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■ ,. ■.:!'"- -'.-','CHAP. L' ■" Iril ■■;'['r"rt 

SicT. L ArtUHiH nl« dM AnMi'W AhiblBH,,^ Ib.t^ of 1i[^^Uqita.,U<U^ 

fttcT.lI. HHoiMHliaUkanLfi^VttiAi^iiRM'' •'''■■'', "'"f 

SKT,in.ClBM b(^ n BI*UJ Iforn ■! ifUicdi. Hlt'dni iMtT^tontt^ A/'' 

MVSiUlarT fiiHd y«.tbf iWua, uar tt>« ifrir. RlrjDedgB.; D«£l iT,'" 

'ifkcT.IV,TbaiMidli/lkbip<WMi'D«rcrri<iflbpeittdbrlIi*Al)mIMi ' W 
Sun.r.buuhMlTanlWugia'kSifVu^oi.iioEui^ ''^ 

• % 


r. VI. ArtuMrxM Modi Esn, and afterwards Neheraiahi to JTeramlem M 

§mff. VrL Charaeltor of Parielta. Tbe nwthodi employMl l#y him to fain tha afiee> 

tloil of the peopla ../--, --J7 

8bct. VIII. An earthquake in Sparta. Insarrection of the Helots. Seeds of dirisioa 

between the Atbeniana and Spartans. Ciraon is sent into banishment - • 1Q8 

biffahr honourable to the Greeks. Cimon's death r ----- lOS 

8bot. X. Thucrdides b opposed to Pericles. The enyy raised against the latter. He 

olbaia himself and succeeds in proeurinf the banishment of Thueydides • • 1V2 
flsoT. XI. Pericles changes his c<Niduet towards the people. His prodigious aotfao- 

ri^. His disinterestecuiess - - «/:,«•>". ;------• 111 

Skct ' XIL JeaJousy and contests arise Mt#«6n the Athenians and Lacedmnoniansi * 

A treaty of peace is conelcded for thirty years - - - " - • 114 

Ssor. Xlll. New subjects of contmtion between the two nations, occasioned by the 

Athenians laying mege to Samos ; by their succouring the -people of Corcyra, and 

besieging Potidna: an open rupture - • - - - -.- • -117 
flacT. XIV. Troubles e»cild» WgllWl, tlMi^ yS^^^f/fpaiuoB the Atheaiant le 

engage in war against the Lacedemonians « - - <• - 193 

VTransaetkNia of the Greeks in B(ei^ bttd)rMl#) > <iii«- !) kv <* . ,r .^r . >, . - • g^ 
AmdKlJsmi^pMm^ikBat'fM dMbtad An fyell^o^aaBBr<»r tyram of Agrtgentha; ■'. 
m/ffot 0%rfJi«yft^aiMgiiM1tlif4lM»iWothiNu>c>Lfbetty:isJlstoiB« . • o . ;. ..ibid. 
4MiT,-tI. Of some famous persons and citizens in 6rcE»cia Magna; PyttafoiteyCkih 

61 - • - - - - . • i-lfo.i 1o ■ - ' . (i s no.-c •■.iny.- '-.'.n . «'? 

A cUap. nL ,.T ,M 

La^'mnS^Stmkd'h'i llii tK«&^^y^''' Alternate rara^ Bf A^tca and Pi^ ■ 
^loponnosus. . Hoqours jmi^ ^2Jft*^SWftW«*.f *»«/«¥ .*"A®$!^ campaign ., - ' . i^ 
»CT. IL The plague mStes dffAdmfKl[%e ifa Attj^a. '^P^ibles is (Strestpd qt th(» ' 


' — ?4ftTO Burreo%J5? t 'Khe>IagU9 .^WJ^ttjOUt iSant r^ Atheni - '-, - ' tSl 


Jill -.hi -^.^-iCHA^iii,:* 

&!>/' . k >< 

f^ - 

fl>c^:T;The v«^4i<Wt' rdMi of )Cei^.ee II. aii««<»Sd«i««i. ^^nf^Jm^ch^US 
^f PariWNotUb8."He ptite aitdtf t6 the ih8uh^ctib«^X^«PaMt))^>efmdik. 
. .HibestoM iSatftxiM, ii»youii^^ ibn, tfye'euprenie eommtfntf or^rAsiij[;HhiQr PTl 
'fincT. U. The Athenians make fhpmnelves mas^ra of the island pf^tt<er£. ' Expfr- ' 
'' dilions of Brasidat'ihi^ TmHii, *m tAkesMfpbtffldir. Thucydillee Oielilstorian 

is banished. A battle is fought near Delium, wheru tbe Athenians are defeated 184 
Sect. IQ. A twelvemonth's truce is Mwed mwHMween the two states. Death of 
Cleon and Brasidas. A treaty ori^aco'lbr nfty years eoBclodod between the 
Athenians and Lacedemonians - I'trrf'^.V ' * " ' * ' ^^ 
Bbot. IV. Aloibiades begins to appeaitn«pboUe. ^His character. He opposes Nicias 

BccT. IX. S^nKOM* it feliithied; The Atbtnifttt-lMtft krriiHbt i« Sidly ' ^ i' U ' «#7 
SicT. X. Aicibiades is fecalted. He flioa, and it ionrenced to die for t^ta^Btmtp ' 

He retirti to Sparta. Ftextbility of hi« genius and dispoiMlon ' <• - '••''•. ^Q 
Sect. XI. Descnpttdn or SytacMSfc -^ ^••j» ..<.j j . . . /J-sgij 
SscT. XII. Ifi^, after some etigaf^riiMta, hentsMffffuifiM. ' Lanacbui Is kCtad' 

inabatUe. T|o city is reduced lo the greatbat extVeihitfe*- - - ' . < . -u815 
Sect. Xin. The Svracusans resolve to capitulate, butQ^ll]Vpus*rf arriira) GtmngafriM^ 
face of afikirs. Niciaii is forced by his colleagues (o engage hTa aea-fl^t', and !■> '■^ 
overcome. His land forces 'are also defeaiod - - , - "-. - ~ '• * 221 
8icT. XIV. ThR eonstematioQ with which the Atbetiians are sefaeed. Hiov'sJ^aiQ- - 
liazard a 8ea-f\gh(, arid arfi deftited. Th^jr resplve to^ tetire by liind. ■Doif.l' 'd«M 
pursued by the dyracusans, they surrender. ' Niei^.and DcmoBthedei are sH'.ieneiMl 
to die, and executed. Tbe etifect \Vhich the!r.iQws of tho defetu of tjie aroiy ^m - 
daces in Athens - •'•' • , - - -i - 

— ■ ■ ^ • ■ .' . . "I ) 

CHAP. n. 


Sect. I. Consequences of tbe defeat of the Athenians in Sicily. Revolt of the allies. 
Alcibiadcs grows into great powor «tfith.TfMpb<rnes ..... jM3 

Skct.II. The return of Alcibiades t(vAtbeni niegotiatedi >ipon condition o^'^StabUsb- 
in' tbe aristocratical, in tbe room of the deinucrnticaJ government* Tissaphdrnof 
eootiudos a new treaty witb the'Lacedjeteunians '- - - , - ' - - 2M7 

Sect. III. The whole authority of tlie Athenian government having bo$n vestod ia 
tbar hundred persons, they nialco a tyrannical abuse of their power, and are d9- 
jxMwd. Alcibiades is wcalled. After various accidents, and several considetahfv 
victories, bi returns in triumph to Atheps, and is api>ointed gmcralissimo. Ha 
caaaesJ.he great mysteries to .le celebrated, ahd departs with theneet - - 849 

Ekct. IV. Tbe Lacedemonians appoint Lysander acfmiral. Ho acquires ^re>ti(iflD- 
eoce with the younger Cyrus, who co:nmaoded in Asia. He beats ibd Aiheiflan 

fleet near Ephesiis in the absence of Alcibiades^ who is deprived 4^** tbe coiamand. 

Ten TOnerals are chosen tn his stead. Callicralid^s succeeds Lysander. ; - tSB 
Sxct. V. Cajlicrsitidas is defeated by the Athenians near the Arginusife. The Ath«- 

sians pais* sentence of death upon several of thueir generals for not having brought 

fiff tho bodies of those who had been slain in battle. Socrates alone has' thft 

cooragp to opp»ne so unjust a sentence - - - -- . -'- '$64 
hcT. tL Ltyvkader .commands tbe Lacedteroonian fleet. Cyrus b reeslled to court 

ij his l^therl I«ysand«r gains aiDet&l7r4ted«viQtor/«oV^nthe ^Ptbsnia/Is at iEgospo- 

Umos - - - «.,'-!-•• ^.^ '- .• •- ^ ,• ^\ - - i gfj^ 

tcT. vn. Athens, beaif^d hf LynnderfTcii^itulat^ arvi> s(r2f4deri. hynndtit 
diangea tbe form of government, t^d establishes thirty commanders in it. He 
wdsGylip^us before nim to Sparta v^t)) alt tb^^oldliuhii'silver taken from tha 
eaemy. Decree of Sparta upon th^^oae l|>*b^ijiade;oir it.. The Peloponnesian 
isr ends in this maimer. Death of Darius Netfuia •»•>• *r* • - - - S7S 


• • • - I • 


BOOK :lx; 


^. L Coronation of Artaxerxos Mnemon. Cyrus attempts to assassinate his br»- 
te, and m sent into Asia Minor. Cruel revenge of Stntira, witb of Artaxerxos, 
yon the authors and accomplices in the murder of her l)rother. Death of Alci- 
Uades. His character. - -- 279 

^- n. The Thirty exercise the roost hor'.d cruelties at Athens. They put The* 
'*'<eikefc, one of their colleagues, to dnath. Socrates takes his defence upon him- 
■eK Tlnwybulua attacks the tyrants, makes himsoif master of Athens, and 
won^ its liberty - - ^** 

^- IlL Lysander abnsoi his power in an extraordinary manner. Ho is recaSsd 
^Sparta upon the complaint of Pharnabazus. ..----• 

CHAP. n. 

^ jouflger Cyns, ^th the aid of the Grecian troops, endekvours to dethrone hi|| 
^fvtha Anaxeraies. He is killed in battle.. Famous retroai of the Ten Thousandth 
^- 1. Cyra^ raises troops secretly against his brother Artaxcrxes. Thirteeb lliou* 
*^ Greeks juin him. He sets out from Sardis, and arrives at Babylonia, after a 
vc^ of mma than aix months .... AM 


MirrsNTSjor the thibd tixlitiib. 

n. Hw Wllit of CuMM.: 

tlw Grtaln araTietorioqa on tkelt liilsi AitaagntM 

HL Ettiocy of Cyrof 
, IV. Tho Eof 

to compel, the Groeki to delivar op their amM^ Thoy 
to liio raiber .than •orrooder ih«BiMly«s. A treaty u made ^itb them. 
Tiaaphornet taket upoo hin» to conduct th^ia back to tof ir own oounlyy. He 
fmcainremly leaea Clearchui and few other generals, who are all put to death 

Scot. V. Retreai of the tea thouaaad Greeka from the proviace of Babyloa a> iar 
aaTrebiMHid -------------.- 

Bbot.VI. The GreekSf after hanng nndergono ezconive iatigues, and. ^rmoanted 
maoy dai^ni arxive vpoo the loa'coajit oppoeite lo Byzantium. I'bov pass the 
■|mUi and engage io the aeivico of Seuthee, prince of Thrace. XenoMion aAer* 
warda .rapaMt*e the ma with hit troop*, advancee to Perjamui^ and jo^ne Tbim- 
hnm, general of the LaOBdamoDiaot^ who waa marching against Tisssaphemea 
and Pbarnabazus ------------ 

Bcor. Vli. CooMqaeqees of Cyrus^k death in the eoort of Artaxanfes. Cruelty and 
Jealoasy of Parysatii. BtatL'a poisoned - • • - '- - . 




CHAt. BI. • 

8lCT. I. The Grecian eitiei of lonta iropTore aid of the Laeedemohians aifainst Ar- 
taxerxes. Rare prudence of a hady continued in her husband's government aftbr bis 
^deatbf Afesilaus elected king pf Sparta. His character -' - - •' .-• 

/BCT. n. Agosilaus sets out for. Asia. Lysander falh out with him, and returns to 
Sparta. IJis ambitious desipis to alter tJio succession to the throne - . - 
Bkct. in. Expedition of Agesilaus in Asia. Disgrace and death of Tissophernet. 
Sparta givos Agosilauy tite command of its armies by sea and land.'' Ke deputes 
Kisaoder to command the fleet. Interview of Agesilaus and Pftarnabazus. ' • 
826t. IVkJLcague against the Lacedaemonians. Agesilaus recalled by the Epbori 
to defui^ lu3 conatry, obeys directly. Lysander^s death. Vitelory of the Lacedv- 
monians near Mcmosa. Their fleet is beaten by Conon off Cnidus. Battle gained 




by'tbe/Itaoediemoriians at Coronoea ..... ..... 

SbcX Y . Agesilaus returns victorious 'to Sparta. He always retains his simplicity 
aruLincient manners. Conon rebuilds tlie walls of Athens. A peace, disgraicefiil 
' Id uie Greeks, concluded by A ntalcjdos the Lacedemonian -^ . - 
Bmcj, ,VI. War of Artaxcrxes against Evagoras king of ^alamis. 'EuTogr and dia- 

ractcr of tli^t prince. iTiribas^s (hlsaly accqaec*. Ilis accu.<<er punished 
•■CT. Vn. The BzneUitiOn ot Arthxertter.agti<u* t>>o'r>d**s<»'<^'>- Hiitory of D*- 
. laiiia^ lb» Cariaa t .' * •. . - T^' - •-- - . - /. 36» 




» • 


. r « 

' 'I. 

' 1." 




1 4 


\ % .^ CHAPTER li. 


^ r 

Xersks's reign lasted but tw(^lve years, but it abounds with 


Xerxes, after haviBg reduced Egypt, makes prepa'rations for carrying tiie war Into Greeeer 
He holds a council. The prudent ipeech of Artabamia. War laresolred upon. 

^A. M. 3519. Xerxes having ascended the throne,* employed th« 

Ant. J. c. 485. fij-gf y^ar of his i^ign nfi carrying on the preparation* 
begtin by his fkther, for the reduction of Egypt. He also confirm- 
ed to the Jews at Jerusalem all the privileges granted th6m by his 
father, and particularly that whi<^ as^^ned to them the tribute of 
Samaria, for the supplying them with victims jpr the service 'df the 
temple of God. /? 

A. M. 3520. In the second year of his reiffnf h^marched against 

A°^ J. C. 484. the Egyptians, and having aefeated and bubdiieij 
those rebels, he made the yoke of their subjection more heavy; 
then giving the government of that province to his brothet Achie- 
menes, he returned aubut the letter end of the year to Susa. 

Herodotus,! the famous historian, was born in this same yoar at 
Ilalicarnassus in Caria. For he was tifty-thrce years old when the 
Peloponnesian war first began. 

A. M. 3521 Xerxes,{ puffed up with his success against the 

Ant J. o. tS3. Egyptians, determined to make war against the Gre- 
cians. (He did not intend,]| he said, to have the figs of Attica, 

* Herod. I. vtL c. 5. Joseph. Kn\\t{. \. xl. c. 5. f Herod. 1. yil. c. 7. % 

*UL I. xVs c 23. $ UerOd. 1. vli. c. 9—18. 1| Plut. la Apopli. p^ 173. 


i»liich Were very excellent, bought for him any longer, because hs 
would eat no more o^^m till he WM-iaaili^^of the country ) But 
l>efore he engaged in an enterprise^ of that importincei he thought 
proper to assemble his pouncil,^nd'take the advice of all the great- 
est and most illustriaus persons^ his ^cnirt*. He laid before them 
the design he had of making war against Greece, and acquainted 
them with his motives ; which wene, the desire of imitating the ex- 
ample of his predecessors, who had all of them distinguished their 
names and reigns by no.ble. enterprises ; the obligati(9n he was un- 
*der to revenge the insolence of the Athenians, who had presumed 
t(J fall upon Sardis, and reduce it to ashes ; the necessity he was 
under to avenge the disgrace his- country had received at the bat- 
tle J)t* "Marathon; and the prospect of the great aJ/antages that 
might be reaped from thia war, which wpuld be att^d^d with tlie 
conquest of Europe, the 'most rich ami fertile couiit^in'the uni- 
verse. He added farther, that this war had been resolved on by 
his father Darius, and consequently that he only followed and exe- 
cuted his ua,tentions ; he cpncbicjed with promising ample rawar^ 
to those who should distinguish themselves by their valour m tl^ 
expedition. . ". • •^ ' 

' Mardonjus, the same petson that had been so unsuccessful in 
Darius's reign, grown neither wiser nor less ambitious by his ill 
success, and extremely anxious to obtain the command of the'aYm.y;, 
was the first who gave his opinion. He began by extblUng Xerxes 
above ofi the kings that had gone before or should succeed him. 
He endeavoured to show the indispensable necessity of avenging^ 
^the dishonour done to the Persian name : he- disparaged tke Gre- 
ciansit and represented them as a cowardly, timorous peopl^, with- 
out courage, without forces, oc experience in war. For a proofof 
what he said, he mentioned his own conquest of Macedonia, whick 
he exaggerated in a very vain and ostentatious- manner, as-.if that 
people l^d submitted to him without any resistance. He presumeil 
even to affirm, that,,not any of the Grecian nation would venture 
to come out against Xerxes, who would march with a)l the forces 
of Asia; and tnat if they had the temerity to present themselves 
before him, they would learn to their cost, that the Persians were 
the bravest and most warlike natibn in the world. 

The rest of the council, perceiving that this flattering discourse 
was extremely agreeable to the king, were afraid to contradict it, 
and all kept silence. This was almost ai^unavoidable consequence 
of Xerxes's manner of proceeding. A wise prince, when he pro* 
poses an affair in council, and really desires^that every oiie should 
speak his true sentiments, is extremely careful to conceal his own 
opinion,, that he may))ut no constraint upon that of others, but;, 
leave them entirely at liberty. Xerxes, on the contrary, had openly- 
discovered his own inclination, or rather resolution, to undertake 
the war. When a prince acts in/ this manner, he will alwayo fhid 
artful flatterers, who*, being eager to insinuate themselves into 

FSRaiblS jANI> orbquns. ( 9 

Amfi pd to riiemo» kU fTer leUy to ei>ai|4y witb.ju* iacMmi. 
tioQifVi&jutitlkil to second bis •pinioft with specious ai|d plsiisi^ 
1 Ua NBsonI } >wh^t those tii^t would be .ctpshle of fivHlg good 
' «i(mei vm TesUained by fmf ; there being veiv few courtiers who 
iwe their. jMrince well- enoiogh, snd h&vo>sufficleat ^ursge to-vob* 
tare to ^^kletse hini by4isp»^Ilg whst they lni»w (o \Mku Uslt 
orcminion. , i- . 

The sKoesBiye pmBi6n given bgr ^^xes, wluch is 
h iwmllftii^Qage jof fli^tlerers, ought to huve made tho lune distrust 
^ Aod s^reheitd, ihst (uader an appesfance of zeal fot his glory, 
tbt QobleDi^Q endeaToured to cloak his own atot^^ion, and the vio* 
Jotdeaire he had to -command the %imj: Butijt^ese sweet and 
kJuame, wordsv which glid^ like a serpent un4errflowe*s, aro 
n &r irom displeasing princes, that they captiva.te find . qhptrm 
Sieaif They do .not consider that m^n flattor and praise tbea^ he* 
ttuse they believe them weak and vaip enopgh to suffer thenuie^es 
iobedeceiv^ bycommeodation^i.that hear no pfoportion to theii^ 
ient and aeskas. < ' 

This behayiour of the king made tiie whole t^ouncil jsante., la 

^general sUen^e^ Artab^its, the king's uncle, i^^ prince very 

tCBoable lor his age and prudence, h^d the ooui;tgo to,, make tho 

iiQowiDg speeoh : P^rmii m^ great prince^ s^ys he, addressing 

^Bselfto Xerxes, to deliver my eerUimenU to yov on thU oceajfion uiH 

^^'i^yndiqjMe U> V^,^^ nm^ to you^irierett. JFhen Darius^ 

ptf.fatheri and my bnxUier, jfiret thovgtu of makmg ti^r a^gauu^ 

, ^S ej ff k i ant f I uted all. my ehSfiotours to divert kunjrom it* r J 

\^notteU you tokdt that pUerprit^ coetj'^r what toas the mcf9$$ 

j^it Thep^aple you are goit^ to attack are i$\fi4^hf more jpr^P' 

mtthan the Scythiant^ > Th^, Oreciatu are eeteemm, the very beH 

j^ in the V!arH^ either by ffmd,or, ^es. x(f the tAtheniont aUmt 

\ ^ able to defeat the numeroue army commande<f by Ifatie and 

I ^Aemes^ v^uiX, oafght we to expect frojp^.all the gtate*. o/, Greece 

\9ikdt0geHier? , iin* dengn to ■ pcuit 'fyfm «4^ inicL.\E\irope^' l^ 

j ^^ a brieve oi^er ^ the eeet. And what will become of z^, . ^iT. ike 

^^^ioAf, proviifg fnctorioue, ehould advance^ ^9 fAH ^vz^c fuit^ 

^fiet, and hreak it down 7 I etill tremblf ifiheri Jfonnder^ th^ 

^&e Seythiaa% ejepedUion^ the life (fthe fcmg yottrfqJtherfOr^' tkf 

'i^ffaU hie army y wererediucetfto depend upon thcf^^V ^0A9 

|*H^nas; cufid thai if jStysticsu^ the Milenan Hf^di in^^mpUanae 

^^vrgwrU euggeJfMnit tjuuk to A^tn, consented iQ^PreaK dawn 

V ^^^ which hod bem tajdr over the I>amtbe, the Persian ^pire 

^kenedirely rtdn^^ Do not 9xpoee Yturselfy sir^ toih^tJjc<^ 

\ ^^t efpeeutfly 'i'^ you (ire not gbUged Jo dotf*- i^?^^ ^^^ ^ 

^^^r^UH up€fn it. When we have maturely deliberated upon an 

if^^fk^eoerr^hei'jflgm^.to be the eucceee <^ i^^ptchiveno^bfaffie io 

^Jfuftto^ursePbes. jPrecipUation^ beside* ttsheif^g^in^ifr^fdent^ie 4klr 

'^ alwys urtfkprifunate^ and ait^nd6d imf4 faitU' e^nsequiences^ 

^^,do fitfl staffer youineff'^ great prUce, it) be daxxiS^ tifHh % 

10 BWTomx»iVttM; 7<r 

iinki:0plmdaur tf^imtan^^^tiry ghry, w^ «>tMi the foififml^" tujpmnmM 
cfyour iroofi. Tke highutand mod io/ty tr^ hatifUurimHrtd- 
M9n io drfOdOie thw^ier. \As Qbd oMie if iruiy ^flHto^i te't* tm <fi#- 
my to pride,* mnd iukei p'UasnreirkhMmbUnj^'everf lMn§ VuAtaD^ 
«flM ihelf^i' ^Olnd very tpen ihe moH jfiMHUrouit^armiep^J^iirfere U 
htkt^iU<)fmiik,'be«M9ui&ke i^upir^eMeoiU fjfUh coim^iemd^eaUef^ 
terror among the others* - •. (, 

Artabanes, «fter having iftokelli' thuft to Ahe kttig'/«iifDed hiaibelf 
towards MardoniiM, and reproached him ^ith'ki$'.waQl>4if'niicentj 
or judgm^t,'ia. giving the kinff a noCioh of the Ot^iaiifiireo tli- 
reotly contrary to' t#ufh/; and slvdwed hdW extremillf h^ i«^ur to 
blame for de6lr%4» t'aslilytiy engage thi^ nation in a war, which 
nothing but fflrewn^Viewft 6f interest aAd ambition could teita{kt 
him *ito kdri^b. If ci toar h» retolved npon, acidecl hl», iet 4hd Unr^ 
wko^ life is dear toiiitillifema!^ in Persia; and do yous»i$iee 
yoU-so ardently desire it^w^rch at trie head bf the most/.numerous 
'arrii^ ^ffiat can he', assembled, - In the inean iime^ let y^itr ehiidnm 
and mine be given up as a pledge, to answer for the subSese (Sf ifU 
war.' If the issite of it bd favourabl^^I coneerddheA min&b&^iM to 
death :Vbid' if it prove otaerwise^'cu IwdWJoreeee U willy then I^A^ 
sire that' your (Aild^en, aHef you ydui^elf^on yo^r re#iwti, may ht 
treaJtedtn suchjikimamier e^ you deserve, for the- rash co^0sH yok 
f&vegi^^yon^fi^te^. ^ \ /V '• ^^ > 
• Xerxe^ who was not accustomed' to htttc^lfe sentiriiWitd <J»ntra* 
dictec^ in this mantier, feU into a rage. Thlhik'the'godi^ityitfn hc^^O 
Artibi^i^y ihat you aremy'/M^^sbiWii'rjytere it Viwipybr <A<tt», 
you' )0ioum'this riomeHt ii^cr* the just f w^aVtf qf'y^w^ kudaeibus 
befimioi^r, ' But f will pUhiish yoUjir it in etno^rmankeTy by ieat^ 
ing you A^ri l^ng t^ women, whoni ydu too much iresembte'myour 
cowardice dndiear,4DhiUt 1 mafeh at the head of mp ftnops, ^Vjre 
mydi(ty)and'ghrycallmh:" * •*' ^ ' ^'' * ' 

Artatianeff haff expretee^ .fiis eenthnents -iff'^t^erV respectfu! and 
itto^^rate terms : it^rxes nevertheless was exttmdy onended. It 
18 -the irtrisfortune of j)rinceij,t spoiled 'by; flattii?y, to^ look upon 
eve^y tmng as dry ahdaust^e, tncft-iis siijcere and ingenuou^i rind 
t6' i;egard all}couiiSerd0lh^^ed' Witli |i fr^ and disthterest^ 

'fireedotq, 83 a seditioOs '^presumptibiji: - They do not comider timt 

tdrHhem. ^ .^. , . . . . ., 

and flfithful friend, thftt 'will cohrfeal notnifig fro;n them. A prince 
Otfght to tjiink himself ,v6Vy happ^,if in ms whole .reifrn*^he finds 
bur one man WtU vfit^ thait degree bf geherosity, HlirMr" cMtSaif 

,.t WhritaairiAtbk;etifldrentM|rattl4MAfbr.tMr father*! f^ .., 


'««wPi«w» «w^«- ' i> 

onffbt ta be^conmdered as tb« most valuajble treasure of ^eitet(^ 
18 ne Ib; if ins'^preesion ttmy be adihrtted, both the. most ne- 
cessary, lind at the ^xae time .the most rare, instrument of govern- 
ment.* . ^ .... 

Xerxes himself acknowled^^ed this upon'tfie occasion we ^ are 
speaking of. When the first emotions of his anger were over, 
Ad he^ad had time to, reflection his pillow upon the different 
counsels, thflit had been giv;€ri hiin, }\e c^^'Dfessed he had been to 
blame to give his uncle such harsh language, and was not asnamed 
to confess his fault the next da}^ in open coutTcil ; ingeniously own* 
log, tl at the heat of yqutn, and his wwai of ex[>erience, had maJe 
him negligent in paying the regard due to a prince so worthy of 
respect as Attabanes, both.^or nis age and wisdom; and declaring. 
It the same time,'that he w|is ciimc r ver to his opinion, notwith- 
standing a dream he had had in the night, wherein a phantom had 
ippearec^ *xy him, and War^l^ exhorted him to undertake that war. 
M who composed the council were delighted to h^ar the king 
speak in this mauner ; and to y^tify their joy,, they fell prostrate 
before hi*-j» striving \Vho should most extol the glory of such a pro- 
ceeding ; nor could their, praises on such,a.n occasion bq ^t al) sus- 
pected. For it is no hard matter to discern .f whether the praises 
given to princes proceed from the heart, und are founded upoa 
iruth, or whether they drop from tne lips c.n.'y as^n efiect of mere 
fettcry and deceit'. • 'That sincere and humiliating ackpowledg- 
ment made by the king, far ^rom appearing as a ^weakness in hiuK 
Was looked upon by them as the effort of a great soul, which rises 
sbove its faults, in bravely confessing them, by way of reparation 
ind atonement. They admired the nobleness of this procedure 
fte more, as they knew that princj^ educated like Xerxes, in a 
^ain haughtiness and false glory, ap never disposed to own them-^ 
«cl\es in the wrong, and generally jiia^e .lise of thpir authority to 
justify, with pride and obstinancy, whatever faults tiey have cora- 
ttitted through igaoraiice or imprudence* We niaj venture, I 
'iuDk, tu say, that it is more glorious to rise in this manner, than ' 
i Would be never to have fallen. Certainly ther^ is notJimg 
reater, and at tne sanje tune more rare and 'jnconi|j|on> than to 
iee a mighty and powerful m;ince» and that in tl^e tijine of his 
greatest prosperity, acknowleage his faults, wjaen he hfippcns tp 
commit any, without* scsking pretexts or excuses 'to coyer them ; 
pajhotnage to truth, e veil w.hcu. 1,1 is against' hi ni and condenms. 
tim; and leave other princcTs, whbthav,e a false delifacy r^ncern-^ 
^ their ffra^ideur, the shame of alw(Lys abounding witiji errors* 
•'^'ttTccts, and of never, owning thiait they have any. , ,^ 

Ti*^ght following, the ,same phantom, ,if wo majj; heltey^ 

I *JV»inini 0^119 tipni IfliRcrll ln|tnini«Qt}iio quta tionut tmkui. « 7m^ J^jtL L 

I*c**- i' , * ' *'i s' .' ' ' • I' ;•. . • . 

\ %*t orcttltiiia «wt f|uaitdn ai vtrf-,ate, ^uandp aduniLraiA l«tlUA» ^^ iinpc^nM • 

til ' '■ M^i^m'iPAk''''''' 

8oti<ntationd, with npw lil'enaces ana 'tl^eateniif^, AerjEes cbxii«> 
hmtiici^ed what pa^ed t6 his untile; and, 'id ^f d^ to find,, put 
^^ether this^ vision proceeded from- the gods or not, entreated 
tith to put on the roya^ robes, to ai^ce^d th^ $liron&i and afier- 
^atda'to take his place in.his ted fbr.therhighi': A.r|;fibi3inep h^r^ 
Upon disccursed very sensibly and rationally with the kmeupoS 
the vanitjr of.dreams^; and thfen *6oiAihg to wh^t pereoifaBy re- 
-tarded" hith, / look upon U,* sayd lie, almost equfUly commendtwUiq 
Ikink )tDetl one's seif, cond to hearken witfv dociUty to ihegood cot^n* 
helt of others. You have both thite quatUies\ great prince; a/i\d j/fj 
you jhllowed the natural bent of your own temper), it would lead you 
solely to ieniiments of w'isdom and moae^rationp You never tdke euui 
violent meaiuihea or resCtlutiom, biU wli^n ffie arh of evil cQunfelm^ 
iWtge you into the^, of tfU poi96n<(f Imtery^ piisleddiyqui- *^ l^ 
iame m'anner xu the oc6an. of itself cktrh and serene, is never dU^ 
turb'ed^ but by the extraneous impulse of ^ther bodies. Jf(hdt afflict^ 
ed nte^in the answer'you made me t^ other ddy^ when I delivered my 
seTiiHik^s freely in counHl, was not the personal affrorU to me, but 
the injury you did yoursetfy by mdking so wrong a choice hel^weenthJs 
d^erent counsels that were offered ; rejecting that which led ypti to 
^ifntifnents of modet^ion and equity ; and erhpracing ihe_ others 
which, on the contrary, tended only to noiiirisk pride, and to'inflame^ 

Artahanes, tht-odgli complaisance, passed, th^ night in the king's 
bed, and had the same vision which Xerxes had before ; that js, in 
his sleep herssew a man, who severely reproached him, and thrisat- 
cned him with the greatest misforttfnes, if he continued to opposet 
the king's intentions. This k) much affected him, that he came 
over to the king's iirst opinitfn,^ believing that there was somethii^ 
divine in these,repeated visions ; and the war against the Greciani^' 
was resolved ^on.? These 'jbircumstances I relate ai^ I^iind thenx 
^ in Herodotui% ^ ' '^ ^ 
*' Xerxes, fti the sequel,' did but illsppport this character of mode^ 
ration.. Wif'ijshall find in him only transient rays of wisdom, and 
rtiison," whiofi'^shine fonh hut for d\ mpmept, and then give way to 
^e most culpable and e^trAva^aJit^ excesses/ We may judge» 
Itoweyer, feven from thence, that he had very good natural partii. 
and incii^^tiond. But the most excellent, qualities are soon spoil jij 
itttd corrupted by the ppison of rfatterj^ and th6 possession of abaJK, 
Jufte and unlimited power: P'i do^ind^oneseonvutius.f 

It is a fine seHtinient m a tn'iiiiister of state^ to be le9^ affecteA 
lOth an affront to luQiself^, thah with the Vrpng done his mB^Ua by 
jifiving him ovil and pemicidufi <couhsel^ ' f 

Jv.l.kxiLa «. "— -' — ' -•' -*^-^* 


Uv. I. kxiL a ». iue?9 eg9 •vdtpit m.iU0, lum ^nmum mm «f>«M, f iu »M,MqMlOT 
mmtk'HimA^H^^sSiUMHim ekm, ani tone nitn/tnU oUMu: gni n^ i]fM €9$uaMLVi§, 
«n>«r«M4<M£.M«M<rMUMv«M*«mM»' ', ^^ fTlirit. '^^^^'^^ 

iBifMiifed^ ^tericv in the pnneei^ Wh^dh Mg'Htit itiA^ f^vwM 

mibai < tbletdf^, tSjriiiritt3|M;f«t ; ajiiit teetuiie * <it • dttpoii<jdi«id*ril4^ 

tustfmeft iMiiraadHitiitto cinijnturvl0it« rnfA^d^ bl^ond 'hti 

^iBnofJbltoiie^ nti^ib he, pimfn^ at 8DMfhm|f fiiiith«y;< andtd set 

DO bounds Uni^i imbitiott. Tlii0f ir>th^ preddtniiiftiit'pai^iDti^^f 

thoecnnen whom ve usmlly call o^n^iMrm, andwhoni/ate^sording 

to tfa^knguage of th« Ivoly 8cri(>tiire^ wi6 inigbt :caii'Witb-gt^£ 

^pnetjTobSers of naiiu)nt.\ ''Ifty(ni:oonader'«nd exanrine^ttt 

whole «(iecc»kd) of Persian king^, says 6^ieca,w4if you find ai^ 

one of tbem that ever stoppod- his caveer of Me ou'ti aecord ; thiift 

was ever aatii^ed with his past cenqncsts; orthat iwn^ not^fbrB»< 

ing some new project or enterpriso, when' death -liurieinsed'^hiiiif 

Nor ought we astonished at sooh a disposilldn; adds thi 

Bime atrthor ; for ambition is a gulf vid a bottomless abyss, wheMB>> 

b every Uung is lost that is throws' in, and whom, thcugfa yioA 

vere to.heap'proviince i^mn proviiieevand kingdom tipon'kiagdiw&» 

yoawcMtidJiererib^ able to filluptbemighty void. '* > 

• il 1. ^ .' . ' ■'•■' • i 

.'■• ''> SECTION' FT."'': ■«• '"•■' 

Xtaea b^ns h)» march, and panea from Asia *^to Eum|») by ^rqimkug ,Uit atraita m 

the Utrllespont upon a bi Jse of bu^ta. 

'J • ' -I 

A. M. 3S83. ■ . * ' The w&r b^ing' xe^ved upbn, Xemea, . tlat . ha 
Aai. J. c. 481. ^ might, omit nothing which could .cohtribute ,to >th* 
foccess of hifi undertakingi entered into a confederacy with the 
Cuthagiaianstwho were at tl^it time the onost potent people df 
the west, an^ .made an agraemettt witib them, that xWhilst the 7Per^ 
aao forces should attack Qreie^, the Carthaginians should faH 
upon the Greciaa coJoni^s Uii&twere settled in « Sicily and Italy% 
IB order to hindfjj th<if fronif.oooiing to the aid of tbe other Gtc^ 
^itos. The Carthagiiiians mad^ AdiilQai* thcirsgenersl, .who dii 
flot conteu^ hiQi^If with taiain^ a^;maAy troops as he could in 
^ica^.^tl^ Witn the m^neyl rthat \ Xerxps hs«l. eent innai, en|;a9cd 
&fre^4vu>akb€tt'0f soldiem aut pf {Bpnin^ Qaol, andltdif , »n hs sdi- 
^i ^%kfii%3he coU)ecttiid)ftn:Arm^ of 306,000 meii,. and a pfopoB- 
lioaate pf^s^i^^iff^ ^Vi^i.mnQr^Y tie/, execute theitprojeeis m^ 
«tiPMtatii^»:^>th»'il«»|5J4ito Ji -lubn vi.Ln v..' ' /.-.t-.l 

%u»X^j^99in&ref^MyMiU»iaafhtt D9nttl!6f<preaictidtv imaJ^ 

pRrceiuie: q<i<fni Inveniea, cui niMdum imperii »atietas feceriti rui non vit«r>i 
^P^i^i^m*m K»»«^"<** cogilaiioaa fl9iwii^dl^[«c id niiruiaoeia. tiMsiAmMMB*- 

Vw- UI. B 

idl>tiM «li^ Madanlthe QooMiaiid of :Anilo«rv:iaaid dTiAll^tbe mH 
nndfiv^Qwii iHaiQ«V8iit.i9i4lfr«aa.RpMi^ in'ordeif^to tatei^vpva 
lUf iwWifAn Ui« .fifth j0fts of lUittKeigftfWlLifihsiiM ,tlwiiftnth<ajteir 
^ ,b«ttkbof .|l«tfiilliiDii,HAo4 oMYolb^ itowiLitls. &udm tJm*i^wQ» 
pf i«vi|iM%«ii0 £i^ ibaillhi^ Idn^ finny, ;^hiMrtke'>fleetai(hiBBecd 
lJbll9lJM»|COIiMofA0Si^Muiarfo words thft Helieqi^nli dnr. f 
vT^XfomsiitBd: givftt mom to iavo a paanage eutiliuJOuffbinoQiit 
jjbthos^l This m AimomitfiinittiMfiieedoniii]) & province of Turk^oi 
Airdpo^c wiiicliM«xtcDte> it. gTeatiftvat.into ^the Arcbipekg^o^ ioibhe 
fwid.of a,ponlil«ui>i. ({i'istJAioed to .ttiadandoiUy by «» isthmus i of 
l^out halt «* JoitgoeifKver. We baviel already takea nojtaeer that the 
tCA iq this phicoti^aft' v^eryi Jbemposluoiiayaiid tocoasbned frequcqit 
|^])iv(eckfu riiXeiBzeik iQadi»/thi8:i4s pivtext &r<the orders be gave 
fecOttingiUlDOU^h .the mottiilAibrbutthe truereasoh was the 
JWUty of signalizing hinuelftbyt t^ eatraordiiuiry enterptise, and 

S.d^ng AHiiifiglhMtV^aeaclrenlftly difficulty as Tacitus, says of 
iiroj;. EnU incr^dibUiiiim i:^piim\) ; Aocordiaf^, - H<^rociolfis "oV 
serves, that this, liodertdkiog \4^a8 moiteoyain-gtofitDfiift thakviaMofo], 
since he might with less trouble and expense have had his vesselis 
carried over the isthmus, vf^ ^fj ti^e^ practice in those days. The 

Sassa^e he caused to be cut through the mountain was broaj 
^ fcon^ tb l«t two' gaLll6jpf;?^if h tbrfe.^ b^s of oar6'e4ch;>aj^s throifgh 
It abreast. This prmce,t who was extravagant eiiough to believe 
lUafijaQ nji^ura and the very '€AiBmsBt6 Were ykHdet liis comnitttid', in 
•dUse^nenae of that opinion^ wrote* a letter tomount^Athos in tKe 
following tena»: ^^Athossthou proUd and aipirin^ iiJbuhtam, thai 
fiflet^jap thyMeifd unto tki he(wenis> I aduUi mee m)t(dl^40 dOda- 
€toiif a^to puLrocki CMid' $t(inei'^ tthiofteannoi be 6«f, in Xhe way tf 
ttfy ^hrkmen*r' if ihx^\x.^^^i th&n^ tkaV^ppoiiiio*iy £ loUftui ihee 
fi^irelif dovuii^and' Ihrohitkee kifadioiiffv/kelhe M^:* At the same 
iaittd^ k^rordered'his laboureis to be"i3c6ii%^ediitf' order to m^e 
ihembatrriyJon.thewoi^k'rtiBifkkeffl* ■ '■■■'' '• ' ' '^ . •. 

fli A toavellerlt wlio liv«*in'th6 tsmedf Fnitcis t^tfifii^'lttid' who 
bviate a .book ialMin concefniiigahls'Btiigular ttnd; Hi^itifiMk 
•^liin^i he. bod 1 seen in Ms'^nrmrelfl, doubts ifiio trtilllf'^«f ^i^ikct^ 
^jod tffkea inoticer that aa hb p^mtAiUkiitt mbunt Athe^ hn cMA 
jperceiyei^noqtnuees of the werk fkwhavQ^ti^ ap^}Lk^4^ '>j£rio. > 
Xcrxes,ir as we have already related, idWuk^U^&^^lMim 

SLvingtleft OappiidbwiaitddfttM^l th^xlAfl^ir HAlyis^ h</ <»Uil3' to 
hepH^ia city o^Pb?;r)^«^i^\Hn<i^ 4«^lih»'^4r^'6t^^^ 

.der. tythius, a Lydi ' 

M|o XeiiJ^di'w^^0%( 

iimc^ittid.iMine .aim'itfi oaMMimll 'am^mewk 'lowiaida' 

-iSii n<»n .u-i \ l\i90ii[ -■■■.ji'H-t ih'xicm m Uim * n •♦!.. i i • .. 'rf'U»«i «| BiHti •' 

a . .ii; .joV 

ricEss uDounted. PjthiuB inkde- answer, tfiat witl) t] 
ofisHM U>^JItfl lu*.f|ffricB„be'^Kd|UUcca hq eifiCt 
tLwii„aiid tut. 4^e sUver kfi lja4, 9r Koi aiw<4ntc<l 
leotB* [whicb i^e 6,000^00 Fif ocb iponey ;} vul 
ifiOOfiOO of.d«^ekg.t w«iiUagJQf>0,.(^at la to Bay, tij 
«f livres, wint.inp TQjOOO, lectoSijigJen I^vres French's 
iuit^-) . AltJihiB^toneyiie afftiE^^him.lelliDghiin,.!) 
nilp» 4i^a, BuffioMUt for (he support af',fiis houietib! 
mijie^lun.y^y.hmf^ acknawIeOg^^ta., ^tcred into 

tj,,i^|t^«d*«c^8tii^g[ his offers, obBjBiJ tiuoto-sccf 
itBltim 7000 ,4ftrick», wjficJiiWfire, wmina,,ti> Jm^,\ 
njuo^BMHi of 4,«)p;ool). ,.„.,'■ ■ ■' ■' 

Aiftvr <uch ig./c^aduct .«[, J 

generoaity, and a Doble contei 

■4d ln#leH. lH>w„>4tFByB di 
vhich ne ba.d in his lerritoiieE 

kid taf K Cfw^luuttbeiore he 

nusewtiflg HMir. condition, ibe use of'SiVery extrtort^dirf ' 

iitflliod.ibp wcrk upon iie|r.^juAuid,.Biid t^giv^ ' ' ' ' ' 

ud k jM^Uo dMHoiutratipf^ i^f t^ ' folb ^d. . 

dact Ob lap., tfH}itfi. home, 9h% or^^i V^ '' 

prep»jred,,f<>ftt»«»«.Terj,(|»gQi^ceiit,,iii' tfp^a. ■ tie rr" 

. - , tMiti^/jpwgnotB^tjtyhi 

4viDBdWe..ineaw|ftof t™%.?'i(ginB,Bii4 be^ 
lb»BM-«fi;aoldi»pai»Iver waa not marely to I 
b ba tmpfoy^d ^ made use pf; aod tt|«t tc 
^, Uei'iWw'^flM^'^^W'I'^y.a^ the tUUng 
' — " hw penpt^ndiagiog nod worbing of tf 
1 — i — - '"^'le bpthii^'"'^ i^irt-^-ir ■« J hi. 

inf. Plutaict) has preserv 

. bm^*6faine bflth upon iuniBelf and^Wj 
aBB«,^J»M5»ftjf5, te,QnJy,r*si;rv:ed,fi fifthpjrt'i 
DiMBMor mining. Flutaich has preserved tl 
*W*» Jta ^ ncSlt^fld ajCWf^ |»wiiff|,(i^er», to piQie th^ ftbiUty 
"id ii4wfEr **'^W»^ \i^O|bWe,,tbe .aiifli^ ^position <|f bui^, 

aUiB.M|»yi,((9uatflt,foj .wbqio^.ey^ ,tbi^^ tf|(it beJE^j^icJi^irj^a*^ 

1S!H?"»'*' ■^W''**:. .-iJ'aa'sswieK. 

PEBMyil^i AMD OttMlANS. s'W 

116] M!iy into farther I'effleetioae upon the nvtories <#kl[^<«v4ll|j|l 
th^lli^tf'Mt mefiVftre attends, luid whiehf^ndier tli««i^»<p)ril». 
M and '^ifff>i «ttieili^Ouriiig at the stfine time :t<K <inMte '4^ 
sensible e^tfaef My an^ oh\ist^\f6»ftf^ princeB, '^vHKyf-taoirMhgt/attl^ 
toproiongtlilfiiilattoal life of tho|i< subjiects^ onght 4t4ea«€tb>d<^ til 
thttt fi^ in theirpower to allevidte the tlroubl^s afkd'lUAyilKe'M 
teraessofit. ''^' .,.,..» 1 • ;; >•. . .(t 

In the same f^nveraatioHi > Xerxes ^aslted his nn^ if ^fae still per 

fii^d in his^firstopiDion, anf«^if he W($i}ld stilladvise himticft to Wttlft 

war agaiiist Greece, suppodn^^he bftdnotdeen'the vi^ioii^ whiell 

oecasioiied bi0i to'ehanlfrhid ^fftlibOllb.' ' : Artaba»e0 o'Wn^A hemiU 

bad his fears; ai>d*^at he wis' Very uneasy co!ieerniiiff*twothi»ffiifc 

What are those two thSn^? replied Xerxes. ' The land andt»d 

eea, says' Artaban'^: the land, because' there is no country t.illl 

can febd and maintain so numerous an army ; the sed, becsitise 

there areno'poTtd capable off receiving s«ich a multitude bf ves^ekii 

The king" was very sensible of ■ the strength of this reasoning ^^igt 

as it was flo^ too late to ^o»t(a*k, he made'anftwer, that irt-gre*! 

ondeirts^kiAg^, ttieh'ou^ht not so narrowly to exaimine aU the'ideoM^ 

Teoienced- that ina^ attend' Irhbn^ I'ikAt if they did, no signill eM^ 

poses werald? evet'1^"a^mptc^f 'audi Itot if hi| predece^iblihs^t^ 

olkserved '$<y^(itnil^)^tf^%hd'<l!i^dr^m^a kil^e iof potioy, iWe Vtft^iak 

earpin^ yrc'dW n^yep^hatd atttlMd iid'pi^dent fa«i|^jof ^at^o^ 

vAgii^yJ' ' '• '..ii! Mtjv/ ii'iilw ,-..*.• I '.;»;-> r> . ti 15*10 

Artia>b^^ ' gfave t1f«$iking"\Bliotkeit>^eee of v^typtn^eDt - *tMe^^ 
vi^h'&e^ ito lAore^h^Uglitf^ WfoUow • th&n hei>hid'the ^foi>d^4 
^iusw^,')iet%d em^ldy^^thbilon^ftfi^ hi 1)i#^rvie8)a|iiin(MMf ife^ih^ 
^ ^dtii'' whonr 'they '^^t^^.^igviiaily /d^cefidedr 'tlfd tW^Vhl^ 
•dXamt-M dftghttdsii^p^Itfae&i'ildelfty. -iXericteJihowd^r^i^^ 
^ ecmVffikiSiMm i^kh'hifi ^tftM^ tfiaated' him wAih^gr^sA^iH^ii^ 
^ paid ^hkn thci^ighe^t'ttiarits of ^hciiiiMiFtand re«pQ«t,i^»i 'imi 
^ t& S«ttMF, ^40 take the i^iire' andiadftikiditTatibA^f mib'tMifk' 
^ hitt dQ9lng< his o«Nrh''absMi06, knd to<«fact<:entk^HV^ed 4!S« 
'Si loB wttdfl^-aiAhtrityt • 1 .''«•« > . ,(|t-«-. i{-i 'i^j.o bo-jovoc; 

XeFxe9,^>ILli a Hf^iidt^ e:xpen#e|>faftdi oaiJis«fd ^a^ briiigi» fbf 4b4l^^iPto 
^^i96ii'>«fl^ ^«^; fo^ ahie^ iMMSaf e -df 'his'ft(f«es f^^Oni ^ A^iiP^lfftf ^ 
^i}pe. The space that separatee^ th^'i^li(i(^Mih«^tfn^Hi(l^ffl^ 
^ ^€?' H«ll^H)fO)i«^a8i<lnowt$ali)dd(the dtrttaseJTtb^ I^Vdtiii^n^e. 
^of Qftmpollj'iis seVin 'Stadia in hreadth; i^iich id ttt^in^Wh 'fjili^ 
^fflilei!.'?'' A^Mi^«^stonti/'att)se>:oit' a'Sttdd«^j iltlfd^tft-o]^ dd%tf 
"^ ^Tid^f^ ->£^^ lieat^gt this Diew^ on^'hiS'KffMLlvM^inty^)^ 
%)tiil'of' m^V'sind ^ idfsdel* to nven^hkm&^fbt^hWik^W 
^'^ co»i»aBdedW«(paftft4'(^iiiKBB to b« thk)4m*»lhto^1he<4^' 

file mesLnt to shackle and confine it, and his mgi to give it-SQjO 

*'*^ .HO'.' .'oi. .M .vi .. '..•\ .M9'(>y.'{ twoni 

/ 1. "Jiui^oq *i-'lr. »(i.e olei lad) ."oni;n '.<; "i-. ' ,>-ri,'^|"!'. t"v nt Ji. >:..: / t 

B 2 

iUfffqudtfl MmmiUMtl .itia«of».r. ^Sfii»a, ihatXer^Bet Wfi/f, ff^ ^ 

/Pjtae/eMi[mv!9g«Ace ofirthis prinipe. 4i4. 9^t Hl^p h^^j;^,;DULkifig 

^b6;Uii4^Ftaikf^e«C/the work answerable ft^r event's, ]«^cb4oQot, 

Aft tile(iea«t depend-upon the power of man, hje.0]rdfjie4<i>jd tlio^ 

9^8^ tp haJTAitheir ikeAd^ struek off, tha( had hoen^olmgefi. vfith 

the direction and management of that undertaking. i^, ^- , ) 

ioX^x;^s^ic'0)BtfifiAdi^d tjWjO ipther bri^^Bto b^-^ji^i^iit, tpnefoj^the 

§^y to pas9 oyer, And the Qt^ir tor thjer.i^ag^gei an4;))^^t8d:i3uar 

4^*., He appointed woi!knti«a looieti^ and ,exp^t |ii§n tf^e-.ibi; 

|39er, who: went about iit in. t^i^%|iyier>^hey piao^ 360 yesaeilii 

jM^roiss, someoC Uii»iiiiavifligiiti^]?ee ba^ksjq>f pfo-f; and otboi:^, fifly 

^jra aTpieee; witli their sides ^ti^rned towqarAs (i^ Euxuaa eea; and 

fm the side that faced the ^geaai sQa5; thfy p^t 31 4» ' They then 

#a$t lai:ge anchcH's into the water on both sides, in Qr^ hx ^nd 

Mei^re/alj tbeeie' ve^seUiiagaii^t the ' violeo^ee .of tb^r ffH^)* and 

i^inst the civrent of the water 4 : Qa the ej^at #ide they Ie$; three 

]^^i9ag0s<or vacmit'spaeies between. the^yeeiBels>itha1t tl^j^re might be 

r9m^ fori 9i£(9Jl bcmto to go aDdQOina ei^ilyv-a^^theis^ wafir:Oc^9a9io]i« 

t9,a,ad fxom the Euxine sea* After ilihis, upoa th^ land(On bothsidea, 

Ih^pdrove large fotes iaU^r t^ket earth, wit^.h^^enngs fastened t^ 

l^m, to iifhich,^vere.ti^'0i3i;vastiOab]ies, .wbicbftW^t p^ei^^e^^hof 

th9<twa hrWge^jiiwo ofewhi^h Wifetes wey^jnade.of: h|f(Kip».a;^45p«i 

of a sort of reeds called 0lii\o(, which were made use of ^nf thps^ 

JiW^i #>F : .thfi J n^akiof ©f «<^ii^geii jo Tjhw |hft(> were; mai8(ftf b«ni 

Wrt-bftv^ilbiet^ !6l Juiieitlraoitiittwry sitireiigth : and tj^icl^^ifi,, ; i^^ 

^er^fA^^Mikomi ieahil«liiw^ig!heid a^alentyl 'The jcablQ?,.hM^ ov^i 

tlWfi>y^^ ftflttemc^Of thft:.veteds:l^i^wjise, r^<?b9(i (rqff^^^Q side 

Voi jt)te-r9(iherf ^4>^ the sea. WJfeei jttutf rpiBft of thf ^w<wk »riif.^iuBhr 

e|i,, W^fitQtfir.itjte veadelsifr^Ht sideiitv side, ai*d .f^i^c^^Wi^a^e^ w< 

i>m^^ ispqiikinff of, they laid the tmwks of itiEjwiSMfjut ipfti^posei^ 

^'«)pp',raiidiiMiuaks ftgai^iover %9m; fastfBQ^d.^ed'joi^e^tQ 

leTyjtot. A«rV«{as Aikind of Jojar>iW ^olid^ttppi j.TfiJl wfei€to thej 

covered over with earth, and added rails, oi;batttepa§i](tf9 /^9 9ac] 

jj^cbitha^ J«)ie howAss. and ieattlih might ,not fi^ fidi^te^^d at ^eiQinj 

.^e^ in tb«itr^aa9i^^.:ifThi£^tpas ihejaipdeof eo^stmcti^'thos 

^Q^s,hridge*b^ilt>bj|.'Xe^J(es« . .ij(i; ^ .j." '/'T . .,- >•$ • 

W^ft th(8 whc4e.WOTkww.cdtopleted,,fa<4ayoww!aiV^il*«4 

t^ dmaini: Ofvr^>;.i«iditid aQOb 9» the : first tays /cif the m^i; :bi9g^ 

^.i^PP^«#^««ft odififiis of; 8tU,kinds Wfeire abuiiutoit]^ spjpeaA f^v^ 

Qp^ orii^e hrklgeg^iluHl the^way was. $txeWf^ >with layrtle-. A 

yf^f^ )9a^ (^ime X0rxe«t|)oured out ^ibatioipiB infio :thei«ea« oad ^mff 

ii)gvjuA.i|a<seiitoir»ois( rthe wm^ihis^ prtnietpa^ ^lU^Otfjof the F^i»i« 

timaetwoiieaft. Po/. 1. Iv. p. 307, 308. 

4 A tatont in weight consisted of 60 mine, that !■ to lajTr of 4S pouads of oar woigfe 
•nddieinimiconsistfMloflOOdrQ^uaf. ^ | :,ot U ' 

«rMfiif>,'litf >fiiplol^(^ the tmamMe df <^at '^iSPHA^ dflirffftiMb 

t]]^^f liai) ' made the dtttire congest -of ' l^rojid, and ■ liaa^roi]^ 
it iE^6U%}eeftien'tb hi^ power; th^s done, he threw t&e veM^l 
wkl0A*he*had used in 4nakib^ lii^ilibMion*, together with a g^dfMi 
ctfp'ttnd a Peissian scimitar, ktei't^ sea. The ariny;wa» sefr^n 
daytf^aod fi^ven nights in passing over these straitfi?' those Who 
were appointed to cdndilot tkd marehvWhinff the poor sotdl^fg 
allthenirhHe with whips; in order He quicken their speed, accdrd- 
mo* to the custoin of that natibb,< M^hkih, )»roperly speftking^, Waa 
w/ahogeanembly ofsktes.!:- i . : << i.< i^-ii 

• sRcrnoN in. » i 

4 "a •■- . ' 1 •: . *.- 1 / '• 

£aamenuion of ^erzes^s forces. Demsratus d«Mver» bit afiBtiineQU p:eely upoo tbft 

. prinee's «ater prise. 

Xerxcfi,^ direflting his marbh across the ThraeianCheisoneBy^ 
vnved ai; Boriscuis, a oitjataodhig .at;tibk;)iiAXQth of the >Hebnia» 
m Thrac^; where, having eiiicamped haatfiimiy, aridfiveaafdera ftor 
to §eet ta&llow him tiMig: theishord, h^ revieEW^d.lMra.l^tfa* ) 

He fofimd the kndvanngp^Whiohiie^faaid hroiigiittjHli of ^ia^,caB» 
fliated of 1,700,000 foot and 80,000 horse, vlhi^ vifefatiTOsAOO' umi 
atiouit-thiitworef •hflblotBJ^atteaiai^ifbr^Qqidafld toting 

care: o€ tiie. oaniageii aoid-f 4hef loimida^ iiude: iiuaijb t ^BflOiOO^ diiem 
Wifaea%e£atljpasBed<tbe HeUtfspcbik^tt)MfiiiibyostliB:tr8|iJbra 
hha made^itraddilioatajbii^ajftns^HifiSQiO^ 
his Hukd fcMMidtogi^hfiC' annuiit Jto JK^IJOO^M) /sneD. i 7/ .f . . i ] 

lii9^tet;wliciiitacticmtr'froiii Asitci'jooQaiatadic^lilO? mlfe^'of 
wac» aU of'tkaee budEsof oarii i> Eifefeveaaaikibried MO. meii» ni4 
thWiofitheiooimtry.thai fitted JthenKoiiit^beadies thir^'im>rtr<, tiui 
vere either Persians or Medes, or of the Sace ; which made-i&tdl^ 
377»61<0'itlMiK The lluropean'natioiie aiilpimqied iBS'flbet' lAth 
liO^VMels, ea4;ha£ whic^ cdrriiBd ^OameiKi iiinUr 04,066 ;.tiliei6^ 
iddedtotbeotheiFf,'tiite)«iitedtogBthevlo(g(l|(ai(^]iiite. ; /..i/( 

Besidea this HeeiCy wiiidk cooaiatc^ al2M)f/;lar^ir Y,o » ario » thee nml} 
gaUeys of thirty otadfi^ oara, theArte^OKtahqip^Ntfae^Hesaekiilwt 
carried tlieb^proviMoiiB^ mnd. thatwaae empidyedi iaiitdtlic^ jMBaj 
amaanted ta 3000.^ If we reckon, bulveighty men iir i^chiof than 
veaaels, one with imothervtbatmaifeimlifeiwhole 240,000 q^»^ w' 

Tfaoa, when . i^Cerxes- ^amved ' at . IHierm^yle^ his laad and « iea 
fvrcaa tcq*ether made up the nitmto- of 3,641,610 men,l without ioii 
chiding getvmaiBj eunaofas* womeii,' .suttlexai and other pei>p)eiiQ( 
that jorty wihicfa usually foUoiw hn:army» fsd wlioae. nianhQr'«t(fcii3a 
tine wmseqafiHolJ^X oftheftacee lso that'th9'1viu>te|iu^ 
tkA&tkoiwednXetiietB in tW^expedition^ anumatfid to ikft9Ss^MU 
'f^ w the computation which ^erodotua makea of them, aad 

i • . 't\ ' V. .. :ii.' .' . ■;. •■■ /. r <•'! X .' .ir i N. •] ♦ • 

• Hcrad. U TiL c S&<4a. ]84-l8t • • ^ ( . <i 2 

^(leir ciUouliLticm ; ,bul; \h^\t aecoiuats of the. mifetter (Appfi^p lio Ue 
leSsiinutheiitic tban iliat of Hero(iptuJ9| wiio Hv^ ia the famoiai^ 
i]|..wiuch this expaditioo wka maid^, ajptd who .repeats- Iheiiflatx^- 
tjon en^ntv^jhy the order ^tthe Amphictyons, apen ther'9ic»iM»- 
'Sneiit ofthjose Grecians who. weire killed at TWmoi>y)ie,.,\K^h 
exj^Deesed that they fqu£h^«gfliast 3)000|000 of meB* < - v/ 
. ^F'or tnesaste&ancei <>f all t^se persoi^s,f theite m^ethe evttof 
4ay . consmned, accordiq^ to Herotdotus'id .c0ioput(^tiQ||^.vabore 
110,340 medimni of flour (the medinmus^ waftajB«ai«inei which, 
according to Budoeus, was equivalent to six of our bushels,^ allow- 
ing for every head the qja^pt^ of UKi^nix, which wa'h tJne daily 
allowance that masters gave their slaves among the Grecians. 
We have no accouilt in history of any other army so hirmerotrs ak 
this. And amongst all these millions of men, there was not one 
that coiridi vie with .Xerxes Kn.point;of:beauty,'eiifaerifi)i;^.^ieiS)6ie- 
liness df his face, at tfae-tallness of has peraoB*. Bufe^thvsis podnmrit 
or pre^emiaance for aprinoe, whpa <stteixded iwitbinh^/o^aeiKi' Aoi^ 
cbrdtnglfyv Jiistiii^ ttfter h^ .his meuti^nKl Iditt iiumtber*df'jlheii4 
tffoops^ liidss tlnkf 1 this * Tasfr. .'body. > oiT! femtsi wkntid • d tiuef t jUuic 
tonlo' ttgmiiiliiiditt i^kfTuilv . «-. ■ I ' •" • *' hn'fi .....o't 0( -t (tT. i 'l :. ,W\-i 
\\\\W^ ibvuh) lla0diy<he'iib|e.}to CMiCjdivtelliaiiitiwa&ifniitfiWto 
find awuffidi^t ^lU&niitjrufiprhviBions fbrisneh'Vi tranenie Eamfaer 
of ipoMiiMaif the4iiittn!bii|thad'Qotlbfiiniidd us^ithtitiSleikmdiilA 
tfmpli]^0difoiir<'wjml«i yttaDi$K itk ihakiD9^p«e^atiotih!foKTtM>«aqpod'rt 
tion. We have. seen tlUdi^Mi^ how-oiaiiy v»ssdbic)6feh«vdebiniet4 
wer^^^at -Coahted ' jalenf:- ioo9li&UaUyilot <att^fBd: iupuirf alvd tfia[i^yy 
the land arUny i' amiii^nibtiesd'tfaere were fresh -oxiesieitt^rin^'eMVf 
imj^ thaDifoftashed the chdquiwithili sufficient plenty lof^fUnnfanigid 
litcessai^i'M'-' • •.•.,' •.. -'Ijlv ,•-■ - .'1 lOii'r . -n-^,^- 

i^tjHefoAtBsl acquaints us with tbei. method of whicbAh^ft^aH^ 
use' lx>:oM^alat^ thesex foichs, Briiich->we£e ahioiBt inHfa-iiawiWfel 
They asseoihlei' lOjOOOi men in* tf ipasrticiilBr.fiiac^ vtidotairiM 
them; a8< cloi»iogether aJi^wids ]bossiblB ;» lifiwkr/^kiefa, thfei^^iUsefAed 
a* cil-ele omte iound thera^ pod -eirected a lit^lj^iWhiUiiu^im thsut ^vtilej; 
■botft fawif'tke heighfcof>aman's;body:. whemthiS'Wpsiddnh^.ttafl^ 
made thd whole. avmy stioe^iBively |HU»'tfat^ugJ|f|(hisr>spttde^j«nd 
thei«h7i knew to whdt nomberit amoimted. ^ . r.v ,, . ..liv^'v- r 
' tHkoddtns ffives'qis ateta.tiiirtiiav^F aceoBBtioC the diffeieiit^iar* 
mbuv of all the Hitioasthat ieohutitut^^ffai^iannyioiiB^lles^tlwd 
^eneHU'of every nationi' whoKeafchiof /theih icommanded the:|cnio{ia« 
ofiih^inresatntive ooniiaf ^ thet land iiniiy • wnih onniehtlkv qimmlAdl 
o^.six Vkxmm^asA^Msifihizi Mardonkusythe doiil^tjflChil^Ksnvi 'WU 
ittUtii^iibnesi &ei8on>of iatabhneBy'aadSmerdoaeaCBihDtouCMkilMlgr 

' * DIod. 1. xi. p. 3. Plin. 1. xxxiii. c. 10. iGUan. 1. xUi. c. 3. t Herad. I. vU. e. 187« 
% Ibid. L vii caOv % ibi4. !:..«». : . . :,,., :; * 

Ba : Oe^i^' iWW Ariaz^';' tM mwiytxiit,^\!^W^''Zoprmi 

ti^mfMUl^ilW^ilttedbut. ' Artcinifsifel/q^^n'of'lakilleftmiM^ ' 

ive vesi^te aloH^iUtitli 

l&nong^'kl] the cdiii^^tiderl^An tli^' arMv; iK^>ei/w&s not due who 
gave Xer^<^^6 gpod ckdj^e^'^nd\^cfr iif^e! oou^ 
bth He>a5 not pru(Jjant*eh0ugli'tU^^^ '•'^' 'vi' »» ^ ^-^ 

';'Wfi8ii.'Xfe2*xy:h^d humb6r^dVHjsWholfe''fbt<!te$*y laad and'^ea, 
i]^''^]b^d^D%niAj'atiM' if \e t^ooptftfid t^r^ciaii^ %6<fld^dtU« f»« 
wait for him. . I have already taken notli^;that <tMiB>'i>e»^a)«lti* 
Wlk'Wm^'tyfo kinWofifepWtili ^i/'beifig dxa^flOjt the ftc- 
lion of his enemies, had tak^n'ilfi^ M^YH^'PS^fcfl iioart,' #4leiie 
he was entertained with the peatest marks of honour and bene- 
ficence. As the courtiers •vfdre^^'Hb^Biikpressing their surprise,! 

Sparta the law U more powerftU than the kingt* This prince was yery 
faiMraiietart w P«Aia9ib«t rieikbniikie iijiitetkai of « >th«if Sptrtan 
dlannl^ofiotitlreHiand>iidatib«nt /itf:1|heiP«ilitoi.kin8^ ct^Id> nwlie 
hin>.'&«|f^I W»ii»niito74^:Iifite ranfap ■» he'iUav Ahat jLoxtust mm 

oiansi^Mcfet iMirittg«beoi(fif4tiia AnixiidWeobeiig aMt^o» thik 
«d;iiio}i'iQM|pWe ]» 'aentinndlitsl In didihi<withiiuBiB»»Q0M9: firee^ 
d^mduqi 4ipiil]f9'<ts'^iwStfaMefai6iteaai^ aBst^a hHig'ai<fil||lrta« .-n/f 
J>emstous)|r/>^lbn Ite iakmsA tliiodcing^v quQ^tuafk desha^ 4d 
kiio^:twlietttdritiwa» imn^mix^i^iam beJnsHindd ^tftto Jliaii dt 
tfaait>h»^iho«id ^ipebic ^\M>^X\km^nQluMtifBidlieB^^ 
Jfeita^'fa|iviBgpde(U4T«i;«li[Hdi«4eUBftdEUai Inlacft) witkiheruteftH 
sincerity, Oreat prtn^, says Demaratus, nnc6 i< it agre^Mni^ 

uiUk 9kiihtmiiilttndk> ctnicmiucerUy.. <fi iii«s<)^-^;d6««fdki|^/^(^9W 
th^iiegiiMtffii^MfmJBhkmaiM^bthn^^ to 

povsrty: but thin *he ha$ introduced and established viftminMim 
fort /ii >s l< W> M ^driWdiMBBito^^ 

i AluJciorimtijBjHMtfuinmqu&in rcfipMi beneAcia. ^vjrlsii. 


hearken to amy propo§ ^ ^ .^ ^ . 

• tk^.MiUl^ifm^.Q¥l,tqm^you,afji^m^ m"^ f^ m^mMfi^'^ 

mni^n^e m lth(e I^cf|4tmo];uim, ,w^^- 4^8prj(b.ed, W |an^& who 
f|Jcpoiisig,^h^Wftelv^^ikpnp^4 B^f»ni^f«,. tj£k,dai}gef;.Ani{ deaths* .©e-e 

than y<mr subjecU do ,qf yftfr^fi^ai^V* p,Vypif[^^ iAet^ (aws i^g^ '^ 

^I^U^tqhm,miim^^lV^^^.mm^Rhn^ Iv. .v.ii oho sftl u, u.ut 
'J .id iuii; r'oi.oii 'to <j)i-iRni , . ♦jRy.t^ L'lt diiv; i)n(Mn?Tnifis >r" od 

• LiCKia#mo<t>«iii>Ajfeeiii^)Twhwh tterpistto^liw».awwto | w w te iuii 

fMVUted; <w^^ >ntA inddeBti q» aahap «#hU^ titf Ibffmi^l9lkp4li<iik]^ 

d»Mg«B lof ttkii |>riiM!ie,vthi9rlhi^ 8eil:%pies Ho^SnnliB^im )Oid«cjjto 
M^ hmmw eotabt mlbrnoliiiii) m{ trAkaiiimniheari oni'tiiialitqyp^iil^'iwi 
forces* fii^^ifeflli 9pM mwm «eMd,<indotttbc^^were(|Hilt jpntagr^b 
b^ f{»iit' to dwtk^ Jfim^^(»^timmmi&i iHk tnd ^t^iondsiivtliat 
Ihof liioidd h^ bODiliictod lteiu|fkhiiJirmyi tnd Uieiitke.iMit jbtnk 
"iicJtlioiltimii^iiariftiteiflwldoAeetlloiiiii : AiHtliaur(iieMfOii4h«r(€^ 
«teittt4mdositoodi«bKliM]^liadF)l<i)(ii|fi«bfflwlfi^ pbUmti^^ 

TMf\Mitiv\dM»iitiefxaj6 Uie\)nme tMbfts>teMAr^«iv» wtafikflys^io 
€kibMK4NrAiit«d#(%«A()n«) «b the'Mlai¥tff€Qan^ftta««dvCi«t«,^]|o 

«iMttti»«iikl tlM^fllDBiMliAvi^in «^ tbctoutJM^ Mid 

eommud with ^ %54aj^oi|i«iiv,„^^he ktjc,);, oopaep^ed^t^at 

• HcffOd. L Ttt. e 101. r Ibid. 1. yU. e. 14S, 146. .<..4 IM-.k .lM..»xMilU4 

PERSttiM imn 0»l«iN8. ^ 

t9M4ei^«f ^it4\ Thy w«0 giWititijf tlfete a iff^M^dedf: Vtt 
iBlo^whtLt iMnK»|tt'bD4^i0ehi<»f^ «Ll^ ffMrtkiMl led by- a itaikdken point 
of'bMocHr, fliinl<a»ibmi)ifh jealousy <0r4((AhflM(nd ! Thd A^glveft wefra ^ 
Mt oobtdfited uNthtf^te'dfl^, and'Y^ftsM lo oftsilsf ffib talliet} Gl^ 
fliainH without consld^yliij^ftttftf if th^e^^iiiferecl thietn'tb be'detstroy- 
ed, tbeir own ruin tattet si^vitfelblVToltow that of Gnfttfbe. 

The deputieb ptae&sd^d ffmArgta^ to^<iily,*'and addi«i0Bed 
then»elve6 to G^on^'wbo wtl^'Uie txudst pdti^nt prihce'at thai' time 
anuing the Gteekd. ' He prorriit^ed to Csiist them \yitlr'200 vess^ 
ofiht^ benches of d&tPi with an arfny ot* 50,000 'fbot and 2000 
k)FBe,'2000 hght-anitifed-BOldiers; and the settle nfCimber of bownleii 
and ^htgere, and toi supply the^'GreciaB army wkh provisionar dft- 
riftg the wjiold war, oft condition they would make him generalia- 
fliiiio of all the fbrces both by land and^sea. The Lobed^moniaiSb 
were highly- l^ifefifded at such a proposal. Gelon theh abated sorh^s- 
what hi his ^ma^ds, and profiilsed tAre sattic, provided he had' at 
least the command either of the fleet- or of ihe-^erm^V' This prtf- 
l^esal was «trenuonily opposed bytte Athenian^, wlio'toade alf- 
war, that tbey'ftkmfe Wdcf a i^ight to'cOtomand'tAe'^fleet, m cm 
the I^aoediemoniaiis^ere wUruig' to ^ive it Up. Gelon ^tid a thoib 
sobstftiitial reason ibr not leavihg^ Sicily irnprovided with \ro<^'A, 
which '^a^^tie appirdttchf of the formidable a*ltiy of tli^Cartha^ 
oiaiid,'cQ)sMQlinded by Amilcar, ttuat densisted of 300,000 iheO. ' I 

The inhabitants of CorcyTa,t no\V called Coffus gave thef erf- 
Toys a favotirable answer, and inime^atelr put tO sea Vilit'h''a fleet 
of sixty vessels. ^But they advanced no- farther'thsji the coasts oT 
L&conia, preteildfaig they wera hindered by contrary winds, but S^ 
reality waiting to 'see the success of' an engagement, t^at they 
anght aftier wards rai^ge thems^t^es on the^idfe of theconqiferor. ' 

The people of Cri&te^ havift^ ifionsoltefd' the Delphic oracle, tb 
know ivhat>re«ola*ioh\thfey were to take oti tftis occasjoit, aJbsoldteftr 
refosed to «nt«r in^y the league. ^ ..- \- ^ 

Thus ivaw the- lja*ed«monki» «nd^\/^ei»ians feft- ablest tb 
t}ieiM»I«<ed,^^(ili^the rest of the cities ahd tikfion^ having submitted 
to the heralds tiiat'Xo^ei^ had'^eht to l^oi^ earth aild water t>f 
them, ezcei^l^the people <<^f Thel^a ai^ Hfttii^sl > In' s^'bres^ 
m»adaiif<»<»|l^^<^^rstc*are^W)a{^'topht a^ end to ^ dis'cdfd'Alhd 
^vision among themselves ; for which reason the Athenians ^^^ 
feici ^itlb'the p^^ple of ifi^ia^ with' whom ^M^yW^e -actually 
at war. 

Tiiei><Bext eare'wai^ to ttpp^inft a giwiwiil'f1)'foi<;i!iefe fteifei*^^ 

S&7 occasion tiirhereitl It was hio'fe nei^ess'&ry to ch'oo^^ Qiie,.'\«^ 

wtjB capable.p^ w isipQltaj^t^ -a, jlnwC, i^ib in^ the; preaeni v coojtiAc- 

[^ve,«4i«i Graeoe ijvaa upon the 'poinlef beilir attacked by the 

|»reea of 9$ '}fl^i. Tpfe ipp^t iM<j nhi:^^fii^^ei ci^ifiix^!^ 

•fteni. 1. Tff. e. fSP-Uif. t Ibid. cyl^, ,;,.. . 1^, umn^V^<: nu.«lM|. 

qtie|iq€i5,)iuityin ptperre^pwtp.vts «Mpet^(i<l£fQO.i0^t\ WMMi^ 

J)tgitwithst|a94iQg.<ftl] which* it wn^. f^pj^f^^p^d^thnXm.thei mmeHfh 
bly of the pfipplo t}ie votes woald imniia liiQ fi^MPUTt Tiieiwstoqlefi, 
who }yds ^pn^iblei th^ttjn^ calp w^ath^zialiniefll any paafiner may 
.^p.eap&ble of conduqting a vessel, hut .thatintf^orms njuk tempests 
.l^e mpst abj!e pilots are at a loss, was xtonvpf ced* that the cpirtotoil- 
we^^b was ruined, if JQpicydes was: Gh[pse9 ^^neral, whose- ilQeiial 
and . mercenary ^oul gave them, the justept rqasoa to fear, that.ii^ 
was , ^ot pypof qigainst tl^e . Pe^giajx ,gqldt Thefo njre ocei^jijowfl, 
.wheu, in or^er to act wi§ejy,(l had a,imosti ^aid regularly,) ifeia^ne- 
•^^ssary to dispjense with a^d rise above'.ail rule. .Tti'eini8tocl0s, 
.Wf^Q ^ew very well that in the present stat^ jof a^^rs, he was the 
4ply persDP capable of coi)^aii(^|^, -didfor^that .re^isdn maki^!«o 
jgprppie of eBfjpIoying biiheg and* presents to renjpve his competitor: 
MiAi haY^r\£.fpuQd meani^to ^alfQ tbovambitiot^of rEpicydes ameods, 
•Ay .gr^'^tifying his avaxiw„hpj gpt-itimself: el^ejtfid . gfcowai' in Juis 
.^e«3. We may here,,! think, .very, justly apply to Themistoclesy 
Vfhat Livy says of F^baus, oq; a fike oQc>i^ipQ. ^.rXjiis giieal^ com- 
jpk^nder $n4{Bg[,;wheh Hannibal ^8J9i in. U^ haartof Italy, thi^t \th6 
peopj^ W^C^goi^g %^ make a u^nn of no xfiQiil conauUefSfjoyed ajyihis 
j^yfn l^fiu^nce^ a^ w)el| as that of Ijiis friends, to be, codtiAued in^the 
coiiis\ilf^]{^ V/ithout bei»g concerned at the. clamour that might be 
-f^ised< against hiin ; and hg, succeeded in the attempt. The iiisto- 
.ria^ adds,! 77i€ cpn^undufe of a^air^yaffdj.^^e^^treme danger to 
vMcf^vp^e 'fommoiiV)€allfi tba^ expq^fid, ■v>er/t 'Orgumetitf 'of Htch 
\oeiifJ^thafi^they prevenied an^ vt^\frqm bein^ (Refuted' al a conduH 
^'^hifibfjmigkt appear tq l\i^xoHjtffafiyt^fV¥(^\W4 rwumwi all niipicion 
ifjf Jt}^ius'» , having, aioMi from, any-mif^ipfii^ i^/tereMi ,or imiiiikm^ 
On the contrary, the puiflic admirid Mtgem^r^Ht^ mid grec$n$»$ ^ 
^9<nd^ii%fhai^a» her.^new[^ii^,9fmmfm^^th,kMocetu^ orioc 

fj^^ia^v|^rUinthafr,r€i^t;^,^f^^^ yathtfPui apfiki«0»i<lp 

Ao^}^ hU\ovDn..rep!u^fifin, mfi4 perh^*^>p^ferhi9QHfU(9€kBr,ii9'ik0 
ififP^S!^^'^ ¥ «»«*<>««* frMijM«»,,^A«*/<<h,^t«»fl^*fyriifi em^.9Cirme he 
Mjff rendejrjfiit country. - ,:,,.» „•: ;. v"- xif? / ■• 

^1) W^^^ff*^f^»P«^wi a ,4w?re*^to reciaU hpmetafljf 

.lit/.' .'i: 

idret, Kque euni baud dubii ewe, ininprii Invidiiun aaamKPi out ex tt oilnituri,qiiAn 
^^ ^^ .HI q ,»«iii"*ilT MI luJS 7 cM .3.»>m:I a ».: ► 

gr^ many . otfaera to the iide <# tber' barbiuiaitB. Beft : tikdy lireiy 
veiy little acquainted with' theH Citizen,' w<no was innniteljr j^ikU 
from 8i|eh seifitinients* B^ that as it hiay,- they thought -fit to>Mf« 
call faiih, and Th^liatoeloi; wata'isd hir frwn ^posi&g tfre diecrMitof 
that purpose, , that he i>romoteid it i;(^h atl hi8 ilifluenceand ailtbori- 
ty. TM hatred and division of cThieBC great lAen liad ntfthlng^ JC 
that nnplaeable; bitter, add '^ti^ageous if/irit whicli i^evailad 
among the Romany in the later times of the republic. 'Thedanrav 
uftfae stste'was thd caused «6f' their *r(ib6nciiiatiaii,^d whenimlr 
seryices We^e nece^aty to4ht preservation of the public,* they IM 
aside all their jealousy ahdtiUli^ur: and' We shall see* bvth^ sequel^ 
that Aristides was so fbr' froni^^e^r^tly thwarting hit former vtVa)^ 
tbat he'zealously conttibuted to- the' success of his enterpriias, and 
tothe advanfcetnent ofhftsgtory." ' ' ' '' ' : '• 

The alarm increased iil'€if&eQe;'iii prepdrtionas they received 
tdvice that the Persian army ddvanced. < If the Atheniana and La»; 
cedeemoAiahid had been able l<vinake no dther resii9taoce than with.' 
their land forces, Greece hid been utterli^ ^ined >knd reduced to 
slavery. Thlij exigence taHgbt them ho^^ ^^ ^t a right valtSeu)poi» 
the pradebt foresigtit of Th^rmstocles^^hd upon some other pteiexP 
DAi caused 100 galleys' ltd ^bl| Ir.uik'r Instead ,pf judg'ingtik^ the rest' 
of the Athenians, Who looked 'Cipon the- victory of Ma^rathon as 
the end 6f the wai<, lie dn the eonii-a y consider^ it rather as* 
ie ^^ning-, and as the sigAal of sUU greanerhatti^, for which 'W 
Tis necessary to prepare the Athenian people : and frohi'lhat teiy) 
iime he began to think of raising Athens to asuperiority;overSpar- 
•i. which for a long timeVhad ^ae^'*^tHe mistress of all Greece. 
With this view he judged it expedient to direct all the stren^h of 
Athens entirely ti^wai-iS nata!wrair^'P«W<tiving very plainly tlat as 
h was so wi^ak b]^,land, fl^^^h^lil no other way to* render ijLcrfelf 
ieceessojry to ^i^r ^Uies or^ fc^n][iiflabletp her enemies. His advice 
iierailed in spite of tb^ op9P^i)^<p^qf jj^ii^wes, l^hose di^Terenoe of 
^on undopbtedly ai^e ^ova^^^ j^ttl^ ptobablit^ there wqs, ^^X % 
people ej^tiarely unac^^aintfld yfi^^^ghim^ at ,fea, anjjj wW^^J^' 
<apabla4>f £ttuag out, fa)d;^rf)[iin|rj9ply.yery small vefuseli^, jsbpu^d 
^ able to w^ti^^x^d a^ fosmidfij^e ,a power as tnai 9f the Persians 
'ho had lH>th,«,niunerous,)^liji,^^uri9yj^',aii4'5^ fleet of above. \0Q9i 

The Ath^iam had ^o^fiiJiv^r a,p|f^ of Attica. <;alled, 
^umJtrihe.^me, revefiu^Ja li pro^i^t .or (^^hi^ us^d tp^^ Oj^kj 
^nbated^mong ffioitiy, Thfiaw>cl^(bv t^.,90ttrJl^.lo pro|^, 
^ the peofcle.thaf^.they shpula ^hpJwb .'bej«,.fi?#xibMt^ns, ajo^-^ijjy 
ploj th^ mp^^Yr JmbvUd^. v,essriip^ VfUb tj^ S»i^fM 

vdertooajce ^W^ ^Vf^V^ people ^f^gin^ij ?gW«^ 'W,hO|a bfi 

Vai- III. C 


i W t wiW rftibto TfilQAdkitheir.#iifLex)fc j^i^f^vwji jJ^ftiPappto tflfjew 
jrttl^ JtDiiift^nfic^ U>air:pr)ya(e imere^s tpJ^p.^c^D^ral utiUf^^^r 
til9 f '4Jte : jfiwf tjjpy 8^14onjkhayft«>.xnuch,gpoero8il>;fl|,puj^lic fi|^Wt> 
•sAo purciiasd the welf&vi? of the.sUt^ ^j^heir owni^j(pen^e*il *T^ 
iUlii^piafi pfM»pl^«. however, (fid i^ppon thi^ occai^i<)a ; kaoyed by\(he 
•aro^ rem^Dtsruiee^ 9C> .Tl^wufU^cles, they c^opsented, mi^l tb^ 
oMwey' which. aro^efnom the. p^pduct.pfnthp mipes, shai^d be <^m< 
ftloyod.iin.the building of 100 gal)ey£; . A^i^j^t, the arrival of 
k^rxe^-ibejrdottbleU ithe nombeif) and jo thatfleet Greepp o;^ed its 
pr^earvaUOft. • , l/.^i 4 .. , -i. . , 

Whim t^ey cam« to the pcont of p %m^ i^g^nerj^, for th§ ^mn^qd 
if the; navy,* iM Athej^asy whp alp«e hafl^liirmshe^ ^wo^third^ 
pf it^laidjcaim .to th^ honour as .app^taiiu«g to them» apd th^ip 

EetensioQfl were j^ertainly jvist-ct^d weUt scouuded., It happened, 
^evoTi tliat tbe'sufiragea of the allies all oo^uvred iA*fayour of 
Eurybiades, a Lacedasmoiiian. ThjsqMJptocl^s, thi^agh fery aspiring 
tftelr glory, (though(;iti(V;K;ui»i)e]Qt./|iU^n,ihipi on this o^caision to 
neglect hia.own i^tere^ts forhihe comn^g^od of the nation : aAd 
giving the AUu»iiian9 tOi^oderstandi.thaWfMrQyided they hejiaved jys 
Yuliant men^i.aU the jQrr^i^ians woujd ^cjdy desire to confer the 
comixKUid upooi tbent of their 'Own f^cpidi he persuaded thiuik tt> 
OQnsettl,.a«lbe would do hitniselfi^to ejivei(tpthat poinjt atprpsbntriot 
the SpartMtt.; It mayi justly be ^tmi t|iat thi^firudent mpderatMi 
in Themksttdele&i wa9 anoth^ r meaoe 'of^aying Jthe «t$Xe. F01! the 
aUiee threatened toi separate: thems^viea.froui thciv, if. Ifac^ refused 
tti •doinp]y.;'andJif that had haljpBliad, i&Qeece'm.<U3thayo beenioey^ 
tnWy riiuiedv' i-arj o'..<- f. *■. .jj . af ..,..'. 

A. M. 3$^. The otfyfthing^thak ilW remtkiii^ torbe diiKniseed^t 

Am. J c. 480. wadto fcfcijw iti Vi^lwIt^Wiie thfey%ii*ild*W86lT6'W«h^t 
tb« Ffei-Blaris, in order to'^«pbittt>t*(eir entraiR^' into Gfeeice. The 
people of Thesdaly^'^repr^fenieWi -t!^' as thfiy* Were th^ most 'ex^ 
posedf <tttid lively tty^efirat a«ta^4^%y fii^^My;'it wad%ilt-rda8on-' 
ftbl^Ht.tfi«!r defi^t^h andsebttftfi^^bti'^hicKthe^al^Tof 'A» Ch^ece 
80 mnOhdepepdedV'^h6^ICP first b^tMViSid for; wiil^ut whit^bthey 
fdilodid'4yetibli^d^!6'tali[edth^''rhelteu^e«;'that^5Vo bi ^ntt^ 

A. J.l_ * I* A.* 1a « 1 1 « 1 

lr$lfi(rto th^)hbUiAi^'<is CHy^ptt^ldid Ob# But^itfS^zhnd^/t|ie«dtf 
thftt rFmy^iimld ibr tWPti^^niJ ti MtiAH^eHK6y'M6sitie^ta- 


kthesdelfbQi'iitlonsu^imU^tfktlifi^PeiviMUi. ..finrr' i , 

Thkemiopy:* ii},i^.8tnat or aarp?pw pemtia mount <iPUi* betwvtn 
TbessfJJi aA4 Fbocis, d«Jy tw^otynfive fti^t broads wbich theDff^ 
mifht >« defended by a tmaUPMUnber olcfdrces, ««id.wlii«b.w«»ihe 
only way tbrough whick^ the Pen»iaa land larmy cdjuid aafter At^aia, 
iQd advanee to bwioige Athens* Tilis .was tbcf.piace ^heie the 
Grecian army thought fit to wait for th6 eoflmy.:- the 'peEqett who 
oommanded ittwte Leenidasi one'i^f the Iwotuflrof! Sparta* ' 

Xerxes in the^jnean time Was. upon hia mafchit ^^^ ^^ given 
ffidere ffliK hia fleet uto foUow lakn along the ooast^^and to segulate 
thdr motiooe acconiin^ to those of . the land anBB|k;t<'WAieniv^Jie 
came he foun^ -proviflMms and vefreahment pr aps &te d beforehand, 
pmuant to the lordenr'lie had sent; and everycity.ihe Msmed at 
gave him a magnifiieent entertainment, which cnetiiaiiateae.'BUiaB 
ofmboey. X^ iriBtf expense ofrith/sae tBeata^bareticefllHon te a 
vitty saying of^«'^ertain oitiKen of^Abdeja«.inVThiaee». wfa6, wJimi 
ihe kmg^' waegdAe^diaid ihey ought to< thank the gods, thai ho<ale 
Inlme itteal Sidky^ii.'. > >; ' '.'j'to ,ii- »i'i } - : \ :: .. . -i 

In the Mfbe country xifThraco4 there was A prinbe.who.aiiowM 
a eidiiKM^ary gpctotesa of sool on this ooeasitet it wavitbo 
iiagf of tte Bisito. i Whilst aill the! OtherAprihces! ti^l^intdoefVi. 
t&de,!ui<^bas^l5!WB(bimteed t6 Xerxes,, h^ iproudly licAtaed'^ 
mve lus^yoko' ^ ii^ oheff hinu l^ot being^ni % conchtion 'loi resist 
tin with <^n force, lieiretired'tatho topim thi»nMnintain R1kmId|»9 ^ 
iiU) an inaccessible place, and farbade all hia sons, liiio were^x in 
Kmiber, to^^^iinrry ai-Maagaiilst' Greece. 'Bat they, eiihier thvdhgh 
fev of X4iritee, or tiivoaf h^a curiosity to see so iiriporinpnt aiwav, 
fiBowed'theP^iiui?, Uv'coiitradioCion to tilieir father's/ idjimeiSBik 
')8 tbdir rf^urn'home, their* fktiier^ to piamsbsb dieeot a disoh^ 
'^Bce, ^imi^mned-all iiis sonsto have their eyes put butt JXorxea 
^^nued his i^Mi through' Tht^Ke^ Maoedoniw^-ahd^lThOfBal^ 
^ry tldl^-'firihg' w&f before hini' till' h^ camei tof tha otidit of 
ftermopyGe* •'"'.'' • .•:'!'.!« *"J *» 

One cdniottf^, without the utmost aiAoiifohment, 4 ^bat « haiidfu* 
I'^tToops ih^ ^re<H^nd opp^ei to the 4HiiuBfienibie%Tthy^of^«r3B«b;. 
^efind ii^jpatt^ukp.accdtiiit <yf -thei^ hUtiiberBin Pau^atiiah;-.: iAfl 
\^ forced jbined tbgetKe?r;''aftioUnWd only «Bb iU/IOOt nied;Oof 
^^(^ i^Eimber 4IK)0(<6nly we^ elnpM^ed dt Tbefmo^li^^o-def^ 
^pase. ^4he8«i •soldie)^, kdds'^^^histOrianfwerejdl deteri> 
>3bed fcTil mah dth^ to'coiiqueii or ^K^ And Wliftt is it tWatattak 
^ anny caniu>t fj^f^ ? » . >-- 

Wiea'X^njS? aflvaiiced near the sti^iits of *fhetiftAp^lffe*,]| lie 

^ stonily* stojri^d to fiAd thit they^y<*rc VJr^ared to disp rte 
m paas^^ ^J^^ !\i^ alwaJ'^ flatter^'a , VimsepT, tnat oi^ the. first 

• H«nrf. I ail e. m: W. ^ Y JbW. *. 109. IM:" ' t fWiJ t'Vtlli «.* llO 

. %ht ^* noil- eo«l*)ie efei'lif^' pt&teKmdm ^Of^lidve, What ^^^^la 
had told him from theiy^ginnidf <il^}]|ny^n>j(e<it, th^t'tit thId'fiJM piA 
iibe/came tb/ti&^W^ald «^ ids w^6!e ^art&y etoptieti by ajMiidfu] 
! of men. H^ 4&ni out a 6py before -him t<^<Ti«w th'^ etieji{f«<'<2'^lje 
' ^ykrooght'Wdttf, that he found^theliM^^temonkn* oKit of tiiblrio- 
. ^rencbmettCs, aiid thjie they- viere titvertin|ff< th^iHsiilves^ ^tjti mitita- 
r ry eABtdBeB, and^oombtogifh^r hai»'; ilik Wiisthe ^ttinin iiiadner 
> t of 'pr0pa»i|i^ themoetoa fbh bakK /- i J . : ' >. /• ih anio-j i ; i 
Xences.BtOl ei^ttaffrijlg)>8oifeie'>hop6«,' Wfti^d^trr:(dij8 'oiiupiir« 
ipoae to grive It l^enitiiiitt tb< retreat, c. >AiAlin this inteiiVBLaf timiihe 
iQsed his Juhiiost-«cuieavoiJii8 >to gainr Le^teidad^^^ymakbigilum 
' iiaepifiocidt/proicnses, and asBu'iing (hii» that hewouU make-^lHAi 
, aaaSer )<>f all &ppec^, j^ he Would cbme met'to fa^ ^paarty . OLeoni^ 
.da8Y!e}6Cted-hu^fir9posal>krit;li scorn imdiBii^patioB.f Xerxes having 
^after\i9aiida. written toihimtO'deliverr^ iip' bis idina^Leonidaa, in f^ 
iBtyle ttrid'spirit traiy''hK)Oliioal,:iaiiiwered'faifti^ two It^oids; CSv^ 
iomrtabi ihem,f<i Nothitigire^ained,>rbiit to prepare to engagQ tha 
JLajMikfMnkau^, 'Xtrxen fliet Id^nmandtd haB.;iJtjEediaii; rorees' ttr 
inarch against them, with orders to take them ailI)aliV;<Q -Mid ^^rioAij^ 
Itkem tp<nim. 'JThcf Medes were ^iat abl&'fb staiid ther^hjMrgttiof the 
•<Sl'ecifnis)'aMbi being shletoie&iny put to fligiit^ ithejrrdh<rwed,.3a}^ 
'HtfedotusMli'AJnt Xepces had & gtoat- ni&Ay man,! h^V f^rifr (S^ldk»|^. 
•The&totfcMt ifisresoit to face the Spiirttthit, iwerei thole^Per^iyin^ 
.:cidled)the^'ItiimoxtalirBandv nvhicih consisiedftjof j >jl>l,00(>>^lQ^, and, 
^ ,wnt& ihd bat.tniops<in tne wbcte drIB]r•^)-IBut,itoe/hlH})'Ip|>:bett|9r 
.8Ucoeflsthanit;heilNn(neirl I- . ': hi.* . - nf({ ' '<. ;v/< jmi . - ': i 

f. (KQi1ze8,^dc8pairii[giefi}eing abl&t6^lbc^]ii»iWf&y<tb90Ufh|tr9op«r 
(«0Ml«tdin^ed ito* eoo^uer jdr^<Iie,'waalj^vti«knely .p^jF^^cd^ a^j 
^eauBdw^tiitallwItat reakutioiu itoi tateo^^vlicn ad ii4«(lHtfiQfi.<^(tii^ 
eoittiU7jic9mffiio htm^and disc^irereA aMsret/pathi^ ilea4i?g:tp a|^ 
levioofice^^which^ overloiol&ed and oomroaiMJLed tl|e ^^f^iif;^ fo^f^^^ 
]^ttvqni(^y desnBtefaiedja.detacibmeintw'thitihdr, ^ip^, ^ip^i^l^lngiaU 
lugbWM'rui^edilnene At Ihe.boetic: of jdiiy, and .poes^i^ J(hFI(iQ^v,ea, 
of that advantageous post. . .'l/iit. i ''1 

.I'tThe. G^ln wer^r^ioonoikppnjeed'pf tlhiVhml^f^tMc^ji (f^4jLe0ni- 
diMi'cretiig tbat?it )M^«9ii9KWli^'impos^bl^ to witj^^f^ .^e^|enemy» 
ttUiged the rest of therftHies |04?!eti^e,:bui, stayed,. l^^el( witb.hua 
300-Lacedra^qniaiis, a(^ reg^efi j^idier with t|iQir,leact^];T»|y,ho W> 
te^g! told 1)3^ tAJe^ima4e, i^^t^f^en l^edgenwQ^^ her )pj^. must 
aeoeasarily peri^h# dete^niiQ^) wplhout the lefst.t^eMtetioQ, po sa- 
crifico.Jhimrjelf ^ri>i84;» - .Tfh/j.^pariaus Ipyt fJ4(Pqpf5» ^^\^f* 

QuAd mutii bomlnev.iesMinL jrauct autetii VtrL 

^ Wlin:}tne Ganlt, 90b yfiiira after tliis, came totnvaoe t!^^vi^ 
Wrn »f M»« ?»f(M «f Tbermowte My inejugfl <f jhe Mine j^jn^, w{^ tj^ ^^igp» 


(tr ^MHjii^ritl^ ^ esu^g, and ]ook«d'1tlfmn>ffJKtiM^h>.dart)Mi>I 
Mrylfig-pla«e. The king', e-xliortingilhls mEa to XdXe wot^ aoniriv. 
ineM, fttfd 'Ullbg th«ii at the MitK tH(i«,' that."they shanU.wrti 
togeth^trith'<P(uio, they »« up« RMunbfjoy^* if tlM^faadbcem 

iVvited-fi) (Phrrt^wfet/ftncffui! «f sraSBii tedrended with their kW 
toWttia. ''The'Stoek nru'exoee^ingly v^ant and bkioidj-. Loc^.- 
das «aa«De'bf ttie-flM^ that feili The ^n^wvbur»df the L&cdde-< 
monMBliitb defend Me dead bodv-were iMreiliUe. AL lengtb, not 
yfintjuiftl!ie<{, bat oppressai hy numbers, they nil fell, eicr^t ona 
inail, VhO' eecbsed t«Sptins|t where' he was tieUediaa.B eowanl 
and traitor to his country, and nobody would keep couipBoy -afp 
oOnveTB^ with 6in^ hat soon ftfterfro^ he'ioub glarjotnaaiutida 
for ^fak fault' at the batHe^oT PlBt«B, wb^eha ^tinsuiahBdrimili 
tMlf'ik air'e»tr»ordinify Tnuin«r. Xertedf.mfitRgeS to Wre ^klft' 

degree agahtBt Le^nvidas fbr daring to iii'ttii il Iiiiyiiiil hiny 

cwOBed bto dead body tO')M..b'in^ onm. ciDowsj'alidiivllii^ harm-' 
tendM i^lshonpur ti> hie «tlti^o(ivered hinHGlf with AcgrMftii- 

theM''hnn« ddtendaraof GreecSii: and uptm tiiB ■Knuinaot-'I'^e 
two 'ineniptMns: oneiief tUiicli w«m geDcnl,.*nd mhM ^..dlfr 
tbMd'tilMit £ed at Thernwyis, icq)oitiiig, Hm tin rGtmkkiMEi 
PelopMniMiM, tv'tlW' pumb^T' «f < d(W»} Md>'>iDMUj kead:j*guikilt 
theFerBiaiiarmy,<«rliidhoojuutedof^^,OWof-inio: tiffoltap 
re1it«<d^tAJM» tipiBt^iAfito puliaular., It vU «wa|KMtd btrllfae 
p(Mtf9ilMiiidM,iiid'iB»«Tf tainilnklAifi^'itaatnpimtyr lt»m 
hUamr ' 'y ■'■>" ■' >• ■ * di' ., ,.f,t>, ii. 

.', ■ r,.i f.ili'"'i»l»«. TiM(if'!'"'i^""'"W,V/°;"^.".».Jj.i,i J .; ,' 

TJjftt.^ to f»y,i ,6te, jwuftJiffer, and (eH oi. J 
A«r«ift,q6e^«>i;e((i^rj£«i»v?<itotM,, Torty 
Mfiiifft'^^ obtainB^.fh^ vicSQig5C|f,PlBtBf 
l^eomdaft to be, carried fiQin' jfTjgrpiop; et 
nwgM%^nt i:^i)uinenttojJii^,^eji(,^yj at 
(molWjSessted fpr Pauqoiii^ i,!'::^ "ei 
6iii«i9^0ntioo pronoun^fjd hi aqnoiii; of tl 

gWl^ celeltrat^, at whpi non?, but Li^„ _. - ^^ . pffeMnt: la Dr(|HJq^^w,'thjj;.tIey aloUe w«i^e,,'cancerae<l 
JaVt|ragiarv,obtBJiie4«t ThcTmopvls.' ':'"-"' 

■ :-'<imq*aifm.afummii»uitBiitilmt.^mtm.- v' -. -1st" 'to* 

Dum nWUi puila tcfllini otaequlmui. Cic. Tate QiiatI l.t.n. UT. 
t H«od.l.yUl. t imiS., , . - M,| 1 ■ I ov,M • 

w msToRr OF ths. ■ r 

lawiirhkh vuaitttlufeBtijproof of thecoum^eoCUxjr 

wlMCapaUeaf'lknilui5,iJ)d diecouragiog hia Bcldicrs. lii.grdw; 
therefiire, to concuJ tbeicnowfedge oj'it froin thein, he «»u8ed «U 
kiB man thM.wcnikiilfdin tkat action, except .)dO{l.|Wftoso,bodief 
hsiQidered toibeJaft upoii tbatiel(l,tobeth(>ownt»fathMipto>rj[e 
holae, wbick wera.8eciaUf made, and ebvered over afletrw^fds with 
earth and' berba.' 'flbiS'Strategeni Biicoeeded' very illi for'WheQ 
the soldisn iiLhia fleci. iwing curious toiaee the field of , battle, ob^ 
taiiied leave to come thither for tHst paipoae, it served, rath^t . Mr 
diie>TerihiB'awnlittlsneEa of «o«i, 1|)fui to cwiccal the, nulubei of 
the sUini ■.' > ■■■■ ..:,.. 

.' TUtmaytii witha^FtciTy thai hcMi cost him andev.* he asked 
DenuUatuBi if thd faacedkmaiiiana kad.jct nui; auch'KldiefW 
That-ptinoe told' inm, that the Spartaa reptdtUc had a greatifflaay. 
dtwB imiomag to ib^nf whieh all tbe inhabitkOta waraej^ceediDa^)' 
bniv&t bub tbot 'tfaoae of L«ofldemQii,!«WlM wer* propct:)j csS^ 
Spartan, ajid.whoA^ei*. about HOOirintiiuinber. siirpasaed aU. th« 
BMt'inWpur, and wn^ all of tbem a'wfa 'as.thow wo hod .ibu^bl 
UddOT'iWonidaaL- .'[ „-. 

' Iretoni foFwi ioetimt to the battle of Thenaopflei ti>e isaiie oT 

Arhicb, Gttkl in apfi^gUvire, might iiitke an impreaskm 4^)op the 

nUada of ^he>iieadM» to the duadvantage of tbe LaqediwaoDiima, 

lisd lOocakioii theit cduiag»to be'lJookm upm.aa the ef^t of,a 

pi«Miiu|inioii>tenierMy,'or«4kBpcrate leeohltiafi. '-. ' ' - ,i. 

■- Thta actiniiof Lcioiiit]as,.ir)tb<iiiB 3a0^8paflli)«B,'4na SPtiths 

tg^ if ra8hae«aibr.despaii^but wa»^ wneAfld ngUf coa^Kk ^ 

piodorua Slculuaf has taken care to observe; in bia utaga&etot 

encomium upon that famous engagement, to which be Mcribea iha 

■ucceas of all (Jm elini)!^ cammeiis- Ije(Hihit^%nowinfr that 

Xerxes was roaKh'iiig 'it the he&dof oUlBb TaAits of the flaat, in 

ih a little country by the dint of num 

the BliperioHtVof t^ c«idu«'ittd'ittf 

teaaed to! 'ma^e the 'SuccfeMt* (hat 

t^t' Barce- and liimibet^ to 'thuuMi^ 

;bet'il[)olild nbver be sbHi to ^U m 

rtotjf With Ihcm vihat it waa tffltrtSjrt 

MB Mother means' of Vrfefraiia'bre., 

(ll-thdHeBltniip'; i&d that t bt|/Mght 

who'hsji'M'theii' ftyes lipori thefts 


Iwdy. iMWf WflMWfB M>d btavei^'i^igBinHt l>hijJimpetm>siW,*ieiaT» 

^S^ fl^^t (yraimical opbre^6ii," ^d< tiTeV 'aSKpliied 

TeUrafi troops against a eon'fu6'^'\^triilde,"ltJb€gh' Dei^i IHi'Mf . 

mero'.ip. Tn?3e brave LacednmoniaiA thoug-hijt becunfi than, 

yibo ww.dt*..iiMc»i •oMina ofrt^a^faierfvmki af.^ii^'M^ 

fOUtheraBelyes to certM>deaU)f aMmdet to jnaMUmfUnMns senai- 

VDt^^Niy^ljres to cei 

4, 1. Til. c »*. tn. I uii 'itf^-''' ' 


He h&wdlitMt it is to reduce fp^e men to 'slavery, and to tetob 
(he rest df Greece, b^ their example, either to conquer or to 
peribb. ' ■ ■ '■• V • \- . , 

Theie ^sei^imentfl do 4iot originate from my own inventidn, hoi 
do I ascribe them to jLedHicI^ Vlfefiourfound&tioii : they%re plainly 
compriBed ih^thlil short i(nswer,>hioh'that worthy king of Sparta 
made' tb* a eertairi lAtsedfemonian ; ''Who, being astonished at the 
generous redrt^lution thte king hau taken, spoke to him in this man- 
ner ! Is itposMie ^en, sit,* Ihct ya$i ean think of marching with*ti 
handful (^'meha^nii such a khigfify nndinHum^ahle ^rmy?^^if 
we are to reckon ufon mthhtrt, replied Itebx^aks^all^ihe people if 
QtTttct toother v>oiiid'not he'snffkiimt^ sinde a small part of the 
Persian army is equal io all hef, irifiabitants : but if toe are to teckon 
upoii valour, my little troop is more ihafi'Sufflcieni* ^ - 

The event shbwed the justness of this prince's sentiments. Thaf. 
iflttstrioas examiple of courage a^oni'shdd the Persians, and gave new 
spirit and vigour to the Greeks. The ll^es thei> of th« heroic leader> 
ud his brave troop were not thrdwn a^ay, but tisefuUy employed^;* 
and their d^ath' w^s attended wifeh a double 'effbet, more great^ ^^ 
lasting than they themselves had^imagined'. Oif ene hand, it was in' 
a manner the seed of their enduing victories, which i^ade the' P<M^ 
siins for eVei after 4ay aside^jall tm>u?ht^ of attacking* Greece r so 
tbt ^ring the iieven ^i^^i^t ^iriioe^ding'^reignsv there wa« tteitbdr 
any prince who Murst^eMmain-vueh a oe^n, nor any flat!terer'in|* 
fais court who ^rst |>r6p^^ th^ plan to him* • On the other hlmd; 
each a fii^^al a^^'eil[empkry instance of ihtrepidity mifedean indeli^' 
Ue im^reeMoh iipbn all the rest of the Q^ecianis, imd leUr a'peinMit* 
Boa ^eply'vrooted'.in their hearts, that they Were itbl^'td iubdiK^ 
the Pematis, ted subvert thefts Nrfcst empire. Cimoft' was 'the maif 
«^<ltede tjh^ fir^ attempt (^ that kihd wfthslbtoc^ssi /igesilftUir 
sfbiiWaTdi^'^ushed'thit design so far, thf^li^'made the ^eatkAi^ 
tieuMe v& \m 'pklkce at Bosk. ' - !Ale jcatid^r'at^ last tf&ii<)mplii^ied it' 
with incredible fac^ity. He neyer had the l^st'ddubtVaiiy mw^' 
thnthellacedmii!^ #h'efbUoW0dhinl','brthe^^ho)« couhtt^of 
Greece t^sctdioSe tnmj^ehend^i^ fhftt ^pedSlfon, but' tftiat wit1t> 
3Ov006 nfir'be'cotild oVeftum (he#er6iaifr ^mpiii^, shitre 3«r SpW^-' 
had been sufficient' to'^h^ckf th4 unked fbrc^ 6f the whole' 

\ "\\ . ' ={' •.-■■' IO .- 'V\-. ' , \.j J. .ni . ill I 

•ri!' / .1 " •*' ^ -I .B !» • 

- '* . • V '• V SECTION vi: 

Ttif veiysdii^e day dlf MM 'tlid'f Idriotis adti6tt-at Th^hiiopyfD 

^MkllfMse^ there was^also an engagement at, sea between, the tw^ 

i*e«'*^at^3f the (Jr'ecians, e^ludve of thfe little ^H^ys 4nd 

Bnm^\9&B, coiftsisirecrbf tfX Vessels. ' This fleet hod !amlf$r ne£r 

'- . T / 

w, «••■ ■ •. 


A\'-i ■ 

' ' 1 

•, 4* Ol 



; !'• . ■■ 

•; ic, • I» 

> .X. 

It HisTOBT (« Tae .. , 

AttemifliUm, a promontory of Euboea ihioq ^he i^irth^n c^mi fe^ 
imrds thif straiu* That, of'^ct eiieniy* which was inuehrpiQIte 
numerous, was near the samoplace, but had lately sofTerejd! ^ ^ 
TiolenlKtempesti tbat.ihad destroyed tJbwQ 400 .^f . |^^ . v^psels.' 
Notwithslfkoding this loss, as it ifffka still wstly superior iit number 
to that of the Greciaus, ^hich/they were preparing tOiattap^i.tbey 
detached two bundre^^of their veiisels wiih ord€|^ tc^ wqit a1|oi>t 
Eubosa, to thet^iid that none of the enemy'%.vesee}8 might be^.ii^le 
to escape them. The Greqi^^s betting got in toUigenpf^ of (his, 
immediately 'set «ail in^the night, ig oiden. to -attach th^t de^h 
ment at dayvbiea]^ the next mornin|f« m But aot meiOting witSb it^ 
tSey went towards the evening and mH upon^ the bullet of ^e ene« 
my'3 fleet, wbich^ they treated very roughly. JMight ,conwg PB% 
tliey were obliged to ffeparate, ana both. parties retired to |^ir, 
post. But th e very night that j^rted them , proved xporfi, pernicipu3 
to the Persians than the engagement which pre€;eded,'>from a t^Pn 
ll^nt stovm of wind, .accompanied with rain an^ thuofder^ \^hi«hidig^ 
tossed and htvras^ed t^ieir vesseki^jll break of 4ay^ ,su3|d the: ^jOb 
dhips oi^o, that ha4 been. detached from theiii;j6eet, yeifeia^^o^t ^ 
cost iiway upon tho coasts ^f EuliKBa): jjt.b^ifi^.tl^e wji) of t^e gpj^ 
atifd Hjerqidotustthat the two fleets §hpvil4^bpcQme ij^y neajTri^qufil., 
^^jThe^ Athenians having the saojiQ day received a r^u^brcem^ntypf 
^y-thr«e vessels, the QrefsianSf vi^ ji|i(ei^r ji^ppri^^d of tli^c. yvx^^jfi 
U&t.hadib9fal}<o«E'tbe enei^/'&^^e^t'^^^ ^PPQ the siupjp of! 
^e •CiUeiaos at the saipe iiour. they.had a^|.acke(J^the fte^t fhe.^ay 
before, »od mali^'^ |fi;ea^3 nunatber pf y^em. .TJi^J(j^rgifD% beji^ife 
asha^i^d to s$e tbem^elvM 4bu? insulted by; on !?)^inyr>t^t w^|^ 
much infeiior in nun^beryi^hp^ight fit the n^^j; day to af^pr Juptm 
a- disposition/ to engage. %\ke baUl^ wj^^ verj^ ol)ii^a(6,ran^ t^ 
suC!oea8..]«ir;i§q«al op; ho^h si^e*, ««^eptmft ti»t , jfefef;;. 
fldajlfl, )Whi»> wQii'e incomn^o^cidj by, thelargenesa afji^mber ^^^^eu^ 
fe49€j|^ 8ustajy(^4 muQh tbp greater. ]psiv, ^th |ML^^jhqf^e^er 
retir^d'tn gopd ordfi^f r : ' ,; . ^i.\ .;:f)v.!i 

. AU these actiox^,'" wl^h^ passed- near ^t^v^f^;^^ Y#^ /i^.rfi^ 
90lutely:4eca^iv9vWt contribuite^ vmf m^h |^ faUQ^tf^,|^e,^iub^ 
niftDs^ VI) they tvere coi^vwce^v^ ¥|Gir:0«p e9peri^nc;^,(i)jf^t fe^Tit* 
y/fria not^g rea)ljr, for)mi^ble,^thpr i^ tha number ^oTmii^mn*. 
cent ornaments of the vessels, or in the barbarians' insolent /sh^^^y^ 
and songs of victory, to men that know how to come to close en- 
gagement, and that hav^ tfaf <>^fl9mre tf) fight with steadiness and 
resolution ; and that the best way of dealing with such ai^ enemy, 
IS to despise all that vaink^airaiieeti^tio iiidt«ince Doldly up to them, 
awJ to,f barge th^ bris^y ij^itfrj^i^pw^jj ^with<^|;,qypr,Qp^ 

^The.C^recianfleethaymg at tl^s tiine had jht^slligelicj^ 
haa paaeedi/^t jfhermopylc^) resolved up^ ^^e <^^T§e^h^^x% tp 

•jrHittaT**ti|«^p,l#^lJ?4 Heiod.|.v|iV^«>,^;^,, .., 

' * 


ftke wittiimt nAy fartfief deliWiitieM. ' "fh^ iifiinediatdlj mddil 
away from Aft^misiurti, and advanohi^ towards the h^it of Greec6f 
they stopped at ^dlacrtifi, a littld is!e very near, afid ^jfer-tLgaixui 
I Attica. Whilst 'file iIe^t*wiUs r«%f^atin|fv Themifitdcle* passm} 
though a]l the plucen where the eneniy must ae|Bt8«rily Mnd,'in 
order tp tilke in fresh water or other ^fjtoriBibns, and in laive cha- 
meters' '^nmvdd oponthe rocks and the stonte the foOowisg 
wdrds, Vhich h^ addressed to' the lonians; Be of out nde,y€ pet>* 
pie of Ionia; come over to the parly of rfoiHr jfaiherf^ uko exj^e 
their ovdn Hvesfor nb other end Ikan t0 maintain your liberfy; or, 
if you cannot poeeibly do thatt, ai least do the iPeraane all the mir- 
tkief yda cAH, when we ar,e engaged vfith them, and put their onK^ 
into dhorder ani^ confution. By this means vThemistotfles hoped 
eithel* to^bHng the loMans really over to their partyy'*? or at least to 
rmder them suspected to the barboiiaiis*' We-aee this generals 
ii&dhis tltoughts '^Iwaycr intent upon faisbQ8indss,.and neglected. 
oothingr that could contribute to the success of his designs* 

' * SECTION Vii. * ! 

. Tbt^ 4tb^iiiaQ» abaodoQ tbeir cify^ !^Ucb is tal(ea||id bornt by Xeaea, ^ 

Xerxes ih the mean tiine had ^ntere<r into the country of Phocis- 
inrthe upper pdrt of^ 2>6i4B/iiitd w>as .imrninff. and plundering the 
cities of the Phocians; ^The inhabitants of Pdopoonesus having ' 
^thou^hti^ but to 8av6 their own eiauitry, had i^solved to abandmi 
<JI the rest, aisd to bril^ail the Grecian forces together within the 
-Vilnius, tlte ^tetraiiii« of which they intended to secure bya.sitong: 
^! from oii& sea to the ethers arspaee of near fiveniles English. ' 
tbe Atbdniaiis were highly' ptovokedJ at so base a desertion^^ts 
% saw themselves ready t» fall- into the/ hands of the Persidnsv ' 
^■d likely to bear the whole weight of their fury and veAgeanoe*. 
kme time b^fcii^theyhadcoasulted. the oracle of - Delphi^ whiiih 
^ giy&a theih fbr answer,! 't^a< therafUMHuld be no' way of saving 
'•"^ cOy htU bv toooded walU, .The seiliments of the people were 
^h divided abbiit^ this ambi^qons eapression ; •some thought ^\ 
^ai to be tmderstood to miajd the eitadely beikihse; heretofore it had •. 
,*^Eurrouxided with wtoodeh pahsadoes. But Therai^ocles gav»> 
|>>ether8eii8e1o the words, ^hieh was much norenaf^ral, under- 1 
'^kilingit to mean shipping; and demonstrated fha^; the only plan 
|^;h>d toadc^t wias tv leave the bity em|;ty,anfl to embark ^att , 
'^ ipbibitaiits^ > Bu{ thid iwas a resolution the* ptsop^ ,would . 
"^pre ear ^o^ as thifiking thevtherelijr. r^Unqui^hctd. every hope of, 
^^, Hid sheing/Bo method of sairingi themselves^ iwhen on^< 
^bad abandoned the temples oi their gods^ and tae tovahs of;, 
^adestors. ' .ilereTh^miMocl^s hadiOcoaHnnfrnt allhis jicUlress 
Ukfidhis eloquence to work upon the people. Afler he had re- 

■ . • .' ' t . , • t- ". .'••• ,: ;' .1 .- • ' ' 1 .' ' 

» Hefdil 1. ^. e. 40, II. ' t AM l.>vU; e. TM^lOi, > ' 



^pmeBte4'tofheiiith»trAthQI#di4i|K>t consiot either ^rita^walky 
or its hotitset, .but' of it^ eitia^a% and that thte.,^ving of these was 
the preeervfttion of ,the oity, he :teiid0«vourQd t^t^rsuade^th^m by 
the argumentt most capable -of makii^ an ii9pj;^ion up9n them in 
the unhappy, aflicted, and 4<Mi^eipiiB conditio^ they were then in, 
I mean.that of the divine authority ^ giving them to und^rstai^l. 
by the very^ords of the-onLcle, and by the prodigies wjiij^h i^ao 
happened) that their removing for.,fk time from Ath^tn? 1$^^ .jm^i* 
festfy the wiJl of the gods. , .."*•.' 

A decree was therefore pasaed^^ by which) Jn order tp sbHtea 
what appeared so hlrd in the i^esoliition of d^erting the city, it 
was ordained, that AUiehs shotdd be ^wer^up intruiiinU^^ ^h/B ht^kd*^ 
and eommUUd ta iht.keepiMg and protecthn^ if Jt(ji»frv^4 pqJ^!f^!Qn«^ 
cfike ^funiarf'pf09ple ; thcU cUifiKKmkabUaif^t jxAit^arj^-o^/e ^it^c^r 
amuy ihould go rnigkip-boayd.f.dndihal ev€ry\fit^nahaul4,pr<nti4if^ 
at uiellttthe couldy lfbr\theiv(tftty and 9t^m^yj'(ff hit sMiif^fkjUdrm^ 
and slatMt*. . • '••. •.■ .*,. •:•.' -v.- • •.'? 

The extraordinary thaviour of Cimon,t who was at this time 
very young, was of g^ tii^eight onthS^^jingular occasion, f'ol- 
lowed by ms compan^e «' ^^^h a gay and cheerful countenance, he 
went publicly along t<«»'streeft of the Cerahifcaii tofh^ citadel, in 
order to consecrate a bit of )a:bn€U0t which ^he c^ied ig hisiuoid, 
in the temple of Minerva, d(si(pii%(to-.nMbk%the people imder3(and 
by this religious ahd affcctmff .tofMonyt th^^t they >had i^o farther, 
bttsmesfa with hmd ft>rceb, Anai4hat it behoved them now to betake 
themseWes entirely to the'aeac Afbepfhe^jhad made an ofierinff of 
th> bit,iie took one of tlw shields tbM.hung iji^po^jth^ wallof t^a 
temple, paiditis devotions to the goddiQiir went 4ownfiH>.the wajter- 
side, and wab the firrt,rwha hy.hia/exanut^^ inspired the generality 
of tbe pebpie) witb.eon&deitce«W!idLre6(i^tibii, aad ^nciHUiJig^ them^ 
to embark* . .:« - '-o '• ; \,- y-. \. ' '^ \ 

4 The ffreate** ptao't.of tkeni sent theb fathers' and mothers, tha^ 
were old, together with^ their ^wives and .ehUdren, to the- -city; of 
Tf<fiEene,l ihe inhabitants. df whichi ' received tfawa^jwith gseadriiun 
mamty and ^neroaitj. ^ F«p Ihsy: mkde an ordiatote, that they 
shoiild be' mamtained at the expense of tiMr pulbc,. and^uiaitfoed fiw 
etch perfemi^s subsbtfeneetveL oboih ^ da^^'^hich- w^i^ iWoiUi aboiil2 
two-pence English money.i Besides th vi, they ^rroitted ihe. ehti^ 
dren: to gather jf^iiit wherevef they . ptei«sed«. or wherever 'they 
came, andsettM a>Ocmd« for* the payment of ^ire mastenii who had 
the care of theit;edilcailom< -r^How beaiitifiil is ib to. see. a bitgr* ex- 
posed as this vhM ito* dh^ > gt^ifkmt ^ df«^er0 ' iful cakmitiBa) eid^snd 
hertcareiiiid Mlero^y, iytke v^lnidst of such olaitea^ e^en to 
the edSdiCationbf ethei' |lio]lle'b childibvl i ' ■ >> .t'.1>- a f,, >• 

Wh^ t)ie wlvA« Mdty' came tc^i^iHibatk^'io nMmg aBd)(i)DelBiiy 

* Herod. 1. vlll. c Sl^M. Plat, in Tbemiqt ]>. 117. f FluU In Cim. p. 481 « 

X This was afli»ll«ityfitii9t«mio|ttlie wa^d^^lfigliofiflie Petoponnewt 
called Afcolit • 

in|^ « sp^^ade drcfw^^i^ from ^ ey^ ^«Ul diat i^eitB prcficnt, 
ao^At tboksaoie time ooea&ioiie4 ^eKt iidiftinitioiK' of the steadineM 
andjcopnig^of thQSQ ^pem-wh^'tMiitj^lr fathtfre and mothera ana* 
ther wa;^ aod to other iplace% mid who!, without btBapg* moved etther 
at thoir gri«f or.UmentatiiDii^} or a.t the tender emhracea of their 
wives and children, {)^ed oyer with so mu<th filtmt)^f» ai^ reaokn 
tioo to Sajamis. BJik tjlfit^ wl>ic]jk efctr^medy rmed and atfgmentH 
ed the genial cqnpassiofn, vf^ the great4^fi«^h^(tif oH men whom 
they wercfpkTcod to^leaye in thie dty on a^oQunt'c^ tlu$)r a|re an! 
infirmities, and of wnqm many voluntariiytremained there* threuffh 
religious motives,, believing the citadel to^bethe thing meant by the 
oracle in the forementioned ambiguous expreasioiic^wooden wal]%. 
There was no creature (fpr history has judged this circumstance 
worthy of being remembered,) there was no creature^ I. aay* even 
to the very domestic animals, but*what took a part in this public 
mourning ; nor was it possible for a roan to see these poor creatures 
run howfing and crying after their masters, who were goin? on board 
fillip, without being touche4>aild aJSTected* Among ail t£e rest of 
these animals, pertiediar notice \m taken "of a dog belonging to 
Xanthippus,.the father of JPericles, which, not being able to endure 
to see himself abandoned by his n^aster, jumped 'into the.sea.aflter 
hk, and continued swimming " as liear as he icoula tp the vessel 
Ills niaster was on board ot", 't)ll he landed quite spent at Salamis, 
and died the moment after upon the'shore. In the sarpe place, even 
in Plutarch's time, they used to sh6w the ,spot wherem this faithful 
8i»imal was said to be Duried, Which was called the do^s burying* 
rroimd. ' , '/ ' ,^ ' . I 

Whilst Xerxes was continiimg Ids march,* some deserters 'fj-om 
Arcadia came and joined his army. The king havihg/asked theni 
'^lat tUe Grecians were then'dbin^, was extremely surprised when 
'is was told, that'ihey were employed in seeing the games ^nd com- 
ets then' 'ceTebrathig at Olympia: and his, su/prise was still in- 
creased, Whsn he understood that the victor's rewarJ in those 
^^gagement^ * was only a crown of olive. What men mdst they^ 
*. cried otte ofthe Persian nobles with great wondeir and astonish- 
^t, who «tre' influenced only % honour, and not by money ! 

Xerxes had sent ofF^ consiircrable detachment of his' army topilun- 
^the temple At Delphi,! itt iJehich he knewthe^e were immense 
^ures, being' resolved to trej^t Apollo with no more favour than' 
'J*? other gods, whos^ temples he Ad ^iillagfe3^ Jf We may^believe 
Herodotus and D'odoras Sjculus, as soon aq.evey tliis dettfchment 
***iDced near tbe temple of Minerva, surnathed the Provident, the 
'^ita^jhere grew dai^ 'on a sudden; and a violent tempest arofae,* 
*«%s^«ued with impetuotii^*%mdB, tijjbrfder, abd lightning; and 
twofaiig^y^jcs havihg sensed' t'hem^lTfes from tUe mo^ntam^ fel 
^^At FersiaA' ttoopfil, add ekished'the-gre.ate8t part bf tU^'. 


M .i $ /<sTORr dp tux)' i 

, <Tho other part' of tliditMuy notched t<^wkrd«lheeHyc3f AfMMlA/ 
which had been deserted by att its mhahitauts, except a^ttna]) n(6m- 
ber of citteens who-ho^ roti!idd uUo>:he citadel, wh<;r6 they defend- 
•d theimehica'^th incrediMe braVery, iHi^hey were killed.' and 
would* hearken to no tdmis of accomiiipdlLtion whatspevcr. Xeri^cs 
having ^mormed the citadel, ri^duced it t!cf «sfae8. He i2TTthediaU>ly 
despatched a courier tflf Susa, to carty^tAe agreeable news of iiis 
cucces^'tiy !Artttb%aes* hk- und^; atHf'at'fhe eathe ttm^ sent him a 
^reat ntinib^f of pictures and' ^aHiies. Those of Hanntidiiis and 
Ari«togitort,| the ancieitt* deliverers of Ath^ihs, were ^ent witii the 
rest. One of the Antiochtuses, Jf»^g tif Syria (I «lo not know wHlch 
of them," nor 'at 'What time it was,^'rc*,iiri!ifed thenito the Athenians, 
beinor persuaded he could n<rt possibly make them a more accept; 
able present. » ' '- * 



Ttie tiattltf 6f Salamlt. > Precipitate return <of Xkrt^' Into Af!a. ' PanefjrriC'of Th»> 
iiitetoclea} and ArLiU4ii%i T^ ^vai of (lie Canliagintaiu ia Sicilj^ 

At this' time a division arose jEtrifong t^e commanders of the Gre- 
. cian fleet; J and the confederates, iii a coun.cil of war which jvaa 
held fur that purpose, were of very different sentimexits concerning 
the place for (engaging the enemy. Some of them, and indeed ^the 
greater pirt, att t^e head of whom was Eurvbiades,t^e generalissimo 
of the fleet/ were f6r*hdvifig them advance neat the Isthmus of 
Corinth, that they might be nearer the laiid army, which was post- 
ed there to gv.ard that pass'under the comniand of CleoVnbrt^}us> 
Lebriidds's bfothef, and more ttally for the defence gf Pefoponne- 
sljs.'. Others, attlin head of whpm was Th«mistocles„ alleged,, that 
it would be betrayiug their count^-jf, to' Oflifindon so iidyantpgeous a 
post ias tliat Qf'balamis., And as' he supported £iis .ppiAion.with 
abundai\(^e o^ warmth, Eiirybiades lifted up bis cane ip a menacing 
manaer; Strike, says the Athenian, unmoved at the insult, but keat 
WW. ^j and continuing .liis discpurse, he proceeded tpj^ho^ 9f What 
importance i);,was to th'is fleet of i&p Grecl^s, whose yessejs Wfsro 
lighter 'anij. much fev^^r^in nupiberthaB those, oft i^^Persiana, to en- 
\ gage jin snch a str^ait as that of Salamis, which would render tib^e 
eijeniy ,incapajble,pf ^sing a great par|i of their forces, j jjiirybiades, 
who couW not help b^piflg surj^t^ at the moderation of Themis* 
codes, .,acquie^ee^ in hi^ reasgins^pi at Jqast (Complieo , with his 
ompioh,f<^rfj^rthe ^t()enians,^whos^ ship§ made u|i: above one half 
of thq. fl^ett flioufil ^epnirate th€|m8elve^|r6m the allies, a» their: 
.peneraJs ^^.Jak^.occa^op to^iasu^uate. ,. .,' , ], .' .;.„ 

A c|9ii^ucjI,of yfar was fiJsQ.lield; on ^e side f]f jthe Pefsiaps,^,^ 
orde^Jto (iqterniinc wheUiQfi ;U^X^.«houl<l Inward a. (jiMivai ^^^fi^pfr 
meat ; Xerxes himself was come to tlie fleet, to take the advice of 

inHOB^ihWil #i9«eys, wtp wfi« atO !m«himoc/« fer the ttttifldi be* 

CHUB thefi' loieMr '4c waft • ttg^Mble ' to the kingf's mcliiulti<Mi* 

Queen Artemisia was the only person ,who apposed that rescjidtioil* 

%'jipfl|BB«t0d ihe dangerous 'conr?mienc0 of coMini^ to' bl6M 

wit)):)eop]e' much iMre c^Vefsant and more expert in miiritiinb 

a£n»thtn tbeii^en^afto; aileging, that the lost (^ a latde at i<^ 

9MM atteoadei with the rum of their liuid ^tta/', whereas, by 

pKUaeliiig' thei war, and approaching^ P^loponresUa, they wouUF 

cie&te jedouaies and divisions among^ th^'ir enemies, x>r rather aug^ 

BMDtithe division which already Was very pruvolent amongst theuii 

tbaltheooiiftderates in that case would not fail to separate from onb 

uother,. ia order to defend their respective "countries ; and thaf 

then the Icmg* without difCcuhy, alid almost, «^ithout 8t'iikins[ k 

^ke,.Biigtitniake himself master of all Greece.' This wise %dvice 

VIS DoLMiowed, iumI a'baiAle wias resolved upon. [ 

Xerxes, knpuianr the itl sudC^sA of all |iis former enirafifementi 

ataea to his awn absence, wtis resolved to* be witness ^f this from 

hto^Qfu^ eminence/where he <iiaused a throne to be erected Air 

Mpmpose. This might have contributed in* some npeasure td 

ubnate the Ibr^d^) birt tbtfe<is another much more sure and effeo 

' -flalioode joi^dom^ il^ f mean, the prince's. actual oresence and ex- 

UDple,4Hhto he .himself shares in the danger, and thereby .show<3 

^■BDBelf «t»rthf of bein^ the soul slid h<?ad of a brave cmd numcroui 

^vof men mdy iodie for his service. A prii^de who ha6 hot 

/ju» sort of. fbrtitade,* which aothiiig' can shake, and. which evoii 

j 'ik» new vigour from danger, sr^ay nevertheless be endued wiih 

j^r excellent qualities, but is by no means proper to command 

Ji^vray. JKd qualfficatton Wha^soe vrr can supply the want, of 

imigela a geauttnl ; andtbetbore he labours to chow the appear * 

l^of jifV'twiieAiie has hot the r^lity, the mure he disco^vers hu 

^TJictAnd.feaTwi^ Ther^ is, itWust M owned, it vast iditTerenco ' 

^eau generai offic^ ait« a (Miiffnbh^ soldier. Xei^kcs ouerht 

1 UK 10 h^ve cbqMided his pemott otherwise t^ian be6time a ptmti ;, that 

y to say, as the bead, not as this* hand ; a^ he whose bdsinera it' ii^to 

I aect aiMi giYe< orders, Tidt as those Vfhii*t^fe to ^^l them in ex ecu- 

^ But t9 <Wep' himself' entirely at a diistauce from dctng^r, 4nd 

««t oaotbSi' part thaii that' of a s.^ectatei^, wiiLs reoDy renoiniiciog 

^qotiity and office of tgentral^ • ^ 

ti)f>iBiBtocles,f ttiipwing^ tDfatr -sortie ^ the cdmmaiiders in the' 

f^ fleet stiU^^ntertafaied^ thoughts o<* stlSlinfif toWar^ the^ 

<^ eovtcivcU to'have Bottifegit'eftdbvettTytb Xerites^ thai ai^ 

^Greoiiti, alUAi were now lfiteMbiedf'%dg^th^6ifM6ne place; ^ 

i^'ihc iDorasX natter fbrtflA to sfrtWilehnd destrbv thenl afto^ 

f^\ wicBod; if they ^MBttd ti«ptfl«terf froi^ biie ^hoAicr, as thev 

^fm $odo4 kd mighti b^^er m^* with indther dpportuhlty 

^Mirftle. iflR'ipiigltfe^M^Haibiopbiioh;* and ihimcdidtel/ 

I Vol. 111. 1> 

J *« 

iHgf|> in orJer to malde ^ iiBpra.ctici4)l« for tike /GNtekfi' I* 
frpja'that p9j9t. ,,. \_ . , , ,, i i iv. 

{jTobod^ ajnong,th^. Grecians {>erc^ix^ tbat th^r vnqpiqi 
^uhded til, 1*1113, iQ^nher.''' .^^t^Utides oa^e tball cwht fttitp J^jf^jm^ 
"w^qrd bi|s bad sorue forcef ^fider hU (omi%Md,iatid witlisiltv^fMat 
l^gLii^er p^sed thxpugh the( wMq fleet Q^^lie toOByv WMKlie 
ijuhiel up 1;6 T|JB.iiii^t,(^ei|-f tent, he^tpok: mm amdei uid. ipofbe co 
mm In t;he,follbvv:ing maiu^^':. If.^ areime, IVmmsioBlmyWgiskail 
rrhfn henceforward lay a,nd^ fiud vqi;i\ and childUh'4i*f9'^*ititti that 
lifii hitherto dlvi4^ tu^^cmd Urive^ mthifi more nfib&.mnd^MieJkl 

ft^latign^whiGh.(^[Ms JkUl render<tff£^t ten/ice toihuommtryf jdmc 
coVn^t^ip/in^ anu doing^he 4^y !^<f wtifi and. iablcysafHauij and I 
^ obeying l/ouj^^^ordiijra J c^ py am9^i/fkg you with my peryoi» amd ad^ 
vice. '•' He then mfoi]^1l^d4u«a.^p^ ^ ^lany'a, WmgfiifimhiAded wkk 
tUo shipa of the Perai^nf, And wiLrjnIy ^tjogitoi himitoctvetllem 
tx^ttlc witl^'out,. ct^^X* ,i|rhepni8toclea,.eirtjceaie^ aatwiuahid at MKSb 
a^rp<itnQ|s€f souU %nv such a oohle «Ad.^fienerou8 fraiiktiei(ir was 
fK)me\vhat''ashai^e(), th{i.t he h/gid su:S'eirisd hiioa^.to bewcomeh ex- 
c:3l^a,by.'l^s rlv.a),^,buU without ili^dfini^ a8haiiBied'''toawB<it,'he>pM^ 
iniisoi, Arlsti^ps^tbat he^Quijihenceforward initijlieluftifefaeraait^, 
lifid even exceed l^, if it^^were possible,. in; the luliold opmfe .future 
cpud xt. 7<be$i; . W^r halving . imported to Idmri Che ^atiataicr^i». ^ 
ha|(|. contrived t^.dec/eive Xhe-. h&rhl^rian, ha dkisiraii ^bsbi V(>g^in 
perph to ^uryWdes^ild or4eK.t<o convince /hun iluiith«!*e w«irao 
ot^'cr mea^s o.f>^9.fety,£9r..them« than to engft^e the (Hiensy by 
sfa at Salapfii^; .which commi^siQa tAriitides eiitfciAed with plea- 
sure and success, foi' he poi^^efla^d* m\k^h iQftu0D«oJiver><ihat gm^rtSL 
"^ sides, therefore,, pfj9pi(i;ed th?^fWi <niillMEjba4tle.fv^The 
[recian fleet cocsistca^pf ^^Q^/pc^l pf «hipai» t^*fikilii&'ei;«rVthi*gf 
tllovveJ^Lth^jj^direction aj^ Qr4?r9 (^ T^Md'iCucibaii.; ■ AB^'iml^g 
e^ape^, hi^/ vigii^ce,^n4, ^w^Mkfi MH at^erXGittnanderybe iM^nir 
4^7. H4nW<^^^^. ^iF^y .c^rf^uqaj^ance ARd.iueidtiiitoto'iidvantage; li^ 
lor^l lip wc|(|i^yeg^, the,^ogagemi9nl4hi» waited- tiH &ciertai|i^viii4^ 
^vjifp^.aroa^ rcg|dia]|;Iy eve^y ds^/r^tfft oerMuii hoer/attd'^hiuk 
w^ phtlre)y,c<^Uaj[f j^ As soon 

ii^Uvfi WinXmse, % 8igAal>'Va9*giveiii.fQ]r baitleiif^ 37he'Periiuu; 
t<rho knew that their king hau 'Ui«i „^|ia updn kbem, advanced; :with 
auiti con^ai{f^.an)l^.^iapetH9si|^,.As were.oaiMftlile.'of - fltnUni^'ian 
Vncniy Mm\ ^^^9h Bu^t.H^^ .heajt i^f^ thft fictti attack i^fiaiq/tif 
a^aje^ijwlj^^n^b^ ^np^il^df! Eveiy ybingieaui egtitiat 
them'CtK(JY*^».ymcil,W>V .4!w«* their ^uii]i;(tJieii«igirt; 
" tr)£;,hiqa,y^^.of 4l!eiri»«98Ql«,wi^ Mr nm 

V"* grjW.^^^^tttJty.J W ?*|»i,!A%WjUBibef of their aiip8, wbkl^ 
$0 f^r^fron^j^f^ing or ufe to th^ibatd) onlyaerfed^jamh^tfllui 
mwi!«PW.*^;«»ftftt/»M n^mW:M^«hat.iRa#]kichlh^flNi|!lii>: 

<I Ml ..loV 



persAl'ns IWl^itetSkNs. # 


gwJftMfr, ted withcittt hiirty 01 cotaftirfbti; becaVfee every thln^' 

wu dmed By one cbitilnahder. The lonli&nB, whom Theniistd^- 

cfe liiJiMNrained, by characters enffirav^ upon stbiies' along tffA 

mste if Euboea, to rem^mb^r m)tn whom tl^er deKve'tlT tbeli' 

origind; i^r^re the "first ftiat betook them^^lyes to/m^ht,'^d were 

qnicidy foflowed bj th^rest of the fleet.^* Artemisia distinguished 

ijerself 1)fkicredible efibtts of resoltttion and 'coui^ge; so- that* 

Xerf68,whosAw in what maiiner she had b6hfcved lierWW/'crie'd' 

oot, that ttt^ men had behaved like wotnen iii thii) "eir^Digembnty" 

ttdthattfte-women HtedshoVrti the conriiafe of men.* ' TlA^^Athi-- 

taiiJa, heikig ^nrageath^ a woman had',daxed to i^eir In arnifi' 

JgiiBst^entfj had" promised a reward of 10;()00 drachmas to antr' 

one that slxould be able to take her alive ; but she had the jf'ifSt 

^/rltb.escape their pursuit. If they had taken b^r, Sh^'fedld 

liive^eseirved nothing from them but theliighest bonim^imt1ans^|| 

«adthe most honourable and" ffenerbus treatment, '" ' •" 

Tf» uAkhnerj^ i^ which that qu^n escaped ought ^dt to be 

flmhted.f * Seeing herself warmly |)ljirsi^ed' by an Athenian ship/ 

^ wbnch it: 'kerned imposi^bfe for her to escape, iHielitti^ out; 

<3^aQ colours, and attacked bne of th^ Persian vesself , tiyh bt^ard . 

ofwhiclrtrasDamasithJtnnsiking of Calynda,} with whom ^Ke Kkd 

^mae qairr^^ and suhk4t.' This made her punrucrabelieve that' 

iSjewas due of the Grecian'fle^, lind they fcav^ ov^rthcf.cSiiW. ' 

M^ was the succor of the battle of Salamis, one of the'most 

fsamble action^ related in ancient history, and whicJr has' nen-' 

*red the natif^'a|id courafeie of the Gr^ilms 'fiundus fbr ever. A> 

mlj«r own coutttiy. '■ ' ' ^» "'■' " ' "'V^'' ^""^^ 
I^emiacocIeB, ft/a's^dfet conversation -with AnsHdM, jA^sliii' 
l^tuconsideratidi&'ih order to kluhd him and to.feicm W^i^i' 
mmitB, iriicther it would not be proper T^rtheni 'lb~ send ^oia^' 
*aR^ to break Qbwnth%brMger which XerxfS hadcaosedib;!^ 
I^^eod, says he; that #e'ms2y talte As^a, ih Europe; bnt tmj\ ' 
I'f made this pn^al, he ^^ far frotai approving ft. ' A'rirffiflt,, 
l^^ievinghini to be in earneist,' argued v^ry' warmly dnd ^tenutricjh^' 

ij^a^i^v pite90#. 4««t» belliM9 acefrimi clebat. Qifippe. or in yiqi^fHulMnW 
^*^,hiui mutwrh vidlein auiiaelafii.ceriieres. Jmstim. 1. il, c. 13. ' 
!Wlf«l.e.89t fl8. Polycii. l.tili *%». \ 

Z?itaetlBie ^ras not very delicate in tiie choice of the .neaaurcfi she uaeC It U 

^I^Miif demkroum o( seizing Latmiis, a small city of Carta, that lay Teiy com 

rf^&r A»r, Ji>« l«id her troopa If %ii|hMah, and, uadfc jwtcycB of fffllawtjlm 

i^%t ««$l^r ot :::emda. in a wood qwwi m tM K^ter neaft»^^*% diwira- 
wMdj^ wiflft a grept tratn of •unuchs, WMMn,. Mnvfia. aa^ vru«»i]flis«. :K^, faif^ i 
•WKiog „ ihrongvto see tJmv^Qligioiis ceremoq]^; .{inAiA t^.niMPl.ltlMi^ktAf** 
Ti'jnofttMMpommemmxiti of the lOace. I»«(y«s. 5ji^a^^l..vm4«,^i i t-^ «»v-..^ 

imm^,m,:: » 

>m tp reduce »pDowerf^^^nep;yr,t^,4e8flfrtr, from,.l|fhiJm^^J fy)r«» 
l:f|eM'rbiuii)e98 to deli^ef themfs^ves a)$,isoop m po«^iJi4e>ft jf^^ll^isto* 


tcMclea seems to, ^ve had i« vieisr by.^his faj^e cpnfidenpfr^ w«fi ^ 
■jteijgthen. biui^elf .witli.^ristyes'f ,'o|)iw(^ which wai,pf^i^e«^fi 
^c^^t^-f^jfj^llist tjhat' of thej oM»et g^ral^ in c48e,.t^e^>iQ!plw|e)d to 
go, .ap4 hrw^ iown the, l^rWge.^ reixhapp too he. inj|,g|ht/jaiina af, 
giiwil^f l^maeff i\y t hia.^nej^^ ftgaiflfiil, \h&. iflf will pf iHfi *eDOT^ii 
v;h^ n^ght 0^4 <i«^ acc&s^ him orJtr^aaj9nil^fpre,;t^^,p^pfe,jff 
aver th^ w^e to ^\yft^t 1^9. haOeeft.!;)ae ?^1|jo* 0^^^ 

tt4Yicfij;Q.X'er;Ke§«.. r-' . ,' . •"- -.•(^ ',-•.. ■.• '" >•/-. ijrfr ,:!i^ 
i,3ri^ p^ijti(je,f b^kig friifbte\]ji<Bd at such pewp, made ii^fissff,,iiifffi 
he., ^ejjjjij^ypf hj? time, ai^d se^ out by wigttr laying Marji^iij^ober, 
hind him, wi-r an ur.ij\y of .^OO^f^pO men^jii or%Jer to re^il|^^ ,Grii|Bpf^^ 
if Jiewa,9Jiblet, The <5r,ecia?^,\ifhi^.pxpWefl iha|.p^^ 
hnjr^ c(?m(?L^p another, 0iitg^enjpnt'%^eft da., li<ivipg^learflt,l%> 
he waa^gcU j^rsued ,{i\m a? ftj^tf ^d}iheXrfp"M, bujt toyna^jufpos^^ 
'ttf y. hfl3 disiroy^d Soa pf ,the,pii^^y'8^XRS; besiifes, th(^^ --^-^-^ 
t^eji f^m tak^n.t-,Tl^e remainder of Ui§,Pejpsiipa fle^^, pfUi^i 


the cci^^, pfTAs.^ Ad pntefJriBfljjWitp jtli^ goirt of CumiBB, a q^ pf^ 
J^f^ii ,W^rQ ip^y ,?mp^,t-l^^ W^ter, without 4«Lring^^fiwww 

^ Xerxea ^ool^ th^.j^est of ,li^ s^y iwig ynth |^m,;m.d .Ea^ijclxed 
^J^fW^^9 y^fS^^ffii^^' ' As.n^/proYwiops .^d pkm ^^^im^%6ii^ 
'^^!^:!^^^m^Wyi u^d^^rMfei^, great %M^9 duii^.tiei^- 
wiji^jpi^d^ which I^tjWftverflgud-forty daw ..^fter bi^vmglqoivr, 
isvimed all the fruits they could nnd, the 8oI(4if^;,'vrjer4. plyigfj^ to 

o^||ifie4,i^^e^t ^u«88 m fjje ftrmy.;,,a^j(j^at numbefeii^^ 

#^}ri^ WOMa*;e§^ and ^mBat^^vte, t Hf«cap^% 

^J^ hi?, arj^y ^f^^iif^ , him>,and tr/|^Q|^a on> before with, a saui)} 

ffie^ orcfe)' to,,rt?^dh j^e brid^Myith thei'r^ter expe4»{W5»,v 

F^- h« W[W^ed at % pl»p^4ift fou^^ th^i^rldg^ brpM dqwu. 

.^ .-le violence of th? waVes, during a great tempest that had hap- 

{)ened, amk«gM retkiced,td thcneoeseitj^of p«»Qn^}t|M»ctitit^*a 

mkihgAitmi , This.wte ft speci«d«6]t vv^l ^ale^tjM td^dirmk- 

/ kind Uie mutability of all earthly '*h)ngs« <uad tHie instability icf Jbu- 


MB neatnes*; a p^.ovf wiiose Kraiieflfvild'fleetothd laaid «ad«^ 

fill I ti'.' ' '' "* I •. • / li';fTi» « ,-',n'. .' ■ 1o 81 • II •• . • ' ♦ 

PERSIlNS^iiimOMCaiNS. '41 » 

)Rs«nM iMo tt^oontaiti ^|^ «dBl6i>efbre(.iiD«ritifcidhifiii^^: 
in a mnaH boil almost witboffAjr«^rviint8<)r:attoBd^^ Gfmk* 
was tke «¥eat^Aiidl BwaouBof Xerxtfc^s'expedidoik againal Qraao^ ^ 
IfweoiMpare Xeraes with' kkmelf «!• <iifibteot (uDntandon 
diff(artnto6eaaioD8,' we -aknH haixQy linoflfr.'hiiii Ivrthd jame aMO»«' 
When affairs were under considertftioii and debate^ nO'P^noH; 
couldi show naofb coturaDM and mixepidity tkan this prinoei Ae 
k wrprised and even o^d«d if any one foresees. the' least rdidlEh [ 
cully m the execution of hii protects^ otf showa ^any apprehwsioa * 
eooeemiag the isaut of theoi. But wheit he cDiaes to the poipt of > 
ezecQtkm, aud^lo the hour of daa^^l, he ffies« Hkie a eowatd^raixl i 
thinks of nothing but saving his -^wn life ^ad f)efBan.v iHere we 
btve a sensible <uid evident proof of the di^evertGe betvr0^<tnie- 
courage, which is never destitute of prudences aqud temeiityt ivhioii'. 
is always bli^d and prepumptuous.' A Hl^' and 'prudent' tprisfee 
weighs every: thingi» and diamines ptttcircttBitiMiinoei, Moit^ no . 
esteraiiito a war^t of which, he i|» not^fraidi b^ at the |«tte l^ioM^ ^ 
ioes not desire ; tmi whep ^ i^imp of ^iptien ]» coni0, the sight of 
danger serves only to ani^iate his courage. Presumption in^rervi' 
this ovdeir. When she .hlfui, i^^ii^^ fSsiHIwece, and )K#a«^t 
wlieif ^dom and ;cirQ^mspc^(^if..oi]jBht ,t<^ prfjeid^rshe adn^^t 
fearand d0spairyW^reji?oiira0e«<^4Mr^dit^ ought to ;(ie^94l^9Jlf|nt 
The first care of the.^Or^iansJ -after. t|^ .Imttle of Salamis>«i^ii4 -, 
tosend.the.first fruits of the rkii sfoi^ they had taken to pefp^ n 
CinoB, ;whp was then ve^ry ypungrSiptUh^hiniself ^ ^parti^)^^ 
MI manner in that engage^ment^ and pcf^omied action»;of .>^^y* 
8»tinguisfaued^yalour> as acquired )ii|n4,^^a|^putation„«ji^4 P?il<^^ 
bimbe^onsiapred fVuin l^^c^ivyrth^actti^^ Jtnat woi)14|>j)v « 
kie of itodcring the nl<>8t iippprtant s^rvice^ to Ips country on i^' ^ 

tare occasions..;;/ ,..-, '., . . r^',» • )''•" • .. * 

But ThemifitbcTes carried off^aimpst ajl th^ honour of t];^? ;vicif» ',^ 
rj4 wb^h was the .post signal tl^t ever itJie <t^f;ecians aJrtaiQMu* 
«Ter tne Jfeiiiafis.,' T|e^force,o)f truth' p^ligeA ^ven thpse witpv 
vera most ^^^W ^^ ^^ g^^Ty ito lender jlfwnr this ',t^f,iinpny.. ii'^' 
'* '"' ^ ^ * l)j|jt*tfe» the officers should ^.< ^ 

mpst* Ipywriting w a " 

ns a cttst^p^t in C^reece. that after a l)j^ 
^ who J^iS 'i£|ti|ig\;^i?hed, 'themselves 

t&ename oifjttie^an Who li'ad meritie4' yie first prize, and of ^in^ i 
^liohad men^^^i^he second. On this occasipn>'by a'jiecision Woii^h '^ 
'Ws tfae^dodii ppinioh it is n^tur^ for every'man to have of him- ; 
^,etch officer adjudged tbe first rank to himg^If, and avowed 
^ second tb 'Themistocles ; which was indeed giving hsia, thc\ 
?*«aiee't«J tl»em all, ' : _;':;; '^ ;. ' ,. ■,' ' * , ' : 'J'^ , ;! 

^ Lacedcemonians haVin^'^^kjiied h!rn t<^ SpaiUt |n praer w , 
?o\m the honours due to his mei'iti decreed to tl^eV'freber^i 

♦«t«Me.tellmrioiimwottMi<sJ»ifti.'& 7V^'- •' ^""' '^^^''"^ ^v^'!)fi-»:* ? 
t ^4Kria*en leroces, inpericiilA^vi4iff/&t^iC,^. Ufpnd^ viU.0.18^m ^ 

1^ to. • •••'•' 'T- ' -^ 2^'i '-'" ^' '• 


49 ' . : ^HBf MY f m THE J t '' ' 1 

BfityUtdMi^ie^ilkimef wdoi^viA^ Thomifltbdes thatofnm 
^om{\Mek WM a crown of olive fijf voth of then. Thsf also imde 
a prainit ter'Thenustboln^of'-the finest chamt-iB theettv*; «nd an 
hts dbuartitfo sent aOO yomig maiof the moat considenMe fiuniHes 
toWMt upoii him lA the frontiers \ on honour they had never ahowH 
toanf-per80D*/whiBlioever boiore.-' ' '•*',* : r. • 

' But that which gave hiih a atilf more lensible pleware^weiie^tlie 
.ptibUe ^acclMations he received at the 'first Olyrdpic gaones that 
Wi^r&eoiebrated after the battle of Sataihisywhi^^e all the feti^9 
{^ Gtmc0 were mettogetheii. ' As sooi< as) he ifpipear^vthevrhol^ 
ftsaembly rose upCO'^dohim henottr : nobody rc^a^dedf: either tbe 
gamos'Or«the cofnbaM^; ThemiMocles was'the Only spectacle. The 
eyes of ail' the company wete fixed upon him, and every body watf 
ei|;ep to £(how him- and point him oftt with the hand to the strait- 
C^rs thutliid not know hkm He aoknowlettged aft«rVwards to'hk 
rriend^^hit lieltN^SOd upoii' that day as the happier of hib^'life^ 
that he^lWfd never t^iediany^joy so dweet anfd %o ttBixtBp6tt\^gi and 
that this rcwd)^, the >g^h^ne iVuit c^ his labours, exceeded al( 
lull desires;'' < . / ^ • ^'^"^' ' ■ •- ' ' •"'■•>■ v' • ' ". • '••- 

Th^^'readfrtr'has ttftdtttibtifdlyoW^tved In'^Wie^ t«W) or 

tMie principal etrolces of hiK chaHhter, Which entitle hittk to fte 
miik^ amongst the j^atest m^k ^ The dhss^h which he formed an^ 
OJ^e^to^,* Of tnakin^ the whole force of Am&HB Voaiitime, showed 
hvlt,6 liave a superior geniws, capable 6f ther highest vieWs,|feil^ 
tratihg.intb fbturity, and judieioub in Veiling *the decisive Whfc inr. 
gr^tlij|ur8. Ai* the fferiitdty bef^iigin^ to Alhem^^' waA barreri'and 

inoritbrCcWs than^ mat 'tiiic^mmott^ temper knd m89^tii;m WlSch 
TbemistWfiles 6hdWted'dtft^^o'ci'fti6al (^cqasionH; violin Gfeccfe had 
heen 'tttterly tii^rf6ne if hfe tt^d listened to the dltJat^iof thVlll^;' 
iudg0d aotibittbnVand' had' pigii^d hiinis^lf ppon^^ cC ToJJf p6i]fir 
bo^obr', as is usual aliiong 'pfe^ons Of hi^'a^i and^,{^l;of^8l6p. Tli^' 
flwt of these, occiaslons was/ when, notwfthstandiife^ithe flagrant 

among tne conrcderates must have been uecessaruy 
amended. And how worthy of a^lmii{atioM was thfl||irj)caiKHW)Q<!of 
Dond iml oookMSB cfi ttfnjfKir which fa«i displayed, ^en the sattik 
Sic;^ybiadc«f<rtoft'HM^^afbnted h^ ^H!h^ hiii^h apd^ om^nsiv^llaiSP 
ii^gaifo, but llflcd uo his cane at him with a monacing gesture! 

flKB bat young:; tfant liennrttifall of an avdcnttmbitiQa fQr'£tory<;' 
that he waa commandei^ of a numeroua fleet ; t \A that hct baairigbi 
and reason on his side. ' How would our young officers behave on 
a similar occasion ? Tlieiiu^bcles tobkal^'patiently, and the victory 
of Salami$ was the fruit of his patience. v • 

Ab to Aristides, I shall- hciVe oocastoli in the sequel to speak 
more extensively upon his character and merit. He was, properly 
speaking/ the'^an 6f the comMo^nrealth :' proi^ldM that was weu 
and faithfijflS^ served, he was veryHttlc coiicemfetf bjf whoh) it wait 
done. The meritof others, sb far fibtik' Cffendinir him, hecaftoe hii 
own by the approbation arid ^neouragpeMent which he gave to U» 
We have seen him iiiake lAi way through the en^my't fleet, atl^ 
peril of his life, in ord^r'tW* ^ve The^t6cleiB teme mUi^kg^ae&i 
and good advice : and Plut^TCii* tak^ ^(Mitico, that i^if^.ng mU the 
time the latter had the dimmaiid, ^Aristddi^s'assistfei'him'On aU 
occasions with his counsel: ftad-^^cdity'DcftwithstaDding' he ha4 
reason to took upon him not oiHy'tiiF'hi^ riWl, but hi« enemy. Lei 
Q8 compare this h^leness and gi^tili^68>^«f soul'irilh the htlle*ipi-i>' 
nteddfess and .raeannem of thodeineWj who ave so'hice^^unetilioaffy, 
and jealous in whatever resp^^ the* sulnett «f',c6&inMBd; 'who' 
are mcapdble of acting in' cont^eit tvtth th^ boiiieiigiies, and ttAtity 
intent upon engrossmg thegloi^af «V«^;'tliltiff to theBis<ftve»ie! 
alurays n^dy to sacrifice thd'^^wkr^^of tbapuUio to tteii!;owa»i 
private inte^el^, or to flUi!R§]» tftbirTifttlb'to^CKvnniit blundeM^-'thibi 
they thinteelves may reap a«hrantag« fStoHv ihem^ ; m-* . < > - ■ 
On the very sunie daytWthe skftl^n <oi^'Ithem(q>yliBt hapf—iiijt 
ibfernii^ahfe army or Oarth^giliiaiibj' which coB8i«ted ofsamaOD. 
sen, wa» ^tirdy defeated h^^Gelonj^yraiit of Syl'acuseu H^iedotiw' 
'^s tlui bdltle on the s^e dwr-with Chat of^iSsIana^ri (Fh^ ei»il 
anetah«^» of that victor^ m Si^ify l^balnl related in^tlMi histo^i 
^tlie daith'a^manff.- - "vm-).- .-'. wnih- '" -,{1 •■ ,•; ,;!j', Mh 
After the batde of Salami^,} fh0 (9»QpifLnfr>iteingi>fe«iBaied»fivu' 
imatBdetlie Pmians, Thenu^odtes^^QiledJtoiail liioiikkidB tteut: 
^ deeu^d fi^fihem, to ievy »oat!Kbiltibm «nd exact teoni^ irohi'' 
•320). Thre ilri^'he began witKwair that 6f^AndfOB$ from ^haMr> 
^itatttsjh^ required a Cor 9id6ty>le^fllitn)u3pleaking' to <theia| vt' 
^mann^; ftotne to j^ accompanied mUt ttM6 p&ww/kAMwim^' 
^,Persuas^(9fi' and l^rc0^-'-The answer they made hunHnhtt?:; 
^«diD kinfs tuf^ otk&r dimnUu^^nt our tidt^Jno Usij^erftU- CAaii> 
^">^,anil myhith do not permit imio ^vtfifie m^meyfpm demandofii 
^hceriy imd' Despair. Upon this re^sal ;he^made a ftinftof t 
^<Bhej^ th^nHJ'aiul threatened th$it'he would* entifcQy ruin, ^eir^ 
^* M d^idf in t)ie sanlb^'miuniet^ with aet^rai otfaier imndsjH 
^^ 4atB^ -'licit 'Tesi^. hM' ti/^-AaoAroa haddcnic, ifo^ dcew greatr: 

\n^* ^^{^^'d'f'i-'i »a} ^W^<it;jlfOi^ W&|9Tk4oy far) Vii<f^^/«fc ieoiyf ^ 




esrktiiiif hiUDMlf. • .1 -f . " ^ 


k >l , I , r . ' 

• I ' # « f fi 

• • ; f Tte tattle of .FlaaiBak . i . . t/. 

- JL M. SBiii ' ACar4omu8,f wbo ^ad «t«iyed. in Greefe with a body 
Ant J. c. 478. of .800,000 m^iK let; faiifl troops |ia69,tj|^e wipfjer in Thes- 
aaly 4 «Ad m, ^ 9pm|[ following led t^mrixfto B(poUa« , T^^^^ ^<^ 
& v.ery fainouSipiiaqle.m U^ country 1 jtj^^ oracle of X»et»adia^w^icli 
lie|fafOug)it proper |o CjOpfiilt, in prd^ tPtiknow. wliat^would qe t^e 
fluectfls of the wjun The priQ8t,1n his enthusiastic tit, answered in a 
langrua^rowhi^^ ooKtdy tbat wtp present understood, as much as to 
iHsinualr; that the orad# would not 4ley9 to speak inte^igibly tp a 

, faurbariiiu. . At the.4«DW time, . J4 vdonims sent AlexsAdery^king of 
Ifededonia^ wilb« ^ev^ai P^s^^p noblemen, to Athens, and by 
thc^m, hi tfa0iiiiiiie:of h!iS'^niAste»» made very adyantag^ou8,p|-o- 
paMis l0,ti^erAthemaA pfoplf^ ^ detaeb them from the re«|^.of 
thdir allies. The <^9fahe ma4e tjiem were, tp rebuifd tbeir . city, 
vrkitik' Iiad4>een .bnurnt ^wn, to «upply them with a fpoisiderable 
sun dfamiiey, to bi^BSbt vthfioi ta liye aocordingio their own laf^s 
asd customs, and to givio theB^i(b<9/g9vemme&t and a^mmand of 
ailiOvMoe^ I'Aloander^exhprt^ditht^uihia pwn j^men^a th^ 
ancient friend, to layhcdd •naO ^ypurabie an opportunity fo^»^8tar 
hfisidBg. thei# afifdnii «Ui^gipg: tW; Mi933 W^re not in iv ^^onaitioii jto 

• wilhsUiud a powefi so fontudaN^aJSjAhi^ of the Per^ans, af^ ap 
ranch ms^ot toii-Greece^ j O^Dthe: Arat intelligence, of, thia- em* 
baiay,fllfe ^anbaa^'ailso, on Ch^ side»iKnt deputies ^.t^^A^ensf, i« 
o^defntd binder k foten talutig fiCfecf* uiTliem /were: pr/e^i^tfrW^' 
the others had their audience ; where, as soon as Aleicandef.jbad 
finishedsUaiapaeph, tik^ beg^ iQ Ihej^ tum,to add^f^ themat^Tea 
tOiihe AtliMnanii^ andtfttongj^ euihoriod them nott^s^paxate l^iyi-; 
selves Aom'their a11iea,<]i0v to desert fbe. commoipif if^^rpst^- fhM 
coimtTy ; .vepreeebtiQg. to 4l]e«t,rMi the t same timc^ . tja%l^ pnion in 
the pratent'silaation of theisiaJaitv iRxrmed thei^ wh^la strength, . 
and w^uid ^seiid^ Gre^e- irfvi&oible. They added jjarth^^that the 
Spartan coraihonwealfh was vfryfiillisiUy moved- wjith the.melan- 
choiy lAate whtph the Atheniana w«rein, who were deetitutq both of 
house* and io|rea^ and\who for. two veara.JiQgether bad, jost aU 
tBeisrharvesta; .that in <SonsideraMon of that » calamity, ah9 wtu)d 
engage herself, durui^ the coBiloDiSLnce ^f the wss^t^tp.inaintaUi'faid 
suj^oA then wiveB)Their Dhildreniand'tiliEeur oM m#n,jisi^ to:|aniish 
a^plentiful aubpfy .fiir hll their wants. :. 'J^tiy jwnchM 1^ jOUfpad- 
ypTtmg pf\ ^tjie conduct of Alexand^, ^i^hose ^discourse^ they aa^, 

• Hmia m- <hU3^13|||9H1«>-.H4.. hut ia AfUk.^ SM'. I>loii>4. d. p. fi, 
V. Pim. oe One Defcc p. 41^ 

vidi)ii<migiit/ be ezimried Imn oad^tjpivil ^iNMIKkkeonft* 
your of 'iuiDdietf9)dbi|t t^t)Jbe>it0eaied:la lmyeiAilg*ell«B«> %tM Uit 

« «1I occnsioBB^ Uie 'iimt ze«buar.4efeiitot,pf ikut «oiwiipQ;Hberty. of 
.tJiiaif<09Qiitry. -. ;: .» '^ t.. >- ,. ,, j ,. /• i,^ „ / 

i Aristiciei watf'at this: 4inile i* ofiloeJ^hat is t»(f»j^.ii» priffciptl 
of H^e Arciaons. AaitvwAs Chesefoii! iiM .liuma0so,to'aa0WQV,*iie 
■liHl^itimA ]iartcr;tfaB bofbtmnsf wibo taitda ulTer lUid ^Mxh^xkkf 
okj^ctasof tJieir ^teeQl;>h§.ibdt^^fti«^ thsjn/fer thlQkmff Uiejf'^ould 
corrupt the fidelity of ft ntttiox^ byl Urge ipraoHees ; but Qint be could ' 
not brip beibr sorpyiaed and ktffiieted witbfDine aott ofMigtmiionf 
to eoeAhat Uie dj^cedcmoniafliivregnMig <QDlji!;the present die- 
tress and necessity of the Athenians,.ajBul forgetting ti^ir €<iiirag^ 
aad nil^;naBniity,iiheidd c^mle Atf penliadB tbem toiperaift in fight 
XDff .flobiy for the «i(toiiioii ia^y of €k»ece from motwes pf g^aia^ 
am bjv.propoamg toi^ve tliem .Tietiiali<<imd provision ', be desired 
tbem to acquaint tbeirr^btio^ that' ^.feinlffold in th^t^K^wrU w«« . 
itot eapabloMif teynplihg^the Atbeniailf.>iMijof making jtbem desert . 
tbedefineeiitf tbeir cortimoDi liberty,; tbotcilbey were duty seosibler 
of (beidiid ofSBra wiafib LailfedjeiaoAsbad ctyido tbem; buftftlM 
they would eadeaTOUv to madoge tbfWca^ra ^ aa)iot tobe aibuiv any of tbbir alli^s^ : Then^ tutning.btnl^eif. tQvraida |be Mfr- 
blpaidohi of (Afarfloiiia^ and pointing) wiltb bis tnjid to tbe,atiQ| Ba 
<Hv)ff<Mi^'taiyBhetO'tlMin, thait at kMg ttt Uifil imfmarm tkaU oonr 
MAe^tT'CMTfe, (ht A^ke/wm^AJoHl 6e morM^emi^ to ^ Perwm^ 
<md kiill notedue U> ttdu^veng^imi^ qfit^Htm'far ritva^tttg (Mr kauh 
and Ubikia^iMr houiu and tempUHi^ . After ^ibich, be desired Xh^ 
kingiof Macedonia^ if be .WM bnelined^o be truly tfie«r 6^eiid€.])oi 
to make hiduieif iaay wojfe' tbe^boftirer. oC 'fncb .^po^fia ^ tbeniaf 
inbicb i^oAilidnBy serve terrefleel dtsbopour-Mpon bin^ tw]ithou|/eyep 
produeiag ftnjr other eibct* f. ..-•'./. '.n- ':« i t ■ Mi':n,.u- 

Aristiikft was not satiafie) Mlith baiong^iBiide ibis pjs^ lad pe- 
remptory ideclaratlen^ But that h/t inigbt>exjcite a etiUfgj^e^tejt'botf^ 
rorioitaiicb propoialairand lerjever pr6bi)>||r,al) txn^v^^yla^^nr^ 
cdurao'i with Hberibarbariana tbi«Migb a pmpc^ple qf ^eiigifkii^.Jae 
ordainedylbiit the ptoieits sbquld de»ounoo<iC,u«|fi9v aA4!«xeqr«^on»^ 
upon any jfeiBon wbalsoev^,, tbat sbouMiPtr^iW^; ^ijproppse^bei 
uAking <a..«n aiUance with #ibi»'Fer|iaBeKar-.^l^ei|kiiig of their 
aiUtQcdjwilb the rest ^,tbe (bircfinaAS. '^yN , ^ v ' . .^ < 

•Wben'iAfardomitsMd Aeariftedil''iby ;)ie answer which that A^^ 
nians had sent him,t*that they were not to be prevailed ¥lpopb|^. 
angrtproiKMaib. (M^ advanlegee ^but^o^v^r to w th^ir. liberty»<fae' 
mdr^hedwithjWs trSole- army ^\yjMMMj^P«W. lifting irnddfj^ 
ing whatever he found in his way. The Athenians^ not being m a 
coiiditiili'4o Wilhatand auoha^tefnant, bad^ifotined Uy. Iialainis»imd 
a s^e^ir ^Ji(f^i(bddned ^ffHf jeSj^. :.^(iMonlus, atmmeMMhf 

9 liwfar. i^/a. 't--^. Fiu^. > jiiii^jf^ik Dto4. nK'if. p,t^"' 

^^ iS^^^ '' -^ itet«taW«4i crime 

^ii^Sr#^^ "? ;S^^^' tti*lie.«hamoi«» whet^ with 

■■ S^^f^tvor i^ ^^SSi^d vitlif them. Ue,thei^£>Te entered 
'' i^'^'^l^ t0 »^ ?2iiixniiBhedr:everr tluDff.)tbat had Acmood 

f Ml^ '^ DS'^ ^ *!„7iiix»liBhedr: every thinf . Jtbat had Acmpcd 

' ^♦•^Sly t*<^i«^Z^d''of ^ondactiiig thbif i.troop8 hAo Attica, 

«*S!L «»»^r efl^|fem*at, thought <itil|f'of(iDeeping themwhea 

lai^^tiTtho FeWpoMidwfts fot tMei?'own«ecttrity, apdwitb 

^1 ^^^^iVoi*»nt<*^^***^ way^ hy ^hj^rhitMans th^^a^itisd 

Mf^^^i^ ^^^ thdiftiMVefi, Und shooldihave^no fai!tfaesAiGca6ioir 

^y i'l^^ciitfe of the AtlieRi^i)*.^ Thd lahei' here^niseolt dapu* 

^ fh^Jf^tii/iA 'order to <n)isA)iiCki of the fiioWDeia and neflect of 

tietf^^^. Bifttli^'Bphoti^diOtnotseem to-be mvchlmov^diat their 

ti^ Alices r tt«d as that dfiy was the fhetiv a1 of Hyacintko^ 

r0B4>^^ it 'in fbtt«t»aDd rejoickif, and defierr^dginBff the^ depii«^ 

' ^^th^ answer tilt the next day. And stiil pr6cra8aBatii%. the' 

tjg^.^^^inu^^as they ctjjildii oil various pretext*, they ^gained ten 

?vs W^t doting w4if6h tli'e'huiUHiig'of the waU waaeonpieteds ^They 

^e oft' (he point of dismisbmg the' Athenian eavoys in ^ scaoda- 

iDas^'ffltkhA^^ wh^a privMdcilistn eicpiMtiilated iwitdi theHi^ and 

^^^ented td thettts ihoW4fl(^4t ¥H)iilA h6 to treat thd Atheniana 

in each a manner, after all the calamities ^bA Toludtarr losses, they 

had cN> jgr^lR^roasly sti'flf^cd tbr the i«omm6n defhnee or i^erty, and 

fltt fih^ ^j^rtant iserviises' they iiad < rsnldered Oi«feoe is "^enl. 

T9^ opened their yye^k^d made them ashamed of their perfidious 

diMufi[ii^' {iThe Verylhe^'tiigbt fbHowing, thsys^ntdtflT, unknown to- 

tii^'Atheniad d^ptftl^/^OOO Sparttins, who ktid eaab of them seyen 

h<^6t6 or islaV^s tW%t(fend him. On the following^ nmrninf thai 

• deputies rene^^ ^^x ^^iloiteplumsl \n(ih great wanaZh «nd •earnest*. 

neas, and were extremely 8urp#itf6d "^en they w&t4 'tdld/^thatr tUh 

, gTpartaik succourb Wey^'Uh ifieir idatthv^iid' h^ this lim^%ere'4iot 

fto fVo;n Attica. •» '^' •"' •'' 'i^i • * '-'- ' ^. Vl^u-. -• 

Mkrdonius hiad luft A^ttea at this ttnis^f and'was' on hh^Teturnr 
iiifeblMotia; As the liMer Wis ah open add Mteouiitn^^^he 

e »h •*% • '«■ : - ':.i:'^- 'w'T .7.;.. ,1 j' ) . »jj : ^, 

Moeiadet, and all Ma^ti ofdlranloiia. i^M%tM»»l ¥aa c«telMa|l«l fv«v^«ar ifLtba 


)<«t' J 



tftoii^t it mor^ CQ^vei^?i)( far. him to figl^t there th|^ k 

AtticA, which was un^veii aiid xflgged, fuU cif bills and nmrow 

passes, and which $>r that reason Wf)ulQ not allow him space ^ 

enoQgh fer ^wing m .hja puiperous arroy in battle jv^ft po^ 

leave room fo; hia cavalry tpi ac^ "Wlien he came back int^ BcBOr 

titt, he eI|c.aI^Iled tjr'tl^e river -Asopufc IJhe Groans foUowei 

him thither under l^^ command^of Pausanias, king of Spaft^i, and 

of Arislides, general.,, of t^e .Athefian'a, The. Persii^i army, 

according; to Herodotus, consisted of 3Q0,0O0, or,» aceording to 

Diodorus, of 500,000 men. That of " the Orocliinf did nqt 

amount to 70,000; of which there were but .^OUO^Spartans,; 

but, aa, these, were accompanied by 35,000 helots, vi^.:$aven for 

each Spartan, they ipade up together 40,000; the Utterof these 

were liorKt^arined troops* , The Ajthenian forces conBiste4.but rf 

8000, and the troops of the allies made up the remainder. Tbo 

right wir^jof the aripy^was comm^pdefj by tjie Spartuns, and the 

left by the Athenians, ^n hoi;u>ur«which the people of Tegea pre? 

tendwl tp, and disputed wiijh piem, t»u^ iri vain. . , . 

Whilst all Qrcece .^^os v^ suspense/ exji^cting a. b^^^tle that» 

^uld determine thelc, fate, a secret conspiracy, forced in tb« 

niidst of tiie Athenian £aipp by some discontented cUjz^ns, yha 

intended "either to subvert their popular goyef;nment, or to deliver. 

^p Greece, into the. hands jpf the Persians, gt^ve Aristi^^ a great 

i-ea] of perplexity and trouble. On this emergency he hfq .occ«-* 

m for all his prudence : .hot 'knowing exactly how many might 

)? concerned in this conspiracy, he contented nuns^lf witlphavM^. 

^hi of them taken up ; an4 . of those eight, the only two w^fiioay 

^ caused to |>e acpused^ because they had tlie.most laid to their 

iii^e, made theii;. escape out of the camp, wjiile tbe^r ti^ waa^ 

^eparing. There is no douU^^^t Amtides favoured tiieir.^capey 

<^ he Bhoul4.;b(^j ob%edr i,o punii^h tht^ib, aj>d their punishmenVl 

^iit occaaion soi^ tumult and diso^^er. The others that wer^ 

;tiistody b^relea^Bodt leaving them room to believe that he had 

^ QOthitW against t hem i and telQngitEe^Di, tbaX the battle witii, . 

-eenemj^eBotilil. be the tribunal where' they, might fully jus^i^! 

*:? chafacfcer*, ^^ebow. the. world how unlikely jt was that they 

^^ ever eiitejrtainei|r\ tf^ b^rayi»g« their. country.. This. 

''•i-timed Md , wise dissimulation^ Vidiich opened a ^(^or £oj: re- 

f -aace, aa4 Avoided driving the offenders to despair, ai^>easedT , 

-^^econmiotioiif.vid quashed jj>^ whole affairfr , . 

Woaiiis, in order to try the .Qtecians, sent out hif ipayalr^, m, 

^ be w«e ^K9iig^^, to skirmish with them. The ^Mf^g^nans, , 

!^kere ^nc^inDed^m the ooen country., suffered extremelv bv 


i] •' A 

liMte weapqUB, adviticel to'^eir i&ti'cdbur. MdU^iiM, t&e ge* 
lieMl«df the PersiaVi Hbrqe, and one df tl^e tri^ considerable noble- 
■•en of his couDtiy, seeing them advance xo^ards hiny in i|;opd 
l»der;'ttMd6b(8'bi^valty;{ice feibotA "and* attack th^mi... TheAtbo- 
iaan« ttbod' theif g:rouod,'and WaitW to r^c'dfe( tji^nt.'^'^be shootc 
^i^ Very fierce and Violent/ both £Atfes eqiiafjy ehdeavourinfi|^ to 
•how', !)y'the''i!3dUe pf tiiei> enc6ukiterr,'what \ybtt!d be tH^ sucq^s of 
che ^neral eiigagement. The Victoi^ was' k long-time d^isputed; 
but aA last Mesistius*s horse, being wounded) . threw hm master, 
Who Was !nstaTnly killed ; upon which the Persians immediately 
fled; As sb(yi -as the news of his death reached the barbarians^ 
their gri^fwas excessive. The/ cut off their hair, as also the 
fnai^esw their horses and niul^, filling the camp with their cries 
attd lH%ienlittions, haying lost, 'in' their opinioh, thb b¥a vest man of 
their army. ' '' ' ' . * "' "''.." " ' 'V *'! 

^- Aft^r thi* encouriter Wftb tHfe' Persiatt cavalry, the twb armies 
Wfere a long time i^ithbut xomlTtg" to Action; because the sooth- 
sayers, upon inspectif^ the entrails of .'the victims, ;foreto],^ equally 
W^th parties, that they shotild be victorious, provided ^hey fictea 
Ottly ujwn'th^ defensive; \yhtr^as, oh the other hand, they tlireat- 
enteW thenf^tially with a t6tal'ovefthl1)w;ifthey acted dflfeiisively, 
or ru'ad© the first attack'. * '* .'\ ' ,' .^ 

They f«rsfejBd ten flays in this iriinjife!'; in view of «ach other. 
But l^rdonius, who was of a*fifei;y, irapatidilt temper, grew very 
Ufteafey fet so long a cjclay. 'Be^fd(?^, fee 'had only k few days' provi- 
MM^^fof hfe'Urmy ; 'latjd 'the Greciaris grew stl-onger eveiy day 
Bjf'fh* addition 6f new t^ps, thnt^ens.comlinaaliy coming to joia 
theftr. ' ;tte therefore'calleti k cou<i[cir 6rwar;4n dird&t to deliberate 
Whkfcet* th«r>homd gi^ii battle. ArtkbaitTs,'^ nobleniii/i'of sin- 
ffafeT'tflent'ffrid gteaft experfMfcc'wafebf o^nion 'th^t they should 

b^capable'^f diq^inishii^'^^itk; ardbur ofttid;4lhy; thijfl-the^' Would 
tl^reb^ have time' tdikm per "^th tfiem, and '.might 'be ftbl^ to draw 
edmb Of theriV bff'bV' gold drid silver, WWch Ui&r Would'iak'e care 
to^istribibte titnb^gthe MderS; ahU^HibH&f i^uiih a8,%dd 'the' great- 
eift svi^y and authority ki'th'% 'several cities; ahd ^at;fndh6Tt, 
td^^^roiW be both the ^^iest tod^'^hrcst method. bf sciMecting 
Greece. This opidioAr 'vfik iei-y'Hj^ii^e; but was ovefriiifed ' W lif ar- 
doni$ir^&dm ^hi^ rest had nbt'6o3ra^^ tb bbntradict: Thd,^f]lt, 
Uierefft»4d,'^or their delibera'tSife^ wks, thAt'ih'ef "feffi^M give battle 
:lte h^'tfay. Al8Xfih^r,'fi%g df Mkk^dUnk,iWii(y was oh ih^ 
sitle-bf t4^ ^rid^'ih %ib lieaTt, cMn'e secretlV, dbbftt/ltaidififftit; to 

'Pltoktikil (bH^tfiMtH '^MiordeM tb^e'^bfficera'a^prit^Y^'U 
selves ior battle, bjW ■uipajfted to Aristidus the design he had 
fi>nued of changing his o/Hb^oflfatile^'l^ .placing the ' ' 

^ ibMigll wipe, inflMMmf fhtMf w s>f^ MmS f^'^^^ ^ 

the Pemians, with whom they had been accMfiog^f^lj^ ^n^«g% 

Wh^ikefii w«s fe^.Qi^ pffv4^<« thwt ipduped )P^^8aIu^ to i^ro- 

pose liM jMW*^p08»tjpii,: the .At hepaiiMW aci^opt^d i^ ^iitli. pi^wure* 

Nothiflf H4^ h9^4 M9mig t^|Q.)»ut iputui^l ^hciFtaljfHB. io acgiiil 

tbemscuv^ dravely, bidding «%ch«othejr,f emember, that neither thej 

nor theiiveoexniefi wero onapged wofie Iha battle., of M ari^thoni im- 

leo it jw;ei]e» that victory had iDcreii^ed ^he qpi^Me of the Atheiuami, 

lad had dbpirited the PfnnaQjf* t<We do not .%ht, «aid th y, ai 

Hiiey do, for a country only^ or ,|l ci^^^bnU f^r th^ tropl^ erected 

at Marathon and at Sakmip, that ihKky.m9y,ppt.)i{»pe^,,to he th^ 

work only of Milti<Lde8,and:of Fort^^i \^ X jthei wofifi> of the AWi^ 

niana. JSncouragin^ one ai^other i|i tiii# qianner^-hbey went, ^V^ 

all the alacrity imaginable ,tu diangi9 their pe^tn Bajt. )dardoiuiui| 

upon the intelligence he reoeiyed of ^hi6 naovenae^t,, having laade 

the like change ui bia order Qf ha|AlfibLbo(h sid^s laog^ their trooiw 

ag^ain accorduig to their-foriper'^'sposition. , Th^.y^l^jday pae^ 

in this manner, ivithont their eomii^.to -action; . :> . 

In the evening the Gr^i^s hejld ja counci) c^ wav, in 
iras resolved, that they i^ould .den^^mp. frpin the place they fififX!^ 
is, and march to anotheyr^ more o(]|9y^^iently aituatetif,foc WftUr- 
%fat being come, and the officer^ fi^a^tei^i^uripg, at ^e head .q|t 
!hcir companies,' to push forward M? ^he camp marked, out for them, 
freat confusion aro^* among theiiiroop^ som^ goiiig one way; an4 
aome another^w^ithout observing ,{^y order or, regMjiarity in tl^eir 
aarcb^ At last it hey halted. ne,ar the^li;ttle city of Plati&(e. . .. ^ 
On the first news pf the Grecians haying cletcainped, Mardonius 
W his whol^^iarmytiBto .^dgr of (biuttloy^o .pursued them witii 
^e hideous shouting and ho'.vling of his barbarian forces«who 
bought they were marcbiug» noj^ Ei)i.i9uch}^o ^ght, as to strip and 
'bonder a flying enemy: f^itd their :gi^i^Ql^, like w^,. making hinif^ . . 
Klfsore of victory,, proudly, insult^ Ajpt^bazus,. reproaching hin^ 
^ his fearful and cowardly prp4ence^ ai)d jivitl^v^he fa^e notjioo^* « 
bhad conceived of the Lacefiiemoniaud, wbo,|neyer'£[f^;as he 
s«tended, befi>re asi enemy; wher^%8 h§re wa^.an instance of .thei 
^trary. But the ffe^ral quickly found this wa^ pOj&lse or^r, 
founded notion, lie happened to fail m, ,with ^^ Laee(^lnonian4|, 
^b were alone, and separated from tl^e bodj;; of Ibe Grecian army,^ 
I'fOie number j>f. ^,OQQ m^n, togftU^p ijifith 3pOD,pJr,trj^ Tegeans. 
^ae ea-coquter was< exceeding 4efce.:,.on ,hpth ^^j(Ies,\the,.m€A^ 
ffbt with tl»e coprage of .lion^i/^ anc) the .liarl|)/Lrians ^aff^pi^S^ 
^tiiey dp >v^h»oldicjf8v^h9/»{firP 4e^e.r^i"e»* to.foaqi^mrj 
^^in tbe fiel^.. .Th^ Athenian. )t^i;»opi, to whcinvPaH^f^.'^ 
^m officer,. wereTalrepdyupQUt^^gii: \o!^j^\\Q ^n .tjienij; hu^ 
^ Gieeiw, who f weref oii,th^ side ot the ,|Je'f^iQflS, lip the jn^nh^i 
- SOOiO floen, urent^out i%:meet j^^ip, a^d. hindered thj^m/roffn 
^'ceeding any farther. Aristides with his little body of men bore 
^firmly af^siiut' them* attd ii^thstYiM tlieir^at|^c:k, iettM^ 


• V 

" ThiMUlfe^biein^'thUt^'IBvi^Mi tzlti» tWe^ Alid n>\i^ht in two.aiffer- 
6frt ptecf^dj the fipai^tan&'Were the firdt i^hb 6!<oke in uJjMm tke Per* 
ftiim^rdeD Aitd fA^t theminto disofdtsr. MA¥doiiiu8) tfa^ g(enetBl» 
hAhg dead ^f a wduttd he had rbcf^lTed in thci engagem^t, aU his 
«rmy b«to6k tbetnselvefirt^ fligfht; ind ehode CrreekBywbo were 
' engaged' Against A^iiMd^3,''did l^e Bame,' as^' soon as they under- 
itood the' batbariin^ * wer^ debated.' Tite latter had taken shelter 
Ih th€fir ^mc!r c^tnp, where the}^ had fortified tbemselires with an 
kclodui^^orwdod. 'The Ldc^dffif*n'onianB pursued' them thither, and 
atttteked ' thfem m' their kitrenchmentP: but this they did weakly 
ttntf' irresolutely Jlk^ |>eople th^t**¥^^fe not 'much accustomed to 
i^^y and to stonxr wialld^ The Ath^niali troops, haTOig advice 
<frthis/refi' dff puTsding theSr Qi^cian adversaries, and mstrefaed to 
the tmap of the Persians,'ii4aQb^(Lller^sevoral lUMaidts they carried^ 
ana tdkd^ a tforhble slaughter of the eltemy. > ^ 

. Artabazus, who from M\rdot)k^'d imprudent management had 
Biit too well foreseen the thisfoituiietbM' betel them, dler having 
tfiHtlfA^ished himself in the 'enga^mem, and given aU possible 
p)^fs of nik eouhige and intrepidity, mtade* a timely retreat with 
dte 40,000 rtvchhecommanc^'d^, knd preventing his fligfht from being 
kStoWn by the^^rpeditkin of lits niarch^ arrived safe aX Bysantium, 
and from thencb retained iifto Asifeii Of all the rest of the Persian 
flopny, noi4009> menfescaped that day's slaughter '; all were killed 
and cut to pieces by the Gr^an^', wiio by that means delivered 
•flifettis6lves at once fr^rn rill farther invasions from that nation, no 
Persian army having ■ev^r'&ppeardd after 4h6,t time on this side 
the Hellespont. ' '' ; •'■ •■■'••'-'' ■'''•> c ' . 

A. M.3525. This battle Was fbdght'bn the fourth day of the 

Atat 4to: moiith Boedrttmion,* according to the Athenian man- 
A^r o# reckoding. Soon^ftef, the allies, as a testiitioDy of their 
* ^^$!tltudie'to H^ven,"icad^ed'a statue of Jupitet to* be m&d^ at their 
Tdint 'and ^ common^ expei^se. Which th^y placed in his temple at 
ftlympia. ' The A&mes'.c^rthe several na^ons of Greece,! that were 
present iii^fe engagement, were engraven on the right side cf the 
pedbstal or tjife^atue; the Laoedeemoni&ns firsts the Athenians 
nWct, and all the rest in order. ' *- 

^ 'One of (h^ pHny;ipal citHsebS of JS^-^a c^e andf<addredif6d him- 
4iJf to Pkiisdnjas J^xhbrtiiijg^ hiita t6' -venge the indiguity t^t 
mttK)flii]ib and Xirkes had shpwtt to lieonldas, wliose deki %ody 
id \mh hu*:g to)n t gtdlbwe by their o#der, and brging him to 
fe.M^t^flbfHji^rf'Bb^yinthc skhie tham^er.^' As a farther motive 
m doih^^'ib, h^ ^d;>d, tiiat by thus satisfying the manes of those 
tM weVe ki^d dtf Theirndpyltt, he WbUld be siire ti^ immdrtiUiee 
ffi&'bWh munfe throuj^lnyat all 6ireece>i idd m&ke Me meniort bre* 

•nul to ibe kMI poflleiiljF*- Cmfy'^A$lmitQm0i.0mmh$tPii0 
npfied PijBiajttds* TApkj ittmti kutm <i' iHfrr^f^^^^ witton ^ ;|f(Ml 

fmnkoHd Mhy ^tuch m f>r joteSmgi I ihaUiik. ef/UmdmUk vr^int^ 

mtgmtf^mtt fUa»ur» of inenengw ntmt^fuki^ 9r^i^p4i/iiwf^ «9«(4 M^ 

of$kowmff cltmenein m»d tnodtraH(m lo Atir tnt m i ut* tmd upe^Mi^ 

ijfier tktnr diotfu tA»^./ipr <Ae tfiUMMff fl/f my <4tpti0M ,0utUwym0iik, 

ihey arti^cMUy avenged k^fhe deaih qftfu imm^thfUfi$ndJPf!y\ 

nans slam uip(m the epU in the hH engagem^ii^ . fi r. 

A dispute,* wjii<i£ aroaei between tbe AHioftiiUs and X^o^edvr 

oioiiiiiis, to aBoertlus wiiidL of tJie -two natkMM sbc^ild Wye< 1^ 

prize of vttloar adjudged, to- them, aa aJao.Wkidb f>f them aJioidA 

have the piivileffe orereetitiff' Aitrophy^ :)iiA' ttkd^ l» JiaT0. ^iillMt 

til the glory, and imbitteied m jogry«^«hm liU« victory. Tim 

were iuat on the point of carryinf thingj to the lajst eslrenuty,.iiJM 

would certainly iihiAB^^eeided the .dispute with' theiti ttvondbt IsiA 

not AnetideB pievdlled; u^ .them, Jby the eU^eagth\^<^ his aifs* 

ments, to refer the determination of the nattev to (|he«iuilement. q(t 

the Greciaiie ia ghneral. This yrQ|>Qsitiob beisffi aMepte4 bjTibDth 

putiest and the Greeks "bdinr aasem^ ^-d upea^the mt l^/deirite 

tke conteet, TheogilDa etf.Jdegara, spealun^ upbn ihei^HM ' 

give it ae his opinbilvthatlhejpiizexif vabuF;oil^ht td Mcdjiil 

Beitber tv Adbeus iMr to 'Spaita, battto Mme othslr city? « 

thef desired /to 'kindld a ^^itil' war, of. moreiftUfial consev^uences 

that to fdiich'^hey faaflsjtnt put aa ^kmA^ After he had -fiaLiied faif 

speech, Cleoi0ntu9'of CoaAtb rifflDg>iip, noixnlyidoubti^ h«tihe imi 

going to diainiMlhat Itoneuvi&rthe oii^ of which h^'was liineabev 

ad a nmtite r ifoB Coiinlh^wM -tbS' ehiefM>ity ofidreeee iar pesvfv 

and dif nity after those of Athfldstus^Spdita. But a^ery b'nq^^wsi 

Sfreewly deceived whea tiny inlad^ that all; his ' dieeoeisa tended 

^ the praise of the Plateans/ond that the <vMdiBioa heanade Qmr 

tiiewfa^e wasj'th^ drdes to B Ml tn g^H siyayiiaiigerous mcopteaw 

^, they ought tcr^adjudga'tiibijptiaeidKtJIeiiBr oxUy^ a^eaam wbaai 

oother of the ednteadiag parties (Uwld havfe etiy'grauilddJof atmaD 

* jealoaey. This discooree . and* pro)io^ were ^ reosiTed wiSte 

paoai appAaase by the v^le'eMFobiy* ' Aristidte 'imiaedi«talgp 

tanted to it an thapart of 'the Aitbemaasv and Paipaaiaa te Jtbv 

^ of the Lfaeaioimaniana! >^ ? '^. '- -. V. -i". i -./i - ,<<■.!, 

hA parties being A\aA a^edif befirethe^ began Vte ^indetha 

^lof the enemy, they put fourfeeoM tetents)' aside iUriflb Phfr> 

!^ who hud thdtithi^iin buildiiig'a teaipde topJdinerrii,ia'etdet* 

^titatipeUy her homtil:', andhi'aiftiniiwtheaemple ^sMMsMqom 

V^ doable paintmgfl, which were stiU in being in Plutarch's 

''■erthat^la'feoaayyaboYeMaiyeafa-.alterwardis and>wiiioh.w^te 

f^laArfM.p. 331. f Herod. L Ix. c 79, 80. ' • '■'- *« "' M".' 'v >t 


tlOM' Ht ^ftreilHIto if 'M3r\Mklv<hMe^r cdtM^lwt of tWt liaild8>k>filk» 

gMteifB.' "^jAff^'thiyttoiyhyV tf^Rch hsd beon^amofchcfrattiHeof (^ 
)MrtP^tllk t)aeeiteiTiM|iiiii9)(<i%ctod on* foir diemMli^in<^aitictt<i 
kr,'>aii^'t)ie AtliilmalipB knottier. ^ V ' '' '• -V •' ^'^^ ' ' * ^ 

- "91^ spoil wto« immeftde : 'in Mavioni is*9 eamp^h^y fbdnd frodi- 
ifi»Mi&^iBum»'<^f''^l«^ 4hsiI <8fivQry basid«» caps, vessels, bMi, tablei, 
lidbkrefeesi; aiid 'tfrMed^tot^f ^Id' «nd Bil<v«ei^'iKil to be v.v«hMd: or 
ifat£kber0d.*-It'is^o»M«Ydd 4y a eeffcaki btstoriaii^tijbat these spoils 
|tfd>red Aktal>ti»*€hf»^,.by h^coraifOrtfie MStAimentd<of intrdditeiii^ 
the lov«<>^>nbhc»«ftd<Iu^urf vamo&\\Eer'inhabita^ .According 
to the religious custbir^of. the ' Grecians, beijyrv' they: divided the 
trett^tlfte^ Jthsy^v^p^nrapimated' tiiritetith part of the whsste io /the 
tise ati^ gods; ^ 'S^ irest wafe dis^nbaJbed«qutilly"sraoi^ theicitUa 
ki4f lotions that liai fimalished.trodpsf) and • thb« chief 'oSictes ; who 
kikJI'dbtkygioisli^dtkieiiiia^ly^ .inttke field oft battle werje • likewise! 
dSMJili'gui^ed >in thil^ dist#iR)iitiari.' l^heyi^seilt «a present/of c goldes 
irl|[fod tol)«tphi;<iRJ the 'ini*cnpt)o& iipon \#hilsh Pausanias . dasBed 
mSe«rords tobe^ idsevted; r7%aiitie hcuiiiafka^UddthfSbarbaruinmai 

' Vhi^^ dlrMgiamBinseribtiohj-w^^Mii^iiirhe ascribed^the honolhr'botb 
0ftlie>v4tft6i^afidHlHe"^evi g to himself idone, Tiffeniiefl^th^ li^ee- 
dtolilOfi^n pBoplofifwIio, lAMprder to' pudbh* kia^'prild6 in the >vei^ 
jmnH i^)Which*iMi|LhfQught to exalt him^il^: And at ll^e siime^ tiiBe to 
do justice. ^oitheir^cooMertitesy paused thisi nBMiiato<ibi(^ raiae^louty^ 
aod!tbat(ofntbe*<oitite.#htoh<Jiad,Qontiibii^.ed^:to.'tiiotvi^^ to be 
piiti»itl»stbad of itir''iToaiicdeiilsa;thilgst0ifbBt gkHydnifthinodea-* 
■0B did iMit .givb hhor leave tqicojuadeSf that 'a iamt loses itioKtiiog' kf 
andiBoreat ^modest^v^hi'ch mheitisivtheriseliting tDOiihiffKA jaluid 
nfomifoelB 0W&«sfeiH6cespaJbd .whiob, bjr«Q^Miiii^ a ibaii irtun envy, 
■crve^>r;bll7)tsi dDihneerhi;H*^|Mita[tioil}|'. 't < • -i^oi . ' • rt i. ; t i a •.- h ..<.-, 
: FaiisafunuK >gaie diihldre ( aJdHhntagenii* spebinien of. the/ '8p««t%» 
tenper alid''&p6flitia%;airiBrtx{eiltleftii^niieiit !>ii^h he gtY^ «iife«t 
daySimfter ^her ^ngigeauisik?'; flith^eii>aisr of) thejMb|es , was. . iQ09ll|f 
aaidiinttgBtficenty :ani iiispbi3isiiqaUiIthm>fvahet]»:tQft{dedkMito,Bni} 
damties^ ithhli.MS^yJbo 4NB;idiVttd> st M^rfjLontiis^SndabW;' lasd'- the 
flt£rwdsfrlamand(frttgfai^ a^»i{ tlMerniaiiMr of thfi!S)>aiBftaB4l ThoD 
Qfiinpariiig tho! tlirO'tQgethet^^ 'vraicadsiitg hid Jo|&:eBMirhom h^^ad 
iatlM QD pi»polfe;!toi obseirpftttdte dsSefeeSilcaciof ithsni ; WHiainnatb* 
nuij says he, was it in Jiardoniuty toba\wmtaof^»Khmtd 49'iMokia 

Ualit^A0vd'tMi^micli9\»p^ <.-. ^^ib. ,\v'.\- l 'i 'to .tf.rH 

• KAU tJsa £l-reciittisnSeift|te ^DsI^hH^' ' td oonsnltrtiie xvade^ ioonoenN 
iiig)ishe)sdmfice Ut wastpropartoiaSbcn ,Vh0:adswd^tileJrJreeeivad 

.. .lUTfjfj.i'i nx ... /■{ iV ilM- •»v-Vf i(*)i. // ,'^-:iii !.♦.{ »>M«.ii! . h» ;i 

.itiUHetb ttivfoblo, eirtMMM«ksg«li«|MildMttft eafCft;aivlft;|irittii«Gteia«.4B«i4 
•0 inter ae >uro Penico, divitiarum luxuria cepat. Juttin. L li. c. 14., 
t Corn. Nep. in PaiiMn. c. 1. ^ k ,'.■' .., i .Nnjir - .'fX .(i .P-itA mi .i . 1 


D^lhmrjihMt i\»i thby. shttold. tji^ke dun-not ta-cffer anjatiariBm 
upon; it, before \h&f bni extinguiahad' -ail the fire m the* eoudtrf, 
becaiifG it had been polluted andtprro&ned by tke bcrbiupiaBs; and 
tiiat tkfij flkoilld. Qome'aB fix as- Delphi to fetch par* fire, wM^^ 
ib^y wfire to take irim the-altur^ called the Coramoii altar. 

Tbm answer beuw brought 'to. the. Grrccians from toe orack; 

tbe geoenJs imni#£ately dispersed ' themselves thteu^hwlt th« 

vhoh co^«trjr^ «jad oansed ail the fires to be extin^itdhedc and 

£uchidaS) ^ cttiaeivof Bfatss, • having taken upon himself to go ^ 

aad ^cb ths sacred fire with all possible expedition, maide the beat 

ofhkf iray to Delphi. . On * his. arrivalhe purified himself^ sprinkled 

biS' body with caasecrated • watery: put on a' crown of laurel, «iid 

tken approached the altar, froin whence, with great, fe^^ereace, he 

took the holy fire^uuid'oairnfedit with him to Pbi^ee, whore he ay- 

rived before tbe setiiog of.thei'fimi, having travelled ilOO(>'stail% ' 

(which make l^ Atiikas fiol^Ulahl iii'on» day* As soon as ne eanw 

back, he salitftd bU faUo^irycitiiehs, delisered . the fir^ tot aheittf 

^ down at lh0ir<jfeet, aad died in a/motnenti aftepwahls. HM 

ixMiQtrymeB carried awpiydjtiB^ibddy^iand buried ic< in tbe ten^e of^ 

Dianar, sumaofad Sudeift^'lvbicbisigoiieB, <^- gtbdirenaiMy and^pdt 

ike Sbiiowig^ e|«tltph umnk hist tbai^^tD the eomfttts ^f onaiterse i 

h tlie a«xl;:pA|!ffal aflatoibk)ofv£tedeoe,w^ehim>h^d'oot \&Ag 
k^ this «€io<in»iiQe^ Adatidetj^^posedthe'fbHbwlng decree^. Thai 
Ithe cities of Greece should)evtoi<^year<8Ctidithe]r''respeetiW<le^ 
ihe»t» 'PlAtfae,^to<^fr{aa(aifi«8ito\J8i9^»fsf»^tA« i>«jMNircr, teid 
the gods of thfe c«by? (ibi^jadaeiiib^waB still regularly btld in<tiiv 
lie of Flotarcb i\ thai evftr;^fiv0 years there ahooM be gamea oele^^ 
ited thfi^^ which flli|(>fiId)beioafied the gaines of liberty ; fthatth# 
vera] states of Greeoe together sbptddraip 3 a body of tro<^)s, con* 
ikfg of 10^900' foot and .10(N^.hdrse, and should ecjuip «fieet of 100 
ipe, which should be cdnstantly iiaintkiaeii for ' making iraip' 
lioat tJia baxbai^na H and tkiat the ihbabitants of Phuttte, solely 
roted to the aervice oftha gods, sfaoaid'be lo6kediut)on as saered 
i mvijodablQ, ted l>ft jaaaoemed hi nd other furetibn than that of 
ifiag prB^eca ajad'^ttcifie^ for tfta • geiiAral preser^fttibia and 
i^rity of Greece..^ L,,.'! "i.. ) » : ' ' .. h. ■;: 

Ml thi^ «rtM)ea;]fetQg«pprovedi of abd 'pasaed into^ m laar,^e 
^eos of Plataes took upon them to solemmze, every year^tb^f an^ 
^^mtf festival ifthonouijof tiK>8e persons 'that wercJwaiii i» the 
^ Tlie arderiand manner of rpei^fiiimiiag thissiicHA^e'^vM «W 
W: The tfDctaaolh <day)of thb nsdnUyMaifflactfenlaA.* >Whiehr 
3Hb to oar inHinthiof : Ddceoiberi atiday-lMreuk;'^ th^f wall^hir 

«lter4k«ti ift irMohae UtUe of PlMtta wm fhbgbt/ MlEitffy 
m. atftrtt fUSvoMi tlil/m p« M Bi y»w»y eStireiy lOiA^M m 

~w • 

Molelhn>)irodMndB, s^idi wallprclbede4ibr<i< tnUMpet thflfir^si^ 
ipclite battte. -^ tKejct to thet?uiap6t marchi^d^^^Qiral'ChviQieB) iHbi 
with iiXo^jiA tttd branched of myrtie; Afbiw(thg^ech:ario4s«(rai3 ied 
a( black ball, behind whicfai marqhed aebnip^of of ^mibg^ persons 
carr^in^ pitchers ih their hands fulJF of wine aiid>imfk, ihe.ordinflir 
libationtr offered to the d^ad, and phial? > of M 4nd pefAinUf^. .Au 
thteao youiig persons were free-m4n ;i for>ni6 8^e' was atlbwed' to 
hftveitiiy papt in this ceveinc^ny, whicH wwin^ituted fbritfenwho 
bad l^st theic . lives for liberty, iln' iher rtnrxif this^^MW^essioti^^l- 
lowed the arohon, or cnief magisttate of tKe Plat»Uis, fbr wliofnit 
was unlavn&ilrat any other time ev^it «diimdk^ tortoacliltf^i or 
to Wear ailiy other fBrinent>thttn'a iwhite (kxe* ^Biit upoli this occa- 
•ion, being* dladan purple raiment, having li'iBWord by hi«^ sid^f ' a^d 
holuing aa uritin hi» hands, whiclrdie took from &e plaH^e iWherer 
they) kept their prblid records^ ho nlaidiedthlroughi the ^ty Wthe 
ptiOQ<^tiem thd tombs of Yak caimti#lnto mt-eierested; A^ soon 
as'he came* there, he dreii(« water iii^'in&l^lfik tHnh fr6i» t^' ibaii*fiiii, 
^mMh«d withhis own hands jkho.rlittleooldttilb thkt IA»l(ffige<f te^e 
tombs,. rUhbed them aftorwards Mh bflBen^,'iand theh^ kyie& the 

bull iiMiit a> pile off wood prepvBcbte^ilM^fp^*' Aft^ff hviMtiigf 
off^rtodsup^prftyerkifto the tei^ptndiiJlfipiBdr^; aikd'MttMllfyr, h0 iin-* 
vited ihoae valiMil' soula deaeaiisd' to'6<fme to jbtijldir' i^tfsl/ kiititkr 
t>ait4^ of their fiiAeiiLL libatkAm^ th^takin^n jMp in b» hui\lru^ 
{laving filled it witli wine, he poured it out on the g^und, iftjd Md» 

}ritJi adioud v<4oev:i^£jpre««n#^Mi9lM|i6iMoM MkM|;fjUiii M 4lkd 

peff<Mmed'eyon-<in thibdbftmexi£'I^nt«rdi«>oik "» ii= •: ^o" k- -^ l* Ifr 
, Pii)4cffiu«adds,f thaS?tl!ii>AtheM^^y|inrticttIar,^ 
9Mli¥rtQte»M# of i^eir flitizem^ .wl^sf dioid ioldi^ weUr with the PiC9iii^$v 

Mir^jtMndappoiiitdd ajnlemnitnlM^^yTktd'be jtironouneedtfvirkh^ 
whieh ^laU psoiwbility wa^^tep^atediev^ry fOuC ' > • • -i ij '^v£'^ 
• Wk9 spader. wiUibie'seasiblBi.fnthoiliKlt^'tfim^^ 
them solemn testimoojiss amk perpeteal doBfoitifM&n o^ hommi^"' 
efliteem, amelrgtettitudeforibldiers whd had iflia^tiBed their 'UfH^'itt^ 
the d^encQ.QfrHbettyj oaiidaeed to 4;ufadnce thisr itnetitf cHf %%Ioii»r 
nsikdMitk^Atmbea they ifendared thsirjoiMHit»c| hsi l&'i^^ th^ 
cip^t9^F% witb«mttl«^mii:raiiijcQu'ta(^ i iasi^lMr OHce^din^ W^* 
calculated all this was to cultivate und peifMavtVtQi ^i^M; 'of< 
bv|tji^]M|feiiklhei))eopIe»|aM*tdf4ndake theiril^ ,4id4»no«»wi4^iii- 

YinCK^.'ii' ,7 V 7'.' ;. f «•• » ' oqf'-5'o<j' : *«- 'I'of. ). 

..,Th«^ ir^aidev^Voo doubt, wifiqbeoaid muBh>fBtiiuttk[> atfl^c^ii^ how 
V»%jerfuUy e4i!eful andievuM /thdse pMQiaiwtie>ito>aoqtint ihskt^ 
^el?49;oal.^v^ ooo^alpnf of the ddtids of seli^taii/ilke great-^Hftttrt- 
^fihi^'lhaiiejast beeci^ i^latuig, tizu tM batti^niff .piateit^'Bflbi^ 

vil^^^b^rrMfial JMpiteKte4M0tber«tban riatoii «n«'tite •auB^tpHtwt «f Mmibflit 
iM §W liven tp MgrcufyyhnciiM ilii*af>diwftd<o'^iai«ac<<»tWldiiw^ejfta>t<< 
MuiBtotaeiiiferaAlregioiifl t Lib. zi. p» 98^ .' >. i..>i 


nt.^ywrj i^marlnLJ^lorptbols of tiii% in tfaaN«pntiaI and peTptitatH 
f acniicf they Instituted to Jv^tv ike Deliverer, whiofaiwss utiil 
c^ tine tiqie ,of Plutoircdi; in'thel care' they touk to oon- 
s^cratie the tentJi part jQf,alltheir«poU.I6lhe'gods ; and in the decree 
pi'opose^. byAristidee'to establish aiOolemn.i^Btivad for«ver< as an 
aniuyenHLf y c6mpaeii)oral^on of that Bucceas* It'is aide]igbtful> thing, 
pietbinksy to see pag^s^ %ad idolatrous- natiols thus publicly Con- 
fessing and declaring, thuit al) their expectations centre ui the Su- 
preme Being ; that (hey think themaelvee obliged -to ascribe tbe 
success of all their undertakings toiiiBa;'t]iat^ tSey look upon faiai 
as the Authpr of all thei** victories and protsp^ties^ as the sove- 
reign ruler and disposer of states' WEid empire^as the source from 
whence all salutary counsels^ wisdom, and: t'.^rage, are derived ; 
and as entitled, on. all these; acc^^unts, to the first aiid4>e8t part ofi 
t]^eir spoils, and to. their perpetual acknowledgments and^Uianka^ 
givu^gs for such 4i3tiogui8h€d favousra and benefits* « 

1 :. SECTION X. 

A " ■ ' ' '*■■ • "' 

t * 

. ' TlM hftUlo nev Myfeaie. The de^^atof (hej^nit^ n 

' On the same diy'^hat the Greek^ fought tl]^&^hattle.qf FI^^qb,*. 
their iiaval forces obtained a'pemorable victory in A^Mapverthe 
i^mainder iof tKe l^c)i;diaiil!eet'. . Fpr . ^^Ist that of thfXrreeks laj 
at i£gmE^.iinde^ tl^e command o;r,Iieotycl)ide8, one of the kings of 
i^parto, and of Xatitbippus th^^I Athenian, ambassad/c^rs^ ; came to 
thos6 gener^il^ fVptn the tonians {<q inyjf.e|,them;ii4o Asia to d^liva^ 
the Gre(Ska citi^bfrom ttieir siibjectipn^tQ the barbarian . Ont^fi 
mVitatioh' th^y imliiediately set /^aU for. Asia, and steered tbteif, 
course l^y Delos.. While they continued t)iere, other pnilywa/^ 
dors arrived from' Samoa, and brought them intelUgei^ce 4Mi^, tpp^ * 
Persian €eit, which had passed }he^ ^jpter f^t Cumae,. wafi.then^ 
Samps^, where it would "bl: an easy maj^ff ^'oefp^t .lLi?d deifiroy it^ji 
eam^y pressing them af the' same tiine not to n^lect sofavoUr-^ 
al^e ail opportunity. The GreeJ^jj'hereupon jailed awjpiy^directjy for 
Samo9* But the Persians, receiving ihteIKgei|ce of ^^ approachf, 
retired to Afycale, a promontory of thi'e .continent of A^a^ ^We 
th^iirland army, consistiiig pi\(fo^OO njen, who were th^e rema-iiw 
derbft|rcise thatXerxe^'haSj'carried b(](ck from Greejse the year 
b^re, was encamped. Here^^iey drew theif vesseb ashore^ which 
wa^ a'dbmmon pr^ctiqe iunoiig the, ancients, and,si:(^ounaeJ th&m 
wRIi a stkmgj raqipart. /Th)4 Grecians followed them to the very^ 
pl^de, anfd. with the help of ^e'.tonjans defeated their land armyv 
forced tlreir rampart, and,l)urnt all t)ieir vessels. 

Th^ battle oi^ flkitkti was fought in the morning, and that of 
Mycale in the afternoon pn i^\^e same day yvid yet all .th6 Greek 
writers pretend that thle victory of Pktee was known at Mycale,* 

•I '* 

^ Heiod L iz. c. 69—109. - Dlod. L zi. p. W--S8r 

56 'X* msToavoPTBc: ' - 

Vefee til^e: latter eagmgeiiieiii waiboeun, though the whdle' W^enh 
sea, .wtiioh r^fquirea Aevei^al daya's^mng to cro^ it, w«s InWevn 
those i^j. places, fiat Diodorus fikulus explains ^o ti» this ^y lerv. 
He (ells us, that Leotychidds, ohserving his soldiers to be niuch 
dejected lor fear thein countrymen at Platcete should sink lihder 
the numbers of tMardomus's army, contriirled a stratagem to reani- 
mate them ; and that, therefore, when he was just up'yn the point 
of making the -first attack, h^ caused^ rufolour to be spread among 
his troops,* thdt the Persians were defeated at Platiee, thought 
that time he had ao manner dt* knowledge of the ibatter. ' ' 

Xerxe8,t hewing the news of these two gi^t>yerthr6ws, left 
Sardis with as mui^ ^te as he had formerly quitted Athens, aft^r 
the battle of Salanuv« aikd retired with great precipitation into I^er- 
Bia, in order to put himiself, as far as he possibly coulcf, bbt of th^ 
reach of hia victorious enemies.' • But before hef set out,| he gav^ 
orders to bum and demoliaii aUthe temples belonging to the ure^ 
cian cities in Asia: which order was so far executed, that not one 
escaped, except the temple of l)iana Wt Ephesus. He acted in 
this manner at the instigation of the Magi,i who were^rofessed 
enemies to temple and images. The s^oilB Zoroaster had 
thoroughly instru(|te<) him .in theii^ rejigion,, sac^ JU&d^iu^l a 
zealous deftinder of it. Pliny informs u^ J ; tlmi ystanes, Oi^^ hea4 
of the Mtf^i, ,and the patriarch of thatj^idt^'^Tij^li^ Vainj^ained iu, 
maxims anU iSfciterests with the greatest vi6lence> , ^tten^ed^ ^e^xo^ 
upon this expediti6n into Greec^J This prif^,'ff as Jp n^^d 
through Babylon on his return to 0usa, destroyed c^so ail the ten> 
pies in tStat city, as he had dbnb those of Grebce ii^d A^j^ Mip(N[;) 
fl^uMtess, through the ^almef jitinci^le, and oiiiiof h^'tredlto the.sec^ 
of the Sabaians, who ^^e us6 of unaj^es. In their dtvine^wo^ship, 
Whidhwas a thipg uttet')y dete'^ted by the Magi, Perhfpo, also^ 
the cl^ire of makylg himself amends for the, expenses ^i^i^rjeJ ii^ 
hlH Grecian expedition by the spoil and plunder of those teojples, 
mi^ht Se dnomer motive that induced^hun to destroy th/^m;! for ^ 
is Icertaih, he feidhd immense riches ana treasu):^,Sh th^fp, ivhlf)h 
had been amassed through the Superstition of.' princes ttt^d pi^opla 
during a long .series of ages./ ' ' '' , , f 

T%e Grecian fleet, aller ttie batt|e oif' Mycale, set sail toi^fiid the- 
fiellesj^ont, in order to po^ess'them^lves of the .bridges^ wbich. 
Xerxes had.baiised to be laid oye^ that;^ iiarro\v ps^age^ an3 Mfhich 
they suppbsed were still entire ;' but .finding them broken dojev^n by 
teippestuous weather, Leotychiil^s . and his Peloponnesi^,. fbrcoa 
returned towards their ^wn country. Ji^ fo^ ^anthi|^u;i, hf^ stay.ed 
with the Athenians and their 'Ipnian confederates, and they i^afie 
themselves masters of Sestus'ana the Tt^aciaa Cfhersouesu^y in 


* What We are toM alio of %ulus iSinilfuB** victory over the ll^cedonian& wUich 
WM known a| JUntt the jnry day It wm obtained, witJiouft doulk hapj^^hed' in tUe 
•ame manner. • f Diod. 1. xi. p. 28'. X Sirab. L xlv. u. 634. 

. 4 Cic 1. ii. de Leg. a. IB. |i PUtt. I. XJW c. 1. . ITArdaii.Lm 



which places they foiind'^^eat booty ^ and took a vwt nunberwf 
prisoners. After which, onf^the approach of wihter, thi^y returned 
to their own cities. • ' •»» i • . li- . 

From this time all the citiM of Ionia retoit^d fipiathe PeniaDa^ 
and having entered into a confederaiey with the^Gredans, most olP 
them preserved theii^ liberty ddringf the time thutoempiire aubaistedk 

'*.. SECTION Xl"\ '. „.••* ' 

^he barbarous and inhuman revenge of Amestris, the wife of Xerxei. ^ ' 

A. M. 3585. ' Dcring the time that Xerxes vesided at Sardis^^ he, 
Ant. J. c. m. conceived a violent passion for the; wife of his brotheif 
Maaistes, who. was a prince of extraordinary nwr\t, had. always 
served the^ king witib.ffreat zeal and fidetiiyv Aiid had never do^ 
a^ thing to disoblige-Uin. The virtue of l^is kdy^and her great 
auction and fid^ity to.her husband* made her inexorable to aD the 
kind's solicitations. However^ he still flattered Jiimself, that by a 
Brofnsion. of favours and liberalities [he might possibly gain upon 
ner; and wiong other .favours which he conferred upon her, be 
married his eldest^ aon'Da);iu»,^whom he intended for his si|coessor« 
to Artainta^ this princess's, daugbteii. and .ordered that the.nia»f 
lisge shonld be. consufomat'ed as 0ooti as he arrvvi^d at.Sivia. Bill 
Xerxes fisdiBgr the- lady st^ no les8.imptegnable, in spite of a]| hjn 
temptations and attatjcs, .immediately ehan£ed his object, and fel 
paasionatiely . in> love with hrr daugluer^ who did ngt locate the 
glorious lexample,. of: her mother's c^pptancv ap«l.vtrtiie. ij Wxnli^fe- 
this intrigue was caiQryiug. on^ ^mmlfftB, wi^.toj ^Xerxes, prf^nt^^ 
him with a rioh and^magnificentrobet.ff h#r pwn makipg.. 0(§r?ij^^ 
bein^exti^m^l^ pleaded with thif r^be, thought fit to put i( on upon 
tl3ieni?t,viait.h0 afti^rwarde^adetaArtainta;. aiid in convep^ioq 
pre99ed. W tO/ let him* knqw wi^t ^e- desire^ he shoNif 4' do j(yx'\mtt 
assuring her, at the eaine. ];iQie, w^h,an b^th, 4^at. he would gnmt 
her whatever she asked: of him. Art^ta, upon this, desjj'ea him 
to give hser . the rpbe he/ had opr X§rx^, foreaeeii)g the ill conset 
qaen<?^ that' would necessarily f^ue upon h,is making hi^r this 
present^'didaDithAt he could tp d^^^if^,herfjrom,insistu;^ upon it, 
and ^)^re^,)|ef .any tjiing in jthe wprld in l^^n oi it. mt not b^ing 
able to piieyail < upon; her, a^d ,|hinking. himself bpund by thn. im-^ 
prudent nromise and; oath he, had made to her, he gave,h£r &^ 
robe. TJ^e la^,po sponer receiv^4 it^ than^^he pift it on, and ^of^ 
^t publicly -by way of trophy. , ; n ft -- >^ 

^meeti^is^tb^ng .^onfiripffd in the sqspicipos ^e had ^tertaiho^ 
l>y; thjf aptfl)n, was enraged to tl^.tost d^gx^e* .^\^\ in^tea^.^ 
letting hj^^y^eance. &B up^n ^fl, daugiiteV) who wp%t|^,bn|y 

offen&i;',t,flte|t^r98<lW t^ ^reak i^ ro<4^F» W^ ^ 

look^A;Upf»'^ the..authpf;of tjife, whf|le>tfigue, tboug|^fjs^|b wa^ 
entirely. iifno^ent of tJie matter^. Fjpr.f^ better eipecu^i^g of ^i. 


Harod. L iz. e. 107— lit. v<: ;,; n> ^ < . 


]^iirpose^>8h» waked until the gcaad^ftia^tj which was ev^ry year 
bfl^ebiAted'Oiiliie king's birth-day, «A(ii wMchi was ^t farc^T; oo 
which occasion the king, according to the established custom of 
tfaetieoutltry; 0raat«d her whatever she dennmded. This d^iy then 
being comeythe t^iiotf Which she desired of hifl majesty was, ^batthe 
nbsife iaf Masistis ^boidd .be deliv^ced into her htuidsi Xerxes, who 
apprehended the queen's design, and who was struck with horror 
at the thoughts of it, as w^n out bf regard to his brother, as on ac- 
coun1> of. .the innocence of the lady, against whom he perceived his 
wife was violently exaspeirated, kt first refused her request, and 
eddoavoured all lie oould to diasaade her from it i But not being 
able either to prevail tipon her^or to act with steadiness and reso- 
kaioti himself, he at.huit yielrted, dnd wasij^niltyof comphusaBCe 
equally weak ^aild cruel; nlakinb^^ the iQVKdablQ dUigtAiQiiB of 

. jasticd ahd faux4anity give war tolhe ai^rary laws cf a custom, 
thtft had b«eii established solely to ^ive oedasion for the. doing of 
gfJOdy and for acts of benefioenee miM generbbityw In eonsequence 
wen of ti^s:€ompliaiice» the lady was apprehended by the king's 
gttafids, at^ delivered to AmsBtyis, who caused her breasts, tongue) 
Bose^eaib, and lips, to be cut' off, ovdered them to be east to the 
cbgtf in her own presence) and then sent her hi^Hne to her husband's 
Jkouse in that mntilated and miserable oo»ditioH. In the mem 
tJim^ Xerikes had sent fbr his brother^ in order to prepdve him fat 
ibka 'melancholy andtragioaf adventure. <He 'first gave him te 

« tindersta&d, that he" shouid'lie glad he-would j)at away liis Wife; 
and, to induee hut thereto, offered to ^ivc him ene of hisidaMgiiters 
in martla^^'^ he^etead. "^'But Masist^, whd*' was {>assionatety 
fond: of'^ his wife, could nbt< prevail upon himself' tb divoi-oe her: 
Whclrefupon Xerxes in great wrfekth tol^ h?m, thai: (since he refused 
Ms daulfhter he sfa6utd neklier have her 'lior his wife, and that lie 
^^d teaeb ^m not Ho reject the'olfers his master had m4de Mnr; 
and with thi^ inhuman replV dismisseid hidi. ' ' ^ - ' 
' ' 'Fhis strange proceeding tnrew Masistes' ihto the greateW' anxiety, 
thinfting^he had reaB6n to- apprehend the'wbrst; he 'made kJl the 
hkiste he oould home tb i^e wiMt had passed th^re durinfir-hf^' ab^ 
senlce. On his arrival he fckifi^^hka 'w'de in that ^^dkirame ^ndi^ 
tibn we have jusj; b*eh ii^Hb;ng. 'Bemg Wifag^cl.tli^i^at t^ the 
decree we may tkattlrally imagine, ^e ;$83emD|^d^dll ins Athiilv, his 
servintEf and dependants, aha set but with all possibl6''^(^p^itioa 
fi^Bactriana, whereof he wis goveri^or, detenniti^, feis soon hs 
he arrivedvthere, to raise an army and make War agaimrt the king, 
in order' tin averige hi^telf for his 'bMHiarotis treatment. ,^ut 
I^i^rtes^ being infonhed of his hasty a^partui*e, and fi*om th^ce 
susplec^in^'his d^^%d,'^ht a 'piihy of hb^se' t6 purs^ hM| itrfaich, 
h^vih^^^ilrtaken himli^thifii ih ml^'neir, together with his-d^dt^n 
afldiS'^hfe retinue. I doiibt ?nbw iWi^hef % mdifet^^i^ii^al ex- 
w^WWhvense thito that ^hich^I'have ttbw ctiattedTi^to be 
found in history. -• .. ^^' i > .. . 


F£R9ll¥r9^ A^D OAMlANS. ^ *A 

?%6rellstifi imdtK^r action,* no leds cruel nor inypioot ihaa the 
ibriner, i^ldt^^ll of Attlestfis. @9^ caused fourteetf cnildren of the 
best faifliries in Pema to be bi^i^i^' aUveVas a sacrilice to tfae>«>- 
^malgbd^, but of compliance with s superstitious i^udtom praetisdd 
by the retsraris. ' 

Maslstes'b^ing deadl^f'Xdrtes gave the gOTemment of BactriaMi 
foliis second s6n Hystaspes, who h^iis by that means obKged to 
Hve at a di^abce iVbm the court, gave his youngest brother Artaii* 
xer.^e8 t^e opportunity of ascending the thron<^ to his disadvantage, 
after the death of; th?:r father, as will be seea in the sequel. 

Here ^Dd8'Hero>doti:^'i^ history, viz, at the battle of Mycale and 
h siege of the city of Sestos by the Athenians. 

SActlON XII. ' ' ^ . 

nKAHmiftul rebuild ihe walls of their eity« nolwiUieita^dii^ Uie oppoaition 4>f the 


A. M. 3588. The war, commonly called 'the war of Media,} 

AatJ. C.478. whidi had lasted but two years, being terniinatied in 

i^maiiner we havemefttionod, the Athenians, on their return to 

f&eir own country, sent for their wives and children^ whom they 

lad committed to the care of their friends' during th& war, ana 

^pn to think of rebuilding the city, which had ueen almost en«> 

Mj destroyed by the Persians, and of surrounding it with sti^ng 

i^Bs, in order to secure it from future violenoe. The Lacedieh^ 

hmiins having intelligence of this, conceived a jealousy, and 

l^^pi to apprehend, that if Athens, which was^lready very pow- 

WqI by sea, should ^o on to increase her strength by land also, 

(^ might taJce upon her in time to give laws tp ^arta.^ and to de^ 

l|i?e the latter of that kythority and pre-eminencei which she had 

•sherto exercised Over the rest of Greece. They therefore sent 

js embassy to the Athenians,- the purport of which was torepro- 

pttotheiii, that the cOwiifeon interest of Greece required, that 

^e ^ould be no fortified city emt of the Peloponnesus, lest, in 

J?5 of a second irruption, it should serve for a place of arms for 

' -Persians^ 'whp woald be sure to settle themselves in it, as they 

^ hue before at Thebes, andiwho fVom thence would* tue abie>to 

the vHible country, and to make themselves masters t>f it 

^speedily. Themistocies, who sinc^e the battle of Salamis was 

//^'(y considered and respected ^ Adiens, easily penetrated mte 

^ real desigti of the Laeodttmonians, though it was gilded over 

^tb& specic^ue pretext 6f the public good: but, as the latter 

^ able, with the assLeltance of tireir allies, to hinder .the Ath^^ 

JJ^W force* fJtoW carrying on the , work, in case -they should 

l^f^ Aottf ctbfiM^Kitely refuse to comi)ty with ' their demands, 

1^ the BetiA'tG U> make use i€ ciMming'and dissunuftatioiljps w ■ - 

'%k tM iLioedemctpuioM* The answer therefore they m^ie the* en- 
• voya wiis^ that they would send ejx embassy to iSparta, to satisfy the 
oorampn wealth with respect to their apprehensions and suspicions. 
.'Theioistoclefi caused himself to be nominated one of |;he iunhassa^ 
dors, and warned the senate not to let his coUeagiie^ set out along 
mit}i him, but to send them one after another, in prder to gain 
dime for carrying en the v^ork. The^ matter was executed pur- 
-susAt to his advico; and be accordingly went alone to Lacedjemon, 
,wbese her; let a great many days pass without waiting upon the 
magistfktes, jor applying to the senate. Anf\ upon their pressing 
ihim to do it; and asking bun. the reason why be deferred it so long, 
he made answ er, that he waited for the arrival of his roUeagues, 
that they might all have their audience of the senate together, 
and seemed to be very inuch surprised that they were so long^n 
coming. At length they arrived ; but aH came singly, and at a 
good distance of time one from another. During all this interval, 
the work was carried on ait Athens with the utmost industry and 
ViffouK 'The wonienj children, strangers, and slaves, were all 
employed in it ; nor was it interrupted night or day. The Spar- 
'tans were not ignorant of the matter, and made great complaints 
of it to Themistocles, who pobitively denied the fact, and pressed 
^em to send other deputies to Athens^ in order tx> inform them- 
selves bettor o.. the subject, desiring them not to mve credit to 
va|fue and flying reports, without foundation. At tlie same time 
-he secretly advised the Athenians to detain the Spartan envoys as 
so many hostages, until he and his colleagues were returned from 
their embassy, fearing, not without good reason, that they them* 
selves might be served in the same manner at Sparta. At last, 
when all his colleagues were arrived, lie desired an audience, and 
declared, in full senafoi that it was really true tfa^t the Athenians 
had resolved to fortify their city with strong walls ; that the work 
was almost completed ; that they h^d judged it to be absolutely 
necessary for their own security^ and for the public good of the 
allies; telling them, at the same timd, that after the great expe- 
rience they had had of the Athenian people's behaviour, they | 
coiild not well suspect them of being wanting in 2eal for the com- i 
CQon inteldst'of their country; that, as the condition an4 p^vilegea I 
l>f all the allies ought to be equal, it was just the Athenians should | 
provide for theh; own safety by all the methods they judged neces- ' 
«ary, as well as the other Coiitfederates ; that they had thought of i 
this expedient,. and were in a'Condition to defend their city against | 
*whQ8oever should presume to attack it ; , and that as for the Lace- | 
denfonians,"' it was not ^muoh for their honour that they should i 
Jesire to establish their power and superiority rather upon tba 
weaJB.anddefbnceless condition of their allies, than, upon their own 
atfength and vakur* The LacetcUemonians wene, extremely di^ 

^linMlter^aftikvi sm 4ttt04 nMi vtasttc, jpd ImbseimtatA ■odonn^pomdani qar 
ICUL JuttiM. 1. li. e. IS. .}').• 



awt etteeui fpr liie Atheniani, \vho< ba4. read^red such impotUnt 

smiQev^to the coontry^ o^- ou^ of- a convictiooi of, Uieir inability^ ta 
oppoM^tbcif enterjirise, tfaey.dmembled their <re^entinent; vid the 
ambaa^adbt's on both udcs, hatving aU suitable hofu^i;^ paid theoi, 

relmixied' ta their itt8peciive« cities. 

' TbemiatodM,* whoibad always his thouffb^ fixed upoo noising 

AUd aogmenUxiff the power andhglory of the AUieuian cpJoDmoDweaUh^ ' 

did not ooii6ne.hia vi«W8(to the/walls of lihecity. He went ob with the 

.^ame vigorous applieatioa to finish the buiiditig and fortifications, of 

tbO'Pireeus ;.foE, fromthetiBUe ibhat he had entered into offii^, he l^ad 

b^g>»if: that great wdrk. i Bfifoie hi^time 4hey had no other port at, 

Atbeni than iihat of Pha)eiua, which, was neither very, large n^^ 

oemroodioua^JLnd consei|wetat)y not capable of answering the gr^t 

deGagn»><}f^Theinistt)ciea( "^For this teason he bad cast his eye 

upoil the PirseeuBfJwhich seemed to invite him by it9 advantageous 

situattDii, and )^ the ixMiveiiience of its three ^pucious hfivens, that 

were ot^pable of dnntatning above 400 veni$).s. This vuadertaking 

was ptosecuted with/^sojrnoiieh dili^nce and viivac^y^ tbat the 

work was ^^tidBsiderAbl^rjadvana^d in a very little time* '[l(*henusto- 

clee> likeiwise obtainedi'decrce,that eveiy year they sliould build. 

twe>it>^ vessds for the anffKentdtiioB of their fieet ; and in order 

to 'engfSiffe a greater number of .workmen' and sailors to resort to 

AthenSf'ne caused particular privileges and immunities to be granted 

in theiir ^vour* • His desigii was, as I have already^ observed, to. 

nlake^be whole fence 4>f Athens maritime; in which he followed % 

very different scheme fVom what, .had been t pursued by their 4Uii 

cietai^lkingl^, wftoy^endeatriou^ing ail they could to alienate the minds 

(^the citlizens fVom ^eafarioF busanessy.tnd from war, and to make, 

them ttt^ply themselves wholly ^to agriculture and torpeaceable em- 

j^^yihem^j'pubitsiied this fable: that Minervas disputing with Nep*. - 

ton^ to 'ktaoW; which of them should be declared patron of Attiua* 

a^d'|;ivef their i\^sm to the-cit^, newly built, she gai^d her cause 

b^ sftowing her jadisiesi the hrandb of ap idive-tree, the l^ppjf 

syn]l)ol' of peace' and fleiit}^ which. ^' had. planted: whercae 

N^ef^ttne'had'mado'a lMiry{faane,the.«yud{pl oC Wftr aqd coDlusio% 

i%^eoiitof th«eaitbbefo#dthem;.r(j > :. , , 


' Tni'ffil'If'^'^Nif of ."Thei^jitfoclai reacted uaanimoittlv bv tho people of Athodi. 
, :. 'Ariilifle»'iconcfe*tetiifiunu>tlie|iM)|im> ^> 

•. • •' ' i {•■••' .••••■ . ; .1 ,.f[-.. . . , 

Thc^i{itbc!es,f wh6 liad eeODeifdd tn<ihik(.-bras8t the deaigD' e^. 
flupplanting'the LaifcedainhoBiMis^ >aild ^ \tAJ^. dhifk. government of. 
^Sreepif^Ut of their hainds^ iiiterde^ilv put k^to those^f the Athe- 

Vol-. HI. P 

^8 ' ummsrvFTOtr < i 

' iilto/^/lc^t 1^^ efe tJsA hi^nhbugrhts coBtinuslly^fited updn titft 
^!^t prbj^t. Aiid he w^ not very nice/or strupfulous is tibe 
dhokiy of hiih' ntesunii^es, whatever tended 'towrlirds the iieoQiupliiBb- 
W of the end he had in view, he looMd upon as just and lawful. 
On a certkin dayVthtn, he declared, in 4 i\ill assemblyof tbs 9«ople» 
that he had planned a very important design ; but that he could AOt 
communicate it to thepeojj^ ; because«j in order tOfenaure^ucCli^ds, 
it ' was nece^stry thkt it ehould be id^rried on ^with' the greatest 
si^crecy': he therefore d^riired- they wo'Old appoint a person to wh^m 
h^itiig^ht explain himself u]M>h the matter in question. Aristides was 
unahiraoddly 'pitched upon b^ the whoie tLSsembly^ and th<^y refer< 
, r^d themijelvcs entirely tA his opinion «f th& iifair ; .so great a con- 
fidence had they both in his prc^bity and ^udence. Themistocles, 
tjiereifor^, having taking tim aade, told him, that the design he Jiad 
conceived was to burn the fleet belonging to the rest of the Gre- 
cian j^tates, which then lay in a neighboorui^.poiit, this 
means Athens would certainly become^ mistress of all .Greece. 
Aristides hereupon returned to the' aiB8eiDblyy?4nd> cmly decUg-ed ^ 
them) Hiat indeed nothing could be nuivei advantageous to th«t com- 
mon wealth than Theinistocles' :project;'jbut .that, at tha, same 
tim?) nothing could be more uhjust.' ^Allthe people unanimously 
ordained, that Themistocles shouddr entisely idesist from hia prpj^ct. 
We see, in this instance*/ that it was not' without sonae fouiidation 
tftat the title of Just was given to Ari^tides, even ia (his lifetime ; 
a title, says Plutafch, infinite^ supenof t6 all itho^e winch pon 
qnerors pursue with so much ardour, add wkick in some measure 
aj^proximates a ihan to the Divinity. i ■'>-*',: 

' I ^ know not whether all history can afford us a fact more vi^O'tliy 
of admiration than this, it is ioot a>eompany of philosofpuenB (to 
whom it costs nothing to estabUsh fine maxims. and 49uUiinp notipna 
of morality in the schools,) who determine on this (Occasion, that the 
o^ideratiOn of profit and advantage ought never tqf/prevail in pre-' 
fbrence to what is honest and just. , It is an eiitii:Q.pee{de, who. are 
faighl;^ interested in the proposal made to ithem„iWho are convjlaced 
titat it is of the greatest im^Bianbe tof thei^j^elfare of the 9tato, and 
Who, notwithstanding, reject it urith-aaatii^usc^n^ent. and. withr 
out a moment's hesitation, and that fdr tbid >On)y reaspn, that it is 
contrary to justice. How black and perfidious, on the other hand, 
was the design which Thdmistocl^a ' pif(>(x}sed, of burning the fleet 
of jtheir Grecian confecjerates, at a lime of entire peace, solely to 
aggrandize the power^of th^ Athenians! ' H^d )ie a hundred -times 
the merit that is ascribed to him, this single action would be suffix 
dent to sully all thehHUiduoy bf kis gjlory^ ■ Kor it is the heiMrt,.tlpit 
i^to say, integrity. and^ probity MkiLt^ciOilstitute ti^ue meric , 
- 'I am- sorry >that Pliitarch^ wh9t|;99W^Jil^. judges of things ^wiih 
great justness, does not seem, on this occasion, to coL.demn The- 
Siist<x»ei.' .AAer hdvfef) spoken of the works he had constructed 
in the Pireeus, he goee on to the &ct in qaeetion, of which lite taysi 

PER8UW AN|> OtitOlANS. * 09 

i$Hmt^lk0iri9u^tiHmepoum'J^ / , . v. i 

'fth»LaoedmtiK»Mm haviugpr^ppsed, intlfterCOttiicil'oCUie ^|q%- 
nbictj^w^ th%t nil«9 vhich bad i\o% taken ^ng^.^;aJXU|| 
Xerxes should be excluded from that assembly, TbeiQistoqlet,}^}]!!^ 
was apprehensive that, if the ThessaUans, the Argivcsj and the 
Thebans were excluded, \jtml conncil, th» Spartans would by that 
means become masters of the suffrages, and consequently deter- 
mine ail affkiirs %ceof ding to their pleasure, made a speech fai b^baff 
of the cities whose excluilon was proposed, and brought the deputies 
that composed th^ aasefaibly over to hiaiMntiments.'. He repr^efei^e^ 
to them, that the greatest part of the cities that h^ entered ijito 
the cotofedeiraey, were but one-and-thiity in the whole; were veiy 
smaU' and inconsiderable ; that it would therefore be a vety* straoffQ^ 
as well as a very dangerous proceedings i to < deprive aU ?ihe othet 
cities of Greece of their Votes and places in the grand assenJUy of 
(he nation^ and by that means tiafkr the august dduncil of the Anb 
phictycns ta fall onder the direction and influeaoe^' two or threi} 
ofthb^ooQgst powerful cities,' which for the futiire would give JaW'to 
all the Test^ and would subvert and aUeMsh that equalit^<of p4>ver# 
wMshmFvtS justly regarded as the basis and 0oul of all rep>ttb]i<5a« 
Themistocles, by this plain and open declaration of hia' opinion, 4vew 
upon htimself the hatred of Uie Lacedaemonians, wh6£com that t^n» 
became >hi0 professed enemies. He had also incurred the diat 
pleasure of" the rest of the allies, by the rigorous and raffaoioiui 
niaBaer in irhiefa he had exacted contributions from them* . ' • •? 
When the etty of Athens woa entirely rebuilt,f the. people, finding 
themselvea in a state of pdace and tranqniUity, endeavoured 'by eHBTBr 
aietfaod to 'get the government into their Own hands, and lo malta 
tlie Atkeniaiistate an abtolnte democracy. -This design of 'thejlv^ 
titoogh planned with the utmost secrecy, did not escape tbei yjgtf 
Isiice and penetraMon of Aristides, who 8aw,all)th0'conee<|itf»CQi 
vith'^wfai^ snch an innovation would b6 aUended. :But))a4 b0 
considered on one hand, that the people wiere entitled to som««iK» 
pLTdj on aiCeoant of thd valour tli^y had^fhoWh in all Uiabatttea 
fhich had been lately gained; and, on^the other,^^at it would be 
BO easy- matter to enrb and restiain a peo{de, ^hoetjiU, in a^(Qan«fr» 
lud their arms in their faiiMds, An9 who weite<ffrawn more insol^ 
^ ever from their victories; .4m these eonsiderationa^he tbo^glit 
tpmper to observe measures with them^ and to find out someiilt^ 
ioa to satisfy had ajipeaae theflou .He tharefaie pasfie^ a deoiwwb 
^ which it wae ordaned, that the offices <ol goiv^rooient ' should k^ 
<^ to all tiief 'citteens, and that the ar^ions^vv^ werajth^.cMT 
ttigjatnttes of^the connncmwealth, and who 4isi9d;boeeMi oi^« 
•at of tbe rieheat e£ Us. membeiat w^.froip amaf^gsttthoseionjly yfk^ 
fKm4i td least 50e aftedin^ of^ grain' asr^tlie, pnodui^ei^f, their 

body of jthe Athenians, without distinctionr ^Bf ttmir^]i|r^\it^ 
MMi(ethin^ ioth€p»^\bi htf'pfW^nteCi all dLctteiwkm^'snd coiRifho' 
ti<;^^. which <might hetvcf proted fkidl, not onhfto ihe Athenkflituaie, 
^it'to ttU €htece. •*'.•<*■' ' *' ••"' •••■' ; ' "' ' ' ' •' •^•-./ 

•• > . PauBanias. ' '.' , " ' '/' 

jlt 1- ••) • . Mij •: ;\-...v •■• f.;|-. ii.- ',1./ '.'^^■^^ ; 

k.'tt.4Stl^. " ^^'Th^ GreciaBB,* encourage b^Fthe kapp^tMcceSt 
AJit< J.€k 47«;i ^ich hadefery whereattended tfa«ir'viQlonQ«»arnm« 
4eMnnined 'lib tend a fleet to sea, in order to deHver soebiof their 
attiea a»>«:cte still under the yoke of the Persians, ttit of /their httodsv 
Patisaniab iwas the:«omitiiuideT oftlie fleet ibrthe Lacedsuxmians; 
ited^.AriBtide8t'an^''Cinibn, the son of Mihiddes^ eowmanded ibr 
tbe^AtheiliaiiSiii' Th^ first directs their ootnne to tbe: UAsit^ Cy'- 
praa^ where Ibeywtttored albthe xalias' to /their liberty ;[ th^^at«er- 
tag toward tho> Hetteepbnt, they iattaeked %h^ city of Byoanlium., 
or ivibtch'tb^^ made (dieiBSetises maSteri!/«rid took a vastfiumber 
of ^iioQe^, a gf est iNHTt ef-whom were*' of the atilcheBtftnd most 
e0i«iderabl9<faniilie«iiff Persia, i !* 

' i<llhLiiMinias/wbb from this ittme conceived thoughts of betta^ini^ 
ttii O04htiry;"jttdgcd'it piroper to make use of this opportunity 16 
gsan'Siis favour of X^rxe^ To this end hecamsed kireport to b« 
spread among his: trooj^^ that the Persian nobkinhr, wbeoi he 
llfldcbmihitted' to the ffuard sad care of on^ Wilts QfliaemVhad 
Vflde KVbip 'esoapi^ 'by i^ht}4>aBd were ifled ; • wfaevefui he had. tiet 
tUmi ait 'liberty blmfieUy-imd sent a letter. by them to Xerxes^ 
wtMi^in he, ottered 'to deliver thecsty^of Spsjta, and aU iGree<:b, 
ittib his hapdit, on xdndition he t7ouid'giv>e him bis> daiighj^ in 
maftiage^''' Thetkingdid ndtfaii to give himfl;^vourable answer, 
and- to^sehd Kim 'v^ly iarge sums, or money also, in otM /to -vrin 
otver'as many^oif the'Cfrredansasiife should ^nd -disposed toi enlei[ 
into Ilia dbsigtisr iThe- pevsoo h^ b.pp6iDted to mana^ this intri ; «t«> 
Wilih him Was ^rtabaoust;!' and. &ii. order. < to enable bun tbi transSLel 
tb^' matter w<itb; 4ire ' gmuter loase and secarity, be: made -hMa; 
go^rabrof<all«bd:s0a'coas(lso0'Asia>Midor.>. i" ,, 

?i' Pik«isanias,f 'Who (was ^alrcAidy ^zzfasd >with'the prospect of hii 
Mure gr^Stuisss; b^gi» l^mii' this mom^t tochungo his whoV 
•OMduct and b^hairioisni 'The pobr,' modest, and fruMil way. o1 
^ing at »|^rtia'9 i^ flitb|ectieiD t6 tt^id bnd austeae mws^ whi<e] 
iieilbor. spared sed^roi^fsteedai^y'roanj but were altogether as^ is 
lesCbrableaiid %ifleiiible t^ ihe^greAtest as todiose of the meiva^ 
<«bndttion'$ dVthMMiMune tns»|iport«bleto Pak6aiiias.T Heioona] 
liotbettrthe!>til<|ugttts<'^f goiagloaoh'ti»S|iavUi; s£teii having poi 
sessed such high comman£ and employments, to return to a etc^i 

^'' '' -^fifllciiin t p. w. 84. as.- •' ' •• t hatte'Afiat.yjw!^m^ *•': • * -• 

9f fqw^ty, tii^t .^^iddiConfounii him.jii^ltiL ^1^ |D««nei( Qt' the ciU* 

zei^s; am] th«3 wftftixis m^acev^eui to ^t^^iiilp.a brqatv^with the 

bvrbftriaoi^ . H«^,;e])^ir.el/ laid aside ^^ ipi^ara and behaviour of 

ills cpuntr^; assumedi both the iret^ axi4 hMfib^ingM lOjT the Per- 

siaiifi, and imitajted. th^fo u^ jfill their expepa^v^T^^ury and ma^piifl** 

cence. He tri^fited the alllea with im^^era^ble rMdene«8 and ui90-» 

Jence;, neTer sjiioke lo thejO^cers but Avith manages. and arrogance { 

required exXiaordinary honours to be paid to, him, and by his whol^ 

behaviour i^^^iderea the Spa^an govei:ranen(^ odious to all the coi>- 

federates. Oi) the other hand^ the cp^ftepusi, affable, and ea- 

fa^ing depprtifnent of Aristifies.aQd pif]f^o^« an infinite remoteness 

mm all impeirious and haughty '^ir^.wbicb tend only to alienate 

the affections; a gentle, l^nd, and. bei^ficent disposition, which 

sjiQwed itself i^ all theif; actions, and wl^ich served to temper 

the authority of ^i^heii; ^mroan^^» and to render it both e^y, and 

amiable; the ju«t^e|and huniai}ity, conspip'Tous in every tiling 

tliey did ; the ffreat c^f^ thev took ^o offena no person whatsoever} 

tad to do kinq-, offices to all. about t^cx^;. ^Ut,hifi.hurt Pausa^a^ 

eiceedingly, by ^h^ -qoi^rast. of ,^eir oppose characters, ^nd iq« 

(Teased the g€|perai 4iscontent. .At fo^t this, dissatisfaction ,pijLb^ 

licjy broke ,Qut.;V^d all tl^e^c^li^s deserteji i|im) and put themaeUreB 

Qoder the con|manfl,a,nd p)r9tepti9|^, |of {!^9. AUienians. 'fh\ui ^d 

Aristides« 8a,ya;^lutarch,^pireYa^eace o« t^at humanity and 

ge&tleni^sf, iy,^n(^))e oppo8^4 ^ arrogance a,nd roughness of 

rausanm^; ax^aJb^iympirlng .C^^^ collei|gue with the saw 

Kotiments,^ inseSoi^j^ly ^dra?^. olTf^^V ipu^d^, of ;the allies from th« 

Lacedie^oph)^ w|t)^ut,~th(^ length deprived 

tbein of ,thie c^qu^fj^4iot J|/ ope^^orce,.or by pending out anpies 

u)d fleets against tnetn, and still less by maJLing use of any artifice 

«perfidiousi|[acMc^s;'byt;!?y fh%r1¥)ipdow^ modexatiyn of his 

conduct, iia4 ^y Tl^^^fi^S' ^ 'iPY^^^*^^^. ^ ^^^ Athenians 
Uttiable. ,. . .^. -, .... .,. j j. . ..^ 

It zau9t be^coi^es^^d^ at ^he 8a|i^e,tin)(s,^iha^ the Spartan peonle 

9Bthis occaiBioi^,8^bwp4(^ SJ^^^^^^^ ?P^» ¥^d ^ ^P^^^ ^^ moaeh 
tttioa, tliattcap ngyier.jiiB sufficiejiiyy a^dfmred: for when they^weri^ 
coQTinced, tU^t tOjQJr cpmmaji(|ers gr/^w haughty, and insolent frooa 
^ too greiBk( alqinonty, tfe^y.wilungjy renounced the superiority 
»bich they had hitherto .exercised over the rest of the Grecians, 
{•dforbojpe s^o^ing (iny niore oif theiif £^enera|8 to .command the 
^iieciaD amups ; 1 9h^0Bi^g|y%tlipi'> adds the historian, to have their 
<=^n8 ,wise» inpdest', ana , submissive ^o the discipline and, la.wa of 
tk<xuB]iionTfi;^alt}i,^);nan to'inaiijtaln their pre-eminenqe and i^upia^ 
awy ov'ex a^ tJte othey 'Grecian states. * r' ^ 

• i-'" SECTION ^XV.: - • • 

TwitifuifBM*§ wteeti ^k»pVtkif with the PisrsiBiM. H!» deatii. 

>-lL3S89. U'pon'Hy Y^peat^d'coinplaihts wMchthe dpart 

^i.c.4is. commonvealth received on al) hands againat ^ausa* 


f «l'^ I 

«* '^'^ ' ttWTdlCr OF *tt« 

mas,* they reecileU himiiohie to gite kn f^diMtht'of hM'<^oA4Del 
But not hating 8ufllt;ient evidence to convict Mm of having catricid 
on a correspondence 'With' X^xe^, tbey wer^-dbligi^ to-acqOit hto 
on his first trial; aftt^r whfth he returned ol^'hfe o^ilrn privatfe^ an- 
tho»ity, and withodt '^Ke ibbn'seht and apprdBjktion trfthp, repnblic, 
to the city of Bykarttitfrhvftotn whence he coitipned tb citffy on 
Ids secret praeticejj wifli Artitiazus. Bot, ,as he w*si sltiH gmlty of 
^any violent «hd uHjii^ proceedings whilst h€|'T€fepded there, the 
Athenians obliged hw to 'Idave the place;' from whS^fe he retired 
to Colons, a smaH cit^trf the^'Ti-oad. 'There he received an order 
from the Epl^ori to reigriif. to' Sparta, on piin of b€ffifi# declared, in 
case of disobedience, a public enemy and ' traitor to '^hfe coiintrr. 
He complied >^th the ^mmdn^, and went"h6ine, hoping he shonid 
Btifi be able to/bring hiinself off by dint of moni>y. "On his Arrival he 
1^ coinitaitted t6 prison; and was soc^n aflerWaf ds brought again upon 
kis ttial beforerthe judg-esl-.Thecharge brought against him was sup* 
^nted by many suspicious cirteumstances and strong presumptions. 
Bereral of his own* slftveaf' cmilesse.d that He tiad ttrtlihised to give 

them tfienf liberty; in cttse they Vould 6iAer intt^hitJ 'aettgn8,and serve 
hSn^ with 'fidelity and^ieal in ther exgcution of jiii' projects. But, ais H 

sufficient ; ^^d th^ iiiore so, Wh^ ^ of ^bi^ rbySpftlniilj^^d #«a 

actually mV^ted With % ttdmpAl^tion '^f V^<i^^ '^mx^\ for 
Pausamasr^^erciseli ^thgl'fUnbtfoil df kirigl'd^lh^g^^ttier ^^uatdiaii 
and ^earesic^latioh tb ^listdtbhus, th^ ^bn^dP Ii6<mNi^/WiK> wai 
flien^n h!s minority, 'fie wti^^^h^eil)):^ 'aedhi^^diit secbnd ,time» 
and set at libertr.' ) '-' " ' I *-•■ • ' V'"': ^'^'' '' ^'»' ' * ' • '• 

Whilst the; Ephorl ^v-^e «i(i8'^]rte^l^^d=f6V Svittlt df ^flekr a^d 
plain Evidence against the dfif^er^i eeMiin sI&v^V wKo' was called 
the Argilian, came to them, and brousbt^then a. letter, written by 
Paiisahias himself tb'tWl^b^^Bf P^Ma^'^Mefi'tfib s!(^e was to 
haie carried to Artabazusi^ ' frfeirist Sff (Ai^\f^^^^ tHfe'way, that 
this Persian goverhor atlft P jusimia^ Ikd iigrii^il to^^tn^H ixnme* 
diatelyto put tp d<Bal3i all rtii^^purfers thfef toWa® seiit to one 
another, as sodn as their piftck^ or We^sagie^ vr^^ delT^red. that 
there might be no noteibiHt]^ Jeft of trkMiig ooicrf^^iieoverlng tfeeir 
correspondence!.' The ArgiSoA, who/saw nOne 'if Kfe 'ftllbw-ser- 
^ts,'thathad been sent, retu'hi''bi<^'ag'ain;' Wad sohieBUbpidow 
anJ When it came to his tiirn to g6, he xJpened thj^ ,ieit€(r h'fe ittish^- 
trusted t*^th,in Which Ahabkzulwas'fositivejy'de^ai ttflritthim 
as soon as he delivered it. This Was the fettet th^e %avd^))ut ItUb 
the hands of the £phori; ^n^ho^^t^ th^lvg^t even this proof insof 
ficient in tf)^ eye pf the Uiv^ia^^^l^e^GD;^ eiQ^^avifi^i^^ corrobo 
rate it by the testunoi^y qf P^^tsq^jas ]biin]|^^. ^|ie Save, in ceo 

^ tbucyt.^ L i. i>. 68--^' DiocL' 1 zi. p. 3i--»?^ Oor. ttiipslifl Paann. 

F£R8fiK3 ANH <l»t1SCIANS. ^ 

ceftiM Dibm^ withdraw to the t«nfripie of Neptune nt TARViaiUB, ^ 
M»it6 ^> iacore tflvlmni - Two smaH- closets had been purposeJj 
mbde there, in which the Ephori and some Spartans hid them- 
selves. The instant Pausaniae was informed that the ArgiHaii 
had 'fled' tot thas temple^ he hasted thither, to in^fuire the reaeon. 
Theehve confessed 'that he had opened the letter f and that find- 
inf by ihe contents of it he was to be put to death, he had fled to 
that temple t6 save his hfe. As Pausaniae could not deny tiie 
fact, he made the beet exciuee he could ; promised th^ slave a gfreat 
reward, and obltged him to en^a^e not to mention what had passed 
between them to any person wnatsoever. Pausanias then left hiih. 
Pa«eanius^s guilt was now but tOo evident. The moment he was 
returned to iitb city, the Ephori were resolved to seize him. From 
tit6 aspect of one of those maffistrates, and from a signal which he 
made nim, he plainly )pereeiv«fd that some evil design was meditated 
again^ him; and therefore he ran with the utmost speed to the 
temple of Pdlas, called Chalcitecos, near that place, and got into 
it beibre the pursuets cobld overtake him. 7%e entrance was 4m- 
mediately stopped up with great stones ;• and history informs tis, 
that the criminal's ttfother was the first who brought one. They 
also took ofif the>roof of the chapel, and, as tlie Ephori did not dare 
to take him ouftef'it by tbrce^ becausethis wottld have been a vida- 
tion of ..tfhat' 'sadred'ttsyliAn, they resolved to^ leave him exposed to 
the iiKi l e ^^cW ciefr'of t^'- weather, and Accordingly he was starved 
to death. ^However, a few>fniniites before he died, they drevii hfan 
out of tlMrt^ftttple^ If ie corpde was buried not ikr from that place : 
liBttfa« oiKtdte'ofDelfftU?' which' they consulted soon after; declarsd, 
that tO'h.^ljease the anjger of the goddess, who was justiy offended 
eoaceotfnt'Of the violation of her temple', two statues must be set 
np there &!i^h6»hour df Pausanias, which waedone accordingly. ' 

8ueb wafS'the end orPausanias, whose wild ambition Had stifled 
in ^at ftfli'eeniimente of probity, honbur, love of couxrtry, zeal fbl' 
liberty; littd^of hjftredand avi^rsion for the barlrtiitians; sentiments 
vfaich,*lii«Mne^ measure',' were imiatein allthe6reekid,alid partieu- 
^ly in the Lacedemonians. ' ^ 

rl :."/". ./''""^ECTION,,XVL "\ ■ . 

nB^fatocie^'b^ttt |)lt)««cut«ttb)r ttie Athcr^fans and Laee<Tieinonlan«, as aa BeeBi 
pllfce •tenuMaias*8.eoiMplrac]r, fllea for aiMllcr to king AdiiMuu. 

A. 11.3331. Tbemistoelcs was also implicated in the cham 

Am. J. c. 473. brought against Pausanias.* He was then in exile. 
Apasnohate thirst of glory, f^iid a stron^^ desire of arbitmry power» 
bad made hii9 odious to hi^ fellow-citizens. He had built, very 
Bear bis bouse, a tpmple cliedicated to Diana, under the title or 
JHana ArUtohula^ that is to say, the giver of good couruel ; as hint- 

*Ttacyd.LL'ti;«9,ffh- nutiiiTlieiiikk'.S3,194. Cora. Ncp. laTbemlrt-'e: 


ingp totbe Athemims, that keiMid given food coniupel Co tMrieily 
and to all Greece; and he'al$o -had plated his staiue Wtit, whka 
waa standioff io. Plutarch's time. It appeared, says he).irom>lbiB 
statue, that nis phyaiognomy was as heroic as his valoitf. FJAding 
that men listened with pleasure to all the calumnies^ wshioh his 
enemies spread against him,4n order to silence themi.he vtM fbr 
ever pxpatiatingi in all public assemblies, on the serviceb he had 
dpne his country. As they were at last tired wit4i hearing him 
repeat the saiae thing so often, How I says he to theni} an, ya^ 
weary of having goqd qfflce$frequenLly done you by tke taifne pemoM ? 
He did^not consider, that putting them so ^fiun in. mindtfof his 
services,"' was in a manner reproaching them with theijr haviaff for- 
gotten theipn, which was not very civil ; and he seemed* not to^ow 
that the surest way to acquire applause, is to leave the bestowiog 
of it to others, and to re^dve ta do such thii^s ofkly las lore praise- 
worthy ; and that a frequent mention of ono^ ownvictMe wdi ex- 
alted actions, is so far from; appeasing envy, that it x)nlyinflameetit* 
. Themistpclesyf after having been banished fffom Athisns,- by. the 
ostracism, withdrew to.Argos. He was there when ,Pausani^ waa 
prosecuted as a .traitor who had conspiFe4 against his- coftintry. 
He had at first concealed rhis . taachinaj^ipp^ > gwm . Theaii^9o)eB« 
though he was one of his best fri/>iids.; bul a9 sp^ as heaaiv that 
he was ex^lled his Qowitry, and hpighlyr)'e^ntedtha(L injury ^ h^a 
disclofed his projectf to turn, and pressed- him t^ join in^thoPft^i To 
induce him to cpmply, he showed wa \he letters ^vhich the: J(iP|^ of 
Persia wrote to. him ; and endeavouced to anifnatei hiun «gilii|C!t the 
Athenians, by painting their injustice and ingrab(ude4l>itto ^Tpngr* 
est colours^ However, Themistocles reje^d with indign^i^fi thet 
poposa}s of Pausanias, and refused peremptorily tQt|ik$[:anypart 
m hissohemes.: but then he Qpncealed whtft had pasflejok betw^^ft 
them, and did not disoover the entcnu'ise lie had foiified;/ >Mhetiiur 
it was that h^e imagined Pausanias. woqid renouncp:it ojfhin^s^lf^ OK 
was persuaded that it lyouid be discovered. 6pme:€itheft,w#9. » itroat 
b^ng possible for so. dangerous and ill-consorted.. 4An?^Qip7iBeta 
oe successful. i . • ,! ■ •:.[ jit ! / - 

After Pausanias*s death, several letters and other things were 
found among Ins papers, which excited violent suspicions of The^ 
mistdcles. The Lacediemonians sent deputies to Athens to accuse 
and have sen1;ence of death, passed upon him ; and.siich of thf^ipiti-- 
«ens who envied him joined these accusers. Acistrdes ha^d now a. 
fair opportunity of revenging himself on his rival, ^r the injurious 
treatment lie had received: from him, had his soul be^n ci^SLbl^'of 
so cruel a satisfaction; but he refused absolutely to jpiii in so hor^ 
rid a combination ; being as little inclined to delight in ttic misfor- 
tunes of his adversary, ^os. he had b^fbte been to r^^et his siic- 
cesses. Themistqcles angered by letters all the cartimnie^ witi 

* Hoc molmtum est. Nam isUuBC commemoratlo quaul exprobntk) est Unmeaiost 
kea^U. Tertnt^in^Adri . . f Plut. in TliMotat.^. IIS. 

PERStilsrs AND cnnaiANs. t9 

whidili^ bnb ohaf^d, afld repretent^d tbtbe Athenian, rtliat m 
he Imd ever been fbnd of ntHAg, and his temper waa auch na woUM 
not mftet him to b^ lorded ovfer byothera, it waa hi|fhly imtiDaba^ 
ble that he ehould have a deaign to deliver up hioMelf, and all 
Greece, to enemiea and barbarians. 

In the mean time, the poople wroi^ht upon by his accusers, senl 
some persons to seize him and bring him home, that he might be 
tried by the counoii of Greece. Themiatocles, j»%vuiff timely notice 
of it, went into the island of Corcyra, to whose inhabitants he for- 
merly had done some service : however^ not thiiikiog' himself safe 
there, he fledtoEpirus; and fixidinc^ hiaiaelf. still, pursued by the 
Atheniana and Lao^dnmonians, in despair be adopted ^ verj^ dan^ 
gerotia plan, which was, to fly'toAdmetus? king of the Jdoloseiaiia, 
ferredige. This prince haviiifrfiirmerlydesiced the aidof the Athe^ 
nians, and bein^ reAised with ignominy by Thembtocloa, who at 
that time presided- in thd ^veriment, ba!d «etaihed the deepest 
resentment on that account, and declared that he would retfenj^e 
himself^ should* a ikvouraUe* opportunity ever occur. ' But Themis*' 
tocies, imagining that in the unhappy ntuation of his afikirs« the 
/scent envy of his fellow-citizens was more to be feared than the 
tncient gprudge of that king, was Tesolved to run the hazard of it* 
When he came into the palace of that monarch, upon bedng infom^ 
ed that he Was absent* he addrosaed himself to the -queen, who re* 
ceived him very graciously,, and instructed him in the mannev in 
which it viras proper for him to make hicf request. Admetns being 
returned, Theniistocles takea tljeikiue's scm in his arms, seata himr 
lelf on his hearth amidst his household ooda^ and there, telling hin 
who he was, and the cause why he fled to him for teAige, he Im" 
plores his clemency^ ovHffi that his life is' in has hand, entreats him 
to forget the past; and represento. to him, that no .action can h0 
more worthy of a g^eaC king than to exercise clemenqy. Aidmetui^ 
Borprised and moved #ith compaslsion in seein|R.Bt his^ feet\ in ito 
hamble'a posture, the greatest man of all Greeee^^and' the con* 
qieror of all Abia, rais^ him immediately from Ihe ground^ «ni 
promised to protect him against all his enemiea. Aocordingb)r« 
vhen the Athenians and Lacedemonianm camb toidemand lum^ oa 
zefbsed absolutely to deUver np a person who had taken refuge; «i 
\k palace, in -thi^ firm . persuasion that it would be a sacred and 
kriolable asylum. *• » • . • t«- 

Whilst he was at the court of this prince, «Ba • of his fiidrida 
&aDd an opportunity to carry offhisiwife and dhildren from Athene 
uito aend them to him ; for which that person waa tome.tim 
after seisecl and condemned to die. With regard to Themiatooka'k 
effects, his 'firiends secured thO greatest part 4^f<tliem for 'him, wteh 
theyiftervr&rds found an opportunity to n k to him in his retirement s 
but aU that could be discovered, whish aitioanted to 100. taients,^ 

< 1 

• A >«a*ml thoanad crowM FiitiKh|mk«!it 83,900k •U^rlia^ 


W V. . filBTORS' OF 

mil lurried to ttte phiblic IreMury. When he etA^teil upon tbe 
hflministration of the^ republic, he ww not worth (hre^^ ty^^pts; 
I shall leavia: this^illustnouB'exile for •ome time in the* cottriaf 
kuig Adinetas, to reaume the sequel of this history* 

• .> ' • 

.V pj.i yri SECTION XVII. 
. t-' ■ • ■ . ' I '« . ; 

Ariitfdefj dliintartk^iMfidiiiifratlon of the poUlctrtMara. SliiMtliaid eulogidiB. 

I hate before observed; that the command of Greece bad passed 
JfronrSparta to the Athenians.* Hitherto the cities and nations of 
Greece had indeed contribnted some sums of money towardsearryin^ 
on theeatpense of the waragamM/the barbarians; but thisassessment 
had always occasionled great feuds, because it was not jnade in a 
just or equa}')ptopor1iion. It was thoiigbjb proper, under this new 
government, to:lodge in the island of Delos tne Common treasured 
Crre^e ; to idnact nev^ regulations with regard to the public mo- 
neys ; and to lav ssch a tax as mi^ht be regukte'd a<^ordiBg to tiie 
Tevenud of eacfi city and state ; in order that the efitpenses beioff 
equally borfte by tho several members who cOtnposed the body of 
the allies, no otie might havb reasotttO' murmdr* The great ffojnt 
was, to find a person capable offdischarging faitlifuUy an, em)[>loymeiit 
of such' delieapy, and attended with such danger and difficulty, the 
due administration of which/so nearly conc&Oied the public wel^* 
ft,re. AH the' allies cast their e^^e* on Aristides; accordingly they 
inyested^im with full poweis^^iiMiappointed him to levy a tax on 
«ach of them; rel^uig «iti«e]y oh his wisdom and justice. 
* They had no Mi^ise.lo repetatof thnr choice* He presided over 
the treasury with thie fidelity ratiddisiDterealediiess oC« iBaa,^ who 
looks upon it as(a,capitab crime to>eoihe2zle th« smallest portion of 
Another's propeityV ^with the care* and activitv of a father oi a 
ihniily; who jnanagBs his own estatei an^ with the .caution and in^ 
tegrity lof a peraon^ who considers the public nijonQy as sabred* In 
fina, hesucceeiM in what isiOqnaUy dffiicttlt^Lnd eji^aoirdinary, vir. 
in! acquiring the love .of aij^ in tok^Moe iniwhiciibhe that escapes 
the public odium gains>a creat point. Suci^ w the glorious charac- 
ter' which Sebeca gives ot a person charged witti ^n employment of 
almost the same Itrnd^ and the noblest eulpgiun that can be given 
of such as administer the public revenues. It is the exact picture 
dfArihtides. Heiliscover)edJM> nMich -probity and wisflooi in the ex- 
ercise 'ofthis office thilt no num^com^plained ; and thjopia times were 
considered ever after- as the igoilden Sj^, that is, the ptariod in ,whlch 
Greece had attained its ^tfhest pitch pf virtue. an^ happiness. 
And* indei^d, the tlff:wfaish -he had fixed, in the wholes at, 460 ta 

^ • > • ' »"• « . • ri I 1 .■•,.' . ' 

'* Plit tit Arift p 333,' IM^ Dind. l.'Xl. p. Ml IT ^ • 

' t Tu qiiideiii oitit terrarum rationea admlnbtrM ; Urn alMlnenter qoAm alienaa, 
tam dlllgeiiter qu&ro tuas, ram rellgioii^ qu&m piibltcaa. lo officio amoiam cooaeqiM 
llfl, lo quo oAttm Mttara dmOkmL'' Stmt, Uki>4t BnmL n«r«ai^4Br«L- 

PBRSf ikNs &my. ^miCDANs. ri 

ients,* was raised bjr Pdricles toVOQ^ andntoon 1900.tft« 
Jents : Hot that the expenses of the vf.Uf'wew^inictQaa^At but beeauM 
the trei^sure was employed to ve^v useless purposes, in manual did* 
tributions to the Athenians, in soiemni^ing of games and festivals, 
in building of templed and public edifices; not to mention, that.the 
handd'of those who siiiperintexided :the treasury were not aWayv 
80 clean and uncorrbpt as those of Aristides, This^wise and e^mtp 
Me conduet se<;ar\ed him, to the latest posterity, the glorious for- 
iitja& of the JutU ,.,-,,. 

Nevertheless, Phitarch relates an action of Aristides, whicil 
shows that the Greeks (and the same may be said of the Romans) 
had a very narrow and imperfect idea of justice. ..They confineil 
the exercise of it to tbe interior, as it were, of civil society ; and 
acknowledged that individuals were bound to ooserve strictly 
its several maiims iH' their intercourse With each other : but with re* 
l^d to their country, to the republic (their ^reat idol, 16 which they, 
referred every thing,) they thought in a (jutte dijQerent manner, (\nd 
imagined themselves obliged to sacrifice to it, through principlot 
n^ only their lives and possessions, but even their religion and the 
most Sacred engagements, in tontempt of the most solemn oathst 
This will appear evidently in what I am now.gouig to relate. 

After the assessment of the contributions, of which I have just 
8poken,f Aristides, having settled the several articles of th^ at' 
iiance, made the confederates take an oath to observe them punctu- 
tlly, and he himself swoi*e in the name of the Athenians; and wi^eu 
denouncing' the curses whiciv always accompanied the oaths, faio 
threw into the sea, pursuant;to the usual custom, large bars of red-^ 
Bot iron. But the ill state of the Athenian affairs forcingfthcm af-. 
terwards to infringe some of those Articles, and to govern a little 
iK)re arbitrarily, he entreated them to transfer those curses on him,, 
iod exonerate themselves thereby of the punishment due to such 
li had forsworn themselves, and who had been reduced to it by th^ 
snhappy situation of their afiairs. Theophrastus tells us, that im 
general (these words are borrowed from Plutarch] Aristides, who, 
^all matters relating to himself or the public, prided himself upoi^ 
flaying the most impartial and rigorous justice, used to act, du- 
rbg his administration, in several instances, according a^ the exi^^ 
pcy of df&irs and the welfare of his, country might require ;,dt^ 
i^ his opinion, that a gbvernment, in order to support itself La^ 
ttsome occasions, obliged to have recouiTse to injustice, of. which. 
>& gives the following exan^le* Ox^e day, as the Athenians were', 
^ting in their council aJ^ut bringing to their city, in oppositioi) 
^the articles of the treaty, the comroos trocusures of Greece wfiich 
v^dejMsited in Ddos, the Samians having opened the debate . 
^hoi k waB Aristides's iurh to speak, he said, that the removjBl 
' the tietsure was an unjusjb . action, but useAil ; and made tlii^ 

* The tataa is worth a UMasaad Freneb eiDWup ; or about 9tSl. aierlliic, 
t Tlvt. te Altai, p. 33ii^3M . ^ 1 - 

oblitrcd to bear the charge of it, andtoJinnilaftt fiUi/'faaniLp .Hb 
«i$Mbhi wei«'kriiyried,<l2il&(L^iiMdiiiA JuBiaaa ms< aiUMMted at 
CYi^l^pehiBe^rthe PryteNMiMv^'Wiiictt kbo gaye tiie d«q;liUKi£ 
tzfe'latta*,'!!!!^ Ills detftti/thtf' f»eteiini:v<iiftbu«ludiMth4ie.>weia 
iyh'bufed wfio'hid beeii vietortcttiijat tfatt-O^mpicflametf. .I^lotaxok 

ref^c%; ^9 ' this occa8t6ti', the • liiseviilftT df tha'AtfiluiiaiiBiri^fiiyour 
df'trife poMertty of AH«togiton','tiieihid<slmi«iv.idio<i^ &Heii(tto 
db(f£y / aiiff 'hb addi, <thir^<^en bi ^hiii'lWff^UDaBt^^jww^aAkr) 
the Mme 'jfdMj[Jf^ftttd-l%i6ra!hty> still wri^ 
acitrtb have >riMW^ fbi-^'iilttiMrMf^^ 
grittt^d^;^ tiifitfa i^h-ohg ni€itiV« <<)>iikteii|0findiiiidaal«,.win^iJiv«fc9 
iflstired tbkt^ih^ir r.fcildHm wb^kliet^oy tiiO' rewaods nduch deatik 
ifllght ^rj^ve^t theiHfeeli^riHM^ted^Miigi V iJt^ivias ddlightft|l to«Hi 
tft'6 remotii^ ^iAfterAfV of >thcf^lief^iid«f«>4uid 4elkrerer»ioi;ftl»<£aiiw 
iHbi^i^eaJtfi; Wtib hfd^lh!ieTite«K«0ihiiig-fKOiii/th^ anbeatonjbat 4w 
(gS^y of th«fr^i(ai6hi^, rffoiiAMnedAfof )!• nniiyji^a at.fhe expean pubfic/'iri'i^6fniidetiltioh df effete ^fefenieea'whic^iiheif. fioiiitiaB 
fiHll rbqdcred ilfe etiite. Th^'ytl^iii^itbibBMiiin witiiii|]]chfw»m 
bonddr, and '*^n^ xtj^H^M^- i^eMr-ameriof .thcb^aocttt^ 
oiuch jgrreat^r sjrfi^iiddfli'; 6i«ui aWlHtude of oitia^^iiftfwliQae/atlien 
Kad'tijen ^^icUis 6hfy ¥6 leaV<^'4hd9>^gMat<eal»tedi whicfai get^^mlljr 
'*'^;iiki9iig%tk»yiii^ tii^ ^\it9 nkM thbtn^ and o&en.leMn'to tJiam 

ip. ^ bdiova r^niMabvance «6 tteiifuatmnuid' 
I'theV wef^'as^qtiived;^!: >/i '^j,,ii.vf t.t M;^-?., v 

'^'1/d greajte»t ltCiiotti"{t^itih <ttiift'Wieittadwvc('dm&tt> )kim\As^ 

.w.,.w o ..» ^ . . .. .^ Wotaarchirikkeaa liefleo* 

r^a^kabH I'^liuiyBsit in- 

*^j$inbi^' thi^'-ir^Vef^'^tuM of Aitatideav bays thia ittdMpoba 
ifi^hd¥,^hiLi 'for whieh he waamoat'rtfQoWiiQd^^^vashihubjuBtkai 
becauae this vf^e,!ro)"liFi<Mt^6AbriL) itee(}'iita be^efUs exibJi^iloia. 
MfU- Mf/ib^HbrpeiMni^r-Uid'itf^ H^horibunAaiJodi Ahdib^ 
h M'^&, 9Pltv^ l^ilfeibm^^AMMbptoyitieBU. Hawieit ,Mt 
iK'XHfali^ed^^tliyMlgtf m^o«^^^«li)R|8Mncea,a]id:df Di^aiiexlratt:* 
tion, iiierited the title, of Jutl ; a title, savs Plutarch, truly joy^ 
^yMfSt tNii^%V({ley'lfti«^ilwrwUlch priiioes<ar»aaadmttrtibi- 
(TifiU/'Belifltiii^ iChe^' ar^ ^oyijUtM of <9;8 • beiUit|i.(aDd>'jekQellctiey«. 
^Wi!^^\tL^teix3\ b^««ii]lk(^ltle tak«ffdJt>f citiea,i tiioi tfaundeiK 
VAiB^bf VilK ^MS6lor^=UrM>riq(ieAMvtiid adlneliilieBaye&iOafrkaattb 
k'AlikV'pl^H^ig'th^Vtfilf^oMlUi*^^ ttUoar^^w^. coiKvdy 

«o other iJeo than violence and slaughter^ t'l the solid ^kiry oT 

« ma. la vtt. Arin. i;. ki,m * '"""t WuoMH.gtril^*!K^^ »»**' 


wtom YoM boMt tli^^«M tb# iMti^, I ixn 19 imnoiitiMk 
power, tnd^jttBtl6b$'thtttH$f these thHM 'ftttribt^, th3 first ef 
which eX(5^Mi' our sdMirttiofi and dedrevthc kttuomi.^Jis«us.wi||i 
dread ihd terr^fr, tod^tlM^ tMrd jni|riw» us with lofv^'itaiJi raipacii 
this laiMitf^^lM olllf 6<ii't»uhf and pere^ncJfy oemhittnioaled tdiman^ 
ai^ Uh wjremtt'tiMLtead (conduct hiuvta the ^tnertwbV Syhwin 
Impofliible l» cMLii to lylleoaie tr«ly vaaaotyxX and j|k>werrul»tat liy 
bein^j^kt.* -'^ :• ' • 'J i '^ .- j,. .. 

A. M. 399^' BeOnre 'I restijie the sequel of this history, itiihay 

A.B4MB.jit.i..A^(bev|fli^rop0r'<t»!ohien^e, that it w«8 about tiM 

period that the faiiii^ of <the GTeek8;:wl^ werevatiUwore rehowned 

for th» i(risdom 6f ■thei¥'politf thin tb^ ^trMry of thttiy ^ioieriea, jtf: 

daced the Roihitis to Itave'tetfouraetdtmir Fights afidikaewledg^v 

Rome, f^rtlied- cdlder kings, was in* want of suehlaws as ^era 

necessary ibr th^^obd'^verhramit of a* common wealth. ' f^or thia 

parpoa^ tfaelloamns sent dcpntieif to copy the laws of the teitieaof 

Greece,^ flind particulairty' those of Athe* vwhicWwere still betldf 

adapted to the popular gfovemment> Ihat na«l been^establiahed aftet 

Xh^ ej^ukion nSf the kings. On this model, the tei» ma^tratei^ 

c^r^d Oetemnrif wh > were 'inve^dd with nbsdlr.^e aathant^, 

diig^gted the" laws of the I'weWe Tabtes, which'et^ tho bana of tha 

Roman lawi. ' '. . f , . i- .. •.• 

. •- • ' ■ •• -■ sEcnftN xvin. .. . /\f..7 . 

• ' -' • • •>■■"' M ■' ' ••• • • <•• A .». • •'. 

. ]>eath«irXerzM,wbyitkilI«dV-^'tab»Biu. Hit cbu:feter. ,.,. 

A. M. asdi. ' ' The ill sncce^ of Xerxes in hia Expedition aCttHMI 
AM. J. c. 4t3. the Greeks, find which continued after#ardii^ t^Ssi^h 
discourafed him.f ' Reiidiinclng aU thoughts of Wair and tf^»(^i»Mt» 
he abandoned him^lf i^ntirel/to ^uxury and ease, and 'was^stM^ibua 
Afnotiiihfl^'bntliis pieas^re^: ^'AUabanus,^ ft'natiyedf Hy^cania* 
captain tn his guards, wh6 l^ad Idp^een one of his'^ef iavourilies^ 
ibond that his dissblute cond*Tct ha<!l drawn \ipon him the'coRtcm^pl 
Gfius st'T^ebts. He therefor^ itoa^in^d that thrti would h^ afkv^ynfc 
able dppprtoliifty. to conspire ajgf&inst his sove^il^ ; and hE diarried 
h"j a^bitioua 'vtews so far t3 to flaiter himseif with ike hopes ef 
succeeding hiin i^ the throh^.f Ithr vet^ Ukely, that he was ei^ 
cited to the commission of this' critnef'om another m^lre.'Xerteiii 
hid commanded hun to hiardbr DtlfM; his eldest sonT^ttt'for whit 
cause Jxistor^ is silent i As thid ord^f Ha'i been jgiten tit a banq«rel| 
Qd when tbe coMpsfh^ was heated wtth' ,vine,'he^ifliMil doubt <M 
tlat XerxeH #otild foi^et tt< ahd therefore was ifibt^ltf htiritS'to^-oh^ 
ii: howeir^^ be Wa^ mistfiken,' fbr the kiikg'^ ceknpkitt^d ^ his dina 

M inodtuta^ morei, Ju'aque noacese Decern tabularanr ie|[^ perlaidC km 
MlkBmm pMftMriutt)(ril ritrneqdoqti4>'toliocluJiDibiMotilMhiiritfi^r<iMw|Mf« 

^ / ^»maf9imwhtmm 

'AH \ 

j^MknoBiiwU h'fn«de^iAft^a!m«die|kdJlu4fri«99XitiiieBt^ 
fore he redolyev. M, pmvmn^Mm* i Ao^rdingly-h^ ]H|eveale<^ u^ 
4^ndatek,ifiite «f ti(e ^iifMieN<«f tbSfpiiW^raoi^j^igl^^^hkiHber'- 
llviv; to^ tegage irkihw JDOMpiritcy ;; nM^ IfTthlftiiB^f .^nlevied.tbis 
nhttflDbet ttsiiere i^ kiagi hj^ taid ■. )inu94e¥f <^ j^ni ^^ l^f ^aleepf ( He 
|)feeiliweQ^ttnme4iate)y to. Arta^xerxes^ tb^lHifdi^KMi^iQf J^^'^ui^i ,il9 
^anokii faiia of Un» t»»]til^> ohwegiiii^oDi^rius ^s ^^dcairbc^W 
with it; as if impatience to ascend thf^ Uirone had prooip^4J)ini ^ 
t/9 lihAt.«s(t»a(ble d^d. ^ He kdlilc4« %im^ |o -Becn^e the QifQW|^to 
Uutosd^ lie mm resolted to .mfurW -^iim .^i>) for •lyjpich.sbasb^ it 
-ftroiUdv'ba ebaeiately iieoemiry fbr. hkB>.|p'i^eQp l^pon iiuffu^r^. 
'Ih^ee^ words hiibvisig^mad)d> uMii ivifwrea^ioii p9;<AaitMQFxesx w^ ?^^ 
still a- |miitiiy'Whici»' ArtfttHtnus idesire^, hQ> went iimioe4i%t^X jy^lQ 
bti bretih^r's (aite;,rtment, v^ieret being assisted !%; Ar^bi^nusi and 
Ids 1 guiA-ds, he miurdeied > haQi. Hys^pes, Xeixes's ^(^ad . S90| 
^aftnext heit to the ofsiwjft after ]6arius;,.but as hetw^a^ ttiea in 
BaotHatla^ (^ which he Wf* ° goivemortArtaiHttUs seated ^rta^srxes ' 
ea^he tiftDtm, wit^ this di«<iga>of:e«Seiv^ him to ^njoy^H nq ^gger 
tkuittitt^had tofitted ti( mti4)^8tifidng.eno^h tof^rWe' Jiinvm:^^ 
it^tawl aoceodUc'lliin^lfv/ lBft':g«ciat,m:^oriifty had ^gfu^ed' h^^^a^ 
flsiiltitudci SiiC^^em^bAtA; benid^Uiis^'^o Jiiad) ^^^wm sona^^who 
were tall, handsome^ strong, courageous, and raised to jtpe. lushest 
employments in the empire. The aid he hoped to receive from 
them, was the chief modvetSC his^rifpiiS^liis vi^ws so high. But 
whilst he was attempting to complete his design, Artaxerxes beinv 
informed of 't!il8*i[)lcit byTSlegabyaius; wftio" had rrtartifed^foe of his 
ffM^ii find^Jjy^, antiijipate ,l^^*n4;kille* him bpfere^ he 
"iMMiflNii^p^f^li^Bity of pvUisg bis.tre^so?\,iiif xecjutipo. fHisidfe^k 
^Uii4^d.^hi9. prince ii^ tbIe,po$8ess^n pf tte kmgdoni., ..,:^ 
e tvmw»^^V(e 8e^Q^h€i.end,^^F3W8, whp was ppe of t,{ie|pq3t 
jiowerfulpi^iioes tfoat^ver Uv€cl,iX* wouldrt^ peedlops J>V m^jto aa- 
jiqipsAe'jti^efrf^dei^ i^^th^Beape^fUtotha ji^mei^t ,Jhie oiigb^ to form 
flfwoi 'tWe see bun yBi|Erounded{ witb,<^b&feyer is. greatest aiid 
i]|C|s|j,:brilU«ii[^lin Uie;ppiflion, ^f .ipftn^^^^ thi^ mopt tgEea^iy^ epa- 

e^eA^thf t ,tiwie i^ ilhe world : ri^pnieosetfeasuir^, ^d ^ foigefi/botii 
land bM 9^1 ^hose .qii^^b^ ^^ppeati^ incr^d^]e;j , Ajl these 
tilings howejjerj afle rpui^v%«,] no^.ift, VfF"* ,^^ aid^'no Ii|sti:e tQ 
hi*: n^ur^ f^ifjifiepi^, bM}n)by-^btindnee^,tpo common \o ]?fiace* 
iJMlfi)9at|0iepB<bornin th^ la^^of ab^^^?(,^ce,heir to_^bouu4lesjE' 
p»wisr, ftilJii^ Wr« f^^ ha4 ia»t hip^.ijathing, h^.na^accustoiuec 
bcftaelf tui^wlgevf *is pvyn jtelei?^ aic\d per^o^. nj^^jt from t^^ ex.. 
^ertiof.'to. e?«tef4.smK>a.,and tfok^i H/^. ^di^r^gajrds the- vdsii 
sfiluioils'tQif iArtii^tiiS^ ^d of.penda^atvis, f^ho alone. nad 

courage enough to speak truth to him ; and he abandons himseirto 
(^itfet^, ti((9!''(ik^oteih3'c^ his JfotVutie^ whese whtH^ et\idy H'^wtfis to 
sDOib'eih^.passibiis'.'.^. J^'' propQrt^Wis,^'^ preten4aJU^<;r^l4^^> th9 
iMJtdUlssi^of hy efiierpiises^ hf Ihe exteM dfiiis^pbwtsiW' >Th« slavish 

•*Wlitta*Qf fo fnaitf. !iation44o Jofa4^j^o6tft^.bii^;ai^jd^^ fUd 



cB^sted with too^ easy an obedience, he takes pleasure in exer- 
cising hia. poiwr over the elements, in cutting his way through 
mountains, and making thmu iinggbk chastising the sea ror 
having broken down his br|dfe,lpfi, in, foolishly attempting to shac- 
kle the waves, by throwing feucrs into them, i^uffed up vith a 
childish vamty and ridiculous priife,^ hd lt>oks upon himself as the^ 
arbite of nature i he imagines, that not a nation in the worl^ will 
dare to wait his arriva^ ; and f(mdly and presumptuously rel:?s on 
the millions of raen and ships which he drags after him. But when, 
afler the bat^ c^ Salaoiif i|^he behold? t|^e sad ruins, the ihameftil 
remains, of bfe IUimierl<Ml3r3ops.'.E(|ft^tete^ ^^A fit Greece ;'" he 
then is sensible of the nyide difference between an army and a crowd 
of men. In a word, to form a p^l]^y udgmeut of Xerxes, we need . 
but contrast him with a plain citizen of Athens, a Miltiades, The- 
mistocles, pr JV^sticles. In the latter we fmd all the ffood sense, 
prudence, awty in wBx,.i«lout^d $reiiti^if pf jidjuIk l^^fre foi^ 
mer we see nothing but vanity, pride, obstinacy ; the meanest and 
most g^veUing sentimentsHun- sometimes the most horriu bar- 
baiTty. "^ 

* SmtnaqM per totam paarim ^rc^jiai Xttiai^f&tdlexh,qaaBtiiiB ab niielta toifet 
rtt, 4iiMp.tftJ9«Kr.l.Ti.e.^ 

o >v '4 

.1 ; •■/ '".''H 


.'.Is >» '\) ■"^* .^ \ ■.:/^ 

■i . • 7 . -. n ..TO .»■* • •!:• iii :rv/ 


■'. '> 

f. : v.". 

' ^ ... . 

■ • 4 4 


i? ■ '^?.A/ 



>• t 


(. 1 

■*^ » i 

P^R«IAiW» AND' €m£Ci^ .';'.* 

t — — : •■■ ■■• "• 

This chapter includes tl^e history of the l^ersi^ axi9 Greeks^ 
from the beginning of the reigii of Artaxerxes to ^he Peloponne 
slim war, which began in the 4^d year of that king's reign. 


AitazentM mini the ftctkm of Artabanoi, andtlMt of Hyitupes Uv elder- krolhar. 

A. M. 3531. The Greek historians give this prince the sumainc 

Ant J. C. 473. of Longimanus. i^trabo says,* it was because his handi 
were so long, that Iwhen he stood upright he could touch his kneei 
Mith them: but according to P]utarcn,f it was because his right ham 
was longer than his Jen. Had it not been for this blemish, hi 
would have been the most graceful man of his age. He was stij 
more remarkable for his goodness and generosity. He reigne 
about forty-nine years. 

Although Artaxerxes,! hy the death ofArtabanus,wa| delivers 
from a dangerous competitor, there still were two obstacles in hi 
way, before he could establish himself in the quiet possession of h 
throne; one of which was his brother Hystaspes, governor of Bau 
triana ; and the other, the faction of Artabonus. He began 1 
the latter. 

Artabantis had left seven, sons, and a great number of partisaii 
who soon assembled to revenge his death. These and tne ad)^ 
rents of Artaxerxes, fought a bloody battle, in wliich a great i%ui 
ber of Persian nobles lost their lives. Artaxerxes haying at U 

• Lib. zv. p. 735 t la Artax. p. 1011. ; Ctes. c zxx. 


€Btire]jridfliroat»i) lut^emmfetiipiit to death all who had ailofdk m 
this c6atpfra^3^ His took aii<:Gfxtinphu7 vehgeancb of tlloie whp 
wen oonoemed in^hia latiioii'ft4ilbn]o^, and jiartictthLri^ of MhSiH- 
daies the eunatthcwho hiid bcTroydd him : he made him iuffer the 
paniabinent Of ike TrnU^ki^ which was. execdted in the fblbwinr 
manne^I He wofi laid oil his ba(5k iti a kind' of horse-troagh, ind 
strongly fattened 'to the four 'corners <of it.* Every part of hipi, 
except hi» htead) his hande^iand feet, whiddcame ont at holes made 
for thiit purpose^ was covered with anothertrougb. In this horrid 
sitiiation viotiials-were given him from tune to timO'; und in case of 
hffi reAi8a|;j to eat, the^ we^'O fbrOed doivn his throat : honef nnxiad 
wit]) milk' was given him to drink, and all bis face was smeared with 
it, wlncfepby that nieans attracted a numberless muH^ude of flies, . 
espeoiaUj/'ais kie* wasr perpetually exposed to the scorching layn'of 
the Sam. > The "w^Ms which brad inhis excrements preyed upon 
his bowels. The cnminal' hved tfi.^eti or twenty day's in inexpresii- 
ble umneiits* ^ .' • ! 

Artaxeittes having crushed the Ikction of Artabanus^f was powi- 
erful enough te'seNdan' anay into JIaotnana,' which had deckn^d 
in favour S his brother, but ne.:#Qh'^not nM^ually suecessfal dn tide 
occasion. ' The: two armiea «ngagin^, Hystaspes stobd hia grMin^ 
10 weily that If 4ie'^di<i Mt gain Ihe rictory, he at least sustaioed^o 
loss ; fi» tliat bdth armies sepahited withicqual success ; and eiiek 
letirad^o pfepdifo fbr •» second* battle. Artagteraes having raised 
a greater anny than has brother; and having bfssides thd wfeole ofah 
pitfe in bis fkVKm\ defeated him in.a, second engagement, ind en-* 
tiieiy fiiined hisipnffty. By this jrictofy he secured to hhnsotftitft^d 
qmet piM o e fsd idtt'tf ^k empifi»>" / ' - 'i 

To nainfiiin hiinsblf-on thethTone^ he removed ffom^ their i^m' 
^Tment aU<«ikh go?emorb of cities aadjprovmcea as he mepect^ 
oftoldin^ a correspondence with either or the factions he haaovca^ 
cone, iiiid svbstiiute^'o^orBoi' ^<nh'he could' relj^. \^% after- 
wuds applied ImiKelf to reform the abuse^^tnd diaordera ^ti^hteh 
lad crept utto^Uhe government. By this wiMrcondvictand zeal fat 
tke puhlic ^ood, heisoon acqiured great reputiitiott and authority, 
togethof with the love of hi«.aiib)ecu, tne atrehgeat auppociof 
anereigiip^wer.': '"' " ' " 


., T]MtobtocIe«,t^kB9'teAige with AtazeH^n. 

A. It 3SM. Ai^cor'ding'to Thucydided, Themistocles fled to this 

AaLj.c.i73. prince* in the beginning of his reign: but oth^r au- 
tbo!B, as Strabo, Plutarch, Diodorus, flx this incident under Xerxes 
kis prededsMri Dean Prideaox is of the latter opinion ; he Uke- 
wiae thinks,, that th^ Aitaxerxes in question ia the same wbp. is 

' Fhtt. in Anas. p. 1019.' t CMa c zul. ' % Dlod. I. xl. ]^. Si., 

d4Mi,^]ttAieru» m Scrif»tarip, and.wl^iMtmiimd Esdusrt'ibdt i^eiRq»- 
ptMe, with tJb& learned ajchbiihop/Usherii'ihftt^tiwfus Dftnttt> theHK)n 
'OCMyfitaspeigiwhaespoQied.Ukis Ulnstrioikft^ew^afc i liWiwAlrfladjr 
lieclared vooie than oi3ce,<thfLtfi? would lKit'enfl^e:ii»iOODtjrt>ve]mf 
of t^iis kind ; and therefore^ with dregaid-^o this BighX o^'Tibemis- 
toclei into. P«i»ia, ahd thae : history of Eetfajat, I sholl foUow, the 
.opinion of the learhed Usher,: my. uauaLffiiideoQitlieBe'OCCamQOSit 

We have seen that Theibietoeles, had fled, to Adin^^evfikiug of 
.the Molossi^iand had met^with a gracious, reception ^mf^nt; hut 
the Atbeniane ^and Lacedemonians wcmld- not 8u^ril«fii.'tO(treraain, 
4heneri|i pea^e, and teq tired ttlHit^riitce to deliver. him tut>^.t^reat- 
^fg'j in case of refusal, to i^arry, their armsiintOihiii eomntli^.i i Ad- 
metus, who was unwilling to draw- such'^sniufla^le eQ(9liiie8f(upoii 
{liiB^eif, and much more to deliver up. the xa^ whoJbtadtfleduto him 
fer,refu^, informed. him. of the gj^t dioager.lo.JWihich'lie.WMi oX« 
poe^d^ and jSivoured Jik flight* - Thtoiitocida vent Ks^c hy land 
as Pydna, a city of Macedonia, and there embarked tm beard. a 
mQrphantH3hip'^.whieh was bouiid tto loiiia. > Nime of the/paanen- 
f^/i)knekv ihtmiu A atonn-hltviiig oanded> this. vessel;. near. the. 
"Uliaqd. ^f NajE0S9 thto ^siegedoby' thai Athenians ^HhOi imnunent 
idaager toi which T/iemistoclfn. vv|aoe;H)08.ed, obVgedi him U» dis* 
coner himself to the pilot 4M|^ maiileariot the shipt MeT^rnhk^ by 
entremies and me&acep,>he ^raedrlhesipii to sailvtoWiudSfAsia^ . ■- 

.;TheFiidtocles might oH this oeeii^n call to ftiiiid.aiii jeapreBsioD 
whioh his father had made .use ofvf ^hen he was ^wcpry yosaigrin 
ord^Tito warn; him to ky wy litjble siJrees on tite^fa'tQiit ictdako 
comlDon people* . The^^weretthen wallting tegifthdriinrithevbar' 
bour. His father pointing to some ceMen gaUf^ii thUiki^^Meleoted 
on th0j ^rand; X#oe^ lAfre; siaye h^sm* pointinffiitQithem,:i^iMi <£> 
thf9 p€Qpie (nsoU their govemor^ylvhen iketfiam f aibeyiH mp fiacihtfn 

He arrived at Gums, a city of JSoliaab Asie^MiiKMrfi i The kane 
of. Persia had set; a price tt|x>nihisiheadv and proiii«i9ed.9Q0;tiikiili4 
to rimy ;.ereoU who aliould deli\*eft him./upv.! The ivih<Hftiic0a8i ^trafl 
pcyrerj^d, with- people, (who-were' %«atohing .for.hiih(>(>iie\fied tti 
J3g!tBi, a little city of iEIolia»-wb.Me ao one kveV^ IdmitoKoepI Niijo^ 
|rene8,' at whose house he lodged. He was the m<iet'iV9ali|ii^inaA 
m that country,, and very intimate with aU the lords of the Persian 
court. Themif>tocles was! concealed, some days in his house, till 
Nicogenes sent him, under a stron|r guard, tp Susa, in one of thoso 
covered chariots in Wttich the rersl&ws, who were extremeN 
jettJoufit» used tociqrfy thejr wives ; those wli^ocof>ducted h^. tell.- 
mg every body, that thpy wer^, carry ii^ a. young .Ipf^k .kdy to i 
^ourjtier. of great distinction. ' ' if; ♦ 

BjBing' cou^e to the Persian court, he waiteud i^h.«t]i;^ pia^taifji of 

.1 r > ' 

*iThiicyd. I. ]. p. m), fifl. riut rn Chemist, p. 135. 1^. ' I^loi* * «< H'lH 4%. Con 
.Nep in Tlifinist. c. viii. x. t Pluu In TheinUt. p. 118. 

; T;^o bundled UM|ut«iidcrowiM|Oriii)P<it)4S,00Gf.tte,rU«ii \ j '- 


tb« ^!ite^;and told liim, ^^t he Was H Oredan by birth/«ftd* beg^ ' 
ged the kiiigf would adD^t him. td «u^enc«, is lie had matters of 
great iitiportame td communicate to hiiii^' Tb^ officer infennod ' 
him of a ceremony Whicfh he knew imitf bffetiaive to Mtn^ Greeks, btrf 
witAout \^falcb taotie wete ad]6w^ 16 sp^ak to tho king ; and this Waa^ 
to fiiU proMi-ate berore him. 'Out^ 1^9, says he, eoiMndnd ut to honouf 
the kik^ th tAof fHrknh«r, and to toorfhirfhim! <u tK'e^lwvi^ vnagi (f 
A« tMmoHb/ 6m^, t^Ao Yilamtotnj ona pre»erv&M aU ikingt, The- 
OMgtocies promised to comply. B^irig admitted to audience, he 
kU on bis fkce before the km^, af er the Peman manner; and 
afterwards riilnffup, Oreat kingy* says he by an interpreter, lam 
Tkemistoel^tkeMtKeniaAy tcho hamng beeti banuked ly the Oreeki^ 
091 come A yotiir couH m hfptM of finding am atylum* I %aoe in* 
deedbrofi^htinAr^iaUmiiuA 6htkePttMM*,MU,.on the other #id^» 
I haw doH^ therk nd le»t tervkei, by the fdliUary adtice 1 hav^ gwm 
fSem more than once / ahd 1 am now abte to do them more imporiani 
tenieet tkiMhser* Jfy life i» in ftpur kkndt* ' You may no(t eateri 
^our clemency^ or dispiay your ifetijgeance : by the former you wUl 
vrnerve ^f&ur iuppUant; dnc^ by Vuf kMtr 'you tfUl'degtrdy tk4 
seated SnetMf of Oi^ite. « *' » . '' / .' 

The 1dii<j made him no answer at thia* audience; though' he irui 
^ck *witn admiration at his' great aense and boMness; but hx$* 
tory informs us, that in ootttp&j «f'hia fViends, he conjgT<ktuli[fted 
boseif. upbn his ^ood fbrtiufi«l^ and ^ tendered Themistoclee's arri^ 
nias a verylgreat happineed; that b^implored^hia gO^'Arimanius 
iHrays' to ittspire hitf enemies with Boch ttioughts^ and- t<i )froropt 
iem to Mnish, and thus to dleprit'e ^hemc^vesof^ their fiioist ifina* 
rims p^rsotaages. If ia 4ddeS, that Wheft this kin^was asleep, be 
tertcd up three timed throa^ excess of joy, and £ried, / ha»e got 
iSmUtocies theMhenimf ' : i! . 

The next mbrning, at day^break, he seift for the greatest Idrdrf 
^liis courtyard' commanded T^e^istocles* to be brou^t ^nefbre 
lb, who eiq^ected nothing but destnjetion'; especiaHy- aileltwhat 
«ieof his ^ardd,tipon hearing bis nam6, had eaid'tl) him the 
^fat belbr&,'even in the presence-chimber, just as he ha4 lefl the ' 

iB^y 'i^ich appeared in* the k!ing*0 fac^ ^seemed te promise 
ia^orable- reception. Themistoclea wa^ not miatakM^i for the 
^ began by making him a prosent of 300 toliMtsit which «q«> 
^ni pronfified to fitny ^4 who should deliver hlniujp', W)ikfh'am« 
"^leatly wms his dtle, Us Themi^odles bad btought hiiirhia head, 
^ torrendferlng himself to him.' He afterwards desired hiift to 
live aa ttotcfvoA' of the affkir^ ^ Greece. Bui' aH.TheiXiiatoMea 

^td fiot'eM{n^ his thdullfhtB t<ytbe>king without the assiMancii 

JTbi^dMM Mtilbttter tft blM yistf nest ttie ni«6 wdrdli; kut ■■ tomkag a MMi 

W HISTOKT 01 1PHE n:^^ 

of an B|terpreter»b9.^e9ired time mxgkt hn nRawei ^m to lean 
tjbe. Persian t^ngtie^ .boj^ng he th^ ehpul/d be able to ej^plam 
' those thin^.wUicb he wasi^ef^roue of communicating to hitn«het- 
ter than hj^coald bv t^e oi^ of fiyth^fd pevpoa. Jt^ the;samcua«J8 
he, 'With the speech>of'a man^ aa .with;a pieee of tapei^tfv, which 
must be spreaa oiU ajid unfoldodlt to fhow the flgurea ^d beauty 
of the .wor](, His reqii^t beiiig girante(), Th^ii»tocl^« iq im 
sp^oe of tweiyc)i> months^ made so great aprogreas in the PjOinsiaii 
language, that he spoko it. with gret^t^r elegance than the Pexsians 
thempielves, and op^sequently ^!^ld ooa verse withthe kingwithout, 
the help of an interpreter. This prince treate<|him >vito< uncom- 
mon marks of friendship and estei^m ; he made liim m^rry a lady 
deseended from one of the noblest iamilifis in P?rsi|i ; ffave him a 
palace and an (^mpageA^oitable to it, lfnt)> settled a.ncf^le pimsion 
on Jiim. He useicl to c^rry him a,hrq9^don his parties of hunting, 
and invited him to every banquet and entertainment; anil sometimes 
conversed privately with.htfn»>so that the lords qf the'<:^rt gr^w 
jealous a^a uneasy upon that account«^ Hq ev^n presented him to the 
princesses, who. honoured him with tb^r estieemi and revived his 
visits. It is observed as a proof of the. peoHiiai* faKOiM^ shewed 
him> that by the king's 'spof^ialiOF^jCvTrbemistocles was t^dmitted 
tohe^ the lectures and disciMirse^offthe Ma|^) and wa^ instructed 
by ^them in lall the secrets of ;ti>eir philqsapHy. ^ ; 

Another proof of bis gre# iriUMei^^JAf elated. /Demaratu3 of 
Spartii, wh^ was then- at courts b9ing^^ kiog^to 
a^k a^y thing of him^he desire^ t^^be mighty be su&red t% ifiqJce 
his!<Hitry on horseback, into theicity.of Sarqi^, witbthe ^oyjil tiara 
on Jbis head: a ridiculous vanity! lequiUIy up worthy of tiie Gre- 
cian 'gramcleiir, aqdithe simplicity of tf^ J^acedsmppian ! The king, 
exasperated at the insolence oi his demoAd, ezprpssed his disj^ua^ 
iD.tbMtrongest terms, iiad se^a^dr^ pardon him; but 
T^mistocles having interceded, thie Mng restorecl.^bJiiii to favour.., 
In fine, the credit .aj^d influence of Themi^tofiles was sojrreat, 
thfit under the succeeding reigns, in which tha affairs of 'igeiaia 
were still niore mixed with those of Gseece, whenever, Ibfl kinga 
W«rQ (desirous of en^gmi^ My Greek .in their service, thej.used 
to declare eitpressly w. their' lett^is, that he shquld be in gjreatex 
&vour with them than Themistocles had been with Artai^nce^. 

.It is said:als0 that Themistocies, when in his roost flourisUng 
condition in PeDHiim honoured and esteen^ad by jail the' worl4 who 
were 'Omolous uf i^iaking thnir court .to hiin,eiud one dfiy, wbei^' h^ 
table' w«s< Qovered magnificently;, CfyiMrm, y» sbovid km^ bem 

, .But at la«t; vi i| was judged iiQ(»e«B»r);/or,(he kijAg'^int^ii^it tbut 
Tbemi^tocloft should reside i^fome .^Uy.of A^i%<dW«ii§i:kMiM he 
might be ready on any occasion which should present itself, ,he 
WM acsoor&ntly stent to Magnesia« sifeitatied on/^^uW MeswdnD; aoid 
besides the w>ol^ revenues of th)it;c!tyX^ju4^o,^^,^)^''|^ 



iM»,^iff«i|r jetub) ht%U tliOM^MjM Hid LtBiMiiowaiMh 
ed JiiiD. fef .lli8imra(«Bai|9#. tQ«€| of. tjb« .citA99 wts i# ifiin«ta)ifitfi 
with bread, another witi)^imfk»/atM).,^ftiMe<i. w'^ll.oUer prvviama 
SoDierMiilhora add tw^ 400191 •!«• fgtcUs fbmitiirei'aQd .dotikea* . 
Saofa was; t;iie ciip^oiOiXif^l^fl^^iuicient ^iiigs of the Ba»t ;i instead 
of8et;Uipg,}(!(9«(Moii9joa.petmia0 rbom they rowaiided»ilihri]r. gate 
<&em cit^eif,; jipd 8<)iaetiaie» evf^ pf^umm^ whiva under, the navie 
of bi?e«4i» wiae».^fi.we3i^r0, fvirwhr them abulidantly with, all 
\imgi neoetsaiy -fox -fvoppprtiogft in a ^la^ittioent manneri iMur 
^osehold estaUiihmeiit. .. llieiiiiiitocteSil^ed !for some yeali i» 
Magnesia in the utmost splendour, till he came to hk end.iHi;lhe 
JDwicr whk^ will he itelatrtihereafter. ; '/ , . 

Ctmoii begins 'to mue a figUrf ai Athcrik' Flto first' adii^vements. A ddahie yictoiy 
gained oMtfifllMfieMiiHsi'AeattUie rfierBurymcdoir.^ "Death of THemMocMft 

iiv.J933. •. ^,Th(| i^eoians-hi^ying lo^ one of their t^bst* ois- 
KvLj.c.fTif tugui8hjedrcitizttn^,t,as well as ablest generals, ^ 
the binisbjjA^ of t^^lf i^tocjj^s, ei^defiyoure^ to^ retrieve that Iq^ 
^ bes^owix^ the coiop^a c^ the > furii^es o^ CJiqu)n, who was i^ 
aferujr to himupigiprit,., ; . ....v.r^'. /, ,.. '.j^. 

Ha spent his,(y9iitV>W.«^9|p exjzcssev as did him mg, honour, 9m 
if^a^ed no good with^fegaf4,tp his fut.\ure conduct. >The exa^l^ . . 
if this ii^t^i^)is^tfa|«^ua^,|-]y^Q pas^d his juvenile *'3ars in, m^ 
Wlute.r^ Qkaqn^, an^iifirifsr wards, rose, topo exa)tfi4/d* pitch of 
^ory, slu^^iys,^ that pa^e^s )nu;ii not fuwikja despair of a, son, whe9 
^ an^ iri[f^l|ir,in hisyputh; especially wh^n nature lias eudu^ 
ib ¥FiR),gfs^iuS|jgoodn^ of hpart, gpnerous inclinations^ and a(i 
iteein,ior pen^jQs, of merits. %ch ws^, ^he character of Cimon^ 
rhe ill .reputja^ibh he\,h94iidTAWfi u^jx liui^lf havi|^ prejudicc^d 
k people against him, ,|ie at first was very. Ill . received . by thena; 
(iien, l^ia^iiij^c^yrflg^ by '^his. rej^ulsei h^. /esolved tp^ lay aside 
^ tliougbts of concerning bimseli wit^ pubUc business, .^^t 
tiiitides f>eroe^^^,. through jlU his faults, tnat be posses^d many 
% qaa]itiie!/9, jconsp^eq h^, ^ him with hope^ ])ointed out 

^path he should. ta!k^,mstilleq; good principles int|o bAmii luid ,di4 
ot a UtUe ' Gontribi|te» % the exmlfint Ui^nu^ps; he.gfiye hixo, 
Jdthe ei^pti9n.h»v/9*pr^pecd fo;r him on; aM.f»Qf?fi|uons,^mal^ 
fR the man he^ ailerii^^rds f^ppeared , What mpi^ u^p^i^ant scrp 
fee could heha.pi%nel^^untrjj?... , ^j, . \,j^ . » j 1 i J 
Plutaee^ ohaf^vea»i:that after Cu^on haq^ ll^d^j^e hif i^vei^ 
flrayagi«^cfi%#i%ffi#i9^ w^^ 0yery reaBjecVg^, s^dv^^obiLif 
^ that iiMai:^ast iMAi ifMerior (^ Bf i\t;ades eithercip coungp and uv 
*P^7jgi&f:^ iThWWtflcleff iftprijdeiMie.^d.f6i9s^h^ ^ 

' fifty tJBjummwU erowM; or, aboat I l,«5W. M«||w> . wl ♦ ;' 9 il f >« ♦;« ♦^ . 


i»M'«MM tat uA vbtttWQi tBtin eitlier^ tkcaftfi tiitftlMt mMiMk 
kiag-^i 4a inferior t(» then in iniHuuy ««oefieiio«|'he'&f wmned 

• Io<would be«f gnMit «ti><a]it«|^ t» n^^stat^ar, if thoie iHm mKcA 
la ptMicnliii' pnlfSflBionii wduld take JEdeiftilM,' mnd nakoittliw 
<4liiC|r,toiRisliiMi and iodtniot^uch y^MtQm'9M aivreoMtk^ble fair tb» 
yMftnaii^y -bf their pafls eoid gobdoeM of ^dispo^tkdi. > Thej 
•wovud thBr^jr^ve anopi^tmitydf BepVuig4beiy^teuiitty^ev^n 
iift^ tiieir ^f&, add of fert>ettiattiig,'lii the (yeraon o^their fmg^j 
% tft»<»i and incliniition for true meiitj and the pme6iee of the wiseflt 
«ULxltaSv •!...-!/,./• .'. - • ... 

^he Atheaians, a little Kflibr'ThraiMxiictes hAd left hia ooMftry, 
having put to sea a fleet under the command of Cimon the son of 
Milfiades,. took Eioa, on^ttke'bl^ka of^ihe Strymon, Amphipolis, 
imd o^fi^r pjaccis of ThrfuQe; and i^ thi^.yro^ a venr Cf;uitful, coun- 
try ^Uunoo pUnted a cbfeoy in i^md MniiQvPOO Aiwmans tlAher 
foathat purpose. . r » 

^ T^^Att^of QiQn'ist ^90 dn^lar to be iimitttecl here.* '^^Q|«9f 
Was ffoir^^r of it udder'thekmg of Persia, lAd a6ted with such a 
•iHend Slid fldelity for his sov^reign^^'haye few exan^ifileB. Whea 
ke&ieged by-'CioiOD aad th^ Atheniahs^ it W^ ih his power tx> have 
capitulated upon honourable terms, and to^(|¥^ Returned tb Aaia 
%iliT his family and all his efect^. \i{6weVer,'l>ejng persuadetf he 
eo«^ not ttc^ this with honour,' he ^esolted to die iather thhn sur- 
teii9er. j'he 61ty wiii' assiiulted With the tititiost'fhry, ''-and hede- ' 
ftWled it"With ihcredihle'braveryV Be'mi^'at last in ^e trtmost 
Jwant of provisions, he threw from the wadEs iMp the rivei'-^trflnoa 
all ^he* gold fliid silver in the place ;, then caused fire ' to be^et to a I 
tyil^, and having kiUed his wife, hi^t;hildreii, ahd hie whol^Ainily, ^ 
he thr^w thenii^Rto the n^Jtfst 6f the flamedi aiid afterwards rusdie4 
into tfaeip hH^i^li** 1%^ khig.of ' Persia* could not hut adinire, and 
fli'the same tiitie' bewail, so surprising ^tn 'example bf gCberosity. 
The bektlt^n8, ifid^d, might give this ^ne to , what . is rather 
WJage ferocitjr and Harfcirity. ., - . '■ '\ "' 
^' CSiion made hhnself master also bf th^ 'inlaid of Scvr^^, iHiero 
^efound^the h^nes . of Theseui^, the s<Mi of ^ffeus, yho had fled 
fh)m Athens "1:6 that .cit^f', and th^re endeid fai3,dav%. A)h oracle 
Itad commanded' '{^^ search shoi^d be mad^ bfter hid'j^es. €i- 1 
men pnt theni^ otr 1[>oard hl^ 'j^ley", adorned them magnificently, and 
tarried theiti'fo'fiSd native country, near B(Kl;ye(ki^ after Tfaeaeas 1 
had left it. 7^e people .received thettrwithth^hagbest ^pfea- 
iR^s^J^; )iad/tb' pdrpehMte the ^em^branti^ ofttiSa event, 
t!% M»f u4«rDam^ in vfrUch Afe tragic jpofHa '#tre «o try their 
AiU, whil$'!^dm^ T^ry ftunm^t; ^e^edlngly to 

like ihipf^enteat f)t Ihe dna^; bi>ih^ wmMttrfib enittlMkMi^ ei* 

a M HWii prataMt tlwi a 

R]iaiAirs!ittfii«Mf»Ai^ «f 

foMnnaAg the te«gt<$ pofltii whose piee^ weze reproeenttd «« 
thB;|ili|^: Eor fiophcttlee, who wte then • voting vmi, hmyinf 
broaght hie &r<t play on the etagOt the erchoa, who preaiided at t^ea^ 
fames, ohBerwiag there was a alvpiig faction .among the apect«t9r% 
pfevttiled wildi Oimoii and the xetl of the generala, hie coUeagueai 
(who were ten in. number, and ehoeen on9 out of each tribe,] to sit ae 
judges. Thd pifiie waaad|judged to Hpphoclea, which so deepbp 
afflicted I^BChyloe, who till uen had been con6i4ere<] aa th« 
greatest dramatic poet, that Athene became insuppoft^ble to hig^ 
and he withdrew to. Sieilf^ where he died. ^ . 

The eonfederatee had taken a great .number of barbarianf pp« 
flonerBin Sestua and Byz^ntiun^;''' and, as a. proof c€ the high r^ 
gard they (had for Cimon, entreated 4iim to dls^ibute the booiyf 
Accordingly, Ciiiieii plneed all the captives (stark ^edj on^ o{|f 
side^^iuidjeflrthe^ other all their i^i^es.fUid spoils.: Tkn aUies comr 
plained of tJiis particicm as toiSt unequal; but Cimon, gjving them 
the choice, .tfaey*iounediately took thef riches whicli ^longed U^tii^ 
and loft the pn^nera for the Athenians. Cimon Mierer 

ibi^ set out with his 'pOvtioUf and i was considered very Utt^qualif 

fied to' settle the distributicMi^c^ prises : fqr tjbe alliei^ carrot' on a 

great .number of chains,. necklaces, and bracelets of jold ; ;a largf 

qnaatity of rich habits^ and fine purple' cloaks ; wh^st the Ather 

mans had for their share only a mjultitude) of bfvman creaturesL 

Quite naked, and unfit, for labour. However, the relations an4 

friends JDf' these eaplaves came soon afler fiom Bhryg[ia and Lydio^ 

and purchased them aU at a very high pA"^'* 90 uiaty with the 

money arising from ihiir ransom, Cimon^ bad ^{^pugh tp maintain 

liis deiet fixur months} besides ai;gre^ sum 'of money which WM 

pat into the public treai9ury,'fiot M> w^tion wliat he had hims^ 

&r his own share. - He afterward* lAs^d to take exceeding pleasure} 

Telatki0 lihis adventure t ji his friends. j ., 

He made the best use of his rich^,t as Gorgias the rheto^ici^ 

bs iia|)f>ily expressed it in few, but strong, and eWant wprdk 

Ctman, says he^ amofted runku oniy to fi0e.thetiki and he tn^lqyec^ 

(kemsi^iU to <tcqwire esHtm and honour. We mayjbi^ perceive 

(by the way) what wm the scope an^ aim' of xU^ ^ost exalted 

icfjons at the- heathens; and with what justice TertuUian defined 

a PagaJif how perfect soever he might, appear.|,a vain-gloriouf 

aimai, animal .gJU>ric^ The gardens and orchards of Cimo4 

*eie ^Im^ys open, by his ordcr^^ tp the citiz^n^ in general ; wh<^ . 

vere aHdweditu gath^ whatever fmits they j)leased. Hif table 

was daiJy; covered in V&ugiU \)iv^.. polite maxin(#. It was entirely 

dtfeieflt from those .delicite aiMi^iM^ptuc as tables, IfO which "ohljf 

afcw peraoais xjif great disthiQtioi) i at^ f'M^^^f ^d. which are 

*Pliit. in Olin. p. 484. ,', ' 4 Plat iiti^tm. p. /Hit. bohiel. Nep. In Citt. r. M 
AAm. I. xfl. P- 333 "'«' . ••* t (\ .;j 

Vol. III. II 

M ' Hin«iir4>Fn» 

fbyetocl merely to diipky «* vtin mlMifioMioe' «» «legmBoe «f 
Ui^te. TMtV Cimen was plttin, but i^ndant ; sad all tlie jwlc 
Citizens Were teoeived at it wtthont dJatiiictio(ii. In tkus Iwmrii* 
{^ (VoqihiB entertainraeiits whatever had the least air of oeUntap 
Hon kind liut«k4*y, he reserved to Ittfilself an iaexhaiMible fimd; aot 
vhly fbi* the expenses of his houseylmt fbr ithe wants ^ his friende, 
bbt ddhiestics^and a very- j^eat number Afcitizens;) demonstrlitiiig* 
bj this conduet, that he Knew mttoh betterthan molt rich men the 
tme*useandtahie of riches. 

He Was always followed by some iervtrnts/who were ozdereditp 
ili]^ privately a pie<;e of money into the hands of such poor ae tliej^ 
met,' knd to g^te dothea to ^hose -who * were in want of theuk lie 
ofteh 'buried such persons as ihad not left money enoUgh hnhind 
fliein to. defray the expenses of their funend : And what is wortiQf 
c^ Ikdmirktion, ^d which Plutansh' does not fail to observe, lie did 
Apt act in this manner to gain evedit among: the people, nor to pat* 
Ichas^ their, voices : since w^'^d- Mmt on all occaaioDtIs, dechiri^ 
for t^'e contrary iketioe,'that ii, in fkvour of such oitiaenr'es were 
most ckisiderabW for their wealth or authority, i* 

A\tWug^ he saw all the rest of £be ^rovernors of his time enridi 
themselves by the plunder and oppMssion of the public,* he was 
eliAnBys'incorrtJij^ible, anfd his hfOdS i((^eft« sever stained with eztor* 
lion, or the siti^est present^'^and he t;ontinued, during his whole 
Afe, not only to speak, but^ to act, gratuitously, and without the 
letist view of interest, Nvhatever he thought might be of advanta^ 
to the commoh wealth." *• » 

To a gf^at liuiiibeT of' other excellent qualities'; Cimon tmiMI 

Sund sense, oxtraordinary prudence, and a profound knowledge of 
e genius and Characters of roetth The allies, besides the sums of 
ihoney in^hich each of theirt'was taxed, were to furnish a certain 
number of men and ships. Sevbi^l amcng* them, who, ever einee 
the retreat of Xefxes, were studious of nothhig but their ease, and 
applied themselves- entirely to the -cultivation of their knds, in 
order to free theniseTVes f)-om the toils fUid dangers of war, ckise 
to furnish ttveir ^uotd in money father than in men, and iefl tokhe 
Athf^nians^f manning with soMien^and rowers the shipe 
they were dfiliged t6 furnish. The other generate- who had no 
forecast ahd^ penetration into the future, gave such of the alliea 
fia acted in thii* Wanner sdine uneasiness at first, and wore for 
obliging' them to observe thiB tleatJT' literally. ^Ent Cimon, when 
in power, acted in it quite diffbrdht lira'hner, and .suffered '^em to 
ein6y 'the'trtmquillit^ they cho.;c'<i plainly perceiving, that the 
aifiea, in^ead' of bef i^g, So ^•tmf^rly,' warlike In tfaeileld, wouM lii* 
Sensibly lose thei^ niartiaisi^iritjiind to'fit for nothing but hosband- 
17 an4<-jtrade ; whilst the Athopi^h^, l\y exercising the oary and 
living imna in their fiands' perpetually, would be mors and moue 


1 • 



kirej. to tbar flttignet of war, a|id duly in^reue in pow«c; - Whtt 

diMfl baa favefeen, luippened ; ithese very^ people pmcbased thenk 

selves masteM n% their own iexpense; so that they who before had 

been com^iotiB and allies, became inaome measure the subjecta 

and tributaries of the Ataenians. « i 

A.if. 3S34. No Grecian general e\3r gave so great a blow to 

Abl j. c.470. the pride an^haughtiness of the Persian monarch aa. 

CirooTi.* A(lei the barbarians had been driven out of Greece, b# 

did not ^e them time to take breath ; but sailed unmediaCely after 

them with a fleet of upwards of 300 shipf , took their stroqgeafc 

cities, and brouc^ht over all thetr allies ; so that the king of PeniU^ 

had not one soldier left in. Asia, from Ionia to Pamphylia. Stii^ 

pureamg his point, he had the boldness to attack the enemv's 6eeQ 

tbougb much stronger than his own. • It lay nea^ tbe mouth of th# 

river Eurymedon, and consisted of 350 sail of ship^ supported by 

the land army on the coast. It was soon put to flight, and mora 

tlian 200 sail were taken, besides those that were sunk. A graat 

nmnber of tb€|^ Persians had left thei^ships, and leaped into the sea» 

is order to jom their land army, which lay on the shoie^ It waa 

very ha^^ardoua to attempt a descent in sight of the eu''*ny iq^j^ tQ, 

lead on troops, which were already fatigued by th'.nxlfl^e battle,* 

igaiost fredh forces much superior m nimiber. . However^ Qi^^oiy 

fioding that the whole army was eager to engage the barbarians^ 

thou^t proper to take advantage of the araour of the soknera;,. 

who were greatly opimated with their first success.. Acc^rdiiggly 

he landed,! and uarohed them directly 'against the barbarioi^' 

who wasted resolutely for their coming up, and sustained the first 

onset with much ;alour ; ho{vvev^r, bei^ at .{ast obliged to givj 

vay, they fled. . A gre&t slaughter ensued, and azi infinite nupilMii, 

«f prisoners and immenf^ely ri^ spoils wer^ taken. Cimoahaving| 

a one day, gained twc victories^ which almost quailed those i/ 

Salamis and. Pla|®e to crown all, sajded.'Out to meet areinforoe- 

aeot of eighty-four Phoenician phips, which were; ^omioe , f^of^ 

Cyprus to join the Persi§n fleet, and knew nothing of what )ia4 

pused. They were all^ either taken oi; 8ua|:, oi^i^mi^t of Uiq. 

loldiers ^rere killed or drowoe4> • ;! . 

Cimon, afler these glorious exploits, returned jyii . triumpli tar 

Athens; and employed part of the spoils m fortifyiiy the harbjoi;ir|« 

uid in beautifying the city. The riches which a general an^qpse*) 

i&the field, are applied to the noblest uses when they , are dispQ^4, 

<f in this mamier, and i^ect infinitely greater Jhonour upon him,; 

te if he eiqpended them in building magnificent palaces for hLpi-- 

■^ which must one time qi:* ether devolve to strangers; whereaa. 

Works, built .for public use, are hi^ property, in somei measure|.fp| 

' * ' * • - ■ '/j 

*nat.toCfaB.p.<48S-487. TbMfil. 1. 1, p. 66^ DM. L zL p. 45-47. ' ^ 
t Wc do DfH £iid tlrat yi0 naclentt made uw of long-boat* In making a lanaing: titt 

]■«■ or wbUh perhaps -wMtU^ii at tl|«lt gaUeTi wtn^ln*. bottnoMCS tliw raa Wla 

«• ividMiat M^r diActtlt|[ < 

4f^t^ andAmimnit his mme to the latest poBterHju 16 ie^eS KiMiwa 
tlMit giich cnAeUishments in a- city gfive infinite p)4ai(0ie to th 
people,''^ who are always struck 'with Mrorksof this kind'; and this, 
■fl Plut&rch observes hi the life of OirooD, is one of tiw surest, and, 
at tW same time, the most lawful, roeihods of aeqoking their 
ftlendship hnd esteem. - # 

A. M. 3535. Tlte year lbQowinff,f this gonenil slerilcd coWar^ 

iot J. c 400. the HeHe&pont ; and having driven the Persiana out 
of the Thracian Chersonesus, of which they^had made tbemselve0 
itiasters, he cohqnered it in the name of the Athenians, tbongh he 
himself had mofe right to it, as Mikiades his ftither luid been its 
sovereign. He afterwards attacked the people of ^e isl&nd of 
l^rasus; who had revolted frodd' the Athenians^ and defeated theil* 
fleiBit. They main tsdned - their revolt with an almost unparalleled 
dbJBtinacy and fary. As if they ha^ been in eirms against the moet 
01^1 and4)arbaroa8 eriemies,| iVoih wihom they had the Worst of evils 
td'ftar, they made a;iaw, that.tHe first man who should only men- 
tiftii the concluding a treaty With the Athenitos, should be pit to 
&Mh, The mege was carried on three years, duriiig which thtt 
. inhkliiitaiits 8u£fered all the c^Hmities of war with the same obsti- 
nticy. Th^ women were no lesi^, inflexible than the raen;5 fbr, 
When iha besieged wanted ropes Ikir their miikary en^fines, an the 
WOm^ cut off their hair with t^e greatest' reailiness, and s|»pMed 
it to tlliat purpose. The city b^ing redticed tb the utmost dietr^i» 
hy fatofitef, Which daily swept tiway a gr^at number of the ihhahi- 
tstfts,' Hegetorides, a Thrasian, d^ply affected with seeing' such 
mtdtitodes of his ftdlow-citizens perish, resolutely detttmin^d to 
fl|6i^fie iis life for the pplHervaCloh of fiis country. Accordingly, 
Htf'^i 4 halter round his Efeck, and pfifesenting hiribelf toTihe assen- 
l^lhf, Cotmir^meni says heydowWi sle as^ofu plea9eyand do noC 
gpt^e mel if^bi^'fttdge fryypft} but tei rn^ dedik gave (he reH ofihe 
pibple^ 'tmd pi^eMlioiXlk i/&u U> abehth the ctuet Utw yowhaveenatt- 
41, lO c^nMity to yourtoe{farei 'The Thrasians, strnck wi^ these 
WoMs, abolisfifd the kw, but Wonld'not sdffer it to cost so gen^roos 
a Citizen his Iffe. They diirretidered themselves to the Athenians^ 
who spared their lives, and onl^ disitiaritM theif' dily. ' 
^ AfVer Cimoik had landed his troops on' the shore opposite to 
Thrace, he setted on all the gold<>mities m. thai quarter, and sub- 
dued every pAVt of that country /Is far as Mace^nia. He might 
Ikve attempted the conquest of that kingdom ; and, in all 'proba- 
bflSKy, could have elisily possess^ himsnf of part of^it, had 4ie 
th^i^ht fit to improve the opportunity! And indeed, for hi^n*- 
^QiSt^iA this point, on his return to* AtnenB,<he was prosecuted, As 
Ai^ng been bribed by the' Money df the ifiicedonians -and of 
Alexander, their king. But Cimon had a soul superior to aU tempta 
tiona of that kind, and pr<rved his innocence hi -the dtearest VmWL 

Plo4.Lxi.p.Sa. i Polyani. 8tr. I. ii ^IMdlTviiL ' ' ^ 



A. VL 3S3B. The eonqiiBSts of Clmon* afld the power of tils 

AnL J. c. 4M. Athenims, which increased evet^ day, ffave Arta 
zerxes great uneasiness. To prevetit the consequences, he resolved 
to send Themistocles into Attica, with a great rTttiy,'iaiid aceofd-, 
ingXy proposed it to him. '/'" 

Thediistocles was m great perplexity on this occa&Aon. 'On one 
side, the remembrance of the fAvours which the king ^ad heApej 
upon him ; the positive assurances he had given that monarchf to 
serve Lim with tiie utmost z^l on all occasions ; the tlrgency of the 
king, 'who claimsd his promise ; all these considerations would not 
permit him to refuse the commission. O^ the othef^side, the Tove^ 
his country, which the injustice dind ill ^treatment of his fellow-diti* 
sens could not banish from his nilnd ; his strong reluctance to suU^ 
the glory of ifis foroder laurels and mighty achievements by so ign^ 
minxous a. step ; perhaps, too, the fear of being unsuccessful hi a 
war ia which he should be opposed by excellent gcneUds, and pai^ 
ticulaxly by Cimon, who hitherto had beeb as* successful as vali^t; 
these different reflections would not suffer him to deckiic a^Ainat 
his country, in an enterprise which, whether successful or noif 
pould not but reflect shame on himself.' 

To rid hiniself at once of all these inwaitl struggles) he resolved 
to put an end to his We,f as the only meflkod he ceuld devise not 
to be wanting in the duty which he ow6d faib country, nor to the 
prodises he had made the prince. He therefore prepared a solemn 
sacrifice, to which he invited all his friends ; when, after emforadng 
tbem aU, and taking a last farewell of them, he drank bull's blood ; 
or, acdording to others, swallowed a dose ofpoison-, and died in tluA 
manner at Magnesia, aged threescore and 'nve years, the gveatesi 
part of which he had Spent either in the government of the repab* 
uc, or the command or the armies. Wnen the king was told the 
cause and manner of his death4 he esteemed and admired him still 
more, and continued hL favour to his friends and domestics. Bat 
the unexpected death of Themistoclps ^proved an obstacle te the 
design that he meditated of attacking the Greeks. The Magne* 
Baas erected a splendid monument to the memory of that gr.e<lt 
general in the public square, and grauted peculiar privile£res,and 
lioaoure to his desceiidants. They, continued to enjoy tnem in 
Plutarch's time, that 10, near 600 years afler, and his tomb was still 

Atlicus,} in the beautiful dialogue of Cicero, entitled Brdtus, re- 
bates, in an agreeable and ingenious manner, the tragical end which 
some writers ascribe to Thcmistocles, as related above ; pretending 
that the whole is a fiction, invent^^d by rhetoricians, who, on t]>3 barei 
rmooor that this great man died by poison, had of themselves added 
all the other particulars to embellish Xhe story, which otherwise 

* TkncTiL L L pu ttS. Plot In Theroiit p. 197. . ' • 

t Tbi wbaud heathens diil not Uiiok a man wut allowed to lay violeat bands •■ Um 
«iC t Cie. de Seocc. d. 73. $ Bnu. n. 41, 431 -^ • 



would hftve been rery diy and uninteresting. He appeals for tbii 
to ThuQjpdides, that judicipus historian, who was an Athenian, and 
iftlmost conteniporary with- Theaustocles* This author indeed 
^wnsi«that a repprt had prevailed, that this general had poisoned 
'himself; however, his opinion wsjb, that he died a natural death 
4iQd that l^s friends conveyed his bones secretly to Athens, Where, 
An Fausanips's time>*. his mausoleum was standing near th€f great 
linrboar. Thi^ account seems much more probable than the other. 
. ^ThemistoclesVas certainly one of the greatest men that Greece 
iBjrct produced. He hod a great.soul, and mvincible courage, which 
iras even inflamed by danger ; was fired with an incriediUe thirst 
for glory, which sometimes his patriotism woiild temper and allay, 
^t which sometimes carried. him too far; his presence of mind 
was such ,f that it immediately jsu^gested whatever course it was 
most necessary to pursue: innne>he had a sagacity and penetration 
that revealed to him, in the clearest light, ,the most secret designs 
of his/enemies; an^caused him to adopt long beforehand the seve- 
ral B6fiS)Lir^s which were requisite to disconcert them, and in^ire 
him with greats noble, bold, extensive vi'^ws with regard to the 
honour of his country. The.most essential qualities ot* the heart 
fwere, howeyeis wantmg in him ; I mean, probity, sincerity, equity, 
wnd good faith; nor wjil he altogether free from suspicions of ava* 
ncfe, ^hich is a great4>lemish in the character of a statesman. 

NevertheJasa,! a noble sentiment as weH ^a action is related of 
4uq^ v^cb speak a, great and disinterested soul. His daughter 
ISniog asked of him in marriage,} he preferred an honest poor onan, 
to if rich one of an indifferent character ; and gave for his reason, 
^hat iff Uu choice of a qon^n-lawy he would much rather have merU 
tMuuirUhe^y than riches mlhoi^ merit* 

, N . VfiCTION IV.' 

The raToli of Uie Sgyp^aiw against Penda, supported by the Atfienialis. 

A.BL3SI4. The Egyptians,!! ih the mea!n free them- 

Ant. J. c. 4«. selves firom a fbreign y(Ike which was insuppoitable 
to them, revolted from Arta^erxes, and made Inarus, prince of the 
^ibyans, their king. They called in to their assistanqe the Athe- 
mans, who, having at that time a fleet of 200 ships at fbe island of 
Cyprus, accepted, the invitation with pleasure, and immediately set 
mu for, Egypt ; judging this a very favourable opportt^ity to weak- 
en the power of the Persians, by driving them out of so great w 

t De insunti^us, ut ait Thucydides, T^rUsimd |odl(*abat, at &e fbtartocatlfibasiiiiA 
conjictebat. Com. JVVp. in T^emiat. c. 1. i PIuLin TteoMst. |>. IZl. 

^ 'fliemistocles, cdm consuleretur utrdm bono vlio pauperi, an minds probato diytti 
flliam cr>llocaret: Boo vkro^ iiiquit, ifAi.o vulvk QUirifCDdiA toi^kT, hv*m. ficvxuH 
«Mivwo. XSi^49PJU.\.i\ 

g Tliucyd. 1. i p 68, a»d 71« ^ Ctea. e. 3S--35 Diod I sl^ p. 54-99 


^1I.3SIS. Adrice being brought Artazerxe« of this reroIt,lM 

AflL J.c. 459. raised an army of 300.000 men, and resolved to march 
in penoD against, ikp rebels. But his friends adrising him not tt> 
venture hims^ in that expedition, he gave the command of it to 
Achemeqes, one of his brothers. The la^er being arrived in 
Egrypt, encamped his great arm^^ on the banJi:s of the Nile. Qi^ring 
this interval, the Athenians having defeated the Persian fleet, ana 
eith^ destroved or tajten fifly of their ships, went dp that river 
landed their forces iinder the command of Charitunis their general, 
and having joined Inarus and his Egyptians, they char|rea Acfene^ 
menes, ana defeated him in a great battle, iii which that l^rsias 
general Aod 100,000 of his soldiers were alam. Thoee who escaped 
ned to Memphis, whither the conquerors pursued them, and imme- 
diately made thainselves mafiters of two quarters of the city : b)2t the 
Persians having fortified themselves in the third, called the whiie 
tea//, whicb wasthe largest; ai\d stVon^est of thethree,^ they were be 
si^ed is^ it near three years, during Wnicb they made a most vigorous 
defence, till they were at last delivered by th^rces sent to their aid* 
A. H. 3S4I6. Artaxerxes, biearing of the defeat of his army, and 

AnLj. C.458. how much the Athenians had contributed to it; 'i|i 
order to make a diversion of their /orces, and hinder them frem 
acting against him, seot ambassadors to the Lacedamonians, with 
a large sum of money, to engage them Ikx proclsdm war against the 
Athenians,. »But the Lacedtemonvufe havings rejected the offbr, 
A. M. 3547v ^^^ refusal did not abate, his ardout, and accordin^y 
AnLJ. c. 457. he gave Megabyzus ano^Artabazos the command of 
the forces destined against E^jrpt. These generals immediatdy 
raised an army. of 300,000 men m Cilicia and Phoenicia. They were 
A, H. 3548. obliged to wait till the fleet was equipped, which was 
AiiL J.C.458. not till the next year. Artabazus^ then took upon 
bim. the command of it, and sailed towards the Nile, whilst Me£^* 
byzus, at the head of the land army, marched towards MomphiBi 
fie rained tpe siege of that city, and afterwards fought Inarus. 
All the forces on botlv sides engaged in this battle, in which Inarus 
▼as entirely defeated ; but tlie Egyptians, who bad rebelled, suffer^ 
ed most in this slaug^er. 

After tfais defeat, Inarus, though wounded by Megabyzus, re* 
treated with the Athenians, and such Egyptians as were willins to 
foUow himi and reached'Byblos, a city in the island of Prosopltia, 
which is surrounded by two arms of the Nile, both of Which are 
aivigable. The Athenians ran their fleet into one of these arms, 
there it inras secured from the attacks of the enemy, and held out 
a foege of a year and a half in this island. ^ 

A&r the ^ttle, all the rest of Egypt submitted to tlie con- 
Weror, and was reunited to thc^mpire of ArtijEixerxes, except 
Amjrrteos, 'who bad still a small party in the fens, where he lonj( 
supported himself, through the difficult th'e Persians found in pe 
Pirating far enough to reduce hira. 

» ' 


A. M. asso. The meffe of Pfosopitig wafj stiU^tirrymg on. The 

^L^.c.4M. Peniaof nnding that progress by the 
usual methods of attack, b^aue^ they had td deal with persons 
who were not deficient either in courage or skill to defend them- 
selves, had recourse to an extraordinary expedient, which soo^ro« 
duced what force hod not been able to effect. They turnea the 
course, by different canals, of that «rm of the Nile in which the 
Athenians lay, and by tiiat means openetl tbem6elves.a passage for 
their whole a^ enter the iidand. Inarus, seeing that Ui waa 
l09t, qapitQlated^witsh Megabyzudior himself, for all his Egyptians, 
and a^ouC fifly Athenianair and surrendered ^upon* condinon that 
their lives should be spared. The remainder of the auxiliary 
forces, which formed a bodv of 6000- men, resolved -^o hold out 
longer; and for this purpose ihey set fiteto their ^ips, and draw- 
ing up in order of battle, resolved to die sword in hand,^d sell 
their lives as dear as they could, in ilnitation of thi^ Lacedemoni- 
ans, who refused to yield,' and were all cut to pieces at Thermo* 
{^he. The Persians hearing IheyhAd taken so desperate a teuo- 
lution, did not tnink it advisaMe to attack them. A peace was 
therefore offered thdin, with a promise that they should all te per- 
mittbd to leave Egypt, and have free passage to their native coun- 
try either by s«a or laodv They accepted these do'nditions, put the 
conquerors in possession of Byb^ps and of the whol^ island, and 
- went by land^ to Cyrene, where they embarked for Grfeece : but 
niost'oftthe Soldiers who had serVed in this' expedition' perished ih it. 
But this was not the only loss the Athenians suAained on' this 
occasion. .Another fleet of fifty ships, which th^y ifent to the aid 
of their besieged countrymen, sailed up one of the aites of the 
Nile ( jost afler the Athenians had siirTendered)to idif^engage t^^, 
not knowing what had happened. But the instant they entered, 
the Persian fleet, whi^h kept out ^t sea, followed them and attcfck- 
ed their'. rear, whilst the army discharged showers of darts upon 
them from the banks of Hie river; only a few ships e^aped, which 
opened themselves a wav through the enemy's fleet; and all the 
rest were lost. Thus ended the fatal war carried on by the Athe- 
nians for six years in Egypt, which kingdom Was now united again 
to the Persian en^pire, and continued so during the rest of the rei^ 
of Artaxerxes, of which this is the twentieth year. But the ' pri- 
A. M . 3530. ; soQcrs who Were taken in this war met with tte most 
4iitJ.a4M. unhapjyfate. 


loania is delivered qp to tb« king*! mother, contrary to the articlBe of llie tnaif. . Tbc 
> eiBictioa of MegebyzuM, who' revolts. 

A. M. 3S56 Artaxerxes,"' after having for fixe years refused to 

Akt.J.c.4^ gratify, the request of his mothers who niaUy impof> 

• Ctce. e. xuv— XL 


timed htm to put Inarai and the Athenians who had been taken 
with him into her hands,. in order that she mi^ht sacrifice them lo 
the manes of Achemenes her son^ at last yielded to her soliota* 
tions. But how blind, how barbarously weak, must this kin§^ ksve 
been, to break through the most solemn engraffemeHU i merely 
through coitnplaisance ; who ^deaf to remorse) violated the law of 
nations, solely to avoid ofifending a most unjust mother. This in 
human princess,"" without regard to the ^th of the treaty, caused 
Inarus to be crucified, and beneaded all the rest. Megrabyzus was 
in the deepest uffliction on that account ; for as he had promised 
that ho injury should be done them, the dishonour reflected princi- 
pally on him. He therefore lefl the court, and withdrew to Syria» 
of which he was governor ; and^ his discontent was so great, that 
he raised an army and revolted openly. ^ 

A. M. 3S57. The king sent Osiris, who was one of the greatest 

Ad. X. c. 447. lords of the court, against him with an array of 200,000 
men. M^gabyzus' engaged Osirift, wounded him, took him priso* 
Ber, and put his army to flight* Artaxerzes sending to demand 
Osiris, Mcgabyzus generously dismissed him, as soon as his woundsf 
vera cureo. 

A. M. 3558. The next year Artaxerxes sent another army 

AsL J. o. 446. against him, the command of which he gave to Me-- 
ao6tanes, son to Artarius the king's brother, and governor of Ba^ 
iiylon. This general was not more fortunaio than the fonner. He 
iso was defeated and pttt to flight, and Megabyzus gained as signal 
a victory as the former. 

Artaxerxes, finding he coold not reduce himby force of arms* seal 
^s brother Artarius and Amytis his sister, who was the wife of Me* 
^byzos, with several other persons of the-ficst quality, to persua^ 
torn to return to his allegiance. They eucceeded in their ncgotia^ 
Jon; the kitf|f pardoned him, and he retucned to «ourt. 
One Hay as they were hunting, & lion raising himself on hi» 
iiioder feet, was going to rush upon the king(, when Megabyzus 
leeing the danger he was in, and fired with seafaiid afiection for bis 
vvereign, buried a dart at the lion, which killed him. But Ajrta«^ 
l^rzes, upon pr^ence that'he had affronted him, in darting at the 
Joo first, commanded Megabyzns*s,head to be struck oSL Amytia 
k kingf's sister, and Amestris his mother, with the greatest Sf^^ 
^^j prevailed upon the king to chaii^ his sentence into perpetual 
^bment. Megabyzus was there&re sent toiCyrta, a city 09 
^< Red sea, and condemned to end his days %here : however, five 
I^Js oiler, disguising himself like a leper, he made his escape and 
'^turned to i^osa, whtfre, by the assistance of his wife and mother* 
^W, he was restored to fiivoor, and continued so till his deatb^ 
lltieb happened some- years aflker, in the sewnty-sixth year of fai» 
^ Megabyzus was extremely reg^retted by the king and thr 

.*TJiucj4.ii.|».n. ' ^ 



whole couFt. JETto was a man of thd greatest abilities in the luiif* 
dooL, and at (be same time the best general. Artoxerxes oweid 
both his crown and life to him :* but it is of dangerous consequence 
for a subject, when his so.vereiffn is undef too many obligations to 
hhn. Thw was the cause of all the misforti^nes of Megabyzus. 

It is surprising that so judicious a prince as Artaxerxes 'vhould 
have been so imprudent, as to be fired with jealousy against a do- 
Ueraan of his court, merely because, in a party of hunting, he had 
wounded the beast they were pursuing before him ! Can any thing 
be so weak? And is this placing the point of honour in a manner 
worthy ^ kin^? Nevertheless, history furnishes us with many in- 
stances of this kind; I am apt to believe, ftpiv some expressions 
of Plutarch^ that Artoxerxes was ashamed of the wild fury to 
which this false dehcacy had raised bun, and that he made some 
kind of public atonement for it: for, according to this author, he 
published a decree, importing, that any man w£> was hunting with 
the king, should be allowed to throw his javelin first at the beast, 
if opportunity should offer ;: and he, accorfling to Plutarch, was the 
fitvt Persian monarch who granted such a permissioB* 


ArtaxerxM wnds Esra, uid afterwards Nebeinlah, to Jeratalem. 

^Before I proceed in the history of the Persians and Greeks, I shall 
relate Id few words. What events happened among the peopie of 
God, during the first twenty years of Artaxerxes,. which is an es- 
sential part of the 'history of tb«t pniicfe^ , 
A. M. 3537. In the seventh year of the reign of Jrtaxerzea^ 
^t. J. c. 407. £2ra obtained of the king and his seven counsellors^ 
an ample commission* empowering him to return to Jerusalem with 
all such Jews as would follow him thither, in order to re-establish 
the Jewish government and religion, and to re£ru|^te lK>th agreeably 
to their own laws. Ezra was descended from Saraia, who was jhigh- 
priest of Jerusalem, at the time when it was destroyed by Nabucho^o- 
nosor, and was put to death by his command- Ezra was a very learn- 
ed and pious man, and was chiefly distinguished fiom the rest of 
;Uie Jews, by his great knowledge m the Scriptures ; on account of 
which it is said of him. That hewu very ready in the iaut of JUbtet 
Viat tBfugwen by the Ood qf leraeh^ He set out from Babylon 
with the gifts ind offerings which the king, bis courtiers^ and 
such Israefites as had stayed in Babylon, had piut into his hands for 
the service of tha temple, and Which he gave to the pri^iBts upoahb 
arrival in Jerusalem. It appears by the commission' whieh Arta- 
xerxes me him, tliat this prince had a high veneration Ibr tb« QcA 
:«f Israel; as, in commanding his,odlcers to furnish the J^ws with 

^-BcneSela ed uMiie beta ■aiil,dum TUlentttriinolvl p<MM ; ubi BttltftM anteveitlnit 
profratii «Nlluin re4«titur. Tseit. Jinnsl I. iv. e. 18. 
t PittL In ApopbHwcn. p. 171 t^Bim,vU.*c^ ( 1 leOmi, vUL X 


PEB8I4!k« ANf^ GRECIANS. §5 

I ^ 

iSXhiflfr necefuiy fi>r their worship, he adds, LH oH ihingt h€ 
perfqfirmed o/ler the law <^ €hd dUigmUly^ unto the moMt hig^h Qtid, 
tkal wrath come not upon the kingdom qf the king and hie eonJ^ 
This comnussion, as I obserYed, ' empowered him to settle the re- 
ligion and government of the Jews, pursuant to the law of Moses; 
to appoint magistrates and judges to punish evil-doers, not only by 
fmprisoDihg their persons and confiscatmg their possessions, but also 
by sending; them into banishment, and even sentencing them to 
death, accordkijgr to the crjmaes they shouM commit. Such was the 
power with which Ezra was^invested. and which he exercised faith* 
A. H. 35i>3. ^ully during thirton years, till Nehemiah brought a new 
Ant J. c. 454. commission from toe Persian court. 

Nehemiah was also a Jew,f of distinguished merit and piety, and 
one of the cup-bearers to king Artaxerxes. This was a very con- 
liderabtle employment in the Persian court, because of the jprivi- 
lege annexed to it, of/b&he often near the king's person, and of 
being allowed to speak to him in the most favourable moments. 
Sowevei^ neither this exalted station, uor the settlement of hia 
family in that land of captivitv, cot\ld obliterate from his mind the 
coautiy of his ancestors, nor their religion: neither hif lovef^r the 
one, nowis zeal for the other, was a;bated ; and his heart was still 
m Zioo. Some Jews w^o were come from Jerusalem having in- 
fonned him of the sad ^tate of that city, that its walls lay in ruu; 
Its gates were burnt down, and the inhabitants thereby exposed to < 
tbe insults of their enemies and the scorn of their neighbours ; the af> 
hction ofkjs brethren, and the dangers with which they were me- 
naced, m^desuch an impression on his mind, as might naturally he 
|£xpected frpm one of his piety. One day as he was waiting upon 
^&€ king, the latter observing an unusual air of melancholy m Ne 
baniah*s countenance, asked him the cause of it ; a proof that this 
nanarch had a tenderness of heart rarely found in those of hie 
%6 ranrk, which nevertheless is much xti^re valuable than the most 
Ebining' qualities. Nehemiah took .this opportunity to acquaint 
i'iffl with the calamitous state of his councry.; owned that to be 
'M subject of his grief ; and humbly entreated that leave, m^ht be 
gircn hi na to go to Jerusalem, in order to repair the jfortificatione 
i( }^ T*he kings of Persia his predecessors, liad permitted the 
levs to rebuild the temple, but not tbe walls 'of ^Jerusalem. Bat 
Artaxpnces immediately caused a decree to be drawn up, that tbe 
TTsHs ftnd ^tes of Jerusalem should be rebuilt ; and Nehemiah, as 
fofcmor of Judea, w^as apported to put this d^ee into execution. 
T)te king-, to do him the greater honour, ordered a body of hors«, 
commaniled by on officer of distinction, to escort him thither. He 
Hkewise ^virrit to a^l the governora^of the provinces cm this dide the 
Boph rates, to give him ul the assistance possible in forwarding the 
vork for mrhich he was sent. This pious Jew executed every pwrt 
CQaUBOflsion with incredible Mi and activity. 


96 ^HOstORT OP fHE 

It is from tlus decree,* enacted by Artaxerxes in the twentieth 
-yeiir of his reign, for the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem, that 

We date the beginning of the 'sieventy weeks mentioned in the &- 

inous prophecy of Daniel, after which the Messiah was to appear, 
•and to be put to death. I shall here insert the whole prophecy, 

but without ^ving the explication of it, as it may be found in other 
< writers, and is not a part of this history. 

^ ^ TVbtt art greaJtly beloved^ therefore understand the Hfkotter^ and 
^iontider the trmon.f Seventy weeks are determined upom thy pe^phy 

mid upon thy hqly ctty, to finixh the ' trans ffression, and to make an 
' md of sini, add to make reconciliaJlS^/or iniquity^ and to bring in 

everlasting righteousness, and to 'mtl up the vision and prophecy , 
^md to anoint the Jlfo^' Holy. Know therefore and understand, 


ANDToiBUfLD JERUSALEM, untothe Messiah the Prince, shall be seven 
^eeks, and threescore and two weeks : the stretst shall be built again^ 
and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two 
weeks shall Messiah be cut off", but notfor himself: and the peopU 
of the prince that shall come, shall destroy the city and the sandth 
ary, and the end thereof shall be with a flood : and unto the end of the 
W(;^r desokUions are determined. And he shall confirm^ (He ijovenant 
with many for one week; and in the midst of the week he shall cause 

%the ■ sacrifice and the oblation to ceasS > and for the ovdrspreadtng of 
dbomimftions he^hall make it desolate, even until the consummatu^ 
"Ondt thai determined shall be poured upon the desolate* 

When Ezra was in power,! as his Chief view was to restore re- 
ligion to its ancient purity, he arranged the Isooks of Scripture in 
their proper order, revised them all very carefully, and collected 
the anciient documents relating to the people of Uod, in order to 
compose out df them the two books of Chronicles,, to which he 
added the history of hi^ own times, which was finished by Nehe- 

ymiah: With their bookpf ends the long history which Moses had 
begtm^ and which the writers who 6ame afler him continued in a 
regular series, till the repairing of Jerusalem. The rest of the/ sa- 

. cred Justoryis not written in thatuninteiprupted order. Whilst 
Ezra and Nehemiah were compiling the latter piart of that great 
work:^ Herodbtus, whom profane authors call the father of history, 
began to write. Thus we find that the latest authors of the books 
of Seripture flourished about the same time with 'the first author 
of the Grecian history ; and when it began, that' of God's people, 
to comptite only from Abraham, included already fifteen centuries. 
Herodotus marde no mention of the Jews in his history; for the 
Greeks desired t</be infbrmed of such nations oi)iIy as were famous 
for th^r WanS, th6ir commerce, and grandeur ; so that as Judea was 
Jien but Just rising from its ruins, it did not excite the ptttention of 

• I 


SBCTION Vlt , / ... .) 

taniljaer «rf^€l«f. tte iktbodA employad by hi m to gain Um tflteiW Af ' ' 
1 tMpeotl^. • ' ■ .1 » 

• . * '■ !i « t" ■ •' . J 

I naw.rqtttrn tp (xreeoe- 8i^ce the banishment of .TtiQi|pti0toci||(e8, 
lad the.jde«th of Arutides (the exact time of wUcb is |iot kngwiiii 
two citizens, Cimbn.ajid Pericles, divj4i^d all, influence i^ 
autliontV ifi Athens. Pericles was muoh ^roimger than Cirooiw 
md of a quite different character. . As he will flwe.a very conai^ 
<ierable fiffure in the following hisiory, it is of importance to ther 
reader to knavf who he W]9iS» in what mannei;he,hadbeen educated,! 
todhtfscheineaiid method of government* , f 

Pericles descendedt* hy.,the mother's as well as fatheic'if sideii 
from the gr^ates^ and most iUustrioua fanu>*Q8 of Athens. }fifi 
(ither XaSli4ppus, who defeased at Mycde i le king or Persia's- 
lieutenants, married Agafiata, niece to* Cliatnei^^ wb^ expeUedl 
the Pjsi^traiidfle, or oeiiecndaQits of Pisistrs^ua the;. tyrant, fuid, 
establbhe^ a popular government ii) Athens, Penicla^ ha4.kuig! 
lffep<Lred,}himself for. tl^ deai^ he had formed of engaging in s^te 
iSurs, '. . .... . ,/ ^. . r| 

He was brought up under th$ most letvned . men of hxs age, an^ 
pirticularly Anaxa^oras of Clazomene, surnamed iix9,LUeUigenct^ 
km his bdng the first, as we ace told« who ascribed human events^ 
u well the formation, and j^overpmenj.of the universe, notr to, 
cbaQce^ as some philosophers, nor to a fatal necessity, but to a so*. 
Wfior Intelligence, who disponed and.governed all thin^ps with wis^ 
W. This tenet, or opinion, aubsisted long before bis time ; but 
^, perhaps, set it in a stronger light thqin m others bad done, a^ 
^ht it methodjkcally ana from principles* Anaxagoras (tho-^ 
!g(i^y instructed his pupil in that part of pbilo^phy which ^re-* 
•ites to nature, and which ia therefore galled physics.f Tbis study? 
K&Te him a strength and gr^eatness of soul, which raised him above^i 
ui mfinite aumber of vul^r prejudices and vain practices generally. 
Wved in his time ; which, ^ a^Qfkips of state and military enter*. 
^QBes, often disconcerted tlie wisest and m(>st neosssary mea^ures^ 
'7 defeated them b^ scrapujlous delavs, authorized and covered. 
'tit the ^ecious veil of r(lljigion<^ . These were sometimes dreams 
V loguries^ at other times dreadful phenomena, as eclipses o^ the^ 
^or moon, or else omens and, presages; not ,to mention the wild, 
iivseras. of judiciary astrology. The knowledge of nfkture, frae» 
^ the grovellinfir and weak superstition to which iterance 
r^es birth, inspired him, says Plutaitcb, with a-wial^grounded ^6r 
owtnW the gods, attended with a sti«ttgtli bf mind that wa^')n&, 

. ... . ... ' .. ■ . • t . ' •.'!" 

*nauie«iLr«riok.p.AS3htUS. ^ 

^ T)« aMcli9ts« mrf<ir» ihioiMW, co o i p wdwn d ed «vhtun«« Mil pltyite»iihd n ftn i tt l^ rf l 

moveable, and a calm hope of the bleasi^^ to be expected from 
Chem. Although he found infiiilie €t.ah>ik» m this study, he did not 
liowever devote himself to i); ajs a pldlosopbef, but as a stat^man; 
mnd ne had so niuch power ovef himselr (a very difficult thing) as 
Co prescribe ^o hinmplf limits in the pursuit of ^nowledge.^ 

silt thfe taleM ivM^he cultiviited with the gr^ateS:' care, be- 
tause he-l^eld 'tipon it ias the most n^cessar/ipstrument of all 
id'tfaosd Who are desirbtis of conducting a^d governing the people, 
was elo^ui^ei' ' AMjd^'inmed, those who pbssessed this talent, m a 
free state lik^ that of Athens, wete stire'of reigning in the aa^em- 
Mes, etigtossing siiffraj^, determteing afiairs, and exercinng a 
kind of absolute po\^i' ov^ the hearts and minds of the pteople. 
He therefore maoe this his chief bl^ebt,' and the which all 
his othel* improVemiints, as w^ll 8(s' whktsoev^r he had learnt from 
Anaxagoras, were c^'^t^edjf stifftising^'to borrow Plutan^'s ex- 
pression, ovei^ the fjdy of philosophy the .dye of rhetof'c; the 
lilekninff' of which is, that' Pericles, to embdlish axid ,adorn hk' dis- 
dtiorse^'hei^'htened the stfength and dolid!ty of rea^ohinfir with the 
cJolourin^ and graces of eloquence. ' ' i , 

He had nd cause to repenj: his haVing bestowed so mudi'tiM'e on 
this study,, for his supcess far exceeded, his utmost hqpes. ' The 
poetSff his contemj^Orari^^, used to '^ay, tJiat He li^htenea, thunder- 
ed,' aiid agitated all Gi*eece ; so powerful was his eioquenc^. It 
had those piercing iaid lively stTok^^,| that reach the innibst 
itoul; and his discourse left. al'\^>;{tys kh irresistible incentive, a' kind 
€f spurj behind it in thte'mtndsof hi6 auditors- He had the. art of 
iiniiin^ ' be&bty with strength ; and Cicero oVservesi thc^ 'at the 
very time he oppot^ed, with the greatest tenacuusness, the inclina- 
dolls and desires "of the Athenians, he had the art to make even 
severity itself, and the kind o^^ harshness with which he spoke 
agdList the flatterers of the pei^ple, p'ppula^. There was no t^sist- 
ia^the solidity of hb arguments, or the sweetness of bib words; 
whence it was said, that the goddess of persuasion, with dl her 
^;Tact)S, resided on his lips. Ah^ indeed, as Thucydidefs,( his rival 
aita' adversary, was one day asked, Vhetherhe or Pericli.9^ wa^ the 
best wrestler: "Whenever ^ says he; 7 hai>e given hitn it fUl^ he 
t^rvM the Contrary ^iniueh elrohg chid forcible tehn^y tkdi he pet- 
Muadet ali the apeetdtota thAt I ilidi^dt throw hinty tH&t^h ihcy t/iem- 
Htvee saw him on'-iht'j^-HnJ,' Nor Was he less ))ruaeni and re- 
served than strong^ and vehement inliis speeches; and it is related, 

tliat he^never^oke m puUic, till after he had besought' tHe ffods 

',■ \. '^.'-^^ ■ '. j»* ••''■ ■■■• i' ■'" '-' '"■ ' • 

y»^lf**>^*!i"*^^f'y'^«>*****-^W*Hr«!«» yiM/ietftruMC»inGr9tiuiKai§im est. Vim^U 
Oral. n. x9. 

t Uuid Pericletl Oe ci^a^ dicendi copi& «le acoq*'nui, ut, dun contim vplunmtfa 

Atbeniensluiii loqiieretor pro Mluta patrlr, wveiiin fMmeA'ld Ipiiiiii, ^um Me «iifilrm 

impulTfit' linoiiiHip dkMsd, iMpulAit wnnilMi' n Jmc w J wii ■ TfttorMur: tuSm ia wirit 

9ii|Ms QpoiieMtyKWNn teUthtw(dii«n|«i t uiHiwQMiii^K la «d Ailna. (it la ikmm 

MMatUNif, qui aiidiwent, quaai aculeM quMdain rellnqiMaNi •>Oii^lb( Ob fit Omu. % 

Ufr % Noi tlw hkinrt^ni , ^^ ,^t 




DDt (osad^r iny espmiichiMto 4ra^(froii| hiiQi ^t|l^r.iQC<ulgruoll• 
to his sttbiect, or oflbiisive t» the people*. , Whenever ^e htm. \p 
appear in the issemblj*,'* befodte heeaaeoiit pf hU haa^e he un^^ 
to say to himaatf; Rsn^smh^r^ Pericles^ th<U ihouart gqingip speaj^ 
to men born in the armi of liberty j tQ Q reeks ^ to Athenians* 

The aneomitton ^deavdurd which Pericles, ^accqrdlnff to hyfto* 
tnm used, itt- order' to .imporote his miod by, the atuay. ofth^ 
Kieac ^, and to attaiiito a perfection in eloquence, are an excell^i^ 
ksson toBOoh persons 48 areoQ(> day to fill .the important office* 
of state; lA&d ajust censureof thoae,f whp, disregarding whatever 
is called study and. learning, orio^ into those employments fupon 
which they enter without koawledge or experience,^ nothing out it 
ridiculous self-sufficiency^ and a tSfsh boldness in deciding* Plu- 
tarch,! in a treatise where he showed ithi^t it is to statesmen that % 
philo^))h6r oioffht chiefly to attach himself f^referablv to any oiher 
clas^ of men, (because iOf instructing them, be^ at the .nam^ tir:«9 
teaches wbi^e cities and republics,) veritiias his assert^o^ from t1i9 
example of the greatest men b^^th of Greece and Xta)^» wlio derived 
this help from philosophy. Pericles^ of whom we now write, waa 
/fltflfht by A^oaxa^ras ; Dion.of Syracuse by Plato; many princes 
of Italy by Pythagoras ; Cato, the famous censer^ travelled to the 
place where ^MhsQodorus li^d. forthesami^ purpose.; and Itistiy^^ 
the &aious Scipio, the destroyer of CfLrthage, alwajff kept Pani^ 
tins the phiiofioflker near his person* . 

One l>f tbe chief endeavb«ra cf ; Pericles also, was» to study 
thoroagrhFy the genius and disposition, of the Athenians, that,$0 
niivht discover the secret springs which were to be employed' in ' 
order to «et them in motioa, and the manner in whicl^ it was propi»' 
to act for -a^niring their eonfidence ; {or It .was in that principalnr 
iliat the great men among the ancients, used, tp, ;make tlieir skJu 
lod politics consist.^ ,Ue found by t|ie reflections he btid made oa 
the sov^eml transactions of hi* ^e^ tjiat the predoi^inant passionb 
of thw pe6p\s were, a tyrff^^«,l,nd a stfoi^g 
bie of liberty, wh\ch inspired them. with sentiments. of fear, 
jeakraey, and suspioion, of all such citize^as as //ere too cbnspicu- 
QQs for tbeir birth, their personal meri^»> their own credit and au* 
tborityy 0r (hat of their friends. He not only was very like Pisi^ 
tittas, with regard to toe .sweetness of his voice and fluency of 
expression, but he als6- resembled him very much in the features 
«f his &c6,:aiid lus whole air and manner ; ,anc| he observed, ,^hat 
the oldest of the 4^ei|iaM<4 who bad^^eu the.tyra.Qt».^ere prodi- 
g»iuhf struokxatihe req^mblaQOf • BesidQs,i,l^e was very ricji, yfllm 

•FI«.l.8ymp.'uiKLp.«M: ;^''' :'-. "•'• ' • •":'•••-• ."^H' 

t NaiK contri pteHane «d h<Mfatret«<ttpl«C6nd^ tt att ^HMp. |M«iidaM, IMli nUMmi 
t iaemoi, nulM cognltione reruni, nttita ■cleniia ornail. Cie. lib. iU. it Or§t. n, 138. 

t nut- p. 777. 

iOteft sanvMaTolKf nauirm, d qi^ Kno* niodit lempennter Habemtfrr'MliMuiqttt 
to0A\\«m^m iuMite 4|«i maxima petdidiffaraoi, cafiuU tempomm tt nfilMiWt'liikW 

l<to ttiiiMnMr OF arils' .• 

!l*o prevent, therefo/e, hie bfdte^ cibnoxtoas lathe siu^ioBaod 
Jealousy of the peo|de', he kt firet sfaunnetWjmUie hiuine^n, which 
tequired a constant attendance in the eity v al^d waa fl^ly intent 
UDon distingoislnng^ hi^diself in war and dangers^ 
^ But when he saw Aristidee dead, Themiatoolea bani^ed, and 
^itnbh engaged almost continually in foreign wars^ajiMd absent from 
Greece, he began 'to appear in public with- gveater conficlence 
than hefbre; and entirely devoted himself to tfae-'party of the peo- 
ple; but no^ out of inclination, fof he was far front aSbl^tiuiig popular 
power, but to^enntyve all suspicionB o£ his espin^ff td ihe tyranny, 
and still inoi^e, to rais6 a strong bulwark OAainat &e influ9Bce and 
autnorify of Cimon, whohad j^^lned-witbtiieadUei^i / 
^ At theBame time, he quite changed Ins conduct and way of lilej 
knd' assumed, in di, things, tl^e character 'bf<astate«pMm, wholly 
Wied in afrairs of ^y vernmant, and entirely devoted to Phaser- 
:wcei of'hii rountry. He was jaever seeri in thB;atreet;j, except 
When he was going" either t<s the asi^mUy bf the peoplev or to the 
council. ' ' He )6n a strddeii )eft off going to haI^uet8, aMpmblies, 
\iQd other diversions of' that kind; which he had .used tA ^queiit ; 
'aiikd duriff^ the matiy ^ears that lie pr«uded in the afiiniBis^imtion, 
ii(^ was h)^er seen to ^ to supper with his friends; ^eepti once at 
tSeliQptids'ofa nearrelatioii. ....;•: , 

; He knew that the people,* who ace mtardly fi^e and incon- 
M;aht,t comnion}y, disregard^ thos^ Who are always intiieir ^ht; 

tand ^hat too ^vbxig a ^^re to f^toet 'them, growa at la^t tireaome 
d' importunate^ and it was observed ^hat such ai>ehaviour was 
ry prejudicml^ W'Themidtocles. ' To tfvoid this emor, he used to 
j^^ very ^arel^ tb'the ' assemblies $ and never appeared ^before the 
people btit at iot^i^ah^Jin order to mal^e himsrif 'detiredf ondto 
preserve sdch air ^cepdint t^ver theiif niinds as might be. always 
'hW, and not wbmf and^ln it manner withered by an tovertgn^at'assh 
^(liljy \ ^fiSMf re^^Ving hMifself fbr >g[reat and tmpertdnt Q<;c«9iom. 
Hence^lt'was saiti' that he Imkat^d Jupiter,! who; m the govern- 
ment of ^e worid, acconHng to some* philosophers;, busied /huniself 
in ]greatj events aI6ne ; ' and left the dire<%ion of t^ose of kss-impor- 
lance td.ibubaltem deitibsl And indeed, Pericles- used t» tniliMct 
all petty liifkirs by his fKiends, and by oeHain 6raton th^ were eft 

'ti^l^ (fcvoted to hitn, among whom' was E^ 
. PeTicles employed fiis whble- industry a^ applkatioato gain the 

^^youx an(f esteem^ of the plieiple,fiii' order to counterhalftHOe ihe 

'iaihe imd ^Sitfuemie of Cimtm. H^SVr^dvd^i'he d6ukb!not.«qaaIihe 
magnificence and liberality of his rival, ivhose immense richef 

ifpt9%\am aa>opportwHtg(^9/^,l^tQ^infiL s,\|^h ,large^eB as «pp^ tt 

, t Plu»d«|ar. iep.l^8H. <J Flui. in Ptrld. j^r I5«; «<• mv f ; .„y7^ 


«Hlmoat.:iiioi^ible« io miioh.^il^j differ from #«r ouatoflM in 

t|nit ifti])^flJ»if.Fiiidiiig itiinpDeiiUevfor him to rif al Cimpi). in tbia 

jibtietfll^r, kdkmid recourse HoiaiioUi^ exj^edient. ij» Qti^ U> gaio 

tinektveof the pbpukce,) no >le6».,tfoQWiiU>er|iapfls»ibiit,«er(aiA(y 

not 80 i^gititniit^ and honoufabt^. (Ho waArthe fliat who eausod 

the conquered l^nda to be divided among the citizens i wHo distrit- 

kted among them the pubUc revenues, for. the expense ol* their 

games ^d sboiws, and annexed pensions to. all public employments i 

80 that, certain sums w«re bestowed on i}^xn uegularly^ as. well to 

procure them a place, at the jfames,: as foi. their attendance in tho 

courts of justice, imd the.f ibllc assomblies* it is imfK^ible to say 

how fatal this unhappy policy was to tho republic, and how many 

fvils it drew For these ne\\' rcgqlations, b%4des draining 

the public treasury, gave the people |i fondness fort expense, aqd-^ 

dissolute turn of mind;, whereas thiey before were sober a^d mofWsCi 

and contented themselves with, getting a livelihood by their svvj^a^ 

and labour. 

By such arts as these*. Pericles had gained so great an ascendant 
over th^et mi^.dfi of the people,"^ that hp may be said to have ^ttampj 
J monarchical poiwer under a.. republican, form, of goveirnment |^ 
moaldiog the citis^ns into what ^hape he pleased, aiid^ presiding 
with unlimited authority in p,ll their assemblies, ^nd inde<^d) Valoj^ 
hus Ma;iumas snakes scarce any other ditference be^weon Pisistrsr^ 
tuB and Pericles, than that the oneexeircised a tyrannic^ pow^r by 
force of arms, and the ot^ier . by the strength of his d9qu?nce, ia 
Tbich heimade a very great progress under Anaxagoras. ; , 

This credit and authority, enormous as it was, could not yet restrain 
the comic writers from throwing out against him very many severe 
ttrokes of satire in their theatres; and it does not appear tliat any 
^ the poets who censured Pericles with so much boldness, were 
rfei punished, or even called to account for it by the people* Perhaps 
Swas through prudence and policy that he did not attempt to curb 
liiU licentiousness of the sta^e,.noi: to silence the poets; that he ' 
^ht anmse and content the people by this vain shadow of libertyi 
tad prevent their discovering that they really were enslaved. 

?ericle9,f the mqre to, strengthen his own influence,, engaged ii) 
^aesign no less hazarflous tb^n bold. He,r,esolved to weaken the 
icthority of the tribunal of the Areopagus, of which he vvas not oi 
^leiuber, because he bad never been ^ected either Arch.on,| Thes- 
laatheta, king of the sacrifices,: nor Folemarch. These were dif- 

' Periclei fellciMlinus nature' incrementia, mJb Anaxngorft pr^bctptore rammi) MM|q 
^RfiriltiHa liMiroctiis, ttberia Albeaarum eervicibas ittgiwn ^enrttuAit jqipiwuit^ e^ 
«9aiiUeiirtieift«t venuvJt ^rbUrio «)uor-Q|iid inter Pttistratuv eiPericlevn i^terfiui. 
>■■ q^ iUe arraatas. bic sine ariiiia tyramiidem exercuit 1 , yoL Mt^. I.' viil. e.9. 
triaLbi«^rkt.p. 157. In Cim. p. 488. ' . ' 

( Atuttuae ebanget bad, been made in the fom of ih9 Athenian govAcnment, tbt 
wyryii uthority was at Ir^t invested In nine inaglMratf>s, called arelHing, and lasted 
I ^ ttK ^car; Lnc was called Rex, another PolemarehiM, and a fhiid- Aretioni and 
1 «bu aoapanie was p -operly at tne head of the rest, and gave his name to the year| 
'^ mx Tltomothete, who presided iaunediately over U)e laws and deerMw. 


M umvoutT o? Tice . 

^fMt'«inpl4Mi«iit8 inUhe repilblie, which IVom ti«e 1iui tign i flf M 
had heott gi^nby lot } and non^ hot those who had hehn^od n^ 
*nghti^ in them, were allowed « aeatki the Areopagui. ' Perieles, 
tddbg'ttdtailtage of Cimoh/s abseiuto; ftet Ephialtes, who waa hia 
treatttre, M wdrk clandeetinely ; i«d at last socceseded iit lesMning 
the power of that ilidstrious'bddy, in which the ^hief strength of 
the nobility consisted. The people^ emboldened and supported by 
so powerful a fkction, subverted all the ftrndamental laws and an- 
(sient cfustoms ; took from the ' senate bf the • Areopagus the cogm- 
feanceof the ^eaterpaft of* the caiises that nfied to be brought 
before it, leavrnt it very few,- and such only as were of little conse 
^uenceT, an^ made themselves absolute masters of all the tribunals 
^ Cimon, on his retu];n to Athens, was afflicted to see the dignity 
6f the senate tf^mpled under fbot, and thereforef set every engine 
at wotk Uk restore it to its pristine authority, and to i^evive the 
aristocracy, in the same form as ithad been estsiblished under Clis- 
thenes. But now his enemies be^an to exclaim and excite the 
people agaim^t Mm ; reproaching him, among many other things, 
K>r his strong attachmei^t to the Lacedtemonians. Cimbn- had hmi- 
self git^ti^^taie room for this reproach, by his not paying Sufficient 
le^ard to the Athehian delkbcy : for, in speiCking t6 them, he 
Would for ever extol Laeediemonia ; and wh€toever be censUred 
their conduct on an^ occasion, he used to ciy, Tke SparieuM do noi 
Hd iii 'tkU mann&i*, Siich expres^ns '98 these drew upon htrn the 
Anvy t^d hatred of his fellow-citiietas : ' but ' an evient, in which he 
nevertheless had no shaire; made -him the-, object of tfeeir utmost 

i » ■ 

section' vjn. 


An «ailJii|Uake in S^artk. InMift^tibn df thft Helots. 80«d» oTdfviifoii bflUMm Ch« 

I ( AtbeDititf ap4 Spart}ip» . Cii|aw U feiit iaw buikhnfMit. 

A. m; 3534. In the fourth year 6f the reign o^ ArchidMnus,* there 

Atot J. e. *70. happened the most di-eadftil eirthquake in Sparta that 

!iad ever been known; Tn Several places' the counti^ was entirely 
wallowed up; Taygetus, jjncj other mouiitalnsr'wy re shaken to 
their foiindf4ti6iis ; maiiy of their^ stimmits being torn away, came 
tumbling dowa; and the w}K61e city was laid in ruins^ five houses 
only excepted. . *t'6 heighCep. th6 calamity, thefHeldt^, who tvere 
slaves' to the fiacedsemonians, looking upon this as a fkvourabie 
^mortoffUy to recover thejr .libertv, new up a^d down every part 
m the'eiW, to murder* such as had escapeo the earthquake: but 
lljading them pntfe^ arms, and drawn up'lh drder of battle, by 
the prudent foresight of Archidamus, who had. assembled them 
^und KJto, they fetii^d into the* heighbourinff cities,^ and com- 
ibeneed that very day open war, having enti^rea iii to alliance witJi 

* Plut in Cim. p. 488,489 ! > 


seven! oftlie neiighboiiring nations, am) being'strengthened by the 
Messeniaiis, wbb at that time were enga^^d fh a war with the 

SpartanlB. % 

The Lacedseraonians in this extremity sent to Athtos to Iroplore 
snccotirs ; bat this was opposed by Ephialtc^, who declared that it 
would be no way advisable to assist them, nor to rebuild a city that 
was the rival of Athens, which, he said, ou^ht lb be left in its 
ruins, and the pride of Sparta thereby humbled for ever. Bilt 
Cimon being struck with horror at these politics, did not hesitate a 
moment to prefer the welfare of the Lacediemomans toihe agj^ran- 
dizing of his country, declaring, in the strongest terips, tj^at it wad 
absolutely improper to leave weece lame of one of iU leg$^ dnd 
Athens without a counterpoise : the people cadie into his opinion, 
and accordingly i^succour was voted. Sparta and Athene mi^ht 
indeed be considered as the tWo limbs on which <]rretece. stood ; so 
that if one of them wks destroyed, Greece would Inevitably be cHp- 
pled. It is also certain, that the Athenians Were so- elate with 
their grandeur, and were become so prOud and enterprising, that 
they wanted a curb to check their impetuosity; and none was so 
proper as Sparta, that state being the only one that was capable of 
being a counterpoise 'to the headstrong disposition of the Athe- 
nians. Cimoh therefore marched to the aid of the Lacedfbmouians 
with 4000 men. , . , 

We have here an example of the powerful influence, which i, 
man of fine talents and abilities has in a state, when a great fund 
of merit is united in Kis person "with a well-establ^hed reputation 
for probity, disinterestedness, and zeal fbr the good of his country. 
Cimon, x^ith veVy little difficulty, succeeds in mspiring the Athe- 
niuis with nobl^ and magnanimous sentiments, which in outward" 
ippearance interfered with their interest ; and this in spit^ of the 
BE^g^estions of a secret jealousy, wKich neVer fails to show itself in 
tie most sensible manner on these occasions. By the ascendant 
ind authority which his virtue gives him, he 'raises them Itbov^ 
4e grovelling" and unjust (though too dommon} political views, tholt 
urompt the people to consider tlie calamities of their neighbours as 
m advantage, which the interest of their own country permits and 
e^en enjoins them to lay hold of. The counsels of Cimon were 
?<TfectIy wise and equitable; but it is surprising ho^ he could pre- 
"wlso far as to make a whole people approve them, since this is all 
ifest could be expected from an assemWy of the wisest and graveiit 
seiators. . , 

Some time after,* the Lacedceraohians again iniplorcd the aid Ot 
the Athenians agains^t the Mcssenians and Helots, who had a^ized 
iwm Itht>me. ' But' these forces heins arrived under the command 
^^ Cimon, the Spartans began to dread their intrepidity, their 
tower, and great fame ; and affronted them so far, as to send them 

* nut in Cim. Thucyd. 1. 1. p. 07, (to. 

104 ^ .m^QHYOFT^E f. 

btck, upoQ «Q8{iioioa of t^ei^ harbourmgill MeaffUfi, ax^d of inteiid- 

uv to turn th^rmrms igauist them,. d: 

\rhe Athenians' being returned full of anger and resentment, 
they declar^ thcmsclye^ ^om that very day, enemies ta all who 
should favour the La^ediemonian interest,: for which reason they 
banished Oimpn by.the ostre^usm, on the first oppor,tunity that pre- 
•onted itself for that purpose. ,Thi§ is the first time that the mie* 
understanding between these two nations, which afterwards jxi* 
creased through. mutual discontent, displayed itself i^ so strong a 
manner. ^ It ^as nevertheless suspended for some years, by truces 
and treats,, which .prevented its conse^'^uences ; but it at last 
broke out in the most violent manner in ^ f^- Peloponnesitji war. 
: TlJtose.who had «hut th^selyps ur ji Ithome, aftei^ making a 
ten, years' defence in it, surrendered Sv last toth^ Lacedsmonians, 
who gjDLve them th^ir lives upon .condition that .they should never 
return to Pelbpou^esus.. The Athenians, to exasperate the Lace- 
df^onians,, received them.t with their wives and. children, and 
settled theoji in Naupactii^, of which theyhad just before.possessed 
themselves,.. The inhabitants of Megara at the same time went 
over/romthe Sp^ans to the Atdeniai^.''' In this manner several 
le^ues w^re concluded on both sides, and mai^y battles were 
fbuj^rht; the most fi^mous of which was that of Tanagra ii) Boeotia, 
which Diodorus equals with those of Marathon and Flatsqe^ and in 
which Myr^mdes the Athenian defeated the Spartans, who came to 
the aid of the .Thebans. 

A. M. 1548. ' It \yas on th^ occasion that €imoi),f tl^ inking him- 
Ant J. c 45(^ self dispense^, from his proscription^ repaired in arms 
-w^t|i some soldiers to his tribe to serve his country, and to figHt in 
the Athenian army agains^the Laceds^mopians ; but fiis .enemies 
paused him to be ordered to ^'etire. ^owevei*, before he went 
away, he, exhorted his companions, who were no less suspected 
than himself of ftivouriug the Lacedaemonians, to exert themselves 
to the utmost, and fight with the greatest courase, to prove their 
injQocence ', and if possible, to efface from the miims of their citiz ma 
a (Suspicion so injurious to them all. Accordingly, those brave 
soldiers, who'were 100 in nuiqbe;r, fired l)y his words, requested hiffl 
to give them his whole armour, which they, placed in the centre 
of tneir tittle battalion, in order to have him in a manner present and 
before their eyes. They fought with so inuch Valour and fury, thai 
they were all cut to pieces^^o the. great regret of the Athenioiu 
who deeply repented their "fiaving accused them so unjustly. 

I omit aevend events of Uttle importance. 

•Tlniqrd.l.Lp.ilO.71. Dk)d.LxL>9B-ei , t niiU In Cim. (u 

# ^ 

t I 



Utmrn la rte^Ucd., H« «aulrii«lie« peace between the two eltlM. He gains mnvnk 
ridorietf, which reduce Artaxerzea to the neoeeiity pf coucludlng t treaty highly 
honourable to the Greek*. Ciniou'i death. 

' The Atbeoians,*; perceiyln|f the gneat oocaMon tlicy bad for 
CimoD, recalled bim urom banishment, in wbich he bad spent five 
fears. It was Pericles himself wtio proposed und drew v\p ^«t 
decree : so modemte in those times, says Plutarch, were feuds and 
aniiDositieS) and so easy to be appeased when thfi public welfare 
required it; and so happily did ambition, which is one of the 
strongest and most lively passions, yiel^ to the necessity of th^ 
tiffles, and eomply with the occasions of the public. 
A.M. 3S54. 'Hie instant Cimon returned,! he stifled the spariw 

Aauj. c. is». of war which weie going to break out among .the 
Greeks^ recolfeciled the two citi^, and prevailed with them to con- 
cbde a truce for %s^ years. And to prevent the Athenians, w|io 
vere grown haughty in consequence of the .many victories thi^ 
bad gained, from having an oppvAuaity„pr harbouring a design, 
to attack their' neighbours or allies, he thought it ad^i^ble to lead 
tliem at a ^reat distance from home iigainst the common enemy; 
tiitia endeaTourinff, in an h<mourable way, to inure the citizens t(r 
tar, and enrich them at the same time. Accordingly, he put to sea 
with a fleet of ^00 sail. • He sent sixty of thesp into Egypt to the 
^ of Annrrteus, and himself sailed with the rest agamst the 
island of Uyprus. Artabazus was at that time in thos^.seas with 
i fleet of 300 sail ; and Megabyzuf , the other general of Artaxerxes, 
nth an army of 300,000 men, on the coast of Cilicia. As soop sj 
tbe Bqoadron which Cimon had sent into Egypt had jomed his fle^t, 
isjsaiisd and attacked Artabazus, and took 100 of bis sliips. He 
auk many of them, and chased the rest as far as the coast of PhcBr 
nicia. And as if this victc^iy had been, only a prelude to a s^condi 
^ made, a descent on Cilicio in his return, attacked Megabyzusi 
ideated Jufn, and cut to piec4<s a prodigious number 'Of his troops. 
He afterwards rettuned to C/)[Nrus wilh this double, triumph, and 
^d siege to Citium, a strong city of very great importance* Hi0 
^8%a« after he had completea the conquest of that island, was 
to Bail for Egyptf and agaii^ embroil the alEairs of the barbarians f 
for he had rery. extensive views, and meditated no less aprojeet 
tiua that of entirely subvertingrthe mig[bty empire of Persia. The 
nzBouis which prevailed,.. that Themistocles . was to command 
igainst ium, added fresh fire to bis courage \ and, aJmqet asuured of 
neceas, he was infinitely pleased with .^eoqcasioii^if trying his 
^rength against that general. But we have alreadjr seen that 
rheaustocks^Jlaid violent bonds on himself about this time. 
I Artaxerxes,! tired witli a war in which he had sustained such greit 


• Plat. nrCW. p.'4M. "flhutibM inod.l.slli^73,74. t^NM. 

m jpjsww j?r wEt, 

S resolved, with the* advice of his council, to put tn^cd to ft. 
Accordingly, he sent orders to his generals to conclude a peace 
with the Athenian^, upon the most advantageous conditiona they 
<K)uId. ' Megabys^as and Artabazus sent ambassadord to Athens to 
propose an Accommodation. Plenipotehtiaries were chosen on both 
sides, and Callas was at the head of those of Athens. The condi- 
fioni^ of tM^ treaty weve as foLows : Iw ThKtiill the Qrecian cities 
qf Asia^^otlM e*njoy their liberty, with such laws and forms of 
gfyfferam^nt as'tliey should thiiik fit to chv^e. ' 2. That'iiO Femma 
irhip'of war sfhbald be allowed to enter th^ sea6 bet^^nthe Cya« 
xiean and €tieUd6nitln klands, that is, from the Euxine sea to the 
coasts of Pamphyliii« 3. That no Persian general should advAnoe lUiy 
troops within three days' march ofthose seas. 4. That the Atheniaaa 
should not invade an}' pArt of the ^tninions of the king ef Persta. 
These AHiAes being ratifi^kl by both pia^tios^ peace,*was proclaimed* 
A. M. 3555. ■ ' Thus ended this vHr,- which, fVom the bdniing of 
Am.j.C.449i Sai-dis by the Athenians,' had' lasted flfty-one. years 
coihplete, and'ih Which infinite numbers of Persiana as well as 
preeks'ha^ perished. t.^ 

Whilst this ttettty was. negotiating,* Cfanoti died^ either of sick«^ 
ness, or of 'i#%obhd he.htd'reeeived at the 'siege of Citium. When 
he wa& qear hisf <^nd, he commanded hid officer^ to sail with the 
fleet immediately fof Atheiis, and te odnceal his death with the ut* 
most care. Accordingly it- wits execut<ed with «a imich-deereoy, 
that netther-theenetny nor th^-fdlies ddce- suspected at; and they 
returned safe to Athens, stilt under* the conduct aaid aQiq;>ibM of 
Ciraon, though he had been dead above thiityday8»- • 

Cim'oh was universally regretted ;f which id ne- wonder, naee 
he ^as possessed of all those quUkies that digttSfy the soul f a most 
tender son, li fattliful friend ; a citizen xeatousiior'the g6od of his 
coiintry ; a great ^politician, an accomplished general; mSdest wb» 
raised to the higheist eidploym^nts and most mstineniisbed honouis; 
hber&i and'heniefibent almost to pfnilMion; simple and Averse to 
ostentatlbn of every kind, e^^en m '.he* ihidst of riches and abun- 
dance ; in fine, so great a fov^r of tbef poor (Citizens, as tei share his 
whole estate with them, wiUii6bt b^ng ashamed bfeBchoomiilanions 
of huf fottune. History mentions no statues or numiitents erected 
to his nfemonr; nor any magnificent ohietfECm selebrated'after hb 
death ; ti^t the greatest honour that soutd be paid lmn<>ilViB the 
sigteflLnd^<G|arsef 'the people; these were perknanent mllastiag 
statues,! w)iich are not obnojcious to the incle»neiieies of 'weather, 
or the iiijuries of time, and' endear the 'iriemofv of tlie' flood and 
^rtnotts to thetemotest ages. For the mostsbMiiM roadscdemui, 
the Wdilt <of b^ttte andmatthie, that ara raised in honoarof wicked 

4 1nuUtoCfHKp.401. ^, . . "v , ' 

^ t Bic M geientfd, mrrifmi ^ taSrandoiJi, il et vita ^ M iCJieiihiia 'mm aeerte* 
Cbrn, Jfiip* in Cim4 e. \v. > - " ■ M *,v . ^,iiM. 

t Ha pulclierrtinB efllii iM et amnrane. Nam, qua Mxa stranntur. ai Jud.cittm pot* 
I|p9ffis uuMlufi vtrtUj pfp feiHlkiixti qyniamyur,. rr«ei't. «fl||iip<.^4^ ^^a> 38. 


fimt aeBy are despiied by poitatity, ii» «0|pu|ilirai wl6db mdom 
Mthmf bat vile dust and putrefiictioii. * ' 

iWhatfi^owed proved mor»jitroii|fly the loss ^ich Oretee had 
/ ABtuiied:by ioB deatk ;• lor Cimoa was the last of aU the QredaA 
ffeaersk ^ho did aiw thine opnsiderable or glorvmA against the 
Darbarians. Excited by the orators, who grained the strouffest 
aseeadaUt Over the minds of the people, and sowed the seeds of ttivi- 
don in thoir public assemblies^ they turned their ahinioeity agaiiM 
«tch other, and at last proceedea to open War, the fiital conse- 
^aences of which no one endeavoured to prevent ; a cireumstanca 
thatrwas of great advantage to the king of Persia, and of the iit* 
iBQst pni udice to the affairs of Greece. '' 


'..•.■•> ' ■ 

XhneydMe* M oppo«p4 to F^iides. Tfte tnvy raised ajHtiiut tM tatter. H« <Amm 
liiipff if, aod HKqpwda in prooufing Hub baiiiahiiient of Tliucx4ld«p. 

The nobles of Athens^ seeing Pericles raised to the |iighest dei- 
gree of power,-^ and far aoove all the rest of the citizens, reaolvied 
lo oppoa^ to him a man who, in some measure, mi^lit. majke head 
igamst hun, and j revent his authority from growmff up to noo- 
atrchy. Accordi»igly, they opposed to, hiiri Tnucydiues, Cimon's 
i!n7^/ier'in-laWi .a man who had displayed his wisdom on numberless 
occastpns* He did not indeed possess the military talents of Pcri^p 
dee; but then he had as great influence ovqr the people ; shaping 
^eir opinioas, i^nd directing their assemblies, as he pleased; and 
is he never stirred! otit of the city, but continually combated Peri- 
des in all liis designs, he soon restored, things to an , equiJibriunv 
On the other side« Pericles wais solicitous of pleasiiig the people 
ut a!l occasions, and slackened lie rqin more jLhan eyer;^ente]> 
tiunnor them as often ais possible with show^, festiyal9, games, and 
ciaer diversions. . • .^4 

He found means to maintain), during jight months in the year, a 
(Tett number of poor citizens, by putting them on board a fleet 
wasisting' of threescore ships, which he fitted out every year \ and 
Jfemby Old his country an linportant service, by training pp a^reat 
Aimber of excellent seamep for its defence* He also planted seve- 
ns colonies in Chersohesus, in Naxos^ipi An^lros, and among thb 
Kaaltaj in Thrace. He sent a very numerous .one to Italy, of wliich 
Ye ehall soon have occasion ^o speak, and which built Thuriura. 
Pericles had various view3 in settling \those colonies, bepides the 
P^ular design he might have of [ (iining the affections of the 
people by tha( means. His cMef motives were to clear thevcity of 
^^reat nuniti^r of idle persons who were ever ready to disturb 
^^vemment ; to relieve the wants of the lowest class of peoplei 
F^ before were unable to maintain themselves ; in fine, to %W9 

/ ' 

IW . ^« , mSTOBY. OP TUB t ^ « 

ibe^^t»Ay Httlii|i iMtive AUwniftim nmoog them,' m MiMtaf 
garrisons, which might prevent their eimgiog ia. nw^menmum 
cpatrtry te ^mtere^t of tbtt peopfe. . The Roflttos teiste^ itfthe 
4faiDet.|BftmiQ(r; |ii4 ittindy l»e.stjd,.tiiat «o. Wine a .polid^t wat'eDe 
<>r the Dioajt efl^ci^ methods uied by. them to secmre the tranquy^ty 
4»ftheetate* >. ^' . 

Bot the cireumetance whieh didPerides the greailesi kmeor in 
jthe opiiuon of the-.pctople, wms his adomiog the oitjr'witfa magnifi- 
cent edifices. and other works^ which raised the admirationr and 
ftstonishmentof toreigvers aKid<|fave thjemagmndddeaofihepower 
of the Athenians* U b surprising that in so short a space ao mtny 
works of architecture, sculptwe, engraving, and painting, should be 
perfonned, and at the same time be carried to the highest perfec- 
tion : for it is generally found^t^at edifices, raised in haste, boast 
neither a solid and durable grace, nor the regular accuracy of per- 
&0L beauty ti Commonly, nothkig but length of time,- joineAEl to as- 
siduous labtiur,' can* give them such a sirengti! as may* preserve, 
and make theip triumph over a^^eis; and this raises our wpnder still 
ihtre in regard to the works 6t Pericles, wluch were finished with 
^80 m\!ich rapidity, and have nevertheless subsisted through so great 
a length of time. For each of thos<e works, the \ ery instant it was 
finished, had the beauty of an antique ; and at this >'ery day, says Phi- 
tarch, above 500 years after, they retain a freshness and youth as 
if just come out or the artist's hands ; so happily do they preserve 
the graces and <Jhafms of novelty, which will not suner time to 
dimini/di their lustre; as if an ever-blooming; spirit, and a soul 
exfei|<ptfVom age, were diffused into every par? or those, works. 

But that circumstance, which excited the admiration of the 
Whole world, raised the jealousy of the people against Pericles, 
. .His enemies were for ever cr3^ng aloud iu the assemblies, that it 
was dishonourable to |^bc Athenians, to appropriate to themselves 
the bank of all Greece, which he had sent for from Delos* where it 
had been deposited ; that the allies must necessarily consider such 
' an atte^ipt as a manifest tyranny, tvheh they found that the sums 
which had been extorted from tnem upon pretence pf their being 
employed in the war, wero laid put by the Athenians in gilding 
and erabd^Uishing their city, in making magnificent statues, and 
raising temples that cost millions, lliey did no(^ exaggerate on 
these occasions , for the temple of Hilierva, called the Parthenon, 
had alone fe]ost 3,000,00() livres.* ' .. ' ', 

' Pellicles, on the. contrary, remonstrated to the 'Athenians, that 
they were oblige J to give tjhe 'Allies an account of the moneys they 
had received from V 
ffdm, and repulsed, 
thtjr soldiers, liorses, 
4>f QioQcy^ which, fr4^m tlie'^tant they were j^ij in', were no 

fldenlioB ot* wlikm' tjbey wete rcceive4*(: iHe,«3<lec||,t|iat us, u% 

AllKsJMiM w«re siifficifiiiUy piolMied jndlh aU'thiagii n^em^ ^If 

mryir^sB but jiMt that tney fhould eai^ydoy tfa^^rest of Ifi^ Viches 

a ediices and otker w«rkr« vbitih,. wImUi. nm»hedv.W0uiUtjg|v(9 tow 

j»i«tl' gloifnothe «ity }. liijid vt^b,. Sunng^ t^p wholet^e th(9]r 

irere carrying en, diffused a general plenty, and gave b^^ to aii 

mfihite'iUHiiber of «itizeiM ; tbat tbey tbaf|i«al?9f ba^ ail kvHl« of 

]nat«ml8»«i'tniiher, alone, braaa, ivory, gold, ebony,- a^d cypres 

wood f^ And all sortt ^ artificers capaj^e. of Wprjgiig th^m» ascajr- 

peotefs, masons, fisnths, 8ton9*eutt«ie»<4y^t .goUr^m'^tb% artifice^ 

aeboiiy, painters, embroiderers^ and Uwners; Jtt^n fi(,to convey 

these materials by sea, as mercbant^r 8aiI<Mr8r.a4»d. experienced pi» 

J0te;.otbdr8, for land \caoriag^, aa cartwrtgbt^^ . wagQners, cartcni^ 

iope*ii^»B, siione^hewers^ pavleraiiiiiiid.iiiilioro, Xhftt it was for 

tiie advintaffe of. the stale' to employ} tfatsetcdtffeffnt .ffjrtifif^ra ap^ 

r^irmeni who, as aia many aepartie bodies, 4ofmed^w)»€|n united, » 

kind «f peaceable aaMl.demeatie arm^yv whoee diflfirent tvmctions.aad 

aaploynients difiubed gain -and increase tJMroughou^ ail aexesandi 

ig4 : iastly, that whilst men of :robult bbdiea,'iand .i^f^ian age ^t tO; 

nar aiins^ whethertaoldierto or mariner \ and tbose, wbo^^ere inftha 

£flferetkt gaiirimns, Were supported wHhtbe public menieyis ,4^ ymk 

bit just that the rest of the people, ^jio li^cd' ui the o^ty, ahou^ 

ibo be maintaiQeidiin tbeir \ir*ay^ abd t}tat,>as ^ill w^reinambera.f^ * 

tbesaxne republic thev all ought to rean tbe«ame a4vantag«)a,t)NR 

iomg it«er«ieea;, which, though of a differtot kind9>didlM>wev^tpIl 

CNitnbate'eitnertoitssetufStyxir.omameiit; J ^ ■, . ,, 

Ood day,»a8 the debattae (juverftrgrowingwariyifiFeficleSiioffe);^ tf^ 

defray all thi^ expense .of tjieee. buildings, provided it sbonild be ,4e<T the public inscriptions, tliat':i»e aiope ba<l beenfa^ tW 

^ge of tlitetnw 'At these tvtpjds,::the people,. either adaiiringijfll 

iaginLnin»ity, or fired with emulation, .aad dcH^imiiQ^d, not. tO; la# 

^ en^roae that glory, cned with onoi voices that.^;!inighl> tako* 

tt of tho pabUislroa^m^ all the ttubis neceidsary |^)r bia^PMrppao, i 

Pladiacp uie; celebrated sfSuii^tor, pre8J4ed ever allfUiesi^j^'orlu?; as 

^bcK^OF^genezal. It waiB'he) iniparticukr wb0^ forqpod t-be «tatuo 

dPiilaa, which wasiao highly vulUod by.iMi .the Judgea.^.anti-' 

^y. It "mum. made oof gold and ivory,* and . wa^ ttwenty-six ^subilft 

<y/!^'rty-Diae feet, irvheigbt^ There, anose an.UicreaiWi^^lfL-duuf 

^eraalati<Hii«mQQg>the several arttilcors,. who. ali {strive. tit .exci^ 

cttb»ther, sLfld ioMilortalizeitteir namea hy masterrpi^^ of act^^f 

f he Odeoia;''or. mtisie-theafta^e, which Me a grfiat Bumber of rowji 

|^Beata,aDd polumna ^wiUiioit; and whose roof :ini^..nan:o'ver bf 

j^Vreesyaiid tecmMateid tn apoinl, ^aa budt, m bistQiyi u^fiOfiMiv ^ 

M Waervae Atheiib toxxm Aiiiplltudint atcnmr, cum aa^it cvMioruM xivi 
liaeci aiMO coovtat. ' 'Kill i*!i^kvi. €. 5 > •'<-'■ ':r--^m'/< 

lid '^iMmiif HIT mm ^ ^ 

•IM'ib^^^iMM ^.%\»g JQm^i^ tmteiAUi 
IWcIok II itwi^ fit litat 4kn« hte pra^sed^ wkii Iteal; warmth, adt* 
41^, |{y wMod it was'^rdi^^^ tliat «H»ical' j^ames afaould bftet^ 
Bhitii^'on rtt(i festival call^ Panalkeftieaf aod 'having beeor^iNMli 
the Jdd^ttifd ffiiliihyur'of the prittad,iM( M||tQlated the inaiiieT m 
• ti^h^ch'S^iM^Ms '6h^ld«pl<r]F ofitthe futeiisil the lyire, as iTiittai 
flfH^. Fk>m'tliat tiih^ the mdeM^ games 'werei4t]Mfii exhifattod 
ih this *thii»'|ftre. '^ • 'J''' • -Ji"""' '"! « " ' '• • ' ■'-•. .r* - y; . 

I liiiVd already tftketlF'notice, that the nmre the Veaut^iandiapkn- 
dourof tlHsc'Wdrlb w^re admired; the grgAteMuavy uid^ajsioor 
were 'Tailed* agtinst Periclee. The otat^n of the opposite faction 
^f^^t^^erntiJby^eti^itR^'ff'li!^^ him ; aieoBsinigf-him of squander- 
iiig'thid phblic m^neysj'^ttiw kryingout very imseasOQaldy (the: rsr* 
Tenues "of the stdttt in^Ac^Sf whose macnificence waa ctf-no use 
<^ fast, the fttptare between "ihim afidTpucydkJjes roee^lsiaYich^ 
It^giit, that one^T dtib«riolPi«hem wast weceesarily be ba&isfaed by 
l!he odtraeiam. H#l^ttN)^Mt»F of iT^^ prevailfed to 

hkv^^itti bat^^$'limbediby%hluriMansSJ^ ADotm 

^^v«hd obtasited'a <l^p&t9^«u^horltv ovenshe diy and ewnemment 

' if' Athens. ' * He now iibpossd at iJieasurei of ther{|>ubuo. moiiej% 

flf#odp6,*lind' ihips^ The* islands and sesi we^e .subject r to him ;. W 

fi^'r^i^eddi^ystird' aikmi in: tbaf wide ^dimisxnt which eactended 

gtr^only over th^Gi^)t8','bu(t the barboriasis also, smd vfhioh ^Hms 
Minted Itod str^nfrthened by the pbedienoe andi^delity ofi the 
^quei^d^Watioi^,'^ tfae^fiiendsfaip\4if' kings,iaddf|veal>iesr oondor 
^KftthVfti'JMs pthirieiiJ '>' > 

•'4listdrtaits hi^ly ^jftjol^the mognifiioenttedifices andiother wjMrks 
with which Pericles adomed Athendvanid I have-^ related Astfaltitty 
l^i/tdiHhlohyT but I danot know whether th^ dom|daiDts andsMir- 
nl^ts'Vaised against him were so vtfty^iiA grounded. Wab'it^ indeed, 

Sk Yd him to exj^endvin siiper0itousbuilmiigs aiid- v^ decorattioDs, 
t ittutiense sums inteoded ts a fUndfor carryuAg on the war ?* luid 
l^ulU it nqtJtflive bi>en bstter to haws eased 'the dliesucf.^MDt of 
|hp edntribufi^iis, wh'*ch, in Perides'b administration, were raised 
to'a^^hirdlpaH'iAoyie than before ^'^Cic^Mt• considers only eudi 
Miftees Sild othl^ works' wortdytof ;4idminrtion^javjare ef use to 
.^e publlM lis^^aqueduditiBjieity Valls> clAide^, •arsenals, sea^pKorts; 
and'ai^jig ^hese^^e^taiiist rank the w^rk made •by f Pericles to jobi 
AthbfiS'ihe pc^n-of Pireeusi B«it'Cidepr6(obsarvesv at the aame 
, fhnev tht^'lNMie^es was ^blamed^ib'r squandering «^ay the .public 
tM[S<i^, meydy to embellisb thd^ oity with sUperflaous) omsnieBSs* 
Plaint whol^fhed a Jud^dnt of things^ not fnsiii ildteiK^oLLtwaid 

K6if<kmr,1»ftt Iremtiiuith, observes ^ator his- Ri8Ster'Socrate9«) tliat 
riclts, wi(b llll^'his'grrand edifices iiMlidtbitf workf(« had not im- 
|^v«d«M'm1tldot*one of the cititens-iii iviMMylrat ^lauthar ttr* 
xupted tlie purity and simplicity of their ancient manners. 

* Tbqr unotintfld to upwanLi of IO,oaS,QDO F!ivac|i money. iim , i ' . 


'>^ ' 4klaMr«M«d 


V7hen Perijcles saw himself thus ibvested with tke whole au- 
thority ,* he hegva to change his hehaviouf. He now was not' 06 
mild and a^^le ^before, nor did hi^. submit or abahdonf )pm^ctf 
tny longer to the whims and caprice, of the peopleyas to so' hian^ . 
winds ; hot drawing in, says Pluta'p^h, the reips of thiv too ioo^e, 
popular government, in the same mtpiier as we' screw up the strings 
of an instrument when too slack, h^ changea it into an aristdcracf , 
or rather a kind of monarchy, without departlhg however fV6m the 
public ^od. Choosing always what wa^ most expedient, and be^ 
coming irreproachable m all things, he gained so mighiy an asceo^ 
dant over tlie minds of th^ poople^.tliat he turned and directed then) 
Bt pleasure* Sometimes, by hii^j bftre advice; an J by pehiuasivfe 
laethode, he would win them oy^r gently to his VUl, and gain thefr 
assent sppntaneously ; at othef' times, when he four 4 them obsti<^ 
/idte> be would in a manner djr^g' them forward ^against their wifl^^ 
to those 'Ineasures which .wer^ ipost expedieijt ; imitating iir thia 
respect a skilful physi9ian, whp,'|n a tedious and stubborn disease, 
knows at what time it is n^per.fpr him to bidulge his patient ifi 
inaoceiU thinjgs thii^ are him ; at whifft time afterwards 
be mu9t administer medicines of a strong and violent nature; whic{| 
indeed pat.hin^ to pain, bat f^e a7pne capable of restoring hi^ 

healthr • ... )'•...'; 

Aiidt indeed, it is maji\ifest t^at, tlie utmost skill and abilities *vere 
Kqoired to manage an^ govern a populace haughty from theit 
power and e^ceediaffl^ -capricious ; and! ijci this respect Pi^rij^ 
raceseded wonderfully.^, He u^q^ ^o employ,' according to Ui/^'dS^ 
kx&at eitiia|io» oX thiqgs^ someU<ncs hope and at other times fear^ ' 
Ma double helm, either- to check, tjtie w^d transports and impe^ti- 
snty'of the peopJbv or tp raise their spirits when dejected ^d de-\ 
ipondinig^. By this ./conduct he showed,, ihat Sequence; as Plalb 
obaervocr, is ooly the(<art -pf dirc/cting thp mipds of the peoiilb at 
^; and liiat the cjiief excell^cy of this ^rt counts in inovin|r, 
ieaaooably, the.yarious p^ss^^as, whetj^ef^lg^tle or violent ; which 
feiBg4o the a^ti what strings piie ^^ f^jo^^sical inetYument, tieetf 
ody to -ho tou<]had by. an ingei^ou^. aj^d skilful hand^ to pit>dd<^ 

tbeirefiect, ■ ( . - • ' /-i*. " t ', ' " "''-'^ 

Hflrtisft' neverthnleae be confessed, that, the circumstanced yhiifi 
prarP.ericle8 t.n4 great autjiority, was, not only fhe^fbfce of Us 
eloquence, but, as Thucydides observes, thQ repu* tioii bfhoMhhj 
iodipre«ti|yrobily.> jo; • ,- 1<. ., ^ ' '' ''''it^ 

PhUav^L poipts <>ut in Peric^^ ope quality which V.Vbrj MA»n- 
til] to 8ta^«nen ;t a quality well adapted to win 'i&i \^fectn and 

1 1 

confidence of die public, and whrch 8up[i)sei a great superiorHy 
of mind; and that is, fof a mun to'b^ fully persuaded that he 
WMts tiio>4^i»B8ciBrof.o4^er9,,and i? i^qt abl^ to manage and direct 
aH tLings alone; to associate with himself in his labours pelisonfl 
OJC,/non1|i to cippl0|^ each of these according to his talents ; and, to 
i^^eto t}icm the ipana^^ment of small matt^hi, Which onl^C^bn- 
tnxQJ^ pfnfi^9x\d depjrivQ hjm of t^jat liberty of mind wliicfa k so nec^^ 
aary in tii^ conduct of inipor^tant iiir&irs. Siich a' conduct, dnye Pta* 
tarqh, )s productive of two g^efi ^Svantagesl First, it eztingvlshes 
or at^past dead^qs^ the force of ^nvy and jealousy,- by d$v'*di6g, in 
some measure, , a. ppWr which Ik grating and offencdve to:'Oifr eel^ 
l(^ye w^ep we see it united in f>ne single persoii, as if all merit 
(Sentrc;^ i^ hun alone. SecondlVJ it forward^ and facilitates the 
e^CC^tion of affairs, ^ni tiiakeS their success mote certain. Pitt- 
tijcc .»» tie better tO; explain his thought, cmpleys a very nWUral and 
peauidiL^] comparison; ,, The hdn'd, sayW he,'from its b^ihg divided 
ix^q/ive.fingersi, i^.^6^f^r froitn h^iifg weaker, that it is the strotoger, 
the/ipqre'' f^c^ivc^y and better tida&ti^d , to tndtion, on that Vcty ac- 
count ;U is wile ^a^ie witii a stal^stiiati,' v^ho has th<i skill to (divide 
h^ c^es arid functions .in a propeii^ Inannet, alld'who by that4neans 
iBii^s.'hM. authority more acti vie', more. extensive and de^daye: 
f^heKOa^, the ind^creet'esLgerne^i 8f a narrow-minded man, who 
ta^l^ ijunbrage 6Lt,^^nd wished tO 'ehgrojiBi every thin^, serV^^ to ne 
othi^r purpose but to set his weakiiess 'ah'd mtiapaclty in^a staronger 
Ij^ht, ^d t,o 4lsconQ§rt his ^a&s. But' Pencil, sitvii Plutavch, 
ud not act in tnis manhexv. ''Like k skilful pHof, wM, tboueh •ba 
its^d . almost . .motionless hiiM^f, . however puts every thtig in 

ing the eloquefice 0^ one man, th&/credit <^ interest of andbieiv 
t\i9 prudenc^ of a third, and the brsve^y aM coum^ of a fourth. 
To what has been her^ related,*' We ^ns^y add 2:totbef^ >|9UaMt3% 
"wh^)! is 110 \ek^ rai^ ahd valuable, I mean, a'nobl^ and disihteiresU 
fd Sf^H^ i Pericles was so averse to the r^^iVlng iX g^, i|ad iiiefa 
^ ui^e^; ^ontei^pt for ricli^b, and wfi^s so'far'itboVe aUvapaciouftum 
paid avarice^ that though he had raised Ath^ to the^nctet voi^ ' 
mp^tflourislmig state; tiibiigh hTs- ]k)wer sQi^asBedthat of 'mgay 
|jrTaf4/}. and kings': th'6&^^^ had loiig di«)D08e^'isil an aha^iate 
manner of the trdasurefs^ Greebe^ he did not^' 'howet«k, add a 
puigl(^ draqhmi^ to the 'estate he inherited from his fatheii* > Ttim 
was the ap«\rce» tKeftrOe cause,of the supreme ifUthority otf:9Mdles 
in the; republu* ' the jjust iLnd deserved fruit of \Jb iutepftn&ajid 

^rfect disiiiiercrftcdness. ' • * ':• i^ ^ V .i > n^i.^.. 

,. U was Opt only for a^ few short mpnients, nor during t|i6 fiii^lni* 
mi^ faA^\ur, whjch ,^;generidly vh^li 

^i" • ' w >»«iM.lai«M'r4ficL».4<l..lffl*, 

q i^L ! I.' .j'jn • 

prHemA thu tfdtfcority. He maintaiihca* it forty' y^W, notwfeli: 
standing the oppositkn of Cimb^, of Tolrtiijcs, of Thucydidedi 

. , — disposed w. «„« .,.„. ^.^v.uvo 

^#^i Neverthel^te, in the . mrdst' of tbi0 sapttoe AiithoTityi 
yftfch "be hadrendet^irWpetual iind tinlWnited in hS oWn pewn, 
fltesool waa ttl^^rays stfpenoi' to the charms toitf afiiji-emeiAa of 
wealth, thoagb he never neglectej improVing Ids' jerstate to *h6 ut- 
nmat'of 4i»po\ver*"<'For Perifclesdid not act like' those"rich riieir; 
who, Dolfwhhf^fmdin? their immenae revenues, either thrcftigh n^^ 
giigence or ^aat of e<»<>nomy, or ponihous and aJbsurd expenses, 
are always peorin th^ ^list of theff liches ^ un^bte and unw«lin4 • 
to do the least senrice^ to their virtubiis fiends, Wth'eir fdthfdl and 
fiealodfl domestics ; and at last ^ oVerwhehned \vith debts, leav- 
ing their name and memory to'th^ detestation of their tmfortunafi 
creditors, of whoserttin they.hi^e been the cause. 1 shall not e:^* 
patiate Oft another tea:tremevtdM*rch' this ffeffli&ence and'want 8f 
KJonomrffeneraflylead, I-meah r*pine, a lov^^f gifts, and exac- 
boDs; for herevas well as in the management of the ptiblic .niori'ey^ 
the maxim of TiKritus hoWs ffdad;* >iV. that when a man m 
squandered away hMr ebtate, hS then''maicei' it his Whole study \o 
retrieve thfe loss- of it bf aQP ttwrts'df Vnethods,not excepting the 
Qost criminal* ' ' '' ' ^. " 

Pericfe. toftw-muclf %iett«* m riHe ^rbicji a'rtAtft^^nan buffj.f fq 
Bike of- nches. •■ He *a8 tensible that he'tfurfjt ti,exp6nd them 
D he service df the poKJic-in ptoHarioe oP»b% mferi to'iksist hiS 
ithe adimnistmtion; in relieving good officer, xvho too often are 
Mfitute of the fiivours of ft>rt6iie;V rewarding and encournffinir 
«ent of every kind, and a.thousawl wch things: to which 4eUu 
^either on account of, the exqUBiUs joy they give, or the soUd 
pny that results from them, no one will be. so thoughtless as to 
«Bp«re lAe expense lavishea away in the .entertainmenti, equi. 
^, or gaUoiDi;. Ih this vley, Pericles managed his owji estate 
«h the utmost econonw; haiying hiniself ta^ght one OfJjL oU 

«fte account brwrrfht him,'Ht stated times, of,;all sums that bad 
^received as i*ell « expenrfedj confining himself ,wd hia 

^lit/^ wlf*"'r'=^(*''*'™ ^^i'* ^^ ^^^^ severely, J 
-flS?^ " r^£";,?*« <»ietitatibu9 kind.) suitable to hU e«^ 

SS*!:*^r' Z^.^*^^ iWwMfchJi^ed no air of the S 
*i4ged*m% re^rfs'to hooses wiie^ riche. ^nd auijhority m« 

KS • ■ •' 

I^H X. HWXOai OF T»Si; 

umted. Ho wey;aifi;P9ri^Iet mud little . rc^furd t^ifhen^ cowplaiiiltf 
^ni dircQ]^ hi^ coi^duct |»y far superior vwswb. ^ 

. I Relieve we inaj apiptly, bn thi^ oocuQi^n, avenr just i^ark of 
IflutjLT^h, 'ui,hi» parallel of Aristid^ tuid Cato* t, After sayiag, that 
poUtica) yiia/<i, pr the art ojf goverping cities ,aA4 kiiig^om&,;b.tiie 
greatest ana,;ii9^t perfect .(hat J^aan can acqujii^e, he a£i8, that «eo* 
lU>my i;j npt px^ of the Jieast cpn4<lerablf^hranche9 of this virtual 
And incleje4,,fk8 nQ)^e| are. one. of the me^ns which may most, coiii> 
tribute to the aecurtty or ruin qf. -a state, the art that teaol^ t^ 
f^sposta ^n£[ make a good use or t)iem, and which is called ecoiio* 
my, is fertainly a branch of |^olj,tic9;; and not p^e <^ the leftflt 
considerable branoiies of i^ since great >i^isdom i» required, i& 
order t^. the oij^ervmgiiju^ medium on these, occasions, cuQd- to 
|hQ bai^ishipg ppv^xf'^i^ and tfip g^eat opulence &om a coudtiry* It 
is f his artv^vhlch, jl^y s^vqiding industriously all trifling, and needless 
f^xpcnseai preyeiij^s a m^istrat^ frpfn being fonced to overburdea' » 
people with taxes; an/i.kec^s ai^l(y|a^' 41^ r^serve^, in ttie •-public 
^pners, mpneys su^ie^t tor t]ie.,B)^pp6rting it war that may breaii 
out, or for providi% against an . unforeseen emergency. Now 
wha^ b Baiji of a kingd^im or a city , may he said alsoof injividiuJe, 
f*or a city, \yhich if, cpmposed; of an a^pemblage <^. houses, anii 
^)iich forms ^ Whole;' 6|r.a^era^,partj^, united, i«( either powerRil 09 
weak in tHe ag^r^ate, in {^opoi(tio;D('as all the^ jnembeis^ of ^wludi 
it consists are oowerful or weak. Pericles certainly acquitted 
himself wj^ll w}}i} ^g^vd tctl^al; part of tlp9<9piQniE$« which rdates 
fb the goy eriimenijj<:tia I, do not know whether the suoe 

inay b^ said pr his ^<k^istra:tio^.Qf thepi^Uc vef^nnu^ 

^: .;::'■ •"'; ;-.:;;!spqTiQiSf :8jWv. "■• .^^> 

JMdooqr and contesti arise b^weert*tt!c AtTieH{i^l|'ai)(d Laeedsmoiiians. A treaty «r 

p^ac^ ia cutlciu4k^A»r UiMy Vean. >( 

^ Sbch was the coiiduct of P^ric]'et^ wkh respect to his^^lpiDestic 
Concerns:* andKfs aclihihistra^uMi of public afikirs is noless.^^prthji 
ofadmiilitibn. TheLajcedseinoniajis1l9,egiiiiungtQgrow^ 
prospeHty of the Jt^Henians^ and to take umbro^e a,t it^ Veiickst to 
ini^iire his'cUizens'With^reater courage a^d.m«jgnan]ipity, pabhsbed 
a decree, i?iporti!fi^, that h6tice9l;9uid',ba gent ^p the Greeks in* 

Jiabitihg either '£)ur6p6 bf^ Asi]p., pd to ^.thie^^tiips great or small, 
o's4tid immediately depatiip3 to )\tbens,'toj^^f^t^4>n the«#eanB oi 
f^ilding the temples thait had Deep burnt by |^)ie barbarif^iai and 
(f i»<Brforming ttje saiprilices.whiqh^tiiey had engage^ thenyfeUres to 
6ffer up, for the preservattb^'* and salc^f; of ^GrjeecT) wb^/Wiu} was 
earifyinj^ on ag^aink them ; as also^o x^msi^qr, th^ i^epei|^i|^^pe« 
ments for estahh^hmg ^ij^)^ axv order and dias|i^inQ iiv ^(i^{i|avy« 
that all aliips mi^ht si^i txi' jp^Jety, and tftdii(hUio0iEpiU)Eft{,ia p^tsct 
one wi£h'«aotLcr. 


1, ' ^i ■/ 


PElUtliUf^'llNIIiGR&eiANS. 11^ 

AceiirdH^ly j ^went^ pflTsont weire cbosen. fosi HVm en^MVXf 

each of vbbih Wfts ufHi^ards of £fty years of ago. Fjfve.^^tt^^ 

vere fletitf to the kiui«ais> and Dot'imfl of Asia, andt th^ iD^b|#Eupi|9 

ofthe islands as ftir as 'Lesbos and ^ILhrides;- five lo. the co\intri^ 

of the Hellespont and '^ln'|ce,'as fat ae Byeantiuni* Fiv«. jfe^ 

orWed to go to Bccblia, to' Phoci^, attd PeloponneiMis ; andfr^mi 

thence, by the cooRtry t^f'tbe Locrians, to proceed to the sevqra] 

cities of the upper' cunthient as far/ as Aearnani&jand; Arabracia* 

Tiiekst five wer6 O'.deredb craas Eubasajiakid to gl9 tothe peoflet 

of mount CEta, and "tnose 'of ther gulf of Malcit, and to- tW la^' 

habitants of.Phthiotis, of AchaMi^iind of Thoesaly ; to kadi^' thc( 

severtLl hicLtions to come to tfa^atn^mblyoonvefried^Lt ,^|heDs, ax^d to 

assist at the debates whieh should hethereaiirried OU' cobq^ojib^ 

peace UtiA the general afi*airs*of Qvoece. I J4idged it n^qearffiy^p 

ecter iAfto this detail, aa it«hqv^s how- far the pawer of the Greeks 

extea^d, and th6 Authority Which the Athenians enjoyed aniou^^ 

them."^" -• "7 '. ; . »'j ,;■•.' 

Bat all these sdlicitations were in'vaini; 4a the cities <jjld not 

send thcfir deputies, which, according toliistorioiHitJvaa ^^iHig tj) 

the opposition made by the Lacedononians^a -fiifcuoasdidke w« 

are not to wohder at. They were 8e^bld':tliat ^elicles's deeiga 

was to have Atltens acknowledgisd as'inistidss anil sovereign pf all 

the Grecian cities ; and Lacedaemon Was far from ^ aUowing it tbit, 

honour. A secret leaveta ef dissension bad< for soone yea.r8, l^egun 

to distarb the tranquillity of Greece ^ afidHive shall find by-^e? s^-^ ^ 

pe], that this discord augmented contiiiaiily. . - : .. v ,y 

Pericles had acquir^ great feime ^fijr the wisdom )Wtt3h wha^hhi^ 

fi>nned and conductecl his enterprises. pTbe troops reposed thi^lvs^ 

o^cQnfidencein him, and fdlowedhim with ful) assonuioeofsiioqffpv 

ffis chief maxim in War ^ Was, never to TM:ure a Ijattle unless jfae 

^ere* almost certain of* victory, and not to lavish the blood of the^ 

Gtizens.' Housed to Hsfty frequently, that vere it ia his powei^ thfg^ 

^nld be immortal; that; treds when felled shoot to lifh> ag^ip uv^ 

tole tirne, but iirhen odCie men"' die they ane K»t ftnr ever. .A vic^i 

^ry that was only the effect of fortoBate temeiaty^ apf^eafficTtci him. 

^e worthy of praise, though it oftOn WBS.mueh a4nure4. .. ^ i 

Hi^ expedition into the l^racian ChemonesKis didhvn grea^ ho- 

imr, and was of great advantage to all^tbe Greeks of thaj; count^yj;^^ 

^ he not 'diiiy strengthened the . Grecian! .cities, of that pi^z4°^ ' 

^hy^ ihi coldnies of Athenians which be earned thither,^bii|i 

^%mit ^jii^'the isthmus with^a strong wall»>with IbrtQ; at prc^^, 

^aik^^frdbi sea to sea t fiecoringrby that mepha the whoile govm*; 

^fifom' 'the j^i^etual ineursions- of th^ Thifuoians^wl^vwere 

'^ near Jifighbours to it. 

He i^scr suldd with' 100* ships- h>rsa^ Pelopoimesua» Bpreaiiii^ 
^terror of the Athenian arms wherever he came, the success of 
vbich was not once interrupted on this occasion. 
Be advanced as far as the kingdom of Pontus with a large, well > 

itt mTOBr or 

ntiHBl^, and' tnagnificenC fleet, and mntec^ the,(rrMiiui d^es dl 
m^hh^gU fit 4o ask oflfaim. at the«ajn^ time he dispIfyQd to 
tiM^^kjTbatian ^ thati{fiiighbourh«ML» to ikeii^kw^ and 
l^^ces, the gre4tnea8x>f itsu tfo^vier of the 'Athenians v and proTed 
ttf theA, by the secnntj with vrhich |»«{^i)ed to aU parfB, tUt 
they possessed the enipu-e of the seas witJiQut a rival* / 

' mi so Constant and<|Bhiniug a foitune began to dazzle tbe Atbe-« 
nMns;* tntoxioatedi with the ide* of r^heir power and gfandeur^ 
they now refolded nothings biit Ihe- boldciit and m^, lofty pUDJects 
They< were for evertalking eFn,ew'attinnpjts upon Sgypt ; of attack-* 
hig the maritime pi^ovinces* of ilhiftf great [Jiing; o?!carryiDg their 
armsinM Sibily'($u fittal And unhappy design, which .at that time 
M hot take efibot, though it Waisi /revived spon afier;) and.of qx-^ 
tending their conqtiesjts towardii Hetruria on one 8i«(e,.af^.jQar* 
th'age on the other. Pericles- was. iGar froip giving in to s^Uidle^ 
views, or' supporting them with his credit ana9|)probatioii; Qn the 
contrary, his whole study was to damp that restless ardour, and 
check An ambition which halmger knew either hounds or iq^asure. 
Itwa^is opinion, that- the Atroniaps ought to employ w^Jbfces 
fbt th#fliture,'onlyui seouriogL and presQirving their present acqui- 
sitions ; and he' thought he ^ad gained a great point in restmining 
the power of the Lacedsmooiansi the reducing of wlych h^; always 
meclitat^d $ and this was particularly seen in the sacred war. , . 
''This name was giVeato the ivar whjych was raised on su^count^ 
of D&l()hi.f The LacediBmonians having entered armed i^Xq tho 
country where that temple as situattedt bad diepossessed th^ people 
ef^Phocis of the superintendence of^that temple, and bestowed it on 
th^i^elj^hians. As soom^as th^ had left U, f^ericles,weQt thi^hjer, 
^itfltk'ttn army and restbred. the rhociaiks. •! - 
'iSubfida having rebelMat tho'same time, Pericles was obliged 
to'^arch thitbe* wfthan^army. J He was.^o sooner firrived there» 
tfiiaii news was brought that the i0habitant^^x>f Megara had.ta^n; 
libaitiM, and that'<l& Lacedemonians, beiLted by,Pliston9pt>.theirj 
kmg,'Were on the froHtiemiof Attica. This obhged him to iq|ui|^ 
Bubofea, aisd to go i^h ail posoble expedition to defend his couki^ 
try. The Lacedieknonian army being retired, hO' returned a^ailisy 
the rebds, and again subjected all the cities of E^boea .tp th^j 
^Athenians. - i • .< 

A.B|.l!^ Afterthis ezpedition4 A truce pf thi^^ y^r» wi 

wii^ Oi4M, oondluded between the Atiienians. and, l^e^tifLt 
Aans. This treaty restored tranquillity for the present^ . biu/|^ 
ditf ndt descend to- the root of thsievil, nor cure thq. j^i^Q^JEgr. 
^imuty'Of the two ncitioqii^ this oalm was not of long du^tian*, 

I t ., I I . . ■ il Ci- 

MMMHaiAIVB mciANa. iif 

T /, 

; • i -»' '•-» '/OV/ . • 

'/ :.%; If. . .1 f{.) 

! I/'U 

SECTiON JlUt. . 

.• ■* '»'. 1'.. 

i 1 , . 

Xev ttibje^li «f eonteMipn brtween Mifitn^ro mitlp^ oMMlcMS^byi 06 AUienteiwtar 

ii9sie]^to8aB)or; by their auocoui^uf «U)e,pe<HHe-<jf C^rcyiBkaQiJl be§lcii{lu( Fcmt; 
dsa. An open rupture ejl)8UC8. /^ ^^'- '' •" " '" •'."' »" 

A.M.8S64. ,;? Thei Atheniaxifi^.Bix ye^rs «|fl99«;t€n:>ki up aravi 
M/.c. 440^^ jEigainst Samos in Aivpur •Qi(Mil^ti]^ T^iie^e tiv^a cHki* 
were contea^ng for that of Prienevto wA^ 9^b xslaiooed a righti 
It is pretended that Pericles kindled. thi^.«w^:>top^ft^ a .famous 
^Qrtesan,of whoDi he was vecy foii^;. bed? inanie was Aspa8ia«^ 
BAtive of'Miletqs. Afler several ev^ts and bat^^s,. Pericles be- 
iReged the capital of the island, of ^ambs. r/|$(. said). that t})h waa 
k irst titne he used niilitdiryengLf^o^tas bjatts^ring nun^ afid t^Nr*^ 
ouies, in^nted by Attemon :the,«.«)ngineeiv who waB^J^ime, ao^ 
iW'efore was always carried in, a, chiiiiLr to the batterios, ^fh^H^e ha 
m sunuuned Periphoretus.< The M^e: of these , machineF J^ heefi^ 
OQg known in the East. The Samisms, afler s^ptaining a i&aif^ 
mih's siege, surreadcreid ; Pericles rwied tl\eir walls, dispossessed 
oem of their ships, and demanded iminetise suma^to defray the ex^ 
eoses of the war. Part of these sums tlwy P^i^^ down : agreed ta 
iif»irBe the reet at a certain time, and gsfve faoftages by way of 
ecority for the payment. , . ' i . . ; ' i ♦ 

After the reduction of SfamoflfPericle:^, being returiled to AAenSy 
i I. splendid maamr celebrated t^b oh8equi$is.of thpsewho i^d kMt 
ieir lives iO' this war, and pronounced iq.p^fson t^ fan^rjul oca* 
^ over. th^iv gcaves. This customt wbic^.:l^e iisst,introii^ced«. 
ts afieariKrards regularly observ0df '^le senate of the Areopagus 
^^lys apiipinted the orator on t^se;. occasions^ tie wa0 chpseifV 
^<9fears ailer>for the like cerefBony i^ the.b|^gipn^9f thej^e^ 
Nesia^^w&r. • - -y/ -i ■ > ;.- ■ •. • ,. 'o'* 

' H 3572 . . Periclee,t who fo^esi^w. that abrupture ^vonld. ^qon 
's. i. c. 438. ensue between 4he . Athenians > ^ftfid^.^L^ajce^moniaps^ 
titisedtke former ,t<» send lud tQitbe p^opl.e ojf iC^cyra^v'^^nf^fqithe. 
^^thiftDa bad invaded; andfto;^in over to their int^r^t ti^t^ 
^, which was soivery formidable at sea ^ foretelling th^fii, th^i 
^r would ahortly b& attacked by the ^t^ons of the P^loponc^i^. ^ 
^faccamot^ of the qyarrel between tbe .people ^f Qqrcyra .lOiji' 
«mth, wWjh, gave rise. to the Pe]f^nnesiano^dr,(9ne.<^j4,b^ 
^ consld^rahi^ e;veQ^ in the Greciaathi^itoi^, was as ^llo^t )i^< 
^p(damDam,i a maritime city of Macedonia among the Taul^intijl 
*eaeok>n]F^Corcyrii{^UM, foan4^.by;Fh«Jiu«of Oi^ifint^ • Tbi' 
hf havii^ becppae in pfoceM of tin^ very pppulous and powerfvi||t 
nBioBa mxo«^ in,it^ and the cppm^n P^^P oj^psU^ '^% i))P«|ti 

*7»M;74.l.iwp«9S..'». :PiQ4;l, xH.,p.».8S. Pint. iBPfrM.^lSlrrlSr... ^t^r 

'4 Tii* cHw «M« iktimtmnrO* eallMl DTrnuLhtnm. !> . i > w I • •'• 

\ Tubcit/ wtm aftarwards called Djmciaafu* 


Weidthv inhabitants, who "^ent over to the neighbouring nattong 

* and infested them greatly by their incursions. In this extremity 
tbey first hiud recourse ttffte/Xs^cl'iyteldis, and being refused bj 
them, they aiidressed the Corinthians, who took them under their 
jV^teetioQ^ s^t^B^i^rs t9llfa«m('«i|iti 'settled ot|ier ihbaibitaiits in 
Ifieir city. !fiut*^hey dtd^liibi'fcbrtthllie long unmolested thiere,, the 
Gorcyrcans besieging it with a large £eet. ^The people of Corinth 
bastentsd to iti alSf^ut h^tinjg^ been- defeated at sea, the city aor- 
lp«ft'dered*t^iit''%ry-'day,iipi»i condition that the' fdt^igifers *sftould 
b'e-el&ye8,aT]fd th^Obi^ftniKns' prisoners till fkrtherumeis. The 
C6i^yrcto8r-'^reteti^d'*t¥(^tiy,'nidrdered all their prisoners except 

' thi6 0(Jfiiithi%in8/ftii«'l«aa'W«Wte'thfe^whole country. '- 

-'The year aftei-' the ^battle, the C^Hnthians raised a greater 8rmy 
than the former^'and iitted out a new fleet. The people of Cor- 
^l^ra. firfdm? it >W6uM4)e impossible for th^m to make 'head-ilone 
ig^indt silich powerful enemies, s^nt to the Athenians to desire 

* their ^llMe«i.. The ti^eaty 6^p6a.)fte ciondhided' between the states 
^Gre^t., l^ll stHih Grecian 'Cities -as had not dedaared themselves 
oW^Uftel^^i^fe, the liberty <)f^jeimng whom they pleased, or of stand- 
ing neuttirl This the Odi^rean# had hitherto doD^ judgiw H 
their interest ndt;!to "espouse any party ; in ccmsequence of whiSb'£ey 
had hitherto' beehWithdKM' allies. Thsynow'sent fot this ptirpose 

. to AthenE^^, aUd^^e bbilKfthicLns'heann&r of it, sent deputes thither 
also on their part. The aiSair was debated With great Warmth in 
Ih6 p^^e 'of Ihe^pi^fl^, whb heard the' retidons on both sides^. 
andfit^4&^'tyic^ disCtS«3«)d iAf' thc^ assembly.' The Athenians de- 
ip1ti^e4'ttt«'fir^'tune''^^l.fhVour of the Corinthians ; -hut o^rwrnnfa 
cKan^g theii'lopl^iciFi' (doubtless 'in censequencie of Uie retnon- 
strances of t^ericlAiii) they^ reodved the ' Corcyreans ilto their 
ailfliffic^. HoUevei*,'' they dkl'ttdt^-^d so far as to confekid^- a 
teagii^ oftfensivfe *ittd'- defeftsite wil^ them (folf tlie]^'CoiM. not 
declare war against Corinth without breaking at tils iMRn^time 
with all Pelop6tihesu^i)'b4t of^y Agreed to stiee^snr each obheir mu- 
tQiifly, in case the^"WKmWbe attacked, eifhei*' in their own )>erson 
<»'jrfthat(~of thja]^Alles.';Th^^real design WW, to setlhoee two 
ffSift^^, 'Which wer^ very pew^rfur]ly'6earatvfi^iance^'iiHid after 
each tihdtlld haVe e^xchaust^'tb^ other by at^diols war; to triufisph 
ove^'^the weakest: -fbr 'at'that^time there were but three sttttes in 
Gr<$«;e'.who pbss&toed ip'e^^erftil fleets ; lAld thl^e wel« Atheni, 
CUirfth; khd^'-Cotcyra. ''^1^7' also had d deb%il on Italy ati^ 

abcbfWngly'^eAtwih tdh galleys, but w^ an cfNlef'toir ihi&Ak fiot 
liir4»flgg^ Hie C<>HntKfiilt}s; (Mlessihey^should firstin^de tlie^laibiid 
of Corcyra, or some other place beloi^ng to their allies ; this pre- 
caution wst^V^d iv'brder that the'^articleii of ihcf "tfuee vartt not 
Deuurmged .i» ,• , .-i, i.,*n , *,,■ . , » . 

FBR««!IF»r{AW!4iWI(yANf. '119 

^^(i^^mti^'jSi^cyfi^fmwM the C(»«nttoi^w,iiei^.tlie i^limf of Sy- 
lNil^,rOppofii^ (o Gs>r^iii^itji(il9im:o£.Ule nioil Qfinflideffuble, with 
xefptfiitA Iho BUAbinr- f^iMvf^i UtMtwafi .etj^DJbuffjit ^^i^en the 
£rs«i^>i The advantage jiilAa.neai^^quitlon' boA 8id«0< Aiioat 
theigiid ofnthe batUe, a» iH9hti'ws»4rawijig'«ni|/twent)r AtbrtaiHa 
^gfflUejft cftiae up*: The CencyfetOiSi^with ilfp keurrQrceliidnt,eaU«i, 
next day* by day<-break towards the port of Sybota, yi^hxtijei* tis 
£rQriitt|u&te'ha4;retu^, to eee if th«y^w^u)d t venture a ieeoncLen- 
^BLgemm^, Howeveri'the lAl^tor. dt>nU»ntMiiil ittenaelved^ "with. 9ail* 
^g out w Qjrder of bjitple, without ^htV9^M t^Both parses eceoted 
fa trpphy iU'the istad pf SyWl(a»i each: ancnbiiig the vietar^tp 
themselveB*' < , > • ■; , i : »../ :. -' j la' .:i , ■. •».! 

Futtm.ibis ^war arpse anotherA whie^ .ooraaioqad •Ot^open^rv^i- 
tur^fh^ji^^eeo the^Mhe&iaiMfard Coiinthk^ and;aft»rwaTd» the v^ar 
of Pelopoi(tie8us.iG'Potid®ai a icity of iltf^edoiniA,Mwas )a ejoJon}^ be* 
lOA^uQig to the: C^niithiansvwhasent'ibigiistrates: thither annually; 
hv^ itTwat. dependant mt that liniejoi|j4llhfioay a]|(d< paid inibotc to il» 
i^he Atheilian9ffl»ring tbb citywonldrrey^ian^bpreyail withithe 
i^fldt/cflT'theiThvacian allieeto joioi tji^ljn, QonmuttidQd.theinhiihi- 
UaitaiQ 'demolish, their walla 6n iidne sids. next F/Hlefke ; to ^etiver 
h&$i&ges tottheil AS sureti^foii'l^eir^eHty ^ and tettsen^i^w^ths 
taa^istrdteatMRhteh (Corinth had^vehlh^emv ■■: Beottibb of sotuniiiA 
A nature pnly. . hastened the revolt; f} Thev.P6tidii»»ns .deeliaei 
Against th^ Athenians^t add sey.eiralfDe^kbeuringT/eiiietii followdi 
their example.> Bo;|lih'AthenaIdiid:.6lnrifah*tDok U]» ai^sai^>«Qn( 
^ces thitberl Thenwo arnieswitBgaffedJieal^FotidRa, and Itefc 
of the « Atheuians^lmd tl^ .advantage. ; ASeibiadea» who was the^ 
very youngvAnd Socrates his mi^iter^ sigiiAlifae^lthemselvJes on tiiia 
<x:tlidioB. y^It is 8ome«ittn^T^^i/9ingular«itQ>ra6 a philosopher pul 
on his coat of mail; as well as to consider his behaviouriand'cajolr 
iubt in a.bactlek rThiSleytias/tiotT^fiQldier inrtbe wholetticwy' who 
so resolutely supported 411' iCherU>iU-i (did fatigued of the ^wjpnJKs'^ 
as Socrates*' Hunger^ tbkist, and ^old^. wiere . enemies hfrjhad lodg 
Aocusttxned hin|self IdtdespiseiailA aubdiie with ease. vXhmo^^lhft 
scene of this etpeditidn^ Was* a froziea ^gpon. Whilst v the oUict 
soldiers, ooTCii^U .with thick cloth^und warm furs* lay clasQ«ii|i 
their tent^^ atidecafide even 4ared?to atic out of thdmr^.) 6ocrati^ 
used tobonie intckthe open hir oiad as tK$iial,>ftna bare-(bote4» . Kin 
gaifeti^ and wit were the life of the^table^; aai^ inducedjothieiis Ip pmt 
the glass #auh4'ehee)fuily,itbaughjhe himself never^ 
excess. When the armies engaged, he performed his duty wonder- 
fully well. Alcibiades having ^e^n^n and ,woi,^oded» 
SDcfrattos place<i*»himself before kii^'v4Qfettded him vaiiioitlyVand, 
pi'sigl^t ^thfe y;telij;aririy/p;riBven|«d him a^ his nrnff p>wlbe^ 

- /f .'• <■' ''.<•.,'• ., I, . r . • . J- ■• <* i I .<>»•■*. '{•Ml.-: Ill •(''tit A 

: 'JC-.J '•••'• /■>- /.fj. . ■ . V . ,. .. ■ I, • . ■ ' . j; ,• .iiL rjiiU'l^'.fl. .I'.tlLtfi %i6l 

^Uktik^^ eddnfifitke'^ii't^ \%MfMi to JSo- 

<mU8. iMt u'tSH$-!t[afibnd9'oeeihdl b^Ma^tbdeci^^ll to Alci* 
ibittdef, oa aciM>uiftt of his ilktotriottis birtk^i<^nitiei^'il^ho idftijr 
roou|rht Ar ot>pctft«tiittos to iAflimo' Umi^Vilh ttedir^'rff Itvo Ktory» 
.^odntributa^d mok^^hanftny totlier peradtt, bjT the 'Iioblci'eu]pgiu0f> to 
dttdo' on ^18 cdttra^s to ca^se tho mwn atid Complete ^tMof 
UtroMttT (which was tnd pjiKoofvalottf) to be adiuofed to Akv^ 
"Wades.- ■ • • '■.-■■;• '• -^ • '•'• -?^- V^- ■ 

' ; NotwithstaiMSiHf thif'kiMmhich the Connthiaite had sostained 
4n the battle, tkeilililLlJittiLnti^ of PotidKa didinot chabee lAieir con* 
Qduct; The eity w^ th»lefond besieged. 'The Corin&iitos,'^ fear«^ 
ing^tc^ lose a place of M^nitiohuifti^tDrtaftce, liddressed 'their alUes in 
the Btfongest terms; who all, in Conjunction with them, ^ sent a 
Reputation 'to Laii^dflfeinuQ, to <*oiib|>tain of the Athenians, a0 ba^liur 
infrin^eMJahe'i articles of '^ace^'^J The Lawod^monians aidttiittei 
-them to audience ii» one toAtheir ordinary assemblies. '^Th^jtecjie 
<^;^gina, though very mmdi di^To^^d «t tho A'tfaeniaas; did iM 
ocnd a depOtationipuhliely'Ulither; for fear of giving umbrafire tt» a 
f«ptJblie to whidb th^wei^isnbjeot, bnt they fitted in secret. a« 
•■tvohitoosly'as th» rmtu 99i^ people ^f Megara complained veke» 
mently-aigaaist Ui\» Athanidiis, thfeit (contrary to tbeilaw of nktions^ 
ond^oi t^^ejudi^^ttoithotrehi^ coicloded between tfael Greeks) they 
iiif4<pix>hibit^Ubem, byf a public idecree; from tcicess. to their fnin 
iand iriancetSt and'exeludTed tllem*froin aU the potts dependant on 
llhem. By'^at deoiiee;f liccoi^ding to Plutffarch,! the Athenians de> 
ioav^an 'etferiMLl and irr'ecoBdileable hatred^tilgrfunst Megara; and 
tllidiiined that all' Mep|nk«fl9s>>^hottld be pat to death, that set foot 
ittt Athens ; and that aHIx the Athenian ^nevals^* when they took 
the usufd oatht'shoaidnsweer ezpressl^f that they •wookl send a 
liofly iof soldiers twice aiyeary^ i&^ waste the territories of that 
♦bstilO'/Cily;-' ■ ^' '.'.•!:-. i-"- o^ !•:.' -v/ ■ .> " • * 
I' Tlf»iobiof complaints were)miado4>y the Corinthian ambassador, 
•iVJio spoke with the Qttndst iforeotahd ffeedoinJ Qj9 r^rosented to 
Ibe'Ladedieiii^ians, that iis'<tiidythetBBeiveB never swcrred from 
the most iiiivioTable integrity, eKherin^piibhe or piivate trknaac- 
tkills, thdv,^ for that very, reason, .were less 'inclined to suspect tho 
|l'obi'^y of others ; and that their own 'moderatioii>pi evented their 
&K:ove](in|^>tliiil amb^oir of their enemies: tlin^inbteadof flyii^ 
Wdth iiMu]m\s88 and tcCrvity, to ineet dangers' and cajosnitieB, Ihey 
Hev^if. ^tl^mjlted io^ iffemedy <thi^mi > till Ihey (Were quite crushed by 
4hdmtth«ti>y their mdolente add sapin^iifeess, they had given tho 

; •T*?i'ii}!:^d.X».p.'«hrM. i pun. hi Pericl. p. !«. 

• 1 1 'Ac^ordMK tt> PItiltfrch, AiMl|«ieoiw{preienfM \tiai iVridetikad eaiMBi tMsi» 

Artotn^ancfl, wh«i, in a onmedy entitled ike ^eiUr»«»i«i«, reproadiet Periclea wka 
lUk ftiiion. But Tburvdlit«B, a contemporary aiuhur, who wm very wtal acqii»liuai 
WlliMnitfte itenMbfiiiiA JHSbrnn^JSeiiUAft: vMfioriJlir^HBtr^ttJ te hQmS 
po»c woniy of belief tlips a pati win wm a pwifwitd tlMidewc M id a lll ii a . .: 


A^Hoakut «» opMitiMMty of •Jttaioio;, )>y inf^ble degree tiidir 

preieo^ height of gymdeur tpd power: that it wrj, quite cUffej^ciiC 
with regard to the \tlieDiaiis: ikiu thitxtctliae^ vigUfm^^^andindtfuU* 
iobU'peopm^ ¥>er» never ai reel themtelvps^ f or would ti^er any 

ntKer^ t^aii<fn to he eo. Employed^ says he, wkoUyin their jprojecU^ 
uidtkey/orm noneJMsuch at are great and 6pi4i tWr deliberaiione 
on ipee*iy and their execution the same. One enterprise serves only 
OS a step to a second* Whether thejf are succe*tful or unfortunate^ t^ey 
km every thing to their advantage; and never stop m their career^ 
aor are ^iffiquraged. But you^ y>ho are opposed by such formidoF- 
bk enenUes, are tuUed asleep m a fatal tranquillity : iand do not re^ 
/ec< thai it isjU^ student Jor a man who desires to kve a^ easf me^ 
ly to forbear injurir^ othersy he-fnust also hinder any one from, 
v^urins him ; and that justice coniists^ not only in forbearing, to^ 
ammil evil ourselpetp but in avenging that done to us ky othere^ 
Shall I be so free as to sa>, U ? Your integrity is (f too antique a casi 
for the present state (f affair^* It is necessary for men, in politics^ 
Si well OM in all other things^ to . conform always to times and cir* 
cumst.inces. ffhin a people areatpeace^ they may follow their o^. ' 
daU mixUns i but when they are involved in a variety of difficultiee^ 
ihey n^ast try ,ne:^ expedients^ and se^ every en^rine at work to extri*, 
fate themselves, Ui^biy these arts that the Athenians have increcued 
^rpmverso my^k,. Had you imilated' their activity, they would 
wt have dispossessed us of Corey ra, and would not now, be laying 
Mgelo Potldceru Follow y ai le2st. on this occasion, their example^ 
^succouring the Potidceans and the rest -fyour alliesyCLs your duty^ 
Uiges ^ou ; inddo not force your friends and neighbours, ^yjprsak' 
ng themy to h^ve rfcourse, through despair, toot'ier powen. 
The AtheAiai|,amaassador, who was come t^ Sparta upon ot^ei; 
iaij^ and was in the assembly, did no( think it advisable to let 
lbs £;>fiac(;i go unanswered* JFio put the LiacedfemoQians%in bffindj 
ittLe bUll Tjiecent service^ republic, by wnich he wa^-senti^ 
^ done to all , Greece, ^^ch The said) merited ,some regard ; anv 
^ therefore it ought not ^p pe enyied, much.le^| should end^a- 
[OttTB ba, ua^d to lessen its pow^ir : t)iat the Athenians could not^ 
fis cbarg-ed with hayM\, usurped an empire over Greece ; since it 
^marely at the entreay of their allies, and in some measure with' 
^coftsent of Sparta, ths^.they |ia<i beeii forced to take the aban-, 
Eooed helm: that those, who murmured, did it without grounds;- 
ndoaly fro^ the aversion wbi^h m^tokind in general have to do-' 
Kidaace and subjection, though of the gentlest and most eq lit^ 
^ kind - th^t he exnort^d ti^ifi, to employ a sufficient timt. In 
Hhantiagy before they cam^ to ^ resolution; and not invoivd 
bca^elves and all Greece in a" war, which would necessarily be 
Ueaded with the most fatal onsequp^oes :' that g^entle methoiUi 
kigikt be ^ijM.^r tert^inatin^' th'edi^ r^tice? of thfe allien, wlthoj[l 
■nkiug'tfttfiioe intoopen violence^ llowevieir, that the Athenians^ Ok 
ise i>f Ml ;imtabn» w?re Me to oppote fyro^'wjM^ force; «nd wwtild 
Vol. ill. 14 

it* " BtfroKr or -nlf ;' 

mpareibf atigorooft defence, «fVerVvNr^>'VokcJ^.tg4 tol < |iti t|» 
N tbe treities who take veng^Mioto of UiO«(e tSat fbnt«r^^ Ihmwwiin^ 
and Violate the faith of tt-^atiet. 

' The ambassadoxfl beiflg withdiawn, and the affur d^ated, the 
maj^ty were finr wan But before the &ial resokition was paned, 
iyrchidamus, king of Spirta, setting himself a^Kyve thove prejildiced 
which so strongly biassed the rest, and directing his views to ft* 
turity, made a speech in which he set forth tli« dreadfal ccMxe- 
qpehces of the war in which they were jfoing to enibark^ showed 
tho^^fength and resources of vne Athenians; exhohed thcfiii first to 
fry gentle methods, which they theinselves had seemed to approve; 
but to make: ^ the mean time, the' Necessary preparationii fbr car- 
ryitiig on so important an enterprise j and not to be under any appra- 
ftensions^thai their moderation and delays ;viould be branded with 
tfie name of cowardiee, since their p|ist jfictibnft secured them from 
any suspicion of that kipd. 

But, notwithstanding an these wide exjx>8tulfitions, a war waa 

resolved. The people caused tlie alUes to n^dtuVn into the asaeinbly. 

afid declared to them, that in their opinion the^ Atheniana w«re 

the aggressors ;f but that it would 5e expedient finrt to asscmUe bD 

Iffho were in the alliance, in order that peace or war might be 

^reed upon unanimously' This decree of ttie LacedoeiiKmiaiifl 

wad uMide tn\s fourteenth year of the truoe ; aqd was not owui^ so 

' mat% to the cpmplaint of the allies, as to the ^ jialo^ bf the j^the- 

nidki power, which had already subjected a cop8ideqra;ble part d 

€rreece« s . • • 

' Accordingly, the allies were convened a second thne.* TJiey afl 

, gave their votes, in "heir several turns, from the greatest city to the 

M|aBt, aiid war wqjd i'esolved by general consent. 'HHwievisr^ asthey 

Bad not yet made any preparations, it was judged ^^dyisaMe to 

Begin them immediatdy; and' while this was doing, in o^dier to 

ffain time« and observe the nec^ssiify fbrmalitles^tb seiid ambassa* 

dors to Atheiis^x) ^omplam of the violation Of the treaty. ' 

, The first wfao%ere sent thither, reVrvln^an bid compl^t, reqaitied 

. , <jf the Athenians to expel from their eity tb^ descendkrits of those 

Who hfed profaned ^he, tempkj (ifMinei'va iii thfe afiair of Cylon.f 

As Pericles was of that family by the mother'e side, the view of 

(he Lacedemonians, in making this demand, was, either to procure 

bis baidishment or lessen his authoHty. However, it was not com* 

gluidvWith. The etecond antb^sdidors j'ei^ffed, that the siege of 
otidflefL should be raiM, and the hberty of JSgina r^Mored; and 
dove all, that the decree ajgrajnk the Megarians should be repcnf* 
ea.) decldring,t)^t otherwise no iiccommodation codd take pkc^< 

>TliMBfil;l.l.p.77-.-«a93:r.. . . /. ' 

is ''"•??'*" *«^ •§*■«> 0"J^ «*^ to«r AibCBf abpvik .100 vein btfrn. j Tho«i* wlio 
Dow«4 him, betng 1ieti«fBdin i^ tu r reduced ib totk^^ ftoiWe, M'Ar'MMNar » 
i iMipM «f MbMrrA. Mm wMm ih«y afterwards irtre «aa«li «iK iQr JiNfC «MI CM 

&ilie,ftt1iM^6iribMi]rctine,wiM»«ftbok noaotic^ of aiif «f Um^i 
partieBlaft> bat only said^ tbat.the Igftoedtomouiuu were for pleccu- 
but tliat tiii0M could oever be, vxctfttke Atfeniaiw should' eeeeftlo 
tnfiinge the libeitiee of 6reece«< ' 


TrouUet exulted agalmt Pericles He determhiei the Athenlana to ensaft te WW 

agaiiift tlie'LAoedniiioniaiji. 

Periclee oppcN^d all these demaiids with ipreat vigour^*^ and eepe^ 
cially that relating .to the Meg'xwifl* He had great iJnfluenee* «t 
Athens, but atrthe same time had-raany enemies. Notidaring to 
attack him at first in person, they cited bis nost intimate friend% 
and those for whom he had the greatest esteem, as Phidias,. Aspasitt» 
&od Anaxagoras^ beS^fe the people ; and their desiipi in this wm> 
to Bcnitud how the people stood alS^cted towards Pendes himself* ^ . 

Phidias was accused of having embezzled considerable sums In 
the Arming the statue of Minerva, which, was his master-jneef^ 
The pr^eecutioa having been carried on with the usual forms, be- 
fore the asembly of the people, not a sinf^e proof of Phidias's pra^ 
tended enabexalemeot appeared: for that artist, fjrom the tuneqf 
his begimung that statue, had, by.J^eridesV advice, contrived ilM 
worlananship lof the gold in sueh a manner, that, all qf it nusfat bt 
taken off and w^hed; which according ^y .Pericles hid the io^ 
^^nBers doin prese.n<;e of all thespeotators^ i.But Phidias had witr 
ieasea against him, t^e truth of whose evid^ce he^ could Jieitfaer 
idspute nor silence ;^the8e were the fame and beauty of 1|is works, thn 
srerrexisting causes of the en vy wliioh attacked him. The circnm- 
etence wl^ch they couJd least forgive in hbn #as, his having repiiai* 
seated to the lifftt(in the baittlo' of the Amaaons, engraved on tlife 
shield of the goddess) his .• vn persoh, and that of Pericles :f imii^ 
by an imperceptible art., he had so bli|idedand incorporated these 
figures with the; whole work, that it ||^ imposable to erase theoH 
vithout diafigu4ng and taking, to pie^^ the wholeVatue. Phidiili 
waBthereiR>m.dNigged to^nson, whe%;^ Ue came to his end, eklier 
1>7 the common course of nature m bjgojison. Other autiitors say, 
tiral bB was only banished, and ths^ v^cer his exile he nliiUle tfao 
itmons atatu&of Ju{>iter at Olympia. *^it is nol possible toeassuMy 
i& any manner, the mgracitnde o^ the Athenians, in thus makkig % 
pnBoo..<^ death the reward x>f a mastei*piefce of art; nor theil' ex- 
eesave ril^wr^ in paBishing, as a capital. «rime, an'aotion that i^ 
}tm imopent in itself; or^^hich, to make the wonst of -it^ irai- 4 
vuitj r&rf pardonable in aojiKist^ ■ j- \.j . :> 

Aspama., a native of Miletus in Asia, had settled in. At)iaifl» 
where •he had become very famous, no| scyipuc}! for ,tbdx^n«sx>f 
her pesso^ as fyi ber viyacity and the ssiiditj^of her wit^aiMi 4t$t 

' , .■ , . '• ... • ■■■ >j! ' • 11 *• 

faFttlcLpu i68,l«.' tAfiilotiiitnetaLdeiMiBd.p.i«l 

- V 

Ui > . BwroRrcrmas 

fieAt biowledgew All the ffltfltnoui men in 4be isttj thbu^ It 
•ftlioiiourtofreHiQeniherJioiisei So^ratenbimB^lf ustfdtb'ttBithei 
o^ostantiy ;* ana was not asliamedto pp«8 for her pnpil^ and to own 
that he had learnt rhetodc from her. ' ''ericiee declared aii^ that 
he WBs indebted lo Aspa^ for his eloquence, which .o greatly dis- 
tinfiruished him in Athens; and that it .was from her coLvcrsatiyn 
lie had imbibed the principles of the art of policy, for she was ex* 
iiieedingly weD versed in the;iiiaxiflps of government. ' Their inti- 
macy was owing to still stronger motives. Pericles did not love 
hifl wife; he resigned her very file^ to'ai^othe^ man, and'saj)pKed 
her placft with Aspasia, whom he krvcd passfonaftely, thbagh her 
reputation was more than suspicious. Aspasia V^s accused of 
impietj' and' adisisolmte conduct; and it was with the utmost diffi- 
culty that Pericles saved her, by his entreaties^ and by the compos* 
mon he ralfied in the judges^ by sheading abtrndanee of tears whilst 
her^ cause wae pleading : a behiaviour little consistent with th<^ dig 
iiity of his character, and the rank of supreme head of the most 
powerful slate of\ Greece: 

A decree had passe«f,'b;^^whicb informations were ordei^d'to be 
hid against ail such petaons as ^nied what was', ti^cribed to the 
iymistry of the gods }f or those philosophers land othe)rs who gave 
leasons'ba the inor^ abstruse poittte of physiei, and the motions of 
4he.heavens4 topics which were considered iniurions to the esta- 
Wished religion.. The scope and Him <jf this dee/fee Was}^ to meko 
Poricles suspecfed with regard to thefee mattei'tf, because Anaxago- 
ra« had been hid master. This philosopher taiight, that one onl i 
Intelligence had modiaed the <ehao8, ao4 dispbsed the universe itj 
the beautiful order in which we now see it; which tended directlV 
Uy depredate the gods of the pagan ily«temv Pericles thinking H 
WO^m, be impossible for hun te save hitf Me, sent him out 'Ofth^ 
iity to a p^ace of sdfety. ' 

The enemies of Perides, peeing that the people approved an^ 
received with pletoureiAU t|«se iccusations, impeached that ^eaj 
- man himself, and charged hhU with embezzling th^ public monej^ 
diiiing his administration, ji deccee was* made, by'^hich Fei^krle^ 
waffooUffed to give in immj^iately his accounts^^ was to be trie^ 
for peculation and rapuie;£Dd this cause to be adjudged by 15CM 
iildg^. Pericles bad no real oaus^ for fean^ because^m the admi 
mtration of the public affairs hJBi c^mduct had aJwaya bebn irr« 
piva<chable,.e6pecia% on the side «H«ite»e6t : he could Dot bo\« 
.«yer hut be. under some apprehensions .^om the'ill-wiHof the ped 
pk« wh^n he considcsred their greatlWvaty. and iiiooilMaiiey. Oi^ 
day when Aicibiades (then very young) went to^ viiHt P^ricle^^^ 

f * Plat In Mcrtcx. p. 2?5; ....,., 

lillMitDrw lwiclii«|[, ilMl Uie tfMiMlntelHgeivw aldiU gave tt rtsgulaf ^norioii to i 
V» parts of nature, and presided in thefovcrnment of the univerae; dei4rr>v(H| by ttii 
iyMMii, Uie pluraliTy of ^oda, Uwir powera, and aU Uie peculiar nuicOoiv wlUcli «r« 


WIS &M that iM wta iKft to b<i spoleii wilh/beliiM 
of gr^itt C(Ml8e<2«lelice in wbfch Im wm th«n ^Mgftg^d. Alaitelife 
inqiiirn^ whst these mi^ty afllura wete; wit aiMvirered, tlnit 
VerHea Wfts pveparing To ^i?>e in fan ttc^MiiiM. He ought ntfA#r» 
mys AloiKiades, tb4kink 'hots he map amoid gMtr them tn? md ii^ 
deed this was whfti Pericles^ at last YeaoHed. To allay the atom. 
he made a resir^ntion to op|>ofle-tfafe inclinatidn the peo«tod»covet«M 
for the Pelopcnnerian war no longer, prepamianff fbr which > had 
been long carrying oti, firmly permiaded thait this would goon tileiieo 
an computintfl against him ; that envy wtM yield to a mofe pofirer- 
M motive ; and that the citizens, wheft in bu<^ imminent danger, 
woiild not fad of throwin^r themseWes into his arms, and submit 
implicitly to hia coildcict, from his great power and exalted rep»- 
tation. '" V 

This 18 what ibafo histona|» hare related ;* and the comicf p6ets^ 
in the Ufetinxe, and under the eye, as it were, of Pericles, spread a 
report in |kihlic, to sully, if possible,' hia reputation ahd merit* 
which drew upon him the enry and enmity of many. Plutarch, oA 
this occaj^on, makes a reflection which may be pf g^reat sertic^ 
not oniy to those in the administration of public aflkira, but to fldl 
sorts of perBoii8,a8 well aS bf advantage in the urdina^ iotercoarsk 
^ life. He thinks it strknge, when actions are good in themseh^, 
iod as ike as can be judg^ from external appearance, kudable bk 
a& respects, that lAen, parely to discr^t illustrioos personages* 
thould pretend to div^ into their hearts: tind froin a spirit of the 
vilest and most abject malignity, should ascribe such views tod in* 
teLUons to them, ^ they probably never so tnoch as imaghiedi 
He, on the contra^, wish^, wlibn ifne motive is obscure, ami the 
Bame ac^on may %e' considered in difi^rent lights, that men would 
always view ft ii^^the most fkvonrable, andincune to judge candidly 
of it. He. aijplies this maxim tb the reports which had l^n sptead 
concentti^ Pericles, as the foment^r of the Peioponnefdan-war* 
Qerei^ Ibi^pHvate and interested views ; whereas, the whole tenor ^ 
liis past coildnct ought to have convinced every bfody* that it wm 
vhidly from reasons of state, "and for the gb^d'of tm* public, that 
W at last ac^aiesced m an opxmon, which he had*hi!9iertd tLotfght 
it incombent on him to oppose. -, 

WfailBt tfaia affair was carrying 014 at Athens,f the Jjacednmo^ 
nians aent Several embasRies thither, one afte^ andlher, to make the 
vanms dcibands above mentfon!ed. At last thellflhir was debated 
in the assemhly ilf the peoj»le,'atid it was resolved ^ey should fint 
Icfiberate upo^ iUl t^e tfrtides, befbre they save apositSve answefi 
Opiuoos; as is usual '^ these cases, wete. mvided ; and some weie 
&r iMishiA^ the dccreis'enacted agauist M^ara,* wldiih seemed 
the duef ^%cie te^ a i>eace. 
Beiides spdlc^t^ this oecasion with aibrce bf '^oqtteiie#^1i4deli 

♦ Ftat ai H««i. s«»if». f HMf : ' :t.TiM«rd.i.i.pu»-«. Wod.Lx» 

|.»-S7- , ^ t 



Jdfltiew jto (ke p«lilie.;w<4fare,.«uLtlie boiKmr pf l^f iH?fin|Ugr} i#> 
4«nMl(inartf veheuieiit and triampbaot tliftn it hftfleyer appearodbe^ 
fyte. :: He-dio^edf in , the first .place, that the decree, >rei)atii)^ to 
JHegara, on which the gipatesit isitreas was laid, wa«.not.ofjo httle 
4K)n»eM|nence as tliey imagined ; tjiat the demand-,ma4e ky ^^^ ^' 
oedemonia^s on th^t head was merely to soiipd the dispjositioq of 
.The Athenians, and ^ itty whether it would he poss'lile fo encroach 
upon them hy-fri&hteiung -hem: that should they recede on this 
occasion, it woula betray fear and wealmess.} .that the affair was 
of less importance than the giving up to the La^^emdnians the 
empire which th^ Athenian^B nan possessed • during S9 many yeais, 
by. their courage aad resolution: that should the. A^h6''iwis;|^ve 
wajr on. this point, the Lacedemonians w^i;^ immediately pre- 
scribe new laws to ^.hem, as to a people seized with dread : where- 
as, if they made a vigorous resistance^ their tfff^fm4nt$; would be 
C*)Iiffed to treat them at lea^t on the foot of e^if^ls & that with re* the prese:]1 matters in dispute, arbiters might be chosen, in 
order to adjust tbem m an amicable wfiy; but/that it did not b^ 
come the Lacedemonians to command the Athenians with a magis- 
terial iiir,1o quit Potidea, to free iliS^ina, and revoke, fhe.^ecree 
xelating toMegara: that, such imp^nous bciutviouf. was, directly 
contiary to the treaty, which declared in express iemsy Tfu^ 
should any disputet arise among the allies,, thfiy fhould be decided by 
pofiijic m^hodf, , Afiv without ANY^PikiiTrV,9E]» a. obliged to 
aiYE UP All" FABT or WHAT THEiT PossEssEB : that the surest way 
to prevent a ^ov.emment from 'being eternally contesting about its 
posisefisions, i^t^.t^ke vp avmsix a^d dispute, j^ta fights sword in 
band: that the.Athemaps h^^' just re^on to Jb^ye. they would 
gain their cause this way; l^I|} to ^rlve them a s|^g^r idaa of t;lua 
truth, he set before them a most brilliant d^criptipp «f the present 
state of Athens, giving a very particular f(ccount o(j,t^ treasures, 
^ev^nu^, fleets, iai^d as well as sqa forpes, aiid those o^i^, allies ^ 
oontrfipting these severoi reeiour^^s with the poverjtyvO^, the I^acej 
demoniacs, whot (he said) had no rnqney, which is^.th^ sinevrs ofj 
irar, npt to mentwn the poor condition of their navy,,on which suc^ 
(cess ,in war ipofltidependeid. And indeed,* there weie at that tio^c 
in tl^e public treasury, which the Athenians had brought from I>e^ 
losrtO'tWir c^^i^^OO talent , which amount to about 1,200^QQO/, 
9terhng>.. The, aur^ual coQtr^butions of the alUp^ , amounted t< 
460 tarent8,,that is, Xpt neair } ,400^0^ Fiench livrps. In pa^ o^ 
nece^sit^^the Athenif^is woujd fijj^uifinit^. resources in tbe o.r^a 
mentsof ^e teiqples, since those of the ^atue of .MiQerva aloai^ 
aip<mnted to fifty t^ents of .gold, that is, i,5|()0,000 i'rench liyree 
mrbiEh iqtght be taken from the statue wjjthput spoiling it^^^jqtd hi 
mstwwd» fixeci on again in more auspicious (imes* ., With reg^rj 
to th^taja^ forpoa, they amounted tp very^nefO' 3d,000 fnep, ^^tl^i 


FERSIW9 4Ar9.0«KM^8. i^^ 

Heet coiurieted of 900 gflteys. Above all« he advisedt^em not te 
venture a battle in their dwif ooiirtry agaimrt the Peloponnesiani* 
whoee troops were superior in number to theirs ; not to reffard the 
lajring waste of their lands, as (Iiey might easily be restereoio their 
^nnmr condition ;. but to consider the loss of their men as highly 
important, beqausa irretrievable; to make their whole policy con- 
Bist in defending their city, and preserving the empire of the sec, 
whic^ would cerjtainly one day give them Uie superiority over their 
enemies. He laid do\f*n the plan for carrying on the ^ar, hot for a 
single campaign, but during the whole tinje it miglit last'; and eiMt- 
merated the evils they had to ^r, if they deviated from that sys- 
tem. Pericles, after addirijg other consioerations, taken from the 
character and iatemaL^venamenw of the twcy republics,; the. one 
nncertxin and fluctuati^ in its dehberations, and rendered slUl 
slower in the execution, from its beinf obli^d to wait for the con- 
sent of its allies ; the other speedy, i^termmate, independent, and 
mistress of its resolutions, which is no indifferent circumstance 
with regard to the success of enterprises ; Periclqs, I say, con- 
cluded hia spee<?h, and gave his ppinion a^ follows: We have no 
mor€ ip do btU to diemist th^aanbaakadors^ cend to give Hum thU aai' 
tuter: That, we permit those of J^egara to trade with Athens^ upon 
condiUon V^al me,LcicedcEmonianM'do not prohibit either tii, or 
our alliesy to tntde ipt(A^/iefn..' With' regard to the cities qfOreece^ 
we Mhall leave those /ree who were so at the time of our agreement^ 
pravHlM^ ^^hjy shall do Ihf same uiith regard to those dependent on 
them. We do not refuse to submit the decision of our differences to 
ar&iiraiion, ^and will ^siot- commit the Jirst hostilxHes: howeverjin 
cam of being attackedy we shall m^ke a mgoroufi d^ence. 

The ambassadors were answered as Pericles had dictated. Thev 
returned iioipe,and never came again to Athens; sooii after whic^ 
the Peloponnesian wair broke out. ' , 

\ ■ I 

•i .'.'-fJ 

I. , t 

»'.»•• I, 


i.. '• !> » • 

, I • ' 

1>ft ' -.mimiktf^ nm----: 



». , jr|tA»ACTTONs or TBt ciiiziLkA in srcfitt and italt. 

Aa the Peloponnesian waV is a'.^eat event, of coDsiderable du- 
mtioit, belbre 1 enter upon the h^^koTyof it, it itaay be proper to 
relate in a few words, the most considerable transactions which 
bad hupjfen^A in Grsepja Major, to the time ^e now speak of, 
wiiether in Sicily, or Italy., ; 


Ttfs Cariliiiclnlaiw are defeited in Sietly. TMNm, lynmc- of ilgHftmuB. Bdm af 
/OddBiaSyiaeiu^, aadliifltWo.broUiert. li^bertfisreMored. ^^ 


f? I. Oe^ ^ 

A. M. 3530.* . We have seen that Xerxes,* whote project tended 
Abl J. C. 484.. to no less than the total extirpation of the Greeks, httd 
prevailed with the Canhaginians to make war ag-ainst thi people 
of Sicily. They crossed over thither with an jarmy of above 300,000 
men, wid a fleet of 2000 ships, and ilpwllrdis of 3000 tiunspofts. 
Hamilgar, the ablest of the Ctirthagiifiian jet^ejrals at thft< time, Wa» 
charge'd with this expedition. ' However, ^fi0;^ufccesfi was not an- 
swerable to these mighty preparationffi the'* Carthaginians were 
entirely defeated tj Gelon, whb at that tiih^ had the chief kntho* 
rity in Syracuse. ' ^ ^ ' ':^ 

This Gelon was T)om in ct inty of Sici}y,f Mtuated on tlie 
southern coast between Agrigentum aiid Camariha, called Gelfts, 
whe^pe perh^ips he receiyea his name. He had'si^alized bimeelf 
Very mu'^h in the wars which Hipp^ocrates, tyrant (^ Gela, carried 
on against the neighbouring powert, fiw^ of whoJri fce isubdued, 
and was Very near taking Syracuse\ After the death of Hippo- 
crates, Gelon, upon rretence of defending the rights and succession 
of the tyranVs children, took up arms against his own citizens, and. 
having overcome them In a battle, possessed himself of the govera^ 
menj^ m his own name. Some time after he ma^ himself master 
also of Syracuse, by the assistance of some exiles whom he had 
caused to return into it, and who had engaged the populace to 
open the gates pf that city to him. He then gave Gela to Hiero 
his brother, and applied himself wholly in extending the hmits of 
the territory of Syracuse, and soon rendered himself very powerful • 
We may form a judgment of this from the army which he offered 
the .Grecian ambassadors,! who came to desire his aid against th^ 
king of Persia; and by his demand of being appomted generalisai-- 
mo of their forces, which, however, they renised. The fear he wa^ 
IB, at that time, orbeing soon invaded by the Carthaginiansy 

* DIod. 1. xi. p. 1, and 18-S9. t Herod. L vli. c 1S9-107. 

X He promiicdto numiah 900 •hips, and 90,000 miai. 


; he elnef tfcek^it of h\B not suocwuriag the Gfeeka. He «bowed 
<uxi]9elf to be a eratiy politicks by hia conducst ^ and when neva 
was brcmgrht^him of Xerxes' s hanriog crossod the Helle^nt, he seat 
a trusty person with rich preseats, and ordered him t^ wwt the 
issae of the 'first battle, and ih ease Xerxes should bo viftorious^ 
to pay homage to him in bis name, otherwise to bring back the mo* 
ney. 1 now return to the Carthaginian^. 

They had landed in Sicily at the earnest solicitatipfisof TeriUas^ 
formeriy* lyranN! of Himera, but dethroned by Theron, another ly- 
ranty Wbo reigned at .Agrig^itum. The familv of the latter was 
one of the most illustrious of all Greece, as he was descended 'in a 
direct line ftom Cadmus. He tnarried into the family which at 
that time ruled at Syraoose, and whkh consisted of four brothers, 
Gelon, Hiero, Polyzelus, and Thrasybulus. He married his daugh- 
ter to the first^ and himselt' married the daughter of the third* ' 

Hamilear having landed at Panormus, b^an by laying seig^ to 
Himera. Grelon histed with a great army to the succour of his fa* 
ther^n-lsw ; when uniting, they, defeated the Carthaginians. Thia 
was perhapa tne'most complete victory ever, gained. 

The battle was fi)ught the same day with that of TbermopyKey^ 
the circumstanees of wku^h I have related in the histoi\y of the Carr 
tha^riniasns.f Ofte remarkable circumstance in the conditions of 
the peace,! which Gelon. prescribed to the conquered, was, that 
they should cease to sacrifice their children to the god Saturn ', 
which sfaawfi at the same time, the crudtjF of 4he Carthaginians, 
and the piety of Geldn. 

The spoils woM>oa this occasion W4ire of immense vaiue. , Gefoa 
allotted the greyest part of them for the ornament of the temples 
in ^^nrteuse. They also took un incredible number of prisoneni. 
These he nhared, with the utmost et^uity, ^th his allies, who em- 
pioyed them, after p«4tmg irons on thfeir- feet, in cultivating their 
kads, and iii building ma^ificent edifions, as weU fojr the oraa* 
ment as the utility of the cities. Several >of the>pitizeni3 of Agri^ 
gentum had each 500 for his own share. • 

A. M. 3^ta. Gelon, after «» elorisus m victory* Sir fran> griowing 

Am. J. C.4T9. more pro«d*and haughty, behaveilc with gr<eater afik- 
bility and humanity than evevitowardsthe ci^zens and his aUie^ 
B«ing returned from the>caBlpaign, he coavencdthe assembly of 
the Syraeustos, who were ordered to come armed iate it. How* 
erer, he.hirhself^caine unafkaed thither: declare4 to the assembly 
e?ery ciitHimstante of hiseonducjt,^ the uses to which hp had applied 
ths several sums with which* he ->had been intrusted^ rpAd in wiiat 

* HeradoMc'ny*, tiMit fMn hstUe w^ fdui^t tfte mim dftf wkh ttmt of < W aiii % 
wMeh «fenia>t mppar mtH^fti^, For Uie Greekf, iBfitcwed of G«ton*g succoisea, vm 
tested Mil to succour them against Xerxes, which they woulo not nave d«ne after the 
fatttie oT Sklamifl, which exaked their courage so much, that after this bat Ue the y iota* 
ftncd rhiiiilirn ^ttoHs eaoagh to rental tl*eir ene luiott and t» put aa ta^ |Mm toh . 
10 their o«m -MlvanMce. wJUmitt the ^m^me 9l'mih «mK»' fowei . 

t Tal. L I Phit. in ApcfbtJ^ P» 1^^ 

fW ' filSTORTiOF^Bmi 

ttmniKt he had' emploried fab wrthcnity ; addtijo^, tl^; if tbe]F hi^ 
toy complauits to maxe against, faim^ hia' peii^n, and life w«za at 
Iheir disposal* All the people^ struck with so uae^pecte^ a speech, 
asid still more with the oonfideoce * he reposed in themt answered 
by acclamsftions of joy, praise, ahdigratdtude; ami imaiediately 
with one conisent, invested him with the sUpremei authority, and 
the title of king. And to preserve to the , latest . posterity 
Ihe' remembrance of Gelon's meinorahie action,* jp^ho.h&d come 
I into the assembly, and put his life into the hands of limt^yr^usans, 
they erected a statue in honour of him^ Wherein he itvaa f epire^ented 
fo the ordinal^ habit of a citizexl, ungirded, andi uhaofned. This 
static met aflerwafrds with a ver^ singular fate, and worthy of the 
^ mo^ves which had occasioned i^ being set up. Timoleon, above 
130 yeaUB afler, having restored -the gyracuudans to their liberty, 
thought it advisable, in c^der to erase: aJl traces of tyrannical go^ 
vermnent, and at the same time to assist the wants of .the people, to 
sell publicly by auction all the statues of those pnupesiuid tyrants 
'Who had governed it till that time. But first he;bronght them to 
a formal trial, as so many criminals ; hearing the depo^tions and 
witnesses upon each of them. They all ; WerOi condemned unani- 
mously, the statue of G«loii only exceptedy which found an eloquent 
ad^^dcate and defender in the warm and sincere. 4 gratitude; which 
the citizeus retained for that great m^n, whose; virtue they revest 
asif he had been still iiiive. 
l*he Syracusaneliad'ho dause to repent* tlieir having intrusted 

, Gelon with unlimited power and authority. .This made no addition 
to -his known zeal for their interests, but only enaabled him to do 
thism more important services. tFor,f by: a change till then un^ 
heard of, atid of which* Tacitus since found no example eji^^^ in 
Vespasian,! he was the first whom, the sovereignty nif^e ibe bet* 
ter man. He made upwards of lO^OtOO fpreign^rsvi^ho h^d served 
under him, deniaens: His views were, ito |)eople the .capital,, to 
increai^ the power' of -the state, to reward the sewiceaof. these 
brave and faithful soldiers, and to atlaiih them more strongly to 
Syrao&lie) from t^e sense of thBladvaatageous settlement they had 
obtained in being iBeor}k>iiated with the citiaeOA. > . • • 

^' He prided himbeOT particutatly iupoa his invi^abM ^cerity,f 
ttuth, and fidelity to his engagemei)ta;>'ta quality, very ea^cntial to 
a prince, the only^ona capiu>li8 of gaining him: the lo^.aad confi- 
dience of his isubjects and of foreigners, and whic^ttherefpre ought 
ib be "tohsidered as the basis of all }ust pc^cy and ^ood goyerpQient. 

/ Having oceasion for money«.lo carry, oa «ti e^ipeditio^ he ^editate^ 
(this, very pi'obably, was before he had triumphed over the C«rtha- 
Mians,) he addressed ilhe people :iA«rder to obtain a <;^pitributiiDii 
ftomi Ihetn : but finding' the Byiacusaiis iriiwiUiDg to he- at that ea 

*^ Ptuflh TliMl. p. M7. .^am I xltl i. S7. . ... f Dloi. k si. p. SK^ . 
f Bolui omnium Mte m piSwipHii ia aitiitt naUttot tat MiMi L U.S. SSka 
( PiQIk la Apophlh. p. 17& 

Ul 1 

piUiHt im tri< tbiPt tJMt h^mM^ nothing hnX pi lotD«wltbfttiM 
wmM eagtfeito r«p«.y it m sooa m. the w«X sl»ould b^ ov^r* T^ 
mcioff w«i^f«no6d»«iid irepeyed punctmdly at the pr-^mised time. 
How b9^f im that gD]renuiiiQi^t where euch juetiqe and »tfnl^ 
aie exeroieM;:aiid how uittakW^ are thoee miidiieten and pance% 
.vfc<i;yiplale them in the elightest degree ^ 

Oae<of the ehief qhjectB of hi» atteptioai* in which hia succeeaor 
■anitate<lhim,waa i.Dniake the eulti>?«i)o|> of the landtf be conai- 
derad a« an iMjmourr jle employment. It ie weU known how frui^ 
fill Skalj wafe in r<.m» and the immense i:eTenue8 which night be 
produced IVom mi rich a soil when industriously cultivated. He 
amoMted th«r husbandmen by his j^esence, and delighted in appear* 
kg sometimes at their head, in the same manner as .en other oc 
sioos he had narehed at the head of armies. His intention, sajs Pli*- 
tarciit vas not merely to make the country rich and fruitful, hut 
ilea ta:«xercise his subjects, to.accusOom and inure them-to toils, 
and by that means to preserve them firom a thousand disordeis 
wUeb. inevitably follow a soft and indolent lile. There are few 
pMi^vryfi j[}D. point of policy )ion' which the ancients have insisted more 
stran^y* than on that rei^itiBg to the eultivaiion of their lands; a 
manitest proof of their gseait wisdom, and the profound knowledge 
they had of what constitute^ the strength and solid support of a 
state* Xenophon, in a dialogue' entitled *Hiero»t the sulgectof 
which b government, shows the great advantage it would be to 4 
itMte, were the ki^g studious to reward those who excel in hus>» 
kaadry^ and in i^hatever relates to the cultivation of lands. Ha 
nya the sai^e ef war» of tmde, and of all the- arts ; on which ct<> 
easiooi if honours wtf e paid to all those who 8iv)uld distinguish 
fiieoMelvee on them, it w.ould give universal life and motion; 
would excite a noble a^ laudsble emulation among tlie citizenik 
ubd give rise to a thoAtsaod inventiona /or the improvement ani 
perfection of thoee arts. ' ' m 

It does iiot appesr that Gelen had been educated m the ^amp 
BHsnor as the children of the rich amqng the Greeks, who were 
taught awiesite, and th0 art ef playing on mstri^nents, witjh greit 
care. Poa^l^ this was a conae^uenpe. of his mean Dirth, or 
lUtkQf was owiag to the little value he sei; on those kind of ezer- 
oses. One day at an entertaimnen(4 when acwcording to the usual 
cosUmb, a lyre was presented lo each of the gue$ts ; when lit was 
Gflba'e turn, instead of touehtiu^ the instr inient as the rest lia4 
donsy hfi causul his horse to be brought, uiounted him with won* 
doful agility and ^raco, and showed Siat he had learned a noiblra 
exercise than playing on tfao lyr^. 

Since the defeat of the Carthagiiiians In Sicily,} the several 
cities enjoyed a profound peace, and Syi^use was particularly 
h^r^ymilstn^qoi^yf under the auspicious govemment of Qe^oi^ 

* ?tat.'la AJio^hfb.> ITS. t K tM; 917. t tiuU H ^IpophtlMin. p, 119* 

19« '• «f flrrORY i»P THE ^ f . 

fl^^til rot'boriilif ByMGfise, i^df^C «11 tin H^iMlM^ of tint 
•citjji^, though so extreihefy iealous' of Hieir Kfeerty^lfad fenced Shbi 
•in a manac? to be tAeir king. Tttotfgii «n alieoi |te mxpnoM 
p^m^ went in search of tTnn, not eonrted on his • t>fifft instil any art 
#r inducement but thiose of Tderiti Gelon 'was *ifadlt>Q^Uy ac* 
quaiuted with all the duties of the Tegal offiee, as w^l its its gMat 
weight ; and he accepted it With no other view bnt'tfae good of his 
people. He thought himself k4ng on)^ for the> defence of^tiie 
•state, to ppeseffve «ie ^od order of society ,4.." proMict innotselice 
. «nd justice, and to exhibit to aH -hi^ subjects^'in his simple, modest, 
active, and regiil&r life, a pattern of ^very civil virtue. Toe whole of 
royalty that he -assumed was the toils atid careS of it,a-Keal for the 
pnblic welfaref and the Sweet satilsikction which results foom 
making millions happy by his cares: in H word, he eoosidered the 
sovereignty as an obligation, and a mewis t6~|nt>cure the feiioily^^ 
« greater nuihberof men. He banished from it pomp, ostentadoa, 
lic^htioushess, and impunity for ciimesL He did* not ajS'ecC tjie «^ 
pe^ra'nce of reigning, but cof (tented tiimself wi H making tJie laws 
reign. He never Made his inferiors^feel that he ^was thjEiir masteri 
i:ut pnly inculcated' iiS^ them that both himseH* and tk&f ought to 
tubniit to reason and iostice. To" induce their obedience, he em- 
ploy ed^o 'Other methods but persuasion and a good example, winch 
are' the weapk)n&of vii-tue, and alMoe produce a sincere and oniD* 
ierrupted obedience. 

■\ A revered old ag'^^' a name highly dear to all his subjects, a repn* 
tatlun equally diiftsed within dnd without his kingdoms ; thess 
were the fruits of that wisdom which he detained 6n the throne to 
the last gasp. His reign was short., aflfd'only just showed him in a 
manner to Sicily, to exhibit in hie person on exsihple of a great, 
good, and true king. He died, after hat^g t^eigned'ottly eevea 
Vears, to the infinite! l^^t of all his sn^ects. Every family 
^nagined i^elf deprived of its best friend, its^Dfotecior and father. 
The peopl#lTected, without ^be^dty, id the* place 'wHere^iiis wife 
Demnrata had been buried, a splendid maosoleutn, surrounded with 
nme towers df sarpyising height and ma^ificence ; and detreedlhose 
honours to him, Which were" then paid' to the demigods or heroes. 
The Carthaginiftns 'Afterwards demolished' the: mausoleum, and 
. Agatho^les tAe towers : but, says the' histojfian, neither violence, 
envy, nor time, which destroys all giosser things, could destroy the 
Ifloi-y 9f his nama, or at olish the memory of his exaked virtae»«nd 
noble actions, wliich lovti and gratitude had ehgtaved in the faearti 
of'tlhe Sicloansk * ' 

• • • ' 

^ ' ' n. iltero. ' 

A.'M.'Mis. Afler Oelon's death, the 's^eptre oMtniood utu 

iUL J. c. 473. twelve xefirs in his fajpoily. H^ was jucce^ed by 
Hicro, Hxis eldest broithcr, ''\ j 

\ PBRii|«#Ai«i^akMiAN8. m 

•ay, to distinguish the periods- It is very probabUitliat^Htoro^(«li^ 

9g§ ^^kim^^h^'tmiitHtarf of «is eounlm^ WiimmisV Mm^ 
fM^ <^4etlke^^f)^ttiit- i^th mmh hi»bf«leoMMr M/tfoiMeA 

a^l^ ft^t tm j^himcmiiiti ofl Iris {)li6sioD8, witb^t('ev0f)i«ndM-> 
vSorhfi't^tt^iil^th^ ed«4$6m and^^Abetioii of the ^^le<;Mwb^ 
<m tlie%ffi^-siddvhadfth*tikiito« 9iihv«mn for alJpkiw©, w^iirtil tbiM 

SbtM^tSxne iS^r^<»^bttl>iybceiMM>i^ ift»on6,t k^* tiHterttliMtf 
wirf*rt^«i8^<!fen8:4f Pt^Mlili; hii AfWtheir^ wht)S^.^#«dl Mo^ito^ 
ft]»(^ih<f^lttefii cn^idtellpri^^af tUsff He h<ul%d^^t6depo^himi< 
h oi^ W¥^ tAttumt^^MoviVm^fS^ bf nil <eti^ Whom' W finicMr 
v«i7 dluig%M()l{'he:i^8dl4^d tb pot hirivkt ^the he«»^ sbme !br^^ 
lie was^in^ t^fisettil^Vd' thd sHeoow of tliei«yimri«e« a^&iue ttS 
CrotdtlHltlfei^ N«|kii^itllit ihdi ^ttU perish h^tk«-ex^iSoto. ili# 
Wth€lr'#^^M^^ <J9' <M«bjBlt''tl^ made^ him the^ 1tl«M 

viol^i^ tilgktiMe him. Tli«r(»iv'Hwh«>hail marriM' MyzelMV 
Ate^hte^, Joined witsK his fiithef<^4aMr. ThL**frai^ ftee toer^af 
^afef^iste^-itf ky^g d(ini«iott4^«aeeo<he k^ <>f €^i*«if8e toi» 
Agrige«if«iiiif h^^e^ttiS Chty *it^ llidt immHs r^dStfeifcd |iy the iiidP 
00118 me^MMfdf i^i«»c)«i^Sittl«^x|M)gt^^%Bd'b'iii4J{^^«ir'r^^ 
eiiiatioii {le8tiiS)g,>thej «iBm«i^€fd^H l^4^e4<r<^liaa«evHiebifik#]N(> 
agf T%eK)ft mcr; aftei^'^rtdctiifae t^^i-kingfJ aliiraiwitev^fy 
^ *ft4Mi|*Mi»r*;ith e*Dh'^«hdf^ '•«'• f' ' "'»" •> -•.''i • •■? l^i'' U'\ 

kl ^til^t^ Hiih-m Mat^Aif ]b<^8kh;! whidi^ds' %)e#M6ed>by i^ 
?eitted»illnfefl8e8, gULife ©Bfo itfi^4iip|Mbwity W4hitikiflg s^ioiMly/ 
ifiett.«|p]v^^ ^4 ]^«s^»^dtb dt^w* awtiild biiniAW*! of;'leatbiiig;iii4y 

2dgbt cpnv«Afe» ac!?6^aVly HvHh Wih, *ttd^faifii8* hltik^ wi«JJ us^tf 
«tttictiion»i'' 'f%5hlost Wtiiius poets' of^hiB'iJi^iidfeutteiW'ftlrftd^^ 
• 8£iij«*W^,'^PlfiA»t.31lae^yiid«ir,^^ 'Epiihatttios- <tjril*Ut^fl 
ifiriMtf^ (teMT'theiir ^ig^Mb&iv^Mticm did !tfot f^ltt»te>d^ 
lO «eft:«b*t)M^ crti^ \atild ^Va^e di^po^Dt<m of^HkimV ^^> v ^ ^ 

PfeUkt^l ii^ated^«'«t0^d^fliiyili&' oC his, w4»id^»ilDl^'iUI* exb«^» 
lAliii^lMaifikMi^^^thitte^ 'H^9jeclafed^th«tt^i8>pake^ attd ^hik 
eart idWayW^tp^i to^^very ikan who ibMd t^il hikrieihtf 
ln]tk,^W^«biflvbthtviJt)f^W'i>'^^^^^ 'A ' ^' ''^^t 

The poets above mentioned not only excelled «n poetry, but wera 
ho jeS|»J^^t#''Jf»iS|t:^^^ 

Vol. If I. M 


» '1 


•oMivipM ftmiiito ^iopmio* (tnMi^miiiiii'llo^ iiM 

faig well, entitled Hiero, and written ^i the forw,pf « dM^H^'lier 
tftm^yf^' prJrico,ifin4^i«l9i4iMh'>olii#MuMerM|(^ ^iPHftfWKto 

^NPh. S^o4M««i;W t)bcHot^^8idftiilf)jrirdosii|t,iid4^fiiM8 m/^vam 
^l^mjt^ |^4bQ;i(ilftie8;«&ftr«of<tdir«* ( Be^epi;«f9opt#M>|iiil»f 

> lists with tlie first^omer at tbe Ql)(|i^iecgi^i|f90/(fiH.tto|N^ 

^^.4iRfmt9<id w^'ilh9 mgM^nrii^ diiil|:» vwJm; ,8]|oii)f[){pico9M 
^ ij),dif4APMig v^94M»,iRMcl* Ab«Hwl«iM) ifarftugbA^ his f^pwipim 
V^iq flid^a|if0urwg.lto;»e|m]ie.ilbfi fttioity fof Ihi9 J)pqp)(»,, t . . !i 
. )-|jteyeinih^oWfctim|bafi i |]iip)et.(P)9itei^(friLwwtt%inm«,tliieiok Ibr 

*iaiy A''i''>*><in' I' >/;> 7li..i Ion b;.MioiJn9«. j^juilr e.i-taa {n 

•«#4»MMr ^»«ur*e««rf-*y ike wpmr)Jkm t^hnf thp banki9i^,ltf^t^yvii% 
and carrM'^huv^ptU^id0ri9 gtoritimmfi^ry f O #vyr tlu^MMv 

. TW wh»^ ade, traddbMd by tfaa late Mr: Mn^iep, ^p «n ;t)i«r«^[^ 
▼okaie of %he Memdini'of the Acadbmir of lDacripta/^i|^, wd JBeU^ 
LeUTea^iMa which I iiave made tihe ihoci^xtMicr V^fffe* I was veqr 
fitai4 to- g|f«« th0 veader aotterideaof EindftT) fr(m thia U(tla«pecj|peiE 
Tkd lUttt' odd to thi0 w^ tiompoted io fo^HoUE of .Theitji, Inijjpr ^^ 
Af n^flftunif vktotkMM ill tiK bhariot-rad^. Tb^ diotioq^oCiit lawiy 

#hielr Piadar giviMlto Hi0ro,iai tpoto do.noit. alwi^* p^de t)^i% 
Belrea^^dii' their WBOerity intlidMilogiumf^tlilQy'^^ow oQ-prui^etj 
iiowever, it i^ "oeitui. tlMLt HieH> had uriade hiA ><H>«rt tl)^ resf^^ «f 
all p64r8<»i« of 'Wtti«ttd>giiunai>»faid ^stliier b»d V^sit^ tiieiU'to || 
tiyhia ttSMky and' engagin^ijehainoiir, asd n^liab mtW ^i^ 
hh€^Vilh^^ifM6h^iAikWTe9i m^HbiaitL* • .. j;... vm'or 

We dmm t>e»tow dn«Hlcn'<lf8:o6nxtliifi eiilo^m^vJUoh HitH^pff 
ffives the house of Mtecenas, in which a character prevailed vHeif 
found among scholars, and nevertheless infinitely preferable to mi 
their erudition^ This aQuah]^(J|)p)i|p^, af^ Horace, was an utter 
stranger to the mead and grovislfing sentiments of «ivy and jei^ 
hvBfi wi-'Joa^ ^Wii ill thof^rW<li|o sh^rfdin their masfqr^a fit¥giir» 
a Bvprnof jH^riit or KJmt^ wi^bout t#kw jhelhi$t umbr^ jHT^ 
But k utttiibr otbonriae tA i^h^ijftpwriTqf Piero or o£^)^^x^,^fiiM 
sud that Sioioliid^uaad -JsjcciySdesj ; lus; nephe^; ;WwP^c39 
loada af otdttoisia to U9ftm^heeel^v[^,^ibiek,&QSB^mmQ^^ 
Fin<kr'« w^rks. .Tll:e■ia/kfi^e, jliy F*yiof7ej?prWi,riiJiiicJtf 
*roiif ly im bti ode to j Tb&ijftRi m ^wip^^jtittg^fhrnto Hyj^-if^ 

the «irtttC(^iMcb &tingiijsh«4 Pia4»r«Mi i ;: . i, m- " J 

Ht«itt4''^vr*^& driven tbi« amci^^tliM^sJHtsat? of , Uataoa ai?ia 
Jiajia8:fiinr>dk4is<cou!atry., «<)ttied4i ^ploipy.'pf 'lj()^09ip llfoen ;jth<$irfl^ 

• Pip^i^lff tl|i^fltf,jMM,3iihUli ihe plymnU^«amei were foleinnix^^ iBiFb«% 
-^IvSeMpjbbtflteimbd^^^ ^iMf^Hetiwiqmliir,' '..::,(T t) 'I'm- 

We Have our lUtioiw, all their dwn f(^'Wlf^ «e,--<>M|t. ^ 


mi-god^ be^fci^e thB^emnMeTed hwrva^^theii^feuiider* *-n 

tvethiVimt M^ ^)^r o#tt bands,- afber. Mi<;fthll«4 1 tMr tuton 
bold fiMty^ pirit^tif kifi^riMd i them olifaft state i^f. Hi iM bow ke 
a)ie)f had ^b^hkv^d itf)Jtli«ittim|iustrfttioR«;':ftbe kttei* bfiving 
Itt^n^'blt^dtl^^rebt p«tiiti<m8 :aiid unost kK^aQAtft .fri«i4« pC .tbe 
youi]b'|>Hnc^, gAve^ in thcif pteiei)e^«o c9Qnd.^.'9C€Op]34:Of hb 
jruaraianshio, that the whole ■iiauipblyj((iiii ^petfytst afdnitr«JMMP),bet 
ft^or^dd tiM ni^st e^aoiiuuiii^)[x)n< this .prud«iQMl,(.iiite0i;Uy- and 
J(M^ -' MaltA^ Weikr0Toarridd<8p &c, that ithe i )K)UAg lytriiMDf ^'woa 
i^t¥eU)el j^^tii^eiit ^tthl fkimiti;^ i^tiiliie to. pr«8Jid«}iQ' ib^Kfl^iniiui* 
mtlM, «Ls11e4Mi4"hithiib'td dcme; ' ti«^)t^Yer, tue mm tiflpr pr«feN 
fiii^1fM&8v^€^(tf 4as4 toJtb9«pl&ndoiurt>f autluvait^/Blld ff»sm4edt 
n^tk^ dkM^tytitffthttt'it.woiikl ba.f<^ theiQterjsfit of'ibA 

youDg princes took the gonriramenbtatothaif owti. hlipda^'^ie^v^^ 
fe 1%^ htf^'-^mAmdi^-^ iildxocdieft after/: Wing t^^pki^ ^fen 

'^!^e^Was; Wci^edetf WThrte^t'Ufi^ hisf -bNithM^ Wl^ by^ iu* 


Iflted^J^ith 'prid^ khd '^. W(n^'li«iiifhtiAieiN»i 4i» "eonsid^radvideii aa 

''Ir^rtna^ vaialY IJMt^ihg^ifhJy wttrd 4£)reitteik4bp iiim}4dti«i» 

>fi;'ai!ii4''>tlutt%« ^li^df « <9Uit«>'^dlflrei«bt».nst«r8 (fl»ih»tlMail 

k'hddnMTtittisblf ^^liatlj^tOLthdMlMie»in^ ««tNHK6W-o#'1ha 

^ydiing coii^M'\(rho'H»)ftr^ouAd«di|£nw' ii» twaMd uttoiaB* 

k^ts^^h the utkoa^li^^ky ; b«ilihia]|f»saiiMMC^^ Hbe 

sipnsojf others, fLndpu!^'gi^'tittQibM>tdaMii]k#^ii&«l» 

sldviry ' sooq^'^W iriMtppoftabUe 'tcVilha^Smifcuiuna^Iiuid 

bVe ihSy''iUipMel» thd %netoo» ^fit4M>-ti«igiUKflBiifeii«ta 

which was very wie^ll^rt 

caDed Tyche, waiap^tsisef 

resistance, and di^n]Mad^%«(cap)tttiBte^ ha Jait^ba cite, and with* 

dre|v mto DBusnm?nt among the Locrians. -fl^ Ilfa<l'i4igned but a 

year. In this manner^ j|i^'lHta^«tt^nST^v«^ They 

also ddivered the reatlSTtKa cities of Skiiyi^,^^^ eatabliabed 

a popular jrovemmtetiavilU'pkees, and aBamtiunaii form bT 

•Diod.LzLp.90L' 'ttblli^. 11,911 i^^uY «ttU:)a ^ : 


isconsa lo ineir. iiDcrxy, 9-s uie country was exireme^y i 

ilfief^ toid ttfe ^ce wl^ichkl! plaices enjoyed ekve the inhabrtaotii 

of tW^Hslknd ftiLbppbrfiihity of curt!^ t^ieir laij48i *nd ifeedW 

theii* ^ecks, tne peopte^gre^'Vei^'poWerM, and* anj weed grpat 

nchett.' '■ '^ |ferj)6tuatfe f6 tb^T^tefst' posterity ^feie rememtrance bf 

th^'htJppy ^y in which thisV^ifrd thrown 6ff the yofe of jflave?-y>, W 

the banishriileiW of Thrftsjfbulds;, it \^^s' d^ct-eeijl in, the :g,0rdS 

asB^mbrly 6f tht^ natibrt/thait: H cdlodd^l^^atae .should "b^ 8e( upVo 

Joplberilte Deliverer r tHatTbn thfe anniVfersary «pf this d^ya Jeajj^- 

Tal should be soleirtttiz^d, hy waV of thanksgivingj'for thd reslori- 

Hofit of their liberty ; and tn^f there stiould be sacrificed' in honoar 

of tbe gfods, 450 buHs, with which the ^people should hp ^entertaiiiei^ 

at a common feastj '-' ' ' . „ .^....^. 

Thei^e nevertheless lay coWfeealed in the roihds' qf mariyiaiceri- 

tain vs*ci*t Itea^^rt'Of tyrihny, wlilch freqtiently disturbed t^. OJif- 

mony of this i^tiid, and occ&^oned severtl tumults and'. cothpjp;' 

tioBs in SiliiJyi th6 particulitrs of wtu<ih 1 shall oniit. Tcj'prQyenJ 

the evil \;oMfequen<;eS'of^them,t tje, Syracusaiis .estaoli^^ed tn« 

PetaUffln,^feh^difffei^*^V^y'littk from the Athenian pstrafi^mj ' 

and was so «idled ffdm llh6'Greels: flriTat\of^ siffnifying ija jea4 

because the '"Suites were then' ^iveii on an olivfe-leaf,^ 'fhi^ jndg* 

ment ^tis purin;lbVce agfait^d^t tho^e ' citiiseite whosV l^rea^ power 

madei^te pjelopl^ kjij^rfehensiv^ that they aspired at; the vtjyrani^^ 

and St baiifehed thfeih for tep years; how^ever, ik^'cKd hotlong coo- 

tinue in yfi^cb', a'Ad was soon abolished; because the drea,(t of icilt* 

m^ under its censure, having prohipted the n^ost virtuogs i[QQn ,ip 

tei^plb Ws^V^ fktiiouS bh account of sbifie wonj|^t^\wJ^ 
are related of it ; and still more from the sacred nature dr tiie 
oiths ivhich were then take|i,-tl^.vio|at^n whereof was said to be 
always Allowed by a sudden an&^exMplary punishment/ This 
was~j|^ecQpr0. .pj^yUunr for : aU? persons* who weie « opprw8d ojiy llftpe* 
rior'powerf «iid (^spedftHy^Of 's!&^e#'ttrh6 "^ireV^'unjti^lil^abufled, of 
too emelly treated by their masters. They continued in safety ill 

4f8 ' ,,:.,ri?WPWOPTH».Mi . 

^fundus- W6re the gods woo presidep ov€r.ft)i»,(^i|lp;«yfor:tfaeii|«tTefe | 

'''^^Ti|||8^x)eiJK:eU ,been\.8apf^8ejful oi^fa gaeait iioaEy , 

"'^V^^oD^/^lid gained several vjipito^es, J^an^lUar]yjpv•r,Ul^)BVl«r 
''plrsaQS, saw h^is fortune cbange.^pn a sudden by thf» lOfB ^^ mie, 
^tinfi ^as abandoDe,d by ti^e greatc^i.part q(;^ %cibfi^ lajUwi c<^~ 
titematioD vM idesppndent y into, ^^^ch, so . geneti^j and- e^^^n'^ 
i&^emtA threw hi^, Jie formeasutcn a resolution as d^epajir^ o^V' 

SyT?i9»^80» aavjmced 
XB^^ prosii^ 
iniops 10^ the mercy 
'of t&^ Syraciisans, that i^^to)us prpfe^^s^^ enemies. Tke sipgulaiity 
'6f this spectacle attracted gfi^at. numbers* of :Mople. The nuida- 
trates immediately conyenefi the people^ and debated on tliOAp'^ 
]^h(ey. first hcjafd tlie orator^> whose business wasgenerMly-to-adr 
wess the people with great violence; and these animfit^^ th^Boi 
against Deucetiu|», as a public enemy» whom Providence seened 
^'^W^hrcfw into their w,ay,, to revenge yand punii^hi l^ bis deatl^juU 
"tiri injuries he, had dohei the republic. ,.A speech of, tb^ t^ndfuacy 
0^^ all the. virtuous part o^ the aaffimbly with^borrpr. ^Th^ 
iHpSf 'fllncjent and. wisest of the sena^rp. rep^esei?i,t^i« ^fuU ikfiy 
''V})eri'not r^w to connd^f vofi^ fut^hTn^jp^uee^Md^^r^ 
^^io^'lt henoviid the Syracuiaris to (u^onihat,Qc^a$ionj thai theyotighi 
yiotWtoi^upcni him any Ijonger as an.,enimy^ btU^tu a (tuppdanty f^ 
)^'ekaract^r by tb^ich kiJt person tpcu hecomfi sacred oifdtif^^ciabU* That 
there was a goMess \J^emesis) fbhg took iifingeas^e,qf crip^t specially 
^ cruiAy ana ij^piety, %pho doubtless would ndtitiif^.^hfitt to govs^ 
mmtshed: ihat besides the bareness and inhumanity ther4i tf t^ isistUt" 
wgiheunfortunateyoiid in cru^vng ihosewhoare alrecfdy,under%Qne'^ 
%oi ';' it was worthy Ifie grc^ideur and good nature, ff i^ ^yracusa^^ 
foeotert their clemency even if^, those ufh<> least ^^s^ra&d, ;i^4, .|All,Mw 
people cuQe latb'iui^ opinion^ ^d with pijie cons^t ^ptir^ Deuce- 
WOis VU^. H^ was ordered to resideii^ CprijUtb^ t|jp ^focilfh^^ city, 

fi^/ooes liot perceive which of them was ^.f^Jl^Jest. am 

ii^H.I4w. In tteatmg of what relates to Grecia Magna, : 

/ ' 

gr«ftt,iJ(»«iy,^iQqfU lifl^ .eiijr^t^^^ fti^.ipin^ w,il|? much ujic6rniHj^ 
v4 e*c^ewt,rwf>'^ ^, retted to li^ ,n%tivfe country ,>ui dm 
Mt np^ Bilffi^ ^Y.x^^^y becaii9e of tli|i tyrannical gpi^tnin^jk 
which Polyf^nteai hac[ esti^plfilhed lU 'it!, w^^'.hpwev.ei'^^had inp 
high0^,rBpMffx; bhi^, ji^d sj^pwe / litm all t)i9 (^teem ,4u^. to h]a 
xare iiiTL&riK' Jp4|t ti]^ ^ti^dy o£; t^ ^,ciqnce& ana^'j^rt}<;ulart^ of 
philos9p)[).y^ i^^ |w^;VP>nj^^'CQ<Pf>A tibia with siavbfy^^ ^pugh of tho 
mildest Aq^ lao^ h<g^ourable,jund. . U^ liiereibre w^jlt into Italy^ 
and ree^efi i^uaUy either aJt, (Jrb^na, Met^njijtpm^.'^eraclea^ or 
Tarenti^m^ . §fervi>i9 Tulljiii^rOJ T9^rvi"iu,8 SwpeKpuB^.r^^ 
Eome atftl^t 4io^&>. ^lucih absolutely^ refytes the obmion of t.hoso 
who ion^ned toaU.Nmna;Pompiliu8, tbe aecond^kflLp, of the R^^ 
Qaan$,^iKffio.l]>;e^^Uj;^^arq8,of ],0(| yeai;s;bcfoi«,'bad Men Pythafi[Or 
rasV disciple;' an opinicti^, tj^at ve|ry ppba^l^.^as^roupaed^ on Stii% 
resemblance of their manners, disposition, and principles. 

The whole c^nntir; <aoon fd^ivery hapjpja^e«|8 from th^yn^- 
sence of this excellent philosopher, j: An inclination for study, and 
a love pf w^qm^ djffu«pd t^enoM^^res iJmost universally in a very 
flhort^ time, 'tiultitujdpa j9pf^QCi&^ the neighbounq^.'^ies tD 
get aj «ig^t of Pytti^QF^ to.heftf bim, and to pirofit by bis sf iutarjr 
cotmsels. -,!}Jhp,aeYe|rfJi,^incj^8^pf the country took , a pleasure in 
iaviting hini <(q their cou^» which ,th^y thought nopourjbd by ra 
preeeQce; and. .all ^e^, jellg^e^ v^itl^^his conversati<^/anil gl8!d 
to learn from bun. ^he Mt.ojfy^»in«'nt)ti6iis with A^isdpm" ' li^ 
scbopl, because tue iuo9t feuBQ^^^hat nad ever been till thaf^a^e. 
He Iiaid bo less tban four ox^f^w^ himj^red disciples, jdefo^e'he ad- 

as it w 

tbem to* be i^tructed, before ^th^ shoulif attempt to 8pe^k. It is 
Tell known that ^fihe .'mei^ngqpisyjciiosis or tranbmigflttro^ o/soulii 
wu one of the cifief of his ttenets.;, H^sdiscipte^ had! the ^reatert 
leveren/^e for .evg[y, word he iitte^j^d,; 'and,if b,e dLd b\ii airely avef 
&tbiag>:t^t alpijf^,' without furth^-bxami Etuffidcnt io 

pm ciewjtp ius assertion ; and t^onfirtnthe trvith of any tbltig, 
Itiey usedtQ^oi^PJ'e^ tbemselvea v\\\d3' m^er^ T^^mastei^ 
However ,f)^€i disciples carried thdirdei^ren<(|e'an({ docility too far*, 
io thus wav^g all mquiry, and in 'sacrificing implicitly their' rcaso;i 
ind anijljei8tan4ii^; ,a 8acni^ce,^that is^^e i^nly^tp the diiHine act-' 
tboiky, wi^ ^^i^ifijiite^ superior' t'q our re^sdn^od dllour kno^ 
le4ge; and 'which;, consewiently, L? ^uthorizedjo prescribe' I*!p'.J« 
OS, and dictate absolute obedience.' • ^ ' • • '-> \ ^ 

The^icliQol of J?ytbaggf ^ bre4a|^ijiBLtnj«wnbcr c^ ilJuBtnausito • 

*I)Sfli.Laen.lnTitPzthac. ?. t Lly.t,^ a. lil."^' • 'v i':.m.i 

t Fyuid&W,«lni mm\\»R y g h li if t ,<ir<lhi4v<»ga«r.rgclam, qw liwiiiK *tta( 

AprivatlB d puMM, pnfrtairttirimti et inathuiii, et arUbut. Cb. 7^(UNUj42««M.4Mtf 

U:.C. '"£.11 -1/ , . u(«. ..''-.j.'," <y '■{ 

PM, Who d!d iidlmWihdii^^^. io.ih^W^nl^eiH tte HHhi^^Adfk, 
uffovertiitisf states, (in<!'Mt)ff thb lAniierteiis of the'Vreitidt^ wint^. 
/ .^.loh^'tifee after his ddJiti,* that p^t 6f !taljr ^-^tf he teSf.tmM- 
Vated ao^ impfbv6d by hii^ mstructh^lifi, wad still coai^dered 'afsth's 
liur^rjflnd'seat of ti^en skilled in ulUciiidii 6f lit^r^ttifte* and tnain- 

Sainei tAa^ gjorlous charact^ ftr efeveiidl afecs;' Tqe RonoMs cer- 
ainfy entei^taiftea a high opinion brPyfhagW*as*«/,v1firtde niitf tnerit,^ 

^ce , thj3 jQtd^le' of Detphi having' ^tommande^ijt ihiat ]m6p1e, ^- 
ling the y^r With'the Samhitea» td eVcct twjf> ^^tiH^ hi 't^e most 
coMpicqous part of Rojne, th^ pne to fhe wis6^, aniJ the 6iher, to 
the most valiafit among the Greeks, It He^ accbi^^y set^dfir twb in 
tho place y^te iheComitia werb held, yetoesi^iiMf p y ttA g oraa 
ai^Thek^isiDcles. We have no cenaiin inibniAfiion^Whh 'respect 
tolie time knd place of PV thftgebs's death, : ; V ' * 

/ ' . •' ' :; It triiond'. '^yhai^r:fh:^r(pli -.'' . ' '* ' 

- Itypcellus b^ing come t<) .,D#h? #?tonMilt th^ bracfe 
Apollo",, about the spbt' on whitfhj'ne dSotdd''.btdia'Jfc8 city/ met 
Apchiag .the Corinthian tiere, Vhof wiy arrived* ^dn the i^frt^ 
aG(^un)c, .The god gav,e' them a'ftLTbtmkbfe ^(udfe^ce; antfi^er 
nfkyjini detfrroined .them whi * regjiVd'to the pfec^ifhat woulff be^ 
suit their new settl^meiiis, he ptol^osed din^rent'adVant&gNsi^'-tK) 
theipj'and left them, among olher particiilai's, tft^^! cfioiee brjfch^ 
<nrhewtn. The'offet Of riches struck: Archw^/btitTWyscilltfs'' de- 
sired healihi -and^ i/'})istory is- to1ie tr^dhed, Apbllq pbrfontied his 
profnise faithfjully to bplh^ , Archias founded Syt^ictipe, which soon 
became the . wosi 'opulent city .'of terepce. ' Jjifys^^ilurf' Jaid tiie 
&unda)(ioii^'!Qf Cfbtotia.^ which ^o4:ni^ j^o ^inon^ ibr thd h>ng 
lie ai^d^innate stfen^h <Dfitd yihtbltdnts, that ti^ naihe Vsst^ 

6rpw^ed in the Olympic games, and carnbd off allttie^tfmesof tM 

^^ythagJnu tmiult' itia?iimri&''inam ^rtfchmt tJlOti iMitodte, tt^dM^HMli Miif 

■aciorUate, mttliaque leeula poitea sic vIguU Fythagononun nomen, at ^aU altl doctf 
^Ideremttr. 7We. QmmC kil. a. S^ , 't _ _" •'rj.nafj «.. 

i|fltrab,].vi.p.S03. 7ktii«ii.LxII.- *''* ■*• *-* 


iaApmOf^wMm^ were 8uk|«ei ^ k, m thati iA,ira# ^ijfi^fUi 
to itii^ IH' wiy y <rfi9( if)<0Q» man; . The opiklencci ,^ $y bf na- wm 
mnH ^MbwM by loxnry, andivteh a <liqBal«(eQeii>ftf qi^impi^ lla.iv 
wawlyt odiWflk TIM oitiMU^ii^oyi^d'thctQtplvediia oQt^ipg 
bat bkslqo0(% ^uneB/siMomt, paiDmi pf pleature, fU^d.^aroMt^ 
Publitft^dfrardi' Aair>itiarks of /dwllnotioa were bevt^wfiiiu wm 
w to«f r x * ^ lie irtost ■ magnificent aite rtaJfimonU ^ and even to 
vach coolu as were bepk .slf iUed in th^ iwpfr^nt, art of.paJ^ing 
new discoveries in dressings dishes, aiid invented new refinements 
to please the palate** Tfte* fiybarilM ofif i^ ^fir delicacy and eP> 
feoiinacy to such a height, that they carefully removed from their 
city: aflrwibit astiftceito whose wock w^noi^y i^iani woidd not 9Mfer 
anv coNBirt in H; lipk tiibir skoU.i^roiiig crprwahould (a[^^rb ^p^ 
bsimfirii4tetienM '• ' • • t] ., ,. > , ".,,;. 

A. M. 9«4;'i' • ' jMl'thcsfi etils.weie beigl^nqd by diin^nsiop. J^ 
Aflt J. c. 990. discord,* which at last proved their ruin. Five, apn* 
died of the'wMl^ieillfeiiioite iji the city iMtviqg*>^n exp^ed %y tLe 
&c^ibn of^one felysf fiedtaClr<ftiyia* Tely9,4e«}f^}^ded to have UieiQ 
surrendered ;a hioi; and, onjt&ejrefJuBal of tWC^to()iai^'t(^^ 
them u{i»fwhi'were^roniptaitd:thJ4i generou|ijresoiatio];i]:i>flfytna-'^ 
roras, who then lived i AoM>ng[ Ihem) war wfis dealare^. Tbp Sy- 
nritesi jnarched 3dD,(H)0. me^. into* the |^d|. 0194 the Cro^pnians 
oDiyilOOgeod/; bat then thfey^ fNre liofMi^d^ b^i Milo, th^.&pious 
diampie»(of^hom wo shsU soon ha^. ^casion to lipeakaove^t 
whose shoniders a lion's riiito was 4}ifowy») jkndtb,Lp»self armoq wjtH 
1 club, like anetiiev Heroulcs.'. Thio..)alA?r gained f, cbmplieteiy^p* 
tory, and made a dreadfiyl :h«yQ« of 4hosft wiM^.0^4t ^ S^^^ ^X ^^^ 
esc^edy' and th^ir< ci^yi waside|k>pftrkti|d«' ' : About i;hjceipscore^ y 9^ri 
ifter, some ThessoHans came and s(HlM/»itiV,hf)wevier«th^ di^ 
not k>ng^^joy peaeeiiwing dlmiel^ oUlilM^ ibe p^Potcmi^qs^^^^Being 
tkos reducedi^e/tfae toost fatal exUeqfi^y^fVl^y implored t)ia^'8uc^ 
eoar of^be iittcedcmpBftiLWi oadi AtbeoWf^ The^^er, .(hcve^ 
with cooiimsskm at their dioj^lombl^ c&iditio^^ir c^i^singprp- 
ckmatioa to be made in PelapoAfieiniSj tb^ii .%U )fbo^were wiTIih| 
to join tiMt «eIony were '-^ Itf^Dy 4o^vU;<f^4#<^ ^bfifites 1 
fleet of iien ships, ander tbe<eQin«MMWXHM»ppn and ,^f^ocrate% 
iM aisiJ>f»* They h\k^\r%^wkXf^^ff^^\. %l>ans ap^call; 

4«.*,c. 4«. ed it ThttAiiRKft r6w^ mm ff»«UyiT§"f*^v**^ ^^y^ 

haming, tlie erie an oratoffivail^: tbe pU^r ^iv morvMS^, sett^ in 
tltteokMm Thejfirst ' ' - ^ - '"^ 

«f age.."^ii*Ui«c:d ^ 

Athttiiaitf ritt f BieUyyamt ^^ 

Herodotus. ^ ThougU: he iwas JboM ia, Hi4ic<^DMUJht f <f^ty. of 
Gttia, M^ns; faoworor, conoidiaf^. M(:«^mLtite oC, :Tiiuri»fn.»>e« 
Mse he aietled there Mrithihotoqlenir. : h>ii = v' fc^ 

Bitimiatf ioonileDim^eiHi iii.ilip.#ity5„tt ^i^fasSf^ij^flfjtbQ.fgw^lJ^' 


)K>uii^tlief ^^^n^ All the ttftbientfiyUaritef^ud gbt SUm («^ |mh 
ie^ii of t^e dty. 6em|f 4B«^^oftedi by ikH aqMM» i^igrn^ 
wt'the; WtfMebf ChHona, they ^DOB/goMir.^nstly {WMrepluli and 
IMftnbW let^md « pbpulat fttttili oiTgiOvWimleiiiiul 4heU fOil|F^ith0y d^ 
Videdl!hf9 bitizeiis iiit<^<Mii'ti4A>es, wineh tJwyJoftUedii^ tJitjinmiWi 
«f the di^euft natkMtt wheiide th^y bprungw . .> •.. t. . t . -. 

ili«if ^Wriiin^Dt bt%M^oiae hty^KhrvhStith^xfom IbqEimade 
(shoice of Charondas, who bad been educated VBttiBjfthtkgonM^n 
«dR)<^, t(f diffest' nhd ditw tHetavtf, i cbott.qd^ aomeiiM' t^em 
ifl'thia;iirlLce; •■''■»''••■ ' '<''''■' « i^ >'" • hu.-D/if) •t'.'^ • •• 
' l/'fte^xc^o'deld A^m^ltfe soiiate) ^iidiaft^liiraiMiplvymettfl^ -aB 
ifQch^ ^^^(fM ifiiifrjr^lr Second wift^tiDitaBe.aBr'tfiildred by'lMi 
ifir^f ^^ livlrigrV Vea% per^aB^edftAlLKia xtiaii vvbb vai m feeguad- 
Ie$^ 6f,&ia^imten;ii iht^tt^st; ipidkild^foliqiiailyfvo oH^j^onDtij^ 
afid b« ^9 woi^tHj^ t rhb^ntte^al ^imibecfia fiibev*. • 

1^; H^ senteid^ull fHI&e <aceiiMfiit()hbe oidtled'l^rafBgb:«rGry 
tni^t Qftb^ city,brel$^y(l<»^ h^iielt or tartoenvas tbe,iKileit.of nmi; 
An ignohihiy whictirntfM df tAetti )|ireir«'aiolabie>to«drvure4<M!l'ltt 
cit^ th^s delivered fi'dflfi fbtt^e^^kjisCtir/of 'ilodetT^ waaimoiM to in 
fB&bf^tmi](f((]QHty. '-AiMi'b^ genmUy 

ftirfde^Kil i^%^flM e^Mestd^^tetlter ol^iaiptii^ jwtara; 

iSni yet; ac^ordtijgf to Taiftimi'to ,obMrfataoii;ithey! ike too nuck 
tiWtedirf'mOdt'g6veWite€iMii^ ' -• ' '^ • e:... . ^IT 
'<^"^:''H0:enaj^efd^ newOfiiMof laf^ ^nbt aiio$heit apwefi of 
pedts^Hi^hich js ge^^^y^^'iHt (AtcaAioiv of t^e* d^tedt^t «f ibbs^ 
ner^Hh a stAte, by suffbfkljjf i^ttioM todwi^imMibcaM iilk6 shmili 
fbrm a corfeispondeii^, or^6titottMtitl|Ei^ 

tedby;hying'a'!feiVy1ift^uttowtilte«fcl'/! ifj ../.u. ^ ci no | 

' 4. He^equiret[<iffl'^H^«»'0ft4b^<^i2eM^t9{bei^ui^^ 

Sg Ktei'ature, '; ,the ^et^'oT^WllMite toisoftiai' aadi^idiaQAhemindt 
oi'e^i; tn^iJiif^g ^^> #kfrf fefrtUneM of vkivMl^hB, and iiifliiiuw viitii^i aM^RKtl «0fidMiild ttJefblkit^ of Ji^iAiiM, 1u*eI-«m 
e^natly &efds^t!^to eitlKi^ dP flM <to»ditimi&« In thn yaeir U 
a{^p(^ift^9 ]|M«H<ed r^idfl»j^^ «l«jt^)[ibr'4MKtih«.iLBd pracepton 

' qentlv judidout, by intnistitiytee *«tf e. bf tlwiil tBdiihHiiii<t»<iMir 

" I wireitiim. Tmi'I. AnmU, 1. it. c. 30 , 

tiinity of atoning for their IkulU '^ .:*,„( ;" * , • '.», 

11^ ^04h1<| prTHHNW to ftilLer. or. wp^iid.: tlj^jn % ^y ^i^^lV^ri Thqr 
wyei» (4*.in^iiri» tN public .«w«mMy:!M^(h Ac4i^^ a)>PVil,.tJi|^ 
a^f^kM «M¥Lic^«ia9€t;(l9e •Jt(e^tioQ.|^i9^pii«4i4idQi9t;p^«9,.th9f; .w«n 

ftky ft(9ffl:imi9uiiif «oo>p mm^ tmiMimg%^im^%' HkAb^'f^^t^M 
ihm hj mi jOffpTfm laWt A^c^rtAin. pftiim,p^t^,M>t bin MiWt 

says he, frt4 <AiiM «ea/ <A«f» vfWi my.ibioed/i <'nagii9^'*yi^ki\ h§ 

' -'j »i»t!!'' '/f -1. ;.),'. k; •! m- '-11 • .•' ••! ;-;■• «; . , < iifii..-*!" * 

,4(1 Uii» mm tin«kitb9fle.rM909.«»noiff tb« JU><^n9.B0ia«q|t]^|t,A^ 
#f|Wt^ of Imai ps«ei»t a kjpi^llpriQMi^l^ UpiVw^aws, wlH<)^\ivwM 

0p44iuai|d l^(to«1bat t)l«vt|M0<CMMQg.qR'P9M:9ir^>(9 Ui9(lH«^plM% 
«|fcf «<H)^aH>l^^l^ UMW Mniefitlldi Miaty9*pir«r«ui^omililp'iQoqr 
vi»cf^tll9iiiuit. it; i4:imp0p^iMir1i#^0Wl^if<Rll ^/ftbrie'iCouM b%ye.faQ||| 

hif»^VtbAmmW»^^fi^e9^;^yffiiif:M0^ mbmnfid. fifttiriPiiti 4iy« 

circumspect conduct, and by ^H^.] aod m^mewiMfifimmami 
these being infinitely more grateful to the deities than al) the 
sacrifices that can bedfhuM^^ ■'"'^ ' '^^- '' 

Ho conform, he descends foti^e particulars of tlld|6 diltkti'WftiHiflSeB 
. W^'tt 6tid ahotllei'il%tta4tty»Mo^^n #«reMpt whibh is rt¥y #ell 
llii^tt^ tb )>redeftVe |i«tce iDid 'Mty Wsociety, t^y'^joMHI^'tlie 
IridmdlwWwhbcomiiOteii^not tofhakj^theirbkc^ Hid dinliiAlkMi 
jteif^ihkttrWhieli Wtiidmvince an nnkyelsl and t^ffk^ dkfpdtttidn ; 
W't^tMkt lheii^ enemies SBita«n< wHb Wbold tmuxhn their^Mends. 
l^ii'lsOdarrytt^ mij'iiliC^tiir as gdMt atb^^fNftlM'as'codld>'be lA* 
peoted from the heathens, • ' «* • ^^ ^^'^ ^f ^ 

.^'-^:y£»4eg^rd td thi^ ^«lf of jodffe^'^fad'JbaigfiMralMi;^!^ 
lftmi|R^td%hemiclWltf1fi*piimo(AM^ff'«Mitelk;eth^'0 to 

IMtir th^Md^^^stl^ b^ 'biaffficid by fflendillflp/hatrM oi^^ttny^oli^ 
]Ml(^<m; he otii^iiAoKif^hetti to a?oid ci^ref«iny«irhatl||4jitWe6ir^ 
sev^iCy towAi^sHhe't>tfrii^<^«i|Stl|^^ i#Mw ; slrt^ «i]^ a¥e bwitoo 
%lft^'|!>^ Ui b^gr 'oM%^ f6 m&fgo <«dl^;th«1ioiW«M'flt%iiieil in* 
separable iron JawsiiUdi* Tbe'dffitd'tedeed of JUd^flMn^llbo. 
TUibi9M¥c}if>M mi^ ble,«iiir from gititl^ them a rijgfinib «f»M llto 
01- hdlttoiiii ilp6n[' the 4JiM^({ili$f |Ki'de«; the v^ ehndftSefr AUd 
<Mdn^df^tSfetr)«fttplO}{(Af^t'i^<inite thorn to b<itulir« wkhimpar* 
^Iity|<«itid*tb id»>iHeei«ki«U 6ctm(Aii ; and wh^ntifey -distribute 
UtiS'^v^'^fr mil'dn^ tiA(i homMlfey; k i^vnil^dddbt they pAy, 
«ftdr^M'W'fa!»<ftlit»>th«y]^rtCbtv.i'^ '^i'M •»» • -^ -■ '-''• i^*-' 

To banbh luxury ^Mdtts ^ulfli«rv ^hkfh he IMM upoa ^^ths 
certain destruction of a government, he did not follow the practice 
established in soiiWi«tM«ms^4WJbkBir^:itM4ba^^ for the 

restraining it, to punish, by pecuniary mulcts, such as infringe the 
mmf ««! hn^ Mt^i sa^sti^ iiis(«>mi,)ih i^mof^* MM siid^hlge- 
ai6us9 feitid ut th^ sanMr lini#n«G«^i^fi(iitM,''tiknnor: Hk pnltiMteA 
)rdilifeikfrom' weaf^ ti<^ lind oriMy stoffs, emlM^d'Jrdd- robes, 
fie^i^kr ^Ak^rings; ' JiedJttbei;' 'bMc^e«8> > gold ^H»gir,' giid tmeh^ilt 
detMnbiitbV excepting; itione ^ Arotti t'^^Uw bt:t' commdn preilt- 
t(ite§:^^'^iiLe enocteB a stftilliCr' law -wiihi^fdgaril toth^meA'^^eaMpl- 
j»%|4fVnh«<Balne^'4nanW^,qA>(]tot tM'obaet'^ it, taHif>'o%it 

were^iAinf''to pass let d<»bau«lieei^ttnd iMfiimous wretchett> By 
ttbesb' V^ulatioti^he ea^d^ tbd^'^lvM^vidleiie^,- preserved the 
^«9rtel^lfi'0m'«)ie leastapp^aehetliitoilifiiikafy fttld'^eiliUMu^ Far 
fiAp^mm was do^tn> alHiekibe of btiH^iri a^ %o }^0'>^mg'ttPW€ti 
til^>%adfl;^§ of hi« ihamd, UD^6f tfetf»fft,^«r it w«r^, of^'ttociti* 
ieoi;:i|lii«it.Uii^iwoiiia iMifcSf ht^k >iiie:ffub'M«^>ko^iBtfL«iktk,itid 

V. J^ih^ the ch m fi m* \ ii ui> > UiUc: ::.> ' ' 

">' a^eiatoMW#*a«tm b^d^;^)Ui'^mS;Mllei}ftitf)Mt,VI^I^ 
, «Mf«VdF,WVailfilfWiol«'i^o#tt^8^ 

* >l<w« inier vHmt rrar|iiA, ouljaito wgf nwii Mf^mim IbpsHm fm iytk 

m^ m fxia^e of lus liirth* ,4t was l^s duughter, >vibom, f» wfm 
r^Ji^niedf Den^cede^^^e famous ^phybician, anq Mpo's C9Uii*^ 
if^ roamed, after he, h^, escaped. fi;Qfn pariusV^fll^uit Ui| 

Olj^jp, bis naUye country, , V„.....' *. 

Paqisanias relates,* that Mifp was seven times yi^iori(ji)»f utt^ 
Pytifyoi ffames, once when i| child ; that. he won.. su viqiories (at 
wrestlinff; in i^e, Olympic ganies, one of whick^was also gaji/if d ix^ 
his chOcmood,^ and that challenging' a seve^^h. ti^pe (in ^^mpi&i 
wiy persoa tp \yTe8tle with hiin, l^c could n^t ^i^gugs fpr waqi/6r 
an opponent, ^ would hold a ppr^^egraiplt^.iil j[^<jhannj^er,;iha^ 
witbopt breaking; it, he would gjaipip it §6.if|pt |p his hanfL,ll^'t jid 
oue, nf»y ever .s^rqn.2, could possibly wre^t.)t,jrfom him..„^e wpu)^ 
stand -^ ^""""■*' '' ^'^ . 4^L_' Ml.". ... 


bhid hii 

the veins of his hf^ad would swelFso prodigiously 

rope. Whon Mtlo, fixing his elbow on his side, stretched foriu uu^ 

right hand quite open^ with his Hngers held clo<3e one to the other, 

his thunnb excepte«f, whicb^ hek^ii^, the. utmost strength of loaa 

could not separate his litffe fiiiger'trom the other three. 

All this was unlydii^iuvaiHlpif^rile of|t^{|^|iiDn of his strength. 
Chance, however, gave him an opportunity of making a much more 

1 2»iidsJ|l9 HP^.p^ I One dayii .as Jte was!a)|«^PdMt|f the leot^re^ ^jf 
Pycha^r^s (icv h^i^as one of Iv^ inctst.|;«nsU#t,4£cipIois) th* ptlb 
kr which.wipport^ tlie.eeiUng^ the school ^'^Ivich th« f«it>il« 
vere ass«<)fibied, ^^eiAg shaken by aioiae aecAdeni^' jiitilf^ supiKirled ift 
by his single strength) gave the 4uqitors .tirn^.to., get aWayur!«iiii 

I bkving jvpwdpd for ti)eirvtiafety , h^ alierw^rds escaped himieife t 

W^. is ' related ; of the 'Vora^ipiilL uppeti^vof/the tMeimm 

alflui^ ^)C|te|jiJ||)e» ;, Miio^s appet' ^ wi^ scarce satiated. with iwem 

I tj name i[jMHin4p): <>t:(mci^tt)Jthe ^ ^ne quantity o{ \itPi%tL akidUtrcni 
conffUh of wine every day.jj Athensus relates, that this ohampiua 
having run the whole length of the stadium, with a bull four years 
Ad on his shoulders, he 4ft^WArdS)}(itt>cked him down with one 
itroke of iiis fist, and ate the whole beast that very day. I will tajkci 

|»1br gtanlW, tKatifl the«othei';]ja;iyrcuj|ar8 rel^e.d pf Mi)(i>ar'eiril&J 
fot is it in the slightest^ (tegree probable, that one man could dovour 
. wiu>le ox in so short f^ time ? . < > : 

1 We are told that iiilo,ir when advanced to a very great age, see- 
H^lie rfsl^oT the champions wrestjihs[« tnd ^dziiig Aiponihis.oiim 
fmkt wfuch cHif^ w^re soe vigorous andilrobust, biitiwei'e xbfAtMisrf 
pdft^enfe^eij hy;l;une> burnt uito. UoiM and cried, (ijlite<w''t Mite 
IPHS Hre 9pur f(s#/.\ ' . [i ii i.. .-'lu..!' . n:..- —n.-f 


kL vl p. m ^ Thli y piHixiitii, or vigUlwn paiita. | AUmm. 1. 1. f> 

ill. - N vCJ .«/.}.. iMl.inil /. :i ... u» ...i«'HJ 

.1 ;n 

Mf':'*' 'kn9''||JH^ coAiMf^nt '^ri^aasicfn Uy'&tertaiuM of Ifli own 
^tbni^h,'iiQd U'hich he p^erVed t6ill6i^8t|)^royed fatal to bina. 
H'appefrth^ t6'in'0et,ft8 he was tr^'f^inl^, ad old oak, which bad 

^$0 opened bv some wedges that were ibrced mtt) it, he under- 
X <b ajfllt ittn two by'bfe Hre stifeftgtii. But after forcing put 
Che wedcei^'l^ythe e^ertioo he nif^dei his dirtna ^er^ cal'^heil in the 
trut^ ^he tree',' by' the violence witji which it cl98ed,i so that be* 
kig tmablo to dietehga^ hii^ haj^ds, he ik^ tlevpuredbj^ wolves, 
•^li krilhor Has -jiidicidnsTy'bbBeryed,! that 'this suraiiiflingly i^lmst 
efiamplotj,'who |i|rlded' himself sd much 6n' hi^ bodm^ ^rengjth, was 
th^ Weaicest bf m^h, wfrh reg^tt) lb a p|i$sibn which often mibdues 
ibid ciaptiyates tixe strongest ; a courtesail'havii^^^aihed sbg^reat an 
fiicendaht'over SJfiYo, t,hat ^1^ tyraiitnzed'(yver.h^^ So^t im- 

pbr^tts mann^^ihd madeliim obeV whatever coztunimdk she .laid 

amm nifn. ^ r , •. 

.; Xi -•» •:. 'S. v.rt.i n;».. •■ - <»-. ■ ;.' ' • . / :•/ '' -. . 1*- 

,' . ..)0;'V • i" I) 'I'll . T^^^ • ri.V/ «' • ) '5..' w ^' , • . 

'■■>"■ ■ "■ • -i--^ ';• '-.'■' aiAPtER lit.;':'; ■:■'[•■■ 

X'W.-3Sft9. * ' Tke'PefopbntieBikn war, which I lAlkil'noW ebiiifeHi]^ 
Aa^ «.!;. 48L .(vipoii,J|»eg«« jabc^t i^- end of th^'IfiNit J^arr^f the 
•igitlff-teveiitdi} 0lyftpiiLd^ aitd'iaAtiedtiventyi^e^ veai%.i Thucy- 
didetf ihM writftitt th^ history lof it to the^t^l^ty-ilrsC yiear inc^n- 
iwelyv*' Hegives^us tth accdrate aidcpunt; ot the seyerd'traiiMke 
iion^ of evciy ^ear^ which he dhrtdes iBto'<cathpalgn0'^d. winter* 
yiartoM; ^Io\vievei>; I ^aU not he S(>'niiRiiie^>iuid shMl^ only 
extract .8U«hpa»t8 of it as^^appea- ^ ^ostentertilfniij^^ndinBtl-^eHve. 
tluUrch aiMit'Diodorus Bic^lus Av«a al^onie of^gMS' as4iBbii3b«e to 
ine<pn'diis4)cci«ion.- '" <'''^' li'-l'-'- \- ' ■''••. 

The.Jir»l v^ar of ihewarl ' , /" "'* * ' 

V •> »)' tji*. 

/ .1 /I^ho firsts ta^ «»fho(Btiiit t 'by wliich' the warhegdfV,! l^ae' com- 
niued by the 'Thebans;' who besieged PlaCt^; « ctty^F Bbbtia, in 
•UiiOiCo wtUirlklliens. They we»e inittkluced^ into Irby trenchery; 
blit the citizens falling* upon them m the night, kiH<^ tMrnatt^^with 
the exception of#about 300, who were taken prisonora, and who a 
iitUb aAm w«P8:putitA»ioalii. ^f vi*hfr AUienJans^uito^ an thel4lo%B 

• 11111MU1. «^. p. a:a. t ^im. 1. h. c m. ** ' f'riM^t jL p. tv-iai 

IMda.irUi.j1.97> mo. niiLlnP*rid.p.l7». / TmVio'^*^ 


wu InoQglrt of tbemetion'at PlfttA«« sent miccoujrs afN}.'pKMWiii| 
tlutliAr«'aiid oteaivd the city df^all p^rsooe who were ificeiM^ble of 

The truce being ^vidcntlybToken^ both eidee -pijepare^ qpcnly 
fof war; and asDbaistdora vi&e sept to aH pUcee/t9.atD^ffth99 
themseWes' by the alliance of the Greekfi and barbarUtrnk., > K»Tf laf 
part of Oreec<x Was in motion, some -fetK^ states and. cities cdi^pted» 
which oontifiued neoter^ tiJi they should se^ the .event of ihek.waN 
The majrrity were for the Lacedipmonians, as bein^ tbe.deiWereni 
of GhrDece, and esjsouaed their- interest. irery we|ri|ily«ibec(iuai^'thd 
AthendMUB, forgetting that the piodefftiQii .and- geiailenes8r,wit|^ 
which they comnmnded over otbera^had procured tSelp many 8Vie% 
had afterwards alienated the greatest part of them by ^heif' , ^-idf 
and the severity of their government, and incurred. the hatrek), ,no|^ 
only of those* who weriel thto subject to them, but of all ttu^t* ai 
were apprehensive of becoming, tbeu: dependants* In this ten^pev 
of mind were the Greeks "at th^t time. The confederates- of} ^tcll 
of those two states wen 99 foUow. ' « 

AU Pcloponaeaiis, Afgos- excepted, wluch stood neuter* had/^ei 
ehLred ibr Laccdemonia*:.; The Acliieans, the inhabitan|ts ^ fe^ 
lene exceptfed^ we» nevter at fiVst, bi»t «t lenfl^ indensibJlV'^IH 
^aged tn the war. Out of Peloponneslis were the p^opic QliMo^ 
gm^ lidcnk, Bflsotia^ Phocts, Arobradia, LeuQadia^ aud Annoto* 
num, on 'the side of the LsQedsmoni^ns. • j' ; n / ' 

The' confederates of the Athenians were* the people of ChicMji 
Lesbee^ Platies, the Messenians of .N:tupactus; tlmi^at^t putl 
of the Acamanian8<€oicyTea«St Cephalenisine^ jBiidr Zacyntliiami 
besides the beveral. tributarv countiiss^afi mariUmil- Cai^a, Ospia 
that Uos near jt» Ionia, the Helkspoiii; and the* cities of Th?sc^ 
Chalois, and PptidsBa sx^epted^ailtheisIaqKb b9twe09 Crete «ndPe»| 
loponneeus, eastward; and the CyfdadesvMetoe and Thera excepted 

Immediately after the'iatlempt on PJbbMee^ the JUt^cedsmonfan^ 
had ordered forces to be levied both within^ and witboMt Pelop|i)9r< 
aesusi and made aU the preparations necesstiry for entdfing the^ei^fH 
ay's country. All things being readv; twp-thirds cNTlaei t^oDi 
Mirched to the'istlimas of Cortiiiht< and the; rest were, kft.tojguarj 
the country. • Arefaidamus, lringt>f LacedsBU^onia, who c(n|iinan4^ 
the army« assembled^ the- generals a&d chief officers, aqi4 c%llii|g do 
their remembrance the great .acti(Hi» peiforned .by their aneefiM>f9| 
and those they theitoslves had done^ or be6n eye-w^^^efscteh U^hk 
exhorted them to support, with the ntmoiit efiorts.iojf their vfl)ojgwf| 
the pnstine. ^liffy 6f their tespective citiesvM .well:. as their, pw^ 
fiune. He hefMreseated to them ,. that th6 ^ee «f • all Qreec^^ ; >>^r# 
upon them ; -aisd 'thabvhi asEpebtation t^f tie Issu^ of a war whj^ 
wodd detemune their Hit\ 4hey swere.iiMespatttly') addreifswg 
heaven an fitvbdr cf a 'peQple,'4vhi(>/wctve a»/ then as «tha 
Athenians ^ere become odious ; that, however, be could not deny« 
that the/ wc«e going t» vajcck Jig«^net.uBui, enemyt wl^o, tiipugh 

tMirtfjf^inrerkir to thmf in numb^n and -hi 'strength* V^ QftTer* 
mfew'V^^: powerfuU warlike, anUxlKrinsic dnd v^hosei coungo 
would doubtless be still more inflamed by the sight of (Iiuiger^ and* 
tie 'Isying twt& of their temtork|8r! rttist -ih^refdre they lAiist 
^xert'^tilD^flelves to thtt utmo6t,*la6 spre^ an inaniediate terror 
k' th^ coontry they were -goinir to.toter^ and to inspire-tbe alli€B 

* wtth c^^deneeJ' Tho mkoleutmy aniwend witb^ the.'ioiid'ecst ae- 
cflaittatldns of joy, and re]^ated asaumaces iithat tiiey* would do 
their dtity. ■•* • ••....•.., . n.t-. " .//,-. : 

Tb^ assclmblylRreafciAg «p; Archtdamtisi ever iealoua lor tho 
4rbHkre of Greec^, itnd feaoMng to* neglect no iBzpedieal that 
^ijj^bt pretentw rupviirei (he dreadftd 'conffequeneea^ of whioh he 
ibnesa^; relit a S^airtah to' Athens,' tb endeai^Qur4 - before they 
dhduld come to^hodttNties, to prevnU if possible^ with the Athe- 
fiian^^o lay aside t))eir d^esigna; new that they/saikraa artny ready 
16 Inarch mto Attiea. But thd< Ath^aarv eo dr fnmi'admittifig him 
to liudieiice, dr heMagf ^is reassons, yf^M not 00 mutih as sufferrhina 
to come into their city : Periclee^^hiiv^ pnevailed. with the -Mopla 
t<^VhJEik^,a!n order, that no fi«rald or aniba8Q||dbr skouid be received 
fioii* t^e Lacedlnmoniahb Ull they had'iiristi laid dbwa Ihi^ arav.. 
hi \id^^{iBMe 6f thi8> thte Sparianr was cocnnranded to leave thfl 
cbMitry that ^ery day ; and an es^rt'ivafl se^ tognard hioi to ^jia 
ftoittle/s, knd td ]^f^6vent hw ^peaking to '4ny person by ih^ way. 
At Jiis'takinjg leave of the Athietiians^ ne tbld them, that day Avould 
|^*^fii^ teginn'tnff of the great cahdnii«e8f that -would ensue, ^to} all 
Qftiece.' ^*' Archidimos; s^eing'no iiopes of a f econcniation, loaidhed 
§^ Aitiea, at th4he«(4 6f 60,Q0a chasen trooj^s. j • . 

f ^fNM-icl^; hefor^^lh^' Lac^^^toionians had:edte]ied the coufatry, 
.^Ml^ \o thd'Athenlan6,.tnai[,shbuid AV^hidaitua, when he was 
U'ying waele fh^ir t€frn«btieB,2«ptbre his (Pericle's) laada^ ediier 
eb'account of the Hghts^ofhokpifalit^ which subButcdrbatween 
flfenti; 01^ to furnish his 'elieniie8i,'and ttose' who envied bisivflrith a 
blUidl^ to slatider him, mi'hii^ihg iiitelHifeaie with him, hb^fi^m 
tjhddny.mkni'^ov^r ailhtslattdaand hopaes tb the ci|y of .A^heaa. 
He dmonstliated te^lMS Atlbeoiaos, that the' w'elfbre ef the< state 
ieflelftded uoon^coiisumin|^ttb]&;eii^Qnay'8 trooper by prDtraclifi|^ the 
war; ntS& that' for • this purpo^^< they must hntaediately reaiove 

.VSi their '>ef^^«t8 out^ef the ofKuntryv retaj-e tolthe eityir and ahut 
a^^^tiili^^ ^p ia it Wif bout <^rer basardiag a tbatftlr^ , Tk^ Athe* 
iBiiBtt, iiideie^i^had l^ot fort«» enough to taikap the Held and'oppoee 
tlN^'islbemy. Th'tftr'^V^ofMv ekchisive of those in gatiisoi!^ bnoimt- 
id'ttX'to 1<8,d60'h6«vy^rm«l'tok[ierB; and S6^«ai» inhabitants, 
teltfdkig tiife"yk>imr and bids the idtizete as weatl ak> othen« 
^nib'^ere appoinvel^^endtAthcpm: and-de^kbs these, itOO 
Mbfet^hidtidlftfthe^ardfeys ^U«i retiel on (horsehack, and 1400 
Ibbt aro!i6rib. *l'&(>wa8 'tbrwbb)a«^i!niyfof tlK Atheaiais* But 


PER9IANS i!>)1» GRtUlANS. Nt 

tfteir ehief stl^eiiglh cminsted in ii A»«t ^ 300 g'ftlleys, (^tt-^Of 
«Jil(4i<tir6re ordtffed to lay waste the tn^mjls country, arid the n^ 
to li^e the «Uio0, on whom cont^ mtidns "Were tevie^^ without 
wbich thd Athenians coutd not '«M . ay the expense of tko' war; ^ 

The Athenians,' animatei] by ihe ttrdotit eXb'^rtations of Pericleifi 
hrou^ht fr^m^tiie'counti'y thor wives, their children^ tthieir' fbmift 
tai^, and all their efl^(5t8> ar'iei which they pulled down , theiir 
houses, and even carried offX;he timber. With regardtothe ca^ 
tie of all kind^, they e«>nveyed them into 'the island of SaUq^a and 
th^ neighbouring i8i09. However, they were^ deeply afflicted at 
this sad an'l pi^cipkate migFatlon,^t>d it djt^'v plenCifiil tears* from 
their eyes. " From \}k^ time that' the Perp^ans had left tbeif country;^ 
that is, for near fifty years, they htid enjoyed the sweets of pea^e, 
wholly employed m cultivating theirs lan^, and feeding their 
flocks. But now they were obliged to atrandon every thing; 
They took up their habitatioiks in tSe city, as conveniently as they 
could, in the* midst of siiDh confusicin; retirio]^ either to their Wa-* 
tions or fri^nd^; and some withdrew even to :3i#^t«tmpl6s and o^her 
public placefe. " • ' ;. '^.i:* 

In the mean tim^;' the La««d»montaTis, b6in^9et out upon their * 
marcii, ettt^iid the e<mntryy aifd encaifiped' at CBiioe, which 4s the 
first fortress towards Bteoti». ■ 'They empl6};ed a long time iu pre^- 
paring for the attack, and raiding the batteries; for which reason 
complaints were made dgttinst'Archidamusi as if he carried on the 
war iiHlolently, because 'he- lifadnol! 'Approved of it. ^^ Her was ac- 
cused of being too* slow iti his'niQ^iies, and of encaXnpiAg too Ibng 
near Corinth. He was- also: iftharged with haying- be^n t^ dila-* 
lory in raising the army^ a^'if he bad ^ired to'givejtbe Athenians 
opportunity to carry off all thmr^effticts out of the country*; wher6- 
IS had he marched speedily into it, ail they had might have been 
plundered and destroyed. ' His design, hdwev^c, was to engage the 
Athenian^ by these delays; to agree to an' accommodation, and to 
preveht a rupture, t;ie consequence^ of which he tbresaw would • 
be pernicious to all Gri^fece. Finding,' after majting' sereiiil : as- 
saults, that it would be lAipossilHe for him to the city^ he raised 
the sieg^, and eiitered Attica in the midst of th^^ harvest. Havitfg[ 
Laid waste tii^ >vhole ccHintry, hie ^ advanced as far as Achamffii 
one of the greater towns near Athens, and but 1300 paees from 
the city". He there pitched his* camp, ""in' Hopes that the Athe* 
tdaas, exa^[>efated tc se^' him 'advanced so near, would sally otil 
fo defend thieir cottnt^, and g^ive him an opportmiity of ceming to 
t battle. * . .' • . 

It indeed was not without nmeh ^f&culty that the Atheniaai 
(kau^hty and imperious 101 tb^y ware) could ehdure' to^lJfe \k^^^ 
a&d insulted in this manner by ate iHiemy, whdra thejjr did ii^t<«hi)at 
superior to themselves in coura^fe. They were eye-witnesses of 
the driBadful^ftyoo''mafde of' their lands,' and saw att their h<?;(i9*ee , 
ud farm4 itt a falazs. TH^y Cotild no fenger bear this sad pppcU^W 
. N2 ' 

• I , 

f f 

tW ^ ' . UHiTOgflf/oP TH« 

99dt|hcrg(bre demiincled fier^ljr to be led out AgMntt th^ litcfda* 
H^fiiariB; >e the connequenoevwhat it would. PeFiolensaw pWlUilji 
tbat Uie Atheiuanii yirould the r^by hazard every thing, and i).J^0M 
their «ityilo certain destrLCtioi 8^'ould they mi^rcO'wi^to )engage» 
filider thd walk of t^eir city ^ an arii.y of 60.000 fighting men, coni- 
])90ed of this choiosst trOoos at that :wne in B<Boqa and Peleponn^ 
f Ua. Besides, he had made it his cuief maxinv to splire the blood 
of the. cki^ena, since that was on irreparable loss. Pu9Buing:ia- 
flexibly* ll;hef\efore, the plan he had laid down, and studioim of .no* 
thing but how hd miglu check 4 he impatience c^d ardour of the 
Atlienidna, hf.was part iqularly careful nM to assemble either i}ie 
^nkte or the people, letit they should form eonwe fatal resoluticm, in 
spite of nil the opposition in his poweir. His/friends used every ef- 
fort imaginable to make him change his conduct. : His enemies, on 
the o'her side, endeavoured to stagger him by their m^nances and 
slanderous discourses. They strove to sting him by songs ^d sa- 
tires, in which they, aspersed him as a man of^a cow^tidly, unfeel- 
ing, disposition, ^h» basely gave up iiis country to the Qword of tbe 
enemy. But no man show^ so much rancour against Peiicleff n^ 
Cleon.* He was thoeon of a carrier, and also followed that, trade him- 
self. He had raised iiimself by factioB* and probably by a species of, 
merit which those must possess who would nse in |K>pular. gov^nPH 
sientSi He had athundering and overbearing voice.; andpossessed ^.e- 
side^, in a wonderful manner, the ari of gaining the people, and engag- 
ing them imhi^ interest. It was h$. who enaQtea a law; tb^t three 
- 4]holi (not tW-o %R befbre^ should bet givcif to each of the 6Q0O judges* 
•The characteristics wnich more immediately distinguished niai 
were, an unbounded eelf-cdinceit, a ridicM^ous arrogance of hia 
uncommon merit, and a boldness of speech, which be carried tp tlie 
highest pitch of insolence • and eiirontery, and spared no iflan^ 
But none of these^things could' mover Pericles^f Hi» invuieible 
•trengt]} of mind, raised him above low^ vulvar clamours. Like 
' a good pilot, in a raging storm, who, after he has given put th^ 
proper ordersyiAnd taken all the precautions ^ec^essaryi' is sl^ioua 
•* pf nothiQor but how to make the best use or his art, 'withovit suffer- 
ing himself to be. moved by the ^ears or' entref^es' ofthose whoni 
fi^i^r has /distracted ; PerioIeSf in like manner, a^ter Mving put t^ 
pity in a,goQd posture of defen<?)9,'and posted guards in aU plnoea to 
r^'event.e^ surprise, folipwed those counsels whi^h his prudence 
f uggtffij^ed/ entirely aregardlesa of the compte'ntSi thf^ taunts, and 
licentious invectives, of the citi2cns^ ^m a finm persuasion, that 
he knew much better than they in what manner they wejpe to bfi 
fovi^mec^ It then appeared evidently, says Plutarcb,t that Peri- 
^ ^^ M'a«^iab8o|ute master of the inincuof the Athenians, since hn 
pri9V»iln4 80 fiu (at such a juoctture as ibis) ae to iceep tiiem fron 

y»^g<* t **pi»«»'lf<.runiyril»a« val»4jj|^, 7«Mk 4.Pluv Anu^cniijf^ 


MfH^ (Hit of tha.'dtjr.^f^ «9 if he ha4 liepi the keys ofth^ dtfln 
his ovil,po9$98Bipn) ana ibced on their arms theaealof h»autboritj^ 
lo foitid their making use of them. Tilings happenc/l exactly m 
F^riclea. had foretold; for tho'enemy, finding- the Atheniains wers 
d^termipedl not to stxr out of their city, and having advice that the 
eaem/S' deet vatre carrying ire and sword into their territories^ 
they raised theur canip, and after nrnking dreadl'ul havoc in the 
whole country through ivhich they marched, they returned to Pelo- 
ponnesus, and retired ^^ .ueir several homes. ^ 

It might here W asiied, why Pericles act^d, bn this occasion, in 
a qiute aitfetent manner from what Them 9tocl^ haM done about 
My years beforcy when^ at Xerxes's approach, he made tb^ Athe^ 
nians march out of their cily, and abandoio it to the enomy. But m 
little nefleclion dwill show, that the circwnatances differed widely. 
ThemistQeles, b^ing invaded by all the foroeeof the East, justly 
eoneluded'ihat it would be impossiblie for him to withstand, in a sin- 
gle cii|Fi those millions of barbarians who wouhl have pourpd upon 
It like «'4^uge, an^i deprived him. of ail ^ hopee «f ,bemg succoured 
by hifl* j41le0» Thi0 is the Cicero. Fiwtvm enim 
tfiiiw Djrha.rm ftrre i«r6< una non poUrat. It Was therefiire f)n]H 
dent ia ium to setire for some time, and to let the confused mubuK 
tadeof haibariao^ consume and destroy one another.^. But Pericles 
was norit engaged iti so formidable and oppressive a war. The 
od(k. were not very greatf and he foresaw it would. allow him inter- 
vald in which he miffht breathe* Thus, like a judicious man and an 
i^le i^olitician, he kept ok>Be in Athens, and could not be moved 
either by the remonstrances oi: murmutBof the citizens. Cicero, 
watin^ to his friend Att]c«s,t condemns absolutely the resolution 
which Pompey formed and executed; of abandoning Rome to Cce- 
tar ; whereas he ought, i6 iinltaUon of Pericles, to have shut him- 
self up in it with. the senate, the magistrates and theHower of the 
eitiz^a wholiad declared u(» his favour. 

A&er the Lacodnmonians wer^ retired, th(. Athentins put troopsi 
into all jtfae inportant pqste both hy sea and land, pursuant to the 
])lan tliey^' intended to follow, as long as, the War continued. 
They alao ieitme to a resolution tc^ beep always 1000 tiLlentb in re- 
8enre,| and 100 gaUdy»i ond never .iouse them, except the'enemy 
shouJd uHiule Attica by sea ; at the. same time making it death &e 
any maia to propose the employing them any othei: way. . • «• 

The. flftUeys which had been- sent drito Peloponnesus made 
dreadfiil mro&'there, which consoled, the Atheniansy in some mea- 
sure, fije the los^ef they^Mid sustained. One da^ as the fonxlBi^ 
were gvliag/on'tboard^ ajid Perigee was entering his Dwn ship^a' 
sndden ami total eclipse of the sun ensued; and tl^ earth was wixr 
•p&ead'Wilh the deepest gloom* IFhis phenomknonfiUed the 

f{^yi9^tW9S. t Lib. vll. EpuL U t About MO^OOSI 

152 \ fllSTORr OF* TOT ^ • 

of the Athenians with the utmost terrot ; 'Vt^b wet^ wotie, thrbtigh 
superstition, and the ignorance of natural causes, to consider such 
evontaas fatal onueniB. Pericles seeing^ the pilot who was on hoard 
his ship astonished, and incapah)e of mana^ngf the h^ltn, threw hiA 
cloak over his' face, and asked him whether M saw t^xke pQot a&- 
awering, that the cloak hindered h m, P6ricles*tb4*n gave- Him U 
understand, that'a like cause, viz. the interposition of the vast bfody 
of the moon between his eyes and the snn, prevented his seeing its 
splendour. , 

..The first year of the war of Peloponnesus bewiff now elapsed,* 
^ the Athenians, during Lie winter, solemnized pmnti fnneral^ ac* 
' cording to ancient custom (a custom conformable to'the dicflttea of 
humanity and gratitude,) in honour of those who had lost their iives 
in that bampaign, a ceremony which they constantly obMrvod, 
during the whole course of that war. For this purpose^ they set 
up, three days before, a tent, in which the bones, of the ddcciaeed 
citizens were exposed, and every person strewed flowers^ iiieense, 
perfumes, and other things of the same kind, Up^ those remains. 
They afterwards were puton catriage^, in coffins* made <^iejH>res8^ 
woQd, every tribe having its particulai' coffin and y;mia^^;^iit in- 
one of the latter a large empty coffinf wat carried mliiiibottr of 
those ^hose bodies had not been fbund. Tlfft proeesstonr marched 
wit^i a grave, majestic, and religious pomp ? a great 'numbar of i&« 
habitants, both citizens alid foreigners, assisted at thisi/moiimfui 
solemnity. Tfte relations of the deceased officers and eoldien 
stood^veeping at the sepulchre. These- bones were carriedto a yiiubKD 
monument, in the finest suburb of the city, called the Ceramious, 
where were buried, in all ages, those who losf theirlivesinthefleldi 
except the warriors of Marathon, who, to immortahze their rare 
valour, were interred in the field of battle. Earth was afterwards laid 
over them, and then one of the citizens of the greatest distuictioo 
pronounced their funeral oration. Pericles was now appoimed ta 
exercise this faicmoiirable office. When the ceremony wsis * eftdM, 
W Went from the sepulchre to the tribunal^ ip Order ^he tfate belter 
heard, and spoke the oration, the* whole of (v^hich/lrhiicydides •has 
transmittbd'to titf. Whether U was really composed ify« PeripieS) 
or by the -historian, we may affirm that it is truly^ w6rtby the repu- 
tation of both those great meHj as well for the noble simplicity^ of 
the style, as for the just beauty of the thoughts, aiifl the gvandeor 
of the sentimeqti Which pervade every part, of it. After having 
paid4 in so solemn a ihanner, this double tribute of lieaifti and i^ 
phtuses, to the memor;^ of those brave asldieils who had^aeiificed 
their livee to defend the liberties of their-eouutry : the jMiMIe, wbs 
did not confine their gratitude to empty ceremonies .and tears, 
namtained' their ividows, and all their iniknt orphans. S*Iub was 

* TiiueTd.t:U^ it»-130. t ThotetftcAfiCtaMafMa •-'- t Vhrnfi 

t. tt» p. 130* I . .« u •.' 

1 powerful incentive to antma'te the courage ^oftho eftjaeiu;* to 
great men kre formed where merit is beat rewatded> * ' ' . 
Abott the doae of thef same campaign, the Athenians donclude^ 
an alliance with Sitacles, king' of theOdrysi^ns in Tht»ce^)and, 
in conse^ence of this treaty, his son was^lidinitted a cltiaeliiof 
Athens. They also came to an accommodation with Perdiccaa;' 
king of Macedonia, by restorfhg to him the cky of.ThermiEr, after 
which they joiiied their fortes, in order to carry on tfie wmi in 
Chalcis'. : • ' ^ 


TM ptflifne makes dmidrul hsvAc In Attlct. Petioles Is diwsied of ibe oammundj 
The L^MBedsmimlwis have recourse lo the Par»Uns for aid. Bitiidca is ttk^u by thei 
iitheniaiis. P«picles is restored to his euiptoymeuts. Hfs death, and* tJiat 0f, fLn^ur 

f - 

• (. 

*'. • SeCKHSd knd third yean ^ tiie War, . T; 

*' ■ ■ ' • ' ill 

A.K.3SM. : In the beginning of the second campaigh^f . tb^ 

Adl j. o. 430. ene^iy made 4Ln incursion into the couptry as before;^ 
and lai4 it waste, ^ut.the plagu^ made % much greater dcvasta* 
tion in Athims ; the like having never been known. It is related, 
thai it J^gHn vy Ethiopia, w)ience it descended into £gypt» JTrona 
thence spread: oirer Libya,. and a great part dt Persja; andatla^ 
broke at pnce,like %:iiood,:upoR ^Athens.. , Tbucydide^/wjio. h^^i- 
jelf was seised with that distempeV, has dei^ribed yery.minutejy'th* 
several c^fumstances, and symptoms of it, in order, says he, that^ 
faithful aad -ejiact relationvofthis calamity may serve. as an in^ruc^ 
tion to posterity,. m;a6^ the like shyuld ever a|^ain happen. itDp^ 
pocTate^-^l who .w^4 employed, to visit the sick^ Das also described it 
as a physician, and >Lucretiu8|| as .a. poet. This . pestilence baffled^ 
the utmost efHirti of Ai-t ; the moat robust consUtutioxis were itpable 
to withstand Its ^ attacks $ and t^e ;greateSst care ^d skiJil of Jtho 
pbyi^ieiaQs were la/eehle help to t£lose who 'w%e infected« Tii^ 
a»tant a person was seized, i^ WQ^ struck witjli deshairV whic^ 
ipite disabled him from attempting a f^ureV Tji^^ a^istance that 
wwiM given them was ineffectual, and prove^m^rtat to a}l sucli of 
ibeir: I relations or friends as had ^the courage, tq approach, them. 
The quantity of baggage, whicli had been Temoyed, out , of the 

^ jj^ ^^ ^^y,^ proi^ ^ery jssmxm. Mo/^/j of the' inhabi- ^ 

R)r<want of lodging, Uved m little cpttage^,iB ybicli ther 
scarce breathe, duriii|g[ . the raging beat of jtHe supomer, so 
xhmZ 'Ihey were seeKicMier mled. ona upon the Qth|^ (th^ dead an 
vreO. as tboiie ivhd werfti a^iog[,)' or e^ cr^'wling' throj^gh tb^ 

'f i 

t roticrd. 1. IL p. 13&-147. DIod. p. 101, 109. IMuL in Pericl. p. 171 % 

ill. ^ ^ ^uii.^vL ff trM .; i 



■ti^As;.'in;^ttgf^Qiig by the.mde of ribai^ains, to whipb ^^y had 
dragged theih^elv«0« to quencli the racing thirst whicl^ jsopsumi^d 
fiiemi :i!Eh<e:Tery t^mp^. wQre jQlled with dead bodios^^nd' evei-y 
Bbrt>of tfaiQicity exlnbited; a^d^readful image of death ; /Withput.the 
mat «veniedy for the>f>reeent, or tbp least hopes with regard to the 
"yme^to come. ;" • u . 

iiiTh^ plague,* bjeft^Gi it 8preajd,V>(^ Attica^ had made great 
ncvages in F«rsia-', Artaiierxes* wh^ Jjad been inform^, of the 
high reputation of Hippocrates of Cos, the greatest ' physician of| 
< that or any other age, caused his governors to write to him, to 
invite him into his domisioQi, ji^;orfter that he mt^ht prescribe to 
those who were infected. The king made him uie most advan- 
titgeoafl- offers ;'• setting no. bounds to his .rewards' on the side of in* 
te're^K^?» ^ith regiir^ to honours, promising to wiakehim equal 
with the most considerable persons in iis coiiit. The reader has 
already been tdd the prodigious reg^ard which was shown to the 
Grecian physicians 'In Persia; a^£U indeed, con services of such 
importance be too well rewarded ? However, all the ghtter of the 
Fersikn riches and (ii^ities was not aible to tettipt Hippocrates', 
ftor stitiS'the Hatred and aversion which was beotome iiatural'tb the 
Gree^S'for the! Pei^ikhs; ever sfnce the Mfer had invaded them. 
Thi^ great phy^ciaW'tftfer^fot^ sent |io, other aflswierthan thif*,*— 
^hat hf was "free front Mther wants or desires ; that bit his' cares 
W^ere' Me to' Ifis fetlo-^^cttiieU? and countrymen ; ftud that he waa ' 
tfn'tf^r'fi6;{)bligifi0¥fc^^^^^ eiwfibies-cjf Grtece-^ 

Kings are hot uiifed 'to denials. Artft^erxfes; fherefore, \ili th» bi-ought V6 cpndigh puiiishm^flt ; and (hreatening^ijfv ease 
4hey rfeftised, 'td lay waste their city ahd island in such a manner, 
tfet.ifbt'ffife least Tocftstejj!)s of it* should remaift." How ever,' tb« in- 
h^^t^nti of Cck Wbte not titdet^ the least ttttor. TJ*ey made 
ijn^ef, that theliifrfetiabes of Daritis and'XefX^s had not bee» «b|fl^ 
i^n form^ttimes to'tfreva^ ^i^'fh^ tcrvive thetti«ftrth a«d "wateir^ 
Q^'t^ obey their qtVl^ra; thc^ Ai'tu^&rxed"^ thYeatrwould be e^ucdly 

protect] , 

' Mijf^ocrates haldf said iiji' on^'^'of life fettet3,tbot hiri sei^rtces -wi^Tfj 
&e emireify tof isr codntryfnen^ A'hd', indeed, the mstahthe<^a.!| 
sent fdi* th ^th^d, hb weM thilheir^ nxd did ikX once stiroat df tH<i 
city till' ihe phigjUe Wa^ qiilte^ ceased. *lf«^ devoted himself ert^ 
i^irely td the iferi'ice of the i&ick; and' to mukiplly iumdelfv tm ii 
were, he sejit several of his disciples into all parts of the country 
ittel* having h^buctdd^ thbm ih "i^bat mallei' to ti^ak (jieir p«Cieii\.9 

* Hipipoerit. IB Epbt 

1%»^Atriwnr ^re straek ^wiCh Ui9> ^Mf«t^ MM^^lTtttode 
fertfab fleMroib^iCttfe^of Hipp«ei«(:e9. .TJMy^ll0refi!|rii«rdanie4, 
ky a ^Ik'decie^; that 'Hif^HMiktes iftbouid' be-^inK}«ted in the 
netLtarvpf^tifitii m thevome mdraier w liereu|e»>the ik»ir of Ji- 
tter '/Ihit^^ erowii of^ld should be |reMii«ed Aim, of the ndiie of 
1000 staters,* aiiH>Untiii|[*td SOO pietole* French moilMr, and-that 
the decree %y which it wee Ifraated^hifn, ahotild ^^reiM aloud bj^ 
faemld^ii the public gamee^ on tbe'voleaurf^stWalof PaiMietoa: 
that f4ie fi^om of the city shbold he |iven hi|r aad hin^lf '^ 
laaintahied, at the public charge, ih the FrytaneuiuvaHins'lifetine, 
in Case hethought proper :' in fine, that the^chitdH^ of, oAthe peo- 
ple of Cod, #ho8e city had given birth^lo so grett a man, might be 
maintained and btought up in Athene^'in^t^e aarae tnannfr as If 
they had^been 'bom there. :; ..<. ^ v ,. \ . .j 

In the ' mean time the enemy havmg ln#h!!^^ into Attica, clone 
down tdwarda the coast, and ttdvaneirfg ^(Mi forward, laid waste tlie 
▼hole country. Pericles re^crfutel^*^ a*^^} ng to tho maxim^ he* had 
estalrifshe^, nut to expose the safbty of like state tolhe hazard of m 
^tle, ifOttld not auf^r his tfoo^ to saHyoat of the dit)r ; !k)weiror» 
tieibre the enemy left th^ oV^n cdtil)lry,'4ie sailed to Pelop^nneeitt 

yekt)>fe T^tuVned Tnto^ecity.*^«rheV^gW^ ^ 'hs jiCilf theifB 

IS well a9 in the fl^et, atid it spl^dd to^ho^. treO|^ that V^l»^ be- 
b-icging Potidtta.*- " -^ r ' '^ •.\ . >v, \ ' '' .. ^ *' ' •' * 
The canipaigTi being thiks chiM, the Atherf)ans;'Who' MpWthehr 
country depo^^uted -by two great scour^, Wai and peitilerite, be- 
grn to" despond', and to mi^tmuf a^iifetrertcles ; ct nside?ring -him 
^ihe "author of all their calamities, as he h^d invrlved them m 
tliat fatal war^-^Tbey tbeVefore sent a deputation to Lacedtehionia, 
to obtain,' if possible, an Dccomtnodatiqn by some "means or other, 
fimily resblvejl to njalcc whatever coniesfelons should' be dfemanded 
of thertrfr:' hovTever, the ambaasidoT^^e^'urned back \yiihout be njj 
able toidBtddn ai^y terms. Cbiriplainis and riitirmur^ now broke' out 
lAiesh ;f aAd'^.the whole city wiis in such a troOble and confusioj»,'a8 
seemed* to projgtIfliBtlcaCe the' worst of '^vils. ' Pericles, in tic midst 
of this universal conWrnatlon, could 'not .*fbVbfeKr ^issjembffing thte 
people; .wid softdn;knd^.at'the samp'iimjj to ejtt- 
coumgre them, by juslif^iiiff' ttWseffi-' The reccsonsi^iri^he^ %bhm 
indue ed you^to unicUriak^f *Wfi isMr* dkd vffiich ' ybuMlrio^broffAl'eU 
thai thnfts fire riiUthe sOme /Vndf'^tfri* W cf^ngedfiy ili-afUralUfi 
ffdrcumdah.eeiy whicfi'^either i/ou not rrit/itlf^ coUmlfjHg^ii' iffced 
U heemJ^ to yoiir option to make chMifi of hence or wdK tkhforvner 
wmtid'^rtamly httve, Heen the moH eti^Wt ''but as there todi po 
Mer meariM Jar prtsehfing your tweri^ ^ 1^ drutoin^Ae^mopti, 

UK .r .^Aflnf^n^fiEmK 

* • . A 

will. fmuit/ton%' tt^ i^wieti) M^mof coiii4»; Haw . ^*qi« >Sb^^^^ tlU 

^ihiyjs^hit^'ifunt; tris. ihfiMfndland^ea^ you hme mtolfiiU p^ftHniim 
f^M^iMlef^; CM^ntio lehgi 'hfiT'Ony mer pomt^yt obie^tQppom 
. ifomrJhU^* .yne'quksHmtiowU^'wfyUhw y(m\wiU pres^rtStiMlf ffiofy 
^^md ^^fir% or riuisnU forever^ ,Be> not ifur^ar^ grieved h^ 
.4NHK« Ifob (tre d90ii9€d ^iCk,ftfw c^^ntry-koua^iand g^rdens^ wkiik 
"WJusMAn frf «q}itfi(i«r«/ no qth^rmse fhano^, Ihefratae if the^pichir*, 
'■^ug^il^u vi(mld te^. t9''p^^ Ihem (h4 'picture iifelf* ' OmHder^ 
that if you do but preserve your liberty^ youtpilleaeiily reepffirihem; 
<>M tktut.pMild ;^<f^)4ufi€r) 7ffyur0ehe9 i^M deprived ^ tiU» hl^upng, 
<)^u wj^ lottevety n.iluaJbie poiteefs^ fo^ U» Do jM show leee ge* 
'fH^osUy thaifi your <mceshrs^%oHxi^/QX' thf eddee of preserving ii, oban^ 
adorned 0V^nik^e^y; and tc^lu>y^Mgkfih^ had ru^ inherits nick a 
,ghstyi fivfii^i'ih^t ancfetorl^yet svfemfed the ifiorst of esfiU^ and «»• 
' . tM9^^ thejnost pep^loins^mtifrpnsfis^ la, trt^ngneU U to yqA. I con* 
jiiitsfhii^iyom-'ftrfimti^lamUiea are ea;i;eed»i!igfy[grievo^^ iffed Imy- 

" t^tfiiffm^i^y^^^h ar^\dpfpiyf^v^M'fi^^^ fiufUU juHm 

«mMP(f^f^^gf!^^-V^r.giinef^y/o^ an accident that ioa^ fiol to 
e di> ^{^he pJ^t^^ehce ^s^cm ; andjto.wfk^ fdvi responMbff 

for an event in uhich he has not tfte 'least concern 7 We waA ndmdl 

-^ie^J^t^i^hfise^et^s ^ch ffegjten infifctsuponus^and vigorously 

,oppQ9e:S\j^h(3if\(lkrmfrojfA%uTfe^^ As to the hatred and 

ijefiio^sy iokUh^attendon 'your prosp^rity„/^h^ ar^.the usual h^t^aU 

/ who believe ^hepsiel^ee wq^tfyy (f'^^/tumd^n^. Howeper^ haired atif 

fnvy fprjt>nr)t Ipi^-Uoedy but the glory that accompatpiesej^^lted <»ciiotss 
[is im/nofial, Remloey fhpifiBforiSy peKpetjuaJly m yo%/tr mmdM^ horn 
iphwy^ul a^.ignomi»\qy;sU.iffor men to bow the ,n^ tolheif* ene> 
tpiier,, mMf hp^glqriqus itUjtpJtrifm^phover themf andtft^ok ^imated 
lHy^s double refi8€piQi^,)pMfcf^pnto^flflnger wtthjo^.and i^^itUiy^ 
«f/i^ do r^ crouch 40 iame!fy^ t^ vain ip the lUaceda^o^iphM ; t^d aul 
■Jo iffin^v tf^pi tho^fivsho disp'jq,^ ttiegrfoJlest bra^ffj/,f^.res^6aiiQn in 
, daw^ers\j^c^q;y^j^e the most^ ^ esteem and. app^^e^^ »., . , 

/JJieiflpj^v^B of hon,ou]jafid,fame, fhe ;-eioembriinp^ pf tjie great ac- 
^^fofjtheirApc^stpr^t^ttie grij;e|)^jtitle of so^jer^igi^ of Greece, 
*#i^?^W^l^»JW<VJ»yMai(i^^Si^t^^U^ perpetue rival 

^(,^<\e^3,iW^^p\^e,uau4roo^>^es wl^ch T^ricles eipifloyed to ia. 
.Jli{ejice,^p4.f»iwi*te\^^.>t^^^^ and. they ^^Injjt^rto never 
..^fj^dof su^cc^s^. .puto«tfi(il.,<occtsion,^%e^en8i.of|^e8eiit evik 
.(RT^KV^^^^ov?!? ey^rj ^othfq; Qonaider^tiQni and etifl^d iU«a]tiher 
,tWMm>t The. vjLtljieiuMj ip{^ppd;^d^d not des«n tisue to. tfe.I*- 

cedflemonians any more for peace, but the mere signt and presence 
,of PeriideA wa^ insupportable to them* . They therefore jdeDiiYedi 

ItUU ofilie eommand of the lirmy, UncTii^tedft^Ja bim to Mv'ak fiM I 

e eommand ortbe lirmy, ana iaiteflcett mm tojmy'ak fiM 


whWi) ftceordkig to^vMiie hktorifaHniKMmted, to lAiantelmt^ 

4ad, according to others, fifty.* 

Iioweii|«i>j£itpuUic 4j»g|riiycooi{PeneIe»«MJK>t to be wttfkuitdg. 
Tke anger of the people wu appeuod by thw fint «fibit» ftiMl.*linl 
spent itself ki lfti»ii)iiiriou9 treatment of hiiii» at the be« leavM- its 
t^ in Che Wt»iitiid« < {But luiii^as oot now ao happy wit^^iemd^tp 
bisdoiiiestid^viiefv foi*) besiAea.iiis having Ifti a grM> muv!ber>of 
bis fnends and reliitione by the peetilisnGe; w^da iAd divitioiw had , 
hog reigned inhis family. Xanthippua, hia eldest smf lyho him- ' 
self was extvelnolv profuse^andrhad mariied a yOiuig wife no la« 
extrava^rmit^ eoiiid not bear his iailher's exa^ economy, wh* al- 
lowed him but a very snudl'sain tbriiia pleaeeics. This made hm 
borrow fliu>ney m his falher*s nitoe. . When :the lender, .demsnided 
hisdtflitvof Pericles^' he not only refnsed to pay, but even * proB«- . 
cuted him ibr it. Xanthippua^was so :eDYhged, that be inveighed 
in the strongest terms against his fioht r, ezclainMog against bin 
in tU places, and ridicttling openly the/ assemblies -m hehi at hia 
hoase, and his confcrencet with the Scf>hii(B. He did net know 
that a son, though treated ai^wtiy (which via. fiur otherwise in hie 
«tie,) ooght to submit patiently to the uijuatiee.o£ his fatheit «a a 
citiEsniaobliged to suffer that oCihia.couptiiy ' I . . . ; , 

The plagtte earned off Kanthlppus. A^ the 6toie.tim«<Fericke 
ioBt lus eiBttefiiwithtjmany of > bis 'relations and best ftiends^ whcae 
inistance he'«Mat Wanted lin' the administration* But h^did not 
sink under tbesd ioeses; his strength of mird was not shakes 
by them: and he was. not iee^ to weep or. shqw .the usual 
marks of sorrow at the^imvBtof any of his relations, tiH.tbe death 
ci Parahis, the kdt of his legitimate children. Stunned by m.^ 
violent blow, he (did bis utmost .to preserve hia. usual tranquillity^ 
uid not shew ttny ontwaid symptoms' of sorrow. But when he wag 
to put theicsawn of floweie upon tbeiieadofhis dead sot), he could 
fiot support the cruel spectacle, nor stifi^the transports of his grie^ 
vittch foveed its way in>oriea, insoba, and a flood of teafs.* 

Pericles, misled by the principles of a (Use philosophy, imagined, 
^ bewifiling tbe death of hia relaijioiis and ehildrem woi^d. be^ 
^ a weakness huconsistent withithat ^eatneas ofusonl whieh'hi^ > 
W ever shown: and that on this loocasion,. the scfleibihty.of the 
^er woirfd suUv tise § lorjihof the 6on<|ueror. Ho4v gvosa&n eitorl- 
WebildishanilkisionI .which eithtefDakes heroism consists in 
vildand savage crueky ; off lyvin^iUe aanie,gri6l and coiifusion 
<A the mind, assumisa a'vain cStsidei^ coustaaCy and rcsoluMoi)^ , 
BKidy^obe aidnrred.* Bat does miprtiftlbrav^y eaotiogyi^ nature? 
h a ma dead te all fe. i.igy. beoMwei >he • makes * ^t censidcrsiMf 
%re mthe state f ./rheempefotzMtMAis had a mu'o)) juster wiQr 
<«Uankinr« wben« 6n eocesionofMaicua AureUustskmentiiy tho 
^Mtb of the peisofeiwhOiUad bibught hhtk^ip, he miAlS^^r 

' "*' '' 'I* MtSMiyr'aiftyiUMHiilM^mMlehcf^^ 
Vol, hi. O 

U4m4t mmSi^fi^ tMhw^ pMl m o f t hy nor t^m r ^ ig fh^irmi^^^Uh 

$e^mbt€,* r ' -j' • ir.-' .... • ■ 

i^ioilMM and moMttency w<upe> Ibe fipevailiQf cfavetct^iwtiGs 
4JP^Ui» Allivniuit; ani as these cainad-vthem m ti feudden to tbe 
ttre«I^Mt'MoeMe8y>tbey soon brought them Mickismn withm 
w^kKmdtifOi moMolioii mad gealLnieis. vlt wm B0tloBg before 
tttey Wipiintrt the faa^tf tkey had idwM Petidasv^nd eaniesUj 
WlBMd tb'ftee hkn igain n their aasdiiMee. fiy dint of^saQeriogt 
ihey beg«u«te be in sombmeanure inured to theirl domestic miefor- 
%Hie8, and to' be fired meve and'mbm with a.aeal for. their country'3 
clovy { and in their ardour for rmhstatirtgits affairs^ they did not 
&o«r «nv peison nore eapafafe of «fieclaag it tliaa, Pericles*. He, 
i4t llMA»tfRiei'iseTer •stinred out of his hsMie^ and wa^s in the «tHiogt 
Ifiief ' for the loes he had sustained^ • Himever, Alcibindes <9d the 
«(it of his ftieods entreated bmts/go absOadiuid show himsi^f m 

elie. The people «skert ium pard^ fax their mwrailefiil udage to 
; >inid kericlesi moved: with their entreaties, and persoAded that 
It did Mt become a jwod 'bititfdnto hasbour the least leeentisent 
••gainst his edQ&try,-dmjiiad tb^ goTemment. 

'About the end of tiie>.«econd tappaign, some, ambaasadors lii,d 
tet out ftom LacediemoniieommlaBioned to solicit ithcr long of Per- 
«ka^ alhanee, and enjgage him tiijfataiBh itmxm of moBey for main- 
tannng the -fleets this step was mosti disgraoefol U^X\m Locedcemo- 
•aians, 5^ho<edlied thtos^Tes the deliverers tc# |j«ae«e, since thcqr 
thereby retracted cr sullied the glorieiib aotienrf they hadifonnerly 
Mrieved in' her defence* against Persia. They went by way of 
Thrace^ in order to disengage fiitalcesi Cnam the afiiftntse of the 
Jltheniansf and prevail- with him to succour Potjyslaia. Bnt they 
Jlere met with some Athenian ambassadors, who<olused :tli»em to 
4m arrested as ^turbers of the puUsc peace, and aftenviird« to be 
ipnt to Athens, where^ without auffermg them tahft'iie&rd«thej 
m%xe put-to death the iameday^ and de^r bodiesi thnywn on t 
dunghill> by way of reprisal .on 1b|a LaoedsBmeoians, wfaoD treated 
«11 wiho ware not tf their partly tin the eamisvmaniier*^. It is 
^careo' pessibl^ to conoeive^how two cities, whkb, a likle befbic^ 
4l<et^^ stmngiy «Hutedvmnd'e*|rht to have pnded themaelinea npoa 
shoeing a'mninal civility and forbeailuioe towasda/itoeh othei^ 
could contNiet^toi inveterate ^ hatred^ «M break int^mi^h cmd 
•bts' of violence^ tbS bfiinged»'all theiiaw&iof .wluvhiimaiiity, end 
Mtions^^and prompt themit^iSRwpseifri^entTttelties npttnooe 
Another, than if they had b«mr>at wur «i£h barbarians. 
^ Pdtidtta had now been bosicyd «hho8t'^hree ymm; wiren the 
Miabitaiits;^ reduced to extrsmrtyv and in such waiA-of pBOTisioM 
that tome ibd en human IMi^iited aotekpeating any si^sioQrv Irmi 
the Felopottiiosiftns, whose atte<njke.iaiAttisa'£Mi Wrpi^ved. abor* 
live, Mi^ddlisd oA widkiooi^' ThesarcniysiBinras wdiioh 


the AtlwnBiMii treftl* Ibeoi with lenity, wer^^he sererity ^tfo 

VQftther, which .exceedingly Annoyed thebesi^gete; sBd^the'piew 

dtfious expense of the siege,* wiiieh had ATroadycoettOOat^iiteif 

Tbey therefcrecMne oat of the eitar with their wWee and ohiidMi^ 

ai wfU eitiEenif' ttk ibreifflierat with each Ihit one tuit *of clotii^> 

lAd the women two, ana carried off nothing bat a little moaey to 

procure them a settlement. The Athenians blamed theb genemW 

kt ifranting this capitulation withoaC their order; beoaase otber- 

wiFe, 10 the citizMui were reddced to the ntmoetextremitiee; diey 

would have «urrondvAd at .diKretbn^ They MAt a colony tliitheiw 

iiM357S.. ^ The fottfaing.l^ericleddii after his b<ni^re*elect» 

Au. J.a4i».' ed ^nenliAimo, wai' to» propose the nbrog^atinf ef 

that law which jbd' himself had caneedto be cnaoted 'Jminst ba»- 

tards» when he bad some leffitimaite childiteik It dedareiU' thatt 

flQch ooly^^ould be considored as oative wod legitimate Atheniane^ 

whose fathers and mothers were both natives of Athens; and i» 

W b^n executed just beforp wkh the ntmdst rigour. Forth% 

king o( Egyi^: havmg tfent to Athens a present of* 40^000 muH < 

aures of corn to be distributed asMmff the people^ tUe bastards, o» 

account of this new la^, were invoi?ed< iff a thousand law*saits 

and difficulties, tUl then anpractised, a«d which had not been s» : 

much as thought of* Near 600i^ of them were tondemnei %a4 

sold as slaves, whilst 14,040 citisens'were oonfiiucMl in* their pii- 

vil^es, sad lecogniaped as true Athenians. It. was thought iveir 

strange, that the author <and promotei of this liwr ehedld 'himseV 

^ire to have it. mpealed* . Bm tha Atfaenicns wem moted to 

compassion •at thevdomestic cahEihlties of Pericleb ; so that the^ 

fennitM him to enrol his bastard iA the register of the citiaeoser 

luB triira* susd to let him bear his o#n name* ' 

xnasis. >i A litile-iilller, he himselfwas infected with the ])esl|i^ 

A9f^.q.4a». lence. Beinff ex^treroely ill, and ready to breathe Us last^- 

tbe prifielpaleiiiasenstandsuch^f his friends as had notforsaken hiE% 

^oursio^ Kipctber in his bed-chamber -about his rare^meriC, tMf 

ran over his exploits, and computed. the iifimber of^iis vidtoriesrw 

wbiJat he was ^eralissime 6f thetAthemians, he h»4 erec€ed'ft»r4he 

jrlory of their eity nine trophien^in memory ofus many H^il^ 

pined by hio^ i Thoy did not imaigine that Pericles beotti whilf 

mey weroi saying, because he seemed 'to have lost hl^- senseis; twt' 

it wae far otherwise, for not a sin^e word of thei^ discoa!!^ hitf 

^scaped hiip ; when, brewing 'suddenly from bis silefnce, / am 9w^ 

J^ited^ mjB he, iha/t you skcum treeuuM i^ 9o wdl'in yout IseifM^* 

* Tte «rvy wJitoh lMriecedPotl4*«MMiileil «raoeO'JDei<,<«mlMN«)>r die ll»a%|^ 
IW b(M» flent under tl^ eptnwiuid of, PboHpkK, .Bvcry wvMm if^vtil (MIf) <«» 
inelbM, Sr twenty pencil (Frencfi,) Tor master And oi«n : «nd tiKiie f^ tl|e w^Ote^f^ ted 

} Piu*ar<!h does not name tirls king. Perhapi It was Inariu, mhi to PaamnedcbiM 
Unf af I««bya, who had caused part of the Kgript^n* <o t"*'* ^P ■^"*** «!»><** Aft»- 
utxcs, and t« ivIinii iNi AAJwiana, aba^ thift/ jtvi% teftre, ha#^«»nt •iic«iHk« 
ipinst ibB Peiyiaos. nKcydTl. I. p. 8& '''4"" 

1€0 mBtOKT^XTF 

ff^/WHl nxioi 90 kUl^kiyi a terieg of acHomut Mich /Mime Ktuf'io 
§w9i m\ihkan^ tmd mfMt are comnumto ike mth ^ trtoay Uhirg^n^ 
fiiUi and 4Uthe mme aSie 'sfun^d forget the mcfti giifHout ciVcvih- j 
rigiwtmin my tife^^I mMn\ my iiever hcueing camed a iihgh' ciUtefi | 
$01 put on>mummmg4 A liher -Baying! which Te^ flBvrm higlr ffta 
' ta^ns can detil&re with triiUti' Th6 Atheniflitt were deeptt olllicted I 

•IhiB^eath.'- .. ' -■ ' "^'.- "' •'• ' - ^ ''^' 

The readerbas doubtless ohservedyfrofn what has been «aid of 
Peiides, that in hnn were unkcd iftoet qualities which constitutief 
the mat min % ad these ofthe admiral, bv hnjiikill in nav^I affairs ; 
of the great captain, 1l»f -hib /oonquesw and victories; of the 

' finaiMsier, by his exeeUent reguiationft of ^puti'/v revenue ; of 
the great ip^ticias, by the lektentniid justnets of I& «3 viw^.s, by liia 
eloQUtfnce in t>uhlic deliberationsvund by the dexter v and tlddress 
with which hetransadted afiairs; of a minister of state, by the 
methods he employed to increase trade and prmnote t lie' arts in 
genend; in fine, of father of hia eountry; by tne|)a]^pines6 be' pro- 

• cured to every individual, and Urifich he always had lih view^as the 
tjrue scope and end of his acInoDistrdtion; • ■ 
But I tadst not oinit another characteristic which w&s jyeculjar to 

^ him* He acted with so tnuch wisdom^ moderation, dismterested* 
iiees, and zeal^for the public gaod; he discoi^ered, in all tfairiffs, 
80 great a superiority of talents, and gave sd exielted KA idea of his 
experience, capacity, and integrity, that he ac^ired the confidence 
of all the Athemeas ; • andv fiaoed (in his* own favour,^ during forty 
years that he goVw^med the.Athcimils, their niitfiral hcklenesd and 
inconstancy* He suppresseditlntt' jealousy, iwhich an* extreme 
fSKndness.for liberty haj made Ahem entertain against all citizens 
distijnguished by tneir merit and' great authority. But tl^' most 
8ttr]XMing (tireutestance is, he gained this.jgrekt ascendant' me*ely 

' by persuasion, without employing force, n^eaill artifiTOs, or (in'y bif 
thqise arts whiah a 'comraba politician excuses in himself^ u|M>n tho 
specious pretence, that the necessity of the >publi3 tiffairs, and the 
i|^r^spf«the state, reqnireUhem. > t' » 

, Anaxagofas iM the sane ye^r cs Vericles.* Plntai^ch relates a 
eivcunBtance concerning hiin„:ttiat happenad some • time' "bipfbre, 
ilMbich must not b? omitted^ ;, He- says that '/this phi}ds{)pher, ^ho 
had voluntari^ reduced hims^f«to excessive poverty, in drd^E^r that 
he mighjt.hi^ve the- greater leisure „o porsue hLs studies; fi»ding 
himaeHf neglected in his old age by Pericles^ who, in the molttpll- 
cit|r of the public affairs^ had not always time fo think of him; 
' wrappe(^his cloak about his bead,f and threw himself on the ground. 
w^ the fixed resolution to starve himaeif.f)i Peric^ hearing of* this 
aeeidentNilly, ran witn the utnr^ost hust^^ 'to t;he ghi^soliherf^ Uqiiae 
aa'fhe deepest alQJiji^^idn. He conjured liim, in the «troiige»t mxH 

..^^Iqt. I« Pefid. p. 1^9. r %. ! mi .. ; )♦' a^ -i 

t )i WW (t)«x«au)t» M thnM K^eorer tMr lieails wlili 'ttaeH ^Mka Who wera r 
Ottced w de«|Niir, and reiolved ki (lie vj . / '' ' > 


most Milnig tSBi^ not to throw hie lif^ away ; ftAdinf , tK«l k 
not AnaxagoMB but himaelf that waa to be lamented, if b# 
80 unfortunate' ae to lose "tfo Wise''ahd- faithflii a friond; ««e who 
w^ 80 caplible of giving Him wholesome counsel, m the precdhiy 
emergencies of the ktate. , Anaxagoras then, uncovering a liltto 
HL? headi spolse thus to Mm : Perkteg, Uune wko need ike iight ^ 4 
lamp take caf^e t6^feed it with oU.- This waff a genl^,'aod at the 
same time a keeir and piercing reproach. Perictes' ought to hive 
supplied his wdnts uniisked. Man)' lamps are ^ingu&ed in this 
manner in a'coui^ry, by the criminal' negligience of' thoee who 
ought to supplj* them. ' • . 

TIm I««MifaBitK>ntonf beriege Fi«iste. Mitylene b taken by the AUieAltiUk PlttMi 
' #arreiidbjit. The plague breaks out again' In Atttteni.' 

" " ' * • ... 


A.M. 3SIKL The moat niemor^ble. transaction of the' folio wmg 

Afli. J. c. 4S8. years,* was the ^iege; of plaiBB® b)r the LacedieraoniAns. 
This was one of the^cs of antiquity, on account of 
the vigoreua /efi^t$ of both parties ; but especially Ibr the glorious 
refastance made by, the besieg^ed, and their bold and industriofif 
gtntogem, by which several pf them got out of the city, and by 
that meims escaped the fury, of the enemy. . The Lacedaemonians 
besieged this place in the beginning of the thij*d campaign. As 
aooB as they had pitched their camp round the city, in ^rder to lay 
waste the surrounding country, the Plaf^teans se^t' deputies to 
Archidamus,' who coquaanded on {hat occasion, to represent that 
lie could tiot attack th^m with the least shadow of justice, because 
that, Afler the jG^ipous battle of Platseoe^. Pausanias, the Gre" 
oan gener»l, offejtmg up a sacrifice in their city ^o Jupiter the Be* 
iiverer, 19* presence of all the allies, had given them their freedom^ 
to reward th&ir valpnr amd zea^; and, therefore, that they ought not 
to be disturbed in theenjii^ymejnt of their liberties, f^ hul l^e^ 
^ted them by a Lao^dienioniaa. Archidainus answered, tha]( 
tbeir demand would be very reasooab)(e2,had t:hey not Joined witti 
the Athenians, the professed enemies to the liberty of Greece ; buj( 
fjtttv if th^ woii^d disengage themselves from their present al*^ 
lianee, 0% gii leaiA remain neuter, they then jshould be left inthe 
^ enjoyment of their privileges. The dep5fties rcjplipd, that thej 
could not possibly come to,any agteemeiiL without tl^e cQgQJi* 
nmce of Athens, whither their wives ajod their children were x^ 
^k The Lacediempmaps permitted jthem to send thither ; when 
the Athenius promisingksolemnly to succour themto^the utmost of 
^heir MKter, the Pltkteans resolved to 8uff<^r the last e.xtr^(mtiea nu 
ther than surrender ; and accordingly they informed the jpaf^^df^ 

♦Tlwcyrf.l.iK|».M'»-151.*Oiod.i;xll.p. iCa'^lOl: • ' '• 

^tt Hi^TOHY pp. TUE 

:fnyBliieir wtUs^ that t^ey oottldjDo(cqQP^ly wj^^wbat 

WMdesured*.^ .. ,. h;,..v. ' "-./' 

Afduduntts jthen, aflei; calUng upon |he gocb to witness uiat be 
did not first infrii^e the^ alliance, a ad was i^ot the caiise of ihei.<^- 
lamitiee which ipight befal {the Platsans', (ir having refused the 
just andreaaonable couditiona offered thei^ prepared for the s\e^t 
IIo aunrounded tfie city with a circum^aUatioilQC trees, which 
were laid long-ways, H^ry close together, with tUeir boug^hs inter- 
woven, and tume4 towards the. city, to prevent an^ person from 
Aoing out of it. He aAerwai^ th^w 19 aplatfor^*to set the 
batteries on; in hopes that, as so many hand? were employed, 
they should soon take the city. He therefore caused trees to be 
felled on meant Cithieron, a|id jn^erworve them with fascines. Id 
order to support the terrace on all sides ; he then tiuftw into it 
wood, earth, an^ Stones ; m a word, whatever c<)uld he)p>tofi)l it np 
The whole army worked night and dav, without the least inter 
mission, during seventy days; one ball of . the iBoldiers repositig 
themselves, whilst the rest were at work. * 

* The besieged -observing tl^^t tJie work began to ^rise, threw up t 
wooden wfdlupon the walls of the city, opposite to ttfc platfbrm, iu 
order that they might always but-top the besiegers;' 'aiad fitted the 
hollow of this wooden wa^lwith the bricks ^hey took fiNMft the rnb- 
bish ot the neighbouring houses ; so that the beams of tknber served 
in a manner as a deftuce to keep the wall from fallmg, as it war 
carrying up. It was covered, on the outside,- with tiides, both raw 
and dry, in Order to shelter the Works and the workmen from thr 
fifes discharged agdinst it. In {^portion as it rose, the platfbrm 
Was raised also, which in this m&nner was carried to a greai 
height. Bat thd besieged made a hole in theojppodite wall, in order to 
cany off the earth'that sustained the platform ; which the hesieger* 
perceiving, they put baskets of re^ds filled wHh ttto/tft# in the plkce 
of the earth which had been feradVed, b€k:anse*^h^se dMAd not be 
Bo easily carried ofP. The besieged, therefore', finding. their first 
strata^m defeated, niadea. mine under groundias fares^he plat- 
forp, In order td work tifider'cover, find t6 remove from' it the etotb 
lUid other inaterials of which it was composed,, fkid which the? 
gave from b^pd to hand, as tar as the dity. The 'besiegers were a 
Considerable time without {)erceiving thi9,till at last they tbimd that 
their work did fftt gp forward, and thai *he more Mrth tliey Iftid en, 
the lower it sunk. But the besie'^M judging thattbefeaperioffity 
of numbers \trou|d at l^ilgth prevail ; without i^«J6ting^4heir time 
any longer oil this wo^, or casing the wall hi^er onthe side to- 
wards the battery, contented themselves with bmldtng another 
within, in the form of a hiilf-moon, botfi ends of which jbiped to 
the wall ;' in t>rder that they might retit% <behind it when tW^tst 
wall should be forced ; and so oblige the eudmy to nuke ftesb 
works.' * • '■''•' •" ' ' >-.... .1 .' •'. ;i 

Intheinean time tlie besiegers hiding;, sej^ up their 

t' I 

P£naiC4NS AND GABCfANS. 161 

(eo\MB8^'k^ tlm»hi*d filled uptiM ditcl^rlbopirli Tnueydfeder 
does not say tfaiB,)wqok the city- WiUl in « yanfi terrible n^nne* 
wMchf^ lho«{rftf>U«larinedthe citizens very ni^ob, did P'>t J^o^vf^yei 
disconra^ Witb They onpiuyed .eveiy art that their ami^inik 
tim cbuld 9ttg^e«t against uteneaemy's batteries* They prev^pted 
Hie eSett of Uve imtterinff^ntilni^ by rr^pes*! wliich turned a^ide their 
ftrokes. They^alfib^emmajfeid «ir^iher artifice :«the t«ra ends of a 
great beiinkwerdmiade mst,'bgnlongr iron chains, totworlargispieeif 
of timbiV, sappoitediat due didttince upon the wall in th^ nature of 
I balance f^«t> tint -whtoeyer the^^nemy play«d their maefaine, the 
besieged lifted trptiik beiun, and let it fall en the head pf the ba^ 
teringRTam/ which (pate deadened its forced and consequently niada 
itofnoe^j^ >> < ' 

The besiegetv finding the 8ttack.«Ud aot go on successfully, an4 
that a new wati was rnsed against their •platform^ despaired of bf^ 
ing able to stoi'm the placet iia<1 tbwel<H?e changed the ^ege int% 
a blockade* ^Howeyer, they firslendeavoured tO'Set, fire to it, ima^ 
gimng-'tbat the lotyif tnight easiJLjr'be burnt d0wn,:as it was so 
small, iiirheneyer« strong- wind should rise.; Ibr they employed aU 
the artifice imaginable, to^ make.itheiMseltea'fliastcr8.of it. as sooi^ 
as possible^ and 'with little expcaose* They ilwreforefh'cew fascinan 
into the "hfteryals between thet walls of, t^ city and the iBdrenoibi 
ment with vHiich thoy hadiearroundedtiMn,' .and filled these intetn 
Tals in a yeif little time^^ because of the multitude of handa euK 
ployed' by them; in order to tet fire, at<the sante time, to different 
parte ef the cif^. They then lighted the fire with pitch and sul- 
phur, which in a moment made such a prodigious blaze, that the 
like was oeyer seeft. This inyentbn was yery near. carrying the 
dty, which had baffled all others; for the. besieged could not make 
2Kad at once against the fire andthe>ienemy in seyeral parts of 
the town ; and had the weather fayoured the besiegeis, as they 
flattered themselyes it would, it had certainly been t^en : but his- 
tory mforiMs us, that an exceeding heavy rain fell, wh^ch extin- 
guished the fire. 1 • 

Tiusla^ efibrt of the besiegers haying been defeated aasuccecia^ 
faHy as aK the rest, they now tamed the siego into a blockade, and 
surrohn^ed the city* with a brick wall, lirengtliened on each bidet 
with a deep ^itch. The whole army was engage^ successiyely in 
this work, and when it was finished<^hey lefl a guaVd oyer half of 
it, the Bmotians offering^ to guahf the rest ; upontwhich the Lace* 
dsmoni^ns retun&ed to Spavta^ about the month of October. Therii 
were now ih Plat8e8ei)ut 400 uriiabitaats^ and fourscore Atheniansi, 
witii 110 wbnien' to dress th^r^ victuals, and no other person, 
whetber fireeman or'^^kve ; idl'tfa^resthavhig beeir sent to Athens 
before tfie aege. v^ ""^ ' ; 

* Tiae lower end of tbeaeropei frrmed a Tarietjr of tlip-knoti, with which tbef 
caidMd Cbe head of Uie battering xam, whicb thejr rated up by the brlp of dirpia 

164 HISTORY Of THEiav: » 


ftt and hind, w4ik»i 1 tfnfit as being of no iic^KfftapDod^ " - ]^ 

The next sammers* which was the'fourth yearof |be war^ Ihe 
ifeopte of Lesbos, the •citizens' of Methjroana excejitffd,' resolved to 
break tiheir dli&nce with* the Alheniasu. They bad designed to 9^ 
bel before tha^w^irwas^ declared^'-tettthe LacedemoiHans would 
Dot receive them at that time. The bitizens eftMetkyttOiK sent ad- 
>rice of this to th^ Athenians, assuring them, thatiif inunfldiate'snc- 
cour war not seht, the island would be inevithbljr lost* The dQr 
jection of thd Athenians, Who had sustained giwli lesftes by the 
wigr and the plttgue, was greatly ihcreaeed, wheHnews wa)B brought 
of the reVolt of so cbnsideTable an island, whose forces, whieh were 
hitherto unimpaired, would now join the enemy, and reinfonc^ 
them on a sudden by the additiim of a powerftd fleet. The Afhe- 
nftans therefore immediately sent forty galleys designed for Pelo- 
ponnesus, which accordingly sailed for Mitylene. Th? inhabitants, 
though in great consternation,' because they .were quiob unprepared, 
yet put on the appearance of bravery, and sailed ocit of the peart 
with their ships : howevci', 'being repulsed, they .proposed an 
il&commodation, which the Athenians listened to, from an> appr^ 
hension that' they wer9 not stronff enough to reduce Uie island to 
their alifegiance. A suspension ofarms was thei^fore agreed upon, 
during which the Mitylcsedns sent ambdasadors to Athens. The 
fear 6f not obtaining their demands, made them spnd others to 
Lacedsemonia^ to desire suhcours. This* was not' ill-judged, the 
Athenians sending' them an answer which they had no reason to 
^interpret in their mvonr. ^ 

' The ambassadors of Mitylene, after a dingecous voyage, being*, 
arrived in Lac^d8emonia,.the Spartans deferred giving them an 
audience till the solemnization of the Olympic games, in order that 
the allifes mi^ht hear the complaints they had to make. I shall re<- 
peat theii* whole spesch on that occasion, as it may serve, at once, 
to give a just idea of Tbveydides's style, and of the di^positiQii of 
the several states towards the Athenians and Lacedtemonians. 
We are sensible^ said the ambassadors, thai U -m unuU toHreat de* 
eertert iBell atjirtt, hecauae cfihe tentvicet they 4t> ihose toAof^ ihey fty 
lo; h%U to detpiMe ikem norwards at traitore ^ their tauntry and 
fiietidt, ThMufarfron^ being unju$ly token they have no induce^ 
ment to suck a change; token the sarne union tvhtUU^ and the mme 
aide are reciprocally granted. But it it far otherwise betifeen t/« 
and the Athenians : and we entreat you not to be prejudiced agaiTist 
vf, beeause\ c^ler having been treated mildly, by the Athenians during 
thepeace^tee now rengunce their aMance wk$n %y are vnfortunat^^ 
JPbr, «mce:iitf'ttre come kUher'to der^ndi admitiance into the number 
i^your/riends and allies, toe ought to begin our ovm j^sti/ica^ion 6%' 
showing the justice and necessity of our procedure ; jt bemg impam 

. ' i-^j ' . ... 

■ Thucyd. 1. iil. p. 174-507. DIod.C ill. p. lOP, 1C9. 1 



^hfir a m^friendahip i»h^ eHMUkid 6eltoe«i indlMduttl^, or m 

MA'^Hah^ heiwten AtU^, uflf^w hoik atti faunded*^W\ vfrlut, w4 

m^rmU^>Df'prifkipt»and:9efUt»eni4. ^ 

j>ip*i^e io ik^'pomi : ^ Tktf^ tr€tUy vfe etmchtded tnththe MuMotUf 

whi rmio enrtMtr^iHteee, ^toftet U'fn>m ike fbilcQ «i^ M barba* 

rums V and^VDM 'fiorvdudettfrbin tkereireai of'th$ Perncrn^ vshrn 

yom renfmficied the eefkmtnd. • 0^ adhered to it voUh pUcmtre^ to loi%g 

at thf Athentnne etihtinuid^io^^rUertamjutt detigfu; but Men um 

taw thcU they discorUimiBd th^^^ar MohUth ^U^ey were carrying ofi 

againit the mimy^ merely to op^ett the tdlietj' we could np((6ut: sut» 

peel their coMluct. And eu it wsur ^xiremeiy diffi^t, in wo great a 

dioeraUy o/interettt and ophiio^s^ for nil la'€onimue m ttrict tmion^ 

andttiU harder to m%ke hectd a^a^it ihem^^'^hen alone and tepOi* 

rated ; they^ have ^jected^ byijusentible de^eer^ all the alliet^ exeeni 

the inhabk^Mt of Chiot^ and 9arp^»id6 ; wid uted our ownforcetfor 

Uut end* ^'^r, at the wame time (hat they left ^u seemingfyai «m 

liberty, they obliged u» "to fdlU^' them ; though we could Wo hrhgmr 

^relyim thsir word^andhad tfte^dr^ffett fear the lik^ 

ireat/mmt* And^ indeed, whai^t<^abuity i» there, after their en*^ 

tUtnng alt the other ttcUet, that they thould thow a regard to ut Ofdy^i 

and admit ue «»p9n the footiof equAlt, if they may become our'mati^nt^ ^ 

whenever iheyflecme; etpeeially as their power iticreaeee daily ^ tti 

proportion ^a» overt leetena?^ ^ A^mutu€ftJ^n between confederatet it 

attrtMgmotiveto make antUliance laatig;'and taprevetUm^utt a$id 

tioleni attempts, by keeping all thingttih^ an eqltiHbrium. If thep H^ 

ni the enjoyment of our Ubertieti it^wae inerehy^because they cnuUhnoi^ ' 

intrench upon thenv by^jpen f»te^^ btd^ onty by thai equity and ytpe^ 

cms moderation they home thawn iu* Flrtt, they pretended laproire^ 

from tJ^eir' moderate conduci'^in r^ard'4o ut, that as we dr«/rsle, t«6 

thnUd'nyt have pi'irehed iny^fonjuneikm withihem agointt the other* 

aUiet, hid Vuy not given them^juA grounds fi^ tomptaint. Secondly^ 

by attfieking' the w$akett.first^\ and^ sabdidhg them one after another^ ^ 

Asy^entbled themtelves^ by 4heir ruin, to subject the most powerful. 

\Biihoui di0eiilty,who at imt would be^t^ alone, and withotU sup^. 

fort: wheyieafi hid they begun by inoading us, at the time that the 

sUter/wfre^ possessed ofalh^their streng^emd ebitfo able to make 

tastg-jsiatul, ihey could hot so ectsily have ci^ipieted their design* - JBe^ 

tides, a» we had a large fleets which wdutd strengthen -cot^iderably^ 

vhateeer purty. we should dedart for^ ^Ut -xwas a es^sfc^ upotk ihetm* 

^di to thie^cMd the high regard we have always shown far their re* < 

pdilic^ sued theendAattourt tpe iotve ^used 4o)gain the favour^of those 

vho eomtntteded il^have %:*spei^ded 6ur mla. WStd we.had been im<«, 

doaehoiinoi this warbrQkei(i md>^ and of thie^thef&le of others legm$. 

vt no room ta doubts »• > Mi i\ *• » u\ ' »'\r.»>»-. V . '>* ,., ». 

What Jriendship^\th(m, mhat 'lasting ^Hiancei^scati be-icoachided 
^silhthoee whoi-neMr are friends andi tUHe^s^ but when fofioeiseth^ 
}loyediy m^tictf thAn\\omtimii euch? i Fori^at Iheyfieere. a h U ffs d 4m 
foy o^ritQ'Uedmmg the^^afM^revadauiit^^emkigketithihai rm wi y ^i 


we were emi^raMed io Ireai them ^(^h the ^ame regard 4t^, 4iMf 
^^peaee, to present iheir Jelling vpon .%t», ^T/imI which 4o^e pmdueea 
•n other placet, was with w.ths^^ectA^fiar* . iiC wai<^4lm.m^:%m^ 
Ha$%ce thUi fMide on aUinnce sttbHet s.o00:UmeiwhwJ^Aoikyjittirties 
were dHeMtin^if break vpo% the vert^rtt/avoiirMe occoiton ; iei 
ther^ont no one aeeuee «# Jhrtha.aidiMntu^ we novi talfiei We had 
nei always the same appoHwuily to Mitee omteekoee^ at ^ty had tstruw 
wt; but, were, tmder,» neeestity of waMitag^ a\/awmnd4ejWi9ture^ 
before toe eoUldventure\to\deiclare9WifitelveM* . . > « i 

Such 'tares the motive* which new iMige ^us'to tolifsU. your eUHanee: 
motivety the equity andJtMice ofiwimh efj^ur 'neryttrong' t9 ut, emd 
eonteguerdlp call upon. «« topnniide far our \t^ety : we th&M- ha»e 
claimed your protecUon ht^ei, hid you been tower inolined to uf- 
ford it us; for we offered ourtelvet to.y^, tven tiefore ike war broke 
ouK- %3e are now come, at the pertutmosL ff the BaoHane^^ftttrMieSj 
to disengage ourtelvet from the appretsort of Greece, ^id fitin our 
armtwith those j^itt dtfendert;^ and to ptovide for ihe security i^ 
ottr state, which is now. in imfiiitent danger* ' If any thiriff C9i 6e 
objected to our conduct, it is, our declaring so precipitately ^ Unih 
nUMte generosity than prudeme^ noid without ha'eingsiCade th^ least 
preparations^ But this alsooitght to engage you4o beihemorirecuiy 
in succouring us.; that you may not lose the opporturdky of pro^ 
iecting thaepptessed^ and' twehgistg yourselves on your enemies^^ 
There never was a more-^favoutMe oonpmciure than that whick wno 
ogkrsiiseff; acof^unelure,,wkenwarmidpeetU€nce have canHtmed 
* &eiM9rcesi and erhauHed their 'ti^9eure:y^6i to mention UwU t/teu^ 
fleet ts divided^ b^iwhick ineeme''ihef^willmU'4>p in a condition to re^ 
titt you^lshetdd you iiubade them at thet^vametime hy\sea and land 
F)ffr, theya-either will leuve ttsio iBttkKkxyou'i end give \^ an opporHg^ 
" nityof euccocuringyou^s^r they will oppeee us M tbge^hery and 
you will ham but haff their forees to dmikieith. v > ' , , 

As towjhat remains, letnasbrie iikagiipk.'ihdt you will expoeep 
iehes io^ddlngersfora .people isu:apehli\of doing you servicbi Outr \ 
country indeed Mes at aconsiderable distHmkefrem yoUfbtdeUf^aiel t«- 1 
fwar at-hasul. For the utar .wUiife carrwA on, not in Attica^ o^ i* 
supvqsed, but in^thttt eaunt^i^hoke reve/mesMre the snppof[t ef^tHeeiy, 
eM we are' not farfi^io^iiv Consider^ aiso, that in abandoned me^\ 
ytiu wiU iferease the powet^ of the Athenians by the addUion ofourM ^ i 
amd thai^ state 'Will then dare to i^evtfH hgainst (hem., But in eruc^ 
oeoringXm, yen will strengthen yourselves'^ With a fte^<Whuk yeiz et> 
fbucA want ; you vSiU induce many other peogle, afhr oiu¥ exutnpi^ i^ 
Jain yen\ W9ayait4dill tehe^offthe reprqrun caett^pon youiefahetei^^ 
doning those who hape'receiufse ie y&ur iprotecticn, which wili 6e tvd 
inconinderable advantage to you during the course qfthewar* ' ^ . i 
h MCt ither^re^imptore^yourin Uie name 'efVvpiiei' Olympiue^ it^ 
wkotetemptf we now eire^jnoe ilk ^frustrate' theihpetrr^^ tke^Qr^eMce\ 
teir^w^ed suppHawts, whosA preservation^matyi'he highly uMweie^ 
Ut§mmitMwhenimm^^irmy>ke^ ^^6th^^e^ 

tf9uml9^.^uck nop, fli fhe u^/^f^tniameA o/yiH^ gmero/^y OH^ 
^ «4F/r,#i!«&yfl^rHJ^r/JtoloAiiA,K« or« ^4|4C€(/, den\(w44* t^(i#,(4f 

alliance of Peioj^iwetug. AnJu^media^ificur^ion luto.t'be enenoy'i 
country wasmolved,aid tiu^ftlieallief a|iouldxien4ezvoufi atO>rintk 
withlw^tbiw of ilieir. forcflU* /Thq^iiMscdtpmoniansamy!^ finite 
and |a(epac«4 engines for tfi^qsgortine t^e ships from, the, |rulf of 
Corinth into the.«oa of Aii^np^^ onjej^jtoanyafle Attica! J^th l>y 
seann^ land* Tho Athenii^i^ werej^nQloss a<;Uve on tli^ir'ude; 
but the 4^99 being employed in their, harvest, and J)ogii)ning t^ 
grow Weary of the wrar, were a bng time beforo Uiey met, 

^^n'^^^^^^i'v^l^^^^^enii^is, who pcrceiv6J that all these 
prepiafn^^iWerc lai^ ^tW^ tbpin^ j^ipm a siipposUion thai thej 
werf^iM^oaV; in oi^er to ^indi^eive the ..worlds 'and shvw that the^ 
wei^ M^ to iUmiah a flec( ivithoiit.calHpg in any of 't^ir shipy 
fron ^f^rp^ Lesbijui, put tq.aea a fleeit of lOO sail, wioch they inan- 
ne^witii (^zan^i as, well ^., foreign^; not exempting a single 
citj^^n, exfj^t such .'pnly ^^ were *V){>Uged to .egrve on horse-ba<^c, 
ur, whos^^jlpnu^jamoiinted to 500 racasurcs dfcorn. After having 
^vved tJbem^^Q^ befor^^|,hp isthmus of Corinth, to ra^Ve ^ ^^i^P^v 
of tboTr p>ower,ft^y made ^^^eiits Into whatever parts'of f elopon- 
nesus they plea^, , • • a ' ' / 

They lu^^fei h^dj^had a (g^^Fit^^^ '^^^y. gj^^^i'^i^d t^elr own 
country, ^fuul the c^ljf of Eubcea and ^amls witli a fleet of 100 
ehips: ti)J^y cruised rounp Peloponnesus wiUi anotliprflcetpfthelUce 
number of ves6j^,.^Yf4^nout including tl\gir fleet before Lesbos and 
other places* . xfje.^^yhole amounted, to upwards of 250 galleys, 
l^e/eiyiysiises oitms^iverful. armament entirely exhausted their 
treasure/ wliich had been veiry much drained before by those inpur* 
red by th3 siege of Potldoeiu ' ! 

The.Xt^Vce&moi^^Us, greatly surprised at so formidable k fleets 
vhich lh« ways ej^pected, returned with the utmost expedition 
to their owJi country* and only ordered fS^rty gallevs to be fitted o\x% 
for tlie ,»ucc9ur of Mityjene.^ The Athomai;i8 had sent a reiiiforce- 
loent tiMtkpr, consisting p^ lOOO heaVy-armed troops^'by whose As^ 

of ipo'ney for carryiijg on this sjege, tljfit they were reduced to as<^ 
aesB themselyesy wlu^ tjiey hi^l ^Veijer before,, and bylhid meau^ 
200 talents* werc^'ent to it. / ' \ ' 

A. II. 3837. Tb^fP^opre^pf Mitylene being in wimt of^all things, 

Aai J. Cr427. jiu^ h%ing .^j/^aited to no purpose for the succourt ^ 
w^di^J^e li^ce^f^monians hi^l' pr9miseuHhem, suij^rj^hdered, upon 
€0&«y^oa f^i^^perspn f^ould be p^( t^ iieath or imprisoned, tifl 

I •« 


168 ^ flfffroHtbP'Ms^ i 

tSb iliibwadoii, wliom'tliey mnlA send to Jlthens, WAre retun^ 
ed ; aftVI that;ta the metitme;' the troops il^ptiM be alhtiitied into 
t^p citjr* As «o6p atf the Atheniaiu had p;ot poeseffiioi: pfthn dty, 
Atteh of t^^ factious Mityleneans a^ -fatfified to the altar Ibr re- 
fuse, were conveyed to'7etiedos, ti^ afterwards- 1» Athens. Thers 
-the aiRur "bf the Mit jlencansi was. ^ehai^. As the revolt hud g reaidy 
exadp^ted the ' people, Matise it Hkd not he^n precluded by any 
*11 trestmcnt, and seemed a mere ei!%tt "Of their hatred iw the 
Athehtansj'in the ^tst thinspo^s Of thc^ tage they resolved to pot 
ap Jthe citizleps to death*- indf8crimihktel^,''ahd to make all the w> 
meS's.nd children slaves i 'and imnseaj^tely'thej^isent a jfftXe^ to pot 
the decree In e^echtioh. • ' ' '*^'^'', ' * ' "• "^ 

But nifirht ffav'e th^ml^nsHurd to reflect. This 8^verltyi#»jtia£ed 
loo crueCand csfrried b^d^^'its dne/^undsi l%iiy ^fiMt^ed to 
tliemseJve^ the fate of that tlnhappjy |city; entfeiMy «biiM<Aied to 
ilaujrhier, and repented' their having involved t1i^'inno<^^ with 
tbhgutUy. , This sudden chahge of tfael Athenftos gav(if^l(ity* I 
Tehean ambassadors some little^ghmmeriiiffs cfhope ; tM ther pre* 
Vailed so far with 'the magistrates, a$ ^c^ lave the aiAir deb^M a 
second time. Cleoh, who had 'sugge^t^d' the fi'rst decree, a n^n 
of a iiery ' temper, and who had 'Weat^' influence'' bvei^ tne peo]^ 
maintained his opinion with ipuch vehemence ^Uralyeat.' ''tfere- 
every wi 
the night 

oppQ3<ed hiis ' Arguments more strongly Chelii^^before. ' After- 'de- 
scribing, in a tender and pathetic manner, tbe deplorable condition of 
the Mj|tylenean8, whose minds (he said) mudt necessarily bi^ tortured 
\vith anxiety and suspense, wmlst they wer^ expecting a sentence 
^hat wa« to determine their fate ; he l^eprdi^iited to the Attenians, 
that the fame of ^h^r mildness arQ. clemeiicy hajd always reflected 
the hifirh^st honoiii^/oh them/ ami ' distinguished thl^fai jrloriouslj 
from all other nations. He'<)bserved, thiit the citizens dTMUylene 
had. be^u drawn invc^untarili^ into the tebenion ; a proof of which 
lyas, the|(. surrendering the city to thetjpi the'instanc it wasr'itl'^eir 
power to.j^jO it : they, therefore, by this deer^ertv^uld iiMirili^'thar 
benefactors^ and ponsequetilily be both uiijq^tl'aiid utt^tefUl, as 
. they would punish the innocieiit wtth the guihVi ' He observed & 
ther, that*«upj^in^ the Mityleneans m fi^tiefol w'ere guilty, it 
Would however be fttf th^ interest of the'A9ie*h^]n^ to disseaible, ia 
' 4|fderthat th.e^' rigorous ji^ishmeht t(i¥y had* de^H^d miglit not 
^j^iii^rate th^ ifest^f the alliS i and that the'liCit'^way io'^ a 
itofi to the evil, wbuld be; to l^avefoom for repdfttadlio^'ilM aot 
^ plunge people into desoair, by the absolute and irrovooaUe re 
AisaTof a patron. Htk o^nbtol 'Ac i d bm^ ^ <W M » Ufft ihmy ibouU 



««xamme Vfoty dtliberate^ the cause of those fkctious Hj^tylspeani 
^who )hd been brought'to Athens, and pardon all <he rest. 

The assembiy was much divided, so that Diddorus carried it only 
by a few Totes. A second Valley was therefore immediately fitted 
out. It was fbmifihed with ever^r thing that might accelerate its 
course, and the ambassadors df Mit^lene promised a greal; reward 
to the crew, provided they arrived m time. They therefore made 
extraordinary exertions, and did not quit their oars even when they 
took sustenance, but ate and drank as they rowed,. andr, took their 
Irest alternately ; and very happily for them the wind was ^avoufable* 
The first galley had got a day and night's sail before them ; but as 
those on board carried ill news, tbey did not make great haste. Its 
arrival before the city had spread the utmost consternation in every 
{Mirt of it : but this consternation was increased infinitely, ^hen the 
decree, by which all t\^e citizens were sentenced to die, was read in 
a full assembly. Nothing now was heard in all places but cries an(l 
loud laments. The moment that the sentence 4pai« going to be put in 
execution, advice came that a second galley was arrived. Immediate^ 
iy the cruel massacre was suspended. The assembly wasa^aitfconi- 
vene^^ ; and the decTee which granted a pardon was listened to with 
Bach silexice and joy, as is mueh^asier conceived than expressed. 

All the factious Mityleneans who had been taken, though up- 
wards of 1000, were put to death- ^ The city was afterwards dis- 
mantled, the ships delivered up, and the whole island, the city of 
Methymna excepted, was divided into 3000 parts, 300 of which 
were consecrated to the service of the gods ; and the rest divided by 
lot amon^ such Athenians as were' sent thither, to whom the na^ 
tivcs of the country gave a revenue of two minie* for every portion; 
on which conditibn they were permitted to keep possession of the 
island, but not as proprietors. The cities which belonged to the 
Mityleneans on the coast of Asia, were all subjected bj the Athe- 

During the winter of the preceding campaign,f the inhabitants 
of PlatCBce, having lost aU hopes of succour, and being in the ut- 
most wanl of provisions, formed a resolution to escape through 
the enemy : but half of them, struck with the ^eatness of\he dan- 
ger and the boldness of the enterprise, entirdy lost their courage 
when they came to the execution ; but the rest (who were about 2l0 
eoMiers) persisted in the resolution, and escaped in the followijg 
manner. '* 

B^^re I. begin the description of their escape, H will be proper 
to inform my readers, in wha^ sense I use certain jexpressions 
which I idiall employ m it. In strictness of speech, ihe line of for- 
tification which is made round a city when besiegedf to prevent 
B&Dies, is ealled coniravcUkUion ;. aid that' wtuch is made to prevent 
any succoars llrom without, is named, eircumoallaiion. Botn theso 

* The Attic mlna waa wor til 100 drachmas, tlikt Is, fifty Vtenth Uvtm. 
t Tbaeyd. 1. tU. p. iS^im. 

Vol. III. P 


fortificujticias were used ia t\m siege ; however, ibr brevity** sttkei 
1 shaU use only the former term. . 

The coBtrjAvallation cooasted b^t\#o walls, at ^een feet dis- 
tance one from the other. The space between the two walk being 
a kind of platform or terrace, seemed to be but (one single beilding. 
and composed a. range of cazema or barracks, where the soldiers 
had their lodgings. Loft!y towers were built ait>und it at proper 
distances,. extenoing. from one wall to the other, in order that they 
might be able to defend themsdves at the same time against any 
attack from within and without. There was no going from one 
cazem to another without crossing those towers ; and on the top 
of the wall was a parapet on both sides, where a^ guard was com^ 
monly k^pt; but in r&iny weather, ,the soldiers used to shelter 
themselves in the towers, which served as ^uafd-houses. Such 
was the contravallation, on both sides of which was a ditch, the 
^rth of which had been employed in making the bricks of the wall 
* The besieged first ascertained the heic^ht of the wall, by count- 
ing the rows of bricks which composed it; and thi5 they did at 
different times, and employed several men for that purpose, in 
order that they might not mistake in the calculation* This was 
the easier, because, as the wall stood at a small distance, every 
part of it was very visible- They then made ladders of a proper 
length. • ^ 

All things being now ready for executing the desijgn, the |>e- 
sieged left the city one night when there was no moon, in the midst 
of a storm of wind and rain. After crossing the fiiet ditch, they 
drew near to the wall undiBcovered, through the darkness 'of the 
night ; not to mention that the noise made by the rain and wind 
prevented their being heard. They marched at some distance 
nom one another, to prevent the clashing of their arms; which- 
were light, in order that those who carried them mighjt be the more 
active ; and one of their legs was naked, to keep them from sHding 
BO easily in the mire. Those who carried the ladders laid them in 
the space between the towers, where they knew no guard ivas 
posted, becifuse it rained. That instant twelve n^en mounted the 
ladders, armed with only a coat of mail and a dagger, and marched 
directly to the towers, six on each side. They were followed by 
soldiers armed only with javelins, that they might mount the easier^ 
and the shields were carried after them to be used in the conflict. 

When most of them got to the top of the i^all, they were dia« 
covered by the falling (u a ti^, which one of their comiudes, in. 
taking hold of the parapet to keep himself steady, had thrown 
down. The alarm was immediately ^iven from the towers, and 
the whole camp approached the wall without discovering the occa* 
flion of the outcry, fifom the gloom of the night and the violence 
of the storm. Besioes which, those who had stayed behind in the 
city beat an al^jm at the sc^me time hf another quarter, to make a 
diversion: so that the enemy did not know which w-ay to turn 



tbemselVeB, and' were afraid to quit tlMir posts* But a body <^,re« 
serve of 300 men, who were kept for an^ unforeseen aocidenttthat 
might happeni qaitted the coattaTall^uMi, and< ran to that part 
where they heard the nr>ise ; and torches Were held up towards 
Thebes, to show that ti.)y must run that way. But those in the 
city, to repder that signal of no use, held up otheni at>-the same 
time in difTerent quarters, having prepared them on the wall for 
that jkirpose. . 

' In the mean time, those who had mounte4first, having possessed 
themselves of the two towers which flanke«Rhe interval where the 
ladders were set, and having killed those who guarded them, posted 
themselvM there to defend the passage, and keep off the besiegers. 
Then settmg ladders from the top of the waO against the two towers, 
they caosea a good number of their eomrttfes to mount, in^rues 
to keep off, by the discharge of their arrows^ as weU those who 
were advancing to the foot of the wall, as others who were hasten- 
ing &om the neighbouring towers. yVhilst this was doing, thejr 
had time to set up several laldders, and to throw down the paraoet, 
vhat the rest m^ht come up with greater ease. As fkst as they 
came up, they weoft down on the other dde, and dr«w up near the 
ditch on the outside, to shoot at those- who appeared. After they 
were passed over, the men who weire in the towers ctine dowii lost* 
and made to the ditch to follow after thereat. 

7%at instant the guard of 300, with torches, eame up. How* 
ever, as the Platieans saw theii^enemiee by this light better ,thai| 
tiiey were seen by them, they took a surer aim, by which nenna 
the last crossed the ditch without being attacfked in*their passage : 
but this was not done without difficulty, because the chtch was 
f^zen over, fnd the iee would not bear, on account of the thaw 
and heavy rams. The violence of the stprm YffiSQf great advan« 
tagetothem. * " 

After all were passed over^ theytook the ro^d towards Thebes, 
the better to conceal their retreat V because itfwas. not likeb^ ^hat 
they would flee towards a city of the enemy's. And accorm^; 
they perceived the besiegers, with torches in their hands, pursuing 
them in the road that led to Athens- ' Alter keeping that towar£ 
Thebes about sixor seven stadia,* iiiey turned sho^ towards, the 
mountalnj^ and resumed the road towards Athens, whither %\% ar«; 
rived, out of 220 who had quitted the place; the rest having re^* 
turned back thfoug^'fear, one archer excepted, who was taken on 
the side ^ the chCch of eontravallation. -The besiegers, ^ber 
having ^rstted them to ndjburpose, returned to. their ^oamp. , . 

In the mean time, the Plataftans who remained huthe. eity. 8U|h 
posing ^t aH their companions had been'kiUed (because t^ose 
who returned, io justify themselves, affirmed they were^) sent a 
herald to demand Oi^ dei^d bodies} but beii4 ^*^ the true state U* 
the aibir, he withdrew. 


m ' BlflTORT^OF THE ' 

Aboat the eni! of the following cunpaign,* Which is that whefein 
Mitylene was taken, the Plataeans beinff in absolute want of pro-, 
visions, and unable to make the least defence, surrendered, upon 
condition that they should no^be punished till they had been tried 
b^ the due forms of justice. Five comn.48sioners came for this 
purpose ft-om Lacediemon ; and these, without charging thdm with 
any crime, barely asked them, whether they had done anv^ervice 
to the Lacedemonians and the a!Iie8 in this wttr ? The rlateans 
were much surprised, ip well as embaff assed, by tbis question; and 
were sensil^le, that it.)iad been suggested by the Thebans, their 
professed enemies, who had their destruction. They there- 
fore put the Lacedemonians in mind of the services they had uone 
to Greece in gcnenO, both at the battle of Artemisium, and that of 
Platee : and particularly in Lacedemo| the time of the earth- 
quake, which was followed by. the revolt of their slaves. The only 
reason (they declared) of their having, joined the Athpnians after- 
wards,, was, to defend themitelves from the hostilities of the The- 
bans, against whom they hadimj^red the assistance of the Lace- 
demonians to no purpose : that if it was , imputed to them for a 
erime, which was only their misfortune, it oqght nbt however en- 
tirely to obliterate the remembrance of their, former services. Ccut 
your ey€9, said they, on th4 momnnerUM of your ancestors which you 
see here^ to whom we (u^muUlypay all the honours "which can be rtn-- 
dered to ike mOnes of the 4ead» You. thought fit to inlrpd their 
hodiks wUh us^atwe were sye-witnesses ^fiheir bravery: and yet you 
will ¥itow gwe vp their cuius to their murderers^ iA ahatjidoning us to 
the Thebans, whofotightittgainH th^m ai the battle jtf Plaiceoe, WUl 
you enskwe a pvomnee wh^e Greece recovemd its Uberiy? TFtll 
you destroy thiiempUs of those gods, to whom you are indebtec^ ^op 
victory ? Will yotuabonsh the rtiemory ^ their founders, whocon^ 
tributed so greatly % youi safity / On this occasion, we mayven^ 
tore tS'say, 0ur interest it insepetrable f^tm your glory.* and you 
caimjuk deliwr up your ancient f fiends arUt lienef actors (o the ut^ust 
htiaredofths 7*hebans, without ^erwhelming yourselves with eternaZ 
it^hfny* ■• ■ a 

^ One would conclude, tk0.t these just remonstrance should have 
made, some itepression on the Jjacedsmoniai^s.; but they were 
biassed more by the answer the Thebans made, which was ex- 
pressed in the most haughty and bitter tenpos ugains^ the Platasans 
tod besides, they had brought theij; instructions from Locedsmoa. 
They adhered' therefbre. to their first, question, -iTA^^r^Ae P/a« 
tasaris had done them Mymt*vice since the war? and mahJBg t^exn 
pass etfe afber'miioUier^ as Uioy severally answered J\% tlRy were 
inimediat^ly^utehered,and not /one escaped* About 200 were killed 
isi thk maimer ;. and twentyrfive AtbeniansYwho w^e a^ng them 
met witl^ the^saine unha|)py fate. . Their, wiyes, who had been 

takMi priMHien, neve v^dnoed to BhYerv.' Vlw Thutmi iUtm^ 
wards peopled tMr ^eity with exUeeftoni Mi%«ra aud PIi^ba} bntt 
tbo year alter ihey dapioluiied itentweW. uwaa in tluB AMttmer 
tiiE^tfae LaoedmnoniaoM, in the hp^ or reepiag great advantages 
ftooatiie Thebans^saiBrlftoed the PlatibsM to (ikeur anknoeity, maa* 
ty'^hrae yeaie albef their first allianob. with tKs^AtheUMDs. 
A.'M.aS3& ' In the sixtll year of the war of Felo^eanesasihe 
Am. J, a 4». plagve broke out anew in Athens,"** and iagain 8we|i^ 
away ^#ett nambers. • ^ :(> 

^ • SBCTION IV. ■■.*.- 

' '' » '. ' , • , . '. 

rbe Atheai«iui poaieai themselv^f of PyluB. and ace afterward^ oen^ed in It TIm 
Spartana are snut up In tlie tittle bAand of S^badteria. Ctson muw Jkimaelf mat* 
tarofic. Anaanandieii 

, '.-I ■ • ■ ', 

The risth and MweMfetunt i^ iht^fiott* 

I fKiss oyer several particular >mcidents of the succeeding cun* 
paigns^ which (differ very little frpm oi\e another; the Lace<||iemo* 
mans lo^^dng regularly evfcry yeayr incurpigns into Attica, and the^ 
Athenians into Feloponnesus : J like\yise omit some sieges in dif- 
A. M. 3579. ferent places .: that o, Pylus,f a little cityofMepse- 
Auu J. C. 435. nia, only 400 furlonisf from Lacedeemon, was one of 
the most considerable. The Aw^nions^ {leaded by Demosthenes, 
had taken that city, and fortified themselves very strongly in it ; 
this was the seventh year of the wa.r. The Lacedeemonians left 
Attica immediately, in order to go and recover that place, and ac- 
cordingly they attacked it both by sea and land. Brasidas, one of 
their leaders, signalized himself bore by the most extraordinary, 
acts of bravery. Opposite to. the city was a little island called 
Sphacteria, from whence the besieged might be greatly annoyed, 
and the entrance of the harbour shut up. They therefore threw a 
chosen body of LacedaBmonians into it; making, in all, 420, eaclu- 
sive of the Helots. A battle was fought at sea, in which the Ath^ 
nians Were victorious, an 1 accordingly erected a trophy. They 
surrounded the island, and set a guard over every part of it, to 
prevent any of the inhabitants from going out, or any provisions 
beinfi^ brought in to them. 

Tne news of the defeat 1)eing come to Sparta, the magistrate 
thought the affair of the utmost importance, and therefore came^ 
himself upon the spot, in order, that he might be better able to take" 
proper measures ; when, concluding that it would be impossible for 
him to stive those who were in the island, and that they at last; 
must necessarily be starved put, or be taken by some other mean8>. 
he proposed an accommodation. A suspension of arms w^ con-' 
eluded, in order to give the Lacedaemonians time to send to Athens* 

• TlHMsyd* 1. vUi. p. 833. t lU !. L tv. p. 853-980. Bh'* i iii.i». l]»~Ui» 

1 Twenty French leagltei. ^ 

P 2 

.174 mSYORT OF IflK 

Iwt apoB ooB^on thatin tke mevi time th9f tbouU iomnder dp 

gi their g^eys, and not attaek Ihe place ekiier. by sea or land* till 
e iietafli'df the arabawadorag that if thef icompfiad with theae 
conditioiiB, the Athenians would pennit thenrte cany proiFiaioDa to 
thoM who weie in »the iakad^ at the rate of 00 mach tot theiaaa- 
. ter,* and half- ibr the servant; and that tiie whole ehould be done 
pubMcij, and in Aght of both anniea: that, 0Q.4he other side) 4fae 
Ajtheniane 8h6«ikl be allowed to keep guaird rgwid the island, to 
prevent any thing from going in or out of it, but should tsot attaek 
It in any manner : that in case this agreement should be infringed 
in the least, the trtice would be broken; otherwise, that it should 
continue fji full force till the return of the ambassadors, whom the 
AthefiianB obHged. themselves, by the articles, to coilvey and bring 
back ; and that then the Lacedemonians should have their ahipe 
restored, in the same condition in which they had been delivered 
' up. Such were the articles of the treaty^ The Lacedaemonians 
began to put it in execution, by surrenderinfr about threescore 
ships ; after which they sent ambassadors to Athens. 

JBeing admitted to audience before tlie people, they began by 
saying, that they were come to the Athenians to sue for that peace 
which they themselves were, ' little before, in a condition to 

grant : that it depended only upon them to acquire the glory of 
aving restored the tranquillity pf all Greece, as the Lacedoemo' 
nians consented to their being arbitrators in thi^ treaty : that the 
danger lo which then: citizens were exposed in the island, had de- 
termined them to take such a step as could not but be very grating to 
Bacedtemonians ; however, that their afiain were far from being 
desperate, and therefore, that now was the time to establish, be- 
tween the two republics, a firm and solid friendship ; l^ecause the 
affairs of both were still fli^ctuatinfir, and fortune had ilot^ yet de- 
clared absolutely in favour of eitner: that the gods frequently 
abandoned Yhose whom success makes proud, by shifting the scene, 
' and rendering them as unfortunate as they before had been happy ; 
that they ought to consider, that the fate of arms is very uncertain ; 
and that the means to establish a lasting peace, is not to triumph 
over an enemy by oppressing him, but to agree to a reconciliation 
on just and reasonable terms : for th^h, conquered by generosity 
and not by violence, his future thoughts being all employed, not on 
* revenge, but on gratitude, he makes it l^oth his pleasure and his 
duty to bbserve his engagements with inviolable fidelity. 

The Athenians had now a happy opportunity for terminatmg the 

,iJar, by a peace which would have been no less glorious to them 

than advantageous to all Greece. But Cleon, who had a great 

ascendant over the people, prevented so important a benefit. They, 

therefore, answered, by his advice, that those who were in ^he 

* For tiie mastera, two Attic cbosnices of flour, making about four pounds and a balf^ 
two eoq^l«t, or half pints, of wine, and a piece of meat ; wi*tT half this quannty Ibr Uie 
■ervanta. / . 


ried'to AihmBi <m the «onditMm of being lent btusk fromtt, atfloon 
ts the LacedanMOMiifl "thotild hiMrai restored the dties which the 
Atheniaiu had been fbhsed to give np bjr the laet treaty; and that' 
these things being done, a fin^ and lasting pe^ce should, be colki- 
ckided. The Laoedttmenians demanded that deputies should be 
appointed, and that the Athenians- should engage to ratify i^hat 
ther should condude. But Cleon ezclainied ajrainst tMs proposal/ 
ind said, it was pkdn they did not deal fairly, since they Would not 
neg^otiate with the people, but with individuals, whom they might 
etSlj bribe; and that, if they had any thine to o^r, they should 
do it immediately. The L^eedemonians, finding there was no poe- 
Bibility for them t» treat with the people without advising with 
their aUies, and that if any thing iivere to be granted by them to 
their prejudice they must be responable for it, went aWay without 
concloding any thmg;* fully persuaded that they must not expect 
equitable treatment from the Athenians, in the present state of i 
their Affidrs and disposition occasioned by their prosperity. 

As soon aa th^ were returned to Pylus, tlie suspension ceased ; 
but when the Lacedemonians came to demand back their ships, 
the Adtenians refused to give them up, upon pretence that tne 
treaty had been infrinj^ed in some particulars of little consequence. 
The Lacediemonians mveighed strongly agaiuAtthis refusal, as be- 
ing a manifest perfidy; and immediately prepared for war with 
greater vigour and animosity than before. A han^hty carriage in 
success, and want of faitn in tiie observance of rHtu.r°^ never fail, , 
at laBt, to involve a people in great calamities. This will appear 
by the sequel. 

The Athenians continued to koep a strict guard round the island, 
to prevent any provisions from being brought into it, and hoped \ 
that they should soon be able to starve out the enemy .^ But the 
Lacedflsmonians engaged the whole country in their interest by ttie 
TiewB of gain, by affixing a high price upon provisions, and giving 
such slaves their freedom as should convey any into it. ' Provisions 
were therefore now brought (at the hazard .of men's lives) from aU 
parts of Peloponnesus. There wer^ even divers who swam from ^ 
the coast to the island, opposite to the harbour, and drew after 
them goat-skins filled with pounded linseed, and poppy-seed mixed 
with ^ney. 

Those who were besieged in Pylus were reduced to almost the 
like extremities, bemg \n want, both of water and provisions. 
When advice was brought to Athens, that their countrymen, |3o 
fkr from reducing the enemy by famine,\ were thenttselves almost 
starved; it wad feared, that as it we^ild not be possible forthe fleet to 
sabfi^ daring the wjpter on a desert coast which belonged to the 
enemy, nor to lie at anchor in so dangerous a road j the island must . 
by that means be less securely guarded^ which would give the pri* 
Bonefa an opportunity of escaping. But the circumstance they 

was, loit the LaendsnoniftW j«ft«r jkhtdr' tMQntrjr^ 
men were oboe extricated from their deogery ehoiildr^iietDii^ari(ei» 
to any eondiiioM of p^ce ; so that they iiotw rffieiited thdr. haTing 
refbsed it when ofSured them. > 

Cleoo saw plainly that these eomj^aints would all fall upon him. 
He therefore hegan by asserting^ that the report of the extreme . 
want of provisions, to which the Athenians both Within and with- 
ont P^liMi were said to be rediieed, was absolutely false* He next 
exclafttned, in presence of the people, against the supineness and in- 
activity of the leaders who besieged the island, prMnding, that 
were they to, exert' the least vigour and bravery, theyrmigm; sooa 
make themselves masters of it ; and that had he the eomoMad, he 
would soon take it. Upon this he was immediately appointed to 
Qommand the expedition; Nieias, who :was beforti elected, resign- 
ing voluntatilythat honour to him, either through weakness, tor 
he was natumly. timid, or out of a political view» m order that the 
ill success, which it was generally believed Cleon would meet with 
in this enterprise, ^toif^ lose him the &vour of the people. Cieoa 
was ffreatly surprisea as well ae embarrassed ; for he did not ex- 
pect wat the Athenians wodd t^e him at his word, be being a 
finer talker than soldier, and much more able with his tongue than 
his sword. He for some time desired leave to waive the honour 
they offered him, for which he alleged several excusei^ but finding 
that the more he declined the conmiand the more they pressed 
him to accept it, he changed bis note ; and supply'mg his want of 
courage with rodomontade, he declared before, the whole aesem- 
- bly, with a firm and resolute air, that he would bring, in twenty 
days, those of the island prisoners, or lose his life. ' The whole 
assembly, on hearing diese words ^t up. a laugh ; for they knew 
the man. ^ ' ' , 

Cleon, however, contrary to the expectation of every body, made 
good his words. He and Demosthenes (the other chief) landed iu 
the island, attacked the enemy with great vigour, drove them from 
post to post, and j^aining ground perpetually, at last fprced them 
to the extremity of the i^and. The Lacediemonians had gained a 
fort that was thought inaccessible. There they drew up in battle- 
array, faced about to that side where alone they could be attacked, 
^nd defended themselves Uke so many lions. As the engageaient 
liSid lasted the greatest par^ of the day, and the soldiers w«re op- 
Npressed yi^ith heat and weariness, and parched with' thirst, th^ 
general of the Messsnians, directyig himself to Cleon and Demos-- 
Uienesj said, that all their efforts would be to no purpose, unless 
they charged the enemy's rear ; and promised, if they would gi\e 
him bu| some troops armed with missive weapons, that he would by 
some means or other find a passage. Accordingly, he and his fol^ 
lowers climbed up certain steep and crag^ places which vt^erc 
not guarded^ when coming down unperceived into the fort, he ap. 
peared on a suddei^at the backs of the Lacedtemt^nians, whi<^ ea< 


taely dampei their coarsge, and afterwards completed their o^ei^ 
throw. The^ bow made, bnt a verr feeble resiitance ; and beiug^ 
opprescted with nambera» attackeu on all sides, and dejected 
tiifou^h fkt'i^ue and despair, they began to priye^ way ; but tber 
Athenians seized oii all the 'jyassee to cut off their retreat. Gleon 
and Demosthenes, finding that shouln the battle continue not « 
man of them would escape, uid ^b^g desirous of carrying them 
alive to Athens, they commanded their soldiers to desist; and 
caused proclamation to be made by a herald, for them to lay 'down 
their arms »nd snrrender at discretion. At these words, the 
greatest part lowered their shields, and clapped ^l^eir hands jn to«' 
km of approbation. A kind of suspension of arms was agreed' 
npou; and their commander desi.*ed- leave might be granted hna to 
despatch a messenger to the cainp, to know the resolution of ;the 
generals. This was not allowed, but they called heralda ftopi the 
coast; and after several messages, auiacedsBmonian advanced 
forward, and cried aloud, that they were* permitted* to treat with- 
theenom^, provided they did not submit to dishonourable tems. 
Upon this* they 4ield a conference ; after which they surrendered at) 
discretion, and were kept till' t^ next day. The Ath^anstheit' 
raisioff a trophy, and restoring the LocediMnonians thdr dead, em^^' 
barked for their own Country, after distnbotingf their prisoners 
UQon^ the several shipSf and committing thos^ard of them to the 
captam of the galleys. ^ 
In this battle 128 Lacedemonians fell, out of 420, ^which was 
ibeir number at first ; so that there survived not quite 300, 120 oi 
rbom were Spartans, that is, inhabitants of the city of Sparta. 
rhe siege of tne island (computing from the befirinning of it, and 
iocludiuar jtho time employed in the truce) had lasted threescore 
tod twe^e days. They all now left Pylus; and Cleon's promise, 
though so vain and rash, was found literall;^ fulfilled. But the most 
lorprising circumstance was, the capitqlation that had been made ; 
for it was believed the Iiacediemonians, so far from surrendering 
Iheir arms, would die sword in hand. ^ 

Being come to Athens, it was decreed that they should remain 
Ifisoaers till a peace was concluded, provided the' LaCediemoniana 
^ not make any incursion^ into their country, for that then they 
^d all be put to death. They left a garrison in Pylus. The 
Kessenians of Naupactus, who had formerly possessed it, sent 
lather the flower of their youth, who very much infested the Lace* 
ismonians by their incuraons ; and as these Messen^ans spoko the 
^age of the country, they prevailed With a great number of 
^ves to join them. The Lacedaemonians, dreading a greater evil, 
^t several deputations to Athens, bat to no purpose ; the Athfntana 
^ too much elated with their prosperity, and especially their 
*^ sQccese, to listen to any terms. 
In the seventh year of the Pelopopnesian wai^,* Artaxerxes sent 

• Tbiicyd. I. It. p. 9», 985. 


to the LacedenKmiaiui tla embttMdor nuned Artai^eniM, with a 
letter wntieii in the Aflsyrian language, in which he said, that he 
had received many embasajee from them, bMt the purport of them 
all di£Eered bo widely, that ^he could jnqt comprehend what it was 
tkey requested r that in this uncertainty, he had iJiought proper to 
Bend a rersian to acquaibt them, that if they had any pnMKMols to 
mafce, they had only to send a jpersen in yfhom they could connde along 
with lum, f^m whom he might be exactly informed of what they 
desired. This ambassadorv arriving at Gion, on the rii^er Stiymon, 
in Thrace, was there taken prisoner, about the dose .of this year, 
bV one of the adnjirals of the Athenian fleet, who sent him to Athens.) 
He was treated .with the utmost civility and respect; the Athenians 
^Bg extronely desirouB of recovering the &vour of tiie king his 

Tlie year following, as boob as the season would permit the 
Athenians to put to sea, they sent the ambassadorjback in one of 
their shipe at the public expense ; and appointed some of their citi* 
zans< to wait upon him to the court.of Persia,* in quality of a^ibassa- 
doi^/ Upon landing at Ephesus, they were infoianed that Arta- 
xejaoes was dead ; whereupon the Athenian ambassa4ors, thinkinir 
it not advisable to proceed farther . after, this aews^ took . leave «a 
Aitat^hemes, and returned to their own couQtry.^ 


IV •• . . !• 


• • \^- 

*•..!;.• ^ 

fs' . • • ... 








Tms chapter contains the history q£ thirteen yec^rs of the Pelo- 
^)nnesian war, to the,nineteenth inclusively. \ 


iVi very shoit reigna of Xerxea II. and SogdJiamnk They am succeeded by Dariof 
Notbus. Ele puts a stop to the inauripection of Egypt, ari^. that uf Media. He 
liestows on Cyrus, his youngi'st son, tbe aupreme command of all Aata Minor.- 

A-MssTo. Art axerxeb died about the heginninff of the forty- 

isLj.c. 425. ninth year of his reign.* Xerxes, ^o sncceeded 

K wiis the only son which the queen his wife brought him : but 

^ad seventeen others by his concubines, among whom was Sog^ . 

^as (who is called Secondianus Vy Cte#as,] Ochus, and Aisitesiy 

^M. 3580. Sogdianus, in concert With Pharnacias one of«Xerzes*s 

^J.c. 434. eunuchs, came insidiously, (me festival day, to the 

^ king, who, after drinking too immoderately, was retired to his 

^ber, in order to give the fumes of the wine he had drunk time 

[[evaporate ; where he killed him without any difficulty, after he 

v<l reigned but forty-five days ; and was declared kin^ in hb stead. 

He was scarce on the throne, when be put to deam Bagorazus, 

^^ most faithful of all his father's eunuchs. It was he who hid > 

Kea appointed^to superintend the funeral obsequies of Artaxerxjes, 

Jd of the queen, Xerxes's mother, who died the 'sfeme day pa her 

Nisbaiid. After having deposited the two bodies in the miausoleoisi 

^re the kinfirs s>^ Persia were interred, he found, at his retaniv 

iD|di9nuson the throne, who did not receiveliim fkvouraUy, upon 

• I 
• C13S.C xfHi.— tt. Diod.L«Ji.i»»U&-' > 


/ ^ 


account of some difference with him duriiur the lifbtixne of hia 
fkther. But the new king did not stop hep : not long after he 
took an opportunity to*quaiTel with him, on some triflinfif circum- 
stance jrdating to tne obseqaies of his ft.ther„and caused him to be 

By these two murders, that of his brother Xerxes and of^ Bago- 
raaus, he became the horror of the army and nobility, so that he 
did not think huiqself safe on a throne to which be had forced his 
. way by such enormous crimes* He suspected that his brothers 
harboured the lil&e design; and Ochus, to whom his father had lefl 
the government (if Hyrcania, was the chief object of his suspicion. 
^ccordiDfifly he. sent for him, with the intention of getting him 
Murdered as soon as he armed. However, Ochus, who saw 
through his design, delayed coming upon various pretences ; which 
he oeatinued till he advanced at the head of a strong army, \ehich 
he openly declared he would employ, tb revenge the death of liis 
brother Xerxe^. This declaration brought over to him a great 
number of the nobility, and* several governors of the provinces, 
who were justly dissatisfied at Sogdianus's cruelty and ill conduct 
They put the tiara, which was the mark of regal dimity ^ on 
Oclms's head, and proclaimed him king. Sogdianus, seemg^ him- 
selrabandoned in this manner, was as tnean and cowardly in the 
^slight defence he made to maintain hiti crown, a^ he had before 
been unjust and barbarous in usurping it. Contrary to the advice 
of his best friends, and the wisest of those who still adhered to 
him, he concluded a treaty with Jiis brother, who, getting him into 
his hands, caused him to be thrown into ashes, where he died a 
cruel death. This was a kind of punishment peculiar to thei 
Persians, and eixercised.only oa grept criminals.* One of thei 
lai^^t towers, was filled to a certain height with ashes. The 
criminal then was thrown headlong from the top of the tower into ' 
them ; after which, the ashes were by a wheel turned perpetually 
round him, till be was suffocated. Thus this wicked prince lost 
his life a°d empire, which he ^njoyed only six months and fifteet 

A. U' 3Mi. Ochus, by the death of Sogdianus, now saw him* 

Ant. J. c. 423. self possessed of the empire. As soon as he wi^ 
well settled in .it, be changed his name from Ochus to that of Da^ 
rius< . To distinguish him, historians add the epithet N^dcc, slgn^ 
iying b<^tard. He reigned nineteen* years. 
^ Arsites, seeing in what manner Sogdianus had supplantei 
Xerxes, and had himself been dethroned by Ochus, meditated ti 
serve, the latter in the same manner. Thbugh he Was his brother 
hy the father's as well as the mother*s side, he openly revolt ~ 
againAt him^ and was assisted in it by Artyphius, son or Megrab; 
muh Ochus, whom hereailer we shall Always call Darius, s 
* ' - • 

PBBSftillB jlM» WCBOIANS; 181 

the iMMid^ '4t another tantty^rnkx^ed M§UDt/t Ankes* Ait3f!pliki% 
viUi «lld Ghreciftii troops Ifi iiitf|Mgr, twic»Mbtttod tefeaeini mhI 
ngtiiut ^XK Bat eiMgiit^ « thbrd timiy the G(nei» m 
rapted, aiMfrilM'hiBMelf wiui' l^eaten, and i>iieBil4o«Bmaaeiv tmoa 
Ih bekig flatttred Witii hope^^that a pard4»D ivtmbi M.aranted htnii 
The klair wi^uMkayd had him put to4«ath, but wtavTOrtBted fram 
that reaohilka Vjr ^ueen PaiTaatk, DantM'a nater and queen. Sha 
WM alMf jfife daughter of Artatemes, but not byithe aame n^olhi^ 
uDanaa* '8ht was an^intrigoingr, artfhl waaum.; and the Uiiff 
Aer huaband wak gov^iiedby hev on moat ooeaaioba. ■» ISia oouwd 
Bbe now gave wajs perfidioui^lo the laat'idegaeei. ^e aMaad Bfai 
to exe^dae hia deineocyctowarda'Art^piiiua^atai shoflv. Umiltl^ 
Mige^'ki order thailhi84»n)ft|ier a%hthapai;wiwHibe JiehadofiU# 
ttcsxme »• rebiftliouai%er¥ant ivith ao liiuoh gieneraaiey^ dhat ]n| 
)kagm flirduld ^ mael at \i&m with aa mUd treatment, aold \ketekf 
be jttoinpted to lay down tta araw;*: She addad^that whenr one* 
i^e ahoiild kasr^isabed that pitnee, ha angfab daipnie of hii» «Ml 
Aityjpimm aa^^h^ ^pleaaedJv<Dtnua fyiQffmpA her oonaaeV whdah 
pnwed eaccdMfhL MB^*!m h^bmig informed of theigentli'iMagB 
wiiich AirtyplduB met with^ conchided that^aa^hcvaa the kisf^ 
iirother, bevahould coliBe^^reiitly meet «|tith atill)<mQre.indi4g«tt 
treatment ; and with this 4ope he oonohided' a treaty,aau'attriienf> 
^eted hioK^f) ^ Datiua^ waa veif much inclined to aaa^ hk^ s in^i 
Pary8atiavb3r«^ulcatuig to hin>, that it waa naceaaaiy. to padah 
^ rebel 4b 6rder to aecure bimaelfy at last prevaiM withiiiin to 
pat his brother to daath, and acoMingly he wni snflbcftted .iia 
^ee witli ArtyohiuB. • However^ Danua had a ^violent attuggja 
with liunsek'beme he could oonaant tO' this «BaGrifice,i having -a 
very tender laffeeti^ for hia lirothear. .He.afterWaidBt.puti«ooift 
other pereons td'death, wteh execatiaoa didv not procure Jum Aha 
^nmqaillil^^'had'e^peot^'fibin theoi; %hir;reiga waa allBaT^ 
wards disturbed With auch violtot coflQnot)ona»rthat m enjoyjtd'iittt 
Bttle'-aepoW*;-'^" - '• .• - i' ."I 

i M. 3iiM< - One of the^noal dai||ienna waa ocnB8ioaBd,.b|r tha 
A«.j.c.4i4i: reb^sllioti of Fiabthnos,* iftEhd, behv govefenar of' 
Ljdia, #aikted to throw off'hb* aiil^iance totlleferaHaBtfBiipil'a^ 
vid make-hima^ km^r in Ikk j|tb«ihce.'> WfaatiatteMillub wifli 
the hopes' of aaoceeditfg in t&i' attempt atis, hiathanrai^'a^conaiti 
kakHe b(>dy of Gvecian troii^s^'WhK^JiehAd^ rdiaadiafMl enllated 
a his ser^im^ iittder the coittmaAddfiLycaDtin Atheaote. | Daiiua 
iht l^^Bsaphernee agitiisat thfe^:ifty€d, and rave him^ withA oonaiders 
Mb araiy, the comndsMonof ffoi^ofnaa «fLydia,«f whiab he'waa te 
^>ooBeBP Pjmttlmee.' Tiiaaphernte,'' who^waa aa. af^iiuanvfaM 
ct^hle of acting in allrchataeeara, foubdinl8aik.ttf>>taiafierJDg'^[vM 
the Greeks under Pisuthnes; and by d^t of presents and proauaeiy 

Vol.. III. a 

/. I 

iriw> iwImA too muek weaii^ed by. ttt9.ll^6ertioD to- CArrjL^ lak 
imigaky^waaifttidenA^nfOJi to bc^qgiifla^tered wi^k tl^ ^h ^^ of 

game iate'iu£M rest'ofiAbe r^ela y^i^ haA'ljff^fiQAti^him^ B«l 
bbtlearth diltnot ^otire^piit wi. end. to iJl jUoabi<^s. Ibr Amoiqi^ 
his son,* with tkoreaamdee of,bw army^etill ami^ bmd agaiiut 
Tisaapheraes, tad^lbr two year»>l(uid wiMt9 the maijiiiue pio- 
mnes of Ana Mimir, till, be at Itet waa, taken bjrtbe Gcin^^ks of 
P^poaneB&s, in iuiis, a city, of .Ionia, aind deU^eired up. by^them 
lO'Tiasaphiernea^whoputiiimtor^eiUi^x ' ;vv > . 
^ Davinkwaflf inM^ed iiiqfreab tiOAiblee .bjjf^ ond,i>f his etiQUKhs.f 
Tbia kindidf •ofinakvhsi'^oil fiiany.[)/!c»i^y.i»c%iiM|ed .0Qn9i4^r|LUe 
p^nror in the oo^ of P6iBiai;iv^n4:.we.^bldi te4) bjr.tjfe^ ee- 
qiael of tfak faistpryy ithatiitkey abvjisp gQy^jmi ^$kemii^ in 
it. • We may foird^an idea. ^ their chaiiic^er4 aAdyihe.deAgpsr to 
Mkliiihev expeae piBBsea, by thei!|)iptj}n^(M?2M^hI>M3!^fflaB» aJler 
hJehad ^a aiBOBc d th-neaqjire^'apd radift^ed hiauie^ lb«( a^privale sta- 
ti^i«if iiSs^'4^ew o6 freednwm, who ha4 f^sined'ali^ l^ecendant 
ov^ithe Roman eikiperdiB. ^ Jbvr or Jm.permm^, ai^ ^ei, v>ko .4W 
^ImeAi^ iffu^eci^ and' rBS9luUly de^rrnmedsifh impMs oniia j^fTuice, mey 
doiiyterytaiity. - Tfm^tu^^ ^hoto^fkiifhgt t^jSim btU^ifisttch a kgki 
Oi VieyUremre will pVetue, Thiy concmHt-vthfUevet [^/Knild cwi- 
tribkUi to mHghtmikm f and fls they ahf^hptfi Aft^^<$t>rMli9i«a%, 
k$ tminUbs li^M-med} (f any ptmg M fhrcmgh their «Adfii]^, cmd 
AiioudHioditfif hml^vsi^ they.^mk, JU to 9ugg»st to hmr> Bifiu:e U 
ii^tkat he^beitows. at^loymetstt pn tho$e whom he OMght-to-pxciude 
firomf Huin.p andi^m mt)otheT.Meiyremow$ from. offices •ttehp^rmmt 
maite imaat^Borrth^ offUMag them*. JH ik fcord, tk4. beet prinf>e. «• qftem 
N eaU ty^theee jimh, though h^ be ^ar ^«oi i%i2(m<#^4tid.?rMk^^i^ ofkie 
d(0l^u8t and wuepkkm if^'iA^pVi.i 'Qind mftlta? Ut Il^|cKJteHP4iU£ ipae 
difObiait^'boniis, cautua^ optiamftyondtor ilnpevil;-Qr. ju'-iij^^; --. 

In this manner was Darius's court governed. Three eiNlu^^ had 
«i^r|Hfd'allpeweKiiniit/;^'ja3i i^iiQib&cXMxk jthat;e)go¥enui^ent ia 
^/^NMl'thopniicebfeliltle meri!t*.LB0tionB ofthoeeUree euauchi, 
whocpaHMMie'wak Artoxarea, pntii^odiioyer andi gci?erned the leat. 
Hla faadrttuBuhDanuaflarw^ak aide^<b¥ Whiabjfae insinuated jumai^ 
intofaiacepidMloeu ^e had AtudiediaU. fa^i {passions; in order to J 
Jiidblge tbm, and rowelrafhk pDmce jb»y. theui meaner . yH« pluuifeiJ 
hini4^in|f:!i«ail^ in pleasures aindiaauiamentajtQ ^offirpiNiito wholM 
aothori^ to«&un8elf.i In: fine^ under Ihe name .>aB« ipro^^'H^fnt «f J 
•aeen mvaatia, to whose twitt. and pleaaurt-l^ was ^ moat dq*. 
¥ated< ofialave8(! he disposed vof aU .theaffiuDA of thei empire and ao^^ 
thfaj^ aba tWMMiltod butibgr hiajordai»..,lQiO]ticaAed bj^tbe aufffenMi 

* 1'hiicyd. L vllL p. 5S4-5fl8. f CiM. e. lii. 1 Vopb tn yA Aai^as. I«peft 
% Self pnecipttum ok Indlaliiia non Ifn^ngX principte, maguM Ifbertos. Pih^ mi 


^ ^ FsnnursuNDimiBciANs. 145 

iithonfey which the fhTour of his sovereign gave him, he resolved - 
to make himself kiii|f, instdid ^fMKMpAme minister ; and ac««Did« 
inglj iormfid a design to rid himseUT of Darit^, and afterwards 
as^^ ^e tfirone. HQi^Ti^ver, his pj^t bein| diclpovercd, j)e ¥^ 
seized and delivered up to Bd^atis^ wlio.put Innto jS.]i(iosi'..igAO- 
minioas and cruel death. 

But the greatest raiSfotihneiN^h'happeh'id to Darius during 
the whole course of his reign, was the revolt of .^e Egyptians?. 
This teriible SfpWfen'^fit the saiif^jr^ar witH y\^\ine^^f^S^n. - 

Whi^ iib had defended himself sinc'^ the'STli)pressi6i{ of the/evoU 
of Ixkiiiiik, '^e Per8ia^9 wete driven "out, ^d A^sy^tstis pi^^ 
ctaimed^in^ Vf Egypt. wUereh^^'Veigned' six years. *'^ " " * "'^ , 

Ai'l^r^havm^ eistabiisped himself securely bn the tlirbil^j And^7 
tirely e.-ibeflef the Persians out Of Egypt, he prepai»W .to purivre 
them as far a^l.^hoBnicia^ and had already con<^rted metiaures: ^«^ 
the Arabian^ to attack them in that cbuntry. 'News of thi^'bdmg 
brotfirlit' the king of Persia, he reCQiIled the fleet which^e had^pro- 
mis^ the L^c^ffimonians, to emt^oV it in the defence W hiii dWh 
dominions. ; ,; .' ^ ^r 

Whilst |iAri^;*^afi.carryinff on the wdr in Egypt ind Xratnaiill^ 
Med^ rebj^Ued^ t^oweyer, tn^y were defeated, and' re^i^ed \^ 
their allegiaiice by force of aAns, Tfo pumsh,them ftt^jtKls iteVok, 
their yoke (tillthyen easy enough) was made heavier r a fatfe Chat 
teb^lhous subjects always experience,' wiien the gbv^mnenf Which 
they endeavoured .^o th^w offgaiiw the upper hand., * * '* . 

Darius's armis see)nto have had^ the.nke sticbess against the 
Egyptians.! , Amjr^iBus dying after iiehad reigned- six years (he 
probably was'kifled in a battle,) Herodotu^ observesilt Was by the 
permi^ion of the PeTsianSrthat JPausifus his soii siiibceeded l^im ih 
the inline. To effect thls^ they must eithe^ have b^^n masters Hf 
Egvpt, Qt J^heir pkirty the strongest in that kingdom.^ ' ^ '* 

A M. 3597: Afler hiving crushed the rcbelk in Media; and i^ 

A^ J. c. 407. stored the afiaiins of E^t to .their former sitnatli^ * 
I)aria8 gave pjrru^the voiihfirest or his sons, the, siiDrcme cbm- 
maniiofall the proyj 

hy.i»fcirH he mdj^,0-i\ie provinciaT ^ovei^ors 2h that ^rt of 
'i^ djepeudai^.ti^ri hiiKi. *' . *^ ' . ' ^ '^' '• 

M ttib\>sfii it necessary ^o anticipate events',' and draW tOjg«their 
the paubis^m^ related to the ki^ of Persia : to prevent mr^ b^ 
hoigp^^n ^?%f^ to^intQrruj[>Hhe history of the G«*eeksy tb wlnchl 


tH* ' .i'^f.iMmwfKmfm^nt 

iKi ■■!! , LiJ'iik ,115m MbwioiiilrdB Jicn! 5it,* p>: 

'A.M3UU , .Tite'lw^KiMadtNntkgakowWlllw^MuAlMlfei^A 
fere potwliried. b«;*ip»dto\ A aa iMM iMA W!»< h Mqo« i Mrt.sMirhg. 

h4Jdtaltei)priB4Hieraiii the isrand of Sphacteria ; and wbich-tthny 
WAfltWi>wl<i>W0Mt[b ni4i(qqr<ttt>irak{><tr,taitiiifaoaDMl!t«MI Waj 

KMIM»>AM)>VMicl^Ni. °M] 

o be coDndered 

m it-kigh 

%cholly on perfidy, lehicK u (Ae pcrf ^ iocietu, JVbu J, Bald he. 

D**quit^hU<piiiKMeB'BB tAoBii WiMdaa iMlN'M 
ltied^Ua«cMtet; .bdtOT^nttMMwiltvM^ibalwatk^VW 
" ifirtrtrri'T'') "'■■-. kit^t7,alt*tto'flrfitfp««9BUtW!i*tfltN'a! 

sfc-.tvir!./ to- I'll'-. .!•;-. If -'■'''^1 ^'tl; .li 
Tte rtthwlmid" itnrtirthnhhimHii'rtrl nf K 

oat; tntaabllaeitl^MUi D4M\)ht'-n<il)tiMm.il66'VtiMKTjiiktgifi 
Ba8,tew)iWl iWAdnouoMMMiMbiiieaUa Mit aim*t>' fUfi 
ii^lfiwiwlliiiliiiniil Ml I ■nhrfiil rrli n"rllli|irTrt^iflH/iiilT ^ 

U9 ' 

he wanted them for canymgiMV'i^j^tM^^i^lMi^^^ 
flmflH: c^to "Akb^eiis {hr h^lf a^-^iWllMteA tlMrit iMfdifeb^%oilM Aire 

%W befbi^ ' AittphiptSK^ r y^ivftig '^m-^imAftAfAW situftiftii^V «d»^ 

'f^dlt l^t^DO^ibfr that H'>»9VxM t% %ci 1^ 

ttej^leafte^yitSoiit' drit^iiig''the>^i^ 'm# ikft «f)iid;>^blMi^^ ' 

«^ut ; i^&YhieCt^oQ hegifn^ r^bMkttiid nibl'k.'Hlie Mytflirikt$>'diif* 
^iiilif^^ iinajgkii^ tHot^ke'we^t^ Mji^Che^WttMmeMiSidtflSlHaedy 
-of/U^e'ciili 'Br^ov, who Wittr 'p«^ec#^ 'W411 MMtttlddiMrich 
k7Ib6h^'dij))ositioil dhd«haib(h^;{feftdioiMV')dSliol«duui<^^ 

^ifOmin U ^ of h'Lni6^1f:tlftH^desv1i«C«ii«W filat€Ull<ib>kM*l»£f M 

;With Inm IfheTflower oP%ie^imreritA» f^laef^^lda tho^ (siioiMititiMtfbib 

V>fLiemnd^ttbfd of Iiitth^ci.'' Ab6M!tii^f^CieakrdHMf^^ 

tifat did* not dare to btpp&futih^Utimii but ihiibMMelf «ip*iB>w 

iSdWarQ^ maimeritt'the «itjr»'WiKflflPDllly)4iroal'placa tvpltM^iwllAM 

iMi#' jMf^Mitioii 0r*>oW<j|Vttg 4fa$io|iM|^iflkt«um 

Brasidas, whose mtention was to attack him on a suadeDliefei^dail 

4lo4ilid 6loiM3ei€ed ^r6|^r iii<dii4a966rt&nd |fi5^eQi:tiMi0r(fen naamkitf, 
*A^9cordin^y^)he•Biad»'«L8udd^n'Sldl()r doiae AthflnifaM^ whidht^ttr-* 
^od im^^dt^aikii^ lhi»tt ^kceedii^y; : i^uaddiatdspM . left 
the Wiil1)bdy-«Dd fled. ^ Bra:Bid«8'lifa«iiitiiiAedithe>OThbIetfiltek^ur 
•MNimli^f «^i]Mit*i!x»<]rteji&A»iii^ fm:fakn]a wanft^toapti^^mf 

Hei^ h^^nras wodnded and disaisled^ipippniwhich'hiaooldieFseantted 
ItM offfi'tkipeitmpffd hythkAthtnikDm^ 'iA8>fa£i(Unv'B0tvhaitfki^ 
resolved to fight, he fled, and was killed hv a soldieirwhftjbafipned 
h|i4MMt'Hii*.^K>inJe<troop0 kelJoiiaiaiiiM thepweHre^^ 


gMWi)|^4%\ at'tetith^y w«ffcttuni^rte%'^nldmiailiii!D^^ Sr«4i 
■fdiii-wdsitlMen w^ad into tberioitgrv wherBilicf^niiiiidKe^liiiirvuitiotij^ 
htitm ifew nooilR^ntsJi 1 i • '-^^ '»J i !t' ./ ,yjh 'ail:- .'jar/nvji.;/' •,.• ^jjj 
dAd^aad>afte9i^aiids:set'qp a^troiifa^bj: iiAi^b Mhfd^ii'U^^: «ttif«. 
Qftder. kvirie.4Mildiiiiiixed}tiu»ibnM^'ti)i»ou^^ Vrpnbii 

]|oiioiirsf«¥^y ^ yctri td iis hiemdryv >ftrto;«han}ii With r li^ 

be ^ fc, i « rt> iaMdfigfl%iioybey<HMMtd8»<M«ttfc Mitheir lb|iBANrAi««AL,t^ ' 
Miii«ctfai8{tkiMnt%tilt8nlo .Hudv {ii^i;lideii(attM >«ft:U»9^.AW>iiyv^ ^ 
mditafofilimifivtokidionlljHbeBiam ;ftn]pjcirdo?(^^ilt| jMi^or-^wSf ^t«AU^ 

♦ A|non the AtlNMha. / JSf ,in ^q Atx Si 

ii>Hij»llii ^iwto. edirt A0ik» Uiiptilitemmikmy^immhtm thicf^4^ 
pSAded . wM))Kfor ' dneir •Murihr. Th^o A^twainMy «fler ftariiiff 
aame4off, wi|fii.|I)e.iroiM«Dit QfthevictmBf ifieir desd^dneliinied 
to Aikfiiiis, iw^ wl»Qh the •IiaotdfenioiuMM. 4itcWd the afiumiof 

AMJnto tfl fli^ib0dito<^ |Doth0r of BrtBidas,^ wlnoh: Jbfoil^ 
BUunlBft'die SptctoA f^tettQt«r« - . A» .90106 penoni wery applaudiiig 
in ker pcee^uoce tbe ifiofti qualities. ^id>AxalUd actions m ner bod, 
•od dedibrwf JiimjupBim to Itll otketigenoftiic T0U.iaremUkikfnf 
says she; my ton wu a valiant many but Sparpa hatunamf fUixen$ 
k v inmi iikm.M*ioA'm6ltiiefB\g fmmmt f^ m.ibifiiL puvieWito tbe 
gJDix^iitebitAt^tOfthac of heT'SoiifMiia ad«ire4pfliididldiiolg» 
QniiKva|!Mj.f^the;^hpnpaid^ec^iiUic'hQn0iniK> ■< '.r hi "- 

Ailerddiia kfl ^eagagBment,! in iirjiieh tlvB two pteMOs whfar were 
Uiec .g^reellBst ob^taMe lo, pBlbee lost 4)lck U^nsfli h^matiotoa soened 
ittMeaMiiDedib an.tgmoi^iaQdatiou^'aild tsie was mtaa suspended in 
tmeumfO on'botBLfiideAi.'i'The 'AtkecSMOB^^tkam the.kbs i^tfa»< bat<^ 
Ues of Detimn an^ Anphipolis, whiobchad very inuchbroofl^lA doM 
their kim^inetai wehp UDdeceiTedr.with xegajpditoAbe iiigh ofmium 

thti^oiMi&tbeAoienteitsiaed.efytheili^iownstr^Ag^vt^ oMb 
thfettk >efis*e Ifae' advantMoato' ofieta.'Of: their e&emi^Sk' • Besides, 
they were apprehensive of the revolt of tbekaXlieay who, beil^Adit- 
eooraged by •their kBse8v^iiught[ith«rehy.:b6 dndiieed'ta 'abfddon 
Iheni, 88 8|Bi«araL had ahready dmbBi >Tamft'i(^edtiaD» itaftdelthear 
stsen^y wpM their MtehMn^' coiudodod^v toat|y after. iUie adr 
vanii^^ they bsijc^iiied at Bylos.' ; ^he iEaicedginttniaifa, ok iStfy 
otiier aide, wa' Ibiige^flelteredt themMlres With the hof^s of beiaf 
able k> raise the>AtheiBiflMi hi^ laying* waste Iheir coantr^ ;«bd<wem 
besidoa-iiejiecied'aiid teniiedhgpitllflEr loit^iBCktheiiskadl tihi l^reatest 
tkeyhad fait^wsto ever«asteiiiedi< J Tht^idsoconSiddredfliat.tieiir 
ooimtiT waa^mvaged by tfce .garnBOD«,af»Byhis d&d GyUkesal '%hat 
their slkvea desdrtjed ; that ituey had. ML<iBD^to«dte«dm i»bre> cbn8i(> 
derable :T«volt; and that as the: truee/ tbep hlad^eondtMM iwiththvlho 
habitaobiioflAigoAJvai neaviesKpiridg^'lJlieyihad'reason to he appre^' 
faeneive ^tkmng dfalaido'i<ed''h|! sonb of th«r aUies x>t ¥etMmmam, 
as m fiuci they weofti^ci^JMBeunfvenk iM>ti4v^^.eiifbi-eed i^ the de^ 
sire they had of recovering their prisodita^ti^Vgiiaaiew^avi ot 
whom were the most considerable citixens of Sparta, made them 
desire a peace. . ' r. I. .i'''. 

Those who were most solicitous for having it concluded^ m^ 
WbosVlnt^e^st' f^wu, £bjb% to wi^ j^^'were the cUefa of the iwd 
states, viz. Plistonaz, king of Lacedsmonia, and Niciiss,getieFitl^r 
tbe Athenians. The former was ktelv returned from banishment, 
to which he had been ^Metlced^'c^^hc&hnl of his bemg suspected 
to have reeved a bribe, jjo^ ordei; to^drftWJ^ his txpQ^^tq^ /the 
Atkemff,^;^Uo^.fQ!^^to:t}^ retr€i^* we^ ffpi^d 

Mtertl iDiKfi)nuiM»iffliloh Mafw^ tfl^it ^tRe dio^lrai (tefMid 
iwithi4avtd# c^mnted' bjr^fts the pnedlM»'of Dtlphi, whvbid 
ooiuMtUBdea the i3jpkiFtttiB,in the -naine •f tW ifoil^to f^c«fi torn 
iroiD Hfiii exile. PMstoMix was thtu «llre dlesiibiw Qtft^iMMce, in order 
to put an end to these reproaches, which, on account of tko.|tevp«- 
ttial eakiifitieg of the<wa», wen daily revived; Am fbr Niieiikft,the 
imost forfimate reneral of his agey he wmsHtfmltHi Mt «ome<ibliA{^ 
accident should sully fais f^iyp andhe wished td enjoy tho fnJats 
of 'peace in ease lini^ifaDqQilJdty, and to ensora^tb^ save hapfMiiesa 
to his country* i^tT>»'' i>'3 w •j\ . ^ ;:««.i- - w- 

iBotb'stiftes begi^ bv ag t i wiD g to| a suspifi«io6 of armsift^ twelve 
ttlpAtfas^ijdurcD^ -winch) MiHg every day togfdth^r^^alid liiitingitte 
sweets of secunty and>i^eme,aiid'the pleasure af^cotanfopornHng 
with tfahir fbiendsi and with Ibreigners, tney gienr ynteioifclely de- 
siious-of leiEldin|f an easy, wfistur^ed lill^,iranote}^cvn tiie'nniui 
of iwar b^ thcuhorrofs of blood and 'Slauf hitt. ThSy hted twiftli 
the utoioflt'Mnonstfationevtf joyihe ehoraeesof Hmir tiagiadieB 
sniff, •Mfl^ spidkpi heruitfomAxkd locavs' thkmynibMi* on «i9k iaineiM 
onSahielj^J • And 4hey remondiered wi^h pleasuffs him wfas said, 

MUiidofth^inmptti attd natitingiMgrrvpia ^lekrdumbei^rk^tihM 
■^^ae^ul'icxo!unnf^ihe€0^^ ^' ■'. ■ > '*i'r ;^ • • * 

. . Tto iwbole^ winter wk? (ipevt ' hx. coiifereivces and :interviewi; in 
svyoh^odi party propo^ t&eir-islaims and pretensions.^' At laat^ 
A. M.i^ '■ " af dacfl vds bonidoded and Hlified fdt fifty vears; ^oae 
^«t.^.c>^t.n(iif lh».cHiefi&ticles of which * wMy that they shinild 
feciprdoa%; vesti^re: the prisonenj on eadh Mde. This treaty Was 
ctmclnded t(exk years and somw days from the tort dedLamtionof the 
waB» r7im- ^aeotiiuaailad-OonnUlimra w exaeedm|^ly disgibsted 
at'ifc, and fiaitlial[T'reaso& nscid thoir uOmost endeSnMurs to^ excite 
fre^ Iseniftlss. < But Ni^ifl^peasuaded tiie Atheniaosand Lacedmw 
moniaaa to ftmithejlosft^jliaiid to tbia;peace4~byooneludiug an 
aUkMcd oflfMiirfo and dl^asive^ wfaioh wotddJ reiiae}^' theniMinore 
forn^dabte to tJiose: who should demrcfto break with thten, and 
moteiiwsurfBd- with regatd to «aek etheri; i^Ehe :Af hPjyianS, in GODsei 
qUenee of tbiatrealy^al last restored': jtisei'^YisgaEnr they had lakea 
)n the jsbndiof Sptoterisk i<{ r * ^' i >}< / , it 

SECTION IV. ,- r r. ... ., 

Alopiadei beglos toaup^r In pubtie, His chamcter, H« opposM mclas io erery thSno. 
' iuidtii«abUrtrtt«atvJwliAdo«heUd^ fFhebankUnrembrfi^pe^iiik^piiiaaiierid 

I li 

Alci^Mr'tio# beg^'io advance hiiHielf in the ^ate,f an<) ap^ 
pei&'i)il>dft&c as6emUi^:'" ^Sbcra^^ had^ attafched him^efr to him 

nSrtA^S AN&'GKiletANS. Ml 

noblest enidftioD, > .->.*«. 

The ubicfe bl5^iSi!V>»WMirMMMtulb0> ^ 

the most rMiurlitLbfe ^cii^msttoc^ in •%!& BAl Thiv phBoiopber 

obeerving exceBeiit shtural i^aliti«f0''llM'4ihni wbieh gfe«itly 

heighftenedhT the toa^itV'Of Mii p^l^ii^Oiesto^^d ioiciMbtejfu^ 

m SpHivHi^ 8(HU)l;tblcl H pkvl, W, 1^; uegrlectea', k ihbtiid 

wither sir it gi^; anA «tl!lii(ilut^/ degflsift«ftil». Andj iodeed^'Alei* 

biftdes ^^ 'Sf^Dted't^'tiaii^beileag >M%W; -tlio aobilHy of^hii 

bhrth, hiEf VMt ncheflr,'^th^ ^athfiiUy'b^1ii» family^ the ii^aenee of 

his guai^Baife, h&' pe^iMLr't^eai'^^iMs exq^iisit^ beaotjr, und, Btiil 

roorp'iOam theile/4he'^fllftt€ty iiM con^^ of dl who wi^ 

prodcTOd':'him. Ot&v'woisid' hare condldded', sttfys Plutarch, /thaU 

fortune had Mifr^ri^ antf ititested him with alL flbese pretended 

advanta8|M(/te*Winl%yyhfanT i^ibpartfrilnA'buiwartw^ to render him 

inac^eeBiSi^le'AM itMlhemi^'t^%ll thd darts of phiieeopliy ; those 

salutary d«n^/^i^^r%:e 'to tb^^iiervh^rt,^^^ kave m it the 

BtrtM^^ i!xit9MieDti9 to'tjirtu^ aiid^lii^ gl^* But thobe very 0b<t 

rteSdlis i^ddttMbd the' teil of Socrates: ' < »• 

' !Fr4>twithst<hdii^^th& ^ndeavoure that wet^ nsed^to divert^ this 

youzi^ Athe^trmnf ki$ ifl^feMsour^ fHiich alonewiae Oajhible Jot 

Becurmg him frHtift %o maM^^ares^'h^ devoted himself entirely to4L 

As he had abundance of ^t, he wfti^ fhll^ sensible of SocratesVI 

merit, and could nbt Ireitit^he' churns Ol* his s^eet and insintaijling 

elo^ence, which at ^.ha^i^e* haid a greater Ascendatnt^ oii^' him 

Uian Uie alhtrements of ^oelsui^. '' lie was- so tealou$ie^idiseipie of 

thatjgreat niakter, tha^ m fcrflQwed'ldtiv^whereyer he went^ifook tho 

vtm^t delight in his'cdflver^ati6n; wilslMremdy well phsasedw^ 

Bis^l^nciples, rec'eived'hii^ instrdbtio^s andeVen hb repnmandfa idtK 

wfjtxQ^rfui doKnlity^ijjd'WbuM.iye so moi^'t^ Jus discourses, as 

even t8 idiedtearri ariA%!bhor himself; so weighty was the force (€ 

truth in the.'montKof '9o<ir4te8; a^id in iso gtcinng a light did be er^ 

pose £h'ehM^bWi!^tthdid<^RMinity of the view to'Which AktbiadfB 

abandoned ttms€lff«^.'-'"»^^ i».i..'i,i . ' k , ... 

AlcibiaH^s, itftlS^^ 'nfidn^iitf^ when he listened toiSocmt^ dif* 

•ered b6 indi|ih frdm Miiitt^elf thtiiV^e appeared quite^ittolher'Biaut 

doWrever, his headstfe^V^ory t^Mf^r,and his natuMl fi)ndaess ftif 

pleasure; wfti^h was'h^Mt^ed ahd 'inflamed by the-oottversation 

of Toun^j^b^ Booii^ tSda^ed hitn into his fbrme^iirtoguiasiti^, 

and tore j|iimfa#!twei;e;'AtMn htt'migter; wbo was o^%mI tb'run 

after idm as i^bsi^|i runaway slaVe. This ^ofssitude of nights and 

retu»9, df.'yi]ti}QiiRI'resdI\¥t}^s ohid t^iapses iMo vice,' contmued a 

long timef bttt'^rll So<^hi^ Weiil^ llishelmeiled b^ his levibf, 

and i^ways ffatli^ed hims^1rwklf^he^b6pe<>f bringing him back t» 

his duty. And hence certaiifltly al<ese'the^ttfsng mixtore'df gebd 

and evil tlAt always appeared in '^)d£eoifdil«tY iQie^ Instruction 

which hii* naftrt^ W, givpp him,,90Wieitimv,.nreyaUipg; and fl 

other times, the impMuosiiy of ms passion^ huriTiog. Um* 19 % 

'W / fwvwr OF i«^ji3c, 

mamiMf,i%gmi^ ^B piii^.iqH». into ^l^t^^.J|LJgp|/|i^.fits^ 

natore. i » • '• 

wlVuft mtiiBMV» i(Mk!l|i.«gi»feW^^ a«^Joa|r .as tbejr lived, iii not 
f8i84mccu8«irea. dm «i«ie j^enoiM* of j^eia Wriuiiig pr^iteDd, 
that these ceoiiUBea ^diMlpiM^DB, whea dS^ examined, qpte dis- 
afipear; asd 4hat tJiey oifght tp be coiuadered aa the egS^t, of the 
timhlie of fifae etfemiea pf Wb* P)ato, i4 one fif hii^ ditfjogues, ffivea 
iia'ia.cfHiyenation betweeikdocriitea ^d A)cibiaae8» velTcalcuIated 
tiildiq>la.j!i tbeifeoiua «mI o|M^cter.of Ute .lat^efr, wha benc^orwai^ 
l»ffl have a very great sharej^dLnd play ji cai^apicuouf, part in the 
afiaira of the repwia of Athena- I ahallr ime f^ very ,shq^ extract 
fiwnit in fckis^ place* twbich I hoQiewiU nqtuoi^idease.iny i^jidere. 

In this- dialogue Socrates id introdiiqed. conversing wit](i Alci- 
liiades,! wh^al^tbKt tioieiivas und^ the giiaid^anfrhip of .f'ericles. 
He was then yetv youiittf < and ha4 beeii e^Uj^ii^d, like^ rest of 
the Athenians ; that is, h^. had b<^ tajbgiit, PfpUt^ l^ratu^, and to 
pby on instnukients, and. Jkad pr%cti^ .^festliag,jap<i(4 other bodily 
exer^cises*. Itjdoes n^< appear that ;^ric^8 hai^.ija^sto taken 
much pains in Alcibiades's education (a fault too q»ipmon ii^ the 
greatest men,) since he bad put him undef tb^ tuit^pf ^opyjrus, 
a Thsa^an, atimai^ far advanced in y/Buni,- fund whp^jdf.all Peri^les'a 
slaves^ both from his turn of mffnd ^jA (^« was the lef;st quali^eid 
V^ educate this yoqpg Athenian. An4/-^eed.Socratea told Alci- 
biadssvthatisbould ke con^pare him with:fthe youths of Lacediemo* 
nia, wip' displayed, s spirit ^f v^ur, ^fi^atness of soul, fi strong 
desir^ieif gloiy, tflove of laboup-^ att^dedjwitb gentleness, m^^esty, 
temperai^ee, and a perle^>/oj|f)dience to t^ la^s and discipmae of 
Spartflk^he would seen> a/mere cl|^d ^ tbem. Nevertheless, his 
h^h l)icth, his riqheSf.the great lamiliei^ kfi Wj^fi related to, and ibe 
authority of his guaiifidifin; all the^ tilings fttujid consipired to^ibake 
him exceedingly vain and haughty. fU wi^ i^ of esteem for iumr 
self, and of eontempt fer\all pthersr He.iipas ,DrepfMding to enjber 
ufjon tiie administratioii c^rtpb^o a^iia, a^d^ jgrf^m hji» conversa- 
tion, it might be' presumed, that He promised lum^f . no ,lesa than 
te.ediip8e entirely the glory; of. Perioles^ and t^ ^ttfck'tl^e kiiog of 
Feisia even »^n his throne, Socrates fe^^ig him gplng to mount 
tbe tribtlnal, SU' order to give the people some advice relatii^ to the 
publie •aflhkst demonstrates to..hiqa,1)y ^^isus queif^ns, aiid hv 
Alcihis4es'stiOf»weis,that h^ is quite ijpqrant of tbie^aixs' about' 
which hedif^^oingtot/iSi^ak, a^ he had n^ei stpdji^dltpera' Jbimsel^ 
nor bee9flnfonne4^iM«them')by others, .;;i^f^er mal^mg Alcibiad^ 
himsetf confess thip^'' 1^ Pfun|flv /mi th^, Wongent ^ cof ou^,' the al^* 
sfitditT of his conduQ^, and mi)^^ h^^,m^ sensi]^le,9f itt — W'hc 
says &)crates, would Amestm(jt]sie. mother of Art^erxies,who th< 
fieigsediin . Persia} sax ^ were sh^ to iif^^ that there i^a man noi 
iajltbensrttrhoiis metfiju^ag .vifar against her 80Ki,,an4j^ven intwc 

'Ji»'Abb^F^gui6rJfiflUi)Udoctiiteitndiiet>rh JMMii^/' fA# ^aifctdl 

FKBfllAiri^AllR.qmMIANS. ^ 

bk^iigimitmxiimf: B\ie jdaii<i| l ww » .wooli.H9|yog» Mn tQ ^^.ffqie 
TetiHrftir>iMietil, «paQ^;iiiti«pid oovragc^^ great, .wia^o^ ui^ 
C0]i8«iiiiiii»te eKpiMri«aMiP.tlift% hei^ ftUe to raise a ff^bt^r, um 

b«B;l^ig^ ^«fera mkeortlie ^B/t»p9F meiunii^i fpr puttio^yso y^fft^ je- 

«fl%« ift ceeeul^ ; But wem she 4a Imar thdt this is .^ i|o iiifia^tf 
te «Q8e, and ;tbat the ^p^iwootili. ^^v^tiAU is not .twenty f ;«»^i>lds 
that he is utterly ignorant of pubhc pffairs ; has i\Qt tb^v jisM^ 
knowWgBi <rf WW, sier mm eu^orMiy ampna tlp^ ciiKi^eBA,.^ ia- 
floeneQfi^er the i41ubs, woi44 it be possible }or be|>. to rp9^ from 
laug^binig at tbe foUy and extravagance of ««cbadft lenterpnse ? ilKlbis, 
oeverlfaele^.says Soer^tes,. (directing lihinself .^^ Alf4bia4M,)ni9 
yj^rpipluiei fUad unba|»ify .Hasembles most.oftAosewlio.tbiiip^ 
tbeniselves into tbe pabuoefoployiipeBtA ^ocratee^ hoY^^i.exr 
cepts j»*eno}e8 im this oo9<isipiki' bis soiid'nierit and eouijted repnti^ 
tion being, acqiui^ bf bisi close study, diirinffai^ongioflurse «r 
fea<B,i0f en^ry tbiiw'^a^le of fotmm bis«»Pd, end gC.qiiiatifyiiig 
hun for public employments. Alcibiades could Jioi,i^J^P^ti^ 
WHS jl]M|.oesei b^ was* ashamed^'Cp/pidfist, and blushij)gjt(^e^ 
koi^elf^o vofid of merit, he asMibof^^be mwit act in erder toaittaliti 
lit. 0<M»ttt0eii6ing unwilling to discourage bie.p^pik•iteU8 bun, .tbat 
asiieie so young, these; e?iiB might be reopedied, «nd :ik6^9rw«^ 

I continuftUjr gei« bii^ 4ie wisest xjouq^els. He had, full. leiavvDe.t^ 

profit bjEf th^; aa^p^wrdsof twenty years passed j^e^weeAitldf 

convornitiwand bi8mga^ngiapubli«r'afl[a*rs... a ' ^'* 

AldMsde? was of a pluMit and'flepble disposition, th«t would 

i take a!hy impression which ^ the >:di^reaoe of tim^ and circum? 

! staneee inigbl i;equire, still tiering either to. good ot eyil withtho 

I Mflie A^eilfttyimd ardour; ^and^sbiftingabpost in an. instsnt &oni 
one extreme tQ :itf oppesite-.; < so ths^.'tbe^peopkci^ii^d 'to-liim 
what lipaieT ebsems of |bi^ land^ Bgypti. 7'iMi<|>n<^ 
wnmber of vet y exti0llent tti^c^smU driig»i and (U. Afi.ftm^ Pmetim 
many poisont. It might be s^ of AjeiMftdes,* Ihst hewas nol 

I <>■& #90^® Ql*u[^ but (if 80 bold an expresMon qiight beused) aicom- 
{KKuad of s^^ral mm; ^tber,8erii^us^vtgay4.:e6fi^fim Pr; i#tU<!} 
iQ4Biperi9W piaster, ori^'eroveUing.i^^veii n.friiiod'ietirttieuawl 

! the yi|^vi%uflbvQrftbiHidoQejlto;?ice and viciawttiM; p«ipai^o0f 
atjfipaxiiBg, ^e .mo^tiipaWul .iatigu«s9>and't$nlsfOr.iQsatM^i{r).der 
svous.of valitptuouydejigjbbts. .. .^ u \. r.i 

' Hi«: i^egMlari^ietra^ dissolute conduct were becCKOe the talk js€ 
the wtu4e -oity^rf ^ mi Al^biades w«>i4d . vevyr wilhiigly hasFe^put a 
«eip,to tfaenpycpor^fb^it without chaiiginghis course l»(? life, 4ea{h 
fefLTB^^m n.m3J»§ ^ bib.' He had a very handiiDiiic di>gt«9Ci«A 
ui^QiSmQIl S»e, ^hkh b»dr eo^ him; lihreescore«.«adrt^imiil«t4 
«,a690.Fl)$^'Uvre^4 , Bylhia wofflrd tha^ a« lQikdaaflS;fofidp8|ii9 

* QmemvlM bomioeiD seciim aUuIit ad d<^' JuvenoL ^ f ihuL' irir ATclbV p! 11)^ 

Vol.. III. R 

#lt M»% h^-had irtK«ft^hiflH to b^lstttxsffi Hb#ittlldifccta«iiie4 
H»r-v*y iirtch otf-tMt -iMfc«iTft^' rf«i*sii^/'th»rth6>' whole city 

<i) ^im/€bt, ihe^ #i^ *i«y i^^rtW»-«fcfi**lftw«*dl<^ tctl^ *a^^ ^eor^i. 

«|»Mi^^fet ^feridJ flW«t pr^ailittgi ^9 a htfttgfefejri:#m of »kldv wWdi 
W^d'fbWW al|ttA%«*W%t»Wit'to it, and ttHild tiot beat a saperJOT 
#r ^^ '«ili^^4uat AWlhbugh hk^'hirtl*' ana a]i<ioxiaboa talents 
W#ikbedlll<?^y'tohi!^tttariang^^*W*»t emj^ymeiiW intlie 
iV^^^j^ti^e #iiA^<Jthing hbtretW tan^Mch he washed fefnd of 
tPt^^th^ HjfloMwJte a^*fe««hoi4tj^ h#<#iti»B&dto gaino^t tke peo- 
rfeTSll^'tlio fbi*d of toife efeqnelKSe,'ate!^ the i»e*8uasiv#' gmce of 

tft^aiNUc6liibloedl •' •- ^*i r.i. ^lA^ .^.W'.nn ^. ,. .-. •»..- • r •. 
^«^^., ! i! i AMbittd^«^f "M^ifh^fhe dA»poekmiif we ht"^ lieie4l»- 
AnUiiGi^isonbedj %«!> ntk^<bo»xr4br repdde; and'htd set' eveiy 
en^ atrtoir*Wthp#k»tlie? treafy iWriy conclude* betW€^ tte 
lWi^«tttDiil; 'l^ iioi^ti^Mei^edingliihie^ anempt; h() eUdeavoiiMto 
ttr«^««tp4t»i taking 4tect'r'"'i{<0' was disgt)sted< at th^ lA^H^Bao- 
mnt^ be6iitib^'''^^.cKf#(»ted themseHes ^y to NieM) c(f whon 
they had a very high«pini«ii atod oti-t^e dcmtmry seem^fr-to take 
aO^m^^Mi' ,0f iie^o^'of-Miti.'thfoogh't^ rights of hosj^ifiid^yhad 

- ■ ••• 

Mibet6tedb«t#o«li'hi0 afiOe^i^'a<^them» 

Thefirel thfei^h^^d to ihifrfe^tH© peace was fbl^ ^hmg 
iMeA iaibiin^ditbat the^feO^^e of Ar^O#only wanted ^A ^viktxau^ 
ttfftreiiM'wkkrtbo^Spairtitii^.^whoiii th^y ^^oailj^'hslted aai4l'^^arei 
ll9&M«#0d^e«]^^^r^l3^nii«atltiS^'hoi>^'th 'At|i^i«M 'wooH 

mofmk tUssm,^ ^g^^tingftb tb^m thafT tb«y w«re<retfdy tb break 
|ppea«» wHibb yioh iio 4mf «dv^n'Jai|eod lii> th^m; - *^ * > \ 
-:( And i^d«d th« i*acedtbt»o^gtod W^<no« Verf dar^fM to^^^em 
tbo'is^ttil «9nditil»n6i]ff4tlteHgio1iaiy,1ikv^^ cdnektteii«^ 
iirilhrttid'B«btkUi»,^iii difOfetr< (ffftO^Viott t6 the Jdestgn mA mM ef 
'the'<}#yai4^ tiM haviiigr%ah<endet^ t)))fYhe fort«of Pasiat^ltM to tiia 
^lh€«il«i^, not'lQii^od, atfd 1» the cofiMKl^an-i« wad'Ai dt</lil«<x0- 
cluding of ttie treaty, as they had stifmlatyt to dO,:bttt' quite dv- 

•:8aBper«ted{if<;>iy& bfeutth of fisfith, iiid hib utkttftt*hacliici%a8t'tkeir 
diigUbt') 4ild4akifi^ dJila^opfiMrtiiDlty to ^mbarfafe^Wdii^^he made 
JMi»^^4iMi8'1W4lie^^pte,^b^ ei^Hsitig tlAth to taflfl€^ladi WflUbpkiet 
^MibdfalgJ'Mio^roiiflyiattadiedto ^Ii4eed)fenit»i^^aM0)tr||||||%y 

cftWi^lE^ilttmiiiMtii crilnes vthiel^ weire toot alto^thttilkc^MbeblB^ 
t^ugh.thj^jjWej;e absolutely fdse. 

l ▼. p^ 368-37d. Pint in Alclb. p. l67, 196. . , 


IW0 Mw 4UI^'qiUftf 4|iiX» ^ |B »T t p4 Ji^ci»f| but hainjlj for .hinu 
tkue umv9df.'A tM; yeiqr yifBtant, ^mb^iifiaaors fjlonTLftcedsmo-r 
«2ft,'Wlio«i«re iorested wUb,fiJl,pow^p I9 put an' end io^^Jlfiie^ 
dupatot. *' Beini^ iirtroduced iqto tiie, cojincU|7or', senate, thev set. 
iwtlk'tlMir complaint*) /uxd ^na^e t)fei,r;.c^qa^jOb»wbich ev^r/\)ne^\ e >iih arH .>h^pght.<Yffry JDff ,a^4>^wbiigbl5. Tbe peopl^' 
wer0/ thw^ a^eiic^; thje. oe^ dur. Al^^i^a^gsi ^(^ /war 
aft«id t4ii^ would aucieed wiib,thetm iiaea bis utmiost ^ndea'^Hf9» 
tirenff^ tbe «aba(iMi4ora in,f conlerAnce wit]^ ^ip. , I^e Yeprp-; 
aented to. tbem, tik|t the. ^fiupcil al^Caya .bebav^^witji tb(e' utpwt^ 
m^denHoii aad Jbumaniij towMrda t^a who .^odr^sed tben^, but 
ttm peK^0,wata^«b|uigbty mM ^Uravajza^Dt ^aihelr' pretensions;^ 
ikU ahmild the ivmbaasadon^jaientjiu^ ruU pb^e^^ the peQ|>leVouId: 
not fail to^take.<advantsfge of ^bia c^cuqiftajice, and obll^ tbem tp 
agfrea ioiflrbataver iJiey ahpuld takoi 4 into tbefr befids to a^j^^ j^e^. 
O tt i dyd eA/wilh aaauiiiig tb^m, that b^, would, /insist tbem ml|b a]|j 
Ua bBedifct ioiordef ^ eet Pylus . Ye^re4 (p tbem i to preveiil' tbe^ 
tDiaa»i» with -tbevpeeple .pf ArflQa,^^4ri9i8^<^^t wit^'tbem re^ 
B0«redc and he ^ppifoi^^Ilf thaafi^ prpmuep with ah bath.^ "The 
imhiifidow w^o jeslrameU w,eU ^c;«^!,witb,iUs conference^. 

md gi*etfy ftd^ijff^d tbff prwui^d.polfcy,ftn4 yasV^^^^^^'K ^^h 
liMeoy wbeniijthey kvalMMl ^ip^tM ^ extiapr$na^ jwii and, in- 
deadt tbey fiftro lMl^ lliif(taken m |)|[i$ir ^njf ^ ; , ' 

OnrthO;IDon(ow»^, P^W^ Deipg. asai^lned, )^e apbassadp^^ 
«iMrQi)«tttrQdueed. iMcibia<^ asMq[ tb^^4^ ^e n^Hdest t^vrij^^' 
tbe m9l^0C^ e£ th^mA}VfiUj and tb)a purporf of tbe po^l^ra Witji^ 
wkM^ tiiey were uwaa^df;- Tbey immediately answered, tliat tfiey 
verefiooraelD pr^poaeaA/accommodation, butwei:e not em'j)owered 
ta^omlade aoKitmng;,, Tbeee word^^eer^, no b^J^'&X ^poie^^ Uian 
Aldbiadea txefaiaip aajaii^fi^ tbem; ^lar^ tbom'jIIQpe treacherous 
kmyes ;i;^atti i^iop we ^oun^.fe ly^itiiesis to^tbi^ sp^ch^ey ba«2 
made the nigbt^ befi)«e; B^i^^eava^ tKe pef^ple not toi b^tievp or 
bear- wen who . jao •imp^def^tjy. adva^f ed ffii^pq^f r:'<^^ .^^^ *'>4' 
iMfW^oa^eiA 90 unaccountably, as tp say oiQe^J^iiiig onip Jay^^tu^d 
Hie^veryi^firae'Oiitbenfit. \,. o,,,, ,'•. , . ,.^^ *,, 

WoMfl' ispi^ld sevfir ^ezprei^ the aurprisb. jmd Qonfu^sjp)^ yf\ilf^ 
wbiob UKl'Aniba|iiiidQr% ,were aiezed,, who, f'M^rii^^ one.l^otber» 
aonki «9t' believe, ap^ibertheix; eyw or oars,. .^icm,"whf) did n({^ 
bM> w Ilia tnMi(ab«n»i|a.iBt^r|^^gem of Alpibiac^ qo/^ W cqpcelve. 
te/0)plivi|]^ tbfr cba^90ti4a4 tortureni hisj^ri^to po purpose to. 
iU eiit tbe/i^Asqp, of iU The people wer^ at t^At n^ment^ jgrQm'g^ , 
to and r^rftbe tiebaaaadora of AM[o«,,in .^^jd^ifi tp cbhciudi , Jbc^ 
iewe wi|b thfie; .wbon ag^reat ^tbquake. caine ti^ tb/3 a.ssi8tai^cg 
af jflicMie, anfl -bro)ie iip.tb^aaMmblY. ][t was/ with ine ulipp^ 
i/M^y be pievailei^ ^.ii^ tna^ ^pig^ .^1^. held nextday^ i^i-«f 
havf a. et^ PMi te tba.|pj«M:^eaingfcli^l «uq^ pv^e as wpt^asifp' 
doni'flboti]^ be MentJ^f^ifie^if^. : j>t|c|as.w head 

tbem, bii^.returpe^ wi^ljgut^ ll*^^. ?|JPS ^!^^ ^|5«J ..!fS^^' .'TW 

iW ■mttMit^fiti^' 

the 9i^bple wete'^ghly d^et^tpd ttt Nicittd;%)i«y 4ld^t fnoccled 
^Xo any exceiss6s .i^ain^t Mra^ bat ofth appoh^^ AkMiOM'tfteir 

the A)^^^ ^^^^ 'hidaded; dn,dWnt''trdops^t0 Pylus^ to'Uiy-'Wttto 
LiciaTa.' In thik tnanner 'ftfeir itgalnf iflhFX)^^-mta0elv«9G4]i tii» 
viki! whiqjji' th^jr'V^e so latdjr dceircmB » *toilW. '" • ".J i 

; Pltitarch;^ aft^^t^eTatihj^"^ hitti^^i tf AK^ad«Ci»i«ul4tr^;M 
ori« can aj^rci^ele^^^WiefAkkK^ 16 iilcJde^^Mw'ito^; 

HoioeverJft v>a* a mbutiet-nrokt^ dikwf^ (xii^^ 
J^p'fff Petgponnesui h thijf"^ifsn)et. and r6&^^fV$tim da^y^to^ 
Sifiy iHemiks d^ainM the LtuAidmofmnit. In^ my epi^Ms^'this k 
tpdMtS 'k bei£uret)f l!6'^nd4isK and j^rfi<lk>>iff an* -aolkdi^^irbidi 
h9W BUQceBdfUl 9^y^ it x^t hav^ be^n,' tifto 'iliftwitfaMMidisg 
horrid ittlts^ «^^ 'of '& ji^m lievet^^o^be efiffieiddtiyid^stedi 

■ TJie^' Vai^^iri 'Atl]eai^"ft"^'iiftK«n,f iiaifteai4fyM><>i«»i a^-tw 
Wicke^aii^Mbip t^ecbmii; (poets ^n«Mlf madtiT 'the obJMt «P 
theif r^eiy''aiidf'-iAv^Mv^.'*-''He^^vr«u^ har^iitMi'- ib 'i^a^vand 
beconJeinslfi^ilSe tib'lnfba^ %y t^dmitittg'^ §6n^kA\mtW of W 
nouT; which coulfpiil^'be the'^^fl^ df k b(M aHiidMf^d MttiMfy 
tb'Vicer IfvperbqjusiWas noia^eMltetoikyeiift; aiiA<j^rtlie 
|)eoJD£(6 iiia^tf6 tfse;m' hlm^io^hliA^ thd^ fii^y^h ^ltfkAis;«id In- 
vbtve ^t^ffi^'fo' d^i^i^es;' ':T#o eitiz<M,!N¥<;fta'U]d AleMiid», 
(^grbssefd at^thatthne all th^;^ M^hoHty in Am/Hk. ■ Ther (i^tfaiiate 
life of thihtt^r'^hotk^a th^ Athietiiatm/'vHfty b^fiM^ffdi-e^^ Iw 
aud^ci^Ml Mmti^ai: 'Wt»e 'bthef sid^ 'Mditf , t^ dlMj* 

op))dsi!ri^ witlicM^thb^]^^ if^ei^e^-'tH^iitWifiil'^^f^'fltM^ if 
ofong^ tHetfr "66 fifl^e'ttie' xiiM Q|eeiliVi^a«ut^^'iN84y<tt>ine<ve«y 
qHTio&s td^&kim. '7^'^Viigiht be exp^t^tf^Hhfrt^a&tB^'l^tto^ w«ie 
mi aliSfktedfitrtn bBfC ttidy ^nid'b^^^ td'i(iit4he4)«tM«slttviB 
roy<^ 4^^^t" <^^% tHem.' HJr-thef'H^o^irtl^whk^'^lV*!^ 
al that tinie in the city, one, qoD8i»tlM'ofthtf''ymlttfouiQfr'^«pii» 
W^ ^ager'iS^ wai^ tfic oihfSr of -the ^d m^n 'tAi& iif^e>^i9lMm 
cfVtJeace; thefbrn^r'''«iideavotired'td^\tt^ilte-tll^baHABl»^ ttf 

ol'cAiatlji e^isifiiteniting iHe pe'dpl^ ag^t b^th.* *MtA9%^ttiK^tm^ 
f&cti(^/uffit!%ij b^ iShs^f Wa£ banished, and 'bj<^thit«L^W«ia t» 
L Winch e^ebmed t;0'ha\i^ b^n deth«aiietf^ ^^Miy i^iK 

i^kman of iro ba^ k cIiia:^a^M*rot'^iftlleit<»«h«i^ -wim^ 
of Kbitouir t^d 4i^y i^til^i^khfifpiiMmMi. HVMMf^dlit 

iVjib tb^i^fore tHdiaS?>i^1^'jhBj^«eDtefi(<^bt't)i(^b wb Hto- 

(tehuUii^ati^laP^^ bee^thj^fii^ 

* IB Aklb. i^ 198. ^T\uLHk Akib. p:igl;m InTM^pSSl^m' ' 


* • .J 

A. M. wa . '} §tiM over severffl u/cppsid^a^e^jdvepto,^ jtp haatei^ 
Ahl ^ C. M^ i4p.j^ relatipn Of j^t fif thid joeat^t iipportAif6e, t)i« 
j^^ryediti^ii of Mib.Athooiap^inip Sicily, ^i^hiql^tbey weree;^:^ 
bf- J^^i^A9^ enpacialljr. Tfals jjp Uie. fipctiej^nth y?uEi,r of t2iGi;mo. 
po&iKfsiip w^r- 


noei» w¥<^h he did oc^ tefce th^ leif^^^iBBitocoofeal. He^piussefl 
hiv li^ ui(fucb an ^^c^fs of luxury a^d. yotuptuoqanew^ as was a 
fpaiid^l .^ tiie city. - No>)^iig waa.eeen In bis bqus^ but festivals. 
rpjfliiCjJMS, aad pipijesof j^l^fm^e and dab^u^rv. Iff sboweq 
v«ry'#iu6 rpgtffi tp,tba q^sli^n^^j^h^cou^tiiy^ajBdstil) less to,r«- 
]i|^i» «jac|lbe.fpdf» AUfyarsons of./9ei|«e and' judgtne^t^ besides 
the s^KVif BNGfskmV^ejflm fiq 1^ irn^gpUriti^, di^eade^ exeeei^- 
mglf ti^^ 0Oi|wqueq(ce«>Qf bi« %u^cit]^i pvofviston, and: utter co% 
teaii^ftff Jilie lan^ wbich tif^ .^^i^ifidex^.ae so nmny steps b; 
wMcb.AicibM^l»vpwliri^ft49 |jyjwn*c4 

A9iB(ppha«es,4i)j^e of bJ«^;^omqi^i} soq 

the prodigiqus sums he ^s^uandere^f^ti,|tbe pepjd^; th^ ponapoutf 
§m^ oniMhowsr^^ exbibited !» plf»se tj^em ; t^f ^iagnificepjL,^ 
ilwjrmt ioeredibls^aeetits which he made the ,city^ thp ipracef an^ 
bpaoty of bi0i>§rBon>;:<lus,elOqnence,,hi8 bodiljr.strengtb^, jpiqei.tq 
las eoiira8«.ai4 his j^xpe^qpe i ia ijtwpr^, this ass^mblajjra of great 
qonBtio» iiiac^tbe^thenia\ijsrWii)i{:,iit,Ai3 faultj^ ana -bear .th^m.pai 
tMil}y« •Iwif^ e»Mv<wrin« t«) )^s<^ 4^i^ fjwepii^jl^mij^der ^ft 
and ftvourable names ; for^ey called them frolics and polite pj|a', 
^amm^ ^^94 io^i^atAW^ of bisvhumawU af)d gogij^atigre. . . j ' ; . . . ' 

' .TJBHpi thp m^'l^f^r, morcj^apd sawer^p be.Wfs, fi)rw4^;^. 
M^ni9%F''*e9it pf Upf co^d^c^oi,Alci^J||^4ea., fite^ti^ Hun one 

^ day an'^ivcaa comj«uf ou^.^the Mseifibly, yast^ I^^ased at nis nim^g. 

! Wiipa/^^fatified^fdriiif 4fiPWa«».IWl:*^i?ftSi»ftthe ^p-e^ 

, cwflifirt hiiP'by:t)&e,ppopterjnfi^riJt W V.ffe att^dmghim ifl, 

affM#hlt|^ cfWJ^airy^WMi Jq; meet ]|^ a^i,^retcbw/Out JA to 

•Tlionrd.LTtti.p.3S0-4(W. „ ,t Fli^ Jb Aldb. p. 19&-400. lBNl6,p,53I. 
}Tlwl£«. AetT.ieene4. -'- j l/r fXfO » 

E 2 

iheie people. The war of Sidly wOI bLow that T^non wai nol 
mwtaten. ^. , ^ _,' / 

The Atheniani, ever sfaice'^the tittie'of Pericles, had meditated 
the conquest lof ^SlicUv. However^ that wi«e g!Qid«|iftd always en- 
deavoured to chpcli; this amhitious and wild project. He used fre* 
quently to ineiil<fate'tOi*tfaein', thht 'by Imn^ hi petite^ by directing 
tlieir atteotion to naval affairs, by contending themselves with pre* 
«eiW^>he toh(^est« they h^ acIF^dy gixAe^/im by not «ngag- 
^ in hazirddti^ <hitei«^&es, ^hey^ofild rai^ tMir^i^ty'U a ilohr* 
is^ing condition; ithd -We' always sDoerfoi^'td tfa^ir^kibtiiies:'- *Th6 
authorify he had at thVLf time'ov^- the people, k«»t-tMeitt':iHN4 Ifi' 
yading Sicily , though it could not surmount the deshpfe'th^'hfld to 
conquer it, 'aiid theTr%e8 We^cJcohtiriiiifl!^ npofl thAt SskMlJ'lddine 
time after PeriBle^s -death,"* ilk *Le6ntme^'-beih^ attkck^ % the 
'gvracdsahs,^had ^ b, depbmioif' to 'Aniens, to "denMfifta-'aS^ 
¥heywereor%Mia3y^CMLlciB,«n Athenian colony. J' l^hb^hicif 
of the de^btie^ was 6orgias, a ft^ods fhtetoridan,' #hl|i wU r^ 

Suted the, m6st eloquent niknof histiMk'''iJisekl^«M^antriMPk} 
iction, h^fatenisd by shining 'figureti, w!i!bh"%e Sm etOj^Ad, i 
farmed the Athenians, who' w^r6 '^dlgHrasly ilflfeet^d Wllih\the i 
beauties 'and graces of Eloquence. A«bi3^inc9y't^e'alKaiictf'Wml» 
Cohcludetl, and they sent shi|ni w Rftegium 'ti> the^aid'ttf «h^' Le-' 
<Axtines. '^The yfear following 'fhef rtnt a gteiiter BttmHeW^- I'wb 
years' &fteirthey sent a n#w jb^, sMethiti|'istnMg«r ffMn^fh^i^y: 
mer ;.but the SjicUikns having <)^tiii ehditb^Ul 'theik'^divtofonb, by 
thd a^ce ofHjbrthbcrates, the fleet ^'sent bacfkrttiM»4h€l^the- ' 
iUahs,^ot b^«&ble t<>pi^l«^ Witlr'th^Mseltl^ W^patd^n;^^ ] 
^^iliis for not con'querinj^ SIlMly, sbnt t^o bf'tb^, Pyt^oderus ] 
ind Sophocles, int0 banishm^tl' and seht^nced th^ third, Sury.' 
tttkiA^} to pajK^lieavy fine; ffidr prdspmrify hi^in^ bhiided th€i6 ; 
to fiof'prodigious a degree, Vnat-thiiy were'"p*rSttaded*'«pe p6W%r 
was able toTesist them. They made s^rkl^atteMts aftferwai^, 
and ttp6n pteteti6e of seodii^ f9bih tifia^ ^ time armi' and Bb!ffie» ! 
Uf such!bitics^ as 'Wcre^unjuitiy "treated or oppressed l^^t*re Syracu- ' 
rta[6,''theyby t&at':nve*ni^ "#ei»e,W(BpirinfiJ to ItiVad^'them with a* " 
girekterford!:- '••^' '^^* '" ' ^''^^^^ ^^ •- . • ." ' ' ^^ •."* '-- ■ 
But the penroti'%te 'hiosl^ ji^n^'^l^ ^Mi^'^mA AsmiA&es; 
by'i^gding the )>,eo|^le' with V^^^opeS' ^^^-^^c^^eflitn£lf < 
yfti f6rle^6r Ped,,ot'tkthet' fntostiifated. H^ w^' Id'^lhlgttt^ in* 


dniiiing^d the fSnt i^eb 6fth^ ^:^ok^'Whie6il«f'Wlb^Tevol«(i4^ 
MEP'.ihp. ^' Airthe cith^ iovbured'lHi i^^iirvilkd? 1»<lbMi|fflftXi| 
^^iMng' i(teondy mt6;msttert, were'^hiMM'WrflP'^^italMt^ 
hoip^litfl^Ve'th<»n^ ^IVi ex^^^n yf^m o^ta^ iS^m 

. : .« >,f- «r .frk- lOi .q an / ^ ['It .\*--iV, ;. ^.v > 7,., ., , t • 

• mod. I. n. p. w ^ . , ,.j^ .,^ ,^^y ^ 

wlieretrw^iw«i*9)i97eA»Qotiiii^ butiiii.Uifi^pg.tbe pLbua of Sicit^^i 
in disoom^liuf , bo tb|dt|^|ure vyi ,qi|idj|fy of. ^ sea with wtuch it 
i«.ffinpQlldiM;(4iil iii».g9pd ))^bn«ir% 9Ji)4 flftt shores towards Af- 
rica : fbt, tUcise* fieople^ infat^t^ by $(ie .speec^^rOf Alciblades, 
were (like biu0);pei«uaded; that thejr should mahi^- Sicily only their 
{>lace of araiSiftQcl their ar^ionalt fii^m whenoe tt^yt abould set 
OQt ler the eopqu^ o£€fti^hHf9» and- make the^iselvesBMttters oft 
all A&kfi, ao4 the^sea, aa far as th# Pillars of Hercules . » . . 

It ie related*. that neither BocrateS'Qov Meton the asbqupn^^j; 
believed tibat>this c^terpriee wpuld be siuscessful : the fonoer, b^ing 
ioapired) ^he insinuated* by his faanliar s^^irit, who always warn" 
ed him of- the evils with which he w^ threatened ; and the others 
directed bjifij^ reasop aAd good seDse^iwhich, pointing put what he 
had t<^>pprehend .in respect to.tb^ future, uMluce^ihun to a^t the 
Tnadip«n>w>.thia ocoasion; aiid to depand, in consideration of the 
iiiilu»P5( ^scm^ which hp was • reduced,. |i>at the Athenians 
woiU4.'9ot jB>ree away his sen^i^d would. ^iv^niis with hi^ carrying 
rnna^^r) .„• ,,/ .; • », ' ,, ''. 

• jo' !» ■ - f. ■ • if, it— • 1 

.. , ..«c ,,■ ;... spcTwu.. VI.; ,.,„'„, 

, . , Account of the sevnAi people who tnbabitra BidJjr* 

Before I enter on the relation of tfae'wlBif^ of Sidly^ it will not M^ 
unproper toj[ive a plan of the countiy, jsiqd of the nations who in- 
fuabited it : Thucydides beg^s- in 'the sixke manner: 

It was first inhabited by the Lestrygones and the CyclopeSjtof . 
whoxboVb know ndthing but what we ape told by t&^ tK>ets. ,Th5^ 
most ancient, afler these, were the Sicani, who callea themselves 
the ori^^al inhabitants of this country, though they are thoyght 
to have come into it from thie' fteighbourhood of a river in Spam, 
called 'Sicanus, whose name Jthey ^aye to the ishmd^ which before 
was ctilled Trinacria : these l>eople Vere a^erward*" ppnfined to the 
western part of the islaiid.' Some'Trojarig, after tSe burning of 
their city^|pkme and settle() paear them, and built Ervx andE^g^s^a^ 
who att' assumed tff6 name 6f*Elyniffii ; yind' were afteiKvarcfe joirttdi 
by some iiihdfiitant^s of Phbcis, A their rettim frpiii the si^gc ^. 
Tpot. ' Th<^ who4Ve'J)ropet7y'called Sicilians' came' frpm Ital/ 
in v&T gifeat nuniberfi J a'nd having gidned a considerable victory 
overtne Sicani, ctihflried thetn to acdrtier of their isltod', abbutf^aW' 
yeait before the ar^Val of the'tefeek^ ; and iij Tnucydi lei's iim6, 
they Still inhabited tfte mld^e *part of th^island'aii^ the northem 
ooaat From them the isldhd 'was' ciUed Sicily. - Th^' I^hoenicians 
also nyfea^ themsd^e? along 'the c6ast, aha Si ^ the fittKf^ islandif 

• Vtot la Aldb. p. 190. In Nie.D.S3a ♦ Tbnord. L ▼!. dl 4ia-4& 


Ofteks b^ii M 8«rttle ^^re;'^they i»«d]4(l>iiiM the <ibtl»tiy^^of tke 
SlyteBBi, in ^der ffe» bi' Hmttr'&Bnhttge^ «toJllM»#Mi«l 4li0 fwt. 
It w^ ia\yaA manni^ the IkLtrbamnB firsC iKktfled in gicl^ 
A. M. 33d4, WJtfa ^^kh{ to~ the Greeks, t^ ftr^t bf themiit^ho 

Am. J. c. t/b. Closed into ISieily irei<e' the Chulei^iiUM >4>f Bub«ea, 
linger Tbe<A»l(ftfi' v^ founded Naxoe. ' -The yMrndni'j which, ac- 
cording to Dionydius of HaHc&rnudus^ waertke^ third- 6f the seven- 
teenth Ql7mpi9d,iAtcfaias*the€orlttthian laid the fbundiriLAiins of 
Syracuse, ^even years after^ the GhaleilHani» ifbun^tetl L^n^ium 
li^d Cati^na, after having driven ont ihe inhtthit^ts of the eooimy, 
yM> were Sicilians. Other Greeks;' who catte frdm lif ^feCrU^ a 
^ty of Achaia, about the same time, fpuinded Megatift/«fia]ted ily* 
bleea, or simply Hybla, from Hybk>il a Bicifiim king, bf Wfeo^e per<» 
mission they had settled in his dominittos. '^It is wdil|^knoWn that 
the Hybh^^n honey w&s very iamoui^ ambng the ancientti^^' 'A hnm^ 
dred years after^ th^ inhabittaxits of that city built Bellnos^ €kila^ 
bdjt on a river of the samfr name, forty-five yearis aftef (ib§ fU^Sidtng^ 
(^Syracuse, !^und^ Agrig^ittfm kh^t:t^9 j^iars aftei^ > (E^kncle, 
called afterwards Messana or Messene, by Anaxilas, tyra^* or 
Rhegium, who was a native of Messene,, a city of Peloponnesus^, 
had several founders, and- at ^4iJ3bretiC' periods. The Zanclians 
built the city of ..Himera ; the Syr^Lsv^ans built Acra, Casmenes 
and Camarina. xhese iare most' orih'e liktiori^, Whether Gceekft 
c^<Barbariaii»yWhcrfegUlediQ.Sicily«r, ••,: -' r.. ;nt.. ? ^-j, -r 

SJSCTIGN vile, -'./oi.f^T . r- !-. 


Tbe^opte ofjiffe^ implore aid of the Athenians. Nkias opposes^ po.piurpofe. 
' the war of,Si^\f, Alcibiatfes carries that point. They ^ voth ft^polnted gniefrata 

'Witll£aaUI<ftllMlL .'!-.. ':. -l! . ' • i- " 

A. M.>I8&' . Athena was in tke dispqritjpn *Bove rejatej,* when 
Ant. I'TcTSie. ambassadors arrived from the people, of JEgeetfti wJbiOy 
inequality of tjjeir allies, came tp iniplpj;e tteii: aid ?^^aii|st(th>e jn- 
hftbitfintf of.^elinua, who were assisted J^j t^^^'Sj?;racupa^.j It 
wl^a the J sixteenth year of the Peloponheeian twar, , THe/iepr^. 
spnted, among other ttiings, thaVsb^'^^ the; be a6'an(J^e^^ Jtl^e. 
Syracuaana,.,af]Ler>sei?ing thjeilr 4^ty aj3f<iF^y liad jjpn^, thpt .of 
Leoptium, wiiildj possess themeelveia of . ajl Sixjily^j and not lajj tcr 
al^ th^ Pekyg'pnnesians, who >vere tbejr ^un^eM^ii , an4, jtlwit. 't)jf)jr 
dfight p^t th^ro to as little charg:e.^a8 poBpijble^U]ify o^r-edf tfj p^y- 
tli^,;U:oop8 that sbpa[d te.seut tQ8^pqoiii;,lhejip^; . Tfee Atheniaps^ 
WWiwdJbiw fKaitec) for A.&vouxa,j))e |p|rport^Bityte,^eclftre^ thenfj- 
selves* s^n^39|M?tie8 to ^gesjb^ to inquire 4^ Jt^ jptatepf affairs^ 
B»i Jq/s|^! whether there. was' money enoTW[b ia jthe't li;ea^j^ to 
Uefray the expenses of so great a war.' The inhiabiiahts of th&t. 

* Thucjrd. L vi. tv 413-415. DIod. I. xU. p. A <im i^JViit i» AMkk.»KM04 b 

NIC. p. Ml. T- *-• 

PERSMw 'SMUMmmNs. tn 

a frtet'iambeiVof Mldtadnlv^ jtme^ wwtli a»ukBienBe 4U|n «f 
moMjItf ^Biid of\tiieElB'>the« niMkiC alutW', When^the Athenia^t ar- 
il. iL'ftJsa 1 nvM- TlMi i^iieB lelufllte^ witK tbofevof -figcistat 
Am. J. a 410. . wb»ic«(nned ttlmeBcor»ti^eiit9 in ingoto, a»*a monJUi'^ 
pay fi»tk^ aixt](vffaneytoAi«tiich tuey demanded' and ^a prome^f 
larger flUDis^.whk^i; tfciey said^ wevet'i^ady both inntW publW tr^ft^ 
•nry ao^vin tbe^ lemplids. .'Tlho j»e6|ile, attudt with tlieM f«tf ap«* 
pearanpoEM the trath of .whii^Uiey did-^not flive than^elv^ 'tne 
Idiflnunsi^^Aettaihuw;' aad a^ueed by the advant^peoua xepofta 
wlucii tkeV deiHitie^^Dtoda^ with the view of pleteu^f thom, iuH 
mediately granted 4fae EgekoBfl tkea demand, and appmted. Alcin^ 
biadeBy Nioias, and Lamachne, to^ooiaaiaad the fleet;- with >f)iU 
pawer, Bot oBfytto^accour Effesta, add restore the iahabit«iita<ef 
Leoatinm .to* their eit^ hat fiao to^regolate. the affiurs ei Sieil)^ 
m sQch a matmer .Ar^wlfht best suit tba intefests of the' repubUc. 

Niciaa wa»«)apf>duitSd tone, of 'the .generals to hi» very gieat 
legtat; Ibr, heeides otlier motivies w&ch made bina dread tbtfl 
co m m a pd, heiTshODned 'it, baeavse^ Akibiades was to he his 9<^ 
le a gu e* .ButVthe ifithrMfii larmaitilfd thrmnnlTrn greater sueoesa 
from thi».waf, sfaoald >they not reei^ii the. whole eondifot of it to^ 
Aicibiadas, hat ^ temper his ardour sM audaoitgr with the codoeM 
and imcbfai of Niciaav ' -^ • ^ '•■* -.^ ^ ■' v;i -*.»,. 

' Fiva)ilayB*.aflery* to hasten tihe Aexecolioff of the decree^ and 
make th^ seoessary preparatioosr ft^ fiiecond assembly was held* 
Nicias,. who h&i had time eooagh to-.Wflect dehberataly y > the 
iffiur, proposed, and was mo«e jand qaoke convini^ed of the- dilEeulT 
ties and daDffer8tWhtcb<woluld enstfe firem it,^thoiij^ht himself obliged 
ts speak wi& soma veftemence agalnita prdiect, the coasequenoM 
of which heff^^sesiw might be yfla7'^al4x> the repaUic.. He said« 
That tf wimmirpritmff so iHnj^^riani ^ un.t^fitir shaotd ftovc bpm de^ 
termmethalmoH a«.*Hm a» U w€» taken into detibmvlbkmi ^Aat^dl^ « 
md tmce^ inquiring into unatUrs^ ikt^MMigi^m ^cr$dil to loMtftUr 
war t(M foreigntrnwh^ werf^veryt'.Umsh of ikti moit ^kf^ 
did proiUmiu^ am'ieottin^.themmMnfi miidiUfkd$^ int€re$lt Uwa$tQ 
offer mighty thing f^ in order to extricaie th Uiwimh e t Jr&tn their tmt 
mmaU daingkr, 'After aUj what it dv ^nii ig er^ytt h^ eon- j^itue 
firmn' thenct to the reipMie? Mmmme 99 few enetmee^at our dQor§l 
that we need gOiin eearch^^ M^Vat' a dukmi^ from w-T WpU 
you aetwUeiy^ Is heutardyonr preeewi^poieeeeiont^ oni/\^ tadnhopee 
if an uneevtmnrtidwmtage^ tnetUate mete eonfueete* befyre yen 
Aooe eeeueJodi youniancieni emee? to'etudynethingbutthe^aifgrgndiKine 
ofyanr etate^andifmi^mgleei'ywr own eii/eiif^f'^i^ 
aa^ d^^endmwere9ia:imee^whMyouyoureeiiee kii^ 
rioMrrwkeehym areeeneibh hoe heer^u^riniged nere 4h4lmameei m4 * 
udmchihmieasi digfealsn out* nds mf^f^fud4miv-dhaei§eiMo<an <yM 

9 \.. f woi '[•tteMyik'kiiia-ti. 

Mft mimeoK§<^wm 

/ ;• /I 

they- $^ 4is» peiieiM <f1^ sm/nrpo^ Cbi^^; i^ conndiT mtr 

not '4a$sikptj ID Jbum&li a )Nno«r tthtdiiexdUsiimrje^ioum^attd ke^ 
M^m pftrpe^fjMlhf'iin fedn Them ar4 our fteflU'^Mffitei^nifMf. tibn 
mrtf CA(^ «A)m 106 mi^ ta pidrd dgtrin#<. WiUiiheapn^f»ertimB 
* to tnake tks$9 reftettions^ tekm (^afUrihamk^divided oath i/faagm^ md 
iohUttmt 4»rm$'Ml h9 employed el«m«ft«re^ cuidioe jfta#)6a>«ns6Je to 
retist </i^).<iM dto// 5e cOtai/dced at <ince byMitheforeeM qfoi^ekpon' 
nulu$?'- We. do hm ^t begiwU^ 6rM&«, (^6sr> the cBdanuHet m 
uk^cH^Mtr and ihe ^lagfte'kad- piktnged ^im; ^inM we are now ffoimg 
ieUhe^ the least neceitSty to ptunffe ottreehw Mot^ ; f e aiter damger* jjf 
w^'turi ambiHoui of carrying <mr arme iiUo difjUmtcoanlHeefWomid U 
noVbe more eafMiehi to manA and- rediict ^ rtSeU ^ T&nice, 
MetimHone iibhe are *9tM wawAng cmd'uk^oid in iheinaUegk 
fftoM to fty teethe tuccour^the inhabiUmbi of rEgeda^dJbilnd 
tie^aretBekmghiiebewr^yihd^fnmtt^ AftdwUtM-miitourmiertd 
fy attempt <b repen^^theirlinfiiHeB, at^atime'ihai weJddifikl dim w m 
the IkcM retenJMBnt'for Ihete^'eiureehee.Teceiio^^i- Let M/t9.iaave the 
tfitUkmi te> thenweiiu^ mdikft^mgage^va iheit qwirfvlkyWhiek sCtr 
their bwineas to decide. Aw the inhdbiiantt ofJSge^ wvdeeioak UU 
wa^ without w, let thati^' eaitioe^ dumedvei fromiet afufkomt our 
mteff0mnce> Should amy ef. cmrr^-geuendt wtviteyaao^ tkitt enier* 
fritei^fiim an oimMumiir^ee^^^m^KtutBd wieu; wwteiy to make m 
vidii parade of hH ^i>iendii efuipageBiOr to raiee fnkmey to euppori 
Ide'estttdnaganees be 9uitguUtf(^reomiuh>immtdeneeat to wace-ywe 
the interett of ih4 repubik k>^hUfor permit him ta'iiKoebfe it in 4ke 
Akne ruin wUhhtmee^,' Anedt^rpfiee^ofeo muek-iaefovUmee oe^kH 
Viet to he comiMUed wolly toth^eonajet'o/ ayoung^man* i jB^Aum- 
'^ it ii prndmee^fM p)f^efudice and pataioni that gi^Ateoeee to 
tt^%rjrt. Ni(^ifts ^oonekcield mUh deelanng it hii^ f)pmioii,^ that it 
woiild he proper to deUbeimt® a^n on the iiiiair,viii ordeiiio pro* 
vent' the feiei coaeWiifateces witbtwhidi their* taimg^weA n^Jii* 
tions might be^ dtti^ii^. . ' 

It wa9 plciii Ike had AieitMsdedin tiew, oiid that tii^enomoaa 
1«X0]^ wa8>tbe'dl)jeet of his oiosnti. And ipdieed he 9aiiied it to 
& 'incredible hej^; and laviihc^ prodi|?»ua ■dins of money oa 
hbrietff^uipa^es^'-and tonit^ei aot tomentiott tfaeiMiooSey aad 
inittiptiibusneba^'of his taUe. - 'Ho disputed th^pkiseiotibe Olympic 
Mmes Wit^ BoMi sets of cliwriot horeM,.whioh no ^imte maa 
Bad eyerdfoldhefyte him; and ho was crowiiid xfcore tlnai oaeo od 
thai oocasioitt. > ^E^lMiMinary r«souToes'>9ye#e^ilocoHary for sop* 
i)6rtio^idttll'^km«»y i and oa avaifieo' often aorfw aa w'TeMMiice to 
anbition, Miteiio w^ jcMno gmmia^ta heA09>e^^AkikmdtBe vat 
no less solicitous for the conquest of SicUy, and that of Caitkape 
^whij;h he pretended mtoM jmmediatdy ^follow,) to enrich kis 


tettlf, thai Id: i^toit j^Iorimif*. It, 10 ustunl to ivip]»oi« that 
Aidmdes did npt Jet this jpeeoh of Nioias go anaoawer^dL 

TkU^ BtifB AkiUadbM, t«i ftof the find Umt ihai^jnerit hq*T$xcUed 
jeahutfi^taldi^hty been made tht^j^e^^qf envy, tiial very, thing 
uAidk ie,imputedio meifbr a cHme^ v^fkcpe^ I will prenna^ to §ay u^ 
hamnrton'my coi/tUry^ and 4uglU to gain me ^tfplauie. The ephn" 
d&mr vi^wkich / hve ; the gretU imme / eicpend^ paHiculaHy in the 
pmblie MeembUed; betOm tkeir .beingtjf^t an4' IfHUif^^ at the some 
Hmegim^^nignerd apreaiter ide€k.oftke^ gf/^ of. Athene/ Qm4 «Aow, 
tiiaiMiMne/ttatMK wmt of money ae ourf.eneviiee imc^^. But 
tkie ie.nDt our pretent >bunnee$* Jiet th^ icorld form a judgment ^ 
me^ not from pcution and pr^uiicef bfUji om my actions. Wat U an 
ineoneiderabUyiservi^ laid 4ht repwlici in bringing over [in one 
day) to He aUianoe^ the people of Elie^ if ^anHneck^ and ff. Argo^^ 
that «#, the ckirf etrengih cf Peioponneeue ? Make uee^ therefoff^^ to 
aggrandixe your empire^ (f Alcibiade^*e ff^^h and folfy {eince hifi 
tnemiee give ii that namey) ae well cu (fthe vntdom and e^spemen^ .<f 
Meiof,' and do not ihepent, from vain and idiffeart^ your. engaging 
in an anierpriee pHdUielyreeohed upon, v>ki^'may redound u^knt/ffy 
bath to yemr gieryaad ndvantag^*) ^ TheasHiee qfSidly^ weary of me 
viytut and cruel government <f their princee, and ttill more if $he 
tyranniaqt cndhority.mhiehKSjfr4ffie^ eafercieee over them, wait /only 
far a fanomtable opportunity to declare tk em n e lvee ; and are ready 
to open their gotee toanytme v>ho ehaU {^ertobr^aJothe yoke under 
mUcA they hneeotUmg groaned^ • Thougblthe, cUizene if ^eettt^ ae 
hems' y*"^' alHee^ skeuid not have a rigfd^ yCfur pro^ediqn/ yet the 
ghry if iAthenKougkt to engage you to eupporpthem. "SUate^aggran- 
Hze thtmatlvea bynecoDuHng theOppreeeed, and not by conimuing 
imetioe*' Inxthe present state of yourt ajfairss the only staiy to dispia^ 
your enemies^ and', them thai youmre not • affoid^if ihem^ will oe, to 
koTOMs tone nattDn^to check the pm^rensif anoth^^torkeepthem all 
anployecty aiAdtasrry your tmns intO'disUMnt countries, Athens wa^ net 
formed for eatajLiaii U wae 9i# bynutctmity that ^your ancestore 
msed a to tker heigkt in which jm nomi Aefi^i^ JPhr, the: re^t, what 
iuuarde^^mU yerWirwa by engaging in A$':eni^rpfi$e in queH^m ^ IfiJt 
Aould be erownisdiwitk success),, yint will then possess yourseivee ^ ail 
Qreece^ and phauid itmatimt%oer your^expectaHons^,y<mrJket wHt 
! pee you mn oppoHunMy if Retiring whenever you please. The LmcO' 
imwmkum'uABed may nmkoan mcurtion intoaur pountry; but^ bfih 
sidu that itmmdd not be in OKirpoweriQ prevent iiUtiitough wf should 
^hem ; • a eireumtksnee which makes : our enemies astireiy de^pairi ^ 
r being able to eonqmw usi > Bemet'^ieiif^oare biased by JVtci^^ 
iThe only ^tendency ef.themie to.sowthe seeds ^diseord'bef 
theeddmediyoung men^ whoieah. do jtothing wnthmtione ask" 
since it is wisdom and ctmrage,xounsel and execittiony that give 
to ^r^H/flOjnises .* ,andihis^vn which wk are going tp tniarkf 
but turn to your glory cmd advantage, ', . , ,^ 


The Athex]lS«m8,* flfitteretfandpleMedwM&Alc^^ 
persisted in their first qpiiiien ;'• Nieiafl^ontfaeolller Mtt^iitabi^ 
^art frbtn his ; '^ut at the ^Metime did not.da^etd oppooe AUihkdes 
any farther. Niciiis %aii iktfihJly of >atinild and tmid di&;34«8dtMii. 
•He was. Hot, like Pericles, maiE^et of> that liv^ iad veheoient ab- 
sence, which, like a torr^t, bears doiwai^ thisoigs 4a its 'way. 
An<l indeed the latter, on semal aesisicitts'aiid aJt wevemL times, 
iiad nev^r ^led ^o chedt: the inopbtirofityof tte popidace^who, 
eiren theft, meditated tlie eitpMtion idio Sieil^^^liecaMee he was 
always inflexible, and rniverslackented' tli»>Teiii»«f ihattiMithority 
and kind of sovereignty '/hich he hud ac^rM^over tfaaxminds of 
'the people ; whereas Micia^,'! both*'b^ acting' and speaking in an 
easjf, gentle manner, s<»^fa!^fi*om winhih^^d^ter the people^ suffefed 
'himself to be forcibly and^volo^itarily caifiBd amsgr: and accoid- 
ingly he at last yielded to *the^ people; and' aceq^ted the cSommand 
in a war which se plainly foresaw would be attended with the qmmC 
fetal cijadoqueneeft. " "* * . '^^'' '.'"^^ '■• •• ,_ 
- Plutarch make^this 4-M«ctioii in his iexc^tot tieiitieev mhsK, 
8peiikingW>f ^e ^adilierrequisiteinafllatesQiaQjhe sheeivB hov 
very necessary eloquent)^ aA(nnfleldhtoooii0taiioy.nMlpet9e¥eriiioe 
ai^tohim. ^\ »/" -^ • \ 

Nicias, not "dliring te^ opp()m^Mcii^iiBjSw anylongte^ Op«nly, en* 
deavoured to do it indift^tly^ by karting- a'>||areat number efdtfSeiil- 
ties, drawn «specia9y IVom-the great expevie reqillBtte fiir tiiii ez- 
^peditioQ. ' He declaredihit, siii'de they were reselvedupoii w^, Ihaj 
ought to ektrj i^ on in sddh a irmnner as shoidd be consiateiit witk 
-the ^altei} repiftatiob to which Athena < had «ttaiDBd: . thai a fleet 
jwitefiot sufficient td oppose so' forniMable^iVfower as tfaai'^f the 
^Syracusans aind Iheir «]Uei^.r tiwt* they taii^st rail^an 'annyv co» 
posed of good'^ Dorse and* foot ^"If^l^jBy desired to act m a. maanfr 
worthy of so^ ^rand a design r tM, ifcsiided their fltoti, which wv 
^to Make th^m masters at'«(^aV'th«ynn8l'hai^)agr^U<iuhiidi^ of 
^transp^rt^, toxarry pro^ionspei^natty to the anny^*^ wfiich othet- 
'wise cotdd'ifot p^ssiblyarabmri; iM>«Sh ^eiieray^^^iiditifr :othat tber 
«iU8t' ALr^va^ft m)«M'Of^iM>iiify<wit^>theni, imhm thsc 

promhpednhem by the oitiz'eUs ofEgesta, wh^ p^apavwe^ieadf 
m wMb only,' aiid very probably night break thehrfhwetii^tti thtt 
theyoiight to 'Weigh ^nd exanmie^e^dulpai^lhsffe jvae betweci 
themselves and their "eeemiee wiUi rtiithi tn thfi VnrtvnninnooBi vd 
^wants of the artn^ i the* SyramnamrMnff in theit^owaieeuiitiT, ii 
the tnidBtof powerful aUies^dhpese^by lnkdte|KiQ% es wA «A «- 
l^^d by iQtieiiM;) to assbt them with ^tedn, «nn%.hor8eB| and pn* 
viMons', wheieais' the Athtohaia'.Wouhi ««ry jonvtheoVar in a je- 
-rnbte countfy -^possebsed b3i» their'^anes^ mk^fy vAthe.mmiff^ 
oew» eo^ditol bebifougbi theudniese than hf\t\ w<tflto dime a 

♦ PIat.lnm3ecdeger. rep, p.80g,^, v . ' ^ i i\* ? 


be|M»^£>iteQ(/8ffm8: tliat4|^y70Mt},^€aIfi9^i%l grent- 
foi ifiomimr omthH^ Atteiwaii^ijlh^d , tS^s, jbe .'^r^ to, .^bioiloQ 
tkw t«nterpri8«^aa<i ^h^flKQr Ncopig lihA.fiforfi; and c()n|t^mpt of 
Iheir ;eo€inue«, b]R.4i»yitt||^.'m^i9ct4A. |# ^iio^ a^ tHk primutioDjl 
«bicK.8Q imp^irtaiit ^jdepign reyii|i|«4i J^t raj for bkniie^;i^Wa«| 
deienmiitd liollto.gro^MQl^ ^ Wa9 pr^yide^ witilli aO .t^i|ig9,x^ 
ofmu9,t9tr, th» eKpodiJ*^l^aua0t tt^fl^fistv of l^e wfipj? aroijr 
(tefimed AiKtJifttT^iBPimwt^cf^ «^.>)ie would x)ot.fiufl|f, it to d^t 
pwidnpai the4:ftpriQi9} ofjtbftivroc^rioiia opg^g^i^eots p£thei allies^ 
^. Niclt»»tediiU&6r«^ilWiie|£'^. U^t t^, 9p^«di wou}^ cool jtl^^ 

ardwwtfof thol^pfoplo, wh^eioofciU <«rty infl*wa it tljwe ,flnp^.*lV» t'o-i 
mediately jbi(9igfOQral$.blkd full pow^raigive^.th^m to x^e ^.;na^y 
troops, and fit out^)^4iraQeys, ap tbey^al^uld j^dge 4f Qpssary ; 
tod yie^^ie6^w«rerftQ(}0«di«^,cai;ried;,b9 ia^tb^Qa a^^ othei 
plac«iy wUltineitprMiblfl aotivity,. ,., ,. 4,., ,; j^ ,; . ,. ,, 

The AtbeDlktftptelk^lbtetHflV fllMlrte#^^^. * the lttti|^'iot ifMtfr MCfnMI* 

A. M. 39^;; ' Whei< i^ tliib^'weiriei r«i^ ibf'fMt ^ai^re^f 
AiiLJ.1^%.'^ aXK^^^y-^e^ pn^iri£g;t6 M1;'U|^M faappeitod He- 
rerarb^<^)sns,'vhich^^6d t&e,'iitind8 of 'the jpfeeple wtih'CMiffibki 
ttid dl^tSetiMe.:, 'The wdihett V^ii^ it tA^t tiihi^ o^bratiiig the 
ftttj^V 4^iifli,|' dhrin^ whic!h i\k;^htii^ ciiy. W^iia te t^uftimg,- 
aiuf ftiU of' ittikges Tebi'e'sentin^de^p^intotefl aikl fuoerAl procet* 
sionjs; tiid* ev^ry patf' et^oed Whli-tW-^H^a aiid groanse^' tb4 
womW wHH folfoWcd^'tlTose stat«^ With' }«^ti«iittcei&a. Wiib»o^ 
it was f&ai^d. that tlft8'g^vap4'it(ag^iEf^ 
lose ^1 lie sjileiiddut and ii^ef ^Avrtir Me a doweiVf ^ "'^'' < *=i 
The gkmmV'ih£et^ wa^i^i^^ajs^l^y ^Aiotfie^ «<ieidittt. '^Thii 
stata^ of U^tt^^^'^hvi^^.'^itHA at th^^^t^ukfe^df^t^HtMi^^boutfM 
and temples, wer/i^/in^iiilttted in dne m|h1ii' &iA fA^iiottlarl^io 
the fkce : ttnd altMgH ji j^reat r^^ v^ ^l^^'^^ fp'knyi^ft^ 

aoe^'of some fkZi^iD^ SMMM 

TOung people lAW'miijf^v^ii^ti^n^ of eonftiaittiSg'a "tfeSLrlt 
Similar c^xinxe in tfae'tiiiaM:W''^dfui»b^fT61ior .and partic^ttfty-of 

•Dlpilx4p:ik ''. y+bui^dr^. yV.p.4te. ^•Miit^hiAlelb.i.Vi^Aiy '^<^ 
tiffi^'ii^ilirfllhMiluiJfiUrliad MtciEMi eVMtoiGoM ^eo^eu'Aii>ilHffi;4/k««'JM 

) TiK Idscorian allades to ijhe plaots and flowen that were caniad in that oerenionjr, i 

•1 ♦>, 


•^>f« mMdRtniF^vttr in 

but i^t*tl^'^eii^trftt€f'«6 t^e{i<^oeA^§l#M«:«|^lttf»kite^ ftfiB tittn 

&i4 tfi^it most 8^cB^<tra^^ctKM». d^i ft^s-lli^di^ df^e^fiatt^ 
eV^ of t!)e i^e^e, tliflt'kep^ ^f%en^lsC4»o)6»^ii)d'Fe»i|:k«^p^>fttn;d[^ 
cja tftei^ 'giis^rd; U^d o%ligdcb'^)P^ to' iief^ka froa^mitt of :tkofle 
pIeaSui;es fti whi<ii btfifesMidged thoBfi|8e*fies.- - -i' ^ ^^* b* a,:. . i. 
As fbi^ Aldbi&aes/Ue'did liotkDQw Whtf^ it wVs to4i^lmki8i^ 
under any restrainte; and accordingly,'^ a6 'liiir'«haM4i^»v i«ie bq 
notorious, people were easily persuaded that he very probably had 
been concerned in what^fik)i hap^€AQ««li ^^' His liixuryi libertu 

licctiMriv^aB Aoft^iu^^M'^xttOQitifum : TiiWfriajjBirk stag- 

scjdicw.^ «aiter%i^e?to tteWtfe^riff^ induced to eap^ 
I^Jfefitignifpr, AJic^d.e6,;'i^i^(j;i Jftt^^^lOuJ«^t^^J^^^j 

gered the constancy and resolutie^ df^'Aiteilldadcllftr'tm^l^lfeariiig'the 

Hb en^iws, i|M|^»rgJ^9i^: tfeitbit,.Wia^ ^n^pess^ry.^^JijB j§?V^ 
Sefe 9MJ.^t jJe;jiidgJ??^t.ioaftppne!j. ,ilfc\V-W, to^^ic^^po^s^ for 

AteSHvies t^^i^frr^ftw) k^ txi^m ms^n. y^mi&^Wj^ y^thout 

mitim^ hm^^i^mf^ fflW^e?» tft .-rniq. iipi J - ^4 t'O J^me^^^ that 
it would be tl^^;WSh fiiiPfiWffv.9W^/hw?'^4H9wM ^^^ 

p^^ft^iifeW J^nd.-w^etivr. |jj^\^^ver, n<^ flf fJJ/^l^ if^onfi^VfjjU^ 
pro)^t*ffe^t»ftlrflf4ih«»fl^et^w^pr4l^^ r^il^ . 

C<>rQi9?it j*ith^;rei^^zjVPj^s4i]:^ort 04 ^<|^iS^viJi^' 4u<^,80|fie m 

W«Jl*asforejfpeffl,jnA^h^^%t?h^ port of 

or companions, with a joy overcast with a llL.e sorrow^ upon toen 
Wddist.,^]^.to p^SfMp tiipt wei^e^.M ifear to ^m w fife, who 

thou^Pi they ratlered thfemselves. vttKib^.iipI^ S*Hw/ei, 
* PluU n. prnc. He rep. p. 800. 


1 . ijJ»tot4Ui: 3f4l 

• • • 

Here were seen a lana and a naval army, equi(>pea witb^^^e.utmo^ 
^»ife5.a#4#j;#A ^^piflise^fljPfale.^iXid^s. w-j if^^jasjof ^e 
puJ)Uc, witl|,aH^}ipg8 ^Dffce^uffy ^P^.Wm^' ^PW '^^^ o^ % 
liOfftge,. ^d r*e^ djp^tipn; of tjw W- r.tW .<?l|y i^'iJ^e^ }f^ 

tfcQi^diftp,. h^l^ly/arwjgif JExpry. wri^ri,^^ved yfl^y.-lk^ 
4jni9AP»i ORite^npfpi^FMMliifgf kl8 pflj, e^uBj.Ye}yf9f wj^ l;tie 
MAtemfOf s%i:ifl((]^aa4jf^av«i,th(e: r^ 

fQji»gnemxWft>^4«ft#^i»9!Wri^i«i# tW^^ cir.ft{mr 

Ql«4fA)tee'IP^^aifr'Mi^Btei»d^ ,,,^,, ,,; <, / , 

^^lW»^ ^l|B .*fflf^.Ff ««, *^ed, ^d ^te , ^mjM .got .pn bo^d, fte 
t|f#i^ppthi«uEde^,ia«d.«olemnhp^ up fcr th«^^uf?B 

i^^fm 9(>%ke expe^i^n; jgoicTand i4l¥^!r^jHWi;)f^fi.;wl^a fm^y 

th^ p^pJe wly) Jlflipd the.8hqre, n\iQxmg ^tc^iif ■ wni^, tij^, ji^^ " 
iflg.Wr^lwir^^W to.heaven„^Oj w^h tbw.feBpw>f<^^eiiflira g 
V0y#e8..3iodHPupc«8fiK.., And'.pw^^tt^ ^ymn beiife^^mig^^ aB4. ,,.. 
^^rm»onu|8f«D^ed,Al^or«4iip«^«aU^^ .one^i,a«oth<^j5H^t^,^b^W«ri 
H^lHftf^Ji^r whi€ft#w s^^pve to oota^^Fxjne&ijo^ef,.^ W JV^^ 
fleet met at ^gina. Prom tfa^^>^.|M^.. 6^ .<? ^rwf^^l^ft^ 

* Th^ were called 9'^avtr^t, They bad longer oan than th^ real, and oomt' I 
aiiMitly mofe trouble iu rowing. 
I rimeyd. \^ ». ^-:^,:;Plod. 1. xiil. P.#K<5%sUjk» ->wy/ wiil * 


• • * . 

ce '6r 'ityitt^ma yo4 ^iibboiM'H^'oiat^ 

JWistiftred^ Ml tfth^g^ fits iTthe '^ftttiy - 
their country-' ■' '^■•^' .' ' ' - • -'iJJ •' ^ '" '^r •«' • •'•^- - ; r. 

3ib corned. df*itik^M«ttlftr jren(6H}-'^^'co»^^d ofim ships, 
IW whii^f' b^lon^d to A^6^, dud ^e^i^ "fe^'^he-* ^Mhe. 
Ob' b6arH'^68e «lii|iB Wer6 '600a'lle^%^^'i^ldieS^;f93«fr 

ait4 1^* Who hiidiion6,hnt "Wbre- <(^jSny xTi^^^r ihiy w^Hlh 
Bj^^ 5f ^ies. - WfthWard to^thd ligHt'{nib^i^#^ 

NArsie, co)${^^^if «hfrfjf %dope]^' w1i»^ ^ibta^'yjbef^^ Wtrntti^^^ 

Ctthled^jth^ -^dfi^ 'aJ^S'^si&tl^ WOh'^iamn^,'' 4i 

\hen. ' AO-ma 


8jid Lo<MB|^ '^iiil^ 'wlSi.ii fatb^ltble ^ii« K$^ llh^^im, 
whfert^lH^jf^liWLdlBme rtayi' ' lW'A«i^ians ^rfei^'^ry ifltt 
with the inhai»tants of Rhegmm^V^*^\^b6Tiy^lf(9S(^<»r£iyQM 
Who ^mtd p«gliiifl5^'fWm Chikis as '-^U §» WMdhe4f blit^_ 
ai^W^^li^if ii^^i^ft VI6|;e!^mii]^^jto i»taiJ«%iebter,^ttiid^'%o W 

^duf'llc^'irtfilke? disco^ne^tira^roper daice !wlAidlitrf,<ittid4o 
'^ wiWth<^r«he citi2eKi6 ^^esta'hM go&th^¥4nbft«ytM^. 

OB the counsel he had given^in A|heii8; to ahow the wrong step 
they had taken in enga^g m HkQ^ifnr^^d to exaggerate the fiital ' 
consequenc^^ wW«fe.«WbJ .^^ .^^?cM,> W ij; ;^ ij^^alj which he 
acted very imprudently. It was extremely judicious in Nicias to 
. tfM;obo^%i4i« ^^9mvs ^6Ja-hwiiei^'dv^'^^ ad Work Idr^iteh 

iSolved. and he himself had accepted of the command, he ouipht not 
^TlKMwerecBlledW^/ "^ ^ <" f tout; to nW. fi. te i'r-''^' 

• t » 

«9l[r«^<f;(»mpMcWk4h wi^ ^^em to,th%fHunber b^jt]>^ solars and 

iieith»itW«.iJ*?Ur«)yMe'poljjng,.;Bor thebr eintii9fj>ri|j^pO{MiipQrt'ant. 
Here were seen a land and a naval army, equi(>ped wltb^^he. utmost 

public, »ritli,afl4iMBg8 ^i^^fcessuy, on f f99MnJt, of ,% -fe^h of tjm 
YOfUfev wdrtfie' d^^tipn^ of tJw war. ,..T})i,6,city furnvgied Ififi 
eiP|<y»Uflyg|.Uiatftifcjtl^w^oye>light onas, aiid ibit^.to f^ai\^pori 
t^Q^^diem. bpai^annM?. JEwyy wrin^r,jr©c«ived 4^yj^ 
4n4h»^ «iten«pfi8;(FwJchi for jus pay, ea^diw^fYelyfo^ wl^ tt^ 

one i^Wtlf tQi^c^p6e^<i^e.^erts^and,^^^h.Sftn^^ 

llMAe.lu9<a%:|he<lk^^)l,<^ at^t^^,«ainM^me^,ti%^yMt, ofl^^ 

iRMeJfe^f.^ ♦! ikaJTi^ofc^e p^txpe af % cfiw^a ip tb^,flol4iea;a 

lOd i«aB^,»vho.)f«5^.t5^fl9weji,9f:tJip Athen^a; oo^vOf their 

malati9|ii'^itb)r9^a,l4<]$o.f|be ^iieifMfgjiMduio^f^^^ 

^d eq^f^ng^; i fM»y ^moie. -than tlwji;t<^[^beir, pfBcers^ i^v)^ 1^ li^ 

oat.^cMMid^raUQ au^ pi^y ta/di8tif)j^h,th^nsa^ve%,9iid to. jrivi^ 

f9i«gner4 1* WRK^vwJijgMi^. , \^0 thp»^|ie-i9fif^ ^ and ciEopr 

BteBeCfs^ti^rU^^t,14^i9 ^^tJ^94'.the^air of i^. tourn^^f)!^ in .v^%^ 

tiiQ utwtmt-ngijifRiftcenc^ i*t^plfwe4w>»)^^^iiyjji^^ 

feditiqa* .»/8 J)oUMf» ajpsfigreatoi^s,,^ deisagj>»ftijl exr 

, Wl^dfif ^1»B fhipa .ifej^ h^edy and fte , ^WW apt p^ boaf d, j^e 

tn«npetj,wmde4,randaolemiyura¥f^we^^W^ VP §>]• thft^f «»? 
ceiiB of Ike expfdi^n; gol* and 8il¥^i;« <ij|pa;. wer^, j^JJed t^tj, 

«^9» witb^^wn©! wid rtc |w»ufdto«^Jij?rt»Pfl«. wei;pp9»rfid*p|rt& 
thep^pk wbo Jinked t)iQ,8hqre.8{iQ^ting^t^besani^^ti)^,jtM^^ 
ii^ iqp.their^^^ to beaven,.io, wifb tb^ fellQW^cit^^eii^f& gpp4 
wy»ge vand.pupcepst. And>o>ir^»th|ei Jhiynan beingji^ung, aaf, U^ci 
cerei»oBi^ffiB^eji,j^^^er8jupg.aailpid one f^t^ anotW ^vt ^f ^^^bwri 
^^^^er wnicb th»y st^ve to Qata«qfx>ne j^oj^er^Jj^ ^.jfrJ^l^ 
fleet met at iEg^a. Prom tbev^^>it.'8M«. foji fik^^T^^.^m^H 

- • • ia •»* _' >, c ''^ '^i ' ^*^il ' 1 ' " " "^ JiU iJ< 
•> ^. ••:- '>i '..S|EG5«JtQN iIX. ,:v , :> ,{,. •:: [ •- .: 

AiMee* «f tbi0 QXpe4i^«» b9v«i|r'^9 )>»:«mii^ 1^ SywKie frM 
iiqaMtcn,$it'WftA t}ioiifbi^i|o wi|Mr<teb|y^*lliit' «tj|in4.tiKibQ^k 

* Tbdf were called ^{av/'ri^/. They bad longer oan than th^ ren, and oonat- 1 
|i|i«dy move trouble In rowing. 
I nmqrd. Uji^ 9 m-r^"f)M. 1. xili. v.^i^^Ue'^ .>T3/f wrP. 


'"Tfakr was 4lie filtt uid/kBteiiploi^ perfonned J17 AkiUadef id 
tliiS' expedition;* be being innhedittdj! recslM ^t tbf : ■ A&eiii«n»# 
M Mer to be tried vpoii the Aecwotion biid ^gtml^ biui.. Pot: 
emce tbe departure of the fleet, his enemies, who haiao se^d to 
the* Welfai^ tif Itheit ^biMry \ and who^ Jimder. the «pe«kni8.prq|0|ce 
ef 'refigioi^ M/hsth ftd'6ft«» made a 'tilotdcHo «0ve£lh'fr.4w»eit dei 
ftifflis, meditated notlifaiif but saitialiDg^^itheir hBtxedjiiMi.ireitei]ff^a 
f& eneinier, F dk^i tddtff jJvanlaage'ofqhts'abinKtOvbMi |HWe^0i 
ill the i^iTwith greater rigoor than leFer* -cAU tlM^ ofigemt 
^hdrct. infohtta^ielnd^were lodged, ^er^n^brown iBtoipneeft<i»(iliitKMMt 
86'tmich asf bciiiig sdSbred to be heard, antdihat tooitfB Uie^ideoeb 
of the'mdst^roffigateiind abandoned citizens ;* astilieays Thucj» 
iid^9,'it'wh8tiot as ^ttt a crim^tio'panMi ^eonnoceo^ mto vSi' 
!^r the ffuilty •to' escai^. One of the .iofecinexs wee proved t^ be 
peijoitea by hfe eM% words ; hainng deokieed (thalt ha saw Md knew 
one of ih^. aoemi^d by moonlight ; whene^s it appea^ed>.tib«it th'erb 
Wks no^oon at that'thne. But notwith^andhig .this misdnifeit per- 

iu^y, ,the popukce were'as ibrioeeae.ei^l'* •^The feMmBgkx^wvT 
he Hrohny of the Pisistrtttidse Mode ikmi^pptehetmnki^ 9i»WB^ 
liKrattempt; 'fernd, ^^^d^fbssessed withithiB;fear^iheyifiiD«di4'iiet 
|iVeeartd'feiy tb^gfc.'''^^ ■••;;l')w.' ••{•.■.. .-ot •■ 

; At last ther nr^ut^ib^ dalaminian gfOley^f 'ordtfi^ the ^gp- 
tMi nbt^ to ^mrfi0kl6ihAAes by f>9C0, fev MM^v£.mumg% tmeiUt 
in'the army ; but biily to oiiSerhhn to retlim to Mh^^BUii te^^p^biijr 
the people by his presence. AlcilMe^' obeyed theierder^ ^Bd went 
imteedikteiyen 'board kis gaUey i>ibut; tbr instantr haiwn»(faf1liifed 
kt-Thurium, and tikA got on ftfaorlk,'he disappeanAt nd'eliidQd'ttJbe 
puinfiiit pf t1i68e ^ttbf sought after hlei. Beina»Mtedl^ Iwhetber. jbte 
Iftbtfldnbt rely'>oh fcfti botlMvf^with irMrdlo €Be judgMUiK it 
l%bt piMA on hhht T4Mifd>i6f/'lty»^h£ r€ly,9m9n^tim4hmj^ 
mar 8he^8Jkkild%mdifM^rMfTmiHak4'a^hlaekileim^9 ctf AiiiexPtte^ 
The gaQ^y of Btilajftis t'^^QlW^^^aiifitf withoiit.thetnaiBiel£er,^<ijA^ 
wafs ashained of M!^h4iiriii^«Mffered«his pr^toefcapebbilikfl^^ 
mAjfther: - ' 'AlcfMadei^ wais 3ftiei»ioed to (tie foii:hili>ednluiitiOv» . jtta 
WlkMe estate Was. eonfld^kted, andHoll the pHesta aad priei«:c«0es. 
ll^y^tforni^nn^ediocoreehiMw Att)engthe'hi|ter>^n«B0Qevna4Md> i 
fBli^^;:whtii tieH&^ad the >cbkrag^to'oppeseJtiReid^a8iv^c(|i>^'«^ 

• . 

8llHh(<iAii^<llUfui^eNh|<'Mnipfttiovgbt Upif tintsdir AtlMtat 

'Bffdeb abo^ Al»>llme i>ia^Q»i itjid Maliin tKai: |iro«sette^ lit 

ism. and was brought to a trial for imfonpixiotis doctrine, fiiagvtair 
€«ctti^ tile IMMiiiAHteat '^Issttb tM6iild4iaviel»«eh. kiflictcdiMi faiit »^by 
flying ft^ tlie <% ; ^M^he* couUiwA wipe off the igooiiuny of tM 
gi^tttSftd W.McV6ondeinQ«dliiiii.|)ind€Mdb:i O^he AthaaaBs imdmf 
gte9i^'Ahtk6ih^ntoeifi»iihetitii^^ iniKiltoateiili^ehim, 

tfaat^e5^ eten Mtiptitns^npm^iii^i^dfwtA pnunisiala lefward of' 
a talent to any iilka whb ttcfM deliver lUni'im^dnxl or alive. <* v. 
; About tw^Sy yeMiW bof^^aishfiilaH'^oesfi' had been JBQtU«ted> 
agftiidrt'l^i^iiifbnl^4'^ ^^^^l^^ytrdiGecid^t ^estionibjr 

way^x^f ^bl^. "He hadnsbd' ii tWitf^^joH^g onioziff' of ^ltiB> 

ktimfioi i6htlffi^I<mgkt$6fa]ffif^ or deny.* far. our/trndu^andU^* 
eu^ioo muchiihUdeds'€mdihe^fi:(tftkaA4iKik» *liort,far th^^Miam 
of to ^t (tto dijUduk i''MTa:-'dBbk «hb (MbeniiaMBr «pald Innt )tert 
^ Jxa^ i'sQbJeot'otf'''thiB«ature tttMe<ti^<it>ubt vmM ibr thie teiiMih 
they-^)rde)i^"pre^laitt^af^^ tb'W niMuk^ by the pahhc crier/fti^a]]: 
per9oi^M6 h^d aiiv o^i^ Of ^lfiifil]f^k'vto4»rin^>them to^favjoHP*! 
gris^tee'; af^l^.iWlph tt^y^wel^>^nit as infiwious aiid4 ioipioiH^ 
pfeee^,aiidtfi^Hut^or:w%s banished for ever>froiii.all the terkiWni# 

Dlagofa^ and j^^^ras llad bee»'4he-.di8cit)l^s of tDeaiooiitai^ 

whofiiBtfflv%lited'theplrilosophy>«flitom«.".i - ' t m .r. vhr. .. 

'Sinoe "^e Wp^iib' of Aloibittde^,} Niei^d^kad 't)bfBesM'di«t 

vbrdte'-au^hc^ity ; ika /liktaiii^ii^AAsi'ce^em^y though a '«■■-; of 

bHtirery ai^& eiicperi^c&,<-p6s9eaied li^le kmotence, &<^iiMe<.of:hii' 

eztT^^tm pfMrclHlvi'Tor ifrtMb'his Wa& *t|f«^i^eid% the itfddiliMsri /But^ 

the 'AtheiHfticik Wei^e^t alVt»«3^^of ^'fl 9«fay of tbHiking^;) ib^> wiL. 

have^'a^etiitftat Aristides, 'pi^Y^eir i^%ks^^if«s''iiof 'iefls esteewidf 

and rmredted pn thflttMsfce<A>Unt': blkfi4H ihtePladtJiMc^dition^ the p^iU: 

jile iir ^e&eral bad imbibdd^-patJ^^n^lbrclQIIi^and- magiiitideaot'n 

the OAtural conseqtlence'Ofl\irIiibH^v% to^ew ridieeC AKrNicia%i 

thereR/re;.;^ov^ii^n^d^ Mt^ A\ hW aotidll» f^mfe- of the^ Bome tihft 

«^h j^ie dkposilioiiv that-^?ti!iiid4hdi^^^^ i ihe^euflbmbevesf 

tbhi^ t0 lad^l^i, sotneeimcs eitl»^ *b<^l^ii« still faUinodex^Mng: 

iQt;(»iftdti% 9r delibei^ting)^all'^lvbiota<^^d60lk4gppree8bd^ oitaBM: 
sid^; tike ^d&jt^aii&tl (ioiiif!d€lnd&'(h#l4'oop&^pt^fl^a*'fiiM.;(MBioBt 
tii^ tit^r ,' *f£tef y^i^'ii^ ten^or^tly^hklfa t)l»«n^n^4N(il'boeH»eiw^ 
at tiie'iipt ^'%<Hbf ^il«bk$:'«n'%f^Mint(^ HlitibHde^ 
and thoagh it was but a small city, he was ho<woiiuoMi|jtii ^Hfr* 

* loMnk. contr. App. f<C)ti«i4l4Ml ful»r t DM. Laeit. In 

^MCa^Jotepb. rontc, Afp. Cle. 1. 1, de dal deor. n. 0. | Tbiiqrd. p. 4M; 

4S3. Ttat.iBNftc.p.S33; 

9» ' ,^:.,.wsvgms,/mpffm^vi^% 

but ODe exploit, viz. the ruining of Hyccara, a Btnalltown inli^^t*, 
^ tt|rBKBhaTi|Lni,^iToniiwttch flaoQ^ k'iilsaidifJialj^m^the.CQ^e- 
fmm, atJilhst isst&^u^ pung,j[rM ibU wdth the ifi0f.M the,^^^ 
lira^aiil candedto PelaDoup^MBwK t w r .» oid »$£, m. ^ 

Ih the mdtaa time,* AlcibinfllBB hav^tleft Tbntmiii uriv^ «t 
Mgoa; and u<ke quite de8|MiJorodttCreveff'l)i«i»g,i^ 
flcpfea. mffiMwngm/ tOft&is S]^rtaQi|40ciii9irM>ve.^<>'^i'^.i4o%iH^o^ 
tfaem,ninriaritheiff gutfdwi pfffM}^ 'fH^i^roioif^ diin t^^ most 
8l>]enin ittsnner, that if 'tikiy. w«irtiU/{:ejiifilerhMPa:aa» their ffj^ir h^ 
would r<si(der ) gmter aeifiiiees to th^'^ate»/iiiiui he , h^^^^^had 
dipn»iiijiaae».to ifc.' . The.^^actamibfrradit^ hiiii..wit&'C^n ILrvyid ; 
and iMDn : after his. artivjed^-in UMir a^yi her, gained. the, <)o^.iuui 
oatfeem of all. its iij^abitah^ ; He^ohfirinddyjuid even eacf^Ln^^d 
thAufby hiiftiioonfonniag in^ th^ir wayrpf li^^^* 
S«oh.fieo|d^ AAsaw Alcibipidto aliave^.himsflf to tl^ Blga« bai^ la 
oodA.*vfrater, eat^pf the coat^^i^^vy cakes',. w)^chi<w«rfi(.tli^ir u«^^l. 
foodi and b&aa'weU 8«ilMed(ivi$h^heJ(p^|]()ack bio^'coiilf^ notiper- 
andEbifchemsdVees that a tfiaP|>iKiM) ^ubmt^-sfi.c^eeiful^ if^ .th\8* 
kindof l^,:haddever kept e«H^ i« hji9 P^«^} bid.uB^^^pncca^. 
aadqieffumes; had wtfmith&^lioefftai^ i^ri^iletus i^ f^.wf)?^ bad 
hiyiq[U)f lived m the midst of viflupfeB^uppiifs aiiAvPi^siooUit'.^^t 
AsnUhtyiwaa the characteristic that^^fa^fly dpstiii^dhf^^Alc;^ 
biades. Cameleon-like) he could assume all shi^eft and colf^nrv^ 
tdstinoifaftlli^Wr -of those $i9img 'wjiom ite-tf^^ > Uiixf^c- 
diately assumed their mannera;.«iM ada,pted hfoaself ^,^eir JboAjf^^ 
iHkSf fheyfaftd'beeh natliira} in biio^: ^nd thougl^he ins^ar^y ba^n 
a^r«aa^to them^he' could how^ter cc^v^r l^s disgust wj^h an ef^^^. 
8iiii^,c>«iidb unconstramd aoc; i With soothe had aQ ^e gi^i^^* 
and vivMifct'^^ thegaf'M .]Mthf.and ^Ih.otherSyaU^^g^inyfc^, 
ofvoldrftiyev ;• fcUiSpirta, he 9f<#l«bQ^]|$, f|^4» <*aritt^ejy; Jn 
Bwift^eiyoymdntfidlcBeB^ 4uad ci^elWur<«9.Inad^: up his wip^e^I^e ^ in 
Tluraoe^ he wajs alwajnr lQil'<hQ||ie^ck ore caipiming r. and wJij^i^ h& 
r^ded>fwitii\Ti08a{A«nre$,^tiQ 8{(^^^ «xceed^d i^l^^)??^ 
n^enceatff the.Pevsh^it Ml hmn{!W<l^plvptoion» ,? r ^ , i, /"jgri 

>3Bt hr^waa not baa^ 4«ti8t«d '^t^ gWiB^: therestc^em ^,;he 
LacedMBotilaaa. He/imUfiati&d hio^self jib far infp the afi^ctipn of, 
Tiniatf y'the.-wife of : king: jAiM th«g; he had| a son. .1^ iie^>' w^o, in 
pubik, vanlbythe Btwliit)? lieotvcjliides; though hi4.^oth(^£, Ii^ 
prioUie^ ^hd aaox^giiicrt^VKonien an j fepaale frieiid% did i^t bl4«^ to 
oallSiBi.iMbiadea^'flo^ent W|9 ber Tpa«ii0]|^tl^).A:tii|fpi«||. 
^igiafwflrinfdmied of tliii»ii«tng¥«.'Wid ther^soij^^ifu^d. tor^^g^p 
tieMx^iimh^ibr bkj8ont.f»r..Whii9U i^iMon h9|4^^,^eri|i^da,j9x. . 

PEEsiara Tm^nmmiAVBi tti 

As the sieg^e of Syiacuse ig,Qiie oC i|Q^);i:(oi^'(^)^l^e^ble in the 
of the manner in which the ancients 

jad|f& it,.aua<*s8ft^yv?»?for^-l fipt«r^flt9,,i^^ detail,- to dye^S^ 
rea49r iflAcp^^ption. and plan.of ,tl^ ^it]{^ih .Syracuse ; in wm<ih he 

vijil alf^Q j^nd thaJiiTejc^^t^foTtificiUioj^ C|^.thp Ath^nian^ andf 

SmQ«»aw,fl^j|tio.i?ffdin'^pWg^.;,,' ■ .. ' 1 U" ..^ ' 

Syracuse stop^ on^e ^§a*yj?X:Coa«t jf l?»OTf* ^^ Y??^ ^^^'J*t 
its «(^aj|^^^8 sitmtiQ|[}ythe convei^9J[if;y,ofjU|double^h^^^ 
its fpi;M$^K^o^ hiultwitl|.^ie. M^pst carie ajjid^pour, find .uie'tnttl- 
titqda aiip^^^tii^f ijl^i4hf4>i^8^^tc^ mad^ n^oj^eof the"g^eat.e8i;th(e 
most l^ea^f Al,.aJ|^ iQ0^1t|^owerfu^,funon|;.the! Grecian cjtiedJ )V<t 
are UjiiA^ #8^vair jffw 80'p^fefftpj| se^Mie*JtJ^p.t tjier^ wrii|rip day.tii^ 
the^yeV5»J^cJpudyr.«;^y^fj^pig^t ^,iA which the,,8p4 did nbl 

A. McMtti. ' 'ftf waff ^b^4ti ^y r^roh^fts,. th^, Cormthian,r^ yeir 
Aat.i.^.3|». after^.rjTajffw.fwAi^i^W-MA^ Jti/^/^n foandea ori" :^ 


:poliB,..w«-e i»ftei3^a^4«jadded. .,; 

brid^. '..It,Wil%;ip thiarfland that,tKe §y|-fl,cuaflLn8 aftji^\ji;aj«Jp l)uuf 
the citadel ^4di thecpaJaq^ fiff thei?).jci|)^vj Thw iju Vjter, Q^e city 
waa of y^f^tgr^^il,.'^Q]?,o4fPfieyJ^fic^^ might,fr.^»46r ti^pee >y^.(» 
?oaaeip^ltrma^er,p4thQ,tyY,q,po^t^/Wl^ ji., It.^as ^ 

for.tJn« ««8iipD,th«|$?i^fo 8^09^ VIS, ^henth^.toQ^ ^^^l^ 

Th«iie was'iathip jBj^ji/a'v^ry,^niQusio^ta^t|| caHetf '^r^- 
tiiaBa. Tfce anc^^aite, of wfehQr(^the.p9^tsi fiop,^Tfi^i^m w^icn h^ve^ 
not the k^tillidoyft pf^iMph|^^j}ijt)i,;^upposejd»jthat .the.Alpheu^,,aj 
river .J*!" ^48jiy».P#]pj^i^^iif^ rpIJi^, its. wft^fir^, either through or 
undec tlWf lW5K»efi lof fti? im, WtfMtfit jcver. W^fiftg with them, as far 
w thetfQiiQlaM qf Afiflaw^^ - jj^ fla^;^^iS,ftct^ojft.whieh gave occ;^^ 
Eion to the following lines of Virgil;— .,>^ , ^^^ .. ' . 

• Cfc. Verr. 6. n. 1 17—119. ^ . . 

t Urbem SyraciMu elegerat, cujun hi« sitiu atque hcenatara ea$t loet coBllqne diel* 

tWi^ttt mlhiajunauam dies t^m inagaA turbuientiique «ietinfw;fltbte IUk 

Hat QnciLb-Ri «.«;■• "- •■» -'!-■■' *' ••"" •*• •••.«" = . -' ' -cu'ti. 

fiit^ertom Irane, Arfldiiua; milH eoiMede laboreu.— * 
Sic tibl, etm fluctu* y^jfHyyK'tll' 

wara irom me nonn lowaros uie .8ouiii,"SfKi iwfts'veiy wea-uma* 
bitj^d,,^ It had ?. ft^ious^gate called H'eitlL#fllittV,'l^!««ll R(»ttWtb& 
fcpvntnJand wa? siWf^teYJ t6 'the ii6ttfrof tR^'bitt; ' ' ^ t*^< 

mr f,nai rea^^ii uj Y*^*^! ti*"*^"^'' acc^.-sa. -at, xtsc txmfifnttrs'tssKS^ in 

ouestion; if \fa8 njji sUhoxindei! t^h'*¥«ll& J UM the^ «v»iwwaii8 
defended it witli a body bf f roopsjtfga^iift tfte'attafcltB (^'^tfte^^tiemj^.' 
EMtyeJus was the pass or entrp.nce which led to E^^pylfe; *^ Oil tfie 
§arae JiiU o/Epipolse' .v/as a^fert' felled LiibilaRftft o^Labdaiflttftii' . ^ 
^It wks^ndt till hinff kft^r (l(hdt^l}i%i«» rfle^f^tfi1^^ 
poI»,w^ surrounded with walls, and inclosed within tM'titW^ 
\^hi(ii it fd&M' ft UWh y^;M '^'^ thinlf iflkfeMtedC'^' A '^«th 
diWon had1)66t ad^d 6etbi'e,''<3!J3fed Tfe&oWts] that^'i,-^^ NMtff 
City, which bdVeredfTyclW.^^ ■ ' • /< '"vif ;^' 'i ••-. . It y-'ro *: :■ 

. ^TheTiver Ani4>us ran at ojmost hi^t league dlM^e^omth^ 
dity?* . The'fepate &et\;(^eeh £b^ was- a lar^ iMia b<j*tittril ff lain, 
ieripinated by ii^^p feiikTthbcille'cAlled ^^etedy^^A^^e^lto^it^ 
iamedlandthe ottera^^sijiielii:' Thip riyjet^i^j^ieid it&elf iiiW tW 

ti.t hkfl)Otir:*" Near its jnotttb,J80uthv«f'«Wi'w*aa akibd'of-^jwitl^ 
ed plyipiV;^ IV6m thfeHtoplte of ^Jttfiter-Olyfai^lfe^ A*^^iw^ 
t1lere,^'d in wBilcfh Were'gVeift-rtcljds. Rwas 300 pifces fnJfittltfeedity/ 
'/'Syr&cure had two hjjcrbburs, i^fy nfea:^^^!!© fftftblhferjliiia jep«t«ted 
only by tke Isle^mrnh^j^at b^rb6ur,ai!d t^e8ii^flQlMi«,'(mliechoth€r« 
yasQ J^a^us. Acporj^g tb tfte fescri^tfen '^tticfitbd Romaii 09%.tor 

point of the \B]imok^glk „ _ 

ahd cape of Plemm;^itttn,^^mV ^ -^iifiiiMtAecP llif 'i'^ealtld -of 
the same name. '' '^?'"" to ^ -ml ^^niv/ofr"^ .iM {>- .'c j-- 

Above Achradma was a third port, called the harbour of Trosfilus, 

t Portus habetpiopd in iD#0ptl4oiir «ip(Bct«tW,ivbU4w)i*^.. • Cfc yysrrJ^.ik,.\VLL 
^ :Atcolin»9fof9ttalta. it i9| eighty pf^d^a hi JscaiftifgrAcc, wbi^li iwl^jTtjirtal ex" 
lent ; a plain proof tliat tblB pawage of Strabo 11 corrupt. C7iivfl^ p. Ifp.j ,^.„ ^ ^ 


r, ' ftrtT .t.«'>i-'' 1. '. i*; V io/'>'» ■ • ••v'i'I) n-joM t'<n ■;.-.; i..-. 

. . ^ JEiff/i<c«i<A if«ar of ihe JFar. ^ , •^'' •'; / -'i 

^SgFraeusailSf. ham^ .reeunied 3ou|1i^,idleiid€tf/t»iiitr^agiuii0t 
lum. Abreadf^ their [oavaliffiulyaim^l 'with'sn^iur >eif *M6dl^o€ to 
iamiit'bisiaeven in l]fia)cax&p ; aack wHl^ witbtfJ^ituiA kagiiV wlwUi«r 
Jie «f|i8^^ome into Sknhrtto Hiettfe inrCatttilab These "fleveve'^Ytf- 
piiasbev tbused him :a littie,'8otlmi h^d^dved t<Mf|Lil for Syrii- 
&m. ' oThil enterprise \\rBi^ 1)old «ttdi dati{geroU8^' ^ ^ i iKicin could ait, 
vit]nn(:rcaiiifa^d[lie'Aitnioibt btuBavdf otttemtJt to Ihnd in OMMeno^'Df • 
an enemy who waited for him with the ^qteet nsomtionrtttid 
wofttUI nor failttp chajrgfe 4iini,vtke tnstaUt hei ^bdiidd^flllr to' rMce 
a descents ■• Norvv^ftt^solbrifet him to maroh hts^ tr^pi^'lBiiti, 
becaaBe$:«8 he had not eoridkiy^j tb»t of'th^ Sv^aett^anj^'wlMi 
was Y^erfinnraerous/lipoa^tkeii^tQldviQ^tthe^'shmild hai^e oolite 
sardB^ would fall iipdh bimf lind^ei^dWie/hmi by tbe>supenor^ 
a^fotfBSBi ' »*'■ <i ,*f/ '''^i"' ^ i^--> >!.':r'ti'jn!'' m; 1." -' ' • i"*- ^b -(^ -■ '''>'-• 
'To^trionte-falmsellf frbiilf tbis^peitplekityi'aftd enal»le h^i^lf^ 
seize with6ut[bpi|Jdbitio»ii^n)an advfeiffik^6a»-'|lo0l;, whfehi.a^fil^tt- 
cuaoni ^xiiiichad d(ifeeov^red lofl^, Nickus had teco^ite to Mkl«- 
gem«. i'Heiealis^d a (U^ei^Jpkee'^f Ihfdrmatiod 'to^H^ gliven tothe 
enem^q^tv^lt that -ty 'fueawi^f ^d ^onfipiracf^ '^Mch'^Was'^to^ tai^ 
effect on a certalnrVlay) thsey^nii^hr^t^^dn hliS (^aiUp^ a^d-^oss^isB 
tU9Hlsel^eB>of tlfthc srttis'ajd'*^^^^^'- The S^^i^a^iajo:^, on'this 
asittraiitcr^tmarchCidl tdviwrds Oatfarna; astfd pftehe3 'thl^i'cainpne^ 
Leantism. '^ThSr moioisiil tbe Athettians had^ad^ioe of tMs^h^ 
.enil^rked'Wlt^ ^Vtheit^Mops and^^ammunitk>n, ah£^^ theWenin^ 
steered for %raens^.<)'>They nir^^dd 'by ^^ia^reak' in' th^' pAi^ 
haiteifl'^^lanii^dnearidiympia^ ili'the plM^'whkh>had l^tl {^(^V 
«i#''ditr'to<ilidbir,'aattd>lib%t« fortified J(l?dtn9elv<is. The enemy, ^nii- 
ingt thi^i^e^ i(bakd&Uy<Hbi'4<^aGli0d,^ettknKid'imh^e^tely '^ 
43y<aooae4 ftfldv hi tbeif^atedt>V6£g)&f dn^ew tiip'in'hattl^ttrJM^^>^Die 
4i«y»Ufbe*y^ Imibw^th^ ^^aHa^bfiih^ c«ty*'^ 'Nitoiad 'marchetf^*&&t^ 
4he tf iffifeMi^^ttA^ 'baMle wfii fbught.- ' Yiotoi^ itas a long-time 
dQollefhi;^^llut ifii^^i^if hetlP«^ shower of rufi^ accoibplttfl^^vi^itli 
tfiao^ieif and ligiilflln|','>comingilii«eiepeci^d)y, the Sytkcusans, ^^^ 
Wl<f4 inex^ffenfdedvu^ gr«tfyei^ir-pan dftliem hkvii% We^ calried 
srdbsi«^tev^w<»«tffH^)hediat''im9^f^e^ th^it* etaetfti^ 

laiigft(id'<i6 1^,^y^'tb(ipiin^t^ 'dlf^<^ ^ th^d' aeadpn; aKd't^^^d^ 
B»t&i^tlitiihd^^«jheitf^,lfirbdi \t^e 'lijiiochiliN^' to be-8ireaded4llft& 
tli« ^Btobni' ^]^f S^a^UfiREUiir, liltenr miakii^ i; Icn^ and Vigoi'dto 



fenstance, "Were fbroed to ffive way. The Athenians could not 
pursue them far, because £hebf flSraK^^hich was still in a body, 
' and had not been defeated, covered their retreat. The Syra- 
^Mji^ieti^t^d'^lij^t^ ordef tRtty^t6(g;bitjf ;''d^ 
body of troops Inu) die tein^le of O^yzhpia, to prevent its being 

plundered. -tL'Ti i >o ttyAf ^v n*. .i'-: 

This temple stood pretty ireaf tne camp of the Athenians, who 
' ,mi3e iexy^ deilrdiii ;of i laidng'r'i^ tocause: ilifaboundedMtb g^ltf and 
fibers QffirTUi|fSiy:wiii6h >the,pi^ty.o€ IdneB' mod nalkibs^iial 'oensi^ 
•crated* ' liicias'bainng del^Bedisehdi^^^oops taSeflse it,'lo8t the 
-ToppoortunitjfVjitoidrigiiiiQfthe SymeiminsiiHttiaShrDwtinto ik^ids-vas 
4^fore obeerved^'a dstaobtneaoit ^its defi|iioe. «it was thougit hk 
4^lhis ofifpuxpose, ltQdi>ut(of:7e{s^ecQ]ieQ fothe gods^i^becanse^faa^ 
,tbe solcU^s phmdsxedf ■tbisutfMipWr'tbir/^^^ 
'irpaped-^ainr "beb^fit by ^t^ and: Mnwelf akme ' wjoiidd, bave^btani ae- 
roosed of thfesacrilage* , >/.» /'// .1 ri -uL it-'UiVh' (>»• v -/. j;, -i 
f^j.Aft^ tiKthnUi^ the AAbeaiansi/inrJioil^ereiiot yet in tt'cobdition 
(!• AttiUsi^&fcaottseiii^etiredjWAthitfoidnilMt'ite Naams and Catans, 
iliuiwihleciioeiet with dfisigttlMvndtorn in the. beginning <irf.tii& 
M^ Bfni^^ sua . layi isitgi^f)tPt^ jiiity*> ( j Fot' this thef. wanted 
DJQOietyii'provinoqSi dti^ ^laitMvlar^Jiqrse^ ofowhicb they wpfe ab^ 
isoiately destitute. The Atnenians depended upon obtaining part 
cQft(hi^iisuo0XMjLrs.6ppii;||ie ;peoi^ ttf^Sicilyy^whb Ihey.^supfxi^d 
. Wf^dJDiA tbem^^^f^ .instant jthey ^boul^ hear, of tbieir victory i djod 
%i ^ fifLintitime tbe]!i6i|^,t0 esfc^ess liO-iAthemh, ta.«)libit the Mke 
^f(, .; lih^\ aiSQc &(if^s8ed the' iCastbaginiittis for>itbmrlilliaACQ; 
ami s^fit 4eputi)$K J^ ^ptl^e cUies dft&ta^^iaituatiedfQli that coast of 
,the.!]^M66l^«^vwbiohb£^dt^aiised(t^,«aBist.lklMtB^ r r^'ito 1 
pi, The ^yifftWfl«a« were f^irfrem- ^tefc^onding. -i H^oiiociatesyi'nHlib, 
jof^ail tbQirl9/ide^s, OK^st diatingRiishi^ior bis valour, kisjud^ 
^aevtf Ai^d. expei^ncie^ VepriB^Qttid t«jthiemii«n'OGfbvtoxaise tlKir 
*h0j>e^ottol tb^ had not beeniiwanti^gitA tomiti^ bdtt in^oandklct ; 
Ij^t tifeei en,emies>.tb<w?gl>=,ver)y'ilMriv^, <ftWed.4iit$)»;vidtory t© thor 
.^^d lortane rt^t^ th«i» to tj^^; m0rit|tChat tbd A*y'»g •ftioniM- 
4l24ip. of leaders (rhey^^re fi£(«ie4^4n iMimb^r^^.flwwB.wfeieb^DiifiiBisB 
and;di«i^f^!e<^Qc^^^e insep4^raWd|Jiad d)»t|e th {srfjvdiofi;' that 
i% yi,o\^difhe.%\ie0hii4jf i9U9a($6S9f^-fQip tbes»>t«ichoQ6fi;}e^p«8^3ii(x^ 
g^neia)8,(to k^ep: tj&e ,Test 'ia^ tMi'iduiiy, snd .eixefi^hfff ^r foi^ea 
■coRtiAttsjIy djirinfif tb^ wint'exiHseiTSQAv/ 7buclDLd!nMibpH»|:4bUowed» 
^]ae^mp<}wyic!9:,an4 t;i»ro-ntore.'3ver^'eleofce4 generals },;||fVE(r»tlt*tick 
4^ B^p4^fmtm .{a^Qorintl^iaiMli.liaQc^fiipf^jto^M 
jalU^c^an^t^at the ^|B^^ttiiji0:J^^il(fl^e •iAemotoi tiakc a.c^i!;^ 
,pif)Q„Hi. Qr^r io ol4i0^»i^,pps#k,ijUi» Mj^^niMiaTtQr.viof^ tbeir 

f^oQp«:<wtipj[;siciljfi..qr 9^,1^^ ^9ti^ym%^hekl9miiv(g ^jr^m&^Tcs^ 
^^ttXMiefi. iXbe^^fyi«i;^f Syr«i^|yi9e/;)mi^«0bi|if()3^ect«# 
tM^f«ire^,. Aw)r4inply th^y.tcji^k i»i<^ tfeft-fili|y,d^)BL wafloidl 4hd 
tract^ of land towards Epipol^, from, the northern extremity of] 
TyGkOffdeadf^d^ w^j^w^jrU ^ow^^s, Jl^e qp^rty 9f*h.fJ.I?ltjr,,calleJ 

VERSUlf » ilND QBEGIANS; filf 

•flerwards Neapolis, in order \fi remoVe the eneray to a g^reater 
^anee, and to give them more troubte in making 0ieir contittval- 
iati<Mi, by obDging them to give a larger extent to it. This partp 
in aft probabnity, htid been neglected, because it seemed to be 
Buffiddntly defended by its rugged and steep situation. They aho 
gamsoned .Megara «nu Olvmpia, and drove stakes into uU ^hose 
parts of the sea^shore,* where the enemy might easily make a 
aescent. Hearing afterwards that the Athenians were at NazoSy 
they went and burnt the camp of Catana, and retired, after laying 
waste the adjacent country. 

The ambassadors of Syracuse being arrived amon^ the Corin- 
thians,* asked succour of them as having been their fouuders, 
which was immediately granted ; ^and at the same time they sent 
an embassy td the IjacediBmonians,*to invite them ta declare In 
their favour. Alcibiadei^ enforced their demand with all his credit 
and eloquence, tP which his resentment against Athens added new 
vigour. Hel advised and exhorted the Lacedsamonlans to appoint 
Gyfippus their general, and send him into Sicily ; and at the same 
time to invade the Athenians, in order to make a powerful di\ ersion* 
In the third place, he induced them to fortify De^elia in Attica, 
which quite completed the ruin of the city of Athens, it not being 
able ever to recover that blow : for by this fort, tLe Lacedeemoniang 
made themselves masters of the country, by which the Athenians 
were deprived of their silver mines of Laurium, and of the re- 
venues of their lands ; nor could they be succoured bv their neigh- 
bours, Decelic becoming the, asylum of all vhe malcontents and 
partisans of Sparta. 

K.u.35B(k Nicias had received some succours from Athens. 

Ani. J. c. 414. Tbese consisted of 250 troopers, who the Athenians 
supposed would be furbished with horses in Sicily (the trodps brirg- 
ing oiJy the furniture,) and of thirty horse-archers, with * 300 
talents, that is, 300,000 French crowns.f Nicias now began to 
prepare for action, fee was accused of often letting' slip opportu- 
nities, by his losing time in deliberating, a-going, and concerting 
measures ; however, when jonce he entered upon action, he was as 
bold and vigorous in execution, as .he befbre had been slow and 
timorous in undertaking[) as he showed on the present occasion. 

The Syracusans hearmg that the Athenians had received a rein- 
forcement of cavalry, and would soon march and lay siege to the 
city ; and knowing tney could not possibly approach it, or make a 
contra vollation, umess they should possess themselves of the heights 
of EpipoliB, which commanded Syracuse, they resolved to guard the 
avenue to it, which was the only pass oy . which the enemy could 

Sit up tp it, every other part being rugffe<j and inaccessible, 
arcing therefore down into tne' ^eadow> bordered by the nv^r 
Anapus, and reviewing their troops ther?,thcry appointed 700 foot^ 

♦ Tbq^rd I, V*. p. 471-%48[fe. PImU ia Al^a! ft. 909. Ii^/f to, ^ JOI, m , Dtod. i 
(ilLM» t Aboutir/KW. tterllni, ^ . • , 

Vol.. TIL ' T ♦ n^ ' 


tihddr the command of Diomilus, t<T guard tli&t unportant post'; witb 
ordei*s to repair to it, iit the first signal which should he ^ven for 
that purpose. But Nicias conducted his design with so muc|i pru- 
dence, expedition, and secrecy,* that they had not time to do this. 
He^ailed frorn Catana with all his fleet, without the enemy's having 
the least su^icion of his design. Bein? arrived at the port of 
^rogilus^ near Leontium, whiph is hut af quarter of a league (six 
or seven furlongs) from EpipoLee, he put his land forces on shore, 
after which he retired with his fleet to Thapsus, a small peninsula 
near Syracuse, the entrance to which he shut up with a staccado. 

The land forces marched with the utmost expedition to seize .on 
Cpipqle, hy the pass of Euryielus, hefore the enemy, who were in 
the plains of Anapus^ al above a league's distance^ had the least 
tiotite of their arrival. At the first new« of this, the 700 soldiers. 
Under the command of Diomilus, advanced forward m confusion, 
but were easily defeated, and 300 of them, with their leader, left 
dead in the fiiBid. The Athenians, after setting up a trophy, built 
a f9rt in Labdalon, on the summit of Epipolse, in order to pecxiie 
theu* baggage and most yaluab).e eflects in it, whenever they should 
he forced to fight, or work at the contravallatioji. 

Soon a^er, the inhalHtants of Egesta sent the Athenians 300 
horse, to which sorne of their Sicilian allie? added 100 more, 
which* with th^ 250 sent hefore by the Athenia.ns, and who had 
furnished themselvos with horses in jSicily, made a body of 650 

The plan laid dowm by Nicias for taking Syracuse, was to sur 
roui>d all the city on the land side with a strong contravallatlon, 
in order to cut ofl* all communication with the place from witfaont, 
in hopedl no doubt, that liis fleet would afterwards enable him to 
nrcventTh^ Syracusans from, receiving any succours or provisions 
oy sea. ^ 

Haying'left a garrisoti iti Labdalon,' he came down from the hill, 
advanced towards the hoithern extremity of Tyche, and halting' 
there, he employed th3 whole army in throwing up a line of con- 
travallatiqn, to shut up the city northward from Tyche as far a« 
Trogilus, situate on the sea^side. This work was carried on with, 
such axapidityk as terrified the<6yracusan8. ^T^ey/hought it abso- 
lutely necessary to prevent the carryingonofthis work, and accor,d-» 
ingly made some sallies and attacks, but atwu^s with disadvantaf e» 
tind even their cavalry w%i routed. The day af^er the action,, tho 
contra vallation (northward) was continued by part .of the anny» 
during which the rest carried stones and other materials towaxoa 
Trogmis, in ordeir to finii^i it. ^ , 

Tne besieged, by the advice of H«nnocrate^, thought it advisable 
tiot to venture a second battle wit]i the Athenians ; and ohiy en^ 
deavoured to put a -stop to their Tvorks, or at least to render theiZK 
ueleto, byraiitoi^ « wall t<^jMt the line of that carried on bV tl^Q 
AtheniaDs. They imagined that in case they shogld be si^^r^ 


tp eo^pleU their wall^ it iKrould ,be iinp<Miibl« %^|hQ.A)hQDliiQ« U\ 

make. any. fartlier progrew in their work : or thitt, should thcjf eii* 
4e&vour tip prevent it, it wf)\ild| be ^oScieat for the Syra<;uaaaa tq 
oppose^ tb^pA^Tyitb a part of t|u3U^ forces, i^fler having shut up aucb 
avenues a«i.w,^e moait ivpqesajble with 49tronff palisades.; nnd that 
the Atheiu4fs^ on I tlie contrary, would be obliged to send for nil 
their forces, ^odentirely^abandon their works. . ' ,- 

Accordingly, they came out of their. oity, and working with in-> 
expressible, ardour, they began to raise a wnll ; ana, in order to, 
carry it on with less molestatibn>,tiaey covered it wSth strong ^Ui"> 
sades, and flanked it with woodpn towers, at proper distan^es^ 
to defend it* The Athenians suffered the Syracusans to carry 
on their works un^turbed, because, had they msirched only part 
of their tropps against them, they would have been too weak; and 
if they had brought them. all, they then, musit have been oblige^ 
to discontinue their works, which they had resolved not to do.. 
The work being completedi.,the Syracusans lefl a body of trobpe 
to de^nd the palisaae and guard the wajl« and then retume4 
into the city. 

In the mean time the Athenians cut off the canals by which 
Water was coj^veved into the city ; a^d observing that the Syra*. 
cusan soldiers, who had been lef^ to guard th^ wall,, were very 
negligent in their duty ; some returning at no^ either into thet 
city or their tentd, and the rest not keeping a proper guard, they 
detached 300 chosen soldiers, and some light infantry, to attack thia 
post; during which the rest of the army marched towards the city^ 
to prevent any succours from coming out of it. A^^cordiogly, the 
390 soldiers having forced the palisade, pursued those who guarded^ 
it as flir as that part of the city wall which covered Temenitea,' 
where, pouring in indi^riminately with them, they were repulBe4 
by the inhabitants with loss. The whole army afterwards de- 
molished th9 wall, pulled up thfi palisades of the intrenchipent,. 4nd 
carried them off. 

Afler the success, whereby the Athenians were masters of th^ 
nonJhem parts, they began^the very next day, asttli mor^ important 
work, and which woiud quite flnish their inclosure- of the city, 
vix, to carry a wall from the hills of ^tipipohe, westward, through 
the plain and the fens, as far as the great harbour. To prevent 
this, the besieged, beginning' the same kind of work a0 they . had 
Carried on on the other side, ran a trench, lined with palisades, 
from the city through the fens, tp prevent the Athenians from caipv 
lying their contravaJlation as f^-r a« the saa, : but the latter^ after 
finishing the first part of the \yaU oi^.the hiills of E^pole, resobed 
to at^ipk this pew work. ' For thi^ purpose, they ojrderctd their fleet 
to sail from Thapsus to th^ great hjurbour of Syracuse ; for it ha4 
hitherto continned in that rcHid ; ,and the besieged b&d always th^ 
sea open to them, by which the besiegem. were obliged to get their 
IirovisiQQS £:om Th»piu« by lai^d. The Athenians came down 

im ■''■ HisTORT OF TJar 

tber^Mre firom ti^ipoitB into the plak 1>efote Any-^breAV whteni 
tfirbwing planks 'p.iid beams in that pqfrt Where the fens wbte &oHy 
dlimy and more firm than in other pljihe^,''they immediate^ carried 
the greatest pdrt of the fdss^ ]in^d ynm palisades, and then the i'est, 
the after havmg beaten the Syracusarie," Wh6 ga^e way'^nd fei\ted ; 
such as were on the right towards the dty, aitd'the r^ tO'WardEr 
river. Three hundred chosen Athenians having litteitffrted to cut off 
the paitaage dfthe liitter,'flew towards thebridgfe; but-tft0 enfemy's 
^Btvalry, the greatest 4>art of which were drawn upln bttttle, repulsed 
them ; and afterwards charged the right wing of the Athenians,, and 
put the first battalions into msorder. Lanfiachus, perceiving this from 
the left wing wher^-^hc commanded^ ran thither withthe Argtves and 
some archers; but having passed a trench, and being abandoned by 
his soldiers, he was killed with five or six who had followed him. 
The enemy immediately passed the riVer, aiid seekig the rest of the 
arpy come up, they retired. "^ / 

At the same time thei^ rififht win^, which' had returned towards 
the city, resumed courage frdm this success, and drew up'in order 
of battle before the Athenians ; after iiaving detached some'troops 
to attack the fort (:n the hills of Epipofas, which served as a maga- 
zine to the ehemy, and Was thought to be iinguarded. Tliey fbtced 
an mtrenchment that covered the fort; hvtt Nicks* saved it. !He 
had remained in thief ^ott, in consequence of illness, and wa& at that 
time in his bed, with only his domestics about him. Animated by 
the danger and the pi-^ence of the enemy," he struggles with his 
indisposition prises up, and commands h^ servants to set fire im- 
inediately to all the timber lying between the intrenchipent i^d the 

,fort for tlip military engines, and to the engines themselves. " This 
unexpected conflagration stopped the Syracusans, saved Niciais, the 
fori, and all the rich effects of th^ Athenians, who made haste to 
the relief of that general. At the same time; the fleet was seen 
sailing into the great harbour, according to the orders given for 
that purpose. The Syracusans having perceived this from the hill, 
and fearing they- should be attacked from behind, atod overpowered 
by the troops which weie about to land, retired, .ai»d returned to 

, the city with all their forces ; now no longer expecting, after having 
losttheirfoss^ lined with palisades, that ft would be possibln fisr 

'£hem to prevent the enemy from carryiag on their contra vaUation 
as far as the sea. # 

In the mean tiihe, the Athenians, who had contcntW themsf^lv^s 
with building a single wall on the hills of Epipol», and through 
Buch places I as were craggj' and of difficult access, being 6ome 
down into the plain, begain to build, at the foot of the hiUs, a double 
Wall, intending to carry it as far as the sea; viz, a wall of eentra-' 
vallation against, the besieged, and another of circttmyallation 
ftgainst thbse Syracusan troops which wiere out' of the city', and 
such allies as might come to ks ait). •;'')( 

"From thenceforward Nicias, who was now sole general^'^eA. 


eeWed litmi h0^t 'ihr tsevknl ciciefl of ^ciiy, Whkli IMietfB 
had not detlnred for Either side, came and joined [h\th ; aiiid therd 
arrived from all quarters vessels laden with provisionil for his army, 
all partied being eager to go over to him because he had aequired 
the vuperiorify, and been exceedingly successful ia all his under' 
takings. The Syracusans, seeing themselves blocked up both by^ 
sea and land, and losing all hopes of being able to defend their 
city any longer, already proposed an accommodation. Gylippus, 
who was commg from Lacediemon to their assistance, having 
heard, on his passage, the extremity to which they were reduced, 
and looking upon the whole island as lost, sailed forward neverthe- 
less; not with the view of defending Sicily, but only of preserving 
to the nations of Italy such cities as v/^re subject to them in that 
island, if it wer6 not too late, and if this could' be done. For lame 
had declared, in all places, that the Athenians had already possess- 
ed themselves of the whole island ; and were headed by a general, 
whose wisdom and good fortune rendered him invincible. Nicia^ 
himself, now (contrary to his natural dispositionj confiding in his 
own strength, and elate from his success, persuaded also by the 
secret advices which were brought him daily fVom Syracuse, and 
the messengers who were sent to hirti, that the city would imm^ 
diately capitulate, did not regard Gylippus^ approach, bsA in eon* 
sequence took no pi^autions to prevent his landing, eepecii^ 
when he heard thht he brought but very few vessels ; termii^ hiiA a 
trifling pirate, not worthy, in any manner, of his notice. \ Bat a 
general ought to be extremely careful not to abate his cares and 
vigilance upon account of success, because the 'least negligence 
may ruin every thing. Had Nicias sent the smallest detacliment 
to oppose (rvhppus's landing, he would have tilken Syracuse, and 
the whole 'feLnUr had been ended. 


Tte SvnwiMUH feM>lr« to ofipllalate,biit Gyilp^i^s inrrlval ehtngM the ha% of lAw 
Nicus Is forced' by bis oolieagues |o engage io ft sea-fight, and Is overcooM. Hl| 

Itad fiivees are also defeated. 

, • . • ... 

J^ltiniteeniH yMt^^of ike War* 

The fbrtificatiooa of the Athenians were now aknoat complete ;* 
and they had drawn a double wall, near half a league ii^ length* - 
aloBg the plain and the fens towards the- g^f^t port,-fmd had 
ftlmoet reached iU There now reiBained) on th^ side towanki 
Trogilus, only a small part of the waU to be finished. The Svra^ 
coBau were therefore on the brijuk of ruin, a])4 had! no hopes left, 
is thej. Wjere no longer able to defend thenqseLves, aad did nol 
expect any suecoura* JPpr this reason Uiey resold to anrrendor. 
Accordingly, a council was held to settle articles of capitulation, in 

•Tlmcsf^].TlLp.48»-480 Flat, la ITIe. p. 93S, 938. Diod. 1. zffl. p. 138, 1361 


Older 40 p rwop t them wNidm? and aevemt'were of (^Moi, thit 
it would be proper to capitulate soon, before the city AoM lie en- 
tirely invested. 

It waa ai; tl^at very instant, and in the most critical jnnctoro* that 
an officer, Gongylus by name, arrived from. Corinth on board a 
^sbip with three benches of oars. At his arrival, aU the citizens 
^flpq)ced round him. He informe;d them, that Gyhppus woaUd be 
with them immediately, and was followed by a great many other 
galleys, which were coming to their aid. The Syracusans, asto- 
nished, t^r rather stupified, as it were, with this news, could scarce 
believe what they heard* Whilst they were thus fluctuating and 
in doubt, a courier arrived from Gylippus to inform them of his ap- 
proach, and order them to march out all their troops to meet him. 
He himself, after having taken a fort in his way,* marched ,in order 
of battle directly for Epipole : and ascending by Euryelus, as the 
Athenians had done, he prepared to attack them from without 
whilst the Syracusans should charge them, on their side, with the 
forces of Syracuse and his. Tbe Athenians, exceedingly surprisea 
at his arrival, drew up hastily, and without order, under the walk. 
1/Vith regard to himself, laying down his anns w}ien hie approached, 
he sent word by a herald, that he would allow the Athenians five 
days to leave Sicily. Nicias did not condescend to make the least 
answer to this proposal; and some of his soldiers buying out a 
laughing, asked the herald,^ Whether the presence of ff Lacedcemo- 
man clmk, and a trifling ipand^ could make any^ change in the pre-* 
ient Mtate ^ the city ? Both sides, therefore, prepared for battle. 

Gylippus stormed th-is fort of Lebdalon, and cut to pieces all who 
were round in it. The same day an Athenian gaUey was taken, 
as it sailed into the harbour. The besieged areerwatrds drew a 
wall from the city, towards Epipolse, in order to cut (abput the ex- 
tremity of it) the single wall of the Athenians ; and to deprive 
fhem of aU communication with the troops that were posted in the 
intienchments which surrounded the city on the north side towards 
lyche nnd TrogUus. The Atke^ans^ after hathig finished the 
wall, which extended as far as the sea tow.^rds th^. great (yGirbour, 
were returned to the hiUs. Gylippus perceiving, in Uie single wall 
which the Athenians had built outthe hills of Epipolie, one part that 
was weaker and lower than the rest, marched thither in Uie night 
with his troops ; but being difecoyered by the Athenians, who were 
encaMpe^ without, he was ftrced to retire, upon seean^ them ad* 
ranee directly towards him. They raised the wall higfber, aiKl 
thems^Ves undertook the guard of it, after haying fixed their allies 
in the several posts of the remainder of the iiiltrenchmeift* 

' Nichkt, on tike other side, tbon^t poper to fortify the cape of 
Plem my ifa m , which, by its running into the sea, straitened the 
mouth of the great harbotir *, and hia design thereby was> t6 pro- 

/ .1 



ear^ porovisbnB). tod'^dl other thiiif» hat ttighl wdnt,' tiie mora 
easily; because the poaseennff thennelvefl of thai 
post, drew near the little, port, wheteiA lay the ctuef navid feroes 
of the Syracusans^ and were the better able to , observe their 
various motions ;>aD<i that besides, by having'the sea open^thay 
would not be forced to haye al]^ their provisions from the iKittolU of 
the great harbour ; as they roust have heen» should the cnemy^ by 
seizing on 'the mouth, of it,Y}bliffe them to keep close in the har- 
bour, in the manner they then did« Por Nicias, since the arrival 
of Gylippus, had had no hopes lelft but from the side next ,the sea. 
Sendm^ therefore his j9eet and part of. his troops thither, he buHt 
three forts, sheltered by which his ships were enabled to lie at 
anchor ; he also secured there a great piftrt of the baggage and am- 
munition. It was then that the troops on board the fleet suffered 
very much ; fbr as they were obliged to go a great way to fetch 
wood and water, they were surrounded by thp enen^^s horse, the 
third part of wMfh were posted at Olympia, to prevent the garrir* 
8CH1 of Plemm^ium from sallying, and were masters of the open 
country* Advice being brought to Nicias, that the Oorinthiaii 
fleet was advancing, he sent twenty galleys against it; ordering 
them to observe the enemy towards Locris, Rhegium, and the rest 
of the avenues of Sicily. , 

In tbe mean time, Oylippus employing those very stonea vhich 
the Athenians had got together for their own. use, wetit on with the 
wall which the Syracusans had b^an to parry through Epipoke ; 
and>drew up daily in battle array before it, as did the Athenians* 
When he saw it was a proper time foo engaging, he began the 
battle in the spot lying between the two woTls. The nanronoiess 
of it having rendeied his.^cavalry and archers useless, he came off 
with loss, and the Athenians set up a trophy* Gylippus, to ream* 
mate his soldiers by. doing them justice* had the courage to re* 
proach himself for the iUsuocess^ they, had met withs and to de- 
clare publicly, that hei not they, had occasiotied the late defeat; 
because he had made them. light in too confined a spot of groitnd. 
However, he promised to give th^n soon an opportunity of reco- 
vering' loth their honour asid his : and accoidingly the very next. 
day he led them against tbe enemy, after having exhorted them in 
the strongest terms, to behaye in a manner worthy of their ancient 
glory. Nicias perceiving, that though he should not desire to come 
to a battle, it would however, be absolutely necessary for him to pre- 
vent the enemy from extending tbdr wall beyond the wall Of con- 
travaUation, to which they were already very near (because other- 
wise this would be granting them a^'certain victory;) he therefore 
marched against the Syracusans. Gylippus brought up hia tfoopa 
beyond the spot where the wiiJQs teimmated on both sides^ in order 
that he might leave the more room to extend his battle; whoB 
charging the enemy's left wing with hia horse, he put it to flight 
and soon after defeated.the jrighf.^ Wes^ehere what U^.exp* 


mnce'Uld abiUtieB of a great ciqitain are t^ipable of prodndLg : 
Ibr GylippuB,' with the same men, the aame arms, the (wme honow, 
and the lame ground, by only changing his order of battle, defeated 
the Athenians, and l^at them quite to their camp. The following 
ni|^t,' the victors carried on their wall beyond the contravallation 
of the Athenians, and thereby depryrod them of all hopes of being 
ef^jr able to siirround them. 

. After this success,^ the Syracusans, to whose aid the Corinthian 
fleet was arrived onperceived by that of the Athenians, resumed 
courage, armed several fifalleys, and marchmg into the plains with 
ftkit cavalry and other rorces, topk a great number of prisoners 
They sent deputies to Lacedramonia and Corinth, to desire a re* 
inforcement; Gylippus w#nt in person tiirough all the cities of 
Sicily, to solicit them to join* him ; and brought over the greatest 
part- of them, who accordingly sent him powerful succours. 
Nicias, fihding his troops lessen and those of the enemy increase 
daily, began to be discouraged ; and not only settt expresses to the 
Athenians, to acquaint them with the situation of affairs, but like- 
wise wrote to them in the strongest terms. I shaU repeat his 
whole letter, both as it ^ves a clear and exact account of the state 
of things at that time m Syracuse, and may -serve as a model for 
such kind of relations. 

Athemmu: I have already ir^rmed you^ by smferal ^e»pre»»t9^ of 
what vMi pas^ng^ here : hutUie necetvary you ihMd htiim thepre- 
sent HktiUUm of affaire^ that you' mcty resolve accordingly* Afteir 
vte had heAi victorious' in several higagementi^ and had aintost eom* 
pleted our contravallation, Oylippus. arrii>ed in Syracuse vM a hod^ 
of Lacedcgmomans and Stc^ian troops; orA^ having been d^'eatsid 
&e fimt Hiney he was victorious the second, by ^eans of hi* eatairy 
and archers. We are m consequence shid up in our vnirtnchmsniSy 
without daring to make any attempt, and unable to complete Our 
works^ throu^ the superiority of ike enemtfs forces ; fir part of 
our soldiers are employed in guarding our forts, and consequeniiy 
we have fiot an opportunity if employing alt our forces in 6att/e. 
Besideii as Hie Syracusans have cut our iines, by a wall, in that part 
wh^re they were not oompletey it will no longer be possible for us to 
surround' the city, unless we should force Oieir tntrenchm^nts ; so 
that instead' tf besieging, we ourselves are besieged, and dare not stir 
out, for^fear of their horse. 

JM contented with these advantages, they are bringing new suc» 
cours from Peloponnesus^ and have sent Grylippus to force all the 
nevtM, cities of Sicily to declare for them ; and the rest to fur- 
nishthmm with men and ships, to attaek us both by sea asid land. I 
say by sea, whioh^ though very surprising, u, howtoer, but too true* 
fSt ^out fleet, whioh btfore was oohsiderSfle,Jrom the good condition 
of the galleys and mariners, is now very d^/icient in those very cir 
eums^inets,aMl\j»^igiously weakened.' 


Ouri^tyt U&ik eeeiry where : huAum ^oe, tmrn/fA drow l&eM>flA 
ihore to ea^ien ihem^ for J^r, lest thoee (^ the enenw^ whUh ar€ 
more fMmermu and in better c&ndUum than oure^ should attdek us &n 
a tnddeny which they seeth to threaten every moment. Besides^ we 
are under a necessity of stndvni; maany backwards and forwards to 
guftrd the coneoys iMtcft we are forced tofttohfrmn a great distance^ 
and bring along in the sight rf the enemy;* so ihed sh^ld we be ever, 
so litlU negligent in this poiM^ our arirty wo%iid be starifed. 

WUhregard'to the skips* crews^ they decrease sensibly every dayf. 
for as great numbers of them disp'erse to maraud, or to fetch toood 
and water, they are (fUm cut to pieces by the enemy's horse. Our 
slaves y oMured by the neighbourhood of the enemy* s camp, desert very 
fast to it. The foreigners whom we forded, into the service, disband 
daily; and such as have been raised unih riwney, who camejfbrplun^ 
der rather than fighting, finding themselves > baulked, go over to the 
enemy, wJio are so near us, or else hide themeelves in SicHyf whick 
they may easily do in so large an islands A : g)reat number of dti-* 
zens, though long used to, aful well skilled in, working cf ships, by 
bribing the captains, have put others in V^r rodm, who are wholfy 
unexperienced, and incapable of serving, mnd by that meane have 
subverted all discipline. I am now wrUing to. men perfectly weli 
versed in naVal affairs; and who are very sensible, VuU, when order 
is neglected, every thing grows worse and' tborse^ and a fieet muei 
tnevUably be ruined^ 

But the most unhappy circumstance is, that, though I am invested 
with the authority of general, I ammot put a Hap to these disorders^ 
Far {Atheniasis) you are very sensible; that such is yeur disposition^ 
thai you do not easily brook restraint f besides^ I do not know where 
tofurAish myself with seamen, wfv&stthe enemy get niumbersfrom cUi 
quarters. It is not in the power of out SidUan allies to aid us ; and 
should the cities (f^ Italy, from whence we have our provisions ihear^ 
ing the extremity to which we are reduced, and that you do nfk take 
the lecut care to send us any succour,) join' the Syraciuans, we are 
vndone ; and the enemy will have na occasion to fight us. 

Icould'torite of things whicfi would be more agreeable^ but of nonk 
that could be more proper to give you a juvt* idea of the. subjects on 
which you are to deliberate. I am sensible thett you love to have sttch 
advices only sent you as are pleasing; but then I know on the other 
side, that when affairs turn otd othetyeise than you expected and hoped 
for^ you' accuse those wJu> deceived you ; which has induced me to give 
you a sincere and genuine account of things, without ixmcealing d sin* 
gle circumstance. By the way^ I am to itiform you, that no com* 
ykunts can be justly made either against the oficers or common sol* 
diers, both having done their duty very welt. 

But now thdt the SieiHans tvre joining aU their forces against ue, 
and expect a new aAnyfrom Pthponnesus, you may lay this down 
as the foundation for your deliberations, that our present troops are 
not sufficient ; and, Iher^ore^ we either must be recaUe^i or else m 

kndiM noMJoreti ^qtjuilkf>the^fir$i;»y4h0 Mfttt^, mflk nancy 
inpro]^riiorL ^You muti a/40 think (^appointing aper$on to tw^ 
end me,' it being impoigible /orMe^ Aro^gh mjf n^hrilic.^imrdAr^ 
ianutainanyJongtr the vftight o^ Vie commfmip. ^ I imagine thai 1 
deeerve this Javour (U your hande^ on ac^omt of ih% tervieee I hmt 
done yoUySn ike eeeeratctmrnande coirf$rred i)po«,me, to long cu vof 
health toauldpenrtU me to\act. 

To concl%tde .-^ whateeer reaniutioni y0U may come tOyihe requed I 
huM-to makeiU,rikat yeu vnnUd ezecfde it.epeedilyy a^ intfie very 
heginnin^^the spring. The twcwre uhi^ our enemi^ meet wik 
in Sicily , are all ready ; but tibow vtkich they expect from Peloponr 
nesu8 may. be longer in comings JSmteveri.j^ thit in your nundt, 
that if you do not exert ydUreelvet^the Lac^lcBmoniane will notfaiU 
ae they have already. done^*\tQ be beforehand with you> 

The AthenuiiiB.^were jitroogly affected with this letter, which 
made as great «n ih]]^«88ioii ou them a^ Nieias expected. Bow- 
eVer, they did. ndt'thiitiK pmper to appoint him Aaaccessor; and 
Qnlv nominated two officers who were under bun* viz. Menander 
sad EIuthydemuB, to assist him till other generals should be sent. 
Eufymedoti and Demosthenes were chosen to succeed Lamachua 
and Alcibiades. The former set out immediately with ten galleys, 
and 'som& money,'*^ about the winter solstice) to assure jy^it^as Ihat a 
speedy shcconr should .be sent hidl> ( during which, the latter was 
raising troops and contributions, in order to set sail early lA the 
spriiig. > '.- •. .V. ••.'•- , .^. 

A. M. 3S9I. ' The Jiacedemooiftnaif' on the other jSiide, "^^ng 
M% J.c. 413. supported .by ti^e Corinthians, were very indtiatrioua 
itt preparing remfbrcem^oiKlAtQ send intp Sicily, and t6 enter Attica, 
ill order to keep the^ Athenian fl<iet . ftopi sailing tp that - island. 
A<Seordinglyj they entered AttidH. early, under the eonunand of 
king Agis; and,8iter having laid waste the country, they fortified 
Ilecdi«> ; having divided tl^ w<»'k among all the rorces, to make 
the greater despatch* This poatia idK>Ut 1^0 furlongs from Athens, 
that is, about six French leagae^»t.{ind th^ same distance irmu 
Bosotia. Alcibiades waSi.perpetusJly soliciting the Lacedfemo- 
nians'y and could not be.^^asy, till he ha4 prevailed with them to 
beffin that work. This annoyed, the Athenians most of all : for as 
hitherto the enemy had been suecustomed to retire after Uiey had 
laid waste the Athenian territories, the latter were unmolested all 
th&restof the^year ; but since the ^rtifying of Becelia, the garri- 
Bon left in* it waa continually making incursions, ai\d Vanning the 
Athenians, Athens being now becoqoe a kind of frontier town ; for 
in the dayt«time,.a guard, was mounted at .fUl ^e gates t and in the 
night, all the citizens were either^ W^^y.^^?^ un^er arms. 
Such vessels aa brought provisions lroH^the^lftn<^ pfBub<Ba,and 
which before (tad a much shorter passsge by Peceli^ wer^ forced 

* One hundred and Wemy talents,' f *thueyd'. L Vd. ^ 494^-^. nid 
IMod. L llil^y 14U, ... 


to jgo rrnisA about, in order to doable tbe capo ot Sunyim; bjr 
vliich metnB proyisioM, u well as goods impqrted, grew iauim 
dearer. Tb heighte;n the calamity, upwards of 20,000 slaves, the 

ntest part ffi' whom were artificers, weft over to the enemy, to 
t>m the i^xtreme misery with which the city was afflioted* 
The cattle of all kinds died. Mast of ^e horses were lamed, 
being contimiailj^ upon guard, or upon parties. Every thing being 
laid waste in this manner, and -the Athenians ei^oying no loiiger 
the revenues which arose from the produce of their lapds, there was 
a prodigious scarcity of money ; so that they were forced to tilke 
the twentieth part ofnl the imports, to supply their udual subsidies. 
In the mean time,"' Gylippns, who ha^ made the tour of Sicily, 
retuitied with as many men as he could raise in the whole island, 
and prevailed with the Syracusaos to fit out the Strongest fleet in 
their power, fmd to hazard a battle at sea, upon the presumption 
that the success would answer the greatness of the enterprise. 
This advice was strongly enforced by Hermocrates, who exhorted 
the Syracnsans not to abandon to their enemies ^e empire of the 
Beas. He observed, that the Athemans themselves had i)ot re- 
ceived it from their ancestors, nor been always poasessed of it: that 
the Persian War had \a a manner forced them into th^ knowledge 
of naval afihirs, notwithstanding twt> great obstacles, their natural 
disposition, ahd the situation of their city, which stood at a consi- 
derable distance fron;i*the sea; that they had made. themselves for- 
midable to either nations, not so much by their real streufffh, as l^ 
their courage txik intrepidity: that they ought to copy them; and 
eince thev had to do with enemies ^ho were so enterprising, it was 
fit they shouM be daripg. 

This advice was ap(>roved, and acccrdingty a large fleet was 
equipped. Gylippus led out all his land*forces in the night-time, 
to attack the forts of Plemmyrium. ' Thirtv-fiveSyracusan galleys 
which Were, in the great harbour, and rorty^five in the lesser, 
vhere was an arsenal for ships, were ordered, to advance towards 
Plemmyrium, to an^ase the Athenians, who would see themselves 
Attacked both by sea and land at the same time. The Athenians, 
&t this n^ws, went <)n board also; and, witl) twenty-five ships, 
nUeJ to fight the thirty-five SyraCusan vessels which were sailing 
8ot against them iVom the great harbour; and opposed thirty- 
iffe more to the forty-five of the enemy, which were come out of 
the Uttle port. A sharp engaffoment was fought at the mouth of the 

Seat haibour ; one party endeavouring to foroe their way into it, 
d the odier to keep them out. • - * 

Those who defended the forts of Plemmyrium, having flocked 
1) the shore to view the battle, Gyllppus.attaickedthe forts unez- 

Ptedly by day-break ; and having carried the greatest of them 
storm, the soldiers who defended the dher. two were so ten)- 

Jb»K9&,\.y\lii.40HilS^ Plnf. 1b Nfe. ik 536. IHod. p. l#i 


ded, that they abiMAdoBed them in s iQoment. AfteSr tibifl «ivai 
tage the Syracusans soBtained a considerable loes: for such of 
their vessels as fought at the entrance of ^e harbour (after having 
' forced the Athenians} ran fou] of one another with much mVm 
-afl they entered it m disorder; and by this means transferred the 
'Victory to their ^emids, who were not cpnteifted with pursoing, 
but also gave chase to those who were victorious in the great hu- 
'bour. Eaeven Syracusan galleys were sunk, and sr^ numbeis 
«f the sailors in them killed. Three were taken; but. the Athe- 
nians likewise lost three, and after towing off those of the enemy, 
they raised a trophy in a little island that lay before PlenuDyriun, 
and retired to the shelter of their camp. 

The Syracusans< also- raised three trophies for their taking of the 
three forts ; and after razing one of the smaller, thejr repaured the 
fortifications of the other two, and put garrisons in them* Se* 
'Veral Athenians had been either killed or made, prisoner^ theie; 
'and great sums of money were taken, the property of the public, 
as well as of merchants and captaiils of gallevs, besidea a lam 
quantity of ammunition ; this being a kim , oi maj^ine for the 
whole army. > They • likewise lost the stores and rigging of forty 
ffalleys, wit]| three sh^ps? that lay in thedoek. But $. (inore cona- 
derable circumstance was, Gylippiis: thereby prevented Nicias 
from getting provisions and amniunition so easily; for, whilst the 
latter was possessed of Pleinmyriom, these were procured se- 
curely and expeditiously; whereas, after that place was lost, it was 
fquaHy diiHcult and hazardous, because they could not bring ia any 
thing without fighting ; the enemy lying at anchor just off tJieir 
fbrt. Thus the Athenians could have noprovisiona bqt.fromthe 
point of their swords ; which dispirited the soldieTS very mu^h, va^ 
threw the whole army into a great consternation. 

There afterwards was a little skirmish in defending a st8^ 
cado which the inhabitants had made in the sea,* at the entrance 
of the old harbour, to secure the shipping. . The Athenians having 
raised towers and parapets on a larg!s ship, made it advance as near 
as possible to the staccado, in order thiat it might serve as a bul- 
wark io some ships which caniedf military engines,, with whicli 
they drew up the stakes by the help of pulleys and ppes, ezcluEive 
of those which the divers sawed m two ; .the besieged defending 
themselves from their harbour, and the enemies, from their tower- 
Such stakes as had heeh driven in, level with the surfiice of t!bt 
wat€)p, in Order to strand* those vessds that should come near them, 
were the hardest to force away. . The. divers, however, being in- 
duced by larg^ sums of moneys succeeded in removing these a}90, 
and most ^f the siakes were totn up; but then others were inuDe^ 
diateiy dHven in their places. The ntqaost. efforts i^ere used on 
boUindeB,inxthe:attackas w^Uas thedelbn^e. , . 

i'Hi .(•:...,* Tttutr^viffij^smtiSo^ 


<M^ elreiit^ittlitiMib' iMok the' WsitfM^ooiiiudered lyf ^t^e gUMteiit 
Mflptfftaacd,* iRNiis^tO' uttentot a aeoond epga^emest bdth^Jby cefei mnd 
laifd, beibr<$ tll^'fleelft ado jolher suecoiuii [i»nt by the 'Athenianiy 
sli«iild a>itlve> They iMtd-^ucerte^ fresh measaitBs for a battle at 
tea, profitttt^ by^the'erroi^they had dbmmicted m'the last eiigf«|re- 
m^tits ' The-' oh«iag6' made in the gajieys Wafii^ their prows were 
no^irfiortert'aild'at'the dtine- tine^ dCrdnger and more ^oUd than 
^fhfPei '^Vorihik purpose, they fixed greats pieces of timbe^, pro- 
•«ctiwfe»wM,OB each side of the throws; and cd these pieces tbe^ 
biti^^MtLttUfhy mtf of prop«. These beams extended to the length 
!)if 0i]t-<UbltS' tte each side -of the vessel, both within and without. 
^ thiethey libw^d to gain l^itdTantaeie over the gaUeys'of the Atbc- 
)ian&;4Vhl«h -did not dar^jbeteHuse oAhe i^eaknessoFtheir prowcr, 
:b; attack an enemy In ftoflt/^ik only u> flank; MOt'Co mention, tbdt 
should* iftieNfttlebe fought in the harbour, they Wotdd nqc haine 
roof* to spread tbemslsl^e'ilbr- to pads between two galleys, in 
»Hiich,lay tk^ir greatest ait ^ noii lo tack 4bout, aflevi they should 
bAVe beeii repufied^ in 'tfeder to return to therchargr tf 'WhereM the 
^tfbUMJItf, by thfeir being iiliastenu of the ^ho& extent 'of. the 
Mr boorv would have dltfaebis advttitage^, and might reciprocally 
idfiist' oni>' another. (>nUhi*se oircttmstadcee the latter fodnded 
^eir'hbpide'of victory. t ., . r w > . . . . . . . .« ^ 

Oylippuir thereibre first drew^ttU^tke'iaftmtry out of the iMU|ip» 
uad* advanced towards othat pait of the contravallatibil of ^tbe 
fl.themflai8 which faeed (She oity; whilst- the troops - of Olympit 
narohM^wkrds theother, and their galleys tetsaill' • 

Nicias'was unwiU'tig to venture a seoend: battle^ i^^yingi that ia% 
le expected afresh Jeet every moment; ^ahd k sti'^ng'reinforce*' 
Tient' under I>emeiithenes,.it wtold betray the^ greatest want ef 
judfitnent should he, as' Ins trbops were inferior in nnjgdber to tlkoee 
>f the enemy, and air^idyftLt^ued, hazard a batde mtl«out being 
pifceA to it.*-- Otf'the contrieiry, Menaader^- and Eutbvdemass wlm 
leid J4ii8tbeibtei>eeh appointed to i^re'tfae oommknd>with<N«cia8 
ill' the arrival «f 'neraotthfene^, fifed' with: ambition, and jelaloue 
>f those generals, were eager to perform some jpreat- exploit, to 
Mi^ave tie one. of hisgldry^ aj^d.iififVMbibl^^ecflpseiithat of the 
ither; The p?et«nce thiey alleged c» this ooUBion was,) the fkcae 
Old* 'reputation of 'Athene r and theyiiMbited wiikea n»Mh>vefae> 
ik«tice,( thiN; it would-be entitelydeBtroyed ehoald pthey ibun 'th# 
»gAtle, as'the Syraeusttns ^liekdit themj^thfll they at ketforoed 
^aciae to a ooAipUalce. The Atiieniana> bad' seventy^^llre gatteyv, 
4id the^Syr^xEusahs eighty. . ■ . < \ ' '■" ".'),. 

The first/day the fleete continnedint nght' of each other, in tho 
^neat liarnoUr , without enga^i^ : andslmijr a "fiiw ^fddmisbee pMfr- 
>d, after which both parties retired ; and it' wke just the sameiHtii 
bQ hui}^:for^.,,„The Sjffrci;^^^ make^^e least movenlOTt 

Vol. Ill U 


;thi0 trmlKirta t«i 4ia9^ up in a liiw,i#A soai^t.^ttiiiioe irai «b0 
•nolitor.iii QxdeHtbBliiifi goUeysJwgw rQlmTibekin^ tbem^mdi 
Mfytji in:c«Uie of « d«lea4« . .Otovlbe^mAitoWvtb^ SyraQUenns etine 
iip.«Qoiier'Ulaa<ii0|]al«]vhfiniBi great pufa^of- tl^i^fiay was ejient is 
l£inniahiAg, «ift«r wbich tfai^ retij(«d>.: Tli9iA(tfe[mfUQs di4 not sop- 
pniei4hey would* netais^ but imA^io^d that foari,ba4 . i]i«4^. tltem 
Aj t Wt havfaig r«^e$hed theoMelves' Kvith .great sdiUgence, and re- 
iuiisiog an board tbetr gall^fs, ^ey at|#i^ked.tbe jMi^iijmat vlio 
trore&r ^rom eocpeoting ibenu :Tha<ilajtter hwag nowr* forced to 
return iitunediately on board their abipe^.tbey entesed t^em in 
gsreat dis6rder, ao that they bad npt:.ti«ieil0:draiM tkem up in a Ike 
,of batUevand moat .of the 9aiiloc8;;W^:i#,faetinff., V ktoiey/idid not 
Joiig continue in/flN^ieikBeK The At^enifO^s^ after making n. sb(»t 
^ndisbgbt lesistancei retired bebitxlithfar line oC XtBgmporibB. Tbe 
wenty; pursued tbitber> ind.were stof»pte4^bi& tbft,8ailyar^ of tjimi 
idiipflr toiiwhiah wer» ! fixed idoliphiop .ofCiea^** whicbi. being Yttj 
JMLvy^hadvtb^faUeniion tiM eoeuy Vi !g«il\Q^ a, n^ould hmne wak 
ihem atonee. The AthtSaii^sioat seven gi^fey^ in. this ^ign^^^neat, 
atld:Agn9il( number nf«(ddier9 weva eitbi^jr killed or lAkenLpip^oneia 

'^t^oMotm threw Niciaa into, tbe utiaput •consternatioDy)- All the 
misfortunes he had met with, ever since the time be hfi|4.fii|Bt e^ 
jflfBd the Supreme; •comniaBd,/ Cdme into bis mind ; an4. he now i> 
inToBrediiA a gr^Uer than anjF oC tbem, by bis /aomplyin^ with tk 
jdnrice: of bis tipolleaguiss. Whilst be wfas- revolving^ Uie^^gloon^ 
ideas j Demostbenep's fleet was seeiijcomingtforit^^d in^gvcj»t posnp^ 
^aidi«^sth.:Bnch an aif. sUiiwust ^fiU ^ enem^ with drend; it arts 
now -the dav.afler thei little* . This, fleet consisted of sev.enty-tbree 
'gallwirB, on ftoard of whic't were 6000 flgbting: m^n, and about 30(W 
«iielkers» islingezs^ and i)Qwmen. AU tb^se .^alleys weie richly 
triuMhed; their ^o^s being adorned With «binw streamers^ mas* 
aed with stout itowers, aonmanded by good. ofScers,. and eehoii^ 
witb/lhn'nonnd.of olanonajand trumpet^ j. Dewostbeikee ba^ 
affiMiteid iua«ir of pompiiriid triumph) pwpoaaly^to strik^i tenDor into 
the enemy. ' • '< (ci ^ q <• 'i^i •• •'• /.' 

This ffsUantt sigbfi (daxfi'ed tbei^'i indeed beyond ezpresewa 
Tbifiy (JUcT not see any eiidj op ev«i tbe feast suspenaioii, of tbor 
•ealamitiMa aH Ibey bad.-jii^erto done QnnffBlned wasiM nothii^ 
and tboir mAk Was to beg^ again. . ..Wba/t bojies eoiild they enttf' 
Inin of biing able to weary out tbeipatienoe> of the Atheniam 
aindiothoiligfa a hostila camp ma^ intv^ncbed » ibji^e diddle <i 
Attica, they were however able to send a second) army into 6tci^. 
as oonaid^Ue as the fbrmet); .and their pOwef, aahxrdl aa tbeir 
ooamgej seambd, ndtwithstainding all tbeir losses^ instead of dian- 
ttisbiBg, to increase daily? , • -,''■• 

V|Tliii engine, M vioWot WM Its miiiottVhioke'ittmigi) a Wejl^W'tlw tela 
tTltttc»d.t»«Wl>ia W 5|t / .ftet/l»iOii>aiyc HI6d>yiJim(|».itT " 

PERsiaare wm^VHm^s. ' ail 

tkhM^ kfti^edtiihit <it»ir^uUr«ioi'be pxo^ 6tf.ihijn to losetix^f^ 
B8 Nieias^iiad doiie;m^Oi.hanqgMipread«^u|uvejr8Bl \enqt atliis iiop)^ 
arrifft), tMdme altetwudi tdief oti^Mk of conieiqet»;&i; hiMf^n^ wips 
teriff ifii OUjas^ iaatmA blvgniflg dipeoUgr ,to > Sy.|iM»i#« ^ «ad ha^ 
ai^iirw«it^ gt9tn Oy]ippnhmifOpfmttm^y^^ thr^wiiur ^qops iota 
it > H«ia(teT«d hiisaeli wilhillie Jh»pe«j4fbat he;9houid ba. ab^le to 
car^ the eky at the finttttlBcih? 1^ takingr advantage qi) the aki^Qi 
whidi tWnMvwof his:anival^o«ld ipflead.i^iidvery part of it, and 
by that means 8hbddiaune4ynitei3rV'*^.An> the^F^- ptixat^ 
W]0e he mtetlted^ raihe the siege, end mk Vwkger hai^ aji^d lessen 
thetroopii'by fi^hting^batdee never dedeiye ;, e«r,qittte exhajuet the 
eitt'bf Athene, by employing its ti»taiiree(vi needfoea #ypefiWP»Nt^ < 

NiciMi, teitified by: this bold! aadi:|nieeipiMk|;e .re^olwtion efQe-. 
mosCheiieii coujored ldmi;p«*iAe beisothlety^fittt; te take time W 
weigh' thin^ deHberitady<ihdbfomi^htha4re no' ciuaee to. repent ef 
wh^e he should >do«^ ' Hei^obachryedto hitfDJtlMt ijm eiiemyivouM 
be re^n^d/.by Mii^Vthat thnr prof isiona ae .well as money weve 
e&tivel^ ekihiuiited ^tfaat theif allies were goi^g to a})apdcqi.them ; 
that th^y tnuM nom kc vednbed4o.such extrerm^yi fot^lRant o( pro*^ 
Tisipns, as wotdd force tiieniile aunren^r, as tlkiyJla4.WU^e>;re- 
8e>lTedf lR>r there Were oeDtaiii>jpeieena intlByraeeae -who h^ tk 
B^e^t corfespbndence with .Niciasi, «nd eidKoiVod Jiim «o^tto be ym^ 
p»ti^t|^bee«ud^ tlM-Smciriana>wese itiffedtwith.th9i^li/)ar#i^> ^i^k 
Cf^Spi^e'tand^ tha/^^Bhotild<the' necessity to which tkfff. were re<^ 
diced lie el^er 'M(Uudeincreaeed,they would sdh*^A4i^ ^jdieipretiMK; 

Al^ NStiaa aidinotezpiain himaWi okiddv, and .n^eld.poi de^4) 
iA express' tei^sy-that sure imdvxvsBkaki'WQces were sen! him of? 
Whatever was tratueiaeted m . thv cityv his renDaetrwices vffiff^ eaa^, 
sidered asah efi^'of tfae^timidityand.ilownescliiWiUi which jie 
had alwaya been reproaehedi'.iSfMcA^ said tke^^mr0M$,mn^ql gfti>^ 

dead^ied ali ifee kHvOcUy, nrM^i^»tingtdthedtaU the :ar^^ <!^ 
trtxrpjt^ in hvi marching ifiemf^lnnia^Uaely'Jigau^ HSb enemas M»^ 
ike cor^trdhf^hy ile^mn^ lo<iaifdli»4AlBBl|((ii/j;A)if om^/oreei. ju^ere 
weakened and despised^ This made the rest of the geueiala and 
all the officers come over to Demosthenes's opinion^ and Niciae 
himself was at last forced i6 ac^uibeCe With it. 

Pe^>Pfltii>^.V^s, vdkjfler having attaclced ,to no purpose the wall 
wMch^ eutt^ contrAvallalion of^^he.besiegens, CQ|?^ned himself to 
the' iyta^jli i^f '^ip^^®) froi^u- siipfMitren that' should, he once be 
master ofit, the wall would be quU%' ii^defefld«»*. ' He therefore 
foolr^petfrlsioi^e for i«e^ys^) with w4rl(ii^nii^plements,iaiid .eiwy 
thih^ neceseary for lam to/defendilhafc poetiiaAWM.shpm^ P^^'s^^ 
Mmselfof iti ''Aaiffaene-waenoifoiilgNti^'tOcjitHi the d^yT^mj^,Uj^ 

disf^veied, he'tnarriiM'thitfaeViWthe'nigb^ WJ^'^IJ^ ^3 i^cf;s» 
followed by Eurymedon andMenander; Nicias staying behmd to 
gaard the eamp; They wmiti^up b^the^wayof iEurydti8)(i|B before^ 

i^p^jeeivM^t tikS^iHilBbeki; attHck««lie |nt uftfendiliMnA^lVid 
miia it,aflcr killitog paff of tbo^iwl^ ^leiei]de»i&t^ DeomiitliflDes . 
not:- sfttibfied with tfafo «id vantage, to pret dnt the udotir ^i. Jiis sol- 
diers IMm cdbling^; aifd not Mif thei exaoutioarof hi^cd^signe, 
Mrcii^ for#«Ltd., During tiis mti^ivld, ithe foroes of tk^ My, 
i^bstained b^X^yHptnuij^atich under aiiB8>^o«it of iha^wtrenjehmiBAto- 
Bein^ sieved wiifa afltoiikhnoenli, whidh the darka^8»'«(f Aa. Bright i 
ifiCtSLBeil they were immediately rdpnlsed-and put to flights; But 
as thef AtheiUans advanced • is disord^yitofoKce. wiialnvof- might 
resist their ILrms, l^tho eneny migM'Talljr h^vHi shouldr tii^e be 
allowed them'^ breathei and recover from ' thetr< mtf^fi^weitr^ aro 
stopped on a flFudiieiy by the Bosotians^ who nlajcBja-Vtgoroijia s^fJid, 
aDo: QiarfHling against the Atbeniana with 'their. pikes. ^res^tetly 
T&fiM fhei^ wfthfiifietit-ahimts^'anaifmakaja dreadful sla^l|ter. 
This spreads a' iiil&etiai'«terrer< tireaph fch^ rest of ^« 
Those who fled either feveetdiong«i<}h:tei4>ere advaDeii^.^p..thejr 
assistance, Oi* ey^, iaai^aking thenrdorKeiiBiiuesv.tuern tJ^ir : arms 
against them. They now weie nil nited dndisci)ii«fcw»n^ly, it^ <Wing 
impoi^siMe to ^Mscriwinate objects ia theihorstirs, Ofjaitoigli^^.wjUGE 
Tt^inot i^g)($bm]^' as entirely to make-tfaeia Inipereepdl^yBytr yet 
li^hf eniot^h to .distinguish thoa» wiiisb Vexe seen* vT^/Ji^- 
mami^ sott^t to one anothepto poipcdipoBe; asdi^oia their 'OilieB 
flj^ng th4f 'iobt^ bf'nji>hichr.oa^ 'th^fiwere vabier to.'fe$^owtfi9aa 
Mother, ia'^stfan^ owfhsmn of sounds; was -hfiiird; whMht^^^pa- 
sfoned n6 little disorder; net to meoJibii thatstWi ^ |hia.>i»^9it|9,; 
divtilged t!^ Word tb the 'eaem^il ahd «»iild:'iK^:iieiarB..t^e^^f' be*^. 
6aulie, by thbit bei^ together aald in d body».tiieyfhad jpqoocaoion 
tH'i'^at it. In the mean.thae^>tho8e who. W6ie,>]^vM^^rthr«Yr 
tl]fems^e8froi»'the(«te|> of t the. rocks, and.jmaoy;]»reTed^he4 \o 
faeces by* the faU-f 'and as mcst ^f those wbo-ha4.)$^cape4 sjlra^flea . 
fttftA one'an«ther.iipv«>U doisii theiieldsand wood^^tljtfey.w^^r^ 9ut 
to pie^S>^e next dagn > b;^ the•>llev1^'s . J^ejrae^ wi^o puisif^d^. I^m, 
Two thousand Athenitoi^' this engagement^ ao^ a^ 
0Bkt nuttfiber of ahns weiiettakflii.SAthe8e^.wJM> fle4 naxipgjth^own 
them away, that th^y migditsbcKih»i>bettaK a^e\4o escap(3,o«;er^tbe 

precipiaes. 't • • oI .:ij' .l,..>,- \ :,,\' ,1;.. 

• . 'iSECTION XIV^ . . . ' , .;,-,.,,. 

Tbc conatemaUon With w)ijch the Athentans are sicfzed. ' Th«^ agahi'1iy£^^a^i 

fight, and are " ' " 
• SynKMianas, i ' 

^•^Tbe Athehian ^^Ui^CLlsf* alter -feustamUig so; great; ca-kss^l^isr^ 
^eat^7 perplexed, StM-^did not know helwtoact in the present •^|p«| 
^Ur^emerrt and dee^r «)f the^ti^oopa, wbo ittedLcfaily, eitt^er ^Vf 
the Cl&eases 6f'the ailtumn, br by the bidihifbiof the. feeev4ae{£ 

i*^^" ' 11iiieyS.r, flUp.SlS^*«(W.(riK. in I^ ill 538-^8. IM^.o.iia r ., ' ^ 


PEBSlANiS AND OftliClANS, ^ii 

y)6fh they wer# 'encamped. DemoirthdfiM was of opinioti,' ihiSt ft 
would be proper lor them to leave the equntry immediately) sinc^ 
they had been so unsuccessful in so importknt an enterprise ; esj^ 
ciafiy as the season was not tpo fkr advanced for sailing : and that 
they had shijM enough to force a passage^ |n case th<e ipP^i^ilny should 
dispute it with them. He ddclared, that it would be' of muiii 
greater ad'hmtage t6 oblige the cnetny tb raise their blockade of 
Athens, than for them to continue that of Syracuse, by which they 
exhausted themselves to no pui|)Obj;^t^at jhe waa certain they 
would not be; reinforded by a new arpiy }, and th4t they could not 
hope tb overcome the enemy with tUe w^ak one' \mder their cpta- 
mand. ^ ~ ', .,' .. 

Nicias, was sensible that the aVguments his colleague use4 were 
very just, and he himself wsis of his opinion': ' the same time 
he was affaid, lest so public a confession of the weak condition tp 
which they were reduced, and their resojulipn to leave Sicily (the 
report of which would certainly reach the enemy,) should .eomplet^ 
the ruin of their affairs, and perhaps make them unable to executo 
th^r resolution when they should attempt it. Besides, they had 
soihe little hopes left that the besieged, being themselves (educed 
to great extremity by their absolute M^ant of provisipns andmoney^ 
would at last bt inclined, to surrender' upon honourably t^rms* 
Thus, although he iyad id' reality, uncertam and wavering, hie in^ 
dnuated that he would not quit SS.cily, tiH the Athenians should 
have first sent, orders for that purpose ; as ]ie wqH knew tliat other? 
wise they w6}ild be highly displeased : that as those who were to 
jud^e thetn ha4 not been eye-w'ti\^sses of thcJBtate of thinjs^ they 
would be of a different opinion*, aha, at the instigation of soj^e 
orator, certainly Condepah them : that most of those men, who no«K 
exclaimed with the greatest vehemei^Qp agaifi^ the difficulties they 
labodred under, would then change their note, and accuse them of 
having fcieen bribed to raise the aieg^ : that knowing so well as^h^ 
did, tne disposition an^ chars^cter of the Athenians, ne' chose to die 
gloriously bv the enemy's sword^ rather than be ignominlonalj^ 
condemned by his fellow-citizens* : ' 

These reasons j t^ougi^ thpy appe^ed very stronjr, were not vet 
able to convince Demoathene^; a^d it was stOl ^ opimon, that 
the only good choice they could ma j^e^ would 'i^e to retire. How- 
ever, as Ee had been unsuccessful Xa his former tproject, he was 
afraid of insisting upon this; and |^e, was the n^ore inclined ^ 
accede to that of Nicias, from imiigiiuxig> with n^y otj^ters, that 
this general might have soxjiie^ aeere^r^source»,a8 be was so nrfplif 
resohred to stay. • • , v* '» .•• 

Gyfij^pusy"; after havW nia^^ the.. toifi;,9^ Siipijly) had ,^rQi^gh|t,ra 
peat body of tfoo'ps with.him^ .j'Jhjis ne;iy||einfbroe.ipeni, fe^jfie4 
the AlheAians c^(?eedin|rly, w]pw..fii^j.oiiji^^ 


fM . . HISTORY PI* Tlf^.. ' 

^eqs I . and they now hegw. to repent their not haviof raised.ihe 
Biefi^e, especialiv as the besieged were preparing. to attack tnem 
Ibptn, by sea and land. .„ Besides, Nicias no loxig^r opposed this reso- 
)p(|ipn» an^ oi^y desired to have it kept secret. Orders were there- 
foi^p givei)« a^ privately as, possible,. fpx the fleet. to prepare fi>r set- 
tWsaiJ with the utmost expedition* ., 

when all things were ready, the moment t(iey were going to Bet 
sail (wholly unsuspected , by the enemy,, wh^i .wi^re far from sur- 
mising they would leave Sicfy ek) sogn^J.the moon was suddenly 
eclipsed in the middle .of ^e nWtt, and lost all its/ splendour ; 
wKich terrified Nicias add the whole army, who> from u^rance 
and superstition,' were astonished at so sudden a change, the causes 
of which th^y did not know, and therefore dreaded tb^ conse- 
quences of it. They then consulted the soothsayers ; who beiu^ 
equaffy unacquainted, with the reasons of this phenomenon, only 
augmented their consternation. It was the custom^ after, sucu 
accidents had happened, Jo suspend their enterprise bu^ for three 
days. The soothsayers pronounced, thjii he must. not, set sail till 
three times nine days were past (these are Thucydides^s wor^,} 
which doubtless was a mysterious number in the opinion of the ^o-. 
pie. Nicias, scrupulous to a fault, and full of a mistaken, venera- 
tion for these blind interpreters of the will of the god«, 4jB9lared 
that hp wbuld wait a whole revolution of the mqoni^ and ni^jt reliw-ij 
till the same cay of the nex^ month; as if he had not, seen ^ne 
planet vely cleat^ the instant ifc^had emergeld from, fhjat part , which 
Was darkened by the interposition of the earth's body. . , , ' 

Bpf he was not 6,llowed time for this. The news oirtl[i^,'iritended 
dcpdrfurife of the Athenians being boon spread over thCjCity, a> reso- 
lution '^as taken to attack the beisiegers both by sea and land. 
The Syracftsans began the first d\y by-attackiiig ihe intre^h- 
ments, and gained a slight advantage over the enemy. 1 On the 
morrow they made a second attack; and at the, same time; ^ailed^ 
, with se vent J'-six galleys, agstinst eighty-six o^ the Jltnenians. 
Euryinedon, who commanded the right of the Atheniaii fleet^ 
hav&i^ spread along the shore to s'urrbui'i'd them, jthis movement 
proved fatal to him : for as he was detaqhed from the body of the 
neet, the Syracupans, after forcing • their ceilti^,'attackej3,hina, 
drove him Vigorbu^ly into the gulf called Dascon, and there defeat- 
ed him entirely.' ' Eiilymedoh lost his lifb m'th^ engagement. 
They aJfterwaffls gave chase tq the rest of the galleys, and ruii 
them on shore. Gylippus, who commanded the land aimy^ ^elng 
flife Athenian galleys "were i^r<ied' aground, and not able to return 
jtitb ^thrtr Bt8LcM6, came doii^n ^itn pirt of his troops, ii^ order to 

who fl^w to sustain thenii to retire^ witksoine lo«8, aa &r aa.tbe 

PERscursiAraxaacaANs. sa9 

nmli dil];^3 Lynmelia^ wlntii 'lay/ near H. ^ TW kUenMred mistt 
of tiieir'sUlipii. digrbteen excepteoi which w^ietaken by the 8yrA<* 
eaMns, and their crews cut to * pieem <by them.. After this, resolv- 
ing' to bum the rest, they fillsd an old vessel: with combustible nuti^ 
teriads^* and having set firetb it,1iicy dhsveiittby tJse help of the 
wind against the Athenians, who nevertheless extifiguished the 
fire, and drov6 off the ship. : ' / • i- . 

Each side erected trophies: the Svracusans foir:thedefbat of 
Eorymedon, aind the advantage tbev had gained the. day b^fere ; 
and the Athenians, for their haVing^driven plart of the enemy into 
the marsh, and put the other part to flight. But the minds -of the* 
two nations were Tevf differently disposed. .The Syracusaos,. 
who had- been thrown into the utmost consternation at the anuirol 
of Demosthenes with -his fleet, seeing; themselves victorious in a 
naval engagement, resumed fresh hope, and assured themselves ofi 
a complete victory over their, enemies. \Tbe Athenians, on the c6ih: 
trary, frustrated' of their onl^F' resource /land ovetoome by sea, so 
contrary to their expectations, entirely lost colu*age, and had no 
thoughts but of relinn^. 

The enemy, to deprive them of aiU Resource and-priBvent their 
escaping, shut the mouth of the great harbour, which was about 
500 paces wide, with galleys placed ajoross, and other vessels fixed^^ 
with anchoM and hnta chams, and at the same time made, the re'< 
quisite preparations for the battle, inicase they should have courage 
to en^ge again. When the Athenian^ saw themselves thus.hei»l 
ned in, the generals and principal 'Officers assembled, in order to 
ddiberate >cn the present state of a£^ns. They were iu' absolute 
want of provisions, which was owing^lio their having fertiiddeB Hie 
people of Catana to bring ariy, from the hopes they entertained of ■ 
their being able to retire ; and they could not procuref any from 
other places, unlessi they were masters of the sea. This made 
them i'eaolve to venture a sea«fight. With this view, they d&« 
termined to leave their old camp and theiv walls, which extended 
to the temple of Hercules ; and to intreneh themselves 6n the shore, 
near their ships, in the smalkist compass possible^. Thar design 
was, to l^ve some forces in that place to guard their baggage aod^the 
sick ; and to light with the rest on dioaid all the ships they had re* 
naining. They intended to retire to Oataxia, in' case they «hould 
be vi^orious ; otherwise, to set fire to their ships, and to mareii by ^ 
land to the^neanest city belonging to their allies. 

Ti^ resolution being token, Nicias unmediateljr filled 110 gaU . 
leys (the others having lost their oais^ with the flower of his in* 
fantry; aiid'^drew up the rest of the forces, particularly the bovr^t 
men, in orvder of battle on shore. A» the 'Athenians dreaded Yeif- 
much the beake of the Syracusan galleys, Nioias had provided 
harpmg*iiPolw to grapple them,- iii order to* break the- finrce of thet 
blow, and td eome immediatdy JK> dose r fight, ad<on aho>^. Ai), 
the eAemy^pereerring this, covered the. prows 'and upper t»rt«ii 

Sf8 JBIEn»RTi0FVIIft/i:i i ^ 

limisMofB <wtthi iMiVher, to prevent ttlwir; beifig: so MikAlfl&AhM 
o& The commanderAon both «iAe8 hademploJ^daJl .iheisirhflto^ 
rie>to anonate their men; aod none could ever H&ve been promq^td 
fiDm stronger notivei ;ilbr the battle which was going to be foaght^ 
wai to determine, • nob only tiieit lives and liberties^ but^ also the 
&te of their «duntry. 

The battle was very obstinate and bloody. ,The Athenians bein|^ 
ahri^ed at the mouth of the port^ > easily took those ships which 'de^- 
fendedihe ^ntvance; but When they attemptei;<to break the 
chain of the rest to widen thei passage, the enemy cameitip ftom all 
qukrters^ As nesj^^OO galleys came rushing eta ewph side, towards 
one nanrew place, there must necessanly ]^ a very- ^eat confu 
siont^ and the vessels eould not easily advance. fi>rwardv on retire, 
nor turn about /lo renew the attacki The beafas of the ^llefysv ^for* 
tbis^reason, ^id very little execution : but there were v^iy furious 
and frequent discharges. The. Athenians* were overwhelmed, with 
a shower of stones, which always did execution fbom what place 
^'soever they wese thrown ; whereas they detended themselves only 
by shooting darts and arrows, which, by the inetion of the ships 
flPom the agitation of the sea, iaouldiiel be well aknedyand byit^at 
means the greatest part of them did little execution. Ariston th& 
nilot had given, the Syracusans tlik* counsel. These discharges 
being. over j the soldiers, heavily armed^ attempted toeat^r the ene* 
ray^s ships 'in order to fight btuod. to.hand: aiid it often; happened,^ 
thattw^iUst they were climbing upione side, their own ships were en- 
tered on the other; and two or three ships grappled.toone^ 
which eeoaeioned a great perplexity and: coaluBKHWt Farther, the 
BoiKe of ^he^ ships thatdasheill <||ie against the other, together with 
the . diflSerent cries of the vietors and vanquishfedv prevented the 
^orders of the offic^rik from being heard. The Athenians wanted to 
foxtce a passage, whatever migm betheconsequencevtoseotlre^eir 
reHurn into thisir^wn country.; and this the enemy <emplbyed their 
litmoBt ^efforts to jirevient, in order Uiat they might "^aioia more 
complete and more glorious victory^ . The twolaSditrmiefi^ which 
were drawn Up on the highest part of the shore, and the inhabitaiits 
of tbeeity who were there, ran to the wadl; whilst the restj^ kneel- 
ing inithe temples, were sn4pk>ring Heaven to give success Iq t|ieir 
citizens: all these saw clearly, because of their little distanoe from 
tiie fleets^ every thing that * passed ;t ^nd contemjilaXed itherTbajttle 
as from an amphitheatre^ but not without great anxiety and.tern&n 
Attentive to, and shuddering at,, every movemefit,.anditiie sevetkl 
changes which happtoed, they discovered the interest: they took m 
the battle, ^by thiar ^rs, their hopes, their gri^, thejr j6]^> by diiV t 
fbreHt cries and :difiBrentgeBturc»V' ^stretching out thhiar haoilB« 
domietimes towarde the combatants. to animath them, and Jit otiher 
tkets towards heaven, to implors the'8uccou«^and4;>rotecikien of the 
^iott. s%tt last, the Athenian AecC; after sustsiniii^.a fam|;i^ battle 
and u 'vigoroiiB resistance, yfis6 pbt to flight and ^dmnen ;i|gttml . the 


PERSUIff MrQiaM0iANS. ttSe 

sb^ip* , The 8lyr»QU8ftiit, jwj^v ^^ftett spepti^Qrlifof thi9TicU>ry« 9Mi*' 
Tpfj^d to tktt )vbole city, b^nt; umvenul ^Out^ the. pe)¥s of ihi» 
vij^tory. Tto victfira^'now^nttiteirs of thQ sea, aoUfiftUuig^ with;lk. 
&vourf^Wo wind ,t«waiyl4'^yiiacu$ay. erected % (trophy \ whilsl \\^% 
Athenians, who were quite dejected and overpowered^ did; not toe 
much t9 reqitfiM!that their dead s^dk^^ Alight be delivered 4o them, 
ia or dec to pay t^ jiist 9ad,d«ly to theiv cemaiHa* 

Thei»» now ivomainedhttt (wo Bi9l^hod&fi»rthen] to cbo)MB r either 
to atteo^t the pasfMge n, second time; ibVwiicjDi they had aiiiipg luld 
Boldiers sufficient, or toabaadoj} thctiril^^^vtO' theen«9la3^i,fLiH)'r)eh.. 
tire) by land, i Df moatbenee^ pro^oded . the £brf)ier r -bi»t . the • eciUoi^i/^ 
in the . de^|M»t (ftfllictionf reiu9^ to.fobe^jjfaUyipfoaaiided tUatil' 
would )^ impost? for th6mt0veu8twiia.ii^nd engagement* i .. 

Th^fiSeco^d .oethod Wp tharefor^ .^n^^oWed' upon; and accord^ 
inglyithey po^p^M to ^^t out in the.xiigfait, |;o^0A9eal the ism^ of 
their arn^y from the enemy*- \ / ' !'r j.. !i .. 

Bat HetmliGratedt who.pusp^icted^hi^r design, wias very«emiible 
that it waa of the ' utmost ^mpfirtaiHso xiot . to sufier-c^^rc^at a. hrAfA 
of r^roest-to escape^i.tsiftc^etthey otiaherwis^ m^% fortify themadlffed; 
in 8ome.(C(i)na!er,iiif;'the:i9hMi4,(aAdx^Qw the wlir* Tho 8yratiu6an» 
were at, that tiiHa m ^ midst c^7tl)eit:festi^iit3^AH4 lej^iii^l^'i ftud- 
thinking oTm^hmg^ns^kfrn they? migi4b6^t diyoisit/theiiaselveei aftev; 
the tiRla they ihad •suiftajl^ediin,|ightpi l£'h6y.jii(i90 Uiien solenmisqogj 
the festival iafHeri5alea,ajifh«5hWtfpene4onthi«^«|^d^^ 
the Syracusans^tpjla^o: up arms f^ailVi m order ^ purine the. enemir €l^ 
and toi attempt to dca)Vt them ff om their divecsiQns, eilMor by Ibrce or 
persuasioB, woijild ha^ (^en to no purpose; for whicli jfeason another- 
expedient y(§».e9^]»fi^- .JM^i;?i9crAlfrfi is^nt out a f^w hoirs^inen, 
who w(epe> to paas . for, th^ ; frieiidai o^t th^ ' Athf^nians, and .prdisced 
them to <Jfy,aloud 4. W/jSSPmw n^Jg^r^^iiUl.^^yr^ight.-for.ih^ 

This ifeW «div«e.8fcoppiedtMi<?iM^#t« jOnpe9,Wdijh«i «et» 

out the »ext d$y„iui .^d^ritliwtie 8oWi^rp^B|ight;haYf? JtnQre time to* 
prepare 4b?/their departure; and car^ry) oij^ wi^eyqrt anight be n^^f 
cess|iry,jfor: their si|bsistence,,|in4 qboindoft th#> rest. 1 . > 7 •• • v . > 
Tfa^fOneiny had ti^lP enqughfor ^^i;(ing,^the avenues'v Jbe next 
n)Qriiingv,.^rlyi, they, possessed -th^m^^^ of the mqst difficult 
passes, fortified those places wht^re the, ];iv.ers were* fbr^ablcy broke, 
down the bnftgess^ and sppead detacj^s^^ts of hos^c up and down 
the plain; so that ther^^iynsn^t one place through wbioti th^^-; 
luans^ <l^hJ(if»9as without fighting. Th^ set (w^^, upon their marchi:. 
the third i4«ky.'4fker the ba^le, mH^ design to retire to CAtanak> 
The .\i^l9#fif^ jvas in u^ inexpre^jible QOi^^rnastlpf^ at the.sig:ht 
of thejjea4ror dyi^g, some of whom wercijeft exposed to wild 
beasts, and the.^9s|(to the cruelty pf th^ ene^., Those who yrer& 
8icl(<«^7W0i^md9dj;^n}ured them.jv^ith tei^rs tptalj^e thoxifi along 
with tlKe army, and held by their' olpthes -when- they were goings 
or(el?Q9s(kagging themselves M^er M^em, followed them at^fa^rm 

m^ . msMikt Of rac 


^ijtf ^upehgth WdOld'p^iiiiit: tnd; wlicrti thi» ikiledJtiieVhaf W • 
eouta^ to t^ars, sighs, impi^eeatiow, amdieiiding up towHrcb heaven 
fdiriritl^g tii^d idyikig gro«tiit they called ii|M>b thegod^as well m 
-m^h to avenge thehr 4i^raehyf whikt «teiry plai^tf J echoed 'With la-> 
m^ntatlbns*-' ' ■''*' .■.••.•;•.' •■.7. // . 

Tlie whole army was^^ki as deplorable a cozldiHon. AN men 
were seized with the de«ftest m^laiielioly; '^lUie^^^were'^hfWardly' 
tortured Wilh rage afidai^ishy^^hei^ ihby r«^^0i9nted'to them- 
8s(Vissitlie'|freatiiess^^wn' whioh they wdre Men, the ^xtrdvne 
nase)ry to which thdy%4^'r0^cedi<aiid the still greater evils fhrni 
vhioh' the V foresaw dti'woiild:>he'iimp0ssiblefof^thlein to escape^ 
Tih^i cduld ifim beUirtthe '^ifl^ta^risonv forK)ver^^j^re«eiit in tbcit 
thoughts, of'tHetriumpkaift sftitoin which.lhey MA leAf Athoiis, iil 
tlie midst of the gOoH Wishes «nd «i«€]am«tiotiS'6f'4he people $ with 
the ignominy of ttM^retl-eat^ii^avaCi^ Dynth^ «rtos>'atid imprieca^ 
tions of their relations and fellovv-citizenK/Jf •' ' ■' ' ' u*'" "' ' 

But thomosit melancholy^art-of th^r-tt^otaclev and thaft wfnch 
most d«;served<s>o>npas6idh, was Nici«si< >i|>^jected and worn out by 
n tif^oiisillnciBs; derived of the m^st he<?M«aty; things, ^at a time 
when his>i(^esii<l infirmities reAuire^'tli«m^4ndsk>);'toi«««dv not only 

tn^ thought of tmMsiQ Ml hd^. he^^imig4lt%est "eomfon hialsoU 
diers^'and reVtVetl^^^'Counxg^l' 4l£e* rkiiu^ anil down In all fdaces, 
crying aloud, that^ifttitteTs wei^ iMt 7eli^d^pe4«le^^and'i!httt other^ 
lOTnies had escfiped fron^ greater dttng^sij 'thaH'th^y oughf not to 
accuse ciiemsekQS, or bnrieve'lmm(Mi<e94te}ys^lbi«>«ii^i(^rtt^^ which 

^ they had not occasioned^ thttt>if^«h^ Mad' bffti^!Mi some god, his' 
vei^artcb must besati^ited b3^<thisti*rie^4hal<fertMWe,dfter>baving^' 
ift^'iong fdvotffcdthe ene'tfiy, wo«ld at^lwfe ftfe VtifcJdJof ptsyscscuting^ 
theffl; tlfat their brsverf iiM therr num^ei^tt^^ fiten^ sfili formi- 
dable (b^irig siiit lt^ii9»,Q(m^m.mT^''',Y^rmci'^f^ Bitily MroUid 
be afble to Wlthstahkiffieft^ -llbr piieVi^iftitkiewf^setUfcg: %Vheitevefr 
they itti|fKti^thlnk'|*oiye? J tfifftt they bad' Ao more td ^d'^Wt take 
care severally of-theWy^ves, and in«roh 'ingobd otdeip<;'lh*(F%y a 
ph-udent und'^dod retrfeat^ whkih\v4ja'1iow*4>ecbhieUhe4tJOiri^^ 
Bou'rcc'thfey y^atM not owry'8av<*'thertrtfelv<e6,hut alSd theit ^Mti^' 
try, and ena'Me it to recover it«f fortn^irg^ndeur. 'i . •.• - 

The army' marched in tw<;> *odiieii, bdth^jdrawn *p iriliie "form of 
aplmlanx; the first being ^^oirtmflrided^B]^ Nicic^, aiid the second 
bV'Dem6sftienes<'w<i>th the ba^agQ(<ln'th«i dentre. ' 'S«lnjg> 'dtfnUe t^ 
theriVer Ahapis,%H<^foirced tnfeit pasibagc,- and aftet^feifda'^erfe 

* attacked- by aH th^^e#Mny'S-cii?vttYry, a# well as '4if«$hlMN^^ wllb d$s* 
chaf ged pcTpetuallj^pf^h thetn.' They * Were amitAy ed in this' maiii- 
ner during Several *MfW march; every one '^f'^theipnesfefebehif 
guarded,'aird th^' Afli^'Hiahs bt4tig obhjfred to disiiutb%v^y^illlih of 
t^f way. ' Th^^ enemy were unwillih^g to haiNi(d«i batCks'Sf^aihst 
ill ft^iiiy vffatfrii despair aloiii94tiight' render iAvihcible t and&eia* 

fUiit^he Ati^^iaim prw^^t^ ^h^ Syrf^iuwoB l)attJe» the Irt^f ?e- 
tued; b|U^ whenever the .former procea<jl/ed..oa the^r miegrpiv ^i^y 
advanced ft^^charffed them in their retreKtn . )■ - 

Demosthenes aad Niciaa, «ei8mg ths^ieerahle cc^diti9Qt to which 
the troops wekfe reduced, bein^r in €^rex?a$ want of provisipn^, aod 
great nambm of them wounded, judged / advisable tO' retire to- 
wards the se^L, by. a quit?i contrary way to that in which they th^i 
marched, a^d to make directly for Camarina and Gela, instead of 
proT/eedj^g to Cabana* aa they first iot^dfi^r: '^^^f .9et out. in the 
&>ght^ aller lighting ^ great number of ^Qre^ Tne yetreat was 
mod^n great Qonfusipn apd disorder,- as generally happens to g^e^t 
armies during the gloomy hoj^rs^of th^ night, especially when the 
enemy is not faf ; oS However, the vin-g^^rdj^commanded \^y N^ 
das, wcjit forward in good order; but above h'^lf of the rear-guar^, 
with Defnosthene^ attheijr head, quitted the main body, and.lo^t 
their ;^ay. On tlw n^^t day th#; Syracvjsaijs, who, qn the repoit 
of tb^ii; retr^«|,t,: had mi^rched with extraordinary dUigpuce, canie 
up with; him aboMjt noon; smd having surrounded him witM^^ir 
hQ^'se, they drove him into jOL^arrow pUce enclosed withawall^ 
where hisj .so}4iers fought Uke lions. Perceivings at the cl9ee.of 
th^ ^y^ ^h^t thiey were oppressed with fatigue a^d covered wiM^ 
woun4e« the^ gave the .i^laaders leave ta xetire, which some of 
thein Accepted* and afterwards spared tlie lives xxfpthe rest, who 
surrendered, at. discretion with. Demost^oneS) after Wing stipu- 
lated that they should not be put to death, por senteoiced tp perr 
petue-1' impriflQiimenA. < >4i^nt 609i<> soldie;rp surrendered oq, these 
condition. M - . / ,.-. • '. 

Nicia^ uriveif^n ik^ i^amo; livening at the river Erinekas;^ and 
passing <it, en^mped on a mout^ti^na, where, the enemy came up 
with )iim the next ^ay^iapd summoned him to surrender at discre- 
tion, as Demosthenes had doiie* , Niciji^ cpuld i^ot ,persiiadje him- . 
self at ^st,that whatt tliey to)d,himt concerning that;ge»^aji wa^ 
true, aqd th^e(^Q des^iri^d leave tia send sonp^ hojcs^ for mforma- 
tion. J^pon U;i€^ ^returning ' with» th$ ^ewa tha^ Pempstheaes had 
really 9 wendered in that manner^ \fi^cias offered, tQ\pay the ex^ 
senses of th^.war, upon couditi^mi^tthat. thjoiy, w.Quld permit him to 
I^ve the coujitjy with his forces, and to giv«^ a# m«^y« .Athenians 
for hostages, as he should be oblifi^ed to nay tal^te^O But the 
enenvy re|QCted this proposal \with disdain IfbA insolence, and re- 
neyired th^. attack. JiCicia%. though in ahlKxlute waiit (Of att. things, 
nevertheless sustained .the charffe^the whWe night* and mar«&«d 
toivards thej river. AsinajrusM Whenthey^w^F^gc^ tp.jth^jban^of 
it, the Syra^usaos.coim&g up^m, dro^ m^^t Qif,th9«i» mte t)n» 
stre^^; the ifiBji having already 'pjiuogftd vQUV]^is^fiJy)Lint^vit,,to 
quench the^rthir^^ Here the greMeit and moi|]k bloQ^j^jpjB^aie^ wa0 
made» .tbe^iirt wretches beipg butchered withQvV the4ea4. pity sfi 
they were drinking. 'Nicias, finding all lost, and unable to bear 
tbi» fiim^. spectacle jijyr^ndgre^.^t, discretion, , upq^^oppditiop 

^%hit^ylijp|m8 should ^ Continue llv^ fig:ht;'ail4 8pai*eihe tMbf 

*' his ahiiy. A ^eat number were killed, luid more taken prisoners, 

.60 that oil Sicily v(ta fillefl with them. The 'AthemAn^ si^m to 

•'have be6n displeased with their ©eheta!,* for -sttrrendering iAkhia 

^Inanfter at discretioif i iM'^t&r th^i reaison his haine was omitted 

in, a piiWic monumct, ^ which were engraved the niimteff of 

/thpee'comlQflgiders who had lost their Hves^ih ^hting ^ their 

Country. " ,'■•.'- ' i. . • 

The victors adorneia; "^h the arms' takeh' from th* pflflitftters, 

the finest \nd largest'ti-ees oil the banks of the river;' ahfl made a 

*kiAd of trophies of those trd^feV'Tind crowning" thfemseltW^ Wltfi 

chaplets of ' flowers, dressing thfeir horses in the rtch'est capariMins, 

^nd .cropping the manes of those ,of their enemii^i they eiitei^ 

ti^iuiittphantly into P^racuse, after having happily te^mifttfted the moist 

^consliderable' war m which they had eVer been engaged ^th the 

•Gifedks ; and won, by their strength and valoiirj a nfost 6ig)flal and 

' complete Victory. The next day a conndl was- held,* tO;d^^rate 

on what' Was to be done with The prisoners. HiocleS, on6 of the 

.leadefrs^ the greatest authority airtohg'the people, proposed, Ihat 

all thfe Athenians who were born of fVee parents, and all-such Sici- 

lifaiis as had joined with them, should b^ imprisoried'hi ttih qliarries, 

and onlv two measut^s of flour, and one of Wat6I^ ]^veb them 

'doily ; that the slaves and all the allies 'fihoiiM be pMiciyMd; and 

tliat thj^'tWid Atheniah"gen^als should bc^-first BGOiirjgeawit|( rods, 

and afterwards put to death. ' •"' ' ■ 

Thi^ last artide was exceedki^y diififeed-l^ alt^wisd and^ mode- 
rate Syracusans.f Hemiocrates, who was very famous 'ftlr his 
probity and justice, attempted to makesomie rembnstrances to^the 
'l^ople, but they would ndt hear Mm\ and the sbOUts whieh echoed 
on aU sides, prevented him fVAn eontinuing his 'speech. ' At' that 
instant^ an ancient man,| venerable ibr bis age and grvivity, who iu 
4his WiCr h&d lost two sons^ the billy Wit^ to his name] and estate, 
made* his servants' cairry him to Ih^ tribunil], and the instatft he-ap- 
pear^d (d^profowid sileisce'^nsuedl' ' Tbu hert b^koid,^ BB,yk he, an 
unfortunaiiiijkther, wkd haefkl^nore-tiian anif^oUier SyrtkUsan the 
faialeffecU yHhAk war, ^ th'eUmJth of two lorw, whb formed ail ike 
^^fiuolaJtion^ mid wef^ the oni^ eupports, of my old age: I otbnnot'in- 
4iie^d forbear 'ndrkirmg 'their courage andfeliHty, in eacHifieing ISo 
'thetr coiihiry^e \Aeif^1^^ a lifk vohich- tkey wyMknie'dayHaye been 
tdebrHtfi^ of by > lh& commdti touree if nature t tint then -T iannot btU be 
[sirofigl^ iiffectei 'atith4he cruet uxiUnd kokiek 'Uiitir deathiiae mad^ in 
\/if heart' f n6f^fbrbea;rhaiing audi deteHikg the Atkehicmip the au- 
'Mo^ ^i%u ^uippy ^ri a» the murderfirt 4f 'myeh&dren. Btif , 
^Howdde^i I cdikhelf'voncedJikme cHrcumttance, which ik, thai I^enti lest 
^^hti&)l%^W^yL^ffti^kiie esffHmon^^ihan, toUhe honour ofmycmmtry: 
^^end-feeeifi-tad^ky^^^poit Utedf to eternal infamy^ fty ihe bardarouM 


ior«e >liQe«ltiMii«^ ami eviyy iMrfd ,€f}fiUttukfmt tBa$i tm H^it^M 

ienUyf Jfhm ikeir g tt Ui wkitai^damtirthgirMrms^t^wnpmdpwdi 
lid .^^ w4i do ihitjn, ik9 hopm^itf hmwrng iiidr Uve^.tpaiftdk 
inflifwp^/km t<^1iMik^wiUU bepffmihie/or w h (mMthejud 
iQpNrcxiel^ ^. tntr kjmmjf midmUdik^kni cfnaHatu^ and dUf^^mduned 

9tw glm^ioUpiUi ifMed,m9Mif(m^i9ki mkhhwftldiona AkMi 
I said, that a noHanj toko Jlrsl dMcated .01 UwipU .«» , iMrigU^ (o 
7le»MncyfJaimd itai muff m yoimv f r%ri^«tc/onet -and Urmnfh$do 
ot gi»^nmi^^iod'\ '^hry to a eiiy ; bti^Wte^esoeremh^ ni^rcy knoMrd^ 
vanqmhtd tntm^y ike titmf 4iM«raMfi«ii ihe grendeH prb$perikff^ 
fkdJwringUiojff^iiAtkegibdabym'*^^ Ypm 

nifyknMaeAM/org9Uen ikai ikm MmatfWkoie/aimf^ are geiagi 
• jp0rofio«M«, tOM ihe verff inaft^vAalptakMiyour'CWM'^ iM^ceeem^ 
^ 0/ lh4iAihemanei and emphffediiUi hitJisredi^ imd-^lki ^eh^ 
^tver (f.ihiit ehgwence^ ioMeimde At#>ik>fiUf!|i>yh>i»<;iW^9*infy im 
is yfdr^ . tkerefifps promewu» mt^ehobf^ danih m tkU 
9frihjf^^n€mln wmM U be sfjwi rewM^Jm':tk4jiealM ekomedji^ 
tur inkttsi? WUkrejgturdiQitn^^^ dicdh-fOOtM h^ Ua gnev&um 
tne thtt^ihemght of to korridemPV^ti^ €o mi l n ii ed 't^ my com^ 
lfrHe:n,^md/eilaie^ciUgenkM.i- ^flf\>^'r] '\., -ir, .; [v <- 

The peo{^ ateoMd muivod to oompftstion at thk fpeeclu efpe« 
i,lly jM^.witeartUfl vQii<BffablBiDld2na»ifi|at ascended'ue tribniialy 
e^.eicpeete4 tohea&bim eigr AkHiil<>llriret|0aMM» amtthoBO who 
id' bmtjg^ieii has^aautwa Ufai9i^fti<<ill8te«4 of euingfbr theis 
rdoiN. •Qttt')tfail fUMaiiet'of 'tiie AtheBMUMi lltviiur expatktc^ 
tit yehem^li<tt«^tftlie uiiheftrdHificr«ellie«t'lNiioh tiieir>ffepuito 
4 ex^cb^ob.ramiMcitMB Moogiii0 tbftltteirreiieai^ei, Biw^ven 
their aiu^ienl itilWai.ithiBi invetemoywlikilb^.lhak 

Bjkifyfi bvt&HbbtgrJteen wtoiwolfiiibedtflfetttint/AiiditfrMLtiB/of 
i<ut0 JDCimbe«f of SyiwuiUMi, 'Wto[liawtiM'>the doa^^of tbeir 
lldr^ $M netr relatkMw« iriMito oMvAes cfttild h». aitpo wio d do 
nef wAy tlitia byibe. bl6od of I tbeip'fiQbfderfrt; OKfUraM )w[imH ' 
»t«i}ioq9i, tUrfc^ld f8tumed-t4.Uieii|,wiigfikiat3r.]wtoliHidii,,iJirf' 
lowed I)loolci»'f adfiiein •v^rsFirespMl. iGjfUppmiMfediiisfilW 
#t,j»iifl^voureir biit in ivMii^ to havifoNi«iM and' Qmtestta^ 
ea:«i^ <lo J»ini<oflpeeia]fy a^Iii' haAMow thorn,) in oifjer to oinijir 
vm tQ LacadsiboDf : .Bnl liM4wnit«d «Mivaiftfltad wiUita jwyg^lift 
»rB^ imditlio twaff^BdfaliiW»ra |mtiti^;dMiu imi .< - »ii<:. v' ii< ri 
^tWiaf)^ And noMeiraUitnimir could. not fiwboary^ii^dftfilff tfiu» afr 
r tjVO|j|ktlKl f«t9 (if) thofw^t^wto lUtaMg^^ 
\y Ibir J^ila^ii.wli^ of toilonMn of; U»>tii|Mi(«MMlkMitte nont 
ig'nominious and untimely an end. When people recollected 
t speechesotni) mmmtimm h^iJo$i if^li^Uk^jfnfBai this warj . 
JToi.. III. ^ X 

tftd, on iti^MBt mfo, iiikatiCkey «Midefed iMr 'iu|limi«gad 
' h^htk^mhwwf MbJMdSk:^^^ rblatiii|r to T«ligioii ;. ttie gM«k 

t%|»8a^>i^ 4iMai^ w^o haA dv«lr 'flhowiNtke highe0tJ^ire.vereiice for 

llbBsg^imtA-km^^mijB'etaatell hinritoelf >ta tbe utmod^v for their 

&kMMir iu|d woiBbi)), lo fU '^ewaried'^y -thorn, «nd me^fcng {Mrith no 

ketter Atothaii the moti\ aiMgidbn^ >wretoted. Btf^^k is> no won 

Aer^tefl' tbeWttlanities of «Md«ieii''«h6«ld^i]i£j^liB th^ heathflOi 

, wit^uo|ii tlrngbte; afad'^iii&e theiifr*«aiiii»d!i<snd des^Ofnd ; aim 

' they aid ndtknow^ tl»iMd|e88*^bf thsiBiviBsBeifcgfnhr' eor- 

^nip^oii'of.)|iuna»>pat<ii«.V)- 'kmo^. . W\* > \^* ,". ^«> . * .i,... 

i^Si^acp99 ry ifhime* -ctov^w^^on^ upon t|)e otb^, they snfiereti 
ii(foed\Ue -jt^Nikients lor >eigiil idcMk.. Here they were Ibtr ever 
enqposed'to^^b imhdKBoi^ jof 'Ahe ^9^ther f scorched ion the day- 
lUBe by^tho burbili^f&yBof iQiewlli^or frosen in th% ni^bt by the 
eolds of autxinnp pois^d^^^ttcnoh of theb m9ti excremeHts, 
b^ itke eta^mme^bi those Who diedv^of their Iiw>ttnd8 and of^ck- 
■ess; in fine, worn.o«[t*byihcHig:er.4aidr thirst; for the dAiiy allow- 
anbr 'to etoh i|<aS'biNra>- sandlmea^sreiof '4vatef , and two of meaL 
TliQA«']iritfe w^ha taken eiat^tif this fiape twdi ^nthft after,* in onkr 
to b3 Md as' dav^s fmai^'ol^ li^jboip^w^i eitbenci' who had- eonceil- 
ed •their «09§iti6n,)^«>unda.keiip rigoteosfate* Theiv wiadom, tkeir 
patience, and a certain sir of probity and >|ii6fle9fey, were of- great 
advanta^'to tbetn; for ithqnwere^ either nee^; restored to their 
liherts^i lor'ii^f with the kindMiaad^iinist grenerou^ treatnieBt £rtKn 
tdieur DNurt^ri; *fi«vand of '4fiekiJ<eTei^' omd tfao'gotd mage tber 
fdet w:th\toBuHpides;«he(flnbg«}<«oeiMi0 efiiirhoae tam^^Usi tk^ 
rbpeated to the iSi^ittuis; who -wereT extrenefy fimd )^thefli ) ao 
that when 'they'iilMumc^ to tkeir 'Mm* codAtfip,<thOy^.Wi^nt an^ 
talateidthat poetaaitk^ ^Whrerer^ -aiid'iiUbBaied'hinr'of the ad- 
■airkbkifeflfeot lirvUifhtw iiieir. favunf by >hii^Terte4« •i'>f f c ^ 
'Al^ newb of vth^ ilfeMt beiilt|rl)OBri«(»d to d^Ahamftlm ^ni» 
would iioi.bUiav«iti^ailfitst}'%ad(i«eridao fkrik)|»i^vi9Riat Gt«dieto 
% thabt^yseateackdfUmtihanitoikath who^ad fiwt pi%Mshed it 
BiitiWkim]i|>^«« oonAvmeAf aU (he^tAthenians were seised with the 
' HtDipiit eoBiUeattatiottv aadfiegif Mlamselves hadnol d^reed the 
ikWv<A>^ veifte9lr4ne^'¥agtt and^r^eentment aK«inel the eraton 
nfto^hkd'proniQtetlitlie M^rpris^^as iw^ aa a|jiahist *the- sootb- 
aayetfl, who^^v tketf leb^tee of flctitioQsrprodigiee, hiMl «fl«tteie< 
ttRMawithiheiiopes of sdotob^'i'Tlkey had neuter .beeilt^dttteed to 
i^iftiyierabtew bonditios^n kt^neieM^ kailing-iieither hofee, foot 
money, galleys, nor BBandeV ;)'in a' wei^ they j¥ere in* the deep 
dftipai»; wttWetitig mvistf tnoiiient tfaaitithe eneuy, elat». with 
gMt iic|^i0UTy^«;9i«tn»^ke^ theiitnrolf df' the dUteo,. woi 
aeme* eid^iBVade^MKMlloth b{^ all'>&^ifb] 

• » « 1 1 1 • 

UQ^ o|rAit.M^^ Wellfts theiifgiUlajB^]^er€| ruiaed viq supl^} 
ftod tthik^ in.^to iiarl^om, ^ke powei; Am 9^ of tliQ^^^^i^ 

, Tbe» AtheBiawi however did not n^ei.ih&tthaflvea ip \ie wholly 
d^i^to^i ai^d' rpsumeid couiagp^ ^^^M ^^ f^ioheii to raise 
inaii0y,9ii al^Aidea, and to iqftport timbor lor^buildi^ sbip^^ in 91 ~ 
to awe the alUea, aild p^icular^ythQ^nbaoitants ofjtlie islanc 
Eubcea. , .Ttieyrffta{eQ<;h^raU^n»duQU6jB^pfyas6^a^ 
a newi^ouac^ pf af}9^Qt,nexk,,)fnp were U> weigll^ gamine ^^ 
afi^ini.iiei^re thi^y «bq^d be propQse^ 4a^|i^(peoplf}r Xii fiae^they 
ODUl^tiQd. |K>tl^g which JO^igiit |)f of ^rvi|^ in t}fp pr^^t eoxiju|ic- 
tuie;. theaiiMW in 'w]piic^;they. were, aaQT^tJieiriCpp^^ipn daipger^ 
ebli^Df.^vei:^. individual ;tor \fB 9Xtiji,\Xv9*iji.ib» neq^si^es of the 
iftate» and docile t^^^ advioetWii vight promote ij^jiAt^rreflt^ 

• j^frw' * 'tj,/ j.'t ''"(i,, 'J K flu. --• • i; • ;;.ii,. ." * 

A. M. ani; 1/ (.Tb9 4lf^.of the AibemaUfff^l^re Byracu^e .w«| 
Ani; f. Cv4i3.;c^the^a»e>^f l^aali»ievenie«ta.tiNrOttghout'B]l,ftf]eeee» 
7he8li{tefS;,^oh(4r9ot:ydt'joiliede^ feidet.and wfuteditob^ 
detennuied by the ei^ntyiteBalved lo. declare again^t(ttbemn.r)P3kf9 
allies of the Laced8emoiv4H98;biel^9Tedjthat thAt9j[)e.^w comeiladeh 
liver them/;^F eves firon) (^ ^lympse^ of i^^ war whi«|)')ay V9fyiiemvy 
upon them,il)y.the'|ipeedy wd ftM^rtiin ($f Athena. T4ii#e of t|^ 
Atheniai^, ,^hp. f<^^d thewoooiy out..0f ,eQ9B(iF(|i4li#0eing iij^ 
m^PSeaianoQ^pf nay ful;uj|e reaoiuroe f^r that rfiipub]ijLe,i|f4§r the dr/fa4) 
fal;bloM^ |t hif^ Tj^^ved, tbw^ it best to taJ^jidvao^age of wr 
f2Lv»u^bl4» atfiSnjuQctijure foff ;thfo«i9^f off the yQ^^j^,A^;imifi»c^i 
aild refiumin^ ,th€^ bberty.^ Di^l^tiens of .thk kirvjb in9j^e4 Hki 
Jjju^^mv^mium wit)i.'gf^t v^wiijwhich were nupport^diJ^y iim 
hqpes tt^ey )iad copceived^tthat theii Sicilian allies, wq^d i<Nia!th(m 
in t)^]^8|»ing ,.with a M«al>aTniyijaiiginented byiitlio t^m^f/tik 
-M^^^^fi^tm Jc i.v, -v*. • I ' -I ". ' "••.■• f,f,.u- •- 1- ' ' -s 
%,lAetJr4j||^p«Dpl% of JBttbf9a, Ohio, and X«e8bes,:»ri|ti sev^val 
o\)m%i gVfjh'^ fiacfidff5i?M» B i« n » ^oi.understancl*' that Ibiay wer«l 
wMy/tfliJlpt )ri«i p(W^ 9fi.*ei4lAe»i« th^yhW«*4d.take tl^m 

* HIc pHmum opei tfUua dvitads victa, eomminuta, depreasaequo mint : in boa 
IMMTtu Athenlensiuni nobilitatis, inperii, glorlD nanfriiftiom factum exlsltinatar. CKo. 

rni&fcsrAi.vitf.>«3. '-"^ '- t'Tbncy<l.i.^rlii.p.555-i5iiB.' ,. 

i«4 *^ ^tm*Mt<^*rmr^^d^ 

Icftila, the other* 6f tiioL-Vell^ipoiit. Tho<Ǥ '^krt^6vt^ oT Btttiu* 
Wanted neither appBcaiiiw'iior zeal ibr th^ 'MtetdM of tk^l^'roa^ 
ter> Tissaphem^s, promisiiiff to furnj^ih th^ LacediEffnoniaM wkfa 
an the nqce80ar3f^^kp^inies ^ their trooper,' preMed'tkem to arm 
directly,^ and 'to Join Ifini; b^'caua^^^th'^ 'Athenian ' lleM' prevented 
"^'M'fi-omlevyuig^theusu^ t^ntrftotiolHr in hkproviAee; '«tnd>%ild 

irit'out of'his' po#er to remit thoi^-bf the preefelding yeiirs to 
{he king; iff^'hop^^eeideb wi^tfaat^JbWetfM dd to get ihto hia 
hilnds witb mbr^ ^ase'ii certain iiobltean'%bo hatt revolts in 
Caria, tod-Whohihe hkitlti Intnft^ drdenj t^Mnfii' to him ddad- or 
aKrel' ' This Md Aihorgea; a lAiiilard 0^^ Ph*maba«us 

ait'lJie same titne'demahM slups tadraw <ylf the ckiee of tlie-Hel- 
leipdtit frokif ^^r stibj^^ttbA iS^ ^ Atheniaiis ; Who >t^i/H(BlM hint 
also ftoa leVjfiftg the tribtte* ttf fcftf^Ovemmeftt^' '' '-' ' 

The Lacediemonians thought it proper to begin by satisiying Tis- 
aapheraes ; and'the iofluence of^iudibiades contributed very much 
to the taking that resolution. He embarked with Chalcidsus for 
Ohio, which took up arms] lipftftitEl(AAWHval^ and declared for the 
liapede^onians. Upon the news of this reyolt, the Athenians re- 
solved t5'tljiie,.thfe.,100O.talep,t8 ouV. I}f ;.tiij^"H^Mpury,^wh'icli h&d 
been deposited there from the be^nin^ of the war, after having 
repealed the -.dearer whieh. .pri»b^i<;<i(i it ^^ M^^st^tlso revolted 
soon after. Tissaphemes, having joined his troops with those of 
9piarta,'ttttiD6fied andtm^thet^y of 1ftstt#fa|b ivhich AmoiMkad 
shut^iibself up^^'Whi^ WiM ttLk«fl» riive iQ»cl«^kt into PersM.^ Tivat 
g^vehiidr^^ate^ a mohth's )iay tb «he Wh<ll^ Hrmyj at tf^nt\}^3. or 
tt^enoo, (i daf to each Bdili«,-obe«r^4lig' that he had orders to 
gli^ihomonJf'fatiiftiiMtfiim^^i^futcrH^ ' 

" Ir^Ws'«.t4hi^ time that Ch«kidi0y#*#fcdd a treaty with Tissa-* 
frberhes^m tie name ^ tfed fiiad«fd#mdtfittM,} <^ which bne of the 
lirincipfld «krticYe^ivatr,iiiat^ail thiPcOuntVy which had ^een subject 
tJ^%he kii!^|;^d*'his^edede6Bor^8h^)d remaifr m bl^^dtids.' ^ It w&k 
Mntfwed 'sdm^ time atW by st'h^ifimenesv d'notHerlf^^i-al^'of thd 
LQid^iltfe!m)iiiaifs',>^'with ^ome^imttl) 'alterations;' mt' wW thfo 

Ml hiaite# Of thw greatest piirt of€[|>eeee,of Thessaly, (lOcris, 
and the whole country as far as Boeotia, withoat n^eirtic^^^'tl^ 
]idtod8; fHoih'Whende'tlie Liie^demoi%ids WodM ^^airVathl^ to 
kitver edfeved Greece; ^iU(n<>Ve^est«MtehNr'ki Wa^r^W^hik 
thel«fore 'M^e^MTa]^ ib inai»>faMlter ilt^ratieMi itfl!t/%ftlk 'WRldh 
Tissaphemes and the other governors made great difficulties to 

. » • -M*' '' • M .' I, >: .. . .1 -t I «•* .« • • • '»/ •l^ 

• Three mlllio&i of iltres^ t Tluicyil. U.tMU p. «& ... 1 IdeflH. a. a([ft«nt^ 

Xfll |t^MA«»a tp%j^y^l|l cideuiiof lQqti^48icliurGtd % I^fedsipoB) 
to.;wMk^ ^Qi))i»jjeipCiMitrib«te<l. very myu^. .A^f vfho wb9 
^ir^My*^ eneflief ' in cooA^MuenQe of .the u9i^I^ be tiftd reQeive4 
from him^ciauli a<»t en4^oe ioe idmF' ^^ had «9f^il9d », lor no^^^^g 
WM done wit;)ioui the advice ^. Alcibiade^, and ^t waa^ ge]»er«]]|; 
^idith^f, titOf ai^goeaa of. allt^f^tarprisof was owixig^hSo- T^fi 
Bepst poworfiil ^d wi^hkiomiof th(i|^8(iajtaps, from.tliijQ. wpe aemti'r 
Bienis of j^alouay, lookodfr^moif .4)JJ9^ aa evil e|'ei.and,at leiiffths 
by thaurjolnguos, obliged rt|ia {kApc^pal ir.4^i8tratea to ae^iMl orden 
into Ionia for putting iHrn to deata. ^Icibia^es being aecr^tly wf^ 
|08o^' of this order, did not disoontiaue hie seryi^ea. <to the Lape- 
^moiiians, but kepi himself ao well upop hi^ guard) tliat be avoided 
aj} the saarea which were l%id for t^m. < • 
A M. 3503. •"*, Fd^ his J^tte^ if^curity. )^ th^w himself into tbi^ 
Ant. J; Q.4U. protection, of O^uhemesythe great. king's govemois 
at Sardisbi*'^ wae4pot Iwg withovit s^ing bunseM* in the- ^highesiE 
degree of credit and a^t)K>rity init^ i(9i|rt^f the baxbarian^ fq]^ 
th^ Peisian, who wmA^I of. fraud a^d.artifice, a great friend to 
kaanj^s ax^ bad nyen, aod sf too yoX^ ufpn-fpuppkcity and integrityr 
iQii)f||iely.a!4^iired,tk!9 vers^f ilitypf A^Lbi^deS) the ease .with whic^ 
he assmned a)l kind pf^nianners ;u»d^Wacter8, and his great abi}it¥ 
in the G/^oduct of .afil^rs. An^^incleei therO'iMirae nq heart so Wfli 
or ten^c sO'Untractable, ai^ to.J^d ou^ aeainstthe; gvaoes i^ 
chc^rfips ^ ihis .^oiftYj^rsaUqi^ ai^ixiliimacff. E^eivtlio^e,. who ^red 
and ^pvm4 insn mest^^d^te^an a .m^w by hj» affable air ai^ 
engagijagi. I^ehavioui, co4d not diaspmble^,^) ipfinitp ^tisfSictiqiv 
they f^t in seeing a:^^ convef^i^ ^ith huBHr. , 
' T4#Kiphieioes thei^ore, t^ugh f^the^wise very baugM^ >aa4 
bnrta^ and tt^&,|i^ai vrhp of aU tQe P^i|«ru)^,mo4 hat^^the Chreeksi 
was so much taken with the complaisance andini^^tions o^Ai<^i* 
blades, tAi^ het gave.hpimself twheUy Vjp49..)^, and 4attere|4>im 
more than ha.was.^attter^d byr^Qii mffeimip)^ that .he gava t|(4 
name of Alcihi^des to I^q ^best.anivv^st^.^^llghjt^ of lus gardj^piib 
aa .well from toe abun4f(«pi^ of its foupt^ains and cftoalSy^Mdd (tlie 
verdure qi its groves, as the iiKirpriwgfl^uty of its .re^tr^ts and 
soUtttdeSyWhiGR aft ii^i)r|nai^re seemed to. vie. with eac^rOthe|i\,JE0 
eml^Hish^^, uxd whemreij^ a^mof^th^i royal iBj^p4ficence .was dis- 
played, -,'• --r ^,. ., r ,.:?'■;• . /> Jib'- 

Alcibiades, who foun4jU)ere.^^;no longer apyisafety for hup \d 
the pmty of the;^pa^^u|»,f|utd' wh^ always ngprehended thenre- 
jKnta^ of A(psrbegf^p .tp do theifi.ilioffices^ with Tissaphenwi 
to prevent his aidmg tnem with all ^ fi>rf«s, if^d, rcimogj^heAtb^t' 
Diaiis ei^threlv. IJe had np dj^fficulty m hiringitqf the Sj^^tM^ H»tQ 
hm views, ynacl^ were con%rn^)>le ^o bis master!^ intef^9M«iPA4<t4 

•W ^^ MiftmA»^fm^'^< 


treaty concluded under Qimon, the kings of Persia, not da^^to at<^ 
tack tbeOre^s %v;ith'o^n-4bTce;t6bk other tneiftM^^'tdAilifrikem. 

<ed coT^ertly to exciti^ dl^oni knK[>ng<M 1(keMli|['and 


-miiienttrdubles'by considerable (^ms.of ntt^ef, Wliicll'tliky 
Ib^iid means to 'ddi^ey sometii^s t<y Atmns,* 'ik»d sc/lhetinieiS' to 
S^tota. .They applied'ihemselye^' £(6 successfully ''t^k^p 'up a 
balance of power between those tTfli^epublids,tftifef the eife oovM 
iiever entirely i-educe the cither, 'r "iTh^y ^ntecf th^ti onlylsligM 

. nds, that could effect nothing d^i^Ti^,J6^'order to nn^eittiine tl(«*ii» 
insensibly, arid exhaust both pai^leff gm^Qallyj by W^ftkenii^ t1ien» 
by the nieiins of one another.- •*• ' » ^^ fl ' ' '-i'" 

It Is in this kind of conduct, fhik pdlicy mAkeS'the* abilify of 

\ ttinisters -coi^st ; who from the^'re^esii of their cabinets, without 
noise or commotion, without any gr^ expensed, or siting' im- 
\ tfierous armies on fbbt, siict^eed in '^eak^nil^^ the states whose 
fewer glVes themumbtage, eitheJ'-li^ sowing "domestic divisibsff 
among them, or by proiiadtirfg the ' jeAlptfiy of fhfeir i^lAdttrs, in 
erder to set thfem at Variandi^ with each otjier.'^^ 2: 

'*' We must confess, ho«^fei», that this 'kfaid of policy tftt^ fes tta 
rery favourable i*eA <jf the. Mngs* of* Persia. To re^ice Ifiem- 
lielves, powerful as thej wer^, to such mean, obs<^ure, avfd in£fe<ei;t 
measiires, lyas to confess theh;' weakft'esfri^rind -theiir iftabflity, Ha 
they believed, to attack tlieii* eiijifeftes with d^ Ibi^,-*!!^ to xe- 
^ce thehi by honourable means/ \ Besi^s, is It consii^i^tMf with 

being one day in a coHait!ioh^t6 ^^Wi^}- Is it kwftd-by secr^ 
Wibe< to lay snares foi-the-lWefBiy^f* silfijetets, and to'bte tft^c- 
«^plic^ of thcii" treasons; bVputtmg^ arms* intb their hands agiiinst 
theirMti^cotmCry?'-- ' ''-^ --^^^ \ = '■ • " ' '-^ ■' - ■ 
•What gloiy %nd P*bot<^ WouM ndt t^ft' k3Atf«of Perpfeifliav^Ke- 
fltiired, if conten;^ with the vfest aiid richwmifti(As which Pr^Vi- 
i^^ had giVe»t'Wshii th«^ fiad eihptejred fSch' good offces, po^er ,. 
luift even treasures, to'i^dncile the neigfRbduiing States' with ^di 
other, to Yemove their* ^j'^aletWes, t&pt^ient -fojustke «nd cj4t)*:efi- 
rftoA; and if, feared 'iirid honoured b^thfeto^ all, w^yhad- m^e 
thfemselveir the mddfAtor^ of miit'mSeeem¥;*t}!le secui^y 6t^Vk^ 

E^acp. and the guarantee of their tre<^ties. Can any conqu«st^ 
b#^ef'gifeat,brfcfem{)ar^d^iffiiJ,ifch'M<rt^ »'"' *^ ' 

Tftlstiphemes atited upolrf dther -prfti^^wi aiid had n6 theuprht 
bift' of preventing: the Ctr^ekb'frori b0i»%«' a 'condition tb'Uttfccflt 
the^efiikhff, their^ totnfjicfn' ^jkiy. * Htl'therefbre entcrfed fireeh^ 
tft^ ^t^ V^s'bf A16ibiiid^.s^ and'at the tiAme time that he 'declared 
Eintelf ^!^pettly ^or the I^ced^hidtiiari^, did hot fiS to assist the 
Athenians undarband. and by a thousand seq^et methods; ({pfening 
the pajriib&t 6f the Ltc^dekhoriiiCn^eet, ah? ifetarj^g t&e arrhriJ 

He omiUMiilO ^M^aikMi of givii^ Akftiktei Btw 4M|ia of hk 
ilrie^ilnplaid ettoeb, whieb ren^re^ Ihatgnenerid m^ttlbf eitani- 

neDced the effeodpef hmD)|^ ArawB hb anger nqibii Ihma; were not 
now to^^i^i^M! thelif pftflBi!igrMitiri;eiioe of cotAleBmnlieii' upon Mm. 
Akihitf^M'atoo'CMi'hid'ade'extremelyeorry to* see tbeiAtheaiansfm 
BO BMMirnfb) « filtoAtioti, 'hem to f^t tM *if die eity of Atheoi 
were to be edtir^ly rttiiked, he m(^ fkli klto the baade of tSm 
Bpcutane, whomdr&lfy iMrted fa&m.' 

; '' SECTION' n. 

The iMQiii at JMMnim to Allienii nepotimtd gpon'ctfifMlMMV of «i»HkMat tlw 

wistoeratical, Ui the room 9C t^« denoeratical goftrtmwu Tiaaapbernei condodM 
a new treAtjr wltlt tlH* Lvceosmonlam. • '' 

The Atheniam were inteot ttppn nothhuf #o pivcii at S^iooe,* 

wh^e they; had all their foroesM Trom thejBire with their fleel 

they seduced all the cities that) had abaodooed.t^in under theii 

obedienoe, ke|it the rest ia their doty, and foun^ them^^v^ a^ill 

in a conditioB to ipake head against their eoemieS} OiVer whom tkiey 

had obtained ae?en4'advanta^eai. . 9at thejf were afraid of .Tisa^n 

phemea, and the. >60.Ph<»moian ahipa, whicb,he.hourIy e^xpected) 

andtright]|r perceived that, if 00 powerful 4 fleet should join .t^Q 

enemfy these waa no longer) any safi^y for tiieir ci(y< .Alcibdad^ 

whofwaa well informed aCaU fl^a^opassed among; the. Athenifinm 

sent se^etiy to U^e principid of them »t Samos, to sqnpd their seoi 

tiaents, and ietih^m.know, that he was not averse toj:etuming to 

Athens, providiad thoiadmiidstration of the repub^. ware pot' aHo 

the huids of ^e great ai:id p<m^^\ A^nd not lef( ^0 th&tpopuloce, 

who had expeHed fai* Some of the principal. o^Sc^rs^ent ffffm 

Samos» with desien toe .concert ^ith hun th^ proper iii>e{^Hres ib)i^ 

the sBCGtss oT.tM undertaking. He prompBed to proqur^a^^ jtha 

Athenians not only th^ fhfour, Of Tissaphemes, but f>f]\^ iangi 

hinuelfy upon conditAoo they woiild abolish the demac^ar^y oi:.pqpjii> 

iar goTena^snt; heeanai^ the king wovdd plapemoi!« cowif^ 

t^ engagemeats^ i6f .the nobility, Uma upi;in..tbos0 c^ ue inepnK 

stant aiid£iprioious.i»ultitude« ^ ! . :•: 

The deputies lent a wiUingjear to these proppsal^, «n4.^f9piQcive<i( 

great Jlopes of exonerating them«elves from part of the pu^itc ^0^ 

positions, because as they w^te the richest .of the peopletfi^. 

hwnden k^heavinst ^pon themv^ad of makjoig ^n connti^ilUriumpi^ 

aft^/faaTm^rpoaHsased.Jthemselves of the^g^^^eamecti.u^fct tAoir 

retnml'th^ b«gaci ;by biasgii^- oyer such as w^e -most, msp^f i^ 

sbare ^ Ifaehr design ;/aftei! which th^ caused a import toi^tspifad; 

aoiongst thetra^pSy tfaattfthe long was iiioUoe4 toiiycktrein lavqvf 

of ti» At hen i—a» fiwl to ipay (hei ««my, ifon canditio^ Ih^j^Afe^ 

•^ « 

fimt» bttfeitho csiaarm ofr||aiA, and the hop0 fif ^^wmgj^'to tiieii nife- 
.vaiitage»mb^«^flQDed .wfa«t wair haisk and O^MfiV^ift i^ and'«y^ 
made tliemf«iCdesilixdeflirt the ii«KsaUef.4Jk^bi^^ . .v. 
..nPhiii^i^u^ttne <)^iilheif^e»eis«la« rightly ji^dgiiV thal^Alqil^Mes 
caved, as littie fori'aii. olkfucch^^^iafl he did &i; '(hft.demof^sa^^yjraod 
that ia dacc^riog Ihie'pe0{£^'» conduct ha<h94 n<Hiii^^ y^ffffUjMfk to 
Acquire the.favQlir«4U)d C^tdev^ QT,yi«:09h^U^<4ptf his own <e- 
establishment, had the boldn^. 'to 'oppose /ih^il^olutions., which 
were about to take place. He represented, that the change they 
meditated might very prob^]T/;e^te;a civil war to the ruin of the 
state ; that it was very unlikely that the kinff of Persia would 
prefer the alliance* bf'tbe^Atheniaor to thaft of the fi^mrtans, wlnek 
was so muchmore idvslntageous tohiiu^.t^at thiq chan^^wqi4<^ 
not retain the allies in their duty, nor bring over those who had re- 
Ddlttiieedit,as^%h^y would persJKti in prefftrnng' their liberty; tifiat 
the government of^' ^a^^ nimbcii' of^ rich and>pbwe|ful persona 
would not be mcird^V^ur^e %<^{eltlfer tb6 eitizeni> 6r allies thaii 
that t^'the people, because atnbitt<^was thegte^ cause of ali 
milffbrCuiies In arepisblie, aiidithe''rieirirere theso}^ proonoters o£ 
aH'ti-eublei^'fbr the agyrandizilig of themselvefc;: tfai^ 'a state suC- 
f^red'i^ore.'dppn^ions^aiid; ^olences under th^ 'rlile>cif' the BohiJity 
thaD'%nder that of tb« p^dple, whose authority' kept; the ^nher 
vHt^ duf boUtipds, an4 wais ib^'Ss^lUln x^ such as ^ey desired *to 
cf|$|^b$i ' thkt the* aifies were lob* yt^Qjiidquidnted^ with these truths 
ftbtn their own experience, >Ik) waint '4ny lesscms upoathe^suhject. 
'^ ; Thesp remonstrances, wise^ a» tfii^y < w«re, had- &6 JelTect^ . Pism- 
deF^v«/#iBeiKt'o^i^thend with some of tifs^same'fadtibn, txr juropose 
the .r^tito ^f Alcibiades, all alHii&niSi^ \mtk Timaphiliies, and the 
a%^lkiblPbf t!ie diimocriiey^l They representied) thafi^ by chah^gr 
the g^veftiment,^ and rt^caihng Alcibiades, 'Athens) mftgat obtam a 
^e^rnPfiidf fr6m th« King of Pemia, which Ifittld bo3ft)eertain.- 
ibeahs^iy tHuihph over SpaHa J Upon lliis proposal great numbets 
eJfSRtlni^d against it, ai^ especially the ^enemier of Aloibiftdes. 
'ni^y^^^d, MAi^ngst' other readoiis, the ininrecatioii»pr(mottiiced 
hf die priests, iind all thi^'o(di€hp milftsteys oc/reli«0ii,(afftun8t hisa^ 
t^id even against such as should propose to vomUhimi vlfotPiBan- 
d^, d^d^ine^g into the midst of the assembly) denianded; whether 
thev ki[ii[»W iiiiy othf^r 'means to save the rejmblK* in thedcrplbrable 
condition to which it was reduced ;' «nd a6> it was admitted there 
wei^'iioiife, he hdded Cha;i|the preservation of the state j was t]>e 
<Juestidn'^ and-not the authority of th^laws, whieh4nght be provided 
fyt hi ^ti sequel \ but at present theisei mm no otliar m'etibod fosithe 
dttttl^iS^t of «he kuig's friendsli^' and'ti^ai of Tissifipheraes. 
Tb^gh^ tinU' >«ltoii|^ wtii very;:offeniivi» to'tbeitpesplei they 
fHii^ i^t eons^ tolt^tc lenfthv:wiMtl;h^ bof^ «f^t>'eAdbfiBh- 
wig the dein^r^cy^h^^e^er,. as,^Pi^f|e^,,l^^|«pi^ and 

rsBSTittisway c»boiaK8. 

Hm dWedt^ Attti he thMiIA |d uMi tan item ^epstflario* tvM 
with AliMiMddfl t3a6 TilBaflleMee, tfndtbkt in tik nmn time Phryt* 
Biew §iMiUM be readied, and aiMlher ffesenii appbintod to commaiii 
tfir^ rfeet ih 1m aUe^d. ' ' 

TRfe deputies 8id 'Sot find Tisaaptiemea in 00 ffaod a dkpodtiai 
aa they bud b%ett ^tolJde to' hope. ' He wai^ afiraia of the Laoedrt^ 
inomam^1»ut,wa8 itai^ffliiigitdreniiartheiAthemaiia toopcnveifiiL 
It w^lils^poli^^y, }fy thd aft^oa of Alcibiade0«*to leava the two 
parti^^'llWayi at^ War, in older toweaken and conaume ikmabf 
etLchdthiiTi ite tberefdre mft<ie mat diffieultieai HedeBuunded 
at ilik, tfiM tile Atheniaha^hoald tabaadoiil all Ionia to &im, and 
ab^^rward^ Insisted ufnm thitc addifl^ the iieigitlMRirittgi.iBlaiMliS' 
irhdse dett^ands beinj;' 6<fm0bl with,'S^akther Kf^tiiM, in a t&M 
[Aterview, bennission to fit ottt a ileet;«iid to iyrmise hi the'Gredab 
iewi #hich hMLd 6d9n expn^sly ||i^id»di against in the celebrated 
rekty eoFR^kided irith Aktaxeixeb'. The'^^ties therecq^brok^ 
ip the e^tifer^nees with hidignatlon, and perceived that Akibiadee 

ittd iwttbAeWpOh th^. ^i' A .u.'Tr - .. , 

Tisiidphemei; without lofts^b^ thlae; eofieleded a new treaty Witir 
he Lacedsemdhiana; in whieh, What had diaofeased ii| tlie taad 
(receding treaties was retrenched. The article which yielded td 
»ei%ift1h^'^o\]ntned ih^^erall'thlLthad beeii hrtbevetsal poaae^- 
iofi hf the 'rei^nb' ftiiigr btfHiig,' oiKhis^ptiadeceBaDra, waJ Bmitetf 
i ^tB(& 'jjfto^tiQ^ of Asiil. TM'Mng eeg^fed.t^ defta^> atfjelb* 
jEM^ses of ^he Lacedehnfiir>nitUi' fteet, in the cofi£tion<it »exi woa^ 
II the arrival' of that of PeMia ) after whifch they weite to'adp* 
i>rt it theiiiselyes; mitess th^ sbodd tehooee that thetfci% 
iould pay it; to'^be jrennbtiraed aifter the conclnribii ot the 
ar. 'It was farther aglfeed, that tbef idiould Utti(e"th<»f foftdm 
id continue the war, or hiake peace,' by eemmon: oooaent.' nU 
phemes, to keepf hir ptotnise,. aetat lor ^bhe Jdeet bf Ph(QBarteia« 
his treaty was mad&,m'the'elei^Ui'^y^i>> of Dariiia, awl the 
rentfeth of the Pelopciilnesiaii War. • " ' ' = 

■ •^^^•;' -^ ^'tecTioNiiii '- ..V "•"••' ■ 

^^ m»ke a tyranntpul almw of ffieir power, and fire (tejioted. 'Atclbindesli reeaMed. 
kArr Vailoas accidents, and .Mverai eonildemlile vi«torie9» M' retunn in^tMniph m 
kthenv, and It appointad generaliasiaio. He rig»m^nyiiCeffieimh|Mef|^ 
.9^i«d,juidde||viiwj|ailb|tllaet ,^ ^, . ,^^ ^ 

. J^r^^ (A« ^ioeni|r^rf^ to flu tyij^^f^ )jear efike War. ^ ' 
PiMLnder^^.at his retui^p t|}' ^he|sa,; feond the cfe^hge he^had 


-'•v^aettfi^^^aMwlliifl^bAlilkpJllSi "u 



mk9 wtre. Hoffir^er aft aret ytikr Hyefl.iiM to: fl^ Ifi^^pmle a 
«OBdtiift of mbat tfaiey. kedi J<mm^ . iit >tliet'«JtpilMio& gf,th« torn, 
ifaatgeoenilr taismbfy't^Ma «ii|iqM}ii«dc^lMi;eai ithieir ^nM^ .j^efioWtbD 
was, that every one should be admitted to makenftfC^piOfosi^p 
WtiioQgbt fit,<ivithQUt:b9»9 Ikk^ tO' wf aottviCtioQ ^ imrui^ 
4dw law, p^alC|r\tn;<|i)n8equence( >fi^^9# aftefwards der 
didad, tkat a newoodaidl-shooliibQ fffwj^^wUkh jTuU pQjr^ to «d- 
nidister the public ^afiairtH- and loi^ct «ewr maifwtratfs^ For 
tills (H^'poseifiTe pMiideii]!(» rneta estfl^iai^ed* ^bft 90ii^ui»ted 100 
)iei9»iiB, iiidludii^.ltoMelTeit^} dB><^ atih^m cflosQiaff^, asso- 
oiated'tAree nioorai lit: hMlowii(tpleaa«(iefjivbiobrK»94p j|iii|t)1.4ipO,ii 
wfamnair abm>liltt)=>*iKiw9fl.wafl'l(Migi^M' Rati^o aequoe ttipe pefypk, 
toi to coDsobitlKimiiKiiMilBncKad^w i&f^fioyi^W'jgfpyeismie&t, wJuke 
tfarf hkititritted a feftl«fii|[ttBcJ}yyat. was aai^i thfit.jljii^.Poui;; Bxnh 
"fired sbmddcaUa -cou]i9ilS9^:i6<H)0;0J^24ej^ 4o a^JMt rth^ when 
they ihirald judge it nese^NafJ^. Irfe caip^l ao^ mesitiJ^ev of tbe 
people were bdiLaa tfsui^ ;f .;iiothi]lgiiivaa.4oti0/ hpfiofer'l^i^ by tbe 
order of the Four Hundred. The oeople Q{!{^k9P9-i9|pr!a,depriveJ 
iirrtiiif«tann0r;fpf tfai6if i'U[befty» w|^a4^y b^4 .^iiciy«li ^mff^ a 
,lMKidred yea^s, aftev^hftvin^ abpli9bi94v?tbQ tyran^of th^.Pisis- 

Thk dectee bewff ipaad^d !riliM>v):r'QPFi^tjtf^n, ..^l^^rn^i^fipfH^ 
tion of the siMieRibfy^tbe^FQfiqtHmNlm fjRIied; Mf^.-^bggefs, and 
attended loj l>20 ybu^n^ niei^.wheinjthQy xp.aje use ofyi^enLnaii 
^secutaonreqidrieid itr^nUred. th« ^i^nfitjei .a«4 'OompeUod tb^ aena 
lOTBtoratira^afUr iianiDgip^id^li^ttfii^uarre^rs due upon thdi 

SMiea^j They «l6oted n€)w sna^Wate|{iput;if .their own bo^, 
eamig:.thQ:tisual ^^renioi&^s upop'.s^ ^^ci^ons. ^ They ma 
ptit.. tl^ina .{B'^Qr. ta, re^wll libose wb(^. .w^o bcuushed, l^at thej 
8Mtild,bi»-4i^Jb%ftdutQ auth^^^ipQ tbe retufa'of Akil^iadea, of who« 
ibo6iitt^a1>le apilit ti^y.W^K^ apprebcgMjiv^j^ai^ who woul^ soon 
lj(avelBiade> hiwepUImiit^r /^.tbe peggVen: A^uaing M»W power a 
a tyrannical manner, some they pijit torde^j^, others tbey baniahed, 
confiscating^ their estates with impunity. AH who ventured to ap- 
pose this change, or eyei)[|p ^P9d)p^AC# it, were butchered upon 
fsJse pretexts; and those Would have met with a bad reo^>tioD 
t«io';dbti)i4ha^d;'jtlstic^;(rf/fhfe''tt^ -^pbr^Foor Ifoadnd 

8boii);aJ^9i'their/Q8itab]i8Went,aenMeAidibp tp Samps to gain 
the'<4ni6tirrence^thtfiarmyv «^ . '. . 

All that had passed at Athens was already* knoM^ there,"* aai 

the ne^s^hn-^/ 1^^^^!^ Art"^^9#HJ^^.^t^®-|f JW*®^ • ^ Thej 

deposed^ "immediately severmSjf their cniefB, VJriom ihey 

. stMrpectad 

and put otl}gM^(},th,^r |>K<tf<?.i f^ ^<>om; Thr^jlus and Thiaflj* 
Lulus were ui^ nnncipal, r«aiQ in , liignesl credit. Al( 
r,epal|ed»^^4 W«Sft J;?'^®f»"8simo bj/.-Q^^ Tbi 

we^g-jj^^^ojos t^^s?fij:,d3|pctJ^.fot;th^Tj;'^j|^ attajr tfie tyrants 

• ThMcy^'UxMo^^ miHm^ :iaM4».4H»r ^-19^. JH^ P. MS. 

bst.Jnrv«i«a7intteviow witbu'Tifeiinffcig|Oitof,iftnd'tibat as ihjsy w 

varl < tlisiiset' out imznediaUlf /ioi: Jd^«jtqi.- w, llifk'pima^ 4^8ijB^ 
vaa to ahow himself t6^tliat jjoyoRKici^irttbiidljtbQ power, wit^ 
vhichilie had been fl[ure9ted,aiid to let htinaee that bawm^in a^n? 
Ikion .to do him 'inudi ^oad or nouch J>anti.'] ( i Thf, poxifi^^^Pi^^ qf 
Fhicfa waa, thati/as he Aail kept the. Athn^lipiQarimraWje Im Titflf^ 
)hemes^ he now awed Tissaphcdroes no •^^fs-ih^ th&, 4w^<u)«; 
uid wcT'Ehail see in the seqnel K^i thw iftteiyre^ {W«#, pot nn- 

AlciMa(Ba, napoti > his retirniito Sf^os, ifouod ' the atpy more in - 
lamed- thaniat first. The* depbties of thui^pur Hundrq^ h&d «|rr 
*ived there '4iiHn|;; his absence, aad faad/^d^^voaved in vain, iff 
^latilyithfe alterstioii. ihadeat Atheofi to: th^i'jsCyidieiy. »' Their dit< 
^ounei^whieh wseraoften* interrupted by itu^iiituous crie^t served 
>nljB tb'bxasporate theofli mocev «na. Uiey «arneitly demanded to H 
ed agaiasrtheutyiaHite .directly,*, Alpibiades dAd;.not,a«tjonahii 
>ccaaibiiv as every [body else would 'M.v«^ done rin» CQnseqv^fnoe of 
laving.been lalsadi to so hi^ a ^&it|i»<binlbckf^QB)? of Ui^peo;^,} 
hi ihe did not thii^k' himself obliged itaf aa iibi^elQt^ ^4'UnpIif^ 
Bomp&ancei. with. (their znetinatbns in. every thing:,] though firom fg 
iaoletandfugitifw^theji^had made himgener^kl'Qf so grea^ja^jK^eW 
vdd ^b. numerous andibraiidable an atmy t ibnt% cu9 ft sUtssmfu^iaild 
|rBalr{po]iiicsaJi,ii/6; believed it his duty to oppose- the b^dfi^n^ that 
iiiurried. theok en intovendent danger^ and: tQi prevent themfi-jom 
30o^iulUn|fia faiilt which taiust have beevftttended .Witb their utter 
ruku- This wide steadiness preserved the. city ofr AAenfu F^oji 
liaditbay! ^udled (thither at first, the enemy wbuld have -made them:: 
selves ina^tejip^jofloniai, thie Hellespeiit, and all the jsWdSyi^iii^ithoui 
resistance; whilst the Athenians, by cterrying. the,;^M)tptlleis 
9wn ciMy^! Would hive lexhandfed HifMe whole ;fbf ce» against one /ftn- 
aliher. .Si)aproveipt^di the deputies from bcfingilL-treated)' anddi^^. 
nns8ed4hem ;(tcayingf.thathe didrinot ot^ctct to. the'>500a /^ilmm 
hpifing the .snpreite 'i«utfaorit)F. i»>jllhe)irepiibh<;» b^t Hiat i|^,i^a^ 
Dooessajry ;todeposeithe Soorr Huiidared, anA.tOi r%testaUiish fh^ 

Beoite.')" •- -y- >. .il: .'.» TJ<' ■■ ■ J'. .: ;-... h,K.*' .ul* oJ 11.; -j.ia 

During these co8Bmatidna,^Ahe'Pfa<»nieian, fiofst^^bkhtbe Ii%?/ 
eedemomans impatiently expdq^df japproaoW^ ifAd news ca^rn^ 
bhatkiwas arrived at AsptaHMMut t iTwsaplMvnes Wi^t to mieet it 4 
DobwiT'lteiag able to d^^rm^^iibrue caus^ j«f, that J9unpif^4 i 09 
hadteit fi>r that^^et at first^to Ja^teii the X^tcedidmonians w^ th|9 
faflfKiB of safoweorful af i aii^iMid to . ffewt a atop to tl)eir progresa^bj 
fHakiog theok^wait ita<arrwal.' It.fsAbelievcii^ theft hia joiw^y .h%| 
tfaeaioML^motivei^itOijpreveBt^theiridoipgaiiy thinfir„^ a^epp^ 

|padJlJuit,thfpr.aotd|Bia andlmamexiijpi^ 

\ . 

fkowei^ litis ittfarht ^ M dMl^ot Mi^ tbe^cdit! villi AB>i' Aotii 
!i^ of FerflMl's intidiidbl;^ ^vw .of eEhausting' both partaei 

Ni^ bf Aftid wiif« Tork' WbMd bavi^ been vm eifly fbr iikt^to Intva 
jpiit an cmdlo H%i^the%i6i8Uaii»d of ibis additioiud fleets is tile lii^ 
oediemdniaBs aldne yerecidf^^ady asBtyon^at^aea as tbo Atheaiayig* 
ifiit frivolou#'«k(^iBe,' of'iitB not beinff complete; 'ndikh he alleged 
as the reason fok> not biin^ing it wiUi ttin^ 'sujOBcieDady ahowa &at 
lie had otHer motived ftr htfl eondnol* ' .^i v.. ^^ 

« The retiBrti oTthe^'dielMtiGS wiltboat succeAs^^ who hiiuf been ieot 
-to Samos, ^nd the jonswer of Alcibiades, excited new tronbleB in 
th^'city, tnd ga^^eirtnortid'iwbundito thn authority ofjlhe Four 
Hvnclred. ' ' The tuoShll inoreaseii exceedingly when oewa wsm 
.bf<mg4it that the «r)«ffiny,' aller having beaten Che ^eet. whiphbad 
^en86|it by the Foufi' Hundred to the aid* of Euboea, If ad made 
themselves masters'Of the ifihihd.r Athens was in the highest ter»> 
tofftiid isonstennLtion da this: accoimt. v For neither the de&at in 
Sicily, Yi^^^any ot)isr preeedid^^ it, vlrete of such importance as the 
ioss of this islaHdviTrom wheim the city received considerable Bup* 
pHes, and almostaU i^prevMons. ^Jrin the donfnsion in which 
Athens was at^tbat timabislt^eBh 'two' factions^ the Victorious iloet 
bid faHen upon' the' t^brt, as it might hare done,'thd anny of Baaftoe 
Would 'bave been 'indispensably = obliged to have flown to the defense 
^ their country r' and then the lepubliCi would faavp had only the 
dky of Athens reihaininr of all its dominions. For Uie Hellespont, 
lohUi, atfd all the iskiMSy seemg themselves .abandoned,^ would 
haye boon l^edUced fo idhoose a side, and i|^d over to thp PeU^pon-* 
neslans. Mt iiie enemy were not qapaMe <^ such^ ^reat desigaa; 
and this' wtlb'>)ot the first time' that the^Lacediemoniaiw, had been 
observed to^have lost their advantages by their iiatiiral ^sicwnesa 
iUiirprderaMii«lation. .. J . . , 

' Athens Withbnt delay deposed the Four Hundred^ as tfaa'authoie 
of all thetrofables and divisions under which they groaned. Aid* 
bihdes>was rec^d by unanimous consent^ and eafnestlyfaoUcited 
tO' ms^e all' pbssible hsaeer to the assistance of the cit^. But judgw 
Ing, \\aA'ithm returned Im^diiteiy to Athena, he shouid owe 
his recall to the compassion and favour of the people,, he res<^Ted 
t#4lend^f'hii'4^turn doribtrsadd' tridrophantv'and to deserve it by 
Af ^M'. ^595: (M^iAe c€%sideraUo esdjploit; . For this .purpose, leaving 
aikt J. G. 4tat -Si^ffK^is wilba ainall heiniber of ships, he nruised about 
fbd isfauO^S off Cos and Cnidos; itid'ihavii!^ learnt that Minde^rua^ 
iiie tfi^rtan admiral, wdb sailin^i{to#$irds the Hellespont; witla^hie 
^ifriufe fleety and^ibat thtf Atheniahs(«neiie infuifsuit of kirn, he stepn* 
M^mt way wtihthe^ utmost diligence 4o«ifppoft tbemi^ and unri^ied 
li^pily with his eighttfsn vessols, at tfae> tiine^that the heeta^wera 
^ift|ig^(|IMr Abydos^niritttAe,' whkh lastaditltt.iugbt,. 

• Thagrd^l. jriil. p. ep7-«14. Flfit. la Aldli. p. 90a-JUIK Dio4. p. 171, ITSL * 

aaf advmUfie oa ^theraide* His arriyajl, g^ve the S^/fkitMxm^w 
eoangB aft first, who beueved him still their^ friend, and dbpirite4 
th^ Ath«miiuis, But Alqihiades, hanging out the Athenian flag in 
the admiral's galley^ fejl upon ^e Lacedemoni^jis, who were 
itrongeat, and were vigorously.pursuing the Athenians, put tbeni 
to flight) drove theoL ashore ; and^. anixnat^aj by hia suqjpess^ sunk 
their vessels, and made a great slaughter ot, the soldiers, who had 
thrown themselves into the aea to sav^ themselves by swim* 
ffling;. though Pharnabazus spared no paina to aasist them, an4 
had advanced at the head of his trpopa to the jCOjist^ to fltyjoar their, 
flight, and to save their ships. The Atlienians, c^er havmg takea 
thirty of their galleys, aj|;i4/retake9 those, they l^ad Ipst, erected a 
trophy. „ 

A. H. 3S96. Alcibiadee, vain of his swce^^ had the ainl^ition tb 

AntJ.c.ios. desire to appear before Tissaphexnes, in his trinn^ 
{ihant equipage, and to maJie him rich presents* aa well in hia tw^n, as 
m the name of the people of Athena* Ho weiit to him^theremre 
with a magnificent retmue, worthv of the general of the Athe« 
niana. But he did not meet with ^e fa|r9ura))l^, reception he ex-* 
pected. For Tiasaphenea, who knew he was accuaed by the I^ace-* 
dounomans, and feared that the king Would j^miah him at length foB 
not having ez^uted his orders, found Alcibiadea presenting hitnsVlf 
very opportunely, an^ caused him to be seized |in4 *^^^ prisoner to 
Sarais : to shelter himself by that, injiostice from the i^present^tions 
of the Laoedasmppians. . , 

. Thirty days after, Alcibiades» having found means to get a horso, 
eseajSed from his ffuards, and fled to CTazomenie, wljiere, to revengi| 
biiBself on Tis8a{mernes> he gave out, that he had set him at iibern 
ty. From Clazomenie, he repaired to t^he Athenian fleet, where he 
was joined by Theramenes'wUh twenty ships from Macedonia^ an^ 
by. Thrajsybmns. with twenty more from Thiasos. He. sailed frwo^" 
thence to Parium in the Propontis. All those ships, to, the i^i^ber 
of jfouTpcoT^ and six, being come thither, he left that place in tha 
night, and arrived, the next mpmiug at Proconneaus, a 'small isl^ 
near Gyzicum. ^^e heard there, that Mindarua was at Cyzicum 
with Phamabaaus and his li^id armv.. ,^e rested that whole di^^ 
at PzocaoBesus. Qn the.morrpw he harangueii his soldiers, ^nd t^ 
presented to them the necessity there was (or slacking the enemf^ 
by sea and Jand» and for maiong themselves i^asters of Gyzicum; 
denaonstrating;, at tiie same time, that without a cqmplqte i^^d abso- 
lute victory, they could- have x^ither provisions nor money.j'He, 
had taken gxeat care, that |Lhe enemy should be apprized 9% kiS; ap- 
proach. FortwEiately for him, a great stprm of rain and thunder, 
followed by a thick gloom, helped him to conceal his enterprise ao 
succesffirfly,, that not only <Uie en^my were prevented from per* 
ceiving^hat he adyanced, >u^ tf^e ^the^niajjis Uiemse^yes^.who^ ho 
had caused to embark with precipitation, did not luow that he liad 
weighed anchor and .put to sea. < • - 

Vol., HI. / 

i54 ^ ' m^TOitir OF TilE ' » 

' When tiie gkom Was disperscM, the IjacediEfnioman fleet tp* 
peared, exercising at some distance before the port Alcibiades, 
who was apprehensive that the enemy, imon-the sight of sb great a 
number or ships, would mal^e fdr the harbour, ordered the captains 
to keep back a little, and to follow him at a ^ood distance ; and 
taking onljr fbrtyvesselB, he advanced towards the enemy, to offer 
them buttle. The enemy, deceived by this stratagem, and de- 
spismg his small number^, advanced against him, dnd be^an the^ 
%ht. But when they estw the rest of the Athenian fleet come up, 
they imrr^tsfdiately tost courage, led fled. Alcibiades, with twenty 
pf his best ships, pursued ttre/n to, the shore, landed, and killed a 
great number of them in'the fliglit.' Mindarus and Fharnabazua 
opposed his eflbrts in vain ; the ^rst, who fought with astonishing 
^lour, he killed, and put the other to flight. , 

TheL^thenians by this vietorv, which tnade them masters of the 
eUiin, me arms, spoils, apd whole' fleet of the enemy, and by the 
taking of Cy^iiunij not 'only possessed themselves of the Hel- 
lespont, but drove tie Spartans entirely ouf of that sea. Let 
ters were intercepted, in whic^ the latter, with a conciseness 
trulylaconic, ipformed the Ephori of the blow they had received. 
In tenns to this effect : The Jlow^bfyour army li* cut off ; Mindor 
rt^iidead; the rest cf the troops are dying- toUh hungeir; and we 
neither know tohatio do, nor what will become efus^ 

The news of this vibtory occasioned no less joy at Athens than 
consternation at Sparta. They despatched ankbdssadors immedi- 
ately to demand,* that an end should be put to a war eoually 
destructive tb both 'people, and thkta peace should be concluded 
flpon reasonable Conditions^ for the re-establishment of their an-* 
cient concord J^ aihity. c^ which they had for many years exper 
*rienced the salutary effects. The wisest and most judicious of the 
citizens of Athens were unanimously of opinibn, that it was pro- 
per t6 take ^he advantage of so favourable a conjuncture for the 
concK/din^ of a treaty, which might put an end to all jealousies, 
a^pftase all' animositi^, and reniove all distrusts: « But those who 
foond theur advant^e*in the troubles of the stkte, prevented so 
happy a dlspbsition from takmgeflTect. Gleophon,| amongst others, 
the orator in greattest repute at that time, animated nie people 
Aom the tribunal, b^ a violent and seditious discourse, insinuating, 
that their iilterests Were betrayed by some who* kept up a tecret in- 
telligence with the Lacedsmonians, which aimed fit depriving tfaeao 
of iHl .the ,B,dvaritages 0/ the" impdrtant victory they had lately 
gained, and at mak^g them lose for ever the opportunity of bein^ 
fully avenged for &U the 'wrongs and misfortunes Sparta had cauaea 
them to suflbr. This Cleophon was a worthless fellow, a musical* 
instrument maker. It was reported also that he had been a slave^ 1 
and had got himself fratrdnlently ezn'olled in the register of the eitir I 

* mod. LxiiL p. 177-1:9. t Ai^-inOrtit.deftik'|q^ 


fe^* He carried huimdiictoy aad fiify 4|o far,^^hreaten ^o f^nog^ 
his dagver into the throat of anv one , w^o should talk- of p^kce* 
The Athenians, puffbd up with tneii\ present prosperity, forgettmg 
their past misfortttneS) and* promising themselves all things from 
the valour and good fortune of Alcibiad^t haughtily rejected aQ 
proposals of acoommodation, without reflecting, that there is no- 
thing so fluctuating and precarious ^ the success of war* The 
unbassadors retired without being able to effect any thing. Such 
infatuation and irrational pride are generally the forerunners of 
some ^eat ttisforttiiie. > 

Alcibiades knew well how to take> advantage of the victory he 
had gain:,d, and presently after- befieg^d Clmlcedon, which had 
revolted from the Athe^ans and received a (jacedeemonian garri- 
son. Duringthissieg^, he tdok /another town, called Selymbria 
Phamabazus, terrified by the rapidity of his conquests, made a 
treaty with the Athenians to> this elTect; That PharnabcLzju 
ihould pay them a certain ittln of money ; that tfie Chatcedamane 
ihould return to their obediencei and dependance tqnm the Athernane^ 
and pay them tribute ; and thai the Athemane thould commit no hot^ 
tames in the pro^nee cf Fhamabazuiy who engaged for the eqfe 
conduct of their ambanadore to tke great king. Byzantium snd 
several other cities. submitted to the Athei^ans. 
A. M. 3597. ' Alcibiades, who desired with the utmost passion to 
Am. J. c. 407. ^eef his country again, or ratjier to be seen by his coun- 
try, after so many victories over their enemies, set out for Athens. 
The sides of his ships were covered with bucklers and all sorts of 
sp<^, in form of tropliies ; and |eaus^lg i^ great number of vessels 
to be towed after him by way of triumph, ne displayed also the en- 
signs and ornaments of those he had burnt, wmchi were more in 
number than the others; the whole amounting to about 200 ships. 
It is said, that reflecting' on what had been done against him, upon 
approaclung the )>ort,.be was struck with some terror, and was 
afraid to quit .his vessel, till he saw from the deck a great nnipber 
of his friends and relations, who ^«re come to. the shore toieaelve 
him, and earnestly entreated him to land. ^^^ . . 

The people came out of the city in crowds to n^eet him, a^d at 
his aDpearancsLset up incredible shouts of j[oy. In the hiidst of/m 
infinite number of officers andsoldiers^ a^ eyes were &^ed solely on 
hittLt whom they considered as Victory itself, descenjjqd from, tl^e 
skiejb: aJl thronging around him, caressed^ blessed, and ..cro^neC 
hinf in emulation of each other* Tho^ who could not sipproa^ ' 
him, were noTer* tired wi^ eentemplating lum at a distance, whil 
the old men showed hinl tb their children. They, repeated witb 
tlie highest praises tJl thergreat actions he had doDQ tor Iiis coun^ 
try ; nor could they refuse their admiration even to those which he 
had done a^inst it dtfrinr his banishment, of wiiich they inumted 
the ffLult to themselves suone. /This public joy was miDgiea With 
lean and reirret, from the remembranjpe of t>ast misfpttudei^] WhidI 

te« ' aftT6ttr OF rant • 

ttiey coxAd Bot aVolra coimi^eHt))^ wHli tfa^nr present fefidty^ . Ht 
toufd iwl haoefailed^ saW they, of ike c&rifuBit of SioUy ; ow Uhef 
hopes eould never hone proted aboriiife, if' tM had uUruHed all mir 
^airt and forces to the disposal of Alctbiades aUme. In >^hat a 
condition toas Athens vshtfi he took upon him oitr proieeHon mnd «ie« 
Jenfie ! We had not only almbst enkrely lost omr power ai sea^ hvt 
utre scarce possessed of the svibiirbs of our eity^ and, to add to our 
kUsforturies, wert torn to pietes hy a horrid citil war. He noiwiih' 
standing:^ hcu raised the repttbUe frotn its ruins ;* and not content with 
haoing reinstaie(H it in the possession of the tovereigwty of the sea, 
has rendered it universally mctMousbv land; asyfSubfcAe of Athens 
nad been in his hands alone, ei^r to ^rtdn'or restore U, and victory 
vfos annexed to his persdn, and dbeybd his orders:, 
' l%is favourable recet)tion of 'Aldbiades *did not prevent his <ie* 
manding an assembly of the people, in order to hit justification be- 
fore them ; well knowing ^ow necessary it was. for his safety to be 
Absolved in due fbrm. nb aj^pe^ed tMrefbre; and after having 
tfeplored his misfortunes, which hie ifnput«d very little to the pea 
ple^ an(f entirely ascribed to his ill fi)rtune, and sottie delKon en- 
vious of his prosperity, he represented to them tlie designs of the 
enemy, and exhorted them' not ta conceive other than ffroat hopes. 
The Athenians, transpotled with hearing him speak, decreed ium 
£]^wns of gold, appointed liim general by sea and land with unlimit- 
ed povt^er, restorea him ail his'fbriittnes, and ordered the Eumolpidie 
nind Ceryces'^'tb absolve hiin fVom the curses they had pronounced 
against him by the order of the |yeopie ; doing their ntm9st to make 
him amends for the iniiiiy'and shame of his banishment by the 
giory ofbis recall, and vo efihbe the remembrance of the unpreea* 
tions themsMv^'s had decreed, by the vows and prayers which they 
made in hi^ favour. Whilst all the Euinolpidse and Geryces were 
einployed in revoking these Imprecations,' Theod6rus, tlve pnncipal 
of them, had the courage to say: As for me,«./ have not tstrsed 
)iim^ if he has done no einlto' his eottntry ; insinuating by < that bold 
exp^s^io'n, that the maledic'tions, b^ng conditional, could not fall 
upon the head of the innocent, nbr b4 averted front the guHty. 

In the midst of this giory ahd shining prosperity of Aleibiades, 
the l^ajority 6'f the people dould not help beinfif'soiicemed, when 
they considered the tin^e of bis return. For it happened precisely 
S^ont'he da^'When the Athenians celebrated a festival in* hoiw>ur 
)f MineW^, adored "under the n^me of Agi^ulis. The priests^^k 
m all the ornaments from tlie godd'dss's statue to wash it, from 
'whence that fbast was ^allbd Tlxifpvi^g^^ and alt eorwards. covered 
it ; add that day was accounted one of the roost ominous and un 
f(irtundte. It was the S5th of the month Thargelkm, which an« 
1 ' ' ' . . . I 

'r* 'Tlie EcUnolpiAB itnA Ceryce* wn4 two fliralHes «t' Adienvwfeo bad dU&rent fUne* 
wnristtv myiHfvfenr .fof G^re^. T^ejr lofk their nftones from Bhiioolpus and Cenrx. 
}i>0 Aigtt wlH» bad f^ercUed tjiose offices. Perhaps tbe cmployiiieBl at Wm lattar hsm 
•oodIc rtlatlon to tliai of heralds, Ki((tttie. * ^ i 


wmm to the S^of July* TImb circumataafe diapkaaed tbajlj #a« 
perstUioua .people, because it seemed to imply, that tbe goddeas, w^ 
tronesS| f nd pirotectress of Athena, did not .receive Alcibi^efi 
agreeably, apd with a benign aspect, since she covered and.opn- 
eealed herself, as if she woul4 k&^j^ him .off and remove hhq, fcon^ 
h©r- ' - . ' ' • . , • 

All thin^, having however aucceeded according to his wi8h,'''.an4 
the 100 ships he was to command being; ready, he (leferred his 4o- 
partiire^ut of a lauclable ambition to c^ebrate the great mysteries ;. 
for from the time the Lacedemoni^pia , had fortified Becelia, and 
taken possession of all the ways from Aithens to Eleuais, the feaat 
had not been solemnized in all its pom[i, and the procession l^ar- heei| 
obliged to go by sea. • l^he particular ceremonies of this solemnity 
may be seen in the Introduction to tne; |ii:st volume, page 28. 

Alcibiades believed it would be a most glorious action, and dr^tw 
down upon him the blessings of the gods, and the praises of men, 
if he restored all its lustre and solemnity to this feaat, in making 
the procession go by land escorted by his troops to defend it against 
the attacks of the enemy. For either Agis would sufier it to pass 
quietly, notwithstanding the numerous troops he had at Decelia, 
which would considerblv lessen the repifCation of that king, and sully 
his glory ; or, if he should choose to attack it, and oppose the marob; 
he should tlien have the satisfaction tt> fight a sacred battle ; a bat- 
tle grateful to the gods, for the greatest and most venerable of all 
their mysteries, in the sight of his country and citizens, who would 
be witness of his valonr and re^vd Ibr religion* It is very likely, 
that by this public and ostentatious act of piety, which struck the 
pec^le's view in -so sensible a mani^er, aM'^as'So extreinely to 
theh* taste, Alcibiades's principal design was to effiiee entirely from 
tkeir minds the sus^ncions of impiety, to wliich the mutilation of 
the statues, and profanation of the my^iteries, had given birth. 

Having taken that resohition,he gkive notice to the* Eunxdpids 
and CeJyces to hold themselves iA >ii«idmes8, posted sentinels upon 
the hills, sent out scouts at the break of day, and' taking with himthe 
priests, the initiated, and the probaUonera, with those "who initiatocl 
them, he covered diem with his amk^r, and eonducted the vi^hde pomn 
with wonderful order and profbond silence. Never was show, m\a 
Plutarch, more august, nor more worthjr the majfesty of the goa% 
than this warlike procession^ and rdi^ous expedition; in whaafa 
even thpse who envied tho'gloi^ of Alcibiaides,' were ob]%ed to 
ewn, that he was no less happy m discharging the ^ Amctioiis of ft 
nigh priest, than those of a general* No enemj^ dilred to appear, 
er disturb thAt pompous knarch, and AlcibiadeBV^cdnduolea the 
saored troops to Athens with> entire safety. This atiboess g%ve him 
new courage, and raised the valour and boldpess' «f )m army to ^ 
Mch a degree, that they looked ^pou themadifwi as avikidUe^ * 
whilst he commanded them. 

»'Yliit IB Aldb. p. 810. ' , 

Y « 


Tti afcijhiTed ihe aifeiction of the poor^ and the' lower sort of veo**' 
tie, eo much, that they most ardently desired to fasVe him fat nieir 
Jng. ^Many bf them openly declared themselvee to that efTect; 
ana there were some who addressed themselves to him, and ex- 
ftoVted falm to set himself above envy, and not to tronble lumself 
about laws, decrees^ or sutfraf es ; to put down tho^ e wordy im*' 
^y^rtinent orators that disturbed the state with their vain harangues^ 
to ' make himself absolute master of affaiip, and to goveni with 
{entire authority without fearing accusers. For him, what hi9 
thoughts of the tyranny Etnd Ms desispae were, are unknown ; but 
the most pbwerful citizens,' apprehen£ng the breaking out of a fire, 
of which they already saw the 8t)ark8, pressed him to depart with- 
out delay; granting whatevei" he demanded, and giving him'fot 
colleagues the generals mbst a^eeable to him. He set sail ac^* 
cdrdh^ly with 100 ships^ add steered for the island of Andros, that 
had revolted. His hi^ reputation, and the good fortune that had 
attended him in all ms enterprises, made' nothing but wbat waa 
great- and extraordinary to . be expected from him. ' -* 



T!b» Lwetemonlanfi appoint Lysanikr •dnllral. He aequhp* gnal Inanence w|tii the 
voaqger Gyrua/wbo commaikded in Antu He beati the Atfaenian fleet near Epbesua 
In the absence of AlclMadei^, who is deprived of the boamiaiid. Ten generua aM 
eboBCD in Ma stead. Caltfcfatldaa aucceeds Lyaander. 

■r ThefLaced8Bmoniand,lfrjp6tiy Alarmed at the retttm and sueceeir 
-of Alcibiades, sufficiently pereiaived that such an enemy reqwed to 
be opposed byiln able general, capable of making head agaiasl 
him. . For this reason they, made ' choice of Lysander, and gave 
him the 'Command of Abe fle^ When he arrived at £phesu8, he 
fowid the city very well disposed towards himself, and well affected 
to Sparta; but otherwise in a very unhappy situatioB. For it wsa 
in danget of becoming .barbstEous, by assiMning the manners and 
customs of the Petsiana, who had great intercourse with it, as well 
from the neigbbouHiood of LydJa^jas because the king's. gonerale 
commonly took up their winter quartos there. .An idle and volup* 
tknius life,;fiU«d;upi with luxury and ^mpty ahpw, could not fail of 
diegn8iiD|[ infinitely a man like Lysander, who had been bred from 
his bicth m the-i^plicity, poverty, and severe discipline^ ^f Sparta. 
Having hroiu^ht hia army to Ephesus, he guve orders for assem- 
bluiff skip* or bardea there from all parts, erepting an anena} f^r 
lniUdiQfx>f gsMejBpttmde the porta free for meicbant8,^ve np the 
■quarea aad pMia places to artificevs^ put all arts in motion* and 
hw. them in hoiiiwirts and hy thole mea^ui filled the city with 

• Imo^UtiamL lip. m^^tL.n^ Dio4l zULbl. 

ni--iinf« i * - 1 ■ • v«' ■ 



ticli W, and laid tbe foumdations of that prandeur apd magnificence, 
to which it afterwards attained. So great a chadge can the appli- 
cation and ability of a single person occasion in a state ! 

Whilst he Was making these dispositions, he received adrice^ 
that Cyras, the king's yoongest son, was arrived at Bardis. That 
prince cofttld not be above sixteen years old at that time, beincp bortf 
after his father's accession to the throne, who was now intne se- 
venteeTith year of his reign. Parysatis, his mother, loved liim 
to idolatry, and she had the entire ascendant overher husband. II 
was she that occasioned his havmg,the command in chief of all the 
provinces of Asia Minor given him; a command that subjected all 
the povincial governors of the most important part of the empire 
to his authority. The vieiiv 'of Parysatis was, without doubt, to 
pat this young prince into t condition to dispute the throne with 
bis brother- after the king^s death; as we shaU see be actually did* 
One of the principal instructions given him by his father upon send* 
ing him to* his government, was to give effectual aid to> the Lace-V 
dfemoniana against Athens ; an order very contrary to the measures 
observed iilf then by Tissaphemes, and the other governors of 
those provinces. It had always been their maxim, sometimes to. 
assist one party, sometimes the other) in order to hold their power 
in such a balance that the one mi^ht never be able to crush the 
other entirely : from whence it followed, that both parties were 
kept weak by the war, and neither were in a condition to form any 
enterprises against the Persian empire. 

Upon Lysander's being apprized, therefore, of the arrival of 
Cyras at Sardfs, he set put from Ephesus to make him a visit, and 
to complain of the delays and breach of faith of Tissaphemes, Who, 
notwithstanding the orders he had received to support the LacedttM 
monians, and to drive the Athenians from the sea, had always 
covertly favoured the latter, out of regard for Alcibiades, to whmn 
he was entirely devoted, and had been the sole cause of the loss of 
the fleet, by not supplying^ it with the 'necessary quantity of provi- 
sions. This discourse j^eaSea Cyrus, who looked upgn tissa- 
phemes as a very bad man, and his particular enemy. And he an- 
swered, that the king had ^ven him orders to support the Lacedtt- 
monians powerfully, and that he had received 500 talents for that 
purpose.*** Lysander, contrary to the coArapn character of tl^e 
Spartans, was submissive and condescending, AiU of complaisance 
to the great, always ready to pay his coutt to them, and sUp^Mit- 
ing, for the good of the service, all the lieeight of* their haughtinesi 
and vanity with incredible patience; in which behaviour sooie 
people make the cM^f address and principal merit ai a conrtief to 

He did not forget himself on thistHSoaaon, and setting ^ work 
iU tha^the indu^ry imd art of k complete courtier coold snggtst 

* Five bandied UioiuaiMl crowni, aboot llS,50tt. tterlliir - 


of flattery and insinuation, he i>erfectl7 gained the jonng piinee^a 
^vcur a^d goo4 opinion. Alter having praised his ffeneroeity, 
magnificence, and zeal for the Lacedemomaps,he dettredhimto^ve 
eada soldier and mariner a drachma''' jper day; in order to corrupt 
those of the enemy by that means, and thereby terminate the war 
the sooner. Cyrus very much approved the project ; bu^ said, he 
could make no change in th^ king's order, and that Ihe treaty with 
ihem expressly settled only half a talentf to be paid monthly for each 
galley. The pri|ice« however, at the end of the banquet, which he 
gave him before his departure, drinking to his health, and pressing 
him to ask something of him, Lysander desired that an ooolus^ a 
day might be added to the seamen's pay. This was granted, and 
he gave them four oboli, instead of three, which they received be^ 
fore, and paid them all the arrears due to them, with a month's ad- 
vance ; giving Lysander 10,000 daricks} for that purpbise ; that is, 
100,000 Uvres, or about 5000Z. sterling. 

This largess filled the whole fleet with ardour and alacrity, ai 4 
almost unmanned the enemy's galleys ; the greatest part of the ma 
nners deserting to that side where the pay was best. The Atho> 
nians, in despair upon receiving this news; endeavoured to conciliate 
Cyrus by the interposition of Tissaphernes ; but he would not 
hearken to them, notwithstanding that satrap represented, that it 
was not for the king's interest to aggrandize the Lacedsmo* 
nians, but to balance the power of one side with that of the 
other, in order to perpetuate the war, and to ruin both by their 
own divisions. 

Though Lysander had considerably weakened the enemy by 
augmenting the mariners' pay, and thereby very much hurt their 
naval power, he dared not, however, hazard a battle with them, 

Earticidarly dreading AJcibiades, who was a man of execution, 
ad the greater number of ships, and had^ never been overthrown 
in any battle either by sea or land. But after Alcibiades had lefL 
Samos to go into Pboctea and Ionia, to raise money, of which he 
was ig want, for the payment of his troops, and hkd given the 
coii\mand of his fleet to Antiochus, with express orders not to fight 
^or attack the enepy in his absence ; the new commander, to make 
a show of his courage, and to brave Lysander, entered the port of 
Ephesus with two gajllcys, and aftjcr having made a greiat noise, re- 
tired with loud laughter, and aa. air of contempt and insult. Ly« 
Sander, enr^^d at their aflront, immediately detached some galleys, 
and. went himself in pursuit of him. But as the Athenians ad- 
vanced tc support Antiochus, he ordered other sfalleys of his side 
to ^asae ; till the whole fleet arrived by little ana little, and the en- 

* Ten-penee. > T Onethouiaiid fire hnndFtd lirtei, about IISL qterUng. 
. X The drachma WH aU obnii, or ten^nce Fjench; each obolns beiqg Bomettetnt 
above Uiree halfpence ; ao Uiat the four oboU Waa six-pence huQwAny a day, iaatead of 
five-pence or three oboli. 

$ A darick is about a piatole. 

tfgeto^ibt becti*nie genera] on both oidetf. Lysander ({ained ihe 
victory, and having tak^n fifteen of the Athenian ^leys, lie erect« 
ed a trophy. Alcibiades, on his return to Samoa, sailed even into 
the port to ojSbr him battle; but Lysander was contented with hk 
victory, and did not think proper to accept it ; bo that he retired 
without doing any thing. 

A. M. 359a Thrasybulus at the eame time, the most dangenray 

Ant. J. c. 406. enemy he had in his army^ left the camp, and went to 
Athens to accude him. To inflame his eftemies in the city tiie 
morc^ he told the people in a faH assembly, that Aleibiades had en- 
tirely ruined their amirs, and the navy, by the Hcence he had in- 
troduced; that he had &riven himself up to the most notoricnv 
debauchees and drunkards,* who, from having been common sea- 
men, were now the only persons in credit about him; that he 
abandoned his whole authority to them, to be at leisure t6 enricii 
himself In the provinces, and to plunge himself there into intem- 
perance and all other infamous excesses, to the disgrace of Athens, 
whilst his fleet was left neglected in the face of that of tlie 

Another article -of accusation against him watf taken from ^htf 
forts he had built near the city of Byzantium, for an asylum and 
retreat fl)r himself; as neither being able nor wiUinpr to retaim toy 
more to his country. The Athenians, a capricious, mconstant ped« 
pie, gave credit to all these imputations. The loss of the last bat- 
tle, and his little success since his departure from Athens, instead 
of the great and wonderful actions expected from him, entirely 
sank him in their opinions ; and his own fflory and reputation may 
be said to have occasioned his ruin. For ne was suspected of not 
having been desirous to do what was not done, which they could not- 
believe out of his poweir, because they Were fully persuaded, that 
nothing he desired to do was impossible to him. They made ii % 
crime m Alcibiades, that the rapidity of his conquests clid not cor- 
respond with' that of their imaginations; not considering, that he 
made war without money upon a people who had the great king for 
their treasurer, and that he was often obliged to quit his camp to go^ 
in quest of What was necessary for the payment "and subsistence of 
his troops. ' However, Alcibiades was' deposed, and' ten generals • 
nominated in his stead ; of which, when he received advice, he re-* 
tired in his gc^lley to some castles which he bed in the Thracian 
Chersonesus. * 

About this time died Plistonax,t one of the kings '6f Laced©- 
monia, and^^was succeeded ^by Pausanias, wh6 reigned fourteen 
yean^. The latter mad^ u fhie answer to one Who asked, why if 
wafl not permitted to meke any change in the ancient customs of 

* Antiochus Ut pointed at in this ]riaoe, a mean debauched man, who had ao^ ^ lw d 
tha favour or Alcibiadtes bf eatetabig a qaall^ Uaa,'wftiob he hatf let Hj. 
t Diod. p. 196. 


Sparta : Beeausey says he, at Spartq the knot command mehy and 
I noi men the laws,* 

Lysander,! who intended to estab^sh the government of tbe Ao- 
bihtji^in all the cities in the dependance oi Hparta, that the ffo- 
Ternolrs of his choosing might be always at his disposal, from nis 
having rendered them mdepeadent of their people, caused such per« 
sons as he 'knew* to be the boldest, and most enterprising and am- 
bitious among the prindpal men of the citiejs, to come to Ephesus. 
These he placed at the head of affairs, promoted to the greatest 
honours, and raised to the first empkymeilts of the army, thereby 
rendering himself, says Plutarch, the accomplice of all the crimes 
and oppressions they 9ommitted to advance and enrich themselYes. 
For this reason they were always extremely attached to him, and 
regretted him infinitely, when Uallicratidas came to succeed him, 
and took upon him the command of the fleet. He was not inferior to 
Lysander either in vak>ur or militai:y knowledge, and was infinitely 
above him in point of moral virtue. Alike severe 4o himself and 
others, inaccessible to flattery and sloth, the declared enemy of 
luxury, he retained the modesty, temperance, and austerity of the 
ancient Spartans; virtues that began to distinguish him particu- 
lar)]^, as they were not too common in his time. His probity and 
justice ««vere proof against all things ; his simplicity and integrity 
abhorred all falseho^^and fraud, to which were joined a truly 
Spartan nobleness and grandeur of soul. The great and powerful 
could not refrain from admiring his virtue ; but they were Better 
pleased with the a^bility and coii4!B6cension of his predecessor, 
who was blind to the injustice and violence of their actions* 

It was not without mortification and jealousy, that Lysander 
^aw him arrite at Ephesus to take upon hun the command, and out 
of a crinodnal baseness and treachery, not uncommon with those 
who hearken more to their private ambition than the eood of the 
publie, he did him all the ill ofiSices in his- power. Of the 10,000 
daricks, which Cyrus had ffiven him fox the augmentation of the 
mariners' pay, he returned the remainder to tMit prince ^ telling 
Gallicratidas, that he might apply to the king for the money, and 
that it d^ended on him to find means for the subsistence of the 
« army. This conduct g:ive him erreat trouble, and distressed him 
exceedingly. For he had brought^ no money with him from Sparta, 
and oould .not resolve to extort any from the cities, as he found 
them sufficiently rifled already. ' 

In this urjgrent necessity,f a person having offered him fifly 
talents (that is to say, 50,000 crowns) to. obtain a favour which 
he could 'Ibt grant with justice, he refused them. .Upon which 

"Oti tovc vo/uot/c Twr h^fmr, ov toi/c at^tut rZv fiumv ttvfUvf Ufttt ^wU 
PUiLte Apopbth.p.930.. . * .. 

Xenonh.Heilen.l.Lj>.44»*-444. Hut. in Lynnd. p. 43S, 430. PkkU p. 197, 19ik j 

/ • 



C2etnder,'One of his officers, s^, I would accept them, were I in 
your plact*<rTAnd to would /, replied the general^ were I in youre* 

lie bad no other resource thdfe&re than to go, as Lysandet 
had done, to ask money at the- ffates of the kind's generals and 
lieuten»i»ta» for which he was the least proper of au mankind. ^Ntu^ 
tured and educated in the Ioto of liberty, fbll, of great and noble 
sentiments^ and infimtely remote fh>m all flattery\nd badness, he 
was poQvinced at heart, that it was a leas evil and dishotiour for 
Greeks to be overcome by Greeks, than infamously to make their 
court, and beg at the gates of barbarians, whose only merit con- 
sisted in their gold and silyer. The whole nation were indeed dis- 
graced by so mean a prostitution. 

.Cicero, in his offioss, duaws two very different characters of 
persons employed in the administration of government, and makes 
the application of them to the two generab of whom we speak« 
The one, says he»* zealous ]over^ of truth, and declared enemies 
of all fraud, pique themselves upon their simplicity and candour, 
:!!jd do not believe that it can ever be consistent with hoi^pui: to lay 
snares or use artifice. '"The others, prepared to' do or suffer every 
^hing, and not ashaihed of the meanest a.ctions, provided from those 
unworthy methods they have reason to expect the success of their 
designs. Cicero places Callicratidas amongst the former, aQ<J Ly- 
Sander amongst the latter, tp whom he gives two epithets, not much 
to his honour, and hardly consistent- with the Spartan cbaracter^i 
when fae calls Mm very artful, and very patient, or rather very coi^r 

Callicratidas, however, forced by necessity, went to Lydia, and 

repaired to the palace of Cyr\i8, where he desired that 

prince might be told that the admiral of the Grecian fleet wascpioe ^ 

to speak With him. He wa^ answered, that Cyrus was. then at table, 

engaged in a party b.* pleasure ;t to which he replied with a modest 

tone and air, that he was in no haste, and would wait till the prince 

came ibrth. The guards set up a laugh, wonderipjg at the honest 

stranger's simplicity, who seemed so little acquainted with the 

World ; and he was obliged to retire. ' He came thither the second 

time, and was again dodied admittance. Upon which he retumeid 

to Ephesus, loaded those with curses and imprecations who had first 

made their court to barbarians, and by their flattery an4 subinis- 

sions had taught tliem to make their riches a title and pretence for 

insulting the rest of mankind. Addressing himself at the same time 

to thpse about him, he swore that as soon as he returned to Sp^rta^ 

* GMint lilt alii maltdm diapares, rfmpUcei et a|lerti; qui nihil ex occulto, nib^I ex lo- 
rfdiifl •gendum putant ; Teritatls cultores, fraudis inimici . itemque alii, qui quiddi 
popetianter, c^ivis dflserviant, dum, qaod ?elintf coosequantor, Qao in genare reaf 
noflainiuaci etpatientiasinfivn Lacedtemoaium liyaandiun accepimus, contiiq^ue CaUi- 
SDUldam. qgU. I. 1. tk 109. 

t The GreelE laya literally that he waa drinkioR, irifu The Perriana valued tbem* 

Khrea upon diiqkiaf a great deal, aa fn 'natance of their nierit, aawe ehall aee ki Cf« 
iia*a letter to the Lacedunoaiana ' ^ - ^ 


lie wotid Qie IAb utmost endeatoim to reeciBcil« tfae Grtecb aaioi^ 
tlie0i8el?efl, that for the future they might become fomiidiUeto 
the harba^ane, and have no farthcfr occasion fyt their aid to mvide 
•nd rttin each Ahh. But thatfeneroua Spartan, whose thoughts 
were so noble, and so worthy the Lacediemoniaa namey-aad whose 
fustice, mscnanimity, and valourvmiffht rsnk^him with all that 
Greece had ever produced of the most eiEcdlent and most coo- 
eummate, had not the good fortune to return to his teonby, nor to 
apply himself to a work so great, and so worthy of him. 
* •■ . 


CAllteratidas is defeitedrbf the Athenlaiw near (IM AisintWB. Tbe AthaUaw jm 
sentence of death upon several of their generals for not haying broufht off the bote 
ef those who had been slain in battle. Socrates alone has tie coiuage to oppoa » 
imliut a sentenot. 

Callicratidas,* after having gained several victories over tk 
Athenians, had at last pursued Conon, one of their generals, into 
the port of Mitylene, where he kept him block^ed up. This was ii 
the twenty-sixth year of. the Peloj^EJiesiajL war. Conon seeii^ 
himself besieged by sea and land, without hope of aid, and in vu; 
of provbions, found means to apprise Athens of the esctreme dao- 
ger he was in. Extraordinary enorts were made to relieve him, an^ 
in less than a month's time a fleet of 110 sail were fitted out,0B 
board of which were embarked all that were capable of bearing i 
arms, as well slaves as freemen, with some horse. At Samos the; 
were joined by the allies with fortvgalleys, and the collected armameEii 
steered for the Arginuste, islands situate between Curase and Mitj* 
fene. Callicratidas, being informed of their course, left Eteomcostc' 
continue tbe siege with fifty ships, and put to sea with 120 sail, wittl 
design tb face the enemy, and prevent their relieving Conon. T\» 
ri£;ht whig of the Athenians was commanded by Protomachus audi 
Thrasylus, who had each fifteen galleys. They were supported bji 
second line, with a like number of ships, commanded by Lysias ai 
Aristogenes. The left wing, like the other, drawn up in two liM| 
was under Aristocrates and Diomedon, supported by Erasink' 
and Perides.f Th^ main body, consisting of near thirty galle' 
amongst which were the three Athenian admirals, was disposed 
one line. They had strengthened each of their wings with a secc 
line, because their galleys were neither so swift, nor so easr 
manage, as those of the enemy ; . so that there, was reason to 1 
^eir getting between two, and bemg charged on both aides at 
same time. The Lacedemonians and their allies, who percd 
they were inferior in number to the enemy, contented themsel 
with drawing up in one line, in order to equal their f|ront, and 
Ithe greater fiiciiity of running between the Athenian' galleys, 

•Zeaaph. Hellmvl.L p. 444-458. INod.1 «iU. n. 1^4^901, |Btl7-.«a 
ItenrjM the son of tbe great Perin^ca. - ^^ 



- I 

^on^Mi.oi&iMy round theip. Callicratidas'B pilot, 4an^ted at tbf « 
ine<}l^ty»'adwed him &Qt to hazard tj^ battle, and to retire : bu| 
he XBphi&i that he oould not f^y without shame, and that his death « 
was of ^emall importance to the repi^blip^ Sparta^sBid he, does^n^ 
iqnendupon onA ntmi He commai^ded the righ^ wing,. and Thra- 
8onda^.|tneTheban the left. . 

It w^ a grand and awful sight to behold the sea covered with 
300 galleys reafljr to , engage, Never had more numerous naval 
aimieB of the Gr^ks fought against each other before. The lability, 
experien^cej and, valour of the generals who commanded, l6ft no- 
thing to ciesire;,so that there was rea^n to believe this battj^e 
would decide the. fate of both people, and, put an end to a war that 
had wdiired so. long. 3Vheii the signals were ^ven, the two 
armies raised great shouts, ^d began to fight* Ca&ioratidas, who t 

&om the .^wer of ^e augurs expected to fall in the battle, dill 
amazing actions of valour. He attacked the enemy with incredi- 
ble courage and boldness^ sunk som^ of their ships, d^ab^ed others • 
by breaking their oars and piercing their sides with the prow or 
bea^ of hisgi^ley.^ At length he. attacked that of Pericles, and 
mad^ a thousand l^les in it ; but the . latter having hooked him fast 
with a, grappling ifon, he found it impossible to disengage himself, 
and Tjiras .suvrou^nded ;in ai^ instant by several of the Athenian ves- 
sels* His own w^immediately filled with the enemy, and after k<. 
dreadful slaughteir, he: fell dead, rather over \y helmed by their num- 
bers than vanaui^hed. The right wing, which he comgaanded^ 
having; lost its apn^ra}, was put to night. The lefl, comp()^ed of Boeo- 
tiana and Eubceans,. still made a long ajid vigorous resistance, from, 
the urgent concern they w^ere in, lest they shoulcj fall into the hands 
of the Athenians, f^^aixist whom they had revolted, ; but they were at • 
length obliged j^o^ive way,, and ipetire in disorder* The 4ktheiAan8 
erected a trophy.'.in. i^. Arginuso?* They lost twenty-fivie galleys 
in this battle, and the. enemy more thai> seventy, of which number 
were nine of the ten fiiVnishedby the LacedsBmonian^. 

Plutarch* equals Callicratidas, the Lacedeemonian general, fot 
his justice, valou^^ and magnanimit^r, with aU who had ever rendered 
themselves mosf^ worthy of admiration ajmong the. Greeks. 

I^e blames, him however exceedingly forliazarding the battle at 
the Argmu8ffi,f and,pbserves, thi&t to avoid the reproach of having 
retired out of .fei^r, ^e had, through a mistaken sense of honour^ 
failed, in the ^ential dutv of his function.. For, says Plutarch,. if, 
(to use the comparison of IphiqratesJ) the Ij^ht-arroed infantry re- 
semble the hand^t the horse the feet, the main body the breafit, \n^ 
the general the head ; the general, who abandons himself rashly 
to tMi impetuosity of his valour, does not fo mu<Q^ neglect^r expose 
his own life, as the lives of those whose safety depends upon hi8» 

.1) , • ' •- ' •' .Mm . . 1., 

* tlM. in IiyMiid^p.j 43a > f FHtt. ia Peloid ]k> fiTa • | Ha WMmfasunii' 
fnamlartteAtlienlHUL' ^ < 

Vol. III. **•=• 'Z •-' • " • • • •"•' •• ^ '' - ••• 


* Our LacedtDmoniA dhief was therefo^ W &e .wrong,^x*pBtinueB 
Plutarch, io answer the pilot, who a<ivise(J*ttm to retire, ifljparCa 
■ Ifoes not depend upon one' man» For t^ou^h M'be true, that .CalK- 
Crati^fts, nghtirig under \\\J^ xir^ers of pother by sea or lancf, 
woi fio more than ons many yet, when conunanding on army, aB that 
obeyed his orders were xjollepted in his peiison ; jand he in' Whom so 
many thousands might be lost, was no longer orieman. XScero* had 
passed the same judgment upon him before Pltjtarch. AHer 
haying flaid, that there were many persojpg to be f^und', who were 
ready to sacrifice their fortunes, and evenliVes, fof their country, 
but; who out of a false delicacy in point of ^loTy, would not hazard 
their reputation for it in tbe least) he cites the example of Callir* 
cratidas, wbo answered those that advised hink' to i^treat'^frotn the 
Arginuss, That Sparta could' JU out another fleet if ifiU vfere lost; 
huJtfor hinjLself^ he^ could riot fly before the enemy without' shame and 
infamy: ^ ^^ . .. 

I return to the i^emiel of tne battle near the Arffimisee. The 
Athenian geperals oraered ^beramenes, Thrasybulus, and some 
other officers. t;o return with about fifty" galleys to^ take up the 
' wrecks and dead bodies, in order to their interment, whilst they 
sailed on with the rest gainst Eteonicus, who' kept^ Oonon be- 
sieged before Mitylene. fiiit a violent 'tebpest citric on suddenly, 
and prevented the execution of this order. Eteonicus having re- 
ceived news of the defeat, and fearing it ihight occasion alarm and 
teiror amongst the tro^ops, seat back those >vho brought jt, with 
orde|fs to return with wreaths of flowers upon their' hieads, and to 
give out, that Callicratidas had gained the victory, and destroyed 
the whole' Athenian fleet. Upon their ;*eturfa he oflTered sacrifices 
of tbanksfflving, and having made his troops take some refresh- 
ment, he Bent the galleys away directly, the wbad'heing fair, and 
rnarched off the land army to Methymna, after b^ving burnt the 
camp. * Conon being delivered in this manner from the blockade, 
joined the victorious fl^iet, whicfi returned fbrthwitli t;o Samos. 
ftowever, when it was k^oiVn at Athens, that the d€fad bodies had 
Deen left without interment, the people ^were blgMy enraged, and 
caused t^e whole weight' of their resentment to rail upon those 
whom they deemed guilty of that crime, th^ anbients held it <& 
great one not to provide sepulture ifbr the dead; and M"e may ob- 
serve, that after all their battles,' the first care bf the conquered, 
notwithstandmg the sense of their misfortune, and their great 
affliction . for a bloody defeat, was to demand a suspexi^ion of annus 
from the Victor, in order to pay the iast duties to those who had 

• • • • « , 

' ' * Invent! nddltisimt, qiii hon moddp^uniain, ted vitam etiatn, pfofVmdere pro pa* 
triiiparati eraent, iUeiti glorim J^turam ne minUnam quWem faaer^.velleiA, ne raiqlH 
llc&quidem postulants: ut Callicratidas, qui, cum Lacedsmonionim dux ffiisset Pelo- 
ponnesiaco bello, inultaqUe feciaset egjegxh vertit ad extremum omnia, cdm conaiUo 
■on pahrit^aonoH, qui classeaanal^iAQlnUsia resMvendam, mu cqni AUieliienirihKtt di- 
nlcandum putabant Ctulbufl ille respondit Lace/iemonloa, cfausOillft aiwiM*! allam 
parare pMae, se fugere auie auo dedecore non posse. Offic. L4. n. 48. , . -' 

I _ 


ftilea in balUft;. apoii which Ihey helieved their hapBiq^ in 
, iiiiother life depoade^. They had little or noUdea pf xLie reBurr 
fectioxK of t^id |)ody ; but however^ the Pagans^ hy the soul's con- 
cern for. thQ body after death, ti^ religious regard paid to it, and 
the zeal with which diey reiidered solemn honours to t^e dead, 
showed thai tliey had some confuted notion of a resurrection, 
which suhsieted amongst all nations, and descended from the moat 
ancient tradition, though they coa^d not clearly distinguish it. 

Hence arose, the &ry of the people of Athens. They inmie- 
diately nominated new generals, retaining only Conon pfrthe old 
ones, to whoxQ they gave Adimantus and rhilocles for colleagues. 
Of the eight ptheis, two had withdraw^ thepiselves, ant} only six 
returned to Athens^ Theramenes, the tenth general^ who rer 
turned before the rest of the fleet, accused the other chiefs before 
the people, making them responsible for not bringing off the dead 
afler the battle; ancl to clefir himself, read the letter they ha4 
written, to the. senate and the people, wherein they excused them- 
selves from the violence of the storm, withQUf; charging tny body. 
There was sqmething detestably vile in this calumny, as it was 
toaking an ui^just use of their reserve in not mentioning him in 
thedr mtei^ and in not layinfip^ ti fault, to his charge, of which he 
tdight have appeared the most guilty* The generals, at. their re- 
turn, not bein^ able to prevail in obtaining the time necessary fo^ 
Inaking their defence, contented themse^lyes with representing in 
few .words the state of the affair, and appealed for the truth of 
what >they said to, the pilots, and all present when it happened. 
The people seeinecf ito receive their excuse favourably, and several 
persons offered themselves for their, sureties ; but it was thought 
proper to. adjourn the as^u^bly, becausje pf the' night, and it being 
the peopIe^s custofn to. give their suffrafies. by lifting up, of hands, 
their resolution could, not be known, besides which the council 
were first to give. their opinion upon th^ question to be propose^ 
to the people. 

The feast of Apat|ma coming on, in which it was the custom to 
assemble by fanuhes^ the relations of Theramenes posted several 
persdns in mouniing .habits, with, their beads shaved, , in proper 
places, who said they were the Jiindred of those who had been slam 
m battle, and pbJiged Callix^nes to accuse theg:enerals in the i^e- 
nate. It wi^ decreed in coxisequenc^, that as tne accusation dnd 
defence had been heard in the last assembly, the people by their 
iisspectiv9 tHbes should ^ive their voiced, an^ if the accused were 
found guilty they sljould l)e pui%ished, with dei3ith, their estates cbn^ 
fiecated, and ^hs tenth part .consecratfsd to the goddess,''' Some 
senators oppjose^ this decree as,un]just^.a]^ contrary to the laws: 
but as the people, at ' the ^ligatiop qt CaBixenes, threatened tp 
include tiieppppsers in. th^. i^ pause and .prijiie with the goQ^rals, 

theV tl/ifttt 80 tnetCQ Wtd'desiM'-^bin thei^' bj^onficm^'aiKi t^va^ 
.crifice.fhe innocenf'geri^^alfl' to' their own ;6afetf, by consenting < 
Id the flecreel goehLtes (th^ cele^jrated phBoeopher J Vaa thB only ■ 
one of th^ Bcmatorfl th'kt ^od ifitm; aha per^sted ipbstinately in 
opposing; a de<iree so notoriously tinjofit, iad, so contifatyto all 
laws. Th6 orator who tnountea the tribunal in defeirtje of the 
^n6raK Showed, That they kad foiled in no pdtt df pteir duty^ as 
they hrn^ven ordetethttt the xhi/d bodies should be taken' up: that 
\f any m^^were guiUy^xt %oas heijbhti^ being charged ^mh these 
orderly hdd'he^iebt^d io jput them in exefivtion; hft Sudht dtcuiBd 
fvobo^y i cthd that 0ie tempest, tbhieh came on vnexpecMly af the 
i)ery ifisticiliti toas an. untinnoerahte dpology^ and entirety discharged 
the hittusdd from \ alt gidlt. He demanded, thdt a' vfhole day should 
he attfiioed them id make thtir defence, a favour not denied to the 
most criminal, and' that they shduld be tried separately. , He repre^ 
Kented, tfiat they were not in, the' least obliged to precipitate a sentence, 
therein 4he liv0s of ^he moist'ilhisttioits of the citizens it ere con- 
terneds tfvatU uuis in some' measure attacking the gods to make men 
fespons(bUf6r the xeitids and weather;* and that they ahtid not, 
voithout ih6 most Jtagroftt ingratitude apd injustibe, ptit the con- 
^r6rs to, death, to whom they ou^ to decree croums and honours, 
or. give up the defenders bf th^r SoM^ to the rage of those who 
iiiHkd them i' anH if ikey did ^o, their unjust judgment would he foU 
toured' with a sudden but isdin repentancCyWhith would leate in their 
hearts the sharpest remo^ke, ahd (*6ver them 'with eternal shame and 
infamy. The peojple" seemed atftrfit to be moved with these Vea- 
8^ns I but' being, animated by the kccusets, they pronounced sen- 
tence '6f death againaj th6^ ei&ht general; and six of them, who 
Were preseht, wi^te 6bjzed in order to their being carried to execu- 
tion; Onji' 'of th'^th, Biom^fdph, a pcfrson of great reputation for 
his viQour'ana probity, dernqMded to be heard. . Athenians, said he, 
I wish the seritenJte you have' passed upon us nidynot prove the mi^or^ 
tune of the republic ; b\d I have one favour to ask of you in behalf 
of rriy colleagues and myse^^ whicTi'is, to acquit us before the gods of 
me vows we made loihem foir you and ovrset^s, d»' we are nqf in a 
condition to dischargi them ; for it is tb their plfhteetion, invoked be- 
fore the battle, we ackn6\ohagit that we c^re indited for the victory 
gained by us over tfie enemy. There was npt one'^ood citiien that 
did not melt into tears at this di^coutcc, so fiill of mildaes^ and 
religion, and admire with surprise the'moderatipn of ap6rsdn, who, 
seeing^ himself unju£[tly condemned, did not however vent the least 
harsh expression, or evet^ coniplain't, egains^ hhi judges, but was 
fiClely intent (in favour, of "ah ungrateful country, which had 
doomed.' th^m to perish A iwon what it owed t\it godfi in' p6inmon 
with thcJm for the victory they "bad lately obtaihfed. ; * '. 
Thb six generals w6re hardly' executed when the ]ieop)ie opened 

* Clttem fdeo inlquttm, ot icelerL aaiigMl, 4^mA vtnd el iuctui 4aUqptrint 1 Tsm$ 
Jt»MsL\.xn e.3. 

P£EffIA»8 MJXQ»miANB. fl^ 

Ihfit ^»t^uA . pMeitffd .«tt ti^^ Jhooiits of. ^kMoMAmsB ; . bat 
tMr. M9i»titiiC0 jMH)i4r JBAt r00tpr# ; th0 iteMl. to life. > CiUiKenci^ 
their aocoser, was put in prison, and was not allowed to' be beardi 
fitvitts found ottMa ti>.iiu(kfl bis .^s^ape, b«Bed<1» Decelia to'ibe 
eDMii|f,^ta wb^OMTibe rBtttiii«d.som04)iMr«ifterto'Atben8, wbere 
bedrai of biuiferi> unxverwrilY deteMod and ahbofred by all--^ 
woddi m ptB fclie Mfi^men and slandeitera' otigbt. to be. Diodoraa 
remar^, that the people themselves were justly punished for their 
Clime % the gods, who abandoned them soon after, not to a single 
master, but to 'thirty ty]:j|l|t8»^.th4t treated them with the utmost 
rigour and cruelty. 

Tbtf.dispoMtioa of tbe populaee istrecojifniEad in- this accoual ;'^ 
and Pfaitt^ upoft the Mond event, draws in few wtords their cha- 
racter with much spirit and resemblance. The popula<9a4 says 
be, is an iiicondt^t, un^ateful, cruel, suspicious animal, incu'^a* 
ble df 8abjsii€tibg[ to the govemineiit of reason ; and this is no won- 
der, adds hiff SB it b- commoi% composed of the^dregs of a city^ 
and is a mOnstyous assemblage^ without form or order, of all that is 
worst in itu [ - >' ■■• • •-'..• •[ 

l*be saikie ielation shows /^bat effect feat oan have upon thU 
minds of meii^ eveh upon theee^ who p^s for ihe wisest, and hoW few 
there- ave who&i^ ca{Mible of suppiG^ing in^xibly the view of present 
danger and diegrHctt. ' Thdugh the 'juifticO of the acoused gene^ 
ralB' (^^usej Wto- )^rfectiy known in the '•senate, at least by the 
greater part of it ; as soon as the people's Yiage was mentioned, and 
the t^nwIi^ttiMiaees they munttured, those graveeenators, most: of 
whom>hiad cwttoiaAded armies, and who all had %equently exposed 
themet^ves tO'the greate«A dangers of wa»; instantly changed sideej 
and GUm^Yer to tbe mo|^ notorious calumny, and flajgrant injus^ 
tice, ^at overbad being: an evident* ^roof, that there is a courage', 
tboog-h veiy n^e, whibh infinitely transcends that valotixr'Which 
indaees s<i maliy thoaMindsof m^n everyday to confront the mos^ 
terrible dd^Vs in battle. ' 

AnStengsC' d(n the jvidges, one -alone truly worthy of' hiis reputa- 
tion^tke'^M: Soc^tes, in tbis^neral treason and perfidy, stooi^ 
fim' AiidE-nniii<»vealAe; Aikd though he knew his siififlrage and nnaid- 
ed voice -Would be of little or no consequence - to the- accueM, he 
thought tbes^atf homage' due 4o omiressed; innocence, and that it' 
waj9 Unwittrthy an honest liMaa^ to !duf»r himself, through a base fear,' 
to be Hurried- a^ay by* th^ fbry of abiind and fVantic people. ' l¥e 
see in this instance ^how ibr' the jcsmse ^ jucrtlice may be iriiaiiP 
doned. " We nlay eMiclud^ it ii^ikclt better decided before tbe peo-^ 
pie. Of moi^'tiiiHi^ 80t0 eilkens, who>''comiK)Bed' the ass^nbl^i 
two only took upon them the ddfenceof their' generals, -EurtptO't 

Z 2 

^fciMt ef the latter ta thtt^^liaJogae^ frdm wteaee part^titoieimtt^ 
iiowkxe tMken^f - •" '-' ^ • '• ^•' ' •' - '"^ •- 

A. M."dsie. inie B8dBie'y0«rthat th6 battle of the* AiMnuitt wu 

4ACi.c.408. ibuffbt, Dfl«3«iii0 poMM»ed hionelf of m ipmof 
mBlaly* iIsMdefef epMkiiig'o^lim tf)l tbe^Moiiiff to 
vdikh 1 Bholl i^lftte th« ^bstory ot the>'tfnMd 0i %fWsUid«f 
, large. 

1 r *' 


ij .' • . . 



■ ! 1 

I^nwAHeomBifebaithtflAeedMMMilmicwi GtottslireciyMto'iXNUtiliyiiiiAilhei. 
;. Lyamdgr gatea a •eiebrmcd vic^piy ewet jae ^ttiftiiafw t .tfjofpotoiaofc , 

4i).lUL3999. , Afler th(^ deieat at ArginusiB,'^ ^bOi b&xtb of the 
^.^. c. 405. f^ppimefiiaBB docUfljuig, the altiee, soppj^irte^by the 
credit of. Cyrus, sent aip emhaaBy to Sparta, todeoMuldthatthe 
command of the fle^t ^hpold again be given to I^rBasdeci with the 
promise of serving with more affection and courage if their inquest 
^e^^ griaite4-. : As it was contrajry to the l«^ws of; &»wrtA that the 
samQ person :^h<»uld \>9 tmf>^ a^aairaly the I^acedqiNBoni^ns,.!^ 

£ ratify the,alliQSi gavoithei^itle vS^^duaxil Aracus^'^i^ s€g|ii1^ 
ysan4er.with him,' whom in appearance they QoaMms6ipnedi>9ly. 
as viee-admiiaii, though inefieot they invested .hipi>with all the auH 
ttkOfity x^ the sapr erne eommand* '. . < ♦• c • .:« v 

All those who hail the greatest share un the gp^eria«)ieo)t.of the 
citiesb^and. posses^ tlie: most authority in.tivem^i!iBy[f^,him arriyewith' 
exjtr^tte joy ; promisiog thfsmsejives, from his influen0e,<thetfia&l ^h- 
y^rsipn of the democratic power. His character of coo^ptlaisanQeto* 
wards his friends, and indulgence to, all their faults, suited mudli bet-' 
ter ^heir.mubi^iqus and injurioMs views, than, the aus^erft^^uity qf 
QaUicratid^. . For, Lysaitiider wasi a vo^ gf thfiimQst.^orr^pt.Jlik^t, 
and gloriea in having no principles on tji^. score c4''>^rtae or the 
n^ostwciffid' .duties. Jle made rH> scruple U^. emplc(y: artiiic^' and 
4ficeit on, all occasions^ and estc^e^j)^ j^l^e only^as-jra^^pjQ^ 
Ins mea^uj^es. WhfiniJtdidnQtp|*QinotQthepa, he,;nQv^rfail44 ip?PR*r 
ff^r th«^usefuVwhichcwithhim<iWas alooeti^elatidahkAflOdvexpeO^n^; 
ffom .a persuasion that ti^th had in it# o wnnatujre pi9> advaolp^^ over 
fsJsfl^Qod, apd that the value of botb c^.a^d .th9 ^tl^^^^.^o.fte 
%^ecjajted by)t.he.<Qc^ve«iei^€}. lesul^g^.fron^ th«m.<. An4 *^ ^ 
th^:who ,.i:#pres0»ted ito hii^j^thati^.nyas.qp worthy. t^e 4^€^ii4? 
ax^ of U^giii^ to iiiak^ ,use of ,4rau4 snd tj^f^acheija hs,' 4ai]g]M^ 

An expression 'ascribed to him sufficiently denotes how nnall an 
tecovntn^made of peojury. He used tn sKy,. jfiB^mMuiii mmm wd 

VTMWRB A]r0<liM«IAir& 'Cff 

6f relifliop^ that be^earad kgs fertile giods thiift lus «AemieA^!* • F<ff 
Jie irli» desieivea with 4i fUse oath, piaiftly dechur«e, in bo d^iilil^^ 
tltatliefim#'hk«i«iiii«»9fott€thatb6 des^dBGod. •:. ' ' 

Htxe ends the twenty-sixth year of ihe Pekypoaneaian wavjf fli 
lliis year tt^aa, that' the yoiin^r Oyrcn, daz^ed with the apleoH 
door ef anpb-toie aathority, to \mch be haid b^n little accfisigtomed, 
and jeafeua of theieaat oaiiasioo in point of ceremonial homagne, 
discoveted hjr a remarkable aetfni4;her aeef^l bf hk heArt. Brought 
npftom Us inAmcy among the tekgmi^t family, nurtured teuuier the 
flhada of the throne, amidst tlNi'Si]d>ffliaBions4a:nd nroetrationg of the 
Gomtiemf ' entertained lonflr 'bv the discourses or an ambitioas mo^ 
ther that idohxed'him, in the desire 'Uid hope of empire, he \)egm 
already to exert ihe rights of sovereignty, and to exact'therhonouMr 
paid to itiwithisurprismg haughtiness aiid r%KMir. ^wo Persians 
of the royal fhonly, his coUBin*^^nnAn9' by their mother, sister of 
his fiither Datnusy had oinittea to coter their hands with their 
sleeree in hia presence, according to a eeremonia) observed only ^ to- 
wards the kii^ of F^vsk. Cymsi,) Yesenting thut nesieet as a capi* 
tal crime, eondenuied . them both to* ^0,' and caused them to be exii» 
cuted at 9ardis without aoercy . Datius, at whose feet their relations 
threw themselves to denMuid justice,- wais very much affected' with 
tbe tragical end of his two ne^ews; and looked upon thb aetbn of 
his son's as an attempl upon himset^to whom alone that hbnouf 
was duei'i He resolved therefore to take Ms government fVom him; 
and ordereitUn to"court upon the pretext of being sick, and hftviiiMr 
a desire to 0ee him. . « c' ' ' 

Cjrad; befoire his' departure,- sent for I^sanderta Sardis', and put 
into his hands great silms- of money for the payment of his fleets 
promissng him still m^sre ibr • the future. And, with* the ostentatioa 
of a young man, to let him see how sweh ho desired to oblige him^ 
he aasured him^ that thoiigh the- kin^^ ^s iuther should cease to af 
ford -him any supphes, he would furnish him the^more wiUinglyouf 
of his. own coflbis, and that ratiier than he should want the noises^ ' 
saiy 4>roviBionsy he would even caus4 the throne of msmy gold -and 
alvet, npGovwhiefa besat tt» administj^r justice, to be melted^ d6w9ii 
At length; when he' was' upon the poilat of setting out, he empoWet^ 
ed him. to receive llbe tributes and revenues; of the eities, iconfiiied 
the goveimneiit of his- provinces: to him, and embracinj^ hin^ con-* 
jard him jpt to give battle in his absence, unless superior in ^de f 
because 'tfa0:kin^ neither wanted the will nor the power to grm:hU(f 
that siqperiority overthe enemy T promising at tbe sahie time. With 
the BtfKHUfBsr ^ssunGDces of alfeetloh, to bring him a great number 
afsbipei&an^^iqniictaattdCyildia. ) '^ ' ; ;;/' ' 

ven maff use art^ amd cMeat onB another »» their gtmee^ dkd me»' in their enthti 
t Xeaopbon. Mlea-f. ik;f JiaMT" % • - '.•**• ^.' ''» • ' •:'■-■ A 

After tkut pniMe't df^purtiute,'^ Lyniide)r BvSMitmm^ tU H«^ 
jbiponi, aad iakt «iege to> LampBacus; Thomxj imibdofr.QiiteUed 
tihwfaer» with bk laod-lorces at the samd tiin6,.«B8aulted;&i»eJily on 
iuB side. The. plftce Wag owned, by Btoim^f and ateifloned by 
•LysAiider to the aoldien^ The Athenians, who fbUowed himcltee, 
came to an anchor in the port of iBleontvmin the .ChenooenB^ 
.with 1 80 f alleys. But upon the newe of the tahinff. of Lampiaca^ 
they immediately steered for Sestosy and after bavuig' taken in. pro* 
visions; they stood awtiy.lrom thfocei ss^ff along t^ cossb^toa 
place <^ed j£gQ8pot»mos4 wheiie they hcuted oi^ri immsl^ tlw 
«nemy, who were then at anchor befdte Lampsacns. Thd Helles- 
pont IS not above 2000 paces broad in that place* .Thfi4we ar|nie«f 
peeing themselves so nefir each other, expectied:only to rest that 
day; and were in hopes of coming to ft battle on .the next. . 

But Lysander had another design in view. He commsnd^d the 
seamen and pilots to go on board their gal^ys, as if they were in 
reality to fight the next morning at break ofdiay, tofaold themselves 
in readiness, and to wait hb orders with profound silence* He or* 
dqred the land-army in«ner. t6 draw upjin battle npon the 
coast, and to wait the day ii^ithoat laay noine.^ On the morrow, at 
soon as the sun was risen >• the Atheniani begsn^to rofw tbwardi 
them with their whole fleet in ett&linie, and to bid them defiance. 
LysaAder, though. his ships were, fAnsed in onler:of baitle, with 
their heads towards the enemy^laystiB without making any move- 
mentf In the evening, Mrhen the Athenians withdvewii; he- did not 
suffer his soldiers to goaskore,.till twoor three gaUc^^rwIuah he 
had sent out to observe them, were returned witkadytee^that they 
had see^ the en^ny. land. The next dsy'^padsed in the same 
mumer, as did the third and fourth. . .£«ch a condndt, which 
lurgued reserve and apprehefmon, extrtoelyr, Augmented tfaie se- 
curity ftnd boldne&s of .the Athenians^ and inspired them with 
a sovereiffn contempt for an ars»y,r which fear, in. their opinion, 
prevented from showing themselves, and attempting any thing. 

Whilst this passed, Alcibis^esi :who iwad near Ihe. floeit,. took 
horse, and came to the Athenian generals ; to whom he rept^sent- 
odf that they kept upon a very disadvantngiBDus eoast, where there 
were neither ports nor cities in the neighbourhood i that they were 
obliged tQ bring their* j^visions from ^stos'with great danger and 
difficulty; and that they were very much in the % :Qiig to mSSsr the 
soldiers and mariners of the fleet, as soon as they wer^ aafaiore, to 
alrftgg^o fti^d disperse themselves . wherever they pleiSed, whilst 
they saw an enemy's fleet facing them, accustomed to .ezecnfce the 
oid^rs of th^ir general with iqstant obedience, and uponibe aUvfat- 
est signal. He offered also to. all»<!k the enemy. li^ Jaod wini a 
strong body of Thracian troops, and to force them to a battle. The 
ftflemls, eVpecta% Tydeus -«uQd 'Menander, jealooi «f their com^ 

AMb. p; «a iSiSSx xui. ^ »5, s». iTiMiivtiortinSBa 


muid;-'did not content themselvtas Vltfr rpfiwirtg hi^bfieifft, frota th« 
opinion, that if the event proved tinfbitpnftte, the whole lilamii 
wonld fklf on th^, tod if favonrable, that Alcibiades would engVolw 
the honour of it ; but rejected' also wilh insult his wise and kdlniaiy 
couhsel, as ifa man in disgrace lost his i^ense and iibilities with the 
favour of the commonwealth. Alcibiades withdrew. 

The Hff h day the Athenians presented themselves agai», and of- 
fered hiiA Mfctle ; retiring in the evening" According to cust!olii With 
more insulting airs than tne days before. Lysander, as usua^, de- 
tached some gctUeys to observe them, With orders to' return with 
the tttmotet dfligence, as soon as they saVthe Athenian)^ landed, 
and to put a bra:^en buckler at each sh\p1s head as soon ks .they 
reached the middle of the channel. Hiti&eTf in the mean time ran 
through the Whole line in his galley, eKhorting the pilots arid offi- 
cers to hdld the seamen and soldiers in readiness to row add fight 
on the first signal. 

As soon as the bucklers were put op in the ships* heads, fcind 
the adnnml ' galley had giVen the signal by the sound of trumpef , 
the whole fleet set forwards in good order. . The land-army at the 
same time made; all possible hastb to the top of the promontory* to 
see the battle. The strait that separates the tw^ cominents iii this 
place, is about fifteen stadia,* or thr^ quarters of a league in 
breadth, which space was presently cfeared through the activity 
and diligence of the rowers. Conon, the Athenian general, was 
the ftrstvHio'peTceived, from the shore, the eneihy's fleet advancing 
in good order to attack him ; upon which he immediately cried out 
for the troops to embark. In the height of sorrow arid perplexity, 
some he caued toby their names, some he conjured^ and others he 
forced to go on'board their galleys ; but all his endeavoure and emo- 
tion were Ineflfefctuol, the soldiers being dispersed oji all sides. For 
they were rib sooner come 6n shore, than some ran t6 the sutUers, 
some to Walk in the counti^, some to sleep in their tents, and 
others had be^n tq, dress their suppers. This proceede<J from the 
want of vigil^ce and experience in their generals, wftd, not *sus- 
pecting the least danger, indulged themselves in taking their repose, 
and gave their soldiers the same liberty. , • 

The enemy had' already fafien on with loud cries arid a great 
noise of their oars, when Corion, disengaging Himself with nine gal- 
leys, of which number was the sacred ship called tke^Pardtiany stood 
away for C^rus, where betook refuge with fivageras. "f he Pelopon- 
nesi&ns, fallmg upon the rest Of tfiefleet, took iriimediately the gal- 
Vys which were empty, and disabled and destroyed such as began 
to fill with men. . The soldiers, who ran without order or arrjs t4 
their relief, were either killed in the endeavour to get on board, or, 
flying on shore, were cut to pieces by the enemy, who lanjied in 
pursuit of them. Lysander took 3000 prisoners, with all the gene* 


W4 ^ HJt?ORY or THB . ; . 

.nla anjd the y^\^ fl^pt. After, baviqg plundered the camp, and 
fastened the enemy's galleys to the aternei of bia own, he returned 
to tiiunpsacus, amidst the sounds of flutes ajad songs of ti^mph. 
Heliad the elory of achieving, one of the greatest muitarjr exploits 
recorded in history, with little or no loss, and of term^aUng in the 
small space of an hour^ a war which had already lasted seven-and- 
twenty vears^ and which perhaps, without him, wouhl have heen 
of much longer continuanqe. Lysander immediately sent despatches 
with tliis agreeable hews to Spart^. 

Tne .30(^0 prisoners^ ta^n in this battle, having been condemned 
to die, Lysahde^ called, upon Philocles, pne of the Athenian gene- 
rals, virho had caused, all the prisoniers taken in two galleys, the one 
of Andros, the other .of ,(J]orihth, to be thrown from the top of a 
precipice, and had formerly persuaded the people of Athens to 
xaake a, decree for cutting on* the thumb of the ri^ht hand of all the 
prisoners of war, in order to disable them for handling the pike, and 
that they might be fit only to serve at the oar. . Lysander there- 
fore caused ojin to be br,9U£ht forth, find asked him what sentence 
he would pass upon himseli, for ^ving induced his cify to pass that 
cruel decree;* Philocles,' without departing from his haughtiness 
in the least, notwithstanding thd extreme danger he was in, made 
answer, Acpuse not people ,qf orivlies who Jiave no judges ; but as you 
are victor, tue your rtght, and do by' us as we utgttld have done by 
you, ^we had conquered. At the same instant he went into a batli, 
put on afterwards a magnificent robe^ land marched foremost to the 
execution. All the prisoners were put to the sword, except' Adi- 
miaJitns, who had opposed tho decree. 

After, this expeution, Lysander went with lii^ fleet to all the 
maritime pities, and gave orders for all Athenians in them to witb^ 
draw as soon aJB possible to Athens, without permitting them to 
fake any other route^ declaring, that after* a Certain time fixed, all 
sueh should be pumshed with death, as should be foun^ out of 
Athens. , This he did as an al)le politician, to reduce the city by 
famine the mdre easily,. fuid to render it incapKl^le of sustaining !k 
long siege. He afterwards Busied himself in subjecting democracy « 
and all other forms of go\^ernment, throughout the cities ; leaving- 
in each of them a Lacedoe'monia;^ governor, called Kirmostes, and 
ten arcbons, or magistrates, wliom he chose out' of the societies he 
,had established in] th^m. He thereby in some measiue secured to 
himself unj^eri^al authority, and' a kind of sovereignty over all 
Greece ; putting none into power but such as were entii^ly devoted. 
*o his service.- 


' • ' • ij •♦ ' i . ... 

;;,.."•' ' ■' 'sECTjoisr'yi?. ,..,■.'.''• '••■' 

' . ■ • (« 

idhcns, besieged i>)r Lysander, ctpitulatet and sorfebdera. Lfiiiidcr ehingef tfM Aifti 

'.4)r fofcraknent, kU MiaUlslMt thirty eoBmandan tn it. M4 aenda ^yUpfwia oefiMf 

lilin to Sparta witli all the jold and nlrer taken frpm the enemy. Decree of Sparta 

upon the uie to be made oflt The Peloponnealail' war eadi in thia manner. DaadI 

• ofDiilaaNothQA • - ' 

A-M-aniM. < When the i^ews of tjie entire defeat of the army 

Am. i. c. 401 came to Athens by a ship,* svhich arrived in the nig Jit 

at the Pireeu% the Qity ,^as in universal consternation. I^otbni^ 

was heard but cries of sorrow and despair in every part of if . They 

imagined the. enemy already at their gates. Thev represented tcf 

themselves the . miseries of a Jong siege, a cruel lamine, the ruin 

and burning «f their city, the linsolence of a proud victor, and the 

shameful sEivery they were upon the point of experiencing, more 

afflioting and insupportable to them than the most severe punish- 

DientaBuand death itself. The pext dav the assen^bly^was summonesj^ 

wh^rpin it .wna. resolved to shut up all the ports, o^e qnlv excepted; 

t() repair the the walls ; ajid mount gtiard to prepare 

against a aieg^e* , 

In fact, Agis and Pausanias, the two kings of Sparta, advanced 
tfUMurds Athens lyith.all their troops. Lysander soon afler arriv'6^ ^ 
tt the PiraBeus with 150 sail, and pi%vented all ships from gaping in 
pr coming out. The Athenians, besieged by sea* and lana, with- 
•at provisions, ships, hope of re^ef; or any resource, reinstated all 
persons who had been .attainted by any decree, without however 
M^eakiog of a capitulation, though many alreadv died of the famine. 
fiat when their corn was entirely consumed, they sent deputies to, 
Affis, to propoiae a treaty with Sparta^ upon condition of abandoning 
tlf their posp^sions, the city «,nd port only ea^cepted. He referred 
the deputies to. Laccdaemon^ as APt being , empowered to treat with 
tb«n. When they arrived at. Selasia, upon the frontier of iSparta, 
and bad madie known their commission to the Ephori, they were 
ordered to retire, and to come with other proposals, if febey ex- 
pected peace*' The Jp^phori had demanded, that. 12100 paces of the 
wall OKI each side of tbe Pirigeus should be demolished,: but* an 
Athenian, for venturi|ig to advise a compliance, was sent to prison, 
uid fHTohibition made against proposing any thing of that kmd for 
the future. \ : ^ 

In this deplorable condition, Theraii^e^ejp jeclared m the asseqr- 
>ly, that if he were sent to Lysander,' he wo^ld. knbw whether the 
uoposal mi^de ^ the LacedaBmonians for dismantling the eity, was 
Qtended tpfadhtate its ruin, or to prevent a revolt: l^be^ Athe^' 
iians having deputed him accordingly, he wad more than thr^ 
iiQDth3 i^^ent; no doub^ with the, view of reducing th^m byik- 
(UQ0 to accept any conditions that should be offerisf.' Oh ho* re*. 

* Zenopb. Uellen. 1. if. p. 458-403. Plat In lijaa^. p. 440, 44L 

, m 

I m 


turn he told them, that Lysander had detaiaed him all that tunei 
and that at last he had given hifa to understand, that he might ap- 
ply to the Ephori. He was therefore sent hack with nine omen to 
filparta, withiuli powera to^.conclude a treaty. When they arrived 
thet^, the Gphpri gate thein audi^ice in the gBneial assembly, 
where the Corinthians a^iji'sevetal other allies, espechUly tiie The- 
bans, insbted that it was absolutely, necessary to destroy the city 
witjiout .hearkening any farther to a treaty. But the Lacedsmo- 
«^ans, preferring the glory and safety qf Grieece to their own 
grandeur, mo^de answer, that they never Would he re|^oached with 
having destroyed a city that ' had rendered such ^reat serviees to 
9JI C&eece ; the remembrance of which ought to haye much 
l^eater weight with the allies than the resentment of private injn- 
ries rpceived from it. The ijeace was therefore conclijded uyoa 
tbese conditipns : T%af the fortifications of the Pircitut^ wiih M« 
long wall thqi joined that port to the city, should be demoiuhed ; thai 
the Athenians should deliver up all thHr galleys,. twelve only earc^pt- 
ed ; that they should abandon all the ctties they had seized^ and am* 
<etd themselves ^ith their own Idrids and cotmtry; that tht^ shmdi 
recall their exiUs, and rmke a league offensive aM d^enswe t^m the 
J^a^edcemonians, uniider wfwm they should march foherener thof 
iiwughtJU to lead them, 

*rhe deputies on their return were surrounded with <an innume- 
ral^|e, throng. of p^opl6, yho were 'apprehensive, that nothing had 
been. concluded, for they were npt able to hold out any longer, such 
multitudes dying every day of famine. The neirt day they report^ 
the, success of their negbtiatioft ; the treaty Was ratified, notwith- 
standing the opposition of sonie persons ; and Lysander, ibllowed 
by the exiles, entered the port. It was upon the very day that the 
Athenians ihad formerly gained the ^famous naval battle of Scdamis. 
He caused th^, walls to be deiAoiished to the sound of flutes and 
trumpets, and with all the exterior marks of triumph and r€Jounng, 
as if ail Gjreeqe fcad that ^ay regained its liberty. Thus ended the 
Peloponnesian war, afler having continued during the spaee of 
twenty-seven yqars. 

Lysander, without giving the Athehians time to look about them, 
changed the iCorin of their government entire^, established thirty 
archons, or ratjier tyrants, over the city, put a strong garrison into 
the citadel, and left the Spartan Callibius hamuMes^ Or governor. 
^is dismi^^d his troops. I^ysander, before he disbanded bis, ad- 
vanced against Samos, wh*ic!h he pressed so Warmly, that it was at 
last obliged to capitulate. Ailef haviuj^ establmhed its ancient in- 
habitants ip it, ^e proposed to return to Sparta with the lAcede- 
moni^n galleys> those of theTirteeUs, ana this beaks of those he 

nad tj^ken. ,*.,♦• 

. He |i^d senjij Qy^lippus, ^ho.HMcdmmflLtided the iinny'iii fiMr^ 
heiore him, to carry thei money' and ^pbiis^ which were the fMltit 
ibis glorious pv^pAi^s, t^ Lfk^ed9smoi]|, The money , without 


PdtkifiBtf tbe inannftralde cidwm bf gbUdigivwi jiimtfay: ilk Idtiei; 
i99M^teStal5lM^.takotB/thati8<tiDiBa7^il^O()|O0^ i^ibwna^n Qjr* 
il^bf v^l^<> -Hainseuothis tonisiddTftUe bubi^ txitid' not ireiiM the 
^9^p^uiB/f)f>coiirQrtiBg aOBie port of it 4e hie imm usei i The! bam 
nr0iH»i39lO^t^ caisefli|ly^Aiid;d^d 'aot.8eeia;to:lBave any. voem rov 
iieft^ <; Hq; iuiiseWod them at th& boCt(>in.t audi after ihayingitakfen 
>ut af .eAi^h^ofitl^ein mht^itumAj he tnou^lit fijt, t6 the amount of 
too 4«l0t»t&;iie.«ew!dd them up a^ain very neatiyj aad^thooght fatm;- 
i^lf pen^BQtly aiife* Btit \^hen ke. arrived al; Sparta^ the aocoontfl, . 
w}a\fA Jiiftd beeir-pNiti up in eaehibag, discovered ftim* To fivoid 
Hinietoeiit;, he'Iteqished hiflieelf ifcoULiiis • oaimtry, carrviii^ '■ iiloiie 
f^jth;hpi'ia;aU^lacea the disgF«k;e«f having/suUied^byao bfun ffisd 
iprclid ^ ^^wxi% the glory oflall .hi$: gisat actional t r " 

.Fj|ointUtiQ]^iapp^«xampIei. the wisest and mot^judiciom of tSn 
Spartans, appjreh^ndlng the tdl-powerfiil tefTBtts of (rocmeyj v/bich 
ipeJi^'Vi^d: ^Qti Q^i]^^e v:ulgar,'hut,^en< the grealest of weo,:€» 
;f€9aQ^ly-ib}3|f)[X<^)LyciiAd9r for , hCtving aistedi-sodctwittadietorilljr^td . 
.^0 fb^^in^^le) Jaws of. Sparta^iasd !w^aiiin^ -representod taiUfie 
Sp^iTi^i^w incnmbent/it^aa. vpf«i.themhtlr).bafi aU that! gedd 
ifl4 sil^e^f A*«ii> 'tlnei re#iiib}iq«t-: aniE X^ jlay ,the l^eaiviiest .iof eiirsei 
\x)^i^ . ii^i^Kti^i^ Mpooi ity iM ttie fatal banoof a11 otLer ^t^Ltes; izitro- 
l^ced/pnly to,.cpr;)Upt the inhol^some .'qonstitution oTi:the' Spartan 
Ipvi^rwoei^t, irUth iiAd>^«UpBorted (itself . ilbr > so ihaiiv aiffes with 
^i0^r .^<1 prosperity.. . •Tbe.^phoH ttvoiediatisly pftssed a deo^re^ to 
j)fQscr^}>e tl^t uioaey>andioyd|d9ed.that none so6aid be cunreni, ek^^ 
i^pt ,tl)ei^i}f^Hfiil"iroBi.c€»ii;i. - Bot {^ysaiidiar^B frieaids opposed this de^ 
uree, and. ^ai^rij^ no pains' t^if^taio.tbikigoldiiBbd silver is Spaita^ 
:he affair was referred to farther deliberation. There ni^aBttlly 
leemed only two plans to be proposed ; which were, either to make ' 
;he gold and silver coin current, or to cry them down and prohibit 
;hem absolutely. The men of address and policy found out a third 
expedient, which, in their opinion, reconciled both the others with 
rreat success : this was wisely to choose the mean between the 
Vicious extremes? of too much rigour and too much remissness. It 
ivas therefore resolved, that the new coin of gold and silver should 
96 solely employed by the public treasury ; that it should only pass 
n the occasions and uses of the state ; and that every private per- 
son, in whose posseasion it should be found, should be immediately 
3ut to deati^ 

A strange expedient ! says Plutarch ; as if Lycurgus had feared 
:he specie of gold and silver, and not the avarice they occasion ; 
SLD avarice less to be extinguished b^ prohibiting individuals froVn 
possessing it, than inflamed by permitting the state to amads und 
make use of it for the service of the public. « For it was impossible, 

• AlKHit 337^000<. Bterling. 

Vol.111. «A 



ytioM tfttt^om^ wasjheld in henmiF vid'esteeMiwith tbfl puM^ 
thiU; it sfaowd be ddspised in pmate M ii«eleMi4 anA^at Uie pttopto 
•bouMiloak upon thitt asiof no value in their 'douiestie«fikin,wKioh 
the atactd'pmed, and was bo a^zbuB t<» have ftor ita otieasidai ; bad 
usages, audiorized by the practice and sexam^eof th^ pnblicj beins 
ft tkobfand time's inibre dans^ous to.iodivid«als than the vices of 
individaeds to tfaepub&c. ^The iiaoedieteioiiianstith'^efoiv, oontif 
nues Platasch> m piinishing those with dea£|i wfaoiriioiifidd fttak^ use 
of the new mon^ in' private, were so blind and ftnpi^ent as to 
iiaagine; thai the placing of the law, and the terror of punishment, 
as a fpaud at the door, was sufficient to prevent goiii and^Silver from 
entenng the h^uae: whibt they left ti^e hearts ^ef^'theb citizens 
open to the desire'sHd admiration of riches, and introdtvced them^ 
selves a violent passion for amassing treasure^ in catuong it to be 
deemsd a great and honounible thing to become rich. . ■■• ^ 
A.M.3eoSb "^ It was about the end of the Pdopoiia#Biitti war, 
^mtj. c.,¥A. that Darius Nothus, king of Pertta;'died, alter a reien 
of nineteen years. Gyrushad arrived at the o6urt bilfbre Ihs death, 
ihd Paifysatis, his mother, whose, idol hev^tts, not contented With 
havmg tnade his peace, notwithstanding tlie fault's he had (commit- 
ted in his government, pressed the old nng to d#dare him tts suc- 
oossor dlso; 'after the example of Ddriiw the f\tM, Who gave Xerxes 
the preferenoe before all his .brotherti,>beoauiBe he had been bom, 
as Cyrus wtisj aft^r his fiither 's JBuccossion to the throne. But Da- 
rius did not carry his -eomplaisanoe for 'her so ikr» He gave the 
crown to Arqaces; his eldest son hi Pdiysatis also, whom* Plutarch 
cafis Anicas, and beqoeathed to Oytos only the' provhms be had 


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""■ ■'■ : BOOK IX. 



. ' THE/ «. . .; . ; . 


i 1 


. 'IJ^ •••■•: .'•'.V f>-.^ • ■ ortBEc \' .'\: ' 







1 .'i ' 

, „. . „•'.,., .,,.CHAP,TBJRL 

8icT. L CoifiAatioii of A^tazent^ Mbemion. ' Oynit atteovplt to aanMiittte'bli bro- 
tteT) ftii4 li Mmt ftito AikK Minor, fihml . rareun of 8tttit% v?t<« of Aitatenoaib 
upon tlie auihon aoilluscoiupUcM in tiieiinuder of ber IwoOier, Death of Alcibladai. 

. Hiaebaracfer. , ^ ^ 

A. M. 30m. Aii^ACKs, tipon uoetidiiig the throne* assumed th? 

Aat,^*C.,404i nanu^ of AitaxetKes : he it is to whcan tbQ Greeks 
^¥etheiMzhabie« of Mhkmoh,* from his prodiffioud m0mory» Be- 
jig^ near his fiubher^e bed; when he iiiaa dying,! he asked him, af<^r 
moTDefi^ hefoupe ne ezpii-ed,. what had hoen the role of hiscondnot 
doriiig- 80 lonffjandiso hkppy n reign as his, that he might make it * 
his exKunple. M3Biho«'i'6«en, refdied hB,io. do cUtoayt vihaJt.jusUfie and 
reiigion reqvkted qfmer memorahle.'words, and well woHhy of be 
ing set up in lettere of > gold' in .the .pakces of kioaray le -keep them 
perpetually in mind of what ought to-be thd guijb and nde.Qf iiO , 
their actions. . It is not uncommon. f6r prinote to give ex(>eUeatiin* 
struetkmsto their efaildifeii on i their ^hMUth-beds, which. wcfuld be 
met e effieaciooB^ if presededi by their own example iad: practice 
without which' they afe:aa,wieak and impoteot as the sick -man who 
gives them, and seldom survive him lo^ffk* • 

iSoon alter Darius^ dcilithvt* the new ^ng set out from his capital 
fiir the cit^ of Paaargada,} in ^ his'.ooronatib&^.accDrduP^^le 

* Whteb word ligniflM in tho Creek, one of a good memory. ''"' - i 

tjAthMLl.^.P4l»4& ■ •tPlutinArtaz^n.lOJUt. .. ... 

i A dQr of Persia bvilt by pjfua tba Qroat* . \ ' i 

880 , HI8T0RV OF THE 

custom, \q the priests of Persia. There was hi that city -a temiilii 
of the ^adess ^who pr usiduuu T e r w mn ia ? which the coronation of 
their kinjg^s was solemniz^j |t f(iy|8< attended with very singular 
ceremonies, which no dduD^ had some mysterious sense; though 
Plutarch does not explain it7"The pilncer, at his consecration,- took 
off his robe in the temple, and put on that worn by the ancient 
Cyrjs before he camo to the thi^ne, which was preserved in 
that place with great veneration. After that he ate a dry fig, 
chewed some leaves of *Uir4Hi|pep(jyi|^te|e, and drank a draugEt 
composed of milk and vilregar^AYa8'tKlto signify, that the swoets 
of sovereign power are imngled with the bitterness of care and 
disquiet, and that, if the throne :ba surrounded with pleasures and 
honours, it Is also attended with pains and anxieties ? It seems 
8uffiQieBtly/e¥idoiit,|thii the d|aign in ^uj^Mg Ui^ rqbM-qffCUurus 
udbPihkie\fmi^yvm to mlfe*him uMdnt4n(nthsA^4^h#uld 
also clothe his mind with the great qualities, and exalted virtues of 
that prince. -^ ' - 

Young Cyrus^ corroded by ambition, was in despair upon being 
TO evernfi^cfetraJt^^'m his hop^s^'df Ascending %Tthfone wftl^^M^iS 
his mother had inspired him, ^3 bii seeing the sceptre, which he 
thought his right, transferred into the hands of his brother. The 
blackest crimes cost the ambifi6ak^if<5lhing. Cyrus resolved to as- 
sassinate Artaxerxes in the templp .itself, and in the presence of the 
whole court, Just when he w%ts r.bout' Wtake off his o^n robe, to 
nut on thni.ouCi^i^t ArtinxerXi^s \yas appmed of! this .design by 
the priest i^iihjielf^ w^ whom he had 

irilpartidd' it. ''Cy^iis was seiiKed and condemndd "fo die, when his 
mother Parysatis, almost out of her sen^es, flew to the plac< * 
elssped him^in h^rarma, tieAdrenelf to-hiBr with ^e tresses ^frhor 
hidr, ijlstdi^dh^r'neckto his, imd'.foy hei sbrieksi asid'tearsi) and 
prayer^j'p^fevailedeofai' as io* obtain. his pardon, and that.heishould 
be senft babk^td his goverkiment o£ the Aikritinie provindosk He 
tatried ^hitH^r with him anf kmhUaxin. nb less ardent than befoine, 
and anlnlilted besides With resentineiit of iiibv^i^gmpc he. had je? 
ceiyed, and-the* warm desiv^otf revSeoge, ai^d aJriHed with an abt 
solute uhbounded^ poweoi. • Artaxeixes'upou thiSiMcasion acted 
ttontrarytb the^'tto^t common ;nileB of'fMfiicy, whieh dojM>t admit 
the nourishing aind infldnung,* by extraoidinaiy honours, the pride 
and haikgfbtiness of a boid and'renteiiprising'.jwiing prince like. Cy- 
rus, who- had carried his personal enmity to hs» brotber sofai'y a^ to 
have res<)lved to assassinete him with hisiospnihand, and whose<.adn«> 
bition for i^mpird 'was so ^at,'«B to enq^ytha ^nost criminal, mo* 
thods for the attainment of j|8 end. ^/ , v 

' Aartaxerxes had ^oas^d/ Statirat.^ Seeiiseilind her hush^nd 
tioeiftd^ the tdiTone, when •«!<» empkiyed'the peWdr her b0auty 
gave her over him^ to .i^Ye^ge,.the death of heir brother Terit^)i<^h- 

* Ne quia mobiles adolescenthim ablAMMbrioniaturb honorfbns idauptrUaia exioV* 

PERSliNd Afro d!t^t;iAN& ftii 

mefl. p^Sitoiy haa^pot amoreiragi(Jftt8<iyiib,%otam6temoi]kn>tfa 
complibatioQ of amirtery, incest, and inurder; which, after having 
occasioned gteit disotderd in the I'oyal family, terminated at length 
in the most fatal manner to all w|io had any share in It. But it ia 
necessairy for the reader's knowl^geoflthe nict tb trace it from the 

Hidames^,Btalira's father, a Persian bf'yery Jiigrh quali^,'wBs 

governor ojf*one of, the ji;^cipal provinces ,of the empire. StitS|i 

was iL laiy of extraordinW^ beaitity, ti^lch Ind'aced Artaxerxes to 

marry her : h^,^ was then cj^lled Arsaces. At the same time Terl- 

teuchmes, Statira*s orothef^, .married Hamestrias,' Arsaces's sister, 

onie of the daughters of Darius and Pary^atis ;- in &vour of which 

marriage, Teriteuchmes, upon his father's death, had his governc- 

ment given him. ^here was at the satne time another sister in 

his family, name Roxana, no less beautilul than StatV'a, and who 

besides excelled in th§ arts of shooting with the bow, and throwing 

the dart. Teriteuchmes her brother conceived a criminal passion 

for her, and to gratify it^ resolvfed to set himself at liberty by killing 

Hamestrias. who(X) h^ had ,espousea, Darius, having been ii^forme! 

of this project,, by Jtliq forc^ of predentg and promised, eng-age^ 

Udiastes, Ter^eucHmes's intimate friend and cdnfidant, to prevent 

8o black a design, by ass^inatin^ him. He obeyed^' ^d nad for 

his reward the government of him he had put to death With his 

own hands/ 

Amon^ Teriteuchmes^s guards' vras fei son of TJdiasteB, ' CaSeiii 
Mitfaridateii, very mu6h attached to his master. The young gen- 
tleman, upon hearing thiit his father had committed this murder iti 
person, uttered allipanner of imprecations against him, tmd full of 
horror for so infamous ai^d v'ile an action, seis^ed on the cjity of &Sa- 
ris, and openly reiiltlhg, declared for tjhe establishment of Teri- 
te.uchmes's sbi^/. But that young man could not hold out long 
against D.ariua. Hp was blocked up in the place with the son o^ 
Teriteuchmes, whom hfs nad with him; and all.4^e rest of the family 
of Hi^arnes were put in prison,' and delivered to Parysatis, to d6 
with t&em as that xpotlier, e^^asperated to the last excess Dy«!^^^ 
treatment either llone or intended against her daught^ Hamescris, 
should think, fit. That cruel princess begaii by causing Roxdna^ 
whose beauty had been ihe occasion of aU this evil, to be sawed in 
two, and ordered all );l^.reBt to be put to death, -except Statira, 
rhose life shegriuited to the. tears and the most tender and «fclent 
solicHationsf of AtHaLce^ ; whose love for his wife made himspm 
%o pains ^ her preservation, though JDarius, his father, belley^^i^ 
iec008ary, even fi)r hris own good, that she shoiild Bharetbe same iate 
(Vith l^e^ leetof.her famQy. Suek.w^.th^ state of tj^e affidr at th^ 
ieatk or Daiios. ». ' , 

S5ft«itira,as'80on"alt het ht^^and* i;CrsL9 uik)n the t|iron^, catXs^ 
Jdiaeiaa to he delivered ^into herihands. 'Sho^ ordered his toogiys 
o be torn out, and mdOe hiai^di^iiithe'moBl^^exqttliBiM tcmmw 

2 A2 * 


ahQ. could invent, to. pu^s^^C^e crime which, had Qpcamned the 
ruia oir. her family.^ Stie gave his goverom^ht to Mithridates, in 
, recpmpiense for his attachment to the interesta of Her family, ^ary • 
yatis. on her side took her revenge oil ^he'ison of Teriteuchmes, 
whom she caused ti^ he poisope^i and we shall see/ that Statirala 

turnwas not very remote. ' ** ' 

\ We^see here the terrible .effects of female revenge? and in gene- 
X»J.0f what Qxcesses they are capable, who find themsel^yes above 
alrlaws, add have no other tule for their actions thah their wiU and 

A. M. 3601. -Cyrus, having resolved to dethrone hie brother, 

Ant. J. 9. 403. employed Clearchus, the Lacedfiemonian- general, to 
raise a body of Grecian troops, under pretence of a war wlvich' that 
Spartan prc^posed to carry into Thrace. I ^hall defer speaking of 
this famou^ ^expedition, an|^ also of the death, of Socrates, which 
liappened about the same time ; as t intend to treat those two great 
events in all the extent they deserve. It was without doubt with 
the sam§ view,* that Cyrus presented to Lysander a galley of two 
cubits in length made of ivory and gold, to congratulate him upon 
iis naval victory. That galley was coilsecrated^ to Apolld in the 
temple of Delphi. Xtysapder went soon afterwards tof Sarois, charged 
with magnificent presents for Cyrus from! the allies. 
. :It was upon that occasion Cyrus had the cielebrated cottversation 
with Lysander related by Xenophon,t and which Cicero siler him 
h^ applied^ so beautifully^ That young prince, J who pijiued him- 
self more upon his affajbility and politeness than nobiWtV and gran^ 
^itt", pleased himself with conducting in person so uTustrious a 
liuest. through his ' gardens, and with making him observe the va- 
rious beauties of the^m. ^ Lysander, struck with so fine a j)rospect, 
adn^red tl;ie manner in which^ the several {»aits were laid o^it, the 
heighjijpf the trees, the neatness aijd disposition of the walks j the 
abundance of fruit-trees, plantisd checkerwise; with fen art which had 

S^Qwn Jiow to unite jthe; useful with the agreeable ^'^he biauty of 
e parterres, and the glowing variety of flpwers, exhaliig' odours 
universally throughout the dehghtful scene. Every thing ctj^rmM 
andiramj^oxts we in. thisplacey said Lysander, addressing himself 
to Cyrus ; tnU what strikes tne mpstf is theexgtdsite taste cuid elegant 
industry qft^ person who drew the plan of the severdlpdrtjt of this 

*,1^uUlnLys..p. 443. f XeYiophon: .GBcoii, p. 830. 

'$> N«mttaperat4^ In eo HbroC^rtim tuinorem, tegetrtPeNSfum, pVMtantsm tefle&i* 
.9$q^e iiiuieHi c|ori&, eftm LymuMler La(vf.dauiionlu8, v»r,«vmim v|][tufi4, veiaitMCad 
earn Qarais^ eique dona a sociis attulissit, et ca>tcr{s in rebus comeiA erga LysaiMmjm 
titquehfihianum fuiase, et «i ituemdmn consepOim agium dltigemer eonkitum oileaAflBe. 

Botentikm c^ub, A 
juo eaaeni Ula dimensa atque dofscripta. Et ei Cyruni ftapondine : Atqof kg^ WOiflKin 
■« ft i n < ?a «uB,\ me» wnt onttn^mea dQseriptuvmultae^aiii iMariun arbormn.iupa maau 
BUnt sate. Turn Lyaalidrahi, intueli|em elus pu'rpiifaiti et nftDTem coriMilB,^6niiltlttiiqatt 
PeiMeitaniiAilto iiuro bmlttaive gemmlfeydiXMe : Itctftv^A tiey C^,t1ieaiaal|braiit. 
flttf9M«jVirtHa(i|^fo|ti;9Mfi9filuMUeat^^ . i; . ^i.*>' r. 

c> /. 


njtdj yii&mni with this di0couiae> replieil,,/4 u)a$ I thai drew the 
plan^ a^fl ^re/y marked Uoui; and maoy f^ihe treu^ vfhidh mm 
^Pfi^yffire.ippoMed vaiih my ouw handa. What I replied Lywnae*, 
conttdering him froin head to foot, u it poisible imth theee purpU 
robe» a^ eplendid veitmerUtf those ilr^nga. qf jewels andpraeeleU o/*. 
goldj thc^fimkina eo richly embroidered^ ^fj!<if,^yo^ covfd plfty tlU 
gardener, and emphy your royiU hands mplfiniing trees I'-^I}oes that 
surprise you? said Cyrua, Isuoear by the god jUithsfrUy* thai when 
my hmUth admitsyl fifiver sit dtnoh to table viUhout hamng made my^ 
spy sweat wi^i some faOguf or otfur^ either in mUitaMy exercise^ ru» 
ral loi)our.i o** ^^"^ other toilsome employment, to which I apply unih 
pleasure^ and wOhoui sparing fnyself. Lysander ws^ ama^d at thie 
disconrse, and pressing him by the hVkl ; Cyrusyj; said he^you are 
truly happy t tmd deiseree your high./ortune ; because infyou U ir 
united widi virtw. 

Alci^iades without any trouble discovered the mystery of the 
levies made by, Cyrus, and went ioto the province, of Ifbaniabazus/ 
with a desi^ io proeo'ed to the court of Persia, and Xo apprize Ar- 
tax^xes of th^ scheme laid against him. Had he arrived there, a 
discovery of such importance would have infallibly procured him^rpiir of that prince, and tjns assistancehe wauted fqr the>e* 
estabUshnM^I^ of hi^ coiuitry. . But the Lacedemonian partisans at 
Athens, that is to say, the thirty tyrants, apprehended the intrigues 
of so superior, a genius as his, and represented tq their mas^rsy 
that they) were inevitably ruiued if they did. not find meaaf to ria 
themselves of .ijklcibiades.^ The X^ficedfemonians tj^reupon wrjote^ 
to Phaiaahaztts^and with aa abject Dieanness not to be. excused, 
and which showed haw much Sparta had, degenerated froi^ her aQ* 
cie^t m^muers, pressed him with great earnestness to deliver .them 
at any rate^wn^ so formidable .an e^emy. The satrap com^^lied 
with their wish. Alffibiades was then in a small town of Phrygian 
where he lived with hifi^, concubine Tunaiidra4 Thos^ who yreiB^ 
sent ta kill him, not dariiijg to. enter his house, contented them-x 
selves with surrounding it and setting it on fir^. Akibjadea^ 
having, qail^ted it through the. flakes s^w^ord in.handvthe Bacbarianfl 
Wisre Afraid; ^o, stay to come to blows with him, but flying and r«K 
trefitiag as he advanced, they poured their darts and arrows upon 
him, and h^ fell dead upon the spot. -- Tin^andra <took up his body, 
and ^ving adorned and. covered it with the ^finest robes she had, 
she mfide sji magnificent a funeral ,for it as her-^present condition 
woi4d«^t}.. . ;; « , i 

* TM Fen#ni tdonAtiie itm bidtr ffttttniMiw, -vdiii was tMr iprineipal fod. 

Cjn. beatum ^nnt, quomam Tirtati taa fortuna coniuRCtfi eiL 

I It WM nid Uat Lait, ti^ faj^pin comtowii, c^ttod the CoiipthlMv vu Um d««|hler 
of (lufTimandnu } 

• • N 

Such irtfl th« end erf AUnbiad^r Whdse gref^t Virtcr^nrftre stifled 
tnd ioppreseed by still ^^tat^r viees.' It is nbt «a)9f to say,* 
^whdther his ' good or hkf quali€ies were most peiiliciocis to his 
ismuitry; for with the one he deceived, and with the other heojy- 
pp posc i d it. In him distin^isbed valour Was tmited with nobifity of 
blcfod. His person was beautiful and finely shade ; he was elo^ent, 
of great ability in business, insinuating, and formed for charming 
aH mankind. He loved glory, but without prejudice to his inclina- 
tion for4>leasurei nor was he so fond of ]^)easurc as to -neglect bift 
gilory for it. He knew how to give iiito, or abstract himself from 
it, according to the situation of bis adbirs. NeVer was there ^uc» 
tilitv (^ genius equal to his. He metamorphosed himself with in- 
credible fkcility, like Proteus, into the most contrafy fbrms, and 
suf^rted them all indth as much ease and grace, fUB if each had 
been natural to him. 

This convertibility i^character, aecording as circumstances, tb^ 
customs of countries, and his own kiterests required, discovers a 
heart void of 'principles, without either truth or justice. He did 

I not confine himself eitb^ to refigfon'^ virtue, laws, duties^ or his 
country. His sole rule of action was his privst(e amtiitiofi, to which 
he referred every thing. His aim wiUi to please, to dazzle, soitf be 
beloved ; bat at th^ same time to snbjeet those he soothed. He fa- 
voured them only as they served his purposes ; and madd bis cor- 
respondence and society a mea'As for engrossing vovery thing to 
himself. ':'' , ~ , . : ^ 

His lifeivas a perpdtual mixthire of^^ood and evil. His sallies 
into virtue 'wefe ill sustained, and quickly degenerated iiltd vices 
and criines,very little to' the honour of the instructions of that 
great philosopher, who took no' small •p&ies to cultivate him into a 
man cSf worth. His action's were glorious; but without rule or 
prindple. His*' character was elevated and grand; but without 
ionneadon and consistency. He was successively the suppoift and 
iemr of the Lacedemonians and Persians* <He was either the Ims'* 
fiMrtune or refbge of his <^#n country, according as he dcdared for 

' oragaimSt- it.' In fine, he Was' the author of a destructive War 
thi:bu^ the wh6le of Qreeoe, from the Sole motive of commandihgy 
by mobshig the Athenians 'to besiege dyraeuse; much llsss fron^ 
thie hope of Conquering Sicily, and afterwards Africa, than withtfte' 
design of keeping Athens in i^penA^Uce upon hiniself ; coii^m^d, 
Uiit' Tiaviwg. 'to deal w}th'^ an inconstant, stispicfous,* tmgnete^f, 
jealous people, aveiiie^to those that governed, it was necessary to 
eligage' them' continually in some 'great affair, 4n order to make his 

, services always necessary to them, and that they mi^t not be at 
leisure to examine, censure, and condenm his conduct. 

He had the fate'general];f.«xperisliccfd bv peliEtoiis of his i6h€ftife 
ter» and of whi«^ they cashot reasonably complain. He n^rer h^ed 

t * O^fot iMMei^vcrfliW'^Mia ttn nthk ndtria i«nii<!ltflloT«'lberlM : ilHreniiii elves mum 
deoepiti Ui alHixit Fal, Max, 1. iii. c. 1. • 

PERmirS ANQ:<IXftBCIAN€r/ 995 

tty^<»Ui;bitiiBelf b^j^'his 0»l#'iiio|ive) nor ever i«iQd'«.fntlidl 
His otede^h his neiiv tod glm to\Gmjol&«U men, aDd^eoDBeqilently 
nobody' Mofided'iii, ox^ tdbered t^^liim. Hii^Mle view wftt to livo 
iHth splencbttr, and to dominber umveimUy ; >&d ho poTwbed ntud^ 
raUy, abandcbed b]^ the whcSe worid, iqmI obliged al U» deatM to 
the feeble ' aei^te^ imd itop^tent ^leal of out poly wema% for. tho 
)ast honottriltipenderedtbbiateinauws^ . ^ 
About tlik tin»> died DenMeritiA the phdoeopfaiB^^ 


> j< 

Ths Tluf^ ezercise tke mott borrid cruelties at Athwt. Tbev put TherameDet, om of 
thair cofiea^ea, to death. Soeratea takei }^ Bofence upon nimaelf. Ttmaybalda 9.%' 
tteto tbtt tyitota/a^kea tnanatf maatar af Atbauaf and W ilair o i italibagy* n* 

- TbQ council of T^UiiftT)'" eatabllsbed at.4^thjens bj^ Lysander, com^ 
Butted the mctst eaecrable cru/elties. l/pon pretenVe of restraining 
the ioultftadf within their du^y, and of preventing sediCi'ohs, th^^ 
had caused guards to be assigned them^ and anne^OOt) of the citi- 
xeas for that pervice> and at the same .iime disarmed , all the re^t. 
The whi^e citjs was in ^^ utistost ternor.and disinay. Whdevet 
opposed their injv^ce and violence became' the victims of them. 
Riches were a ctime fliat never failed of drawing a sentence npoii 
their owners, al>yays followed with d^ath, an^ the confiscation .oF 
estates, which the thirty tyrants divided amongst themselves. They 
put nciore people to death, says Zenophon, in eight months of peaces 
than, the enemies had done in a war of thirtv years# 

The two most considerable persoins of the Thirty were Cfrrtias 
and Tberamenes, who at first lived in great inion» and always 
acted in concert with each other. . The latter ha^ .some Honour, 
and loved his cooptiy. When he isaw with Vfliat ai) excess of yid- 
lence and cruelty his eoileagueysbetioved^he dfeclared'openly against 
them, and thereby drew, their re^^entment upon bim. Critias be* 
came his .moat mortal enemy, and acted as informer against him 
before the senate, accusing nim old! disturbing the tranquillity 'of the 
state, and.of desigqinfirto subvert the present go.vcrnmcnt.. As he 
perceived that the defence of Theramene» was beard with silence 
and.appvobntion, he was afraid, that if the afiair was lefl to the de- 
cisioja of the senate, they would acquit him. * Having^ tbexefore 
caused a band of young^ men, yirhom he had armed witn poniards, 
to advance to ^e bar, he said that^ he thiou^ht it the duty of a su- 
preme magistrute to prevent justice from bemg abused, and that he 
should act conformably upon this bccas\pn. JBid, continued be, 
at the la9fi does,, nqt permit ^ tfuU apsj/ of the 300Q. should be ptU to 
death vnihoid the consent of the aena^y J exclude 7%era7ivenes from 
thai number^ and. condemn him to diem tirtue of my own and my col*- 
ieagtteti* awthorii}^, Theramenes, at tb^se Words, limping upon the 
altar ; Jd^rnandy said he, Athenum$, that J may be tried according 

* JLooopk.mtLl]Lp 4«S^-479'. Diod L xiv. p. 33&-4i3a JusUn-Uv e. & 1» 

2M 'LlBBn^BJOT^tm, 'I 

Vl^ 4kat I4mdgme4 UuU like goidnf9$i^ my- mnn ift(f awn/W 00^ 
Mngi orikemtuixium qfaiUarti ptoUd'me / bul IwMldi ^W^oA^eo^, 
ikaifnf memiesretpecl neUher the godt^or yiai. Whai^fpott otU^ 
fJUku me Uy ikcU feinsmM ef ywtut wMam do ^.#ee» iha^ your fmn 
fiomet fM^yuii'/ealt^fa^^ ihe. list qf cUiff^t^cug iAof qf 

Theradenes, Critinfl upon thk ordered .tktlfi^ff^P^i^ justice to 
pull him down fitun the altfur. A uakftrad aUened. and., terror .en- 
sued upon the sight of the armed soldiers, that surrounded the se- 
nate. Of all the senators^ Socnites^dlime, whose disciple Thera- 
menes had heen, too^ upon hira his defence, and opposed the ofii^ 
ceci^of justice. Qut ms weak eixdeavodrs could jtiot deliver The- 
ramenes, who was led to. the place of execution^ notwithstanding 
^ he could do,, through crowds of the citizens, who saw with 
tears, in the f^te o^a man' equally considei^)^ for his Idye oriiber-> 
ty and the ^eat services he had doi^d his country, what th^y had 
to fear for themi^elves. When they pi-esented hmi the! heiiAloek, 
tnat is, the poisoA Twhich wak the manner of putting the ciftizens 
at Athens to death,)' he toola it with an intrepid -air, and after 
having drunk ild, he poiired the bottom upon the ta^Ie, after the 
psual manp'er ohserved "in feasts or puhlic rejMcings, Miying, Th40 
for ^Ae nobte CrUia*, JCenophon relates this circumitance, inc^&<h 
siderable'inl^^^itself, to shoi^, says he, the tranquilHty of Thera** 
menes in his'last moments. ' -' 

The tyrants, delivered from a (soUeagtie wfa^efiresence 'alone 
was a continued reproach to' them, no longer observed any mea- 
sures. Nothing passed thtou^hdtit thirty but imprisonmeats'and 
murders.* Every body tr^m^ed for theidoselves or their fiiends. 
T^he general desolation had no remedy, nor was there any hope of 
regaii;iing theii liberty. WHere had they tben^s many Hmmo- 
diuse's,t as they had tyrants ? Terror had taken entire possession 
3f their minds, whilst the whole jetty deplored in secret their loss of 
ibertv/ without having one itthotiy^'them generous enough to at* 
>empt breaking its chains. The Athenian people seemed to have 
,ost their valour, Which till theh had ni&de them awful and terriUe 
to their neighbours and cinemies. They seemed to have lost the 
very use of speech; not daring to vent the least comjAaint, lest it 
should he made a capital crime in them. Socrates alonie continued 
mtrepid. He consoled the afflicted senate, animatj^d the deigpoad* 
;ng ciUzens, and set all men ai(i admirahle example -of courage and 
resolution ; preserving his libei^y , ieind seistainuifir his part in the 

* Poteratne clvitas ilia conquieacen^tin qui tot,tfr4nni ^ttt, qilat v^uMfces MMtntf 
Ne spes qjuidem ulla recipiendie- libertiiti« anitiite' ppterat oierrt,. aeejUU veivedioliH 
oas aMNuebat contra taiiUiin vim maloruin. Unde'eniin mlaern civitatl lot Hanno 
4lHw1 Qoeraies urnep in medio eratyetlugentcspatrescooaolabatur/fetdesperantea ilg 
republici exhorta'batu^-et imitafi volentibttfl tnagnufaGircumferebat'eKeinplar, cum 
Jnter tr^nia lomlnos nbar incaderet Stnee. d» tranqnil. €wm. c. iii. . i 

t Haonodlus formed a conspiracy for the deliverance of Athena ftom the tyriuny of' 
the PialAraddB. .^ , ,/ 

PKltaiUICS'AlID «ilBQUNS, fUff 

ttaditiflfrtliirty^riiAtiiiflfka]^^ ' 

•ikftke .that ooutMcji of Soomtes With; tlieur menaceiu Crlti^^* 
who had l^ecalk pafi^t mM the ftm^ toid^clare moat ofwaily tga^iiat 
him, taking offepee at ihe ^sa? aqd btkl discounes which he hiold 
affaknt the goveittneBt of the.Thirty. He went' ao far aa to pr(^ 
hUiit hia ina&uotiiif the youth ; bvA 3ocr8tea, who neither acknow- 
ledfled hia.aulhoritj*4 nori feared the violent effecta of it, paid no re;- 
gaiNl'to ao uBJuat anr orders ' '• * d . • 

'All the citizena of any cbnaidenitioii in Athena,, and who atill re** 
tained a love of liberty, quitted a place reduced to ao haran and 
ahameiiil a fttaviery, and aouffbt elaeWhere an aavlum and retr^» 
where thef raight<live i» aaraiy. At the head, of the^e waa Thra- 
l^buluB, a person of extraordiMry merit, who beheld with the moat 
lively affliction the mi9ene8 of his country. The Laceden)i>niana 
had the inhnmanity to endeavour to deprive thoae Mnha^^y fugfitivcf 
of this last resource. They published an edict to prohibit the citiea 
of Greece *ifom giflng them teJRDige, decreed that they should be de- 
iiveiad up to the thirty .tyraats, and condemned, all such aa should 
<lontnkvene the eaeeution of this edict, to pay a fine of five talents 
Only two cities rejected with disdain ao unjust an ordinance, MegaiVt 
and Thebear the latter of which made a decree to puniah all pejr** 
aoBfl whatsoever, that should see an Athenian attacked by hia ene*- 
mias without doing Ms utmost to itssist him. Lysiasi, an orator of 
S^rracose, whoihcul been banisVed by the Thirty, raised SQOsol* 
diere^t his own expense,! and aent them to the aid of the c^mmoy, 
country of ekM|n6nce« 

ThrasybuluS/ Igat no time. After having taken Phyla, a amall 
Art in Attica, he masehtod to thePirBeus, of which he made himself 
master. Thb^^ Thirty flear thither with their troops, and a iBirann bat* 
tie ensued. But aa the soldiers on one side fought with valour -and 
vigionr lor their liberty, and oBithe other with* mdolence and indifr 
ference for th^ power of others, the auccebs wss not doiubtful, but. fair 
lowed the*bet1i« cause. The tyrants were overthrowm Critias waa 
killed' upon the Upoti = And as the rM of the'anny were taking 4^ 
flight, Thraqrbufaie cried but ; Wherefore do^ffoujlyffvmmeaa/r^m 
a eioisr, ra^i^ than «■(»< m$ OBthetnekgert/yciur ii^fpri^ ? W^aitt 
noten&mie»^ buif€llom9eUiQ[ftUpmMr hme wejdecloK^ i^pr ftgaimi U^ 
cify, but o^amH the Thirty iyratU$. He bade them remem^iert'that thay 
half the sane ndgin, eottnfary, lawa,- and religion ; he exhorted them 
to cempassionate tluir exited brathmit to restote their countrv jte 
them, and resume their liberty themaelvea. This dis^outae made n 
iue impression. The army, upon • their, return 'Athens, expelled 
the^Thartjir) and substituted ten nensdns to govern in :thfidr rotofUy 
whoae'Oondnctptfoved no Uettaif tnaa that of the fihrmer* i 

It IS a, matter iof^'sul'prise) that-sO' sudden^ so aaiversal, ao tenaf- ' 
'cioiB^' aoid 89 uaifenn a ognap^raey fi^ainat the puhUt good, ahcpald 

* Xeiwph. memonlk 1. 1, p. 716, 717. t Qulnfentoi ndlitn, ttiptBdio MS 

SMpoctoe, in tuyffiiun patite (kmrnuM iiliimaiiliw iiiM^ ' Jfutin I y. c, 9. 

Mid '< 'J ifttBWRr 01^ TIDE i : 

Ifl^ayl ttctaate tlie ^eml bodies of ^[yiMt»nf^0MldlBbtd^tli9 ad- 
B^idlr&tion of thiB goyyrmnent. This we^ have seen in^the Foi» 
Handred form^r^^ choscfti M Athens; agttiaiq the Thirty ,l«iid now 
in tbeTen. And what ati^kients ertir wionden* is;»'that thi* pasnoh 
for tyi-anny should so immediately {KNssess.fsepahliosns, bont-intbe 
1)060111, of ijberty, 'accustomed to equality 'of eoridition lOo ^whioh 
it is founded, and nurtured 'fixAn thMr^earnest tofimdy inad abhor- 
rence of aJl subjection and dependancy. 'There- inti8t'be,'^>0iii{he 
* 6ne side, in power and authdrify some ' violent' ^impulse, tO'^aetoate 
in this manner so many persons, of whom many, no doubtj wereitot 
without Sentiments of virtue and honour; and to banish so suddenly 
the prmcipl^s and manA^rs 'naturaldo'thefti: and on the other an 
excessive pi'6pen8ity in the thind of man to subject his equals, and 
to rule' over them imperiously/to carry him on to the last extremi- 
ties of oppression and cruelty, and to make hhn forget at once all 
the laws of nature and refiffon. ' •; 

~ The Thirty being fallen rnxm their power and hopes,' sent deputies 
to Lacedsemon to demand aid.' It was not JLysander's faillt, who was 
«ent to them with troops, that the tyrants' were "Bot : re-established* 
But king Pausanias, who likewidb marched against Athens, moved 
l^h compassion for the deplorablecbndition to which aeity, once so 
ilourrahing, was redticed, had^he generosity to fatoorthe Athenieiis 
in secret, and at leAgth < Stained a peace Tor themi It was seaied 
with^he blood of the tyranU,' whw,' havifag taken anas ta^remstate 
themselves in the= govemment^ and 4^iiig present at a paiiey fbr 
that purpps^, were all put to the sword, and left Athens in tlie foM 
ijposseSfeion of its liberty. AHthe exiles were retailed. Tfarasy- 
Dulus at that time' proposed the celebrated amnesty, bv which tii« 
citizelifi ehga^ed upon oath that' all past transaetiona mould bd W 
Vied in oblivion. The'governmrent 'Was re^t^tabliahed upoo ifa 
'ancient foundation, the laws restored to their pristine.' Vig^or^ajid 
magistratei^ elected with-their'Qsual forms'.' ' ' . Mt 
' I oamibt forbear observmg in this pll[ce the wisdomfand mode* 
tation of Thrasybolus,' so Salutarljr and -^ssenftial alter so long a 
<0ootinuance of ; domestic trojibleei* ; This is one of tlfl^' finest 
events in ^sJiclchit history, worthy of the Athenian ietdty and bo* 
Hevolence, and has served as a aM>deltto'Saecessitd liges in good 
'jgovemmentkii' • • •• •'• ' -ii .•/''•• '■.•.■ ••■ " ." ^A^vt »■• 
i N\ever had tynumyi been m(»e eruel and bloody than that iirhich 
the. Athenians had iust thrown xiff-i^f Evisry bouiie wasiii monndng; 
•very family be waded the loss of. Some rektito. .it hdd been, s 
deiies 'of public robbery and xdpine^ inywlncb Mence and: impunity 
ted audiotiascd-ailroapnerdf -ciipsA.: IPkivatdindividuflis adymddt 
to havQ a right tel deinand the dbloiodof ad acoompli^eaittsuoh noto^^ 
fioni malVersatimis^'flnd e^n the.^infcerast of th'^ stat^jmpeared to 
jpniUUMriaDB audi a claiiir, ^SsoAik^Kji^fmaj^^ 


erimeB might be piei^ented ibr the fbtvre* 'But Thiftaybulns rina^ 

dboT<e those sentiments, from the 8uperiont]r«£ hmai$xre extensive 

semius) flmd the viefrs of a more dwcemin^ and 'profound policy 

S>i«6«w, that by acquiesdng in the^ punishment of the £^ilty, 

cteisai seeds of dibeord and enmity w^ld remain, to Wfi^^en-, by 

domestic dimfons, the stren^h of the repubhc, which it was ne* 

(jesbsry to mute against the common enemy, and occasion the ^oss 

to the state o£ a great numbei of citizens, who' might rentier dt 

important seryioes with the very riew of making amends for past 

misbehaviour. . . ' t . ^! .w 

Sndi a conduct alter great troubles in a state has always seemed^ 

to the ^lest politician^ythe most certain and ready means .to re- 

etorothe pubnc peace i and tranquillity.'. Cicero,* when Rome was 

divided into two liAtions upon^the ooCasion of Cesar's death, who 

had been 'killed by the conspirators, callii^ to mind this ceteli^ted 

amnesty, proposed, afbes the example of m^ Athenians, to fury aU 

that, had phased in eternal. oblivion. Cardinal Mazarioff observed 

to Don. Lewis de-iHaro,! prime aunister of Spain, that this gentle 

and humane conduct in France had pievented 'the troubles and 

revolts of that kingdom from having Siny fatal consequences, and 

tiuU ihe king had not 4oH ajh<4 of lamd by them to that da^ %> 

whereas the inflekible severity of the Spaniards vmsyike ocfi^tsiont 

that ihe mbjects of that monarchy ^ whenever they threw offthemtuki 

neoer returned to their obedience btU by thejbrc^a^ arms; which 

st^ciently appears, says he^ m tfie. hmmple of the Hollanders^ who 

are in the peaceable possession of mwiy provinces, that not an age 

ago fteret^ patrimony of the kmg of Spain,- 

Diodorus oiculus takes occasion, from 'the thirty tyrants of 
Athens^ iw^ose mimoderate ambition»trfi^t their 
country- with the. rooal e^^ce^sive criielti^ to. observe how unfor- 
tunate it islpi; pesaoiMi in power to wai^ a spnse of l)onqyT){.and 
to disre^rd either tlw^ present opinipn, or the judgipnept which pos-r 
terity will form of t^m conduct : fpr from the contempt of repu^* 
tion the transition isC too common to thnt of 'virtue itstelf. ^ They 
may perhaps, by the dittad of their power, suppress for spQie timer 
the public voice, and impo0e a forced silence upon censu^Q; but th^ 


Dsiirpav], ^-^^^ .~— — , . . , , ^ 

riftitwl1sootcliftainol)llvioneieBi{riUini&d«leodam0eiiMii. Pku^.un.u 

t JM- 3CV»»f GawL Ma».' t Diod. U xh.^. 9^,, . 

^ Cstera pripcipibiu ptatim adene : uaum intatiabiliter parandum, proBiperam sui mamo- 
riam * nam contemptA fkmky coDtemni ▼irtii«8a*^Qu5 mifb iocordtam oofum ittridei* 
libet,'diii praswDti potentift credunt e«|u«ui jkmm f tfam Mooaiitia aTi' memeriaqH'HHMmi 
«u4oedeeii8ppat«ritaaxependi^ -TiCyjii.^jiBat 1, W. c. 30. k35. ... , 

' ' •■ ..• • .'. ; " .' -1 »;• ' 4 •' 

^fSMiie b«Iia!i|| tlwI.wflrfiwM 4^ri»f T^*; htt^vwi* J» not f«a|id In Um hiatorUdt wfco 

haw treated this fact, U is more likeiykthat it waa M« f^fntrueutUOf, whiehliM tk* 

le MDse, and ia used by them alL ... , . . . ,. ' 

' .11" . ' . J 

Vol. Ill 2 B 


vore ecMtfrtraiiit iLkeyhy upon it dnriii^ their Uvea, the oioreliliend 
inll it be after theip^epitlw of complaints and repmachesy and tba 
more infamy and imputatibit will be affixed to- their memoriBs* The 
power of the Thiny^ sayahe, was of a very short dttratMO, but thedr 
wfatny will be immortal ; their memory will he held^ iii abfaoffmiee 
.ikroughottt aJU ages, whilst their naiaee wiU be recorded in history 
only to render them odious, and -to* make their crones detestable. 
He applies the^same rejieoliett lo the Lacedsmonians; who, after 
hav^ig made themselves masters of Chreeoeby a wise -and moderate 
conduct, fell iron^ that glory, through the severity, haughfemess, 
find injustice,' with which theytreateo their allies. : There is doirtitr 
less no reader ,> whom their abject and i»ttel' iealoiisy in Mgard to 
Athens enslaved and humbkfdyhasfnot prejodiced against them; 
norde^ we recognise in such> behaviour the greatness of mind and 
noblv^j^^Dsity of ancient Sparta; so much power have. the lust 
of dominion and prosperity over even virtuous me^i Diodoms 
eoadudes bis ruction with a n^axiin veryitrue, thouWh very little 
known: Thi gnatnui and majtidy of fty^ce^^ says -he, . (and the 
same maybe faid of all persbns in hig;h authority,^ com heS ncp* 
ported onlp by kumamty andjwtic$ioUh regard ioikwfwbfectjif tu^ 
on^^e wnitrary^they are ruined and tlettHtyed by Acruel and apprmr 
nee g^ntemmetUy tohick n&ver /aiUtodraw vpon them the haindqf 
tktir peopU' 


Ljnoder ftbuaei hii power in.Aai«stTaor4hiaiy murner. Ho b mraflad to|(put« ^VMi 

tho^ioiiiolaint of Pbaruab9);u*. 

• As Lysander had -had the greatest share • in the celebrated ex* 
ploits,'" which had raised th^ g'lory of the IjaeediBmomttns to so 
high a pitch*; so had4ie tic^tiim a degree 6f power and authority 
of which there liad heetif iko escample beibi« hi Sparta ; but he &ui^ 
fereid himself t<y be c^Wied <away by a pr^tsb^tion and vanity still 
greater th^ his power. ' lie permitted the Grecian cities to diedi- 
cate fdtfeLrs to hun as to a god, and to ofier sa,crificefl, and sing- 
hymns and odeA in honour of^ him. The. Samians ordained by a 
public decree, that the feasts celebrated in honour of Juno, and 
which' bore the name of that goddess j should be caUed ihefeatiM of 
Imander, , He hkd. always a crowd of poetir about him (who are 
ouen a tribe of venal flatterere,) that vie4 with each othev in singing 
his great exploits, for which they w^re magnificently paid< Praise is 
wmubtedly. due to noble deeds; but it diminishes their lustre 
when«eitber extravagant or purchased. y 

This sort of vanity and ambition, had he stopped there, wool^ 
have hurt only himself, by exposing him to envy and contempt ; 
but a natu^^ conseqhencb of^t wUs, that'throagh his arromnce 

* Pint, in Lyi. p. 443-44S. 

PCRglAlfa Amu €»a6IAN8. 5M 

pfide^ ill (Mttjanetion wit)| the< InceMuit flatlieiieB 6f ftkife 
aroimd^ him, lie curied the s|nrit of command and 'authority' to an x 
iQ0tt|^pi^«tfthl6 exo>eii)'-and observed no longer any iJieamires either 
ii fewardin^ ^r piiaisfaing* The abaolu^ gotreniineiit of dtiei 
with tyi^n^ p6wer were the fruits of his Mend8hR>yOr of the tiei 
of faoi^tdfty with him; and* only the ddalh of those he haked^ 
eoiild put an end to his* presentment »aM dtspieasuxe» Without 'ifch 
bein^ possible to escape his Tengeance. What Sylla cansed to be 
iasenbied upon Iris tomb,> might with equal propriety teve been en- 
mved (ipdnLysander's: tluit no man bad ever surpassed him in 
doingf gfood to his friends, or evil to his enemies. - 

I'reitohery loii peijuiv coet him nothing' whenever they promoted ' 
his designs; lior'Wte he less cruel than reven^ful; of which, 
what he did at Miletus was-fi'suffioient proof. Apprehending that 
the leaders of the popular patty would escape him» he ^wore not 
to do them any hurt. Those unfortunate perscAis gave credit to 
his oath, and no sooner appeared in public, than thev were put to 
the 9word -^ith his "bonsent, by the' nobility, who killed them all, 
tboct^ fto less than 800. Th6 number <Sf those on the side of thft 
peoplie, whom he caused to be massacred in the other cities, is in^ 
credible; for he did ndt only destroy to satiate 1ms own individual 
resuitmenia,' bat to serve in all places the enmitv, malice, and 
tvirice'Qf his friends, whonii he suppoxted in gratifying their {>ai<^ 
sion^ by th^ d^ath of their enemies. 

There was 'no kind of mjust^^' and violence whicb the people 
did not suffer under' the government of Lysand^r; whilst the 
LacoAiemomatis, who were sufficitotly 'informed of his conduct, 
gave themselves mo trouble to correct it. It is ; too common fat 
those in power to be little^ affected with the vexations and *oppree- 
sionsiaid upon persons of lo^ condition and credit, and to turn a 
deaf ear to their just complaints; though authority is principally 
confided to th^m ^r the defence of tte weak and* poor, who- nave 
no other p'rotev^otSf But if such rcmonstranbes are made by a 
rreat or pOt^eHtil person, from whom they may have any thing t6 
hope ori^r, the same authority ' that was '8l6W'and'drow8y,l>e* 
comes iiSomediately active and officious ; a certain proof that it is 
nottb^'lovebf justici3 that actuates it: this appears here in the 
conduct t)f the Lice^monian magistrates. Fnamabazus, weary 
of Ljsander's repeated enormities, who iravaged and pillaged the 
provinces undieiihis command, having sent ambassadors to Spc^a, 
to complam or the wrongs he Had received from tfcat general, the 
Ephori recalled him. Lysander was at that time, in the Helles* 
pont. The letter of the Ephori threw him into ^eat constema* 
Xion. As be principally feared the complaints and accusations of 
Fhamabazus, he made all the haste he could to come tcan expla- 
nation with him from the. hope of softening him, and making his 
peace. He went fi>r that purpose to him, and desired, that he 
would write another letter to the Ephori, intimating that he WW 


• i 

nCiified with his ' coadnet But Lysandor, mjs; PlttUichi ki flttcdb 
aa application to Pharnabazus, forgot the arororb,* Set a ifUff i9 
€atch a ikief. The aatrap promised all be dasifed, and aeaavdingW 
wfOte such a letter in Lysander's presence aa heibad sequeated^ 
hat he had pr^ar^ another to a quite different effect^ .nWheilte 
waa to seal it, as bath letters were of the satne size aHfd form^ he 
dexterously put that he hitt written in eeccet into the place of' the 
ether, mrithont being observed, which he sealed and gave him*.. , 

Lysander departed well- satisfied, and being arrived at Sparta^ 
alighted at the palace where the senate 'was aMambed, and deli- 
vered PhamabazuE'g letter to the Sphon* But he was stEangely 
surprised when he Jieard the oontents^ and withdrei^ in,;extreine 
confusion and-^sorder. Soma days aflar he returned to the senatey 
and told the Epbori, that he was obliged.. to go ta^ the .ten^le of 
Ammon to acquk bimsair of the sncjqfices he had vowed to- that 
god before his bajttles. That pi%rimage')vas ne more than atpre- 
tence to cpnceal the pain it. gave him to live as a.privnj^. pers9n in 
Sparta, and to submit to th© yokft^f obeying: fee, who till then haci 
alwajTS governed. Accustomed long t/^' commanding amiioft^ fiud to 
the Mattering dbtinctions of a kind of wvereig^y exercised bv.liim 
in Asia, he .could not. endure th<?t.mortifyii^ equality which put 
him on a level with: the multitude,' nor reduce himself to the &tfa- 
{)|icity of a pirlvate life^ HAving^obta^ia^ permis^iopr noi, without 
gre&t difficulties, he embarked, i^,., . , ,, ^, , 

As soon ^B he was gone$ thp kingSf i?eflectiag that he, 1^14. all' the 
cities, iDdependjsnce upon himself, by the mean^qf the^overnori^ and 
magistrates, .whp jia^ be^^n established by hiin, and wno were also 
indei^ted to ham .lor ' thei^ unlimited authority, and that he waa 
thereby ef^tmilly lo^d and roaster of all Gre|3ce» applied them* 
aelivea vir pi^ously to restpre the govermnent of the people, and to 
depose, i^ his crea^pr^ and friends from any share in it. This al^- 
teration occasioo^^d great tumults at first. About the same time, 
LjTsander, being apprised of. the design of Thrasybulus tp re-estab« 
lish j^tetUberty of ^l^,country^ returned with the utmost, oiligence 
to Sparta, ^a en^e'aynured to engage the Lacedoemoi^rVs. tp sup- 
port the paiity of thp nobility at Athens. ^ We have ^offf iG.,ph^ 
sfprved, that rausanias^ from a more noble spirit of equity^ and ge* 
aerosity, gave peace to Athens, and.b3r that ij^ana, 8Vys,]rlut^cch, 
clipped the wings of Lyipander's ambition. . \ « * , . 

"^ * The Greek word is. Cr^ltam against Cretan^ m tbt poofile of Crete pajwed fiw tbtt 
KieaMa ehoati Md Hart in tKe world. 

• . * • ...■ 

■ I 




Cyrv* «wiCb lb» aM of the Gr^aiai^ . teoopi, endeaxoiun to datltfoii^,ii]ii W- 
thto Aitazenas. He is lulled in battle. Fftmout retrott of the Ten Tli9U«Bd 

^Nti^trrri hft9'l<(wi«tentfl ^' meoio^bie as Ihose I am'«boat to' 
telaC€^4ii tMs place.- 'W^nsde on one side a yomig ptinee^ in oth^lr 
xei^eetd abonnding'witll^^excetient qtitlitiea, bat abaadbned to ilia 
Tioient aitib^tibtt, isatr3riDg^ War from a ^istanoe^ afainat hia brotiber 
and soverei^, and going to'attlic)0'liim«alinostin'hbowaipaiaoe, 
with the n^w of depiivingf hisn at once of his crow* and tife>t9re 
see him, I ky','fall dead in Hhe battlo at the feet of that brother, and 
terminate byso mihappy a ftite, an enterprise equally 'glariog uad 
crxmihal. On the other hand, the Greeka who follow him,* deati^ 
tute of all succour nfter the Icmss of theior chief, without allies^ 
pro^^ionS, money, eafalry;' or'arohers, fadttoed to lesa tban 10,000 
mep, with no resource but 'in their own persons and valour, aup^ 
ported solely l)y th^ ardent desire of preserving, their liberty, and 
of retnriiingr'td their native CobittHes; these Greeks, with bold ai^ 
intrepid r^^solu^ion,* make th^ir retr^ bufore a victorious army of 
1,O0O,OO0'4if m^n, traverse! 'five' or sik hilmdred leagues, notwitbb- 
standing vdVt rivers and' inhuwierable d^les, and arrive at laat^a ' 
their own country through •&' thbu^knd fierce and barbaroua mi^- i 
tions,^*/rictcMous over IQI ^^bBtacles itfrtheirway^ and over ail the 
danoers i;i);hieh either conceal^ fMkd <oE<open. force reticetthaii 
to uftdergo. ' ^ - • . . • I 

This Tetre^,'h^ the opinioa Of thd b^^ j^^gsa and most ejqw*- 
rienced'mintary tiien, is tbo bddost and beat conducted ezpioit to , 
be found in aiicient history, aiid^is deemed* a perfect madel< m ha * 
kind. Happily for us it <is described with' the utmost* minuteaiesB 
by an hijAonan, who warf not onlv'eyetWitnesa of the facts^e ro- 
utes, bat the first mover,' the isoul of this gtieat. enterprise. I ahaJU 
only ^brjdge his history, and abstract its mostimaEterUl elrcumstaa- 
cea; but' I cannot oinit advising young pmtons wko make arma 
their profesiaion, to consult the ongiQal,^f wfaiah /there' is a good 
tran8latibn''ex;tant, though fkr short of the- adniirable beauties ttf 
the tfext. ft is very Sffidilt to meM wkh a* more able jnaat^ 
than Xenbphon in the art of war, to whom may' ha. well^aji- 
pliedf'Mre whdt Homer says of Phsenix, the govemof of AckiU 
!es,t IJKtthetoti^ eqwUfy capabl!6' of f^rmingi kU pupil /or -9(0- 

M^Bn 9$ fitif $«fHUj r^navS^a ^tj^ymtf 

t tfiad.LT.44a 


JM' .B10TOILT OP rm,: 



Qnm nkm troops leeradf uftiBit bb brother ArtaxerxM. TUiliM tbouMid Gneto 
- jot^ Urn. H0 Mti oat ftom flbdn, fttd tntrei «t BabytoiMaller »%Mreh oTaHN tlMtt 

A. It 8^ Wft have already said,* tk$t, jwuag Cyruay aon of 

AaLj.€!.40i. Dariua Nothua and Parvaalii, saw w»^/paio hm 
'elder brother Artaxerzea upon the thrqRi49yAad that at the very 
thae the latter waa tahin|r possession of ity he had att«npted to de- 
privts him of his crown and lif^^, together. Artai&epcea was not in- 
aenaible of what he had to fear mm a hiother of hia enterprising 
aflad ambitious spirit, but could, not rci^e pardoning, him to the 
prayers and teax;^ of his niother Parysatasftwho dated upon this 
youne^est son. .He sent him therefore into Asia to his •govemment ; 
confiding >to him, contrary to all the rules ^of po%v» fn absolute 
authority over the provinees lelthiw by the will of the king 1^ 
lathers /''.;:■. 

A. H. afiOL As soon as he arrived there,, his thought^ were solely 
lAnt. J. C(j4(ia iQtent upon revengiuffithe affront be supposed he hal^ 
leceived from his brother^ and^o dethirpne him.i, . He received aU 
that came from the court With great favour aBd,afiabili|;,'to induce 
ClIeBi insensihly to quit thef king's ffixiff and adhere to, him. He 
gained also the hearts of theiBarbarian^ uuderhis goifenune^t ; &.« 
fniliarizmg himself wkhthena, and mingling wi^h me common 8ol<- 
diery, though without forgetting the dignity of the general ;(, and 
these he fbrmed by various exercises^ service in war.. He ap|>]ie€l 
particularly to raiae secretly m sev;e#al placets ^ajad «pbn di^rent 
pretexts, a^body of GreeiiBiitroops» upon. whom ,he reKed much 
Hkore than upon those of the .Barbarians.^ Clearchus retired; to his 
court aflec having bedn bonishedi from Sparta, and was of great ser- 
vice to him, being on ahlor experiencedi and. valiant capjt^. At 
A, IL 3602^ the same time several cities ia the provinces under ^e 
Ant J. c.403«' govemoient of Tiseaphenies revolted from their ober 
dience, and placed Hiemselves vmder the jurisdiction of ^Cjrrus. 
This fincidenti yvhach was not fin ef[ect of chance, but of tlie se- 
ovet intrigdes of that prince,, gave birth to a war between themu 
dyrus, under the pretence of ^armmg against Tissaplitemes, a^aem- 
1b)ad troops. with .less reeevvs; end to. amuse ^ co^urt the more 
apteiou^^aent ffnerous complciints to the king against tj^^iat go* 
veinor^^cramand^ his protection and aid iu the jukcmt eub^ias;v<i 
mannerl Artaxerxes was deceived by these appearances^ and be- 
lieved that all Cyrus's, preparations were directed against Tissa- 
phernes alpno, and^ dontaised fiuiet, Ihira'tht.asswance of having 
nothing to apprehend for himself. 
. Cyi:ua kneWt^eUJiio w to tak^i^vantage of t^e unprudent aecipity 
• *''''■•'•• '« •■'.■.. • t) jf. - • , . .• . .' , ,., ., 

•■ < » < .•! 

•mod.LiW.p.aO'tb.aAdtSl. J^sda*-^"^** X«M»ijliH^cy^<Bqit^tt 

and indolence of his brother,* which aoioe people concdiyed the.eA 
feet 6f his g<^dne88 and hamanityt *; Ac^a pfiiMia tl^e begipniqg 
of his reign ho seemed to iinitatethe virtues of tne first .4^rta- 
xerxes, whose name ^e bore. For he demeaned hinseff with great 
mildneas and afffibijity to such a^ approached him; he honoured 
and rewarded magnificently all thpse, whose service^ had merited 
favour ; wh'e^. he jpassed sentence^ of puhisliment, it was withoi)t 
either outni^e or insult ; and when he made presents, it was with 
a i^racious air, aiid' such engaging' manners, as infinitely exalted 
their valu'b, and in^plied,' that he fiever better pleased than when 
he had an opportunity of doing ^pbd to his subjects. To allihese 
excellent qualities he ought to have aiclded one ^o less royal, and 
which would have put h^ upon his guard against the egterpriset 
of a brother,' whose character he ouglit to nave known ; I mean a 
wise ibresight;, that penetrates the future, and renders a prince at- 
tentive' to prevent or frustrifte whatever may disturb the traiih 
quillity of the staie. ^ ^ 

The emissaries of Cyrus at the court were perpetually dispd'stng 
reports and opinions amongst the people, to prepare their minds for 
the intended change and revolt. They said that the state required 
A king of t!!yru8's character; a king, magnificent, liberal, who lov0d 
war, and showed his favours upon tl^ose that served him ; and th^ 
it wse necessary for the grandeur of the, empire to h^ve a. prince 
npon t^e throne fired with ambition and valour, for Xhe support and 
augmentation of its glory. ' , ', ' \ 

A. H. 36ua ' The young prince l^st no time on his sidc.aud 
Ant J. c. 4di. hastened the execution. of his great design. He was 
then only twenty-three years old at most. Afler the importasil 
services he had donp the Lacedaemonians, without wh|ch they bad 
never obtained jbhe victories that had made them masters of Greecei 
he thous^ht he might safely open himself to them. He thorefore 
imparted to them the present situation of his af^a^s, and Uie end he 
had in view ; cdlivinced that such a copfidencQ ccMiId.not ^ut io^ 
cline them the more in his favour. ..' . ' 

In the letter he wrpte th.enj^ he spoke of himself in very magni« 
ficent ternis. Hei told tlhem be had a greater and more royal hedst 
than his brother ; that he wps better versed tin the philosophy mA 
the kfiowledge of the Ma^,t and that he could drink m9ro wiocK 
without being disordered m his sense^,; ,a very meritorious quality 
amongst the Barbarians, but not so proper to recommend him to 
the ^oQd opinion of those to whom he wai^ writing.^, The Jjacedt^ ' 
momans sent orders to their fleet to join that .of /the pripce imme^ 
dia^tely, and to,.obey the commands of Tamos his admiral in-tU 
things, but witllout the least mention of Artaxerxes, or seeming in 
any manner' privy to his design^ They thought that piiecautioiK 

• PlttLinArtax.p.1013. , 

t By tM h ww i ed ge of tb^ Magi, BmongH' tiie Vwmwf^ wai m^ant the wienea ofnB- 
gioa Mid lOTwnawnL <. ^ . , 

!t0B ' fostORY *r THE 

ilecteB^afiy ibf ^hei^; Jasti^tibn Wth Artaxefxet,* in cas? ^J&iri 
Mhoiild happed to tCTift&atd in hid fkVour. ^ 

Tbe troops of Cyfuii, according .tb the review afterwards made, 
CCttiBisted o^ 13^,000 Greeks, which welfe the flower ajod chief force 
of his army, and of 100,000 regiilar troops or the harbarous na- 
tions. Clearchus, the Lacedemonian, commanded att.tibie Pelopon- 
nesian troops, except the Achoeona, wbohad Soerates of Achaia for 
their leader. The BcBotians were imder Proxenus, the Thebaji, and 
the Thessalians under Menoii. The Barbarians' had Persian gpne 
mis,! of whom the cjiief was Ariasus. Tbe fleet consisted of thirty 
fire ships under Pytha^ora^ the ^c^diemohian, and twenty >fiv(y 
commanded by Ta!mos the iCSgyptian, admiral of the Whole fleet. 
It followed the land army, coasting, along neat the shore. 

Cyrus had opened his design to Clearchjjs alone of alZ the Greeks^ 
foreseeing aright that the length and boldness of the enterprise 
could not fail of discouraging and dismaying the officers, as well as 
soldiers. He made it his sole application to gain their afiections 
dttdSg the march,'by ti-f atin^ them with kindnesi^ and^humanity, con- 
versing freely with them^ and giving effectual <irdei*s t^at they shonld 
Want for nothing. Proxenus^ between whose family a^ iXeno- 
phon's an ancient friendship subsisted, presented t|iat youi^ Athe 
nian to Cyrus, who received him very fkvourably,^ and gav^him 
an employment in his army amongst the Greeks. . He set out from 
Sardis atilength, and marched towards the tipper ^provinces of* Asia- 
The troops knew neither tl^e occa^oi) of the war^ nor into what 
fcountries they were going. Cyrus had only, caused it to be given 
out, that he was. carrying hi]^ strms against theiPifiidiftns, who had 
Infested his province by their inctirsion^. 

Tissapheriies,5 rightly judging that all these pteparations were 
too great for so insig^nificant aii' enterprise a6 against Pisidia, had 
set out post fro^ Miletus to give the king an account of them* 
This neWe ocdusioned great trouble at con^t. P8|ysatis, the mo- 
ther of' Attaxetxfes aind Cyrus, was looked uponiis the principal 
cause of this war; and all persons in her^aervice anil interest 
were suspected of holding . intelligeild^^ wjth Cyrus. Statira, es- 
jiecially, the* reigning queen, Teproacheil her ' incessantly in the 
most violent terms. ' Where is now, said she to her, that faifh you. 
fMse so (fi^ engaged fir your son's' hMmour ? Where tho^e ardent 
profersyo^ employed to preserve from death that consoiraior against 
MS king (thrf brother ? It is your unhappy fondness that has kindled 
this'i»ar,^and plunged us into an abyss of misfortunes. The antipathy 
and 'hatted* of t&e two queens for each other were already very 
gi^at^ and were still mor^ inflamed by such wartn refproaches. We 
shall see what the consequences wgre. Artaxerxes dissembled a 
ttttneiott tirmy to receive his brother. • > 

< > ■ . 

^* ^?^""?^ ^^ Cyvmh ffratiam ; ^t aAw) Artaxenceaf li viciiNCh ysmm pMtrodoift, 

einiilfaUMlVenfii«an?iip«rt«<feeroviMcat. Jii*£fn. I. v. c. 11. " " ' 

t Xeooph. Cyri ExiH)d. 1. i. p/S^ X Xenoph. L iu. p. 3di. % Flat, in Ana^ p.' 1014. 

^ P£RdtA5S ANb G^dtANS. MT 

Cymi s^vanced contini&ally by long marclles.* What tr6abM 
him most on the way was the" pass of Cilicia, which was a narro^ 
defile between very high and steep mountains, that would admit no 
more than one carriage to pass at a time. Syennesis, king of the 
country, wais preparing to dispute tfiis pass with him, and would in^ 
fallibly have succeeded, but foi' the diversion made by Tamw with 
his fleet, in conjunction with that of the Lacedemonians. To. de- 
fend the coasts against the insuhs of the fleet, Syennesia abandoned 
that important post, which a small body of troops might have made 
good against the greatest army. ' 

When they arrived at Tanus, the Greeks itsfused to advunce 
any farther, rightly susj^cting; that they were marching against the 
king, and loudlv exclaiming that they had not entered into the ser* 
vice upon thdt condition. Clearchus, who commanded them, had 
occasion for all his address and ability to stifle this cpmmotion- ifl 
its birth. Af first he made use of authority and force, but with very 
ill success, and desisted therefore from an open opposition to their 
i^eiltunents : he even affected to enter into their views, and to suoport 
them with his approbation and influence. He declared publicly, 
that he would not separate himself from theiti, and advised them 
to depute persons to the printee^ to know from his own mouth 
against whom they were to be led, that they mdght follow him 
volaBtari]^ if they approved his measures; if not, that they mighl 
demand his' permission to withdraw* By this artfbl evasion he ap» 
peased the' tumult, and made them easy, and thdy chose him and 
some othtfr offiders for their deputies. Cyrus, whom he had secret-^ 
ly apprized of every thing, made answer, that he was going to at- 
tack Abrbcomasf his enemy, who was encamped at twelve days? 
march from thence upon the Euphrates. When this answer waa 
repeated *o them, though they plainly saw affainst whom they 
were going, thejr- resolved to proceed, and only &manded an aug- 
mentation of their pay. Cyrus, instead of one darickf a month to 
each soldier, promised to give them one and a half. 

Some time afler, Cyrus was informed that two of the principal 
officers, upon account of a private quarrel with Clearchus, had de- 
serted with part of their equipage on board a merchant ship. Mapy. 
were of opinion, that it was prdpfer to send some galleys after 
them, which might be done with great ease ; and that when they 
were brought back, they' should be made an example, by suffering 
death'^in the sight 6f the whole iMny. Cyrus, convinced that fa- 
vour was the most certain means to obtain afrection,^ and that 
punishments, like violent remedied, ought never to be used but in 
extreme necessity, declared publicly tluit be would not. 6u|fQr it to 
he said, that h^ hid detained any one in his service by force, and 

* Xeno$ih.LL p. 248-981. * 

t It'u not Mid wfiere he commanded. It appeara to be npon the Eaphtetee. U « 
marehed with 300,000 mea to join the kiii(*i army, bdt did not acrnre till after the hattUi 
t The dariek, was worth ton ttrrea. / 

^ Benoficiia potiua quam romediia infenio experiri pkcttil. PUn, in TVqi^ . •. 

IB* . Si9tORT OF tHE 

Added, that te wouU s^nd them their wivds and ctaiiiij^t,.ifhom 
they, had leil as hostages in bis hands. ^ > . 
^ An answer diq)laying so mnch wisdom and generoai^y^ad a eur- 
prisiog effect; and maoe even (hose his firm adhexentB,.who were 
befi>re indmed to retire. Thisr is an excellent lesson n>r ^ who 
g[ovem« There is in the mind of man a fund of natural generosity. 
Which it is necessary to know and to put in play. Threats ezaepe* 
rate them« and chastisement makes them revolt, when endeavours 
are used to ' force them to do their duty against their will.' They 
desijre a certain degree of confidence in their hoiieur,* and that the 
glory of discharging their duty through choice be left in theii 
power : to show th^t you Relieve men faithful, is often the befit 
means to make them so. 

Cyrus soon after declared, that he was marching agiainst Arta- 
xerxes. Upon which «omc*'murmunn£f wajs heard at .Brst^ but it 
soon d^ave place to the expressions of joy and satisfaction, occa- 
sioned by tnat prince's magnificent promises to the ymyi 
. As Cyrus advanced by long marches,f he was informed from all 
parts, that the kokg did not intend to come directlv to a battle, bu't 
had resolved to wait in the heart of Persia till all his forces were 
as8eiid)led ; and that, to stop his e<k?mies, he had ordered to be du^ 
in the plains x>f Babylonia, a ditch of fiveiathoros broad, and three 
deep, extending the space of twelve parasangas^ <hr league0> from 
the Euphrates to the wall of Media* Between the E^uphrates ajnd 
the foss^ a way had been left of twenty feet in breadth, by which 
Cyras passed with his whole army^ which he had reviewed the day 
before. The king had neglected to dispute this pas9 with him, mnd 
suibred him to continue his march towards Babylon*. It was Tu>« 
basus who made him resolve not to % in such a n^anner before an 
enemy, over whom he had infinite advantages, as well from the 
number of his troops as the yalour of his generals. < He resolved 
therefore to advance* against the enemy » \ 


. ' • * • • • I . 4 

•tlie-battle of Cunua. Vfi« Gfeek» tie' viotorioitt on their nd«, Artaselies on his. Cyva% 

■ ,.j»+illed. 

The place where the battle wsb fou^t,t was called Cuttaxa, 
about twenty-five leaguesjl^from Babylon. The «rmy of Cyrua 
consisted of 13,000 Greeks, 100^000 Biabarians, and twei^ity cha- 


* shii noribiu coufbrot princep9,,quibon<w eive pftduir, quam qui coffiu 
PUn, ibid, 

Plertunque liabita 'Met IpsaAi oUigkt fidem. /,lv. 

t Plttti to Arux. p. 1014. Xenoph.l. i. p, 961-dQ6. |. 

i The narasanga is a road meusuro necuitar to the Peraiaof. It WAt commonly thhtf 
■tadia, which make about a league and a half French. Some wer^ from twenty to sixty 
iMfcdta. I«tbe march of Cyrue'i ocrmy, lauppoe^.the paraa^nga Only ^twenty ttadia, oc 
0Se:laag«e, tot reaaooa I ahaJlgWe hereafter. 

$ Xenovh. in "EipoA. Cjrr. 1. i. p. 963— SOS. Diod. 1. »T. p. 853, SM. Pint, p 
lSi4-10n. 11 Flvehuwlraaatcdia. i 

Yiot8.aTiiie4!with 8cythe|i..j Thftt of the hone aad ftot 
mlffht amoupt toAlK)ut 1 ^00,000 under ijbur generals, Tusapheroes, 
GiH^as, Arbaces, ai^d AbrocomiVB, without including 6000 chosen 
horse-) that fpught where the king was present, and vnever 
quitted his person. But Abrocomas, who had the conunand of 
300,000 men, did not arrive till five days after the battle. In the 
Jung's army were only 15Q. chaiiote armed with scythes. 

Cyrus believed, from the enemy's not having ddended the paiM 
at the fofls^, that there would battle ; so that the next day 
the army marched with ^reatnegti^eoee. • But on the third, Cvrtt9 , 
being in his. chariot, with few soldiers iu their ranl^s before him, 
and the ipest marching without any order, otr having their arms carried 
for them,4i horseman came in full speed, cryingr out bs he passed, 
that the Q^|iemy» were approaehisg in order of battle. Upon this, great 
confusion ensued, from the apprehension that they should not hOive 
timet to draw up the army. Cyrus, leaping from his chariot, put on 
his .arms immediately, and gettmg on< horseback with his ^velin in 
his hand,, he save orders univeisally to the troops to istand to their 
arni% antl fell into their ranks ; which was ex^uted with so mudi 
expedition, that the troops had not time to refresh thelnsdves* 

Gvrus posted upon his right 1000 PapMagonian horse, supported 
bf the Euphratee, -aad the fight-armed infkntry of the Greeks ^ and 
next ..them, Clearchus, Proxenus, and th^ rest of the general of>> 
ficers to Menon, at the ^ead of their several corps. The left wing, ' 
composed of Lydiaas, Phrygiadu, and other Asiatic relations, was 
commanded by Ariieus, who had 1000 horse. Cyrus placed him- 
eelf in the centre, where the chosen troops of the Persians and 
other Barbarians -were posted. He had around himi^O horsemeii, 
armed at all pointe^as were theit horses, with frontki|tf and breast- 
plates. The priace's head was uncovered, as were thope p^l the 
Persians, whoae custom it was to give "battle in that manner; tbe 
arms of all his people were red, ana those of Artaxerxes were Wfaitd. 

A little before the onset, Clearchus advised Cyrus not to charge 
in person, but to cover himself in. the rear of the'Urecian battalionil. 
WTuUiiiiyou aay? replied Cyrus ; at the titnet am fndeavourifig^ 
to mdke myself king, toomdd you have me ghow rrt^elf^ unioorthy ^ 
bem^to? That wise and generous answer proves, that he knew 
the duty of a general, especiaii^jT on a day of battle. Had he with- 
drawn when iki0' presei^ce was most necessary, it would have ar- 
gaed his want of courage, and intimidated others. It is necessary 
ahrays, however, 'preserying the due distinction between the leader 
and the troops, that their dangler should be common, and no one 
exempt f^om it ; lest, the latter should be alarmed by a difRsr^ 
coadtfct. Courage in an arihy depends upon 'example, upon the' d^ 
•190 of being distinguished, the fear of dishonour, the incapacity of 
doing-otherwi^ th^n the rest, and the equality of danger. If Cvms 
had retired, it would have either riiioed, or greatly weakened, aU 
these jwtent moitijires, by discomragipg the omtUt^ atr w^ as sot' 

800 HISTORY C«rT3ttE 

diers offais army. Jle thought, that* befeig their gerieral,'it was 
incamfoent upon him to dischai^^ all the pinkitibiis of that office> 
and 'to flhow^ hiirtself worthy to be the leader and sotal of each a 
auttiber of valiant men, ready to shed their' blood for his service. 
• it was now noon, and the enemy, did not yet appear. But about 
tiiree of the clock a great dust like a ^Vfiite cloilid arose, folio wecL 
soon after with a blackness that' overspread the iVhole plain ; after 
(Which was se^n the gliUeritig of armour, lances, and standards. 
Tissaphemes commaifded the left, which consisted of cavalry 
armed with white cuirast^es, and Of light-armed infantry; in the 
centre was the heavy-Armed foot, a great part of which had buck- 
lers made of wood which cdveiidd the soldier entirely (these "were 
Egyptians.) The »est of the hght-armed infantry and of the horse 
Ibrmed the riffht wmg. The foot Were drawn up' by nations, with 
«•! mueh depth as ftx)nt, and in that order composed square batta- 
lions. The king had posted himself in the main body with the 
flower of the whole army, and had OOOO^horse for his guard, com- 
manded by Artagerses. Though he was in the centre, he- Was be- 
jrond the left wing. of Cyrus's army, so much did the front of hi« 
own exceed that of the enemy ift extent. ' A hundred And fifty cha- 
riots armed with scythe were placed ini'the front of the A/my at 
some distance from one andthen The scythes were filled to the 
axle downwards and aslant, so as to cut down, and^t)verthrow all 
hefote them. v. . .. . 

. As Cyrus relied very much upon the valour and experience of 
the Greeks, he bade Clearchus, as soon as he had beaten the ene- 
mies in rhis front, to^take care to iiicliae to his left, and fall upoa 
the centire, where the king wa^ ]>osted ; the suvcess of the battle 
depettding apob that attack. But Gleardsus, finding it very difficult 
toma^e lus way throuffH ao greata bodyof trbope, replied, that he 
need oe in no pain, ana tltat he fwonld take care to do what was |ie- 

The enemy in tiie mean tiihe advanced ii^Wly an .ffood order. 
.Cyrus marched in the space between the two armies, though 
nearest to his own, and considered bcrtJ) of them with great atten- 
tion. Xenophon^vperceivii^ him, -snurred directly 'up to him, to 
know whether be had any fiirther oroers to give. He balled out to 
him, tRat the sacriuces were favourable, a^ that he should tell 
the troops so. He then hastened through the raflfks to give his 
orders, and showed himself to the soldiers with such a joy and 
serenity in his countenance, as inspired them with new courage, 
,mid at the same time with an air of^lndness and familiarity, tliat 
^cited their zeal and affection.* It is not easy to comprehend what 
gr,eat effects are produced by a Word, a kind- air, or a look. of a 
general, upon a day .of action ; and With what ardour a comoion 
man ,will r.ush into danger, when he believes himsdf not imknowii 
to his general,/ and ^ii£s his valour will oblige him. . 

Ar^axer?^ move^ on oontinually, though with a slow pft^> aad 

P£RflKAVCRlU9D-bB31GIANS. $f& 

iAl&iiMiSf>msiaA MnfepM.' .That good ^MeifiaoAexact dkoi- 

mifiry am! '4l]Ai4t in<'0o:'gffeaA i mnltitudcv aiMl«tD .hear: oobiuBed 
4irilMV^C3nw4i«ftfaoitoUlth6im\ . . m .. 

The armies were not distant above four or£Ve hatidred }Mic€itf, 

tfh'Mi 'lh» Gkfed1tB{%«|gtui^tQ)a^ the h>]n;of baCtfe^ and to^mArch 

im; slowly «t fint^4md ivkh's^ocsi Whttn'tfaevxame near.the 

^nemy, tli^ M%' up ^^eat cries; BtoUng thioir darts iq)on theijr 

shield ta fUgklin' tkd horse, mi&ittem mblniupaU together, tlyhr 

sprOiig^fbrwtm; upon thebarharians' wjth all their folrce, ^ho/fbd 

not wiLit tH«i».char^, but tDok to tli^iieels, tad fled universally 

exoept'Tissiiffllierms, who ii^ood his gtotiBd with a, Bmall part of 

•hiS'troopSk-'^'- .'i' • -i:. ■'•'..'•- • ...'.•... ?»> 

Gyra&sAW^'witii^leiiMHreUie oKBBnr routed bythe .Greeks, and 

*was preehdiiiMt iapig by those srounflt'luni*. -But ha did. not gili^ 

hinself ap^ to a l?«nn- joy, hot td yet redoiyaihi^elf. viator- Ho 

perceived, thae AttaxmeswLa wfaeeluigiiB Dffhli td »Uaok biia in 

taik^ and mM-oA^.idlreetly afaihalrhinkwith hif .^Oph^rse. Hf 

teUed Artagersds,: whO'OooMnaadsdtbe ]di^'Ag«wrdj»C($O0O horse, 

•#itli-MKowt^hibci,aiid>it the Whi^.lM»dy :ta4ifi[ht;^ i)iscovemi|r 

his brother, he cried out, his eyes sparkltfur wiUl-^aile,,/ 'ee ^1199, 

•and epurred iMiiiiit hha? ftfltKWedonlyhffi his prw^ipd o^eeiai'; for 

Ins tM«^)raJ'«iMtMrtiiei^ lanka lefottaw the rmiaw^S) whifih 

^wis ai3| esientiaiJfaidt; >i; ' ^-.ih •... ;•,••,••,.. . f>> ..rri -. ii! 

The baUte theii'b^caiae &«ingle::eoiBbalU*(m..some .ni^^ure^ W 

tweea Aifia9i0r9!i»8'>aiidoCyrBa^ and thetnso.hrptters. wi^rei si^^n 

trafisperti^i ^vith- «ige>(andoiar|>^ endeK^uringi jiil^' jj^epi^es^find 

Pdl^mie^i-tofpiQai^e iheir ^wiiidB intoieach other'A jhi^rjte, v4 to 

«SBUI« th^iAstivQS>of did thrbiieby'tlie death )0f>thlB9i|ttTftl^j ^n: 

Cyras: hai^in]^49poned hi» imjr* wbugb those whp^^re;4fawn vp 
in iMttle^befilte AilnlenieB; ^joined him, and jdUejrhis horScb th«t 
^ell' with him^lo- the gHpaosd.^ He foseiand Wfi^ .xeinpuntedi t^o|i 
anot^, when- Cyte{«ttaclued)Aiffi i^9aui,'^gavj^ ,1^> seqoM 
wound, and was preparing. ^toiifivAt htm a thF^niA 'liiitpea. ii^^ 
wcmkt' yiMrviO hiMaiit. . The > kh^ Wf») « lifni. wo^mM i^ ftb#; h^in- 
terB;'aiii)^hfi^ Anr^ fadLdns'fiRMa^illi^rfilAart;, sptfung^iJj*^^ 
petcN>uyyrpudlnhgiiiiBtfaDrae agapsk;Gyrii^,,wJiori|p)Hn9head]#^ 
aii>d'With!due:Ve{gud tici iMB^perMfli^rtfe^^ tiaie audst,«if.a 

fiigbt bf difft8>aintediat(l»n firoj^ all Aides, ax^ seefeive4 a wjQund 

ftitak thekkglif jatreifai/at'thaiitatan|^.the'KesAd)i|pW99d Itheir 
weaipottsogi^ikl fafth. ^C^nrubfiiU dead^^same saf thatfU Bnv&J&om 
the w<oiind'|mW him yftMeikm^t'^P^T^ afimi thai} i^ If ca l^l^ 
by a Ca«iaic>JB4idi6r* tMilWdateil^^ayonnii.F'er^ia^vAoMeniaii, 

as0M^Vthl[^h^4iadgiiran(hiM(the loQftalMtlP^PifiiWit^rfi j<^virlin> 
which entlfvidirid ttanplpjtodjpieroedhiaii^ead (yijliji? tluroqgh. (The 
grOKteat fieiBtettef tiie^inMr^lfl^solismi.iiiot tO(rsii^ gQp4,;a 

Vdfc. in. 2 c 

,HI>.. 1 •3!-.ji!i„' f f -jiivn. 

-ttMeaV^i^M^Ni mill lotted' vfomdlhls bodif/t /ft <l0rtaiiki<9rqo( N|i 
']XMb|iten,Uhat Ini wefi knew imr^toiicbQMntiUt WwwHumd tbit 
Ihe w«»t]^y bdioMl W^heilaif^' AriiBQs^wiio<.oi||riH: tp b^fe )wai 
the firmest of all his adherents/ flediirili)i>tlffildk^MPi»g^y.«a soWM 
•iMh^aipd'ibfi^'deatiu t. ') ..•. v.: j.. . k.u .-• ,/ 
' ' Attariebies, iliflev hawff^ibause^iihehekuii^Miii^.Yigllt hsad ff iui 
brotti^itoi b«'c4tioff bjT^ilie euoach MeBaba^^ pumuei tlvQ eneny 
^o their 'camp.'^ Adfeof .bad (Bojb^8io|lpBd there, but having passed 
ti^6ugb it^^onttqiied his tetteatlio the>platf0 v^eteitibe army hid 
ifiaofljKkped tfa« da^i beferey wlach wasjabout four leag\vw diptaat 
\' Tisdttpbmes, after' the >defeat of>4h& greatest .piii^. of bi^ left 
Wmg'l|y'tba><jreek0i Ibd 0]»the.ireBt<agau]8t'then^4m4 bytthe siile 
of the river passed throu^ the light-armed infantiy of the CkeekB, 
vfbo ope&ed tol dore faim paongB^ aiid nade't^eir diashai^ upon 
'him as he pattied^ withoutloaing^ ia maai They.TNfufi coniBiaB^ 
'hy Epistheoes of^Vn^iUpolia^^who was eeteeiiied an. able. Qapuia 
TiBiaphefilbfe jsJepim mk)!fiui>jBtnwmg ta the;i)baiV6y because he 

whereOie ibWd'tbl^^ldl^^;iwbdJ^M yhiiidariiigfit ; but had not beei 
AJUeto fbtke ^he quaiiftCE^ defehdJad byjthBr(()flree)iaiIeft.jto gmt^ it* 

'Wb» saved' ti|i»ilri|)bjgatfalA\.' ..< -•>'* > «.: ,')•{» i ..[vj ../^ 
' ,Th(d'Crreeki^iM^Ui0f? ifjder,land> AitKs^raet opirbffM Who did aot 
ikaow wW'Wiicfig«itag>0ii]^l8d¥dteQ, Mid^edi^acli^iol'ibMm ttat 
piey had ^ined the victory ; the first, bec^liiefTtheyi bad imt the 

ikiflidc^'htd ba^mervl)3«t^'>tbe troops whoitbad^'.oppiQff^ biii»,iii 
^loni^i^^ie^ 6amp. * ^EHia invent ij^abflDon oleain4 W <mbi bciU 
sftijfe^ : TissiipbenMs, i^Kai bis asBval «fcjifbe>|«akp, iammttd the 
kii^, tltaTilh«^'4S(#ei^d> had defeatedibii' ^Bfl wiof ^ and ptnwied'i 
'Wi£'|tbat ^lifeodt^, and'tbe Gifdeba,. on their side learned^ tbat 
%be kSl^, in'f^Kdd4g Cynia^s Iefl,:b&d|MaiatERtod iaCo tbe camp^ 
^pon th» adviee,4he biag^Md]iedbis.fmffl»« and marakied in qnea 
%f'^he ^heAarr; aiifd Gle«l^Ui^>4e^g(Jr0tBrlled 'fitom pursiw^ tk 
4^einiiin9,'tldiMie& ad fiu{>pat4 tb^^autp^ d i-* i • • • , 
-'' ll'he tii4> Whten ^Mero «dotif v9vy'neU*ea4b jptbe^.wiheia, byt 
iMtovnlneAt ma)ie''by tJla'kbftg^^&iSaelned^tai'inleiidi tQid^arcre tk 
Glid^ks byth^ir left, ^s/^4 (m^wtio beiadsnliodaitiim /ill mk^ 
%%fei^ed, ffb>dut;ittntf haHed '«mtftftla>ThieroiHl th^i baeka* bo pieteol 
^b^.iF4)eiR^ t«yMftt jli the reicrJi JsUpoa aetfaijr tbabntketkng diaafcd 
lilB Fg^ ^fl baJAl^oalsdj dr0\^iQp bis'Iartoy rinrlrdiir of Ubem, aai 
4ltai<c):^ mfW ib» att«ekJ''''ABl«d(m'as^>the.Qiieak8>i|aw.hbi& ap- 
^pt<aabh, Vhe;^ ^^ ttyilingi^hyw^f buttia, andadviaiieedagwst 
'th&'em»y ^^Bti^it^^tttove ardoUistfaaktUi the fivst aotioa* 
< -Tb^^iiiiHaiiii^ii^ain too^ tiatbti^ at fiial^nti fti^e 
^in b«R«rfrj anlli^i^ere 4«r8ded)toi(|ii'ailliig^'<ait ^ 'laot.of a hiU 
%M'^»ftfei^«il»horse«#<iidJo<^9}h4tkBng'^ nkamrvn 

to be there, which was a ffolden eagle upon the top of a pike 
having its wings displa^.i •^^ef'^libek^^ preparing to pUXM 

Vy « 


Tuops brQ]s9«Vp4i W6)|B. in th^ utTOq$t dispr!der'an4/^7f^U9ioii». 
Z]oaxchmy[\i^med^Wfm,^j^ tbe Qffeoksi;a^ '^e bottoi^ij^r the luH,. 
>rdefed»XjQ^a8, tM >%i«i4iV«ui, «9«1 i^b^r l» go upitlapd oo^. 
mrvQ xTOftli PW^4l* ^k^f ri^ipr ' f thmmtxamed , with aji c^covuitr 
hat.tih)9.>Qq/^B^ .fle4-PP 4l :Si40il} iMi^,1^M,^eir >j7]iole axo^y i9/«», 

As itjWai9;i«)]^Q8t ^ight, the Cu^ei^ks laid down theiir ainpsto rest 
h^elvesy.: pm^ih fujjirised,. ^at . ijuwt^ier Gyi;us, por jn^y lonj^ ^on?i i 
liiQ^ appealed ;[ .ajod, ifnf^g^xmg .^at he, iwfaa eitW exigaffeq ii^ tbe/ 
iurs^(0£ihe .^n^j^i qr was. o^«^)ci];|£,hiMta. to possess himself of 

W»Wf}ef^t.p?;tlv5,j^st,pfrhw^i««... Th«y|4eterimued tjiere , 
)re to return to their canip, where they arrived about nigfawaiyi,^ 
iidfoun4 rt^e greatest par^t^t^^figgfif/9i,]Nc^ «filt^?iP'<P- 
ifii<xa»i and 400,. Mf^gp^ft laden;, w|th cpm an,9 wane, wbiw.CyJWq 
aa .ej;prpfsly /p^ uspa V l?P cwftedj alo^g^. with the army for V^e^^ 
^r^eks»*;i casei of apypr^^iig, necessity .^. They pagspd the i?ig^t , 
I the cafl[ip^the ic^tesj ipajl^ of th|?fn, without' any.^^freshin^, 
3njJ«^Jngthi^t{^ro?.w^^^^ - ,„ j ;, 

The success of this battle show^. the superipnty of valour aAd 
iiliJl;9^.^knpvrfedge ov^ the et^^^^i numbers wi|thout them* Tbe 
Dall jirpiy of the, (fJt^^li? di^. npjt^monnt to mp'i;e ih^ twelve or.r 
3^0C|Q,)^;.jhut tlx^j we];e>^a^aaedajDui disciplined troops^ 
» fatigues, accustomed to confront dangers, sensible to glory,' 
id who, during the long Peloponnesian war, had not wanted 
ther time or means to acf viirei aod^ ^^t themselves in the art 
'wan On Artaxerxes' siae were reckoned nearly 1,000,000 of 
en ; but they were soldiers 01% inoM^me, without^ferce, courage, 
scipline, experience, or any sentiment of honour, ^ence it was, 
tat (t«jio«^ftsthe Gtreieks sfpf/earedy $exr»vwad di)K>rder efMHifid 
nongirt;.thiS enemy mmM in^jtbet^eoond, action, Aitaxerxes himself 
dioot due to' widt iWr •a^ac^) but 0hamefu%.b6tp0li: ^Wmpielf tq 

FM|t9ch.h^rM blames Ckw^bwi (betgeneral of Ihe Greetas veiy r 
wchv:jft^4 i«ipv*e#j t|o him. ^. wa. unpardonable neglect| \mi not > 
iviiigJbUQwed ,Cyrji8'#,9«5[ery who rocpnwnendod to, hi«» ^va aU ; 
6ng^ p!i ftllv^a thatb^fly wh^re Artikxexes cominandedin p^rso^^i 
km Jr9pf Of^h seein9> gvoundlqps* U is im)t efisy to cpiv?eiye, hp^wit ^ 
as pb^sfclOiSir that Qfiptaie, whq w?s postfl4.'Pn thie ng)k wing, to«|t- . 
ck Alta^fij4e8imqiediately,.^v^i9,inthe[^ptre of. hisown ^rmy,iiyjf 
^yond Ihefii^moBt ^s^tent of therenemj^'^Jefk, as bus been :^id,.b^/: 
re; Itp^W^.tW.Pyrus, ^^peijidrng m. fee did with g^eftt; r#ppn 
?ow tli^.vj|lavjr of t^ riSre^s,,^ M^ffirinffl they shpul^ ^Xg^i 
rtwcBi^^ his jpst,; pug^tjtPffh^Ke.jiiiped tbemj^^ 1^ 
ing wl^ioh answered dir^^y tjo; the, p'aj^iwhwethj^, king wa^«i 

la^ i^ to. ftp ^wnu'bp^j.wJvWl W/ft.^)»gWwtojJ^ ivasijery wtn 
ote from it. 

^r..S»o,/£'v) bar. »;:; ftit*! «a:{) i V ■ ' r. .q ,-' ,i .r") .J.irx:i all ♦ 

904 '-"KOrtMl^'-ift* WrtJ^s^a^ 

. Gi^ayOiiis inay indeed Vfe 't4)>rOft^]My <wltf> M|t^>ft>nb^'lhcr 
ponuit ioic^ vrnnaiy i&nd tbo'kttigi If/alt^i'lkaMii^'tiiiirtbe leftli^sf 
inr^ich opposed bim int<^'di80f^^ he b^id <AK^gfid Wrest dFthe" 
e^iemy in ^aif^; atid t^d 0|^6MM hf^ way td'thf^'cSmre,' Wln^'Afta- 
zerxes wdftv it is Wblf* prdb^le, th^t hd Wdnl^lik^jiucMm, com- 
plete Tictory, an'd ^aiced''<!jytte tfj^ohtlie' Wtimt. " fWwO' 'horse 
of that prmce'9 guard Qommitted the s^me fault, and bjrpui!Mr\h^ 
the boJfy of trodps'they had jtot' td !(^hi tod ea^i4y;r*fl[' trfeqr 

ina^eriilAi( " " ' '" " " ' ' " ' ' '' 

without cot 

for the iiiirii 0—17 r- -»-7 -^ ,— jrj^-,^ 

whatsilen^er. ' tooSrach'irfdodr Tb olttfn^f^ejud^l^ 
itisihedtrtV of rih'able geii^ttfl to'kbbw^ HoVr to' t^mk 'imm^. 

"Cyrtte Inmself c^d'hio^l^iKm' i|&st^d,'«^ 'abai^ked tiim- 
B^f toaiitith to hiB,i)fih(fp!i9siytt: f<fr glort ai>d Tevenge/ Ifrttjn-' 
^t^.*h^(Bfk)ttg to' atl^l^'Wbrti^^, Ht %i^t 'that the're i^ '^ 
w^& diffet6ncel!>ei(weeii a- ejetieral aiW^ jJifiVate soldier. He oisglft 
nod tk9 have ekp6sed hlnvseS^bttt^ as lii^bune a ptibce : astKe'head, 
npt as the haijid ; as the pe'iWpn Sfdio was to gire^ orders, ttkd tfot an' 
thii^e who wefre to execute thetti. '- ' ^'': ' •"' ' '" • 

lit these remarks' I <Jnly adopt thbae" wfcich' have been i3(iMe 
by able jtidg6^ ih^'the aft bf wiL^; and would' hot choose to ad- 
vanice 'Iny own bpinibn tpfdn Joints' #hiib 1 Ath Hot coihtiWyiit to" 
ieclde. ^' ' " ■' -'■ -'•"• ^' '"••■■ ♦ •■ -^•<*'' 

;■■■;-' '•• SECTION iir^ • •/•••'•••^''^v--^ 

r^'"' " '■ ■*" • ■BriWgyioi'ijyTOi.* •• -.Mir :c:.. 

Xettophon gives us avAaifbilkfeftt lOharaicteroR Oyvtasi^amdithat 
not merely fi^oih the i^e^^ of «tbef«) but iSMm .wh«t h^ eiliwi iuii^ 
knew of Mro> in his Wh ^ei^Sbtii fi^ was^ sa^s he, in the o{»]]tion 
of all that were acquainted with him, next to Cyrus the Great, a 
piihdB %lie mostfiwortby of thef)(lbp)r^M»%6th0li%^and'<>&e ^«4«tf l^d 
the moidi poble, '^nd most ' »Uly ]<oya$%Ou]. Frorfe'M' ibftttief lie 
6^t)a88e^- alli)f hkoWn age' iii every ei^^cis^; whdtMff tt tvs^ m 
managing the hdrse^ dra:wit)^'the bow,{ihfbWin'g lifte d^H^ <mp in 
th^ cilasey in which he diMififgtlished himself once by'Mftinj'^d 
kilfing a'be4:r:^hat*attackM him; >l 'Those advantage 'We#e, ^eti'- 
hihoed^n bim by the\ildbtei^s of hi^ ain* Hil' engA^&l|R^«^4»t, 
aUd^bydl the graces of ^natiti^, that cbtiduc^^to* recomttield Mei'1%' 
'^Wlven'hiA fatheir bad difidef him satrap bf^t^a,Mid'th^ neigh- 
b^rinj^ py6«inces,t his iihief citre wasto mkbe fhe'p^(»i^ tteo- 
slMe that l^e' had n^fhi!^ sd mtfdh^t-'h^ait «ts fti keep^swoY^ 
ui«fi]&Uy!,t6l bttly wltti'tegard/to^t^Eiblic t^retttiei^j'btft tl(« ttiosf 
mfiaute of hfi liromisefel'^if quality ^fyWreaniong^l^rineee, vrhictf 

* Dc Exped. Cyr. 1. i. p. 966, 967 t Great Phrygta and Cappadocia. 

<«nftffettb^ln liitti. • ■ •' ''■■'•' ' •''*'! ";•..•;' ri'. 

It HwofoW, ind wisftfej! 4hait he m^ht \vg^ no Ioniser fes Her »aW Wm- 
Mlf;) than whri^t'4ve^surp«88e4 his fiends In bettefitfi, and his ene- 
ime0 vk VeMg^n^te.^ '^t wduld htetebeen mori^'Jfl^rioas fbr htm to 

Less inforvt* up0n behif feared than %elovedj hfs 6tudy 'WtA to 
Miike iiid jpt^tne^d df)p^eai' My where it wair'ttseftiiand benefieiaJ, 
tiM to ettini^uidhf'all Other sentiments, hot th(Mie which flowfVofin 
gvAtitude ftncl ^fibc^tMi. ' He was careful to belze every occB«i6n 
of doing good, to confer his favoars with judgmefft and in aknJSiSii^ 
luid to BttttW; thaie hte thou^Ht Aimself rich, p^Werfbl,* and haplpy, 
dnlyas^hi^ niade others ^en^Me of his being so by his btoevolenei} 

'He Wali^palficukiffv. iflt^aiae^^i^h conrf^i^g His' fhi^otirs' u^d^ 
▼Pliant mett) Ad'^ljoveHwicintsKfetf rewards -were besloWedtMily on 
tlKwe' ' who' Ifad- diatingtiished themselves bjr thcar acfAobs. H^ 
iiev«r gmntfed'ahy benonif or dignity tWftiTonr, Intrigue,' ^r faction, 
bat to merit alone; upon which depends not only the glory but^he 
prosperity of governments. By that means he soon mtule vu*tue 
estimable, and rendered vice * cin^t^niplible. The provinces, ahi- 
matf^d with ajnoble emulation, furnisl^j^d.; him iQ,,a yeryisi^orttinpf 
wit£ ^j^uiponeiderable number of excellent subjects of every kind ; 
wMMnder a dillisrent goventmpnt wduld have t^ained.;)Dij!knp,\|[?;n, 
obscure, and us^ess." 

,0«i«l: did any otreiknow how to'ecmfiw an oblitfaUoik witllv^^t- 
ieff^fimQi br AoiwHiitbe hearts of thoe^ w>fao cotald. serve lihUl^voriEtliia 
mom engagyigjbehfLvioDR'^ M ^^ wiisifhlly aeiisifale thiat ke stood 
mvmd "^ t^iiafiiiritaocer of othenr ibv th« esscufcion of faia idesigw,' 
be^Koiiight jiiiticfe iiid gnrtitude required iibst' ha shbuld render latf 
adheients id^l ltb». ser^oes in his powei/ ; AH 'the Resents ditde 
&»» iNjttjmr. iof ililenAid aarms, or rich .appard, heidiBtnlrtftDd flmohl^ 
hm friends* aooBmiittf to tbeir werMkmt ^ea or ao^^ksions, snd'tMiea 
to-nay^Ahat tfaii^bi^test^mameDt^ and'inioet cbtalwii Al^ieir ofii^ 
• ••• */.': \u .J «!;•■ ; •■ . :...' .. '* ' Aiy.'ii'-^ Of.'j-iU 

* Hdbebat liaam fftciloB, m» perforatam: ex qno HQltft 9i99Mf tdhSi «scidat $eiiH- 

f C 2 


(fWjS • vMjgireDiiy'or/SffaaEii 


60 mgh a fortuhe ; but to transcend them in goo^Tl^Hs ^f ; IkOBp^ and 

in,flop;feri:^g^jhan,r€|ceiv«g oblkatip?^^^^^ wW.I fei^ ^^'^^^ 

iHfli truly .y^rtfty, fl>r est(?em; and, aamijratipj^. ngl^ite JlM^. of. the^tluU 
-^a^tf^g^ bp dei?i^-,fr<yn his ra^k{ 'th^#t)if^ frwaa hio^ii!^ «M Jiifi 
:iaUriniiic.mejnt;,n./,r,.)v . ; ■ -p ^ . .' -fitj/-! -j.'* "• *r/i .-•. 

By these ext^ffoiHlwa^iJil^aUti^y'he ^^q^ifSfl Mie ujiivonal ed- 
•leemiand affe^tionj^ vfG\tof,%\^ (^r^ksja^Qarj^iVi^. i. A g»&at 
proof of what Xenophon here says^^i;! ^^we^evfn-.^it^th^ 
^sier^ie^ of Gyi^ for J:he jtingV, wher?a« great .nu^ll^ went. oprer 
every day to tihufiom tbe king'-ftpv^y afler Ihawaf;^^ d«jclarei4 
.^4 3^6^. of such a^. 'ha!4 most credit at .{iie qg^mt^cl^eoause tjs^y 
,w^^li(i convinced, that Cynu^.knew best hofi^rt^ distingrQ^h aad 
Toward ^heur.^ervicjps. - , •',•,'• ' • 

, It. is inoistf cert$^iQ that young. 0y%M mBBj^it^iwithgtenM 
yirpM^ an^ a superior n^nt ; bu|^ t am surprised, thai {X0nQplM>ny 
in ^rawizig his, char.fM:ter,.has des^ribp4. only ;the nKMHrboA^d^ 
feaQji^esg anfl.sjiich ajs are 'ca)c^lfbted> to excite. oo^r-a^P^^^^ o^ 
hmi wJLt^t sayingfi^he l^aiqi;: ^^d o(£i,.«n41^spe«ially 
^f ^aUwwdei^teuH^biti<^;Ayti|ch^afi^t^ ofigft hii»i»c1ii9Qfi» 

a3[id. whic^oat lengfh ^up arJWyinfres Jiis- bai^ f^9m^jfk(^^^ 
brother and kin^. Is it allowable in an historian, who8^«:ehi^ 
duty, i^4o.pj4nt ifirtue ^04 vicp^/tl|(e^rHrop^ <?QlflW?« tfte^elatp at 
Jarffe ^,eI^t^rprise, of/^uch a natw^, witi^^t j^i^tii^g the ileMt 
disIike,qrni?€iprob«^y)nof it? B^ witikthe,Pagip%.yipibiti0n w«i 
so lar fr<Hn..}jring ,pon«4e»ed- ^ a yio^, ftlkl iti, <iften ^p^lssedior 9k 

95 J / -V?;'; fro-. . "m •.•■•{il >t'^f{} vit .■*''•.! •• r/< •'j ''• '".moo •- 
>; '"■n!'r-' ,ilT .^.SEfiTIQK.iy. ..rr ■ y ■■'J. ,;fdrTff. • 

^ kpiir iv^ l^fornpeMe df6i4(t(i deW tip'thetr Snui. 'Th^ rest^ve^to d[« 
; trai^r thn «arilttdel(;ifatma3lvdbL A trtoly l» made wUb thMn«) ' 31aMplwta4b tkke« 

4uonMmJto pwdpc^f^^ back to^^heir^ajYiJ coiuitrv.. He t^el|ftWMlyi>9fmi/Mi^ 

(Aoi And four ether geoerus, who are all put to aeam. ^ 

yTlie .Oreeks^irhtfving learned^ the jday after the battky tlxs^ Cy- 
tm Iras d«fedy-6e9il> desuties lo Jbiffius^tfa^ gieaicaral <jf .the>'BtCbl^t 
tli^iiliy wlioc hbd iristiradi^t'hphis tiioops tonthejplade^fVQaii wfaenc&i 
thfifiMi inarehed'tfae day tefortt the aJctls>%tOJdfiter hkni, as'vii^fs,^ 
the erdim df Persia: in^thdjoonrof Cyrus. i^M thefwipe tim^litu 
ritodi Fersiaa hertdd^Mt aims from the kin^ to snhliion them id^^tb^.annsttoflx^hon^ they answereA witlilkhttu^bty i[&|l 
fhdt safih ,meaia^a were>not toibe sent to ebnqa6rac8;r. thit if ^lie 
li^gWiirtilAlllkVi^ctJbeiferairnia, he might. oon^ a|idi(take tiielnc^fbut 
that they would die before they would part with them ; that if he 

* Xtnoph. in Exped. Cyr. I. u, p. 273-SOS. Died. \. xiv. pi 8SaM07 - 

' •/ 


^^mfia%^^'9^:^^^ »W?f Lf : "^ allies, thejr w^uld «em 
hipi i«^jtii.f(feUty,)iiid valour;*, but if he unagined tp: reduq^.tneiB 
ty 8iaverV{M con^ifejred, he.mjgtt; Jpiowj tJt^ey hiad i^JjierewithaZ to 
jdefe«3 tpem^elves^ and wer^ AeffprmmeA tci lose tjieir ixve^ and 
Hbejrty toigetjiey, Tr^e heralds, adacjd, tljat tfeejjt' bad orders to tejl,them 
that if. th^y (jontiiiiied in the place, wEiere tixey w,ere> th^y wojjd be 
aJlpwed'fi*su8p^iQ% pf af ma; b^t if theyauivanQed or retired^ Uiat 
they.Wuld be treated, a« enemies- The xlrjeeks ajg»eed, but were 
asked by the heralcfewhatj answer, tiey should take back. Peace 
in cofUinimg,,here<t pr ,wor wi mqrchin^, P^eplied Cleaijchu^, jj^ithout 
espkinij]^. himself farther ; .in order to keep t|je king klways in 
Buapeiia9,^dunperta^^^^ ., V. '•,- ' .. . U 

TA!^ ai^wer of Ansu0 to the Greciian deputies was» that there- 
>j^re man V Persians paoje considerahlej tl^ hiqwelt who would" 
not sufier him upon the tlu'one, cfnd.that ne should i|at out early, 
the nejKjt djky^to rfj^urn^into Ibnia; that, if tJiey would iharc^ tMthor 
with him^^thqy mi^^ht join him in thf i^ght. Ckaichns, with tha 
advice of ^iher o^eri!,. prepared, to departs He commanded from 
theijceforfii, as beinc the pole person of sufficient capacity ; /or he 
had hot beqn actually elected £eneral-in-(pk;ef. ,' i 

■ \^^ ^e night came, Mutocythes 'thjQ .Th^iQiaij^. who. copi- 
^\aiiaeidjforty horse, ^tid about 300, fpot of his owii qbuntry, w^t , 
and %^r^^ered jpoinself ]to the k}ng ; and tha rest of th^ GreeliA 
bega^ jjheir ,.iparc|i. under .>he coriduct of Cfearchus, and. a^riyed 
al>di^ jmidnight at .{:he camp of Arioeus^ Aftjerthey had' dxAwn up. 
in bij.ftle, ths principal officers went to wait ,6n ,}iim in ^i|| teiwL 
wher^.t^y s.\yore' alliance wityh him i an^ rt[e barbarian engaorea. 
to. c^h^uct the^rmy without fraud- t|i conn^jmation of the treaty,. 
I^ey sftcrificed a wo]f, a ram. a boar, and a pi^I; the Gre.eks dip% 
ped ioBa Bwords, and the Earbari&ns the p<unts. of their javelmsn 
m the bj[oodpfthe.yictin)fl. , , .. .^ <. ', • (?j 

AriflBUs did not ttink it prop^ returp by th^e^ame joute,th€y^ 
had .come^ because, a^. they ^d found nothin^v for th^eir pubsjfijb-^, 
ence during the last e^venteen .days of their^^i^arclf^Vth^By mi^et 
have spffered much more, had they taken the, game. \yay. b^ck 
again^ l^e'tl^erefore took another ; exhorting' them! only tp make 
long n^^^Qhes j|il' first, in^ order tp evade the, King^ pursuit ; \yx 
thii5, ho w«y4r,tney could jioteifect. T^oxyard's the evening, >v1\(Mi 
th^ were not 'far^oto gome villages where they proposed to h^^ 
the\^c<g|ts came in with advic^^.llmt'^th had se^ sei^erarequi-' 
pages^^^convoy^whicl) mad^ it reasonably to judge, that the 
enemy jB^ere npt far.offt t/.pon wfiich they stood their grouriq, andj 
\v||t^'(&uielj* (jomi'ng.upi a^dthe next day,,t)efprie spnsW^.jare^^^f 
ijp injiSe same pj-^ei-^as m the preceding battle, j'Sobpuranap-^ 
p4.i4p^,^#.^^^^"#^ sept hefald?|,,not to dem^d, . ai^ 

befipr^^ j(he Buyrenqjer of their, armSj^,P,wt.^Ojpropos0' peac^^,ana .»., 

tretity. Cfearchus, who watf ' informed of th^ir &:rrivti^ inKi^'Iie 
Wa0 'biifiT in ^mng Im fais troupe, gave orders to bid thkh 'waif 
and to tejH tbem, thfii^e was not yet at leisiire to hear them. '"Ri^ 
aflstim^d ' purposelv a^' air of hati^htiness and grandeur, to denote 
hi$ intrepidity, and at the satlAetime to show the fine appearance 
and ^d 66nditiofi bf his phalanx^ When he advanced with the 
most gallant of his officers, /expressly chosen for' the Occasion , 
and had heard what th^ lieraJds had to propose ; he diade ailswer, 
that they niust begin with giviiig battle, because the artny, bein^' in 
want of provisions, hkd nb time to lose. 'The heralds -haVin^ car- 
ried back this aiiswer to' their master, retnnled shortl;^ Q^^i* ; 
which showed that the king, or whoever spoke in his itniht^y yttL» 
not very distant. ' They said, they had orders ip conduct* thehi to 
villages, where they would fincf provisions in abundance^ and cb^- 
duct^d them thithet* accordingly. ' '' ' . ''' 

The army staid there three' days, during' which, Tissaphernes- 
arrived from the king, with the queen's brother and three other 
Persian grandees, attended by a great number 6f officers and* do- 
mestics. After having saluted the generals, who advanced to re- 
ceive him, he told them f)y' his 'interpreter, that beihg^a neighbour 
of Greece, and rieeinfef thtem engaged in dangers, out at wSipii it 
would be difficult to extricate theibselves, he had used hi^ ko^ 
offices with the king, to Obtain permission to reconduct thi^ ilito 
their own 9oiintry,i neing convinced, that neither thenlieNei nor 
their cities, would ever be unmindful of that favomr : ^halt tlfe Kiri^, 
Vithout* having declared himself potsitively upOn that head, haubom- 
maridod liim to come Hcf them, to know for xi^liat cause, they had 
taken ^ariiis. against fi}m; and he advised them to make thi|^kinff 
such an answer; as mfght not give ai\|y oflfenpe;, and miffht enal:>te 
him to &o them service, tf^e cm the gads tb toi^rt«##, i^pheft Clear- 
chus, that toe did^ not enlist ourselves to mdki'voar whthe kingy or 
t6 \ficLrch ag(dfik^im, Cj/rus^portcedHng^ his tttte motives under 
different iretextSybrot^Kt, us almost hitker ttithdiU explaining him- 
self i the oater to Aiv^rise you, Aiid when we saw him surrounded 
iJOUh dar\^'erSjwitiuntghtit if^dmous to abandon him, after Oke [fa^ 
tours we had received frbm him» "But as he tS deadt [we are released 
from' our en^a^erttent, and neith^ir desire to ^contest jtfU crbihh' witk^ 
Artoxerxes, nor to ravage his country ^ hor to gwi^hiifi ihelecut Ms- 
^iet, promued hedo^ not oppose 6ut retufn\ H&wever^ tftbeisre 
atijUked, w^ shdlt endeatour, with the assisUMe of the gods^tq^^iiake 
a goo^ defence I and shall not he tfngratd)d toioards those \ct& "ren 
der us'hny service. **Tissajjherii^S reM^d, that he woUld 'let' the 
king kn^WjWhat tft^^ said'j'^nd retur4*With' his answeJ. ;B|it lA 

thatifclM4'^b^im;r0pnwepl^'toth»huig)it^ oufhfc Bi>tt«,auffer 
people to return with impuMty inio'ltt&^iMlintty^ Who Iktd'l^e^n so- 


tfi^m4i0»di^.ik( your p^irt, jih£i( yi^jpifl pautoWun^t 
optnmiiUng any dv^prekrt Ui yaitr marchyj^tiiat you toiU t^9 ofi/y, 
vik(^ u f\ee€0mry : pro^^you. Wtf n^ /Mrmthidi^MJthii^ ^ Them 

queen'0 brotbet gavQ (b^it iiand^ tp t^Q colonels ^ftod .c|ij>tai)9a JA. 
tpk^n oi fopxiy* . After whicb T«Bap]iexnef withdrew, to, atraja^ 
l^s.afiai£89;praauaing to retvim sboitly mtprder to go bjiclc )vith tb^ai} 
isto hisffpjffKiment. li u. / , w \' - ^v 

The Qfe^ks waitedfor bim^tiboi^tweQl^ 44y9f ceatj^uiog ^ 
ed near Ajy^x3th who. receiyed frequanti vi^it^ from hia bratnex9« hx^^ 
other relatKms, a« did tb? ^Of is ,of l^a ailB^y from tbf) Perai|ii» oC 
the .^Uferent party j ^ho^tuiaured tbemifroQi the kip^.of aii;entirer, 
oblivii^' of. the paat:;go Abat. Ibe ftioDdsUp of Anaeua for tb^- 
Gffeeks jappeared Aq oool'ev/ery^da^.PKve aad mores. This chaste. 
gave them 0pme ua^asiikese* * &ievera],ef tbe^oflSf^ went to Q%^ 
archfurand the Otb9fg9neica]0,andisfiid>to.tb9iny Jyliat do we herti 
any longer,? ; . At^ wfi. j>K>t ^futihh., <A«t ihe k^ denru ^ tee w aW^ 
p^rifht tk^ <>4her» mayil>e terrified by (A/n eiample? Ferhapi hi" 
K4epe tM9 W0ifins hereytillhe re'ttftemblea^ h^ dupersed troop$,oPx 
igfiii i^ima^ j^e paues^ our. so^yifor, he y^ll never gruffer, f4s Uy^ 
return^, ffUo Qreece iodv'uig^o^r owt glory and his thame, ^ Olear- 
cbtts^fniM^ ftnawer to thu diacourpe, ^^t to depart without| e^osult^ , 
iBg,tb.e king) Mrae te break witb^bipi, and to decWe war hy viplatin^ . 
the Veaty; tbali tb^y should .re^jq^n . w^liout a conductor in' a , 
6ti:ai]|gei^Hntry»t where nobody wou^^J^uppiv Ihem with provisions;., 
tb^ Arifi^.wouU fhandon^^^jn^yf^^' th^t even theiM*. friends. 
wouJ4. become thek.i enemies; ; tbi^t, he did iiot, know, b!ut, ,t.I?ere , 
mkr^t be other rivers t^.pas^j^ but tba^, w^re the Eupbrates th«|^ 
only ooe, ibey.fc^d w:)t get oy^r if^tiMTore the pastsage ever so lit^ \ 
dispptedr, Thatrtfiit^were^neflessary, to,,^i^ ig a, battle, thev 
€bould £n4rtbei|)§0ve«^jivitl]^iat cavalry ^S^iT^^ ftn enemy tbat bad 
a vV^^y, numerous and, e^eUent bb4y":9l, hxirse; ;eo; tb?^^ W' tjiev j 
^aiaied the victory, tbey ooqla make. no great advai^ta^e of .it, ana . 
if t^M^j Wj9r^ ovprcoi?9je, tbey.^were uttj^^rly find irretri^yably \qbU 
Besides, why should the king, who has so rrian^ other meq^ to de^ 
*^foy,u^ie^gag^ fua v^d ofil^^ to violate U^fffid^thereby render.Jkwi' 
self exea^lem the sight (^ the gods ^avid^ ^ ^ 

Ti^Ba^(l|9es,4pwever, arrived M^itli nis ^roops,,ifn order tore- 
turn ijg^ bii^gofprnment, jaind. tb^y set forward, all tojgetbei: under.: 
the ^QP^i^g^ (?.that,.satrH>» wMo 'supplied t^em with provT^jas-j^' 
ArifBue witn his troops encamped with the Barbarians, and" the 
Greeks separately at some distance, which kept up a continual di9* 
trust lAmongstt them.. Besides whkhy there happened ^equ^^nt 
quarrels for wood or forage, that augineBft?ed their aVersioA-'Ibffi 
caobiptbeT.. .'Aft^r. three jteys' pxarcb/tbey pirriv^jd at tljip waIi;.oP 

sv$ .< i ai«*oRt Of 'Vj«i i ^ 

leiftgftieB* in ektent, aH built with'bnekt»,Qe»ail?^*'WitjibitittfieD, 
Im the t^&ih; 6f^Babylony frofi^ l^hieh it fniEr:iM«' vkty dilstant ^ 
^e 6f ito exitie^'ities: Wh^n they had |MBund<l k, th«y tAa»oheA 
^ht l^l^ti^s in twO'Maysy afid tiid ri^er TigriS) after 
Mvhi^ crossed two of its tanalsj out. ^'xpitmHj f<9' watering tbd' 
edimtry;: They then'^asse^ thd!Tigril»t ti^<%'bridfe of twenty^' 
(Efoven boats, heat Sitkioe, a very jg^reat and po(>id<»uadty'. 'Aflfer (Hot ' 
days' tn^tneh, they aitived at another altyj Very! opulent* «)ao,cillled 
O^i^. TheylR!^ttd there^a'bs^t&Td brother of iWtax«i«68 Witba 
very considerable body of tfoops, which he was bfife^iitg from 
dusa and Biibatana t(x hk iid; He Mlmlred the fine iit»d«r'of the 
Chleeks. From thetice, hatiif^ pascted the deaertsof U^ifi^ they 
came af^ a march 6f sint days to a plaoe called the lands of Pary-- 
satis; the revanties of which ap^ieitaSfDedto that piincdittt' I^bss^ 
T^mes, to insuk the ihemory of her' son CyruSi so dearly beleved 
by her, gave up thie villag^ii t<^ b< (ilutidored by the Greeks. - C<m^ 
tinuing theit march' through' thiar desert on tly^r one side «f the 
Tigris; which th^y had on tlicoti^, Iheyartivi^d at Cienifi, S'very 
great and rich city, and Trc^in- thence at the river Zabatee. . 

' The occasions of distrust^increased everyday lietwete (he Gte^ks^ 
tiKd Barbariansi Clearehos thbugfht it indtikubent en'^im to come 
to an exclamation once fbr all with Tissaphernes. He began with 
observing upon the sadred and inviblable nature of the 't>eatfedeah-' 
eisting between th^m^ 'Oan {V«i^; mM h^l,'\[k)nici&lii yr 4he gtitll 
tf perjury, he capable of Hvithg'ai edtaie* H&Uf HeofM^ht tKui% ike 
Vfi-ath fjf tkegods; who areVityoikiiiiet of tte^Ubkk, imtl ucape iSheir 
ffengearUe^whoie^poteeriitinkili'M? fie ad^d ^tfterwairde't&any 
things to prove; that the Gr^Hi W^te bblig^ by their ewn onter^ 
est to continue faithful to hiii)i deii'that, by tenouncing ins^afiiiidce ^ 
they must fitM: inevitably rtHMii^cie not'^iflly a)l religion, but rea- 
eon and common^ sense.' Tis^pherhes s^eeieU- b(f relish' thk dis- 
course, and spoke ttt ^ha wilh.i^'tlie'ap'pearito^ of the most 
Eerfect sincerity ; ihi^uating^ki'tbte ^Di»e tinle, that soiae persons 
iid done him bad ofi6e8 with tiim. if^^jfdu liriH bring your qffic&r* 
hkhiif, 8^d he, r^il shovp ^oii thdie^fid^kave wronged you hyikSir 
representaHottt. H^ kept hiM to' Ettpp^^ and prefessed mere IHend- 
fihip for him than ever. • ^ ' ^ 

The next day Cleartihus. pro))osed m the^^assemibly; to ^ With 
the several commander^ of the troops to TisMphemes. ' *fle sus- 
pected Itfendn in partkulajh, whom he'' knew tehiiyehad'a secret 
conference with the ^trap'in the presence^ efAriisiie; ' besides 
which, they had already differed 8^ei*a! thiies with efiUjii'6ther. 

k ,* Twenty parssangM. ' » 

"f Tli«' mnclk'of tha 0reekt uid \h« retffc of Uift imji ttook .fhlTiU^ aAtt flM iiUle tin 
thB pa«HQg «^ th0 Tigri^,jabbwid» io Uie texb otdLejoo^tfott^ wi^ v^iy great i^coriUes, to 
*~'iB which fully, woulU require a long disMrtatioii. My plan does not permit me enter 
*ch diflcuiuo<ur, which I ntutt therefore refitr te t)i««B whtf la^ilioi««ol» tbaii' m jvelf 

iJUt U wipDQt.propeFetiiat •)) th« gooevijkp.i^llOvid 
£0 to Idliifitflieinf^) And tj>%tit wiiaif|)pt ^oooMtent iWiUi Diudeace 
^ rely implicitly i^^iwi^ the |iaro feH^w » P of ja BarbttriM^ ^ J^t. Cl^tr- 
clius coQtix^Q^d tQrpsist.Aiioja hia propoMl, till it w«0 i^^^roed t^at 
the four i^thQr.cotnwaDcl^ra, with \wexkt^ captaiiw and aiiK>^t ^ 
soldiers, ynder the pretext of buying provisiosff in the Picwaikn 
camp, where thi9nei,.Wf9.s a n^pu-ket^.thM^d be sent along Wti^ him. 
When they «ap»e t^tlia t^nt of Tissa^xnesuthe fiipe oommandois, 
Clearchus, Mevon^PcQKenustAgiaflWiand So<»atea« were sn^erod 
to enter, hot the. captains r:emai^j^•: without at the door. ImM- 
^tely, on : a certain »\gafiX before /agiieed on^ tWe withw w0re 
seized, ,«^d the others put to. the [sword. Some FersiiA horse 
8fterward«i^coui;ed th^ <;ou<Ktiy,.aQd killed all the Greeks they melt, 
whether freeq^n or i(av6Bi .iQevxchusj, with the othev genieraia, 
was aeot to the king^ who ordered thejyr heads to he; struck off*. 
Xenophon describes witikMu^^fj^utii^^^t the chara9tei» of thoee 
officers* • • J- . ' , * *! V •, 

Cleaiohua.wi^ Yliliant, hpld^^trepidi luid ^f arcapacity for fi^qn-* 
ing giMXLteioten^rises, .- His iUflujiage wa# netrrashitbut direotefitor 
prud^iHSei. and he jretaiqed^tt tte coolnesa of hia .temper and pri^- 
sence.of n494in th^ mld^t of the greatest danfiem*. Qe loved the 
troopef,.and tet'tbeiEl) iwant for BK^hing. vHe knew how tpmafe 
them.Qbey hmi hut out of r^af ^ His fmh^ was awAil and severe; 
his laiigfiag« jough ; his.fMinishments instant and . iiig^otoqs s ^ 
gi^e.ivay fiOQ^etiraes to passion^ but presently, came te hun9elf,'«iid 
^alw^ys chu|^$ed with juet^^evi His great. nia;»m was, that nothif^ 
coiUd h^#09^tin an army iivithQUt severe disciplLae ; .and from hini 
eame the sayingy-that a soldier o^ght to fear bia general more than 
the enemy. The troops esteemed his valour,'*' and did justice tO 
.k48 mqriU but ^ny were .jafraid pf -hip -teiiipejr, a|]4 did not love to 
serve.junderhitl^ : In <a.,wjQrd, says ^enophcffi, the ffpldiers ftttied 
hsinraft schqhMfS 4o a severe ped^gpgMe. ,,.We may aay pi him with 
Tacitus, that by an excess of severity he idflid^ what had other- 
wise been well done by him, unamiable ; Cupidine iei^/BrUaHs in hi$ 
eHam, qua ritifaceret^ a^eH>\f$i,ji y / 

Proxenus was of Bgeotia. From his infancy he aspired at great 
thia^^t andcwas indusliisQS foimake liimself capable of t them, t He 
spared no means for the attain^oient of instru^ctioi;!, and was the 
d&^pl6 ofO^n^lftA, the Ii^6»l^ne; a c^ebrated'^etoHcian, who 
96id his'Jefctuks a* a ^riMfyhfeh'pnee. Whin h^ fouJid himself 
capable of •boiM»nandi!Aff',«lnd(? doing goo wdl 

as of bein^fise^^ byM^fetti/'b^ ente^d intb Cytna'e^ service with 
the view' of ad^^cuigi Jiit^A^lf.'!^" "He did not Want ambition,' bttt 
would tak^ ite olher p^b li^'is^drf than Ihat of viittie^ H« WottM 
have been a perfect captain, nad he had to do with none but brave 
and discipliobed meis; and had it been onjy nece^so^ to nxakf^;);!!^ 

jTi^oit. Annal.,c.lixT .v ^, .. . .' ) .. >:: . 

jS12 > ../ i iflstoiif^or tiffin '*i 

witii bit Bbtften/Biatktis Elmers "with'him. H%* t&Mlgft' ie suf- 
ficte^t'lbl? a eonma^&r to' >pi(fli^e goH ttcti^MI)' withatlt punifihing 
4)«ui otm:; fyt WMeh r^tt^h he ivair Moved byHhe- Woitfay; 1>cit 
thoae ofa different <4iaract€lr abused Ini^ eftsiness. >' He died at 

•ifctt^^iyeilfe of aji*. ; ■•• ■■':" ' '" - •' |. 

■' OuW ihe two ffreat i^ewons,* ' i**ode portrtie we Aaive bere 
draWR ' after XenO]^(m, haW moulded ititd dii^,<^^^tlriiig perfect 
might have been made of them; byTetrcttchin^ «h4fc several de- 
fkisj and jfetaiainff (Mily their' virtues f but it riireiy happens, tliat 
:»th6 same'rtani'as Tacitusf ft«ys of Agrieoiji, behaves; acJfcording to 
^the exigency of times and circtnbBtane^, soraetiSfies with gehtle- 
•hsss.a^d sbiiietinies with seyerify^ t^ithoiit lessening his fiuthionfy 
'^ tbfe foi<mer, (ft* the peoples affeclioncby-^ lattet.* ' ' ' 

' Meneh >^aTh^salkn,«.Vttfki^us^mda:mbitio(te,biit4mi>itH^ 
only to satiate his ' avarice; fiul:[M)inghont6ut' and estimatioR for tl^ 
mere lucre of money. He courted the friendship of the great; and 
iStPpersinsin autftority, thai h6 nli^fatha^e k4ii Ids poW^td ebm- 
mn injusticie iBLnd op^ee^n with''impuiAty. To obt^n big: ends, 
1ld6ehbod,"fraud, perjur|f^,Mc66t hitia ^thing; 'Whiist' i^nceH^ and 
integrity df heart, were in hiaiopiiidn iii^rdf iwfealeii€«s atid stu- 
pidity. - HeloV^dn6bo(fy ; and if be prbfesiled fHa^i^ip, it Was 6nly 
to deceive!. 'As others make their ^Idry consist iii ^religion, probity, 
and honoui*,' h^ valued himself Upbn ii^justice, deceit, and tri^achery. 
*H6 gained the' favour of the great by false reports, ^bispert*ig, 
and cfaluihny : and that ' t>f the-soldiery by licence and impunity^ Ta 
fifee; he endeavoured to render hisn^elf terrible by tb^ mischief it 
wa6 in his power to do, and imagined he j^voured those to wtom 
hedidnone^' : '.' / . ■ ' . :< / 

'I had thoughts of *fetr^oliing" tlifefce characlfers, whJih. iiitey- 
rtipt the thread of the history; . But a^^mfen, in rill times, are the 
'Jsame, I thought . retaining th^^ would neither be «»el6)9il adr dts- 
ftgreeab!etothe#e«ddr. ' * '•"•''', ' ' ' 

vA- . '.v ^"■ ^ ' ■' ""> V- / • • t... .■• ' . . ■ . , • ,1 

SECTION y. ^^ ' 

' I ■■..'>> '.'■' .; i] . '• 'i ' - •<'\,' ■ .';'•' 'ill • »• >. . " ' ■ •, 

„. The^generals of the Qce^ks baviifig.'l^ffen jieiaed^^ffdthec^lce^ 
'j^hp attend them massaqrei^t tl^e4n>9ps .^^r^^^n- the; highei|t con- 
fptern^iw, Thfiy,jW«ere^-fiye ori?QQ,ifeafl»»^ ffi^,^ mut- 

;pT9«nd^4,wit^.gr©at)riversia^d;J?4?4aei»aj^ .ii^^)tii(Miti:<i^ guide or 
<«?y:(«WPUe^ ofBr-pvisioiiB. . I^iithisrst^li^pf gea^jd^GUon, t|iey 
/mmm4' t|iiiijEi,9f .taking .either iimi^^^t ft?, D^i^oi^e^ la tbe 

'■' Jijf: -'' ■■:. • ' :> . . •• I •■: ■ ...; ..--c : ^ jx*' •;; ■ •i-- •' 

t Pro variis tempvribus t^c nego^is Beveriu et comii — nee iUl| qubd art rariniiniHii^ «at 

^acUitas anctorhttein;%t]t'A6ve*tfea« am)>i«tn,' ^fktalauiti'^Tk^'tk''4gfie, cix. '''' * 
^ Xepopb. in Exped. Cyr. 1 uL 4t jT. 


offldk of thd iiigkt^XeiiO|^iH> jxmng Ath^aiab, but of pffid)iti«($ ' 
and- capacity su^rior to his ]^eanr, went toeome of the officetSt uid 
T&pre^^ieato them,' that they had no time to load ; that it waaof 
the trtinost importance to prevent the batS desiffne of the €n6in7 ;> 
that, however sti^all their niimber, they would rerider theiiiBelves 
ibrmidable, if th^y behaved with boldness and resolution ; that va- 
lour and not multitude determines the Access of arms ; and that 
it was necessary above all things to nominate generate immediately; 
because an army without commanders ^like a body without a'soul* 
A council was immediately hold, at which fOO officm were pre- 
sent ; and Xenophon, beiAg .defined to speiak, enforced the reasosis 
at Ifetre^e, which he had at first but Ugh% touched uponj, and by; 
his advice commanders were appointed. These, were, 'nmajnon 
in th.e room of Clearchus, Xanthicles for Socrates, Cleaner for 
A^as, Phiksius for Jhtenon, and Xenophon for Proxenus. 

l^fore the break of day they assembled the army. The generis 
made^peeehesto animate the troops^and Xenophon amongst the redt. 
Felhw-soldiert, said he, the ha (fM many brave men^ hy vile trebf 
chery^ and the beir^ abandoned by eurfriendgy ii very dephtablt: 
btU we must not sink under our mUforivnee; and if toe cannot coitquery 
lei us choose rather^ to perish gloriously, than to fall into Uie halnd^ 
cf Jiarbaridns, who would inJUct upon u» ike greatest miseries. ' 
Lei us Ml to mind the 'glorious battles of Platmce, Therthopylae'^ ' 
Salamis, and so many others, wherein our ancestors, tkintgh wih a 
small number, have fought and defeated the innumerable armies ^of 
the Persians, and thereby rendered the name atone of Oreekjor tvet 
formidable. It is to their invindbte- valour we owe the honour lee 
possess, qf acknowledging no masters upon earth but the gods, nor any 
happ^ies's biU what is consistent with Wberty, Those gods,, the a/vengere 
of perjury, and pjitnesses of the enemy's perfidy i i^Ul befavourable to 
us ; and as they are attacked in the violation of treaties, and' take- 
piedihiFre in huntbling the proud and exalting the lout, they will also 
follow us to battle ctnd combat for us. For the rest, fellowsoldieNy 
as we have no refuge bat m viciory\' which must be our soU resource, 
and'ioill make us ample dintnds fbr iohatever it costs to attain it; t 
iikould' believe, if it were your 'opinion, t/tat in-order to make a ntore' 
etpeditioits' and less difficult retreat, it wduld be very proper to Hd 
our4elves of all the useless baggage, dnd to keep' only what is abso*^ 
hOely. necessary in our mahch. All the soldiers that moment lifted 
up their hands to signify their approbation and consent to all chat 
had been said, and without loss* of time set -fire to their ten^s attd 
carriages^; sUch of them as had too much e()uipage giving it to 
others ^who had too little, and destr6yi^g the rest^ ' 

It wftd Resolved to march the army without tmnult or violenee,* 
7" their returli was not opposed ; but otherwise to open tbemiBelves 
apas^ge, sword in hand^ through the enemy* They therefore be^ 

fan their march in the form of a great hollow dquare, widit&e 
aggagein the eentl'e. Chir]^ophus the Ltusediemonian hadtlM^ 
Vol. hi. 2D 


vAiifiiMd ;* iwoiof t}M».ol4e0t ««^ajnA thejdght a^.left ; anj- n- 
W«i$m w^ Xjdwxphi9a yf&re posted ip the r^or aJB the you9^^ 
<m9»F»> . . TJbe 0nt. d«y was distrefsihg ; ^a\i8e having j^^xUier 
hoif^Apr sUnMre, th0>;,v((ere 'Ojctiemely. harassed by a detachment 
s^ a^^aipstt^theiQ ;..but th^y, provi4ed ,agaixi8t that inconvemence 
by fo^iw'ipg JCeoophonls a4vice. .They chose, 200 jpen oat of the 
Kibodian^ fLiOPQg (he troops, whonjk they, ariaed wil;h slings, and 
^u^meuted their i^ay for thespr eacouraffement. The^ could throw 
as. far again a« the FeramSii because they dischar^e'd balls of lead, 
aad"the othen made iyt^^oj^y of large flSnts: They mounted also 
a.@9Viadron or fifty mei^ upon the horses intended for t^ baggafej 
^d sunpUed their places with otb^r heasts^ of hurdep. By ma 
m^eanftir'thissttpp^, a second detachment of the. epQmy were very 
severely handlea. , ^' 4 ' " 

After some dayff margh, , Tissaphernes appeared with all his 
fproes* Hei eontenled himself ^t ^si with :haras8ing tb^ Greeks, 
^ho moved on conlimiaUy. The latter observing the di&culty of 
retreating in a hollow square in the fkce of the enemyi from the 
unevenness of.thf grquno, hedges, and other obstax^les, which might, 
oblige^ them ta break it, changed theix 4»rder of bajttle, a^d noarched 
in^two columnst with the little baggage they had in the space between 
thf^m* They .formed a body of reserve of 60Q /chosen men,* whom 
tjiey (jiv^d^d into six companies, and;89bdivided by fifties and tens, 
to facilitate their mtotions, according as occaeioa might require- 
When the columns came clcjse to each .Either, they eitl^x, remained 
ii^ the-vrear, or ii^ed oif . upon the< flafike on both, sides, to avoid dis- 
order ; jmd. when they opened, they fell into the void space in the 
rear between the two columns. Upon any occasion of attack, 
they immei^tely ran where it was necessary. The Greeks stood 
several ehargies, but they were ueither considerable) nqr attended 
with^muoh loss. . ^ . • . , .. 

They arrived at the :• ihner Tigri^< As its depth would not a4mit 
them to r<^as6 it /Without boats, lihey were obliged to ci^ss the 
CarduchiaA mountains, because, there wai?, nq other way ; and the 
prisoners zapoxted, that from thence theyv WQuld enter Armexuaa 
where they might pals the Tigris^ at itaspur^, and.after>vards<the 
!Suphrates»J)ot veiy diaitant from it.- To gain those- dei)]^ before 
the enemy could, sei^ze them,. it .was tbppght proper to set fprwards 
ia the flight, in p^der to arrive at the foot of th^ mountaina by the 
breaJc of day; which w^ done accordingly, Chirisophus eon» 
tioue'^ at thfi head of the advanoed guard* with thp. troops armed 
with missiy^ weapons, besi^les his orainary corps; .find Xenophon 
in the rear, wfth^only the. theavy-armed soldiers, becau;^ at that 

r!i there was .^eithing t^^ fear on that sid^^ . The inhabitaats of 
country had .taken possessipn pf several of the heights, .firem 
whence it vtfans necessary, to dislodge tbem>' which could not be done 
wifehebt great danger and diffi^ulty^.. , • > . . ( 

The o^fienra^ hayii^ hehl a Qotrnd) of war, were of ppipion, that 


ft was pIKCfpef to leave behind them aH the beasts of btttde^ iMt alh 
floltttely ilecessarf, with all'tibealaVes taken ; beoeuae both the (M 
and the otber woukl r&tard their march too nnch in the |;ieat deu^ 
they had to paso ; besides wlndb,' it required a.giealer .quantity 'of 

Sroviskms to support them, and those who iw the care of « the 
easts wet^ useless in figfbt. Tlmtregdlstion was (executed withh 
Out delay, and they continued their march, sometimes fighting 
sometimes halting. The passing oftfaemouiitahM, which took, up 
seven days, fatigued th3 troops exceedingly, and occasioned some 
loss ; but at length they arrived at vdlafi^, * where they ibund pro> 
visions in abundance, and rested some days, to reoorer the ilevere 
fatigues the army had undergone, in comparison With which all 
th^ had sUfiered in Persia was ttivinL. ▼ ;. • 

But they found themselveli soon after ex^^^d to newdaieefev 
Almost at the foot of the mountaiDs. they came to a rivei SOO&et 
in breadth^ called Centrites, 'which i4epped their march, i They 
had to defend themselves both against the eneniy, who pumied them 
in the rear, and the Armenians^ the soMiers of the country, who 
lined the opposite ffide of the river. They at^^mptedjnvain to pass 
it in a place Where the water came up to tl|atr arm^pifcB^. and Wjere 
carried away bv ^be rapidity of the cmrent, wbkk the weight^ of 
their erms niade them' unable to. resist; By good fortune rthey dis- 
eovelred hnother place not' so deisp,' where some soldiers had seen 
thepeopl|^of the oMmtry ^ass. . It requii-ed abundance of address, 
dfligence, aiid vklottr, to keep off'tbeienemy: oh' both sides of them. 
The army however passed^he riyer at ien^h without much loss** 

They marched afterwiirds 'With' less mterruption; passed, the 
source of thi^ Tigris, and^airrived 'at the little river IVeleooa, which 
is very beautiful, and has manyvilhiges on its banks, vi Here h^gm 
the Western Armenia ; which was governed by Tiribasus, a sab^ap 
much 'beloved' by the king, who had tlie honour tor- help him to 
tnoubt oti horseback when at the court :* he o^red to let the astn^ 
pass, audio jsufferthe soldiers to take all they wanted^ upon conldi- 
tion that they should commit no ravages in their march'; which 
}m>po8cd was accepted and'rUtiiied ori each side.' Tiribasus kept 
always a fljiiig csSnp at'a'sniall cfotance from tiie acbiy* There 
feU a gr^at quantity of dnow^#bich'g«/fe the troops some inconver- 
nieiice ; and they leatned froitt a prisoner^ thdt Tiribasus Resigned 
to ' attack ,th^ Grebes in their passage orer the mountains,' in a de-. 
file, through which they must necessarily march. They prevented 
him by seizing tHat jifest, aHer 'having* put the enemy to flight. 
After' some' days* march through des^8,they passed the £upfai;ates 
near its^ sourcfe, ndt havikig the water above their waist. 

They suffered exceedingly afterWards fVom a«norih Wind, which 
bfew in thei^ faces, and obstructed respiration; so that itHvas 
thought necessary/^O sacrlftcb to the wind, upon which it seemcMl 

* Tlie French translator of Aenophon says, heheldtAe king's stirrvp tohm hetpt oh 
hart^mck, without comideriDS that the tuineatft&od noqe, " ';■(.' 

^3fB ' HISTOar OF THE 

-to abwte. '• They' BSaiehed oa id imow fiteor eir &ietd«6p,w]|idi 
kftlled^sereral serrants and beasts of burden, besides thirty soldieiBr 
They made several fires daring the nighjt^ for tbiey fbund plenty of 
Dinood. A31 the no^ day,rthey co&tiaued their mareb through the 
sik)w, where tnany of tbem^ viom do,wn with. ]^unger,> whicA was 
ibilowed with languor or Ihinting, pontintied lying upon, the girouud, 
through weakness • and want of spirits. When sosaething had. been 
given them to oat^ they foutid theimtfilves relieved, sad conii^iied 
their march. 

' The eBemystill (mTsued tkem> J^ay, overtaken; l|v the night, 
remained on the road without^ fire or provisions) so that geyerai 
died ofi|^hdr hardship^ «nd ilh^ enemy who fojll^w^ed them, took 
some bl^gage. Some soldiers w-ere also left behind, .that had lost 
theif sight, and otl|6rs their toes, by the snow. Against th^. ^rst 
evitthe remedy was to weaic something, black before the eyes; and 
against -the^ other to keep the .legs, always in motion, a|id to bajre 
the feetiat ni^ht. .Aaauumf^jai a m<ure commodious plaice, tliey dis^ 
parsed themselves into the> neighbouring villages, to recover and 
repose after their fatdfifass. The houses were buiH under (ground, 
with an op^ng at tii^ lij^e a wdl, through whic^ the^^scent was 
byt#1adder'; fiittthere- was another entrance foy cattle. /Ilhey 
found there sheep^xQpws^ goats, poultry; with wheat, barley, and 
pulse ; and fbr'diii^, there wits, beer, whieh was very st^opg,. when 
BOtimJngled with water, hut was* agreeable to those who were used 
to it. They diank this, with a rt2^d out of the vessels that held tfy^ 
beer, upon which they s^w the- barley swim* The jmaster of ib^ 
house, where Xejoophon lay, received him vory, kindly, and qyen 
showed him^^ihereisomei wime was connceal^d; besideB; whiclx he 
made him: a present'of several horses. He taught him alsp to fas^^ 
91 kind of hurdleii (o their feet, and to dp th^ same ia the o^ier 
beasts' of burden^ to prevent their sinking in the snow ; .without 
'whiehtliay would have been up to the girth iu^.ilt at ^v.^ry ^tep. 
The army, after having irested $even days iOitheso villages,; c^umiE^d 
theif route. . . » . ;. ' . c ' . 

> Ailer a march of seven days, they arrived at the river; Araxes, 
called also the Phasis, which i^ about 100 feet in breadths Two ^ays 
-after they discovered the Phasians, th? Cholyhes, and, the Taoqiansy 
who kept the ^s of nthe mount^ns^ M^ prevent their descendij>^ 
.into the plaiick. .« They saw^it was. iippossib^ Jtp avoid coming to a 
iiattle with them^ and resolved to en^f^e the san^e day. Xenppho% 
who observed that the en^y/defend^.only the^^rdinary passa^€^ 
eitd that the mountain was.^hree leagues in extent, propo/S^ the 
sending of a detachmept, to take possession o^, the, heights that 
commahded the .enemy"'; ^wlnch Would Qoth^. diffioi^lt, as t;he7 
mWht prevent all suspicion of their design by a mai^c^, i^ ili^e nigh^ 
iandby making a false attack 4)y the m^xi t^b^ to amuse the bai> 
jjarians. This was aqcordingly executed, \\ie enemy put tofligl \ 
and the pass cleared. - .''■,/■"',., J' '* ."" ' 

>. .' 


They" ctbwed tha icbnntry of the CtiklVbeff, who' We ih^' moat 
TEliant of all the barlmri&ns m th6&le parts. When 1!he^ kifted an end; 
my, they cbt^ofT hid head, and carried it about in trimnph, Binging 
and daftcinof./^'Tl^ey kept thwnselves close shut up in their citie$, 
and when the array marched, fell suddenly upbn the rear, afVer 
having carried every thing of value in the country into places' of 
safety. After twelve or mteen days' march, they arrived at a very 
high mountain, called Tedhes^ frotad' wHeiiee they dpscried the sea. 
The first who perceived it, raised great shouts orjoy for a eOnsi- 
deraMe tiYire'^/'which made' Xeirophon imagine that the vangUaiii 
w^s att^ckfio, '(tnd go ,if(lm haste to support it. As h^ ' approached 
nearer, the^cty of This sea / thSseat was heard distitictl)^and the 
alarm changed into joy and gaiety : but when they came to the 
top^ nothing w(^ heard but a confused .noise of .the whole army 
crying together, 7%e sea! the sea,! whilst they could ndt refrain 
from Tears, nor from embracing their r^^nerals and ofiScers. And 
then, with(nit waiting for orders, they neaped up a pile df stones 
and erected a irop'hy with braken bucklers and shattered arms. 

From thence.they advanced to the mountains' of Co!'?ris, one of 
which was hiffber than the rest^ and of that the people of the coun- 
try had possessed themselves, llje Greeks drew up in. battle at 
tl^e bott^om of it to ascend,, fpr the access was hot^ impracticabla. 
Xenophon did ^otjudg^^it proper fornj^rch in line of battle, but by 
files: because' the soldiers could hM'k^ep their ranks, from the 
inequality of the .ground, that in^ spq»e plac^ Was easy^ahd in 
others dimcult, ' ' . .. 

vice was appi 
heavy-armea 1 

about 100 metn,.with 18Q0 light-armed soldiers, divided into three 
bodies, one' of" which was posted 9n the right, another on the lefl, 
and a third in the centre. After having encouraged his troops, by 
representmg to thefB that d(iis was the last obstacle they had to 
surmount, and implored the assistance of the go^^ the army began 
to' dscend thie hUl. The enemy were not able to support theii: 
cha^e> and dispersed. They passed, the mountain, and encamped 
in YWages, where they found provisions in abundance. 

A' very strange accident happened there tp the army, which put then^ 
in.great consternation.' For the soldieri, finding abundance of ^ bee- 
hiv^s'^in i^hat place, and eating the honqy, they were Poized with 
violent vomiting and fiuices, ^tended with, delirious fits; so that 
those who were least Ul, seemed like drunken men, and the rest, 
either furiously mad or dying. The earth was strewed with theif 
bodies as after a ^efeat; hpwever, none of th^m ^ied, and the dis- 
temper ceased the'naxt day abput the same time it had seized them. 
*rhe tliird or fourth day the soldiers got up, bat in the condraon in' 
wbieh people are after taking a violent medicine. 

Tvo^ysafter, the army arrined near Trebiaend^ a Greek colony 
of Sinopianar, situate upoit the Buxine or Black Sea, Sa the provinco 
%J>2 . 

-6riB . HISTORY ^or T¥Q^./ 

of ^Colcfauu ,HeYe,the](.Uyi encamped for Jtfai^ cjayi, aa4 acq^teni 
themselves, of the vowe they had made tu j!upitefv Hercule^, tpd 
the other deities, to obtain a happy return Into thei|*,oWn country, 
^hey also jcelebiated the games of the horse and fodt'f aces^ wrest- 
ling, boxinff, the pancratiam ; the whole attended with the greatest 
joy and solemmty. 

. »^ . SECTION yi. 

Tbe Graekt, •!!« hayiqf tuideifone ezceMay^ fatigqMb aad ■uantnDted Mtny'^angieni, 
arriv'e upon the iea-sx>ait opposite to Byzantium. Tney paM tho a^it^ and engage ip 
the service of Beuthes, prince of Thrace. -Xenophbn ofterwardi^ ftpastes the aea with 
•las troopa) advanDea to Pagamusy and joins Tiiinibronr g^Q^ral of ia^ LacMapnopMnty 
who, was marching agajfist Tissapberoes luid f hanuU»a»us. ■ ^ 

After having offered sacrifices to' the several divinities * and Cele- 
brated the game^^ they dehberated upon the proper measures for 
their return into Greece. They concluded upon going thither by 
sea, and for that purpose Chirisophus o^ered to gq to Anaxibius, 
the admiral of Sparta, who was his friend, in hopes of being Abre 
to obtala c»ljips of him. He set out direct][y, and Xenophon ref- 
lated the order it was necessary to observe, and the precautions 
to be taken for the security of th^ camp, provisions, and forage. 
He believed it also proper to m|ike sUre of some vessels, besides 
those that were, expected, and. .miide some.expedit^ions against the 
neighbouring peqple.. 

_ transport ___ 

whole army ; and those which the precaution of Xenophon had pro- 
cured, were allotted to carry the women, the old and sick men, 
with aH the unnecessary bagg^age*. The army continued its march, 
and lay ten days at CerasusJ where there was a general re view of 
the troops, who yjere found to amount to 8,600 mei), out of about 
10,000 ; the rest' slaving died in the retreat, of their ivouAds, fa- 
tigues, or diseases. ... ,' 
In the short time that the Greeks cotitinuea in these 'parts,^5eve- 
^al disputes arose, as' well with the iiillabitantB of the coimtrjr, as 
^vith some of the officers who were jealous of Xenophon's authority, 
and endeavoured to render bin^ odious to the army. But his pru- 
dence and moderation put a stop to those disbrdens ; having made 
the soldiers sensible, that their safety depended upon preserving 
union and a good understanding amongst themselves, and obedience 
to their generals- • ». 

From Cerasus they went to Cotyora, which i^ not very remote 
from' it. Th^y there deliberated again upon the, proper measures 

• Xenopb.l. vi. ' 

" ' t This dty 6f Ceiaaas beeame fitmons for tba diiny Ua es n^eh LuetiB» int toviigbi 
Into ItalT and whiuli firom UienQ« have b«eo ilagf^nJL aU ovar Ihft wwteni) w<vM. • 


for .^bpiir .rfifuni. Tbe inhabitants of the country .r,epresent^4 Xh^ 
alnoat, ipsup^sabld di%ultie9 ofgf>mg by land, f^om the defiles ftn^ 
rivers i^^y ha4 to pas8«aiid offj^red to supply the Greelcs with ^bips 
Tbi8-Beemied>rtl>e best' ezpedi^^t ,^ ajad the army embarked Word 
ingly,. , Xhey> arrived* the next day at Synope, a city of Paphla. 
g(mi^i cutd a^;c4ony qf the,}yj[il|paians. Cnirisophus repaired* thif;her 
with gaj)eyi|,. but withpifi; money, though the troops expected to 
receiveispio«, . He aasurf^ them that the army should be paid as 
soon as they were outof the,Euxtne sea; and that their i:etreat wa« 
universally celebrated, an^ the subject of the discourse and ^admi. 
ration of all Greece. 

The soliUera,^ finding themselves, near enoujyh to Greece, desired 
to make some booty l^fof e^ thev arrived there, a^ with that view ^ 
resolved to nominate a geaeraf with full authority ; whereas, till ' 
then, ^ ajjaixs were determined in the council of war by the plu 
rahty of voicefp. fhe^y cast their eyes upon Xenophon, and ci^used 
bim to be desired to accept that office. He was not insensible to 
the h9,nour of commandmg iu johxef; but be foresaw the conse- 
quences, and desired time- to consider. After having expressed hiJs 
high sense ,of gratitude for an office. so much to his honou^ be re- 
presented, tbat^ to- avoid jealousy an^ division, the success pf^ifa4rs, 
and the interest of the army, seei?aed to rfe<^uire ,that they .should 
chogsfS a L^edembnian for their^eneral, w ,t,ke Spartan state f|i 
iiiai tiip^xwas actually mistress or Gifeece, ana in consideration of^ 
that. choice, wouilS be better disposed to support them. This reason 
was . .ijiqt reijf bed, and they objected, tbaj; they^wefo far from in- 
tending to depend servilely upon Sparta, or to ^ubrait to regulate 
their enterprises by. the pleasure or dislike of that state ;^and press- 
ed liim again to accept the command. He was then 'ob%0d tor 
explain hiinself,plainj^, and without evasion ; and declared, that 
having consulted the gods by sacrifice upon the o0er they made 
him, &^.h9,d n^a^nifested. their will })y evident signs^ from whenco 
it appeared that^ they did not approve their choice. ' It was sur- 
prising to see the impression which 'the sole mention ot the gods 
made u^kon* the soldiers, otherwise very warm and tenacious ;, aind 
who besides are comn^only little ajjected with t^e motives of reli- 
gion. The^rgreat ardour abated immediately, and witboutn^iEil^ing 
ai\y reply, they prqceeded to elect Chlrisophus, though a L^ic^dos- ^ 
monian, for their general. ^ ^ 

jliiEf authority, was of no long continuance. Ih^cord, as }Ceno- 
phon h^d foreseen, arose amongst the troops, who were' angry that 
their gei^eral prevented their pfiindering the Grecian ^cUiesthrbifgli 
which they passeil. This disturbi^nce was prmcipally excitea by tue 
Peloponnesians, ^ho composed one half of thejirmy, and could- not 
see Aenophion, an.Athenian, in authority, ^without pain. Different 
in^.a9utje», were proposed ; but pothingbeing^ concluded, the trpopi 
divided themselves into three bodies, of which the Acnaians and 
Arcadians, that is. the Peloponnesians, w,ere the principal, amount 

Sao ■'■'■' msTORT bp TrttE 

Ika^ tof '4^00 tbavy-armed foot, Wiih Lycorf'and Cifflinadkiis for 
their generds. ' .Chinsopfaus commanded andther party of "about 
1400 inen, besides 700 light-armdd infantry. Xenbphon had the 
third, almost the same in number, of Sirhich 300 were ligbt'^armed 
Boldi^rft, with about 40 horse^ which welre all the cavdry of the 
arpiy. The first having obtained ships frbrti'the J^ple'6f Hera«> 
dea,* to whom they had s^ht *to demapd' th^ni, set out before the 
redt to make some booty, and mad^ W de8<^nt in the pdrt <$f Calpe. 
Chirisophiis, who was sick, marjphed by* land ; bufwithout quitting 
the coast. Xenophon landed at H'eraclea, and ehtbred.tnto the heart 
of the country. 

• Nevtr divisions arose. The Impiiidence oF the trpops and their 
• leaders ha4 invdtved them hi several diMcuMes, hot without loss, 
from whence the^i^ldr^ss of Xenbphbii ext^dlted them more than 
once. Being all reunited a'^ain, after various success, they arrived 
by land at Chrysopolis of ChalceBdn, facing Blyzarititfmi whither 
they repaired some davs after, having passed the small arm of the 
isea which separates th6 two continents. ' They were upon the 
j)oint of pluhderinj^Jthat rich and powerful city, 'to revenge a "fraud 
imd injury which had been done thedi, and from^the hope of enriteh- 
m^ themselves once^for all, when Xenophon made all possible haste 
thither. He adJnitt^ the justice of their reven^, b^* he' made 
them senile of the Iktal" consequences which' would attend it. 
After your plundering this cUi/^ and destroi^ng the Lacedeerfwnians 
estahlithed in it^ ybu will be deemed the' mortal eri^erfdes af tfi^r re- 
public, arid bf all their allies, Athens ^ my country i^^^al ^keid 400 
galleys at seadndin tlie arsenals, when it took yp arms d^&mti^themy 
great sums' of mjoney in Us treasury] a revenue of* 1 000 talents, and 
ijoas in possession of all the isleji of Greece, and (fmany ciMks in Eu^ 
rope and Asia, of ufhich this was one, has neifertheiess been reduced 
to yield to their power, and' submit to their sway. And can you hope, 
ioKo drehut a hahdfut of men^wUhouV generals, provisions, Jillies, or 
any respur'Ce, either frofn Tissapheiiies, who has hetraykd fhn, or the 
kingqf Persia,whomyou have aiiempted to dethrone; can you hope, 
i say, in such cdndition to make head againsftHhe Lacedcemcmians 7 
L^ us demand stlHsf action from the Bgafantines, and not avenge 
thei^ fault by a niuch greater of ifur own, ijohich must draw upon 
us inevitable ruin. He was believed, ' apd the affair accommo- 
dated. . : ' 

Prom thence* "he led them to Salmydessa,]- to serve SenthefH 
prince of Thrace, who had before solicited him by hjs envoys, to 
brin^ troops to his aid, in order to his re-establishment in his ft*- 
ther*s' dominions, of which his enemies had deprived him. tie had 
made Xenophon gVeat promises for himself and his troops ,^ but 
when, he had done him the service he wanted, he wasso tar from 
(eepmg hisjivord, that he did not Mve him the pay agreed upon. 

- U ' • . 

.♦*Acily of Pontos." t ^^noph. I. TiL ' "* 


XeaopiMMi keenly r€i()ilwciied' film with* this breach' ^f fkith; in 
puting his perfidy to his mkiistet Hefaolkies, who thoaght to umA» 
EM eooit to fiaf inaster, by Is&ving him a sum of miNleDf «l the 'ex- 
pense «f jintiee, faith, and honeslfyv qualities Mf^hichtou^bt xi& bt 
deareft th«m aM others' to a prince, as< they ccHotribftiteftheaost iohis 
Teputa)tioD4 as well as to the success of affiuis, and the: security: of 
a state. But that treacherous minister, who looked upoi^ honour. 
pro>bfty« dad justice, icnmere chimeras, and that there was nothing 
real bttt the pdasession ef much money, tfaoarbt oiriy of enriching 
hims^f by anjr meanirf whatsoever, andiobbea his master ficst with 
immunity, and att his subjects along with' him. jHetoeeer, continues 
X«iojltaOD, mefy vbiMe moai^^ itpeeiaily if vested tnih OMithorUy and 
coymiiutnd, ^vglUtor^ard justice, pribUy, and the/caJQi of.tnga§e^ 
tnenMU^at^ mott precious tretuutie he can possess; and as an Assured 
res&urtSy'ortd anirtfaUible support in all the events that can happem 
Heiucltdes was the more in the wrong for acting in this manner'to* 
wards the troops, as he wasta native of Greece, andnot a/Thra-* 
cikni^but avarice had e^inguished sfllsenser of honour in him. it 

Whilst the dispute between Seuthes and Xenophoanfas waimest^ 
Charmiiius and'Polyniees arrived ks ambaasadofs from .LacednmoiH 
and brought advice, that* the republic had declared war against 
Ti^sttphernes and Pharaabazus; that Thimbroo hab already em* 
barked with troops, and promised a dariick a month to> ev^y sol* 
dier, two to each officer, and four. to the colonels-, who should en- 
gage in 'the service. Xenophon accepted^ the- offer; 'and having 
obtained fcMv Seuthes, by the seiediatialfrof the ambassadors, part 
of'tlie pay idue to bim, W went by sea to Lampeacus with the 
arAiy^ whicik amounted at that time to almbst.eoOO. men. From 
thetiee he advanced • to Petgaimis, a city^iD^the Tioad. UMiing 
Met n^ST Parthenja^ where ended the espedition of the Greeks^ a 
great nobleman returning lintoPerstai, 'he took, him, his wife and 
children.) with all his equipnge, and by that means found himself in 
a eendition ito -bestow great largesses upon the soldiers, and to 
make-^.them/fa -sptisftictory amends for all the losses they had sus- 
tained. Tbimbron at length arrived, i who took upeajiu^ th^ eom* 
raaod of the troops, and having joined 4ihem with his bwa, marehftd 
against Tissaphe^es 'and PhiSnabazdsv 

Such was the event of Cyrus's expedition. Xenophon reckons,* 
from the firsl^ setting out of that prince's army frbm the cj[ty of 
EphesQs totheir arrival where the battle- was fought, 530 para^ 
sangas or' leagues, and ' ninety-three 'days*^ march ;f and in Afei^r 
return from the place of battle to Cotyora, a city upon the coast 
of the Puxiri^ pr Black seaf, 620 parasangas or leagues, and < 122 
days' uarcl^ • And adding both together, he sajis, the wayj^ going 
and cdming, was 1155 parasangas or leagues,^ and 2^15: days 

' • •■ • • . • • ■ ' • ... .1 . • ' 

* Xflnoph. de fecpe*. Cyr. I ti. itk 276: f IbMJ K v. p. 35& 'i 

1 1 add, Jivtt which an left out in the test, to flnto thoJotat Vttee wiU^IIm tw» ptxta. 


ttHre]l;^'iuid dbat the wfaolfi timeitUe limaafrlctofc^ta^petfQftii fto 
' jdotney, iiicAiidiiig' the days of Test, was fifVeen montiuk 
'It Bppistv9hff this calculation,, that 4hti army of Cyt'tts mftfehed 
cbily, one diiyridpsth another,- ali&oat <sSb parttsangas or leai^ea^ ii| 
|pcuBg^,t aad 'oHly fiire in their return* It. was naturH}> that Cyijo^ 
who desired' td'i^urprifle his brother, should use aQ posai^le.cliiJigence 
^r that purpose. : , r . 

' This retreat of the 10^000 Gceeks has.* fdii^ays passed cooongst 
judges in tbe^art of vrarf as I have afa-eady observftd^foii at perfect 
model la its kind, which has never hadiL psralieL Indeed^ no en- 
(ei^nrisecoilld befoiined with more valour and bravery, nor con* 
ducted widi mote pi^udence, nor executed iwtk moresucoeeftu Tea 
thousand men, five or six .hundred leagues from . th^r own country, 
who' had lost their generals and vbest officers, and find theniselves 
in t{ip heart of the eneray^s vast empire undiertake, in the sight of 
h victorious d^d t numerous army, with the king st the head of it, 
to retire through the Msectt'of his em jure, and. in a manner froin the 
gates of his palace,- and to (traversis' a vast extent of uidmown 
isemitries, alinost all in arms against them, without being dismayed 
hy>th»proi^ect*of the inaumeraU^fobstacles and dabgers to which 
thfey were every moment icxposed ; the passage of hvers, of moun- 
tains) and defitesi'Open a^ttftcks, or secret/ ambuscades from the 
people upoii their roiite^^ famine,' ahnbat inevitable in vast and 
tTesett' regions $ asid above «I1,. the< treachery they htfd to fear from 
the. troops, who seemed to< he employed in esoorting th^mi but in 
reality hi^ orders 'to destroy tlMm^ For ArtaxerxfM»V.who was 
siinsiblehew much the reAmn of those Greeks rintajtiieur c<Miaitry 
wonld cover him withr disgracejiand' dieoreii^ ;(ihe «MJesti? of.ib^ 
empire in the opinion of all nalBOBs,'hicd rlefl nothing undone to 
preivent it; aiid hedi^sired* their destrmotioa, saQrs PlutfeLroh, more 
passionately than to conqdev CyrUs hiiinelf,or td preserve his do^ 
minioBsi Thbse ld',080 menvhowevery notwithstanding so many 
obstades, carried their potnt, and arrived, through- a. theui$and dan* 
gers, victorious a^d triuinphant in their own coiifitiQr* Antony^ loo^ 
nUetyX when -pursued by the/Parthians,>almost urthe>saVie country > 
finding himself in (like dangler, cried out in' admiration of their in 
v'mdhl^ vsAonr^ Oh the retreat. <^ thAienth(ni8aindS .j 

^ ♦Xenop.b.l,irti.i),427, , .,.:, . ' *, 

t Thte pariuanga i» 8 rotu) memurefp^ettfiaf t6 tTniPersianf/ind catnisHm m tbirtf stadik. 
Thiy Medium is a Graoian MeftiaHi^.kMr cMtftiod, accDrding itp* the inott^eeeived opinion, 
IS^rtoeoHiBtrical pacei ;. twenty of which, ia, consequence. q3w required to the common 
French league, which consists of 3600 paces. And this has b6en niy rule hitherto, aecord- 
iilgto wfaMh the^paradaAgaisa')«&eiw«ndahalf. .L> r ■ '] : .' . 

But I obsenre here a gneat ^iAMiuUj)r.;., Accoidit^ to thia.calculaQon we should find, the 
ordinary days' marches of Cyrus, with an ^my of more, than ^OOJpOO men. Would have 

compute the parasanga at no tnore than a league. 

indeed it is not to be doubted, tb6t the stadium, and all the other road measures of the 

ancients, have differed widely apcprdicg to times and jp^es, o^tM^.jftiU da aiOfWf ^ 

tWatvib Aatbtt. pk 837.*. -a /setJ^iM, . . m t ri . /'. 

iMl4iitw98 thegpod sMoecs^^ tliUifamovv ij^tro^t, wliloh.^1)^ 
tbe. people., of Greece y^th contempt for AxtajMirjteSy by 4woii- 
J9tratmg to tbepaytWt.g^ld^fdlver, luxury^ .voluptuopsnesir,^ and a 
jiunieroua ^eragiio of woojen^.^jivere the sole men\ of .the Great 
King; fo^t that, as to the rest, his opulence ai|4 all hisi boasted'. 
j)ower w^re only pride wd vain ostentation. I!t w^ this prejudice, 
more universal than eve^Jn Greece, after this celebrated expedir 
tion, that ^aye .birth to those ..bold Qnl^erpris^s of the.Qr^eks, of 
which w.eiuiall sqou treat, thaf^ made Artax^cxes, tremble upon hifi 
throne, and brought the Persian empire to^e very biinkof der 
struction* . ^ 


CoiiMqufinces of Cyrus^a death in the conrt of Artaxerxes. JCtnelty and Jealowy oT 

Pbrytatia. fitatlni pqiioned. ^ 

I reMim^e what pasped aflljer tbe baJ^le qf CMJiaxi^> ixivthe ce^rt 
of Artaxefx&8.f Aa. he. believed thatihe haft killed Cyr;as with his 
own hand, and looked upon tha^t action aa the most gforiqus^of hia 
life, be desired that all the wprld should thipk the 6a^e<i as it yfia 
wounding him in tb^.most tender jpart^ ];o dispute th^t honourior 
endeavour to share it, with him. The Carian^ soldier, whom we 
mentioned beforey not contented with , the groax'presents the king 
had made. him upon a different pretext, p^rpetutilly declared t,o m 
that would hear him, that pcme but hin^seif had .l(iUed (J^yrus, m^ 
tiuit the king ditt bim gceat injusftce in depriving him of the glory 
doe to hiflEU The prittce, upon bein^ informed of tl^t insolence, 
conceived a jealoui^ eiqlaally bjase and cruele andibad the weakness 
to cause him to be delivered to Pary^tis, who had ^wom (he de^ 
struction of^aU those that had any share in. the. death of her' 6ox^« 
Animated by a barbarous spirit 91 vengeance, she commanded the 
executioners to take that unfortunate^ wet^h, and to make him 
Buifer theioost axquisite .tortures'du|i)|g t^ da(ysi V^Qn aJ^er they 
had torn out his eyes, to pour melted brass iute hie ei^^s, till he ex 
pired in that-cfuel agony ; rwhich/was ac^rdingly ep^ecuted. • 

Mithridates,.aJsQ|,Mving boastied in an entj^taiom^t where: h^ 
had heated his brain with wine, that ;it wa? he wj^ gave Cyru^ hia 
HK^al wound, paid verv dear for that absujfd and imprpdept vanity. 
He was condemned to sufier ikff. po^ishmeDt of jbhe J;roughs,f one 
of the most ctfuel that waa ever invented,, and: ailer hayip^r lau^ 
gulahed in torment Seventeen 'days,/died. at jast in exquisite mise^< 

There only remained^ for the fin^ execuJ^Q;i .-sf Parysf^^'s ^fSh 
ject, and fhlly to satiate her vea^eanee,; th^^i>U9i^me^t of the 
king^s eunuch.Mesabate)9, who, by his master'^-ordervha^AH^t off the 
head and handof .Cyrus. But as there Wfl^ nQthiog^liQ )^ke hold 
of in hid conduct, Paryaatis laid this snare for hijiq^ '^he waa n 

* PluL in Art^x. p. 1018— W81. i. -, .n — 

t S90 th9 description of this torture, aa befom f iv«o 4a jtbia.yoi.iiW'h 

uu ! 

a* tNtupamluttrtlM <Miiaa*yEj the itmfi rti E p h dy ii. r. ■ WAW 

kfe ittik^i iMtSfUie.n8 ap^nH%UMilihBt»wai«diip«M kttWM 

ihrtwiMtttimt *kw.eoBiiia>dBAiikjtba •tMiMiT^/ \, tf-.l !.-i/ rn), < 
v. iThe piwrantebf tiMiPenimjMaBTBkp«l.«hicfeMnMal«litqMl 
•f^wtoareniitrAFUieeD^weiireqaifafl taoijnueilitnriiwateB to'lM 
j|«i>eiuel-iiDm9dlMal)i bfths' pHnae, m^icoiiddil t«!tkn«Ha«t 
5ie Meat lordirdoaniMU]' (■UeAlKtra^i. ■ aiiey bx) Mtfaafrtliin 
U tbeir<{a«6mpietlt m atm>ttsawAg»»utkmilfiimi^B»t.i^ 
|Krij"ipmiagl(tMtiuflika'4liaiTiME0)M v*«»«i»«l|i4«ra'iit mDm 
a^piMnnngOaAeB. /rhe^iTi^ervTwpitlM Mb » iliiilihii iiHW|i|» 
nffieiMl'fbf'AtfdefsiiceoftheicUantiV. Xiit? •pptiiDWd ajl'ttftwai, 

&i>ttr»«m (» twBt with .D^lf bbaurMf iMMntrandLeVen Kbii litl 

n&*4r»«}^ (» twBt irich .D^lf bbaurMf iMMntrandLeVen Kbii litl 
nneMilS'oBtlienimaf i in:Br^warddto£(>«pei)nitbit« bntvtUfnJo 
mintul gWMtfal^r ua.ilnuii}«ittl7 taiOfrntginHmmmiaiiaSbtf 

' welwisdcp«iideiitl6f'iXi«.>pAh«rt«odtkmiflhiiW>autteiihaMBi» 
nutetd ibdh travAair ddl;!ttBcaMm-to l&eMSie]e4d«^MUfttlia' 

rfitn^lf"ii -•— Tig^r'-nnfrrtTrfT. f-furri^jipniitiiiHipif. inlliifiil 
aid to flKiH wdfeiBuca'.iii iwceantf , aid(BOtn«(u«M oMa mi^i m- 

•<^e'priads;g*vecoom<tbBtlie8e4 „_^ ^ ^ 

poliay'DoMribatfeA to JMcpthenl uiMa c^iuieljatti^aevQW.rc 
eiMj4>liMi tooj|m)d->«o.>iaidcnfinAii^.uiwRgit tlH->| 

llll|riKlM^I«nitt«d.. '- 1 'Jl .r*-..' .., .fl ,1 tit; .riiiu^M . I ■ 

iiWtat^H^ilitfrin; basrd, tbsra&r^, thM'{PiBaapWnf»<Wid Phai> 
nabBZUH were at variance, made b truce with the fennavttU 1m 
might not have them both upon hia hands at the tame time, entra«d 
Pharnabazus's province, and a4y*W«d aa fu la jEolia. 

Zenis, the Dardanian, bad sovenied that province imder thai 
eatrap'B authority ; and as tfttfc'bto'BMHlit was t»ltive )seea ^vea 
to another, ltfama,hiBwidow< went to PbanMbazu* with troop* 
iMiwee^Jan^toI^ iiftib lh«tlivlhffwkltte;*t«.'ja>ai *te 
had rendered him great seTvicMyaw,dfliirMlaBiiiatliidiMnaaUwt*rf 
1 ' ' - " ' . ^\M s|u .HTould serve liim wkh. the aaDie 

i »frf^-fijlea In eitW*;hfe'wliliJW«tru 

i e5nniiW?!^>r. Si.'b>iia conHnoafiliifi 

MiM'^Mtp- wth- dl -tljfe Miiriie* " 

\ tW^'eiijJerted''fi^)ffi'ttenii)tf'li(ffiiumipate ' 

ili^.'Totheorffiimrf'tfnuM'etiwMchherKftB. ' 
l^ttr^BentH of ^trkordloafyVi^a^mfideilce: 
1 >'<^Bmfeinio'he/'prdiin«!e'Jdheenterujn^&ip ' 

^ <tr'the''otffcr^3vfi!ridrB:"8he'waJnot ' 
""-'"■' if pUK,:«iti«B.commitled to htc ' 

PEIt«M|0rANmOtniUNS. Mf 

(M0llil^.si (i 'III '' ;.'< .i) '(lU 'lu . hid KM If.os b/i ■ . ".'^^bfi \> . .\ f' .i; 

^iiViogtk mdrmtKy'J^MKBi\% Ui«tfriidt]|it0i0#odMBO»tf<l oQin^ 
are of all s^es. She was ]vetenl<ls . aUiwipaditnni i«ia . ctaMi 
and JBb p pra Ni (dooi ipwi fgeWarde laadi |fatfwMicpt»', ,JN(M »d£1he 
iM»MliaaiJ09ipiiMBBQde^>^ in vAi pkdi i 

iuMi aagPBirtflPiwilwirj og. Gbeeic floMnri'iaitl W ipajr^ • . Sbenen^nc jit^' 
leindeatBhliiiiKbttMiBintall* fcia.flnttfpri^M^tAd wM «{f. na naDufaoitf 
aiP9t>ortiloiaM». ^tfait tiieiflitoapvivit^ all tiwTvalue .«if mI 

allier< |pc»aiMre;..t*Iie;.ci*a atoittiAtl ^r iaUr' kift]eoli»6iliOM9l 
irealMThea with'gnehNatjaiirtuKttiim ^dmmU liam>exi4tacl,^cialb)]i^ 
if tjbeeiie^flilptediaffabilitfiolrithfllijiaair hadinoty/pieVeiibeAbaiEfr 
efiec|a,,lwftNkfafraigf iboci^sDaoiiar alivailiievar iiHrf|MejpeHaeCioiia^ 
wUbb mwdd^beir/lustie^iaiidtiiBfegdiate d^ 
aeotf^otf af ^danraliia. '"jt*r)-:n (^ni>' >r:. .ct'.v-.Ir: - >-n'i "^o (.oitAi 
i flhe ]«d'iia.eB0iiiie»iMit.ia(har ^ciW famByi^'^ildlqi^ hii loh-anfl 
kwy atimg'Witfei tha.fepr6ftchi«£ abffi^iiilff a aUtoan' toi cannaadsiiir 
Ilia place, and abuaiiigHlia antirQvnlflwsiiiQstflhe: iie|Kiiedll^ 
w^kkfe^e^ Aceearytodbeiial aalntiariB^-iftflBigkd^lKC.^iUiiliter 
aob. lAftertac deaths har^aeisM tanaifarlnaHiea; Mibefein. Aak h&A 

•raurad' ihet ftreararaa ^j ttfaa otlicviqitBiB jflaekredi agunst Uai. e FJirf 
aift nol tliitif -flnjosf ihe fmita ofUii^fienmetf ' iJ^vqi&daB liappBgtuinf 
xii!»fl:ai iliiii^^notwa./ Al|jti»iifoitraibteio€tJC«)ia4 eithac voltoar 
taiqify^iQr bjtfbiice, aanaade^edf to hi{ii,iiaBd Uladiaa was depaxred/ol^ 
:te4KMwisaiaaB;liahafliMyItiikjuid]F lUtqifi^ed. ^^SFhe Laacdttitiiqiata 
f^aoeial ia»mg grnriited Fhaniabaitia'a;tnwe^^<K>k ii^ iaiiwnSerii 
9«artoii<jii'16thpiaytOfavdiil'bah)^elii«^ "I ^ * 

Mi'^ h$SL Thenti4«i yearjf being eoiitiiuietibthecaiDmvBMM 

4Diti l^iOiaoai croeeecl/bYer ifrto^Thraeaj And aftiv^diiKthe €h^toBa9 
aMtr'^ekabwthat tbiaHi^mitieiao^tbe ^oafiti7>]i9iii>baen at Sparta^ 
Tsprawnt tUid Mie^ty of fotdljrinr ^^'ibtbniiiir with «fpiiadi%a21^ 
todAst tlia»fi«^entuW8taR'<ff -t^ Barbanailif^«Klitt*h.pi>BV)&tad 
l£a aoltiTatiaii^ lif tbeiimda.' '9a<«ng m^miBi-^ikdtfpwaii,'m^'^ 

m;dnam;tliiyb a4iM^^>iiytH««ith, ho distribute thrwarif ^amooj^ 
tbe aoMian^'ii^iih^ xMdi^^tt ^iibad ki tHa/iaUfeaaMi 'O^iba 00119 
yaaiii) tWilbhli^his liJbace'<«NM'&'eteteiai'e)ia^ eiiiea^ ae^eibl ifmUm, 
a great '^nuiAbi^ttf'eftable landleN andiij^tatttattonflviwith vatftnw'^ 
^^kinda; -ThoiWtdii^'bakigtftiiefaadiiM' tetobdiiMnto ^Aaiii^ivfaara 
Iw rafiaara^tba^ties^ and foiindttbeffi«l]/lB>fi»d eenlitioBcc/i w 

Conon theArb^n4iafta» tbitaat'tiieltaMtfofjGilf^ 
haviBf cob4MiMte4^1dmya)f(4d ii vaiuiit«a9»ib|iMKnrat, caiil»^^ 
ik>tlni'iiiai«f C3rpr«6,'<vW«k4^i»«^^ **^'Wgg 

<>f Jii#tparam^ t^'ldso h ^a t aihWi a|( a i^iHWe'df <a|Un ; ilM 
one, says Plutarch, who waits the return of the tide before he 

AllMdwpo«r^{;t0 mlMi><iyi>dtfM'ii«ilivw<% ^km/MmoMh 
lod ftdl or fidelity and zea] for bis country, though little &v«Mbfi 
to^]iitt4jMtifetdattriiiedi|ated ib^ c tf i Hwri% ottftiMl H^tJIis, 

iMmstotiMg it t»it8f|SftittBt4i{>teii4o«f. ^-w <»ilH ..i »x9« ' ») lo f.A£ 
' ifThie AtmniaB ffeMiNil>iaidwiii| that, iiimi»r4o •ficceed^ttfto 

t6ezplaiDiiUiiprc$«Gt^ui Miof andordera^ taMpiitiif ^iwliw^yawied 
hia iBtker 4o spply to OteaJw^wlio wt>vld ^laeitHHto^lheM^^aOfto 
kBQda.'iit/watf IkoordiAghf^^eHfMid tb l^tf n%BkMi,i#ltovH4i 
add, ihoUghiiHa ijUlnbt ajl^e the^o<m<ditif)cl^dt,l3ataMiilv;iP«iAt 
Oaaoo'haSoqKrndeit^tfAfirf it \dt^ife^ih»img»iBtmld^^ 

^lOfMitiHcoa^pllim lagiuilat 'tlKicondiietiK^f. t'{!iaii|diiite^ 
•ioyedy lM<4iiiaBaif of .thetJLalJedrtPinmaniiJ uM'tbef 019^1 aislittib 
tationa of Pharnabazus, the king ordered SOAilalMtii^ & iMnpirfd t» 
himifoF l^e eyiipMent ^6f> s'lfieeu wiihuul8lhieii!Qii«l<i>i|:l»Bi@iilJbn 
tkb^wrnmaiidoof it*ili« aent iEHtl^i^iDllo Gi^a0uit]ric$(«%iiitaviMg 
viotbd.Chidoi^hia dativttiiiiMUitaiypwftat to8paBbiui.>> l^'ir, .^^o.'.ifi i 1 
n .Tbia'€teaUa.'baduit'firft i»Mi» thafldnric&«f^€9M47iH|<iltt.Att 
Iwi fidSowed iar hia^ •■nadiliami liai was tak«B> p gidu wab /in 4h» 
Mtle. wherein CjrrbaiWMlkiUBd^iiaii^aaiviadermae'v^ toitiilkBa (h» 
^nvu^fif ^i^axiobceRbcAl reoeired^idf whieirl[ie>itefaitteMiin«^f4^ 
WeUithatiibe k^|f Jetiiinad Jiimtin'^i»ilaliVi£e,«Bd^ina^!|^ wfifM 
dg^ciai^ He^paflBedi ^emajr y^eaoi ih kia aeniea in ifaatf qnfl^ty; 
\rai|ft'li6'wa8lthdtt&, the GorpeksridmiiU (their faifcimtewfetbgoqurt, 
ftpj^d'tiwiiipelte8ita»hlm ; i>aa Goiioa did OD^ Ibe^ pre<0nfci^NciraidDor;i, 
His longr6todBiice..imPj9r9tt^:ai]»dr<4t.^t|ifii;<iD«ry.h^ 
n^cjmfjcyuiime :iindi < B « a g tfo» ^ia is)i!;^r«Eia(tiiNi<in.^e historic .lh# 
eeiin^,'^hichiha>«ri»te ki<thfieeriitid-<tiRiieQti3r 'hooka. tTlltf fiM akl 
co^tain^d the hjstdnjtfof.that Asayr^kint «ndiiGMi^}cinii^DayfiNtDaBI?iina 
ttoifi0Eaianiaflitk9<£com;tihe.1>egiimm|^i^^ third 

JBU «f lhai4ithd5)l|FmfWkd»fwhkibjigreeaMJiitii the-^lHiklttar befare 
^uEB .QfaBis'»iuHaiiiri90t«t)£^,'(tliiiMy.> 0^1 Initio [JPiiatina ^aa 
gimB adJBdaemiiiafetea0lfei «^ b^Sstitkth&UstmBSiMi^ 
aaedjl 'tfaa^ 9«xnai»i «fiiM^$v|Kil»(«f oQN^ias.. . . Sa. 0il«f|{ Adfeltradicta 
IlamdotiHyfLdd di^eniiAMft^imea ^>&o(9;fij^i|#^M^ 
notdBap^^teenidd.'byrjtha .%iici6nl9;.v{rhp'fiip0a^-,^/hisor^ oi:«'vett^ 
vain mw^'ivlnae ^var&oitM ^ Qoti tci^)^4$ia9* aodi^rii^ibasna. 
«artBdt&^;biid.8((i»tt^mf«iej^«a<^ef,ln>l|i§(yi^H:^ odi r.u«'' 
iiPl»aM''<^iCi4i;^Minifdiein)€»it4^ ^h»mabafti|sjtjfchw ^ )rB^p«Btly 
^rtt^-;^* i^ahi0tberfa«ii^M4;h««li]|]H^.4h^d«H^ (krdaiaiunlted 
thkdr . tao^ ito f^eg^ ithe ^sQjb«iw»fii>» ^ J)iirc|rltt4«iKsfi^%i^^ 


i, whom lis conceived all the otbera 
',whiai*i5'mepted.'''Eia'cyffli . . .^ 
■ea, vmi lae krftcuui ^ties'eli'ouM (faifQAue F/^. -EliB' flnk- 
phei'ite.tiiAt'tMe'ir^.r'tetf geperBJa 6f Mtedrefnirti'SlfluW 'retire 
theyjai^e t!\tate, ulf the iulaw^r# df^tbel/'Tegb^^tive nulken 
eliouTd W hnbwn/ ' '" ' ■■■'■."'.. .■■' • -. ,-■'':: 

" WhM' tiiis6 IhiDgi' vieie paiaifig U Asia^* ifie%aoe6i^o!^m 
rtsolVSd trcliMtiee the ftiWeiic'e of'the peonle'of 'Elisl'who, % 

the P^tdpd(ineBiaD War,pri 
Olympic games'.' ''ppon pr 
Sparta,' the; Itsd insi^F^d' > 
ud Uni'ered Agie .IVbii^' £ii< 
pfiiB. ■" Thai Img was Stii 

OWpi«wWlch bidio r- 
mg, iheBO^b?', mi iht 
teKtC'tpimaia iMeisruHit 

iUmorffdiyMe. ton*"* w^ 
expiWtW^ ,or,'seme|diiy6^ I 
Agf«lku5, oiie,,yie,^n an^ 
diBpiiiea'ffie crowfjj Jfi^el^ 
not tbe'pon ^f'Agifi. Snd.W 

iti iU jjJJjfjjAiidiliatjfhe,^ 
preBe^pf^OO'liaricts.t A 

lie could not reiuse ttv^ tuvg 

¥,M^WM«^^^»^r^"'.^'^.KP^4i-. ."m: i,R.,.v'.- . .-■."4. 
iBoat of the Spartana, charmed with the virtue and great ment 
iir. [1jHiiiliii«j<n)n dniiiiiwgiit irn onWwrdiniiiiy.Mfciaiiliigi liiitowrrn 
perMB Air their 'kuur<«rh<i:hri.b*e»«duo«t«diaRioiigtkaM,«ii#b^A 
pawed Iffieftem IjJrtTiiffaU At rigoor qPtHe B^tn 'WBJiaiiOft;' 
•uppdAe^iii^'witli' their 'whole power. '^An flncleut Ofi^jifidj 

1 AUmb. L ilL p. SH- ,t ira piMilM 

eq^Talu^, as well ky,liiH own'^rt <w«l(tie9 'w.,tl»q, »^?T« 

I TlOrt of liJ^OpdfT, txip^ it f^g£ll^,filB IK|lb^W,,U)|^^p^ 4f 

".•^$yM}int^^ kilig,^'had'devojved' ®jB'J^,»oi'»ei 

person, isfl.^e^ eoucatp^ ".''e oEhei ojl^ilren m if^e.^juirtMi dk- 
.cipline, wb^'ct^ as to the. mode, of life \^aa,very rouglj, a^d full of 
laboriouB eiercise, but taugHt youth obedience pcrfecOv weH.* 
The k|ff diapenqed^ ^uc^tipn onl; to Bi^cl^/phil^i'eB u 
w^re design^ for th^ throne. Agesilau^ therefore )lb'^ tluf peq)i,- 

... . .:...... .... .. .„ -,}v$''(J9-~vAlAU:.Vl 

••i.,u ttjucli natm^ had endowed hiiu for cornniand aqd eovereffpftv. 
^lad .united b| ^' educatio:f.tbe'^^'ar|^^''b(' b^ing bun^e' ii}fi 

JPlutnrcht obsStM thit.'fft i^ lis' iiifaiitjff Age^fib^ wais'l^irt- 
ilefor uniting '^iWltley'in^Belf, which ■a'i'e'cfeii'eral!jr,i|!6cmj»tv 

„ ,jWltfey'mMiaBelf, whichare cfeiiWaIIJri|!6^ 

■ivacity rf;fef^,'^ vehemeiici, ^.fd68li,ti^?|- jEj^iftv 
JH a]iiii|:B,ran(j(t',,ftn ardeni ba^ion G>TT)emi' Sih Had' RnrptMwg' all' 
fflHere, v(idi-ageilpfeneM^bmtefeW,ana dpcjlUy.thatco&plfeil at 
k singie word, and mid^Hiif infinitely s^nsSble OT 'tTitf alSghtPst'ie- 
■^^■■-" "■■■' '"" ':h%'miEMI)eobaWie(fiC£rSmiftom''moliYM' 

ijffikrfiiiai4ace;- v""7'''' i "'■ V 

at defOtifw^s coveteilWbilmekms^- 
Bore by the'gjifelv WW»1)(I^ fo suipbrted' 
If., Itivay eVei)be3^;ti)iltlliR'ffifrmity 
If and 'jiassioriter glory' to a Htitttg^e'llirht :, 
tor ^rftapttpe, Ho*eV£r' (Meiatjihlit hfe 
;iiiitoft!ittmcoilveiii&nqe:"'" .y' ■ '' '''■1 
.Praise,) without ^y ajr oP'tlniliK aSd Ein"der!tVj^*«i^'lfc'fia^ 



V'tw^l *««'.»dw*H««Fi H.,.,.,.a»-Airt.sjfc ., ■Hitfcft^jami fcM K . 

I hii^iujsij^ri^iii wti^iiit .^•ptfir.item the rawrtfei Irf'thaio^whd 
u(K^,oth^^.^(»iiiopitrbad.,i^|^9mnjk^ lliis fniUQ^i^to Hm with 
freedmii;,^6.wQi|ld,f4eyer^t8uSi&r nifi pkdure (9. bediawQ iduritg 
^liifig,jui4;.i9veQ when 4ymg>,fiffpresBfy .f#i;t»ad9 mny/ioi^e'^IOf'bQ 

hU^g^ei^t. ^i^ns, i|t. l|e Jba4 ^e iMiyi* w<>ul€l, supply the^i^e' of 
monumenUf ..without wlaciii, all tW^t^W^ M» tho tWpHdiWj^olddo 
him nt9 i^anxxer of himqar^ W«^oi4|r JI^9W> that.htf wm •i^. 94lal] 
st4jture> yrhich; ^Q Spactapa U^ {ipt Jilie in. their kui^.;.,asd Theon 
d^ra^(us'f&im, that the iIpho7i:lfLidria'fii^# Mpcffi ■ their. kin^Arehi-f 
4ani|u^,.the iather (^ hiii^,Wiii s^ea^ (ofi for-^hikvuig espoue<4 A veryt 
-fttJe Wjpm^ ;. for^ saiii theVf wc'^i ^« f*0^^ {niead<^fkm^n*^^ 
„ tt' haa De^r^m4rk;e€l4 th^tt iitgefijlivasi in his .waj of Ui^ : with, 
the 9partui^£l>Q))ft,ved J^ettgc ivit^.joagard ta hia enemiief tfaao-hiar 
friend^;, ^^8)^0,^;: did.t^e least \\r^ the former^ aUd jofjJQth 
riolatjb<Iij^iJ^ti]ce Jii^,|av«vu* 01. the 4fM^?f« .:JB(& .would. hitTe beeit 
ashame.dfnot tOt Ji^ye ti^QUi;p4. sAd^r^^rded hia eQen^fia, when 
their ^ctibps deservj^ it ^ ; ,4:^4 ^^ ^^^K^ ^' '^^^^ ^ Di'^e^dH 
wVen they,.cpi3gi];iut,ted ff^ult^. He wq^lOKp^ sujip^i^tl^iu'lvirheiii 
t^t^ey i?^,er€;,iaJLhe^jroi3g,i ^d upop.8ttch.£|Mion8loQ)cedi:^aik«eitk 
&r iustiqe fia'a vam^pretenfj^ to cqvyer ^h^l^uaai (»f r^einvitffiltiiem^t 
Aniff^jiprdgfj of tj^is,' a,.ahbrt, letta^ .iid.rit^d, writt?i|!^yi3in:to ftt 

cni^e^^]and ^^ pirptept^eas o( b^ actions^ Th^ $lpdAiiiei||iJ IM^ 
of f^ienUsliaj|»^f ayg ^iierp, W pev^ ,toi8«ki i^f, .pr . ^aut- wH^ thibgi toi 
mejcM^^pa^ la nvt jcpnsi^tpi^^ wittjj^uu^e ^d l^cmour., .^cc^^jnfmmi 
lex ifh dmicUii .lots^ioiyf;.;] ut.^^ffue^r/:^^pmfire^ <t«)3^>! PM^ j^o^nitiirv 


by 'his extraordinary iherit,%e acquired gjre^tjpredtt) aod aJuajMtab**'! 
sc^ktepoMfer i» the^city,.wiiioh^.ran*8p ;^^ ajp^ jpo^ei, hUn .«»- 
pecte'd^ his coiintjy. TJ\^ Epli^orVj^.prevejit i^ 
a check to his ambition, hiid a nne upon Kim ; aile^g as their sole 
reason,! that he attached fii&/hafJ|t8,;of> the citizens to himself 
alone, which were the right of the republic, and ought not to be 
pofpesBe4^ut iA'Comraoni > i:'- ••"> •'■■■* ^■' '•^••' '^"•' ' '■''"'' '"'' '"'^•'•^ 
When he wad'Aie^tlaf 6d kiiig,he V^a^ put lii ppss^icin of the whole 

♦ Pluf. in Aiesil. p. 598. ^ - 4 Ibid. 6^., . II !)• *micit. p. 4a,. „ „ ,^r * 

ittftthef Lanteto»,'*ele all yerj^^f, ffcottgh pewons df n^feh ^jdWu 

• Never #Mfefcg of Sptti«i*bt)<H^^^.rfula»^ ?2??\w 

o!iV> XtnoplH^ti flay^,.by Dbe^% te^Sj^'^iS^^^^^^^^ 

thusTpWiwd byvpitKtirch. ^^'Tk »t^^^^^ 
. that tiibfe.iti tlw E^ri tJhd sfeiiatc, 'TW'pf^,^}?!^ 

id^ed:0fily dney«arj they Weife instituted . t^ vXj^'2^^^\^^ 
power Of Ih6 ki«g9,'ttnd fe ser^'itb '^^^fPf t^^*T^'l^^^ 

ttieli* eatMfct ertabliBJimeBt,Mjl alwayfe Maliie*>jata*Kp^ 
tw? 'avewtbiiifor them, and- cttftfiiitially ' abi^m tfl^feff trfi^aBures 

M^f^ iwttr#ith «hein,al*ia rfashbg'tittdfl'all b^ti^f^s with their 
^^bvfke, he^a»^e%his biistte^ to ctlftivate'tBfe^- good ojJmJo^ 
tWAt^dJlfeem' aWajB' wtth^ «he -uttnost ^f^enc^^ and' Jfe^ard. n<jvei' 
rniteredf^uiiif thfe- lewe ight^rf ?fee,* withbuil^ Jiaying/fiilBt toAmtii^ 
oated it -to fteti?, tiaiA tipoh'their'&OiniTioil^'^ittfed e^ri v^yund 

Whenever he set upon his thrtmfe t^^ adWtii*Jer jostfce, ^ jthe 
S^'ori Ai*«e* he never ffilfedt<5 n8^^p'ttt;,db^fte£hpAot»^^^ 

their ofltetti'WhiWt'itl ke^Mfhe auffmenled 'LislaW^ ]?6*«^r^Vithijtit 
it^ being (mer^^^ and iii'ddedU% 'soverSigittVa &t,ai^^^^ 
irtiwh'theinoreftolid arid f eritefe^l/as ft'^a^tHtl^ffeet o^^^ pfeo- 
pleVi'gobd ^wilLMid esteeiAft^liim. ^Illte greatest^bf th6 Roman^iri- 
perors, as Augustus. Trajan, apjJ AtaTcusAatonius^ weTeep^m&pi, 
tliitttte uttildBt^ prihce i68uld ddlfo'hbriouir^tod ekilt the jjigiiily . 
of the princH^ ma^rAt^*, wfes^o%ddafng'yiti^pWil'p6WeKandr. 
sti!^sth«iinr'*»w %uth(^tt, wh$cfi" ndjtber ^uld, nor cati , be - 
• .fottnifcd.tttanytbiiigbirtju^ici?/^T '. ' J ' , -.; ! l ' ;. 
-«och ^as AgeBiktrir, rf-Nli^hoin mu<9i will, W said Hereailex^ iUid 
trti»|echwfec?tSfitwtiifetftfleinefare necessary to develop^; • Z 

AgMnOa leti oat for Ana. Lyuuider falls out with hmy-m^ nfntl* Ifef (8]^ai«u fli* 
ambitioui dengwtQ. alterJbe jH»ce8i«o|i [la. the t;hfpQ^ y/ r . r, 7/ 

A.M<36(ia Agesilaus had scarce ^cended the ,ttff(fff^f When 

Ant. J. c. 396. account»^CW?v^frfl»iAm th«H<i JtheJdngwrf^lepBhia.:^ 

• Xenoph. Hi«t Grasci 1 lii. p.4^^^. ifl\;a^fWvJ:^W jPWl^ 
and ia Lyiand. p. 446 

BV^IaM m ArtakeTX00 m pbW^tf of> BMtwMl&raiidal^hftd madf 

v^!2««b#iiiWin^ '■ - -J* . • »// .n ijt ,.; 

''Ikm^^i'Whd^^y^^^ b»^«(£t iatoiAflia, in dEd» to f^ea^^Jin 
H^h^^^V^ftVtire^'ttlid fti^^ds lllfilie'<«Ov«rAmotfof |;he citie%ffM» 
yilASc^ iodiiMhi Agesikiii^.Mi- 

IkX^^^ibtt^j^ir^ 66tfi;g«^of%h«^drv«lMl'to:ttBtMi{iale.t^^ 

ft^^ H§^iASuldWV^e fliiiililad his p|idpiiii||ibii»^ The fQpttbtic Jtaxingt 
Ai^Hhh^j)^ to IM^ cdttld«ot<ireliiw it,«Bibdktfg«d bimn 
sdf with the ^)>^ir6^ ii^^^dft^Afi^b^fiOfl^ 

t§M£i^i&ill^^^^ h^And coii^psq]^. 

Slim, iHHk'ilOOChnkr '^itiiteM to}becc)k»leiuoBlt Hfi the Motb wii» 
kAlP'Meii^l&fiBly'tnftde fi^ttM/^aJid.^OO'/troo;^; ofth^ b&w, vhifib' 
wMmitL^i4t^lr0BblV«d^ Iiy«aikl6ih^l;ta plttbec({Kt!iaieip«a4 9^^^ 
tMHy^(i^aT&b;'iiot'^»fy'«ta>dbcouiK'.^^ grGit>xBpuiai^ii^aA9ic 
flie'a«thomf4lfe l^ad' ^qc^MT, tttitcfer .tlie p8iticiilaj firteodtihilblMn 
tlfvyi^'hiA imd^^^ahiu^, wlM^w«0%id8btsd toin^.^tiriedhiolie,; 
«0^^^el!'ti^fb^ tbe nl^iMr #Melt had bseslatelgnooiiftjpre^lupo^^^l^ 
^Tb^fegeteWliMtgefteliBLliaBiiwK j'/' . ^,. '.',..,, .^ j,;.-ij 

•^he ^IonM0^Ydttttn'«tfth^ GrqetoiifaorlwddfoHof^ 
thkfirti&^'pMeftyf PeMiakadliot;betotihle.>to.|arav§o| fion ir^ 
fl>e«^d|f<i]«ft>it|^^«vi«^6tiiiti!5%had iofijbpeilia}) ;QrQ«c» rwitfa^i% 
TTdii^Ml^oiMiadettb^ i» hier ownifllreiiMi<^aD^«ttpiK0»e(iQozitQi^ 
ibl«<tlf^ferfi>baH4luidL^^ 4iiirthi8 db^on&n g^i^ifial^vminii t^ 
ito^iteilil9^>«oy}ei9e& .it ii^iid re}nobch4t$if^i|»»fli§l(ritj(% 
t;BAe^>ad¥altti^«Poi^^>!f«tfdilMble &> oiajiiactfm/f^T'ideUvenfigttiiii^ 
<$t^^6llqA(iA iAskrIbfti thdr vabje^wK |o tjio^ B^kirkiiBi io^.r«A 
ipdxH^l^eMiipfibB oUik^ ahdivioleo^caraiulii'ii^livvii .tj!»9^ wmk 
c0kmi^0ppremv^ thte. t^The^ l>iA aMidar)«n#K)|ipd t4i%^ 
tMNr |%bki«d9>ThiMto»ii-«AdI>eii))^ 
h«^&§ hitbei^^Mrv««li4lid£fedeMty;they^ 

>?ar io tMd^aJ40oAAg«iBilarii9;' Hki^roimaed'tbMftieU^.tojffnclfi^ 
a MoTH^tts 'pi^ko^vnth t^ *^em$fm wito einplof timmm -ei^m^^h 
^,'iitf «bd«ld^neatiiithto»»i«^ 
Ai^'Wln^iiito,(lMe0^.>' Thi»:iuDgrbad-^eat wMymi .tlw«gbt.^} 
ndf|dllif'1iitii^lii#Uti'^ArMptem»i& {^r8ia4teei£( -^ - .-. ] ,'^<. vt ,; 

'^'^hmi Jl6 'm^^ «tbffipitsAi9^:.TiMia)>b»rhe8 A^t >to 4wm»| 
#rtt 1M iiii »h » » h w i tr c|ndi|faMi nhia to{i&i^titttojMa,uaBd wittyoJ^Q-M 

plwie of *fWe;)j«idi'i«iH>iofl^|itm' w^. Ife awteyj^ww^ ■ pY^^yg 

gNMitfltreii up<m aii««t]»ptiwk «4Mtttf|fe>^f ^,4e|p^|r)^««|emlu9 
troopiy.^n fltD iidasui . iIT^e Lecoiwiii^iiiiiii^ v^fl^^if^ W.M q{ 

it, but however kept his wofdrt* Mog :«9iivu^4^WfW( 
fltafta tbt < braasb of fiuth owi'.hiiiv^j Wpti fir >qry is)^iit),. 
<flffibiiiiacceHl4 whei)^Ba^»vfeputA|iop^.fiA(4t>li8^i^up99^^ 

ef^ther (»]Bt|iMtbig paitieabiW'iM^ F^WQv^tQ 9^ 
cwiiitniid ^onfi^Boe e^liaU^i^alt «n<| j^l^qvw* J*J 
lyioii Yem4rk8,' tbatlhiA isliiptHi^ >Qbfl«irl^flitip^ iflf tr^^fi ftWP^d bSuffl^ 
( tkeunirfiTMa eateom Mul^ioioaiof tHf^ci^ r whM§^,iAe.q[rAV^ 
iHAidUct df fiTilitephenifs ^atireljp k>/it bin»4b^- fry^iii, > : j{ [. ^-^j. 
A^<if;3«0. ' 'A0CB&aa.niuk'i}|».Qfj.thL$.M^t^valia.4M 
Ai^^i.^. Ittf^ ' exiibt koowiMge df^ the ;ptajt6',^ tb% ^^m^ .fi^.^. 
iiiaitittg.n]itftbielrWx;'itbA& iJHe f9vui4<g^ didder i^y^ry,V^eirer 
their gQverti in fe n t ftiwng neithec) dei»#(cratK^, as 4UMili% tAy». .4^% ; 

nleictf^'theioountiT htd hftdfno Ck)iM(iuiMQ»tiiiH^ ^it^i ^g^^ilaus^* nor 
tad ei^4r Ji(ilon!v!Q Urn;: fcfl^^hidknMuaMi.^hQy ma4e AQf^un tq(jbim» 
dtifKelT^, t»l& he l9ut-th«!|ilie «f. gkol#fAl j^.fi^n^^^aj^e odIj, and 
that the whole tpower was really iraiMad i^ Xiysa^^^ As np^ 
g^eili0tli«U[«r«r doiibsoiMrabi good Id tbis.frwioda/M. hurt tojus 
esieinies, il>is /ii«l <Woiiderfbi tliatriiaf uraaafO'lnachMk^^a j^ the 
^« aiid I^M«d by thfa^^l^ All ^bheiefoBe ivf^ne «agfr<jti^ Mp. 4^ 
]temagetb^:'lmi^'wei«r'€weTjr'4ayTiii crowdi M bis M^,)«mfmi4^ 
fei^ tMdn y«tj^«|iMl*o<n wiibajpe wentrabtead^;'<!|r(bil9l.;4SQ<ii2apit 
YMtdned ^teiOBti idonprt £<iob a;eondndt'>aDuiil*iioiM<^-etSQi)di 
ita»>il^<»iierariuidrkin9 extofl^ d^libG»t»Mtewh|Lt«ie- 

gAd^ his authuritff. though. totkeriMBetinot jfl^lilQfl df ft|ijLone-a 
M^rit^ 4mt, on <he caatiuy^ raich inclki^itD dntiogjuMh i^tfutb lu» 
fttdnt. H0tdid not dnseoaUei bm disguflit»i i ljte4io-loiiig^rij#M'ra- 
p^^mV^ffslOi^'^i'i^^ aBdi(CfilMH3d'itoifMppji^ -jiw 

liliNibTf: - "^Lysande^trpTtaently ptfmeivedE^stliftvaU^llltiolii r lowi^rds 
)^i 'iie'diid^n(»Qed*his^applicationa f«]-;^i9.fri«i^ ^Uie kingi 
d^if^ tb^m'tidt tof irisit Mvm an^sJsior^, «^ Attach them«i9l.ves to 
Mttt %Ut t»«ddwMitb«n8dhFiwdii»^^^ tVi% 

fatorit;^^<^<W^inrtbe p^nhttMiwIliad |)Qwer to s^r«v€^ ^)4 
advance their crea^xiiies. Tm ffreatnfctiMnrt ofildrani^ajir^flivw ton 
pmBkiii^ Iiiili>'with theif vfiaif^ ibeti'|did«jDdt aeMeM pf^llkeir 
OiWh fo^him.^On thefcomcnayythey waiteAwd^^niortirtiwidiiiilwIi^ I 

* Flat in A2wl&«p \aN( ^NMMcfabKjOMuid. p. 448, 417. 


ir ai>iiMdM«ttd re^Hiariy Mietsd tt' sli htf exevcnes^ ; /|mi)dkd^, 

lai alttfnABdnnigbflolim |x>ivetv, MnoiitelM buliekiitteiiri- t0Tr»- 
kPYt ti|ir Jbusyrieipilal/fiaMQ his piKmja^ i^mt- <;<Mtiu^yt.Bikd0'thefr 
IdrBOMtffhahimtkrifoojie tJppbfiA^ J \ k '. 

TIbis ladtcdlofis affoMnoirof oUthotfifcy and ^gnmdeuir jpc^w stijt 
it/fe mA povfr )«[£reiiii«B f d- Agwdmla^^ «Bd teemed ae < iff Eatended 
• uMMiH binR.1 Halreeevted it fiQ.|]%My,.1takhanag^ l^efithe^'aicwt 
inAideslible comtotadi/ and iheet . tgovesimientti to->^riv«te lifficai^, 
). af^iote^' iiyander : cmitmaflitrpi bf i ttej attrqi^ andi'dtst^ilMfitMr 
' pn»yisiilnar' iuidr>iJ1tei'«avd9vtaiitB!flt,a]id';derid*>tb&ii^^ 
r toldtiMtoi .'t^iiA«Si!t migkijnam go ant^ ctmifili'ihwf'mad^ 

LyimBiiee^inkthoiklt^ tq 8Habi(«]id teii6oiiie 

an ex^naftion vrm Qumi i < TheinmnReiflatioB wate 'brief mdJaoc^ 
i;. ' CifiaM^'myhtA^iBfiA ■. ljfBmi6aR^\y0W9ary vreli ftnoio k&dlSf 

i>fel»/> > dhrf ferhmjn^wfy'jhiA, ^replied l^fBonder, i Imm deen-iii*- 
r9d)kyJiAm99poi^ landi ■ <&Mgv iTt alefleft^kd ,M« i9an4m|Nii«2 fo 

oe all. ofM&m tk^r ef^kt upm tui^ihat jifptiiMkiHUd ghB<piB mi^fm^ 
i^fmentm ^tmr^atfimf^imhatein^Qtftihaii tkM m^^Aitei^^le ^ 

The'ivsidt idTlJMiv^^convettetroii* waaf^tlid^t /AgfesildiiS ^^/^;Hinitt|i 
btentticy c^ikm^'e^isfanfu litfthi^'eMdi^ all 

I Ma^nhnetnltliadthoQt 'hou^eve^ neg>lectiitg aiif jiartof ^hte dtt%^ 
o(]iattiiigHany.flft0pliKA:{ini^ht4on&c&tD'tbe mmim 6t affam 
ine^rsh<Rtitiiae aftoDlle'reiiiirned toi&MUta^ 'witiimit 4m3rinai^ 
jiOno^ <if JiiiibetHini eiitreinely'ikteeMd agaihst ll;ge6ilauilj«ad 

[t i£ialrf%«>'mfite6dr^ttipitXiy8aiHS«i\iti(Coimact,'M h^K 

ps8eittedi<tt;>ideB6taB()i*^ritimyi«od>' df vinil oflldi 

at, iiiiWjr tiDwbfthy /df (hia^iiepfitlEition;' Pei^«pe A^eeikur ei.^ 
d<tdA>:ftirjhiB e^oatbiii)^ aiidiMiosaj^ifu tiiei>p(ri&t offtodduH tttid 
B a'fiUiertboflM^iv^on a'ftMd^fid M^ef&mluin whbm'ac^e^et 
•rimand, attended with franknesa and eacpMoiMlB ^f kin^ilefliH 

vfatdie, tiiey7/colililcfiot di«f tkfearriyehim a)Ti9iiie,'hot)i»iilf J|» 
•equalfty wiih /hia>Tiiiag^<aiidjM^nai but) to tl» ^ti(pari<»it^ Jkl 
sctsdy wSaeh iai aomeuewm t^ded to<ina]^ tte^tMf4MMia 
cantiii ^aa«Bif ht tothfe^eiMnntmiierediichfJi it is^mikft^^mtim 
AB intoiotiita M^ifauhiscaf, and tO'^Kce0d th^'ttOttttfo «fi4 jttit 
loitlinaikioB^'i >'' doo^j j. ■ .."; m"' '^^ '"' " '"■'' ^^'^* ^'^"^ ^ -ilqqL-c 
^p^ Aipv^iuf»ta'^paHi«''lki^ttdatviii4ot^ 

ass > / MaofftDflTJor ii»ft>i.^i 

.iktBguf^A ttemwere <mly''twofftu»iUfl»j oi- rfaHieT BmbittBB^'bf tte 
-pQBtanty of iiarcaieeH wlto Ml^vngiit to ttiffitfaMoekir /^^yWnL^- 
^aiMbi jtadtattained titbit. Ingh^lepw^ o^'fow%rnvkiiflpirii gvoM 
ift€lfooBifaAd',acquiMd<1iilii4thelbegaR to iMr^tiM^paiii a v^wbcmt 
glory had been JMMniMh' anglneiKcii irpthm^iestpbhs^'iMMforiilifafe 
Igoveniiiventiof priQces to /'wkmnJie wosxitaAKidr Beifiieii'ni'ivlflbur 
itoiinbirth '9 1 for he < was deseevded; as^ ^el) withcfiteekes^ Ifroai -^Htfr • 
i«uW>'rHe^tiiespfiM9Bidwifht m^ahi to deptivathoM taeoih eu ii uu of 
.Ihasdle BUccaQBiontiiithe crown, 'and to^exftbadduitTi^faicto all t^e 
labliMli beindhes aiillB» ifi^adids^'aadrvvain dAcordki^'to''^^^ tc 
aH)theftiatiitfefrpf 3piin»; ^utt^ring hkiiielf;tliaftdf hia.deaifii took 
443Mt,{na«Spkiiiaa chiM b^ capable pfdiqpilii%^atiiMtt(£r witk 
him, and that he should have the preference over all others.^ * v 
'. ..ThM fanfaHkmpiujec^'of Lyaaddersfaoiirav!^^ cap- 

4auibffli» oflketi tnpae ffomiiviMmsftepufalioihiiLa most l;ara^preheiML 
^bflae <]ta«%l^$ ^alitot. spnSta, acfciMtaniad^itoab^lutB' power is 
gamusBf brio^ badt' tntbSriotofj a .de!ruig l6ftuieM of uamd, alwityB 
t» ,be -dtaaded itk «'<ftea ^fitat8» ViBpaita^ia giv^g L|raAhder nlHi* 
lifted powei,^nd^Ieam^ itibv so jtaailyNTeara ill £9 iutfeda, did not 
€ufficie9Uyv«^aidet,'thiBLtr'«otiiingviaiitoo^e dfodgefi^atltan id^von- 
£d« ,tQ {19100110^ tif ' BOpoiiior flfMfit and Ubiiitw»\eii^yineiit8«Whieh 
^lanftts eiipi«ii}e'&utftofity,\w«i0Ji tta^uraUy^ esq^dsaa <them to the 
'temptafiortcof rendeidng'thtaiaetves ndep^^Bdent^and retaining. in 
their own hai^s absold&iioii^A I^jninmlci* .Was iiat«proofi«gaumt 

HtfXbfti luriariidlnniff wejb fauld^l and IrenliiiKe^ ifed| f^pkratiom j -fie 
jfcj^gbtitiQriiiif>o^aible to -siieceeA- wkboitt he^ eaiild drat* tbDough 
m»i^ )be AvuBty andtthe tdrwna ctf;anpiirtti4inii,<^ate'ilwi«uth 
ilifi^the: oitiaoDS! intoi a mbre. eii«y-.oiBpE>ailiaB <ia teoeitfiHihat* he 
Mf\tediito M(va>-t}i9n[» haikiatond ;* fef ibe latttvriKbat; al> fipaita, i« 
well as throui9bottt«lk6reMe,flbtbingidftfad kalt itapDiluiice was 
deterwrnfifc^ wiUMLUtithsjaontclte bao^ipifei&aualjitcaniulledii jHe 
Hjbtove by^^elt pieaonbi^to* iiuaoenoe the priettoaiad Jpiieeteasea of 
9dpbii/i)od9lMW(aQft' Atnmosi; ft^ii|^iitidffeotiMdi|r - at fUtt time ; 
9mi tb^latKet ey/mifmt BOili>agfiaddr»«to Bpbria, to mccus&iMiA ^f 
)^ihi|(«credflt AiidifSdi^e.' . >- -(Lir; w! i!:;w :^'n T'n^.-*.. 
y: lU'W^Me^tesni^kb ^t i>thert;c(Bgiiiisa Jt&wcok;!' A mknah on 
(h^4lii«f^ift;0^fipil^t»^tn»n^that>dbe wabiwilbchil^ bgrApello, 
it4 }¥een>deliit9rf d $ome^YeaaR4iefdr« ttf a- BDi^towhom-tirieamiM 
At m^i3Msi0^B» g^em 900 tba greattot^ppiBihia^df that n^aai^ hal 

e' liadjtyvstll ea^cnoBs fos.the mmariofiiiuisiBg )mA «dheattBg 
AdpasdM) takingi^hti wotidiQii8ibiftb«for tUf^icsvUkencemeiit 
>Oi|iiQ» jilNmiiOF i^bQ.j^pdworkvCtf^ tbalpl^i^ wtaa^imbditatinf 
supplied the rest himsdf, by employing a good numhoMlfr > personfl 
•94MhQae[pfiilQ;iiiK»nfftd0r»b)ft.:«tMi<mi t«<ft)ctad*abKo«i» ^.wai 
af prologue j^i.^ftPtef)8^it.^9'fmrfM$i|)i9iJf bijtb of jfcfcip. infant; an< 

•wergi d t f < l » c d to Wlie^r^, H* Tijis baing dcoRe, they^pji^t^car- 
tauiiQBpiovn fronju ]>elpiii to Sj^ta, .which w^r^.'i^^staq^l9Jy 
9p)Hp%i i^bioad^ ^^ery wh^ere, thfit the pncist^.^ the temple, haa ,^ 
their.:c^9to4y«(>pe book^ of <very iuicieot Qifaclee, whkh thqy ieot 
C09C«iiied fr(V]a,,-all the world, and of wfai9h it was aow pq^mitted, 
either for. theiia ot .any pther persons Vhatsaev^^ fq nave ai^ 
'knowledge; and ^at,AE^ly a jon of Apollo, who^as to coing,^ 
fiTQCeasof timCf after hav^g) given unooubted proofs of h^j»^h 
to thppe who had t^he bop]^ iff their keeping, ^was to take and caxiry 
theip away. . •^. . ' •■ > .... . , ' . ./,. , . " , , / V , 

AU this beij^g weU amng^^ Sileaus )vaa to.present him^^.,(o 
the pr-i^sU, and to d^nuMid th^fw ors^le^ as t^^^sqn o/! Apoljo r j^i^ 
the pf^est^i who wc^^ in th^ seciret) as .actors yrell prepared ana iS^ 
instrpciad in th^ir.jMLF^, were on their si^e to jnake \k<^ B)98t'^jcact 
and i^irouratt^flpp^alilnqu^ into eveiy. thing,; JQ^t withou^t: aff^^l^ 
gre^it difficulty,:and askiiw. endless qu^iona/or, th^.^l4i .pi:oof oF 
Efat Ih^. : At length) as abff>Uit^ly cppvinc^d that this Siloiua |W^ 
the roo) iSQ]|,oC ^poljio, thi^y were tp prfiduce the bookstand ijieliy^ 
them to hin^»» a^er.whieh, thi^jton p^ ApP^h) wfts t^o road the ^x^ 
I^ecieiBjavisiiied ia thcon, jg the jH^^ea^e of aJJi the<^.wpna; and 
.{Artkuiarlv that fox which ihe. whole co^p:;yanq^ had .jf^^ fftbii;'- 
oat^ ;tT«u9 JlWor^ofrthiatPr^iction was, ThaijiX wof.mdre e^^figr 
dUn^ffn^iadbaa^uig^f^ forfh^ ffpartofu tp f^t no Hfi^ ^,th^/yf 
lure, but the mott worthy ^^their^ citfz^ns, JiAjaf^fi^f^. v^^\c^tti^ 
<|iieiiQQ;|BVf^(,to jQaonnt the tri^unU, to; harangue tile. ^i;&ensv and 
iliduco thepi t^f^mak&.this alteration* /pleon ofr{Halicarne^6uSj.,a 
' celebrated rbetoriciiLi^, )iad composed a^very eloquentMliscpMr^e for 
him.ujiQft the snl|iect|i.]«rbichiie had got by heart, ;.. . ^ 

^ jias^,whej& grgwii up^ having repaired tp.Gr/eeqe, in offder to 
.pjay his |>firt, jLiyj8aMi?r had thg mortifio^tipa to see his.pieq^ .flnp-^vtimidity and depertiqn. qlaae, pf fei^ principal ac%f, 
wW:hroke'^word> aad dia||pp^red:^tL0ijvery ios^^t it ^aa to 
hav^ be^n pei;formeil. Thqugh this jipidgy^.l^ad been ^i^rried on a 
g^f4,twhUa»j(t ^as Uanisaqtedcwithsp. uhica $f?Qcepy te.t^be vai^ 
timet Ihat it jfffA t% ha^va 'm!|d^ i^S; ,appieafance,,thAt- notl^ng ofjut 
was k|)ow|i, dulling' Ibi? Hfe ofi Lysauderr:;^ IJpw, jtiCW^^rto. ligbt 
^m^)^s ^9Ath, we s^ soqi\ lelat^, but.mM^ &t F^^^iH l^t.u|n to 

i; V •} ' ,"•■. <» .'i ■' ..• •.' ! ■■ ' ■ i'.i II' • .'• '.'. fej ."'=^.:l 
.£xjMdiUon of jj^ilaqft in Aua. Dufnce ud d«c^h 9f TinapWnaii Sparta fifM 
^AJetflam the tomm^d df ita arthieL by i^i^Md %m. He depdcea nHtnder td cd6k> 
IMilttMleilletb^ I»l0lM(Mof Afeiiiam ^Pl)ttltttittui. '^ r^j ,; . . v ..(^.d 

•' When Tlssa|jhefhes* h«Ld i-ec.eiVed'tlfe tfdojw s^Ut ^i>^hHh'bV tBo 
"^kidi, and dra^ together JiU his forl*]^^/ tie lent to'dommaticl Kg^-i 

Acwil. p.MO. .■•:- nVv ■•...•» 'fv; ,i\\ 

Vol. III. 2F 

♦ it 

"W'ito^ 7^!re cot of A^ik; «)iQ dbblaMd Wti¥ ^[aMI tol^M 'ante 
of a. Afhsal. Hb offia^n W^e ^fcU alaftniid;^ ikfft beHeviHgr biiA Izi a 
<Cbi(i4iti(^to oppose the^gteat anny of tlltt ■ l^trsikUi kini^r-itFor Ultki- 

^^toce, and bade th^t^ their maater, &kt lei WM ^MMdi^ «* very 

*greatf'6bligttion to hmi' for haifing rriade ike ^od§^ by hU per- 

juru, ihe enemies of Persia, and ike fr^enOtof €Mfite. ^He pro- 

niiiJ^d'faimsielf great thin|f8 from this exiMitioH, ahd wotaM bave 

tMfoght it an exceedih)gf dte^ace folt tiim, thiat'iPjOOO^redkB, i»d«r 

tbe^ coiiimand of X^bphon, i^oold have posted throtigh tho heart 

of Asia to the Grecian sea, and beaten the king of Persia aii Oflen as 

;he ^pea^ed'against them ; and that he w(k> eomrnalided the Lacede- 

'iiktn^r, who^e empire '^xtebildd aU ov^r Or^«ce, hy bea and land, 

^AfoUl^not eitecut^ some briIliB!nt exploit worthy of rem^branoe. 

''^^ At first, therefore,^to take vengfeaafce for' the perfidy of Tissa 

^Aie?iihs by a just tod allowable deeeiic, fyektierae'^' -feint of maroh^ 

mgHis larmy IntoOaria/ tht^fesidi^ice tf that sat^afi;' and'^s «oon 

*)lst^e9aT^atian'had caused' ill- his troo^ to'toarch'that Wy,<he 

J^rne^ -dhort, tod fell t^on""Phiy^a,'>vhere he tOok ihany to^vns. 

tod fltfiias^ immfens^ treasuiiDsl which- 'he dibttlbined'aiiiong the 

^fficerb ' and, Ii6)d^fi/;' lotfiti^ Mi^ fViehdss^,' saysr Piiirf u^h. that to 

bl^eak^a^l-eaty ithd'yiMate an oath,'b'tod^ei3p«8e't^ gtm them- 

TjdVes ; «ihdHhat,'bn thecbntttiry,' tO*dec€*ve'to teAttby by the'btm- 

"tigems Off war, i^nbt only just 'and glorious; but A^ensSble delight 

irttendedwitftthe^greatest^adtaitta^ea^ ^*' * • *' ^' 

^^•'Thi^ ^*^g i^i^S cortjei^hfe assembled all his^'fereesat^Ephestis, 

tod'to ett^cise'hls soldiers, he propb^d prizes (>6th'fbr the horse 

'HinSt-Gka. -Thi^'Anall inducement »<ft"every ^hing in motion. TJie 

place folp exercises^ was^perpetuailly full of 'htf Idfe^ of troops, and 

^the'dity 6f Ephesus seetiied onlv a palestm^and a sdiec^ of wai^. 

*The Whole market-pkce was ^l^d with hdMiM and ahnb, tod the 

'IWpB' with differ«»it'kiM»df iliilitarjr equipages.' ^Agesilkuii was 

*ite*in'teturttiiig frota the eJ^ifciseS, fallowed ' \^ actowd of officers 

'todsbldi^fe^'ailof ^th^tti cn)wned>^itfi wreaths; whidi they were 

Vomg* to^eposfeitt th6' temple Of Piatia, to thb g^at Admiration and 

delist of every orie. "^P6^; says Xeni^phbn, wfttere^tv tott dieci- 

^j^Une ar^ ne&i to flouHsh, the best I^es mtttii ^ ^nedved. '• 

'■ To ' ^ve Md tolcliers hew talont % inipiHi*^ tfaem ^th contempt 

for their enemies, he made use of this contrivance.' 'H^iSUe day 

ordered the commi8saries«jYho ^%4 charge of the booty, to strip the 

prit^ners and expose them to'' sale. ¥here were abundance who 

Iwere readj^' to buy ih'efr WtjJitfe,; i)t(i as to t|lie 'prisbners, their 

^dies were so sofl^.whita^ani delicate, havmg been Burtiured 

^.nlld,:bro^g^^t 115, in tjb^^haae, that, they lathed at theip» as 

.|ir ^ith^r jejcvioe.nor wivjejj Agesilaus tooE tjys occasion to 

approach and say to his sblaiers, pointing' to the meii, See tkert 

■li^v!b«r#A0iii9Km'^%)U/ aadishM9«agt tben their ricll vtfm^aini 

there /<& iohai you Jight, ^ I " 

I ^ .ill .^K 

When the «eim]^% Uikvm 1^9 Mi-f^^wa^ AgeettnoB «ve 
OttI Ihftthe woiild march ^ntf> ugiiB^ 1!)s^pi^eiTie8, who ha'4'i)<>^i;-. 
goyusa ih0 fi«t GiliTat^eiabe flad uf^/in regtird to bip,and wis iiy('^ 
viUkig to hV deceiv^aee^oDd;t|ii}^,niaj^.|48^roop9 marcli-iiir^t-' 
l|r-fprCam; JBiotdouhtiQg. lipit at.*t%i' ^unp^AgeeOauf would 'tili^^ 
hjuiemiftthatfway; th^ leather l^cap^ it was natural fdf mtn^a» 
he wanted cavali7, to ^eavour to ii)ake a rough aqd di^cult couil ' 'l 
try tkeetfat of a«tien) which might rend^ the horsft of fm 'i^neir .' 
iK»eleaa end unservioeahle* -. But. he deceived himself. Ageiih. 
entered jijrdia* aiid;^proac.hei^,Sandji/ff .Tissapl^ernes hast^fiied 
thMiierwilh. his horsA, wi^h' intent^ to i^Jiev.^ the placo. Age^i- 
leiu; knowine thaJt.>his 'inCaiji^r coutd npt^yot haye had^tirae'tV 
arrive, thottglit .proper to tfke th^ jidv/mtage.of so f^TOurable 'an' 
opport«&)it|r tO) give. him h}«ttlf» bia^mW^&u^reas^ all his' 

troops. jHe. drew up in two lin^ \f.tfl^ jGrst HeT^rmed'of 
his eqoadrens, whese ii^rvaJs he fill^djup^ith platioons of th^ 
liffht-einied AN^t„anid<,<opnd^ed th^.to bogin the x;IiargeV whilst lie 
ralowed Inth the s^pond jy)qf , ([;omposed pf his heavj-a]?iied inf^/ 
tsy. The-Barhexians. difl inptr^u6taiiv.the first^ shock, but took tp 
tbeir- heels>'in|nMfdiat0fy* ( Thc^ fjreeks .p^rsued thein, and forced 
their camp, where they^mad^'.a.freat s^t^h^erj }Uid a ^ill grater 

Afterthiftbatt2($*!thBti;oaps»pf Agesilauaw.erer'at entir^ liberty 
to phmd#r and^ ravage th/es rw.ljf o)e cot^ntcy of tbe^l^r^at Ein^^^^d 
at the same tlm^' had; th^/f^isfa^t^oi^itp aeJB thaj, prince inflict an ^ 
taamphry puoiisihmeiit upo^ Tv^t^p^emos, wtio .^a^^.a very wicked 
^aaa^>e(iid!ihe:m06tda(iigeroQ8 enemy, of the (^^eeksZ T^e king had 
already received. ahwoSisi^, of cm^l^^ts against W CQpdu'ct.'l^ 
Upda this occasion he >WM ad^sed.o^ treason^ . as not having dpne 
his>dnty in tfa^< battle*) .Qileen Bary^is^ alwf^s aotjjjated in hht 
halted .andireveoge. agakiat ^hosa who had any sh^'^m.^tlre death 
of 'ber con Oyms, ^id not a li^le cpntrihute t^ the d^th 6j Tissa^ 
phem^^ by agrralrating wit^ all h^[ power the charges p^kinif 
him ; lor she nad been entirely restored to favour o^fj^f ki^g • 
heraottb ^.r-\': : i, ' ... ,. ,, r , ,.;•// /.-: 

As TissaphenuMihad gr^t authority ifi Asia, ttiei king wai^ afraid 
to httaok huB opekily, hHt thought it.necMyy tp taUe suitable, ^r^- 
eaiitionsl in « order, tci see^e soi powedufanofficeri'v^o nii|;ht 
prove' e^angefoua miemy. He /charged ^itl^faustes with fhkt' ih^- 
portaBl'Commi8Bion«>and gave faio^ twp Ipt^erisf at the sftmeftiiiie. 
The ficit wiUB for Tiasap)^mes,:aad contained, the'^eS' ii^ 
leqjflml te thewar with tbti Grei^fcs, wi^tl) fn)! powe^: tp act' .9J^M 
reqiiisite.oThesecotid was addressed to ^ieus, governor pfT^. 
ii8sa;.by whtoh the king eonunanded {inn^to assist; Tithrasistee 
with his advift^4uid:«llvhis foroes i^ s^zhig Tipaphemes. H^ Tdat; 
Bo:time,«Dd eent to desire vTissaphernes vf^M ,cooie to bina, Wf 

* XBOoph. p. ^, aoa 657. not. in Artax. p. 10S3, and in Afenl. p. 0Q|, /. 
t Diod. 1. xiT. pJm Palywi. Strata^. k vi|:.,- - ^ n . . , . / . 

M ''kiS¥bHt 0*- 'mi'' ■'■■■■ 

dlL<^7 inigKrconfei' t^i^thbr t^ the dpenltiott9 6ftlie enmiiii; cfttn 
pugni* 3^^B3<^P^^^^> "^^^ JBospectW jf^llifbgj went to bim ^wicli 
qo^ tt.guar<) of 300 i^cq. Wfaust hj^ wM inn iMEth, withotit Mbre 
OT >>ther anns, h^ wastei^ed^tunHpcit int<>thelMLO^of Tithltui^^ 
Who caused ^s head t6 be att^cl: M^ and ^«rrt ititem^mtdytto 
Persia.. The kin^ ofave it t^ Par^rst^tiB; knW^eeabl^ pl-eaeni to' 
fi pr^iicesQ of her iriofent tod vindictire ten))^r.> Thougk' ttsift ootii* 
ductjjof.Artaxetxes ^eetnli little t^oitby of 'tr'kif)^v:iM>bhdyianMttted 
tjie iqeath of that satrap, who httd no venenR^diy fbr'the'^BOds^ not 
an/ regard. for n^et^; who l&oked^upor:t^i^bltf abd1ion6tirksI«iipty 
names i. who mt^de a jest|t>f the ksik i^acred ei«t1i9, and bbfievnAifibe- 
\frhole iibiJit^ .i^nd p^ney \ii a sttttigsmftiy ebtisiiied in kn&wiujf bow 
to deceive others by ^ypoitisyj'ft'and, perfidy, a^ peijtuy*'' " 
, TithraivBte^ had a' thvrd letter fr*m'^ king^, Whei^bj iM was 
^pppinte^'to GorhW^hd the armies in'' Che room df Tiisaphames.' 
After hay^)g execute^ his commissions^ hf^ seM greiEt frreseata to 
A|;esilaus^ to induce him'to, enter^moire r'^dHy^into hll views and 
inT^hsts;' an^ ordered bim to be told, thatWth^ eiii^m^KM the wiff 


]upi the customary tribate;^, provided he would withdraw his ti^bops' 
Q^d return into breeCe. Agesflaus i-epliedj thttt he eaald>^ancliide 
nbtlbing without the orders ^ SJparta'^ upim Wliem albne Upended 
'ijhe peace; that i^ for hlhi,'he Wa« bjette^^ plieaiiedwith eairiefaing 
his soldiers than Itself.- th^'t 4he Greeks beMes'SfciMMi||bt'hit|KH7e 
jjlqriou^ anA honbtirable to t4ke^.s}>oik f)f6m:tbei^ eiMmics, tkn^ to 
ac^cept their (iiesentfi' How^v^,^a8 he^w^iiot iJtowilliBg ti|}|riTe 
ir^tliraHstes the satisfHtition'of rernovmgf Mt ofhis pitmnoef ami of 
expressing t]&tf|^a^knde tblShn "fot having punished ^the cstoinon 
enemy ^rtife \ureeks, hfe marched itfte Pkrygta, whish wtW the 
wpyinc^ of f^hartiahazus. ' ' Titl^raustee had'himsdf proposed that 
expedliifih'tp'hW &nd'paid*Mm thirty talents forttie cUaMMS of 
his* jouSe^J •' ^^- '^ * ^" ^ • « TT^. 

jLTp^n his m^rch he received a letter from the magistrates ixf 
Sparlla, with orders to takb iipon Mm^tbe cammMid' & tfaM^'naval 
a<py» and libeny't'6'^d>tet(te Whomhe thiduglit 4t>Sirj!iis sleijd. By; 
theseJQ/elw'powerfif^ie pa.whiVnself abs(J>cH;i!r comraanderDf aU the 
tffcfopsgf that sUte iKAsijoL b^Hi \>^^a and'land. llns' vb6slati9it< 
was taken, in ordeir tHal.iill dperanons l)ring> drrecfted by otecand 
the^aine liead, and fh^'tWdahmfes- acting in eohcert,4he jliaiisfor 
th€&Bemce biight'be'Jeiccuted wlth'^mon^ umformity^ sad errsry 
th^ conspirff to the /^ame end.^ fSparta till then haid tiever.«OB'» 
ferred»thid honour u;^Qd any bf her ^eneralsL of itftnisidng to him at 
t^l^saine tigrie thb cptmnahd ^the at mies" by 'sea and. land. Sd that 
till'tibe wprld 'Agreed, that he was the greatest )>e]soMige-*o£ 

• rtf iiiil! ' t 

« Xenoph. Mist Gibc. I. Ui. f4 501« •> Plat in Ax«piL ^^. , . > 

wuagiaii^«isil)hiiidhufliiUiX|gs. '^( '*^^ "^ /> ' '.">/ 

Tlie Sm, tbingf h^iafd -Wi^^o edOiblisb t^itlftttdiet ^i* >liettt«iiittirfki 
tlie fl0^ ; k which hoifleeiiid^'tb' Ii*t« «6ii^bliVf^ ft ecfaM^MH 
fiiult; b^catMe^ M h^ ImmI «,4ftdh« lidm itmf older antl^^ore >::m^ 
99^d^ =oaptfti]]«,7el<Wi«6diit;'i^^td (^ the Bet^(>4 f^th^^p^^c^; 
to do hofiovr to a i^lntioifi^' aiiil^to plea^ .his wife,Vhb vi^tts r^n^^ 
def's si«tei>, he^ixittciited Kinft withtJi^ «mhmftiYd of tfae^flebf; 'ilf 
employmdnt^dh ahovcf^M Kbdki^t, though ^>w«8 not ilritH^^ 

Thfo Is the iidtMf»litt!fht^tttt^n of ^t«eiiM^in'poW%f, who belicM 
they possess it only for themselves- and tMr Hundies': as if the ftcl- 
TKDtajgte of TlBl«iti#ti to' them Wasa 6tifBbi6h=t'title afed quidification 
for posts whkA reiijtfrfie great abilities;' ♦Phe^ do ftot' reflect, that 
they riot only tJ«jkte^ the affairs of a state to ruin 'by *3ifir JjnrAte 
viewH, bot'6afe»fi(^e 'besides th^im^r^ests of thMi' b«^ |^y, wMcftf 
cannot be 'nfttiMainied brit'by i^'cesses whleliit W^e Inconsi^en^ 
to ^xpeieH^'from hifitrmn^ts sdiil chosen. '^^ " *' . ' 

A. Bipwior' AgiB(»ilaui^' continue '=wifh his. aifiiij^ in Phrygiit,^ 
Ak J. o. 3|M- upon the^liiii^bf Piftimabaitjs's g'ov^ftiment, where h*? 
Hvec(^ abtManco'of alllhii^^, fiihd amass^ great sui^s of money/ 
Froilii^tli^nde,^adVAnoitig'i^s%TVs Faphlagonla, he mi^'B!L''<ilHiuio0^ 
with king Coijts, who eahiertljr deisiired' his amity, froih .hie; 'Jense* 
he entertained of hiir Talth^h'the^obs^vance of trefiUes, anQ' his 
ethi^r Virtus. The<flame Hic^iv^ faa^lth^ady induced 'Spith^fes^, 
one 'of the ld^> principal officers, to ^it the sfen^ice of PharriA* 
baztia^'and g6 over to AgesUaud, towhornVfiiQce bis reyolt, heliad^ 
rendeired^' ^eat services; for he hfcid* a griefat'|>ody of trbopA, and' 
irtB ' very waVe. ^his officer having ent^ Phrjrj^a, had laid 
waste the whole Country ^hder PhamaljAzus. vrhd never dared- to'! 
appeal In tl^ field ti^iojMl^m; nor even' to tTudt 'Mmiielf to his for-' 
tresses: but ciittytog 'a#ay wWever'v^ad' rifost Valuable and dear 
to him, he kei^ flying continually befblrelihn, and' retiiied ffom one' *• 
plaee to another, changing his bHrnp ^verv da^.""* Spitlftidates, at- 
lengti^ taking with him some^partdn troops, with If9i^pidafl'(di§^ 
chief of ^ the' new cotmcfl 'of thirty' sent Sy^h^ repjjtblic to A^si* 
la^tsthe Second year,) Watched bim' one day so closelj^ and attacked* 
hitnt^so succcssfully,,tnat'hfe made hlmsejf master of hiscanip, and 
of all the rich sploils with Whibh it abounded. 'H^rippidas, mjudir 
dously ^tting himself 'np as an ' inexorable ^comptronel", 'Was ibr 
bringing the boOty that had been sedreted tb^an account; foi-ced^ 
even the Aoldiers^of Spithridaties' to .restore what .they, had taken^ 
and by visiting th^ir tents, aiid s^rchin^' th^m \^h tA uniiea'lon'-' 
ble exactitude bxjA severity, kffl^htd0 Spithr)datd^ t6 snch a d^g!^e/ 
that- he withdrew directly t6 Sardis with hl^ Pkphlagdnllln's.-'^^ 

It » ^&id, that in this whole e^ditibn nothhijf ito tMititf 

. . / 



•fectf d ^(gesikus 90 j^ife mti^t ^f Spit^ridftliQfl«s^ For, beiii^to 
Deing yery sorry for the loss of so j^oo^. m. 0ffie^iAjq0l'0O ^opd 
ti;opp9^.hQ<.iQ)|irebeni40ii^*])«ing^proa€lie)d[.W»t)) menti «i<t miMid 
9i\MX\ce} «,viQe equally, ^bopcrar^bi^.l^ biraiilelf and Ms: coimtry, 
and the a%hi^ -saspi^A of i^i»b^j^9 h»4 U^eB fmoa td aj^oid 
^rjiioig hgi wf^^. 9e (^i4 f^it- UuqH it^ JQ^n^Utept with t&e dut^ 
if hisrom^ ,t;o «hut bis , i^y^s, tbrcugb gl^bful' ^Nise and iodolsnce, 
ftgauii^.fiu. the malversatjyoDs that wereirXK>mmittediPnde]^ JioiE ;. but 
1(9 |(pe^, at tb^^apfie timQ,[lhat tfa^re iflj^n exacti^de and^f^yerity, 
i^Miich, by being carried too far, degenerates into minute^Cj^ aud 
|«tulaiicy, fuid whicbrthiougL an es^en^.cfiE^^Mioii pf V}xtmb N- 
Gpmea a rei^ and ^angerpjuf) vipei. /i^^ • ■ L. . t ' . 

,,,Sonie;^.time afler, rk^Tn^azus^^'^.y^ho saw bR^hol^ couatry 
x^yi^ed, demax^ed. an interview with Ag«sik:\^xwbioh imas negor. 
tiated by ,a, common friend o( them, bot£k. Age^laus arrive^^ %«ty. 
vi|tb,^is frien^j,at ^he place agreed on; ^jiSd.wJWei^wUng ibr 

_||hiMiiabazugv§at,.dQ\V:n upon the tusf un^er ^ sk^^de .o^^p. tree, 
when Phamabazus arrived, .his, people- «pr€Ad skins tU||g^ ihe 
IfTQund,* of exceeding softness, fro)|i th^, len^l^b'^f ^beir haix^.with 
ti^ Capets ofivahous colouxsiy ;f|nd ma^ni^ent , cu6hio!Da*> iBui 
whei^^ba^saw Affesilaus sittii)g,,fner6lyiUpon tbe, ground^ wi|tbout' 
any, in^eipa^tion, he ' was ash^n^^d o^ lus (^fTemina^y, and sal ^wn, 
igso .^ppn tb^, grass. On this Vqasioifi tl^e Persianprid^ Wfi^l^qn 
to pay -homage tp tha Spartsfl, «iodf pty ^ si^^gpligity. .; . • ; » • 

. Ak^ ^reciprocal salutatippssy Pliarn9,tyB;ZUs fipol^ to tjl^is ^e&ct : 
that l\e had served th^ Laced^einp^utiis Iq the Peloponnesian wsjr, 
tp^the utmost of hJA pbyrett^ ^ovignt several battles fpr then^.and 
fiu^rtepl then* naval army, \v;itbout<giving any rporn tp r^pfjoap^ 
h}m w^ fraud or ti;eaphery, a^ Tissapheme^ had done: that 5]^^ 
"^as surpi^sed, a^ their( cc^ming. ,^0 att<aQ^ l^im }ji his government; 
burning the to.w^^. cutting, down .Uie,^tpees, and laying {waste, the 
-^bole country; that j(f it.wap the fustom.witb U^^ Greeks, who 

,|nskde pj^fes^n qf hoi^q^r.^^^ virtue, to treat their friendp{.and 
bppefactors, in suc^h a^ manner^ ^<s^:^id not know^ w^t they.^ght 
T^ean by just ajqdjcquTtab)^ , T)iese . complaintsV(^& not . eiUkely 
"without foujjwjlalion, and wereuttip^ed witfja mQdest,T)utypf^tlietit 
air» andttoi>e. off ypice. The j^partans, .,wjip attei^ded Ag«silaj|^ 
np.t se^>Vig.howthe^.ca^ be arifwered, cast down their ^yes, apd 
kept a profouPid sjlence. . Agesilaus, yvho. observe^, it.,, replied 
abno^t ifn these ter^ ; Zjord J^harnahazvfi, yqu are noi .^norofii 
ihcU^iipar ofi^^ arfns ^ jl^est fn/ndf qgfiiiist each p^^flr ^or the fif 
fence f^ their oountry* .. WkiUi^vie ipepe- such to the king your mas- 
<if , 194? ^^pd Jfim^^ at (t frien^fiut a$ wef,are now Ibecome hh ^fue* 
m^so^griake opm^mir.a^aaa^t, h^as'it Ujus^,ju}e thotif^and 
tndecbour to hurt hin^ hyMie injuries w,^ do yow« .Jlpweveryfrom 
\^tjn^itt/nt you .shfdlthipjfc JU tp throw off'^ i^.*ohfm(^[tJke ef 

• Xenoph. lailt.6Mfc.^ W. p. SKV^llil FkM.liiyActeiO. p. 003. 




h^ore4fmi «mI« qf the iring* cf Ptr^^M tkne, pou may r^deontkai 
M (he irpop^ywL Uebrf^nre ybvr tye^'mr atmi^emr Mptt owr pmr^ 
9on»,k>ihfi'kutiman.if'tt9^mre'mUyhe^ (o defend your p0aieukmt 
and secwre your UbeHy^.uhiekDf'otihlMnge uAemit^ frecwue 
and d^wrable* * rus •-: -iMr 

Phamabazus ansiwered, that if the kingp sent another general in 
ki^'place^and.'Buhjeotefl iiim io the nenvhopmor, heflhoirid v^ 
MfillWly. accept his odBTer; that otlnsrwiie he wpAld ■ not* de))«n _ 
from Uie faith he hAd Worn to hioi) nor quit hilf senrioes ^i^* 
laas then, taking him by the Jiand, and rmM with him^ wi3ied, , 
WoiiM U \fiere ihepleaturt of the godsy lord Ptamo&axtff, thoL tuith 
euefi^ikMe sefdimfimt^^ you vtere roJ^r our friend iik&n our enemy i 
HeprooSiiBedtto. ^i^ipbw ixoxa his ffoyermnent, and never Mturn 
into it, whilst ha could subsist eltewJoere. ■ . « 

, ,v; , • SECTION IV. ' ; .• j '. - :- ^. 

League agaioAt' the XiacedsmpniaM. Agesilaiu recalliscl by ^.e ¥!plMri to defend- hia 
country; obisya diro6tly Xiysander^t 'death. Victory of tlfft' liacednn&otiiana ntutt 

Nentoiu Ttwir tMi « biMte»- ^ OwiOP, off CoidM. Dottle ««ioed hy tke Lacedlt- 
moniana at Cf)f onsa* ' ..•.'.' .' • • n 

A. M.3610. - Agenlans* had be^n XMt^ years (ft the hi^ of the 
Ant;.j.c.3M. army, twi had akeiidy ttiade the prcvlhces '<»f'Ul^per 
Asia tremble at his name, and resound with the f^titte of fii^ great 
wisdota, dislntereifttedliess; moderation, intre^d valour ite; the. 
greatest dangers, and invihc^le patience in supporting the nldest 
Sitigvtes. -> 0? So many thousand soldiers under his comftntiiid, hot 
one Was wot«ria provided, or lay harder than hin^lf.' H^ was so* 
indifilerent as'to heat or'tfold, that he alone seemed ^Ibmfted to sup^ 
port the most rigoro'cfs seaBons,f and such «t6 it ple«ld^ God to send " 
These hre Plutatch's express wprds. • ' 

The most agreeable of all sigfate to the Greeks settled in Asfey 
was to see the lieutenants of the^reat kid^^/hls seitral^ and other 
great lords, who were formerly so haugl^y (itid'>m^r<>6e,' soffcenthelr^ 
note in.tb«l preseneia of a man, mefffi^y clad, and ^t his single wortl.' 
however short «iid ktconiC) change tb€^ Itoguage and coAduet, and ' 
in a manner trs^nsfoi'm themselves into different creatures. Deputies 
from all parts wei'er sent by the people, to form alliances with* him, 
and his army increased every day by the troops of the Barbarians 
that eame to join him. . o ' i. 

All Asia was already in motion, and most'Of the pnovinces ready 
to revolt. Agef ilaus had already restored order and traTM^uillity in ^ 
in all the eities, had' n)instated them' in the" possession of theilp' 
liberty under reasonable modifications, not only without shedding^ 

of l^d) but/ without even banishing' a single' person. Not <con- 

■ • . ,'.'-.' \ •• • •..•♦••• 

* Plot in Agenl. p. 603, 604.' Xenoph. in Ageail. p. 6S7. 

S44 /t HIsrORTOr THE.; . \ 

tent with facfcapreg t ea B ^ he had fetm#d the dodgn of attack^ thd 
kmif of Peraift^ int^e htoArt- of his dotninioiMi, t^ put hn* iir !«£' for 
loB own person «nd the tivnfttillity he enjoyed inyiBobatina and 
Sum., and to iind hkn cro ntuc'v' bu^UMsv^ shouldnsake it iaipnaoti^ 
eaUe % him- to erabroil all >Grta;e fvbm hiavcabin^ by eorruptingf 
tbe orators and persons of greatest authority in its cid^)*' wiw hi9 
preeente.-'> •"■■•'• " "- ■ .. *'^ ■,. . /.•-■■'' . '. . 

TithrauBtes,!^ who eommanded fbr the 9da^ t^A^ seeing tlie 
teBdehcy>ief AgeBihitisH»' (kuMgr^v, uid desiring* to sfireveQt.theii' 
effiBcts, had'fletat Tiinocrates of Rhodes 'into Greece, with- great 
snmii of money to'corrtipt the pvinoipalpevsetts in the^citie^, and 
by their means occasion commotioils a|raiiist Spaita. He knew 
that thehaughtineseof the La6edsinomatta'(ft^ all their generaltf 
did not Msemble'Agesilaus,) and the inn^evieusiiianiiepwitiE which 
they ti^ated their neighbonrs < and ^ies, especially sinoe they 
considered themselves as the