victory which 
ihcy gained over Afdriihal,^ from whom they took near an hun* 
ired and forty elephants^ 'This news being brought to Rome^. 
It filled the whole city with joy, not only becaufe; the flrength 
of-the enemy's army was confiderably dimlmihed by the lofs 
if their elephants, but chiefly becaufe this viAory had infpired 
ihe land-forces with frefli courage > which from the defeat of 
Hegalus, had not dared to venture upon an engagement ; (b 
rreat was the terror with which thofe formidable animals had 
Uled the minds of all the foldiers. It was therefore judged 
furoper to make a greater effort than ever, in order to finifh, if 
poffibie, a war which. had continued fourteen years. The two 
u>nruls fet fail with a fleet of two hundred (hips, and arriving 
M Sicily^ formed the bold defign of b^fieging Lilybaeum.- 
Fhia was the flrongeft town which the Carthaginians pofleiTed 
\n that ifland ; ana the lofs of k would be attended with that of 
(very part of it, and open to the Romans a free paflage into 

(/) The reader will fuppofe, that the utmofl ardour waa 
Ihown, both in the afTault and defence of the place, Imilcon 
was governor there, with ten thoufand regular forces, exclafivi 
of the inhabitants ; and Hannibal, the &n of Hamilcar, fooa 
brought him as many more from Carthage ; he having, witli 
ihe mofl intrepid courage, forced his way through the enemy's 
fleet, and arrived happily in the port. The Romans had not 
loll any time. Having brought forward their engines, they 
beat down fcveral towers with their battering rams ; and gaia<& 
ing ground daily, they made fuch progrcfs as gave the be« 
iiegea, who now were clofely prefied, fome fears, ^rhe governor- 
&w plainly chat there was no other way left to fave the city, 
bot by firing the engines of the befiegers. Having therefore pre* 

H 6 pared 

i. {d) Polyb» Ir^iii. p. 3S— 40. (r) P»g.4i, 4). (/) Pag. 44^50, 


(4) P»r £>c yeat», noibing mémorable «vat fierfomd m ] 
rbKcr fiJe. The Româiu were oocc of «pinion, th» tlà 
LtDil-t'oictt wrould iloDC be capable of iinithing the fagcrf t 
lilybxuoi: l-ui the wti being pioiraâcd beyond xhre a- 
peHjtion, ihcv reiurnid to their firA pfan, and made eiUMtVv 
Blry cffotu to fit out a new Rttt. The publick iteafai}' *« 
•I a low ebb ; but ihi» want wai fopplied by private pBffai 
fn ardent wa» the love which the Romans boie (heir cooatn, 
Everyman, accardin^ to hii drcumll.nces, cosiribuled toit 
common expeact; and.itpcnpubliekrecuritv, advanced moae^ 
without iha IcAlt (cTUple, for au capedttii^o no whi^h the|li«j 
■nd falcly of Rome depended. One man ailed out a flupX 
hit 0«ii charge ; another was equipped by the caatribmiOMtl 
two or three ; fo that in a very little titite, iwo boridrtd vnt 
ready for failing. (/; The commaod was given coLuuiioidt 
conrul, who immediately put to fea. The e&emy't itees M 
retired into Ariica, by which means the conful cafily fttut 
npon all the advantageous potli in the neighbourbnod of Lilfi 
bxum, and, fotefcdng thai he (hould foon be Turced to igl^ 
he did all that lay in his power to aflûre himltlf of fBceeb) 
and employed the interval in ejiercifing bis fuldier* Kod feaaa 
at fVa. 

He was foon informed thai the Carthaginian fleet drew ne»r, 
under the command of Hanno, who landed in a fhiall iflinj 
called Hiera, oppo£te to Drepanum. His defign was tomth 
Eiyx undifcoven'd by the Romans, In order tofupplyiheanaf 
there ; and to reinforire his troops, and take B^ircha on boiid 
to affill him in the expefted engagemeni. Bat the cu>r>liid. 
fufpCk'^in^ his intention, was beforehand with htm ; aod having 
afTcmbleilall his bed forces, faiied for the fmall idaod ■ JEg^ 
which lay near the oiher. He acquainted his oKceri witb the 
defign he had of attacking ihe enemy on the morrow. /L^ 
cordingly, at day-break, he put all things in readtnela, wbtB 
unfortunately the wind waj favourable te the enemy, wlûck 
made him hefitate whether he Jhoold give tbent baitlc Bu| 
confidrring that the Carlhagini:in Beet, when unloaded ef !» 

EsvifiLins, would become b^hier and more &i for aâion t and, 
(ides, would be conËdejohly ftrcngih<--ned by the fortes aod 
prefence cf Bafcha, he eatnc lo a lefolution at e>ncc i and* 
notwithftanding the foal weather, made direâly to the eneoi^ 
Theconful had choice forces, ahlefeamen, and«xcelK-Dt Oiips 
bnili afitr the model of a gulley thai had been lately (at-cn from 
' the enemy ; and which was the compleatcftin its kind, tbaibaï 

^ fi) Poljb. I. i. ^ s9-6a. (l)A:M.i7ij^A.» 


mr been fecn. The Carthnj^inians, on the other hand, were 
Jlitute of all thefe advantagci. Ai they had Uecn the entire 
•lier» «t Tea for fome yean, and the Romani did not onct 
Ire to face them» they had them 3» the highef) contempt» and 
oked upon themfelves ai invincible. On ih« firft report of 
Ml vnetion of the enemy, the Carthaginians had put to fea e 
■et fitted out in hafte, as appeared from every circumftanceof 
a the foldieri and feamon being all mercenaries, newly levied» 
pltkeet the leall experience, refoluiion, or aeul, fince it waa* 
Ot for their own country they were going to Hghc. Thii fooir 
ppeared in the engagement. They could not fuilaio the firft* 
tteckt Fifty of their velTch were funk» and feventv takenr 
rith their whole crewi. The reft, favoured by a wmi which 
e verv feafonably for them, made the beft of their way to* 
Im little iilind from whence they had failed. There were 
Ipwardt of ten thousand taken prifoners. The conful failed 
ennifdiately for Lilybetmi» and joined his forcea lo^ thoft of 
lie befiegers. 

\ybcn the newa of this defeut arrived at Carthage, it occa- 
lened to much the greater furprise and terror, ai it was lefa- 
nrpcAed. The fenate however did not lofe their courage^' 
though they faw themfelves qui|e unable to conrinat the war»* 
Aa the RomAiti were now mufters of the fea^ it was not poflible« 
Ibr the Carthaginians to fend either provifionti, or reinforce*^^ 
Menta to the armies in Sicily. An expreft was therefore im*- 
mediately difpatched toBarchn, the grnernl there, impowering* 
kin to act ai ne Ihould thii^k proper. Hurcha, fu long as he had' 
ronin to entertain the leaft hope,"», hud done every thing that 
eottid heexpeded from the moil intrepid courage, and the moft* 
coefttmmaie wildom. But having now no rrfoufce left, he fenf 
a deputation to the conful, in order to treat about a peace.' 
Prudence, fays Tolybius confitlN in knowing how to refill and* 
y\e\d at u fcafonuble jandure. l.utatiu» wus n»t infenfiblc how 
tired the Romans were grown of a war, which had exhauiled- 
them l>oth of men and money; and the dremiftit confrquencei- 
which had attended on Re{;ulu6*a inexorable und impruilent 
obflinacy, were frclh in thrir memnrirs. He iherrrcfore com- 
pliethwithout difiiculty, and diiHatrd ihr following ireuty. 

THitav aHAt.t4 MK ruACV atirwKiiN Romk ano Cxa*' 
THAOv, (in vask TtiK RoMAN i*Bori.a ArraovK or it) 
Oh THa KOi.i.owtNO conoitions : 1*mk CAarHAOiNiANt^ 


LOMoaa MAKtt WAR UPON lluito, Ttir SvRAi-usANs, oa 
TNKia Ai.Mi{!i : Thky &»iai.i. ak^roRR to tkk Romans^ 





lAkiNiko» ii.vkR f. It i> woitli the itader* 
by lirf \v4)'t iUv cxa^l und clcur Kcrini in which 
•X|>i«il'ca ; tliat iiMoOi'irt acoanpafs. adjulU ihc i 
by Ic4 a I tit I^ud, of two powerful rcpublicki sod 
V^iwii ihcfc coiulicions witc brouglic to Rome» 
noi appiuviiig of them, font ipn commiifioucrs 
tcroiinatc the all Jr. («) 'l'hçfe Qiade ao altcrati 
iu'iUniio: of the treaty ; only ihortening the time i 
the paypicnt, reducing it xq ten years : A tho> 
Wtixc «(Ued to the Ann that had been Ihpulated, 
be pail iiunicdiaicly ; and the Carthaginians ^ci 

d^Y*'' ^"' *'^ *^^^ ^'^^ idand», fituiited between Ita 
S«rdini4 was not comprehended in this treaty, I 
It op, lome years alicr, by a treaty. 

.(«) 6Mch was the coiiclufion of this war, tbo 
ci )iird ill hillor) , fince it continued twenty -four 
iuieiinillioR. The (»bflinacy, in difpuiing for 
Ciuul ttn cither lidc : The fame leloluiion, the fi 
oft Uml, .ill forming a» well as in executing of pi 
Q)iii'picuous on both fides. The Larchaginians 
rioiity over them with regard toexpeiiente in na 
the ltrcii>*ib and fwiftnrfs of their vrfTels ; th 
chctn ; the Ikiil and capacity («f their pilots ; the 
cimlb, fltallows, roads, and winds ; and in the 
fund of wealth, which furniihed all the expend 
nnd obll'iiatc a war. '1 he Kom;ins had none of 
tapes; but their courage, for the public k ; 
ihrir country, and a nnble emulation oï p.Iorvt i 
them. We are allonilhed to (w a nation, fo lav 
iicnu'd in n.ival «liUiirN, not only difputing i) 
puople, who weie bifUkillcd in them, and more 
any h.ul ever bicn Ivfore; but even gainii: 
toiies «»ver them at i'ca. No diiiieuhies or calam 
ouir.igc them. 'i*hey certainly would not h.iv 
peace, in the circumllanccs in which the Cart 
jiciiiilcd it. Ono unfortunate cnmnaign difpiri 
choreas the Komanv arc not ihakcn by a fucieifiu 

Am to ïgUlicrs. though there w;i^ nocompaiiinn 
€à' RoMC and Carthage» the former being in lin 

fn) roljrb. I. ill. p. i8a. («} A. M. 3763 . A. C^rth. 60 
Ant. j. i\ 141. 


m*nh tira all lo ■ little adtkboannc io*a uUedSice, 
0i«i< liapplY l''^"' ^^ wluiercr «r^ aeKtSàrj f^a limii 
iltncc. nil tke aniral of tke rcS of ihcir cawF-iiiiM»; n 
thai ibea tbqr ft^^-'l *tl be pud (.iT, xnii feet Ikisk. ~ 
•ai a frcofld orctfijtit. 

A ttird «ru, ihc refufiac (o let (h«n leave ' 
AeirwimsMl duldten MCanltagr, u tbejt dcfitedi àîAi 
lorcimit tknn ■« tnnorc liirb u> Site» i wbcrcM, iad ikf if 
~ " ' I Canbagc ikef wobU Iimc bceit in a ouoBcr fe» 

BoBC all net tegcil^t u Sicca, tbnr bc^an, (tiaoieg 
■1ft M 3o] to cooipoi* th» aiiran ut ihcir pay, «titih (tif 
Bi^ mach RKvc tbaa itai mlly dac to ihe«. Tn il>i' tim~ 
[■miuii. ibc^' addrd, the nigbty p/o<pifea wliicr'. b*à boa 
aadrlbcBi, ai different datci, u an cocoiuapeiaciit irftkcft 
lO do tt>cir doty ; acd pniiodci] iW tticfe liLcivirr buglil V 
be plKitl lo accoaat. Hurno. who was ibcn ^ottmt* (J 
Afttca, and had beea tent to thttn fraoi Utr ougiflntetrf 
Carif^e, prnpofcd to tlicff folJiirt (bene rcmiSi->n r,f datr 
atrcari ; a&i) (kfirrd ifajt liiry wcuM CCMilrot thEtnOI/ri Mlh 
jeccivii:g 1 pvt, becaofê uf ibc gtral diflrcfa i» Mliuliilr 
CO(ca>cnw»lih wai i<4uut}, and tU p«cicril Dnha;>p>' ctrrsB- 
ââacci. The mtdtr «ill tt&tf gad* how fech a pnipofil «a 
nccited. C«nipUititi. Btwinun. teiiàout and t.ilolenl ^ 
nourt were every «iberc beard. Theft ir«o|>i being coaipoM 
of difitrcBl MiiMi), who iv«te tnagtn to ooe anotber'* It»- 
guigc, n-ere in.apable of bearing leafoo, when tht-f OVt 
B>unfied. Spaniardi, Gauli» Liguriaa* i inbabitaau m ikt 
BJeuiaa iflci ; Greek), tbe gnatcll part of tbem fiaret or 
d<:feitcti, And a very grot namhet of AfricMM, campofed (faefc 
DJCrcenaty foiccJ. But dcw, irinrpotied with rage, tfaey ita* 
lacdiatFly break op, narcfa tOK'ard* Carthage, (beiog opwaidl 
af twenty cboofud) and eocanp at Toott, Mt £ar fton ÙM 


The Canhaginiaai dtfcovered tootateibdrerror. Tberepit 

no compJiaace. bcnv groveling <i>ev<r. co whkb ihcy did UÊt 

Hoop, to r»o(hihere «uTperatcd fùltiicr»-. who, on ihcir fidi^ 

pnftiful every koaviOi a't luhkh touM be iboaglii of inordff 

loex'.ott money from ihcm. When one point wa* gained, ihcy 

^ iinmctjiaiely hid recourfe to a arw arii<id.% on which to grmad 

^JJWDC ntw.JeminJ. W41 ihcîr i>ay li-ttled bvyond the agroC' 

^^nt nude Mill) ihem, they I\ill would be reimburftd for the 

"fawhicb they pietcndcd 10 have fuAsii^, either by At 

' — f Imfet i by the excefliva price which at ctrtatn tinn 

'dliw btcid-corDi and Hill iaCilcd oa iherccoB. 

C A R T H A G I N r A N & 16} 

whkb haà been promifed xhetn. As nothing could be 
the Cftrthagpnians, with great difficohy, prevailed ba. 
10 refer therofelves to the opinion of fume general who 
temmanded in Sicily. Accordingly they pitched opon" 
who had always been verv acceptable to thenr. This: ' 
I haraaeaed them in a nuld and infinuating manner; 
d to their memories the long time they had been in the. 
eginian férvice ; the confiderable fums they had received 
the repnblick ; and granted almoft all their demands. 
be treaty was upon the point of being concluded» when 
Mb notineers occafioned a tumult in every part of the camp. 
"" of tbofe was Spendius a Capaan, who had been a flave at 
e, and fled to the Carthaginians. He was a tall, lufty». 
extremely bold fejlow. The fear he was under, of falling 
die hands of his old mafter, by whom he was fure to be, 
(as was the cuftom) prompted him to break off the 
odation« He was feconded by one Matho *^ who had; 
n very aûive in forming the confpiracy. Thefe two repre* 
led to the Africans, that the inftant after their coçipaniont 
Ébald bedtfcharged and fe'nt home, they, being thus left alone 
H cbeir own country, would fall a facrifice to the rage of the, 
tittliaginians, who would take vengeance upon them for the^ 
lipimon rebellion. This was fufficient to raife them to funr* 
Mèy immediately made choice of- Spendius and Matho rar, 
pUr chieft. No remonftrances were heard t tnd whoever. 
piSkred to make any, was immediately pnt to death. Thef - 
Mn to Gifgo's tent, ptnndeied it of tne money defigned for 
Urn pâjrment of the forces ; dragged even, that general faimlelf 
10 prlum, with all his attendants ; afteii having treated theni^ 
irfdL the Qtmoft indignities. All the cities of Africa, to whotti' 
Âëf had fent deputies, to exhort them to recover their libertyi^. 
came over to them, Utica and Hippacra excepted, which.they 
therefore beiie ged . 

Carthaee had never been before expofed to fuch imminent 
danser. The citizens of it, to a man, drew their particular 
Aibnftence from the rents and revenues of their lands, apd the 
publick expences from tlîe tribute paid from Africa. Bat all 
this was (lopped at once ; and (a much worfe circumftance) waf 
turned againft them. They found tliemfclves deHitute of arms. 


e tistbo n§êt an Afrieên^ end ftf 
m\ ha ûi bt bad betn aHivt in 
^^tiftg ^bi rebtllion, an aecomrnodathn 
mim0 have ruined bim, Ut tbertfin, 
ét/j^ring pf a pardMt embratid tbt 
^I0tnfi !f Sftwdiut vfitb mort naal tbati 

any of tbe nhth \ and 0^^ Infimëttâ 
to tie Afritant, tbt danttr of atm» 
tlud'mg a ptact, as tbis wntld Uavt thtm 
aionty and txptfed tê tbt ran tf tbtitt 

old majhri 


p. ^» 


Itt* mSTO»Tf O^ T«R. 

r «■»! Fofcei tUher Itir fea or l*i»l ) of «II atceS»ry_ pi 
chbcT fur the nidunlBn of ■ Cc^^r, Or the c<]aippiiig à(t^^ 

I md, to compliui (bcif tciifbnun», without >D]r 1 " 
Itrrrii;!) «fiiilaq». eiiher froai their rtienJi o» alHci. 

'I'fccy BiigM in tjmo feofe accule ihemfclvn for tb 
tnnklib tMy URC ttJuctd. D-jriitK the I«fl wgr. tb 
tttomi the African nation* with iheuimod rigoun byir' 
«fctlSve trilratei on ittcm. io the rxdftioo of wU 
^kiwanct wat m«te fcïr povfily snd rxircnie nircfT^^ 
yonemers. fuch it lUniiO, were iir&icti niih the giatctA 
(^A-, ttic iDOic Icvcre tWy had bcçn io Iev)'ing thole t;ii»iK^I 
^chat ihefc Africani were tallly prevailed upoti lom^jti^lg 
riiig f'cbelftio. At tlie vcryûrHûgati tbai u^ai made, it ^i^h 
CRic, ami in » moincn; bccumc general. The ivomm, vvti0hlfl| 
aftrn. with thr deepefl afflSftion, feen their hutbind* (ad A**l 
thcrfdrijfrd to piifoti for non-payment, vfere more eaa^ 
nwd than the men, and with pleafute jauc up «11 thcirai~ 
ment; Knvards the f>r(.cQ(e» of the *vat j fo that the eWff^ 
the rebels, after paying all they premïred tke foldiers, I 
th^mlêltcs ftill in the midfl of pU-nty. Ad înnniAivel^^ 
by* Polybiut, to mtni/ters g ua it Iraili» them to look. t. 
only to ihe firrcDt occalioii, but to extend their ricwi 

ThL-.Cirthaginiaus, noiwiihtlandi^j; tlicir yrtfent dilirt^ I 
' JRâ not o^rpoDd, b'jt made the moll extroaiJioary eflbtli fpl. | 
their dcftnce. The command of tlio army was given to HanBt^ 1 
Trpûjjs were levied by land and fta i hoffc a* wclj at fo«.| 
i)l'ciiiztnj, capabli' of beating atnu. were wgOcrcd i mctCto f 
irari^ ivere invited from all p.iris ; »itd all the fbif « wlùcLlliB , 
npublick had left were rtlîtied. 

The rebel* dil'coveied no \tCi ardour. Wc lehitd btfaok- \ 
that they had befieged two ciliés which rcfufcd to join tl 
Tlieir army was now ihcrêafcd to feventy tlioufand ment Afttl 
deiaciioifiitï had been d^awn from it to carry on ibofe f;^g:tii 

they pitched their camp at Tunis, ar.d thereby held Cittb^U 
in a ftind of blockade ( fillmg it with pei-pamst aUirat. au 
advancing up to in very wall» oy day ai wtAt us by night. 

bad marched to the relief of Utïca, and g:uiicd t 
rotifiderable ^vantage, which, had ho made a propt-r uf* of, 
Oii;,-ni have proved dcctfivc! But civiering the city, avdoaly 
ffiveriing himfelf there, the mcrcrnarie». who wen; polled OD 
4 neiyhbouriiig hill covered wi<^ trses, licarit:ig Uow vanMl 
ttie oq^emy were, poured down upon tlicra i foucd ttic (bldÎM* 
every wire H> off their duiyt took and plunderrd ibe canpt 
M^fvisod upon all lh« froviCont, £^r. brottght from Car* 


t À R T'iî AG I Kl À N *. . iSf 

^Sfte to fiiccour the befieged. Nor was this the only crroj" 
UflBânitttd b/Hnnno; anderrors, on fuch occaâons, arem^ich 
|be moft fatal. Hamilcar» furnamed Barcha, was thercfovà 
anted to facceed him. This general anfvv^red the idea 
Lcli had been entertained of him ; and his fîrfl fuccefs was 
1^ obliffing the rebels to raife the fiege of Ucica. He then 
xhed agâinft their army which was encamped near Car* 
_ ; debated part of it» and feized almoll all their ad van* 
Kj^eous pofls. Thefe ruccefTefs revived the courage of the 

'The arrival of a young Numidian nobleman, Naravafus by 
IMAé^ who, out of his eileem for the perfon and merit of 
toilrchav joined him with two thoufand Numidians, was of great 
N^iÈe to that general. Ajii mated bv this reinforcement, he 
!Htl opon the rebels, who had inclofcd him in a valley ; killed 
Ml thoufand of them, and took four thoufand prifoners. 'I'he 

iOUDg Numidian diftinguifhcd himfelf greatly in this battle. 
kârclut took into his troops, as many of the prifoners as were 
léfijrous of being inlifled, and gave the reft ïtee liberty to go 
li^berever they pleafed, on condition that, they fhould nbver 
lake op arms any more againll the Carthaginians ; otherwife^ 
iSi'at every man of them who was taken, fhould be put to death. 
This condufl proves the wifdom of that general. He thought 
this )a better expedient than extreme ^verity. And indeed 
where a multitude of mutineers are concerned, the greatcfl 

«art of whom were drawn in by the perfuafions of the moll 
ot-headed, or through fear of the moil furious, clemency 
feldom fails of being fuccef&ful. 

Spendins, the chief of the rebels, fearing that this afFe^cd 
lenity of Barcha might occafion a dofe^lion amone his troops^ 
thought the only expedient left him to prevent it, would be^ 
to put them upon fome fignal a^ion, in order to deprive them 
of all hopes of being ever reconciled to the enemy. With 
this view, after havin;^ read lo them feme fiditious letters, by 
which advice was givrn him, of a fecret defign concerted be- 
twixt fome of their comradci and Gifgo, for the refcuing him 
out of prifon, where he had been fo long detained ; he brought 
them to the barbarous rcfolution, of murdering him and all 
the rell of the prifoners ; and any man, who durll oiRr any 
milder counill, was immediately facrificed to their fury. 
Accordingly, this unî'nr:un.i:e f»cneral, and fcvcn hundred pri- 
foners, who were con fr.v «1 with him, w^tc brought our to the 
head ofthe camp, where Gifgo fell the firll facrifice, and after- 
wards all ilic rell. Their hands w. w. cutiH', their thiglib broke, 
auj their bodies, iUU breathing, were thrown into a h^lc. 


but too punéUialiy exécutai. 

'ïhc Cartb.ipiuiiins were now jull bci>innîn 

" %vrri', and recover their 1 pints, when a nu 

r accidents plunf»cd them again into frefli d:ii 

* aroi'c nninng their j^eneials; and the proviiio 

i were in extreme necrfliiy, coming to them b 

k away in a Ilorm. Dut their mod grievous m: 

Cudden deCeéVion of the two only cities, \\\ 

prcferved their allegîniicc, and in all times i 

i to the C(^mmonweaith. Thife were Utic 

', \ 'I'hefc cities, without the leall ren ftm. or c 

pretence, went over at once to the rebels ; 

%\'ith the like rnge and fury, murdered the c 

jt^arrilbn fent to their relief; and carried tr 

far, as to refufe their dead bodies to the C 

demanded them back in order for burial. 

The rebels, animated by fo much fucccfs, 
tha}>e, but wrre obliged immediately to raii'c 
thelels continued the war. Having drawn t 
body, nil their own troops and thofe of th 
tipwnrd.sof Afty thoufand men in all] they w« 
of llamilcar*s army, but carefully kept theii 

iind :ivoidf*d MUiiiiiïv dnwn into rhe r«lnîn.<i. 

<& . AX A. «A Âlk ^lM- M. «.^ M. «A &^ 

bje, had reduced them to the greatefl extremity : This 
lunger, which was To raging, that they at 1 ail cat one 
cr; divine Providence, fays Polybius, thus revenging upon 
[elves the barbarous cruelty they had exercifed on others. 
' now had no refource left, and knew but too well the 
hments which would be inflidled on them, in cafe they" 
à fall alive into the hands of the enemy. After fuch 
1/ fcenes as had been aéled by them, they did not (b 
1 as think of peace, or of coming to an accommodation. 

had fcnt to their forces encamped at Tunis for afliftance, 
x/ith no fuccefsl In the mean time the famine in- 
;d daily. They had firll eat their prifoners, then their 
( ; and now their fellow-citizens only were left to be de- 
;d. Their chiefs, now no longer able to reiiil the com- 
ts and cries of the multitude, who threatened to cut 
keir throats, if they did not furrender, went themfelves to 
ilcar, after having obtained a fafe condudl from him* 
conditions of the treaty were^, that the Carthaginians (hould 
: any ten of the rebels, to treat them as they ihould think 
md (hat the reft (hould be difmiffed with only one ftiit of 
hs for each. When the treaty was figned, the chiefs them- 
I were arrefled, and detained by the Carthaginians, who 
ily (howed, on this occafion, that they were not over- 
rulous in point of honefly. The rebels hearing that their 
s were fertsed, and knowing nothing of the convention» 
ifled that they were betrayed, and thereupon immediately 

up arms. But Hamilcar, having furrounded, them» 
ght forward his elephants ; and either trod them all under 

or cut them xo pieces» they being upwards of forty 

be con^qucntie of this viûory was, the reduélion of almoft 
:he 'cities of Africa, which immediately returned to their 
'iance. Hamilcar without lofs of time, marched againft 
IS, which ever fmce the beginning of the war, had been 
ifylum of the rebels, and their place of arms. He inverted 
I one fide, whilft Hannibal, who was joined in the com- 
d with him, befieged it on the other. Then advancing 

the walls, and ordering crofles to be fct up, he hung 
idius on one of them, and his companions who had been 
d with him on the reft, where they all expired. Matho, 
)ther chief, who commanded in the city, faw plainly by 
what he himfelf might expeft ; and for that rcafon was 
h more attentive to his own defence. Perceiving that 
niba!, as being confident of fucccfs, was very negligent in 
bings» he made a fally» attacked his quarters» killed many 
6 of 

T II t 

ong wbAR) witfl 


BBViOMm, took ferenl ptifaaen, am 
V |ptt) hinrcK. and plunilcivd hi» camp l Uen uhita 
fioBi ihf ciofi. kf [lot Ihnnitial in hia place, onêi 
nule biiu fulTn intxprcfiibk lormenn j mi Ikiièi 
.1 JUw body of Spcndiiu (liirtf citiKcm of tbc Gril qu&l'tj 
^thage, a> ^ RiAar viâimt of hU TCDgraoce. Onr i^nU' 
'elude, U.a'. ll.crrliaii hccn A mutual ciuulacion bctvixt thecal 
Umiinji picrift. vihiïb of them fttculd oui-do ibc oiiti,» 
■dt oi ihc moil baibuoni crutliy, 

lUrchi bcJDg at fuch a ilifi^nce fmm hii colte^vc, it aWj 
Amu time btfore fait miifonu Lie reached bun; and bcfidti,ât 
raad |> >"S betwixt the mo campi bdng ïmpraât cable, it^l 
inpofliblc I'm him to uiiviuiM li^fti'ly tu bis bl&ftaiicc. Vit 
Anluwi;)} KLt'icni tiiufc<i u ji«at C'jnJtcrti^doa in Curbfk' 
'I'be iciJcf mjy have obftrvcJ, in tbc courl'c of thiim.t 
COrtLou^Kiciliiiiutic aC ptotpciity md ndvfibiv, of IcqiD^^I 
■Di feir, of joy aad grief ( fu v^oiu and incoDliaot were it 
CTe»t* on etthtr (i4t, 

JoCuibag«ki»a«thoagbl advifeablc ta make one botdp«4 
fniall- Atiwdinoly all the youtb capable of beario| ^ 
,wa* prcJTcd taio tic fvrvîcc. Hanno ivai («it tu joja 
C-ir ; Asd tltiit> feoatOfi were deputed tacocjnre thofcg- 
in ilie name of ihc rcpubtick, tQ forget palt ^uiurrli, 
Ciilice their refeatiDenis to their country's wcllâre. T 
immediatcl)' comiilied with ; they mutually embraced, 
Mcic rccuitcilfd ûncerely to oae aoother. 

From this tiiac, the Caithagialaoi were fqcccfiCiil ta lU 
thing) ; ^od Maihn, wha, in e\eiy atteoipi after thJE came if 
with (JiûdvjQDge, at laft thought him&lf obljgnl tn haaarda 
battle; and thit kaj Jul) what tiieCariha|riinani«v*nte<l. The 
leMleri od both fide» animated ibcir troops, u going Co i|hi • 
-battle, which woaid Pv erer decide their fate. Xo taffffi- 
taent immediately cisfued. Viâory vi&s not Ion? in ùllftMt^ 
f,r the rebeli every where ptittg gKwnJ. the AfrklM 
.Kcie «Imofl atl lUtD. utd ibe reft liuremlcred. Maiho W» 
.tikcn alitc, and curied to Caiifasge. All Africa lewwl 
icsntediately lo ia aUcgiakce, except the two pcrfidjtuu d^ 
wtiicb had lately revoJEedi kowet-cTr they woe ibOG ibcoad n 
£irTiinder at difcretioa. 

And no* ihe vidoriotti afrny Rtsraed to C.trtbage. an^ wn 
thsfe received «iih Ihoatt of Joy, and the caoerjiuUiiDai of 
, the afaole city. Mttiho and bit foldien, after Ixaviac adotacd 
L ^e {Hibliclc uiumph, were ted to execouon ; and ôaïQtc*! by 4 
1^ |>~aibfu1 and ijeoaiiiiiout deatfai a life that bad beca {MdWled 
^"•-•h ilie bUckcâ lTeaf(»u, and uoparallckd bttbontie*. Soeh 

CÂ R.T H A G INI A^%. 169 

IImcoiic ofion of th« wtr «gainft the merc^Daries, afrer 
tailed Chree jrean and fovr mouths. It forniihed, fayj 
IS» an svcr-meuuMMd lefloa to all oations» not to em- 
in tkeir armies» a fficfter namber of mercenaries than 
I nor to rely I tor the defence of their ftate, on a 
of men who are not attsiched to it» either by intereft 

Intherto pQ>pôfel]|r deferred taking notice of fiich tranfac- 
in Sardinia! as j>aired at the time I hare been fpeaking 
I which were» m fomé meafurey dependent on» and con- 
fiai of the war wa^ in Africa againft the mercenariei. 
exhibit the fame violent methods to promote rebellion» 
.iGune excefles of cruelty ; as if the wind had carried the 
ijpirit of difeord and fary from Africa into Sardinia» 
n the news was brought there, of what Spendius and 
were doing in Africa» the mercenaries in that iiland alia 
off the yoke, in imitation oî thofe incendiaries. They 
by the murder ef Boftar their general» and of all the Car»* 
ians under him* A fuccefTor was fent ; bot i^U the forces 
he carried with him, went over to the rebels ; hung the 
Ion a crofs; and, throughout the whole iiland» put .all 
Carthaginians to the iword, after havine made them fufFer 
ble torments. They then bejieged all the citie»> one 
another, . and foon got poiTeffion of the whole country, 
fends arifing between them and the natives» the merce- 
ivies were drove entirely out of the iiland» and took fanôuary 
jqi-Italy. Thus the Carthaginians loft Sardinia, an iiland of 
iMt importance to them, on account of its extent» its ferti* 
py» and the great number of its inhabitants. 

/Tfae Romans» ever fince their treaty with the Carthaginians» 
lad behaved towards them with great juftice and moderation« 
i^ight quarrel, on account of fome Roman merchants who 
l^re feized at Carthage, for their having fupplied the enemy 
irith provifions, had embroiled them a little. But their mer- 
duLnts being reilored on the firfl complaint made to the fenate 
>f Carthage ; the Romans, who loved to difplay their juilice 
nd generoiity on all occaiions, made the Carthaginians a return 
for their ancient friend (hip ; ferved them to the utmoû of their 
power ; forbad their merchants to furni(h any other nation with 
provifions ; and even refufed to liften to the propofals made by 
lie Sardinian rebels, when invited by them to take poiTeilion 
H the iiland. 

But thefe fcruples and delicacy wore off by degrees ; and 

Casfar's advantageous teftimony (in Sallafl) of their honeily 

md plun-dealing, could not with any propriety, be applied 

VvOL. I. I here; 






tt-t * : ' A!:hou?h, {lys he,* in all the Punick «^an, tie I m, 

* .L'lrL- :.:<.!)!, both in peace and during traces, had coo- ; L| 
'* r. '".1 I t.'L-niber of ctrterftable a£:ion«, the Ronaas coild ^, 
•• :'.*:■ : :«' ir.iir.rg {ijtxtr ihe opportunity might be) fce 

* : - . 1 .1 _ Lpcsn to reicuiate fuch uiage ; they being moR 
*■ l: t' .'sr :: iheir own glor.-, than to the revenge theymijla 

* -,-"■} -i^^tn en fuch perfidious enemies." 
'.'t r.frceririei, uho, as was obfen'ed, had retired into 

III . : •: «i;;.: the R:r::an5 at Ilû. to rhc refclution of failkf 
c t: ::*.: :i,:c.T.ih, :o render thcmfcJits xnnflers of it. TÛl^ 
C L- :: i r -' *.r s v» trc c«tj ]y aftlâed a: the new* ; upon pretsace ] C 
t: i: :: •- '.^- £ ~.:rc juft titîc to Sardinia than the Rom2Jii;K. 
i: t V :: ;:i pu: iLemit-Ivti in a pofture, to take a fpecdyaad i j^ 
; .:: '^iM' it or iriofe «Lo had excited the peopie of thatifland L 
t: ii'-.v z: LTTTi fc^rairfi theni. Bet the Romans, pretendiaj j 
V l: :r.t:t r '^rararior.E «ere made, not againft Sardinia b< I . 
t: : :-l:*. ctrci<:red war aeainft the Carthaginians. The*]it« 
ttr. cJ.:t txni'jixtd in every refpe^, and fcarce beginning 10 
triLtr.e. v. irt ir. no condition to faftaio a war. The nrceiiy 
c! iT.t lire s A2L: therefore to be complied with, and tberwat 
frrcei :c yielj lo a more powerful rival. A frelh treaty w« 
t:.c:t:r:r. mr-.dc, by which they gave up Sardinia to the Ro- 
iT.iT.: ; iiic cl'.'i^ci themfclves to a new payment of twdit 
hL-:.»:fc TL^en::, to keep off" the war with which they wot LQtù Trtii irijoitice of the Romans was the troc caufcflf 
(he itcziLi PuLick war, as will appear in the fequel» 

Tk ficoni Punick War, 
[j, The ftrccnd Punick war, which I am now going tort- 
k:&, i: or.e cf the moft memorable recorded in hiftor^*, nd 
xtjc:: V. orthy the attention of an inquifitive reader; whether 
we cor fide: the boîdntfs of the enterprizes ; the wifdom em- 
p!o)td in iht execution ; the obltinate efforts of two rival ni- 
lior. , :.r.d the read v refourccs they found in their lo weft ebb 
of t'ortjre ; the variety of uncommon events, and the uncer- 
trir if:.e of fo J^ng and bloody a war ; or laflly, the aflem- 
b!::j;^c of the m"P. per fee) models in t\tr^ kind of ment ; and 
the mori inflrLCtive IcfTons that occur in hiftory, either with 
regard Vj, policy, or government. Never did two mwe 


(fl) A. M. 3767. A. Cj:th. 609. A. Rom, 511, Ant. J. C. 137. (r) Lin 

], \i\, n J. 

flRif/'oV at îeà ftîbré i^rlike ftates or nations make war 
ift each other, and never had thefe in qneftion feen them- 
i rtdftd to a more exalted pitch of power and glory. 
i âhd Carthage were, dQi4>tler89 "the two firft ftates of the 
1. Havine already tried their ftrength in the £rft Panicle 
ftnd thereby made an eiTay of each other's power, they 
^ peHeàly well what either could do. In this fécond war» 
ate of arms* was fo equally balanced, and the fuccefs fo 
mixed with viclffitudes and varieties, that that party 
iphed which had been moil expofed to ruin. Great as the 
s 6f thefe two nations were, it may almoft be faid, that 
Aiu(ual hatred WAS ftill greater. The Romans, on one- 
conld not with any patience fee the vanqaiihed prefuming 
:làck them ; and the Cartl^agiaians, on the other, were 
derated at the equally rapacious and mean .treatment, which' 
pretended to have received from the vlCtor. 
lieplan which I have laid down, does not permit me td 
' into an exaâ detail of this war, whereof ItaJy, Sicily, 
1, and Africa, were the feveral feats ; and whkh lias a 
elofer connexion with the Roman hiftoi:y than with that 
now writing. I (hall confine myfelf therefore, principallyt 
ch tranfadions as relate to the Carthaginians ; and endea* 
I ois far as I am able, to give my reader an idea of the 
at and charaâer of Hannibal, who perhaps was the greateft 
ior that antiquity has to boaft of. 

riman and more immdiati caufis of the fécond Punick war* 

ifbre I come to fpeak of the declaration of war betwixt the 
Ans and Carthaginians, I think it neceiTary to lay dowa 
me caufes of it ; and to point out by what fteps thi^rup** 
. betwixt thefe two nations, was fo long preparing, before 
oke out into an open flame. 

hat manwoul^ begrofsly miftaken, faysPolybius (/), who 
Id look upon the taking of Saguntum by Hannibal as the 
caufe of the fécond Punick war. The regret of the Car* 
inians, for their having fo tamely given up Sicily, by the 
y which terminated the firft Punick war ; the injufticeand 
nee of the Romans, who took advantage, from the troa* 
excited in Africa, to difpoffefs the Carthaginians in Sar- 
I, and to iropofe a new tribute on them ; and the fuccefa 
conquefts of the latter in Spain, were the true caufes of the 
ition of the treaty, as Livy * (agreeing here with Polybius) 


(1) Lib. ill. p. 162—1681 
Angebant ingentii fniritus vi- 8c Siciliam nimit celeri defperatiofie 
icilia Sardiaia^ue amiÎËe : Nam rei um conceffam } is Saràiniam inur 

* 1 a 


t httinsttM in fnr worit, in tlic Wginntns of kU iMofi 

I f(«0DcI Piinîck win 

' (r) And fiwlced Himiltar, AtrnamH Barcha. wu kifUr 

^ cxufperctcd on a«oanc of ibe Ufl trcatv which the Kctftiflil 

the nmrt had «iiDpdkd the Catthaeiiiuiii lo fubnii cat >4 

he therrrorv mciliuteil the <!«fign of («king jafi, itioafbtf 

iinim»riiici, for brejikii>j[ it the £tft ravcmrtble opportuJir 

itiKt ffiPuld olfer. 

When tli« irodhln ft Africa were appearH, he wai Traf nf* 
nn cxpfdii'iLtn o^inll ihc Nuroidiani : }n which. Eiriag fni 
proof] of hli cournge anil abilitirt, hi» meril nifctl liioi uA( 
CDinmantl of ilir army which kss to aft in Spain. («) Haul- 
bnl hit fDH. at that time hut nine years nf agr, begp<l «ill 
tl>e utmoft impnrtuniiv to attend him nn ifut micnlian ; udb 
Itial pnrpi'rc empluyrd xll (he foaiHnj; .nrh fn cumiDoa lodf- 
itrrn of ma i^, and wtiich ha«c To much pn»cT nvcf a tcafa) 
fi'bcr. Hamilcnr caa!d not refure him i and aAcr hifitt 
Aindc him Tweai upon the aliaig, that he wiTuM declare hMn 
mi enemy lo the Roman» at foon r» hig age would alloakia 
n do it, he loolt hii fan with him. 

Hamilcar pulTefled all the (]Ualit3es which conltitutc tW|Kll 
|irncriil. 'I'li an invincible courage, and the mofl confomsut 

Cudcnce, he attdrd a molt pfipuUrand iiilinuidng behifiCBr 
e fubducd, in a very Ihon lime, tht j:rr»ie(l pan of tW m- 
lioni of Spain, either by ilic terror nf hi» arm», or hit re- 
^njrin;; condufl; and after anjoyinj; the comma&d there cJu 
)>ear<, runic to an end worthy hii cxaltad charaticTi àytof^ 
tU'ady in nrmi for the caufe of his country, 

(jr) I'he Carthaeiniani appointed Afdrubal, his lbu-ia<Uw. 
to Tuccced him. Thit grnerol, to fccuie the atuntr>, (anli * 
city, which by the advaniwc of lu rnuation, the coavuxll- 
bufnefi «f ita harbour, it fortification», and Aow of wttllk 
Ihroufth itti great commerce, became one of the mot conidcr- 
able ciiici in the world. It wb> called Kew Curthagc, tni U 
ihl« day h known by the name af Carihagena. 

From ihc fevcral (leps of ihefe two great |cnersl(, ii «u 
wfy to pciceive that they were meditating finne oiijrbty defijr, 
which incy had alwayi in view, and laid tbcif fchemei ai i 
grrui dilUnce for the putting it in cxecmion. The RotoiM 
were fcnlibk- of (hii, and reproached theinfclvci for tbefr in- 
dolence and lloih, which had thrown them into s kind of 
leikarir i 
{») p. flo. {,)Ibid. l.lllp. n?. Ur.Lnl.a.L M 
A.M. 1,7*. A.Rom.jic fot,b. I. il. p. tor. 

«ipuwl* wiM («ratlairatia, law. J 

<^ifru/y^ A^/ Ramans .. , 


ïtAtLTgy^ at a tixjie that the enexny were rapidly purfuing their 
Ti£lories in Spain , which might one day be turned againft them. 
They would have been very well pleafed to attaclr ibeii by 
•jpen force, and to wreft their conquefts out of their haads. 
But the fear of another (not lefs formidable) enemy» the Gauls* 
kept them from iheWing their refentments. They therefore 
had recourfe to negotiations; and concluded a treaty with Af-- 
drnbal, in which, without taking any notice of the refl of 
Spain, they contented themfelves with introducing an article* 
by which the Carthaginians were not allowed to make any coa« 
quells beyond the Iberus. 

(y) Afdrubal, in the mean time, ftill pufhed on his con^ 
qnefts, but took care not to pafs beyond the limits ftipolated 
by the treaty ; and fparing no endeavours to win the chiefs of 
the feveral nationsi by a courteous and engaging behaviour, he 
brought them over to the intereft of Carthage, more by per- 
fuafive methods than force of arms. But unhappily» afte^ 
having governed Spain eight years, he was treacherously nmiv 
dered oy a Gaul, who took fo barbarous a revenge for a privaio 
grudge he bore him *• 

j[k) Three years before his death, he had writ to Carthage, 
to defire that Hannibal» then twenty-two years of age» might 
be fent to him. The propofal met with fome difficulty, as thct 
fenate was divided betwixt two powerful fa^Uoas» which» from 
Hamilcar's time, had began to follow oppofite view»» in the 
adminiftration and affairs of the ftate. One fa^pn was headed 
by Hanno, whofe birth, merit, and zeal for the publick weU 
fare, eave him great influence in the publick deliberations. 
This ladUon propofed, on every occafion» tht coadaduig of 
a fafe peace» the prefejrving the conquefts in Spain» as biin» 
preferable to the uncertain events of an expenfive war» wkicS 
the members of it forefaw would one day occafion the mio of 
Carthage. The other, called the Bardnian faâioa, becaofe it 
fupported the interefi of Barcha and his family» liadr to ita 
ancient merî^ and credit in the dty» added the tepwatiofi 
which the fignal exploits of Hamilcar and Aidrabal bad give a 
it i and dedared openly for war* When theiefore Afdmbal'a 

I 3 demand 

(jr ) Poljb. I. ii. p. 123. Liv. 1. ad. a. a. (9) A.1I. %7t^* A* Rm»» 

530. LiT. 1. xxi. n* 3, 4. 

* Tbt murdtr wst mm iffeB ff the 
êXtrêorJmary JUilkf of tbis Gamh 
mbcft mafttr hadfJrt» by thi haad rf 
Jfdruhah It was ptrpetfetid îmfmb' 
âck I and tb€ muritrtr being fmrned by 
ièt p^dii ëmi put t9 the fftrmre, «r* 
fr^Ml ^ fhn% é fÊtii/Mm V tk§ 

thêtighfs êf bU b^mMg ejuemtêd bis ^P» 
wmgefê fmcttftfuOy, tbat be fetmtd i» 
JMpUt mM tbe tarftr ifbu tm mn%%, lo 
fuie babitv oris, oc fiaperaaie 
4olotcs» riieatis ccUa fp 
bacrit. Xiiv. !• aiL a^ l« 


drmand cnme to debated in the fenate, Hanno reprefentec 
danger of fending (b early into the field, a yoong man, 
had all the haughtinefs and imperious temper of his fai 
and who ought, therefore, rather to be kept a long time, 
very carefully, under the eye of the magiftrates, and the p 
of the laws, that he might learn obedience, and a mo 
whkh fhould teach him not to think hi m (elf fuperior * 
o'vhcr men. He concluded with faying, that he feared 
fpark, which uas then kindling, would one day rife to a 
fiagration. His remonftances were not heard, fo the 
Barcinian fadion had the fuperiority, and Hannibal fc 
for Spain. 

The moment of his arrival there, he drew upon himfel 
eyes of the whole army, who fancied they faw Hamiica 
fithcr furvivc in him. He feemed to dart the fame dre 
il is t\es ; the fame martial vigour difplayed itfelf in the i 
his countenance, with the fame features and engaging can 
But his pcrfonal qualities endeared him ilill more. Hf 
f..ned almoll every talent that conftitutes the great man. 
patience in labour was invincible, his temperance wa 
prizing, his courage in the greatefl dangers intrepid, an 
prefence of mind in the heat of battle admirable ; and, . 
mr re wonderful circumftance, his difpofition and caft of 
were fo flexible, that nature had formed him equally for 
jnanding or obeying ; fo that it was doubtful whether h< 
deareft to the foldiers or the generals. He ferved three 
paigns under Afdrubal. 

(a) The fuffrages of both the army and people concorr 
xaiie him to the fupreme command, upon the death of A 
bal. I know not whether it was not even then, or about 
time, that the republick, to heighten his credit anil aath< 
advanced him to the firfb dignity of the ilate, that of oi 
its Suffetes, which was fometimes conferred upon gem 
It is from Cornelius Nepos {i) that we have borrowed 
circumflance of his life, who, fpeaking of the prastc 
bellowed on Hannibal, upon his return to Carthage, an 
conclufion of the peace, fays, that this was twenty- two 
after he had been nominated king ^. 

The moment he was created general» Hannibal, as if 
had been allotted to him, and he was even then appoint 
make war upon the Romans, tamed fecretly his whole i 

(a) A. M. 3784. A. Caith. 6s6. A. Rom. 5»8. Poljb. 1. iii. p, 
179. Liv. 1. xxi. o. 3—5. {h] In vit. Annib. c. 7* 

* Hie ut rcdilt Prxtti iàSbsi eft» pofl^uam rcz fucrat anno (ecui 


ûkkt fide ; and loft no time» for fear of being prevented by 
I, as his father and brother-in-law had been. In Spain 
look feveraî ftrong towns, and conquered many nations, 
mgh the Spaniards had fo mnch advaiitage over him with 
ird to the number of forces (their army amonnting to up* 
Is of an hundred thonfand men) yet he chbfe his time and 
fo happily, that he entirely debated them. After this 
tftory, every thing fubmitted to his arms. But he flill forbore 
J^mng fiege to Saguntum *, carefully avoiding every occafion 
iffû rupture with the Romans, till he ihould be furnifhed with 
ttll things neceffary for fo important an enterprize, purfuant to 
Ae advice given him by his father. He applied himfelf par- 
^Jcnlarly to engage the afFeâions of the citizens and allies, and 
liô gain their confidence, by. generoufly allotting them a large 
Jbare of the plunder taken by the enemy, and by paying them 
•U their arrears f : À wife ftep, which never fails of producing 
|ti advantage at a proper feaion. 

(<) The Saguntins, on their fide, fenfible of the danger with 
«vkich they were threatened, from the^continued fucceiTes of 
.tiannibal, advertifed the Romans of them. Upon this, de- 

Sties were nominated b^ the latter, and ordered to go^nd 
K a perfonal information upon the fpot ; they commanded 
un^alio to lay their complaints before HannibaJ, if it (ho.uld 
lb thought proper ; and in cafe he ihould ref ufe to do juflice, 
^at then the^ fiioold go direâly to Carthage, and make the 
Jhsne complaints. 

In the mean dme Hannibal laid fiege to Saguntum, pronufing 
kinafidf great advantages from the uking of this city. He 
frasperfiiaded, that this would deprive the Romans of all hopes 
wi carrying the war into Spain ; that this new conqueft would 
'fbcore the old ones ; that no enemy would be left- behind him» 
•m circumftance which would render his march more fecure and 
onmolefled ; that he (hould find money enough in it for the 
execution of his defigns ; that the plunder .of the city would 
înfpire his foldiers with great ardour, and make them follow 
him with greater ^chearfulnefs ; that, laftly, the fpoils which 
he (hould fend to Carthage, would gain him the favour of the 
citizens. Animated by thefe motives, he carried on the fie^e 

I 4 with 

(c) Polyb, I. iiî. p. 170, 171. Lîv. 1, xxî. n. 6— 15. 

* This city lay on the Cartbaginlan 

JUn of the Iberui, very near the mouth 

i^ that river, and in a country vfhire 

the Carthaginian I were atlowed to make 

\oar ; but Saguntum, as an ally of /^e | in ib fisms?itt lâv% U sai« n* 5* 
itARAii, was exief ted from êUbofiiUtUt^ \ 

by virtue of the late treaty, 

\ Ibi Urge partiendo praedam, fti« 
pend ta pr«terita cum fide exotvendd, 
cunâos cÎTiom focîoramiue anioiot 



•iih tW DtB«iS vigour. He himlirir frt an cnoiDle _ 
Hoof*. «II prlnttai «11 the week», utl upofed hiuSàtt 

I Nfwi wu toM carried M Rome that Sagsnnin vh bcEori. 
BiH ik> Rdomiii, iaSnd of ^J'^t lu >is reltrF, (oB ihcit i^ 
hfrmilTfiJcbiu*. udcsqally iii&gBtitcu>td«p«itioiii. Hu- 
ftitu] k»i *>ot() tQ the KOBiiB (hptiiio, (hat he «ai aet II 
IrifuTc la bear them. Thc^ thrrttorc icpaired to Cardi^, 
but wiih Dii bciMT faced*, the Barcioiaa fafHon bavia]; pit> 
' *tffri n"r itic crtrplÛBts of the Rontaas, sntl all ihettmo)* 
ftiasca oT Haano. 

L>wiot ihcfe lojajn and Mi^fWtioBi, the fit«e w» canU 
BO wiih ^reat vijonr. The Sa^u"")^^ ^'^'c bow redneed nÀt 

, laâ emrtnit}-, and io wast of all thinj;!. An accommcdaliM 
witi thcntipOB propoM ; boi the era jiiionx on which It «u 
cffrreil aijpeartd Io hatfli, that the âtgoDiio» coald not fo mack 
ki think of acuptiDK ihesi. Bcferc ihty give tbtit isA 
■Btn», ihr erincinl frnitci*, bringing ihor gold aoJ litir. 
and ihjT of iKe f uUick itrafiirT. I'nm the inarktt-plac^, lirrw 
both îatc a fire ughted for tbai psreofr, a?vd afccrarardj thrm- 
blvri. At the fiuBc titne a lo»-er. »bich bid been loeg iSJahtd 
Ij the bamrifig fan», railing tvitii a dnadful imitc, the Cir* 
tl f);tc!uii roiurd rke ûtyhy the breach, fbon inide them- 
frN» a-.aiVr» t>f it, »*i cot to fircn all the iah^taat» «hs 
W'r*H' .içetobwr arai. Bji noEAÎthfiaodïiiz the fire, tba 
Canhaginuni got ■ rtty fitr« bocij. Hafimhal did not r> 
f,iic to hrinftlf any cirt ut the fpoili gained by hi* viâerio, 
>urt apnited them rolcly tn the cam'ing on nia i im lyiiwi 
AccOFdinjilyPolytietRinarfc». that ihr taking iiT Tii !■»■■ 
wai of fcrvke to hion, at it a»-akeii<i) the aidour of bii M> 
dien, by ihefighl of the rick booty which it had sSorded. aai 
bj thehirpo of mote; and it Te«)ocilrd ill (be principal )W^ 
fi>ns of CanKage to Hannibal, bv the large prereuta he BudeM 
the» out of ii( fpcilï. 

(d) Words coiild atw«r rzpreft the giief and conficTiUÎM 
wiin «Uicb the neut cf the uking. and the t/«el fate o($a> 
{untam, wa received at Rome- CompaffioD for as Hofefi» 
rate city, Aiame foe their hiving f«iled It) (iiocotv fodi Atlk 
fnl allies, a Jul) indiçnjition a^ainll the CarthagînîaKi, ikc 
author» of all ihcfe talamilict ; the llroi^g abrm» raifcii by tl* 
laccefTei of Hanntbd, whom the Roui.irt fancied the; fi« 
*t>F«dy at thcirgsiTt j all thcfc IcBtEmentt une fo tiolcat, tlUfc 
c'uriog th* fird momrnti of tbeA, the Romani were ucalik 10 
KIM to any nfolutioni or do any thing, but (ii* njr 

C A R T H A G INI A N S. <li 

to Ùét torrent of iheir ptflion^ and fiicrifioe floocU of tears to 
Hie nmnory of a dtj» wMch lay in mtns Vecaufe of its in» 
iMable fidelity * to tiM Romans, and had been betrayed by 
Ifceb oMCOonnuble indolence and imprudent delays. When 
hk^r were « little recovered, an aiTembly of the oeople waa 
jMiedf and war was decreed ananimoufly a|^a!nft the Cartkap^ 

War pr9ci 

(r) That no ceremony might be wanting, deputies were ftnt 
to Carthage, to enquire whether Saguntiim had been befieged 
fcgp order of the republick, 'and if (o, to declare war i or» i» 
Otfe this fiege had oten undertaken folely bv the nuthovity of 
ilannibal» to leqnire that he ihonld be doKvered uptoth» 
Itomans. The deputies perceiving,, that the ibnate gave iMS 
dHreâ anfwer to their demands, one of them taking up the 
IbUed lappet of ^s rqbe, I bring itn^ fays he» in a kiaghtjr 
toMt iitmr ffiut 9rn»ftat^ ihi elma n left u sêurfilmtu ThW 
ftnate anfwering, that they left the choice to htm , //^^ jw» 
mmfthtm^ iayshcr unfolding his robo. Jttd^M^ rtfHitd the 
Cttrthaginians, with the fame haughtinefs, at biariify eitftfi irv ' 
0Éd âfê r^fètvîi u pTêftcntt it -whh tbt fame chtorfuba/u SttcU 
IMS the beginning of the fécond Ponick war. 

f/) If the caule of this war OMMdd be ^feribed to the takings 
of Saguntom, the whcje blame, fays Polyhios, lies upon ih«^ 
Carthaginians, who could not, with any colourable pretesctj^ 
Itfiege a city that was in alliance with Rome } and as fucK 
CM&prehended in the treaty» which forbad either party to make 
war upon the allies of theothet* But, ftoald the 'Origin of' 
this war be traced higher, and carried back to the time whai^ 
the Carthaginians were difpofleiled off Sardinia by the Romans^ 
and anew tribute wss fo unreafbnably impofed on ihem i it bh^A 
be confeiTed, continues Polybius, that the conduâ of the R(k 
mans is entirely unjufttfi<ible on thefe two points» aa b^irv^ 
founded merely on violence and injuitice ; and that, hsA 1^ 
Carthaginians, without having recourfe to ambiguous and 
frivolous pretences, plainly demanded iatlsfo^Vion upon tKafe- 
two grievances» and, upon their being refufed it, had declared 
war againll Rome, in 4hat cafe reafon and juftice had beeuci^ 
tirely on their fide» 

The interval between the conclufîon of the llfft, and the 
beginniog of the fécond Punick war, wa$ tweniy-four years. 

1 5 Tbi^ 

<j) My^ p« it7. Lit. V, xii. n. i9, 19. (/] Pelyb. 1. iii. p. 1S4. 1^5^ 

• Sanâitatc difciplin«e« qu%fijem iucialtm iif^u< ad peruicicm 6uA 
|garttat« Xiiv. J. isi* 0. ;• 


Têt iegiMaÎMg tf the fécond PunickWar. 

(^) When war was refolvcd upooy and proclaimed on both 
fides, Hanoiba]» who then was twenty-fix or twenty-feven yean 
of age ; before he difcovered his grand defign, thought it in- 
cumbent on him to provide for the fecurity of Spain and Africa. 
With this %Mew, he marched the forces out of the one into the 
other. To that the Africans ferved in Spain, and the Spaniards 
in Africa. He was prompted to do this from a perfuafion, that 
thefe foldiersy being thus at a diftance from their refpeôive 
countries, would be fitter for fervice ; and more firmly. attached 
CO him, as they would be a kind of hoftages for each other's 
fidelity. The forces which he left in Africa amounted to 
about forty thoufand men, twelve hundred whereof were horic : 
Thofe of Spain were fomething above fifteen thoufand, of 
%khich two thoufand five hundred and fifty were horfe. He 
left the command of the Spanifh forces to his brother Afdru- 
bal, with a fleet of about fixty ihips to guard the coafts; and 
at the fame time gave him the wiieft counfel for his conduô, 
whether with regard to the Spaniards or the Romans» in cafe 
they ihould attack him. 

Livy obferves, that Hannibal, before he fet forward on this 
expedition, went to Cadiz to difcharge his vows made to Her- 
cules i and that he engaged himfelf oy new ones, in order to 
obtain fuccefs in the war he was entering upon. {I) Poly bias 
gives us, in few words» a very clear idea of the diftance of the 
^veral places through which Hannibal was to march» in his 
way to Italy. From New Carthage, whence he (et out, to the 
Iberus, were computed two thoufand two hundred (i) furlongs *• 
From the Iberus to Emporium» a fmall maritime town, which 
feparates Spain from the Gauls, according to (A) Strabo, were 
ixxteen hundred furlongs ll). From Emporium to the pafs of 
the Rhone, the like fpace of fix teen hundred furlongs («). 
From the pafs of the Rhone, to the Alps» fourteen hundred 
furlongs (//J. From the Alps, to the plains of Italy, twelve 
hundred furlongs (0). Thus from New Carthagç to the plain» 
of Italy were eight thoufand furlongs (/). 


(g) A. M. 37S7. A, Carth. 619. A. Rom. 531. Ant. J. C. 217. Mjb^ 
I. iii. p. J?-. Liv. I. xu. n. zi, 22. {b) Lib. iii. p. 192» 193. (f) V> 
mihs. (k) L. iii. p. 299. (l) 2CO mi/iff. («■} 200 milet, («} 175 miies. 

(•) 150»;.7ij. f^) 1000 miles, 

• Poly hi u% fntkes the diftance from 

AT* TV Carthage /s he 26cc furlong_i\ 

^cnfe^uentJy tte ivbdc r.wr.bcr if fur- 

VfiO be S400, or ^ail'^'xing 625 

feet to ibe furling) 944 EngTA an!eit 
and almtfi ene-tbirJ, Si$ rajbiwif 

Gronov. £^t, pi 267* 

e ARTH A 6 Ilf l4Nf* f7f 

(f) Hanntbi^l btd, long before, uken all *tbc; pmptr inea* 
Cftres» to difcover the ni^ure tnd fituation of the places tbrongh 
Mtfhich he was to pafs i to found how the Gaok itood aftâed to 
0IC >Roiiiafis ; to win over their chiefs, whom he knew weiv 
very greedy of gold« by his bounty to them ^ ; and to fecium 
10 l^imfelf the alêâion and fidelity of one part of the nations, 
thiOttgh whofe country his march lav« He wasnot ignorant» 
dut the pafTage of the Alps would be attended witn great 
dificulties, but he knew they were not iinfbrmoantable» and 
that was enough for his purpofe. 

(r) Hannibu began his march early jn thaipring, fromNevr 
Carthage where he had wintered.. His armv ^hen confiiled of 
nbove an hundred thoufand men, of .which twelve thonfand 
werehorfe, and he had near forty elphants. Haybgcroffed 
the Iberus, he foon fubdued the feveral nations which oppo&d 
him in his march^, and loâ a coniidcrable part of his army ia 
this expedition. He left Hanno to command all the cojuitry 
biiBg between the Iberus and the Pyrcnean hills, with devea 
Uoiuand men, who were appointed to ■ ^uard the baggage of 
Ihpfe that were to fdlow him« He difmifledthe like number» 
fimding them back to their refpeâive countries ; thna ieeurins 
ID himfelf their affeâion when he fhould want recrnits, and 
afiurtng the reft that they fhould be allowed to retnrn wheift* 
•ver they fliould de£re it. He paiTed the Pyrenean hills, imd 
advanced as far as the banks of the Rhone, at the head of fifty 
Ihottfand foot, and nine thoufand horfe ; a formidable army» 
bat lefs fo from the number; /han from the valour of the troôpa 
that comppfed it ; troops who had ferved feveral years in ^^in» 
ud learnt the art of war under 'the ableft .captains that Car* 
khage could ever boaft. '. 

Passage^ /i^# Rhone. 

(s) Hannibal being arrived within about four days march 
Tom the mouth of the Rhone f , attempted to crofs it, 'becaufe 
:he river, in this place, cook up only the breadth of its channel. 
Eie bought up all the (hip-boats and little vefTels he could meet 
^ith, or which the inhabitants had a great number, becaufeof ' 
iheir commerce. He likewife built with great diligence, a 

I 6 pvo* 

(f) Polyb. I. iiî. p. ?S8i 189. (r) Idem, p. it<), T90» l.iv.3. xxi. n. 
It — 14. (s) Polyb. 1. iii. p^ tjo— 174. Edit. Oronov» Lif»l» txit a^ 

* Au(ii«runt prvoccupatoi jam ab 
^nntbale Galloium anirnos cHe : fed 
le iil: quidcm ipfi fat s mitem gentcm 

•re, ni i'ubtaie auro, cujuiafidiifim» 

gem e(l. pilncipum animi coaciUoiN 
tur.. Liv. 1. xxi. n. ao. 
t  iittk «iMf» ^vrJTNMr» 

f ÂB^P 


amlif îan* namtKr of btMU, little ve(lêIiaD<) flous of , 

Os lu* airi'il, he founJ (be Gaulr encAmped on (lie oppoiti 
I buk, and nrcfutd to difpate the pa&ge. There «nt M 

' foAbiltirot hiiatackin^thcmio froot. He tbereftte orded 
scoafidcTible détachaient of his forces nnder the ramaasd^ 
ftlinno the Tob of Bomilcar, to pafi the river higher-; »d, ii 
«nlcr la conceal kU nurch, and the defign be hzil io view, frta 
the enemy, he obUeed them to let out id the night. Ai! ûàxip 

I bccec<lcda»kede&cd; and theriver wai paâéd * the nexcâtf 
wiihout [he leaS oppçfitioD. 

I They pafTed the kII of the day in refrelhing theiolclm, anl 

\ jn the night they advanced filentty towards ihc enemy. Iiikl 

IDorning, when the figails agreed upon had been given, H>t< 
nihil pirpsrcd to aticrapt the paûage. Pan o? hu horib^ 
complcady haioellêd, were put into boats, that the» lidcn 
might, on tticir landing, immediately charge the enemy- TW 
■rft of the bodes fwim over on both fides of the boati, ffiM 
which, one fingle man heM the bridles of three or four. Tka 
iofaotiy crofled the river, either on Hoats of timber, orinfadl 
boau, and in a kjnd of gondolas, which were only the imki 
eJ trees ihey themfelves had made hollow. The great boùi 
were drawn cp in a line at the top of the channel, la ordetttf 
break the force of the waves, and facilitate the paSageto the 
reft of the fmall fleet. When the Gauli faw it advaodcg M 
the river, they, according to their cuAom, broke into dread- 
fnl cries and howlingi ; and clalhing their bucklers ovei theit 
heads, one agaioft (he other, let Sy a fhower of darti. BbI 
they were prcidigioufly aflonifhej, when they beard a great 
Boife behind (hvin, faw their tents on fire, and [hemrdves it- 
tacked boih in front and rear. They now had no way left bet 
to fave themfelvrs by Bight, and accordingly retreated to tWr 
refpeflive villages. After this, the tell of the troops ciofiéd 
the river qaietly, and without any oppofition. 

The elephants were ftill behind, and occalïoned a grnudol 
of trouble. They were wafted over the next day in ibe fot* 
lowing manner. From ihe bank of the river iva< thtOKS ■ 
float of tin)ber, twohundied feet in length, and £fiy in bteadihj 
ihts was Axed llrangly to (he banks by large lopei, and i]inte 
covered over with earth ; fo that the elephants, deceived by iu 
«ppeaxancc, thought themfelveslipOD firm ground. FromtkîifiiA 
finat they proceeded to a fécond, which was built in the f»K 
Jorm, but only an hundred feet long, and faflened to the fer- 
mer by thaiiis that were eafily loofened. Thefrmnleelephtnti 
^(.re put upon the firlt Hoat, and the males Itilluwed after : 

' C A ft T II A G I N r A N s. mt 

lé when they were got upon the fteond flnat, it wni looTrned 
otn iha lirn, and, hy the hdp uf fmall bu^iti, towed to tha 
jpuAte Ihorc. Aficr ihii. It was fcnt b^iclc to fetch ihoh 
hich were bcliinil. Some fell into the waibr, lui ihc)i vt lii^ 
3t fxfe to Ihurc, ntid not a fingle clrphkni waa dtowncd> 

7/j< M A « c ri a/ifr iht Saiili if tht R H o n ». 

(/) The two Roiriin conful» had, in the Iwgïnning of ihff 
iringi ftl out fur their rcfpeftive provinc»; P. Scïpîo foi 
pain with fixty fhipa, two Roman legions, fomieen thunrinil 
lOt, and twelve hundred horle of (he alliea ; Tilwniu Sem» 
roniui for Sicily, with an hundred and fixty Jhipi, two le- 
ioni, fixteen thoafand foot, and eighteen hundred horfe of 
le ■lliei. The Roman legion confillGil, at that lime, of fouf 
lOufand foot, and three hundred horfe. Sempronîui had mado 
virsordinnry preparation] at LilybRum, a jea-pori town ia 
icily, with the dcfign «f croffing over direflly into Africa, 
cipio was equally conËdent, that he fliould find Hannibal flill 
I Spain, and make that country the lent of war. But he wu 
reatly allonilhed, when, on hii arrival at Marfeillei, advi» 
■aa brought him, that Ilannihal was upon the banlti of the 
Lhone, and preparing in crofa it. He then detached ihrea 
nndrcd horfe to view the poftuxevf the enemy ( and Hannibal 
ctached five hundred Nutnidian horfe fur the fame purpofci 
urin^ which, fomc of hii foMkCri were employed in wafting 
vcr tne elcphanii. 

At the fame time he gave aurf|cnce, in prefenceof hii wholo 
rmy. to a Gaulifb prince inhabiting near the Po, who alTurcd 
im, by an interpreter, in the name at hii fubjcfli, that hi» 
rrival wat tnipaiicnily expected ; that the Gaula went rciily 
} join him, and march againit ihcKomiinti chat he himfeff 
>outd eondufl \\\t army through places where they Jhould meet 
>iih a plentiful fupply of provifions. Whtn tho prince wit 
'iihdrawn, Hiinnibal, in a fpeech to hii troops, magnified ejr. 
■emcly ihi» dppulation_ from the Gauls ; extolled, with juft 
raifea, the bravery which his force* had (hewn hitherto; and 
Hhorted tliem to fullaiti, to the laft, their reputation and glory. 
The foldicrt, infpired with frelh ardour and courage, declared» 
fith lifted hands, their readincfi to follow whitherfoever h* 
loaM lead the way. Accordingly h« appointed the next day 
or hit march ) and, after offering up vows, am] making fup« 
Jicalioni to the gods for the fafecy of hii troopj, hedilmilled 
hem ; dcGring, at the fame time, that they would lalce the 
KCcflary refreflimenti. 


(f) Palyb, I, lU. f. iM'Mft Vft Uii k ui, a. jt, JS. 

l$2 H I S T O R Y O K T H E 

\Vlr.!il this wa« doinir, the Niinrulians returned. Thq'hal 
met wiih, Aiul eharj^rvi the Roman ilet.ichment ;. on which oc- 
c.iuon the conlUCl \v;h very oliilinntc, anil the llaughlcr gr»t, 
f.Mîi' »:;■:: I';*, the fmall niimlVr of the combatants. An hundred 
aiul ii\î\ ot" the Romans were left lîcad upon the fpm, and 
v>^v,- ih.-.n two hundred of the encmie«!. Hut the honour of 
ih'.N -.Mi initio fell to the Remans ; the Numidians having» re- 
ined, .r.d leli them the field o( batilc. This firfl ailioii was 
iuicuMvtcd a^ an omen * of the f.ite of the whoW? war, and 
fermcd to piomife fueeefs to the Roman?, but which at the 
i\\uw :ime. uould be dearly boujiht, and llrongly conirflcd. 
lln ho{\\ t:vir^, thofe who h.ulfurvivcd tlii^ rugiigeincnt, as well 
av the t'it^ut», returned to carry the news to their rcfpcdive 

1 l.vrr:'.\i1, as he h.ul doelared, decamped the next day, and 
ci«'<K\'. (.M>n))*h the niiJtl of Cîaul, advancing» northward ; not 
th. ; ti'-.> \\.\s I'nc* ihtMteil way to the Alps, but only* a*: it led 
\'.'\\\ fioni t'.u' lea, it prevented his meeting Scipio ; anil, by 
ih.-i'. nuMns, faxourid the defign he had, ot marching all his 
louv:, \\iil\oui IrileniuiMhrm by fiRhiinj», into Italy. 

Thinii'Ji Sci|.Mt> mauhod with the utmoll cxncdition, he did 
not :i- .vh the place wlurc Hannibal had palled the Rhone, tiU 
thuevi.-.\s attri he had lit out from it. Defpairing therefore 
tooMMnUv' him, he ictiiinod to his licet, and rcimbarked, fully 
rvl.^!\»\i to wait for Hannibal at the fot)t oï the Alps. Ihit, 
in .M»!i*i liuit hi' nnv»hi not leave Spain defencvlefs, he fent his 
bî. .lu'i v'Mriiis tl\ith« r, with the ^;reaiell part of hi» aimy. to 
i>^\k^' !u Mil ;i:*.iinll : and himfelf fet forward inwnc- :«M CteniM, with intention to oppnfe the army which iu vi.uil, near the To, to that of Hannibal. 

The l.i'itci, after tour manh, arrived at a kind of illanJ, 
fonnrd bv theconlliix 1 c»l two rivrrs, which unite their ilrcams 
in tin . pU\i e. I bie h«' was el.olcn um]>iie between tw«» brcithcrs» 
vho iiiipiiitd (heir li^'.hi to (he lcin,t;dom. He to whom Han- 
jubal dcciced it, lurnilh\.d his whole army with proviiion.s 


• III»* prinripium («mulijiir omrn | TuVvtc ft ffr f'»/^l, inflfttd of tfl'Uk 

t"'lli, u\ fiiniiii.i tiiutn piofpriiim 
rvrnH:in. ita \\.\\u\ «•■«■» »i,-nnni 
am i|Mlili|ur n'llairims vi^Imm.iiii Ro- 
nuiif, piMinnln. ! if \, \%t n i,j. 
I 7/v i.'.xt .7 /'.vAjtoi, tt\ it é:n 
f#-ri f,.it ... ,fr.i f ■ ;,i,,./n./ ,/,,,,' / /.,,.j., 
f'yU^ I hi 1,7 jr./ .tt itf n-ct "jn ,/• tN 

*>Wnr .in,i th, Rf-.-r. th.ii n, ,> fl,it 

À 'A^.«t». hrn l'u''':itu,f.i. y.t.'r^ 
nrrnkx /iivi, tl\tt hr J:t,i rr.iJ in .1 ■?•!• 
n*/i,-tii't rf .' ifv, llit*r.i , nvh>f*jJ.'rtVf^ 
th.u'n'f ..ti- t' tfttJ \(a'A RliotKinufqiie 
il til MPS, in/ir>t,i (>/* Aiar Rhorirfniiii|»r| 
.if.y. th.if ti>- ifhitij in u*ut-flhn it f'irtti'4 
H tl'f ii'r//if.v of th. /..II. J ill*./ tin 
K h,m.\ 7 it fitHtith n .»/" th*- .'/.'"/r^» ••jj # l| 
lu'teJf^kcM e/f fttvt4 I tit tvuiiniij% 

C A R. T H A G I N I A N «. t »; 

Si&d arms. This wts the country of the AUobrogea^ 
ch name the people were caUed» who now inhabit ^e 
liâion of Geneva» * Vienne» and Grenoble. His march 
opt much interrupted till he arrived at the D^rancesi» 
fifom thence he reached the foot of the Alps without any 

^ The P A 8 8 A c B ^ir iii Alf s. 

JjM) The fight of thefe mountûns, wkoie tops feemed^ t9 
lipwh the ikies» and were covered with fnow» and where nothings 
(■fpetred to the eye but a few pitiful cottages» fcattered here 
jlpd there» on the iharp tops of inacceffible rocks i nothing but 
^igre flocks» almoft pertihed with cold» and hairy men of a 
e and fierce afpeét ; this fpedlacle» I fay» renewed the 
r» which the dift^nt )[»rofpe had raifed» and (Iruck.a p(0«-' 
OS damp on the hearts of the foldiersi When they began 
xUmb up» thy perceived the mountaineers» who had feized 
the nhgheft cliffs» and prepared to oppofe their paiTage» 
therefore were forced to halt. Had the mountaineers» 
^olybius» only lain in amb\ircade» and fuffered Hannibal^a 
ttpops to ilrikeinto (oxnt narrow pafTage, and had then charged 
tytm on a fndden» the Carthaginiail army would have been 
inccoverably loft. Hannibal» beine informed that they kept 
.tifùb pofts only in the day ûme, and quitted them in the even* 
ii|g» poiTefled himfelf of them by night. The Gauls returning 
Mrly in the morning, were very much furprized to find their 

E' ftain the enemy's hand : but Aill they were not difheartened» 
ing ufed to climb up thofe rocks, they attacked the Cartha- 
«nians who were upon their march, and harrafTed them on alt 
fides. The latter were obliged, at one. and the fame time, to- 
eogage with the enemy» and flruggle with the ruggednefs bf 
the paths of the mountains, where thev could hardly iland.- 
But the greaced diforder was caufed by the horfes and beads of 
burden laden with the baggage, that were frighted by the cries 
and howling of the Gauls, wnich echoed dreadfully among the 
mountains ; and being fometimes wounded by the mountaineers» 
came tumbling on the foldiers, and dragged them headlong 
with them down the precipices which lay clofe to the roaoT 
Hannibal; being fenfible that the lofs of his baggage only was 
enough to deflroy his army» ran to the afiiilance othis troops» 
wlio were thus embarraflfed ; and having put the enemy to 
fiijght» continued his march without moleltation or danger, and 
4iamc to a caille» which was the moft important fortreis in the 


(«] Polyb. 1. ill. p. aqj— 2o8. , Liv. 1« xxi, fl. ja— 37» 

f In DaitfbM 



«We couniry. He pnlteSeil himCelf of il. snt 

lieighbrvticg vilhgn, in which he found a Urge qsutityi 
coin and nttle fufl-tclcnt to ful>Gil btj armr three d»yu 

AÎKct » pretty quitt m«Kl), the CarthsginUn) were to <»• 
cnontcr « new jiii{>tr. TbffGaoh, feigning to take adTt»> 
tige or ibe R)i>foilunM of their ncighhours, who had fufimi 
tbroppojing the piiibgc of Hannibal't iroojM. cane to pn 
ibcir rcrpefTi lo ihat ercotral. brought kîm provifiont, ofmi 
to b* bi) guiilri ; and left him hoitagés, ai pledget of lÛr 
fidelity. However, Hmnihal pUcrtI no great confideece ia 
them. The dcphantt and horiVt majchcd in the frart, w^ 
liimlcif followed with ihe main body of hit foot, keeping ■ 
vigilant eye over all ihingt. Tbey came at length le a TC7 
Deep and narrow pitif, ivhicb wot commanded bjr an emtnCnCt 
whcie the Gauli had jiLccd an amburtrade. Tm& mlUa|;m 
00 a fudden, chaiecd the Carthaginians on c*cf;f 6àt, Mllbl 
down Itones upon ihem of a prodigious lîae. Tac snny wball 
have been enUrrly routed, had not Hannibal ncMcd btoMf 
in an eiciaordinary manner, to extricate then one of ^ 

At laft. on the ninth day, ihey reached iherummitof iheAlpi, 
Here the arm^ halted two dayi, to reH and rrfrclh ihemrdNl 
after ihcir fatigue, and afterwards continued their march. Ai 
ÏI was now autumn, a great i^uantity of fnow «vat lately falks, 
and covered a!l the road i, which caofed a diforder amoag tht 
troops, and difheartened them very mach. Hannibal pcrceifrd 
it, and halting on a hill from whence there waj a prffTpeAoF 
all Italy, he Ikewed ihem the fruitful plains ' watered bjr tlx 
river Po, to which they were almoft come ; and tbercfbre that 
tfaey had but one efFort more to make, before they artircd It 
them. He reprefenicd to ihrm, that a battle or two tvooIdjHl 
a glorious period to their toil h, and enrich ihem forever, br 
giving them pofTeflton of the capital oT the Roman empire. 
This ("peech, filled with fucb pteaiinç hopci, and enfarceil by 
the fight of Italy, infpired the dejcAed fotdiert with frelh 
vigour and alacrity. They ihcrcfurc purfued their march. Bbi 
fiill the road wai more craggy and iroublefome than ever; lad 
the difliculiy and danger increafcd, in proportion as iheycamc 
lower down the mounlaiu. For the ways were narrow, Aeep, 
and flippery, in mofl places ; To ib^t the foldicrt could nvilhcr 
keep upon their feet as they tnnrched, nor recover ihcnfdinn 
wtien they ma^e a falfe Hep, but Humbled, and beat down one 


^ • 0/ rUdmliU 


Vf DOW were come to a worTe place ihan any (hey had yet 
nth. Thi» wa» a path naturally very deep and craggv, 
I bein| made more fo bjr the laic falling in of the earth, 
nated in a frightful precipice above a ihoufind fiiet deep. 
the cavalry Aopped fhorc. Hannibal, wondering at [hi] 
n'hait, ran to the place, and f^w thai it really would be 
(Tible for the troops to advance funher. He therefore was 
oing a round-about way, but ihîs alfo was found impraAi- 
. A», upon the old fnow, which was grown hard by 
, there was fome newly fallen that was of no great depth, 
|et, by their finking into it, fuund a firm fupport; but 
now being foan dif^lved, by the treading of the foremoll 
9 and beaftt of burden, th« foKUers marched on nothing 
:e, which waafoflippery, that there was no Handing; and 
El if the^ made the leaft falfe fli.'p, or endeavoured to fave 
felvei with their bands or knees, there were no boughs or 
to catch hold of, Befidet this difficulty, the horfes, 
ng their feet into the ice toltecp themfelves from falling. 
I not draw them out again, but were caught as in a gin. 
' therefore were forced to leek feme other c^tpcdîent. 
innibalrefolved to pitch hiicamp, and to give his troopi . 
day* reft on the fummit of this hill, which was of a con. 
ible extent; after ihey-lhouM have cleared the ground* 
«moved all the old m well as the new fallen fnow, which 
L,work oF immcnfe labour. He afterwards ordered a patit * 
I cut into the rock itfelf, and this was carried on wttl^ 
ling patience and ardour. To open and enlarge this path) 
he trees thereabouts were cat down, and piled round ihv 
( after which fire was fet to them. The wind, by good 
ne, blowing hard, a fierce fl^me foon broke out, Ci that 
rock glowed like the very coals with which it wat fur. 
ded. Then Hannibal, if Livy may be credited, (for 
bins fays nothing of this mailer) caufed a great (quantity 
negar to be poured on the rock *, which piercing into tho 
I of it, that were now cracked bv the inienfe heat of the 
calcined and foftened it. In this manner, taking a Iarg« 
>3fs about, in order that the defcent might be eaffer, thejr 
1 way along the rock, which opened a free paf&ge to the 

iiiUfKi Mjlai 

\ /i,«„r, »,^. .. ■fiu bj .i. firu a 

■vlnnar, 1. xiiri. p. S. ffittlj. tb» 

it, ./ 1 rmsrt. 

a/iijp w vlnitar 

i »lï. il. iriMl 

irtai ,«i, <,. 

,jfi>«,. s..i 

«v»„>«, ,bi, a™ i^fraM. ^ 

iofuruol, q<l« 1 

noD rupcrit ignis 

1 tti, ftaji: h, tbi iiffi".h of Wf*- 

dcni, 1. xi.i[. 

C.I. llllblrl- 

..,"«^'/ A* >/*«/•"«! 

li, il SUCCKI 

Ittmm domitor. 

ii. c. 3, Dim, 

./féti't >/itf 

ffh ^ 


force*, the baggage, ud cvra lo ihe clrpfisnu- FoH^H 
«ere cmpldTMie thh «orfc, dorinf wbicb (he beaftt ofbareia ' 
kaJ CO piovtoJ^r i Uicrf bang no rood for them on nouBUiD 
buried uadcr ncTml rnnw». At lait thcv came into mlii'aud 
•lid fruitful fpou, which yielded plcnvf of f<ir<ge fct ik , 
hot{et, uul all kind* of foud for tlic IbJdun. 
H A H 11 I ■ A I. nttrj Inly. 
(x) Whefl HaBfiibul maichcd iotn ttnly, bit «rm^wugot 
' acw fo nacneroui u wheo be left &p«n, where vre dsJ ît 
, SBOVRted to near fixty tbouTind men. It had fuAained gmt 
JoÂs duiing the march, cithci io the battlei ÎI wa rcrce<l v 
Sght, or in the paflage of riven. At hii defxariurc from ikc 
Rhone, it coafittcd of thitty-cight thoufBad foot, and «boM 
«ight (houfand horfc. The march o«t the Alp» dcflroyed mu 
bilf chii nemhet; fo thai Hancibal had now remaining eaJf 
twelve ihoufand Africnm, eight ihoufxod Spaoifb foot, ati 
6x thoufand hoHe. This account he himrelf^ciufcd to ben* 
giaved on a pillar near the piomoniory called L^einiotn. k 
was five months and a half lince h)i firli fctiing tyat from Hem 
Carthage, incladiog the fortnight he emploj^ in majcIôiK 
Aver the Alps, when he fet up hit ftindardi in the plabi v 
the Po, at tbc entrance of Fiedmont. It might tfaen bs 

His firft care was to give his troops fome reJI, which Hâj 
rery much wasted. When he perceived Ui»t thej- were fit fer 
tftion, the inhabitants of all the territotics of Turin •, re 
fiifing to conclude an alliance with him. he marched and en- 
camped before their chief city ; carried it in three days, and 
put all whobad oppofed him to the Tword. Thi* cxpcditicn 
^ilruck the Barbarians with fo much dread, that they al! cane 
voluntarily, and rurrcndcred at difcrelion. The rCft of tlw 
Gauls would have done the fame, had they not b«en awed by 
the terror of the Roman arms, which were now approacbiajr. 
Hannibal thought therefore that he had no lime to tofe i dlit 
it wa> his intcreft to march up into the cootiiry, aad atteiBpt 
fome great eicploit; fuch as might induce iboîè wbo Ihqald 
have an inclination to join him, to rely on his valour. 

The rapid progrefs which Hannibal had made, ?reatly al&m- 
cd Rome, and caufed the uimoU conllernation tniougbotit tbe 
cily. Sempronius was ordered to leave Sicilyi and kafteo M 
the relief of hîi country ; and P. Scipio, the other coufgl. 
advanced with tbe uimoft diligence cowards the enemy, cia4cJ 
the Po, and marched and pitctted hit camp near tlie Ticisot f. 

(x) Polybil.iii.p. tog. & lis— 114. U>. 1. ni. a. 19. 
^f aWW. f^JmeU rhur {mco talM T(/!m} Irt ImttrJf. 



Battle âf the C avalky near tbe Tîcînns. 

ly) The armies being now in fight, the general» on each fidd 
mi^àe a fpeech to their K)ldiers> before they engaged on battle* 
^pio» after having reprefented to his forces the glory of their 
p^ttiitryi and the noble atchievements of their anceftors, o1}« 
li^ed to them, that vidlory was in their hands, fince they were 
^ coipbat only with Carthaginians, a people who had been (b 
ajftea defeated by them, as well as forced to be their tributaries 
for twenty years, and long accuftomed to be almoft their flaves* f 
"^Jiat the advantage they had gained over, the flower of thç 
^ ^rthaginian horfe, was a fure omen of th^r faccefs, during 
reft of the war : That Hannibal, in marching over the 
J8, had juft before loft the beft part of his army ; and that 
d|Qj[è who furvived were half dead with hunger, cold, and 
Sl^ue : Tha]£ the bare fight of the Romans was fofficient to 
|^( to flight a parcel of foTdiers, who had the afpeds of ghoftè 
father than of men : In a word, that viftory was become ne* 
^eflanr, not onlv to fecure Italy, bnt to fave Rome it&lf» whofo 
|i|te the prefent battle would decide, that city having no other 
ifl^jr wherewith to oppofe the enemy. 

Stnnibal, that his words might make the ftipnger impi:ciEi9i|r 

;te thiB rude minds of his foldiers, fpeaks to their eyet, befbrt 

M$fii4ïtÇk& their ears ; and does, not attempt to penuade then! 

igt: ixguments» dll he has firft moved them by the follawin( 

i^c^^acle. He arms fome of the prifoners he had taken in the 

popntains» and obliges them to fieht, two and two» in fi^ht of 

Us army ; promifing to reward the conquerors with their li« 

(«rC^ and rich prefents. The alacrity .and vigour wherewitli 

liiefe Barbarians engaged upon thefe motives, gives Hannibs^ 

ip occafion of exhibiting to his foldiers a lively image of their 

jft^knt condition ; which, by deprivinc^ them of all means of 

teturnins; back, puts them under an abk>lute neceflity either of 

conquering or dying, in order to avoid the endlefs evils pre- 

IKPffed for thofe that fhould be fo bafe and cowardly, as to nil>- 

ip^ tp the Romans. He difplays to them the greatnefs of their 

C^ard» vix. the conqueft of all Italy ; the plunder of the 

ijcti and wealthy city of Rome ; an illuftrious vi6iory, and im- 

''mOKUd glory. He fpeaks contemptibly of the Roman power, 

liie faMaloftre of which (he obferyed) ought not to dazzle fuch 

«amors as themfelves, who had marched from the pillars of 

Hercules, through the Herceft nations, into the very center of 

Italy* As for his own part, he fcorns to compare himfeifwith 

a generfil of but ûx months ftanding : Himfelf, who 


{y) ^lyh« J. iiL p« S14— 4iS. Liv« U vA* n. 39^—471 

the whole wortd, 

After thefe fpeeches, both fides prepare I 
having thrown a bridge crofs the Ticinus, i 
over it. Tttoill oflicns' had filled hit am 
tian and dread. Ai for the Carthaginian <, 
v.iih the boldcll courage. Hsnnibal animal 
promir» ; and cleaving with a ftone the fku 
u» fùcrificiog, he prays Jupiur to dalh to 
like manner, in cafe he did not give his f< 
be h:iJ pramifed them. 

Scipio polls, in thefirllline, the troops i 
weapons, and the Gaulith horfe; and formi 
or the flower of the Cdr.tcderatc cavalry, he 
I^annih^l advanc-d «iih his whok cavalry, 
H hich he had polled the crroperg who rid wil 
^'umidian horftmen on f the uiingt, to ord 
CDcmy. The cfiicers ard cavalry being c 
battle enfuei. At theiijil onlct, Scipio's ttj 
dii'charged their darts, but fiiphttd at the Ca 
which came pouring u, tin th<:ni, and fearin; 
be trampled under the ijcrfl s feet, ihey gxve 
through the intervals of the fquadrons. Th 
a long time with iijual fucceft. M?n>' troei 
(lifmounied -, fo thnt the battle was carried c 


If, who tttacked them in tht rear ; and efpecialljrbjf 
id the conful receivedi which difabled him. However» 
geaend was refcued out of the enemy^a hands by the bra» 
of hif ibn» then bat feventten years old ; and who after<» 
WIS honoured with- the farname of Africanitei for having 
glorioot period to this war. 
'he oonfolt thongh dangeroufly wounded, retreated !n good 
«nd was conveyed to his camp by a body of horfe, who 
' him with their af ms and bodies i The reft of the army 
ifewtd him thither. He huftened to the Po» which he cro£fed 
||hli his army» and then broke down the bridge, whereby ht 
Mil n till Hannibal from overtaking hind. ^ ~^ 
fflt is agreed, that Hannibal owed this firft viâory to hts ca^ 
and it was judged from^ thenceforth that the maia 
îgth of his army confifted in his horfe ; and therefore, that 
lid be proper for the Romans to avoid large ep:n plains, 
thofe between the Po and the Alps. 
InAediately after the battle of the Ticinus, all the neigh- 
ing Gauls feemed to contend who (hould fubmit thetnfemt 
to Hannibal, furni/h him with ammunition, and enlift fat 
army. And this, as Polybius has obferved, was what 
Ay induced that wife and (kilful general, notwithftanding 
finall number and weaknefs of his troops, to hasard a bat* 
which he indeed was now obliged to venture, from the 
ibility of marching back whenever he fhould defire to 
becauib nothing but a battle would oblige the Gauls to 
lieclare for him ; their affiûance being the only refiige he thes 
la '• , 

J. Battl E ^^aSBl A* 

' {») Sempronius'the conful, upon the orders he had received 
from the fenate, was returned from Sicily to Aritiiinium. From 
thence he marched towards Trebià» tt fmall river of Lorn bardy» 
•which falls into the Po a little above Placentia, where he joined 
his forces to thofe of Scipio. Hannibal advanced towards the 
camp of the Romans, from which he was feparated only by 
that fmall river. The armies lying fo near one another, gavo 
oocafion to frequent ikirmifhes, in one of which SemproniuSf 
it the head of a body of horfe, gained but a rery fmall ad« 
Vintage over a party of Carthaginians, which neverthelefs very 
SUich increafed the good opinion this general naturally enter* 
lained of his own merit. 

This inconfiderable fuccefs feemed to him acompleatviâory» 
Me boafted his having vanquiihed the enemy in the fame kind 


(»] Polyb. 1. xxiii. p, ixo^-zsj. hhf, !• ni. n« 51— s6* 


^6gbt, in wk|cb hit collegae bid b«rfi drfeaKd* a*d 
tkcrrbf h^i irvivcd the evittigc nrthc dejeâed ftoft"- 
îti« nw itMou\f beot la ciuiic, at Toon oi polSbli 
CÎtirc btiilc ; be thovfbi it |ii<if>n, fnr dreracy fike, n 
Siipio, wham ke fiiiind «•■ nl a (|iiïte differenc npinioffil. _ 
fcimfclf. Sripiurcptcli'Dicd, ihiiin uieiimcfhrulil be>Da«ri 
fi» ililcipliniiifi ike new levin duriny Uie wioier, ihcf «mid 
be much filter ftir farvice in ibc cnfutnit cJm|iBijii t thjithi 
GftuU. wlio «rare naiuiilly lickk and locnnilam, wonld liif- 
«nga][e ihcniictwt itirenfib)* I'tom Hjonib»! i ihstiifoaaal 
ib wound! HiooU be kcukd, hit prcfence aright b« of bat 
vk In an al),iii vf fuch gcocial cuncvm : In a word, t^i» 
ibuffhtliiiii tbclrtllly not to piOCc«d atty liuiker. 

T hrfc icïfoni, though (ajut, nude M ImprctKôo upon Sea- 
Bfoniu*. He faw himrdf at th« bead of fixteca thos&sd 
Romani, and twenty ihoufaod allict, excluâveof canby. (■ 
nuinber which, io ihofe agei, formed a compleu anaf) •)*■ 
both conCuU joined their fuicci. The troop» of iha cncKf 
amounted to near the Taine Bumlxr. He tboaght tbe jitnftnt 
cxiicmciv favourable Tor him. Hf dccUred publicklyi tkit 
»U thr olliccri and foldieri wert dcliruui uf a battle, emfC 
Wa coll«j[UC, whofc mind (ht nlifervcd) Wing irnre ailrâed hy 
bii wound than hit body, could not, fnr that nabm, bear la 
bear or an cngacemenC. Bui ftil], cootioucd Scmpraniw. [a 
it iult 10 let ihc whole army droop and tnnguifb witb blm I 
V'liai could Scipiocxpcâ more? Did he flatter himfelf with 
the hopei that a ihitd conful, and a new army, w««ld ceae 
to hit afliAanCc I Such were llie exprcffioni he cmplAved both 
among the foldirra, and even about Scipio'i tent, 'fhe liiM 
for the clcJlion or new jencrBli drawing neat. Sempronii» <rat 
ftfraid 1 raccrffor woDlcTbercDi before he had put an cftd to the 
witr i and tbcieforc it was hit opinion, that be ought lo takt 
advantage of hii collègue'^ itlncf), lo frcurc the whole bonoiK 
of the vitlory to himfclf. As he bad' no regard, fay» Poly binti 
to the lime proper for aflion. and only lo that whkh be 
thought fuited hi) own inierell, he could not fail of taking 
wrong ineafuret. He therefore ordered hli anuy lo pftiun 
for bade. 

Thii w.ii the very thing Hannibal defirtd, baldin|[ il for » 
fnaittn, that when a gf neral hai entered a foreign ciiuntry, nr 
One poirelTcd fay the enemy, nnd hai formed fnme grvat dcUgn. 
Ihat fuch an one ho no other refngt left, but tuniinn-illy la 
raife the expc^Âiioni of his sHiei by font* frcih exploitf . Be- 
Ain, knowing that he fhoulJ haveto deal only wiib oCMr-lerkd 
^~ i unexperienced uoopi, he wu dcfiroui of taking ill the 


Uaf^i poflible of the ardour of ihe Gaulu, who were ox- 
!ly dciiroui of fiijhtingj and of Seipio'o «bfcnCr. who, 
ciifon of hit wounil, could not be prelcnt in ihe buiilc. 

wD> ihercf'ire oidcn d lo lio in ambufh with two ihourMnct 
cnnfilling of horf.: and font, on the ftcfp hanks-of a fmall 

et, which r::n between the itvo caimiB ; and to ci^nceal 
elf among ihe builiei that wvre very thick (heru. An am- 
ide ia ahcn r^kfer in a fmooth. open country, but full of 
eia, ai this wis, than in w^oolIi, becnufe fuch a fpnt !■ 
ipt to befurpettcd. Heaf'terwardiCHufed 1 drtuchmcntof 
lidian avuhy Co croft the Trebia, with ordtra to advancs 
ente of day «s fares the very barrien of the enemy '« camp, 
der to provoke them to fight ; and then to retreat and n- 
ihe river, in order to draw the Romnna after them. What 
id forefcen, came direflly to pafa. The fiery Scmprontur 
cdiatcly dctuched his whole cavalry againft the Numidiani, 
tiien Ax thoufMDd light-anned troopa, who were foon fol- 
d hy «11 the reft of the army. The Numidiani fled de- 
adly ; upon which the Romana purfucd them with great ■ 
tnel't, and crolléd the Trebia without refilUnce, but not 
ttut great difficulty, being forced to wade up to their yery 
piti (hftuch the rivulet, whkh wa« fwoln with the eor« 

1 that had fallen, in the night, from the neighbouring 
iHnini. Icwai then about the wintcr-folllice, that it, iai 
imber. It happened to fnow that day, and the cold wat 
invi;lypicrcing. The Roman) had left their camp falling, 
without taking the kail precaution) whereat the Cartha» 
ina had, by Hannibal'i order, cat and drank plentifully 
icir tents ; hod got their horfes in rcadincr», rubbed ihem^ 
» with oil, and put on their armour by the firefide. 

hey were thus prepared when the fight begin. The Raw 
a defended ihemrclvei valiantly fur a confidcrable time,- 
gh they were half fpent with hunger, fatigue, and cold 1 
[heir cavalry was at lall brolce nnd put to fli^^ht by the 
haginian, which much exceeded theirs in numbers and 
gth. 'I'hc infantry were foon in great difordtr nifo. Th« 
en in ambufcadc lallying out at a proper time, rgOicd on, 
] den upon their rear, and compleaiïd the overthrow. A 
I of above ten thoufand men fought refolutely ihdr way 
Ugh the Guult and Africans, of whom they made a dreaO' 
taughccr ; but as they could neither a^ifl their friendi nor 
■n to the camp, the way to it being cut off by the Nomi- 
horfe, the river and the rain, they retreated in good order 
[acentia. Moft of the reft loll their lives on the banki of 
irer, being trampled to piccci by tbe clef hanu -and horf^- 


'Tbofc wIm efup«d, went lai) ioiud the Above ■■ 

The arxt nighl bdpio idiivd alio to PIkcrotia. The CirtW 

Î'iBÎsfli gained ■ conipleat riâor)', and tfaeîi tofi vns iKt»- 
dcntilc, cxnpt ibat a smi number of cbeir borfu wtt» 
4dlroynl by the cold, the run. uJ ibe foow ) and ttkUoTlU 
Aàt elcpliantii they laired but one oulf . 

(a> In Sjuin the Rorooni had better (acctfv, in ihù néâi 
Ibllowior campaign i for Cn. Scipto cxtenilcd hU cea^Mli H 
fu *\ the fi*cr Ibiriu *, defeated Haaoo, tnd took Ub 

(^) Hannibal took the opport unity, whiiff )>ewai iawnlv 
quartcTt, to refrcfli bit troopj, and gain ihe aScâion of te 
aaiivei. l-'or ihii purpofe, after having declared to the p& 
tbntrj he Imd taken fratn ibe Roman allie»,, thai he «iSMt 
come iviih the view of making war upnn them, but to idkM 
the lulian^ to their libcfty, and pmiefï cbem si;%inâ tb« Bf ' 
Sian>. he Tent them ill home to their own countriei, nàtbott 
lequiring (he lead rinfom. 

;.') The winter w«t aa fuaner ovf r, than he fct out towinii 
Tnkatij, whither he haftened hit march foi two impariast 
teafont. Fird, to avoid the ill tStHi which «rould atilê ùtm 
the iil-will of ihe Gaul", who were tirtd with the long ftij tt 
ihe Carthaginian army in their temiories i and impadcnl of 
Waring ihc whole burden of a war, in which they h^d cii««td 
with nooiherview, but to carry tt into the county oTtaeir 
common enemy. Secondly, that be mi^bt iDCrcafc, 1^ fom 
bold exploit, the reputation of his arma, îd the mindiof all the 
inhabitants of Italy, by carrying the war lo the very gueiof 
Rome; and at the Ume timr, to animate afrelb hiitroopiianrf 
the Gauls his alii», by the plunder of the eociny't landa. Bk 
in bis march over the Apennines, he was overtakes viA ■ 
dreadful florm, which deAroycd creat nnmbci» cf hi* tu». 
The cold, the raio, the wind and hail, feem CO confpîrc bb 
ruin : fo that ihe fatigues which the CaTEhaginians bad nndci* 
gone in crDlTing the Alps, feemed tefs dreadful than tbeAlJwf 
now fuffcred. He therefore marched back to PiaccBtJJii wbue 
he again fought Sempronius, who was returned ftom RcONt 
The loft on both fides was very t^ear equal. 

(J) WbilA Hannibal was in thefe winter-qoarten. Iw bit 
upon a true Carthaginian llratagem. He was Surrounded mlA 
fickle aodinconlbnt nations: The fnend&iphebid '^~* 

(*] Polth. 1. 

M Li.. I. .„..,.<; 



C A K T H A O I N t A N 8« 19» 

them» wa» but of frefli dater» He had reafon to apprehend 

— la theii' difpûfition* and confeqaently that attempta 

made upon hit vlife. To fecore himfelfi therefore^ 

t perukes made» and cloaths fuited to every ««ge. Oi 

he^ fometimet wore oaet fometimei another ; and diA- 

himfelf fo ofteni that not only fuch as faw him tran* 

tlyt but even his intknate acqulintancei could fcaroe 

IT him. 

) At Rome, Cn. Servilius and C. Flaminius had been ap«. 
ited confuls. Hannibal baring advice that the latter wai 
Ivanced already as far as Arretium, a town of Tufcany, re« 
to go and eneage him as foon as noffible. Two waya 
ihewn him, he chofe the (horteff, though the moft 
lefome, nay, almoft impaiTuble, by reaibn of a fen whick 
was forced to go through. Here the army faired incredibM 
'Ihips. During four day^ and three nights, they marched 
way up the leg in water, and confequently could not get ' 
mentis fleep. Hannibal himfelf, who rid upon the opIjT 
ant' he had left, could hardly get through. Hitlonf 
of fleep, and the thick vapours which exhaled from that 
f place, togrcther with the unhealthfulnefs of the ffafoo^ 
m one of his tyc9* 

B A r T L a §/ Thraiymend* 

(/) Hannibal being thus got, almoft unexpeftedlyt oat of 

Il aanterous place, refrefliâ his troops, and then flMrched ' 
I^tcned his camp between Arretium and Fefulie, fa tkt* - 
ft and moft fruitful part of Tufcany. His firft endeavonra' 
to difcover the genius and charaâer of Flamlniui» lia 

chat he might take advantage of hit iblbk» whJeV 

•wording to Polybius, ought to be tae chief ftody of a gent*'^ 
iM» He was told, that Flaminius was greatly conceited M hlâ 
•irsi merit, bold, enterpriaing, rafh, and fond of glory. T» 
iphuige him the deeper into thefe excèdes, to which he wat 
naturally prone *, he enflamed his impetuous fplrit, by layiqy 
«mfte and burning the whole country, in his light. 

Flaminius was not of a temper to continue unaétive in hfi 
cnapj thoueh Hannibal ihould have lain ftill. But when he- 
lper tbo territories of ht^ allies laid wade before his eyea», he 
diooght it would refieél dilhonour upon him, (hould he fuiftcr 
Hsuinibal to ranfack Italy without conu-oul 1 and even advance 
lotto very walls of Rome, without meeting any refiftance« 

Vot. I. K Ht 

;^) A.M. 3788, A. Rora. ^%%, Polyb. p« ijo, a^i. Uf. l.sidi. »• »• 
) Polyb. I. lii. p. «31— ijl. 

#Appar«batlrroeUcr omnia aepiM. | in fiiavUU, a||taxsottm at|\ie Ir.hiUb 
aaurttA* QuMiue proaior efltf ; Pwqiéi ftirai« Lh, !• v«ii, n 3. 

ri94 H1ST0RY0PTHB 

He r^eA«d with rconi the proiknt coiutfrU of ifaolc wboak 
vifed niiD to w^t the Erriml of hi> cnllcgiK ; and to befiitH> 
ttA for ibe fttùot, with pulting a Hop to the (i«T>ftai»aif 

In the mtan line, Hfinnibsl w)l Bill «drancing mmii 
Rctur. hiving CnnoRA on the left hund, anij the lake Tini- 
fymCDC on liii right. Wlitti he Taw thit ihc confitl fbUoMl 
clnlc arier liiia, with the ilcden lo ^ive him batllr, by {|f>p{>hi| 
liim in liiiaiKich; having ouftrvrd dut the grcand wu csn- 
venient for that purpofc. Be alfo bq^on lo prepare kimMf for 
the battle. The lake 'Ihrarymcni and the tnouDtaint of Co* 
tona form a very narrow defile, which leads into a laror valtcj', 
lined ou boih TiOtt, with hill» of a confiJerahJe height, au 
clofed, at the outlet, by a Rrcp hill of difficult accel'i. Oa 
ihii hill, Hannibal, after having croflinl the valley, aantiùi 
Bncam(tcd with the main body of hi> army ; polling his lijln. 
armed inraiicry in ambufcadc upon the hilU on the right, aad 
part of hh cavalry behind thofc on the tefi, a.% far almoft tt 
the entrance of the defile, through which Flainlnius waaobttgtd 
to pafi. Accordingly this general, who followed him ttrj 
eagerly, with the rctolmion to hcht him, bdng tome to lb< 
defile near the lake, was forced to halt, becaofc nirhiwat 
coming on j but he entered it the ncx( norning at da^-break. 
Hannibal having pcrmiiicd him to advance, with all hit 
forcet) above half way through the valley, and IccÎd^ ibe Ro> 
man van-gu;ird pretty near him, he Toundcd the chaige. and 
I commanded his troopi to come out of their amliufciidc, in or- 
f dcr that he mieht attack the enemy, at ihc fame line, Iran 
> m\\ quaiicri. The render may gucfs at the COnHcrnatioB wick 
' wbith the Romane were feiied. , 

I They were not yet drawn up iu order, of battle, neitlMf M' J 

they got their arm> in readincfi. when (bey fouad tbemletKa 
attacked in front, in rear, and in Aaak. In a momcot all tkc 
ranki were put into Jiforder. Klamiaiui, aloQc nndaoDted in 
fo univcrfal a lurpriec, animates his foldien both with hiihaad 
and voice ; and exhort» them to cm ibcmfelvei a paHige with 
their fwordi, ihroug,h ihc midd of the enemy. But ilic lamslt 
which reigned every where, the drcadlui fbouu of tiio cqcmy, 
and a fog ihnt wat rifcn, prevented his beiui ften or krard. 
Kowever, when the Roman» fiiw ihcaifelveb nirtoutuled im «11 
lidei, either by the enemy or the lake, and the impuibbiliiy of 
faving their lives by l^lghl, it rouzed their tour^j^i:, and bodi 
{lailit* begin the light with altonilhing animolit}-. 1 hctrfaiy 
wai (a great, that not a foldier in either luoif eticeived an 
ytb^uikf whkh bappeacd ia tbumwuy, aad ouiioilwknlc 


c'a fe *f H A OIN I A N »/ I9J 

Ar In Itiins. Ill thh confufioii, Flaminius being flain by 
-of thelirfabrian Gauls, the Romans began to give ground, 
«t làft quite ran away« Great numbers, to fave them- 
ts, leaped into the lake ; wliilft others, climbing over the 
aAtains felj into the enemy's hands whom they ftrove to 
id» Six tl^oufand only cut their Way through the conquerors, 
¥étféàted'to a place of fâfety ; but the next day they weire 
)!ll1>rifonérs. In this baetle fifteefi thoufand RQm^ns were 
\éàp ttnd about teii thoufand efcapëd to Rome, by di^rent 
is.' Hannibal fent back the Latins, who were allies of the 
qians, into their own country, without demanding th& leaft 
tàià. He commanded fearch to be made for the body of 
Iftlnlut, in order to give it burial, but it could not be found, 
afterwards put his troops into quarter^ of refrefliment, and 

St!i^ the fbrneralv of thirty of his chief officers, who werq* 
. in the battle. He loft in all but fifteen hundred !meQ, . 
tttf whom were Gauls. 

Uimedlately after, Hannibal difpatched a courier to Car» 
^, with the news of his good fucceis in Italy. This caufed 
■l^reateft joy for the prefent, rai&d the m'oft promifi^ hopes 
fa legard to the future, and revived the courage of all the 
liens. They now {Prepared with incrédible ardour t6 fend 
I Italy attd Spain, all neceflary iuccpurs. ^ 

iSbine, on the coritraiy, was filled with univeriki grief and 
rm, ,ias foon as the prstor had pronounced from the roftra the 
bwin^' words. We haw lofl a great Battle. The fetaté, fta^- 
m of nothing but the publick welfare^ thought that ia &. 
St n calamiity and {6 imminent a danger, recourie nioft be 
t'to extraoi^inary remedies. They therefore appointed 
fkittts Fabius diftator, a perfon as confpicuous for his wifdom . 
jiis birth. It was the cuftom at Rome, that the moment n 
Eàtor was nominated, all authority ceafed, that of the tri-^ 
\ts of the people excepted. M. Minucius was apookited 
j^eneral of horfe. We are now in the feèond year of the war* 

Hannibal'/ OanduSi ^ith refpeB /0 F a b i u s« 

^ Hannibal, after the battle of Thrafymene^ not thinking \t 
iptiy^x to march dire£tly to Rome, contented himlelf in the 
nri'time, with laving wafte the country. He crofTed Umbria 
Pflcei^um ; and after ten days march, arrived in the terri* 
jf pf Adria *. He got. a very confiderable booty in thit 
reb* Out of his implacable enmity to the Romans,. he com« 
ndcd» that all who were able to bear arms, ihould be put 
\7 K2 

(l^) Polyb. 1. xxlii. p. 239—2 55» Liv. K iiii. n. 9— 30* 
* A Jmall tovfn, vfbicb gofvt nam i» tbt Adriat'uk ftû% 


li) the fword ; and meeting no ob(UcIe any where, he a 
OS tir as Apulia ; plundering the countries which U 
way, and carrying defolation wherever became, in 
cuinœl the nations Co difengage themfelves from their 
with the P^omans ; and to (how all Italy, that Rome itl 
%]uiic difj/irited, yielded him the viflory. 

Fabius, followed by Minucius and four legions, had: 
from Rome in queft of the enemy, but with a £rm n 
not to let him take the Icaft advantage, nor to advance 
till he had firll reconoitred everyplace; nor hazard 
till he fhould b« fure of fuccefs. 

As foon as both armies were in ilght, Hannibal, t( 
(he Roman forcef, offered them battle, by advancing v 
the intrench men ts of their camp. But finding every tki 
thiM'c, he retired ; blaming in appearance, theoutwarc 
(lice of the enemy, whom he uporaided with havine al 
that valour fo natural to their anceftors : but fretted in 
to find he had to do with a general of fb different a gen: 
Scmpronius and Flaminius ; and that the Romans, in 
by their defeat, had at lad made choice of a comman 
pabic of oppo/ing Hannibal. 

From this moment he perceived that the diûator wc 
he formidable to him by the boldnefs of his attacks, 
the prudence and regularity of his tonduâ, which mi{ 
f'ltx and embarrafs him very much. The only circumfl 
nrw wanted to know was, whether the new general h; 
hiûnn enough to puffue (leadily the plan he feemed 
laid down. He endeavoured therefore to rouze him, 
frequent removals from place to place, by laying wi 
lands, plundering the cities, and burning the villa^ 
towns. He, at one time, would raife his camp with 
moil precipitation ; and at another, (lop (hort in fom> 
f>ut of the common rout, to try whether he could not 
him in the plain. However, Fabius ilill kept his tn 
hiiN, but without lofing fight of Hannibal ; never appr 
ne^^r enough to come to an engagement ; nor yet kec 
fucli a diilancc, as might give him an opportunity of < 
:>;r;i. J?e never fuffcred his foldiers to illr out of th< 
except 10 forage, and on thofe occafioas, not without ; 
Tuv.s convoy. If ever he engaged it was only in flig 
tnilhcs, and fo very caution ffy, that his troops had alv 
advantage. Jîy this condudl he revived, by uifenfible > 
(he courage of the foldiers, which the lofs of three ba^ 
rfiriivly damped ; and en.». bled them to rely, as^ ihey 1 
mcrlj done, on their valour and good fuccefs, 

3 H 


dhftl» KâYiAff got imiiienrd]r rkli rpoilt in Cunpaniar 
le kid refideS t confideraUe timcy left it, with his army» 
r tkat he might not confume the prdvifiom he had laid 
r which he refenred for the winter-feafoo* Befides» be 
o longer continue in a country of gardens and vineyards» 
vefe more agreeaUe to the eye, than ofefuf for the fob* 
•f an army f a country where he wonld have been forced 
ap his winterwqnarters among marfhes, rocks, and lands ; 
which the Romans would have drawn plentiful fufpj>lies 
apua, and the richeft parts of Italy. He therefim re- 

fettle elfewhere. 

OS naturally fuppofed, that Hannibal woald be ob&gecl 
n the fame way ne came, and that he might ^W annoy 
ring his march. He began by throwing a conuderabler 
r troops into, and thereby fecuring, Cauliaiim, afmall 
toated on the Vulturnus, which (eparated the territories 
trnum from thofe of Capua : He afterwards detached 
H^fand men, to go and feixe the only naMrow pafs throujg^h 
Hannibal could come out s and then, accoratng to hU 
aftom, pods himfelf with the remainder of the army oa 
s adjoining to the road. 

• Carthaginians arrive, and encamp in thephbattth^ 
' the mountains. And now, the crafty Carthaginian 
to the fame fnare he had laid for Flaminios at the defile 
mfymenè ; and it feemed impoiEble for him ever to ex» 
himfelf put of this difficulty, there being but one out^ 
which the Romans were pp^efTcd. Fabius» fancyin^p 
^ fure of his prey, was only contriving how to (eize it* 
tered himfelf with the probable hopes of patting an end 
war by this (ingle battle. Neverthcleis^ he ibonght fi( 
r the attack tilfthe next day. 

nibal perceived,, that * his own artifices were now em*' 
againft him. It is in fuch jundurcs as thefe, that a 

1 has need of great prefence of mind, and unofual for* 
^to view danger in its utmod extent, without being 
with the lead dread ; and to find out fure and indant 
Isnts without deliberating. Immediately the Carthagi-» 

rierat caufed two thoufand oxen to be got together, and 
fmall bundles of vine-branches to be tied to their hortir» 
commanded the branches to be fet on fire in the dead 
it, and the oxen to be driven with violence to the top 
chills where the Romans were encamped. As foon os 
matures felt the flame, the pain putting them in a rage, 
up and down on all fides, and fet fire to the ihrub:» 

K 3 and 

• Nee Annibalea fefellit (uia fc artibus (sd, Lh% 


«Bd bsQiM Oiey nrt in iheir way. This IqiudroD of Kftm 
lÛBd, IV» lùllMBcd by a jood tioubcr ci* Hgin-iïiitti HAlUttt, 
wiio hud crdtn ta ftixe unnn ihc fammic of ihe mounaiP. ud 
tOïhRigc ih« rntmy in Kiit they fiiocld rarci them. Ail ditnjt 
hsppcncd which Hannibxl h>d rotefc^n. The Romani, wm) 
gnaiilcd ilic litfilc, fccipg ihc firts fpreïd ovci the hilti «Kkà 
were above- them, and imagining thaE it wa( Hanoibil nftitg 
bit ercape by torch. lieht, ou it their poR, iind rco up totïc 
noaniitini to oppofc his paflnge. The m&in body oF tee un; 
act ktiLiiving what to think of all ihU tumuk; and Fal))a 
liiinrcif net daring to Oir, as it tvas exceŒvdy dark, for fcir 
of aTutpizc, Moiii for the return of theday. HnnnibAl fazn 
tbi* npporiiinity> marches hit troopt and the fjM.i\i ibroagh tbi 
itû\t which wat ooft' nnvuarded, and rcicae» liU army ouioT* 
(nan in which, had Fabiui been but a little more i Igoim», it 
would cither have been dellroyed, or ^f lead very much weatxn- 
ed. it is glorious for a man to lurh hia very errors to hi*»d- 
vantage, and make them fubfervlent to hi; reputation. 

The Carthaginian army returned to Apulia, ftill porfucd 
and harralTed by the Romani. The didtator, beirg obliged to 
take 3 journey to Rome, on account of fome religioui ccrcmooitii 
earnellly întreatrd his general of horfe, before hit deparnire^ 
not to fight daring hii abfence. However, Minuciaa did not 
regard either his adviceorhiiiotreaties ; but the very fitffioppoi- 
tuniiy he had, whilJl part of Hannibal'* troops were ibragiog, 
he charged the reft, and gained fotne advantage. He iinjBc- 
diately fert advice of this to Rome, as if be had obi^ned a 
coiinderable viaory. The aewi of thii, with what had juft 
■ before happened ai the pafTage of the deGle, railed complaino 
snd murmurs againlt the How and timoious circuairprfUon of 
Fabius. In a word, matters were carried fo far, thai the Ro- 
man people gave his çenera! of horfe an equal auihoricy with 
bim ; a tiling unheard of before. The diftator wax upon ihB 
road when he received advice of this : For he had left Robm. 
in order that he might not be an eye-witnefs of what wM con- 
triving againft him. HisconAancy. however, was nocflltlccs. 
He was very fenfible, that though his authority ta the cOBf 
mand was divided, yet hjs Iti!l in the art of war WM not fo *. 
This foon became manifeft. 

IWinueius, grown arrogant at the advantage he bud Rained 

over his collègue, propofed that each fhould commanda dajr 

I alternately, or even a longer time. But Fabius rejcflcd tiiii 

' Jiropofal, as it would have expofed the whole army tu danger, 

I • Sails (iduiu hjuiîiju abulia cum imperii jure ineia impeiïnil k^h 
L *™, 1. tuii. a, aS. 


%rliilft under the command of Minucias. He therefore chofe 
to divide the troops, in order that it might be in his power to 
preferve, at leaft, that part which (hpuld fall to his fhare. 

Hannibal, fully informed of all that paAed in the Romaa 
camp, was over-joyed to hear of this difTenfion of the two com* 
jnanders. He therefore laid a fnare for the rafh Minucius, who 
accordingly plunged headlong into it ; and engaged the enemy 
on an eminence, in which an ambufcade was concealed, fiut 
liis troops being foon put into diforder, were juil upon the point 
of being cut to pieces, when Fabius, alarmed bv the fudden 
outcries of the wounded, called aloud to his foldiers : ** Let 
** us haften to the afTiflance of Minucius : Let us fly and fnatch 
•*• the vidory from the enemy, and extort from our fellow* , 
•• citizens a confeifion of their fault.** This fuccour was very 
lealbnable, and compelled Hannibal to found a retreat. The 
latter, as he was retiring faid, '* That the cloud which had 
** been long hovering on the fummit of' the mountains, had 
" at laft burfl with a loud crack, and caafed a mighty ftorm.** 
80 important and feafonable a fervice done by the dilator» 
Opened the eyes of Minucius. He accordingly acknowledged 
ka error, returned immediately to his duty and obedience, and 
ihewed, that it is fometimes more glorious to know how to 
#IOBe for a fault, than not to have committed it* 

Thi Jfate #/* A P F a i R s^ i> S p A I N* 

{b) In the beginning of this campaign, Cn. Scipio, having 
Ibddenly attacked the Carthaginian fleet, commanaed by Ha* 
snilcar, defeated it, and took twenty- Ave (hips, with a gresit 

Suantity of rich fpoils. This vidtory made tiie Romans fen^ 
ble, that they ought to be particularly attentive to the affairs 
of Spain, becaufe Hannibal could draw conflderable fupplies 
both of men' and 'money from that country. Accordingly they 
fent a fleet thither, the command whereof was given to P. 
Scipio, who, after his arrival in Spain, having joined hit 
brother, did the commonwealth very great fervice. Till that 
time the Romans had never ventured beyond the Ebro. They 
then were fatisiied, with their having gained the friendAiip of 
the nations fituated between that river and Italy, and connrm* 
ing it by alliances : But under Publias, they crofled the Ebro» 
and carried their arms much farther up into the country. 

The circumftance which contributed, moft to promote their 
affairs, was, the treachery of a Spaniard in Saguntum. Han- 
nibal had left there the children of the moft diHingoiflied fiA 

(&) Pol]fb« 1. ill. p« a4S«^5o* Lit, U uil« s« I9««aa« 



iniOn in Spiia, «hem be had t&kea »balta^i. Abclor.t* 
£. ihii SpaniuJ wai cilird, pcrfutlrtl Boftjir tlte gOTttaor ti 
ihc city, to (iod bawk ih*re yovag mc« into tfcrir contrjr, fal 
'•rilcr, by tb«t ncam. to atinch ilie inhabitanu note trn^B 
the Canhdi^Inltii imtrcn. He hitnreir wu rluugcd nr^ tUi 
tomniifli^in. But be CAtricd tliESi to the Ronuni, wbottaf' 
wHil* ilclivoi»! iben to tWir leJitioM, and, by to accefOlÉ 
« prcfcQt) Acquiied tbrir amliy. 

Ti* BoTTLf «/Cannjk. 
(f) The n»l rprinjr. C. Trrrnnus Varro Md L. JBniKI» 
TftuJut wriccfaorcn cnnfuljatRomc. In thi» ciiin|»aign, wlikl 
wm the thii4 of ihe (cconJ Ponick war, tht- Romain dîdwliil 
bad ocvei been piattilcil \ithit, trm, to compofc the innf of 
iiL,lit koion», «acb conlilting of five ihovfïiid mtn, ncclsiif 
«t the Bllict. For, «9 wchave nlrc^Iy obrrrvcd. ifacRonui 
nivcf laileil but fbur legion», each v! which confijicd of abosi 
fourthciif^nd fuui, aiià tlirce hundred hcrre *. Tbey Ki^i 
«x«f<i uti the itioR ijnpnrtiiiil nCEaTioi», made (hem eosÛ of 
i\t ihouficd (jf ihe one, and (otir hundred of the otbu. Ai 
Jrr the troop* of the illiei, their infantry waj equal lo that cf 

f'jtht I ^ions. bnt they had cbrec tiinu a> many horfe. £ach o( 
Iht criifub l.nd ccnmonly half the iroopi of thealtwi, «itii 
|nO lejEiont, in order fcr them tv aâ fvparatcly i and all ihtii 
forcei were vi-'y feltiom ufed at the fume time, and in the fama 
'cjc^edittoa. Mere the Rumaoi had not orlv.four, but ct^k 
lef'ioiii, fn importune did thcuffair stppciir tu tnem. TliC(til*ie 
even [hrufjhi Ai, that the two cooluli of the foregoing year, 
-Se'viliua und Attil u), fhouM ferve in the army >( proconfabi 
but the luiter could not go into the field, by feaJop ^ hii 
|rcat K^e- 

VAiro, ai hit lectinf; out from Rome, had declared opnlft he MduIJ fall upon the enemy the very fitA oppunwUt]^ 
and put an end to the war; adding, ihni it would atttt M 
terminated, To lonfi aï men of the churaifier of KabJot, IboM 
be HE the head of the Rnmiin nrmten. An advutage tvhieh b« 
FHinrd over thir Carthariiiiani, of whom near fcTCo teen kitn* 
«red were killedi ereally increafcd hit boIdncfiaDd arropanct. 
^i for Hnnnibal. ne tonlidcred thia bri ai a ical admniaR j 
twinj; Ticiroaded [tiat it won Id ferve as a bait to the «■(ul'i 

L'riifhnef'f, andprumpihim on Eoa battle, whicbhe Wftnodei- 


(t)A M. ;;Sj. A.Rom. j]i. Potyb. I. tit, p. 15;— iM. Uv.l.uS. 

P,lj kill /'f-fpi m4 l-a-f Sm^rtJ I . 

C A R T H A Q I N I A N S- 20Î 

tremdy. It was afterwards known, that Hannibal was re- 
duced to fuch a fcarcity of provifions» that he could not poinbl/ 
luve fubfiftcd ten days longer. The Spaniards were already 
neditating to leave him. So that there would have been an 
#ad of Hannibal and his army, if his good fortune had noc 
thrown a Varro in his way. 

Both armies having often removed from place to place, came 
in fight of each other near Cannx, a little town in Apulia» 
fituatcd on the river Aufidus. As Hannibal was encamped iir 
â level open country, and his cavalry much fuperior to thac 
€>f the Romans, iEmilius did not think proper to engage in 
Ibch a place. He was for drawing the enemy into an irregu<- 
lar fpot, where the infantry might have the greatcll (hare ia 
- the action. But his collègue, who was wholly unexperienced,. 
was of a contrary opinion. Such is the inconvenicncy of af 
divided command ; jealoufy, a difparity of tempers, or a di- 
yerfity of views, feldom failing to create a diflenûon betweea- 
the two generals. 

The troops on each fide were, forfome time, contented with^ 
flight fkirmi flies, fiut, at lalt, one day, when Varro had thc- 
command (for the two confuls took it by turns) preparations 
were made on both fides for battle. iEmilius had not been- 
Confulted ; yet, though he extremely difapproved the condu«^ 
of his collègue, as it was not in his power to prevent it, he. 
feconded him to the utmofl. 

Hannibal, after having made his foldiers obferve, that being 
fiipcrior in cavalry, they could not poflibly have pitched upon 
a oetter fpot for fighting, had it been left to their choice : 
•• Return then, fays he, thanks to the cods, for having brought 
•• the enemy hither, that you may triumph over them ; and 
•• thank mealfo, for having icduced the Romans to a neccllity 
•• of coming to an engagement. After three ;;nîat viiloiicv, 
•* wrn fuccefTivcly, is not the remembrance oh yo'ir own aClions 
•• fufHcient to infpire you with courage ? By the fv)rmcr battles, 
•• you are become mailers of the open country: hut this will 
•• put you in pofletîion of all the cities, and (1 prefume to fay 
•* it) of all the riches and power of the Romans. It i> not 
•• aords that we want, but adion. I trull in the gods, that 
•• you (hall foon frc my proirifcs verified." 

The two armies were verv unequal in number. That of 
the Romans, including the allies, amounted to fourfcore thou* 
fand foot, and a little above ilx thoufind horfc : and ihit lîf 
the Carthaginians confillcd but of forty ihoufnul fool, all vvcll 
difciplincd, and of ten thoufand horfc. iiilmilius commanded 
thç right wing of the Romans, Varro the left» and Servili^is. 

ii S 

<e coDfiib for (he lali yeu, wu polled ii 

[ HannibJil, whotisdilicortof uV 

I bimfcir, ta u the wind Vultar 
A«ce<l tim», Oiould blow diiefily in the faces of the Rmnuii 
during the lighti and cover ihcm with duS ; thtn kecplof the 
îivtt Aulidut on hi] Icfi, and potting hU cav.itry in tlic tvmgi^ 

I be formed hii main body of the Spanilh and Gallick infitntji 
which he polled in the ccntCT, iviih half the African hanj- 

' armed Toot on ihcir right, aod half oa their left, on the Gut 
line ivith the cavalr/, His army being thus drawn <ap, be pat 
fcioilclf at ihe head of the Spacifh and Collide infauiiy; ui 
having drawn ihem out ot the line, advanced to hcgLn iht 
battle, ruundir.e hii front as he advanced nearer the encBV ; 
«lid extending his flanks in the fiiape of a half-moon, in onier 
that he might leave no interval between bis nuin bodjr and the 
reft of the line, which confided of the heavy-armed înfuitr^, 
who had not moved from their po(i$. 

The fight foon began, and the Roman legions that were hi 
(he wings, feeing their center warmly attacked, zdranced lo 
«harge the enemy in flank. Hannibal's main body, after a 
bnve refinance, finding theinfelvts furiouCy atacbed on ill 
fides, cave way, being overpowered by nambcrs ; and retind 
throagn the interval they had left in the center of the line. 

I The K'omans having purfued them thither with eager couftifion, 
the two wings of the African infantry, which wa; frefli, well 
armed, and in good order, wheeled aboul on a fadden towards 
that void fpace in which the Romans, who were already fa- 
tigued, had thrown themfelves in diforder; and attacked theiD 
vigorouOy on both fides, without allowing them time to re- 
cover themfelves, or leaving them ground to dmw up. In ch« 
ineau time, the two wings of the cavalry, having defeated ibofe 
of the Ronians, which were much inferior to thetn ; and ia 
order to purfue the broken and fcaltered fquadront, having left. 
only as many forces as were neceflkry to keep ihcni from rally-, 
ing, advanced and charged the rear of the Roman Infantry^ 
which, being furroundcd at once on every fide by the enemv') 
norfc and foot, was all cut to pieces, after having fooght tviih 
unparalleled bravery, .^milius, being covered with thcitrousd* 
he had received in the fight, was afterwards killed bv a bodjr. 
of the enemy to whom he was not known ; and with flim (wo 
qu:eftors, one and twenty military tribunes, many who bad 
been either coofuls or pretors ; Scrvilius, one of the tail ytu't 

rCQnfuh; Minuciui, the late general of the horfe to Fabiiu* 

G A R T H A G IN I A N s. 20J 

[^Ibvlccm.fciiaton* Abore feventy thoufand men fell in this 
* I and thf Carthaginjaos, fo grtSLt was their forv fj^ 
^ not ^ive over the flaiighter, till Hannibaly in the very heal 
it» called out to them lèverai times; Stop^ foUien i /pare the 
mmmqmjbid. Ten thou&nd men, who had been left to guard 
tbecamp, furrendered themfelves prifoners of war after the 

"%att)e, Varro thç confal retired to Venufia» with only ieventy 
korie ; and about four tboufand men eicaped into the n^gh« 
fxmring cities. Thus Hannibal remained inaller of the ^eldy 
Ik being chiefly indebted for this, as well 9s ^ for bis former 
^âoriesy to the fuperiority of his. cavalry over that of the Ror 
Jnans. He loft four thoufand Gauls, fifteen hundred SpanianU 

•mod Africans, and cwQ. hundred horfe. 

Maharbal, one of the Carthaginian generi^Si a^vifed Hannibal 
to march direâly to Rome, promifing him, that within fiy» 
days they 0iould fup in the capitol. Hannibal anfwering^ .tha( 
it was -an affair which reqtiired mature examinadon ;, '* I Cee». 
^ repUes Maharbal, that the gods have not endowed the fiupn#r 
'* man with all talents. You, Hannibal, know how ta-coiù' 
** quer, but not to make the beft ufe of a viâory («"' • •. > 
It ia pretended* that this delay faved Rome and the empsit# 
Ifcny authors, and among the reft^Livy, -charge HannibM»-o»* 
Ait occafion, as guilty of a capital error. ^ But otl^ertfiiiir^; 
scferved, are not for condemning, without evident proofa, ofi» 
lenowned a general, who, inthe reftof hisconduâ', watntvaf»- 
wanting, either in prudence to make choice of the beft expe» 
dients, or in readinefs to put hit defigns in execution. T^hef^. 
befides, are inclined to judge favourably of him, fromi thiir 
tnthority, or at leaft the filence of Folybiua, who, fpealugf' 
of the memorable confeqnences of this celebrated batuet (hya» 
That the Carthaginians were firmly perfuaded, that they fiKOoM^ 

Softefs themfelves of Rome at the firft afiault : But then' h« 
oes not mention, how this could pofiibly have been eftê^d»: 
as that city was very populous, warlike, ftrongly fortified^ and 
defended with a garrifon of /two legions; nor does he.anjr 
where give the leaft hint that fuch a projedl waafeafible, ortW. 
Hannibal d^d wrong in not attempting to put it inexecndoih^ , 
And indeed, if we examine matters more narrowly, wefliall.. 
find, that,, according to the common maxims of war». it could 

K 6 , : ApK 

• Lwy^effini 'oery much the number 
^ tbêJla'iHf making tbtm amount but to 
shun forty three tboufand. But Foiy- 
Hu «ugbt ratbtr to ht believtd, 

\ Pup. maximi exercitui cxfi ad 

diceret tnilitl fuo : Piifceieno, WkHr». 
1. i. c« 6. ' 

X Turn Maharbal: NoÀ ia« 

nimirum eidem Dii dedere- V 
fci8> Annibal, vilU 

lieftMua. iatittauai# . doaec Anai^ \ Liv% 1. xiiii n« 51^. 

Mt br nrâerolcen. It U cerlmtn. that Hannîlol'i «holt !■• 
fyùUy, before the tnttU, unoonted but to ferny tboufiind ant 
■Kd AI fix ikouhnil oT ibcfe lud bnn fldn io the-sâïoa, ind, 
deubiltii, oiaQjr more other wounded or dirablcd. ihcre cmM 
reraiin boi fiitor fc»cn und twenty thoiifand foot fit for rei/icct 
vow tbii namber *** not fufficient to invefl (o tu^ > city n 
Rome, which hud a river Tuontng through it ; bar to atuu it 
in form, becdufe they bad neither ctiftinea, amntitiitlaB, iwr 
any other ihinfti occcITirjr for carrying on ■ ficgg. (I) F« 
«rinEof ihcfe, Hannibnl, even after hii viflorj' nt Thrarymnre, 
nifcuricd in hit aliempt upon Spolvtum : and fboo afierthl 
battle of Cannf, wai forced to mili; the Rtgc of a lilllc natM* 
l«ft city *. It cannot be denied, but thai, had he tnifcanitl 
I en the prcrcnt occnfiot). nothing lefa couM have btta expcâd 
tut that he mud hHve beeo irrecoverably loll. However, n 
form ■ jiilt judgment of thii matter, a man ought lo bt i 
foldier, and Ihould, perhtipi, hove been npon th« fpot. Ttii 
h un nM diCpute, on which nunc but thole who are ^Mdf 
well {killed in the art of «fit, Ihould pretend to gi*a thdr 

(/) Sr>oR nfVcr the battle orCannc, Hannibal difpatclwdUl 
brother Mago to Carihiige, with the nesvj of hi« vtAory j aixlat 
the fame tine to d em and fuccour*, in order (hat he iDight be 
Ttiablcd 10 put an end to the war. Mago being arrived, otade, 
in dill fenaif, a Infiy fpcech, in which he cutol led hi» broiher'i 
exploit), and dUpJaycd the great advantacei he had gained 
Over the Romana. And. to Rive a trnxc lively idea of the 
gresineft of the viélory, b^Tpeakin); in fome meafure fo die 
eye, he poured nut in the middle of the fenate, a t'ufhcl t of 
gold ring!, which had been inken from the fingeri of fuch of 
«he Koman nobility a* had fallen in the battle of Cannx. Ht 
•concladed with demanding money. proviGons, and frvfh rroopa. 
AH ihc fpeftatOM were llruck with an extraordinary ^'oy i vpoa 
«rUch [inilcon. a great llickler for Hannibal, fancying he now 
had a fnir opportuuiiy to infuli Haniio. the thief of the coiw 
Uary ja^iion. aflccd him, whether he wai llill difliitlt6cd with 
Ihewatihey were carrying nn ogainA the Rotnaoi. and wu 
for having Hannibal delivered up to them / Hantio. with- 
jOUI diCcOTerin^ the Icafl omotion, rvplird, that he wat Aill 
f the funic mind j and that thcviftorie» they fo much boaRnl 


fJV LI*. I- lai. a- !■ Ibid. I, u 111. a. iS. (/] U«.l.>aRL n. ti— 1|. 
t l>hn;l. «iillt. c, I. fay,. lUiltwil.tbi^am^ir'Mk, ihl ihm 


tAppoAng them real) could not give him joy^ but onlv 
Cm .proportion at they Aoold be made fabfervient to air advan- 
•'eagfioUB peace: He then undertook to prove» that the mifi;hgr 
^ploiti» on which they infilled fo much, were wholly chime- 
jriod and imaginary. ** I have cut to pieces, fays he^ (c(fn« 
■"^ tinuikig Mago's fpeech) the Roman armies : Send me fome 
•^^ troopi.-^what more could you alk,^ had you been conquer* 
*^ed? I have twice feized upon the enemy's camp», full (lio 
** doubt) of provifions of every kmd.-^Send me provifiotta 
*' and money.— Could you have talked otherwife had you loft 
^ your camp ?" He then aflced Mago, whether any of the 
lifttin nations were come over to Hannibal, and whether ^0 
llomans had made him any propofals of peace ? To this Mago 
Aofweiing in the negative : ^* 1 then nerceive, replied Hanno^ 
** that we are no farther advanced, than when Hannibal ûfi 
^* landed in Italy .^' The inference he drew from hence was» 
ttat neither men nor mone^ ought to be fen t. But Hannibal'l 
Ihâion prevailing at that time, no regard was paid to Hanno'è 
jranonitrances, which were confidered merely as the tfMt of 
' Ipi'fjndice and jealonfy ; and accordingly, orders were grrea 
Ibr levying the fuppHes of men and money which Huinlbal 
required, Maeo fet out immediately for Spain, toraiie twenty- 
Jour thoufand root, and four thoufand horfe in that coontryi 
but thefe levies were afterwards flopped, and fent another waff 
ib eager was the contrary faélion to c^pofe the defiant of )a ge- 
neral whom they utterly abhorred, {m) Whereat m Rome»' a 
confttl, who had fled, was thanked becaufe he had not de» 1 
fpaired of the commonwealth $ at Carthage^ people werealmoft 
angry with Hannibal, for being viélorious. But Hannb could 
never forgive him the advantages he had gained in this war» 
becaufe be had undertaken it in oppofition tohiscounfej. Thop 
being more jealous for the honour of his own opinions than fblf 
the good of his country» and a greater enemy to the Cartba* 
ginian general than to the Roman.s he did all that lay in hit 
power to prevent future, and to ruin pall fuccefies. 

Hannibal faÂ^s up his lAiinter- quarters in Q aw h^ 

{u) The battle of Cannae fubjedlcd the moll powerful nati- 
ons of Italy to Hannibal, drew over to his inierell Gracia 
Magna*, with the city of Tartntum; and fo wreiled, from 


(«) De St. Efrem. («) l.Jy. I. xsxiii, n. 4—18. 

* Cxterum quom Grsci omnem 
fcfft oram maritim^m Coloniiu i'uis, 
è Grffcia doduâit, obûdcrcat, Ac. 

I^ut after the Greeks b::d^ h tMr ft 
loniei, fiJU'eJfed themfelntn of ûli 
tbê maritiau (oafl, tbU vtiy 

r ^ ■* \ ' - ^^ " 1 


ihc Rofltâni, ibvir moA oncirnt illic*, smonc wham ttic Ci< 

EMI held the iitfi rank. Thii city, by tKc iutitity nT ia 
1, ill blvimugcaiM fiiMtion, «ad the bleSjigi of a b^ 
Kice. hid rait to |f«ac «walih and power. Liutan, tat ■ 
w of pkt/iirvi, (Uio nrual BUendanii on Wtalth) bii aa- 
nptcd the mind* of all iit ciiisent, wbo, from thai mtonl 
iociiiutiaB, ««re bat t*M much IncUocii ta vaIapt«oiif(ic(i ml 
(lit Ftuitét. 

Huoibal * bikU) ckoict ol ihii citr for liii wintcr-qBarttrt. 
Hen it wai t)ut hi> folilkrii who had taAntacd the moil £rif> 
voni toils.. And braved (lie moft fonnidalile dattgcfi, wett onr* 
thrown bitdtllghts «nil a profuliott of all thîngi, loio which 
they plunjfcd with the jjmicr ««{[frncrs, ai thry, till dunt ] 
tua been llnngcn to them. Their cooragc wai'fo greatly ewN { 
Dated in ihii bewithioc; rettremeat, that all their aftor-efl^ | 
were owing laihei to the fame and Iplcudor of their fotiur 
Vttlotiesi than to their preieui Hiength. When Haniubil 
nnrched hit force* out of the city, one would havctaken tbtfli 
foe other men, and the reverfe of thofe who had To lately 
nnrched into \t. Accuftumcd, during Uie winter- fca fen, m 
conmodious lodgin^i, to care and pleaiy, they were no lonM 
able to bear hanger, third, Innj martho», wauhingii and UiO 
«ithvr toiU of war ; not to mention that all obcdknce, all ^ 
ciplinc were entirely bid afide. 

I only tranfcribe on ihii otxafion from Uvy» who, if be wi]r 
be credited, thinks Haniiibal'i Hay at Capua a repioach to hit 
eondu^i and pretends, tliat he there w«t guilty of an iA&- 
tiicely greater error, than when he ncsltAcd lo march direQIy 
to Rome after tbe banle of Canna:. For this delay f, fajw 
Uvy, might feem only to have retarded his viétory t whereat 
this lad mifcondna rendered him abfolulcly incapable of ever 
defeating tbecnetny. In a word, as Marcellut obferved judi* 
«iouOy afterwards, Capua wai lo the Carthaginian» aod their 
general, what I Cunnc had been to the Homuns> There thdr 
martial gcoiusi their lov« of difciplitte were loA : Titere ibtir 


(«l«hr wiib Sirilf) w< H/M flrir. 

r>n«. Liv, 1. aiiil. a. si. 

«is Mt(ni, V(. Claver. Oeogiiph. 

i IIU enim «infltila diflollA 

1. Eii. .. ■^a. 

modo tiAD'Um ■•Uetl pntujt, l^w 

■ Im uctvn majditm bitmii n- 

nt *■*«• Mlrmilffid «iactit4e«.XM. 

ercitum m Icflii habiiit i ■«vtifui 

1, iiiii. n. it. 

omnia hiivu* mill ran* *c <liii du- 

I Opoim Analbsli Cann»* 1M 

riai>m, bnnii inripxrlum M^i» <"■ 

U ! Ihi liriutttn bllinm. ibi m»m 

(uctuni. ttiquiqiiot nulls mtii >!«. 

-rm aiftlpllBim. Ihi BfWeiJii nm^ 

ratVH, prrdirteii: nimii bnni mc ta- 

hiptiin immAli», t, to linptn<>ui, 


mMi^idiiM ex i4(«lHiia ia CM 4( nei. 

C ARTH AO t N I A.» 8. tof 

bmiF.ftfflt) and tneiy «ImofF certala )»pei o^ tatvlH ftloijr» 
naUitd tMMCt. And inttitdi fnmlhtneafortli th« aniHof 
Mulbal ■dvancfld w their dwltn* by TwiU Ihpi i ferwnt da- 
Upid la fkvoarof prudcncCi âDdvtaôty GHinad now ikob* 
plad totbaRonui. 

' . I know not whaiher LIvy hai rtafon to Impata all thtft At^, 
Uiftautncai to the dcllcioui aboda of Capua. It wt «laniM 
pnfolly all the clrcumftancei of thii hlllory, wa Hull -fearw;' 
it abla to perfuade ourlalvti, that the littla pràgrtfi wbkh wu 
ihtrwardi made by thvarmi of Hannibal, ought t«b««lisrlbad> 
B^'Capna. It mishti indeed, havt baan one «wft, but tU» 
Wpuld be t very inconfiderabla one i Aftd the bnvaiy wlt^ 
tnlch the forcei of Hannibal, aftenvurdi daftatad tba anhl» 
Brconfuli and pr»tori i the towni they took evta In fight u^ 
M Romani i their maintaining theit conquaAi lb vlgùfluflyy 
tod Saying fourteen yean after thit I» Italy, la (pitf. ef.tU' 
wnaHK all thefe ctrcumftaacei may iaauca ui to MÛimi^ 
Oat Uvy Uyi too great a fircfi on tha daHchM r^f r^ipnn, 

Thé real caufo of the decay of Hanalbar) ufimn, w^s owin^ 
flvkti want of neeafTary recrnitt and fiMGOMis fiom CantiagOb 

Ë] After Mago'i fpecch, the Carthaginian fcnate hitd Judcc^^ 
■acaflhrj', In order for tha carrying oi the conqucHi in Italr*. 
IDl«Dd thither a conridcrablerainforcemant of NuniidiBii hor»,. 
ferty elephanti, andathoufand taleitit ami toliirc, in Spain», 
tlltB^ tboufand foot, and four thoufand horft, to reiiifbrca- 
llid^ amjei in Spain and Italy. (*] Ncvcrthclefi, Mago. 
CmM obtain an order but for twelve taournnJ foot, and two- 
ttoilhnd £va hundred horfc ; And even, » lien he w»a jull go. 
lu to march to Italy with an army, fo mtKh Infeilor lo tkah 
wXÂ had been promifed him, he wai couniermudtd bb4 
(hnt to Spitn. So ihft Hannibal, after thefe mighty tiromlAac 
bad aeiiMr infantry, «vnlry, elcphanii, nor money .lent hia ft 
but wai left to hii Ihifii. Hi* army waa now reduced t% 
tw*nty>ljN thoufand foot, and nine thoufand horfê. How fionld 
it bo poflible (or him, with fu incanfidcrablc an *"nj/, to ftiae» 
Û an encmy'i country, on all the advintageoui poft») to awr 
Ilia new allKi, to prt-fcrTC hia old conquclti and form new 
»«i ) and to keep the field, with advantage, againll two ar- 
lûaa of the Konians which were recruited every year t Thla 
araa the true ciufc of the decleitfion of Hannibal'a aSniri, and 
•r th« ruin of thufe of Cnrtha{>e. Wai the part where Poly- 
UnitreaieJ thia fiibjca rxtani, wo doubtlcfa iliould find, that 
ba layi a greater llrcfi. on ihia caufe, than on the tuxurioui da> 
l%hiaof Capua. 

(*] U*. 1, uiil. n. I], (/] IhU, a. sa. 


Th irûf/aSi'»' rtitii'g m S r a I « «■/ S * k i^t a i AT 

*() Til» two Scipift'i C'->"tit>o«f in the command of S^ 
tnd th«ir«in»i«rem*lùogncrti6der»bI<; pro^nft t!me,«tai 
Atilratuli wbo «lone fctmrJ able to cope «I'jth them, ncànJ 
etjcM f(amCuiïi«£r. lo oiarcli into Ital^ to tiie relief of Ul 
bfOlher. Befoie ^« \ti\ Spain, he writ in the CnAtx, » coé- 
Yînce tlicmofthr Bhrotute nvc«Cit; oC iheir T^ndin^ agenenlil 
\\t fleai!, wt^o hti) «blliliri fuSicicDC lor oppolitig ibc Room, 
iBiileOa s iU '.ticKfuic Tent (.'lUtier with ao artny • and AfdniM 
'let out upoo hi) inirch ivitb hif, in o^^cr to go «ad join ^ 
brothrr. The new « of hit drputurc wu no fboncr lui««^ 
tai the gKittft p»ft of Sp»iu waj fobjvAcd by the Scipicii*t. 
Thcfc two ecDrrsl». inlmiicd bjr fuch ligoil fucccfi, ttultcd 
•c pK^eni nim, if poilible, from lenving Spain. Tbty tot. 
edited the duiger to which the Romant woold br ntpoCed, K 
being fcirce able to nfill Hannibil uiily. they fhould be U> 
tacktd by the two brc'tbfrt, it the head of two po««rfttl ar- 
inics. They therefore piirfoed Afdnibal. and, coming upwtd 
diRt genera), forced him tu ft^bt, againll hit indln:ition. AT 
drubal wai overtome, sod, fa fu from beine able to contiiM 
kit march for Iial)r, be found that ti would be JmpoCble fe 
kim to continue wilh any fafcty iu Spiiu. 

The Cacihaginiani had no better fucccfs fn Sjirdinia. Ds 
finning til take ndvnniaec of Ibme rebellions tbey had fomcaM^ 
!n that country, they loAtwetve chou fan d men in abaiilcfootht 
ftgaioit the Romani, who louli a ttilt gicacer number of pri- 
foncr!. iTDttng whom «ere Afdrubïl farnamcii C«Ivbs, Haiiii«, 
ud Ma^ *, who were difiinguilhcd by their birth u wdl u 
jnitiiary exploita. 

Tit ill /uti^/ip/ HAttvtt HI.. ?ïr SiBcaa •/■CArr4 
M^ ft O M E. 
(r) From Hannîbal'a abode in Capua, the CaitluMBi«Ba|L 
fair» in Iitly no longer fupporied their reputation. M. Muw 
i;elius lirH as prvcor. and uftcrward) ai cnnful, had contri- 
buted very much to this revolution. He harrafiî^ Hannibal't 
srmy on every OGcafion, fci Zed upon hitquanrtt, forced hjm 
» ràifc fiegea, and even deleatcd him in fcveral ciigageninita ; 
fo that he wascalled the Sword ofKome, ta FaUas Jtad fatfm 
been named ils Buckler. 

(,)A,M.,-5o A.Rctn.jj^.. Li». I. nKi. a. •S-j»-).-^ 4 u 
frj *. M. J 91. A. Rem. jjj, tj». |. »iu, b. 4a— 4l> 1. an. *. «m. 
I *•*'"■"■ *-'*■ 


(j) But what inbft affedled the Carthaginian general, was, to 
fee Capua befieged by the Romans. In order therefore to prc- 
Icive his reputation among his allies, bv a vigorous fupportof 
thofe who held the chief rank as fnch, he iiew to the relief of 
•that city, brought forward his forces, attacked the Romans, 
«and fought feveral battles to oblige them to raifc the fiege. At 
»]||ft, feeing all his meafures defeated, (/) he marched haftily 
• towards Rome, in order to make a powerful diverfion. Ho 
' bad fome hopes, in cafe he could have an opportunity, ifi the 
ûrik coiifternation, to (lorm fome part of the city, of drawing 
die Roman generals with all their forces from the iiege of Ca- 
fioa» to the relief their capital ; at leait he flattered hinafelf, 
that if for the fi^ke of continuing the iiege, they (hould divide 
their forces, their v/eaknefs might then o^er an occafion, either 
to the Cap nan s or himfelf, of engaging and defeating them* 
Home was (truck, but not confounded. A propofal being 
made by one of the fenators, to recall all the armies to fuccour 
Rome; Fabius declared, that * it would be (hameful in them 
to be terrified^ and forced to change their meafures npon every 
notion of Hannibal. I'hey therefore contented themfelves 
ynih only recalling part of the army, and one cf the generals» 
Qs^Fiilvius the proconful, from the fiege. HannibaU after 
.making fome devailations, drew up his army in ( rder of battle 
]>efore. the city, and the conful did the fame. Both fides were 
yiepariBg to fignalizc themfeives in a battle, of which Rome 
was to be thj: recom pence, when a violent itorm obliged them 
to fcparate. They were no fooner returned to their refpe£live 
camps, but the face of the heavens ^rew calm and ferene. The 
fame happened frequently afterwards; infomuch that Hanni- 
hal» believing that there was fomething fupernatural in the 
event, faid, according to Livy, that fomerimes f his own willy 
and fometimes fortune, woi.Id not fuffer him to take Rome. 

Eut the circumilances which moil furprized and intimidated 
him, was the news, that whilfl he lay encamped at one of the 
liâtes of Rome, the Romans had fent out recruits for the army 
in Spain at another gate ; and at the fame time, difpofcd of 
ihe ground whereon his camp was pitched, notwithflanding 
which it had been fold for its full value. So barefaced a con- 
contempt flung Hannibal to the quick : He therefore, on the 
Other ilde, expofed to fale the Ihops of the; goldfmiths round 


(i) At M. 3793» Aé Rooi. 537, (r) A. M, 3794* A. Rom. 538. 

* Flagitiofum tffe terreri ac cir- Potjundc fibi urbis Rom», modo 

cuaiagi ad omnn Annibalis commi- memem non dari, modo fbrCuas 

aitîonet. Lf«. 1. zivi. n. 8. Lfv. I, zxvi. n, ix, 

f AuëîU TOK Aiuiibalis fertur. 


ikt FttrnM. Aft» ikt* hntvado he r«iin-4. «nd, 
pliin^eml iha itttt itinpl« of the noddcli Fcionin 

C«p«K. thtu left to itlcir, bcM out bat very liliM 
Aft» thai fiKb nf iti fcQ3tnt(, ai had the chief htui 
n*oli, iKd c^nfcqurnily could DOt exiM^â any <\U4 
th« Rojuaiui hid put ilicBilclve* lo « tiuly tragical jj 
|h< dty ruricailtrtil ai difiiciion. Thv (iiccali of tt' 
which, by ih( happy cnnltqui'mc* wht.-nwii)i it waaa) 
proved ilnilivr, anJ^ave tlic Rumant avifiblc fu}>rttN 
lh« CwtlugiiiMai ) dilpU^nl, at tha tamr time, bc~ 
dabts the powcf of tha Romani 'Mit, J whvn tticy u 
lo piinlA) ilicir pcrRdiout allie* i bdU the feeble { 
which HanBihal oooU aJbrd kit i'riuidi. at m lime w 
owft warned iu 

fie Dart AT tU Diatm ^ lin t%M Sorrig'i i> | 

{>) The fa» of affain wai verf much changn) Atj 
The C»thij>i''i'><" had ihice anni» in that couDtry t oM 
mifldcd h^ Afdiubal, the Too of Oifjco : the Wend by^ 
bil, foB ot Mamilcar ; and a third under Mâ^>, who hai'' 
tb« Cfit Afdrvhal, The iwoScipto'i, Cocui and Publli) 
fcr dMding their forcei, and aiUcking the eaeay lêpi 
«kich wu the cwfe of their ruin. Ii «c<or(titt|>)y whI 
thai Cneui, with a fmall number nfRomam, nad thtrU 
find Ctliibcrian>, fhould much agaiolt AfdrubAl iht^ 
Ilimilcar; whilft Publiut, with the Rmaiiiiîer of th^ 
rompofed of RomaBi and the alliei of Inly, flionldi' 
■gainn (he nihcr tivo mènerait. 

t*ubttai WM van^uilhcd (iril. Ta the two leaden n 
had tooppole, Mahnifia, elate with tlie viâoriei he had 

(•) A. M. tm- A- 

' Fin»,» W4I 111 c^i Vf»*-n. 

mJ rhn WW M* wwl é ttifft i* ii. 

MkmU r* *», ar t»f AfT «T <*• 

W..MIM «■•«.'h. StF«4^ >M«*t tl* 

laHn, ti^jnrf ty ihi j»M>j'>. w«fl>rf 

Util »MM >» *mU f/ Ati,*.r. « 
«Milt tkh rdMi l> iifttjtmtU wiii 


«I *<al «.iito. f1*«, 

MM W... .rf,'> /M^ 
*«■( M afurJ iytn I 

I CMrtAa nfitA 
Til ia Rinntnlt *i oifr 
lb inil.>>L>bui i-odii, * 
A-sibil) JiiiiilJi III mi . 
laiadM fill. Uk< liUeii 

C A R T H A G«IJ^ I A N S« 3fi 

ioediaver Syphax, joined himfelf ; and was to be foon fol- 
ded by Indibilisy a powerful Spanifh prince. The aimies 
Dae to an engagqnient. The Romans being thus attacked on all 
Cf at once,- made a brave refinance as long as they had their 
acral at their head ; but the moment he fell, the few troopa 
lich had efcaped the Aau^hter, fecured themfelves by fiiffhc. 
XM three vi^rious armies marched immediately in «qneft of 
IÇU8, in order' to put an end to the war by his defeat* He 
If already more than half vanquifhed, by the deiertion of 
IfKies, who all forfook him ; and left to the Roman generals, 
ia important inflrudion *, «v/js. never to let their own forces 
i exceeded in number by thofe of foreigners. He gneflbd 
1^ kis brother was flain, and his army defeated, upon feeing 
eh great bodies of the enemy arrive. He furvived him bat 
(kon time, being killed in the engagement. Theft two great 
(SB were equally lamented by their citizens and allies ; and 
e Spaniards bewailed their memory, becaufe of the juftice 
4'inoderation of their condu^. 

Theie vail countries feemed now inevitably loft ; bat the 
lovr of L. Marcius, f a private officer of the Eooeftriaa 
^f preferved them to the Romans. Shortly. after this, tho 
^piger Scipio was fent thither, who greatly revenged the 
ffk . of his father and uncle, and reftored the affairs of the 
HMOS in Spain, to their former flourifhing condition. 

ni D B p E A T and Death ^Asoa-VB a-l* 


{r) One nnforefeen defeat ruined all ^he meafures, andblafted 
I thé 'hopes of Hannibal with regard to Italy. The confal» 
' Aitjear, which was the eleventh of the fécond Pnnick waé» 
«il «ifs over feveral events for brevity fake) were C. Clatf* 
ii'Nn'O, and M. Livius. The latter had for his province^ 
é^Cnalpin Gaul, where he was to oppofe Afdrubal, who^ 
was reported, was preparing to pafs the Alps. The former 
mnanded in the country of the Brutians, and in Lncania^ 
É| it, in the oppofite extremity of Italy, and was there making 
■id againft Hannibal. 

^ the 

[«) A* M* 379S. A. Rom. 541* Polyb. 1. xi. p. 6ax**^5* Ur» 1. istli» 
»f' 39 S»> 

•H %fiàtdk ctirendum femper Ro- J haJ dhoidtd themfeîvet ht» Mê'eêffK^ 
lalsiacllHU erit, cxeoipU^ae h«c and wereftcurt, at ttej tUught, froé 
le^fie io^aewatii bkbcnda. Ne anv imnudiati Memft «f the ttméMi'% 
t «tSfabcraUnt aoxiliii, ut non killed thirty -fnwt thwjand »f tbmi 
m fA flokarb fiianimque propriè tock one tbou/and tight butidrti frf§i^ 
IwifCiAriikftbcaAC. Linf.n.^^, and brought off immtitjt tMtr» 
t mmiÊtàÊâ ikCaiibaginiani, v/bo [ 1, xxv. 0.39» . • . 

k«**i«iv%a iMiWaf Vâ 111^ «JM»*« Ax^ê kiiw *vwaa«a>w %^« 

• I 

il I 

T I conlequence of this, it was his opiuion, that fac 

funexpe^cd blow ought to be (Iruck, as might 
I flrikiiig terror into the enemy ; by marching n 

, j his collègue, in order fijr them to charge Afiirubaî 

; ' with their united forces. This defign, if the fe 

I ft . CCS of it were thoroughly examined, will app< 

' remote from imprudence To prevent the two I 

I joining their armies, was to fave the ftate. Vcr 

be hazarded, even though Hannihai fhould be ini 
ab l'en to of the con fui. From his army, which 
forty. two thoufand men, he drew out but icytn 
his own detachment, which indeed were the £ 
trcopsy but, at the fame time, a very inconfldei 
them. The reft remained in the camp, which 
ta:>poufly fituated, and llrongly fortified. Nowcc 
puled, that Hannibal would attack, and force a cax 
by thirty five thoufand men ? 

Nero fet out without giving his foldiers the le: 
his deil^n. When he aovanced fo far that it mi; 
in unicatc'd without any danger, he told them, that 
in g them to certain vidlory : That, in war, all thio 
opon reputation ; that the bare rumour of their a 
clifconcert all the meafurcs of the Carthaginians ; 
whole honour of this battle would f^H to them. 

C A R T H A G I N I A N S. iij 

nt, ThU advice was complied with, and accordingly 
ignal for battle wa& given. Afdrubal, advanciQg to hu 
aoft ranks, difcavered by Ijeveral circamftances, that ftefli 
IS were arrived ; and he did hoc doubt but that they be- 
;d to the other conful. This made him coitjeflure, that 
rocher had fudained a conGderable !ofs, and, at the fame 
, fear, that te was come too late to his aniHance. 
Fter making ihefe refleflions, he caufed a retreat (o be 
jcd, and his army began to match in great dilbrder. Night 
:3kiiig him, acd his guides deferting, he was uncertain 

way to go. He marched, at random along the banks of 
ivcr Meturus *, and was preparing to crofa it, when the 
: armies of the enemy came up with him. In ihii extro- 
, be faw it woald be impoffible for hjm to avoid coming 
I engagement ; aod theteforedîd all thing» which cculd be 
âed from the prefence of mind and valour of a great cap- 
He feizcd an advantageous poft, and drew up hii forces 

narrow fpot, which gave him an opportunity of potlifig 
eft wing (the weakeft part of hi* army) in fucb a manner* 
it could neither be attacked in front, norcharged in flank; 
sf giving to hit main battle and right wing a greater dfpth 

front. After this haitydlfpofition of his forces, Iiepolied 
elf in the center, and Aril marched to attack the enemy's 
wingj well knowing that all wa^ at (take, and that he 

either conquer or die. The battle lafled a long time, 
■)llinatelydirputed by fcoth parties. AOrubal, cfpc- 
lalized hirafelf tn tnis engagement, and added new 

f to that he had already acquired by a feries of (hinine 
>n3. He led on hii foldieri, trembling and quite difpirtieti, 
nil an enemy Cuperior to them both in numbers and refolu- 
He animated them by his words, fiipported them by hîi 
nple, and, with intreatîei and menacei, endeavoured to 
g back thofe who fled i lill, at lalt, fmng that viiioiy 
ired for the Romans, and being unable to furvive the lolâ 
] many thoufand men, who had quitted their country to 
w bis fortime, be lulhed at once into the midll ofa Roman 
irt, and there died in a manner worthy the fon of Hamil- 

and tie brother of Hannibal. 

his was the moft bloody battle the Carthaginians had fougltt 
ig this war ; And, whether we conCJc/ the death of the 
rivl, or the flaughter made of the Carthaginian forces, it 

be looked upon as a reprifat for the battle of Canna;. 

Carthaginians loti fifty- âve thoufand men *, and fix thnH> 
Ino ca!l,i M,,^^ \tbMtfit, t^tn ta jw» rWont 

iictidii'i a Ptijhiat (Jw fqi 1 1, ■>, y. »70. £dit.Ci«MT. 
u4 tat it la iltutfiifd rntm, aid ^ rf"™ 


fand were taken pnfoncrs. The Romans loft eight thoufand. 
I'hci'e were fu weary of killing, that fome perfon telling Liviaf, 
that he might very eafily cut to pieces a body of the enemy who 
ucrc Hying : It isjit^ fays he, that fimt fifould fur wnft^^ invri» 
that thty Mtfy carry tht newt ef this dtftat to the Carthaginiant^ 

Nero fct out upon his march, on the very night which fbU 
lowed (he engagement. Through all places where he pafled, 
in his return, Ihouts of joy and loud acclamations welcomed 
him, of thole fears and uneafinefTcs which his coming 
had occiiioiicd. He ariived in his camp the (txth day. a£ 
drubuPs head being thrown into that of the Carthaginians, in- 
formed Hannibal of his brother's unhappy fate. H an nihil 
perceived, by this cruel ilrokc, the fortune of Carthage: //// 
doittt fays he *, I nuill /lo iouger fniif triumphant meffas^es to Car' 
thaj^f. In lofing Ajdrulal^ 1 ha^ve loft at onee all my hofe^ all «f 
good fart Hti.\ He afterwards retired to the extremities of the 
country of the Hrutians, where he aflembled all his forces, who 
found ic a very diflicult matter to fubfift there» as no proviiioni 
were fcnt ihem from Carthage. 

S Ci P I o conquers all S r A\ s. Is appointed confute atid fuU 
into Africa. Hannibal is recalied* 

{y) The fate of arms was not more propitious to the Car- 
thaginians in Spain. The prudent vivacity of young Scipio 
had rellored the Roman aflairs in that country to their former 
ilourilhing (late, as the courageous flownefs of Fabius had be* 
fore dune Ituly. The three Carthaginian generals in SpaiOf 
Afdrubal fon of Gifgo, Hanno, andMago, having been de- 
feated with their numerous armies, by the Romans» in feveral 
engagements, Scipio 9t lail pofleflfed himfelf of Spain» and 
fubjedU'd it entirely to the Roman power^ It was at this time 
that MaiiniHa, a very powerful African prince» went over to 
the Romans ; and Sypnax, on the contrary» to the Carthi- 

(s) Scipio at his return to Rome, was declared conful, beinf 
then thirty years of age. He had P. Licinius Craflus fer hu 


(jf) A.M. 3790* A.RuBi.543. Polyb. 1.XÎ. p. 150. ft 1. «iv. p«677-^ 
6S7. At]. XV. p. i)Sq— Ci)4. Liv. I, xiviii. n. 1—4— 16-^38^40— 561 !• 
■xik, n. 34 — 36. 1. xx«. n. to^xS. (x) A. M. 3800. At Rum. 544. 

* Hot ace maktt Lim /peak thus, In the heauti/ul ode whore thit Jefiotk 

C'iihjgn.î jam non ego nuntioi 
Miitam rii|icrii»» Oci^Mti*, occidit 
fipra onmix Se t'litiinS iiniiri 
Nommis^ AldmlMlc iateitniptoi tiht vi, M 4* 


4>Uegne. Sicily was allotted to Scipio» with permlffion for 
lim CO crofs in Africa, if he foond it convenient. He fêt out 
vith all imaginable expedition for his province ; whilft hit 
xrilegue was to command in the coantry whither Hannibal was 

The taking of New Carthage, where Scipio had difplayed 
11 the prudence, the courage and capacity which could have 
ceo expeûed from the greateft generals, and the conqueft of ^ 
U Spain, were more than fufficient to immortalize his name: • 
tnt he had confidered thefe only as fo many ûeps by which he 
ras to climb to a nobler enterprise, and this was the conqueft 
f Africa. Accordingly he croiTed over thither, and made it 
le feat of the war. 

The dévaluation of the country ; the iiege of Utica, one of 
ie<ftrongeft cities of Africa; the entire defeat of the two 
rmiea under Syphax and Afdrubal, whofe camp was burnt by 
cipio ; and afterwards the taking of Syphax himfelf priibnert 
rho was the moil powerful refource the Carthaginians had left; 
11 thefe things forced them at laft to turn their thoughts to 
eace. They thereupon deputed thirty of their principal fena- * 
srsy who were feleded for that pucpofe, out of the powerfiil 
ody at Carthage, called the cùftncil rf the hunini. Beine in* 
reduced into the Roman general's tent, they all threw them- 
elves proftrate on the earth, (fuch was the cuftom of their > 
ôuntry) fpoke to him in terms of great fubmiffion, accufing 
lannibal as the author of all their calamities, and promifing in 
he name of the fenate, an implicit obedience to whatever the 
lomans (hould pleafe to ordain. Scipio anfwered, that thoush 
le was come into Africa, not for peace but conqueft, he would 
lowever grant them a peace, upon condition that they ihould 
leliver up all the prifoners and deferters to the Romans ; that 
Jiey (hould recall their armies out of Italy and Gaul ; Âoold 
oever Sex foot again in Spain ; (hould retire out of all the 
[{lands between Italy and Africa ; (hould deliver up all their 
Ihips, twenty excepted, to the vidlor ; ihould give to the Ro* 
Diflns five hundred thoufand bufhels of wheat, three hundred 
thoufand of barley, and pay*£fteen thoufand talents : That in ' 
caie they were pleafed with thefe conditions, they then, he 
faid, might fend ambafTadors to the fenate. The Carthagi* 
lians feigned a compliance, but this was only to gain time, 
ill Hannibal (hould be returned. A truce was then granted to 
he Carthaginians, who immediai' ly fent deputies to Rome, 
nd at the lame time an txprcfs to Hannibal, to order his re- 
urn into Africa* 


I Ke mit tkea, a* wai ohSerrti !>efore, tn ll 

Hen he m»tve4 the oidcn TrOm CAnit«g«^j| 
1 not liScti (o withovtgrojnt, and alnoA teH*l 
* ' ilowil lonadncri, ta(n htmrelf ibMJj 

bit prey. Never (latilShed tana ' (hewed fo p 
gm If learmg Mt native nnnir^. u HaonibaJ <Iiil b c^iv 
oat of (iiat al in enemy. He often, turned kit «yn wilfifolC 
to Itxiy, accufing gmit anil mcti of hu miifonunei. snd uDtm 
down a thoufand curtei, favi f Liryi upon btmrclf for aot 
having marched bit fuldien diicftly to Rodw. after ilie banle 
or Caonv, wbillt they «ere ftill reeking with ihc blood of ia 

At \lt,ait the rensEe, greatly diffatislted vnth tite cxcafa 
made bv the Carilta^nian depuii», in jufiiftcaiioa «f (kât 
repiiblick, and [he ndlculoui ofTer «f Their adbcriog, ta ill 
name, to the treaty of I.uutiui; thciughi proper to fcfer tk 
decifion of the whole to ScJoio, who. being on the fpot, coqW 
beH jaigc what condition* W Tuited the wclfnr« of the JbK 

AlMiut tticf;imc limet OAaviui the praetor failirt^ fromSkilf 
with two hundred vefTeU of burden, vas attacked oear Cn> 
thage by a furîoni ftorn^ which difpericd atl bin Reci. TW 
citizeot not bearing to fee fo rich a prey efcapc then), drmtftdd 
imparti! R H tely ibat tbe Caithaçinixn Beet mi][ht failonind 
feizc it. The fenate, afirr a fitiTit rcftftancc, complied. AÎ- 
drubal idtliog out of the harbour, feised the greatefl panflf 
the Roman fliip*, anil brought them to Carthage, ahbonglilit 
trute wai flill fubfilling. 

Scipio fcnt depniiei to the Carihnginfao fcnate, ro cocnplM 
of thii, but they were liiilc rcgirdrd. Hartnibol'* ippraid 
had revived their courage, and hlled tbem with ereat upch 
The depuiie» were even in great danger of being ill treated If 
the populace. They tfaere^re demanded a convoy, which' 
granted, and accordingly two Qiipi of the republick an 
tbem. But the magiitrate», whowereabroluielyagaisflpcMh 
and deiermined to renew the war, gave privaie order* to kf- 
drubal, (who wa» with the fleet near Uiica) to aiuclt the Id- 
man gallry when it Ihould arrive in the tiverBagimda near ik 
Roman camp, wWre the convoy wat ordered to leave tl>e>> 


(<) A. II. 3801. A. Rom. 54Ë, 
* Rim qutnqaitn »ipiifti pjttiiiri | ^«sJ ■«■ inniuu *i Cmu^iIMMi 
nilii <tvii rilinqBfntTin nigu | bi^'imi Xabwi ^x^^- Li*< L 
■naOum tiniBt ttrfiai , ^nim Aonibi' | n. to. 
lim hoflluQ <<r» ««^tnirn. Br- I f hhyf*[ff' 


* K< obeyed the order, and fent out iwo gïtliM sRainfl riio am- 
bsfTadora, who ncverihelels made their tktpe, but with diS* 
Cultv and danj^cr. 

Thii wa» aftefh fubjfft for a wtir beiwem the (wo n»liot»«, 

I vho now were Bnimatcd, ormthcr niore«afperai»d oneapainffi 

I titt other, than evtri the Komani, 'from ihc Ihong deSra 

r fhey had l<i revtngelbliliicka perfidy t and the Caribagintatit, 

'fOm a pcrfuarioii that they were not now lo expedï a peace. 

Ac ihe Tame lime Lzliui and Fulviut, who carried rhc foil 

?owcri with which ihe Icnate and people of Rome hitd invelled 
dpio, arrived in the camp, accompanied by tlie duputiei of 
Carihaue. As ihc Carthagiiiiana had not ouly infringed ik* 
trace, nut violated the law of naiiont, iii the pcrfon ot tho 
Roman ambafTadors ; il wai natural ihat tlicïr principal» HkiuUI 
Ofdcr the Carthaginian depuiicf to be fcizcd by way of reprixal. 
However, Scipio *, more attentive to the Koman jtvncfofuy» - 
. yiao CD the demerits of the Carthaginiani, in order not to de- 
viate from Che priuciple* and cnaxiuit of hit own countrymen, 
' Bor hi) own chara^er, difmifTcd the dcpuciei, without offering 
k^irm the IcaA injury. Soaftoniihingsn inftance of modctacion. 
-^)d at fucb a juncture, terrified the Carthaciniant, and even 
_ t lh«m CO the h]\iilt i and made Hannibafhimfelf cMercain 
Kilill biaher idea of a general, who, to che difhonourabtc prac- 
dcei of hii cncntiei, oppofcd only a tcfliiude and grealnelt of 
^witt. (hot wa« Hill more woiihy of admiration, (tun all bit 
Hniîiîtary vîrtuei. 
>. In che mean time, Hannibal, beine ftrongly importoned hf 
iSit rcllow'ciiizen), advanced forward intu the country t and 
'tl'tnn^ atiiama, which it five dayi march from Carthage, 
(r (here pitched his camp. He thence feni oui fpî» to ob^ 
i^ve the puAure of the Komani. ticipio, having feiwed dirfri 
b far from puniOiing ihem, only commanded t^rm Co be led 
itlbout the H'lnian cxmp, in order ihut they miaht cuke an exttt 
■lurvcy of il, ;iik! then fent them back to Hannib->1. Ths 
«fatUT knew very well whence fu noble an ailurance Howed, 
■ Jftur 'iho Ilrange revcrfei he had met with, he nn longer eX- 
K^cd chac furlunu would again be prupiitoui. Whilft every 
mc wai exciting him to give battle, himfolf only nKdiiatcd • 
lie fluttered himfelf that the condliioni of ic would 
honourable for him, Bi'he tyaiac ihehcadof aaarmv. 
Vo^, I. L and 

* 'InnriTttwrnt *Wt f\,i.t:iy,l;i- I modo fid». M ftlini lui I'nilunt in 

t, it il )i» h v^t'i 'rif'"}- I nrï mAumii (i^puli Rumini tut (a-t 
l^fb ■. !•' t- «St. Sail. Oto'.ev. mciribMUJIiaiini in iUhâvntalflkk 
•'JK^itm Sdfli, ElfluuM induciuum | tiv, IiKHp n-a}. 



:inv! as the fate of arois might (till appear uncertain. He cheKi- 
i'ori: fcnt to dcfire an interview with Scipio, which accordiDgly 
wa^ agreed to, and the time and place fixed. 

^ oe Interview httween Hannibal and S c i p i o w 

Africa foUoucid by a battU. 

{a) ThiTe two generals, who were not only the mod ill uf- 
trious (f their own âge, but worthy of being ranked \\jih the 
moft renow ncd princes and warriors that bad ever lived, nr.eenog 
at the place appointed, continued for (bme time in a deep 
filencc, as though they were aftoniihed, and ftruck with a 
mutua} admiraticn at the flghr of each other. At lad Hannibal 
fnfike, and after having praifcd Scipio in the mod artful and de- 
licate manner, he gave a very lively defcription of the ravages 
of the war, and the cnlrimities in which it had involved both the 
viclorsand the vanquiftied. He conjured him, not tofoiFer himfelf 
to ht dazzlj'd by the fplendor of his viftories. He rcprefenred w 
him, that how iuccefsful foever he might have hitherto been, be 
i)ught however xr tremble at the fnconflancy of fortone: Thar 
without going fai back for examples, he himfelf, who was then 
fpeaking to him, v. us a glaring proof- of this : That Scipio 
was at that time \\\ at himfelf (Hannibal) had been at Thrafv- 
menc and Cannx : That he ought to make a better ufc of 
opportunity than hinjfclf had done, and ccmfent to peace, no« 
it was in his power lo propofe the conditions of it. He con- 
cluded with declaring, that the Carthaginians wooid willingly 
jcfign Sicilt, Sardinia, Sp^In, and all th? iflands between. 
Africa and Italy, to the Romans. That they mull be forced, 
incc fuch Vvas the will of the gods, to confine thcmfelves W" 
Africa; uhilil they ftiould fee the Romans extencing their 
ccnquclls to the moft remote- region?, and obliging all nations 
to pay obedience to thcii laws. 

iicipio :;nf*AeTcd in few v.ords, but not with Icfs dignity* 
He reproached the Caitha;:inians for tl.eir perfidy, in plunder- 
rig the Komi'.n c^aUies before the truce was expired. He im- 
put'.*J to them or.iy, ;:iul to their injuftire, all the calamities 
>j\x\\ uhich the two wars had been attended. After thanking 
Hannibal for the admonition he gave him, with regard to the 
uricer[:,ir.ty cf human events, he concluded with delirin^ him 
to pi (? pa re for biiitle, Ufilefs he chafe rather to accept of th^ 
/"ondition! that had been already propofcd ; to which (he ob- 
ftTM'd fomc otheis would be added, in order to puni Ih the 
Carthaginians for their having violated the truce. 


{a) A. Ar. 300^. A. Rom, 5-9.7. Pclyb. J. iv, p. 6s4'— 7031 I»iv« !•«* 


Hannibal could not prevail with Mmfelf to accept thefe cm-' " 
Jltioni, and the gener»ls left one another, with the refoJotitm 
to decide the fsie of Canhage by a general battle. Each com- ^ 
mander exhorted his troops lo fight valiantly. Hannibal ena. 
nier.neJ the viftorici he had gained orer the Romans, lh« 
generals he had llain, the armies he had cnt to pieces. Scipio 
reprefenleiJ to his foldien, the conqaclls of both the Spain»,' 
his iucceffes in Africa, and the tacit eonfeffion the enemie* 
ttlemfelves mace of their weaknefs, by thul coming to fue fof 
peace. All xhh he fpoke * with the tone and air of a eon- 
qnernr. NevL*r were motives more prevaltntto prompt troop» 
»o behave gallantly. This day was to compieai the glory of 
the one or the other of the generals ; and to decide whether 
Rome or Carthage was to prefctibe laws to all other nations. 

J fliall not undertake to defcribe the order of the battle, iio^ 
, the valour of the forces on both lidei. The reader will nam- 
i»lly fuppofe, that two fuch experienced generals ilid no» for- 

Çt any ci re u m Ha nee, whkh could contribute to tbc viâoiy. 
he Carthaginians, after a veryobftinaie 6ght, were- obligea 
to fly, leaving twenty thtmfand men tin the field of battle, aiiiJ 
the like numberof prifoners were laken by the Romans. Han- 
nibal efcaped in the tumuli, and tmering Carthage, owiieil' 
that he was irrecoverably cvef thrown, and that the ciii7.ens b*l. 
-»0 other cboic&Ieft, but to accept of peace on any conditiuiia. 
Sdpio bellowed great eutogiums on Hunniluil, chiefly tuiilr re- 

Sard to his capacity in taking advantages, his naniter of 
rawing up his army, and giving out his orders in the engage- 
ment ; and he aflirmed, that Hannibal had this day furpaR''-4 
hitDfelf, although the fuccefa had not anfwered his valour arid 

With regard to htrafelf, he well knc-v how to make a proper 
advantage of the viftory, and the contlcrnation with which he 
had filled the enemy. He commantied one oF hi^ liciili^r.intt 
to march his land-;irmy to Cfirihager Mbilll himfeir pntparekl 
to fail the fleet ihither.' 

He was not far from the- city, when he met a veffel covered 
with Dreamers and olive-branches, btinging ten of the molt 
confiderable perfons of the Itate, as ambafTadors to implore hi; 
clemency. Howeveri he difmiflêd them without making ariy. 
anfwer, and bi<' them come to him at Tunis, where he tliou^iV 
hall. The deputies of Carthage, being thirty in r.uraber.- 
eame to him at the place appoinied, and fued for peace in the 
nkolt fubmilEvc terms. He then called a council there, the 
I, 2 majority 

1 Jho, ut riùOc.jim ccedeic!, <lK«ba^ 


ni;ijorIty of which were for rafing Carthage, and treating the 
iii;ia))icant8 with the utmod feverity. But the confideration of 
the time v\hidi mull neccflarily be employed before To (Irongly 
fonifieJ a city could be taktn ; and Scipio's fear, left afaccef- 
ior iiiight be appointed him whilil he (hould be employed in the 
ficge, made him incline to clemency, 

A peace c.ndttcUd hettueen /i^fCarthaginlans and the RomanSi 
'^Ihi end of the fécond Pvnick War. 

[hS The conditions of the peace dictated by Scipio to the 
Carthaginians were, '' That the Carthaginians fhoûld con- 
'* ti nue free, and preferve their laws, their territories, and the 
** cities they poHeffed in Africa before the war. That they 
** fhould deliver up to the Romans all deferters, flaves, aod 
** captives belonging to them ; all their fhips, except ten tri- 
remes ; all their tame elephants, and that they ihould not 
train up any more for war. — That they fhould not make 
war out of Africa, nor even in that country, without fiift 
obtaining leave for that purpofe from the Roman people— 
*' Should reflore to Mafinifla all they had difpoiTeiTed either 
'* him or his ancedors of — Should furnilh money and corn to 
'* the Roman auxiliaries, till their ambafTadors ibould be re- 
turned from Rome — Should pay to the Romans ten thoo- 
fand Euboick talents * of filver in fifty annual payments; 
and give an hundred hoflages, who fhould be nominated by 
Scipio. And in order that they might have time to fend to 
Rome, it was agreed to grant them a truce, upon condition 
that they fhould redore the fhips taken during the former, 
** without which they were not to expefl either a truce or 
'* peace." 

When the deputies were returned to Carthage, they laid be- 
fore the fenate the conditions dîâated by Scipio. But they ap- 
peared fo intolerable to Gifgo» that rifing up, he made a 


[h) Polyb. 1. TV. p. 704—707. Lλ. 1. XXX. n. 36—44. 


f ( 


iif^ /o F'udauit tie Eukmck taint h 
tfu'roalent but to JiPy-joc fttiiet and 
Jonutbing more, nvbereas tbejinicateleni 
it Viortbjixty minée. 

* Ten tboufand ylt'.'tck talent» make 
thirty miilions frcr.ib money. Ten 
tb^ufund Eubci.k talent» make Jonutbing 
moie tban fwenty eight millions^ tbirty- 
tbree thoujand livra : Becaufe, accord" 
Or otberwife thui calcu 
jfccording to Ew't^us, the Eubmk talent h • " 5^ ^' 
1^6 Mina: red uicd to En frli/h, money - - - -175'' 
i^nfequently ic, or> Kuho'ick talents make • i,-ro,cco/. 
So that tic Canbaginian paid anKuclIy - - 7 5. coo L 
This calcu/atjcr is as near the frutb as it Cult Will It brau^bt, thi Euhohk îëkttf 
iei^g jOfitttbing more than 56 mina^ 

a ted in Engliib money ï 


^Mcli, in order to diflUade bis cidzent from atceptiDg a peace 
on fiich (haineful terms. Hannibal, provoked ju the calmnela 
With which fach an orator wsa beard, took Gifgo b;^ the aria, 
and dragged him from hii Teat. A behavionr To ontrageou», 
and fo remote from the manner) of a free city like Carthage, 
raifed an univerfal mormnr. Hannibal hîmfelf wu vexed 
when he reflcfled on what he had done, and immediaiely made 
an apology for it. " As I left, fays he, your city at aîné 
" years of age, and did not return to it till after thirty-fix 
** years abfence, 1 had full leifttre to Fearn the arts of war, and 
" flatter myfelf that I have made feme ioiprovement in them. 
•■ A* ioT your law» and cnltomsi it if no wonder I am ignorant 

'•' of them, and I therefore defire yon to inftruft me in them." 
He then expatiated on the neceffity they were under of con- 
clnding a peace. He added, that they ought to thank thegods 
for having prompted the Romans to grant them a peace even on 
thefe conditions. He difcovered to tbem the great importance 
Of their uniting in opinion ; and of not giving an oppottuniiy, 
ty their divifions, for thé people to cake an affair of thii na- 

' tnre under their cognizance. The whole city came over to his 
bpinion, and accordingly the peace wrj accepted. Thefenate 
made Scipio faiisfaflion «îth regard lo the fhipi demanded by 
him ; and, after obtaining a truce for three months, they fent 
ambalTadors to Rome. 

Thefe Carihaginiani, who were all venerable for their years 
and'dignity, were admitted immediately to andience. Afdra- 
bal, furnamed Hosdus, who was flill an irreconcileable enemy 
to Hannibal and his fiaion, fpoke £rll ; and after having ex- 
cufed, to the beft of his power, the people of Carthage, by 
imputing the rupture to the ambition of feme particular per- 
ibni, he added, that, had the Carlhasinians iJ/lened to his 
counfets, and ihofe of Hanno, they ivoi^ld have been able CO 
grant the Romans the peace for which they now were obliged 
to fue. " But*, continued he, wifdom and profperity are 
" very rarely found together. The Romans are invincible, 
" becaufc they never fuffer thcmfelvea to be blinded by good 
" fortune. And it would be farprizing Ihould ihey aft other- 
" wife. Succefs dazzles thofe only to whom it is new and un- 
" ufual ; whereas the Romans are fo much accultoned to con- 
L 3 " qucr, 

• K»r» (iitiol hrm-'nibm banim 1 fclci 


n». b». feiu» Gt. 

po.««. In 

i. i.,f«i,e:Pop»k, 

IC ptopf obfoliH « 

rlTcj K plui pen* 

rium luiiUs, 

iiv. 1. «^ n. 4^ 



*' ruicr, thnc they arc . IwioA infcnfibl? to the charms cf vie- 
•* I'. V ; ;tiiJ h nijy be l.iiJ for thtir glory, tfi >t they haverx- < 
«• urii.iî ihcir cin}»irc, in foiTie mcafurCy nv i l»y the fii-na- 
«« iilr, thiy h.ivc flKwn 'o the coi;c]uct( J, th..- by the ■n- 
•• ijuiHticif." The other . 'nh.'iflaiJiTa fpokc .iih a n.- re ' 
piti III vc t<'iu: of voictf, and rei rcfcntcd tlie calnn -.rous flat.' to 
wî.aIi Cirtiij^'ic VV..S gr^ing to be reduced, ar..I grandeur 
a: d ( (•vVi.-r fr< m w)iich it was fallen. 

'I If fiii.itc and propli- ,.. Ing equally iiii lined t( cacc, fint < 
iiiV, [If At:^ 1(1 Scipio tr> o liclude it ; left t!ie condi» 'is to that 
{^cTRr^i, :.iiJ permitted him to march backbit axo.; jfter the 
t/fiiy I'ht -jiJ be c^iucluded. 

i hc :::T.b..friidors <lc fired to enter ibc city, to redeem 
foiric it tdc-ir piifoner^, and they founii about two hundred 
v')j m tir> ocfiitd tn ranfoni. But the fenate fcnt ^hrm iO 
îi i| ; 1, urh 'r id-, that il:c*y fliould le n'ftorcd without any 

P'v.... :) fid(ir.ti(:i:, in cafe a peace fii- uld be concluded. 

'1 i.' Li':;ii . ihians on the return of their nmbafTador*, con- 
clude-! a J i:Lj wi'!] Scifiio,. on the terms he bin^felf h::d pre- 
fcri'x!. 1 hty then delivered up to him more than five hun> 
lIick. 1 ■[ S :ill which he burnt in fight of Cîiriha;*c : A iHmen*- 
Xi\\'\v ! : .1 10 the iriii:.bir iritb of that ill-fBtt<l city !' lie flrack 
ctft* li . i:. ;.'.!. (f the- ::1!lcb of the La:in name, and hanged all 
thi lîi; 'T.. v,h'i v«.'C-u- ruir( r.dcred up to him, as deferters. 

\\ iici; tic tiinu ior the jaymci.t cf the firft t.'ix itnpofed by 
liiT ir. a:y vl», cxj.iu'ci, a.s ilic funds of the government were 
exli.'iLi'td I. y ?M> lon^ :.nd expcnfive war ; the difficulty which 
fv(;iild be fuuriCi f*., 'cvy U, great a fum, Hirrw the fenate into a 
ii.rl.iîithfly 1:1* licr', a\.:\ ;n::iiy could rf/t refr.iin even frnm trnrs 
Jt i'. Tii i i' .1 1 1.rjnil aî'ldii);hing war. icpr();iched hy ATIruhal 
lî'ï.fiu , i<'f ihiii irifultiijj^ j.i;. country in its affid'iop, which. 
!.'■ !i id Lii;u;'Iit upcii i:. ** Weie it poflil)Ie, i.iy^ Hcnnibalj 
*' f(,r I..', I.e.; 1 1 If) be I'ttn, and thi'.t as ck-r.rly a-. my connten- 
:.icr , } ';U .v( <j!(1 th"i> lind thr.t thi:; laughtn wh?'. h ciHlnd) 
Çr) ii:i. \\ !"•/.'.'.. r.'-i ii<,m an inteinperatc joy, hit from a 
mind ;tl;i.fTi dlilr..''U-d with pujlick cala^ ■" :•. Uiit i* this 
l;>u;'j)i'-r !.)<' rr* unrcafonahle tlian your •:: i-'xcming tcar^ /-. 
'ill'. I., il. I II, (jw^'lit y^a to havi! wept, ■ . •. your arms were 
ii,;;'lori')iJjy i-X:-- ijoni yon, ydiir '' : ■■.•irnt, and yra 
were I'/ioid l^' (I .',n^'.* in any forei'.-T This was the 

ii.(;r';il );'./.■• wl-i-.h laid u<v |ro!lr;ile. ■ • . '« fenfiblc of the 
pui.jK i': (ai.ii -iîy, ff) far only a'> wf . ■- .■ i-'jrfL>nal concern 
in it ; and thi '-/'; of our niorcy .■■ •; ..le nioft punj^-nt 
•* rro,' lien ■ iL was, tiiat wh : t.liy was made the 

•* i] oil of dij vi<*lor ; when it was left difarmcd and defence- 

«^ IciW 

< I 

< i 

I ( 

< t 

e ART H A GTNI A-WS; i ny 
*^ fefi imidft fo many powerfs! nitïom of Afnca, who had rt 
** that time taken the âtld, sot a groan not a Tigh wai heard. 
*■ But DOW, when you aae called on for a poll-tax, you bewail 
** and lament a« if all were loll. Alai I I only wllh that the 
*• fubjeÉl of thia day'» fcar, does not fijon appear to yon the 
•• leail of yoor miilortunei." 

' Scipio. aficr all ihingi were concluded, eirbarkrt), in orde» 
' to return to Italy, liearrtved at Romi-, thto'croMtJ^ of peonfp, 
whom curiofjiy'hiid drawn loi^eihcriu tmhilJ hi» ma]ch, Tht» 
moll magnificent inumph Rome bud ever fcwn waidecreeè 
bimi ana the futnamc ofAlViciniM waa belluwctl upoo-thii great 
tDBD; an honour till then iinltnuwn, no perfon before hira 
having aflumed the name of a vanquilhed niiioo. (<-) Such wa» 
theconclufiou u) tlio Iccupd I'anitk war, after having; laâed 
&vcntcen yenM. 

jtfltart rificSHim on tiM goventmrnt e/* C a n t ii a C^I , in tit lim» 

of. ibt.Jttoui PunickWa». 
I (hall conclude the pHrticulnm which re4ate to- the fecontF 
Puntck war, with a rcflctlion of {(/) I'olybiui, which will (how 
the difference between the two eonrmon wealths. It may bt 
«jtirmed, in fotiie meafiife, that at the beginning of thefecoAd 
Punkic war, and in Hannibal'i time, Carrhage waa in ita de-' 
djne. The fl wir of iu ypulh, and Iti fprighlly vigour, were, 
already dimim'ht-fl. It hnd l)e)riin to (sUliom it* exaktd pitf^ 
uf power, nil. I >iii-. inclining toward» iu ruin : Wherca» Rom« 
waa then, as ii w^c, in in bluom and llrength of life, and 
fwiftly advaf.ilii,; t(uhecnti<iuelt of the univcrfc The reifri» 
«f thcdfclerln.iMji'ihoone, nnd iherire of the Other, iatiiktn, 
by Pulybius, fioin the dif^rent foim of governirKnt cftabliOitd 
in thefe commiinwr.ililn, at ihf lijiK' wo iire now CpcAking 
of. At Cnrtliaj;e, iho cri'(ii;i(. ; n, 1 ;. ■ i i ■■! jnm the 
ibvcreigii authority with ii-;vij' : ■,,(.■ ad- 

•iceoftlicir ancient men ot magiHratei wt-rc no longer liftened 
to i all afFaii'3 wcr7tra<>faAi;d byjniriHio and cabal. To take 
no notice of tht- aninccs which the faitjon oppofite to Hannibal 
employed, during the whole time of his command, to perplex 
him ; the fiiigle indaiicc of burning the Roman vefTels during ' 
a truce, a pcrrvdioui aflion to which the common people com* 
pelted the fcnaic to lend tlif Ir nume and aJTillance, li a proof of 
Bolybiui's a/Tertion. On thi- tunirary, at thia ytty time, thtt, 
Romans'paiil ihehif;h((t regard to their fenate, that la, to a 
hedy compofcdof the grcatcll fagui and their old men wera- 


• • • 

t • 


c- •■ 

f « 

tf4 HISTORY OF T H E. *c. 

liilencd to and revered as oracles. It is well known thtt tke 
Roman people were exceedingly jealous of their authoritv, and 
etpocially in that part of it which related to the cleâion of 
tnagilltace». (e) A century of young men» whobylotweie 
10 ^\\c the hrft voce, which generally dîreéled all therein, bad 
r.oinir.atcc two confuls. On the bare rexnonllrance of Fabîos*, 
wiio icprcfented to the people, that in a temped, likethtt 
uith which Rome was then ftruggling, the ablcft pilots ougkt 
to he cliofen to ileer their common (hip, the republick ; upci 
this, 1 luv, the century returned to thieir fuffrages, and Domi- 
nated confuls. Polybius, from this disparity of goven- 
mcnt, infers, that a people, thus guided by the prudence of 
old men, could not fail of prevailing over a flate which was 
prcvi'inod wholly by the giddy multitude. And indeed, the 
Kom:ir..s, under the guidance of the wifecounfels of their fcnatc, 
paiiuv' at l:ul the fuperiority with regard to the war confidered 
in gLiicrnl, though they were defeated in feveral particular 
ti\o: ; •. r.v-ius ; and eilablifhed their power and grandeur en tiie 
ruin of ihcir rivals. 

(«} Lit. 1. ZIÎV. o. ?, g» 

* Q^rlibrt nautarum reflorumque | nivigamu!, fed jam aliquot peicelili 
trinci.ù.o n-.'ir; g;.le;niie pwtclt : Ubi fuumfrii pene fumus. lcjq::e qj-f M 
(a:\À o:ta 't:nnrei>«s fil, ic tuilùto { gubernacuU fedeat, fumma curi rro- 
aniri rapitur ven'o navis, tum \irv- & i videnaum ac prccavexicom nobis ci!» j 
gubernaiore opu& eilt Ncn tnn^ulllo [ 

END or V O L. I. 


. ■* • 


.f? ♦ 

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