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• ♦: . 




I . 

( ■ 





Augustus Jt Cleopatra, 



ar I S T o R Y 

O F T H E 


a A R T H A G r N I A N S, 


B A B^ Y L O N I A N S, 





By Mr. R O L L I N, 

mtêfifiÊtlIf^êftAt Vmvrfify cf Psru, mn» Pfftf^ */ Eà^mmu in tie R.yai 

oftbt RêjûI Acoitmy of Infiripticin aad Biliti-'Littru. 

Translated from the Fr-ench. 


V o L. vjir. 

THE SI X T if EDI T I C; \, 

L C) N I) O v. 

Prinud fcr J . a.-.i F. K : v ; :. .- 7 - ;. , ?, . B a : • .-. in. r F \ . t ' , C : «. . k r 
mi C'»: LIN., Kt il'.-v Fi»:., .V. ' i :■ • : - , W. r; ... ; ., 'J, 
C A I L c N , S. Ci o w fi r » , C . ■'. i . J ;. , : .. N , L . L . . , (^ . K v / ; ■ ^ h, 
CAft>A> laJ Nl-.vcc» Yy ^r. . J. hvS A, 


B I S T O R Y 


E G Y P T I A N S, 



B A B^Y L O N I A N S, 

11EI>E& and PERSIANS, 



By Mr. R O L L I.N, 

httFriae^^ êf-the XJntvrpty ofF^fu, nvw Prpfijpiff Eloquence in the Riyai 
CêllÊgi^tmi-Mimktrofibt Rêjal Jlcademy ofhjiriptiont and BiUes»Littrti. 

^■^■^^^"■-^-" ' ' " '■ ■' —•-—■-■— ^^ 

Tranflated from the P'ibENCH. 






Nated for J. and F. Rivington, R. Baldwin, Ha\v«s, Clarke 
lid Collins, Rt Horsfield, W. Johnston, W. OwEît^ T; 

GasLON, S. CROWDfR, C. RjVJNGTON, B, LaW, G » VvQT^Vïi^Q^» 

Cmkav anà Nz^seit y, .and J. K5rox. 


THP, NKW Vof-'K 

^ '-or^. I r NOX AND 

' .■■') I 



s, BOOK XX^ 

[ A R T I C L E I. 

I StCT. I. Bier9 the/icaud cho/en cafiMn-gmrel fy thi iyrê* 
i cu/ansp and foon afitr appointed king. He makes am aU 

^j Jiance <witbtbe Romans in the ieginninf of the Jirft Punic 

i tvar • ^ * • Pftgc I 

^ JDL Hiero^s pacific reign» He farticularlj favours agri" 
^ culture. He applies the ahiUties of Archiifudes» his 

^ relation to the /er*vice of the public^ and cau/es him 

iS io make an infinite number of machines for the iefcnct 

^ 9f a hefieged place. He dies Hfiryoldf and muob rigrstted 

Ij the feopk • " T 

! A R T I C t E n, 

$IC9* !• Hieronymus^ grandfon of Hier§\ fucceeds hmi 
and cau/es him to be regretted by his vices and cru^ 
tby* He is killed ' in a eon/piracy. Barharoui mur* 
der of the princejfes, Hippocrates and Eticydes poffefs 
them/elves of the government of Syracu/cf and declare 
for the C Carthaginians t as Hieronymus Jjcul done 1 8 

D. The conful Marcellus befieges Syracufe. The 'coif* 
Jtderable lojfes of men and fijips^ oecafioned by the dreads 
ful mathines of Archimedes ^ oblige Marcellus t9 change th$ 
Jiege into a blockade. He takes the city at length by meant 
cf his intelligence <withm it. Death ef Arcbitnedffp hHkd 
iy a/oldier *wbo did not knov\f bim » t9 




III. Refltàlions upon the govtrnmint and ctaraâif ef thi 
Syracufam^ and upon Archinudu» • ^S-'- ' 

■ f m ■ II ■ ■ 

. » • • • • 



Sect. I. Mhhridatts^ at twilvi yean o/d, afcends the^ 
throne of Pontus, He feiices Cappadocia . and Bithynia^, 
having fir ft expelled their kings. The Rotnans re-eftuhlijb- 
them. He eau/es all the Romans in Afia Minor to br put 
tothefiwordin one d(ty» Fir ft nvar oft the Romans nvitlf 
tdithridatiSt *who %ad made -him/elf mafter of j^/ia Minor^ 
mnd Greece f *whêre he had taken Athens, Sylla is ehavged' 
nvithtbis nA)ar. He. hefiigesand\retakes Athens. Hi gains 
three great hattUs againft the generals ofMithridates, Hi 
grants that trinee peace in the fourth year of the nvar^ Li* 
àtary of Athens^ in nuhich nuere the works of AriftotU, 
Syllm cat^irit. to hi-eatriid.tù Rome- - 55 

IL Second wuar agÊinft Mithridates, under Murenaf^ofon/y 
thru years duration* Jfiitbridatis trepares to renenAi. thi 
nvar^ He concludes a treaty «with oertorius. Thirds Kvar 
nvith Mithrida/es, LucuUus confttl Jent againft him. Hi* 
obliges him to raife the fiigi ofi'yxictwi^ and defeats his 
troops. He gains a compteat viilory over him^ and reduca 
him to^fly into^ Ponfus, 7't^gical end of the fifiers-: Aiti' 
^intes of MithVidatet. He endeavours to retire to Tifranes 
h0 Jim 'in-law, Luiulhèe regtdat es the affairs of Afim y 6 
Uk LueuUsis caufis «war to be declared ^^ith %'gran$Sf and 
nuùrehis agaislfi him. Vanity and ridicideus J^fffificiency 
of that princci Hi lojes a ^ great battle. Lue nUus» takes 
Vigranocerta^ capital of Armenia. He gains a fecomd 
^iàhry over tile J oint forces of Tigranes sutd MitJIn'idçtes. 
Mutiny and nvoh' in iho army of Luetdlus 89 

-. IV* MithridatiSi tvkisig askmntage if the difccrd ivhich had 
atdftn^ ist thi Roman arn^ recovers all his- domistions* 

< Pompey is chofen t9.'fucceed Lttcullns, Hi' iVfrth'ûkut 
Mit bridâtes in fever al battles. The latter flits in vain to- 
Tigranes his fiufin-Jhisi fir*rtfugt^ nuho is engaged in ee 
vjar nvith his onvn fon* Potnpey marches into ArmenÎA 
againft, Ttg/vwv^ vfha câtnci^ u hitik tsttd.fhterendir»' himm. 

•' JH^. ' Wiary offmfiMig Mhhridaus to no pttrpêfi^ ht fl»- 

. tmrm itûê Syria, makes bimfelf maftir of that kingdom, and 

pus sin end tù the empire of the Seleucides. He marches 

iaeè to Pontus, Pharnaces makes the army revolt againft 

\ àis father Mithridates, who kills bimfelf That prince's 

• ibara^er, Pompe/s expeditions into Arahia and judtea^ 

. nnben be^ takes JerxfaUm. Jfter halving reduced all the 

. iities of Pontus, be returns to. Rome, and recei<ves the honour 

of a triumph « - 104 

A R T I C L E n. 

f CT« !• Ttolemaus Auletesy^bad keen placed upon the tbroni 

Mf Egypt in the room of Alexander. He. is declared the 

friend and ally of the Roman people by the credit of Cafar 

and Pompey, nvhich he purchafes at a very great price. 

In coufequence he loads bis fuhjeéls «with impofts*. He is 

expelled the throne. The Alexandrians make his daughter 

Berenice queen. He goes to Rome, and by money obtains the 

^voices of the beads of the commowwealtb for his re-efiablijh» 

enent. He is oppofed hy an oracle of the SihyVs ; not^with' 

Jianding nvhich, Gabiniusfets him. upon the throne by force 

of arms, nubere be remains till his death • The famous 

Cleopatra, and her brother very young, fucceed him 


H* Potbinus and Achillcu„ minifters of the young king, 

expel Cleopatra^ She raifes troops to re-eftahUJh berfeJf^ 

Pompey, after having been overthrown at Pbarfalia, retires 

into Egypte He is aj/affsnated there. Cafar, nvho pur^ 

fuedbim, arrives at Alexandria, vjhere he is informed of 

his death, lubich hefeems to lament . He endeavours to re^ 

concile the brother andftjier, and for that purpoje fends for 

Cleopatra, ofivhom hejoon. becomes enamoured. Great com- 

motions arije at Alexandriuy and fever al battles are fought 

brtiL'cen the Egyptiam and Cafar* s troops, vjherein the 

latur have abnoji akvays the advantage. The king^^ 

having been droyned in flying after a fca fight, aH Eg ypt 

fubmiis to Ca-Jar, Ih fets Cleopatra^ <vcith her young 

brother, upon the throne, a?id returns to Ro;n€ i 34 

III. CLopatra caufes her young brother to be put to death, 

and reign i alone. The death of Julius Crtfar halving made 

^^ay for the Triumvirate formed bet^veen Antoiy, ùpidasy 

and young Cafar y called aifo O/ta^ius, Cleopatra d,'^ 

tkrcs h erf elf for the Triu?nvirs. She goes to Antony^ at 

^'arjiis, gains an alfolute afccndant over him, and brinyj 


CON T B N T f . 

• JUm K^wM htr to jjexendria. Anft^ fHi to Xotm, «wA 
f/pcitfis Oûwia, Hi atan^ons himfîlf mgain to Chop 
mad afiif fonu oxftdUiont nturm to Auxûndria^ <i 
ki enters in triumph* Hi thin akbratis tbi coroHati 
Cbopatraand hit <h%lirm% Of in ruptun iitwati C 

. 0n/ Antowjf* fbo Uuttr répudiatu Offavia, Thi 
JUits put to fiu. Cbopatra ditêrmiuit to follow À 
AutA of Jf^imm. CUoputrafliês^ and dr^iwt Jintpmy 

. iftTp C^/at^* *vi^ory it compUmt. Hi advnnat fom. 
Ijjftir againft AUxandria^ which maka no long refiji 
Tragical diath o/^Antony and Cliopatra, Sgjft // n 
into a provinci of tht Roman impir$ « 

Conclufion of the Antiint Hi/oiy 

<ibm9kgicalTêih ' 







T n E 


O F 


THIS twentv-firil book contains the coiiclufion of the hillory 
of Symcuie. It in:iy be dlviilcd into three parts. Th? 
firll Lacluiles the long rcij'.n of lliero II. The fecoml, tlie 
(hort rei|^n of his grande ii ilieronymus, the troubles of 

Sracufe confcqucuuial of it, and the fiege and tnkin^ of 
It city by Marcellus, The third is an exadt abridgment 
of the niilory of Syracufe, with fome reflefkioua upon the 

Sovcrnment and charudcr of the Syracufans, and upoa 


SiCT. 1. IIitRO //»# Sei'ouJ chofifi captai h -^ener al hy tht SyrH' 
tufans^ andJooH afitr appùinted kinfr. He makes an aîlianit 
miiîh tht Romans in the be^ittmng of the firft Puniik lunw 


Hierocleii, accordiii^'j lo the barbarous culloni of iliofe tlmci, 
caufcd him to be expnfcd fcmn after his birth ; bclicvinj> that 
the infant difticmouivd ihr nobility of Iiis raci-. If JullinVi 
fahuloud aciour.t ni:iy be brlicvrd, the bees iioinilln-il him 
fcverul day."! witli tlit:ir lioiicy. 'J'li<* nnicli* (Ii'cI.mIm"^ tli:u. 
10 rini*ul.»r an rvfut w:i.-. a tcilaui»i* ot his lutine "iv.iN 
iwfr., HiiTutU*:* laulcti hiiii to br biuui'Jit back t«> hij ii-uli-, 
and look :*ll noiiiblr cuir nf his education. 

Thriliihi miprovc-il a*, iiuu h iViJio il.v pains taken fo (onn 

llim, ati lu'ild b'* expeileil. lie tllllii!;iiiilhe«l hiinfeli" c.uly 

fmm all th"le of hi-, year., by in;, aililn'( • in inilii.iiy i \ rtli ■.-. 

and liiacuurai'<-lii battle, lb" -^ luii' ■' i '.•'.■» cjii ut I', lihu-.. 

,aBd receive'! i'.-\eial it v. ard.i 1i»>mi hi-, c)vmi h/.iid;.. lie was 

.Vox-. \ lil. iî of 

(9) A, M. 37uy. huU J. C, 304, Juftin. 1, xxiii. t, 4, 

2 T ir R H I S T O R y 

of a beautiful afped, large ilaturc, and robuil com; 
in his converfacion *" he was humane and police, ui 
jufty and moderate in command; fo that ne wanted 
royal except a throne. 

(6) Difcord having arofe between the citizens of S 
and their troops, the latter, who were in the neighbo 
raifed Artemidorus and Hlero to the fupreme command 
comprehended all authority civil and military. Th 
was at that time thirty years old, but of a prudence i 
turtty that promifed a great king. Honoured with ch 
mand, by tne help of fome friends he entered the ci 
hlhrin^; found means to bring over the adverfe part 
were intent upon nothing but raifing diforders, he 1 
with fo much wifdom and ereatnefs of mind, that tl 
cufans, though highly diflfatisfied with the liberty afTu 
|he foldiers of making fuch an ele^ion without an* 
were however unanimous in conferring upon him tl 
and power of fupreme commander. 

From his firft meafures it was eafy to judge, that t 
magiflrate afpired at foraething more than that offi 
effe^k, obferving that the troops no fooner Quitted tl 
than Syracufe was involved in new troubles by feditic 
rits and lovers of novelty t he perceived how important 
in the abfence of kimfelf and the armv, to have fo: 
upon whom he might rely for keeping tne citizens wit 
bounds of their duty. Leptinus feemed very fit for tl 
pofe. He had abundance of perfons devoted to his ii 
and was in very great credit with the people. H 
tached him to nimfelf for ever by efpoufmg his da 
and hy the fame alliance fecured the publick tranc 
during the time he ihould be obliged to remove froi 
cufe, and march at the head of the armies. 

Another much bolder, though far lefs juft, (Iroke 
licy eAabliQied his fecurity and rcpofe. He had 
thing to fear from the foreign foldiers, turbulent ma 
men, void of refpeâ for their commanders, and of a 
for a ftate of which thev made no part, folely a^luatec 
defire of command and lucre, and always ready for a 
who having been bold enoueh to a/Tume a right in tl 
tion of magiflrates, which did not belong to them, v 
pable, upon the lead difcontent, of attempting an} 
Ugainft himfelf. He cafily comprehended, that he fho 

fk) Polyb. 1. i. p. S, 9* 
* In alloqoîo bUndiit,ia ncfo'io I at nihil et reflamtfecfTeipi 
j«itt9y IB IspcriA modcractts t pcôrfus J num, vi4awtttr. y»/m» 



TCr have the mafleiy over them, from their beini; too well 
anited amongil themfclves ; that if he undertook to puniih 
eke mod criminal, their challifement would only provotvc the 
reft; and that the only means to put an end to the troubles 
they occaHoned, was utterly to exterminate the faflious mi- 
; litia, whofe liccntioufncfs and rebellious difpofition were only 
lit to corrupt others, and incline them to pernicious cxcefTes. 
Deceived by a falfe zeal and blind love for the publick good, 
and fenfibly afTcded alfo with the profpcft of the dangers to 
which he was perpetually expofcd, he thought it incinnbcnt 
on him, for the fafcty of hi» country and fecurity of his per- 
ibni to proceed to a cruel and fad extrcgilty, equally contrnry 
to his charader and julUce, but which fccmed nec^fTMiy to 
him in the prefent conjuncture. He therefore took the field 
under the pretext of marching againll the* Mamej-tincs. W'h :\\ 
he came within view of the enemy, he divided his .inny inio 
two parts: On the one fide he polled fach of the folJicr., :u 
wrerc Syracufans ; on the other, ihofe who were not f). IL- 
pat himfelf at the head of the lirll, as if he intended an :it- 
tack, and left the others expofedto the Mamertines, wlio cut 
them in pieces : After which he returned quietly to the city 
with the Syracufan troops. 

The army being thus purged of all who might excite dîf- 
Order» and fedition, he raifed a fuflicient number of new troops, 
And afterwards difcharged the duties of his function in peace. 
The Mamertines, elate with their fucccfs, advancing into the 
country, he marched againd them with the Syracufan troops, 
whom iie had armed and difciplined well, and gave them bat- 
tle in the plain of Myla. (cj A great part of the enemies were 
left upon the place, and their generals made prifoners. At 
his return he was declared king by all the citizens of Syracufe, 
and afterwards by all the allies. Thib happened feven years 
after his being raifed to the fuprenie authoritv. 

It would be difficult to iullity the manner in which he at- 
tained that eminence. \Vhcih..'î he put the foreign i'oldiers 
in motion himleU', which leems prubablc enough, or only lent 
himfelf to their zral, ii was a inhdclity to his coun- 
try, and the publick u\ithorit\ , to which his example gave a wound, l! i^ true, the irieuul.uitv of his entrance 
upon office uas fomewhai anienvled, by the confcnt which 
the people and t!ie allicb afterward gave to it liut can we 

B 2 fuppofc 

f'. ; A. M. 3-;6. Am. J. C. ?.6S. 
• Tbfy nvere «'-.riKj'ly Cjmpaum: Mrjjinay la^fir^ ^'jf put the principal 

kit fay^ §m4 wbê jjitna^rit jdjiyj 


fuppofe. In fuch a conjundlure, that their confent was 
feàly free ? As to his being eledted king, there was nothini 
forced in that : If his fecret ambition had any part in it, t 
fault was well atoned for, by his wife and diiinterefted con*' 
dud through the long duration of his reign and life. 

The lofs of the battle we have fpoken of entirely difcon- 
certed the affairs of the Mamertines. Some of them had re^ 
courfe to the Carthaginians, to whom they furrendered thdr 
citadel ; others refolved to abandon the city to the Romans» 
and fent to deiire their aid. Hence- arofe the firft Punick war» 
as I have explained more at large * elfewhere. 

(//) Appius Claudius die conful put to fea, in order to ail 
the Mamertines. Not being able to pafs the ftreight 
Meffina,^of which the Carthaginians had poflefled themlelvei^; 
he made a feint of abandoning that enterprize, and of re- 
turning towards Rome with all the troops he had on boaié^ 
his fleet. Upon this news the enemy, who blocked up M 
fina on the fide next the fea, having retired, as if there hal 
been nothing farther to apprehend, Appius tacked about, aoi 
pafFed the flreight without danger. 

{e) The Mamertines, bctwcf u menaces and furprizc, haiF- 
\hçr driven the ofEccr out of the citadel, who commanded i 
it tor the Carthagiiuans, they called in Appius, and opened 
the gates of their city to him. The Carthaginians foon afiff 
formed the fiege of it, and made a treaty of alliance witil 
Hiero, who joined his troops to theirs. The Roman confil 
thought fit to venture a battle, and attacked the Syracuiaai 
firft. The fight was rude. Hiero fhewed ail poffible coi» 
rage, but could not refill the valour of the Romans, and wtl 
obliged to give way, and retire to Syracufe. Claudius, Juw- ' 
ing obtained a like vidor\' over the Carthaginians, faw his- 
felf mafler of the field, advanced to the walls of Syracnft^ 
and even defigned lo have beficged it. 

(/) When the news of Appius's good fuccefs arrived at 
Rome, it occafioned great joy. In order to make the moftof 
it, it vv^as thought proper to ufe new efibrts. The two^ccn* 
fuis lately elected, Manius Otacilius and Manius Valerini» 
were ordered into Sicily. Upon their arrival, fevcral of tlv > 
Carthaginian and Syracufan cities furrendered at difcretkuu | 

The confternation of Sicily, joined to the number and fbrce 
of the Roman legions, made Hiero conceive what event ÙM 
•cw war was likely to hcve. That prince was fenfiblc, tkatk» 


(4lJ FronOn. Stratag. 1. i. ♦. 4. {ej A. M. 3741. Ant. J. C« «6]t 

m^bt I, i. p. io> 1 1. {fj Ibid* f. 15» ifi» 

* r*/. I. HifiefjcftifiCêrtbagimêMt. 

OF S Y R A C U S F. ^ 

rely upon a more fniihtul and conflnnt ninlty on tlivr 
' the Romans, lie kne>v ch:it the C:irthagiuiuns h.ul 
lonnccd the ilciii;n thoy li:ul anciently formed, of mM- 
thcmfelvcs ol all Sicily; and if they made thcafdvfN 
I of Medina, he rightly judj»rd his power would he \\ i y 
e in the neitrhhourh(H)d ol fnch dnnjçiTOus ami formi 
enemies, lie i'aw no othrr expedient n r the prolcrx.i 
his kin|;d()m, than to U*ave ihfC'arili.ij;ini:ms nr^iirvd 
le Rrtmivns ; well allured thai the war would !>/ lùiu; 
ilHnate hot wee u the le two irpuMicl-s eiji^d in tlu-ir 
and that ns Iciiy; as they (hould l)e at blows, hi* lliould 
o rrafon lo apprehend btin;«[ dillrfilVd either by ihe one 
other. He ihcrcforc fent amballadors to th!- loiiluN 
t of peace and Alliance. Thev were i\\r i'rom rotulin»; 
ttfers. Thev were too much afraid, that the CirthatM- 
mailers ut iea, might cut oflTall pail*aji;c for orovitionN ; 
fear was the better founded, ns thctroon.s who had H ill 
the freight, had fufîcred extremely by famine. Ati 
e with Miero lee u red ilie le[;ions in that refpert, and 
iniediaccly concluded. The conditions were, that the 
hould re if ore to the Romans, without rnnloni, all tîu* 
n^ he had taken fxom thenf, and p:iy them loj-' i;i 
n money. 

n thenceforth lliero faw no war in liis dominions, ti.v 
\y other Ih.ire in it than of fendin<^fnpplies to thr ll 
apcm occallon. In other refpeCU Ik- nit.Mird as a k\<^ •• 
aa no view nor ambitiv>n init the eileem and love of \..\ 
I. No prince was ever more fuccefsfui in that poiii', 
Bger enjoyed the fruits of his wildom and prudenc.*, 
g more than Hfty years that he lived after bcintr elected 
whillt all thinp.îi were in liâmes nnnind him, occafionod 
Î cruel war» which the two moll potent llares of i)ic 
made ai\ainll each othfr, he wa.< fo prudent and happv 
no more than a fpe<Hator of them, and only to luar liû- 
of ih(»û' arm.s, which lhiH>k all thr nrii^hKniriiH»" re- 
; hinifelf and his |voplf retained a pro^^unvl peace. 
The RiMnan-» p<*ucived «ii\ moiv than one oecafuMi, 
J the lint Punuk war, aiul efpeelally at thv* iwy^c of 
entum. with it wa*; in a manner i^penoj, the iin-- 
ice of their ailia-iee wiih lliero, who ahejulanily fup- 
ihcm with pio\iiu>n> at times when the i\omai\ ainu, 
it his aid, had been e\p«>!ed to excellive famiiv. 
? interval l>etween the end i^t' the liiil ruiùck war. and 
mmcnccmcni ol the feeonii, which was about fne-aml- 

^» } twenty 

















^^^^^Dn^Hh ^^ 


_i/&AJMf A/Mh&fM' 1-4/1 fyM-i^.AnyUm . 


I S T O R Y 


A R T H A G I N I A N S, 


B A B- Y L O N I A N S, 



A. N D 


By Mr. R O L L I. N, 

}tA •ftbt Univtrjgfy of Paris, now Profejfor of Bloqutnce in the Royal 
Cotkp^êMd-Mihukvfibt Royal Academy of Infiripiknt and BttUs'Lettrts, 

■^^■^^^■^^— ^ ' ' ■ ' " '■ ' ■ i> 

Tranflated from the FitENCH. 

VOL. Vill. 


L O N D O N, 

I Primed for J. and F. Kivincton, R. Baipwin, nAwif., Ct. Aiiifr 

* ini CuILiNi, K. iloK'.flKlls \V. JoUN'.lM.v, VV. Owi N, 'IV 

Caslon, S. rRowDfR, C. KniNr.ToN, 13. Lav'-, C, H-o^I-n- uî-», 
\^ aad Nlwbery, ana J. KKox. 




■• • • :N DATIONS 





StCT. I. Hiirê the ftnmd cbofen taptMn-gmnel fy the SjrM* 
cm/ans^ and foom afitr appointed king* He makes am aU 
Uamce luithtbe Romans in the tepwing of the Jirfi Punie 
nuar • ^ • • Page i 

JL Hiero^s pacific reigm. He farticmlarfy fa^oours agri'-^ 
culture. He applies the aiilities of Archimedes - his 
TtUuion to the /er<vice of the puhhc^ and cau/es him 
/# make ass infinite number of machines for the defend 
a befieged place. He dies nmy old^ emd nsuob regretted 
the people • "7. 




^CV* L Hieronymus, grand/on of Hierê, fucteeds hm^ 
and cau/es him to ce regretted hy his vices and cru* 
ilty. He is killed ' in a conjpiracy, Barharoui mur^ 
der of the princfjfes* Hippocrates and Epicydes pojfefs 
I tbem/el*v€s of the government of Sjracu/e^ and declare 

k for the Ccrtbaginianst as Hiercnymus had done l3 

* II. The cottftd Marcellus bejieges Syracu/e, The ccff 
^ JiJcrahk hjfes of m:n and Jhits^ occaftzncd hy the dreads 

* ful machines of Archimedes^ oblige Marcellus to change the 
^ />^^ into a bkcka^le. He takes the city at length by meant 

cf bis intelligence it:itbin it. Death of Arcbimedtf, kflletf 
y, iy a/oldier ivho did net know him » 3^ 

4SicT. !• Tomb pfÀrçbinuJu di/ç9V(nd Ij Ciarp a 





After thefe came the apartment of Venus with three bcdt.^ : 
This was floored with agates and other precious ftones, tfaéV 
fincil that could be found in the ifland. The walls and roof 
were of cyprcfs wood. The windows were adorned with i^Tay,* 
paintings, and fmall flatues. In another apartment was a 
library, at the top of which, on the outfide, was fixed a fun-' 

There was alfo an apartment with three beds for a bath, in 
which were three great coppers, and a bathing veffel, made 
of a fingle ilone of various colours. This veffel Cv-ntained 
250 quarts. At the lliip's head was a great refcr\'oir of water, 
which held 100,000 quarts. 

All round the fhip on the outfide were Atlaffes of fix cubits, 
or nine feet in height, which fupporteJ the fides of the fhiiJ^ 
thcfe Atlafles were at equal diflance from each other. The 
fhip was adorned on all fides with paintings, and had eight 
towers proportioned to its bignefs ; two at the head, two at 
the ilem, and four in the middle, of equal dimenfions. Upoa 
thefe towers were parapets, from which Hones might be dit 
charged upon the fliips of an enemy, that fhould approach too' 
near. Each tower was guarded by four young men compleatly 
armed, and two archers. The infide of them was filled witn* 
Aon es and arro\^'s. 

Upon the ftde of the veffel, well flrengthencd with planks, 
was a kind of rampart, on which was an engine to difcharge 
ftoncs, made by Archimedes : It threw a Hone of 300 weight, 
and an arrow of twelve cubits, (eighteen feet) the diflance of 
a'fladium, or k^ paces from it. 

The fhip had three mails, at each of which were ^vo ma- 
chines to difcharge iloncs. There alfo were the hooks and 
lumps of lead to tnrow upon fuch as ajn>roa<.hed. The whole 
fhip was furrounded with a rampart of^ ïwn to krcp ofl* thcfe 
who fhould attempt to board it. All around \>trc iron grap- 
plings, (cot'vij which being thrown by machines, grappled 
the vcflcls of the enemy, and drew them ch fc 10 the mip, 
from whence it was cafy to deflroy them. On each of the 
fides were fixty young men compleatly armed, and as many 
about the mails, and at the machines for throwing flones. 

Though thc^hold of this fhip was cxt;c::ijly deep, one man 
fufiiccd for clearing it of all water, with a maehinc made 
in the nature of a fcrcw, invented In- A An A:h*- 
nian poet of that name made an t ,Mr,r;.»:i a;''jn iliis fiipeih 
vefU'l, for which hj w;!l îMÎd. Hi.^ro fcnt him loco 
mcJimf:i of corn as a reward, p.'ul ra/ild tlvm to î»c v'airicd to 
"He port of Pyr<cum. Xlic lavvimnus, r.ccorùinp; îo father 



MoAtfiuicoft, is a meafare that contains fix bufhels» This 

n'am is come down to us. The value of verfe was knowa 
at time in Syracufe. 

Hiero having found that there was no port in Sicily ca- 
foUe of ccntainingr this veiTel, except fome where it could 
aot lie at anchor without danger, refolved to make a prefenc 
of it to king * Ptolemy, and fent it to Alexandria. There 
was at that time a great dearth of com throughout all l^gypt. 

Several other veifels of Icfs burden attended this great ifup. 
300,000 quarters of corn were put on board them, with 10,000 
great ea/tnen jars of falted ti(h, 20,000 quintals (or 2,000,000 
of pounds) qr meat, 20,000 bundles of different cloatUs, 
without including the proviflonu for the ihips crews and 

To avoid too much prolixity, I have retrenched fome part 
of the defcription Athenseus has left us of this grei't !hip. 

I ihould have been glad, that, to have given us a better 
idea of it, he had mentioned the exa^l dimeniions of it. Had 
he added a word upon the benches of oars, it would havo 
cleared up and determined a queftion which without it mdû, 
for e\''er remain doubtful and obfcure. 

Hiero's faitli was put to a very fevere trial, after the blood/ 
defeat of the Romans in the battle of Cannae which waa 
followed by an almoil univerfal defe^ion of their allie?. 
But the wafting of his dominions by the Carthaginian troops^ 
which their fleet had landed in Sicily, was not capable of 
changing him. ("qj He was only afHiâed to fee that the 
contagion ha^ fpread even to his own family. He had a fon 
nimed Gelon, who married Nereis the daughter of Pyrrhus, 
by whom he had feveral children, and amongft others Hiero- 
nymus, of whom we fhali foon fpeak. Gelon, defpiiing his 
lather's great age, and fetting no value on the alliance of 
the Romans, after their lafl di^race at Cannae, had declared 
openly for the Carthaginians. He had already armed the 
moltitude, and folicitcd the allies of Syracufe to join him; 
and would f perhaps have occailoned great troubles in Sicily, 
if a fudden and unexpefted death had not intervened. It 
happened fo opportunely, that his father was fufpedled of 
having promotccl it. He did not furvive his fon long, and 
died at the age of fourfcore and ten years, infinitely re- 
gretted by his people, after having reigned fifty-four years. 


(f) A. M, 3789. Ant. J. C. 215, Liv. I.xxiiî. n. 30. 
• Then it rgafon f beiieue this 'ujai Ptolftrff tbiladefpbus, 
^ MovifTclque in Sicilia res, nifi mantem turn multitudinem, follf- 

I, adeo opporlana tit patrem 

%ao^uc fufpicione adCpergeret, ar- [ Lhf% 

citantcmquc ibcios, abfum^ûj 



Sect. T. Hieronymus, grand/on of Hie ko, /ucceids bim^ .* 
and caufes him to be regretted by his *vices and cruelty. Hi 
is killed in a confpiracy. Barbarous murder of the princifism 
Hippocrates and Epic yd es fo^/s them/elves of the gê» 
vernmeut of Syracufej and declare for the Carthaginiams^ m$ 
Hie RON Y M us had done. 

THE death of Hiero occalioned great revolutions in Si- 
cily. The kingdom was fallen into the hands of Hi- 
cronymus his grandfon, a young • prince, incapable of mak- 
ing a wife ufc of his independency» and far from refiftiug the 
feducing imprcilions of fovereien power. Hiero's apprchen- 
fions, that the Hourifliing condition in which he left lus king- 
dom would foon change under an infant king, fuggcfted to 
him the thought and defire of reftoring their liberty to the 
Syracufans. But his two daughters oppofed that defign with 
their whole credit ; from the hope, that the young prince 
would have only the title of king, and that they Ihoula hare 
all the authority, in conjunfiion with their huibands, Andra* 
nadorus and Zoippus, who held the fîrft rank amongft his 
guardians f. It was not eafy for an old man of ninety* to 
hold out againll the careflfes and arts of thofe two women» 
who beiieged him day and night, to jprefcnre the freedom of 
his mind againll their prefling and afliduous infmuations, and 
to facrifice with courage the intereds of his family to thofe of 
the publick. 

To prevent as far as pofTible the evils he forefaw, he i^ 
pointea him fifteen guardians, who were to form his coan- 
cil ; and earneAly c&fircd them, at his death, never to d»» 
part from the alliance with the Romans, to which he had in* 
violably adhered for fifty years, and to teach the young prince 
to tread in his (leps, and to follow the principles in which he 
had been educated till then. 

The king dying after thefe difpofitions, the guardians he 
had appointed his grandfon immediately fummonedthe afTem* 
bly, prefented the young prince to the people, and caufed the 
will to be read. A fmall number of people, txprefly placed 
to applaud it» clapped their hands, and raifed acclamations 
of joy. All the reft, in a conftemation eaual to that of n 
family who have lately loft a good father, kept a moumfol 


• Puerum, ris 4«in libertarem, t agentl anmiai, «iramftfl* 4its 
atdum doRiinatioacm, modtcè laiu- 1 tcf(|Qt mulitbrilHii blaodicUi^ like- 
turn. I'iv. I rare aaiiii«ni, J^ cMvcitm iy pik* 

fNon f acUi tnt aoaagdlinoin Jam | Ucim f rijrata cuiuu iJn% ^ 


^ Shncey which fufficiently exprefTed their grief for their lofi, 

' and their apprehcnfion of what wai to come. His * funeral 

wat afterwards folcmnizedy and more honoured by the forrow 

and tears of h'li fubje^^s» than tlie cares and regard of his re- 

latiorf^ for his memory. 

Andranadorus's firft care was to remove all the other guar- 
dians» by telling them roundly, the prince was of age to go- 
vern for himf'clt. 

He was at that time near fifteen years old. So that An- 
dnnadorus, being tlie firil to renounce the guardianAiip held 
by him in common with many colleagues, united in hts own 
pcrfon all their power. The (lifpofitionB, made by the wifcH 
princes at their deaths, arc often little regarded, and fcldom 
executed afterwards. 

The f bed and moft moderate prince in the world, fuc- 
cceding a king fo well beloved by his fubjedls as lliero had 
been, would have found it very difficult to confole them for 
the lofs they had fuftained. But Hieronymus, as if he had 
ftrpve by his vices to make him ilill more regretted, no fooner 
afcended the throne, than he made the people fenfible how 
much all things were altered. Neither king Hicro, nor Ge- 
lon his fon, during fo man^ years^ had ever diftinguifhed 
Ihemfelves from the other citizens by their habits» or any 
other ornaments intimatinft pride. Hieronymus was prefent* 
If feen in a purple robe, with a diadem on his head, and fur- 
lonnded by a troop of armed guards. Sometimes he afTeflcd 
to imitate Dionyfius the tyrant, in coming out of his palace* 
in a chariot drawn by four white horfes. All the t rcll of 
Uc conduA was fuitable to this equipage: A vifible contempt 
finr all the world, Jiau^hty and difdainful in hearing, and 
iffeâation of fayinv, difobliging things, fo difficult of ac« 
cefsy that not only Arangers, but even his guardians, could 
fcarcc ap()roach him ; n refinement of tallc in difcovering 
new methods of Jrhaueli ; a eruclty fo cxeeiTive, ns to cxtin- 
giijfh all iVhic of hutnaiiity in him : This odious difpofitioii 
of the younj; kin;^ tcrtificd the people to fuch a degree, that 
even fume ui his gu.-ij-diiuu, to cfciipc his cruelty, riilicr put 


• F 11 nil*; fit trpjum, m.ij/ii nmnr'- 
ci^ium /*-. lant u*, i|ii4niciir4 iu<)- 
.rum rclctire. / iv. 

f Vix i{ui'!-'nt ulli bono moilcrii- 
M^iic rcgl l'.i> ili« ct.\* f'^ivor ii|iti<l Sy- 
rJcufaniMi hK«r<1etiti riintx «ariiHli 
HIcroniii. V'-nun rnimvrro Hirro 
njmuii, vcliM liiii viiiiidcfKlcriitfilrm 
cficcrv vclici avum, primo Kalim 

(onTprOu, omnia qiitni (lifp'tria cf- 
iVijt ifh'tuiit. / IT, 

\ Hum i4tn liipcrbum app4r.iluin>itiMni|(ii< I (iiivciiirntn Crqiirbiitv- 
tiir iDiitrtni'iu^ ortuiinin hoiniiium, 
luprrN.T ««iitr», roiiluniQliora did>a, 
rari «di'ii?:, non nlirni^ modo fcdtu- 
lorilnn ctiiim; lihidinea novic, in* 
hiimuiu CI udclitast Z»/v« 


themfelves to death, or condemned themfelves to votant 

Only three men, Andranadontô and Zoippas, both Hid 
fons-in-law, and Thraib, had a great freedom of accefa 
the young king. He lillened a little more to them than 
others ; but as the two iirft openly declared for the Gartha 
nians, and the latter for the Romans, that difference of d 
timents, and very warm difputes frequently the confequei 
of it, drew upon them that prince's attention. 

About this time a confpiracy againfl the life of Hieroi 
mus happened to be difcovered. One of the principal c< 
fpirators, named Theodotus, was accufed. Beine put to i 
queflion, he confefled the crime as to himfelf ; but all 1 
violence of the moft cruel torments could not make him 1 
tray his accomplices. At length, as if no longer able to fi 
port the pains infiiâed on him, he accufed the king's I: 
friends, though innocent, amongfl whom he named Thra 
as the ringleader of the whole enterprize ; adding, that tl 
ihould never have engaged in it, if a man of his credit I 
aot been at their head. The zeal he had always expref 
for the Roman interefts rendered the evidence probable; » 
he was accordingly pot to death. Not one of the acco 
plices, during their companions being tortured, either fl 
or concealed himfelf; fb much they relied upon the fidel 
of Theodotus, who had the fortitude to keep the fecret : 

The death of Thrafo, who was the fole fupport of the ; 
Uance with the Romans, left the field open to the partifs 
of Carthage. Hicronymus difpatched ambafladors to Hs 
nibal, who lent back a young Caithaginian officer of illuft 
ou s birth, named alfo Hannibal, with Hippocrates and £ 
cydes, natives of Carthage, but defcended from the Syrac 
fans by their father. After the treaty with Hieronymus v 
concluded, the young officer returned to his general ; 1 
two others continued with the king, by Hannibal's perm 
fion. The conditions of the treaty were. That after navi 
driven the Romans out of Sicily, of which they fully af^pi 
themfelves, the river Himera, which almoft divides the iflai 
ihould be die boundary of their re(pe£tive dominions. I 
cronymus, blown up by the praifes of^his flatterers, demands 
even fome time after, that all Sicily fhonld be given up 
him, leaving the Carthaginians Italy for their part. T 
propofal appeared idle and rafli, but Hannibal cave v< 
little attention to it, having no other view at that time, th 
of drawing off the young king from the party of the Romai 



Upon the firil rumour of this treaty, Appias» praetor of 
Sicily» iênt ainbaflhdors to Ilieronymns, to renew the alliance 
auide by his grandfather witii the Romans. That proud prince 
icceived them with great contempt; nlking thcni, with an 
«Ir of raillery and inlult, what had paflcd at the battle of 
Canna:; that HannibaKs ambiifTadoru had related incredible 
things of it ; that it was cafy to know the truth from their 
aouths, and tlience to determine upon the choice of his al- 
lies. I'ho Romans made aafwcr, that tliey would return to 
him when he had learnt to treat ambafTadors fcrioudy and 
with rcafoii ; and, after having cautioned rather than acfired 
kirn not to change iidcs too railily, they withdrew. 

At length his cruolty, and the other vices to which he 
blindly .ibandoned himiclf, drew upon him an unfortunate 
end. Thofc, who had formed the coufpiracy mentioned be« 
fore, purfucd thivlr fcJiemo ; and, having found a favourable 
opportunity for the execution of their enterprizo, killed him 
in the city of the I^eontines, on a journey he made from Sy- 
racufe into the country. 

Hère is a fenfiblc inllance of the différence between a king 
and a tyrant ; and that it is not in guards or arms the fecu- 
rity of a prince çonfilU, but the afFcdtion of his fubjeéU* 
Uiero, from being convinced that thofe who have the laws 
In their hands for the government of the people ought al- 
ways to govern themfelvcs by the laws, behaved in fuch a 
manner that it might be faid, the law and not Hiero reigned. 
He believed himfelf rich and powerful for no other end than 
to do good, and to render others happy. He had no occa« 
£on to take precautions ïor the fecunty of his life: He had 
always the fureil guard about him, the love of his people ; 
and Syracufe was afraid of nothing fo much as of lofinghim. 

flencc he was lamented at his death as ihc. common father of 
is country. Not only their mouths but hearts were long 
after fillet! with his name, and inccfUinily blcficd his mt-mo- 
ry» HitTciiyinii:!, tni the contrary, who hud no oih<rr rule of 
conduct but violuii'.-', rcî'arJcil all other men as born Iblcly 
for hii.if'.-ll", and miIucJ hinifelf upon o;ovt'rninj»; tlicni not as 
fjbjc^t'. but ilavcs, Id tin* w ixti ht'dcll lift' in ihc world, if to 
live wvre to jiafri hi.s day.s in continual apprchcnlion and ter- 
ror. As hr trulUd noboily, nobod) plaeed any coufiden':e 
in him* 'i"h'>rc who vkciv neareil his pcrfon witi: the moll 
expofcd tr> his fHr()ii:ii)ns ami crui'lty, ami ihou^^lu they had 
no other fecurity for thcii o\.-n lives, than by puitin;) an end 
to his. Thus ended a ri-i"n (<f Uiort dunaiun, but al)Ouniiino- 
Ytkh difordvJ'6, injullice^ and oppreiiion. 

(rj AppiuSr 


(r) Appias» who forefaw the confeqaence of hit deat 
gave the fenate advice of all that had paiTed, and took d 
neceifary précautions to prefcrve that part of Sicily wh» 
belonged to the Romans. They» on their fide, perceivij 
the war in Sicily was likely to become important, fent Ma 
cellus thither, who had been appointed conful with Fabiv 
in the beeinning of the fifth year of the fécond Punick wi 
and had dillinguiihed himfelf giorioufly by his fuccefles agaii 

When Hieronymus was killed, the foldiers, lefs out of a 
fcdkion for him, than a certain natural reibeét for their kiss 
had thoughts at firil of avenging his death upon the confp 
rators. But the grateful name of the liberty with which thi 
were flattered, and the hope that was given them of the d 
vifton of the tyrant's trcafures amongit them, and of add 
tional pay, with the recital of his horrid crimes and (ham 
ful exccfTes, all together appeafed their iirft heat, and change 
their difpoiition in fuch a manner, that they left the prince 
body witnout interment, for whom they had jull before e: 
preiied fo warm a regret. 

As foon as tlie death of Hieronymus was known at S' 
racufe, Andranadorus feized the IHe, which was part of tl 
city, with the citadel, and fuch other places as were mc 
proper for his defence in it ; putting good garrifons in 
them. Theodorus and Sous, heads of the confpiracy, havii 
left their accomplices with the army, to keep the foldiers quic 
arrived foon after at the city. They made themfelves malle 
of the quarter Achradina, where, by (he^\•ing the tyraat 
bloody robe, with his diadem, to the people, and exhortif 
them to take arms for the defence of their liberty, they ib< 
faw themfelves at the head of a numerous body. 

The whole city was in confufion. I'he next day, at fa: 
rife, all the people, armed and unarmed, ran to the quart 
Achradina, where the fenate was afTcmbled, which had m 
ther fat, nor been confulted upon any affair, from Hierc 
death. Polyaenus, one of the lenators, fpoke to the peoi 
with great freedom and moderation. He rcprefented, '' ta 
^* having experienced the indignities and miferiei of flavei 
<' they were moft fenfibly affeaed with them ; but that as 
'* the evils occafioned by civil difcord, they had rather hea 
<' them fpoken of by thi'ir fathers, than been acquainted wi 
«< them themfelves : That he commended their readinefr 
'* taking arms, and fhould praife them flill more, if they d 
'* not proceed to ufe them till the laft extremity : That 

" pidc 
(t) a* M, 3790» Antt Jt C. 214, Lit, 1. ixiv, n« ai««M-35i 



'* prefisnt it was his advice to fend deputies to Andranadoruf* 
*' and to let him know he mufl fubmit to the fenate, open 
** the gates of the lile, and withdraw his garrifons : That if 
** he perfifted in his ufurpation, it would be necefTary to treat 
•• him with more rigour than Hieronymus had experienced." 

This deputation at firfl made fonie imprciTion upon him ; 
whether he dill retained a refpefl for tne fenate, and was 
moved with the unanimous concurrence of the citizens; or» 
becaufe the beft fortified part of the Ifle having been taken 
from him by treachery» and furrendered to the Syracufans» 
that lofs gave him juil apprehen fions. But* his wife Dema- 
rata» Hiero's daughter» an haughty and ambitious princefs» 
having taken him afide, put him in mind of the famous fay- 
ing of Dionyfius the tyrant, " That if ivas never proper to 
" f»iV the fnddlèi (i. e. the tyranny) till pulled off the horfe 
*• oy the heels : That a great fortune might be renounced in 
*' a moment ; but that it would coft abundance of time and 
'* pains to attain it : That it was therefore ncceflary to en- 
<« deavour to gain time ; and whilfl he amufed the fenate by 
" ambiguous anfwers, to treat privately with the foldiers at 
" Leontium» whom it was eafy to bring over to his interefl» 
•* by the attraftion of the king's treafurcs in his pofTeirion.*' 

Andranadonis did not entirely rcje6^ this counfel» nor 
think proper to give into it without referve. He chofe a 
mean between both. He promifcd to fubmit to the fenate» 
in expectation of a more favourable opportunity ; and the 
next day having thrown open the gates of the life» repaired 
to the quarter Achradina ; and there, after having excufed 
Ut delay and refiftance» from the fear he had been m of be- 
ing involved in the tyrant's punifhment» as his uncle» he de- 
clared» that he was come to put his j>erfon and interefls into 
the hands of the fenate. Then turning towards the tyrant's 
murderers, and addrcifing himfelf to Theodotus and Sofis ; 
•* You have done," faid he, ** a memorable adlion. But bc- 
•* lieve me, your glory is only begun, and has not yet attained 
•* the height of which it is capable. If you do not take care 
■■ 10 eftabli/h peace and union amongfl the citizens, the ftate 
•• is in great danger of expiring, and of being dellroyed at 
•* the very moment (lie begins toiaflethc blefllngs of liberty." 
After this difcourfc, he laid the keys of the Ifle and of the 
king's treafures at their feet. The whole city was highly re- 

* Sed evocatnm eum ab legatls 
Dtmarati uxor, filia Hieronii, in- 
flua adhuc regiii animti ac niulic- 
hn fpiiitui admoaet fspe ufurpa- 

t.T Dionyfiî tyrannî vocîs : <itia2, pi« 
dibus traélum, non infidentem e(}uo, 
relinqucrc t^rannidem dixcric d«« 


joîced on this oecafion» and the temples were thronged 
the reft of the day with infinite numbers of people» who 
thither to return thanks to the gods for fo happy a change 

The next day the fenate being aifembled according to 
ancient cuftom, ma?iftrates were appointed, amongft the 
principal of whom Andranadorus was eleâed, with Thcô- 
dot as and Sofis, and fome others of the conipirators who wéiiL 

On the other fide> Hippocrates and £pic>'des, whom Ke- 
ronymus had fent at the head of 2000 men, to endeavoor b 
excite troubles in the cities which continued to adhere to 
the Romans, feeing themfelves, upon the news of the tyrant^! 
death» abandoned oy the foldiers under their command» i^ 
Cumed to Syracufe, where they demanded to be efcortoi u 
fafety to Hannibal, having no longer any buiinefs in Sidlj 
after the death of him, to whom they had been iènt by that 
general. The Svracufans were not forry to part with thole 
two Grangers, who were of a turbulent, faâious difpoûtioiii 
-and well experienced in military affairs. There is m mot 
affairs a deciiive moment, which never refums after having 
been once let flip. The negligence in affigning the time fer' 
their departure gave them opportunity to infinuate them- i 
felves into the favour of the foldiers, who efleemed them upoa 
account of their abilities, and to give them a difguft for dli 
ienate, and the better inclined part of the citizens. * 

Andranadorus, whofe wife's ambition would never let him j 
refl, and who, till then, had covered his defigns with fmooth J 
diiSmulation, believing it a proper time for difclofingr them» 
confpired with ThemiHus» Gelon's fon-in-law, to feize tibe 
fovereignty. He communicated his views to a comediaa 
named Arifton, from whom he kept nothing fecret. That 
profeffion was not at all difhonourable among the Greeks» and 
was exercifed by perfons of no ignoble condition. Arifton» ^ 
believing it his duty, as it really was, to facrifice his frieiid 
to his country, discovered the confpir;icy. Andrm^adorus 
and Themiftus were immediately killed by order of the other 
magiflrates, as they entered the lenate. The people rofe, and 
threatened to revenge their deaths ; but were deterred from 
It, by the fight of the dead bodies of the two ccnfpirators 
which were thrown out of the fenate-houfe. They were then 
informed of their pernicious defigns ; to which all the mil- 
fortunes of Sicily were afcribed, rather than to ihe wicked- 
nefs of Hieronymus, who being only a youth had acled en- 
tirely by their counfels. They infinuated, that his guardiani 



iten had reigned in his name : That they ought to have 
Mt off before Hieronymus, or at leaft with him: That 
licy had carried them on to commit new crimes, and to 
to the tyranny : That not being able to fuccccd in tli'iir 
b^ force, they hadcmployeddiffimulation and perfidy; 
leither favours and honours had been capable to over^ 
the wicked diipofition of Andranadorus ; nor the eleéî- 
m one of the fupreme magiflrates araongft the deliverers 
ir country, him, who was the declared enemy of liberty: 
«to the reft, they had been inijpircd with their ambitio» 
rningby the princefles of the blood roval, whom they 
arried, the one Hicro's, the other Gelon's daughter. 
Jiofe words the whole afTcmMy cried out that not one 
m ought to be fuffered to live» and that it was nccef- 
> extirpate entirely the race of the tyrants, without any 
Î or exception. * Such is the nature of the multittule. 
er abjeélly abandons itfelf to flavery, or lords it with 
ICC. But with regard to liberty, which holds the mean 
;t thofe extremes, it neither knows how to be without 
to ufe it ; and has always too many flatterers ready to 
nto its palTions, cnHame its rage, and hurry it on to ex- 
violences, and the mod inhuman cruelties, to which it 
ÎOO much inclined of itfelf ; as was the cafe at this' time« 
requeil of the magiilrates, which was almofl fooner ac<- 
than propofed, they decreed that the royal family. 
be entirely deftroycd. 

larata Hiero's, and Harmonia Gelon's daughter, the 
nrried to Andran^idorusi and the other to Thcmillus» 
illed iirft. From thence they went to the houfe of He- 
wife of Zoippus ; who having been fent on an em^ 
9 Ptolemy king of Egypt, remained therein voluntary 
mcnt, to avoid being witnefs of the miferies of his 
y. Hrsting been apprized that they were coming to 
lat unfortunate princeft had taken refuge with her two 
uîrs in the moll remote part of her houfe, near her 
Id gods. When the nflaflins arrived there, with her hair 
nd difordercJ, her face bathed in tears, and in a con- 
moft proper to excite compaffion, ftie conjur^^d them, in 
:cring vioce interrupted with fighs, in the name of 
her father, and (Jelon her brother, ** Not to involve 
nnocent princcfs in the ^nilt and misfortunes of Ilie- 
.. Vlll. C " ronymus. 

;c mtw inultltiiilinis ef^ j 

it humilitrr, lut fuperhc do- 

: tfbcrtJtem.qii'i* miiducf^, 

rnerc moJivèi un: h. -bure 

• - . A' 

.—.^ . » A...« 

rum indulgcntei miniAri, qui avidof 
Ktque intemperantei plcbeiorum jiii- 
moi ad Ijrguiucm Se ccles irritcati 



'* ronymus. She rcprefented to them, that her halband's 
'* banilhmciit had been to her the fole fruit of that reign; 
** That not having had any fhare in the fortunes and defigni ' 
'' of her fider Demarata, (he ought to have none in her punidi- ; 
'^ ment. Bcfîdes, what was there to fear either from her, in * 
** the forlorn condition and almofl widowhood to which fl&t 
'* was reduced, or from her daughters, unhappy orphans, 
*' without credit or fupport ? That if the royal family wem 



the faw them inflexible to her rcmonftrances, forgetting her- 4 
lelf, ilie implored them at leaft to fave the lives of the pria- 1, 
ceilbs her daughters, both of an age to infpire the moft iinre*. 
tcratc and furious enemies with companion : But her difeoarft 
made no imprefllon upon the minds of thofe Barbariani. 
Having torn her in a manner from the arms of her houfhold 
gods, they dabbed her to death in the fight of her two dangk- 
;crs, and foon after cut their throats, already Hained, and 
covered with the bksod of their mother. What was ftill more 
deplorable in their defliny was, that immediately after thdr 
death, an order of the people's came for fparing thfeir livei. 

From compaflion, the people in a moment proceeded to t 
rage and fur v againftthoie who had been fo hafty in the ex- 
ecution, anil had not left them time for reflexion or repen- 
tance. They demanded that magiflrates fhould be nominated 
in the room of Andranadoxus and ThemiHus. They were a !;i 
long time in fufpence upon this choice. At length, fome- 
body in the croud of the people happened to name Epicydei, 
another immediately mentioned Hippocrates. Thofe two 
pn Tons were demanded with fo much ardour by the multi- 
tude, which confided of citizens and foldiers, that the fenate 
could not prevent iheir being created. 

The new magiflrates did not immediately difcover the de- 
fign they had, of reinflating Syracufe in the interefis of Han- 
nibal : out they had fcen with pain the meafures which had 
been taken before they were in ofiice* For immediately after 
the re-cflablifhmcnt of liberty, ambafTadors had been lent to 
Appiu?, to propofe renewing the alliance, broken by Hiero- 
nymus. He had referred them to Marcf Ilus, who was late* 
ly arrived in Sicily, with an authority fuperior to his own. 
Marcelluj, in his turn, font deputies to the magiftrates of 
Syracufe, to treat of peace. 

' Upon arriving there, they found the flate of affairs mnch 
dicrcd. Hippocrates and Epicydcs, ai firft by fecrct prac- 


nd afterwards by open complaints, had inrpired ever7 
ith great averiion tor the Romans ; giving out, tint 
were formed for puttia? Svracufe into their hands. 
haviour of Appios, who naa approached the entrAo/ce 
port with his fleet, to encourage the party in the Ro- 
tereft» ftrengthened thofe fufpicions and accufations fo 
that the people ran tumultuoufly to prevent the Ro- 
om landing» in cafe they (houid have that defign. 
ds trouble and confufion it was thought proper to fum- 
le aflembly of the people. Opinions differed very 
n it; and the heat of debates giving reafon to fear 
edicion, Apoilonidcs, one of the principal fenators» 
L diicourfe very fui table to the conjun6lurc. He inti- 
** that never city was nearer its deftruâion or pre- 
ation than Syracuse adually was at that time : 1 hat 
ley all with unaaimous confent (hould join either the 
tans or Carthaginians, their conditions would be hap- 
That if they weie divided, the war would neither be 
e warm nor more dangerous between the Romans and 
thaginianf, than between the Syracufans themfelves 
oft each other, as both parties muft neceflaril^ have, 
dn the circumference ot their own walls, their owa 
pst armies, and generals 3 That it was therefore abfo- 
ly- requifite tof m&e their agreement and union amongft 
aielves their fole care and application ; and that to 
w which of the two alliances was to be preferred, was 
now the mod important queilion : That for the reHtp 
Mthorlty of Hiero, in his opinion, ought to carry ic 
aft that of Hieronyinus, and that the amity of the Ro- 
4, happily experienced for fifty years together, fccmed 
erabic to that of the Carthaginians, up^on which they 
d not much rely for the prêtent, and with which they 
as little reafon to be fatisfied with regard to the paft» 
idded a lad motive of no mean force, which was, that 
eclaring agaiaill the Romans, they would have the war 
icdiately upon their hands ; whereas, on die fide of 
hajgc, the danger was more remote." 
lefTpaHionatc this dilcourfe appeared, the mere cfFeffc 
It induced them to defire the opinion of the fevcral 
of the lUtc ; and the principal officers of the troops, 
natives a. foreigners, were requellcd to confer toge- 
The affair was long difcufl'ed with great warmth. At 
as it appeared that tliere was no preTent means fpr fup • 
; the war againll the Romans, a peace with them was 
ij and ambafladors font to concludç it» 

C z Some 


Some days after this refolution had been taken, the I 
tines fent to demand aid of Syracufe, for the defence of 
frontiers. This deputation teemed to come very feaibi 
for difcharginjg the city of a turbnlent unruly multitude, 
removing their no lefs dangerous tesders. 4060 men 
ordered to march under the command of Hippocrate 
whom they were glad to be rid, and who was not forry 
felf for the occafion they gave him to embroil affairs. F 
no fooner arrived upon the frontier of the Roman prov 
than he plundered it, and cot in pieces a body of troops 
by Appius to its defence. Marcellus complained to the I 
cufans of this aft of hoftility, and demandra, that this fin 
ihould be banilhed from Sicily with his brother Epicy 
who having repaired about the fame time to Leontiuni; 
endeavoured to embroil the inhabitants with the peo| 
Syracufe, by exhorting them to refnme their liberty as 
as the Syracufans. The city of the Leontines was ^per 
on Syracufe ; but pretended at this time to throw off the y 
and to aâ independently of the Syracufans, as an enl 
free city. Hence, when the Syracufans fent to compla 
the hoftilities connnitted againll the Romans, and to dei 
the expnlfion of the two Carthaginian brothers, the I 
tines replied, that they had not empowered the Syracnfa 
make peace for them with the Romans. 

The deputies of Syracufe related to Marcellus this ai 
from the Leontines, who were no longer at the diipofal of 
city, and left him at liberty to declare war againft t 
without any infradUon of the treaty made with them, 
marched immediately to Leontium, and made himfelf id 
of it at the firlt attack. Hippocrates and Epicydes 
All the deferters found in the place, to the number of 2 
were put to the fword ; but as loon as the city was takei 
the Leontines and other foidiers were fpared, and even < 
thing taken from them was reftored, except what was L 
the nrft tumult of a city carried bv florm. 

8coo troops, fent by the magiitrates of Syracufe to t> 
of Marcellus, met a man on their march, who gave th 
falfc account of what had pafled at the taking OTLeont 
exaggerating with artful malice the cruelty of the Ror 
who, he falliy affirmed, had put all the inhabitants tc 
fword, as ^'ell as the troops fent thither by the Syracufai 

Tliis artful falOiood, which ihty fwallowed ivithout i 
cioD, infpired .hem with comp^mon for their com pan 
They exprefled their indignation by their murmurs. 

pocraces and Epicydei» wM were before well known to 



I, tppeared at the very inflant of this trouble and ta* 
and pat themfelves under their protedlion, not having 
»cber refource. They were received with joy and ac- 
idons. The report ibon reached the rear of the army, 
e die comnanders Dinomenes and Soiis were. When 
were informed of the caufe of the tumult, they advanced 
y, blamed die foldiers for having received Hippocrates 
Ëpicydes, -the enemies of their country, and gave orders 
leir being feized and bound. The foldiers oppofed this 
great menaces ; and the two generals fent expreiTes to 
niib, to inform the fenate of wnat had paffed. 
le army however continued its march towards Mxgara, 
upon the way met a courier prepared by Hippocrates, 
waf charged with a letter, which leemed to be written by 
oagjftratcs of Syracufe to Marcellus. They praifed him 
Jie flaughter he had made at Leondum, and exhorted 
to treat all the mercenary foldiers in the fame manner, 
der that Syracufe might at length be reftored to its li- 
r. The reading of this forged letter enraged the merce- 
i$p of whom the body of troops was almoft entirely com- 
L They were for falling upon thç few Syracufans amongft 
I, bat were prevented from that violence by Hippocrates 
Bpicydes ; not from the modves of pity or humanity, 
that they misht not endrely lofe their hopes of re-enter- 
iyracnfc.- They fent a man thither, whom he had gained 
nbes, who related the ftorming of Leondum conformable 
c ûttt account. Thofe reports were favoorably received 
be snuldtade, who cried out, that the eates ihould be 
againil the Romans. Hippocrates and Epicydes arrived 
tt the fame time before the city, which they entered, 
y by force, and partly b^ the intelligence they had with- 
» They killed the magiftrates, and took pofleflion of the 
The next day the (laves were fet at liberty, the prifoners 
B free, and Hippocrates and Epicydes eleûcd into the 
eft offices, in a tumultuous aflembly. Syracufe, in this 
ner» after a Ihorc irradiadon of liberty, funk again into 
MTiner davery. 

^ 3- Sect. 


Sf CT. II. The con/ul Marc ell vs hificges Sxraemfi. Th 
eùnfiierahh loffes of mea and Jkips^ occafioutd by the drtadfii 
machines 0/^ARCHiMEDES,0^iig-f Marcellus to change ih 
jtege into a blockade. He takes the city at length by meam ^ 
his intelligence ivitbin it. Death ^Archimbdes» killed (y- 
a Joldier *who did not Ânonju him^ 

(u) A F F A I R S being in this ftatc, Marcdlus thoDglit 

- X*\. proper to quit the countr}' of the Leontines, and 
advance towards Svracufe. When he was near it, he lent 
«^«eputies to let the inhabitants know, that he Came to reftore 
hbcny to the Syracufans, and not with intent to make war 
upon them. They were not permitted to enter the cky. 
Hippocrates and Epicydes went out to meet them ; and having^ 
Jkeaid their propoials, replied haughtily, that if the Romani 
intended to oenege their city, they fhould foon be made lèn» 
lible cf the diiference between attacking Syracnfe and attack-) 
Ing Lwontium. Marcellus therefore determined to beiiegetbe 
place by Tea and land * ; by land on the fîde of HexapYla;: 
and by Tea, on that of the quarter Achradina, the walls of 
v^hTch were waflied by the waves. 

He gave Appius the command of the land-ferces, mad n^' 
fcrved that of the fleet to himfelf. It confilled of fixty eallief 
of JiAx benches of oars, which w^re full of foldicrs armea widf 
hows, flings, and darts, to fcour the walls. There wciec' 
{^rcar number of veflels, laden with all forts of machines, n&l 
in attacking places. 

The Romans carrying on their attacks at two diflcreiC 
places, Svracufe was in great conflernation, and apprehendeds 
that notning could oppofe fo terrible a power, and inch 
mighty efforts. And it had indeed been impofliblc ■ to hivt 
refifttd them, without the afTiilance of a Angle man, wboA 
wonderful induilry was every thing to the Syracufans : This 
was Archimedes. He had taken care to fupply the walls witi 
all thiAgs neceifary to a eood defence. As K)on as his ma- 
chines began to play on the land-fide, they dîfcharged upM 
the infantry all iorts of darts, and ftones of enormous weighs 
which flew with fo much noife, force, and rapidity, that bo- 
thines could oppofe their (hock. They beat down and daflicd 
to pieces all before them, and occafioned a terrible difoidcr 
in the ranks of the befiegers. 

Marcellus fucceeded no better on the fide of the fea. Ar- 

fm) A. M. 2790. Ant. T. C. tl4. Lit. 1. ssiv. n. 33, 3 • PUc ia 
Mtrcel. p. sos'— 307. Polyb. I. vlîî. p. 515^$ ■<* 

• ^bt dtjcri^iwf Sjracufi wuy be /em w Book VilX. ch, a. Ueu I. 


cHimcdcs had difpofed his mrxhines in fuch a manner, as to 
thmw darti to any diftance. Though the enemy hy far from 
the city, he reached them with his larger and more forcible 
baliils and catapults. When they overflioC their mark, he 
kad fmaller, proportioned to the diftance ; which put the 
Romans into fuch confufion, as made them incapable of at- 
tempting any thing. 

1 his was not the created danger. Archimedes had placed 
lofty and flrong machines behind the wall.^, which fuddcniy 
letting fall valt beams, with an immenfe weight at the tiul of 
them, upon the lhips,funk them to the bottom. Bcfides thi^, 
ke caufcd an ircm grapple to be let out by a chain ; the pcr- 
fon who guided the machine, having catchcd hold of the hca I 
of a fhip with this hook, by the means of a weight let down 
within tlic walls, it was lifted up, and fet upon its ilern, 
I and held fo for fomc time ; then by letting go the chain, 
I either by a wheel or a pulley, it was let fall again with itb 
1 whole weight cither on its head or fide, and often entirely 
•^ fiuik. At other times the machines dnijggîng the (hip to- 

) wards the fhore by cordage and hooks, after having made it 
whirl about a great while, daflied it to pieces aednft uie points. 
of the rocks, which jprojeAed under the walls, and thereby 
^ dcftrayed all within it. Gailies, frequently feized and- fut- 

Ended in the air, were whirled about with rapidity, exhi- 
tinç a dreadful fight to thefpedlators, after which they were 

^ kc fsui into the fea, and funk to the bottom, with all tliat 
were in them. 
, Marcellus had prepared, at great expcnce, machines caU 

'f ied/am^ucry from their refembiance to a mufical inftrument 
of that name, lie appointed eight galHes of five benches for 
that u(e, from which the oars were removed, from half on the 
right, and from the other half on the left frde. Thefe were 
joined together, two and two, on the fides without oars. This 
machine confilled of a ladder of the breadth of four feet, 
which whencicik was of equal height with the walls. It was 
laid at length upon the fides of two gallies joined together, 
and extended confiderably beyond their beaks; upon the 
mafts of thefe veHcls were afhxed cord^ and pnllies. When 
it was to v/otk, the cords were made fall to the extremity of 
the machine, and men upon the poop drew it- up by the 
help of the pullic^ ; others at the head afllfled in raifinp- 
it with levers. The ^allies afterwards being thrutt forward 
to the foot of the walLs, the machines were applied to them. 
The bridge of the /amtuca: was then let down,, (no doubt a^- 

^ 4. ter 


ter the manner of a drawbridge) upon which the beiiegers paf- 
fed to the walls of the place befieged. 

This machine had not the expelled efFefk» Whilll it was 
at a confiderable diflance from the walls, Archimedes dif- 
charged a vaft ftone upon it that weiehed ten * quintals, thea 
a fécond, and immediately afier a third ; all which Urikiiig 
againfl it with dreadful force and noife, beat down and brokp 
its fupportSy and gave the gallies upon which it Hood fuch a 
Jlif ck, that they parted from each other. 

Marcellus, almofl difcouraged, and at a lofs v/hat to do. 
retired as fall as poifîble with his gallics, and fent orders to 
his land-fcrccs to do the fame. He called alfo a council of 
war, in which it was refolved the next day, before fun-rifes 
to endeavour to approach the walls. They were in hopes, by 
this means, to fhelter themfclves from the machines, whichv 
for want of a diflance proportioned to their force, would be 
rendered ineiFe£lual. 

But Archimedes had provided againft all contingencies. 
He had prepared machinues long before, as we have jilready 
cbferved, that carried to all diflances a proportionate ouan- 
tity of darts, and ends of beams, which being venr ilioit« 
required le{s time for prep^ing them» and in conieq^eacf 
-wrtft more frequently diicha^gcd. He had beûdcs made final] 
chafms or loop-holes in the walls at little didances, whefc.hc 
had placed f fcorpions, which not carry in|r far, woaaded 
thofe who approached, without being perceived but by chK 

When the Romans, according to their deiign, had gained 
the foot of the walb, and thought themfelves very well co< 
vered, they found themfelves expofed cither to an infinity ct 
darts, or overwhelmed with ilones, which fell direâly npoi 
their heads ; there being no part of the wall which did no 
continually pour that mortal hail upon them. This obligei 
them to retire. But they were no fooner removed, than \ 
new difchargc of darts overtook them in their retreat ; fo tha 
they loft great numbers of men, and «Imofi all their gallie 
were difabled or beat to pieces, without being able to reveng 
their lofs in the leaft upon their enemies. For Archimede 
had planted moft of his machines in fecurity behind the wallf 
and the Romans, fays Plutarch, repulfed by an infinity c 


* Tie fuintal, vhicb tht Cruh T«?», wjf rf feverél Itindt. 
7ti haft Wiigkmi iz^fondi tèt Itrg^ 
mtt ttgn X2CQ. 

+ 7î« ficttfom tpff^ mé.'kimn i 
ufnilm Jiffbsfgitg dgrit m 

tbi nature 



or SYR A eus* K 33 

widioat (being the place or hand from which they 
;emed to fi((ht in reality with the gods. 
sllus, though at » lofs what to do, and not knowing 
ppofe the machines of Archimedes, could not, how-* 
rDcar pleafantries upon them. •* Shall we pcrfift," 
ohis workmen and engineers» *^ in making w:ir with- 
Iriareiis of a geometrician» ^ho treats my gallies and. 
icas fo rudely ? He infinitely exjceeds the fabled gâtants. 
their hundred hands, in his perpetual and furprizing 
irges upon us." Marcellus had reafon-. for refening 
medes only. For the Syracufans were really nomore> 
mbers of the engines and machines of that great geo^ 
n, who was himfelf the foul of all their powers and 
ns. All other arms were unemployed, for the city ao. 
e made ufe of none, either defcnfivc ox ofFcnfivc, but 
Archimedes « 

sllus at length perceiving the Romans ib, much inti- 
y that if they (aw upon the walls only a fmall cord, 
eaft piece of wood, tney would imme(uately fly» cry* 
'that Archimedes was going to difcharge feme dread- 
hinc upon them ; he renounced his hopes of being 
inalce a breach in the place» gave over his attacks, and 
lit fiege into a blockade. The Romans conceived 
1 no other refource than to reduce the great number 
te in. the city by famine, in cutting off all provifion».^ 
|[ht be brought to them either by fea or lazkd. Puring' 
t months in which they beficeed the city» there were 
. of ftratagems which thev did not invent» nor any 
of valour left untried, almnft to the a/lault, which 
^r dared to attempt more. So mucli force, upon fomo 
f^ have a finglc man, and a Angle fcicnce, when rightly 
'. Deprived Syracufe of only one old man,, the great 
of the Roman arms muft inevitnbly take the city; 
ptèfcnce arreils and difconccrts all tlicir dcfigns. 
rrc fee, which J cannot repeat too often, how much 
princes have in prnie»Jling arts, favonrinp; the Icirnrd, 
ging academics of fcicnce by honourable dilHndions 
liai rewîirds, which never ruin or impovcrilh a ilatc. 
thing in this place of the birth and nobility of Archi- 
he was not indebted to them for the happiuefs of his 
and profound knowled^^e: 1 confidcr liimonlyas a 
man, and an excellent jv'onietrician. Wliat a lofs h:id 
; fuftained, if to have faveJ a fmall expence and p-.-n- 
ch a man had been abandoned to inaiftion and obfeu- 
ieio was fur from fuch a eoadud. lie kQc»v all the 

^ S valu» 



value of our geometrician; and it is no vulvar merit in g 
prince to underlland that of other men. He placed it in ho- 
nour ; he made it ufeful; and did not flay till occaticn or 
neccffity obliged him to do fo ; which would have been too- 
late. By a wife forefight, the true character of a great prince 
and a great mini ft er, in the very • arms of peace he provided 
all that was neceflary for fupporting a iiege, and making wir 
with fucccfs ; thoug» at th?-t time there was no appearance of 
any thing to be apprehended from the Romans, with whom 
Syracufe was allied in the ftri^lcft manner. Hence wer« ftea, 
to arifc in an inftant, as out of the earth, an incredible num-. 
bcr of machines of every kind and fize, the very fight of which 
were fuflîcient to ftrike armies with terror and confufion. 

Tkeffe is, ampngft thefe machines, of which wc can 
fcr^rce crfîîcéive the cffeéls, what might tempt us to call their 
reality in queftion, if it were allowable to doubt the evidence 
of writer^, fuch, for inllance, as Polybius, an almoft contenH 
porary author, who treated fliâs entirely recent, and fuch as 
V.'cre well known to ell the world. But how can wc refufe 
our confent to the united authority of Greek and Roman 
hiftorianr, in regard to circumftances of which whole armies 
v/ere wirneFrs, in experiencing the efFefts, and which had ib 
great an in:!..cnce in the events of the war? What pafled in ilegc of Syracufe fhews how high the ancients nad car- 
ried their genius and art in befieging and fupporting fieges. 
Our artillerj', which fo perfeflly imitates thunder, has not 
more etfedl nian the engines of Archimedes, if they have for 

A burning glafs is fpoke of, by the means pf which Ar- 
chimedes is faid to have burnt part of the Roman fleet. That 
mud h.ive been an extraordinary invention ; but as no anci- 
ent autlior mentions it, it is no doubt a modern tradition vàth-* 
est any foundation. Buming-glafFes were known to antiquity,. 
bur not pf that kind» which indeed feem impraticable, 

^/> After Marcellus had refolved to confine himfelf to the 
"blockade of Syracufe» he left Appius before the place with 
two thirds of thv army, advanced with the other into the ifland^ 
aiMl brought ever fome cities to the Roman intereil. 

At the fame time Himilcon» general of the Carthaginians» 
arrived in Sicily with a great army, in hopes of reconquer- 
iag !t, and expelling the Romans* 

Hippocrates left Syracufe with lOyOOO foot and 500 horfe 


(t) A. M. 1701. An. Dom. ft 13. Lsv. L suv. n. 35, 3t. 
* In p^cf» ut fapicns, apt^rit Idonea br!lo. JUt-atm 

o>p* syra'cuse; sk 

tl^jfttfi'bini, and carry on the war ift'coneert agalnft Mârcel- 

Iss. Epicydes remained in the city» to command there dur- 

ingtbr blockade. 

The fleets of the two dates appeared at the fame time om 

the Goaftof Sicily ; but that of the Carthaginians,, feeing it- 
felf weaker than the other, was afraid .to vent urea battle, andi 
fiion failed back for Carthage. . 

Marcellus had continued eight months before Syracufe with*. 
Ap{ûus, according to Pôlybius, when the year of h'is conful- 
fliip expired. lAvy places the expedition of Marcellus in Si- 
oUyr and his viflory over Hippocratcsy in this year, whichi 
mnft have been the fécond year of the fit*ge. And indeed 
livy has given us no account of this fécond year, bccaufe he 
had afcribed to thefirft whatpaiJed in the fécond. For it is> 
hirtl]^ improbable, that nothing memorable happened in it. . 
This is tlKconjeé^ure of Mr. Crevicr, profeffor of rhctorick 
in the college of Beuuvais, \v4io publiihed a new edition of' 
Livy, with remarks, and with which 1 am convinced the put- 
lick were well pleafed. The firft. volume of the fidd work 
contains a long preface, - which is well worth readings 

Marcellus therefore employed a great part of the fécond* 
year of the fiege in fevcral expeditions into Sicily. In his return t 
romAgri gen turn, upon which he had made an efFe^ual at-- 
tenpt, ne came up with the army of Hippocrates, which he de 
faitcd, and killea above 8000 m en /Phis advantage kept thofe- 
ia their duty, who had entertained thou f^hts ongoing over to» 
the Carthaginians. After. the gaining of this- vidory^ he re- 
turned aeainft Syracufe, and having difmiiTéd Appius for.- 
Rome, wno went thither, to demand the confulihip^ he put > 
Crifpinus into his place.* 

fmj In the beginning of ' the third campaign; Marcellus,. 
alaioft abfolutcly defpairing of being able to take Syracufe», 
cither by force, btcaufe Archimedes ccntimially oppofed himi 
mih invincible obRncles^.or fiimine, ns the Oarthaginian fleet, . 
which was returned more numerous than before, eafily threw 
in convoys» deliberated whether h^ fhnuld continue 'before 
Syracufe to puih the ftege, or turn- his endeavours againfl 
Agrigentnm. But before he came to :i final determinnion,. 
he tlu>ugh it proper to try whether he could not raak^ him- 
ielfmafter. lit Syracufe by fomc Iccret intelligence.- There 
were many in his camp, who had taken refuse 
there in the bcr^rinning of the troubles» A* Have of one* of thefe ■ 
focrctly cariicd on an. intrigue, in which • fourfcore of the 

C 6- principle I 

fm) A. M. 3 92. Ant. J. C\ ail. Liv, I. xxv. n. 23, 3>. I*lu^.«|ii 


^iiincipal perfous of the city engaged, who cume in compa- 
nlca la confult with him in his camp» concealed in barks un- 
(it'r the nets of fiflicrmcn. The confplmcy was on the point 
of taking «fFeâ, when a perfon namea Attalus, in rcfentment 
for not having been admiitcd into it> difcovered the whole to 
Epicyde&-, who put all the confpirators to death. 

This ciitcr[)rize having mifcarried in this manner, Marcellui 
found himfelf in new dilficultjes. Nothing employed his 
thoughts butthcgriefandlhameof raifingaficge, after having 
confumcd fo niucn time, and fuAainedthc lofs of fo many men 
and (hips in it. An accident fupplicd him with a refource, 
and gave new life to his hopes Some Roman vcflels hstd 
taken one Damippus, whom Epicydcs had fent to negotiate 
with Philip king of Macedon. The Syracufans exprefled a 
great deiire to ranfom tliis man, and Marcel lus was not averfc 
to it. A place near the port Trogilus was agreed on for the 
conferences concerning the ranfom of the prifoncr. As the 
deputies went thither fcveral times, it came into a Roman 
foldicr's thoughts to confider the wall with attention. After 
having counted the Hones, and examined with his eye the 
meafure of each of them, upon a calculation of the height of 
the wall, he found it to be much lower than it was believed, 
and concluded that with ladders of a moderate fixe it might 
be eafily fcaled. Without lofs of time he related the whole 
CO Marcellus. The general is not always the only wife man 
in an army ; a private foldier may fometimcs furnifh him 
iK^ith important hints. Marcellus did not neglcél this advice» 
and aflured himfelf of its reality with his own eyes. Having 
caufed ladders to be prepared, he took the opportunity of a 
fcAival, tliat the Syracufans celebrated for three days in ho- 
nour of DLana, during which the inhabitants gave thenfelves 
up entirely to rejoicing and good cheer. At the time of night 
when he conceived that the Syracufans, after their debauch, 
began to grow drowfy and fall afleep, he made looo chofe» 
troops, in profound Akncc, advance with their ladders to the 
wall. When the firll got to the top without noife or tumult, 
(he others followed, encouraged b^ the boldncfs and fncceff 
of their leaders. The fc i coo fold i era, taking the advantage 
of the enemy's flillnefs, who were either drunk or afleep, 
1«ron fcaled the wall. Having thrown down the great gate of 
Mexapylum, they took the quarter of the city called Epipolis. 

It was then no longer time to deceive, but terrify the ene- 
my. The Syracufans, awakened by the noife, beean to ronze, 
and to prejMre for a£lion. Marcellus m.ide all nis trumpets 
found togetlicr, whi(.h fg frightened and alarmed thomt ihat 


all the inhabitants fled, believing every quarter of the city 
is the pofleiDon of the enemy. The (Irongeft and beft part, 
howevery called Achradina, was not yet taken, becauie fe- 
panted by its walls from the reft of the city. 

Marcellus at day-break entered* Villanova, or the new 
city, by the quarter called Tycha. Epicydes, having immedi- 
ately drawn up (one troops, which he had in the iile adjoining; 
to Achradina, marched againfl Marcellus : but finding him 
fiionffer and better attended than he expe^ed, after a flight 
flkirmifli, he fliot hirofelf up in the quarter Achradina. 

All the captains and ofHcers with Marcellus congratulated 
him upon this extraordinary fuccefs. For himfelf, when he 
had confidered from an eminence the loftinefs, beauty, and 
extent of that citv, he is faid to have flied tears, and to have 
deplored the unhappy condition it was upon the point of ex* 
per^encing. He called to mind the two powerful Athenian fleets 
which had been funk before this city, and' the two numerous 
armies cut in pieces, with the illuflrious generals who com- 
aianded them : The many wars fuftained with fomuch valour 
againft the Carthaginians : The many famous tyrants and po- 
tent kings, Hiero particularly, whofe memory was flill re- 
cent, who had flgnalized hmfelf by fo many royal virtues,, 
and llill more, by the important fervices he had rendered the 
Ronun people, whole interefls had always been as dear to 
him as his own. Moved by that réflexion, he believed it 
^ incumbent upon him, before he attacked Achradina, to fend 

I to the befleged, to exhort them to furrender voluntarily, and 
prevent the ruin of their city. His remonftrances and ex- 
noitations had no efledt. 
To prevent interruption by his rear, he then attacked a 
I fert called Eurylaus, which lay at the bottom of the new 
! town, and commanded the whole country on the land-flde. 
After having carried it, he turned all his efforts againft 

Duringthefe tranfa^flions, Hippocrates andHimilcon arrived.. 
The firil with the Sicilians having placed and fortified his 
camp near the great gate, and giving the fignal to thofe who 
were in poflefllon of Achradina, attacked the old camp of 
the Romans, in which Crifpinus commanded : F.picydcs, at 
the fame time made a fally upon the pofls of Marcdlus. Nci- 
therof thefe enterprizes was fucccfsful. Hippocrates was vi- 
goroully repulfcdoy Crifpinus, who purfned him as fur as his 
CDCrenchments, and Marcellus obliged Kpicvdes to Huit liim- 


• 7he ««I» fî^y, tr NiopcUtt «rwa» 
mW EftfaHtt and im tbt latter tia.ts 

lad hfen fikeninto (he litj jkJ fur- 
ii,ur,d(d Wi(h wails ^ 


(elf up in Achradîna. As it w;!» then autumn, there tiapfe- 
pcned a plagucr, which killcti great numbers in the cit\% and» 
ÎHll marc in the Roman and Carthaginian camps. The di- 
Aenipcr was not exccflivc at firil, and pccKccdcd only from» 
the Dad air and Icai'on : but aftt-rwards ihe communication 
with ihc iiifeè\C(.1, and txim the caretak:'n of thcni, ditjperied: 
the contagion ; from whence it happened, that fome, neglec- 
ted and abfolutcly abandoned, died of the wolence of the- 
malady, and others received help, which became fatal Uh 
thole will) brought it. Death, and the fight of fuch as woe. 
buried, continually preicnted a mournful. obieÛ to the eycr 
of the living. N^nhing was heard night and day» but groans- 
.ind lamentations. At lengthy the being ace uftomed tn the evil. 
had hurdcDL'd their heurtai to fuch a degree, and fo farextia* 
guiihed all fenl'c of compafliou in them, that the)' not only 
ccalVd to grieve for the dead, but left them without inter- 
ment. Ni)thing was to be icon every where but dead bodies, 
txpofed to the vu-w ot' ihofe who expeded the fame fate. The 
Carthaginians fuii'ercd much more from it than the others* 
As they had no place to retire to, they almoft all peri(hed» 
with their generals Hippocrate* and liimilcnn. Marcel! a»,, 
from the breaking out oi the difeafe, had brought his foldiers 
into the city, where the roofs and ftiade was of great relief to 
the:n ; he loll, however, no inconfidcrable number of men. 

Bomxicar, notwithllanding, y^ho commanded the Cartha- 
ginian fleet, and had made a (ècond voyage to Carthage to 
bring a new fupply, icturned with 130 ihips, and 700 tranf- 
ports. He was prevented by contrary winds from doubUn|f 
the cape of Pachynus. Kpicydcs, who was afraid, that if. 
thofe winds continued, this fleet niit>ht be difcouraged and 
return to Africa, left Achradinatu the care of the generals of 
the mercenary troops, and went to Bomilcar, whom he per» 
fuadcd to try the event of a naval battle. Marcellus, feeing 
the troops of the Sicilians encreafed every day, and that ii' he . 
flayed» and fuii'ered himfelf to be Ihut up in Syracufe» he 
iliouldbe very muih prelled at the fame time both by fea and* 
land, refolved, though not fo ftrong in (hips, to oppofe the 
pafl;ige of the Carthaginian fleet. As foon as the high winds 
abatcii, Bomilcar flood to fea in order to double the cape : 
But when he faw the Roman Ihips advance towards hîm in 
good order, on a fuddcn, for what reafon is not faid» he took 
to flight, fcnt orders to the tranfports to regain Africa, and" 
retired toTarentum. Kpicydes, who had been difappointed. 
ia fuch great hopes, and was apprehenflvf of returning into a 
city alicady half taken, made ûil fox Agrigentam» rather 


dcfign to wait the event of the iie^ in that place, than 
to make any new attempt from thence. 

When it was known in the camp uf the Sicilians, that Epi. 
cydes had quitted Syracufe, and the C.-vrthnginians Sicily, they 
lent depaties to Marccllus, after having founded the difpofi- 
tions of the bcfieged, to treat upon the conditions Syracufe 
ftoald furrender. It was agreed with unanimity enough on 
both iides, that what had appertained to the kings ihould ap- 
pertain to the Romans ; that the Sicilians (hculd retain all the 
reft with their laws aud liberty. After thefe preliminaries, 
they demanded a conference \^'ith ihofe Epicydes had charged 
with the government in hi» abfence. Tkey told them, they 
had been lent by the army to Marccllus and the inhabitants 
of Syracufe, in order that all the Sicilians, as well wiihin as 
without the cit} , might have the fame fate, and that no fepa- 
rate convention might be made, having been permitted to 
enter the city, and to confer with their friend^ and relations, 
after having informed them of what they had already agreed 
with Marceilus, and giving them aHu ranees that their lives 
%irould be fafe, they penuadcd them to begin, by removing the 
three governors Epicydes. had left iu his place, which was 
immediately put in execution. 

After whicn» having afiembled the people, they reprefent- 

cd, ** That for whatever miferies they had fufîered tul then, 

*' or ihould fuFer from thenceforth, they ought not to accufe 

*' fortune, as it depended upon themfelves alone to put an 

*' end to them : That if the Romans had undertaken thefiege 

I " of Syracufe, it was out of affedion not enmity to the Syra« 

I " cufans : That it was not till after they had Seen apprized 

I " of the oppreflions they fuffered from Hippocrates and Epi- 

i ** cydes, tnofe ambitious agents of Hannibal, and afterwards. 

I " of Hicronymus, that they had taken arms and began the 

" fiege of the city, not to ruin it, but to dcftroy its tyxants ; 

«' That as Hippocrates was dead, Epicydes no longer in Sy- 

[ " racufe, his lieutenants flain, and the Carthaginians difpof- 

* " fe/Fed of Sicily, both by fea and land, what reafon could 

•• the Romans now have for not inclining as much to pro- 
•• n..^^ S) racufe, as if Hiero, the fole example of faith ta 

fervc S) racufe, as if Hiero, the fole example of faith ta 
" them, were ftill alive } That neither the city nor the in- 
" habitants had any thing to fear but from themfelves, if 
" they let flip the occafion of renewing their amity with the 
" Romans : That they never had fo favourable an opportu- 
nity as the prcfent, when they were jull delivered from the 
violent go\ crament of their tyrants j and that the firil ufe 

•* they 



" they ought to make of their liberty, was to retarn to 
•• duty." 

This difcourfo was pcrfcdlly well received by every 1 
It w.ts however jud^^cd pioper to create new maj^illratts fa 
the nominatinn ol" dcpiitieii ; thi* hitter of whicn were cl 
out of the former. The deputy who (poke in their o 
and who was inllnK^lcil folefy to ufe his utinoft endea 
that Svracufc might not be dcflroyed, addrelTed himft 
Marcelin s to this vff\ii:\ : «• It was not the people of Syra 
•• who firtl broke the alliance, and declared waragainil 
** but Hieronynuis, Icfs criminal Hill to Rome than t 
•* country : And afterwards, when the peace was rcflorc 
•• his death, it was n^t any Syracufan tnat infringed it 
the tyrant's inllniments, Hippocrates and Epicydes. 
were the enemies who have made war agninll you, 
having made us flaves, cither by violence, or fraud 
perfidy ; and it cannot be faid that we have had any I 
of liberty that have not alfo been times of peace with 
At prcfent, as foon as we become mailers of ourfelve 
•• the death of thofe who held Sicily in fubjefkior, wc > 
the very inftant to deliver up to you our arms, our 
fons, our walls, and our city, determined not to refuft 
conditions you flull think fit to impofe. For the j 
continued he, addrefling himfelf always toMarcclhis, •' 
interell is as much concerned as ours. The gods 





%iWiiM4bA\'IIO 1 V/U lIlAit IIIIIIIV Ilk tW JIIIlJVf*%.« A »/i hia< 

intinued he, addrefling himfelf always toMarcclhis, •• 

** granted you the glory of having taken the fined and 
•* illuflrious city pofll-ffed by the Greeks. All we have 
*• atchieved of memorable, either by fea or land, augn 
•' and adorns your triumph. Fame ib not afufficiently f 
•* ful chronicler to make known the treatnefs and lire 
•* of the city you have taken; polleiity can only judg 
*' tliem by its own eyes. It is nccefTary that wc fliould Ok 
•• all travellers, from whatever part ot the uuiverfc they c 
** fomctimes the trophies we have obtained from the / 
*' nians and Carthaginians, and fometinie*: ihufe you 
'* acquired from us ; and that Syracufe, thus placed for 
■« under the proteilion of Marcellu:». may be a hilling 
** eternal monument of the valour and clemency o( him, 
•* took and prefer\'ed it. It ib unjuil that the rcmembr 
•* of Hierouymus fliould have more weight with you 
«• that of Hiero. The hut it was mu:h longer your f\ 
" than the former you enemy. Permit me to fay you 
cNpcrienced the amity of Hiero: But the fenfeltfs e 
prr/es of Ilicronymus h«ivc fallen folely upon hi^ 
" head." 



The difficalty was not to obtnin what they demanded from 
Marcellus, but to prefcrve tranquillity and union amongll 
thofe in the city. I'hc defer ters, convinced that they ihould 
bip delivered up to the Romans, infpired the foreign foldicrs 
with the fame fear. Both the one and the other having there - 
fore taken arras» whilH the deputies were iHH in the camp of 
Marcellus, they began, by cutting the throats of the magt* 
firaies newly elc<^Uu ; and difporfing themfelves on all fides, 
tliey put all to the fwonl they met, and plundered whatever 
fell* in their way. That they might not be wipliout leaders, 
they appointed fix oiiicers, thr«e to command in Achradinn, 
and three in the ifle. The tumult being at length appeal'ed» 
the foreign troops were informed fn)ni all hands, it was con- 
cluded v/ith the Romans, that their caufe fhould be entirr ly 
diftind from tliat of the deferters. At the fame inllant, the 
deputies fent to Marcellus arrived, who fully undeceived 

Amongft thofe who commanded in Syracuse, there was a 
Spaniard named Mericus : Him means was found to corrupt. 
, He gave up the gate near the fountain Arethufa to foldiers, 
ifiutby Marcellus in the night to take pofleflion of it. At 
day* break the next morning, Marcellus made a falfe attack at 
Achxadina, to draw all the forces of the citadel, and the ifle 
idjoining to it, to that ûde, and to facilitate the throwing 
feme troops into the^ifle, which would be unguarded, by fomo 
yttkh he had prepared. Every thing fucceeded acconling to 
his plan. The foldiers, whom thofe veflels had landed in the 
ifle, finding almoft all the polls abandoned, and the gates by 
which the garrifpn of the citadel had marched out againlt 
Marcellus Sill open, they took poflTefiion of them after a flight 
encounter. Marcellus having received advice that he was 
Qafier of the ifle, and of part of Achradina, and that Mcri- 
caj, with the body under his command, h:id joined his troops» 
ordered a retreat to be founded, that the trc.iiiireh of the kings 
might nut be plundered. They did not rife fo high in their 
amount as was im<ngincd. 

The deferters having efcapcd, a paifagc being exprefly 
left open for them, the Syracufans opened all thrir j^aie.s 10 
Marcellus, and fent deputies to him with inil radiions to de- 
mand nothing furthvrfroni him, than the prcfervrition of the 
lives of thcmfelves and their children. M:irc(:lluH havin^r 
aflVmbled his council, and fome Syracufans who were in his 
camp, jjave his anfwer 10 the deputies in llieir prrfciice : 
" That Hiero, for fifty yew., had \u.t done the Konian 
" people more good, than tliofe who had bc'-n ni.if!crs of 

*' Syracufc 

4» T H E II I S T O R Y 

' Syracufc fomc years paft, had intended to do thexn h 
' but that their ill-will had fallen upon their oivn heads 
' they had punilhcd themfeives for thek violation of tr< 
' in a more fcvere manner than the Romans could hai 
' fired That he had befiegcd Syracufe during three } 
' not that the Roman people might reduce it into fla 
' but to prevent the chiefs of the rcvoltcrs from contii 
' it under oppreHion : That he had under^ne many fat 
' and dangers in folong a fiege; but that he thought he 
' made himfelf ample amends by the glory of having l 
' that city, and the fatisfa<flion of having faved it froi 
' entire ruin it feemed to defervc " After having piai 
guard upon the treafurv, and fafc-guard» in the houies c 
oyracufans, who had withdrawn into his camp, he aband 
Ihe citv to be plundered by the troops. It is reported, 
the riches which were pillaged in Syracufe at this time 
ceedcd all th^ could nave been expe^ed at the takir 
Carthage itfdf. 

An unhappy accident interrupted the joy of Marcellus 
gave him a very fenfible afBidtion. Archimedes, at a 
when all things were in this confufion at Syracufe, Hi 
in his clofet like a man of another world, who had n 
gard for what paflbd in this, was intent upon the ftudy of 
geometrical figure, and not only hi» eyes, but the who 
Cttlties of his foul, were fo engaged in this contempli 
that he had neither heard the tumult of the Romans, 
yerfally bufy in plundering, nor the report of the city' 
ing taken. A foldier on a fudden comes in upon- him, 
bids him follow him to Marcellus. Archimedes dcftred 
to ftay a moment, till he had folved his problem, and fir 
the demonftration of it. '^J'he foldier, who regarded n< 
his problem nor dcmondration, enraged at this delay, 
his Avord and killed him. Marcellus was exceedingly a 
ed, when he heard the news of his death. Not beinj 
to reilore him to life, of which he would have been very 
he applied himfelf to honour his mcmorv to the utmoll i 
power. He made a dilij;ent fearch zfttr all his relai 
treated them with great dillinflion, and granted then 
culiar privileges. As for Archimedes, he caufed his fu 
to be celebrated in the moil folemn manner, and ereé^ec 
a monument amongft the great peribns who had diftingv 
tl^enifel vea moll at Syracuk. 



Sect. I. Tcmè r/" Archimedes dijco^vercd by Cicero. 

ARCHIMEDES, by his will, had defired his rda i- 
ons and friends to put no other epitaph ou his tomb, 
after his death, but a cylinder circumfcribed by a fphere ; 
that is to fay, a globe or fpherical figure ; and to fet down 
ftt the bottom the relation tnofe two folids, the containing and 
the contained, have to each other. He might have filled up 
the bnfes of the columns of his tomb with relie voes, wheie- 
cm the whole hiftory of the fiege of Syracufe might have been 
carved, and himfelf appeared like another Jupiter thundering 
vpon the Romans : But he fet an infinitely higher value upon 
a dUcover}*, a geometrical demçnftration, than upon all the 
fe-mach celebrated machines of his invention. 

Hence he chofe rather to do himfelf honour with pol^eri- 
ty, by the difcovery he had made of the relation of a fphere 
to a cylinder of' the fame bafe and height ; which is as two 
to three. 

The Svracufans, who had been in former times fo fond of 
the iciences, did not long retain the efteem and gratitude 

Bov^-ed a man who had done fo much honour to their city. 
than 140 years after, Archimedes was fo perfectly forgot 
lis citizens^ notwithftanding the ereat fervices he had done 
f£eDi that they denied his having l>een buried at Syracufe. 
It is from Cicero we have this circumllance. 

fa) At the time he was quxftor in Sicily, his curiofity 
induced him to make a fearch after the tomb of Archimedes ; 
a curiofity that became a man of Cicero's genius, and which 
merits the imitation of all who travel. The Svracufans af- 
fored him, that his fearch would be to no purpofc, and that 
there wi^s no fuch monument amongft them. Cicero pitied 
their ignorance, which only ferved to increafe his délire of 
making that difcovery. At length, after feveral fruitlefs at- 
tempts, he perceived, without the gate of the city facing 
Agngentum, amongft a great number of tombs in that place, 
a pillar almofl intirely covered with thorns and brambles, 
through which he could difccrn the figure of a fphere and cylin- 
der, Thofe who have any talle for antiquities may eafily con- 
ceive the joy of Cicero upon this occafion. He cried out» 
• that he found ivhat he loukcd for. The place was immedi- 
ately ordered to be cleared, when they faw the infcription llill. 


(a) Cic. Tiifc. Qujef^, I. v. rx. 64, 66. 
* Eifr,ya in serb. AichitUi 


lf',»ibK', tlioiijL;h |)iirt of the lints were obliterated by limCi 
* Si> tint, fays (Jicrro, in cnricluding his account, the ^rcatcil 
city of (ifcfeie, «iiid mofl fl< urilhing of old in the ftudies of 
fci( lire, would not have known the triNifure it poflefled» if a, bun In .1 country it confulcred iilinoil as barb.trouSy 
had not difcnvcrod for it the tomb of its ciri?^]. To highly 
diflinp,uilhcd by force and penetration of mind. 

V/r ;irc oblijTcd to Cicero for h;ivinp left us this curious Bad 
e]t*pint account: But wc c.innot cafily pardon him the con- 
trnipruous manner in which he fpc.iks at iirll of Archimcdei- 
]ti.>> in th('be{^inRir^f,,wheiei:itcnJingto compare the unhappy 
lifr of Dinnyfiu*. the tyr.ini with the felicity of one palfcu m 
folur virtue, and .ilxiunding with wifdom» he (avs f : " I 
•* '.vill not cou'.p.ire the lives of a IMalo or an iVrchitus» per- 
*' ('>ns of cnnfumiM.ite Icr-rnint; ;ind wifdom, with that of 
'* Dionynu:., the moll horrid, the moll roifeiabic, and the 
•• moil detcftable that can be imafpned. I ihall have ro 
•• courle to a man of hi> own citv, a littlk ouacuRI 
•' pr.RsoN, who lived many years after him. I fhall pro- 
'* duce him from his | dull, and bring him upon the Aage 
" with his rule and compalTcs in his hand." Not to men- 
tion the birth of Archimedes, whole greatncfs wai of A 
diffmnt clafs, the jjreatefl geomctrician|of aniiquity, whole 
fublimc difcovcries nave in all ages been the acfmiration of 
the learned, flinuld Cicero have treated this m r.i as little and 
obfrure as a common artificer, employed in making ma- 
cliincN? unlefs it be, perhapi, lucauie the Roman;-, with 
whom a tade for geometry and fuch fpeculative fiiences never 
ainrd much ground» eilcemed nothing great but what re- 
ated to government and policy. 

Orabunt caufas melius, cœliqnr mentu.n 
Defcribcnt radio, 6c furtrentia fulcra diccnt : 
Tu regcrc impcrio populos, Roma ne, memento. 

ViK(jii.. i£n. 6. 

Fsrt ofhrrt better fnoU the runnin^r meiff '% 

Of Metrtis, ami infatn the breathing brafs^ > 

Andft^ftcn intojiijb a marble fact ; J 



* Itj nobilifTima Orxcia? cîvitxf, vcro rtî.nn ilm'linimj, fui 
civil iiniu« «rutilfimi monumciitiim 
igrioriMct, iiiU ^b hoinine Aiptnale 

f- Nun ergo j^im cum hujus vita, 
qui tririin, m-liriir., ili'h'niiliilins 

KC'Jgiurc fiiliil i^uHunij Plaiviii» «ul 

ArchitiF vitam comparibo, dnOorum 
hnmfnum 8c plane fipientum. Ki 
radcm urlic Ili'M 11. ■ m Homunci- 
riKftM a pulvcrr ft radio cxcilibo, 
ry\\ niuliia aiinii pod fuît» Archi- 

t lie wjjii tbt iliÊp t^té bj £ffc 


^Itad hitter at the har^ defer ihe thejkies^ 

Jin J nvhen the ft ar s dtfeend and wulru they rife ; 

^ir/i Rome^ *fh thine aUne ivith ttiy/ul fiivay ^ 

^c rnie mtè^kind^ ttnd make the ivorla </i^.- y ; > 

Dijpofing piaei and <ivary thy onvn mtijtjiick *way. 3 


fxj This is the Abbe Fraguier's refle^lion in the (hort dif- 
Ikrtation he has left us upon this palfagc of Cicero. 

Sect, II. Summary of the hiftory of Syraetife. 

THE ifland of Sicily, with the grcatcR part of Italy, ex- 
tending between the two fcas, compofed whit was 
called Gr:vcia Major, in oppofition to Greece properly fo 
called, which had peopled all thofc countries by its colo* 

Syracufe was the mofl confidcrable city of Sicily, and one 
of ttie moil powerful of all Circcce. fyj It was founded by 
Archit.i8 the Corinthian, in the third year of the fcventeenth 

The two firft apes oF its hillory are very obfcure, and 
therefore we arc filcnt upon tlicm. It dors not bcein to be 
known till after the rci^n of Ctdon, and furnifhcs m the fe* 
^imI many great event», for the fpace of more than aoa 
years. During all that time it exhibits a perpetual alterna- 
live of ilavery under the tyrants, and liberty under a popular 
government; till Syracufe i» at length fubjcdcd to the Ro- 
mans, and makes part of their empire. 

I have treated aU thefe events, except the lafl, in the or- 
der of time. But as they :ire cut into difForunt ff^^ions, and 
difperfcd in diilcn-nt books, we thought proper to unite 
them here in one point of view, that ths-ir fi^rics and connec- 
tion might be the more evident, from their bring (hrwn to- 
Mther and in ;ronr*-:iI, and die places poinied out, where 
ihev are treated with dur cxlrnt. 


(xj (jFf.on. 'I'hr ^.'anh.nMiiiîins, in ronctrt with Xcrxo^, 
having aitatkcd the (trccks who inh.iMted Sicily, whilil 
prince was einploye»! in nuikini^ an irruption into Cîreece; 
Gclon,wko h:ulniadeliimfeH inall'TotSyra. ufi\v br:MUpd a ce- 
leb ratinl viclory over the (.artha'^inian.^, the v- :y uay of the 
battle of 'I'hernnMnhe. Ilainilear, their pcucrai, was killed 
in thi« battle. I lillorians {'{h :;L ditrerently of his death, whieli 
has occuiioneJ luv i.iliini» into u contradiction. I' or on one 


(x) Af.irtiin of lit ttititltmy if inj\n'f*fi-nt, /V. /' 
^) Ai M. 3 '95. (*J A.M. 3510. 


fide I fuppofe, with * Diode rus Siculus, that he was killed 
bv the Sicilians in the buttle ; And on the other I fsy, after 
llerodotus, that to avoid the Ihame of fun'iving his, 
he threw hiinfelf into the pile, iu which he had fucriiiced 
human viflims. 

(a) Gelon, upon returning from his viélory, repai|«d to 
the aiTembly without arms or guards, to eive tjie people an 
account ok' his condud. He ^'as chofen King unanimcoily. 
He reigned five or lix years folely employed in the truly royal 
care of making his people happy. Book II. part z. - B. VU. 
ch. 2. feci. I. \ 

fhj HiBRO I. Hicro, the eldefl of Gelon*s brothers» fuc- 
ceeded him. The beginning of his reign was worthy of great 
praife. Simonides and Pindar celebrated him in emulation cf 
each other. The latter part of it did not anfwer the former. 
He reigned eleven ycais. Book VÏI. ch. 2. fcft. t. 2d div. 

(cj Thrasibvlt^?. Thrafibuhis his brother fucccedcd 
him* He rendered himfclf odious to all his fubjefls, by his 
vices and cruelty. I'hey expelled him the throne and city, 
after a reign of one year. B. VU ch. 2. feel. !• 3d. divxâon. 

^'imes cfUiertw 

(d) After his expulfion, Syracufe and all Sicily enjoyed 
their liberty for the fpace of almoll fixiy years. 

An annual fciUval was inftituted to celebrate the day upon 
which their liberty was re-ellabliflicd. 

Syractiji attacktd Ij the AihtniaHS. 

(f) During this interval, tlie Athenian:;, animated by the 

warm exhortations of Alcibiadcs, turned their arms againll 

Syracufe ; this was in the lixth year of the Peloponnefian war. 

How fatal the event of this war was to the Athenians, may 

I be feen, H. VII. ch. end of fed. 6. 

(fj DiONYsius //'v i'îiùr. The reign of this prince is fa- 
mous for it-î length of thirty -eight years; and Hill more for 
the extraordinary events with which it was attended. Book II» 
part I. ch I. — ti. I. part I. 

(gj Dionyfius thf yomigir. Dionyfius, (on of the elder Dio- 
nylius, fucccedcd him. He contrafls a particular intimacy 
vith Plato, and has frequent converfations with him ; who 
comes to his court at the requeil of Dion, the near relation 


(0) A. M, 3515. (h; A. M. 353'. ft) A. M. 3?43. 

/ilM.M. 35x4. frjA. M. ^^SK. ^/^ A. M. 3598. ('xJ A, M. 363». 

* In tit h.jlfy •/ ibi Cêrttjginiûmt* 


Dion^'Ctts. He did not long improve from the wife pre- 
pts of that philofopher, and Toon abandoned himielf to all 
^e vices and exce/Tcs which attend tyranny. 
fb} Bdirged by Dion, he efcapes from Sicily, and retires 
ito Italy. 

(i) Dion's excellent qualities. He is aflaffinatcd in his 
wn houfe by Cillippus. 

(k) Thirteen months after the death of Dion, Hipparinus, 
»rother of Dion^fius the younger, expels Callippus, and elta- 
»li{hea himfelf in Syracufe. During the two years of his 
reign Sicily is agitated by great commotions. 

(i) Dionyfius the younger, taking advantage of thofc trou- 
bles, rc-alcends the throne ten years after having quitted it. 

(m) At lad, reduced by Timoleon, he retires to Corinth. 
Book II. part. 2. ch. 1 — B. XI. fed. 5. 

Times of liberty. 

(ft) Timoleon reftores liberty to Syracufe. He paHrs the 
reft of his life there in a glorious retirement, belovea and ho- 
noured by all the citizens and llrangers. B. XI. ch 2. fe^. 6. 

This interval of liberty was of no long duration. 

(oj Agathoclis Agathocles, in a /hort time, makes 
himfcif tyrant of Syracufe. B. II. part. 2. ch. 1. near the end. 

He commits unparalleled cruelties. 

He forms one of the boldeft defigns related in hiflory ; 
csrries the war into Africa ; makes himfelf mailer of the 
ftroneeft places, and ravages the whole country. 

After various events he pcri(hes miferably. He reigned 
about twenty-eight years. 

Times of liberty, 

(P) Syracufe took new life again fur fome time, and tailed 
wiin joy thr iwcets of libeity. 

But Ihe luiTcrcd much from the Carthaginians, who di- 
fturbcd her tranquiillty by continual war:». 

She called in \*\ rrlui?! to hfr aid. 'I'hr rapid fucccfs of hi, 
aMn'=, at firll, îî.i\'' him onMt h 'jh-s. which iuun vaiiilhed. 
I'yiihu', bv a fuiKicu retreat, pluiiiM-d the 5)yracuians into 
new mi. .for tu ne'.. \\ I, part 2. ch. 2. near the end. B. XVI. 
coiiiiiiucd, Vul. VI. i'ci'L 7. 

Ill I- KO II. Thfy were not hippy .nnd in trariciiiillity till 
the reî^,n oi Ifiero II. which was very louj^, and almOil al- 
way:> paciii'.k. 

Hll RO- 

(} » A. M. 3fi.-,4. (\) A. M. '^r)4fi. (k' A. M. -^fi^;, 

^l) A. M. ifis.j. (rx' A. .M. <0(;7. (>.) A. M. 36^^, 

' (^) A. M, 31:5. (l) A. M 3713. 

• Sîri'iat civitatce f\c in amîi- 
tîim re-erimus, ut codtm iorc 
ciTent, <]uo fi.iflcnr ; rad. m conditt- 
one pepii o R. parèrent qua fuis an- 
tea p^ruiiTcni. Cic, 

"f* Omniiim r.atiorum exterarum 
fHxnceps Siciîi.i f? ad amiciriam fi- 
d^-mi^iie populi R. appiicuit : prima 
(mniiim, id qtiod orn^mcntnm im- 
pc !i c:^, provinciaedappellata: pri- 
ma .luuit majores noi'ros, quam 
prarclarum rHci exteris gcQlibus im- 
peraie— Itaque majoribus AOÛiis in 

Afrîcam ex hacprovinciagradus im- 
perii fiL^liis c^. Neque enim taa 
facile opes Carluginis tanix conci* 
dilfent, nifi lUiid, & rci fruaiemarÎB 
lub6dium, & recept.:rulum rlifiïbut 
noflrit patprrt. Quatc P. ^ fricanvi» 
C.'fthvg'ne dcUtai Siculorum urbes 
lîgni» monumeniifju- pulcherritnît 
rxornjvit ; tit, quo^ viÂoria ropulî 
R. KTtr.ri arbitra haM.r. arnd roi mo- 
numenta vîAoïife plurîma collocaict. 
Cic, Vtrr. 3. n. 2, 31 


Hie RONY MU s. Hc fcarcc reigned one year. His deatif 
was followed with great troublef, and the taking j>f Syracnle 
by Marcel] us. 

After that period, what pa/Ted in Sicily to its total reduc- 
tion is little remarkable. There were Hill fome remains of 
war fomented in it by the partifans of tyranny, and the Car- 
thaginians who fupported them : But thofe wars had no con- 
fequence, and- Rome was foon abfolute miftrefs of all Sicily. \ 
Half the ifland had been a Roman province from the treaty 
which put an end to the fîrll Punick war. By that treaty 
Sicily was divided into two parts ; the one continued îft the 
pofTeflion of the Romans, and the other under the govern- 
ment of Hiero ; which la ft part, afrer the furrender of Sy- 
racufe, fell alfo into their hands* 

Sect. III. RefleSlkns upon the go-vemment and cbara3er oftbi 
Syracu/ansy and upon Archimedes. 

BY the taking of Syracufe all Sicily became a province of 
the Roman empire ; but it was not treated as the Spa- 
niards and Carthaginians were afterwards, upon whom a cer- 
tain tribute was impofed as the reward of the Yi£tor)% and 
punifliment of the vanquilhed . ^aji 'uiStor'ne pr^rmiumj ac 
pcena belli, Sicily, in fubmittine to the* Roman people, re- 
tained all her ancient rights and cuftoms, and obeyed them 
upon the fame conditions ihe had obeyed her kings. And flie 
certainly well defer\'ed that privilege and dillindlion. f She 
was the firil of all the foreign nations that had entered into 
alliance and amit)' with the Romans ; the firfl conqueft their 
arms had the glory to make out of Italy ; and the hrft conn- 
tr)' that had given them the grateful experience of command- 
ing a foreign people. The grcateft part of the Sicilian cities 
had exprefTed an onexampled attachment, fidelity and afFec. 
tion for the Romans. . The ifland was aftenvards a kind of 



r-ihclr troops into Africa ; and Rome would not (b eafi- 
B reduced the formidable power of the Carthaginians» 
;y had not fcrved it as a magazine, abounding with 
onSf and a fecure retreat for their fleets. Hence after 
ting and ruin of Carthage, Scipio Africanus thought 
f obliged to adorn the cities of Sicily with a great 
ir of excellent paintings and curious ftatues ; in order 
p0opk» who were fo highly fatisfied with the fucccfs of 
mun armsi might be fennble of its efièâs, and rctida 
ons monuments of their vidtories amongft them. 
\y would hare been happy in being goremed by the 
as, if they had always eiven her^ luch magiftratet at 
u knowing like him m tne obligations of his fundions» 
ike him intent upon the due difcharge of it. It is 
' tdeafing to hear him explain himfclf uponthis fabjeCl ; 

ne does in his defence of Sicily againft Verres, 
er having invoked the eods as witnefles of the fincerity 
At he is ^ing to expoft» he fays : ** In all * the em- 
yments with which tne Roman people have honoured 
to this day, I have ever thought my felf obliged» by the 
ft ficred ties of religion» worthily to difcharve the do* 

of them. When I was made qucftor» I looked upon 
t dignity not as a gratuity conferred upon me for my 
ticalar afe, but as a depofit confided to my vi^iance 
I idclhy. When I was afterwards fent to a£k m that 
Wt I thought all eyes were turned upon me» and that 
perfen and adminiftration were in a manner exhibited 
i fipeAacle to the view of all the world ; and in this 
MBt I not only denied myfelf all pleafures of an ex- 
miaaiy kind, but even thofe that are authorized by 
■re nna neceifitv. I am now intended for aedile. I caU 
gods to witneis, that how honoun^lc forver this dig- 
L. Vin. D riity 

êi\ Immmtèlt t Iti mihil nîa femper, qux Jucvnda Tidcntur 

c rcliquae ciTc, non modo his c&trinrJinariis 

volvntaiem fpemquc 
rftiapopulique R. exiftimatio 
bet, ut r|!0 quos adhunc mihi 
aint popului R. mandjvit, 
aecepi* vt me omnium offici- 
ibAringi rcligione arbitrurcr. 
iflNBT fom faitut, utmihi ho- 
illam mm tarn datum ^uam 
m ac commiflTum put»rem. 
Iimi quapAoram in piovincia, 
iam ocnloft in me unum con- 
kfbiirarer : ut mc quaeUurani- 
auafi in aliquoorbis terras 

2m QUan in aiiquo or du irrrs poiu» ciic 

fCiltfi uiftimarcm j utom- 1 35— — 37* 

cupiditattbu% fed etiam ipfi natura: 
acneccflitaridcnegarcm. Nuncfum 
defignatui irdilit — Ita mihi deoi om- 
net propicios efTc Tclim, ut Umr^i 
mihi jucundilFimus eft hontit populi, 
tamcn ncqua«)uam tantum cipin vo- 
lupt ti«, qu4ni4tm follicitudints & 
laborit, ur hiec ipfa ardilitai, non 
quia nccelTc fuit alicui randiiUto du- 
ta, fed quia (ic oportucrit rcAc collo- 
cata, & judicio populi digno in lero 
pofita t(\c Tidcaiur. CiV. / Vr, 7. a. 

4 I 


•• ;.l:y :^c?m to ni?. I have too juft a fenfe of its weight, not 
to h'dye r/iOre folicituJe and difquiet, than joy and pica- 
furc fV^m it ; Co ir.uch I den re to make it appear, that it 
v.aâ not befiowedcn me by chance, or the neceility of be- 
** ing filled up ; but ccnhded defer\'edly by the clioice and 
** clil-Lenimer.t cf my country." 

All the Roman governcrs were far from being of this cha- 
racter; and Sicilv, above all other provinces, experienced, as 
"^ Cicero feme hr.ti after reproaches V^erres, that they were 
aîmoi"! all of them like fo manv tyrants, who believed ihein* 
^.Ives onlv attended bv the fafces and axes, and xnvelled witk 
the authority of the Roman empire, to excrcifein their pro- 
vince an open rcbbery of the publick with impunity, and 
fo break through ail tj;e barriers of juftice and fhame in fuch 
;i manner, that no man's eflate, life, houfe, or even honour, 
were fafe from their violence. 

Syracufe, from all we have feen of it, ought to appear like 
?. theatre, on which many different and furprizing icenes ha\« 
been exhibited ; cr rather like a fea, fometimes calm and 
untroubled, but oftener violently agitated by winds and flonns. 
always ready to overwhelm it entirely. Wc have feen in 
710 other repul^ick, fuch fudden, frequent, violent, and va- 
rious revolutions : Sometimes enflaved by the moil cruel ty- 
rants, at others under the government of the wifeft kings; 
iometimes abandoned to the capricious will of a populace, 
without either government or rellridlion ; fometimes perfedUy 
docile and fubmifllve to the authority cf law, and the empire 
of reafon, it pafFed alternately from the mofl infupportable 
slavery to tlie moil grateful liberty, from a kind of convul- 
f:ons and frantick emotions, to a wife, peaceable, and regu- 
lar condudl. The reader will eafily call to mind, on the one 
fide, Dionyfius the father and fon, Agathocles and Hierony- 
mus, whofe cruelties made them the objefts of the publick 
hatred and detcftation ; en the other, Gelon, Dion, Timo- 
Icon, and the two Hierocs, ancient and modern, univerfaily 
beloved and revered by the people. 

To what arc fuch oppofxte extremes and vicifTitudes fo con- 
trary to be attributed r Undoubtedly, I think, the levity and 
inconilancy of the Syracafajis, which was their diflinguiihing 


* Nunquam tibi vejilcin mentem, 
Kon libi iJeiico fafces Sc fccures, & 
tzn'.itn imperii vim, Untam:i:e rr- 
r.anier.torum omnium r'igniî-'jr» da. 
tarn; ut cjrum lerum vî &: i'j.'turi- 
latL* on^.i.ia repaguli juiis, puJuris, 
4 uJ.vii r-cri'rir^cici ; kt«03iaiuD 

honi Frardam tuam duceres; nul- 
lius res luia, r.uUus domus daufa, 
nullius \'ni Tepta, nullius pndiciiia 
muni: a, centra tuam cupidiiatcn Se 
audaciaiu poiSct cITc. CU* fmrm 
n. 39. 


Eleriftîck, had a great (hare in them ; but what I am 
iced conduced the moil to them, was the very form of 
government^ compounded of the ariflocratic and do* 
Ltic, that is to fay» divided b^'tween thcfcnatc or ciders, 
ic people. As thei^c was no countcrpoife in Syracuic to 
rt a right balance between thole two bodies, when au- 
y inclined either to the one fide or the other, the go- 
lent preiently changed' either into a violent and cruel 
ny» or an unbridled liberty, without order or regulation. 
'udden confufion at fuch times of ;ill orders of the llate, 

tke way to fovereign power eaiy to the moll ambitious 
Î citizens: To attraft the affection of çhcir country, and 
I the yoke to their fellow-citizens, fome cxercifed that 
r with lenity, wifdom» equity, and popular behaviour ; 
>thers, by nature lefs virtuoully inclined, carried it to 
LÛ cxcefs of the mod abfoluie and cruel defpotifm, un** 
retext of fupporting themfelves açainll the attempts of 
citizens, who, jealous of their liocrty, tliought every 
s for the recovery of it leaitini::te and laudable. 
icre were befides other realons. that rendered the govern- 

of Syracufc difiicult, and tliereby made way for the frc- 
t changes it underwent. That city did not forget the 
I viAories it had obtained again il the formidable power 
ilcsLf and that it had carried its vi^orious arms and terror 

C9 the walls of Carthage ; and that not once onl/, as 
Isards againll the Atheni.ins, but during feveral ap;es. 
high idea its fleets and numerous troops fuggelled of its 
ime power, at the time of the irruption of the Pcrfiaiis 
Greece, occafioned its pretending to equal Athens in 
-efpedl, or at leafl to divide the empire of the fea with 

ides which, riches, the natural efFe£l of commerce, had 
Tcd the Syracufans proud, haughty, and imperious, and 
Ï fame time had plunged them into a floth nnd lu^rury, 
nfpired then^ with a difgull for all fatiruie p.p.d «ppjici- 
They p;cnerally abandoned themfelves l)li:\j!y to tlv.'ir 
rs, who had acvjuired an abfolutc afce'itlaj.t over them. 
icr to make them obcv, it was neceflarv either to ilatCvT 
sroach them. 

,cy had natur.Mly a fund of equity, hmnarjty» J^ndgo^d 
e; and yet when influenced by the feditious dlTcourles 
e orators, they would proceed to cxcclllve violence and 
ties, which thcv immediatclv after npented. 
Ken they were left to themlelves, their liberty, which at 
Lime knew no bounds, foon dej^eneiaiei into caprice, 

D 2 fur". 

51 T H E H I S T O R Y, &c. 

fury, violence» amd I mieht fay even phrenzy. On the cob* 
trary» when they were fubjeCied to the yoke, they became 
bafe, timorous, fubmiffive^ and creeping like flaves. Bat ai 
this condition was violent, and direoly contrary to the chft- 
jraâer and difpofition of the Greek nation, bom and n'ar«' 
tured in liberty, the fenfe of which was not wholly extin- 
Ipiifhed in them, and only lulled alleep ; they waked firom 
time to time from their lethargy, broke their chains, and 
made ufe of them, if I may be a<unitted to ufe the exprdfiooy 
to beat down and deftioy the unjofl mafters who had ia- \ 
pofed them. I 

With a fmal| attention to the whole (cries of the hiftonr of j 
the Syracufans, it may eafdy be perceived, (as Galba afteiu J 
•wards fasd of the Romans) that * they were equally incapft* 
Ue of bearing either entire iibertv or entire lervitnde. So 
that the ability and policy of tho(e who governed them, con- 
lifted in keeping the people to a wife medium between thofe 
frvo extremes, by fecmine to leave them an entire freedom in 
tkdr rdblutions, and leiervin? only to themfelves the care 
«f explaining the utility, and facîfitarînj; the execndon of' 
ffood meafures. And in this the magirorates and kings we. 
have ipoken of were wonderfully fnccefsful, nnder whdfa 
ffovemment the Syracufans always enjoyed peace and tnnqaH- 
-Cty, were obedient to their princes, and perfeftly fiibmiffvt 
to the laws. And this induces mc to conclude, tiiat the levo- 
]atior.« of Syracufe were leis the efFe6t of the peoole's Icvsry, ' 
than the fault of thofe that governed them, wno lud not the 
art of managing; their jpaffions, and engi^ng their uStCdan^ 
which is prqpeny the (cience of kings, and of all who com- 
mai^d others. 

* Imperaturus ci homînîbut, qui nee totsm fcrrkattm p»d.p«Aart|, ait 
totam iibcxtatcBi Tscii. Jii/f. 1. i.-€. sé« 




H I S T O R Y 


P O N T U S. 


TUt bodlfuclndet tlie ipace- of. ilxty years» which is three- 
jt»n mora than the reign of Mithndates ; from the year of 
A« woM 3 830» >to the yeag^ 594^5.: 

fftCT.I. HilTUKiDATBS, cf fwehcjcari oU, afcendt the throne 
^ P^mius, He/eixet. Caffadocia and Bitbynia^ ba-vin^ firjt 
tstfiOed tbeir Âiags, H he Romans re-eftabUjh them. He 
emmfis mli the Romans in Afia Minor to he put to the /word in 
ëmt day. Firfi 'war of the Romans nuith Mith ri D axes, «who 
bad made him/elf metjfer of Afia Minor ^ and Greece y ivhere he 
bad taken Athens. Svlla is charged nvith this ivar. lie 
àefieges and retakes Athens, He gains three great Battles 
mgaiuft the generals of Mithridates. He grants that 
f rince peace in the fourth year of the '<war. Library of Athens ^ 
in nvhich ivere the nvorks £/* Aristotle, Sylla cau/es it 
to be carried to Rome. 

MITHRIDATES. king of Pontus, whofe hiflory 
we are now beginning, and who rendered himfelf io 
fiimous by the war he fupported, during almoil 
thirty years againft the Romans, was furnamed Eupator. He; 
defcendcd from a houfe, which had given a long fuccefîion of 
kings to the kingdom of Pontus. The firft, according to 
fome hillorians, was Artabafus, one of the feven princes that 
flew the Magi, and fet the crown of Perfia upon the head of 

D 3 Darius 

54 THE H I S t OR T 1 

Darius Hyftafpes, who rewarded him with the Inngdop 
Pontus. But befides that we do not find the nai c of Art 
bafusf amongil thofe Perfîans, many reafont indoeewUttp be- M 
lieve, that the prince of whom we fpeak, was thé &b of" 
Darius, the fame who is called Artabarzanes» wha was coBr- 
petitor with Xerxes for the throne of Perfia, and was-made 
king of Pontus either by his father or his brothefi to con&loj 
him for the preference given to Xerxes. Ifis pofterity tnjpf ' 
that kingdom during feventeen generations. Mitj^ri^l 
Supator, of whom we fhall treat in this place» was the 6xi 
tee nth from him. 

("çj He was but twelve ^^ears of age when he began 
reign. His father, before his death, had appointed him I 
fucce/Tor, and had given him his motlier for |;aardiany 
was to govern jointly with him. frj He began his reign 
putting his mother and brother to death ; and the (equei i 
iwere(t but too well tofuch a beginning of it. fsj ]Nothil 
is fald of the firll years of his reign, except that one of tl 
Roman gcr.cral^, whom he had corrupted with money, having^ 
furrcndered, and put him into poffeffion of Phrygia, it wu 
loon after taken fi*om him by the Romans, whi'ch gare hbA IB 
his enmity for them. 

CO Ariarathes king of Cappadocia being dead» MxthrUhlcs 
caufed the two fons he had left behind him to be put to4eatk» 
though their mother Laodice was his own fifter, amd placed 
one of his own fons, at that time very young, upon the 
throne, giving him the name of Ariarathes, and appointing 
Ciordius his guardian and regent. Nicomedes king of 
Bi thy nia, v/ho apprehended this increafe of power would 
put Mithri dates into a condition to poflefs himlelf alfo of his 
dominions in time, thought proper to fet up a certain yocing 
man (who feemed very fit for fach a part) as a third fop of 
Ariarathes. He engaged Laodice, whom he had cfpoufed 
after the death of her firft hufband, to acknowledge mA as 
fuch, and fent her to Rome, to afTiil and fupport bv her pre- 
fcnce the claim of his pretended fon, whom ine carried 
thither along with her. The caufe being brought before the 
fenate, both parties were condemned, and a decree paflfcd, by 
which the Cappadocians were declared free. But they faid 
they could not be without a king. The fenate permitted 
them to chufe whom they thought fit. They elected Ariohar- 


Cf) A. M, 3880. Ant. J. C. 124. , fr) Memnoo in Enrrrptii 
Fhoiiiy c. xxxii. (*) Appun. ia Mithrid. p. 1779 178* (ij A« M« 
^913. Ad,J. C.9X* 

OFFONTirs, S''? 

zanes, a nobleman of their nation. Sylla, upon his qi>itun<r 
the office of praetor, was charged with the commilTion ot 
eflabliihinç him upon the throne. That uas the pretext fur 
this expedition ; but the real motive of it was, to check tlu* 
cnterprizes of Mithridatcs, wliofc power daily augmentini^. 
gave umbrage to the Romans, (uj Sylla executed his commiflion 
the following year; and after having defeated a great number 
of Cappadocians, and a much greater of Armenians, who 
came to their aid, he expelled Gordius, with the pretended 
Ariarathes, and fet Ariobarzanes in his place. 

Whilft Sylla was encamped upon the bank^ of the Euphrates, 
a Perfian, named Orebalus, arrived at his camp from king 
Arf-ices *, to demand the alliance and amity of the Romans. 
Sylla received him at his audience, caufed three feats to be 
placed in his tent, one for Ariobar/.i;ni\s who was nrcfcnt, 
anocher for Orobafus, and that in the niidil for hlmfelf. The 
Parthian king afterwards, ofteiuled at liis deputy, for having 
acquiefced in this inflance of the Reman pride, caufed him to 
be pat to death. This is the ârd time the Parthians had <iny 
commerce with the Romans. 

M ithridates did not dare at that time to oppofe the cfla- 
bHfhment of Ariobarzanes ; but difTembling the mortification 
that conduâ of the Romans gave him, he refolved to take an 
«mportunity of beinç revenged ujj^on them. In the mean 
nAiilCp he applied himfelf in cultivating good alliances for 
the augmentation of his flrength, and began with Tigranes 
king of Armenia, a very powerful prince, (xj Armenia 
had at firll appertained to tne Ferfians ; it came under the 
Macedonians afterwards, and upon the death of Alexander, 
made part of the kingdom of Syria. Under Antiochus the 
Great, two of his generals, Artaxius and Zadriades, with 
that prince's permimon, eftablilhed themfelves in this pro- 
vince, of which it is probable they were before governors. 
After the defeat of Antioehus they adhered to the Romans, 
who acknowledged them as kings. They had divided Ar- 
menia into two parts: Tigranes, of whom we now fpeak, 
defcended from Artaxius. He poflefled himfelf of all Ar- 
menia, fubjcclcd feveral neighbouring countries by his arms, 
and thereby formed a very powerful kingdom. Mithridatcs 

Save him his daughter Cleopatra in marriai^c, and engaged 
im to enter fo far into his projefk againll the Romans, that 
they agreed Mithridates fliould have the cities and countries 

D 4 they 

\u} A. M. 39»4. An. Dom. 90. (x) Strab. I, xi. p. cv, 53?. 

* I'Lii •ivji lifubrîdaUS lit 

$6 T H E H I S T C R Y 

they (hould conquer for hi& fliare, and Timnes the people^ 
with all the effcéts capable of being c.irriea away. 

QJ The firft enterprize and aA of hoflility was commined i 
1>y Tigranes» who deprived Ariobarzanes of Cappadocxa, of 
which the Romans had put him into poiTciuon, and re-eftab- 
liflied Ariarathe*:, the Ton of Mithridates, in it. Nicomedes, 
king of BithyniîL, happened to die about this time : His 
cideil fen, called alfo Nicomedes, ought natural!)* to have 
fuccecded him, and was accoruîngly ptoclaînied king. But 
Michi idates fet up his younger brother Socrates againft him» 
who deprived him of tnc throne by force of arms. The two 
dethroned kings went to Rome, to implore aid of the fenatÇt 
who decreed their i-e-eftablîfhment, and fent Manias Aquilint 
;^nd M. Altinius to put that decree in execution. 

They were both re-in((atcd. The Romans advifed them to 
make irruptior»s into the lands of Mithridates, promifing 
them their fupport ; but neirhcr the one nor the other darea 
to attack fo poweriul a prince {o near home. At length, 
however, Nicomedes, at the joint in (Ian ces of the ambdifa- 
dors, to whom he had promifed great fums for his re-eftabliih- 
ment, and of his creditors, Roman citizens feuled in Afia» 
who had lent him very confiderably for the fame cfièâs» coaU 
BO longer refift their folicitations. He made inca^fions upon 
the lands of Mithridates, ravaged all the flat country as far 
as the city Amaftrls, and returned home laden with booty» 
which he applied in difcharging part of his debts. 

Mithridates was not ignorant by whofe advice Nicomedes 
had committed this irruption. He might eafily have repulfcd 
him, having a great number of good troops en foot f but he 
did not take the field. He was glad to place the wrong on 
the Me of the Romans, and to have a jull caufe for declaring 
war again ft them. He began by making rcmonftrauces to 
their generals and ambaffaoors. Felopidas was at the head of 
thb embafTy. He complained of the various contraventions 
of the Romans to the treaty of alliance fubûAing between 
them and Mithridates, and in particular, of the proteAion 
granted by them to Nicomedes, his declared enemy. ^ The 
ambafTadors of the latter replied with complaints on their fide 
of Mithridates. The Romans, who were unwilling to de- 
clare themfelvcs openly at prefent, gave them an anfwer in 
loofe and general terms 4 that the Roman people had no in- 
tention that Mithridates and Nicomedes mould injure each 


/>; A. M, 3915. Ant. J. C. 89. 

r ^ . T^m 

O P P O N T U S. i7 

MithrUUten. wlinniu not liiiilicil with (bit anfivfr, (nadc 
I troupa march immcduicly into Ca|:ipvEbci>, cHpeJleiL 
iriobaricanei anin, mil fee hi» foiv Ariunihci upon tlta 
Imne, u he hM dnne before. At th« fume lime, be fcni hi» ' 
ti^*Su\at* \a the Komiin gener«li Ui make hit apolof;)', und 
COOipUin of ihcm aj^nin. PelopitLuilcclueil lu ihtm, ihikt 
I maOer wat contented the Roman people IhouU i^'^l" 'i^ 
taffair, Md adJcili ihut he had klreaJv Tent hit amtiiidadora 
Rome. . He exhorted them iioi to unatri»ke any ihinj;, (ill 
ry had received the fcnatc'* ordrri ; nor caKajj^c r^flily in a 
ir, that mij^ht be attended with fatnl conleauencea. l'or 
• rcfl, he gave them to onderftand, that Miihndaiei. in caTa 
iftice were ttfufrd him, wsii in n condition to lif lu himlclll 
%i Rom«n.<, highly ufTcnded at la hnaghty a. di-cUraiior, 
■da uilwer, that Milhriiblct had otdeit immedi^lcly to 
illMlnM' hi* iroopi ffom L'appulocia, uitd not continue t» 
^^Urb Nicomedci or Ariobnrtanct. They or>!cfcd PclonidM 
|ll]t the camp thai mnmcni, nnd not rctiirft, utileu hia 
obeyed. The oth» niiibaHiuloii were no betlct re* 
at Rome. 

rapture wat then [ncvit:ibte, «nd the Romaa genetala 
[ wait till (he nrdcii of tlM fcnice unU people atrlvcd ; 
Uch wat what Mithtidntei had dam^iid^il. Ths deligu b« 
é long formed of dcdaiinf; war againii the Kotnant, haX 
Bklianed hi> having inndc muny «lli^nceii anil enj^aged. 
^hmy nitjoii* in hit inierelU. 'IViiiiy-iwo hnuuajtL-i, oTa» 
uy difTcrenl people, were rtciconcU amnnefl hii iioopi, all 
lich MithridMo liimfclf ipuke mth fiicllity. Hi> atmy 
ftA«d nS two hundred am fttvj tiwufaiid fuot, and fi>ity 
ifiutd hnrfei withuut imluiliav art liundtcd and thirtv 

_. . . . ...... \^^, ... r 



chnrinti, and n fl^et ol lour hunUied lbi]"i. 

ij flitinehc procvctledto LL^lion, he ihoiighl iinfcciTAiv 

^ «Bare hit trocipi fur il, and made tbcm a * lonjt Uifcourui 

«nimaie ihem iif(ainffl ihe Roma<n. iïc fcprereiited In 

~~t " 'I'hat thric wAi no r'>oni lor exiiminin^ whether 

if Of pejce wpre lo be rreferrrd i (hat ihc Romas*. by 

jMUckaiK ihrn Arfl. hu«l Iparcd them tluu cn(|MÙy : Thur 

ttelf buhncfi wm id light and conqiwi : Thui be it^Tulcd 

jUnrcM'of futcefn, irtM iruopi prrfillctli (a aft wilb th« 

SMW valow they had already Ihewn upon fu- many occi- 

D Î iiOM, 

, . CB/JMrn. I. ntm. t. t~i. 

» f Jm* #MW lètf Mtrfi I «b éSiti-^ It » S^kHK ,fih»i a-- 
■ .miÉi «U(* 7>êii np-'i' mUMm h\» A iCi BJi, m* mU '• 

fWrnn H k t»'j Ikt tflltmiju. IWrlllf' 

■5R T H E H I s T O R Y 

ilons, and lately againfl the fame enemies» whon they Kad 
put to Hight, and cut to pieces in fiichynia and Cappadb- 
ci a : 1 hat there could not be a more favourable opporta- 
nity than the prcfent, when the Marfi infcfted and ravaged 
the heart itfelt of Italy : when Rome was torn in pieces by 
civil wars, and an innumerable army of the Cimbri from 
'< Germany over-ran all Italy: That the time was come for 
*< humbling thofe proud Republicans, who had the fame view 
** with rccrard to the royal dignity, and had fwom to pull 
•* down all the thrones of the univerie: That for the reft *, 
** the waj his foldiers were now entering upon, was highly 
'* different from that they had fuflained with fo much vuoor 
in the horrid defarts, and frozen reeions of Scythia : That 
he fhould lead them into the moft fruitful and temperate 
country of the world, abounding with rich and opalent 
** cities, which feemcd to offer tnemfelves an eafy prey: 
" That Afia, abandoned to be devoured by the infatiable 
•* avarice of the prbconfuls, the inexorable cruelty of tax- 
farmers, and the crying injuftice of cornipt juoges, had 
the name of Roman in norror, and impatiently expected 
" them as her deliverers : That they followed him not fo much 
** to a war, as to afTured victory and certain fpoils." The 
r.rmy anfwered this difcourfe with univerfal fhouts of joyi 
and reiterated proteftations of fervice and fidelity. 

I'he Romans had formed three armies out of their troopi 
in the fcveral parts of Afia Minor. The firll was commanded 
hy Caflius, who had the government of the province of Per- 
p^amus; the fécond by Manius Aquilius; tne third by Q. 
Oppius proconful, in the province of Pamphylia. Each oF 
them had forty thoufand men, including the cavalry. Befidei 
thefe troops, Nicomedes had fifty thoufand foot, and fix 
thoufand horfe. They began the war, as I have already ob- 
fcrved, without waiting orders from Rome, and carried it oa 





• « 



• ( 





* Nunc fe diverfam belli con- 
diîionem ingredi. Nam neque 
rœlo Afin efle temperatiiii iliud, 
D^c folo fertilius, nee urhium mitl- 
tifiid ne amcrniui } magnamque 
trmporis partem, non ut miiitiam, 
(■,-ti ut tcOam diem, aAuroi, bello 
di»hiiim l".KiIi magii an ubcri — 
f«.Miumque fe av.da expcAac Afia, 
ut etiam vocibus tocett ad^o illii 
ciium Romannriim inruflit rapa- 
c'.tji proC'>iiMi1um, feAio publi- 
44no*uni, c^lumniae litiuaii Jff» 



•Seâio pubHcanorum •« 


pajfage tfptrty JigMffiet tbi 
fircièlè fmlg c/ tbe gnd» c/ ibëfif 
•wbo, for Ifauh 7f ptymtmi tf 
taxa and imp^fi^ bmd ttth tJIsM 
and «fftOi /«. W en «nd J^id hj ibt 
fublitmnt. Calumoix licium mtt ibt 
fnjyft fuirkt mnd ebtcamaj, vfbiib 
Jerked Mt pretfxtsfêr deprntimg lii 
rkb cf their efimtet, titbmr hftm mt' 
c9Mnt cf têxttf w trndtr Jtm ub» 

î F O N T U s. 59 

Ce much negligence and fo little conduft, that they were 
hree defeated on diiicrent occifions, and their armirs 
sd. Aqnilius and Oppius themfelvcs were taken prifoncrs, 

treated with all Kinds of infults. Mithridates, con- 
ine Aqullius as the principal author of the war, treated 
witn the higheft indignities. lie made him p.i(s in re- 

before the troops, and prcfcnted him as a iigljt to the 
lie mounted on an afs, obliging him to cry out with a 

voice, that he was Manius Aquilius. At other times 
3liged him to walk on foot with his hands fallened by ;i 

I to a horfe, that drew him along. At lail he made him 
o«v molten lead, and put him to death with the mod cx- 
te torments. The people of Mitylcnc had treacheroufly 
ered him up to Mitnridates, at a time when he was fick^ 
lad retired to their city for the recovery of his health. 

J Mithridates, who dcfirous of gaining the people'* 
8 by his reputation for clemency, Tent home allthc 
ks he had taken prifohers, and fupplied them with pro- 
is for their journey. That inîlance of his goodnefs and 
IT opened the eatcs of all the cities to him. The people 
out to meet him every where with acclamations of joy. 
'gave him exccffive praifcs, cMlcd him the prcfervcr, thb 
r of the people, the deliverer of Afia, with all-thcothcr 
8 afcribcd to Bacchus, to which he had a juft title, for 
ifled for the prince of his times, (a) who could drink 
without being difordered; a quality he valued himfclf ' 
» and thought much to his honour. 
le fruits of his firft viilorics were the conciucft of all 
nia» from which Nicomcdcs was driven ; of Phrygîa and 

I I lilely made Roman provinces ; of Lyc^a, Paniph/lia, 
agonia» and fevcral ottier countries. 

VI ng found at Stratonicca a young maid of excjuifite 
Yf named Monima, he took her along with him m his 

) Mithridates confulerino; that the Romans, and all the 
lis in general, who were ;it that riin«' in Afia Minor upon 
;nt aftairs, cairloil (<ii ferret intti^uc^s mueh to the pre- 
' of his inter;.' !l. , he feiit private onlen? from i^phelus, 
he then w;:: , to the )M)\crnors ot the province::, and 
[rates of the cltie.s of Alia Minor, tu malliicre them all 

I) 6 uj)oii 

Dîod. in Kxcrcfi'*. V.ilcf. p. 461. Allun. I. v. p. 2I3. ("io. Graf. 
ceo, 11 (tv. (\i ' riut. Svnipof. I. i. i). 634. (1>J «Appiin* 

Cic. in Ura(# {wo Ic^k M^nil, n. 7. 


upon a day fixed *. The women, children» and domefiicks, 
were incladed in this profcription. To thefe orders was an- 
nexed a prohibition, to give interment to thofe who ihoald 
be killed. Their eilates and efie£ks were to be confiifcated foi 
the ufe of the' king, and the murderers. A fevere fine waj 
laid upon fnch as ihould conceal the living, or bury the dead j 
and a reward appointed for whoever difcovered thofe that wen 
hid. Liberty was given to the ilaves, who killed theij 
mailers ; and debtors forgiven half their debts, for killiiu 
their creditors. The repetition only of this horrid order u 
enough to make one tremble with horror. What then rnnfl 
have been the defolation in all thofe provinces when it was 
put in execution ! Fourfcore thoufana Romans and Italiani 
were butchered in confequence of it. Some make the flak 
amount to almoft twice that number. 

(c) Being informed that there was a great treafnre at Coi , 
lie fent people thither to feize it. Cleopatra queen of Egypi 
liad depofited it there, when ihe undertook the war u 
Fhœnicia againft her fon Lathyrus. Befides this treafnre, thei 
found eight hundred talents, (eight hundred thoaikajj 
f nifivns^ which the Jews in Afia Minor had depofited theiej 
SvJieii they faw the war readr to break out. 

'(^) All thofe, who had found means to efcape this general 
llaughter in Afia, had taken refuge in Rhodes, which received 
them with joy, and afforded them a fecnre retreat. Mithri* 
dates laid fie^e to tW city ineffeduallv, which he was fooa 
obliged to raife', after having; been in danger of being taken 
kimlelf in a fca-fight, wherein he loft many of his ihips. 

(e) When ke had made himfelf mafier of Afia Minor, Mitk- 
ridâtes fent Archelaus, one of his generalk, with an army oi 
aAhundrëd and twenty thoufand men into Greece. Thai 
0e0€n1 took Athens, and chofe it for his lefidence, giving 
'ail orders from thence, in regard to the war on that fide, 
'baring his ftay there, he engaged moft of the cities and ftatei 
of Greece in the intercfts of his mailer. He reduced Delos 
Wfbrce, which had revolted from the Athenians, and rein^ 
Int'ed them in the pofifeflion of it. He fent them the fkcred 
<^#afurc, kept in that illand by ArifUon, to wkom he gave two 
ftbufand men a» a guard for the money. Ariftion was ai 
Athenian philofopher, of the fe^ of Epicuros. He employed 


(c) Appiao. p. 186. Jofeph. Antiq. 1. xiv. c. 11. (d) AppîsD. p, 
1^6 ~ 188. Diotf. in £sccrpt. p. 402. . (t) Plut, in Sylla, p. 458 — 4ifc 
Aff\9n. in Mithnd. p 1S8— 197. 

* Il uno die, tota Afi», tot in 
#t«ttatiboi, uno nur.tio, «tq.'c una 
lisértnia fiaBifica&koc, civci Ro* 

tnanoi nrrandot tTVCidaadtTqiai 


< durafand men under his command to frize til antho- 
Athensy where he exercifcd a mod cruel tyranny, put- 
any of the citizens to death, and fending many to 
lates, upon pretence that they were of the Roman 

Such was the ftnte of affairs when Sylla was charged 
t war againft Mithridatcs. He fet out immediately for 
with five legions, and fome cohorts and cavalry. Mith- 
waa at that time at Pergamus, where he diûributed 
governments, and other rewards to his friends. 
1 Sylla's arrival, all the cities opened their gates to 
xcept Athens, which, fubje£lcd to the tyrant Ari(lion*s 
was obliged unwillingly to oppofe him. The Roman 
., having entered Attica, divided his troops into two 
the one of which he fcnt to befiege Axiltion in the 
Athens, and with the other he marched in perfon to 
rt Pineeus, which was a kind of fécond city, where 
aus had (hut himfclf up, relying upon the ftrength of 
ce, the walls being almoll fixty feet high, and entirely 
n ftone. The work was indeed very ftrong, nnd had 
dfed by the order of Pericles in the Peloponnefian war, 
he hopes of vidlory depending folcly upon this port, 
fortified it to the utmoft of his power, 
height of the walls did not amaze Sylla. He em- 
all forts of engines in battering -it, and made con- 
aflanlts. If he would have waited a little, he might 
.ken the higher city without iiriking a blow, which was 
d by famine to the laA exfemity. But being in haAe 
m to Rome, and apprehending the changes that might 
1 there in his abfence, he fpared neither danger, at- 
nor expence, in order to haften the conclufionof that 
Without enumerating the reft of the warlike flores and 
ge, twenty thoufand mules were perpetually^ employed 
rking the machines only. Wood happening to fall 
from the great confumptlon made of it in the niuchincs, 
were often either broke and fpoiltd by the vail weight 
irried, or burnt by the enemy, he did not fpare the 
groves. He cut down the trees in the walks of iIk; 
my and Lyca*um, which were the fincA and belt planted 
fuburbs, and caufed the high walls that joined the port 
city to bedemoliflied, in order to make ufc of the ruins 
Hng his works, :in<l earning on his approaches, 
le had occafion for aba nuance of money in this war, and 
I to attach the ioldiers to his intereH», and to animate 

(f) A.M. 3917. Ant. J.C. ?7. 


them by great rewards, he had recoarfe to the inviolable 
treafures of the temples, and caufed the fineft and moft pre- 
cious gifts, confecrated at Epidaurus and Olympia» to be 
brought from thence. He wrote to the Amphy£tions afiem- 
bled at Delphos, " That they would a£i wifely in fending 
** him the treafures of the god, becaufe they would be more 
** fecure in his hands ; and if he fhould be obliged to make 
" ufe of them, he would return the value after the war.'' At 
the fame time he fent one of his friends, named Caphis, a 
native of Phocis, to Delphos, to receive all thofe treafures 
by weight. 

When Caphis arrived at Delphos, he was afraid, oat of 
reverence for the ^od, to meddle with the gifts confecrated to 
him, and wept, in the prefence of the Amphyftions, the 
neceflity impofed upon him. Upon which, fome perfon there 
having faid, that he heard the found of Apollo's lyre from 
the infide of the fandtuary, Caphis, whether he really be* 
lieved it, or was for taking; that occafion to ftrike Sylla with a 
religious awe, he wrote him an account of what happened. 
Sylla, deriding his iimpHcity, replied, " That he war fnr^ 
" prized he (hould not comprehend, that-finging was a 
** lign of joy, and by no means of anger and refentment ; 
*' ?.nd therefore he had nothing to do but to take the trea- 
" fures boldly, and be afTured, that the god faw him do ib 
•• with plealure, and gave them to himhimfelf '* 

Plutarch, on this occafion, obferves upon the difference be- 
tween the ancient Roman generals, and thofe of the times we 
now Ipcak of. The former, whom merit alone had raifed to 
olEce, and who had no views from employments but the 
publick good, knew how to make the foldiers refpeA and 
obey them, without defcending to ufe low and anworthy 
methods for that purpofe. They commanded troops, that 
were wife, difciplined, and well inured to execute the orders 
of their generals without reply or delay. Truly kings, fays 
* Plutarch, in the grandeur and nobility of their fentiments, 
but fimple and modeft private perfons in their train and 
equipage, they put the lb te to no other expence in the dif- 
charge of their offices, than what was reafsnable and ne- 
ccfTary, coxiceiving it more fhameful in a captain to flatter 
his foldiers, than to fear his enemies. Things were much 
changed in the times we now fpeak of. The Roman gene- 
ral:, abandoned to infatiable ambition and luxury, were 
obliged to make themfelves (laves to their foldiers, and to buy 


• O F P O M T U s. flkf 

brvlces by gilts ^proportioned to their Avidity, Und often 
i teleratiun aiul impunity of the {»reatrlt crimes, 
la, in confeoucnctf, wn» ptMpetuully in extreme want of 
f to fatifiiy hid troops, and then more than ever for car« 
on the liege he liud engaged in, the iucceiii of which 
d to biin oi the higlicll importance, both to his hononr 
iifety. He was for depriving Mithriduteh of the only 
e had left in Greece, and which, by preventing» the 
ni from palling into Alia, made all hopes of conquering 
rince vain, and would oblige Syllu to return Ihamefully 
tuly, where he would have found more terrible «cnmie» 
triui and his foAion. He was befides fenfibJ^ K^Hcd by 
Penfive raillery ArilUon vented every day againA himfelf 
U wife Metelfa. 

it not eafy to fay whether the attack or defence were 
lé^ed with moll vigour; for both fides behaved with in- 
lie courage and relolution. The fallies were frequent, 
tended with almoll battle:i in form, in which the Haughter 
;reat, and the lofb generally not very unequal. The 
;cd would not have been in a condition to have made fo 
)Ut a defence, if they hud not received fcveral confidera* 
inforcements by fea.' 

lat hurt them moit, was the ferret treachery of two 
lian Huveb that were in tlie I'irxeus. Thofe (lavea, 
ler out of aO'edion to the Roman party, or defirous of 
iing for their own fafety, in cafe the place were 
, wrote upon leaden balls all that palled within, and 
them with Aingi to the Romans, So that whatever wife 
\Tth Archelaus took, who defended the Pirzeus» whUft 
on commanded in the city, nothing fucceejied. He re- 
1 to make a general fally ; the traitors ilung a leaden 
vith this intelligence upon it : 7»-morr&nvt at fuch an 
ihf Jhiti *\viil uttttck your avorks^ ami t hi hor/tyonr camf. 
laid anibulhes, and repulfed the befieged with lofs. A 
\y of provifuins was in the night to have been thrown 
ne city that wab in want of all things. Upon advice of 
inc kind theconvDv \vii.i inteicepcrif. 
twltlkllandiii^i, ;ill liiclr (lilailvaiuairc^s, tlie Athenians 
ded theiii(i'lvL'.'> likf liuir.. Thry found nieun.-i either to 
molt ot I Ik: niacliiiu-*. nrClcil ugainll tlie walls, or by 
'milling tluni lo throw the in down and break them to 

e Romans, on thrlr fidi*, behaved wi'h no lefi vigour, 
e help of ihiiif". alio they made a way to tlie bottom of 
ills, undt-ruliuh they hollowed tlie ground, and havinf 
the fouudiiiiuiu Willi bcujud ul woodi ihey al'tcj wards fi 


fire to the props with a great quantity of pitch, folphur» 
tow. When thofe beams were burnt, part of the wall 
down with an horrible noife, and a large breach was ope 
through which the Romans advanced to the aflanlt. 
battle continued a great while with equal ardour on both £ 
but the Romans were at length obliged to retire. The : 
day th'jy renewed the attack. The oefieged had built a 
wall during the night in the form of a crefcent, in the p 
where the other had fallen ; and the Romans found it 
pofTible to force it. 

Sylla, difcouraged by fo obftinate a defence, refblve< 
attack the Pirxeus no longer, and confined himfelf to 
duce the place by famine. The city, on the other i 
was at the lad extremity. A bufhel of barley had been 
in it for looo drachmas (about five-and-twcnt}' pound 1 
liner.) The inhabitants did not only eat the grafs and ro 
which they found about the citadel, but the flefh of hoi 
and the leather of (hoes, which they boiled foft. In the n 
of the publick mifery, the tyrant paficd his days and nij 
in debauch. The fenators and priefts went to throw tk 
fclvcs at his feet, conjuring him to have pity on the cit)*, 
to obtain a capitulation from Sylla : He difperfed them v 
arrow-fhot, and in that manner drove them from his ] 

He did not demand a celTation of arms, nor fend dcpo 
to Sylla, till reduced to the laft extremity. ^ As thofe depa 
made no propofals, and aiked nothing of him to the purpi 
but ran on in praifine and extolling 'Fhefeu^, Eumolpus, i 
the exploits of the Athenians agrainft the Mcdes ; Sylla i 
tired with their difcourfe, and interrupted them, by fayi: 
** Gentlemen haranguers, you may go back again, and k< 
" your rhetorical Ûourifhes for yourfelves- For my part 
*' was not fent to Athens to be informed of your anci 
*' prowefs, bat to chaftiiSe your modern revolt." 

During this audience, ibme fpies having entered the ci 
overheard by chance fome old men talking of the quai 
called * Ccramicus, and bkimi ne the tyrant exceedingly 
not guarding a certain part of tne wall, that was the oi 
place by which the enemy might eafily fcale the walls, 
their ri'turn into the camp, tmy related what they had hti 
to Sylla. The parley huJ been to no purpofe. Sylla d!d i 
negiea the intelligence given him. The next ni^ht he w< 
in perfon to take a view oï the place, and finding the w 
•dually accefllble, he ordered ladders to be raifed agaiiift 
began the attack there^ and having made himfelf mafter 

J^ 7bt ftM kpUtt St JÊtktMU 


O F P O N T U s. 65 

die wall, after a weak reiîilance, entered thr dty. He wcjid 

not fttffer it to be fet on fire, but abâ.:d'jned xe to be pluriccr'^d 

liy the foldiersy who in feveral homes f'ju::d h'.n):.n flc(h, 

Wliich had been dreflfed to be eaten. A drfzàt'A flaujj'.ter 

CBfocd. The next day all the (laves wrre fAd h/ auctior:, 

sud liberty was granted to the citizens who had efcaped :he 

fwonU of the foldier.^, who were a ver)' fma]! number. He 

beficMd the citadel the fame day, where Ar'ilior., and thofé 

who had taken refuge there, were foon (6 xnuch reduced by 

Cuninc, that they were forced to furrender themfcl* rr:. The 

tyranCy his guards, and all who had been in itny o&ce under 

Kun» were put to death. 

^ Some few days after, Sylla mode himfelf mafler rf the 

Firareas, and burnt all its fortifications, efpec::i!ty the ariena!, 

which had been built by Philo, the celebrated architc^, and 

WM a wonderful fabrick. Archelaos, by the help of his ficcl^ 

kad retired to Munichia, another pr^rt of Attica. 

This year was fatal to the arms of Mithridates. Taxilus, 

MM of his ^ncrals, arrived in Greece from 'I'hrace and Ma« 

ctdonia, with an amy of 100,000 foot, and io,coo horfe, 

whh foorfcore and ten chariots armed with fey the*. Arche- 

Lwi» that general's brother, was at that time in the port of 

Manichia, and would neither remove from the fea, nor come 

to a battle with the Romans ; but he endeavoured to protract 

the war, and cut off their provifions. This was very wife 

coaduâ» for Sylla beean to be in want of them ; fo that famine 

ibiiged him to oui t Attica, and to enter the fruitful plains of 

BcDOtia, where rlortenfius joined him. Tlicir troops being 

■nited, they took poflefllon of a fertile eminence in the midit 

of the plains of Elatea, at the foot of which ran a rivulet. 

I When they had formed their camp, the enemies could difcover 

^ It a view their fmall number, which amounted to only 15000 

foot, and 1 500 horfe. This induced ArchelnusS generals to 

J pfcfs him in the warmed manner to proceed to action. They 

!. did not obtain his confent without great difHcuIty. They 

J immediately began to move, and covered the whole plain with 

horftfSy chariots, and their innumerable troops. For when 

the two brothers were joined, their army was very formidable. 

The noife and cries of fo many thoufands of men preparing 

for battle, the pomp and magnificence of their array, were 

. C(|ually terrible. The brightnefs of their armour, magnifi- 

, centlv adorned with gold and filvcr, and the lively colours of 

the ftfedian and Scythian coats of arms, mingled with the 

glitter of brafs and lleel, reflcded a kind of rays, which, 

whilft they dazzled the fitçht, filled the foul with terror. 

The Romans, fclzed with dread, kept clofe within the 



entrenchments. Sylla not being able by his difcourfe and 
rcmonftrances to remove their fear, and not being willing to 
force them to fight in their prcfent univerfal difcouragement, 
was obliged to lie ftill, and fuffer, though with great impa- 
tience, the bravadoes and ini'ulting derilion of the Barbarians. 
I'hey conceived fo great a contempt for him in cohfcqucnce, 
tliat they ncgleftcd to obferve any difcipline. Few of them 
kept within their entrenchments ; the reft, for the fake of plun- 
der, difperfed in great troops, and removed conliderably, 
even feveral days journey, from the camp. They plundered 
snd ruined fomc cities in the neighbourhood. 

Sylla was in the lall defpair, when he faw the cities of the 
allies dcllroycd before his eye?, for want of power to make 
his army fight. He at lall thought of a Ihatagem, which was 
to give the troops_no repofe, and to keep them inccITantly at 
work in turning the little river Cephifus, which was near his 
camp, and in digging deep and Inrge fofTes, under pretence 
of their better fccuritv, but in efTed, that when ihev fhoull 
be tired of fuch great fatigues, they might prefer the hazard 
of a battle to the continuance of their laoour. His Ilratagein 
was fuccefsful. After having worked without intermimoa 
three days, as Sylla, according to cuftom» was taking- a view 
of their progrefs, they cried out to him with one voice to lead 
them againil the enemy. Sylla fuffered himfelf to be ex- 
ceedingly intrcated, and did not comply for fome time: Bat 
when he fiiw their ardour increafe from his oppoiition» h< 
made them fland to their arms, and marched againft thi 


The battle was fought near Cheronxa. The enemy hac 
poflefTed themfelves with a great body of troops of a very ad< 
vantagcous poil, called Thurium : It was the ridge of a ftce{ 
mountain, which extended itfelf upon the left nank of th< 
Romansy and was vcr\' proper to check their motions. Twi 
men of Cheronxa came to Sylla, and promifed him to drive th< 
enemy from this poll» if he would give him a fmall number o. 
chofen troops ; which he did. In the mean time he drew u] 
his army in battle, divided his horfe between the two wings 
taking the right himfelf, and giving the left to Murena 
Galba and Hortenfius formed a fécond line. Hortenfiu^, or 
the left of it, fupported Murcnn, whilll Galba, on the right 
did the fame for Sylla. The Barbarians had already begun U 
extend their horle, and light-armed foot, in a large compafs 
w ith defign to furround the fccond line, and charge it in th< 

At that intUnt the two men of Cheronxa, having gainec 
the top of Thurium with their fmall troop, without beinj 


O F P O N T U s. '6y 

vcd hy the enemy, fhewed themfclves on a Tudden. 
larbftnansy furprized and terrified^ immediately took to 
PrefEng againft each other upon the declivity of the 
tain» they ran precipitately down itbefore the enemy, who 
ed ind purfued them down the hill with their fworda at 
backs $ fo that about 3000 men were killed upon the 
tain. Of thofe that efcaped, fome fell into the hands 
ircna, who had jull before formed himfelf in battle, 
ifi; marched againfl them, he intercepted, and made a 
daughter of them : The reft, who endeavoured to regain 
camp, fell in upon the main body of their troops with 
ich precipitation, that they threw the whole army into 

and conruûon, and made their generals lofe much time 
Uning order, which was one of the principal caufes of 

la, to take advantage of this diforder, marched againft 
with fo much vigour, and paffed the fy^LCc between the 
nnies with fuch rapidity, that he prevented the eifeâ of 
chariots armed with fcythcs. The force of thefe chariots 
ided apon the length of their courfe, which gave im- 
fity and violence to their motion ; inilead of which» a 
^pace that did not leave room for their career rendered 
ofelefi and ineffeâual. This the Barbarians experienced 
J time. The firil chariots came on fo flowly» and with 
tie eficâ» that the Romans eafUy puihing them back» 
great noife and loud laughter called for more» a$ was 
inaiy at Rome in the chariot-races of the Circus. 
ber thofe chariots were removed, the two armies came to 
I. The Barbarians prefented their long pikes, and kept 
order with their bucklers joined, fo that they could not 
"oke; and the Romans threw down their javelins, and» 
fword in hand, removed the enemies pikes, in order to 
ind charge them with ereat fury. What increafed their 
cifity was the fight of 1 5000 (laves, whom the king's 
:als had fpinted from them by the promife of their liberty» 
lotted among them the heavy-armed foot. Thofe flaves 
fo much relolution and bravery, that they fuftained the 
: of the Roman foot without giving way. Their battle 
b deep and fo well clofed, that the Romans could neither 
z nor move them, till the light-armed foot of the fécond 
had put them into diforder, by the difcharjy^e of their 
/•» and an hail of flones from their flings, which forced 

to give ground. 

ThcTaus having made hh right wing advance to furround 
îfc of the Romans, liortcnfius led on the troops under his 
nand to take him in flank : which Archelaua feeing);, he 


crdered 20ca korfe to wheel aboot. Hortenfius» vpon tEc 
p«int of being overpowered by that great body of horfc, re- 
tired by degrees towards the monntains» perceiving himfelf 
too far from the main bodv, and upon the point of bdng 
forrounded by the enemy, oylla, with great part of his right 
wing, that had not yet engaged, marché to his relief. From 
the duft raifed by thofe troops, Archelans judged what they 
were, and leaving Hortenfi08,"he turned about towards tM 
place Sylla had quitted, in hopes he (hould find no difficulty 
in defeating the right winç without its eenerstf. 

Taxilus, at the fame time, led on his fbot, armed wiA 
brazen (hields*, againft Murena; whilft each fide laiM 
great cries, which made the neighbouring hills refimad. 
Sylla halted on that noife, not knowing welito which fide hi 
flioold haften. At length, he thought it moil cx|)edicnt n 
return to his former poft, and fupport his right wing. He 
therefore iênt Hortenfius to affift Murena with lour cohoitSi 
and taking the fifth with him, he flew to his fight wingi 
which he found engaged in battle with Archelaost neitha 
fide having the advantage. But as (bon as he appeared, ÙtA 
wing takine new courage from the prefence of their geneial 
opened their way through the tro(^ of Archelaos, pot ties 
to flight, and purfued them vigoronfly for a confiderahl 

After this great fuccefs, without lofinjg a moment, h 
marched to the aid of Murena. Finding him alfo viAorioos 
and that he had defeated Taxilus, he joined him in the jm 
fuit of the vanquifhed. A great number of the Barbanaa 
were killed in the plain, and a much greater cut to piecei 
in endeavouring to gain their camp ; fo that, of many thou 
fand men, only loooo efcaped, who fled to the city of Chaldu 
Sylla wrote in his memoirs, that only fourteen of his mei 
were mifling, and thnt two of them returned the fame eveniujg 
CgJ To celebrate fo great a viflory, he gave the Mufick 
games at Thebes, and caufed judges to come from the neigk 
bouring Grecian cities to diilnbute the prizes; for he hs 
an implacable averfion to the Thebans. He even deprive 
them of half their terri tory t which he confecrated to A poll 
Pythius, and Jupiter Olympius, and decreed, that the mone 
he had taken out of the temples of thofe gods ihould be repax 
out of their revenues. 

Thefe games were no fooner over, than he received advia 
that L. Valerius Flaccus of the adverfe party (for at this tin 

(g) A. M. 3919. Ant. J. C. 15. 

OFF ON T US- êf 

t divifions between Marius an4 Sylh were at thi Ufbdl) 
4 been defied conful, and had already eroll«d tbeloiiu 
I wiih nil armj', in appearance agatnll Mtthridiitni but In 
dity ^dnft himfelf. For this reafon he began hi* muA: 
TfecJIUy, as with defi^n to meet him. But being «niiild 
the city of Melitea', newi came to him fromidl fidci, 
U all the place» he had left in hh rear were pluii4trwl hf 
nothcr of the king's armies, Aron^er and more BBmtmw. 
tfuui the &iR. For Dorylaui was arrived at Chal^ iildl S 
[Teat fleet, on board of which were 80000 men» tbs b«ft 
■jutppcd. ihcmoft warlike and difeipllned of .ill Mtthri^tei'l 
rvoo), and had thrown himfelf into Boeoiia, anti'poMM' 
lÎRUrJI' of the whole country, in order to bring SyOs to • 
Bttic Arcbelaus would have diverted him from t)lttdlfig;ii( 
|r {iviog him an e.vaft account of the battle he ha4 Ik Jit» 
' i bot hil counfel and remoDltrancej hod so efisA. Ha 
t knew, that the advice he had ffvta hiia vmt^iffii^: 
leaibiuble and judidoui. 

K« chofc the plain of Orchomenus for the lield ef tpMhb 

^Ua ciufcd hWes to be dug on each fide of the plafal* '16 j»> 

~hw the enemy of the advantage of an open countrfi a|d.W 

BOTc them towards the marlhea. The Barbariana. 6tt i^ ■ 

uflyon the worl;mcn. difpei fed them, nnd put to|i|^tlff 

«p* that fiipportcd them. Sylla, fceine his arnw l)4df Ib ' 

jUs nanner, quitted hit hurfe immudiatcly, and Imm^MW ' 

lib enfigoi, he pulhrd forwards towards the enemy tti|M||(^ 

nfe that fled, crying to them, far me, Ramant, J /Mvfîfir 

Ufiaui t» Ml btft. BHtfaryou, -wha ynu fiiall it i^M mi»p 

^*- ^tiaJsKteytar cintrai, rtmtinhtr talaj il ■w»i a* Or** — ' 

■ " * ' he*, 

could not lutTcr ihofc rcpronchet, and returned tO dît 

jt with foch fury, that tnry made Archelaulfi tfOOft 

their backs. The Barbarian) came on again fa bmtr 

MUr than before, and were again reputfcd with ^rettfr loA. 

Tlic next day, at fiin-rife, Sylla led back his tmopt to* 

tnH*lke enrmy'scamp, to continue hiji trenches, Radultiiif 

Ipon tliofe wTio were detached to Ikirmifli and drive away tb« 

rotkm^n, he charged them fo .ruddy, that he put them ta 

Vi. Thcfe threw the troops, who had continued In tlu 

p, int^ fi'ch terror, *hat ihe^ were afraid to (lay to defend 

Svlla entered it pell-mdl vviththofe that fled, and nud* 

iioieif orailiT of it The m^uflies, in a moment, were d ed 

W{d|.bl90d, and the rlikc litlcd with dead bt'dies. The «ne- 

.ia dilFcrciit attacks, loft the greatcft pari of their 




troops. ArcIielAui cnntiiuird n great while hid in the marflieii 
and cfcnpcJ at la 11 to Chalcia. 

The newt of nil tlief'e defcati threw MUhridates into greit 
conllcrnation. However, a.*» that prince was hy nature Iruit- 
iul in reCources, he did not lofc coiira^^, and applied himfclf 
to repair hib loHeh by makinp; new Icvicit. But troiu the fe^r^ 
that hit» ill ruceeC:; nii^i;ht yrwe birth to fome revolt or con-' 
i'piracv acainlt hii perfon, a.i had already hanpenedi he took 
the bloody prccaiitionn of puttinjr all he fulpcded to deathj 
without ())ttring even Win bell friend à'. 

fJlfJ He was not more fucccfsful in Afin himfelf than hii^ 
creiicrala had been in (ireece. Kimbria, who commanded a' 
Koman army there, beat the remainder of his bcfl troopit 
He pui'fued the vnnquiflied as far a» the ffutes of I'ergamoii 
where Mithridates rcfided, and obliged him to quit that niact. 
himfelf, and retire to I'itane, a maritime place of 1 roai» 
fimbria puiTued him thither, and inveflcd him by land. 
litit AI he had no lleet to do the fame by fea, he fent to Ln« 
cullus, who crui/ed in the nei^.hbourinu; feas with the Roman 
fleet, and reprefrntrd to him, that he mif>ht acquire s Ai mortal 
f;lory, b^ fci/in}* the perfon of Mithridatcs, who could not' 
rfcape him, and by puttinjr an end to fo important a war. 
J'imbrla and LuciiIIu.i were of two different raflions. Thd 
latter would not be concerned in the affairs of the other. So 
that Mithridrnteh efcrined by Tea to Mitylenr, and extricated 
himfelf out of the hand-f of the Komani. This fault coll thent 
very dear, and im not extraordinary in flares, where mifundcr- 
llaiulmj'.i fubfill between the miniflers and generals of rho 
:irniy, which make them ncgled the pnblick godH, left they 
IhoiiM (-ontrii)ult to the Hory of their rivals. 

i.uculliiii afterward 1 neat Mithridate:i's fleet twicfi ind 
f;ainrd two {!;reat victories mer him. This happvfuccefi was the 
iiKire furpri'/inp', a» it was not exj)c6led from Lucullus to dif- 
linf^nifh nimfelf' by military exploits. He h:i(l pafTcd his vooth 
in the lludie.i of the lur; and, during hh being qua^ftor in 
Afia, the province had always enjoyed peace. Hut fo hapnv a 
(»eniiiM as hi^i did not want to be taught by experience, wnich 
J s not ti) be acquired by lef^on^, and is |;enernl!y the growth 
of many yean. He f'uppticd that defe^l in fome i.-ieafurr, by 
employing the whole time of hi» journey, by land and frap 
p.j'tly in afking que(lii)ns of pcrfonp experienced in the art of 
war, and p:irtly in inftru^ling himirlf by the reading of hlfi 
lory. So that he arrived in Afia a compleat gencrali ihoofli 

(i) riiit. in SylU, p. 4C6-4681 Jd. ia Lucal» f* 4131 AppSan* 


c Rome with only a -moderate knowledge in the art of 
. Let your young warriors confider this with due at ten- 
and obferve in what manner the great form themfelves. 
âlft Sylla was very fuccefsful in Greece, the fad^ion that 
bd him» and at that time eneroiTed all power at Rome, 
ledared him an enemy to the commonwealth. Cinna 
^arbo treated the noblefl and mod confiderable perfbns 
pvery kind of cruelty and injuftice. Moft of thefe, to 
this infupportable tyranny, had chofe to retire to Sylla's 
y as to a port of fafety ; fo that in a fmall time Sylla had 
e fenate about him. His wife Metella, having efcaped 
great difficulty with her children, brought him an ac- 
:, that his enemies had burnt his houfe, and ruined his 
, and begged him to depart immediately to the relief of 
who remained in Rome, and were upon the point of 
r made viâims of the fame fury. 

[|a was in the greatefl perplexity. On the one fide, the 
able condition to which his country was reduced, in- 
1 him to march diredly to its relief; on the other, he 
Inotrefolve toleaveimperfedlfo g^reat and important an 
' as the war with Mithridates. Whilft he was under this 
dilemma, a merchant came to him, to treat with him in 
tfrom general Archelaus, and to make him fome propo- 
if an accommodation. He was {o exceedingly rejoiced ' 
L this man had explained his commiffion, that ne made all 
>le hafteto have a conference with that general. 
Kjr had an interview upon the banks of the fea, near 
ittle city of Delium. Archelaus, who did not know 
important it was to Sylla, to have it in his power to re- 
into Italv, propofed to him the uniting his mter^ T«ith 
of Mitnridates ; and added that his mafler would fupply 
Mfith money, troops, and fhips, for a war againft the 
m of Cinna and Marius. 

lia, without feemin? offended at firft with fuch propo- 
exhorted him on his fide to withdraw himfelf from the 
ry in which he lived, under an imperious and cruel 


id Mitbridaticum bell urn mif- 
fenacu, non modo opinionem 
iOiniafn quae de vircute ejus 
(té ctiam gloriam fuperiorum. 
CO fuit mirabiliùfy quod ab eo 
impcratoria non expeclabatur, 
idelefcentiam in forenfi opera, 
«ra dioturnum tecnpus, Murena 
B in Ponto gerente, in A fix 
tmhmf(v»U Scd iocrcdibiiii 

quardam îngeniî magnltudo non de- 
fideravit indocitem vkCàn difdpllnam. 
Itaque cum cotum iter Se navigatio* 
nem confiimpfiflret, partim in per- 
cojitando à peritii, partim in rebus 
geflis Icgendis ; in Afiam faâui im« 
perator vcnit, cum clTct Roma pro- 
fc£tus rei miJitarii rudtt. Ck^jiieJ, 
Sl^aft% U vif Al a» 



prince. He added» that he mijght take opon him the title of 
king in his government, and o&red to have him declared the i 
ally and friend of the Roman people, if he would deliver vp.. 
to him Mithridates^s fleet under his command. Archdaus le* * 
je£led that propofal with indignation, and even matttcd tù 
the Roman general, how mudi lie thought himfeu injarel 
by the fuppofition of his being capable of fnch a tmfon. ^ 
Upon which Sylla, afTuming tm air of grandeur and dignitf r 
fo natural to the Romans, faidtohim: '*If bein^ only a 
*' fiave, and at beft but an officer of a Barbarian king, yon 
<< look upon it as a bafenefs to quit the fervice of your 
** mafter, liow dared you to propofe the abandoningthe in- 
** terefts of the republic to fuch a Roman as me? Do yot ] 
** imagine our condition and affairs to be equal ? Have yon [ 
'* forgot my vidlories ? Do you not remember, that you am 
*' the fame Archelaus I have defeated in two battles, ïïbA. 
" forced in the laû to hide himfdf in the marihes of Oicho- 
•• menus?'' 

Archelaus, confounded by fo haughty an anfwer, foibdned 
himfelf no longer in the fequei of the negotiation. ^ Sylla got 
the afcendant entirely, and di£Uting the law as viAor, pro* | 
pofed the following conditions : '« That Mithridates flioidd , 
*' renounce Afia iuid Paphlagonia: That he (honld rcAoM. '■ 
" Bi thy nia to Nicomedes, and Cappadocia to Ariobarzancs: - 
'* That he fliould pay the Romans two thoufand talenli 
** (about three hondm thoniand pounds fterling) for the, 
<* expences of the war, and ieventy armed eallks, with their . 
<• whole equipage ; and that Sylla, on hit Sdej (hould lecnic 
'* to Mithridates the reft of his dominion, and caufc him 10 
*' be declared the Aiend and ally of the Roman peopk.** 
Archelaus feemed 10 a|iprove thofe conditions; and dit 
patched a courier inunedutely to communicate them to Mith* 
ridais. Sylla fet out for the Hellefpont, carrying Archelnna. 
with him, whom he treated with great honours. 

He received Mithridates's amt^fladors atLariifa, who came 
to declare to him, that their mafter accepted and ratified all. 
the other articles, but that he defired he would not deprive 
him of Paphlagonia ; and that as to the feventy gallics, he 
could by no means comply with that article. Sylla, oflended 
at this refufal, anfwered them in an anery tone : " What fay 
'' you ? Would Mithridates keep poUeffion of Paphlagoma, 
<< and does he refufe me the gallies I demanded ? I ex- 
** pe6led to have feen him return me thanks upon hit 
** Itnces, for having only left him the hand with which he 
** butchered 100,000 Romans. He will change his note 

4 ««whca. 


' W&en I go over to Aiia ; though at prefent, in the midft 
* of bis coart at Pergaxnus, he meditates plans tor a war he 
' never faw/' Such was the lofty flile of Sylla, who gave 
lAilhiidates to anderfland at the fame time that he would not 
ilk fach language^ had he been prefentat the pail battles. 

The ambauadors, terrified with this anfwer, made no reply. 
^helaus endeavoured to foften Sylla, and promifed him» 
hMt Mithridates (hould confent to all the articles. He fet out 
br that parpofej and Sylla, after having laid waile the country» 
letaraea into Macedonia. 

ft J Archelaus upon his return joined him at the city of 

PUlippi» and informed him, that Mithridates would accept 

Ae propofed conditions ; but that he exceedingly defired to 

Ittvea conference with him. What made him earneft for this 

iaterview was his fear of Fimbria, who having killed Flaccus, 

tf whom mention ia made before, and put himielf at the head 

ef that conful's army, advanced by great marches againfl 

Mitfaridates; which determined that prince to make peacn 

with Sylla. They had an interview at Dardania, a city of 

TiOAs. Mithridates had with him 200 gallies, 20,000 foot, 

'fcoo horfe, and a great number of chariots armed with 

"fartfaes : And Sylla had only four cohorts, and 200 horfe in 

MS company. When Mithridates advanced to me-et him, and 

«fered him his hand, Sylla afked him, whether he accepted 

Ùe propofed conditions ? As the king kept filence, Sylla con- 

tiaaedf *^ Do you not know, Mithridates, that it is for fup* 

'^ pliants to fpeak, and for the vidlorious to hear and be 

" nient ?" Upon this Mithridates began a long apology, cn- 

4ntvonring to afcribethecaufeof the war, pnrtly to the gods, 

■kL partly to the Romans. Sylla interrupted him, and after 

ksrinemade a long detail of the violences and inhumanities 

ke haa committed, he demanded of him a fccond time, whether 

ke woald ratify the comlitinns Archelaus had laid before him. 

Mithridates, furprized at the hniin-htircfi and fleady :iir of the 

Roman general, havii.p^ anfwcrtrd in the aflîrinative, Sylla 

dicn received his embrac.'j ; and aftenvards prcllMitin;Mhii 

kings, Ariobarzanes and Nicomcdes, to him, he reconciled 

them to each other. Mithridates, after the delivery of tlicr 

fcventy galiies entirely equipped, and 500 arclieri, le- 


Sylla faw plainly, thattliis treaty of peace v/x^ liij'hiy o.X- 

agrceable tohiîi troop;. Th'^y could noc bear that a piiii'.r, 

who of all kings wa:. the ir.oll mor'.al eneniy to Rcmt;, i.nd 

%ko in one day had caiifed aa icu,ojo Rojuan citi^eir. OA- 

VoL.VUI. K ^eiivsl 

(i) A.M. ;5io, Aat, J, C,84* 


perfed in Aiia to be put to the fword, ihould be treated 
lb much favour, and even honour, and declared the frien< 
ally of the Romans almoll fUli reeking with their b 
Syila, to julHfy his condui^l, gave them to underiland, t 
he had rejected his propofals of peace, Mithridates, on 1 
fufal, would not have failed to treat with Fimbria; and 
if thofe two enemies had joined their forces, they would 
obliged him eitjj^er to abandon his conquells, or haz 
battle againll troops, fuperior in number, under the 
mand of two great captains, who in one day might hai 
prived him of the fruit of all his viftories. 

Thus ended the firll war with Mithridat^s, whicli 
lailed four years, and in which Sylla had dellro>ed more 
an hundred and fi.xtv thoufand of the enemv ; rcco 
Greece, Macedonia, Ionia, Alia, and many other prov: 
of which Mithridates had pofFe (Ted hi mfelf; and havin 
prived him of a great part of his fleet, obliged him to 
£ne himfelf within the bounds of hi.s hereditary dominl 
But what is moil to be admired in Sylla is, that during 
years, whilil the fadlions of Mari us and Cinna had en: 
Italy, he did not diflcmble his intending to turn his 
againll them, and yet continued the war he had begun, 
vinced that it was neceiTary to conquer the foreign ci 
.before he reduced and punifhed thole at home. He wj 
highly laudable for his conllancy in not hearkening tc 
propofals from Mithridates, who offered him confidcrab 
againll his enemies, till that prince had accepted the c 
tions of peace he prefcribed him. 

Some days after, Sylla began his march againll Fin 
who was encamped under the walls of Thyatira inLydia 
having marked out a camp near his, he began his inti 
ments. Fimbria's foldiers, who came unarmed, ran c 
fiilute and embrace thofe of Sylla, and aflilled them 
great pleafure in forming their lines > Fimbria, fecin) 
change in his troops, and fearing Sylla as an irreconci 
enemy from whom he could expedl no mercvt after ha^di 
tempted in vain to get him an'aflinated, killed himfelf. 

Sylla condemned Alia in general to pay 20,000 f ta 

* Vix quidquam in Sylls nperibus 
tiarlus duxcriro, quaxn quod, cum 
per iriennium Cinnanie Marianae 
p.irtrs Italiom obfiderent, nrque 
UUtunim fe bcllum its difilmula- 
>it, ncc )uod erat in maul bus 

omifît ; exiftîmavît^ue anci 
gendum hoftem, quam ulciû 
ctvem ; repolfoque cx:crno 
ubi quod alienum elTet viciiTe 
rarct quod craC domcilicum 
PeUrc. 1. iî. c. a. 


OP PON TU s. 7^ 

' ksd bcfides that, lifled particulars exceedingly, by abandoning 
^ !&eir houfes to the infolence and rapaciouiners of his troops» 
whom he quartered upon them, and who lived at difcretion as 
f in conquered cities. For he gave orders that every holl 
I flioaid pay each foldier quartered upon him four * drachmas 
^ a day, and entertain at table himielf, and as many of his 
I friends as he ihould think iit to invite; that each captcim 
( Ihould have fifty f drachmas, and befides that a robe for the 
houfe, and another when he went abroad. 

fij After having puniflied Alia, he fet out from Rphcfus 
wîch all his ihips, and arrived the third day at Pi^a:eus, 
havinfl; been initiated in the great myfteries, he took for his 
own ule the library of Apellicon; in which were the work* 
of Arillotlc. That philofopher, at his death, had left hi* 
writings to Theophrailus, one of his moftilluilrious difciples. 
ïhe latter had transferred them to Nelcus of Scepfis, a citr 
in the neighbourhood of Perganius in Afia ; after whole 
death thofe works fell intp the hands of his heirs, ignorant 
l" jeribns, who kept them Hint up in a chell. When thckinga 
of Pergamus began to colled induflrioully all forts of books 
fcr their library, as the city of Scepfis was in their dc- 
Madance, thofe heirs, apprehending thcfc works would 
M takAi from them, thought proper to hide them in # 
Vault under ground, where they remained almofl an 130 
jcars ; till the heirs of Neleus*8 family, which after feveral 
I. pnerations were fallen into extreme poverty, brought them 
oat to fell them to Apellicon, a rich Athenian, who fought everf 
where after the mou curious books for his libraryv. As they 
Were very much damaged by the length of time, and the 
damp place where they had lain, Apellicon had copies imme<« 
[, £ately taken of them, in which there were many chafms % 
becaufe the originals were cither rotted in many places, oc 
worm-eaten, and obliterated. Thcfe blanks, words, and 
letters, were filled up as well as they could be by conjecture, 
and that in feme places with fufficient want of judgment* 
"I From hence arofe the many difficulties in thofe works, which 
1 have ever fin ce divided the learned world. Apellicon bein^ 
J dead fomc fmall time before Sylla's arrival at Athens, lie 
I ftVACu upon his library, and with thcfe works of Arillotle^ 
> which he found in it, enriched his own at Rome. A famous 
I graxnnftrian of thofe times, named Tyrannion, who lived then 

E 2 at 

fij Plttt. in Syll. p. 468. Strab. ). xlii. p. 6c9* Athcn. 1. 1'lu p* 2x4% 

• jihut i-uft IhiUingit t About fivt-and tw$nty Jl'iU'wgu 


at Rotnr, having \ great defire for thefe works of Ariftotlai 
obtained pormiliion Irom Sylla's librarian to take a copy d 
tlicm. That copy was commun icàted to Andronicus ' tk 
Khodian, who afterwaixls imparted it to the pahlick: Tht 
world is obliged to him for the works of that great philofi>- 

S E c T . II . S:cond ivar ag.'iinft MiTTiniDATESy uudtr Mu a E k A^ 
cf only three ycms duration, MiT H kid at ES fnf am t§ re- 
f:riv tie *zl\v\ He concludes a treaty ivitè Sertorius. 
T/rird n.\:ar ivith Mithridates. Lucullus cùnful fità 
€tgni}:fi htm. He obliges him to raife the Jtege of Cjxicnm^ tnà 
à'fcLits his trcops. He gains a ccmpleat *viSory over htm, #M 
rciu^'cs hiri :sfy info tct:ius. Tragical end of the fifleti éUâ 
' ni- il- es of Mithridates. He endea^vours to retire U 
1' 1 -j R A N E s hisjon-in-la^v:. Lu c u L L u s regulates tht affain 
cf Jfa, 

(l) Q V L L A, on fetting out for Rome^ had left the govet» 
i/5 ment of Afia to Murena, "with thç two legions tha) 
had fer^•cd under Fimbria, to keep the province in obedience 
ThisMurena is the father of him, for whom Cicero made du 
£ne oration, which bears his name. His fon at this tinu 
made his fir ft campaigns under him. 

After Sylh's departure, Mithridates being returned Inti 

Pen tus, marched his army againft the people of Colchis ani 

the Bolphorus, who had revolted againft him. The £rl 

demanded his fon Mithridates for their king, and havini^ ob 

tained him, immediately returned to their dut)'. The king 

imagining their conduft to proceed from his fon's intrigues 

K)ok umbrage at it, and having cauicd him to come to him, h 

crdcrcd him to be bound v^ith chains of gold, and foon afte 

put him to death. That fon had done him great fer\'ices ii 

the war againft Fimbria. \Vc fee here a new inftance of th 

jealoufy which the cxccfnvc love of power is apt to incite 

and to what an height the prince, v/ho abandons himielf t 

it, i^ capable of carr)'ing his fufpicions agaiml his ow; 

blood ; r.hvays ready to proceed to the moft fatal cxtrcmitie! 

and to fr.ciihcc whatever is dearcft to him to the Ûightcftdi: 

trull. As for the inhabitants (-f the Bofphorus, he prepare 

a great ileet r.nd a numerous army, which gave reafon to be 

jicvc his dcfigns were a:;air.ft the Romans. He had not ix 

deed reftorcdall Cappadocia to Ariobarzancs, but rcfenx 

part of it in his own hands, and he began to fufpc6t Arcbelaa! 


O F P O N T U s. 77 

I liaving engaged him in a peace equally ihnmeful and dif- 

■^Tien Archelaus perceived it, well knowing the inaftcr hç 
uul to deal with, he took refuge with Murena, and folicilsd 
dm warmly to turn his arms ngainft Mithridatcs. Murcna» 
vho paflionnttly dedrcd to obtain the honour of a triumph, 
uflfercd himfclf to be eafily pcrfuadcd. lie made an irruption 
nto Cappadocia, and made himlclf mailer of Comaua, th^ 
noft nowcri'ul city of that kingdom. Michndates fciit ani- 
baâadors to him to complain ot his violuiing the treaty the 
Romans had made with him. Miircna readied, that he kucvi 
ùf no treaty made with their mailer. I'herc was» in reality » 
BOthine reduced to writing on Sylla's part, tlic whole having 
pifled Dv verbal agreement. In conlcqucnce he continued to 
itvage the country, and took up hi:i winter -quarters in it: 
Mithridatesfentambaiïlulorï: to Rome, to make liis complaints 
ID Sylla and the fenatc. 

fmj There came a commiflîc ncr from Rome, but witliout a 
decree of the fenatc, who publickly ordered Murena not to 
Bolcft the king of Pontus. But as they conferied together in 

E'l'atc, this was looked upon a;j a mere collufLon. And in- 
k1 Murena pcrnded in ravaging his countrv. Mithridateg 
dKrefere took the field» and having paifed toe river Ilulys, 
|ftve Murena battle, defeated him, and obliged him to retire 
into Phrygia with very ereat lofs. 

fmJ S^lla, who had been appointed didator, not being 
ible to fuffcr any lonaer that Mitliridates, contrary to the 
treaty he had granted hnn, (liould bedifqiiictcd, fentGabiniu» 
loMarena to order him in earned to dciiit from making war 
«nth that prince, and to reconcile him with Ariobarz;mcs. 
He obeyed. Mithridates, having put one of his fonr. of only 
fihir years old into the handb of Ari()bar7.anes us an hollage, 
uder that pretext tetained the cities, in wliich he had gairi- 
fims, proniifing no doubt to re .'lore tiiem in li.iie. ffe' then 
gave a fcall, in which he pnmofed pri/.c:'. for iluh as lluiuld 
exLtl the reil in drinking, e;;ti.iti;, fjn.;in^(, and lalllyinjr: j'it 
objets of t'lnuLition! G.'.hinius was tlie only one who illj 
Dot think pi'^l'cr t<) enter thefe liils. 'I'hns ended the feeond 
war with Mithridates, which lailcd only tîueeyean;. iVhireua, 
at his return to Kome, received the iioiDiir of a triumph, to 
which his pretcnfiou!» were bur indillVrcnl. 

foj Mithridates at n-lloreJ Cappadocia to Ariobar- 
unc>, forced by Sslla, who dicvl the fame year. Hut he coiù 

J'. 3 trived 

(■2,A. M- 3912. Auf. J. C. Si. z'/) A. M. -.Qij. Ant. [. f.8i. 

(•, A. M. juO. A .:. I.e. ;S. 


trived a firata6:em to deprive him entirely of it. Tigran 
had lately built a great city in Armenia, which, from hisov 
name, he called Tigranocerta. Mithridates perfuaded 1 
fon-in-law to conquer Cappadocia, and to tranfport the i 
habitants into the new city, and the other parts of his don 
nions, that were not well peopled. He did fo, and to< 
away three hundred thoufand fouls. From thenccfort 
wherever he carried his vidlorious arms, he aéled in the far 
manner for the better peopling of his own dominions. 

ffj The extraordinary reputation of Sertorias, who hî 
given the Romans terrible employment in Spain, made Mit 
ridâtes conceive the thought of fending an embaflTy to hii 
in order to engage him to join forces againft the comme 
enemy. The flatterers, who compared him to P)Trhus, ax 
Sertorius to Hannibal, infinuateJ, that the Romans, a 
tacked at the fame time ,on different fides, could never 1 
able to oppofe two fuch formidable powers j when the mc 
able and experienced of generals fhould aft in concert wii 
the greateft of kings. He therefore fent ambaffadorsio Spai> 
with letters and inftrueiions for treating with Sertorius» ' 
whom they offered, in his name, a fleet and money to carry c 
the war, upon condition that he would faflTer that prince tor 
«over the provinces of Afia, which the neceffity of hisaflU 
had reduced him to abandon, by the treaty he had made wii 

As foon as thofe ambaflâdors arrived in Spain, and had opem 
th^ir commilTion to Sertorius, he affembled his council, whi( 
he called the /enate. They were unanimoufly of opinion, 
accept that prince's offers with joy, and the rather, fclecau 
fo immediate and effeftive an aid, as the offered fleet ai 
money, would coft him only a vain confent to an enterpriz 
which it did not in any manner depend upon him to prtvcn 
But Sertorius, with a truly Roman grcatnefs of foul, pr 
tefted, that he would never confent to any trt*at\', injurious ' 
the glory or intcreft of his country ; and that he could deii 
no viftory from his own enemies, that was not acquired by ji 
>sLnd honourable methods. And having made Mithridate; 
ambafl^adors come into the aflembly, he declared to ther 
that he v»ould fufl>r their miiffer to keep Bithynia nrd Capp 
docia, which were accuftomed to b'v governed by kings, ar 
of which the Romans could pretend to no juft right to di 
pofe ; but he would never confent he ffiould have any footir 


(f>) A.M. 392S. Ant. J. C. 26. Applaii. p. 2i(, 117. Plut. 
Scrtor. p. 5S0, 5SX. 


hi Aiia Minor, which appertained to the republick, and 
which he had renounced by a folemn treaty. 

When this anfwer was related to Mithridatcs, it flruck him 
with amazement ; and he is affirmed to have faid to his friends, 
•• What orders may we not expert from Scrtorius, when: he 
'* (hall fit in the fcnate in the midft of Rome ; who, even 
** now, confined upon the coaft of the Atlantic ocean, 
** diâatcs bounds to our dominions, and declares war again (I 
•• us, if we undertake any thing againft Afia?" A treaty 
was however concluded, and fworn between them to this 
efftft : That Mithridates fhould have Bithynia and Cappa- 
docia ; that Sertorius (hould fend him troops for that purpofc, 
; and one of his captains to command them; and that Mithri- 
dates, on his fide, (hould pay Sertorius * 3000 talents down, 
and give him forty gallies. 

The captain fcnt by Sertorius into Alia was a banifhei 
fenator of Rome, who had taken refuge with him, named 
Marcas Marius, to whom Mithridates paid ereat honours. 
I For when Marius entered the cities, preceded by the fafces 
I and axes, Mithridates followed him, well fatisficd with tha 
^ fecond place, and with only makin? the figure of a powerful, 
kit inferior, ally, in this proconmrs company. Such was 
at chat time the Roman greatnefs, that the name alone of that 
potent republick obfcured the fplendor and power of the 
treated kings. Mithridates, however, found his intereft in 
Oiis condaâ. Marius, as «uthorifed by the Roman people 
and fenate, difcharral m oft of the cities from paying the 
eiorbitant taxes Sylla had impofed on them ; expredy de- 
chring, that it was from Sertorius that they received, and to 
whom they were indebted for that favour. So moderate and 
politick a conduct opened the gates of the cities to him with- 
out the help of arms, and the name of Sertorius alone made 
aore conqueils than all the forces of Mithridates. 

ff) Nicomedcs, king of Bithynia, died this year, and made 
the Roman people his licirs. His country became thereby, 
as 1 haveobicrvcil cifowhcre, a province of the Roman empire. 
Mithridates inm\cJintely formed are iolution to renew the war 
sgainil them upon thi^) oceaiion, aiul employed the grcateft 
fart of the yeai in making; the necellkry preparations for car- 
rying it on witli vi|;our. Me believed, th:it after the death of 
Sylla, and during; the troubles with whieli the republick was 
SRit.iîed, the conjundure was favourable for re-entering upon 
the concjuelii, he had given up. 

(f) A. M. 3919. An*. J. C. 75. Appijn. c^e Belle MilhriJ. j, 1-5. 


(t) Infirufled by his misfortnnet and experience, ke 
bainiihed from his army all armour adorned with gold And 
jewels, which he began to confider as the allurement of the 
\ i^lor, and not as the Ih eno th of thofe who wore them. He 
1 au fed i words to be forced after the Roman faihion, with 
iblid and weighty bucklcis ; he coUeded horfes, rather well 
made and broke, than magnificently adorned; aifianbled 
120,000 foot, armed and difciplined like the Roman 
infantry, and i6,C'00 hor fc well equipped for fervioe, befides 
iin 1 00 chariots armed with long fey thes, and drawn by fonr 
horfes. He aifo fitted out a confiderable number of gallies* 
which glittered no longer, as before, with gilt pavilioaSf but 
were filled with all forts of arms ofTcnlive and defenfive» and 
wi 11 provided with fa ms of money for the pay and fubfiftaace ; 
of the troop 5. 

Miihridaces had begun by feizing Paphlagonia and Bitkynia. 
The province of Alia, which found itfelf exhtufted by die 
exactions of the Roman tax-farmers and ufurers» to deliver 
themfclves from their oppreflion, declared a fécond time ibr 
him. Such was the caufe of the third Mithridatic waft 
which fubillled almoft twelve years. 

(s) The two confuh, LucuUus andCotta, were iènt agaiat 
him» each of them with an army under him. Lucalloa liad 
Afia, Ciiicia and Cappadocia for his province; the mher 
Cithynia and Propontis. 

Whilft Lucullus was employed in reforming the rapadonf- 
nefs and violence of ilic farmers and ufurcrs, and in recoa* 
ciline the people of the countries through which he paflcdf 
by giving them good hopes for the time to come ; Cotta, who 
was already arrived, thought he had a favourable opportunity, 
in the abfence of his collègue» to fignalize himfeit by Ane 
great exploit. He therefore prepared to give Mithridatet 
battle. The more he was told» that Lucullus approached* 
that he was already in Phryçîa, and would foon arrive, the 
greater haile he made to '^ight; believing himfelf already 
^(iured of a triumph, and deiirous of preventinc: hii cot 
legue from having any fharc in it. But he was oeaten by 
fea and land. In the naval battle he loft fixty of -his (hips 
with their whole complements ; and in that by land he had 
4000 of his bcft troops killed, and was obliged to (hut himfelf 
up in the city of Chalcedon» with no hope of any other 
relief but what his collègue (hould think ht to give him. 
All the olHcers of his army, enraged at Cotta*s raih and pre- 

(f) Plut, in Lucvl. p, 469, (i) A. M. 3939. Ant* J. C. 74. 

(J" F* P Ci N T U s. *i 


ïtûOUS conduct, endeavoured to pcrfuadc liUCcllus to enter 
ns, which Mithridatcs had left without troops, and where 
light alTure himlelf of finding the people inclined to re- 
Hc an(Wered gcncroufly, that ho Ihould always eileer» 
Drc glorious to prcfervc a Roman citizen, than to poffefs 
elf of the whole dominions of an enemy ; and without 
itmcnt againfl his collegue, he marched to afTill him with 
ic fucccfb he could have hoped. 'I'his was the firil atlion 
/hich he dillinguiihed himfelf, and which ought to do 
more honour than the mod fplendid virt«Ties, 
J Mithridatcs, encouraged by the double advantage he 
?aincd, undertook the iiegc of Cvzicum, a city of Pro- 
is, which ftrenuoufly fupported the Roman party in this 
In making himfclf mailer of this place, he would have 
ed himfelfa paifage from Bithyniainto Afia Minor; whirh 
d have been very advantageous, in jr'.ving liim an op- 
wity of carrying the war thither wiili: 11 pcflible eafc and 
•ity. It was for thir. reafon he dcfiveJ to take it. In 
r to facceed, he invcllcd it by land with ;; 00,000 men, 
led in ten camps; i:nd by fea with 400 Ihips. Lucullu» 
followed him tnither, and began by i'ei/ing a pofï upoi> 
iiinencc of the lall importance to him, boeaufe it facili- 

his receiving convoys, and gave him the means of rrut- 
oiF the enemy's provîfions. lie had only 30,000 foot, 
2500 horfc. The fuperiority of the enemy in number, 
rom difmaying, encouraged him ; for he was convinced, 
fo innumerable a multitude would Coon be in want of 
lions. Hence, in haranguing his troops, he prdmifed 

in a few days a vidory, that would not coft them a 
Î drop of blood. It was m that he placed his glory ; for 
Ives of his foldieis were dear to him. 
le fiegc w."is long, and carried on Vvith extreme vigoirr. 
ridâtes bartered the place on all lido.^ with innumerable 
ines. The defence was no Icfs viç^orou:;. The be/iered 
»TO<ligies of valour, and employed all mean?*, that the 
induilrious cap -.ici:;/ couul iuver.r, to îvpulîo the ontmy's 
ks, cither bv biirpir.p ihcir nulchî^.;.'^. ^r rtMulerin\: thenv 
s by a thouian.i ori.àclv> i\\ry oppofcd to them. What 
red them wl:h lo iv.ueh i-^uiv.?;^', v/.i? their exccedin;» 
Jence in I.ucul!r.>, v>!;> Ik-.J lot them know, tliat if tiiey 
aued to dcfei'id . '.i-.-air<.*lvLS wlih tiie fame valour, the 
would not be tal:c'n. 

cuUus was indeed fo wSA, that without coming 

!•: ^ io 

A. M. 3031. Aiit, J. C, 73, ria:, in Lucul, p ^9"'— 400. A^- 


to a central afliony which He always carefully avoided, he 
xnadc Mithridates'ii army fuffer infinitely, by interceptirg hit 
convoy^, chaiging his foraging parties with advantage, and 
beating the detachments he fcnt out from time to time. In a 
word, he knew fo well how to improve all occafions that 
effered, he weakened the army of the befiegers fo much, and 
Hfed fuch addrefs in cutting oft* their provifions, having ihut up 
all avenues by which they might be fupplied, that he reduced 
them to extreme famine. The foldiers could find no other 
food but the herbage, and fome went fo far as to fupport them- 
felves upon human fiefh. (u) Mithridates*, who paiTed for 
the molt artful captain of his times, in defpair, that a general» 
who could not have had much experience, fhould fo often pat 
the change upon him by falfe marches, and feigned move- 
ment?,, and had defeated him without drawing his fword, was 
^t length obliged to raife the fiege (haniefulW, after havinc 
fpent almoft two years before the place. He fled by fca, ana 
his lieutenants retired with his army by land to Nicomedia. 
I^ucullus purfucd them, and having come up with them near 
the Granicus, he killed zo,ooo of them upon the fpot, and 
took an infinite number of prifoners. It was faid, that in 
tliis war there pcrifhcd almofl 300,000 men, foldiers and 
fer\'ants, with other followers of the army. 

After this new fncccfs, Lucullus returned to Cy/îcum, en- 
tered the city, and after having enjoyed for fome days the 
pleafure of having prefcrved it, and the honours confequentia[ 
of that fuccefs, he made a fwift tour upon the coalls of the 
Hellefpont, to collefl fliips and form a fleet. 

Mithridatc's, after having raifcd the ficgc of Cyzîcum, re- 
paired to Nicomedia, from whence he pafTed by fea into 
Pontus. He left part of his fleet, and 10,000 men of his belt 
^ troops, in the Hellefpont, under three of his mod able gene- 
rals. Lucullus, witn the Roman fleet f, beat them twice; 


(u) A.M. 3933. Ant. J, C. 71. ' 

* Cum totîus impetus belli aJ Cy- 
2icciioium mœiiia conflitiflcc, eam- 
^uc urbem fibi Mithridatcs Afix ja- 
jnuam tore puUvifl'et, qua efl>a£ta 
fe rcvulfa tota psteret proviacia : per- 
frila ab Locullu hive funt omnia, ut 
«lbs lidrliMiinorum fuciorum drfen- 
«leietiir, ut onines conis ciiu- 
tiirni:ate obriôi>>nic cortlumersnlur. 

Of* in Or at. prj Jiljr, 11. 33. 

•I* Ab cobcai icn.pcraiorc claBcm 

magnam Sc oraatam, quae duribot 
Scrtorianis ad Italiam Audio infUm- 
ma to raperctur, fuperatam cfle atque 
depreiram. dV> fro /ege Mauil. a. 2 1« 
Quid } lilam pugnjm navalem ad 
Tenedum, cum ta nto conçu rfu, accr- 
rimitducibus, hoftium clafltt Italiam 
rpe atque aniraii indata pcteret, me- 
diocri ( ertamine & parva dlmicaiione 
commid'am arbitrant? IJ fn M*" 

F P O N ï ^ pj : . I> 

ifirA tiin< Teiici iht «her at LuoBQt, when the 

my thouj L uf notnii ih.\ii siaking fail Ibr Italr, and. 

^laariniiig ^nd plunii the CoaAt pf RoA» itfelf. He- 

led st\aib& all their n; in [h<>fe tWo engiq^entt i and 
tiic laA laok M. Mari :hc Raman le&ator, whom Serto». 
tbadTenc from Spain la ilic aid of MiAri<UKS. LuCuUw 
ercd him to be pitt to •ieaût, biKBiife it wu àot ctmfiftenx ' 
'^ the K'smm dignity, ihaz 3 fimator of Ronw'fliOQld btt 
in triumph. One of the two other* poifoned bimfilf ^ 
tibe ikirdwa; rell-ned t'orthe triumph. AfierhaTinfc cleared. 
f coalh by ihffe two viaories. Lucallgi tamed lu* Ufiu. 
rirds the continent: reduced Ilithyoia firft,' then FapUart 
lia ) mnrehed afterwarda into PonCus, and cairied the WV 
I the heart of Mtthridnces's dciiniaions. 
le raftered at liril fn g!i--at a warz of pioviiGons io'^thi^eih 
iiion, thit He was obliged to raake 30,000 Qalatians fbU . 
I the army, each with a quantity of w^at npcm hia'lhoilldcn«- ' 
l4pon l)U advancing into the country, and fiibJcfUa^ tha 
n and provinces, he fo'jnd fuch abunflance of all thiisgi, 
t an ox fold for * only one dcachiBa, and a flsve let nO , 
fe than four. 
jliihridHits liad fuffered almoU u fliQch by the tttnpeft» UC ■ 

EpnlTage on the Euxioc fi-a, m ia the canpugD whereu hfl 
been treated fu roughly. He loll in it aJmoft all ÛU re^ 
adtT of his fleet, and the troops he had brought thithet 
.the dctvnce of his ancient dorainioa*. When E^Mnlliu 
Ived, he vtw making new levies with the otmofl expedltioa» 
lefend himfelf agaiall that invafioa wUch he had toreiêen. 
•Hcallu), upon arriving in Poatsi', without lofi of tiiaie\^' 
mgti Amifus and Eupatoria, t\io of thé principal citîei o( 
country, verv near each oilier. The later, which had 
a very lately built, was called Eopatoria, from the'fur- 
nc t>r Eupitor, given to Miihridates ; thi« place was hi» 
i residence, and he dcfigned 10 make it the capital of hii 
tnii^ns. Not contented with inefe two fieges at once, he 
s dctaehinent of his army 10 form that of Themilcyra, 
woa the river Thermodon, which place was not lefs con- 
MCrable than the two others. 

The officers of Lucullus's army complained, that their « 
giaertl amufed himfelf too long m ftege], which were not 
woeth hit trouble, and that in the mean time he gave Mithri^ . 
«BM> Ojpportttnity to augment his army, and gather flrength. 
Towhidi he anlwered m his juftification: " That is direflly' 
V what I want. I à£l in this manner for ne other piirpolc, 
E 6 " iu 


** in order th?.t our enemy may take new courage» and aflem- 
** blc fo numerous an Lrmy, as may embolden him to exped 
•• Ub in the field, and fly no longer before us. Do you not 
** cbfcrve, thathc ha: behind Iiim immc-nfefoHtudes and infinite 
•* def^rts, in which it \vi!I hi: impofliblc for us either to come 
•* up with Or purrue him ? Armenia is buta few days march 
•• from thefe def.irts. There Tigranes keeps his court, that 
*• king of kings, vvhofc power is (o great, that he fubdues 
*• the Parlhian;, trnnrporis whole cities of Greeks into the 
*• heart of Media, h?ir. made himfclf mafter of Syria and Pa- 
" hill ne, exterminated the kings defcended from Seleucus, 
** and carried their wives and daughters into captivity. This 
** powerful prince is the ally mià fon-in-!av/ of Mithridates. 
" Du you think, when he han him in his palace as a fuppli' 
** ant, that he v. ill abandon him, and not make war agamîE 
** \::.f iî.nce in hafter.iiiîr lo drive away Mithridates, we 
** ria'I l;c in ^rcat dan^.-er of drawing Tigranes upon our 
** lianJî, who har^ h.;.;^ fought pretexts for declaring u.>, and uîi-) ran never fina one more fpecious, le- 
^Mtimate and hono'jral'ic, than that of affilling his father- 
in-law, f.r.d a king reduced to the laft extremity. Why 
tricrcf-^ re iliould we fcrve Mithridates againft: ourfclves, or 
•* fl:c-.v him to v/hcm he n.oultl have recourfe for the means 
** of Aipportin^r :he war ui:h u:, by pufiiing him, againft his 
** will, and at a time perhaps when he looks upon fuch a ftep 
** a'l unworthy hi- va! our and grcatmîfs, into the arms and 
** protection of 'J'igrane: ? Is it not infinitely better, by 
" giv^"5 ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^' ^^'^c coura;>e, and ftrcngthen himfelf 
*' Vfith his own forces, to have only upon our hands the troops 
'* of Cnkîjis, the Tihareijii-nj, and Cappadocians, whom 
** we have To often def'.ar:d, than to expoic ourfelvcs to have 
** tlic additional force cf the Armenians and Mcdcs to contend 
*« \vi:h?^' 

Whilft the Pvomans attacked the three places we have men- 
tioned, Mithrj dater., vho had already fojmcd a new army, 
took the ficki very early in the fpring. J.ucullus left the 
command of the fie i» es of Aniifuç a. id Kupatoria to Murena» 
the fon of him we have fpokcii rf bjfwre, whom Cicero re- 
prcfenti in a very fivoarable li;'.hr. * ** He v/ent into Afia, 
** a province aboundin*^ with richi :■ an.l pleafure*:, wher«'hc left 
** behind him no tr;-.C'. '. eitii-.T r;f :.vrricc f-r lir-.uiv. He be- 
•* havcd in fuch a maîîn.rin thii var, that he did 

** many 


• Afiam îftim r-fcrtam Sc pan Jim 
delicatam, lie obiir, u* in c-a n-.nni 
"«iririii.i», n»^ ><: ir.xiiriar vrîli '.ium 

t^uciit. Maxima in bcDo i\z cfi 

V'-rfdlur, ft liic n-":l'3! reî & rmp'iii ir.pti-.'T^ g::i:iir, njlii.'n i;;je 

il. 2C, 

OF P O N T U S. 


•^ many great aérions without the general, the general none 
•• without him.'* LucuUus marched againft Mithridatcs, 
who lay encamped in the plains of Cabirx. The latter had 
the advantage in two actions, but was entirely defeated in the 
third, and obliged to fly without either fervant or equerry to 
attend him, or a fingle horfe of his (lable. It was not till very 
late, that one of his eunuchs, feeing him on foot in the midil of 
the flying crowd, got from his horfc and gave it him. The 
Romans were fo near him, that they almoll had him in tlieir 
hands, and it was owing entirely to themfelves that they did not 
take him. The avarice only of the foldiers loft them a prey, 
which they had purfued fo long, through fo many toils, dangers, 
and battles, and deprived Lucullus of the fole reward of all his 
viûories. Mithridates, fays * Cicero, artfully imitated the 
manner in which Medea efcaped the purfuit of her father, in 
the fame kingdom of Pen tus. That princefs is faid to have 
cat the body of Abfyrtus her brother in pieces, and to have 
(battered his limbs in the places through which her father 
purfued her; in order that his care in taking up thofe dif- 
perfed members, and the grief fo fad a fpedtacle would give 
aim, might flop the rapidity of his purfuit. Mithridates in 
Eke manner, as he fled, left upon the way a great quantity 
of gold, filver, and precious effefts, which had either de- 
foended to him from his anceftors,-or had been amafl^ed by 
himielf in the preceeding wars : and whilft the foldiers em- 
ployed themfelves in gathering thofe treafures too attentively, 
the king efcaped their hands. So that the father of Medea 
was âopped in his purfuit by forrow, but the Romans by 

After this defeat of the enemy, Lucullus took the city of 

Cabirae, with feveral other places and caftles, in which he 

foond ercat'riches. He found alfo the piifons full of Greeks, 

and pnnces nearly related to the king, who were confined in 

them. As thofe unhappy perfons had long given themfelves 

over for dead, the liberty they received from Lucullus feemed 

Icfs a deliverance than new life to them. In one of tliefc 

caftles a fiilcr of the king's, named NyfTa, was alfo takei:, 


• "Ex regno flc Mithridates 
profugtt, ut tx eoilem Ponto Medea 
ills quondam profugilTedicitur: quam 
pr«rdicant, in fuga, fr?.tns fui mem- 
bra in lit locis, qua fc parens per- 
fequeretur, dilTipavifle, ut coium 
coJed^io difperfa, mcsrorque patrius 
celcriratem perfequcndi retard.not. 
Sic MithridAtes fugiens maximam 
•lui atquc argcoti, puUherri- 

marnmque rerum omnium, quas & 
à majoribus acceperat, & ipfc bello 
fupe-iorcextota Afiadireptasin fuum 
rcgnum congclîerat in Ponto, omnem 
reliquit. Hx>c dum noAri coUii^uiit 
omnia diligcntiu-, rex ipfe c mani- 
bus effuçit. Ita ilium in perfcqne'îdi 
Audio mceror, hos la.*til:a reUrdavit, 
Ciit dt lug* Manilt d« 22» 


which was a great inilancc of her good fortune. For the bther 
fillers of tliat prince » with his wives, who had been fent far« 
thcr from the danp;cr, and who believed themfelves in fafety 
and repofo, all died miferably, Mithridatcs on his flight 
having fcnt tliein orders to die by Bucchidas the eunuch. 

Amoncll tlic otlier fillers of the king were Roxana and Sta- 
tira, both unmarried, and about forty years (>f age, with two 
of his wives, Berenice and Monima, both of Ionia. AH 
Greece fpoke much of the latter, whom they admired more 
fur her wifdom than beaut v, though exquillce. The king 
having fallen defperately in love with her, had forgot nothing 
that might incline her to favour his pallion : He fent her at 
once iq,ooo pieces of goLl. She was always avcrfe to him, 
and retufed his preicnts, till he gave her the quality of wife and 
queen, and (cm her the royal tiara or diadem, an cd^ntial 
ccromony in the niarria;>e of the kings of ihofc nation $• Nor 
did ihc then comply without extreme regret, and in compli- 
ance \^iih her family, da/.7.led with the fplendpr ot a 
crown, and the power of Mithridates, who was at that 
time viHorious, and at the height of his glory. From 
her marriage to the inilant of which we are now fprakingi 
that unfoiLunate princefs had palled her Hfe in continual 
fadnefs a:id aHli^tion, lamenting her fatal beauty,, that in- 
ilead of a liuiband had given her a mailer, and of procuring 
her an honourable abode, and the ende:u'mcnts ot conjugal 
iociecy, had coniined her in a clofe prifon, under a guaid of 
Barbarians; where, far removed from the delightful regions 
of Cîreece, flie had only enjoyed a dream^of the h.ippiuefs 
with which (lie had been flattered, and hivd itrally lott that 
((>lid and eifential good Ihe pofleiled in her own beloved 

When Bacchidas arrived, and fignificd to the princefles 
the order of Mithridates, which favoured them no farther, 
than to leave them at libiTty to chufe the kind of death they 
fliould think moll gentle and immediate; Monima, taking 
the diadem from her head, tied it' round her neck, and hung 
herfelf up by it. But that wreath not being llrong enough, and 
breaking, flie cried out ; Jhftital trifle ^ you mi^ht ai Utijt a't 
fne this mournful oJiW / Then throwing it away with indigna- 
tion, ihc pre fen ted her neck to B.icchidas. 

As for Berenice, ihe took a cup of poifon, and as (he was 
going to drink it, her mother, who was prefcnt, defircd to 
Ihîire it 'with her. They acconlingly drank both together, 
'i'he half of that cup ftilHced to carry off the mother, worn 
out and feeble with age ; but was not enough to furmouut the 
ilien^th aud youth gf Berenice. That princefs llrugglcd loikg 


O F P O N T U s. «7 

-with death in the mod violent agonies, till BaccliidaSy tired 
with waiting the efFedts of the poifon, ordered her to be 

Of the two fillers, Roxana is faid to have fvvallowed poifon, 
venting a thoufand reproaches and imprecations againft Mi- 
thridates. Statira, on the contrary, was plcufed with her 
brother, and thanked liim, that being in fo great danger for 
his own perfon, he had not forgot them, and had taken care to 
fupply them with the means of dyin^r free, and of withdraw- 
ing from the indignities their enemies might elfe have made 
diem fuifer. 

Their deaths extremely affliéled Lucullus, who was of a 
gentle and humane difpofition. He continued his march in 
pnrfuit of Mithridates : but having received advice, that he 
was four days journey before him, and had taken the route of 
Armenia, to relire to his fon-in-law, he returned direélly, 
and after having fubjefted fome countries, and taken fome 
cities in the neighbourhood, he fent Appius Clodius to Ti« 
granesy to demand Mithridates of him ; and in the mean time 
returned againll Amifus, which place was not yet taken. 
Callimachus, who commanded in it, and was the moil able 
engineer of his times, had alone prolonged the fiege. Wheit 
he law that he could hold out no longer, he fet Are to the 
city, and efcaped in a (hip that waited for him. Lucullus 
dia his utmoil to extinguifh the flames, but in vain ; and, to 
increafe his concern, faw^himfelf obliged to abandon the city 
to be plundered by the foldiers, from whom the place had aa 
mnch to fear as from the themfelves. His troops were 
iniatiable for booty, and he noc capable of reflraining them. 
A rain that happened to fall preierved a great number of 
buildings, and Lucullus, before his departure, caufed thofe 
which nad been burnt to be rebuilt. This city was an an- 
ôent colony of the Atlienians. Such of the Athenians, during 
Ariftion's being mailer of Athens, as dcfircd to fly from his 
tyranny, had retired thither, and enjoyed there the fame 
rights and privileges with the natives. 

Lucullus, when he left Amifus, direiTled his march towards 
the cities of Afia, whom the avaj-lcc and cruelty of the ufurcrs 
and tax-farmers held under the moil dreadful opprefiion ; in- 
fomlKrh that thofe j>oor people were obli^^cd lo fell their 
children of both fexes, and even fet up to aiidion the paint- 
ings and llatues confecrated to tlie gods. And when ihefc 
would not fuffice to pay the duties, taxes, and interell unpaid, 
they were given up without mercy to their creditors, and 
often cxpofed to fuch barbarous tortures, that flayery, in 


St T H R H I s T O R Y 

Gotnpnrîfon with thcîr mifcrics, fcemed a kind of redre6 and 

tranquillity lo ihcm. s 

Thcfi: imiiirnle debts of the province arofe from the fine of 
20,000 * talents, which Sylla had impofi'd r-n ir. They had 
already paid the Aim twice ovli* : but thole infatiahle ufurerst 
by hcnpine imcrelt upim intercl!, had run it up to f i20,ocb 
talents ; lo that they Hill owed triple the fums they had al* 
rcn:ly paid. 

Tacitus t has rcafon to fay, that ufury was one of theixnoft 
ancient evils of the Roman commonwealth, and the mod fre- 
quent cauie of feditîon ; but at the time wu now fpeak of» it 
was e.'inicd to an cxccfs not cafy to comprehend. 

The interell of money anu)np,fl the Romans was paid every 
month, and was one ptr cent, hence it was called ujnra centt^ 
//;.'.//, (^r lunitirum fa-nus\ beeaufe in reckoning the twelve 
months, twelve per cciu, was paid : Vncia is the tAvelfth part 
of an whole. 

(xj 'J'he § law of the twelve» tables prohibited the raliing 
întere/l to above twelve per cent. This law was revived by 
the two trîbuneîj of the peo|>le, in the Y)^^^^ y*^*" ^^ Rome. 

(yj Ten years after, interell was reduced to half that fum» 
in the 406th year of Rome ; femiunnjrum ftvnns, 

(v.) At Icnrth, in the 411th year of Rome, all intereft 
was prohihitei! by decree; Ne fr'nrnri liceret. 

AU thefe decrees were irtefit Mal. || Avarice was always 
too lliMnjr for the laws: and . («aievcr regulations were made 
to fu]>p^c^^ it, either in the t. :• ■ <^f the rcpublick, or under 
the etiiperor, it always fou:. 1 :iienns to elude them. Nor 
has it paid nu^re regard to tl> ;aws of the church* which haf 
never entered intr> any eomi- liiion in this point, and feverely 
condemns all ufury, even i.e moll nK^leratc; bccaufe, Goa 
having forbade any, Wx*^ 'lever believed Ihe had a right to per- 
mit it in tli.r l(-.i4. It is remarl'.able, that ufury has always 
occafioncd the miii of ihe liâtes v.'herc it has been toleratea; 
and it wai. this 'lifonler v.hieh contributed very much "to fub- 
vert til ■ oi' ilituiion of the Roman commonwealth, and gave 
birih to the ^rcatcil in all the provinces of that 


(x) T.icit. Annjl. !. vî. r. 16. Liv. 2. wi. n. liu (y) Liv. 

1. vii. n. 2/. (r-..) \\M. 11,42. 

* jlfiut ^,'crï^nrfr\,Jffilhif;, . ^ Ni:]ulg unciarlo fcinnrc tiApIiui 

•f -'//■/wr iX,:ii(',ciOvI. ///"j/irf, I exi-rrrtii. 

i Sjiic vi:tin iiihi ùuiirltp; nillum, I || Mnliii pIoiMfcitil '^Hviain itam 
A: I'lTviiiiununi tiiriori:i.irii:ni|U(' err- I I'l iiiiibus : (jiix loiieari'prrii.r mirji 
bcrrima v.aui4« 7iij/i W/i.vii/« It vi.|r"i iuics rufl'um uiiclojuu:. T«ii/. 
'1 lOa 1 J Jiuf 



.-lACnllut, At thii tini£, applied hùnlëlf in uifing the pro- 
itce of Alij Corns relaxation, whkh lu; could iml^ eScH by. 
fatxiag a llop ta the injuflicc and çtuthy of the ufurcri uid 
iMt-farineti. The Utter, linUiiig tbeinlclv» deprived by I.u- 
plllw of ihc immenlc guin ihcy mudei ruifcd a greu attKtyf 
4|t if Ùlvy hiul been exwQivcl/ injured, and by the force ot 
Stole)' nAiautcd niiuiy oratorb iifrainft him t p^nkaluly con-* 
iding in hitvinf moll of ihaùt who gotvrncd the republiclt ia 
lluirdcbl, v/hiiA gave them » vety txtciifire and nlmoli un- 
Iraundcd inlluence, But Lucullus defpifcd their clamours 
tàxh A canfUncy the more ^miiabiei from in being very 

tiCT. in. LueuLLtri rffu/ï* -tudr le ht ditlartd tvith Ti- 
OKAMIR, «««^ mitTcbti agaiafi him. Vamty and Tiiieulnui 
Jtlf'/u^citnti a/ I bal prmt. Ih lnjti it grial lialtlt. Lu- 
cOLUvt laiii'TigrainKiria, eafllat tf Ârminia, Ht geint ti ' 
fmiid •vifiary a-vtr ihr jeiiit fùrcti r,f'l'\v,».\ auJ Ml- 
TMKiDATrs. Mutiny anii Tf veil in tin army oyLi;cui.Lu». 

M npIGRANKS, toivhom Lucullu» had fcntJin «m- 
; Â bitlador. though of na f reAt power in the begin* 

ring 01 luA reign, hud enlarged it fo tiitich by a, feriei ol 

poitlyfufBiiincil thcifrw^ bJ" kitui. After having overthrowni 
■d «linoll ruined the fuiiily oi the kiD^ii fuccctrori of Scleu> 
tm the Orciit i after b4ving very often tiumbled thu pride of 
ibe Panhiant, tranfported whtile ciiici uf Greets into Media* 
ucrcd all Syria uiid Puledine, und uivcn law* lo tlta 
\, cailed tkxnite) ; be reigned with an aothority re- 
,.. by all the prince* of ATm. The pcopla paid bin 
kmown. after the mnnner of the I'^afl, even to tuloratitin, 
Kit pride wM ioHametl and fupnoricd by the imnienfE rii:hei 
tUffiHrirfd, by the exceflive ikiui continual praifcB of hi» flM* 
men, and by a profperity that had never known any intef* 

Appius Ctodiui waa jniroijuccd to an Audience of thit 
ince, who ajjpeared wiili alL the fplendor he could difpbyi 
Ofder to give the nmbnlTitdor an higher idea of itie royal 
gBity; who, on hii fide, uniting the haughtinefi of hii 
bofitioi) wiih that which particularly char^eri^ed hit rc- 
Molick) perfeAly fupporicd the dignity of a Ronun ambaAhr 




After having explained, in a few words» the fubj 
complaints which the Romans had ag^ainft Mithridatc: 
that prince's breach of faith in breaking the peace, w 
fo much as attempting to give any realbfl or colour for : 
told Ti^rancs, that he came to demand his being del 
up to him, as due by every fort of title to Lucullus's trii 
that he did not believe, as a friend to the Romans, wh 
had been till then, that he would make any difficu 
giving up Mithridates ; and that in cafe of his refufal, 1 
inilru6led to declare war againil him. . 

That prince, who had never been contradiâed» ant 
knew no other law nor rule but his will and pleafure 
extremely offended at this Roman freedom. But he was 
more fo with Lucullus's letter, when it was delivered to 
The title of king only, which it gave him, did not i 
him. He had nHumed that of king of kings ^ of which b 
very fond, and had carried his pride in that refpcâ fo 
to caufe himfelf to be ferved by crowned heads. He 
appeared in publick without having four kings attending 
two on foot, on each lide of his horfe, when he went ab 
at table, in his chamber, in (hort, every where he had a 
fome of them to do the k>weft offices for him ; but efpe 
when he gave audience to ambaiTado^i. For at that tin 
give ilranj^ers a greater idea of his glory and power, he 
them all uand in two ranks, one on each fide of his x\ 
where they appeared in the habit dhd pofture of coi 
Haves. A priae fo full of abfurdity oflfends all the v 
One more refined (hocks Icfs, though much the fame a 

It is notfurprîzing that a prince of this charaûer (houle 
the manner in which Clodius fpoke to him with impaci 
It is the fir ft free and (incere fpeech he had heard, durin 
five-and- twenty years he had governed his fubjeâs, or i 
tyrannized over them with excefïïve infolence. He anfw 
that Mithridates was the father of Cleopatra, his wife; 
the union between them was of too ftri a nature, to ; 
his delivering him up for the triumph of Lucullus ; am 
if the Romans were unjufl enough to make war r.g ai nfl 
he knew how to defend himfelf, and to make them repc 
To exprf fs his refentment by his anfwer, he Jircâcd it 
to Lucullus, without adding the title of Imperacc 
any others commonly given to the Roman generals. 

Lucullus, when Clodius reported his com million, ani' 
war had been declared againft Tigranes, returned witi 
iitmoil diligence into Pontus to t^gia it. The enter 


O F P O N T U s. 9f 

ncd rafli» tnd the terrible power of the king nftonifhed all 
Le who rcHcd lefs upon the valour of the troops and the 
iduit of the {^encr.'ll, than upon a multitude of foldiers» 
;6r ha vin;; made him felt' m.ilter of Si nope, he gave that 
xc its liberty, as he did alio to Amiftis, and made themr 
th free and indcpcndi*nt cities, (ùj Cotta did not treat 
^raclea, which he took after a long fic^e by treachery, in 
? iAinc manner. He enriched himfolt out of its fpoils, 
*atcd the inhabitants with cxccilive cruelty» and burnt al- 
oft the whole city. On his return to Rome, he was at firft 
;1! received by the fcnate, and honoured with the furname 
' Pimticus, upon account of taking that place: bat foon 
ccr« wlieu the lieraclcuns h'\d laid their complaints beforo 
le fenate, and reprei'cnted, in a manner capable of moving 
le hardeft hearts, the uiiierie^i Cotta*s avarice and cruel tv 
ad made them fuller, the fonate contented thcmfelves with 
epriving him of the iàftts citions ^ which was the robe worn 
y-chc fenators, a puniihment in no wife proportioned to the 
rying exccAes proved upon him. 

LttcuUui left Sornatius, one of his generals, in Pontus» 
rich 6000 men» and marched with the reft» which amounted 
aly to i2»ooo foot» and 1000 horfe» through Cappadocia to 
ba Euphrates. He paQed that river in the midft of winter» 
ad afterwards the Tigris» and came before Tigranocerta» 
rhich WAS at fome fmall diftance, to attack Tigranes in hit 
apital, where he had lately arrived from Syria. Nobody 
lared fpcak to that prince of LucuUus and his march» after his 
Tttcl treatment of the i^rfon that brought him the firft newt 
if it» whom he put to death in reward h>r fo important à fer* 
riœ. He liilenod to nothing but the difcourfes of flatterers» 
vho tuld him LucuHus muit be a great captain, if he onljr 
lared wait for him at Kphcfns» ;ind did not octake himfelf to 
light and abandon Afia, when he faw the many thoufands 
>l»which his army was compoicd. So true iti5, fays Plutarch» 
hat as all cunllitutions arc not cap.-iKIo of hearing nuich wine» 
ill minds arc not I'liitcd to hrurin^: fortunes without lois 
)f rcifon and inf.iriia(li>n. 

'ri'jrano, at tiill, h.ul not luiynod fo much as to Too or 
peak to Mululil.iic.s, tht)ui\h his f.\thcr-iula\v, but ircatcd 
iim with I ho u!nv»il coMifinpt and .uroi^ancc, kept him at a 
Jillancc» and plac.d a j» 11,11 d ovrr him a. a piifoniT M' i\aic, in 
iiarlh) unwholionu* pluCv*:. ('. luit after Ciodiu.s'sembaliy, 
lie had ordered ium t>) In* biv>i]i>!u to court with all poilihle 
lu>nollr^ and n\aik> ot icTiuvi. la .1 privaiv- c.un eifatioa 


($J Mcnxi. c. Il — l\i, ( ,' A. M ^g?^. A;jl. J. C. 09. 

qt T H E H I s T O R r 

which thfy had t();>ether wiihout witncflei, thty cnred them* 
(elves of (heir mutual fufpicioiia, to the great misfortune of 
their friend.'., upon whr)ni chey caft all the blame. 

In ihc n urn her of thofc unfortunates WAS Metrodorufp of the 
city of Sccpfi-i, :i man of t'Xtrur)rdinary merit» who had b 
much credit with the king, ilmt he was called the Icing's fa« 
ther. 'J'h.-it princi: had fL-iit him on an embafly to Tigranei» 
to dcdre aid ni'aiiiA th:^ Hot nana. When he had explained 
the occafion oF hih journey, Ti^rrancs aflccd him ; Andfwyw^ 
MttroduKMs, fwJjttt n'jfiulJ you ttd^ife me to do^ in regard to jaur 
miiijhr'^t Acmundi'^ Upon whicli Mctrodorus replied^ out of 
an cxcefb of ill-timed iinccrity : At anambaffador^ Imd'vtfsjou 
io du HAjhtU Mit bridât et demands of you \ hut as your eoutifel^ mt 
tb du it, '\\\\i wub :i criminal prévarication, «nd a kind of 
ticafon. It (oU him hiii life, ivucn Mithridates had been «p* 
pri'/ed of it [jy Ti^rranea. 

Luculhn continually advanced ngainft that prince, and wu 
already in a manner at the gates of his palace, without his 
richer knowiu'r or believing any thing of the matter ; fo muck 
was he Lliniicct by hi:i prefumption. Mithrobarzanes, one of 
his favour iccâ. ventured to carry him that news. The rewifl 
ht had for it was to be charged with a comniifllon, to go im» 
JnelUa^dy with fome troops, and biing Lucullus prifnner; ■• 
if the quellioji had been only to arrell one of the king's fob* 
jefls. 'i'he favourite, with the oreatell: part of the troopt 
given him, lolt tlieir lives, in endeavouring to execute that 
dangerous commiflion. This ill fuccefs opened the eyes of 
1'igranes, aiid made him recover from his infatuation. Mi- 
thridates had been iênt back into I'ontus with 10,000 horfei 
to raife troops there, and to return and join Tigranes, in cafe 
Lucullus entered Armenia. For himfelf, he had chofen to 
continue atl'i^iranricrrta, in order to give the neci-n*ary orders 
for rai/lng troops tlirouf.tjiout his whole dominions. After 
this check he I)r«(ran to he af'niid of Lucullus, quitted Tigra- 
nocerta, retired to mount Taurus, und gave orders for allhis 
troops to i*epair thitherto him. 

Lucullus marched directly to Timnocerta, took up his 
quarters around the phi ce, and formed the fiege of it. This 
city was full of all forts of ricliM ; the inhabitants of all orders 
and conditirnis havinj<^cii>ulatrfl each other in contributing to 
its em!)cli if liment and ma('nilicenL*e, in order to make their 
court to the kuxy,'. I'W this teaion Lucullus preflcd the fiege 
with die u run ill vijrour ; believing thntTi^',ranes wonld never 
fufferit to Le taken, and that he would come on in atranfport 
of ïury to oiler him battle, and oblige him to raife the fiege. 



e was not miftaken in his conjedare. Mithridates Cent 
day couriers to Tigranesj and wrote him letters, to 
him» in the (Irongell terms, not to hazard a battle, and 
D make u(ê of his cavalry in cutting off Lucullua's pro* 
I. Taxilus himfelf was fent by him with the fame in- 
onsy who, flaying with him in his camp, made carneft 
Des to him, every day, not to attack the Roman armies» 
ry were excellently difciplined, veteran foldiers, and 
: invincible. 

firft he hearkened to this advice with patience enough. 
lien his troops, confiding of a great number of different 
IS, were affembled, not only the king's feails, but his 
ils refonnded with nothing but vain bravadoes, full of 
nee, pride, and Barbarian menaces. Taxilus was 'in 
T of being^ killed, for having ventured to oppofe the 
: of thofe who were for a battle ; and Mithridates him« 
f^t openly accufed of oppofing it, only out of envy, to 
re his fon-inrlaw of the glory of fo great a fuccefs. 
this conceit Tigranes determined to wait no longer, lefl 
idates fhould arrive, and fhare with him in the honour 
e victory. He therefore marched with all his forces» 
b; his friends, that he was only forry on one account, 
nac was, his having to do with Lucullus alone, and not 
dl the Roman generals together. He meafored his hopes 
cefs by the number of his troops. He had about 20,000 
rs and flingcrs, 55,000 horfe, 17,000 of which were 
-armed cavalry, 150,000 foot, divided into companies 
Mttalions, beiides workmen to clear the roads, build 
es, deanfe and turn the courfe of rivers, with other ia« 
TS néceflary in armies, to the number of 3^,000, who, 
I ojp in battle behind the combatants, made the armv 
r ftili more numerous, and augmented its force and lui 

len he had paffed mount Taurus, and all his troops ap- 
d together in the plains, the fight alone of his army was 
ent to ftrike terror into the moft daring enemy. Lucul- 
ilways intrepid, divided his troops. He left Murena 
6000 foot before the place, and with all the reil of his 
try, confiding of twenty-four cohorts, which to^^eiher 
ot amount to more than 10,000 or 12,000 men, ;i!l his 
, and about 1000 archers and fliiigers, marched aorainlt 
mes, and encamped in the plain, with a large river in 

is handful of men made Tigranes laugh, and fappli< 
Uteren with great matter for pk^afantry. Some upe; 


jefted upon them ; others, by way of dlverfion, drew lots for theff 
fpoils ; and of all Tigranes's generals, and the kings ir hîf 
army, there was not one who did not intrcat hîm to eive the 
charge of that affair to him alone, and content himielf with 
being only a fpeélator of the aflion. Tigranes himiclf, to 
Appear agreeable, and a fine raillier, ufed an expreifîon, which 
has been much admired ; If they come as amhnffattors^ they mrg 
a great many ; hut if as enemies ^ nfety fenv. Thus the firll day 
pafled in jelling and raillery. 

The next morning, at fun-rife, Lucullus made his army 
march out of their entrenchments. That of the Barbarians 
was on the other (ide of the river towards the F.aff , and the 
river ran in fuch a manner, that a little below it turned oflFto 
the li'ft towards the Weft, where it was rafily fordablc. Lo- 
cullus, in leading his r.rmy to this ford, inclined alfo to the 
left, towards the lower part of the river, haflening his march. 
Tigranes, who faw him, believed he fled ; and calling Pir 
Taxilus, told him with a contemptuous laugh ~Z)0 r*«^ 
fhn/e in'vincihle Rfiman legians ? Ytu Ice they caa run avomf. 
Taxilus replied, I ivijhyour mnjejîy^s good fortune may this iey 
efo a mi vac If in yovr fa*vour ; hvt the a*'ms^and march cf thpfi 
legions do vet nrguc fecple running a^vcy, 

Taxilus wa^ lH!I fpeakir.g, when he faw the eagle of the 
firfl legions move on a fudden to the light about, by the com- 
mand of Lucullus, followed by all the cohorts, in order to 
pafs the river. Tigranes, reco\'ering then with difficulty, 
like one that had been long drunk, cried out two or three 
times, Hoik' ! Are thofe pecplc coming to us ! They came on fi) 
fad, that his numerous troops dia not poft themfelves, nor 
draw up in battle without abundance of diforder and cod- 
fnfion. Tigranes placed himfelf in the centre ; gave the left 
wing to the king of the Adiabenians, and the right to the 
king of the Mcdcs. The g reared part of the heavy-armed 
hor& covered the front of the right wing. 

As Lacullus was preparing to pafs the river, fv.*me of hii 
general-officers advifed hi m not to engage upon that day, be- 
caufe one of thofc unfortunate days, which the Romans called 
hiack days. For it was the fame upon which the army of * 
Cepio had been defeated in the battle with the Cimbri. 
Lucullus made them this anfwer, which afterwards became fo 
famous: And for m^^ I ixill make this an hatpy day fêf the Re- 
mans. It was the fixth day of October, (the day before the 
nones of Odlober.) 


• Tht Cretk text Jayt, the army I las Jtjlif eontiieJ in th wiarf^m ^ kit 
§i Scipio, ntiib AUffitur dt 'Ibtu \ l'iutûf v, the srvy of CcpiVa 

PO NTUS. ■ y, . 

AAerlK de reply, aA|l £^>orted tke» «M ts 

'■dllcoui'i . the riTCT, and mMchsd ftnmoft 

Ltnltihc ,. __ ivas anncd witlkft Aeel f<ârt£h-nuàm 

rhlcli WAS hh coat of an bor^nd ail raund wîui a fiii^ 
lecarrjcil hU naked fw< liiniilg ûi iàs )iaiid,-to intÙMls 
>hls troops, thaï it wn. nccelTaTj n ioi|i xn-emay îirtw 
lately accultoincd to light only at a.£ftuce'«ri|l} Ûuir «r> 
And to depjivc tliem, by che fwiAneTa and «npeUCi^ 
Alticlc, of the ([lare required for the ofe of tfiem. 
^i^çemn^ thai the heavy-ariited ovaliy, apod- wboa the 
^^y very much rdicd, were irsfva np at the foot of • 
_BbU[| of which the fummii was fiat and level, aitd A* 
ârrity of not above 500 pice*, neither much .btofcau 
r rcry dtihcult, he fan- at Hrll riawwhatnfehe had tum*^ 
iu He commanded hii Thriciao and Galaiiut horicM 
PMCge that body of the enemy's cavalnr in flank, with ON 
CIS only to turn afidetlieirlancei tnth their, fworda. Forth* 
fintipAt, or rather whole, foice-of thofe heavy-anwd horfe, 
ItËIlcd in their lance.'^, which when they had not room to 
it, they could do nothing either, agtdaft the.eoemyi or ibr 
emfelvcs; their arias being fo Leavy, fiifi*, andcamberbm^ 
^™"iithcy could Rot'.urn themfelvQi, and wen alguA iamow»* 
It. ■'' 

Whilfi his cavalry m; hcd to ejctco^ hi* Otderij ^ ffiok, 
a cohorts of foot, am nt ta gain, the ;«BtBfqaK ' Tb* 
try followed coura] juily, excited I^. tbe ;«fuiplf t£ 
■v gênerai, whom thi ,• mar^ng fbioaoft on no^ • 

„J aicendiRg the hill. 1 he tvu'a^ the top, kefhmnd 

tnfelf from the htgheQ p of it^ XfiL Jedng ftom' dwM* 
~ ivhotc order of the 1 niy'i bsttje, be qiei out, ?2« .' 
^-.'fT}- i' earj.fitto'-^-jcldi/ri, tèt viOny it mrj. At dw fano 
une, with his two cohorts he adranopd againft that heavy- 
~~ ed cavalry, and ordered his troops not to .nuke nié of 
r pilccB, but join thofe horfe fword in hand, and ftrike 
■pon their legs and thighs, which were the only unarmed 
part) about them. But hi^ foldiE» had not fo much trouble 
with them. That chivalry did not Aay their coming on, bat 
Oamcfuily took to Hight ; and howling; as they (led, fell icith 
iheir heavy unwieldy hories into the ranktof their foot, with- 
'loining battle at all, or fo much as making a tingle thrufi 
.„_j their lances. The (laughter did not begin undl tkey 
iCMnlot) , or rather to endcavjurit; for they «iould not do 
o.lieMig pre vented by th(irowt\ battalion», whçferank* were 
Jo clofe and deep, that they could not hiuk their way through 



them. Tigr«ines» that king fo lofty and brave in wordf 
had taken to flight from the beginning with a few followers 
and feeing his Ton, the companion of his fortune, he took oi 
his diadem, weeping, and giving it him, exhorted him tx 
fave himfelf as well as he could by another route. Tha 
young prince was afraid to put the diadem upon his head 
which would have been a dangerous ornament at fuch a time 
and gave it into the hands ot one of the moft faithful of hi 
fer\'ants, who was taken a moment after, and carried ti 

Tt is faid, that in this defeat more than an hundred thoufam 
of the enemy's foot perifhed, and that very few of thei 
horfe efcaped : On the fide of the Romans, only five wer 
killed, and an hundred wounded. They had never cngam 
in a pitched battle fo great a number of enemies with fo m 
troops ; for the vidlors did not amount to the twentieth parte 
the vanquifhed. Thegreateft and moft able Roman genenlf 
who had leen moft wars and battles, gave Lucullus particnla 
prnifes, for having defeated two of the greateft and mol 
powei fui kings in the world, by two entirely different me 
thods, delay and expedition. For by protradlion and fpin 
ning out the war, he exhaufted Mithridates when he wi 
ftrongeft and moft formidable; and ruined Timnes, h 
making hafte, and not giving him time to look about hin 
It has been remarked, uiat few captains have known how 
like him, to make flowncfs aâive, and hafte fure. 

It was this latter conduce that prevented Mithridates froc 
beinq prefent in the battle. He imagined Lucullus would ui 
the fame precaution and protraction again ft Tigranes, as h 
had done again ft himfelf. So that he marched but flowly, an 
by fmalldays journics to join Tigranes. But having met fom 
Armenians upon the way, who fled with the utmoft terror an 
confternation, he fufpefled what had happened ; and aftei 
wards meeting a much greater number, was fully informe 
cf the defeat, and went in fearch of Tieranes. He foun 
him at length, abandoned by all the world, and in a vei 
deplorable condition. Far from retorning his nngeneroi 
trcatoient, and infulting Tigranes in his misfortnnest as 1; 
Jiad done him, he quitted his horfe, lamented their commo 
difc^races, gave him the guard that attended, and the office; 
that fcrved him, confoled, encouraged him, and revived h 
hovv*:*: So that Mithridates, upon this occafion, (hewed hin 
Mt not entirely void of humanity. Both together applied I 
raifing new troops on all ûdes. 


In the mean time a furious fedition arofe in TIgranocena ; 
llie Greeks having mutinied againft the Barbarian.s and de- 
termined at all events to deliver the city to I'UCuUus. That 
-fedition was at the highell when he arrived there. He took 
advantage of the occafion, ordered the afTaulc to be given, 
«took the city^ and after having feized all the king's trcaiures» 
abandoned it to be plundered by the foldicrs ; who, beildcs 
other riches, found in it eight thoufand talents of coined 
£lver (about one million ti\'o hundred thou(hnd pounds 
fterling.) Befides this plunder, he gave each foldier eight * 
hundred drachmas, which, with all the booty they had taken» 
did not fuffice to fatisfy their infatiable avidity. 

(d) As this citv had been peopled by colonies, which had 
lieen carried away by force from Cappadocia, Cilicia, and other 
places, LucuHus permitted them all to return into their native 
<bnntfies. They received that permiflion witli extreme joy» 
and quitted it in fo great a number, that from one of the 
greateft cities in the world, Tigranocerta became in an in- 
fant almoft a defart. 

(e) If LucuUus had parfucd Tij;ranes after his vidlory» 
without giving him time to raife new troops, he would either 
Jiave taken or driven him out of the country, and the war 
iiad been at an end. His having failed to do fo, was very ill 
taken both in the army and at Rome, and he was accufed, not 
of negligence, but ot having intended by fuch conduA to 
makeliimfelf necelTary, and to retain the command longer in 
kisown hands. This was one of the reafons that prejudiced 
the generality againft him, and induced them to think of 
giving him a fuccciTor, as we iliallfeein thefcquel. 

After the great vidlory he had gained over Tigranes» 
finreral nations came to ipake their fubmiflions to him. He 
received alfo an embafly from the king of the Parthians, who 
demanded the amity and alliance of the Romans. Lucullus 
received this propoial favourably, and Tent alfo amba/Tadors 
to him, who, being arrived at the Parthian court, dif covered, 
that the king, uncertain which fide to take, wavered between 
the Romani: and I igrancs, and had fecrctly demanded Mefo- 
potamia of the latter, as the price of the aid hcoHcn\ihim. 
Lucullus, informed of this fecret intrigue, rcfolvcd to leave 
Mithridates and Tigranes, and turn his arms againil the k' 
of the Parthians ; flattered with the pratcful thoughf 
nothing could be more glorious for hini, than to h: 

Vol. \'III. F 

{à) Sirab. 1. xi. p. 531. &- 1. xii. p. ^39. (t) Dion. Caf. 1. xx 

• dikwt p.undi. 


tirdy reduced, in one expedition, the three moft povv 
]>rij;ccb under the fun. But the oppofition this proprljl 
v.itli irom the troops, obliged him to ret. ounce his enter 
r>i',ainll the Parthians, and to confine himfelf to puri 
'1 i;;rancs. 

buring this delay, Mithridates andTigranes had been i 
fiiiK'.ablc in raifing new troops. They had foit to im 
i.\i'\iiï the neighbouring nations, and eipecially of the 
thirins, who were the nearefl, and at the lame time in the 
condition to afl-ll them in the prefent emeîgency of 
.'tfFairs. Mi th ridâtes wrote a letter to their kin?, v 
Sa! lull ha*t prcfcrved, and is to be found amongft his 
aic'Rts. I Hiall infc-rt a pait of it in tliis place. 

Lef/er ^MiTHRiDATES to * Arsaces king rftbe Paru 

** ALL thofc t who, in a (late of profpcrity, are in 
** JTjL ^o enter as" confederates into a war, ( ught fii 

conllder, whether peace be at their own option ; and 
' whether what is demanded of them, is confiHcnt 
juilicc, their intcreft, fafcty, and glory. You might < 
perpetual peace and tranquillity, were not the tnem 
*♦ ways intent upon feizing occafjons of war, and cm 
** void of faith. In reducing the Romans, you cannot 
**• acquire exalted glory. It may feem inconfiflent ir 
•• to propofe to you either an alliance with Tigranes 
*• powerful as you are, that you fliould join a prince ii 
'* unfortunate condition. But I dare advance, that thofc 
motives, your refentment againft Tigranes upon ace 
of his late war with you, and the no advantageous fitu 
** of my affairs, to judge rightly of them, far from opp 
** my demand 9 ought to fupport it. For as to Tigr 

* Arjacn nvat a eemmon nam* to s/l 
tht kings of Paribia. 

"f- Omnci, qui fccundis rebas 
fuif ad belli rotieia'cm orantur, 
(onr.dctare dcbent, liceatne turn 
parem agere: dcin quod qusritufi 
iatifnt piuRif tutum, gloriofum, 
*n indecorum ftt. Tibi perpétua 
):ace frui liceret, nifi hoOei oppor- 
I uni Se fcclefiillimi. Egregia f^ma, 
il Xcmano> oppreHrris, futura ef^. 
Nrcjue petere aurieam fccietatem, 
/w I'ruflra mdz mea cum tuis bo- miTceri rperem. Atqiii ea, 
t* X te morari poflc videntur^ ira 

•, I 

in Tigraoem recenrii belli, Sc 
res parum profperc, fi vera 
mare volei, maxin-'C hortibi 
llle enim obnoziuf, quaJc: 
vulcs focietatem aciipict .• 
fortuna, n.uiti» ribui ereptis, 
dedit bene fuadrndi, tc quod t 
tibui optabile eft, rgo non v; 
fimus prcbeo exemplum, quo r 
Cua compunai. Namque Ro 
cum nicioniljui, populis, ri 
c.i:;CTi9. una tc ea vctui cjuf^ 
Ian M tf^, rupldo prcfinda ir 
Ic <liviii«rum» 


te know, he has given you jaft caufe of conplldnt, ■h»'' 
It, without ditiicult/. whatever condition) yoa 
i fit to impifc upon him ; and for me, lean fay, 
I Foriunc. by hiivLtig deprived inc of nlnKift all I pof- 
'nl, has enabled me to give others gond counfcls, aad* 
'i much to be ilelired in perfons of proTperityi I 
, e\-on from my own misfortunes, fupply you with 
mplci. and induce you to take better meafurei than I 
'edonc. For, do not deceive yourfelf, it is with all tha 
Utes, and kingdoms of the earth, the Roman* 
tl wart and two motives; a; .ancient as powerful, put' 
r arms into their hnnits; the unbounded ambidon <^ 
tending their conquelh, and the infatiahle tUrft of 
_ -Mts." MithridatcK afterwards enumerate: it large thk 
\tta mi kin{;s they had reduced one after aaothcr, nd 
B by one anniher. He repeals alfo hia firft fnccefli» 
hA the Romans, and tiis late misfortunes. He goet (ni to 
' Examine • now, I beg you, when we«refiull^ 
Bitted, whether you will be in a condition B> refift thii 
9, or can believe, that they will conJine.tlirà c6n*> 
ilfflU to my country > I know you are powerful in min* 
F 2 ~ -"in 

n, «I fmcm h(l!l I 

tcjni, hofi;]!* duciH. Noma 
piuci I4)«iut<in Bin.muni Jdt«* 
dainin«> volunc. Not ï^fyi& r>. 
mm «Inull, tc in tenpen flsdlen 
iffiiiurl. Tu vtra «4 ' Stlnth' 
maxinM urbium, rt^taq^ f(^• 
Gdii Inclhii divi[ii>;«*, vMtk 
illjt. nlA d«lui 
folli!* billum I 

Audendn & bV.caia, ft b«tla t 
bellii fcrcnito, inaEnl Cafti. Pi 

' ' «tile BOD cl 

J Mefopotiniiâ, nni Armenijl 
JFngKdimur nercilum fine 
ncQto, fine aniiliii. Fortuiia 
m nnHiii vlii[i idhuc Incolu- 
Tcque illi fimi fcquetur, 
lia prsfcfium nifnit rc^fbus 
inu jfcniiun sppreiniTa. Q»ad 
ftclai TtiiincB harioiqgc, nA 

1 fffcietiitviftor 

m probirr, ^'i 



^* in arms, and trcafure; it is therefore we defire-to flrengdieii 

*' all my troops, which are ccrtainl/ well*di(ciplined» to 
** carry our arms far from home, ^|id attack the enemy ia 
*' perfon in their own country. .Wc cantiot therefore eithçr 
*' conquer or be conquered, without your being in danger. 
^' 'Do you not know, tliat the Rqipans, when they fôiui(L 
** themfelves-Aopped by the ocean on the Weil, turned their 
*' arms this way ? That to look back to their foandation and 
«* origin, whatever they have, they :have from violence, hqm^ 
** wives, lands, and dominions. A vile .Ijerd of every kind 
*' of vagabonde, wkhout country, without fbre-rfathersp they 
*' eflablilhed thcmfelves /or the misfortune of human race 
** Neither divine nor Jiuman laws reftrain -diem from bo- 
'' traying and dcAroying their allies and friend^, remota 
*i nations or neighbours, the wesk or ^he powerful. Th^ ' 
'* reckon all enemies that are not their Slaves ; and «(peciall)^ 
** whatever bears the name qf king. iFor few nations afie^ 
*' a free and independent goverpmei^; the ge]ierality prefcr 
** jufl and equitable mailers. They fufpeâ us, becaiufc we 
*' are (aid to emulate their power, and may in time -avcnce 
*< their opprefTions. But for yon» who have Seleacia, ^ 
*' greatelt of cities, and Perfia,.the richefl and moft poweiM 
'< of kingdoms, what can you expe£l from themy biit deceit 
** at prefent, and war hereafter ? The Romans are at war 
** with all nations-; 'but efpecially with thole, from whom 
*< the richell fpoils are to be expeéled. They are «becapic 
*' great by ci\terprizipg, betraying, and by making one war 
** bring forth anothei;. By this .means they will cither de- 
** (Iroy all others, or be deftroyed themfelves. 'It will not be 
*' difficult to ruin them,, if you, on the fide of 'Mefopotami^ 
** and we, on that of Armenia, furround their army, withoai 
** provifions or auxiliaries. The profperity of their arms has 
** fubfillcd hitherto folely by our fault, who have not been lb 
prudent to underftand thi^ common enemy, and to ally 
ourfelvcs againft him. It will be for your immortal glory 
to have fuppnrted two great kings, and to have conquered 
''and dcflroyed tht^fe robbers of the world. This is whit 
*' 1 eatncflly a.Ivife and exhort you to do; that you may 
*' ch'ife rather to (hare with us by a falutaiy alliance, ia 
•* con qu crin*» th-" common enemy, than to fuffer the Roman 
«• empire to extend itfclf univcrfâlly by our ruin," 


or P O N T U s. idï 

iùH not appear thni this letter had the cflcfl upon 
tei» Mithridatcs might hnve honed from it. So that 
fO kingfi contented themlelven with their own troops. 
One of the mcam mndc ufc of by TigrnncB to.'ifremble' 
trmvi w.OB to recall Mcgadates from Syria,* who had- 
fled It fourteen yenm in his name : Him ho fent orderi 
I him with all the troops in that country. CgJ Syria 
thereby entirely ungarrifoned» Antiochus AfiaticuB, foil 
itiochus Kupator, to whom it- of right appertained^ as 
I heir of the hoiife of SeleucuA, took poflVllinn of fome 
f the country, and reigned there peaceably during four 


I The army of Tigranes and Mithridatcs was at lull 
d. It confifled of 70,000 chofcn men, whom Mithri- 
had cxercifed well in the Roman difcipline. It was 

midfummer befoit; it took the field. The two kings 
particular care» in all the motions the/ made, to chufe 
irantaffeous ground for their camp, and to fortify it well, 
rentLucullus's attacking them in it) nor couid all the 
lemi he ufeil engage them to come to a battle. Their 
i was to red\ice him gradually ; to harrafs hia troops un 
marches, in order to weaken them ; to intercept his 
yif and oblige him to quit the country for want of 

lOnf. Lueitlius not being able, by all the arts he could 
9 bring them into the open field, employed a new means» 

I faccecded. Tigraties had left at Artaxata, the capital 
menia before the foundation of Tigranocerta^ his wives 
llildren; as he had almofl all his treafures. Lucullus 
icdthat way with all his troops, rightly forefeeing, that 
net would not remain quiet, when lie faw the danger to 

his capital was expnfrd. 'I'hnt prince accordingly de- 
!d immedintrly, followed Lncuilui to difconccrt his 

I I and by f<)ur grrni niarchr» h.iving got before him, 
. himfclf hrhiiul ihr rivrr * Ai('juni;i, which l.ucullu!» 
bligrd to p;i('t in hi'; w;iy to Attaxutfi, ;infl tefolvrd l«i 
C the pan'Mv»r with him. Thf* Rf>tnnni paflnl the river 

Ut brin;r pirvi'Mtril hy thr pr'^ffiHC or rflni'l'; (»(' tho 
^. A yjv:\\ l);i'ilr rtlltiril, in whit li llic K''î ;i;»;nn 
ird aconipIr;n viiMfM'y. 'f'lirrr wet»' tliire kiu)»'» 'n tlio 
ulan arniv, f»f wlunn MiihiiJ.jir-i lirhivr»! lUr wdiII. 
Ot being ;il»l'' l'> I«><»1; ih^ Umn.m {••j'ion'î in thr l-ï'-r, .n 
s they ch;nj'/' 1, he w.V'j one oi thr (iril that (led ; which 

K 1 threw 

Appiin. in Syr. f». 11^, no- (1: ) Jv^'iii, \. n],^,!, (l'jA,M* 
Ant. J. C 0^^. ri'it. Ill l.iMiil. |i. ., I j ^ij. 



threw the wkole army into fuch a confternadon^ that it 
tirely lofl courage ; and this was the principal caufe of 
lofs of the battle. 

(:) Lucullus, after this vidlory, determined to continue 
inarch to Artaxata, which was the certain means to pt 
end to the war. But as that city was flill feveral days jou 
irom thence towards the north» and winter approached 
its train of fnows and florms, the * foldiers» already fatii 
l)y a fufiicicntly rude campaign , refufed to follow him 
that country, where the cola was too feveçe for them, 
was obliged to lead them into a wanner climate, by petur 
the way became. He therefore rep.ifled niount I'aurus, 
entered Mefopotamia, where he took the city Nifibis, a ] 
of confidcrable ilrength, and put his troops into winter c 

It was there the fpirit of mutiny began to (hew itfelf oi 
in the armv of Lucullus. That general's feveritv, and 
infolent liberty of the Roman foldiers, and flill more 
malignant practices of Clodius, had given occafion foi 
revolt. Clodius, {o well known for the invedives of C 
3ÛS enemy, is hardly better tre.itcd by hiilorians. They r 
:i'ent him as a mroi abandoned to all kind of vices, an< 
famous for his debauches, which he carried fo far,, as. to 
mit incefl with his own fiiler, the wife of Lucullus..; to 
he added unbounded audacity» and uncommon cunnii 
the contrivance of feditions : In a word, he was one- of 
dangerous perfons, born to diilurb and ruin every thinj 
the unhappy union in himfelf of the mofl wicked in< 
tions with the talents necefTary for putting thenxinexcct 
He gave a prcof of this upon the occafion we arc now fpca 
Difcontented with Luculiu5, he fecretly fpread reports a] 
him, highly proper to render him odious. He affcd« 
lament extremely the fatigues of the (bldiers, and to 
into their interdis. He told them every da,y, that they 
very unfortunate» in being obliged to fcrve fo long ur 
fevere and avaricious general, in a remote climate, wi 
lands or rewardii^ whilll their fellow-foldiers, whofie com 
were very modern re in comparifon with tlicirs, had cnr 
themfelves nndti Pompty. Difcourfes of this kind, att 
\*- ith obliging and popular behaviour, which be knew h 


(\) Dion.Caf. 1. xxxvîî. p. 3—7. 

• Nofler excrcî'vus, etfi urbem nimiâ lonpînquîtate locoru 
rt Tigranis rrgoo ceperat, & defiderio luorum commoV' 
f :jL:i«» ufus cut ûcoaJii, tamca Cic ^0 Iff* Mar* xl 23.. 


OF P O N T U 3. r.05 

tfame occadonally without the appearance of afFeélation^ 
nade Aich an impreflion upon the foldiers, that it was no 

Jongrrin the power of Lucullus to govern them. 
Mithridates, in the mean time, had re-entered Pontus with 

4000 of his own, and 4000 troops given him by T'igrancs. 

•Several inhabitants of the country joined him again, as 
«til cot of hatred to the Romans, who had treated them with 
at rigour, as the remains of affedlion for their king, rc- 

acedto the mournful condition in which they faw him from 
die moft fplendid fortune and exalted greatnefs. For the 
misfortunes of princes naturally excite compaiTion, and there 
is generally a profound refpefl in the hearts of the people, for 
the name and perfon of kings. Mithridates, encouraged .1 ul 
ftrengthcned by thefe new aids, and the troops which fc\'cr;il 
neighbouring liâtes and princes fent hhn, refumed courage-, 
andfaw himfelf, more than ever, in a condition to mpkchcad 
againd the Romans, f So that not contented with being rc- 
eSabliflied in his dominions, which a moment before he did 
Mt To much as hop^ ever to fee again ^ he had the bjKi- 
neû to attack the Roman troops fo often viflorious, beat a 
body of them, commanded by Fabius, and after having put 
them to the route, preffed Friarius and Sornatius, two other of 
LncuUus's lieutenancy in that country, with great vigour. 

Lucullus ht length engaged hisfoldiers to quit their winter- 
oaarters, and to go to their aid. CkJ But they arrived too late. 
Friarius had imprudently ventured a battle, in which Mith- 
ridates had defeated him, and killed him 7000 men ; amongil 
whom were reckoned 150 centurions, and 24 tribunes t, 
which made this one of the greatefl lofTes the Romans had 
fnftained a great while. The army had been entirely de- 
fcatedy but for a wound Mithridates received, which exceed- 

F 4 ingly 

Ci J A. M. 3937. Ant, J. C. 67. 

• K'îfhriJitc S', fuam manC- 
■m jam conhrmarat, Sc eorum 
qi.1 Ic ex tins ri:j;n:) collcgcrant, 
Sc mignis 4dvrn<iiiis multprum 
Mg mi Sc M»ii.)ntm r'->p:is juva- 
bjl if. H.>c jam tVic fio fieri 
folcre acicj'inuis ; ut rc^jum af- 
fliCtx fn-t-in.e facile multorum 
0uet ad mifcriconliam, 
naxinnrq'je euruin qui aiit rrgos 
Cunt, auc vivjnt in iixno : (juod 
rrgjie ill nonicii ma'^^num & 
fané\um efTc vidcjttir. Cic, pro Ifg. 
iiéfiU. n. 24. 

•^ ka<^uc unt-wiTi vJUu3 etliccrc 

potuit, quantum încolumîs nuii" 
quam eft aulus optai c. N.«m 4;uia 
fe in regiium rccepiflct riium, 
non fuit co contcntus, quod ci 
prxlcr fpem accidcra^ ut eam> 
pof^ca quani pulfus I'rat, terrain 
unqiiam attingcret : fed in cxçr- 
citum vcflium cJamm a'quj \ir- 

torcm impetum fecit. Ci: pro 

leg, Afani/, n. 25. 

J (^.-c calanrutris tanta fuit, m 
cam ad aurcs L. Ltirtjlli,^ n..i» «x 
priclio niiniins, fr.i ex 'feinuric 
rumor alïeriet. lifid^ 


ingly ahtrmcJ his troops» and gave the enemy time to efcape. 
Lucullus, upon his arrival» found the dead bodies npon the 
Held of battle, and did not give orders for their interment : 
Which ilill jnore exafperated his ibldiers againft him. The 
fpirit of revolt rofe fo high, that without any regard for his 
charadler as a general, they treated him no longer bot with 
infolence and contempt ; and though he went from tent to 
tent, and almofl from man to man, to conjure them to march 
againd Mithridates and Tigranes, he could never prevail 
upon them to quit the place where they were. They anfwcrcd 
him brutally, that as he had no thoUghts but of enriching 
himfclf alcne cut of the fpoils of the enemy, he might march 
alone, and £ght them, if he thought £t. 

SiCT, IV, Mithridates, taking advttntage of tht difct^d 
KKhicS hcui urofe in the Roman army, recovers all bis dominiums » 
PoMp,?\- is chofen to fucaed Lucullus. Hi 9Virtère^'s 
Mithridates in fixerai battles* Tbi lattet flies in 'oaim /• 
Tigranes bisfon-in-laiK for refuge^ nvbo is engaged im a 
'war luitb his o^wn fon. Pompe Y marches s'nte jSrmenia 
agaififiTiGKASZs, nvbe comes to him and furrenders himfelf 
nearycfpurfuingyiiTH^iDiiTES to no furfofi^ hi returns 
into Syria, maies him/elf mâfier of that kingdom^ and puts am 
end to the empire of the Seleueides* He marches back to Pontusm 
Pharnaces makes the army revolt agmnft bis fniber 
M I T H R z D A T.£ s y ivbo kills bimfelf That princess cbaretBer* 
i'o M p e y'j expeditions into Arabia and Judaa^ lubere be takes 
*Jervfalem. After having reduced all the cities of Poutm^ be 
returns to Rcme, and receives the honour of a triumph. 

MAnius Acilius Glabrio, and C. Pifo, had been eledled 
conluLs at Rome. The firil had Bithynia and Pontus 
for his province, where Lucullus commanded. The fenate» 
ai the fame time, diibanded Fimbria's legions, which were 
part of his army. AIL this news augmented the difcbedience 
hiid infolence of the troops in regard to Lucullus. 

(Î) It is true, his rough, auftere, and frequently haughty 
<]v:pcfition, gave fome room for fuch ufage. He cannot be 
i:Liiied the glory of havine been one of the greateft captains of 
Li^ <.ge ; and of having had almoll all the qualities tnat form 
a compleat general. £ut the want of one diminiflied the 
r.itrit of all the reft; I mean, addrefs in ^dnning the heart, 
ti:u making himfelf beloved by the foldiers. He was difhcult 
ct acccfs ; rough in commanding 3 carried exaûitude, in 


(i) DicA, Cdff. ). XXIV. p. 7. 

O F i> O N T U s. 105 

point of duty, to an excefs made it odious ; was Inexora- 
ble in puniihing offences ; and did not know how to conciliate 
cfterm by praiies and rewards bellowed opportunely, an air 
of kindnefs and favour, and infinuating manners, ftill more 
efBcadous, than eiiher gifts or praif^'s. And what proves, 
that the fedltlon of the troops was in a great mcafurc his own 
fiiulty was their being very docile and obedient under Pom- 

In confcquence of the letters Lucullus wrote to the fcnatc, 
in which he acquainted them, that Mirhridates was entirely 
defeated, and utterly incapable of retrieving himfelf, com- 
miffionen had been nominated to regulate the aifairs of Pontus, 
as of a kingdom totally reduced. I'hcy were much fur^iri/.ed 
to find, apon their arrival, that far from being mailer of 
Pontut» he was not fo much as maflcr of his army,- and that 
hij own foldiers treated him with the utmofl contempt.. 

The arrival of the conful Acilius Glabrio Aill .ndded to their 
licrntiottfncfs. * He informed them, that T<ucullus had beetv 
accufed at Rome of protrafling the war for the fake of con- 
tinuing hii command ; that the fenate had disbanded part of 
his troops, and fbrbad them paying him any further obedience. 
So that he loon found himfelt almod entirely abandoned by the* 
foldicrs. MIthridates, taking advantage oi* this diforder» had 
time to recover his whole kingdom, and to make ravages in 

Whilft the affairs of the «army were in this condition, great 
ttoife was made at Rome agalnlt Lucullus. (m) Pompey waa^ 
letnrned from putting an end to the war with the pirates, in 
which an extraordinary power had been granted himr Upon* 
this occafion one of the tribunes of the people, named Ma- 
nrlius, paifed a decree to this effedt : *' That Pompey, taking 
•• upon him the command of all the troops and provinces- 
•• which were under Lucullu?t, and adding to them lîithynia, 
•• where Acilius commanded, Ihould be charged with making 
■• war upon the kings Mith ridâtes and Tij^rancs, retaining 
■• under him all the naval forces, and continuing to command 
•• at fea with the fame conditions and prerogatives as ku! 
•• been granted him in the war ag:iinll the pinitcs : That is 
•• to fay, that he ihould have abfilutc power on all the cn.ifls 

V 5 •• of 

(m) A. M. 39 ^8. Ant. J. C. 66. Flut. in Pomp. p. 634. App. p. 23!^« 
Dion. CafT. ). xxxvi. p. 70. 

* In ipfo illo rriAlu graviiTimsiquc 
belli offenfionr, L. Lucullui, qui 
tftmcn aliqui ex pAric ils incommodis 
mc de ri for trifle potuitrtt. viAro juiTii 
coaClui| ^uod impciii diuturnitaû 

modum Aaturndum, vitcri cxcmplo» 
putAVifliy, paiccm niiliuiin, qui jiirn 
Dipcndiii confc^bs, (lim-lit, 
partem Glabrioni tiadidit, CiV. /rv. 

xg6 'r H I's II I 5 T O R. Y 

** (>{ lîic McdiiLTranian, to thirty league? diilancc from ihe 
** ila."' Tiiii \v;i-, in tHeit, fuhjci'vini^ the whole Roma;» 
ri!}^)i.-c t=» one man. For all thcprovinccs uhich had not bckii 
•;r.i!ii.J him by the firll decree, rhrygi.i, Lycaonia, G.ilatia, 
iJapp.idoci.'i, Cilicia the Higher, Colchi^* and Armenia, were 
« «iifcrred upon him by this û-cond, that included alfo all the 
'Lrriici and I'orce.-) \\ith which Lucullus had defeated the t\.o 
l;inni-, Mithiidate» and Tii^rancs. 

Confideration for Lucullu!), who wa; deprived of the glory 
of iii. j»nat exploits, .-;nd in the place of whom a general was 
•ippuintcd, to fiiccced more to tne honours of his triumrh» 
than the commn.nd of liib armies, was not, however, what 
i:ave the nobiIi:v and the fenate moil concern. Thcv were 
well convinced that great wrong was done him, and that hi^ 
fcr; îcrs were not treated with the gratitude they deferred : 
lîut what gave them moft pain, and they could not fupport, 
'.v.i^, that high degree of power to which Tompcy w.ib raifed, 
which thrv rrHifulcred u-> a t\Tannv already formed. It h for 
*hi^ reafon ihr;. exhorted c::ch other in a particular manner to 
f'ppofe this dfTrrr, and not abandon their expiring liberty. 

i'ifiîr and Ciciio, who were very powerful at Rome, fup- 
portid M.iniliu-, or rath'T Poinpey, with all their credit. It 
^v.i> upon tliis nccailnn the latter pronounced that fine oratioa 
hrffirc \],f peuple, intitled. For the Iotm cf Maniliut* After 
h.ivlrg fN'inonifratttl, in the two firft parts of his difcourfe, 
ti'r lirxeinty i:nd importance of the war in qucflion, he proves, 
ill liie third, iliat Pompey is the only perfon capable of ter- 
:v.inating it ruccef^^fully. For this purpofe, he enumerates 
rhr; i^ualiiies nccr^Tary to form a general of an army, and fhews 
that Poinpey pofTeffe": them all in a fuprcme degree. He in- 
i-iis princip.illy up;in his probity, humanity, innocence of 
n..tiMî(TF, integrity, difinterellednefs, love of the publxck good : 
•* Virtues, by fo much the more ncccflary," fays he, •• as 
" fhe * Roman name is become infamous and hateful amongil 
foreign nations and ou:* allies, in effect of the débauches, 
avar'ce, and unheard-of opprefTions of the generals and 
magiitrates we feud among (I them« f Inilead of which, 

•• the 



"tea .'o in oV'ii liHiu^ a; '.id lae'.erJS 
jiaii'ir.M, { rii:''*-! loiiim, <iu09 «d cas 
1 oi -iH :o (iirïi iiLpvri') mtlimu:, in- 
iar:4'MC Iiii;.:.!!'.-'.. Ci.. pn.irg. Man 
ji 6:. 

■| r.-.j'i" tîTiMcs ciui'irm nunc î:i 
hvi Ii'.ii C'n. P» .r.i'Li'im, Kcjt all- 
iji. m n« ÎI tx }::ic ii:!.e nM/iiir::, if! 
d- • »'i'i •:!.•'.•;■;' •'!> in* ri'.iLr. N'lnc 
6c.'.«>. iC .UK <*.ur.: uc.'cii I'ji.T: hg- I 

mines Romsnos hac quondim abP.i- 
nenli.', n-iod iam nJtionibui cjr:rrii 
inrrccihiii*, ac faPo n.cmotix proai* 
I Sim, viiirliaiur. Nurc imfcrii nof:*i 
Tl'lcniior ilii-. gvnlibi:! lucct : nurc 
iiitclliiiiint, nan fine cJuû ma-uTLi 
fuo: :-:m, luni hac icai|>':rAn::â rra- 
l^illri'iis*c«m'.ji, Triirc pj, u'l 
i(i<inari(>. ij'izn imfUJt; ilii'^ rsA- 

OF P O N T U S. ic; 

•• the wife, moilcrate, and ineproacliableconJiKflof Pompey, 
** will make him be regarded, not as l'eut froiu koiuc, hui 
" delcended from heaven, for the happincfs of the pcnplr. 
" Wc begin to believe, that all which ih related of the noble 
** difinterell of thofe ancient Romans is real and true ; anil 
'* that it was not without reafon, under fuchmaj^ilhatc-ii, that 
^ nations chofe rather to obey the Roman people, than- to 
•*• command others ** 

Pompey wa» at that time the idol of the people, wherefore 
the fear of difpleaiiniç the multitude kept thofc jrrave I'enator-i 
filent, who had appeared fo well iiurlincd, and fo full of cou 
race. The decree was authorifed by th(^ fuHVa^^cs of all th^ 
tribe^s and Pompey, though abfenr, declared ahfolute mallei- 
of almoll nil Sylla had ufurped b/ arni:i, and by mukin^ :l 
cruel war upon y&. country. 

faj We mull not imaj^iiie, fay-i a very judiuloii-. hidnriaii, 
that either C:ef:ir or Cicero, who uiok (o mucb paiui to hav.; 
this law pafled, aéled from view.-» of the nublick ^ood. C'al'ar, 
fall of ambition and great projeéls, endeavounrd to make hi i 
court to the people, whofe authority he knew wab at that rim^* 
much greater than the fenate*» : He thereby opened himfelf <ti 
way to the fame prnver, and fumiliari/ed the Romnni to ex • 
crairdinary and unlimited commilliona: in hca|ùii^ upon iUtx 
bead of pompey fo many favours and gbiring dillinclions, lu* 
flattered himfelf, tJiat he-fhould at length renJer him odious 

10 the people, who would foon take oflVnce at then). So thar. 
in lifting fiim up, he had no other delîgn than to prepare a 
prrcipice forhinu. Cicero alfo intended only hii own great-. 
nefs. It was his weaknefb to délire to in the common-- 
WVlilth, not indeed by guilt and \uolence, but by the methoti 
•r pcrfualion. llefideii his havinc; the fupporb of Pompey'*) 
credit in view, he was very wellpleafed with Ihewintr ihf* 
aobility and people, who formed two parties, and in a manner 
two reuubliclls in the Hate, that ha wa» capable of makmy; 
the balance incline to the lide he efpouled. Jn conlr^Lptciu r. 

11 wah always Jiiv policy to contiliatr equiilly both p;iiii«'., lu 
Jcilaring litinetinic-^ for the one, and loniL-tiiues Wn ihr oiini 

('vj Pompey, \vi»n had already tirininaicl the wai wiili ihf. 
irattfs, wab iiill in C'ilicia, when he n-itivrd leitc i.*, to 
ini ol all ilie petiple hail decreed in hi-» favuiu Wiir-i I,- . 
Iiirnda, who were prefent, eunvMatiihitid Inni, .ii:d »• ]•;. li. a 
Ciicir joy, it i'. laid, that he knii iii-. hiuvvi, ItnnJv Ui . rl.i-ii 

L' f' .1:.. 


f^) D\nn. iiaU. I. ixTvi. p. 10, 21. ,- • A .!. \,< .' 

fl ir 66. Pim. «u !'uiii|i. J). Oj-|— tJ3|.. i.''.^u, \. ,u. 1 «.. . 


and cried out, as if oppreflTed by, and fony for that new 
command ; GcJs^ inkat endle/s labeurs am I demoted io ? Had 
I mot been mere happy as a man unknonun and inghrhas f Shall 
I ne*ver ceafe to maki fwar, nor ever have my arms off my both ? 
Shall I never e/cape the envy that perjecutes me^ nor Jive mi peace 
in the country iviih my viife and children f 

This is ufually enough the lancruage of the ambitious» even 
of thofe who are moll cxceflively actuated by that paffion. 
But however fucccfsful they may be in impofin? upon them- 
felves, it feldom happens that they deceive others, and the 
publick is far from miftaking them. The friends of Ponipey, 
and even thofe who were moil intimate with him, conla not 
fupport his diifimulation at this time. For there was not one 
of them who did not know, that his natural ambition and 
pafllon for commandt ftill more inflamed by his dificrenoe 
wkh Luculius, made him find a more exalted and ieniible 
fatisfaftion in the new charge conferred upon him. And his 
a6tions foon took off the mafic, and explained his real fenti- 

The fird (lep which he took upon arriving in the provinces 
of his goveniment, was to forbid any obedience whatibever to 
the orders of Luculius. In his march he altered vs^trf thing 
his predeceflTor had decreed. He difcharged Ibme from the 
penalties Luculius had laid upon them ; deprived others of 
the rewards he had given them; in fhort, his fole view in 
every thing was to let the partizans of Luculius fee, that they 
adhered to a man who had neither authority nor powen 
(p) Strabo's uncle by the mother's fide, highly difcontenied 
with Mithrldates, for having put to death ^veral of his re- 
lations, to avenge himfelf tor that cruelty, had gone over to 
Luculius^ and had given up fifteen places in Cappadocia to 
him. LucuJIus loaded him with honours, and promifed to 
reward him as fuch confiderable fervices deferved. Pompey, 
far from having any regard for fuch jufl and reafbnable en- 
gagements, which his predeccffors had entered into folcly from 
the view of the publicK good, affe^led an univerfal oppofition 
to them, and looked upon all thofe as his enemies, who had 
contradled any friendfhip with Luculius. 

It is not uncommon for a fncceflbr to endeavonr to Icfiini 
the value of his predeceffor's allions, in order co arrogate all 
honour to himfelf; butcertainlv none ever can led that con- 
duel to fuch montrons exceft as Pompey did at this time. 
His great qualities and innumerable conquefls are exceedingly 
cxtofled ; but fo bafe and odious a jealoufy ought to fuliy, 


(t) S:rab. !. xli. p. 557, 55*« 

O F P O N T U s. 109 

ber totally eclipfe» the glory of them. Such wu the 
r in which Pompey thought fit to begin. 
allui made bitter complaints of him. Their common 
I, in order to a reconciliation, concerted an intervievir 
m them. It pafTed at firft with ail pofilble politenefs» 
ith reciprocal marks of efteem and amity. But thefe 
>n1y compliments» and a language that extended no 
' tnan the lips, which cods the ereat nothing. The 
bon explained itfelf. The convcriation growing warm 
;rces9 tney proceeded to injurious terms; Pompey re- 
ing Lucullus with his avarice, ami LucuUus Pompey 
lis ambition, in which thev fpoke the truth of oacli 
They parted more incenfed, and greater enemies than 

alius fet out for Rome, whither he carried a great 
ty of books, which he Wad colIeAed in his conquefb. 
c them into a library, which was open to all the learned 
ttiious, whom it drew about him in great numbers» 
were received at his houfe with all poffible politeneft 
enerofity. The honour of a triumph was granted to 
!u8 ; but not without being long conteHed. 

It was be that firll brought cherries to Rome, which 
en had been unknown in Europe. They were called 
IS, from a city of that name in Cappsidocia. 
ipey began, by engaging Phraates Icing of the Parthiani 
Roman intcreft. He has been fpoken of already, and 

fame who was furnamed the God. He coucluded an 
ye and defcnfive alliance with him. He offered peace 

Mtthridates ; but that prince believing himfelf fnre of 
lity and aid of Phraates, would not fo much as hear it 
med. When he was informed that Pompey had pre- 
, him, he fent to treat with him. 3ut Pompey having 
ded, by way of preliminary, that he fhould lay down his 
and give up all dcfertcrs, thofe propofals were very near 
ming a mutiny in Mithrid;itcs*3 anny. As there were 
ance of dcfcrters in it, they could not fufFer any thing 
faid upon delivering them up to Pompey ; nor would 
ft of the army consent to fee themfclves weakened by 
fs of their comrades. Mithridates w<i3 obliged to tell 

that he h;id Tent his ambafl'iidors only to infpcft into 
edition of the Roman army; and to fwear, that he 

not make peace with the Romans either on thofe or on 
her conditions. 

ipey, having dillrlbuted his fleet in different (l.-.tions, 


(q) Plin, 1. XY, C. 25. 


no T H E cl I S T O R Y 

to ^;uaril the whole feu between Pliœnicîii and tho Bofphorus» 
jiuirched by land ng:iiiiil Mithridntes, who had Aill 30000 
foot, and 2000 or 3000 horfc ; but did not dare however to 
come to a battle. 'I'liat prince was encamped very llrongly 
upon a mountain, where he could not be forced; but he 
abandoned it on Pompey's approach^ for want of water. 
Pompey immediately took pofl'eHion of it, and conjeiiluring, 
from tiie nature of the plants and other fi^çns, thai there was 
abundance of i'prin^s within it, he ordered wells to be dug» 
and in an inllant the camp had water in abundance. rom])cy 
could not fuHlciently wonder how Milh7idatc^y for want [oY 
atteniion and curiolity, had been fo long ignorant of fo im- 
portant and neceilary a rclource. 

Soon alter he followed him, encamped near him, and (liuc 
hi m up within good walls, which he carried quite round his 
camp. They were almoll eight * league:» in circumfei-cnce» 
:<.nd were fortified with good towers, at proper dillances from 
each other. Mithiidates, either through fear or negligence, 
fullered him to fmilli his works, lie reduced him in confe- 
qucnce to fueh a want of proviiions, that his troops were 
obliged to lubfill upon the carriage-bealls in their camp^ 
Tho ht)rfe.s only were fpared. Alter having fullained this 
kind of fii-ge for almoft fifty days, Mithiidates efcaped byi 
flight, with all the bed troops of his army, having tiilï or- 
dered all the ull'lef:: and fick perfons to be killed. 

Poinpey immediately puifued him, came up with htm near 
the lùiphrates^ encumped lU'ar him ; ami apprehending, that 
in oriler to efeape, he would make ha lie to pafs the river, he 
quitted his entrenchments, and .-idvanced againil him by night 
in order of battle, J lis defign was only to furround the enemy, 
to prevent their Hying» and to attack them at day- break the 
next morning. lUit all hi^ old olHcer^ made fuch intrcaiies 
and remonilrances to him, that they determined him to fight 
without wailing till day; for the ni}»,ht wa.s not \cry dark» 
the moon giving light enough for diiiingiii(hin«^ objei^ts, and. 
knowing one another. Pompey could nni letufe himfelf to 
the ardour of his troops, and led ihem on a;.!ainll the enemy. 
The narbari..ns were afraid to Aand the ;)t:a(.k, and fled im- 
mediately in the utmoil conlK'rnation. The Romans made .a 
(;reat llaiighter of them, killed them above icooo men, and 
iioolv their whole camp. 

IVliihridates, with 800 horJe, in ih»' beginning of the 
battle, opened himiUf a way fword in hand through the Ko- 
)jian 3Mny^ and weiil oif. I>ui thole t^:u liorlc fuon quirted 


fteir lïinlc) i J, ; 

, of V 1 <. 

t woman of l 

ulioned her ucmg Criilea i. 
Crmlnfttion of hei name 
^hcwas mounted ihat day ;ip< 
tb'n of a foldier of iTiat n lo 
rV^Zt witKout giving way ui I 
If King weary of frrving hip 
ftorfe hcrfelf. till ihey acriv 
^rcflftirci and mod precious 
EEAribuEcd the molt magn nti 
l^k^tmblcd about him, he i d 
Drtal poifon, ihnt 

k-ft hii 


th only three fôl- 

■niia, one of his wives, 

arlikc boldnefi; which 

^ficrates frj, by changing the 

the feminine to the mafculine. ^ 

1 Perfian horfc, and wore iha 

She continued to attend the 

fatigues of his long journies, 

, though Ihe took cure of his 

at a. fortrefs, where the king's 

5 lay. There, after Jiaving 

It of his robes to fuch as were 

a pfcfenc to each of his friends 

'f them might fttll alive into 

me hands of their enemit , uut by their own confent. 
W fij That unhappy fuguive faw no other hopes for him, 
ni«l from hi» fon-in-law Tigrjines. He .feut ambaJTadorj to 
idemand hia pcrmilTion ci take refuge in hii dominions, an4 
Ûd for ihe rc-ellablilhir t of his entirely ruiaed. affairs. 
Jfterancs was at that linic at war with his fon. He caufed 
HWC amballadors to be feizeJ, snd thrown into prifon, and 
fe a price upon hii father-in-law's head, promifing loo 
* Rklrnu to whomfoever fliould fcizc or kill himj under pre- 
icocc, that it was Mithridates who had madu hia fon take up 
^nm againA him; but in re:ility to make his court to the 
Momans, a) wc Ihall foon fee. 

P Pompe)^, after the viftory he had sa re ii ir- ' 

l&iaii Major Bgainft Tigi ii— fl/ar 

l^i fen of hii own name. : cou uiat 

Otf Armenia had cfpoufcd : li» dl 

rdatta. He had thrta: fon by . , nvo oi wh. 
'dnih without rcafoQ. 1 he third,, to efcape me c :iiy >» 
I unnatural a faihtT, had fled to Phraatcs, kii oi 1 
, wLofe daughter he had married. Hi£ father-^i-law < \ca 
llim back to Armenia at the head^ of aji army, wl s iner 
fcefiepcd Anaxata, Dm finding (he place very llrong, and 
provided with every thine neeciTary for a good defence» 
I%raatct left him part of the amiy to casry on the fiege,, and 
; rcnirncd with thu red into his own dominions, Tigrmes the 
i father foon after fell upon the Ton with all his troops, be[^c 
Ub army, and drove him out of the country. Tliat voung 
yrfaec, after , thii misfortune, had dcHgned to witadravv 

,,2 T H E H I S T O R Y 

to his grandfather MithriJatcs : but on the way was informctf 
of his dct'ear, and having lod all hopes of obtaining aid from 
him, he rcfolvcd to throw himfolf into the arms of the Ro- 
ui ins. Accordingly, he entered their camp, and went to 
Pompey to implore Kis protcftion. Pompcy gave him a very 
good reception, and was glad of his coming ; for being to 
curry the war into Armenia, he had occafion for fiich a guide 
as him. He therefore caufed that prince to conduite him di- 
rcftly to Artaxata. 

Tigrancs, terrified at this news, and fcnfible that he was 
not in a condition to oppofc ft> powerful an army, rcfoivedtc^ 
have rccourfe to the generofity and clemency of the Roman 
general. He put the ambalVadors, fcnt to him by Michridates, 
into his hands, and followed them dire^Iy Hîm&lf^ Without 
taking any j^rocantion, he entered the Roman camp, and 
went to fubinit his perfon and crown to the difcrction of Pom* 
pey and the Romans. * He faid, that of all the Romans, 
and of all mankind, Pompcy was th*j oniy perfon in whofe 
faith he could confide ; that in whatfoevcr manner he fhould 
decide his fate, he fhould be fatistied: chat he was not alhsuned 
to be conquered by a man, whom none could conquer; and 
that it was no dilhonour to fubniit to liim, whom fortune had 
made fuperior to all others. 

When he arrived on horfeback neap the entrenchments of 
the camp, two of Pompe>'s H^^ors came out to meet him» and 
ordered him to difmount and enter on foot; toiling him that 
no Ihaneer had ever been knou n to enter a Roman camp on 
horfeback. Tigranes obeyed, and ungirt his fword, gave it 
to the lidors ; and after, when he approached Pompcy, taking 
off his diadem, he would have laid it at his feet, and pro- 
ftraccd himfelf to the earth to embrace his knees. Bac Pom- 
re y ran to prevent him, and taking him by the hand, carried 
him into his tent, made him fit on the right, and his fon, the 
young Tigranes, on the left fide of him. He after rcfeired 
hearing what he had to fay to the next day, and invited ihc 
father and Ton to fup with him thai evening. Tiic fon refufeJ 
to be there with his iather ; and as he had not (hewed him the 
leall mark of refpedl during the interview, and had treated 
him with the lame indifference as if he had been a llranger, 


* Mox ipfe fupplcx «^ pr.Tfeni fe 
r«''gnnmq«ic uiticni rjiiy pcrmiHt, pt;e- 
fjtus : nrminrm .lUtini ncquc Rc-mA- 
nuiu nc^uc ullius gcntis viium futu- 
rum fuiiVc, cujus fe tid^icommillurui 
furet, quasi Cn. Poir.peium. Pro- 
iadc omacm llbi vcl Mdvcriam vtl 

fecundam. ciijni •iiAorillecflci, for* 
runam, loltrabiiem futuram. Noa 
ctTc ttirpe ib co vinci, que m vînccre 
edct ncf'at : ncquc ei inhoucAè ili- 
quem fummitii, quem fortunt fnpet 
omnri extuliOct. fV/. I^attri* U \u 

O F P O N T U s. iij 

npiey was very much offended a,t that behaviour. He did 
:* ho\(^ever» entirely negleft his interells in determining 
9n tbe affair of Tigranes. After havine condemned Ti- 
mes to pay the Romans * 6000 talents for the charges of 
5 ^i^'ar he had made againft them without caufe, and to re- 
iOuiOi to them all his conqucils on that fide of the Euphrates, 
t decreed y that he Ihould reign in his ancient kingdom Ar- 
enia Major, and that his fbn {houlta have Oordiana and So- 
fena, two provinces upon the borders of Armenia, during 
is father's life, and all the reft of his dominions after his 
eat h ; reserving, however, to the father, the treafures he had 
I Sophena, without which it had been impoiTible for him to 
avc paid tbe Romans the fum Pompey required of him. 

The father was well fatisfied with thefe conditions, which 
dll left him a crown. But thefon, who had eatertained chi* 
nerical hopes, could not reliHi a decree which deprived him 
if what had been promifed him. He was even fo much diA 
dontented with it, that he wanted to efcape, in order to have 
szcited new troubles. Pompey, who fufpeéled his defign, 
Mdered him to be always kept in view ; and upon his abfo- 
lateW refufing to confent that his father (hould witlidraw his 
Kreamrcs from Sophena, he caufed him to be put into prifon. 
Afterwards having difcovfred, that he folicitcd the Armenian 
Bobility to take up arms, and endeavoured to engage the Par- 
thians to do the fame, he put him amongft thole he referved 
ibr his triumph. 

Some time after, Phraates, king of the Parthians, fent to 
Fdmpey, to claim that young prince as his fon-in-law ; and 
to reprefent to him, that he ought to make the Euphrates the 
Vwndary of his conquefls. Pompey made anfwer, that the 
younger Tigranes was more related to his father than his 
father-in law ; and that as to his conquefts, he (hould give 
them fnch bounds as reafon and juilice required ; but without 
being prcfcribed them by any one. 

When Tigranes had been fuffered to poffefs himfclf of his 
treafures in Sophena, he paid the 6000 talents, and befides 
that, gave every private foldicr 6fty t drachmas, J 1000 to a 
centurion, anJ 10,000 to each § tribune; and by that libe- 
rality obtained the title of friend and ally of the Roman peo- 
ple. This had been pardonable, had he not added to it abjedb 
oehaviour and fubmililons unworthy of a king. 

Pompey gave all Capp:;docia to Ariobarzanes, and a^ded 


• jthni ^CO,Q0O\, Jicr/hfr. f About i^^, J Alf'jUt ^$\. ^trlin^* 


to it Sophcna and Gor Jiana, which he had dcfigned for yo 

(t) After having regulated every thing in Armenia, P 

Eey marched northwards in purfuit of Mithridates. Upon 
anks of the * Cyrus he found the Albanians and Iberi; 
two powerful nations, fituate between the Cafpian and Eu: 
fcas, who endeavoured to flop him ; but he beat them, 
.obliged the Albanians to demand peace. He granted it, 
pafTcd the winter in their countr\'. 

(u) The next year he took the fieU very early againft 
Il)crians, This was a very* warlike nadon, and had m 
been conquered. Jt had always retained its liberty, dut 
the time that the Mcdcs, Perfiaris, and Macedonians, 
alternately poflefled the empire of Afia. Pompcy found me 
to fubdue this pfople, thoiigh not without very confiden 
difficulties, and obliged them to demand peace. The kin^ 
the Jberinns fènt him a hed, a table, and a throne, ali 
mafly gold ; dcfiring him to acccf>t thofe prefcnts as earn 
of his amity. Pompey put them into the iiands of the qt 
tors for the nublick treafury. He alfo fubje£led the peopl 
Colchis, and made their king Olthaces prifoner, whom 
afterwards led in triumph. From thence he returned i 
Albania, to chaflife that nation for having taken up a: 
again, whilil he was engaged with, the Iberians and peopl 

The army of the Albanians was commanded by Cofis, 
brother of kinç Orodes. That prince, as foon as the i 
armies came to blows, confined himfelf to Pompey, and fpi 
iiig furioufly up to him, darted hi« javelin at him : but Fc 
pey received him fo vigoroufly with his fpear, that it w 
through his body, and laid him dead at his horfe's feet. T 
Albanians were overthrown, and a great flftughter was m; 
of them. This vidory obliged king Orodes to buy a fecc 
peace upon the fame terms with that he had made with 
Komans the year before, at the price of great prefjnts, 2 
by giving one of his fens as an hollagc for his obfervin^ 
better than he had done the former. 

Mithridates, in the mean time, had pafled the winter 

Diofcurias, in the north-eall of the Euxine fea. Karlv in 

fpring he marched to the Cimmerian Bofphorus, through I'c 

ral nations of the Scythians, fome of which fuffered him 

pafs voluntarily, and others were obliged to it by for 


(t).V\\xl, in Pomp. p. or?. Dîon. C.«fl*. 1. xxxvî. p. 28— 33. Appi 
p. 24.J 24.§, (u) A. M. 3939é Ant.J. C. 651 

* Called Cyfrnut a\\u ly Jorne autLori» 

OF P O N T U S. 115 

The kîngdom of the Cimmerian Bofphorus is the fame now 
carted Crim-Tartary, and was at that time a province of Mi- 
thridates's empire. He had given it as an appanage to one 
of his fons, named Macharcs. But that young prince had 
been fo vigoroafly handled by the Romans, whilll they beficged 
SinopCi^ and their fleet was in poflefTion of the Euxine fea» 
whicn lay between that city and his kingdom, that he had 
been obliged to mahc a peace with them, and had inviolably 
obfervcd it till then. He well knew that his father was ex- 
tremely difpleafed with fuch condufl,. and therefore very much 
apprehended his prefcnce. In order to a reconciliation, he 
fcrtt ambafijidors to him upon his route, who reprcfented to 
him, that he had been reduced to adl in that manner, con- 
trary to his inclination, by the necefiitv of his affairs. But 
finding that his father would not hcarlcen to his rcalons, lie 
endeavoured to fave himfelf by fea, and was taken by vcfTcls 
fent exprefsly by Mithridates to cruife in his way. lïe chofe 
wther to die than fall into his father's hands. 

Pompey having terminated the war in the North, and fee- 
ing it impoifible to follow Mithridates in the remote country 
into which he had retired» led Kick his army to the South, 
and on his march fubjefled Darius, king of the MeJes, and 
Amibchus, king of Comagena. Hfe went on to Syria, and 
made himfelf mafler of the whole empire. Scaupus reduced 
Cœlofyrla and Damafcus, and Gabinus all the reft of the 
country, as far as the Tygris ; they were his lieutenant-gene- 
rals, (x) Antiochus Afiaticus, fon of Antiochus Eulcbcs, 
heir of the houfe of the Seleucides, who, by Lucullus's pcr- 
miflion, had reigned four years in part of that country, of 
which he had taken poiTeflion when Tigranes abandoned it» 
came ta folicit him to re-eftablilh him upon the throne of his 
anceftors. Bat Pompey refufed to give him audience, and 
deprived him of all his dominions, which he made a Roman 
province. Thus, whilft Tigranes was left in pofTeHion of 
Armenia, who had done the Romans great hurt, during the 
courfe of a long war, Antiochus was dethroned, who had 
never committed the leaft hoflility, and by no means defcrvcd 
fuch treatment. The reafongiven for it was, that the Romans 
had conquered Syria under Tigranes ; that it was not juil that 
they fhould lofe the fruit of their vifkory ; that Antiochus was 
a prince, who had neither the courage nor capacity necefTary 
f)r the defence of the country ; and that to put it into his 
hands would be to expole it to the perpetual ravages and in- 
ourfions of the Jews, which Pompey took care not to do. In 

(xj Apfian, in Syr. ç. 1^3,% 

iflnfeejaCTice nfihij way orreafoninjf, Amiochui loQ hij crawn, 
and wa» reduced lo the nccelTity offialTiiie his ûfe at a pnvxec 
pcffon. ^^^ In him ended the rmpîte Ofthc SclcUcidet, lAcr 
B daraiion of aloiod 150 yentv. 

Dtiiing [hefe cxpcdidan> of (he Romnni in AlUi grnt K- 
Tolutioni happened in K^pt. The Alcxuidnani, weuy of 
tiicir kin£ Alexander. tiioK up axma, and afier h&viug expelled 
him, called in PioWinxus Aiiletci to fuppty hii yUce. TluU' 
tùltûry will be iicAied at luge in ihe enfuing article. 

ft.) Pompe y «fterward» went loDaiunfcvis where he rtgi- 
Inicd fcveialaffaUv relating toHfivpt and Judxa. During hii 
reiidence there, twelve crowned heads went thither to luaLe 
Ihcir court to Uim, and were all in the c'uy at the fune- lime. 

faj A GiiG contcution between the love of a father and t\t ^ 
iaty of a Ion «As iVen at lhi« titne ; a very extraordinary con- . 
tell in thofe days, when the moR horrid muxders ind {urriddn L 
(Veqoently opened the way to ihroncsi Ai iobnnADM, Ium L 
of Cuppadocia, voluntarily rciignod the rrown •• fivooi oï L 
Iiis Ton, and put the diadem on hi) head in the ptefencc of 1, 
Pompey. The moft finccrc leats flowed in abanoance fnta i^ 
thcevei of the truly afllifted fon, for vfhii oincri would ha*r .* 
highly rejoiced. It wni the {b\t Occufiun ïn which he thought ^ 
difobediencC allowulile ; .and he would have * peifilled In tt- i 
filling the fcepter, if Pftmpey'j cpint laid not ititerfercd, iad ' 
obliged him ai length to uibmU to pitcrnnl ncthoriiy. TkU - 
b the (ccond example Cappidocia hat inlf Uiced of (b gcnerout , 
B difpute. We have fpolun. in itg place of the liJcc cobmU \ 
between ilic two AthrathC!^ ■ | 

Ai Miihridatcs was in pnSVffion of fcvetnl llrotig place* ia 
I*oiitiiii and C:tpptidoc>-i, Fompey judged it necelTnry to i«tura 
thklicr, tn ordtr to reduce thenn. He made himIêU" mailer of 
almoft all of ctiem, in tunTci^ucnce, upon hî« ndival, abd 
aftcnvifd» wiiiwrcd at Afpiî, n city of Fontu». 

SiratonJce, one ofMiihridates't wivei, fuircndered n ciiâU 
of the Bofphorm, which (he had in het keeping, to Pompey» 
with the tteafurea concealed in it. dem^ndinç only for /ecom- 
pencc, if her Ion Xiphnrc^ fh'iutd fall into hit banda, t]|U fac 
ihould te icHor«d to her. Tr-mpey acccftwl onlir ftch of 
thofc prtfenti as would fervc for the ornanieati 01 (ample*. 
"When Mithiidat» knew wha* Siraioniçe hiJ done, to tewnjte 
her facility in furraidcnag ih&t fttrlrcTi, wbUh hé cftBfi4tfvi 


(j) à.M.jojj. Ant.;.C.ij. »Flut,lBp6«ip.p,*i«,tD. 

Ftjyti. M». 1, Ï t. 7. 

^ • H«c^lTi>tnlinomtamt(r(tiuRi| t"C<na(>ill»PiunpcU«lfulA«. J^_| 
leo b^buiOiei Dili fiii» ratua- I Kn. ^^H 


Xipharci in his mother's fight, who 
from the other fide of the Ilreight. 
, was the ftrongeft place in Poutus, 
KthweJbre iHitbndates kept the greatcil part of his trea- 
" , and whatever he had of greatcft value, in that plat 

jéh tie conceived imprej 
|ll that Mit^ridatPs ha<. 
; found fccret memoir; 
^ good light into his cl 
■n xhfi perfons he had 
I Ton Ariaf'tihes, and / 
4t: he had carried the pi 
, t fantailical records w 
llick and poileriiy&ou 
ht», and his motives fc 
'éj His memoirs of pli 
mpey caufed to be tranf 

Pompey took it, and wiih 

it. Amongft other things 

ne ay himfelf, which gave % 

111 one part he hail noted 

II amoagfl whom were his 

ui Sardis ; the latter, be- 

I chariot-race againft him. 

: ! Was he afrwd that the 

; DC informed of his monilroas 

mitting them i 

were aifo foand there, which 
:o Laân by Lena;us, a good 
if his freeoiucB ; and they were afterwards 
Ae publicit in that Ian . For amongft the other cx- 

wdinary qualities of ^ -aies, he was very îkilful in 

dicipes. It was he wh invented the excellent antidote, 
nd from which phyficians have 
they continue to ufe it foccefs- 

:ch nill beat'; 
erieoced fjich effefls. 
y to thiî day. 

As foon as the ( 
B Syria for the fame pu 
e to purfue MithriOftt 
|tber he was returned. 

dthe Euxine Tea with 
[Btnes, eidicr inhabitée 

y at Afpis, made fuch régula- ■ 

.try, as the ftate of them would 

returned, he marched back 

He did not think it advife- 

111 the kingdom of Bofphorus, 

I'odothat, he muft have marched 

irmy, and pafled through many- 

uy barbarous nations, or entirely 

; a very dangerous cnterpriie, in which he would have 
ft great rifque oT periJhing. So that all Pompey could do 
g to poH the Roman fleet in fuch a manner, as to intercept 
i^ convoys that might be fent to Mithridates. He believed, 
that means, he (iiould be able to reduce him to the lalL 
Mmity; and faid, on fetting oat, that he left Mithridales 

f fonrndable enemies than the Romans, which were hun- 

isA neceffity. 

fhU carriea him with fo much ardour into Syria was his 
^ffive and vain-glorious ambition to pulh his conquelti 


M» T H E H 1 S T O R Y 

Tir as the Red fo.i. Jn Spain, and before chat in Ailles, K: 
]\i\d carried the Roman arms as far as the wellcrn ocean on 
hoth luicN of ihe Ilreights of the Mediterranean. In the war 
xigainll the Albanians he had extended hi^ conquelU to liw 
Cafpian fea, and believed there was nothinjj wrnling to his 
p;lorv, but lo pulh them on as far as the Red-fea. Upon lii-* 
arrival in Syria, he declared Antioch and Seleucia, upon tlie 
Orontus, free cities, and continued his march towards l")a. 
maicus ; from wlionce he definned to have gone or. againll iho 
Arabians, and afterwards to have conquered all the countries 
to the Red-fea. lUit an .'iccident happened, which obliged 
him to fufpend all his proje^^ls, and to return into Pontus. 

Some time before, an embally came to him from Mithri- 
c1:ites, kinj^ of Tontus who demanded peace. He propofed, 
that lu* IhiuiKl bo fuffercd to retain his hereditarv dominions, 
Tis 'I'i'.Manes had been, upon condition of paying a ttibilte to 
the Rnniaiis, and ref:j;ning al"! other provinces. J'ompey re- 
plied, that then he IhoulJ alfo come in perfjn, as Tigranes 
had (lone. Mithridaies could not confelit to fuch a mcannefs, 
hut propofed fending his children, and fome of his principal 
friends. Pompey would n(;t agree lo that. The nci^otiatioU 
bioke up, and Mithridates applied himfelf to making pre- 
parations for war with as much vigour as ever. PompcVi 
uho received ad\ice of this a^^livity, judged it ncccfTar)' to be 
ijpiMi I he fpot, in order to have an eye to every thing. For 
tii.'.t pur pole he went to pals fome time at Amifus, the ancient 
caplial cf tlîc country. There, through the jull punilhmcnt 
of the CÎ0.1.', fays Plutarch, his ambition made him commit 
f.iult.", wJiieh drew upon him the blanieof all the world. He 
had public kly clvarged and reproached LucuUns, that, fub- 
fillwig :iie w;ir, he had difpofed of provinces, given icwards, 
decrees, hun')ur^, :ini! aC'ied in all things as viv^ors are not 
accuilomed to art, till a war be finally termin.ittd ; and now 
fell into the fame ineonfilK'ney himfelf. Per he difpofed of 
povernment>, and divided the dominions of Mithridates into 
piovince' , as if the warlr.ul been at an end. But Mithridatt*^ 
ttill lived, and rvery tiling wa.s to be apprehended from a 
prince iue\hauilible in reicr.rce;:, Vxhcm the grcatell defeats 
could not difconcert, and whom InlVes thcmfelvcs feemcd to 
infpiir with new Cv'ur::';e, and to fupjriy with new forces. At 
tliM \ery time. v»)ien he ivas belitved to be entirely ruined, 
he ;!<iU:al!v mediînîed a terrll'l'.* invaîion into the verv 
1 1 t!ie i'*.ii*.ia!\ ei.ipiie wiili ilie trni>n> he had latelv raifed. 

IViupey, in ti.e diihibuîi«'n oi rewards, gave Armeria 
Minor to l){joiaru>, prince of Galatia, who had alvtiiys coîî 


o 1- PON r u s. iif^ 

irmly attached to tlir Rciman iiiUTL-fi:. Jmiiin^ thî,s w:ir, 
b he added tlic title of king. Ii w:i:. thi:. DcjotuiU'., 
'nlwAybperfifling, outof gratitiuli.*, in hih udiieicucc to 
, incurred ihv rricntincnt of Cicfar, and had occuriun 
trloqucncc of Cicero to defend him. 
ade Archclau'. :iHo hi;;h-pricll of the Moon, who was 
cmf goddef:. of the Comcinian-), and [^'lvc him the fu- 
ry of the phicc, which contained at lead 6000 perlons 
itcd to rfie woriliip of that deity. I have nheudy ob- 

thnt this Archelaus was the fon of liim who hud 
ided in chief the troops fenthy Mithridates into (ireccc 
irft war with the Romans, and who, hcin^ difgracnl 
prince, had, with hi;i fon, taken refuj^e amon^Il them, 
id alwavi, from that time, continued their firm ad- 

and h.nd liedi of y mut ufe to them in the war^ of 
The father )>ein^'; dead, the high-priellhood of Comana 
:n to the fon, in recompencc for the feivices r)f both. 
ig Pompey'fi Aay in I'ontiis, Areta.-., king of Arabia 

took the advantage of hi& abfence to make incurfion-i 
ia, which VLty much didreHed the inhabitants. Pom- 
irncd thither. Upon his way he came to the place 
ly the dead bodies of the Romans killed in the uefeat 
lus. He eaufed them to be inteired with great folcm- 
hich gained him the hearts of hi» foldicrs. Fnuit 
he continued his march towards Syria, with the vie«^ 
iting the proje'5l:i he had formed for tiie war of Arabia : 
tortant advices interrupted t)u>ic défions. 
gli Mithridates had lod all hones of peace, after 
nad rejected the overt urch \\ft had caufcd to i»e made 

and though he faw many of his fubjcdls abandon hi^ 
ar from lofin;^ couraj/e, he had formed the dcfign of 
Pannonia, aiid pafling the Alps to attack the Roman» 
itfelf, as Hannibal had done before him i a projri^t 
Id than prud'rnr, with which his inveterate hsitred and 
fpair hiiil iiifj.ircd liini. A j'reat nujiiber of nti;.'h- 

Scytl.iiii!'. hri'î riii»r((l tlicmirl .cs in hi< fcivice, and 
ably niiî'i:.' lit» 1 jji. arji:V. Wc had i'-\\\. (]rp\ii\r;. jhtfi 
fohiîî t'.ii J,'.- .;>!'• !o jsiii l.ini, vAnn he lliould aj)- 
he A!p'.. /.• î'.i'at j.;i".fM', ;\ir :.]v.:iy: ( r- \\t\n\i\, uni 
ly fîaîi'-i iS'j !■■!•. '•, in ■, liai t!j'-y ;r'l<'i,ily c.ffjre, li.; 
r.-pe*. il.r.' fl.'* .;;.ii.' '.f :!»«• nv/!: amor);» ili*' /l.ivr-, in 
I Sicily, j.' ili'M ■- il! < ■ 1 J.;"ii»l.''l, ini»;!:! Iii'î-lriily I'l.iu - 
hisjirrf'i.f: •■■. ' rî. ] ii.i»'- .•/'■.. !'l i'.'iMiryi,{{rl\\\,.-iu. 

the cinpir'" « t t! < ( i, .11, 'I Ii.v.In': iIi'- j^'irnair. in 
icultic ; a.i i t;..:l ?!»«• j':o\.i.c'-, 4 j.iireJ;»-! by tln- 

ii' .il i« r 


nvruicc nri'l cruelty of ihc mngif^rdtca and générale» « 
be ('jikI of throv/in^ofF tlicyokcby liift aid, under which 
huf] fo Ion;; ;',ro,-incd. Such were the thoughu that h 
revolved in lii» inirul, 

Ifut ;i'. to execute tlii". projet, it wa<) ncceiTary to r 
^nc) U.'i;mm-., aiul trnvcrfc the countries now called 
'I'artirv, Mol'.l;ivi:i, W.ihithia, Tranrylvania, Hungary, i 
Carinniin/l'irol, and Loiiibardy, and pafs three great r 
the Boryfthciic^y J^anubc, and To: the idea alone of fo 
and dangeroui a inarch threw his army into fuch a I 
that, to prevent the c xrcution of his defign, they coni 
againfl him, and chofcrhnrnaccs his Ton king, who had 
active in exciting the foldicrs to this revolt. Mithri 
then feeing hinifcTf al)andoncd by all the world, and 
even hi» Ton would not fuftcr him to efciipc where he c 
retired to hii apartment, and after having living poif 
futh of his wive', and dau^',hters a:» were with iiim at that 
he took the fame liimfelf; but when he perceived that i 
not it'. effi-^J uj)on him, he had rccourfe Co hi» fword. 
wounl he {;avc hinifrlf not fufliiing, he was obliged to 
aC/aulini foljjrrto put nn end to his life. Dion fays» h 
killed by liisown fon. 

(t/J Mithridatcr. hnd rcigncJ fixty years, and lived fci 
two. His yjciiicd fear was to fall into the hands i 
Romans, and to be led in triumph» 7*0 prevent thai 
fortune, he always carried ]»oifon about him, in orJ 
cfcape that way, if other means Oiould fail. The aupi 
fion he wai in, Icfl his fon fltould deliver him up to i'oi 
orcafionrd his taking the fatal refolution he executed (î 
dcniy. It was generally faid, the rrafon that the poifo 
not Kill him, was his having taken antidotes fo much* t^ 
cunflitution was f)roof a;;ainft it. But this is believe 
error, and that it is intpoflible any remedy ihould be ai 
verfal antidote againll all the different fprcies of poifon. 

Pompcy was at Jerithoin Palrftine, whither the dift'c 
between ilarranuA and Ariftobulus, of which we havcf 
rlfrwhrrr, had carried him, when he received the fiill 
of Mithiidatrs'!, death. It v/ns brought him by exprrfT 
patched on pNrpofe from I'ontu.s with Icttrrr. from his 1 
n.mi;. 'Iliof': rvpirfrci arriving with their lances err 
v/ith î;iiir'.'Ii, which was cuHomaiy («nly when they brouj» 
vi' f'lf f^mc victory, or new. of grr;it importance and ad va 
tiir ;inny v/.ii vriy caj';(r and folii itous \n\if\tnv what i 
A:, til' y had only begau to form their camp, and ha 


I'J^ A. M. 3941. Anf.J.C.63. 

O F P O N T U s. 121 

the tribunal, from which the general h'^rangued the 
without ftaying to raifc one of turf, as was uAial, 
Ï that would take up too much time, they made one of 
cks of their carriage horfes, upon which Pomp t y 
;d without ceremony. He acquainted them with the 
f Mithridatesy and the manner of his killing himfrlf; 
5 Ton Pharnaces fubmitted himfelf and dominions to the 
it, and thereby that tedious war, which had endured 
;, was at length terminated. This gave both the army 
Bcral great fubjcft to rejoice. 

I was the end of Mithrid^itcs ; a prince, fays * an 
.n, of whom it is difficult eithe^r to fpeak or be filent : 
aâivity in war, of diflinguilhed courac;e; fometimtr. 
•cat by fortune, and always of invincible refolution ; 
general in his prudence and counfel, and a foldier in 
and danger ; a fécond Hannibal in his hatred of th? 

ro fays of Mithridates, that after Alexander he was 
a tell of kings : (c) lUe rex pofi JUxanArum maximts. 
nain, that Oie Romans never had fuch a king in arn\5 
tbem. Nor can we deny that lie had his great qunli- 
vail extent of mind, that afpired at every thing; a fu> 
:y of genius, capable oi the grcatefl undertakings ; a 
cy 01 foul, that the fevercH misfortunes could not dc« 
an induilry and bravery, inexhaudible in refources, 
ich, after the greateft lolfes, brought him again on the 
1 m fudden, more powerful and formidable than ever. 
»c, however, believe, that he was a confummate general ; 
» does not feem to refult from his allions. He ob> 
great advantages at firll ; but againll generals, without 
merit or experience. When Sylli, Lucullus, and 
U oppofed him, it does not npp?ar he acquired any 
onour, either by his addrcfs in polling himfelf to ad- 
r, by his prcleiice of mind in iiiuxpciilcd emergency, 
;pidity in the heat of action. But fhould we admit 
fiaveall the qualities of a groat captain^ he could not 
coniidcrcd with horror, wlien we rcflcil upon the in - 
iblc murders and parricides of Jiis reign, and that in- 
cruelty, which regarded neither mother, wives, chil- 
or friends, and which Hicriticcd every ihingto hia ia- 
: ambition. 
. VIII, G (f) Pompey 

(t) AcjJrm. (^.Tft. I. ÎV. n. S. 
n^iie fitentiiii nrqnr di- lempcr antino maxlmui; ronHlit^ 
tine ciira: bello arrrrimut, dtix, rnitc; niinui odi» in Rumnno' 
ciimius; ali^uanio foriunj { Aniilbii, VtlUl*sur(,\. li. r. iS. 

T HR( H I.S Ton V 

■ '{.(i P««D[»CT Wing arrived in Jsyrii. went dlnfnv.n 
Ji>#iliir<iii, witKUufieii tg r«t om fri>m tkencc to iMgio ai 
Iritj^chlbcw^ Willi »bin. WHcit Arms. th<; kingMlbu 
•rtiuntiy. iftw him «ipen Oic p^int of «niciing lii» donumooii 
h£ l'l;j|t^l^ caib.ifTs M muktr hislubmilTioni. 

I'lip ir^abl» ui'Jy>«iKii employed Poiupey fpme drae. H» 
.'i*tiir('i',»l HfterkVird* iiiia Syna, from ivoence b: fci one bi 
J'dniu^. U[)<N) bif nifiviil ut Amifu*. lie fuund ihe bod^ of 
AliibriilvUi there, which PhArRXcei liij fou hud iirnt to htm) 
in> ilimbt. to convince Poinpey by hi» Oivn cyts «f tli« doill 
i^t' ati cticniy. t^h" Imd nccaëonc^ fo mAny difHculuci ud 
/^li^i*:. lie hiid .-idded grtnc prelcnti. iu order to iDcliu 
hill) in hi-i fAvnur. t'uinpev accepted ilic prcfeutii i but Tac 
iliiibodyof Mithridatei. lootinp upon their cnmicy to be cs> 
lin^nilbed in death, he did it all the hnnoun due to die rc- 
jnajas of" a king, iVut it lo the cily «f Sittope «i be inceneil 
thtT! with the kings of Potitus Kij aneellori, who bad h»); 
Jtcvn butic^l it) that pUce, and ordci«d the funu dut 
ncccfliwy fot.!iie folcnmii)- of a royal funeral. 

irt Uiit J»ll jiMirnc)- he took polfelTtefi of all tlte plaeet' 14 
fhe lijitdi' of thctfe to whom Miihridates had coa&im tbeqk 
He foupd immenfe richeti in rnnie of them,. effieciaUv 
TvUuniSt where ptm of Mithridates's inofl v»lunblcMi 
nnd pi'f^ciflut jewel» were l^ejft: Hiji principal arlcnal wh: 
in the fuine place. Anioiisl\ ihnl'c rich ihinex were looa c ,_ 
fif ouyx, fet and aiiorneiT with gold; with fn prodigiow a 
<]U4StKy itf all kii)d« nf plate, line mO^tabl». and ftiniinrt 
of war for nan and horfe, ih.-tt it toft tlir qun-ilor. oi LrealWer 
111' the -irwy, Uiiriy liay» etiiire in wking the invcfuory of 

Jompey granted PhAmftCci the ki»j:doni of BnffAoraiiii 
reward «t lilt parricide, ik-cl&red li'nn'fricnd and ally of tbe 
Jlum.inpeOple, nnd marched into the piovince of /Vfui, ta 
unter (o winter at Rphefuj. He g»v« e»eh of hi« foldicn 
^{oodrachinas, (nboni Jfl. fierling) and to the odicen u- 
ronlinjtto rtci-r fererid poll». The toul fum. lo whivh Iw 
libcndui» amoiinicd, »ll r;iifcd out >of ihc fpoiU of ib 
rnemj-, wa* fi;(teen ihoofnndialeiHïî that i* to fay, aboBi 
two milliou four hundred thouf^nd poundt ; befide» which« 
he twenty thauf.uid idci« (tlucc lailUodi) to put into ib 
trcafury at Rome, upon the dav of his entry. 

(Z) ^i* triumph conunucd two dayi, aud w«t octcbnMd 

r/J Jnfïph. Anllq. I. xN. c. 4, 8- & dc B«IL Jul. I, 5. M 
t'oitip. 9. É+1. /ppiin. p. î(o. Dim. C*JI. I. «iivi. 
. .ft) A-M.jsij. A«t J.C. K. 

P N T U s. «3 

Pnmpe;^ csufed Arte iMn- 

ires of the highell cUftùiQioa to 

: An ngft whom were AnAobidDit 

f Judîcâ, with his fon Ancigonus; Olthacei, kiii^of 

; Tigranes, the fon of Tigranes king of Armoiut 

' e fon;, and two (laughters of Mithfidltet. For 

that king's perfon, -his throne, fceptre, and gold' 

^ght «ubltï, or twelve Sett, ia height, were umtd 

toplfc- i 





H I S T O R 

O F 


THIS book contains the hiftory of thirty-five years, froni 
beginning of the reign of Ptolomxus AuleteSi to the d 
of Cleopatra, with which ended the kingdom of Eg] 
that is to fay, from the year of the world 3939» to 39; 

Sect.!. Ptolomaeus Auletes bad been plmceil mpo} 
throne of Egypt in tbi rum ^Alexander. He is 
dared the friend and alfy of tie Reman peefle by tbe c 
of Cafar and Pompey^ *wbicb f>e pur chafes at a tiery ^ 
price. In confequence^ be loads bit fnhjeêii nvitb impofts. 
is expelled the throne. Tbe Alexandrians make bis daut 
Behenice queen. He goes to Rome, and by money om 
th» rjoices of the bends of the cotnmonnjoealtb for bis rr-< 
hiijhment. He is oppofed by an oracle of tbe SilyPs ; ««/«u 
fûfiding ivhicby Gabikius fcts bim upon tbe tbrone byj 
of arms y nvhere he remains till his death. Tbe famous Cl 
p A Y R A , and her brother^ very youngj fuceeed bim • 

(b,'^ TJ TE have feen in what manner Ptolomxns A u! 
^W afccnded the throne of Eg)'pt. Alexander, 
^ ^ prcdeceflbr, upon his being expelled by his 
jc«Ps, withdrew to Tyre, where he died fome time after., 
he left no ifTue, nor any other legitimate prince of the b! 
r yal, he made the Roman people his heirs. The fen 
f r the reafons I have repeated elfewhere, did not judg 
; roper, at that time, to tak- poflcflion of the dominions 
;hem by Alexander's will \ b^tTo fhew that they did noi 


(k) A. M. 3939. .Ant. J. C, 65. 

OF EGYPT. r.%- 

non nee tlielr right, ihoy refolved Co call in part of the inhe- 
ritance, and lent deputies to Tyre, to demand a Turn ci mo- 
ney left there by that king at his death. 

The prctenfions of the Roman people were uîiJjt no r»*- 
Kriftions ; and it had been a very infecure ell:ibliihm;;iu to 
poffefs a ilate, to which they believed they had fo jufta claim { 
«nlefs fome means were found to make them renou!icc it. Ail 
the kings of Egypt had been friends and allies of Rom?. 
To get nimfelf declared an ally bv the Romans, wa«( a cer- 
tain means to his beini; authentically acknowledged king of 
Egypt by them. But by how much the more important that 
auaafication was to him, fo much the more difficult was it 
m him to obtain it. His predeceïïbr's will was ftill frefli in 
the memory of every body; and as princes are feldom par- 
doned for defers which do not fuit their condition, though 
they are often fpared for thofe that are much more hurtful, 
the famame of flayer on the flute^ which he had drawn upon 
himfelf, had ranked him as low in the eilcem of the Romans, 
■s before in that of the Egyptians. 

(ij He did not, however, defpair of Aiccefs in his under- 
faiaiigs. All the methods, which he took for the attainment 
of his end, were a long time ineflFe6lual ; and it i« likely they 
wmld always have been fo, if Csfar had never been conful. 
Thatt ambicioas foirit, who believed all means and eirpedieuts 
Jiftdiat condacea to his ends, being immeafely in debt, and 
fn^ng that kine difpofed to merit by money wkat he could 
■■t obtain by ri^t, fold him the alliance of Rome,, at as dear 
t price M he wis williojg to buy it ; and received for the par- 
cmIc, as well for him(elf as^ for Pompey,. whofe credit was- 
ieceflarv to him for obtaining the people's confent, almoft 
6000 talents, that is to fay, almoft9oo,ooapounds. At this 
price he was declared the friend: and. ally of the Roman 

(k) Thoueh that prince's yearly revenues were twice the 
amotint of this fum, he could not immediately raife the 
money, without cxcccdingl) over-taxing his fubjedls. They 
were already highly difcontented by his not claiming the iflc 
of Cyprus, as an ancient- appenagc of Egypt, and in cafe of 
refufal, declaring war.againft the Romans. In this difpofitiou 
the extraordinary, impolis he was oblij;;cd to exa£t, having 
finally cxafpcratcd* them, they rofe with fo much violence, 
that he was forced to fly for the fccurity of his life. He con - 
ccaled his route fo well, that the Egyptians cither believed, 

G 3 or 

■fij Saeton. in Jul. Crf. c.liv. Dion. Ca/1'. 1. xtxix. p. 97, Stub 
U MU. p. 796. (kj A. IV^. 3946. Aut. J. C. cS, 

116 T H Ç'. » r S T O R T 

orftJEivod to believe, that he had peti/hcd. The/dceUnd 

Bcr.-nkc, [he tldr& of hit tliK« dsughters, qaeetit thgujb 

he hnd iwo fous, btcaufu thr)' were both much yuiifiget ihiA 


{0 PtolcjTiy, however, having landed fit tlic iilc of Khada> 
«vliich wj; in his way in Komc, wxi ïnt'ormed that Cato. wW 
3f|{?r hU (icath called Cola uf Uticu. wiu alio ArriTd 
there fpa\e time before. That priiice» being gUJ of the pj>» 
portuniiy tu confeir with him «pou ht» own afiiiiii, {cni ito^ 
iitcdiutel}' U> let him koatf ku urivol ; exp câing tlut hi 
would come direftly. to Yifn him. We may here fee na ior 
l^3ncc of Roman grAndear, or rathfr hau|;htincfs. Catn or- 
dered him to be Mild, that îl'hêhaduiv thrng la fiy [ahtm, 
he might come to hiai if he thought fit. Cato did dm 
vfjuchftfo fo math aa to TÎfe, when Ptolemy cnictcU tiii 
chamber, and fainting him only oj, acommQii man, Iwlehin 
fit dflwa. The l^ing, though in lonie couiuliop.upaR tiù*"- 
ci-piion, could r.ot cut admire, haw f» mtichbaughtinef* toJ 
Hate could nniit in the fivnie ticrfoa with the llmpiicity *wX 
niodeAythat.^ppesiciiiH his hiibii and itll hb e^mpHgc. But 
i\e was very [iiacb fiirprixed, when, upon explaining bimfetft 
C.ttn bhmcd him in direjl terms, for quitcinj; ihc Ancft kiii|[' 
dam in the world, to expofc liimfdf lo the puJc AndinfatùbU 
avarice of the Romuu gtaudcce, and to fuSct a thoufind in- 
dignities. He did AQt fcrnp)« lo tell him, that ibough h* 
he fliould («11 &11 F.gypi, he would itat have fufficieutiuj^itify 
their avidity. He advil'ed him tKerefvrc 10 rct^iin to E{yp>> 
and rcconctie liimfelf with W", fubje^U ; adding, thfti he «u 
ready to accompany hiiw thither, and offering Itioi liii mcdi^k- 
tion and good odccs. 

Ptolemy, upon ihîi Aifeonrfc, rccovcrtd ab out of 4 dnam, 
end hnviflg m^taivly conri4«r«d yvbal tl>e uiic Somaa biU 
told him, perceived the error he hsd cimraitii-J. in limiuti; 
hie kingdom, nnd entcciqined thftugitts>oI t 
But the friends he had with him, being gaini -- 
make him go to Rome, (one itwy ejifily guel^ 
dilt'u.-ided hint from fallowing C»toS good n".' ' ' 

time enough to repent it, wlito he fosni himfrlliu thM-r'""* 
• city reduciid to folk it hi» bufineli from gate to gate, lil(c.a 
private pcrlisn. 

fmj Cx(*r, upon nvHom lui principal ho]wt wrn tbuDJ«(i, 
nan not lu Rome: He.wuai Ui»; tiiiu: louking vu in Gial- 


(!) Plui. inCitoUU. 

O. > j> ti. 

OF EGYPT. i;v 

But Pbmpey, who was tliere, p.ivc him an .ip.iitmciit in hi 
hoLifc, and omitted nothiii»/ to icrve hiin. BtlUlci the mon;'/ 
he had received from that prince, in coiijunv^ion wiih Civl;!], 
Ptolemy hnd after wardi. cultivated hij friciidiliip hy \aiion- 
fervices, which Ik: had rendered hhn durijK' the war with 
Mithridates, and had maintained 8coo horie for him in th^tn^ 
Jodza. i-hiving therefore made- his complaint to the fenaii' c»l 
the rebellion of his fubjeCts, he demanded that they Ihonl.t 
oblige them to return to their obedience, as the Itomaus wwr 
engn^cd to do by the alliance granted him. Pumpey's-ja^Hio!! 
obtained him their compliance. The conful Lcntuln-., t« 
whom Ci'icia, fcnarated from Kgypt only by t!v- coa'.l m 
Syria,- had fallen ny lot, was charged with the re-eil;il>Iilh 
ment of 1* to km y upon the throne. 

f/ij iSut before his ccnfullhip expired, the Ejrvpii:n.*; 
having been informed that their l^int^ was nut dead as rrj.-^ 
believed, and that he was gone to Rome, fent thither a folrt-.i 
embafly, to juilify the revolt before the fenate. Thaceinb:<;.v 
confided of more than looperfons, of whom the chief w;j> .: 
celebrated philofopher, named Dion, who b^d confidcri 1 \c 
friends at Rome. Ptolemy having received advice (»f :hi , 
found means to dellroy moil of thofe ambiifladora, eith.T Lr 
poi(bn or the fword, and intimidated thofe fo much, who!:i hi: 
oould neither corrapt nor kill, that they were afraid eichcr 
tD acquit themfelves of their commifTion»- or to demand 
juftice for fo many murders. But as all the world knew this 
cruelty, it made him as highly odious as he was before con- 
temptible : and his immcnle profufions, in gaining the 
pooreft and moll felf-in te relied fenators, became fo publick, 
diat nothinjg clfc was talked of throughout the city. 

So notonous a contempt of the laws, and fuch an cxccfs of 
andacit)'» excited the indip;nation of all the perfons oi' inte- 
grity in the fenate. M. Favonius the Stoick philofopher was 
3ie firft in ir, who declared hinfelf againft Ptolemy. Upoii 
his rcqucllic was reiblveJ, iliat l)i')n Ihould be ordered to ats 
tend, in order to their i:n'.n'. '.n;^ ihv truth fiom hi«»o\vn inoutli. 
But the kinj^'s party, c.iiî'.pofv.l of th;»r of Pomp'-y .-Ji'd 
Lentulii:., of fuch a;, he corrupt'.-*! with ironey, aurl ^^\' 
thofe who had lent him fum . to corrupt oih'rrs acted i'nrprnly 
in his fivour, that Dion did not dare to appear; and Ptoicniv, 
having c.iuftd him ail') i'» be killed fome fniill time after, 
though he who did the nuir..ler was accufed juridicail -, the; 
king was difcharged of it, upon maintainin j that h : had 
jull caufcfcr t!ie action. 

O 4 Wlitthc.- 

CnJ A. M. '-9 ',7. Ant. J. C. 57, 

I WbetI 

!•• T H E H I S T O R V 

WbetWibatpriacc thought, dut nothtnr fiiTtHer st R 
denuidcd kit pnfence, or apfrthtnita ttcànng I 
ajtront, hxied ai Ke «vu, if be coutinoud there any ion 
he fct out from thence fume few dayt z(kt, and retire 
ëpl>erut, into the leio;^ of the goaitCt, to w-iit tben 
«Ircifionaf bis dcfiiny 

Hit iffaJr, in efi^£i, vnde more ooifc ihui «vcr at R< 
Ooe of tlic uibuti» of the people, named C. Crio, mo at 
tnUrMoaaa youue man, wKo did tiot want eloqneocCf 
ïlar«a himiclf, inTrcqoTnt h.iran^n», a^mfl Ptolemy 
Lentnlut, and was hculccncd tn b]/ the [leopk nîtK lin( 
j-'Icafore, sud enlciiordinary flpplant'c. 

faj In Older to pot i, n<w tthcme in tnotion. he waitet 
the n«w onfi'Ii weic clcdnl* and ai foon 3i ixniului 
«jyitted tb;it oiiice, he propolej to the people a& oncle ol 
SibjrI'e, which imported : 1/ a iiiig »f £iypt, hmvimg wtt 
Jr^tiid, affliit te jta, jt» JhsJi att rifa/iMm jmr amtf { 
lirnutvir, yt* fiait m»t gnt him Aty tn^i \ fir i/ytn ^'i jn 
jvffiT anUhaXduri miuk. 4| 

The uiutX him wai to raRunumcau tlu* kind of a 
f.t& to thefcj;.tc. in order that it rai^ht be cxuniBcii, tn) 
they wcic proper lo be divulged. BmCato, nppreheH 
x\st the V ing't fnflioft mitht occaâon the pafiog a rcfali 
tliere to fuppre& ihjj, wuicJi wu fa ^ponlc to thai pi 
iiuncdi^tel/ prcfented the pnefi-', with whou the fi 
bookjwtiedcpofttd, to thepcfiplc, nnd obliged them, \ 
■uthwiiT which hi^oficc of iribooe gave him. toncpoM 
they had fenad in then to ibe pabliclc, withoai dcmaoAl 
fenate'i c pinion. 1 

Thii W3> a nnv lirokcof tlmnder toriolcoiyandLeal 
The wordi of th^^ Sibyl were too expreff sot toraakea 
impreCon «pOB the vulgar which ihcu eouuici deâmi. 
thalLratulHi, whofcconltiKbij» wu expired, nntbeisgwi 
ID icocivc the tAoBt to hit nee, cf hiving the firaMe' 
crée revoked, by which he «nu ^pojninl to teinftate Ptol 
fri oat tiRBiediitely for hiipfcvime inquiliiy ff proconi 

He wat notdfcdved. Some davi after, one of the 
confult, aafficd MnrccUiaat, the drckued eeeny of Poa 
having proDofcd the oracle to the (enatc. it wai dixreed, 
je^ardmoald be had to it. and thut it appeared danycroi 
.thecoatmonwealth tore-eSablifh the king of Egypt by t 

W< tnnA wt h«)ieva thcie mt any pcr&n in the finti 
linplc. or nih«r lb topUl, va hove any faith in fach aa 
Nvbodydonbted, baflhai it haid been wuiitcj 

OF EG Y P T.' 129 

tlifc'pfelênt cohjuafture, and was the work of fomc fccret 
intrij^e of policy. But it had been pablilhed and approved 
in the aflemtily of the people, credulous and fuperHitious to* 
excefs, and the fenate could oafs no other judgment upon it,. 

This new incident obliged Ptolemy to change his mcafurcs. 
Seeing that Le n tu Ins had too many enemies at Rome, he 
abandoned the decree, by which he had been commiÛioned. 
for his re-eilabliihment, and demanding by Ammonius his- 
ambaiTadory whom he had left at Rome, that Pompey fhould 
be appointed to execute the fame commiifion ; becaufe it not- 
being poffible to execute it with open force, upon account of 
the oracle, he judged with reafon, that it was necefTary to fub- 
flitute» in the room of force,, a perfon of great authority. And 
Pompey' was at that time at the higheft pitch of his glory , 
from his fuccefs in having deftroyed Mich ridâtes^ the greateil 
and mofl powerful king AAa had feen fince Alexander. 

The aJFair was deliberated upon in the fenate, and debated 
with great vivacity by the different parties that role up in it. 
(p) The difference of opinions caufed. feveral fitting.*^ to be 
loft without any determinatiom Cicero never quitted the 
intereft of Lentvfus his intimate^ friend,, who, during hi^ 
confolfhip, had infinitely contributed to his being recalled . 
from baniihment. But what means was there to render him 
any fervice, in the condition things flood ? And what could 
that proconfal do againft a great kingdom, without ufmg the 
fiirce of arms, which was exprefsly forbad by the oracle ? In 
this manner thought people of little wit and fabtlety, that 
«ere not ufed to confider things in different lights.. The 
oracle only prohibited giving the king any troops for his re- 
eftablifhment. Could not Lentulus have left him m fom/! place 
near the frontiers, and went however with a good army to be- 
(lege Alexandria? After he had taken it he might have re<>^ 
turned,, leaving a flrong garrifon in the place,, arm then font 
the king thither, who would have found all things difpofed 
fer his reception without violence cr troops. This was 
Cicero's advice ; to confirm which, I fliall repeat his own 
words, taken from a letter wrote by him at that time to Lcii- 
tuln.<. " You arc the bell judge/' fays he, *'• as you are 
•* mailer of Cilicia and Cyprus,, of what you can undertake 

** commonwealth, thit you fliould go thither with your tiev.*: 
•• and army, leaving tiic king at Ptolemni'-', (u in I'uine oih'T 

G 5 *• nd^h- 

Q) Cic. ad. Fini'M i. fp'il -, 


*' neii^hbourinfc pkcL- ; io oidcr, that aficr you Iia^-eappcaTfii 
V ihcicvol(,nnù left KGodganifonïwlicrciK.'Ccfîkry, thai princt 
•' in.iy r^lcty return ihitlitr. " (n thi» mnnnir you wiliKcin- 
*' Itale him< nccoriliug to tliv fcnnte't fiiH decree, snJ he lie 
" rellorcd without troops, which our :iveuloti uITure ns is Oic 
*' iVnfc of the Sibyl." Would on<^ believe tliat a grave ningi- 
Urate, in sn afiûirii-i Important a thftt in the picfent queAion, 
ilioulU be capable o£ an evAri«n, which Jippears fo little ran- 
lillcDt with the iutcgrity and probity upon which Cicero n- 
luutt himfeir? It wai bucaufc he reckoned ilie ortck only pie- 
tended ii) lie the Sibyl's, at in deed it was, Out ùtu fay, a mac 
ConirivancB aiii impulhire, 

Leiititlu), tloppcd by the difltcultien of tlut cnlcrpiiie, 
which were ^rcat and real, was ftfraïù to «iij-ice in Ji, ni 
tool; the advice Cicero gave him in the conduiion of hJi 
IctttT, where be rcpri;lcnied : •' That all t ihc world »f)uli 
" judgeof hi* eonduA from the event i That ilierefbrt lir 
" h.-tiTanly to take hit mcAfute» To Hcl), as lo alTurc hi> fnc- 
" ceri, und that utlicrwile he would do better uvt to undn- 
■' t^ke it." 

GabiiiiiiS. who commanded in Syria in the quality of fro- 
ronful, wat left up pre hen five and caiitioiti. Tliouph erery 
pncunful WA> prohibited b^ iin exptcfi law to quit his pn>- 
Vtncff, or declare any warwhacfocver, even upoti the neaivt 
borderer, without an cxprcft order of the icttaic* he hu! 
inaKhcd to the aid of Mithridatc», ^rincecf Pirihia, ejtnelW 
Media fay the biug hisbroiher, which kinsdnm had falk-n to 
hiTi by divifiiin. (^^ ili: hud nl ready patted the Euphraiti 
iviihbiiiirmV fcLrtiat purpofe, MlicnFiotcniy joined hirnvridi 
hitxT» from Pom pey, their common friend, and patron, wW 
hid ii<Ty l.ttely bL-tn declared conful for llie year eufuine. Uy 
lbr>fit Icncrt-tiu conjured Uafelntuj to do hii utmull In iavo«t 
et ihe prorofal) Uiat prince Hiould muiic htia, witli regard m 
In rc-ciUblifhrnftnt m hh kingdom. Howsver dangtnini 
thai condu^ might be, ihc.Auihority of Pompey. and fli!I 
nwic, the hone of ronfideiablv gain, made Gabiniai bcjfin 
t« ïu.iver. *1 he lively remunSriWCea of Aniliony, who foug^ 
ecc^wni to itgualixc himfelf, oad wa» befidct inclined w 


ff) A, M. ]a)9' Anr. J. C. ^{. . Afr>)'>' <a<S]i>. -^ IM> ft !a 
filth. S- 'Î4' ''><>' i" Anun p, ^if, gt;. 

* 111 fo't ul p«r Is nftiluilur. I Alln lA-JuOrilui -, 
«wmiJincJum iniiio finitu) tm- Nui fluWrm lui 
Tuiti & line milmnd'ni irduc*»!',! pluriivm litl til, :■ 
^u*iniiilino*iini hcminii, lalitiofi [ pniiri, no 
9<ïtII* pl>(ei« iliif luni, | «uliiuin, ii 

. i tt (fcatv fevauni* lit iw set- ' 


Ptolemy, whofc intrcatics ilaticiwl hir r.mbition, full/ 
nincd him. This the famou^i Mark Aiu<Miy, who 
rards formed the fccond triumviraic with C>L'>avi'.is aiiil 
us. Gabinius had engaged him Co lollow him into 

by gîvinj; him the command of his ciNahV. 'J*he mou* 
rous the cntcrpri'/.c, the morcrij^ju '.labinius thouj^ht lic^ 
) make Ptolemy pay dear for it. The latter, who found 
fîculty in.'igrceing to any term^, offered him for himlVlf 
le army 10,000 talents, or i,50o,occ pound?, the ^rcatell 
3 be advanced immediately in ready money, and rîu* 
fooii as he Ihould bercinftatcd. Gabiuiu:) accepted the 

Egypt had contnuicd under the government of r|«?eu - 
ice. As foon as (lie afccnded the throne, the I'-gypiians 
:nt to ofi'er the crown and Berenice to Aniiochus Afiaticj j 
'ia, who, on his mother Selena's fide, was the neaiciV 
lale. The amballadors found him dead, and returned : 
jrought an account, that his brother Sclcucus, fi::-- 
1 Cvbiofa<île.s, wao ilill alive. The fame olfcrs wvrr. 
to him, which he accepted, lie was a prince of mcr.n 
irdid inclinations, and had no thoughts but of amalfinjr 
/• His firil care was to caufe the body of Alexander the 

to be put into a coffin of glafs, in order to feize that of 
in which it had lain untouched till then. Tins aftion, 
Tiany others of a like nature, having rendered him 
y odious to his queen and fubjefls, Ihe caufed him to bo 
led foon after. He was the lail prince of the race of 
?]eucides. She afterwards efpoui-d Archclaus, high- 
of Comana in Pontus, who called himfelf the fon of 
cat Mithridates, though, in efleil, only the fon of that 
:'s chief general. 

(iabiniu6, after having repaffcd the lùiph rates, and 
1 Palelline, marched dire6\ly into I'.gypt. What was 
o be fe.1red in this war, was the way by wliieh they 
icccirarily march lolVlufium. I'or they eoultl not avoid 
r plains eoveied with fands of fuch a depth, as was 
le to thinl: on, :;:id fo dry, that there was not a fingic 
'A' water th« wh-.le leMijth of the moors of Serl)onidn. 
ly, who was iaii bv!")i\: with ihc hnrfe, not onlv fei'/cd 
ffe:, but iiavip'; in!;Mi Peluliuin, thir key of l''c;;ypi on 
de, with the \. i.clc l'anifon, he made the way feciire l<r 
ft of the armv, and v'^ve liis "cncral crcat hopes of tîic 


C 6 The 

itr.ib. I. xii. p. ^■\'^. I i. 1. xvii. p. tq î — 70^). Dion. 1. xxxix. 
-1 17, CÛ. uii'iion. II. .19, 5", ( «y I Jut. ia Aiil^fii. ;'. ç^ifi, 91/, 

Vîî TffÊ KfsroRr 

Tlie cnfmy foiintl » condiietxUt adnnnz* în the icSn of 
glory whkli iiofTcS'tiil AiKOaj, For ftoiauy wa* av^Iooan ' 
vntcTcd Pclul'ium, ihiin, OUI of the violracc of kU liacr :.n4 j 
rcfcntnent, Ke would have poi «11 the Kgypibn* in il to th« j 
fwt^rJ. Bni Aoiuny, wba rightly jnilgtd ikai ȉ of cmdiy 1 
would irvrrc upon tiimrrlf, oppaitA Jt, and prcvntrd { 
?loteiay fiom cxvcuiine hta dcfivn. In aUihrtttlItsuMlm- 
cojntCM which îmTnïiliiiti.-I/ foltowed tJite cnoihrr, hc noi 
onlv f^re \irooh of his Rce»l valour, but <liAingotlhcd lùm- 
leltky oil ihc ctndD^ of > C*^^' S'o^ral. 

A* foon at Cibiniui received ulvice of Antony*! good , 
fucccf», he ttixered the heut of Eeypi. It tr» in wintrr, 
when iht wM(r) of the Nile «re verjr (ow, the propercft tiine ' 
in cnnfc<iuencc for the coniiarft of it. ArchcMns, who wra> I 
tiravi-, nblct aO'I experienced, did all ibuccnld bcdiwe nihn 
dtfeiLce, and difcoted his ground very well wiik the nteary, 
^ftcr kt qiûiitd the city, in order lo march sf^ttift ibe 
Itomiai, (vhea it wU nrCfflTary to encamp, and brrikcrtKitid 
for the entrenchments, the E^ypttuu, accaffome^ » )i<rt «» 
idle uid voluptuous Ufe, railed to outcry, tint Archelaui 
Siould employ the mcrcciutiet in fitch «mk at the npeate 
rf the pnbliclc. Whftt «outd be cxpcAcd from fucb troop* i» 
A bank? They were, in cflêâ, fooo pot to the nmK. 
ArchctiBB wu kilted, fightiiig Tolianrly. Anfony, who fc>< 

been bit pnrttcolu irmadiMd goeft. h-ivîng found hubodv 
npon tiM) Scld of bsitir, adorneo it in ■ iLrtral manner, ana 
fntemnizcd hii ohfeiiuiei with ^reat nagitifcrnct. by lUl 

aAion he left behind him a great name in Alotasdria, lad 
MCijuirrd ftinongll the Romaat, who fervcd Milh him in thb 
war, tbc repoiaiion of a taut of fingulv valour on^ racred- 
ioB gcBcrolitj-. 

Egypt wns loon reduced, and obliged to refrive Anlnn, 
who look entire polTcition of lijs domiiiiofli. !n nrdrt to 
lirengihrn him in d, (îubiniui tefi him fome ftomui tronpt 
for tne guaid of hi« perfan- Thofe troopi coninjied ;.r 
Alexandnx iJve manners and cuAonu of the countnr. aftd 
jctrc into the luxary lid cffemtMcy which rcfgerd ihnt ia 
almoR every city. Aultte* piit hit daaghicr Berenice ss 
dcaih. fer having worn the crown during Inaeaiki tmAafut- 
wanjt got rid, in the fame nanrwr, of all the rich pevfow 
who had bcca of ihê ndvcrfe parly to him. He ha^iocaUfn 
inn the cnnrifcation of ibcit ellatci, lo mnko up the fum ho 
hti ptomifed to GAbUiiu, t» wbofo aid be wu indebted tot 
his re-cA»bliJbai|tiu> 


The P.[^'ptSans fuffcred all thcfc violences without mur- 
10. But ibmc days after, .1 Roman foldicr h«iviny> aeci* 
tly killed a cat, neither the fear of Ciabinius, nor the 
ricyof Ptolemy, could prevent the people from tearing 
o piecei upon the fpot, to avenge the infult done to the 
of the country ; for cat» were of that number. 
! Nothing farther is known in relation to the life of 
DV Aulctes, except that C. Rabirius Poflhumu.i, who 
itner lent him, or caufed to be lent him, the grcatcit 
»f the Aims he had borrowed at Rome, havinj; gone to- 
in order to his being paid when he was entirely rein^ 
; that prince gave htm to underfland, that he defpaircd 
iftfying him, unlefs he would cbnfcnt to take uj^on (lim 
irc of nia rrvcnue<i, by which means he might reimbnrfc 
If by little and little with his own hands. The unfor- 
e oreditor having accepted that offer, out of fear of 
; hii debt if he refufed it, the king foon found a colour 
tufing him to be imprifoned, though one of the oldefl 
[eareA of C.Tfar*s friends, nnd though' Pompcv was in 
meafure fecurity for the debt, as the money was lent, and 
>ligations executed, in his prefencc,- and by his procure- 
f in a country houfc of his near Alba. 
birius thout;ht himfclf too happ;^ in hcvng able to cfcape 

prifnn and F.gypt, more miferaUe than he went 
tr. To complete his difgrace, he was proiccuted in form 
m as he rciurncd to Rome, for having aided Ptolemy in 
pting the fenate, by the fums he had lent him for that 
of having difhonourcd hii quality of Roman knight, by 
mploymcnt he hud accepted In Ugypt; and laitly, of 
ig (harcd in the money which Cabin ins brought fronv 
:c, with whxmi ir was allrdgcd he had a fellow-feeling. 
t>'i difcourfc in his defence, which we llill have, is an 
al monument of the ingratitude and perfidy of tliis uoi- 
IV king. 

/ Ptolemy Aulct«s died in the peaceable poflcffibn of the 
.lorn of Kgypt, uliout four years after his le-cflabliOuneiu. 
rft two kins and two <Jnu};htc'rs. fU* pave hi;i crown 10 
rklcll fon and dn ugh ter, aiui ordered by his will, that 
(hould many ti);>rtlifr, according; to rhc cullom of that 
», ami povein jonitly. And becauic they were both very 
g (for thed:iu{>htri, who the cUlcl], was only fi'vcn- 
years of a;;c) he Irl't liicin under ihr tuition of the 
an fênatr. This was the famous Cleopatra, wlioic 


Diod. Sir. I. Î. p. 7^, "r, (uj Cic, pro Rabir. | 

:«rir4eBciloCiv. 1. v. 

)ùioty it rtffliia» for «3 toirUtc. fjj Wc Itud ihe pwfl» 

ytAti ïAor (a barely (irdcrnl lui» to be put cadeau 

^^;t.II. P«fiiiKv< «Mi/AcHtklAit mlmfitr» »f th fm* 
ira;. fi;jk/ClKOPATKA. j'^v r^( /rni^f ta rv^^ait^ 

farfiteé tÎM, ariji.ti al Jtixj»Jtîa. lu^ir' Ar <i iafvmi y 
bit Atih, vtL'iib itt^tni le îamtMl' Ut tnJt^'^iii-i l^ .-•.tt- 
tiU ibi Irtllxr ckJ fi^<r, niid fvf thM ^u - 
Clgoi' AT LA, ef •u.hâifi Ju Jtia itttmti <--■ 
aamoliwÊt arijt ai ALxamdria, ainl ftiKrtil ■' . 
ia-wtrnttSry/liafuaBj OM-tAlt'itr«*/'i, t. ■ 
lavt aJuKjt 3\e^i tb* aixami^t, yiv >*»;, •■ i^r--f im 
drattmcd ta Ai»g ofitr a Jia-^ht, ail Eg)f€ /af^i It ' 
Casah. Ht Jftt Ct.EorAT*tK, •aith.ètf jtuxgtr èruhir, 
uptn tilt itretif, lUiJrtMrMi 1» Rnat. ' 

(*.) T ITTLE il knonnof it« hcpinnîng of Cleofaw'j 

I j anJ hcr brothct'i rdrn. Tiiat {iriiicc was 1 uitiui^ 

uudcTihe iliition of Tothitii» tbccuaocli, aad of AchilLutW 

general of hit xrniy. Thofe two mlniitsn, ao doubf, u tn- 

frofi »JI jfTaîrs to ilitfinfilws, had lîoptivtil Clc<>fati», in dw 
Ine'^ narns, of ihc Ih«re in tlii; fnveic!gnty Iclï her by tin 

wiir«f Aulctes. Injured in tlilj inannc/, flur wcot intoSjnw 

and P^cftine, to rairc troopii in tbofv couniriet> in c 
*nbr( her rigftt! by force of ^rms. 

It wa* exaâly at thi> ctwjonftureof the diflvmice bciwcen 
the brother MnJ (ifttt, thai P<nnpcy, after Itarîcg lop'l^ 
btiitic of Pharfnll.1, fled to Egypt ; cunccit'tuc, ih.itli< i>iOiild 
find there an open and alTcirco ;ir}lvni in nil iiù>foiiuito!. 
He had teen (he proiefliir of Aulctcj, the fâiiier nj tnr 
rcÎKningkiiig, and it wai folely to hii credit hcwaa îndekicî 
for his rc-caiibtlOimcnt. i-lc tvflt in hoprs nf Ëtidîu]^ itir Ilti 
grftteful, and of being powttfiilly .1l^lit'^i liy hi«i. Wboi 
he Arrived, Ptoletny wm upon ihccoill wi[hlii« army, betMt?n 
Pelufium nod mount C.-tfiU). and Cleupiio at ao grta: 
diAancc, ai the hea^I of hcr troops alfo. Ptunpc)'. <*» ip- 
proaching ihe coaft, fmr to Ptolemy tç detcvid pctnt'Siim to 
land, anJcnKrhukinedom. 

The two mlnlAcrs, Poihlnai aud Achilla), confulud with 
Thcodotu», Ihc thetorican, the young kiug'i pncccpur, and 

r ,J^ 'iJiMtA.-'y. (-..I A.M. MS*. ABt-i C.««..4jD^L 

^^^B-4«4. CxCileDd.CiT.l.iii, Di«. 1. iUi.r>aa«— i«k ^^^H 

OF EGYPT. i;;y 

/ith fomc othcn, what anfwcr tficy (lioiiri make; Pomj>cy, 
n the mean timo, waited the refult of that council, ami clioff" 
aihcT to exporchimfclftolhc ik'cilion of the thre»r imw')rihy 
ïcrfoiis that governed the prince, to owe his lahty ta 
JiL'f'ir, whv^ was his father-in-law, and the p,reatclt of ihr 
i^omans. Thih council differed in opinion ; foine were for 
•ecciviiig him, otheri for iiaving him told to feck a retreat 
flff'.vhere. Theodotus approved neither of thefe methods, 
and difplaying all hib eloquence, underioolc to demonllr.ite, 
that there wai. no other choice to be made, than that of ri«l- 
ding the world of him. His reafon war, her lufe if ih»:y re- 
ceived lïim, Cscfar would never forgive the h iv'ntr aflilleil hi", 
enemy : if they fent liim away v/ithout aid, and aHair-. fhoiiM 
take a turn in hij» favour, he would not fail t«) reven;;*' hiinfrlf 
upon them for their refufal. That iherefon? there was no f> 
curity for them, hut in putting him to d'.-ath, hy which mf am 
they would gain Ca'fu's iriendiliip, and prevent th*" »^th'T 
from ever doing them any hurt : for, faid he, according; to th<; 
proverb, Dead men do net ///i-. 

This advice carried it, a*? being, in their fenf;, the wifc/l 
and moll fafe. Septimus, a Romnn oflicer in the fi rvice ^i 
the king of ^''gypt, and fcnne others, were charged with pui- 
tinjç it into execution. They went to take J'ompey on hoard 
a flullop, under tlic pretext th.^r great velfeh cou'd not ap-- 
proach the Hiore without difficulty, 'i'hc troops were drawn 
up on the fea-fide, n.i with defij-n to do honour to Pompey, 
with Ptoieniy at tlieir htud. The prrfldioip; Septimus ten- 
dered hii hind to Pompey, in the nami* of his maflcr, and 
bade him conie to a king, hi.s friend, vyhom h''ou:^ht to regard 
a& his ward and fon. Pompey then embraced hi-î wife Cor- 
nelia» who wau already in tears for his death ; and afrrr 
having repealed thcfe verfe.s of Sophocles, K'ucn man that 
enttrs th-: court ofn tyrartt hi\'ori:s his JI'"Vi j thnup^h fvcc hrf\rcy 
hr vvc'.t into ih" fiiallop. W};en t'lcy fi'.v IfumJelve.', nenV the 
^ivv^t the/ n.'il»l;'<l lîl.n hcfo:-; the .''i:.,-'- ''y'"*i, cut off l-.if, 
h"'. !, aiiil threw hi', luidy up .n iJ.r •}■.•. i«i'I, wh"re it had no 
o:V. r fiiîMT.d îî-.'iii ■•■. h.."'. '■■■.'■ <'f hi' U\'->\^\.*\\ /«.ive i", v.'th 
I*--: .if.'iil iiic" of an <»'■! '■•■ i.c, v.'." •.'..■■. ti.sie i:v c'l::»'»', 
'i'h y -i'ir.d h'i'i a v.i-i-.hed f :.'ei;'' j.-'c, ;ind f ovcre-; j,;ni 
V. !î'. \ •:,•: f'ri'.-i;ient , r)^ :in el.l v/ie('., liui ha. \r.v\\ dri'/en 
aHi ■:■■ T- -i". 

Crîil!'. ill 1 f'.- n P'Mr.ney ir'fl'irreii b'-for'* lier eve-., ft 
i' e ■■.!'|. I ? I 1 I , -ii' ■ ; '. ■ «o-. îiiin:. r.;' :i v/nni.)ii in tlic h' i"h' "f 
^fiii f fr» 'r\ ii 'I ■;. I ,. I orjv» tiitri to d'^lcr'!»;" it. Tlio!" 
^^1.-; -.Vi; i:i ii.Vj^:».' /, .:■ I i.i iwj otî.vr iliir. in e'::i]).«7 

\.'i-. ii 


with it, miàe the toaA t^toand with tKc cnci ihty rACei, ind 
wcighlns uAchor i» mediately, (et (ulhtfcn tkewinJ, whiclk 
blcwftcSi at ibon u ihoy^got out tofoa: ihb prttrcnted At 
£^yptiauii wha ivn« gettiKg nftdf to chai.c ihcn), from put- 
foiag their dcfign. 

CbJât Diftde ill poffible haSe to siriw tn Zgyft, whStlirrKe 
fufpoABil Pompcy nail retiredi and wbm: he wu In iiajiet ^ 
Anaing him alivr. Tkit he niighl be liirrc the lÎMoerr be car- 
nal vti7 few traofi kiiIi hioi i titil; 600 hf>r(e. and jioo 
foot. lie left the reft of Hii armv iji Greece and AlU Mnor, 
riDdcr hit lintcnaai-gcflcraU. with ontcn to maltc all tht 
•dvaniajM of hi) -rtoary it woold odmii. and to cflJiblUk Ui 
autbonty in all tbofecouBtrîei '. At fnr hit per&Mli GOft- 
idieg in hit reputation, and the futedjcf Hi* atnu at I'hai- 
fclia, and reckoning all placn fecuie fut hiin, he mode M- 
(cni^Jc 10 land at AKxandria wiilr the lew people he hl^ 
He wu very nich paying dear for hu temerity. 

Upon hit arnval he uasinfarmcd of Pompe/i death, tnd 
icuad the city in great coofufioii. Tlicodotut, tcUcvIag ht 
Aiould do hitn an excccdio{; plr^fnrt, pre&atcj him the 
hradnf that illuOnoiu fugitive. He wept at tedng it, soi 
turned away Ills «yn from a fprfbdc ih^i gave hus hnrtor. 
He even canftd it to be inietrud ivitli allihenrual fRlinmiiir!. 
And ihc belter to cxptefi his cflcca toi I'timpcy, Vtl tii-; ir- 
fptit he iidd for iiit memory, he ccceived with great kind- 
ncft, and luaded with favoon, all ohu had adhcrrd 10 taiB 
thon in Efivpt ( aad wrote to kit incndi at Rome, that dw 
kighcA aud moA grateful ad^oanujc of hit viOnrv. wai v 
ini every day tome oeiv occaiioit to orcfenrc tit i!ici, and 
do tcri-icr» to fomccitixeni, whuhod bdiite ai; 1 

The cominotiont iuueufed c*rry day a» A ' 
abuniÎBDce of muidcN wen-committed there , 
Acillier law nor gtivtniincnt, beuufc wtlunii a I 
Bcfcnviag that the ûnall ncmbcr of inM|u wiik Li;n tm 
at ftombciBff faftuent toawc an lofolcnt au (èdiiioui pcpu- 
Jtac. gavcorwn for Uw Icgiou be hwl in A/u to march 
ihiiher. itwu nm in hit powei 10 leave Rg>'ft, beuofe of 
lie BidUn wiadt, which in that country blow ccniûiully in 
■he diw-dayi, and pirvcni all vclEcli frcm iiuîtting Alnan- 
driai tnofV wiadt are then alway* full nom. Not tn IuCb 
àm«r he drmaoded ibc payment t>f the ntoncj dsc to hua 
from Aolcm, and took cugnlzaooc of the AffcrcncebetWtxB 
Ptolemy andMililUr Cleopatra. 

i twai wMMSbJ 

o F E G y p T. ijr 

^e have feen» that when Cxiar was conful for the BtH 
kC, Auhtes had gained him, by the promife of 6oeo talents, 
i by that means had afTured himfelf of the throne, and 
?n declared the friend and ally of the Romans. The king 
d paid him only a part of that fum, and had given him an 
ligation for the remainder. 

Cscfar therefore demanded what was unpaid, which he 
inttrd for the fubliftenee of his troops, andexaéled with rigour, 
ithinus, Ptolemy's tirft minifter, employed various (Iratagcms 

make this rigour appear dill greater than it really was. 
e plundered the temples of all the gold and filver to be 
and in them, and made the king, and all the great perfons 
' the kingdom, eat out of earthen or wooden veflêls ; infi- 
lating underhand, that Cxfar had feized upon all their 
Iver and cold plate, in order to render him odious to the 
jpalace by fuch reports, which did not want appearance, 
lODgh entirely groundlefs. 

But what finally incenfed the Egyptians againft Cflrfar, and 
lade them at laft take arms, was the haughtinefs with which 
e afledas judge between Ptolemy and Cleopatra, in caufin^ 
len to be dted to appear before him for thedecifion of their 
ifference. We ihall loon fee upon what he founded his au*- 
riority for proceeding in that manner. He therefore decreed 
1 fbrm» that they (hoald difl)and their armies, fliould appear 
od plead theircaufe before him, and receive fuch fentenee at 
tc ihould pafs between them. This order was looked upon in 
Lgypt aa a violation of the royal dignity, which being inde- 
«lufeott acknowledged no fuperior, and could be judged by 
K) tribunal. Cxfar replied to thefe complaints, that he a£ted 
mlv in virtue of being arbiter by the will of Auletes, who 
lia pat his children under the tuition of the fenate and people 
)f Rome, of which the whole authority then vefted in nis 
ytrfotif in quality of conful. That as guardian, he had a 
ight to arbitrate between them ; and that all he pretended 
0, as executor of the will, was to eflablifli peace between 
he brother and fifler. This cxplanniion h.iviin» fnrilit;ited 
:hc aft'alr, it w:is at length broujrht before C;cfiir, and advo- 
:atcs were chofcn to plead the crnirr. 

But Clcopitra, who knew Carfar's foible, believed her pre- 
encc would be more perfuafivc than any advocate iho could 
rmploy with her juJpc. She caufed him to be told, that flic 
[>crceived' that thnU: (he employed in her bthalf betrayed 
tier, and demanded his per mi {lion to appear in per/bn. 
Plutarch fiys it was Caliir himfelf who pi/rflcd her to come 
ind plead her caufc. 


^fP^^ THE HrsTOR^ 

That princefs took nobody with h«r, of al! her (r 
but Vt pollOiloni» iho Sicilian, got îoiaa little boat, ai 
rived ai ihc btMiom of the walls of tiit: citadel or Alexa 
when it wa.s t^wtc Aatk at iiighr. Finding that ihcte w 
means of entering without being knoivn, Ihe thought « 
liratagem. She l.iid hei-felf at leagili iti the miditof a li 
of clathci. Apollcdori)^ irrepc it up in > cloth, tùd 
with a thong, and in thjit manner c.vriei it through thi 
of the ciiadel to Cacfiir's apattmeui, who was ftr from 
(Klplcafed wiih theKratagcm. The liril fieht of fo bca 
a per&n had all the eficél opon him Ihc hÂi delired. 

Cxliu fert the next day for Ptolemy,.wtd ptettèd lûm ti 
her azain, and be reconciled with htr. Piolcmy faiv p 
that hu judge was become his ndverfarr. and hiving 
that his filler was then in the palace, nnJïn Cxfir'sDwii] 
sent, he (jutttcd it in the uimolt fiu^-, and in theoMB 
took the diadem off his head, true it to piccet, and tK 
on the ground ; crying oac, with his bee batlieid is 
dtat he was betrst'nl, And relatinp the cirCumftancea f 
Dinltitudc who :ifieiab1ed roand hitn. In a moment Ùke< 
city was in motion. He put himfdf at the heid of the] 
lace, and led ihrm on iiimnlîuotilly to charge Czfar m 
the fury natural on f«ch oceafions. 

TheRoman foldier!, whom C-.cfi^rhAiI wilfc faiai, it 
the perfon of Ptolemy. Dut as all tlic rcA, wbo'knei 
thing of wh»t paffed, were difpcrfrd in the fevwal «{o 
of that great city, CaifurbadinfilUibly been orerpowercd 
»orn to pieces by that furioag populace, if he had HM 
the prefence of mind to (hew himfdf to thcnv from a p 
the pahce. To hi^h. that he hud nnthine to fear una 
I'r«m hence heutTuied then, that they wonld be folly fal 
with ilicjitdgmem he fhould psfs. 'Thofcptomlfea3|p]| 
the Egyptians a little. 

The nocc dajr In brought out Ptolemy and Cleopatra 
ao ailêmbly ol the peopk, fummMii^ by hit order. 
lUving cauled the will tif tHe late Icing to bo read, he dec 
a* tutor «lid arbitrator, that Ptok-my and Cleopatra t 
reign join'ty in Epvpt, affording to the immt of ibat 
nd tlwt Piolem»' iho yoiin)(M foq, and Arfinoe ibn. ym 
daaghiet-, (liiiuld reign inCypr». He added the laft^a 
(onnpcnru ili4 people ; fi>T it-wai parely a pit be mwlat 
atilic Rntnani «tcre a^tuMlyin poneSioB ot thai iflaud. 
kc finuvd the etFeete of tlue Atncandrian^ fury j «nd to < 
cate liimfcir out of danger, waj the rcafon of hi\ an 
Out concciEoc. 

G F T. G Y ? T. i.^j 

The whole world were fati-sficcl and charmed with this 
except only Pothinus. As it was he who had occ;;- 
the orcach between Cleopatra and lier broîhcr, and 
mlilon of that princefs from the throne, he hud reafoii 
chcnd, that the confequences of tliis accominodatioiv 
prove fatal to him. To prevent the eileit of Cx'far's 
he infpired the people v/ith new fuhjc^is of jealoufy 
content. He gave out, that Cxfar had only granted 
crce by force, and through fear, which would not long 
; and that his true defign was to place only Cleopatra 
lie throne. This was what the Egyptians exceedingly 
not being able to endure that a woman iliould govern 
lone, and have all authority to herfelf. When he faw 
c people came into his views, he made Achillas ad> 
at the head of the army from Pelurium, in order to 
Jacfaroutof Alexandria. The approach of that army 
. things into the jr Aril con fufion. Achillas, who had 
) good troops, defpifedCxfar's fmall number, and be- 
he fliould overpower him immediately. But Caefar 
his men fo well in the flrccts, and upon the avenues of 
uter in his poiTeflion, that he found no difHculty in 
ting their attack. 

:n they faw they could not force him, they changed 
leafuresy and marched towards the porter with deiign 
ice themfclvcs mailers of the ilcet, to cut oft* his com*- 
itlon with the fea, and to prevent him, in confequcncc, 
sceiving fuccours and convoys on that fide. But Cxfar 
fruflratcd their dcfign, by caufing the Egyptian fleet to 
on fire, and bypoffeinnghimfelfof the tower of Pharos, 
he garrifoned. By this means he preferred and fecured 
nmunication with the fea, without which he had been 
eiFcdtually. Some of the vcflels on fire came fo near 
ay, that the flames catched the neighbouring houfeii, 
/hence they throughout the whole (juarter, call-.-d 
on. It was nt tlii.^ time the famous library w:is con- 
, which h:ul been the work of fo in:iny k'nigs, ami ii» 
tliere were 400,000 volume:;. What a loll, was lliis n> 
ire I 

;ir,. fecrin;* fo dan(|:(.'rous a war upon hi-^ hiiiuls, fcnt IvAc- 
i\v'i'fi}ihimni\tr count lie; J'ur aid. Me wiole, aiiioji^j(?: 
, toDomitius Calvinus, wliom Ik* had left to L(>inniaiid 
I Minor, and il^Miitu-'d to him hi.'> dan^x'r. Tliai ;',c;i(:rai 
liately di:! ached tvvo legion.s, llie one by biiul, and the 
jy fea. wliitli went by lea arrived in lime; llic 


(a J A. M. 5^3 3' ^"l- J- ^^ 47» 


other, ihii m.-trched by land, did not ip tbiilicrat all. Bef«n 
it hid Rot ihere the wRr wnn itt nn end. But C«rar m» bdt 
lervcd by Mithii<3at«« the Peigamentan, whom he Ceat bio 
Syria ana Cilicia. For he brought him the troop) which nt- 
tficatcd him out of danger, ns wc Ihal) Tee in the lie(|uel. 

Whitll he wailed the sidi he had tent for, that he miotic 
cot lîeht an army To fuperior ^n number (ill he thought fit, he 
caufed the <ju!irtcr in his poiTcffioti to be Toittfied. He tui- 
roundrd it with walls, anfl flmitcd it with t™»ei-* nnd otVr 
worlct. Thole linn inclndei! the nnlace, a theatre very bvk 
it, which he made ule of as a citadel, und the way that led ta 
the port. 

I'lolemy nil tWi while was inCirftr's hnndt; am) PoOitaiu, 
his gtivemor and firft miniflcr, who was of intettigencc wiift 
Aihilhi, p»vc him advice of all that pafftd, and eiicmirngnl 
him to paSi the fiejte with vigowr. One of hi» Inter» wai tt 
hit intercepted, and hi* ttèafon being thereby dtfccmrrd, 
Cxfar ordered faim to be put to death. 

Canymedcj, another eunuch of the palace, who edircind 
Arfinoe the yoonjîcft of the kinc'« fiflen, apprehending- lbs 
fame fiite. bcoiule he had fliwedin that trcaloa, carviod vS 
the yonng princefs, and cfcaped into thp c;iiiip of theF.oy^ 
tians I who not tln^^ng, IÎ1I then, any of the royal ftimt'Sy at 
thdr lead, were dverjoyed at her jweftitc*. and rrocloiraed 
her qne^n. Bot Utnymedea, who entertained t^oaghb of 
fupnfanttni; AthiITu», caafed tîiat genmi. to be Rcni'«d of 
baring ^en up the (<eet to Ccfnr t nil had been let on E re by 
tlie Roman», which occnfionetl thai geneml't bcinv pnt n 
death, anij the command of the army to be- (wniierml to 
him. He took alfo upon him the adminlfl ration of all oifetj 
affain j and undotibtedly did «ot twtnt capirity fir'r the eic. 
ploviiii-nt of a prtme-miniliei-, probity only cscep.ted, which 
II often reckoned little ot tto <^uaUlicatioa. For he had all 
the neceflarv penetration and «âivity, nnd contrivad a tboq- 
~fiiad artful itraragctni to dilhcfi Cwur daring thr coDttuttMl 
of thii war. 

For inAanre, he fn^ind meanj tu fpoïl all the ftelb waitr in 
hit (Quarter,, nai wat very nfar dcfttoyinj; htm by that ateani- 
For there was no Dtbcr frelh v<aiCT in Alexandrin, but thai of 
the Nile. " In «tery boulé \<Kte vaulted referroin, wfi«t« it 
wat kept. Every year, upon the great fwell nt the Nile, ihc 
water of that river came in by a canal, which had been rut for 
that ufe, and by a (loice, made on porpofe, wu tstaed Lntn 

O F E G Y P T. 141 

;ulted refervoirs, which were the cifterns of the city» 

it greu^ clear by degrees. The matters of houfcs and 
âmilîes drank of this water ; but the poorer fort of peo- 
iTt forced to drink the running water» which was muddy 
sry unwholefome ; for there were no fprings in the city. 

caverns were made in fuch a manner» that they all had 
unication with each other. This provifion of water 

for the whole year. Every houfe had an opening» not 
\ the mouth ot a \yell, through which the water was 
up either in buckets or pitchers. Ganymcdes caufed all 
mmunications with the caverns in the quarters of Caefar 
lopt up ; and then found means to turn the fea- water 
lie latter» and therebv fpoiled all his frefh water. As 
s they perceived that the water was fpoiled» Csfar's {oU 
made fuch a noife, and raifed fuch a tumult» that he 

have been obliged to abandon his quarter» vtry much 

difadvantage, if he had not immediately thought of 
ng wells to be funk» where, at laft» fprings were founds 
iupolied them with water enough to make them amends 
It which wnfi fpoiled. 

:r that» upon Csefar's receiving advice» that the legioa 
lias had fent by fea was arrived upon the coail of Libya, 
was not very diiUnt, he advanced with his whole fleet 
voy it fafcly to Alexandria. Ganvmedes was apprized 
If and immediately aii'embled all tne Egyptian mips he 
get», in order to attack him upon his return. A battle 
y eiifued between the two fleets. Caefar had the ad^ 
;e, and brought his legion without danger into the port 
xaadria ; and» had not the night came on» the fliips of 
emy would not have efcaped. 
repair that lofs, Ganymcdes drew together all the (hips 

moQths of the Nile» and formed a new fleet» with 
he entered the port of Alexandria. A fécond a^on was 
dable. The Alexandrians climed in throngs to the tops 

houfes next the nort to be ipeftators of the fight, and 
ed the fuccefs witn fear and trembling ; lifting up their 
to heaven, to implore the aiTillance of the gods, I'hc 
the Romans was at llakc» to whom there was no rcfourcc 
f they loll this b.itile. Cxfiir was again viftorious. 
hodians, by their valour and (kill in naval affairs, coii- 
d exceedingly to this vi^^tory. 

ar» to makrt the bell of it, endeavoured to fei/.c the ifle 
ros, wJiert' he landed liis troops after the battle, and to 
himfelf of the mole, called the Heptalladion, by which 

joined to the continent. But after hiiving obtained 

6 fcveial 

^f^^m THE ft I s T o R 9^^^ 

ftwïl aivsiilngej, hewa* repu 1 fed with the lofi drifi» 
Boo men, and wn* very near falling himftlf in hU i 
For the (hip, in which lie had defigncd to get off, beiri] 
to fink with tivc nx) great number of people who hxà t 
itwitli him. lie threw hl:iiWf info the in, aad witli 
(tifficuliy Twain to the noit Ihip. Whilll lie wbi in i1 
lie held one hnnA above the w.iter, in Miich were pa 
cmil'equence, und Twain with the other, fithsit tliey ivi 

The Alejcandmrn, feeing lliat ill fuccef» îtrdf only 
to give L'»rat'« troop? new courage, ciitentun«d ihoo; 
tnAing pc»ce, or at («all dîllïmbied ftieïi a dHpoIinf"» . 
font deputies to demand tlieir Icing of him t itlTurinf 
that hn pretence nicne woi>ld put an end to all diflr: 
Cicrnr, who w«ll knew thcit fiAOe and deeritfu! ch* 
wai not at a loft to Tomprcliend their profeffions ; bu 
hazarded notliing in giving them up their king's perfo 
if they failed in their promifct, tlie fault would be e 
on ihcir fide, hethounlir it incumbent on him to jjiar 
demand. He exhorted tlie young prince to tttkc tite 

7« of thîî oppoftnnity to infptrC hi» fobjeft^ wlih fiml 
peace ïnd oqulty; to rcdrefs the mit, nitb wtiich 
Tcty imprudently «ndertjtfceo, difbefled his dominioi 
approve himfclf worthy of the confidence he repofcd i 
by giving him his liberty ; and to ihew Hi* craiinide 
ferviecs he had rendered his father. • I'twemy, ea 
flïuAod by his Riallera in the *n of difiimuUtioti and 
begged of C.efar, with tear» in hi* e^s,' not to depri 
tff Ills preCunctf) which was a much ^nMor fwiffaftion 
thnn to reign oi-er others. The lequel fuannplaici 
much llncertiy there was in thofc tear» and profefljont of 
He Wat no fooner at the head of his iroopi, than he n 
kofiiliticK with more vigour than ever. The K.gypiit 
de.-ivonred, by the mean» of their fleet, to cue off i 
provifiout entirely. This oceiUioncd a new light ac fi 
Canopui, in which C.-^fsr was ngnin viAoHoi». Wh 
battle wAt fonght, Mithrïdatei of Peignmus wm up 
point of arricing willi tke mny, wbïcA he wai bripj 
die aid of Ca-far. 
firj He had be«n fcntloto Syria anil Cittàxo 

{ij Joreph. Aatîq. 1. lii. (, 14 k ij. 

* Rcfiui tnimui dlfuplinii /*)- I nan tiùm i£(n>im 

ticilTlmutciudinii, ac j (tniii fun I (ttUn C>riiiitû( , 

atuilA)i(l(ti'n*t*nt> fi*nt^>it toil- I Jt Btik jUtut 

^^àCmltttin cwj'ii, D( ft dïmilleitt 1 | '■> — 

O F K G Y I' T. 145 

îliC trcH">p> he couKK :"nd to in;irch lliciii to I'l-'vpt. IL' a,.-- 
quicccd himl'cit' of liis cou: million wiili liich iiili^»cnco ,111 J 
prudence, that he h:ul Toon formed a toiifidcrablc ai my. An- 
tipatcr, thj ldum;oan, contribnted very much towards it. 
rie had not only joinc»! him with 3000 Jcv/b, but tn^ajroJ 
fcveral ncighbouriu:^ princc.-i of Arabia and Cu:h)iyria to ll*nd 
kiin troops. M ith ridâtes, with An tipatcr, who iiccompaniod 
him in pcrfon, marcK^d into Hgypt, and upon aniving before 
Pclufium, they carried that place by llorm. 'I'hey were in- 
debted principally to Antipater's bravery tor the taking of thi^* 
<ity. For he was the firll tliat mounted the breach, and ^ot 
upon the wall, and thereby opened the way for thofc who 
followed him to carry tbc<ovvn. 

On their rontc from thence to Alexandria, it was nccefTary 
to pafs throiij^h the country of Onion, of which the Jews, 
who inhabited it, had fei/ed all the paiTcs. 'i'he army was 
there put to a lland, andiheir whole deiign was upon the point 
cf mifcarrying, if Antipatcr by his credit and that of Hyr- 
canas, from whom he brought them letters, had not engaged 
ihem to efpoufe Ciefar's. party. Upon the fpreadinir ot that 
ne\i-s, the Jews of Memphis did the fame, and Mithridates 
Rceived /rem both all the provifions his army had occafion 
for. When they were near Delta, Ptolemy detached a flying 
army to difputc tke pafTage of the Nile with them. A battle 
«as fought in confequencc Mithridates put himfelf at the 
head of part of his army, and gave the command of the other 
CO Antipater. Mithridates's wing was foon broke, and obliged 
to give way ; but Antipater, who had defeated the enemy on 
his ilde, came to his relief. The battle began afreili, and 
the enemy were defeated. Mithridates and Antipater purfued 
them, imide a great {laughter, and regained the Held of battle. 
They took even the enemy *s camp, and obliged thofe who 
remained to efcape, by repafling the Nile. 

Ptolemy then advanced with his whole army, in order to 
overpower the vidors. Ce far alfo marched to fupport them ; 
»nd a*» foon :is he had joined them, camedircdly to a decilivc 
battle, in which he obtained a conipleat virtory. Ptf^lemy, 
in endcav(»iirin^ to crcape in a boat, w;is drowned in the iNile, 
Alevand'-ia, and all '\i;ypt, fubmilted to the viclor. 

C'.eiar returned to Alexandria about the middle of January ; 
and not findini; any farther oppofition to his orders i^ave the 
ctO'.vn of Kgypt to Cleopatra, in eonjundion with Ptolemy 
hfr other brother. This was in elFed giving it to Cleopatra 
alone ; f )r that younj^ prince was only eleven years old. The 
paiTwn which C«:fiir hud conceived for that priuceù was pio- 



,44 T H E H I S T O R Y ^ 

r iitt fole cniifc of hb cmbarldnir in To dangtroos i 
loj tiy her one fan, called Cfcfario, tvhcim Au^fiu»i 
to DC put to deaili when he becnme matitr of Alexi 
Hit afttrCticii fur Clcop-itra kept him mucli longer in , 
than hii affftiis required. For ciioiigh every thiD|; wjut 1 
in thu kkngdom by the end of January, he did not U 
till tbe end of AprlC iccording to Appun, whofnyi he: 
there uine inoiitni. He arrived tlicre ooiy xbout the a 
July the year bclbrc. 

fcj Ciefar parted «-hole nights in fuelling with Clw: 
Hftving embarked with her upon the Nile, he catHc 
througn the wliolc country witn l> nonieruui fleet, luid \ 
have pcnetriicd into Ethiopia, if hii Army'not rcfui 
fnllow him. He had refolved to hâve her brought to C 
and CO marry her ; and intended to have caurext a law ti 
ill the aCembly of the people, by which the citizees of ] 
Ihould be permitted to marry fach, and m many wives ai 
ihnueht fit. Marias Cinna, the tribune (if tlie people 
clared, after hia death, that he had prep.irod an liarangii 
order lo propofe that law to the people, not being al 
refufc his ciflires to the carneft foUintaiioa of Ca;fhr- 

He carried Arfinoe, wliom he had taken in thii wi 
Rome, and fhe walked in hb triumph in t^haini of gold 
inuncdiutely after that fak-mnity he fet lier it libcriy*. 
did not permit her, faoitrvcr, to reiutn into Rsypr, Id 

firefcnee fhould Ofcafiun new tronblet, and frulUaie the 
utions he had made in thnt kincdum. £he chofe the pro 
of Afiaforherrefidence: At Icallitwai there Anton; foun 
after the bactUof Fhilippi, and caufcd her to be pat toi 
St the infttgation of her filler Cleopatra. 

Before he left Alexnndrta, Ca-far, in eratîtode (at llu 
he had rec«ved from the Jew», caufed all the privileges 
enjoyed to he confirmed ; and ordered a column to be en 
on which, by hii command, all thofe privileges were engi 
with the decree of confirming them. 

/t/J What at length made him quit Egypt wai the 
with Phamacei, king of the Cimmerian Bolphorui, ju» 
of Mitliridntcs, the Tall king of i'ontui. He fousht a | 
battle with him near the city of ' '/.eh, deCented bt» v 
army, and drove him oat of the kingdom of Pontiu. 
denote the rapidity of hi» conqnt;^, iu writing to one a 
fnendi, he m;ide afs of only thclê three wordf, frmi, 
«tVJ; that tit« fay, I t»mi, t/uiti, ] na^Mrtd. 

if) laft.tftJ.Cef. t. ii. c, %t, {fi V\Mikt<:^ f,7jt 


^^-' \ ' — ^'*' -;i 'i 

O P E G Y P T. [4Ï 

cau/tj btr ytuig krether lo hi fut U 
: The litaib e/ Julius CitsM 
far iht iriumvirnti fùfmid btl-wfen An- 
and young Cjesml, tallid al/o OcTA-' 
, drtiaret hirfelf ftr tht truimvirt. She 
Tar/ui, g-aias at ab/olute é^ctndani evrt* 
Biid brings him tviih her to AUxandria. Antomt 
tiu IB Rtmt, inbtrt be efpoiifei Octavia. Hi ebandtia 
kim/e If again (o Cli opatha. and afltT fami ixttdiliitm tt* 
iirtii t» Âlexaiideïa, ivbitb hi emtri in triumph. Ht ihtrg. 
<fUiralii iht tireHtainH ùf ClbOpatha end hrr thildren.. 
Oftn rupturi btliiitiH CjK»a» «jh/Antony. the talffy 
Hpudittct OCTAVIA. Tht l-V/0 fifttt put to /ta, Ci.«orA- 

T»A dtiirmiKti U ftikiu Antony. B«iilt »f JSlitm. 
. CiBopATSA ^iti, and drattj Antony ti/ltr hir. (J/r.- 
'*«'/ vi^laiy il (o/upUat. iU adiianai famt timt i^ir againfl 
Alisaudria, ivbith inakei no long re/iflanct. Traînai diatb 
if Antokv and Ci-eopatra. Egypt ii rtdactd inlt H 
privina eftbt RomsM empire. 

~»j7lSAR, after ihc war of Alexandria, had ice CleopMrx 
^ upon the throne, and. for form oiUj-, had aflbciated her 
whcr with bu', who at that lirae wai only eleven year« of 
■c. During liis minority, all power wag in her hands. 
ij When he stlained his fifteenth year, which wai iha 
TIC when, aceording to the laws of (he country, ho wan t<» 
■vera forhimfdf, andhavea ihirein the royal authority, fha 
nlbncd him, and remained fole queen of Egypt. 
In ihit interval Co^far had been killed at Rome by the con- 
inton, at the head of which were Brutus and CalTius ; and 
C uiumvir.ite between Antotiy, Lepidui, and OfUviua 
KÛr, had been formed, to avenge the death of Cacfar, 
(ij Cleopatra declared herfelf without befitaiion for the 
.umvirs. She gave Albïenus, the conful DolabelU'i lieu- 
nant, four legions; which were the remains of Pompey's 
d CraiTiig's armies, and were part of the troopi Csfar had 
R with her for ihe guard of Egypt. She had alfo a fleet in 
adincfj for failing, but prevented by ftormi from felting 
t- fl) Caffiui made himfelf maftcrof ihofe four Icgionj, 
4 rrctjuentlyfollicited Cleopatra for aid, which f1iea»often 
^ifed. She failed foroc time after with a numerous fleet, to 
Vol. Vlll. H join 

yjA. M.J9(|. Am. I.e. 4]. Joriph.Antii]. I. iv. c. 1. Pi 
MHt. (.) Appl»ii. 1. lii. p. s7*. 1. iv. |i. «ij. 1. T. f. 6tj 

m^U. »(i. Ani.J. C.4t, 


146 T H E H I s T O R Y 

join Antony and O^lavius. A violent ftorm occafione 
lot's of .1 great number of her (hips, and falling (Ick, fl; 
obliged to return into Egypt. 

(fl) Antony, after the defeat of Brutus and Cailius i 
bairlc of Philippi, having pafTed over into Afia, in on 
ctlablKh the ;uithority of the triumvirate there, the \ 
prince?, and ambafladors of the Eall, came thither in th 
to make their court to him. He was informed, that û 
vcrnors of Phœnicîa, which was in the dépendance ( 
kingdom of Egypt, had fent Cailius aid againft Doia 
He cited Cleopatra before him, to anfwer for the condi 
her governors ; and fent one of his lieutenants to oblige . 
come to him in Cilicia, whither he was going to alTemb 
flates of that province. That ftep became very fatal t< 
tony in its effets, and occafioned his ruin. His lo> 
Cleopatra having awakened paflions in him, till then 
ccalcd or afleep, inflamed them even to madnefs, and I 
<leadened and extin^uifhcd the few fparks of honour and 
he might perhaps (fill retain. 

Cleopatra, afTurcd of her charms, by the proof flic h 
ready fo fucctTsfully made of them upon Julius Cwfar, > 
hopes that flic could alfo very eafily captivate Antony 
the more, becaufc the former had known her orly .wh< 
was very young, and had no experience of the world.; w 
flie was going to appear before Antony at an age w 
women, with the bloom of their beauty, unite the whoU 
of wit and addrefs to treat and conau£l the greatcd a 
Cleopatra was at that time five-and-twcnty years old. 
provided hcrfelf therefore with exceeding rich prcfcnts, 
l'uni» of money, and -cfpccially the moll magnificent 
and ornaments ; and witn ftill higher hopes in her attra« 
and the graces of her pcrfon, -more powerful than dn 
t\en gold, flic began her voyage. 

Upon her way Ihc received fevcral letters from A 
who was at Tarfus, and from his friends, prciHng her to 
her journey ; but flie only laughed at their inllances, an 
never the more diligence for them. After having crof] 
i'ea of Pamphylia, Inc entered the Cydnus,. and going v 
îivcr landed at Tarfus. Never was equipage more (y 
: lid magnificent than hers. The whole poop of he 
t'an^ed with gold ; the fails were purple, and lue oara 
with filver. A pavilion of cloth of gold was raifed uj- 
deck, under which appeared the queen, robed like ' 

(f) A. M. 5963. Ant. J. C. 41. Plut. în Anton, p. 916, 9x7. 
1. xlvlii. p. 371. Arpian. dc Bell. Civ, 1. v. p. 671. 

OF R G Y P •». uy 

Ind furrounJcd wîth the moll beautiful virpn.i of hrr Ciiurt, 
of whom fomc rcprcfcntcd the Nereids, and others the Crraccs» 
Inlkad of truiTipcts were heard flutes:, hautboys, harps, and 
ether Cuch inilrumcnts of mufick, waibling the foftdl airs» 
tn which the oarn kept time, and rendered ilie harmony nion: 

areeable. Perfumes burnt on the deck, which fpi cad tUcir 
ours to a great diilance upon the river, and on caih iidc of 
its banks, tnat were covered with an infinitude of people, 
whom the novelty of the fpei^Ucle had drawn thither. 

A» foon as her arrival wa.s known, the whole people of 
Tarfus went out to meet her; fo that Antony, who at that 
lime was giving audience, faw his tribunal abandoned by all 
the world, and not a Cn\Q\c pcrfon with him but his lidors and 
domefticks. A rumour was fpread, that it was the godilef's 
Venus, who came in mafquerade to make Bacchus a vifit for 
the eocKl of Afia. 

She wns no fooncr landed, than Antony frnl to compli* 
ne^ and invite her to funper. Hut (lie anfwered his deputies, 
tiiat ilie (l)ould be very glad to regale him hrrfelf, ami that 

branches, which had been difpofed with abundance of ait, 
and were fo luminous, that they made midnight feem agree- 
able day. 

Antony invited her, in his turn, for the next day. Hut 
whatever endeavours he had ufed to exceed her in his enter- 
tûnmcnt, hcconfeffed him felf overcome, as well in the fpJen- 
4ar as difpofition of the feall, and the firiV to rally the 
MffimoDy and plainnefs of hir. own, in comparifon with tlic 
famptuoiity nnu elegance vf Cleopatra's. The queeu, find- 
ing nothinfr but what was grofs in the plcafantries of Antony, 
and more exprejlivr of the fi^ldirr than the couriier, irpald 
him in iiis own coin ; but with fo nuuh wit and j'/aee, 
he was not in the Icall oiicnded at it. For the bcutticN and 
charms of hrr converfalion, attended with all pollilih: fwect 
aeff. and gaiety, had attnuMlon-. in them Hill more iirelifliMc 
than her form .ind features, and left fiich incentives in i!)» 
hr.irt, the vc-ry foiiJ, :is were not e;iilly eomrivaMc. I> »c 
charmed wiienever Oic b»it fpoke, fuih an»! hnum." / 
Were in her utterance and the very found nf Iut vnici». 

Little or no mention was made of the L-nniplalui : a^ainil 
Cltopatra, which were, beiide.;, withuui found. itinn. :^!ic 
UrucK Antony io violently with hçr charms, and V/^nril 1«» 

li z ^hlohiu: 



abfolute an afcendant over him, that he could refufe 1 
thing. It was at this time he caufed Arfinoe her fidei 
put to death, who had taken refuge in the temple of 
at Mclitus, as in a fccure afylum. 

(h) Great feafts were made every day. Some new t 
iljll outdid that which preceded it, and fhe feemed to i 
excel hcrfelf. Antony, in a feaft which fhe madi 
aHonifhcd at feeing the riches difplayed on all fides, an 
daily atthe great number of cold cups enriched with 
and wrought by the mod excellent workmen. She to! 
with a diulainful air, that thofe were but trifles, anc 
him a prefent of them. The next day the banquet v 
more fupcrb. Antony, according to cuftom, had bro 
;!:ood number of guefts along with him, all officers of ra 
diflinflion. She gave them all the veflels and plate c 
and Giver ufcd at the entertainment. 

Without doubt, in one of thefe feafb happened what 
•nd after him Macrobius, relate. Cleopatra jelled, ace 
to cuflom, upon Antony's table, as vtiy indifferently 
and inelegant. Piqued with the raillery, he aiked h' 
fome warmth, what fhe thought would add to its n: 
cence? Cleopatra anfwered coldly, that fhe could < 
* more than i ,ooo,coo of livres upon one fupper. He al 
that fhe only boafled, that it was impoflible, and that fli 
never make it appear. A wager was laid, and Plane 
to decide it. The next day they came to the banquet, 
i'ervice was magnificent, but had nothing fo very extraoi 
in it. Antony calculated the expencc, demanded 
<iuecn the price of the feveral difhes, and with an air 
Icry, as fecure of viftory, told her, that they were 
from a million. Stay, faid the queen, this is only a 
ning, I fhall try whether I cannot fpend a million onl 
myfclf. t A fécond table was brought, and, accon 
the order fhe had before given, nothing was fet on i 
fiiigle cup of vinegar. Antony, furprized at fuch a p 
tior, could pot imagine for >vhat it was intended. Ch 
had at her cars two of the finçll pearls that ever wei 
each of which wa£ valued at about ço,ooo pounds, 
thefe pearls flie took ofF^ .threw it int9 t tac vinega. 

* Ccntics /f-5. Hoc «ft ccntuM 
rcnrena millies fenertiîîm. JVhirh 
mmounttdto more than I,ooc,OCC tf li' 
tret, or 5 2 , 500 1 • fitr'ing . 

\ Tht mm'unts €béiii£ed tbt'ir taèiei ai 

(b) Athen. 1. iv. p. 147, 14S. 

X y'lfitimr tt of f9r.t f» 
barifefi tking*, Aceti fuccuj 
rcrum, miVIiny fujt cf il^ 
C. 3. Clu^tra lad t»t the ft 
invemtioH, Before, to the dt 
rtyaitjf tht Jon of a ^cmtiian 

...Thuvinp; miide it melt, fwallnw/ctt it. She wai pïepiring 
r do ai much by the other * ; I'lancui (lopped her, and, ile- 
tiiafi the wjiger in her favour, declared Antony overcome. 
MtBcun was much in the wronf^, lo envy the queen the fin- 
Viu nnd pceuHor glory of having devoured two millions in 

J('iV Aniony wai cmhroiled with Cirfar. Whilll his wifo 
ilvia WW vciT aftive at Roiiiv in fupporting hi» intererti',' 
nI the annjr of the Prtrthian» was upon the iioint of entering 
'ril. a» if thofe thingi did not concern Mm, he fultcrca 
ilfelf to he drawn away by Cleopatta to Alexandria, where 
2 pnlTed their lime in (^iimei, amufementi, and volup- 
lirneft, treating each other every day at cxceffive nnd ia- 
, diWc expenccs ; which may be judged of from the follow- 
k| tireumltance. 
**J A young Greek, who went to Alexandria to (ludy pJiy- 
[f upriii the great noife thofe thiAi made, had the curiolit}) 
ifTure himfclrwith hi> own tya about them. Having been 
nittcd into Antnny'i kiichirn, he fnw, amongft oiher 
11(1, eight wihl bourn rosliijig whole at the fame timr. . 
^S)nwhi(.-ti heexpreffed rorpriic at the great number of ITJiflt' 
t he fappofcd were to be ai tliij funptr. One of the omcert 
ltd not forbear laughing, and lolJtiïm, th;it iheyweiVDOt . 
imny BA he imagined, and that there could not bo above ' 
■ in ail : but timt it wai tietclTnry every thing (hould bs 
'cd tn a degree of perfeiHon, which every moment cciifcs 
I fjwili. " For," added he, " it often happens, that An- 
tony will order hin fupper, and n moment af^er forbid it 
to be ferved, having; entered into fomc converfntion that 
'dlvflTtt him. For that reafon not one but ranny fupper* lu* 
"jnovidcd, bec;inre it ia hnrd to knotv at what time he will 
Chink lit toent." 

Cleopatra, lc(l Antony Ihould efeape her, never IoH fight 
(felnii nor quitted him day or night, but wa» always em- 
Ird in diverting and retaining nim tn her chaint. She 
H i played 

,'A. M. '^it^ Ant. J, C. 40. [I) |>lui. !n Anton, f. 91g. 

tumt ''«J, ti'ii 'tin fwMtinA rnitli ittrm^ti, 

nUui /Lfopl I'airnOtin » tut» MikIIm, 
- Sriluti ut drrld roltddm cdorbmi, »ci<> 
^ PJittli Inflsnem bicom lt,r. 1. 1Î. B,i. j. 

JOb vttr firl Vf tfiami-di] i-i iniw.lnJlKitMitttKiiMfJiifi, 

JtMH M tu "<•" J"m ihM piitji. ■ 

éaJ ktvi-i iffht il II il I \ 

»50 T H E H I S T O R Y 

played with him at dice, hunted with him, and w 
cxercifed his troops was always prefenC Her fole at 
was to amufe him agreeably, and not to leave him i 
conceive the leaft diiguft. 

One day, when he was filhing with an angle, and i 
fiothing, he was very much difpleafed on that accoo 
caufe the queen was of the parn*, and he was unwil 
iireir to want addrefs or good fortune in her prefen 
therefore came into his thoughts to order £ihermen i 
lecretly under water, and to fallen fome of their larg 
to his hook which they had taken before. That ore 
executed immediafely, and Antony drew up his line 
times with a great fifh at the end of it. This artifice < 
Cicape the fair Egyptian. She affeôed great admirati 
furprize at Antony's good fortune ; but told her frici 
1 ate] y what had happened, and invited them to come t 
^ , ciay and be fpeélators of a like pleafantry. They c 

I ; iail. When they were all got into the âfliing-boat 

! ..Vnîony had thrown his line, ihe comnkandea one 

people to dive immediately into the water, to preve 
lony 's divers, and to make faft a large fal^ fifli, of the 
came from the kingdom of Pontus, to his hook. Whi 
lony perceived his line had its load, he drew op. It 
to imagine what a great laueh arofe at the fight of th 
iifh ; and Cleopatra faid to him, Lionje the Jtmi, gcad ^ 
-to us y the kings and queens of Pharos andCanopus : Tcur 
is to fijh for citiis^ kingdoms j and kings, 

Whilâ Antony amufed himfelf in thefe puerile fpo 
trifling diverfions, the news he received or Labienus 
^uefts, at the head of the Parthian army, awakened hi: 
his profound fleep, and obliged him to march againf 
i.i But having received advice, upon his route, of FuTvia's 

he returned to Rome, where he reconciled himfelf to 
Cxfar, whofe filler Odtavia he married ; a woman of 
ordinary merit, who was lately become a widow by th 
of Marcellus. It was believed this marriage would ma 
forget Cleopatra. (I) But having be^an his march 
the Parthians, his paflion for the Egyptian, which had 
thing of enchantment in it, rekinoled with more v 
than ever. 

(tr.) This queen, in the midll of the moft violent ] 

and the intoxication of pleafures, retained always a t; 

\. polite learning and the iciences. In the place where ft 


(Ï) A. M. 3065. Ant. J. C. 39. (m) A. M. 39(6. Aat. J 


OF EGYPT. fji 

imoas library of Alexandria, which had been burnt fome 
«an before» as we have obfervedy (he eredled a new one, co 
he aamientation of which Antony very much contributed, 
IV pretenting her the libraries of Pergamus, in which were 
LDOve 200jOoo volumes. She did not colbà books merely 
or ornament y (he made ufe of them. I'here were few bar- 
Mious nations to whom (he fpoke by an interpreter ; (he an- 
Twered moft of them in their own language ; the Ethiopians, 
Troglodyte, Arabians, Syrians, Medes, Parthians. (n) She 
cnev^befides feveral other languages ; whereas the kings, who 
)aA reigned before her in Egypt, had fcarce been able to learn 
ifae Egyptian, and fome of them had even forgot the Mace- 
Ionian » their natural tongue. 

Cleopatra, pretending herfelf the lawful wife of Antony, 
bw him marry 0£lavia with great emotion, whom (he looktd 
Bpon as her rival. Antony, to appeafe her, was obliged to 
make her magnificent prefents. He gave her Phoenicia, the 
bwer Svria, the ifle ot Cyprus, with a great extent of Cilicia. 
To the(e he added part of Judsea and Arabia. Thefe great 
prefeDts» which coniiderably abridged the empire, very much 
iSided the Romans, and the^ were no lefs offended at the 
Bceffive honours which he paid this foreign princefs. 

Two years pafled» during which Antony made feveral 
yoy M c s to Rome» and undertook fome expeditions againA 
dK rathxans and Armeniane, in which he acquired no great 

(•) It was in one of thefe expeditions the temple of Anatis 
was plundered, a goddefs much celebrated amongft a certain 
people of Armenia. Her (latue of maiTv gold was broke in 
pieces by the foldiers, with which feveral of them were con- 
fiderably enriched. One of them, a veteran, who afterwards 
6ttled at Bologna in Italy, had the good fortune to recei\'e 
Aaguftus in his houfe, and to entertain him at fupper. 7/ if 
trmtt faid that prince at table, talking of this (lory, that thi 
WUM litho madi the firft firoke at the ftatue of this goàdcfs ijoa s 
immediately depriiteâ of fight^ loft the ufe of his limbs y and ex- 
find the fame hour? If it ivere^ replied the veteran with a 
fmile, Ijfjotild Hit noiAj have the honour of feeing Augnftus beneath 
mj roof 9 being myjelf the rajh per f on 10 ho made the firft attack 
mfen her, ivhich has fince ftood me in great ftead. For if 1 have 
mmy thingf I am entirely indebted for it to the good goddefs ; upon 
§gf ofavhofe legs, even noixj, my lord, you are at fupper, 

H 4 (pj Antony, 

(m) Plut, in Anton, p. 927. (9) Plin. 1. xxxiii, c. 23. 



152 T H E H I S T O R Y 

(pj Antony, believing he h:ul made every thing 
in thofc countries, led back his troops. From his imp 
to rejoin Cleopatra, he hailened his march To much, nc 
(landing the rij^our of the feafon and the continual Hum 
he lod 8000 men upon his route, and marclicd into Ph 
with very few r>l!owers. lie reded there in cxpeéla' 
Cleopatra : and :u. (he was flow in coming, he fell into ai 
grief, and lanp^uiihmcnr, that vifihly preyed upon him 
arrived at length with clothes, and great fums of mon< 
. , his troops. 

O^lavia, at the fame time, had quitted Rome to joi 
And was already arrived at Aihen:,. Cleopatra rightl 
iiived that ihe came to difpute Antony's heart with her 
was afraid, that with her virtue, wifdom, and gravity n 
tiers i^ ^he had time to make ufc of her niodcl>, but 
andinfinuating, attractions to win her hulband, that Hie 
j yain an abfohite power over him. To avoid which d 

iiie aflW.trd to die for love <if Antony; and, with that 
n!;ide herfelf lean and wan, by taking very little nourill 
V. he never he entered her apariment» (he looked upo 
with :tn air of furrrize and amazement ; and when he 1< 
feeir.ed to languilh with fcrrow and dejéétîon. She oftc 
ft ived to appear loathed in tears» and at the (ame momi 
dcavourcd to dry and conceal them, as if to hide her wc 
and disorder. Antony, who feared nothing fo much 
*:i.:oning the Icall difplcaiure to Cleopatra, wrote Ici 
Oituvia, to order her to (lay for him at Athens, and t( 
no farther, becaufc he was upon the point of under 
^(>:ne new expedition. At the rrquell of the king of the J 
Hiio promiied him powerful fuccour.s, he was, in i 
making preparaiiftns to renew the war againll the I'artl 

'I'iiac \iriuoiis Roman lady, didembling the wroug 
her, fent to )iim to know where it would be aftreeabic 
lo iiave the prefents carried Ihc had dcllgncd for him 
he did not think Ht to let her deliver them in pcrfon. 
iniiy received this fécond compliment no better than th 
..nd Cleopatra, who had prevented hi^ feeing Odavia, 
I lilt permit him to receive any thing from lier. Oi\:\\ 
4-i)liv'Cd therefore to return to Rome, without having pn 
any other eflVdt by her voyage than that of making /' 
metre inexcufuble. '1 his was wliat C.rfar defired, in o: 
have a juller reafon for breaking entirely with him. 

When 0(î>avia came to Rome, Cefar, profelling a 
lefintmcnt of the afViont ihe had recei\cd, ordered her 


if>) A. M. 3969. Ant. J. C. 35. Plut, in Anton, p. «39- 

OF EGYPT. 1^3 

Antonyms houfc, and to go to her own. She anfwered, that 
flie would not leave her hu (band's houfe ; and that if he had' 
no other rcafon for a war with Anthony than what related to 
her, (he conjured him to renounce her interefls. She accord- 
ingly always continued there, as if he had been prefent, and- 
eAcated with great care and magnificence, not only the 
children he had by her, but alfo thofe of Fulvia. - What a 
contraft is here between Odlavia and Cleopatra ! In the midlt 
of refentmcnt^attd affronts, how worthy does the one fecm of; 
efleem and refpeâ, and the other, with all her grandeur and 
magnificence, of contempt and abhorrence! 

Cleopatra omitted no kind of arts to retain Antony in her 
chains. Tears, carefles, reproaches, menaces, all were em- 
ployed. By dint of prefents ine had ^incd all who approached* 
oim, and in whom he placed molt confidence. Thofe flat-" 
terers reprcfented to him, in the flrongell terms, th it it was 
utterly cruel and inhuman to abandon Cleopatra in the mourn- 
ful condition fhe then was ; and that it would be the death of • 
that unfortunate princefs, who loved and lived for him alone. 
They foftened and melted the heart of Antony fo efFedlnally, 
that for fear of occafioning Cleopatra's death, he returned 
immediately to Alexandria^ and put ofi' the Medes to the fol-^ - 
lowing fpring. 

Cq) It was with great difficulty then that- he refolved tc^ ' 
leave Egypt, and remove himfclf from his dear Cleopatra: 
She agreed to attend him as far as the banks of the £u- - 

(r) After having made himfeîrmaller of Armenia, aswel!"' 
by treachery as force of arms, he returned to Alexandria, 
Kmich he entered in triumph, dragging at his chariot-wheels 
the king of 'Armenia; laden with chains of gold, and pre- 
fentcd him in that condition to Cleopatra, who was pleafed 
to fee a captive king at her feet. He unbent his mind at lei- 
fore, after his great fatigues, in fcafts and parties of pleafure, 
in which Cleopatra and himfclf pafTed night and day. That 
vain * Egyptian woman, at one of the banquets, feeing An- 
tony full of wine, prefumcd to afk him to give her the Roman 
empire, which he was not afhamed to promife her. 

Bclore he fet out on a new expedition, Antony, to bind 
the queen to liim by new obligations, and to give her new 
proofs of his being entirely devoted to her, refolvod to folem- 
nizc the coronation of her and her children. * A throne of 

11 5 mafTy 

(^) A. M. 3070. Ant. J. C ;:,4. (-) A.M. 3157?. Ant. J.C. gj* 
• H*c mnlicr yT'*j:yptiA ab ilwio imperitini pctiit . tS: proniif 
îfflpcrAtprc^ ['ratium iibidlnun), JCu- Aiuuniu». 'l\t,r. 1 iv. c. u, . 


snafly gold was ereéled for that purpofe in the palace, the afl 
cent to which was by feveral ileps of filver. AntoDv vu 
ieaced upon his throne, dreil in a purple robe embroideitd 
with gold, and buttoned with diamonds. On his fide he wore 
a fcimecar, after the Perûan mode, the handle and (heath of 
which were loaded with precious (tones : he had a diadem on 
his brows, and a fcepter of gold in his hand ; in order, as he 
faid, that in that equipage he might defer^'^e to be the ha(baad 
cf a queen. Cleopatra fat on his right hand, in a (hininf 
robe, made of the precious linen appropriated to the afe 3 
the goddefs Ifis, whofe name and habit (he had the vanit)' lo 
ft(rume. Upon the fame throne, but a little lower, fat Cxfa- 
rio, the fon of Julius Czfar and Cleopatra, and the two other 
children, Alexander and Ptolemy, whom (he had by An- 

Every one having taken the place afEgned them, ^e heralds» 
hy tjie command of Antony, and in the prefence of all the 
people, to whom the gates of the palace had been thrown 
open, proclaimed Cleopatra queen of Egypt, Cyprus, Libya, 
and Cœlofyria, in conjundion with hex (on Csdario. They 
afterwards proclaimed the other princes kings of kings, and 
declared, till they (hould poiïefs a more sample inheritance, 
Antony gave Alexander, the eldeft, the kingdoms of Arme* 
nia and Media, with that of Parthia, when he (hould have 
conquered it ; and to the youngeft, Ptolemy, the kingdoms 
of Syria, Phcenicia, and Cilicia. Thofe two young princes 
were dreft after the mode of the feveral countnes over which 
they were to reign. After the proclamation, the three princes 
rifiiig from their feats approached the throne, and putting one 
knee to the ground, kîÂed the hands of Antony and Cleo- 
patra. They had foon after a train aligned them, propor« 
tioned to their new dignity, and each his regiment of guards, 
drawn out of the principal families of his dominions, 

Antony repaired early into Armenia, in order to aft againft 
the Parthians, and aàvanoid as far as the banks of the Araxis; 
but the news of what palTed at Rome again(l him, prevented 
his going on, and induced him to abandon the Parthian ex- 

Î>edition. He immediately detached Canidius «ith £xteen 
egioRs to the coaft of the Ionian fea, and joined them him- 
felf foon after at Ephefus, to be ready to aâ, in cafe of an 
open rupture between Ca:rar and him ; which there was great 
leafon to expcft. 

Clcopati-a was of the party; and that occadoned Antony'» 
ruin. lii> friends advifeci him to fend her back to Alexandria, 
till the event of the war £iculd be known. But that queen 

z apprcheadicg. 

O F E G Y P T. ijj 

pprehendinÇv that by Octavia's mediation he might come to 
n âccommouation with Csefar, gained Canidius, by prefents 
f moneVy to fpeak in her favour to Antony, and to repre« 
înt CO him, that it was neither jufl to remove a princefs from 
bis war» who contributed (o much towards it on her fide ; 
lOr ufeful to himJelf, becaufe her departure would difcou rage 
he Egyptians, of whom the greated part of his maritime forces 
onfifted. Befides, continued thofe who talked in this man- 
ier, it did not appear, that Cleopatra was inferior, either in 
midence or capacity, to any of the princes or kings in his 
irmy : fhc^ who had governed a kingdom fo long, might 
lave learnt, in her commerce with Antony, how to condndt 
lie moft important and difficult affairs with wifdom and ad- 
ireiSi. Antony did not oppofe thefe remonftrances, which 
lattered at once his paffion and vanity. 

From Kphefus he repaired with Cleopatra to Samos, where 
die greatcft part of their troops had their rendezvous, and 
where they paffed the time in feafling and pleafure. The 
kingty in their train, exhaufled themlelves in makine their 
eunrt by extraordinary expences, and difphyedexcefllve luxury 
in their entertainments. 

fjj It was probablv in one of thefe feads the circumAance 
lappened related by rliny. Whatever paflion Cleopatra pro- 
kBtd for Antony, as he perfeflly knew her character for 
liffimnlation, and that fhe was capable of the blackefl crimes, 
le apprehended, I know not upon what foundation, that fhe 
Bignt have thoughts of poifoning him ; for which reafon he 
lerer touched any difh at their banquet till it had been tailed. 
H wat impoilible that the queen (hould not perceive fo mani- 
Srft a diftrufl. She employed a verv extraordinary method to 
nake him fenfible how ifl-foundea his fears were ; and alfo, 
hat if (he had fb bad an intention, all the precautions he took 
irottld be ineffeflual. She caufed the extremities of the fîowers 
o be poifoned, of which the wreaths, worn by Antony and 
lerfelf at tabic, according to the cuftom of the ancients, were 
t)mpofcd. Wlien their heads began to grow warm with wine, 
n the height of their gaiety, Cleopatra propofed drinking off 
hofe flowers to Antony. He made no diiiiciilty of it; and 
ifter having plucked ofl' the end of his wreath with his fingers, 
md thrown them into his cup filled with wine, he was upon 
he point of drinking it, when the queen, taking hold of his 
irm, faid to him - / am the /ol/h/irr, aciiirji n.v.homyiin lakr Ju.h 
nighty precautions. If it m-rfr fioj/ihlf /'or me to /;•;';' ivithout yoi. , 
uége uo*iQ ivU'ther 1 nvantai rit her the cppcrturutj t,r reiijln f\.r 


'join Aoinny iiul 0^via<. A vialenc Aatm DccaSoMi at 
mi of a grtat aMtnbrrof her flûp*, tod fïHiog fick, Ibcvk 
aUi|:C(l lo rrturn inio Egypt. _ 

ftj Antmiv, ifrer the defeat of Bratni snd CaAvl la Ac §-^ 
battle of Phrlippi, having naflM ov«r iaifl Afii, ro iftder )« 
«Àiblifti the anihMiiy of tft« iriMmvinie there:, tbe kiop, 
^•crt, ami ambaffadori of the E^, caice thither tn thnsi^ 
» nuke dteir ccnut lo him. He wu itiformrd. lïat the ffl- 
I wmon «f PIxsnHin, which wa-> in ihe ile;>eftd>ncs of iW 
I kingdom of KgT|K> Had feni CalBut aid agiioA DolifaelU. 
' He cited CleopBiri be^Tre him, tn anfncr Oyr the cmdaA é 
kngoirmou; and renicneof hii li«ieitiinii to ohl!^ beta 
come (o htm in Cilida, whtiher he vnt goie|; ta itTcmbk ck 
Niei of ihnt province. That fl^p became very (»ni ro An- 
■ mny i» its eieAs, and cccailoned hii rain. Hh lit: &■ 
CIcopatn hivJn^ iwalcened paffioni in him. till then csir- 
R»leil ar aOrep, inll.iflied them even to (R>dDcr), and ScJIjr 
«leidencd and extinaoifhed the few t^pukfof hoitoar and votm 
fae might perhaps Jtill ret.iin. 

Oecpaiia, afTured of her charmt, by the ftttaf Ihe had 4- 
rrady la fuccefifully made of thetn epop Jottiu OxSm, wai It 
hbpei thet (he coutd alfo very eafily capiieaic Aaionv: ■« 
tke tww*, becjufe tnc fwinci fcaJ knov/n hn- rtrly j*hen fe< 
wa» very yowng, and had no ejcpen'ence of the wnild; wheitil 
flie WM going to appear before Antony at a» i^ whtjti» w 
«omen, with the bloom of tbdr beauty, unite ihe whole r«ne [ 
of wit and addrefs to treat and conduft thcgreaitft al^nil. 
CIcopaira waj at tha^'litne fire- and- twenty yean old. SW I, 
provided herfelf thtrt/b« with exccedinfi rich prefentt^. greu 
loiT.* of money, and «fpschlly the mon magnificent habiu 
and omatncrt!; nnd-WHh fti!l higher hopes in herattnAieu« 
and thî gracetof her pcrfon, 'inotc poweiful thin drefk. vr 
even gold, ihe begsn her I'oyagc. 

Upon her way Ihe received fcvera) leireri from Anioayi 
who was at Tsrfus, and from his friendi, preflinj her v> hiMtn 
Iifrjftomey; bot Iheonly iaOjthtJ ft ihei'" '"Hanca, and nU 
ntvrr rhe tnorC dilifferce for them. After hav-n- .:r.î!r..î ilit 
fea of Pamphylia, me entered the Cyiliio*,-»nJ r . . ■ . 
lîïcr landed at Tarfn». Never wm equipat^e u 
tujJ ma^niiiccnt than hers. The whole ^.!<^y 
flawed with gold; the faih were purple, and i i' 
with filver. A ;p*vilicri of cloth of gold wa» raifeJ uroo tie 
<l^lc, under which appeared ihc qnecn, robed like VctiO), 


O F E G Y P •». 147 

ind furronnded with the moil beautiful virgins of her court, 
of whom fome reprefented the Nereids, and others the Graces. 
Inflcad of trumpets were heard flutes, hautboys, harps, anii 
other fuch inllruments of mufick, warbling the fofteil airs» 
to which the oars kept time, and rendered the harmony more 
agreeable. Perfumes burnt on the deck, which fpread their 
oaours to a great diflance upon the river, and on each fide of 
Its banks, that were covered with an infinitude of people. 
whom the novelty of the fpedade had drawn thither. 

As foon as her arrival was known, the whole people of 
Tarfus went out to meet her; fo that Antony, who at that 
dme was giving audience, faw his tribunal abandoned by all 
0ie world, and not a fingle perfon with him but his liélors and 
domefticks. A rumour was fpread, that it was the goddefs 
Venus, who came in mafquerade to make Bacchus a vifit for 
the good of Afia. 

She was no fooner landed, than Antony fent to compli- 
Bie^ and invite her to fupper. But (he anfwered his deputies, 
that flie ihould be very glad to regale him herfelf, and that 
4ie would expefl him in the tents ihe had caufed to be got 
icadv upon the banks of the river. He made no difficulty to 
go thither, and found the preparations of a magnificence not 
to be exprefled. He admired particularly the beauty of the 
kanches, which had been difpofed with abundance of art, 
and were fo luminous, that they made midnight feem agree- 
able day. 

Antony invited her, in his turn, for the next day. But 
whatever endeavours he had ufed to exceed her in his enter* 
tûmnent, he confeffed himfelf overcome, as well in the fplen- 
dor as difpofition of the feafl, and was the fird to rally the 
nfffimoDV and plainnefs of his own, in comparifbn with tlie 
lamptnoiity ana elegance vf Cleopatra's. The queen, find- 
iag nothing but what was grofs in the pleafantrics of Antony, 
and more exprcfTive of the foldier than the courtier, repaid 
Inm in his own coin ; but with fo much wit and grace, thac 
he was not in the leaft offended at it. For the beauties and 
charms of her converfation, attended with all poflible fwect- 
aefi and gaiety, had attraflions in them dill more irrciiflibic 
than her form and features, and left fuch incentives in th« 
heart, the very foul, as were not eafily conceivable. i> ic 
'charmed whenever (lie but fpokc, fuch mufick and harmo:./ 
were in her utterance and the very found of her voice. 

Little or no mention was made of the complaints againil 
Qcopatra, which were, beûdcs, without foundation. She 
Irack Antony fo violently with hqr charms, and gained fo 

H z âbiblutc 

1^8 T H r. II r s T O R Y 

l*\^r, brfulfs tliiowîiij^ tlir Mainr upon Antony, !iy making 
\ùm (lie ;i^;^U'iU)i- in a war a^ainll his nnintry, hV artfully 
inaiiav\c-il {\\o(c who were ilill aita:hc*J to him, whofe number 
niul iic'ilit miyjit have nrovril fomiiilahlr, und whom he 
wouKI havr l>rrii unilrr ihr nn-rfliiy of declaring cncmic« to 
the i'(>niinon\vcaUh, il' Aniony had been cxprcr>Iy named in 
the decree. 

AntiMiy returned from Athens to Snmos, where the whole 
fleet wa^ airnnlded. It eonfilU'd cif coo fhios of war of rx- 
traoidinaiy fr/.e aiul ftriiv^htre, having; (cvrraf decks one above 
nnothrr, with towers upon the head and (trrn of a pnniijiious 
hei^*ht ; fo that thole fuperb veflcLi upon the fea might nave 
brrn taken for lloatiu)^ illands. Sueii grent ciewn were ne- 
cellaiy for complrtely manning thofe heavy innchinCA, that 
An limy, not brin^ able to find mailners enough» had bcra 
oblip.ed to take humanilmen, artificers, muleteer», nndallforti 
of people void of experience, nnd litter to give trouble, thaa 
do U'tvice. 

On board this fleet weir 200,000 fi>ot, nnd horfe. 
Thr kin;;s of 1/ibya, Cappadocia, i'aphlngonia, ComagrnAi 
nnd 'I'hiace, were there in perfon ; und thofe of Pontui» 
Jnda-a, l.ycuonia. (ialntia. and Media, had fent their troop>« 
A more I'plendid nnd pompous fight could not he feen, than 
this flcrt when it put to fea. and had unfurled its faiU. But 
nothing eiiualled the niAf.nificence of Cleopatra*» galley, all 
flamingwith gold ; its fails of purple; the flag» nnd Areamcri 
floating in the wind, whiKl trumpets, and other inllrumenn 
cif war, made tlie heavens refound with niri of joy and 
tiiiimph, Antony followed her vloCe in a galley almoll at 
fpleniiiil. Tliat " iiuecn, drunk with hrr fortune and 
tManileiii, und hearkening only to lier unbridled ambition, 
ioolilhly thieatcned the Lapitoi with approaching ruin» and 


• ■ l^um Oapiiolio 

Hri.-inJ ilriiiriiirl riiin4S, 
KiitMi^ K' im)ic*iio p«rdh«l, 

('oiiUntiiirtliMitm tttri^r fiirpium 
Mm lui %iioiuiii ; t|ultllihrl iiiipulcni 
S|<ri4ir, loiliitiJijur duKi 
1 i.ii4.— — — — — — I (or. OJt ftxftvii. /. I| 

V "r i tif-yi'-'f yiifii I." ritri ihf xrl'.i J'fif^n^ 

•N.' flH^h /.'• «Mil tlHf/'l.'li'll l/,|fMt J 

Viti- i'ft ^. .Vft/^./ /uff./ I»/ it-fffrjhn'ft, 
'J i.' (.-/I. /if ,/.// t^ vt tl f ■:i«. 

O F E G Y P T. fjU 

preparedf wSth her infamous troop of eunuchs, utterly to fub« 
rerc the Roman empire. 

On the other fide, Ms pomp and fplendor was feen, but 
qMK utility. Caefar had only two hundred and fifty fhips» 
and fourfcure thoufand foot, with as many horfe as Antony. 
Bnt all his troops werechofen men, and on board his fleet were 
none but experienced feamen. His veflcls were not fo large as 
Antony*!, but they were much lighter, and fitter for fervice. 

Ca:(ar's rendezvous was at Brundufium> and Antony ad-> 
Tanced to Corcyra. But the feafon of the year was over, and 
bad weather came on ; fo that they were botn obliged to retire, 
and to put their troops into winter-quarters, and their fleets 
into good ports, till Spring came on. 

fxj Antony and Cxfar, as foon as the feafon would ad- 
niti took the field both bv fea and land. I'he two fleets en- 
tered the Ambracian guiph in Knirus. Antony's braveft 
and moft experienced officers adviied him not to hazard a 
battle bv fea, to fend back Cleopatra into Egjrpt, and to make 
all poflible hafte into Thrace or Macedonia, m order to fight 
there by land ; becuufe his army, compofed of good troops, 
and much fuperiorin number to Caifar*s, feemed to nromife 
Um the vi£lory ; whereas a fleet fo ill manned as his, how 
Hmeroui foe vcr it might be, was by no means to be relied on. 
lac it was long ftnce Antony had not been fufceptible of good 
advice, and had afled only topleafe Cleopatra. That proud 
Biincefs, who judged things folely from appearances, believed 
kr fleet invincible, and that Casiar's ftiips could not approach 
il without being daflied to pieces. Befides; flie perceived 
night, that in cafe of misfortune, it would be eafier for her 
to ocape in her fliips, than by land. Her opinion therefor* 
took place againft the advice of all the generals. 

* 'i he battle was fought upon the fccond of September, at 
die mouth of the guiph of Ambracia, near the city of Adium, 
io fight of both the land armies; the one of which wns diawn 
Bpin battle upon the north, and the other upon the fouth of 
that ilrrij^ht, cxpcitinj^ the event. It was doubtful for fonic 
time, and IccmeJ as much in fiivour of Antony as Citfir, 
till the retreat of C'leopatia. Thai qncen, fri};htcnvd with 
the noile of llic battle, in which every thinj^ was tcrrilile tc) a 
%oman, took to llijMit, when Hie was in no danger, u\:d dirw 
after her tlic whole l^pypiian fquadnm, that eonfilled of iixty 
Ihips ol the line; with which llie failed for the coaft(^f l*tlo- 
^niiefus. Antony, who faw her fly, forgetting every 

(x) A. M. "yqT^. Ant. J. C. 31. 

vAi» THE H -I S TO'R Y 

tiling, forgetting even hicnfclf* followed her prccin'i. 
nnd yifUlcd a viilory toCxfar, which till then 
iiigly well dilputed. It, however, coft the viftor eviic 
dciir. For Antony's fliips fought fo well after hi* depa; 
that though the battle began before noon, it was nos 
when night came on; fo that Cxfar's troops were obi i^ 
pal':» it (jn board their (hips. 

The next day, Ca:far ieeing his viftory complete, det 
a fquaJron in purfuit of Antony and Cleopatra. Bu 
fquaJron tlefpairing of ever coming up with them, been 
far btiOrc it, foon returned to join the grofs of the flivt. 
tony having entered the adniiraUgallcy, in which Clct 
was, went and fat down at the head of it ; where, leanii 
elbows on his knees, and fupporting his head with iii 
h.mJs, he remained like a mnn overwhelmed uith : 
and rage; rcHc«^ing, \^ith profound melancholy, upc 
illconduc't, and the uiis^fortunes flic had brought upon 
He kept in that pothue, and in thofe thoughts, during the 
days they were going to * T:cnarus, without feeeir 
fpcaking to CIcopatKi. At the end of that time, thei 
each other again, and lived together as ufual. 

The land-aniiy llill remained entire, and confined 
legions, r.nd 22,000 horfe, under the command of Can 
Antony's lieutenant-general, and might have made 
nnd gi\cn Cxf;ir abundance of diriiculty. But feeing 
(cîvcs abandoned by their general?, they furrendcred to C 
who received them with open arms. 

Troni Txnnrus Cleopatra took the route of Alexa 
and Aiuonv that of I.ibva, where he had left a conful 
ariTiy to guard tiie frontiers of that country. Upon his 
an.; he was infvîrnied, that Scarpus, who comm.inJc> 
army, had declared for Cxiar. He was (o llruck v%'i: 
news, which he had no room to cNpcrt, that he v.oak 
killed liimfLjf, and was with difficulty prevented from 
hi; fiienàs. lie therefore had no otiier choice toni«ke 
to follow Cleopatra to Alexandria, v^here flie was arrixi 

\%'hen ihe approached that port, ihe was afraid, if he 
fortune fliouli be known, that fhe fliould be refufed cnt 
She therefore can fed her lliips to be crowned, as if ïV.e v 
turned vidoii.>iis; and no fooner landed, than flie crr.i 
the great lords of of her kingdom, whom flie fufpec^cd. 
rut 10 death, KmI thev fliould excite feditions araini 
when they were informed of her defeat. Antony foui 
in the midfl of thcfe bloodv execution:^. 

O F R G y P T- 1^1 

Bùon after (he formed another vc^ry extraordinary defif^n, 
'Old falling into Casfar's hundb, wno, (he turcCuwp would 
' her intolîgypr, flic defigned to havre her Oiips in the 
«rranean earned into the Ked-lc^a, over the illhmuii be- 

tbeiTlf which h no more than tliirty leagues broad ; and 
^Ards to put all her treafureb ou l)02trd thofe (hips, and 
herswhicli ([te had in that feu. But the Arabians, who 
ited the coail, huving burnt all the Ihips die had there, 
»« obliged to abandon her deiipii. 

'i whom Ihe looked upon a» lier conqueror, and to make 
i facrifice of Antony, whole misiortunei had rendeied 
ndilferent to her. Such wàa ihU princeiVs difpoiition. 
gh (he loved even to inadnel», Ihe had (lill more ambi- 
nan love, and the crown bein^ dearer to her tlian h r 
nd, (he entertained thoughts of prefervin^ it at the 

of Antonv'a life. But concealing her fentimenti from 
(he perfuaued him to fend ambafl'iuTori to Caefar, to ne- 
te II treaty of peace with him. She joined her am^ 
Ion with nil i out gave them inûruéUoni to treat iepju* 
f for herielf. Ctefar would not fo much aa fee Antony^ 
ibdon. Hedifmided Cleopatra's with a favourable a»* 
He paiSonately defired to make fure of her perfbn anA 
ird»i fier perfon, to adorn hii triumph i her treafuieit 
able him to difchiirge tlie debts he had contraéled upon 
int of thii war. tie therefore gave her reafon to con* 

great hopes, in caie (lie woula fitcriiice Antony to him* 
M Utter, after his return from Libya, had retired into a 
try^houfe, which he had caufed to be built exprefsly on 
anks of the Nile, in order to enjoy the converfation of 
>f his friends, who had followed him thither. In th^s 
ment it might have been ex peded, that he would hear 
pleafure the wife difcourfes of tlioie two philofupheri. 
ts they could not banllh from his heart UU love for Cleo- 
, the fiile caufe of all hid mi.iibrtunes, that paflion, 
h they hail only iiifpcmlc^d, fonu rciiunrd its former 
re. lie rrttu'tird to AU Handiia, aiundontd hiniieif 

I to the (h;inu.i ami ( iHTilr.n «jI' C.'U'opatriv, audi wllh dv- 
to plralr lin, liut (U-puiit .-. uyi\\i\ to C':i:iar, to dcinand 
•f liiin, u|ioii ilic lliuinoiii! loiulitions of pHilinj^ it at 
ns ai a juivuit' lu'idiu ; pioxiilcd L'.fiur would all'uix: 

II to C'lroiiahti .iiid Iter ihiMicii. 

icii'iond iicpitMiioit, itoi li.tvin^r iiiiM wiih a more* fuvour- 
rccc'ptiuM ihaii liu: iuiiiicr, Anloiiy illdcuvouicd toe^- 


(y) A.M. ]<;7-|, Aul. J. (-.3). 

i«2 T H E H I S T O K Y 

tînguidi in himfelf the fenfe of his prefent misfortanes 
the apprehenfion of thofe that threatened him, by aband 
himfelf immoderately to feafting and voluptuoufnefs. 
patra and he regaled one another alternately, and flrov< 
emulation to exceed each other in the incredible xnagniH 

!of their banquets^ 
The queen, however, who forefaw what might ha 
collected all forts of poifons, and to try which of thei 
cafloncd death with the leafl pain, ihe made the exper 
of their virtues and flrcngth upon criminals in- the p 
! I condemned to die. Havintr obferved that the flrongeft p 

caufcd death tlie fooneft, but with great torment ; and 
j thofe which were gentle, brought on an eafy, but flow c 

* ! ihe trh:d the biting of venomous creatures, and caufed v, 

j kinds of ferpents to be applied to different perfons. 

made thefe experiments every day, and difcovered, at It 
that the afpic was the only one that caufed neither t 
•nor con vul fions ; and which, throwing the perfons b: 
! -an immediate heavincfs and ftapefaftion, attended \ 

flight fweating upon the face, and a numbnefs of all t 
;gans of fenfe, gently extinguifhed life ; fo that thofe i 
-condition were angry when any one awakened them, i 
deavoured to make them rife, like people exceedingly f 
This was the poifon fhe fixed upon. 

To difpel Antony's fufpicions and fubjeâs of com{ 
fhe applied herfelf with more than ordinary foltcitude in 
fing him. Though fhe celebrated her own birth-d.iy 
little folemnit}', and fuitably to her prefent conditior 
kept that of Antony with a fplendor and magnifi 
above what fhe had ever inflanced before ; fo that many 
guells who came poor to that feafl, went rich from it. 

Csefar, knowing how important it was to him not tc 

his vidlory imperfect, marched in the beginning of the 

into Syria, and from thence fat down before Pelufium 

fentto fummon the governor to open the gates to him ; a 

^ leucus, who commanded there for Cleopatra, having re 

O P E G Y P T. ijf3 

bnned ta deliver ap to his enemy the perfon fhe loads with 
he moil tender carefles» and witn marks of the warmefl and 
BOft fincere attachment. Such are the effedls of ambition» 
which was her predominant vice. 

Adjoining to the temple of liis, fhe had caufed tombs and 

kails to beerefled, fuperb as well for their beauty and magni- 

iccncep as their loftinefs and extent. Thither fhe ordered her 

ttboft precious moveables to be carried; gold, filver, jewels, 

ribonVv zvory» and a large quantity of perfumes and aromatrrk 

wood; as if fhe intended to raile a funeral-pile, upon wliich 

Ihe would confume herfelf with her treafures. Caciar, alarmed 

for the latter, and apprehending, left her defpair fhould induce 

her to barn them, diipatched every day fome perfon to her, to 

^ve her great hopes of the mofl kind and generous treatment, 

•ad ncreitheleis advanced towards the city by great marches. 

Upon arriving there, he encamped near the Hippodrome. 

He was in hopes of making himfelf mafler of the city foon» 

by means of the intelligence he held with Cleopatra, upon 

WBXch he relied no lefs than upon his army. 

Aatony was ignorant of that princefs's intriguei, and 
Uog unwilling to believe what was told him otthem» he 
pqparedibra.good defence. He made a vigorous (aUy, and 
[ ifior having feverely handled the befieger^, and warmly port 
- bed to die very gates of their camp a detachment of horfe, which 
I lad been Tent againA him, he returned viûorious into the 
Cky« This was the lafl efïbrt of his expiring valour ; for 
after this exploit, his fortitude and fenfe of glory abandoned 
kimv or were never after of any fervice to him. Inilead of 
i aulung ufe of this advantage, and of applying himfelf feri« 
oofly to his defence, by obferving the motions of Cleopatra, 
who betrayed him ; he came, completely armed as^e was, to 
Arow himfelf at her feet, and to kifs her hands. The whole 
palace of Alexandria immediately refounded with acclama- 
tions, as if the fiege had been raifed ; and Cleopatra, who 
Kad no thoughts but of amufing Antony, ordered a mag- 
nificent feall to be prepared, at which they pafled the rell of 
the day, and part of the night, together. 

Early on the morrow, Antony rcfolved to attack Caifar by 
fea and land. He drew up his land-army upon fome eminences 
in the city, and from thence kept his gal lies in view, which 
were going out of the port, in order to charge thofc of C:cfai*. 
He waitciT, without making any motion, to f-c the fucoefs of 
that attack ; but was much ailoiiiihed, wiicn he faw Cleopatra's 
admiral ftrike his flag, when he came in view of Cacfar' 
and furrcnder his whole fleet to him» 

*r H- K HISTORY ^^ 

*rhU trMfon rpcncd Antony"» eyt», and maJe tiïw 

f dit to what his fricnd-i had toW him of the qurrnS 

(illy. In this wtTftnity he was for fi^iiaHEiiu; himfrtTI 

" " ' ible, in hit (cnP 

fmjflc c&mbaT. Cxf&v made anfwcr. that if^Antonj 

o challri 


«tearyof life, thrr* ivere other ways indie befidenihat.*^ 
tony, Crciiig himftif ridicnlcd tij- Cif»r, and httjv^ 
Clenpatra, returned tnio Tlie city, and wai a fnnmrnc 
abandoned hy nil hin cuvaliy. âeit:ed with rage nnd de 
he then flew to the palate, with deRgn to avenge himfcU 
Cleopatra, but did not find tier there. 

That artificial princefs, ivho (breieen whit hap» 
toefcapc the rage of Antony, had retired Into the ffl 
whefc Hood the tomba of (he kinj;» of Ejrypr, uihld 
fortifieii with j^od wall*, and ofwhich Ihehadorileied ild 
to he clofcj. She caurid Anttrny to be told, thai prdB 
an honoarnble death to a (hnmefut captirity, Ihc had I 
lietfeif in tiie midft of her aneeffort totnbi, wbett ftie bj 
cholc lier own fcpulchre. Antony, too crcdiiloni. dli 
l^'c hifflfrlf time to examine a piece of new», which hei 
lo have fnlpefled, after all Cteopatra'i oibcr iofidetttica i 
ftratk with the idea of her death, polTcd itnmediaielf 
Mceft of rage lo the moft violent tranfporu of jndj 
llioaght only of following her into th«gra»e. 

Ilariiig talccn tliii furious rerolailon. he (hut blmfclf' 
hit apArtmtni with a Have, and having caafcd hit armour 
taken off, he commanded him to plunge hi) dagger inl 
brvaH. But that (lave, fu!l of alTenton, refpe^, and fi 
for hi* tnafter, dabbed himlelf with ic, anJ felt dead I 
feet. Antony, lûokîiijg npon this aflion w im «xamri 
him to fbllou', ihroll im fword into hit bodv, and Mi . 
the ll»or in a torrent of hi' blood, which he mincled ' 
that tif his Agra. At that iinwi eat t» oSkxt yf iSirq 

O F E G Y P T. i6y 

t there a more moving fij^ht. Antony, all bathed in his 
od, with death painted in his face, was dragged up in the 
» turning his dying e)re8, and extending his ieeble hands, 
fards Cleopatra, as if to conjure her to receive his lall 
!ath; whilft ihe, with her features diHorted, and her arms 
dned, pulled the cords with her whole (Irencth; tlie 
mle below, who could give her no further aid, encou- 
ans her with their cries. 

(v£en Hie had drawn him up to her, and had laid him on a 
1» ihe tore her clothes upon him, and beating her breaH, 
d^^ping the blood from his wound, with her face dofe to 
,'ftie called him her prince, her lord, her dearell fpoufe. 
hilft (he made thefe mournful exclamations, fhe cut off 
ii0ny*s hair, according to the fuperAition of the Pagans, 
lo believed that a relief to thofe who died a violent deatn. 
Antony, recovering his fcnfcs, and feeing Cleopatra's 
IkSion, faid to her, to comfort her, that he thought him* 
f happy as he died in her arms ; and, that as to his defeat, 
was not afhamed of it, it being no difgrace for a Roman 
be overcome by Romans. He afterwards advifed her to 
re her life and kingdom, provided ihe could do fo with ho- 
tOTt to be upon her guard againil the traitors of her own 
art, as well as the Romans in CxCafs train, and to truft 
Iv'Proculeius. lie expired with thefe words. 
*rhe fame moment Proculeius arrived from Cxfar, who 
«Id not refrain from tears at the (ad relation of what had 
ifledp and at the fieht of the fword flill reeking with An- 
qr*i blood, whicn was prefented to him. He had par- 
Mlar orders to get Cleopatra into his hands, and to take her 
he, if poflible. That princefs rcfufed to furreiider hcrfelf 
I Uni. She had however a converfation with him, without 
tting him enter the tomb. He only came clofc to the gates, 
hich were well fallcned, but gave pailaec for the voice 
iTDUgh cracks. They talked a confidcrablc time together, 
Bring which flic coniinually afltcd the kingdom for lier chil-. 
Itn: whilil he exhoiicd her to hope the bell, and pre lied her 
I confide all herintcrcils to Ciefar. 

After having ton fidered the plate well, he went to make Jàit 
rfon to Cïrfar, who immediately fcnt Gallu.. to tall: again 
Ith her. Galium went to the gates, as Proculeius had done, 
id fpoke like him through the crevices, protrailing the con- 
ir/ktion on purpofc. In the mean while Proiulcius brought 
ladder to the wall, cnU'rcd the tomb by the fame window 
rough which ihe aud her women had drawn up Anion 
idf followed by two oihccr» who were with him, went duv... 

4 ' '« 

i6« T H E H r S T O R V ^^ 

B the jcMe where Ibc- was fpcakln^ to Calliis. Ontfl 

two women, who were flim t , ^ . 

ciicd out, qiliie out of her fenwt with fnr a&<) lurprfil 
nferfuHaH C!r«fa!ra, yea ere laMrn ! Cie«(>4tra tunid 
head, faw Procutdaa, ntid would hn<-e fhiSbed herTcU' « 
dagger, whicKlhealwaytcarriednrher girdle. But Pma 
ran ntmbl)' to her, took her In hii anns, and fnid to hd 
tvmngyear/d/ anil Cirj'ar Ufi, in iJffrit'ii'^ tm affagrai^ 
»«afên »f Jhf^if^ bii gaedntfr aiid tltmnnf. At the fiUtU 
be forced the dng^r out of^ her hand», and Oiook her i 
left fhe Ihould have conceaied [loifon in them. 

CiBfar feni one of his frcedmen, named l'.pBphrodito»| 
©rdcr» to guard her carefutl)', to prevent hf r making a 
tempt upon hcrfclf, xnd to behave to her, nt the ftme' 
wiih all the regard «mi complacency Ihe could defiit 
likewireinlUuAedProculcius to allcihe queen what Aie d 
of him. 

Cafur sfterwnrdî prepared to enter Alerandria, thecal 
of which there were no longer any (o dirpnie with hitn. 
found the gates of it open, and all the inhabitant» in OC 
eonliernstion, not knowinp what they had to hope of 
He entered checity. converging with the philofcpner A 
■pon whonr he leant with an air of familiarity, to Hebi^ 
lickly theregartl hchadforhtm. Bcinyarrivedatuic ■ 
he afccnded » ttibunail. which he ordemi to be ercAejî 
and feeing the whole people proUmTe npon the crrxti 
commanded them to rife. He then told them, inat b 
doncd them for three rtafona: The fiiit, upon the itxQI 
JMexandcTtheir founder; the fécond, for the bnutr of 
city Î and the third, for the falie of Ariieus one of iefi 
seni, whofr merit and knowledge he elleemeiJ. 

Procnieiut, in the mean time, aci^aitted himlelf of hii 
million tci the queen, whoul tiri) aTlced nothing: of Ccfai 
kis permiflion to bury Antony, which wai granted her «* 
difficulty. She fpated no ecjl to render hi» intrrmc&l 
nilicenT. accordinir tv the culitint of Ben», She cadi 

O P E G Y P T. 167 

iBick, flie roTe immediately, and went to throw herfelf at his 
ct» horribly dts figured, her hair loore and difordered, her 
iiàge wild and haggard, her voice faulterine, her eyes almoft 
i^Slved by exceflive weeping, and her bolom covered with 
ouds' and bruife«. That natural grace and lofty mien, 
hidi^ derived from her beauty, were, however, not wholly 
Ktinâ; and notwithflanding the deplorable condition to 
'^ch flie was reduced, even through that depth of erief and 
qeâton, as ^m a dark cloud, Siot forth pointed graces, 
ad a kind of radiance, which brightened in her looks, and 
1 eyery motion of her countenance. Though (he was aU 
loft dying, ihe did not defpair of infpiring that young vi^or 
nth love, as ihe had formerly done Cseiar and Antomr. 
The chamber where (he received him was full of the por« 
pÛU of Julius Caefar. ** My lord," faid ihe to him» pointing 
Ithofe jjjiflures, *' behold thofe images of him who adopted 
* yoa his fuccefTor in the Roman empire, and to whom I was 
' obliged for my crown." Then taking letters out of her 
[nibiny which (he had concealed in it; ** fee alfo," faid fhe, 
pfling them, ** the dear teftimonies of his love." She af- 
érwards read fome of the moft tender of them, commenting 
Ijpcm them, at proper intervals, with moving exclamations, 
nd paflionate glances ; but ihe employed thofe arts with no 
IkctA ; for whether her charms had no longer the power they 
)ild- in her youth, or that ambition was Cxfar's ruling pailion, 

tdid not feem affe6led with either her perfon or converfa- 
a ; contenting himfelf with exhorting her to take courage, 
MfA with afluring her of his good intentions. She was far 
lim not difceming that coldnefs, from which fhe conceived 
ll^food augury ; but diiTembling her concern, and chaneing 
^' difiroune, ihe thanked him for the compliments Procnleius 
made her in his name, and he had thought fit to repeat 
I perfon. She added, that in revenge ihe would deliver to 
all the treafures of the kings of Egypt. And in effeA, 
put an inventory into his hands of all her moveables, 
s, and revenues. And as Seleucus, one of her trca- 
■rérs, who was prefcnt, reproached her with not declaring 
Ae whole, and with having concealed part of her moft 
enable eifeéls ; incenfed at lo great an iniult, ilie rofe up, 
no to him, and gave him feveral blows in the face. Then 
timing towards Cxfar, " Is it not a horrible things" faid 
4e to him, " that when you have not difdained to viiit me, 
" and have thought fit to confole me in the fad condition I 
Bowaiti, my own domeilicks (hould accufe me before you 



' of retaining fome woman's jewels, not to adorn a miferable 


•M T H E H I S T O^a 

•* perfun as I «n. but for a prefeui to your filler Offi 

** and your wife Livia ! tliai itieir — --"■ '-■' — 

" 10 afford a more fivoiiriiWe i 

*' prineeis?" 

k-Kfar was cxce«UnEly ploafed lo hear her talk in 
manner, not doubling liut the love of life inffiretl her 
&ch Ungunec. He told her, [he might (tilpofe ua flic pk 
of (he jewels fhc had refervcii : and after having affitied 
ihat hewoidd ircAt her with more gcoerofity and mngnifit 
than the could imagine, he withdrew, imuginiiig that hi 
deceived her, and was deceived htmfdf. 

No[ doubting bot Cufiir intended lo make her fcive 
ernnmcnt to hii triumph, jh« had no other thoughts thi 
ikvoid that ftinme by dying. She well knew, thzt fhrwn 
ferved by the gnarda who had been nfligned her, and, i 
colour of doing her honour, followed her';\ery where j 
bcfidcs, that her time was fliorti Cafar's dcpanurc appn 
ing. The better therefore to amufe him, Cw fcnt to d 
that the might go to pay her lafi doty at the lumb of An 
and take her leave of him. Cxfu h»»ingRraMcd hci 
permiffion, Jhe went ihitfier accordingly to o^iihe that 
with her tears, and to alTlire Antony, to whom fhc addi 
her difcourfe as if he had been prcfcnt before bereya, 
(he would foon give him a more Certain proof of hernffri 
, After chat fatal proteil»tian, which Ine Accamponied 
fighs and tainenti, uie ca\ifed iKe tontb to be coveted 
flowers, nnd returned to her chamber. She then weni 
a bath, and from the bath to table, having ordered it i 
fcrved magnificently. When flic ittfe ftom labl*, Ihe ' 
n letter to Cxfar ; and having made all «joii her chamln 
cepi her two women, <he ihut the door, (at down up 
bed, and afked for a balkct of figs, which a peafant bad I 
hcought. She placed it by her, and a moment after 1») i 
as if Uie had fallen alleep: but that was thccffcfl of the i 
which WR» concealed ainongA the fmil, snd had flung Ii 
the «rm, which Ihe hod bcld to it. The poifon imtunli 
communicated itfelfio the heart, and Willed tu-rwithtiut 
or bein^ perceived by any body. The puard;. had oidi 
let nothing pafi without a AriA fearcli into it t hnt th' 
guifed pvalont, who was one of the queen'» faithful fcr* 
played Ilia pait fo well, and there appeared fo little apoeai 
ofdct'tgn in a baUcet of Agi, that die guardi fuBertia hi 
enter. Thai all Cacfai's precauiionii weie tncJfcâual. 

, He did nut doubt Cleopatra*» refolncion, after havinj 
the lutter ihe had wrote to liiai. lo délire that he wctili 

O P E O y P T. 169 

body to be laid in the fame tomb with that of Antony» 
inlandy difpatched two ofHpers to prevent it. But not- 
Sanding all the hafte they could make, they found her 

lat * prlncefs was too haughty, and too much above the 
IT, to fulFcr herfelf to be led in triumph at the wheels of 
iâor*8 chariot Determined to die, and thence become 
lie of the fierceft refolutions, fhe faw with dry eyes and 
the mortal venom of the afpicl: glide into her 


e died at thirty-nine years of age, of which (he had icîn^ned 
ty-two from the death of her father. The flatucs or An- 
were thrown down, and thofe of Cleopatra rem.nined as 
were; Archibius, who had long been in her fcrvicc, 

given C.Tfar icoo talents, that they might not be 

as Antony's had been. 
1er Cleopatra's death, I'gypt was reduced into a province 
Î Roman empire, and governed by a pixfcifl fent tliither 
Rome. The reign «f the Ptolemies in Egypt, to date 
•mmcncemcnt from the death of Alexander the Great, 
»ntinucd 293 years, from the year of the world 36)^1 to 

* A Ufa Sc jac entera TÎTere régian 
Vultu fereno fortis, Sc afperai • 
Tra£larc rerpciiies, ut a: rum 
Corpore comblherct venenum { 

Deliberatâ morte ferocior : 
Sevia Liburnis fcilicet invident 
Privata deduci fupcrbo 
Non humilia muiicr triumpho» 

Hon 0/. xxxviîf /• r« 

Nft tbi dark fêUct of tbt reatmt htlvto 

Can atve tbt fur'fut purpcft ff btr foul^ 
Ctfmiy filit loêks/r»m ber fubtr'tar Wee, 

I'biit CUM iutb dtath ana f tar CQntroul\ 
"Provolei tht fttpent^ I ftin^y Lit ragf ùij'dainSf 
Jînd } yi to ,\il I. U p.f.Jjn in 1er itint% 
lm\hi-c:.s to the i'/V/,r"j f'.iruy\I fr'iJe, 

6 be a- .':' r.9! fr vi h>.r >vn Jt fiend , 
JPifj^rjr'J, ti ful'^At f.i^'.'.iY, hy biiftJey 

Itit p rr.f i-.ti t'l^rr^h to at.'crj ^ 
BBtJiiutlyJlit.i to death f and hidi 1er f.rn%{)i end. 

(..Via t CoK. 

Perfians, and the empire of the Macedonians and the < 
princesy fucceiTors of Alexander the Great. A founb 
arifes, that of the Romans, which having already fw 
up moll of thofe which have preceded it. will extend 
quells, and after having fiibje£led.all to its power by 
armsy be itfelf torn in a manner into different pieces» 
being fo difmembered, make way for the eftabnflimen 
moil all the kingdoms which now divide Europey A 
Africa. Behold here, to fpeak properly» an abridged 
of ail ages ; of the glory and power of all the empire 
iK'oiid; ki a word, of all that human gBeatnefs has 
fplendid, and moil capable of exciting admiration ! A 
by an happ^ concurrence» generally unite in it : h< 
genius, delicacy of tafle, attended with folid judgmc 
excellent tafle of eloquence, carried to the hijg;hefl d 
! " perfection, without departing fr«m the naturaland tl 

.*[ the glor^ of arms, with that ^f arts and fciences ; v 

.'i conquenng, and ability in government. What a m 

pi of great men of every kind does it not prefent to ou 

! What powerful, what glorious kings ! What great a 

jl What famous «conquerors! What wife maeiltrates! 

')) ' learned philofophers ! What admirable iegillators ! 

!l. • 

'11 tranfported with >beholding in certain ages and couni 

j.' I ; if peculiar to themfelves, an ardent seal tor juflice, a p: 

'Ifi j' love for their country, a noble difintereftednefs, a g 

. • 

C Ô N C L U s I O N, &c. i;t 

^ our nnderftandings.. He alone knows his operations afid 
defigns. All ages arc prefent to him : (%) He/eetbfrom e*oer^ 
. Im/jHmf t9 i*oiri^ing. He has affigned all empires their fate 
» «ad aoration. In all tlte diflferent revolutions^ we have feea 
nothing has come to pafs by chance. We know, that 
r the image of that flatoe which Nebuchadonofor faw, of 
: ïB^ciionnoas height and terrible afpedt, with the head of gold, 
ilbe breaft and arms of ûlver, the belly and thighs of brafs» 
$mmà the legs of iron mixed with clay, God thought fit to re* 
^mt the fbor great empires, uniting in them, as we have 
in the coorie of thishiftory, all diat is glorious, grand, 
idable, and powerful. And of what has the Almighty 
fion for overthrowing this immenfe coloiTus? fa J A 
)ÊMudl Jinu nuas cut out ^without battels ^ tvhich /mote the imagt 
S MM tisfeit that tvere of iron and clay^ and brake^tbem to pieces • 
\1neM 'was the iron, tbe. clay, tbe brafs, tbe filver, and the gold 
[jfcnlfig /• pieces togetber^ and became like tbe cbaff of tbe fusnmer 
'himg'JloorSf and tbe nuind carried tbem a^way^ tbat no place 
foumdfor tbem ; emd tbe ft one tbatfmote tbe image became a 
f Momntain, and filed tbe «wbole eartb. 
We fee with oar own eyes the accompliihment of this ad- 
^ inbleprophecy of Daniel, atleaftin part. Jesus CaaiST» 
^ri» descended to clo^e himfelf with fleih and blood in tbe 
womb of die bleffed virgin, without the participatioa 
mMûf is the finall ftone that came from the mountain with* 
human aid. The prevailing charadterifticks of his perfon» 
lis relations, his appearance, his manner of teaching, his 
Hfeiples, in a word, of every thing that relates to him, were 
hapucity, poverty, and humility ; which were fo extreme» 
dktt ckey concealed from the e^res of the proud Jews the divine 
Ube of his miracles, how ihining foever it was, and from 
i'oe fight of the devil himfelf, as penetrating and attentive aa 
ke was, the evident proofs of his divinity. 

Notwithftanding tnat Teeming weaknefs, and even meannef^r, 
Iisvs Christ wul certainly conquer the whole univerfe. It 
IS nnder this idea a prophet reprefents him to us : fb) He 
mjent fortb conquering and to conquer, Hia work and miffion 
are, to fet up a kingdom for bis father, ixihicb ftsall never be 
ieftroyed: and tbe kingdom fwbicb fball not be left to otber people ; 
like thofe of which we have feen in the hiitory ; but it /ball 
break in pieces ^ and confume all tbefe kingdoms f and it Jh all ft and 
fir ever* 

I 2 The 

/»; Ecclef* xzxix, 19» (a) Dani c, îi. 34, 35. (h) Apos* 

if^ THE H -I S TO^R Y 

thing, forgetting even himfeif» followed her precîphdtt!;r; 
nnd yielded a victory toCarfar, which till then he had exceed'' 
ingly well dilputcd. It, however, coft the vidlor extremely 
dear. For Antony's fhips fought fo well after his departarr,' 
chat though the battle began before noon» it was not over 
when night came on; fo that Cxfar's troops were obliged »> 
palb ic on board their fhips. 

The next day, Ca:far feeing his viâory complete, detached 
a fquadron in purfuit of Antony and Cleopatra. But th^t 
fquadron defpairing of ever coming; up with them, becabfe fj 
far btibrc it, foon returned to join the grofs of the fleet. An- ._ 
tony having entered the admiral-galley, in which Cleopatn 
was, went and fat down at the head of it; wliere, leaning bis 
elbows on his knees, and fupporting his head with his t«o 
hands, he remained like a man overwhelmed with (hame 
and rage ; reflecting, whh profound melancholy, upon bis 
ill conduct, and the misfortunes ihe had brought upon him. 
He kept in that pollure, and in thofe thoughts, daring the thiee 
days they were going to * Txnarus, without (eeeing or * " 
ipcaking to Clovipatra. At the end of that« time, they fav 
each other again, and lived together as ufual. 

The land-armv ilill remained entire, and confifted of i9 
legions, end 2 2, coo horfe, under the command of Canidios, 
Antony's lieutenant-general, and might have made head, 
nnd gi\ en Cxfiir abundance of diiiiculty. But feeing them- 
iclvcs abp.r.doned by their generals, they furrendered to Cxfxr, 
who received them with open arms. 

From Ta^narus Cleopatra took the route of Alexandria 
and Antony that of Libya, where he had left a confiderable 
ar:Tiy to guard the frontiers of that country. Upon his hnd- 
iwz he was informed, that Scarpus, who commanded ihii 
army, had declared for Caifar. He was fo llruck with thii 
news, which he had no room to expert, that he wouii have 
killed him fcif, and was with difficulty prevented from it hi 
his friends. He therefore had no other choice to make, tîua 
to follow Cleopatra to Alexandria, where flic was arrived. 

When fhe approached that port, flic was afraid, if her mis- 
fortune fliould be known, that flie fliould be rcfuled entrance. 
She therefore caufed her fliigs to be crowned, as if fliewa» re- 
turned viclo! ious ; and no looner landed, than flie cauied ail 
the great lords of of her kingdom, whom flie fufpeâcd. to be 
put to death, leil they fliould excite feditiuns againil herj 
when they were informed of her defeat. Antony found 1*9 
in the midfl of thcfe blooJv executions. 

• FraKOfittry rf Lj;iaia% 

O F E G y P T, i6i 

JOn after (he formed another verv extraordinary defîgn. 
1 falline into Csefar's hands, who, fhe forefaw, would 
er into Egypt, (he defigned to have her (hips in the 
ranean carried into the Red-fea, over the iflhnius be- 
icm» which is no more than thirty leagues broad ; and 
ds to put all her treafures on board thofe (hips, and 
rs which (he had in thatfea. But the Arabians, who 
d the coaft, having burnt ail the (hips (he had there» 
obliged to abandon her defign. 

ging therefore her refolution, ihe thought only of gaining 
whom (he looked upon as her conqueror, and to make 
icnhct of Antony, whofe misfortunes had rendered 
ifferent to her. Such was this princefs's difpo(ition. 
. ihe loved even to madnefs, (he had ftill more ambi«- 
n love, and the crown being dearer to her than h r 
', (he entertained thoughts of prefervin^ it at the 
r Antony's life. But concealing her fentiments from 
s pcrfaaded him to fend ambafiadors to Cacfar, to ne« 

a treaty of peace with him. She joined her am-^ 
1 with his ; out gave them infimâions to treat iepa^ 
3r herfelf. Csefar woold not fo much as (ee Antony^ 
âatBé He difmifled Cleopatra's with a favourable aa» 
He paflionately de(ired to make fare of her perfon audi 
i ; lier perfon, to adorn his triumph ; her treafnses'» 
l« him to di(charge the debts he had contraéied npon 

of this war. He therefore £;ave her rea&n to coa* 
reat hopes, in cafe (lie would facriiice Antony to him. 
latter, after his return from Libya, had retired into a 
-houfe, which he had caufed to be built exprefsly on 
ks of the Nile, in order to enjoy the convocation of 
his friends, who had followed him thither. In this 
snt it might have been expe£led, that he would hear 
safure the wife difcourfes of thofe two philofopheri. 
they could not banifh from his heart his love for Cleo- 
the fole caufe of all his misfortunes, that paflion, 
they had only fufpcnded, foon refunied its former 
He returned to Alexandria, abandoned himfelf 
) the charms and careHes of Cleopatra, and, with de- 
pleafc her, ftnt deputies again to Ca;far, to demand 
dim, upon ilie llianicful conditions of pafling it at 

as a private perfon ; provided Ciefar would aifurc 
to Cleopatra and her children. 

fccond deputation, not having met with a morefavour- 
:cption than the former, Antony endeavoured to ex- 

fj^ A. M. 3974, Aiit. J,C,30, 

■74 c H R o N o L oTTrcTt 

Tlte cbokc of the event! wbich ;:rc lo kne ai epodn U , 
«rbitnry, and a writer of hUes> may take fucK u befl TuU 
hii plaa. 

When wc betia to eo»tftt ycirt from one of tbirié pointi i 
difliagnlihed oy a confidcnUe event, the enameratioi] uti ' 
fiirici of fubvean U callod Mttt. Then are almoft aj muf ' 
«m u Acre Bare been diCocUnaiioiii. The principal, and 
noft nfed, pre tbofeof riv JKr/,/, of 7r>f CèfJff, of the 
OhmflM^t tadoSXtmr. I fflwuld have beeo eiid to hxie 
tiled all the ionr in the Chronological Table at ibe end of my 
hifloi7 : bnt the nanonr comnifi «r ihefc pa|res oblige* me lo 
confine nnrfelf to the tiro mot Cimou), iiixt o{ lit tfer/^, u4 , 

jtjk. chA/. ' 

Ever^ Dodj knows, diat tU Olymfia^i derive their origin 
from the Oljinine ganci, which were celebrated tn PelopMi- 
ncTu, nearthedtfofOlrBpJa. There gamci were To folcmst 
that Greece made then Iter epoch for compaUog her yea». 
By Oljw^sd b meant the Jpacc of four yean complète, which 
î( thtf time Aatelapfed between one celebration of garnet aad 
another. ThefirnafedbrchrMologen begini, according to 
Ulher, in the fnmmer of at year orthe world 32x8, befon 
Cbiift 776. When the lima oa which an event happened it 
rechoned b^ the Ohmfltéi, anibon fay the lirft, fecnad, or 
third, iif. year of fnch an Otympiad}- which being once 
known, it ii eafy to find the je%r of the world to which the 
fame fa& ii to be referred ; and in lilie manner, when the 
year Qf the world it known, it it eafy to find that of the Cl/a- 
piad which agreet with it. 

Rome wia boilt, according to Varro'i ChronolMy, in the 
year of the world 3>5,i> ^nd the y^^A before Wa» Chrift. 
Cato dalei the foondation of that city two year* later» in the 
Tear of the world Jijj, before ^efai Chrift7si.^ IlhallfU^ 
]ow the opinion of the latter in my Roman HiAorj'. The 
^ars reckoned from this *ttet are called indifferently jtaa of 
Rome, or yeari from the loandation of the city. 

1'he Jtdian ftrhd if ilfo a famoai zra in ehruultgy, nlsd 
principally for reckoning the yean before Chrift. I am ptnc 
to ciplain wherein thii period confifti, andîuofê: bntn^T 
muA give the reader an idea of the three ryh, «f whicfcit It 

By the word rrrZr, the rcrolotiafl of a certain nomber of 
yean ii nnderftood. 

The folar tyeU \è a term of twenty eight year*, wUch in- 
d'ideg all the rariationt that the Snndayi and dayi d the week 

table: 175 

idimt, tbit ii CO fay, at the end of twencjr-eiglit years the 
fevcQ firft letters of the alphabet, which are ufed^in the calen- 
énr fer noting the day of the week, and^ which are called 
Dominical letters, return in the fame order in which they were 
'U irft. To nnderfland what I have now faid, it maft be ob- 
fiirvcd, that if the year had only fifty-two weeks there would 
be no dumge in the order of the dominical letters, fiat as it 
kas a day more, and two in leap-year, that produces all the 
variations indaded in the fpace of twenty-eight years, of 
irkich the folar cfclg confifts. 

The Lnnar nrrfr, called alfo the Golden Number, is the 
setolation of nmeteen years, at the end of which the moon 
- fctnms, within near an hour and a half, to the fame point with 
dtt fnn, and begins its lunations again in the fame order as 
at firft* We are indebted for the invention of the tycie to 
Methon, a Aunous Athenian aftronomer. Before the inven- 
tion of the epaâs, it was ufed for marking the days of the new 
iQOon in the calendar. 

Befides thefe two cjeles, chronologers admit a third alfo, 
ipDed /jMfiA'fiff. This is a révolution of fifteen years, of which 
die firft is called the /rji Indiéiion^ the fécond r^^ fécond ht- 
ASms tnd lb on to the fifteenth, after which they begin 
Ijgiin to coont the firft indiftion, &r. 

T&e firft Indidlion is generally fuppofed to have begun three 
years before the birth of Chrift. 

If thele three cycles, that is to fay, 28, 19 and 15, are 
multiplied by each other, the product will be 79S0, which id 
what u called the Julian period. 

: One of the properties of this period is to give the three 
chaïaâeriftick cycles of each year, that is to fay, the current 
«ear of each of the thn;e cycles ; for example, evtry body 
nows that the vulgar étra commences at the year 47 1 4 of the 
ywMmm ftn»i* If that number be divided by 28, what re« 
mains * after the divifion fhews the folar cycle of that year. 
In the fame manner the lunar cycle and the indidlion may be 
fiwnd. It is demonflrated, that the three numbers which ex- 
|iels thefe three cycles cannot be found again in the fame order 
u any other year of the Julian period. It is the fame in re* 
%eâ to the cycles of other years. 

. . If we trace this period back to its firft year, that is to fay, 

^tt the year when the three cycles of which it is compofed be- 

fiB, we ihall find it precede the creation of the world 710 

I 4 years; 

' * tjtywkn rtmthtt, sad «9/ the 

fiAm, mjmt émtètr$ ébj f§r the 

m^ f ^i /k té€ mmàer of cyçla 

dtpMfiicttb* Beglrmni of tbt ^W^ 
amd wbâi rtmaïnx ajttr tbt dWifU» 
Jbevft tbtjear of tbc curt cut cy\%^ 


years ; fuppoilng the creatioa to precede the vulgar xr 
4004 years. 

This period is called 'Julian^ becaufe it is made to 
with the years of Julius Cxfar. Scaliger invented it to : 
cile the fyilcms that divided the chronolojgcrs concernL 
length of time ciapfed itnce the beginning of the ' 
There are who b'.-licve that only 4004 years of the world 
be reckoned before ^Jcfus Chriji, Others give more ext 
that fpace and augment the number of years of which it c' 
Thcfc variation» difappear when the Julian period isuU 
^vtry hi Ay agrcci in rcfpcdl to the year in which it bcga; 
there id nobody who drjes not know, that the firfl. year 
vulgar a^ra falls in the 4714th of that p?ri(^. 'llius 
juhan period there are two hxcd points, which unite 2 
terns, :i!id reconcile all chronolo^cr.s. 

li i*, ciify t«) iind the year of the 'Julian period tliat a 
to itrjy year what foe v. r of the vul;;:ir xra of ihc v/onM. 
-AS tlic be^jinnirig of the Julian period precede:; thîit :e! 
}cars, by adding' that number to the yctiv nropofed 
îiTa of the world, we have tlic year of the Julian per it. 
njiAvcr:. to it. i'or in (lance, we know thr.t the battle < 
btia v/îi* fou-C'ht ill the year of tl.c v/oriJ 5673. If 1 
r.iiniî;'*r v.c .''Id 710, it v/ill be 4383, which number ex 
tiVj yc'ir of til'; Julian period to v/hich the battle of At 
to he n i'rir': !, 

Il n î::anr; ibr ni'j to (i\y a few v/orus upon the ordî.T 
i,\ irxw^A in ir:y Lh/onrlojoc.'il 'J'aLie. Al tiul I j)ro];f 
ir.r»!-rc :v. ï\v.i\r/ v/Awwiw. ;i . tlicre arc (Uficrcnt nation*, 
bool:, whofc iiiilory f;:!!', out in tlie fame time, a.'i'.l to 
tlî.-rri all in the {\\ui'. Wvm with eacli other, in order tl 
tlie events liappcned in the fiinic year niipju be f< 
one view, iiut, hcfide;, my not having fufiicicnt room u. 
io many column.» ii^ie by fide with each other, J foun 
i flio.ilcl have hcca ohlJjM.-d to leave too many blank f 
wlii'Ji vvould have confidcrably lenj^thcncd the table;,, 
ronfcfiuciice fwcllcH the volume, that, as it is, is very 
J thtrciore chofe to fcpiirate the Carthaginiani; and Syrac 
and to j'ivc their chronology apart. The hiftorieo ol 
tv/o pro])!'; arc a'>iin'l:intly interwoven with each othci 
have little relation to thofe of the other nations of whom 

'i'he reader knows, that hitherto I have not cntcrC' 
chronolo(M(;:il difcuflioni, and undoubtedly doco not 
that I Iho'uld do fo now, 1 fliall generally follow Uflicr, 
/ have dio/c/i for hw y;uK\c \tv \\\\^ ^wVyid, 



jyf,- NiKKOD, fomnâtt 
3. cf tke firft empire 
e «f the AfiyriâAt. 
\ NiNVt, tile Iba 
Aa of NimiMU 


Ae reigiied4ft ycart. 

* NiHTAt. 

ne bîflon êf the 

Jmccêfvrt êj NayMt 

•for thirty gemtrtt' 

tlêmt, excift o/Pbui 

it intàti9w»9 

< L Ë. 177 


T A 


1S16. Menés, orMit- 

jiAiM, firft king 
of Egypt. 





Foundation tof9« 
of tbfkitig- 
dom of Si- 



19x0. The king- (hep 
htfrdt feîse the 
Lower Egypt. Tbey 
reign 260 years. 
ao84« Abraham enters 19 lO. 

Egypt» vhere Sa- 
rah is in great dan* 
ger from one of the 
king (hepherds, 
«T4St Foundation 1 8^» 

of the king« 
dom of Ar- 
gos. Deluge 
Al79f Thitrmosxs 1825» 

-expels the king- 
'fhepherds, & reigns 
'in the LowerEgypt. 
S276. Jofeph is.canied lyaS* 

into Egypt, and fold 
by Potiphar. 
A298' Jtcob goes into lyoô* 

Egypt with his ftk- 
t4s7« Ramesis*Mx- '577« 

A lev M begins to 
reign in Egypt. He 
perfecutes the If- 
^480 Ce CROP s carries Foundation I556t 
*a colony from E- oftheking- 
gypty and foonds dom of A* 
the kingdom of 'thens byCe- 
Atheni« crop». He 

the Areo* 


A. M. X O y P T, O II I I C X. Adl. 

•4ll< VM*i Cnniut, ImttlM 

Ult* Il Ibf Atll kldi. 

AniHiirlili t> fwillirotJ lie 

l« tbt Rfi r». Hir.n.ii 

bit l«n tm.„ii Mm Ht 

Itniitt, (II Jintkdi, rinilir* 
llhtifU lilhwuii, mnfuni 
Afli, ih4 rahjiAl Iht *<;■ 
IhliH «I f<t M Ih* TuMK 

HRiit, I'ioi Unr*! *"* **' 

(Imi ililn Din Vtttpvnntf»!, 
whrrt hi ■nihil hin/df 

■)4T' PNl>ei<(««lriil*hnrIi. . , 

fiKii't trnmirnrt, li«>ln| nn- 
Winnilflji klllH MnimA- 
filhc, •liin4ont Ar||ui, ind 
ruuRilHbi klnidom af Mf- 

■Ml IfivrMVi, iti( têê tl u 

MnU», HiikH UmM/ atit 
tV •CCmImIi, 


ftfW. AUH, iIm /m «f !>(«• M 

Jl«i, ktui •/ Alt)». Tbi 

•■*tJllt«« •/ lb* AriMiMi 
N M*4 Imbffiliiirftfcri 

bIm, PiaTivi. f»Mtnl|ir'* ThiHindUamlidlMRi* I 

fti !• 4ri**n l«t* l|]i^ M Alfti miAiri •/ f iImmmw* 

hit Mlara W Tf«]r wltk fi»i f'An whtw* iMy in 

Hchn, «iDlri M iillf* ItM «Ath 

tkikutnntTu. •-£»%• 

ffiiifi**,— AiTcaii. 

11m Atf ^ftMbH nl|H 
WIN 17a jun In twmUn t 
Im Ji I1 hif4 u «tt|aiha 
l(a|!<t) «f iHk af ihi» U 

T A B L B. 


A»ir. BO Y PT. 


^991* Phaxaoh, king of Egypt, 
g^TCt hit daughter 10 mar- 
riage to Solomon. 

)Qi6» SstAC, otherwife called 
Seibnchit. It was with him 
that Jeroboam took refuge. 

3033. StiAC marches agaioft lertf 
falemi and conoaeri Judata. 

3063* Zau a, idug of Egypt, makes 
war with AUi king of Jndah* 
AiiTSis. In hii reign 
Sabacos» king of Ethi^ia» 
nnkcs kipfelf maâer of 
Zgypt» rdgns there fifty 
yean» êhtr which he retires» 
nnd^leavei the kingdom to 




O R E E C E| Ant.J.C. 

Troy taken by the Greeks. 1 184. 

Tht Heradidc re-enter 1 104* 
Peloponnefuit and feiae Spar- 
ta, where the brothers Eu* 
ryfthenes and Prodet reign 

Inftitntion of the Archooi loyo» 
at Athens. Medon» the ion 
of Codros, is the Hrà, 

Cadmus builds the city of 1055. 
Thebes, and makes It tht 
ftat of hit goremment. 



Ltcukgvs. 194. 

Homer. Hcfiod lived 844., 
about the fame time. 

CAKAftivs founds the 794^ 
kingdom of Macedonia. 

Bcginmng of the common 776. 
aera of the Olympiads. 

■I retnm to the chronology of the Affvrians» which 
I diicontinued, becaufefrom Ninyas» down to about 
this time^ nothing is known of their hiftory. 



PmvLf the king of Ninefch» who repented upon Jonah*s 771. 

SAmD>iiiA»ALVs, the laft king of the firft empire of the 767. 
Aflyrians. After a reign of twenty years, he burns him^If 
in his palace. 

The firft empire of the AfTyrhns, which ended at the 
death of Sardanapalus, had fubfifted more than 1450 years. 
Out of its ruins three others were formed, that of the AOy* 
rians of Babylon, that of the Aflyrians of Nintveh^ and 
that of the Mfdfif 


t.. ^^^M \ 

Is .3 


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4004 yearn. 

Tins period In called yuliixn^ becaufc it ii made to 
\^ith I he yf:ar? of luliun Carfar. Scalif^er invented it to 1 
cile the fyih in '1 that divided the chronoloecrft coiiccrnir 
Icnf^th of' time rlnpfed itnce the bcf^inning of the \ 
There nrc who Ivlicvc that only 4004 years of the world 
be reckoned before 'Jifus ChriJL OtherB give mon: rxti 
that fpncc and augment the number of year fi of wliich it f o 
Thcfe variation! difapinrnr when the Juli;in fHrifid i-. ufr 
rv^x'^ li'j'jy a,7rce'. in refpsft to the ye»-ir in whitli it bcf'^nr 
there is iinbo«ly who doci not huow, ihat tlie firfl year « 
viilpar /f/Y/ fjfiil-i in the 4714th of thîil prriod. 'J Iiu? i 
hilian p'*riod there rre two hxcd pointi, which unite; .-1 
tTi", riM(l rtrroncile îd) chronolf»;" r*». 

I» i'. I if/ to lirul llie year '.f ll'C [fulinti frritd \\vA ai 
t" î'ji^ )';.>,r '.^^liatfoc ■. of the vul;";; r irra of \\\r v/fiî»'. 
d'\ \\\i: l)f';'irniin.r i^{ \\\v ' {"«rrf.f '!(:-, tli;'l .1 r 
)»MJ5, by ad<linj» tliat niiml>cr tt> the Mtfipofcf! c 
w\A (»r the world, wr hjivi* tlie yr;ir cif thf; 'j uhttn firrtot 
'.u\('\f r' toil. I'fii iiiif;;n'. r, Vt»; k'T-.v thri the i)attlc o 
I.da v.;". frijr-lit iii \.\\r. yr.ii' of tic v.«;jM 3^'73. If t< 
'!.?!.?. M V. c .'i 1 71;, if will be 4^H^, wlilcli number exj 
t/>'; yc 'Y of tjii; Juliun l'iviid to v/hith the battle of Art 
to [ic t» M"ir'r 1, 

Il n rriani*. for mr to ^^y a few v/ords upon the ordrr 1 
ill /' jv«:d in ii:y Chionojoj'jral 'J'ablc. At liid I propo 
ir.:.l:r: :i'. iii.iiiv f'oluniti'. :i-. tlific* arc diftcrcnt nation '• i 
booh, wliofc hill'iry f;ill-. out in the fanirr time', and to 
tli-m all ill the finir liiir with carh other, in order il 
fli*: events that liapnrned in llir fiimr year niit»ht be fc 
one view. Jîut, bcfidf, rny nfit hîivinfç fuHicirnt room to 
io many column i fide by fide with each other, I founi 
J fljoidd h:ive brr.n obllj'/-d to kave too many blank f] 
whi'.h v.r.uld have rotifidrrably Iciiwthrnrd the table», •' 
<on(er|u»:TJtc fwellcd the volume, that, ai it in, i^ \txy 
i ihcrffor*: chofr to f'p;:ra«e the C^rthafrinianc and Syrac 
aii'l to ;mvc their clininolojry apart. The hiftorics ol 
two pfoMJr arc :iliiin'l:int.!y interwoven with each other 
lia\ (' little relation to thofe of the other nations of whom ! 

'J 'he reader knows, that hitherto I have not enterez 
chronolojMral difcuflinn-», and undoubtedly doc* not < 
that I Ihutdd <lo fu now. I fliall generally follow Uflier, 
* have diofcn for my iruidc in this fubj:it. 

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TABLE. 191 

«The hîftory of the Greeks from henceforth will 
be intermixed and almoft confounded with that 
of the Perfiaui, for which reafon I (hall (cparaie 
their chronology no farther. 

M. ^ Afit.J.C, 

I. The PtriUni form theiiegeof the capitalof the iflaad of 503, 

Nixoti end are obli|ed 10 raiie it in fix montht. 
t« ArlAagoiat» goYcrnor of Miletus, revolts from Darius» and 501* 

brings the lonians and Atlienians into his meafures. 
4. The loniani make themfeUcs maAert of Sardis» and burn it« 500* 
7. The Perfians defeat the lonians in a fea-fight before the 497* 

ifland of Ladosi and moke themfelves maften of Miletus. 


0. Darius fends Gobrias his fon-in-law at the head of an army 49^ 
10 attack Greece. 


t|. Darius takes tht command of hit armies from Gobrias» and 491. 

gWei it to Datis aud Artaphernes. 

!4« Battle of MKathon. , 490, 

!• Unfoitunate endof Miltiades. 4l9« 

9. Death of Darius Hyflafpes. X x a x t s his fon fuccetdi hiou 4I ç. 

10. Btrthof thehiftorian HxaoDOTUs. 484. 

14, 3Cerxes IVts out to make war «gainft the Greeks. 4So» 
Battle of Thermopile. Lconidas, king of the Lacedmno- 

aians» is killed in it. Sea-fight near Artemifium» it the 
£une time as the battle of Thermopylc, 

Birth ofEuairiDxs. 

Battle of SaUminj followed by the precipitate return of . . . - 
Xerxes into Fcrfia. 

15. Battle of Platxse. Sea-fight the fame day near Mycale» in 4790 
which the Pcrfuns are defeated. 

Mm The Athenians rebuild the walls of their city» which had 47s*. 

been demollfhed by Xerxes, notwithftanding the oppofition 

of the Lacedaemonians, 
it» The command of the armies of Greece, of which the La- 476* 

cedcmonians had been in pofleAion from the battle of Ther* 

mopylc» IS transferred to the Athenians. 
PjNPAa Aouriihed about this time. 
lO« Pavsanias, general of the Lacedemonians» accufed of 474* 

holdin[; ferret intelligence with Xerxes, n put to death. 
|l, Th E M ISTOC LES, the Athenian general» is accufed of hav- 473* 

ing had a /hare in Paufanias*» plot» and t^kes refuge with 

Admrtus, king of the MoIoHians. 

Sor H oc L t s and E u a 1 r 1 d x s appear in Greece about this 

^Xt Xerxes is killed by Artabanc», the captain of his guards. 47a. 
AaTAXEKXCs» uirnamed Long IMA NUS» fucceeds him. 

Themidoclcs takes refuge in his court the Arft year of his 


11. CjMON rereives the command of the armies at Athens. 471, 
The year following hr defeats the Pcrfians» and takes their 

AffC near the mouth t>C the river Eurymedon» 

4 Birth 



3533* Birth of the hiftorian THucYDioxt. , 4 

3534* Great earthquake at Sparta» in the reign of ArchidâiDDi» 4 
which nukes way for a fedition of the Helott. 
Birth of Soc a A T E s. 
3515* Beginning of I'ericlrs. ^ 

Ph I ni As,famous tor his /kill in architecture aod fcnlpturib 
Difference and mifunderftanding between the Atheniani 
and Laqedxnnonians, cccafioned by the affront offered to the 
Athenians by the Lacedemonians in .fending back their 
troops, after having called in their aid againft the Mefleniant 
and Helots, Some time after, and in confequeoce of thia 
qiiarrdy Cimon is baniHicd by the Ofhactfm. 
3537* EsDK AS obtains a commiflion from Artaxerxeato return to 4 

Jenifalcm with all that arc willing to follow him» 
353^* Themiftocles putsan end to his life at Magnefia. 4 

354^* HxRODzcusof Sicily, chief of the fed of phyficiant called j 

ÀfairuTixq. Hi^^pocratcs was his difciple. 
3^44, The Egyptians, fupportcd by the AthcnianSi revolt againft 4 

^S4S* Defeat of the PcrHan army in Egypt. 4 

354^* '^^^ Egyptians and Athinians arc beaten in their turn. In 4 
oenfe<iuence of which all Egypt returns toits obedience to Ar^ 
taxerxes, and the Athenians retire to Dinarus, where they 
fuftain a fiege of a year. 

Battle of Tanagra in Bceotia, where the Athenians beat 
the Spartans, who were come to the aid of the Boeotians. 
«tco* NxHXMiAH obtaina Artaxerxei^i penniflion to return to 4 

3S54* Birth of XtKOPHON. 4 

Cimon, reca'K-d from banifliment after five yean abfence, 
reconciles the Athenians anu Spartans, and makes them con- 
clude a truce of five years. 
3555* ^^^ of the war bitwcen the Greeks and Perfians, which had 4« 
continued, from the burning of San/is by the Atheniani^ 
fifty -one years. 
Death of Cimon. 
355^* "^^^ Lacedemonians conclude a truce for thirty yean with 4* 
the Athenians. The latter foon break it by new eoterprites. 

En PS DOC LES, the Pythagorean philofopher, flouriihcd 
about this time. 

Myxok, the famous fculptorof Athens. 
J5€4« Pericles makes war with the S.imian*, and takes the capital 44 
of their iflantl alter a fiege of nine months. 

Zr.vxis, the famous painter, difciple of Apollodonii« 
Pa xRHASiushis rival lived at the fame time. 
AaisTOPHANXs, the comic poet* 
^Ctt Btrthof ]soc»ATES. 4^ 

War between the Corinthians and the people of Corcyra. 
The Athenians engage in it in favour of the Corcyreant. Tha 
isihabitantt of Potidca declare on the fide of Corinth againft 
Athens. Alcibiadis begins to appear in this war» which 
tccafions that ol Peloponnefus. 
y S€0»AS, architcft aod fciil(»tor» 


-Ï - • T A B L E. 193. 

^ >1 It S I A N s AMD O R E B K S. AntJ.C. 

|Z "Mltfniilnt nf Thir Prlïïfnnnrflin nir It rubfiftii7yeiri, 431. 
^ Ji tvnibk «ligite rages in Attica, The phyfician Hippo. 430. 
atfeu ttMaginim himfelf by' hit extraordinary care of the udc. 
' DeMli of Perielei. 41». 

The Lacodsmoniant befiege Platane. 4tg, 

Plvto* founder of the ancient academy* 
1; Dcalbcff Aifiuwrxei. Xsrxei hiifon fucceedthlm. He 42 e, 
irikiMoii^ foity-fiire davi. 
SooBiAMvi puti xerxei to death, and caufei himfelf to 
' ht acknowledged king in hit ftead. His reign continue* only 

* fix monthi. 

It, OcRVi» known under the name of Darxv 8 NoTHvi» rids 4S4, 
' hlmfelfot SdgdianuB, and fucceedi him. 

The Athenians, under Nicias, make themfelTei mafteri 

• cf Cfthera. 

• , Thucydidei ii baniHied by the Athenians, whole army he 
* commanded, for having fuffcred Amphipolis to betaken, 
PoLYGMOTUs, famed particularly for his painting in tho 
portico called noix/\N at Athens, in which he reprefented the 
' principal events of the Trojan war. 
|]r Treaty of peace . condudod, by the ap|>lication of Kicias, 49 1* 
between the LacedaemonlanB and Athenians, in the tenth 
year from the beginiiing of the Lacedamonian war. Aldibiades, 
by an impofture, occafions its being broken the following year. 
U. Thi hantjhmtnt of Hyuerbolus puts an end to the OJiractJm» 4so« 
91 Alcibiades engages the Athenians to aiTift the people of 4i6, 

Epefta againft the Syracufans. 
\^'''' Alcibiades, one of the generals Tent to Sicily by the Athe- .415, 
nians, is recalled to Athens to anfwer accufations againft him. 
He fliei to Sparta, and is condemned for contumacy. 
p, Pifuthnes, governor of Syria, revolts againft Darius. Ttie 414, 
"•Sgyptians do the fame, and chufe Amyrtcus for their king, 
who reigns fix years. 
Il« Alcibiades, to avoid the envy which his great aélioni had 411, 
drtwn upon him at Sparta, throws himfelf into the arms of 
TilTaphernes, one of the king of Perfia*s fatraps. The Lace- 
daemonians, by the help of Tiflaphernes, conclude a treaty ' 
of Alliance with the king of Perfia. 
,]« Alcibiades is recalled to Athens. His return occafions 409J 
the abolition of the Four Hundred, who hud been invcfted 
with fupreme authority. 

Darius gives Cyrus, his younpeft fon, the government in 
chief of all the provinces of Afia Minor, 
it« LvsANDia is placed at the head ofthe Lacediemonian«. 4o5« 
He defeats the Athenians near Ephefus. In confcquence uf 
that defeat Alcibiades ii depofed, and ten generals uru nomi- 
' nated to fucceed him. 
,A, Callicr APiDAS has the command of the nrmy in the 405, 
room of Xyfandcr, from whom th: Lacediemoniani had taken 
It. He is killed in a fca-fi^ht near the Argunifse. 

Lyfandcr is reftored to the command of the Lacedsemonian 
irroy» He gains a famous viAory over the Aibcnians at 

J94 C H R O N O L O G I C "A L 


3r()9. CoKON» who commanded ihc Athenian force j, «ctirtt^er 

his deicjt CO Evaporas, king of Cypius. 
36C0. Lyfander makes himfelf maftcr ot Athens^ cbangcitbe form 
cf the pnvcrnment, and cft^blinies thirty Archoos^ com- 
monly called the thiity Tyrants. 
I- nd of the Peloponnefun war. 

Death of Darius Nothus. Arsacss, bis Ton, ibcceedt 
him, and takes the name of AnrAXEnxxt Mkimon. 

Cyrus the younger intends to a'fl'airinate his brother Ar- 
tjxerxcs. His defign being difcoveicd, he is frnt to the ma- 
ritime provincîS, of which he was governor, 

3601. Interview of Cyrus tlie younger and Lyfander at Sardit. , 
1 hr^ifybulus expels the tyiajii;» of Athens^ and rc-eftabllihei 

its liberty. 

3602. C\rus the younger prepares for a war with his brother Ar- 

3603. IVfeat AnA deaih of Cyrvs the younger a: Cunaxi^ followed 
by the retreat of the Ten Thoufand. 

Death of Sivr^ttct. 

3604. I.aceùxmon declares war agalnft Tifl*jphernes and Pharoa* . 

3606* Beginning of Amyntas» king of Macedonia^ father of 

3607. AcFSiLAi'S iselcAcd king of Sptrta« The year following 

he goes to Attica, to the aiif of the Gieeks ft) tied there. 
36C9. Lyfander qu^nrls wltl) Agcfilans and undertakes to change ' 

the orver of the fucoUVioa to the thionc. 

The army of Tiflapherncs is defeated near Sardis by Age- 

3610. Thebcf| Argos, and Corinih, enter into a league agaînfl 1 

Laceda^mon, at the folicitaiioi) of the Perfuns. Athens en- 

ters into the fame league foon afi er. Agcfilaus is recalled bv 

the F.phori to the afliilance of his country. 

The fleet of the Lacedaemonians is defeated near Cnidof bv 

Pharn.«b.\fu?) and Conon the Athenian, who commanded 

thatofihe Peilians and Greeks. A^rfibus de felts the 'I'lie- 

buns almoil at the fame time in the plains of Corunxa. 
Conon rebuilds the walls of Athens. 

3617. i^e.icc fhjmeful to the Greeks concluded with the Perfians :| 
by Antjlvides the Licedxmonian. 

3618. Artaxerxe; .ttiacks E\ agoras, king of Cyprus, with all tl 
his forces, and gains a vi£\ory over him. 

It is followed by the fiege of Salamin, whit. h is terminated 
by a trcUy of peace. 
3620. Expedition of Artaxeixes againft the Cadufians. •! 

Birth of AmsTOTLF., founder of the Fcnpateticks. . 
3C21. The dcilare \ tJiecity of Olynthui. 3I 

Biith of Philip, king ot Macedon. 
3622* rii^iiPAS, en hit way to the liege of Olynthus, at the 3$ 
head of pait of the army uf (he LaccdxmoMians, makes 
himlrif maAer oi the citadel oi 'I hcbcs. 

Billh of D^MOSTHF NFS. 

3626. Pclopidas. at the head of the rel of the exiles^ kills the ty- 3H 
rants of Thcbc», and retakes the citadel. 

4 ArtJiol 

TABLE. 1$; 


Aitutfuci Mntmon undrtljicei lo reduce Ë^ypi, thit hid J77. 
(hmwn of) h» yoke lor fome yeaci. He «npioyi nbovE iwo 
yeihin m«kingprcp«ntjon for ihïi war. 
, Dciih of Am/iiiii, tiinj of Macedonii, AtHAsBin h!i 375,' 
cldtll foti fuccetdi him. He reign only' twoysais. Pi«- 

Dcitli u( £v*gDn>i king of Cyprui, Nicoclee bis fan 374. 
ru«t«l-. bim. 

Baltic of LcDftn, in which the Thebtni, nndei EpamU 3711, 
nondii ind Pclopidii, defeat ihe L^cedxmoDÎiini. 
;, Eipedition of Pclopidu igiinn Aieiandet, tyrant of Phetc, 3^9, 
He gnu to Macedonil 10 terminale the differencci between 
Peiditcai, and Plolemy fon of Amynlit, concerning Che crown. 
He cirriei Philip with him lo Thebea ai an haltige. He ia 
kihidin a battle which he Rghta with the (ytant ofPherz. 
, Biiile ol Manlinxa. Epaminondat ii kijlcd in it, after j&t, 
having fccuied the viflory ID the Thebani, 
"■ ' ■ " ' id Agelilaui to aid Tachta, king jto. 

" Egypt, igai 

nft Arta«r«i. He dethro. 

lei Tacbnr, and 

1 to Neainebut. He diet 

n hi. return from 


Death of At 

(iieniei MneiliDDi Ocmdi 

hii fou fuciecdi 

'iTie biftorjr of the Cappadocians begins at this time, 
the chronology of whofe kings I Ihall give after that 
!' of Alexander's fucceflbrs. 1 n>all annex to it that 
, of the Partbians, and of the kings of Pontus. 
L - Wir of the ailiei with the AiheniiDi. It continuel ibice jjS, 

Fbilip beliegei and takei Aniphipolii. 
t. Rtvoltof Arubafui againA Othua king of Pcrlia, jjS. 

J, Demoflhenei appeari in public for the firft time, and ea- 355, 
cDurigrt ihe Athenian!, alarmed by the preparalioai of wu 
miking b^ the king uf I'erfia. 
Beginning of the facred War. 
3. Death of Miufok», king of Caria. 3(4. 

I. piiilijimakeihimrelfmaAerofthctilyDfMethone. 3J3. 

I, Ait E Mill A, widow of Maulbluj, to whom Ihc had fitc- 351, 
(Mded, lakei Rhode). 

Philip attempli to feiie Thermopyl* in Tain. 
1, Succefiful expedition of Ocbui againft Phsnicia, Cyprui, 357. 

and aflerwardi Egypt, > 

^, Keflanebui, the laft king of Egypt of the Egyptian race, 350. 

Uobligedto HyintoEthiopia, from whence he never iclutai. 
i. Death of Plato. 343. 

PbiUp makei himPeirmaflerof Olynthui. 
t. PfiilipfeiiBiTbermopyiz, and part of Phocit. He caufei 34(. 
hiaiftu to be admitted into the number of the Amphiftywii, ' 

' K X Oration 




3662. Orztion of Dttaotthttm^ concerning the CherfinefnSy ia 
favour of Diopithus. 

3665. The Athenians fend aid undir Phocion to the driet of Pe- 
Vinibus and Byeantium, bcfiiged by Philip. ■ That prince ii 
o\ litcxî to raife the fiegc 

3666. Philip i) declared generaliflfimo of the QttAfîn the coun- 
c 1 -f the Amphiélyc^ns. He make^ himfeif nufter of Elatza. 

Battle of Chercnaea, wherein Philip defie«ts the Atfaeniani 
ard the Thtbans, \^ho had entered into a league againft him. 

Ochu-, king (>f Pcrfia, \% poifoned by Bagoa» his favourite. 
Ax SE» his Ton fucceeds him, and reigns bay -three years. 

3667. Phi.ip csufes himtcJf to be declared general of the Greeks • 
agiinfl the Pcrfians. The fame year he repndutes hit wife 
d'ympia. His fon Alexander attends her into Epimi, from 
when-e he gofS to lliyria, 

3668* Pbi.ip's death. Alexandze his (on» then twenty yean • 

of agr, j'ucceoiis him. 

AmsEB, king or Perfia, i« aflafficated by Bagcas» Da- 

Rics CoDOM AN v9 fuccceds him. 
3669. Thebes tcken?Rd deAroyed by Alexander. Hecanfeahim- 

felf to be liecLrcd gcnrraliflimo of the Greeks againft the Pcr- 

fians in a diet aiTcmbied at Corinth. * 
36-0. Alexincer fcts ."ut for Pf f\.\. 1 

Ba:tle of the Granicus, followed with the conqueft of almoft 

all Afu M.nor. 

3671. Alexander is taken at Taffus with a dangeroQsillncfSy from ; 
having bithcd in the river Cydnus. He is cured in a few days* 

Bitile of lllus. 

3672. Alexander makes himfelf mafter of Tyre, after a fiegeof ] 
feve'n month*. 

Ar ELLES, one of the moft famous painters of antiquity, 
Aristipes and Protocenvs were his contemporariei. 

Alexander goes to Jerufa!em. He makes himlclf matter 
of Gas s and foon after of all Egypt. He went after this con* 
qucft to the temple of Juptter-Ammoni and at his return 
bui:t the city of Alexandria. 

3673. Ba'.ile of Arbcla. It is fallowed with the taking of Ar« ]] 
bcby Bab) Ion, Sufa, and Perfepolis. 

3674. Darius is fcizcd and laden with chain» by Bcifiit» and ioon 3j 
after affailinated. His death puts an end to the Perfian em> 
pire, which had fubfiiled 206 \cari from its foundadoB under 
Cyrus the Great, 

The L'cedKmoniaas revolt againft the Macedonians. Ab« 
tipater defeats tnem in a battle, wherein Agis their king 
is killed. 

Thaleftri*, queen of the Amacons, comet to fee Alex* 
andcr a: Z «dr.'cata. 

Phi iotas, und Pamieni't his father, iufpeâed of having con* 
fpiredwith I'Hers .>ga:nft Alexander, arc put to death. 

3675. BrfTus is brought to Alexander, and foon after pvtto detth. | 
Alexander, after having fubdued the Sogdians and Baâri- 

ans, buiidi a city upon the laxartes, to which he givct his 

TABLE. 197. 


I» Smiiafly of the Scythiant to Alexander^ followed by a vie- 329* 

tOfy gained by bim ever that people. 

LTiiPPii8-ef Sicyon^ afa.oxous iculptor> fiouriiZied about 

this time, 
ik Alexander makes himfelf mailer of the rocky eminence of 32s* 

Clitus is killed by Alexander at a feaft in Maracanda. The 
j^ ^iatb.of £dli^enei happens foon after. 

AlexaA^ iparries Roxaaa, the daughter of Oxyartes. 
(^ Alexander's eittrancé into India. He gams a great Tiâory, 3271 

Cfver Poriitfk^paâîfi^ the'Hydafpes* «^ 

%, On rhr rsriMig^mrrn of Ms army» Alexander determines to - 326. 

The city ^^Bmfdncx taken. Alexander in great danger there. ■ 
1^ AlQBMdprVipatriilp .with .*Staitr»y..tke4!^ft daughter of 3^5* 
Darius. . ; . . % 

Revolt of'Hsrpalus, whom Alexander had iBââj»|f9V«ri|9r 
of Babylon. ^ . ; 

Dcmofthenes is baniihed for having received prefenttj â&d 
fufiêrcd himfelf to be corrupted by Harpalus. 
bi Death of He|<heftion at Ecbatana. 314. 

MxNANDxa^ the inventor of the new comedy^ lived about 
this time. 
It. Alexander, on his return to Babylon, dies there» at the age . 323. 
of two-and-thirty yests and- eight months. AaiojBus, that 
prince's natural brother, Is decUrcd king in his ftead. The 
rcgiency of the kingdom ii given to Perdiccas. 

The generals divide the provinces ampngftthemfelves. From 
this divifion commences the aira of the empire ot the Lagidea 
• U Egyptk 

The Athenians revolt, and engagie the ftatet tf Greece to« - 
csfbr into a league wkh them. Demofthenes ii recalled from 
!§• Antipster is befieged in Lami»^by the Athenians, and forced ^%2r 
to forrcnder by capitulation. He foOn aftcf feitfet Athens^ 
and puts a garrifoo into it. ■• ... 

Death of Demofthenes. . . . 

^ Aknander*s magniiieent funeral. 321"» 

PxaoiccAS puts Eumenei into pofîeflion of Cappaiocia. 
League of Piolemy, Craterui, Antipatcr, and AntigonWi 
againfl Perdiccas and Eumenes. 
Death of Craterus. 

Unfortunate end of Perdiccas in Egypt, ^ntipater fucceedt' 
him in the regency of the empire, 
14. EvMZNES, defeated \y Antigonus, ihuts .himfelf up in 320. 
the caAle of Norj, wh re he fuAains a fiege of a year. 
Ptolemy makes himself maftcr of Jcrufalem. 
Ijt Death of Aniip.<tcr. Pol yipxsc hon fuccccdshim. 319, 

Phocion's condemnation and death at Athens. 
Cassander, fon of Antipater, feizes Athens, and fettles 
Demetrius Phalereus there to govern the republic. 
17* Olympias, the mother of Alexander, caufcs Aridaeus, and 317. 
Eorydice hit wife, to be put to death, as ibe herfclf is foon 
after hy order of CaA'ander. 

K- 3 Eomen' 

it '. 



3689* Eumenei is delivered up to Antigonui by hit own Mittn, 3 

and put to duth. 
369t. Anticonvi tikriTyrcaftert firfcofi5 mcfithi. Deme- } 

mrtriui hit fon, fumamni pgliorcetr «i brgins to appear. 
1^691. Z E KO inPiiutci ttie fed of the Stoicki at Athrn». ) 

3(93. .SKr.rucu9 niskei himfclf maflcr of Babylon» and the | 
nctflil.*'iuiing provinccf. 

At thii expedition of Seleacui agtinA Bab)rlon brgîni the 
famoui zra of the Sclcucidei, called by the Jcwa tbt atn of 

Ptolemy rettrci into Efypt, and carrief a |rratntmibcrof the 
inhabitant! of Phcenicia and Judxa thither along with him. 

CaHandcr caufei Koxana, and her Ton Alcxaodcri to be pot 
to dfith. 

3695. P'jlyfpercbon puti Herctilcfi the fon of Alesanderi tad bit 31 
nv thcr Bctciiicc to death. 

3696. Ophcllav governor of Libya, rcvolti againft Ptolemy. 3 
369}$. I'>r.METRiui PoLioRciTii makcihimfelf mifter of 3 

Athrn«y and re-cftablifhci the domocratical gotemmer.t, 
Th<* Umc year h? makci himfclf mafter of SaJamini and the 
whole ifl^pfl of Cyprus. 

Urmctriu* Phalercufy «rho commanded at Athcni, retirci 
to Th^rbei. The Athenian! throw down hii ftaioet, and 
ccndemn him to death. 

Antigonu*, and bU fon Demctriuii afTume the title of kînp. 
Thr other prince* follow their orampl", and do the fame* 
^(^'), Ati\ fr.\,itif to make the moflof liti f<m*i victory in Cypruf, 31 
tiii<krtik'« to deprive Ptolemy of tgyit. That expedition 
doc «4)01 futccrd. 

Ptolemy the aftronomet fixef the beginning of the reign of 
Ptolemy king of Egypt on the 7th of Nov, of thia year. 
3700. Dcmctriui Poliorcetes forms the fiege of Rbodci» which he 31 

il forced to raife a year after. 
3;ci. The Rhodians employ the money raifed by the fale of the ]C 
Dachine, which Demetrius hadufed in the firge of their ciry, 
and had given them at a prefent, in creating the famous Co- 
lofTufy called the Colnfluf of Rhodes. 

Demetrius Poliorcetes is declared general of all the Crccki 
by the fiâtes of Greece afTembled at the inhmut. 
3701* Ptolemy, Seleucus, CafTander, and Lyftmarhuii enter into ]: 
a league againft Antigonus, and Demeiriut his fun, 

Baltic of I pfus, wherein Ant igniius is defeated. It is fol- 
lowed by the divifion of the empire of Alexander amon^ the 
four allied princes* 

AftotiikAvs^ founder «f the middle Kadem|r. 


T A 

■ L- ff.* 

much conneélîoit between the e«tils which 

happen in the four eiiipircs formed out of Alexan- 
der'!, that it i( impoHible to feparate them : for 
whidi r«afon I Ihall difpofe them all in one column, 
according to the plan I have followed in (resting 
tltem in the body of my hiltory. J ftiall firft give n 
table that contains only the kings that reignett in 
each of thofc kingildm». 

t. A M.J, 






St LIU cut 




i> killed in a 

17 Bum tim«t 

b.ttle. AftM 
hii death hit 

and taCe to 

(onn ■ dilliait 













-V•^ib■af An^ 



tigonas Co- 



nut ï>QW09m 


Sexeucvs Cbiaw- 




























the Macedoni» 













3887. Ptolemy 
.* Lathykus. 


3897. Alsxan- 
f>ift I. brother 
of LathjruK 



Antiochus Eupa* 

Demetrius Sotxr. 
Alexander Bala. 


Antiochus THSot, 
the fon of Bala, feizes part 
of Syria. TRYPHONdoes 
the fime foon after. 

Antiochus Sidx- 
t X s putsTryphon to deathj 
and reigns in his room. 

Zkbina focceeds De- 
metrius Nicator. 

Selevcus, the fon of 



ANT1OCHUI9 the Cy« 
slcenian, divides the 
doffi with Gryptts* 

foiirlli fun of Gtjpuj. 

Ot, fifdi IbnofCrypui. 

TliF Four Ijû naiK'^it blngV 
trienfd fu(ceffl*clï Willi Eu- 

TiaiANii duiing fuur- 

Bireniïc, tUr 


tn of Ai 



> ion 

s licit 

1, aru. 


that prino 



iKO' 1 

It fîi 

with bcr 1 



,, th, .1 

h<r y 

b^h", °. 


laft .k 



Dr^lh ur f-ffinj! 

futcndt him, He Kigoi ii: 

le y( nl 

DtJi hit brcthtr. ...g 

ut tL... ilm« I 

of Et>i>u>. 
KlUini Ut 

crpoufci Anlip> :>, of 
hii dommioni, ,>gl ol 

the hKuft of 1 

by IhcMobKi, 


retikci Aihcnt. 


- >gj. 

chu. .od F 

'lultinv, ilmoft It ilie 

ùme lime, dtpii*! 

: him 


il) he pofT ind. 


n«l<r, Icing of M 


' >94> 

«bo h.d t 

^lUd himinio hiiaid, 

, andrciicihiidoi 


¥>hc« ho 

rcitn» fivtn ytm. 


ion of lh« city ofSelcui 

tij hv ScIegEU., 

. W: 



The 1*1 Mt 


folluwingin piifgi 


MV SuTi., kintuF K 

iypf, rtfigui the i 

> *?j 

h.> fen r- 

101 tMV l>HII,At.KI,ï 




lu. PhalciBUtiilbulup 

ill 1 fu(t by «I'lliit ul J'htK 

,. HJ 

Wfhu., . 

J IiUlt hinfulf the». 




3712. Seleucus Kicator, king of Syriii declarei wtr againft Lyfi- a 

machus» king of Macedonia. 
3713* Lyûmachus it killed in a battle in Phrygia. Seleucus en- % 

ten Macedonia to take pofTelHon of the kingdom. Heisaf- 

fafliiiated there by Ceraunus. Antiochus Sotir» his 

fon, fucceeds him in the kingdom of Syria. 

3724. C£RAUNvs, to fecure the kingdom of Macedonia to him- : 
fclf, puts the two children of Seleucus by Arfinoc to death, 
and banifhes her into Samothracia. 

The republic of the Achaeans refumes its ancient form) 
which it had loll under Philip and Alexander. 

Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, called in by the Tarentines> goes 
to Italy to make war againft the Romans. He gives tlicm 
battle for the firft time near Heraclea, where the advantage 
is entirely on his fide. He is again fuccefsful in a fécond 
battle fought the year following. 

3725. Irruption of the Gauls into Macedonia. Ceraunus gives : 
thetii battle, in which he is killed. Mklxacer his brother 
fucceeds him. 

3716. Pyrrhus abandons Italy, and goes to Sicily, which he ] 

SosTHTNis drives the Gauls out of Macedonia. He ia 
made king there, and reigns two years. 

Attempt of the Gauls upon the temple of Delpbos. 

3717. PtoK-my Philadclphus, king of Egypt, caul'es the holy fcrip* S 
tures to be tranilated into Greek. 

3728. Death of SoHhenes. Antigonus Gokatas, fonof Po- 1 
licrcctes who nrigned afterwards duiing ten years in Greece, 
makes^imfelf king of Macedonia in his room. Antiochus, 
king «f Syria, difputes the poHeflion of it with him. ^7hcir 
dift'eirnic terminates by the marriage of Antigonus with Phi- 
la, the daughter ifStratonice and Seicucus. 

3729 Antiodius defeats the Gauls in a bloody battle, and deli- t 
vtrs the country from their opprtiTions. By this viOory he 
acquires the name of 5o/rr. 

3730. Pynhu.« returns into Italy, and is defeated by the Romans, t 
He goes to Macedonia, whcie he attacks aini defeats Anti- 

Pro! my Philadelphus, in efTedt of the reptitation of the 
l^i'm. n^, fends an cr.'.baOy to them to demand their amity. 

37J^* Hytrhus ur;dcit^kes the ficgc of S, ^rta, and lannut leduce 9 
it. He is killed the next year at the fie^e ot Ar|{us. 

3736. Ar.iiiionus Gonatas mukcs himfolfmjftcrot Athens, which a 
had entered intoa lea«re with the Laced;emi>ni'.(ns againft him. 

3739. Abantioas makes hlmfelf tyrmt of Sicyun, after huv- 2 
ii ^ I ut Clikias, its governor, to death. 

NtAGA*!, goveri^>r ot C)renaica and Libya, revolts againft 
Ptjlc:»^y Philadrlphus. 

^74r. Dwiuh of Phih tores, king, and founder of Pcr^amus. 2 
£ u M X N t s, his ii.phrw, fucceeds him. 

3743* Antiochus Sotcr, king of Syiia, caufcs his fon Ahtio- s 
CHUS rii be picclaimca king. He dies foon alter. 
fiftAvsui of BabjloA^ the hiUoriaoy lived about this tim:. 


TABLE. aoj 


If. AccemmodaliDD beiwccn Migai mi Piolimy FhiladiU ajS* 

I). Wir bctwcoi Aniiocbut, kias af Sjiii, *nd Pulcmy Pbl- IJ5. 

;l. Abatui, (hc Ton ofCliinif, dclîven Sicjon from tyran- *Ji> 

ny, and untlei il nith the Aihzan leigue. 
;4, Abiacii nvDiii «giûnlt Agathocln, goremor Tor Anti- >{•• 

ochui in tbecounicy of the Paithiini. A boni the lânieitinG 

Th tODDK ua, governur or B.^riui, rcvolti, and aala tûi^ 

feJf te be detlaced kint of tbal piurlnce, 
15. licuy of peiM b«w«n Antiochui and Ptolemy Philad*!- 149. 

pbui, YilàLh f uta (u end lo liie war, By one of the condi. 

lioni of tbit treaty, Aniiachui rcyudiaici Lacdice, aod mat- 

t)c> Bennice, Piolcny'i daugliter. 
;C. Aaii, king of Sparta, cndeiYOun to revive the ancient 14I. 

isllituiiDn of 'LycurEui. Leonidat, hit collcfue, ii dcpafcd 

for refuting to confepi to it. Cleambrotui, bii foa-in-law, 

riignt in hit fteid. 

7. Death of Ptolemy PliiWeljhiit, king of Egypt, Pto- «47. 
LiMV EviHotTit, bii Sua, (uicccdi him. 

AroLi,nN fvt of Rhodeii suibor of 1 puctn upoD (be n- 
pediiion cf ihc Argoniuii. 

8. AatiDchut, futnamed Tbcci, king of Syiii, it poifencil 34S. 
by bii wife Laodice. She afterwarli uufe) her ron!)ii.i.u- 

cul CALtiKIcvi 10 be declined king. 

Bennice, aod her fus AnliocbiK, are alT.ninated by 

ofS'yr,,. "■ ' '"""""' """ " t"»?M 

The cidet of Smyrna and Magnefia entri into id illlasce «44, 
io aid ibeking of Syria agiinft piolemy Euergwei. 

AWui make» hicnfell mafter of tiie tuadel of Corinlb. 

LioniOAt il rcAoxd at Spatti, CIcombioiui lent into 
bMilhmiw, und Agit put to deich. 

Death a( Aniigon»! Coniiti, king of Micsdoda. Di- Hit 
MlTiiDi hit foa fcccccdtbim. ' 

Soleocai, ftiag of Syria, tnttri into 1 war with AiiTi- 
ocaoa IJiaiAX, bli brother. The htta lu< cJ» «dvsa- 
tage in a batik near Ancyra in Oil.iiia. . 

Death of Esmeniia, king of Ptrgiimui. At-Talu)) hii X4t. 

EiATOiTHtNti, thi Cytcni^n, ii iTTiide lihnoin to 139, 
Piokmy Eucrteto. 

Idiii'ii, nephew of the high-ptlcll Oniai, ii fent am- i^t, 
baJT4d<.t to I'ltlemy E:e-cnç'. 

Suleucus, king ufSjria, ii dduicj and tJktn prifonet by ïjOi 
Arfacei, kingol ihe i'.iiliijT... 

Cliominii, king L.I Si.arij, giini a great viflofy ovef 118. 
tiM Acbmuu uid Aiatut. 



377S. Scleucus CaUinicus, king of Syria» dies amongft the Pa^ 
thians of a fall from an borfe. Sxlsucus Cxraunus, his 
cldeft fon, fucceeds him. 

Antiochus Hierax isaHafiinated hy thieves on leaving Egypt. 
• Aratus defeats Arifiippus, tyrant of Argos. He prevails 
upon Lyfiades, tyrant of MegaiopsUs, to renounce the tynuiny> 
and make his city enter into the Achsan league. 
1779. The Romans fend a fanous embaffy iato Greece, to Sm- 
pfltt to the Greeks the treaty they had lately concluded with 
the Ilîyrians. The Corinthians decltie by a public decree, 
that they fliall be admitted to fhare in the celebration of the 
lAhmian games. The Athenians al(b grant them the firee- 
dom of Athens. 

Antigonus, king of Macedonia» by the management oi 
Aratus, is called in to aid the Achseans againft the Lacedst- 
37S1. Cleomenes, king of Sparta, takes Megalopolis. 

Battle of Selafia^ followed with the taking of SpirU by 

Death of Seleucus Ceraunus, king of Syria. Antiocrus 
his brother, furnamed Thx Grkat, fucceeds him. 

3782. The ColoAus of Rhodes is thrown do^'n by a great earth- 1 

3783. Death of Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt. Ptolxmt î 
Philopator fucceeds him. 

The /^tolians gain a great viAory at Caphya over the 

3754. Antiochus reduces Molon and Alexander, who had revolted 3 
againfl him two years before, the firft in Media, the fecoad 

iii Per lia. 

Death of Antigonus, king of Macedonia. Philip, the 
fon of Demetrius, fucceeds him. 

Clecmenes. king of Sparta, dies in Egypt. The Lacede- 
monians t[t£{ Agefipolis and Lycurgus to fucceed him. 

War of the allies with the iCtolians, in favour of the 

3755. Her MI AS, prime miniAer of Antiochus, is put to death ] 
by that prince's orders. 

37S7. BattleofRaj'hia, between Ptolemy king of Egypt, and An- 

Uochus king of Syria. 

Treaty of peace between Phiiip king «f Macedonia and 

the Achaeans on one fide, and the i£tolians on the other, 

which puts an end to the war of the allies. 
^7^8. Antiochus bcfiogcs Achaeus, who had revolted in Sardis, and j 

after a ficge of two years he is delivered up by the treachery 

of a Cretan. 

H.'nnibaPs alliance with Philip, king of Macedonia. 
«789. Philip receives a coniidcrable blow from the Romans at the : 

(iegeof Apolîonia. 
3790*. Car NE APES, founder of the new academy. 
3792. Antiochus undertakes to reduce the provinces which had 

thrown off the yoke of the Syriaa empire, and efl^As it in 

the fpAcc of fcvcki yeaic, 


I' ' > .%v 

' TABLE. «5 


|i, Alljirce of ihe ^tolians wUh ihe ItominB. AUilu!, ni. 

kiogofPEigiimui, enlciri inid il. The LiccdiemoniiDS catae 

iiilo it fame lim: after. 
|G. famous baitle bciwetn Philip king ofMicedania >nd the ioS> 
j ^toliani nsBrElIi. FuiLOrDiMEN diftinguiOici himrdf 

^1, BaClle of MantifiEI, wherein Philopomen defeats Ma- 206. 
[ C8ANIDAI, tyrant of Sputa, wiio feiilhei ia jl. Nabii 

DO. Treaty of pEice bclWEcn Philip and the Ramant, All tht 104. 

lilies un both CdES are included in il. 

Pdlybiub iifoid to hive been, born thiiyear. 
Deilh of Pioiemy Philopalot, king of Egypt. 
Ptolemy Efiph AN III, at tbac time only five ycarg cfd, 

fucceedi him. 
gi. League between Philip cf Micedon, and Antiachus kioE loj. 
I, of Syria, sgiinft the young king ol Egypt. 
p, Philip, king «f Mandonia, ii defeated by Ihe Rhodlani aoïr 

in a fei-Bghi off the iQind of Chio. Thit prince's cruel 

treatment of che Cyaneani feemi to be properly dated the 

follouring yeir. 
n, Philip befieges and takci Abydai. pot. 

14. The Romani declare war with Philip, P. Sulpi'!"' '• aoo. 
.. appointed to trommand in it. He giini a conhduible viiftory 

near llie town of Oflolo^ha in Macedonia. 
14, Villicui fucceedt Sulpitiui in the commatid of the «Dny i;g, 

■gainll Philip. The jeat following Flamini nus it fen i lo 
, foccud Villicui. 

1$. AnrïochuB. kingofSytia, fubjeâiPalenine and Cslafy]]a. teg. 
f The Achainj declare for iheRoraani ijainft Philip. 

tv. Interview of Philip and the conful Flamininus. ,07. 

>, Nabii, tyrant o( Spana, decUtei for the Komaai, The 

' Bdotiani do the fame, 

t Death of Ailalui, king of Pergimui, Eumikei fnc- 

■ cwdi him. 

', Battle of Cynofcepbale, where theRomini gain ■ coni^eK 

J nâoiy ore» Philip. 
pt. Treaty of peace between Philip and the Rocnani, whieh jgli. 

Coofpiracy of Seopaj, the Mlaiiin, agaiaft P 

nelriis, Chaici), and 
i the Latedsmoniani 

•I the Araiis of Tbermcf vIki 




3S14. Battle of Mftgnefia, followed by a treaty of peace, which 
puts an end to the war between the Romans and Antiochos, 
that had fubfiftcd about two yean. 

The philofupher Pan atius was born about this time. 

«3 15* '^^^ conful Fulvius forces theiKtolians to fubmit to the 
Romans Manlius, his coHegue, almoft at the fame time 
fubje^s all the GhuU in Afia. 

The cruel treatment of the Spartans by thetr exiles, fop* 
ported by Philopœmen, happened this year. 

jSiy* Anticchos the Great, kingof Syria, is killed In the tem- 
ple of Jupiter Beius, which he had entered in order to plun- 
der it. SsLtvcus Pkilopatok fucceeds him. 

jSti* Philopoemen is taken before Meflfene, by Dinocrates, and ] 
put to death. 

«323. Demetrius, Ton of Philip, king of MacedoniJ,- is unjuft!y ] 
accufed by his brcther Perfeus, and put to death. 

3814. Death of Ptolemy Epiphaner, king of E^ypt. Ptolzmy i 
Phtlometob fucceeds him. • 

3S25. Death of Philip, king of Macedonia. Piasius his fon ] 
fucceeds him. 

3S29. Seltucus Philopator, king of Syria, is poifoned by Helio* ] 
dcrus, whom he had fent a little before to take Jerufalem. 
He is fucceedcd by Antiockus Ep if h an es. 

3830* Antiochus Epiphanes caufes Onias the high-priiift of Je» ] 
rufjlcm to be depofed, ar.d fets Jafon in his place. 

3833. War between Antiochus and Ptolemy Philometos. ] 

The Remans declare war againil Perfrns, That prince has 
fomc ad\antdge in the firft butilc near the river 

3S34. Antiochus Epiphanes makes himfidf mifter of ail Egypt, i 
He marches afterwards to Jerufalem, where lie commits 
unheard-of cruelties. 

3835, The Alexandiianf, in the room of Phihimeter, who h.M i 
fallen inio the hands cf Antiochus, make Ptolemy 
Evert Et ES, his younger brother, king. 

Philomcior is fet at liberty '.he fame year, £nd unites y^hh 
his brother. That uniou induces An.icchus to renew the war. 

3836. Pjulus >^milius is charged with the Mjcedoniaa war 1 
againft Perfeus. He gains a famous vi<^o:y over that prince 
rear Pydnj, which puts an end to the kingdom of Macedonia. 

It wûs not reduced, howc\er, into a province of the Romaa 
empire till twenty years after. 

Thcprxîor AnicÎMS ful^jjfls Illyria in thirty d.»ys. 

Pojïiliuf, one of the amb (Ttdvis fent by the Romans int^ 
Eg\p(, cblig.s Antiochus tj qu t it, and come to an accom- 
modjtiiun with the two bto:bers 

Antiochus, cx;W'jieraicd a', what had happened in E^ypt, 
turns his rage agiinlt the JvW , an<l fends Apo)loniu> to 

The fame year he publl/hcs a d'Krce to oblige alî nations 
in fubjctlijn to him 10 rcnou-icc their own reliciûs, and 
to conturm to his. ihis law Ov.cafions a cruel perfc^uiicil 
amongft the Jews, 
1^37» Antiochus goes in perAn to Jerufalem, t» fee his orders 1 
put in execution. The nwiryroom of the Maccabecf^ and 
the death of Eleozer^ happened ut that lime. Pa« 

TABLE. . j!07 


i Ptului /Kmilluribindnni the dtici of Epirui lo be p!un- 
L imi by hn »rmy, for h-ring i.kcn Pttlcu.'. p«l. Th« 

Atb»nl, fufjieClcd of hiving Uvcured ihit riin», are fcnt 
I to Rome, to give an iccaunt of their conduÀ. The fenite 
I btnilh ihcm into dinercnl towni of Itilj, f mm whence ihcjr 

u* nut lulTiKri to return hume tiJI fcveatccn ycui ifter. fa* 
' Ijbiuiw;» aflhi<numb<r. 
I, PiuiiAi, king of Biihynij, go» to Rome. Eum«n«) iCt, 

kifJiiif Pifjunu), il nM pcmiiticd lo enltr it. 

Dttth of Mutiithiit, JunAi hit Con fuccetdi hirrii ind 

lib» many viftorict ««ei ihe gcninli of An<i»chut. 
^ Anlioihaa Cpiphanet it lepulfecl btfon Elymiii, where i£4i 
If ke fnttndcd top1>i"i)er ihr »nipl*. Hemirthriuiwirda Ju- 
: Jmi with itf\ffi t" eueraiinite the Jcwi, The hand uf 

God Urikei him on toe wty, ind he diet wlib the moA e*- 

faillie ibimenii. Amtioghdi £ui:.itok, bit Sm, fuc- 

Aotiothui EupAtor nurchei agiiinft Jecufilem. lie li fban ll]. 
tfler obliged to ntuTn intoSyriil, in ûdet coeiuel Philip a( 
Aniloch, whahidm.ide4iimrclf>tiin»orhiic.pial. 

il Diâeienct bctwai^n Philamnor, king of E{^v|ii, ind Phjf- tta, 

ff CAB bll biottleri which doci nut terminate itl! il'ler Ihe n- 

V jinxiaa of fin yein. 

I Oaariiiit «mbilTudoi for the Romw" in Sytîj, is iir*r- 

1 DiMiTiiiui SsTii, ibf fon'of SeIcucui Phibpitur, 
' flici frum Rome, wbcte he hid been kept ■■ an hoHiut, to 

)t Efili, wbeie he caiifca Anl]0chui Euuxor to Be put lo diatli, 

I and feliei the thionc. 

\j. Death of Judai Maccabaut. *TÏl> 

1^, Demcliiui ii acknowledged king of Syria by the Reioini, tSa, 

J. Diath <>f Eumenci, king af Per|»mui. Attalii Phi> tjf, 

||. War betwet^n Atlalui and PrufiH, Ij«, 

;i, vAi.KiANnii Bala pretcndi himrotf the fon of Antio- ijj. 

chua Ëpiphanci, and in ihat-quiliiy iitemuti to »aCe him- 

blf to be acknowledged king of Syria. 
;a. Andiiicui of AdtimyitiHm preltndi himfeif the fnn of IJl. 

Ptfftm, and UTideri.UeitocaofchimftIf 10 be dctl^ired itinj 

n( M.ichiila. He ii conquciel, taken, and fen no Rome 

by Melellua. 
\±. Dcmctriui Suter it killed in i bailie between him and tjOt 

Ale»n<l<:> Bala. Hit d<;aih leave! the latter in pofTciriDn of< 

the empire ..f Sjria, 
|6. MjceJnniJ It reduced inio > provmcc of ihc Roman empote. 14t. 
17, TruubJei in A>h'ii piommcl by Di^eu; and CriioUiiF. The 

tommiliioneri (ent Ihiihrr by ihe itotnana are infjlied. 

Creacc ii reduce,! into a Rooiao provinct under th%Dama 
•f the f rovincï vf Ai-hai*, 



The fcqucl of the hi(h>ry of the kingi of Svria it 
much emhroiled, for which reafon I (hall fepa- 
rate i% from that of the Egyptianii ia order to 
complete iti chronology. 
A. M, Ant.J.( 


3859. Dbmitrius Death of Ptole- * 14 

NicATOft, lun of tny Philometor. 

Dem«iriui Sotsr, Ptolxmy Pnvt- 

defeAti Alexander con, his brother^ 

Bala, and afcendi fucctedi him» 

the thrOiiC. 
S86«. AntiochvIi fur- 14 

named Tri9I| fon 
of hàUt fupported by 
Tiyphun,mAKe8 him* 
felf maftei^of part of 
the kingdom. 

Tryphon gets Jo- 
nathan intohis handi, 
and putt him to death 
at Pcolemaii. The 
year following he 
murders hit pupUAn- 
tioehus» and feixd 
the kingdom of Sy- 
3863. Pemetriuf marches l^ 

«fAinft the Paithi- 
ttfia. After Tome 
I'null «dvjni.(pri he 
ia taken ptifouer. 
3^^4« Antiocmus Si- h 

DE TES, the fécond 
fon of Dcmecrtiii So> 
ter, marrira Cleopa- 
tra, the wife if h\s 
lirother Denietiiui 
Nicator ; and after 
havin}; put Tryphon 
to dejthi he la de- 
clared king himfclf. 
3866. [Death of AtCa* 1 

lui, kin<( of Pcrga- 
mua. At TAi in, 
hi' ueplicw, fur- 
ntmcil PiiiLuMa- 
Toa, fjcrrcdshim. 
Hr rc»t'iii 5 vCi»»"*.] 
3^68, The iriiiiita ol i 

PI )lc (H at Alexan- 
dria ohlige mull of 
the inhabitania lo 
quit Ch« pi«cc, 



1. 8 V R 1 A. 

EGYPT. Ant.J,C. 

. AmiochuiSI 



H.rcuiui in . 






king brPetgimul, "t 

hi! dOlk ICIV» hi! 

min people, Andho. 


Antloctiui mtrchM 


tEtlnlt ihiPirthi- 

.S., ..1 

ny uliiantig»! 

rt<m Thcv 
bicic Ucmetrlu 



jrcir fallowlni. 

Dtmtitiut h;c>. 

TITht coflfulPïrpcn- 


tor rtliM «liln In 

n> dtl'eXi Anilronl- 


cui, «ndfcnJihimia 
Rom*. Thckin|<l«n 
of Plrgimu. li K. 
du.ed <h( %«t f«l. 
j.rt..lnf. br Mtniu. 

, hi. fi.» 


wile, Knd [Htciiobi* 

doigliierufths f>ni« 

B.m.. He II roan .f. 


hr ubligtd 10 fljr, tad 

tht Alriindrltni |ivo 

ill a £ovirnminl to 

CItopttri, whtiA h« 

1 DuunlM It km. 

h<d r«puililtcd. 

Pj-yfton r.jriiwit 



tided fun of De- 
ntlriui NicniDT, it 
dicltrtJ krng, ltd 
faun (hct killed by 
Cliapitri, Ant I' 



A.U. SYRIA. ^ ^ E c'y FT. AmLj.C. 

•gjj, Zebina it de- Phylcon gives hi« dtogh- ist. 

feftted bvGrypiUy ter in mmiage toGtyput» 
and dtct loon idjig of Syria, 
3St4* Cleopatra at- ***^ 

tempts to poifun 
Grypuiy and it 

poiioned herfclf, •. ,^ *«. r » 

*^ Death of Phyfcon. Pro- iiT» 

LIMY Lath Y eus fuc- 
ccedsbim. X^leopatra, bit 
mother, obliges liim to 
repudiate Cieopatri, hie 
eldeft filler, and to marry 
Selenaj his youngeft» 
^%^^, Ahtiochtjs, ''4« 

the Cyiiccnian, 
fon of Cleopatra 
detes, takes arms 
againft Grypus. 
He has the worft 
in the beginning, 
but in two years 
abliges his bro- 
ther to divide tho 
kingdom of Sy« 
tia with him* 
*|gi^ Cleopttra, qaeen of 1- li$t 

gypt, gives the kingdom of 
Cyprus to Alexander, her 
youngeft fon. 
-g^- Cleopatra diives Lathy- 107« 

^ rot out of Egypt, and places 

his brother Alexander up- 
on the throne. 
5^00, Signal viftory of Lathy- IC4. 

^^ ros over Alexander, king • 

of the Jews, upon the 
banks of the Jordan. 
-ÛCI, Cleopatra forces Lathy, icjt 

^^ rus to raife the fiege of 

Piolemat», and takes that 
cit> herfelf. 
.,0^^ Cleopatra takes her Id. 

^' ^* daughter Selena from La- 

thyrus,aod makes her mar- 
ry An(iochus the Cyaice- 
3907. Dea»hofGry- 9' 

pus. Set. Evrus 
his fon f jccccds 

^ TABLE. 311 



■. Antiochui the 



fcKcd, ud put 

M iutii. 

U Setcutt» i> dtftiWd by 


, Eufebe., and in 

' MdprucAU 


«f theCTj.ccui- " 

rdVio be declared 

JcinE. He m>r- 

>jci Scleni the 

widow ofCrypu» 

». AHTiocnni.fcrolhcrof 


Sekucui, ind fécond Ton 

of Giypui, iCCuain the di- 

adem. He i> prefenllr >(i» 

defotcd br Kurebei, and 

J. pH.L.r, bi. brolber. 


third fon of Crypu», fuc. 




■ it, fouTih fan ef Git- . 

pui, i. eftabliihed kini «t 
I3«ni»fcui by the ùd «f 

fc ^"'^""- A1«.nd.rWlI. 


JC, hii mother Clco- 

Sr P"ri- 

K Euhbil, de- Al»>nder >• 


K , felted by Philip «pelled. wd 

■ ind D^metriui, die. foon «fter. 

P rctireitothePir- Lathjtut 11 

1 ihiini, who re- recalled. 

Demecciui having been 
taken by the Hanhim!, 


of Grypu., 

eftaUiOi him up> 
en the Ihnine 
two jreiilAfteri 

ihe fifth fon 

killed the following year. 

The Syrians, weatyof Eurebeilakei 
r* many changes, chufe refuge in Cili- 

ia for I 

, He r. 



A, M. SYRIA. * 1ÇOVPT. AitJ. 

39»!» Latliynii fuinsTbebci is 1 

Xgyptf where the rebeb he 
liad before defeated had 
taken refuge. 

^$i%9 Death of-kathjrni. A- 

%xxAiiiHCR II. tbm pi 
Alexander I. under the 
protedion of Sylb^ b 
elcâed king. 

392?. * [Death of Kicnmedciy 

fciog of Bithynia. Hia 
hiogdom it redaced into a 
Xoman province ^ ai ia 
Cjreoaica the fame year.] 

3935» Tîgranes re- 
calls Magdalus 
hii viceroy in 


Ai I A T 1 C us 

takes po:Te(Tion 

of fome parts of 

Syria J and reigna 

fcLf years. 
3fJ9» Pcmpcy ds- Aîexander it drir^n 

. prives A ntiochus out of Egypt. Ptole- 

Afiaticus of his mt Avletes, La hyw 

dcmJnion% and nit^t natoral fon^ ia fet 

reduces Syria in- îq hit place* 

to a Roman pio- 

«945, The Romans depofe 

'Ptolemy, king of Citrus, 
and feîze that ifland. Cito 
is charged with that com- 

Ptolemy Aulctes is ob- 
liged to fly from Egypt; 
Berenice, the eldeft of hit 
daughters, is declared 
queen in his ftcad. 
«9^.0^ G*biniu8 and Antony 

reftoie Anletea to the rn* 
tire pofleifion of his do* 
39^4. Dca: h of Ptolemy An- 

letes. He leave» his do- 
minions to his eldeft fon 
and daughter, the famous 
9ù^S» Pothinns and Achillii, 

the young king^sguardiana» 
deprive Cleopatra of her 
ihare in the government, db 
drive her out of Egypt. 

T A 

L E. 

AU.JC. } 

Viuh of the kingaf E|fpt. Cuiu plicu CttariifA 
upon (be ihrnnt -wiiti Ptolimt btt j'sonftfl brother. 
J Cltopatn paifaiu her brolhcr itbEa be comci of ê%f U 
Jlim Ibt foicttign luthoritr auardiagto ibc liwt. Sh« 

ClcDpitri goei lo Anions Jt Tirfiii in Cilictt, She fiiiu 
ihc afcfodiDE of bim, in4 curi<i him wilb btt la All*- 

, Antony milcel hlairelf m*A«r ef AroMnii, uuj briagi 
flicking prîroner to ClupKit. Connution gf Cleepitri lad 

Rupt.» bt.WH, 

O&tud An«WT« C!ïop»trj kxodk 

pimei iht lilier, w)i 

o rtpudiald 

.Oa«.i» M Athen.. 

Cleop»ti» fliM it 

lh« bjltle 

ef AftiuDB. Anion» M- 

low* her, ■nd ihttcbj abitidoai i 


Antony diei ii> rb 

c irms of Cteopi^. 

Ccfir miJie. himi 

fclf mill» 

of Al^iifldrii. CleopJtr» 

Uiii bzrkif. terpt 

i, rtdutïd 




P N T U S. 


Tht kingJoin of Pon- 

tui oil rbundcd bj Diriin 




jur 5490. Ambtiuinii 
the fi'Jt Idnt ''f it. Hi* 

' X 

lacc,f.n iovB to Milbrf- 

iitu ire litil= knowo. 

M,T«.inA7„I. Hi 

iic^mmonl) cooAdtted u 

Iht hniuic, of the kini- 

d[>ni o( Ponlgi. 

Amo.^..a««. Me 

Migni iweniy-6x yean. 

firO king of Capped 
He 'reigaed jnictlf 
bii biotber Helophci: 

of the f!iH, 

Cired «f hi 

MlTHMBATttll. H« iJJ. 

rogni ibiriji-S<ra jeiii, 

.... 31'' 

reigntlhiny-fix jfeKi.Th» 
irigni df ihe three king! 
who fuccecd him include 














PONTOT. Ant.] 

the fpaee of an 
hundred jr^ari. 
The laft of them 
WM MiT.aii- 
DATit IV.great 
grandfather of 
Mithridates the 

Akzaiiatrei V. 

AlttACIS I. 

founder of the 

Parthian empire. 
Arsaces H.' 

brother of the 

Phsaatis I. 

Ariarathes VI. 
named Philopator. 

dates J. 


fon of Mithri- 
dates IV. 



After a very fhort 
reign, he is fuc- 
ceeded by Mi- 
thridates II. 
who reigns fbrty 

tes V, furnam- 
ed Eucrgetes. 

Arzarathes Vin. 
Mithridates, king of Pon- 
tus, puts him to death, 
and fets his Ton upon the 
throne. Soon after Aria- 
R atmesIX. takes Cappa- 
docia from the fon of 
Mithridates, who is pre- 
fently after re-eftabliflied 
by his father. 

Sylla enters Cappa- 
docia, drives the fon of 
Mithridates out of it, and 
fets Ariobarcanes I. upon 
the throne. 

tes VI, furnam« 
ed the Great. 

feizes Cappado. 
cia, and makes 
his fon king of 

TABLE. ai; 


, Begîonîtig of the ww 

■ Sing of Airoe- between Mithiidiles » ' 

nî<, drirci Atio- (he Ronam. 



and if 1er 

;eiicrjl> cf Milhri- 

, TeiHi Athtni, and 

of the cities ol 

■r<er a loDg Gc[e. 

Viâary of Stlla oTGr SB. 
lhcE<n;riIs of Milhridi- 
tes near Chwronc». Ha , 
f lini 1 fçcond bittle iàaa 
after « Otchomcnos. 

Treitj of peace between S4> 
Milhridit» anil SjlU, 



Svlli ohY>tt 
datei 10 «floi 

g,!o« drfpoff" 

it a fecund In 

the waru'i'hr 


(an«. His ICI 

very Ihon ont 

Ihe year 3951. 


Second war between 
Mitbridatej and tbe Ro- 
nans. It fubfiSi fome- 
IbiQgUf) (iian three yean. 



A, If. CAPPA- PaRTHIAM P O N T U 8. àÉL]i 

DOCCIA. EMPUU. ^ . . ^ . .. . 
19 1^, BeginBiag m tke Cbira «v f 

of Mithridatci againft tke &•• 

Biaiii. LucuLLUf' and Cotti 

are placed at the head of the Ko- 

naii army. * 

«^«O, Cotta if defeated by fet and ) 

land, and forced to fliut himfcif 
up ia ChaJcedon. Locullat goct 
'to his aid. 

19 ji, Mitbridjtei fonni the fiege of 

Cyzieum. LucuUoi obligea him 
Co raife it at the eod of two 
years, and poriuet and beatt him 
near the Granicui . 

3933« Mi th rida tes defeated oo the 

plaint of Cahire. He retlrei to 

j934« LucuUui declare! war againft 

Tigranef, and foon after defeats 
him, and takef Tigraaoceru, the 
capital of Armenia, 

3935. PaaAATX» 

III. whoalTumei 
the furnanae of 

THX Good. 

^9^6. Lacullui defeat! Tigranei and 

Mithridatet, who had joined their 
forces near the river Arfamia. 

^^IJ» Mithridates recoTcrt all kit 

dominiont, in eflfcA of the Rif- 
uoderAandingt that take place in 
the Roman army^ 

4038 • Pompey it appointed to fucceed 

Lucullut. He gains many ad- 
vantaget over Mithridates^ and 
obliges him to Ay. 

Tigranet furrcndert hlmfelf to 

jtiQ. Pompey makes himfelf mafter 

of Caina, in which the tre4fures 
o^ Mithridates were Uid up. 

Death of Mithridates. Phab- 
KACBt his Ton, whom the army 
had eleéted king» fubmits hit 
perfon and dominions to the Ro- 


TKS, eldeft foa 
of Phraates. 
49109 OaoDii. 

Unfortunate ex- 
pedition of Craf- 
fut againft the 


tj. Akioiakiahii III. Kï 

^ h fut to d»th by Calltut. 

L E. 

reirieieohe honour îhey had 

loAitthcbicileof Cure. 

M. Akthoht drÏTM Ari- 


mnihci out of C»ppadt>cis, 
and felt Arch.l.u. in hi< 

' plMc. On ihc d»th of ib.t 

the y«a[ «f Iht world 4011, 

Cippjdocii wii rcdLCEd iolo 

> Romia province. 



Sytifufï U f-id lo hiTe 

C»rtbagt W.1 fuundtd l'r» 

betnfoundsd In the yeir iif 

ihs yiAi of lh( world 3I5S, 

Ibe world 3195, bc/oicChrift 

bcfort Chiift £46. 

Firll treily between lire ind Rnm.n.. 
It jppem ihil ihe Ctrlh-t- 
liniiin hid tirrîed tlifir 
«rmi inio SkUy bBfo.e thit 
lr*»tj, Il thty were in fof- 
ftffiun of pin of it, when .t 
»M condurledj but *hn 
«ir thty did fo il not 


El Citav'ib(|ianinE. 

in lilunce withXenei. 






Icitled in Sicily. They »re 

beaten by Qclon, 

ap Gii-DH îieleardUingiif 


Srruulc. He leigni five or 

«; r""- 

ip. Hiitot. Hc rcieniele. 


»en jtut. 

14,. l«,*.ï.ut«i. In , 


«»-. rimt he i) "pttled by 

m. The Syricufint «njoy 


tbei» libciijr during fijiljf 

A. M, 






The Atbenitns, a/fiftei 
by the people of Segefta, 
undertake the fiege of Sy- 
racufe under their generaJ 
Nicias. They are obliged to 
raite it at the end ot two 
yean. The Syracufans par- 
fue and del'eat them entirely. 

The Carthaglnlant feoc 
• troops under Hannibal to aie 
the people of Segefla again! 
the Syritcufaiu. 

Beginning of Diokysxus 

TH£ ELO£l. 



Hannibal and Imilco: 

• are Tent to conquer Sicily 
They open the campaig: 
yshh the liege of A^rigen 

DioNYsiuSi after having 
depofed the ancient magi- 
i^rates of Syracufe, is placed 
at the head of the new ones, 
and forn after caufes himfelf 
to be declared generalillimo. 

Revolt of the Syracufans The war made by the Cii 
againft Dionyfius upon ac- thaginians in Sicily is term 
count of the taking of Gela nated by a treaty of pcA< 
by the Carthaginians. It is with the Syracufans. 
followed by a treaty of peace 
between the Carthaginians 
and Syracufans, by one of the 
condiiions of which Syracufe 
is to continue in fubjc<îlion 
tu Dionyfius. He eftablifhes 
the tyrajin) in his own per- 

New trouble- at Syracufe 
:gain(V Dionyfius. lie finds 
means to put an end to them. 

3605. Dionyfius makes gnat pre- 
parations for a ntw war wi h 
the Carthagii.ians. 

éoy. M.-nVacre of all the Car- 
thaginians liiS'.tilv. loll • rd 
by a de-!ar^ii' •** \ -r. D".» uvT'is . • !!• n- ' : 
r . ," J 1 I . .« ' . . 

1 I. I, ^.■l . V . . 

1 j'i, • 1. • ■'. . : ■ 

Imilrnn poes to Sicily w: 
an : I m y i •. r ■. • ? y . i' l V c v 

TABLE. it; 


|l Diooydut okci Rhigiun 
br cipitulilio". The nctt 

'■ jur nc btuki ihe ucny, 
and imkei himfslf miflcT 
çf it igain bf force. 

k, Deatb of Dionyliui Ids 
elder. Kit fon DiaHviiu) 
THI TOUNOi. fucrerdi 
bim. By theid.iccof Di- 
ck, hii b>oiher-in Jiw, be 
iiurct Plato to come 10 bit 

Dion, hinifttdby Ihe or- 

dti °f Dlonyrruf, ri^lirci into 

- Pdoponutfui. 

), Diuiiyfiut mikci A»tB hit 

Mir, the wife of Dion, 

mitry Timocrircg, one of h)i 



1 Dion 


e tyrint nilh open 

|. Dion obligu DJanyKui To 

■banilon $yntale. K( Ceo 

liil fodialv. 
S. C^tLii-PVi ciufct D:on 

14 U ilfoirinxtd, indm.kri 

h'mrclf mi 




r^ HUTAllNUI, brother of 
Diofljfiui ihi- joungtri drixs 
Cïllippiil «Ul of Syricufe, 
tad aAiblilhci himrelf in hi> 

^ . place foT two ydri. 

L Dionyliui rcinnited, 

Second treat)' of peace ca 

and Citihaginiin-, 

The Sy,. 

i{ur>ni tall in 



ant* .(tempi to fri«e Sicily. 


Hanno, ciiiien of C>r> 
thige, formi Ihe delign of 
miking himfclf mafter of 
hi I counliy. 

i. forced by Ti- 



».™l>:r himfdf. 





3658a Tx M OL BON abolifhei tyran- 
ny tt Syncufcy and through- 
out Sicily, the liberty 6f 
which he reinftatei* 


3615* Agathoclbs makes hlm- 
felf tyrant at Syracufc. 





A Roman legion felseï 
Rhegium by treachery. 

HiEKO and Artbmxdo- 
R u t are made fupreme ma- 
giftrates by the Syracufan 

Hicro is declared king by 
the Syracufans. 

Appius Claudius goes to 
Sicily to aid the Mamertines 
againft the Carthaginians. 
Hiero, who was at firft 
againft him, comes to an ac- 
commodation with him, aod 
makes an alliance with the 

EmbaflTy of Tyre to Ctr- 
thage, to demand aid agtinft' 
Alexander the Great. 

Beginning of the wan b«* 
tween the Carthaginians ud 
Agathodei ia Sidlj aai 

The CarthaginîiDt feftd 
the Romans aid under M^ 
againft Pyrrhus. 

Beginning of the firft 
nick war with the Rr- 
It fubfifta twenty-four 





The Romans befiege thr, 
Carthaginians in AgrfgOH 
tom, and take the citr «Av 
a ftege of feven months* 

Sea-fight between the Ro- 
mans and Carthaginians BCtf 
the coaft of My le. 

Sea-fight near £auMM ia ; 

Rbgvlvs ia Africa* He 
is taken prifoner. 

Xanthippus conies to the 
aid of the Carthaginians* 

Regulus is fent to R 


to jpropofe the exchange of 
priionert. At his rctum the 
Carthaginians put him to 
4eath with the moft end 

Siege of Ltlyb«oa ly the j 

Hiero fends the Cartha- Ptftit tf tb«C*ritaf -naa 

inians aid againfl ibc foreign 



Hiero got! to mfct th; 
COaful Tib. Scj.jrr«.n.u . in 
order ro uftli him his fcivices 
agaioA the C^rtha^iraans. 

Death of Hîcro. Hiiro- 
HYMUS» his grandion, fuc- 
ceeds him. 

Hierorivmus abandons the 
party of the Romans, and 
enters into an alliance v%ith 
H^nv.ibal. He is aiTafiiiiatcd 
foon a'ter. His dcith is fol- 
lowed wilh great iroublci to 

near the ilis£ :4 .fixa » 

fol!o»cc hyjUTh-rt tt^ tuu 

anc^i totfcef^PLi-KL ►*■- 

f. rc".«ï îrer^îTji-ra Z .•^^- 
i.-\i ihrte ^e«^ s^^ic fiuff 

Tee CA::i:ipt.-.ix: f':^ nx 
Sircl:::a :o ztt Utat-vvA ivx 
<::cace is s^i UfX 2Si^ 

Sriiû. A»: • -. 1 . 1 L;; " 1- 

iiir: ;.: . iii^ .i.;. î«i^ i 

A.:r*.^A.'s oe^iIm £*t- 
the XTTf it tJs fcÀC 

Bî£ •••-■î-fc i-^ *-ne ifTBBC 

ftirr*:etr vsan. 

HAf.r.;bi&2 c&'.en l'a*!, arr 

acd Treb'.i.. 

Bairle of Ti^atfrnKsm^u 
Haas:b&i crccrv» Janus 

It the firxiu c-i'Cfcfi.:.n la. 

Cârrhaginîasi ia Sp iiu. 

Battk CI Carue. KascS- 
bil reiireilo CaiLi aff ûi» 





AfttriAL :î :;:*î* .i 


S^âin b\ ibt :»t S. :.. «. 

Mar cr LI. us takes Sv- 



racufe, aficr a lic^e of three 






3793. Th« two Scipio*! are killed in Spain* % 
TliC Romans befiege C^pua. 

3794. Hi/iniba! advanrcito Rome and befiegetit. TJieRomani i: 
fvon after take Capua. 

3793. Afdriibal enters Italy. He is defeated by the conful ti 

Liviii*, «vhom the other confuJ Nero had joined. 
3799. Scipio mokes himfrif mailer of all Spain. He is made » 

Corfu] the year foPuwing, and |oes to Africa. 
3^02. H-tnntbal is recalled lo the aid of hit country. 24 

3203. Ir.ttfview bf Hannibal and Scipio in Africa^ followed by u 

a bloody battle, in which the Romans gain a complete 

\\i\ >rv. 
3^04, 'J'teaty Af feace between the Carthaginians and ftomani, sc 

vbbi h puts an end to the fécond Punick war. 

Irifty yeais chipfrd bciMeen the end of the fécond and 

ihi hr^innin'i; of the third Punick wars. 
3S1C. il«>ntiihal is made prsetor of Carthage, and reforms the ij 

cour's of judice and the finances. After having eiercifed 

that fifBce t'^o years, he retire» to king Antiochui at Xphe- 

fur, whom he advifcs to carry the war into Italy. 
3^13. In crvicw cf Hannibal and Scipio at Ephe'ui. K 

30)6. ts-ke) refuf^e in tlie iÛand of CretCi to avoid |i 

bci:)g dc'ivcrcH up to the Romans. 
3?£0. Mjniiibjl abandons the ifland of Crcte^ to take refugt il 

with Prufiak king of Bithynii. 
'.9iii, DcHih of Hannibal. l] 

3^33. '1 he Romans fend comm^ITtoners into Africi, to adjudge 1! 

the diOViencei that arofe between the Caribaginiani and 

3?il9. Secur.d embafly fent by the Romani Into Africa, tomike |î 

new enquiries into the difl'etences fubfifllng ^iwecn the 

Cartha^irians and MafiniHa. 

3855. Beginning of the third Punick war» It fubfifti a little 14 
more than four years. 

3856. Carthngc i-^ bcf.egcd by the Romans. t^ 
3S>3. Scipio the younger iv made cunful, and receiTCt the cpm* 14 

mand of the a my before C;irth4ge. 
3559. bcipio inkes and eniiicly dimolifliei Carthage. i\ 

EnJ of the Chronohgîcal Tln/A*. 





ITIDAS mikci 

|Wlyr>nt of Slctoo. 

which Ihi Ach>in I«t|us II 


f->rniid It flrft. JJIJ, r«««»Ulile> 

ofAriai, II. iXi 

jnin il «riorwirdl, 119. Ths 

Wl It pl«c<d upon th* 

Arhainitnttr Uf * w*r »Ilh 

Spirt., VI. 149, ,tw m.ny luf- 

fsi ihtï ell 111 Anll|Oftui t» 


thiif «id, i'54. In > wir wllU 

IpinUrd, hli Ireicht- 

ik« A[oli»ni. lliey hive le- 

e.,ar(e lo fhlltp, 101. they de- 

,hln|«rSuAil», tn. 

(Nr* fai ilii Itainan) agilnn Ihac 

Bl»'.?.tvlM. JI. IjS. 

priiiot, 197. ihty jolii wllh Ihi 


Kflinini igiinlt Aficiochua, J4S. 


.their trual iraacmcni of m»ny 

Ml to BlYpt wlih Sl- 
Ihi 5<r{p(uti pllcii 

SpiHirf, 580, th.y Tubjefl Iha 
McHchlii». VII. li. th*y fted 

Dwr Nimrodi in<l 

.Icpuiki i.> Rtfme cenicrnlni Spat* 
u. 111. Calllcmai, one of ilielr 

1 It. 60 

, •»« ttf tha iintrdi 

dcpiiiio, hetrtya them, It. lbs 

Mt Mntmcin'i irniv, 

Arhrint r*rul>« to Ihl» wtlh iha 


H,<m^«t In Ihc dan|«i> <•( (lie war 

■ [jUn TerrEU), VI. lie. ihgy tra 

brMhar of Akiindcr 

furficflcd by thtf Konanl, lit. 

m. ]i6. lit Uiiktn 

iiuel tnitmenc of thcui b/(h« 

ths (ic(« of Jerufi- 

Komini, 1I7, tfc. irouhl» !ti 

3 '7 

Aghaia, 107. ihe Achvana da- 

clure war again!» tha Lai«<l>mo- 

trndm ilia) ,.hti ID 

nlaiii, i!'i.i. Ilicy hruli ih« Ro. 

man rnmmimL.n^., ,,y tn. 

lerAr... hci-.rg'd by 

rui Thibci and Chilcii to join 
■ hem, 110. ih.j.ra defaaied by 

. 171. ir-uiiil tnduf 

Mticllui, iM. and afi.r by 


Mummiui, in. AchaU ia ra- 

. p^pl. of Orw,.. 

duccd inio a Roman province, 

tt. Vl.iij 



AcH «MFN 1 9, brother of Arlaitr- 

Ildbj Ach;.-U!. In l'c> 

ar, Miicm™, l< placed al the 


held ol (ha airaj feat by that 

L 4 p>ia« 

I N D 

prince againft Zgypt, III. 97. 
he 11 killed in a battle, i'kiJ, 

Ac MAI' ft, (on cf Xuthns, fouoder 
of the Acbaeans, J1. 28e 

Ac H /e VI, coufin of Seleucus Ce- 
raunus, has the adminiftratioQ 
•f the affairs of Egypt, VI. 174, 
he avenger the death of that 
prince, ihid. he refufes the crown, 
;and pref-rves it for Antiochus 
ti.e Great, 175. his fidelity to 
thar prince, ihid, he revolts againft 
An*i(chtJ9, 190. he is betrayed 
and ddive'ed up to Antiochus, 
and put tod^ath, 19Z 

j^ I ai J, fo called from Acha?us« 


AcHM LAS, young Pcolemy^s guar- 
di<i:i» y 111. 1^4. he aHainnatei 
Poai^'t:y, 135. he is put Co death, 


AcHOPis, king of Fgypt, JIT. 402 

j^ibtadinat one of the quarters of 
the city of Syiacufc, dcfcription 
of it. III. 237 

Ac 1 c HOB I u s, general of the Gauls, 
iTîRKrs an irrupii'jn into Mace- 
donia, VI. 45. then into Greece, 
46. he piridjcs there, 47 

AciLJUi (Marius) is appointed to 
comniand in Greece againft An- 
tiochui, VI. 349. he defeats 
that prinre near Thermopylae, ^ 
35 X. he fubjcéls the iStolians, 

AciLTUi, a young Roman, his 

ftratagem to nuke Perfeus quit 

his afylum, Vfl. 164 

AcROTATES, Ton of Areut, king 
of 5part3, VI, 76. ralourofthat 
young pi i n( e ihid. 

A^'ium, city famous for Anthony** 
defeat, VIII. 159 

Ada continued in the government 
of Caria, after the deaih of Idriaeus 
her bulband, V. ^% 

AnHERBAL, general of I he Cartha- 
ginians, defeats the Romans at 
ie-, J» 157 

Adimantesîs appointed general 
of the Athenians after the battle 
of Ar^inufx, III. Zi«6. by what 
means he eicapes death after his 
defeat at iCgofpoiamos, 197 

Admitvs, kiiig of the Mok>i&* 

E X. 

am, gtrei Themlfloclet • 

Afhniu Feafts celebrated io b 

of him at Athens» II! 

Adore. Etymology of that 


^ACiPAS, foil of Arymbss, 
of Epirns, ii drÎTen out < 
dominions by the intrigu 
Philip king of Macedonii 
42. he reafcends the throne 

Aacidis, king of Epims, 
ni (bed by his own fubjefts, ' 

iCcEvs, king of Athens, II 

Mgina^ little ifland near A 


JEgbfp^tawntf famous for Lyfa 
viâory over the Athenians 

Agtftvs, name gifea Sci 

idfOBARBtr %(D9mititÊt) conl 
dares for Anthony, and rei 
him, Vill 

Molick dialed, 11 

iSoLvs, fon of Hellenos^ rei 
Theflaly. I] 

^scHiNxs, Athenian oratoi 
fers himfelf to be corrupt 
Philip^s gold, IV. 336. I 
cufes Demofthenes, 367. 
caft, and retires into banift 

' ^sov the Phrygian t His fa 
il. 343. he goes to the «0 
Crœfus, 344. he is fuppo 
hjfe been the inventor of 1 

alalia, one of the principa 
of Greece, I 

/Etoliaks. War of the ^ 
againft the Achaeans and 1 
VI. 195. treaty of peace bi 
them. 222. the /Ctolian 
the Romans againft PhiMp 
they make peace with 
prince, 263. they declare 
him for the Romans, 30: 
condemn the the treaty m^ 
tween Philip and the Ri 

?|ii. they form a refolu» 
eixe Demeiriasp Chaici 
Lacedspmon by treacheiy 
they call in the aid of Am 
againft tbcRomans,344. ih( 


r N D 

idk it ^ Romtni» 355. 
iwtt •btiU pttct» 35S. tli« 

•I the rtqtttft of the 
«M iftd Rhodiânt» grant 
lu |I6« cruel treatmeat 
kw tKe Komani, VIL 172 
ttmftrtd hj the care of 
iM h 71* Hanno faili round 
jmr M the fenate» leo 
àMOM» kiag of MyccnoB» 

II. z8i 
TAt wife of Megacles, 
her*! conduÛ in choofthg 
bafhand. 11. 321 

»ctli fetiei the tyraony 
|Cttf«9 I. 130. hii cxpcdi» 
pdnh the Carthaginians in 
lad Africa, 131. he brings 
ffhlUai to his fide, and 
•tttt htm to death, 13 it. 
lit end of that tyrant, iciti, 
»ct>i8» governor of Par* 
r Antiochus, VI. 91. 

letsi, brother of Agatho- 
yi« 193. hit afccndant 
Ptoleiny Philopator, fW. 
lafiires for obtaining the 

of.Ptolerry Epiphanvs, 
tg* lie pcriOiei mii'erjbly, 

NCLtA, concubine of Pio- 
*hîlopator, VI. 193. mi- 
tad of that woman. iiitL 
•f.NaupaHui, ambaHidor 
Û •Uiet to Philip. Wif- 
'TU difconrfe, VI. «23 

E X. 

SphodrUi {l acquitted by hti 
means, IV. tit. Antakidea 
rallies him upon his being wound- 
ed bv the Thebani, 1141 dSf- 
pute between AgeAlaus aad fipa* 
minondai in the aflembly of th« 
allias at Sparta, ill. he eaufei 
war to be declared againft tha 
Thebnns, a 17. he finds means to 
fave tbofe wno had fled from tll« 
battle of Leurra, ftlt. his con* 
du^ in the two irruptions of tho 
Thebans into the territory of 
Sparta, it%. ^ parti fendi aid ta 
Tachos, king of Egypt, wha 
had revoltad «galnft Perfii, 457* 
anions of AgcfiUui in Bgyot» 
158. be declares for NeAanebIt 
againfl Ticlios, 859. he dies aa 
his return to Sparta, 160 

Ar.KiiLAus.unde on thimothir*t 
lide to Agis, king of Sparta, VI« 
1^^. he abufei that prince'i con- 
fidence, 136. violence which ha* 
commits when one of the Jtphoriy 


Aoisr^otis, king of Sparta with 
A%vCi\AMt, IV. 199. difference be* 
tween thofo two kings, iàid» ho 
commandi the army lent agalilt 
Oiynthu^ aoa. hts dfath| iàklié 

Ar. KSI POL IS reigns at Sp art! with* 
Lycurgiis, \ Vit toiT 


king of Sparta, VI. 144* her 
death. t4i 

ive,. is elcÂcd king of Ac 1 at it, widow of Agtl klngaf 
. lli. 369. his education 
larafler, 37o.^he fets out 
it, . 373. he differs with 
er, 375. hiscjtpcditions ill 
37t. Sparta appoints hitn 
iifitmo by icA ami ijtidi ^81. 
imiiTwni Piramlor lo 
the flccl ill Ilia Oo'J. //'«/• 
;rvie4f wiih PlMrn-iluii ii, 
gains a vi^lory ovrr ilie 
na at CoronicJ, in which 
wouodedi \ifl. i^c r< turns 
ti, 193. he always retina 
icicnt m^niicr*, iluJ. iic 
r» the (onfpiruy lot in' d 
ladcr, 394* <iiiyurcnt cxpe- 
of Ageril.1119 in (*rm:ic, 
e caufes his brother I'clcn. 
bf appolalcd admit .iJ; i^;V« 

Sparta, is forced by Lennldas ta« 
marry Cieomeneii VI* 14;* death 
of that orincefs. ijt 

Agis I. Ion of Euryflhenes, kinf 
of Sp.iria, cnflaves thelalubitanie 
of £lii, I. cix. 

Aois 11. Ton of Arrhidamui, king 
of Spar'iM III. 335. he makra 
wflr H|>;ainfl the people of Klis^ 
768. lie ackiiowlcdgesLeotychirles 
i<>r hi f«)t) Ht his deith» 369 

A (18 II L fan of another Archida* 
nw3, king of Sparta, comman 
thtt;«rmy of the Lacedcmon 
n^ainfl the Macedontana^ ai 
k.llcil in a brtle, IV. 

Ac. IS iV. foDof Eudamidat^ 
at Sp.iri.-i, VL 1)1. he 
vuur. to revive the ancicac 

L5 « 


totîoBS of Lycurgot, 135. he 
etTedts it in paiC, ibid. &c. only 
Agefilaut prevent! the final exe- 
cution of that defign, 140, he i« 
fient to aid the Ach.cans againft 
the /EtolUnt, ibid, on hit re- 
turn to Sparta he finds a total 
change there^ 142. he is con- 
demned to die^ and executed, 


jSgrigtntum, Foundation* of that 
ci^. III. £21. luxury and effe- 
minacy of its inhabitants, IV. 
no. it is fubjefled iirft by the 
Carthaginians» I. 119. and after- 
wards by the Romans, 143 

Ahasuemus, name given \j the 
Scripture to AAyages, as slfo to 
Cimbyfes and Darius. Se* the 
names of the two iai^. 

Anaz, king of Judah, brcomei 
vafl'jl and tributary to Tiglath- 
pilcfar. II. 77 

Albanians. Situati<^n of their 
country, VIII. T14. they are de- 
feated by Pomp*y. ibid, 

ALC/itus, Son of Perfeus, king of 
Mycene, and father of Amphi- 
tryon. II. 281 

Alcaus, Greek Pofct, II. 335 

Alc£TA8, king of the Moloflians, 
great-grandfather both to Pyr- 
rhus and Alexander the Great, 

IV. 3,3 

Alcibiadxs. When rery young 
he carries the price of valour 
in the battle agaioft the Poti- 
dxans, III. i:o. charaéler of 
that Athenian, 210. his inti- 
macy with Socrates, ibid, 

Atcibiades begins to appear at 
Athens, III. aio his artifice for 
breaking the treaty with Spaita, 
217. he engages the Athenians in 
the war with Sicily, 218. he it 
ele^ed general with Niclaa and 
Lamuchus, 221. he is acculcd of 
having mutilated the ftatues of 
Mercury, ai7. he fcls out for Si- 
cily, withoi:t having been able: to 
I ring that affair to a trial, 228. 
h« takes Catana by furprize, 232* 
he is recalled by the Athenians 
ti- be tried up ■» an accufalion, 
iiid, be Hies «nd is condemned 

to die for coDtomacy» %^y 
retires to Sparta, be debauci 
Timaea, the wife of -Agis, : 
has a fon by her, ibid, he adv 
the Lacedaemonians to fend ( 
lippus to the aid of Syracufe, 2 
Akibiades retires to Tifiapli 
nes. III. 273. with that fati 
ibid, his return to Athens is c 
certed, 277. is recalled, «79. 
beats the Laeedxmonian fli 
281. he goes to TifTaphen 
who caufes him td be feized 
carried prifoner to Sardis. a 
he efcapes out of prifon, ihid, 
defeats Mindarns and Pbarnak 
by fea and land the fame c 
ihid, he returns in triumph 
Athens, 284. and ik declared 
ncraliffimo, 285. ca«fet the gi 
myfîerics to be celebrated, a 
he fets fail with the fleer, a 
Thrafybulas accufes him at 
thens of having o<cafioned 
defeat of the fleet near Ephc 
290. the command it taken fi 
him,29i.becoreestothe Atbc 
an generals at /Egofpotanaoi, \ 
the advice he gi^et them, î 
he retires into the province 
Pharnabafus, 316. that fat 
caufes him to be afTaJfinated, 1 
his charaAer, 3 

Alciiiadbi, one of th« Spar 
exile*, if reinflated by the Ac) 
ans, and fent deputy to Rome « 
complaints agfinft them, VI. 
the Achsans condemn him 
die, 13. they foon after an 
that fentence, 

Alcimus is placed at the head 
Demetrius Soter's army aga 
the Jews. VII. a 

Alcm/bonida expelled A them 
Pififlratus, II. 32^. they t 
the cae rf building the r 
temple of Delphi upon th« 
fclves, II. 326. their end 
that undertaking, I 

Alcvonaus, fon of Antigcr 
carries the head of Pyrrhus 
his father, VI. 

Alfxandfr I. fun of Amynta 
king ot Miceionia, avcngi^s 



I N D 

kit MOllitr ind fifttr» hid 
nI Am Ikt Ptr(i«i) «mbif* 

II. 376 
iBta ]f« (bn of Amyuiii 
pii U M«(c4nni«i and (ii«i 
Me tf oai yftr, 306 

i»B« lilt fuf named tha 
te of Philip. Nil birch, 
hêMjr inclin«rioni of (hue 
t !• What AtiAotIc for hit 
ilor, iM. ht brtaici fiuct- 

• 8 

ianétr aiccndi tha throna 

Mdoniai V. 9, r<^ueci *\\à 
tathi pooplo butdrrlnft u^iAn 
iiildtun»- who h»d it^vulud, 
I tntara Oracea to ctiOhlta 
igut which h.«d i»rcn iurmed 
Ï bim» 11» ha d<]f«uti iha 
IM in a peat battloi Ti. 
làaa their uty» whit h ha 
lia» t). \\Q pardon* (ha Atht • 

•A> h« funimoiifi*» a Ui«t 
Inth» and c^uIq^ Itimlalf to 
elarvd |K<^n«rdlii!ima At tha 
» a|ainlt iha Poilinn», 15, 
I ftturni ÏMo Mrtcodoma, 
lakei prfpai'Ktioni for hit 
itUn ayainft (ho rarAani, 
jhtaandar 4ppointi An(«|>ntar 
ira M «cadonu ai hii vico- 
/. 19. ha fatg oa( lor Aû*^ 
rrlvaa at llium, whera ha 
t |itat hnnoui» to iho ma* 
•r Achiilai, ai. ho piilTti 
Ofifiicuii and g4)ni • 

viAory ovrr (bc r«i(iAn«, 
I baAcftf and t Ica* Mitetui, 
MA H«licatn«(lu«i «8. and 
art aliDoi^ ail Alia Minor, 
I tikai tha city ul Ootdiiim, 
t ha cull the (4i))nu« («or- 
tnoS 30, 31. hr pMllcit iba 

of Ciliii4, 31. h(- aiiivvN 
rfu*i ^hric* iic hji 4 ilrtti* 
I illnrl'l, uccal'titiirii hy httdi- 
I iha rivrr C^y^lituN, lAi/. U« 
ad of it in * lew lUy», )(>. 
archai «KiiiUt l^^tma, Am\ 
m famoui vlvli)iy nvrr ibtit 
t naar lH'iiii, 40. titrj with 

illfi DillilU, liu toltUll lo 

priura*! t<itn|i, whuh hi* 
i had Juft brtiiir l.->t/t il, 4(|« 

odtr*! hununity «rtJ ic« 

E X. 

f^a£^ forSv()([Dmbli|indthl othtr 
captiva print adai, 50 

A axttndar«nt«ri Svria. V. «it 
tha (raal'uroii U d up in Damiicui 
ara dativrrod to h*mi 53. DaHua 
writ r» him a latiar in tha moil 
haughty term', S4* ^'^ «nJWari it 
in (ha fAmo Aylo. 55. tha city of 
Sidon opf m Iti |Ata« to him, iM* 
ha baHt^iai Tyra, 59. talcti that 
pUca by Aorm, 69, h« racaivei 
a facond latter from DaHuii 76* 
ha marvhaa to Tartifaiemi 77* 
honouri paid by hfm to tlio hlth- 
priaft Jadduii 79. he enteti je« 
rufAiam. and bll\.r« facriflcea thertt 
lo Uanirl*! nrophadei reUtlai 
to him are mawn himi iM% ht 
ttranti frcat pi i vilagei to the Jewff| 
S5. and rafuiai tha fame to tht 
Sam4titani, 86. he befle|ai iné 
tttkai Ciaaa, iA^«/. entari ttiypt» 
87. mukai hlmfalf mafter or it» 
89* and bo-gini (o build Alexan- 
dria, 90, vi[ir« theTemple of TupU 
tar Ammon 91. and caufaa nlmo 
folf to be declared the (bn of ihit 
god, 9t. ho returni to Bgyptf 91* 
Alexander, on hit return 10 «• 
gypt, medhatai advanclii| egaiufl 
Dariui. V. 93. on felting out. 
ha ii informed of the dHth or 
that prince*! wife, 941 hi eeu(bt 
her to be interred with very gN«C 
magniA«anea, M/V. he paflba tko 
Kuphratai, 951 then tho Ttffriti 
tali, ha comai up with Denuti 
an I gdtni the great battle of Ar« 
bal4, 1061 he takei Arbeli, 107 
UAbylon, 100. fubduei the Ujtllf 
tt<, fpIaaN (hapfliof Sufa, ^i6« 
anlvch At l*0i(rp(dll, of whlill 
he itiakr» himlolf mrtdff, fly* 
«fill buiHH (I10 |uUi9 of (hat ctiy 
111 4 UpImucH, 1 1^ 

Alr)i4iuli>r puiruaa Dailua, V« 
lAo. Hrdui*!! (ivatmvnt of ih<it 
piiiuti nuke** liiiu h-4(lrit itu 
ui4iiit» i.j|, AUx«ndi»rii grUf 

on |rrlii|t iltn bttdy tif Oanuiii 

vfUo \\i\\ lud Iniiin) c«|«iird, t«.|, 

hn IriitU U iti Syrt|.-4ntl)U, léfùt 
II» ItMlt'bri (4):t4lll(t Ui|)m«. I31I1 

'J'b-«U*iina, ijutiirii ti( the Aifuaiii> 
com»» from A umote c\)uaU*^ 

I N D 

fee Mm, 131, be abandons him- 
l«il' (0 pleat'urc and tieb«uch» 1%$» , 
he toMimuci h il march agAÎnil 
ncirus, 1^6. he puts Philotai to 
dcjth upon rufpiciun of having 
en 1ère J iota a con I'pi racy againft 
him, 14a. and Paimenio hii la- 
ther, 14 J. he fubdiiet lèverai 
fi.;iioni» 144. he airivra in Djc- 
tVLina, 145. hii cittel trealmeiit 
or' the nianchtdes, i'lc/. neirui is 
broug^ht to him, 146, Alexander 
takes many ciiirs in BaClriana, 
V. 147. and builds one near the 
laxattes, to uhlch he gives his 
name, 148. he m-iirhe» agiintk 
tile Sogdians, who had revultcd» 
and Jciliox» ni.iiiv of their etiirSi 
tA..:'. the Sttihians fe»d ambaf- 
fji.ior* to him. who fpcak with 
cairaordinary libnty» 1 50. he 
pafîea the laxarlr», 151. gains 
a viAory over iheS>>thiani, I5}« 
and trejti the ioiiquced favoura- 
bly, UiJ. he quells a icvolc if the 
Sogdiinf, 1541 he fends KeiVus 
to Echatana, to be pHiiilhed, 155. 
he t^kes the city of Pctra, 157. 
he aban.tiins himf^-lf to the p'ea- 
fure of hunting, in which he is 
in great danger, 15S. he gives 
Clitu» th? command of the pro- 
vinces which h4d been under 
Arubafus brfore, 159. he in- 
vites that officer to a feail, and 
kills himi 161. he undertakes 
\aiious expedition», 163* he 
iNifiies Kuxana, daughter of 
Oxvartcs, 164. he refolves to 
piarch againft India, and makes 
prparations for feitiiig out, 16$. 
he endeavours to make hii cour- 
lit rs adore him after the IVrfian 
minncr, 166. he puts the phi- 
l>Io|hrr Cwlliithenes to death, 
ii.g Alexander fets out for India, 
V. 170. he takes many litics 
thrieihat fcem imprcgnahle, ami 
fici]uently endangers his life» 
17^. <:;t. he grams Taxi lus lui 
piuir^lun. 178. he pafles the 
liver |l>dafpri. 181. and gains 
a famous vi<.>oiy over l*itus, 
184. he rcflurei (hat prii.te his 
Ikingduni» V. i&(. ht buiUa 

E X. 

NicM end BnccphâlSi, 'M. h» 

adviAcei into India, mné fubjcâa 
many nations, 187. he forms the 
defign of penetrating as far ai 
the Ganges, 191, general mar* 
mur of hia armj» 191. 1m re* 
noences that dengn, aad givct 
orders to prepare &»r ttiQining, 
195, excefs of vanity which ht 
ftewi in giving thanks to (kt 
Gods, ihié, Alexander Icit ott 
on his march to the ocean, V. 
1961 he is in extreme danger at 
the city of Oxydraeai, ièid. ht . 
fubdues all he meeta in hia vay^ 
198. âfc. he arrivée at the octant 1 
aoa* pfcpaits for hia return M 
Europe, iM, dTr. kt fuft'en ex- 
tremely by famine in psffing dt* 
fart places, «03* equipage In 
which he pafllea through Caimi» 
nia, 304. he arrivée at Pafargadai 
106. honouii rendered hy kim 
to the aihea of Cyrue. no8. ht 
puts Orfines, fatiaf of the prt* 
vince, to death, 109. he nuniet ' 
Statira, the daughter of I>aritai 
110. he pays the debta of tkt 
fitldieis» til. ht appeafta a rt- 
volt amongft tkcm, aie. kt rt« 
calls Antipater, and luUKtutm 
Craterus to kim, a 16. kia grief 
for HephKftion*a deaik, ai7t 
6lff. he conquers the Colbanat 
iM. Alexander enttrt Babytooi 
iM>twithftaodii.g tkt finiHtr prt- 
dieUons of the Magi, and otker 
foothfayers. V. ail. kt celt- 
brstes HepbitAioa*8 funeral tsiiW 
extraordinary magnifiienet, aaOb 
he forms various defigns of ei« 
pediiions and conouefli, all. kt 
fets people at work upon repair* 
ing tke banks of tkt £upbratts, . 
ai). and rebuilding tht tcmpit 
of Relus, 114. he abandons kim- 
felf to cxcedive drinking, vkick 1 
occafions hit death, aas. judg- 
ment to be patreJ on Alexander» 
a 30. his body ia carried to Aka- 
andria, a* ter being tmbalmtd» 
156. Pomp of his luntral ayy» 
/i KXANPaa, (on of Alexander kt 
Crcati is tlcAcd king, V. a^y. 



k«> fon o' CaRinder, 
Ait crown of M.7ccd<»>ia 
hrsthcr Anlipiter, VI. 

Û killsd by Drmeliiui, 
K bid called in to hii 

■■ I. kisg of Epinii, 
Cl<op»tr», d'ughier o* 
dug of Macedonu, IV. 


M II. Ton of Pyrihui 
•Iplni), VI. 7c 

Xk Ball fsrmiitDnrpi. 
aftDemcETiniSoiir, VII, 
I tfttnili (he ihronc ol 

Aitt of Ptolemy rhilo- 
M he abindoni hmfrll 

C^Nicitot, 354. Aleim 

IKK makahimMftynn 
p, IV, >3i. he endea 
I (Dbjtft ih* people o 
I- iihi. Peldpid» n 
bk to nifod, 134. h 
|l^u(?tn>cli<rr. en. 
liD pdlbOa-T^Jd! Epimi 

rcleni peiCMbl)' ïi Egypt, «o. 
hi) mEthod for icquiring tht le- 
fpcft of bit fubjvai, it'd. hi* 
death, tl. 

AMtNDrHii.kingDfE^ypt,!, 55. 

Scfollrii, s'. ih» king >• UiS 
Phirioh of [he SctipiuK. aho 
was drowned in the Red-ht, «c 

AMESTiia, wifeof Xcnei. Cat- 
baraos and inhuniiik icvcoge of- 
ibat prlncefi. III. 69 

jimifi^i, city of Alia, beCgctl by Lu- 
culliM, VIII. 83. the engioeEr 
Cilllinacbut, who defended it, 

Ephort, VI. 144. hii Ircatbery 
andctucll;toking Agii,i>iJ. ind 

.Wof EgTpti hmlt by 
r thfe Crcil, V. !jO. 

itrdpttd theit, I. 21 

, ' bailc by Aloandcr 

V. 14S 
prennr of the civadd of 
I, bctrayi Epigeoei, An- 
■ Itaeril, VI. iSo 
Miioi famoui far Hmni- 
inc ibeai, I. 1Ï1 
other of April t, n pro 
ki»g«rfEgypi, I. 77. bei 
id iDtheponcDionof tb 
I by NibucodDnofor, it.i 
m ApHei, who maichei 

AMrnicTVoNi. laflitutio» of 
that aOenbly, U. iSi. III. 78. 
their power, oath takes a 1 their 
inftalUiion, Hid. their fondefcen- 
fion for Philip occafioni ihe di- 
inÎDution of their authariiyi 791 
' ' ■ ■ undertaken by 


r tha 
nt, HI. 107. Philip IaJ»« 
that ïily from ihe Atheniaoi, and 
declares jt free, IV. 309. it <> 
faon after taken poSefiion of by 
that prince, jn 

AMYH7At I. king of Mactdani^ . 
r^bniu 10 Dariui, U. J7ft 

AMrT.-TAslt. king of Maccdoiiia, 
f.thrr of Philip. IV. 305. hie 
death, a,Vt 

AMvuryiS, iier=ricr ftom Aleiao- 

d:r's army, feues the go-etament 

of Egypt, and )• killed there, 

V. ÏS 

AMïKTjta, one of A te hid dcr the 
Grot'i ot^cete, V. (,• 

AMYiT«ni, oneofthegeaeraliof; 
the Egyptian», who hud reTolled t 
againfl Artaienet Longimana), . 
111. fS. he diivti the Perfiaai out 
of Egypt, and ii declared king of 

1 M death, _7f- he &vi 


gf thai^r 



Scytho-Voipades, one of the fc- 

rtn fjge«» 11. 341. bis contempt 

forrlchc*, *Wi/, 

An AC R EON, Creek poet, II. 

ANPRAKoroRu», guardian of Hic- 
'ronymus, king of Syracufe, VIII. 
jS.'his ftrange abule of his au- 
thority, 19. after tke death of 
Ilieronvniiis, he frizes part of 
Syracuic, 12. he forms a con- 
fptracy, for afccnJing ihc throne, 
S4.. he is accufed and put to death, 

Andhiscus of Adramyltîum, pre- 
tend» himfclf fon of Perfeu*, and 
i% declared king of Macedonia, 
VII. 104. he defeats the Rcmjn 
army, conimanded by the prae- 
tor Juvrntius, 205. he is tAicc 
defeated by Metellut, 2c6. he is 
taken and fcnC to Rome, r/-//. 

Anprom Aciivr, govi-rnor of Syia 
and Palcllinc lor Alexander, V. 
93. fad end of that povernor, 

A N D R o M A c H V s, fat hcf of Acha'u«, 
is taken and kept prifmsr by 
Ptolemy Evcgetes, VI. 175. 
riolemy Thilopator fcts him at 
liberty, and lellorcs him to his 
fon, 1^4 

ANDRONicrs. prneral for Antigo- 
nu«, makes hinifelf mafter of 
Tyie, V. 32:. he is befujied in 
that place by Ptolemy, and forced 
to furiendrr, 329 

An DR ON *ci*K of Rhodi^», to whom 
the world is indebted for the wot ks 
of Ariftotic, VIII. 76 

Anprosthknzs, commander for 
Philip at Corinth, is defcted by 
Nicoliraius, prxtor of the A- 
rhseans, ^ VI. 310 

Jinge't when united to powei, Kom- 
pared to lluiiutcr, V. inj 

An 1 1' 1 V f(, Roman prxtor, is charged 
with the war agaiiift Cieniiiis- 
king of Ill>ria, \ II. 149. he de- 
feats tint prince, takes him prj* 
(oner, and le sus him to Rome, 

ANTAtcinrs, Liccd.rmonian, con- 
cludes a pi' ace with the 
Pcrlians fur the Greeks, 111, 395 

Anthont (MartatJ çonXnhuit 
his valour to the rc-eftabh(hfl 
of Aulctes upon the throni 
Egypt, Vni. 131. when tri 
vir. he cites Cleopatra befrie I 
and why, 146. his pallion for 
princel's, 147. her afcendant* 
hiffl, Z4S flie carries him 1 
her to Alexandria, 149. Aotl 
returns to Rome, and mai 
0^1 a via, Caefar*t filler, 150. 
makes fome expeditions into i 
thia, itiJ, then goes to Phar 
to meet Cleopatra, 152. his i 
rious t ea*ment of Oélavia, , 
he makes himfelf mafîer of 
menia, and returns to Alevanv 
which he enters in iriun 
153. he celebrates there ther 
nation ot' Cleopatra, and her i 
dren, 15^. open rupture botv 
Cxfar and Anthony, 15b. 
latter repudiates 0:>a ii, , 
An'honyp»ts tofea, accom.^ai 
by Cle.^atra, 158. he is in:i 
defeated in a fea-tî^ht bv Acïi 
1 59. all his troops lurrender th 
felves to Cxfar, 160. he red 
to A exandria, irj. he feiids 
bjil'idors to .treat of peace \ 
Csefjr, 1 61. feeing himfelf 
trayed by Cleopatra, he Icndi 
challenge Carfar to a fmgle (< 
hat, 164. believing CIriipatra 
killed herfelf, he fails u^on 
fword, thlt/, he expires io Clci 
t'a's arms, 165. 'har prince fa 
lebrates hisfuncral with gieal n 

Antigona, Philotas*t mifn 
accufes h:m to Alexander, 

Anticona, the daughter of I 
lemy, wife ('f Pyrrii'. , V; 

Anticom'S, one of A!cxa::ti 
capt.:inf, divides the rmp*ie 
that prince with the reft of ih 
v. S5S. he makes war j^a 
Lumen?s, and befieces h-m 
Ncra, sSS. he marches into 
(idia againft Alcetas and Alia 
iftiJ, he becomes very po^e* 
192. he revolts againll ihc kn 
anJ continues the war «»iih 
mcnetf who adbeici U Lbcm, ; 

ni ihe dclign sf rcinflalïng 

H Ipfui. 


I la hoSagc for Dcmctrim 
hcr, VJ, ,S. hE efliblilhct 
i >o Miicdauu, 49- Pyr- 
irÎTCi hiin oui of it, 75. 

c fendt IrDOpi ta ihc aid 
Spartini igiiiiifl fyrrliui, 
I marches lo the ilTiiltncc 
fltf bcGcged bjr Ihit prince, 
nlcci the whole iisny ind 
of Pycrhui, ind cclcbtltct 
nenl af ihiE prince with 
m.Knific«ce. S3, he be- 
Aiheni, Sj. a;id laltei it, 
il dMlh, 10) 

.NU) Duron, al Philip'i 

E ÎC. 

lîS. he IsfcluponlhelIironFof 

c fiif; 


by Selcur 
on iheO'ronif, V!. 4 

KTidCHUi, lieutenant, of Alci. 
bitdsl, Kltackt the LacidcTiioni- 
■ni with illconduft, and ii de- 
fc-ted wiih gieai lofi. III. i}o 
NTiocnus I. rucDimed Scier, 
[ïigni in Syria, and lEirriei Stra- 
tonice hii f«her-»*ife, VI. 40. 
be cndcaTouii ta Stiit the kbg- 
dora orPergamui, 93 

KTIDCHUI II. furnamed Theai, 
afcendi Ihe ih.oiie ol' Syti». VI. 


s delii 
', UiJ. 


1 IJ- 

into Egypl againft Ptolemy, a. 
the province! of the Eaft revoit 
agajnll bîm, it;!/, he lofei moft 
oF thnfe province», 95. be makeî 
peace with rioltmy, tné m»rrie» 
Berenice ihe diughter of that 
prïnre, ifier hiving rcpudiateit 
Liodicc, ili^. h« repudiates Bere- 
nice, and take] Laodics igaivt 
who caufei him to te paironcd, 
IQ^. Dinlel'i propheciei concctn- 
ing him, 96 

Antiochui Hierax cofhnAndi in 
AAj Minor, VI. lO]. he cQteri 
inia ■ teagae with tf bioilicr 
Se^eucus igilnft PialcVy, i^S. 
he declare! war igiinll Scleucui, 
gitci him battle, and deftitihin 
with great danger ■of Ml life, 
109. he ■■ attacked and defeated 
by Eum^nii, 110. he letiiei to 
Ariaralhoi, who foait after f» kl 
Dccafion 10 rid himfclf of him. 

idag>inflSpitta,t55. htoc- 


, who imprlfoni him. Hid. 


he e 

fcapca, and is alTaffiniitd by 



tri, ^itid. 


icHus 111. furnimed^ the 

uei, lii.*kei him- 


t, begin, to reign in Sj-ria, 

■ftuof Spatia, and Ireili 


178. fidelity of AchKU. in 

1 (Ttat clemency, lig. he 


a to him. Hid. he appointa 

nigainft the IliyiUni, and 


oia. hi! prime minlfter, iUJ. 

tf having gained a riaury 


in and Altimder, whom be 


appointed gonrnori of Me 

Mo'i.roBof AriHobuluilI. 

and Perfia, revolt igaintl 

UKoini byPompey, VJI, 


iM. he muriei Laodl», 

IN D E X. 

the daughter of Mithridatet, 177. 
he facrifices EpigencSy the moft 
able of his gtrnetals» to the jet* 
loufy of Hermiasj i8o. he 
inarches againft the rebels, and 
reduces them, iàîél, he rids him- 
felf of Hermiatj 181. he marches 
into Calofyria, and takes Seleu- 
cia, 185. Tyre and Ptolemais, 
186. he a truce with Pto- 
lemy, ibid, the war breaks out 
again, 187. Antiochus gains ma* 
ny advantages, ibid, he lofes a 
great battle at Raphia^ 189. he 
makes peace with Ptolemy, 190. 
he tuins his arms againft Achae- 
us, who had revolted, 191* 
Aebxus is put into hia hands 
by treachery, and executed» ibid» 
expeditions of Antiochus into 
Media, 263. Partliia, 265, Hyr- 
cania, iFid. Badlria, 266. and 
even into India, ibid, he enters 
into an alliance with Philip to 
invade the kingdom of Egypt, 
aye. and feizes Ctelofyria and 
PaleAine, ibid. Antiochus forms 
the de/ign of feizing Afîa Minor» 
VI. 290. he takes fome places 
there, 317. an embafFy is fent 
to him from the Romans upon 
that head, iôîd, Hannibal retires 
to him, 331. the ariiv*tl of that 
general dfrtermincs him up ^n a 
war with the Romans, 336. he 
goes to Gre.'ce at the requelt of 
the i^tolians, 344. he attempts 
to bring over the Achaeans in 
vain, 346. and afterwards tha 
BflBOtiacs, 348. he makes him- 
felf mafter of Chalcis, and all 
Eubota, ibui. the Romans declare 
var Bj^airiit him, 349. he makes 
an il' ufe of Hinnibal's counfels^ 
350. he goes to Chalcis, and mar- 
ries tbe diughte? ot the perfoa 
in whofe houfe he lodges, 351. he 
feiies the ftrai-s cf Thermopyî», 
152. he is defeated near thofe 
mcuntains, aid efispes to Chal- 
cis, i/'id, on his return to Ephefus, 
he \entures a fea-fi^ht, «ud lofes 
tt,357. his fleet gains fome advan- 
tage over (he Rhudiaus, 36ot he 
lofes a fecoad battle at fcaj ibid^ 

conduâ of Antiochtti after 
defeat. Hid, he makes prop 
of peace 36a. which are leje* 
364. he lofes a great battle 
MagneGa, 368, &c» he dem 
peace and obtains it^ on 1 
conditions, 371. la order to 
the tribute to the Romans, 
plunders a temple in Elyt 
395. he is killed, i^'A char 
of Antiochus, iM4. Daniel's 
phecies concerning that pri 

Antiochus, the eldeft foi 
Antiochus the Great, dies if 
flower of his youth, VI. 
charaâer of that young pri 

Antiochus IV. furnamed 
phanes, goes to Rome ii 
hoftage, VI, 371. he afcendi 
throne of Syri^ 379. difpn:c 
tween that prince and the '. 
of £gypr, VII. 60. he mar 
againft Egypt, 63. and gaii 
Aril viâory over Ptolemy, 
then a fécond, 64. he 10 
himfelf mafter of Egypt, 65. 
takes ths king himfelf, ibid. 1 
the rumour of a general re 
he enters Paleftine, ibid, befi 
and takes Jerufilen, ibid, w 
he eaercifes the moft horrid ci 
ties, ibid, Antiochus renews 
war in Egypt, 67, he rep! 
Ptolemy Philometor up»n 
throne, and with what view, 
he returns to Syr a, i^J. 
comes b.'.ck to Egypt, and m» 
es to Alexandria, 7a. Pop) 
the Roman ambatlador, ob 
him to quit it, ibid, Anticc 
incenfed itt what happened 
Egypt, vents his rage upon 
Jews, VI I. 73. he orders A 
lOQfus, one of bis generals 
à^ftfj {erufalem, 74. crue 
com mi ted there by that gen 
ibid. Atk-iochus endcarour! 
abolifli th» worihip of the 
God at Jeruùtem, ibid, he e 
Judxa, and C^dibmis hot 
cruellies, 77. he vekbrates g 
at Daphne neat Antitcii, 

I N D 

of hU generals defeated 
lu Maccabarup, 83. ho 
Perftii atcempii to phnw 
I temple of lUynuii, and 
lefuVy rcpulfed, 8)). upon 
It advice of the liefeat of 
Ilea in Judiea, he (ti* out 
ly with dcf'iKn tu exti-rmi- 
le Jews, 89. he ii nrucic 
band of Cod on hii way, 
es in the mod exquifitc 
1$, Hid* Diniel'i prcphe- 
icerning this prince, 90 
Mvs V, called Eupator, 
Is hit father Antiochui 
nes in the icingdom of Sy. 
!I« 1136. he continuel the 
th the Jews, 237. his gc- 
ind himfelf in ucrfun are 
d by Judai Mac'cabirui, 
c malcei peace wiih the 
ind deftroyi the fortifica- 
if the temple, «40. Ko- 
lifconrented with Uupator, 
is fuldicrs deliver him tip 
netriuii who puci him to 

H US VI. r4irnamc<l Thcoi, 
ed upon the titrone of Sy- 
• Tryphon, VII. a^g. he 
llnatad foon after, a6i 

Hue VII. furnamed Si- 
roarries Clcojiatra,. wife of 
riusi and- 11 prudaimid 
r Syria, VII. ari4. he dv- 
I Tryi>hon, who ii put 
th| 165. he marclies into 
, 174. bcfirgeo John Hyr- 
in TeiufalcMi, ibid, the 
ipituiatei, 175. he turns 
ns againft l^arthia, 176. 
he periHici, 277. ativrnture 

prince in hunting. //</./. 
Hus VIII. fiirn.»fiuj (îry- 
^«•gins to rt*ii;M in Syii», 
84. he nuirica Tiyplu-ii.i, 
tighter of IMiyfron kin^; ol' 

ihid, he ilrt'fwts aiul cx- 
Cebina, ihiti. liin mother 
itr# endeavoiiry to poifon 
and is poifonrd hciiVlf, 
Intirirhus rciiv»'' Ionic timr 
;e, 186. war bctwnn tli.ii 
and his brother Anilutiiui 

E X. 

of Cyz!cum> \hii, the two bro* 
then divide the empire of Syrit 
between them, a8$. Orypus mar* 
ricii Selena, the daughter of Cleo* 

Ita'ra, and lenewi the war at;ûnft 
lis brother, a95< he ii alPaiU- 
natrd by one of his vairilc, 196* 

Antiociius IX. furnamed tht 
Cyzicenian, maltci war againik 
his brother Antiochui Grypui^ 
VII. 2^6. he marries CleupatrJs 
whom Lathyrui had repudiated» 
ibid, after feveral battles he cornea 
to »n accommodation wi>h hia 
biother, and divides the empirt 
of Syria with him, a88. he goee 
to the aid of the Samaritans^ 
and is uni'uccefsful in that war» 
289. after his brother*s death he 
endeavours to pufTcfs himfelf of 
his dominions^ 106. he lofes a 
battle againft Seleucus the fun 
of CîrypuSf who puts him co 
death, «07 

Antiùchus X. furnamed £uio« 
bci, fun of Antiochus the Cy- 
ziccnian, caufcs himfelf to be 
crowned king of Syria» and ex- 
pels Seleucus, VII. «97. he g4ins 
a battle againft Antiochus and 
Philip, brother of Soleucus, ihid. 
he marries Selena the widow of 
Oiypus, ihid, he is entirely de- 
feated by Philip» and obliged to 
take refuge amongft the Parthi- 
nns 298. by their aid be r^terns 
into Syiia, (bid, he is again evpel* 
led and retires into Cilicia, where 
he ends his days, 199 

Antiochus XI. fon of Qrypui» 
endeavours to revenge the death 
of his brother Sdcucus, VII. 297. 
he is dd'c.itcd hy Kulebcs, and 
dtnwnc^d In cjidcavouring to pal's 
tlif Oioiiici, iiul,\ 

Aiirioi:hiJK XII. furnaiTU'd Dio- 
nyllin, fci/.rs C<cl«l")ri.i, and 
!i ium funic Ihort time, Vli, 297 

An I 101 Ml K XlUt called AiiaticuK» 
lent by Sricna his mother to 
Keiur, VII. %v%, «n his retuiit 
he (V'cs to Si<ily, and iecclvc« 
an cuutmoul atiiuiil from Veircs» 


I N D 

fliW. he reîgnt fomc time in 
Syria, VIII. nç. Poropey de- 
prives him of his dominions, 


Anti PATER, Alexander's lieute- 
nant, is appointed by that prince 
to govern Macedonia in his ab- 
fence, V. 19. he defeats the Lace- 
daemonians, who had revolted 
againft Macedonia, 119, Alexan- 
der takes his governmeni from 
him, and orders him to come to 
him, 216. Antipater's expediti- 
ons into Greece after Alexander's 
death, 263. he is defeated by the 
Athenians near Lamia, to which 
he retires, 264. he furrenders that 
place by capitulation, 267. he 
feizes Athens, and puts a garrlfon 
Into it, 271. he putsDemofthenes 
and Hyperides to deaih, 272. he 
gi- es Phila his daughter to Crate- 
rus in marriage, 27^. he is ap- 
pnnted regent of the kiagdom of 
Macedonia in the room of Ferdic- 
cas;^ 2S^. deaih of Amipater, 


Antipatir, cldeft fon of Ca/Tan- 
der, VI. 10. difputc between that 
prince and his brother Alexander 
for the crown of Macedonia, ihtd, 
he kills his mother ThefTalooica, 
who favoured his younger brother, 
ihid* Demetrius drives him out of 
Macedonia, 11. he retires into 
Thrace and dies there, ibùU 

Antivhov, courlier of Dlonyfi- . 
ws : Witty faying which coft him 
his life, IV, 140 

Antony. ^«Anthony. 

Any$is, king of Egypt, I. 6ç 

jiornus, a rock in India, befîeged 
aod tj^ken by Alexander, V. 

Jipituùét : Feafts celebrated at 

Athens, III. 298 

jip'gay infernal machine, invented 

by Nabift, Vi. 261 

Apelles, courtier of Philip, VI. 

20;. abufef his power, ikid- he 

endeavour* to hiimble and eodavc 

the Achxans, 20S. he periflies*' 

miferably, 219 

Afslles, Perfeus*8 accomplice in 

iccttiiiig Demetrius, is lent am- 

E X. 

baflTador to Rome bj PhtHi 
49. after the death ùf Dea 
he efcapcs into Italy, 

Apsilxs, officer of Ant 
Epiphancs, endeavours to 
Mattathias facrifice to idoli 
76. Mattathias kills kimv 
his followers, 

jSj>iit ox adored under that 
by the Egyptians, 

Apis, king of Argos» 1 

ApoLLo, Temple ereâed i 
nour of him at Delphi, 

Aptllocrates, eldeft t 
l^ionyfius the Younger, 
macds in the citadel of S; 
in theS-oom of his fathe 
i63. he furrendera that pi 
Di >n; and retires to his fath 

Apollodorus, friend of C 
tra, favours the entrance • 
princefs into Alexandria 
what manner» VII 

AroLLONiDxs, officer in th 
of Eumenrs, occafiona the 
a battle, V. 2S7. he is feij 
put to death, 

Apollonides, msgtî^rate o 
cufc, VIII 27. his wife di 
in the aiTembly of the 

Apollonius» lord of the c 
Antiochus Epiphanes, i 
ambaiTador by that prince, 
Egypt, VII. 61.' then to 
:b>d, Antiochus fends hin 
an army againft Jerufalcmj 
orders to deflroy that city, 
cruelties there, ibid, he is 
ed by Judaf MaccabasJS^ at 
ed in the battle, 

Apollonius, Governor of 
fyria and Phvnicia, n 
againft Jonathan, and is d< 
VII. 254. he forms a p*ot 
the lifo of Ptolemy Ph^h 

Apollopiiakes, phyfician 
tiochus the Gieat, difco' 
that prince the conspiracy 
againft him by Hermias, V 
fahitary advice which he ga 
Appirs (Cimadiut) Roman 
' it fent into Sicily to aid t 



net, T. 14X. he defeati the 
.agioiiMS and Syracufani, 


s (Ciaudiut) Roman (cîïa- 

>rcventi the fenate from ac- 
ig the offers of Pyrrhus, 

V. 59 
I (Chudiut) Roman, com- 
s t body of troops, and is 
lear Ufcana, againft which 
urchcd with defign to plun- 
• VII. 130 

s afcends the throne of E- 
I. 75. fuccefs of that prince, 
Zciiekiah king of Judah 
rei his aid, ibid, he declares 
If protei^jir of Ifracl, 76. E- 
evolts againfl him, ibid, and 
mafii on the throne, 77. he 
iged to re.tire into upper E. 
ihid. AmaTu defeats him in 
rlc, in which he is taken 
ler, and put to death, 79 
I us {Af.iniusJ Rorran pro- 
I, is defeated in a b ittle by 
ridâtes, who takes him pri- 
and puts him to death, 

Vill. 59 
%) Lacedaemonian admiral, 

III. 301 
KB, lord of Media, i^ ap> 
:d by Cyrus to keep Pantiia^a 
er« II. 235. paflion which 
nceives for that princefs, 
oodnefs of Cyrus in refpi'Cl 
1, 135. he doci that prince 
Tcrvice ir going as a Ipya- 
\ the AHyrians, 136 

s, fon of" Clinius, efcapts 
Sicyon, to avoid he fury of 
tidas, VI. 1 17. i»c ( 
:ity fronj thf tyi.uiny, 118. 
mites if with the Ac' .ean 

', ibt.i. \^'.: .ip; r.if; b i (fiAi- 
pon the poij;! of Iwi- .kiiiii; 
t Sityon, 120. he is rl. Yltrd 
■1 ot the AchiO'ns, i?.2. 
CCI Corinth from Ami^v n"^» 
he niaises cities I'iitir 
the Ach:i'ari Ir.'.'.-iu*. i?.\ 
IS not the. faille luict-ffi at 
i IZ9. lie nuuchc; n^'.ainft 
I'ltolian*, 14*^. Cltvnii-ncs 
>f Sparta çains r''vcr.i! jHvan- 
uvcr him, 1.^9. AtaHis's 

envy of that prince, 161. he cafff 
in Antigonus to aid the Achaeane 
is defeated by the i^tolians, 195* 
'A pelles, Philip's minider, accuCei 
him fa'fely to that prince, 19^ 
he is declared innocent, ihid, hs 
accompanies Philip into iSiolia, 
his expeditions againft the i£to« 
lianf, Lacedsemonians, and £« 
);eans, 209. Philip caufes him to 
he poifoncd, 228. his funeral fo- 
lemnized magnificently, 229* 
prjife and character of Aratus. 


Ara TU s the Younger, fon of the 
gieat Aratus, is chief magiflrate 
of the Achacans, VI. 203. Phi* 
lip caufes him to be poifoned, 


Aa BACKS, governor of the Mèdet 
for SardanapaluR, revolts againft 
that prince^ and founds the 
kingdom' of the Mcdes, lU 



Arhehf city of AfTjrîa, famous tor 
Alexander's victory over Darius, 

V. 101 

Archesilas, Alexander's lieute- 
nant. Provinces thai fell to hit 
lot aftcf that prince*! death^ 

V. 25S 

Archacathus, fon of Agatho* 
clfs, commands in Africa after 
hs father's departure, I. 138» 
he periHies there miferably, 


Archil LA us, governor of Sufa for 
A'cxander, V, j 11 

Archklaus, one of the generals 
of Miihridates, takes Athens, 
VII .60 he is driven rut of it 
by .^yl'.i. 6 J. he is '■lefeatcd by 
liic lumc (Mptain, t.xd at Thero- 
n.iM. 6;'. jii liieii ar Orchome- 
nos 69. hj* clV.ip.s to Chalcis, 70» 
and has an interview with Sylla 
ntar l)-iii:m. 71. Arche|aus Eoc't 
over ti) Mui;i'r.u, 77. iu- enu;«ges 
the latter tu make war againl> Mi- 
thridatcs, ihiJ^ 

ARtM tr. A us, fon of the formel, il 
niaJe hij^h-jrictt and foveieign of 
Cv»mana, VI 1 1. 119. he marries 
Berenice, queen of E^ypt, 131. 


ftt ÎI killed ÎA I battle with the 
Komanty 131 

Archxlaus, Ton of the latter^ en- 
joyi the fame dignities as hit 
father, VII. 374. he marries 
Glaphyra, and has two fons by 

ï>ef» 17s 

Akchzlaus^ fon of Archclaui and 
CJaphyra, afccnds the throne of 
Cappadocia, Vil. 374. Tiberius 
does him great fcrvices with Au- 
guftus, 375. he draws the revenge 
of Tiberius upon himfelf, 375. 
be is cited to Rome, and why» 
ihid* he is very ill received there, 
and dies foon after, '^76 

Archias, Corinthian, founder of 
Syracufe, III. 220 

Archidamia, Lacediemonian la- 
dy Î Her«ick a£lion of licr*s, VI, 
77. fhe is put to death by order 
of Amphares, 146 

Archioamus. king of Sparta^ 
faves the Lacedaemonians from 
iS;c fury of :he Hclota, III. xxo. 
commands the troops of Sparta 
it the bei^inning of the Pclopon- 
nefian war, 161. he befieges 
Platafae, ibid» 

Archidamus, fon of Agefilau*| 
gains a battle againfl: the Area» 
dians, IV. 228. his valour during 
the fiege of Sparta by Epaminon- 
das, 243. he reigns in Sparta, 

Akchilochus, Greek poet, inven- 
tor of iambick vcrfes, II. 333. 
chara6ler of hii poetry, ioQU 

Archimid s, famous geometri- 
cian, Viil. 13. he invents many 
■lachines of war, 14. prodigious 
cffefls of th(.fe machines, 31. he 
is killed at the taking of Syra^ 
cufe, 41. his tomb difcovered by 
Cicero, 43 

Archon, one of Alexander's ofH- 
cers. Provinces that fell to him 
after that prince's death, V, 

Arc HON is elcAed chief majgiftrate 
of the Achxans, VII. i3x, wife 
refolution which he mikes that 
people take« 133 

Ardys, king of Lydia, II. 103 
tTAS| king of Arabia Petr9ea« 

fubmit» t» Pompeyp Vllf. 119 
AazTX, daughter of Dionyfiaithc 
tyrant, firft marncd to her bro- 
ther Theoridet, and afterwards to 
her uncle Dioji, IV, 143. ihe 
•marries Timocratef, in the ba- 
nifliment of the latter, 160 

Arc Aus is placed by the Atheni- 
ans upon the throne of Macedo- 
nia, IV. 305. he it defeated by 
VhUip, 3ot 

Arginuja: Ifles famous for the vic- 
tory of the Athenian! over the 
Lacedaemonians, III. 296 

Argo, kingofLydii, II. 101 

Argtit^ foundation of that kingdonii 
II. 2S1. kings of Argos, Wd* 
A R c u s . king of ■^'KO** H* >Sl 
Aki/eus commands the left wing 
of Cyrus's army at the battle of 
Cunaxa, III. 334. the Grerki 
offer him the crown of Perfia, 
342. he refufes it, 343. and 
makes a treaty with thcm« 

AaiAMNSs, king of Cappadocia 

VJI. 367 
AaiARATHis I. king of Cappido*. 
cia, VII. }i7 

AaiARATHEt, fon of the firl^ 
reigns over Cappadocia, VII. 1671 j 
he is defeated in a battle by Pci^ 
diccat, who feixes hit dowinimwb 
and puts him to death, ikvL 

Ariarathks III. efcapec into Ar- 
menia after his fatber't duthp 
VII. 368. he afcenda the thioai 
of his anceftori, \h)i% 

Ariarathis IV. King of Cappa- 
docia, VII. 368 
Ariaratrxs v. king of Cappip 
docia, marries Antiochjt, daogh* 
ter of Antiochus the Grear^ VI I. 
367. the Romans lay à great fios 
upon him for haVing aided bit 
father-in law, 368. he fends hit 
fon to Rome, and with what view, 
MI. 109. he dcclaret for the 
Romans againft Perfeui, 1 1 1 
Ariarathxs VI. rot'ufet to itigi 
during his father'i life, VIU 368. 
alter his fathet*s death he aîccnds 
the throne ^of Cappadociai 369. 
he renews the alliance with the 
Romans, ih\d* he maxcJita 10 aid 



tht Romifti tgainft Ariftonicuit 
«ad il killed in that war, 379 
AftiAaATHZs VU. reigns in Cap- 
padocia, VII. 370. hii brother- 
in-law Mithridates caufei him to 
be ai&flinated, ihid, 

AaiARATHXs VIII. il placed upon 
the throne of Cappadocia by Mi- 
thridates, VII. 194. he is aflafli- 
Dated by that prince, ihid* 

Akxaratres IX. king of Cappa- 
docia, is aflafllnated by Mithri- 
dates in the prcfence of the army, 

VII. 371 

Axi AR ATHXsX. afcends the throne 
of Cappadocia, VII* 371 

AftiARATHEs, Ton of Mithridates, 
feigns in Cappadocia, VIII. 54, 
ht it dethroned by the Romans, 
55. he is reinftated a fécond and 
then a third time, 56, &c» 

AntAtPEs, Ton of Anaxerxss 
Maemon, deceived by his bro- 
ther Ochus, kills himfelf, IV. 

Ann A vs, baftard brother of Alex- 
uider, is declared king of Mace- 
donia after the death of that 
I prince, V. 157. OJympiai caufes 
nim to be pat to death, 308 

AixMAsus, Sogdian» governor of 
Petra Oxiana, refufes to furrender 
to Alexander, V. 155. he is be- 
lieged in that place, i $7. he fub- 
mita to Alexander, who putt him 
to death, 158 

Ariobarsakzs I. is placed upon 
the throne of Cappadocia by the 
Roman», VII. 37s. he is twice 
dethroned by Tigranes, ihid. Pom- 
pey reiaftates him in the qaiet 
pofleflion of the throne, ihiJ, 

Ariobarzanes II. afcends the 
throne of Cappadocia, and is killed 
foon after, VII. 372 

ARI0BAR2AKE8 III. reigns in 
Cappadocia, VII. 372. Cicero 
fupprcHes a confpiracy forming 
again him, ibid, he fides with 
Pompey againd Cxfar, 373. the 
latter hy> him under contribu- 
tion, ibid, he refufes to ally with 
Carfares murderers, 374. CslTius 
attacks him, and having taken 
him prifuner, puti hin to death» 

AsioBARZAKts, govemof of Per- 
iia for Darius, pofts himfelf at 
the pafs of Sufa, to prevent Alex- 
ander from palling it, V. 109* 
he if put to flight, ibidm 

Arista G OR A s iseftabliflied gover- 
nor of Miletus by Hyftîaîui, IF* 
378. he joins the lonians in 
their revolt againft Darius, 380. 
he goes to Lacedaemon for aid» 
ibid» but ineft*e£tually, 381. he 
goes to Athens, ibid, that city 
grants him fisme troops, gSz. he 
is defeated and killed in a battle» 

Aristander, a foothfayer m the 
train of Alexander, V.^ 100 

Aristxas, citizen of Argoa, givea 
Pyrrhui entrance into that city» 

VI. 81 

Aristanus, chief magiftrate of 
the Achxans, engages them to 
declare for the Romans agaiaft 
Philip, VI. 293 

Aristides, one of the generals of 
the Athenian army at Marà« 
thon, refigns the command to 
Miltiades, II. 395. he diftin- 
guifhes himfelf in the battle» 
397. he is baniihed, and is recall- 
ed, ill, «I. he goes to Themifto* 
cles at Salamin, and perfuadet 
him to fight in that ftrait, 36* 
he reje£ls the eflfen of Mardoniui» 
45. and gains a famous vi£tor/ 
over that glanerai at Platseae, ' 50* 
he terminates a difference that had 
arofe between the Athenians and 
Lacedaemonians, 54^ confidence di 
the Athenian) in Ariftides, 66« 
hit condefcenfîon for that people, 
ibid, he is placed at the head of 
the troops font by Athens to de- 
liver the Greeks from the Perfian 
yokc; 67. hit conduél in that 
war, ibid, he is charged with the 
adminiAration of the publick re- 
venues, 74. his death, 77. hit 
charaftcr, 75, &c. 

Ariston ufiirpi the government at 
Athens, and adit with great cru- 
elty, VIII. 61. he it beficged in 
that city by Sylia, 63. be is taken, 
and put to death» 65 


. I N D 

JUiSTlPPVSf cUîïcn of Arçoi, 
excites a fcditioa in that city, 
VI. So. he becamei tyrant of it, 
130. he is killed in a battle, 131. 
continual terrors in which that 
tyrant lived, I20 

AaisTOBULvs I. Ton of Juhn 
Hyrcanus, fuccceds hi' father in 
the high prieAhood, and fove- 
reignty of ]udn?a, VIT. 316. he 
•(Tomes the title of king, ibià^ 
he caufes his mother to be put 
to death, ikid. then bis brother 
Antigonus, tbid, he dies foon 
after himlclt^ 317 

Aristobulvs II. foil of Alexan- 
der Jannacus, reigns in Judxa, 
\ II. 32a. difpute between that 
prince and Hyrcanu?, 324. Pom- 
pey takes Cv^gnizance of it, 325. 
Ariftobulus^s condufl makes him 
his enemy, 'did, Pompey lays 
him in chains, 327. and fends 
him to Rome, 329 

^RISTODEMUS of Milctus Is left at 
Athens by Demetrius, V. 340 

Aristogiton confpircsagainft iWc 
tyrants of Athens, II. 325. his 
death, ibid, ftatiies ereâed in 
honour to him by the Athenians, 

Aristomachf, fiflcr of Dion, is 

married to Dionvfius the tyrant, 

IV. 1*3 

Aristomfkes, MetTcnian, oft'ers 
his dau'ihter to be facrificeJ for 
appealing the wrath cf the gods, 
j. cxii, i^e carries the prize of 
\alour at the battle of Ithoma, 
cxv. he is ele^ed king of the 
MclTenians, did. he beat? the 
I.acedaHnonians, and ficrificcj 
three hu'drcd of them in honour 
of Jupitc.- of Ithoma, cxvi. he 
ficrific. s nimfwlf foon after upon 
his aau :,hter's t .-nb, Hid, 

AaisTOMtNt-, fccond of that 
name, king of MelTene, gains 
a vidtory c\ - the Lacedaemoni- 
ans, I. cx\ii. bc.ù ?£lioa of that 
:y,c he is beat by the 
hi dcith, 

Laceôa?'.monuns. cxix. 

A R 1 s 1 o M r. N T. ?, A CJ 1 n:!n'.an, is 
chirccd with ih: t-uc.^lon 01 

B X. 

Ptotemj EpSphanet, VI, 
quaihet a conîpiracy form 
that prince, 319. Ptoh 
him to death, « 
AaitTON, of Syracofe, c 
difcovers the confpirac) 
by Aodranadorut againft , 

AaisTONic us pofieflfes hi 
the dominions of Attal 
371. he defeats the con 
fus Mucianus^ and tal 
prifoner, ibid* he is be. 
taken by Perpenoa, ibid, 
ful frnds him to Rome, 
is put to death there, 

Aristofhanes, famous 
Ixxxix. chara£ler of hi: 
ibid, faults with which 
juftly be reproached, xc. 
from fome of hit pieces, 

Akistotls, Philip cha* 
with the education of Al 
V. 3, his application in 
that prince, 

Arphaxad, name given 
Scripture to Phraoit< 

Pn a A or TES. 

AasACEs, fon of Dariot. 


Arsaces I. governor of 
for Antiochu*, revoks M%i 
prince, VI. 95. he alTu 
title of king, 

Arsaces II. king of Parth 
Media from Antiochus, 
he fuftainf a war agai 
prince, a66. he comes t< 
commodation with Ar 
who leases him in pcacea 
fcIEon of hi? kingdom, 

Arsamcs, natural fon of 
xes MnemoD, i» alfaifir 
his brother Ochus, 

Arses reigns in Pcrfia a 
death of Ochus, IV. 2?i 
caufes him to be aT. 

Arsinoe, daughter of 
Lagus, is married to L\i' 
king of Thrace, VI. 5. 
death of that prince hci 
Ceraunus mar.-ics her, , 
lequel of that marria^ 
ihe it baniflied iato Sam 

I N 


plokisr Ligui, owmti het bio- 
(her Ptolemy -Phibdclfhul, VI. 
|g. dcuh of that princcri, 98 
M»«». ■'■"îHt" of PlMtmy 
AuIetM 1 Cœfar'i fenitncr in her 
■rno-4f, Vill. Jjî, ihi i> pro- 
.cluraeil natta of fig/pt, - — 
CjeÛrOHi"'--- - ■*-- 

.« the leQutft of CltopiiM, "11 

■r 'of D.ri 
t Ibit pri 

wife diftourfe 

.Stlthi»n'«,"u. 363- he i> (Tuie 
uUter helwcen (he iwo fons uf 
JJ^Hut in refpcâ of till 

^inty, 4'>+- '' 
'to Xerxc) upon that pi 
Egata Jliaelt Greece, 111. 3 

^TA«AK-«i. Hytcanian, captain 
,Bf ihe g"«di 10 Xsrïct. confpifd 
, «ni nft that prince, and killihim, 
■ ID. So- and ii IciUcd hlmSelf by 

■xcrici, iJiV. 

.BAIiANEI, afrer the de/^lh 
•f Oaiiui, difpuio the throne of 
]P«tfi.with Xino, II 405. he 
■*«inuei i» ami.y *iili his hio- 
tllfr, and lofei hia life in hit 

,|n<> ''' 

E X. 

tie oïCuniiii III, j;l{ 

lent pnllion uf thai piince for heri 
III. jB. fjtaj fiquci of ihit p>r- 
fion, liiJ. 

ABTAiHtiiNii, govern or of Sar- 
<li> for hiibrothgiDaciui, ii for 

fVite HJppiai, II. 3t(|. he narchet 
agaiDlltheinind of Naxui willi 
defign [o fnrprile it, 370. tie itif- 
CHïtii Ibeeonfijirjcy uf Hjftiirui, 
384, he marthei againll ihe re- 
vH-cd Ionian!, jgj 

AaTABiuF, btoChci of Atlatcixc) 
Longimanui, JH. 99 

Aktaxhiej I. furnamed Longi- 
minui, by [he Infligation cf Ar- 
tabanui, killi hi» brother Darius, 
and ifcend) the throie cf PirGa, 
III. So. he riJ. himfetf oFAria- 
binui, iHd, tie deliroyi the paiiy 
of Atiabanut, gj. and thic of 
Hyft.rpeihi)e;derbrolhl.,.*J. ha 
giKiTliamiftocle. refuge, 84. hi» 
jay for the arrival of that Alhe- 
ni-n,aS.he prrmiisEfdrii toretutn 
to Jerufalim rirl, loi. and (ben 
Nehcmiah, 101. by tbs 
conquefli of the Atheniim, he 
formi tlicdcGgn offending The- 

letum to ill obedience, gï. hs 
givei up Inarui lo hit rootber caa- 
iiary to the faith of trciiy, 99, 

he concludci a treaty with the 



(LX>9 It. ruinamed H'f 

AfiJ after 

W<.i7, i 

crowned king of Pérfi., 

;o. Xerxes 

ill. J 

I, Cjroi hi) brother at- 

l,i of the 


to mordcr him, Hid, he 

and with 


lioi 10 hi' (ovsmment of 



Minor, iitJ. he maiches 

of rne -,f 


Cyru. advancing to de- 



him, jjjr'E'»:' bim b>C- 

p.:™. IV, 

tie jt 

-uoiia, 3^6. rjidkilltbim 

l.U.,-1 the 


i< own head, 357. hecn- 
r« the Oreeki in hi> bro- 

■ , iJ «1- 

n.t fr 


army 10 fomoder them- 



M him, 14»- ha P«" Tif- 

. W.., 


nealu death, ,80. be it. 


Htatflrt king of CytWM, 

I N D EX. 

Cadnfianl» 40S. Artaxerzes fendt 
an ambafllidor into Greece to re- 
concile the ftatei, IV. 116. he re- 
ceives a deputation from the 
Oreeks, 9119. honours which he 
pays to Pelopidas» «30. he un* 
dertaket to reduce Egypt, 154, 
that enterprize mifcarries, 256. 
moft of the provinces of his em- 
pire revolt againft him, 262a 
troubles at the court of Artaxer- 
zes concerning his fucceflbrs, 
ibid, death of that prince» 963 

Artaxxrxzs III. before called 
Ochut. ^mOchus. 

Artxmxborus, invefted with the 
fupreme authority at Syracufe, 

VIII. % 

AtTEMisiA^ queen of Halicarnaf- 
fus, fupplies Xerxes with troops 
in his expedition againft Greece, 
III. 17. her courage in the battle 
of Saiamin, 37 

Artxmisia, wife of Maufblus, 
reignt in Caria after the death of 
her hun>and, IV. 278. honours 
ihc renders to the memory of 
Maufolus, ibid, (he takes Rhodes, 
279. her death» 280 

jtrtemijia, promontory of Eubcea, fa* 
mous for the vi£lory of the Greeks 
over the Perfians, ill. 29 

AxTiMON) engineer. III. 127 

^rts, origin and progrefs of the arts, 

II. 243 

Ax TYPHI us, Ton of Megabyfus, 
revolts againft Ochus, III. 199. 
he is fuftbcated in afhes, ibid^ 

jtrufl^ctt. See Jbigttn, 

As Ô R u B A L, Hamilcar's fon-in-law, 
commands the Carthaginian army 
in Spain. I. 172. he builds Car- 
th;>gena, ibiJ» he is kilkd trea- 
cheroufly by a Gaul, 173 

AsDRVBAL, HannibaPs brother, 
commands the troops of Spain 
after his brother*s departure, I. 
17S. he receives orders from 
Carthage to march to Italy to the 
aid of his brother, 208. he fets 
forward and is defested, ibU, 
he lofes a great battle near the 
river Metavru<, and is killed in 

it, «13 

Aso&uiA«> Gi%o*s brothcfi com- 


mamda the Carthagtaîi 
in Spain,' 
A s o X u B A L ,Carthagînîan I 
coBdeanihed to die; and « 
II. 20. the Carthaginian 
him general of the Iroopi 
their walls, %y, his c 
the Reman prifoners, 
the taking of the city, 
trenches himfelf in th< 
of iCfculapius, 35. he f 
himfelf to Scipio, ibid, 
end of hit wife and 

^/^9 geographical defer ipti 
'^ I ' 

A s p A s I A« celebrated cooiti 
135. flie maries Peric 
accufation formed again 
Athens, ibid, her great k 
occafions her being n 
mengft the fophifts, 

Assyrians* Firft empir 
Aflyrians, II, 56. duratio 
empire, 57. kings of th 
ans, ibid, fécond empir 
Aftyrians. both of Kin 
Babylon,76. fubverfionof 
pire by Cyrus, 

AsTBR, of Amphipolit,' t 
Philip's right eye, IV. ; 
prince puts him to deathj 

4/fro/c£y, Judicial^ falflioed 
fcience, * 

jÇrwowy, firft ftudied by'thi 

AsTTAGEs, king of the 
called in Scripture Al 
II. ICI • he gives hie dau 
marriage to Cambyfes 
Perfia, ibid» he caufe 
his grandfon to come 

AsYCHis, king of Egyptj 
of the law concerning I 
64. famous pyramid bull 

At H X AS, king of Scythii 
feated by Philip, againf 
he had declared, 

Athxns. Atbxnians* 
tion of the kingdom of 
II. 282. kings of Athe 
the archons fucceed the: 
Praco U chofe Icgiflftt 

li^in, PlfiR 

ijrinnr. 1*9. 

ilMlasi, burn the cii^ 
It ]Sa. Dtriai prepirei 
* tK» inrutt, 3B,. fi- 

I7. Dirlm'i hertldi art 
Ul) Ihcra, 3.91. ihe A- 
Mider Milliidc) giin 
^iftary uver ih« PcrlVti» 
llun, 397, the AtH^nl' 
Ck«d bx Xc»e<,' thiCt 

Ihe fleet M the t-icedz- 

iiid. they bcli<ge Pglldci, ii;, 
epen rupture bciwMn Atheni end 
Spirli, 134. beginmnf of the ^e- 
lopDQaeliin wir. l£o. reclprec*! 
nvaget of Aldo end PeJupen- 
ncrui, 1Ë3. flatue of Atheni, 
III. 16S. the Alheniinl (eiu 
PaiidK*. 174' thej fend forcei 
igiinft the ine of Lclboi, iSo. and 
milcc mifleii of Mi- 
iS4' (he pUïïe breilct 


I [be liAotj glint 
tm, 19. they ire te- 
dbwdon their tlvf, 3^, 
b bDiDl bv ihc Periiani, 
k«f Stlimin, in which 
MoilDt icquite infinils 
I they ibindon i' 

«nd time. 4j. the Athc- 
i Liteilvmijnidii tut iho 
uni) to piecei neir Pli. 
^thty dcfdicihe ferAin 
itha (Oinininil of the 
In (cnual lr4nircrred to 
■Imi,6^, the Atheniant, 
taa« lain «double vlflory 
F«fiani near the rlv< 

, HI. 

> r.p. 

c aiiin 

. the 

lUbtM and Spint, 114. 

if r<lC* 'Bt (tiirty yciii 
I tbf two flitci, 117, the 
m bcflegc Samoi, iiiit. 
li lU tolkt CarcyiiiNi 


«he Pylu> 
ate beflcged in it, 191. ihcytaka 

Ihe troepa Ihut up in the ills 
of Sphifterii, 191. Iher make 
themreltai maflctr of the id-nd 
of Cyiherea, 10». Ihey ate de- 
feated by the Thabani niar Da- 
lium, 104. I 

llie Atbenian'i'lllie inlligalion of 
AlclU'de>,raiiew the war igiinlt 
Sparta, III. «tS. they angi(a bgr 
hii advica in the war with Sicily, 
«17. Atheni (ppointi Alcibiadei, 
Nitiii, inri Limacbui, (aatnlii 
«111 iriiAiphuit departur* of tha 
fleet. XI}. it arrivaa in Slailf, 
tio. the Alheniini recall Alci- 
hiadet, and condemn him to di<, 
131. after f.ima aflioDli th*)r 
t>elicEe SyncuPe, (41, thty ua> 
' dertika fevcral workt thai C*duM 
. ihef 
• >5|i 

&c. ihey baiard a ftcopd battle 
by fv-i, and are defeated, i6o< ' 
Ihey Tcfolve la retire by land, i6}> 
ihcjare redjeerllo ruireudcrthem- 
|-.lvci 10 Ihi; S^ncufinl, 1Û«> 

ttiq. iiiiiHeinJiion of Athene 
upon Ihii defeat, i70.lhaAibfr- 
niini are abandoned by ibeli al> 
liei, HI. 171. iheiatutaof AU 


177. (he four hundred iafened 
with all authority at Albcni, 
tyg. iheir power la anaulled, 
ftSl. Alciblidei il nulled, itiii. 


he occafioni the gaining of fe- 
vcral ireat adtmtages by the A- 
ihenians. i8z, ^r. the AthvuU 
ans cleA him generaliflimu, tSf. 
their fleet is defeJted ne«r £phc- 
I'ui, 290. the command is taken 
from Alcibi^def, 291» thry gain 
A great vi^ory over the LaceJc- 
Rioniani near the Arginufa? 295. 
tkey are intirely defeated by the 
latter near iCgorpotamoa, 304. 
Athens, bcfieged by Lyfander, 
capitulates and furrenden, 307. 
Tnirty tyrants inftituted to go- 
Tern Athena by Lyfandcr, 111. 
318. (he recovers her liberty, 
321. Conon rebuilds the walls 
of Athens, 395. the Athcniani 
«id the Theban exiles, IV. 205. 
they repent it prefently after, 
sii. they renew the alliance with 
the Thebans, 213. ihey declare 
againft (he latter for the Lacedae* 
snonians, 224. many of the Â- 
thenian allies revolt, 269. sene* 
rals empi «yed to reduce them, 
iiiJt âfc. alarm of the Arhenians, 
•crafioncd by the prep.iration t\T 
war made by the kiHg nf Pcrfia, 
174. they fend aid to the Mcga- 
lopolitans, 227. afterwards to the 
Rhodians, 2So« digfbffion upon 
the manner of fitting out fleets 
by the Athenians, and the ex- 
emptions and other marks of ho- 
nour gran eJ to fuch a^ hid ten- 
()eied it great fcrvtce, 996. the 
Athenians fufl'er themfeJves to 
be amufed by Philip, iV. 312. 
Demofthenet endcivour^ in lain 
to roufe them from their lethargy, 
^25. Athens joins the Lacede- 
monians agiinft Philip, 343. the 
Athenians un 'er Phociuo drive 
Philip out of Enhtisa, 346. they 
•bilge that prince to raife the 
fitgc of Perinthusand Byzantium, 
352. they f rm a league with the 
Thebans ngainft Philip, 361. 
Immodtrate joy of Athens upon 
that princess d«ath. 372. the A- 
thenians form ■ league againft 
Alexandcri V. 11. that prince 
pardons them, 14. conduA of the 
AthcBiAAa in rcf4>c A to Harpala^ 

111. Riittioun ■lid Joy «I 
upon the newt or Ak 
death, 161. the Athcniai 
' againft Antipaicfy 163. 1 
viAoiious at Htd, 364. 
afterwards reduced to 
269. Antipater makes 
mafter oi tl eir city, iM. 
is condemned to die by 
theniaaa, 193. Cafl'andi 
Athens, 300. lie makei 
of Demetrius Phalcreui t< 
the republick, i/>ii/. Athei 
by Demetrius PoUorcete 
exccflive honoun renderet 
tigonut and his fon Demc 
the Athenians, 342. At! 
fieged by- Caflander and d 
by Demctriua, 37c. excel 
tery of Demetrius by the 
ans, ièiJ. Athens ihuts 
againft Demetrius, VI. 
takes that city, 8. Ath* 
clarcs againft Antigunus < 
S7. and is taken by that 
who puts a garrifon into 
the Athenians cany the 
plaints againft Philip to 
Vi. 27S. that prince 
their city, 179. Ate fen< 
famous philofophers upon 
balTy to Rome, and wti 
Vn. 197. Athens taken 
chelaus, VJJI. €c. 
makes himfelf tyrant of tl 
6i. his cfueliies there, 1/ 
bcfieged and retaken b) 
thid, govern meat of A the 
4.8. foundation of the govs 
inflituted by Solon, 6c. 
tant» pf Athens, 67 Un, 
Areopagus, 72. magiftrat< 
aflcmblies of the fop 
other tribunals, 76, reve 
Athens, 80. educstion of 
8». dtAferrnt fpcciet «f 
of which the armies of 
Were compofed, 9r. of ir 
affairs, fleets, and navsl 
94. peculiar cbaraAer oft 
pie of Athens, 99. cemn 
raster of 1 he Athentaos aa 
dsemonian , 
Athhf». Etymology of the 1 
Jiii. excrdfet of iho il 

I D E X. 

till throufb 1 U charted hj .fli)t pitncft wilk 
befo[« ihey fc ... ths war agitnA D^ramcii IJI. 
t, their Tuna .., 1. 1 i, 4)4 hc4i defeated, itii, imd re- 
, daughter of Cyru), and Itica into hit (Oruamaat, iUi. 
f Cimkyf» firft, and after he joint *iib the proiincei of 
entii ihc Magiji, H. loS. Atia in their revolt againO Ar- 
al laft mi'iisd la Daiiut, (ateriet, IV.lH 
DeiDDcedei curei her of Axithia, wife of Nkodei, Ifill* 
geraut diltemper, 3^3. Ih: Lirfelf, V. ]lt 
del Diiiui tu rendfaiminia 
e, and why, jj^, (he ii B. 

Valhli in Scriptuie, 3;6 [} A A L. Su BzL. 

1, ion of PeLipi ting of D BaUi, AtScti^ûonot t.ytHiDvtr, 

le, II. iSi 11. «s 

ui 1, hln| of Pergjmui, Sai vlon, Babviotii AN> , foua- 

MlHEcn Ihit printe ind dation of the t'ttf of Bahylon, 

ui,VI ■";. Aitalusiiiini II. (Ier<.>iplian of T^iat city, 58. 

imuii in <he war agiLoll and lirllol itg ualk, G3. It keji 

>. aij. he glint feieral and brid^ci, 64 The like, 

U|ti over ihii priiiLC, 17a. ditcbei, and cinali, made fur the 

», 101. hi.mjgnJltenlufe dtjinmg of the ri»er, 65, The 

tithei, ] 1 lulicei and ihe hingiiiE garden', 

VI II. rurnitned PhilaJ.^1- 6G. Tlie temple of Beloi, 67. 

prlfail) up n ihe Achar.n» Kingl of Bjbylon, 77. de- 

ukelhUiderree igjnl h« flriiflion of tiabylon f..reto1d 

T, VII, I p. he ciimei im- in feveril pirii of the Scrlpiurei 

DrlsRom^', 177. lie relgiii 11 ijS, the Babflonlin* liid lb« 

uBadocinDiiiiKOMiiin At- fii]) t'onnddiiont cf lAïunomy, 
takiut of that 

1 Attal.iliDd I'lNlM», 195. 

,;;■;:;."& ,.«,.,», «u^ 

of Allalu-, 170 

.«1 ni, f.ri.inied Pl.ilome- 

Wii U Rome, .ni why. 

Baqdii, euBDch of Ochui, com- 

(««.baatt'i»!. Ibe .b,«ie 

mind- ) dalichmeot during [bat 

Bpadocit, tfitt Ihu death tf 

prinee'i raptdi^ion aoainft B. 

MÛ, andoi'f^'bim.ob. 

gvpl, IV lii. he poioni O- 

r«B>'«i>«i if) h» >i"t, »70. 

cliut, iSS. he fttli into the 

-H and by hi. «■ill 

hind<if Alciaiidcr. V. tji. bs 

.«iittai»» t> ibe Rama» 

gain- ill! .r, ei.iljnt of that prince. 

,U. by )ii9 inl'lgu» be caufta 

.H, Philip-. Hr^UlTriun, 1. 

Orhi»M0 6t piitto dc ih, V.3=5 

r. IV. 369. .,1 hil 

BtUa'n, illind!^ Why fo ciUed, 

CleupaicawiihPl.ilip, 3;i. 

I. I>« 

.ndet't quarrel »iih A txlui 

imidfla' rhefeaft. f'.^. 

kiog of Babylon, called alfou' 

feu of Cr«i.iij food qua- 

t.yr>i-, orNiboiiid, 11, Sj. be il 

ef lh4t piinic, II. 109. hi; 

befiïged ill Ftibjion hy Cyriit, 


les-he^i.e. a greil feafl to hjl 

Puerilitie. of thjtfcicnte, 

«bolero n the f^me night thit 

ciiy it, 166. he U kilUd 

Tat. S- C«>Aa An- 

in his pabce. )(S, hit deiiti 


foretold in Scripture, tig,&,. 

ll>ABATii, governor of S» Ha«, fur. 

, t^ Ana^eiaci MnemoB, 

nJuDCd Barci, 

I N D 

Bti/ljnhft peopltof SarmstU Ui Eu- 
rope ) tncir charaattfi Vllt loa 

Okl, divintty idonNl by the Afly- 
rUni I Umplt eredtcd in honour 
of him» 11. 67 

BvLkiti, king of Bjbylont Sté 

Butait aame gi'cn Ameno|ihit, 
and Nimrod. II. 57 the AfTyriin, If. 57 

BkHtNicK, daughtrr of Fcolemy 
PhiUdelphui, marrici Antiochui 
nrheoi, VI. 9$. AnttOLhut rc- 

Eudiatei hr.r, 10 ^ Ltodice caulri 
er to be put tn dc4thi 104 

BiaftNicK, mte of Ptolemy K 
vcrgeteti confcrrâtei her luir, 

VI. 106 . 
BitatNiCR, daughter of Ptolemy 

l.nthyrui. £#« Ci.RorATaA. 

BxaKNtOK» daughter of Ptolemy 

AuUtci, reigni fn Kgyut during 

her faiher'i «bfcnce» VIII. 126 

BgafcNicK> wife of Mithiid4t«i, 

Vlll. 86* unh4{>iiy dtath of that 

priocefi, 87 

Bkroiui, hiAorian» VI. 91. 

BjEsaifa, chief of the Bad^riant, bc- 

truyi Dariui, and puti him in 

rhrtin*! Vt ifti. he aOaflinatci 

thai princ«i 123. he ia feixcd 

and deUvcrcd u^ Co Alexander» 

145. chat prince raufei him Co bf 

executed, ^ 155 

011 la, a VHliant eunuch of Dariuii 

ctucUy puC to death by Alexander» 

V. 87 
Bf At, on« of the fcvcn fagei of 
Greece, II. 340 

Biflt'Lua (M, Cahurniiéi) ia ap- 
pointed by the Romans to com- 
mand in Syria after the defeat of 
Crrtffui by the Parthiaut, VII, 
361. hii inc4p4ci(y» U/'i/. 

Biii-ynia, p-ovince vt' Aûé Minor» 
J. xxiv. MithridateipefrefTcahîm- 
fvliof it, Vlll. 60. it il reduced 
into a province of the Boman 
empire, 79 

BiTON Atià Ctxovti» ArgWei» 
modali of fraternal filcndfhip» 

J I. ic6. 

Bocciiui» king of Miuritinia» 

liiguriha*! father ln*UW| II. ^3. 

lie dflivara up hit fun to the 

MoRUiiif th'Jé 

B X. 

BotOTM» part «f Orttct» II gyji 

VAJuft prejudice egelail chat cova- 


Boofti, governor of EioM for eke 
king ol Hcrfle» HI* %$• hii exccfi 
of bravery, M, 

Bot. I a, Cretan t Nil Urateg^m end 
tre^foti to Achvua» Vt« 191 

BoMiLCAR» Cartheglnlan gencrali 
makci himfelf tyrant of Ceribage» 
I. 137. he U put Co death» Mm. 

B«fùt«nnt Cimmtriéti, country fubjctt 
to Mithridatei, Vlll. iij 

Bo»iuxT, hii rcfleâloni on ike 
Perfiani» Grcekfi and Macedo* 
nianf, V. t4t. 

BùiTAR» commander of ikt Car« 
thaginiana in SardUla» ii mmr 
dered by the merccnariet» I* ite 

Bféhbmênit Indian philofopbertf V* 
I SX. their opinione^ enplov* 
menti, and manner of liviiig, 1I9 

Brénthié/^t family of Milctmi îiil« 
tied by Xersci in tbt upper Allé» 
and deftroyed by Almadtf ibe 
Cireat, V. 14^ 

Ba Alio A I, Laced^mnnlitt fUN* 
rat, diflinguidiea himfelf at ibe 
ftcgc of Pylfti, III. 191. bla es- 
peeitioni Into Tbracc« tot* be 
takei Amphipolii, to]. be de* 
fenda that place atainft Cleea» 
and recelvei a wouni of wbidi bi 
diet» toy 

BaiNNui» getcrtt of the OauK 
makei an irnipKion into Panne* 
nia, VI. 44. Macednnla» 4c. end 1 
Orrecc» 46. be peri Au laintlii 
entcrprixci M 

Bufiëtùf the dead In *ht tanb» ui 
>6t. burial of binge aMongt ibe 
Scythlantf 36e* Care of tbt aa« 
clenti to procure bnrlal for Ibe 
de4d, 111. ggy 

Bur^iHg'ghfi, by tht neani ef 
which Arrhimedeaie liU in bate 
burnt the Roman Beec« Vlll. 34 

Bt;aiaia,kingof BgypCi 1. 13 

Bi/aiaii, brntber of AnaenoMmi 
infamoui for hit crueltyi 1. In 

BtyMénthm, city of Thrace» ielt- 
vcred by the Grcelct from ibc 
power of tht PerAanip III. éé. k 
fubmtti tt tbt AihtAÛai^ HI* 

fr./;«J hU power It 
▼ill. ic6 he icltorci 

[ T N C" E X. . • 

frflT""""™ ^y l^hi- the OfMt, V. ijï. lie Aei »•• 

447. war between the tuaUnily upon ■ fanenl pile, 

h& >iitl KhMiani, VI, ÏO9 

'* 1ÎJ CALLTiti, ciiiiea of Aiheni, ii 

I C. eited brforo ibe jinJeei upon ic- 

', city cf Afil, fimoi.j count of Arillitlei, III. 7A 

■cuIWi vlnuiyottrMH Cai.licii.-lte>, Spirtln^ killi E- 

f, 85 piminondii in Ihc biUle •( 

Pbanîciin, felio Boo- Minlinza, IV. 94<; 

I boildi Thebu [hHe, II, Callicbatbi, deputed hj ihf 

tii Achsan! 10 Itsme. bciriji ihum, 

Vrania, or the moon. Vil. 1;. be precenti the Acb«- 

«f tbe CaitbdginiiDs, ani froni aiiling Uie two biotheri 

1. Ss Piolcmiei, agaltid Antiochui, 
70. he impeachei all the Ach»* 
am, who hie ftemed to favour 

f Aulelci, liç. he goci Petfeus, ro the Romim, 187 

bin hopei of finding Pom- Calltcr atidai fucceedi LyCin 

tn I]5, he makei him- der in the eomroaad of tb« I,«cc^ 

|E beiwira PtDlcmy and dxmaniia Acer, II!. 191, be 

rCleepaIra, ]}7. Cafar'i goet to the cuuit of C,rU9 ih-. 

fsf Ibai piinceri, i;g. Younger, lo}. he ii defoU'I 

between biï ln»p< and neii the ilfiads of Ar(inu[s, 

□andriant, jjg, tie |ivci and ii killed in tb< battle, 11)5 

iVa of Egypt lo Cleopj. Cai.1 
}>lDleni)>, 143. be ean- 
h« lew» in their priïi- 

'44. he gaini » grg.t tic- fet. jtort fire Vltl. 87 

ir Phimac», and driiei CALi.iPPUi, Atheaian, ilT^Oinite) 

taf the kingdoin of Pon- Dion, and feiiei the tyraan* of 

be il killed f-ton after Syracufe, JV, I'^S. be ii taaa 

14e after alTallinated bimfclf, iiiJ. 

;(U7»i'w) afterwirdi fur- Cailiithimi, pbilofophet ia 

AuiuftuB, ji.ini vfith An- ihc train of Aleicander, V. S66. 

*nd Lepidui to avenge that pcince caufei him to be pu'. 

death, VIII. 14J. he to death, ;63. chanâei of that 

I «ith Anthony. 157. he philofopher, itui, 

peat fiClory over film It CallixcnÊi, Athemio orator, 

Ul of Aaium, 159. he accurei The Alhenijn gcner^li 

Egypt, iGi. he belleg<^9 falfely in the fcn^'e. III. zqS, he 

tria, Mirf. iatervîew of ii punifhrJ fooi, 199 

od Cleopatra, I £;. be il Calpurniui BistIa. SifBtt- 

J by that pdncefi, whom tia. 

In hopei of dBCeiviij, 16S Camiïlui, general m the ferïice 

1, Ton of Julius Ciefir and of Aniiocbuj, betrayi Achxul, 

ra, Vlll. 144. he is pro- »nd deliver! him up to that 

king of Egypt jolnrly prince, VI. 191 

imolher, 154 Cahbyies, fithtf of Cytue, king 

y of Ponigi. taken f,o™ of Ptrlia. If. ,01. 

Iitetby Pompey.VJiI u^ Cakbysii, fan of Cyrui, afcenJa 

famoui caAle in Egypi, the ihione of Per^a, II. ,gt. 

1. 3 he enters Egypt with an arm,. 

I N D 

loiy of Amafis 200. hi» expe- 
dition agaijift Ethiopia, 201. on 
bii return be plunders (he tem- 
ples of the city of Thebes, II. 
2ca. he kills the god Apis, ihid. 
he pHts his brother Smcrdis to 
Jcaih, 2C3. he kills Merue> his 
ûRtr an<i wife, i^/V/. he prepares 
to nurrh aga'nft Smenlis the 
Mjgusj Mr ho had ufurped the 
th^ftne, 207. he dies of a wound 
ivhich he gives himfel/ in the 
thigh» i^id. chanâer of that 
prince» ièiii. 

Cam IS Alt es, Cvrlan, governor of 
Leuco^Syria, peiifhes in the ex- 
pedition of Artaxcrxes againft the 
Cadufiansi III 411 

CanaaniUi: Origin of that people, 

I« 5a 

Candaulxs, kin^ of Lydja» ih 


Cj/ulla, ifland. See Cre!t* 

Camdius» Anthbny*s lieutenant, 

VIII. 1C4 

CûHtue, city of Apulia, famous for 
Hanoibars viâory over the Ro- 
mans, I. 200 

Caphis, Pboraean, Sylla*s frien(), 
is Tent by that general to Delphi, 
to receive the creaiures of ir, 
Vill. 62. religious terror of Ca- 
pbls, ibid» 

cucduia^ province of A fia Minor, 
1« XXV. kings of Cappadoci?» 


Cùpu0^ cîey of Italy, abandons the 
Romans, and fubmits to Hanni- 
bal, I. 205. it is befieged by the 
Romans, 208. the tragical end 
of its principal inhabitants, ajo 

Cabakus, fiift king of Macedo- 
nia, II. 284 

Curia^ province of Afia Minor, I. 


Ca«idemus, of Ofara. is banifhed 
Athens, V. 14. he is perfecuted 
by Alexander, and retires to Da- 
rius Codomanus» ih\i» his fioce- 
rity occafions his death, 36 

Ccrtett a city famous for the defeats 
of CrafTus, VII. 353 

Carthage, formed after the mo- 
del of Tyre» 1. 83. Religion cftbe 

B X. " 

CarthagsnUnt» 84. fonn ol 
government» So. the faâfêt* 
Senate» 91. the tribunal 
hundred» 92. defcâs in tl 
vermnent of Carthage» 93. 
the fiift foorce of the weal' 
poveer of the Carthaginian 
the ro'nes of Spain, fécond 
et' their riches» 96. coni 
as a warlike people» cy. 
arts and fcicnces» 100. tnei 
nâcr» manncrt» and ei 
103. commencement ot 
hiflory» 105. foundaiion 0. 
thage» 106. conquefta*of th> 
thaginians in Africa, ic 
Sardinia, no. they pofTefs 
£:lves of the Balearian tflei 
in Spain» 111. and in ' 
114. firft treaty between . 
and Carthage» 115. the C 
mnuins make an alliance 
Xerxes, ikid. they are dc 
in Sicily Vv Geloo» tj6. 
take feveral placet in Ski 
der Hannibal. xiS. and In 
119. they make a treaty wii 
onyfiuf» 120. war betwee 
Carthaginians and Dicayfiui 
they befiege Syiacnfe» ihid, 
are defeated by Dsonyfias, 
the plague rages in Car 

126. fécond trcatv betwee 
Romans and CarttMginians, 
the Carthaginians endeavc 
feise Sicily af^er the re-tfti 
ment of Dionyfiat the Yw 

127. they arc defeated by 1 
leon» 128. war of the Car 
nians with Agathoclei» al 
in Sicily» 1 30. and after in 
ca, 132. they fuftain a « 
Sicily againft Pyithus, 140 
Carthaginians are called in 
the Mameriine*) t^ho give 
pofleffion of their citadel» I. 
they aie driven out of it I 
Romans» 143. they £uid i 
merons army into Sicily, 
theyJofe a baitle» which ; 
lowed .with the taking of 
gentuffl, their place of arms 
they are beat at fe«» firft ne 
coaft of M)le« 145. aad a; 


■ kcB^tiWff 14$» they Aiftain (be 

Wet .i§aioft Rcfulus in Africa, 

,' êèHU -.poniihtnifit infli£tcd by 

dMÎm upon that leneral» 1 54. 

.„ Ihey lote a battle at (ea in tight of 

j^^Mknljf ihid» ardour 0/ the dt» 

' \ . tbaguiiant in 4<fence of Lily 

..ifaMuniy 155. tbeii Aeet irenttrcly 

j^^f'tattd near the iflanda iCgatei, 

. ,1 M. they iD«ke a Crcity of peace 

^.Witli the RomaAi, which termt- 

• ...«Atet this war» 160. war of the 

^^lÔrthtgînians with the mence- 

. .. BAriei, 161. tl^e Carthaginians 

., Me obliged to abandon Sardinia 

Vfli^tbc Romans I. 169. they ^e« 

\^,pi%9 and take Sagunfuin, 176. 

lipni betweea the two ftatef again, 

-•ST?' ^^* ^^thagtnian^ pad the 

1,' juooe^ i8o« then the Alpi» 184* 

f. llMif eatrince into lul^, iS6. 

/ Aey gain feveral fiâoriei over 

|tlM Romani» near the Ticlnus, 

%-ll7«fl^«« nearTrebia, 189. near 

ctJTknAflMse, J9V they lofe fe- 

^>M«lb«ttlet in Spain, 199. they 

I i^'ttia ft faaout vtClory oTcr the 

. jLMuni at Cannae» loa. bad 

ft of the Carthagintansi io8« 

iJVicy tfo attaclcèd in Africa by 

r.^JlM Roanas, n^» they recall 

, . BMUubal from Italy, Uid. they 

entirely, defeated at Zaoia, 

;jÉtt* they demand peace of the 

Jjjftmine, tio and obtain U, iM^ 

lg|fiiipeiicea between the Cartha^- 

'^^^tftflftaftdMafiniira, IL 14. third 

. ^i^fPtr of the Carthtgioiant and 

-t:|Ui}^nt,.fto. Carthage fends de- 

' - pCi«* to Rome to declare that it 

^ fiibm ts to» the dircretion of the 

Itomint, 13. the Utter Older the 

Carthaginiani to abandon their 

city, 25. the Carthigininns re. 

ibUe to drtend thcmûlvcs, 27. 

the R'maii bcHegc Cirthage, 

ftS .it.i» t^lci-n ind tlemoliihcd by 

. Scipiot 36. 11 i rcb lilt by Cseiir. 

,. go. the Saraceiit dell^oy it en- 

4 tirely, ih.J, 

CiUiTHACKNA, a city of Spain, 

when firf^ built, I. 17a 

Caathalo, cominindcr of the 

ftttxiliary tMops oi the Cartlu- 

•ginians, declared gnilty of trea* 
fon, and why, II. ao 

Casiandbh, general of the Thra- 
ciani and P;eonians, in the army 
of Alexander, V. ?• 

Cassandrr, fon of Antipater, 
provinces which fill to him af- 
ter Alexander's dfath, V. 153. 
he puts Demadet and hit fon to 
death, 290. he is aflbiilated yriih 
Polyfperchon in the regency. of 
the kingdom of ^Macedonis, 290. 
he takes Athens, 300 and e^a- 
bliflies Demetrius Phalereus in 
the government of it, ihid» he 
puts Olympias to death, 300^ he 
confines Roxans, the wife of 
Alexander, with Alexander her 
(bn, in the eaftle of Amphipolis, 
310. he reinftates the city of 
Thebes, 311, he enters into the 
league formed againft Antigoou*» 
324. he concludes a trea:^ with 
him, and breaks it Immediately^ 
327. he puts to death the young 
king Alexander, with his mother 
Roxana, 335. he befleges Athens, 
of which Demetrius Poliorcftea 
had made himfelf mafter, 370, 
the latter obliges him to rai^ethe 
(lege, and defeats him near Ther* 
mopylar, iàiéL CaiTander con^* 
eludes a league againft Antigonus 
and Demetrius, tyt* after the 
battle of Tpfus, he divides th« 
empire of Alexander with three 
othei^ princes, Vi. i» death of 
CalTander, . 6 

Cassandzk, Macedonian, oy Pbt- 
lip'a order, maflacres the inha« 
bitants of Maronaea, VII. 11. 
that prince caufes him to be put 
to dea h, 12 

Cassius {Luciui^ Roman generj], 
is defeated by Mithridate.s, VIII. 

Cassius, qu.tftor of CrjfTus's .j- 

my, in the war w lu i e I'arihi- 
au , V.Î. 343. he puts himfelf 
at the )ic<«d of the remains or 
thar army, and p. events ihe 
Parihi .ns f om (cizin^ Syria, 
36:?. !:• forms a conrpiracy agâini* 
Ca:far, Vill. 14:. he is entin 
M 4 dcfti 


defeated by Anthooy, ihiJ, 

Ca/«irA^< of the Nile, I* '3 

Cato, (il/. Fortius) fnrnamed the 
Cenfor» frrres u lieutcntnt-ge- 
nerai under the ccnful Acilius^ 
VI. 352. his valour at the paft 
of Thermopylf» ilriJ* he fpeakt 
in favour of the Rhodians in the 
ienate, VII. l8a. lie obtains the 
return of the exiles for the A- 
cbeans, 190. his conduét in re- 
fpeét to Caroeades, and the other 
Athenian ambafladorSy 197. he 
is appointed by the common- 
wealih to depofe Ptolemy king of 
Cyprus, and to confifcate his 
treafures, 311 

Cato, fon of the former, aQs 
prodigies of valour at the battle 
of P)dna, VIII. ia8 

Cebalinus difcovers the confpi- 
racy of Dymnus againft Alex- 
ander,' V. 137 

Cx CROPS, founder of Athens, II. 
28a. he inftttntes the Areopa- 
gus, ihiJ, 

CzNSORlNus (L. Aftfrrsri) conful, 
Siarches againft Carthage, IK 
S2. he noti6es the fenate*s or- 
ders to that city, 25, he forms 
the fiege of Carthage, 28 

Cfranus aflaffinates Seleaciis,VI. 
42. he marries h'ft lifter Arfinoe, 
and murders her twofons> 43. he 
dies in battle, ^ ^ 45 

Ores, goddefs : Feafts înftîtoted in 
honour of her at Athens, I,- 


CxsAR. 5mCjcsar. 

Cefimt, offenfive arms of the Ath- 
letae, ^ I. Wiii. 

Chabriai, Athenian, wîthoat or- 
der of the commonwealth, accepts 
ihe command of auxiliary troops 
«f Greece in the pay «f Achoris» 
IV. 254. he is recalled by the 
Athenians, iM. he ferres Tachot 
again wi'hout the confent of his 
repubKck. 258. the Athenians 
employ him in the war againft 
their allies, 269. he dies at the 
fiege of. Cbio, 2;j. praife of 
Chabrias, 269 

Ckétr—tSt city of Boeotia, famous 
fat Philip*! viÛory «ver the 

Atheniaot and Thtliut} tad ftr 
that of Sylla over tke mMtnhtt 
Mithifidates, ly. t«3p Vm. 68 

Cham> foa of Noak» iy utftu f B d 
ia Africa uste' the aame at )•" 
piter Am^Bon, ^ I. 5a 

Cjiakii, one of the gaa era la of 
the Athenian! in the war with 
the allies, IV, «71. hi» Bitk 
capacity. Hid, he writfli t» A* 
these againft hia two nanianei, 
«72* he Mkn hûnfelf lo If 
oormpted by AitabafM^ STf. he 
is recalled to-Athena, jML lie it 
fent to the aid of the 
fot, 362. he is defeated at 
ronea bj Pl|iflp^ )€] 

On Am IS, of Uatfoa» aafcei the 
Colofliit of Rhodes» T, fy 

CBAaiLAVi Buidt kiag if Igma 
by Lycmnis, II. ifa 

Chsrms Hii boeti oMa «f thai 
fable, I. p 

CRAaoN, Thebaa» locden Fw 

Eidat and ûm l o o ijpi i— la i«i 
is hoofe^ ITi tof 

Ch AaoNBAt le chofen lcf^«nMr il 
Thariem, III. 155. be Kh 
himfelf opeo ha^of hnèes eei 
of hfs owa lawe, ijl 

CntLiaoHrvA^ daoghler of laa^ 
tychidas, and wife «f ■ OaBay- 
mitt, VI. 76. htr fofiM f> 
Acrotatef, âH 

Chiomioa, wife of CkmAi^' 
tus, VI. 14t. herwidirMfrfv 
her hnfrand, I4) 

Cniof s and CsraBAV««a kfajp 
of Xgrpt, and bi et hei iy «mIt 
inhoaian and impioM^ ** I. éj 

Cbilo, one of the fe^iaa hfm m 
Greece, III 33^ 

Cnirisofrvs, I.accd«Bo^a% is 
chofen general by the tioopa ihit 
made the retreat of tki Tea 
Thoiifand, ^^Vff 

Chlinias, deputy £roM tht Aa> 
lians to Spana to perfiwAethat 
city to enter into the nvaty ca»> 
eluded with the Roaaas , VI. %^ 

ehriftimmt s Tho rcfafal of the jewa 
to work in rebuilding tiM tea* 
pie of Belot, a kfibo of iaaiae» 

* tion for maaj Chiiiiaai, V« 


INTII, coramiultr in th 
of Cyrui » (he biiile . 

ibrci, Jl. 14 

< {Jtf. TtllM hii milili, 
u ia Syti», VII. ]6i. h 
1 a liinmph, uuj why, jSi 
I croIU hi caufci Pompc 

IppoiDUd gcnenl igtin 
'idlUi, VIII. 107. bil coun 


E 36 

to hii triW to Afht tk« 1«Mk- 
DipailBi, Md, ka ii recilM f»a> 
biniAiQiiiii. Ml. ti< ie-tâ<' 

D Albin 


Df Auletci, ije, I 
lh« loitib of Arct 

p(UTiD(C of Alii Minor, 

I. IIT. 

>^ PMph of Sc7thit. 

an ririran out of thtit 
fr aad lo 10 A6a, II. gg. 
cm kiai of Lydia oblige) 
M ^ult ir. Hid, 

I Cm of Mikiidti, when 
«Hit, llfiMliiM himfalf b^ 
ll^ 10 bit fithiT, II. 40*. 
•nnin il>* Aibtni«nt by 
anplc W itundoil iJltlr citv 
■ «mbuk. III. ]i. Iitdif. 
Am hinftlf at the bitile 
*nm\n, 40. he comiDudi 
lut fcal bf tht Crulu ta 
r tbdr alliti ffom the Ptr- 
nkt. Id conjuaSioB siih 
JM, i6. the Aihcnin* 

i, b< gaiai many (ic- 
lotiei, wniih oblige ibe PciGiru 
ta concturjf • tMifj hj|h1y eloti- 
oui far tbcGretkt, II,), be did 
during tbe roDclufion of the Ir»- 
I*, ibii. chiraâei and priife of 
Cimon. I ij. ufc wbiirfa he nude 
of mh«, 99 

CiMAi, ThcOiliin, fidieui orj- 
tar, CDuniei of Pynhui, VI. 43, 
hit con*(i(ilion with ihat priote, 
44. Tyrrhui fendi him unbalTi- 
iot lo Rome, ,60. hit coadii^ 
during bit flij cbere, fit. idea 
which he giïït Pjirtiiw of tb« 

fiud I 

(I of II 


VI. 1 


fCtnifJ Romaa e(n<v 
I Sulpitiot to the aid of 
itheni, VI. 178. beriYIglllbe 
ir ofCbalcii, iiiJ. 

1ADÏ1, Thehin. endeavoun tu 
icufe the retellion of hii eoun- 

■ 'J 


It the k 

Iiiu, lake) refuge with Cyrut the 
Younger, III, jit. he <• plaied 
he»d of ilie Greek itoop> 

I after Themiftoclti tellt». 

in thai prince't eapeditiou againll 

* nikct fevcral conqueSt 

hif brother Artixerxei, 3^0. he 

Race, aod feititt a cdIoht 

iiviflorioui on hii fide al (be bat- 

le. hc-makei hiwrdf 
r tt Ihi ifle ef Seym, 

tle of Cunua, 336. he [ammandt 

(lie Greek troopt in iheit tetreii 


tfter .he baule, ),ï. beiireiied 

«hictahe Alhent, 

by ireicheiy, anii feoi to Ariiïer- 

iticonrJua in the diïillon 

iM, whociufeihimlo be put .« 

: beoff «iih the illici, 90. 

dciih. 347. pmfe of Cleiithm, 

<> i«» ,ia„,U, over 


erAtni, ne.r the river Eu- 

CtiDti-Lut, oaaof the léven &• 

on, ia one d-y. gy wor- 

geiof Cieece, ]I. 343 

e >Dicb he niakti cf the 

CiiocaiTvi of Corinth apptalei 

■«ben fiom (he eaemy, 

the difpuie between the Athe- 

e, j4. he ..>...he. 10 the 

thebitileof Plain, III. 51 

r the Lir^.<Kmot,i>nt, it- 

CirDH».0Tu.. kin, cf Spttt*, 

Ibr )heNelot>, rii. he ii 

mch=t igainft (he ThehUII, 

ed byihe ALheni^n-, 11^. 

IV. 118. he il killed It (he bit- 

Wkia Wn», and it^iin 

ile ol Leuftr», ïî> 


CiioMitoTus, fon-în-law of Le- 
ontiiSy caul'es himfelf to be c- 
lecled king of f^pArti to the pre- 
judice of bis fathfr*in-law, VI. 
139. he is dethrcned foon after by 
Leonidasy 142. aud baniflied from 
Sparta, 144 . 

Clxominis, governor of Egypt 
for Alexander» V. t%% 

C1.10MENB8, king of Sparta» re- 
fufes to join the loniant io their 
revolt againft the Perfian», II, 
3S1. he marche» againft the peo- 
ple of i£gina, 393. he efteâs 
the expulfion of his colleague) 
Demaratus, from the throne» 
ièid, be reduces the people of 
JE^m, and dies foon after, HU* 

Cleomxnxs» fon of Leonidas, 
marries Agiatis» Vi, 147. he af- 
cends the throne of Sparta» i^id. 
he enters into • war with the 
Achseans, ]49« he gains many 
advantages over them, ihU* 
&e, he reforms the government 
of Sparta, and r«-eftabli(hes the 
ancient difciplioe, 151. he gains 
new advantages over the Achar- 
ans» 157. he fends his mother 
and children at hoftages into £• 
gypt, 159. he takes Megalopolis 
by furprize, 161. he is defeated 
at Sclafia by Antigonua king of 
Macedonia, 166. &c. he retires 
into Egypt, 1C9. Ptolemy*s recep- 
tion of bim, 17 1, he cannot ob- 
tain permiflion to return into his 
country» 199. unfortunate death of 
Cieomenes,too. his chara£Ur,i48 

Clion, Athenian, his extraâion, 
ill. 164. by his credit with the 
people» he prevents the conclnfion 
of a peace between Sparta and 
AthenSi J91. be reduces the 
Laced amoat ans, fhut up in the 
jlland of Sphaâeria, 194. he 
marches againft Brafica , aai 
advances to the wails of Amphi- 
polis. 107. furprÎKed by Brafidas, 
he Bies and is killed by a foldior, 


CixOKNis commtnds the troops 

orf the Meffenians in the fiiil war 

^iib SpartSj !• raii. after the 

battle of Ithomt, kt d'ffauteitht 
price of valour with Arintomencs» 
cxiv, he afterwards difpntea the 
crown with him on rke death of 
king Euphaes» civ« 

CixoNTMus» SfMirtan» being dif« 
appointed of the throne» rebret 
to Pyrrhos» and engagea him to 
march againft Sparta» VI* yla 
hiftory of this Cleonymnti iSii/» 

CLxoFATaA» niece of Attala^ 
marries Philip king of Macedo* 
nia, IV. 369 

Clxo^atra» PhiHp*a danghler» 
is married to Alexander king of 
Eptrus» IV. 371 

Clxofatra» daughter of Antio» 
chus the Great, is promiM 
and then giTon in marriage to 
Ptolemy Epiphanea» VI. a^Oi 
after her hu(band*s death ft» it 
declared regent of tho kiagjMi 
and her fon^s guardian» VI L %j* 

Cl X OF A Ta^A» daughter of Ptotof 
Epiphanes, makes an acc—ia »» 
dation between her broiKtr^ PU* 
lomctor and Evergttts, VlL (9. 
after the death of Phttyiisr 
her hu/band» flie mamci Pbf* 
fcoo» ft56. that prince pnft M 
away to marry one of her daagh- 
ters, «79.' the Alcxandrtant ahia 
her upon the throne in PhfMoa^ 
ftead. iiiJ, (be is obliged 10 toU 
refuge in Syiia» ak 

Clxofatra, daoghter of Plsk* 
my Philometor» is mairiad ft 
Alexander Bala» V||. x^- ki 
father takes her fran Akaanto» 
and 'marries, her to Dometiiaib 
354. whilft her bnlhaad is ktpi 
prifoner by theParthians» fliaaaf- 
ries Antiochus Sidetesj.t64,aft4 
the death of Sideits, iho return tt 
Demetrius» a&a. flbe canfet tht^ 

5 at es of Ptolemaiv to be Ihut agliit 
im» ièul, (hokîlls S«kucua k«cl« 
deft fon» 283. &e dios of p^lb^ 
which flie would havt gifMi hcf 
(ccond fon Crypus» all 

Cliof^tia» PhilOmalnr^i dpigh* 
ter, marries Phyfcofli Vll. 155* 
after her hoflban^t idtatW M 
ftfigni in Egypt vit¥ hin. te 


!, ahoDi te fiitï oblifct lo ivaxd ti 

Uis hit tU'Ci fillit t-ko- in Ofiif"» 

id to oiïJjy bjB fDungeft ibc tUr t 

.cn>. x%6. \ht fUcs hcc [iKc Ihc i< 

king of ihe MiZJgï, ttigni if- 
»[ihedci<baf br^i-ron, V. tyC. 
fhc Turrcnilcri ro Alciinder, who 

calb, 193 maies the A ihc niant iglinfl ihc 

■ A, PbTrc<:n'> daughter, LaccdauDDoiiDl, III. lij. bil 

idf Liliijiu^, ^1 repudi- chuiflir, iW_ 

her bulband. VII. iSS. Cllithehes, Ijnnt of Siijoa 1 

. hctr:li Id Antiochus the Hît meLhod ia the choice of > 

'ID, itid. Tryphzflï her fuu in !>w, II. jzt 

ulei hti 10 he nmtJeied, Cunvi, oue of AUiindir'i ti\- 

iSt taini, favci tb« life of thii pria» 

»A, daughter of Piole.iiy »i ibe batile of the Gnnitui, 

, jftendi ihe throne of V, 14. Aleunder sive» him rhe 

a tonjiiaflioo wiih ht» goveinmcnl of the province» of 

other, VIII. 134. fhc ii Aiubifu;, 15S, snd kim bim 

■d bj. the young kiug'! ihe fimeday at » fcift, iild. 

i, ittJ. flic rairci troop! Clit US, . comniindct of Antipa- 

ite beriélf, iilJ. (he re- tti'i fleet. giioi tHaiiâorieiov:r 

Cxfar, and aith wtiit ibe Aiheniaiii, V. 168 

^g. Csfii cltablilhei her Oldiudi, asman. !■ Iikeo by 

I Egy)it, jiiiiily wiihtiec piiiiei, igainft whom he had 
14]. Ibe ^Hiis ber brother beta faut, Vlll, 311. hetcqucOi 

I, uid mgnt alone in< rtnlemy king of Cyprvi 10 (cad 

lis. afiei CkI^t'i death' htm owncf for pa^'ing hisrinfom, 

l4i<i for the Triuoiviit, iiid, in refcntinent to Pioletnr, 

gactCoAD'ban;atT>rfui, be ebiiina la order from the 

II ibe afcendant of bin,. Romin people fui difpolTellinE 
i lanict bira 10 Aloin- him of hii damlnioni, 31a 
9. btr jeilcufy of Oc Clodiui {Affiu,}. it fent by Lu- 

n of CUo- 

tbtidmi, VIII. g;. difcourfe 

JDfl Lucullui, 101. ihuafler 

CI, j;u!, iHJ. 

be tatik.fAai.mî, Ht,. 

CoBuus, the lad king of Alheni, 

U. »g]. 

•«"" "> S'in Auïufti... 

CoïNi 1, ont of Alenndci-| c«p. 

jni lu licj.fice Anihuny 

[>ii)i, fpeaici la him in behalf 

itii. Ihe rciws imuibt 

ot hiifoldiort, V.*deMb, 

E tbe kingi of E^,|>i, ■0 

196. hJs praire, , iUJ. 

IthonyMgijr. r ,. ,h..t 

Col^u, of Rbod»! Dcrcription of 

eipiiciin ht. a.TLi.ib;. 

^<, V. j6j. flic ol that fimotx 

(latut, VI. 1,, 

X'Jh^y, Z'.'Z hl/I 

C.j'i^it, publick ooei of Greece, 1. 

tua witti Cc:ir, 167, 

.li«. *.. why «Kounged, 1.. re- 

M « wit- 


I N ]> B le: 

war Jf granted to the i^ftojri, Wvliu 
difference of the Grtekt and Ro- 
jnant in the r taile for tbefe 
csmbata, Izx. difputet for the 
prices of poetry, hixiii. 

Comedy: Its beginnings and ongîn« 
i. Ixixvii. comedy divided into 
three clafTet ; the aocient, the 
middle, and the new> i^-J. 

CoKON, Athenian general, it fliut 
up by Callicratidaa in the port of 
Mitylene, III. 294. he ii de- 
livered foon after, 196. he retirei 
into Cypfijs after the defeat of the 
Athenians at iCgofpotamos, ;)C4« 
lie goeito Artaxerxet, who makes 
h irk admiral of his fleet, 389. he 
d^feat^ the Lacedaemonians near 
Cnidos, 390. herebtiildithewaUs 
of Athen , 395. he is fent by 
the Athenians to Teribafai, who 
smprifons him, 396. death of 
Conon, 397. immunities granted 
by the Athenians to him/elf and 
his children, 300 

Cvrtyûf ifland in the Ionian lea, 
with a city of the fame name, II. 
276. difputebettveen Corcyraand 
Corinth, III. \x% 

Ccn'mtt city of Greece ; its dif- 
ferent forms of government, II. 
2t4, and Corc>ni, which occa- 
fions the Prloponnefian war, HI. 
129. Corinth fends aid to the 
Syracufans befieged by the Athe- 
nians, 140. enters into a league 
agiinft Sparta, 384. is befiegcd 
by Agefilaus, 394. fends Tin^o- 
leon to th« aid of Syracofe 
againft Dionyfius the Ycungcr, 
3V. 1S2. is obliged, by the peace 
of Antalcides, 10 viithdraw ber 
f arrifon from Argos. 198. infults 
the deputies fent by Metellu» to 
appeafe the trouh'es, VII. 107* 
the Romans deftroy Corinth en- 
tirely, aiy 

Cox N E L I >i , Pompey^s wife, ieei her 
h u (band affaflinated before her 
eyes, Vill. 135 

Cnnanj c!ty of Boeotia, famous 
f )r the Ti^lory of Agefilaus over 
the Thrhans III. 391 

Co< I s, b* other of Orodes, commands 
the army rgiiaû tlkc Alb»aiaas^ 

Vill. 114. Pomptjp kilb bis 
in battle, iM. 

Cot TA, Rvoun cenfnl, la defeated 
by Mitbridacea, Vin.te. hie tiWtU 
ties at Heraclea, 9s 

Courfe^ or Récimgs Eveicifc of it by 
the Greeks, f. be. of the fooC-race, 
Ixii. of the horlcHracc» lissi* oiF 
the chariot-race, jM. 

CsAssus. conful, marcbet agaiat 
the Parthiant, VII. «37. bc^u- 
deii the temple of Jcraukm, 
3:9. he continws his auncb 
againft the Parthiaot, Hid, he si 
entirely defeated near Can», 347. 
the Partbians, nader prcteacc « 
an intenrieWf leiae aad hill hia, 

CaAisvi, fon of the fotflMr, ac* 
comp«oiei hit father ia hit ex- 
pedition agalaA the Paithiaas 
VII. 339. he periibct In the lat- 
* of Q\ 

tie ot Uarne^ «49 

CaATxavfl, ooe of the ptia^"^ 

ofliceia of Alearaoder, dfawi as 
tbe min of Philocaa hj hb dil^ 
courfe, V. 139. he IpaakaM 
Alexander in the aaaac of the 
army, and upoa what ecotfaa^ 
V. 199. that prince gtvei hte ihi 
gorernsnent of Maccdeoia «hhfc 
Antipater had before^ itC yw* 
TÎoces which fell to him mr 
Alexander*! death, «57* he wm^ 
riea Pbila, Antipateini daoghltfi 
276. he is defeated bv EaaeBi^ 
and killed la ihc battfa, ^84 

CaATSstCLia, mother pf Cka- 
menes, king of Sparta, b ftal 
by her fon as an hoflage lata 
^CTP*» ^I* >59- geoerdui leaii- 
mcnts of that priocefi, êii. 

CxATitiroLia, wife of Alcau* 
der, the fon of Po^lpcithèa. 
correâs tbe infolonec of tbi 
Stcyonians, who had hilled b« 
huAand, and govcrai that city 
with wiidom, V. 31a 

Crttti ifland near Oreecc^ dcfcrip- 
tion of it, II. aye. bwt of 
Greece inftitoted by Miaoa, IV, 
59. they paOed for the grttleft 
liars of antiquity, lV*ft| 

CaisviNua (i^.) fnccoeda Ap^a^ 
who comoMnded riih MMil- 




1 N D E X. 

' Ittt at Ite âegc Cf Syracofc» 
^. . VUI.35 

^CirriAif one of the thirty ty. 

* natt at Athelif> cauiès Thera- 
meflet y one . of hit colleagaes, 

' to be pnt to death, III. 319. 
|i« prohibits the inftruôion of the 
vouth by Socrates, 310. he is kil- 

* . led fitting againft Thrafybulus, 

^ * 321 

"CBOYf ut Icing of Lydia, IT. 104* 
'-' kia conqueftt* ihid, hit means to 

* try the Teracity of the oracles, 
'' 304« deceived by the anfwer of 

' the oracle of Delphi, he undcr- 

* tdtet a war with the Perfians, 
* 910. ha lofet a battle againft 

*" "Cynia, X3a. he it defeated near 

njaabraea» 151. Cyrus befieges 

' iâm in Sardis, and takes him 

''•■rifbBer» 154*- in -what manner 

' ' mê elcaped the puniihment to 

[^-'wluch he had been condemned, 

i^"l|6. charaéber of Crœfus, 107. 

* - |£ ticliesy 105* hit reception of 
" ^SblMiy 105. his converfacion with 

^ tliat philoibpher, 106 

ffeJBoatwtLL. Hit death compared 
^^4Uà that of Diooyfiut the Ty- 
*■: tmUt, IV^.J47 

■fthMib étf of Greece, builr by 

city famoot for tl^e battle 
*■ ' Nt ar ein Artaxerxetf and his bro- 
« iÊ^Cjiw, 1"«333 

éÊff'ATàMnih reigns in Media,' U, 
^ fff, lie forms the iiegeof l^neveh, 
'' 'ttU* an irruption of the Scythian t 
' fnto Media obliged him toraife 
'tllO fiege, 9S. he befieges Nin6- 
iroh' again and takes it, 99, his 
icath, ' 100 

Cyaxarxs II. called in Scripturo 
Parius the Mede, afcends the 
tfarohe of Media, II. loi. he fends 
to demind aid of Pcrfia againfl 
the AflTyrians, 119. expedition of 
Cyaxares and Cyrus againft the 
Babylonians, 132. Cyaxares gives 
bit daughter to Cyrus in mar- 
riage, 140. he goes to Babylon 
with that prince, and forms in 
contert with him the plan of the 
whole monarcbyi J79. death of 

Cywfce^ak, a» hill !n Theflbfy; 

famous for the y'ldtorf of the 
Romans over Philip -Vl. 307 

Cyprus, ifland in the Meditf^anean» 
delivered from the PerfiaAyoke 
by the Greeks, III. 66. revolt of 
that iiland ;igainft Ochvt, IV. 
281. horrible and bloody tragedy 
that pafles there at the death of 
Nicocles, V. 328. after hafiag 
been governed fonietimes by the . 
kings of Egypt, and fometittiea . 1 
by the kings of Sjrta, it it fbb^ 
jeÔed to the Romans, VU, ^% 

Cyreae, city upon the coaft of the ' . 
Mediterranean : In what manner 
the difpute between this ei^ and 
Carthage, concerning thdr limita^ 
is terminated; 209 

Cyrus, fon of Cambyfea Itilig of 
Perfiat Birth of that- prince, 11^ 
113. his education. Hid, he goea * 
tb the court of his grandfatlnar A« 
ftyages, 115. his leturainlo Par4a, 
118. he-marches to the'aid of hia 
uncle Cyaxaret agjainft the Baby- 
lonians, 119. he reduces the king 
of Armenia, 124. he gaiat a'firft 
advantage over Crsfus» and iht 
Babylonians,, 131. hii cofidnd^ Co 
Panthca, 134. he challeivgaa.tba 
king of the Affyriant to' a Angle 
combat, 138. he returoa to <>y* 
axâtes, 139. that prince ^yei himv 
his daughter in marriage, . ^140 
Cyrus marchet to aieet'tho 
Babylonians, II. 143. he gains a 
famous TiAory oyer them 'and 
Croeibs at the battle of Thym- 
braea, 144, Arc. he makes. himr 
felf mailer of Sardis, and -ttkket 
Crcefus prifoner, 1 C4. he ad« 
vances to Babylon, 165. and takes 
it, 1 63. conduft of Uyrus after 
the taking of Babylon, 17a. he 
jfhews himfelf with great poipp 
to the newly-conquered people, 
176. he goes to Perfta, 179. at 
^is return he carries Cyaxares to 
Babylon,^ and forms the plan of 
the whole monarchy, in concert 
with him, ihid, after the death 
of Cyaxares he reigns ovf«- ••— ' 
Medes and Perlians, 

paûet a famous ^edi^ 


#f the Je^t, i8s. laft ycaii of 
C>r"*» '^7* ^^^ dciili, «nd dif- 
courle wiih his cdî dren before 
hit death, iS8. piaife and cha- 
radier of Cy usi 1H9. difference 
of Hcrodoi ji and Xenu^Uon in 
refpeét lu Cyrua thi GreJt, 195 
CvKus» the younger fun uf Ujirlui» 
is made fovernor in chief of all 
the provincei of Ada Min>>r by 
his father, lU. zox» his father 
recalls him, 301. after the Ceath 
•I' Darius be f(<rms the defign of 
tflaflinating his brother, ^ja. he 
is fent biick into A fia Minor, MrW. 
he fecretly raifes tro<»ps againfl 
his b'Oihcr, 314. he fcts out fiom 
Sardis, 330. the battle of Cu» 
riixa, 3n. he is killed in it, 
337. piaik of Cyrus, 340 


DAMASCUS, a rich city In 
Syria, taken by Alexander, 

Damon, fiicnd of Pythias. Trul 
10 which their friend fliip was 

put, .*^*.'4S 

Danxkl, prophet. Is carritcl iiro 
captivity to Ujliylon, 11. K3. he 
capiains NciiiKaJonofur^t fird 
dream, S4. and the I'ccoLcl, iiS. 
he is raifcil to the principal offiics 
•f rhe flatc, ^{4. difiovert the 
fraud of the priefls of Bel, and 
csufes the dragon to lic killed, 
89. vifions of the prophet Daniel, 
^O* l*e explains to Kclfliaxaar ihe 
¥ilIon that prince h^d at a banquet, 
]66« he ife inadir l*ii|-ci intendant 
tif the àiïà'u» of the rmpiie. i>to« 
he is (lirown into ibe liuns den, 
Hid, at kia rci^uelk Cyius grants 
the rdid>, whrreby the Jrw« aia 
pemiiitid to return to Jeiuf4l<(n, 
18a. D.iniri'» Ocill in aichitcc- 
turr, tï.^- icfli'dliiins upon tlie 
prophecirs of Daniel, 184 

Darius the AfrJf s Cyasarei II. king 
of the Mcdes, u fa called in 
Scripture. ^f^ C Y ax a ft vs. 

pAViuti fon of Hydal'pes. lie 
enters into tiie conlpir^cy againft 
Soieidis the Magian, II. 209. he 
suni hia (hiuugh wUb a fword, 

xro, ht Si made king 
by an artifice of kit gro 
the cftevjD he ac^uin 
W'ifdooi and prudence, 
quits the name of i 
aflume that of Darius, 3 
riages of Darius, ièid. 
method for tranfmitting 
rity the manner in whic 
tained the fovcreignty, 1 
vhich he eflabli£ea it 
miniftrationof the fini 
his moderation in imp 
buies, 349 the I'erfians 
the furcamc of 9/>tf 
ihiJ, he fends Democedei 
iician into Greece, 354 
firms the ediâ of Cyi 
vour of the Jews, 
gratitude to Svlofon, % 
re*eftabliflics king of Sa 
Darius reduces fiabyloi 
fiege of twenty months 1 
expedition of Darius a 
Scythians, 3^0. Art aba 
monilrance to Oarius, 3! 
mus anions of Dam 
thteechiMien of Oeba 
Darius conquers India, 
conceives the dcfign ol 
himfc^f mafler of Nai 
the lonisni revolt again 
38% he rc-cflabliOirs i 
ans in their ancient | 
if'iti. I e fent ment couc 
Dirius againft the A 
who hiid ihared in the b 
SaViis, 383. his c 
aga'nil Greece, 3 87. 
hcralils into Grccte tu I 
Hate*, and to demand 
million, 301. hit army ii 
at Marathon, 397. D 
folves to go in perii 1 
F.g\pi an ' Grcrcr, 4^3. 
h.k riiciclTor, 405 liJsdc 
his char^Aer, 
DAaius Not Hi* s takes 
gainft Sogciauws, aiul 
to death. 111. 1 98 he .( 
ihonc of Pcrfia, and f'\ 
name from Ochusto Da 
he (aufes his brnther An 
bad revolted againft hi 
fmoihcrcd ia aihei| tè 

F I N D 

pi nbtlUon of Pifuthtic, 

(Cl hii principil cunucli, 
p^u«[lr ih« itnit of F.- 
lad thu of M<di>, iHJ. 
M (0*ltiini«Dl of Afii 

«n. D*riui tttillt Cyrol 

L fon of Artixpnri Mne 

id puniOicd, 

E X. 

Pai-hUjonlai «ho Itid rmlMt 
■CmbII (ht k Of of PirB*, iM. 
htnecivtt ihï cemmanfW ih« 
■Rnrdciîgntd «giind Eppi, 4H. 
he il B'itti 10 rfduce Afpih lAtf. 
h* n vol 11 tfxialt Antnn**, 
414, tod |ala> ftici*! «i]>inii|M 
oKiilis ui'o^) fcatifliDil hinii 
iW. bg il dblfiiiiltJ by oNtrof 

cemmikd) (h« 11 

Itihini u rot oiitii oi mv*- 

ihKi, - II. mS 

Dtli>4Wi*. di'dhier ef VEkIJ», 

mpon the throac oE 
1^ hi lofci (ho bitile of 
ImIcïi uiÎDn Aleiandcr, 
L 1h ontri Mtmnsn iho 
■il lo cinr th( wii tiiio 
[nil, It. Dirioi nroNei 
mand m pirftn, /^iif. CarU 
Il fall fn* rimonfliince 10 
1^ j6< mirch of Dirïui'i 
•t. hmaiti\i&njnl Ahx- 
a*t Dlilui n«ir tb<: city of 
U, Diriu«'i bauthty Ixiri 
SiMiri V, ;4, ftcfliiri Irt- 
^OitIui to Alnuidcr, 7S. 
i rwtini ad.Ice of hli 
Unlb, M. hit piiyit tg tho 
toaa b«in| lold in wb^^I 
p Alt bk4 bifi> truiid by 
mèn, 95. Duriiii piopof» 
MriittMi of piact 10 Alei- 
i «Wlh ara not ■«•pird, 
)»>•«■ tulll* of Arb(l), 
■(aD<riuti<dar.jtfd, io>. 
tof D.fiu. .r». >hii i,,i. 

si-htq^iKKcbai-i», il'. 

laid in hy Hrlin, 
tibariaui, <>; .mh3fr|., 

wK "* 

III, CaTiM, fue(e"!i )>i> 
rCaorifsto* fn ihr gDHrn- 
•f litMa-Sy'û, III. 411. 
laM Ihrni) ■oxiiU'f ft 

1 f«r 

I ihe 

■( Miala, II, 

tdlding itir Itirone of ^ 
91. ht il <lid(d kln| by u- wc 
mont ct'iiru>t| fi> cupilatt of 
Dtjocii in lovcrnlnii hli klR|- 
dnm,f4 hlluLldi Irbllinl. H^. 
nvaiii b« ufadfei acquitini ih* 

»rp<tii>r hiirubjoAi, gj 

DijoTitant, princ* of OtUliti 
Poniary kUm blm Aiminiy WU 

i}i/^«(t, citr«f Phi%ci>. fimouijfor 
Apnllg'i oricli' ihiio. l.ilL.,|h« 
pyil>l) and Slbyl et Doli'bi, ilil. 
irdauf Ddptiui buinl 



DrM*0tl «jipor.'i [ht («vlta 
Drmonhcnd, IV. jil ha !• 
Iikan prIfoBir ai thf b«lltl at 
Cfavrnoci, f(). b* fnai «m' 
biflador l« Almnilfi ftom tli* 
Albiniini, V, 14, bt ptapirai 
tha daeic* Itu Du itt\ti al Df 
mufihtan, %ig, Uamidil wllb 

DlHtaATA, wl/* of An-ttmoia- 

ta%'- Kh( pofuoitti hai huAinil 
tt,.i 1» r^btnli u. ilir ran.l1 ..( 
Kyia.L.», VIII, 1], Oi* Il Ullrd, 

DrHAIiltft, kintot Hpini, «•- 

EtDid Ibe.ihtona ot Clieann»* 
>• cn)la>|>w, II. jol. hi» Afli 
aad nibla aafwii l« Xitw, M. 

Iij[;d M igoll AfbM», 114 U fUIf 
itmiMà (o 4if Ht Ml ab&IMOa 


▼. 17t. Caflan^et lèttlet hxm 
there to goveni Uie npublickt 
300. hU wifdom aod aÛlity in 
the goferamenty 301. three 
hundred and fixty ftatoet are 
creâcd to him out of gratitude» 
340. he retires to Thebes after 
the taking of Athena bjr Deme- 
trius Po'iorceteSj 341. his ftatues 
are thrown down» and he it con« 
demned to die at Athens» 344. 
he takes refuge with Caflander, 
and afterwards in Egypt» 345. 
r^iV. reflc€lioas on the great 
number of ftatues ereftcd to his 
honour, UiJ» his death» VI. 36, 
charaaer of his eloquence aod 
writings, ibid, (^c, 

Dr M I TK J US» fon of Antigonus» 
fumamed Poliotcetes: His cha- 
rs Aer, V. 326» âfr. he lofes a 
battle at Gaca againil Ptolemy» 
318. he gains one foon 
againft Cilles» the fame Ptole- 
my*s lieutenant» 330. he is fcnt 
by his father to Babylon againft 
SelencQS» 333. he makes Ptole- 
my raife the fiege of Halicarnaf- 
^^h 314* he makes himfelfmaf- 
ter of Athens» 340. and rein- 
ilates the democratical govern- 
ment» 342. excfeftive gratitude of 
the Athenians to him, ihiJ, his 
marriage, 346. he befieges Sala- 
mina, 347. and takes it, 348. he 
receives the title of king» 349. 
his condu£b in war and peace» 
352. Demetrius forms the fiege 
of Rhodes» V. 352. he makes 
Caflander raife the iirgs of A- 
thens» 370. excefiive honours 
which he receiTes in that city, 
ièîJ. he marries Ptu/Mmia, 371. 
he is proclaimed general of the 
Creeks» and initiated into the 
great and leû«r mylferies, io'ui, 
he is defeated at the battle of 
Jpfus, 374. Athens (huts her 
gates againft him» VI. 4. he 
takes that city, 8. he forms the 
difign of fubjeéting the Lacedae- 
monians, 9. he lofes almoft at 
the fame time all his dominions 
in Afia, iM. Demetrius, being 
called in to tht aid of Alezaadcr^ 

Caflaoder*t fon^ deftro] 
and is proclaimed king of 
donia, 10. he makes grc 
paratioas for recoveiing 
ther*s empire in A fia» la 
obliged to abandon Mac 
15. he furreoders hxmfel 
leucos, who keeps him p 
18» &c* his death» 
DiMtTaivt» fon of Pbilx 
of Macedonia, is given 
hofiage to the Romans, V 
the Romans fend him 1 
his father» 356. Philip 
Demetrius ambaifador to 
VII. la. J)eme:r:us juA; 
father to the Roman'» 
returns into Macedonia 
Perfeut*8 iecret plot agai 
brother Demctrins, 33. 
cufes hijn to his father, \ 
mettini*s defence againft 
cufations of Perfeus» 36. 
caufcs him to be put to 

DxMiTaxuf SoTKK» after 
been long an hoftage at 
demands permiffion to reti 
to Syria in vain, VII. 1 
flies from Rome, 246. he 
the throne of Syria» and 1 
the fumame of Sêter fn 
Babylonians» ihid. he mal 
againft the Jews» ikU, I 
places Holophernea upi 
throne of Cappadocia, «4 
Romans acknowledge hin 
of Syria, %^t, he abandoi 
felf to feaftingand voluptuc 
249. confpiracy againft hii 
he endeavours to engage tk 
in his interefts» 251. he il 
in a battle» 


Demetrius Soter» claio: 
crown of Syria, VJI. 21 
marries the daughter of F 
Philometor, ihid, he dri* 
lexander the ufurper ont oi 
and remains in quiet pofic 
the throne, 355. exceflTes 1 
metrius, 256. Jonathan 
aid againft the people of A 
258. he ii driven out of 
»59* hit aiancr of lii 


«*, wblihtrhi had rrlirol, 
■ il lakfii piirnnci in >n 
tloBifiinI tha I'lrthiini, 
h* miirld Rodoiunii 
ttr of hi it h (id 1 1 CI kini of 
*, OU. h« makii inthc 

titntpii m return Into hii 
inii S7J- he Ncovfr) hii 
loDi, *)j. ht i) ittmti ill 
I* by Al*»ndf( Zibini, 
lildtith. IHJ. 

iDll, phyfician of Cn>- 

h« cut» D«iui, ir. 3S1. 
' of Ihil phyRciiii. UiJ. 
urn. into (!««.. ,». U 

at Crotona, whett he mit- 
ha 4>u|K(cr of Mill 

f the 


•f AtU klitt ol Spi'O. 

VI. Hs 

:■!, furnimeil (h> Filr, 

•f I>»m«i 

-ig.. iBlo ■ ». 

liaf »»< 

r pHp»r ^< 

raiKK 1 

U thofts hy 


I of 1 fl^re 

tddiifNirill in Sicllf, lit. 
• nikfi «D (tiempt ■(linlt 
tfa wlibeui iWccfi, >J7. 
MriBCOi) 10 furnndor at 
iton Mtht Sgiaicufini, tE6. 
fat M dtitli, 169. 

il>at yrlnce, IV. 115. he Ii f<M 

ambailkdor to Philip, 211' hla 
ciitioo upon ihtpcirt, ]3}. lb*t 
upon ibt Chcifonefui. Jft. Dt- 
muftlifnii f rciTei tha Athcnlau 
to dcHir* for the LacedcmonllM 

rit tk« tAfli of Philip') IcKtt 
10 <ha Aehtniani, jji. hia ad- 
tic* after <ha talcloj; of Elutart bjr 
that printt, ]fl, Sft. ht it ftnt 
upon in imtiillj to Thibfii 159. 
he Hi» in ihc biit'a of Ch«>«- 
n*i, l^t. he <• citad lo .» trUl 
bcfoie I hi pioplcwho acfuti hlaki 
and do him {rcat honouil, jtft 
iCfchinci accural hint, jt?. ■•- 
neraSij of DemoAhcnei (0 hit 
■ttur«rt, (tS, hit immodtnU 
Jc.^ for Philip') deiih, if». 0«- 
tnoAhcnci inlmaiw lb« pispU 
*I>iiiA Aluanitti, V. it. ha 
prCTcnti the Alhenlani from d(- 
livtrlni up tha onion to Alax- 
andcr. 14, Dcmollhtnfi (vfftn 
htmrdf to bowruptedb; Hti< 
palui, V. ti] hr t> condemocd 
and baniilitd, 114. h« li rtcilled 
fr»m binilbmeiil, 161 bt Quit* 
Athcni, bcfsK the arrlTU of 
Antlpaicr, x(*. he it condamnel 
10 dl*. MM h> put) an end I» 
fail lift bf poifon, *j*. the Athe- 

rttKti th> Omiat. A- 

niant enR ■ Sum of brafi la 

n»i of hii lift i« ihe timt 

hli ntmoTT. '*W. 

h* bc|ioiin appiii Id tlic 

DiictLLioAi, hrnimti SySfta, 

III •Thiriniiiii, iV, (SO, 

taceini tha cuminiBd of the 

.t.™«.«ro..ha lime 
bl)<lc, in.< ti>t(w»gci iha 

Thymbron, III. \i^. ha likfi 

liant igiinA ilir pir^xr^ii- 

./Kiolia ftom Midi», «ho hid 

J, *.r uf A,<.,r..,>. ,.,-. 

podL'tled bimfcif of it bypu(tin( 

«ionior.i.>,„.>i ibcMr^i. 

tMi, tTC, he tpeilci lor the 

deilh, lAi. heRin'oipihai'^h- 
mua of tb( Tbrician Cherfo- 

l*»t, tlo. ho proporei inJ 

»u Ih* piffing or a iiw l\ir 

nefui, iilJ. truce cintludid bf 

laipneni of llctti, which 

i a«*th>rHr]r h.*vy upon 

Tn^ti^Vf X'l.l^'ibic 

DiLciTiDi, thief of iht pc»pli 

called Sitiliini. Hii hlflotj. III. 

4 M«t.pllonJ, Î00. tf(. 


MrMi, upon occ.fion of 

DiARoiAi, tho Mtlian, la toa< 

1*1 tntmpt to fciie I'her. 

domntd at Aibwi fort»chin| 

m, barutUM tin Atbcni- 

■1 «riaiin ihcm at*>°R 

■thcir.t>, ill. 13) 


PtAtiAf the celebrated Temple of 
biirot the Day of AUxander^t 
birth. V. I. 

Dido: Her hiflorjr, ]. io6 

DiN0CftATi!«» arvh-te^t he prc- 
fides in building the t<ir»U of 
Diani at Ephefus» V. 26 

DioooRUS, Aihcniiiiji o^\o(ct ihe 
putting; to drjih vf the iiih#bi- 
tanîi <f Mitj!«rnc, 111. ib6 

DiocfMs the C)ni«k rifufei to 
be initiaico in the mvfterici cf 
Ccrrs Kki.fini, I. xxjciv. 

DioGPii'5, aomiral of Aniiochts 
the Gro t. VI j«7 

DioMF. CON, one of the gvncrals 
Cf-ndc-.TMcd to die for bavirjg \eit 
the bod'"; ui bi ricd ot" ihc fc who 
were ki;ied in the battle of Ar{;i- 
xiiifu.*. Kis fpecch before bii 
dc4th, HI. 2^)9 

Dion, of Syracufc : Hit charaiWr 
and fnciîù/î-.ip with riato, IV. 
124. he pt'rlu;idrs Dion)fiui the 
£)dc*r to have Tome converfatirn 
viih Ptato« ilfid hit xnariij{;.e 
wHh Arclc daughter of Diony- 
^ui, 14 J hii mjgnanimoui ge- 
ncrcftcy to Dionyliui the Young- 
er, X47, &<. he becomes odious 
to the courtier*^ }48. Dion de- 
termines Dionyfius to invite Flato 
to his court, 150. tt e ccurtieri 
f}are no p.iin8 to difcredit hire 
W'ith Dionyfius, 154. he is ha- 
ri/hcd, 1^5. he arrives at Athens, 
157. he vifits the other cities of 
Cieeie, //>///. Dionyfius caufes 
Dion's eflatcs and effe^li to be 
fold, 159. aod make» hit wife 
Atete niarry Timocritu5, léo. 
Dion deiet mines to attack him 
with open force, i^id, ^c, he 
rmba:k» on board tviro merchant 
Aiipf for Syractifr, 16 1, he ap- 
prjrs before the w ills of the city, 
J64. fuccrfs of his mtcrprizc, 
fl-ti. he defeats the troops of Dio- 
nyfius, i6f>. ingratitude of the 
Syracufans to Dicn, 167. he rc- 
itres to Leor.tiumi 160. he is re- 
called by (he Syracufans, 170. 
he delivers Syracufc, and p.udons 
his enemies, I7i. Dion enters 
the citadel^ which it funcndcicd 

to him by the fos of I 
end is reconci'ed to 
Arete, 175. rcfUAiooo^ 
modeAjr, 176. be fiiftc 
elides to be pet to dr 
Cailippus conceives ibe 
afl'ttflinating Dion, and | 
executioa, !';%• hit 1 

DioNYsivv the EUer. 
Syraci fe : Hit pccu iai 
tciiflick, IV. 110. fne« 
he ufes for poflirfling h 
the iyranr.y, iii, 6ff. 
po'iited generali/Timo w 
mlled po\Kcr, JI4 he f 
having guards aljRfgned h 
and cAaKIiûics' hitrfel 
116. fttcmptt at Syracu 
Sicily agaîiii> htm. Ui* 
makes preparations for a 
the Canhagioianl, HlOj 
people of Rhegium ttfa 
themfelTes with the tyi 
he marries two vrîrct al 
time, ièid. his friendfli 
f err nee for Dion, 1:4 
firges and takea Motya 
is defeated at fea, 128. 
cufsn toops gain tn 
over the Varthagioian 
abfence of Dionyfuit, 
movemeott at Syracul 
him» 130. he en irely < 
Carthagmiani, and ohi 
to quit Sicily, 13s. hi 
the inhabitanta of 
1 34. violent paHioo of 
for poetry I 135, 6^r. 
upon that tafte of his 
fends hit brother Tb^ 
Olympia to difpute the 
the chariot-race and po 
sew entet prîtes of 
againft the Carthagin' 
be carries the piiae oi 
Athens, Hid, death of 
143. his charaâer^ 
DjoNYtius the Youngc 
his father, IV. 146. h 
in the brginn^ug of 
149. hit good quali 
Dion ioducet Dionyfiu 
Plato to copie to hit' c 
iA what manner Placo 


tf|. waaiatol ching« ne- i'ity of ïgypt, 4;. E^iptian mo- 

# bjlhe preftnte of niicby, 50. Egypt fiil4c»«il bytbe 

pkir, tiJ. DlDnrriat bi- VtrCant. 11. igï. lad lâerwltdi 

Dion, 155. Ke ilirmiT» b; the Macsdoniiin*, V.Sg 

ijâ. hcprelTei hîm tore- En vfti ans, manners and cun«mi 

SyracuTc, «iib whïchPIiio of the Fgyptbni, I. it. of tb<» 

CI, 158. Diouyr^us gr'ii'J k-iiigi md gOTCmmeni,!}, id4 of 

pcrmiSion ra rcTD'n intj their liw), 15. of the !>ikH|| md 

, 160. cmbalTy frOFn Dio- lelîgian of the E^piiini, iS. ab- 

[o DiDQ, wbo hià pofH-lTcd (uni waribip of dilTocnt dîrinU 

rtif Syricufe, 1&5. defrac tiea, )□. reiTani for th 9 worlbip, 
3}, fgnetjlceteinDnies, js- of lûB 
foliHciy jpd wi[i of ihe EgyptUDi, 
3». DfiheminnKln wbUhitief 

. he rt-a1ctDd> Ibc itrnmr, culiitiicd ifac arti and feiemeif 

:e<>i obli|e> him to Itut 39, oF ibeir hufbondmcn, Hicp- 

r Bp în the ciudïl nf Syi 1- bcrdi, and anifana, 41 

K6. DionyfiiTi ir»ii witb .fi;*, liiy oF Thrate; unbippT fata 

■.an, who fendi him 10 Co- of ihai city. III. Sy 

tgg, w fa infwer ol Diony- EiiAzn.; Simoo'a brolber. high- 

a ilridgcr, 1S9 piicfi of the lewi, eiercifei that 

Kind of ithlciitlc coitiij'i, oSceduring ihe minoiity of On». 

1. lia 11, VI. II. 

Weacf thcDivmilyim- Tieaia», tfsflor of ihe law, pre- 

VI. 4Î ' VII. 78 

iBntr» of aniicTit Grtfcci Elia im, ont of the font of M»t- 

'^.ilainhibifn». 11. igâ titbiai, (icriHct, himfdf in a 

rihaf DionyHu] il.e'Elde', baitle to dElivei- bli people, VU. 

IV. iij. 1J9 

I, nnful, contmand) ihe Ei.iaia>, of the feft of the ï>ha' 

rtfiiiedoutbythc Roman-, rifiei, forma 1 falfo accnfaHoa 

bcii ihefirlioF the Ro- againll Hyrcaniii, VU.3^0 

bai Iriumphed for a tifto- E'e^bmri : Dcfciiption of thoTe tai- 

», 145 iD'la, V. .73. minnetof t.king 

I confpires againll Aleian- them, i^. Ëfr. 

. 117 he ruiK himri^ f £/«;/&, a f^iiU elty of Attica, where 

h wiih hi; fwDid, ibid. the Aibeniini telehiaied afraAin 


fubjefted by the Laccdeaionilnf, 

OUI, tapiiilcity of Medial 


oundition, II. 94. defcrip- 

thii city, ibiJ. 

bodicj amonllt the Egypliaoa, 1. 

«CHua, officer in Al.;*- 


army. Ruhnefi ihat cnflg 

EMitit ! (Pflk/./.) " ='«'f='":'>ni"ol. 

ilife, V. iSo 

,ciiT of Sicily: litfounda- 

' 145. (laft and feier* difcipline 

11.110. ttiiiihahitini<im- 

which heeflabliflieiinbi. army, 
let. hagainiafamouiviaoryo»»» 

hf aid of Alheni againtl 



idediiiiolbrcenir:], 1. 1. 

Egypt, or Thchaii, ibiJ. 

161. that prince put» himfelf inio 

Ejppt. or Heptanomii, j. 

hi> handi, 16;. Paaiuj Ëmil.ui ii 

E|}p[, oiDdu, iS, feiii- 

conliaued ia tlia commaoïl of ibe 


•nn]rinMtreion1a,i68. durîn^he 
iRfi liter- quai ten ht vifiu the moil 
famouiciries of Greece, 169. upon 
hit return to Amphipolii, he im- 
parti to the MaceJonians the re- 
J;uUtiofi« made by himfrlfand the 
enate in refpeâ to Macedonia, 
171. &c, he givei a great fraft 
thrre, 173. he fetii out for Rome 
by the way of Epirut, the cities of 
which he abandont to be phmder- 
ed by the troops, 174, he entera 
Rome in triumph, 175 

£af 1 1 tus, deputy fi om the Romans, 
goes to Philip» who had bcfieged 
Abydos, and exhorts him in the 
name of the Senate to l.iy down 
hit arms, VJ. 276. he goes to 
Egypt to take poircffion of the- 
guardiaafhip of the king for the 
Roman people, ihiJ, 

Emm. I us (/.. Paulus) is rleflcd cvm- 
ful with Vurro, 1. 200. he is killed 
at the battle of Cann:c, 202 

d*AMiN0NDA8, Thehan, hischa- 
raflcr, IV. 203. his conduft in the 
confpiracy againll the tyr.tnts of 
Thebes, 205. he gors to Sparta to 
treat ofpejCCyiiO. hegainsagreat 
vidVory over the Lacedjem-miani 
rear I.euctri, 220. he ravxgei La- 
conia, 213. and advances to the 
gates of Sparta, «24. at his return 
he is accufed before the people and 
■rquitted,227. he marches againft 
Alexander tyrant of Thcrs, and 
delivers Pel» out of his hand*, 
237. he returns to Thebes, 33S. 
he is pLiced at the head of the 
Theban army, f4i. his fécond at- 
tempt a^ainft Sparta, 242. his fa- 
mous vidory at MantinxJ, 244. 
he is mortally wounded in the bat- 
tle, 245. his death, and praife, 247 

£pKRATus, by the credit of Apel- 
Jcii, Philip's minifter, is appoint- 
ed general of the Achaeans, VI, 
207t univerfal contempt of him, 


£piTi\LTES, orator, endeavouri to 
prevent the Atheniaoi from aid- 
ing the Lacedemonians, IIL m 

SricKATut, one of the generals 
of Aniiochus the Cyriceniin, 
betrays the intercHi of that 

prince, and treat! fecret 
Hyrcanui» ^ 

Erica A TE 1, ■ porter at i 
Plcafantry of that Atheni 
the deputies that had b( 
into Pcrfia, 

ÏPICYPF. 9, Carthaginian, 
Hannibal to Hieronymus, 
with that prince, Vlll. 2 
the (tcath of Hieronymus 
mjnds to return to Hanni 
he is eleâcd magiftrate 
cufe, 26. he marches to tl 
Lcontium, and ia put to 
Man ell us, 28. be ufurps 
authority at Syracufe, af 
ing caufed the raagiftrat 
put to death, 19. he retir 
grigentum, when he fei 
cellus mafter of Syracufej 

EpUamnkMi or Djrrat.tium^ 
riiime city of Macedon 

Epigmh t Signification of th 

RpipoTiéit part of the city ( 

Bfi'irut i Geographical Jefcri 

ErisTRiNsa of Amphlpi 
ficer in «the army of Ci 

EaAtiMDta, one of the A 
captains that gai'ied the 1 
ArginuAe, in« 29^. on hi 
he is condemned to die 1 

£iiAsisTRATvS| phyficiaB, 
for hii addrefs and pcnetr 
difcovering the caufe of 
chus's ficknef^, 

EascTHKvi, king of Ath 

EaniNus, Corinthian, fup| 
ratus with the meant of 
the citadel of Corinth, 

EsAXftAnnoN afcenda the 
of Ad'yria, II. So. he take 
Ion and the country of Xfr 
he carries away ManalTch 
Judah, ih'td* hit death, 

EscuLAPivB, inventor of m 
II. 246. hia khowledgf c 
his being raa!<til ia thc nv 
the gods. 

Bn* ftmldioii ef Ar- 
llMbB'niu lo return la 
Mi, t«i. h« dlfpofet 


II. t 

kint of Si 

hlRarvof ilkiipiiiHic 
lit itnh, 403. (hinftir 
ef EvitariPi 404 

fan ol Nkcclei, ii di- 
lu ihions or StUmin bj 

> IV. tSi. ïcdtmMiili 
bi nlaH*ti4, «14' in- 
of th*t prlnfcr IM> 
lemrd of iJic Licattw 
iHlry, li KiU«<l iii 1 til- 
rhtii, VI, Hi 
if Cme, gcninl gf thi 
I tAl'oreut, i>r<nt by 
b< picventi l'arfeiii I'm!* 
I thi «dvinTiKc h« hud 
■r tht Reminit i*j-«l- 

ot iiuiitt 10 Perfeut, 

ifdatc Hur«i him to b« 

> «f PIUNi, tindtrlik» Art from Uel- 
U, Im dlM il hi! relarnf 


, LiM'BRiontin. HU 
!l*«c»wiu kini of SpiiH 
m nl|n with him, VI. 
limCid >t ibi biiili of 

'hm ht cooimtndïd pire 

)BA«H, kinE of D-bir1un, 

II. 89 

, |ineril in AUxiaia' 

B X. 

with hli own lund la tli« iuHt, 
■ ihii. he li defsileJ by AniigamK, 
. aiid lolirei into the eiAlcst Nora, 
wliir« he ii h<a(|ad, t,%%. btl* 
tin hetwetn Eumtftci iiid Antl- 
Ronut, ]it, ]io. h« i> bttii/cd 
by hii troopi, )>i. delivered af 
M Antigonufi IM. and put t* 
dcttb, ]ii. praife of Eumenei, 

BuMtNi!! I. nephgwof Phitnere), 
r.i(c«cdi hli uncle In the fainjc 
dam of I's'giniui, VI. jo. fis 
gilni t Rreil viflery over Antio- 
(huiSuler, who cime (o pnflefi 
himfelf of hit dominium, lUd. 
he etlicki AnlJoriiut Kieriiti 
v'ho hi . engated In ■ wir iplnft 

hlideith, AiJ. 

BuMtNii II. fuetMiti hli fithet 
Atlili» In (hekinidDmiif P<r> 
' ifufc. Ih« 


htFnfelf CDeXMlTeiHhlth a< 

e Of . 



» fell It 

J» with Di 
«U Po'dlcMi, who f\ 
to polÂdion of Ceppi 
te. vlOory of £ufnin< 

•Bd NeoplBtiiBiit lefi 
I4, b« kUU lb« I<lll< 


!• bfll({(d In hli (xpltilby le< 
If veut, tto. th* Romeni dt- 
ll>er him, an. alfpuie be 
tween Kuinenel ind the Rbodîln* 
tancernlni tb* Greek citlet of 
All, 171, Ifc, h* often 1 coa* 
fiJerible (iilm to (he Ath«iD)i 
■fld with wbel view, Vit. j. wur 
of Itiiinenei with PntiU, it. he 
fcndi depuliei to Rome ID «ODi' 
pltinvf Plilllp, sit. he |oM Is 
Rome hlmfeK to inform (lie Kit' - 
n»ni of the fccrel Inlr1|uci of 
I'mTeDi, rod. Perfvui endeavOBfe 
tn rid lumfelf of Eumenoa, fiift 
\,y .ilVjilmoiiDn, loH.jiiidiheoby 

he il (ufpetted by the Roreini, 
did cinnnl oWtiin permilCM to 
cmar Rome, iji. the Tenet* feU 
(ommiftianeri to enquiri Into Mi 

fHAei, king of MetTentihit. 
lacked bjr tho LÉC«di>moniaB*i !• 
Exil. bt il woundwl In bittli lu** 


I N D 

Ithoma, cklîi. he adjudgei the 
prite of valour to Ar.ftomenet, 
cxv. he diet ot hit woundi, iM, 
EuRYBiADKt, Laced armonian, it 
appointed general iflimo of the 
Greeks in preference to Themi- 
i)oile9, III ai. the latter deter- 

B X. 

veatton of them U afci 
344. Ufc of f ablet in 
the education of childrc 
Fabkicivs it deputed bj 
mans to Pyrrhui, VJ 
command! in the war a| 

mjnes to fight in the flraiti of Ft m sa i a» commander of 

SalamiOf 36. the Lacedarmoniani 
decree him the prize of valour, 

£ua YDici) wife of Amyntai, king 
of Macedonia, prevails upon 
Jphiciate^, by her cntreaiiei» to 
rcinftate hrr children upon the 
throne of ihei'r father. IV, 306 

£ u a Y I) I (.' K , wife of Arida'us : O . 
lympiii caufcs her to be put to 
death, V. 308 

EuRYDiCK, wi'dow of Ptolemy 
Soter, marries her daughter Ptole- 
tnaida to Demetriui, VI. 6 

£uaYSTHXN£i| king of Sparia» 

I» cix» 

£uRiSTHCvs, king of Myccn.r, 

. fjmous for the twelve labour* 
which he made Hercules unilrr- 

. take, 1^1 

£uT>i VCR ATis, chief magiAiaic 
ofOlynthufy putt that ciiy iuto 
Philip's haiidf, O'. 3*^1 

£uTH YPf'ML'b, appointed b\ titc 

, Athenians to cummami jointly 
wîtli Niciaf» forces th»t genual to 
engage in afea-fight, whrrein he 
ii worrted, Hi- 2. s 5 

£uTHYnKMi-s, kinp of Badiia, 
makes an honourable peace witU 
Antiochus, who intended to de- 
throne him» VI.a66 

£xcNr TKt;, of Agrigentum, victor 

mant in Afia, defeat! t 
of Mithridatet. VIII. 
killi Flaccut, feiaei ths 
army, and marchet agaii 
ridatvi, 73. upon bcij 
doned by hit troops, he li 
felf in defpair, 

Ft A CO s (L. yafêùms) ii 
conful and marches ag^ 
thridatet, VIII. 69. he 
by Fimbria, 

Flam INI us {^HÎmtimt) I 

conful, and manhes 

I'hilip king of Maccd< 

a87. he gains a firft 

0<er that prince, 191. 

expeditions of Flamiuiu 

cit, 191. he is rontinut 

command as pro^conful, 

hà^ un inefteÔual intcr\ 

^h'hp, 299. he gain 

viCtuiy over that ^ri 

Scotu'a ani Cynofccph 

and cont lude» a peace vt 

31 1. honoiiSk and 

M hich hr receive» In th< 

(Mmes, 31a. he make* v 

Nabis, 3a I. hefirgrs 

Sparta, 315. and grants 1 

326. he triumphs at Ki 

Fl A MINUS (Ct) coiitul 

againft Hannibal, I. 1 
dcteated. and killed oea 
ot 'rhrafymcnus, 

in the OlymjMck games, enters 

that city in triumph, .FriviA, Anthony's w 

adive at Rome for her 


FABIUS MAX MUS {î^utnfv^) 
is appointed di^lator, 1. 19s* 
his Ùovi condutt in reipedt td 

. . Hannih»K fç6, ÔTc. the people 
givtt Minucius, general of the 
horfe, equal powet with him, 
loS. Fabiui extricates him out 
of a danger, in which his ill 
conduct hud engaged him, 199 

f^kltu Authors to whom the tn- 



7 nant, fub|e£(s part 
VIll. 115. he commam 
piciconful, 130* upon t 
inttamesof Pompey, hi 
iifhes I'tfilemjr Anletci 
throne ot' ^Dpt, 

I N D 

1 E X. 

UaWfthlh r ),l„„hs 

fijigeneriiiofXeneiVamj, 11. 


Gnoo, fon of Hamilcir, it po- 

luikat «gain the Bo- 
ll, ij 

' GiUtCtmit, a ptoïinte 

Miiwr, iahibiccd by ike 

mOied for hi. father', ill ïuM^fi, 

ifiar thdi iirapiian inia 

andisbmillicd, 1. 117 

VI. 43 

Cuao, CaiihiElniui, endedtoun 

« of the rellEloii of the 

ID (ui'ptcfi (he revali of the mei- 

■,1.31k. tDl«i>'>E"nci of», J. ,61. Spendiui, their 

1 The Olympick, ihe 

genetj), puci him to dcith, 163 
Clab^io {Mat. ji.iH,!) obtains 

i,thtNeiii»a, the Jfth- 

i. Rwirdi glinted to tbc 

bithynlii and Pontiii tV hi. pra- 

n tkok giiBci, l.riii 

viiice, ivhcre Luculliij command- 

■.t>%, Pwluny'i eunuck, 

ed before, VJII. 104. hii dif- 

11 Achlllii. lod bccontt 

coyrft; en hia airival lugmcnli the 

niniftcf of E^ypt in hii 

lictQ«,]li..-i(ro..p., Jcj 

filL 140. hii llraugemi 

GL^iuci^^kTngof lllyiium tikei 

CmCu duriD* h» war in 

Pyiihu) under h!s pioicâlim, 


aad re eAibUlhe. him in b.< do- 

The irmpiiM of the 

minio™, VI. 7. 

aW GrtKe, V, 44: tàeii 

GtAueu, a young Athtniao, de. 

; agiinlt the Mmple of 

firou. of 4 (hire in the 


.dm.nlfiralionof the poblick «f- 

P>Ieftiiic, httifgti jind 

fiiri, IV. 14, Sucraiei, in a con. 

T AJeiindcr, V. E6. de. 

verfatlon, oblige, bim to own hii 

n of Cazi by Alt.Jtidtr 

iocapiciiy fur ibern, ibid. &e., 

H, VII. 3.5 

Cobb Ï AI, flffyliui lord, pnH him- 

pgOVIT» bimfelf of (7. 

■ fell' and family unJfi the pro- 

iiihotiiy 11 Sy.«urc, lil. 

Icftlun of Cyrus, IJ. 137. he pun 

iTimi thai prevent him 

himfclf at thehB.d of ■ body of 

idiag tlie Gt«k> when 

troop] 11 Ihe fLcg* of Babylon, 

d h»XerKi, 19. he de 
\taa\at, gênent of the 

167 Gfbryif enie.( inio ihe 

confpiricy agtioft ^mtrdii the 

^Um, 14a. Ihe &jTica- 

Magiui, „o 

-dfixt him king 141. hii 

Goi.ïAi. Perruutord.commjiia. 

)aAii& during hii reign, 

lif detth, 144. refpeft 

battle ofCuiUia, III. 3^1 
Girdiae, (ipilnl ci'jr of Phrygia, 

tkc Sirracurani tetiined For 

inotT. ii/rf. 

fanioul for the chariot to which 

bo oF Mitra, efpoorei Ihe 

the Gordiinkiiot was tiul, wliich 

Alcunderiuu V. 30 
Cotco, diiighter of Cleomenei : 

nu», Vlll. 17. he di» 

1er, Uid. 

Smjil fijing of Ihit child, 11. 

., king of III,riT.m. be- 

'ufpeQed by the Komins, 

leVhc mike, a., aDi.r» 

him<Uf«ll)ellC(€ of CiMhige, 

■cileu), 146. he decliiet 

11, 57. bcBig uibun. of cte 

the Romini, and im- 

people, be propofei a law con. 

their aiiibiiridaTi. 150. 

ceining the will of Ati.lm, and i, 

omini fend the pcz^or 

killed foon lAti, . VII, 17, 

t «uinfl him, ibid. Gen- 

&flM(i». riierbf Phrygi., famou. 


for ihe »iftory of Aletapder aver 

^iiwimploce hi. mercy. 

ihePerfian., V, », 

nkiui fendi hioi loRame 

CmecE, CiEiXE geogriphitil 

lUifuiUy, <W. 

defcriptioAofancicnt Greece, 11. 

I N D 

m74. hIAofy of Greece diirided 
into f«ur agei, 177. primitive 
origin of the Greeki, 178. dif- 
ferent dates of which Greece 
wt« compofed, t8a tranfmig'a- 
tient of the Greeks into Afia 
Minor, tSç. republican govern* 
ment infiituted «Imoft univer- 
faliyin Greece, II« 187. diflTerent 
kind of troops that compofed the 
armies of the Greek', IV. 91* 
ihips, and naval forces, 5461 
feople of Greece very warlike in 
all times, 94. origin and caufe of 
courage and military virtue 
amongi^ the Greeks» 88. religion 
of the Greeks, I. xxvi. of the 
«ugurs, xxxvii. of the oracles, x). 
famous games and combats of 
Greece, xlix. difiérence of tafte 
of the Greeks and Romans in re- 
* fpeâ to publick ihows, Ixx. dif- 
pûtes for the prize of wit. ihowsy 
and reprefentationsof the theatre, 
Ixxiii. illuftrious m^ who diftin» 
{ui/hed themfelves moft by the 
arts and fcienccs anongft the 
Greeks, II. 319* See the articles 
Athenians and Lacedzmoniant, 
for what relates to tie ivars cf 
Greece *witb the Perjiant and Mace- 
donians, Greece becomes a Roman 
province, VII. 213, rcAeétions 
upon the caufcs of the grandeur, 
decline, and ruin of Greece, ai8, 

jGrypus. See Antiochus Gry- 


-Cyges kills Candaules king of 
Lydia, whofe principal officer he 
was, and afcends :^? throne iii 
hw ftead, II. loz, i»Iiat Piaf. 
fays of his ring, 103 

Gtlippus, Lacedaemonian^ noes 
to the aid of Syrtoure.befieg(..* by 
the Athenians, III. «45. h'l ir- 
rival in Sicily changes the i. ce 
of things, 146.- he obliges tli;; 
Atbeniana to fnrretider at d-: 
cretion, a66.>M% fordid avari, • 
fuliies the glôiy of hif gre^t 
anions, 30$ 

B X. 


JLlAlttëmcffutf city of Doi 
ficged aad taken by Ale 

Haltattis, kins of Ly 
^8* war of that prioc 
Cyaxares, i^ûf. he contio 
fiege of Miletat begun 
father, 104.. he raifet the 
th^t city, and wberefove, 

Hamilcab commanda tfa 
fent by the Canhaginia 
Sicily at the reqoeft of 
I. zié. it is defeated by 
tyrant of Syracufcj iki 

Hamilcab, fon of Gyfcci 
mands the Carthagtniai 
againft Agathocl':s, and 
great viAory over him, 
he falls alive into the b 
the Syr<>cufans w*ili> b 
their city, fjô. hr is 

Hamilcab, fnmameJ 
general of the Càrthagin 
165. boldncfs snd aoliit) 
genenl, tbid» he comsis 
army again:'^ ihc mi:r^'i:niri 
and dertr^.i: ih?.:i (.iiiirelv, 
goes »o ^\"*.Vi; V :■ ih he c 
in a ihivi lim.-, ioid* he v 
in a baltù-, 

Hannibal, f'ln "'fGifgo, i 
at the head of t.^.< tif>cps 
the CarthsginiJr.s in'o > 
the aid of the r '''\'''^ ^^ 
I. 118. aétions of that 
>:. Sicily, ibid, he <f es th:z 

HiA^'isAL commmds tl 
thani.'-iun fleer, and is 1 
by -.Xx" conful Duilius, 
he b'.'l.c^es tic mercen 
Tunis. 167. he falia in 
hands ard is crucii.94, 

Haknibal, furr.ame<^ thi 
at nine years olJ gc^i 
father fent to commanH i 
I. 172. he is appointe J 
m a nd th ere after A fdru bal 
:i74« afrcr fevcral conq' 
tcfieget SaguAtum» and t 

I N D 

e X. 

hi prtPirM for hli minh 

K.>N>ta,r>rth>Btnll>n, it|illMilil 

[tllly, ITt. hlHUMloCiJU, 
with Wb*C VIVW, JtU, bB 

tha heti of lUi rronai lulnA 

AgiibMlii, 1, 114. hi II hlli'd 

iihiimiKh, 170. M,nf>. 
ntt*r<r MtlitHhoira, iilJ. 

U bi'tit, MM. 

H*N»i>, ginir-j «r Ihi Cinh'lU 

iàttkt ih>l river. i«o. hli 

ni<nt, {••l>ri<«'ilbythini>m<>ni 

h lAtrwxdi, IW. iHl. hi 

niiribilOandt jliiiKi, 1. iiB. 

. Ih* Alp.. >Rj. hi .ntcii 

, ■««. hi difiiti Ihi Ito- 

«Knmiodor ihclr trooyt i|>ln|l 

> ncir Ihi nrf, Tlrlnui, 

till m<rct(iuni, tA4. ih. mnf 

then It T[»bli, 1*9. hi 

mind II t.hcn ^„in him, iDt, 

h*t w Tufciny, ifi, h* 


Éoeyttn|iiinng iba Ajmi- 

1. 1)1. hie'<ii>>l><ttili"c" 

ika uf Ttirif^minui. M, 

"i^.N -1 ... !■ 1. «.r, 

:oinlilft In ctiirri m r.t,li,i, 

till miniKt of «<iiIlïiI.i| 

llll.l), (UI 

"•If frem Bit wronB n»p hi 

HAiMuniui «mfplrii iplnn ilia 

i*ll4a »lCj|illimm, Inj, Us 

tvrinit i.r Aihtni, l[. |ii. Iiii 
amh, MW, flaiuM arillH In 

, , ft,«»g. viflor/'n..r 

hanaur iil him by lh« AlliailU 


HAKHoHro, wlft «r Thaintrf^*^ 

■17, and lo Jimmd mliiforc*- 

t, to*, ha wlniiiiitCapuii 

li p»i 10 itMfh by mdar of Ihi 

•no f\iil'<M th« cnumEe of 

i<iui<ii«r lyNoir*, viir. m 

nxipi to h* (niirilid by ihi 

HAirAnui, «fficir or Mtytt", ■• 

ryof thit Mice, 1. loA. had 

«rdiiid by ihtt Prlnai ta mtit* 

b)i of HinnLbil. lol. he 

awiy i-lth Cyiui, Il,,ij(l. n|* 

M ihc t\i at C^ipui, bdif^eJ 

«r Attyjt» upan MtoyttiKt ihit 
Kirniiiui hid dhabiyad hU nr- 

h*Kamii», «oq, 10 nnko» 

rflon. ha mirchci fuddinly 

d.r., .'nd thi raraogi hi Iik.i pf 

1 *|ilnn Knma, lUJ, it'tii 

him, HU, 

>ui illempti hubtiidoniIblE 

HA.pArui, gavirnar nf B.hylari 

']irli*, lio. ht II ta»lliil 

Arnci, lM■b<h•l«nlllts>- 

or th^l UCI1K.-1, «i.d riNrf. i« 
All»...,», «la. hi«>m.pli»t. 

> thin with Ntlpln, aiM. 

IwHhyiUllIt, In whl>hl>i 

mnRhiniiwilhhlipriraiiU, ai). 

irnled, 111}. Iio (Ti^pei in 

Ihi Aih>iil>n<dH«*H<irr>ln><iut 

:hi|i, iM.I h« ciKfrt > po-xi 

i.r Ihilrdly, IM. 


llacAT'Oii, am <>/ AU«in<lar'i 

. hi undcil.kci ind «A'ifli 

otHuri, ciufai AllaliK to l.a «f. 

Til(.iiniilo.i ..1 ihotourl) ol' 

faflliiiKd byiliK ptinru't nrdiri 

HitsMit. I,.n nf I'yrrhus, «pom. 
piiiiei hli t'dlhcr In ihc fioiii of 

I'.VuI fu'id h^' tU Rom 'I..' .'re 

λ » .h"rpMn«,' in'l I'ho 

ArfDi, VI. 8*. h« iMt„ ihl 

ir«lihit>vc., 7- h.:i<:- 

(ily t>lth>bpdy.iri...g{.>,whii'h 

lArfl wihi ill..irlof Crfe, 

KfCBlioiii a innfuiian, In which 

h(H Id I'runii, Hi,l. hidi'M 

liiifiihsrpeillhM. iilJ. 

\ h)iki lieii rufiicci, iiiJ, 
»*d by l><un>i. h> p*ll.'>i> 
(iir, 10. KMmbil-i ih^riOer 

11,1,1,1.,. mxUliiigl »>r li<v:nied 
by Htm-i.lui, V. ,4, 

lliL>n»<i<iit|, ,,[|nie minllter (a 


Stl^ut... l-hilBp.lar, |uc> m Ja- 

N ruralin 


ftifalem to take tway the trea- 
iures of the temple, VII. 55. 
chaftifeoient which he receives 
from God on that account, 57. 
he poifons Seleucus, and ufurps 
the crown, 58. he is expelled by 
Eumenes, ibid, 

Heph^estion, Alexander's favou- 
rite : miAake of the captive prin- 
cefTis in refpeâ to him, V. 50. 
be receives a wound at the battle 
of Arbela, 105. Alexander makes 
him marry Darius's youngeft 
daughter, aio. his death, 
217. extraordinary honours which 
Alexander caufes to be paid him 
after his death, ibid, 

He RAG LK A, wife of Zoippus, of 
the family of Hiero, is mafTaoed 
^ith her children by order ( f the 
people of Syracufe, VIII.. lé 

Keraclipa, or defcendants fnm 
Hercules. They fucceed the Aiy- 
ades in the kingdom of Lydia, 
II. loi. they feize Peloponnefus, 
and are foon after driven out of 
it, 282. they re-enter Pelopon- 
nefus, and feice Laccoxmon, 
z86« they endeavour to oppofe the 
augmentation of the Athenians, 
who defeat them in battle, ibid, 

HsRACLiDES, rxile of Syracufe, 
comes to the aid of his country 
againft Dionyfius, IV. 165. the 
Syracufans choofe him admiral, 
166. his envy of Dion, Hid. he 
is obliged to call in Dion to the 
aid of Sytacufe, 172. and to put 
himfelf into his hands, 173. Di- 
on reftores him t!}e command in 
chief by fea, J75. Heraclid. s re* 
Dcws his intrigues againft Dion, 
j^V. Dion is obliged to fufFt-r 
him to be killed, 176 

Heiacljpes, Philip's miniAcr, 
his charad^cr, VI. î?7. Philip 
facri/icei him to gain ihc affcétion 
of the Macedonians, ibid. 

Her a c l I n £ s, treafurer of tlie pro- 
vince of Babylon, is bnnilhed by 
De.Tctrius Sotei, VJI. 246. he 
is appointed by Ptoîcmy, Attalui, 
find A>i«ra:liC6, to prépaie Alex- 
andct Bal;i for perfouatin.: ihc Ion 
of Antiochus Êpiphâner, in crder 

to.faît.-reîgnbg infiead c 
triusj 249. he c^rfiei 
Rome, where he fuc 
caufing him to be ackn 
king of Syria, 
Hercules, fon of Aleza 
Barfina, V. 256. is put 
by Polyfpèrchon, 
Hernias, Carlan, is 
prime minifter of Aiitio< 
Great, VI. 176. his c] 
ibid* he remoycs Epigej] 
moft gble of Antiochus^s { 
180.. AAtiochui caufes h 
Mermioue, purple, its extra 

qualities, ,, 

Hermocrat^ii^ Syracufj 

courages iiis atixens to 

themfelves agatnft the At] 

ill. 240. he is'eleâed gene 

Herod, Id uni ^aâ, it ina4* 

nor of Galilee, Vll. 329 

capts from Jeiufalem t 

falling into the hands 

Parthians, 330. he goes tc 

and is declared king of Ji 

the fenate, 33 1. he forms 1 

of Jerufalem, 332. he 

. Samaria, and efpoufes Ma 

ibid, he makes himfelf n 

. Jerufiilem, and afcends th< 

of Judaea, . . . 

HerodicvSj one of the p 

' pcrljpns of 'fhelTalyt u 

fate of that piince and 

milj, A 

Herodotus, Creek hii 

his birth, 
HER.oDOTUSf friend of. De, 
fon of Philip, h feized < 
prince's account, VII. 50 
put to the queftîon, and > 
the torments. 
He s I on, Greek poet, 
Hezekiah, king of Jud 
cured miraculoufly, 11. * 
(hews the anibalTidon of tl 
of Babylon' hii riches a 
palace, ibiJ, God menact 
by his prophet, ibid, accoi 
mcnt of thofe threats. 
Hid ARK ES, Pei'Iian of grci 
lity, Std'lira*! father, I: 

r N p E X. 

t, fan of Ml king HirriAi, Con of Pi£a»tiii, k- 
iii : Jagurlh) 1.. i bin Kiini ihe (ovenigntjr ificc -the 
irdered, il. 49 dcith of hii father, II, 314. he 
biotherof Gelon, Tiigns finda muni to frufttale the on- 
m *t Syncufe, III. 144. fpirac^ formed b^ Hiimodiui and 
■nâer, 145. rufpicions Andugicun, 315. h: i> compelled 
lelônnt ■gainft hii bco- to quit AUica, and goes to feltl» 
J. he «lirafli learned men in Phrygia, 517, he tike) «fug» 
iin. Hid. hii goodnefi to in Afii with Artiphernet, 319. 
Idreo «f Anaiilaus, 14S. he engigei ttts Pciliani in tha 
he Jii</. «ir igJÎnft the Greeki, and feivei 
, hi) birth, VIll, i. he them at a guide, 394. h: if kil> 
:n eapuin- general of the Ud at Marathon, fithling agjinit 
mi, 1, and foon after h!i counlrj', 39! 
king, ]. he ^oilt the .Hicfocratei, famous phyGciin 1 
F ch* Caithaginiaai, and hii dirinlBrcftednefB, III. lag 
that of [he Ramans, 5. Kicpoci ATia.natireofCarthigc, 
:Im lirlt agiinft the mer- ii Tent by HinnihaL to Hiesaaj- 
, iUd. hii paiilic reign, mus, and leËdei at hii court, 
Tonrï agritulture particu' VIII. 20. he becomei one of the 
dflliiiguilhcd proofi which piincipalmagiltiateiefSyracufejif 
of hii altachment 10 the hemarcheïtotheaiciof Leontium, 
1 in the fécond Punick a S. he, with Epicyder^poffe fi then- 
he i m ploy» the abiliiy of felvej of sll authority »t Sjracufe, 
edca, «ho makes abun- 39. he maliea wjr in the lield ■- 
'iDacbines of war rorhitn giinU Maiceilut, 37, the plagua 
defence of a place, 14. dctlroyi htm and hiitroopf, ji 
hich Archimedei build) Hipponai, falyricic poet, kaavn 
,15. hediei atagieitage, by hii ïerfel againft Pupalai and 
iMDted byhii people, 17 Aihen't, IIi jjf 
El, father of Hiero, KoLornia Nii.gfneralfarthsking 
lie Ion to be cipofcd, and ofAHyria, mitchei againfl the If- 
I be brought back to hit raelites, md belieg.ei Bethulia, 
«her* he educati! him 0~^J 
•Mtm, VIll. I. Hoi-OFREaNES, n^ppafed brother 
-Mg$, Hitio't (randfon, of Ariarithei, kinf of Cippi- 
fter him at Syracufe, wd docia, drihronei him, lad reigna 
vkei caufei him to be in hi> (leid, VU. 169. heiidci- 
xgretied, VIll. iS. he vcti out by Atlalui, and lettrei U 

tkilledin aconfpiracy, 12 fplricv ^!<<>>Il Ocmetriui his be- 

■N, Catlhaginian ger.eral, nefaa'or, iiitt. that piiiwe hnpri- 

a Sicily in drive the Rd- fans him, Hid 

It of it, VlII. 34, he pe- HoMiB, famom poet, It. 329. Sff. 

Here, 3S to nuhat ptrfeOicin he carried the 

r H III, Ton nf Pinftrjius, fpecies of poetry 10 which he ap- 

at Aihens after hi} f'j- plied himfelf, 35» 

leath, II. 3:4- bii tafle HostA, king of Samitia, revolli 
ratDie, ibid, he ii kin» 

conrpitiiy of Harmodiu: 

.Hogifon. 3^5 ^.Liminaiar, ana put in priiun lor 

«oa.brolherofDionynii,, the reft of blj life, iM. 

;allippu> out of Syracufe, HruiiMUi, brother of Dcmctrlui 

lMtbe«tvt* yeariilV.iyij Pta'ereu», il deliïorcd «p to An- 


tlpater, who puti him to death, 

V. 27» 
«HrpiRBOLvs» Athenian : hit 
chara^er. III. 216. he endea- 
vour! to irritate the people againft 
Niciac and Alcibiadeiy ikiJ, he ii 
haniAied by the odracifaiy 217 
Hypcrides, a celebrated Athenian 
orator, put to death by the order 
of Antipaier» V. 272* itt con- 
fequences, 27 5 

\11trcanus (Jtkn) fon of Simon, 
it declared high-prieft and prince 
of the Jews after hit lather*! 
death, VII. 274. he is befieged by 
Anticchns Sidetes in Jerufalem, 
ibid, and furrendcrs by capitula- 
tion, 275. he renders himfelf 
abfulutc and independent, 278* 
he lencws the treaty with the 
Roman», 282. he augments his 
power in Judaea, 288. he takes 
Samaria, and demolishes it, 2S9. 
he becomes an enemy to the Pl>a- 
tifees, 292. he dies, ibid» 

Hyicanus, fon of Alexander 
Jannzus, it made high>prieft of 
the Jews, VII. 321. after the 
.death of Alexandra, he takei 
poiTeiTion of the throne, 324. he 
ss <^liged to fubmit to Ariftobulua 
his younger brother, ibid* he has 
recourfe to Pompey, who replaces 
him upon the throne, 326. he ii 
■ again dethroned by Pacorus, fon 
of Orodes, and delivered up to 
Antigonus, who caofet hit ears 
to be cut oflf, 330. the Parthiani 
.carry him into the Eaft, 331. he 
returns to Jerufalem, where He- 
rod puts him to death, ibid* 
,Hy ST A SPSS, fécond fon of Xerxes, il 
made governor of Baârianaylll, 6 1 
Hystiaus, tyrant of Miletus, 
prevails upon the generals of 
Jonia not to abandon Darius, 
then employed in a war with 
the Scythians, II. 374. Dariui 
grants him a territory in Thrace, 
where he builds a city, 375* that 
prirce recalls him to court, ibid» 
Hyflicus fecretly fupports the re- 
volt of the lonians, 370. he 
forms a confpiracy aginft the go- 
vernment, 384. he is difcovered, 
ib\d, be is taken by the Perliant, 

delivered vpto Aitapherm 
pot to death, 386. chara^ 


J ADDAS, high-ptieft of thi 
implores the proteâion 01 
againft Alexander, V. 7c 
nours paid him by that ' 
ibid, his death, 

Jason fupplants his brother 
high-prieft of the Je wi, V 
he is fupplanted himfelf 
brother Meoolaoi, (s« he ta! 
riifalem, and obliges Mem 
retire into the citadel, 

Javan, or Ion, fon of 
father of all the people * 
under the name of Greeks, 

IcKTAs of Syracufe, tyrant 
Leontines, caufes the wi 
mother«in-law of Dion to 
to death, IV. 178. thf 
cufans call in hit aid 
Dionyfiui, and eleâ his 
general, 183. he conceii 
defign of making hinfel 
ter of Syracufe, Hid, and 
great part of the citj, il 
moleon marches agalaft Ï 
obliges him to live aa a 
perfon in the city of the 
tinea, 193, Icetaa revolts 
Timoleoa, who puniHii 
and his fon with death, 


. king of Judah, la led caj 
Babylon, II. 85. he ii 
liberty after an imprii 
there of thirty- feven year 

JxHOAS, king of Jndsea, 1 
tive into Egypt,wheft he di 

JiHoiAKiM 11 placed fay 
upon the throne of Jodan 
room of his brother Jel 
73. he i« conqoered by n 
dooofor, II. 83. he revoie 
that prince, 85. bia deati 

JtrufElm, city of Palcftioi 
by Nechao, I. 73. be6cgei 
nacherib, and delivered 
loofly, II. 80. befieged ai 
by Nabucodooofor, 83. i 
ficatioot rebuilt by An 
III. 101. befieged «ml t 
Ptolcmy,V. 189. taken a 
dered bj Aotiochos £p 

I N D 

f. taken bj AntiochuiSi- 
-~j, ftorned k " 

IT ptrtniti il: 
■ Iby 

the Jt 
of Stoicheiib, JI. So. 
> of the Jewi for iht Sn- 
u. 8i. CLiptiriij of the 
Tul'i edinioclhelrrctutn 
f*lem, iSi. Ihe rebuild. HE 
' city Dp^'ufcJ by ibe Simi' 
ill. Diriuiconfiimi Cy- 
li« ia their fjmur, ,56. 

<!«, V. J7, th.y « 
r„ileg« i,om lh« p.ince, 
• Jew] retileat Aleiind'U 
It numben, jji, i|| 
rho were (liKs in Egypt 
■I liberty, VJ. ji. the 
rnbjnit ID Antiochui rhe 

«to. ' 

El whid 

lOm Aodochui Epiphjnet, 
15. Ve, they make pejce 

a îi^i "!er*ht'g'eti7.*'of 
iui Soter, 147. ihey ire 
j friend) ind ilKei of ihe 
t,iW.they build itempJe 
■ ' ' of An- 

. .hey 

dri, ]ii. AiillobLilui 11. 

L r..erM,„.y ov.r th. 

, fan of H.nnôr'ir'ilu* 
JDt 10 H..n.iibjl o„ his 

E X. 

lurnt CO Cirthife, 110, h* !*•' 

(urni to Sicily at iht head of la' 
army, i»». Ihe plague {^rttét in 
hii urmy, 113. b« ii deteitad by 

Dienjri^i, ilij. ht lea«e> h>i ' 
troopj 10 ihemeiiy ofiheenemy,- 
and rEiirci lo Cirthige, where b* 
killthimfelf, 1»4 

If i!.i, i, 1^,..^ ,.f Argoi, II.»Bl. 

I>. .m; I ' , I'l'iriLi: iif the Libyan!, Ii 
L..,.|,.ri kJi'E of iho Sgyptitni. 
aim ("..pp^jiii thtir revolt a((inll 
Ihe PetC.hi, III. 96. he treat) 
with Mcgibyftft, gcneril of the 
I'ctfitni, andlurreiidcii hitnfclf, 
9S. hs il d livetid 10 the mother 
pf Artaxenei, inJ putloddalbi f^- 

Isi-ATHYnr», king ftf Itaa Sty- 
Ihuni, •itJck.rJ b; D.rju'l, II. 
Î7». auf*or of ih*i prince t» 
Uiriui, whL< Tint ii> dciawid fir< 
and w.ler from him, itU. 

ItÂ..!. rtn^on of AUt, div'clcd io two 

inhabioiiii, 17». riritiai of (hu 
couuiiy, iji. hilte y af the (om- 
meiie with thai couniij from ■ 
iiolonw.!-. ilmetolbe pi(r«ni, 1. 
II. very fingulai diLpu» boiweeo 
two InJiiit womvi) ai'ier ihe deaiit 
of iheir (ommon huftiud, V. 
316. cxptdiiijiia of Semlramit 
into InJii, II. 6g. contoell of 
Itidii by Dariul, 177. ihcD by 
A'«..,d.r, V. .74 

iMTArxtxNK), Peiflaol'Hi hia 
infi.lenceind punllliinent, II, 3511 

loi.Ai, ftcond Ton of Aniipiicr, 

fufjiefledof having poifoiied that 
hi) fe^t 
iH.bioihcrof JudaiMac- 
. fu.ceedl him in .be gj- 
nl of Judxi, VII. t4S. 
Ept) of the high-prieft- 
rom Aleimdcr B..I1, and 
at prime agiinft Dcme- 

e tilt (Jreeks out of th' 
whith Ihcy hi.l i" ' 

, ^57. Demcuiui 


•rdcri V\m to tttend him upon 
tlut -jHiir, iùid, Jonathan tidi 
thai prince again^V the people uf 
Antioch, 258. difgufted by the 
ingratitude of Dcmctriiif, he de- 
clarer for Antiochus Theus» 259. 
he fufl'crs hiniAilfiohe deceived 
by Tiyphon, who puti him to 
deaths 260 

loNiANS. Revolt of the loniitns 
againfl Daiiui, II. 378. they burn 
the ciry of S;irdi(, 382. tlicir 
party is entirely ri.ijicd, 3S4. they 
throw off tlie Turfian yoke ^flcr 
the battle of .Salamin, .ind unite 
vi'h the Greeks from ih'ncc-, 
forth, . 111. 58 

JosKPii, Onias'i nephew, i> fcnt 
into Kfyj^t to niukc his uncle s 
rrOïfc to Plolrmy, VJ. 113. his 
iK'iit with I'iclrmy, 1 r4. that 
{iil.'jrc civcs him tlte faim uf the 
fcvcnues of Cctlofyria and J'a- 
Icdi.'ie without fccurity, M'«/. 

Ji>HAif, Pini; of Judah, marches 
.i;;aiii(t Ncthaoj n defeat' d, and 
di':D uf a wound f.xeivcd in bat- 
tlfi 1. 72 

JruivgA't r.9, Athrnian, is fcnt to 
.■id Cnttyti, IV. 213. he in placrj 
u' t!i(- l)c:i(i of theCjrccian troops 
in thf cxpi-.jiliou of Art.utrxrs 
.r>>nrt tf>|jt, 255. he retires to 
/\r'>j>:nS; \vlicrr IMiarnab^fuscaufcs In Un 9ccii(r'l of making the 
tr| edition mifcjuy, 257. (he 
^Xthriiians employ biin in ihc 
v/ith the aliic;, 269. he is ac- 
cufed by Charm, at)d cited to 
take hit trial, iiiJ. mvani which 
he cmpli/ys for his defence, ilfii/, 
he re-rtlabli/hei iVriliccai upon 
the throne of Macedonia, 1^07. 
j<raifc of Iph rratet, 270. military 
'iifiipline which he eftabli/hcti 
umongflthe troops, i'^ij, 

J/ft'St city of rhrygia, famous for 
lh(- victory uf Ptolemy, Cailander, 
Sa-leucus, and Lyfimachu', over 
Antigonu» and Demettius, V. 

IsAOORA^, Athenian, forms a (.ic- 

tion ai Athens after the expuKlon 

of the tyrants^ Jl, 328 

IiCHOLAi» Spirttiif gotrdi 
portant pa(i during the n 
of the Thebans into Lacoj 
diftingui/hei himfelf in a 

Jfle, part of the city of Sy 
defcription of it, 1 

IsMENiAt, Thcban, it mi 
foner with Pelopidts, b; 
ander of VhtrXf IV. 23^ 
delivered by Epaminonda 

IsocRATsa, Greek orator 
vices which he endeave 
render the Athenians I 
writingt, IV. 334. hi a 

IsocRATKi, Greek grammai 
ferit pri foner to Rome for 
endeavoured to ju/lify thi 
fination of O^aviuf, \ 

I//'ui, yny of Cjlicia, famo 
Alexander's vi£lory over 1 

Ital lANK maflacred in Afia 
by order of Mitbridates, V, 

iTiioaAL, king of Tyre, 
bcfiegcd by Nebucodonofcr, 

Iiiomû, a city of Mefleni;!, 1 
for the battle fought the 
twren the MtfTcniank and 
dcmxn'ans, I. cxiii* the 
bitanti of that city fulje^ 
the Laccdxmoniani, 

J LB A It king of Maurita 
conquered by Caefar, and 

Juba If. fun of the former, 
in Carfar'i triumph v^hilfl 
fant, II. 55. Auguflus r 
him the dominions of his 1 
iW. works of learning si 
to this prince, 

J un AS, called Maccabarns, 
fon of Mat tat hi as, is > 
general by hit father againl 
tiachui Epiphanes, VII. ^ 
gaina feveral great viflttric 
that prince, 83, O. he r 
the temple, and flcdicatrs it 
to the fcrvice of God, 8 
gains new advantann < vc 
generals of Antiochus Y.m 
and over that piince in | 
238, fiTr, repeated viAo: 

iMW^EdtDirei Ihcgeiu- 
DcMfirini Suicr, 146, 
■Mtt-ia hiitle Rgtiting 

Jcmâi her courage and 
11. 97 

A,MttnWa.'t grandron, 
edjby.'^ic'pl''' >"<< '^°- 
ilh the «her children nf 
ice, Il.+a. he feiieîthe 
> of Nuinidia, and pu» 
lie two piinces his bto- 
■dopbon to deith, 49. be 
tbe fécond with open 
I. befiegei him in Cirihi, 

lim, ji. Jugurlhi fruft- 
eii erruit) fevenl limei 
^ iW. theRa<n3i»r<rnd 

1 bu rccoutfc lo Boc- 
fatberin Uw, who givci 

the Romini, ;]. he ii 
Tinnipb, 54, and afiei- 

lere he perilhei mifer- 

1 feut deputy by Ihi Ro. 
e Achiii, to appear; the 

then. VI. 1B7 

ronful, is defeated at IcA 
«rthaginiam, ]. t<7 

narchei agaiaH Andrif- 
, io5> he il lulled i 

IE X.' 
Laivkit. Sii Baltaiax, «c 


Ljiyrinib of £gypt 1 Dercciplion 
of it, I. 8 

Lacbd^mon, or 5m.m, tity sf 
Peloponnerui, capitaloF Laconla. 


des, ..i.r> j.imlj. =34. the . 

lies, i£:^, the Laccdxmoniant 
tibe EEoi, and reduce the inhabi- 
tants oi thit cicy 10 the condiiion 
of (laves under the namei of He- 
lon, I. cix, Lycu'igus, legilUtor 
of Sparti, CI, Wit between ihe 
Laced-riDoniins and Argivo, iit^, 
tiilV war belwcen the Liccdcma» 

ftroy liliiitu, and snintpe»ie» 
the McdtniiiH, ciïi. feconil wje 
of the Licedxmuaians and Mel* 
fcniins, MJ. ihc LaccdxnianiiiU 
■tedefeaied, civiii. iKcy defflaod 
a general of the Aiheniii», whu 
giue them TyitÉeu», by pnHeltioi 
' itiJ. by h' 

e< then 

erfti be .. 

(gaining a great r 

fubjeil ihe MelTeniani, andiedace 
Ihetn In Ibe condition of Heloit, 
ii!J, The Lacedainioniint deliver 
AthcDi from the (yraany of the 
Pi&lliatidei, 11. 327. ihey undcr- 
iiVr to rtinnan Hippiai, (onof 
II inilfetlujlly, 319. 

li hb 

us fen 

'■ 59»' 

.e Sp.f 

t fott liiualed 

in the 


1 fuperflition prevenw 

bouihood „( 

il.f Lict 

.imoniani from b.ving 

Hi i;i 

a Oiare ir 

tbc battle of Marathon, 

A*CHOD afcc 

59 J. rht 

honour of commanding 

f fitry,:, j,.d 

is kijll^d 

ine G.«l 

« is decreed to them. 

:r, 11. 8q- b>c 

Jll. 11. 

three hundred SpirOO* 

cruelty of >.i. 

,1 f-iULe, 

he f.f, of Thcrmopyl» 



u>, 16, balt.e of ball- 

I N D "B X. 

nln, In wJiich the Lacedcfflo- 
pians ha^e • great (hire, 38* 
honours which they render Tke- 
tniftoclei after that battle, 41* 
the Lacedjemonians, io conjunc- 
tion *ith the Athenians, cat the 
army of the Perfians in pieces at 
the battle of Plat«a, 50. they de- 
feat the Prrfian fleet at the fame 
time near Mycale, 57 they are 
fur preventing the Athenians 
from rebuilding the walls of their 
city, 61. the haoghinefs of 
Paufauias occafions their lofing 
the command, 67. they fend de- 
puties to Athens, to accufe The- 
miftocles as an accomplice in 
Paufaniai^s confpiracy, yz. Earth - 
qu.ike at Sparta, IIO. iê- 
ditiun of the HeJots, ihid, feeds 
ef dlvifion between Sparta and 
Athens, III. peace is re-eftab- 
liflied between the two ftates, 
113. jealoufy and differences be- 
txreeii the Lacedaeiponians and 
Athenians, 124. treaty of peace 
for thirty years, 126. new caufes 
of complaint and difTenAon, 127. 
open rupture between Sparta and 
Athens, 1 34. Peloponnefîan war, 
160. allies cf the Lacedxmonians 
in that war, 16 j. they ravage 
Attica, 163. Lacedsemnn hbs re- 
ourfe to the FerCians, 173. its 
deputies are feiaed by the Athe- 
n^f, carried to Athens, and put 
to death, 174. Platxa bcfieged 
and taken by the Lacedaemonians, 
177, 189. they abandon Attica to 
Tciake Pylos fiom the Athenians, 
191. they are defeated at fea, 
ihid. Laccdxnu)nians (hut up in 
the ifland of Spha^teria, it:d, 
t^ev furiender at difcretion, itU, 
tjflory of the Lacedaemonians 
oar the Athenians near Amphi- 
polis, 206. treaty of peace be- 
tween the two ftates for fifty 
years, 2C9. The war renewed 
between Sparta and Athens, 
ft 1 6. the Laced armonians give 
Alcibiades lefuge, 235. by his 
advice they fend Gylippus to the 
aid of Syracuie, and fortify De« 

celia in Atticti «40^ i 

Lacediemoniaiii eMiclnde 

with Perlia, 977. their 

beaten by the Atheniai 

Cyzkum, a8o. they appc 

iânder admiral, 287. th 

the i^thenian fleet near ] 

190. CaUicr«tidaa fnccc 

fandcr, 291. defeat of the J 

monia^s near the Arginui 

they gala n faaiout viae 

the Atheniana near i£ 

snos, 304. they taice Athei 

and change tlie form of 

vernment, 307. decree of 

concerning the ofe of the 

- which Lyfander caufea to 

ried thiiher, 30S. it 

means which they }fit for 

themfelves of Altfbiade 

inhumanity of the Lao 

nians to the Athenians, « 

to avoid the violence of th 

tyrants, 32e. the Lao 

nians fiarniOi Cyrus the > 

with troops againft his 

Artaxerzes, 329^ they 

tht infoience of the 

biunts of Elb. 368. cl 

dertake, with Agefilaus 

head of them, 10 reinft^ 

ancient liberty of che Gr 

^^^i 373' expeditions c 

Lacedaemonians in A6aj 

Sparta appoints Agefilaus 

liiSmo by fea and land 

league aaainft the Lacedaem* 

384. they gain a great 

nearNemaea, 388. their 

defeated by Conon near < 

389. battle gained by tt 

cedaemonians at Coionea 

they conclude a fhameful 

for the Greeks with the P 

396. they declare war wi 

Olynthians, IV. 198. the 

the citadel of Thebes by 

and violence, loo. they 

the Olynthians into ihc i 

of their allie% «02. Profp 

Sparta, 'éii, the Lace 

nians are reduced to quit il 

del of Thebes, a 10. the] 

an inefifcÛual enterprise 

public mcili, 19]. ejucatien or 

children, igj, h^ibirout rruclly 
in tefpeit lo thtm,iii^. obtKifnca 

lifc iheir countr;. >nd obllgjcil lu ■ . -i ■ ■ , ,■ 1'''- 

I4. tht LacïûieinDnîtni ini|>lDre - cndciniiniin yaiiili, Ti<jV/, pro- 

'i of Ihi Alheniini, 118. ftOioiiand eicicifc ofilie Liccdx- 

iint billtgcii by Ep»m nondii, niiiiian , 197. tieolfiie leifuie in 

(«.liilileurMinlimei.inwhlili wliith ihey iini, joK. eivtUf 

le Lacedsinoniini ire dcfcaied, af ihc LiFcdcmoniani in icTpc 

14. tliB LfccdzmnRilni fend lid id the Hiloil, 309. chinil; tnd 

. Tuhoa, who had rcvullcd' mndtily abrolutel; ntgIcAed it 

^iloft Tlie l'ctfiini, i;S tnier- Sintu, iiiJ. common cliaMflet 

riM •/ the Lic:diEmDn!in> of Ih< Licedrmoniint ind Athe- 

linll Mrt<t«polisi 17G. ihcy nuni, IV. 104. cjufciof ih; da- 

Vll igiinll ll.e Miccdaiiiini, cJinc of SptrU, 57. différent 

119. t^iy ircd^rciicd by An- kindi of iruoiit 0? which Ihs 

^Pjffhui, VI. 76. courjife of LncHA.t., Thcbin, commind. »■ 

la ApiTUn women during thiC duijchnieill of 'be army of Ochut 

'I') 77 ^'' hifloiy of ibv in ihit p'inie'i eipcdiLiDn igiinft 

icedKOioniiiia in the le'in i^l Zgypt, IV. iS; he lorttli ih» 

Ici'i ll>- 'n't in <l>'t oF ^>e°' lieï« of Pclunum. and lakei it, 

"-, 1+7. Spailifjlti'inWthe H.J. 

0/ Amigonui Dofn, ijo. Liini. king of Thebci, hii m^f- 

]ah.i ih« /EtoWi^M a^iinft r»nun>ti, itj 

tlnte, los. feveral ailiuni Lamachvi ii itfpnlnlcd ;enMil ' 

en lh« Liccdemanlint and viih Niciil anJ Alclblldei in iha 

I, ill. Spirti joini with cipeditioh of the Aih«nlaiit 

^lOlijnl ill ihcl'cjiy wiih ag.<inn Sleily, Iir. I1», hit pO' 

,jin>ni, 111 Michaniiia vcny mikci him «inieinpilblt 10 

.CI I •ram af S^'-f, il-'J. Ihe itD-.pi ij). hs i» killed IE ' 

ite.'smorN'ni defeiie.! by Ihu Ticgt of Syraivle, 145 

lomennot MaiKinra, 146. Lamia, Coutletin lo Dcmetiiui t 

fiirntd' Mil hnniJa», ifii. her rno'moui ciptiicd, V, J71. 

:iuel (leiimfnt of the plr»fjnll7 of a tomïefc poet in 

.rmnriuni, i/Wx QMiniiiii icfpcd tu r/.W. 

r.N' biHegci SpiiTa, 315. Lshm, cl'y of Thrll^ly, (imnui fur 

■ II.' uf the Miohiai t'le nflory of the Aiheoians o-er 

i ip.rl», 341. that city en- An:ip<rer, V. 164 

;i. ihf .■Wliejnirspus, 341, Lari/- : diflribulion of them infli- 

rr«d!n the IjceJamomani luted by Ljcuieu, ji Sparii, II, 

fleh-ï. -. Vil. 1S7. Ihc igt 

Fi, ffpjraie Spina fium LAonirr, wlfi! of Anliocliu! The* 

lead, f^i.^. Die ouf:! Berci 

rod her fuii le be lut Co dei 

K S 1 


X04. Ptolemy puts her to 


La on I CE, daughter of Mithndaiet 
king of Pontuii marrUs Aniio- 
chus the Great, VI. 177 

Laodcce, iidcT of Demetrius So- 
ter, and widow of Perfeus kiug 
of Macedonia, is put to death by 
Ammmius, favourite of Alex- 
ander Bala, VII. 253 
L BODICE, widow of Ariarathcs 
\ 1. afli as regent during the 
minority of fix piinces her chil- 
dren» VII. 370. flie poifons five 
of there, and prepares to do the 
lame by the fixth, /AiV/. fhe is put 
to death by the people, ihii» 
Laodice, filler of Mithridates 
Eupator, mnrrlcs firft Ariarathes 
VII. king of Cappadocia, and af- 
terwards Nicomcdes king of 
Bithynia, VJII. 54. part which 
he- m.'kes her a£t at Rome before 
the fenatei ibid» 
Laomedon, one of Alexander's 
captains: provinces which fell 
to him after that prince's death» 

V. aç8 

L.nania, city of Pifidia, revolts 

againft Perdiccas, V, 280, tragical 

end of that city, ib:d* 

Lasth£t. .:s, chief magiflrate of 

Olyntht»;, puts that city into the 

hands of Philip, IV. 3^1 

Las Til EN RS, of Crete, fuppiies 

Demetrius Nicator with troops 

for af.cnding the throne of Syria, 

VII. 254. his bad condudt makes 

that prince commit many faults, 

Lathyrus. Ste Ptolemy La- 
th vr us. 

Lele::, firftking of Laccdxmonia, 


Lr NT ISC us, fon of Ptolemy, is 
taken prifoner by Demetrius, atid 
fcnt back to his father by that 
prince, V, 349 

Lfntulus it fent to Thebes by 
tlie Pxomans to have an eye over 
Bcectij, during the war with Per- 
feus, VJI. 117 

LsNTVLUS, eonful, is ordered to 
reindaic I'tolemy Aulctes upon 

the throne, VIII. i»7. he v pre- 
vented from executing that com* 
miflion by a ptetended orKlcof 
the Sibyls, i»l 

Lion, CoiintMan, defiends the d* 
tadel of Syracufe agtinft Icctat 
and the Carthaginiana, IV. 190 
Leon, Athenian» ia fent depety 
with Timagoraa to the court oiP 
Perfia, and accufet hU colleagae 
at hjs return, IV. a) I 

Leon AT us, one of A)e»nder*i 
captains: provincea that fell ta 
him after that prince^a death, V. 
158. be' marches to the aid of 
Antipater befieg ed in Lamii^ 1671 
he it killed in battle, 164 

Lion IDAS, governor of Aloandcr, 

Lion m At L king of Sparta, de- 
fends the pafi of Thennopybi 
with unparalleled braveiy agaiaft 
the innumerable army of Xm^ 
in. 15. he ia killed there, t6.tbi 
LacedKmoniant ereâ htm a xêjk^ 
nificent monument, mL 

Lion I PA 8 II. reigni «t Spati 
jointly with Agit» V^- 'S^ ^ 
oppofes the defigna of that prince, 
136. he is diveftcd of the ibic* | 
reignty, 1 39 he efcapea to TegMi I 
ibid, he is recalledi and replaced " 
upon the throne, 14». he Ity* 
fn<ires for i^gis, 144. and patl 
him to death, 146. he obliges (hi 
wife of that prince to many his 
fon CI come net, 147. death ef 
Leonidas, 148. hit chafiâer.i3> 
L E N T I D I s j polemarch of Tbckii 
puts the citadel of that place into 
the hands of the LacedKmoniant, 
IV. aco. he Imprifont Ifmeniuif 
who was his opponent, ihii* he 
fends perfons to Athene to af- 
fathuate the principal exilct,t05* 
Pelcpidjt, at the lead of thecaa- 
fpirators, kills him, 109 

Leontius, Philippe general, ia- 
fulis Aratut grofl^ at a ^feaft, VL 
115. he is fecurity for the fine 
laid on Mefsaleat upon the faaMl 
account, ibid, Philip takct iht- 
command of his troopa ffom bin, 
and puu him to death» itl 



Inform] Licf hiui, fonful, ii fent Ulto^f»• 
ri.v <ifi' Ihi: he cncitnpi near ihs riter t'(* 
. iGi. lie ntu«. 111. lie il dcfwitd in ■ 

.,1 or th« 

■Ui.. t(i4- 

t ihe ficg* LiciNiui (i^.j ine roniuii 6ro- 

ili» f'lon thir, cnmmanitt the Iiiliin t>- 

leg v^ilry in !.;• hii^lInT'. ormv. 

f Liftd*- VII, II] 

iviih XjFi- LinonAi, one uf lh« (ïmijIi 0/ 

.,, ,;.m, ■ 'Anlloihu, the, m.kei 

le rcrfiini llut priacs m»rt«r of th» eitV of 

III. <7 S*rH,i, VI, rjl 
ï,:!ybgum, tîtjr of Sidly, btlii)[ed 

^, piir» for Ihs fni> nf 

tytheltdinin.. 1. ijj 

id«ti «ndforthiit tttUa \» 

LioNi»:I.'...,i.A<<rl.ioNA, nime 

■dtbollironc, 111. IÎS 

of ■ courlTin 1 Haliie ewfled 

«1, broch» of IXiinyriui, 

In honour df li.r by the Alb»- 

to fllghlby theCitihii^i- 

ni-na, If. ,,, 

wtih Ihl t<E«t mirier hia 

L\S;.,. tîty of l»,,l. 1 (Itj, .nil 

ind, IV. iiS. he ia b». 

UkinB of lh« ïllï by J'hlliji, 

, 141, and fonn after r«> 

VI. »30 

•Hid. he kill» CilJippiii, 

Livnia, conful, Tl frnt Ento Clfal. 

mur«r.r, 17». he furren- 

pine Gir.1, >a opiKifc the en- 

Imfelf 10 Timolton, *h-> 

ilm to Corinth, ti,» 

va, Syrian, killi Oft.viu. 

imiii *mb.iniHor, VII. 

Nmatriui ddivera him up 

the Ro Ifct fgnt «giitilt 

fentM. 14 B 

rcffcua, Vll, III. hn bslirg» 

0*1 Syracufuii Hiero'a 

Kdiarlus .1 .ilt «1>t, Nko 

■la.|«», VIII. 1 

.nddtm'.liit-'i.lfer<i..ty. ,,0 

land of Creete 1 re»olt of 

L«c«ll.t ,.,M,n,n„n.l,ihrRon,;„ 

lMid>|tint1ihe Alheniani, 

fleet fen' .,,■'. , .i.n.-,,jnd 

« ■ ■ ..■.,■! Tii.t 

hrmer obedience. 18} 

princs, ,:MUi 

rtnall town of HkoiIi, f*. 

tonful, inn cmrjej wiihtho war 

forth* viitniy oflheThe- 

iH^inft Mithrid..Hi,8o. heobligei 

iha> pririM m iiife ihu n«ge of 

IV. iiK 

Cj,io..o. B.. and defcit. hia 

t, Roman coiiful, .l.-rc^.iicd 

l-.inpj, ibU. he glim a compleat 

■rhu.. VI. „ 

vittnry,„trhim.B5. ,m\ obliei-i 

■i(M.K.I,-m.} U r.n,m- 

himti. .A.,.fu|e«.iIhTigrjnr, 

IM« »na Mjccilonij ill 

kiniiof rtrmrnii, £7. he frnili 

r of pralnr, t.. iip|.i<lc ihs 

iin Hmbuindnr ro .lemind Miih- 

Ti«i uf l'liUi|., V!, 17., .W. he rcgul.iea tl» 

ail'jirF,nf ACia, IS. hei]ecl:irei tvir 

ik.i. y, . 

f,\ iitKI Tigf met, 90. md marrhta 

CMtnll is eloftrJ km., i.f 

B|;.inllhii.l. 0.. he beni.[rtTi- 


[rjn.'itila, iM, hi gaintagrent 

11' 393 

vidor» 0ÏÏ» Tijrjiw», 91.. iBd 

I N D B X. 

takes TSgranMertt, iM, he gains 
a fécond viélory over the joint 
force! of Mithridates' and Ti- 
granet, 96. hit army refufes to 
obey him, 105. I'ompey ii fcnt 
to command in hit fteadf io6« 
Lucullus returns to Rome and re- 
ceives the honour of a triumph^ 
109 meant which he ufed for 
acquiring the knowledge of the 
art of war, 70 

LuTATiuty cooful, defeats the 
fleet of the Carth9giniau<y and 
puts an end by that vlâufy to the 
firft Ponick war, I. 159 

Lycidas, Athenian, is for having 
the propofal of Mardoniui heard» 
III. 45. he is ftoned, Hid, 

Ly CI SCO I, deputy from the Acar- 
^anians, endeavours to engage 
the L»cedarmoaians in Philip^s 
pany, VI. 335. 

Ly CISC us, i^tohan, is accufed of 
having treated thofe with great 
cruelty, who wot»Id not efpoufe 
the Romans againft ISrfeus, VIL 
185. P. Emilias acquits him, 

LycoN) Athenian, commander of 
the Grecian troops ia the army 
of Pifuthres, is brovght into the 
views of Tiflaphernes, whom he 
}oips, HI. 19S 

LvcoRTAs, Poly biases father, is 
fcnt ambaHador by the Acharani 
to Ptolemy Epiphancs, VII. 4. 
ht is ele^ed general of the 
Achaeans, and avenges Philopce- 
men's death, 18. he is deputed a 
fécond time to Ptolemy, ay 

Lvcuaous, fon of Eunomus, king 
of Sparta, governs the kingdom at 
guardian to Charilaui his nephew, 
J J. 289. he endeavoars to reform 
the government of Sparta, and 

. snakes feveral voyages with that 
view, 190. on his return he 
changes the form of the govern- 
ment, ih:'J, &c, he goes to 
Delphi to confult the oracle, and 
dies voluntarily by abftaining from 
food, 300. rcfleâioos upou Ly- 
curgus's dtachf iàui, &Ç,. 

LYcvaavij Sptrtaa. eomi| 
Ephoriy and caufct himilel 
cleâed king of Sparta, V 
Chiio's attempt agaioft hit 
Lycuffus flies into i£ti 
eicape the Ephori» and i 
after recalled, 

ZjF^tf.countiy of A fia Minor 
of Lydia, II. 98. it is fii 
by Cyras, 


viâed of a confpiracy 
Alexander the Great, and 
Ly SANDRA, Pto1emy*s dat 
marries Agathocle* fon o 
ma chus, VI. 38. after tb< 
étr of her hulband (he 
to SeleacQs, and engage 
to make war againft Lyfia 

Lysandir, is appointed 1 
by the Lacedsemonians, 11 
he becomes very powerfc 
Cyrus the Younger, «89. I 
the Athenian fleet near Ej 
290. his envy of Callic 
fent to fucceed him, %i 
commands the fleet of the 
, dannonians a fécond timi 
an4 gains a famous viéU 
the Athenians at iSgofpc 
30Ç. he takes Athens. 3c 
entirely changai the form 
government, 308. he rati 
Sparta, and fends thitlier 
him all the gold and filvc 
from the enemy, lArdf. he 
to Athens to ra-eftabli( 
thirty tyrants, 311. he fl: 
abufes Ms power, 324. 1 
fers the^ Grecian cities i 
Minor toconfecrate altars 1 
Md. opon the complaint o 
nabafua he is recalled to 
315. Ly finder accompany 
fllaus into Afia, 373. he < 
with him, 374. and ret 
Sparta, ihiJ, bis ambitl 
fign» for changing the Â11 
to the throne, 376. hei 
before Haliartns, which ', 
going to bcfiege, 336. foo 

r kftcr 


hi) doth, th* ploc he h«d 
totmti i>.iipi iht iwo kinii II 
éikovrni, ]i)4. Ly{<iiiJer'> rhb 

nOef, J87, fiff. 

i> defied 

Spiro by Ihe f^v. 

o/ai», VI.'jjô. I 

I' 10 mike ihe people receive the 
II ôrdinaat» of ibit cacdli^m 

JlTliArai, tyrant of MegilnpoUt, 

f /CBOUDïci hi) power upsn ihe le- 

P manftrincei nf Antut, ind mahei 

J^ city Biitcr inta [be Ach»» 

haiuc, VI. 131. tlie Achoni 

jBtke him their ciplaiD' general 

I ttof \lma AicceiTively, ind then 

I «pel hiffi. ii>.l. 

MUAI, kinrinin of Aat'iuciiua 

Epiphasai, ia mide goverrwr bj 

tKil prince of piit cf bit domi- 

jliwit, and pi»cepior lo Antio. 

Aui Epit>hinei, VII. S4. An- 

I .dathua giiei him the commanil 

,of th. army .g-inft lb, Jew., 

' JtU. he >• Hcfe.ted t>y Juda. M». 

' ic^aui, St. b« pDilVffci himfcif 

,«f the rrgmcy duiiug tlia mino- 

Aj «f Aniioctiut tupii*r, 13$. 

I *lh* |o*ernrncni of Cnlol'yrlft and 

' ïiUftine il giTen lo him, 157. 

Jl«li ricfeiMd by Jud» Mireii- 

JhB«i, l]8. he mitei peste with 

.At jewa. 140. he li dïllvereil 

,«• n Detnetiiua Guler, 

— . jil« ID dellh, 

EVIIAI, eneaf th* Aihe 

■^,B«iIl, who defeaied tl 

itomoaitna near the ill 1 

giaab, init it iheir reii 

E X. 

him ifiir Ale<3nJer'f dutli, V. 

ijy. he enten ioto * Jeagug wiib 
Ptolemy Si:leucus and ^ilTindei, 
agiiiill Antiocl)ui, 314, trotyof 
peace between ihofe pi in ces, 
whith ia immeJiilcJy broken, 
335, ilHanee of Lyfimaehua With 
Ptolemy, VI. 5. he Ctkea M»- 
tadanii fiom Ocnetriui, ij> end 
dividea it vritb i'ytrhui, iiiJ. h« 
ubiigei Pyrrhui foon after to quit 
it, id. he marchei igiinll Seleu. 
cm, givn him bitile, ami ia 


t pnnc 

vn. : 

e Ro. 

MAciijiNiDAa bceotnet tyrant of 
Sparta, VI, »jr. he rnde^rouia 
to fubjefl Pela|io<mefui, 146. 
Fhilopumen maichci againft 
hini, iiiJ. Macliinidii b de- 
feated and liilled In battle, sjg 

Madatmii, governor of ihe cauiu 
try of the Uxii for Dirius, re- 
fufei 10 futrender Id Altaander, 
V, 1;. ihil prince lubduM arid 


14S M/cAi, governor of Cyrci ._ 

ge- ■ »nd Lihy», revolti igaiiill pio- 

AE- lemy rhiladelphuf, rnd caulea 

Ar- himfelf Co be declared king of 

lete Ihofe pn)*incea,Vl. Sg. heciurea 

ttttAt of iiyiaciife, Creek 01 

t prinr 

feoûf/e fôr'hi. defence'"^'. 
changer of Lyiiat'i flyla, 

I inttd byPhiliii, IV. 63 

%té,UAt»vt. ono of Ale>l„d,|-. 
;^«UUisi I Jiroirlacca wbUh fell tu 

during the ne go 



AO,(l. brother 

ot Piolemy 


iojiilor, ia put 

death by 




tag«M city of 

CarU in 


Minor 1 Arlaxer 

xei givo th 

venutl of ihil 

city to The- 

milloilei for 

lUi fubf.n 



Ac.o, Crthagi 

ian gcnei' 

fcnt Into .'Sicily 

to m^ke 

a(iinft Wuiiffiiu 

ihe Eldc, 



127. after various efforts he con- 
cludes a peace with that tyrant, 
1 34. he lofes a great battle, and 
U killed in it, I. 12^ 

Ma GO, the former's fon, com- 
mands the army of the Cartha- 
g'nians in Sici y, and gains a 
great viftory over Pionyfius the 
eider, J. 125. the Carthaginians 
place him at the head of their 
troops in Sicily again ft Dionyfius 
the Younger, 127, he fhamefully 
al^andons the ccnqueft of Sicily, 
iFiii. he returns to Carthage, and 
kills himfeîf through defpair, 128 

Ma GO, Carthaginian general, is 
placed at the head of the fleet 
fend to aid the Romans againft 
Pyrrhus, I. 139. he goes to Pyr- 
rhus in order to found his defignt 
in rcfpeft to Sicily, 140 

M AGO, Hannibal's brother, carries 
the news of that general's vifltory 
over the Romans at the battle of 
Cann7 to Carthage, I. 204 

M A GO, Carthaginian general, is 
taken prifoner in Sardinia, I. 

" 2c8 

Ma G OS A, city of India, befleged 
and taken hy Alexander, V. 176 

Maharbal, Carthaginian officer, 
endeavours to perfuade Hannibal 
to march di redly to Rome after 
the battle of Cannae, I. 203 

Malli, a people of India ; their 
war with Alexander, V. 196. 
they fubmit to that prince, 199 

Makasseh, king of Judah, is 
put in chains by the generals of 
Efirhad'îon, and carried captive 
to Babylon, II. 8î. he obtains 
his liberty, and returns to Te- 
rufdlem, ioid. 

Ma NCI NUS, (L,) the conful Pifo's 
lieutenant, engage-? rrfhly in a 
pofV, from wliencc Scipio hap- 
pily extricates him, II, 29 

Manda NE, daughter of Aftyages, 
king of the Medc"!, is given in 
marriage to Cambyfts king of 
Perfia. II. joi. fr.c goes to Me- 
dia, and carries her fon Cyrus 
with her, 115, ihc returns into 
Peril a, 11 j 

E - X.: 

Mandanis, an Indian philoftK 
pher, refufei to foUoW, Alexander 
in fait train, V. 189 

Mandioclides, young Spartan, 
fupports the party of Lyfander 
the Ephoruft through zeal for 
the publick good, VI. 137 

Makethon, Egyptian prîéftj au- 
thor of the hiftory of the Dy. 
nafiies of Egypt, I. 51 

Mania, wife of Zenit, it conti. 
nued in the governirent of ^0- 
Mn, after the death of her huf- 
band, and caufes herfelf to be 
admired for her condua. III. 
365. fhc it aflaffinatcd with her 
Ion, by Midiat her fon-in-law, 

MANiLiut fM.J cenfal, it fent 
againfl Carthage in the begin- 
ning of the firft Panick war, 

11. SI 

Ma K I LI V 8, tribune of the people, 
prepares a decree for appointing 
Pompey to command the armiei 
againft the kings, Mithridatd 
andTJgranes, VIH. 105 

Manius CuKiut, conful, gains 
a great viélory over Pyrrhar, 
and obliges him to qoit Italy, 

VI. 74 

Manius Aquilius, confo), ter* 
minâtes the war againft Aiifto- 
nicus, VII. a72. and cntcri 
Rome in triumph, Uldm 

Manlius (L,J is appointed con- 
ful with Regului, I. 146. thcj 
jointly gain a great Yiâory oirer 
the Carthaginians near Ecnoma 
in Sicily, if^id, they go to Afnci, 
iltid. Manlius is recalled, 147 

Manttnea, city of Arcadia, famous 
for the Vlâory of Epaminondat 
over the Lacedsmoniant, and 
for that of Philopœmen over 
Machanidas tyrant of ' SparU, 

IV. 246 

Marûcari'ldy capital city of Sogdi- 
ana, fubmits to Alexander, V. 

Marathon^ fmîll city of Atrica, 
famous for the viâery of the 
Athenians over the Per6anf, II. 



t.Vt (BIJ tOnM, il Tent Maxiamki, gnndiasbtBr of A- 

àl)rto»ppe»fetbelioublca riftobulii!, m«iLii Hctod the 

VIII. %é. i^iois of Mut- Idumxjii, VII. y^t 

n Skiljr, 17. Il e form I the Mariu;, lîculcnint undït Mciïi' 

f Syntult, 10. Ebc conlî- lus, Tupplani:: thaï gsncul, and 

lôS«iof men «nd Ihips, by ciufcs hitnlclf la he spiioinCEd 

sdful michinci of Acchi- gctitral For termin^nine IhE wai 

oblige hiin t» turn tbe with Jugurtlii in hïi a^i. II, 

s rereril eipcdilions in 

hai>d>, and makes him fcrvi ai 

37. he in=lt« himfelf 

an omimtiH of hii Itiumph, 

of SiT'icufe by meaui of 


iclligencc is ît, 41. he 

Marih,, CJl/, I Roman fcnstor, ia 


fent hy Seii^tii.! to [he aid of 

Mithtidatcs, VIII, 79. he ii 

JDonr of Arthimedei, Hid, 

taken by LucuUuj and put to 

Uui. ai (irft » ptailor, and 

de*,h, 83 


Ma«smll,an!. Their cmbally 

■|c> over Hannibal, 1, 106 

to Rome, VII. ijS. origin of 

ra, imbinador of tbe Ko- 

the MiirfeillisDi, iiiJ. they fettle 

in Gieece, hai an inter- 

in 0.1,1, 199. vfifdom of their 

rilh Perfcu. near the 

government, 100. their allacD. 

^ VII. .,3. he « to the Romini, »oa. Ihejr 

, iifi. ht il ftnl agùn 

obtain grace of the Romans foi 

Itccce, to KguUw afliiri 

Pboifca, wiiich had been con- 


detnntd to he deflroyed, »7a 

;.Peil.ï7ii. (-^Jton- 

Majinissa, king of Numidia, 

a charged with the war 

efpoufcj the party of the Romani 

t Pïrfeui, VU. 131. he 

agaioft ihe Caithasiniaai, I, lie. 

It from Rome, and »dv»n- 

ntda Macedonia, i^j. af- 

foon obliged to fend bet Boifon, 

II. i;. contîft. between Ma6. 

faccddnia, and take) feveral 

ntlTa and ihe Carthaginiuii, 16. 

[here, ' 134. Êfc- 

he defeiti iheio is ï battle, 18. 

■rioa, of Dari- 

he die!, and at hti dealb ippdnia 

ntCTI Macedonia with an 

Stiplo ^.milianui luirdiaD of 

II. 387. hit ill fuccefi 

hii children, aS 

tDariuatorecallhim, itiJ. 

Masiiths, fan of Diiiiig and 

(ca Xenei flattering coun- 

AidH'', is one of the fix csm- 

hich indue» him 10 invade 

mandet! of the army of Xe.xei, 

«, in. a. Xerxei chufei 

in. 16. lr=gical death of Ida- 

neofhia general), 16. that 

llllui and bis children, 60 

- Iea*ea him ^v,th a nume- 

Mabtanabal, MalinilTa'j fon. 

rmylo reduce Greece, îç. 

Hiarcs the kingdom of Numidla 

ffe. very adv.„t.E.nu5 «liL-rs 

with hiî IKO bro hers, afiei the 

made to the Athcniaii;, 

dtsthof their father, IJ. 47 

larerejefled, 45, he rntc.s 

Mattaniah i) placed upon the 

a., and burnt wh^t had cf- 

thruneof Judahin the room of 

hi) nephew Jechoniai, 11. 8j 

:, iiJj. he ii defeatcij, and 

Mattat„,as, Jew, of the Si- 

latlhebaitk ,.f l'Jatïi. 50 

a, (iiy of Thrace. Cruel 

otdinancti o'f Antîochca, VII. 

«nt of ill inhabimni, l.y 

j6. he relire» wi-.h hii family 

p, VU. ii 

into mouulaini to avoid 'he per- 



fecuîToo, U^d, deith of Matta- 
ihias, 8i 

l^ATHO, in concert with Spendiut, 
caufei the mercenariei to revolt 
againft the Carthaginians, 1. i6^. 
he is placed at their head» ihid, 
he takes Hannibal prifoner, and 
caofes him to be hanged up in 
the room of Spendiui, i68. he 
IS taken by the CartbaginiaA$,who 
execute him» ihid. 

Ma u SOL u I» king of Caria, enters 
into a confpiracy againft Arta- 
xcrxtt, IV. 262. he fubjeâi the 
Rhodians, and the people of Cos, 
278. his death» 279. honour paid 
to his memory by ArtemiAa his 
y/itt, ibid, 

Mazarus» Macedonian lord» is 
appointed governor of the citadel 
of Sufa by Alexander, V. 112. 

Ma z /EUS, governor of Memphis 
for Darius» abandons that city to 
Alexander» V. 89. he commands 
the horfe in the army of Darius 
at the tattle of Arbela» 95. he 
fuirenders himfelf, and the city 
of Babylon» to Alexander, IC9. 
that prince gives him the govern- 
ment of Babylonia, no 

Mecjenas» favourite of a uguftus, 
and patron of the learned. III. 


Mepes» ancient people of Aiîa» 

inhabiting Media» II. 90. hiftory 
of the kingdom of the Medes» 
ibid, err pires of the Medes and 
Perfians united, 112. revolt of 
the Medes againHi Daruis Noihos» 
III. 201. that prince obliges 
them to recurn to their duty, 


Mi DON» fon cf Codrus» is placed 
at the head cf the common- 
wealth of Athens» under the titU 
of Archon, ' II. 283 

Meg. ABATES» noble PerBan» occa- 
fions the mifcarrying of the en- 
terprize of the Perfians agiinft 
Naxos through jealoufy of Arif- 
tagoraf, II. 380 

Mecabysus, governor of Thrace 
for Darius, occaBons the permif* 
&on that pri&ce had givea Hj(- 

tiaeua to boild a city in Thr 
be revoked, II. 375. be 
deputies to demand eanh an 
ter of A my n tat» ibtd. inf 
of thofe deputies at the cot 
Amynt'as, and rertngt tak 
them by the font of that print 

MBGABYsut» fon of Zopyr 
one of the fix generals o 
army of Xerxes» III. 17. h 
cove'f the plot formed by 
banea againft Artaxerxes» 8 
is charged by that prince 
the war againft the revolted ] 
tians, 97. he fubjedts the i 
tians, and promiies to fpare 
lives» 98- Megabyzus, in d 
on feeing the Egyptiaaa p 
death contrary to the fait 
treaty» revolts againft Artax 
99. he defeats two armies 
againft him by that prince, 
he is reftored to favour» aj 
turns to courty 100 Arcaxc 
jealoufy of Megabysot 1 
hunting match, iàsd, deal 

Megaclxs» fon of AlcmeoO] 
himfelf at the head of o 
the fanions that divided A 
in Solon^s tinte, II. 3x1 
marriage with Agorifta, dai 
of Clifthenes» ibid, he dnn 
fiftratus out of Athens, uu 
after recalls him» 313. 
obl'ged to quit Athens» 

MxGACLES» friend of Py 
Vi. 58. that prince in a 
gives his mantle and arms ti 
gacles, and difguiiles himft 
his» ièid. Megacles is vko 
and unhorfed in thehattie» 

Meg A DATES is appointed vie 
Syria, by Tigr mes» and govcri 
kirgdom fourteen years, VII 
Tigranes recalh him from tl 


Megalxas, PhiPp^s genera 
votes himfelf entirely to A 
that princess minifter. Vi, 
he infultt AratMS» in c< 
with Leontius» at the br< 
up of a feaft» 215. Phil*] 
prifoiu bim^aod ihca frt 

I K D E X. 

crijr vfon |>*int fciurity, him ifur tliat princc'i dcithi 

ill bid dcnsn* agiinft Phi- V, sjS 

a ilfMHtni, ti$. he killi S&iin, citjrof Eg^pt, IV. 1J9. a 

IfiSKoNitiUIjndihicic- priafe ^ ibai citj' dir^aiei iha 

I of reiittnr<u{Kiiiliim, iW. crOMi with Nsâinebut, iliiJ. ba 

ifii, titjr of Ariidii ! Art- ii defemd «id I>kcD prironti h/ 

b^M it ciitci into [he Apfiliot, iSo 

Wlcaguc, VI. t]i MiHiLAVi, PtolcRi)') bmAcr, 

rsnii, LucdzmnniaD cap- it dcfciicd by Demctriut, and 

b fell b; Clcomenci la ihc obliged To relire into Salamina, 

Art«, and ii killed fighi- V. -J14. fa« furrcnderi hiDifelf 

tbu ciif, VI, I ^g at difcrciian 10 DirmelnHi, wha 

e-, IV. 13, fDiccfi (,f that ranfom, 344 

tion, 19. he i* cofidcmntd Miwilauj fupplinti Jafon bii 

, 50 broibef, hi^h prieft of the Jtwi, 

, Tbcban, it appoint»! and ebtaiiii bii office, VII, fii. 

irdi «ilb Pe)apidii tnd Jifon dtivci hin auc of Jernra- ' 

«t IV. no Ten, 6i. Anriochui rcinflaie) 

IN, Rhediin. rcioflited in him in the hieli piiiflhood, 66. 

'«tour of Ocbui, igaiiilt MiMi, or MKiaim, Ëtfi kiu( of 

I he liad taken aimi IV. Effpt, J. 5s 

be eodiavoun to prevent Mixon commindi the TheOiliaD 

»'« gtntrali from (ighlins tioopi of Cjrui't atmji in that 

anle of the Gianicut, V. ptince') cipcdiiion againft bii 

e ihtowi hinifelfinto Mi- brother Arlaxeri», HI. 330. 

■od dtfcndt tbai place Ti/Tapberaei feiiei bien wiib tht 

t Aleiindcr. 17. he ie- other Greek geneialiby ircacbciy, 

■he city of Hi\icirni(f\it and puti him tu death, 347. 

I thai piinfe. »S. he Iranf- Menon'» eharifler, J4) 

ha inhabltanii rif i<itcit)r M(i<!iiitanxi, nepbeor of Atta- 

» ifland of Col rid. he xerici Longimiiiu). ii defeated 

> Dailut to iitty the war aud put Is ttigtic by Hcgibrfga, 

UKtdonia. 'I. that prince III. 99 

!h«e»cufionof Ihaitnicr. MiNToa, Rfaodian, ia fent by 

t« him, ir.d mikti him Neflanebui into Pbœnieia to 

■liflimo, iiid, Uempon be- fupport the reb-eli ther;. IV. 

Milylene, and dici before ^Si. he ii confounded on ihe ap- 

, HI I,. 
.1 to tng. 

, hf f..t.i:i rhac 
gein -^ l.i liKht, 

all the coaft of Afîa, and dedatei. 

him gcneraHlTimo of all the 

ich he i. 

• o.ft.-d, 754. i. 

troop. 0.1 that fid., 187. Men- 

Ih< caufe 

of the d^f.^l Qt 

toi 'a conduit in hii government. 


near ^gofp.-a- 

MïKTLLu.tnmmandîthe Mace- 

! of Alesinrtcr'i 

donian garrifun which Anlipaler 

Ml t"»» 

-cel lUat fell la 

1 pull ime Munjchia, V. 171. 


Ca^ander uket the command of 
that fortrefs from him, 294. 

lisRcuRY, £gyptiajij to whiom 
£gypt was indebted for the in- 
vention of almoft all the arts, 

%, !• 54 

MzRicus, Spaniard, delivers up 

one of the gates of Syracufe ro 
Marccllus in the night, VIll, 47 

I^Ixrodacu-Baladan, king of 
Babylon, fends ambalTadors to 
Hezekiah, to congratulate him 
upon the recovery of his health, 

II. 77 

Meroz, daughter of Cyrus, be- 
comes wife of her brother Cam- 
byfe.i, II. 203. tragical death of 
that princel's, 204 

AIe8abat£s, eunuch, cuts off the 
head and hand of Cyrus the 
Younger by order of Artaxerxes, 
III. 337. puni/hmentinfliAed on 
him by Parifalis. 363 

Mesraim. SeeMzms, 

MzssKSJAKs, Fiift war between 
the Med'eniani and Lacedamo- 
nians, I. cxi. the MeHenians 
defeat the aimy of the Lace* 
diemonians near Ithoma, cxiii. 
Êfr. they fubmit to the Lace- 
daemonians, c/vi. fécond war be* 
tween the MefTenians and Lace- 
daemonians, I. cxvi. the MtHe- 
nians are atfîrft viAorious, cxviii. 
then defeated, thid, they aie 
reduced to the condition cf the 
Helots, il>id, they are reinAated 
by the Tbebans, IV. 214. trou- 
bles between the MefTenians and 
Achaeans, VIT. i6« the Mcflc* 
nianf put Philopœmen to death, 
i8« they are fubjc^ed by the 
Achaeans, 20 

Metellus fL.J conful is charged 
with the war againft Jugi'ttha^ 
II. 52. he il fupplanted by Ma- 
rins, 53. he enters Rome in 
triumpii, ilf'd, 

Metellus (^ Ca:iliuiJ Reman 
prartor, defeats Andrifcus, Vll, 
206. and fends him prifoncr 10 
Rome, ihid» he reduces another 
ad V ( nturer, namedAlcxoncer, iàid» 

àùtb$»e, city' of Tlince» éeàntfté 
by Philip, IV. 3SS 

MiTxoDORvt of Scepfis goes am» 
baflador for Mitfaridatcs to Ti> 
granc?, VIII. 92. Michridatei 
puts him to death, HiiL 

Metrodorus, painter and pbilo» 
fopher, is given to Paulus yEml- 
Jiui by the Atheniana for a intor 
to his fons, VU, 170 

MicjpiA facceeds hia father Ma- 
finiiTa in the kingdom of Nami- 
dia, II. 47. he adopta JugudU 
his nephew, and maJces him Oh 
heir with the 1-eft of hia cbiMre% 
48. Micipfa^s death, 4a 

Mid I AS, fon- in-law of Mania, »i 
faiUn^tes hia motber-in-law aod 
her fon, in order to poflefa him- 
felf of her ricfaea and goicm» 
ment. III. 366. he ia depriTcd 
of them by DercylKdaa, ièH, 

Milo of Crotona, famoua «tbletai 
defeats the army of the Syba» 
rites, and deftroys their cityi 

. III. 158. extra<Hroinary flren^ 
of that combatant, itid» bit vora« 
city, 159. his death, UkU 

MiLTHOciTUs, Thracian, aban* 
dons the Creeks after the battit 
of Cunaxa, and furrendera bin* 
fel f to A rtaxerxea. III. 343 

Miltiadss. Athenian tyrant of 
the Thracian Cherfonefos, ac<^ 
companiet Dariut in his eapedi» 
tion againft the Scythians, and 
is of opinion that fatitfa^ioa 
ought to be made them, II. 373. 
an irruption of the Scythiant 
in^o Thrace obliges him to aban- 
don the Cherfbnefo», whither bt 
retu ns foon after, 376. be fettlct 
at Athen*, 389. he commasdi 
the army of the Atheniani, and 
gains a famous viâory at Man* 
thon over the Perfiant, 397. no- 
derate reward given him b|r the 
Athenians, 401. he fcca out with 
a fleet to reduce the revolted 
i Hands, and has ill fuccela in the 
ifle of Paros, thtd, he is cited 
to take his trial, and hat a grttf 
fine laid upon him, iM, aan be- 



I Ini M* 

I N D 

I It put in 



bitlU bj 
ÀhlUi4cl. 111. *8jl 

(uddefi, 1, iivlU. famoui 

jlHOi, Aift klni «r Crii>. IV. 
'"SI- I*"* inAltulc^ by kim in hil 

"- , («-«*,) I. «ppoinUd 
Kih< li.iir< bir Fahiui, 

ftiWnr ih« C*riliiE<ni4iii in Ihtt 
fIjAalw't «bfinci, i^i. tl» pcop'a 

ji, h( <n('gB> wUh 
Ifkdvtntaii, Dui «r wliUh Fa. 
«I «MUicai» him, ig«< h« *c< 
UWl*dttt hl< r,>u1', •i.dmu'ai 
Akltabodiinco, JtU. h«ii killed 
K th( bniila bl' Ctnnv, soa 

ntl. klHgoF Poniui. 
1 Alt>inil<r, *nd «c- 
BÎJHBipiinluliinilii Jilicipedlilani, 

.III. kinBof Pon- 

mHh iddi Cdi'iiadocla <iiid Papb- 

'"" I damlaloni, I, 

Il Cdi'iiado 
to kU . 

I V. rarnlmcd £• 

L Ftuttu*. 
' Ulta n 


tabs mtlTactod in onidiy. 

7], iacaiid wjt of ilia Ranini 
wllh MiihilJattt uadar Murnni, 
7u, Mlibr1<l>tei miku « il«t]r 
with ««rmrliii, iiiJ. h* preparH 
ljien<«ilie w.t wlih ibc an* 
mint, >f;' hs Icliei P.iphlitonl( 
and Hliliynia, So ilia Ramm* 
fend LuLulJui tui Cntta a|*lnll 
l>im, 'tU, MithrUxtl dir*aii 
Cuiu hy f«i and Itnd, j*td. h* 

f feitii hli KOui», t*. Mikh- 
liditei iiM«i (ha Acid to Dpjwr* 
ihgpiotreri dF Lucullui, Si|i ha 
li enllrely der.Tatad, and gbliiaj ~ 
tn fly, tij. h< Tenia ordari to riia 
Mtrt tiiil wive* to die, Sa. ha 
rgilici to Tlirtiici lili loii-ln- 
law, tj. Tlgrancl reildi him l)«ck 
into I'uiiini In iilfg liaopi, f%, 
Mlihiiditai (ndxvaure la cun- 
Tula Tiiirditi aOai hlidifeal, |4. 
tliDfa (WO nrlncai apply In euiy 
cctt lo rainnit naw lucrai, MiaL 
ihay ara itufaitod by Lncullul, 
ia«. Miiliiiditat, taklni advan- 
ta|« of iha tyifundoilindlni fit 
ih* Roman army, rtc»vaN*llhii 
dominion!, VIll. 10). h« [i da< 
oncaHoni I 

II. ba 


ii ri- 

ipnOllll r(lilXt|.liMC>Iu.lelll>, 
[7, he ini>k«t ixnpul'ili of pCilci 
I'ornpey, wliiili irr fjccltd, 

" ' s ill lUly, 

, fh,,.. 


i<iil Mill 


lAket liim prifoner, VII. 263. he d'^fenti the Achsanip «ri. f, 

cjrric» thiii priiite into hi% king- Corinth, and cniir'ty «icmoli 

doiii, 4iii] frivr.) him hit dju^hirr if, 113. he ^refcrvci ihc (l« 

V.Uu'UiYuuàiu mmruf^Kf H,ui, created in honour of fhik 

M I I tiK iiiA7 r » JI. fiirnamcil the men, 115. iioblc dinmerc/led 

ittrai, ■*{ riifj. ilic iliriinc <,f I'^r- *»i MijnriinJut, ii6. he c» 

ihi^ «f'rr tJic (iraih of hit uiK )e Komc in iriuniph, 

Ari4! Jiif-ft, VJI. 3^^ hr re- Munt.f.A lomnrtaijdl the !<r/r 1 

rM-lilin.rt AfiiiriLhu) \'.ii\t.\,-.n^ of Syllji't army ai the bAir] 

«ih'ili.d tak<-ii rcfuj^t %viiii him, (.'heron», VIII. 67. SylU 

ill hi^ iliifiiiiii'iii«, 9(j7. hi: frfKl* fctun^' out Îjt Rome, leavci 

iiii aif.lj^lljdor lo SylU l<j jiuke the ^ovcrrimeiil of Afia, '£ 

ati al)i.iiiic wiih (îic Hniiuiii, nukei war a^iiirirr Mti\it\f.k 

Vill. r^ 77. he rcceivct the honour < 

Kf CI If f I riA 'I » ^ III. afirii'li ilic lriiinri|ih *t Kf;n«r, i 

iliiojiroi i'rfiiJjid alici tiic <!cd(ti Mu^ic AMTfe, IfHikii prinre? 1 

III riir.i.ilrt, VII- i-;7 jc^^trd hy AlcXdiiiler, V , 

Mi 1 II f H' A J r ^, yifijri}'^ I''-; fun M iri' A I. ». , i^ronioitiory of ih« 1 

Im-I, \.-,d{\\ f,t )j«vll.;', {;ivr;i t'y- tifirnt Of A(iJ, f*lh'*m i'tt 

t'.\ It." V'><iirji',rr ill) rii'ir'al v ^I'try of the C^recks o^'f 

V'l.ii'l, -ll. -.Oz. I'jiifrfln (.J jf*:) I'cr/i«iit, lii 

hiiii Iff \.r |,ii( to •:c4i)i, iii7. Afytentr^ ciiy of re'oponnef^i, 

Ali'i H» f ff A'l r.*., f.unm.U kità '^rrdt sXi. kin|(t of My&rnar, 1 

f }i:iii|i|' 1I4111 ol X'-K'-»! riuk'-» Mvck-aiNut, kinii ot Hvyfi, 

hiiiif'-K an n ftiui-lr r i/i itin 63. niiiilficfi of hit rcig' j ' 

riiiii'iri t,t thai ),iij.i f^ l'.\, *é.tM. he MyinOMntf, (fencrul of ihc A' 

J I |iii( t'l iir-jili I, y tl.T |<iifilflirii*'rit riUMi, dch-«ia the S.{«4r'«fii \ 

of ihe lri/i(','ii%, X3 'I'«rik|rrM ill liieolid, 1:1. 

Mi'f M» Hi A 1 I ^ of I'trt^iri.ii) Mvfecii. f.u4, l^fffirf*! of ihr Ac 

rririithi-ï w 'il irijoj.t to iht n.d of jii^, fnun'tcr of C'roton*, 111. 

K v\ai III I'l'vi'l, VIII. J42 Myflerin, l-ckfit cf ihe J*-(» 

fill 1 III <ij: A .'/.'■. r- » ^, fjvoiiM!r ot j^rc4ier niyneri*:* (clc^.raid 

'J .,'! i.ii-t, ib {"(i' 4i-iiiin LiiL'il- /iihcnt in fionour ol Lcrct I. 

l-jt I. y 1)1.1' I'lii.":, VIII tjx, iiAJ, I.J 
iiiiiidif 4ii'l hi. irorj|u ÏIC Mil ifi 

|iHi ■■*, //;i/. N. 

A^./yrftr. < .,{,îi..l of ihr iflft of Uf- •^T AR ARZAN hS, K#-ne«*l 

h'.ï . thji Miy tjkcji by ihr Alli'-- XN >he horfe in the army 

iijj/iitj III. i^.ft iJiiriiii, \i*:,\f.\jA^t:% ^n h'«f- 

Mu»-iiit, kifj^'. of f'ïiyi'ti 1. 5>). cnriir i.|ioii lh<: pcrfjn of 

fjfiio'jt )j|tr ina''r hy liiriii 9 I'rii'r, V. il), hr rntirci 

Moio \\ in-Ill': ir'rvrriior of Media Ilyn inii, lA^/. he fuitfitOnt :• 

hy Ai-'io' h'i« ih" ^jre^t, VI. 77^1. (A ro Alciaii«lcr b].on h.i , 

kr iii'iH'-.t '.!iiif':l! {'iifrt-'i^u iii lut 11.1^*1 

jif'/viri'r, ;A;//. AriMo* huis ']« >•"-'• fîAaii ifi-!'.e4 himfclf iyr«fi' 

iiiiii III a t^4ti»iî, iJt'#. hi: k\\\\ *■; »''a, Vi. i^ii. ii.fUriifs m 

l.jif,f.:ll on' of ili-Ij.air, //•/-/. aviii'r koil < r.irliy, ihJ- I'l 

Klo.'./MA of Iofi.4 : Mi'hfi-'ar<:» {.>ii-t Af^'O» inio h.9 ii-iiilt ! , 

(jirirt iirr with hifri it. \,\i. iiiijii, of 'irj.-fdr, '.r.o f<jhi» er . 

Vlli 1^1 Hii- riiJiiict '!.4: ).riiife, fw the K^nufii a^jiftft 

X6. irii|(i' 4I <:':4ili of ii,*i iii/iLff-:, |ir!iii.i-, lAo/. fh« K'fi».»jî • •■ 

1/1.7, V. ^r b^'aiiiM hlin, 31; '^ i li 

Wi'p^ M 1 i;î, «oiifi.!, it ''jri'»-'! Wi'li iii'14 iiufhr^ rf|fiiiiM h-rii, 

(i.c ifi J\\.\.é\*, S'il, zio, he LcO'rgci him ifi b|'4i'.4^ j^j. 


gl Willi it hint) 31U. bit brsika 
■9%* UcatTi 335. he » aefeited by 
PUIopBmen, 337. and obliged to 

Ast himleir ui 


hii fonnei Aipe, rt-ilcMdt ths 


il Idllcd 

Spam, 33Ï. 
. 3H 

Btlelii, king of 
.'waDTian, II, 77 

t*BOPDLA(iAi, king af Babylon, 
'MMwilhCyuueikingaf Mc- 1 
dU, befiegci NiQEvcb, ind «n- 
, ^nXj rnini that citf, II. Sz. he 
I «Aciltii liii fon Nibucodonofor 

< «Ti(hliimin(heiinpi[E,indrendi 
r.fctoi M the inuj of »a army 1 

• aciiDANMhM, S3. N'bopaUtTii'i 
■ «ulh, iiiJ. 

•«■DC0IX.KOX» T. or SA03E.U- 

»:««lHtii, king of Niticvcb, II, 
IcSl. llut prince it attacked by 
f f hnnrlti, king of tbc Mtdet, 

- '94. h« diFcatt him In the plain 
: «f Rifiu, nTi|ci h!i dominiani, 
" ma4 pDti him 10 death, gj, he 

< -fenât HtJaphemei with a power* 
' Ibl army id revenge him upon 
> the people, who had refufcd him 
'■ aU, Hid. eocire defeat of hii 

IbincoboHois* II. ÎI lObciated 
■Eia (he empire of Afl/cia b; Ni- 
K- tafolallar, I. 74. he defeat* Ne- 
t" «kia, and eonqoen Syria and 
' Pikftina, ibid, he befiegea Je- 

* rati\tm, makei himfclf mafler 
of it, >Dil carriea away a g'eit 

; mmber uf Jewi captive to Babf- 

- I«B, li. 8j. he reigna in AlTyrii 
' after the death of hii father, 84.' 

Nibucodonofor'a lirll dream, tjI^. 
that prince mirchei againfl Je- 
rofileffl, take] it, and carriea a- 

of'Egypt. teturns 10 jeniMfm, 
' and demaliHici ïk fcrtiti' aiigni, 
iiii. he befieges Tyre, and takes 
himfelf mifter of E^ypt, where 
helakelgreit rpoiis, 1, 73 Ni- 
bucodonoror'i fécond dreim, II. 
S7. he il reduced to ihe condi- 
lioB of bciAi, %%. lie recavcci 

riAKCHL't, oflicer of Alevinder, 
undcrUkei to view the caalt from 
the Induitothe bollom of the 
Perlian gulf, V. loj. bo fucceeda 
in hli enlerpriie, 110 

ItcHAt», kingof Egypt, I.7i._he 

tion between tbe Nile ind lbs 
Kcd-fei, ibid, able nivigaton by 

il order 

1 fail re 

appUy effefl ll, 7». 
iiecnaa marche! agiinft tha Ba- 
bylaniaua ind Med» (a put a flop 
to their piogrcfi. Hid. he deCeata 
Jofiah Ling of Judah, wboap- 
pofed hit march. Hid. he beata 
tbe Babyloniani, tikei Carche- 
■ ) hii king- 


■ jehoih» 

hnialtim. Hid, he ii ronq 
Nabucodonofor, who rela 


i by il 

volied Egyptians upon the throne 
of Egypt in the raorn of Tachoe, 
IV, ijg. he ii fupported bjr Aga- 
filaus, ihidi hy hii aid he reduCH 
the pirty of ths prince of MendC' 

fend h 

m- , 

t being able t 

I, he 

Iii.Euiof Sceplii, tovhomThe- 
ophtaftui had left the worki of 
ArilloUe, VIII 75 

If Eo LA 8, brother of Milo aad A- 
lextnder, biings the latter the 
newi of Malo*s dcfdÉt by Antio- 
vhus» and then killi bimfelf 
through Jefpair, VI. iSo 

NEOPToLEMUSy One of Alexan- 
der's captains $ provincei that fell 
to him after the death of that 

. prince, V. 258. he joint Anti- 
pater and Craterus againft Fer- 
diccai and Eumenei, 283. he 
siarchet with Craterys againft 
the latter, ihid» and is killed in 
a battle, 2S4. charader of Neop- 
tolemus, 281 

Kio?TOLEMV8, uncle of Pyrrhus, 
reigns in Epirui in his nephew's 
plaic, l.cxxx 

Merigmssai puts himfelf at the 
head of a confpiracy againft £- 
Yilmerodach king of AlTyiia, and 
rri^ns in his Aead^ li. 89. he 
makes war with the Medes, and 
is killed in a battle» 132 

Nero (C C'audius NersJ conful, 
quits his province, and makes 
hiifle to join his colleague, in 
•rder to their attacking Ai'drubalj 


Kevivs. Reman oBlcer, furpriies 
Philip's camp near Apollonia in 
the night, VI. 277 

iVifitJ, city built by Alexander at 
the phce where he had defeated 
Porus, V. 187 

KicAMtra is deputed by the ylC- 
tolianb to Philip, VI. 332. he 
cndeivo'irs to ei-t'^ôe thai piince 
to juin Amiochuh againll the 
Koinjns, ii'.Jé 

Nu ANOR, young officer in Alcxan- 
ucr :> ainiy : rjHi bolJnci's which 
ctfS him his lite, V. 180 

NiCANOR, Caiunder's brother, is 
put to death by order of Olym- 
pi.»s, V. 308 

Nie ASOR, governor of Media under 
Anligonus, is fiiipiiyed in his 
c^mp in the night by Sdrucus, 
■ ml obliv'cd to fly, V. 331. he is 
killed in a battle, 350 

KiCANOR» officer of Scleucus Ce- 
riuni'S, roiu'|iiics againO that 
prince, and poii^nk himi VI, 1750 


he ia put to death by i 

NfCAKORi lieuteaant-gent 
Antiochus Ep'phanca, 1 
againft the Jewat and is t 
by Judas Maccabaeus, V 
Demetriat Sotcr fends hi: 
an army into Judca, to ai 
cimus, 82* he ia defei 
Judas Maccabcof^ and fc: 


NiciAS, general of the Atb 
makes them conclude 1 
with the LacedKmoniaj: 
209. he oppofes the war c 
in vain, 221. he is ap 
general with Lamachua a 
cibiadei, a22, hla conduâ 
riving in Sicily, «34. aftc 
expeditions be forms the 
Syracufe, 242. the city ii 1 
to extiemitict, 246. the 
of Gylippua changes the 
aft'airs, ilid, Niciu write 
Athenians the Aate of h 
diiion, and to demand 
forcement, 249. two col 
are appointed him, 251. 
compelled by his cclleaj 
engage in a fea«fight, in wl 
is defeated, 255. his Ian 
IS alfo defeated, 257. he 1 
another fca-fight in conce 
Demofthenes, and is agi 
featcd, 263. he determine 
tire by land, 264. he is 1 
to furrender at difcretior 
he is condemned to die, i 

NiciAS, treafurer to I 
throws the ire^^fures of thai 
into the fea by his ordei 
1 37.Pcrfeus puts him to dea 

N1COCLES, fon of Evagoras, 
at Salamin after his I 
death, IV.2 52. admirable ch 
of that prince, H 

NieocLES, ktngofPapho», I 
to Ptolemy, V. 328. he mi 
alliance fecretly uiih Ant 
ihiJ, he kiltS himlelf, 

NicucLis, tyrant of Sicj 
dûven out of that city bv . 


I N D B X, 

Hti.lnwKofehoufeThe- ihcNile, 17, cuiil o/communl- 
fiEAfl^el tt Ktt, Tup- ciilon between cbs iwo Tun by 
WJattt 'iiltii tbe meani the Nile, « j*iJ. 
l|So the coun of Perfii KiMiion, faimdci of ths AOytUn 
tTj III. S6 empire, II. J7, hi lloiy confound» 
o», OAc of Ptolemy'e |e- him wiih hii fon Ninm, jS, ibc 
refnfei to defect with Scripture plicei him very octr 
otnii and lontiiiusi to <d- Abraham j for tihit rofurij Co, 
iPtoletny, VI, 1S6 ^h.wb, Hly of AfTvri», lu foun- 
ot, venirnble old mJn, dilinn, II. 59. kinji Of Nine- 
,ilM the 'Syr»cufini, to dîf- vnh, 77. deftmaion of lim tity, 
ifito from condemning tha ' gj ga 
iin.4tn»il>, . Jll. 167 Niijui, king of AfTjrU, f<icei«d« 
'illJ.Ving of Bith}ni>, Nimrod, and i< often confounded 
the cilji of Nicomedii, »iih tlui piince, II, 5S, 60. ht 
l.«\ti buildoNlnevih, 60. hit expoil- 
Di. IE. fun of Prufu. lion «g^-inft ihe Biflrlai», 6i,- 
f Biihynia, E'Jd 10 Rome, he manies Semiraniii, and bil 4 
igri. hi kill! hi] fither, S<ifi bjr her, 6a. h« diet f^n 
«fier, mj. 

i .eigiji In hi. NiHYA!, Ton ofNiftui»nd Setni- 
Fct. up » cHild ■ ....... 

, of AriiralKci, 

^el the kingdom of C.p- 

. IS7. he feu up ■ child ramii, rcigni in Anjrin, II. 71, 
\mi name of AiiiratKci, cfleminitj luid Ilalb of thiC 

«lel tnekingdiim at i.:.p- prime, 7,. 

tib be ^tsamiii for him Nitochib, qaeen of Bab/Ion, lu 

'RDmani, Vll. 370. Sy. infcripcion chlch Iha «(ufd 

!0il HI. iftendi Ihe tbroue to be put upon her tan>b, do 

hjrfli», vni. 56. he is de- Nyi-hui, generil of DÎDnylini «nâ 

d by Milhtidiles, Wi^. the Younger, reJicvei lh< citidtl.of 

i)t Ki^ftue fclm, Ihld. he SyraeuCe, clofely heliegcd b* tJi« 

n wpOled bv Mltbadito, Syricuf'»), IV. 1E3. he bufni 

\y\\t . tecontiUi him and and plunder) pan of ibg ciij of 

Muei, who rclloiet him S^maCf, 170. ÙlonfRut iàvtê 

iralniunn, 7]. Nicomedei, him out of S^ricufe, of which 

liiuilc lor ihc r.jivii-cnr tlie he hid made bimfeif mtfler, 184 

us, ■ . Il :■ ..Cl the HïiiA, filierof Miihriiawi, fi|]( 

r: . 79 iota the banil* of LuciilUii, 

.: ■ , v'l:; .0., ™'-'' 

f the derachm.m, of O- /XB,/i/l. of Ejypt, ■' I. 54 

armyiniliai prince', tx- KJ 

jninioEjypt, IV. lîj Ocha, fi.ler of Ochuf, ii buried 

nATui, pia.-i"r -f il>i; A- alimby otdet of that prince, IV. 

14. feitihiy occalioBtd by 


16//. he afcenSi tfie throne of 
Ferfia, and changes his name from 
Ochus to Dariuiy i^^* ^'^ Dari- 

O c II u s , Ton of Artaxerxet Nf nemon, 
opens his way to the empire by 
the murder of his brothen, IV. 
263. he afcends the throne of 
PerHa, and takes the name of 
ArtaxerxeSy 167. cruelties which 
he commits, réiV, his fuccefsful 
expedition againft Phœnicia, 281. 
Cyrufy iSid, and Egypt. 282. af- 
ter thofe expeditions he abandons 
himfelf to pleafure, 288. he is 
poifoned by Bagoas, iàiJ, 

OcTAViA, widow of Marcellus, 
and lifter of young Cxfar, mar- 
ries Anthony, VIII, 150. (he 
leaves Rume to go to Anthony^ 
and arrives at Athens, 152. An- 
thony forbids her to come any fur- 
ther, ièid, affront which flie re- 
ceives from Anthony, 156 

OcTAvius fCn.) praetor com- 
npands the Roman fleet againft 
Perfcus, VII. 145. means which 
he ufes to make that prince quit 
the ifland of Samothracia, which 
was deemed a facred and invio- 
lable afylum, 163. Pcrfeus puts 
himA:]f into his hands, 165. 
0£tavius receives the honour of 
a triumph, 176. the Romaut 
fend blm to Syria as ambafTador, 
VII. 237. he is murdered there, 
245. the fenatc cre£l a ftatue to 
him, 246 

Oct AVI us, Ct^fTus*! lieutenant, 
endeavouci ia vain to confole 
him for bis defeat, VII. 352. 
he accompanies that general in 
his interview with Surena, 355, 
he is killed in defending him, 357 

OxBARES, Darius's groom, by his 
addrcfs fecures the crown of Per-» 
fia to his mafler, II. 211 

Orn/zus, Perftan lord, barbarous 
cruelty of Darius in refpeâ to 
him, ÎI. 370 

OiTHACXS, king of Colchis, it 
fubdued by Pompcy, who makes 
him fi rve ai aa ornament in hit 
triumph, VIII, 1 14 

OLTMpiAtj daughter of 
lemui, it married to Phi 
•f Macedonia, and has 
prince Alexander the Cn 
313. Philip repudiates h 
Alexander carries her to 
370. Polyfperchon reca 
from Epirus, whither i 
retired during Antipati 
gency, and dividet the 
ment with her, V. 292. 
pits caufet Aridzui and . 
Eurydice to be put to 

?o8. CaiTander* biefieges 
ydna, whither (he had 
takes her prifoner, and j 
to death, 

Ofyntbut, city of Thrace, I 
the . Lacedaemoniant dec! 
againft it. Hid, it it red 
furrender, 202. Olynthu 
the point of being befi 
Philip, imploret aid of 
thenians, 326. Philip mal 
felf mafter of that city 
treafon of two of its 1 
and plunders it, 

Onesicrit^i, philofopl 
hiftorian t Alexander 
him to the Brachman% 
gage them to join his t 
190. he can prevail up< 
of them to do fo excep 

On E SIM u a, Macedonian 1 
being able to difTuade 
from making war with t 
mans, quits hia party, 
tiret to Rome^ V 

Onias, fon of Jaddot, hi| 
of the Jews, fucceeds hit 

Onias, high-prieft of tb 
makes himfelf venerable 
piety, VII', 55. he refu 
iiodorus the treafures 1 
the temple of Jerufalem, 
2s drpoied by the intri 
Jafon his brother, 

Onomarchus, biother 
metus, general of the PI 
takes upon him the com 
the trocpt in hia ftead^ 1 

[ I N D F X. . 

1^ Ihe h«Itlf, iij, hii w.r onhijlriin.» wiilnln Ko. 

ftlÛltnHlaiiE<blr«r, iMf. mini unNF Cr>l1>t>, iM. Q. 

tAl. tOM'snr 0^ liby., >od*., j»luu> of [h> iloijr Su> 

6m«0I>CI| "'oil/ "g<infi rcn«' hiH iitijuiiei bt (he dtfltC 

Mr, ind rcnHm himrHf uf CrifTui, a..ti him 10 (lailh, 

Mint, V. 5jg, he AifiVi 360. (Fidfuf ihjip.ln« for lb* 

W lo he fsilurfd liy Agi. dcïih of hii fso P»ci!fiit, î*<. 

ra, and cirnei him troop) In chn^ei Phr«i(. fo- nil fnc«r. 

Ih* country of ihî Ciith*. fiir. who caufei him w bt pul 10 

W, I. 138, AgilhL>tici pitd d»'h, ItiJ. 

»ie"li, riW. OjinnTn. Ton in-1>«r of AftMer- 

,WneofEfrpt,.T«n,.i,., m Mn-mon, cmmi»*! ihi 

(t Mil h (id* let. and II tlkcn war •]■!(>» Evi^orM, III, fat. 

m, VIII. i;9 ■■••"■ufoTrribjfu.filTly, in). 

TÎiBwiooet of inhi]uity, In Ifrminilfi 'htr *»r witH ïï«. 

ni, t>( QUw, \\, Tru- (Orai by j Ifi»!)- of peict. Hid, 

Min BKoiia, iJI^, of iha Ariionti puniUxi faim fi» liN 

|t4<T. JiW. of CUlOl, lli. f'If. .rcuf.tiM, 4!,g 

lUbai) (liii. ufual chirit- Oiior«T«t, jownoTWf Mjllt ]«ini 

'wnlo, Wi. whetberiliey vilb ilio ji'ivinitiof Artj Miiinf 

>M tfttibad loihe optriiioii in Hiiir tevo^t iit4>nn Aiu«(ri.c« 

m, M tho kiiBtcrv of men, Mntaidn, md ihen bsiKyt ikem, 

I- Klv. IV, jH 

t Fanerai OHiI ont F ron ou Ti- OaiAcri, old %mtn\, «rronipi> 

f Omcc ever ibe loml'i of t\\n I'uorui in hli cii>vd|riui)i 

Itrko Ind dJtd /ieliiing fur by order or Otodet, Vil. ifii. k* 

E^nlrf, III. 167 i> kilted In > bjttlc, " )»» 

to. piriflfBooiii.wheie'tlis OfiiHie. larv"*" "f i't^^i'rim, 

Rlilwtan Sylll ind Atthc- re-eftibllitici (ood order ihough- 

Ml ha|bi> Vlll. 69 r>u< ihi whole piovlucc, V. lor, 

Ujkt lid fuc(«lf>r of Aui- he goci M niecl AltiindEr «riihi 

■nkiniof M)rcenc,II.iïi migniAcent oiefenti, M. hi 14 

HillcMntncoininiiriry, |nei put to death In cflij^ of ih« f(. 

Mathi Mid notilict to ihe (ret Inirtfuct of the «unuch 84< 

ilaith* decree of ihe fcDiiG fou, ten 

ipantlnt feveiil f lilei frani OribU. Inhumin wntiMii rendeiefi 

Ml^t, VII. 107. ht fltei 10 b/ the Lt.rdmtionLni in Diana, 

o,'"""";'""'!"'.. , „'i',;,'',;- 


, *M fei.f. Ill 


, 1;.. 
11 pi 


PEl ofCrtle 


nnb»rlii pan 
It prince, Vll, 


. 16. 

1. he îu'ni 

fî. au. 

b; Art«<;. 
to malce in 
Lamint, Vlll 



i >,i J'jr- 
.n.-t «rilh 


I N D 

Otanis, Pcrfîan lord, difcuvert 
the impofture of Smerdit the 
Magiii, by the meant of hit 
daughter, 11. 208. hè formi a 
con (piracy agiinft that uTurper, 
909. he re-enabliHiei Sylofon, ty- 
rant of Samoi, 358 

OTHRYAPEfty .Lacediemonian, ob- 
tains the viéloiy for the Lacedx- 
moniansover thcArgivesby hit va- 
lour, I. cxi. he kilh himlelf upon 
the field of battle, ihid. 

OxATHiES» brother of Duiius, 
diflingui(hei himfelf in the S.^t- 
tie of IfTus, V. 47. AlcxaniU'r 
puts UelVus into hi» honiis, to in- 
fliâ u|>(in that traitor thcpuniOi- 
nierit he dcfeived, i i 5 

OxyARTir, Ferfian prince, cnicr- 
lains AK'xaiuiiT in his houfe, arid 
gives him his daughter Rix^nJ in 
xnarrîagr, V. 164 

OxyviLACKf people of India« V. 

196. their capital lefii ged and 

takrn by Aiixander, 197. they 

fubmit to that prince, J98 


PACf'RUS, fon <f Orrdrs, king 
of the Parthians, enters Syria 
at the head of an army suid be- 
fieges Anlioch,' VII. 361. he 
laifei the fiege of fhit ci:y, and 
it defeated in a baiiîe, 362. he 
leturnv into Syria, and ii defeated 
and killed in a battle, 365 

Pala/KidiSt tragedy wru.e by Euri- 
pides on the occafiun of the death 
of S. crates IV. 41 

Pa MM K NES comm^ndi the troops 
fent by the Thebans to the aid of 
Artabalus, and occalî ns his gain- 
ing two confidcrable viAories 

IV. 269 

Pa M ME NES, Athenian gt-noul, 
marrhc^ to the aid of the city of 
Megalnpolif, befieg.d by the La- 
ceda*monian9, IV. 277 

Vênath'àra, fenival celebrated aC 
Athens, I. xxviii 

J'uHirafium, kind of combat amonfiil 
the ancients, J. lix. &i. 

Pa NT A uc fits, Pcrfeus'i ambaf- 
f.idor to Gentiuf, engages that 
prince in his mafter^s intcreft a- 
^&infl theKomauSi VJI. 149 

Pa NTH A A, wife of Abri 
taken prifoner by CyruSi 
conduÔ of that prince i 
to her, 135. (he brings 
hufband to Cyrus, 136. 
courfe with him bcnrc 
out for the battle, 148. 
ccfs of her grief upon il 
of Abradatet, 153. ihe ( 
felf with a dagger, 1 
dead upon herhuiband. 

Pap IK I A, mother of th 
Srtpio Africanucs Mi 
liberality cf Scipio in 1 

Pakali'S, laft cf the Ii 
children of Pericles, di 

Paris, Trojan, returnit 
with Heltn, whom he 
vifhed, is carried by' a 
into one of thç mouth 
Nile, J. 61. Proteus 
Egypt ob'igei him 10 iea' 
with him. and quit E] 
Paris retains to Troy, 

Parmenio» one of AI 
generals, it placed at 1 
of the infantry, in the e: 
of ih<^t prince againA t 
an«, and does him grea* 
V. 20. he feifet the pj 
ria, and makes himiel 
of the fmall city of 1 
Alexander confides the 
laid up in Damaf us, 
keeping Cif the ptift ners 
53. Parmenio adv.f s t!- 
to accept Dartus*a oftVrs, 
prixe of Parmenio o, 
Alexander piofliate himf 
the high priefl jaddus, i 
ander caufcs him to be 
an accomplice in the c 
of Fhiloiu» 143. praifi 

Par M Y s, daughter of 
Smrrdis, mairies Da ius 1 

Patrh<>.iatétf name given I 
legitimate children of thi 
monians 1 when grown 
banifh them fel vet froii 
and fctUe at Taientua 


«Wnlrr *fth» Purihuni, 

Pav.aniai, bint of UcedKmori, 

ctefUpper Afii 1. xxiv. 

tommandi ihe »rmj of tho 

dn| of Ihe empLrt of iK« 

C«eki jutntly «iih ArilJidet, 

•M, VII. 3J3. king, of 

■lid giing a great bitllo oier th« 

A rnSkArfxci I. to Oro- 

Pcrfiin., Ill, 50. he n»kei iho 

,3, &c. 

L,ccd«moai,n! loft, the chief 

IT». (He. .nd *if. of 

«mm-ntfbyhi. hiughiinefi, éS. 

1 Nolhu,, III. »99- htr 

iiii ftcrel conrpLi«y wiih the 

ant over her huA>ind, rM. 

7 of Pityfitii for htr fpn 

70. «lid ponilhed, iW. 

, Hid. Alo obtiiai pirdon of 
in» for th*t Ton, ind 

P.wrA»<^., kiVof L»cdBm»- 

ni», tommand. .t >h. f.ep of 

■ blm to U fcnt b«k w 

Aihcni, 1[1. jo«. he ohttin* 

-peace far ihe AtheniinT, jii. 

cilogry of Pjijfiiii, joj. 

he rKEleft) ID much to the aH 

lifuiii S[.ii.>. iM. /\nic 

of Lyr*i.dcr. >nJ 11 fummoned 

coiiliiui her iu Bjbjlon, 

lo like hii til>l on bit teiurn. 


5S6. he refu'es 10 .ppe»r, ind 

fj, (Ur of Fern*, fiihmiii 

]. condemntd to die, 3S7. he ra- 

MMder, V. ,jo 

liiei laTegKum, lad dill thsre. 

■ iMii, ofHcer of Apric, 


Païuakia!, Micednnîin ptince. 

■I in the midft of <h<; rc- 

poHdie. hirafelf of the throne of 

1 Egypu-ni, is l.rnitd in 

M.cedoni., IV. 307. he it it. 

Mn ««1 m.nnct hj Ih.t 

[hroiicdb/Iphirmel, rt/A 

E. !■ 77 

PAiT..,NiA.. ygmig MicedonUn 

THll, chief of the Mt^i, 

lord, c»imot obtain faliif.fliem of 

Philip for >n infull which he 

irODC of I'tiiia, 11. loS. he 

hjd rocei.el from Alt.liii, IV. 

irt wiih hi. hrriher, 1,0 

3,1. ho .n-.ffio»te. Philip Inf.. 

Ci.o>. |-.v«»or of Baby- 

,, .ndL(to,p>opi.c,. «m™ 
Ihrfpor. lilJ_ 

K Stltucui, ibjniton'i lft-1 

»P«a tl« .pproich of Dc- 

P.uïnnATUi, cominindtr of 

«., .nd ru if« mio ihe 

thiRhotliin fleet, li dtfottd bv 

>•*• "^^ 111 


»«• command, the fleet 

■nd killed i<ill.ehitilg, VI. j«o 

kf Ptoitay l'hil.Helphm to 

P»D*.iTi., LKidcmoniin 1 AK 

Id of the Athmijii» liefitgtd 

lo«of hiicoimiij. 11. joo 

•tilOOUl G.IHUl. VJ. g?. 

P.UAiovt tcxhei the flrfl Uieek» 

rlH'ni into tuypi, in<l it 

to live I'pon Kor-it, Jf. 17g 

i.t.:^urc. Soi.itii the f»ty- 

Pilla, cspiinlof Micedoni), fimoui 

,«ltobcp..ti„,)e4ih, K3 

fo( the biiih of Phillip and Alci- 

cm, Ail>.'.ù.in, ilir^ Di- 

indn, IV. 30+ 
Pllofioa,, Thebini ),!, ,L- 

icnei^ <li<- 1 ;<!£« 'i 

.fr.flor ,f Uic U»,, ly. 

liiler, IV. ïûj. his frienddlLp 

with Epiminondat, ibi.l. he abm- 


K, fcntril ..f ihe O.crk. 

Ihcni, ZD4. he formi the dc/ign 

w.W ,"' ',-"'■''■ *"".''■ 

of t<iiil>iiii>E the liberty of hit 

iiige oisr ih» Licedcmoniani 

T N D E X- 

iir»r Te{ yr;i, 214. h« ccntniancf* 
tlu' U'. rill ()il!-iliim jt iliC hjttic 
<il l.ri«rtrj, 21S. he i'l < n dl^tl 

}*i •■^UKii with |.| aniifi''i.<:j-, ri- 
\j^r'. l.i'r>:i.«, aji<i •iilv.iiu c- t't 
fliC j'.«î ■-. '1 Sjait.i, a:-;. :•! ïra 
r. hiifi iif. i'. It! 1,11 li rfini ;u ji(iiir'J, 
flir, li.p 'rhr'»:iir. (• ii<l arn- 
\till*>\tr to till' r'.iiit I'f Ccr/i.iy 
ail. I'i- ufiln MJ'li /ill .:.rrxc-.| 
i/'f(/. I'l'l' pi«i-:> iiunlfj 9}'d'infl 
Ali-n^tn'.LT, lyr.iiit of I'ii i.i , Mnd 
ri:<ti]((* iiiiT) to tr. ('nr>f 2^2. I>c 
f «'•'"1 to MiicrH'iiiiii tf/ j| I ' ii': ilic 
t|i hIjI*"! fif t}i;.l (r.iirl, I r)r:{',l» 
av ay ri.ilij- :ti ..n li-.-!.i;c, 2il. 
lie ii.iiiin'. ii.i'i I l'< ;iily, if.iJ, 
h'l it lt'\/.:\, 4\i'\ xi\."i- I'tifuiirr 
l)V Irrailifiy, z-ji. hf an = m»l'-i 
I'1ii:1jC, v. ill: of Al'.yai;c|rr, 4|'.aiii(l 
lirr'riil, '^.35. hr i' il'wi v.rt d 
hy I (liii iri-tritl.i- , 2:7. I'f-i<itiiciai 
n)-ii'.h':S in:i.lul* the tyrar-.t, |f.aiii3 
A n/trjiy over iiiin, sinit is. kiDcil 
in the h.i ilr. 21'). (irgulir lio- 
n'Aitt (taiil l(j hi', memory, 7.\rj 

Tfl oi'Il' A" , on r ».f lliff fiffirrn of 
Mititii later, io fcnt ambaffador 
liy that firince to tietnand fatit- 
fa^tinn f'f lh<r KorTiai.B, and to 
dit l.irc War apinft them in c.n(« 
i.f rfulj, VJII. Ç7 

PeLf-*nn*ju:^ |ii.virire .ind pcninfiila 
f.MJtrrtr, i.'iA tailrd thr M')fJ, 
Jl. 1,-/4. I'r l^potincfian war, III. 


I'j I nth i^ivcb iiii name to I'(:!n|>tiii* 
m fin, II. 7'li 

1' i.fiini. M*nn»T of ['ivinp. p« n- 
ligji) hy iIjc kini'.k of l'ciii:!. III. 

Ptitalb'um, «r'-'iMapc 01 f» ■.«.■! 

.i^-ri)iinif.k (ycr(if(.) ainunt; *'>'' 

<f'icrkn, I. Ix 

l'ij.'r;i If. i:r., Tin of Orrfle", r';;'iij 

.'it '''wcnz with 1 lb hfOt)i«*r 'i'l- 

1 !i:' II'- 

II. 2X1 

IS •• I'M ' /. : , r»" «if y\rr. i.fji II. 
t' f I.!»'' iij-O'i ihi' iht in ■ «)I Ma- 
ri'J"f,ia I y I*' ll.,•l'h'»^, IV. y ^. 
I c ii 1. lîkd in rf l4ti!c a^aind !.•: 
Illyr.M'., f//'/. 

I'» !• {i!c-c A*-, one of Alo-r: !rr*« 
^ciisiaI-, rccvivc) tiiJt |iriricu't 

tirt|{ a moment Leforr Mt 
V. 227. he is ii{:poir.:rH pi; 
ul Aridxiifli and rr;-i n*. 
cinpirr, 2^7. lie pi.*-, fr 
into p -fr llicin cf Cap, .«i'ik .. uri/"!'. ijr.iie ex;»'» «l^r 

^■Ol'*» -'i- **€ «^ J.'lî'-U 

I*KniANprit, * f C 
i« r;inl<cd in liic ir.;ii,i rr 
fi'vn fajT»., I 

Pk I' U'l. r ', Allirniin : hii 1 

tiuii, IIJ. i<4. hi*, c-lui 

U'ti, (ate thai hr ipL 's ' 

ti\..t<: h -I- mind hy li.i li 

til»* ri.ii;tM '••«, »v.\ of f» 

h I.I f' il in 'loïjue: tr, f r. 

thiit he citijlnyi for c <•;:':• 

llic favifi.r of thi: y-^r-^W 

lir '.ilidcrtokri to irdiirr i!i< 

er ijf îli': Arropa^i.*, .-••ii: Ji. 

in it, 109, 'I iiiii.)itid';ft i» i 

to hwii, 116. he a'jnrni > 

Willi nia^rnificent hui!d«r|i 

envy (i( the Athenian) , 

l'crulT', 117. he i<iriifici 

felf, nnd caufei 'J hiic)di 

be iMniHird, 119. lie chan 

rondu^t in irfpe^t to the | 

J2'). hi^ prrjt aiiihofiijr, 

hit. difin'cfeftednrf",, thd, 

diiiontof Pcrtcl'"« in'o the 

rian Chrrf'jnclu*, 125. 

I'rlopoinirfiiS, r/'fi/. and 

Luhcra, jz6. he r'Hncri \, 

intaiii, and lirmolifTin rli'.-ii 

IZ7. he ciiifei aid to I:-* | 

the ppop'r of Crrcyra if. i 

CnrinlliianSf tbîé, Iroubii-i 

him hy hi» enemi«-, it$. 

trrniinr» the Athrni.ini t'l 

iiito a war with tI<p f.i<< 

niuns, )^8. and lo Hint thrt 

ii|) «kirhiti tlicir wall-, it 

I re vent -I ilwin flom i:ini 

ficUI, whil'* ih« ir ljf":i 

iraK'i, if- \. he in:>k« « hr 

ot'ti'.n ot the Allicniini 

dirini; the ca;nprfi-,{n, 16 

Athenian: divcft him of 111 

mand, and fine him, 171 

of Pcriclei f<<r the dca'h 

fon l'aralni, ihui. the At) 

icinilAtc him, 173. md 


tiOollhli illcgilimilc Tan 

ihc t 

[75. . 

:lel, itlJ. hit fttiiU,' itiJ. 
I, ron of the former, oat. 

I the Lice dz mo ni ~ HI nuar 
ind Arginuf*. is ron- 
wilhhiicollcgue) todfe, 
III. igS 
eily of Thrjcs, bcfieRed 
if, jnd delivered by ihe 
. IV. 347 


I àtVv, 


E X. 

liS, Perfcui advinci 
■ Iioopj nslr Ibt ri* 
111. bxile oF tbc 


■ritti b;«- 

^4. be m-kf 
roptuiinr peace. wh>ch>rei< 
:&tJ, J2S. hï lalie< fri|hi upa 
le arrival i,( IhetonluV Manii 
1 Maceduniii, and leive) lili 
le P'tTigc op'n, 136 he rerimic 
riur.ige Taon ifier, 117. be Talli 
itl 'id on all fîdei, ni, h 

Rome with Ihe ncivi of 
orj", iji. Perpfnna, when 

Feiti hitn in 1 bailie and 

capiul cily 0/ Per 
1 - by. ■ ■ 

, ficA king of Mycenx, [I. 

, fan of Philip, Ull icing 
edonii, fiirmi I coiifpira- 
)B hil trother Demetriul, 
nfei him to Philip, Vit. 
fpeech leiinll hil brother, 
r/iui ,emoire> From court 
I hi. ftihei'. indijnitioo, 
iikci pofTelTion 0» ihe 

nf Macedonu ifici his 
I dcMh, 54. he piiL) A11- 
, whom his fiihti hj<i 

hi> rucceir.>T, to de>[h, 
: picpirdjr=cre'ly for 
he RomJoi, loj. he in- 

Pe feu-. 

Uben piirontr 
, ifij. nndftivwi 
, Ihe triumph of 

jf Alii ! fouB- 
Petllin empire 
by Cytuj, II. iii. deflrnaion of 
that empire Eiy Aleii.iniiir,V, 114. 
Miics which ocdafioned the de- 
cline, and at lenglh the ruin of 
ihc I'erfian empire, ibtii. ininncia 
and ifunomt of the f>crfiiai, II, 
112. educalionof ibePcrGaaiin 
Ihe time of Cyrui, iij. govcrn. 
mem of the Perfiin!, 111. form 

oF c< 

1 them, II. 

lie, i]S. quility of the Perfun 

I N D 

Fttfû OxiaKa, înacccflîble rock^ V. 
i;c. Alexander mikes himfelt* . 
mullerof ic, 158, &e» 

Ff. vcFSTis, one of Alexander*^ 
captains, diftinguiflu'd himfelf at 
the Tiegr of the ciry ot Oxydracar, 
y. 197. provincrs v^hich fell to 
]iim after the death of Alexander, 
25S. he oppofea the prcgrcfs cf 
Pithonj and drives him cut of 
■Mtdla^ . 307 

J t.i ux, Macedonian : defcription 
of it, IV, 314 

I'l >M.Aais, hU bull taken at the 
iicge cl A^rigcntum and fent to, * I. I '9 

TiiALFcueis appv intcd general of 
the I'hocatans during the facred 
y^àTf in tlxe room of l'h.iyllu9, 
IV. 32;^. he pilbges the temple 
<f Dclpiios as the other had dunt*, 
and i«! dppofed, il: J, 

PiiAMKAr, general of the Cartha- Cjiv^Iry, dwres not take 
the lidd, when Scipio is to fup- 
port the foragers, II. 28. he goes 
over to the Romans, 39 

Thanks of Halicainairus, general 
cf the Greek auxiliaries in tht 
army of Amafis, goes over upon 
{on\c difcontent to Cambyfes, U. 
198. the Greeks in the king of 
ïlgyp's fervice muider his chil- 
dren in revenge, 199 
PharacH} common name of the 
kings of I'gypty one of them 
gives Ml daughter to Solomon in 
marriage, I. 64 
]'h.\kn ABASvs, governor of AAa, 
and general of the troops of Da- 
rius and Artaxerxes, kings cf 
Perfia, aid;» tl c Lucedarmonians 
againll the Athenian?, 111. 182. 
ills N\ hole province is ravaged by 
iVgcfilaus, 382. intejvicw of A- 
feftlaus and PharnabafuS, 383. 
the latter is charged by Ar- 
Ltxerxes vcith the war againd 
Igypt, IV. 254. the enterprize 
mtfcarrics through his fault, 

Pharnaces makes the army re- 
volt againft his father Mithrl- 
datcSf and is dented king in his 

E X. 

iiead, VIJI. 110. he 
the friend and ally 
mans, i2Ji. he is 'de 
driven out of Pontus 

Pharkacias, eunuch 
JL fupp ie> Sogdianus 
meant for alTaflinattng t 

pRASAEti brother of 
made go? ernor of feruf 
329. he i« taken by tl 
ans, and put in irons 
kills himfelf to avoid 
miny of punithment, 

Phayllus, general of 
caans during the fa 
plunders the temple o 
to defray the expencesol 
IV. 323. his death, 

Pmayllus, of Crotona, 
his afTei^ion for the Gi 

PHtiiDAt> Ltcadaemoi 
out from Spat ta at the 
tody of troopt againfl 
IV. soo. he feiiea the 
"Jhebes by fiaud« ihiti, . 
(rived of the cumn 

Phedyma, daughter ol 
and wife of Smeidis th 
difcovers that ufurper 
ture, II. 209. ihe ma 
rius after the death of 

PhnhiJ, or Plteniiiat pr* 
Syria : revolt of Pli«ni( 

PuKRFNOATFS. Perfisn 1 
governor of Fcypt b; 

Phf.ron, king <f Fgypi 
adUou of that prince «£ 

Phidias, famous paii 
fcu4ptor. Pericles gives 
dircilion of the publick 
at Athene, III. 118. ir 
of the Atheniaua to 

Pnila, Anlipater*s dao| 
married to Craterus, V, 
tcr the 4eatii of Crat 

I thnetilei Poliorcti 

II kill! hcffcir »ii)> f 
I, lO, pnlfe of ihJipr 

Ai^nt, name |iv(n iraiiicill)' 
Pwlmj JI, king of E^ïj.t, 
, «4. £n Ptdikhv I'm- 

Ur «ml wife u1' Pinlirti)' 
fUet, VI, ,94. he I, b. 
dctlh with llivei hy ilM> ]i 
banout l» thii prmccri, 

'Cinb>|a, fttiilits ih 

f (hi |M<1 »r Ihïlr CDunir^, 

e. the CirlhiginUnt, our 
nitnde, (onrctrttB two ill 

tRT((M, founder of II» kii 

tt Heigimui.Vl. t^. me, 

■^ lie ufei for fupporii 

In (hut kingdom, iJ 

,11141, one of the conrpirit 

liait the tyriintt of TIkIi 

E X-. - 
Olvnihu', notw'iihffjndlnS Oi» 


, IV. 

r Axed b« the coorpiri 
«• iKt irrinti • (ufpti, Hid, 
tonfplHton kill «hern ec hil 

, (on af Am^ntit tl. king 
•f Mtcedonai hit biith, IV. 

Ï>4. VtXafUtt cirrici him (o 
li-bti M .n hod.Be, 107. he 
fli» finm Thebes into Micedo- 

. pl«. 

Mact^Dnii, pufhi) hli coniuefli 
into lllinucn inJ Thnct, IV. 
J40. he thicrl into 1 let|g| wîtl» 
(he Thebini, Arfiv», end Mif- 
funiini. for itucking Pilepnn- 
Dcfni with theiijolni furcei, 34^. 
Aihent, declaring, for [hi Lc 
cc ilemnniani, btcaki thitlengus, 
344. Philip mjktt «II alltmpt 
vfaal<ibt',lbii. Phocion drixi 
hioi DUt ti that inind, )44. 
Philip fatmi (he dige of P»rin- 

Ihnfi fifgei, 3;i. PhlDa fubltttt 
A<hi;aa king of the Scytlliani, 
and ihe Tribilll, people >if Mit. 
lia,' JU, ïf hla Ini'lguei, h* 
caafea himfelf to hi .ledarcJ t». 
nerallfliinaof ihe Oreelil In llw 
cnuncll of the Amphlttyoni, 
q(6, h( fellea Elalaa, iet. th* 
AtheuiaiK and Thebii» aMee 
into > leagxe agilnd him, ;)&i. 

rcj<{tej bf t\ 

Zua Ih 



k'xWeâ in the mldft of thein> 371. 
ttiemorable aélions and fiyingi 
of i'iiilip, 371. good and bad 
chjra^lcri of that prjncei ihid, 

Philip, Ton of Demctiini, afcends 
the tlirone of Macedonia, VI, 
J71. he takes upon him the 
defence of ths Aih.irjns againft 
the ^^tolian^y 2c:. UiiiVrcnt ex- 
I editions of Philip ag^iinfl tne 
enemies of the Ach;ean<:, 204. 
Arange abufe that Apelles his 
miniiler makes of his confidence, 
2û^» irruption of Philip in'o 
•^tnlli, 2 10 he takes Therms 
by farprlzi-, 212. exc^fflxs com- 
niitîed there; by lii<i fi'idierSi iiij, 
proJ-n^e wliich he Hiewa in hit 
icitc.t^ ii^. troubles in his 
tamp, 215. puni.Oimcnt of the 
authors of them, ii d, irruption 
of Philip ii to Laconia, iliJ, nt/f 
intrigueof ihc confpirators, 216» 
their punifhment, 218. Philip 
takes 'I'hcb'js of Phthiotis from 
the i^toMaiis, 211. concludes a 
p-'icc w'.ih them, 222. Philip 
d'OiluJesa treaty with Hanuibal, 
215. he m:xk.£S preparations 
i'-t car/v'.na the war into Italy, 
22O he J fjiprizfd and defeated 
ty tho l>o:nanr at Apollunia, 227. 
hi ( h.-.;ii^;{.* of conJucl, ihlJ h.s 
I .!d i'.'i:!) jn.i irregularities, iùiJ, 
tf'-. lie (auAs Aratiis to be poi. 
li.n/.i. 2i.r. he niikes himf'Jf 
m^Hv-T <••■' 11 c city and caflle of 
1 i;l'..<, 230. he gains fcvcial 
a lv.-.;ir.)g:'î over the yEtolians, 
235 h;.* is rcDui.'eJ tnt cny 
i-t, tf.iil. <:iti'::;ent a^ticns of 
Pili.ip .".g irjft b..!p;'.iuS, 237. i:e 
cnrcr-> a 1 Jgne with An- 
tiiic.iuB for inva.iin^; the domini- 
< MS of Ptolcm*" Epiphancs, 270t 
bid luccer-. of Philip againft 
At: lus .r.ii ihwRh:)4ian*5, 271. his 
ciiiel tr!:4ln\cnt of ihc Cyancans, 
27?-. he bi'fi-iies anJ takes Ab)- 
c!is. 274. he ravages Attica, 277. 
i!k- Roii^iiis dcLhre war againll 
hit. ,27i^.l'h'lin makes inellVdlual 
aU.Qjfts a^iaiuit AiUcu'i a^Q* he 

endeavours to bring ot 
i^toliani into bis party 
he is defeated in a bai 
SuJpitit:s, '0^4. ineficâual 
view of Philip «ith Flan 
concerning peace, 298. he 
feated by Flaminions near S 
and Cynofcepbale in Th 
307. the Ronoans granr 
p>ace, III. Philip aids Q 
againft Nabir, 325. &c, h 
duâ roS€ipio,358. Philip*» 
of difcontent from the Ki 
VII. 6 the Romans ordc 
to evacuate the cities of 1 
JO. he difcharges his rage 
the inhabitants of Maronn 
he fends his fun Demeti 
an cmbafTy to Rome> iSi 
plaints againft Philip cart 
Rome, 48» the Romam 
back hii fon with ambai 
29. Philip prepares to reoc 
war with the Romans, 30t 
Per feu 8 again ft Demetriu 
he accuses him to Phili] 
upon a ne«r accafatioa 
caufes Demetrius to be 
death, 51. be difcovers I 
noceuce fume time efre 
Pcrfeut's guilt, 53. «hi 
nirditates the puniUimcnt 
latter, he dies, 
PiiJvM«' pretends himfclf 
PerlVus, and fcizei the ki 
of Macedonia, VII. 104. 
d'.feaied and killed by T 


Phil J F , one of Alexander* 
trtins :, provinces which 
him alter that prince'i 


Philiv, in concert with hi 
ther Antiochut, deflioys tl 
of MopfucHij, to aven^ 
death cf his brother Sei 
VII.^ 297. he reigns in 
with hit brother Demctri 
ter having driven out £ 
il^iiL Philip*! death, 

PHILIP, Phrygian, is mat 
vernor cf Judxa hy Am 



ihm the falutiry dnuthl 
lMp*eAlii<>Hl*r, V. 16 

bim 10 court, 1,1. dc»h 
lillSui, 1*7. he may I.c 
md *( > grcit hlAaiiln,I5l 
L,I1, Mictdfiniin. iiiwUi 
r<u*, it tent by l'hili|i nn 
ibtffir to Kome, VII. 49. 
Mturii he dElivcri a forged 

irrdlcdfuhofT. Q:>iniii)9, 

occiliani the dciili of 

rriw, s'_. Philip t>ur« 

tAioni In which hi dio, 5] 
LI), ant of ihc Alhs- 
|«nerili, ii dsfolcd itid 
ptJfoDTr *iih hii tulleigUH 
■ biiilt I'f JS'.iofpaumai, 

tctDi, grnttid a( ihe I'hu. 
, fell ilieni Hftinil the 
sf Ibt AmpMAyurii, aiid 

• ofihe tenipjf .if l)t)pl.i, 
hei thr 

geneol «f the hmh hy thf 

Ar.hx'ti', US' ^^ refaTBK tn,e 

fiiBDUi viilcHy over Maibinidi* 
tyrint of Spirti. and kiiii hint 
'ithebttile, i;E. iha Achnint 


, »59. I 

kly X lh« NeiTHfan gamBt, tCbi 
Vdilopamcn it dtrftiteJ ■[ ft» 
hj (ht lyiaiii Nibii, 3J7, be 
fliini a ftmODi viftoty OTei thit 
1/Nn; Mil Sp»rn, ijS, »ft»T 
ihv d«Mh of N,ibit he feiici 
. Spin*, and nbli|;«t thu dly )v 

^4*. he rt^rofei Iho prtfenti of- 
Im) him W ihe Spiriim, 34]> 
ht (™t«ily ftvniin th« Sp>fiih[> 
riilri, >nd ciufet war "I be ||<L 
tlatcil >iiJ>nlt thic city, j''7. ha 
n>«lin himfiil/ in»/lrr of Sp»ira, 
■ml r.'iiifljt«ilheeii'(i, jKg, he 
I't'iUi MflTrne, jih* » labtn 
pi>l^ner, VJI. 17, the MiiTc 
iiiiiit put him to dailh, iS. hO' 
noun paid to hit mettioiy, 19. 
of PMoftaiKa «flvr hi* 



n»nd) I body of hotfc iii Ale*' 
iiidio't txptdingn *D><nn Ptrlt*, 
V. 40. prcttiKlcd fonfpiwcji of 
I'liilnii) iftinl) AtMindtr, i^u. 
1j* it fax in lAtalh, ' 14a 

pHillTA», gOÏMim' of Upptf 

Afii, It put to dejihby Pirb«n, 

V, 367 

PrntnifNUi, poM, favouikïi of 


M. 1 

r Siltfia, l6j. he d^flin- 
it birrrdf m the biiile 
the til)> of Eli., m hii 


d fi<. 


ohtiiii pitden fat it. 
Phccion, general of the Alh<:ni- 
tuv diivet Philip out i.r Eubsi, 
IV. 346, he maket thil prince 
r.Vifi-ilicliFgeef PerinlhniamlBy- 
I'ntium, 351, btKJcâi ihl offert 

O s of 



cf Harpalus, V. %l%. be endea- 
vours in vain to prevent the A* 
thenians from engaging in the 
Lamian war, a6i. he is con- 
demned to die by the Athenianti 
294. his ho>iy is carried out of the 
territory of Attica» 295. the A- 
tlieniani ere^l 4 Aatue to his me- 
mory, and inter his bones with 
fingularfolemnity, 299. charaé\er 
and praife cf Phocion, 296, &c, 
Flyis, part of Greece, it ravaged 
by Xctxes, 30. the Lacedzmo- 
xiians deprive the people of Phocis 
of the cuUody of tlie temple of 
Delphi, III. 126. Pericles redores 
it to them» ihiti, the Pbocœans 
till the ground confecrated to 
Apollo, IV. 320. they are declared 
guilty of facrilege, and are fined, 
thiJ, they take arms againf^ the 
decree of the Amphiâyons, ihid, 
the latter make war againft the 
Phocxans, 321. Philip reduces 
them, 3 

PriORONEus^ king of Argos, 

Phraatf.& I. fon of Priapatius, 

king of the Parthians, \ 11. 335 
Phraates II. fucceeds his father 
A^ithridates in th^ kingdom of 
P^thia, VJI. 335. he is defeated 
three times by Antiochus Sidetes, 
276. he releafei Demetrius, 277. 
he defeats Antiochus, who ii kill- 
ed in the battle, ièid, he marries 
one of that prince*8 daughters, 
278. he is defeated by the Scy- 
thians, who had called in Antio- 
chus to their aid, and is killed in 
fly Hi f,, ièiJ, 

FiiHAATES III. furnamcd Theos, 
king of the Parthians, VII. 337, 
he makes an alliance with the 
Romans during the war with 
Mithridates, iùid. he efpoufes 
the part cf Tigranesthe Younger 
Uf^ainfl his father, ibid, deaih of 
Phraates, Hid, 

Tkr AATEsIV. is placed by his fa- 
ll. :r Orodes upon the Parthian 
thtonr, VII. 365. he puts his bro- 
tliiis, father^ and his fun, to 
d<.a;h. Wid, 

Phuaoktei, king of the Mede^ 
fuccecdt his father Dejoces, U. 
96. he makes himfelf mailer of 
almoft all Upper A fia, ihid, be 
makes waragainft (he^ AlTyriaos» 
ihid. he ia defeated, 97. Mibu- 
codonofor puts him to death, 

Pnrataphirkis, «nc of Alex- 
ander's generals: provinces which 
fall to him after that prince's 
death, V. %$% 

Phrymicus, one of the Athenian 
generals, oppofes the recall of 
Alcibiades, HI. 276. 
Phrynon commands the army of 
the Athenians fent againft Mi- 
tylene, II. 339. he accepts the 
challenge of Pittacas, and it kilU 
ed, . ^ i*irft 

Phyllvs, Lacedsemoman officer» 
is killed at the fiege of Spaita 
by Pyrrhut^ iigkting valiutly» 

VI. 17 

PhTSCON, Sit l*TOt«MY EtM* 

GET Et, furnamed Pbyjlnu* 
Phyto, general of the troops ef 
Rhegium, defends that city a* 
gaiuft Dionyfius, IV, 134. Die* 
nyAus, after having made.bia 
fufter great indignitiet, putthist 
to death, ^ ^ >35 

Pjsanobr> Athenian captain, de- 
termines the people of Atheoi 
to recall Akibiadct, III. 277. tht 
Athenians fead him to treat trith. 
. Alcibiades and Tiflaphernet, il^U* 
at hit return he changet tke foi» 
of the govern crent, 27' 

PisAMD<t, Laccdatcroaiaii* is af- 
pointed by Agcfilaus kit brotho* 
in- law to command the fleet ia 
his (Vead, III* 381. he it defeated 
by Conon near Cnidoc, and kirc^ 
in the battle, v/> 

Piti STRATUS, Athenian, mtksi 
himfelf tyrant of Atktna, 11. 3:11 
lenity of his goveromeat, jst* 
his death, 323. charaâer, 3S4. 
li^Tdry founded by him at A- 
t lient. iliJ^ 

Pi so (Catpurwiin) conful, coa- 
mands at the Aege of Carthi{C 
before th» aniral of Scipio» IL 1% 



I, (O«rnorof Lydi* for (ho Yo^rnEÈf, 15». eorfptncr of 

,.j»ol(«»B.mftthtlprltnr, ilju coiir.iod to prtv.nt l[i ïf. 

11. ijj. h« I. l.k.n, «hJ i>m 10 ftSi, iS1.l;l»loi"'H ilictiiuii, 

■OHi ona of AlMJndfi't ttf- vcntui» Ihii happtni ta fiim ■( 

in*, i» nuijit iiiivtinur nt MeilU OI)iii|ii>, i/''.il. hs itlurnitorha 

I* Aniipïitr, V, 1B6. hc c»uf^-i court of Dinnyfioi ihe Y«un«rt 

FhiUiai 10 b< pgtto dcKh, iDd i^S. Dionynu) d'ilTcTi wiik hlm, 

tkat poltiiTmi of hii g.iïern- 159. Iiripr.iiiiiiibiin lo leiutn lut» 

Mnt, 107. h( )■ driven oui m'Me- Cro», 160, l'ialo'i deiih, 187 

iBby VK-tiatt. uni abli^tiHo If PlliTMtMii, fon^f' Atrciit, kliig 

In |n S<l«uiu>, M. Anilggiiiii of Myc»n», 11. i!l>. 

uiihim la dciili, JH] Piiitokai, kint ofLirtdcmDiili, 

TTACi/g rf Mitrlcn*, On» uf lakfii r>ini la ouTc t licKy la ba 

ih* ftvcn [jgit iif GtieCE, drivel tmicludtd belwctn Atlieni and 

ipt lb« ly tAE who DpprtlIVil kii i[n-; III. «09 

Wi(ry> 11- i]9- ba cammanr-i Ti-utiiiich of BriirU calli iii the 

m inny aiilnn tht Aihcniaui, Athcniitii to iht dd of Eubat* 

M. MthillEiiieirhrfiion ihelr hilitt<il by l'hillp, IV. ^^^. hii ' 

uhmI 10 • fmila lombit, «nd pcrHilyi |4{. f liodoii dtUn hln 

IU> him, i'ii. ibc LnliAbliitnti of out o( Ittirii. itiJ. 

ïltiriM* |1*< hlm ihg fovirii|n- rjimftt, nKgilInti «t Aihtni, cm- 

I (uf ihilrcity. iliif. b« volunia- ptpy*d bAIh In k4m'lulAtt Juftic* 
commtnd atmiei, II, jjy 

ilruUnsf 1«A y"i>i •nilteiitci, PaLioicirti, nitm« given Dcnit- 

' hii d»th, jii<'. iriui fun "f Antigonuii V, jaj 

[,cltyBf Hdoiiii ihEptiiKuii PoLVSNuit fonilor of Syr^iuft, 

nuin |1o[]r at Liic bulla ofMf htrangiici tlie psople upun the 

nBon, !!■ ig3. ility irfufg tu aAiun of Andrinidorui ifur the 

iftmic 10 Xetiei, 111. 10, tbc death of Ilieronymm, VIII. «■ 

Irxba ilicice iltg pi lit of niour Pulviiuaii LiicdamonUa, ,1* 

t ibim (fiti ilic j*(Mt of Mar- chargtd wiih ibi wai i|iinfl 

Hiu't ta- >!>• [''""a-na innituia Olynihut, *nil likai ibit ïlty, 

n»ni*<if.>y f.llUal la honour IV. tot 

Ftbofa who illad In the battit, ;;. Pqlvrivi, Oietk hUtnrlia i hit 

of Plitca by ihs Thsbtni, fonfllsn il Ibe runciat of Ph;to> 
■■mtnfVIl. ig he It ahalan 
imh^lUdat ta Plolrmy Epiphanra 
>y \Ui Achwni,it>.J. he ii elg^cd 
jcneral of lh<: linif. 1,, th. 


of the aillu), tn(t 

41. Plal 

'1 tr 

hI> Uto .SIciIy, 


.. Home, 




Wh.-i h» 


■ tartheltiHlIiiia 


i- with fh 


Il ib« 

of Uio^yRo. ttc^, 

j-, ,MJ. r 

of P 




l.l> lii<li.>.t(y aud 

hi»t .. 

. »ei 



Dion, au. wo». 


. m dtfen 



«a.r.l .1 





MUit gi DlorjCu» 

h. «û. 

of hii difimttcaed 




fAfV. he rf>A^lîfflr« good ordfr and fiftratut» w}io commaridcd 

trjiiiinilltiv, ai;. hi rcturni to fleet of' Rhodety by a ftraUgi 

Siipiodii Kornr, and acrompauiei \ 

)i>ni to the lir^ir of Nuiniuti»! roi.rxii«u8> brother-in-liw 

ih.i, ut' rr Scipio's diraih ho re* Uionyfmti having declared «gii 

til I II 9 into hi;: nwu couii(ry> where thit prince, tliet to afoid ull 

hr mis hib Jiv«. fA/i/t into Ml handi, IV. . 

Pol. ^ m AT^ s, lyrint ot' Samos, Polysii.ui, brother of llirro 

II. 205. rnifiilir hifliiry of that kingof Syracufe, glvrt hit hroi 

i\i.ii\<, iriM his mir^riiMe cniU umbrage, JIK 14^, Theron, 

«c6 Ton- ill- 1 AW. takes hii part, it 

Por. VCR ATr^. fird miniOer of Pto- pe^ce it made by the mrdution 

Iciiiy'*i| rcnJrri that the poet Simonide», tt 

rriMi'p j'jcn fcrvicc», VII. 3 PoMPaiua (I,.) Roman «ffi 

P(>i vi)OR\-<, bnnhrr of fifnii, (y> commands a fmall b0"y of tro 

t.<nt if IM II.I*, is kllli'ii l>y I'o'y- during the warviith Pcrfeui, 1 

plironhis Iwci'rcr, IV. 23 retirrs loan eminrncr, where 

PiM. Yf.NuTi s, f.iiMOus pntntrr, gc- defends himfclf valiantly, V 
i^i-ious a «.'Villi vf \\i\ 10 the A- 

I'.tMiijiis li. 401 PoMrsY furcccda I.urtillus in 

Pt>i Y !■ vrtciioN, SyrariifAi, In con- war agjinft Mitliridatc', Vi 

<'«tt viti) I.rpriiwis kills <^a)|ip- io6- hit conduit upi>n ariiving 

pus, IiioiiN mMiiUrrr, IV. t;S his government, loK^ he ofl 

P' t \i>iiRi'N ii iMbfliiutrd to J.i- Mithridates pence, 109. he pa 

ion, tyi..n( ofPhrrir, his hrutUcr, frveral viclories over that prin 

l\'.'.'. 1. be kilh Polydoni» his 1 10. he marches into Aime 

<>t!.rr Niothri, unj in foun after aj'.tinft Tigranes, II I. who con 

kiiwa hiiatclf hy Alexander of and furrenJcrs himfelf to hi 

Pi-iiM.p, ih'd. 111. he purines Mithridates, 1 

l\>i.v -I' rxr MON, pne of the ge- in his way fubjef>a the Arbani, 

ii'-rniii of AlrxtintU'i'i armv, re- and Iberians, 114. tired oft 

iltur.i A ciuiMtiy called I^ihucrne, lowing Mithridates, he comn 

V. 165. lie iiiliitilcs a Peifun Syria, of which he ukee poff 

f»r pioHrjlin)* himfe'f bftnre iiun, and puts an end to thee 

« Alrx.uulrr, if) i^rinCRiaufrs pire of vhe Seleucidrt, it6. (I» 1m- put in pritrn, and par- marches to Fontu% iàij. he i 

tliii\i him iiiiin anrr, ihiii. Poly* turns into Syria, 117. aftrrhs 

f^urcliin iAkt% the city of <-ra, ing reduced all the cities of Pc 

f;. U- i .t|pi)inTi*d recent of the tu«, he rriiirns tu Rome, laa 

kiMf..l> m, ai- i I* > IV.-. I Dur of Mace- icrcives the honmir of .1 triuin{ 

dotiia hv An;i{ .ltd, 390. he re- tf'iJ. after hi* drfcat at Pharfil 

K*\h ()ly:ii|M.i'., he rniHca^ he reines into Jîgypt, 134. he 

*«Miri to fi-i-ur»* (îm-fc to himfelf, killed, I 

thif. he cinlV» ift-rciilc* thr fon of Pontust kinpdom of Afia Minor, 

AU*x.inJcr, anJ his ximihrv D.irfine cvxviii. chronological abridgmi 

to br pill to drjih, ;{ • 5 of the htllory of the kings 

fi'i.i s in r I us, l'ul> PontuSy U 

«lirr, (jirici «liii.k tu P.irin^ at PoriMus (C.) it fent ambafTac 

thr pnini of dc.uh, and rccrivei in'o Kgypc in order to put an c 

hie hit, V. 123 trt the war there, Vll. 67. 

.'01 YxrNiiu-v, ailmir.l1 of the t!o|K obliges Antiochui to quit Kgy 

il Auti'diun thr Ciie^t, is de- and leave the two Ptoltmift, bi 

)r;itcil hy l.ivius, and redurrd 10 then, in quirt poiTeffion of it, : 

''y* ^'^* 357* b* defeats Pau* i)c li fcAC i/ito PclpjponiMfua 




Ift lh« 4e<r«E of Ihc fcaila 

PpoT .50Ï AI, bro'bcl of HiwtM, 

«pel. E.«»r«ll.f.oni&J,Mi, 

, Indiin kmK, lef-f" " fub- 

>ii<) .eif« in hi. OMd, IV, 

» Al«*r.d=., V. >79.b<i. 

iSi. Oihui csnËriix the pcf- 

■led ind liken p'ifoncr, l3{. 

fciiHan cf ibc tliron* to hira. 


lont. iSâ 

P,»T*CO,«. of AU.rt. S.phift , 


h.icpioi^n «n<«ni«, ih, Di.i- 

11. «6 

nily. Ill- ÏJV lb* Arbcnuot». 

Hi|), Piolemy'* minifler. 

pd bitniliiirtilr.aaJ tiiife li;i 
v-orki lob. burnt* .,+ 

rann Cltopiln, Vlll 134. he 

r*i ibedeich oS Pompcy.n;. 

P.OÏIJ»., M«Bl0Diin! AIea<i4n' 

drink. h>t htiltli la ihi l«»lof 

lOIO lh= Enypli.n, II7. h' 

Kt'cilei. V.mS 

eau the etFefl of Carfji'. dc 

P...iru., kint of EjBpr. 1. «1. 

, ind m.k« the EetrI ji.. 

he fto^. H<l<i>>i>dl>(i i><:lMi.*nd 

umoMinft him, I ,<,. t«. 

i.ilof.. her 10 McneUut, (> 

aufia him to be put m dciih. 

P.o-iHou,. fenttor of Spmi, op- 


pofel Ih- w*f villi Ih* ThrhUI, 

1, cin of MKcdonii, roolti 

iMIUdifrfprtH, IV. Ma 

III the Athcniini, to ohon 

VtùioMAtuvi, «M orthiAtb*. 

u iiibnriry. 111. 119. il ii 

Dill g-iurili lhJ( (lined (ha 

«cdindtiken by the Aihe- 

ïirto', ni*r (be tflitiil) ArBloafa, 

., .7+. Philip t.k« ihitciir 

■nd wen (onacmiKd*! (h»if ro. 

thtm. IV. ,1,, 

lU'O. III. *M 

.trt; cmtidtnt of Citn- 

1, killi Smcrdit by ihit 

ti!Kly of Ctetua iroipi in tba 

n*i otdcf, 11 101. hi( bife 

limy of C]>rut tht Yeanur >. 

mooHroui of C.m- 

I.inl) hi! b'olher AniMnu, III. 

,,,04. he promireMbeM-gi 

3JO. he il («ind br trnrhtlji 

cUre Smcroii the MigUf thi 

■.m put to de«h, )«, (iMna-t 

foB of Cyril» to the people. 

he fpiiIciioiheptopleliDin 


■pof ■ lower, decl.Fei Ihe 

PiiKiAtlLkiuaaf BithyBi*. ftif 

arrta ihtm, throwt hunrif 

nimed (1* ibtr^r, deiltrti (orllil 

I frotn the top of th» i..«er. 

Rominl eiuna Aaliothu. V|. 

• killed, .UJ. 

]£». he m*kn *M hmiiA lu* 

•Tim, fonand rucctlT.rof 

m<-.e.. VII. 1,. ft„je.. ««. 

him br Hinaibtl dnriattfcat «*)( 

idfifei her 1 

|>i<t licir::fin'.. 

• nn<, »id to mike Aliilui fa- 

r'l hindi. 

Vlll. .^'^. he 

iTiliflion, iiiJ. VtahtM inicndinc 

11 himfelf m 

.fterof thîpcr- 

10 pol hit fori Niwmedeilo detlb. 

t lh« p-in 

cU. 166. («f.r 

iikilledbjhim, igj 


hei wh.t (he rfe- 

P.*MM«».-ru., king of t„pt. 

»f him. 


il comuered by C.mbyfe^ «hv 

baot, one 

of Alfiin-feri 

ufei him «ilh clemency, I. lu 

n, diei io 

»i):liiu^b "iih 

lie er.lei>oari to icifcend Iha 



thioacj »ai il pat U dcith, iiid^ 



PiAMMETtcvi, one of the twelve 
king«| who rvigned at the fame 
time in Egypt, it biniflicd into the 
fen% and on what orcafioni I. 
69, he defeats the other eleven 
kings, and remains Cole monarch 
of Egypt, ibid, be makes war 
againfV the king of AHyria, 70. 
he befieges Azotus, and takes it 
after a firge o|* twenty- nine year», 
ih'ui. he prevents the Scythians 
from invading Egypt» i/'/V. his 
method for knowing whether the 
Egyptians were the mod ancient 
pi'(iple of the earth, 71 

Ps.xMMii, king of Egypt, I. 74. 

ProLiMAiDA, datightir of Ptole- 
my Soter, is m.ur.ed to DemetriiiS 
Poliorcctes, VI. 6 

Ptolemy, Ton of Amyntas II. dif- 
puCcs the crown with Perdic- P 
ca«, IV, 307. Pclopidas ex- 
cludes him from the throne, 

P^oLF.MY, fonofSelcucus, il killed 
at the battle of llfus, V. 47 

Ptolf. MY I. fon of Lagui, one 
of Alexander*» generals, takes fe- 
vcral cities of India, V. 175. he 
i . dangeroufly wounded at the fiege 
rf a city of In<ii«,20i. he ii cured 
food jficr, iUi. provinces which 
liU to him after the death of 
Alexander, 1^7. he caufes the 
body of Alexander to be carried to 
Alexandria, ijq. he «nieri into a 
leigue with Antipater, Craterift, 
and Antigonus, againll Perdiccas 
and Kumcnei, ftSr. he makes 
hjmfelf maftcr of Syria, I hœ- 
nicia, and Judaea, 189. he lakes 
Jerufalem, ihiJ, he forms a league 
with Selcucus, Cailandcr, and 
LyIimjchus, againft Antigonus, 
324. he feixes the iilanvi of Cyprus, 
328. he defeats Demetrius in bat- 
tle, 3ai(. and makes himfelf maftrr 
of Tyie, 319. defeat of one of P 
his generals by Demetrius, 330. 

• diliVrent expeditions of Ptoloinjr 
againfV Antigonus, 336. Ptolemy 
is defeated by Demetriu*, who 
takes from him the iHc of Cyprus, 


Ptoicmy affumet the title «f king» 
349. he fends aid to the Rho- 
dians befiegcd by Demetriuv 
361. the Rhodiine, in gratitude, 
give him the title of S§ttr, 366. 
allies himfelf with Scleucuif 
Calfander, and Lyfimschus, a* 
gaiaft «Antigonuf and Dcmoirius» 
373. thofe four princes divide the 
empire of Alexander amongit 
them, VI. I. Ptolemy retakes tht 
ifljnd of Cyprus from Demeiriuii 
9. he renews the league with 
Lyfimachus.and Seleucus agaioft 
Demetrius, 11, he abdicates the 
throne to his fon Ptolemy Phtladel- 
phus, ao. death of Ptolemy Sotari 
15. praife of that prince, iiul, fa- 
mous library, which he cauA^ M 
be ereéted at Alexandria, n 

TOLKMY II. furaamed Pnila- 
nx I. PHUS, is pUced by his father 
Ptolemy Soter upon tht thtoM of 
Egypt» VI. ic. feaft which he 
gives the people «n hh acctJfiea 
to the crown, «i*/, the commence- 
ment of his reign, 36. hit refeat* 
ment againft Demetrtua Phalerca^ 
Hid he caufes the Holy Scriptoict 
to be tranflated into Greek, ro 
adorn his library, 50. he cultivâtes 
the amity of the Romani, S<i 
his liberality to the Roman aai- 
bafl'adois,86.fcnds aid to l he Athe- 
nians heficged by Antigonus 87.1c* 
volt of Magas again A Ptolemy ,fak 
works of Ptolemy of advaataii • 
to commerce, 9a. he CMsei toaa 
acccimmodiiion with Magai, gjt 
war between Ptolemy and Aatio- 
chus, 94. peace between thofe 
princes, 95. death of Ptolcny 
Philadelphus, 100. character aad 
qualities of that prince, iiJ. hi» 
tai>e for arts and iciencea, 94. hii 
application to make commcitt 
fluurilh in hisdominioni, 9» 

loLiMV III. furnamcd Evaa* 
G E 1 F k, fucceeds hia father Pte- 
Icmy PhiladelphuSy VI. 104. hf 
avenges the death of hia fiUci 
Berenice, pat» Laodice to dtatb^ 
anJ fciaei part of Afia, 105. ia 
ruuroiag from ihu cs^rioa 

i4ta '|Ki to Jcnir>l(m, and otFen 
. Ckciificti there lo the Ccd of K- 

ncl, 107. Icigge of Antiochut 
Hiçrm >ad Sclclicot Cillinicui 
•fitnit Ptolemy I loS. 


. he 

:<Ak> Ant 


br»7 of Alciandrii, iM. he gives 

Jofepbi the nephew of Odi», the 
inn of the teieime»- oF ibe pro- 
vincea of Calorjriii, Phanicii, 

' et Cleomenei at the court of E- 
*"• «TPt' 'T- ■'"■'' "' Ptolemy E- 
h-'T*rE*tet, 171. Plolemy'iliberaikr 
h:U ike Rhediani, ibiJ. 

^^LEMV IV. futnamed Piiito- 
1^ VAToe, ifceadi the throne of 
It. EfTpl lifter the death of Plolemy 
jx^tergetei, VI< i74' injuftiee and 
[j cnelty of ihtt prince to CIeo< 
I, BMDCt, igo. Antiochutlhe Gieat 
ly «ndcitakei to recover Csiofyria 
. Irom Ptolemy, 177. niorl liuca 
« ; between Ihofe two priniei, iSfi. 
t-9i»ititij gatai a great \iaaty 
|i'«¥er Antiochui at Raphii, 189. 
.' kccameito Jerufalem, 190. rage 
}.aa4 leicnge of Ptolemy againfb 
t^k» Jewi, becayfe they refufe lo 
^'.kt liim enter into the Cinflu- 
■i^»rf. Hid. be graata Antiocbut 
—lie, 191. ihe Egyptians revolt 
ri «tlinA Pbilopator, iiiJ. that 
? fTlnce «ivti himfclf 

E X. 

conspiracy lEainil Ptolemy fraff- 
rated by Ariilomenet, %\g. Pto- 
lemy i> declared at age, 110. he 
mirriei Cleopatra, daugRlar of 
Anliochut, j]], he makeian a1' 
liance with (be A<h«an9, VVi 
I. he tieiii Hyrcanui, [he Ton of 
Jofcph, wilh grett marlti of (1- 
*our andfiiendllilp, a. he ukei « 
difguit to A[illoc{jEi)(i, and putt 
him to death, 3, he ahindoni 
himfeir to all foni of eiceU^, 
UiiJ. the Egypiiani faria literal 
CDnrpiricici agiinit him, ièiJ. 
Plolemy chufei Polyiralei fet hii 
jrime nuoifler, ii"^, with that 
miniftci'j aflillance he gcli the 
beclcrof the tcbcU, iiidt he re- 
le alliance with the A- 


«flej, J 
pnti Aifiaoe, bii wife an 
lo deaihi 194. be diet woid oui 
with debauch». 167 

Ptoiimy V. called En FH AN 1^, 
at ihe age of five ye^r! aftendtthe 
thrr,nc of Egyp. jitttihe death of 
Ptolemy ['hili.pjLnr, VI, î63. An- 
lioihui ih^- Gical and PhUip en- 
ter into a league to invade hit do- 

177. ArinnmciiçB,ihe young king's 
■uardian fui the Koiilan^ tikes 
Paleitine and CKlofyria from An- 
tiocbui, iS«. Aniiochuj reiikti 
. iLofi: provincci, iiiJ. Scopu'i 

poifonhim, iM. 

'tolikyVI. called Philomi- 
Ton, at lii years old, fueceeds 
hii falher Ptoleiny Epiphaneii 
VII. 17. eaufe af-war trïl'u be- 
iwec» Ptolemy and Antiocbui 
Epiphinei, Gi. coronalioil of 
Piolemy, ibid, he 11 defeated 
by Antiochui, 63, be lofei ■ 
leconil battle igainS Antiocbui, 
and il tahen piifoDer, £4. (he 
A'eiindriani elcA hii brotber 
Plolemy Eiergitci II. funumed 
alfo Phyfeoii, in hii plate, 66. 
Aniiochua rep) aid Philonetoi 


e thro: 
brolhera unite and 
I joinil]^, 70. the Romani 

tbem, 71. Philoroetor ti 
roned by hll brother Phyf- 
he goeg to Rom* 




menty, 141. 
vide ih-. kingdom of Ewpl be- 
tween ihe two brother), Hid, 
new ailTctencei arlfe between 
Philametor and Fhydaa, Hid. 
PhiloniietJr refufes to etacuit* 
the illind of Cypru', 141< be 
gaini a vlQorj oier Phyli:on| 
sad tilcti him piUénti, m- 



he pardons htm, and reftorcs 
him bis domiaioni, ^id, be 
marries bis daughter Cle«patra 
to Alexani*er Bah, 252. he per- 
mits Oniu to b'jïld a temple tôt 
the Jews in Cg>pt, U'id, be 
marches îo the aid of Alexan- 
der his fon in-law, attacked by 
Demetrius, 254. ApoUonius's 
plot 2^a<r.fl Ptolemy, ibid» op- 
on tke*reîuûl of Alexander to 
deliver up that traiter, Pbilo- 
meter takes hi« daughter from 
him, fives her to Dcmctr:us, 
and aids him in afcending hit 
father^s throne, ibid. Pbilome- 
tor't deith, 255 

Ptolemy VII. calitrd Evssnz- 
TES II. and Physcok, fon of 
Ptolemy Epiphanes, is placed 
by the Alexandriant upon the 
throne cf Egypt in his eld- 
eft bro her*s è.'taà, VII. 66. the 
two br&thert unite and reign 
jointly, 70. they prepare to 
defend themfelves again.1 the 
attacks of Antiochns, ibid, the 
Romans oblige that prince to 
leave tbofe two princes in 
traiitfuilliiv, 72. Phvfcon de- 
tnro:.:sFhilome:or, 240. the Ro- 
XTk. n% divide the kingdom be- 
t'Acen the t-xc brothers, 241. 
Pr.^fcon. diir.ti:fied with the 
pïrt given to him, g'^es to 
Konne, and demands to be put 
IP. p fîc/iîcn of the iO^nd of 
Cyprus, ib'.d. the Romans ac- 
ji-cge it to him, 241. the pi:- 
pic of Cyreijiica oppofe IV.yf- 
con*i entianre into their* coun- 
try, did. that prjn<-e re-efta- 
blifhes himfelf in that country, 
and draws artcm-.ts his 
life upon Lixfclf by bit lid 
conduct, 243 he m^kca a fé- 
cond voyage to Rome, «nd car- 
ries his complaints tliither a- 
gainfl his br'.lhfr, ibid, he under- 
takes to make himfeif maftcr cf 
the ifland of Cyprus, ■/:</. '^Phi- 
lome'.cr beats and tak-s him, and afterwards gene- 
rcbjly icftorci liim to hie domloi* 

ont, ^id. Pbjrfton mirrSes C 
patra. the vidov cf Phslomr 
afcenda the throne of £gi 
and pntt hit brother*! fen 
death, 255. Phjfcon'a ezcefi 
folly and debauchery, 265. S 
p:o Africanus the Yoon^rr 2 
to that pnnce^a court, 2 
Phyfcoa puts away Clecps* 
and marries her daughter, 
Philometor, named alfo CI 
patra, 279. hdrribic cmcî 
which he committ in £^ 
ib:d, a general revolt reds 
him to quit that kingdom, i 
new cruelties of Phvfcon, /• 
he returns into Egypt, and 
afcendk the throne, aSi. he 1 
ports the impofior Alexas 
Zebina, and lends him an ai 
, to place him upon the thrrae 
Syria, ibid, he gives bis daa 
ter Tryphena in marriage 
Grypus, 284. PhyfcoA*s dca 

Ptolimt VIII. callca Lari 
IDS, fucceeds his lather Ph 
con, VII. zS6. Cleopatra hit s 

ther obliges him to repaci 
his e'deft lifter, and nurrv : 
lena his yosngeft, 287. Latl 
rus aids Antiochas the C«sJ 
nian a|;auift' John Hyrcas 
2S9. CIcopa:ra takes herdasj 
l«r Selena from Lathyras, « 
liges him to quit Egypt, i 
content himfeif with ihe ki 
dom cf Cyprus, 292. Laths 
fends an army to befiege Pt( 
raai% and marches in pcribn 
p?in.1 Alexander king cf 
Jew, over whcm he gûni 
g- cat viAory, 29). barbai 
afli-^n of Lathy rus arer 
battle, ib'd. he raifes the i 
of Pcolemais, 294. he makej 
inefteâual attempt againtfc £c; 
ibid, he is recalled by the 
lexandrians, and replaced u 
the throne of Egypt, ^co 
rebcUioo rifcs up againft hin 
Egypt, ibid. Lathy rus dcfit 
Thebes, whither the rebels 
CCtiiçdj and he dies i-yon after, ; 



l'tï D 


Prcttuy IX. k 


let», il n<*de IcTnt of Cysrui 


by C>f>r, VIII. 140. C«i'ir 

of Alexinder I. 

giro him the cro^n «f ïgypt 

l^llf at EEypi 

Sn Alikah- 

joinity with Cltopiiti, 14). dea*h 

of Ptolemy, poifontd by ihil 

urrimc* Aon- 

priiicsl'i, 141 
Ptolimï, Ton of jTnthany mi 

by the AleMn- 

dfl>n> >ip"n 'hi 


atop.lriL, Il piKhimea kinj 

of Ale.»nd.r 11. 

of Byti. by Anihoiiy, Vlli. 

VII, 10-. ho 

aufei himfelf O 


bg d.'cUicd ih 

fiienë and .;iy 

PrnLf^r An<>t<. n.lur.l r..O ^ 

«^ -u k™. 

ftopU by the 


tniHt ol Ci- 

If and Pompey, 

<* by hi. fnther, vfl. ,se. h. 

Vlll. in. 1 

c nppriirei hii 

Hini hl> kingdom u the RaiTM'M 

fubJeO. in c 

un>:q<Jence wilh 

nlhiMleith, *J|S 

ililhrnnej, iM. 

P-rni.«l» C»«.UNcr., « TJ..- 


V fubftiiule lii» 

dir, fmi of Ptolemy Sutur, auit* 

.#iu:hur liM..' 

K^ in hi> pNcc, 

Ihecoutt, •ndieliieifirfln i.v- 

ft*, b-r (,"" 1-, ind «ilh 

rimxhui, iM mtisiwuii. la 

f i,flVBEerof ihe 

SeiflKi,., VI. ij. hi cnrtco 

tbe l>t»r in 1 *t.i »Uh Ljft- 


' ni.uh'jl, %i. Ht nfrilli'lJtd S(- 

)1T. he ciufii 

iinft of Iha .m- 

leucui, and polTclTiii himrtif of 

buTidoi., r.nt 

by the Esyptiin) 

to Rjint <> J. 

fiifï iheir revolt. 

hit sn» Arfinoi, widow of Ly 

II to bB muidorr 

, M. in a»cl« 

fifniihui, ind caufei her too 

of tha Sil.jl 

, :.ump[ up .. 

childicn by th>t prioc* W ha 

idnlt him, 11 

B. Oiblniui lein- 

mofde-efl. 4J- ho b.tillh« hw 

ffM,. hit» u 

on the thraae. 

into S.mothr.ti», rfij. b« Il ft»a 

- IJl. A.jl(tei 

ul. hit d.t.|h«r 

.fter punifted for thofe p*rH. 

^l4r«»i<'ta .1. 

ih.tfiV. hii in- 

cide= by the O.uU, who kJl 

• JJ.dOll. ..!^ 

ifiJy [0 Rabiriui, 

. him in ) badle, - 44 

,'.[», iW. 

Ptoiimï Macom, governor of 

i,.i of Ptoltmy 

Iho illtnd of Cyprm under Ptn- 

Auicto. fri... 

.r'l» hii f^ber 

letny Philonnwr. re.ol» «iiinlt 

Sriih liii r;>.r 

leni^iiri, Vlll. 

thit piioce. coiiiri into the fef. 

*Î4. Ii<^ '■■■. 

Oltopllr», iAjV. 

*in: of Aotlochu. Eplphjnet. 

'M 'lul'^. i':. 

,.- [u be iiv^m- 

ind„ h.m pefliffljn of iho 

,||*K4 fc) .■.. 

.r;ice of Thco. 

la.nJofCypru.. VII. 64. An. 

40lD>, nj. <. 

,l,r mikei him. 

liochui tireihim 1 Aire in hi* 

Wr]u,rtc be. 

'Clfopitri. 11? 

le fccure. the 

of C«lofyri. ind P.leftlnt, (*W. 

Mrfon of Hmlem)', 140. he rf. 
lairci liim, 141. I'tolfmy le- 

he nurtfir. «|a(nft iha Jewi, 
.nd h dtfgale^ by J,.d.. *M«. 

■B«wi 4 

4lnil Uïfir, ,K.'. 

cib.T>.<. g], &,. he becotnee 1 

lit 1> HrfrliH 

.r.,i d.ownrd in 

friend to the lewl, ii5, Antio. 



chus Kupiior deprivei him of 
his government, iUJ. Ptolemy, 

• |b(I of ["-.Irr 

rn"Cypru5. bru- 

through dcfptir, poifoni himfelf. 


.i..n-. «hocon- 

P-roT.>Mv, fonofPyrrhut. iïkiil. 

.M. VII, ,.:h<! 


,pmfoni h.Tuicl 


moim,.,, VI. «0 

(SLIMV ILltnol Ptolemy Au- 

Ptolimt, one of the principil 


•fficert of Philip, unîtei with 
ilpellei in his confpiracy againft 
that prince, VI. si 6. Philip caufet 
him to be put to death, ato 

Pt'L, king of the AHyriaDS, who 
does penance upon the preaching 
of Jonah, IÏ- 74 

PutCHiR^P. C.'akdiusJ conful, is 
beaten at fca by Adherbal the 
CarihiKiniangcntraJ, I. 157 

Tuntcki Oiigin and fj^nification of 
that word, I. 1C4 

2'yiffia, city of Macedonia, is fub- 
jefted by Philip, IV. 311. fa- 
mous vi^ury gr.ined by Paulus 
/Lmiliusover Fcrfeus, near that 
ciry, VJI. ,59 

Py/toi, a finall ci«y tf Mtffcnia, 
taken by the Athenian, during 
the Pelo[ ('rimfian war, 11 J. 191 
PjramUl, Dcl'cription of the py- 
ramids of Egypt, I, 5. judgement 
to be formed of thofe fdinous 
ftruclures, j 

Pyrrhiar, general of the i^to- 
lians, ii twice beaten by Philip, 

VI. 135 
Pyrrhus, fon of iCacides king of 
Epirui!, fliei from the fuiy of the 
revolted, VI. 7. he ii re-efta- 
1)11 fbed upon the throne of Epi- 
ru9 by Glaucias king of lllyrium, 
ihid, the Moloflians revolt a- 
gainil him, and plunder all hii 
riches, ihid, he retires to De- 
metrius, fon of Antigonui, ihid, 
he diftinguiflies himfelf at the 
battle of Ipfus, i/'Ui, he goes 
to Egypt as an hoftage for De- 
metrius, ilfid. he marries An- 
tigone, daughter of Berenice, 
8. Ptolemy gives him a fleet 
and money, of which he makes 
life for repoHc/Ting himfelf of 
his dominions, ilid. Pyrrhus 
takes Macedonia from Deme- 
trius, and is declared king of 
it, la. he divides that king- 
dom with Lyfimachus, 15. he is 
fuon obliged to quit it, 16 the 
Taientines call in Pyrrhus to 
their aid againft the Romans, 5). 
chat prince goes to Italy, 56. hi- 
dcfeat» the conful Lcviuus, 59. he 

caufci propofals of peace 
made to the Romans, tàiJ 
verfation of Pyirhus with 
cius, 61. Pyrrhus gains a 
advantage over the Komaji 
expeditions ot Pyrrhus in 
70. he returns into Icily, ' 
plunders the temple of I 
pine in the country of the 
ans, ièid, he is defeated I 
Romans, 74. he returns i 
ptrus, ihfti. he throws Y 
into Macedonia, and make 
felf mafler of it for a time 
having dtfeatrd Anttgunu 
expedition cf Pyrrhus into 
(onnefu», 76. he Lefîeges 
iaefVcftually, 79. he is ki 
the ficge of Argos, 83 goc 
bad charaéiers of Py: rhus, S 

Pythagoras, Lacedxm 
commands part of the fl 
Cyrus the Younger, in t 
peditton of that prince 
hii brother Artaxerxes, II 

pYTHACOBAi, fon of £v 
defends the city of Sahm 
fieged by Artaxerxet^ duri 
father* abfence» Ii 

Pythagobar, phîlofophei 
151. he goea to Italy and 
at Crotona, where he o\ 
fchool of pbilofophy, 

Pytharcus of Cyxicum, 
the favour of Cyrua, who 
him the revenue! of fevex 
for a penfion, I 

Pythias, magiArMc of th« 
tians, induces them to unit 
forces againft the Romaai 
axo. Metellus puu him to 

Pythias, friend of Damon 
to which their friendfliip « 

Pythius, Lydiaa prince, 
rous Ciffer which he mak( 
xes of his riches, III. 10. 
which the princefs hia wi 
ta make him fenfible of 
juftice .ind ridicule of hi 
duft, ihui, cruelty whtc 
ihiui experiences from 

PPr<«NBna>«lt fcot by the Alhe> 
I, »Uai lo ibc lid of the Leonlinci, 
't it^ioiAeii (ai not biv'inic un- 
l'.dctuken the conqucft of Siciiy, 
'f . III. iiS 

pTTHaNof Byi.ntium, fitnoui 
•I ibeioiiciin, ii depuied ky PhiJip 
1 to thcTbcbaai lo incline ihcrn 



1 ths 

commind at proronful, itid hi 
d[f«ili ihe CinhiBiniin-, ai 
(»ut Tuait, t47. he fBffsii 
Umreir ta bi daiilid by hii 
glerioui (ucccflfs, 148. he it dC' 
ftiicdind t-kcn p'ifontt by ih< 
Cirtbagioiim, iji.STi, iheCir 
thiginiani fend him to Romt 11 
piopsFc th( exchange of pti 




rcfpeft [i 
9 arcufid 
atTitted . 

dcfeiicg opnr 



t' Ihs plain whers 
Nibucodanoror conqueitd Hhrj- 
II. 9S 
•■MiAHUH, king of E. 
. 55. he mabci ihe Ilratl- 
Set iadaitt hudlhipr, 

I ,fi>llawi him CO Ran 

1 th.i 

14a. be goci 10 Afiici, Hid. the 

make hit own |ieA«, ind k<WI 

the money which he hid bianjUt 

ftoca Evypt far the conrtilcracyi 

IV. lit 

Iifir,3li,l ihctfn iho«r.ndOr«kt 

after the bitile of Cum», HI, 

145, Wf. 

Rhadamahthui, btolhcr of Mi- 
aai. Il appointed by that priiua 
to «dminiàci jiidUe in hii C'ipiitl 

RiiAHriiHiTtii, k\ai of Egypt, 
I. 6» 

Rhtgium, city of Slcliy. forffli 1 
Ixaguc again» Dionyllu*, IV. 
no. it make] pet» with ihiC 
tyrant, iU. ill lerufal ■« liv« 
him a wife, and the InfoltnC 
anfwec with which tbal rifufal 
Î9 it'cnded, lit. Dloayfiui be> 
r>e;ei it out of revenge, fj^. 
roifcrible f^te of that city. INJ. 
1 Roman legion by the aid at 
the Mimeiilnei comca and fct* 
llet (hrre, after liivint (xpeiltJ 

Roman) le-eflablilb the iohabi- 
tant), ihiJ. 

RuisiAiii, Acbcait, obligei hi) 
fan Metnnon, who WM chief 
magift^ie, by menace, not la 
oppefe the treaty with the Ro- 
man., vr. »47 

Rtodii, i/ljnd and city of Alii Mi- 
nor, tike, arm) agiinft Athew, 

IV. iG}, it i) decUred ftee, S74. 


ft Si fubjcâed by Maufolus king 
of Caria, %Tj*- the Rhodians 
undertike to dethrone Artcmifu 
Vi'idow of that prince, 279. that 
pri reefs takes their city, ibid» 
the death of Armetifia reinftateS 
their liberty, tSo. the Rhodians 
refufe to aid Antigoniis againft 
rtolcmy, V. 353. Demetrius bc- 
fieges their city, ibid, he raifos 
the ficge a year atter by a pe^ce 
very honourable for the Rhodi- 
ans, 365. he makes them a pre- 
iont of all the machines of war, 
which he had employed in that 
fu'ge, ;7»;/. the Romans trtCi the 
famous Coli'iuis, with the mo- 
ney n'xtzà by the falc of thof;: 
machines, i^:d, their impious 
flattery of Ptoh-my, to exp'eis 
their gratitude f>>r the a'd he had 
given ihem durinjç that fiegc/ 
3C6. great earthquake at Rhode«y 
Vl. 172. emulation of the 
neighbouring princes in con- 
foling tha( afflicted city, ibid, 
deftruAion of the famous Colof- 
fus, 173. war between the Rho' 
dijns and Byzantines, and the 
caufcs of ft, X90. peace is re- 
fiored between the two people, 
ibid, war between the Rhodians 
and Philip, 270 difpute between 
the Rhodiat.s and Eumenes before 
the Romans concerning the Gre- 
cian cities of Aha, '^'ji, the 
Rliodi.ins fignaliza their zeal for 
Rome in the war with Pvrfeus, 
VJJ. 114. they lend ambafTadors 
to Rome.' and to the Roman 
army in Macedonia, who fpeak 
theie in favour cf Pcrfeus with 
extraordinary infolence, I37i they 
fend deputies to Rome, who en- 
deavour to appeafe the anger of 
the fenate, i^i. after long and 
ivarm felicitations, they prevail 
to be admitted into the alliance 
of I he Roman people, 1%^ 

RuoDocuNE, daughter of Miihri- 
dntes king of the Parthians, is 
married to Demetriuf king of 
Syria, VII. 265 

RoMANt. FSrft treaty betweeni 
Romani and Carthaginians, 
115. fécond treaty between 
Romans and Carthaginians, j 
they punifh their citizens ^ 
had fettled in Rhegium, : 
they aid the Mamcrtinet agi 
the Carthaginians^ 143. t 
foi m the defign of fitting 
a fleet foV the firft time, 
ihey beat the Carthaginian*, 
near the coaft of My le, 
afterwards near Ecnrma, 
they go to Africa, 146. they 
at firft viélorious, 147. and 
terwards defeated, 150. 
defeat the Carthaginian fleet 
figlit of Sicily, 154. they g» 
Sfcily, and form the fiegc 
Lilyb.'eum, 155. t^ey are 
feated at fea, 157. they gai 
great viAory, over the Can 
giniant> to whom they g 
peace, 159. the Romans t 
Sardinia from the Cartbagioi; 
I. 169. they drive Teuta out 
lUyrium, VI. 129. they feo 
folemn embafly into Greece 
notify their treaty vith the 
lyrians, ihid, the Corinth 
admit them to the Iftbn 
games» and the Athenians ^ 
them the freedom of their < 
ibid, the Romana drive De 
tri us of Pharos oat of Illyri 
S02. they fend ambafla'ion to 
n^and him of Philip, who 
fufet to deliver him up, : 
they declare war againft 
Carthaginians. I. 177. the) 
defeated near the Ticinus» 
near Trebia, 1S9. and the 1 
cf Thrafymene, 193. they n 
feveral con^ueftt in Spain, 
they lofe a great battle 1 
Cannie,. 202. Hannibal b<fi> 
Rome, 209. the Romana arc 
feated in Spain, 211. they | 
Africa, 214. they defeat 
Carthaginians near Zam.i, 
them to demand peace, 
grant it them, 220. the Ro 
fend deputiei to Ptolemy 



MMrcneiT their ■ncient 
I wiih Egypt, VI. 93. 

|>tQ m advintige over 
n Apollonia, 117, thcy 
with Hicronymu), VIII. 
pon the news of ihit 
• ilcith they Ceaà Mar- 
into Sicily, ig. ibit gC' 
tàkti Syricurc, 41. il)i- 
if ths Romini wilti the 
■M, VI. ijr. thu Kd- 
fcnj Sulpitiui ta ihe >id 
.ftoliani (gainlt Philip, 

in Mucedoiiii, i]^. *gc- 
icjrc between the Komini 
hilip, in which ihe allies 
h Ëdei aie ineiudtd, 161. 

of PlDiemy Epiphinci, 

ibar ( 

., »79. 

> ictcii 

l)bii,]oc. ihey giini fimoui 
■ snr Philip Dcv ScoiulTa 
BVaoteefhjIe, 303. ibcy 

«ÏDftate G-ecce i» itf ai 

Kfcvtr. î". the Roîw 

u enlwITv to Anti«bv 

h ttadi '«a\j te difpc 

Ho to, an open ruptu. 

Ihiy mtkc wir tiiii 

, jai. xbty oc?i(e hin 


Al ani A=x;«fc=i. 5: 

r Magnelii, 

over Antiachut nsi 
36S, thej grint him _ . ^, 
ihi^y redQce the j^iolians, ind 
£jnt them pcice, 3Ï6, thejr 
fubju;! ihe GiuL. cf Afn. 390, 
(omplnintiigainit Philip «tried 
to Rome, VU. 7, the Romini 

I thofe 


: igiiaH Phl'i|i, ig. [ha Ra- 
fend back hii Ton Oemctilu* 
ambilTidori, 19. they f>- 

the Rod 




upon ihe condoft of Peirtui, 
VII. 10]. they break with that 
piiiice, no. the wat ii declared 
in farm, 118. the Komint *re 
worittd near the riier of Pcneut, 
114. the itatie tnakr< 1 wilt 
de lee !• put a Oif to ihc avuiic 
cf the geaerati and migifint», 
-wha appieOcd ihc alti«[, t^i, 
the Romaoi pEnatnte lata 14a- 
r:<Joaii, 134. thcf csnipier Cea- 
t.u.king o.llJ,rium. >5t. thep 
^iirt igreu TiCory bnr PofcM 
mit The city of Pjila, 15g. 
itt: prince i> iikep mil in 
thUiren, iff, dicttc of lh« 
feme, «h'cb graatt tihtrtj t* 
ihe Macedcoiisi tat llljiiin*, 
idi. t:^ Rmam cUige Antw- 
<-u> Ep^-t!ise- D ,;iE t^ 


had r. 


to Ko 

I- sir 



■.M=d , 


r. iid. 




.!?. af 

rer feiutcu 

ifceir , 

■t7 Î 





;fi. . 


•it Uc 



Egypt between Philometor and 
Pliyfcoiiy X41. one of their am- 
tailadors is killed in Syria, 245. 
the Romans oeclare the Jewt 
their friends and allies, 247. they 
acknowledge Demetrius king of 
Syria, 248. they defeat Andiif- 
eus, and two more adventurers, 
who had pofllfTed themfelves of 
Macedonia, 204. ar d reduce that 
kingdom into a Roman piovince, 
fto6. they declare waragainft the 
Carthaginians, I. 24. they order 
them to abandon Carthage, 25. 
they befiege that city, and de- 
moliia it entirely, 36. decree of 
tV.e fcnjte for fcparating fevetal 
cities from the Acharan league, 
VII. 7.0"], troubles in Achaia, 
2 '9> the Romans defeat the 
Achafans, and take Thebes, 210. 
they gain another victory over 
the Achzans, take Corinth, and 
burn it, 212. tKey reduce Greece 
into a Roman province, 213. 
they renew the treaties rr.ade with 
the Jews, 261. they inherit the 
riches and dominions of Attalus 
king of Pergamus, 271. they 
reduce Ariftonicus, who had (.of- 
feflTed himfcif of them, ibid, war 
of the Romans againft Jugurtha, 
II. 52. Ptolcany Apion king of 
Cyrenaica, and Nicumedes king 
of Bithynia, leave the Romans 
their dominions at their death, 
VII. 296. the Romans reduce 
thofe kingdoms into Roman pro- 
vinces, ibid, the Romans re- 
eftablifh the kings of Cappado- 
cia and Bithynia, expelled by 
Mithridates; VIII. 56. maflacre 
of all the Ramans and Italians 
in Afia Minor, 60. the Romans 
gain three great battles againft 
the generals of Mithridates, 68. 
tTf . they grant that prince peace, 
73. fécond war of the Romans 
with Mithridates, 7?. they are 
defeated by that prince in a 
battle, 80. they gain a great 
\:£tory over him, and reduce him 
to retire into Armenia to Tigra- 
nes his fon-in lawj 85. they dc« 

dare jvar tgilnft Tigraji 
defear him in a battle, 
cond TÎâory of the Roma 
the united forces of Mitl 
and Tigranet, lOa. thej 
gain feveral viélorics over 
ridâtes, who had recovei 
dominions, 1 1 x. they 
Tigranes king of Arment; 
they drive Antiochut A 
out of Syria, and redoc 
kingdom into a Roman pi 
iX5t the Romans are t 
heirs of his dominions 
will of Alexander king of 
Vtl. 296. end of the wa 
Mithridates, VIII. 12c. t 
mans drive Ptolemy out 
prus, and coufifcate his 11 

VII. 312. refleâion upi 
condu of the Romans 
fpeâ to the Aatea of I 
and the kings both of 
and AfiJ, V 

Rosaces, governor of Lyd 
lonia^ commanda a detai 
of Ochus*8 army in that [ 
expedition againft Egjpt 

Roxana, After of Statira, 
of Pcrlia. I'ragical hid 
thït princff', II 

Roxana, daughter of Oi 
wife of Alexander, V. i( 
is delivered of a fon fwOi 
Alexander's death, 257 
caufes Stat ira, Alexandei 
dow, to be put to deolb 
Prypxtis, Hcpbeftion'a ^ 
a6or Caflfander deprives ! 
ail the honours of a quetr 
foon after puts her to deati 

R ox AN A, fifter of Mitbi 

VIII. r>6. deplorable cod « 


S ABACUS, king of £t 
enters Egypt, and cooqi: 
1. 65. at the cxpiratiim t 
year* he retiie» \oluniaril 


Ukti la 

lit* ' ' 

riblin luliuii, conqLicrtil jn mmnmuiijiUin, j -o. 

saict, V. iji Sa«g^lj, city uf tnrli*, oken ind 

ipl» of Alîjirii, rubjeflta sniiicly duraoll/hed by J\liain. 

It, II. 13S d», V. 187 

rti, kini of Lydii, 11. SAoïnucHiH, kinj of Bitiylon. 

ibcfici» Milelu*, MJ. in NAnucaDONaioa I. 

city of SbiId, helîcgril 5^ rrio nf Uiiylent, rutnimed ihc 

cnbyAnnibal, 1.176 \eMh M<.fi, >'- IJ* 

n* of Oi«M, fi moût for Sahacui, kinf of AflViiii, It. 

lltiifca between X«ntt Si. iivoltof Nibouotillir «ulaft 

Cmki, III. jS ihit piin», iUJ. doth of Siri-' 

jtiAt, kmg orNinevcTi, ciii, Itié. 

hc conauen Huf» king Sa> 11^ KAFAtUt, king of AlTyiU, 

narii, loidi liim wiih H, 74. bit cn'ctnlnicy, /W. fait 

■nd d(l)ri>yi ihc king- dcilti, yc 

Ifuel, Ui<J. dtithofSit- Sa-JiMa, inirnl of Etiiop* In tha 

T, ' ;ji<f. Mrdilcrrin»», fubJeUid by th« 

, wife of Arifluliulut I. ti'ihiEinifni, I. 110. ind sfttf 

the throe princct, htt wirdi by ihaAomjai, 179 

I't brolheii, oui of pri- Sarilii, a ciiy of Ljdlt, fubJtOtd 

VII. 3,7 by Cyrui, II. iif. it i. itken 

dty of Pilcnine, ihc ca- tn4 buti^i by AilAitoiit tnd lb( 

if Ihc kingdom of lIVicT, Athcniinl, jHi. Altiindir t*k«i 

origin of ihe enmily be. it, V, «6 

tb* Sinxtltant and Jewt, Sai'afit, nime of the fOvfTnan 

!. the Samarium ojipofe of prot4ncti aRiongn tbt Poifi. 

ing Ifae lemplcof ]natt- SrtmnrATii 
■■»> &i they fub'inil to fdtyinlht 

tdei, V. 77, they cannot Saitm, I'lgin 
(be fame privilege! of lliai Si a > rui, gi 
H Ibe Jew», 86. they 
f, fj. Aleonder drives 
out of Samarii, Hid. (hey 
n M the religion of An- rcducti Syria and Uinalfai^ 

1 Er>pt>">"> VII. 74. dc' Viii.'dj 

in ol Samaria by Hyrci- $•' auiui {■yKm/».> it da^iM by 
»RK i)ù„,r-l,*, 11. f,. 

.ruar-u. V.„ 
't> I. "P 

.Atrui, gincHl of Anlhony'f 
army in Libya, déclarât for 
^>[ar, VIII. tto 


., kioB of Illyr,»m, 
iM of pi.ic, •< Die 
all bti neigbbmut, 
E join) Iba Achmot 

icoTTAi Indiin, pulTclTci Scirioj'/'iiA/iiiijQirclitiinloS^ia 

If of all the fr»incei g| a/iinA Hannibal 1. igi. h( p>Al 

, whkb Aleatndo had <on- Ihc Po, aud it defeated wartfc* 

t, V. }£]. bciiutui «odti- Ti(ia«i,it7.bciif(aiiualtfd<i| 


«nd Joîni hit brather Cn. Scîpto 
l4)crc,i(j9. thfjr mike a grcar pro- 
gicft ihcic, tùuf, the>divtiir tncîr 
truop', s 10. Publiui is killed in a 
hiittlf, an 

Scivio (Cnem) U (cnt by hit bro- 
cher into SpAÎn, to mnke he^il 
aj;.ùnA Ardiuliul, 1^ lifa. the 
tv^o bruiheis juin each other, 
and have i;ie4i fucfcfi» 199, 
th ty divide their troopt, aio* 
Cncui it killed in A hattltf, an 

SciPjo (P, Cjrr.e.'imJ Turnanu-d 
/\FttiCAN t's, nukes himfclf 
ni-inif <<f ull Spain, I 214. iio 
is eledcd contui, and (.«cs to 
At'iit;.!, tliti. hr has .in inter- 
view with II.innil>al, nnd ^aini 
a i', vi«ilory over that gcnriul, 
a 191 ^'V. he grants the Car- 
th.i^uiiaiis peace, 210. conveil'.u 
tii>n hciwcrn Scipio und Hitnni- 
hal ai Kphefus, II. 6. Scii io 
ferves 9i lieutrnant to his hru- 
thrr 1«. Corneliiit ^cjpi(> in tlie 
v/ur witli Anliuihus, VI. 3^-. 
lie rriect<i the often of And»- 
(hus, 364. S(ipio*8 death, II. i j 

SciiMO (L. Corr.tliux) I'l.inamcil 
Ariaticvi, is ch.irgcil with 
tile war aj;.iinft AntiochiM, VI. 
357. he goes to Aiia, 363. he 
gains a i'umoun vi^ory over An- 
tiochun nrar Magnefia, 368 

Scrrio N A nil' A, l'un -in -law ot* 
Scipio Arric;iniis, 'is charp,rd 
M'ith an important cvpc-.-liiion by 
]*ju!ui /l'.niiliuH, v^hich he exc- 
lûtes hii'hly for his honour, 
VII. 154. Iir is icnf into Mace- 
donia, to appcafe the troiil)lrs 
excited l'y Andrilcus, 204 

Scipio (Vuhllut) t'urnamed Akri- 
CANUB the Voiinprr, dininp.iiifh- 
ff. hinWvW in the war with Car- 
tlirf|jie, II. 28. he rciuins to 
Home to demand the office of 
edilt*, ?.9t the penpie I'.ive him 
the conlulHup, itU, 5: ci pi o );oet 
to Africa, and advances againft 
Carthage, thitl, he tnkcs that ciry 
and deniolifhcs it, 15. he is fnit 
aml>a(Ijdor into I'pypt, Syri.4, 
an4 Gr«ccci VII. aCï, ule wilj^U 

he oiakei of the prefci 
him by Antiochui Sidct 
cbara^er and praife of 

SciaMAiy eldeft {on of D 
lecones Jûi accufcr to / 
les, J 

ScopAs if placed at the 1 
the troups in iCiolia in 1 
againft the Aehwant, VI 
he ravages Macedonia, 2 
prevails ufon the >Etol: 
make an alliance with t, 
Dims, 21 r. he goea into ' 
vice o^ I'tolemy Epiphanc 
of H}.7pt, aSS.- he | oltefTc 
felf ot Jiidra, «89. he 
fcAied by Antiochuii and 
to accept ignominious com 
ihid, he confpiret «fain 
lemyi and is put to death, 

ScYi.AX| Orcek of Caryar 
commiilionrti by Dariut ti 
vcr India, U. 377. he 
himfclf happily of that 

S(-\L Ultra, king of the ! 
ann : in wbat manner he 
mended unity to his eh 


Scythians. They poHcfs 
felves of Upper Afia, I 
they are driven out of it 
end of twenty-eight yea 
l);irius defigns to punifli 
for (hat irruption^ 360. ih 
thians refufe to fubmit, 
they fend an herald to 
Mrith prefcnts, ikté* they 
'I htjcc, 376. they fend 
fadors to Alexander, whq 
to him with cxtraordinar* 


dniti, V. 1^0. ihcy are d 
and fubjejicd by that 
153. they mike war with 
atrs to revenge his injufli 
feat him in u battle, and 
his kingdom, VII. 278. ir 
of the Srythiana accord 
Herodotus, JI. «6i« mann 
charadler of the ancien 
thians according to JuAii 
in what time luxury got 
amongft them. 

T I* I» b: X. 

itf «f Pelaponncrui) fa- 
f<rr the bitcle between 
mt and Cleomcnci, VI. 
danghtci' of PtolcRif 
I and CIcnpitra, ii com- 

ther Lilbyrui,Vll. «87, 
n ma](C9 her qnit Li- 
iDd gJTci hc[ in mirriiie 
schui Gr7pu(,i)t. Selena, 
t dcalh of Grfpai, marri ei 
u> EDiibei, 197. Eafebet 
E>eea driven oui of hit da- 
i; Die ^eeps pofTelBoi) of 
■h wiib p>rt of PhoaU 
i Ctelofrtii, and icigni 
nanjr jreati, 199 Ac con* 
hopei of afcûidiD| the 
of Egfpt, jai.A^ fcodi 
> fona [0 Rome with that 

VI. I 

Famoai xra of the Se- 
r^ V. %y>. end of the im- 

tlw Scleocidet in A fia, 
VIII. 116 
r« KlcAToi il placed ac 
■1 Bf all the cavairr of 
A after the death of A- 
r, V. 15B. be ii fettled 
patet in the goTeratnent 
rIoD, aS6. he jaia* Aa- 
and Ptolemy againll 
», ]o£. he efcapet from 
1, and retiree into Egypt, 
e formi a league wiih 
f, Lrfimachu', and Caf- 

againA Antigonui, 314, 
CI himfelf miller of Ba- 
[30. he afliiinei the liile 
E, 349. he (liengtheni 

U India, j6S. Ie>gue be- 
Seleueuf, Ptolepiy, Caf- 

tod Lyfimachu), againft 
IB! and Demetriut, 371. 

1 commandi ibc tmj of 

. he auket an illiance with 
emetriof, ;, be huildi Seleueia, 
I. he furtni a league wiib Pto- 
my, Lyfimichus, snd Pyrrhui, 
Tiinft Dcmeiri-s. 13. he ge-a 
5. he gi7eB bU wife and part 
Fbiidommioni to hiifmiAri- 
ocbui, 40. be maket war agiinfl 

fallinateil by Cea-jnvt, whan 
he had laden with fitoun, Old. 
charafter of SeleucDi, 4a 

if Syria 

r hi. h- 

■ Tb«», poifoacd 
ly Laodice, VI. loj. he *cn> 
Icjïourj to retake what Pio- 
nely had eonquend frooi Dial, 
' unfucccriful on fevetil 

. he « 

crai apinll Pla- 
io>. war between the 
jroihen, 1C9. Sclneta 
EI agajnll Arfacei, lia, 
tiken prifoner, lES. death 


at office 


I left br 
hi) father Antiochut the Great 

10 to'ero Syria during fait ab. 
fence, VI. 39;. he afcendi tha 
ihr^nerf SyrLa, VII. feflfl. 

H<11..'„- . ]...■.; ..-.hrin. 


ih^ fon'of'De''n 
aufei himfelf t< 

dared king of Syria, VII. agj. 
fail mother Cleopatra kllU him 
with her own handi, jW, 

SiLiDctrt, eldtS loD sf Aatio- 
choi Qr/fu kiof «f $jri*, foe- 



^ €€€ds htm. VII. ft^, he fapportt 
liiinfelf againft Andochui the 
Cyi iceniin, iMd^ he h drîfen 
4>ut of hit dominions by Bufe- 
bce» and burnt ia Mopfueftia, 

fisLZucvs Ctbioia-ctzs» fon of 
Antiochin Eufebei and Selena, 
goes to Rome to folicît the fe- 
nate for hit mother, VII. 301. 
lie accepts the crown of Egypt 
and Berenice, Vlll. 131, he ren- 
ders himfelf odious by his bafe 
inclinations, ibid, Berenice caufes 
him to be put to death, ihiti, 
S A L X u c u s,governor of Peluiium for 
Cleopatra, delivers up that city 
to Caefar by order of that queen, 

VIII. 161 
SzMiRAMjs, queen of AflTyria : 
her birtb, II. 6a. ihe marriea 
Ninus, 63. her authority over her 
people, 69. her conquers, ihid, 
ihc pots the government into 
her fnn*s hands, and retires from 
the fight of mankindi 71. dif- 
ference between Semiramis and 
Sardanapalos 75 

SiMPJtoNius, conful, is defeated 
by Hannibal near Trebta, 1. 10 1 
StNNACHiRiB, king of Nineveh, 
declares war againft Heseklah, 
and reduces Jerufalem to extm- 
mitiesj II. 78. he writes to He- 
seklah, a letter full of blafphe* 
znies againft the God of ifrael, 
and marches againft the king of 
Egypt, whofe dominions he n^ 
▼ag^'f 79* h^ returns againft 
Jerufalem, 80. his army is de- 
Aroyed by an angel, i^'</. he is 
murdered by his own children, 


Sir TIM lue, Roman officer in the 

* fervice of Ptolemy king of 

Egypt, aflafluiates Pompey, VIII* 

SiTûth, divinity adored in Eg}'pt, 

VI. 21. his image is brought 

from Pontus to Alexandria, iiidm 

SraoN, general of Antiochus E- 

piphanes, is defeated by Judas 

KiaccabKus, and killed in the 

hattle, VII. Sa 

S E * TOR I « I, R«oiâB gta 
a trettjr with Mithrtd 

SsKTiLEvt ferres in tl 
army In quality of 
I. too. he is killed in 
of Cannae, 


^pt, I. 64. he marc 
Terufalesn, and carric 
its treafures, 
Sxsosrais, king of ! 
education, I, 56. hia 
58. his works benei 
gypt, ihid. his blind I 
his own grandeur, 59 

Sbtmon, king of Eg 
himfelf to be confec 
pricft of Vulcan, an 
himfelf intireljL. to i 
!• - 66. miraculout s 
which Herodotue re 
he was delivered fr 
cherib*s irruption in 
Bunions, Uid^ death 

SivTRis, prince of T] 
eftablifhed in hia fat 
nions by Xeno^hen, 
perfidy of that pnnce i 
and his troops, 

Showt, Difference of ta^ 
the Greeks and Roi 
fpe£^toihows,l. Ixx. 1 
for Ihows one of th 
caufes of the declio 
racy, and corruption 

SiMs, iflaod orer-agaii 
famous for the bait 
the^ people of Corey 

Sicify, iiland of the Me< 
Defcription of it, I 
ferent people that ii 

Sicfcwt city of Pelopc 
kings, II. 180. it 
from tyranny and ub 
Achsean league by 4 

Stdefip city of Ph«ni< 
defpiix of the Sidof 


>ehn inlleT of their 

ill, they fiifcmft to 

, Miaaeror mibliii 
VI. ^^i 
-Mttta me yufl, fuc- 
fither Onlii in tha 
hood of [he Jewi, VI. 
b, II 

if MMtithlli, Il chofen 

the toom of hli bro- 

'rholi, Vit. 159 he il 
i-prleft and prince of 

iMwlth the Romii 

. Oretk pMi, If. 

y«uih, IV. I 

d, (), SMr«tMdlnmf(itAil 
ic the hauls nf (■olidKl» 
httof Ddl'im, til. 110. 
imxy whh Akibiidei, 
ileiotii hirnrdf rnllreljr 
iHrudisiiof iho Aihtnlin 
ntiit of hit 
. Mmiribl* 


'. H. îîi. 
«ho iflled 

•f Pontul. LucuUut 
my, vm. 91 

fan of MoUt, mikci 
«ttr tf Corinth, IF. 

kiDl or the Odrynini 
I tnlkf >n tlliincg 
Uhinlini, ]]I. 167 

Il oiide laveriiar of 
nlncBi by hii Tiihcr 
'lU. CtRibyfai ctufei 
put to death, loj 

'Mépi piflei for tha 

C, end iTcendi th« 
il, ll.iol. hiilm- 
difeoTtriJ, 109. he fi 
h« Gufpiritoii, ito 
, one of the fii |e- 
Xttiei'i (rmy in ihil 
p«d 1 1 ion eg' i 11 ft <*' reece, 

piinciplii wliich be (ivei ihtni 
upon government and re)l|len( 
H.Sfe. he inJuDiloully •ppllei 
himrelfto dlltrtdll tbefophllU 
in the opinion ef the Athénien 
youth, ti. wbiYwe are 10 under - 
Hind hy the ironical minner >I^ 
crihfd to him, 19. Soctiiei ii it- 
tales of holdiflj bid upinlonl 
contirnlng the |odi, ind of tor- 
ruptlng the youth of Aihini, 10. 
he dtfendi hioirelf without art 
01 meinnefi, i{. he ii condimnaf 
10 die, ]o. he nruret in ifcaps 
out or prlfon,]». he pilTid the liJt 
dty of lii) lift In difcourltni with 
hl> Citendi upon lh< tminorlalitv 
of ih<. foul, jfi. Off. he dtinka 
llw btmloik, 40. punilbmenl of 
hii ircuriri, 41. honouri rendered 
10 hii memoty by the Athenian*, 
ÎM. rrfleflioniupon the fenienee 
pill'.d on SoctiilN hy Ihe Alhe> 
niiiii, ind upon Socratei hlmfelf, 

of Ach 

n lh« 

r>of Cytu» the Vonng.. 
■KiinO hli brollier Ariiunaii 
111 3JO, he II relied by trie 
dicry, and put, j^y 

luca A'rii, fon of Nicumedal, d«. 
iliionei hli brolhar li^omadei, 

:c of the philofo- ScxJ- 

Ata to fculpture, iW. 
a Audy of the liiencei, 
wonderful progrefi in 
bll laSfl for motul 
', IM. hii chandler, 
•Dlpymanlt, IM. hi< 
from the 111 temper of 
W>D»inon orramiliar 
eniai, 6. tha Uelphltlt 


iwwUm tbt 

wiltft 0: 

pro>fnca of Upn«r 
ider mikei hlmlolf nallee 
of il, y, 14g. It reTOtta agilnll 
thai prince, iJIif. great courage of 
ihirly ygung Sogdlin ptlfgnert 
condemned to dla by Altiander, 

SocDiAHPi, natural Ton of Ar- 
11. indafccodithathtonoof Pei- 
Ca in hii Aead, III. 107. h* pnti 
Bi|uutiii BBt pf fail fiihtr'n 


•dflacht, to death. l^rW. he ii de- 
throned by Ochui, who caufei 
him CO be AiArd in a/hct« 198 
SoLOfi» one of the fcvcn fageaof 
Creccci is eleâcd archun and 
Icgiflator by the Athenian!, II. 

211. government whit h he in- 
itutci it Aiheni, 313. lawt 
which he givei the Aiheniant, 
315. travela of Solon into Egypt 
and Lydia, 310. hit conduA at iho 
court of Crcefut, 105. at hit re- 
turn to Athens he Ands every 
thing chaogcdf «aot he cndta* 
vouri to make Piiiftratus abdicate 
the ryianny in vain» 313. death of 
Solon, ièUl, 

€éêihjsferi. Re Ac A ion upon the 
events of feme of their predic- 
tion», V.ia« 

SorMOCLEs, one of the Athenian 
generals, i* banifltcd for not 
having attempted the conqueft of 
Sicily, JII.iiS 

SomocLxs, tragicic poet, he dif- 
pntes the prize with /Kfchylus, 
and carries it againft iiim, ^IJ. 

rD» his death, I, Ixxx. tragédies of 
ia come down to us, ixxxi. in 
what manner he defended him- 
felf in a very advjnced age agjiuft 
the ingratitude of his children, 
WJ, charaâer of Soph(.c)es,Ixxxiv 
SorHOKiSBA, Afdrubal's ddugh- 
fer, is married to Syphax, II. 15, 
Xiafinifla having conquered Sy- 

Îihdx, marries 2»upboni(ba, and to 
Iavc her from falling into the 
lundi of the Romans^ is reduced 
to fend her poiibn, }if:J, 

êof MiOMiScua, the father of So- 
cratca toe phtlofopher, IV. » 

SofHROSViK» daughter of Dio- 
fiyfiut tho flder» is named to 
lier brothtr, Dionyfioa the Youn- 
fer, IV. 143 

MAHATUlf out of LUCUIIUS*! offi- 

con, comoiaodi in Pontui dur- 
lAg tho abicDCC of that general, 

VIII. 91 

l«filli» Ploleaj Philopator*a mi- 
aiAtr^ caufea Arfiiiot the fcing*i 
fifttr tad wift to b» mufdettd, 

. VI. IH*l»«l*oMI|i<l9 4«itkM 

•mployintiity ihU, he 
that prince from aiding 
nee, and advifca him to 
pcrfon» . 
Sosfixa, ion of the fort 
the care of the per fun 
young king Ftolcmy £p 

SoaiSyone of the chief 4 
tori againft Hieronymni 
part of the quarter Ac 
and ejthorti the Syracufa 
cover their liberty, VI 
he is chofea one of the ) 
magiftratea, 94* be comm 
troops fent to the aid of 

Soil Vf (CaimtJ confil, 
for Anthony, and goci ' 


Sot T H K tc t a, Macedonian,d 
Gault out of Maccdoa 
reigns thcte during foa 
VI. 49* he it ove i powtre 
great number of Brennns* 

SoiTKATue, arrhiieft, bu 
tower of Pharoaj.VI* %i 
which ho ureiUrtagr«i 
«whole honour of that u 

SoiTRATva, or SsaitTi 
governor of Syracnfo, 
up that city to Pyrrhnt, 
Pyrrhus, to make him i 
is for potting him to dcatl 

Sot AD It, fatyrick poet, ^ 
Juft puoiihmcnt which ht; 
for his ialumniea» 

SotU. Difcourfe of Socraici 
hit death upon ihc imm 
of the foul, 

Soiit, king of Spartit « 
collcagut Agit ukeiiht 

S^iih DcfcriptioB of te 
111. mines of gold tad A 
tho Carthaginiana aubt 
felvet anaften of part é 
113. it it eaiiicljr caafM 
the Roaunt, 

Sfitvts* Sea Tmmfmm 

Svawnmi of Capaa» fa 
«ilk MaihQ% ciiAiAt 

r N D 

1 HTvlt igainft the Cir- 
âf h t(]. he i) pUced 
l«^d, iii4. he Iieitt with 
buinitni, 167. ho it 
d aiD|td, iiid, 

J*, pbilurapher, Plato') 
hii mtiniiEjf with Dion, 



'IJi. 191 

Fhilafopher, ilTilli CUo- 
I relnHiting Ihe indent 
linSpitiJ, VI, iji 

led in Thcfjiis, focmi 
I eaterpriic agiinii the 
[V, 111. he il acquitWd 
■tlempi by lb: credit of 

nilUr fpirit of Soeratei, 
IV, S 

tsiiconfidert of Be/Tut, 
confpiricy* igilnfl him, 
itn him up to Aleiuia 
V&hi iiir» Biamn» 
iilDTince, 14g. hii wif* 
pecfuiilB him 

ATti, one o( Artiieripi 
'tprincipil officer!, goe* 
iBtf-Iti», Hd doei him 
ricei. III, iSx. offended 
Utfliv* re/sTity of Ht- 
bc reliici to Strdil, 

ATii. fitnp of toaia, 
'in-law of Dariui, di- 
ll himfelf by hit valour 
itlle of the Giinlcut, 
kleiinder li;r) him dead 

t^ of'Maicdnnia. Ari! 
[OU n try, àcOvyrA by 
nd rebuilt by Almandcr, 

on, V, »i. 
Aliunde r u c 

B X; 

Star,,. Sec jCiTf Ami. 

Stji nnfl.wifeof AffaisrwiMne- 
mon, revenge wliicK Ibe (iltci 
lor the dcjtta of her broliter 
Tcri'euchm«», IH. Jil 

SïA'i m/L, wife of Dir^ui, fall* 
inta Alexander'! hindti V. 49. 
dejlh of ihaiprintefi 91 

Stat. «A, tUtH diughter ofD«- 
rlui, muriici Aleiaailer r ha Oreot, 
V. no. fhe U murdered by lb* 
inlrljuei of Roitna, at» 

Statua, fillet af Mithri<9*tta, 
recti vei Old era fiom that pnM* 
to die, VIII. i6- the diei coo,- 
'•geOMlty, 1^ 

St-EiAdORAticUcliran of Cïmoa, 
il (HjblilhFd favereien of Ih* 
Thcician Cherfooefut by hii Un- 
cle Milliad», IJ. 3%S 

STEiiCHoaut, ■ lyrif poet, II. 

Srri'roH of Mctau, philofophert 
V. J41 

STRATiui,phy[ic>an,gac« lo Rom* 
wiih Aliilui, VII. 177. hii wir* 
rcmunftianoct pieient thai princ« 
from afking to Oiire the ldn|doiii 
of Pergamut with hii brolhcK 
EunKne.. I7* 

Stiatunici, diughter of Div 

meiiiui, matii(i Selaucui, VI, 


'SvaATOKici, one of iho «iv»? 

, of Mithiidatea, fubmiii to Hom- 
psy, VIII. 116. leveiigeMiihti, 
dilci tikei of her, '«'<'■ 

Sua, Icing of Ethiopia. £«Sap. 

SoLTtTina (F<) Roman pi«tal|^ 
il Sent again)! Philip, VI. m, 
Aiir.r.^, ^âloni of Sulpitiui i» 
, 14;. he il tltOti 

I goei into Macedeniaf 

II gilni «[onGdenbt* 
.iAor^ 'over Philip. aM 

SvLPtTIUI CAtLUt, triboM a( 

the Roman armf againlt FnfeM» 
fotcielli an eclipfe to the troops 
VII. I (6. the fenaio tommlffionl 
him to infptft fecreily into th« 
cnnduft of Eanunia and Aotio- ^^ 
chui. (9J. hit imptodaat «Mi«*^^ 
In ci«<.utin| that c«niiiiiSoo,UiA# 
f ^ SllilH4f 




SviiNAi generid of the army of 
the Parthians, gains a great vie- 
tory over CrafTus, VII. 346, O- 
rodes, jealous nf his glory, puts 
him to deaih, 360. praife of Su- 
rent, ihrd. 
Su/a, city of Perfia, fubmits to Alex- 
auder, V, 116 

SjbarlSf city of great Greece* UK 
153. luxury and eftcminacy of 
its inhabitants» 154. total ruin 
of that city, ibid* 

^YKNNESis, king of Cilicia, a- 
bandons the pafs of that country 
on the approach oî Cyrus the 
Younger, III. 330 

Sylla ferv?8 nnder Mariut in 
«juality of quieftor, H'54* that ge- 
neral fends him to Bocchus to re* 
ccive Jugurtha from him, ibid, he 
caules a ring to be made with 
that aâion rcprcfented upon it, 
«t^hich he ufed ever after as hit 
feal, ibid» he re-elUl>li/hes A- 
riobarzanes upon the throne of 
Cappadocia^VIII. 55. hr is charg- 
ed with the war again(> Mithri- 
djtei, 61. he befieges Athen», 
ibid, and takes it^ 65. he is vic- 
torious in three great battles a- 
g^inft the general of Mithridates, 
68, &c» he has an interview with 
that prince, and grants him peace, 
^3. he marches againft Fimbria, 
74. he goes to Athens, feites' itt, 
library, and fends it to Rome, 
• 75. his death, 77 

Syloson, brother of Poiyrrares, 
tyrant of Samos : his generofity 
to Darids, U. 3(7. rewaid which 
he receive! for it, ibid» 

Syph AS, king of Numidia, Joins 
with the Roraaoi, II. xc. he is 
defeated by Mafinifla, iHid, he 
marries Sophoni(ba, and goes over 
to the Carthaginiaas, ibid, he it 
defeated by Scipio, Mid taken pri- 
foner, ibid, 

S^KOty/ff city of SicUy : its founda- 
tion, III. »20. dcfcription of that 
city, s 3 5. fiege of Syracufe by 
the Athenians, «42. the city is 
redoced to extremities, «46* the 
•rrival oi Cylippui cbaoBM the 

face of affiurt, Wd, tfit 

fans make them ft Ives 1 

the Athenian army, an 

two generals to death, %i 

Cms makes himfelf tyrar 

cufe, IV.Z09. îneffeOùal 

of the Syrarofam agai 

116, &t. Dionyfiai the 

fucceeds his father» 1. 

expels him, 165. horribi 

tude of the Syracufam 

167. IMoayfius the Yo« 

fccnds the throne, 1S2. 

implores the aid of the< 

an», who fend them 1 

184. Agtthocles ufurps 

authority at Syracvfe, 

calls in the aid of Pyrrh 

the Carthaginians, VI 

chufes Hicro II. k^ng, 

mildncf» of his reijgn, 7. 

mus fucceeds Hmo, iS 

at Syracufe .«uer the 

• Hieronymut, so* Syra 

fieged and taken by h 

41. reflexions upon tb< 

ment and chancer of I 


STsiQAMBii, mother oi 

is taken prifoner by A 

after the battle of Iflu 

/he cannot farrive the 1 


• T. 

TACHOS afcedds the 1 
Egypv, J.V. aw. k 
troops to defend nimfel 
the king of 'Perfia, ibk 
tains troops from the 
mont ans who aro cot 
bv Agefilaus» 158. fcfeiAi 
abandoned by AgclSlaos, 
. Egypt, and retires to the 
- Perfia, 259* Artaaenrcs 
him, and gives hsm t 
mand of hit troops agaÎB, 
. bels, 

Taltbybivsi Ag«nema 
raid» honoured aa a -gpd a 

Tamos, Egyptian» eomim 
ileet of Cytus the Yo 
that prince*a.eBpcdits«a 
his brâthct^ . ■ 

I N d: 

Itm Meucd (be Spir- 

HI. Ill 

If, foa of CjTDii Sa 

Wf W It>l* 1 the Ti- 
tuL ia PjirrDdi to their 
h tbe Romint, VL jj. 
\t lent* * (utlCui in 

meof tbe CODE demi of ' 
A<6ia AritM bj th*l 
der, VI. iiS 

adua king, puU him- 
' (lu prDtcàion p[ A- 

T. 17g. he UIDDipl- 

frincc In hii eipcdi- ' 


<. AJci 

bnU, i36. Ponii iirc- 

one of (be gencnlt of 
n,java Artbtliu', «nd 
IhS^IU, VIII, 6g 

inhitiiist» lad (hade 
in, IV. 140 

of BnotU, bitilc bc- 
t Thebaiu and LkC' 

■ li 

IV, Ï I 

grofi infult on the Romuti tn 
Ih< peilaai of (heir tmbafl'adcii, 
iiiJ. tbc il obliged 10 drnund 
pCiice of iLem, and obciiai ic, 

Anici, octifioos the buioinj of 
the fiUct of Perfcpclii, iu a 
put J of dcbiuch with Alciuidei 

Trakaca, King of Eihiopia, if' 
1er the deitfa of Soibon, I. 6!t 

Tiflr»!, illind in ThrtEt, leiolt» 
lÉiinH ihe Aiheniini, IU> gs 
fubmiii 96 

fufei I 

'icftefi I 

Alfa en 

(urfo Alcibiidi), lil. 
'niAiiDEs, brother of DionjCui 
the Elder, ii fent to Olynpii by 
(htt tj-iint 10 diffDie Ibc priisi 
of foctry and the cbaiiot-rue, 
IV. Ij« 
'/'tjiri. Dercription of the theUie 

t of Agclilaui hi) bro- 
:he. mother') f^de, III. 
btAtpt Corinth by fci, 
t h'nt agnind Oijnthnt 
rtnn of Phsbidti, tV, 
-killed in bailie, iUJ. 
cin| of iiiditn, dcliveri 
it/ tjOchue, IV, iSt. 

''mi. brother'"' sV° 
: of /Irciieries, m»- 
leftrii, dau)ihti:r at Di- 
. 315. trigicil birtory 
utUei, ;Wrf, 

Tier the deith of Agion 
ind prince of lllyrium, 
lUiiletd, Vf-, nt. b«r 



:heȕ, wife of Alewnder, lyrint 
of Phcrx, obtiini pertniOian of 
her hulbind lo lee aad eonTetfe 

1 ihi 

.11 'fh( 

her three brotberi ■ITalliiiaie th« 
lyrint, 141 

Tint», city of B soda in GiCKVt 
ill foundition, II. iSj. king* 
of Theb«, itiJ. the Theb>nt 
beliece l'IatKX» Hi. leu. thej 
gain 1 ilflary over the Aiheal- 
«ni near Delium. 104.. they gh« 


>e AUiei 

ir iiiy by 
Iter ^nt» 

after the taking of ibcii 
Lyfandei, 110. (hey eql 
■ league with Tiihraoflee igtiftft 
tile LacedmMmio*. 386, nMj 
P4 ' B« 


ef the ThebiDi at the battle of 
Coron«a, 391. they are compelled 
by the ueacy of Ancalddei to 
give the citiei of Bœotia their 
liberty, IV. 198. Thebei falls 
into the hand« of the Lacedse* 
monians, aco. Pelopidas rein- 
ftatcf iu libcKy, 205. the The- 
bant gain a coafiderable advan- 
lage over the Lacedaemoniant 
near Tegyra» 114. they deftroy 
place» and Thefpi», 115. thejr 
defeat (he LaceJaemonians, and 
put them to flight at the battle 
of Ltfudtra, 1x0. they ravage 
Laccnii, and advance to (he gatet 
4 1 Spjria, za^. they fend Pelo* 
\u'.jL} to the court of Perfia, and 
cibt.iin tliC litie of friends and 
allies of the king, 220 they 
make Alexander tyrant ot Pherae 
fubmir, 23^ 

The Thebant make a fecund 
attempt agiiinil Sparta, 241. they 
gain a great victory over the La- 
cedaemonians near Mancln»a,243. 
they aid Artabafus againft the 
king of Perfia^ 268 they call 
i;) I'hiiip to their aid againft the 
Phoccans, IV. 3^2. the Thebans, 
M«rni-niani, and Argives, enter 
into an alliance with Philip to 
a:tack Pth*pcunefuSy 34a. the 
Thrbani join the Athenian! 
sgdinft Phi'ipy 361. they are de- 
fer 4ted near Cheronaea, 36a. Phi- 
lip puis a garrifon into their city, 
363. the Thcb ns, after the 
de it h of that prince, put part 
of the garrifon to the fwoid, V« 
II. Alexander marches againft 
them, and dei^roys their city, 
2Z, re-eftabli(hment of Thebes 
by Cafljnder, 311. the The- 
bant make an alli.ince with the 
Romans in the war againft Per- 
feut, VU. 115. they furrender 
them&lves to the Romans. 129. 
Sylla deprives them of half their 
territory, VIII. 70. 

7he/t of a certain kind permitted 
and even commanded to the 
▼oung Lacedaemonians, II. 296» 
It wai ih« Dioft fcvçrdy puAÎibed 

of tU cilmti by the $4 

TiitititTocLit» Athtni 
Ainguifhec hinielf at tl 
of Marathon, II* 397. he 
Epicydes from the comm 
caufea himfelf to be ele 
aeral in hit flead» III. 
fuppertt the decree tc 
Anftides, 21. he refigns 
BOUT of commanding the 
the LacedsMnoniantt *%* 
termines the Athenians 
don their city» 3s. he del 
the Greeks to fight in the 
Salamin, 35. the Lacedci 
decree the prize of wifdoni 
after the viétory of Salar 
•cclamationa with whici 
received at the Olympick 
Uid, he reinftatca the w 
Athens, and fortifies the 
63 • black defign which 1 
ceives for .fupplanting tb 
dacmoniansj 64, he it h 
Athens, 71. the Atheaii 
Lacedemonians uniting 
him as an accomplice in t 
fpiracy of Paufanias, he t 
fuge with Admetua^ 79. 
tires to Artazencev, 8j, b 
credit with that prince, 
kills himfelf, 95* chari 

Tax M 1ST us, magiftrate e 
cufe, confpircs with And 
rus to feise the fovereignt} 
24. he is* killed by order 
other magiftrates, 

Tmsnon, commander of 
tadel of Syracufe. furrende 
felf to Pyrrhus, VI. 70* tha 
piits him to death» 

Theodorus, chief of tl 
molpidie at Athena t what 
tured to fay in refpcA 
malediflionsorcurfes, 1 

Thkoi>orub, citiaen of S' 
ventures to declare himfel 
ly againft Dionyfiut in U 
liberty, 1 

TheodotuSi uncle of Her 
is deputed by him to Dion 
jure him 10 ictym to ih 


I N D 

trntuCi, IV, 171, h* puKhiiB- 
ISirinto UI«n'i hindi, I7J- Diun 
fudotit him. ihl,l. 

rutavpTui, EatErnnr of Biftri* 
•iU) nnolii «EiltiiV Antlochui, 

|tB^ caiirei hlinreir to li* ria> 

'<lM*t klni (if (till prbvtnci, 
VI. 94. 
9*tnotvt, ton or lh« fornxr, 
AltUldl hl< ruliar, VI. IK. K* 
foimi « t»tiii (iirenll** tnil ill- 
rinnvswlth ArAcai, fW. 

V'^IDDATUI It chi'E'it hy All- 

llMliui w!<h til* W4T Nr.i!nit 
M0I0, VI. 177. hi )• dofe.iXj, 
•Sd oh11|*<] Id «tiiiido'i llic Hrlil 
.«riMttU, iM. 

'■koixiTUi, ^.mlliin, KnvtKux' 
«r Culnfrilt Tor I'lnliniy, da- 
ftn4< (hi «iitrind into tli«E ;io- 
«Inc« ■giiiift Anrlodiui, rniil 
Abltgii ihit princo to' nt\n, 
VI< i;l. hi il ucurtd, tndab- 
ll|»il 10 go to tha «our( of Egypt 
ta jiir* *n icrnuiit «f hli con- 
luA. lit. U t«rcnltnint for ihiC 
•ffivnl. hi dxUrti for Alitla- 
ibui, and jiuti tho cjdcl of Tyri 
Ud PloIitniU [nlo hit hindi, 

Sl^. h( iiiitit the omp of Pio- 
nr In ihi niclii wlib riclîgn 
tahiUhlm, iKï.hifillt laihtc 
aiHinplj aodirMp* 

E X. 

VII. ji. triftctl ind Mnnfioi* 

tnd of Thiouni, ]* 

rnKAHixiti, one ef the Attic 
nlin H'"^"''! '* f^"%ti wlfh 
th» mri of biirjing itie dc«d 
iflli iba btltli! at Arttnufic, 
III. »o6. not boing able 19 «i^"» 
cut* ihit orJfr, ha rn>k«< iht 
other g'^ntrilt rcrpunllble f.)r ic, 
•ni iccufet thorn it Aihinif 
197. ha li dtpuKd U Lffaitilar 

cal1e<Vu*i, and ditwi ihelr hltnd 
Upon lilmfalf, }iS. he it ic^ 
cur<d bf CrltUi, Ind pif. to iHih, 





liemilr, IJ1, 14. t>ittlB of 
Theimop^l» bctwitn tb* Li> 
tad^maaiini and Xenet, >S. 
vijlory of the Rauupt .otw 

AnclMbui Mtt Tbum^fjlK) 



I of the prlnii. 

#f Htiranjif 

ntk, and dt« «Ithoiil dlfioKI. 

l^ 4ii]r of hit «(««mplicci, Vlll. 

'■inKAToi. fraciplMtothi lilt 
Ptalanii, idtiro that pnnci ta 
Pill i\'n\fty tviuith. VII). t;;. 

TiitHDM, ijrint of Agrlgentiiin, 
male» in ■lliinc* «iih Oelon, 
and gaini En cnnjun£lion wiA 
him 1 gnat b«tlli ovir the Ctt~ 
IhaHiniini, UI. IM 

THtliui. bing of Atbint, U, 
all. hg dioi in tii« itiisd uf 
So roa. «rhithtr he hJd btr's obv 
Upl to dr. II ' ■ i». CiiQàn V!o(* 
hit boiMi to Alhtnt. itif* 

Vh'fM. (irjr of Achala, rained bj 
ibeTbtbtni. IV. aif 

TMtirtt, Oicek pMl, <wittdrit4 
M tiat mventor of tntedj. U. 



'morniiAiTka, AbttcoRiM't gi- 
Mnl, n<ti(n i* ^^li Cotioih, 
VI !>?. Ai»i«i couahia ub« 

'■ i •! I K * .Tt (<aUM IWf , 4aA< 
Mflf lhf««Mt, IMRM» PtSs 

^.Jr, fcg ri me of ucitat C rcect. 
— »7J. tbe ThcfiJlUai fuboùt 
to ■(««, IU. 11. tbcf irnfliro 
■id «f llw TtachiB* afainft Alci- 
»a4m «f Pbm^ IV. su- Ptla- 
fUw M>*«» ibcm not bja 
M*«( IMjktTbinnoeiMk ts 


r N T> 

Triita» fifler of Dlonyfiut the 
Elder, and wife of Potyxcnesj 
couragrout .anfvier vhich flie 
giv«i her brother upon the oc- 
cafioA of her huiband*s efcape, 

IV. iti. 

Tnkthmoiii, or Amoiis» having 
driven the king flicpherdi out 
of Eg)pr, reigns there, I. 54, 

Thimbrok, LaceJjïmonian ge- 
neral, marrhes agaiiift Tilfaphor- 
nea and Pharnabjrut, IIJ, 359, 
upon fomc difcontent he ii recal- 
led, 3(»4 

THf/jp. Council of thirty eftabli/h- 
cd at Lacedarn-ion, II. 19;). thtr* 
ty tvraiiti cliahjiihed at Athens by 
l.yijnder. 111. 30!!. criieltiea 
¥'hich they commit in that Lity, 
319. ThiJtybuIus drivet them 
out of Athens, 331. they en- 
deavour to iiiiiftjte thcmielves, 
and are all put to the fword, 

Thoai, iV.totian, chirged with 
the rxeeutlon of a defign to feite 
Chalcis, faili in the attempt, VJ, 
341. he goes to Antiochiia» and 
determines him to enter Greece, 

_ 344 

77»rjiV, province of F.urope; very 

fingular cul>oms of its inluhi- 

tjnti, II. 3;4. Thrace fubjeilrd 

by Philip, IV. 3^0. ^c. 

TiiRAso, confident of Hieiony- 
mm, 11 aci'ulc^d by IMiroJotiii 
of having confpired againft that 
prince, VIII. so. he is put to 
death, ihU, 

Tmh, tyrant of Mile- 
tus, il bcfieged by Halyattei, 
II. 98» (Iratjgem which he ufea 
to deliver himfclf from that fiege. 

Tar ASYBULi'fl, brother of Ce* 
ion, reigns at Syracufe after 
Hiero*» death, III. 148. hecaufet 
himfrlf to be dcthruAcd by hit 
cruelty, 1^9 

Tnn A& U mide gcncrjl of 
the Atheniani, III* 179. he ar- 
cufea Alribiadei at Athens, and 
caufei him to be depofcd, sqtf, 
he ^uia Athens to avoid the 

E X. 

ctueltv of the thirty tyr 
310. he cxpcit the tyrants : 
that city, «ad rcinOâici h 

Thrasvlvb iiaiBde general 01 
Atheniam. UI. 

Thf^^mm* Lake of Tufcany 
mouf for HéOAÎbAl'B viAory 
the Komant, 1. 

TiiucYDiDBs, Greek hi Aoriar 
it commanded to go to the a 
Amphipolis,}, the A 
nians make it i crime in hîi 
have fuAered that city to be ta 
and banifh him, 

TMUCYDinrs, brother- in- la« 
Cimon, is fet up againft Per 
by the Aobiliiy of Athens, 
116. Pericles prevails to ha\e 

7/iM/iaiM, city of Sicily 1 its f 
dation, 111. 

Tiymhjt city of Lydia, famuu 
the battle bet\ieen Cyrus 
Crafus, 11. 144, 

Ta Y us, governor of Paphlag* 
revolts againft Artaxcrxei, 
41 X. he it coiiqucn'd by Duti 

TiBxaius Gracchvs is fm 
the fenaie into Alia tu cxai 
into the condii^^ of Kumcnes 
that of AntiochuSy VII. 


7"uinuu "ver of Italy, near vl 
P. Scipio was defeated by V 
nibal, 1. 

TiGLAH Ï^IMCER, king of 

neveh, II. 77. he aids h 
king of Juilah againft the ki 
of Syria and Ifrael, 
TiORANBSj fon of a king of 
menia, obtains pardon for 
father of Cyrus, II. 117. he c 
manda the Armenian trs 

TiORAMS, fon of Tigranei, I 
of Atmcnia, is fet at libeit 
the Parthians on his fati 
death, and placed upon 
throne, VU> S96. he ac< 
the crown of Syria, and v 
it eighteen )eara, 999. he; 

'• *fe« CteopiW diughtcr of MÎ- 
. IhrldUei, VIII. ;;, he invade' 
_ th^klntdam of Oppiilocii, 7S. 
" the Roinins dcEtire igilntl him, 
■ 90. Tignoei ii deft.Ted by L«- 
r 'cnUm, 96. he nirei new croopi 
* in (onceit wiih Miihrîdatci, 
it'lOI. he li defciKd a fécond 
,f* lime, 101. Pompey m»rchei 1- 
iTS'di'l hitn, and finit him at war 
rwith hii Ton, HI. Tîïranei 

N D E X. 


Pfroltflian of Pomi 
►'lieilig fitisfied wi 

hPampe» refetvis 
y trigmph) 

Jl hli father, Vni. 

Thctian ladj, her 

roufiEtous aflion at the ftorm. 
ing of Thebes, V. 1* 

TiuocBATii, fiUnd of Dionyfiut 
the Younger, marriei Dion"» 
wife whilft he ii baniOied, IV. 
iGo, he Hieton (he appiotctiof 
Dion, iH 

TshteiAvs, Latedxmonlin, M 
whofe houfî Philopamen lij, λ 
fent by hit countrj' 10 offer bin) 
the richei of Nabii, VI. ^4.3. 
he tindi itdiRicult to icqitit hitn- 
felfof that commiflionj lii^ 

TiMOLEON, Corinthun, furliice* 
hii brother TimopfaaiHi to llll 
country, IV. 1B4. the Corin- 
thlani fend bim to tb^ >U'of 
Sjratufe, 1Ï5, he elodei 

I, goremftr of Hiby. 

i agiinft Demciriu-, 

Wrt end il pue (o dejlh, VII, 

> thofen one of tfic 
Mtnh of rhe Oiecks after the 
"ifthwreieirfhoB, III, -;o 

rtrrlftri-i, ehref ef the pi- 
•'«rUn,i: hit nohlc and 
Ubm bolijvioiir in refpeft to 
**' jV. iBj 

gaini an adrintiee ovor the C»r- 
thaginiani and Icctat mar the 
ciiy of Adranon, 187. he enMra 
Syrtcufe, iHd, Dlnaytiut Cat' 
tenderi himfelf to him, itS. 
7'inioleoa fendi him 10 Corlnthf 
ii'd. he re eftiblifhei the Hlxny 
of Syracufc, and infliialei wfia 
law) there, i(|o. he freea the 
oihcr cities of Sicily from tyran- 
ny, i<)t. he gaint a greit viftor/' 
over the Carthaginians, ij+. he 
Isaecufcd and cind to anlww, 
19;, he quiti hi) aothority, and 
pifle. the red of hii life in K. 
tiremenl, iiiJ. he die) in' k> 
Jg6. gTCM honour! nndeied hii 
memory, HiJ, hit pnife, lai 
TiHoFuANi., Curinihitn, ha*.~ 
ing made himfelF tyraoE of hi* 
country, hit brother TimolMn 
eau/tihim lo be airaffuiiitod, ]V. 

flMOTHEO, fon of ClUKMI, !■ 

fent by the Athenian! wltb m,' 
fleet to the aid of the Thebdnt, 
IV. lij. he rafigti the caiÉ* 
of Lacoiiia, and make) hinfalf 
mrfftrofthe ifland of Corcyri, 
tiiii. he ii empltyed by the A- 
IheniaiD in the ww-agajnft tiM 
alliea, «yo. he i> aecufed bjr 

Cbtnt) imd' fcHMicfd (• FV 

a pot ' 

I N D .E X. 

cctlrei M £fappetfl foM after, 

ZANTMtppvSy citicen of Atheat, 
accufct MUtiadet of trtafon,n»40t 

Xa k t r ir f V •» father of Periclet, 
•bandoniog Athens on the ap- 
- proach of Xcnett hit dog fel- 
lows his (hip to Saiamifli and ex- 
pires oa the ihoret ^'I* 3S 

Xanthippobi Athenian, com- 
nftttds the fleet of the Greeks in 
'Conjunâion with Leotjchides 
king of Sparta, and gains a great 
▼iftory orer the Per6ani near 
Mycale, III. 57 

Xantippe, wife of Socrates: his 
fufteriogs from her it! humour, 

Xbkbtas, Achsean, is fent againft 
Molo and Alexander by Antio- 
«huf, VI. 17S. he falls into an 
ambofcade, and is cut to pieces 
with his whole army, ièié» 

XxKOca ATEs,philofopher,tA what 
manner he was receired by Anti- 
pater, to whom he had been fent 
ambaflador by the Athenians, V. 

he coafliai Ae Tnvt 
[. i.lie 


Xenok is charged by Antiochus 
with the war againft Molo, VI. 
177. he IB defeated, ièié* 

Xbnophanxs, Philip's ambaflador 
Co Hannibal, falls into the hands 
of the Romans, VI. M4. he ef- 
capes and concludes the treaty 
with Hannibal, 125. he is taken 
on his return by the Romans.r^iV. 

XxNOPUON, hiftorian and philofu- 
pher ; diÂêrence bet^'een Xeno- 
phoo and Herodotus in their ac- 
counts of Cyrus, II. 196. he en- 
gages in the fervice of Cyrus the 
Younger, III. 350. he commands 
the ten thoufand Greeks after 
the death of Clearchus, and brings 
then back into their own coun- 
try, 349. he joins the Lacedaemo- 
nians in the war againft TilVa- 
phernet and Pharnabafus, 360. 
he a£ls under Agefilaoi, at the 
. battle of Cororuca, 391 

XiRXES I. fon of Darius, is eleâed 
king of Per Ha in preference to his 
biochcr Arubariaoes, . II. 404 

prifHeKfy III 
gypty ikW. he prepares t 
CIreece, <WL he deUber* 
hla council coBcerniiig ch 
dition, a.wife fpeech of A 
to him» 3. rage of Xcri 
that occaiion, 5. he difca 
error, and coafeflesit in fa 
cily ihié, the war ia wtà 
Xerxes entera into an 
with the Carthaginians, 
begins hia march, and givi 
for cutting a way throagh 
Athos, 9. his letter to tha< 
Uin upon that fubjeA» 
advances to Saidis, iMi 1 
elty to Pythias, 11. he 1 
towards the Hellefpont, 
caufea the fea to be chafl 
having bioken the bridge < 
which he had laid over it» 
orden a ibcond to be bn 
paOes the Hellefpont w 
army. 14. number of hit 
x^* Demaratus telb hia 
his thoughts of this enti 
17. three hundred Spart 
pute the pafs of Then 
with Xerxes, «5, that pri 
his rage caufes the dead k 
i>eonidas to be affixed to a 
a6. he takes and bums > 

24.he is defeated at Salaai 
e leaves Mardonius in i 
and retuma precipitately i 
fia. 39. violent padion a 
xes for the wife of his ' 
Mafiftus, and afterwards f 
tainta that prince fa** da 
5S. he caufes Mafiftut to 
to death, 6oi he gives 1 
up to luxury and voluptoe 
79. be is killed by Art; 
captain of his goarda, S* 
raàer of Xerxeij 

XxRXEs II. ion of Arc 
Mnemon, afcendt the ih 
Perfia, III. 197, he ia aflk 
by his. brother Sogdianos» 

XiPHARXS, fon of Mithrid 
kiUcid by hia father, Vll 

XrcMUfl, who had been ai 
with Apcllet and Phtim 

jXrEAa, foliT, Hkto (icQ ufed, L 

JÊlitb. The iiriguUihiel of chit 
^.' time of life ue not ilu'iyi ûiSi- 
V. rimt iTDundi hr dclpaitJns of * 
''TiwtiE nun. 111. S8 


VABDIEL, ATibiin prince, it- 
J tn7l Alcxuidci Bali, VII. 
Kj4> be deliver! up Aatiochut, 
Jpa at Bail) ta Tryphon, 157 
Iciiltiror of the IÂ>- 
156, wifdon of ht> 


rtri, libntiinorPiokm* 

lAleiiodrii, VI. Ill 

Itiag of EihiopU and £• 

lakit war wilh Afi kin| 

if Judah, and ii defeiUd. I. 6f 


I, Hier. 


great credit wilh Hiti 
VHI, ,g, he goM at 
^eyp'i and Aa]'! Ibere ia tsIub- 
tacy baniOiinent, s4 

ZoTvaai. Pernaa lord, mniilitee 
himlctf.for the fervice of Darini. 
II, 3jS. he mikei ihu ftînci 
malter of Babjlon, 

1 by Datiut iot 1 

Zopntui, llite of Perklct, «cd 
govcinor of Akibiadei, UT. >ifi 

ZoaoAJTKi, founder of the fe£t 

of the Magi amoacft tka Perfimi, 

II. IS7 

ZotDAtTEi, inother chief and rw 
former of the fime feâ. II, 957. 

ZoaoiAiEL, (bief of ihe Jew* 
( return 10 JerufiJcui afteriha 
ilci;m ef Vjtu't U, i8b 

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