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thE PRESEnCE oC thIs Book 
thE ].m. kElly lIBRaRY 

StEphEn B. RomAn 
From the Library of Daniel Binchy 

AN C I E N T L A ,V S ù F I It E LAN D. 

-0111 ëecruEa-o 




.L'&W:i .AND 1....!!J'I'I'I'U'I'&8 Otl' IRJì:LANÐ





A. THOl\[ &; CO., 8i, 88, &; 89, ABBEY-STREET; 

 & FOCLlS. 


Pl'Íce Ten Shillin[Js. 

, 1st Septcmú( ,., 1879. 


Having been requested by the Com- 
nnSSlOners for publishing the Ancient Laws and 
Institutions of Ireland to edit such of the Brehon 
Law Tracts translated by the late Dr. O'Donovan 
or :Mr. O'Curry as lllight be most suitable for pub- 
lication, the Rev. Dr. T. O':\lahony anJ myself 
proceeded to prepare for the press the text and 
translation of the several Breholl Law Tracts con- 
tained in this volume. 
The Rev. Dr. T. O'.:\lahony, in consequence of ill- 
health, was unfortunately obliged to retire from 
all connexion with the editing of this volume 
before he had finally revised the entire Irish text. 
I am much indebted to the kindness of l\Ir. 'V. M. 
Hennessy, who corrected for the press that portion 
ofthe original text which had not been finally revised 
by the Rev. Dr. T. O'1\lahony. 
The notes appended to the text, except mere re- 
ferences, were selected by the Rev. Dr. T. O'Mahony 
from those appended to the manuscripts of the origi- 
nal translators. 
For the Introduction I am exclusively responsible. 
The Index and Synopsis have been prepared by 
l\1r. P. Bagenal. 


I am, my Lord, 
Your Lordship's obedient servant, 

The Right Rev. 
The Lord BiBhop of LmERICK, 
Secretary to the Commis.ion for Publishiug thc 
Ancient Laws and Institutions of Ireland. 




Part I.-General observations as to the translation, ' ii 
" n.-Of the Tract entitled "Of posses- 

" rn.-Of the" Fine" aUtI tho" Gulfine" system, J\.lix 
" I V.-Of the Incidcnce of Fines, 
Y.-Of the Succession to Land, 
" YI.-Of the Tract entitled "J uùgments conccrn- 
ing Co-tenancy," cJ\.ix 
" Vn.-Of the Tract entitled" Eee Judgments," cxli 
" YIII.-Of the Tract entitled" Right of \Vater," clvi 
" IX.-Of the Tract entitled" Prccincts," clxiv 
" X.-Of tbe Tract entitled" Divisions of Lanù;' cb..x 
" XI.-Of the Tract entitled the" Crith Gabhlacb," cl xxi v 
" X H.-Of the Tract known as "The Sequel to the 
Crith Gabhlach," . ceviii 
" XIII.-Of the Tract known as "Of Succession," 
and concluding observations, enxiii 





Synoptical Contents of Introduction, . 


1.-"Om r:eér:u5a"O ; or " Of t.<tking h1wful possession," 1 
II.-bf1,ear:ha comwr:hce[a all"O[O; or" Judgments of 
Co-tenancy," 67 
HI.-bech b1'.eLha; or " Bee Judgments," 1 G 1 
IV.-COlbn1u[ Ul[Cl; or" Right of \Vater," 
V.-mmb lle ; or" Precincts," . 2::!5 
VI.-"Oo ùr.eltemiJ1lu[, &c.; or "Of the Judgment of 
Every Crime," &c., 239 
VII.-'Cé"O an feap.ann a cmr:mb; or "The Land is 
forfeited fVI' Crimes," 
y [11.- 
o"Ota nll,e; or " Divisions of Land," 2;5 
IX.-"Oe fo"Otwb c111eolt ruwt1; or "Of the Divi<;ivns 
of the Tribe of a Territory," 281 
X.-Cr_tr:h buutaë, the Crith Gabhlacll, 297 
XI.- Do. do., thE' Sequel to tbe Crith Gal,hlach, 343 
Xn.-The unnamed Tract entitled" Of Succession," 3ïl 
Gencml Index of the Text, 383 



TilE Brehon Law 'Tracts contained in this volume have been 
selected by the Editors as specially illustrating the lantl- 
laws of the early Irish, and the constitution of the Celtic 
family and tribe. 
Upon the former of these subjects it is not to be antici- 
pated that we should find in any work, composed by a 
lawyer of the Drehon school, a series of definite rules 
systematically an-anged; or even an attempt to lay down 
the general principles upon which, in any class of cases, thù 
judge or ar1itrator proceeded. The idea of hw in its 
technical sense was wholly foreign to the ancient hnvyers. 
They dealt not with laws, but cu::;tOlm;; which, of unknown 
origin, handed down from remote antiquity, often obscure. 
and frequently misconceived, influenced the public opinion 
of each tribal community as to what it was right should he 
done in each particular case. The Brehons were gradually 
approaching the iùea of general legal propositions by an 
induction from numerous and di<;tinct c:mes which had been 
decided in accordance with pre-existing customs. 
This mode of dealing with legal questions has been largely 
illustrated in the prt'ceding volumes; assuming an individual 
case to have resulted in a concrete decision, they vary to a 
certain extent the constituent facts of the case by adding 
some, or striking out others, and speculate as to the variatiun 
in the decision which should have followed such an altem- 
tion in the fads. This mode of dealing with legal questions 
naturally fell in with the idea that all legal rights should Le 
treated from a negative point of view, that is, considereù 
not with the olÚe('t of being enforced, but rather of being 
compensated for when infringed, the amount of such com- 



pensation being assessed in fixed ratios with reference to 
the varying circumstances of each case. 
To record the existing customs of their tribe was not an 
easy task for the ancient lawyers, for it involved the 
necessity of reducing the indefinite general opinion of t.he 
tribe into a series of abrotract propositions by a wide induc- 
tion from particular cases. The most indefinite custom 
cannot exist, or be transmitted, without being reduced to 
some form which is capable of oral transmission, and in 
every uncivilized community certain ancient rules, dealing 
indifferently with moral and legal matters, are handed down 
from father to son, and remain the exclusive possession of 
the elders of the triùe and the sages of the law. Such 
ancient rules, when preserved, rarely afford any distinct or 
reliable information; they are intended to serve as catch- 
words or suggestions to assist the memory to recall what 
had been previously orally communicated; generally in a 
rythmical form, always in language condeused and antiquated, 
they assume the character of abrupt and sententious proverbs, 
the drift of which cannot be more than vaguely guessed at. 
Collections of such sayings are to be found scattered 
throughout the Brehon L'tw Tracts, and in them, if any- 
where, are to be found whatever abstract legal propositionR 
the Brehons possessed; it is to be regretted, although it may 
1.e naturally anticipated, that but little clear and definite 
infurmation can be extracted from thcse passages. If we 
were certain that they were preserved in thcir original fonll, 
and had no doubt of the accuracy of the translation, yet 
the actual meaning and practical application of these brief 
and oracular uttcrances would bc to a great extent a matter of 
mere speculation; such, however, is far from being the case, 
and the modern critic approaches the consideration of them 
undcr great, if not almost insuperable, difficulties. The 
firs!' inquiry natural1y is, whether we possess an authentic 
Archaic text; upon this preliminary and cardinal question it 
is impossihle not to fcel most serious misgivings; however 
ancient any particular rule, or rathcr apophthegm, may be, 
the grammatical fonn of the language in which it is 



expressed cannot cl:tÏm very high antiquity; it is manifestly 
much later than the Irish of the glosses; the words have 
lost thf'ir inflexions, but the sentences have not assumed a 
logical construction, and their present form very much 
resembles a Latin inscription in which the inflexional 
terminations of the nouns and verbs have been erased. 
Both the text and matter of popular literature orally trans- 
mittpd undergo a constant assimilation to the language and 
ideas of the day; but many examples prove that ancient 
formulæ handed down as the exclusive possession of a 
comparatively small number may at length become unin- 
telligible even to their exclusive custodians; the Salian hymn 
of X uma and the litanies of the Arval hrothers were repeated 
long after their direct meaning was lost. Although it cannot 
be contended that the text of the. Brehon law had become 
as absolutely antiquated as the formulæ last alluded to, it is 
evident that the commentators felt that they were dealing 
with an uncertain and difficult text; the numerous and 
often conflicting glosses, amI the commentary, sufficiently 
prove this. The original text may perhaps have been as much, 
amI as little, understood by the Brchon of the lGth century 
as the original text of the laws of the Decemviri by the 
Roman of the 1st century. 
An ancient legal text is further very much embarrassed by 
the necessary use of purely technical terms, which can have no 
life or meaning apart from the society in which they originated, 
and which when once lost can never be recovered. The ex- 
tensive reforms effected during the present century in the Eng- 
lish Real Property Law have already rendered obsolete a large 
proportion of the terms of legal art which were familiar to the 
cotemporaries of Lord Kenyon. In the case of an hereditary 
profession, as was that of the Brehon judge, the use of 
technical terms throws about the simplest operation the air 
of mystery, in which the exclusive possessors of any 
speciality desire to hide their calculations; and thus by 
every profession whose members assume an abstruse charac- 
ter, heralds, lawyers, theologians, &c., there are used vastly 
more technical words than are necessary, the object of which 



is rather to cloak trivial, than to express complex, ideas. 
Difficulties arising from this cau!'e occur plentifully in every 
Brehon law tract. 
The task of translating the original text is further 
embarrassed by the ordinary ab&enc
 of punctuation in 
the manuscripts. When the sentences in a paragraph 
are intended to be fully developed, an intelligent reader 
supplies for himself the want of punctuation (which is a 
very modern invention), and successfully follows the sense 
of the authors as it is gradually developed. The original 
Brehon text consists altogether of curt and proverbial ex- 
pressions, which rarely attempt the completeness ofa sentence, 
and are strung together without an attempt at logical or 
grammatical connexion; indeed it may be fairly supposed 
that if one of these paragraphs had been read through to a 
Brehon judge for the first time, evenly and without <<trong 
accentuation, he would have found himself much perplexed 
if required to explain the meaning. It is apparent that the 
most ancient passages possessed a rythmical structure, and 
that the movement of the verse, and the pauses in the lines, 
threw out separately and emphased the curt anll unorganized 
apophthegms. Passages of this character, when all the 
words are reduced to the one dead level by being successively 
written out without stop or accent, are absolutely deprived 
of all the aids to their comprehension, which their author 
assumed would be lent to them by the voice of the oral 
Editors of such a text m11st exercise the utmost caution, 
and are exposed to consbnt temptations. The first necefi- 
sary step which should precede translation is to break up 
the text into the proper paragraphs and sentences. Tho 
form of the text gives no indications how this should be done, 
and hence in the present case the logical process has been 
often inverted, the punctuation being fixeù with reference 
to an a priori conjecture of the general drift of the passage. 
Such speculations, however ingenious, are always practi- 
cally of little value, when a large proportion of the words 
are technical terms, the precise meaning of which is unknown 



to the author. The editors of this volume, which contains 
Illany passages of peculiar difficulty, have felt themselves 
forced to reconsider the principles upun which the more 
ancient text shoulù be translated, and to lay down some 
rules for their own guiùance in the matter. They have 
come to the opinion that the only consistant principle upon 
which a translation of the archaic passages can be baseù is to 
adopt the explanations of words contained in the glosses, and 
to assume the correctness of the '" iews as to the general 
meaning of the text expressed in the commentary. It may 
be easily conceded that the authors of both the glosses 
and commentary were themselves unable to translate the 
text with accuracy, or with certainty to divine its meaning; 
Imt their condition in respect to the modern editor is ao;; 
twilight to absolute darkness. At what date the original 
family and tribe-system was broken up in Ireland; whether 
it had not been superseded by another organisation even 
before the date of some of the commentators of the Brehon 
law tracts, is a question which cannot he answered without 
much consideration and further examination of both the 
Brehon law and the existing materials of Irish history; but 
whether the original Celtic family and tribe-system (lid or 
did not exist in its completeness at the time of commen- 
tators, they lived under the influence of the ancient tradi- 
tionallaw, and must, as an hereditary caste, have cherished 
the recollections and spirit of the old customs, the exact 
knowledge of which lllay even have ceased to be of practical 
importance. As a means of understanding the present, as 
even a fragmentary survival of what was once useful know- 
ledge, every lawyer learns as a matter of course much which 
is really obsolete and unpractical. The English law student 
is instructed in much of the law which has been 10nO' since 
advantageously abolished. The theory of the feudal system, 
the origin of the manor, the feigned proceedings by fine and 
recovery, are taught to modern students, who may never 
have any need practically to apply them; but by this process 
the tradition of the old real property law of England is 
handed on; and a second rate practitioner of our day could 



to some extent explain a case in the year books which 
would be absolutely impenetrable to the traincd mind of an 
accomplished civilian. Bcforc attempting to fix the mean- 
ing of any passage in the original text, the editors have 
consulted the glosses and commcntary with the view of 
ascertaining what the original commentators understood the 
general drift and meaning of the text to be, and the punctu- 
ation and translation has, as far as possible, been based upon 
the assumption of the correctness of the views of these 
early critics. Thc more any sblùent becomes conversant 
with the ancient texts, the more he must be impressed with 
the fact that any other mode of dealing with them is 
wholly conjectural. It is possible for an ingenious editor, 
hy a due application of stops, and the interpolation of words, 
supposed to be understood, in italics, to produce any results 
he may deRire, and by such a process a very plausible and 
consistent appearance may be given to a translation which 
hears a very feeble (if any) resemblance to the original. It 
is the simple duty of the editors of the prescnt volume to 
give the public a translation as correct as possible of the 
Irish text, and they have anxiously abstained from the con- 
stant temptation to translate this text in accordance with 
their preconceived views of what it ought in any given casc 
to mean; they at the same time desire to warn student!; of 
the subject that in their opinion the present translation of 
the original text can not be received as final or satisfactory : 
it is essentially tentative : that other students will differ 
from it in many particulars is certain; that some may suc- 
cessfully revise and correct it is most probable; neither the 
late distinguished scholars, who originally translated the 
11188., nor the present editors, nor any future critic are certain 
to be always successful in dealing with such a!;u bject matter. 
The reader cannot be too clearly reminùed that the transla- 
tion of the original texts has been conducted upon the 
principles before stated; that conjectures founded upon the 
supposed meaning of detached passages of text, and unsup- 
ported by the commentary are uncertain; and that the 
commentary, not the text, is, in the opini{\J1 ll[ the editors, 



the rclial.1e basis for any conclusions or further speculations. 
'1'hese observations are the result of a prolonged experience 
in dealing with these Brehon texts j the most difficult of the 
passages in question have been translated and re-translated; 
frequently the translations were apparently most consistent 
and probable, but again and again they have been founù to 
be inconsistent with what the glossists and commentators 
manifestly understood them to be, and in many such 
instances the editors had finally to admit that their ()wn 
views as to the meaning of the text were, although perhaps 
ingenious, altogether mistaken. .Ai; to the technical legal 
terms occUlTing in the text, the editors have desired to 
translate them as far as possible; it must be obsernd that 
such words cannot find an exact equivalent in any modern 
language; the complex ideas represented by these words 
were, as is the case of all legal terms of art, formed unòer 
peculiar and transitory conditions of society, and their real 
and living use and meaning perished with the system out 
of which they sprang. Their meaning can be only approxi- 
mated by a diligent comparison of the divers passages in 
which they occur. 



THE first tract contained in the present Volume is entitled 
" On Taking Lawful Possession," and the importance anù 
peculiar meaning of this tiUe will be obvious from the 
subsequent observations. 
The first portion of the original text down to page 33 is 
obviously composed as a consecutive treatise dealing with 
the symbolic ceremonial by which an action for the 
recovery of the possession of land was institnted; the 
latter portion consists of a selection of isolated rules, some 
dealing with hereditary succession to land, others having 
no more than an incidental connexion with those which 
lU"eccde them. 



This tract, in itself of obvious utility to the practising 
Brehon, is the subject of lengthened and clear explanations, 
and it would appear that the commentary annexed to the 
text is form cd by combining several antecedent commen- 
taries from different manuscripts, inasmuch as very similar 
notes upon the same passage succeed each other in the text. 
The great importance of this tract arises from its ex- 
hibiting in the clearest manner the mode in which the 
judicial authority of the Brehon arose, and the series of 
lcgal fictions by which a defendant was constrained to 
come into court, and to submit his case to the jurisdiction 
of the customary Judge. It is most interestillg to observe 
that the authority of the Brehon among the Celtic Irish 
arose ill precisely the same manner as that of the Judges, 
by whatever title they may be called, among the other 
Aryan tribes; that the peculiarity of the Brehon system 
does not prove any abnormal orgallization of the Celtic 
tribe, but was in truth but an instance of archaic survival; 
and that a Roman might þaye recognised in the proceedings 
before the Brehon the ancient and technical formulæ, from 
which with difficulty and after long delay the Civil Law 
succeeded in freeing itself. 
The evolution of the idea of law and judicial authority 
is inseparal)le from and follows that of government and 
social organization; the judicial system of the Celtic Irish 
was permanently fixed by the arrested develupment of their 
social organization, from many causes, which it is not 
intended here to discuss, but most of which were originally 
physical. The Celtic Irish never formed town communities, 
or were subject to any vigorous central authority; it was 
utterly impossible, therefore, that they could attain to ideas 
of law, which are evolved by the needs of a more cOIIl)Jlex 
civilization; the peculiarity of the Brehon is that profes- 
sionallawyers of great acuteness :md considerable technical 
education developed in numerous written ,\ orks the logical 
results of a purely archaic customary law. 
In the introduction to the htst volume we drew special 
attention to the fact that all judicial authority, at leabt 



among the Aryan or Indo-European tribe communities, is 
originally dcri \'eù from a system of voluntary submission 
to arbitration, and we treated the Brehon process by dis- 
tress as a legal fiction illustrative of this principle; the 
formulæ necessary for the iw;.,titution of actions to recover 
the possession of land, and which are dealt with very 
funy in the present tract, in a remarkable manner illustrate 
this rule, and present extraordinary analogies to the ancient 
processes of the Roman law. "Te desire very briefly, and 
with special reference to the forms of actions-the subject 
of this tract-to re-consider the origin and theory (If 
judicial authority in primitive communities. E\ ery archaic 
society is governed absolutely and exclusively Ly "Custom," 
which may be defined as the acquired habits of any human 
community. Whence any such habits were originally 
acquired, or when any society began to acquire and trans- 
mit any fixed modes of acting, are questions wholly foreign 
to this introduction; we must accept as a fact that every 
human community appears to have acquired certain habib. 
of acting, and that the surrounding physical. conditions 
have been most influential in either origina6ng or modifying 
them; abstract ideas of right or wrong are very obscure in 
the members of a primitive community; even in the ordinary 
affairs of Jaily life they consult their own comfort and 
aùvantage much less than do the members of a civilized 
society, anù do and endure many things because their an- 
cestors did or endured the same, for the local opinion 
of the tribe believes that their ancestors were wiser than 
themselves, and what has been shall continue to be done. 
In such a state of society the ordinary incidents of life, such 
a:> the birth or death of any member of the community, 
&c., are followed llY fixed and well-known results, and 
the status, property, and position of each indi\idual depend 
upon, or are affected by, the occurrence of a well-understood 
fact, or group of facts. The progress of any such society 
arises from the efforts of individual members to get rid 
of the custom which re<;trains their personal freedom, to act 
otherwise than the unwritten law of puLlic opinion decrees 



that they must act, from the struggle of the free will against 
the local custom. In such communities the individual dares 
not nttempt to attain his object by open contradiction, or 
repudiation of the venerated local usage, and strives, there- 
fore, to effect his purpose through fictions by means of which 
the custom is violated in fact, though observed in appearance. 
If a man, who desires to do so:nething which he is forbidden 
to do directly, observes that in the event of certain facts 
occurring the custom will allow him to do what he desires, 
he may artificially produce the requisite state of facts, and 
then, in apparent conformity with the custom, circuitously 
effect what he could not have directly accomplished; in 
such a case a series of acts are consciously done solely for 
the object that a certain effect may follow; the object 
desired is the consequence of the act done, and arises 
from the actual pre-existence of the necessary antecedent 
fact; gradually as it is understood that the custom can be 
thus evaded, the necessary ant
cedent acts became less and 
less real, and finally assume the form of a symbolical, or 
pantomimic performance, which, with the objeet of individual 
convenience, is gradually more curtailed, until at last it is 
simply alleged or verbally asserted to have been performed, 
and matters are allowed to proceed upon such assumption. 
Up to this point it is manifest that the necessary antecedent 
facts must be fully and correctly performed, simulated, or 
alleged, and that any failure so to do, or incorrectness in so 
doing, must result in the failure of the whole operation. 
Finally, the exception having become mOl"e familiar than the 
l'ule, the society begins to believe that the individual has a 
right to dq directly what he has hitherto affected indirectly, 
and the formula, which originally was the foundation of the 
matter, is discovered to be an unmeaning technicality and re- 
jected altogether. The ceremony of marriage among half 
civilised nations is the most obvious instance of this fact, 
and the form of marriage by wife-capture existed in Rome, 
as in many other communities, for centuries after the date 
at which its meaning was so utterly forgotten that historical 
romances were invented to account for its origin. As to 



transactions of this kind during the intermediate period, 
when the necessary antecedent facts were merely simulated 
or alleged, two points must be observed; first, that unless the 
simulation was correctly performed, or the allegation full and 
complete, no results at all followed, and secondly, that if the 
ceremony was correctly gone through, precisely the same 
results followed as would have resulted from the real occur- 
ence of the facts simulated to have occUlTed.- 
The jurisdiction of JuJges was gradually established by 
a series of fictions. In the original tribe each" paterfamilias" 
ruled as of right those under his absolute jurisdiction; but, if 
differences arose between mcmbers of two distinct families, 
there wa.<; no original authority to which either could appeal; 
such disputes could be decided only by a recourse to force 
and arms; the manifest inconveniences of such a system 
called for some remedy, as the society progressed towards 
order and civilisation. At so
e pe1"iod there arose a custom, 
or general public opinion, that under certain definite circum- 
stances the hostile litigants should submit their quarrel 
to the arbitration of the tribe, and that the question in 
dispute should be decided by l'efercnce to the assumed 
pre-existing custom. 
The rule that in such cases recourse should be had to 
arbitration was in its inception one of imperfect obliga- 
tion, and the contending parties might still insist upon 
the natural right to assert theil' claims sword in hand; 
the regulations as to judicial process among the early 

· The common recovery ill the Engli.h law was one of the most elaborate and 
successful of legal fictions; by this process the owners of estates tail succeeded in 
practically repealing the Statute" De donii." The original form of procednre in 
actions of ejectmeut is often described as another instance of It:ga1 fictions; bnt it 
does not fall within Sir H. S. Jlaine's definition of the term; it was not introduced 
to create or attract jurisdiction. for the Court of Common Dench had original 
jurisdiction to decide the question really in issue; and it produced no change in 
the rules of the Common Law relative to titles to land. In it.. inception it was 
nothing more than a fraudulent abuse of the procedure of the Court arising from 
the alterati,n in the form of judgment entered np in actions commenced by the 
writ" de ejectione fermae ;" Ilnd the alterations in the procedure, which established 
it as the ordinary action for the recovery of I md, were introduced by the Court 




N (\rse settlers in Iceland illustrate this most clearly j. 
but gradually the increa8ing pressure of public opinion 
caused the reference to arbitation to become the accepted 
and normal mode of deciding differences between the members 
of the tribe. It is to be observed that the public opinion, 
or custom, did not require the intervention of the arbitrator 
until the dispute had reached a cert.-'tin point, viz., until the 
public peace of the tribc was broken by the occurrence of 
actual hostilites between its members. An individual could 
not institute a suit to dctcrmine a right as against his 
neighbour j but if he assailed his neighbour, spear in hand, 
the communit)" required both to submit their rights to 
arbitration. The plaintiff, therefore, who desired a judicial 
decision upon his claim, proceeded openly to assert his 
right in an hostile manner, confident that upon the inception 
of the combat the other members of the community would 
intervene and enforce the custom of arbitration against both 
parties j the neighbours would not, however, step in between 
the parties until matters had gone on to thc point at which 
the custom required a submission to arbitration, nor could 
the defendant be required to admit that the custom applied 
to his case, unless all the preliminary requisite circmm;tanccs 
had actually occurred. The pantomime of actual cunflict 
had to be cOlTectly acted up to the critical point, otherwise 
there would be no basis for the jurisdiction of the arbitration, 
and it should not be pushed beyond a definite point, other- 
wise actual conflict would have occurred, the very tllÌng 
which the plaintiff desired to avoid. Hence the extreme 
technicality of all the early procedure, which proceeded upon 
this theory, and the fact that ancient lawyers devoted their 
attention to the formulæ requisite to bring a defendant into 
court, and disregarded the principles upon which the case 
should be decided when brought before the arbitrator j for the 
decision of the case it was assumed that the existing custom 

.. " Then Flosi spurned the money, and said he would not touch a penny of it, 
and then he said he would have only one of two things; either that Hanskuld 
should fall unatoned, or they" ould have vengeance for him." (The story of Burnt 
Njal, vol. 2, p. 1:;5.) This was after the judgment, and the tender of the com- 



was sufficient, and the" sensus communis" of the members of 
the community evolved the presupposed usage which ruled 
the case.- Ignorance of the prescribed formula deprived a 

· The proceedings at the trial at the Hill of Law in the second volume of the 
Burnt "Sjal illustrate this fact, and prove that the technical terms relative to 
"\ anoW! cla"Ses of wounds, &c., and the mysterious and obscure proceedings 
incident to an action, were not peculiar to the Drehon Law. The course of 
the proceedings in this case may be briefiy stated as follows:-
rorl1, the nominal 
plaintiff, gh-es technical notice of the institution of suit (p. 23;;); Flosi, the de- 
fendant, in the ni
ht secretly resigns his priesthood and joins the Thing of Askel 
to escape the jnrbdiction of the Court (p. 239); the next morning lIIord opens 
his case witlf the following notice- U I take witness to this, that I except all mis- 
takes in words in my pleading, whether they be too many, or wrongly spoken, and 
I claim the right to amend all my words, until I have put them iuto proper shape. 
I take witness to myself in this.' (p. 2-12) ; the first objection taken is in the nature 
of a challenge of the array, viz., that two of the neighbours on the inquest were 
relatives to Mord, one his god [ather, the other his second cousin (p. 2-18) ; 
Thorhall, the ad"\ iscr of the plaintiff, demurs to the challenge on the ground" that 
be chlillenged them not for their kinship to the true plaintiffs, the next of kin, hut 
for their kinship to him who pleaded the suit " (p. 2:50). The demurrer is allowed. 
The defendant a
,"ain challenges the arra)" on the ground that two men on the 
inquest were lodgers onl)', not hou'eholde
s (po 2:50). Thorhall replies that the 
men qualified as owners of cattle of a value equal to that of the requbite 
qualification in land (p. 252). This was a nove) point. Flosi said to Eyjolf- 
.. Can this be law?" E)"jolf said hehad not wisdom enough to know that for a surety, 
and then they sent a man to Skapti, the speaker of the law, to 85k him whether it 
were good law, and he sent them Lack word, "that it wauurefy good u>w, tlwug"jelD 
knew it " (p. 252). Then foIlowed a challeuge to four of the inquest; " fOl those 
sit now at hom
 who were nearer neighbours to the spot'. (p. 2;;3). To this 
challeuge Thorhall demurs on the ground that a majorit)" of the inquest was 
rightly summoned, and that therefore the case shoald proceed, whereupon a further 
application is made to Skapti, who replies, "
Iore men are good lawyers now than 
I thought. I must tell you then that this is such good law in all points, that there 
is not a word to be said against it; but still I tlwught that I alone lDould know o,i" 
now that Njal is tkad,fol' he was the only man I ever knew who", it." The 
inquest are then called on W give the verJict, which they do without further 
evidence, for they themseh-es were the witnesses (p. 2;;G). The plaintiff goes then 
before the Court, and proves the finding of the inquest as to the fact, and the 
defendant, Flosi, is called to defend the case, or rather to show cause against the 
finding. EyjoU, on behalf of the defeudant, pleads to the jurisdiction of the 
court, which was the Eastfrithersthing, whereas F10si, bei:J.g now a Thingman of 
Askel, was within the jurisdiction of the l.,orthlandersthing. This objection 7las 
fatal; but a second suit is immediately instituted against Flosi for contempt fur 
court for employing a lawyer in the court to whose jurisdiction he was not suhjcct, 
"for baving brought money into the fifth court ,. (p. 2GI). This step was ukcn 
to compel Floai to withdraw the plea to the j unsdiction. Other technicalities 
foIlow, Lut the litigation tinally resolves itself into tbe "Daltle at the AJthing. " 



man of, not of the right, but of the possibility of bringing his 
antagonist before a Judge; and the possessors of the req uisite 
mysterious forms, whether patricians, pentiffs, or Brehons, 
thus acquired the advantage of being the sole possessors of 
these secret and essential forms. Thus, in the Roman law, 
the term "actio" became the generic designation, which 
signifies a particular form of procedure taken as a whole 
including the ceremonies, acts, and worùs, which constituted 
it; all of which had to be correcUy gone through before 
the Judge had any jurisdiction in the matter. The case of 
the Romans proves that it L"I quite possible that an actual 
written law should co-exist with such a purely archaic 
conception of the position and jurisdiction of the Judge. 
This period in the development of Roman law is clearly 
illustrated in the following passages :- 
"The Quirites (men of the lance) had, in their judicial 
customs, even to the promulgation of the twelve tables, 
forms of procedure, assimilated to acts of violence, and 
to the com bat, in which we at once see their predominant 
characteristic, the military life, and the important part 
played amongst them by their favourite instrument, the 
lance; as also the predominance of the sacerùotal and 
patrician elements, which had regtùated the forms, and 
which had preserved the pantomimic action of former 
"The actwnes leges wcre completed in jure before the 
magistrate, and this was the case even when jt was necessary 
for him to appoint a Judge. This was the form, the prelimi- 
nary step;"t (that is, the intervention of the state did not 
proceed beyond compelling the parties to submit the quarrel 
to an arbitrator; the state dill not pretend itself to enforce 
the law in the first instance); 
"But notwithstanding the fact that the sacmrrnenturn, 
and the judicii 2Jostldatio were generally forms for the 
enforcement of all substitution of rights, and that they had 
in all cases a certain uniform characteristic, however much 
the details and necessary formulæ, adapted to each individual 

... Ortolall, History of Roman Law, sec. 140. 

t It1., sec. 142. 



case, might vary in each instance, according to the nature of 
the law, or according to the provisions of the law upon 
which the right was based, it was necessary that the parties 
should be familiar with the acts and ceremonied suited to 
their particular case.". 
.. Such was the early system of procedure amongst the 
Romans. Its characteristic was symbol; it is here that we 
find the lance, the tuft of grass, the tile, and the material repre- 
sentation of ideas, or of objects. It is here that we find the 
gesture, the legal pantomime, the simulated act of violence, 
the fictitious combat (7JutrLu'ltm C01tSe1"tw), for the most part 
symbolising the tmn
actions and processes of an earlier and 
barbarous period; here we find the utterance of sacred WrInS, 
and he who should be so unfortunate as to say <<vine" 
(vites) in an action concerning "ines, instead of using the 
word "aI"bOl"es," which was the religious term peculiar to 
the law of the case, would lose his action; here we find the 
impress of the sacerdotal finger; we see it in the saaa- 
mentum, the preliminary deposit of money in the hands of 
the pentiff for the benefit of public religious service; we see 
it in the pignoris captio, accorded subsequently on occasions 
in which religious sacrifices were concerned; and it is here 
we find the weight of patrician influence. The magistrate 
was a patrician; the Judge could only be selected from the 
order of patricians; in one word, jus and the judicium 
were in their hands."t 
The explanation of the latter statement l)lainly is that 
it was the original tribe, not the mere sojourners or strangers 
on the spot, who had the right to intervene to preserve the 
peace, and that none but a member of the original tribe 
could be assumed to know the local custom. 
The Roman ceremonial to which we desire to draw particu- 
lar attention, as presenting peculiar analogies to the Brehon 
procedure detailed in the present tract, is the manuum conSlY1"- 
tio, which formed portion of the symbolic action which took 
place in the process known as the<< SaC1"a11wntu,m. " This 

... Id., sec. 143. 

t Id., see. 1H. 



proceeding appears to be nothing else than a personal conflict 
between the litigants, fought out over the subject matterindis- 
pute; if the subject of dispute was such as could not conve- 
niently be calTied or led before the prætor, a portion was 
brought into court, and the formalitie'! were enacted over it as 
if it were the whole (dcindc in eam pa'rtem quasi in totam 
1"em p1'æsenten1, fiebat vindkatio). If it was a flock of sheep 
or herd of goats, a single sheep or goat, or single tuft of hair 
was brought; if it was land, a clod; if it was a house, a tile, 
(Gaius IV 
 17 Poste.s translation). The essence of the action 
was an actual combat over the subject of dispute; a mere 
personal conflict apart from the subject matter in dispute 
was not sufficient to compel a submission to arbitration as 
to title; the actual "res" or its symbol must have been fought 
across by the contending parties. It is remarkable how far 
even at the date of Gaius, the original form in actions as to 
the possession of land had been symbolised for the conve- 
nience ofthe parties. Originally, when land was the subject 
of controversy, the prætor repaired with the litigants to the 
spot, and they there performed in his presence (injm'e) the 
ceremony of the manuum conse1"iio. At thi::; stage of the 
procedure, the breach of the peace was designedly produced 
in a symbulic form, but every thing else was real. .When, 
however, the Roman territory became too extensive for the 
prætor to attend every such fictitious combat, the ceremony 
was adapted to the change in circumstances, the presence 
of the prætor was dispensed with; the parties, accompanied 
by their respective witnesses, performed the manuu,m con- 
BCl.tio upon the ground in dispute, and carried a clod as 
portion thereof to the prætor, and then matters proceeded 
as if the prætor had been present upon the lOC'U.B in quo 
during the performance of the ceremony. Subsequently the 
necessity for the litigants to resort to the lands in dispute 
was dispensed with; they left court and again returned, it 
being assumed that they had in the meanwhile repaired to 
the lands in question; that is that the statement that there 
had been a ?nanwnm conscrtio became an un traversable 



aUegation in the pleading, and of course was soon absolutely 
dropped out and disregarded.. 
The Brehon procedure for the recovery of land is identical 
with the Roman form up to the point at which the contest 
for possession was reduced to a mere symbolic formula; 
probably from the small extent of the tribe lands in which 
such disputes arose, the further step of substituting an 
untraversable allegation that a conflict had arisen for an 
actual or simulated conflict JiJ not occur to the Celtic 
lawyers; but the procedure, although crystalised in this 
archaic form, was modified to suit the circumstances of 
different CMes, and was adapted to admit what in our 

.. JIIr. Poste in his edition of Gaius (p. 499, 2nd ed.) a<ks the question, .. W"hat 
was the exact nature of the 'manuum consertio? ,.. Upon the analoh'Y of the oath 
taken by the parties in the wager of battle in the old Englbh law he conjectures 
that the term was equb.-alent to ð.ti"'
a, an oath or pledge that the party believed 
in the justice of hid case; in the first edition of :':is work he adds, "It must be 
confcS:!ed, however, that none of our authorities allude to the oath (jusjurandum) 
having formed a part of the procedure by sacramentum, and possibly the manuum 
con.ertio was merely a symbolic battle." In his later edition he adds .. Is it 
possible when we consider the common Ar
'an descent of the Romans and our 
Teutonic ancestors to 8uppose auy connexion bet\\een the forms of Roman aud 
onic litigation? Or, wai molnuum consertio merely a symbolic battIe, an 
idle reminiscence of a process belonging to a period anterior to the existence of 
public tribunals, tbe period of self-help, when the remedy of the litigant was to 
redress hid wrongs by the prowess of his own right hand? Or was manuum 
consertio, like Diductio and Vis ex conventu, a fictitious trespass necessary for 
the basis of the penal (?) proceedings by sacramentum? Or was it merely the 
means of identifying the subject of 1itigatiou? ., (p. 500). Thc supposed analogy 
between the Roman action and the "'ager of Battle is very doubtful. The 
English proceeding was one of the modes of arrh-ing at a finding upon the issue 
of fact arising upon the pleadings, by an appeal to the Divine power to testify as 
to this fact by giying the victory to the party in the right. The assertion of right 
was an appeal to the Divinity by both of the combatants, who might be hired 
champions, but ought to be persuaded of the truth of their cause. Upon the 
result of the combat depend"d the finding, as to the question of fact, npon which 
judgm"nt was entered. What resemblance there is between these cases it is 
difficult to see. There can be little doubt that manuum consertio is to be trans- 
lated in its ordinary meaning as a combat, not 1\ " symbolic battle, an idle remin- 
iscence of a process belonging to an anterior period," but, fo,' the purpo!u of the øuil, 
an actual combat, as for the purp08e of barring an estate tail, the recovery was 
an actual actiou, pleaded to and defended by the tenant in tail; and tàe judgment 
over in warrentee against the youchee was full compensation to subsequent tenant 
in tail and the remainder men. 



present system of English pleadings would be described as a 
It is to be first observed that the introduction of the 
community for the purpose of compelling the parties to sub- 
mit to arbitration, was quite independent of any intention 
or desire of the parties that there should be an adjudication 
as to their several rights to the land in question; it arose 
from the existence of the fact that two claimants were at 
one and the same time in possession adversely to each other 
of a certain piece of land. This iR very clearly shown by a 
case cited in the commentary.- Ninne, the son of Matech, 
with three horsemen was on his way to Ulster; they 
unharnessed their horses upon certain lands, which had 
previously bclonged to their tribe; this fact was unknown 
to them, they had no intention of making any claim to the 
bnds in question, and their halt there was merely accidental. 
The occupier of the land required them to depart; "Then 
the two, who were with Ninne replied; 'It does not make 
our claim greater that we have unharnessed our horses here; 
it is not to claim our share therein.' (The occupicr replies) 
'This is not easy, for it was your own before; they shall not 
be left there for that reason.' They did not knO'l.v until 
then that it had been theirs before. The person whose land 
it was drove their horses from it Ly force. They aft.erwards 
complained to Conchobar Mac Nessa concerning it, and he 
awarded a fine for unlawful expulsion upon the person who 
drove the horses out of the land, and an equivalent for what 
was driven off it, and he gave them lands in proportion to 
their family." 
This story recognises the right of Matech to require 
an adjudication as to his rights in respect of the 
lands, although the King compounded this claim by an 
equivalent given out of his own lands. This bare fact of a 
contest for possession was gradually modified into a fixed 
procedure by which notice of the intended entry was served 
upon the occupier, and the transaction was witnessed and pro- 
bably regulated to members of the tribe, the occupier given 

.. Page 5. 



ample time to consider whether he would abandon tbe lands 
to the claimant, or submit the case to arLitration, and, finally, 
damages payable to the occupier for an illegal entry secured 
in the event of the claim proving unfounded. The ent.ire 
process in its fully elaborated state was tedious, requiring, if 
the occupier simply remained quiescent, a period of not less 
than thirty days. For ten successive days (or at least on the 
fir5t and tenth day) the claimant gave notice of his demand, 
and of his intention to enter if no answpr were returned; 
on the tenth day, accompanied by his witness, and leading 
two horscs by their bridles, he crossed the boundary, and 
remained upon the contested premises, but just within the 
march, for a day and a night; he then retired, and during the 
subsequent period of ten days (or at least on the middle and 
l<tst day) repeated the notices previously given; upon the 
twentieth day he again crossed the march, with four horses 
and two witnesses, and advanced one third way towards the 
centre of the lands. If again he received no answer from tbe 
occupier, he withdrew, and for two days more gave notice 
outside of his intention to make his final and decisive entry; 
on the thirtieth day he again entered the lands with eight 
horstS, and with witnesses of whom a certain proportion 
were of the chieftain rank (flaitl
8), and the others freemen 
(feini); upon this last occasion he advanced to the centre 
of the land, and took posse
sion, unless the occu pier submitted 
to arbitration. The prolonged period requisite for the notices 
and several entries, was intended to allow the occupier time 
to consider whether be would consent to arbitration; and 
the final entry was in such a form as to compel the occupier 
either to abandon possession. or actually to resist, for it is 
stated that, "unless law be offered to him before going over" 
(which must mean the crossing of the bOlmdary on the 
thirtieth day), "it is not unlawful for him not to come out, 
until it is ascertained whether the land is his or not." If, how- 
ever, the occupier distinctly refused arbitration, and con- 
tested the rights of the claimant, the lengthened procedure 
was unnecessary, and the matter was brought to an issue by 
an actual forcible entry and occupation of the lands in 
question; "if it be certain to him (the claimant) that law 



will not be given to him before going over" (i.e., before he 
has crossed the boundary upon the thirtieth day)," it is 
not unlawful for him that he has not given notice, provided 
that he has brought the means of taking possession "; and 
again; "if it be certain to him that law will not be ceded to 
him, it is guiltless for him to go over with all his cattle." 
The symbolism of the procedure is evident; the claimant 
is to enter upon the lands in such a fashion as to show that · 
he is not seeking as a traveller to cross the piece of ground in 
question; he does not drive his chariot into or upon the 
lands, for in such case his intention might be ambiguous; 
his horses must be loosed from the chariot, and led by the 
bridle as if to graze; the duration of the first entry is 
intended to prove by a lengthened sojourn within the fence 
that his claim was not to traverse but to occupy; on the first 
two occasions upon which 
n actual conflict isnot anticipated, 
he is attended by a witness or witnesses to testif)' to the 
performance of the essential act; upon the third occasion he 
is accompanied by witnesses, who must consist of members 
of the noble and of the free class of the tribesmen. The 
necessary presence of the former is remarkable; it is very pro- 
bable that they are representatives of the community, whose 
office would be two-fold; either to intervene as the Roman 
prætor in the actio sac1'wment'i, if an actual conflict occurred, 
or if the occupier abandoned the pos
ession to recognise th
claimant as the legal occupier of the land. That the arbitra- 
tion must have rested upon either voluntary submission or 
actual conflict, is manifest from the statement that the result 
of an unresisted entry on the thirtieth day by the claimant, 
not followed by a submission to arbitration by the occupier, 
was not in the nature of a judgment in rem, but merely 
legalised the plaintiff's occupation until the question of right 
was decided; and this continued legal occupation had no 
other result than to inconvenience the occupier to such an 
extent as to compel him to discuss before the professional 
arbitrator the question of right.">\' 

.. The Welsh process for the recovery of land is analogous to the Irish. " There 
are three kinds of dadenhudds of land; and these dadenhudds are, a dadenhudd by 
tilth and ploughings, a dadenhudd by car, and a dadenhudd by bundle and burden." 



The symbolical acts by which a man expressed his inten- 
tion of subsequently taking possession, and which upon the 
last entry amounted to constructive possession, were mani- 
festly unsuited to the case of a woman; it was necessary for 
her to represent in pantomime the incidents of her owner- 
ship, and if she failed in the appropriate details, the cere- 
mony was wholly useless for the pUl1)ose of putting the 
occupier in such a position that public opinion would require 
his submission to arbitration; thus when the Brehon Sencha, 
with the design of causing the process to fail, declared that 
the formulæ in the two cases were the same, blotches arose 
on his cheek as a punishment for his unjust advice; nor 
was he cured until his daughter Brigh communicated to 
the female claimant the requisite symbolic acts for the 
purpose of establishing her right to force the occupier to 
an arbitration. 
The exclusive possession of the knowledge of such ancient 
forms was in all early societies the basis upon which rested the 

.. And these dadenhndd8 are not to be prosecnted except by the son, in the place 
where his father was theretofore, or in the place where his parents were fonnerly; 
for a dadenhudd is not to be sued by kin and descent." 
" Whoever is to prosecute dadenhudd by tilth and ploughing, is to remain npon 
the land, without answering, until he may turn his back on the stack of the forth- 
coming harvest, and that without answering to anyone, and the answer j and the 
ninth day from the following calends of winter, law." 
.. 'Thoe"er is to prosecute dadenhudd by car, by having heen with his car and 
his household and his hearth, belonging to himself, or to his father before him, 
npon that land, is to be there, withont answering, nntil the ninth da)', and then 
give an answer; and at the end of the second ninth day proceed to law." 
.. Whoever is to prosecute dadendudd by bnndle !ind bnrden, by having been 
iVith his bundle and his burden, his fire, himself and his father before him using a 
hearth, upon the land, is to be there, without answering, three nights and threo 
days, and give an answer; and At the end of the ninth day, law." 
.. And the dadendudds are not to be adjudged to anyone, unless there shall have 
been a grant and delivery of the land to him previously b)" the lord." (Ancient 
Laws and Institutes of Walea, vol. i., p. 171,) 
It is to be observed that these forms of action are confined to claims founded 
upon actual ouster, or by lineal descent to lands granted to individuals in several 
propertr. The narrow limits within which a claim by hereditary descent were 
restricted by the Welsh law are subsequently explained in the section of the 
Introduction dealing with the fine and the gRlfine organization. The full detaiL! 
of the procedure in such cases are in the same work, voL ü., p. 277. 



power of the sacerdotal or patrician classes. If the correct 
fulfilment of ancient traditional litanies, or the dramatic 
performance of a complicated pantomime, was necessary for 
every tribe man who desired to accomplish his devotions or 
to assert his right, the class, which posse
sed the traditional 
and requisite formulæ, exercised an undefined but un- 
limited influence over the uninitiated lower order. The 
first step towards the establishment of original judicial 
power, was the publication, or perhaps the vulgarisation, of 
the antique formulæ. A knowledge of the custom was practi- 
cally useless unless accompanied with the further knowledge 
of the appropriate form of action; hence immediately after 
the passing of the Twelve Tables a further effort was made 
to prescribe regulations for the forms of procedure, or thc 
actions of the law (lcgcs actiones); and hence the severity 
ofthe blow inflicted upon the Patriciate Ly the devulgation 
of the formulæ Ly Flavius Fimbria. There is some incon- 
sistency between the text and commen
'try as to the form 
pursued by a female claimant, but upon the whole the 
principle of the variance between the two ceremonies is 
obvious; the symbolical acts to be performed by a woman 
represented the ordinary incidents of her occupation of the 
land; for the horses led by the man, in her case were substi- 
tuted the same number of sheep; the period of thrice ten 
days was in her case reduced to thrice four days; she made 
three successive entries, first, with two sheep and one female 
witness; secondly, with four sheep and two female witnesses; 
and lastly, with eight sheep and three female witnesses; the 
text cites what must have been considered the leading case 
of the woman Ciannacht, which contains further particulars 
of the procedure which had apparently fallen into disuse 
before the date of the commentary. It was necessary for 
the claimants of either sex up
n the first entry to remain a 
full day and night within the fence, and by the commentary 
it appears that upon the second entry also it was necessary 
for the woman to remain for this period upon the lands; the 
witnesses therefore who accompanied her upon these occa- 
sions were women, not men; but upon the occasion of the 



third and final entry she "claimed her right with a male 
witness." 'Vhatever be the reason that upon the two first 
entries the witnesses were female (as to which the gloss gives 
a curious explanation), it is evident that the witness upon 
the occasion of the third entry was required to be a male, 
and we may infer that this arose from his fulfilling not 
merely the duty of witnessing the transaction, but of inter- 
vcning, in the name of the community, in the manner above 
suggested. The original also represents Ciannacht not only 
to have driven the appropriate number of sheep into tbe 
land, but also to have carried with her a sieve, a kneading 
trough, and a baking instrument (probably a griddle); these 
articles clearly indicated her intention not merely to enter, 
but also to remain upon the lands, and to perform the duties 
of her position as hou&ewife. 
This ceremonial, necessary as a general rule for the asser- 
tion of a claim to the possession of lands, was, from its 
nature, in some instances impossible, and in many incon- 
venient; and the form was therefore varied to suit the 
peculiar nature of the case, hence the passage in the text:- 
"There are seven lands with the Feini-into which cattle arc 
not brought for entry; it is men that are required" (p. 7); and 
that in the commentary :-" the same number of cattle which 
is brought to take possession of the other land., is the number 
of men that shall be brought to take possession of these lanùs " 
(p. Ð). The two first cases excepted are those in which the 
entry with horses was absolutely impossible, viz., (l)adun fort 
without land, or (2) a church without a green; the four next 
exceptions are ca..,es in which the horses to be brought upon 
the land would be exposed to some necessary peril, viz., (3) 
" a land upon which there are plunderers," which is glossed 
as meaning a land upon which the cattle have been killed; 
this is a very ambiguous expression, and may bear two 
entirely different meanings, according to the reference of the 
term" plunderers," either the persons in occupation, or to 
third parties; the general object of the exception is that 
the claimant should not be obliged to go through the details 
of the ceremony, if there were reason to anticipate his 




horses would be injured or stolen; (4) an island into which 
it would be impossible, without great inconvenience, to 
bring the horses; (5) land the cattle upon which were 
suffering from murrain; (6) land the cattle upon which 
were upon certain contingencies liable to be seized by 
some local potentate in exercise of some customary right. 
Two instances of lands of this description are given; the 
lands of Tir-Mudhain, the cattle upon which were forfeited 
to the King of Caisel on the day on which he assumed the 
sovereignty, because the inhabitants of the lands had killed 
a former King of Caisel; and the lands of Rod-Adamair, 
the cattle upon which were similarly forfeited to the Coarb 
of Lismor the day on which he assumed the Abbacy, a custom 
eXplained as the reward granted to Saint Mochuta, the 
founder of Lismor, for having expelled a serpent out of the 
lands in question. In both these instances the lands were 
subjected to some curse or penalty, in expiation of the sins of 
their former owners, and such exceptional rights should not 
be confounded with any of the feudal incidents; (7) the last 
excepted case is that of" land which the chief divides after 
the death of the tenant (occupier), where a hole is made, 
where a stone is put." It is evident that this passage was 
ambiguous to the glossists and commentators; the immediate 
gloss upon the text is perplexed anù contradictory; it seems 
to explain the exception as referring to any proceeding on 
the part of the chief to re-enter upon a portion of the tribe 
land (dibadh land), after the death of the member of the 
tribe to whom it had been allotted, for the purpose of re- 
distributing it. In a later passage of the text, which occurs 
in page 21, there are two classes of land excepted in the 
following words, " except in the case of the lands of Conn 
Cetcorach, or of land devoted to the support of a mansion 
whieh is a Nemeadh-person's," the latter of these exceptions 
manifestly corresponds with the ßixth exception of the 
passage in the 7th page, and it may be assumed that the 
former exception, in the latter passage, agrees with seventh 
exception in the earlier portion of the work; this is 
rendered certain by the explanation in the gloss that the 



phrase" Conn Cetcorach's la.nd" ùcnoted some particular. 
portion of the "dibadh " land; the gloss in page 23 explains 
the exception as referring to a contest between tribesmen 
upon a re-distribution of the land by the chief, but adds the 
very difficult passage, "as to the land which is lent or let 
for rent, it is into it the requisites for taking possession are 
brought." That the ancient ceremonial should be exclusively 
(or at all) applicable to lands let upon rents, is highly im- 
probable, mid it is in contradiction to the cases of Kinne 
son of Matech. anù CiaIlllacht, which were evidently con- 
sidered as leading authorities. The only explanation of tte 
gloss which can be suggested, is that the glossist intended 
to distinguish the two classes of L.'tnds; those held in common 
by the members of the tribe, and divided and re-divided 
among them by the chief, to which the entry with horses 
was not necessary; and those held by members of the 
tribe in severalty, to which the ceremony was applicable; 
but that at the date at which the gloss was written the 
free members of the tribe had been rcduccd to the position 
of paying rent to the chief for the land held in severalty, 
and that thus the payment of rent had become one of the 
incidents of several ownership. 
The claimant having, however symbolically, asserted his 
claim to possession of the lands in question by a forcible entry, 
if he failed to sustain his right, became a trespasser ab initio, 
and was bound to pay damages to the defendant whose 
occupation he had wrongfully disturbed. Every step in the 
procedure had to be taken in such a manner that the damages 
for the entry, if wrongful, were ipso facto secured to the defen- 
dant. In the case of a male claimant, every witness, whom 
he brought with him on each occasion, was to be of an honour 
price equal to the value of the land. The fine for the entry 
fell upon the claimant and his witnesses, who, most probably, 
in the subsequent proceedings testified to the validity of the 
claim, and it would seem that when the claimant, after the 
third entry, was put into possession of the lands in question, 
all the stock and other property brought in by him upon the 
lands, were charged with the damages ultimately to be found 



payable to the defendant if the claimant's case :fitiled; and it 
may be conjectured that in the original form of the action the 
claimant was bound to put on the land upon the occa.c:;ion of 
his third entry stock equivalent to the value of the land; such 
at least seems to be the passage in the text :-"If there be 
Fenechus," (submission to arbitration conceded as a custom- 
ary right), "speedy judgement is passed in his favour. If 
there be not Fenechus, lawful possession i.s gi'æn; its price 
is to be offered with sheds, cows, food, habitations, attend- 
ance of cattle, except in the case of the lanrl of Conn Cetcor- 
ach, or the land devoted to the support of a mansion which 
is a Nemadh-person's" (p. 21). 
The exceptions prove the rule that it was necessary in all 
other cases to bring in the equivalent in property. 1f this 
be correct the analogy to the actio sacramenti in all its 
essential points is complete; and the property to be placed 
upon the land represents the subject matter of the symbolic 
wager. This system of counterclaim was strictly logical, and 
founded upon the mode in which such transactions were 
regarded by a tribe in an early stage of civilization. The 
symbolic act was rcgarded as a real and bonlÎ fide transaction, 
and all the consequences followed from it, which should 
have followed if the thing dramatically represented had really 
taken place; the ceremonial was a short-hand mode of writ- 
ing, but was for all purposes that which it represented. The 
defendant was forced to arbitration upon the assumption of 
an actual conflict, arising out an actual adverse entry; the 
claimant could not deny the reality of the trespass, which was 
the basis of his claim to obtain a judicial decision of his 
rights, and was estopped from trasversing this fact when the 
defendant sought in his turn damages for the wrong sym- 
bolically inflicted. Thus, among the .Maories, when a man 
guilty of manslaughter expiated the offence by submitting 
to the form of being wounded by the avenging kinsman, he 
was considered as absolutely dead for all purposes; he lost 
his status as a member of his tribe; his property was divided 
as if he were actually dead, and he was, as if a stranger, re- 
introduced into his original tribe by the ceremony of adoption. 



The amount of the fine to be paid by the unsuccessful 
claimant, as may be anticipated, varied, according to the 
Brehon Law, with reference to the various circumstances of 
the case. " If the nobles have entered over a full fence, and 
it is a land which has not a chief and a tribe, it (the fine) is 
a "Cumhal" and forfeiture of stock. If they hat'e entered 
over an half-fence it is three-quarters of a" Cumhal," and 
three-fom-ths of the stock. If they huve entered on land 
which has not any fence at all, it is half a "Cumhal," 
half the stock. The stock only is to be divided by the 
plebeians, and half a "Cumhal" is tlte fine if it be in Cain- 
Law.- If it be land that has a chief and a tribe, it is for- 
feiture of the stock with a" Cumhal " fine, if entmnce be 
made over a full fence, and one half if there be no fence at 
all; and this is the same with respect to plebeians and 
nobles " (p. 25). 
The peculiar distinction in this passage between land 
which has a chief and a tribe, and that which has not a 
chief and a tribe, is worthy of obsen'ation. The original 
translation has in many passages given this meaning to the 
words in question j it must, however, be confessed that thi" 
translation is most unsatisfactory; it implies the existence 
of extra tribal land, a fact most improbable in a country 
!'Ouch as Ireland, in which there was no fringe of unsettled 
lands between the Celtic occupiers and an anterior 
defeated population j the whole island was divided into 
distinct and very well-defined tribe districts; neither between 
the tribe-marks which must have been everywhere con- 
tenninous, and still less within their limits, could there have 
been establisbed independant landholders, disconnected from 
the prf'vailing system of society. It is to be observed that 
the word in these passages translated" tribe" is " eoibhne, " 
which is translated" hereditary right" by the same trans- 

. Was the forfeiture of the stock absolute in the case of land without a chief or 
tribe? or did it in this cue also depend on the result of the action? Although 
not without hesitation, we adopt the former theory, "iz., that in the case of such 
lands the stock was abaolutely forfeited, because the form of action was inappli- 
cable. That the forfeiture was absolute ma
 be gathered from p. 21, line 24, and 
p. 31, line 31. 




laOOr in such passages as "land to which he thinks he has 
an hereditary right" (coibltne); and the word coibhne itself 
is frequently used as designating a particular class of pro- 
perty in land, coibhne-llmd as contrasted with dibadh-land.# 
The term must signify both the nature of the l"Ïght of an 
individual to certain landed property of a particular character, 
and also the land which was itself the sulject matter of such 
a right. In the original text (page 39) the claims of heirs 
of females are spoken of as affecting II coibhne "-land, and it 
may be reasonably concluded that tIle coibhne-Iands were 
those which had been allocated in severalty to distinct 
DllllÌlies, and were descendab!e in the families of the original 
real (or eupposed) præpositus. The tribe lands, being 
those heM in common by the members of the tribe, arc 
manifestly descri1ed as the dibadh-Iands, in wilich the 
share of each occupier was for life only. If this conjecture 
be correct, the passages in question should be translated 
"Lands which have not an owner in severalty, and hereditary 
transmission "; coiblLne-land would thus be equivalent to the 
Norse "1LÛal"-land; and the samc word when used to express 
the right of an individual to such bnd (or his share therein) 
would correspond to the well known term" udal-recht." If 
this conjecture be correct, much of the apparent difficulties 
and contradictions in the tcxt and commcntary would bc 

. Cund, or conn, is simp1}' a form of the worll meaning "head," an,], as applied 
to an individual, must be a correlative term, indicating tIle position of the indi- 
vi<lual specified in relation to one or more others. The idea implied by the word 
II coibne" is that of the issuing out and interlacing of various branches springing 
from one common stock, and it thus means an association of persons grouped 
together with reference to a common rig;ht or subject-matter. This is e
act1y the 
ancient illea of the ownership of "hereditary" lands, not land in its entirety 
transmitted from one individual to another, according to certain rules of sueces- 
t!ion (which is our modern conception of heh'ship), but land in which a\1 the 
desccndents of the original acquirer jointly take an interest. This coilme property 
means I ropert
. held jointly by the aequirer anù his de-cendents. The h
ad of an 
actual or potential (amily would Le the cUIHI, or conn; and if the family were 
organized on the geiUìne F).stem, he wouM be then identical with the II geilline- 
flaith." Dibadh property. in its origim,l sense, as contrasted \\ith coilme propert)", 
scems to express an)" property divisible, or to Le divi,led, among sev
ra1 dist:nct 
persons. The necessary equi\'oca1 use of such terms ia hereaf(cr referred to in 
a sub'cqucnt section. 



rcmowd. "
e find in this tract four distinct c1asses of land 
to which the prescribell process of formal re-entry is 
unapplicable, having reference to the nature ùf the estate 
in the land, and not to the locality or illtIinsic circumstances; 
the three more important of these are the following; first, 
the land described in the te
t at page 7, in the passage abow 
referred to, as "land whieh the King divides after the death 
of the tenant, where a hole is made, where a stone is put "; 
whatever be the precise meaning of the rule, the text refers 
to dihaJb-land redivisable afler the death of each occupier; 
secondly, "the land of Conn Cetcorach ", which also is 
explained to mean debadh-land, anù, tbirdl.y, the land which 
has not" cltnd" or " coibhne." If the third class of land is 
simply a negative description of the lands included in the 
preccding passages, the meaning of all these passages is 
simple and clear, viz, that the common tribe lands, dis- 
tributed from time to time among the general members of 
the tribe fur a
ricultural purposeR, and mcared by distinct 
mounds and boundary stones set up by the executive of 
the tribe, and in which the owncr had only transitory 
interests, were not lands to which the process of recovery of 
possession by entry was applicable. The fourth excepted 
cla"s of lands, viz.. those subject to the rights of some 
Nemedh person, are lands upon which the process is rather 
facilitated than prohibited, in the interest of the c1aim:mt. 
It is a common error to a
sert that all lands in Ireland under 
the Brehon Law wcre held as tribe lands, and that the 
entire tribe were the owners of the lands comprised in the 
tribe-district; it is manifest that much land was held in 
severalty, and npon such terms that indi dduals had specific 
rights in distinct lands, either by hereditary descent, or as 
founded upon contract. It is quite possible that lands should 
be cut out of the general trihe-land, and become the subject 
of several ownership and hereditary rights, without their 
vesting in any individual in absolute property. Portion of 
the tribe lands may have been acquired Ly a single family, 
or by an individual on behalf of himself and his family or 
possible desccn
lents, and these may have been transmitted 



by hereditary succession, or sold without anyone person 
acquiring the rights which are implied by the English term 
in" estate"; lands may be enjoyed in severalty as between 
the family and the tribe, but jointly as between the members 
of the family itself. Such were tbe principles of the Norse 
uùal tenure of land; and some such system of land-holding 
seems to be the basis of the Celtic Geilfine system, which 
it is proposed tu deal with in the fo1lowing section. 
A curious exception to the necessary formulæ occurs in 
the case of individuals described as" ?'aitech "-persons. A 
raitech-person is defined in the commentary as one" who 
was up to this time (the time of the action) abroad, li1:Ï?lg 
apart from the tribe, and who does not know that he has 
not land, and he comes with his cattle, and his neighbours 
say the land is his, and judges tell him to go as far as the 
third of the land" (p. 20). 
The raitech was therefore an acknowledged tribesman, 
who, after long absence returned to his tribe, and, upon the 
information given to him by members of the tribe, pro- 
ceeded bonâ fide to assert his hereditary right to the coilme- 
lands of his family. 
The ?'aitechs were divided into three classes; the two 
first were the man who had got into failure, and the man 
who had deserted upon failure; both these classes comprise 
those who had lost, or failed to obtain, any share in coibne- 
land, and were so to say" out on the road "; tbe third class 
of raitech is defined thus, "The King is ca1led raitech, be- 
cause he owns his share of waifs of his road, and also from 
his generosity." (Page 81.) The introduction of the King 
into the class of broken men is probably due to a fanciful play 
upon words; it may, however, be observed, that the King, who 
claimed a share in any eoibne-Iands in a tribe territory, 
would probably be resident outside, and would .find it 
difficult to carry out the full ceremonial in the prescribed 
The broken man returning to his tribe would find it im- 
possible to drive llis horses upon and off the land in dispute 
at the proper periods; he had no house or" green" of his 



own to resort to in the meanwhile j and what was more im- 
portant, he was not in himself a security for the damages 
the occupier could recover, if the claim proved to be ground- 
less. He was therefore permitted to graze his horses upon 
the lands during the intervals between the entries, paying 
a fixed price for the grazing; and, if the case were decided 
against him, he was allowed three days to clear out, and, 
subject to the payment of the small damages of three "seds," 
he was permitted to drive off his beasts (p. 27). 
The original text, and the detached instructions in the 
commentaries, contemplate the use of horses exclusively in 
the symbolical entry; and horses appear to have been both 
the original, and at all times the preferable stock for the 
purpose. J n the gloss an illegal entry is defined as 
" the bringing illegal means of taking possession into land, 
i.e., cows after horses when he could find horses," the fine for 
which was a "cumhal" or forfeiture of stock, or three" seds "j 
the glossists are at variance as to the precise amount (p. 33). 
It is evident that at some period cows were substituted for the 
horses, which in the original ceremony were indispensable. 
There appears to have been some distinction, certainly, as to 
the amount of fines, between the case of an entry to recover 
possession made by a noble, and one made for a similar pur- 
pose by a simple freeman, or plebeian, as it is tmnslated. It 
may be conjectured that this form of action was, in its 
origin, confined to the recovery of lands by the patrician or 
noble class, and that the horses and chariot were the symbol 
of military possession, as was the lance (at later time repre- 
sented by the wand) in the case of the Romans: that a 
similar form of action was in vented for the benefit of the 
lower orders, and that \ùtimately the two formulæ were 
confounded, although it was always understood that the 
claimant only used cattle instead of horses from necessity, 
and that he was not at liberty to substitute them for horses 
"when he could find horses." 
The forms of the Brehon procedure for recovering the 
possession of land ended with the reference of the dispute 
to arbitration; .tþe object of the process was that his right 




at law should be granted to the claimant; that there should 
be "Fenichus "; the pressure was put upon the defendant 
that there might be "Fenech us," a proceeding or judg- 
ment in accordance with the custom of the tribe. Thus the 
whole ceremony of the Roman actio ended with the appoint- 
ment of the judex. The ancient procedure ended precisely 
at the point where the modern commences. As to wlmt 
is now consid-ered the essential of an action, the pleadings 
in court, Gaius dismisses it in very brief terms; "deinde 
quum ad judicem venerant, antequam apud eum causam 
perorarent, solebant brevi tel' ei et quasi per judieem rem 
exponere; quæ dicebatur causæ collectio, quasi causæ suæ 
in breve collectio." (Gaius 1 V. 15.) 
To understand this we require only an account of the 
mode in which a dispute is decided in an Indian village 
community. The case is submitted to the entire body of 
the inhabitants, who represent the original tribe, or family, 
to the patricians in fact of the small "civitas." The 
body thus assembled comLine in themselves the func- 
tions of witnesses, judge, and jury. They include in 
their number all those who knew the facts of the case, 
"the respectaLle men of the neighbourhood," so familiar to 
us as our ancient form of jury. They themselves are the 
living testimony as to what is the custom of their com- 
munity, and this custom they apply to tl1e facts of the 
case assumeù to be within their own kno"leJge. The 
villagers talk over the case among themselves, apparently 
in a very confused mannerj separate groups form, who 
discuss t11C question in various ways; but at length a result 
is evolved; there is a general consensus arrived at, and the 
judgment is given in a purely concrete form. In :Mr. 
Wallace's description of the confused discussion and ultimate 
result of a meeting of a Russiall Mirto assess taxation and 
divide the. village lands, we have a vivid description of the 
workings of sneh a primitive asseml,ly. At this stage of 
civilization it is clear that there was no form of procedure 
after the submission to arbitration. When the community 
had grown too large to sit together and decide as one body 



upon the case, a committee of the entire body would be 
appointed to hear and decide the dispute. This stage of 
the judicial development existed among the Icelandic 
Of this procedure there are the most detailed accounts in 
the two trials before the Althings related in the Saga of the 
Burnt :Kjal, amI before referred to. In these cases it is 
evident that the defendants were not bound to submit 
to the jurisdiction, unless the preliminary ceremonies 
were accurately gone through, and the judges selected 
in accordance with the custom. Numerous points of 
the utmost nicety are raised by the defendants to 
every step of the action, and equally technical replies are 
made on behalf of the plaintiff". These very special points 
of practice are decided by the general assembly, because 
they were antecedent to the crcation of the court. But it is 
something yery foreign to our ideas that the judges, when 
at last legally appointed, neither hear any speeches from 
the parties, nor examine witnesses; they retire from the 
public meeting, talk the matter over, and come to a decision 
on groun/ls wholly apart from what we should consider the 
merits of the case. \Yhen a society became numerous, and 
its customs complicated, the general public naturally felt 
their own ignorance of the traditional rules by wlIich any 
cases should be decided, and there arose a necessity for 
experts who had maùe the knowledge of the traditional 
custom their special study. The Icelandic l' orse dung 
tenaciously to the custom of a public assembly, and solved 
the difficulty by the appointment of the "Speaker of the 
Laws," who attended the Althing, and was its professional 
adviser.- The Celtic Irish lost the ancient custom of the 

." In those days there were no books; everything was traditional: the law itself 
was committed to memory and the custody of faithful lips. Time out of mind 
tbere bad existed amongst the nations of the north men who, like Ulfljót, had 
made the cu-t<Jmary law tIu'ir øtudy, and learned its traditional precepls b)" "eart. 
There were the lawmen orlnw)ers (lögmenn), a class which we shall still find 
flourishing in the time of which our Saga tells. They were private persons, 
invested wilh no official character, but who enjoyed all the influence which all 
exclusive knowledge of anyone subject, and, most of all, of such a ,lifficult subject 
as law, mUlt ncC{.sarily gh e to any man in an early stale of socict). llut wLen 



general assembly, and the decision of what the local custom 
was, fell into the hands of the Brehons, the hereditary and 
professional possessors of the secret of the custom. But the 
Brehon was not a judge in the modern sense of the term; 
he represented the assembled tribe, and when he had once 
got possession of the case there were nO sacred formulæ to 
prescribe the mode in which it should be conducted. It is 
evident that the reference ofthedispute to a single individual, 
in whatever character he acted, necessarily introduced new 
elements in the procedure; the court no longer could be held 
not only to decide upon the law, but also to testify what 
the actual facts were; hence the introduction of pleadings 
(causæ collectis), the fnll statement of the case (pc1"onJ.tio), 
and the examination of the wituesse;;, and also the arrange- 
ments for the remuneration of the judge. The foundation 
of the jurisdiction of the Brehon, as simply the professional 
witness of the local custom applicable to the facts, (and 
unable to apply to the case, what in English law is termed 
" equity," the appeal to an over-ruling moral law antecedent 
to or over-ruling the technical law when it worked injustice,) 
is illustrated by the rule (page 51)," Constant is every old 
law of every territory of covenants. When any territory is 
uncovenanted, it is then every disputed case is brought 
before the King." By a "territory of covenants" is meant 
a district in which there was an established custom, sup- 
posed to rest upon the" consensus" of the tribe, and which 
was testified to by the local hereditary Brchon; (t territory 

the A1thing wal established, we first hear of a law officer properly so-called. 
This is what we have called the "
peaker of the law." His bounden duty 
it was to recite puhlickly the whole law within the space to which the 
tenure of his office was limited. To him all who were in need of a 1eg-a1 
opinion, or of information as to what was or was not law, had a right to turn 
rluring the meeting of the AIthing. To him a sort of preJòidency or precedence 
at the AIthing was concelled, but with a care which marks how jealously the 
young Republic guarded itself against bestowing too great power on its chief 
officer. He was expressly excluded from all share of the executive, and his tenure 
of office was restricted to three years, though he might be re-elected at the end of 
the period." Dasent, Durnt Nja1, p. Ivi. 
The judicial power in Iceland was vested in the Court of Laws, composed of the 
. heads of the original families, each with two assessols, whom the official 
IaW).er instructed upon any point of law, if requested to do so. 



uncovenanted" is glossed" where the defendant or plaintiff 
has not a Brehon," that is, when the community has failed 
to retain a record of their customs ùy the appointment of 
the regular witness to the existence and nature in the 
person of the Brehon; in such a district there was nO law to 
be applied to the question in dispue. In this case therefore the 
King himself was the judge. From this passage we may 
infer that at a very early date the general meeting of the 
tribe, which did continue to meet for SOme purposes down 
to a late period, had lost its judicial power, and that the 
King had acquired the powers and position of the assembly 
of the tribe, or. which in this case is more probable, there 
still hung about him certain surviving fragments of his 
ancient judicial function. 
.When a professional or hereditary class undertake tIle 
duty of recording and transmitting the customs of the tribe, 
the hitherto indefinite custom, or habit of acting in a par- 
ticular manner, is necessarily reduced to the form of short 
rules committed at first to memory, subsequently to 'writing. 
Two fragments of these ancient dicta occur in the present 
tract (p. 39 and p. 45). The difficulty of translating pas- 
sages of this nature has already been referred to, but, 
difficult as is the task of translation, more so is the attempt 
to extract from them and develop at length, the customary 
rules dimly hinted at, rather than embodied, in the curt and 
oracular sentences. An attempt is here made by the assist- 
ance of the glosses and commentary to express in distinct 
terms the substances of these passages. The following is 
submitted to the criticism of the reader by the editors, as a 
re"ult of such a comparison, but made by those who can claim 
the possession of no source of information, which is not 
available to the ordinary student. 

1. The sons, and, if there are no sons, the daughters of 
their mother. claim a right to enter upon and take posses- 
sion of the lands, in respect of which legal contracts for 
full consideration, and dealing with coibue-Iand, had been 



made with their mother, for the geilfine chief, who ml1st 
for this purpose be one of the geilfine division,if confirms 
the contract. 
2. Brigh made the dccision, which fixed the rule of 
succession to lands in respect of which contracts had been 
entered into upon the occasion of a woman's marriage. 
3. The lands are diyisible with reference to the number 
of the members of the family inclusive of the grandchildren, 
and the great-grandchildren, but of the land thus divisible 
is excepted one-seventh, which becomes the property of the 
geilfine chief. This one-seventh is fixed with refercnce to 
the extent of the lands themselves. 
4. On the extinction of the class of great-great-grandchild- 
ren, their land goes back to the other classes representing the 
three prior generations; in such case it is divided among 
the classes representing thc three prior generations; on the 
extinction of the f,rreat-great-grandchildren class the other 
classes of the family became the owners. It is not divided 
among them in other proportions than the liability for the 
wrongs done by members of the family; and, therefore, in 
such a case the class representing the sons gets no more than 
one-fourth part. 
5. 'Vhen the members of a family exceed seventeen in 
number, they cease to be organized as a family. 
6. The fuidhir-tcnants are not subject to any joint liability 
for wrong committed by their kinsman, unless they form 
five house-holds of them, completely organized as a family, 
upon the principle of mutual liability. 
7. If the fuidhir tenants consist of five households, or- 
ganized as a family, under a chief, and having sufficient 
stock, they divide their property among them, as do the 
members of the family, and are subject to liability for each 
other's deeds in the same proportion. 

. It is subseqnenfy suggeste I that the expression, "Unless he be the sixth," 
may be taken iu its literal sense as meaning the sixth head of the family in liueal 
descent, a con,truction of the words which. in the view subsequently taken of the 
geilfine, would be practically equivalent to that in the text. 




1. A son does not succeed to all the land of his mother, 
unless he claim it through her by virtue of a marriage 
contract of which the family had notice (i.e., unless it be 
"c1'uibh" or "sliastn" land). 
2. (As to lands other than" cnâbh" or" sliastn" lands), 
her sons divide it upon her death, but (tltey do not succeed to 
the e11ti1'e) for one-half reverts to the family of the (her) 
father; the remaining half only her sons divide. 
3. The half, which reverts to the family of the (her) father, 
the members of that family duly diviùe alllong themselves. 
4. In the case of a "bv-aÚ'e" chief (who dies without 
leaving a son) there comes to his daughter by right of 
relationship r.o more than one-half, i.e., fourteen" cumhals" 
of lamI if the deceaseJ had twenty-eight" cumhals" of land. 
The same rule applies to the" bratach " lands of a " bo-aire " 
5. L:md given by the family to the deceased to the used 
as a road, upon the terms of his restoring it, is to be restored 
by his daughter, if she succe
d, in its entirety; but she is to 
be paid by the family upon giving it up, one half the value 
of it. 
Of these rules, those numbered 1, 1-5 appear to relate to the 
mother's cl'uibh and sliasta lands,aml arc framed with the view 
of regulating that succe5sion in accordance with the princi- 
ples of the geilfine organi7ation, which are subsequentiy dis- 
eu!'>sed in this Introduction. The rules numbered II., 1-3 
deal with the sucee
sion to a woman's other than cruibh 
and sliasta land; and those numbeled II. 4 and 5 deal with 
the succession of a daughter, in default of sons. to lwr 
f,tiher's land. The very remarkable rules, 1. 6 and ï, do 
not appear to have any immediate connexion with the ques- 
tion of female owner
hip of land. It would be premature 
here to consider the meaning and operation of these rules 
until the nature of the fmoily itself and of the geilfinne 
system has been to some extent e;;;tablished, and the pro- 
posed explanation of the system of descent is, therefore, 
postponed to a subsequent section. 



It remains to draw attention to some isolated rules 
in the latter portion of this tract as illustrative of the nature 
and date of the Brehon Law. The first paragraph, to which 
attention is desired to be drawn, is the case of Seither in 
the original text (page 17). She claimed as against the 
chiefs of the tribe, certain lands which they had taken 
possession of; the glosses explain this by their having 
erected boundaries, or set up stone landmarks; comparing 
this with the passage in page 7, where "dibadh" land is 
described as "the land which the chief divides after the 
death of the tenant, where an hole is made (or, a nwund is 
?'CtÎsed), where a stone is put," her ground of complaint was 
that the chief of the tribe had measured off as common 
tribe property, the land which she claimed in separate 
ownership. Her father anù mother were of different tribes, 
and her right to the land was established. She then sought 
that she shoulù not be subjected to the imposts which fell 
upon the unfree holders of land ("flâdhirs"), nor should 
she be expelled from the land (put out into the road), for 
failure to perform the military duties incident to the 
possession of the land. She was freed from this obligation 
(of military services) by her tribe, according to the rule 
"that female possession reverts, i.e., that one-half of the 
land, which passed to a woman, falls back into the general 
tribe land, and that in consideration of this the tribe releases 
the residue during the female owner's life from the duties 
incident to the possession.- It is clear from this rule that 

it These rules, as far as they deal with the succession of women to land, or the 
succession to the land of women, must be taken to represent the effect of the 
judgement of Brigh which established the rights of women. 
The rule that women, as being incapable to do military service, should forfeit 
one half of the inheritance, could be introduced only after a date at which the 
military. incapacity of women was an acknowledged fact. 
This would brin
 down the alteration of the law of snccession in the favour of 
women to a date snbsequent to the year G97. " Connected with Adamnan's journey 
to Ireland in G97, the Annals record a transaction, which they despatch with 
enigmatic brevity: Dedit l
m innocentium populill. In other words, they allude 
to a social refonnation, which was brought abont by Adamnan, and which, having 
obtained the highest sanction of the people, became, as in the case of many modern 
Actð of Parliament, associated with the name of the propounder. A s).nod was 
convened at Tard, within an enclosure caIled the Ratlr-nu,-Senad4, or .. Bath of 



the possession of any portion of the tribe land entailed 
the duty of military service; but that this was an incident 
to the possession of la
d by a free member of the tribe (as 
the" trinoda necessities" of the early English Law), not a 
feudal service due to the chief of the tribe. The contra- 
dictory glosses upon this passage prove that the commentators 
were unable to explain the point of the division, and that 
the condition ûf society had then materially changed since 
the date of the original text. The note to this passage, 
printed at the foot of page 17, shows how the latcr commen- 
tators had lost the correct traditions of the law, and 
preferred the display of a scrap to genealogical information 

ynod.." where the memory of the chief actor was perpetuated in the name 
PUl,all Adhamhnain, or "PavilIion of Adamnan," which was giveu to a portion of 
the space; also iu the Suidhe Adhamhnai.., or Adamnan.s chair; the Dumha 
Adhamhnai", or Adamnan's mound; and the Cro8 Adhamhnain, or Adamnan's 
cross, situated at the east of the Rath. This mor:omt, or "convention general," 
"as held, as a semi-legendary record states, at the instance of Adamuan, for the 
purpose of procnring a national enactment exempting women fro!1l war and expe- 
ditions." "Reeve's Life of St. Co1umha," p. I. 
In relatiou to this law the following passage occurs in the "Vision of," which is pre.erved in the" Leabhar Dreac" :-"{t was this precept, 
too, which was preached in the weat convention of the meu of Erin, wheu 
Adamnan.s rule "as put on the Gaedhil, and when women were made free by 
Adamuan, and Finachta Fledach, sou of Dunchadh, son of Aine Siaine, the King of 
Er:n, and by the men of Erin a1.:!O. For it was alike that men and women went 
into battle, and into conßicts, until the Rnle of Adamnan was imposed." 
.. It is to be regretted that we have not a more bistorical account of tbe institu- 
tion of this law than the following, which is taken from the Leabhar Bresc and 
Book of Lecan :-' Adamnan happened to be tranllinl{ one day through the plain 
of Bregia with hi:J mother on his back, when they saw two armies engaged in 
mutual conflict. It happened then that Ronait, the mother of Adamnan, obsen-ed 
a woman, with an iron reaping-hook in her hand, dragging another woman Ollt of 
the opposite battalion, with the hook fastened in one of her brea.ts; for men and 
women went equ..lIy to battle at that time. After this Ronait sat down, and said, 
'Thou shalt not take me from this spot until thou exemptest women for ever from 
being in this condition, and from excursions and hostings. Adamnan then 
promised that thing. There happened afterwards a convention (mop:oa1L) in 
Ireland, and Adamnan, with the principal part of the clergy of Ireland, went to 
that as.embl)", and he exempted women at it." (Petrie's Tara, p. 14;.) Reeves. 
Life of St. Adamnan, p. lí9, note. It seems that Adamnan took occasion of a 
great religious revival to ameliorate the condition of the Celtic woman, and that 
the reform thus effected was considered as one of the great events, as it un- 
douhtedly was, in early Irish history. The celebrated judgment of Brigh, 
certainly the rules embodied in this tract, cannot have heen of an earlier date. 



to the intelligible explanation of thcir text. Evidently for 
the purpose of gettin 6 in the names of her brothers, it is 
stated that 
he claimed against her brothers; the author of 
this cannot have understood tIll' first line of the original text 
which is very clearly eXplained in the gloss; and the 
posbibility of an adverse claim by a sister against brothers 
in respect of land derived either through the maternal or 
p:tternal side, is absolutely at yariance with the express 
rule laill down in the commentary, page 13, line 33. 
When the authentic tradition of the custom was once 
affected by the changes in the existing modes of life and deal- 
ing with property which must have arisen from the political 
convulsions to which the Irish Celtic nation was suùjected 
dm-ing the historic period, the Brehon la.wyers ha-l no definite 
and abstract legal principles to guide thcm, and the analogies 
which they may have discovered in the Ecclesiastical and 
English systems, with which they came in contact must have 
been essentially misleading. There is, therefore, no reason to 
doubt the fact, which is patent upon the face of their writings, 
that the Brehon lawyers found much difficulty in dealing 
\vith the ancient texts, and h:we annexed to them the mo'<t 
varying and contradictory explanations. 
In most early customary laws the validity of any trans- 
action usually depended upon the performance of some 
prescribed mode of stipulation; the fullowing p:tssages are, 
therefore, worthy of notice as indicative of a very modern 
anù equitable mode of viewing the essence of the transfcr 
of property: "(
b tv) the person who buys without stealing 
or concealment, with purity of conscience, it (the subject 
'JIlCLttl. 1. of the lYlwc1wse) is his lawful property, according to 
God and JIlan; if his conscience is free, his soul is free.". 
There is in this passage an assertion of the doctrine of a 
purchase for valuable consideration without notice, and the 
title of the purchaser is refen-ed to his moral condition at 
the date of purchase, not to the fulfilment of the requisite 
C8remony of purchase. The same idea is evident in the 
following passage, also: "Except the covenant,> which are 
forbidden by the Feini, nothing is due without der.,crving 
.. Page 33. 


xl vii 

it, for every contract, which is unsafe, is entitled after 
nuptial present accorJing to the Brehon, except in case of 
poverty, or prohibition, or want of power.". 
In this passage there are involved the doctrines of consi- 
deration as the necessary basis fùr a contract, of purchase for 
valuable consideration and part performance, and of the re- 
scission of the contract by an inequality in the condition of 
the parties which in equity would now cause an agreement 
to be set aside, 01' specific p
rformance to be refused. In 
the latter port.ion of this para;raph " poverty" must mean 
such pres<:ure of poverty upon one of the contracting parties 
as would prevent his actin; as a perfectly free agent; anel 
"prohihitiun," according to the gloss, the fact of notice affect- 
ins the purchaser that the vendor has no equitable title; 
" want of power" is explained a<; duress, or intluence of :t 
moral or immoral character. 
There are other lxtssage:; in thi>l tract which lay down in 
a direct manner the ancient theory of society that the 
individual exists only as a member of some recogniscd 
community and therefore that his contracts are always 
I>ubject to rescis<;ion by the head of the community to which 
he b010ngs. "There are four covenants which are not 
binding, though they lUw parties) are proceede
l against j 
thai of a bondman with his chief j of a son with his father; 
of a monk with his abbot; of an "ulach" person with another 
if alone. For the chief, and the tribe, and the church may 
redeem (1'escind) every good contract, and every bad contract 
which are made with their subjects, except what they 
themselves order them; for these are the three defective 
covenants mentioned by the Feini; the covenant with the 
subject of a church; the covenant of a servitor of a ehief; 
a covenant with fugiti,"es from a tribe."t The principle 
here laid down is clear and distinct, "but even at the 
date of the original text it had become modified by the 
appJication of equitable principles, for the pas<;age concludes 
thus: "They are bound not to ba remiss about covenants, 

· Page 5!>. 
t Pa;;e :í5. This statement, or OllC e.lmost iltentical, is frequently repeate.l in 
the llrehon Law Tract



because if they should be remiss about covenants, then 
they do not annul the covenants of their subjects," which is 
an application to the case of the equitable doctrine of laches. 
This passage is followed by a very obscure paragraph 
dealing with what are styled" tC1'nal covenants," not agree- 
ments in our sense of the word but the legal results arising 
from the acts or omission of three persons in a certain 
relation. It is suggested that the passage may be illustrated 
thus; A contracts with B that the latter should do something 
affecting C, or which C may forbid to be done, and Chaving 
notice of the transaction does not interfere; and thereupon by 
re.:'tson of C's omission to do so the contract becomes binding 
upon him. This principle, (if our explanation of the passage 
is correct), is an excellent example of the equitaLle doctrine 
of" acquiescence." 
The latter portion of this tract must be considered as a 
mere common place book of some Brehon, who wrote out in 
the blank pages which followed the first part, a number of 
independent dicta, as he learnt them, or as they occurred to 
his memory; very few of these rules have any connection 
with the subjcct-matter of the original work; there is little, 
if any, sequence of thought, and they manifestly are of very 
different origin in point of date; this latter portion is how- 
ever valuable both on account of the very ancient rules as 
to the succession to land which are here preserved, and as 
illustrating the extent to which the ancient law was modified 
by equitable principles, a result doubtless attributable to the 
indirect influence of the civillaw.* 

.. "They speak Latin like a vulgar language, learned in their common school. of 
leachcraft and law, whereat they begin children and hold On sixteen or twenty 
years, conning by rote the of Hippocrates and the Civi{l...titules, and 
a few other parings of these two faculties. I have seen them where they kept 
school, ten in some one chamber, gro,-eIling upon couches of straw, their books at 
their noees, themselves lying prostrate, and 60 to chant out their les60tu by piece- 
mwl, being the most part lusty feIlows of twenty-fiv2 years and upwards." 
Edd. "Campion's account of Ireland," page 18 (A.D, 1571). 
Mr, Prendergast goes so far as to Bpeak of the Ert-hon as gi\"'ing .. his judg- 
ment according' to the Erehon Code, formed parrly of Irish customs, and partly 
of maxims cuIled from the Roman Digest." (The Cromwellian Settlement, 2nd 
edition, p. 15.) This is an exaggeration, fortunatel)' for the antiquarian \"'alue of 
the Erchon Law Tracts. 



In all the Brehon Law Tracts there are references to an 
existing organization, generally known as the Geilfine 
system, and to the four cla
ses designated as the Geilfine, 
Deir1hfine, Iarfìne, and Indfine. t No distinct explanation 
of the system is anywlwre given by the writers of these 
tracts, but it is everywhere assumed as existing, and of so 
well-known and notoriOlls a character that it did not seem 
to our authors necessary to state it5 details or to lay down 
the nlles 1,r which it was governed. That it was familiar, 
or a
sumed to be familiar, to the students of these works is 
proved by the figurative use of the terms primarily indicating 
the members of this system as indicating certain definite 
relations of place j remarkable passages of this nature occur 
in the "Bee-Judgments"; and the "Right to Water."* It is 
obviously impossible to understand the scope or meaning of 
many of the rules contained in the Ol"iginal text, or of 
passages in the commentary, without forming some clear 
conception of this peculiar organization of individuals as- 
sumed throughout, as pre-existing, and endeavouring to define 
the technical terms connected with this system, which so 
often occurs, used sometimes in a primary, and sometimes in 
a secondary sense. In the Book of AicilI, published in the 
last volume of the Breholl laws, there occurred a very 
remarkable passage, explanatory of the mode in which 
l,roperty was divisible among the members of a family in 

.. It was originally intended to have de,.oted a separate section of tbe Introduc- 
tion to each of the Tract. contained in this ,'olume; it was, bowe,'er, di'covered 
in tbe progres. of tbe work, that owing to the identity (of the questions which arose 
in certain of tbese Tracts, it was impossible to adopt tbis course without much 
repetition of previous statement., or an embarrassing amount of cross references. 
The sections III., IV., and V. of the Introduction are designed as dealing with the 
questions which arise upon the Tracts entitle,l " Of tbe J udgmenta of e,'ery Crime, 
&c.," "The Land is forfeited for Crimes," and" The Divisions of tbe Tribe of a 
Territo'}'," and also with the rules of sucl'ession coutained in the first Tract in the 
'olume. The consideration of the remaining Tracts bas been necessaril)' pootponerl 
until after the discn"ion of tbe qnestion of the" geilfine" system. 
t This word sometimes appears as" Innfine" or" Finnfine." 
t p. 1 73. 
 p. 207. 




accordance with the rules of the Geilfine system,. and an 
attempt was made in the Introduction to that volume, to 
explain the rules laid down upon this suùject in the commen- 
tary upon the Book of Aicill.t The explanation given by 
the editors of the preceeding volume of the passage, with 
which they were immediately dealing, has been to that 
extent admitted to be correct hy the yarious authors, who 
have, since the date of the publication of the last vohune, 
written upon the subject; and before any attempt to draw 
further deductions from the additional information, which 
is afforded by the law tracts now for the first time puùlished, 
it may not be inexpedient to reprint the passage in the 
previous introduction dealing specially with this suhject. 
" The most remarkable custom described in the Book of Aicill is 
the fourfold distributiun of the family into the' geilfine,' 'deirhh- 
fine,' , iarfine,' and' indfine 'divisions. From hoth the text awl 
the commentary it appears that the object of the institution did 
not extend further than the regulation of the distribution of their 
property. \Vithin the family seventeen members were organized 
in four divisions, of "\\ hich the junior class, known as the' ,- 
division, consistell of five persons; the' deirbhfine' the second in 
order, the' iarfine ' the third in order, and the' indfine' thc senior 
of all, consisted respectively of four persons. The whole organ- 
ization consisted, and could only consist of seventeen members. 
If any person was born into the 'geilfine '-dh'ision its eldest 
memher was promoted into thc 'deirbhfille' ; thc eldcst lllemùer 
of the' deirbhfine ' passed in{,o tllC 'iarfine'; the eldest member 
of the' ial"fine' moved into thc ' indfine' ; and the eJdpst member 
of tIle 'indfine' passed out of the organization altogether. It 
would appear that this transition from a lower to a higher grade 
took place upon the introduction of a new member into the' geil- 
fine' -division, and tIH
r<\fore depenlled upon the introduction of 
ncw members, not upon the death of the seniors. The lll"operty 
hcld by any class, or by its members as such, must have been 
held for tIle benefit of the survivors or survivor of tlmt class; but, 
upon the extinction of a class, the property of the class or of its 
members as such passcù to the surviving classes or class according 
to special and very technical rules. 
"On the failure of the' geilfinc '-class, three-fourtln, of its pro- 

... p. 330. 

t p. cxx:.:i.... 



perty passed to the 'deirbhfìne,' three-sixteenths to the' iarfine,' 
and one-sßteenth to the' indfine '-class. 
"On the failure of the 'deirbhfine '-class, three-fourths of its 
property passed to the' geilfine,' three-sixteenths to the' iarfine,' 
and one-sixteenth to the 'indfine.' 
" On failure of the 'iarfine' -class three-fourths of its property 
pnssed to the 'deirbhfine,' three-sixteenths to the' geilfine,' allli 
one-sixteenth to the 'indfine.' 
" On failure of the' inùfiue,' three-fourths of its property passed 
to the 'iarfine,' three-sixteenths to the 'deirbhfìne,' and one-six- 
teenth to the ' geilfine.' 
"On failure of the 'geilfine' and 'deirbhfine'-classes, three- 
fourths of their property passed to tlle ' iarfine,' and one-fourth to 
" On fiÚlure of the' indfine ' and 'iarfine,' three-fourths of their 
property passed to the' deirLhfine,' and one-fourth to the' geilfine.' 
"On failure of the 'deirbhfine' and 'iarfine '-classes, three- 
fourths of their property passed to the (geilfine,' and one-fourth to 
the 'indfine.' 
" On failure of the 'geilfine' and 'indfine,' three-fourths of the 
l)roperty of the' geilfine ' passed to the ' deirbhfine ' and one-fourth 
to the' iarfine' ; and of the property of the (indfine,' one. fourth 
passed to the (iarfine,' and one-fourth to the' deirbhfine.' 
"Two posRible combinations of two extinct classes, v.Ïz. :-tIle 
( geilfine' and 'iarfine,' and the 'deirbhfine' and 'indfine,' are 
omi"tted from the commentary. It would appear that upon the 
failure of any two classes the whole orgtll1ization required to be 
completeJ by the introduction of a sufficient number into the 
( geilfine '-class and by promotion carried on tluougll aU the cla..<;ses 
upwards; and if there were not forthcoming sufficient persons to 
complete the organization thcre 'was no partition among the sur- 
viving two classes. but the property went as if the deceased were 
not members of an organization at all. The rules as to the dis- 
tribution of property upon the extinction of anyone class or of 
any two classes may be understood from the annexed diagram. 
1 2 3 4 :; 6 7 8 (9) (l0) 

Indfine, 16 1 
: 01 
 0 o liJ4 
Iarfine, . 16 3 1: I 24 0 0 
Deirbhfine, 16 12 o 12 
 12 4 o , 0 
7' --- 
Geilfine, 16 0 12 3 , o 8 24 0 

The rule upon which the distribution of the property of such 
an organization depends appears clearly from the ahove diagram. 



Let it be assumed that each class possesses property represented by 
the figure 16. The class or classes extinct are denoted in the 
subsequent columns ùy a cypher, amI the distribution of the pro- 
perty uf the extinct class or classes is indicated ùy the numhcrs 
set opposite the names of the s'U'viving classes. Tlll'ee-fomihs of 
the propeliy of any extinct class pass to the next junior class, and 
in default of any junior surviving class, to the next senior class. 
The remaining one-fourth is treated in the same manner. If, 
exclusive of the class which has rpceived its sllare, there remains 
but one class, the residue passes to that class, but if two classes 
survive, three-fourths of the residue pass to the next junior class, 
and, in defaul t, of such class, to the ne)< t senior class; and the residue, 
one-fourth of a fourth, or one-sixteenth of the entire, goes to the 
remaining class. If two classes become extinct, the propmiy of 
each is distributed according to this rule, in which case, if the 
two classes which become extinct are next to each other, the dis- 
triùution of the property of both is identically the same; but if 
the extinct classes are not ne>-.t to each other, the property of each 
is distributed to the remaining classes in varying propOliions. 
It is evident from the commentary that the original principle, 
however it arose, had been forgotten, so that the distribution con- 
tained in column 8 of the aùove diagram is very awkwardly ex- 
11l"essed, and the cases in columns 9 amI 10 are altogether omitted. 
The meaning of this very artificial arrangement al)pears from the 
following passage :--' If the father is aIivp and has two sons, and 
each of those sons has a family of the full number-i.e., four-it 
is the opinion of la1ryers that the father would claim a man's 
sllare in every family of them, and that in this case they form two 
, geilfine '-divisions. And if the property has come from another 
l,lace, from a family outside, thmlgh there should ùe within in the 
family a son or a ùrother of the person whose property came into 
it, he shall not oùtain it any more than any otlter man of the 
family.' From this it appears that the wholeorgllnization exi.,ted 
within the family, and consisted of the actual descendants of a 
male member of the family, who himself continued in the power 
of the head of the family. As soon as a SOIl of the house had 
llimself four children, he and his four children formed a 'geilfine ,- 
class, and each succeeding descendant UI) to the number of seven- 
teen was introduced into the artificial body. The entire propel ty 
exclusively belonging to this family within a family was confined 
to the members of the organization until the number exceeded 
sevpnteen, when the senior mcmher lost his rights to the separate 
estate, retaining those which he possessed in the original family. 



"This arrangement must be reg,\nled as an invasion of the 
archaic form of the family, and an introduction pro tanto of the 
idea of separate property" How or wnen the system arose we 
have no information, but arrangements equally complicated have 
been elaborated in the evolution of customary law. 
" If it be admitted that the parent and his first four children 
(or sons) form the original 'geilfine '-class, it may be conjectured 
that the term 'geilfine' -chief, so often occurring in the Brehon 
law, indicates a son of the head of the family, who has himself 
begotten four children (or sons), and thus founded as it were a 
family within a family; and further, that, as ul,on the death of 
the head of a family each of his sons would hecome the head of a 
new family, the 'geilfine '-relationship in such an event woulll 
disappear, and its members would resolve themselves into a family 
organized in the normal manner. It may be conjectured thltt the 
parent always continued in the' gcilfine '-class, and that therefore 
it contained five members, although the other classes comprised 
four only, and that hence was derived the peculiar title of 'geil- 
fine '-chief." 

In this passage the system wa5 accepted a.s a very singular 
institution, regulating the distribution of the property of a 
lmjly; no attempt was made to account for the existence 
of ruleH so unusual, although it is obvious, that the mere 
e'\:istence of rules so complicated and in themselves so 
unreasonable must be I"efemble to some anterior social 
sptem, as is the case with the rules of the English la.w 
dealing with the succession of real estate. Three distinct 
theories as to the origin and working of this system have 
been published since the date of the last volume of the 
Brehon Law Tracts, by Sir H. S. )[aine in his Lectures on 
the Early Hi.<,tory of Institutions; by Dr. W. K. Sullivan in 
his introduction to the Lectures of the late Eugene O'Curry ; 
and by .Mr. J. F. M'Lennan in an appendix annexed to the 
last edition of his work upon Primitive Marriage, and 
entitled the" Divisions of the Ancient Irish Family." 
So numerous and important are the references to the Geil- 
nne system in the tracts comprised in the present volume, so 
radically does this system underlie the organization of the 
family, and the succession to land, to illustrate which, the 



majority of the tracts now publishccl have been specially 
selected, that it may not ùe considered an abuse of the 
restricted duties of an editor to explain the views upon this 
subject put forward upon such distinguished authority, and to 
state the objections to the reception of any of them in its 
integrity, before an attempt is made to propound a theory 
of the origin amI working of the system, wholly deduced 
from the Brehon L:tw Tmcts themselves, and which, al- 
though not in itself to be assumed as correct, as no 
modern explanation of so archæic an institution could claim 
to be, is at least consistent with the authorities and in itself; 
and affords a key to the rules as to the succession to land, 
scattered throughout the present volume. 
The views of Sir H. S. Maine upon this subject are clearly 
put furward by him in the following passages selected from 
his work: 
"Any member of the joint-family, or sept, might be 
selected as the starting point, and might become a root from 
which sprang as many of these groups of seventeen men 
as he had sons. As soon as anyone of the sons had four 
children, a full Geiltine sub-group of five persons was fonned; 
but any fresh birth of a male child to this son or to any of 
his male descendants, had the effect of sending up the eldest 
member of the Geilfine sub-group, provided always IJC wel'e 
not the person from whom it had sprung, into the DerLhfine. 
A succession of such births completed in time the Derbh- 
fine division, and went in to form the larEne, and the lnd- 
fine, the After and the End-families. The essential principle 
of the system seems to me a distribution into fours. The 
fifth person in the Geilfine division, I take to be the parent 
from whom the sixteen descendants spring, and it will be 
seen, from the proviso which I inserted above, that I do not 
consider his place in the organization to have been ever 
changed. He appears to be referred to in the tracts as the 
Geiltine chief.- 
"The Irish family is assumed to consist of three groups 
of four persons, and one group of five persons. I have 
· Early History of InstitutioDs, p. 210.. 



already stated that I consider the fifth person in the 
group of five, to be tbe parent from whom all the other 
members of the four divisions spring, or with whom they 
are connected by adoptive descent. Thus the whole of the 
natural or adoptive descendants are distributed into four 
groups of four persons each, their rank in the Family being 
in the inverse order of their seniority. The Geilfine group 
is several time stated in the Brehon Law to be at once the 
highest and the youngest. 
ow Mr. ,Yo Stokes has conveyed to me his opinion 
that' Geilfine' means 'hand-family.' As I have reason to 
believe that a different version of the term has been adopted 
by eminent authority I will give the reasons for 1IIr. Stokes' 
view. 'Gil ' means' hand '-this was also the rendering of 
O'Curry-aml it Ís in fact the Greek xÍtp. In several Aryan 
languages the term signifying 'hand' is an expressi\'e 
equivalent for power, and specially for Family or Patriarchal 
Power. Thus in Greek we have hoXirpW!; and XipTJ!;, for 
the person under the hand. In Latin we have hent8 
'master,' from an old word cognate to xEÍp; we have also 
one of the earliest cardinal terms of ancient Roman Family 
Law, manus, or hand, ill the sense of Patriarchal authority. 
In Roman legal phraseology the wife who ha<; become in law 
her husband's daughter by marriage is in nw?l'U. The son 
discharged from Parental Power is emancipated. The free 
person who has undergone manumission is in mancipio. 
In the Celtic languages we have, with other words, 'GiIla,' 
a servant, a word familiar to sportsmen and travellers in the 
Highlands, and to readers of Scott in its Anglicised shape 
, Gillie.' 
" 11y suggestion, then, is that the key to the Irish distri- 
bution of the Fa.mily, as to so many other things in ancient 
law must be sought in the Patria Potestas.- It seems to 
me to be founded on the order of emanciption from Parental 

* The use by Sir R. S. 1IIaine of the term "palr"ia potesta8" is very infelici- 
tous as baaing his theory upon a doctrine of the noman Law, "hich their own 
lawyers admitted to be peculiar and exceptional. The more general tenn "head- 
ehip of the joint house" ma
', however, be substituted for it without iujur:r to the 



Authority. The Geilfine, the Hand-family, consists of the 
parent and the four natm-aJ or adoptive sons immediately 
under his power. The other groups consist of emancipated 
descendants, diminishing in dignity, in proportion to their 
distance from the group, wllÍch according to archæic 
notions, constitutes the true or representative family. 
"The remains, which we possess, of the oldest Roman Law 
point to a range of ideas very similiar to that which appears 
to have produced the IrÏ:sh Institution. The family under the 
Patria Potestas was, with the Paterfamilias, the true Roman 
Family. The chilùren who were emancipated from Paternal 
Power may have gained a practical advantage, Lut they 
undoubtedly lost in theoretical dignity. They underwent 
that loss uf status which in ancient legal phraseology was 
called a capitis diminuto. 'Ye know too that according 
to primative Roman law they lost all rights of inheritance, 
and these were only gradually restored to them by a 
relatively modern institution, the equity of the Roman Prætor. 
N everthc!ess there are hints on all sides, that, as a general 
rule, sons as they ad \'anced in years were enfranchised from 
Paternal Puwer, and no doubt this practice supplies a partial 
explanation of the durability of the Patria Potestas as a 
Roman Institution. The statements therefore which we 
find concerning the Celtic Family would not be very un- 
true of the Roman. The youngest children were first in 
The entire geilfine system rests according to ihis view upon 
the patJ'in potesltts of the original progenitor withuut any 
reference to common property; the mem LeI's are those up 
to the number of sixteen, who are the subject of the put.ria 
potcst(ts, whether sons or remoter descendants, either by 
actual descent or adoption, and irrespective of age or the 
possession of property. It may be inferred that ill Sir H. 
S. Maine's opinion the eXL<;tence of the common ancestor 
is essential for the maintenance of the system, and that he 
regards aJI the members as living at the same time. 
The theory of Dr. W. K. Sullivan is very different, and 
is contained in the following passage of his work: 
* Id., p. 216. 



"The whole Fine Dldltaig included several stages of 
consanguinity ;-(1) the Cíndfine or children the sons ha dng 
the foreright ;-(2) the BI'uindfine, from 7wuind, the womb, 
the sons and daughters of heiresses or daughters of the 
Gl'adh Fine, or nobility inheriting property in their oWll 
right; (3) the Geltine, which seems to have been sometimes 
used for all relatives to the fifth degree, and sometimes 
for the relath"es to the fifth degree exclusive of the direct 
heir:;. These constituted the family in the strict sense. of 
the word. From the gelfine branched off, (4) the Del"bfine, 
which included relati\"es from the fifth to the ninth degree; 
(.J) the Iadine, or relatives from the ninth to the thirteenth 
degree; and (G) the Indfine, or relatives fr;:,m the thirteenth 
to the seventeenth degree. Beyond the latter degree, the 
Fine merged into a Dldlwig Daine, that is, the nation at 
large, who were not entitled to a share of the Dibad, or 
property of deceased persons, or liable for the payment 
of fines or americaments on account of crime:,;, etc., except 
those of their own special Fine, within the recognised 
degrees of consanguinity. The Gelfine were the represent- 
atives of the rights and liabilities of the family or house; 
they fonned a kind of family council styled Cuicer '/7((, Fi'/1C, 
or the five Gials, or pledges of the family. As they re- 
presented the roots of the spreading branches of the family, 
they were also called the C1tiC 7ne1Y(, na Fine, or the five 
fingers of the Fine. ",Yhen property, in default of direct 
heirs, passed to collateral heirs, the Gelfinc received the 
inheritance in the first instance, and assumed all the 
responsibilities attached to it. In default of relatiyes of 
the fifth degree, the property pas:òed to the representatives 
of the other Fincs."* 
This opinion of Dr. W. K. Sullivan has been adopted 
by Mr. \Y. E. Hearn, who after citing the Welsh rule of 
inheritance, viz., "The ancestors of a person are his father, 
and his grandfather, and his great grandfather; the co- 
inheritors are his brothers, and cousins, and second cousins,"t 

· Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish, Vol. I., p. clxiii. 
t Ancient Laws of Wales, Vol II., p. 427. 



proceeds thus: "'V e may observe, I think, a similar case 
in the difficult case of the Irish Fine. The ingenuity 
of the Brehon professors multiplied distinctions which 
are not found in the laws of other countries, and it is 
not easy distinctly to understand their writings on this 
subject. I venture however to suggest that' Fine,' like 
Familia, was used in various senses, and included both the 
more limited and wider bodies; that of the six kinds of 
Fine enumerated in the Brehon Laws, the first three include 
the Sni hC1'cdes and Agnati, and that the remaining three 
are subdivisions, how far practically important we cannot 
tell, of the Gentiles. The Geil-fine included the fifth 
de.<;cent, which, if the Ego were not counted, brings us to 
the sixth descent as in other cases. The other three FhlCS 
taken together, extend to the scventeenth degree, at which 
point all traces of kinship are assumed to be lost."* 
If this view be COITect the Geilfine system ig simply a 
mode of calculating kinship; the Geilfine has no existence 
as a social entity; the particular Pine in which any indi- 
vidual should be classed dcpends altogether upon the pcrson, 
who is assumed as the sti1'1)s; it would also seem that the 
five members of the Gcilfillc class, amI the four members 
of the other three classes arc not considered by these authors 
as" individuals" but as successive generations, and that the 
original ancestor is altogether excluded; and it also must 
manifestly follow that the members of the four classes could 
not possibly co-cxist.t 
. The AQ an 1I0llsehold, p. J 73. 
t Authors, who 
peak of property as being divisible among relations in the 
seventeenth (legree, cannot have considered the difficulty, or impossibility of ascer- 
taining kiuships so remote, or the consequences which would probably result could 
all the relativcs of this remote degree be once ascertained. It would be nceeSSar)"i 
for such purpose, to trace up seventeen male descents for the purpose of discovering 
the stirps, and in the second place \0 complete the requisite genealogical table of 
all the male descendants of the stirps throughout seventeen generations downward..... 
The stirps, upon the ordinary average of human life, must ha\"'e been dead 
upwards of 500 years, and there is no e"isting noble or royal family in which this 
inquiry could be attempted with any prospect of success. 
Thus :he relatives in the seventeenth degree of the Count de Charnbord include 
all the descendants of I.ouis, the first Duke of Bourbon, son of Robert of Clare- 
mont, and grandson of Saint Louis, who died in A.D. 1341. Those of tbe preseut 



The theory of :1'\11'. 
I'Lennan upon this subject is different 
in every respect from those of Sir H. S. Maine and Dr. 'V. 
K. Sullivan. The two cardinal assumptions upon which he 
proceeds are, (1) that the terms geilfine, dcrbhfine, iarfine 
and iudfine are correlative, and that, therefore, the four 
classes of the system must exist from the inception; (2) 
that the arrangement was founded upon the possession, 
and intimately connectcd with the distribution of property; 
(3) and that the members of the groups included only 
certain of the members of the family. 
The geilfine system according to this view originated in 
the existence of fm
T persons, related in the same degree to 
the original stL/'ps; ench of whom was the primary mem- 
l)e1' of one of the four classes, and as a necessary result the 
Father or stÜ']Js was excluded from the organization, and 
the subsequent members of each class were the lineal 
descendants of the original member oì that class. 
" If we conceive one of the organizations, initiated as in 
the case pronounced upon by the lawyers, to be completed 
(1) through the death of the Father, and his two sons leaving 
a set of four grandsons in their placeR, each as the eldest 
member of his division; and (2) through the filling up of 
the divisions by the birth of descendants to the several 
grandsons, the following table will then represent the 
organization :- 

Indfine. larfine. Deirbhfine Geilfine. 
A' A2 A' At Fathers and Brothers. 
ß\ ß2 B" TIt SOliS and First Cousins. 
C' C2 C' CI Grandsons and Second Cousins. 
D\ D2 D" DI Great Grandsons and Third Cousins. 
-- -- - Et Great great Grandsons. 

German Emperor include all the descendants of Frederick IV., Burggraf of 
Nurnberg, who died in 1332. As to their probable number when discovered, it is 
a matter of geometrical progreasion. If we consuIt the pedigree of David it will 
appear that, as seventeenth in descent from Ren, he counted among his relatives 
within the seventeenth degree the entire nations of the Jews, Edomiteø, Ishmaelites, 
IIIoabitea, AlDlllonites, Midianitcs, and several others. 



"The seniors of the division are AI, A 2 , &c., the brother.:! 
who constituted the 'family of the full number, i.e., four'; 
and the other men in the divisions along with them respec- 
tinly, are their first-born suns, gmndsons, &c. Al is the 
eldest of the four brothers, A 2 t.he llð t eldest, and A 4 is the 
youngest. The following features of the system now 
become intelligible:- 
"1. It is at once obvious why it is said the geilfine divi- 
sion is the youngest, and the indfine division is the oldest. 
"2. 'Ve can see a reason why, as a rule, there should be 
four men only in a divi'!ion, and why there should be a fifth 
man in the geilfine division. The age of marriage among 
the ancient Iri::;h was seventeen years-the age for finishing 
fosteragè. Thus Al would be at least fifty-four years old 
before his great grandson DI would be born; he would be 
between eighty and ninety years old before E
 could have 
a son; which would be the signal to Al to 'go out. of the 
community.' As a rule then, there could be only four 
generations of 'men in exi8tence at a time, and represented 
in the divisions. The fifth man, or rather boy, in the 
geilfine division must have been added to postpone the 
going out 'into the community' of the senior of the indfine. 
'Yhen he went out, he became, as we shall see, a pensioner 
on his division, and were he to go out when E 4 was born, he 
might be a charge on that division for a term of years. 
Before E4 could have a son, however, Al would be a very 
old man. Indeed, the 'going out' must have been rare. 
The law, however, provided for it, as it did for the divisions 
not being full, and even for their becoming extinct. What- 
ever the purposes of the organization were, the existencé of 
the whole number of t.he seventeen lIlen was not. essential 
to t.hem, and in the eye of the law a divi
ion existed so long 
as there was one man in it (Senchus Mol', Vol. III., p. 333). 
"3. So far as the organization was an artificial institution, 
it may have been a suHicient reason for limiting the number 
of divisions to four, that there were four men only in a 
division. 1I10re probably the reason was that four was, on 
t.he average, the fullllumber of ::;ons in a family. 
"4. \Ve have a clue to the 'self-acting principle,' as Sir 



Henry S. :Maine aptly calls it, according to which the oldest 
member of each division passed into the ne-..:t, on a new 
man (coming up' into the geilfine division. Among the 
Irish the next brother, or other nearest male agnate next in 
seniority to a deceased chief, succeeded to the chieftaincy in 
preference to a son. \Ye can, therefore, understand how 
they should provide for the succession of brother to brother, 
in order of seniority, in the headships of divisions; and 
failing brothers for the succession of cousin. to cousin (of 
the same class) in order of seniority. It accords with this 
succession law that when Al (went out,' .A 2 should succeed 
to him as head of the indfine division, that A 3 should 
sucC'eed A 2 as head of the iarfine, and A 4 succeed A 3 as 
head of the derbhfine. But we saw that before Al went 
out he would be very old. Before another (going out' 
could occur through the birth of a grand
on to E4 the 
lll'others would certainly be all deaù, and the first cousins, 
B\ &c., would be the heads of divisions. It would be next 
BPs turn to go out, and he would be succeeded in the 
headship of the indfine division by B2 as the cousin ne:JI..t. 
in ::;eniority; and W being succeeded by W, and B3 by W all 
the seniors would be promoted as before. By the fourth occur- 
rence of such an occasion it would he DI's turn to go out; if, in- 
Ileed, before then the organization had not collapsed through 
the extinction of divisions and want of men to reform them.". 
In a suhsequent passage :111'. 1.1'Lennan explains the mode 
in which this system would work as a quasi-entail of the 
family lands. " The most simple way of regarding the rules 
estahlished for the fourfold organization, in order to see how 
tl1ey operated as a succession law, is to conceive it to be 
8tarted by four brothers, AI, A2, &c., on the death of their 
f.'tther; leaving to them ancestral lands, which had come to 
him as next-of-kin, and which, at common law, they were 
entitled to divide equally between them. Thus regarded, 
the arrangement operated, in the first instance, as a settle- 
ment of the respective shares of the brothers on their heirs of 
line, the survivors, or sun-i VOl' of them, as far as great grand- 
sons. When a son B appeared, A shared the division lands 

.. Primitive Marriage, 2nd edition, page H2. 



with him; when a grandson appeared, they were shared 
again between the father, son, anù grandson; and they were 
finally redistributed on the appearance of a great grandson. 
Mter this there were redivisions as the men in turn died, 
till, they all being dead, the land was shared in the propor- 
tions specified between the remaining divisions. The chief 
peculiarities of the system, it will be seen, are (1) that it 
stopped succession in the direct line, except in the geilfine 
divisi.on at great grandsons; (2) that the principle of primo- 
geniture appears in the fOrInation of the groups of co-inheri- 
tors and parceners; and (3) that a Jife-tenancy only was 
given to any heir. To comprphend the working of the 
system, we must think of the four brothers as having one 
or more brothers who shared with them the lands on the 
death of their father, but remained outside the organization. 
These, I conceive, were the men of the family with their 
descendants, or whose descendants, if they were dead, might, 
on the extinction of one or more divIsions, enter the organ- 
ization by forming new divisions. If the indfine, for 
example, bccame extinct, the iarfine would become the 
indfine in the reformed organization, the deirbfine, the iar- 
fine, tho geilfine, dropping the odd man, would become the 
deirbfine, and the next eldcst brother to A 4, with his de- 
scendants, would become the new geilfine division. The 
new divisions would enter with a share of the anccstral 
lands equal to that possessed hy the others, except so far as 
the others had their shares increased by the distribution 
between them of the lands of the indfine. And thus the 
organization would continue, confining the lands to great 
grandsons, till it collapsed through the extinction of two of 
the lines and the failure of men of the family to reform it. 
The succession law acting no longer, the lands oÎ the extinct 
groups would then go to the next-of-kin, and be 
mbject to 
the common law of sl]ccession, whatever that was, till the 
lands were again resettled by the formation of a divisional 
It is to be observed that :Mr, :1l'Lennan clearly distin- 

.. Primitive lIIarriage, 21111 edition, page 496. It is to be obsen'ed that the 
technical terms used are those of Scotch, not of Engli
h, law. 



guishes between the actual existing form of any legal organ- 
ization, and the legal theory by which such form is deter- 
mined. He does not assert that the Irish C fine,' as a rule, 
was organized as a complete gcilfine system, but proposes 
his theory as the abstract system of the Brehon lawyers, 
upon which, under certain circumstances, the 'fine' would be 
organized so far as it went, and which it should assume if 
fnlly developed. The English lawyer knows that the abstract 
and complete form of the English manor is as purely ideal as 
any Platonic archetype, but that the existing manors do, as f.'tr 
as circumstances admit, present more or less resemblance, and 
approach more or less nearly, to the theoretical manor de- 
scribed in our Real Property text books. Mr. 11'Lennan's 
scheme however involves difficulties which he has wholly 
failed to explain. 'Yhy should the ordinary rules for the 
succession to land be suddenly arrested upon the birth of a 
fourth son, and the shares of the several sons thereupon pass 
in strict entail for three generations according to the law of 
primogeniture? "Yhy should the succession in the case of 
the geilfine division be extended to one generation further 
than in the case of the other classes? and why should the 
head of the indfine division rcmain in the system, although 
he had himself a descendant in the fourth degree, but cc go 
out" upon the birth of a descendant of his youngest brother 
in the same degree? :111'. }'l'LeI1I1an assnmes the four mem- 
bers of each class to have held the original share of the first 
member of that division, as joint tenants; and if so the 
following questions must at once arise. If A l goes out and 
A2 must thereupon cease to be head of the iarfine di\-ision 
and succeed AI as head of the indfine, and A" pass similarly 
from the deibhfille to the iarfine, and N ii'om the geilfine to 
derbhfine, does A2 cease to be a joint tenant of his own 
original share with B., C', and D', and become a joint tenant 
of the original share of AI jointly with BI, CI, and DI, and 
is this process repeated in the other classes, so as to leave 
the four junior members of the geilfine class sole tenants of 
the original share of A
? and further if, upon the entire ex- 
tinction of the indfine class, the geilfine class become in the 



"formation of new divisions" the derbhfine class, how is 
the fifth man of the geilfine class got rid of? 1\11'. 1\l'Lennan 
simply says that in this case the geilfine division drops the 
fifth man, but we must confess that such exclusion appears to 
us as inexplicable as his original inclusion. 
In ùealing with a question such as the present, there is 
nothing more misleading than analogies and assumed re- 
semblances. Each of the three above-mentioned authors, 
who have treated of this subject, has supported his theory 
by reference to rules existing in other archæic systems of 
law, which are more or less confidently stated as arguments 
fOl' the acceptance of the proposed theory as correct. But a 
profitable comparison can only be instituted between two 
known objects. An attempt to define the qualities of any 
thing unknown by reference to the qualities of a known 
quantity rests upon antecedent proof (more frequently the 
suppressed assumption) of their identity. This argument 
from tacitly assumed resemblances hns been often in the 
present day too far pressed, frequently with very unfortu- 
nate results; in dealing with an inf]uiry like the present, it 
would seem to us that the first step is to discover, as far as 
possible, what the actual texts with which we are denling 
say upon the subject, nnd to draw our conclusions from 
them free, as far as may he, from thuse a pj'iori idens of 
law, which, as incident to the form of society in which we 
live, naturally influence our judgmcnt; and that when we 
have arrived at some definite conclusions in this manner, 
then, but not until then, the nnnlogies and resemblances of 
other system arc useful fur the purpose of testing the probn- 
IJility of the corrcctness of the result'3 to which we have 
attained, and as. explaining or illustrating many points of 
detail which at first failed to attract the attention which 
they ùeserved. 
'Yhen an attempt is made to deduce, from the existing 
remnants of the works of the Brehon lawyers, a consistent 
theory of the organization of the ancicnt tribe nnd family, 
there arises the obvious difficulty, that the documents, with 
which we hnve to deal. nre not the contemporaneous exposi- 



tion of an existing system, and that we have no means of 
arranging them according t.o the date of their production; 
even tlle original text and commentary of many of them are 
separated by long intervals of t.ime, and exhibit ideas alto- 
gether discordant. The earliest date of the original text, or 
rather of the customary rules laid down in the original text., 
is not, and probably cannot be, ascertained; the latest 
comment.'1,ries and glosses are probably not earlier t.han the 
IGth century; they certainly cover a period extending from 
the Danish invasion to the reign of Elizabeth, during which 
the country was exposed to continued war and confusion, 
and subjected t.o all t.he political and social causes which 
would naturally lead to the breaking up of the ancient t.ribe 
find f.'lmily system, and the substitution of the arbitrary 
power of chiefs commanding bands of armed retainers for the 
regular action of ancient and established custom. The 
analogy of other nations in a similar conrlition would natnr- 
filly lead us t.o anticipate that during this period the chiefs 
were constantly gaining ground as against the rights of the 
individual members of the tribe, and such would appear to 
have been t.he case from the days of Conn Cetcorach to that 
of t.he chiefs, who, in the IGth century, obtained from the 
English Government grants of the tribe lands in fee or fee- 
tail with the object of defeating the custom of Tanistry, or 
of destroying the rights of the customary holders. The 
original constitution of the t.ribe or family during such a 
period gradually cease::; to be an existing social fact, and 
tends to become merely a rule for the distribution of property 
upon death, after a fashion which would be strange and 
inexplicable, if we did not understand it to represent a social 
system which had for all practical pnrposes disappeared. 
The distribution of property according to the Geilfine system, 
as expounded in the commentary to the Book of Aicill, bears 
the same relation to the original constitution of the < fine,' as 
the rules of the English law, relative to the succession of 
real estate, bear to the feudal system, or as the distribution 
of nropertyaccording to the later Civil Law does to the 
early Roman family. Those of tbe Brehon Law tracts, which 
deal with thE' geilfine system as a.n arrangement of the tribe 



or family, would seem therefore the more ancient and 
authoritative with regard to the nature of that organization; 
and it is worthy of remark that the differences, which exist 
between what may be a pl'iol'i assumed to be the earlier 
and later tracts, are just what might be anticipated to have 
arisen under these circumstances. 
The most important document upon the suhject of the 
tribe and family organization is the tract entitled "Of the 
Divisions of the Tribe of a Territory" published in this 
volume, and we desire particular attention both t? the text of 
this tract, and the obvious deductions to be drawn therefrom. 
The word translated tribe in the title of this tract is 
"cinel," which is generally understood to mean a tribe in 
the full extension of the term, and containing a greater or 
less n umber of " fam ilies." 
The word translated" territory" means not a mere extent 
of land, but primarily the tribe or people themselves, and 
thence a tract inhabited 'by a definite body, and regarded 
with reference to the rights of the occupants. 
The word "fine," translated variously" tribe" or "family," 
(a circumstance which has been noticed as an error by some 
critics of the present translation of the Brehon Laws,) 
appears on the face of this document as not having any very 
precise or technical meaning, implying any number of per- 
sons conceived as forming a class whether from identity of 
descent, or similnrity of rights. 
This document must not be considered as a description 
of the ordinarily existing tribe, but rather as an explana- 
tion of the form which a tribe would assume if fully de- 
veloped in every direction. It is remarkable that this tract 
would appear to consider the tribe and family as commen- 
surate, if not identical. It would be, however, an error to 
consider that we must, from the tract in question, infer such 
to be the case, a result contradictory of many other passages 
in the Brehon Law tracts and opposed to all analogy.* 
The number of families in the Celtic tribe was never theo- 

. The following passage is eonclush'e upon thi$ point: .. An 'ai/.t-fine' be it 
known; a man who leads his family ('fine ') when they lire on thllir way to the 
ehief ('flaieh ')-"_Po
t. p. M!J. 



reticaUy fixed, as were the number of the Roman gentes 
or Greek fpáTtut; anò our author naturally deals with the 
simplest case of the tribe consisting of one family, or, which 
is perhaps more probable, when he deals with the "family, 
he directs his attention to some one supposed instance. 
The mode in which the tribe or family was organized 
according to this tract, was as fonows :- 
(A.) The <<fine" of the chief (flaithe-fine), consisting of- 
(1) the chief's f'lddhir tenants; (2) the kinsmen of the 
chief; (3) the dependents of the chief: 
(B.) The divisions of the "fine" of the territory-(l) the 
geilfine; (2) the deirbhfine; (3) the iarfÌne; (4) the 
innfÌne; (5) the deirghfine; (G) the duibhfine; (7) the 
finetacuir; (8) the glasfine; anò (9) the ingen ar meraibh. 
The nature of the five latter divisions, as to which there i'l 
no doubt, is of much importance in determining that of the 
four first in the second part of this catalogue. The" deirg- 
fine" are described as those who have shed blood; from whom 
no debadh property comes; who receive no share of the tribe 
("fine "), but who nevertheless pay for the crimes of their 
kinsfolk. Dr. W. K. Sullivan describes this class as consisting 
of those" who killed, or attempted to kill the senior members 
of their fine in order to get at their dibad, or property;". 
in this he follows Dr. O'Donovan, who states, in the note 
annexed .to the text, that they were those who were guilty 
of the murder of a brother familyman, i.e., one of the se"\"en- 
teen men of the four principal divisions. A permanent 
division of murderers is indeed an anomaly in a tribe 
organization, and there is a much simpler and more obvious 
explanation; in the present volume there is contained a tract 
entitled "The Land is forfeited for Crime," in which it is laid 
down that the land of one who had committed a crime W38 
<<given for his crime;" that his land was the primary fund 
for the payment of the" dire "-fin{' and compensation in 
exoneration of those who by reason of their kinship, or 
family relation, to the criminal, were bound to make good 
his default. The deirgfine-man was one who by reason of 

.. Manners and Customs, &c., Vol. I., p. clxvi. 




a crime had forfeited his share in the property of the "fine," 
but in other respects continued to be recognised as a member. 
The" dubhfine " were those whose claims to be members 
of the "fine" were under dispute, and who were required 
to substantiate their rights by Ol'deal, or by lot. 
The" fine-tacuir" were not members by descent, but by 
a contract of adoption. 
_ The" glasfine" were the children of a female member by 
a stranger, defined as the children of an Albanach, and 
described as kindred from beyond the sea. . 
The" ingen ar meraib" were those commonly believed to 
have claims to be members, Imt whose title rested merely 
on common repute, and was not the subject of ordeal or lot. 
This term "ingen ar meraibh," literally" the nail on the 
finger," may be similiar to the word" nagel kyn" as desig- 
nating indefinite and indescribable relationship. It is to be 
observed that these five latter classes consist of men not flùl 
members of the "fine." The "deirghfine," although members 
by descent, had suffered a " climinldio ectpitis," and were not 
in the enjoyment of full rights. Of the remaining four 
classes two were confessedly not members at all, and the 
membership of the two remaining classes was either in 
supense or unprovable. The four classes of the geilfine, 
&c., must therefore represent the members of the "fine" of 
admitted descent, and fulll'ights. These classes are in this 
tract described as follows: 
"The gcilfine extends to five persons; it is they that get the 
'clebadh '-property of every kindred chief (concl) wholcaves 
'cliùadh' -property. 
"The' deirfine' extend to nine persons; their' dibadh ,- 
property is not divided according to the number of kindred 
"The' iarfine' extend to thirteen men; they get only the 
fourth part of the fines, or of profits, of the ground, or of 
"The 'innfine' extend to seventeen men; they divide 
among themselves, as is right, whatever part of the tribe- 
land is left as' debadh '-land." 



From this tract the following deductions may be safely 
made: (1) the organization of the "fine" was ba.sed upon 
the exclusive possession of land by the "fine" as a distinct 
community, and had direct reference to the mode in which 
the land was divided among them. 
) The four classes of the geilfine, deirbhfine, iarfine, and 
'innfine' consisted of seventeen members of the "fine" of 
pure descent, and full rightE. 
(3) Each of these four classes was complete in itself and 
possessed distinct joint rights both as against the other th
classes as well as against the general members of the "fine." 
(4) The four classes of full members do not comprise all 
the memLers of the fine. The" dubhfine" man, who had 
succeeded in establishing his position in the" fine" Lyordeal 
or lot did not enter into the "geilfine" classification, but 
received a share of a fixed amount. 
With reference to the" deirbhfine" division there is btated 
a rule that their property was not divided according to the 
number of kindred heads; it is possible that this may be 
introduced to point out that as between the" geilfine " and 
"deirbhfine" divisions, the two classes were to be considered 
as different and equal stocks, and the "geilfìne" had no 
advantage in the division of property by reason of the 
greater number of its members; it would seem morc 
probable that this is a general rule to the effect that property 
which passed to the" deirbhfine" class was to be divided 
"per stirpes" and not "lJej' capita." This fact is put 
beyond doubt by the passage in page 259 describing the 
mode of the division of the" dire "-finc payable to the family 
(and "fine") of a slain man: "Three cumhulsof" dire"-fine 
go to the son and to the father; there are three cll1nhals 
of"dire"-fine remaining after that; a cumltal of" cli1'e" -fine of 
them goes to a brother collaterally.-There is one 'c'/.urnltal' 
of' di1'e' fine then after that-that is to be divided from 
the lowest man of the' geilfine' division until it reaches 
the uppermost man; and from the uppermost man until it 
reaches the lowest, &c." 
A man therefore could stand in som
 relation to. a 



"geilfine" class, which did not incJude either his existing 
father, son, or brother, and from which we must assume 
that he himself also was excluded. The same cönclusion 
must bedrawn from the liability to pay fines. Upon this point 
.Mr. 1I'Lennan remarks: "That the divisional organization 
was one of the divisions of the' fine,' or sept, appears from a 
curious passage in the Book of Aicill (Vol. Ill., p. 481) which 
discusses the question from whom It forced exaction, as in 
payment of a penalty or fine, might lawfully be levied. 
Here the 'seventeen 
en' are several times referred to as 
specially liable to such an exaction if levied on account 
of the crime of any man connected with them, in terms 
which seem to imply that every tribesman had, necessarily, 
a connexion with a divisional organization which was liable 
for his defaults. In one place the text, which, as it stands, 
reads as nonsense, must have been intended to indicate that 
the distant relatives of the criminal were liable for him only 
when the divisional organization was incomplete, or had 
collapsed-a reading which is confirmed by the text. TJ:te 
four nearest tribes bear the crime of each kinsman of their 
stock, geilfillE
, &c. (Senchus Mol', Vol. 1., p. 261.) Here 
the connexion is disclosed between a tribesman, himself not 
the member of a divisional organization, and the organiza- 
tion respon:oible for him.". 
The seventeen men must have exercised an authority and 
rule over the other freemen, of the" fine," or must have 
filled some quasi representative position in relation to their 
fellows. If the former were the fact it is improbable that 
so remarkable a difference of status would have been passed 
over by the author of this tract. 
(5) The seventeen men are not represented 38 occupying 
among them the entire territory of the" fine," for there was 
a surplus of land available for members of the "dubhfine" 
or of the " glasfine." 
(6) The existence of the orgauization of the" fine," does 
not seem to have been limited by reference to the life 
or lives of any person, or class of persons j the existence 
. Primitive Marriage, 2nd ed., p. 480. 



of such classes as the "dubhfine" and the "ingen aT mC'1'aiblt," 
the members of whom were contemplated as possiblyincrea.
ingin number with the rest of the "fine,". prove that "fine" 
so constituted had continued for very long periods.t But 
upon the completion of the four classes to their full number an 
important change took place as to the rights of the members 
of the "fine" in respect of their common property. The 
words in thistract" From this forth it is acaseofacommunity 
of people, it is then family relations cease," are glossed as 
meaning that upon this contingency the subdivisions of land 
and liability Reparatf', or that the relationship becomes ex- 
tinct, or that the four families become extinct. The meaning 
of the glossist is quite clear, not that the previous members 
of the "fine" cease to exist as individuals, but that the organ- 
ization of the "fine" as far as relates to the mode in which 
the common property is held ceases to exist and the commu- 
nity i" dissolved into a number of persons holding the land 
they occupied independently of each other and without rights 
of inheritance to the land::; of each othet.. That this is the 
correct interpretation appears from the passage in the first 
tract in this volume, "Fro.m seventeen men out they are not 
a tribe-community::: and the commentary upon that passage. 
(7) The special geilfine class possessed '1 certain superiority 
over the other thr
e, and by some such title had an 
exclusive right to extern prop
rty faIling in, and as a 
natural consequence according to the first principles of 
Brehon law was also subject to a primary liability for the 
crimes of the members of the << (ine. " 
These results may be dupplemented by some other con- 
clusions gathered from the tracts contained in the present 
and preceding volume. 
There was at the head of the "fine" a chief who repre- 
sented the "fine" in its collective capacity. 
In the Book of Aicill, in discussing the }'ight to property 
found upon roads, and the remedy for injuries done to roads, 
a distinction is drawn between the king of the territory, 
and the geilfine chief, in this passage distinctly described as 
· Page 295. t Vol. IV., p. 243. f Page 39. 



the" geilfine Raith "; and the latter is treated as represent- 
ing the rights of the "fine" as the former those of the entire 
community.. The" geilfine" chief of this passage would 
appear to be the same as the "fair chief of the tribe" whose 
assent was requisite to the validity of contracts dealing with 
"coibne-property";t and also with the "head of the tribe" 
who had certain rights in the nuptial presents of women of 
the tribe, and the gains of an harlot a member of the trihe.t 
The "geilfine" chief was not always, it appears, necessarily a 
member of the" geilfine" class, for in the second of the pas- 
sages referred to, there occurs a curious proviso restrictive of 
the power of the" fair-chief of the tribe," viz., "unless he be 
the sixth" which, although explained in the gloss in an ob- 
scure manner, appears to mean unless he be not one of the 
first five, i.e., of the geilfine division properly so called.
There appear allusions to chiefs of the deirbhfine, iarfine, and 
indfine divisions, which implies that some one of the class 
possessed a seniority, or superiority, over the other members 
of the class.1I It would also appear that when a class was 
once formed, it continued to subsist as long as anyone 
member of the class continued in existence; as we should 
now express it, the members of a class were as among them- 
selves joint tenants and not tenants in common. The 
movement of individual member"! through the different 
classes was not caused by the vacancies in the three latter 
classes but by a superfluity of members in the first class j 
and that the social position and rights of the classes among 
themselves was in the inverse order of the seniority. That 
there were some connexion of kinship between the membprs 
of the four classes is everywhere assumed, but the relation- 
ship which may have existed at any time between the 
members may not have been that upon which the system 
was originally constituted. The existence of a father and 
four sons is more than once referred to as the basis of an 

.. Vol. III., p. 307. t Vol. IV., p 39. t Id., p. 63. 

 Another ami slightly different explanation of this passaj;e is sug&ested subse- 
quently, see p. Ixxxviii. 
II Vol. IV., p. 243. 


lxxii i 

ordinary "geilfine" system, but it does not follow that 
although the existence of a father and four sons would 
result in founding the system, it could not be fonned by five 
persons of the same stock, standing in another relationship 
to each other; it might, it appears, be formed upon the basis 
of five co-existing brothers. That the deirbhfine were 
not descended from the geilfine iH shown by the passage, 
which describes the property of the geilfine division upon 
the death of the five members of that division passing to 
a branch extern to the 'geilfi'lle,' viz., the dei1"bhfim divi- 
sion.- In the glosses upon this passage there is the follow- 
ing : " In this case after the death of the five persons which 
are the geilfine division, the land is divided among tþe 
three 'fine' divisions, and in this case there is no female 
heir." As a female is here assumed to have been entitled 
to succeed upon the failure of male heirs, the extinction of 
one of the classes implies both the death of the original mem- 
bers, and the failure of their issue, and it is therefore neces- 
sary in any theory of the system to find room for the succes- 
sion of lineal descendants to the land of their ancestors. 
:Mr. McLennan after pointing out that such a system 
must be primarily founded upon the possession and dis- 
tribution of land, and that the liability of the members 
for the acts of members of the "fine" is based upon the 
rights which they enjoy in respect of the common property, 
makes the following important observation: "It is not 
difficult to imagine that an-angements of such obvious con- 
venience as defining and li:tpiting the liabilities of kinsmen 
for one another, if once successfully established among the 
superior classes, would in time be imitated by the inferior; 
and the peculiar settlement of property, worked through a 
divisional organization, as may be easily seen, is nowise in 
its nature, initPplicable to movable estate."t 
In conformity with this observation of Th. M'Lennan, a 
remarkable analogy to the geilfine system in the "fine" 
appears to have existed among the families of the "fuidhir" 
tenants, which is worthy of much attention in the consider- 
· Vol. IV., p. 39. t Primitive Marriage, 2nd ed., p. {92. 



ation of the present subject. These tenants, settled upon 
the chief's share of the tribe lands, were recruited from the 
broken men, who had lost land and kinship, and in the tribe 
organization were supposed to form portion of the "fine" 
of the chief (flaithfine), but at an early pcriod they seemed 
to have formed artificial families upon the system of recip- 
rocalliability, and to have acquired a right of heredit.'try 
transmission of property. The passage to which we refer 
lays down as a general principle that" the natural bondman 
does not bear the crimes of his relatives," but that if there 
were five houses of "fuidhir" tenants, each householder 
having a stock of one hunch'ed cattle, and all under one 
chief, they formed an association, recognised as a portion 
of the tribe, for each thereupon. shared in the common tribe 
land (dibadh) and paid for the crimes of the other member 
of their separate organization. The phrase "They share the 
tribe property," translated as in the last sentence by an 
earlier glossist, is translated by a subsequent commentator, 
"Each of them shall share the tribe propert
- of each other ;" 
according to this view the reciprocal liability for crimes 
drew with it common rights and joint ownerships in the 
aggregate stock of the five houses.- But whatever rights 
the five head men of these "fuidhir" houses acquired in the 
common stock, .it must have been subject to the succession 
of lineal heirs, as in a subsequcnt passage we -read (;u respect 
of the case of fuidhir tenants), "the father does not sell any- 
thing to the prejudice of his sons, grandsons, great grand- 
sons, or great great grandsons."t. To constitute such a com- 
munity there must have been a certain numbcr of persons 
belonging to different households, and also possessing an 
adequate amount of property. The sons, brothers, &c., of 
an household were liable for each others deeds without such 
organization, and the addition of impecunious persons into 
such an asmciation would create a liability without any 
reciprocal guarantee. 

.. Post. page 43. The precise meaning is not important, but we are inclined to 
prefer the latter translation. 
t Post, p. 287. 



There must have existed distinct and early laws of 
hereditary succession to lands of inheritance (oTba) among 
the Irish Celtic tribes, but these rules have in fact been 
amalgamated in the "gcilfine" system, and cannot be now 
understood apart from it; the 'Velsh rules which may be 
assumed to have some general resemblance to those of the 
Irish, throw, in our opinion, considerable light upon this 
subje()t. The relation of the father and son in the Wehh 
law in respect of the family inheritance resemb]ed rather 
the civil law substitution, than the English joint-tenancy; 
<<neither is the son to deprive his father, during his life, of 
land and soil; in like manner the father is not to deprive 
the son of land.". Such a rule, if strictly carried out, would 
have created a perpetual succession, and the right of the heir 
could be barred only in one way, viz., by an agreement 
between "father, brothers, cousins, second cousins, and the 
lord;" a proceeding the same as the present mode of barring 
a Scotch tailzie. Upon the death of the father, the d&ughters 
took nothing, unless there was a failure of male heirs; upon 
the death of the father .the sons divided the lands between 
them in the following manner: "'When brothers share the 
patrimony between them, the youngest is to have the 
principal tyddyn, and all the buildings of his father, and 
eight erws ofland, his boiler, his fuel hatchet, and his coulter; 
because a father cannot give these three to any but to the 
youngest son; and though they should be pledged, they 
never become forfeited. Then let every brother take an 
homestead with eight erws of land; and the youngest son 
is to share, and they are to choose in succession from the 
eldest to the youngest."t 
The inheritance baving been thus .divided among the first 
generation of descendants, was again divided among the 
grandsons, and again among the great granùsons, after which 
there was no further apportionment. By this we must 
understand that the three first generations of descendants 
took "per capita," and that the fourth generation retained 

· Ancient Law8 of Wales, VoL I., p. 177. 
t Ancient Laws of Wales, VoL I., p. 543. 



the existing shares by household or pCI' stirpes. The reshar- 
ing was subject to the exception that no one should "remove 
from his tyddyn to another; because the tyddyns are of such 
a num1erthat no one is obliged to be a builder for alll>ther".. 
The right to inherit the share of any deceased relative, was 
not as collateral heir of the deceased, but as a lineal descend- 
ant of the original ancester;t to use the terms of English 
law, heirship was claimed not to the last seized, but to the 
purchaser; but the right of inheritance stopped short at the 
fourth generation of descendnnts; the descendant in the 
fifth degree had no hereditary claim through his ancestor to 
any portion of the lands of inheritance, and therefore kins- 
men more distantly related than third cousins could not be 
hrirs to each other in respect of shares in lands of inheritance. 
In default of relations within this degree the land escheated 
to the king.t It is to be remarked that according to this 
system the elder brothers go out of the father's house and 
 themselves in separate buildings, upon distinct 
portions, cut out for them of the lanùs; and the youngest 
son is left in the possession of the original homestead anù 
all its gear. The redivisions are not partitions of the land 
exhausting the entire, but on thrse occasions each male 
descendant acquires a fixed portion as his share; aftcr the 
third generation there is no further redistribution of the 
land; and after the fourth generation the familyorganiza- 
tion is dissolved into separate households, each of which 
(for the purpose of inheritance) had no relationship with the 

.. Ancient Laws of 'Vales, Vol. II., p. 291. t Id. 
 Id., Vol. I., p. 545. 

 That the hereditary rip;ht of stlcces,ion to property and the claims of kinsllÏp 
should cease, or be vel")' much diminished at some particular point in the chain of 
descent, is a conception not unknown to ancient law. .. The typical example of 
this dh-ision of the clan, as of so many other of our early institutions, is found in 
Inliia. In that country the dcgress of kindred, as I have alread)' observed, were 
determine,i by the nature of the sacred rigbts in wbicb tbe kinsmen shared. The 
nearer relatives offered to their lieceased ancestors the pinda or sacrificial cake. The 
more distant relatives made an offering of water. The former were called Sapin- 
das, or persons connected witb the cake. Tbe latter were called Samanodocas, 
or persons connected by equal oblations of water. The relation of the Sapindas 
ceases witb the seventh person, that is, with the sixth degree of kindred. .. (Tbe 



In the following observations it is desirable to use the 
term "tribe" and "family" in a techincal sense, treating the 
former as indicating the larger organization known as the 
"cinel," the latter as equivalent to the "fine;" this distinc- 
tion between the "tribe" and the "family" appears in all 

degrees of kindred in this passage are <,aIculated accor<1ing to the rules of the 
English, not ()f the Civil Law.) .. The.re1ation of the Samanodocas ceases only when 
their birth and familJ" name are no longer "nown. The Sapindas have the primary 
right of inheritance to a deceased person; and failinK the Sapindas the Samanodocas 
succeed. In other words all those persons are Sapindas, who have a common 
weat-grandfather, or other nearer ascendant, that is second cousins and all nearer 
relath-es. All those persons are Samanodoca., who have a common great-great- 
grandfather, or other more remote ascendant, that is third cousins and all more 
distant relatives. In the.former ca<e, the common ancestor who marls the limit, 
i. the father's grandfather. In the latter case it is the grandfather's grandfather. 
Thus the Prince of 'Yales and the Ex-Crown Prince of IIano\'er are Sapindas, 
because they trace descent from the same great-grandfather, King George III., 
hut their children fall into the wider circle of Samanodocas, or more remote 
kinsmen.-The Aryan HOUIChold, p. 168. 
The actual text of the Welsh Law is as follows:- 
1. When sons share their patrimony between them, the :roungest is to have the 
principal tJ <1dyn, and all the buildings of his father, and eight erws of land, his 
boiler, his fuel hatchet, and his coulter; because a father cannot gÏ\'e these three 
to anJ one but to the :rounger son; and though they should be pledged, they never 
become forfeited. Then let every brother take a homestead", ith eight erws of 
land, and the youngest son is to share; and they are to choose in succes.<ion, from 
the eldest to the youngest. 
2. Three times shall the same patrimony be shared hetween three grades of a 
kindred; first between brothers, the second time between cousins, the third time 
between second cOllsins; after that there is no propriate share of the land. 
3. Ko person is to demand re-sharing, hut one who has not obtained a share by 
choosing; thence the proverb, there is no choice in what is settled. 
4. Ko person is to ohtain the land of a co-heir, as of a brother, or of a cousin, 
or of a second cousin, by claiming it as heir of the one co-lteir "ho shall have died 
without lea\ ing an heir of his bodJ-; but by claiming it as heir to one of his own 
parents, "ho had been owner of that land until his death without heir, whether a 
father, grandfather, or great-grandfather, that land he is to have, Ü he be the 
nearest next-of-kin to the deceased. 
5. After brothers shall have shared their patrimony between them, if one of 
them die without l
a\ ing an heir of his bod:r, or co-heir, to a third cousin, the 
king is to be the heir to that laD!L 
6. As a brother is rightful heir to his patrimony, 80 is his sister rightful heir 
to her gwad<1ol, through which she may obtain a husband entitled to land; that 
is to say, from her father, or from her co-iRheritors, if she remain under the 
guidance of her parents and co-inheritors. 
7. If an owner of land have no other heir than a daughter, the daughter is to 



early systems, and correlative terms expressing them are 
found in many languages. if. 
The "family" came into being under certain circumstances, 
and again was dissolved upon the existence of a certain 
state of facts; the" tribe" existed before the" family" came 
into being and continued to exist after the latter had been 
dissolved; the "tribe" consisted of an aggregate of individuals 
connected by a real or assumed relationsl1Ïp, and occupying 
in separate households a district of which they in some 
manner were the common owners. 
Let us consider the circumstances under which a" family" 
organized upon the geilfine system came into existence; 
the mere fact that a member of the tribe had a certain 
number of children would be insufficient, for it rested 
upon the basis of the possession of a distinct and separate 
property; nor again would the baJ:e fact of the possession 
of land enable a member even of the" family" to found a 
new geilfine group, for there was only one such organiza- 
tion in each fumily. 
The property upon which a family was formed was not a 
right to a share greater or less in the general tribe land to 
be allotted from time to time, or a right to depasture the 
waste of the tribe, but the exclusive possession of a deiinite 
portion of the tribe land, granted out the general mass, and 
appropriated as the exclusive and hereditary property of the 
descendants of some definite individual, an estate con'e- 
sponding to the A.S. bocland, and described in the Brehon 
Law as "orba." 
be heiress to the whole land.-The Dimetian Code, ch. xxiii., A. L. & I., vol. i., 
" Distribution is in the first place to be between brothers. The youngest is to choose 
his tyd<1yn with such houses as may be upon the eight erws, if he be an uchelior, 
and from oldest to oMest let them ch30se their t
'<1dyn, and to everyone what 
houses may be upon his tyddyn. And after that let the youngest son share in e, ery 
case; and from eldest to eldest let them choose. Afterwards cousins are entitled 
to a re-sharing, but no one shall remove from his tyddyn for another, because the 
tyddyns are of such number that no one is obliged to be a builder for another. 
And in that manner are second cousins to re-share. And, after the third sharing, 
let everyone re-claim his share in his possession lawfully through guardians of 
1and-borderers.-Cyoreithian Cym,'U, xxxi., 1, A. L. &. I. of 'Wales, vol. ii., po 291. 
... 'The Aryan Household, 161-171. 



If land has thus been dedicated to the use of a separate 
family, the claims of its members to enjoy their several 
proportions by hereditary right must be traced from the 
original acquireI', or in the old English law term" from the 
conqueror." This is very clearly shown by the 'Yelsh rule 
that heirship is traced back in the first instance to the 
ancestor, and not to the deceased. As the family increased, 
the additional further accommodation is provided for, not by 
the enlargement of the original dwelling, but by the erection 
of new buildings with several allotments. The brothers 
nnder the 'Velsh Jaw did not upon the father's death take 
equal undivided or divided shares, but to each was aJIoted 
his homestead with his eight erws of land in severalty. The 
existence of the thickly scattered" raths" in Ireland would 
of itself prove that the "family" occupied its district in this 
manner, and in the tract of the "Crith GabhJach" (also 
published in this volume) the several members of the tribe 
are assumed to occupy separate houses, classified as to size, 
&c., in accordance with the rank of the occupiers; the Celtic 
family never seems to have clung together in the peculiar 
form of the Sclavonic household. 
In considering bow a geiljine system might have been 
fonned, the question why the number of seventeen formed 
an element in the organization may be postponed for sub- 
sequent consideration. Nothing can be more em baITassing 
than an attempt to reconstruct a system founded both upon 
hereditary descent, and certain assumed arithmetical propor- 
tions. A familyaITanged upon some rules of inheritance can 
be easily understood, if once the principle of hereditary suc- 
cession which underlies it, be ascertained; a political insti- 
tution resting upon the selection of a fixed number from the 
indefinite mass of the population, can be supposed to have 
been an actually working institution. But when we read 
of assemblies formed of members selected in certain propor- 
tions; or in fixed numbers, out of different stocks, or of 
property divided among the descendants of some ancestor, 
in a fixed number of shares, it is clear that we are no longer 
.. Ancient Laws of Wales, Vol. I., P. I ï7. 



dealing with actual facts, but with theoretical descriptions 
of what the institution was supposed in the abstract to have 
been. The numbers in each family must be uncertain; some 
men have many, some few or no descendants. The actual 
condition of the population must soon have rendered its 
arithmetical classification impossible, if such classification 
ever existed in fact. Noone pretends to believe in the actual 
existence of the early Roman constitution, with a perma- 
nently fixed number of tribes, curiæ, gentes, and familiæ; 
and yet upon the assumption of the existence of an almost 
impossible state of facts rest the number of the members of 
the sen:Lte, and the organization of the legion. Institutions, 
as all else, must accommodate themselvcs to existing facts, 
and in such cases as those to which we have referred the 
principle of hereditary right must shake off the incumbrance 
of arithmetical arrangement, or the numerical arrangement 
be carried out in disregard of the strict rules of descent. 
The original acquireI' of "orba" land establishes upon it 
his household, and as the number of his sons increases 
beyond the capacity of one common dwelling, they success- 
ively go out, take separate allotments, and establish them- 
selves in distinct homesteads. This scattering of the original 
household must have arisen as a matter of necessity, as the 
consequence of an increase in number beyond the accommo- 
dation of the paternal dwelling. The eldest would probably 
first marry and leave the original home, and the order of 
their departure would probably follow that of their seniority. 
That the sons took their separate allotments during the life 
of the parent, and not upon his death, is the only mode of 
explaining the Welsh rule that the youngest and not the 
eldest son, succeeded to the father's house and gear; this 
must have rested upon the assumption that the youngest 
son alone remained in his father's house, which he jointly 
occupied with the father, upon whose death he remained in 
sole possession by survivorship, rather than succeeded by 
inheritance. Each son as he successively lcft his father's 
house received his share in the lands of inheritance, and, 
having become the head of a distinct household, would 



cease to be a joint owner with his fitther in the original 
property; the portion acquired by an elder son who had 
thus gone out would pass to his descendants, according to 
the ordinary rules of descent, but the undisposed of residue 
of the original lands would survive to the youngest son, 
who had not gone out, as representing his father in the 
manner before mentioned. 
The " geilfine" system began to exist 
 hen there was a 
L'tther and four sons; Lut the question arises as to the 
particular date at which this happened. That such date 
wa.,> that of the birth of the fourth son is in every way 
improbable; the members of the system are always spoken 
of as "the seventeen men," who have definite rights anel 
considerahle liaLilitieH, which could neither be enjoyed 
nor perfo1'11led by infant children residing in their father's 
house. The members of the geilfinc stood in definite rela- 
tion to each other; they had certain rights in each others 
property, but what was more important, they were jointly 
liable for the wrollgs committed by any of the" family," 
and were guarantors among themselves for the payments to 
be made in respect of any such. That a man's four infant 
sons, who resided in his house, and possessed no independent 
property, were joined with him as security for his debts, 
would Le of no advantage to extern creditors, and the father 
could not expect any benefit from having joinetl with him- 
self as co-securities, his sons, who had no property except a 
contingent interest in what he llimsclf possessed. The nature 
of the rel:ltion Letween the members of a " geilfine " system 
implies that they all are 81/ i jnl'is, and all owners of property 
efficient to answer their joint and reciprocal obligations. It 
is at this point that the great importance of the mode in 
whieh the" findhir" tenants are orgallised into a fictitious 
f.'lmily is apparent. This \Va,>, as stated in the passage 
before referred to, effected by comlJining into one, five dis- 
tinct households, not individuals, each possessing a f-j"ed 
minimum of property. 1'he unit here, as is generally the 
case in early tribal systems, is not the individual, Lut the 
household; when an indi,-idual is spoken of, he is referred 



to in his character of the head of an household; his property 
is originally the property of the household, of which he is 
the manager rather than the ab!'1olute owner. It is remark- 
able that the hereditary rights of succession of "findhir" 
tcnants is apparently connected with the fact of their being 
organised; this would be a natural consequence of such an 
arrangement., for the property of any" findhir" house ha,'ing 
been caught by the system of mutual guarantee, the house- 
hold would be continued for the purpose of the fulfilment 
of the guarantee, in the persons of the sons of the original 
head as a member of the artificial family. For these reasons 
there are considerable grounds for assuming that the four 
sons, who jointly with their father formcd a "geilfine," are 
four sons who have gone 011t and established themselves in 
independent homesteads upon their allotments. 
Disregarding agaili for the present the question of 
numbers, the father and his sons, who have left the original 
home, and estaòlished themselves as the heads of indepen- 
dent houses, form the nucleus of the" geilfine" an-angement 
of the fa.mily; we have now an organization of households 
and a community, or land held by a community (coibne), 
instead of land held by an indiyidual as head of an house; 
and in place of being" the pa terf.-mlÍlias" tIle father becomes 
the "geilfine" chief, or the head (CC'ltd) of the community. 
The number of households in the community is fixed by 
the number of new homesteads establish cd by the sons 
who have gone out, that is, a number equal to the sum 
total of the father and his forisfamiliated sons; and if the 
union be an union not of individuals, but of householders 
representing their separate homesteads, the system will 
not be broken up by the death of any leaving issue, but 
his successor in the headship of his house will take his 
place in the gcilfine system. 
The youngest son, succeeding his father as head of the 
original household, would at an early period probably 
succeed to the headship of the family also. The ancient 
religion of the Irish Celts has absolutely disappeared, but if 
their religious ideas resembled those of many others of the 



early Aryan tribes, among whom the headship of the family 
is intimately connected with the performance of the sacred 
rites at the original hearth, it would not appear unnatural 
that the headship should remain with the son, WllO, although 
the youngest, occupied the original home of the family. 
The geilfine system having been once originated, it is to 
be considered whether the sons of the original acquireI' 
represent the branch of system technically known as the 
"geilfine" branch, or represent the first members of the 
four distinct branches, a"l is the opinion of Mr. MCLennan. 
To the latter opinion there appear to be insuperahle 
objections. It excludes the ancestor from the system 
altogether; it confines the number of households in the 
family to four; it certainly fails satisfactorily to account 
for the extra mpmber of the geilfine ùranch; it introduces 
the wholly foreign theory of primogeniture; and it involves 
the fatal difficulty that a large proportion of the member'! 
must be infants; as to the extraordinary longevity and 
power of I'eproduction he attributes to its members, we take 
no objection, as its author throughout treats the geilfine 
system, not as an existing social organization, but a specu- 
lative theory of descent. 
That the geiIiìne class was formed before the deirbfine 
began to come into being, must be, in Our opinion, the 
conclusion to be arrived at, upon an examination of the 
texts, and is the only theory Up011 whic
l the peculiar in- 
timate union between the members of each class among 
themselves, and the gradations of rank and probable differ- 
ence of wealth among the classes can be accounted for. 
The creation of the deirbfine class is similar to that ,)f 
the geilfine, and would appear to l}ave arisen in the same 
manner. If the sons, who leave the original home, take 
fixed allotments to which their descendants will be con- 
fined, and the original home and the balance of the lands 
of inheritance remain with the youngest son, and are 
available for the establishment of his descendants, it must 
follow that until the lands are completely occupied, the 
elder stocks must be constantly lo:-;ing ground in point of 



wealth as compared with the yotlIlger. If a Ron of the 
:roungest son can, on leaving the original home, receive an 
allotment similar to that which his father's elder brother 
received, his position is much better than that of his first 
cousins, anel with each successive generation the dislmrity 
would become more marked. The answer to this oldection 
is, that the existence of this very disparity, is one of the 
most peculiar, anù, at first, unaccountable facts of the gcilfine 
system, according to which the members of the geilfille 
class are, by the introduction of new members, promoted, or 
degraded (it is immaterial which term is used) into and 
through the three other classes, with a loss upon the occasion 
of each removal of position and property, but with a co- 
relative diminution of liability. 
That the four branches of the geilfine sYRtem represent 
four d.i.stinct generations of the descendants of thc original 
aCc:luirer must be admitted; the terms descriptive of the 
four classes are repeatedly used as expressing the four 
successive generations descending from a supposed ances- 
tor; but it appeal's equally certain that none of the classes 
were the descendants of any other of them. The glosses, 
indeed, treat the geilfine braneh as being sons, the deirLfine 
branch as being grandsons, &c. j but if the views of the 
commentator in the Book of Aicill are not to be actually 
discarded, the "indfine" class contained the senior members 
of the system, and the geilfine the youngcst j and hence 
the anomaly that the word which signifies the junior 
members of the class, are supposed to imlicate the sons, and 
that which signifies the senior members of the dass the 
great great-grandsons of the same person. So far, howeyer, 
from treating the " dei1'bfine" as representing the " gÛljÎne " 
class, the former is spoken of as a foreign branch taking 
only upon the failure of the issue of the geilfine. 
The youngest son of the original aCc:luirer, having suc- 
ceeded his father, marries in his tuTU, and his sons, beginning 
with the eldest, go out successively and settle on their 
allotments. The second head with his four forisfamiliated 
sons forms a new geilfine lmmch, and that formed by the 



four sons of the original acquirer is pushed down into the 
de irbfine class; the original house, being that out of which 
the successive generations have swarmed, always continuing 
as an household of the geilfine, and thus the existing chief 
with his forisfamiliateù sons always forming the geilfine 
division; the claim of the several branches of the system to 
their respective allotment,>, supposing the generations to 
have died off evenly, and the whole number seventeen to 
have been filled up, would be as follows: the geilfine would 
IJe the sons of an existing head or chief; the deirbfine, the 
first cousins of the geilfine, would claim as the grandsons 
of the previous chief; the iarnne, second cousins of the 
geilfine, would chim as great-grandsons of the second last 
chief; the i'1dfine, the third cousirts of the geilfine, would 
claim as the great great-grandchildren of the original 
acquireI'. The senior branch upon this supposition is that 
most removed from the chief for the time being, and for 
the reasons before stated also the least wealthy. The fonr 
divisions, representing four successive generations, woulù, 
ii the analogy of the Wclsh Law is of weight, complete the 
system; if the right of hereditary succession was nut trans- 
missible beyond the fourth generation of the descendants 
of the original acquireI', the sons of the fifth chief or head 
would have nO right to allutments, and no further inùepen- 
dent households coulù be formed. 
If the rf'spective classes represent in the manner above 
mentioned four successive generations of the descendants of 
the original acquin:r, each generation represents either 
brothers or the descendants of Lrothers; and each dass, 
taken by itself, formed a àistinct subdivision of the family, 
the members of which were the nearest relations of each 
If each class represents a generation, it, at first sight, is 
difficult of explanation how four successive generations re- 
main of the same number, neither less, nor more, but this 
objection is removed if we admit that each class is in fact 
the off.<;pring of a single individual. 
We are strongly inclined to believe that in it6 inception 



the respective classes were not tied down by any fixed 
rules as to numbers, although at the date of the commentary 
on the Book of Aicill the number of seventeen was con- 
sidered as of the essence of the system. The geilfine 
organization is frequently spoken of as the" seventeen men," 
which would lead to the supposition that the number was 
always kept up by some contrivance to that amount; but 
from the rule that a class was not extinguished as long as 
there was one member of it in existence, it is clear that the 
system could, and must often, have been worked with very 
reduced numbers; a circumstance not incompatible with 
its successful operation, for the survivorship existing among 
the members of each class would concentrate the property 
of all in the hands of the last survivor, and leave the 
amount of property available for the fulfilment of their 
mutual guarantees unaltered. 
The numerical form oÎ early institutions aJ'ises from the 
desire of half-educated men for an unattainable arithmetical 
completeness in their arrangements, and from the wholly 
unwarranted assumption, with the view to enable them to 
construct theoretical systems, that all the families would be 
of some fixed amount, and that the members would be 
born or die off in the required order. The lawyers who 
reduced to writing the customs of the "fine," assumed that 
the number of children in each family would be five, that 
is, four who go out, anù one who remains in the original 
home, and that, therefore, the system in its complete de- 
velopment must consist of seventeen persons, although 
probably as a fact it frequently fell short of that amounl 
The perfect form of seventeen persons, divisible in the 
four classes, each representing four brothers, with the 
addition of the head of the household occupying the original 
home, became the accepted theoretic form of the institution. 
If the number of seventeen members once became the 
supposed essence of the arrangement, that, which originally 
consisted of four classes, each of which was assumed to bi
four in number, and which, therefore, with the addition of 
original houie, made up seventeen individuals, was con- 



.,idered as an organism of seventeen persons, sub-divided 
for occult reasons into fúur classes containing each a certain 
In the "Bee Judgments" and" Rightß of Water," allu<;;ions 
are made to the four geilfine classes, which manifestly prove 
that the four classes were regarded as distinct from, and 
contrasted with, each other. The geilfine system must 
have been familiar to the authors of these tracts, who 
illustrate local positions by reference to the relations be- 
tween these classes. Nothing can more clearly show that 
each class was considered as a complete entity in itself. 
Although the rule may have prevailed from an early date 
that the four geilfine classes should comprise no more than 
seventeen menbers, the number thus theoretically fixed 
could not often have corne into conflict with -facts; the 
chance of four successive householders in the lineal descent 
having each five sons, all of whom marry and have issue. is 
very remote, and may be practically dismissed from consider- 
We have already stated our explanation of there being 
four classes in geilfine ßystem, and no more, viz., the rule 
that hereditary rights were not transmissible through more 
than four generations, and that therefore the organization 
could not be carried on beyond the great-great-grandsons 
of the original acquirer; other results worthy of consider- 
ation would arise upon this contingency, which are implied 
in the remarkable phra5e; "From this forth it is a case of 
a community of people, it is then family relations cease." 
At first sight it would appear that the paragraph states that 
the innfine clasB divide aIllong themselves the residue of 
the lands" of the family" as if it were" common tribe land," 
and that thereupon the organization of the" family," was 
ùissolveù. This would imply that the" innfine" class could 
at once on coming into being, dissolve the" family," a 
conclusion contrary to all the passages, which treat the 
"family" with its four classes as a continuing entity; it is 
quite impossible to imagine that the completion of the 
l:Iystem involved its dissolution. It appears that no further 



generation of SOl1S issuing from the original dwelling could 
obtain allotments, because the fourth occupier of the house was 
the last who had a right to settlehi'i sons on the "family "land; 
his younger son, the fifth occupier of the original holding, 
could putout his sons as they married, but was obliged to divide 
the original holdi!1g, which up to this would have remained 
entire, among all his sons. The peculiar privileges attacherl 
to this holding would be lost, anù all the "households" 
placed on an equality; the house which up to this had been 
the chief's house would become one of the houses of the 
ultimate" geilfine" divisior.s, thus permanently raising the 
number of members of the class to five; the undisposed 
of residue of the land, so much as had I:O
 been allotted 
to the sixteen members of the four divisions, would he 
divisible åmong the households probably per stirpes. The 
land of the" family, " which up to this had been regarded 
as the undivided property of the community (coibne 
land), is broken up among the variou" members in 
independent properties. This explains the expression relat- 
i ve to covenants dealing with coibne property, "which 
the fair chief of the tribe ("family') confirms 'l.l1lless Ite be tlte 
sixth;" for the sixth chief of the "f
nniIy, " however elected, 
would be the first who did not represent the rights of the 
original acquireI'. 'Ve have no infol'mationhowthe "geilfine" 
chief was subsequently appointed; the note prefixed to the 
commencement of the Tract" On Succession" prove:; that 
the succession to the headship of the" family" was an open 
question, and that the lawyers were inclined to support the 
doctrine of seniority as against some previously established 
It is necessary to consider the rules of succession laid 
down in the commentary in the Book of Aicill, with the 
object of ascertaining how far they agree with the theory 
of the origin of the gei{fine system which has been here 
suggested. The well known pas&'tge in the Book of Aicill 
appears to treat of the question how the property of a 
household should be divided among its members, and would 
therefore deal with a much later stage of the Erehon Law, 



when the property of the originally united household WM 
subject to distribution among its members. The principle 
that this property should be divided among se\Tenteen per- 
sons at most, was then accepted, but the reason for such a 
number being fixed upon nad at that time been forgotten, as 
there are no definite groulllls shown for the distribution of the 
members into the four classes, and the essential and distinct 
unity of each class has been abandoned by the supposition that 
an individual of one elMs can be passed on into another class 
by the increasing number of junior members, and that, when 
the nu
ber of possible members exceeds seventeen, the senior 
member of the" innfine" class passes out of the organization. 
It was, of course, impossible, when dealing with the mere 
distribution of property among the members of the house- 
hold to suppose the system broken up when - the number 
exceeded seventeen, anù the extrusion of the senior member 
was a devise to avoid this difficulty. Sir H. S. Maine's 
planation of this pa
sage, supposing it simply to express 
a late mode uf dividing household lroperty upon the 
analogy of the plioI' distribution of family property, may be 
adopted with the exception of the continuance of the parent 
in the geilfine division.- The addition member of that 
division ,,-as, it seems, introduced from the older system, 
and retained after the reason for the fact had been forgotten. 
Assuming the original geilfìne system to have been such 
as has been suggested, the principle for the division of the 
property of the household laid down in the Book of Aicill 
is clear anù consistent. 
The actual relationship of the members of a funy devel- 

It _\Ithough great weight is to be attributed to the opinion of Sir H. S. Maine, 
it may be fairly conjcctured that at the date of the Commentary upon the Book 
lIf Aicill the rules for the di.tribution of property in the case dealt with were a 
mere suniva1 of an orguruzation which had practically ceased to exist, and that 
the seventeen clln.i,teù of the seventeen junior male descendanti of the stirps, 
without reference to the original number of sons, and tliat these Be, enteen were 
arranged in das
es after the analogy of the ancient dh i,ions of the fumil)'. The 
unomalous results which would follow in BOrne ca-es ,\hcre the number of male 
descendants exceeded -e.enteen would not be more extruordinary than those 
which in exceptional cases occur under all s)'stems for the distribution of property 
alter death. 



oped geilfine system, if all the members died off at l'egular 
intervals, would be as follows. The members of all the four 
classes would then be the descendants in the fourth degree 
of the original acquireI'; the" geilfine" division would be 
the first cousins of the deirbfine division; the second cousins 
of the ia1:fine division, and the third cousins of the in11Jine 
di\-ision; the dei1'bfine division would be the first cousins 
of the geilfine division; the second cousins of the im:fine 
division, and the third cousins of the innfirw division; the 
iarfine division would be the second cousins of both the 
geilfi:ne and cleil'bfine divisions, and the third cousins of the 
innftne division; and the innfine division would be the 
third cousins of the three other divisions. Their relation- 
ship might also be traced by representation, that is by the 
relationship which at the first existed between the original 
members of each division, in which view the geilfinedivision 
would be the nephews of the cleil'bfine division, the great 
nephews of the ia1:fine division, and the great great nephews 
of the innfine division; the deirbfine division would be the 
uncles of the geilfine division, the nephews of the 'ÍcL1:fine 
division, and the great nephews of the innfine division; the 
iarfine division would be the uncles of the de h'bfi ne division, 
the great uncles of the geilfine division, and the nephews of 
the in1ifìne division; and the division would be the 
uncles of the iarfine division, the great undes of the deÏ1'b- 
fine division, and the great great uncles of the geilfine 
division. As upon the failure of any class the property is 
to be divided among classes and not per capita, their shares 
are in the first instance determined hy the assumed natural 
relationship of these divisions, and if this does not differ- 
entiate the classes, then by their representative relationship; 
the nearest dass taking three fourths, the next three six- 
teenths, and the most remote taking one sixteenth. On the 
extinction of the geilfine, three fourths would pass to their 
first cousins the deirbfine, three sixteenths to their second 
cousins the iarfine, and one sixteenth to their third cousins 
the innfine. On the extinction of the deirbfine three fourths 
would pass to their first cousins the geiljine, three sixteenths 



to their second cousins the ial:fine, and one sixteenth to their 
third cousins the innjÌne. On the extinction of the ia1:fine 
division, a difficulty would arise, as both the deil'bfine and 
 divisions would stand in the same relation, viz., that 
of second cousins, and their respective portions would have 
to be determined by their representative kinship; the 
dÛl'bfiM division as representing nephews would take the 
precedence of the gei(Tine division as representing great 
nephews, and three fourths would go to the deiï'bfine 
division, three sixteenths to the geilfine division, and one 
sixteenth to the innfin
 division. In the case of the extinc- 
tion of the innfilW division, all the other divisions stand to 
them in same degree of actual kinship, and the division of 
the property would follow representati ve kinship exclusively, 
three fourths passing to their nephews the ial:fine division, 
three sixteenths to their great nephews the dei1'bfine 
division, and one sixteenth to their great great nephews the 
geilfine di\'i"ion. The distribution of the property of any 
two extinct classes follows precisely the same rules; if the 
property of each class be separately divided in the propor- 
tion of twelve to four between the surviving classes in 
accordance with their nearness of kinship. Thus upon the 
failure of both the geilfine and deil'bfine division, the pro- 
perty of both is divisable between the remaining classes, 
their second and third cousins, three fourths to the iarfine, 
and one fourth to the innfine division; but upon the ex- 
tinction of the iarfine and innfine divisions, the two sur- 
viving classes standing in the same degree of actual kinship 
to both, the principle of representation is introduced and 
three fourths pass to the deil"bfine and one fourth to the 
geilfine division. 
This mode of explaining the geilfine system gives the key 
to the rules laid down in the 39th page of this volume. 
The passage referred to is an a.ttempt to lay down the 
rules for the succession to a female in the technical terms 
used in reference to the organization of the family. It 
appears from the gloss that the rules 3 and 4, in page xlii, 
deal with the succession to the property of a deceased female, 



and that. t.he graud-children and great. grand-chik1ren, 
referred to, are not those of the deceased female, but of the 
original settler, if we m.ay use this modern t.erm. It appears 
that t.he hereditary right to the vacant lands did not extend 
beyond t.he fourth generation of t.he stirps, and that. descend- 
ants of the several generations are conceived as 
The existing descendants of the OI.jginal stirps may be classed 
in hVfJ modes, either. as constituting a geilfine system, or 
classified with reference to t.he relationship wllich tlw 
original members of any division of such a system would 
ha\"e borne to the original stirps. In a fully formed family 
the members of the geiljine class would be the original 
members of tlleir division and descendants in the fourth 
generation of the stirps; the dei1'ùl
fine class would represent 
their fathers, the descendants in the third generation, and 
similarly the iwjine and in1
fine v;-onlù represent ancestors 
who were the grandsons and sons of the original stirps; 
thus the terms gÛlfine and deirbltfine might in a secondmy 
sense be used to designate descendants in the fourth and the 
third generation. The four generations of the male issue of 
the settler seem to have been regarded as forming four classes 
equivalent to the classes of the geilfine system, and having 
similar rights of property and succession intc1' sC8e.- 
Upon the completion of the Gciljine system the "family" 
does not appear to have dissolved beyond the extinction of 
hereditary rights in the land of the family; the organization 
still continued upon the basis of mutual guarantee and 
liability; the seventeen houses (or the lesser number actually 
in existence) formed the patriciate of the" family," jointly 
liable for the compensation for the wrong committed by 
members of the family, and jointly entitled to share in 
certain proportions in the compensation payable for wrongs 
inflicted upon members of the family. TIle chief represented 
henceforth the" family;" not the hereditary rights of the 
original acquirer, for property falling in from externs vested 
not in him but the geil/Ìne class; to the last the distinc- 

.. The difficulty in this explanation is the incomprehensible glosses, page 41, lines 
30 and 31. It may be Bugge8ted that the glosses in question have been tran



tion of tlle "tribe" and" family" must have been clearly 
marked, the family rested on the lands ofinheI"Ìtance booked 
to the original acquirer, and ClS (t f1.7Jlíly had no property 
external to that, the tribe possessed the general undivided 
tribe lands and the waste pasturage lands; these latter it is 
to be obseryed cannot haye been included in the lands of 
the "family" which were finally divided upon the completion 
of the geilfine system. The claim of an individual to share 
in the pasturage was founded upon his being a member of 
the tribe, and had no connexion with his membership of 
a family, and when, we proceed to consider the Crith 
Oabhlach, it will be clear that, in the organization of the 
tribe, the family was wholly disregarded, as in the legion, 
the individual citizens were equal in the face of the L1,w, 
and the paternal authority disregarded. 
The conclusions, to which we arri\'e, may be briefly stated 
as follows :-(1) the geilfine system waS an ingeniously 
contrived organization of the "family" with the object of 
keeping it together upon the basis of mutual guarantee, 
founded upon the antecedent rules of succession to lands of 
inheritance (m'ùa); amI of retaining the lands of inheritance 
in the descendants of the original acquirer, as far as the 
existing rules as to "remoteness of limitations" permitted; 
(2) that it was contrived in the interest of the noble classes, 
who possessed sufficient influence to procure portions of the 
public tribe land!:! to be granted to them and their families 
to the exclusion of the rights of the general body of the 
"tribe"; (3) that as the general tribe lands were appropriated 
by the noble cla<;s, the system in its earlier stages gradually 
became obsolute, and merely a subject of antiquarian en- 
quiry; and that the later commentators, especially when 
once the idea of seniority as the basis of succession had been 
establi<;hed, were unahled clearly to explain its origin alllL 
probably found more difficulty in understanding it than does 
the modern student; and (4) that the system when existing 
in its latest state of survival was adopted as the basis 
for a system of rules relative to the distribution of the 
property of an household, to which in its origin it had really 
no analogy. 



It is a cardinal principle of the Brehon Law that tlw 
liability to pay the fines and compensation for crimes, 
committed by a member of a tribe or family, should f,1,ll upon 
the persons who would be entitled to his property upon 
his death, and in the same proportions. 
In this volume there are contained two tract,> as to the 
persons by whom, and the proportions in which, such fines 
and compensation should be paid, viz., the tract entitled 
.. Of the Judgment of every Urime which any Criminal 
Commits, &0.:' and that entitled" The Land is forfeited f:n' 
Crime." If we could therefore su('ceed in ascertaining the 
mode in which such fines and compensation should be 
assessed upon persons other than the criminal himself, and 
in what proportions the fines and compensation payable fur 
the death of any member of a tribe or fitmily should 
be divided, we cannot fail to acquire a certain degree 
of knowledge as to the distribution of property upon 
the death of the owner, and shall be in a position to 
understand the otherwise obscure rules as to the succession 
to land contained in the first tract published in this volump. 
The former of these tracts would appear to be of a very 
modern date, and not to be free from the influence of the 
principles of English Law. The reasons upon which the 
conclusion is arrived at are the following: (1) it distinctly 
recognises acts of violence to be crimes, and does not 
regard them as merely torts, treating the consequences 
uf crimes in the light of punishments for wrongful and 
illegal acts; (2) the payments to be made by the criminal 
or his guarantors are considered as compromises by which 
he may escape the punishment due to his crimes, not as 
arrangements by which the quarrel between the parties 
is to be compromised; (3) it seems to recognise a coercive 
jurisdiction as possessed by the Judge to which the parties 
were obliged to yield; (4) it treats the execution of the 
criminal, his imprisonment, or his servitude as the possible 



consequences of his crimes, and, as a logical result, discusses 
the contingency of his evasion to escape puni.
All these ideas are manifestly foreign to archaic law. 
The extreme vagueness and uncertainty of the use of the 
terms" deirbfine "and "geilfine" in tl)is tract are very 
remarkable; an uncertainty very puzzling to the authors 
of the glosses and commentary, who have frequently to 
correct and explain the manner in which these worùs are 
It appears that the former term is indi.scriminate1y 
used in three different senses: (1) as descriptive of all the 
members of the geilfine organization, (2) as the deirbfine 
class as distinguished from the gei{fine, and (3) as a tenn 
descriptive of certain relationship merd
The glosses and commentary are especially important in 
dealing with this tract, as without a very careful reference 
to them erroneous conclusions may be deriveù from an 
unaiùed examination of the original text. 
The tract commences with a statement of the property 
and persons liable to the payment of fines and compensation. 
The rules of the priority here laid down may be summarized 
as follows :-(1) The criminal himself was primarily liable; 
this is to be inferred from the words, "If he absconds," 
commencing the paragraph, and stating thus the contin- 
gency upon which the subsequent secondary liabilities arise; 
(2) The property moveable or immoveable of the criminal 
in the second degree was liable; when we proceed to the 
second tract upon the suhject it will appear that this 
liability was considered as a charge specifically aftèctiug 
the property in question; it may be observed that this rule 
invoh'es the idea that the injured pHty had a legal right 
to the payment of the fine and compensation, a theory of 
anything but an archaic nature. (3) His father was liable 
in the third degree, whose liability is obviously founded not 
so much upon kinship, as upon his position as the head of the 
household of which the criminal was a member; this passage 
Ï<i glossed with the explanation, .1 when he has no son, for it 
is upon him (the son) it (the c1'ime) should go before it went 
upon the father ;" we may conclude therefore that the author 



of the gloss would introduce the son into the list in priority 
to the father; it would appear that the original text 
contemplates tho criminal as forming portion of his father's 
household, but the author of the gloss perceives that the 
case of the criminal being himself the head of an household 
has ùeen omitted, and points out that in such case the son 
whether as the co-owner of the household, or next in blood 
would be primarily liable; the old rule of the" coir-feine" 
law cited in the gloss proves that the liability did not affect 
ancestors or collateral relations so long as there was in 
existence issue of the criminal to be made answerable. 
(4) His brothers, in equal shares; with brothers the liability 
by reason of kinship here stops short, for the next ch:;:s in 
order are (5) his "dci-r
fine" (not deirbfine relations as in 
the translation, for there is nO word in the original equivalent 
to relations); this word is eXplained in the gloss as equivalent 
to " geilfine," and must therefore mean that the liability fell 
upon the members of the geilfine organization, falling upon 
the several classes successively, and ultimately upon their 
default upon the gci{fine chief personally; such at least 
is the conclusion we draw from the following gloss; viz.: 
"U po nth e chi e f, i. e. the chief who is ovcr the gci{rine 
division which happens to be thore; and it is not the chief 
of the dei1'ùfine divisions, nor of the i((1:fine division. It is 
on them (the !Jcilfine division) the crime is charged bcfJre 
he brings it to the" dei,'vfine" di"ision from whom he Lthe 
chip} (1)] ha3 taken their pledges." (0) The household in 
which is his bed and where he is fOll, which seems to mean that 
the liability then falls upon those who have harboured him 
and assisted his escape, for these words arc qunlified by the 
gloss: ,. if he is not mught upon his bod." (ï) The king, the 
head of the tribe, as contrasted with the head of t.he family. 
The second paragraph is evidently introduced from the 
work of some other author, as it is merely a re-statement of 
the rule laid down in the first paragraph, in a much less 
satisfactory form. It is remarkable that in the paragraph 
there is introduced after the'" deÏ1'bfine" a class described 
as the "taoibhfine," glossed as "his brother's side family." 
This would lead to the conclucsion tlJat in the latter para- 



graph tI1e "deirbfine" meant not the members of the 
geilfine organization, but the first-cousins of the criminal. 
It is, however, not desirable to embarrass the clear state- 
ments of the first paragraph as explained by the glosses, or 
to start conjectures resting upon a paragraph so confused as 
the latter undoubtedly is. 
A mere sojourning stranger, from whom the chief had not 
and could not have taken pledges, if guilty of a crime, and 
not poss('ssed of property, did not render any of the family 
or tribe liaLle to contribute to the fine or compensation pay- 
able in respect of his crime; he was simply "put upon the 
road," declared ., exlex," and abandoned to his fate. 
(The principle that the liability to pay should be com- 
mensurate with right to receive is remarkably laid down in 
the following rules contained in the Commentary:) 
In the case of any unintentional- crime except" killing," 
the eric fine is primarily payable by the criminal; the 
compensation (" 'lvhat he O'lVCS beside the e1'ic fine," i.e. the 
honour price) is payable by his family" in the proportions 
in which they divide his property." 
In the case of unintentional "killing" (with certain 
exceptions) both the family and criminal contribute to pay 
the entire, whether he has means of payment or not, the 
criminal paying one "c1tmhal" of the compensation, and 
the same share as his father or son in the six c.umhal-s of 
dire fine, the family contributing the residue in the shares 
in which would divide his property. The reason for this 
rule is stated to be that if he himself were killed the entire 
family would participate in the compensation. 
AB to intentional crimes, the rule was different. In such 
cases the criminal, his son, and his fitther were successively 
liable to the full extent of their property in exoneration 
of the family. 
When payments have to be made by the criminal, 
they first fall upon his movable, secondly upon his 
immo,'able property, and finallJ" upon himself, by which is 

· In pllge 249, Ene ], " iltentiollal" is printed br mistllke for" unintentional." 



meant that he should serve for it until he worked out the 
value of six" cumhals." 
At page 259 is discussed the proportions in which the 
amount payable for" killing" should be divided among the 
kin of the deceased. The words of the Commentary are as 
follows :-" "Then the man who is dead in this case has a 
son, he takes the cumhal of compcnsation alone, if he be 
alive; and if he is not alive, his father is to take it; if he 
(the fitthc'i') is not alive, his brother is to take it; if he (the 
brother) is not alive, it is the nearest person to him that 
takes it. It is thus the body-fine is divided-three cumhaZs 
of di1'e-fine go to the son and to the father. There are 
three cumhals of dil'e-fine remaining after that; a cumhal 
of di1'e-fine goes to a brother (thc brothe'i's 1) collaterally. 
There are two cumhals of di?'c-fine still after this; a cumhal 
of di'i.e fine of these goes to the son and to the father. 
There is one cltmhal of eliTe finc there after that. This is 
to be divided from the lowest man of the geilfine division 
until it reaches the uppermost man, and from the uppermost 
man until it reaches the lowcst man," &c.- Thus, of the six 

* This pas<age i\1ustrates the connexion between the ather and son which so 
often occurs in ancient law. As long as the son forms one of the household of 
which thc father is the head, he is ob\ ious1y one of those in the hand of his 
fathcr, and a co-owner of the household propert}"; but even after he hns left the 
uriginal dwelling and established a hearth fur himself, he does not completely 
succeed in shaking off his conne"ion with his parent. Hence the three emancipa- 
tions requisite at Uoman law to free the son from the patna potest".. It is with 
reference to this principle that we may explain the passage in the last \'olume 
\\ hich has produced so much discussiun, yiz. :-" If the father is alh'e and has 
two sons, and each of these has a family of the full number - -i.e., four -it is the 
ol':nion if !alJ)!Jerø that the father \vould claim a man's share in eyery family of 
them, and that in this case they form two geilfinc di\'ioiol18; and if the property 
has come from another place--from a family outside, though t
ere shou1<1 be 
within in the family a son or a brother of the person whose property came into it, 
he shall not obtain it any more than any otlit.. man of the family." (Vol. iii., 
r. 333.) From the present passage it is clear that, although the son established 
a separate household (ur himself and his sons, the father took a share in the 
money payable for his body fine; and hence it may be inferred that the (ather 
was entitled to support in the son's honse. If a son obtaineù orba lanùs, and, 
ha, jug fonr son", established an independent" gcilfine" "}'stem, it appears that 
hi. father could claim a man's share in it. The point of the qneótion in the 
l':hfage referreù to 
ecms to be, what was the pooitiun of the father if he had tw.> 



cumhals of the dire fine, the father takes two, the son two, 
the brother one, the geiIfine division one. Aß to what is 
stylcd the compensation (the honour price) none of it passes 
to the gcilfine division; this the son, in the first instance, is 
entitled to; in def.'lult of a s.on, the filther; in default of 
the father, the brother (or brothers); and in default of a 
brother, the nearest person to him, by which we must 
understand that it passes as a succession to the person or 
persons who would be entitled to the brother's prope1"ty 
upon his death. This Commentary is appended to a text 
which deals with the question, "Who are they who divide 
the chattels and the dibadh property (of a deceased person 1). 
The answer to this in the original text runs simply thus- 
"Four, father and son, b1"other and family." The Com- 
mentary, however, upon this text deals with the mode in 
which compensation and din fines are di-..isible, and 
between whom. Nothing can show more clearly that to 
the commentator the persons entitled to "dibadh" pro- 
perty and to compensation and dire fine were the same and 
in the same proportion; but he has ce1"tainly failed to 
explain whether it was in accordance with the rule appli- 
cable to the compensation, or according to tllat applicable 
to the dire fine, the dibadh property would devolve. It 
would seem that the rule applicable to the compensation, 
not that applicable to the dire fine, is the analogy to tbe 
rule for the devolution of the debaùh property. 'rhe rule 

sons, who had both obtained grants of orba land, and sewrally founded distinct 
" families" in which of them should the father take his .. man's share" and 
how should his riKhts be arranged as between the two families? 
The opinion referred to laid down that the father had a distinct and indepen- 
dent right to a .. man's share" in both of the families, although they formed hvo 
<Ii-tinct geilfine dh-isions. The second portion of the passage points out the 
tinction bet"een the rights of a father and that of any other mcmber of the 
family in the form of an argnment, viz. :._" So different is the position of the 
faUler from that of any other member of the family, that in the preceding 
case the father has his right to a 'man's share' in both families, although 
in the subsequent case no member of a family, whatc\-er be his apparent 
equity, has any special rights whatsoever." The father in the supposed case 
would occupy the anomalous po
ition of being a member of two incipient 
" families." 




as to the cli1'e fine laiJ down in this passage is wholly in- 
consistent with that stated in page 247, line 2. The latter 
passage is introduced as explanatory of the rule in page 
245, line 26; but it must be observed that the explanation 
is inconsistent with the rule which it is supposed to 
explain, and that, to make any sense of the passage, we 
must read at line 4 of page 247 "share in" for "takc." 
Now, the whole explanation is introduced to explain the 
apparent anomaly of the family contributing to the payment 
of the compensation for an unintentional killing, and no 
such explanation would be necessary unless the fact of the 
family sharing in the liability to pay, and the right to 
receive compensation presented some difficulty which rc- 
quired explanation. This difficulty must have been that 
the rules as to compensation were in some extent incon- 
sistent with what would have been naturally expected to 
have been laid down upon the subject-that is, that they 
deviated from the fundamental principle of the rule!> as to 
liability to payor receive fines and compensation with 
those which regulated the devolution of property upon 
If the family, by which we must understand the parties 
liable in the second degree, paid the amount to which the 
criminal himscIf was primarily liable, they acquired a charge 
upon his property, which they could enforce to taking 
possession and the receipt of the profits. "The limit of the 
d.uty of the family which pays his, the kinsman's, trepasses 
until they are paid back every 'sed' which they have 
paid, together with its profit, the grazing of the grass, nor 
the must, nor the corn do not go into account against 
The injmed party appears to have possessed a similar 
right as against even the land of the wrongdoer, if he had 
land, but the member!> of the family could discharge the 
claim against themselves by handing over the criminal, and 
retain the land for themselves. "And the family have the 
choice whether to hand him over and have the land to 

· Page 257. 



themselves, or whether they will give the land for the crime; 
and it is within the choice of the family this lies." It 
follows from this passage that the inj
.lred party hall an 
acknowledged, and acquiesced in, right to seize even the 
larrd of the wrongdoer in payment of his demand, which 
would have led to the very inconvenient result of a stranger 
being settled upon the tribe or family land: what would 
be the legal status of the stranger is difficult to understand, 
whether he would be entitled only to the profits of land 
held by the wrongdoer in exclusive ownership merely, or 
whether the possession of the land would have drawn with 
it the accessories of sharing the common tribe land, and tho 
depasture of the waste; to avoid this difficulty the family 
might surrender the wrongdoer, and themselves acquire his 
portion of land. 
The second tract entitled "The Land is forfeited for 
Crimes," is of a very miscellaneous nature, and of a palpably 
late date. The idea of the forfeiture of the lands of a criminal, 
irrespective oftheir value and amount, arose in the English and 
other feudal systems from the nature of the tenure of land. 
The lord possessed the absolute ownership, the tenant only 
the usufruct upon the condition of the performance of the 
incidents of his tenure; the commission of a felony, in its 
nature a quasi-treasonable act, terminated the right of the 
tenant to the usufruct, and the land escheatcd to the lord of 
whom it was held; the escheat of the land in such a case 
restell upon an entirely different basis from tha.t of the 
forfeiture of the felons' goods; but when the land was held 
in absolute ownership, and the possession of the owner was 
that of the head or member of a f:'tmily, although his goods 
might be forfeited, the land could not; the law as to the 
gavelkind lands of Kent was a survival and illustration of 
this principle. In the preceding traet the wrongdoer either 
lost the possession of his land temporarily until its profits paid 
off the amount to which he was liable, or absolutely as the 
result of his loss of status, not as a punishment in the correct 
use of that tenn. The author of thii tract has thrown 
together a number of loose memoranda and references to 



authorities upon the subject of the forfeiture of land, and 
the fineH payable in respect of theft, in a manner which 
would suggest that they represent the heads of some law 
argument upon the subject. The case upon which he relies 
is the remarkable decision as to the forfeiture of Bregia hy 
the tribe' of Aengus Gabhuaidech, in consequence of the 
latter having wounded in tht\ eye the King Cormac at his 
palace at Tara; the circumstances of the case are fully set 
forth at the commencement of the Book of Aicill in the 
preceding volume. It is to be observed that in the original 
authority there is no allusion to a forfeiture of the land at 
all; the decision was that the members of Aenglls' tribe 
should undergo a " diminutio capitis," viz., that in a certain 
proportion the inhabitants should be reduced to the con- 
dition of" dacr " stock tenants; and that which is treated 
as a forfeiture of the land arose from their refusal to submit to 
the sentence, and emigrating in a body into Munster. Our 
author treats the transaction as essentially a forfeiture in the 
nature of a punishment for a crime. "For what old Adam 
did great things were lost," i.e., as by the transgression" all 
the fruits of Paradise were forfeited by Adam, so his lands 
were fOlfeited by Acngus."* 
Various other passages prove the late date of this tract, 
and that it was written either by an ecclesiastic, or under 
ecclesiastical influence, such as the following extract 
noted down for citation, "God has not formed corruption 
nor any particular species of violation, the merciful God 
deems such things atrocious; unless land is given DO 
umpire can heal them, i.e., unless land is obtained as the 
eric-fine the crimes cannot be taken away, though it be 
a righteous judge who estimates them, for he would 
pronounce no falsehood."t In a subsequent passage we find 
an extract from the Gospel of St. John introduced by the 
well known phrase of "ut d.ixit lex." It would appear in 

'" Page 2G7. 'fhe peculiar judgment upon this occasion may have arisen from 
the fact that Aengus, when he wounded King Cormac, was acting in au oflìcid 
character as the" ai,'e-echta" of his tribe. 
t Page 2G5. 



one passage that the author was attempting to introduce 
the doctrine of the Roman "hære'3."* 
Although evidently drawn up for some practical purpose, 
the tone and manner of this tract closely resemble portions 
of the introduction to the Book of Aicill, which the author 
manifestly had before him, and it is probably of the same 
and as late a date. 
Apart from a few incidental extracts from previous authors, 
it cannot be considered as an authority on the Brehon Law, 
and is valuable as illustrating the change to w hieh the older 
system must have been subjected from the influence of the 
At the date of its composition the Irish lawyers were 
perplexed by the conflicting ideas of the old law on the 
one hand, and Clnistianity and the Roman Law on the 
other, the state of mind so curiously exemplified by the 
introduction to the laws of Alfred. 

In the preceding section we have endeavoured to ascertain 
the proportions in which fines and compensations were 
payable by the parties secondarily liable, as affording some 
reliable information as the rules of succession to property, 
and enabling us thus to explain the passages in the first 
tract in this volume dealing with the subject, and as also 
explaining the practical effect of the geilfine system upon 
the succession to land. 
However strongly the rule may be laid down that the 
liability to pay the fine or compensation falls upon those 
who would be entitled to the property of tIle wrongdoer 
upon his death, and in the same proportions, it is clear 
that this liability could only fall upon the pellions in esse 
at the time, those resembling the class of persons entitled 
under an ordinary English settlement of real estate, 
whom we should describe as having vested estates in 
remÚnder, and must exclude the unborn issue of all suå, 
· Page 2Gí. 



although such issue may subsequently come into being, and 
succeed to the possession of thé estate. The rules for the 
incidence of these payments must have been drawn up to 
meet ordinary cases; and the more complicated and unusual 
must have been decided according to the principle involved 
in these rulea-involved, not expressed-because the Br()hon 
lawyer is always dealing with specific concrete ca.,>es, and 
howeyer elaborate in his arithmetic calculations, never 
attempts any abstract rule or definition. Before discussing 
the rules as to the succession of land, it may be observed 
that to a large proportion of the triùe land the legal idea 
of a succession must have been inapplicable. It is now an 
admitted fact that the Irish tribe was not in its organization 
an anomalous institution, but was simply one example of 
those yillage communities which existed among all the 
early Aryan nations, and that the forms of all these com- 
munitips resembled each other in their general features. In 
all the numerous books published lately upon the subject, 
this principle has been laid down; and the difficulty in 
dealing with the sul
ect at present is not to discover 
analogous cases, Imt to escape being entangled in or misled 
by the countless examples of institutions more or less 
similar, with which we are now so abundantly furnished. 
The district of the tribe was at first as a matter of fact, and 
was always in theory considered to be, thc properly of the 
tribe; from this are first to be subtracted the dwellings of 
the members of the tribe, with their curtilages; next the 
chief's share; and lastly, those portions of the general tribe 
land which had been in same malineI' (it is immaterial how) 
allotted to individuals or families in exclusive ownership. 
The residue of the lands, unappropriated to indviduals, con- 
sisted of the common tillage and meadow lanù, and the 
common pasture or waste. The common tillage and meadow 
lands were divided out from time to time in separate pro- 
portions, and according to some customary law among all 
the members of the tribe who also enjoyed the right to 
depasture the waste according to certain fixed rules. It is 
clear that to these latter two classes of land the idea of 



succession is wholly impplicable; the right to till or graze 
the public lands was a purely personal and temporary right 
enjoyed by t11e indiviùual as being a member of the tribe, 
and enjoyed by his sons, not by any hert'ditary right, 
claimed from or through their father, but in their own right 
as themselves being members of the tribe for the time being. 
The ownership of these lands was vested in the collecth-e 
tribe, Lut the rights of each member were personal, tempo- 
rary, and incorporeal. But the nature of the interes
 of the 
owners in land cut out of the general tribe land, and allotted 
in exclusive ownership was entirely different. They claimed 
under a grant made to one or more persons, and made their 
title through the grantee or grantees;, this title to land is 
usually spoken of as being hereditary, and the land in 
question described as inheritable land, or land of inheritance; 
but it does not follow that although the title must be made 
under a particular grant, and through the original grantee, 
that the actual owners stand in the relation of" heirs" to 
the person through whom they claim. Our modern idt'R.S of 
inheritance and heirship are involved with tllOse of the 
transmission of property by de5cent and primogeniture; 
and much of the confusion which exists upon this subject, 
has arisen from the inquiry proceeding upon the assumption 
that purely local and arbitrary rules of our own municipal 
law are uni\"ersal and eternal principles. 
Land might be allotted in separate ownership for a 
limited period (e.g., for a life), or in perpetuity; but 
although the former class of grants are found among the A. 
S. charters, in the case of the Irish tribes we have no reason 
to believe that the grants were limited in duration. 
'Vhen land was alienated in perpetlwm, it passed upon 
the death of the original grantee to the person or 
persons entitled, according to the custom, to the succes- 
sion to his property; such persons might, or might not, 
be identical with his nearest agnates; but even if they 
were, it did not folluw that their title to the succession was 
founded on descent or even blood relationship. The origin 
of all successions appears to be not descent, but co-ownership. 



The legal unit is not the indi\'idual but the household; the 
head of a house acquires property for his household, and 
possesses it as the manager of an implied partnership, not 
as an absolute owner. The household need not include all 
his descendants, or consist exclusively of them. The 
emancipated sons, under the old Roman, would not have 
shared in their father's property, which would have passed 
to an adopted son. Our ideas a'I to the transmission of 
property in ancient times are, perhaps, embarrassed by too 
exclusive a reference to the Roman law, in which the 
hæres presents a misleading resemblance to the feudal heir j 
but in countries in which the technical unity of the family, 
exhibited in the existence of the Roman hæres, was not 
continued, the succession was manifestly equivalent to 
survivorship among joint tenants j and this principle of 
survivorshi.p applies not merely to the property of the head 
of the household,.but to that of every member of it. Let 
us observe how a perfectly simple process is obscured by 
the use of words. If a household consists of A, the father, 
and Band C', the sons, they are co-tenants or co-partners in 
the property of the household, with the father, A, as tIle 
manager j if the father, A, dies, the property survives to B 
and 0, the sons j in this case the sons would Le commonly 
spoken of as taking in the character of their father's heirs. 
On the other hand, if B, one of the sons, dies, the property 
survives to A, the father, and C, the surviving son j we 
should in this case think that no rights to properly had 
passed, and speak of the possibility of B succeeding to his 
father as having ceased. Again, if a third son, D, is born 
no visible change has taken place, but, in fact, a new mem- 
ber has been introduced into the joint tenancy or partner- 
ship, and the right.'! of the three original joint tenants, 
diminished lJro tendo. The extent to which heirship is 
traced in the collateral line in any ancient law depends 
upon the greater or less magnitude of the original joint 
family. If, for any reason, families have hung together for 
several generations, continuing to form one household, 
the death of each member increasing the shares of all the 



other member" in the common fund, the extent of collateral 
heirship admitted by the customary law may be very wide; 
and, on the other hand, it will be probably found that in 
the ca<;e of a nation which, from some external reason, has 
acquired the custom of inhabiting small and distinct habita- 
tions, the degrees of collateral heirship will be contracted, 
mùess the idea of relationship be kept up by family religious 
rites. The reason for the rule that the liability to pay fines 
and compensation falls upon the persons who would take 
the property of the criminal, and in the same shares, is that, 
as the family has to pay for the wrongs committed by its 
members, the payment falls upon the common fund, and 
diminishes pm tanto the shares of all who take by survivor- 
This is illustrated by, and explains, a difficulty which 
arises as to the incidence of, and the rights to, fines. In 
some passages the father is the person primarily liable, in 
some the son, and in some they are represented as jointly 
entitled to the compensation. Who in any given case were 
entitled to the succession, or liable for "Tongs, must 
originally have turned upon the question of fact, who, at the 
date of the death, or of the crime, were the members of the 
household to which the deceased or the wrong-doer belonged. 
The rules as to the succession to land have been em- 
barrassed hy the use in the Brehon Law of words descrip- 
tive of different kinds of interests in lands, or, rather, of 
lanJs distinguished by a reference to the nature of the 
interests of the possessors; and the terms used are such as 
involve a cross division. The primary distinction between 
the ger.eral tribe-land and the lands of inheritance is per- 
fectly clear; the former are the few'an fine; the latter are 
the O1'ba lands. The latter class of lands are subdivided 
into those upon" hich the geilfine organization had been. 
and those in which it was not. established. The former 
lands are described repeatedly as "coibne" land-that is. 
land which was the property of an organized association of 
persons. The root of the word seems to imply something 
like the spreading of branches from a common stock, and it 



is frequently used to denote the association of different 
individuals considered as one body in a legal point of view. 
Thcre also occurs another term frequently used as dcscriptive 
of land, vi7
, "dibadh," the explanation of which involves 
much difficulty. It is used, as has been observed, in the 
first tract a5 descriptive of common tribe land as contrasted 
with coibne land; it is also used to express the property 
p3.ssing from a deceased to the parties entitled to the succes- 
sion, and it is used in the latter sense evidently to describe 
the s}lare of a deceased co-owner in coibne land when it 
passed by succession. It woulù appear that the term is 
used rather in opposition to the term "coibne" than as 
descriptive of any specific class of lands, and desigates land 
which is divisible among various parties as tenants in 
common, and not as members of an association. The same 
land might be described as either "coibne" or "dihadh," 
according to the rights of the individual" then under con- 
a:;ideration. The question as to the succession to "cruiLh" 
and" I:'liasta," the interests in which were created by express 
contract, may be postponed until after that of the two other 
classes-viz., (1) land of inheritance not subjected to the 
geilfine organi7..'ttion, and (2) lands upon which a gcilfine 
organization had been estaLlisllCd 
Assuming that the penalty for wrong falls upon the 
household of the wrong-doer, and that the succession to his 
property would take the foml of a survivorship ofthe other 
members of the household, three possible cases would arise- 
(1.) If the wrong-d.)er, or deceased, as the case might be, 
were a member of his father's household, the liability would 
fall upon the father, and the share of the deceased pass to 
him, in both cases in his character of head of the household. 
(2.) If the son did not go out during his father's lifetime, 
and after his death continued in the house in joint possession 
with his brothers and their descendants, the latter would 
Loth incur the liability and take the succession, in each case 
as the co-members of the household, bat the tmnsaction 
would apparently be different from the preceding case, for 
the fact of the successio:l would be her



(3.) If the son had gone out and established himself as 
the head of an independent household, the liability would 
fall upon, and the succession accrue to, his own children or 
remoter descendants, the co-members of the household, and 
in this case there would appear to be liability and heirship 
resting upon descent. 
The right to fines or compensation would follow the same 
rule as the liability to pay them. 
In the latter two cases, if we were to speculate who at any 
gi,yen time might be the co-members of the household, our 
calculation would include all persons necessarily members of 
the house who could come into being during the life of 
the wrong-doer, or deceased. 
The two tracts in question in various passages state the 
persons liable to pay and entitled to receive fines and com- 
ppusation. The statements are apparently contradictory, 
but a clear idea of the order of priùrity may be obtained by 
a careful comparison and analysis. "T e may disregard the 
passages in which the general word" family" is used; in all 
such ca'3es the liability of the members of the family among 
themselves would Le secundum legent, and this must be 
necessarily implied. 'Ve may Ûmilarly disregard the pas- 
sages in which the term" the nearest hearth" is used; this 
term must either mean the household next liable in order 
according to law, or refer to cases inapplicable to the question 
of succession. 
In page 243 the order of liability is thus described :-(a) 
the father; (b) the brother; and (c) the geilfine (see the gloss 
as to the latter term, and the preceding gloss introducing 
the son in priority to the father). In page 245 it is-(a) 
the brother; (b) the geilfine division; (c) the deirbfine; 
(d) the taoibhfine or the iarfine division; and (e) the iar- 
fine. In 247 it is the son. In page 2(jO it is-(a) the son; 
and (b) the father; and in pages 240 and 268 it is simply 
the geilfine. 
As to the right to receive the compensation, in page 245-6 
we are told that the body fine for the death of father or son 
is payaLIe to the entire family. In page 255 the father and 



the son of the slain take half the eric fine between them. 
In the page 259 the body fine of six cumhals is divided in 
the following proportions :-1'0 the father, two; to the son, 
two; to the brother, one; anù to the geilfine, one. 
These fluctuating dicta involve no real contradiction. 
There is no statement in any of them inconsistent with the 
others, if we suppose that on each occasion the author is 
dealing with some specific case, asserting the liability of some 
individual defendant, but not defining the order of liability 
of the persons secondarily liaùle as among themselves. 
Bearing in mind the principle, "As long as there is a 
family before him, it is not backward,; he sues," there can 
be no difficulty in stating the order of liability and the 
reasons for it. 
The liability falls first upon the persons who would ùe 
the members of his hom;ehold; if he were the head of an 
household, its members would be his own sons, and, there- 
fore, upon the son the liability first faUs. 
H he has not left his father's family, tIle liability falls 
upon the father as the head of the household; if he were 
dead, those next liable are the brothers who would have been 
joint owners with the crimiual. 
Thus the liability is confined to the persons who were, or 
had been, members of the same household with the wrong- 
doer; but at this point the liability of relations stops, and 
the geilfine division of the "fine" assumes the liability. 
There was no intervening liability between that of brothers 
amI that of the general" family." 
If we now attempt to translate this priority of liability 
into a theory of the succession, the following observations 
appear of importance:- 
(1.) The rule that the parties liable pay the fine in the 
proportions ill which they would divide his property, does 
not imply that eo instunti upon death the propcrty woulJ 
have been divided among the parties named; it means that 
the liability, as a clanmosa heJ'eclitas, or ncgative quantity, 
pursues the same line of succession as the actual inhe1"Ïtanee 
would have pursued. 



.) The term son must be read as "sons," and inclusive 
of the descendants of sons, and the observation applies to 
the term " brother" also. 
The sons of the deceased take in prim ity to his brothers; but 
of such a rule, when once admitteù to exist, there are two 
possible explanations, either (a.) that the brothers succeed 
if the deceased die without leaving sons or lineal descendants 
surviving him, or (b.) that the brothers, or their descen- 
dants claiming through them, succeed to the inheritance upon 
the general failure of the sons or their descendants, as we 
should express it, upon the general failure of the male issue 
of the purchaser; or, as it might be put, whether upon 
failure of male issue of the original acquirer, his brothers or 
their descendants would claim as his heirs, or as the collateral 
heirs of the last of the issue. This involves the question 
what wag the nature of the interest taken by the sons of 
the deceased in his lands. At the present day, and in the 
English L:tw, the eldest son, succeeding as heir to an estate 
in fee, takes the estate absolutely without any obligation to 
transmit it to his own heir; according to the old French 
law of substitutions the eldest son took the estate, but was 
deprived of all power of alienation, so that the succession upon 
his death passed to his heir; and the principle of the Scotch 
tailzie is similar. 
In all early systems of law the iùea of primogeniture is 
absent, and the laud pa.<;ses to aU the sons; supposing it 
thus to pass, the practical working of the rule of descent 
hinges upon the question whether these sons take as abso- 
lütc owners, with full powers of alienation, or whether all 
the male descendants of the ancestor have a claim to a 
portion in the lands which eannot be defeated by their 
predecessors; and if so, how long does this right exist, or at 
what date is it extinguished? 
Although the tribe may be considered as perpetual, and 
its members, at however remote a date, retain their rights 
in the common land, there is no indication that the bnds of 
inheritance were subject to such a rule, which, if it existed, 
would have bounù property in a perpetual entail, and pro- 



hibited alienation. It is to be remarked that in no passage 
is there allusion to land passing to the descendants of an 
owner generally, and in pC11.Jctnllm,. on the other hand, 
there are frequently allusions to the four tÌrst generations of 
the descendants of the deceased, and the clea,rest intimation 
that the head of a family, who was an owner of property, 
could not alien for his own purposes, to the injury of his 
descendants, and that there existed in the sons a certain 
right to the father's land, sufficient, at least, to restrain tIle 
latter's power of alienation. The residue of the land of the 
"fi11e" remains undivided until the constitution of the 
"innfine" class, which fixes a date connected with existence of 
a fourth generation of descendants.- Lands were estimated 
"according to the amount of their property from great-grand- 
"on to the great-great-grandson ;"t this passage is explained 
as stating the moùe in whieh land is divided upon the death 
of a daughter (who must be a daughter, not of the original 
ancestor, but of the survivor of his sons-although this is 
immaterial), upon whose deatl] the latest descendants en- 
titled, are specified as the great-great-grand-children of a 
common ancestor. 
A remarkable passage occurs in page 28i, which, whether 
it refers to estates of "fnidhi1"S," or separate property in 
land generally, expresses the author's idea of hereditary 
succession. "The son is enriched in the same ratio as his 
father, and the father does not sell anything to the pl'eju- 
dice of his SOD'>, grandsons, great-granùsons, or great-great- 
grandsons." 'rhus, an owner of land was restrained from 
alienation in favour of his four next generations of descen- 
dants, which implies that all the members of these four 
generations took an interest in the lands of their anc<,stor; 
and, if these four generations had thus joint rights in the 
land, as quasi-joint tenants, the death of anyone would 
operate as a sllIvivorship for the benefit of all the existing 
members of the class, and the shares in the land would vary, 
from time to time, according as new members were intro- 
duced upon their birth; and if this heredita.ry right was 

· Pages 283-281. 

t Page 33. 



not transmissible beyond the fourth generation, all the 
existing members of the class at the date of the last division 
(the date of the introduction of the last member into the 
class) would hold in severalty, and form respectively new 
hereditary stocks. It may be suggested that the reason for 
the assumption of four generations as the basis of this 
system of descent, was as follows :-the land vested in the 
original acquirer, as head of his household, and as a portion 
of the joint property, which he could not alien during his 
life, and the rights of those who succeeded to the land were 
based upon the theory of their being the surviving members 
of his húusehold. When the fact of succession passed into 
a theory for succession, the right of succession would be 
given to all those who could possibly have been existing 
members of the household at date of the death of the head, 
and descendants of the fourth degree were com,idcred as 
the most remote who could stand in that position. A law 
of heirship founded upon such a basis would draw the limit 
of coHectoral heirship at third cousins; this may seem to 
some a velT narrow and imperfect scheme of title by des- 
cent, but the difficulty seems to us not to reduce it to this limit, 
but to extend it so far. The succession, in default of sons, 
passed first to the f.'lther, and then to the uncles of deceased, 
but manifestly all more remote collateral relations were ex- 
cluded, and the succession of the geilfine class was equiva- 
lent to a succession to the family to which the deceased 
belonged. The rights of the heir-at-Iaw, however remote 
his relationship to the deceased, is a purely English and 
modern idea, imported into the feudal law by a very trans- 
parent fiction, and almost within the present generation, 
systematized by recent statutes. Àq against the father or 
the brothers, there does not seem to have been any restraint 
upon alienation, and naturaUy because they could not have 
been members of the household of the deceased, and they 
could not be considered, except by a fiction, as having any 
joint ownership with the deceased in the subject matter of 
the succession. The" alienation" applied to the ownership 
of land, such as we are dealing with, must be understood as 



alienation in accordance with the local custom, and so far 
as it was thereby permitted, and is not to be confounded 
with the unrestricted rights of disposal, which we now asso- 
ciate with absolute ownership. 
In considering any rules of dc.<;cent, it must be remem- 
bered that the terms son, brother, &c., are correlatives, and 
possess no meaning until we have ascertained who is the 
father, brother, &c., to whom they refer-until we have fixed 
the stirps, the relationship to which determines the succes- 
sion. The original stirps must manifestly be the head of 
the household, when the land in question was granted in 
several ownership out of the common tribe land; but if the 
right by descent were always traced back to the first 
acquiter, the extent to which coUateral successions would 
exist must have been far wider than the text authorizes us 
in concluding it to have been. If we are right in our 
opinion that the general rule of all male descendants to a share 
in the inheritance ceased with the fourth generation, it 
follows that the members of the family who then acquired 
separate, not undivided shares, each became a new stirps 
for a fresh line of descendants. 
"\\"'hen land has been granted out of the common tribe 
land in severalty, and as the property of an individual, if 
the inheritance become vacant by the failure of heirs to the 
grantee, the land thus left without an owner fa1l5 back into 
the general trib
 land out of which it was taken. Whether 
in such a case it becomes the property of the chief, or of the 
members of the tribe, depends upon the question whether 
the chief has, as was ultimately in most European countries 
the case, succeeded in substituting himself for the general 
body of the members of the tribe as the representative of 
the State. That lands of inheritance, upon which no geil- 
fine system had been established, did so revert, is proved by 
the special rule relative to extern inheritance in the case of 
a fully organized "fine," in which latter case the geilfine 
division were entitled to a succession, in the nature of an 
escheat, in vacant inheritances. This we take to be the 
meaning of the passage in page 285 :-" The geil1ìne extends 



to five persons, and it is they that get the dibadh of every 
kindred chief who leaves' dibadh 'property." The phrase 
"who leaves" is glossed "who becomes extinct of." The 
geilfine division are here described as five co-existing 
persons, who take jointly an inheritance under certain 
circumstances. There would be no necessity for the obser- 
vation, if the" dibadh" property in question passed to them 
as those primarily entitled to the succession; their right to 
succeed is a privilege connected with their official or local 
position as the five men of the geilfine division. The pro- 
perty in question cannot have been the" dibadh " property 
of any of the seventeen men, for it would then have survived 
to the men of the division of the deceased. This implies 
that the five men of the "geilfine" division }'epresent the 
entire" fine "for the purpose of receiving successions, as 
they represent the community in being ultimately liable in 
certain ca.qes for the wrong committed by the members of 
the "fine." If an allotment made to a member of the 
"fine," other than the seventeen men, became vacant by 
failure of heirs, the land fell not into the commOn property 
of the" fine," but became the exclusive property of the five 
men. If brothers, however, take a succession next to the 
BOns of a deceased, this rule cOlùd not (subject to the excep- 
tion subsequently noticed) apply until the" geilfine" I>ystem 
had been completed, and the land divided among the 
members, because every member of the "fine" must in that 
case have left a brother or nephews surviving him, except a 
sixth or younger son of the first geilfine chief,and a son of such 
son, or a sixth or younger son of the second "geilfine " chief, 
&c. Successions so very rare as these could not be considered 
as in the nature of a privilege or the subject ofa special rule, 
and, 8.8 up to the date of the final partition the " geilfine " 
chief is assumed to be the owner of the waste, there would 
be little object in such a regulation j but its meaning is 
evident if it implies that the fifth "geilfine" chief, 
and his four brothers, who jointly form the last and 
permanent" geilfine " division, continuing to represent the 
" fine " for the purpose of liability, continue also to repre- 



sent it beneficially as entitled to the succession to vacant 
inheritances. Their position would in this ease be very 
similar to that of the lord of a manor in the English law. 
It is stated in the introduction to Mr. Curry's Lecturcs 
that the succession was at first to the sons or remoter 
male issue exclusively, but that ultimately the daughters 
became entitled if there were no sons.- Although the 
authorities cited to support this seem to the cases and rules 
dealing with anib and sliasta land, there is no reason to 
doubt the general accuracy of the statemcnt. 
There are, undoubtedly, in the glosses to the first tract in 
this volume, indications that at the date of the glosses, 
daughters had succeeded in acquiring a right to succession 
upon the death of their brothers, and that the later law,yers 
altered the original text, by the introduction of words sup- 
posed to have been omitted, and thus corrected the law to 
make it accord with the later usage; thus, in the original text 
at page 39, line 23, there is the passage, " an extern branch 
stops it (i.e., the property) if the five persons of the gcilfine- 
division perish." This is glossed as follows-" and in this 
case there is no female heir." This gloss manifestly follows 
up that in page 41, line 
4, referring to page 3D, line 16, " all 
the geilfinc-division have become extinct, and aU the land is 
obtained by the daughter in right of her female' coarb '- 
ship, or as I have to tell concerning the dibadh-Iand of the 
head (cm-o) to whom the land belonged, i.e., the daughter; 
it is then the land is divided among the three tribes." The 
right of females to a succession would be manifestly sug- 
gested by the feudal law ; tlle first English settlement was 
founded upon the assertion of this principle; and such a 
doctrine would be popular among the owners of land, natur- 
ally desirous to transmit their property to their female 
issue. The principle of female succession to lands other 
than crnibh and sliasta, docs not exist in the original 
text, and appears as struggling into existence at the date of 
the latest commentators; such a theory of succession is in 
contradiction to the old conception of the household, and 

. Mannel1l and Customs, YO!. 1., p. clxx. 



that it wa.'3 repugnant to the opinions of the older school of 
lawyers is shown by the restrictions by which it was limited 
even in the case of cl'Uibh and sliasta land. 
The obvious objection in a system of tribe law to female 
succession is that it naturally leads to alienate the lands of 
the family, and by intermarriages with externs to transfer 
them to members of a foreign tribe. This difficulty arose in 
the days of Moses. Thus, on the petition of the daughters 
of Zelophedad, of the tribe of Manasseh, who had died in 
the wilderness, :Moses laid down the rule that the daughters 
should succeed to their father's inheritance if there was no 
son;* but the objection to this rule was soon perceived and 
stated by the fathers ofthe family of Gilead, viz., " ifthey be 
married to any of the sons of the other tribes of the children 
of Israel, then shall their inheritance be taken awa.y from 
tIle inheritance of our fathers, and b
 put to the inheritance 
of the tribe whereunto they are received; so shall it be 
bken from the lot of our inheritance."t The rule, as origin- 
ally laid down, had to be modified by the annexed proviso, 
" every daughter that possesseth an inheritance in any tribe 
of the children of J srael, shan be wife unto one of the family 
of the tribe of her father, that the children of Israel may 
enjoy every man the inheritance of his father. Neither 
shall the inheritance remove from one tribe to another tribe, 
but everyone of the tribes of the children of Israel shall 
keep himself to his own inheritance."t 
At whatever date female succession W:).'3 established, it 
appears to have been subject to a restriction similar in 
effect to the later Mosaic rule. "A female heir is here reJC'lTed 
to who has had the father's and the grandfather's land for a 
time, and though she should desire to give it to her sons, she 
shall not give it."
 The introduction of female successioll to 
land is contemporary with the birth of the idea of absolute 
ownership, and fixes the date at which the idea of the family 
and tribe is finally broken up. Although the rule of 
female succession existed under the Brehon Law it may 

um. 2i, I. t 1<1., ch. 3/ì, 1. : 1<1., "f". 8. 
S Page 3!), see gloss, p. 41, line 4. 




be regarded a.9 a proof of the late date of the author who 
asserts it as a rule, and must be rejected from any state- 
ment of the ancient law of succession. 
The succession to the cruibh and sHasta land rested upon 
express contract, and this class of lands consisted of those 
which, to use a modern term, were settled upon the mar- 
riage of a daughter of the house; that this form of succee- 
sion was considered as an infringement of the common 
right of the family is proved by the necessity of obtaining 
the consent of the geilfine-chief to the contract. The effect 
of this contract, it would appear, was to introduce the 
daughter into the class entitled to the succession upon the 
death of the father. It must be presumed that the daughter 
during her life was entitled to the possession, as in the 
Welsh law in analogous case it is stated, "her gwaddol 
constitutes her proprietorship if she abide by her kindred.". 
The succession of her children was, however, much restricted; 
if she were married to a native freeman, her sons would be 
themselves entitled to the rights of fun members of the tribe 
and upon the obvious principle that they could not claim 
at once under and against the custom, they lost, for the 
general benefit of the family, two-thirds of the lands; if her 
sons were, through their father, " exiles and foreigners," i.e., 
if they had no claim to any portion of the family land under 
the customary law, they were left in possession of the 
entire at the will of the family, "while they are doing good 
with it." If the only is:me of the marriage were daughters, 
there appears to have been a question whether they were 
entitled to a succession. Their right to the land was estab- 
lished by a leading case decided by Brigh, probably the 
wife of the Brehon Sencha previously referred to,t :Illd it 
would seem that the passage introduced in page 41, line 16, 
is intended to be a report of the judgment. The case is 
thus stated-" The mother had died, and left no sou, and 
there are no sons, but daughters only And the daughters 
shall obtain an the land \\ith obligation to perform service 
of attack and defence, or the half of it, without oLligation to 
· Ancient Laws,.&c., of Walcs, "01.2, p. 60i. f Page 17. 


ex IX 

perform service of attack and defence ; and there is power over 
them to compel them to restore the land after their time." 
Hence it would appear that they were bound to indemnify 
the tribe against loss by reason of their incapacity to 
serve, or to compound for this liability by surrender of half 
the land, as a. tenant of a lease, perpetually renewable, 
may, upon obtaining a fee-farm grant, free his holding from 
future liability to rent by releasing to the landlord a pro- 
portionate part of the lands; and that the interest taken 
by the daughters was for their own lives, and upon their 
death the lands fell back into the common fund of land out 
of which it had been taken. 

The subject of this tract may be more correctly described 
as the rules regulating the mode of the partition of lands 
held by joint tenants, and the rights which, upon the parti- 
tion, arise between the owners of the several portions. 
The composition of the tract is remarkably consecutive, 
and, from the author's point of view, logically developed. 
The commentary is unusually clear and intelligible, although 
in some instances explanations are introduced which antici- 
pate. or are merely copied from, subsequent passages of the 
original text; thus the comment:lry in page 77 is identical 
with the text at page 113; and towards the end of the 
tract passages evidently taken from other writings are intro- 

· The word translated in the text" co-tenancy" is translated by Dr. O'Donovan 
as .. joint-tenancy." This is a Tery remarkable error not as to the meaning of 
the Irish word, but of its presumed En{;lish cquivalent. The subject discussed 
in the tract is the rights arising between persons, who have ceased to be joint- 
tenants bJ' a severance of their joint-tenancy, and become owners in severalty of 
their separate holdings. We have no English term expressing snch a legal 
relation, and the words .. co-tenancy" and "co-tenants" have been used as 
the nearest equivalent expression. The lcarned translators did not profess to 
be skilled in the terms of English law, but they grievously embarrassed their 
translations by the use of technical words which they could not be expected to 
understand. The present editors have carefully removed from the translation 
every English term, the uqe of which could lead only to a misconception of the 
original text. 



duced, some of which are difficult to understand, and others 
directly contradict the leading principles laid down in the 
body of the work. A remarkable instance of the latter case 
occur'3 in page 147, from line 6 to line 19. 
This tract does not apply to any process similar to the 
modern enclosure of a common. That the general tribeland 
or public pasture should be cut up into separate lots, and 
di vided among the members of the tribe in absolute owner- 
ship, was foreign to the ideas of any early community, and the 
author, at the commencement of the tract, carefuUy points 
to the circumstances under which the relationship described 
by 11Ím as "co-tenancy" arose. ""\Vhence does co-tenancy 
arise!" he asks; and to this question himselfreplies-" From 
several heirs." 'Ye "are here reminded of the important 
statements rcferable to the land of the "fine" in pages 2
and 285, the former of which states that the lanù of a family 
was not at aU ùivided, and the latter states that in certain 
circumstances the members of the geilfine organization 
divided among themselves the residue of the t.ribe land as 
dibadh land, and that thereupon the family relations ceased, 
and there was henceforth what was called a community 
of people. The partition of the lands need not be confined 
to the case of a "fi1le," but must be extended to the breaking 
up of any inheritance among several heirs, which, if the 
theory of the rules regulating the succession to land herein- 
before proposed be correct, necessarily took place on the 
completion of the fourth generation of the descendants of 
the founder of the household or first acquireI'. 
The author understands that the pre-existing rights, which 
depended upon joint ownership, are determined by the fact 
of the partition, and that the owners of the several lots 
must henceforth deal with each other individual1y, and 
that their mutuall'ights depend upon an agreement contem- 
porary with the division of the lands. "The heirs, in the 
first place, partition their shares and their possessions, and 
each of them guards against the other of them, and each of 
them gives << lJleclge of indemnity to the Gtller."* The re- 
· Pnge 69 


ex Xl 

ciprocal rights between the adjoining and now independent 
owners, which are to be thus secured by mutual pledges, 
would in the civil or English law be inferred in the case of 
any adjoining owners, and the transaction takes the form of 
the mutual covenants, which are sometimes necessary, to 
meet reculiar circumstances, in our deeds of partition. It is, 
however, to be observed that the giving of the indemnity 
was not accompanied with any detail of the extent anù 
nature of the indemnity itself, which was defined and ex- 
plained by reference to the custom, and that the material 
pledge given and preserved was not the C01'[>US out of which 
the compensation or damages was to be paid, but rather the 
evidence of the existence of a contract the nature of which 
was assumed. " Each cotenant shall place a pledge of the 
vcdue of two · screpulls' on one of the raek pins of each 
other's at the foot of the bed as secw'ity for the fulfilment of 
the dzdies of co-tenancy; and though he should not fulfil 
them, this is not the pledge that shall be forfeited for it, but 
the · smacht '-fine which we have mentioned before, or sacks, 
or fines for man trespass according to the nature of the tres- 
pass, if trðspass has taken place therefrom.". The subse- 
quent relation of the parties is clearly expressed in the phrase 
-" the new custom avoids the security,"t meaning that the 
relations which had previously existed between the parties, 
arising by implication from their position as joint owners, 
had come to an end, and that their subsequent mutual rights 
rested upon the le 6 al consequences of the interchange of 
The several lots in the hmd to be divided having been 
ascertained, the duty of sufficiently fencing their respective 
shares fell upon the several parties. There are no rules given 
for the extent of fencing, w
lÌch each se,-eral owner was to 
execute, and as each fence was common to two properties, it 
must in every case have been a matter of arrangement be- 
tween the parties; but.very specific directions are given as to 
to the size and materials of the fences to be erected. There are 
four kinds of fence specified; (1) a trench, corresponding with 
· Page 7';. t Page 74. 



what is now usually called in Ireland a" ditch j" a trench with 
the earth dug out of it, piled on one side of it in the fashion 
of a wall or mount j the trench was to be three feet deep, 
three feet wide at the top, one at the bottom, and two at the 
middle. The mound corresponded with the form of the 
trench out of which it was excavated, being three feet in 
height, three feet wide at the base, and one foot at the top. 
(2) A stone wall of six feet in height, three feet wide at the base, 
and one at the summit: this was evidently a dry stone wall 
like those now common in the 'Nest of Ireland, because the 
only instrument specified as necessary for their erection is 
an iron bar, and there is no allusion to the use of mortar. 
(3 & 4) The other two kinds of fences, described as a <<strong" 
or << close" fence, or a <<felmadh" (otherwise a naked) fence, 
were of wood or timbers set together j the details of these 
are elaborately given, but must appear to the modern reader 
rather obscure. The former is thus described: <<the top of 
the one tree shall be on the trunk of the other tree, and so 
as that the smallest sucking pig could not pass through it 
for its closeness, nor the ox pass over it for its height." The 
latter class (If fence was not of so substantial a nature. 
<<The naked fence should be thus rnade j the length of a 
foot to the articulation (or sepamtion) of the big toe is to 
be between every two stakes, and six feet in its height, or 
twelve hands, if it be measured by hands j and three bands 
of interwoven twigs upon it, a band on it at the bottom, 
another ill the middle, and another at the top, and a certain 
space between every two bands; and a hand is the length 
of the pole (the inte1'weavilJg) from that out, and a black- 
thorn crest upon it at the top; and every stake shoulJ be 
flattened at top by three blows struck on its head, after 
being first thrust by the hand in the g1'ound as well as you 
can.". The nature of the fence depended l!pon the nature 
of the place in which it Wag to be erected, which is thus 
explained-<< a trench or a stone wall in the plain; and the 
naked fence in the half plain, and the close fence in the 

· Page 71. 



wood."" It appears from this that the right of separate 
ownership was not confined to arable or eyen grazing lands, 
but in Borne cases included what would have been expected 
to have formed portion of the waste of the tribe; this separate 
ownership of forest accounts for wbat would be otherwise 
difficult to understand, the liability of owners of lands for 
trespasses committed by wild animal
.t The constant and 
regular attendance of all the parties engaged in the fenc- 
ing was attempted to be secured by the very naif rule; 
"each of them shall give his victuals illto the hand of the 
other at night, that he may remember to come in the 
morning to his share of the cotenancy w01'k j and the 
victuals of the person that will not come may be safely 
used, and if the victuals of any ofthem be used, he shall pay 
fine for overuse."t 
The whole theory of the damages paid in respect of the 
most usual form of trespass, the trespass of a neighbour's 
cattle, was calculated after the usual Brehon fashion, every 
possible form and incident of the trespass being intro- 
duced, as an arithmetical quantity, influencing the ultimate 
result. In a passage in a later portion of the tract
actual amount of damage done is suggested as the basis 
to calculate the sum of the compensation to be paid. 
" A worthy neighbour is brought to appraise the tre
and grass of equal value is given at the decision of 
the neighbours j" this matter-of-fact mode of estimating 
the damage was probably considered unscientific by our 
author who proceeds to lay down every possible element in 
estimating compensation, and to annex to each a fixed value. 
These distinctions, if stated at length, would occupy much 
space j and the actual amount payable in respect of any 
supposed trespass, or the possible number of results which 
might be produced by varying the elements of the calcu- 
lation, is of little practical importance. This desire to 
reduce matters necessarily fluctuating to certain results, 
this wholly misapplied pretension to arithmetical accuracy, 
was the essential vice of the Brehon law, and the glory of 
. Page j7. t Page 121. t Page n. 
 Page IH. 



its professors; the working of this system was so fully 
explained in the introduction to the last volume, that it is 
unnecessary here to recapitulate it, and it is not needful on 
the present occasion to do more than to summarize what were 
the chief elements in their calculations upon this subject. The 
personal responsibility of the defendant, either by wilful acts 
or culpable negligence, divided all trespasses into "man" tres- 
pass, and ordinary or "cattle" trespass. The extent of the 
trespass, whether t11e cattle had merely run in and upon the 
lands, or walked about thereon and eaten the verdure and 
crop; or had spent some time there not only eating but 
lying down, was also defined; and technical names were 
given to the,;e species of trespass, viz., "tairsce," "airlim," 
and "feis;" and the proportion of damages payable in 
respect of each fixed, as so constantly occurs in these calcu- 
lations, in the geometrical ratio of two.- The time at which 
the trlJspass took place, whether by day or night, had to be 
taken into account; the former involving twice the compen- 
sation of the latter. The season of the :year could not be 
overlooked; we are told, "that the year is divided into two 
parts for regulating 'smacht '-fines, for the 'smacht '-fines 
of each quarter are not alike, veea'use it is difficult to 7'eguZate 
the' smaeht '-fines of the winter season, and of the spring 
cold, for saved provisions are more precious than growing 
grass."t The nature of the crop upon the land was obviously 
the principal element in the damage; the questions of the 
existence or sufficiency of the fence, the period of the 
duration of the trespass, the number of cattle which tres- 
passed, the number of gaps they cro::;sed the fence, all 
affected the result in fixed ratios. As a specimen the 

· See the ca1culation as to the extent of the precinct, PO!t, page 227. 
t rage 79. The di\ision of the year, stated in the text, into two unequal parts, 
viz., the summer period comprising fin months, being the last month of spring, 
the three months of summer, and the first month of autumn, and the wiuter period 
comprising the last two mOl"1ths of autumn, the three months of winter, and the fir<t 
two months of spring, was made, in the opinion of Dr. O'Donovan, with the object 
solely of regulating the price of grazing lands. 
&< That the Pagan Irish divided the )'ear into four quarters is quite evident from 
the terms EaI'rach, 8amhradh, FfJuhmhal', and Gri,"hridh, which are undoubtedly 
ancient Irish words, not derived from the Latin through Christianity; and that 



following rules may be taken, as to cases really simple, and 
involving only four of the above elements. "Four sacks 
a1'e due for jeis trespass in a winter grass field oyer a full 
fence, two sacks for 'aÜ'lim' -trespass, and a sack for 
, taÏl'sce '-trespass. If it be trespass upon a pastured field of 
winter grass land, or upon an inclosed field of winter moun- 
tain lanù, or winter wooù, or an old winter milking place, or 
into an inclosed field of summer grass land, two sacks are 
due for' feis '-trespass, and a sack for' airlim '-trespass, and 
half a sack for' tairsce '-trespass. If it be trespass upon a 
pastured field of winter mountain, or winter wood, or an 
old winter milking place, or a pastured field of summer 
grass land, or into an inclosed field of summer mountain or 
summer wood, a sack is due for 'leis '-trespass, half a sack 
for airlirn trespass, and a quarter of a sack for' tai/'see '- 
trespass. If it be trespass upon a pastured field of summer 
mountain, or summer wood, or summer old milking place, 
half a sack is due for' feis '-trespass, and a quarter of a sack 
for' airlim ' trespass, and the eighth of a sack for' tairsce '- 
trespass. The eighth of the eigllth is tlte fine upon eyery 
trespassing animal, for every beast is a trespasser in a co- 
tenancy. For the' tairsce' -trespass of one animal upon a 
pastured field of summer mountain pasture, whatever an imal 
commits it, the sixth part of the half of one sack is due,". 
&c. The liability for the trespass is very clearly based upon 
the neglect of the owner, as appears from the exceptions, 
viz., the cattle being driven over hy a man or dog; or 
straying in consequence of heat or fear, or owing to any kind 
of violence; but these exceptions yery properly extend only 
to "airlim" trespass, for if the cattle be left on the land to 


each of these begnn "ith a stated day, three of which dnys are still known, namely, 
BraUMine,otherv.ise calle<l Ceideamhaill, or beginning of summer, when they 
lighted the fires at UiJnach at the beginning of Samhradh; LughnasaJh, the 
games of Lughaidh Lamh-fhada, "hich commenced at TaiIlte on the first <lay of 
lòghmhm', the hanest; aml Samhain, i.e., Samh-/l.uin, or summer end, when 
they lighted the fires at Tlachtgha. 
Introduction to the "Book of Rightp," p. \iiL, but see the gloss which Dr. 
O'Dono,'an himself cites in the subsequent page. 
· Page 81. 



eat and lie down, there is neglect on the part of the owner, 
and the trespass becomes" feis "-trespass. 
In the case of lands not in cultivation or grass the fine 
for trespass takes a pecuniary form; thus in the case of the 
church of a "nemadh" person it is stated to be an ounce of 
silver, and the estimation of the amount is combined with 
the number of eigh ty-four cattle, in a manner which i" far from 
clear; in the case of a king's dun fort, or a churchyard there 
is no money fine fixed but" every hole made in the place is 
to be filled up with eric-sod and the place pressed, stamped 
and levelled.. 
The trespass of' horses involved a different question from 
that of cattle; the mere halting of travellers on their road 
could scarcely be considered in the light of a wrong, and at the 
same time an entry with horse3 upon land might result in 
an action for the recovery of the premises, and it was the 
duty of all the members of the tribe or family to prevent 
thus, inan indirect manner, theinstitutionoflegal proceedings. 
Hence arose the two forms of horse-trespass, technically 
known as " fothla " and" tothla " trespass. The former arose 
when travellers unharnessed their horses upon the land of 
an absent man, and asked a neighbour accidentally present 
where they had unharnessed their horses; it was the 
neighbour's duty to tell them that the land wa." the private 
property of the absent owner, and to warn them off, where- 
upon if they did not leave the place they were liable for 
the trespasses of their horses; on the other hand if the 
neighbour saw them with the bridles in their hands, as if 
in the act of making a legal entry in assertion of a right of 
ownership, he was bound to question them as to their object, 
and in default of so doing, became himself liable for the 
trespass, if the strangers were ignorant that they were in- 
truding upon a separate property. The second case arose 
if unknown strangers unyoked their horses in the land of 
a separate owner, and the neighbour, accidentally present, 
either expressly informed them, or by his silence permitted 
them to believe, that they were not committing a trespass, 
· Page 87. 



in which case he was himself personally liable forthedamages. 
This passage would lead to the conclusion that the elaborate 
fences, directed in this tract to be erected about the lands 
allotted in severalty, very frequently, if not ordinarily, had 
no existence. 
The trespasses of swine naturally were the subject of 
cm;tomary rules j "if they eat the grass they are trespassers 
like other grazing cattle. If they root up the land, other 
land shall be given until proof of the restoration of the land 
is completed; that is until two horses in yoke are brought 
and left there, and it is seen that no part of the earth stick 
to their teeth while grazing it.". The damages for the 
trespass of swine were of course fixed with reference to the 
supposed size and age of the pigs, but in a preceding 
passage reference is made to an old and purely fanciful rule 
that the hole made by the pigs should be filled up with 
com and butter j if such a rule existed it must be refen-ed 
to some religious origin.t 
The young and troublí'some pet pig, a constant source of 
mischief, wa3 a subject of special rules; it was evidently 
regarded as the prime cause of breaches in the fence and the 
ringleader of the cattle in the homestead j "the young pig 
which first breaks through the feme, and shows the way 
to the herd, there is a' srnacht' fine upon him equal to that 
of one animal. The second time that he goes, there is a. 
, smacltt' fine upon him equal to that of four animals, and 
compensation equal to that of two animals. The third 
time that he goes, there is compensation upon him equal 
to that of three animals, and a 'smacht' fine equal to that 
of seven animals. The fourth time that he goes, there is a. 
, smacht ' fine upon him equal to that upon the whole Hock, 
and compensation equal to that upon four animals.":!: 
The rules having bcen fixed as to ordinary trespasses, our 
author proceeds to discuss what must be considered as 
purely imaginary cases j it is difficult to see where the rules 
of practical importance end, and where merely legal specu- 
lations, and vain distinctions and discussions commence; 

· Page 97. 

t Page 9:1. 

* Page 109. 



but when the amount of" smacht" fine and compensation for 
the trespasses of pet herons, hens, pet deer, pet wolves, 
pet old birds (hawks), pet foxes, and bees becomes the 
subject of quasi-serious discussion we surely have left the 
regions of practicality behind, and are witnesses of useless 
displays of pure dialectic subtility. 
As to bees it is very naturally remarked that their owner 
cannot prevent their leaving his premises and flying i11t-o 
those of his neighbour," for they are swift, and there is no 
restraint upon them, and because they do not fly all to- 
gether ;". in this case the owner was not guilty of a 
wrong as incilient to their trespasses, and therefore there was 
no' smacht '-fine payable in respect of it, but merely compen- 
sation. The only occasion upon which the bees of a neighbour 
can be undeIstood to commit trespass is when they swarm 
into the adjoining land; the sole injury incident to this 
trespass is occupation by the swarm of some infinitesimal 
portion of the neighbour's land, and the trespass involves 
its own compensation, for the swarm fix their nest and makQ 
their honey on the spot they thus wrongfully occupy. Thus 
the compensation for this trespass resolves itself into a 
joint ownership of the honey produced by the swarm:- 
"How is the fine of their produce paid? At the time of 
smothering the bees, the man who sues makes a seizure of 
that honey, and it goes into the keeping of safe hands, 
and it is afterwards submitted to award. The decision 
which is right to make afterwards concerning it i'i to 
divide the honey between them into three parts, i.e., a 
third for attendance, and a tlJird for the bees, and a third 
for the owner of the land. And the third allottcd for the 
land is itself divided into three parts, i.e. a third is given 
to the man who owns the bees on account of the land from 
which they come, the other two thirds are divitled between 
the four nearest farms, i.e. where the food is. If this dis- 
tribution of it every year shaH be deemed tiresome, each 
nearest farm takes a swarm." 
This passage affords us a means of understanding the 
.. Page 105. 



manner in which these Brehon tracts are composed. The 
whole question of bees is discussed in a subsequent tract in 
this volume, and, upon a comparison of these rules with the 
httter tract, it is evident that there were subsisting certain 
simple well-known customs as to swarms of bees, anti that 
each aut.hor simply uses the sul
ect-matter a<> a means of 
di:-;playing his tlialectic powers in the elaboration of rights 
and rules wlJÌch never were attended to or expected to be 
The question of the bees having been dismissed, the next 
which is discussetl at great length is that of hens. The 
trespasses of hens may involve negligence on the part of the 
owner, for hy proper rag-boots fowl may be restrained from 
wanùering; the absence therefore of rag-boots bring hen 
trespasses within the class of man-trespassés, as resulting 
directly from the negligence of their owner, and Con- 
Setluenlly within a higher scale of damages. Great ingenuity 
was displayed ill cla'>Sifying the nature of hen trespasses; 
first, the trespasses of a hen within a house, which art) sUù- 
divided into three classes, viz., snatching away, spilling, anù 
wasting, fùr which respectively different compensations were 
fix:cd; seeondly, trespasses outside of the house in the garùen, 
su hdivided again into soft swallowing of bees, injuring 
roidh-plants, amI injuring garlic; and further in such case 
arose the further questions whether thc bird were a cock or 
a hen, and if the latter whether it were or were not h:trren. 
The inconsistent repetitions in the commentary relative to 
this case prove that it wa.s a favourite subject of discu'Ssiun 
in the schools. 
The most extraordinary discussion is resenTed for the 
case of dugs, the authors of which were certainly devoid 
of any Rense of the ridiculous. The feeding of a dog 
naturally involves responsibility for its acts, but the dog 
trespass, which particularly attracts the notice of the author 
of the original tract is that involved in his depositing his 
orùure on the land of an adjoining owner. The commentator 
remarks that there are four trespa
ses of hounds, viz. man- 
pa,ss (i.e. trc."pa.%t::s against mcn), mangling of cattle, 



breaking of dwellings, and committing nuisance on land. 
The threc formcr he passes over without notice, and proceeds 
to cnnsider thc intf'resting questions which arise under the 
last head; "what is required by law is to remove the dog's 
ordure out of the ground as far as its juice is found, and it 
(the gronncl) is to be pressed and stamped upon with the 
heel, :1nll fine clay of the same nature is to be put thm'e as 
eomp811sation. This is the test of reparation; that two 
hor::;es of a chariot in yoke come there and graze there, and 
if no part of the sod of grass stick to their teeth in grazing 
on it the 1'epa}'(ttion is complete. And three times the size of 
the ordure is clue for compensation, and its size of butter 
and its size of dough and its size of curds; and the part of 
them that is not obtained in the one is to be claimed in the 
other afterwanls. And if it be in the presence of the owner 
that the hound has committed nuisancc on the grass, a 
fine for man trespass shan bc paid by him for it.". 
es, properly 80 called, wrongful acts committed 
hy the defendant himself in respect of the land of an all- 
joining owner, are divided into various classes, and describcd 
by specific technical names; but as no explanation is given 
of these terms, with the exception of" fothla "and" tothla " 
trespasses, it is impossible to explain the distinctions to 
which they refer.t 
Thc subjcct of" man-trespass" is resumed at a subsequent 
page,t and treated of at considerable length and in the 
usual manner. The first wrongful act discusseJ is that of 
cutting down trees or underwood upon the land of another. 
Thc various species of trees and shrubs are divided by the 
original writer, ancl more in detail by his commentator, 
into various cla<;ses, founded upon some nobleness inherent 
in the trees themselves, and the extent to which the tree 
is injured forms of course an clement in the calculation. 
The following extract is sufficient to illustrate thesc rules :- 
"For the cutting of trees or stripping them, full' di1'e' fine 
is paid for each, i.e., a pcrfcct compensation for the portion 
of thcm which is damagc,I, and five 'Bcds' as 'cli1'e' -fine. 
.. rage 123. t rage !)!). :I: rage Hi, 



But an trees are not equally noble, for there are seven 
chieftain trees and seven common trees, and seven shruh 
trees, and seven bramble trees, and the 'dii'e'-fine for each is 
different. The chieftain trees are oak, hazel, holJy, ash, 
yew, pine, apple. The' cli/':3 '-fine of the oak; a cow-hide 
is clue for st/'Ípping off it the barking for a pair of woman's 
shoes; and an ox-hide for the barking of a pair of man's 
shoes; and also to cover it until the test of its recovery is 
had, i.e., smooth clay and cow-dung and new milk are to be 
put upon it until thcy extend two fingers beyond the wound 
on both sides, and half fine shall be for it uutil it is whole. 
For cutting the trunk a cow is pa it!, and five seds are its 
'dii'e' -fine. A colpaeh-heifer is the fine for their great armc;, 
or for their small oaklings; a 'daÏ7't' heifer for their branches. 
The' cZil'e ' fine of every chieftain tree of them i:-; such."- 
The only cla,>s of man-trespass (lcalt with is the breaking 
down and pa;,sing through a fencet (the English tre:-;pass 
quâ/,c claUSlon fregit). As to this, distinctiuns are drawn 
ha,-ing reference to the extent of the breach and the status 
of the wrongdoer, and in the latter case the compensation 
to be paid by the native freeman in every case is double of that 
payable by a stranger, probably because the payment of 
compensation arises from an implied contract, and is not 
founded in theory upon the tort. 
There are four exceptional cases in whieh it was justifi- 
able to make gaps or breaches in private fences :-(1) a 
breach before the hosts, which is glossed to mean "in 
flying before an host," but which reference seems rather 
to mean" to permit the advance of the hust"; (2) before 
provisions, glossed "of the host," which would mean, 
for the purpose of bringing up supplies to the host; in both 
these cases the host must mean the armed array of the 
inhabitants of the district in which the fence is situated; 
(3) for the passage of chieftains" if they had found no other 
passage," and (4) for the conVf'yance of materials for the 

* Page 149. See the notes appendç,! to the text as to the meaning of this 
difficult and obscure passage. 
t rage 1.33 

i 2 



erertion of any of the following buildings, (a) a mill, (b) an 
oratory, (c) a shrine, and (d) a king's dun fort. 
The principle of a right of way of necessity is clearly 
stated; such rights must have immediately come into 
existence upon the division of joint tenancies into separate 
lots; this right is however fenced in with peculiar restrictions 
which prove the exclusive possession by its owner of the 
servient tenement, and the anxiety of proprietors to prevent 
the acquisition by their neighbours of easements by continued 
user; " There is one stay (q1wre, restriction on full enjoyment, 
or easemcnt) which every co-tcnant is entitled to from the 
other, i.c. in It land without an opening, without a road, 
witl10ut n way; he is entitled to full passage over every 
co-tenant's land that is next to him, but the manner in which 
he is bound to P(/.
.'I is with six persons about him, three 
persons from the owner of the land, and three persons from 
the man who seeks the passage shall attend to keep them 
(the cetitlc) close to the fence in order that they may not 

pread over the land. If he hns a way, this may be omitted; 
if there be two mounds to it, or two stone walls, he is 
restrained by them, for they are witnesses. "* 
The liabilities or duties annexed to lands held in several 
ownership are expressly laid down in this tract; this 
subject has been already noticed with reference to the rights 
of women to land, but the enumeration in the following 
passage is worthy of a reference :- 
"The liabilities of land now, i.e., service of attack and 
defence against wolves and pirates, nml attcndancc to the 
law of the territory, both as to the hosting and feeding and 
service of defcnce." 
"The liabilities as regards roads, i.e., a fence is 'i'equi-J'cel 
for it alone, and it is 'iWCCSSW'y to cut them and cleanse them, 
and remove their weeds and mire in time of war and of a 
fair; and because it is expected that each should assist the 
other. t 
Very interesting information is given incidentaJly in 
the commentary on this tract, which proves the exi

.. rage 157. 

t Page U5. 



at the date of its composition of tenants in the modern sense 
of the term, holding land for periods either fixed or uncertain, 
and paying rent in kind. The details as to this mode of 
land arise incidentally from the discussion of the liabilities 
and rights of the owner of a several lot, who is absent at the 
date of the partition anrl as a necessary consequence does not 
erect the fences between his portion and those of the adjoining 
owners, or who leaves the district to escape the fulfilment of 
his duties in this respect. In such a case the two adjoining 
owners wouIJ have no complete fence to their portions, as 
far as they meared the lot of the absent man, and his 
abandoned lot would lie between them, enabling their cattle 
to trespa.,>s across upon their respective holdings. In such 
case the adjoining owners can distrain upon his property, 
if he has any, until he makes the fence; if he has no property 
they can distrain the" next of kin to him of his family," 
until they fulfil his duties on his behalf. This is explained 
in the commentary as fullows :-" Let them distrain his family 
until they fence their brother's land,". showing that the lia- 
bilitywould fall on the members ofthe household to which the 
absent man had previously belonged. If his fitmily were 
unwilling to fulfil this obligation, they could escape it by 
conceding the right of grazing the land to the two adjoining 
proprietors, who in consideration of the year's grass them- 
seJ..'es complete the fencing of the land, and occupy the 
derelict lot with their cattle in equal proportions. If thc 
absent man return in the course of the year, and find that, 
his family having refused to fulfil his duties on his behalf: 
his lands are in the possessiun of his neighbours, he was held 
to have a claim upon his family, who by their failure to 
perform their duties to him had cau,>ed him to lJe tempormny 
left without home or farm. His rights under these circum- 
stances against his family are explained in the following 
rather obscure passage :-" If the deserter }Jas comejl"071
Riùe into the tel"l'itOl'Y after this, his fitmily s]Jall give him 
land duriIlg the term of the hire (lit. loan), and they shaH 
obtain the hire, and the part of his farm-buildings wHeh 
*P.lgc 131. 

cxx:xi v 


he may have found on his coming back shall be obtained 
by the deserter. If his family have land, and they give not 
of it to him, the hire is to be obtained by those 'who a1'C 
outside, and the pOl'Eon of the erections which the law has 
not declared forfeited, the family shall furchase for him. If 
the family had no land at all, they equally divide the hire 
between the time and the labour, and he himself purchases 
the portion of the erections which the law 1ms not confiscated. 
If the family have land, and he would not accept of it, 
the hire shall be divided equally between time and labour, 
and he shall obtain no portion of the erections."- The 
explanation which we suggest for this passage (the general 
meaning of which is not obscure) is that notwithstanding 
the division of the land in several lots, there still survived 
certain obligations among the members of the several houses, 
both towards third parties, and intCl' scsc, to aid in carrying 
out the works incidental to a partition, and therefore if the 
family failed to fulfil their duty to an absent member, and per- 
mitted the adjoining owners, in consideration of fencing the 
land, to occupy it for a year, they were bound specifically to 
compensate the owner on his return for the temporary loss 
of his holding. If the word translate!l "hire" is taken in the 
double sense as meaning both a" letting," and the" sul:jcct- 
matter of the letting," the rules may be read tlms :- 
A. On his return his family must provide an equivalent in 
land during the residue of the year; his family shall be 
entitled to receive from him the letting value of the land, 
and at the eml of the year 110 shall be entitled to w1mtever 
t. improvements" shall have been made by him on the 
portion of land so allotted to him. 
B (1). If his family have land of their own and do nut 
allot to him an equivalent therein during the residue of the 
year, land must be procured for him from a third party 
dm-iug the period, amI his family pay the rent of it for him, 
and all the "improvements" which he shall have eflèeted 
on the land at the end of the year must be purchased by 
the family fur him. 

.. I'ase 131. 



(2). If the family have no land, they must give him in 
time and laòour an equivalent to the value of his land 
during the residue of the year, and he must in this case 
himself bUJT in what in the preceding case the family were 
bound to purchase for him. 
(3). If his family offer him a compensation out of their 
lands, and he refuse it, they are bound to compensate him 
in time and labour equimlent to the value of the land for 
the resiùue of the year, and he loses all right to the im- 
The difficulty in understanding this passage arises specially 
frolll the mode in which the rights of third parties are 
made apparently to depend upon the dealings between the 
Owner and his family and as was before &tated this explan- 
ation is very uncertain and not perh'lps more than conjec- 
tural in its details. t 
Some commentator upon this passage, fortunately for us, 
has had his attention directed to the question as to the 
rights to the "erections" upon the land, anù not Vel'y 
logically proceeds to explain the rules on this subject as 
between landlords and tenants in the modern sense of th(: 
term. From this passage we conclude that there were two 
modes of letting land, viz., for an indefinite term, and for a 
fixed period, but that in both cases the lessor could resume 
possession, and that the fact of the period of the holding 
being ascertained bound the tenant and not the landlord. 
The terms "\\ith necessity" and "without necessity" 
in this passage, applied to the act of either landlord or 
tenant in determining the tenancy, arc the same as arc 
used in reference to wrongful acts in the other portions of 
these laws, and in such passages they have been translated 
as "intentional" and "unintentional ;" the meaning of the 
word" necessary" as qualifying an act may be taken to lJe 

· See the explanation of this passage given at page 13;;. 
t The subsequent commentator 5ees tbe difficulty of explaining t1,ese rules amI 
suggests the following key to their meaning, viz :--" It is the lant1 of another man 
that he ha5 in tbis case let out on hire" (p. 13;;); tbat is, wllcn tbe family 
procure land from a thir,) puty for the uSe of a "de5ertcr n thc
' (I{'cup
' thl' 
I)ouble po
ilion of tcnant anù lamUort1. 



that the act III question was the natural result of the 
circumstances in which thc person who did it was then 
placed; thus a "killing with necessity" would inelude 
justifiaUe homicide or mansL'mghter, and a "kjJling wWwut 
necessity" would be equivalent to our term munier, meaning 
the slaying of another wrongfully and" with malice aÎore- 
thought;" the best translation of these terms in relation 
to thc determination of a tcnancy would seem to be" reason- 
ably" and "unreasonably," a qualification of an act not 
very logical, and probably expressing the general opinion of 
the neighbourhood upon the moral aspect of the transaction. 
The rulcs laid down 011 this subject are as follows :- 
A. If the letting be for an uncertain period, in all case's 
the tenant, if he Iletcrmine the tenancy, leaves the erections 
IJchind him; but if the landlord determine the tenancy for 
any rcason whatsoever, the tenant may carry away the 
erections with him. 
n (1). If the letting be for a term certain, on the e""l{piration 
of the term, the tenant must leave the erections behind 
(2). If the tenant determine (surrender) the tenancy for rea- 
sonablecause, the value of his erections is apportioned between 
(having reference to) "time and labour;" but, if without 
reasonable cause, he must leave them behind. 
(3). If the lnndlord, even on the last day, unreasonably dc- 
termine the tenancy, the tenant may remove 11Ïs erections; 
but if reasonably, there is a division of their value having 
reference to time and labour. 
c. If the lands ha\"e been let for agricultural purposes, with 
all agreement to manure aud dung them, and a period has been 
fixed fur the determination of the tenancy, the case follows 
the ordinary rule; but if no period }Jas bccn fixed, it sllalJ, 
nevertheless, be considered as a tenaney for a fixed period- 
such period to be ascertained by the award of " the neigh- 
bours ;" the grounds upon which it would proceed may be 
gathered fr0m the commentary, at page 137. "If he has 
specified no particular time between them at all, the land 
shall belong to the 'man without' (i,e., the tenant, as con- 



trasted with the owner), until the time of his manure or 
dung has heen taken out of it." 
D. If the letting he for grazing, anù "for forming erec- 
tions" (with a covenant to erect buildings), the rent is "one- 
third of every animal on which there is increase;" but if 
fur grazing only, every seventh cow is left for payment of 
the rent, but thc tenant is allowed for every seven cows to 
pasturc without further payment, in adJition to every sevPII 
cows, as many shcep as were consiJered the equivalent of a 
E. If the tenant has agreed not to break up the land, and 
has ploughcJ it in violation of his agreement, the" tillage 
and secd" are forfeited, and he pays five" seds" as damages; 
hut he can always hreak up the land if there was no agree- 
ment to the contrary_ 
F. Farm huilJings found upon the land by the tenant, 
are, at the determination of the tenancy, to be treated as 
having been erected hy him.. 
Some information as to the rent of land may be ohtaineJ 

.. Page 133. The.e equitable doctrines applied onl)" to free contractual tenant.. 
The uu/ree customary tenants" ere' ery differentl)" treated. 
" The free triLut(.., as I have heard, 
Are they "hi
h we ha\e aoon mentioned; 
Of the noble trihes these are dne, 
\\"ho are upon lands external [to the mcn.allaud.]. 
.. The unfree triLes,-a con(lition not opprc-si \'C, 
The)" are iu his (the kinA'"'] o"n laud. ; 
Sen Hc rent by them, it is the truth, 
I< to be supplie!1 to the palaces of the chief king. 
"The tribute \\ hich is due of t he<e 
[I 'J i. of fire Lote and wood; 
[al-o] the rene" ing of hi. eloaJ.s, constant the practice, 
A triLute in "a,hing and iu cleaning. 
" This i. due of the Lcst part of them 
Hun and purple of fine strength, 
Red thread, "hite wnol, I \\ ill not conceal it, 
Yellow blaan and Linnean. 
.. From the unfi'ee trihu ojïJnoll
IVhoß!/ ,Ûlh the renlJrom th" lod, 
Tu:ice lU much iø due 
As theyllGd cal1"ied off fi-om tile;.' fatherland. ' 
k of Ri:;T.ts," p. 223-4. 



from an earlier passage in this tract dealing with the mode 
in which land-trespasses are cstimated; the answer which 
it gives to this question is as follows :-" From its rents; if 
it be winter grass that is injured, two-thirds of its rent is 
thc fine fOI. the trespass; if summcr grass, it; the fine, is one- 
third."- On this passage the gloss says :-" Two-thirds of 
the fair rent,O/' l)j'ice that is lJaid for its' feis '-trcspass 
and 'airlim '-trespass is what is pnid for its 'airlim'- 
trespass only, for it is four sacks that are lJaÙl for its' feis'- 
trespass, and two sacks for its 'airlim '-trespass. Two- 
thirds of the rcnt which is paid for a" Tir-Cumhaile" of 
the best land to the end of three quarters of a YC(t1' is what 
is due for' feig'-trespass in a meadow of winter grass-land 
over a full fcnce, i.e., three 'screpalls' for the three quar- 
ters; i.e., two 'screpalls' for 'feis '-trespass in winter, 
and one' screpall' for' feis '-trcRpass in summer, and this 
is the third of the three ' scrcpalls.'t 
Those who are desirous to work out qucstions of thi::; 
nature, are referred to the Tract entitlcd "Divisions of 
Land," containcd in this volume, in which the measures of 
land are explained, and the addition or diminution in the 
value of land produced by the presence or absence of 
various qualities. 
The letting of land, as eXplained in this tract, was car- 
ried on upon essentially mercantile and equitable principles, 
and was wholly unconnected with any feudal tenure. 
Sir H. S. Maine has successfully shown that the feudal 
relation of Lord and Vassal among the Irish (so far as it was 
developed) rested upon the hiring out to the less wealthy 
classes of cattle and not of land. The benefice which t}JC 
tenant received as the consideration of his services, must l
been of value, and not otlwrwise easily attainable; and Sir 
H. S. Maine therefore points out that in the earlier stages of 
society there was a superabundance of land in proportion to 
the amount of cattle available for cultivation and manure, and 
that what the vassal desired and obtained was not land to 
till or pasture his cat.tle upon, but cattle for the purpose ()f 

'" Page !J.. 

t Page !J,. 



utilising his otherwise va1ueless lands. This tract, however, 
exhibits to us a condition of society altogether different from 
that in which the ' saer' and' daer '-stock tenancy took their 
rise. 'Ye find tenants paying very substantial rent under 
grazing leases, tenants willing to expend money in " erec- 
tions," and manuring their holdings, and also that the 
custom of tenants hiking land for agricultural and grazing 
purpose, had existed sufficiently long for the development 
of a custom determining the duration an!l incidents of the 
tenancies, and the respective rights of landlord and tenant 
as to future and permanent improvemcnts. The manifest 
ineonsistcncy between cattle-tenure and the rules laid 
down in this tract on the relation of landlord and tenant, is 
one of the ruany proofs of the social changes which must 
have occurred between the date at which the older Celtic 
customs were in force, as being in accordance with, and 
springing from, the daily needs of an existing society, and 
the period when the latter and speculative commentaricR 
were composed; and, therefore, of the impossibility of ex- 
tracting anyone uniform system of jmi,;prudence from the 
mass of Brehon Law Tracts of unknown authorship and un- 
certain date. 
The contents of this tract are sufficient to put an end, 
once and for ever, to an assertion, which seems to lmvc 
become an axiom adopted by all authors on Irish history and 
antiquities, and which has also gained considerable political 
notoriety, namely, that the ancient Irish had not attained 
to the idea of exclusive ownership in land, and that all the 
land, until the influence of English law prevailed, was con. 
sidered as the joint property of the tribe or fan1ily. It is 
evident that the several and individual ownership of land 
was perfectly familiar to the Irish lawyers, and that the 
most advanced applications oÎ this doctrine, such as hiring 
of land for limited periods and under specific covenants, and 
also the doctrine of servitudes, were not unknown. The 
question of importance upon this branch of I1Ìsh antiquities, 
is not whether several property in laml was known to the 
Irish Brehons, but what was the proportion which, in the 



historical period, the lands held by the hody of the tribe 
bore to those appropriated to individual and separate owners. 
III an introduction, such as the present, many interesting, 
although incidental, statements, which are of mueh antiqua- 
rian value, must necessarily be left unnoticed. 
None of the BrellOn tracts gives more complete materials 
for estimating the merits amI demerits of thc early Irish 
lawyers tlJaIl docs the present. This may bc attributccl to 
the f.1.ct that thc work in question, being probably of a late 
date, contained few difficuUies in its construction, or re- 
ference!'! to ancient and antiquateù customs. The glosscs 
prove that the subsequent COlJlJnent,ator felt no difficulty in 
understamling the original text. Thc subject matter was 
also practical in its nature, and remarkably adapted for the 
mode in which the Breholl school dealt with legal subjectf'. 
In despite of a style singularly wearisome and confused, it 
is impossible not to oLserve that they have worked up into 
a consistent form a mass of local and varying customs; 
that they lJave laitl1101J of important legal principles, though 
in an uncertain and illogical fashion; and that in the selec- 
tion of their rules they have exhibited an honest and 
equitable spirit; on the other hand, this tract illustrates 
their incapacity to arrive at legal abstract propositions, and 
thü extreme indefiniteness or mistiness of expression to which 
they were habituated; their prevailing error of mistaking 
arithmetic conclusions for definite propositious; and, lastly, 
their predclection to wander away from the practical appli- 
cation of their rules into the discussion of imaginary and 
fimtastic cases, which were elaborated in the nature of 
scholastic speculations. The wisdom, for which thc Brehon 
la.wyers obtained sUt:h undeserved credit, rested upon the 
feeblest, not the most important, portion of their work. The 
vulgar of the day may have listened with amazement and 
admiration to discussions as to the various liabilities of 
hens, or the trespasses of dogs; and most of their modern 
translators anù students, confessedly ignorant of jurispru- 
dence. seem to have been struck with astonishment at these 
dialectic performances; but the test of the merit of every 



legal school is its success in the application of its scientific 
conclusions to the practical affh,irs of life. That the Brehon 
lawyers reduced the mass of customary rules into a tolerably 
definite form, and contrived to base their doctrines upon a 
foundation more or less logical, and that, although possessing 
no original jurisdiction, by the general equity of their 
decisions, they succeeded in establishing their judicial 
power, are merits which the cursory student of the present 
day, repelled by the form of their works, is perhaps too slow 
1::> admit. 

The culture of bees in the middle ages possessed an 
importance which, in our modern days, it has altogether 
lost. Until the introduction of sugar into 'Western Europe 
at so cheap a rate as to admit of being considered an article 
of ordinary use, honey wa"! largely employed as the only 
means of sweetening the food; and almost until our own 
days the consumption of wax for candle was very extensive. 
At whatever date the sugar-cane was first cultivated in 
Europe, (the western nations first became acquainted "ith 
it shortly after the date of the first crusade), the extensi\-e 
use uf thi.s article in Ireland cannot have arisen before the 
introduction of West Indian sugar at the enJ of the lüth 
century, up to which date the cultivation of bees must 
have continued to bc a matter of considerahle importance 
in IrelanJ. 
The import.:'mce of hee-culture in IrelanJ is proved 
by the well-known legend relative to their introduction 
into tho island. This is printed in Colgan's" Acta Sanc- 
torum," under the date of the 13th of February, the feast of 
81. Dominicus, or 
lodonlllicus. As the book is not easily 
accessible, the passage is here transcribed :-" Narratur 
ibidem et aliud de ipso 8. l\lodomnico seu Dominico 
miraculum vere l>rodigiosum, universæ patriæ continuâ 
veritate proficium, et perenni famâ viro sancto gloriosum. 
Traditur enim primus esse, qui vel apes absolute, vel 



saltern certi generis apes in Hiberniam transvexerit; unde 
magna deinceps in illo regno, quå ante carnit, apum ct 
melIis allUndantia remansit. Sed quia hæe periodus, ut 
fahulosa, a duræ ccrvicis hereticis irridetur, et quihusdem 
cmunctrn naris Catholicis tanquam parum fundata minimé 
arridcat, plaeuit plures, eosque graves et vetustos, ejus 
proùucere testes. Cum S. 
Iodomnieus, discipulus sancti 
Patris (S. Davidis) ad Hebcrniam revcrteretur, et navem 
ad transfretandum ascenderet, ecce omnis multitudo apum 
tcrræ illius, unde exierat, consequens cum, in navi cum eo 
cOllsedit. Ipse enim examiniLus arum nutriendis atque 
servandis, diligentem CUI'am de Patris David mandato 
dabat, ut indigentibus aliqmt ciba suavioris oblectamenti 
ministraret. Discipulus vcro nolens tanto beneficio fratres 
deframlare, Ïtel'um ad Patris presentiam rcdiit, sequente 
tam en eum turhâ arum, quæ ad alvearia propria prorexerunt. 
Cum secunda ,alcfaceret fratribus, ct viam suam carperet, 
ecce apes, ut prius, cum insequuntur; quod cum videret, 
iternm ad fratres revertitur; et similiter emn apes omnes 
concomitantur. CUIll tertift vice hoc factum itcrassent, et 
vir Dei nullatcnus velIeL eas a fratribus abducere, cum 
omnium fratrulll benedictionc et Patris David, lieentialll 
transfretalldi cum apibus accepit; apes quoque S. David 
bencdicens, ait; terram, ad quam properati::;, vestro abundet 
semine, nee unquam deficiat vestrum inibi semen vel 
germer' nostra autem civitas a voLis in perpetuum im- 
munis, ICe ultra semen vestrum in eâ l'xerescat. Quod 
usque in prcsens tempus completum es::;e ccrnimus; nam 
si aliundc in illam civitatem deferantur, nequttquam durare 
po::ösunt. Hibernia autcm insula, in quâ usque tunc apes 
vivere nequcLant, postea magnâ melIi::; et apmll fertilitate 
110rebat. Quod cnim ibi apes autea vivere nequebant, ex 
hoc colIigitur, qnoll si pulnres vel lapilli de Hiberniâ inter 
apes aliarum terrarum projicerentur, fugientes tanquam 
nocivam devitahunt. 
"Hujus historiæ veritatem confirmat nomcn loci, quo 
apes illæ in Hibcrniam derectæ primo collocatæ sunt, ab 
ipso eventu dcsumptum; is cnim locus in regiollc Fingalliæ 



sive comitatu Dubliniensi situs, Lann-lJeaclwÏ1'c, id est, 
Ecclesia Apiarii adpellatur, &c.". 
The present tract must he considered as an exercise in 
which the question of the ownership of bees, their swarms, 
and their honey, is selected as a subject for dialectic 
suhtility. From the pa.<;::;ages in the preceding tract dealing 
with bee trespasses, and incidental passages in the present, 
it is evident that questions rela.ting to the ownership of 
bees were, in the ordinary course of life, dcalt with on much 
less refined principles than are here suggested; hut the 
present tract is valuable as illustrating the modes of thought, 
and the logical abilities of the Irish lawyers. For the 
purpose of raising all possible questions as to ownership and 
possession, no subject could have been more ingeniously 
selecte(l than that of the rights to hees and their produce; 
and upon this point some few obselTations are necessary. 
The ownership of bees raises at once the question ufwhat 
is meant by possession. This term is generally defined as 
expressing the simple notion of a physical capacity to deal 
with a thing as we like, to the exclusion of everybody else, 
and the possession continues, even without pIlysil:al cont.:'1.ct, 
if the physical force to retake the object can be reproduced 
at will. 
The most remarkable illustrations of the legal conception 
of possession arise in the consideration of the possession of 
live animals. The animals which ordinarily exist in a 
domesticated state, such as cows and horses, hardly differ 

.. The good father, who deals 80 hardly with thick headed heretics and 
sceptical Catholics, is howe,'er himself embarrassed by eyidence as to the e,<istence 
of bees before the date of SI. lIIo{lomnicus: .. Quod autem in IIiberniû ante 
sanctnm hunc Dominicum natni:1 apes et mella fnerint constat ex irrcfragabiJi 
testimonià rpgulæ S. Ailbci, in <!uà num. 37 ita Icgitur, '{'um sidenl ad mcn,am, 
adferantur herbæ, sive radices, aquâ lot." in mnndis scalellis; item poma, cen'i,ia, 
el ex alnario mellis ad latitudinem pollicis, id est, aliquod ['I\"i: S. aulem 
Ailbeus floruit in I1iberniâ simul cum S Patricia, et ali(IUol etiam annis ante ejus 
adventum, sive ante annum 431. Ad auctorilates S. Ængus,ii el aliorum qui 
dicunt S. Dominicum pnmmn fuisse, qui apes in I1iberniam attulerat, dicendum 
hoc esse intelligendum de c,rto genere lJpum: sunt enim in Hiberniû el don" eslicæ 
el silvestres, ac diyersi coloris el generis apes; præcipuarum autcm ex his genus 
et semen ,'iJetur S. Duminicus prilIlus advexisqe." (Vita: Sanctol"Um, p. 328, 
n. j -3.) The legend therefore affords no mcans of fixing thc date of this tract. 



from other property. Animals, on the other band, which are 
in a wild state, arc only in our possession so long as they 
are so completely in our power that we can immediately 
lay hold of them. The meaning of the distinction is, that 
the tame animal will naturally, amI of itself, remain within 
the possession of the owner; the wild animal will as cer- 
tainly attempt to escape, and will most probably succeed in 
doing so. 
"T e do not possess the fish in a river, although the several 
right of fishing belongs to ns; but we do possess fish when 
once they are placed in a receptacle, whencp we can at any 
time take them. According to the civil law, the ownership 
of wila animals is founded upon the fact of capture, and 
exists only so fitI' as they are actually or constructively in 
rc><traint. The Institutes are clear upon this point :-" Fera
i;;itur bestiæ, et volucres, et pisces, et omnia animalia, quæ 
mari, crelo, et terrâ nascuntur, :simul atqne ab aliq'110 capta 
fuerint, jure gentium st.<ltim mius esse incipiunt. Quod 
enim ante nullius est, id naturali ratione conceditur, 'i1CC 
intm'cst, {cms bcstins ct rolncl"es 1dl"U1n in suo flWdo qu is 
capi.ut, ctn in alieno.". 
The ownership of the locus in quo of the capture is here 
cntirely excluded from the consideration of the vesting 
of ownership. 
This law has been in Englaml very considerably modified, 
by reason of the exclusive privileges generally conceded to 
owners of land. There is not the least difficulty in a man 
having possession of that of which he is not the owner, and 
it was consistent with the idea, which attaches to our word 
"close," to treat the person entitled to the possession of 
inclosed land as in possession of all the game \\ hich at any 
time happen to be there. It was, therefore, obviously cor- 
rect to decide that, when a trespasser kill
 game upon the 
land in my possession, the game is mine. It is, however, 
very difficult to apply these principles to the case of bees; 
the hives, the boney in them, and the bees in the hives, are 
manifestly in the possession of the owner, but as to the bees 
.. lust., Lib. ii., Tit. I, De occupatione fer.mull. 



who flyaway or s\\ arm uut, he has no mpans of identify- 
ing or recapturing thcm, unless by close and illlme
diate pursuit; bees which lea\-e the hive are in the same 
position a<; wild animal..; which escape from their cage- In 
the case of wild bces, according to the Ruman Law, the 
owner of the soil would have neither property nor possession 
until he physically possessed himself of their nest and 
honey; in this latter case, according to the geIwral principles 
of English lltw, the possessor of the land should have, in 
right of such possession, a possession in the bees and their 
nests upon his land, and he alone, by actually spcuring 
them, should become their owner. The trespasser who 
secured a swarm or bees' nest upon the land of another, had, 
under the civil law, both property and possession; under 
the English law he should have the possession, but the pro- 
perty should vest in the Owner of the land_ The law as to 
bees is thus laid down in the Roman law :-" Apium quoque 
fera natura est. Haque apes, quæ in arbore tuâ censederint, 
antequam-a te in alveo incluJantur, non magis tuæ intelli- 
guntur esse, quam volucres, quæ in arbore tuâ nidum 
fccerint. Ideoque si alius eas incluserit dominus eorum erit. 
Favos quoque si quos effecerint, eximere quilibet p(.test. 
Plane integrâ re, si prævideris ingredientem fundum tuum, 
poteris cum jure prohibere ne ingrediatur. Examen quoque, 
quod ex alveo tuo exvolaverit, eousque intelligitur esse 
tuum, donee in conspectu tuo est, nec difficilis persecutio 
ejus est, alioquin occupantis est."'" 
Bracton, as might be expected, adopts the passage of the 
Institutes; but in quoting his authority, Blackstone adds 
the following observations :-" But it hath been also said that 
with us the only ownership in bees is 1'atione soli; and the 
charter of the forest, which allows every freeman to be en- 
titled to the honey found within his own woods, affords 
great countenance to this doctrine, that a qualified property 
may be had in bees, on consideration of the property of the 

oil whereon they are found."t 

* lust., Lib. ii., Tit. 1, De apibus. 
t Black. Corn. B. II., P. II., Ch.lp. 1. 


exl vi 


The mode in which the ownership of bees, their honey, 
and their swarms, is discussed in the present tract, and the 
principles applied by its authors, are a very fair test of the 
extent to which the Brehon Lawyers were acquainted with, 
and influenced by, the Civil Law, of which the rule of 
ownership rpsting on possession was one of the primary 
The rights to the produce and swarms of a hive of bees 
upon the farm of any proprietor are, according to the theory 
of the authors of the present tract, founded upon an implied 
contract between him and the adjoining owners of land. 
The holding of the owner of the bees is assumed by them to 
be square, or at lea.<;t four sided, and each of the sicles to be 
l11eare<l by the lands of a distant owner. The bees are sup- 
posed to enter into and gather honey on the four adjoining 
farms, the owners of which, by reason of the sustenance thus 
afforded to the bees, acquire definite rights in their increa..,e 
and produce. The unpractical nature ofthis treatise is shown 
by the fact that the author believed that bees did not breed, 
or throw off swarms, until the third year, awl it is upon 
this assumption that their calculations are based. They 
allow the hive what i:s styled, " three years of exemption, 
one year for their production, one year 'while they are 
few,''' and the year of their breeding, which must mean 
the year of their tirst swarming. During this period the 
adjoining owners have no right to the swarms, but only to 
a certain definite proportion of the honey produced. Four 
vessels of different sizes are assumed as the measure of the 
quantity of the honey produced, and these vessels are them- 
selves arranged by reference to the size of cattle at different 
periods of their growth, (1) the milch cow vessel, which 
when full a man of ordinary strength coukl raise to his 
knee, (2) a "samlwil:ic" heifer vessel, which a man could 
mise to his navel, (3) a "colpach" heifer vessel, which a 
man could raise as high as his loins (or wai
t), and (4) a 
" dai1't" heifer vessel, which a man could raise over his 
head; the several proportions out of thcse respective quan- 
tities of honey to which the adjoining owners were (or per- 



haps each of them was) entitled, was one-half, one-third, one- 
fourth, and one-fifth of an esera, or drinking cup; this was 
the amount fixed by the onlinary rule, but there were also 
contingent claims for a supply uf honey in the case of an 
entertainment to a person of rank, or upon the occasion of 
sickness. The swarms of the third year must be assumed 
to have belonged to the owner of the hive, for upon the 
expiration of the three years, "the period of exemption," 
the four adjoining owners became each entitled to a swarm 
out of thc hive. III the distIibution of the swarms the 
author assumes that bees thro'IV out three swarms in the 
year; the first assumeò to be the best, the second swarm 
also of good quality, and a third inferior swarm, described 
as the "m,craig!w" swarm. Three only of the adjuining 
proprietors could get their swarm in the third year, and the 
fourth had to wait for the foHowing season, when he was 
entitlcd to the first amI best swarm of the year. 
The lands in question were assumed to hear the same 
relation to each other as the divisions of the geiHine, and 
they We1"e entitleù to their a rotation founded upon 
the supposed relationship existing between these four classes. 
As the number of the geilfine divisions were four, and that 
of the lands, inclusive of the original farm, entitled to swarms, 
was five, the theory could not be completely carried out. 
The original f.'lrm, which obtained the swarm of the thirù 
year, must have been considered as the geilfine class ;. the 
other lands were classeù with reference to the pruximity of 
the hive, and the degree to which the bees would, therefore, 
be supposed to resort to it for their honey; the nearest land 
was described as the "deirbfine" land; the next nearest 
must have been the "iarfine," and the thirJ the "innfine." 
The rcmaining adjoining farm could not have had any name 
derived from the geilfi.n
 relation, but must ha"e been intro- 
duced as a consequence of the a5sumption that the original 
farm was a square. That the original farm was the geilfine 
faI'ill foJIows from the fact tbat the second was the deirbh- 
fine, as othm'wise the geilfine must h
we been postponed to 

. See Gloss, page I í8, line 22. 


cxl viii 


two remaining classeH, or introduced after the deirbhfine ; 
but the order of the four classes must be observed, which is 
a matter of importance in considering a passage in the next 
tract in this volume dealing with the rights to water. 
The owners of the adjoining lands were Lound to set a 
watch" in the bright times, when the bees send out a 8warm," 
and, if a swarm escaped tluough their negligence, they 
" shall support the bees until the end of another year," that 
is, the further distribution of swarms was adjourned to the 
next season. The case of swarms, which were nut allot.ted 
to, and taken possession of by, one of the four adjoining 
owners, is next discussed; if a swarm, not the property of 
one of the adjoining uwners, swarmed within the farm of the 
owner of the llive, no question could arise; a rule determining 
the ownership of a swarm could only arise, wlll'n it had left 
the farm of the original owner, and settled upon the lands of 
a third party. For the purpose of deciding this question our 
author refers to the analogous case of the rights to the fruit 
of a tree, bclO1lging to one person, but planted in and grow- 
ing out of the land of another.- Such a question is foreign 
to any European 8ystem of law, but it frequently arises in 
the Courts of Ceylon, where not only the owners of the tree 
are different, but even the tree and its produce are held by 
many persons in joint, and necessarily undivided, owner- 
ship. It is easy to understand how such a question might 
arise in a country such as Ceylon, where a farm uf:\ed for the 
cultivation of large trees, such as a cocoa-nut plantation or 
mango-grove, has, in the course of several generations, been 
split up into innumerable shares among the descendants of 
the original proprietor, but, considering the small size and 
insignificant value uf thc fruit trees in Ireland at the date 
of this tract, and the anundance of land, it is difficult to 
believe that the case is aught but imaginary, unless wc 
a.<;sume thc existence of the letting of land for garden pur- 
poses, with a custonuuy rent reserved out of the produce. 
The general rule on this subject was that the bottom (the 
land) was entitled to the fruit of the top (the tree) every 

. ra;;
 ] G7. 

. t Page JG



fuurth year, and that in the other three years it was divided 
iutu t\\ 0 parts between the respecti ve owners; the text then 
refers to the contingency of bees swarming upon such a 
tree, and treats the swarm as if it were portion of the natural 
produce of the tree itself. The general rule as to such 
swarms of unclaimed bees is statediu the commentarythus:- 
"It ü to the land out of which it (the tree) grows 
originally, that its produce belongs every fourth year; until 
(then 1) the produce of the bees is divided into two partR to 
the end of three years between the owner of the bottom of 
the tree and the owner of the top, and its produce every 
fourth rear is due to the owner of the bottom, in the same 
way as the owner of the top gets the produce of the t.ree 
eYCry fourth year, so the owner of the bottom of the trees 
obt.ains the produce of the bees every fourth year. This is 
when the original owner of the bees is not known."" This 
rule refers to the divisiun of the ownership of a stray swarm 
between the owners of the land and of the tree. The r
as to swarms, the o\Vner
hip of which was either admitted 
or asserted, is stated subsequently in the commentary, and 
it is to be remarked that in the decision of such questions, 
two additional elements are introduced, the greater or less 
certainty of the owner",hip of the swarm, and the rank of 
the owner of the tree. 
(1.) ".As to known bees in the trunk of the tree of a noble 
( nemedh,' two-thirds of thei r produce a'i'e due to the owner 
of the tree, and one-third to the owner of the bees, to the 
end of three years, and they (the becs) are the property of the 
owner of the tree from that out. 
(2.) ".ils to doubtful bees in the trunk of tÌJ.e tree ofa noble 
(nemedh; three-quarters of thei1' prodltce (lI'e duæ to the 
owner of the tree, and one-fourth to the dOltbtful owner of 
the bees, to the end of three years, and they belong to the 
owner of the tree from that out. 
(3.) ".A.s to the kno" n bees in the top of the tree of a 
noble < nemedh,' one-third of theil' produce Ù3 due to the 

· P. 171. The punctuation of this pas
age has been altered from thBt in the 



owner of the tree, and two-thir(h to the owner of the bees, 
to the end of a year, and they belong excZLLS'iæZy to the 
original owner of the bees from that out. 
(4.) "As to duubtful bees in the top of the tree of a noble 
< nemedh,' one-half ot their pl'Odl.lce is due to the owner of 
the tree, and one half to the owner of the bees, to the end of 
a year, and they belong to the owner of the bees from that 
out; or, accOi'ding to others, it is to the owner of the tree 
they belong.- 
(5.) <.As to known bees in the trunk of the tree of an 
humble < nemedh,' one-half of their In'odl.lce is d-ue to the 
owner of the tree, and one-half to the owner of the bees, to 
the end of three years, and they belong to the 0\\ I
er of the 
tree from that out. 
(6.) "As to doubtful bees in the trunk of the tree of an 
humble < nemedh,' one-half their produce and one-eighth go 
to the owner of the tree, and one-half except, one-eighth to 
the owner of the bees, to the end of three years, and they are 
the property of the owner of the tree from that out."t 
The two further rules which should correspond to rules 3 
and 4, are omitted in this part of the commentary, but in a 
subsequent passage the further rule occurs :t-"As tv known 
bees in the top of the tree of an humble < nemedh,' the fourth 
portion oj their produce belongs to the owner of the tree, 
and three-fourths to the original owner of the bees, to the end 
of a year, and they are the property of the owner of the 
bees from that out."t 
There is a passage in the original text which puts the 
rights of the "nemedh" -pelson upon an entirely different 
footing, and classes a swarm of bees as one of the seven 
fugitives not entitled to the protection of his house, and 
therefore in this case the "nemedh" -person, being obliged 
to yield up the fugitives to the pursuing 0\\ ner, receives but 
one-third of one year's produce as a gratuity. This passage 
is quite inconsistent \\ ith the rest of the text, and the de- 
tailed rules of the commentary, and proves how much <Jf the 

· This rule is vnriously given in page 189. 
t Page 183. 
 Page 18



reguJations laid down in this tract are purely dialectic, and 
what different conclusions may be arrived at by shifting the 
point of view from which the question is regarded. 
The question'3 are then discu"sed which deal with the 
conflicting rights of the man who finds a btmy swarm, and 
the owner of the land on which the swann is found; these 
may be summarised as follows :- 
(a.) If the swarm is found in a green, that is, the open 
grassland immediately bUTI"ounding an house, one-fourth of 
<Jne year's produce to the finder, and three-fourths to the 
owner of the house. 
(b.) If in a tree in a green, if the bees have been there a 
year, one-half to the finder, and one-half to the owner of the 
(c.) If in the land between the green and the waste, one- 
third to the finder, and two-thirds to the owner of the land. 
(d.) If in waste unappropriated land (land not separate 
private property), the finder takes all, subject to a claim by 
the chief, if it be public land of a lay-tribe, or by the 
church, if it be public land of a cleric-tribe to " one-third of 
every third." 
The position of the" daa," and" sae1." -tenants, and their 
personal connection with a superior, is marked by the rule 
that " daa "-tenants of a church give oyer to the church 
one-third of their finding; "d(ler" -tenants of a chief give to 
their chief one-third, except in the æse of bees found in the 
"fu:ite land, and in that æse one-ninth; the "saer" -tenant 
of the church gin
s 0\ er one-fourtb, except in tbe æse of 
bees found in the waste land, and in this case one-twelfth; 
the" saer" -tenant of a chief gives no portion to the chief. Two 
other subjects are discu
ed in the tract, but neither of them 
are of such importance as to deserve a special analysis. The 
first is with reference to injuries inflicted by bee
. The mode 
in which this question is considered i" much less detailed than 
in the text and commentary of the Book {)f Aicill, and the 
matter is referred to the judgement passed upon the occasion 
of the bleeding of Congal Caecb; the passage referred to in 
the original text is as follows :-" It happened on a certain 



day that I was left alone in the garden, without anyone to 
take care of me, and the little hees of the garden rose up 
with the heat of the sun, and one of them put its poisonous 
venom in one of my eyes, so that my eye became awry, 
for which I have been namcd Congal Claen.". It may 
be reasonalJly conjectured that the tale of Congal Claen 
had rendered the question of damages arising from the sting 
of a bee a favourite subject for legal speculation.t 
In the latter portion of the tract are considered the damages 
payable on account of the stealing of a hive, which only 
deserve notice as proving that property in the bees when 
confined in an artificial nest was recogniseù by these lawyers. 
We are no,,' in a position to considc'I" the mode in which the 
ownership of bees, their honey, and their 8warms,are discu8se(1 
in the present treatise. \Vhat is most obvious is the absence 
of any general principle applicable to the consiùeration of the 
questions rai8ed. The rights of adjoining owners are referred 
to a state of things purely imaginary, viz., the supposition 
that every farm is meared by four neighbouring farms, which 
are the nearest to the premises in question, an assumption 
geometrically impossible; the consiùeration of the rights uf 
the parties stawling in this impossible relation is then con- 
sidered upon the assumption of a fact actually incorrect, 
.. The Battle of lIragh Rath, p. 35. 
t Ancient law-givers appear to have entertained 8erious apprehensions of the 
injuries which might be inflicted b
' bees, of which the fullowing examples 
.. Si quis apiaria in civitate, aut in vi\1â forsitan eonstru,<erit, et alii rlampnum 
intulerit, statim moneatur, ut eas iu abditis locis tran
ferre debeat, ne furte in eorlem 
loco hominibus aut animalibus dalllpnum inferraut. Et qui hæe præcepta aut 
testationem nep;lexerit, et dampnum suffocationis in quarlrupedes intulerit, quod 
mortuum fuerit, duplum re<tituat: quod vero debilitatum, ille obtineat, et simile 
,lampno reddat: et pro judicis contestatione, quam audire neglexit, v solidos 
eoaetus exsolvat."-" Leges JI"isegothur",,.," Lib. viii, tet. vi., 2. 
"Apes si uecidunt hominem, ipsa
 quoque occidi fcstinanter oportet; mel 
tamen"expendatur in medicinam et in aliis neeessariis."-" Tlleod.," Pocn. xxxi., 
"Apes si occiderint Rominem, statim oecidantur, antequam ad me1 perveniant, 
ita saltem ut non per noetem ibi rc,tent; et mel quod fecerint eomedatur."-- 
" Ecgb." Coni. 3G. 
.. Apes si aliquem oeciderint, statim oC"d,lantur. et me! quod aulpa fcperint 
f'dalur."-" Frtjb.' Pren., Lib. iv., s. :lin" 



viz., that bees do not swarm until the third year; and the 
distribution of their swarms i., regulated by reference to the 
false analogy of the divisions of the family in such a manner 
as to im olve an arithmetical error. In considering the 
ownership of swarms not included in the preceding rules, the 
author fails to grasp the clear rule of the civil law, that 
ownership depends upon the reduction into possession, and 
the equally clear principle of the English law that a tres- 
passer cannot take any a(h-antage arising from his 0\\ n 
wrong. The mode in which our author proceeded was this :- 
he observed that on all 
uch occasions a contest as to the 
ownership arose between certain definite parties, the finùer 
of the bees, the original owner of the bees, and the owner of 
the land in which the bees had swarmed; he never applied 
any general principle to the rights of any of them, but 
finding them, or at lea..,t two of them, in conflict as to 
the ownership, he admitted that all had rights, and strove 
to regulate their rights in an arithmetical form. The 
analogy upon which he at first proceeded, that of a tree 
planted by one in the land of another, he after a time 
abandons, and the subsequent statements are referable 
to analogies, which he has not disclosed. There is an 
entire absence of any scientific mode of thought, but the 
a<!Count between the various parties is taken, having refer- 
ence to the circumstances in the case, which would strike 
the mind of an unprofessional arbitrator when attempting 
to make up the quarrel on ground,; calculated to satisfy the 
contending parties; howe,.er long and apparently elaborate 
the treatise may be, it does not, except in the detail and 
elaboration of its numerical calculations, rise over the level 
of ordinary ancient regulations upon the subject. 
The \V elsh law dealt with the subject in the same, though in 
a more prcfunctory manner. "On whatever boundary a wild 
swarm is found, the law says that it is right for the owner 
to hew the tree on each side; and he on whose land the 
tree may fall, is to have the swarm i". and again, " 'Vhúever 

· \Ilci
nt Lß"g of "-alc<, Y 01. I., p. 9ï. 



shall find a swann of wild bees is to have a penny or the 
wax; and the owner of the land is to have the swarm."if. 
No clearer example can be desired of the essential differ- 
ence between the Celtic mode of thought, apparently clear, really indefinite, when dealing with a practical question, 
and the hard and logical habits of thought of the Norman 
lawyers (who were equally ignorant of the civil law), than 
the following enactment of the Assise of Jerusalem upon 
the subject of bees :_U Sel avien che per avcntura Ie ape che 
sonno nelle mie casse vanno fora, et restano in altrui casse 
de voluntà di esse, la ra.<;on vol ch'io non habbia action 
alcuna de andar a prenderle per forza de la casse d'altri; per 
che sonno ucelli salvatichi, per che tosto che Ie usciranno 
da Ie rnie casse, io no hò piu signoria in queUe, se non 
tornano iterum ne Ie mie casse, et sonno mie mentre sonno in 
ditte mie casse, et non piu; la rason de simil ucelli e che vanno 
ogni zorno fora per viver de Ii beni de fora, et però quelli 
che Ii .hanno chiusi in Ie sue casse sono sui patroni, mentre 
voranno stare, ò ritornare; ma se alcun vi en al mio loco 
dove tegno Ie ape, et porta una cassa onta di dentro di 
qualche odore, per el quale intrano dentro tutte, 0 parte de 
Ie mie ape, et Ie porta via, la rason commanda che que! che 
farà questo sia tenuto di tornar indrieto Ie mie ape con 
tutto el frutto che haverà fatto, et poi esscr condanato 
personalmente secondo che Ii judici stimaranno che valevan 
quelle ape, et che potevan lavorar per quel anno, et restituir 
altro tanto a la justitia de jure; et similimente se Ie mie ape 
fanno miel in altrui arbore, la rason judica ch'io non habbia 
alcuna rason, nè alcun altro del qual fosseno Ie ape, ma 
quello deve esseI' del patron del arbore; et questo è dl 
justitia, perche nessun non puo segnar Ie sue ape che non 
somegliono à Ie aItre, et cosi come Ie viveno de Ii fiori, et 
beni d'aItrui, cosi deve esseI' il miel di colui, nell' arbor, 0 
terreni del quale voluntariamente vanno a farIo; parimente 
se Ie mie ape a far el suo miel a qualche arb oro salvatico 
che non ha patron, la rason vole che cadauno possa pronder 
di qucl miel senza erra1'e verso alcuno, perche è loco COIl1- 

* .\ncient Laws of 'Vales, Vol. II., p. 28ll. 



lllune, dal quale de ra<;on ogni homo puo pigliar, etiam Ie 
ape, ct portarle, dove Ii piace senza errare, de jure, et per 
l'assisa de Hierusalem."
It is impossible to believe that the author or authors of 
this tract and commentary (which has been manifestly 
altered from time to time, amended, and enlarged), bad any 
aC<tuaintallce with the civil law, and it must be admitted 
that, in its present condition, it is a remarkable and most 
unfavourable specimen of the manner in which the Brehon 
teachers approved and discussed legal questions. 

.. Assise of Jerusalem. see 215. What is moot remarkable in this section of the 
Assize of Jerusalem is the distiuct manner in which actual possession is laid down 
as the only grolllld for the ownership of bees, and the clear argument upon" hich 
it is founded-viz., that the ownership consist
 in simply ret.lining them in actual 
sessiun, and is not founded upon an) c"'<penditure of laoonr and food in their 
maintenance. The doctrine of constructive possession which appears in the section 
of the In-titutes is here disregarded, and thcreby the difficult), is a,oided \I hieh 
ari<es from the limitations of the constructh e possession introdnced into the Homan 
text, .. Donec in conspectu est, nec difficilis persecutio ejus est." Also, when no 
actual re"uction into possession has taken place, it is presumed to have bt,en made 
by the owner of the soil, as no one else cowd enter upon his lands for the purpose; 
and the case of the bees being fraudwentIy induced to escape from the possession 
of their 0\\ ner is anticipated and pro, ided for. How difficult it was to form clear 
ideas as to this matter appears for other attempB at legislation npon this subject. 
Thus, in the laws of the Wisegoths was contained the following section :- 
"Si quis apes in silvâ suâ, aut in rnpibus, ,el in saxo, aut in arooribus in- 
venerit, faciat tres dccurias, qu
 ,ocantur caracteres; llllde potius non per unum 
caracterem fraus nascatur. Et si quis contra hoc fecerit, atque alienum signatum 
in, enerit et irruperit, duplum restituat iIIi cui fraus illata est, et præterea xx 
t1agclla su-cipiat."--" Legu lI"isigotho,,"m," Lib. viii., sit. vi., I. 
The o\\nership is here founded upon the disco, ery simply of the swarm, and 
no reductiun into actual possession \I as rcqUÏIed; and the q uestiun \I hether 
the person who so found them was rightfull)' or not upon the place where the 
bcen had s\\ armed is altogcther 0' erIooked. 
In the present tract the Brehon lawyer has seen the two distinct grounds upon 
\I hich the 0\\ nership might be founded, bnt has ''''rked ont logically neither 
train of ideas, and conclnded by compromising both, with reference to a snPl'u,cd 
un.llogons case, and in an arithmetie.ll manner. 



The subjects discussed in this treatise are neither riparian 
ownership of nmning water, nor servitmles connected with 
the use of water, hut the right to conduct water courses 
for the construction of mills, and the right of the a,ljoining 
owners to use such mills, and to draw water from the mill 
course and pond. The Brehon lawyers permitted anyone 
desirous of constructing a mill to bring the necessary supply 
of water through the lands of his neigh buurs,and to acquire by 
compulsory purchase the ground necessary for the purpose 
upon the terms of paying a fixed legal compensation for the 
same. "Every co-tenant is bound to perrllit the other (co- 
tenants) to con/luct drawn water across his horder ;"* and, 
" this is the second instance in the' Berla ' speech where the 
law commands a person to sell his land though he should not 
like to du so."t The process in question was a ,.ery archæic 
anticipation of the modern "Land Clauses Consolidation 
Act," specifying the terms upon which the necessary land may 
be purchased, the amount to be paid, the matters to be taken 
into consideration upon the occasion of the purchase, and 
the rights arising by implication of law in the work when 
completed. Certain lands, from their nature, could not be 
compulsorily acquired for the purpose of the erection of a 
mill, viz., the" nemed "-land of a church, or (
) of a dun, or 
(3) the circuit of a fair-green. The author understood that 
the right of acquiring lan<l for a work of public utility 
must be restricted by rules which would pre\Tent a dis- 
proportionate violation of private right, Or an excessive 
inconvenience to the public itself. The amount of the 
purchase-money for the land to be taken was not, as may 
be easily anticipated, the suhject of valuation, hut was fixed 
in every case by a an expres.c; rule, and the price was not 
measured by reference to the extent taken, but the fact of 
the compulsory taking was to be compensated for as a quasi- 
tort. Thus, a "sed" of ten "serepalls" \\ as raya11le for 

· Page 213. 

t Page 215. 



every farm through which the water course was carried; 
Home variation in the price was, however, permitted, having 
reference to the nature and value of the land itself: "If it 
be arable land, though it (the water) should pass through 
only half a step of it, it shall be paid for after this manner 
(that is, the price shall be one" sed "); but if it be unprofit- 
able land, half a "sed" is its price, otherwise it is a day at 
the nÚll for every land over which it passes that is due for 
Three cla.<;ses of land are enumerated for which no 
compensation was payable, either on the ground that the 
owner of the land was benefited, not injured, by the construc- 
tion of the water course, or because it was evident that he 
incurred no damage whatsoever; these are (1)," lands on 
which a mill stands, so that it yields produce," which is 
explained in the gloss as meaning the land used for the con- 
struction of the mill pond, which afforded to the owner of 
the land a constant anù abundant supply of water, or, 
according to another commentator, of fish; (2), a house and 
clo::;e previously without a supply of water, and which, 
therefore, was benefited by the miU-stream being constructed 
close to it; and (3), a trench usually dry, and used only to 
carry off the winter drainage, the owner of which wa<; 
obliged to permit its use without compensation.t It would 
have been fortunate for the English public if the equitable 
considerations which in the Brehon law deprived the owners 
of land taken for public works of any compensation, if the 
construction of these works resulted in a profit, not a loss, to 
the owners of the land required, had been taken into con- 
sideration by modern legislators. 'Vhatever bargain or 
arrangement had been made by any owner of land in con- 
nexion with the construction of a mill, a dam, or a bridge, 
hecame absolutely binding if acquiesced in during the lives 
of two subsequent owners:t "If they have been so acknow- 
ledged, it is right that they should remain so for ever, gratis 
or for payment, according to the Brehon."
 This passage 
ry fully expresses the archaic iùea of ownership; the 

. ra;:-. :!I:l. 

t Pa;., 2)., 

t rag(' 211. 

 Page 213. 

cl viii 


owner was owner merely for the term of his own life, as be- 
tween him!>elf and his family he was in some sort only It 
tenant for life, whose contract as to the subject matter was 
not binding upon his successor. This idea of ownership is 
quite foreign to the English law, but is exactly what existed 
in the case of tt su bstitutions" in the old French law, or in 
tbat of a Scotch tailzie. The English law ha.'3 superaùded 
to the power of dealing with property which is incidenbl 
to ownership, the conception of absolute ownership being 
perpetual in its duration, a fallacy which has exercised 
immense influence upon our real property law, and is the 
basis of our whole system of conveyancing. This rule 
also is an instance of the application of the principle of 
" limitation" of actions, which within only recent times has 
Leen recognized as of paramount importance in our juris- 
prudence. The period of limitation fixed by this rule is 
during the life of the father and grandfather of the person 
affected by it, and as the normal period of limitation in the 
Brehon laws is the space of three generations, a subject 
subsequently discussed, it may be reasonably concluded that 
the party who entered into the original agreement was the 
great grandfather of the person whose right to oLjcct to the 
transaction was barred, and that the father and grandfather 
had acquiesced in the acts of their predecessor. In a very 
obscure passage of the commentary we haye an express 
statement that the period of limitation was such as we have 
mentioned, and the assertion that the period of limitation 
did not run as against a minor: "If they w
re recognized 
during the lives of three persons, they are lawful from that 
forth. But if the son of the third man did not acknowledge 
them jointly with his father, he being an infant, and in case 
he was so, they shall not be lawful, until he shall have 
acknowleJged them, for the same period after he has come 
to the age of reason.". The only explanation which can be 
suggested for this passage is, that the acquiescence during 
the three continuous lives was not the simple acquiescence 
of the sllccessive ownerH whose lives are taken into account 

· Pa;;e 213. 


cli x. 

in the computation of the time, but the acquiescence of their 
families during their successive lives; thus, if the owner (so 
called) had a son, both father and son must acquiesce during 
the life of the former, and the son, who was an infant at his 
f."lther's death, having been unable during his infancy to do 
any act to bind his rights, W3ß entitled after his father's 
death, and for the same period 3ß he had lived 3ß a minor 
during his father's life, to elect whether he would or would 
not confirm the acts of his father; and if he allowed this 
space of time to elapse without insisting that, by reason of 
his infancy, there had not been any legal acquiescence 
during his father's life, he was estopped from relJing upon 
the fact of his infancy, and the imperfect acquiescence during 
the father's life was validated by reason of the retrospective 
effect of the son's subsequent acquiescenc9. 
If the owners of the lands required fOl' the construction of 
the race or pond preferred to take certain rights in connexion 
with the watercourse and the mill in lieu of pecuniary com- 
pensation, they were at liberty to do so. 
Mr. O'Donovan has stated his opinion on this subject in 
his note, which is appended to page 220 of the text, but he 
does not appeH,r to have realized the difficulty of applying 
the first paragraph of the text to the right to grind corn at 
the mill, or to have attempted to reconcile this passage with 
the very explicit and detailed statements of the commentator 
in pa
e 217. The tract commences thus: "There is equal 
right to the water drawn through the tribe lands due to the 
lands out of which it i-; drawn."* What is the particular 
right dealt with in this Does it refer to the right 
of grinding corn in the mill, or to some other right incident 
to the water course? and is the mode in which this right is 
to be exercised, or are the persons by whom it is to be 
exercised, compatible with such a supposition? The rights 
of theadjoiningownersareregulated in reference to thegeilfine 
system, and the lands are divided into four classes correspond- 
ing to the four geilfine divisions. Mr. O'Donovan describes 
this theoretical division of the land to have been as fo11ows:- 

· Page 209. 



The land in which the mill-race was first turned off, "the 
course," was geilfine land; the land on both sides of the mill- 
race, down to the mill-pond, was deirbhfine land; the lan,l 
surrounding the pond was iarfine land; and the land on both 
sides of the race, fi'om the pond to tlle land, was the innfine 
land. It is clear in the text that the innfine-land was the 
pond itself in which the water was contained, and that the 
deirbfine land was somewhere between the source and the 
pond, and it is not certain that the author of the passage in 
the original text contemplated any water-course mnning 
from the pond down to the mill. It is quite true that the 
author of the commentary at page 217, divides the lands into 
four classes corresponding with Mr. O'Donovan's; but the 
question may be asked whether he is dealing with the same 
subject matter as the author of the first paragraph of the 
orif,rinal text. The authors of the glosses evidently did not 
understand the distribution of the lands contemplated in the 
original texts; one gloss describes the deirbhfine land as the 
pond, and another apparently describes the pond as the iarfine 
land. But the patent objection to the first paragraph being 
considered as describing the rights of adjoining owners of 
land to grind their corn at the mill, is, that thereby there 
would be no surplus time left at the disposal of the owner of 
the mill house, whose rights could not well be excluded from 
consideration. The computation of time in this tract has 
reference to the working days of the week, and Sunday is 
kept out of the account as an holiday; if, therefore, each first 
day (i. e., Monday) belong to the land out of which the water 
is drawn, and three days are allotted to the pond, and one day 
to each of the remaining classes, viz., the dei1'Ú/ifine and ia1'- 
fine lanòs, the entire week would be divisible among the 
owners of the adjoining lands exclusively. This objef'tion 
does not apply to the scheme regulating the mode of work- 
iner such a mill contained in the commentar y .* Accordiner 
o 0 
to this rule the right to work the min is divisible between 
six classes: (1) the well, (2) the owners of land from the 
weU to the pond, (3) the pond, (4) the owners of land from 

* Page 217. 



the pond down, (5) the artizans, and (6) the attendance; 
, one-third goes to the land, and the things which belong to 
it, and one-third to the science of the artizans, and one- 
third to food and rude labour." The two latter classes, the 
artizans and attendance, represent the proportion allotted to 
the owners of the mill, for capital invested and current 
expenditure; the rotation is arranged with reference to a 
period of three weeks, containing eighteen working days, 
distributed thus :_ 

1st Week. 2nd Week. 3rd Week. 
The Well, . 
fonday. - - 
"-ell tl> Pond, - Tuesdav - 
Poud, Tuesday. Jllundaÿ. lIfondav. 
Pond down, - - TUl'sdå,-. 
ArtiZ&1s, Wednesday and Wedneoday and Wedne;dav and 
Thursdav.,_ Thnr.,la ;" 
Attendance, . Friday and Satur- Friday and Satur- Friday and Satur- 
day. day. day. 

It is clear that if the author of the first paragraph of the 
tract had considered the adjoining lands to have been 
divided upon this system, the pond should have been de- 
scribed, not as the innfine, but as the utrfine lands; and in 
one of the glosses we, in fact, find this correction made; if 
the pond was the ia1:fine lands, the two intermediate classes, 
viz. :-the deirbltfine and the ia1JÌne lands must have been 
plaeed between the source of the water and the pond; and, 
as before remarked, we find in the first passage no allusion 
to any race nom the pond to the mill. It may be suggested 
that the first passage refers, not to the right to use the miIJ, 
but to draw water from the mill-course and pond-a privi- 
lege perhaps not of much value in Ireland, but one which 
the Brehon lawyers, to whom the rule" De minimis non 
curat lex," was unknown, would not disref,rard in their cal- 
The present tract concludes with the following remark- 
able passage :-" There are seven ditche!':, according to the 
Feini, the injuriec; done by which are not paid for (though 
such should be done by them), for every person shall be 
corrected (restrained 1) by_ his security, unless they have 



ne('n madc free; the ditch of It' dun '-fort, the ditch of a 
, cill '-church, the ditch of a fair green, the ditch of a mill- 
mce, the embankment of a mill-pond, the ditch of a turf 
hog (the hole caused by the cutting of turf), a dit('h which 
is at a bridge; for, from this out (i.c., with the exception of 
these specified cases), each one pays for the injury sued for, 
or caused by each ditch which one has made in his land, 
to him who has sustained the injury, for every surety shall 
he sued unless these exceptions have been established as 
regards water. [t was thus that the common right to con- 
ductino- water was established bv the Feini.". 
ð . 
This passage states that ditches (or constructions of any 
kind) are divisible into two classes, viz.; those the owners 
of which are responsible for the accidents arising from thcir 
construction, and those the owners of which are exempt from 
(lamages in that respect; the reason why mill-courses fall 
within the latter and the former class, is stated in the gloss, 
viz. :_" They are erections, concerning the construction of 
which authors have laid down no defin('d mode of con- 
struction." AU the ditches refelTed to are made in the exercise 
of legal right; and all, except the cutting of the bog, may 
he considered in some dcgree as public works; the cutting 
in the bog would be an exercise of a right in common land 
in the ordinary manner. Now the very principle of damages 
in the English law, which would be applicable to snch cases, 
would be, that a person who had constructed any work of 
such a nature in the exercise of a legal right, and with due 
care and precaution, would not be liable for damages in re- 
spect of an injury which occurred to a third party, caused 
by the existence of the work in question, or the legitimate 
mode of using it. This is the point which was applicd to 
Railway Companies, in the case of the King v. Pease, 4 B 
& Ad. 30; the question in such case is always one of negli- 
gence in the construction or using of the work. This 
appcars to the point taken by the author of the gloss, viz. : 
_that there was no established rule regulating the mode 
in which the mill-course should be constructed-and that 

.. Page 221. 



the construction being in itself legal, it was impossible to 
consider the mode of construction a ground for damages. 
The obvious mode of deciding the question by an issue of 
fact as to whether the construction in question was or was 
not properly constructed, and with all ordinary care, was a 
course which would not recommend itself to the Brehon 
la\V}-er accustomed to the use of diRtinct arithmetical formulæ. 
This passage is interesting, as illustrating how the Brehon 
law was taught; in any modern sJ'stem the author would 
have laid down an abstract proposition, illustrated it by 
particular examples, and fortified it by previous dccisions; 
and, thus having established his general proposition, would 
have applied it to the facts of the case, then the sul
ect of 
consideration. The Brehon lawyer must have had in his 
mind, however vaguely, some abstract rule with reference 
to which he classified a number of individual C<'Lses; having 
made his classification, he then instructed his pupils by 
specifying the result of the analysis, without communicating 
the principle upon which it proceeded. It is this mode of 
dealing with legal questions, which, in the case of the Brehon 
law, creates such difficulty and obscurity. Their works are 
neither simple statements of antecedent customs, nor a 
teaching by deductions from expressed general principles; 
the logical process may be described as a series of enthymemes 
with the major premiss suppressed; but a careful examina- 
tion of many of these passages will di&close the general rule 
upon which the author proceeded. The form of their works 
must have been determined by their original function, as the 
professional witnesses of unwritten custom; the decisions 
pronounced by them in cases of the first instance, would 
naturally fall within Sir H. S. 
raine's definition of The- 
mistes, clearly illustrated in the following passage :-" It is 
certain that in the infancy of mankind, no act of legislature, 
nor even a distinct author of law, is contemplated or con- 
ceived of. Law has scarcely reached the footing of a cus- 
tom-it is rather a habit. It is, to use the French phrase, 
'in the air.' The only authoritative statement of right 
and wrong, is a judicial decision after the fact,>-not one 
l 2 



pre-supposing a law which has been violated, but one which 
is breathed for the first time by a higher power into the 
judge's mind at the moment of adjudication." 
The present tract is a curious instance of this mode of 
dealing with novel questions. 'Vater mills were introduced 
into Ireland by Cormac Mac Art, probably in the course of 
the third century, and the rules referable to them could not 
have grown up until the use of these constructions had be- 
come common, and question,> had arisen upon the su
There was therefore no antecedent custom; nor was there 
any sovereign power capable of establishing a law, in the 
proper sense of the term, upon the subject. The Brehon 
Judf,'C must have proceeded in such ('ases precisely as the 
English Common Law Judges in a similar position; they 
referred to a supposed antecedent custom their decisions 
upon the novel cases arising before them, and by a series of 
decisions upon particular instances, ultimately created the 
materials from which general legal principles might be de- 
duced. In the case of the Brehon Judges the form of their 
decisions continued unaltered, which the writers of their 
law tracts embarrassed themselves by adopting. The 
scholastic logic was known to, and taught in the schools of 
the Irish ecclesiastics in the middle ages, but in the Brehon 
law tracts there is not a trace of its influence. This fact 
may be attributed either to the natural opposition of the 
representatives of the old customary law to the schools in 
which the Canon or Civil Law would be considered as 
authoritative, or to the mode of teaching natural to an 
hereditary class of lawyers, influenced by traditional forms, 
and desirous to retain as a monopoly the secrets of their 


The open space around a dwelling, which was assumed to 
be within the peace of the owner of the house, has been 
referred to in the Book of Aicill, published in the preceding 
volume, with reference to tlle compensation payable by 



third parties for acts of violence committed within it. *" The 
author of the present tract proposes to state the extent of 
the precinct with reference to every grade, both lay and 
clerical, and to discuss cert.ain questions connected with the 
subject. The determination of the precise extent of each 
precinct he attributes to the decisions of a convention of 
the bishops, "ollamhs," chiefs, poets, sages, and seniors of 
Ireland, held at Sliath Fuaid in Magh Bregh, and alleges 
that the extent of the precinct fixed for each class, for the 
violation of which fines should be paid to the owner of the 
house, was written by the men of Erin in the great" Cas" of 
the ancients. The unit in this calculation is the extent of 
the prec.inct of the lowest grade, entitled to enjoy the 
privilege of sanctuary, that is the "bo-aire" chief, which 
was fixed in simple and archaic fashion. Let him be placed 
at the door of his house in his customary seat, with a spear, 
twelve hanJs bren.dth long, from the iron head to the horn 
ferule; so far as he could cast it did his precinct extend. 
This measurement of the limit of the precinct to which the 
owner of the house was entitled, rests upon the same 
principle of the well-known rule of the "maritime league" 
in international law, viz., that external combatants must 
suspend hostilities when their further prosecution would 
endanger a neutral in his usual and legal place of residence. 
The ordinary spear cast having been assumed as an unit it 
is doubled for the next higher grade in social rank, and so 
proceeds by geometric progression through the five remain- 
ing ranks to the King, whm;e precinct is consequently a 
circle with a radius of sixty-four spear casts. 
A King of King, i.e., either a provincial, or the national 
King, had, by virtue of his rank, a precinct, independent of 
measurement, inclusive of the entire plain, or meadow, 
within which his dwelling stood; and the same privilege 
was conceded to the Archbishop of Armagh, as "Coarb" of 
St. Patrick. A different method was adopted in fi.xing the 
extent of the precincts of the dwellings of ecclesiastics; in 
this case the calculation is based upon the extent of the 

· Ånt
 Y vI. III., Page 119-1-1;;. 



greatest, and not the smallest, precinct; to a ehurcll, "in 
which were the three grades of bishop, profe.3sor, anù arehin- 
neeh," approximately translated in the text, a "eatheùral." 
belonged a precinct with a radius of two thousand paces; to 
a bishop, a saint, or a hermit, one of one thousand paces, "if 
it be in a plain," that is, inclusive of all the open surrounding 
spae'.) to the maximum extent of one thousand paces; the 
precincts of the lower ecclesiastics diminished in the same 
ratio as their respective" honor-prices." The right of pro- 
tection was one accorded to the owner of the house for his 
own benefit and security; it was not a right of the fugitive 
who required protection; it might, therefore, be waiveù by 
the owner of the house, who was not bound to concede its 
benefit to a stranger, and if it were violated the result woul<<l 
be that damages shoulù be paid to the owner of the house 
solely. The position of the two extern hostile parties was not 
altered by the fact that the fugitive succeeded in getting 
within the precinct of a third party, and therefore the owner 
of a precinct, as the condition of the inviolabilit)> of his own 
household, was bound to secure to the pursuer the legal re- 
dress to which he was entitled ;. this appears in the following 
passage, "'What is protection as to reciprocal rights 1 be- 
cause there is no protection without offer of law.". The 
right to the benefit of the rule as to the precinct was there- 
fore suspended if the owner of the house refused to give to 
the pursuer the necessary guarantee. The protection 
afforded by the precinct naturally extended not only to the 
fugitive, but also to the property brought by him within 
the limit. Damages for the violation of the precinct did not 
arise sole!y from the fact of violation, but notice that the 
place in which a person was seizeù, or property recaptured, 
was within the limits of the precinct of a third plU"ty, 
was requisite to make the act otherwise justifiable a wrong 
as against the owner of the house; for among the cases of 
exemption is placed that of "ignorance," which is defined 
(with reference to some known case) as the seizme of cattle 

* Page 233. 



under protection, in the belief that they were not under 
protection; which must mean, in ignorance of the fact that 
they were within a precinct.- 
The two other cases of what is called" exemption," that 
is, non-liability to damages for actual violation of the pro- 
tection, are unlawful protection, and forcible violation; the 
former exception is free from difficulty, and applies to the of the owner of the house refusing to fulfil his recipro- 
cal duty of guaranteeing to the pursuer his legal rights; the 
laUeI' is, however, not so clear; "forcible violation" of the 
protection of a precinct is the very act for which damages 
are payable, and, if this expression be referred to the pur- 
suer, it would follow that the most aggravated cases would be 
exceptions to the rule. The only other to whom the 
" forcible violation" could be referred would be the fugitive 
himself, and it is suggested that the case contemplated is 
that of a fugitive refused protection, and himself forcibly 
entering the precinct. The construction put upon this last 
mentioned p
t.">sage is strengthened by the fact that the 
succeeding paragraph llliSumes that the protection to be legal 
must be assented to by the. owner of the house, or some one 
on his behalf. t 
The assent to the entry of a fugitive within the limits of 
the precinct must have been given by the head of the house- 
hold himself, or by some member of the family as his agent, 
and on his behalf. Hence his first wife and his unemanci- 
pated son,t or even an emancipated son or any person of the 
family could receive a fugitive. A very clear distinction as 
between express and implied agency is drawn in the text 
with regard to the reception of fugitives by persons other 
than the head of the house. If the protection is accorded 
to the fugitive by any member of the family by the express 
direction of the head of the household, full honor-price was 
payable for its violation; but if there were no express 
direction given for the reception of the fugitive, and a mem- 
ber of the family acting on behalf of the head of the hou8c- 

. Page 229. t Page 229. 
t Page 231, ùut see note on this p.15sage. 

clx\ iii 


hold received him within the protection of the precinct, the 
amount of the honor-price payable for the violation of the 
protection was diminished, in accordance with the more or 
less intimate relation of the head of the house to the person 
who had assumed to act on his behalf. The pcrson, who, on 
bchalf of the head of the household, as his agent either express 
or implied, received a fugitive, was never entitled personally 
to any damages for the violation of that protection, which 
he could not have given in individual capacity. This implied 
agency extended only to those members of the household 
" who had no expectation uf separation from the head of tt1e 
house,". thus a mere armed retainer or mercenary soldier 
temporarily resident in the house could not act on behalf 
of the head, nor could a person himself a fugitive under pro- 
tection; as to these cases then is cited in the text the old 
rule: "Sanctuary of sanctuary; one pilgrim does not pro- 
tect another; no one is entitled to fines for the violation of 
the '[J1'Otcction of his hired soldiers." It would be attributing 
perhaps too much ingenuity to the Brehun Lawyers to believe 
that they worked out these rules by reference to the doctrine 
(If implied agency; it would be more safe to conjecture 
that at an eady period a fugitive might have been receiv'('(l 
into the protection of the householù by any of its memhers, 
and subsequently their action was eXplained as being as 
that uf imp Ii cd agents (If the head of the household. 
The amount of da,mages payahle in respect of a violation 
was varied with reference to the elements which entered into 
all such calculations, such as the extent of the violence useù 
towards the fugitive, and the ranks of the fugitive and of 
the person whose protection was violated. 
The number of the persons who could at the one time be 
received into sanctuary was necessarily limited; the pursuer 
eould not be expected to yield to the claim to protect 
fugitives, unless the owner of the precinct could himself 
rcstrain them from departing, fiS otherwise his guarantee 
that justice should be done would be nugatory. The 

.. I'a;e 231, butsee note on this passage. 



numher of fugitives who could at one time he received into 
protection was therefore limited to twenty-seven. 
The church claimed to exercise a more extended protection 
than was accorded to the laity: "It is safe for her to protect 
before the terms (specific{l t'imcs) without offer of law ill 
either of them, and to protect after the terms with ottcr of 
law, and to protect against death and unjust fines always.". 
The rules with regard to the precinct, and the protection 
thrown over fugitives by the head of the household, would 
xeem to be a survival of earlier ideas modified to meet 
the circumst.'tnces of a denser population, and the claims 
of the ministers of the Christian religion. There must 
have been originally some distinct and symbolical act 
by which the fugitive was removed into the protection of 
the house; if this was connected with the ancient pagan re- 
ligion, it may have faHen into disuse after the intruduetion 
of Christianity. 'The original position of the fugitive is thus 
described by Mr. Hearn: "Another division of the same 
class (the depenùents of the family) consisted of rcfugees, 
especiaJly refugees for homicide. It seems to have been an 
ancient belief that the stain of human blood, however in- 
curred, relp1Ìred puritication. There was also the ùanger of 
the blood feud fi'om the kinsmen of the deceased. The 
homicide, therefore, gl'neraHy fled from his home, and sought 
a person who could purify him from his sin, and also protect 
him from tIle avenger of blood. If such a suppliant applied 
to the House Father in the. proper form, as recognized by the 
House Father's worship, and addressed him 1y the proper 
adjuration, such a request could not be refuseù. The stranger 
had brought himself within the protection of the House 
Spirits, and they would resent any wrong done to their 
suppliant. A way from his hearth indeed, and without the 
appropriate ceremonial, the House Father might at his 
pleasure grant or refuse the mercy to any person who sued 
fOl' it. But the suppliant in the technical sense of the word, 
the íl.:iT'I{; ur the Illan who came to the holy hearth was a 

* P.



different case. Him the Honse Father was bound to receive, 
and when he had received him, the Rtrallger was initiated, 
and became, at leaRt for the time, a member of the house- 

This tract is an attempt to fix arithmetically the value of 
a cumhal of land (t;lp cummte), having rpfprence to the 
quality and advantages of the land in question. Arable 
land is divided into three classes-(l) first-class arable land, 
(2) hilly arable land, (3) labour-requiring at'ahle land. A 
cumhal of the first class is valued at twenty-fimr milch 
cows, of the second class at twenty milch cows, and of the 
third-class at sixteen milch cows. 'Weak land, whil"h IlIay 
lIe understood to mean land fit only for grazing, is also 
divided into three classes, viz.,-coarse land, weak land, and 
deep land, a cumhal of which respectively is valued at twelve 
dry cows, twelve (q. ten) dry cows, and eight dry cows. The 
tract then considers the extent to which the value of any 
cumhal of land is increased by what were considered as its 
accidental and extrinsic advantages, such as the existence of 
a wood or mine upon the land, its fitness for the erection of a 
mill, or its facility of approach, or nearness to a highway, 
Each of these accidents is taken into account to increase the 
value in a certain ratio, and the value of any given cumhal 
of land is to be estimated, having reference to both the 
quality of the land and its accidental advantages. 
Upon the first view it might appear that the whole tract is 
but a piece of solemn arithmetical trifling, such as the Brehon 
.. The Aryan Household, p. 109. The term" de,'gg.fine," which occurs in "The 
Divisions of the Trihe of a Territory," (page 285, I. 15), has been previously c,,- 
plained in accordance with the gloss upon that passage; but the existence of a class 
of members of a family, deprived of their laml as a consec,uence of homicide, is so 
unusual a fact that it might be plausibly suggested that the" dergr,.fine" included 
ori 6 in811y the 'ICETUI aJmitted into the family, and v. hen the original rights 
connected with their admission had become obsolete, and the cu-tom, which 
lUust have been a late one, of forfeiting (to use this very inaccurate phrase), 
the lands of a wrongdoer had been introduced, the term (derggfine) Wa. applied in 
the way in which the authors of the glosses understood it to be used. 



lawyers loved to exercise their ingenuity upon; but a little 
consideration will prove that there is a practical basis for 
this apparently fantw;;tic estimate. That the estimate is not 
of the character of a modern tenement valuation is obvious, 
for it applies to a state of society in which taxation was 
unknown, and not even its author could have anticipated 
that the price of land, when actually sold, could be regu- 
lated in this manner. To understand the meaning of this 
tract, it must not be forgotten that in ancient Ireland there 
was no currency or established standard of value, and that 
all mercantile transactions were carried on upon the tooting 
of simple barter. In such a condition of the market how 
are the relative prices {If articles quoted 1 The existence 
of a fixed standard of value means that the value of all other 
articles is estimated by the amount of thcm which can be 
purchased by fi
ed quantities of some one selected com- 
modity. Any commodity may be selected as the normal 
stanùard, our habit of selecting gold or silver simply arising 
from the fact of their indestructible nature, and the assump- 
tion that their value in exchange is invariaLle. 
"'hen we speak of the penny loaf being larger or smaller, 
we mean that the amount of bread which a penny will pur- 
chase has increased or has diminished. When we state that 
a pound of tea costs two shillings or five shiHings, we mean 
that the amount of silver which is equivalent in exchange 
to one pound of tea is greater or less. Both statements 
merely express the ratio which the value of a commodity 
fluctuating in the market bears to the value of ascertained 
quantities of a commodity assumed to be fixed in value. If, 
however, there exists no fixed standard of value, how is the 
price of any commodity to be stated? This difficulty was 
Ulet by the ancient Irish, as by evCIY other people under 
similar circumstances, in the following manner :-the actual 
amount of any article brought to market, or handed over to 
another person, is fixed by a certain unit which depends 
upon the mode in which the article is dealt in. Slaves and 
cattle would be counted by the head; metal by the usual 
weight of the bars; and farm proùucc by the form in which 



it was offered for sale. Thus at the present day we deal in 
so many head of cattle, barrels of potatoes, or sacks of corn. 
Here the difficulty arises how to express the ratio which the 
value of any number of cattle bears to any given numLer 
of sacks of corn. For this pnrpose an abstract measure of 
value is invented, which is roughly estimated to be repre- 
sentedLy a certain amount of each of the articles ordinarily 
brought to sale, and a given quantity of each mticle having 
Leen fixed as representing this value in exchange, the several 
quantities of the different articles are supposed to be equal 
in value to each other in the normal condition of the market. 
As in the present day, in remote country districts, a man 
who pays for the grazing of so many cows may take it out 
in the grazing of sheep or geese, each cow being re1->rescnted 
by a customary number of the smaller animals, so in ancient 
times the value of a cow would be considered as equivalent, 
for the purpose of exchange under ordinary circumRtances, 
to so many sheep, geese, &c. 
It has been frequently remarked that in primitive societies 
the rule of supply and demand has almost no existence, 
and that the same price will continue to be paid for the 
same mticle during very long periods of time, and without 
regard to what are callcd mercantile considerations. As long 
as this mode of dealing is applicd to articles which can ùe 
sold by nlPasure and weight, and are of the same average 
quality, there is no difficulty in working the system; but as 
Roon as an attempt is made to apply it to land, the difficultics 
involved become apparent. Lanù can only be sold by re- 
ference to its superficial extent, but the qualities of any 
two pieces of land of the same acreage are very different, 
and therefl)re their value in exchange cannot be the same. 
How, therefore, can the "alue of any piece of land be ex- 
pressed with reference to the ima;rinary standard of value 
to which all other articles are referreù? This is the question 
which the author of this tract attempts to solve, viz. :- 
'Vhat is the par of exchange of land in the market with 
reference to the other subjects of cxchange 1 That he 
should fail in doing so in any practical manner was inevi- 



table, for the question was, in its essence, insoluble; but he 
adopts the only ren.sonable mode of approaching the question, 
and handles the matter with considerable acutene
s. He 
assumes as the base of his calculation a fixed measure of 
land, which he defines as the land-cumhal; he then 
divides lr.nd with reference to fertility or fitness for 
pasturage, and brings out the result in cattle; he then 
considers the acciùental qualities of any particular land, and 
treats them as raising the value in a certain ratio; the 
value of any land in exchange would thus be represented 
by a certain number of cumhals in cattle, ilTespective of 
the actual acreage of the land. 
The basis of the whole calculation rests upon the super- 
ficial extent of a cumhal of land; and the comment.'ttor 
naturally appends a table of the superficial measurements 
upon which his calculation is founded. "How is a tir- 
cum aile measured?" By grains; three grains in a proper 
inch; six inches in the hand; and two hands in a foot; 
six feet in a pace; six paces in an "intritt" measure; six 
" intritts" in a" lait " measure; six "laits" in a " forach " 
The tir-cumaile would seem to be seventy-two square 
fomeh-measures. The following table represents the state- 
ment of the text:- 

1 band.-!. 
6 1 I feet. 
12 2 1 paces. 
72 12 6 1 intritt
432 ï2 36 6 1 lait.. 
 432 216 36 6 1 fOr"lchs. 
15.552 2,5!i2 1,296 216 36 6 1 

If we assume the foot measure to be practically equiva- 
lent to the modern foot, the "tir-cumaile" would be about 
21);) acres; on the other hand, if the foraeh-measure were 

clxxi v 


equal only to 144 feet, as would appear to be stated in the 
passage referred to in the note to the text, it would be 
equivalent to about 10 acres. There are no means afforded 
by the text to enable us to express any definite opinion as 
to which of these quantities is the correct result, and it would 
lw inconsistent with the object of the preface to discuss the 
question generally with reference to other and extraneous 
authorities; nor, perhaps, could such inquiries lead to any 
definite result. 
The ingenious mode of calculating the value of land 
ùevised by our author, coulcl never have been practically 
appliell; the term "tir-cumaile" originally meant, and 
probably always continued to mean," the land of a 
c1Lmhal," and when so useù, necessarily excluded the as- 
sumption of the land heing of any fixed acreage. :Mr. 
O'Curry considers the phrase "tir-cumhaile," as much land 
as would suffice for the grazing of a cumhal of cattle, and 
this may have been the ordinary sense in which the terlll 
was used. 

This tract has received especial attention from Irish Anti- 
cluarians, inasmuch as it professes to give a detailed dcsCI'ip- 
tion of the several social ranks and organization of the 
Irish tribe. Drr. O'Curry has, in his Lectures on the Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient Irish, adopted this trentise as an 
authentic and archæic work, and without hesitation ac- 
cepted its statements as a sufficient authority for his detailed 
account of the earliest form of the Celtic tribe system. Dr. 
'V. K. Sullivan, adopting the views of 1\1 r. O'Cuuy upon 
this sul
ect, attributes the date of its composition to the 
middle or end of the seventh century. Before any discussion 
a<; to the nature of the work and the conclusions which may 
.. I11r. O'CIIJTy, shortly before bis dmtb, re.'ised and corrected bis previolls trans- 
lation of this tract, making many important alterations and emend"tions. This 
re> ised addition has beell entru>ted to tbe present editors, and On aU occasions the 
latcr and more matured text of }lr. O'Curry's translation ha, beell followed in the 
present pdition. 



be fairly drawn from its statements, it is necessary to con- 
sider the probahle date of its composition. It must be first 
remarked that it òoes not consist of an ancient text with 
an annexerl commentary and explan atory glosses, but is mani- 
festly written throughout by an author according to a definite 
plan, and that to the later lawyers who may havc made 
use of it, it presented no archæisms, either of custom or lan- 
guage, which required special comment or explanation. The 
most important passage, as indicating the probable date of 
the composition, is the statement relative to the four rights 
to which it was proper that a king should pledge his people, 
the first of which L'! stated to be "a right to help him to 
drive out foreign races, i.e. against the Saxons.". Assuming 
that these latter words are not a glos'! which has crept into 
the text (and there is no reason to believe that they are), 
the date of the work must coincide with a period at which 
the Saxons were regarded a!' the enemies par excellence of 
the Irish people, and not merely as a hostile, but as an in- 
vading race. It is obvious that no Irish writer would have 
singled out the Saxons as the special enemies of the Irish 
during the period covered by the Danish invasions, nor after 
that date until the Sa..-..:on had, in the mind of the people, 
been substituted for the Dane as their natural enemy. The 
date of the work must therefore be either before the end of 
the eighth century, or after the English invasion, the period 
covered by tne Danish invasions being absolutely excluded. 
The early relations of the Irish and Saxons were of the most 
friendly character, and naturally so as the Irish were then 
busily employed in plundering, and perhaps to some extent, 
conquering, their christian and Celtic neighbours across the 
channel. This point is thus discussed by Dr. W. K. Sullivan, 
in the following passage of his preface to the Lectures of .Mr. 
O'Curry :-" The common object of attack, Roman Britain, 
brought the Irish and 
axons in contact at an early period. 
And this intercourse \\ as, on the whole, of a most friendly 
character. The hostility of the two peoples appears to 
have first arisen in consequence of the quarrels between the 

* r,'gl' 335. 



Irish and Saxon churches. Political causes helped to de- 
velop this. hostilit.y as soon a,> the Saxon dominion extended 
to the north of England, and the Saxon kings of .Northum- 
bria came into direct contact with the Scotic kingdom es- 
tablished in Scotland. The wars carried on hy the Sa..'wn 
kings against the Scots and Picts involvc!] the Irisll in t!w 
quarrels of their brethren in Scotland, and led to the ravag- 
ing of the coasts of Ireland by the .Saxons. Venerable Bede 
records an expedition of this kind sent in the year A.D. 684, 
by Ecfrid, King of the N orthumbrians, under a commandpr 
named Beort, . which miserahly wasted that harmless nation, 
which had been always most friendly to the English, inas- 
much as in their hostile rage they spared not even the 
churches or monasteries.' It is in the seventh century that 
we find mention for the first time of the Saxons as enemies. 
The first notice of the Danes or Norsemen occurs in 790, or 
more cOlTeetly in 795. Mter that date, and until thc arrival 
of the Norman,>, the Danes alone arc mentioned as hostile 
foreigners. This circumstance is of very great importance 
in connexion with the date of the law tract, the C;'ith Gabh- 
filch." After citing the passage ahove refelTcd to, he pro- 
ceeds :_U If this example be not an interpolation of much 
later times, it shows, taken in connexion with other circum- 
stances, that the important document in question bclongs to 
the period anterior to the Viking expeditions, and in all 
probability to the middlc or erid of the seventh century.". 
[f this view of the meaning of the pa.c;sage be correct, it fol- 
lows that one plundering expedition against the Irish sea- 
board so profoundly affected the national mind, that the 
Saxon was held by the people a.'! a national enemy to be ex- 
pelled from the island which he had invaded. No allusions 
to the Saxons as such enemies are cited from any of the early 
Brehon Law tracts or popular romances; no act of hostility 
save one isolated plundering cxpe(]ition is refelTed to; and 
it is to be remarked that after this event the SaxonR at least 
were ignorant of any hostile relations existing between them 
and the Irish; Bede reprobates the expeùition as a wanton 

*l\Ianncrs and Customs, &c., TO\. i., p. XXXyi. 



attack on a friendly nation; anti at a later date Alcuin was 
()f the same opinion, when, in a passage quoted by Dr. \V. 
K. Sullivan, he described the Irish as "gentes Scotorum in- 
nocuas Anglis, et semper amicas."- The passage of the tract 
referred to would rather lead to the conclusion that the date 

.. The details of this raid, as related by the original authorities, are a proof rather 
of the friendly terms which always subsisted between the two nation., than that 
its result was to establish permanently hostile relations. The entire passage in 
Bede is as follows: "In the year of our Lord's incarnation 684, Egfrid, King of 
the Korthumbnans, sending Beort, his general, with an army into Ireland, miser- 
ably wasted that harmles. natiou, which had always been most friendly to the 
Engli.h; insomuch that in their hostile rage they spared not even the churches or 
the mona<teries. The islanders to the utmost of their power repelled force w1th 
force, and, imploring the a<<i.tance of the Divine mercy, prayed long and fen'ently 
for vengeance; and though <uch as curse cannot pos.e<< the kingdom of God, it 
is belie\"ed that those who were justl)" curi!ed on acconnt of their impiety, did 
Soon suffer the penalty of their guilt from the a\ enging hand of God; for the 
ver}' next year that same king, rashly leading his army to ravage the pro\ inces of 
the Picts, mneh again.t the advice of his friend., and particularly of Cuthbert of 
ble<<e.l memory, who ha'] been lately orrta;ned bishop, the enemy made show as 
if the}' fled, and the king- was drawn into the straits of inaccessible mountain., 
and slain with the greater part of his forces, on the 20th of May, in the 40th year 
of his age, and the 15th of his rei
rn. Ilis friends, as has been said, advised him not 
to engag'e in this war; but he ha\ ing the year before refused to listen to tbe most 
reverend father, Egbert, a,h ising him not to attack the Scots, who did him no 
harm, it was laid on him as a punishment for his sin, that he !lhou1d not now 
regard those, who would have prevented his death. "_u Eccleøw.tical IIi_tory," 
Lib. IV., c. 
The Saxon Chronicle states -" A. D. 684. Here in this 
 ear Egfrid sent an army 
llgainst the Scots, and Beorc, his alderman" ith it, and miserably they plundered 
11m! burned the churches of God." 
The Saxons at least considered this raid a _in, and believed the king's subsequent 
death was a signa! Dh ine chastisement. 
The foHowing is the statement in the Four Masters: "The age of Christ 683, 
the 10th year of Finachta. The de\a..tation of l\Iagh.Bre
gh, both churches 
and territories by the Saxons, in the month of J nne precisely; and they carried 
off "ith them many hostages, with many other spoils, and afterwards went to 
their ships." 
The same raid is mentioned in the Annals of Ulster under the ye'V Gael, an,l in 
the Annals of Clonmacnoise under the year 680. 
The captives taken upon the occa.ion of this raid were restored by the Saxons: 
" Adamnan went unto the Saxons to request [a reotitution of] the prisoners, whom 
the Korth Saxons had carried off from 1I1agh Breagh the year before mentioned; 
he ohtained a restitution of them, after ha\ ing performed miracles and wonders 
before the hosts; and they afterwards gave him great honour and respect, together 
with a fun restitntion of everything he'] of them." The Four Masters, Vol I., 
p. 291. The Annal. of Clonmacnoise, um!er the year G8G, ,tates that, " Adamnan 



of the wurk must be brought down to some date after the 
English invasion, lmlpss there be internal evidence which 
would render such a conclusion improbable; and, if the date 
be so far postponed, it must be referred to a period consider- 
ably suhielluent to the first invasion, to that at which all the 
Irish tribes stood in a hOHtile position to the English king, 
and the invasion was at length successfully checked, or at 
the earliest date, to the first quarter of the fourteenth cen- 
There is also internal evidence which, indepeIlflently of the 
passage refened to, wmùd lead to the same conclusion. 
The must remarkable change in the organization of the 
early Irish Church was the substitution of an episcopal for the 
monastic system. In the earlier form of church government 
the abbot, not the bishop, was the ruling ecclesiastic; the 
.. coarb " of the original saint was the head of the ecclesiastical 
tribe; the pre-eminence and territorial jurisdiction of bishops 
arose at a date long subsequent to the commencement of the 
Danish invasion. Is it probable that a treatise descriptive 
of the ranks of society, if written during the life of Adamnan, 
and the vigorous existence of the Columban monasteries, 
wuuld omit any allusion to an abbot, and speak uf the bishop 
as travelling" for the good of the church and the territory," 
and as of rank equal, if not superior, to the king of the 
tribe? There is furt.her no allusion whatsoever to the 
geilfine system, nor to the geilfine fiaith as representing his 
" fine," and therefore an important item in the social system 

brought back sixt)' captives to Ireland." In the Annals of Ulster, under the same 
year, there is a similar statement. 
It thDrdore appears that this invasion of the Sa"mn amounted merely to a raid 
a ong the coast between the rh ers Lilley and Boyne; that all the restitution 
suught by Adamnan on behalf of his country was freel)' accorded; and that the 
inroad was regarded b)' the English as a sinful ,iolation of their friendship with 
an allied nation, And it the more remarkable that upon his retnrn to Ireland 
Adamnan sucæeded in introducing into Ireland the Roman mode of computing 
Easter, which pro,'es that at that .Iate the lri<h cherished no peeuliar feelings of 
animosity tmvafll tile English or their ecclesiastical usages. (Se. Be
 Eee. llist., 
].ib. V., c. 1:;.) 
All the aho\ e rderences are contained in the nutes to Dr. O'Dono"an's editiun 
"I the" Four 



-a very remarkable omission in a treatise of the character 
of the present. The condition of society exhibited in this 
work is that of the tribe system in state of decay and 
decadence, and rapidly tending to russume a feudal form. 
The simple freeman has sunk to the condition of the Saxon 
ceorl; the tribe lands have, to a great extent, if Hot altogether, 
been monopolized by the noble classes; the political power 
has passed into the hands of the chiefs and greater nobles; 
all classes, from the highest to the lowest, are bound together 
by the semi-feudal bond, founded upon the system of lending 
out cattle; all classes are rated for the payment of tribute to 
their superiors; and the basis of society seems rather to be 
personal service than the common rights of the members of 
the tribe. Except for the survival of ancient terms, and some 
archæic rules and peculiarities arising from the absence of a 
circulating medium and the material conditions of the 
people, the condition of the country, as thus described, was 
not very different from that it exhibited in the last century. 
This is the opinion of lIIr. O'CUITY, as expressed in the 
following prussage :-" It is not very easy to translate into 
modern language the technical terms of the ancient law of 
Landlord and Tenant; but a very well matured system 
existed at a very early period indeed, under which, although 
there was no such thing as absolute property in land in any 
individual, still, within the tribe, individuals held exclusive 
property in land, and entered into relations with tenants for 
the use of the land, and these again with undertenants, and 
so on, much as we see in our own days. Now these relations 
constitute the first test of rank and condition. The Flaith 
-a word in some sense may be translated the Lord or 
Nobleman-was distinguished by being the absolute owner 
(within his tribe) ofland for which he paid no rent, so that, 
if a man possessed but a single acre in this way, he was a 
Flaith. All other persons holding land held it either from 
a Flaith or from some tenant of his; and the rank and 
precedency of these persons depended upon the amount of 
their possessions."- Although there are many statements in 
· Manners and Customs of tile Anci"lIt Irbh, vol. ii., page 34. 
'lYL 2 



this description to which exception may be taken, it fairly rc- 
presents the practical condition of the Irish as depicted in the 
Crith Gabhlach,!>ubject to the materialcorrtction that such was 
not the original system of the Celtic tribe, but rather the 
condition to which the tribe had been reduced at the date of 
the composition of this work. The same causes were at 
work in Ireland as elsewhere, and with the same results. 
The chief" and nobles had succeeded in crushing the lower 
orders, and had converted into their own separate property 
the land originally the common property of the tribe. The 
Crith Gabhlach might fairly be described as a compendium 
of the rights and emolument.'.; of the higher classes, of their 
house tributes, rents, cuttings, and costeIÍngs, and is not 
dissimilar from the old law IJook of the Brehon whereby the 
English commissioners "perceivell how nmnyvesseb of butter, 
and how many measures of meal, and how many porks, and 
other such gross duties did arise unto M'Guire out of his 
mensal lands.". 
It is not to be concluded that any Irish tribe or province 
was ever actually organized in strict conformity with 
the rules laid down in this tract. It is impossible to 
believe that a nation so mobile and turbulent as the Irish 
Celts lived under a system so rigid in its laws and pedantic 
in its minutiæ; that the di.tft'rent classes possessed so much 
and no more than the amount of pr0perty herein set down 
against them; inhabited houses of precisely the prescrihcJ 
size, furnished in the manncr described, and supplied with 
the farming instruments directed; that the occupiers of thcm 
paid so much and no more than their custonl:lry rents; and 
that the whole society, from the provincial King downwarrls, 
were bound, and acquiesced in, a complete system of semi- 
feudal service. The work must be considered a'.; a description 
.Æ society fully organized according to the current legal 
theory at the date of its composition; hut it can no more be 
assulDed that the e""\:isting community accurately corresponded 
to the legal theory, than that the condition of England in the 

· ..\ntc, '01. \ii., l.\gc 



twelfth century, was such as Blackstone's sketch of the feudal 
ISystem assumes it to have been. 
The Crith GabhhlCh treats of the various ranks of the 
freemen of the tribe, their mutual rights and duties, and 
the power and privileges of the King; the unfree classes 
of the community are only refeITed to in connexion with 
the rights and qualification,> of the free. 
The author lays down as the cardinal principle that the 
proper grade of the layman among the people is determined 
by the amount of his property. The number of cla&ses of 
men is stated to be sewn. That this number was select
as the sacred number, and was not in accordance with the 
actual state of facts, appears ii'om the statement of the 
author himself, and the mode in which the division in 
classes is varied in different passages. The grades of a 
people are stated to be as follows :-(]) the" fer mbidboth " 
man, (
) the "bo-aire" chief, (3) the "aire-desa" chief, 
(-t) the" aire-ard" chief, (3) the "aire-tui:òc" chief, (G) the 
" aire-forgaill" chief, and (7) the king. This sevenfold 
division is stated to be derived from the similitude of the 
ecclesiastical orders, "for it is proper that for every order 
'" hich is in the Church, there should be a corresponding one 
among the people.". 
The two first classes rcpre&ent the iree but not noble, tbe 
latter five the free and noble. 
The divisions of the noble class are then slJecified, and the 
number of them is again seven, viz. :-(1) the" aire-desa," (2) 
the" aire-echta," (3) the" aire-ard," (4) the" aire-tuisc," (,j) 
the" aire-forgaill," (6) the "tamaise" of a king, and (7) the 
king. To complete the number seven in this, two further 
classes are introduced, the" aire-echta" and the tanist; the 
latter of these was an official person and not a class of indivi- 
duals, and the same observation is applicable to the "aire- 
echta." The non-noble classes are classed as folIo\\ 8:-(1) the 
two grades of "fcr-mbidba" men, (2) the" og-aire," (:
) au 
"aithech" per:-.on, (4) the "bo-aire febhsa," (5) the "mbruigh- 
fher" man,(G)the "fer-futhla" man, amI (7) the " ail'e-coisring " 

* rage 2



man. The seven classes arc here again completed, first 
by the introductiun of the "aithech," a very anomalous 
dass, as subsequently explained in the text, and by the 
addition of the last three, viz., the" mbruigh-fer," the" fer- 
fothla," and the" aire-coisring," two of which are the names 
of officers, and not of classes. 
The :o1cheme of classiticatiun used by the author of the 
tract on Precinct.,>, must have been different from that 
of the author of this tract; for he also, tlividing the 
society into seven classes, states the two luwest to be the 
" bo-aire" and the "aire-desa," and the highest to be the 
king, omitting to give the llames of the four intermediate 
divisions, and, with reference to the extent of theil' pre- 
cincts, he fixes their rank upon the ba::;is of a geometric 
progression, a gradation inconsistent with the ratio of thcir 
properties and honor-prices as fixed in this treatise. 
The several ranks are divided with reference to the amount 
of property requisite to qualify for cach respectively, and 
from and in the proportion to the requisite amount of pro- 
perty follow their right.,> and privileges (some of which we 
should now class as duties): (I) the legal value attributed 
to their oath, contract, guarantee, and evidence; (2) the 
honor-price; (3) refcctions, or the nature and amount of 
food they should receive from a host; (4) sick maintenance; 
(5) the extent to which they could give protection to a third 
party who claimed it; (G) the" taurcreie," or the amount of 
stock to be delivered to them by the superior to whom they 
commended themselves (the commendation to a lord in Con- 
sideration of the" taurcreic" might be oppressive or advan- 
tageous to the inferior, according to the circumstances of the 
time); and (7) the "bes tigi " or house tribute, payable in 
kind by the inferior to the superior to whom he had 
commended. himself. 
The following analysis of the necessary qualifìmtions and 
rights of the several classes will render the relative positions 
of the respective ranks clear. 



1. The "m bidboth" man. This class is sub-divided into 
two sub-classes, viz., the" mbidboth " man who had attained 
the age of fourteen years, but not yet that of sennteen years, 
" unless he has taken pos:;;ession or succession before that, or a 
man of the Feini g1'ade be a co-occupant with him," i.e., unless 
he is himself in possession of a house, or be the joint occu- 
pant of one with a free man oHull age (?), and the "mbidboth" 
man who had attained the age of seventeen years. The oath, 
contract, or guarantee of the fm mer extended to the value of a 
" clairt " heifer; his refection was milk and stirabout; his 
protection extended to one of his own grade over the terri- 
tory; his honor-price was a "dairt" heifer. The value of 
the oa th, &c., of the latter was a "col pach " heifer; his pro- 
tection extends to one of his own rank until he has given 
him double food (two meals?); his refection was milk and 
stirabout; his honor-price a " colpach " heifer; his propor- 
tionate stock (taurcreic) was four " s
ds" in value; his food 
rent (bes tigi) a wether; his sick maintenance for himself 
and his mother new unskimmed milk every third, fifth, ninth, 
and tenth day, and also on Sunday. 
It appears from this that the very luwest elass of freemen 
were not, as has been stated, wholly devoid of property; 
they are prcsumed to possess a Louse, in respect of which they 
may be required to pay food rent to a superior, and they had 
a :;;hare, however small, in the common pasture, otherwise 
they could not Lave availed them:o,elves of the proportionate 
stock (taurcreic) they might receive. 
2. The Bo-aire or enriched churl. The "mbidboth"-man, 
upon acquiring the necessary amount of property, became 
ipso facto a " bo-aire " chief, because, in this cruse, there was 
no change of status, rus in the transaction afterwards nlell- 
tioned from the non-noble to the noLle class. This increase 
is attributed tú the profit" made by stock recei\wl from a 
lord in the first instance; for he is assumed to have com- 
mended himself to a lord; such would seem to be implied 
11)' the rule :-" In three days after notice half a portion 



(of fencing 1) is due from him for a field; a third part of 
the fee for his theft, and his drunkenness, and his laming, 
and of ' eric' fine for killing him. goes to his chief ;" the 
chief, hi
 lord, has a right to a certain amount of his labour, 
and a share in all damages for injuries done to him. 
A. The lowest grade of the general class of "bo-aires" is 
the" og-aire," that is a young-aire, one who lately acquired 
the rank of a "bo-aire ;" his property must, therefore, be 
assumed to be the minimum sufficient to quality for that 
rank. His property consists" of sevens;" seven cows and 
a bull; seven pigs anù a hoar; seven sheep, and one horse. 
The change in his position is markcd by the statement that 
"He has laml of tl1l'ee seven (21) cumhal value." The rigM 
to the land is connected with the possession of stock; but 
if a cumhal of land means enough land to graze a cumhal 
of cattle, or three cows, it would follow that he obtained 
f<razinn' land far in excess of that which was necessar y for 
b 0 
his assumed stock. That the lands of a " bo-aire " may have 
far exceeded what was requisite for the grazing of a stock 
of "sevens," appears from the statement that there might 
be four or five "aitLechs" on the land of one" bo-aire ;" 
and as each" aitbech " is defined as possessing ten cows, ten 
pigs, &c., the author must have contemplated the case of a 
" bo-aire's " lanùs being sufficient to graze fifty head of cattle, 
besides lesser beasts. The land held by the" bo-aire" was 
not his separate property, for there is a distinct reference to 
his paying one out of seven cows for the use of the land. 
The difficulty in understanùing the "bo-aire's" position 
arises fmIll their being no explanation of how or from whom 
he obtains the thrice seven cumhals of land. Stock, not 
land, is what the lord gave to the man who commenùed 
himself to him; thnt it was stock which was given pre-sup- 
poses that the inferior receiving the stock had, inùepenùently 
of his lord, the means of grazing them. It. may be assumed 
that the proportionate stock given to tbe freeman not pos- 
sessing other cattle, i.e., the "mibdboth"-man fixes the share 
in the pasturage lands of a tribe to which each freeman 
was absolutely entitled, and that the right to put a larger 



amount of stock upon the common pasture land, was connected 
with the actual amount ûf f;tock possessed by their owner j 
but that for every additional seven cattle put upon the lands, 
one was left as the payment for the year's grazing-the 
profits of the waste grazing lands would probahly in the 
end be monopolized by the chief, as the English feudal lords 
of manors contri ved to possess themsel yes of the waste. The 
" og-aire" also possessed one-fourth share in a plough, an ox, 
a plough-share, a goad, and a bridle, and a share (qneTe, one- 
fourth) in a kiln, a mill, and a barn. His house was nine- 
teen feet in length, with an out-house of thirteen. His 
proportionate stock was eight cows; his food-rent was a 
" dartaidh" heifer. His refection extended to two men, 
who were entitled to no more than milk and stirabout, and 
a certain amount of new or SOur milk and cakes. The pas- 
sage which describes the extent of his evidence, &c., and 
the amount of his honor-price, is very remarkable. It 
appears from a su hsequent passage that the normal amount 
of the honor-price, and legal value of the oath, &c., of a 
bo-aire, was five sed'! ;if. but in the case of an "oc-aire," this 
was reduced to three sedS' which fact is thus explained:- 
" And the two seds, which are wanting to it (Itislw1t01'-price) 
canting, because the stability of his house is not per- 
fect, and he is not competent to undertake liabilities for 
them, like every other "bo-aire" for the smallness of his 
property,t from which we must conclude that the new" bo- 
aire" was not a full" bo-aire," anù did not obtain the full 
rights incident to his rank until some subsequent period. 
B. Theseeond sub-division of the "bo-aire" is the "aithech," 
who is distinctly stated by our author not to be a " bo-aire," 
hut why he was not so considered it is difficult to discover, 
His property exceeded that of the" og-aire;" his stock was 
" ten," i.e., ten cows, ten pigs, ten sheep, &c.; his house was 
twenty feet in length, with a kitchen of fourteen; the value 
of his oath, &c., anù his honor-price was four seds; his pro- 
portionate stock was ten cows, and his food-rent the choiccst 
of a herd of cows, and a bacon, four sacks of malt, and a 

· Page :::09. 

t Page 307. 



wooden vessel of salt; hew3s entitled to refection for two,milk 
and stirabout, butter on Sunday, venison, sea-grass (1), onions 
and salt. His property and social position was superior to that 
ùf the" og-aire," and he was not considered as of the" bo- 
aire" rank, but what was styled" an inllnovalJle tenant." The 
rcason given for this is as follows :-" What is it that puts 
this man from Leing in the mnk of a ' Lo-aire l' BecauHe 
it may be that four or five such may occupy the land of a 
I bo-aire,' and it could not 1)e easy for each of them to be a 
, bo-aire.' ". What is very noteworthy as to this class is 
the disproportion of the food-rent to the other incidcnts of 
his position, and proves some uncertainty as to his status. 
He, although possessing cattle, is described as grazing them 
upon the land of a "bo-aire;" hut as a ." bo-aire " is not 
described as having any land of his OWll, it must mean that 
he was some kinù of sub-asHignee of the" bo-aire's" grazing 
rights, and that the transaction bore somc resemblance to 
the grazing partnerships refeITed to in the Book of Aicill.t 
c. The" bo-aire" febhsa, or the wealthy" bo-aire," is one 
who has acquired the full rights of his class. His property 
is larger than that of the "og-aire"-he has twelve 
ows and 
twice seven cumhals of land, a house of twenty-seven feet 
and a back-house of fifteen, a share in a mill and a kiln, 
barn, sheep-house, calf-house, and pig-stye. As before 
remarked, the value of his oath and his honor-price were five 
seds, his proportional stock twelve cows, and his food-rent a 
male" colpach" heifer with its accompaniments.: 
D. The next class, the "mhruighfhcr" is evidently an 
official of the" bo-aire" rank, not an independent sub-division 
of the entire class. He is "the I 10-aire' for obedience to 
judgment." His property is reprei'ented as twenty cows, 
two bulls, six bullocks, twenty hogs, twenty shepp, four 
house-fed hogs, two sows, and a horse, and he has also six- 
teen sacks of seed in the ground; he has a lawn for sheep 
ahout his house, a house of twenty-seven feet, and It 
back-house of seventeen feet, and outhouses. The value of 
his oath, &c., and his honor-price, ar
 six seds. His )lropor- 
to Page 309. t Ante, Vol. III., page U:!. t Page 311. 


clxxx vii 

tionate stock was two cumhals, and his foot-rent a cow with 
its accompaniments.- The very peculiar enumeration of 
fines for all conceivable injuries to himself and his property 
prove that he occupied an exceptional position. It would 
seem that he was in some way bound to offer hospitality 
to a' king, a bishop, a poet, or a judge " from off the road," 
and that his supply of eatables for such purpose was por- 
tion of his" obedience to judgment." 
E. The highest uf the members of the "bo-aire" class is 
described under the title of the" fer-fothla chief," and was 
so called because his cattle having become too numerous for 
the grazing which he himself possessed, he had commenced 
to give them out to others as taurcreic, or additional stock. 
There is no amount of property fixed as the necessary quali- 
fimtiou for this rank, the test of the qualification for which 
was that his property was in excess of his means of supplying 
necessary grazing. The amount of his honor-price and the 
value of his oath, &c., is eight seds, his house was twenty- 
seven feet in length, with a back-hou'le of seventeen. His 
proportionate stock was four cumhaIs, and his food-rent a 
cow with accompaniments one year, and a male colpach 
heifer the other. 
A "fer-fothla" chief manifestly stood at the head of the 
" bo-aire" class, fur it was the" fer-fothla" who is described 
as passing from the non-noble to the noble grade in the 
manner subsequently discus<;ed. 
F. The" aire-coisring" chief is evidently an official person, 
and not a sub-division ofthe " bo-aire" class. He is described 
thus :-" \Yhy is the' aire-coisring' (i.e., the binding' aire') 
so called? Because that he Linùs people, king, and synod 
on behalf of his tribe (cenel), in their rights of safety by 
verLal engagements; but they concede to him leadership, 
and a right to speak before (or for) them. He is the family 
chief then. He gives a pledge for his family to king, aIllI 
synod, and professional men, to restrain them in obedience."t 
His honor-price and the value of his oath, &c., were fixed at 
eight seds. His house was thirty feet in length, and the 

· P
'6e :.H 1- 

t Page 3] 7. 



outhouse nineteen. His proportionate stock was five cum- 
hala, and his food-rent a cow with its accompaniments, amI 
a male" culpal:h" heifer, with its proportion of other food. 
No amount of property is fixed as a necessary qualification.. 
The" aire-fothla" pmssed undcr pcculiar circumstances from 
the" bo-aire" cIa,>:;; into the noble cIa:>s-that of the" flaiths." 
These are eXplained in the following pa
sage of the teÜ :- 
"'Vhen docs the' Aithech' -tenant become a chief ha viug the 
bo-airich-ship 1 Upon going into a true green (the extent 
of precinct suitable to the rank of a flaith). When he has 
as much as the' aire-desa,' it is then he is an aire-desa, &c."t 
'Yhen we turn to the explanation of an "aire-desa" dlÏef's 
qualifications in a subsequent page, the following passage 
occurs :-" And he is the son of an ' aire,' and the grandson 
of an ' aire.' "t The" bo-airc-fothla" chief did not atbtÏn the 
rank of a" flaith" by merely purchasing an acre uf land, for 
there is no reference to land in the transaction; nor did he 
acquire it by virtue of posscssing merely the }Jroperty of a 
" fiaith," for his property was required to be double of that 
at which a "flaith-desa" was valued, nor again could he be 
considered a" fiaith," unless both his father and grandfitthcrs 
were" aires," which must mean something more than they 
had been" bo-aires." That there was some element of here- 
ditary descent requisite to fix the social position of a " flaith" 
all analogy leads us to expect. 'rhe elevation of a .. bo-aire" 
to the rank of a flaith was not simply cqui valent to his being 
rated at a higher valuation. He acquired what was called 
the" deis" -right, which is thus defined in the text :-" What 
is the deis-right of a 'Haith' 1 The goodly right to protect 
his office 0/' Tanl
. There are four' deis'-rights prescriùed 
for the ' Haith' -chief. The ancient prutection of the people 
(or territory) is his office in the territory, together with the 
office of leader, or 'tanist'-leader of the lLi'lny, whichever 
office it may be, of his' giallna'-tenants, his 'suer-tenants, 
his' sen-cIeithe' -tenants, the punishment of every imperfect 
service, the following of cottier tenants and' fuidhcr'-tcnallts 

.. l'aj;e 31f1. 

t Page 317. 

t I'a
e :t!l. 



whom he brings upon his land, because his wealth is the 
greater and better."- And again, " 'Yhy is the' aire-desa' 
so called? Because of the fact that it is on account of his 
'deis'-rights that he is paid' dire-'fine. Xot so the' bo-aire' 
chief; it is in right of his cows he is paid' dire' -fine."t 
Upon this subject Mr. Hearn makes the following ob- 
servations :-" Among the members of the cJan itself, within 
the 'cinel,' in the striet sense of the term, and apart from 
the exeeptional privileges of the royal house, there was a 
well-marked difference. That difference was between the 
noble and the free, or, as it may otherwise be expressed, be- 
bvpen the gentle and simple. Both classes were equally 
members of the clan, and, to a certain extent had equal 
rights. But both by public opinion, and by the custom 
which supplied the place of law, certain sections of the 
community possessed, in comparison with other sections 
thereof, an acknowledged superiority. Their deseent wac;; 
purer; their wealth was greater; their wer.geld was higher; 
their share in the public lands, or in the distribution of 
booty, was larger; they were the natural leaders of the 
community in war, and its natural councillors in peace. 
Accordingly, we observe in the eady history of all Aryan 
nations, the presence of what may be called a natural 
aristocracy, as the leaders and kinsmen of a natural demo- 
cracy. It is not difficult to understand that some households 
should be mure prosperous, more numerous, and more 
wealthy than the others. Yet these advantages are rather 
the effects than the cuuses of such a difference as that 
which we are considering. Even if there were no evidence, 
that in at least certain societies, land was distrihuted accord- 
ing to the rank of its holders, they are inadequate to explain 
all the facts of the case. They may account for the differ- 
ence in modern society, where individuals rise and fall with 
a rapidity unknown to archaic nations; but they do not 
explain the strongly marked lines, which intersect the 
society of the ancient world. The preceding inquiries point, 
for the cause of the difference, to some sentiment connected 
. Page 3:?1. t Page 3



with the peculiar religion of our forefathers, and conse!] uentl y 
aflècting their descent. The facts correspond with the ex- 
pectation. A certain series of pure descents was sufficient 
to estaLlish freedom, and a share in the government of the 
community, and in the distribution of lands; but another 
and a larger series was necessary for the full enjoyment of 
all the honours and all the consideration which the com- 
munity could give." " The rule of nobility seems to be the 
result of two other rules. One is that fundamental 
principle of taking the common great-f.'l.'andfather as the 
stock or founder of the joint family or :Mæg; the other is 
the rule of the Three Descents. The effect of the latter rule 
was, that for the purpose of acquiIing full rank in any par- 
ticubr status, the claimant must Hhow that his father and 
Loth (1) his grandfathers had held that status. Oonsequently, 
a man who claimed to belong to the nobility of the clan must 
show that his grandfather was noLle-that is, that his grand- 
father had a kin, or in other words, had a great-great-grand- 
father who was a freeman." After refen-ing to various other 
archaic systems of law, :Mr. Hearn makes the following re- 
marks upon the existence of this rule among the Celtic 
nations :-"The Celtic nations also exhibit traces of a 
similar custom. In Cymric law, the descendant of the 
original Altud or stranger to the district, was, after the lapse 
of three generations, ranked as a" Briodwr j" and thence- 
forth became irremovable, and was entitled to his share in 
the lands of the 'vicinity.' In Scotland a similar rule ap- 
plied to serfs, although it is possible that in this case the 
rule may have been introduced from England. In Ireland 
the descendants of a Bo-aire, or CeOl'I, might aspire, when 
they possessed land (1) for three genemtions, to become 
Flaths.". So, too, ., A' FuidldT' Dunilyt in the fourth gene- 
ration-indeed, in the third, for the Door Botaeh had also 
right of settlement-could not be ejected from the land. 
That is, the third tlùscendant was capable of transmitting 
heritable right, and the fourth of ltC!ll1Ïsition by virtue of 
such right." As a curious exemplification of this principle, 
.. !\IanncTs and Cn
toms, &c., Vol. I., p. cix. t lb., p. cxxi. 




Mr. Hearn refers to a passage in the Introduction of the 
preceding volume relative to the c1aims of his original 
church upon the property of a former member.- Upon the 
pr:,ctical working of this rule !1r. Hearn further remarks: 
-" These considerations indicate the triple distinction of 
the ancient free population. It consisted of freedmen, of 
freemen, and of nobles. The distinction rested exc1usively 
upon blood, and could not, therefore, be removed by grant 
either of people or of King. By the operation of time, if 
there were no disturbing influences, each lower dass natur- 
ally passed into the one next above it. Each step of the 
promotion brought with it increased consideration, additional 
strength and influence, by reason of a more numerous 
kindred, and more extended alliances, and no small material 
advantage, both direct and indirect. At a later period, when 
the depemlent portion of the hom,ehold Lecame developed, 
and the Gesimlsch1tft was established, other varieties of rank 
arose. Nobility was then derived, not from birth, but from 
official position, and attendance upon the throne."t 
The itlpa of" limitation" in the Irish law was connected with 
three successive lives, either of three persons in lineal de- 
scent, grandfather, father, and son; or of three successi" e Ovcr 
lords, as in the case of Daer Fuidhir tenants,t or of three 
successive owners, as in the case of rights of water. The 
sallie idea of three, or its multiples, being the basis of such 
calculations, also appears in the passage in this tract, stating 
that cottiers and .< fuidhir" -tenante;; been "senc1eithe"- 
tenants, and irremovaole after serving for Iúne times rune 
We may now proceed with the analysis of the remaining 
ranks in the tribe. 

· Vol. I II., p. lxix. 
t These extral'l' are selected from the VIllth Chapter of " The Ar.ran House- 
hold," pp. 1!J3 to 209. 
::: Up,.n this puint 1I1r. Hearn ,",ems to have fallen into error.- V.S. 



1. The "airc-desa".-The property with refercnce to which 
this and the subsequent clasl> are arrangcd, is manifestly 
land, as the number of the tenants of each is respectively 
stated, as in the non-noble classes the number of their cattle. 
The tenants of the" aire-desa" were ten, five " giaUna," and 
five" saer "-tenants. The amount of food to be furnished by 
the tenants is stated in detail. An incidcnt to the right of 
fea<;ting at the houses of his tenants (" coshering ") was thc 
number of pcrsons whom hc might take to their houses from 
the" Calends" to Shrovetide; tcn couples are the number 
specificd in this case; in return he was expected "to pro- 
tect his tenants in aU just suits of ' cain' law and 'cairde'- 
law, standing towards them in the relation of a p:ttron to his 
clients. The legal value of his oath, &c., and honor-price 
was tcn ' seds '; the length of his housc twenty-seven feet; 
his proportionate stock was six ' cumhals,' amI his food-rent 
two cows.". 
2. The" aire-echta " was an offieer of the tribc, and does 
not represent a class; this is obvious beeause no property, 
qualification, rights, or liabilities, are specified in his case.t 
The duty of the" aire-echta" was" to avenge the insult offered 
to a territory in which a person was lately killed;" he was 
an appointed avenger of wrongs. This is illustrated by thc 
case of the blinding of Cormac Mae Airt, " Acngus Ga.blmai- 
deeh" was an "aire-echta" (translated" champion "), who 
was avenging a family quarrcl in the territories of Luighnc, 
and he went into a woman's housc there and drank milk in 
it by force; and thc woman said, " It were Letter for thee 
to avenge the daughter of thy kinsman upon CeUach, son of 
Cormac, than to consume my food by forcc."; Aengus there- 
upon at once proceeaed to Temhair and slew CeUach; the 
point of the story seems to be that the woman reproached 
the "aire-echta" for plundering her under colour of avenging 
a family quarrel, while hc left unperformed the more im- 
portant and dangerous duty of slaying the king's son for thc 
abduction of one of thc womcn of the trihc. 
.. Page 321. t Page 223. : Ante, VIII. III., page 8;;. 




3. The "aire-anl." He had twenty tenants, ten giaIlna, 
and ten" saer "-tenants; twenty couple were "his right on 
a fea.sting;" his honor-price and the value of his oath, &c., 
was fixed at fifteen seds; his proportionate stock was seven 
cc eumhals," and hi
 food rent three cows. There is no state- 
ment as to the size of his house.. 
4. The "aire-tuisi," who had twenty-seven tenants, fifteen 
" giaUna" tenants, and twelve "saer" tenants; he ha.l 
thirty couples at the feasting. The value of his oath, &c., 
and hili! honur-price was fixed at twenty" seds "; his house 
was twenty-nine feet in length; his proportionate Rtoek was 
eight" cumhals," and four cows his food rent. The aire- 
tuisi in the thinl generation participated in the government 
of the tribe. "He makes ('lssist:s in making 1) 'corns '-ar- 
rangements in the 'raith' right of his father and grand- 
5. The" aire-forgaill " stood in rank at the head of tho 
nobles, and next to the king and tanist; his position is 
marked by the words" he testifies to the cluu'actcl' of the 
grades we have enumerate(l, in every case in which a denial 
of a charge is sought, because his quality is superior to that 
of his companions." This passage might lel,,1 to the conclu- 
sion that the cc aire-forgail" was an official who had the 
power of deciding the status of the individual members of 
the tribe, but ina<;Illuch as the" aire-forgaill " chief is intro- 
duced into the list of titles of dignities iT. the Rubsequent 
tract, although the" aire-echta " is omitted, it IS probably 
that the name indicates a cla<;s, not an office, and that the 
right to give evidence as to the status of a member of a tribe 
was incident to the position of the first class of the nobles. 
He hall forty tenants, twenty "giallna" and twenty "saer"- 
tenants; the value of his oath, kc., awl honor-price was 
fixed at fifteen sells; his hou<;e was thirty feet in length; 
his proportionate stock nine "cumhals," and his food rent 
five cows.
6. The" tanist" of the king or his electell successor. He bad 
five" seneleithe "-t:mants more than an "aire-forgaill"-chiet 

.. Page 32;;. 

t P.lge 321. 

::: Page 329. 



from which it may be conjccturCfl that his father and grand- 
father must also have been "aire-forgaill" chiefs. His honor- 
price and the value of his oath was fixed at thirty seds; ten 
" cumhals" were his proportionate stock, and six cows his 
food rent. There is no reference as to the Rize of his house, 
or his receipts from his tenants, which may be a
sumed to 
have heen considered the same as those of the "aire-forgaill" 
chief, and it is pTobable that the additional five" sencleithe "- 
tenants, which he is stated to have, were not in addition to 
the number of the tenants required for the rank of an aire- 
forgaill, but are introduced to indicate that his tenants had 
acquired the position of "sencleithe "-tenants under his 
family, as a pToof of the status of the tanist himself.- 
7. The king. This rank is sub-divided into three classes:- 
A. A king of hills or of horns; the term is not easy of ex- 
planation; it, however, is used to designate the position of 
the head of a fully organized tribe. Naturally no property 
qualification is annexed to this rank. His honor-price and 
the value of his oath, &c., were fi"ed at seven "cumhals "; 
his proportionate stock was twelve" eumhals," and his food 
rent six eowS. The size of his house is not stated.- 
. B. A king of companies, the head king of three or four 
reguli. His honor-price and the value of his oath, &c., were 
fixcd at eight "cumhals," for which amount his "Rick 
maintenance" was to be eommuted; his proportionate stock 
was fifteen" cumhals," and his food rent eight cows.t 
c. The head king, whose supreme position is indicated by 
the passage, "under his control cvery chief is who cannot be 
correeted by his lord." His honor-price and the value of 
his oath, &c., were fixed at fourteen cumha18; as the supreme 
head he could give, but not receive, cattle, and therefore there 
is no reference in thi8 case to proportionate stock or food 
rent.t His residence is described with much particularity as 
a fortified" dun" fort, but the length of his house does not 
much exceed tbat of the higher noble classes, being only 
thirty feet. 
The rank of every freeman determined that of theil' family 
.. Pnge 329. t Page 331. 



and dependents, and entitled them to proportionate com- 
pensation. "Half the sick maintenance of a man of every 
grade is due for his lawful son, and his wife; for it is half 
which is due for every lawful pe-rson, one-fourth for every 
unlawful one. TIle wives of mercenary soldiers have sick 
maintenance in right of their sons and husbands. Stewards 
and conriers are- sustained with half the maintenance of thcir 
chief. They arrange that their share in the maintcnance 
corresponds with their sustenance by their chief. Every 
artizan who makes the manufactures of a chief, or a church, 
is sustained with half maintenance, according to the rank 
of each person whose manufacture he makes.". 
The object of the author in fixing the number seven as 
the basis of his classification appears in the passage:...J!." The 
maintcnance of cvery grade in the church is the same as 
that of its co-grade in thc laity.". He desired to treat the 
seven grades of the church as corrclative to the seven grades 
of thc laity, the oðtico'ÙLS corresponding to the" mbidhoth "_ 
man, and the Lishop to the King; Or rather, finding the 
number of gradcs in the church fixed at seven, he attempts 
to classify the laity in seven gradcs, and either omits or 
interpolates ranks to produce the required result. This filCt 
is conclusive of the extremely unreliablc nature of the 
cla.'isification contained in this tract, and the impo..,sibility 
of treating it as historical evidence of the organization of 
an Irish tribe at any period. 
The analysis of this classification is shown in the annexed 
table. None of the incidents of any rank are introduced 
except such as are more or less Common to all, and capable 
of being numerically expressed. 
In these tables the names of the r classes printed in Italics 
are those which are rejected upon the ultimate analysis. 
The introduction of the" aire-echta" to make up the number 
is manifest in this table. The series of numbers in all the 
columns seem to have been fixed before he was introduced, 
and any numerical qualifications attributed to him would 
have dcstroyed the regularity of the numerical sequence. 

.. P3 b e 333. 




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If we turn to the sdleme of the ranks of a tribe contained 
in the next tract, we find the arrangement wholly differcnt. 
The titles of rank (or of discredit) given here amount to 
twenty-six. The arrangement is in the inverse order of that 
in the present tract, commencing with the King and pro- 
ceeding downwards. The nine last of these classes may be 
disregarded as l'epresenting the unfree class. They are 
discribed as not p05sessing the right to go into the assembly 
who had no dire tine, and were not worthy to enter into 
bonds or securities. 
There remain therefore seventeen distinct terms, represent- 
ing, according to the author, so many classes of the free 
members of the community. Their respectivE' grades 
are marked solely by the amount of their honor-price, 
and the number of persons to free feeding they were eu- 
titleù. A reference to the case of the class No. 9 (the 
henchman" scidlmid "), and class 21, the" aÍ7'e-tuisi ", will 
show that the phrase" free feeding" means the supply of 
food to a certain number of individuals, not a right to pas- 
ture so many head of cattle. The sequence of the ranks of 
the free persons in the tribe, according to the sequel, woulù 
be represented as follows :- 
Ranko. I Property. I Free.feeding. Honor-price. 

The "Uaitne," 
The I second' of a U Eo-aire, n 
The" Bo-sire, . . 
A "F laethem" of one rQ,8øal, 
A half" F laethem .. perøon, 
Afull .. Flaeth m" perøon, 
A "dae" perlo", . 
A,. " amruth ,- per,oR, . 

Xone, . 
8 cows,. 
10 " 

An" Whna" ]Jer.oR, 

An "aire-fine n ('hief, . 
An U aire-desa '. Chief. . 
An .. aire-tuiøi" Chief, 
An ., aire-ard" C/âif, . 
An "sire-forgailI ., Chief, 
A King of tbe 3rd rank, 
A King of the 2nd rank, 
A of the 3rd, 

2 and a cow, 



5 seds. 
4 half cumhals. 
1- cumba1 and a 
3 thirds of a cum- 
7 cumhals to four. 
1 cumhal to se, en. 
Ii cumbals. 
3i cumhala. 
3i cumhals. 
ï! ('umh8
14 cumbals. 
5 cumhals of gold 
and a je..el. 

As to the ranks common to Loth, the fúllowing rcsult 



may ùe arrived at by a comparison of the tests:-The 
freeman, without any property, is called in the Crith 
GaLhlach a "mbidLoth," and in the sequel an "uiatne"- 
man, these two terms reprcscnting the lowcst dass must be 
The "og-aire" of the first li:st corresponds partly with 
the' second' of a" bo-aire," and partly with the "bo-aire" 
of the second list. 
The" aire-desa" is common to both, and it appears from 
the amount of their hOllor-price, that the "full flaithem" 
and the" aire-desa " of the second list are identical. 
The titles of the "aire-ard," "aire-tuisi," and "aire-forgail," 
are common to both lists, but the latter tract treats the 
"aire-ard" as identical with the" aire-forgaill." The sequel 
treats the" aire-ard" (or" airc-forgaill") and the" aire-tuisi," 
as officials simply, and they should, according to this autho- 
rity, be struck off the list of the classes of society. 
The result will be to reduce the number of the actual 
ranks of society to four :-(1) the" m ùidnoth " or "uaitne" 
man, thc freeman without property; (2) the" og-aire," or 
Lo-aire, the freeman possessing a property qualification; 
(3) the" aire-desa," the noblc with property qualification; 
and (4) three gr
des of Kingship. It is to be remarked 
that at these points the valuation as to honor-price exactly 
If we refer to the scale of compensation for the death of 
any person killed, as sct out in the Book of Aicill, the result 
is as follows :- 

1. A king, bishop, professor, chief poct,.and every 
archmech person, or bcst "aire-forgail" 
2. A middle or lower "aire-forgaill" chief, or 
.. aire-ard" chief, 
3. An "aire-tuisi," or " aire-desa" chief, . 
4. A" bo-aire," or " og-aire" chief, . 
5. A " fer-midbaidh " person, . 
6. A" flescach" person, or .. dair "-workman, 

14 cumhals. 

7 do. 
4 do. 
3 do. 
2 do. 
1 do." 

.. Vol. iii., 1>.4;5. 



Upon a comparison of these three lists, the following 
results follow; that the essential distinctions as to ranks 
were five only, viz. :-(a) the Kings of three orders, and those 
persons, who, from their official position, were placed in the 
same category i (b) the nobles, who were sub-divided into 
four classes :-the "aire-forgaill," the" aire-ard," the" aire- 
tuisi," and "aire-desa" ; and that the best" aire-forgaill " 
filled an official position, which placed him in the same 
tegory as the king; (c) the freeman possessing property, 
the" bo-aire;" ({l) the freeman without property i and (e) 
the non-free classes. 
That a great proportion of the classes introduced into 
the sequel are purely imaginary is evident upon the face 
of the tract. As between this tract and the Crith Gabh- 
lach, to which it is supposed to be a sequel, the list in 
the former appears the more ancient and trustworthy i 
the author of the sequel, if he had had the Crith Gabhlach 
before him, never would have abandoned the principle of 
systemizing the ranks in sevens, nor omitted so many as 
seven of the grades. He also ignores the precise directions 
as to the sizes of their respecti ve houses, and the amount of 
their furniture, which occupy so large a proportion of the 
Crith Gabhlach, and he does not allude to the amount of 
proportionate stock and food rent, which in the Crith 
Gabhlach is stated as an essential mark of rank, upon the 
assumption that all classes were bound in a feudal tie to 
some superior. The statement in the Book of Aicill is clear 
and practical, and is far more valuable as an authority than 
the later tracts. It naturally folio" s that we regard the 
Crith Gabhlach as, to a great extent, an imaginary work, the 
Utopia of a Brehon Lawyer, and, although containing very 
numerous fragments of archæic law, not affording any dis- 
tinct basis of an historical character; and that a description 
of the condition of the ancient Irish nation, if founded upon 
a faith in the Crith Gabhlach, as descriptive of an existing 
order of society, must be considered as merely imaginary. 
The concluding portion of this tract discusses the duties, 
rights, and appropriate mode of lifc of a king, according to 



the standard of tl1C period; of the ideal king, WllO is des- 
cribed as a man full of lawfulness in all respects, consulted 
for knowledge, learneù and calm. 
Although thcre is difficulty in eÀplaining many of the 
details, a definitc picture is given of the mutual relations of 
the king and his people, and the mode of life at the date of 
the work. The duties and rights of the king are conceived 
as resting upon lJÏs reprebentative character; as the" flaith," 
as the patron of his retainers or clientèle, or the head of the 
house on behalf of his fhmily, represents in the ai"sembly or 
before the judge all those technically "in his lumd," so 
the kings stands as the agent of his tribe; "he swears for 
them to the king (i.e., to the superior king) on behalf of the 
territory. He dellies (or makes oath) on their behalf; he 
pro\yes for thcm to the e:dent of seven cumhals. He goes 
into co-judgment, into co-evidence, with the king for llis 
people.". The relation of the king to the tribe implied 
reciprocal rights and duties, as that of head of the house- 
llOld to its members :-" They are entitled to righteous judg- 
ments. They are entitled to a pledge on their pal t. They 
are cntitled to sustenance as they sustain."iI- In three cases 
the king is authorized to bind tlle pcople by his promise 
made on their behalf; viz., a pledge for hosting, which means 
a levy of the armed force for a definite purpose, thrce of which 
arc stated in the text; a pledge for right; and a pledge 
fin" international regulations. .For three purposes the king 
was entitled to call the people together; for a fair, for a 
meeting for correction, or making a contract, or fQr the pur- 
pose of accompanying himself to the boundary.- The para- 
graph commencing in page 33.5 states :-" There arc now 
four rights which a king pledges his people to ohserve." 
By this, having rcfpl"ence to the passage which follows, 
should prûl.aLly be unùerstood the rights which the king is 
entitled to exercise as against the people; the measure and 
extent of his cxecutive authority. The first right mentioned 
is the right of" Ji'pneehus "-law, hut it is added :-" It is the 
people who proclaim it. It is the king that proclaims the 
* 1'8
C 333. 



other three rights, and it is the king that enforces them." 
The enactment of rules to bind the people rested with the 
people themselves; the king had no legislative power; he 
enforced obedience to the law, but could not himself enact 
one. As the idea of the enactment of a new law, in tþe 
correct use of the term, wa..., quite foreign to the state of 
society with which we are dealing, this perhaps might be more 
correctly expressed by the statement that the people de- 
clared the custom, and made the regulations incident thereto, 
and that the king carried them out into execution; having 
reference to the second right attributed to the king, the 
"Fenechus "-law proclaimed by the people dealt with the 
division and management of the tribe land, which at the 
present day is the all-engrossing business of the Swiss Com- 
The second right of the king is defined as "a right after 
they have been defeated in battle, and he consolidates his 
people afterwards so that they are not broken up; and a 
right after a mortality.". Both of the circumstances under 
,vhich this right of the king arose, are cases in which the 
tribe had suffered the loss of many of its members, and the 
relative proportions of the several households had been 
materially altered, and for the stability of the tribe, anI} to 
ensure cultivation, it would be requisite to redistribute the 
tribe land among the surviving members. The extreme case 
of a tribe having been driven out of its original territory, 
and establishing itsclfin a new district, would be an instance 
of the circumstances under which the exercise of this 
unusual authority on the part of the king would be neces- 
sary; so also if, by any casualty, a large proportion of the 
tribe perished (we frequently read in history of the destruc- 
tion or banishment of an entire gens), the result must have 
been, to a greater or less extent, a recasting of a mode in 
which the tribe land was distributed. 
The third right is defined as that of the King of Cashel 
in Munster, that is, such well-known rights as the King 
of Cashel, taking him as the leading case, is understood 
* Page 335. 



to possess.- Three such are enumerated, the first of 
wl1Ìch is obvious enough, "the right to help him to 
drive out foreign races." The right secondly mentioned, 
"a right for the sowing of seed," is not so simple or easy 
of explanation. Dr. O'Donovan eXplained it as a right of 
the head king, when the under kings were fig1lting among 
themselves and neglecting their legitimate business, to 
compel them to abstain from hostilities, and" to sow their 
lands." This is a remarkable instance of the habit of 
attributing the morals and ideas of the nineteenth century 
to the members of a semi-civilized community, and assuming 
that they did act as we think that we ourselves ought to 
. Thi
 passage in the original text manifcstly refers to the celcbrated Psaltcr 
of Cashcl, supposed to have been written by St. Benean (or Benignus) to appease 
his relations, justl)" indignant that he, being a lIIunsterman, had blessed Con- 
nacht, whither he had been sent by St. Patrick to preach Christianity. 
"Cognati Sancti Benegni, ut populus Eoganiæ Cas>elcnsis, Olildiana progenics, 
et alii 1IIomouicnse., audito prædicto ejus facto, non parulll offcnsi et contra virum 
Dei indignati dicuntur. S. autem Benignu", ut ist 1m offcn"am ali'Iuo grato 
déIueret obsequio, f.lmosum illud chronicon, quod Psalterium Gcuselense nuncu- 
patur, inchoa, it et composuit; in quo non solum tot ius lIiberniæ 1IIonarchorll
scd specialiter :Mumoniæ, acta, jura, prærogath æ, et successio censcriLantur. "-- 
Colgan, Trias Thaum, c. 33, p" 20;;. If we are to assume that the Book of 
Rights practically represents and contains the substance of the Psalter of Cashel, 
the U right of a king" refers merely to the amount of food and supplics '" hich he 
was entitled to receive from his feudat<>ry chiefs. The Book of Rights is siugu- 
larly de,oid of any legal information or value whatsoever. If the author of this 
trcatise was acquaiuted with the Psalter of C.lshel, or the Book of Rights, it is 
difficult to understand how he ha
 placcd the feudal relation of the kings and 
their chiefs upon the taking of cattle and food rcut, and not upon the reccipt by 
the chiefs of thc extravagant and fabulous gifts stated in the Book of Rights. 
The gifts represented in the Book of Rights, as prcscnted by the King of Cashe1 
to his feudatorics, arc, of course, imaginary; but that a "king of companies" 
should take from the head king fiftecn cumhals of cattle as his proportionate 
stock, and pay eight Co" s as the food rcnt of his house, is equally incredible. It 
"ould seem that both al1thors, each after his own fashion, "cre de
irous of 
stating the relative positions of the King of Cashcl and his unùer kings. Thc 
relation wa, created by the receipt by the inferior from the superior of some 
benefit, :.Lnd a subsequent rcndcr of service in consideration of it. Thc actual 
transaction may have taken a merely B)"Inbulical shape, which the author of the 
nook of Rights has exaggerated in a poetic (?) form, and thc author of this tract 
described in accordance with thc usage prcvalcnt among the lower classes. As 
thcre may be some who be1icve that St. Benean wrote thc l'saltcr of Cashel, I 
do not rely upon the reference to that work as a conclusive e' ide nee of the date 
of this tract. 



haye acted if placed in their position. If the over-lords had 
exercised this right it would have been very fortunate for 
the general body of tIle people, and the greater part of the 
annals would never have been written. The simplest ex- 
planation appears to be that the king could enforce the 
cultivation of the tribe-land in the ordinary course of cus- 
tomary husbandry. The third right is that" of lighting up 
religion, such ru; is found in the right (or law) of Adamnan."- 
The historical celebrity of the" Cain-Adamnan" arose from 
the rule exempting women from liability to military service; 
but this rule was only onc of the clauses, and the reference 
IlCre made seems to be to those enacting the performance of 
specified religious duties. 
The rank of the king was regarded as official, not 
personal; if, therefore, he engaged in the labour fit only 
for a plebeian, he was for the time being reduced to the 
plebeian grade, and his dire fine assessed accordingly. 
The four occasions when he thus lost his status were 
when he used a clod-mallet, or a shovel, or a spade, or 
when he travelled alone. The reason for this latter rule is 
remarkable: .. This might be the day upon which a woman 
alone (without witnesses) might swear her child upon a king 
a day upon which no one could give testimony but herself 
alone,"*' a rule not devised for the protection of the moral 
character of the king, but to prevent the danger of the 
introduction into the family of the king of spurious bastards, 
and to guard against such mischief as was caused by the 
facility with which Shane O':
lel acknowledged all children 
attributed to him. In one other case the king lost his status, 
and was entitled to the" dire "-fine of a non-noble person: 
when in retreating from battle he was wollnded in the back. 
Upon this point the author remarks, with characteristically 
trivial accuracy, that the rule did not apply when the 
weapon had passed through the body and came out at the 
The days of week are in this treatise portioned out to the 
yarious duties and pleasures of the king.*' He abstained 
· Page 335. 



from labour on Sunday, but his" occupation" upon this day 
wa'i drinking ale, and di
tributing it to others, "lIe is not a 
lawful Flaith who does not distIibute ale every Sunday." 
Strange to say there is no allusion to any religious ceremo- 
nial, an omission the more remarkable as the author writes 
under evident ecclesiastical influence. The remaining days 
of the week were appropriated as follows: Monday to public 
lJUsiness (" for causes for the adjustment of the people "), 
Tuesday to chess, "Tednesday to cOlU"bing, ThuThday to 
marriage duties, Friday to horse racing, and Saturday to 
announcing his decisions (" giving judgments "). Such a 
passage is tJ,lllple proof how much of the details and arrangc- 
ments in this treatise are purely fantastic. No one for a 
moment imagines that a king spent his time in the absurd 
routine here suggcsted; yet it is not, in our opinion, more 
imaginary than the preceding specification of the size of the 
houses and the amount of thc furniture of the respective 
grades of society. Such a work as the present can be relied 
upon in its general results only; as to the numerical details 
we have no means of distinguishing which are imaginary 
and which are exact. 
The king was responsible, both to his own people and to 
externs, for illegal or irregular seizures or requisitions; this 
appears in a negati ve form from the exceptions to his assumed 
liability. The three excepted cases are: (1) the requisition 
levied upon a rebellious and reconquered territory; (2) a 
requisition upon the members of his own tribe when an extern 
king was his guest; when there was an unusual demand 
upon his hospitality; (3) the seizure of dry cattle which 
have trespassed upon the tribe waste. In the two latter 
cases the cattle were to be restored, which proves that what 
the author was treating was not the return of (or paYIl1ent 
for) the goods, but the consequences of theil' illegal seizure. 
The duty of hospitality is strongly enforced upon the 
king; such is the meaning of the paragraph commencing, 
"There are three fastings which bring no offence to a king.". 
The fasting alluded to is not the fasting of the king, but tho 
,. Page 337. 



fa<;ting of his guests; a failure in the duty of hospitality is 
only excused by the absolute want of the means of pro- 
viùing the nece
sary food; what we should express in one 
general term is here stated in the form of three special ex- 
ceptions. At the conclusion of the tract, the author describes 
an Irish king sitting in state at the head of his retainers 
and court; and in the passage it is certain that he has 
omitted no detail which, in his opinion, enhanced the splen- 
dor, or testified to the power, wealth, and luxury of a Celtic 
prince of the period.- At the south end of the house, 
which must be understood to be a large four-sided hall, are 
posted the body guards of the king, four in number; these 
are not men of his house, or of his tribe, but broken, land- 
less men, whom he had freed from dungeon or gallows, or 
from seryitude of the lowest grade, men without tribe or 
home, who existed only as the hirelings of their masters; the 
man, whose life the king had spared in battle, was not con- 
sidered as sufficiently in his power, "for he may lay hands 
upon him and kill him out of devotion to hi.'I own chief m. 
people" -such a man could not be trusted, for he had a tribe 
and home to which he might return. The four guards sur- 
rOlmd the king-one in front, one in the rere, and one on 
either side; to secure the fidelity of these mercenaries, they 
are watched by another stranger, one of the hostages fur- 
nished by the subject tribes, or the under kings; it is easy 
to see that if this man was a hostage for the fidelity of his 
tribe, they in turn were securities for his personal fidelity 
to the king, to secure which, further, he was allotted land to 
the large amount of seven cumhals, equivalent to the honor- 
price and judicial value of an under king; he is seated by 
the guards behind to watch their actions. From the kina's 
right hand, along the east wall of the hall, are ranged suc- 
cessively his guests, his poets, his harpers, flute-players, 
horn-blowers, and jugglers; opposite the king, at the other 
end of the hall, sits his champion, who would be described 
in an Eastern court as "his chief fighting man;" on the 
king's left hand, along the western side of the hall, are 
· Page 339. 



ranged his wife, his brehon, and his" saer "-tenants, or noLle 
vassals; at the door is stationed a "man of deeds," to keep 
it; before the champion and the doorward is set up the 
spear of each "against the confusion of the ale-house;" 
close to the champion, in chains, stand the "unredeemed 
hostages," whose appearance in fetters was manifestly an 
essential portion of the spectaèle. Having exhibited the 
king in fulness of his power and splendour, the author asks: 
"Which is greater, a king or a bishop 1 The bishop," he 
replies, "is higher, because the king stands up (to salute 
hi-m,), by reason of religion. A bishop, however, raises his 
knee to a king.". 
The impression produced by the Crith Gabhlach as to the 
condition of the Irish people at the date of its composition, 
is very unfavorable. Their houses must have been small 
and ill-furnished; the length of the house of an " og-aire" is 
set down as seventeen feet--about the size of the cottage 
of poorer class of farmers of the present day-and the house 
of the head king is stated to measure only thirty-seven feet 
in length; from this we must conclude that the habits and 
mode of life of the upper and lower classes were very simi- 
lar; the houses would seem to have consisted each of one 
room only; the description of a house, as having so many 
" bcds," not rooms, in it, shows that they all slept in one 
chamber; the houses were wood, or wattle-work, of a very 
unsubstantial character; the back hon<;e so often alluded to 
was probably a detached kitchen; the furniture described is 
of the simplest nature, and in insignificant quantity; al- 
though some golden and silver articles are mentioned, there 
is scarcely an allusion to rich dresses, jewels, personal orna- 
ments, or works of art; the ordinary diet seems to have 
been of the coarsest description; and it is remarkable that 
there is no allusion to wine throughout; the description of 
the king's court must be very much exaggerated, or the size 
of his house under-estimated, for it would be impossible to 
crowd into a room of thirty-seven feet in length, the number 
of persons detailed as fanning hi9 court and retinue; the 
,. P .lóC 331). 




wnnt of refincment in manners is marked by the fact of the 

. champion and man of deeds at the palace retaining their 
spears" against the confu",ion of the ale-house." 
The old tribal organization continued to be the supposed 
form of their social system. We read of the king calling his 
people together for various purposes, and of the people them- 
selves declaring the "Fenech us "law, but the universal system 
of commendation extcnding from the low" mbidboth" man 
to the king of companies (everyone of whom received cows 
from a superior, and paid his food-rent), and tlw masses of 
non-free tenants who swelled the retainers of the "jlaith," 
prove that the new system of perRonal relation was being 
rapidly substituted for the bond of tribal union; the tribe 
lands had been monopolized by the noble class; whether"hy 
grant or force, fairly or unfairly, is unimportant. The 
double process is summed in the Latin sentence-" Hæc ferè 
pascua data sunt depascenda sed in communi; quæ multi 
pCI' potentiærn invaserunt." As a natural consequence, land- 
less men and" fuidhirs" abounded; the general instability 
is proved by the custom of hostnges, and the presence of the 
foreign retainers who sUITound the king; and the rules, as 
to the maintf;nance of the wife of the mercenary soldier, 
show that the hired gallowglass, the curse of Ireland, was 
not unknown. 
The Crith Gabhlach may be fairly characterized as the fan- 
tnstic production of an antiquarian lawyer of a strong eccles- 
iastical bias, composed at a date at which the tribe system 
was breaking up, and the condition of the people, both 
moral and material, had much deteriorated. The work is 
of the highest value as an antiquarian treatise, rather on 
account of the general principles which it assumes, and the 
incidental statements which it contains, than from the 
accuracy of its classification, or the truth of its minute de- 
tails; and any deductions founded upon a belief in its 
historical value must lead to conclusions involving the too 
common elTor of substituting an imaginary, for the actual, 
condition of a pcople. 



This tract deals with the same subject as the preceding, 
and can be advantageously considered in connexion with it. 
In the original manuscript no special title has been prefixed 
to the treatise, and for the purpose of the present volume it 
has been named the sequel to the Crith Gabhlach, implying 
that the subject dealt with in the preceding tract is further 
discussed in the present, but not that it was a work by the 
same author, or composed by another author as an appendix 
or continuation of the Crith Gabhlach; in the last section 
of the introduction it hits been sufficiently shown tlJat two 
differpnt schemes for the sub-division of the rank of society 
are adopted by the respective authors, and that, so far from 
being complimentary, the latter tract is contradictory to the 
The legal rights with reference to which the several 
ranks are classified by this author are specified by him as 
nine in number. Aq stated by the author, these appear to 
have been as follows :-(1) the greatest and least number of 
attendants brought by them to their cosherings upon their 
tenants, or accompanying them as their "company in the 
tribe" ; (2) their feeding, probably the amount and nature 
of the food to be provided for them; and the amount of com- 
pensation to be paid to them under the following heads:- 
(3) for" esain " ; (4) for wounding; (5) for insulting; (6) for 
the violation of their protection; and as (7) their honor-price; 
(R) also the obscure fines described as "blush "- and blister- 
fines; (9) and their exemptions before and after refections.- 
Although the classification may have been originally made 
with reference to these several heads, the detailed rights and 
duties of each class are very imperfectly stated, and all 
reference to some is wholly omitted. It i'3 remarkable that 
to a large proportion of the classes specified the alleged 
grounds of the cla'3sification, certainly the greater portion 
· By .. exemptions ., we 
hou1d umlp"taml " prh ileges "in the fuIl extent of 
the worel; either special rights or special duties, Ute enjoyment or performance of 
which distinguished the individual from the general mass of the nation. 



of them are inapplicable, and that there is not any reference 
made either to their proportionate stock and food rent, or 
the sizes of their dwellings, matters dealt with in detail by 
the author of the Crith Gabhlach. The twenty-six cla.<;ses 
stated in this tract of t.he classes of this tract are enumer- 
ated downwards, that is, commencing with the head king, 
and proceeding downward to the lowest grade, but itis perhaps 
more convenient in considering them to adopt the inverse 
order, and to proceed from the unfree classes as the natural 
basis. The nine last classes are intended to comprise the indi- 
viduals, not members of the tribe, either as originally unfree, 
or as having lost their original status; they are described as 
not possessing a holding,or talent!>, or followers, and therefore 
not worthy to form part of the assemblies, or companies of 
refection, nor entitled to "dire" fine, or to enter into 
securities or give evidence. They are evidently regarded 
not as servile, but unfree, having no status, and possessing in 
theirown persons no legal rights; it would follow from analogy 
that their persons could be protected and their property 
secured to them only by the intervention of some member 
of the tribe, in whose "hand" they would technically con- 
sidered to be. 
'Vhen the definitions of these nine classes are considered 
it appears that they are not arranged with reference to their 
respective rights, for they are all described as po
sessing none, 
but rather with reference to the causes whereby they had 
lost, or did not possess, any recognised status, and that the 
nine clas&es are sub-divisions of one class, di!òtinguished from 
each other by purely accidental circumstances. 'r
e ranks 
thus enqmerated are as follows :- 
(a) A "hencllman,. a soldier of a good race "-the nearest 
to the hip of a leader when going to the meeting, who, 
with his wife, was entitled to free fepding, and a fine 
for certain injuries. This is clearly a description of 
the immediate followers of the King; either of the four 
personal attendants who surrounded him in his hall,t or 
of the mercenaries whose wives had sick maintenance in 
· P!'&"e 353. t Page 339. 




right of their husbands.- The description in the Crith 
Gabhlach of the class of persons with whom the kings sur- 
rounded themselves, proves that they were selected precisely 
because they were not members of the tribe, and, therefore, 
bound to the lord by simply personal interests. 
(b)t The freeman who had "lost his patrimony, his lands, and 
his stock, and diel not possess anything throughout the terri- 
tory visibly or invisibly." By the loss of all his property the 
freeman lost also his status. This class must be distin- 
guished from the" mbidboth "-man, the lowest class in the 
Crith Gabhlach, who, as having cattle lent to him by a lord, 
and paying food rent for his house, did pOSSf'SS a certain 
amount of property, however small, and therefore retained 
his status. 
(c) A "cow grazier of a green,"t a term used meta- 
phorically to express the case of the freeman who has lost 
his status, not from poverty, but by reason of disgraceful 
cowardice-a man dishonoured, as the Greeks expressed 
it, by having lost his shield; he is described as keeping his 
cattle within the green or enclosure near his house, and not 
daring to drive them out into the common pasture through 
fear of the wolves. 
(d) A "BaitRe "t tenant, of whom no description can 
be given except that contained in the text :-" A man 
who is not freed by profession or residence; that man 
does not belong to a company, who has not the deeùs 
of a champion in him. He does not go security, nor is he a 
pledge with a chief or a church, because it is a sunbeam he 
is called." 
(e) The fifth class is described as" a man matched with 
a bad wife, by whom he is rendered deranged and un- 
steady; such a person is defined as an "oinnit."t Extra- 
ordinary as are some of the definitions of the Brehon 
lawyers, it is impossible to believe that the author of this 
tract seriously intenùed to express what these words, in their 
plain and ordinary meaning, state, and not to suspect that 
an ancient and forgotten rule, either as to the origin or 

. Page 331. 

t Page 3;;3. 



some specific acts of the wife, survives In this apparently 
absurd description. 
(f) A "midhlach". person, an effeminate, unwarlike 
man, a coward or an imbecile. .AJ:, the coward has 
already been enumerated under the hean of the "cow- 
grazier of a green," this class may more properly include 
idiots aurl imbeciles; the added words "so that he is the 
material of a victim to be given on account of the territory" 
(if the translation be correct), might mean that he was a 
very fit person to permit to be killed in expiation of a blood 
feud. The word" cimbid" admittedly means a man whose 
life is forfeited, " a victim," and the text appears to refer to his 
being utilized in this fashion, when it speaks of being or 
affording the" material for a cimbid." 
(g)t A clown, mountebank, or buffoon, not a jester simply, 
but what we should can an itinerant tumbler, dishonoured 
because he "went out of his shape before hosts and crowds." 
(h) A "riM-caire" man,t "a robber whom his race ann 
family shun, a violateI' of 'cain' law, and of law, who goes 
from marsh to marsh, and from mountain to mountain," or 
M it is also explained, exprfJssive of the latter fate of such 
an one, "a rath-builder who is enslaved to a chief and a 
And lastly, (i)t The person described as "a crumb-fox, who 
gets the crumbs of all food natural and unnatural, whatever he 
crunches or eats is his;" by which may be meant a starving 
roguish outcast ready to appropriate and consume the frag- 
ments of other's victuals. 
These descriptions of the unfree men throw a light 
upon the meaning and intention of the author's classi- 
fication; he is not merely stating the legal grades and 
acknowledged ranks of society, but arranging the men 
of the society in which he lived, with reference both 
to their actual rank and supposed respectability, as he ex- 
presses it when he says that persons are estimated not only 
by form and race, land, tillage, and pJoperty, but also by 
their profession and worthiness. It is very natural to speak 
· Page 3;;3. t Page 355. 




with contempt of cowards, fools, mountebanks, &c., but no 
one can contend that these various disreputa1le charncters 
were acknowledged steps in the social hierarchy, which had 
its culminating point in the head king. 
If a writer of our own day undertook to describe the 
various ranks of English society, and haviug commenced 
with the fvllowing :-" Tramps, housebreakers, acrobats, 
idiots, henpecked husbands, cashiered officers, insolvents, 
&c.," finally concluded with the" bishops, earls, milrquiseR, 
dukes, the Lord Chancellor, and the Queen," we should 
understand thnt he had confused the ideas of legal rank and 
social respectability in a hopeless manner; and yet any such 
work, if preserved to a date at which a wholly different form 
of society had been substituted for that now existing, would 
be valuable to the antiquarian of the future as illustrative 
of the gradations of our society; but we may hope that 
enough of our literature will remain to prevent the occur- 
rence of the mistake that insolvents and acrobats were ranks 
in society in the same manner as dukes, or that insolvents 
and housebreakers were permanent castes. 
Bearing in mind the fashion ?-fter which the classification 
of the unfree persons has been constructed, let us turn our 
attention to the seventeen classes into which the free mem- 
bers of the tribe are di\'ided. If we refer to the table in 
page c}..cvii it will be observed that the ranks not common 
to both the systems of classification in this tract, and in the 
Crith-Gabhlach, are marked in italics. On examination, all 
these will appear to be grades of social respectab;lity-not 
legal ranks-grades of respectability which gave those who 
possessed them su1stantial claims against the members of 
their families or third persons, or affected their compensation 
for wrong, but did not elevate them in the assembly above 
the other freemen, or entitle them to political privileges or 
grades in society arising from official position or public ser- 
These classes among the no11es are as follows :-(a)- 
the" aire-fine" the head of a "fine" (probably, as before sug- 
· rage 34'. 



gested, the" geilfine-flaith"), a person of consideration and 
importance, as representing the members of the" fine," but 
no more forming a rank in the tribe than the head of a house 
as representing the several members of the household. 
(b)* The" idlma"-person, who has a number of sons who are 
born to him, and of male relatives (or brethren) to the muuber 
of thirty champions. He is entitled to free living of five from 
his "fwe." The key to the interpretation of this lies in his 
right to free living from the "fine." He must belong to a 
" fine," and there must be other households in the" fine," in 
which he should have his free feeding for four. His quali- 
fication was the possession of sons and brothers, warriors- 
thirty in alL He appears to have been the head of a house- 
hold (or joint family) within tlle "fine," so numerous that 
the household allotment 1eing insufficient to support them, 
a certain number were supported by the remaining houses 
of the" fine." A person,.the head of a numerous household, 
would manifestly be one of much power and influence in the 
early stages of society. 
(c.) The "ansruth".-person is described as one "who 
protects his mansion and his land. He is allowed (lit. 
FOI' him is) the wounding a person in each tenn of 
the year. He has no fewer than twenty (attendants) 
in an extcrn territory. He l)as free feeding for four on 
every side, and from every chief in his' tuaith.' He is en- 
titled to a trusty sword for his honor-price." As the 
"idhma" was entitled to <.;upport from the "family," the 
" ansruth" was entitled to it from the tribe. His position 
involves the wounding or slaying of his others, and his 
absence from the tribe-land with the accompaniment of a 
strong escort. His peculiar honor-price, the sword, indicated 
his office. He may be ea<;ily identified with the" aire-echta" 
of the Crith Gabhlach.t 
· Page 3t9. 
t Tbe position of the champion or defender of a territor
 is well iJIustrated by the 
following passage of the Tain Bo Chuailgne :- 
.. Cuchulainn then asked his charioteer "here the great road which passed 
Emania led to, and he answered that it led to Ath na Foraire (i.e. the Ford of Watch- 
ing) at Aliabh Fuaid (a well-known mountain I) ing at the south of ancient Emania, 



(d) The "dac"-person- is described as one" who for 
another goes to fight his Lattle, when he has no help of 
his family." The po
ition of this person is determined 
by his relation with neither the family nor tribe, but 
with some third person or persons, whose qualTel he has 
espoused. His position resembles that of a patron with a 
client, or a chief to whom a poor and oppressed man com- 
mends himself. Perhaps the description is intended to apply 
to the leader of hired gallowglasses, the condottiere of the 
period, which interpretation is rendered probable by the 
phrase, " he is entitled to free feeding and that 01 his sol- 
diers."t A character of this description, undoubtedly, never 
formed one of the normal ranks of the ancient tribe. 

in the present county of Armagh). 'Why is the ford called the Ford of Watch- 
ing?' said Cuchulainn. 'Because; said Il,ar, 'there is an Ultoman champion 
constantly watching and guarding there, in order that no warriors nor foreigners 
should 'unperceived enter into "Clster, without being challenged by him to battle; 
and the champion muqt answer for any such challenge on the part of the whole 
province.' 'Do 
'ou know who is at the ford to-day?' sail1 Cuchulainn. . I do, 
indeed; it is the valiant and victorious Conall Cearnach, the J{oyal c;hampion of 
Erinn,' said Ibar. '". ell, thcn,' said Cuchuluinn, . you drive on until we reach 
that ford.' "-TranÛated by .l/r. O'CUrTY, ".Manners and C"stoms of Ihe 
A 1II';eT,1 fri,'h," vol. ii., p. 3/1:>. 
· Page 349. 
t He, whose caUSê the" dae "-person asserted, can scarcely have been a private 
inJh"idual, if any,) stem of tribe law whatsoever existed, nor again can we 
understand a private individual supplying free feeding to him and his soldiers. 
The emplo) er of the" dae "-man and his mercenaries must ha_ e been at least a 
tribe chief, and the sentence," when he has not the help of a family," expresses the 
indepcndent position towards his tribesmen, which a chief enjoyed who had 
secured mercenary support. The" dae "-man would thus be the leader of the mer- 
cenary guard, or head of the housecarls of a chief. Such bodies of m{n were called 
ht Tighe,'. or Household Troops. The Lucht Tighe of Tadhy O'Kelly, King 
of Hi Mainé, in Connacht, and of Ferghal O'Ruairc, King of Breefney, were COn- 
spicuous at the battle of Clontarf, A.D. 1014. In 15:.13 Hugh 1Il'Guire, Lord of 
Flermanagh, marched to battle with the people of his own territory, and a body of 
.. Amh..;.," or mercenary household troops drawn from other territories or countries. 
The regular organization of these household troops, or bodyguards of the chieftain, 
appears from the name8 of divers places; for example, we know that there was 
anciently a district in 1I10naghun called Luchl Tighe '/lhie Mathgamll1la, that i8, 
l\facl\lahon's Househl.ld. because it was exclusi\"cl
 dc_ oted to the maintenance 
of the chief's household troops, "ho thus "" ere entitled to free feeding on all 
ei,t('s.1I-O'Curry. "J/"'W(Tlf (Iud Cu,fomff of ti,e ...llIcient Iris/,:' YO). ii" p. 



The three classes of the (e)" ogßaithem," if) " lethflaithem," 
and (g) "flaithem of one vassal,". are merely sub-divisions of 
the poorer "flaiths," with reference to their income, the 
amount of which naturally depended upon the number of 
their tenants; but there is no reason to believe that the 
rights of a flaith were measured in accordance exactly with 
the number of his tenants. Undoubtedly the" flaith," who 
had a large number of tenants who swelled the train of his 
retainers, and paid him food rent, which enabled him to sup- 
port others, was a much more important person than the 
"flaith" with few tenants, and that poor broken-down 
.. flaiths" with one, two, or tllree old tenants were very little, 
if at all, above, in public consideration, the cow-owning 
churl, who was rising into the noble class. 
It appear
 from a passage in the last tract published in 
this volume that the descendant of" flaiths" might fall back, 
under certain circumstances, probably the want of qualifying 
wealth, into the non-noble class ;t but there are no grounds 
for considering that the "Raith" below the aire-tuisi were 
legilly divided into ranks in the exact ratio of their fortune. 
The differences as to this point between this list and that 
contained in the Crith Gabhlach are very instructive as to 
the mode in which these detailed enumerations were com- 
posed, and the reliance to be placed upon their nnmericnl 
statements. In both lists the bo-aire takes the highest posi- 
tion among the non-noble classes; and the ranks above tImt 
are" flaiths " or noble; the entire body of the" Raiths" be- 
low the rank of the" aire-ard" (or that of aire-echta 1) are 
included, according to the schcme of the Crith Gabhlach, in 
the rank of the ., aire-desa "; if the four classes of the" aire- 
fine," " idhna" -person, "ansruth "-person, and" dae "-person, 
be struck out of this list as not representing classes properly 
so called, the three remaining clas!>cs of the "ogflaithem," 
" lethflaithem," and" Raith em " of one vassal remain, who 
must fall within the class of the "aire-desa," as defined by 
the Crith Gabhlach ; but the qualification of an " aire-desa," 
as defin('d in the Crith Gabhlach, was eleven tenants, amI 

. Page 3,,\. 

t Page 3Al. I. 9. 



he was entitled to feeding for ten couples. It is evident 
therefore that many of the" aire-desa" class cannot ha\"e 
had the wealth specified in the Crith Gabhlach as the quali- 
fication for that rank, and that, despite the diminution of 
their wealth, they still con tinued "flaiths," as long, if we rely 
on the statement in this tract, as they had a single vassal. 
This is perhaps what is implied in the definition in this 
tract of the" aire-desa," as "a man who had preserved the 
patrimony of his father and grandfather in the same condi- 
tion as he had fonnd it before him, and who accnmulates.". 
The name in this tract of " flaithem" of one tenant may, pro- 
bably, at the date of this tract have been equivalent to the 
French termofthe last century, which described averyimpecn- 
nious nobleman, as the seignenr ot a duck pond, the smallest 
conceivable amonnt of real estate which enabled him to assert 
his position as a seigneur. The" uaitne " person, as described 
in this tract, might be supposed to represent an office, and not 
a class, but it is clear that there must be interposed between 
the" bo-aire" and the members of the unfree classes, a class 
representing the freeman without the full property qualifica- 
tion of the" bo-aire," and the amount of the honor-price of 
the "mbedboth" and the "uaitne" man being identical, 
there are sufficient grounds for considering the two names 
as different designations of the same class. 
It is important to submit the schemes of rank contained in 
these two tracts to close examination, as the apparently 
anomalous character of the Irish tribe has been chiefly pro- 
duced by the assumption that the Crith Gabhlach should be 
admitted as an exact and historical document, and its 
numerical statements received without reserve as truthful 
representations of existing facts; so long as this mode of 
treating the Brehon Law tracts holds its ground, the ancient 
Irish tribe system must continue to be considered, as it has 
unfortunately too long been imagined, as an exception and 
an anomaly, a maze of technicalities incapable of disentangle- 
The trac+' next proceeds to deal with the ranks of the 
· Page 349. 


ccx va 

learned professions, before enumerating those of the church; 
the mode in which the various ranks in the several scales 
are considered equal to each other, and a harmony attempted 
to be established throughout, appears in the following intro- 
ductory passage :-" The distinctions (or titles) of wisdom 
(literary professions) now are different from the titles of the 
laity, bec,,'1.use it is a "cumhal" of increase of honor-price, 
which each grade of the church takes, from the lighter of 
candles up to the psalm singer. It is by seds, however, the 
increase of the" fine" grades and poets progress from low to 
high. Their proof and their denial too correspond; "a bishop 
and a king, the origin of all chiefs," &c.- 
The classification of both the Ollamhs and poets is 
plainly merely an exercise of the imagination; the 
epithets and ranks are founded upon conceits, analogies. 
and plays of works. and there is no practical infol1na- 
tion to be gleaned from them. F pon the other hand, 
the discussion as to the "dire" -fines of ecclesiastics is 
one of the most interesting passages of the Brehon Law 
tracts, as illustrating the period between the break up of 
the Columban s:rstem and the institution of a regular epis- 
copal hierarchy. The discussion upon this subject com- 
mences with the following extraordinary passage :- 
" What is the highest dignity on earth 1 The dignity of 
the C'hurch. What is the highest dignity which is in the 
Church 1 The dignity of a bishop. 
"The highest bishop of these is the Bishop of Peter's 
Church, because it is under his subjection the chief.'! of Rome 
are; and they are not under the subjection of anyone who 
has not virginity, or repentance, or lawful espousal; and it 
is to him that seven cumhals are payable for every degree 
of the seven degrees (or orders) that are upon him, if there 
be eric-fine for him at all; if not' eric '-fine, the1'e is to be 
the death of a person for it. 
U Where is this to be found? It is in the tract which 
Augustine wrote about the degrees of the Church, and of 
their dire fines; and of their non-feedings, and the particular 

· Page 3.j:). 



law of the church of Peter, and the emperor of the whole 
The scheme upon which the cleric are ananged is a 
double gradation partly connected with the orders in the 
church, and partly in connexioIl with the religious condition 
ofthe individual. It is needless to observe that the moral and 
religious merit of the individual is referable solely to the 
one virtue of continence; but it is certainly surprising that 
the author arranges all classes of the church, inclusive of 
the recluses into the three classes of virgins, married, and 
repentant. Every fine must, therefore, be the result of three 
quantities :-the official position, the moral state of the 
injured cleric, and the nature of the injury inflicted. It is 
impossible to construct in a tabular form the amount of 
compensation payable in each case, as the results stated in 
the text do not all coincide with the theory on which they 
are professed to be calculated. The general principle, how- 
ever, is clear, viz.:-that the full amount calculated upon the 
rank of the injured cleric, and the nature of the injury, is 
payable in the case only of the cleric being a virgin; this 
amount is reduced by one-third if the cleric be married, and 
again by another third if he be penitent;t and that between 
· P. 363. Can the author of this passage have heard of the" De Civitati Dei," 
and conceived it to be a work of the character of the Crith Gabhlach? 
t The penitence of the bishop may be referable to unchastity, either before or 
after his consecration. That charges of this description might be brought against 
a bishop, however eminent, appears from the Confe.sion of St. Patrick: "Post 
annus triginta invenerunt me, et verbum quod conCessus fucram 
nntequam essem diaconus. Propter anxietatem mesto animo insinuavi amiciasimo 
meo que in pueritiô. meâ unâ die gesseram in uno in nnô. horâ; quia nondum 
prevalebam nescio, deus seit; et habebam tunc anni" quindecem I't deum vivum 
non credebam, neque ex infantiâ meâ sed in morte et incredulitate mansi donee 
valde castigatus sum, et in veritate humiliatus sum a fame et nuditate et cotidie 
coutra hiberione non sponte pergebnm, &c._ u NationalllISS. of Irdand," Yol. II., 
Ap. BLI. 
The Drehon lawyers evidently ('ontemplated tbe cnse of a bishop falling into sin: 
"There are four dignitaries of a territory who may be degraded: a faJse-judging 
king, a .tumbliny bi.hop, a fraudulent poet, an unworthy chieftain who does not 
fulfil his duties. Dire-fine is not due to these II (ante, Vol. I., p. ó5). See also the 
gloss upon this passage, the meaning of whicb is denr, although the translation is 
qnestionable. It may be inferred that the sinful and unrepentent hishop sutiered 
a .. diminutio capitis, ,. as did the king when engaged in servile occupations. 



the payments on account of injuries to clerics of various 
ranks, there is to be made a deduction of one cumhal for each 
grade in the ecclesiastical orders. It is very doubtful if the 
seven grades referred to in the text are the same as the usual 
ecclesiastical Ol'ders, as the clerical student and the recluse 
would seem to be included in the computation. The author 
appears to have considered that, in some cases of exceptional 
iniquity, the process of compensation by eric-fines was in- 
"What is the penalty (lit. debt) of wounding a virgin 
bishop? Three victims (cunidh) are to be hanged for every 
hand that wounded him; half the debt of wounding is paid 
for insulting him." ".A.... to every person who sees, and who 
does not protect him by all his strength, by all his deeds, 
and that the guilty person escapes, it is seven cumhals that 
(ue to be paid for his sick maintenance and his eric fine.". 
Again-" So it is with every grade of virginity until it 
comes to the case of a virgin cleric, so that there are seven 
, cumhals' for wounding him, or a victim."t 
These passages prove that the author not only imagined that 
an aggravated injury of this class would entail the punish- 
ment of the guilty parties, but would also require "blood" eÀ- 
piation. These passages explain the expressions used in 
reference to the" midhlach " person in this treatise, viz., that 
he would naturally afford the material for a victim. Such a 
mode of punishing or avenging crime is inconsistent with 
the whole tenor of the Brehon law, and perhaps indicates 
that the author was a cleric, or of clerical sympathies, who 
enunciated principles for the benefit of the church which 
never formed portion of the customary law.t 
· Page 363. t Page 36';. 

 The doctrine of the early Irish Church of the nece,;eity of blood-shedding as 
an expiation for blood is fully set out in the poem of Dubhtach l\Iac ua Lugair, 
supposed to have heen recited in the presence of St. Patrick, and under the 
immc,liate inspiration of the Holy Ghost; 
.. The truth of the Lord, 
The testimony of the New Law, 
" arrant that N uada shall die; I duree it. 
Divine lnowledge, it is known, decides 
(To whkh ,-eneration is due), 



The following passage is remarkable as a proof of the 
re1igious ideas which existed at the date of the composition 
of this treatise :- 
" There are three 1.inds of recluses in a church, i.e., a lay 
recluse, upun whom a soul-friend pronounces his character 
of appmml, and who goes to the sacrament, who is in the 
true unity of the church, without power of foot or hand. 
It is as a gmrle of \irginity he is paidfinc8. He is of equal 
. dire '-value with a virgin clerical student; so that there 
are seVf'n cumhals for wounding, and he is of equal' dire '- 
fine with him in every dignity besides, and of 
blood, and white blow. 
.. A lay recluse upon he pronounces his character, who 
does nut go to the sacrament, it is but two-thirds he reaches 
to the first lay recluse. 
That each man for his crime 
Shall depart unto dcath."- 
.. rhere was in the First Law of the men of Erin 
That which God has not vouchsand in His New La". 
The Trinity did not vouchsafe mercy, 
Thruugh heavenly stren
th to save Adam, 
I'or it was perpetual e'tistence 
God gave him of Ilis merc)', 
Until otherwise he merited 
By deserving death. 
Let everyone who kills a human being; 
E, en the king who seeks a wreath with his hosts, 
'Vho inflicts red wounds intentionally, 
Of "hich any person dies; 
Every powerle-s insignificant person, 
Or noblest of the learned; 
a, every living person who inflicts death, 
Whose misdeeds are judged, shall suffcr death. 
He who lets a criminal escape is himself a culprit; 
He shall suffer the death of a criminal. 
In the judgment of the law, which I, as a poet, have received, 
It is evil to kill by a foul deed; 
I pronounce the judgment of death, 
Of death for his crime to everyone 'U:ho l-ilu. 
<..uada is adjudged to Heaven, 
And it is not to death he is adjudged." 
'It was thus that the two laws were fulfilled; the culprit was put to death for 
his crime, and his soul was pardoned and sent to heann. 'Vhat was agreed upon 
hv the men of Erin was, that everyone ,hould be git'en up for his crime, that sill 

ight not otherwhe increase in the island.' Ante, Vol. III., pp. 1l-I3 & xx-xxiv. 



" Another lay recluse is he who puts bounds to his passions, 
and who goes to the clergy this day, upon whom a soul-friend 
ùoes not pronounce his character, or recommendation. To 
the extent of two-thirds he reaches unto the middle lay 
"A person should not wonder that there should be an equal 
" dire" -fine for the lay recluses who are without virginity, if 
they be beloved of God, and their works great, if their 
miracles are as numerous, or if they are more numerous in 
the same way that Peter and Paul were to John, and in the 
same way that Anthony and )Iartin were; ut dixit Sciptura, 
"ubi habundabit dilechtum, super habundabit gratia.". 
The author manifestly regards St. Peter as having been a 
married man, and, with reference to Paul, puts a well- 
known construction upon the twelfth verse of the ninth 
chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. 
The peculiar views put forward in this tract as to the posi- 
tion and duties of the clerics are remarkable, and are of import- 
ance in fixing an approximate date for the composition of this 
tract. The bishop, not the abbot, is the highest known 
ecclesiastic, indeed of the abbot there is no mention whatso- 
ever; the marriage of the clerics is assumed as permissible, 
although discountenanced, inasmuch as the married cleric 
thereby to a certain extent lost caste, as proved hy the pro- 
portionate diminution of his "dire" -fine; the recluse is 
treated as an acknowledged order in the Church, and he is 
intimately connected, for the purpose of the amount of his 
" dire "-fine, with his soul-friend (" anmchara "); the Pope 
was recognized as the highest bishop of the Church, and as 
'ruling over Rome; and in the reference to the imaginary 
work of St. Augustine, there is an allusion to "the emperor 
of the whole world." These indicationq point to the transi- 
tional and obscure state of the Celtic Church after the break- 
ing up of the CQlumban monastic system, and before its 
complete reorganizatiun under continental influence, to the 
latest period of the existence of the Culdees, a remarkable 
era in Celtic ecclesiastical history, which haq been lately 
. I'age 367. 



fully dealt with, so far as the scanty existing materials 
permit, by )11'. Skene.- The allusion to "the emperor of the 
whole world" may help in some degree in fixing the date of 
the work. A Celtic pilgrim returning from Rome would 
state the impressions which the existing state of facts pro- 
duced upon him; he certainly would not be influenced by 
the legal theories of the civil lawyers ; the abstract idea of 
the all-ruling emperor would not occur to him unless the 
power of an existing emperor were brought home to his 
mind by what he saw with his eyes and heard with his ears 
among the public of the city. A pilgrim to Rome during 
the interval between the disappearance of the influence of 
the Eastern emperors and the date at which the Culdees 
finally ceased to exist, could have his attention drawn to the 
imperial power, as a universal dominion, only at two distinct 
periods-either during the :reigns of Karl the Great and his 
son Ludwig, that is, between A.D. 800 and A.D. 840, or after 
the resuscitation of the imperial power by the Emperor 
Otto in A.D. 951. The expression of the Bishop of Peter's 
Church "having under his subjection the chiefs of Rome" 
(unless this be merely a Celtic phrase expressing sovereignty), 
would exactly describe the position of the Popes after the 
later date. This would point to the end of the tenth or 
beginning of the eleventh century as the probable date of 
the composition of this tract. 
From these, and the various remarkable points of differ- 
ence between this tract and the Crith Gabhlach, already 
alluded to, it may be inferred that the present treatise is the 
more ancient of the two, and represents an older condition 
of Irish society. A considerable portion of it, so much as 
deals with ollamhs and poets, is purely fantastic, full of the 
false discussions and quibbling classification so much in 
vogue with Brehon lawyers, and valueless except as a 
monument of misspent time and ingenuity; another portion, 
so much as deals with the clerics, although most valuahle 
from an historical point of view, cannot be considered as a 
practical statement of existing law, but ratlwr as a covert 
* .. Celtic Scotland," vol. 2, chap. vi. amI ix. 



attempt to introduce legal innovations in favour of the 
Church; the residue, which treats of tbe classes of tbe tribe, 
is most valuable in every respect, although in dealing with 
it, and discussing the princi!Jle of the scheme upon which the 
ranks of the tribe are classified, it cannot be forgotten that 
it was written by the author of, or at least has been com- 
bined into one production with, the two latter divisions of 
the work. 

The last tract contained in the present has no heading or 
title in the original; it has been named, for the purpose of 
reference, as a treatise on "Succession," inasmuch as that is 
the subject which the author proposed to discuss. This 
work is of the fragmentary character, being nothing more 
than a collection of unconnected extract8 or references, 
thrown together in a note-book as the materials for an 
intended work. 
To this tract there is prefixed the following extraordinary 
head-note :-" By this book, if I can, in the name of God, I 
will bring the senior before the junior in every case, as these 
laws down here state. Beyond this I will make an inter- 
mixture of their law altogether.". 
The object of the work was not to state what were 
the customary law upon the subject dealt with, but to 
collect authorities in support of an argument in favour 
of succession by descent and seniority, and, it may be 
gathered, in opposition to the rules regulating it by per- 
sonal merit, property qualifications, or election. The 
author must, for the purpose of extract and reference, have 
had before him a considerable number of works, which it 
would be now difficult to ascertain or identify. As to the 
passage near the commencement of the tract, concerning the 
succession of an aLbot,. it appears that the authority refer- 
red to is the concluding paragraphs of the Senchus Mor 
with the present annexed commentary.t 
Although from its form, and the obvious intention of its 

· Page 3ï5. 

t Vol. 3, page 79. 



composition, this work is unsatisfactoTY and of no authority, 
many of the extracts contained in it are both interesting and 
important. Many of them support the doctrine that the 
grade of an individual in the tribe was originally fixed 
with reference to property, and that the loss of the qualifying 
amount of property involved a climinutio capitis; e.g., 
"Qualification is nobler than age.". 
"The senior does not go before the junior, unless he be 
" 'A king without property is nu king,' i.e., as to tenants 
and kinc."t 
(( 'No unproductive person merits a share with the Feini,' 
i.e., the person who is barren, without property, without 
worthiness, docs not merit a noble share of 'smacht '-fines 
or sick attendance, according to the' Fenechus '-law."::: 
" , Let no wandering men pass judgment,' i.e., there shall 
lIe no bonor-price for the person who is wandering about 
without property."; 
" The inferior man with property is put into the land, or 
the chieftainf-hip." 
Other extracts accord more permanency to the status of 
a noble when once estahlished. The" aire-forgaill" chief 
deserves a chieftainship or an abbey," even though he had 
but his arms or his raiment, he shall have the honor-price 
of a king, or of an "aire-forgaill chief "; to which statement 
the author prefixes the remark-" I wonder at this," and 
possibly considered it Lad law.
 Other extracts prove that 
among the Celts, as elsewhere, the claim to the hereditary 
transmission of property and office was gradually assuming 
legal form:- 
" The son of an abbot in the present church, 
" A fact est-tblished by sense, 
"The son of the husbandman in the territory, 
" The son of the king to bind the hostages:'
This is obviously a verse of some composition intended to 
favour the hereditary succession to the coarbships of the 

.. Page 377. 
::: PAi'e 887. 

+ Page 381. 

 Pagp 3


greater monasteries, and even to inferior but profitable 
offices. · 

* "In the monastery of Lusk, in the list of the abbots, between the years i31 
and 927, we find that the second and third abbots were brothers, and s'ms of the 
first abbot named in it; that the fourth abbot and the prior were brothers; that 
the son of the second abbot WIIS' econumus,' or house-steward; that the fifth 
abbot was son of the third; that the eighth abbot was son of the sixth; and 
that the tenth abbot and the Bisht)p of Duleek and Lusk were brothers, and sons 
of the eighth abbot. Again, in the monastery of Gleann Uissean, near Carlow, 
we find, between 8U and 1016, the names of eigbt abbots and one Ai,"ci'lflech, or 
Erenagh. Of thcse, the second and third are brothers, and sons of the first; the 
fourth and fifth are brothers, and sons of the third; the sixth was foster-son to 
the sec'Jnd, whilc his son was A ircilmech, or Erenagh; the se,"enth abbot was son 
of the fourth, amI the eighth grandson of the second. Herc the whole are direct 
descendants of the abbot who died in 874. Thus we find that the office of 
. economus,' or house-steward of Armagh, was hereclitary from 779, when the 
death of Cearnach, son of Ruibhne, who was bishop of Armagh, is recorded, 
when he is called economus of Armagh. He is succeeded by three sons, one 
after the other. His grandson, by the third son, is bishop and ancborite of 
Lann Leire. The son of the latter is abbot of Lann I.eire, and . economus' of 
Armagh, whose son again is abbot of Lann Leire. But, perhaps, the most in- 
structive example is connected with the celebrate.l mOnH"ter
- of Clonmacnois. 
Torbach, abbot or primate of Armagh in 812, was the son of one abbot of Louth, 
and the father of another abbot of tbe same place, and from him descended a 
family who filled many offices connected with C10nmacnois, and I'mong them we 
find that even anchorites married, and were succeeded by SOns. The famil)' were 
called the Citlel TOI'buegh. Their connexion "ith r:lonmacnois began with his 
son Aedhagan, who died on his pilgrimage at Clonmacnois in 831; and his son 
Eoghan, the anchorite, who died in 845. Eughan's son, Luchairen, scribe and 
anchorite at Clonmacnois, died in 8G3; amI in f!93 his son, Egertach, the Aircin- 
flech, or Erenach of Eaglais-Beg, or the little church of Clunmacnuis, died. In 
94 ï, the son of the latter. Acnagan Erenach, of the little church, and bishop and 
pure, irgin-that is, unmarried-died; and in 963 his brother, Dunadhach, 
hishop of Clonmacnois, whose son, Dunchadh, Ferk'g/,;nn, Or lector of Clonmac- 
nois, and its anchorite, afterwards head of its rule and history, died in 1005. He 
was father of Joseph, who was unmchara, sunl-friend or confessor of Clonmacnois. 
Joseph's son was Conn na-mbocl.t, or of the poor, who appears in the" Annals of 
thc Four Masters," in 1031, as .. lIead of tbe Cek De, and anchorite of Clon- 
macnois, and who imited a party of the poor of Cluain at Issei Chiaran, and 
who presented twenty cows of his own to it. And Con
 was father of 1Ilaol- 
chiarain, Coarb of Ciaran, or abbot of Clonmacnois. It is nnne
ssary to follow 
this further; but it is obVIous how prevalent at this time in Ireland was the 
marriage of the clergy of all c1aS'e., and the pl'rpetu8tion of their ecclesiastical 
offices in the lines of their descendants, and that it had even broken down the 
asceticism of the anchorite, and the canonical rwe of the Cele De in this respect. 
In Scûtland we find that the territoQ' of the old monasteries was called Abdaine, 
Or Abbacy, a word represented in Latin by AMatia or Abthania, and had, to a 
great extent, passed into the hands of laymen, who often retained for ,evers I 




The most important extracts here contained have refer- 
ence to the rule of three descents, before refelTed to, which 
determined the status of an individual with reference to 
that of his father and grandtà,thcr, viz. :- 
" He is a disease of evils after three persons.". 
" He is a hill of chieftainship in the third person.". 
" For it gives a prescription of acknowledgment; three 
heirs have succeeded one another."iI- 

generations the name of abbot. Tbe territory termed the Abthania of Dull, 
which was of great extent, and included the modern parishes of Dull and Fortin- 
gall, seems to have been in tbe hands of Crinan, tbe lay abbot of Dunkeld, and, 
along with the possessions of the latter abbacy, must have placed him on a 1J.1r 
as to power and position with the great Mormaers of Alban."-Skene: Celtic 
Scotland, Vol. II., p. 341. 
The causes and the results of the marriage of clerics in Ireland and Scotlaud 
is th"s stated by JIIr, Skene:- 
" In the early Monastic Church of IreIaml celibacy was enforced upou at least 
one elMs of the monks, for the saints of the second order refused the ser' ices of 
women, separating them from the munasteries; but still the
e was a succession to 
the abbacy, the tribe or family in whom it was vested providing a fit person in 
Ordcrs to fill the office; but when the stringency of the monastic rule was broI.en 
in upon, nnder the influence of the secular clergy, marriage was gra'
ually per- 
mitted and connived at, and at length became general, the rebolln,l a 
secular state being great in proportion to the enforced strictness of the previous 
")stem. The natnra1 con.,equence was that a (lirect descent from the ecclesia,ti- 
cal persons themsehes came in place of the older system of succession, and the 
Church offices became hereditary in their family. The next step in the down- 
ward process was that the Abbots and Superiors did not take Orders, and became 
virtually laymen, providing a fit person to perform the ecclesiastical functions, 
but retaining the name, and all the secular pridleges ami emoluments of the 
abbacy. The performance of the Church service was either intrusted to a secular 
priest, who was called the . sacerdos,' or sagar', or it fell to the Cite De, when 
there was such a body connected" ith the monastery, or to both combined. The 
great ecclesiastical offices thus became hereditary in the persons of laymen in two 
ways__either by the usurpation of the benefice by the lay chieftains from whose 
family it had been supplied, or in the family of the abbot by whose direct descend- 
ants the office was filled. It must be borne in mind that prior to 1139, though 
celibaey was e.nforced upon the monks by the monastic rule, and upon the clergy 
generally as a matter of discipline, marriage, when it did take place, was not 
un1a" fu\. It was not until the second great Council of Lateran, held in that 
year, declared all such marriages ipso facto null and void that they became so ; 
and the effect of this, whcre the benetice had become hereditary in a particular 
family, was, insteß,1 of restoring the former clerical character of its possessor, to 
MtereotJ PI' their condition of laymen, and to convert them into a pnrely I.1Y 
fnmilJ'."--"Ctltic Scotla.nd," vol. ii., p. 338. 
· Page 379. 



"They were once noble, i.e., unlcss his father and granù- 
father were chiefs, though he may be of the same race; as 
to his origin, his chieftainship is lost to him.". 
" 'In which it is stated, that a chieftainship is lost,' i.e., 
during the ages of three persons."" 
'" A plebeian chief,' i.e., one of plebeian race, whose 
fhther or grandfather Wag not a chief.". 
" Question.- What is the 'ansruth' -poet? His fatller 
and his grandfather were 'ansruth' -poets; for every grade 
whatsoever, whether chief or poet, if he parts with his 
qualifications during the ages of three persons, his lot is not 
equal to those who are found in possession of their qualifi- 
cations during the ages of three persons, until they double 
their qualification or their service."t 
These extract.
 clearly prove the nùe before refen-ed to, 
that the possession of the necessary property, through three 
generations, was requisite to give the complete status of 
the rank to which the qualification was annexed; and that, 
taking a negative fOIm, the rule was applied to the case of 
those who lost the qualifying property necessary for their 
rank, and that the third in descent in such a case lost his 
status absolutely, and fen into a lower grade. 
But if a person acquired double the amount necessary to 
qualify him for a higher grade, he became a funy recognised 
member of that grade irrespecti ,'e of descent. This explains 
the nùe in page 317, which fixes the amount of stock re- 
quisite in the case of a "bo-aire," adjoining the rank of an 
"aire-desa," as double the qualification of the latter rank. 
The amount specified in this passage was that requisite to 
make the" bo-aire" a complete "aire-desa," and it may be 
infen-ed that if he acquired the amount of an " aire-desa's" 
qualification, he became an "aire-desa " 8ub 'ffWdo. And in 
the same way if an "aire-desa" lost his qualification, the 
status of that rank was not absolutely lost until after the 
death of himself and his son, when his granm,on absolutely 
passed into the lower grade. This partial acquisition of 
status in the first generation, and its completion in the thirù 
,. Page 337. t Page 383. 




generation constantly appears in ancient laws. Thus among 
the Scandinavians there were the three gradations of the 
Frigiven man, his son, and his grandson, the Bondr.- In 
the Sachsell Spiegel, t11e rule is thuR expressly laid down;- 
" Si qui in quatuor suis generationibus, hoc est ex duobus 
avis et duobus avüs, ac patre et matre indiftàmati juris 
est, illum in jure nemo infamare potest." The same principle 
is marked in Roman law by the specific names for each step in 
the progression toward complete citizenship, viz. :-Libertus, 
Libertinus, and Liber j and eÅplains the passage in the 
speech of Appius Claudius Crassus, contrasting the full 
patrician with the ordinary Quirite :-" An hoc, si Claudiæ 
familiæ non siro nec ex patricio sanguine ortus sed unus 
Quiritium quilibet, qui modo me duobus ingenuus ortum et 
vivere in libera civitate sciam, reticere possim."t 
The first phrase quoted from this tract is remarkaUy 
expressive, "He is a disease of evils after three persons," 
meaning that when the father and the grandfather have 
been evil, thc fulness of the sins are developed in the grand- 
son j this is preci:,;ely the expression of Demosthenes, 7rOVl}pÒ' 
lK Tpt')'oviu,,tandgivesthe full point tothe line in Sophocles:- 
Oápl1u. CTV flìv yåp Ovò' Eåv T(1íTl}' lyw 
fll}TPÒ' q,uvw TpívoV}.,.Uf:, lKlþuvlÌ. KaKÍ].
To acquire the full rights of an "aire-desa," the" bo-aire " 
must have qualified himself by the possession of land held 
by his tenants, although he could acquire a qualified nobility 
founded upon the possession ùf cattle simply. 
"The law styles that person a plebeian ehief (a flaith- 
aithech) who desires to obtain a chieftainship in right of 
any other property, except in right of (other than) tenants; 
and by tenants is flesh meat supplied to the chief;" and 
again" that these kings are not entitled to anything in right 
of their property, i.e., their cattle."11 

,. Robertson: "ScotJand under her Early Kings," Vol ii., p. 322. 
t Livy: Lib. vi., c. 40. 

 Dem. 1327. 3. 

 O. T. 1062. For the references the I::,
;tor is indebted to Mr. Hcarn's work, 
.. The Aryan Househuld." 
II Page 383. 



The qualification, therefore, of the chief, as founded upon 
the possession of land, had no reference, apparently, to the 
value of the land, or what would be now called his annual 
income, but was based upon the numb('r of tenants upon 
his land, and the amount of their food rents; that is the 
number of his retainer", made up of his tenants and the other 
followers, whom the food rents of his tenants enabled him 
to maintain. 
The right of acquiring rank in the tribe founded upon the 
acquisition of property must, of course, be understood as 
applicable only to free members of the tribe themselves; as 
in all early communities the freedom of the tribe and the 
right to acquire or enjoy a portion of the tribe lands may 
be taken to have been practically identical. 

The several tracts contained in the present volume have 
been collected from the following sources :- 
'Om "Cect:U5a'O; or, Of taking Lawful Possession of Land. Trans- 
lated by Dr. O'Donovan. Vol. I., PI). 91-123, of his official 
translation, and extracted by him from T.C.D., E 3, 5, and 
H 3,17. 
bllern:;ha comm"Chcera atl'OrO; or, the Judgments of Co-tenancy. 
Thi" tract is described by Dr. O'Donovan as "Judgments of 
Co-tenancy," and was translated by him. Vol. I., pp. 1-90, 
of his official translation, and extracted by him from Rawlinson, 
487, and T.C.D., E 3, 5, and H 3,18. 
bech bp.e"Cha; or, Bee Laws. Translated by Dr. O'Donovan. 
Vol. I., pp. 3-16-382, of his official translation, and extr-J.Cted 
by him from H 2,15, T.C.D. 
cOlb1l1ur ulfcl ; or, Right of .Water. This tract is described by 
Dr. O'Donovan as" Of 'Vater :Mills, Mill 
aces," &c., and 
was translated by him. Vol. I., pp. 383-399, of his official 
translation, and was extracted by him from H 2,15, T.e.D. 
ma1;sne; or, Precincts. Described by Dr. O'Donovan as " Of 
the in, iolable space,," hich surrounded every man's residence, 




8ccording to his rank or dignity," &c., and translated by llim. 
Vol. Yll., Pl" 2777-2786 of his official translation, and ex- 
tracted from Egerton, 88,54, 8.a. 

'00 bv.e1teo.nmuf, &c.; or, "Of the Judgment of every crime," 
&c. Translated by 1\11'. O'Curry. VoJ. VI., PI" 902-904, 
of his official translation, and extracted from H 3, 17. T.C.D. 

t:é't> (111 reap.ann a C11lt:<l1b; or, "The Land is forfeited for 
crimes." This was translated by Dr. O'Dono'an. VoJ. V., 
Pl" 2320-2369, of his official translation, and extracted froID 
Egerton, 88, 22, b.a. 

fo't>ta np.e; or, "The Divisions of Land." This was translated 
by Dr. O'Donovan. Vol. IV., Pl'. 1251 to 1253, of his 
official translation, and was extracted by IÜm from H 3,18, 
'Oe fO't>ta1b cmea1t 1:umt:1 ; or, Of the Divisions of the Tribe of 
8 territory. This was translated by Dr. O'Donovan. VoJ. I., 
Pl" 268 to 277, of his official translation, and extracted by 
him from H 2, 15, T.C.D. 

cp.1t:h EatJtaë. The Crith Gabhlach. This was translated by 
Mr. O'Curry; his first translation appears ill Vol. I., Pl'. 
1-76, of his official translation; his revised translation is 
paged as Pl" 2340-2400, and the text was extracted by him 
from H 3, 18, 252, T.C.D. 
The sequel to the Crith Gabhlach, described by 1\11'. G'Donovan 
as an unnamed tract of the different ranks of society and 
Ill'ivileges translated by llim. Vol. IV., Pl'. 1300 to 13H, 
and extracted by him from H 3, 18, T.C.D. 

An unnamed tract, entitled by the editors, "Succession." 
Described by Dr. O'Donovan flS a Tract on the law of 
SuccessioD, or paths of Judgment. 'fran:slatcd by him. Vol. 
V., Pl'. 2199-22
0, of his official translation, and extracted by 
him from Egprton, 88. 



I. The present volume of tracts selected as illustrating the land 
laws of the early Irish, and the constitution of the Celtic family 
and tribe, p. i. Whatever abstract legal propositions the Brehons 
possessed to be found in the tracts. First inquiry, whether there 
is an authentic archaic text, p. viii. Composition of original nrehon 
text, p. x. Principle on which a translation ought to be based, 
p. xi. 1\Iethod adopted by editors in dealing with the text, p. xii. 
G LAWFUL POSSESSION.-A consecutive treatise deal- 
ing with the symbolic ceremonial by which an action for recovery of 
land was instituted, p. xiii. ; exhibits the mode in which the judicial 
authorit,} of the Brehon arose, and the series of legal fictions 
necessary to bring a defendant into court. The authority of the 
nrehon the Same as that of the judges in other Aryan tribes. 
The Brehon system an instance of archaic sur\ ivaI. The Celtic 
Irish never formed town communities, p. xiv. All judicial authority 
deri ved from a system of voluntary submission to arbitmtion. 
The origin and theory uf judicial authority in primitive communi- 
ties reconsidered. "Custom" defined as the acquired habit" of 
any human community, p. xv. Jurisdiction of judges gradually 
established by a series of fictions. Quarrels begin to be submitted 
to arbitration of tribe, p. xvii. 
Iethod of bringing suit into court, 
p. xvüi. 
The case of the Romans considered, judicial customs of the 
Quirites described and compared, p. xx. The Roman procedure, 
symbol its characteristic, manuum consertio. The peculiar analogy 
to the nrehon procedure for recovery of land, which is identical 
"\\<ith the Roman form up to a certain point, but modified to suit 
different cascs, pp. xxi-xxiii. 
The case of Ninne, the son of :Matech, considcred. The Brehon 
procedure for recovery of land described, p. x'i:iv. 
First swp towards the estal.lishment of original judicial power 
was the publication of antique formulæ, p. XX\ iii. Inconsistency 
between the text and commentary a<; to the form pursucù by a 



fcmale claimant. The lcading case of the woman Ciannacht. 
Se\ en exceptions to the ceremonial oflaying claim to land, p. xxix. 
Highly improbahle that the ancient ceremonial was exclusively 
applicable to lands let on rents, p. :xxxi. The procedure further 
dcscrihed. The system of counter-claim, p. xx>.ii. Amount of 
fine paid by unsuccessful claimant. Discussion of the term 
" coibhue," and the various classes of tribe lands, p. xxxiii. Defi- 
nition of "raitech" persons divided into three classes, p. xxxvi. 
Horses llsed at first exclush-cly in the symholical entry, cows 
afterward substitutcíl from neccssity. Forms of procedure ended 
with reference of dispute to arhitration, p. xxxvii. AUusion 
to the mode in which a disputð is decided in an Indian village 
community. 1\11'. \Vallace's description of a meeting of a Russian 
l\lir to assess taxation, and divide village lands refeITfd to, p. 
xxxviii. J udicia1 development among the Irclandic Norse. The 
procedure detailed in two trials before the AIthings, related in the 
Sagu Burnt Kjal, p. '{x"ix. The foundation of the jurisdiction, 
the position and functions of the Celtic Brehon clearly stated, p. 
xl. An attempt to express in distinct terms the bllbstance of two 
fragments of ancient dicta, pr. xli-iii. The case ofScither illustra- 
tive of the nature and the date of the Brehon law, p. xliv. 
Passages indicative of the modern and equitable mode of view- 
ing the essence of the transfer of property, p. xlvi. Assertion of the 
doctrine of purchase for valuable conliideration without notice. 
Passages laying down the ancient theory of society, p. xlvii. 
Explanation of tlle term" ternal covenants," p. >.lviii. 
explanation of the system anywhere given in these tracts, p. xlix. 
A remarkable passage in a preceding volume reprinted, explana- 
tory of the mode in which property was divisible among the mem- 
hers of a family, pp. l-liii. Three distinct theories published as to 
the origin and working of the Geilfine system since date of the last 
volume of Brehon Law Tracts, ,-iz., those of Sir H. 8. 1\laine, Dr. 
\V. K. Sullh an, 1\Ir. J. F. 1\I'Lennan. The views of Sir H. 
stated and explained, p. liv. Dr. \V. K. Sullivan's theory quoted; 
adoption of it by 1\Ir. \V. E. Hearn. \Velsh rule of inheritance 
cited, p. lviii. 1\11'. -;\l'Lennan's theory stated, pp. lix-Ixiv. Im- 
portance of the tract entitled "Of the Divisions of the Tribe of a 
Territory," p. I xvi. Deductions from the tract entitled "The 
Lawl is FOlfeit<'fl for Crim<,," p. I xix. \Y c!l,h rul<,s of inheritance, 



pp. lxxv-vi. Description of the "Geilfine" system, pp.lxxx-lJOD....-ü.i. 
The mles of succession laid down in the Book of Âicill considered, 
p. lxxxix. Conclusions arrived at, p. xcÏü. 
CRIMEs.-The tract" Of the Judgment of every Crime which any 
Criminal Commits" considered, pp. xciv-ci The tract" The Land 
Forfeited for Crime" considered, Pl" ci-cüi. 
 TO LAXD, p. ciii. Description of the first 
land system, p. civ. The origin of succession appears to be co- 
ownership, p. cv. Illustration of the mles of succession, p. cvi. 
Distinctions between various classes of tribe lands explained, p. 
cnl. Three cases of liability and heirship stated, p. cviii. 
Liability to pay fines, and the custom of compensation explained, 
pp. cix-cx. The question of the nature of the interest taken by 
the sons in the lands of a deceased discussed, cxi-cxiÏ. Hereditary 
succession and rules of descent, Pl" cxiÏ-cxv. Female succession, 
Pl'. cxvi-cxvü. 
CY, p. cxix. The partition of 
lands, p. cxx. Fencing, p. cxxi Trespass by cattle and damages, 
Pl'. cxxüi-cxxvüi. Trespass by bees, hens, dogs, p. cxxix. l\Ian 
trespass, p. cxxx. Ex'stence of ten:\nts in the modern sense of 
the tenn, p. cxxxvüi. Rules laid down on the relation of land- 
lord and tenant, Pl'. cxxxÜÏ-cx..-u:vüi. Several and individual owner- 
ship of land perfectly familiar to Irish lawyers, p. cxxxix. Value of 
this tract, p. cx!. 
S, p. cxli The legend relative to introduc- 
tion of bees into Ireland given, p. cxli. This tract valuable IlJJ 
illustrating modes of thought and logical abilities of Irish lawyers, 
p. cxlüi. Possession of bees considered, p. cxliv. English and 
Roman law thereon, p. cxlv. The Brehon law of bees, Pl'. cxlvi- 
clio COllJm;Jntary thereon, p. clü. 'Yelsh law, p. cliü. Norman 
law, p. cliv. 
V III. nIGHT OF 'YATER, p. cl vi. Tracts of the right to con- 
stmct watercourses and mills. Compensation, when payable, p. 
clvii. The question of ownership, p. clvüi. 1\11'. O'Donovan's 
opinion, p. clix.. Ditches di..ideù into two classes, p. clxü. The 
reason why Brehon law is difficult and obscure, p. clxiü. 'Vater 
mills, when first introduced into Irebnd, p. clxiv. 
CTS, the extent of each determined by a national cun- 
vention held at SLIATH FUAIDH, p. ch:v. Damages for violatioll, 



p. clxvi. Protection must be legal, p. clxvii. Amount of damages, 
and number of fugitives allowed, p. clxviii. 1\lr. Hearn's descrip- 
tion of the original position of the fugitive, p. clxix. 
X. DIVISIONS 01' LANDS, the tract an attempt to fix arithmeti- 
cally the value of a cumhal of land, p. clxx. In ancient Ireland 
no currency or standard of value, p. clxxi. The difficulty o
pressing the value of land obvious, p. clxxü. How attempted to be 
solved, p. clxxiü. 
XI. CRITH GABHLACH, the date of its composition attributed by 
Dr. Sullivan to the seventh century, p. clxxiv; by the editors to 
the eighth century, p. clxxv. The early relations of Irish and 
Saxons discussed by Dr Sullivan, p. clxxvi. 
Change in the organization of the Irish Church, p. clxxvüi 
Opinion of Mr. O'Curryon the then condition of society, p. clxxix. 
ThiB traet a compendium of the rights and emoluments of the 
higher classes, p. clxxx. The proper grade determined by amount 
of property, p. clxxxi. List of classes, p. clxxxü. Analysis of 
necessary qualifications and rights of several classes, Pl'. clxxxiii. 
:Mr. Hearn upon the subject, p. clxxxix. Extreme unreliable nature 
of classification contained in this tract shown, p. cxcv. Tabular 
analysis, p. cxlvi. Sequence of ranks shown in table, p. cxcvii. 
Scale of compensation for Jeath gi, en in book of Aicill, p. cxcvüi. 
The Crith Gabhlach must be regarded, to a great extent, an 
imaginary work, though giving a definite picture of mode of life, 
p. cxcix. Duties and rights of kings, p. cc. The week, how 
portioned, p. cciv. Full description of a king in state, p. ccv. 
Condition of Irish people at the date of tbis tract very unfavour- 
able, p. ccvi. 
XI. SEQUEL TO THE CRITH GABIILACH, p. cc, iii Anothel' classi- 
fication given, p. ccix. Dcfinitions of classes, p. ccix., compared 
with those in the Crith Gabhlach, and closely examined, p. ccxii. 
Discussion on " dire" fine of ecclesiastics a most interesting pas- 
sage in Brchon law, p. ccxvü. Important views put forward in 
this tract as to position and duties of clerics, p. ccxxi. 
XII. SUCCESSION, p. ccxxiü. Although of a fragmentary char- 
acter this tract contains some interesting matter, p. ccxxiii. Most 
important extracts have referencc to the rules of three descents, 
p. ccxxvi. 

-o1U "Cec-cuEæo. 


vor.. IY. 


'JnJJ . A ;: E.33". f' 6 ../r- JI-lr ( () '/) ) 2,/- H) 
6 -:::. I/.J.17, 3"- ']2.7 (t/fJ. !.to 9 -42.7) 

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f\ .> ".1. '1 {38 _1;" 
 7'1-0- 747) " 

 t;ect;U 'Sa-o. 


G t;ocombacht:'fub reatb raep,t;eattwË I 
o"OwË mG1p.c 
IO:N. mbp.U"sr G1 t:e; bac'G G1 11. C]1.1cha como:-,comot; G1t:heam 
, "V E a1bea r 'GU1f11Ëe'ma"Oon 'Geattach me"Oonach. 01 f1t1.'Geat- 
tach 'GU1f11Ëe. 

ð vocombacht;(l1b feaLb, .1. If 'C01ch no If LU(l'Ch 'C0Ib51'C na fOr l ft a 
reftann 'Cftef m 'Cee'Cu5(('t) 1'0 f1f '00 bftl'Ch ín'O. nlo'Oal15 m!l1ftc 
mbftu5fat'C e, .1.11' 'Cfte 5mmfta'O a nech f1ftenm!;tIT';'OOlbr1Um he. bac- 
'Catft cftlcha coma comoL.I.cOlÏlcmft'OI.I. bm:aft Lelf fttam naCftlea 
.1. felchim no m'Orm5Ím co naccommL'Ceft a reftann 'Oólbf1um amLal'O 1'111. 
,oCCI'Cheam 5atbear 'CUlntËe .1.11' m'ChlU aem, If Lum'Chiu 5 abu fnech 
'CUlm'Ol m reaftmn'O on 'Cech'Cu5(('t) me'Oonach ma on cé'C 'Cech'Cu5 a 'O. 
1TI a'Oon 'CeaLLach me'Oon ach .1. nocha Lmf m reft befter 'Cech'Cu5 a 
11' m reftann 'Oa cé'C 'Cee'Cu5a 'Cuml'Õe m reftumn aft !It a cé'C 'Cee'Cmöt;e; 
ITer- aftue Clft'C nama Imbl'O. 1TIa ftombe 11' mmt, manu be, anm'O 'Oeaema 
,fOCUr If Lmfom 'CUlm'Õe IfUl'ÕIU. 111 f1 ft'CeaLLach 'Ctllnlse .1. nOCO Lelf 
m reft beftUf 'Cee'Cu5a'O 11' m reftan'O 'Caft cLa'O m reftmn'O 'Oa "Cee"Cu5 a 'O 
'Cuml'Õe m reftam'O aft C(\ 111 cé"C "CeC"CUI!;tI, mana "Cabfta m "CeLLae elLe. 

II ' .
. Ib' -t r' 

.1. cm pp. belp.ear m 'Ceë'Cai>u5 11' amtam 'DO bep.a'D é; aua'D 
reop.a 'Deëmat> 'DO "Caorup,'C Imal1 fep,ul1l1; aucro caë tae 'DO 
lo'CUUatllo'C Hne Iloe Iloe l1a cé'C 'Dcë11latt>c, 110 cumat> ar 111 cér. UCur 
11' 111 to 'Dq:;cul1aë, OCU1' 11' 111 to 11Ie'Dol1aë; OCur mUl1allo 'CÍncec('t) 
hc lur 111 Iloe 1'111,11' 'Dut 'DO a11Utl'D co 11OP. in fep.al1l'D ocur 'Da eaë 
il1a tanil, ocuf paTIne tWf, a fOlloua 11a cé'C 'Deëmat'De; ocur 
11.0 ba'D C011\ 'Dtl;se'D 'DO a fOlloUCC CU1C1 11' 111 cé'C 'Decmam, OCur a 
}bl1111'DI'Ceë'C l1a 'Deëmat'Dc 11Ie'DOl1ël, ocuf bet 'DO taLL p,e loa co l1attCI ; 
ocur fllUl1a 'C11lceallo é amI 1'1n, It' 'Dut'DO amach Iloe p,e l1a 'Deëmame 
me'Doncí, ocut' 11.0 ba C01P. 'Dtt;se'D 'DO a cU1cël 11' 111 'Deëma1'D 
me'DOl1at;S; ocur aba'D 'DÓ caé tae <<p. in mbmbatt> p.e Iloe na 

I Of taking lawful pOßse8siQII.-The Irish for this is taken from O'D, 409. 
tH. 3, 17, col. 311.) 

"'Tv . 


 \ II 
?)l41v 7'\l-n<-
.ft I W 4-r 

?) I 

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 '1 Aøw1 wh 


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 4 it ./ß,þli.J.,. .
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 (&1. ''1'J 


 N OBLE tribes q uickl y obtain n
ssion oflãñd . OF TAKIl;O 
-- , LAWFUL 
it i;Secured to them by the work <?f their POSSI:SSICX 
horses; lands are.. Irot taken possession of until proof 'f. o:<Jwv ./Z-J. 
is given;- h
an sooner get possession if from the 
middle entry; it is not true pÖssession. 
Quickly obtain, i.e. it is soon or quickly that the good men obtain actual pos- 
sessionoftheland bybringingthear e<}ll;sitiBÍA.tnkll1 gpossessionintoit. The work. Ir. ft!Jt
 '>>( -fv..,."" 
of their horses, i.e. it is through the work of their horses it is justified to them. These below 
Lands are not taken possession of, &e., i.e. equal . eairde,' i.e. he had the 
territories before, i.e. I hoM or I maintain that their land ie not rctaine(] by them after 
that manner. He shall sooner get possession, i.e. quicker or sooner does one 
obtain poesession of the land from the elate of the middle possession-taking than 
from the first possession-taking. If from the middle entry, i.e. it is not to 
the man who brings the means of possession-taking into the land for its possession 
for the first time that the possession of the land belongs on acconnt of its 
first possession-taking; ',e has bnt an inception of right alone respecting it. If it 
is, it is well, if not, there is a etay of ten daye and the possession is his then. I t is 
not true poeseesion, i.e. it is not to the man who brings the means of 
possession into the land alld over the fence of the land for its possession that the 
possession of the land belongs on acconnt of the first possession, nnless he makes 
the second entry. 
'Vhatever man brings the means of taking possession it is thus he 
shall bring it: he shall give notice for the sl)acc of thirty days upon 
the land; he shall serve notice every day respecting it during the 
period of the first ten days, or according to OtIW1'S, on the first amI 
the last day, and on the middle day; and, mùess he has been 
responded to during that time, he is to go over to the border of the 
land, having two horses in his hand (by tlw bridles), and having a 
witness, at the end of the first ten days; and law is d.ue to hinl 
at the end of five days in the first ten days, and at the beginning 
of the middle ten days, and hc shall remain within for a day and 
a night; and if he is not responded to then, he is to go out during 
the period of the middle ten days, and law is due to lùm at the 
end of five days of the middle ten days; and he shallserye notice b 
upon the defendant during the period of the middle ten days, 
VOL. IV. B 2 

b Jr. 
A n?tice by 


"Om 'CeëcUEa'Ð 8, ran <x. 


OF TAKUi(l 'Oeëma1'Oe me'Oona1 ö e; no, coma'O 1f m cêr; to ocuf 'f m to 
1 ,I.AWFUL me'Oonaë ocuf '1' m to 'Oe1öeanae, ocuf muna r;mceap, é, 'Out '00 
anunn a na 'Oeema1'01 me'Oona1Ë" ocuf a nm'Om;eer; na 
I 'Oeema1'Oe 'OeI5ena1Ëe, co quan in fep,a1n'O, ocuf celtp,1 hele telf 
,rocuf 'Oa f1a'One. C(ba'O '00 cae tae p.e p.e na 'Oeema1'O' 
me'Oona1ö ' ; no coma'O If m cér; to ocuf '1' m to me'Oonae ocuf 
'1' m to 'OeI5eanae; oeuf muna dneeap. é, '1' 'Out '00 amae, ocuf 
aba'O '00 ap. mÙ1'Obaró cae we a1l1U1Ë 11-e p.e na 'Oeema1'01 'OeIË- 
anmË1; ocuf muna r:mccap. he, '1' 'Out '00 anun'O a fop.ùa na 
IC 'Oeema1'01 'Oe15eanmö', co l\.u1öe tet m fep.amn, ocur OCt; nele 
telf OCUf r:P.1 fHrone Le1f, OCUf (1 tet '00 öp.a'Omb ftar:ha,ocuf 
<< tet '00 5p.emmb feme; oeuf muna 'Oamrup. 'Ot,.se'O '06 p.e n"Óut 
<<n'Óunn, noco nm'Otl1;i:ee '00 öin co t:1 amae no co f1nna in teif no 
naê te'f; ocuf 'Oama'O cmm;e telf na 'Oemr:a 'Ot1öe"Ó '00 p.e n'Out 
,.an'Oun'O, tlOCO mn'Ot1öteê '00 öm co t;uea abem acr; t:eet::\löem '00 

'<:eattach mp. ap.m, céc
eattach; ai> na ceêca 

eattach 'Ða 'Ðechma'Ð ctan ='p.amap.v;' <X'Ð '00- 


'D -r;eattach t;ap. ap.t;a .1. t;ap. cÙrt>; 110 cap.but; I 't;etLuch t;1p.e C1I1 
t:'UP.focp.a. (('Òlla t;eët;a t;UII1IEe .'. 't>tIEe'Ò IIU t;eët;un'D t;UII11't>I 111't>'t>Ofomf1l1. -r;euttuch 'Oa 't>ec1lma't> Clal1ll.amap.,.1.1I1 
t;echt;uEu't> bep.uf 1I1't> a mt;hte 111 't>u't>echma't> clan p.emUT\ .1. 111 't>eëmcro 
me't>onach ocuf111 't>eëmcro 't>el't>enuch. C1Un p.amap.'t , . clan m;ut;hap. 
;50CCO a p.emup.. (('t> 't>o cOlftea'O t;ulnl'Òe, .1. If 't>tI5e'Ò foætar 
t;uí11l't>í În fep.ulll't> 't>orom f1n. 


0'0. 409. 

[t1mne mac mar:ech 'Ofemlb tU15 fO r:um'Ó a crt1ch nUtu'O, r:P.1Up. 
map.eacn '00 fUö1'O cap.ur;, ocuf fColp.fet; a neocha 1 np. ba 
cemwt 'Oomb p.lam, na bo eumee chora m'O: co nelplp.r; m r:1 ba 
\þ np., belp.I'Ó bup. neoenu af m np.. Urbep.r; 'Om 1TI 'Olaf baol ta 
. l1mne; m 1110 'Oan 'Oume C1fl"Q):or:Q..1"ií fCoP. ap. neoch funn ; na 
bu ap. cumee co'Oa an'O. 111 hup.ura fon p.o ba tlbf1 P.lan1; n1 Ù1em 
<<noo enÏ1 U1t1.e. 111 te'OUT"Up. c6f1n nap.,<>ma'O teo tuam a t;lp.. 111 
I The /alt tm daya.- The illS. here reads 'middle' instead . of last;' but the 
! anse clearly requircs 'la3t.' 

.... t..tnv
 <<.f\- U

 or V. J"' 

Aj,. UIJ\. C g 

 ';/.r .... 

. _f.



or, according to otlters, it may be on the first day, and on OF TARISO 
the middle day, and on the last day, and unlpss he is responded to, p

he is to go over to t/w land at the end of the middle teIi days, and 
at the beginning of the last ten days, into the third of tIle 
land, he having wit/t him four horses and two witnesses. He is 
to serve notice- during the period of the last ten days;' or according 
w others, it may be on the first day, amI on the middle day, and on 
the last day; find unless he is responded to, he is to go out, and he 
is to serve notice- on the defendant e.very day outside during the 
period of the ten last days; and unless he is responded to, he is 
to go over at the expiration of the 13.8t ten days until he arrives 
at half (middle point of) the land, having eight horses and three 
7? J.WL 1 /lrJj, 
witnesses with 11Ím, one-half of them of the chieftain rank, and the '-7 
other half of the Feini rank; and unless law is offered to him before 
going over, it is not unlawful for him not to come out until it is 
ascertained wTwther the land is or is not his; and if it be certain 
to him that law will not be given to him before going over, it is 
not unlawful for him that he has not given notice, provided that 
he has brought the means of tlj.king possession. 

Entry over a 
l1'r: .;, 
rst entry; l-a.'f,40es not ") 
legalize possession; an entry of twice ten days -eH: 4;r-t
 J."..-ké ) 
laad l.Qng-tiUed; it- is-1a,w that-tak-es possession (>f R/

the land for him from the other l)(l1.ty

- Ir. 
A notice by 

En try over a wall, i.e. over a fence; or, aceo/'ding to ot\e,'s, to bring a chariut 
in aD entry upon land without forewarning. Law does not legalize posses- 
sion, i.e. that is a law which does not justify pos
ession of the land for him. 
t:ntry of twice ten days, &c., i.e. the means of possession-taking which he 
brings into it after the two ten days. 'Cion remur,' i.e. the middle ten da
's aud 
the last ten days. Long tilled,.i.e. long it has been with him under tillage. 
Law that takes possession, i.e. that is law which takes away the possession 
of the land for him. 
Ninne, son of l\Iatech, one of the Feini, went northwards into 
the country of the Uladh -.rith three horsemen to visit friends, 
and they unharnessod their horses in a land which had previously 
bclonged to their tribe, but it was not to demand a snare therein ; 
and the person whose land it was said to thpm, take away your 
horses from the land. Then the two who were with Ninne 
replied: it does not make our claim greater that we have 


p,l o ur horses here; it is not t.o claim a share 
This is not easy for it was your own beìòre; they shall not 
be lift there for that reaiiion. ThPy did not know u

tJ.? D7tV ðff- / 
rf W }i.J./h 



-Om 'Ceët=t1Ea'Ð 81 1'atla. 



"".iW- MrrJ. -dA,. 

OF TAKIKO telCfet7 (( tleocha ar. Cap.t7(('Omm t71 ba t711', a tleocha ar ap. Clcm. 
05ettrm; 1((l',um Imbl Cotlëobap. mac 11ef<x, ocur bell,t7f1"Oe padl 
ecmrtt7echt7(( fOI1.r ffil n ca11.t7Ur a tleocha ar m t71P., ocur comtoË 
111 111 cap.t7ar ar. ocur '00 ëombl fetba 'Oolb a come fltl 
5"'01 t7eU.aIË.] 
 4d1J .. "r

C(ß4f) Y'.
, -t, 
 .... [1,,] I 7 ) 
at=Wt= 1'echt= 1'eatba ta feme na Ewbt=ep. 
tla be1p. ceadlp.a 1na t=eattach; 1t= Pt
'&cúrh '00 bomE a mbach OCU1' a t=eattach ; 'Ðtm cetl r e1tb ; 
l,,I. ., iJ 

. . ceatt Een fWt=hëe; t=1P. fop.1' a mba1 fO'ÐtwE; bmrteac 
. L.JI,.. t. [ff J J t:mJf./A-' 

 J1"""""" ID bowp.; mt11lt1tl11' m((p.a ma be1p. cem:;hp.((; ulwcomot C11' [tv.. .,,- '- 
C. [Il/b) nelml'O; t=1P. 'Oa'Oa ftm;h mp.l1ecu1b m ëe1te, a ctae- 
t=ap. pott, 1 tm. 

((t:(1It: recllt: reaLba .1. m::;mt: reét:'O 'Oa nmfne1'Oenn 111 
renechuf. oCUf noco 'Otesap. m::;hsubmL If m'OILte '00 bp.1t:h m'Ot:lb 'Oa 
,rt:echt:usa'O. 1J a belp. ceut:h1'a .1. noco bep.o:p. cet:hp.a 'Oa t:echt: u 5<ro. 
1 t: rl p. .1. If rIp. ímrUlL5111t:ep. no íneILL51t:ep. ín'Ot:lb, no '00 bp.elt:h 
't'a t:echt:u5<ro. t:olch '00 bOlns, .1. If t:OIch no If Luat:h t:OIbSlt:ep.. 
(( t:obach .1. m::;h5abmt. (( t:eaLLach, .1. t:echt:msë;e. "Oun cen relLb, 
.1. cen rap.ann mCI, amuIL m::;a 'Dun ap.UlLL. CeaLL sen 
mt:hëe .1. 
D amUlL rn;a ceLt sa1Jtlín. t:1 p. rop.f a m bm ro'O L!X15 .1. ap. nap. 
na hm'OILte. bal fLeac .1. toc bUlr Imbl bo ap. .1. baf toc .1. mcrn a moo. 
rUlst:ep. I<<t: t:1'e U1' na mho, no toc bUlr 1mb! saLa1" n1 u I P.I n I f m a 1'a 
.,. m'f ma1't:anach blf ap. mUlp., no l111a ma1't:anach mUlfl, amUlLm::;a lmf 
cm::; hm 5 .1. OTnun a mbatai> CUlcce no umtl .,. a1' annfm::;uf a mb1'lt mt:e. 

"na bel1' ceat:h1'a .1. noco bep.ap. cet:hp.a 'Oa t:echt:uscrn cen et:hap.,
Up.acomoL .,. m ní rop. a J'lp.accommLt:ep. a clf '00 nelme'O, amUlL m::;a 
t:1}1. mU5mn no 1'ot: m>mUlp.' .1. t:1p. blf La neë, '01<< n'Ote5u1' c'ff' ap. rocolr- 

rVJ 'IVrltti,.,Oß 11..S?: MW

,MJI/r '-
 r- 8 .() 

I IniB Catltaigh.-Scattery Island in the Shannon, near KiJrush. 
. Tir-Maghain.-In C., 84G, the following note is given :-Secures the rent, 
i.e. land which one possesses of which rent is due, and the cattle of the entry are 
distrained for that rent alone, i.e. the tiling by "hich his rent is secured to the 
. Nemidh '-person, such as Tir-?tIudhain in Eile to the King of Caise!, or Hot- 
Adamair, in Ui-Conaill-Gabhra to the Coarh of Lismor in the samc way, i.c. 
According to the ancients all along everything which is found on Fiadh-?tIudhain is 

. . 


.) au
 '.1' W">l 
 1-0 J4"'" 
 W1.Iv if '" "-'- wøt 



that the land had been tbeirs before. They did not remove their OF TAJæ\G 
horses from thence. The person whose land it was then drove P LAWFL"I. 
their horses from it by force. They afterwards applied to 
Conchobhar Mac Nessa concerning it, and he awarded a fine for 
q:es." f-}47' unlawful 
 upon the person who drove the horses out of 
the land, and an equivalent of what was driven off it, andhe gave 
them lands in proportion to their family. 
There are seven lands with the Feini into which 

ss i
ot taken, i


h t 
for entry; it is men that 
-Cq,UH' . " . Ie r.f.7k ZCI', 11; IDO-, 
""'-L" I ,rc
 .....,..1"....<"'. "'" /woOd ., 

 and Hle -èntl'y a re seIZ ed '.Ipo n; a 'dun- 
fort without land; a church without a green; a land .. ,. '-II 
on which there arc plunderers; a deadly place o! 4".wk' 
murrain; an island in the 
 which cattle 'are 

 brought; Zemd 'l

rts the rent of a 'Nemidh'- 
person; land which the chief divides after the death 
of the tenant, whel'e a hole is made, where a stone 
is put. 
There are seven lands, Le. there are se\"en lands which tbe Feinechus men- 
tions, and into which it iq not lawful to bring distress in the shape of cattle into them, 
to take lawful po_ion. Kot cattle are brought, i.e. cattle are not brought 
to take lawful possession of them (the land.). It is men, i.e. it is men that are 
suffered or required to be brought into them, or to be brought to take lawful possession 
of them. Quickly are seized upon, Le. it is quickly or BOon seizure is made. -7;.ALJ...,..
Exaction,i.e.distress(lawful.e;zul'e). Entry, i.e.leglriieed. A 'dun'-fort f-
witbout land, i.e. witbout having land, such as Dun Araill. A cburch 

 without ø. green, i.e. such BII Cell Gabhrin. A land on which there are '!?'vk 
.P-LJ.l"llt plunderers, i.e. oa v hidl tlls GatUsha' a ""an Idll l'<l. A deadly place, i.e. a place 
of death, where thcre is murrain of cows, i.e. 'bas-loc,' i.e. a place where they are 
carried off b)' death through cow-plague or a place of death" here there i
An illand in the sea, Le.a deadlyislandwhichisÛruatedintheøea,oratwhich 
the sea is destructi\"e, such as Inis Cathaigh,1 i.e. tMre ;$ fear of their being droWlled 
going to it or coming fyom it, i.e. on account of the difficulty of bring;ng them thither. 
To which cattle are brought, i.e. cattle are not brought to take 1a"ful 
possession of it without a boat. Secures the rcn" i.e. the thing by which 
his rent is truly' secured to a . Xemedh '-person, such as 'fir-?tIaghain,' or Hot- 
Adamairi, i.e. land which one has, of which rent is due, for the cattle brought to 

 Ihv w-cÁ.- '"' .) 
w...vf h "' ?I-. U Q.I '&-

 t!ù &" >> 
'1r'- J..À't 

foñeited (due) to the King of Caise1 the day on which he will assume the kingdom, 
becaUBe they hall killed a king of CaiseL Rod-Adamair, too, there was a serpent 
there, and 1I10chuta expel1ed it thence, and the reward that used to be given to 
him for having driven it thence was e\""erything which the Coorb of Mochuta oj 
Lu-mor could find on it, the day on which he assumed the abbacy, should be his 
, for it is forfeit. 


'bm '<:eé
ða'O 81fana. 

OF TAKING LlI:;e1' ce\t1'a m t:eaLLms La Clf a nelill'Í>. 111 COI1' t:eLLaë cet1'a mn (11' 
} ' LAWFUL U11'mlt:lIIlla rLata If a t:1,.. '(:;'1' 't>a 1'an't>a rLat:h .1. m t:1,1. u1'1'alllluf 
OBSESSION. ' h b ' , - . 
_ In r,-,U1t: , t:I1' 't>1 a't> j no If rp.ec1'a 't>at:hEabU1'-' mb""oEam, .1. con't>U15 
rL<I1t a CUlt: all't> .1. coou 't>mi1m1' m a rùntuf e, ocuf 0 11.0ll1nref 111 
,"[;11' n't>loo't> nocha neEII1 't>o t:echt:uEa't> 't>o b1'elt: m't>. a: cLaet:a1' poLL 
.1. cLæo.I.lcLO:I't>t:e1'poLLlcom1'U1n't> m re1'all1't>. 1 cu1't:a1' Lla .1. co1'- 
t:he.l. 1((1'na cWI't>e .1. m CÙJë c1'1che.l. bl poLL ocuf Lla ocur cOl1'ta rLata 
ann co reft:a1' a CUlt: an't>. 

, ..... ...u..-

1\). c; 

. ./11, .
\:" .1. 'Om mbel1.t::ap.m:;hEabUlt 11' na reèt:: rel1.annU10 reo, ((rat:: CUIC 
.} f '" 'e reolt:: CI'O '00 cmnt::aè CI'O '00 inbteoËam j no 'Oono, '1' CUiC feolt:: 
. \," 
v 1Onf1n '00 inbteoEam, ocuf ni fit ni '00 cmnt::aè co 1'.a ra1'a rOËmt, 
ocur 0 rarbuf rOEmt m:;á1t:: CUIC rcolt:: inn '00 cm'O
aé. marl( 
11lmtte 11.UE '00 teét::uEa'O runn, 11' flaé n,cht::alEte t::llte co cunn 
co co,lJ1le, 110 t::111.e cen cUlIn cen cOlbne. 1n comtlll '00 1O'Oltlb 
I! '00 belWI1. '00 t::echt::uEa'O na relwnn e1te C01wb e uelWlt '00 'Oomlb 
'00 t::echt::uEa'O na }:e11.ann. 
.' '_.:M. D O

'Coëomba1E C1annacht:; c1anbltuIEe; 'Oa a1 an"Q f1tl 
. fama1E a r; 'Do..1U1'O mp. fea)lt:; a ce'O t:;eatth1Ê ; bach fOlt 
p -ø.4rth.>. f.w pne a fO)lcOmat; 1mana 1ap.urn alt feíneachaf co hocht:; 
1. fa-e 

 . iÞr> 2.0 ta 1u1'01l1Ee pa'Dna1re ban a cet:;eattaë, na'D tt6ana'D a 
ce'O )lura. Cem:hltuma'O ta at:;haJLach -1fea'O t:;echm 
cach ban____t:;eatta1E_ -00 tU1'O wttum '01<1 cean'Oa'O((1E 
co n'01abta'O a1)lrne ataJ1.lwë, tora'O, Cfuadwll!. Ceatlt:;- 
C- 5o./b); C20b7 fume; CUa1JLt:; fa1Eear a comna1'Om ta featt fOlf1Eeatt 

 '-5' pa'Ona1re, Ir Wlwrn adl1tach. 'Own 'Oa ftteaEfla,: 'OatE 
'Ot1Ee'O cem;h)lu1mte a ce'O
 'Ot1Ee'D a1te a me'Oonaë, t:;t1L- 
fUIEeatt $



ed- Jeit 

'(:;oëomloa1E clannacht: .1. 1f t:OIch no If Luat:h 1to t:olb;ssfl:;a,t 
C1analt, m5en ':e1'Eura ''t>, Ila re1'unna p.o bo clan uUIt:he CUfqlU- 

1 I Ntimedh '.perøon.-c. 846, add
. .. the chief retains his siulre there.' · 

( ..,.,,-w.) I . L. 
!J * 
 "'" w<A- 
 ( """" ""- '--"T ""'it' "-"'I""T'V_ 


. '



 .---..1/ --- tJ ;... 

J ",
 J.o . 







make entry shall be distrained for the rent of tbe . Xeimedh 'I-person. It is not OF TAKUW 
right that all elltry by cattle be there on account of the dignity of the chief whose LA WFUJ. 
1anll it is. Land which the chief divides, i.e. the land which the chief rnstri- POSSIo.,,;sJOx. 
Lutes, a ' dibadh '-land; or it is a responding to the distress of ß kinsman, i.e. the chief 
retains his share in it, i.e. he does not cede it during his reign, and when he will 
J.ivide the · dibadh '-land he is not obliged to briug the means of taling possession 
into it. \Vhere a hole is made, i.e. a mound, i.e. wherein a hole is sunk in the 
dh i
ion of thc land. \V here a stone is pu t, i.e. ß pillar-stone, i.e. after its being 

d, i.e. the boundary stone, i e. there are a hole alld a stone and the chief's 
standing stone there in order that his shore there may be known. 


If distress be brought into eitlwr of these seven lands, there are 
five 'seds' due either by the guilty person or the kinsman; 
or, indeed, according to otlters, it is five 'seds' by the kinsman, and 
there is nothing due by the guilty l'erbon until damage arises, and 
whcn damage arises, there are five 'seds' due by the guilty person. 
If it be cattle that he has brought to take possession in this inst;.l,ncc, 
it is fine of 

 of land with chief and tribe, 
Or of land without chief or tribe. The same number of cattle which 
is brought to take possession of the other lands is the number of 
men that shall be bro
e !)o

these lands. 
Ciannacht t
k posses::;io
 a distant farm; she rf t.....-. f 3l;/, 
ãrrX:i'1 g ed two ewes there; she På88ed over the lliound- .1._. 

 #1..... '-ttA'""'f "'':1'-'' 
 I-Iu- I.H
) 7V
fence as the first entry; 
lengoo tne- tFibe to' - 
COllie to terms of agreement with her as to hc?' land; 
she afterwards remain&l,. according to the Feinechus, 
; eight
with women witness on the occasion, 

......a (Ñ4 i"A, 'lÞL""uÚ:) 
oP the first entry, to pnY/:e that she al(l not sell her . Ir. ]... 
first modesty. In four days after it is that every fIN. 'fHv
, t . 1 f 1 Sh ;vCOOt r. 
'" d io#h
woman s en ry IS aw u . e, aLterwar s
 _ _ 
again to the head of her land with double steek, a 

kneadiug trough, a sieve, 1(
aking im plemont ; , 
in due ordl3r she claimed her right with a man witness. ,) . 
f 1..1" r 
 f - d .. 1 d 
I fJi l O 13 a ttö rwa rUs respo Ide to, she IS enÜt e to 
four days for her first suit, to two days for her middle, 
and for her last, to speedy judt,'l1lent. 


Ciannacht took possession, i.e. it is soon or quickly Ciannacht, daughter 
of t'crgU5 t'urcraidh took;ion of the lands which were l.1tely far from her; 

I CiallWlche took possfuion. The following anecdote is given in C. 846 (H. 3, 18, 
p.3tiõ a), and in O'D. .-to tll. 3,17, eQl. õ38):-"Cillull.1etlta, i.e. dau
hter Qf 
.17 t.ut 3/4- ,.,
 y /1.) 


'Om 'Ceë
t1Ea'O 81f(ma. 

OF TAKING rea; no 't>ono, cornm> 1 Clannoët:, 111E6n Conn La, mlc '(;m't>E, mlc ((lteLLa 
P LAWFUL ULmm. '(;oéombal5 .1. 't>o caom bo111E' Clanbp.U1E6 .1. Clan mop. 
OSRES8ION. t.._ .. . b ,
_ p.o muuc,ap. C111 
5up.p.a't>. no arap. 
t: Umt;1 UI {;Ip. .1.0 ....em co 
hULt:a. 1)a al an't> r1n ramU1Ear.l.lramÙIrò't>op.omeflmramuEa't> 
.rf111 no 111 t:oP.'t>u5m> fin ocuf 't>1 cmp.l:ë;a COp.IIl't> 111a tuím. 1)0 LU1't> t:ap. 
-reap.t; .1. 't>0 cum't> fI t;ap. ctu't> 111 \-''t> 't>a cet: t:echt:uEa't>. bach 
-rop. pne .1. ralE'm no 111't>fm5ím cona't> ap. 
p.ann na \-'1ne bep.ur fI ín 
pp. accomaLra111. 1mana .1. em ana't> fl laP. f111 me1t;e fm. 
((p. -reínE'achaf' .1. 't>o P.61P. ín -renechmf' Co hocht; La.1- blt:h't>l 
10 111a up.p.nm't>l p.e p.é oét; tuítl, ocuf Ce1tP.l cmp.15 't>o Le a na 
cet;hp.amtan me't>onél a hmtLl na cét; cet;hp.amt:han. 
I a't>n U1 fe ban a 
cet:eaLLaé .1. 't>a ban r1U't>nmre 't>o bp.sreh 't>1 Le a na eet;hp.amt;(!1l 
me't>onël a hmtLl na eét; cetp.amtan ; Lo:ë; enech 't>o eeét;ap.'t>e 't>lb ín rep.Ul1't>, 
.1. EabaL 111Een n1111't> OCUf e,ehne 1115sn é<<p.pmt: mb111't>. ""1 a't> p.e an a't>, 
If.l. noeo p.eemt: eíní:ë; a cet;mu111't>t;Ip.e. Ceat:hp.uma't> La at:h<<p.aeh 
.10 p.o bo COIP. 't>LIEe't> 't>o 't>amt:mn 't>1 If 111 cSt;hp.ama't> La 't>on c6t; h t\Um- 
t:a111 't>sl't>snm't> a mt;hLl na eet;hp.amt;an me't>onél; crtap.p.aé -reét:uf mLe 
, ap.lf' 1rea't> t:eeht;a .1. 'fre't: 111 fO 't>LIES't> eaé t;eét;m1ÇèJban't>a. 1)0 

O/J /24,0) LU1't> .1. laP.f 111 mLe't>éc, .1. 't>o éual't> fl 't>otm't> a tuta, 
troo é111't> a rep.a111't> bo't>é111. Co n't>labLa't> <<1 p.m s, .1. co n't>labÙl't> na p.UCurcap. Le p.elms a na cedlp.amt;an me't>onél 't>o 't>1 
Le crtap.p.ach reët;af mLe ap.lf' .1. oct; cmp.1Ë;. LOfa't>,, .1- 
<< Lofrn; ocur a Cf1.1at;hap.. oeur 111 ní -rop. a eep.t:m5enn a -ru111e Leo .1. a tec 
-rU111S ap. t:Ofaé UlLe. Cua1}tt; rUlEsaf a comnU1't>m .1. 111 ní -rop. 

 a n111't>fOl5enn a cuma nafCmp.sét; laP. cae UIP.'t> .1. a cuíceaL oeur a 
clp.boLE' L<< -reap. -ro1p.EeaLL .1. La rep. bur 111-rIa't>nmre aca \-'OIP.- 
EeaLL; ump. If 't>o éum't> menma 111 u5't>mp. eonabu 't>01L51Ú t;P.l ban 
pa't>nmre 't>a5bmL na aen rep. pa't>nmre. 1 r 1 a t:h p.aeh .1. If 
1<<, afa mt;hL, fin, adlUp.p.ach recht;ur mLI; ap. lr ma't>la -rp.ecmp.t:ep. 
,. hl 't>o p.e1P. 't>Ll51'Õ commt;h If amLm'Õ feo p.o bo COIP. a 't>snam, .10 ma 
t:1nélf'n öef -rup.p.a fO Cét;OIP., no ap. mea't>an, If ap. éecrtp.ulme a 't>Llt;e'Õ 't>1 
ap. 't>uf' oeur It; Emp.'t>1 ap. E<<é I11bm'ÕI caé mo-ö 't>o 001P. fastap. plp.p.a, 
ar iAJ.ll,{?) ()

Fergus Foreraidh and nri Anbui who was wife to mai Briughaidh, but whom 
Conchobhar lilac Nessa bought after the death of her first husband, Fergus Foreraidh. 
The woman wished to come to her brethren to demand land of th.em, i.e. ConalI 
Cernach and Ainrirgin · .. 
The daughter inquired of Sencha, son of AileU, "hether it WM right for her to 
demand land. lie said at first that it was not right for her to demand land; after 
which "the blotchl's'" were raised on his cheek in the night. lIesai!l on the next day 
that it was right for her to !Iemamlland; and he told hcr to bring man-posseilSion- 
taking into it, so that grain-blotches were raised on his cheeks a second time. His 
mother then told him that the means of possession-taking which he should ha, e 
decided should have been sheep, a knea!ling-trough, and a sieve. 
She then took two worthy female witnesse. with her, namely, Gabhal, <laughter 
of Midhe IIIiuu, and Cethra, daughter of III inn, and they took IIIinn's chariot 

I The blotchu.-These were said to appear on the face of Kings or nrehons who 
had I!ÍVI'.n false judgments. Vide Senehas Mor, vol. i., p. 25. 





or, according to olh/!/'$, it Wll.'! Ciannacht, the daughter of Connla, son of Tadhg, OF TAKIS"O 
son of Cian, BOn of Aliell Olum. Took possession, i.e. fairly seized on. Dis- LAWl'UL 
f . d ' 1 . b f '.1 . if 1 - POSSESSION. 
tan t arm, '.e. they ha been lor a ong time e ore In we lJosse$$'oo 0 'K" 
brethren, without goodseettrity; or, accO/'ding to olhe"$, it was far away from her land 
was, i.e. from the Feini 1 to madh. Two ewes, &c., i.e. she settled or arranged 
them thns, she held two ewes yoked in her hond. She passed over the 
mound-fencE', i.e. she went lI\"er the fence of the land to take first possession of 
it. She challe.nged the trihe, i.e. I hold or insist that it is on the land of 
the tribe (not of drange1'$) she brings this true claim. She afterwards 
remained, i.e. she remains 
 after doing tlms much. The Feinech us, i.e. 
according to the Feinechus. For eight days, i.e. she is to be 
space of eight days, ond she is to bring four sheep with her at the end of the middle 
fourthday,aftertheexpirationofthefirstfourda)8. 'Vomen witness on the 
occasion of. the first entry, i.e. two women witnesses to be brought by . Ir. In. 
her at the expiration of the middle four at the end of the first four days; the 
1anù is equal to the honor-price of either of them, ,;z., Gabhal, daughter of Menn, 
and Eichne, the base b daughter of Menn. That she did not sell, i.e. she did b Ir. ?? 
not sell the honor In four da)s after,i.e. it is righttogrant Chariot. 
her lhe benefit of law on the fourth day of the last four after the expiration of 
the middle four; the time after that again. Is 1 a w f u I, i.e. this is the 
law of every. woman possession-taking. She wen t afterwards, i.e. after the 
twelfth day, i.e. she afterwards went to the head of her own property, to the head 
of her own land. With double stock, i.e. double the stock which she had 
brought with her before the expiration of the middle four, are to be brought by her 
another time again, i.e. eight sheep. A kneading-trough, a ø ieve, i.e. hcr 
kneading-trough and her sieve, and along with them the thing by which she adjnsts 
her, i.e. her baking ßag (griddle) first of all. In due order she claims 
her ri g h t, i.e. the thing by which she sues her security in proper order, i.e. her distaff, 
and her comb-bag. Witha man witness, i.e. ...-ith a man who is qualifiB!1 to bear 
witness, to give testimon:r; for according to the intention of the author of it 
would not be more difficult to find three female witne'.es than one male witness. Is 
afterwards, i.e. it is afterwarÙ3, after this, one other tim
; for if she be responùcd 
to well according to law, this is the way it should be done, i.e. ü we be responded to 
at first, or in the middle, it is after four days that la" should be ceded, at the first 
entry, and it is shorter every time, the more she is put to trouble', BII I :1 j''''fÇ''C'l t 
"With them. And she took two sheep on the first occasion, amI four on the fourth 
da:)", and eight on the eighth day; and she went in this manner at once with two 
sheep and two female witnesses" ith her, and remaius afterwards. She brought four 
sheep on the eighth day, and eight on the eighth day, and thus took the possession." 
I F,'om the Feini. She had to come a long distance from the territory of the 
Feini, in the south, to the conntry of UJadh in the north. 

 Put to 'rouhle.- The following explauntion is given of this passage in 
O'D. 410:-" If she is responded to at once or in the middle term it is in 
four days that her right is to be ceded to her in the first entry, and it is shorter 
every term the more trouble is brought upon her, so that it is" a judgment of 
precinct" to herself, i.e. that the term of its arrival to them, i.e. a pledge in the 
precinct, or five days to solicit the defendant, i.e. five others if at the middle notice 
her offer of law \VII.'! responded to, or she ib to remain for a time, for she is nearer to 
the actual p08.
sion each time." 


\)m l:eé
ða'O 81ratla. 

Or TAKING conn:; rUI!'jIU.. 't>1, mmSIn ra't>e015 "DL1Ee't> cedlp.Ulmte .1. 1'0 
LAWFUL bo C01P. 'VtIEei> 't>1 a na cer;hp.U1mte mo't>onêl a hmttl na cer; cer;h- 
'p.U1mte. "DtIEe't> alte a me't>onaê .1-P.0 bo C01P. 't>tIEei> 't>1 a rop.ha 
- (llte't>on cer;hp.amr;mn 't>e1't>enm't> a mttl na cor;hp.amr;an me't>onêl. 'Lu t- 
rUIEeatt an 't>elEan ach, .1- t;at ar;a a rU1Eett U1tl 't>11 nacedl- 
p.mmtl 't>el't>enê1, .1- a CIl.O't> U1te 't>o;h In't>. 

t, '31- 
11 12.(,1 " 

dt C I /3 

I["rl.; \.. I 3 

mafa elt)'D1;1 tatI' fla 'Dem1;ap, 'DtIEe'Ò 'DO, 11' tan 'DO 'Duta ammn 
co na quI'{) U1te. maru elt)'D1;1 tall' co n'Dem1;ul1, 11' tan paeh 
1;eclrcal;SC;1 Ua'O; eona 'Òe fit) a1;a, apa'D 1;eoll,a n'Deehma'Ò, in inuum 
/011' eUnn1;UUU1ll1;tatr 1 n'Dem1;a no na 'Dem1;a 'DtIEe'D 'DO, .1. 1;att Ulf 
nul' It) p.e om oe eU111nEe reehemun It) feè1; 'DeI;smaè, oca t:1;S 
I1JJU1l1W It) feè1; 1;ll1feë oeuf me"Òonaê. 

.1. caë Uatll If aua'D 1;e01ta n'Deèma'D 'DO uqwm na Pfl, If 
uba'D "Geop,a eem:::hflam1;an 'DO ueflam na nma, oeuf cuqulIlIa 
,.;oeëatb'Do Ue1W1'D na fi11. oeuf 'DO Cat11.atU 'DO be11.aI'D na mna; 
ocuf in eomfa'D naEam na P11. If 111 r e 11.atl11, 11' 111 eomra'D 1'111 
1;IGEa'D na mna. Caè Uat11. If mna uelwm 111 "Leë"Lu5a'D '1' auu"Ò 
"Ge011.a eem:::h'1amta 'DO Ue11a'D a11 in mumuari> ann, oeuf 11' amta.l"Ò 
'DO be1W'D .1. aba"Ò 'DO "Gaual11.1; 'DOIU ap.. in mumuU1"ò caë tae fle 11.e 
'2.' najeea"Lh11.al111te; no 'Dono, eeana, eoma'D 11' 111 ee'D to, oeuf If m to 
méli>onaè, oeuf 11' un to 'DeEeanaé; 'Dut 'Di amaè a nu 
eeatflam"Gan "GulfiEe, oeuf a mn'D1Leè1; Tla cem::hflamun me'Don- 
alEe "Gafl reall,"G in feflalt)'D, oeuf 'Da eatfll;S te oeuf ban pa"ÒnUlrc 
te, oeuf uet-'D( ann 11.e ta co nal"Òel, oeu1' muna t:1tlea11. hi 'Dut 'DIG 
,s-tIE oeuf uet 'Dl ann 11.e fle na eea"Lhflam"Lan m6'DOnUl5e, oeu1' 
aua'Ò 'DO "LaUatfl1; cat t[ a]e ap. in mbmuul"ò 11.e 11.e na eem::hrwm"Lall 
me'Donat5e ; no, eoma'D af It) eé'D to, oeuf 11' It) to me'Dot)(((:., oeur 
lr 111 to 'DeIEanaè. oeuf 'Dut 'Dl amaé ann fin eo quan in p'11.anl'{), 
ocuf eeItp.l ea1fl l 5 te oeuf 'Da uan pa'Dnatre, oeuf bet 'Dl annfl'Dc 
'011.e ta co namël, oeuf muna 'D ama 11. 'DtIEe"Ò 'Di 11' 'Dut 'Di 'DIG n5 
oeuf bet 'Dl ann fin 11.e 11.e na cem:: h 1 wm "Gan 'DeI5It)at;se; oet.õf 
aum> 'DO "GabUlfl1; caé tae 'Di afl in mbl"Òbul"ò 11.6 11.e na eea1;h. 
flam1;an 'DeIEinca1"Ò; no, eom<rÖ af m ctJ'D to oeu1' 11' It) tó 'DelE- 
anaè 'Dut 'Di amaè co 1w15e tet in fCJWIt)'D, ocuf hoè1; call1.1;S tc, 

, Fo,' her last, to 
J'eedg juJgment. O'D. 411, adds here, "i.e. yonder (within 
the land) all the decision is at the expiration of the 1a
t four days, unless law has 
been ceded to her until then. Ciannaehta, daughter of Connla, son of Teige, son 
of Cian, sued for seven 'Cumhab' for the reward of ber hand-Iabol\r." 

.!1) N-# iø <w-- 

rl for h
 iL ia 
 Jìnally afterwards. She is entitled to OF T.unxo 
four days, i.e. it is l"ight to cede her law at the expiration of the middle four LAWFUL 
days after the first four. She is entitled to two for her middle, i.e. it is P08SEBSIO
l"ight to cede her law at the end of two days of the last four after the middle 
fOl,r had 
een attended '0. For her laet to speedy judgment,! i.e. within 
all the judgment lies for her at the end of the last four, i.e. she is to bling all 
her cattle into it. 
If it be certain to him" that law will not be ceded to him, it is 
guiltless in him to go over with all hiq cattle. If it be certain to 
him that it (law) will be ceded, it is fuIl fine of lawful aettlt\l-poR- 
 that it is to be paid by him; whence is derived tlw rule of 
law, "let a notice of thrice ten days be geven, when it is doubtful 
to him whether law will be ceded to him or not ceded, " i.e. within 
the ten-itory he iq tarrying while he is &upplicatiBg the..-<<@Íendaat JJ./
 ß ,
on the last occasion, but at his own house on the first and middle 
That is, every time that the men give notice of thrice ten d!\'ys 
the women give notice of thrice four days, and whatever numùer 
of horses the men bring it is the same number of sheep which the 
women bring; and the extent to which the men enter into the land, 
is the sllme extent to whicJl the women enter. Every time that 
it is women who bring the means of taking possession it is a notice 
of thrice four days they serve on the defendant, and it is tllUs tlley 
serve it, i.e. they serve notice on the defendant every day during 
the space of the four days; or, indeed, according w others, it is on 
the first day, and on the mi<!..d
 day, and on the last day; she is to Jiv In. f 
go out at the expiration of the first four days, and in the beginning 
of the middle four days sIte is to go again over the mound-fence of the 
land, having two sheep with her and a female witness, and she is 
to remain" there for a day and a night, and unless she is responded a Ir. Be. 
to she is to go to her house, and to remain there during the space 
of the four middle days, and to serve notice every day on the 
defendant during the period of the four middle days j or, accordirI{J 
to otlters, it may be on the first day, and on the middle day, and 
on the last day, and she is to go out then as far as the third of 
the land, having four sheep with her and two female witnesses, 
and she is to remain there for a day and a night, and unleB8law 
is ceded to her she iq to go to her house and remain there during 
the space of the last four days; and she is to serve notice every 
day on the defendant during the space of the last four days; or, 
ftccordirI{J to otlte?'s, it may be on the first day and on the last day 
shc is to go out as far as half the lanù, having eight sheep with 
" To him. There is some elTOI" or defect in the context here. 

r If'
 ,7-- 'I 


"Om "CeèruEa'D 81rana. 

Ov TAKING OCUf t;p,; banpa'Onmfe, ocuf bet; '01 ann p.e' ta co nat'Oée. ma 
POBSESSION. 'Oamap. 'Otl;se'Õ '01 annfel;S, If 'Otl;se'Õ '00 'Oenam 'Oolb mutl fep.ann ; 
ocuf muna 'Oamap. 'OL1;se'Õ '01, Iftatl '01 51n co t;1, aét; a cp.o'O UIL1 
'00 bp.ert 1n'O anun'O a na t;eop.a ceat;hp.amta; ocuf;sema'O 
í)te TI'Out anun'O bu'O chin'Ot;e na 'Oemt;a 'OL1;se'Õ '01 51tl co t;uca 
'Õ '00 neaé
tI5e'Õ t;eém
;st;e 11lle, aét; 'Out cfuun'O '01 cona 
cp.o'O ocuf co na 1ll111tlnt;ep, fO cet;OIp.. 

rtrJv.]V vrJIt.Jl 

r [j 'fSLf 

,f1V 4-.t

1 O


[CCpero nmte 0 nltlatb t;eét; If 1::1p,1 fOIp.cenn na fe tatt;he ; af 
a hocht; famta1't>, ocuf ana'O cet;tte ta; t;eét; anunn, 1attful'Olu;sa, 
, (If atte 'Oec fa1lltu1't>. 

CCpa'Õ t;p.elf1 a n'Oechmu1't>e '00 bep.ult; na pp. 1m a fep.annatb ; 
'Out 'Oolb anunn 1 fOP.UUI;5 na cet; 'Oechmat'Õe 'Oap. cta'O 1tl fep.u1tln, 
ocuf 'Oa ech telf, OCUf f1a'OtlUIf1 'Ota mb1 to;senech 111 fep.unn ; 
OCUf t;m'Õeét: 'Oa 1::1;5 p.e p.e na 'OechmUI'01 me'Õonée, OCUf 'Out anTI 
IJUnunn 1tla'Õ co quan 1tl fC}W111n, OCUf ceH;hp.e helch tatf, 
OCUf a f5uP. If 1tl fep.onn, ocuf 'Oa p!ft)nUIf1 .1. CUttub t05enech 
;sach fep. 'Olb 1tl fftwnn; t;((I'Oeët; '00 'Oa t;1;5 p.e p.e na 'Oechmat'Õe 
'Oel'Õenée, OCUf 'Out anunn 111U fop.bero 1tl comat; bUf attt tel 1', ocuf 
oét; nelch teff, ocuf t;P.IUP. pa"'Òun 'Oap.ab to;5 eltlech cach fep, 
lJJ 'Olb 111 f61l.un'O; ocuf b1't> tatt no co n'Oamt;up. 'OL1;se'O '00 U1llUTI 

1f 1 'OetbI1l. 1tl bmnt;ettat;5 OCUf 111 fcnp.t;ettars, .1. anu1' 
'Oec11mU1't>e 'OP1l. anu1' cetp.U11lle '00 mnaOI, ((nul' rql. pa'011Ulp 
'00 pp. amlf Lan pa'Onulf1 '00 nmaol .1. cur 111 cedllW1I!10 
'Oel'Õenul;5 felt pa'Onulf1111'01::1 re1tl; anuf elch 'OfeltUlb If caolt1't> 
'00 mnaol. 1n 011La C}tul'O no rtta1'"Ga a 1llat;hap. bell.11' flf1 1tl 
t;eét; u 5 a 'O f1ll, ocuf nl fUll., mac aTln; no, 11' a fep.unn at;hup. ocll1' 
1'enat;hUlt, ocuf nl flllt fep.p.'Õa ann.] 
beat1.t:a1'D 8enëa cet:bt1.edlach I bam;ettach at1. r e t1.t:et- 
10 tach,} com'Datt feftba futachr:a FOtva EtLt1a1'De tatt 
'fA-'1J:f. LWú;t '-rfA4, -iý- ""i".. If,. Z. 
..... I'--+<-.{I> 

I · CMlid'-land. Ovcr the · d' of the word . cmid' is written the usual con- 
traction for 'no,' 'or,' and the letter · b,' suggesting that the word might be 
'cp.u,b,' 'a hand or fist.' 

,'J )-/-?>VAo'JM- 
 lr>',+' MV 



her and three female witnesses, and I'Ihc is to remain there for a OV TAKING 
day and a night. If law be ceded to her then, they are to make P
regulatiQn8 according to law concerning the land; and if law be not 
ceded to her, it is safe for her though she should not come, but she 
is to bring all her cattle over at the expiration of the thrice four days; 
and even though it should have been certain before going over 
that law would not be ceded to her, though law had not been given 
to anyone, or law of actual-possession touching it, but she is to go 
over with her cattle and with her people at once. 
A notice of two days is to be given by women that they will 
enter" upon the land at the expiration of the six days; it is · Ir. 
accordingly in eight days, and a stay of four days; they go over To come. 
accordingly in twelve days. 
The men give notice of thrice ten days touching their lands; at 
the expiration of t
e first ten days they shall go over the mound- 
fence of the land, each having two horses with him, and a wit- 
ness who has honor-price equal to the value of the land; and he is 
to return to his house within the space of the middle ten days, 
and II.t the expiration thereof he is to go OTCr as far as the third 
of the land, having four horses with him, and he unharnesses them 
in the land, and M has two witnel!ses; i.e. each man of them has 
honor-price equal to the '/:alue of the land; he is to return to his 
house and remain tlwre during the period of the last ten days, and 
at the expiration thereof he is to go over into tlte land as far as he 
may think proper, having eight horses with him and three wit- 
nesses, each man of whom has honor-price equal to tlw t'alue of the 
land; and he shall remain there until law is ceded to him cen- 
cerning the land. 
The difference between a woman possession-taking and a man 
possession-taking is this, thll.t which is ten days for the man is four 
for the woman, and what is man witness to the man is woman witness 
to the woman, Le. until the lltst four days in which man witDess is 
requiredfor botlt; what is horses for men is sheep for a woman. Into 
the 'cruid '-land I or 'sliasta'-land of her mother she brings this pos- 
session-taking, and there is no son; or according to others, it is into 
the land of a fQ.ther or a grandfather, and ther.e is no male heir. 

l :t 
 Sencha adjudged III his first decision woman pos- 
session-taking as riZ/ ossession-takin g , so that there 
were blotches' on his cheek after h(lt'Ïng 
l)((ssed biased judgments. 

(t,.. M ff., o;ð. LJI2. 

16 "01n "Ceët"uEa'D .s'r ana . 



G h'Cf{{' bp,Q; a pp,1n'De[a pttb1teachG1b); 1f1 COnm1'D1"Òap, ,) 
ON. bant"eattach, com'Dap, reap,ba ratEt1t'De r 0 11. a EP,UG1'DG1b 
tall- pttbp,eachG1b. 

beaf\t;aI'O Senèa .1. f\O bf\elt;hnWEufwf\ Senëa afa cet: bf\elt:hemnuf 
. in t:echt;uscro OOn'Oa amUlL in t;echt:usa'O ref\'Oa. Com'Oaf\ ref\ba.1. co 
f\o ImfUILn!;1t;ef\ na boL1';a 1'of\ a Ef\uw'Olb laf\ mbf\elt:h na .1. 
". laP. ctaen bf\et:hlb. 

 1l,cfal bp.,t,. f\o Icuft:af\ in1';en t;Sencha fin '00 J1.elf\ 1'1J1.111'01 


 a pf\bp.elt:h. 1f' conml'OI'Óap. .hlfl J1.0 m8lremnaiseft:ap. in t;eët:uso'O , 

 t" ,.OOn'Oa. Com'Oaf\ reaf\ba .1. cop. t:uwISret:aJ1. .1. COf\ wisret:op. at:ül- /Jl7IIO;ð4- 
 v 18 1 ;1 na botSa fOP. a EP.Ua1'Olb laf\ mbf\lt:h na\et; ocuf If af fl11 saOOlp. ce 
p.o n8lch 'Oume aep. '00 neoch, no fOEwt ((Ite P.lf, 0 J1.0 sena naë cOlb'Oetoch 
'00 mota'Ó con'OIEwp. lap. fin, no 0 Eebuf Iman 1-'OswL fin, coma l11an'O '00 
ocuf '00 nelch bo'Oel11. t:'atEul'Oe .1. foLslt:hl. 

r c. 


.1. If 1;h p.ucuft:af1. 8eanca m t;ect;u5[ a'O] ban'Oa milll1t m 
t;ect; U 5[ (l't)] fep.'Oa, ocuf p.o ep.5eft;ap. bot5a fOP. a Efulm'Olb; ocuf 
p.o Icuft:ap" pp.mne bP.15e efec. OCUf If! bp.eadl p.uc, a t;each- 
t; u 5[ cro] rem 'Oona mnm b. CCcuf If af fm If fottuf cí'O fOË;at no 
fUmbp.ea'O 'Oume '00 'Oenam, 0 bUf cap.a no cOlb'Oelteaë '00 no 

, Eebcro ulmpe, cona'O ínann '00 ocuf no 5abcro btl'tJem ímpe. 

.. , 
L -('-..>f,I"""'" 
1ntotat'D re1cht'Dap, reatba t"echt"G1r a con'D a cenat. 
bach be 'DeEabG1t, C1n'D1r ba ßacht"a1 É cp,1ëe, C01ttrca1t fit Cð7.w-(>rl;'i" 
bta 0 bermb mO"Ë;a na ron'Da1'D p,att"e. 8ae1tt"G ta pne a 
r O t1.comot, ro b1t"h b
(('Dba W1f1C. ..u..J >

1.. 1 n Lo Lal '0 .1. f\O elttsert;Uf\ .1. J1.0 ineltt1';lft:ap. SIt1p., inssn ml11'D,oeuf 
'babmp., inEen cap.pmt: n1m'O na rep.onna p.o t:eët:msr1t:op. co'OnmË a 
'lIimtleif.-In O'D., 413, the )"eading runs 
omewhat differently, as follows:- 
" So that the blotches disappeared from his cheeks afte)" the passing of the true 
jadgment b}' her, and from this is derived the CUI/urn; thllt if a man should pass 8 
false sentence, whene,'er a friend or 8 relative of his shou1ù pass the true jud{,rrnent 
after it, it is the same to him as if he himself had pa'scd it, and it frees him 
fmm the fines of falJiC judgment after it, i.e. as he is bound to pa}' fines fOJ" him to 
another ereditor, so is he to have the benefit of the judgment delivered in this case. 
I Seither. Fa)"' Seiehidar' of O'D. ]2G3, O'D.4]3, reads 'Seithir,' and C. 
848, . Sithir.' 

. IJ-. 
 j;....-- /ú--.... -I"" 
' l t

Fl- rY!J

 /'Uii H 

 Iú eø
 (1}fNi }o 
M1N M#. 
 ""''I. """... d' 

G LAWJ.TL posstsSIO:Y. 


BriO'h in her truth by-her tl",l0 jaàbPfilout s cured OF TAKI
o LAWF(;L 
him; it is she that established the woman possession- PO
taking, so that the blotches on his cheeks were - 
concealed after the true judgments we're passed. 

Sencha adjudged, i.e. Sencha adju!lged in hislìrst judgment that the fern/lie 
pos"",.ion-taking .hould be the same as the male posse
sion_taking. So tha t 
there were blotches, i.e., so that the blotches were mised on his cheeks after 
h/n-ing passed the biased jUllgment, i.e. after partial judgments. 
n righ cured, i.e. Brigh, daughter of Sencha, cure!l him according to the tmth 
of her true judgment. -Is it she that established, i.e. it is she that con- 
certed the female possession-taking. So that the blotches, i.e. that they 
snnk down, i.e. that the s"elling of the blotches disappeared after the passing of tile 
 tJf" l/Æ) 
true judgment; and hence is derived the '"/lie, that though a peroron may compose a 
aalire, or do othe)- injury to another, if any relatin of his should compose a eulogium 
after that, the latle,' u:ill nullify the &alire; or if he should make good the injur,', 
that is the same as if he had done so himself.' Concealed, i.e. hidden. 



T}rat is, the judgment which Scncha passed Wag that the female 
possession-taking should he like the male possession-taking, and 
Llotches did rise on his cheeks; and tIle truth of Brigh cured hinl. 
And tIle judgment she passed was that the women 5hould lraye 
a possession-taking of their own. And from this it is evident 
that whatever damage a person attempts to do, if a fl'icnd or a 
relative should undo it, it is the same as if he llimself should 
repair it. 

Seither 2 cl-a-i--tHcd the lands which the chiefs of her 
tribe had taken Im:
8e8sÏOR of.
She was a woman of Z C I/3} 3b-O. cJðí/ktN.//:> 
two races, who was entitled to the land, and she 
sought that it should not be after the custOlll of 
slaves, or dispossessed persons. She was freed by E;rflu
her tribe from obligation, because female possession 
1- (
reverts. (.-
 fW- ý41.r

Claimed, i.e. she clmll
nged, i.e. Sithir,' t!aughter of !\Ielln Ilnd GaLhair, the a Jr. 
base a daughter of lIIcnn, dllimel1 the 1and9 which the chiefs of her tril,e had taken Cha,.iot, 

· Silhi,..-In C. R4R, and in O'D. 413, the following note is given 1__ 
.. Sithir c1aimcll the land<, i.c. the daughter of Fergus, Bon of Ledi, ,,"ho wae 
man-ied tab Anluan, Bon (If IIIIIl!ach, one of the Feini, and she had a son by him, 
Kia lIIaeAnluain. Sithir daimed a possession from her brother.!, i.e. from Aililtl 
I.ethdherg ani! from Aengu9 Aigle, i.e. the face of that Ailell WIIS half red, and 
it was in Aigle Aengus ,,"as fostere'l, i.e. Meitbea5 ill the territory of Ulai!b," 

1/ C/
b Jr. W:lh. 


Q..,.)' d.L
. . -C" e. Jð 
. .A ) . ,
 .:... __ Î_.L- '"l-1:;y. CArI-SI/r 4. 
 ,.. - 0 

 ,.is> o-}-a- 
7 V'_
_ --
........,.. "'""'" L' - _ . 
. J.ø L ø-nW Ð w.H- 
. '_
-1J ) . 

- ?LL.
 p' <'(1'''-' , ro I. . 

).. L_ . ..I 1, 
 ?W' -t.unJ<J. Þ
.iú- l


1I" ,.., .,............... 
í - , 


J. J "0111 'Ceët:'uEa'i') 811'ana. 
or,..f P" ....tM , 
0.' TAKISG cencOlL. 'Cc c h t; ((I f .1. 11.0 COltttttl;SIf1:((tt, no t1OL(( COttt(( 111'0. b acll bc 
l'LAWFUL 'O fJ 5((Ù((IL .1.reIChllll no lI1'OfmSIIll con(('O ùen ttO cm'Ouft;((lt 0 'OI Ù 5((ÙÙUÙ, 

IOS. If 'OC (( m::hmtt 'OuLLt;atù ocuf (( l1Iad1U11t '00 f(Jilllb 'Celll1'((ch. b ((1'((cll- 
t;((I"S c1'lèc .1. Ù(( 1'el't)l1'och If 1 ((1' 111 qtlè 1'0 èaltuft;((ft, no ttO b(( 
óC((1't;C!ll((ch Le, .1. p.ob 1I1'01'ISt:l '\-'Ott III c1'lch 1'0 C((1'Uft;((1" 1-11 Ùl a 
o bCf((lb 11105(( .1. noco bta'O '1'0 bar1f 511((C 110 atblll'O oc fub(( OCUf oc 
f\uba 'Oa cum U1Le, .1. ni bl((tr(( ((151 rmc 11(( ncè 1t;11'. ((èt; a 'Out1'((è(; 
bU'013I11, .1. 111 blatra flU OCUf t;((LL I CUlIl t;11'C .1. III bt(( Clf na con5 b ((lL 
fU11'1'U, n(( bl((t;h(('Ò ((I'Oe'Ò t;uattln(( 'Ouna, ((ët; t;1Il'Ot;att;hcp. fact;h. 1-t (( 
"r OI1 'O((I'O ttUlt;c .1. noco ronn((bt(( af no hI ro1' in 1'0t; c((n (( Let '01 CCI1 
fUÙ(( ocuf cen ttuba. 8((c1'(;(( La rl n c .1. fOttat'Ot;cp. a ptt ((ccol1loL a 
r e l tUn 'O n(( rinc ((1llWI't) fill. 
oùlt;h ban(('Oùa (;UlfIC .1. ron fC!t;h 
If (('I>bu '0(11' COI1' mrec 111 relt((11l'O hI 1((1' '1'11'. 1111 a t;((Ù((lltt; U1Le '01 co 
r UÙ (( ocuf co ttub((, no 1111 (( Let '01 cell fub(( OCl1f CCI1 1'ub((; no '1'011 rctt;11 
It' a'l>b(( '0((1' COIlt atfec 111 rC1'((111'O umdl1 1((l t f na 1'e, .1. ltO bUI t;1'ebUl1'1 
rltl h((1fec. 


"OOIËm ap,..íLrel1'eat1, befu t:ettw5' 1 t: eo l w 'Deachma- 
'Dwb 'Dtrse'D, ma'D nU(Ewr comml1,fel1,; 0 t:a cumat co 
qtlc1lQ'D, a'Ò nae11 bercna t:ettmË C1'D 'D1Qbat JX>'D r Ol 1 1 S e . 



2t Oa each a twm teach aeft featba, pa'Dnmr e m- 
'DftlC, rOl11,Clr 'Dt1Ee'D ,CU1Cp 'DO TIt1Ee'D, 'D1Qna'D ùe r e111e - 
achar. 111u11a be remeacna1', t:ettwf 1uttfl11'D1U 11n1'D 
p.a1n'D\111 'Dechma1'D, cen:;hp.l helch mt1uf 1'CUltLml1, f Utè l t 
featba 'DelEe re1t pa'Dan trn::;; lwn'Dm cormmt1r; 
1.\ t:p.elfe 'DO 'DbEe'D 'D1QJlo'Q be re1nech((f. nhma L òe 
f remeéuf, t:ettwr 1U1t1'111'D1U a 11'D1EeJ111'D 'Deém(('D, ocnt: 
nelch mte((r 1m qtelb mlw11la, t:p.elEe rel1, pa'D((11 t((t: 'DO 
EtW'Dwb r eine . Ra1111m COpl1wt1Ur' 'Cu
l1a'Dwb, 'D1a11((Rbe reme((ch((r. nlu11a"Q. be remc((ch((r 
I Shall not fted.-Thc IllS. bere blls only · Ùlat}",' wbich Dr. O'Donovan 
lcngthpned out into b1Utr((; . r' with the Slime mark of contraction el
thened out into · '1'01'" 
. .11 the lJm'der of ti,e land.-Fur . Leat;h ((e1' fe((Lba,' of the text, the frsg- 
ments of this t)'aet found in O'D. 414, 7 U; an<I in C. 8:;0, have .. Let f uo l t 
fCt.Ù((, i.e. an half free po"scssion." The different IIISS. vary 115 usual in the 
Bl'elliug of the word.. 


'" .... rf/...-

- Þ.Jl.=i i/,.or:uJNVt) 

 [H.iJ i}M" > Hu. jýflv 
 YØ. If 
 l-C _ I'l- ::.:
.,c k) 

 e JNu- 

 - r -!]
1_... w-chJ
' ) - /i.<.


 ;f.Ht /ht.- 

 (10' JlWUto _ ðf/w- MSJ "'" " 

 w*A JA..u, - 

 - kw- "1
 M.J-'J1Ø N...l.- 
('T- @ M
 /vfJs) 1- _....) Jh.-3
'^1 >y# V 

 I/u.. _ _ _. 
. 'Jl-muJ

 - A.L. 
 :Ikn- 4.-l B' M.-.u.. 
 "I .,.... . 
"'f'V.--- - 

possession of. Taken possession of, i.e., erectc<l boundaries, or they p1ac!!(lOF TAKLXG 
pilla)'-stones there. She wa
 a woman of two races, i.e., I hold or iusistthat p L-\WFl'L 
she was descended from two races, her father being of the Ult.a, and her mother of O

thc Feini of Teamhair. Entitled to the land, i.e., she Was directly entitled to 
the land which she loved, or which wag dear to hcr, i.e., she Wag entitled justly 
to the land "wch she loved. That it should not be after the custom of 
sla v es, i.e., that she should not, sccOl'ding to the ple8.3alit or delightful knowledge, 
he bound to perform the servicei of attack and defence for the cntiJ'e of it, i.e., sho 
sh:111 not feed I the head 'of the tribe or any other person, but according to her own 
"ish, i.e., she shall not feed here and there for the sake of the territory, i.e., there 
shall be neither rent nor keeping upon her, nor refection for the guests of the terri- 
' nor of the' Dun '-fort, but every impost is remove,) ./i'om her. Or di s- 
possessed persons, i.e., she was not )'emo,ed from it upon the road without 
receiving the one-half thereof without llf:i"!l obliged to perfol'm the senices of attack 
and defence. She was freed by her tribe, ie., she was freed from the true 
obligation of the lands of the tribe in that manner. Because female posses- 
aion )'everts, i.e., because it ia a property of "wch the land is to be restored in 
truth, for giving it all to her with the obligation of pe,:formi1l!J the sen ices of 
attack and defence, or of giving the half of it without perfo,.",ifI!J the services of 
attack and defence; or because it is a property of which the land is to revert from 
her after the term, i.e., there was security for reJtoring it. 


Doighin, dost thou know the customs of an entry?' 
In thrice ten days 1
v1'tâue, if thou commIt wisdolll ; 
from land of _the va
 It fjne 'cumhal' to thirty, 
ni':;r entl:y, though the length of the 
, Foirge '-llleasure 

 be doubled. fI.Jf' "I 
Two horses ill hand;a t tho border of the-I attd,2 'with


llland!:! that his legal right a be .Ir. Lmo. 
ceded to him, if there be 'Feinechus.' If there be 
not' Feinechus,' he returns until the middle of the 
ten days, when he should bring four horses which are 
unharnessed in the free land in the presence of" two b I
. Witll 
male witnesses. There is a similar division; in three 
days afterwards his right law is to be ceded to him, 
if there be 'Feinechus.' If there be not' Feinechus,' 
he returns after this at the end of ten days with eight 
horses which he is obliged to have to relieve the 
house, with three man-witnesses of the' Feini ' grade. 
There is a similar division. If there be ' Feinechus,' 
specdy judgment is passcd in his favour. If therc 
VOL. IV. c 2 . w. fI,.,u.. 

 oJrv",.r t-4 
 '?lffl.. HW j. /4ú. jU' 
 /.LJHot k #J..
.!) i 
l. . u 
&trt- l '1u It.- 
t4. fM.I/"IIMV 
 ['" La 
: , i..- /'# 

1.r,,'I. IN. I...w 


'Om 'Ceët;uEa'O 81rat1<1. 

OF T:\K.INO t;eèt;a t;U1n1'Oe;:- 1 tor '00 G1 t tr r ean CO Fe1 r , cona'Ooi;, CO 
I.A\\F!:I. () 0 

''SSIOS. t:em CO nG1t; O elb, CO t:onmme cem;htta, acht: t:ltt cum'i') 
'* ,'II') - ."." 
f cet:eop,G1E, no 1mt:etEa'i) mòtWEa noeh Ir nemea'O. 1r 
ar In t:eattach ro '00 bonEatt cae reatb La Feme. 

<: U'1I!- 

t" Cp.m np,e '00 t:ettach, maenan mam mOG1i;t:eatt 1 
" 1
r e t:G1b 
 'OQ ttlp,t:att,4 ma'O ta buap. bmp.e, eumat are 
Off 1 
rtG1n'Ot:ett. munab FO reltb t;echt:a tltt Een cun'O Een 
c01bne, 'Oltf1 bUG1p, betWltt. 
 .rf-Lr Mu 

dL,wJ4 , LftLor/lll! 


1)015111 ap. a relfeall.."a mac; a11. NIIl11.e"OO1sell, cOfelfell.f1u 110 co 
.. flO1b acm:; bapf Sllae 110 cublIl'l> III t;eët:;CUst;1 '1>0 Tl.EIP.1Il fellechmf, .1. }Jill 
'1>0 11.CU'l> allll fO f11.l "0015111 .1oT1u mac P11. smt'l>ULLt:;cub. 1 t:;eo11.a 'I> each- 
III a'l>U7 b, .,. If Ila t:;eop.a 'I>eChIllam at:;a 'I>Ltse'Ò III t;eët:;cust;e, 110 ({f a 
mtLt na t:;eop.a n'l>l'chmam 'I>LeSCU11. 'I>e 
 . C11.O'l> U1Le '1>0 Ùll.elt 111'1>. 111 a'l> 
f11.lf SU7f' .1. mU'l>IU c01m11.lf _
 f11.l cuI' felIl, no 'I>IU mmcomcu11.ct:;cp. 
,<11.e F;aetcub, If am Lam feo '1>0 'I>ella. t:;a cumaL .1.0 t:;a CI1fIlelf 'I>am 
'tJ01l np. CUIllCULe co 11.uicI III 1-'e11.allll If flU t:;11.lëat:; cumuL, ocuf CIIl'l>t:;eë 
011. elclIl'l>t:;ech fill, .,. CI'I> t:;I11. cUIl1cuLe CI'þ t:;1P. t:;p.lëcut:; cumaL, Ife'l> oen 
ùerella allll fO fUlL '1>0 t:;eLtach. C('Ò naell ùefclla .1.11' malln 'I>011.ü1P. 
1JapfaSllaeno a1ÙIIl'l> 'I>hse'Òat;eët:;cust;l. CI'I>'I>labaL fO'l> 
b cm 'I>labLa'l> a11. rut:; bef all 11 , If mi1Lm'Ò fill blUf' 

"Oa each a LU7m .1. 'I>a I'ëh I Lmm COIllCI Let eoc1lUlp. III teP.UIIl'(), 
oeuf 1l0CO faep. 'I>01b a FOP. U1l11f1'1>1, ocuf ùelt; CUIC fe01t:; 'I>IU feu11.t:;a11. ro 
cet:;0111.IIll in t:;I11.e .,. Let:;h fU111. Ila feaLba, 110 If III rem [fØILb] Let:;hfU1P., 1m 
t:;omcuLt:; a remp. llama, LallI' 01'11. IIllU11.11.O m feuLb '1>0 IlleLap. re11. ocur 
 ({11.bu11.; Let:;fao11. IIl1U11.11.O m t:;feoLb Ila t:;oIlleÙlf\ oët:; fe11. no a11.bup. llama. 
Leot:;h ae11. .1.1t:;I11. a cLa'() ocuf aa11.' rla'l>llalfe III 'I> 11.1 C 1'1-'1a'l>nalfe 
m'l>p.Ulc aco p11.echcull cOlla 'I>LIst;ech '1>0 ëu{{m Ifill reap.all'l>. CUlce '()o 
'I> LIse'l>, '1>1 ana'l> be reI neach af .,. Illa'l>la 11.OIÙ 11.1011. '()LtSI'Ò In renø- 

I Food.-' t:;eIll . may also mean' fire.' 
I Doighin.-A some" hat difflrent commentar)' is given in O'D., 413, as foIlows:- 
.. Doiclhiu, said Xin to her son, to Doidhin, that thou maJcst know the good or 
pleasant knowledge of the po,sc<sion.taldng; or Doidhin was the name of the 
llrehon. She was a female' CoarL;' and she oLtains all her land with obligation 
to perform services of attack and defence for a time, and the half of it \\ ithout 
obligation to perform service of attack and service of ddence." .. ((p.a relfea11." 
means eithel", .. (lost thou know," or ., that thou ma)"st know." 



-'tr I/ur>i. 
 'W"f ÛMr 
 lJt 1f wi#..- 


la-.v; '" t,""""
ZlP )1N"

 ,.,..1b- ur ". " 
 1# L4I J.. t., 

.I.. ..,., Lf.<.,.,J 



L t ' F ' h ' 1 fì 1 '" . '><L- 
lie no 
 emec us, aw u possesslOn 1S gwen; Its OF TAKI:SO 
. . t b æ d . h h d I,AWn'l. 
pnce IS 0 e ouere WIt s e s, COWS, food, I habi- P"'
tation, with attendance of cattle, except in the case of -. 
the laud of Conn Cetcorach, or ifland devoted to the 
support of a mansion which is a 'Nemeadh'-person's. 
It is by means ora this kind of entry every land is · Ir. O"t 
seized 011 by the Feini. of. 
In an entry on land which has fences, it is not 
equally the property increases in ' sods' ; it is decided 
if it be with kine he takes the possession, it is a ' CÜlli- 
hal' that is mentioned. e nless it be in a lawful 
possession in a land without a chief, without a tribe, 
the cows which are brought are forfeited. 


Doighin 2 dost thou know, i.e. her son; sl\id Nin to Doighill, thnt thou 
mayest know, or that thou ma)'est have pleasant or delightful knowle<lge of lawIul 
possession-taking according to the Feinechus; i.e., Kin said this to Doighin, i.e., to a 
son of a wise man of the I VIta'. In thrice t en da)" s, i.e., in three times ten da)'s 
the legal right of possession is to be conceded, OJ" it is nfter the three tcn dn)'s it is 
required of him to bring all his cattle there. If thou consult wisdom, i.e., if 
 thy own wi8dom, or if thou confer with "ise men, it is thu, thou 
wilt do. From land olone 'cumhal,' i.e., as I am treating of land from 
the land of the valne of one' cumhal' to the land which is \\orth thirt)' . cumhals, 
and this is a ca,e of" c
 for u ucertain t)'," i.e., whether it is a land of the 
,'alm of one · cumhal,' or a laml of the vallie ofU,irty 'cumh,lls,. it is one custom 
that is for the entry. It is one custom, i.e. the law of the possession is the same 
according to the plensant or delightful knowledge. Though the length of the 
'foirge'-measure should be douLled, i.e., though the douLlillg of the 
. f;;jrge'-mel\,ure should take plnce throughout, it is so it will Le. 
Two horses iu hand, i.e., he i, to lUlve two horses, '/Cld by'"'' [,,'idla, in 
his hand uutil he re8.Che
 the border of tile laud, and it is not free for them to 
unharness them there, and if ther be unharnessed at once in thiland there will be -I.t.".rt 
a line of five' seds,' i.e., half the freedom of the laml, or it is the old land half free, 
fur eating its grass alone, but fully free is the lau(l of whieh the grass and the corn 
lire eaten; but the land is half free of which the gra'S or com wone is eaten 
lJ order, i.e., between the moun,l and the tillage. \V orthy wi tness, i.c, pure 
witness to see tbat he entered la\\fully into the land. That his legal right 
\Je eeded to him, if there be Feinechus, i.e., if the usage of the law 

 iøv. J.., 

." wJ+., 

InC. 849, the reading is as follows :-" Dodill, dost tholl know the customs of a 
I1raking entl')" on land? Ninè said these words to his son. A wise man of the 
Ultonians sRid so to his s?n, i.e., Dodin, to teach \\ isdom unto him j 80 that he said, 
Dodin, sRid he, dost thou know the customs of the making entry on land with the 
Feini? What 10." does he mention here? Answer, the law of ca
tle p088
Quer)', what is the right fOfm of this la,,", &c.?" 
.. ;.




 i úr -.y IN, lAitrlo 
 "" cMI1'W 1 

 l-o rw., 
 t7t/f4 /t"rjt;




. JfJ.Y 
ü I 

1;O'IfM 12),7 



4. '}(

f::. i"J'1 3'-1 


l)m '(;eë
u'5crn 81rana. 

OF T \KINGchmr '00 'Oo:mto:m '00, 110 bo COI11 'Otl15e'Ô' '00 CUlctl 'Oon 'Ocèmm'O 
P LAWFUL me'Oona1'O 0: hardltl no: cet:; 'Oech m am. nluna be relneacha r .1. 
OSSESSION. b . 1.. 
_ mo:no: 11.01 1110:11 '01..151'0 m rene
harr '00 'Oamt:;am '00. '[;e tmr 
la11rul'O'u, .I.<t:;att o:t:;a ter 'Oult:;la11.raní<roa rln 0: me'O,) 11.01n'O III 
s'Oa 'Oecmo:'O, .1. a na 'Oeèmu1'01 me'Oonèl ocur I nm'O(!mèt:; na 
'Oecmm'Ol 'Oemenche. Ce1t;h11.1 helch .1. celt:;h11.1 e1ch a111.ltt:;tl115Ur no 
'Otlsur '00;h telr m'O I r011ba no: 'OeèmO:1'01 me'OoocI, .1. Irae11. 'OO1b 
0: rco11. Irm re11.ann o:nnr1'Oe, ocur noco rae11. 11.omam'O. "Oel15'e re11. 
rw'Oan .1. 'Oe1'01 'Ore11arb lf1n p<ronmre '00 b11e1t:;h teo:t:; .10 t:;11.e1'01o 
,. Ro:n 'Ot:;a corm artl r .1. u11.11.annt:;m11. cormaltur na 1-'111.m'Ol accu, no m 
t-'111ln'Ol acucocormart. '[;11.elre '00 'Otl15e'O 'Ola no'O be relnechar 
.1. mo:'Oro: 11mb 1110:11. 'OtlS!'Ô In reneèmr '00 'Oamt:;am 'Oart:;, 11.obu COI11.'Otl15e'O 
'00 I t:;11.e1f1 'Oon 'Oecmam 'Oemenm15, a l1mt:;htlna 't>eèma1'01 me'Oonèl, 
ut:; rUp11.a.1o amart=a 11.omam'O, ocur t:;elt:; a na111lrl1 apari>, muno: t:;ap.t;a11. 
6 fOIl. t-'Ultte'O r11 1 t b U 11. ub 'OeèmCJ:l). MJ: f::"s) 
CCpa"O nalte 0 JÍmo:01, OCur t:erur 'r LIP. a fOlp.cel1"O l1a ha01te, 
OCur al1at> re to: 1al1.rUI"ÒIU, OCur t:eët: Ir LIP. 1 fOlp.cel1l1 l1a re to:. 
1r 0: hoë"G rmilta1"O OCur al1a"Ò ceri;yu ta, t:eë"G at1UI1"O 1ap.rUI"ÒIU If 
mte 'Oéc ramta1"O '00110:. 
1D '[;ettruf 10:11. rUI 'OIU, .1. 12..00t

r .:?
t:;_1Il o:'Obut cm'Oíu'O no: t;11.' 
n'Oecm<ro. CC n'OI15e o:n'O 'Oecma'O, I. I no: 'Oecmm'Ol 'Oel'Omè1. 
Ocht; nelch artecrr,.I.oct;nelch 'reníar11.ltL1l1ser no 'Otl15er'Oob11elt:;h 
telrcot:;11.elbnom''O 'Oa t:;OI11.ltm. '[;11.el15e re11. po:'Oan,.I. 
t:;11.el'Ol 'Ore11.mblrm p<ronarre 'Oob,1.ldl an'O. tat:; '00 1511.a'Oarb reInE', 
1.5"".1. tet;'OonO:1511.a'Ombulte'O '00 11e111.m renecharr. Ran nt:;a corm art1uf 
.1. ut:; rup11a. '[;ut rUI15eo:tt, .1. mo:'01o: 11.01b 111("(11 'Otl15e'O in renechmr 
'00 'Oamt;am 'OUlt; t:;att, =a rUI15eatt Ultt 'Oart:; I t-'011ba no: 'Oecmaml 
'Oemenè1. muna'O be relneacl10:r. .1. Ut;fuP11.a. '[;ect;o: t:;UI1l1'Oe, 
.1. t;ect:;arsr:;e11. t:;uíní'Ol ín'O 'Omt; tos bIt aco: rl11'Oechro:m co 'Otlstec 
".11.1r m 11e rm. Co relr, .1. co tenS! 'Oolb ann, .1. co mbíu'O cot:;to'O. 
Con 0:'00"& .1. nít;e/rp11e'O. Co t:;el n. .1. a hm11.bro:t:;ha'Ô no: fP11 eml f1n. 
Co nmt:;11.elb, .':'Co[
11e1banmt;'Oo t;1S!b '00 'Oenam 'Omb. Co t;o11. ulm e r/ 
.1.cet;h11.a'00 b11e1t1..= m'O'00 t:;0111.It;hm. CCcht; t;111. CU111'O cet;co11ars 
.1.lre cet;a 11.uc t;111o:n 'Olba a nel11e, .1.ln re11ann 0:11. 0:11. taeret:;u11naco'Onm15 
3S" a cet; CU11U re1ttrllle .1. t:111 'Olbc{'t) C01t:;cm'O, Ua111. noco ne1cen o:pa'O t:;eo11.a 
n'Oecmo:'O Imerem, na t;echt;u15<ro '00 b11.elt 1tl'Ot:;I, act; 0:'O fO cet:;ol11., no 
comm11lum '00 b11,t m'Ot;I; act; In re11an'O '00 be11a11. a11. 6m no a11. roch11mc, 
Ir1tl'Obe11m111tlt;ect:;u15<ro. 1-10 Imt;et15a'O mb11.o):;o:,.,.'OuncenreIU,no 
cett cen rartel GC na bl b11u15 '010: 1l1mt:;et15u'O, .1. m re11o:nn ac na bl rmctl 
/j..11e b11elt cet;h11a m'O 'Oa t;eèl:;u15<ro, alilUlt =a "Oun CC11.mtt, um11. Ir 'Oame 
I TIDO male tI,itnu$eø. In O'D. 414, the following is added :-" The honor price 
of each of whom is equal to the value of the land." 
. Three. ' '(;11.e1'Oe . is an underlined gloss apparently by the same hand as that 
whirh wrote' 'Oel'Oe . oyer the line. 
S T>rel'Je days. This paragraph is fouml in the 10lTer margin of eol. 2, page 7, 
of the IllS. E. 3,5, in the hand of one Donnehadh, dated at mom na cao11, 1542. 
. The land o/Conn Cet-COI'ach.-InC.851, this is explained "'[;'11. 11.'Ë, lheland of 
a !ling." In O'D. 415, it is called the ' ,1ibadh' -land of the' daer-stoek tenant,' and it 
is there added, "the force of 'act;' , except' here i-. it is not cattle that are brought 

; l'r
- . 


of the Feinechus be granted to him, the bem:jit of law should be given to him at the end OF TAIUXG 
of fivedan of the middle ten after the first ten. If there be not Feinechus, LAWF!:L 
&co, i.e.; lithe usage ofthe Feinechus law has not been ceded to him. He returns P06SESSIOY. 
after t hat, i.e., within thy welfare lies after that point oftime, f r^,,"'1 \\js \Ii, i'i<<n of t< J4,- I/... 1)f. L4. tI 
the two ten., i.e., from the end of the middle ten and the beginning of tbe last ten days. 
Four horses, i.e., he is bouud or ob1igcd by law to bring four horses with him 
into it, at the end of the middle ten days, i.e., it is free for them to unharness them 
in the land in this case, and it is not free in the former instance.. Two m a Ie. Ir. Bifore 
witnesses,' i.e., to bring with thee two men to bear testimony, i.e., thrcc:. u.. 
There is a similar division, i.e. the)' divide what seems like the truth, or 
they have the truth to all appearauce. b In three days to be conceded b Ir. Si7lli- 
to hi m, if the Feinech usb e su bm i tted to, i.e., if the custom of the larlyo 
law of the Feinechus be ceded to by thee, it is right to give him the bC11t!jit of the 
law at the end of three days of the last ten, after the middle teu, ut supra, i.e., a. it 
is before, and the notice goes into tile reckoning, unless it is given as an addition 
mentioned in the now.'e to it that it is ten days. 
A notice of two days is given by a woman, and she comes int.o tIle 
land at the end of the two days, and there is a stay of six days after 
this, so that she enters upon the land at the expiration of the six 
days. It is thus eight days and a stay of four da) s, she goes over 
after this, it is thus twelve days.3 
He return s after this, i.e., within the tarit(l1'!/ th)O welfare lies
g the 
full determination of the three ten days. At th e en d of ten, i.e., at the expiration 
of the last ten da)'s. Eight horses he is ohliged to have, i.e., eight horses 
is what he is bound or obliged by law to bring with him to the house or end of the 
land to ugaiD it. Three men witnesses, i.e., three men as testimon)' to be 
broughtthither. "ïth thee of the Feini grade, i.e., with thee, ofthe grades 
which are according to the F,'inechus. There is a similar division, i.e., 
ut supra. Spe e dy j u d gm e n t, i.c., i[ the custom of the law ofthe Feinechus be cedcd 
to thee, within tM territ01'!J, e' ery decision lies for thee at the end of the last ten da)'s. 
If there be not Feinechus, i.e., ut supra. Lawful possession, i.e., 
the pOl'SCSSion of the land becomes legal for thee when thou hast been legally 
viewing it during that time. Wit h she d s, i.e., for their lying there, i.e., that 
they may sleep. With cows, i.e., the cattle. With food, i.e., the fceding 
('f that cattle. Wit h b a bitation, i.e., to erect a habitation of housesjfor them 
in which tbe)' mayr<<:main. With attend an ce, i.e" to hringcattle wit
it for relief. Except the land of Conn Cetcorach,'i.e.,hewasthefirstthat 
obtained the third of the' dibadh '-land in Eirin, i.e., the land on which the aensible 
adults sent their first obligations of tenancy. i.e., a common 'dihadh'-lallll, for a notice 
of three ten days is not necessary concerniug it, or to bring requisites for taking 
possession into it, but it is to be divided at ouce, or equal stock is to be brought into it; 
hut aa to the land which is lent or let for rent, it is into it the reqnisites for taking 
po.session are brought. Support of a mansion, i.e., a 'duu'-fort without 
laud, or a church without a green, which has no mansion to support it, i.e., the 
land which has no green into which cattle might be brought to take possession of it, 



here to take pO!!Øcssion of it, but per"Ons, i.e., a 'dun. -fort without land, or a cburch 
without a green." 'Conn Cet-Corach,' appears to mean. .. Conn of the first con- 
tract," i.e., who pnt the first contract, or en
a!rement (' cor') upon the tenant. 






.' cWJ M{1hU
 W M



tð 7'r1 
n BS 2. 

KIII"Obep.ap. Nt 
ect:usat:> r l'Oe. 110ch ' r 1lcmea'O. .,.)ltlO m ,:ep.atl'O a r a 

E"SION. flp.acomwtt:ep. Clf '00 nelme'O, amlllt ant LIlt 111u5((111 no Rot; (('Om((lp.I. 
11' af In t:eattach fn, .1. Ifaf111 t:;cèt:u5a'O fat:0Ib51t:ep. cach fep.atln 
i moop.ap. cedlp.a 'Oa t:eèt:u5a'O '00 p.elp. 111 rencèwf' 

 CP.UI t:lp.e, .1. t:ett((ch 'fm t:lp"11at:;wt:cpuí. 1naenan matn .1. 
m hinan'O m05W5uf t1lwne '00 neoch t:ett((ch I t:1P. co CP.lllbJocuf I t:lp. cen 
CP.U .1. noeo noen Inan'O tl111 '00 belp. mou5a'O ma111eè ap. ,:ep. 111 ,:ep.ntnn 1m 
íc fet: P.lf 1m t:eèt:usa'O 111 f"pa111'O co cp.lllb Ime WCI ocur cen CP.UI b l1HC, 
aèt: If mo '00 bep.wlt co cplllb l111e mCI; no noeo naennn 111((11'0 Um '00 bellt 
c 1II0U5 a 'O ap. 111 ,:ep. bep.uf 
echt:;u5r{'l) '00 upelt:;h 111'0 co qUllb ech WCI ocuf 
cenep.lllbec11,aèt:lfmo'Oobepntp.coclunbec11 HlC1- 11la'O ta uuall, .1. 
ma'O telf 111 bu,,-p. '00 ni 111 U5 bOlp. bepuf 1111 t:eeht:u5u'O, Cu m at a fe 
rtatn'Ot:ep., .1. wfllel'Ot:ep cumat re wooa t:eèt:;u5u'O t:;1p.e cen cuntl eel1 
cOlbni. 111unab,:0 feltb, .1. ( man ab(( p. 'fe'Õ\
 ,'O bo'Oem p.o 
,.1AJèt: w 5 e ft: a p. he, If anll at:a fin. 'b en cu"iï'O';-:-rten eunn cOlbmtuffa. 
'ben co,bnp
,. cen cOIbmt:e'Owf .1. naem úCUf pp.en. "(htf' buul1"'. 
bepUl p, .1. 'Oltr' 111 buwp. bep.wp. If m t;echt:;usu'O nm'Ðtt5teè p.e 
aeo na 
cumwLe p.omamn. 




. .11 

O/>>-J qbi 

1I{;,ð.,'fÞ, /.fILf' 

1'/J Z

"h '


"Om 'CecLUEa'O 81rana. 

.1. Cumat re muo ro, ocu1' '1' CU111C! m::a 1"n a "Cec1rcu;su"O Lllle 
,. co cun"O co cOlbne, no CI"O a "Ceër;u5a"O Llp.e ;sen cllnn ;sen eOlune; 
no "Oono, '1' cumat fe 111UO 1 "Cer:r;u;sa"O "C111.e cen cunn cen c01une, 
oeur cumat "CP.1 mbo l1'1n r;echr;u;sa"O atL" 

ma"O "Cap. tan ;me "00 na lIU<<11'LIU, oeu1' '1' "C1P. ;sen eunn ;sen 
cOlbne, If cumat ocu1' "Oltfl 11 at l1nle. ma"O all. Lcrt í111(" If q1.1 
ls' eerhllUlmte eU111arLe oeu1'q1.1 eer:hllulmte na 1na"O Ecm 
;me ILlP., If let eumut oeuf Let n<<11l111e. (ClllHt111 na111a "Ou e0111)'u- 
5 mt , amUlt 11.0 llar"01"u111,"Oo n(( hl)"trU, oCll1' Let eumut 111a"O a cam. 
lTIa"O r: l l1. co dlUn"O co cOlune, '1' "Oll)'l) 11(( harll1llC CU cumat "O U 11. 
tan hue, r;11.1 cear:hr.wmte "C((11. Let íme ueu1' Leat een íme 1t::111. ; 

, ocu1' If 111ann a"C(( 1'0 "00 '1'Llb ocu1' "00 Uatrtmu. 

ma"O anpf"Oo nallOu LIlt co eunn, '1' let par: l1(("o, no anJlut 
tilt co chun"O. 

I Which is n 'Ne7l1headh '-per.o,,'.. The reading in C. 8:;1, i, "no C1f neIl1l1'Í>, or 
the rent of a Neimidh, i.e., land of which it is due." 
2 With fence. ",'mmd it. 'C)"lU Ime,' may mean also" 0 fence, ".hick i. 0 paling." 
8 Of ll.Oru.. The word' ech . was not translated!.>)' Dr. O'DonO\':1n: it is here 
rendered "horses," its meaning in modern Irish, :1 meaning ..1so found frequentl). 
in the Brehon Laws-vi,l. C. ] ,248, 1,
90; O'D. 2,085. That horses were require,l 
for taking possession in 
ome ca'e
 evident from this and several other pnssage. 
ill the present tract. 



!uchas Dun Arail1, Coritisper
onBthat are brought to take posse<:sion of it. W h i ch OF TAKlftG 
is a 'X em head h'-person's,' i.e., or the land bv which the rent ofthe 'Xeimhedh'- LAWFUL 
pcr.on is truly secured to him, such as Tir IIlu
hain or Rot Admairi. It is by P08SE8B'ON. 
means of this entry, i.e., it is by this form of takillg po,<"Cssion every land is 
taken posseøsion of into which cottle are brought to legali:r:e the possession aecord- 
illg to the Feinechus. 
Lan d whi ch has I en ces, i.e., an entry on the land about which there areCences. 
I t is 1I0t equally the property increase&, i.e., it is not equa1ly pro- 
- illcreases lor one ,oho has ..,atk entry into a land with fences and into a 
I,,"d without fence.., i.e., I do not deem that thillg the same which brings increase. 
of wealth to the owner of the land as to paying' seds. to him for taking lawful 
possession of the land" ith fences around it. and a land without fences around it, but 
more is gÏ\'en for land \I ith fellces around it; or, I do not deem that the same ....hich 
bring. increase to the man" ho brill
 means of taking possession into it with cattle 
of horses and without cattle of horsc.,' but it is more when he has cottle of horses. 
If it be with kine, i.e., if it be with cows he enters to take lawful possession. 
It is a 'eumha1' that -is mentioned, i.e., a 'cumhal' worth six cows is 
mentioned as b/"Ought to t.ake possession of a lalld without chief or tribe 
alliance. Unless it be in a lawful possesBion, i.e., if he says it is his 
own land that he has taken possession of, it is in that case thi! is so. Without 
a chief, i.e., without a chief of the 88me tribe. \\ïthou t a tribe, i.e., without 
agreement,i.e.,ofsaiutsalldjustmen. The cows which are brought are 
forfeited, i.e., the cows which are brought as unla"fll1 mellDs 01 taking posses- 
siou are forfeited, together with the' cumhal' afore>ai..J.- . Ir. &for
That is, this is a ' cumhal ' of tlte value oj six cows, and this is 
equally gÏt'en as tlte fine for taking possession of land which has b a b Ir. Willi. 
chief and a tribe, or for taking Jlossession of land which has 
note a chief and a tribe; or, according to otlters, it is a ' cumhal ' of . Ir. With- 
the value of si..x cows for the taking Jlossession of land which has out. 
not a chief and a tribe, and a ' cumhal ' worth three cows for the 
uthcr l1osscssion.takillg. 
If the nohlcs lun'c cntcrcll d o\"er a full fence, and it is a land d Ir. For 
which has not a chief and a tribe, it (the fine) is a ' cumhal,' and for- 'he Robks. 
feiture of stock. If they hare ente7'ed over a half fence, it (thefine) 
is three-qnarters of a' cumhal,' and three-fourths of the stock. If 
tlLC!Jlwve entered on lalld "hich has not any fence at all, it (tlce 
fille) is half ,t 'cumhal,' and half the stock. The stock only is to he 
l"lually divided as we have said, by the plebeians, and half a 'cumlml' 
is tlte fine if it be in ' Cain '-law. If it be land that has a chief and 
a tribe, it (tlce ]Jtm.alty) is r.ll-feiture of the stock "ith a 'cumhal' 
fine, if entTance be 'lIwde over a full fence, thref'-quarters if over a 
half r.>nce, and one-half if there be no fence at all; and this is the 
same "ith respcct to þlebeians and nuLlcs. . Ir. For. 
Ifithe unknown to him who entered that it"as not a land that had a 
chicf, it is half fine that is paid by l1im, or, as in land that had a chief. 

'f o

71<<. I;. O
,. <M 
'"""""ï ''t 1<1-1 

O'D (17. 


"Om "Ceèr;usa'O 8trana. 

OJ' TAIU!rG 'bne mte: ma-ö np, co cunn co c01bnp, '01a mbe'O qla1, '1' cumnl; 
rO""BSBION. muna be'O '1' tet cumat, ocur '1' COI'CCEann m'Orm 1'Cltt 'reat Ocur 
uar at . "01a mbcp,a mtîaín fOP, mttím 'Ceaë'Ca '00 'Omnmb OC\1r 
eaëalb ocur bUalb, '1' 'Olt1'f \lite CÓ ttO t05 cumalte '01a mbe'O CJtat. 

S" muna be'O, '1' let cumaL ma'O ba beltH'ar ocur mch ó5a, oCllr 
'1' tU5a mm tO b cummte, '1' 'Oltf1 nu hal)une '00 qtocmp,e, '01U 
rnbe'O C)1a1; muna be1), '1' tet 'Oltf1 nmttme ocur cumat a eqlO- 
cmp,e, '01a mbe'O C)tal. muna be'O C)1.<U, '1' tet cumat. 

'(;1p, cen cunn cen c01bne, '01a mbe'O CJla1, 11' cumat ocur 'Ollp 
/0 nmttme '00 umrbb, ocur tet cumnt ocur tet 'Oltrl muttme, tllUlIn 
be'O cp,m. m<rò '00 1rbb co C)lOatb, '1' tan 'Oltf1 mUll a 
be'O cp,m, '1' tel'Ch 'Oltf1 nalp,me. 

[munup fO te1tb t:;ecfJr:a1'O. 


.1. munup a tt1ch'C a fettum'O fem 'Ceë'Cur 1 'Ceë'CuË;a ntte Cen 
,ç conn Clll c01fme, l'C1tt cam ocur Uttp,u"Òur, .1. munup '00 rmË;e reWa 
aë'C fOP, e1dn. 

"C1p. cen conn cen cotbne, 'Ottf1 bum)'\. bep.uft. 

.1. '(;,t\ cen cunn comflatura p,lr, .1. tera, .1. fine, .1. cm COI
nep:;a, ate 'Ce'CnU1r ocur buttba, .1. 'Oltf1 m bump, bettUltt 1fm 
')l! 'Cech'Cu5 a 'O nmn'Ot1Ëtech tte 'Caob na cummte ttomumn, C1"Ò 1yi1p 
C1"Ò umrt1t), .1. '1' '0 1te r m buatt Ulte, .1. 1tl 'Can 1)' 'Cltt em cunn 
cm cOlbne, '1' '01tf1 nmp,me ocur na 'Cp,1 re01'C a nm'Ch5m m 
fé01p,: no 'Oono, '1' 'C)u reol'C nama m 'Can na retctep, 'Cp,1 1fItt 
n'Oe)\ur cc co nat tmr m dtt, ocur '1' tO b tal]:;e fO 'Oep,a amnrm : 
J m r;an 1mUp,tto 1r; '0 1t r l nmttme ocuf na 'C)u re01r;, 1me nm'Op,u1C 
1 ro"Òultl: ma'O ter;h 1me 1mup,p,0, '1' tet '01lfl nmtlme 1 ro"Òum. ] 
llJtkere be cattle. Owing to the ambiguity of the term .1 CJ1.II1," or .. crUll," 
it is 'Very difficult to decide in some instances whether it should be rendered" caUle " 
or U a fence. It 
t .Ar,forfeill-d. Aft
r" bcJ1.uJ1." in the 1\IS. the words" mecuJ1. nec1lt:u', 
follow. They were not translated hy Dr. O'DouoV'an, and their meaning is ver.'" 




Another version-If it be a land that has" a chief and a tribe, and OF TAKIKG 
if there are Ð&We, it (the fine) is a 'eumhal;' if there be not cattle, it P:;:::ø

(the fine) is a half' cumhal,' and this is common in this case both to - 
plebeian and noble. Should he 1'Ie
 day Up81i -.Q. lawful a Ir. With. 
number of people, and horses, amI cows, they are all forfeit as far 
as the value of a 'cumbal ' if there be s.:a.ttJ.e.' on the land. 
If there be not cattle, it (the fine) is half a 'cumhal.' If it be 
cows he brings, and he has horses, and it is less than the yalue 
of a ' cumhal,' the forfeiture of the stock is the leniency of the case, 
if there be cattle; if there be not, it (the penalty) is Lalf forfeiture 
of thf' stock and a ' cumhal ' in severity of law, if there be cattle. If 
there be not cattle, it (the penalty) is a half' cumhal.' 
In tlte case of land that has not b a chief and a tribe, if there be b Ir. With- 
ca.tt1e, it (the penalty) is a 'cumhal '-fine and forfeiture of stock by out. 
nobles, and a half' cumhal ' and forfeiture of half the stock, if there 
be not caUle. If the entry was made by plebeians with -8teek, it (the 
penalty) is full forfeiture ofthe
k. If there be not cattle;- it is 
forfeiture of one-half the stock. 

Unless it be into lawful land. 

That is, unless it be on the suppesition of its being his own land 
he brings his requisiws for taking possession of land that has not" 
It chief and a tribe, both in 'Cain '-law and in ' Urradhus '-law, i.e., 
unless he seizes land by force only. 

In the case of land that has not a chief and a tribe, 
the kine which are brought thither are forfeited. 2 

That is, land which has not a head of a tribe, i.e., 1&:elLwislres, i.e., 
ûf the tribe, i.e., without relatives, but fierce and lawless people, i.e., 
the forfeiture of the kine which are brought to take \mlawful 
possession, together with the' eumhal ' aforesaicl, whether they (the 
lJeopk) be plebeians 01" nobles, i.e., all the kine are forfeited, i.e., 
when it is a land without a chief without a tribe, it (tIle penalty) is 
furfeiture of stock and the three' seds ' as eompensatioll for the 
grass; or, according to others, it is three' seds' only when three 
days are not allowed afwr the proof being had that the land is not 
his (the claimant's), and the price of theft is the cause of this; hut 
when it is forfeiture of cattle and the three 'seds,' there waø a 
perfect fence then; if, however, there was only half fence, it (the 
penaltg) is forfeiture of one-half of the stock then. 

vb,., It J 'Mf ,AÞh 


"010 1::eèLUEa'O $'rana. 

/( o
" /0// C. 2b7 

01' TA".IYO ".'ÇU101'Oe 11.aH:;

 a qt1t.1n fe({Lba co 'OIL no 'Oep.ofc. 
I.AWFt:L I'-
 0 Jl 
ION. 'GellEea'û atl qte.I}1' 1TIUf1no lwr f.90P:.w.:t> co Le1n co -Jo
f1wqtelb! co pccèa' fmtèe. ke felc11 fwdtëe Ptl Lellw"f) 
lO'ûlIEwE; CLldleart reL, rlWf1'ûL8 fOtlEu na f1U1le ; 'û1"f)U od-Q/r..;.JC/JI 
j r eL rom clIne, la cornam con 'Oeldlblt1.6 Ptl Ï>èra-hal Et l1atl . 'M.<

-; /1,.8. 
r j 1. ).'t'l-.17 
1Y Jo-7 
It: - 
.,.(.#'01Lo'Quf. 1.10 'Oep.ofc .1. cO'Qe1p.bcín'Oiu'Q U 0.1 p.'fm 0 o.n-o. l:eIL- 
"8S"2 /0 :;OU'Q up. t::p.e'fe .1. t::elt1;lIólP. he uf ap. t::p.elf Lelf bO'Qem in 

 ./...1-.:'... "'. 'OO1;<;rep.ann pn, .1. H!Jl. mbp.e1t::hemnoét::. 
obp.aI'Q'.I. bp.u:; rU1L rue. 
ï."'''1't/@-<lUb Co t::eln .1. CO t::eini'Q '00 'Oonom ann P.lf 111 p.e fIn. Co .1. J 
CSSZ co t::p.eo.bmb 1110.1t:: '00 "[;15.'U 'Vo 'Qbnmh ann P.lf 111 p.e pn. Cop aé 0. r 
rattëo, .1. COf na pacmb b,t:: atCI rop. aro.1tée ua'Q, 'Qa 11' 111'QLISo'Ö 
1S"t::oét::ms"t'. 1t::e relch ralt::hëe .1. If lat:: fO l1a relë U1tet:: uo.'Q ar 
a rmtël '00. n'Qop.l1o.111'Q'Qttsei> t::echt::mstJ. CLlt::heap. rot::, .1. d
lt::he 4J'J'1Z.Jlj- 
ap. ret:: .1. L01Lscch. 
OP.EU n a n u ILe .1. m ret:: '1' PP.t::OEat'QI blf o.c 110. 
llU1tlb, In t::ralilmrc. "lhsu pJt:: rom o.ino .1.111 fe;:; 'r'Q't::oEm'Ql romame 
o.nn .1. 'Oo.ltt::at'Q '00. p'ltepaLt. to. cornu'n co l1'Qelt::hblll.e.!.'Qon 
). p.m;:;och .1. La 'Qe1tblp.ur mCI '00. cofnmh an rep.o.m'Q 'Qon fIP. bora hm ho 
.1. t::cch;:;uS<ro t::lp.e cen cunn cen c01bm pl1, ocur '00 éuo.m IIi Ipo.'Q 111( 
co nice "[;Juan in1-'eo.p.alll'tJ. ,:'IP. uera hUl 5p.lo.n .1. 'Oon rIp. Ucf<:1 0.1 
111 @llUn '00 bop.ap. na 1-'elch ro U1Le. 

L:ull11'Oe 11-al t::UlS .1. 11-U1t::ec11 arcnama met::hmf .1. In t::en'OU1'Vl u('J'-I11' 
In "[;1 '00.J'-0. t::es 111 11-0t:: Ifm reJ'-wm co nice 0. q).'an, oCIl.f q1.OCU1J'-01 '00 
p.ona'O J'-lf 1m a Lecu'Q co t::p.tan 111 reJ'-o.m'O. Co 'OIL .ðfco 'OILu'Q J<ro, 

(O'/J 1:t7D' 



1. '1'e wdme 11) lHlIt:w]:j; 'Dume tUlr f1.u bClI rec1n:;alt fine 
1> amulch COrt:f1.Clf'DCl, ocur nl }'I'Dll\. naë ttatbl rqtann arse, OCUf "GIC 

I · Raitech '-peuon. That is IiteralI
' · a road man.' 
. On the point. In C. 8;;1, the gloss is "co 'OIL .1. co. 11-ucta}t Imml, until 
judgmcnt, i.e. until sentence is given rcspecting it." 
3 Gorxlland. O\'cr the' '0' of thc wort! . robltU1'Q' is writtcn the contraction for 
. no ' . or,' and' b' intimating that the last leller might be 5. 
4 Under him. This gloss in the MS. scems rather to bclong to thc preceding 
c1anse. Dr. O'Donovan however placed it as here givelL . 
. The but øed: · cLlio.p. rat::' is exp1ainclt in C. 852, .. .1. LauLso.ë, 110 'O(tum 
t::l1nceLta o.p.((tap.. no buo 1I1La05e, a milch cow, a ploughing ox, or an incalf 
. Had not land. O'D., 418, add
 here: "he is to give notice of tcn days, and to 
go with 1\11 his property onr to tM land at the eÄpiration of th(lse tcn days i and a, 

 :J. C4/Ll;7' oû .1t fÑ. 
 "f ftu.1,J- 
W ./r) ÿk

nv..h Mt- 'u
' U<4.I- k 'JI.Lth,"*t f&V:!- Ik 


' - 

 The p ossession ofa 'raitech'- p erson 1 in the third of OJ!' TAKIJ.l.t.
"7 "01"\ 

 the land holds until JUdgment or decision is had. He is POSSESSION. .
.J'"'M.-. nnv - 
 ejected aftertÞ.ree days, unless he has good land with 
fire and h
tion, with fines of a green. These 
are the fines of a green to be paid by the man t,1ho 
ri) unlawful entry: a 'sed' of the greatest 
w 'I 
y1ed the choicest ot:Jl
 seds '; the worst 
'sed' for profit
, with the costs of the necessary de-

fonce of the man whose property the ground is. 14_

The possession of a 'raitech'-person, i.e. a 'raitech'-person suing lost 
pr"perty, i.e. the bold advance which a man whose honse the road is, makes into the 
blill until he reaches the third part of it, and it is mercy that has been extended 
to him in pennitting him to enler a.
 far as the third of the land. Until judg- 
n t, i.e. until judgment is given respecting him, i.e., until judgment is ginn 
on the point.' Or decision, i.e. a certain decision of his 
e there. Ejected 
aftcr th ree days, i.e. he is cast out after three days unless that good land 
belongs to himself, i.e. after judgment. Good land,' i.e. the land which is 
n.ller him.- With fire, Le. together with fire which has been made there dnring 
t'llt time. An ù h a bit a t ion, i.e. with habitations in place of h"uses which 
h ,,'e been bnilt there dnring that time. With fi n e s 0 fag r e en, i.e. with 
t:,e fines which he has on his green t" be pai.1 by him, if he has made an 
iIIc.;al entry. The sea r e 
 h e fi nes of a green, i.e. these are the fines 
w:.ich are recove.-ed from him ont of thc green if he ha.
 made an illegal 
entry. The best 'sed," i.e. the best among 'seds,' i.e. a milch cow. The "( 
choicest of all, i.e. the 'séd' which is most to be choscn by all, i.e. the 
'samhaisc'-heifer. The worst 'sed' for profits, ie. the 'se,l' which is 
t to be chosen for profits, i.e. the 'dartaid '-heifer worth. two screpnl1s. · Ir. Or. 
\V i t h the n ec ess a ry def e n C e, i.e. 10 be paid by the · raitech '-person, i.e. M, 
the man whose property it is, is un.1er the necessity of contesting the land against 
him (tm 'raitech '-perøon), i.e. taking possession of land that had not b a chief b Ir. Wilh- 
that hall not b a tribe, and he went farther than as far a.
 the third part of the out. 
lan,\. The man whose property the gronnd is, i.e. to the man whose 
property the ground is all these fines are ginn. 
Thus may the' raitech '-person be known; a man who was up 
to this (the time of the action) abroad, living apart from the tribe, 
find who does not know that he had not land,. and he comes with 

' is sho" n unto him at his going o\"er, so mercy is likewise shown nnto him 
Ioy gi\'ing him three days for departing, when it ü a.termined thell the laml is not his 
property sccording to law, and whatc\ erpart of hi. duty he neglects, there is no fine for 
actnal-poS8(j8Sion upun him, except these' seds,' namely, an incalf cow, a milch cow, 
and a 'dartaidh '-heifer it · .. 
When it is caltlefor taking possession the' raitech '-penon brings, mercy is ex- 
teUllcd unto him in permitting him to enter a.
 far as the third of the land the first 
da)'; and when it Ihe penalty) is a 'cumhaI' and forfeiture of stock from another for 


'Om 'CeéruEa'D 81fana. 


Oll' TAKING co na h111't11tlb, oeur a'tlberta'O 11a commëWE 1r tmr 1n nIt, co 

 . b 
POSSESSION. nabmll. bl ten :;he a 'Out co qUatl 111 P;IW111't1. U OCur ramlrc OCur 
'Oaf1:Ca1E 1rre'O 1cm'O a tOb a fOEeatca in np.e; ocur celtEm'tl ap. 
C}1.e1f1 1Cl 1t 11Eam ellt a Clltc; ocur If np. co cOlbne '00, ap. 1r 'DOlE 
j tmr 'r tatr; ma'tl nIt 

 cOlbne ImUll.1W, If 'Dltf1 natttme, amult 
t W'tlf1um. 

, TMv.1' J.9 

7, '\ 

 -,.tJIV..V, C .,Q3 

 Q,. ?.-.e1i.wJ 
CCCatc ql.1 ttatcmE ann; Itmceach arcnam:a mear;hur, ocur 
p.wceaë 'tIellt5e a meatar, ocur tl.mceë 1l.1b; ocur If attte a'tlell.ap. 
'p.wceë 111 11.1, UCl1tt 'r telr a CUIC rT1.1tëe a tlOlC, ocur ap. a 

 COIL"C111't1e. 1n can 'r m:hEaomt af wt 'DO Enbmt 'DO na tta1ccaëmb, 
Eenmoca in 1t1E, aba"Ò nmt1 ap. in p.mceach Etl.m'tl Ftacha, ocur 
aba'O naen te all. 1n p.mceaë'Ó fC111e, uc fupp.a 'DIXlmUr. 

II C qq3-1j 

1n can 'r 'Dltear an mp.lm 0 caë, 'r qt1 1'eOIC 0 na ttmceaëmb. 
a: e'tlclwcculte fin; a cp.oca1p.e Immull.ll.o, 1n1 'De af tUEa, 'Dltfl 11a 
Ó 110 CP.1 re01c, co ttabea'tl ber ua'Óa. 110, qtl reOIC 0 11a 
p.a1ceachwb, ocur 'Dltrl an U1ltme 0 caë a t;eëcuEa'O co t;p.lun 1' c - 
<\tba. 7 

O'D. n9. [stan 'Don ttatcech C1Cl celr co cp.lan na reatba a np. co con'tl co 
COlune, ceTl co 't;ucca apa'Ö, uUllt Tlach cú dlt 'tit(( futU1l5 fltl ll. e 
tl> 11npul'Ó; ql.1 reolc flUlt 'tit(( r;e 111 'r r1a, 110 'tIla CWIt1f1 tntt calt 
qtelf1 t((lt n'Óelr;tn 'DtI51'Ó 'tIú. Ocur Ifr;ap. ët1.0, OCur '1' teth mU1la 
bet C1lUl. 

111a r;1lt cen con'tl cen cOltne, '1' 'Dltrl natluiw Ua"Ò amult ëuch : 
no 'Dono, 111 EIl.enT! EaoUILt: TIC! q1.1 fCOIC lf1n cumult 're Ellclm 
 Enuuf a n;p.eliJr01il 1 Tlúlp.eliJ. 110 'Dono, 111 umt '1' 'Dltlra a11l.C111 0 
ëach 11' CP.1 reon:; 011 p.a1r;ech. CC eqtoccull.e, a cp..ocmtte1mult1l.0, 

unlawful pðssession-taking it is three · øeds' that are paid by the · rnitech '-persons; 
or rather the proportion which the three' seds' bears to the . cumha1 . is the same 
proportion which his stock bears to the stock of all others. Or, indeed, according 
to otherø, when it (the pellalty) is forfeiture of stock from all others, it is three sed. 
from the · raitech . -persulli; thb is the severity of the case, but its clemency is 



his cattle, and his neighbours say the land is his, and judges OF TAKlSO 
.' LA,nUl. 
tell hIm to go as far as the thll'd of the land. He shall pay a cow PO
and a 'samhaifJ/' -heifer and a 'dartaigh '-heifer as the price for 
gra.zing the land; and he sha.ll be ejected after three days after 
failing to establish his claim; and it is a. land to which he thinks 
he has a hereditary right, 1 for he thinks it is his; but if it be a 
land to which he has not a hereditary right it is forfeiture of stock
as we have said before. 
There are three sorts of' raitech '-persons; a' raitecll '-person who 
gets into failure, and a ' raitech '-person who deserts at failure, and 
the king' raitech' ; and the reason that the king is called 'raitech' is 
because he owns his sbare of waifs of his road, and also from his 
generosity. .When it is distress it is thought fit to take from the 
'raitech '-persons, except the king, a notice of two days is served 
on the 'raitech' -person of the chieftain grade, and a notice of one 
day on the' raitech '-person of the Feini grade, ut supra diximns. 
.When the stock is forfeited by all others, it is three' seds' that are 
paid by the' raitech '-persons. This is the severty of the case; but 
the leniency of it is, the part of it which is less, the fOlfeiture of 
the stock, or three' seds,' it is it he shall pay. 01', according to 
others, three' seds' are due from the 'raitech '-persons, and forfeiture 
of the stock from all others for ltaving come to take possession as 
far as the third of the land. 
It is safe for the ' raitech '-person though he goes as far as the third 
of the land in a territory that has. a chief and a tribe, even though . Ir. Jrith. 
he may not have given notice, becanse the land is not Sllppro:ting 
him during the period of the notice; there are three' seds 'flue upon 
him if he goes farther, or if he remains within beyond tIIree da)' s aftcr 
J:eq uirpmAnt.<.(....r .la w. And lItis is wlten Ite goes over 
a fence,and it (theflne) is one-half of tltree '8eds' if there be no fence. 
If it be a land that has not a b chief and a tribe, it is for- b Ir. Witl.- 
feiture of stock tltat is incurred by him as by everyone else; 
or, according to otlters, the proportion which the three · seds' bear 
to the' cumhal ' is the proportion which his stock bears to the stock 
of all. Or, according to others, where the stock is forfeited by 
e\ eryone else it is three' seds' tltat arc recovered from the' raitech ,- 
person. This is the stJverity of tlte case, but its clemency is the 

/:t I
F ISt'/I' r( 

that part of it which is less, the forfeiture of stock, or three' seds, ' ü due from the 
'raitech '-person for coming a.
 far as one-third of the land, and forfeiture of the 
stock' from all others." 
'lIe,'edilary ,.;.ght._' Coibhne,' seems here to mcan a right to the land by descent. 
'Slock.-The stock nece
sary in waking a legal CDtry. 

L ðí"J 

 -nMJ.v (


7 7I..tI .t,.. rM-Ù".fx 'Altu J 
 /fHv.k rlu 
?1Þ C,I"vt 
 ,-Ie.. w.n 
t 'l 

1fIJ/ ,- 


1)111 'Geè(;usa'ô 8Ir((f}((. 

()F TAKING In r;í tie If tusa .1. tlltf1 nuí)uile; no, n<< t:rt! feOlt:; no tlO1l0, It: q1.f 
LA.WFUL " tb t .. . . ] 
POSSESSIO". feolt: 0 p.alt:ee 1 t:eet: co rea a, OCUf tli f1 llalp.lIIe 0 cae. 

- J WI..../' ftJ 
:.---- .... .._H. J,..,wrl. f 
V-+<. -
7"' 1" - 

amn:; mOlta mmret1,u njreasmp. él'ùechm ta feme: 
m;hsabmt émecnm; 
ettach 1n'ùtIELech, comtws sen 
ð Ctlt1.U bet, no Ean èto'Ò cn n'ùbEe'ù. 'So 
he, EO 
heamCún na'ù belp. pacha cach ae. 

. ((cau: t:eoJla almf e Jla.1- am, Jle,ocufPJlfutam; m:a1t:ciJOf\af\e 
 .,. t.1J1,
 CtS"..z,-utame i nm'Of<I15enn neë ni If 11l'Otl5teë '00 'Oenam '00 Jle1Jl In r enea - 
cl1mf' ((t:h5abalL .1. CUIC fe01t: 1n'Oe. '0ettach In'OLI5t:e
h .1- 
e t:echt: u 5 a 'O 1n'O LI 5"Cech '00 bf\lch 'f11l }:el"an'O .1. ba t:aJl elf eoëu, ocuf JlO 
5 eb a eoëu .1- cumat, no 'O,tfl bUalJl, no t:JlI re01t: 1n'O. COmJl U 5 sen _ 
cUJlu bel, .1. coml"uc 
0:ß11U '00 }:of\ necll cen t:JlebU1Jle co COIJl 0 betmb 1Y.. !f16.18 
mCI f\e mfec no Jle 'Otep::11l '00 111 nelë ImaJlocU1Jl. 1)0 san eLoi> .1. 
no can eum '00 teco'O 1m a CÚ11l 'OLI5e'O, .1. apaI'D na CJlOlfcl ce '00 'OechaI'D 
,frJl'f' 'So t:ualt:he .1. If 50 '00 t:uU1t:h .1. na mOJl t:uCtlt:he, ocuf 'Oon 
b)1eltemam na beJla Clf\IC nn cai: nac im caë no;sae 'Olb fin, cm bo 'Olb cUf 
a JlO1 p::cp.. 


t:oBccch bescucc SO. 
1n L1 '00 be1p. na 
echLa re1tb. ar e 'ùO t1.On CO pacmb :: 

mse. 1n n CJl.eanar cen 
eot 1;en 
mS" CO nstmne Cl11Ùr e , 
)0 'ùltear 'ùOrume 0 'ùta OCtlr 'ùuÎne ; 'ùtam rtan a ctlbur ùm 
rtan a anum. 

, c \1\"\\ 

eml1'ùe 'ùono 'ùtana'D rOll.seattmp., all.Ct re1reat"!. COltt 

I The tl.ird of Zanel.-C. 1<52 read
, .. i.c. the ninth, i.e. the tllird of the thir,l of 
the tribe: he does not ellter into the sharc of the chief or the church." 
· of .toek.-Thc 'airem' is the stock of cattlc brought intn lanl1 to 
legalize the possession. 
· The beginning of' Buena' hn'e._In the 1IIS. there seems to be no break be- 
tween this passage and that immediatel)" preceding, but on the margin the Irish 
for this heading is given. In other places in the same 1IIS. similar marginal notes 
are found, where the original seem. to h2 a continuou
· Rigltt of covenallto.-In C. o;.;:J, there is a glos;; on this text, and it is 


')'IfM" 19 (ÆJ ?>4ðf, 
 (.La JI
) IJý 
fr'''' .




smaller of these, i.e. fOlfeiture of stock, or the three 'seds'; or, OF TAU"'" 
" "IAWFn. 
according to otl,ers, it is three 'st!ds' from a 'raltech -person, lor POg"E
'ill"!f all !/ coming as far as the third of the land" and forfeiture of 
stock 2 frum all others. 


There are three occaRions on which illegalities are 
prosecuted. by the Feini: unlawful distress; illegal 
entry; combat without Ye
agemcIlts, QL

 departing according to law.!> It is falsehood for the 
hMI-.. laity, it is fül:;ehood. for thc jud.gc who does not award 
fines for each. 

There are three occnsionq, i.e. 'am', time, IInd 'sir' fixed; there are 
three fixed periods at which one sues the thing which is unlnwful to do according 
to the Feinechuo. Distress, i.e. five' seds' (1r
 thefi7le for it. Illegal entry, 
i.e. to bring illegal means of taking po,,"'es<ion into the land, i.e.. cows after horses, 
"hen he could find horses, .Ï.e. the fi1le for it is a 'cumhsl,' or forfeiture of stock, or 
three'seds.' Co mha t wi thout "erbal engagemen Is, i.e. to proclaim a battle 
ainst. one without proper security by word of mouth for restoring or righting . Ir. [i,ol/. 
the thing about which he gins the challenge. Or not departing", i.e, or 
\\ ithout departure from the rule of law, i.e. warning or fasting thon
h he was 
fairly met b by all n.ff
" cifm'bitl"lltio1l. Falsehood for the Iait
', i.e. it is a lie b Ir.Tholl!lh 
for the countr)', i.e. the great territory, and for the judge "ho does not award "e U'O' come 
'eric '-fine for each an,1 eyery one of these ca8e8, whieheyer of them they come to (lgaill8t. 
decide upon. 

 1; 0\hVo&>-- Tyt 
""" ir'-
h< fJ-t->tkv.ft 
) /?;adf'! 
He who gives property which is not lawfully his 
own shall pay the fines for stealing. As to the person 
who buys without stea]ing or conceallllent, with 
purity of con
cicnce, it (wlwt he buys) is his lawful 
property according to God and. man; if his con- 
sciencc be free, his soul i
Thou dcsen"est whatever is ad.judgcd.; that thou 
mayest knuw the right of covcnants;4 that thou 




r)) t/Ii.


(pJ' f';1 1 
o. ) 

snill that "l!llU F('feft COlft comna'7)mann .. \\n< spoken b
' Fergll<, tI,e poet, 
n, equall
' applicahle fur e\"C
' Hreholl. 

"1- tM'-O./ 
 . f. ?l.<- 114M fw +:1 rk?\tt, 
, fA}.ut "'i"tý 7 
 C g 5::> 


"Om 'Cecrtrsa'i) 81 rana. 

1/ Cg 53-IJ. 

OF TAK,YXG comna'D . JHlj11 (
IW 11.1uce pp. ríp.enm ra1-sr:e ractì, rarsam 
LAWFUL U1, """VtIt(
 Coo1A" CliP I 
ION.11l me
am ;011. Coma'Dmr caell CfnC(1C
1'Dr:eat1. ap.a r:aeb- 
, ?Ii, 
' mnmr; ap.111 rea'i)alt na"O a11lt1-sr:eap. ta feme 'Do, 
'DmE ríne OCt1r PttE1attna na mmdl11.1 O1tqtear; att (f(.- 
.5 e a q1.1 11.0 rU1E1'D 'DO 1mrodla1E COIl. 


.= WT

, Jo -


- m<uiV Ð.1 .q. (.. 
- - Q 

In t:1 'tIO bel)1. n<< t:ecllt:("{ relLb, .1. ín t:1 'tIO bel)1. ní 'tIO neoch, ocur 
noco na rmLb bouém t:echr;uj', aer; 0 rmLb Emr;1 In Ear;m'tle. CCr e 'tI 0 
)1.on co fl acmb, .1. Ire Icul'lle co paemb E("{I1""1- 1 n r;1 c)1.ean ar, .1- 
In r;1 cennm5er. Cen r;eoL, .1. cen SUlr; .1. cen r;eoL, t:01bteJ1(
to bun<<1't> ro ce"Collt. ðf>n r;aIEI, .1. cen 'tIlceILr;, ,I- 'tIlceLr; a Emr;1 1a)1.'tImn:- 
Co nEtalne cUlbre, .1. r;ltl rLan, EUlbr;ep. runn 
r;, no'tlla mb e 
, .1. cen enectumn, cen r maer; cen alr;1'Em maní r;al)1.I..-!r; e l ú V 
I' IIP. I 
o 'tI1<<, .1.nahecLmfl' Ocur 'tIuíne, .1. na "Cumtl. "01<<m rLan a 
cu uu 1" .1. can PI' cuuur bltm"Ch alCl- 

., e-Iml'tle 'tIono, ,I- f01m'tlenalE, no u)1.j::01chLI ma ,?Ia r;1p:;a)1. a rUlEI'LL 
lO'JJ r 
73) 'tIO b)1.elr;hemnmr' (e)1.a felr e a)1., .1. co fmre)1.f1UinO co )1.olb a fir acur; 
o)1.'tIu5a'tl na cuma narcm)1.eer;a 'tIO )1.elll. eOI)1.. CC)1.)1.ulce fl)1., .1. CO)1.- 
ub e m be)1.a'tlo neoch 'tIuL <<narCal)1.eer; 11' 'tI1)1. 'tIO 'tIuL l1e toE enech. 
rí)1.eam ralEr;e rae)1., .1- 11' Pll. Lím fmEI't> <<hm'tlfmstt fin ro)1. na 
)0 r O j::e); no Ifl'e'Ò Ir((e)1.'tIUlr; 'tIuL V)1.1 toË telwch. 1 n me((fllm, .1. Ire 
ní 110 me1f!mmmEe'tl a hm'tle 'tIolb 'tIuL 1111' In 1)1 110 co-caímrlEe'tl 'tI0 't
(01)1., 'tIuLl1e tosan enech. CCn<<1cal'tlr;ea)1.. .1. 11' e ní Vonmrcear In cae 
fin a)1. In r;aeu )1.0 hucmrce'tl 'tI0 'tIuL, r;(I)1. cenn a comEI1U1't1. lC)1. m 
rea'tla)1., .1. umltno con In'tlrmStt 'tIO neoch 'tIO!;lter 'tIO l1el)1. In venf>chmj' ní na)1. e)1.aLumseu 'tIo'tluL, 1te l1í 11' mo na 11f> tos enech. "O<<1E Ví nl', 
.1. L1Cral'tl In pne rq cop.mb, um)1. 11' mlCho)1. 'tIO 'tIuL )1.e ní 11' mo na l1 e 
t();:;a ene.:h, 100 naLoEa pnee, r;mr;n115 pne ocur mmr;hp.e ocur fLata. 
_C/.<II- Ocur fl)1.S1<<LLna, .1. na VI)1.coana'tla)m ElatLa'tl no íl1 cmLLl'l11e .1.1111 
vtar;ha r;lcvmr; vo cOltmb. 11 a 10 <<1 r;h )1.1, .1. 11' UlLLI't>I In r;p.l'r((n'tl víne 
0omar;ha)1., acr;a1't>eer; fOCo)1.mb. CC)1. ar;e a r;,I, .I-a)1.lrla'tlrOmr;)1.m'tll 
,to rammEeu no )1.0 hop.'tImse'tl 'tIemvumr;)1.e'tl na COIl. mn'tlLI:;teé 'tIO 'tIena 
l1!'ch. 111 ara m'tleltbl)1. 110 nuc ua'tl, 110 l1í VUl5ueu Cia )1.0 EeLL, ní 5((balt 

!.. Los ua'tl In'tl 1L1)1.. 1n r;an nmrcr;e)1. In Viae, ocur 11' 'tIOIS Lmr Voscbu'tl, 110 
) Ita nuc 'tIeltbl)1. ua'tl, a tos 'tIO íc mon. 

I Fi,-giallna.-In C. R.j4, this term is glos<",1 .. cc,1- g iallnai." 
· The third.-In C.8;;4, "oltres" is explained "a mmtlte quoll tertium est." The 
tran.lation llere given of the term is only conjccturul; the text uppears defeeti\"C, 
and the gloss 
ecms to be u merc etymological unalysis of the wonl . O1tr;lteu)'.' 



ma y est reach the truth, thou shalt sue the nobles, OF TAKIXf' 
thou shalt sue for what is estimated in a meet POSSF-.\;IOX. 
covenant from all who are bound as sureties for their 
. . 
 l--e- .LwÀ. 
 l.,n. '-Ý # C 
boprs; for no one ove.r cu es. t or mOFe {;nl1 n ìS 

 n().J' pn'ee by the Feini, for the tribe 
and the r Fir-giallna,'l çcnd the mother's tribe shall 
interfere; for these are the three parties who are 
appointed to dissolve covenants. 

He who gives property which is not lawfully his own, i.c. thc 
person who gives a tl1Íng to an)" one which was not lawfully in his own possession, 
but in the possession Df the thief by theft. S hall pay the fi n e s, i.e. it is he 
shall pay for it with fines for stealing besides. Who buy s , i.e. he who purchases. 
'Vithout stealing, i.e. without thievery, i.e. without secrecy, i.e. w

es, (i.e. disdo,..) t he originaItheft at once. 'Vithout concealment, i.e. 
without secrecy, i.e. cOßcealin
 the theft aftcrwards. Wit h pur it Y 0 f con- 
science, i.e. three suretics, ill. he takes here the 'sed,' or if there be security, 
i.c. without honor-price, without' smacht '-fine, without compcnsation, unless he 
has taken it. God, i.e. of the church. And man, i.e. the laity. I f his con- 
science be free, i.e. having nO knowlerlge of a hetra
-ing conscience. 

est, i.e. thou meritest or thou earnest if they have come to 
the decision of thc judgment. T hat tho 11 may est k now, i.e. that thon 
maycst know, or have a knowlcdge of the or(ler or form of covenants according to 
justice. That thou mayest reach the truth, i.e. that it is the thing 
which gives one the ,'i9ht to enter into covenant that 8110u1<1 go as his honor. 
price. Tho u s h a It 8 U e, i.e. I deem it true that thou followest up thy suit 
upon the goodly men; or ",hat is free to thee is to go secw'it!! as far as th? honor- 
price. W hat is C' t i mat ed, i.e. the thing that was estimated originally for 
them is to go security for" the thing" hich was fi"ed according to right, i.e. to go 
slirety as far as his honor-price. Are bon nd, i.e. tbat is what all bind on the person 
who wa. permitted to gos1ll'ety for his equal grade. For no onc ever snes, i.c. 
for no one is to sue at any time according to the Feinechus for a thing which is not 
pcrmitted him to go security/m', i.e. for anything which is grcatcr than his honor- 
price. For the t rib e, i.e. the tribe shall impugn b the compacts, for it is a false 
cO\-enant for him to go securit!! for an
.thing which is 
,'rcatcr than his honor-price, 
i.e. if it be greater than his honor-price, the tribe amI 
s and chiefs dissolve 
it (the contract). And . Fir g i a 11 n a', i.c. the men to whom is due the service 
or the vassalage, i.e. the chiefs shall oppose the compacts. Thc mother's, i.e. 
the third" party are more numerous, i.e. thc mother's trihe impngning a the compacts. 
For these are the three, i.e. for these are the thrce who Wcre appointeel 
or oi"(laincd to distnrb the unlawful contrncts which one sh,dl make. If it 
was without necessity he gave a thing away, or hc does not proclU"e ft t"ill9 
though be promised, no price is got from him for it at all. When the debt i
fastencd, and he thinks he will get it, or b
 gave it awa)' of neccssity, its prk-e is 
paid then. . 
VOL. IV. D i 

f4., IN





a Jr. TO:f) 

b Ir. Come 

a Ir. COlli' 
ing o!/(Ûud. 

:3G "0111 t:eënl'Su"O 8trUl1U. 
_ (//f'tZ-(), b8i.t 
. 12.....
. O

'1G ""U, 11mI' 11m(( 11(( hmftEect'i) 11(( hoft, ((ë{;oJ'Olt mat; 111 

. ncur buall'
 ba Ch'111"01({ f 0 11. 1Ieach tlur 11(( bta"O ba; 111 
5'1 ncur t;t1 t foft 1tU1WtU((ch, mUl1((r fOdm reatb; 111 ncur 
' I'> ') e"O((ch f01t l1((ch 110cht;, mUl1(( t;t((ët;; 'r e Eftet;he 
Ç(Cf r cel1 m1w"O "00 En1 11.0 cott ùttet;h. ke me((n1.(( (("O_Eett(( 
a cumul1E "00 c((ë. 

, r/tt rl.,7 Lt ) 

.utfl<# Iv f. 
h itn., - #vI'1N;v '! 

:r f

 t Yllh\Å . 

1111 n aJ r, .1. ní ,to ronwfCf1U In WJt5e'O no m 01\ no 1fl uma aèt; roJt 111 
IIU((faL, umJt If mce bo '0015 a mb1t:;h, nOIre bo 'OOIc1t 'Oa rw.:;bmt. 1
n aIr bu a1\,.1- ni 1\0 ronmfCf1u buaJt mi1U1L in mbuaJt '00 beJta'D ba 
t" ch1ll'D1a cennal'òe Lmf t;mJt'f aJt 111 t;1 ((C na blat; ba. no na ba'D c Ulm 5 eè 
arasbmL co 1Iul\ufa. Ui nalr t;11\,.1.111 1\0 ronmrclf1u r p 1\ann 1-'01\ 
1fl t;1 blf roJt imJtama a m(('D 'D1Il(('D, mana rot;hw5"CeJt reJtann mCI, no 
mana Jtolbreal\ann mC1'Darot;hu5a'D. r01\ ImJtumach, ,'.roJtr oen - 
'OLesac1t. 11í naIf e'D((cll .1. ni Jto ronmfcf1u et;ac1t roJt in 'Oume blf 
,>Lomnaèt;, mana JtOlb et;ac1t mce 'Da t;OIJtlt;hin. tl1 un a t;oJtma t;taèt;, 
.,. mani 
o.!r- et;ac1t co 
: 1 fe 5 Jtet;1t e cen t;01\a'D, .I-Ife ni at;a. 'DO 
J1.elJt 1\0 c1aLLamena mbJt13t;1t; amUlL 'r et;aJtbac1t 51\ec1t na cno rmr' cen 
coJtIl'O WC1, 'r amLm'Ò 'r et;aJtbac11 na IH'lc1te fin 'DO 'Denam. 1 t;e 
m eaf1\a a'D 51' LLa, .1. 're ni Jto melremnm5e'O 'DO 5eU.{('D 'DO caè m ni 
)ð ima cumt;aJt 1te ifl151LL, 1fl ni blar mce .1. 'rre'Ò mer1\m5ur L1\eltem a 
cumaè 'DO bILL 'D O caè. 

.1. mar 'Oa pr no 'Oa anpr .1. PI' ac relc1leamam t::olc1le'Oa, OCl1f 
. . PI' ac t:p.ebmTte, no anpr ac rCldlemam t:OIëea'Oa na p.aùa'Oap. 
fo'-tftA#" O'bIf UJ na reltb na TeOlt: 1ì.OLÍn5ettt:a ann, Ir'ton.. 11mt appa atW11pa.1J 
" 1T1arra anpfOc relchem t:olc11e'Oa ocur prac -t::p.é"'bmp.e, artp.enal1. 
. I I 
0'011P. mp.tlct:ep.. 

O'D.420. [.1. caë paë Inbettur 'Oume ocur Ù1'O ma fa1'oùp.e, no If '0 01 5 
tmr a PX5((1t 0 neoell elte, ocur 'Ow n 'Oetùlp., no
'Oò mùel11ua'Ö AI 

 ..., UI. '1.7 ff HiP. fin, 'I' annlrCFop.elt al 1 p.a un((p.1 w ? aët: nnt::o ca
:Sð Caë pad1 In5ettuf na bl'Ö m<t rm"Òbp.e, no naë '0015 trur a 
rU5a1t, '1'1 é anltllt 110 bett .1. m ran nu bi I rC1tú m j.'eldu:lIIun 

I Cinnia, the mlrchclllt. In C. 1'54, the reading is bua1\ bat ('mma, and the 
gloss ad,ls "Cinnia, for he was the first who bronght cows into },rinn." 
· Blilld nut. .. eni;r\1se .. is the reading in C. 8;i4, ullCl it i. gl(1ssecl .. cnu ('(({'c:-' 


 íJL /(/
. 13{. ? 



.,..r Iflf." 

Thou shalt not bind anyone to pay ÙL copper, or sil- OF TAKISG 
ver, or gold 7 but a chief; thou shalt not bind anyone P.."s.."sws. 
to pay in kine like those of Cinnia, who has not kine; - 
thou shalt not bind anyone to pety in land, who is 
 landi; thou shalt not 

bind a naked person to pay in clothes, unless -he has'). 
got raiment; it is as a nut without fruit to adjudicate 1- M}
iflthis nmmler. The pl"fHuiserof all she-uld be 
adjttsted tü..their ability. 

Thou shalt not bind, i.e. thou shalt not impose tile paym('1lt of sih'er. or 
gold, or copper, except upon the noble, for it is" ith him thc)" are likely to be, or 
it is he that is likely to get them. Thou shalt not bind, &c., kine, i.e. thou 
shalt not impose the pa!lmellt tifkine like the kine "hich Cinnia the merchant I nse,1 
to bring across with him, npon the person who has not got kine, or who cannot easily 
procure them. Thou shalt not bin d land, i.e. thou shaltnotfastenpaymenC in 
bnd upon the person who is moying from plnce to plnce, unless it is found thnt he has 
land, or unless he has land to snpport him. "'ho is wnndering, i.e. upon a 
wanderer. Thou shalt not bin<;l clothes, i.e. thon shalt not bindpay".ent i.. 
raiment npon themllnwho is bare naked, nnl"," he has clothes to relieve him. U nle ss 
he has got raimen t, i.e. unles, h
 finds clothes quickly. It is as a nut 
withont frn it, i.e. it is a thing which is according to the wisdom of judgments; 
ns the shell of the blind nnt. withont fruit is profitless, it is likewbe profitless 
to do these things. The promises should be adjnsted, i.e. the thing by 
which the promises of all are to be estimated is the thing by which he is kept to 
his promise, i.e. the thing which he has, i.e. the IIrehon estimates e\-ery one's promise 
by his power Co fulfil it. 
If by his knowlellge, or by his ignorance, i.e. if the plaintit}" have 
knowledge, and the surety have knowleùge, or the plaintiff have 
not knowlpùge that the' seds ' wl


r r
wed on 
he occasion _ 
were not in his possession, it is "1"'" ii9

' '1tI'i'tI.' g()OlI s <I-!!l. ,n. 2-'"7 r.I
CHI" 'anio1.l"""'-<YOo,]s ."s If the plaintit}, be ignorant, aUlI the surety has 
knowleùae O if 
 tlte fi uct the--thiUJ.L-"dHch Ïi; 1,le. 1 'Yl'rI j" pnid . f4"frJ.JJ., i,ð 
/ etIM, 
o ' #.0 .. 0 - - 
That is, every debt which a man promises when ho is in his 
rich condition, or he thinks he will get it from another, and if 
necessity should arise, or if it shoulù be afterwarùs taken from him, 
it is then it f"ll
 'lll'le r '" arm. '-goods for' anarra '-goods." J.. 
In every case of deht which one promises -who is not in a riC'h con- 
dition, or which he does not expect to get, the' cric '-fine is as he 
II blind nut; for it is of no profit to him who breaks it. It is so with a person 
who binds npon one a thing which he has not. For no one should promi8e a thing 
which he has not." 
I' .hlarro'-goods. Vid. vol. 3, p. 150, n. 'Arra' means the thing promised or 
a bÏJuilar one, 'Anarrn,' a different thin:;. as e.!;. a 'Ç\\P' inbtead of a 'co,.,...' 


'D,ll 'Leët:t15(("O -8'ral1((. 

d /I. 
 ,, -'1-0 
T f>>'#V OF TAKING OCUf nocha '001;5 a tCI5wt '00, ocuf 1"1.0 flL111. 111 11.cut, a icc 
PUSSESSIOS. amUlt 11.0 narCa1l ral1t co tor ocur ar. 

m<rõ 11.0 tjU1 aI;se 111 ran '00 1t1l1ne 111 cunn1l<rõ, ocur '00 ëucu"Ò 
f1\1 'OetblP. IU r, '1' f01le1t a1 l 1 w ana1t1tU, .1. 111 ran nwrcre1t 111 
11-, 9
tt 5paë, OCUf '1' '001;5 twr fO;5ebl"Ò, no tto nuc 'OetbI1t1Uf ua"Ò, a to;5 

Iv MÞ 1rlLnctwy I" Ff" 

mar 1I1'Oetbl1l1Ur 1WC u<rõ, no nl rUI;5tJe'Ö cIa 1to ;sett, nl ;SabU1t 
toi; ua"Ò 1I1n 1r11t]. 

.)Jt MS.) p-ukJ"o 

111 t0115a"O bC(tl"OWI5 bc(tlCOlW a c01bl1e COlt"!. comaf1"Oa, 
,0 ap.a l1a1rC pl1nnl.t1dl pl1"OLfsa [ma1l1p re reI mber-((.] 
'Do bet1.t: bp.I at1. bc(tlcot1.C(. Oll.b(( m((111e mer COlt"l.Ce 
o t:a c((ch cm"O comrOCa1r; 
o t111 ma1ne ml'Ò1"Oe((t1. 0 L(( 
hln"Oua co 111cqullt1U, 11l5e cum((t; 
o 1ll1a"O 5t Ua11 
5 eI11 t:hep.. Fmnt"1t1 
Ot"!. cut ctlmëtt:hep.; qle1l1b pile 
o5t((1Eteatt; 5((but ((rt:(( edrqWI1"Oa; m(('D "01 CUlcte 
t:op.mota. 1mt:(( 11U cín COm
OCC(1r, 111a"O - 
"Oettechmch; ac1lt: cem::htl.t11me "00 pl1"Opl1e. 0 recht: "Oec 
"Oelt!t:he((l t co fiach 'Dut"hars "00 
1ne. Ft11"Oet"l. 111 belt1. 
cm COm
OCa1r, 1lltln(( CUIC qteab(( t:01tlbec(tlc(\)cqt. ma 
1.0 CUIC qteba1b COmrtc(tla1b cont WI1 "O((t: a pnnt:ea"Ou. 

1n Lon5 a 'tl ban'tlt;al!; .1.eILL!;It;amIC ocufanin1;ena111 ni roft aft 
aLf((t; cUJ1.u a mQ1t;hJ1.e, .1. 111eILL51t;eJ1. na mna t;echt;u!;a'O '00 bJ1.elt;h If 
I. Coibne '-prope,.ty, vid. p.81. Supra, n. 1. 
· U..1MI he be the .inh. This clause in the Iri,h is supplied from the lower margin 
of the first column, in E. 3, 5, p. 9. 
· Bi"tZ. In thc IllS. the letters a and L of · aLrat; , are marked in a way" hich 
seems to denote that they should be transposed. 



promised, that is, when it is not in thê possession of the debtor, and OF TAKII<G 
it is not likely to be got by him, and thc security kncw it, it is to P

be paid a.s it was bound upon him, with addition and increase. 
If he had it (the property) when he made the contl

d it 
passed away f1'O'm ltim by necessity, it (the case), is :!
nttgn>r-- r re' 
'-" arm' geoíkf01' , ;onqrra!... goods j" i.e., when the debt is fa.steneù, 
and he tIúnks that he "ill procure it (tIle tltill[j promiseá), or neces- 
sity has carried it from him, he is forgiven the value. 
If it be not necessity that carried it away from him, or he 
cannot procure it though he promised, no value is t"..-lli:en from him 
for it at all. 

Heirs of females claim on rightful covenants of 
equal value made with a female allcest01', relative to 
, coibne '-property1 for the fair-chief of the tribe COll- 
firms the subject matter, unless he be thesixth. 2 Brigh 
pronounced judgment on female covenants. Lands 
are estimated by their stock from every related head; 
they are estimated according to the amount of their 
property from the great-grandson to the great great- 
grandson, except in regard to the' cumhal senorba'; e.! tcr ""-70 ð't y, 
according to the size of the land it (the 'cmnhal- 
senorba') i
 produced. The tribe property is claimed 
backwards; it i
 divided between three tribes; all 
extern branch stops it, if the five persons of the 
, Gcilfine' -division peri:::;h. Except as regards the 
liability of relationship, if the family become extinct; 
except a fourth part to the I Findfine.' From seventeen 
men out it is decided that they are not a tribe-com- 
munity. The' fuidhir '-tenant does not bear the 
liability of relationship, unle

 there be five houses to 
relieve each other. If there be five houses with 
comolete stock, they share the property of the tribe. 

Rein of females clai m, i.e. their SODS and their daughters claim the thing 
which the contracts of thdr mothers bind,8 i.e. the "omen claim to bring meane 


"Om t:eëruEcm 81fcma. 

OF' TAKIXO In t:e)1ann a)1 a)1 taeret; na mna mb a r')1 ëU)1u. CC COI bn e COI)1 
LAWF{:L coma)1'Da.1. amtal'ò 110 COIb11l'Dt;lse'D a coma)1'Dusa'D rO)1 Cop.rt1Ù 'DO 
POSSESSIOS. . CC h . h b 
)1e1)1 COI}\. }\a nalrc pnnr}\Ut; .1.11' I' 111 r}\Ult; t;H1t;nemac '1" 
.1. rtatm se1tp1l1 're t-'On(1)'Cer 111 t;)1!an mara o}\ba c}\lI1b no rt!ap:a 
fhe, nOire t:Qnmrcer in re}\an'D U1te mara t:e}\an'D t;uca'D. 111 alllp 
1'1' rei m bep.u. ,. mannp e 111 ré're'Ò re}\'r I' be}\ur 111 'Dlha'D.1. mrmaù 
1'111 reire'D re}\'Deë a se,tpne, 111 'Del)1bpne ronmrcer cOlmS' an t;eltpnf', 
aët; neë 'DO cII1CJ:e}\ na )':e,Lf1ne. "Do be}\t; Or1.1 ay1. hanco}\a .,. r:et- 
tach 11l'D .1. 'DO Ù;hemnm5C'D 'DO O}\,S III rel1.ann ((11. (()1 t((eret; na 11111(( mLe 
loa r'}\ ëuy1.u. OY1.ùa 111 ai n e mer cOlltce .1. 111 ):I'lul11n ap, ((It melrem 
COI1.ach a mU11l a mat;hm}\, no mH1}\ a madlml1., .1. n]((el1. IIlSl'n Coútms 
CQ.1tbl1.eS .1. }\15 el)1en'D. 

.1. Ottba qWI'O ocur rttJap:;a na mm:h(qt runn, ocur 'O, bu 5 a 'O 
1'0 'Olba1;S1 in nJa1dl11', ocur nl }:ultJr IIIÎc al'r IIlEeuna 11((1l1a. 
,j-OClir bqtan'J in i11Eea11 In }:eattann Ultl co }:uba OCl1r cu tt1l1,a, no 
a Let 5an }:uba Ean ttUba; ocur COlnJ'OE }:UltltlE 1'e a1p'ac ua1te 
Jatlf na 1'e. 

o t;a cach Cln'D com j:OCai l' .1. 0 ta H1rnelr 'Dam 'DO 'Dlùa'Ò cach CIII'D 
'{J((lt COmrOICr'e'D III r e l1.ml1l ; III 5c1tpne lilt I YlO 'DIÙ'D((((n'D, ((CUr III r e )1rtnn 
2.0 U1te 'DO b)1e1t;11 'Don IIlsin u 'DUutEur hH11ComaytÙmr; no 0 t;a mpwlf 
'Dam 'DO 'Dlba'D III C11l'D TI((}\ com).'OIcf1e'D III relwn'D, in inSIll, '1' ann C01l1- 
11 01n 'Dt;I)1 ill'D ro na r:eol1.a ri1l1b. 
o t1l1 lJiaine .1. melre1l1- 
nmsr:ep,mallle III re)1mn'D).'o Imat; na rine!a}\ n'Dlbu'D nahinsine. 0 t;u 
hln'Dua .,. na seltrine .1. If !at;}\0 'Dlh'Da ((n'D, no '1' !at; C0111Y1.011l'Dr C r 
t(111 r e )1((nn. Co hWI1.IllU((, .I.lla 'Dell1.hrine. 1n5eCum((t renop,hu 
.1.1115 ' al1. ((ët;. at;a aët; Lím an'D, aët; 111 cumat)'enmSt;eyt'Don opùa r U1I1 , f S"',,..,j

feët;ma'D t;1p,e 'DIÙal't>, ocur a hlt;h relC a LanH rtuta seltpne ((C u)1Ttnm'Ul 
I Of e'lval valve.-In C. 8,i4-the foJ\owin
 exp!auation is gÏ\en: "Collla)1T1((, 
.1. dieunt alii 'eomorhe,' i.e. the thing whieh 11a.. in the possession of the 
mother is "hat the daughter cI..ims. or the thing" "hieh the moth('r gh es allll 
hequ"aths to her." 
· Thefa;,' chiifQ/ the t,'ibe cOI!f;,'ms.-In C. I',j,j-the f"J\()l1in
 reuding of thb 
gloss is given. .. CC1tJt;e}\ a}\I nUlrC, J.'1I1J1fp,ut;h. i.e. the' }Innsrnth Feineehnb,' 
of the 'Geilfine '-dh-ision, are as the five hrothers, like n< the fi,'e fingers of the 
hn11ll, eueh of them ohtains the' dihnl1h'-land of the other. 
For it hinds, i.e. no one shall take nnto himself to 7Iw/;e up the 'Geilfine'- 
division anyone of his tribe in general, although there shonld be hut one man of 
the five brothers ali,'e exeept himself. i.e. the son of the man who 11113 the' ,IiLudh ,_ 
land shall not oLt.Lin it, i.e. he is the sixth in relation to the fi,'e; hc sl1111 not 
alone ohtain the 'dibaclh '-land which his father holds, hut the sons of his Lrothers 
sltall øhm'e it will. him, hut it shall Le dh ide<l nß10ng all ufter the (kath oi the 
man who obtains the lanlls of his extinct brother. The' ùiLudh' .Iund of the 
dct"'ased shall be shared Ly the sons of his other hrothers. for the right to it 



of taking posses-ion into the land about which the other women made true contracts. OF T A KIYO 
Rightful covenant3 of equal yalue l relative to 'coibne'-propert
'. LA"Fn. 
& c., i.e. according as it Wft.. stipulated that it shall be adjusted br compacts accord- POSSES.
ingtojustice. The fair chief of the tribe confirms, I i.e. it is the pleasant 
senior, i.e. the chief of the' geil6ue '-dh'i.ion is he that confirms the one-third, if 
it be 'cruibh '-land or 'sHasta '-lund, or it is he thut confirms all the land, if it be 
land thatwasgi\"l'n. L"nless he be the sixth, i.e. unless he be the sixth man, 
it is he that will obtain the' dibadh '-lund, i.e. unl
<. he be the si,<tecnth (..c) 
lIIan remm'ed from the 'geil6ne'-dh'ision, it i. not the 'deirbh6ne'-division shall 
confirm the power of the' geilfine '-dh'ision, but one of the fiye men of the · geil6ne'- 
diyision, Brigh pronounced on female covenants, i.e. there was fin 
' in the case, i.e. judgment waS pa.sed by Drigh touching the land about which 
the other women made their true contrads. Lan!ls are estimated, i.e the land 
about" hich contract was made br her mother Main, or her me.ther was lIIoor, i.e. 

Iaer, the daughter of Cobhthach Caelbregh, i.e. King of Erin. 
The' eruidh . amI · sliasta '-land of the mother is here ?'eferred to, 
aud the mother llad died and left no sons, and there are no 
bons, but daughters only. Aml tùe daughters shall obt:lin all the 
land with obligation to perform service of attack and defence, or 
the half of it without obligation to }J81f01"l1t service of attack and 
defence; and there is power over them to cO'In2:>el tltem to restore 
the land after their time." 

From eYer}' related head, i.e. as I am about to tell concerlÓlg the'dibaùh '- 
laul! of each chief to whom the land belonged; all the' geilfine' -divi
ion here became 
e,<tiuct, and all the laud is obtainel! b}' the daughter in ri
htof her female 'coarb ,- 
ship; or as I have to tell concerning the' dihadh '-land of the head (chief) to whom 
the laml belonged, i.e. the daUl
hter, it is then the lal1<! is dh'ided among the three 
triòes To the amount of their property, i.e. the propert}. on the land is 
estimate!l acconling to the number of the tribe after the extinction of the daughter. 
From the grea t gran d so n, i.e. ofthe 'geilfine'-dh'ision, i.e. it is the
' who ha\'e 
eome extinet,or it is the
'sh.lll dh'idc the land. To the great grea t-gran dson, 
i.c. of the 'deirbh-fine'-dhision. Except the 'eumha1 senorba", i.e..:

' )) 
f"r' except,' I make.J!1 Ix

p.H(),!_h.ere, but the' cumhal' which is 
 UtlÍäl- CCF fJ 70 
land, the se\'cnth of 
 'tnd this is in the posse'sion of a ' geilfine .-chid 
is not more inherent in his 50n than in all, as i. set forth in the' Corns }'ine'. 
· .If/e,' th,i,' fime.-O'D. 4:H, add. here, "ocuf If é rtmt :;eltreme nan)- 
mer e; and it i. the chief of the' geiltine'-division, who Limls it" (oUiYe3 the 
"fll1ghk,' to give back the lamls). 
· TI.e crm.hal 3t7w,.ba.-In C. P.3G, the following note is arlde(l, which is not 
f<HlIld in any other of the copies: 
I::xcept a 'cumha1 tsenorba,'<1ofafamilywhosustainsthe 
('ompanies attendill
 the king anrl thc bi<hop and who is substantial to bear liabili- 
ties. "'hen the' deirbhfine' obtains the' dibadh '-lan<1 of the' geiltine,' all their 
number pre'ent give the w9rth of a 'cnmhal' of lam! to this man, and to every othcr 
head of a family whate\'er, one aftcr another, who is not nellr enough to be one 
of the tribe. The reason thut it is given to this man is because hI' is bound to 
pay for the liabilities of the lamily. See alsu C. 218;;, 


"Om 'Ceét7t1Ea'D 81T'ana. 

OF TAKING fU1't>)11 OCUf sOtl,mlC. OCl1f If e CU1t: 111 aët: an'O, um)1 noco bla comp.o111't1 

N. uI)1)11fme, no noco bla 1t:1)11n no CO)1 '0100a 111 pne U1Le; ocuf If af 1"1n 
_ 5aua)1 cona belt: 111 cumaL t:feno)1ba no cop. 'tI100a 111 pne U1Le. 

"11101p.fel1"1up. nOfbel)1 co muum'Í>, 
s" CumaL ni rUa1LL; 
"n11C l1a t;tl,l Cet;mU111nt:lt\ caom, 
" If mlc ai>aLt:p.mse 111lQp.aon ; 
"l?U1't11P. ocuf );o)1mac sLan, 
"Ocur 'tIaof\ rUIi>1f\, 111 feët:mai>. 

IC ,:'0 m 1 a'tl Sp. 1 an sen 1 t; h ep.." Iroa sel1l1t;relC 1-'0 Ua1fLct;a1'O 111 fetla1l1n 
fO melt: no t:'O Lmset:. l?lnnt:lu rap. cuL .1. CU1l1SIt;ep. 'OUt;hCUf na 
hCILpne fO)1 cuLu 'tI0 cum n'Oeltlb1-'1ne a CUlt: 'tie 111 t:an COml10111't1t:ltl he 
t:'o na t:eop.a rl1l1b. "Cf\en 1 b fl n e .,. t:'0'tlelb5Ót1.11I 'Olba'tl 1t;1P. na t:eolHl 
pine .1. 'tIelp.bríne oCUf lap.fine OCUf111'Oríne. 'SauuL art:a'tl a 
,s' .1. If sabuL Ir echt;)1mn'tl Curt;)1ar,a 'tI0 selLpne 111 sabaL 'Oa naft:mt;ell 
111'tl." 111 'tIelp.bpne. 111 a'tl 'tI1 cU1cte ." Ir ann fO ma'tl laP. nec 
CU1CpP. na 5elLpne, If ann comp.011l'Ot;IP. 111'tl fO na t:eop.a fi1l1h, 
ocur ni rU1L ann. 1 mt;a fP.1 cln comfocalf .1. If 
amLm'tl 1"1n at:a1t:)1e hlC C111a'tl a comfocmf, Ua1P. amuIL com)101n'tllt; in 
)D'Olba'tl If (UllLaI'D Icfalt: ín C11Ia1'O. ma'tl 'tIon t:eLLach .,. ma'tl Inp. 
n'tlet\C1ch t;eLLU15 na );elLpne af a pp.t:, .1. af a fep.ann, If ann com- 
p.01n'tlt:ep. he .1. 111 rep.ann fO na t:eOtla rí1l1b. acht: ceadl p.u 1111 e '00 
fln'Oflne." nocon rUIL ni 'tIín'tlfine aët:ceat:hllama'tl '00 'tIlba'tl SelLpne, 
1.111 fClfe'tl llan'tl 'Oec. 0 fecht: 'Oec .1.0 ta na rec11t: P)1U "DeC anunn, 
')çlf an 'tIeILIsr;e)11at:, conaë 'tIut:hmS pne lat: 0 ta pn amach aët: 'tIut:hm); 
n'Daine. ,:'ul't1ep. ní uelp. Cln comrOCQ1r.I'hUbùx7p.L,.I-1nt:'O'tIaefl., 
1fI'tIaefl.a1c1l1t:a,nocoueI1lennclnm'Oacomt:'Ocmf' muna CUIC t:p.eaua 
t:olp.beana'tlafl.." mana fl.abat: CU1C t:)1eaba (lICI 'tIa t:01)11tín, .1. 111 CUIC 
t\U1t;h ce'tlach, ocuf munuu ac oen fLmt;h belt:. m a CUI C t:p.ebal U 
locomrLanalb, .1. ma eomLana1ï;t;efl. CUIC qlebt:a caëa 'tIU1P. 'Olb 111 Ct11C 
P.a1t cet:aeh; 'tI1a mbe CU1C re)1 'tIIU oeuf cet; 'tI111't11LLI6 0 cach pp., belllm 
caë 'tIIUa'tl ocur CI1Ia1't1 afl.mLI, amUlL cach nUfl.)1am, 0 blUf in CUIC tWIt:h 
cet:aeh aeu ocuf 0 bur uc oen rLmt:h belt:; OCUf cet:hfl.amtu C111a1't1 

"Gormac,.'-That is, eons who support their fathers in old age, or sons of a 
. Seventh. The Irish of this passage is found in the left margin of p. 9, co!. I, 
of the l'IIS. E. 3, 5. 
3 Th.-ee tribu.-C. S;;G-adds; "the three we mention here, i.e. the chief, the 
church, and the tribe." 
. Except C. 8;;7-where there is a running commentary on thi< 
test., the following note is added here:- 
.. Except the fourth of the' innfine '-division, i.e. after the extinction of Ihe 
, geilfine '-division, so th8t their abode i. desert, then the' deirbhfine '-division 
obwins 1111 their' dibadh'-land; but the' innfinc '.division gete a fourth part from 



w heR p etitiGBiR g 'fuidher '-temmts and' gorml1cs.'1 And the force of 'except' OF TAKL'IG 
here is, because there is no division of this cumhal, or it shall not exist at nl1 LAWFUL 
until all the tribe shall have become extinct; and from this is derived the ,aying POSòE6SIOY. 
that there shall be no . eumal senorba' until all the tribe is extinct. - 
Seven persons obtain, with trium ph, 
The . cumhal senorba,' not liCanty ; 
The sons of the three first "ives fair, 
And the lions of the' adaltrach'-woman likewise; 
A . fuidhir '-tcnant and a fine . gormac,' 
And a . daer-fuidhir '-tenant the seventh.' 

According to the size of the land, i.e. this is produced according to the 
nobleness of the land as to greatness or smallness. The tri be-property iø 
claimed backwards, i.e. thehereditary right of the 'geilfine'-dhision back- 
wards to the 'deirbhfine '-division who have thcir share of it when it is divided 
among the three tribes." The three tribes, i.e. the 'dibadh'-land is divided be- 
tween the three' fine '-divisions, i.e. the 'deirbhfine'-division, and the' i.lrfine '-divi- 
sion, and the 'innfine '-,livision. A n ex ter n branc h stops it, i.e. the branch 
by \\hich the land is detained is a branch that is hitherto extern to the' geilfine'- 
division, i.e. the 'deirbhfine '-division. 1ft he fi v e, & c., i.e. in this case, if 
after the death of the five persons which are the 'geilfine'-division, the land isdivide,1 
among the three' fine '-division., ami in thiø ca,e there is no female heir. Except 
as regards the liability of relationship, i.e. it is thus tlley are as regards 
the pa)'ing for the crimesoCtheir relatives, for as they share the' dibadh '-land so they 
shall pay for their crime-. If th e family, i.e. after the removal of the f.mÜlyof 
the' geilfine '-division out of their land, i.e. out of their territory, it is then it, i.e. the 
land is divided among the three" fine '-divisions. Except a fourth' part to the 
'fi nd-fine '-division, i.e. there is nothing for the 'innfine '-dhisiun except the 
fourth of the' dibadh ' land of the' geilfine '-division, i.e. the sixteenth part. Fro III 
seventeen,' i.e. from the seventeen men out, it is theu they are distinguished, so 
th.t they are not a tribe community from that out, but a community of people. 
The' fuidher'-tenant does not bear the liability of relationship, 
i.e. the 'fuidher gabhla'-tenant, &c., i.e. the 'fo-daer'-person, i.e. the uatur.\I 
bondmau does not bear the crimes of his relative3. Unless" there be five 
houses to re lieve, i.e. unless he has five houses to relieve him, i.e. the five who 
have stock c01llioting of a hundred Mad of cattle, and uu1e>s they be1ung to one chief. 
If there be fi ve houses with complete stock, i.e. if the five houses, the five 
who han stock consisting of a hundred head I!! cattle, of each' daer '-man of them 
be complete; if there be five men of them each man having a hundred of cattle, 
every one of them obtains his Ilw.,'e of the 'dibadh' land and pays for the crimes of 
the others, like every free nati..-e, i.e. when they have thc five stocks of a hundred 
head of cattle and are under one chief; and they shall pay the one-fourth of the 
crime of the free native, and the fourth part of the' dire '-fine of the native free- 

them of everything which is di\ ided, both lands and 'seds.' In like manner are 
their crimea paid for. 
. From ,eventeen.-From this out they do not obtain any share; for the' geil- 
fine '-division extends to five, the 'deirbhfine '-division to twelve, the. innfine ,- 
division to levCIlteen men. 



"Om "Ceët"tJEa'D 81rana. 

OF TAKING ICUf' OCUf cedlflamtu 'Ðlt\e 'Ðuta tlt'TWI'Ð '00 ma 'ÐtI1t. Con t\an'Ðat; (t 
LAWFUL P nnt;ea'Ða .1. If t;alt;nemadl ut\t'an'Ðuf caë 'Ðlb 'ÐUt;hms 1-'1I1e a celLe. 
111 rnac bJla'Dar pnnt"1Ea pne rrU J'O'D rrud1meara, 
rntJnab neara pp. cOlbnear rnad1a1)t adwlp. m o)lba. 

" hoJtba rnm;ha)t rntJllCOI)lChe a rn1C 0 rta1dla1b a a)tTI- 
dl11nn((. "00 a1}'1C a te((d11mU)t)lO 'DO cum F11te 1'1)1, E)ucm; 
a tead1 ana1tt a p)l Ù)tet"ha1Ù fit a reota FO'DtaTELea)l. 
fme 0 CI)lt" cob)wmlle. nIl' t"IC 'DO ce1tt" comfOCU1r ac1lt" 
ce)tt" oltùa rnbO(1)teè 'Da rccht" curnat; comcqtTIa o)tb(( 
It> ùwt"uch rnbow)te((ch; o)tùa }-'O)t ret" t11111Faebw)t; ar TI(( 
)wna)t te1d1 'D1)te. 

111 mal' bt'(('Ðaf pnnn)';((.1- noco ne in mal' fo:x:taf'Ðutcuft:me 
a-madwl1 tIIte, ni If mo na feb:mH'Ð t;1J1e 'ÐllJU'Õ. 
111a"O oll,ba qWlù no rLwfì::;a, no '01tpEt1 'Oadwll1, 'Ow it!5111 ((It 
'.f"'OuThp,aèT, II' 'OILer 0 pne '00 rnacalb 'Oeop,OI1) ocu1' 1I1ul1CClIptl, 
cem belTI oc Fo;snu1I1 'Oe, co a n"Olba'O no a n"Oelrt;se 0 pne. 111(('0 
1IIac 11IIUltl1,O ÙelWr cennum"Onlt '00 uI1Iu1i>, II' 'Oltur 'La quat! 
na n011ba ra '00, UU111 ùqlalT 1I11C tla t11l1111a"O C11IaI'O; 1I!U'O 
mac II11UI111O a"OaLqwlEI, 11' LEt na n011ùa 1'0 '00. 

)D rt'l fO'Ð 1-'ftlt;hmcafa, .1. 0 fIt' mel1'omnmSt;I't' 1.'1110 mmtt\1 lJet u 
fmt;ëJuf t'lf' 
.1. banc01l1allÙa pL run"O OCur rClwnn m:h('11 OCur rcnm:llult 
U1ce 11e p,e, OCur Eemai> aiL '01 a TUÙalI1"C '01(( 1I1acalù tli nùl1ca. 

1n unab neafa 1-'lft cOllJne<<f' .1. maníp nera a ë01lJnef 111 retunn'Ð 
'1.ç 'Ða madmlt' mna'ÐadWlfl, mamb ot'ba q\tI1b ocuf ft1U}'t;a'Ðon murlnr. hI'; 
umll !nufre'Õ. bet'm'Ð 111 mal' t'ann 'Ðe fO mcne'Ð cet;mu1I1'Ðt;lt'e ut\na'Dl11u 
no a'Ðatt;t'mse. 

I The troejud9mellta. In C. fi,j!)--the following note is added here:- 
.. A female heir i
 here referred to, and her tribe are not bound to re
torc to her. 
It is lifter ber death it is divided Lctween sons and brothers. for if the tribe were 



man's beast shall be paid to each of them for his beast. T hey share the tri be OF TAKING 
pro per t)", i.e. it is delightfully each of them shall share the tribe property of each LAWFUL 
ot ler. - 

It is not a son that obtain:,; the property of a tribe 
in ground to be valued, unless the title to the land 
be nearer to his mother than to his father. 
As to a mother's land her sons shall divide it from 
the days of her public testament. But the half of it 
reverts to the tribe of the original owner of the land; 
the other half according to the true judgments,1 the 
seed of her flesh divide. The tribe divide llteÏ1' pm'- 
lion by just partition. There comes not by right of 
relationship but the right land of a 'bo-aire '-chief 
to the extent of twic.e seven 'cumhals;' similar are 
the' biatn,ch '-lands of the' bo-aire '-chief: as to land 
given up for a road and respecting which there are 
obligations, it is to be restored; half' dire '-fine is 
paid out of it. 
It is not a Bon that obtainB, i.e. it is not the Bon who takes thepatri- 
many of the whole tribe of the mother, he take8 no more than a seventh of 'dibadh '. 
Hit be 'cruib' or' Bliasta'-land, or land appropriated by the father 
for his daughter out of affection, it is fmfeited by the tribe to the 
Bons of tILe husbands, being exiles and foreigners, while they are 
doing good with it; they also have what the tribe leave vacant or 
desert. H it be a son that a first wife hears to a native free- 
man, the two-thirds of these lands are forfeit, because the Bons 
of native freemen ùear (pay for) liabilities; but if he be the Bon 
of an 'adaltrach '-woman, half these lands lLTe due to him. 
In gr ou nd to be val u ed, i.e. when it is truly estimated that the tribe of 
the mother are cognizant of it. 
A female heir is here referred to who has had the father's and 
the grandfather's land for a time, and though Bhe should desire to 
give it to her sons Bhe Bllall not give it. 
Unless the title to the land be nearer, &c., i.e. unless the claim to the 
land be nearer to the mother than to the father, unless it be 'crudh ' and' sliasta '- 
land of the mother; for, if it be ,uch, the Bon sha1\ take a share of it accordil1g to 
the nature of hi, mother', contract, i.e. whether ,he be a first wife of contract or 
an 'adaltrach '-woman. 
houml to restore the laud from her, uo portion of it woul<! be gin'u to the sons 
t('rward9. " 


"Om "Ceèt::u5C(ù 8'ra nu . 

OF TAKING h o1'ba mm::ha1' mUIlCOI1'che, .1. ín fep,anl1 ap, a1' ml'lre m coywch 
LAWFUL a main amat:hmp" Ifmail1 'Oolleach fP,I ) 'CUlp,et:hap, cop.. CCmlc 0 fLmt:- 
- hm b a ap,'Ot:hlmll a.1- bu'OLea macmbf1 a CUlt: 'Oeon Lo '00 p,15ne a t:lmlla 
co ha1''O, .1. If La a macu 0 L<I1tmb a bmf .1. op,ba c1'Ulb ocuf fLta
p,allllt:m1' iful1ll amUiL p,anl1t:mp, clnal'tJ p,01lla111'O, .1. ballcomap,ba '00110 
C. 859. anif1u, ocuf 111 'OLIS [a pne t:mf1c 11'01], ma'O fleaf<< 111 fln'Ot:1U '00 mat:hmp, 
111 mlc ap, ballcomap.buf 111a '01({ m::hlJ1., If an'O 111ap,bella'Ofm'Oe a pile 0 
a CIp,t: comp,a111'Oe, up, IffA'Í> a ceruTom a f111'Ot:1'tJ '00 bp,eIt:h att pile. 
1)0 l11f1c a Leat:h, .1- mfICt;1p, a Let Imup.p,o ill f1p' 1SP,1({11 '01({ pne. 
I. Ocu)' If e CUlt: ill Imup.p.o anll, l1mp. fep.rtnn na pne reo, ocuf op,ba CTtuib 
ocuf fLwft:a Twmaln'O, .1. If e CUlt: in I 11lUflTW, noco nmfcenn ni 'Ofep.ann 
a at:hap. 1'0 bI111(( Lmm, ocnf mfc' a fep.ann 'OILl1f fen. CC Leat:h an ({1 Lt., 
.1. a Let a,L, '00 P.eIp, na flp.bp.eta no Ila pp.bp,et:heman. ÆI1 L a feo La 
ro'OLmï;t:eap. .1- fo'OeILI5t:ep. elfelc '00 flL a feoLa, 'Oa eLaln'O. mac 
i,(U'OaLq1.atË;1'Oma oCl1f pne fin, ocuf a P.0111'O ap. '00 et:up.p.u. fine 
o C1Jtt: cobp.a1nl1e, .1. 111 fíne tic 'Ow cumap.0111'O '00 p.elp. CIp,t:, OCUf 
1)'1 fl1l a cOIbp,mn'O 0 pne np. 'Oa feet: cumaL '00 111sin 111 bomap.ech If 
rep.p.. 11, r t:IC '00 cep.t: com rOcm f' I. ni t;IC '00 comOlcf1Su'O 'Oe'Oo p.mtt 
ÜIP.t:. CCch t: ce1't: op,l)(( mbom .1. act: ma'O rap.ann in bomp,eë, 
,..1. Let an m::hap, '01({ inS111w1'n'Olba'Í>,cen fLolsa'O,cen c1f,cen consbmL 
.1. t:1P. CÐltP.1 fl'Ct; cumaL p.o bUi oc an bomp,IS If rep.p. an'O. 1)a feet: 
pumaL comap.'Oa .1. '00 comap.'Omse'O p.e 'Oa reet: '00 cumaLmb cona'O 
he rep.ann 'Oa n'Oenann in bomp.e me'OOl1ae, 110 in bomp,e If t:mp.e a 
batl1lS a 'O. {at 111 111 adJatt '0011 111sin laP. nec 111n at:hap.; cen r ubrt 
1 cen p.ubaf1n. rop. fet: 111mraebm1', .1.rep.anl1 '00 bep.ap. rop. 
conmp. .1. Ime aT>a raebu1', t-'Oebp.a La r111e a CU111SI'O cucu, roebp.aé lelf1 a 
m)'l'c l1mtl. 

ep.ann 'DO berta)1, ap. canal)1, Wflf', octJr aemaeu(!)1, tal)' 
m <::1 na ;selben'D fOP. 11,at ftJI'Dp.e; ((1' m;se CI11,1\I1::611, tc<::h cnectann 
",'DO neach, tem:h 'Don <::1 'DO bel11" octJr t" 'Don t::1 'Da <::aù(1)1,. 
encctann 'Don <::1 'Dombelp. CInmot:a In relre'6'D 'Déc cnc- 

1 The CJ--Lme, i.e. the' eric '-fine for crime. 
..11 female hej,'.-Thisgloss is an addition by II later hand, an,l in smaller letters. 
· The half of it revtl"t..-In O'D. 422, the following somewhat different explana- 
tion of this is given :- 
.. Bnt the one half of it is restored to the tribe whose property the land is b)' 
right, i.e. it is divided into two parts, like every other ',libadh'-laml, when there are 
80ns in question, and if there were only daughters they take the one-half of it during 
their time (the tnm of tl" ir "alw'al liu.) with an obligation of restoIing it after 



A mother's land, &1'., i.e. the land to which claim is estimated from the OF TAKING 
wealth of the mother, it is wealth to the person by whom the contract is made. H er LAWFUL 
f h d f bl ' . h h II PO"E'<hIOX. 
sons rom teays 0 her pu II' testament, I.e. er sons s a own 
her share of it from the day that she made her will openly, i.e. her sons shall own 
it from the day of her death, i.e. . crubh ' and' sliastn '-land is here divided as 
the crime I is dh-ided before, i.e. a female heir! is here ,'iferred to, and her tribe is 
not obliged to restore to her, if the tribe property be nearer to the mother of the 
son in female succession than to the father, it is then the tribe claim by their 
right of partition, for it is her duty to bring her tribe-propert)" to the tribe. 
But the half of it reyerts,' i.e. butthehnlfbelongingto the owner ofthe land · Ir. Of- 
is restored to his tribe. And the force of the particle . but' here is, because this 
is the land of the tribe, and' crudh' and · sliasta '-land are riferred to before, i.e. 
thc force of . but' is, that no part of the land of the fatIIer which was his pO'!8eS- 
sion reverts, but his own proper land doth revert. The other half, i.e. the 
other moiety according to the true judgment, or according to the true judges. The 
seed of her flesh divide, i.e. it is partitioned to the seed of her flesh, i.e. her 
children. The son of an 'adaltrach '-woman of coutract and the tribe are here 
,'efel'I'ed to, and it is dh-ided into t"o equal pm.ts between them. The tribe b)" 
just partition, i.e. the tribe come to make partition of it according to right, and 
in this partition the tribe gi\ es a land of twice .seven . eumhals' to the daughter of 
thehighest'bo-airech'-chief. There comes not by right of relationship, 
i.e. there comes not of relationship according to "hat is right. But the right 
Inn ,\ of a . boa ir I' '- I' hi I' f, i.e. except the laud of the 'bo-aire'-chief, 
i.e. half the land of the father goes to his daughter after his decease, without 
tM sert7ice of hostings, without rent, without refection; i.e. a land of twenty-eight 
. cumhals' had been in the possession of the' bo-aire '-chief of best rank. in this 
case. Twice seven' I' umhals,' &1'., &1'., i.e. it was adjustcd by twice 
seven'cumhals,' so that it is the land by which the mi,ldle 'bo-aire '-chief or 
the lowest' bo.aire '-chief fec<ls her. Half the land of the father devolves to the 
daughtcr aftcr the death of the father; this is without the se."Vices qf attack and de- 
fcnce. Land given up for a road, and respecting which there are 
o!.Jligations, i.e. land which is given for a road, i.e. concerning which there Are 
two obligations, an obligation upon the tribe to demand it back, and anobligatioll 
upon her to give it up. 
That is, land' "hich is givf'n fQj 
 rmul j" ti"> h" ,'p>rln red, and the 
obligation is on the l>erson who does not r
ceiye it for the stock of 
the · fuidhir '-tenant; it is by him half honor-price is paid to one, 
half to the person who gives, and one-third to the person to whom 
it is given. Honor-price to the person who gives it except the 

their time, i.e. the force of the' but' here is, he docs not restore the laud of his 
father which be had in his han<ls (occupation) but he restores his own proper land; 
or, indeed, their true land is restored to its tribe, and the forcc of the' but' here 
is, for this is the land of the tribe, and it was' crudh ' and' sliasta '-land" I' spoke 
of before. 
".A land of se,'en . cumhals' she hAil here and the half of it goes to her sons, and 
the half to her tribe, and she is an ' adaltrach '-woman Omt is here treated of-" 
. Land.-This commentary is found u a note on the lower margin of col. 2, p. 9, 
of the MS. E. 3. 5. 

". Tf4j-do
 hM fu 7

 i..kt, t
V" /"t. ""V\oow ^^" '\.N'V 


"0111 lelTUE({'O S'rana. 

ÛF TAKING ctam'Dl 'Don n 'Da {"(:tùaI11, cmmoi:a relf1'D .1. nl J'0Il1i: a Ol le t; 
LA \VFUI.. . 
POSSESSION. ocur a "Cabatlu; amU1t p.o Eab nIL foqlatce 110 WltÙlm::(( .1. opha 
Ealb"Cel 1o ftati: 1100 ectalI" belln Imul111.O, munalWEb((t;CUl1'. 111 
oancomallou tatf1n pne j oqln pne man 11.0 Eabat; cu111 teo. 1 r 
t;"lmaebul1 fin ar 'Da 11enall. tei:'Dllle. 

CC l' '()(I l' a n a l' t e H; h '0' l' e .1. If urre1C e11'mdle1' tet íne1ch '00 
1'Olch "Oon t:I1' 'Ðenecta1l1n '011'1 .1. tet a t:llle; a teat 1I1mtt ar a t:oëur. 


CU1ë m 1maeoup. a 'De111 ann? .1. faebup. tWf1n ínEm oCllr 
f aebu ll. ta1rm pne. 1rre'D a 'Delp. 'Dt1Ee"Ò, faebup. tatf1n PIle 1111 
( I. CI.1f1c 'Don mElO 111 Uatl1 na bl mac an'D "Cap.elr 10 ar1lap., orur 
raebup. tmr m 111ElO a atr1C ap.1r 'Don pne. 

I1C W:f) 
8tan Fatp.Ere rnbp.OEa11:> rnbll.l11'Dp.ec1n::a 11lEtW1'De t:: 1 t 1e 
COrn1:>1'Dan Coím1teach. 11í 1:>ITteanap. Wp. rno bí bt1a1)((1n, 
((c11t:: bermb FOchtlt1cm, ap. nach mea'O bertC(fi l1.e rnera 1b 
l< '1' 1:>(ca111Eean ta Feme. 

, éC;


v "d...1itf fÚj JJi... 

al 1'5re, .1. rtam::! ((\chsena a feol1' a 
e1'alll'Ð on t:l blr ac 
fl1''Ðechr lll III b1'UI5 J:1l1r nl1 COI1' 'Ð'fl5I, 'Dla cm'Ð call ac1'a CO p.o apt a 
f\1Il'Ð 1'01' a 
eo1" In51'U7'De {;11'e, .1.\1151'<<1'D 11 hlll'ÐI a comm(;lclll 
III c01l1<<1chël lIla tip., .1- 'Ða <<1ël no a t:1'i et:ap.baí 1(;11' '00 celtl- 11 í 
10 '01 1'ean ap., .1. noco na'Ðbut elp.mcep. el1'lc 1Il'Ð laP. f111blt '00 I nmclnl1 
Ir m btlU'Ðam cen acp.a co1' ((ra a P.1Il'Ð 
op.r III 
ell. rill a1'ir. CC c 11 t: 
beralb r OCl1 1'ucca, .1. aëc 111 
('Il. '00 bel1' ap. '00 }WI1' ùa
5 nae no ((Iùm'Ð, U((I1' ce belt nech a n((lClt:m a rochp.eca cell a acp.a cop. 

ara a 1'1ll'Ð 
o1' a 
eo1', noco tUþQ1L1 'ÐtlSUr a fochp.((Ic 'ÐIC 11.11'. ((p. 
,s nach C l1ea'Ð .,. ap. naë"cain '1((( 
eOlp. ùertan p.e melra1l111aCC a aC)l.a 

 aca 'ÐlUtt:({'Ð. conac COl1' cml1E;1Il Ime '00 p.el1' III reinectwlr, .1. ICIP. 
c1'echc ocur 
ep. m hlcca1' all ((Ich5111 aëc 'Ðlp.e na 50m( ocur r 11laëc . 

Illaif 'dire':fine.-In O'D. "
2-3, the fullowillg note is nd.led:-"Th:1t is, 
"aU the thing which pertains to the l.m<1, i.e. half the part whi,'h is given to 
her out of her land, by the tribe, or indeed it is half to her Ollt of her land 
property. i.e. it is out of that the one-half is paid by the person who gives, amI 
one-third by the person to whom hOllor-price is given, except one-eighth to the 
person who gives hunor-price, Hn,1 one-sixth to the person to whom it is givrn, 
so that it ie twu-thirds of one-fourth of honur-price that is \muting to the person 
tu whom it is given, which is equal tu the one-sixth of the whule. 
.. Full honor-price ia !livut tu oue fur pnrit). and worthiness and property, i.e. one 
half for purity and \\orthiness, and one half for property, hoth Ii\"{> cattle Hnd deaa 
chattels. The one-hnlf which is on acconnt of lin cattle, i.e. the one-fOl.rth of 

tf(;.t'3"1. 'l\l.M"o.ÅJM 
 7tt. 'Þ.-wlw f.{V 
. . - . J' V' 


,u, "'

 0 '"fCXA Q,-NIf'# -r






sLxteenth part of honor-price to the person to whom it is given, except OF TJ.B:ING 
. th ' O t t k . I . t " d t l ' k h fh ' d LAWFUL 
one-SIX ,I.e. 1 s a -mg all( 1 s glVll1g 0 no run 1 e t ose 0 Ire POSSESSION. 
land, or refection land, i.e. land which is rented a from a chief or - 
f h H ( ) k . h I a Ir. Taken. 
rom a c urch. e tile Bon ta es It, owever, un ess the covenants 
of the female heir affect the tribe; the tÜbe take it unless they have 
verhal covenants. That is the obligation out of which half' dire '. 
fine is paid. 
Out of which half 'dire.-fine, iR paid, i.e. it is out of tLisispaid 
half the part of the land" llÍch comes to her as honor-price, i.e. half her land; thc 
other half out of her property. 
'Yllat ohlig:ttion is mentioned here 
 i.e. an ohligation 011 the 
daughter and all ohligation on the tribe. 'V1lat tIle law says is, 
"let there be an ohligatioll on the tribe as to restoring to the 
daughter when there is no son after tlw deatlt of the father, and an 
oLJigation 011 the daughter to restore it (the land) again to the tribe. 
In the 'Bruighrechta'-laws it is guiltless to look on uf'
cattle grazin
; on the jointly-fenced land of a co- 
occupant. Nothing shall be paid after the lapse of a 
year, but after the custom of hire, for every wound that 
is healed by arbitrators is 
 bc sctt ledl?ythe Feini. 
It is guiltless to look on, i.e. re.titution (>f the grass of his land need not be 
made by th(' person who is truly looking on the land, for whom it is not right to correct 
it, ifit remain without being claimed until the top grows on the grass. Grazing 
on a farm, i.e. they graze the top of the grail in the land, the neighbour being 
cognizant of it, i.e. for two !tight. or three u nprolit.abl y On thy partner's land. 4. t.. 
Nothing shall be paid, i.e. 'eric .-fine shall not be paid for it after bis being 
cognizant of it for a year without claiming, until its top grOmi upon that grass 
again. ß u t after the custom of hire,' .e. but the grass which he lets for 
hire according to the good or pleasant custom, for though one should be cognizant of 
the hire without claiming it until the top grows on the grass, he is not the lellS 
entitled to have his hire paid to him. For every wound, i.e. forevery
' ofr 
to grass that is repaired by arbitration cannot be further sued for; 'de' is a negative, 
80 that there is no further claim for it, according to the' Feinechus '-law,- i.e. as 
regards b wound and gra8s, compensation is not paid, but the' dire '-fine of tLe wound b Ir. B,- 
and' smacht '-fine. tween. 
hon.r-price, one-fourth for land am\ dea,\ chattels, the half of that for land alone, 
80 that it is the one-half of this i8 given to her, i.e. the sixteenth part. Or, indeed, 
it i8 a balance that i. at"llch between land and dead chattels, or the one-sixteenth 
for either unleøø they are equalized according to arbitration." 
· Bllt after the cuatom of hi"e. In C. 859, the following note is given:-"ß u t 
after the manner of hire. The custom of thi8 is, whatever is contracted i8 
enforæd, but if no contract has been made, no payment i8 made, MI the trespasse8 
in the ea!e of co-occnpanc), unless they !lre claimed for" ithin the year after the 
, 8ha11 not be enforced." 
.' FeinechUl'-law. That is, whatever is submitted to arbitration and decided h) it 
must be considered a8 finally settled. There c;m be no furlher appeal to the 
. Feinechus'-law. 




"Om t:eëCU5a1:> 81fana:. 

OF TAKING .1. tla ctle'Óa 'OOtlO, t1Iunab aCUt1t:up. rU(( rtalln:::I, ocur nt tlO 

N b ab 'Oeltbltl.e, nll11CC!p. ((1<:;h5111 ai:-r; cotonn quc nama. 
. --- 
ma tlO t-'Ottarse'O 111 featl. C111 aEtl.a cutl. f((r 1t1 faep. elte na 
1t1a'Õ, 11' '011..1'1 n(( 11w WdI51t1((, ocur -r;wf1c 111 rmaë"La 11' 1t1 t11 1'111 ; 
ia-r;a etuc a fo;sta '00 'Out a p.up.a'Ó 0 'Oume, ocur 11' an"D a-r;a w-r;hS1t1 
'00 -r;ul-r;lm 0 'OU111e 1:1l.e na fwtt. 

(D'lr IU2-) J .1. 1r ea 'O fUll.. r unn , 'OUI118 tlO bal a nW'OI-r;am f05ta comlëeara 
'00 'Oenam flur, ocur tlO bw a fwtt 5en a t:aqw COtl. far a fctl. ; 
fc-r;a1p. melë, ocur nl 111C-r;atl. ((1t:115m, ocur 11' e fin ael1 íne(('ò 
'0 a tl"Dltf15eann w-r;115111 0 "Duíne a fwtt '00 'Oenam, ocur ni 11fc-r;ap. 
o-r;l1p.ur 11'111 fwtt. 

 c..."OlP,. JJ 'J{)',fr683 
\ fu 'I'
7 ,( 81t1. each fen1:> L1 5 e 'Òjeacha quée eon1:> eaL s. 1n ran 
-w WO.,o if'D1eOm1:>et ö each quch, 1r an1:> bettap. each 'D1Eean'D 
f - co 11.1;S. wrJC" . 

If .sIP. cach ren'IJLI5eiJ, .1.lrutam caë ren'IJeILI5U'IJ, caë 'lJeltI5u'IJ 'lJlb 
ro I'll' 1'e celte, no caë 'lJL15eiJ ren 'lJlb 1'e celLe, no caë 'lJLl5eiJ 'lJ0 1'elTt 
na ran. 1n t::all II' 'lJICOln'IJeIL5,.I. ín t::all na bl bTteJt::hem acm bl'IJ- 
bU1"Òno acmfelchemumt::01che'IJa. 11' all'IJ be1'aTt cach 'lJ15ean'IJ co 
P.15, .1. If ann beTtal1' cach 'lJlcenn cín(('IJwr ocur bTtelt::hemllalr ap. amur 
loIn 1'1s, alCI If 'lJ01Ë ín t::amcearach 'lJOblt::h. '015ean'IJ, .1. na 
'IJ<<5abap. 'lJa 5teo'IJ. 

fi1 P.1;S ta1f 11a b1a1:> ;se1tt 1 115tafa1b, 1:>0 11a tabat1. 
eh1f Ftadm, 7)0 11a e11"t;ét1e1:>ap. Fe1ch cana. 1n wn 
5e1b1Uf 111 P.15 111a mama fO, If an1:> 1:>0 p.anap. 1:>1p.e ru;s, 

 'hen öae, 'hen, een e1f1n1:>tWCUr F111 a dlUCfCha. 

t,'h IU;') 

n I 1'15, .1. noco p.151r 1'ír ma111 1'abat:: 5ettL alce 1\e comatta'IJ 
a 1'I5e no a celLtfme. 11 a t::aba1' chII' fLat::ha, .1.''lJaep.mcILtneët::a, 
.1.b1'alch. relch cana,.I.rmacht::cana. In t::an 
elblur 111 1'15, 
.1. m t::an 5a1ber In moamu5a'IJ 110 m 51'e1m a 'lJubp.ama1' 1'oma111'IJ. 1 l' 
'Iv an'IJ '00 1\anap. 'lJI1'e, .1.11' an'IJ el1'111t::eTt enectann 1'15 'lJ0 co comtan, 
.1. na momO'lJu'IJ ra, .1. SlaLL, ocuf cír, ocur rmaët::. 'ben 5ae .1. 1m 
bTtelt::hemnur. no 1m 5upa'IJnmf1. no 1m 0lrm'IJTtaCur 'lJ0 'lJenam 'lJ0. 
I The w01lnlÙ. 'The Irish of these two paragraphs is found in the right mnrgin 
of eol. 2, p. 9, near the bottom. 
I Hi,people. See V8118neey Collect., vol. III., p. 89, for an attempt to trans- 
late this and other passages of the Drehon La wso 



That is, as to the woundR,1 indeed, unless they are claimed for OF TAKING 
before they are healed, and no necessity interferes, no compensa- P


tion is paid except body' eric '-fine alone. 
If it has been neglected to sue for the grass until other grass 
grew in its place, it is a case of forfeiture of the compensation, and 
a repayment of the' smacht '-fine for that thing; the' eric '-fine for 
the damage becomes obsolete to a person, and in this case compen- 
sation is lost to. a person through his neglect. . Ir. Falla 
That is, the case here is çf a man who was cognizant ofthe com- from. 
mission of a trespass of co-occupancy against him, and he neglected 
suing for it until the gra<;s grew; sacks Ilre paid for it, and com- 
pensation is not paid, and this is the only instance in which com- 
pensation is forfeited by a person through his neglect, and sick- 
maintenance is not paid for the neglect. 

Constant is every old law, ò.f every territory eJ..ti 
covenants. When any territory is uncovenanted, it is 
then every disputed case is brought before the king. 

Constant is every old law, i.e. perpetual is every old arrangement, every 
decision of those which follow with each other, or every old law of them with each 
other, or every law according to the ancients. When uncovenanted, i.e. when 
the defendant or the plaintiff has not a Drehon. It is then every disputed 
case is brought before the king, i.e. it is then every disputed case of crime 
and judgment is brought before the king, for it is with him the aol!ltioo of every -I. 
difficuItyislikelytobe. Disputed case, i.e. t lteihiÐghrQygàU obeøettIed. 

He is not a king who has not hostages in fetters, 4:4: p /J 
to whom the rent of a king is not given, to whom the 
fines of law are not paid. But when the king geis 
these submissions, it is then the' dire' -fine of a king is 
paid, if he is free from b falsehood, from hetFayal-of-his b Ir. With- 
--rutWes; from un worthy conduct toward s his people. 2 out. 

He is not a king, i.e. he is not to be styled king unlcss he has hostages for 
preserving his kingship or his tenancy. Towhom the rentof akingisnot 
given, i.c. the rent paid on 'daer'-stock tenancy, i.e. malt. Fines of law, i.e. 
the 'sm/lcht'-fine of the law. 'Vhen the kiug gets, i.e. when he receives 
the "ubmissiou or allegiance which we have mentioned before. It is the n 
the 'd ire '-f i n e is pa i d, i.e. it is then the honor-price of a king is completely 
paill to him, i.e. thesesuLmission., i.e. hostage, rent, and' smacht '-fine. Free from 
false hood, i.e. respecting judgmentpasaed, or false witness bo"l'W!, or impropriety 
VOL, IV. E 2 

52 "Om "Ceëi:aöal> 81ratla. 
OF TAKING'Sen earb1'm';, .1. cen 
_h_n.g: n
arC!.t; ocur noco 'Otls"Cecha '00 b1'a"Ch 
r LAWFUI. na níreat. Cen el 1'1 n'01'UCUr;.I. IIn surOl1'sett a 'OtISl'Í>,110 1111 t;um 
_ nOlm sm"C ro1' a "Cua"Chalb; um1' 'Oa 1'01b III 'Olb rm mce, noco b1U'O enect((l1n 
1'15 '00 co comtan. 


r aWn:; rechr; pal>tlWre FotlEeattal> Eae each tl1E; 
renal> l>o rOl>a'i:> ar a nwtlt1f1 ; cen pr, CEnl>t1Eel>, l>11:>e I 
WtLe, mEe mal> r;cqt cettr; ; ma11:>m cad1a Fat]t ; tluna ma O:6lfZt;. 
Ftatr;h1Ur ; l>lrCe 1llbteëw; m1tteal> meara; reot 
tleadl((. 1r;e red1r; 1llbeOCa1nl>te C{tll> ro f01LOf11al> Eae 
10 cadl 1uE. 

,J4 v -t" "} 
1 t. 



(O'þ l2..ilJ-) 

Cf"Ca1 "C recht:: r' a'On ({1 re, .,. a"Cau; a rec1l"C amUlLrw'Onmre 1'o1'sLor 
a s((e 1'ort ín cach '1' 1'is. Sena'O '00 1'o'Oa'Í>. .1. 1'en(('O l1a hect((1f1 
'0111IpO'Í> arr a uaraL tlr. Cen rl l' .1. 1111 pachmb CI1l'O"C' .1. cen ce1't:: 
C en 'Otlse'O, .1. 1m rl((chmb elccm'O"C1 '00 'O((1nta11l 'OO1b. 1),'Oe al1te 
,) .1. co hm'Otlstec. 1 n se 111 a '0 "Ca1' ce1'"C .1. mse a1' ac"C, a"Ca ac"C tím al1'O, 
ma'O a1' "Cm1'cf1n 'OtISI'Í> '00, I10con m'Otls"Ccch elf1um an'?rame. rll a1'0111 _ 
cudl a ra11'/.I. 1'
 _a Jl

, .1. tet tos enec "C1'edmmr a11W' '6 Y- ''/If 8 
11 una .10 bet can ana, .1. S01'"Ca '00 bl"Ch 11la rtm:;hurr. lh rc e m bLec"Ca 
.1. 'Olrccae .1. òld, can t((cht;.I. 'OlrcmLar in 1 ((c11"Ca. 1111 LLe a '0 meara, 
 .1.l((lt na "Cmbf1n,ocur mlttn1" ScoL n eadl a,.1 reot(('O ar11l11edl<<, 
111naltbu, no rumLL bec 'Oon ((1'òult '00 bl"Ch an '0. 1"C ere c 11"C m b e 0- 
c a in '0 Le .1. 1"c1(("c ro anuar 111 rech"Ca amUlL caÎml1L mlJ1 rll1'ran'Our no 
1'mttf1Ser a sae 1'01' ín cach ír 1'15, 

 f;v /,t.<-o.i....d{t, 8.M J. 
. JCÐ 3 

"Ceo]ta Eua m:a moam 'Da pch l>1a Fott cach r;Uatdl ; 
H FUltteam EU tlGl>ma; ForEeatt Et1pal>nWre; 5ub]lear;h 
atl Foch1lwc. 

'C e 0 l' a 5 u a, .1. "Ceolta Su(( eí11l 11' 1Ilpra 111'Oechar 'Ola 1'01' na t;ua"C- 
hmb. fUILLea1l\ SU l1a'Oma .1. }'U1LLem LOIF;IT>cchn{ '00 sabmL al"\. 
sunarc((11'ec"C, ocur 110CO 'Otp5alt (( sat.mL CI'Í> a1' rí1'narCU11'eC"C .1. tos 
30 '00 ar a 1'a'O a"Ca a na'Ommm cln co be. 1) a 1'1 c h '0 I a, . ,. '00 1'1st((n'O '01<< 
fo 1'5 e aLL SU 1'1 a '0 n a 're, .1. m SU1-'1u'Onmre 'Or01yt;<;etL '00. i; u b- 
1'e((t;h a1' foch1'alc .1. ua b1'e"Cha: SU(( '00 bltCldl '00 ((1' 'OelC]telC 
toISI'Oec"Ca, ocu1' noco 'OteS((1' CI'O a 1Ilb1'Ol"Ch ((11 mrC1. 

I For hi,'e.-Vide Vall. CoHeet., p. flO, v"l. Hi. (Ko. X.) 



ùone by him. Fro m bet ray ai, i.e. without betrayal of the nobles; and it OF TAKIXG 
is not more la"fu1 for him to betray the plebeians. Fro m un worth y c on- LAWFlL 
d u c t , i.e. with respect to false decision of his law, or with respect to wounding Or POS."S
robbing his people; for if he had been guilty of any of these, he shall not have the 
honor-price of a king completely. 
There are seven proofs which attest the false- rj- -V 1/r 
hood of every king; to turn a synod out of their 
noLle' lis '-fort 
 without truth, without law, 
, dide aire,' unless they (the dClnands of the pct1,tics) 
were beyond right; defeat in hattle ; dearth in his 
reign; dryness of cows; blight of fruit; scarcity of 
corn. These are the sC\-en live candles which expose 
the falsehood of eyery king. 

The rea res eve n wit n e sse s, i.e. there are seven things as it were wit- 
nes, s which attest his falsehood againlit every king. Tot urn a s y nod 0 u t. 
i.e. to turn the synod of the church ont of their noble 'lis '.fort (meetillg-phIce.) 
Wit h 0 u t t rut h, i e. respecting certain fines, i. e. without jnstice. Wit h 0 n t 
1 a w, i.e. respecting ceding to them uncertain debts. 'D id e- aire,' i.e. unlaw- 
fully. Unless. &c., beyond right, i.e. "unless" for 'but: i.e. I make an 
exception here, if it is after offering of law by him, it is not unlawful for him then. 
De f eat in bat tie, i.e. by an equal number in a lawful battle fre
" i.e. half his 
price of honor is takenawa\"" on acconnt of it. Dca r t h, i.e. to be without wcaIth, 
i.e. thatfamine should be in his reign. Dr) nes s 0 f cow s, i.e. failure, i.e. to be tf ð
 "2Iz '7, 
without milk, i.e. ,le<:truction of the milk. Blight of fruit, i.e. after its 
appearance, and it is aftertl'al'{ú destroyed in the bull. Sea r ci t Y 0 f COr n, 
i.e. the dis'Ippearance of the corn. the vanishing of it, or a small qnantity of corn 
being in e",i.tence. These are the seven lh e candlc., i.e. thc<e 
above are the seven things, as if living candles, which expose or exhibit to view hi. 
falsehood against every one who is a king. 
There are three falsehoorls ,
;hich God most 
ayenges upon every territory; additi

l gain by 

" a false 
ct; oocidiell by false witness; false 
judgment given for hire. l 
Three falseh 0 ods, i.e. there are indeed three falsehoods for which God takes f oiðM )6/ 
worst vengeance l
n the c ritories. Add i t i 'L 'J.a} g.:.<] }
Ju:,_aJ.a I s e con t r act, 
i.e. to receivl .. ,.- 
 ul to receÏ\c it 
f . d .. V' ...", ")-,...
even or,: tru
ontract, I.e. to get rewar by hIS saymg that re 
where neIle. \V h i c h God a v e n g e s, i.e. for" hich God showers down 
his vengeance. Dec is ion by fa I se " it ness, i.e. to
f false witness. 
}' a Is e j u d g m en t for hi r e, i.e. false judgments to be passed by him for a 
payment or hire, when it is not lawful e
 en to pass them grati.. 


, 8. GM: 4/. 

54 "Om Geë"CUF;a"O S1rana. 
;-J [
1 e t 
OF TAKING Cf"Cat"C cen::;ntu na"Dm nero rea'ùa"O C 1 a'ùJ"t01rcat"Oeap. ;
'f; e.f- 
LAWFUL L 1.- 1.- 1.- 
POSSESSION. mu"O fOP. a f at"ClI; mac fOP. a m::llwtt; manacli Fott a 
aba1"O; utacn FOtt attwLe ma'ù an aencqt. att fop:tafLwce 
fLan::;n, octlr FIne, octlr eacLaf cacn rocnal"t OCt1f cacn 
-t- ? >nocnatt Focet"t"Ocatt Fotta meamtta, ache 111 Fottconsrw"O ; 
- [
att rn::e t::;eotta na"Oman'ù afpa mnf1n nWfcat'ùt::;eatt ta 
feme: COtt fOP. meamlw: eacaLra, cop. rOtt fOEnamte 
ftrn::na, COtt fott FaenteUbacnwb .flne. att"Oo mntw/lC ,z'fç
ftwt::;n, OCur pne, ocur eacLwf cach cop. na mLt::;nWEL"ett; rYl15b':J 
1/ ap. "OteEatt "Oo1bf1tlm na be Lobt::;a1"S COtt, att "01a mba'ù 
tob"CWE reon cop" 1f an'ù nt t::;mn"Cat:"fom Ctlttu a memott. 

<f øl4v.1". f' q 

ap' If annfom 1 mbp.e1t::;neamaëi::: COtt La Fe1ne CU1tt 
. C

 "Cp.ene. att rn::e CU1P. i:::p.emeacha La Feme cach La Featt 
/I L,. z'JJ1 ü } 
 5"11 "Ow UttEattte, aLwtt "01a fOttnF;wp.e, ap. af "00 ftl1"Oe rn::a 
""" c. Ø70 lí fOt"tCOHF; a1 tt nc["OuttEfUtt Inn tt111"0 coni::: t1a1 r e . 
 k F 
 W: {pi ,'
 IltfJ v.Jt ! 
CCt:al1:; celt:hfl.1 11 a't> J:11 , .1. ut:mt: a 't>011IfOnu1'tJm,oCUr 
110CO 11111't>fU15t:Cfl. 0f1.fl.0 cln;,.
10"",,<;u1'tJe't> 11I't> Iat:, .1. COfl. fOfl. memfl.u 1 11ec- 
maír a cenn; t:((It:hIl1151t: 11U CIIl't> 11a CUfl.U rem mum bet: t:ota 't>olb,.1 11' 
umWI'Í> 1'111 l1t:a, 110 ímml rmuèt: 't>IC an11fO ccn co hlCUfl. 111 mdlS111. 

o Cla't> fl.OlfcUI't>eUfl.,.I.C1Ufl.Oafl.S1t:cfl.fOI\fl.O. 1l1u't> fOfl.aftalt:h 
.1. rcnfU1't> í11 ftU1t:h mu't> mL w'f. 11111 C f 0 fl. U U t: 11 u 1 I', .1. flC OC. 
111 anuch fOfl. a abal't>, .1. co fl.aICUt: accnna, .1. ((II' If lIl'Ofa 't>on 
memofl. cacht:æt> 111 cí11't> smb1'tJ Ima fott:a 't>lb con't>((fl.l15but: a 'Ffl.ltfott:u. 
" U La C h fO 11. a fl. aILe, .1. 't>ms renf((l't> Ime, .10 utactl blf cell fJa't>nu CI't> 
'l-f1 maèU1fl.6 belt:lfamwl't> 1'111 blUr.... CCfl. fOfuaftulce, .1. 11a't>blI't> 
macht:a't> cell t:obach 't>01b 't>lb, U((Ifl. fOfuaftmcc't> caè COfl. 't>o smut:. 
Cach rOChafl.,.I. cOfl.COmwIS1' Cach 1l0Chafl.,.I.'t>1Ubal,t:a. 1.'0- 
cefl.'t>cafl. fOfl. a meamfl.a .1. u't>ucul\t:afl.fofl.a mûmol,It11echmb, 
fOf\ a memf\mb j CI't> 't>ono afl. 11U t:U1tmeS't>mf 110 11a renpl't>íf 111 CUI1't>1W't> 
'C't>o 't>en't>U1f f1.íu bo't>é111. CCcht: 111 fO}lCOI1Sf\a't>, .1. aèt: íní fOf1.Con- 

1\A .0 ct-. 

There are four ceverumts whiéh 
 W-nding OF TAKING 
1 h ( I . ) 
<W'Vtrwx:.. }
"':::- LAWFUL 
t lOUg they t'!:

ws f\.re 
; ufason =-his father; r4 B.Äñ .:!./ Ikwl-J? 
'Of a monk 
 his abbot; ö,f an 'ulach'-person with 
another if alone. For the chief, and the tribe, and the 
church, will redeem (rescind) every good contract and 
every bad contract which are made with their sub- 
jects, except wbat t.hey, themselves order them; for 
these are the three dërêCtwe

a by ß..ip(.,. f' 33 
the F eini; the covenant with a subject of a church, 
the covenant 
 servitou of a chief, a covenant 
with fugitives from a tribe. For the chief, aud the 
tribe, and the church, may aunul every covenant of 
this kind to which they -did not consent; for they cI--v 
are bound not to be remiss about covenants, because 
if they should be remis
 about covenants, then they 
do not annul the covenants of their subjects. 
For in the judgment uf covenants with the F eini the 
covenants of three are difficult. The ternal c
with the Feini are where one man commands it (the 1{ 
cOL'Cnant) and another forbids, for to him io th
 co m- 
mtttrd who has not forbidl
t}1 what he has heard. 1.t
,.(1 (c.-pf) 

The re ar e fou r covenan t8, i.c. there are four persons who makea

\ '7 
and proceellings cannot be maintained .ucc
.rully against them though they are 
 for it, viz. :-a covenant with subjects in the absence of their chiefs; the 
chiefs llissohoe thesc covenants liW n .. they h...",c iP-ven..!!!.eir consent to thæ fllilTcülg 
..}-them, i.e. it is thus it is, or' smacht '-finc is paid in this case, though com- 
pensationisnotpl\ill. Though they are proceeded against, i.e. though 
...... t ilt,. 1\1 C !'li ed. A h ondm an with hi s chief, i.e. the chief may repudiate it, 
ifitsop1easehim. Ason with his father, i.e.sicoc. A monk with his 
a h hot, i.e. u
1!WI,. for it. is dHlìcult for 

the chi c' fr . is .., ns. An 
. u 1 a c h '_ per son, i.e. hecause he will deny all ahout it, i.e. an · ulach 'who is 
without a witness, even though they be in the plain, it shall be so. ,,- i 11 rede e m, 
i.e it is no wonder tbat they should rIOt distrain them, for they redeem every con- 
tract which they make. Every good contract. i.e. every contract of full 
value. EverÝ bad contract, i.e. frauds. 'Vhich are made with 
the i r 8 ubi e c ts, i.e. which are put upon their dependants, npon their subjects; 
why then should they not dissoh e or deny the contracli which they sbould make with 
themselve. (the chid.). Except what they themselvcs order, i.e. but 










-/' CtW tit 'NJv -I. [;", 

 -.M fà<< C 8bt] 

II t


H 'tU/Ù 
._ ISl _ 
, <t
 2-11f- 1.1 


"O,n 'Ceë
UEa'O Slrana. 

OF TAXING 5P.atC bo'tlem 'tIOIb'tlo 'tIenum p.e nech atLe, ual1t noco cU1m5ech a t:attme- 
LAWFUL Chrl't1e, aëe amUiL 'tIO senae a cunnp.a'tl fen. (Cp. aee eeop.a na'tl- 
ION. man 'tI, .1. ap. <ree cru na"Omann ínf1n fOnatrcleep. 'tIa natflll'menn ín 
f.enechar, ocur 11' el'Q.a"Oach a ba a matt on 1:1 'tIO IIi lae. (' 0 P. fOP. 
r meamp.a eacaLra, .1
ír' Cop. f01t fosnamte fLaeha,'I. 
cunnp.a'tl 'tIO 'tIenam 10 LUl:1: Ùlr ac f05nam 'tIon fLat1:h. Cop. fO p. 
fa en Le a5ach a I b, .1. cop.cup.1:ap. ap.nafannew"Oachmb bif'tlon fine. (Cp. 
'00 Inn tal fL a I e h 0 cu r fin e, .1. ulUp.lmpat;::;I"O 111 ftU1t:h, ocur 111 ectatr, 
ocur 111 pne caë cunnp.mJ naë t:ot1:anach a memalp., ocur Ire cuie in 
,. ap. ffil'tl, UU1P. I 'tIubp.amap. p.oma111"O at:a t:P.1 na'tlmanna e}'pa, .1. r e01e 
UlL 11:1P. fOchat'tle an'tl 1'1n, ocur 111 t:1 p.o a cUle"Oe I)' 'D1tur ua"O he, 
ocur 111 el na p.o noco "OlLur ua"O he. (Cp. "Ote5ap. "Oolb, .1. UU1P. 
"Otf'.:;ap. 'tI01 brlUm nap. ab Len1:U1;::; no nap. LlceU1;::; ac eobach nu COp. 111n"OLIS- 
cech "00 nia1: a mematp., .1. nup.ùae bun1:U15 eoùat5 lap. pr Cop.. (( p. 
ç'tllulllba"O Lobeul;::;, .1. ap. "OlUlllbae taeùt:U15 f1um no "01UIllÙae Llct:at;::; 
cpn 1:ameët: fO na COP.UIÙ. 1r an'O nl 1:'lnneaerOIll, .\.11' ann f1nni 
1:1I1"Ot:a1:}'ulll, no noco 
enn"OO1p.elr ar na CU1P. "00 nine a lllemU1p. 1m 
ran>el'r, flldlO1b. - - - - -- 

CCp. 1 r an n 1'0111, .1. UUlP. 11' 'tIO l1a nelchlb 11' 'tIoILSI a Illbp.elehemnur 
2P na cop. 'tIO p.elp. in fenechU1r. CUI p. 1:p.en e .1. cuip. rp.ll1ech 110 1:P. 1110 5. ? 
CCLalLi 'tIla fop.n5a1p.e, .1. ac fOP.C0115atP. a'tlenllla .1. U1111cup.5 U1 p.e U ;. QAI1v ac. 
l1elll"Oel1lllU. CCp. 11' 'tIOrUI't1e ueu fOP.COI1SUIP., .1. ap. if 'tIO 111U- 
'tI U1 r m at:a conu"O 111an'tl 'tIO neOl: ocur 'tIO nElë fùp.consmp. a 'tIen% 
m_una ' up.Satp.e U l1em'tlellma. 

'1S aWn; qu na'01I1an'Oa ta reme na'O p.olçhea'O 111 
an a1ca1'O'Cep., "015a1b '00 WE eneac11 elfleach 110 reasQ'O,' 
na1'Om rop. neacn P.O pnnwp. rOf1. UflrOCfla; na1'Om 
 'J..; ""'-/ 
cop.ufa Ea1'Oe ta EQ'Oa1Ee Em nt Ea'Oa r(mepn ; fOflCflal'O 
cOlbëe rp.1 eac1Jtam ; \al1 aWI'C 'Va acnta1'V cop. ta r eme , t. tCh.
30 bean rp.1f 'Cabap. c01bëe '.:I
I'Pnarsea'D, 0('111' rep. '00 be1l1 
cOlbcne mOIl FJu ba1'Vf1E rOfl na fcap.a 'Oltf1. (fIla aLe 
;: frl-'tv 
I The tfiTial covenants._J n C. EGO, the follo1\ ing note is added:- 
.. Terna1 covenants, i.e. of three per.ons, i.e. three contracts upon him, i.e. with a 
chief, with the church, and with an extern tribe, whicbenr it be bis sbare is forfeit. 
· Forbi/Ù. Dr. O'Donovan read as in tbe text the first syllable of the word 
· uIl11cup.5atp.e'; in tbe l\IS. there is simply 'a' 1\ itb h\ 0 diagonal strokea over 
it; tbe usual contraction for . 11 ' being a horizontal stroke over the letter which 
'11' should follow. The reading would thus III' "ac up.5 U1 p.e." The reading in 
C. 860 is II J:Op.l'OC0115 at p.... 



what they themqeh'es order them to make with another person, for they are not able OF rAJ;:I"G 
to dissolve these but as they would their own contract. For the sea r e the LA \\ FrL 
'. hi h POSSESSIOS. 
t h r ee defictive co v e n ant S, I.e. for these are the three covenants weare con- 
tracted of which the · Fenechus '-law makes mention, and their' ba' i.e. their 
good is defecti..-e from the persolli! .,.-ho make them. The co v e n ant wit h a 
subject of a church, i.e. in the absence cifthe hearL. The covenant 
of a s erv i tor 0 f a chi ef, i.e. a covenant which is made with those 
people who are doing senice to a chief. A covenant with fugitives 
"'om at,. i be, i.e. a contract made with the fugitives who are of the tribe. For 
the chief and the tribe, &c., may annul, i.e. for the chief, and the 
church, and the tribe, abrogate every contract with which their subjects are not 
satisfied; and the force of the . for' here is, for we said before there are three 
defective covenants, i.e. a . led' which is between (olCned by) many persons is here 
refe/'/'ed to, and the person who sold his share of it, forfeits it, and as to the person 
who did not sell it, it is not forfeited by him. For the y are b 0 u n d , i.e. for 
it is right for them that they he not remiss or negligent in setting aside the unlawful 
contracts which their subjects make, i.e. that they be not remiss in setting them aside 
after knowledge of the contracts. Beca us e if the y s h 0 u1 d be r e- 
m is", i.e. for if they should be negligent, or if they should be remiss, and not 
impugn the co\enants. Then they do not annul the covenants, > 
i.e. it is then they do not set aside, or they do not
thecontractswhich --..',vr..,........., 
their subjects make, by opposing them. 
For they are d i ffi c u it, i.e. for t hey are among the things that are 
most difficult in the judgment of the covenants according to the' Fenechus '-law. 
The t ern a I c 0 v e n ant s, 1 i.e. the contracts of three persons or three parties. 
One man com man d sit, i.e. commands the doing of it, i.e. forbids' the non- 
doing of it. For to him is the com mand, i.e. for it ill from that principle 
is tkr."ed that it is the "ame to one to command its doing and to forbid its non- 

There are three C OV-ØBan ts with the Feini, which 
do not amount to the thing sti
ed. It takes .... t1 
from the honor price of 

: a 
covenant with a person who is k1mw.n to be pro- Juu,J'I,d. 
claimed; a covenant concerning stolen property with 
a thief, although he did not steal it himself; to gÙ:e 
too great a nuptial present to an 'eachlach '-person; 
for there are two '8,:chlaidh' covenants with the 
Feini, the case if a woman with whom the nuptial It! 
pre::>ent of a married woman is giverX and the case of 
a man who gives a large nuptial present to a harlot 
fo.Ùler--lmvfut divorce. For these are the covenants 

I! C860 
i/ O'


fr1\. t
.,J: t1t/}V! 


tf ßo4v- P-/$ f 5'1 ft- 



"Om "'Ceë"C1JEa"O S'rana. 

0.. 1'AKISO C111tt mnpn na"OtW1tea"O co quan {to rU1"01Eeu"O ant11- 
STON. bap."Cwb COtt ta Feme. 
adH:; l1p.Eut1.ta cop. ta Feme, nt "01tear nt Een Wt1.1t- 
t111"O, ap. nacn qW1"Oe 'r eartan 
n!c!:!:9 a c01bche, "OttE1"O 
[" rtan cp.w'Òe a fte1tt bp.e1dleaman, ach"C uwr no l1ttE W t1."C 
no eEmacn"C. 


(("Cat"C "CP.1 t\U'tl111ut\'tIa. .1. 'tIO t\1 
0t\m'tl111 'tIa t\mft\e1't>e 
 'l 1t\ 
ëUf. OCUf 110CO p.o 1t\'t>fmse"C 1t\1 ít\ ap.ucefce'tl 1<I"C, 110 11V(]>. ca:"CosUl"C. 
"OISatb 'tIO LOE ell each, .1. 'tIISbat't>'tIoLosaet\ech 1t\ 1t\'tIrUlSef 
I. HI"C co 
ír 'tIO 1Hxëa 'tILlsenn, 110 If "Cp.orca't> "Cap. 'tILlse'Ò, 
 I. 1t\ "CUP.roCP.UI'tI; 
t;1CFat"C 1t\ FlIle 
o ëOP.Ulb, .1. Pf Fup.
ocp.a ac "Cp.ebU1p.1 ín up.p.a'tlulf; 110 
s1t\ "CU1LLml'tleët:a a ca1t\, ocuf 11í U1L, ac t:elchemu1t\ t:OIche'tla; UI"ChSI11 'tIIC 
'tIO t:p.ebU1, P.I ocur noco 11íc"Cap. 11í'P.lflll "Cp.ebU1p.1 110 co "CUlp.lf"Cap. Í11 
c1t\t:aë. nm'tlm 
op. 11each .1 nJI't>111 'tIorae"C'tIOë1t\'tI111't1 aen'tltea5U1'Ò 
,< co mcaml; 'tIISbat'Ò 'tI1<I e1t\eCLal1111 111 mel"C p.o 'tIlbaf"Cap. 'tI1<I t:ochUf. 
nat'tl111 cop.ufa fjat"Oe, .1. If elfln"Op.acuf a 'FIr COlP. 'tIut a "Cp.ebU1p.1 
1'e 'tIILfl 111 "CreOl"C Sat"CI t:crp. ce1111 ín SU"Cat"01 cín cob sat:UI'tIí he bO't>é1t\. 

.1. n, uf'Ounn t:p.eubmp.e 111 001'<> 1'111, oeuf ee t:ap,p.m5t:eap. 
5u'Dm5e 111 hlCUTltl tll p.e 'Fep. me'Dotl Em'De tun ITltl'DtI5tuë, uët: 
to munu 'FUll. t:p.ebmp.e 'DO p.e 'D15bmt u tanu 'DIe 'FlUf."O cOlbëe .1."O cOlbël 'tI0I1"CI ap. a l1eILtSI"Cep., atilU1L 
op. each,'Ò 11í I"CIP. aë"C LoS acellbalp.llo a catLte. 
((p. at:at"C 'tIa achLat'tl cop. .1. m:a 'tIeml ap. a 'lelU,s'"Cep.cop., amuIL 
Ulp.e fOP. ech, 'tIa 11atrne1't1en't> 1n t:enechaIT' .1. 'tIa cop. }.'ocep.'tIat"Cep. }.'P.I 
:5"heêLacha. beatl }.'P.lf "Cabap. cOlbêe .1. ín "CUP.llU1"Otll 11í"Onal'Ò17ItL. 

ep. 'tIO belp. cOlbche mop., .1. bat't>rech caê be "Cat'tle. 110caëben ' 
tan.!la .1. up.nat'tltll cen Im}.'oL"Ca ap. acen'tl. fop. 11 U fcup.a, .10 Cla}.'0I1atr- 
clrep. a 'tIltfl'tll. CCp.a a"Ce CUIP. 111111'111, .1. ap. í"Ce CU1P. ínfl11 ocur 
noco 1'0 1t\'tIfmE;t:ep. cí't> co "Cp.1<In 11a cop.ll"OLIE;teë. Ro fUI'tIIEeu't>, .1. 

 p." ratllatse'D, 110 p.o hop.'DatEe't> a elpelt"CUlb 11a cop. 't>a)1Ulfllel'DeIl11 
ín renechaf' CCch"C .1. aê"C na CU1P. up.5atp.te rea Ul1ucrr'Da 
IHUrnel'Dellll 111 }.'enechur, UUIP. "CUlt:1lml"Cep. UILe 1U"Cf<u't>e, .1. ach"C 11a 
CU1P. reo, III 'Dltef cen 111 'DOll atP.ILt1U'Ò 'DO 
acbatL 'fJ1.1 cup.u beL 
'DOP.I'IP. na
el11e .1. "CP.latl. 'bell mp.ILLlu't> .1. '10CO'D'ter'lí 1t:tP. cell a 
1 in case oj pove,'!!!. In C. 2,742, 'uUlr,' as a degree of pon>rty, is distinguished 
from' ansboch"C,' · extreme poverty.' 
.' Eachl(]Æ;h-pe7'son.' In C. 8GO, 'hechtcrsh' is glossed '" mep.'Dp.ech,' a 
woman to whom a I nuptial '-prescnt is given, .1. If echtU1S cop. 1t\fln. she is 
an 'echlach' of engagements then," 'nlep.'t>p.ech' is the Latin 'meretrix.' 
ride also, C. 2G4. 
. Forbidden COfÚracts. In O'D. 425, these forbidden contracts are said to be:- 
that of the son of a living father, that of a person without property, &c. 

'1 o.- 

/M" <:vA.-

i.tCw-wswt 1M 


"hich,\3mount enly to one-third of what has been OF T.urw 
ordained in fraudulent covenants by the Feini. P


Except the covenants which are forbidden by the 
Feini, nothing is due without deserving it, for every _., . 
property which is unsafe is----entìtled, after nuptial 
 wI.d fA tl1 
pres.en.t.,..-tbe---Bafe---according to the Brehon, except Ajfu it; 
-b j, Ø"h t 
in case of 
t y l or prohibition or want orluuful :
L ..r..: J
 1,J.,,-.. f v q.u.

.tf - 'fHi') 
There are three covenants, i.e. there m'e three who make contracts men- . 
lioned by the Feirú, and they do not attain to the thing wJoi
h 'h
 .gpee Ið r, or -{tr 
3& te w.ài eh '''8Y 
t a Glw ice. It takes from the honor-price, i.e. it sub- 
tracts from the price of the honour of the chief who sues for them, knowing that 
he is not entitled to do 10, or it is fasting in excess of what is legal," i.e. the "Ir. Beyond 
proclaimed person; the tribe will oppose his contracts, i.e. the surety in . urradhus' - 100c. 
law having knowledge of the proclamation; or he being without merits in · cain ,- 
law, and the defendant has not lcnou:lw!Je thereof, compenoation is to be paid by the 
surety, but nothing is to be paid by the surety until the guilty perMn is apprehended. 
A covenant ';'lith a person proclaimed, i.e. a covenant which is made for 
a fugili
'e until he pays; it lessens his'.ccic'-eIaiflT as much as it Bubtracts from his 
wealth. A covenant with a thief, i.e.itisimpropriet
foronewhohas'true 'Ir. In. 
knowledge to go security for the lawfulness of stolen property for a thief although 
he is not a thief himself. 
The surety does not bind anything here, and though the thief be 
apprehended, he does not pay to the fully unlawful middle theft 
man, unless he has security for the payment of the emptying of 
his hand to him. 


Too great a nuptial present to an 'eachlach'-pe,'.on,2 i.e. too great 
a nuptial present by the person of whom it is demanded, as · a load on a horse,. for 
anything given to heris o
ermuch, except the price of-her head (lress or co\\l. For 
there arc two' ach1aÏllh' covcnan t" i.e. the.eare two of wlwm contracts are 
sncd,like ' a load on a horse,' whit-h the Fenechus mentions, i.e. two contraçts which 
are made with 'ech1ach'-per"Ons. A woman with whom the nuptinl 
present is given, i.e. the *"þ
f".J..c ontract, &c. A man who givel a 1ar!\,e e{.! :<-111./> 
nul' t i a 1 presen t, i.e. every secret woman isa harlot, or ever} woman who deserts 
s a strumpet, i.e. t !:lf ro i.. a e^v
ing her_ 
. or 
her divorce, i.e.v.henherrightisdnetoherb} contract. For these are the 
covenants, i.e. for these are the compacts which do IIQt 9111/,..1 
 to one-third of ('
r"" Itl 
the lawful contracts. Wh at has been ordained, i.e. what has been settled or !^U\, 
ordained in t e 0 es 1mB l
na of which the Fenechus treats. Ex- 
ccpt the covenanh whi are forbidden, i.e. except the above forbidden 
contracts whieh the Fenechus mentions, for they IIrc all dif3Bolved, i.e. except these 
forbidden contracts, 3 it is not lawful not to bave a part of tbe thing detlCn-ed under 
e:a:p'esBl/d contracts according to the Feini, i.e. one-tbird. With ou t des ervin g 
it, i.e. nothing is Inwfu1 at all for which its full value has not been paid. For 



"Otn 'Ceê1;uEa"O S'rana. 

OF TAIUXO tuaTI rota ùmtolSI 't>ap. a ëen't>. ap' naC11/"Oe, .1. eacn CP.W"OI ber 
LAwFJ:L ertan íníaí"O a CObOlSI CUiP. ocur cun"Oap.ta. "'OtlSl"O rtan CP.aI i>e, .1. 
IO:V . , 

 . 't>tI51"O_rtmm:1U5US<1"O a cp.m"01 amUit Ir P.1Ull 't>o bp.en:;hemam, no amUit a 
't>ep.aínbp.el1::hemap.allelp.. ((cnt:; UaIf no uP.SaIP.t:;, .1. t:;abwp.t:;,.I. 
r 11w't>m 
op. 11ecn p.o flt:;lP. rop.
6cp.a, .,. 11 ((1 "Om cop.ura SWt:;1 ta sm:;w-De. 
1-10 esm acn t:;, .1.'t> cOlbël 
P.I heëtws, uwp.nw"Om 111't>tIsteë fIn, 
ocuf 11OCO nart:;({1t:; 11í, .1. ap. e1CI11, 110 
((t pp. cp.enur I mbectuas, .1. cop. 
't>a rOCnOl1"O co fIf co t:;p.ebUlp.I, 110 't>ono, COIl 
op. me1llllu. 


 C, f.O, I 


rrttJit+ 1 


O'Ð. 426. 

Ur:atr: qu '0011'0 11a.'Om 11 at rCa1'Or:ell' ta. 
e111e 'D1cea.n- 
10 Etcm a. fe1ëeamna: bean W' r:a.bap, c01hche, 1n'01c1ILtË. 
r eac11 a ar:hatp,; mcm art '01ë an ((dlCfp., 0.1' adlatlt irt &íI OJJ. '1U- 
C!..e!l_ "QQ.11 1n c01bche pn; cop. focep:ùçcqt 0.50. J? 
ftne cma c011.o. '00 ùC1r:h oEa; co]1, 
a.eí'TIla focep,'Ocolt 
r 60 c1l pne nUll11atEe. aJ1. ar:e 'ùonc(ù11lC(f1'ù tnnrO 'ù1cean- 
Is-Eecm a fC1cheamna na'Oa'ù cor1.o. '00 llcm1TIC(1'011l. 

((t:;au:; "CP.I 't>on't> na't>m, .1. "CJ1.1 11a't>man"Oa fOnalrClt:;ep. It:;W 't>a 
I1Wrne1"Oenn ín renecnur' "'OICeaI1sta"O, .1. 't>1 aco: 't>IUtt:;<1"O, cona cen- 
stat:; na t:;p.ebUlp.ll1a relcneamna 't>ap.a t:;ecalt:; cen't>, .1. cIa rocep.'t>wt:;ep. 
't>o,::,wt:;nb1Up.. bean rp.1 t:;abap. cOlbcna .1. 111anab e01llcíneot, 110 
10 mal1ab cOlbël1::ecnt:;a, CI"O comceneOlt. 111 a't> ap. 't>1 ëeatt, .1. m<1"O ap. 
rat:;n 't>lcnteín 11at:;nap."Oo net:;ep. fIn. CCr at:;nalp. aen, .1. Irtwr 111 
m:;nwp. a oenrep. In C'OlbëI fill, ocur Ir "Oltur In ben 't>ono on t:;1 't>la t:;abap.. 

h ir 

1. 1 . nla'O p.o p'Olp. 1n 1n5ean cona'Ò ap, 'O((1i;a1n '01t:hte an m::hall 
,\>0 5net:e1t ronal'Om a c01bëe '01, CI'Ò U1l1'l1nnUr no 'Ote1rea'O 111 
,<' r-m:: hftI 1 t 'Oon c01bëe, t:Ulttt:f1l 1l11' '00 reLlu b 110 'OIl fib na nlTW 
r e1T1 , co 11.U1b cOlbëe com tan ((fin; ocuf C1U '00 5ne in bean C1T1nt:a 
1tl'Otelf'Oea cOlbëe no u1l1wnnur '00 c01bëe, nl hlcann in t:adJU1tl 
11i 'Oe; mutla p'OlP. 1mu1lp.0, ill 1n5ean com ap. fat '01t:hte '00 
Enetea, [If) rtaT! '01, ocur ICa1'Ò in LÍ '00 p.1T1e in t:up.11a1'Om. 

I Con trace and covenant. In O'Ð. 425 "a CObOlSI cunnup.ta" is glossed thus: 
".,. Ima 't>lbulP."C a111rera 110 t:;p.ebUifle "00 t:;wtm1Ucn amUit If fl1UP. 't>o 
bflelt:;nemul11 .1. 111 t:;p.J(J:11 cop. mbet, oc 111 flfl cflew1uf racabaflln t:;P.1U11. 
Fraudu1ent contracts as regards ignorance or security are to be dissolved as is the 
rule with the Brehon, i.e. the third of express contracts, with thc man who buys 
the third is left." 



eve r y pr operty, i.e. e.,-ery property which is unsafe after her perfect rlower of OJ' TAKlJ(O 
contractandcovenant.' Is entitled, &c., to be safe, i.e. her propertyisentitlerl LAWFL'L 
to be made secure according to the sentence of the Drehon, or as the Drehon shall P088
say respecting it. Except poverty or prohibition, i.e. a.roghing, i.e. a 
co.,-enant with one who knõws the proclamation, i.e. a covenant concerning stolen 
property with a thief. Or want of power, i.e. giving overmuch nuptial 
present to a harlot, for that is an unla"fu1 covenant, and nothing }' e.,dus it 9+1 111- 
.iJ:Ig, i.e. by violence, or the har (bm'/.;e/') of a mau who purchases for small value, 
i.e. the co\enant of two sane persons with knowledge and warranty, or accOI'di,lg 
to oiliers, a covenant with subjects. 



There are three covenants entered into by the 
Feini which the parties who have claims 2 dissolve- 
that of a woman to whom a nuptial present is given, 
if concealed from her father, ( if concealed from the 
father, it is to the father alone this nuptial present is 
due); a covenant which is made without the know- 
ledge of the chief of a tribe, who ought to be ]J1'csent 
with them; a contract of adoption which is made 
unknown to the EBi!tionif!g tribe. For these are the 
bad covenants which the parties having claims dis- 
solve, and which are not binding. 
There are three coven an ts, i.e. tbree covenants there are wbich are 
fastened, as mentioned in the' Fenechus '-law. D i ssol ve, i.e. . di' is a negative, 
i.e. the sureties do not bind the parties for whom they enter into security, i.e. a1tbough 
I it 
on ,1>0'" 00 0 roprnach . A woman to whom a nuptial 
pre sen tis gi v e n, i.e. unless she be of equal family, or unless it be a lawful 
nuptial present though she may be of equal family. If concealed, i.e. if it 
be for the purpose of defrauding the father this is done. I tis tot he fat her 
alone, i.e. it is to the father alone this nuptial present belongs, and the woman is 
fnrfeited by the person by whom it is given. 
If tbe daughter knows tbat it is for the sake of defrauding the 
fatht>r the covenant of her nuptial present is made with her, 
whatever proportion of the nuptial present the father is entitled 
to, he is to be paid it in 'seds' out of the woman's own lawful 
property, until a complete nuptial present is made up ; and though 
the woman should commit a crime for which her nuptial present, or 
a portion of her nuptial present is liable, the father pays no part of 
it; but if the daughter does not know that it was done for the 
purpose of defrauding, she is guiltless, and the person who makes 
the contract oj marriage shall pay. 

8 The pm.tifs who have claims. The term · relëemn . means either creditor or 
rlebtor. It is found also in the sense of an advocatc or pleader. Here it seems to 
mean the persons who!'e autburity waS necessary to render these contracts binding. 


"0111 'CeëLUEa'D 81rana. 

OF TAKI:fG COp. rocep.'tIcap. reach asa pIle, .1. ín cop.cup.t::ap. redl in osae 
P LAWFUL blr'tlon ríne, .1. rtmt:;h beltrine. a:'tIa cop.a 'tIO belt:;h osa, .1. 'r cop.u 
OSSE'i!ION. b h C ' 
a It:; aca'tlenam. 01' raerm a .1. In cop. cUl't:;al' p. l r l11 mac raer ma 
-:: tetM'.tl"'""" an rine, ocur 11í 
 S((11'e 0 s61tríne. 8eoch r'ne 11up.nUlse 
7 .I.rechmrínebíracup.nun>eacína'tl. ((p. at:;e 'tIOna'tlmUll't1 1nnrO 
'OlceaI1sta'tl, .1. ump. Ir lat:; TO 11a nu'tlmunn ronmrCIt::ep. ro:;m; OC\1r'tle 
aCa'tl1Utt:;a'tl, co 1m censtat:; 11a t:;p.ebulp.l11a relchemaín t:;al' a t:;ecmt:; cenTI. 
n u'tla-o cOl'a, .1. noco COIl' a ronm'tlm. 


rtJ3 ç 


" fj IVlI 

1ÍÍ ,lit..} 

em;h cacha ce
 c01bche cacna mna 'Dla hOËa pne, 
,. ma'D lap, neEmb a æ:nal'., ma'D ne roto a c1lma17>; quun 
'Don t:an1 f'De, cea
hp.U1me 'Don qtearr c01bche. nlc('() 
cumrca1l>eë co n'Del
hbfl'.e 0 
a rume, conroEtm
ealt a 
fC1b reme ; ap, Ka CUI
 a c01bëe cacha mna 'D1a 
h<<E a pne, ammt pt a CUI
 a nabal> bm'Df1l>e. 1r FOP. 
,srun'D 'Do felf1'Deap. bp.eata buaín ocur ambuaín ta 

(.,eat:;h cach a cet:; COI bch e, .1. 11í bep.(ll' ínro cap.ab 'tI 1tu r 'tI011 ml1m. 
'r mp.e 'r tusu bel'mp. on mnm 0 mencnís"(;ep. a Lecu-o, cOl'ab Lusm'tli 
telc"(;ep. ímu-o a al11't1ILte. "0, a h aËa r' n e, .1. 'tIon osae blr 'tI011 

")þ .t. muna map.at1n in t:an::;hlp. a tei; on mEe fine, 110 
telt: lap.p.a1"Ó te ocur up.nm'Dm 'DO comchineot, ocur dnolt 
te 'DO cum caë f'1p. bur a p.aëa; ocur cm mink 'DO nkeap. a hup,- 
namm p.e haen feJt, noco 'Dte5aJt t:p.1an t:inólt te aèr aen feaët:. 
ma mmp.m"Ó Imup.p.o In t;<rr;hmp., a tet laJu"Ó no teat atqtum 
,ç on m;hmp., ocur uJtnamm 'DO comcmot; ocur t:p.1an t:m01t te 'DO 
cum-caë f'1p. bur a p.aëa 7P.t; atÎlUlt am a_1l!.b
m\j ,:!'D5 1 ":: 

J To thekad of the tribe.-The Irish gloss may also mean, 'to the most perfect 
person who is of the trihe.' 
.' Tinol'-marriage collection._' Tinol' was the collection of gifts which the 
relatives and friends presented to the woman on her marriage. Vide vol. 2, 
page 84G, n.8- 
S But once. That is, if she was divorced and afterwards married to the same man. 
In O'D. 425, it is added that it is lawful to marry her to the seventh person; from 
that out, she is conaidered a 'gnUu1 baidbe.' 
· Judgment. qf , Eid,qedll" Vid. vol. 8, pp. 8R-!J7. 



1 'l'?8' ut : 


A contract which ÌI made without the knrm:le'lge of the chief of OF TAKIXG 
a tribe, i.e. the contract which is made without the knowledge of the head r LA"YUL 
of the tribe, i.e. the 'geilfine'-chief. "Who ought to be with them, i.e. OS.=IOX. 
it is right that he should be at the making of it. A contract of adoption, . / 
i.e. & covenant which is m
.tlc with the adoptetl son of the tribe, and it is not 
 M1"t- of; 

Q maintenance from the 'geilfine'-tlhision. Unknown to the peti- 
tio ning t ri be, i.e. without the tribe which is petitioning for the payment of his 
crimes. For these are the bad covenants, &c., i.e. for these are the 
co,.enants which being made &r<J again dissolved; and 'de' is a negative, i.So 
the sureties do not bind the debtore for whom they enter into security. W h i c h 
a re no t bin ding, i.e. it ie not right to fasten them. 
. c{ IISit-. IZ L cJ<4 "" 
Half of each first nuptIal present of eyery woman .11- 
is due to the head of her tribe, if 'l1w?'1"icd after the fr ..:--- 
death of her father, if it be he that had sustained 
(paid fo'l') 
 OOmes; one-third of the second, and '-/4 
one-fourth of the third nuptial present. If she 
goes away of necessity from that out, it (the mtptial 
present) shall be distributed according to the arrange- 
ments of the Feini; for a share of the nuptial present 
of every woman is due to the head of her tribe, as 
he has his share in the' abad '-gains of a harlot. It is IÞ 
by this the judgments of every proper and improper 


vomaru are know n among the Feini. 

Half of each first nuptial present, i.e. this is not given until it is 
1a"fully due to the woman. The reason that lesa is taken from the woman 
because she has been put away frequelltl.r is that the quantity of her cattle is left 
fewer. To the head of her tribe, i.e. to the head of the tribe. 1 

If the father is not living half tM price of her fostemge is paid 
by the chief of the tribe, or, according to otlwrs, SM shall bring"' .
. With 
one-half price of fostemge in man-iagewith one of the same tribe, and 
one-third of the' tinol '-marriage-collection 2 to everyman to whom 
she goes; and however often she may have been contracted to 
one man, it is not required hy law that she RhouM bring the third 
of the 'tinol '-marriage-collection wÏt;h her but once. a But if the 
father is living, her half fosterage-price, or half the expense of lwr 
fosterage is paid byb the father, in case of" marriage v. ith one of L Jr. F.-on.. 
equal family; and one-third of the 'tinol '-man-iage-collectionis . Jr. hld. 
brougl.t by her to every man to whom she goes, &c., as it is Bet 
forth in the judgments of' Eidgedh." 1. 14.tu-u..fM ß ir 
IJ I> TiT l+r 

ouJ..v..h "N/J 


n O


"0111 "Ceécu5a'O 81ra11a. 

'f O'J).HI, 

l, 0 

. 7) 
 1M- It. 3./'6" f(8"bI) K 
Jvf.J.s LO'/J,1,,/1r) lA,
.3,'7 LO
4t. 1 
. J^ I/J- o!iJ - 
 cØt L. f 11 'l-I) If ) 
þ--<.td IAt/ 
W Lð 
, . J f cI,11;r 
. :'j.-";:Vil Cl 


OF TAilING n1 a'O 1 af1. n esm b a at;h af1., .1- ín n If nefa If ann at;a fin. 111 a'O 
P LAWFUL he roLo a chlnQl'O, .1. ma'O he In t;mSI pne Im
U1LnSf'f a cmt;a. 
. 'T" h Ö . 
'-'f1.1an 'Oon t;anlf'Oe,.I.aflncOlbc It;anmft;e,.l-lflnCOI cet;anmft;e 
If 'Oá t;f1.1an no belf1.ea'Ò a m:;hmf1. ann; ocuf If Ctlf1.e If Lusa be1f1.eaf 
. bpffi;mf1. oL'Oaf at;11mp., umf1. If LU5a If 'OlëTW LCtlf uf1.CtlL na hínsme 1m 
t;f1.1an nnoL 'Oa rp.elfCI a t;ochufumte. 111 a'O C umfCQI'Oeë.l. í mbaf, no 
cOf1..tmroarcap.a, .1. umf1. If e CUlt; m maët;nmst1,'Oama'O t;p.enahm'Oelt;h- 
[- t 'Þ\.C) 
blP;luf '00 nelt;hea In t;ímfcaf1. na mfceba'O ua'Ofum In cut;f1.uma '00 bef1.a'O 
'Oon c01bche. 0 t;a fUI'Oe, .1. 0 t;a Ctlfmf 'Oam '00 nílI"t>mtrm, .1. 'Oon 
m'Orcucha'Ò co n'061tblfle. Con
05La15t;eafl, .1. If cain rdvelL1s-r;efl hI 
a ç,u!!11! rl:?I.!l
9b in renechCtlf Ima 'OuL Ir In flom'O If nefa. CCfl lr,a 
CUlt; a COI bëe, .1. afl at;a CU1t; 1 C01bël caëa mna 'Oon 05ae blf 'Oon pne, 
amU1L ín CU1t; at;a '00 a n"t>uL cUf m mnm mbun:;h cUf a tllIsafl t;ap. apa"Õ; 
ocuf If af fin sabmfl, a blt:h '00 conkl In aenma'Ò flann PChlt:, uCtlfllfe"O 
, fm at:a '00 If m melfl"OfllS a n'OuL CU1CI afl elcm, CI'O melfl"t>fleë aeer, CI"t> 
melfl"t>p.f'ch na'O aeeann; ocuf rO"OCtlL enecLamm '00 
o mcne'Ò ã collroe- 
Laëmf ma ro'OLaibmLI. CC CUlt:, .1. '00 rmacht:. If 
Ofl fun'O '00 
reI f1 '0 a fl, .1. If rop. fUnn t:mf1.1r{;ef1. bfleta buam ocuf amùumn na 
mban 'OLIstech, ocufambuam na mban mn'OLlstech. bual n, .1. mmt:h, 
..Ð.I. 'Oa;sban. CCmbuQI n, .1. oLc 10 'Of1.Ochban. 




[f a Her the death of her fa ther, i.e. in the case of him who is the next OF TAKING 
persontothechiefthisidso. If it be he that had sustained his crimes, LAWl"CL 
i.e. if it be tbe head of the tribe that bears the u'ei!Jht of biÀ,crimes. One-third POSSESSIOX. 
of the second, i.e. of the second nuptial present, it is of the second nuptial 
present her father, if living, would have had two-thirds; and a brother gets le
than a father became he is less anxious to command the girl respecting the third of 
her 'tino1'-marriage-eollection, i Hre, Ì'1l'I''''" t
 from her. If she goes 
away ofneceuit!J, i.e. hL; or;.rli\'= d; for the foreeofthe doubt is, ifit 
be without nee
sit1 she separates, it shall not take away from him the proportion of 
the nuptial present which he would get. Fro m t hat 0 u t, i.e. as I am treating of 
this caRe, i.e. the going ILway with necessity. It shall be distributed, i.e.itis 
fairly distributed according to the arrangements of the' }'enechud '-law with respect 
to its going to the nearestdiviRion. For a share of the nuptial present,i.e. 
for there is a share of the nuptial present of every woman due to the head of the tribe, 
as he has a share for going to the lewd woman, to whom approach is had notwith- 
standing notice; and from this is derived the cmtOTll that he has it (a ,hm'c) to 
the twenty-first cæe, for thid is his right in the calC of the harlot, for going in 
unto her by foree, whether she be a harlot who 
 or a harlot" ho does not 

; and the honor-priee is divided by him aeeorlIing to the nature of her re1ath'cs, 
into other distributions. II is s h are, i.e. of the' smacht . -fine. I tis by t his 
are k-n-tnVn, i.e. it is by this the judgments of. the good and bad women are 

ed, i.e. of the lamul aud unlawful wo
,en. Proper, i.e. good, i.e. of good 
-women. Improper, i.e. of bad, i.e. of bad women. 

VOl,. IV. 



. .'1),,'"''''. 

bReccr:na comarr:;ncesa awoso. 



F 2 



Iletwl.'A.417, frt. '4-f"fA, - '7-r.Øv. 
/)-!>--.2,ft'iS) k!f I)",t 10 
 IIw. W, $"l:. 
E.3.5".,./Iv-,.tr -,'/, .s
1-.2.9) IYl/b 17 --W. 

fr- IV 
H. ,. '7, Jf)
 - 311 l Ó'h. 400- 40 lJ) 

1/.3. 18'. 1'.10 -Ir -II./.fr. ( G. 2. 3 - 3S-) 
" f' '13f--3tllA/ (C. tLiZ.-
lI.n} f.Zl.!.- (o
ß-,-vH"-"'^' c. 

(h/J.M/ .,J t 
bRead1a comarchcesa 

, <<ko f- f!tA1 (e /y-z.o), PP./J 1 r1 (C2/.J- / ) 


A 'jUDG- I em all. a 11 e1bel1a11. comaH
hcer 1 CumCTEllmr al1"Or11l, 

 ap:"'111111 'r comaH
h EllWr cwch "OwltwLt "00 tomrw"O 
A"CY. rm aéLa 0.9!f cá1che; a1twt1 'r coma1Lhcer a1î1t.111 'r 
cuma 11
 5atb wll,e FlU aKhech, OCur wttc11l"Oech ftU 
5" bachtaé. 

 2-1,8. 1-z, 

bp,eat:ha comalt:hcefa .1. bp,
temt1l1f fO bep,ap, umun cummt- 
ecuf' umun mteëuf cumul'ö
, no umun cumasnaf' umun 5nuf cumm'Oe, 
(.1. um an 
natu5a'Ò cumm'Oe.) 
CI'O ap, a nelbenap, comatt:hcef' .1.CI'O ap, a p,mt:ep, no ap, a 
,. nmrnel'Ot:
 10 t:mtechuf cumm'Oe. Cumasn atf an'Oftn .1. 511utuS
cumUl'oeannf1n. CCp, In 111 If comatt:h 511atf calc:tJ 'Ota p,alLI .1, up, 
If commmt snatusa'Ò Cúlë 'Olbp,e ëé1LI. .8m aët:a .10 na mélc1l. CÚlch e 
.1. ín pach '0111ne cmtè;
I. muna 1j'Oent:
o 'OLI5'ê
 10 commtccf 
CCp,atLllf comutt:hcef .1.5ne elLelfmtechuf cumm'Oe. CC,,, In 111 
,\ 1 f cu man 0 '00 Sat b .1. ap, ín rut If commélt;t;, no If cut:ß.uma 'O Le 51..!1!- 
'Oon mp,e 
p,m'Ò tL%ia a 5abmL p,lrm mM SP,ut'Ò reme, OCbr 
lIech na C1LLI a sabmL p,e baëLach IfJn bU" 


eW11,-call fOp,be1tt C01mWLhcer? ah
ew qwLh'rWEe? Con 11.<111 1) at; comrcttba cemmur a'Da 
1.0 ocur a reatba, ocur 1mFen cach "01b flU al1.atte, ocur 
'DO bel1\. cach "01bl "01EU11l 't>wJla1te. 

Ii C tfoJ 1 o'lJ"kfCJ 

Catp..-can rop,belp, cOlmalt:hcef' .1. cornmp.clm,canafarQ11J.bp.e J.: 

",r"1"A 10 t:alteëuf cumm'Ò e. CqILyomap,buf' .I.crfm ëaol'no,,,bu umf, afm 
Ull1n. CI a cp,ut:hfU1se, .1. cm ;<;ne p'Òe.'Oat: com ap.bu, 
1.> .10 If ca01n up,p,annmt:t:na c01m écu l'Òe op,bu m rep,unn 'Oon cécna hamuf 
LIU1l1 mf1le'f no mnrr,1Il 'Oe. CC p, an '0 a, .1. np, n'Olbul'Ò. (( fe a L b a, 
ann ach!!}"t otOf renm:hup,. 1mren cach 'Olb rp,1 ap,aILe, .1. CC<<hj 
4,( J1 1\ 'Olbl nmSI'Òá ëf;IL!.. "Do belp, cach 'Olb 'Olsuln,.10 seLL'Oa rcp.elPuLL 
p.e comaLL m commtcera, .1. '01 ró '01l1Lt:a'Ò, conach p,01ë cm m'Old êmch 
,l 't){) ëum a ëelLt. 
1 Ai,'chillnech.-The steward of the church lands, or tile ecclesiastical holder of 
the church lands. He was a layman, but had primam tonsZlTam. 


\VIIY is co-tenancy so called? That is equal customs 
(' cmnaguais '), because the customs are equally good 
for all reciprocally to levy' smacht'-filles and penal- 
ties; 01', otherwise, it is co-tenancy, because it affects 
the chief equally ('cuma') with the plebeian ('aithech'), 
and the 'airchinnech' I the same as the shcpheI: d. 


'I" (I M-v 12--1- 

Judgments of co-tenancy, i.e. theøe are judgments that are pll8ied con- 
cerning the common tenancy, concerning the holding in common, or concerniug 
the common cUotom, the commQn usage, i.e. concerning the common custom Q/ 
holding land. . 
Why is co - te nancy so call ed? i.e. why is the holding in common so 
called or denominated. E qua I c u s tom a, i.e. that ia common ussge. Be- 
c a use the c ustoma are equ all y goo d for all, i.e. becau
e the usage 
Is equall)' good ('commaith') for all reciprocally. 'Smacht'-fines, i.e. the 
sacks. Pen a 1 tie s, i.e. the fine for man-trespass, i.e. ,chich aI'e imposed, unless 
the common custom C' comaithces") is lawfu1ly obsen-ed. Or, oth er w is e it is 
c o-t e n a n c y, i.e. another reason wI,!! it is so called Ï3, it is a commou holding. 
B e c a use ita f f e c t S, & c., ie. for the reason that it is in an equal degree, 
or in the aame proportion that the chief of lorJly grade and the chief of the Feini 
grade are bound to receive it, "and the' airchinnech' of the church is to receive it 
the same as a 
 in the church. 
Question-Whence does co-tenancy arise ?-From 
several heirs. In what manner is this ?- The heirs, 
in the first place, partition their slmres and their 
possessions, and each of them g'uards against the 
other, and each of them gives (t pledge of iudemnifi- 
cation to the other. 

Question-Whence does co-tenancy arise? i.e. I ask whence 
does the common custom arise?-Fro m several heirs, i.e. from the noble /."t.;." 
he+u e1l61'YJ8.i"
 the land. In what manner is this? i.e. in what wa)' ) 
isthiÛ-The heirs partition, i.e. the lan,lholders faIrly divide the land 
in the first place, of which I shall relate or tell. The i r s h are s, i.e. their 
'diIJadh '-land. The i r po sse a s ion s, i.e. the father'a or the grand-father's 
bnds. Each of them guards against the other, i.e. each of them 
ngllinsttheother. Each of t.hem gives apled!Je of indemnification, 
i.eo a pledge of two' screpalls' to observe the law of the co-tenancy; i e. 'di ' is a 
ncgative, that II,e finefor the injury done b) the cattle of each wou1d not fall upon 
the other.' 
'To the Qther'.-There seems to bc some error or defect in the MS. here, 




bp.ero:;ha eoma1t
hcera an'Dro. 

1.Ut..'ilTS OF 
a.virrII iI C[O:QifOO)- 61t#v"z,. 

Catp.-e1'D 'DOrec a comatcer? "Oorec lwn'D tme. 
Cach tme co na rmaçcmb, cach cutf1;5tttt cona catche; 
ap.....LJ11bt<rG rmaçca nt btac catche; t mbtro:; cmche fit 
bwclrmaëcu. 1m'D1nEmb nat'Dm naermb. [
Á<j R, ,"-y.l. -t>..dí'..-fu f ç,,) 

 7vf'tð<,v E [C-S'4Z-) 

Af..t Li." 2. . 

ç CalP.-CI'O 'Ooret; a comalcer, .1. commp.clm C1't> 'r p,emteécaé11 
'rm mtech1!f cumal'Oe. "Doret; p,a'h'O 1 m e, .,. If p.emceécms''Ò t1Um 
mn'Onalme'Oo'Oenam. Cach Ime co na rmaécalb,.I.cac 
Ime 5ufln ni rmaccmst!m< aSa 'Oenam, .1. p,amu rp,1 ctmr, roc '1-'1'1.1 C01lG1'O. 
b'mt'l-ì" 'OU1p,lme, p'Oba nJJ. retma. Cach CalP,51ttl cona cmche, 
'0.1. na me1é .,. caé sett c'olp,ltnech 1lQ In rmé 'Oum(!'tmte. Con a ca 1 çh e 
.1. EeLt 'Oa rcp.epg1L. CCp. 1 mÙlac rmaéca nl b,at; calche, 
ump, bmrmi rmatcmstep, ann, in p,milU ocuf in roc rP,1 cop,m'O, f]Qéa bla'Ò 
im '00 b
ap, 'r",na cmcmb .1. l1a melë no 111 rmch 'Oume cmëe. 1 m blac 
calche nl bwc rmaét;a, .1. in ump, b
c na melé no in rmé 'Ol11ne- 
c11mte l!Qéa bm'Ò 1II1p.ama'Ò 1111 ctmf OCUf m roc rp,1 cop,a'Ò. 1 m'O!n5a1 b 
n aI'Om n aeralb, .1. 'r elm 'Omsbmchep,'Oo p'61p' nuareara conaé nal'Om 
nafCmrLe Ult p.e comatta'Ò in commtcera, aëc ma seatL. 

J.H In-
......"l i'/r) 
Catp.-CO'Dencup. cotmmcer 1 anflan'i')CUfl atte a11 
cP.etr!; 1nEmhw11 mte tme 'Uta ct1tcn; tmr011ctn'Dmlt 
u) mte 'Uta 'DechmÇQ'De; tncomattwp, 05 tme 'Dta mtr. 

^ O/f 

Calp,-Co'Oencap, comalcer, .1. commp.clm cmnur '00 nkhep, 111 
cmteéurcumm'Oe. Unp,an'Ocap, alte at' cp,elre, .1. up,p,anncap,in 
reap,ann uma n'Ocncap, 111 cmLe ap, cp,élfl. 1 n Sa1!Jcap, aI te 1 m e '01 a 
cu 1 CC 1,.1. sa!J!!p.mLe 'Oo'Oen
m 1 fOJlbu 
t1 úlme, o2':r'Oa tú 'Oúlbp,e bua1l1 
1J reu'Òa, 1mrU1LC11l-oCUp, mLe 'Om 'Oechma1'Oe, .1. r i 1 Lcm 'Ocqllm 
^1l0CC UlLe 'Oó cop,aéc 1 rop,!Ju 'Oeëmmde, c1l1múta 111 éip, 'Op,al51n. 111 c 0- 
muttt;ap, 0;:; Ime 'Ola mlr. .1. ccmt.unG1Etu} 111 ime com tan '00 cop,a

mn a F
bu in mif' 

I Pletlgf.-' TargilIe' here signifies a pledge of two · serepalls' lodged with a 
neighbour for the !}II)'ment of d..mages. 
. Compltteil in a motlth.-Dr. O'DonoTnn haa made the follo"ÍIlg remark on thia 
point :-" The 11U1b'll8ge ia here vcr
' rude cDd un
atisfa(tor;)', It could be im- 



 j..>.. ...v . 


Questioll- What is the first thing in the co- JUDO- 
tenancy?- The divi
ion prececles fences. Every CO-TE
fence is liable tu" legal conditions; every pledgel to AXCY. 
d 1 h " . Ù J b 1 & Ir With 
amages; W lOre t e requuntes comman e y aw . . 
are obJerved there are no penalties; where there 
. '4

 --.., 't>-<L, 
are fines, the thmgs commanded by law are not ob- f? / ð . "7 
served. T-hB--new cus tom--ttwids socucit y. . .. 
q _ d' L . " dd- --,,( 7- c-w-I. ", ,
Q uestion-Wha t i8 the first th i ng, i.e. I ask what comes foremost in . 
the common co-tcnancy?-The division precede8 fences, i.e. I deem it 
foremost that the division of the land should be made before the fences. Eve r }" 
fence, is Ii ab Ie to Ie g al COil d i t ion 8, i.e. everJ fence should be made by 
"What the law commands, i.e. a spade for maki"!J a trench, a bar for a stone 
fence, a hatchet for a strong fence, a billhook for a 'felma'-fence. Every 
pIe ,I get 0 dam age 8, i.e. the sacks, every relieving pledge, or the fine for 
man-trespass. To damages, a pledge of two 'screpalls.' Where the 
requisites commandcd by law are obse,'ved, i.e. where the thing 
commandcd is ob<crvcd, i.e. the spa,Ie for a trench, and the bar for a stone wall, 
the things to be paid in for the faults arl' not to be gh en, i.e. the sacks or the fines 
for ""here there arc fines the things commanded Ly 
law are not obscr"ed, i.e. when the iMs or the penaltie'l for man-tres- 
pass are dlle, the spade has not been brO!J!fht for maLin!J the _tren';"h, amI the Lar 
for the stone-fence. The new custom, i.e. it iswe1l
by (accordill!J 
ew know1cdg
 that it is not the 
 of a 
hat is iJiven to observe 
,.,,,I1.1. -lAw< 
the co-tenancy lmc, 

t a pledge. I'" .. 

Question-How is a co-tcnancy made ?-It is di- 
vided in three days for the stakes; the fencing is 
becnlll in five days; the fence is finishecl in ten days; 
o ff;..-J /.6At- 
the perfect fence is completed lR--ii. month. \I 


Question-How is a co-tenancy made, i.e. I as}. how is the common 
tenancy made?-Itis ,livided in three days, i.e. the land on which the 
stake (palisade) fence is to Le made is divided in three days. The fen c in g 
is be gu n in five day s, i.e. the fcnce is commenced to be made at theendof th e 
da}'8, and two da} s are allowed to them to cut its wood. The fen c e is fi Il ish e d 
in ten days, i.e, it is truly finished a, to its reaching the condition ora naked 
palisading at the end of ten daJs, excepting the L1ackthorn crest at fop. T I: c 
perfcct fence is completed in a month, i.e. the complcte fence is 
brought to its completion at the expiratiun of the mouth. 

proved thus: Quære--How is a farm of common occupancy formeù ?-In thrce <1ap 
the lamI is mark!',} out for feneing. The feneing must be commence,) in fh e ').iys 
(of which two dSJs are allo\\e,I for cntting.the tim\.ler). In tcn d.IJs 
e fenccs 
must \.Ilset up and tinished, with the exccption of the b1ackthurn crest at tOI', "hkh 
must \.Ie completed a month after the" ork has been cOlllmenced." 

72 l )JH'(ft"ha Comwrhcpra an"Or o . 
t "';'W.8


H' eU1'L
ell'D1Uï:; J1l1uehr((
1I1eoÇ!!.J'C01llU1ce!,a? -Smudlw 
- 1me, llama f1u clWf, roc f1u C01tat'D, blatt f1u 'Dmlume, 
(". ""c...- I .. 
oh. t (7/.-) 
 }-'1'Dba'D .j1t! Felma"O. -"Omp.c^caç!Ja q161f1 na'DlmC01ttl;m.Goe.- . 
 !tt- tlã11Ì:O
 ltóreota FatP.
 Ce1d111.e 1me 'DO
ctl1f1n: etm!, 
1/0'h lS5"bf } (.1.-4-, e- 5"col1.a, 'DtI11t11ne, retma'D. al1 a1te , 'r o 'D at t lc cacha qlC1f1 ' GJþlj lÞ
11Cl'D1mC01tt ll.atfi,toe FJu cach 111me. ,fC,Z j/4 it 



Cal p.-C a '0 I at: fmacn t:a Ime? .1. commp.clm ca'Ol
nanete fmag;- 
Ulst.!J.1). ac 'OenÇ!!ll na 11ímelfìn mtecnurcummi>e. Sm acn t: a 1m e,.1- If e 
l1í rmaët:mstep. acu ac 'Oenum na Mme. fl'Oba'O fP.1 fetma'O, .1. 
10 nUf 10 rat mmt, fP.lf 10 nocnt:mte. felf oduf mp.tlman'Oa co LOP.Ui;.- 
ç;al1l laP. mm'0111, OCUf tí51 1 t6 OCUf P.l11P.IU U1i>ël, paë fe1f1 m'O{;lb 
U1tl, mp.tlm tm oluf P.U1111l1 tm, oluf t:mp.rce mi>ë" oluf mi>ël,tet 
pacn f!'lfI m'O{;lb l11tl- "OalP.t: cacha t:p.elfl na'Olmcolp. p.a1n'Oe 
p.o feota fal p., .1. 'Omp.r; caëa t:p.e'fl p.o"metar ml1, munub 1 ín íme 
'(If elm C01P. 'OÚ '00 p.mne um a p.omn. C el t:h p.e 1 m e '00 cu 1 r' n, .1. 
jl't híme 'Olrcnms{;hep.1lQ tal1p.tur{;up.. ctalf, cop.a, .1. ctmf no 
cup.u IfÎn noët:machmp.e. "OUlp.lme, .1. 1f\T1 ëmtt,I.I. T1oë
mte,{l1o)lf 10 
tet maèmp.e. "" ".("" II 



c.f Ill." 

. . 

 :t!3 0 1j LD'hlj
 CAUVw-..v 1iL 
 I/7V 1/ wI': .1 

ma'O fe'O a 'Oelp. an fep. amt11Ë, If cumtLe cé
ach, otuf 
z01re'Ö a 'Oe1P. an fep. 
atL ní ' em 1
1'1., If nech '01a mbl LoS 

1 , Feis' -If'espas&, i.e. the IJing down of 0. beaqt in a tield after beiDg filled to 
satiety. This was a definite trespaa8. All this is apparently misplaced. For 
definitions oftrespasse., ,'ide rr. 1
4, I
.' Ruiri.. '-ll'upa88, i.e. po.osing" over fieMs. See p. 124, et .eq., infra. 
· The man out.ride, i.e. the suer or plaintiff. Dr. O'Donovan remarks here, II It 
is very difficult to express these ideas neatly in English. The following maJ con- 
vey to the English reader a fair idea of the meaning :_ 
"If the suer 68ye, 'This 8t..1.e ha" injured my bpsst ollcr; it is unla\\fully con- 


CY HERE. 7a 
'-r W- f 3/5' 
Questiull-'Vhat arc the r e
ui. itü s C4-IHHI1R1H1,éd h y JLL'V- 
lart".a of fcnc
ttrlla ncy ?-The req uÜ;Ïtes for the 

fences are a spade fur making a trench, a bar for a A
stone wall, a hakhet for a 
!J5?ng fence, a billhouk '

for a ' felmadh '-fence. .A' 
r Ù the fine for fi"e.. 
cyerythree days that he (the. co-tenant) 


 the prop61' portion1
hich had fallen to him. {
There are four ki?
ds of fences w hieh-lnigh t--be-re- IX <-/1 
..qtrired-a trench, a stone wall, a strong fence, a 'fel- 
rnadh '-fence; or else, according to others, it (the fine) 
is a 'dairt '-heifer for every three Jays during which 
he (the joint tenaitt), has not made the proper portion 
of every fence. 

Question-What are the requisites commanded by law of 
fen c e s? i.e. I ask what are the things which are commanded for making the 
hedge in the common usage. The requisites commanded for the 
fen c e s, i.e. it is the thing which is peremptorily ordere<l for making the fence. 
A b i IIh 00 k for a 'felm ad h '-fe nee, i.e. for making the good fence (' fa1 
maith '), i.e. for the naked fence. (' Feis '-trespass I and leaping onr fences, 80 
that they are caught in the morniug and I) ing in the day, . ruiriu '-trespass' 
by night, and the fine for' feis '-trespass;3 paid for them all; a.r to' airlim '-trespass 
by day and' ruiriu '-tre<pa'-" by day and' tair<ce '-trespa<s by night and . airlim'- 
trespass by night, hnlf the fine for' feis '-trespass ;3 due for them all) A 'd ai rt '. 
heifer for every three days during which he has neglected 
to mak

, i.e. a
irt'-heifer for everytbree 
dan' that h
, iÏii be nnt the fence which is 
r him he bas made 

n. Four fences which might be required, i.e. four 
lcind3 of fences are prescribed or required. A tr e n c h, a s ton e w a 11, i.
. a 
trench or wall on the bare plain. A strong fence i.e. in the wood,/i.e. 
a naked fence, or in the halI-cltared plain. " 



If what the man outside" says i'i, it i'i a stake of first fault, and 
what the man within says is, it is not in fault at all, the com- 

'I C:I.J3 I-{- 

etrncted, ami I demand satisfaction for the injury,' and if the defendant deni
that his stake is nnlawfully forme<l or fixed, or that it could ha\e done any injury 
uuless unlawfully meddled with, then any person who has sufficient honour- 
price to qualify him may settle the diqpute, Rnd decide the satisfaction to be made 
for the first injury done by the unlawIul stake, or declare that the stake is lawful, 
and th'1t no injll1:r has occurred by means of it. 
"If the suer Ba)S, · The stake is unlawfully made and fixed, and has now in- 
jure,l my he..-t for the -p,', 11<\ timp, or the tl,ir,l time,' aud the defend.m! replies, 


bp,em;ha Comwt;hcera an'OfO. 



émeeh an at
hEm y1.O bla'Ó ua'Óa ma eéCema1'o; eona 'Oeytna em 
1P., Irtan '00. 


ma'O,re'Ó a 'Oell" an rep. amUI"S, 11' eUa1tte 'Oeem
aé no 

ach h
, oeur a 'OeI111tl fep. 
att 11' eUa1tte eé

, 11' t.en:h f1P. 
5" no tan
Pl1 '00 feu11 tet '0111e no tan_'DIp.e 'Oe; oeu1' att:h5m ua'Ó 
ina e
i: ema1'Ó, oZUf noêa Eaban'O Ep.enll Ime 'Olb "LajÍelr 'OuI111me, 
Ua111 tina'Ó 'Oulttebu11m et.alr, oeuf b111f1'O'O an eop.a'Ó. 
a '00 ma'O na eetp.a i11 eém betap. ea fa111cf1n, tet a mbw 
ma na1p.Ì1m Ire'Ó blaf ma 
a1P.1'CI, 11' é a111é
 m 111
h co P.UIEI 
'0 q11 'Oa1p.n, ama1t <rea rmaé

 cluJtwr- ')þ 1/-0/ 

.3 A 

CCft<<1te, 11' 'D al 1'1:: cacl1 a 1::1'611'1 na'Dlmcol1' 1'aln'De f1' l 
caell 111 me, .1. J;ne 6:te, .," '1' 'D<<11'1:: aft eael1 l::1'elf1' munab 1111 1'om'D If 
elm C01ft 'DO 'DO 1'15ne 'Dlm,.õ. 
'" A 
CI'O fa'Oa co 110-Eab\!!.'Ó 'Oume '00 ta1m r111'Orat:am U eo'Oa '00 
/r; 'Oenu1I1 '0011 eonllatëer, 1l0cha 11fult rmat
 fWP. muna 'O e 1 uw 
fo t;(ut , ocur 'Oa n', lea e1111e Q fOEtQ:. 0 EebY.f 1m!:!ru1o, 011 
'Oume '00 t.wm t;mnra
a111 a eo'Oa 'Oon eomwéer '00 'Oenam, at:Ú 
 ralp., .1. 'Oa1P.
 eaêa qtelf1, muna i:a1mc; no ee tamlE, 
muna 'Oelma hue; no ee '00 p.m'Ol, muna be a p.omn bo'Oem p.o 
al1; no e1'O h1 a l1an'O bo'Oe111 p.o Imer<:ap., munab i in ime 11' 
C01P. 110 1mep::ap.; no CI'O hI 111 Ime 11' COIP. '00 p.ln'Oe ime, ma 110 
Lt:({I1. rel1 U1t1 OCur ren'Ò co "Laba1p.
 raeb a'Ò 1-1 1111 . 
Ocur in pnaë"f: 1'111 '01c '00 co ccn'O mil', olu1' can ni 'OIC 0 fm 
amach co cen'O 11111' ci;'t1 . OCUf Eeatt 'Oa n;p.epgLt 6 caé COTJ1U1'Ó
2( tech a11 'Od5am "L1"S1 a ce1t1 fO COfa1b a tepta 11e comat.lm'> 
 an comwéëera; otu1' cin co C0111U1tt
êo ne an Eeutt 
1'111 'CUIt;1r an'O, a

 an rma

 a 'Oub11am':!11. '11Oma111'O, no meleh, 



I No, this is the fhst instance t113t it hll9 caused any iujury,' the neighbours will 
then decide bJ" compurgation, which has the truth on his side. If the
' decide in 
favour of the defendant, he shall make compensation for the Drst injurJ' whid. i 
technically called the first crime of the stake. 
,I ]<"jnes do not lie for injuries dOlle hy any of the other fences from the firm or 
close wooden fence np, . becau. " says the commentator, 'the fali.lge fil!s the 
trench, antI the trec
 brea1. the stone wall.'" 

l e. t1"J 

J: (j), 
'.È'!"iL = Mt Uvlfl. rJ cf 1'ty/-) Jv 'IJ 1f#l -tJ. 

 ffit cÞ1L 
 -tÞ (
,y,.Ju',,) -jrrJ 1f'MJ- l t St, i -} f/vJ J; I'w'! t
ANCY HEHE. f1-.dt 
' .,s1ftr.>>-, (rwi 
IV ftrtl",
) k fu 
pensation that is obtained from him for its first fault is for one JUDG- 
that has honor-price to decide;' if no fault at all has been commit- ME'iTS OF 
ted, he is freefrorn blame. AXCY. 
If what the man outside says is, "it is a stake of two faults 
or three faults," and the man within says, "it is a stake of first 
fault," it is half proof or full proof that removes half' dire '-fine 
or full' dire '-fine from him; and compensation is obtained from 
him for its first fault, and none of these fences 
 the 1!Itrong 
m':lii 9
, t;t1r<:
 heM (cktim3 df!;IÒf!tJ
 , for foliage fills the trench, 
and trees break the stone wall. 
As to the trespasi>es which the cattle commit while they are 
seen, half of that fine which lies for their' airlim '-trespass shall be 
for their' tairsci '-trespass, and the extent of its increase is to three 
'dairt '-heifers, as it is in other' smaeht '-fines. 

W t-I Q,. 



Or else, it is a 'dairt'-heifer for every three days during 
which he has not made the prOper portion of every fence, i.e. 
another Hrsion, i.e. it is a 'dairt '.heifer for enry three da)'s, nnle<s it bc the 
division that is right fur him, he has made of the rent. 
Huwever 10Jlg a person may h.wp delayed taking iJl hand to 
cummeJlce the l'erformiJlg of Iris share of the co-tcm'acy duties, there 
is JlO 'smacht' -fine UpOJl him unless trespass has been committed, but 
if it has beeJl committed, he shalll'ay the' eric '-fiJle of the trespass. 
But, from the time that the man has takeJl iJl hand to begin to do 
his sharc of the eo-teJlaJlcy duties, he is liable to 'smacht '-fine, 
i.e. a 'dairt '-heifer for every three days of delay, unlcss he has 
come; or, though he ha'! come, if he has Jlot made a feJlce; or 
though he has made it, unless it be his OWJl portioJl hc has feJlced ; 
or though it be his 0" Jl share he has fenced, tmle

 he has made 
the propcr kind of fCJlce; or though it be thc proper feJlce he has 
made UpOJl it, if he has put up old o.akes or old pdC8, trusting 
to them for a fence. And he bhall paya this 'smaclit' -t1Jle to aIr. ra!l8. 
the eJld of a mOJlth, but shall pay JlothiJlg afterwards till the expira- 
tion of another month. And each cu-tenant · shalll'lace it pledge of 
tlw value cif two' screpalls' on onc of the rack pins of each other's 
houses at the feet of the bed as security for the fulfilment of the a" 
duties of co-tenancy; and though he shoulll not fulfil them, thia.i.8 " 
not the l pledge that shall be forfeited for it, but the' smacht '-fine 
",hich we ha,e mentioned before, or s..c1.s, or fines for man- 

, To decide.-- 'There is 
ome defect in the IllS. here. 1'o/Þ 
· Ca-teml7lt, . comarótech ' mC.llls alsu co-tiller, or eo-grazier, or co-occupant. 


bp,em:11(( eommt;hce)'(( ((111'))'0. 

.J UDG- 

110 fI((ch 'Dulllccwr;he fO (i1cnc'O nn: F05t
, 111a rw far f05a1t ann. 
ulur 11' la'D WIlIli Lír 
u ac 'DC11alll U COU( 'D011 CúlllwÜ'r tlO ((11 
ll11e, l1atiJa 1111 ctalr, roc 111,1 C011ill..'Ò, Ul((1t 111,1 'DU1111me, f1'D
retma. oéur 
Znaë CWc11 'DIU (( hum a celblr m a1'Òëe, co flo 
5" cumn,s, tur L1aër;alll n:fl' 11la1'D1f! 'DO 'Oenn:1lI (( cora 'Don COIII((1- 
chcer; OCl1r m n na nl1('l'
 lrtn:n (( ((11.f1n:ë '00 cmrh!:.1)l, ()('ur}'D1U. 
('mn-qt al1.f1((c nClch, m:a paì' r0111l11111le ua'Ò. 061)' 11' P C0111. 
7!Cl1l1la na ct((raë q
i L)W1"St! ma t
ter;_ WI1. f1lWÜ:al1., OCur 'Da 
L)W1È al1. me'ÒOI1, Ocur "{;)W1È WI1. 111ër((I1., oeur L}t! "{;)Wlbt1 ma 
 t;ul1."Obe, Ocur "{;)1i rflolÈt! (( tetet: an 11lU1P. cUIl.t:al1. WI'Ll WIt 
mët:al1., oeur 'Da qWI5 (q1. 11le'Òon, oeur "{;)w15 1((lt 11Uaëral1., ocur 
q<.1 ql.01Ëtl111 a111.'Dl 11111lU111., eomro ré "{;)wl;ste 111 atfl'DI na etarach 
ra111 oeur m atfl'De 111 mUlp. ar a cm'D. 

(o;!.2./ 60) 

.,:r;-; ..}o' 

If 0'4' 7 

1r COlla Imup.p.o, "{;)1.1 t;p.Olte mu tetat; laP. f11l:t:ap., oeur '00: 
's <11015 al1. meo'Òal1, oeur L}W1È laP. nuaëral1., ocur ré "{;)lOrSi1 ma 
In 'DWI'-111l6 II1l Ull1W , II' ((1lItu'Ò 'Dtftal1. a 'D6nuIÎl fl'6e; bap.p. 1f1 
CJlOm'D alt UU1l m qlOm'D 6lte, ocur COl1a t:1ra m ral1.e bee {"flIt! 
(q1. 'ÒtU1t!, na m 'Dam t; a l1. m r al1. mlwl. =
 L'6- It .v ,,/) 
20 lnoëra1tl 11' amta 'Dt
tal1. Irl'Òe; t;P.015 co ll'Dlt nop."Oun It;lP. 
.\'1 "'\4.- .J ')( 
5aë 'Da eumtte, oeur re t;p.01Ët!111a hmp.'De, no 'Da 'Dol<.n" 'Déc, ma 'DO 
'Dop.nU1b t:0111lIrt:ap.; 11' rru bunehulp. fGlP., bunc1lul1. rGlfl tap' 
..... rrC j
" I) .. 
mërap., oeur ((11elh
 ((P. 11l6'DOn, oeur ap.mte lap. I1Uaet:aP.,oeur a'D 
It:1P. 5ad1 'Dn: bunehup.; ocur 'DOIUlfîrot: in chumtte 0 rfean amu11l,
ts ocur c1)1. 'Dp.015en fmp. lal1. nuaët:al1.; ocuf qli beiIl1m'Da;..a cean'D J.dc f".,.
sacha cumtte comap. 1m rá'Òa al1. t:úr ama1t comccra. 

r t .. h 
1mroa 11l'Dtetap.lla lme'D 1'111 .1. C ((If no cop.a'l> 11' 1f\ mac mfle, 
ocur noët;m
 11' m tetmaehmp.e, ocur 'Da1fllme 11'111 CGltt. Ocur 
ct1L}Ulma 1 na'11"01 tllte. 
I His vic/llClls.-The word 'af1.naë,' here translated, 'yictuals,' occurs under the 
forms · e(1)Hmach,' '1'f1.<<nach,' and' l'f1.ll<<ê, in a paragraph on co-tenancy, in 
the" Filln,ruth Fithil," (0'0. I:;;;G), \\here it i
 added. that if a man's '''f1l1uc. 
he u<ed .. he is not entitled to compensation, nor to a fine for oyer use." The term 
ma)' mean the metal implements each co-tenant "as obliged to have for the 
work of fencing. As a term for the ploughshare and coulter together, it is still II 
li\"ing wf>rd in the south of Ireland. 

if-: D1 
 i IIZ./f, O'J.k(-.H1( 



trespass, according to the nature of the trespass, if trespass 
has taken place therefrom. And the implements which they 
shall have in making their shares of the co-tenancy work, or 
of the fence, are a spade for a trench, a bar for a stone wall, a 
hatchet for a strong fence, awl a billhook for a' felma '-hedge. And 
 each of them IJh:tH gú;.0 hi8' iebRliL in
 the hand of the other 
at night, that he may remember to come 
 ' t e moming tp do hÏ.!!1- . JO 
 '" -:rr C< <.or L? c.} _ '-<M': 8 
share of the co-tenancy work; and the y 's _' 
 I'- 36-lt 




'a,,",J d if h 
 f f h 
_,an t e'
SO anyo tern' ./ 
) be use
 he shall pay fine for over-use. And the true making of the 
trcnch 18 three feet in its breadth at the top, and two feet in the 
middle, and one foot at the hottom, amI tl1ree feet in its del)th, antI 
three feet the thickness of the mound which is placed over it, at 
the bottom, and two feet in the middle, and one foot at the top, 
(tnd three feet the height of the mound, so that the depth of that 
trench and the height of the wall over it make- six feet. aIr. Ar!. 
Now as to the stone fence, tltere are three feet in its thick- 
ness at the bottom, ami two feet in the middle, and a foot at the 
top, and six feet in its height. 
But as to the :fence, it is thus it should be made: the top 
of the one tree shall be on the trunk of the other tree, and so as 
that the smallest suckling pigb could not pass through it for its b Ir. The 
closeness, nor the ox pass over it for its height. little pig. 
The naked fence should be thus made: t/te lengtlt of a foot.t.o the ,I 
articulation (or separat ion) of the big toe is to be between every two 
stakes, and six feet in its height, or twelve hands, if it be 
measured by hands; and three bands of interwoven twigs2 upon it, a 
band on it at the bottom, another in the middle, and another at the 
top, and a certain space between every two bands; and a hand is the 
length of the pole (tlte interweavillg) from that out,3 and a black- 
thorn crest upon it atJ

and every stake should be flatteneJ 
at top by three hlows:
truck on its head, after being first thrust úy 
the /tand on tlte ground as well as you can. 
The places where these fences should be are tltuS, i.p. a trench 
or a stone wall in the plain, and the naked fence in the half-plain, 
and the close fence in the wood. And the height of them all is equal. 

Co- TKS- 

. Bands oft nterwol1!n twigs.-' bUllcnop.,' literally, 'hntt-settillg,' means a band 
of oziers interwoven between the standards or stakes. 
8 For 'amum ' here which seems to male no sense, Dr. O'Donovan conjectured 
. anunn,' and translated accordingly. Professor O'Curry translated "0 r ean 1tt
amum," "above the wickerwork." The MS. Hawlinson, 
87, fol. 64 a, col. 2, 
bas "amum." tI'A - ð, 

liD L Cs4:t f- ) 
.J UDG- 


b1 tead w Comwt;ncera an 'Oro. 

A t.blt.t., 


8ma cht; a m'ltE,tt, caçþ lW1tt 1L'Qt ram1ta'Ò OCl1r 
e"C\1Jtrc a l1. a 'O ocur caomL aét; ; ach r n1 Cl1ma c<tn ,m t;ta;Satt; 
ocur et;ap.fcalWt;, 1 1an 'OL'ap. "Dono 1n bLta'Oatn 1 n'Oe flU 
rm a c11t;a, cqt n1 COrmatt rmaëé'
cacha 1 ta1 t;he"ann rom 
r- a rm ach t;a Eatmruaëm ocur e1p,11acn EP,1t, all. 't1W,t;ne '1- 8
beoJ>et;hu t;011t;na. G1"1.e1'01b mtacn m1t;ep. ('(tcn neLne- 
mam, mtacn {"'nat;ntttmpat1te, t
mtach 11u monat a1 t 
at1tt1m ; bep.a 'Oe 'Oaru:;atE artre1r, at11r"re1r cacn LtEe' C,J''1(DþLJH) 
caë t;ap,p,a1'De, at11Ltm aët; na 'Oe1tret; naë t;ap,t;w'6e, aët; 
I t;ap.t;a1'Oe an'O 1at1 nat'Òe. 
()..uJ tJ.v' 


..sJi. tf 

 z.t 51lJ- 

fj f.bll 1,., 

8maét:a t:altl5lLLI each tlaltl, ." In 111 fmaët:m
etlt:atlcenn na 
n5 eLL t:oltl ltne é each tlmte. 1 t:1P. famp.a'Ò. .1.111 etllc. et:up.fcap.a'O 
." 1111 et:1!Jlfcatluf P.lf 111 5eimp.e 'Oon etltl<<ch. Caomt:aét:, .1.11li blf 
111acholm1'Oecht:'Oe. N I cum a conlmt:1 a5a1 t: ocuf et:ap.fcatlat:, .1. 
I}acht: ni CtIt:ßuma inljblf aC01ml'Og!;t: 1115elmp.I'O 'Oon etlp.ach o
ufi111 et:utl- 
fcatluf P.'f 'Oe. Ran 'Ot:ap. 'Oon 0 1 n bLI a'Oal n, .1. up.p.annt:atl'Oono 111 
bLta'Oa111 <<p. '06 p.e hlc fmaèt:a. ap' nl cOfma1L fmaét:a cacha 
p.alt:he, .1. ump. noea cOfmU1L ini fm(((zmst
 an'O in each p.mte. 
(Cnnfom a fmacht:a 5a1mfuaét:a,.I.lf'Oonan
lb Ir111nranolr 
'.annr a a'Iln 111i rmact:wstetl a fuact: 11l 5eimp.e. elp.p.ach,.1 
111 ump. bIT ap. na h111111Llb IT 111 ep.p.ach. CCp. 'rp.UIt:he beD 
bet:hu .1. atl If umrLe 111i '00 beltl beata '00 na bumb Ifln 5élmp.e na 

er!l quarter.-Upon this Dr. O'Donovan obsen'cs :_" A literal translation 
of this passage eon1d not be understood by an English reader." The following is 
submitted WI the closest that could bp considered intelligihle :__ 
.. Relieving pledges are ordained for evelJ' quarter of the year, both in summer 
and in the parts separated from or added to it, but these parts are not equal, for 
the year is (livided in two regn1ations for the' smacht '-regulations of every quarter 
are not alike. The' smacht '-rpgulations of the winter. and the cold portion of 
spring are more difficult, for living food is more noble than fruit. 
"Three sacks are estimated as the fine for trespa&Bing 011. all rich land, half a sack 
for pastured land, and half a sack for a mountain. 
"Two' dairt '-heifers lire adjudged for lying down satiated after g1"azing, for ev



Additional pledges for' smacht '-fines are paY(lvle JLDG- 
every quarter I of a year, both in summer and in 
the parts of autumn cmd spring, subtracted from or 
aJded a to 'winte'r; but the parts added and subtracted. Ir. S pa- 
l fi t l . d . . d d . t t ration and 
are not equa, 01' lle year IS IVI e 111 0 WO accmnpani- 
parts\! for 'regulating 'smacht '-fines, for the' smacht ' - ment. 
fines of each quarter are not alike, veca'ltse it is diffi- 
cult to regulate the 'smacht' -fines of the winter 
season, and of the spring cold,3 for saved provisions 
are more precious than growing grass. Three sacks 
are estimated 101' damage committed by trespass in 
cornlalld, a sack in pastured land, half a sack in a 
mountain field; two' dairt '-heifers for' feis '-trespa.."Js, 
for every lying down is called' feis '-trespass when 
detected; every detection is 'airlim '-trespass if they 
(the cattle) have not lain down, but detection therein 
after a night. 



 l4</t I(


Allditional pledges for 'smacht'-fines every quarter, i.e. the 
thing which is ooda: no 'l 
 the relieving pledges every quarterof a year. In 
summer, i.e. the 'eric'-fine. Subtracted, i.e. the part of the spring which 
i'l detached from winter. Added to, i.e. that part of it which accompanies it. 
Uu t the parts added and separated are not equal, i.e but the part 
of spring which is added to the winter, and the part wlüch is subtractel! from it 
are not equal For the year i'l (livided, i.e. the year is divided into two 
IHrta for the ,'e!JtllatiOl.of payment of 'smacht'-fines. For the 'smacht'- 
fines of every quarter are not alike, i.e. for tl:1e thing ordained bylaw 
in each qunrter is not alike. It is difficult to regulate the 'smacht'- 
fines of the winter scason, i.e. the thingcommaDllcd to be given as fines 
(luring the cold of the winter is among the difficu1t things of law. S p r i ng-c 0 Id,b b Ir. Sldn,'- 
i.e. when the cattle are shivering in the spring. For s a v e d pro vis ion 8 are ing. 
111 0 r e pre c i 0 u s, i.e. for more noble is the thing which gives food to the cows 

Iring down when detected is a' feis '-tre-pass. It is an 'airlim '-tre-pass if they 
.Iid not lie down. No fine for lying-down lies for any detection, except their being 
caught in the morning." 
. The year is divided into tlCO parts.-According to C. 23, the year was divided 
into two unequal parts. The' Samfucht,' or wann season, comprises five montll'l, 
\ iz., the last month of spring, the three months of summer, and the first month 
of autumn; and the 'Gllmfucht' comprised se\en months, viz., the two last 
months of autumn, the three months of winter, and the two first months of spring. 
3 Spring cold.-That is, during February and March, wlùch were considered a 
part of the winter. See p. 89, infra. 


bp.e<rrha Com((1t;1!cera al1'DrO. 

"' JUDG- mí 'VO bell' t:;o1'U 'Vólb lf1n
t:;raml'o'Ó. 'Gl'el'Vlb mlocn m,t:;el' 
 C !ENTSOF cocn net:;nemoln, .1. t:;p.e1'Oe '00 mmcn
b If ne ní melfemnmst
.:s'- I .
, . m t. t.' 
. ASC\". I felfocuf In rnl""lm'Olsu1T1feOll'et:;m
 10C" I n((t:;""umpOll'e, .1. 
/.. _ félfattumpU1)1.eflJ01l'etamuínt:;f((ml'ot:;o. Getmlocn fl" monU!, 
'i .1. í nm} attumpU1J1.e mono selml'et:;o 11e 'Ð15um mono faT11)1.i{n(. 
be )1.(( '0 e '00 1't:; 0 's 01' fel f' .1. bp.e...!.temnmst
 'Oe '001'""2'
rcl'epott 0)1. celtl'e mlOémb, .1. I rf"f '015u1T1 reOl1' et((T11Um selT11I'H:a. ".;;jj 'I 
 CBlf3 lCI' If felr cocn tlse coé t:;al'l'oli>la;.,. S1)1.1cfelf1foI'1 1U 0 
t01'1101S"Cel' on'O 1Ot:;t:; mo t,se. ce111 tl m 0 ét:; no 'Ð I' I t fet:;, .,. eluc 
{I ((\I'Llme 01'110 oét:; no J1.O L0I51t:; onn. n 0 é t:; (( l' t:; 0 I 'Ó e 0 é t:; t:; 0 1't:; 0 1'0 e 
on'O 101' n 01 'Ó e, .1. noéo t:;((1'1'
0111 éïte oyeJl'lm el"c fI'lfl 01'p.:!! 1110 
nOll'bm, oét:; 0 t:;Ol'rmét:;01T1 on'V 101' m01'Oín. 

II o'h" '-37 J" 

CElr-h111 ep,nalL1 eomap:Da m eomwëefa a nícqg:
 tanpaë 1'1'11", 
.1. fell' tal', oeuf relf aröëe, 1',1111le nu llw'Öëe, oeuf a11lbm 11a 
 hw'Öëe, eona r-oltllaèr-am an a11ltm1 mm ap, mamm. Cet1le hl'l l - 
nmte eomall'Da an eomwi-pra ("( mcr-ap, tet paé felfl, .1. p,1111lC an 
tael, oeuf a11ttml an tam, r-W1lree na hm'Öèl oel1f ((ll1tl1TI 11a hm'Öée, 
eona t;01tp,
r-a1tl an mp,tfffi ann !all mamin. Let f1ueh mp,tfffi1 
in tacI a r-Wl1rel an tam, no tet puë r-mltl'cl na hw'Öt;1 a t; w l l fce 
an tal', ocuf If i fin an aen hep,nwtl cethlta1llan. 

&d'o. I}
''''''''' ow 1I'1.

 p t; ) 11J/çç7 




lo'/J 2/bJ) 

Ct"tp,e melt; a relf "015ona reolp, etnmam 5elmp,er-a t;ap, tan 
ime, 'Da m!aèma 1l((Ip,tl1l1,OCl1f mwè inn t;mltrcl. mar I attotllp a1 1 1C 
rcolp. etamam 5el tlll'.[e t;a) no 'Di511m mona 5elmp,er-a, no cwttc 
5em'ijwr-a, no atbl1mt!'Ö .5elmp,e'Da, no I n'D15om fcolll etnmam 
 r-ramp,m'Ö, 'Da mmë ina rell', oCl1f11l1aeh ina nmp.nm, OCl1r tet melt; 
ina r-mp,rcl. múr 1 attt1mpolp,e mona 5em1p,er-a, 110 cmUe 5 elm - 
p,er-a, no ad1 huwt,'Ö 5el mp, er-a, 110 attomp111p,e reol
etamam r-fUm- 
l l m:;n, no a n'DIg111
 mona famllm:;a no cmtte famp,m:;a, tnmë ina 
1'1'11', tet melch ina f
tïm, ceatp,mme m 
,eh ina r-alp,fcl. mÚr I 
1" attompl1Ip,e mona famllm:;a no Ca1tte rnmp,m:;a, 110 atbumt,'Ö l' am - 
l l m:;a, tet melch ma relf, OCt1f cedlp,t1,!me melch 111a rop.Hm, OCt1f 

U o'lJlf!i'l, CtLfI (, 

I E"cl
!edfield.-On the term "'Olsum," Dr. O'Donovan, quoting an old gloss, 
IIIYS, it meant grass which was not to be ,iolatcd, i.e. a meadow. 



in winlcr than the thin; which gives produce to them in the summer. T h r I' I' 
sacks are estimated for tJ'espass in cornland,i.e.three
estimated for' feis'-trespass and' airlim '-trespass in an inclosed meadow. A sa I' k 
in a pas t u red fi e 1 <1, i.e. for lying in a pa,tured fieM of grn 3 land in the summer. 
H a I f a s a I' kin a m 0 u II t a i n fi e 1 (1, i.e. for leaping into a pastured field 
of winter l1\!Jllntain land with an inclo<elllieM of summer mountain land. Two 
'dairt'-heifers shall be given for 'feis'-tres(lass, i.e. two 'dairt'- 
heifers of the mllle of two' .erepalls' "ilh four sacks arc adjudged, i.e. for' feis'- 
trespa<s in apI'opt/"Z!/jè'lIced \\inter grassland. Every J yi ng-dow n is ca lled 
'feis'-trespass, &1'., i.e. 'eric '-fine for 'feis '-trespass is charged on them when they 
are caught there J)ing down. 'Ai dim '-t respass if they h a"\ I' not 1 ai n 
d ow n, i.e. 'eric '-fine for' airlim '-trespass ü chm'!Jed on them if they have not lain 
down. Every detection, but detection therein after the night, i.e. 
it iq not for auy other detection I say that' eeic '-fine f, r 'feis '-trespass is charged 
on them for their' airlim '-trespass, but for their being caught there in the morning. 


Co- TEN- 
ANCY . Cf V 


There are four equal cases in a the co-tenancy in which full fine a Yr. Of. 
for lying down trespass is paid, i.e. lying down by day, and lying 
down by night, 'ruire '-trespass by night, and' airlim '-trespass 
hy night, and their being detected in their' airlim '-trespass there 
in the morning. There are four equal cases in the co-tcnancy for 
which halffinc for' feis '-trespass is paid, i.e. 'l'uÏ1'e '-trespass by day, 
aad 'airlim '-trespass by day, 'tairsce '-trespass by nigllt, and 
, ait'lim '-trespass by night, if they arc detected in theÏ1" airlim '. 
trl'<;pass then' in the morning. Half the fine for the 'airlim '-tres- 
P'l<;S by day is due in the cc'se of 'tairsce '-trespass by day, or half 
the fine for ' t.1Ïrsce '-trespa
& by night in the case if' tairsce' -tres- . 
pass by day, and this is tllC only case of a fourth (i.e. of fourtltfine). 7rAJ'fv 
Four sacks are due for' feis '-trespass in a wiuter grass field oyer 
a full fence, two sacks for' airlim '-trespass, and a sack for' tairsce ,_ 
trespass. If it be trespass upon a pastured field of winter grass land, 
or upon an Ï1lClosed field of winter mountain land, or winter wood, 
or an old winter milking place, or into an inclosed field of summer 
grass land, two sacks are due for 'feis' -trespass, and a sack for 
'airlim'-trespass, and Iw1f a sack for 'taÏ1'Sce '-treslJ3Ss. If it be 
trespass upon a pasturcd field of \\ inter mountain, or winter wood, 
or an old winter milking place, or a pa.<;tured field of summer grass 
bnd, or into an inclosed field' of summer mOtUltain or summpr 
wood, a sack is due for' feis '-trespass, balf a sack for 'airlim '. 
trespass, and a quarter of a sack for . taÏ1'Sce '-trespass. If it 
be trespass upon a pastured field of summer mountain or sumnH"- 
wood, or summer old milking-place, balf a sack is due for' fcis '. 
trespass, and a quartcr of a. sack for 'airlim '-trC'spa<;s, and the 

, ) 




bp.em:ha eommdH'era CCtl'ìJr o . 

J VI" ;;; _\I,"_'? 
UDG- oê'Cm<ro melch tna 'Cw1lrCe. OéL1lla'Ö an oêt;ma:'Ö ap. cach naen 
anlTlan'O nan5bU1'Ö, uwp. an5b
 caê mít a comméer. L((11 1 r CI 
((en anmutl't> an attl1l11p
 mona ramtwt;a, C1'O bé 'Oa tWlre'Ö, 
v, " 

_ tn relre'Ö twn'O tete ((enmelch. 1 r e ((l1lst; Clt;a 111 tllt fin co t WICI 
( '6?\ .. 'Cflt reêt; nanman'Ou '00 aen 1'eltb a 1l't>Ut amul't> 'Ca1 1 beflna'O((1u 
b N 1 U7. J , b . ... 
1' ame ; ocur mar 'Cafl aen e11nw '00 cua'Oa1l, rmact; a11 m ce'C 
anm\tW, ocur wt;h5m füOlfl 110 a1lú

\ ap. caé natlmunn 0 ta 1'111 

:\n. .......s OF 


"'Oa bw 111 pat 'Oumtmt! C111n'(;1 t;afl tan 1me, ocu1' bo ocur 
10 rrnil a1[c 'Cafl tet tme ; bo mar cm 1l11e It;ln; a 1l't>t5 otn feo11 1 5 CUll " 
fll'Ö ara 1'111. mar 1 attomp
 feolfl etamam 5 em1 fle'Ö, no 
a tl'015oín mona 5 elmfll'Ö 110 cwtt
 5 e1111.J:1J 'Ö, 110 atutlU1t.!'Ö 5Ç1J]J- 
t!!-'O, no a 1l't>t5om reo111 etamam 'Cramt1
, bo an'O ra11 tan 
tme, ocUr!-..t;flt cetj1amna t;C!}1 tet Ime; ramwrc mar dn tITle l'(;1fl. 

I ^/ 

I Mtlbl() 

IS m aft ca;htompUl11e mona no caltte, no atbtlwtrö 5em1 flct;a , 110 
attump\.lfle fCOlfl ctama11l 1'am1lca;a, no a n'Olt;om mona 110 
Calttt,110 Cltbl1a1t1 ramflClra, ram11'rC an'O Lat1 tan íme, OC1'r a 
rpOfla/ce"(;hflwme t;U11 tet nile, cotpw:' re 1'Qllp UU.. mar C111 tme 


2.g 111ara attompalfle m on a no c mt te,no atbumt!.rÇ!!!!Jl
a,cot pu. é 
.UI. rc;1.epatt am1 t;at1. tan Ime, oCtlr Cl 'Ccofla cett1amnu t;a1t tct 
tme, 'OU111"(; Cct;fll 1'Ql
t mar 5111 íllle In fl. 
- --- 

bo tn pach 'O umecalt! con'O"(;uua11t;ach 'Oafl t.,l,') 1mc, ocur 
cotp<:!f!l fW1" no fU111e 'Catl tet ime. LCl1l tanl1lìC m:4. t r tla mClch, 
1, ocur a tet .rafl tet ime, octlr 11Oéon fUlt ní mar cm Ime 1t;11 1 . 
Lall tan tme m::a 111 pach 'Otlme cwte ocur a t;e01w cctrtmme Lap. 
tei tme, ocur tet, mar 5in line 1t;.!1.'" 

Canal' t n5abu11. "(;eo11 a cetflwme 111 felch 'Oulnecwt! "(;a1\ tet 

I Re$tilulio7l.-That i8, the o1l"1lcr must muke good th
 grass or 
orn destro
by the animal. 



eighth of a sack for' tairsce'-trespass. The eighth ofthe eighth is the 
fine upon every trespassing animal, for every beast is a trespasser 
in a co-tenancy. For the' tairsce '-trespass of one animal upon 
:t pastured field of summer mountain pasture, whatever animal 
commits it, a sixth part of the half of one sack Ùi due, This 
extends. to three times seven animals of one henl in their going' Ir. The 
} ..., d ' f ' b th h length to 
over (IUerent gaps; an I It e over one gap ey went, t ere which t',il1 
is C smacht '-fine upon the first animal, amI compensation for grass "/Inis,tillit 
. 1 f h 7"eac'tes <fc. 
or com upon every amma rom t at out. ' 
Two cows is the fine for definite man-trespass over a full fence, 
and a cow and a ' samhaisc '-heifer if across a half fence; a cow is 
tlw fine if there be no fence at all. This is for trespass in a pre- 
served field of winter-grass. If it be trespass upon a pastured field 
ûf winter-gm<,s land, or upon a preserved field of winter moun- 
tain or winter wood, or olll "\... inter milking-place, or upon a pre- 
served field of summer gra.';s-Iand, a cow is tlw filw for it if across 
:t full fencc, and three-fourths of tile value if a cow across a 
half fence; a 's,tmhaisc '-heifer, if there be no fence whatever. 
If it be a pastured field of winter motmtttin or wood, or 
an old milking-place, or a pastured fielJ of SUIDmer grass-land, or 
a presen ell fielJ ûf summer mountain or wood, or an old milking- 
place, a 'samhaisc '-heifer is tlte fine for tresp(tss on it over a full 
fence, amI three quarters if a cow over a half fence, a 'colpach ,- 
heifer worth bLX 'screpalls,' if there be no fence at all. 
If it (tile trespass) be 
Ipon a pastured field of summer mountain 
or wood, or an old milking-place, a C colpach '-heifer of tlw value 
of bix C screpalls' is tlwfine for it if across a full fence, and three 
quarters if a ' colpacll '-lwifeJ/" across a half fence, a C dairt '-heifer 
of the vallie of four' screpalls,' if there be no fence at all, 
A cow is the fine for douùtfulman-trespass' if across a full fence, 
l1.lul a C colpãeh '-heifer is tlw fine upon him or her (tile trespassing 
úeast) across a half fence. For trespass committed across a full 
fence' the sacks '. are paul, and the half thereof (i.e. of tile saclf), 
across a half-fence, and there is nothing to úe lJaid as fine if thero 
be no fence at all. 
'Vhence is it (i.e. tile rule or precedent,) derived that it is three- 
quarters of the fine for man-trespass tltat is paid for the trespa8s 


Co- TEN- 

. The aacks. The tenn is here technically uscd. It meanB four sacks of oatB 
/lml baric)'. See .nFa, p. 119. 
. .1ltcn-tl"e.<pa.!a.-Tl1at is, tre-pa-s committeù by cattle with the connÏ\'/lnce of, or 
causcd by the owner, or somc pcrson in ch..lrge of them. 
VOL. IV. U 2 


blleadm eOn1((1dH'F-fa al11')fO. 

('0- TE:S- 

1IIH'. Ocur CO na p11t ((j''C tt't 11(( 1II1((eh? 11' ((1' 5((b!!l1, t
t in 
releh -oumeëC!1t1 cm Ime 1<;111-, OCU1' 111 tet elte -oe aro n;at tan 
ime; 1Jlard t
t Ime fUll, (111-0, cedl11aniJe ((1'10 rca'Ch t
t Ime ; 'CaùE!11 
111 m
æ rm (( fUltte'Ò 
1l tete fl11t cm Ime, co na LC01ta eet- 
ç 1'wme in felch -oumecwt1 "La11 tet illle. 
11.2ëon faËab!!1t nác ni -00 na m1((
((1b C1ll i1llc, C0111 
 -of'lp'Òl m 
"Lan a"La tet ill1e an-o, céll1a1> tet na puch -00 ùet a11 (( 1'5Ït"Lh. 




II O'/) /5bb 

 fUll, -o
tom 11U1111"Ò na airtime na "("((1111'51, na mé-oC!1Ët1 
lIa tC!1Ë-oI
t1 -omnltl a telrh roe -oum
C!1rhl; ocur cn:::a 'tJetùlli 
Ii) -o1\Som ocu1' attompall1e, ad)((lm ocu1' anutal1u, ocu1' (\"LU 'tJ
ill1e ocuf can imej CC"La a n-o
l l11tl r



CI'Ò 1'0 -oe11a 111 'Can If melch -ot
U11. Ifm fOÉ;alt co na fUll, ni 
C1I1 Ime 1'(;111; OCur 111 "Can If paë -o!,!!!!.eëalt111Jl!!1!jlO, co fUll, a tet 
1'1'Òe cm 1fTle 1"C1p? 11' é 111 rát 1'o-oeroa, 111 cOI1Jlé'C -00 Op-oa1Ë -o t1 5 1 
If ((1'. na hm-01t1 (ka ac P11 na nm-olt1 011110, ocuf 11I-ot1sreë -opr o 
an fC11am-o 5an 1me al51; OCUf C0111 cm co be_t ni -00 na mlgëalù 
'tJó m "Lan na ùla'Ò 1me al51. 11..Q.ëon FUll, a C01me'C -dtlsreë Imuppo, 
uc P11 na m-01t1 01111a 111 "Lan a'Ca pach -o
 ua'Ò, ocuf co11 1 
ce 119 ù
t a t!:.t Ua1> cm Ime KID, CI-O m-otl öCeë -opro an fqtam-o 
 5an Ime -00 bet C!15e, Ualp con11an-om: bait baebat e'Cu1 1 1 w . 

( 01l.l/bS) 

"Oetblp -0150111 ocur attompl!!11e, ocuf al'Ch1m ocuf ancí1thml, 
ocuf ime ocuf can Ime a tet pe paë -ol!!!!.ecglt
; ocuf nocon 
fUll, -oetblp felf1 na a111t1me, na P.UI1U'Ò, na 'CC!111fC1 a tet 1 1e 
pach -oumeca1t1; ocuf m:a an -oetblp U1t1 a tet 11e m1acha1b. 

I t 1-Y/'
rp J

 Ii.')./ . 
f 11' ann m:an; na meldl Op11.0 m mbC!1-o 110 fa5a1b -oume 1m: 
1 ftelb no a n-olroam-o, ocuf 110 fa5a1b buachaltt cotmaë p.e cOif; 

I One-ei,?hth.-This is wrong, it should be · one-fourth.' 



committed by going across a half hedge, and that it is only half 
, the sacks 
' It is derived from this, tlwt it is halfthe fine for man- 
trespass Í8 dzu when there is no fence at all, and the other half of it Ayry. 
for trespass ove1' full fence; if it be a half fence that is there, there 
i'l a fourth of 'the sacks' for half fence; carry that one-eighth, I and 
add it to&the half which is for the ease ofno fence at all,and it makes' Ir. b. 
I fì 1._ f h fi fì h If fì addition to. 
t lree- ourtUl> 0 t e ne or man-trespass across a a ence. 
No portion of 'thc sacks' is obtained without the fence, it is 
proper for this reason, that when tllere is a half fence, it should be 
half the fines that are due for it. 
There is no diftèrence of 'ruiridh '-trespass, or 'airlim '-trespass, 
or 'tairsgi '-trespass, or increaÆ!e or decrease of cattle with respect 
to man-trespass; hut there is a difference of meadow and pastured 
bnd, of profitahle land and unprofitable, ami there is a difference 
of fence and non-fence. All these differences are observed with 
respect to ' the sacks.' 
'Vh:tt is the reason, when it is 'sacks' that are due for the 
trespass, that there is nothing due where there is no fence at 
all; but" hen there is fine for man-tresI'aEs, that the half thereof 
is dzu where there is no fence whatev<,r 1 The reason is, the llerding 
which the law ha'! ordered for the cattle is prot'ÙlÆd by the o"\\ner 
of the cattle for them, and it is unlawful for the owner of the land 
llot to ha,-e a fence; and it is right that he should have no portion 
of 'the sacks' when he .has not a fence. The owner of the cattlc 
has not prorÙled the lawful herding for them wIlen he pays fines 
for man-trespn -, and it is in suclt case l'i
ht that he should pay tIlC 
one-half when there is no fence at all, e' en thougll it is unlawful for 
the owner of the land not to have a fence, for "fools divide the 

. hetween them." 
Tltere is a difference between presen-eù grass. land and pastured 
land, and bet" een profitable and unprofitable land, and between 
fence and non-fence, .WitIl respect to fines for man-trespass; and there 
i'l no difference between 'feis '-trespass and 'airlim '-trespass, or 
, rll.iri& '-trespass, or 't..'\irsce '-trespass, with respect to fines for 
man-trcbpasses; and there is a difference between them all with 
respect to sacks. 
'Vhere they are fined 'the sacks' is where a person hM left 
thern (tlte cattle) in a mountain Ol' a wood, and left a sensible adult 


· rid. yoJ. 3, p. 30:;. "Every Judge is pWli.haLle for lü. neglect." 
8 Xonjt",a.-The MS. here has 'ca' with a Btroke over the . a,' such as usually is 
emploJ'cd to mark 'ë.' The meaning requires that the word should be read a:> "can. " 



f....t if' rkftw 
 ?IÑ hJt em rJ, -e.rliiJ. 


bfteadlG eommrhn'f(( atl'()fo. 

. Ic- 
;i ðiJ ,
ÇK, \"2.'-1" Jt"DG- 
Co- TEN- 

1..;,...., 0/ 
' - /s-f8 

no 1n coimé
 a 'Oelp, 'Ot1ËI op,po I f11.atap, ((P, na 1llucmb; coèott 
1m na cepcl; bl1.05a 1m na5abpa1b; lq1.ëott rôna 5anmmb; ae'Ò- 
a1pe a5 na ca1plb; buacha1tt aj; na blla1b. 
11' an'O ara m p
eF a1Ö cm'O
eë, m mbari> po fa5mb 1(("L 
S a J'ap,
'Ò an ËUlp
 J'eolp, !!.O apù!!tA, ocu1' L1n'On tell' cona p.ac1l- 
'Ornr -In';: 11' ann m;a m paë 'O\11!}!J c<!!.n conn raù ap
ach, 111 
Ua111, 11' conn
 tel1' m pach'Ow1' no na pach'OUlr m'O. 


+f <ltk IIf- 

111 a 
Llr, ratt 1ll
 a'Ò ll1r
 l"Ul1lf' a raùal11.
 1'0 qlf amach, 
11' tan pach 'O u1n e nl1Ö ; IlIll 
 a'Ò ll1J'1
rol11.p'Ò a rar)Wll
Ie 'Oú, '1' 'Oa q lwn all }'Elè 'Ou111eCa1Ö ; 1IIa 11.Où((ral1. ratt a'Ò 1uP 

olllP' a 

 aenf eè
 , 11' ql1an 111 }'elch '01
ec UlÖ . 



'f: CC J'Ult ara 'Olana
t:5 neml
, ni he'Ò an cena, um51 'Oa1p,5e
"LUlÖnech an'O, ocu1' 5a ap, 
pi 1'eë
 namnan'Oa fO ceLhUlp, '00 aen 

reltb a
ú rm co na n'Out .o:nun'O rame feè
all, raíne ùep,na'Ò ; 
,') t10 all, 
p,i reë
 nanlllanuwb fO cetUll1. '00 raine rctba co na n'Out 
anunn aen feë
ap, ralne ùelUla; ocu1' 'Oa1lla'Ö L((P aen ùqwcu}<, 
ni blQ'Ò aë
 r1llaë"L al1. 111 cé
 Imt, ocur a1dI5111 fe01P no al1.baI11. 
ua"Lha lIItl. 


.J,L CC J'a1t a
a 'Oun 11.15, tel' map,q:!,a'Ò ni a1'Òtt5, tm
ap, 1)Ull1.5e
".[) caë 'Oep,c 'Oon_a1t1'u, 'OÓ uip, caè 'Oep,c 11.0 
Ult1ll1'Ò1 ann .1. a 1'on'Oa 
ocur a rat@, ocur U111, min a C01llUlCInra 
ap, a lWlp; ocur 11' c 
 m;a m 1ut, co lWICI reë
 nan1llan'Oa '00 lien rreltb. 

.,t tLl h
. C. 
os' L\)'þqo It 

. ,..,.". C ..J.C, 
'G a1 ftE1tte. rmaém m1llCe'D Ç!1!Çt1 1ap. rOEa1t 11a'DU1ù 


I When it Í8 n king'6 'dun '-fort, 9"c.-The text is ob
cure here, nn(1 seems 
c1efeeti,e in the original. The paragraph" ith 
ome variatiun is given in O'D., 
1 Gï4, as a commentar)" on the clause, .. Uooting the enrth in (Iistinguishec1 places." 
· t 'li6 nUlI"lradh '-fOl.t.-Probably a churchyard; 'mnrt) res' appear to bave 
meant 'relics'. Vid. O'D., 1674. 

 'I O.ð-lb7"(. cW.,v 'f'1t I uJL 

 Ì't111'"Ì 1 
 YVU.I.,,f: ./.'1M t f- -J. ,.f.. ./,MtCl.- 
t' .t '" .(, f-wJ \01 ) -r tN(VfV 



a;; henhman with them, or the care-taking which the law requires"' J
over them; a yoke. for the pigs; a hood for the hens; ties of 

leather for the goats; a spancel for the yearling calves; a shep- A"CY. 
herd with the sheep; a herdsman with the cows. aIr. /S1I9" 
The case where the fine for definite man-trespass is due is when 
he (tlte trespasser) left them (tIll' mttle) near the field of grass or 
corn, and he is certain tllitt they would go into it. The fine for 
douMful man-trespass is due when he is doubtful whether they 
,\Ould go or would not go into it. 
If they arc váthin tltefield as long as that they might be driven b b Ir. 
out thrice, it (tlte pfJnalt!/) is full fine for man-trespass; if tlley are Brf "!Jllt. 
"ithin so long as that they might be dri, cn out t" ice, it is two- 
thirds of the fine for mall-trespass; if tlley were l,;itltin tltefield so 
long as that they might be driYen out once, it is one-third of the fine 
for man-trespass. 
'Vhen it i
 a cas" qftllC violation of a 'ncmed '-person's clllt'l'clt ad -t.l4. l- )M 
or sanctuary, it (tlrejìne) is not the same, úl,t an ounce of silver Ù; 
tIle fine for their rooting there, and this is charged upon 3 X 7 X 
4 (84) animals ofthc onc hcrd (cattle úelon!Ji'l[J to one man) after they 
h,n I' gone over tlte fence different times ùy different gaps; or 
upon three times seven animals 1mtltiplied l)y four (84) of different 
herds (possessions) wIlen they ha,e gone over once by different 
gaps; and if it be 1>y the onc gap, the 'smacht' -fine shall he 
only ul)on the first beast, and compensation for grass or corn from 
tlte oumers of them all. 
'Vhen it is a king's' dun' -fort, 1 or a 'lis martradh' -fort 2 that 
is trespassed upon, let every hole made in the place he filled with 
, cric ' sod," so as to be tantaTnount with the clay of each hole that 
was made therein, viz., let it be prci01">ed and stamped "ith thc 
heel, and let fine clay of thc same nature úe placer[ thcre after- 
wards, and the ext-cnt to "hich it runs, is as f,u' as sen:n animals 
of the same pas ion (Ilad). 

The additional 'smacht'-fines for instigation are to 
bc paid.ïn five days after damage, for tres!las:; without 

. '.E;ric'-30d.-The Iri.h w(,nl which Dr. O'Oono"l'"nn has 
 Þ Ik 
. ("(11'51'"[;,' the usualworc1 for' oilnr,' eyen in the spû\.en Inngunge ofTIle present 
da). In O'D., IGi-l, the reac1ing is . nrgat,' which nppear> to have the same - 
IDem1ing, Loth terms being Celtic form" "r the Latin' nrgelltum'. 

. Irità !\IF.S"TS OF 
,.., VIv lðkI ANCY. 

bp.eadla eOtllaH
hcefa Utl'DfO. 
a can'he cen na1'Dtll tlaefwb. 'bamy:>11.5wn L mb t1.t115- 
t techráJ 'D(( quan a fochp.H1ce 1f e ({ rmaët". 
'Cm 1'SILLe rill aét;a .,. anai> t;1'e1f1 ocur '01t1m C
tl 1.'01' in 
rmnCt;, .1. no na rmatt;a nUfi t;Úl'rH>U na seLLa t;011Ut116C11Q. '00 t; 0 I'gft;a1l1 
.r ((1' cù
è t1; no 111 ni rmgft;mst!,U.t I'e hell'J.e 111 cmml'; 1'1f1 t;al''O!!!>na seLt!! 
t;011'1t;11n6c11a '00 t;0I' a(;t; a111 ual'Ï> alt 
tl, ill t;an 11' arl) UlL a emas r ém 
'Oú cín a 1'Ulb. 


.1. 111 Ua1t1 If arilulL a C111aI'Ò p
11l 'Oó he, '1' ana'Ò t:)1.e1f1 fOtt 111 
Pll ad!" !:", ocur 'Oltí1ll C ÚIC t1. 1n r:an 11' wÌlulL C11lwË nínbLe.Q5aín 
'0 11llUtttto, '1' ana'Ò CÚICt1 fott 111 f1naër: ocuf 'Olt11l1 r:p.elf1 fOtt ín 
pnalT. OCUf '1' ann 11' ati hl1L a C11l
 p:11l '00 C11l a t1Utb, 111 r:an 
m:::a 'OIL 111 C11IWb '1' 111 tl. ob feln j ocu)' If ann '1' mÍÎU1t C11lU1b c'T- 
5a11l 'Oó, cuI}. tlatt111a puL 

7) Cen nal'Om naefalb, .1. cm nm'Om narCa1l'e 1'11''00 J1.ü11,-nuarcafa 
t/h't/b ,,,I 1'e comaLLm commtc6fa. 'bat mo1'SUlIl, .1. 01'5um in b1W5(( ltlf na CUII' 
'0 1 1\S6t;m'Oe Ifln 5e1l111te. '"Oa t;1'1<<1l na 'O e 5 C I'61ce, pnaccu UlL 111(( relrocur 
1I1a mIlUm, Iffei> fUlL 1I1a relr nama. 
l/otr4"1 otJlrLD'b40t) i\.5.nw

t s"""",,,"
C'-3.,. X 
- - - __ .---tJc- 
"0 ? _ A [)tJ.IO
111((ët"a cffë(( tWId1e,ltll CUtlla tDono,'rm((ër ratllFuaët"a 
- ) I T 71.0 
,^a,. OC)( 1\ 
OCUf 5((11llFuaèt"a ;1'11 cutlla 'DOtlO c1'D c ((è tlllf 'D1fUI'D1t1. 
'-ð CCrùep.(qt 7)ono fec1l{; mlfa 'Dlb 1-11.1 fatllFua{t", ocur ({ 
CÚIC FJu 5 mtll FuaÜ;; ((11 ml 'nt1'Dltlac11 'Do etLtuuch, ocur 
tlllf1 r a111 t W 1'D, ocuf q1.C1111fa a11 f05tllt111l FJu r((tll- 
-. 'J, 
c. I f1wèr ; CÚIC tlllf(( 1tll t111.1lO , 1-11.1 5a1llFuatr,r qu tlllf(( 111 
5 U1tll 1 tl 'Ò, OCUf 1n 'Da 1111 t"a1fec1l
 'DO e1l1 wc1 I FJll 5 a1111 - 
'oS' fuag;. k qtutlla r111a
w 5eltll11.1'D Ot'DWt"1 ftll((chw 
r((tllt W1 'D, 
1. 1rtltl1t"h
 beo beadl(( tla mbo ot'D((f a d. Ii. 'IR I) 
'rr" .- 6"<t-"f) -u 
I r",'m-Law..-The word" mb!W1;::;l'ecl1t;a" hM been written oVer the words 
"'0(( q\1an .. in the :illS. by a much I.lter hand than that of the original scribe. 
· 'Smacltt'-jìlle.-SLe p. 31 (0'0., 2171), andeompnre wilhO'D.,402. "Qucstion 
- How arc land tre'pa"es caleulatcd? -From the rents, i.e. from the full rent given for 
the itself, the prolitaLle or unprofit ILle gra's-]and "hich is injured is estimated. 
T" o-thirds of the rent is the fine, i.e. hi o-thirds of the rent which is charged for 
a 'tir eumhaile' of the best land, for three-quarters is the fine for I feis '-trespass in 
n meadow of winter grass laud 0\ er n r ull feuee, i.e. three I Bcrepalls' upon it for the 
three-quarters, and t" 0 'eerepalls . for ' feis '-trespass in "iuter, and one for' feis ,_ 
trespass in the summer, i.e. the one-third of t!.e three 'serepalls.' (II. 3, 17,
A pa
lillge similar to th,s very obscure one occurs in C, 2;;.-treating of the trcs- 



giving further legal security. For. winter trespass in 
the farm-laws 1 two-thirds of the rent is the' smacht'- 
The addition a1 'smacbt'-fines, i.e. thereis a Bt
y ofthree days, and a delay 
in pound of five daYB for the paymeril of the' smacht '-fine, i.e. or tbE' ' smacht ,- 
fines witb wbicb are given the addItional pledges are to be brought in five days; or 
the thing wbich is commanded b!llalD as '",ie '-fine for the crime for which the 
additional pledges are given, is to be br.:>ught by him in five days, wben tbe crime 
of rus beast is aB his own crime. 

'"TS OF 

That is, when it is to him like his O"wn crime, there is a stay 
of three days for tlw paYllU'nt of the' smacht '-fine, and a delay 
in pound of five days. "YJlen however, it is as the crime of a 
kinsman,. there is a stay of five days, and a delay in pound of 
five (l.t.ys for the payment of the' smacht '-fine. And the case in 
which his beast's crime is to him like his own crime is, when the 
beast itself is value sufficient to pay for the damage:- and it is' as . Ir. When 
the crime of his kinsman, whenever it i'l not of tltat 'CalUÆ. the vo
ue 0/ 
the mme IS 
Without gifJi..gfu,.the,' legal security,.i. "ithouttheguarantyof a
" the bead 
coutract-binder, according \0 new knowledge f(or oboerring the lau's 'If co-tenancy. Itself. 
'Vin ter trespasB, i.e. trespass upon the farm "ith the prop<'r regulations 
in the "inter. T" o-thirds of the fair reI1t, the 'smacht '-fines" hich are paid fo' 
'feis'-trespass and 'airlim"-trcspaSi!, is that which is due for 'feis'-trespassalone. 

There are difJacnt 'smacht '-fines every quarter of 
(/ yca]", 
ut the' smacht '-fine in the hot season is not 
the same as that of the cold season; even every month 
of these scasons is not alike. 
Seven months of them t/ E 78' 
are included b in the hot season, and five in the cold b Ir. .A,'e 
season; the last month of spring, and the three months sa,dfø r . 
of summer, and the three months of autumn, are called c Ir. For. 
the hot season; but the five months of the cold sea- 
SOli are, the three months of winter, and the two first 
months of spring. The' smacht '-fines of winter 
are heavier than the' smacht '-fines of summer, fur 
passes committed by s"ine. It runs asfoIIowq:-"What "as in the old judgment.? 
-Every pit that was rooted b!l8wineto befiIIed respectivel)'" ithcorn, otherasaywith 
bntter, for the)" deemed it lawful to make good the damage done to tbe earth by its 0\\ n 
produce. llut this was after\\ardschanged tocompeusation for the thing injured." 
· A l..imman.-' Inb1eogban' means a man's 60n, grandoon, relative, or an)" per
for" hose erimes he is re'ponsible. 
'It is.-Literal1y " and where it is the Bame as the crime of tbe kinsman i
" hen- 
eYer it is not," 


:l-l3.u.JiIJv tt3;' 1
 Of )k 

-\ t"l'4- t . 

L o





b J 1.eadla eoman:;11cera atl'Dr o . 



 rs OF 

1l5 ea p;t;, Ul1. 1t:......5e1111t:hel1. Felt 1 rWlJl1.(CD, lI(,t:ha 1m11Jll1.O 
111 a tl5elmp.e. 

8m act:a caca t:h e, .1. íní rmaÇ.t:wp;el' m sac I'wt:he. tJI 
cu m a 'Oon 0 rmact:, .1. !locacuq!:umallli rmai:t:W5t
,.. at:eafmq'amp.wi> ocuraruact: in>. 111 cum a 'OOI1Q CI'O cac 
11111' 'O l r UI 'OIU,.1- noca cut:l'uma t:famm5l'Ocac mil' 'OOl1a hlbc('õahlfin, 
.1- mi t:eafa m t:faml'm'Õ ocurmi ruact:a 111 5elml'e. 1 t: t:p. U m a 1'm act: a 
Eel m P.I '0, .1. 11' t:l'uma il1i 1'mact:m!';tsp. Ifln r05Ç!!.L '00 111m; na l111înlLe 
11)'111 5 e1m l'e oL'Omt:e na ne1cl1e pllact:m!';tpp. Ifill rosmL '00 mat: l1a 
'OhIllIl1ÙJlfl n t:r a111 I'm'Õ. CCp.lrl'ult:he beo beat:ha l1a111bo uL'Oar 
a n 5 e ({ l' t: .1. If umfLe 1111 '00 bell' beta 'Oolla bumb Ifill 5e111111.1i> i1H(f 
ini '00 belp. Lact: 'Oolb Ifln ,t:Ta111I'm5' C( It It: 5 e 1111 t: h e l' re 1t I 
l' amp. a i> .10 i)' he 1'0 in rálJ a'OlI5slmi> relt Ifill t:fw;ll'ul'O. NIt: h a 
1111 u p. P. 0 n i a n 5 elm It e .1. nQ!:a nei> a p.ata bum ill rep. '00 rar If 111 
W 1)eI1111'15' 

ec..urL''Þ U '-') Q.,,
'''' ,
c ....# 
f}.,1 0 arbellal1. r maën ( r am l la 1'D ;"'" m1uë caë a111.L1me Ul1. 
u._ '?\oV". c.o þ., I; 
recht: nanmatl'Dwb" FlU erham 11'01"51.1111; L
t melch ma 
n u achbp.on'D(('l) ; Let melch FIll m011l FIUll'Dlr ; Letmwch 
caë çgyt5wb 0 'Dam co 'ì)altt:a1t
ìU felr. k 'Da m1((ch 

v 1mWllO, Fl1.1 5eamFuaër;. 

 .- 4MM1I (! 
t. ?) CMJ.., 4yiJr 0 d4.m, C4 
 C 15"63 

 1. 11" 10,-#. I

lD'{, lR) 

Urbep.ap. rmact:a f am p.Qli>,.1o 1tal'Ot:Wno wf11el'Ot:ftl.lní rmact:- 
mstw 11' m r 0 5IQ.L '00 mat: na 11111111Le 11'111 q'aml'!!!:P' 1111 ac cac QlI'- 
LI me, .10 mlUcl1 If e ni mrnel'Olt:l1
 ap. f6ct: nanman'Omb 'Oaon
reILb co 
l1a n'OuL allunn aon rect: t:alt aon bel'1jíi> I nmltbm '015um reOllt etmÏ1ull1 
h t:ra111 p. m i> . Let melch ma rp.1 at:hbp.ol1'Oa'O. .1. nl(ci> rl'l>ai> 
5\1 héilt,.I. ((Ip.Llm at:hLU1mpul'e reúlp. etama11l r:1'amp.((Ii>. Let m elc11 rp.1 
m0111 rltln'Olr, .10 I r81r atLumpU11le mon<< ramllllt:<<, 110 c((lLLe ralll- 
I w t:f!. Letl111acl1 cac cuLSQlb 0 'Oam co 'Oaltt:Ql5, .1. ap. fect: 
nJ111U1l'Omb a r61r '015UIl1 remp. etamull1 5I!íml'et:a, ocur r ect: mg:g Let 

o me1ch '00 CUI'O 5ac <<nmun'O((I5 na t:U!) ap. ((11''0 ml'O. 1 t: 'Oa nll ach 
II1lUP.P.O rp.1 5eamruact:, .1. I r61f m;hLumpU1JlJ remp. et:hamull1 
S61mp.e, no I nail'Llm '015UIl1 reúlp. etal1l!!!.n
. ' 

t.lM>\ÞI c.. 
11' eum
t rmaë'(; eaë mít 1 eomm
I'[' oeur 1 'Lo<<;at nadrs abata , 
mìlÇ!!t lfb
1 l1'1n }::mnn1U'Lh }::1'Lhit; eo....n5elt 1115en t-111 paeml., 
h . t . 1 
c.. h 
cL""1T I".

 oeuf eOnH>lp.e cae naer a 1 rose 'LalJ, eOn5elA.lL 't>a 't>Cq1L
1't> 1'ee 
11 J!.. 74. 
. w+r.. 
A IS '7 I Food.-The "ord 'beta,' means also life. 
,. 1.' O'/V IJ ) 
L, 'I 
 , 0 · Finns/'uth Fithil-law.-A trnct on the manner of passing judgments. 
1{ \\)Ð. v 



that which supports the 
ows in 'lcinter is more pre- 
cious than their produce, for grass is produced in 
Sllmmer, but none at all in winter. 



Co- TEs- 

There are 'smacht'-fines every quarter, i.e. the thing which is 
commande,l 10 be paid as 'smacht '-fine in every quarter of a ) ear. The 
, _ m a c h t '-fi n e is not the sam e. i.e. the thing which is or,lained to be 
plid as 'smacht '-fine for trespass committed in the heat of the summer an,l in the 
coM of the "inter is not equal. Even every montb of tbese is not 
a I i k e. i.e. it is not alike that each of tbese months is regulated, i.e. a montI, 
01 summer heat and a mouth of winter cold. The's m a e h t ' -fi u e s 0 f 
win t era r e he a vie r, i.e. the tbing which is eommm1l1e(1 I" be ]",id as 
'>macht '-fine, for tbe trespass which the cattle commit in tbe "inter is heavier 
than the thing orl1ered to be paid for trespass which the cattle commit iu the sum- 
mer. For that \\h;eh supports the CO\\8, & , i.e.moreva
the tbing which gives foolÌ\ to the cows in the ,,-inter than the thing which 
(.;ivesthemmilkinthesnmmer. For grass is produced in summer,i.e. 
tbis is the reason, i.e. grass is produced in the summer. nut 11 0 n eat all i u 
win t e r, i.e. it is not that I say that .;rass grows in the winter. 

Let the summer' smacht '-fines be statcd; a sack is 
charged for every 'airlim '-trespass upon seven 
animals into a profitable meadow; half a sack if into 
after-grass; half a sack if into a mountain; half a 
:-;ack for the' feis '-trespass of every sort of cow from 
an ox down to a ' dartaid '-heifer. There are, how- 
ever, two sacks in the cold season. 

Let the summer 'smaeht'-fines be sta ted, i.e. the thing ,\hich is 
,'nnmanded as' smaeht '-fine for trespa,s ,\hie'. the cattle commit in the summer 
i. to be told or relate(l. A sack for 
very 'airlim '-trespass, i.e. a 
.ack is tbe fine \\ hieb is mentioned a
 imposed upon seven animals of one herd 
.\ftcr going over by leapinJ:: onle across one gap into a mea,low of snmmer grass- 
l.\I1d. II a If a sa c1. if in to aft e r-g r ass, i.e. if to trespa<s quickly, i.e. 
by leapin(.; into a pasture,l field of summer grass-land. Hal f a sac k if 
iuto a mountain, i.e. for 'feis'-tre"pass in a pastured field of summer 
\I1ount.1Ìn or Sll1nmer \\ood.' Half a sack, &e., from an ox to a 
, .1 art aid '-h e i fer, i.e. upon se, en animals for' fei, '-trespa's in a meal10w of 
lter gra<
ack is the portion ofthefille for each 
animal, which he IH
t t 
 en:'7"''Thére are, howe' cr, two sacks 
i n the co Ids e a son, i.e. for' feis '-trespass in a pastured field of ,\ inter grass- 
l.\I1d, or fo
spass into a meadow of winter grass-land. 
..l 'cum hal- if! tlw ' smacht '-fine for e\-ery beast in a co-tenancy, 
au' I in taking forcible distress, as is said in the 'Fillllsruth Fithil'- 
la\\ 2-Anail l'at

 a tooth, amI equal 'dire'-fine is pai(l fur cattle 
of c\ cry age for fecdllig, fur h\ u 'dart-aicl' -heifers ea.t beyund (more 

14.- J 


bttem:;ha eomwdlccrCl U11'Dr O . 


tW't>mil. 1 Llt1- 't>lbçt!'> m:;a ill cOmeClItl fill, 06 11 , I cOI1la1êear, !lÇ> 
1 conWClIt1- aLa r UIl 't>. e 
 """C "'-. .. 
o a5 ro,sJwnaJt t:Tjt CO cen'D mbL1(('Dna; t:att61)'1 n5 em - 
. . . b i ....., c l ..w<<t-Ce .I' 

U((CL((, no ((E ep flU 'DC( qu((n (( 
oc Jtwca {;((1 t61 f1, 
r; ocur u ntl Lmr In FCUtt oJtSCatt U1l"D. 

o C!lbl{O'IIIGJ) 
o t 101 L. .. ) 

'1' . 
CCI; ):0 cll.en (()1 \:; I It co cen'O n1 bLI a'On a, .1. a5 'Oe't>cennm;s'r 111 
)1UIl1I (IJt ): Oc1l ltuIC co cen'O mbLw'O'!!:!, .1. In "[;ranlUlrC 'OlÙJe)1a1' I ):Uc1I- 
1' U IC,.j. ):Ud1ltUlc fe011' o lt 1:1)1 "[;1'í cumoL. lU)1elr' ns:elmfuac"[;a, 
.1. "[;a1'clfI na ):o;:;La '00 nk;n
 0 fuac"[; an Fjt7Î11'L'Ò, a L
t ):e1cnf1'Ò(', .1. Let; 
O'D. 403. 'Oml ):elch 'Ot1111efU1tJ conll"[;aba1'"[;U1i; ((1) "[;rUn1
C íf1n 
olt Lall 
nle, [OCt1r u 
L6"[;n mar ;san Imme], .,. rm at;LQ1IIpUl}te 1-'eUllt Fr;l1eanlmll 5é"III!
, 110 (( 
U1ll 1I10na 5e1ll1)11'Ò, 110 cU1Lt
 ï=;e11l1IH', no m:hbUU1Le 5C1nl1'1'Ò. 11u as 
bel'l flu 'Oa "[;)11((n a ):ocll1'('(;a "[;((Jlelf1' .1. oi; bel' f1U '0(( "[;j!1Q1I 
IHr ):oC)t('ca, .1. n(( rUm
<, fUlL all, "[;11' "[;)11 cUllla!.., .j. ín cotvac oc"[; r
IS" v uLL ):UlL "[;a)1 e1 f1 tl)10 'Oa cU1l1gL ílla ):oCfle1C; I
 aTI vel' pu '0(( "[;ll1all IIll 
ce a"[;Ú Ir ín foc)1e1C, 'rr
'Ò ([\:;a '1'111 f05c:!lL 'bO
lIídJelt lur 11(( 
r e l t ((n'OU1b c
lIa 1 ):uaf."[; Oil 5e1ll1It!.-D, .1. all "[;eolW c6t}Wlme na rum!!ij:ce 
UII'Or1'DeIC hí, uc"[; 0('11 rCju'p
 llama no: I:U;S
 u1' U1ll'O ((11'0; 122 'Ou!!Q. 
C,J\1U, dn co pilL ochl: aer coLpa
 OL"[; rSlteop aLL 1Il'O"[;I, II' 'OÍlI1UllCjuu"Ö 
to Lprmï=;tJ nu b'r'TI (Ii"" ( 1;'1HJ ní )1'1' 11(( pu Ú'Ölta cQtlll.l1l1le 11(( rlln1!!!.rCe 
hí. (lcur <1 nIt 1,((11' III relqt oTl5"[;ajt ((n'O, .j.are)1an"DLUlríll relt 
'OOll1l:hql all'O '00 o1';:;UI11, .1. IUI' 1'6 I1(l ):OC)!CClr, íll "[;<1n 'I' all rOCJHJIC 
"[;!!Ça"Ö lIe; no (( relwn'O ac III ):111, '00 \lIdle)1 an'O I ):05 mL , .,. 1Q1' níc e}1Cll 
(( f 0 5 L a 1'11" 

II (J 'høt.r. "1' Lf ) 

",Ç" At;at{; atttbmení1a ltl1a"OIc11et; rm((chm; caë ("(lttL1m 
t ua com no 'Dtl1ne; no H1Jtbm nmblL no omna, no aqtbm 
nelcne Clp(1. 

I JOillt-S'o,'''illg._ That is putting an equal stock ou the land. 
· Rellf.-' ]:OCJ!U1C' i. here use!! to denote the awa,,1 or pdce, hire or eompens
 or contracted to be gh en, for the use of Ihe lalld for one )' 
· Against whom t,.csl'uss i.. co.nmitfed.- The following seems to be the meaning 
of this very obscure text :-" A calf is the rent payable for land taken IIl1til the 
('lid of the rear; ill the case of a tre'pass committed from the eommPII"emcnt rof 
the cold season on to the en<1 of the yenr, a calf is the fillE' p
yabJe, or a c.llf whit-h 
is worlh t\\ o-thirds of the value of such a calf as ,houl..!. be pai<1 for the re.JI, 
(which wouM at that t;:ne be a 'smnhai
e '-heifer); and the bUill upon slleh )la)- 
ment becomes the property of the Illan agaillst "h0m the tre'pass LS comlJlitte<1, or 
of the roan" ho pays the fine.' 



tlwn) the Im.gc:"t ox. In a 'tliLulh '-I:11111 thi<: juint-! .ocking I is 
made, and in a co-tenancy, or in joint--stocking it is 11Cre. 
A calf is the rent which i
 paid for land t(/l;en till 
the end of the year; in the case of t1'CS}Jass commit- 
'I'd after the cornmenc('1n('lIt qf the cold season to the 
('lid of the !fN(J', a calf is the .fine, or a calf which iR 
worth two-third:::; uf the rent afterward:::;; and the land 
1'eJlwins with the man against whom trc
pass i8 COlll- 
mitted in the case. 
A calf, &c.,,, hich is pai,l for the lan,l till the en,l of the year, 
i.e. a calf (the p,'ice I)f a ca{f) pays fur the land which i. ltf for hire (/'mt) to the end 
of the ye:lr, i.e. the' samhai.c' -heifer" h;ch i< hÎ\ en as relIt,' i.e. as the hire for the 
grassofalamlof (worfl.)three'cumha!s.' After the cold season, i.e. after 
the trcsp.'l<swhich is committe,! in the cold of the" inter,I..,li the fine fur this, i.e. th:lt 
'.amhaise '-heifer is half the fine for douLtfu!mnn-tre<pass over a full fence, amI the 
half thereof if there be a no fence, i.e. into a pastured field of "intcr grass-land, or n Ir. With. 
into " meadow of "inter mountain, or of winter wood, or a winter old mi1king- Otlt. 
place. Or a calf which is worth two-thin!s of the rent after- 
wards, i_e. a calf w!lieh i< "orth t"o-thir,!s of the rent, i.e. of the'samhai.e'- 
hcifu which is paid for a lan,l of three' eumha!s,' i.e. the ' eo!pach '-heifer of the 
mllle of eight.' serepalls ' "hich is t<> be paid for a of two' cumha!s ' for its 
r, nt; or, 8 ealf ,,!1idl is worth two-thin19 of the' ,;tmhaisc '-heifer" hid, is !)aid 
fur the rent, it is it that is ,)(<Ïd for the trespass "hkh is committe,l on the ":lme'!s in the eo1<1 of the" inter, i e. it is !Jit'fIt for three-quarters of the value of the 
.mhaiBC '-heifer in this case, e"-cept one' screpall' only "hich "as not brought 
f"rward here; or iJU!eed, accordin!J to others, although it (the calf) has Lut the age of 
a' colpach '-heifer of eight' screpalls' value, it is from theexce<sof the improvement 
rr ,ncrease that i
 upon it that it is wort.h three-quarters "f the '
amhaise '-heifer. 
An,l the 1an,l remains with the man against "hOln trespass 
i< eommitted,- i.e. the lam1 ,',,,wills with the man who is trespassed upon in this 
case, i.e. after the term of the rent, "hen it is for rent that it (the lantI) was given; 
IIr, accordin!J to others, t.he laml belongs to the man whohaS LOwwitt
d thp trp"pa.' 8, ItVAv 
i.e. after his pa)-ingthe 'erie'-fine of his trespass. 
There are three 'airlim '-trespa;:;ses fw.' which i!9- 
.aid: every 'airlim '-trespass before 
a dog or a man; or an 'airlim' -trespass Ù/, consequence 
of heat or fear, or an ' airlim '-trespass owing td any b Ir. Of 
kind of violence. 

'I'S OF 


In O'D. 403, the foUo"ing condition is aIMed:- 
"If it be winter grass that is trespassed upon,<h of the rent shall be 
the fine, i.e. of the rent which is paid for a I Tir-eum!JI1ile' of the be
t land .chich 
is /,;,'ed for three-quarters of a year. There are three heifers as ,'ent upon it for 
the three quarters; and h, 0 heifers, i.e. the two-thir<ls of the three heifers are the 
fine for' fds '-trespa<s in a mcadow of snmmer grass oyer a fun hedge." 


b l lead1(( C01TIc(H:;hcefa an'ûfo. 


["-STS OF 
Co- T....s_ 

c)e'l'ðZ 4J.f1 4,') 
'Can:: m en'Da, .1. m::a1t: tmmenna 'DO 1l1m::rop. aI' m 1-'ep. no ap. 
m ap.ùap. OCUrelm'Dlttm::reI5 wt: can rmaët: op.p.a an'O. Caë alp.tlm COIn, .1. a5 t:elte co,n. 110 'DUlne, .1. as rete n'Damlù. 
(('P.t, m n mÙI t, .1. ín t:an ùlr U1uett op.p.((,émc. 11 0 011111 a 
!) .1. p.w cp.elch, no p.ec01b'Om. 110 ((11,t,m nelcne CIPf1, .1. clùe'Ò eISEn, 
.1. t:op.unn no t:ene 1 rosnen. 

8maç"L '01(( Ct11Ct1 lúp, PEmt cona rOC((t cona CJuwf 
, 1- tt;A OCt1f a tom'O((l:a. GFClnlÙ fmlJ:Ç."La caë/cOlll., L)l1a11 fon 
'01 COltlce wtle. 
10 ma'þ' 
 rOrCc(1tt arttClat1. an'O a "Laeb no a nc(1tlcen'ë', 
[ ''''':\.. M.C- t .J).",C 

,.r o.....n.Pma rep, ro,m'O, no relt f((mta, 1Catl a cmclle C( tle1t1 nn 
commc1í1J2.) t-wA-4 


maët: 'OIU CUICtl, .1. 1111 f1naët:rostep. uai> 1 rOl'
 CÚICtt Wtt 
I l11)enam na r05t.!!, .1. 11([ melë, .1. (!1l(('Ò t:J1Rlf1 rOlt ín rm((ét:, OClIr 'Dlttm 
If c;[ic t1. COlla rocat, .1. 11(1:I111ach, .1. n((f1.uù re(qtù 1Ut:e;. Con(( cp.uar, 
.1. n((p.uù t:ror. l om'Oat:a, .1. Sltan toÑJ5"t: ton:C01l'Da....re1l1a rtere, .1. 
5!!p.uù 'Dm:a he ocur 11e t I, .1. cm (.t1';' 'Ctielnlù rmaét:a c((ë 
COIP., .1, qte\1l1ll5a'O ap. 111 rm((Lt: 'DO p.elp. COIP.' 'l:p.lan ron '01 
COI p.ce al p.e, .1. t:p.wn a mÙI'Ò ap. m COIP.CI ocur ap. m'6 eop.l1ros, 'r re'Ò 
2Þ ((ra up. 111 C01p.ce aonup., ocur '00 t:p.lun Losa 

111 a rep. rOlt ((I t t, .1. ma rep. 'DO OOp.ap. 1f'11 rep. elts ap. pm U1dl- 
1';11)((, .1. ma reI' edlUnn p.o'yp.on'O(('O an'O, 'D1(lùtu'Ò '00 reOlt unet:lllflln t:((ll 
a elf' munabfUlt et:h((m U151- C( t:((eb, .1. proa. 110 (( nUlp.cel1'O, .1. 
5((1P.1'D. n1 a rep. rotal'O, .1. na cmtts. 11 0 rep. r((m t((, .1- n(( 
2.("mona, .1. ín <ftélùe. (C P.CIP. l1a commchl'D,
.,. mt:h5!!! ((11 CÎ1l((15 rín .... 
((mUll, 'r P.1UP. l u r Ill[ commc1l1ù, .1. ap.'Omer 'DO;Ura n<< c01m((1chl'D mp., 
mUl1a J.'UÉt:gn relt a commmt:h m'O ap. ron mdl5enu, ocur neniJoot remIt 
(( commcl11t:a m51 ro'Oep.o:. 



D,.IIP. LGJ-4) 

ø COoA/ftk- Þ 
)t Ca1fl.-can ml"('elt cmchQ. LItle 1 af a rochttacmb; ma 
"""'"1-4 c '" 
I Fea".-Dr. O'Donovan remarks upon this-"The glos
 is here trausposed, and 
should be restored to its proper or,Jer \hus:- 
.. Fea f, i.e. of thunder or lightning. Or a n 'a i rI i m '-t.respass owing 
to any kin d 0 f ,. iI)' c n c e, i.e. before a foray, or before plundereri) or nny 
violence whatsoe,-er." 



Th ere are thre e 'ai rl i m'- t r e spa sses, i.e. there are three leaps 
which are made upon the grass or upon the corn, and they are freed from paying 
'smacht'-nne for them. Every 'airlim'-trespa o 5 before a dog, i.e. in 
runningoff before a hound. 0 ram an, i.e. in flying before men. An' a i rl i 01'- 
tre8pass in con,eque..ce of heat, i.e. when they (the call1e), are run- 
ning from the heat of the 
un. 0 r fear,' i.e. before a plundering party,. or a. Ir. Prey. 
band of depredator'. 0 ran 'a i rl i 01' - tres p ass owing to any k in,l 
of v i ole u c e, i.e." hatenr yio1ence it may be, -i.e. thun,Jer or lightning. 


lIDii"N OF 

'/.fT}1Aa),- a;... tvJ4 
- ) 

Iia<- ttt.

'Smacht '-fine is paid in five days after tresp3.
with testing of the grain as to hardness and bare- 
ness. 'Smacht '-fines are thl'OO fo ld by }'ight, the 
third of which is set aside for oats. 
If it be one kind of grass that is paid for another 
at the side or at the ex.tremity of the field, whether it 
be hidden grass or coar
e grass, let the fines be paid 
 96 'I, ýl:J r 
according to the ærbitration of the co-tenants. 

'Smaeht'-fine i, paid in five daY8, i.e. the thing "hieh is com- 
d by laID to be paid by him b is to be ,'ellde/'ed at the expiration of fiye l1a
"S b Jr. 
nfter the commission of the trespao
, i.e. 'thesacko,'i.e. there is a stay' of three days him. 
upon (for thepaynunt of) the 'smacht'-fìne, ami a delay in pound of fi\"e dayS'. 
""ith testing, i.e. of 'the sacks,' i.e. thnt they arc not bitter (folll or maze- 
1..;.h). As to 
rdness, i.e.thattheybenotmoist. ßarenes.s,i.e.thegrain't< . ß.M"
Art ,L. 
"hich they cat bare, t 
at it be not dirty or charrl fi.e. that it be well coloured and 
 } ..., 
Lare, i.e. "ithout chaff. ' S macht ' -fines are threefold by right, 
i.p. there is a threefold division of the' smacht '-fine by right. The t hi r d 0 f 
which is ,et aside for oat8, i.e. the third of \\hat is for oats and for 
b.nley, is for the o..ts onl). and its value is one-third.. . Jr. For a 
If it be one ti..d of grass that is paid for another, i.e. third of il$ 
if it be grass that is given for another grass as eompens.\tion, i.e. if it be ri,"h t'alue. 
grass that has been spoiled in this case, let him (Ihe tr",plUse.') give t\\ ice the 
quantity of poor grass in return for it, if lao has not rich grass. A t the 
s i ,I e, i.E'. long. 0 rat the ext rem i t y, i.e. short. If it L e hid den 
g r a s 8, i.e. of the wood. 0 r co a r s e g r ass, i.e. of the monntain, i.e. of 
the moor. Ac cord i n g to the co - te n 
 n ts, i.e. the compensation for 
that trespass ü according to the opinion of the neighbours, i.e. the 
n of fH""I' ,,
the neighbours /Ùcides upon i
, unless grass equally {,'Ood is obtained for it as com- 
pensation, and his not ha\ ing grass of the same nature is the reason of ils being 
decided by ar[,jtratio... 
Question-How are land trespasses estimated
From its rent::;; if it be winter gra:;s that is injured, 

. A slay, i.e. the period during which cattle distraille,l remain upon security in 
the hllUlls of the owner j but the' stay' comes first, then ' ,lelay iu pound' follows 
it, and then three ,Jays of gmce called U t:p.elJ'1 uncc1mmste," in the Irbh 
Laws: I'ide Senchus IIIor, vol. 1, p. 79, et It'}. 

"1t -tc 

. /; 'I J 

96 bJ1.eadm Coman:;hcera afl'Dr O . 
J .... 
c "",c. 

F 5mmt
!: l lO hOl1;snqt cm'D,c''D(( quan (( 'I' 1fe a 
'C"oL [Ð'blf ov ) c


:- cm

 ;øm((r f((mfep" 1r qucm. 
- Cmp.-cal1 111n:;ep. calcne t:lp.e? .1- comWttCl111 carfr
a me1rem- 
. . P.:.
,J.J.r.., 11U1SZ:;f'P. 11(( clnt:a '00 mdlelt P.lfll1 rep.al1'O. cCra focnp.acmb, .,.vap. 

 "111 r
_al111 rem P.0f111IH:;(!)t mrep. pt:n am 110 al1et:n
 mlttt:!J.t al1'Oo II't (( 

'I smmrep., .1. ma'O ne relt 'II F;elmp.11"I;ep. al11). "'Oa t:p.lal1 a 
^ (o'b 2../12-) rol'lqt((CU 're a ('mclle, .1. 'OfI t:p.mI1I1U 'OeI5cp.ell'l ar(( 'l1a!relr, oc 'r 
111 a lI<!1llL1m 'rfr.D at:(( I1lfI mtttl11111fIma; uUlp.cmtp.1 melë at:a I1d r('lr, OCur 
'Oa minch lIfI 11U1lttlm. "Oa t:tual1 rocp.eca at:a ap. t:1P. cum!!!Le 'OOjlet:nam 
10 'r co cell II t:P.1 P.Ult! 'rre"Ö uIL I relr 'OIEull1 ramp. et:n
UlI1 581m- 
it ''''I:- A lwt:a"{;
1 1I11e, .1. t:P.1 rCT1.IÙultt I1U "["p., p.mtl,.1- 'Oa rcp.eputtl felr 
115 elln p.e, ocur rcp.ebuLL I felr UI1'ò, oCl1r '1' P fill t:P.1((11 l1a t:P.1 
rcp.epoLL. n1 u}\ rClIll)?ep., .1. j:e1t In t:fUlIlIWI'Ò, 'f t:P.lnl1 a ùUlL l1a felr, ocur ' 
l1a Ulp.tJm a"{;(( l1a Ulp.Ll111 l1al11((, .1. 'Oa m1((ch ma )?e'f' ocur mlucn I 
's" llUllltlnl. 

LO'# atil J ') 

 . Co .,0" C, 
)e" IDf"II..- L 
( e 
 tl-.,e,l2 ....c.. 1 Cð-,ch 
X Co:rche m11C. O11la..Etcl' r..}'e1l cmc11((c11 crm 111t ('(f1c1H

G. CeL' h l l (( otcefln. ("111(( mc ltm'D np.e [nPT
oJ1,,-",(f1lt co 
.,AN...," t
 [ ß-., 
 '" ,......... .1- 8 
(rD., I
:?r,.1lOJ)tomnm Cl 7'!HQU!fC' 1.J co.n
1f'(qt 'DCl ech Cl;" 
d.A-; P VI.:. 
)15 .. A "'" 6 

r.. 0?U)' telccqiëm'D, colflnlLOrsten fl1 (( 
1((cta Clr oc a Etelt. 
 ß to} 
e.4." Ij ',"-04':8 0)-13 tI ß 
olr nfl'D 11' 'Dealwrc.
'1 -- 1 ;;"", 8 r. Fi\-,^,,!Jv B' . ... 9 "t..o.K.
 f, CAJ::-&
' , B F)ð ,h 4 
t cmchac1!. a LW1trce, 0 Ca1ChClCh mCl cmchaë tla1che. rt<$ ß 
-) j{ ., Dvro..I1

 8 .." B Z."" 1C 
1D (hi Q.,-ß a1 t (Ira 1 flÛt:IEe' flC( f elfïe buac1wltt oc caë c eL' /11t
 ce.ó:t 13 
o'n., I
:Jr.. 1-11,1 'De [r ceJ 
Ú]"; If 'De at:C( COfl'D bo b11((chwtt 1 '1,bafl- 
t ' b . b t ". . . ,.. .. 
 . . n owl' ..7) 

 p 1'01 Lf1 ; a mere 1 m 11m e -çO
ICl'DU cm 01'Dce; 1fl(( moca " 
)' ",p ",P. . 'It h Ju;' .r 

'1 -çelf 1 rOlt (( nCl1'üCe; 111Cl bm bre Cl mbo'DmnEen ; e1c 1 !J I
" ... 
ct11b.....1lcch -ceClchL'Cl'flO a 11111'De ; cm 1 t6 a t<<.rr. . l"r..l. >,.j- 
,", n ;
 sAliM D 
) .. 

B ,.,lr 

L JA io ) 
uJ..... Wn- ....-v

 - ( 

I Fail' rfnt.-' "i)Plsrp.eIC 'is glos.ed 'cemlaeh' in Rawlinson, 487 (O'D. 21Iõ.) 
· ' Tir-cltmhaile.' A piece of land measuring ] 2 . forroehs ' in length, and 6 in 
breadth, Vide C. 252, and O'D. I4G2. Vide IIlso vol. 3, p. 335. 



two-thirds of its rent is the fi ne fi m' the tres p ass' if .TUDO- 
, 3'E
summer grass, it (the fine) is one-third. CO-TE
Question-How are Innd trespa8
es regulated? i.e. I ask whence are estimated -c 
the trespasses that are commit'p(\ upon the land. From its rcnts, i.e.þ.. -/r-fAb


 the Ian!! it'eIf it is 
 wh.....1er it is profitable or unprofitable grass tháfis WrJ,,

injure!! on thc occasion. If it be win t erg r ass, i.e. if it be the grass of "- 
the wintcrthatisinjure<1 therein. Two-thirds of its rent is the fine 
for the trcspass, i.e. two-thinls of the fair rent 'or pl"ice that is paid for its 
, feis '-trc<pa>s, IIn,1 'airlim '-tre'l'a-s is "hat is paid for its' airIim '-trespass only; 
fo" it is founBcks that are ]laid for its' fcis '-tre<pass aud two sacks for its 'airIim'- 
tre<pas3. Two-thirds of the rent "hich is paid for a 'Tir-cumllaile" of 
the best land to the end of three-quarters of a year is \\ hat is dtle for' feis'- 
trespass in a meadow of "inter gras,-Iand o\"er a fnll fence, i.e. three' BcrepaUs' for 
the three-quarters, i.e. two' screpal1s ' for' feis '-trespass in winter and one' Bcrc- 
paU' for 'feis'-trespa<s in summer, and thi
 is the thinl of the three'screpall...' 
If it be summer grass, i.e. the grass of the summer, it is one-third of "hat is dlle 
fnr its 'feis '-trespass ami for its' airlim '-trespass that is dlle for its' airlim '_tres- 
ss only, i e. two sacI.s Cor its 'feis '-trespas., IIn!! one 8ack for its' airlim '-trespass. 

..J- w 

The trespasses of swine. If they eat the grass, (;jvs

e trespass
 like otlH
r fjrozi ?Ig cattle in ::;, t.J.Jý Ii ') 
general. If they 
 up the land, o ther,-þn(! .-4wll 
be y' Ù
n tinhe pFDof of 
 e land c.j. CC.F,. 7' 
 llpW od ;. that is, until two ri.Orses in yoke are 
 Ir. U
b h d 1 f h d .. h t .ts led.n!} 
roug t an e t t ere, all 'it lS seen t a no part is 8<<n. 
of the earth stick to their teeth while grazing on it. 
Thus is it t-e:4etP 

Half fine i:-.: due for' tairsce '-trespass vy day and 
.<Mþ.tw full fine if it be trespass committed by night. For 
it is a 'Jna.Ú1rL in the law of the Feini that every 
kind of cattle should have a herdsman by dayj.nd 
lligfiJJ; from \vhich is derived the s(lyin!1 " the cow'::; 
sense carrier is her hen1sman in the bright light;" 
that they should he in an enclosure at the fall of 
night; that the s\\ ine should be in their stye by 
llight; that the cows should be in a cow-fastness; 
horses in their proper fetters or in a stable; sheep 
in their fold. 




. Thlls it i8 tf
l<d.-The original seems to lJe llcCective here. 


bp.el1L"ha eomarrhrera an'õr o , 

JUDG- C ((11:; lIe m U C, .1. C1Ilt:(( 1Ja muc. ((n111\ 1, CUI C h C C6t:1l P. (( 0 tcell 0:, 
'U:"TS OF .1. WÏ1111tC1I1t:a 110: cetltaOUel1O: últei:eno: um f1<<c11 '01I1Ilecrni:1 op.p.u. 111 ("( 
J Co-Tt.s- ,c ,r 1 
'l.O'1'L<,(; B AS'('\". rocll tUl 'Ù t:1 p.e, .1. mo:'O t:oëa:ttt: 111 t:rltmun '00111'. VOlt ((11,1" .1. nl1. t"'U;P t- 11 
J f '
 _ 1 .2. 
 _, -=-0" elte 1I1n 0:11. r on a:rc11:';1I1("(. Co,, 0 '01, 0 111 r a 11., .1. Lcu 
p._no 5 u '''-' !> 

'J'&" -_O/',o.,4,u>Ç.o.,,, . WoI"ð - ... 
._ ç na:trn el 'Olt:llep. 
elp.tJC1I1Ile 1'Ul1m:
n rep.r mïn p.o t:oët o:i> ann. 1) a 
acl1 -nrlvJ...J
O'D., 1226. 0: cop.((1t: [.1. cop.ae5d
, .1. na 11<'1c111!!"O.If1!l'O IÇffi'OunlJ. 
fT'Y\' B tet C((P. an '0, .1. lf11l'O 11("( 1161 
 '" Con (( t: 0 I E 1,1' n ..Ill a \:1 aJ; ta 8 
 Dr '\.<1 V -""""'ß or,..o.... 
Ie ((1' oca !:;telt, .1. cOlla 'Oe5(,el1(( 111 'Oon ,

I\f1a1l1l(( r mcta aIT <<E a ..{
Ii' A f.",.. B1-'OI!:;eltc 1 l' an'O 'I' 'Oeo:p.u1'c, .1. l1'an'O;'l1' 'OMC j ;1'Oß x;1;ilnn "'ú 
s-Ct 2-. 1...,0 AI .;?}7 3) '0 [.1. 'Oon 'Oe((p.]. 
 ÞTV l ro;\8' .8 s.I.4.
:' '7'10 ß 
 kØ 9'. /1, .;., 
O'D., 1226. [CC 'OCJl.OfC; )(
cUll1np. \)(( edl ((1111 a copat'O 1 rat 111 COlla '(" 01 5- "p "..;...... 
B p.lw teat1 fO'O t((1'1111151 crt 1'111, '1' atl11 'Otonrnt1j1. a 'OeTtorc. 111a'Ò :-;tcrt 
1to 5et1'O 11a muc((, 'I' ((Illatt ccat1\,(( a cutarb,' C1(( l' 0 ùat 1 rem 
ù11eltatù Euë ctar p.o cta1'Oe(rò '00 Hna'Ò '00 al1ùatm ((tmtt '00 
/) ímblm, ((1'.. t,(( heú'Ò Ù(( ,("fën( teo VI' ceol' celLLe 111 '("at1l1U11 '01(( '("011(('0 
r a 'O e r 111 ; '00 'Oeoëa.!Q ql.a 1((11U111 rop. at'("h5111 11elë hp.on 11 at 11 ((1111. >- 
íJ '4
. '. "OUt11ecatte <:11((,lmentm1 '("((11. L111. '00 céltf' .1. ((l wñ ocuf alqteÙ(fÒ 
fottrcu"Ö ocur fottu ocuf LOtt(( ocur ((11 ocur ((l1 l 5f1U.j 

,. . 
CIw t.þ .ç 6 r. 
(. .;,.J'Ht". 
i!J.: 11lwd1 ((11. mU1C mo'11., telt melc" C((Cha_ Ce' r ' , celt}].! 1lH111l! 
.to cach bmnb; 110 ÚJ1i:tI tet melë ((11. cai' mU1C mÓlp, ce d1 l 1 ((1lItu 
melch cacþa CIOlfI, ocuf 'Of( 1111'11 WÇ. b
 'il::' éO.j
I1Cl celtw ret'-L 'V}I 
11((n m(( 11
 m:ú 1
-Â1.1dl 1'0; 111'("h fOll.f 11a muw mOlw ce111 bIn 
m 1 !l.... 'rJ1 1 1 11 lr
ltuEu fOl1.f l1a b((11nu 11l((.r?\lf 11
. ((IEC, u
tU5u a 11uLmmt

 " (,'iJ ) 

tS- Leat:h cat:l,ach a t:alp.fcl.,.tetpaëmp.tHllemtue,t:atp.f51111tao; 
to:n paë mp.tlmp tae no at'Oëe I 1:U1p.1'ce nat'Oclle; cuqwm(( 1-"'1' ocuf P.11I- 
p.e'O 110: h((t'Oclle. Cut:p.uma ocu1' p.Ulp.e'O 111 Lae t:ap. tan íme co:ë 
nae; rf'1' na at'Oclleocuf (( p.ulp.ea'O con a t:ap.p.aët:ml1mp.l1at'Oc11e 1I1U tatFc, 
UUl po:ë'rt'f1 tn'Oob; atp.Um U1'Oclle ocur a t:atTtr5 e , tet paé fe1'l111'Olu; 
) v p.1I11tea'O tae ocu1' <<1P.tl111 to:e It: l11an'Oa j t6t:hpac11 atlltlme I 1:at}t1'!:;e tUB. 
I An eqllirulenf.-' CC1tS111 , p!"operly means a re
toration of the same thing to the 
original owner, but it is frequently, as in this instance, applied to "the 
gool1," or giving an equivalent for allY loss, damage, or illjnry. 
. Tv'o ho,'ses in yokF.-The greater p<lrt of the remainder of tilis tract i. taken 
from the 1I1S. E. 35, in the library of Trinity College, Duhlin. Ea" lin<on,4S7, want
the glosses ou the second part of the preceding te,<t. They arc taken from E. 3 5. 
3 Cnrryin!J.-For 'Imem:::al1' of the text, the meaning of whidl is doubtful, C. 
1"1 32, reads ' Im :r. ea 'O((1n,' which meallB 'dra'ling,' 'puJling,' &c. 



The trespa ses of swine, i. the crimes of the pig<!. Like the trespasses 
of cattle in general, i.e. IiI,e the tre
passes of e\Cry other (leseription of cattle 
"henthcfiuefnrman-tr . ßisch /"9-duponthem. If the) root up the land, 
i.e. if rooting of the land be what they do. 0 the I' I a n (1, i.e. when other land is 
[jÏl'en for it by "ay of on equiyalent' oj the lalld .chich thf' /'ooted up. Un t i 1 the 
proof of the restoration, &c., is completer], i.e. until the certain 
redamation of the land which they 1'0 led up is announced, Two horses in 
yo k e,' i.e. they are yoke(l [?] i.e. the horses on it, on the land afterwarùs. And 
are left there. i.e., the on the land. That no part stick to their 
tee t h, i.e. so that no part of the earth stick in their teeth in grazing on it. Th us 
it is t est e d, i.e. it is then it certainly is determined that it is rcstore(l to it:! 
11C"llthy state, i e. the land. 
I ü; 

 : let t" 0 horses be unharnessed and placed there yoked 
together to gmze, when in grazing they do not pull up a sod, it is then 
the test is .....en. If the swine haye eaten the grass by grazing, theil' 
trespass is like that of other cattle. Although in the old judgment<; 
it .is ordered that every furrow which they should root 8hould be 
filled respectively with corn amI hutter, for they deemed it just 
that the land should receivefor tll'3 injw'y done it an equivalent in 
it<; own produce; yet it afterwards was exchanged for restoratión 
of tIle thing which wa<; damaged therein. :r.lan-trespasses are, q AfI1(,N 
carrying" (loads) oyer your neighbour's land, i.e., 'aradh '-trespass, 
'aitrehadh '-tres]'" .' follscudh '-trespass, 'fothla '-trespass, 'tothla ,- 
trespass; 'an '-1.1 'spass, and' airgsiu '-tre<:pa<:s.' 
A sack is tlw fine upon a large pig, lwlf a sack upon eyery slip 
(young pig), four handfuls 5 for a farrow pig; or, ((ccm'ding to otlters, 
half a sack upon every large pig, a quarter of a sack upon each &Jip, 
amI two handful<; upon e\'ery farrow pig. 6 This addition extends 
to four times seyen animals; hut it e"temh to the entire number" a II'. While 
r;f the large pigs. The l'ca<;on that it is less on the farrow pigs thp!! are 
J l ht " 1 1 . . hl . 1 h lh
t lan upon t lf' 1;";(; I .c;;.' IS, .ecause t leII' DIm ene<:s IS ess t an 
fl!(lt of cattle. 

Tg OF 

II alf fiDe is for '1:1 i rsee'-tres pass, i.e. balf tl.' fine of the' airlim'-trespaog 
loy d"lY for' toirsee '-trespo
9 by day; the full fine of 'airlim '-trespass by day or 
ni;;ht for' tairsce '-treopass hy night; the . feis '-tre.rass nnd 'ruirimlh .-tre'pa<< 
hy night are eqnaI. The' airlim .-tre. . anlt 'ruirimlh '-trespa 
 by day oyer a fnll 
fence of IIn) person are c<]'1al; for the · feis '-treopa" b) ni
ht amI the' ruirindh '- 
trespass .chen the callIe fI1 foun I after the night lying. there is fnll fine for' feis '- 

pa , due for them; for' oirlim '-trL<pa s by night amI' hi..,.e" '-trespa
' there is 
half the fine for' feis '-tn ," OJ 'ruirindh '-treopa.. by day an,l 'llirlim '-tre'pas. by 
day are e([ual; half the fine for' airli:n '-trespnss is a',e for' tair"ne'-tre'pa.s b) day. 
e 'Airg.iu '-II' "pass.-Thi
 I' .11 rk ah.I'1 maa-1 es appears to be quite out 
of place hcre. It is not ea.y to d t(rmille the different ourls of trespass mentioned. 
6 Ilundful..-' ?tIam . is as much as clln be tahen IIp ÌJ{>tween the t\\ 0 palms of 
the hands held together. 
6 Far/'ow ]Jig.-That is, a YOl\Ilg suekin!! pi
VOJ.. IV. H 2 


bfl.em:ha ComaH:;hcefa a'1'Dfo. 

!\lENT!! OF 

O'Ocm::nucn mu cutucn ul'Oëe .1. OSF1Ucn mltLlme 111 tGe t:H1P.fSe I1U 
nm'Oche. C(lt ut:u G n"DLIJ'ie'Ò nG Feme .1. up. Gt:u ul1'OLlsei>m Fene- 
chmr. rltl 'Oe ",lrmLo. Sceo GI'Oëe.I.Ulp.p.ebO'Oem. 

t!v J
c'i''''''$ D 

. f) r-" "c - f-I) . .1. Comil15U1p.e qla: eta qlutrame a hUl1Lam11 cwtl1a ocu.f 
a.fl{D 5"" reaLu? .1. '019-. ua 'Ot;C 1'011 aLa, ocur rei;-r; 
5anl1laOcurreét:: muca 

ocur reét:: qUn1"b. Hi dU"bf1'O 0111C t
cBI1 a comm;S("(111e co 
LUl1arai>. 111 110 Ull1((tfill La cai; in ttã all C0111 ocur ceaéwl1 ocu1' 
U'n'V I] ø.A-''"TJ-r''lJV....... .0 - 
ceatpar, ocur 1;t:t)E;t;tJ1tcn.l ua'O 'Ota celtte ;Áa'OlwD1I1a'O a COIll111- 
 S ß!JA 
ðJM 'B "'(<-' 
5 U1 1 1e pa pa'Ol1U1b amU1L '00 COlrCa'O 1'011 t1(('01I1-J:m11 ocur l wt ((. . 
l:t:: mc('O all COI1WU aLLt::a l1amaj- R011C(ral1 a c01l1in5U111e, l1i t::t;m 
cm Ce(({-11a t1(( ce((i;lHt fUll1t\J tcqwm, ai;t:: '00 u111fe11a in 1I1a111t:: '00 
" """ ,. JJ 


· t;JJ

c:.í 13 
Cerc.-Cta Un raell
(111 '00 comm5wpc? 11í1J.: 
ell npe 
tlama, all 'OLI51't>f1'Òe La CC(l:a ce(({;l'.a '00 m5wl1e '00; C1U 1.Ji.:t 'Oone( 

'f'tYf) . ,.._
;- UÓ 110 ((LL((u fUll'., no Call11U, no ;>'O01!.2 5amc(1n no aUau, 
J tI1 L01UIIUl5 tð.; Ctot:: 1'111 bam 'Oe, t)i 'Olba1'Ò La. 'A.t.>s; 
ï .
IMrv tl,uf.- 

[O!J I-Z-'l-g) 

tt.r).c."rp...1 r'\1"..o."'Ð 

cLø h-r /) 
COlll1l15cul1e 'Oo
, no UllulIl fQ1.11llC1'O rcaL1j(( cwi; 'OÎ 'OÎIt;lIlel'O 
UlluJlC .1. 110 co coLpaë. 1'011. ma'Ò 'Oal1l1; cotp w(- 0 1I1C1'O 'OUll1m((lt ?>;',cl) D 
"E.',(v'S.o...,i:ì) tY'"rAJC H c..' e. Ð r", [) 1 
11' 1'011 mu'D bo t::lcQ:;am; CI 
rlJeI1U'O ul',J:lte ['OWI1 ] fQD mc'O I1'OC(1111, 
b 0/ 0,.. "'.. I! o.<L t J "". '.' 
o 1-'01111lC'D uo, a5 1'011 me'D wEe, Cql bCI( W'D '01(( u0111 re((c 110'Oa1l1. "ðlò-f)ol'}o' 
lit "J!';;1.::"..w' 
I D 'hlf''' . 
111 CIU1UU'D conl1\j((ç 111 1'el1'Oam 1'1'11' ((11 U11tlre, nil' '01(( ceaqu( 

D . 
 P)11U a bnlx( ((11 allU1I1 'ObEpm::el'- Tie; lIl1 (( 'OC( p:'D 1'<21 1 
w. þ 
f'lþ,C. 0 c;."J" M 
tJ 1)411'-1:. D ....
..4 u/!.7";' c>' 11Iet> C((l1leë, ocu('Dla ('Ull1a'1'Olt 111a'6 'O((lu::a, Tli 'OJ.tll1t:: ]:011. 11lC'D 
_ D ' L . ..
D L . ---.p,. 1. 1 1 f
""'''''l>. . . 

 co pC!!5.e, 'Ow co p
 1'011 me'D uO, uO co coq;((C ) 1'Olt 11I(('D n'D((III1. 
L) Ro-nql1.J, ruarp((umh((, ocur 'Oamconcha1'D, ni t:w"ba'D a C01J\ltu11l'D. 
r."'r ""'",A- [J 

Cm fc> 'Oepa ron? HÎ!]: 111 t::((11b cet::amur, 11' cuma 'O a1 1 11 
rl'Oe a ceat
a f
'Def1n, ocur ce(({;lw wi; aill blr ow 1 11Ibua1te. 
'Dam concUl'Ò 'O
, 11' cuma inmltrme a cearp_a oeur ceatl1a a 

I Comm01l pastUl'age.-This commentary is not in 11.3,17, nor in na"linson, 487. 
. No engagement iø !Jive.. by one to the oth-r. There is no contract between thc 
parties ("commoner..") as to ordinar
' a.:ciùents i they are in the same position as if 



Full fine if the trespass has been committed by night, i.e, 
the full fine for 'air\im '-trespass b)' <la)' for 'tairsee '-trespass by night. For 
it is a maxim in the law of the Fe ini, i.e. for it is in the Jaw 
of the Feineehus. By day, i.e.intherl
)'. And night, i.e. in the ..ight 



Common pasturage 1 : what is its nature as to the green of cattle 
and flocks 1 i.e. h\ eh e cuws in a herd, and seven yearling calves, 
and seven pigs and se," en sheep. Rtrrow pigs or lambs do ItA 
not come into the commun pasturage until Lammas-day. No 
e R;;l
gBU*lIl.t is ";"'11 1.y Qfu:; 1,0 the et1lC l. 2 with respect to protectin g 
 '1 ltuJv 61c 

. .,
tlte herd from 
, quagmirps, or cattle gorings, or from what th
y ...-'11' L
 . I. 1 
. ,,-<.t. 
nmy do to one another; theu' common pasturage 
 as at'ffifiged "^ "If 
hefore ,\itnesses, as if upon securities and guarantees, excepting 
protection against ,\ ilù dogs only. .As to what is legally place.l in 
the common prn.turage, no trespass òf cattle or quagmires is con- 
sidered \\ ith respect to it afterwards, but the carcass of tlte animal 
wltÏch is hilled shall be sbov.n to witnesses. 
Question.-lIow many are freed from t!terespoll$ibilitiesoftbe com- 
mon P
\"tUl'age1 Answer-The ownCl' of the land only, for he is en- 
titled to a d,tY's herding for every head of cattle on !tis land; for al- 
though there should be a cow or its value (f''luivalellt) dupfrom him, or 
a sheep or a 
-earling calf or its ('(plÏ valent, and it does not add a day; 
though these should 1,(. scpar,ltl'd from him, it docs not lessen a day. 
Now, in It cOll1mon pa"tUl'
e there is a calç
lation made of the 
Rize of each per!'oll'scattle a 


áity,i.e. acow \\Ïth a!r. Foo,u- 
n heifer in lieu of an ox; bl"ifers frol11 the size at ,\ hich they at c '10 t. 
1.ulled pass in the pl.tce of CO"\\ s; though others say it is an ox in 
place of an 0", a cow for a cow, a citlf ill place of a calf, fOl' two 
CO"\\S graze more than b the great ox. T4e equiyalcnt of the bull is bJr.Beycmd. í- 9o.3r
not put in this enumeration, there i<; not of his own .'pedes of cattle <1 
any evcn num1Jer that would fill up the number which woultl be 
required for him; for two ge('<;p arc in lieu of a !:>lu'cp, two sheep 
ill lieu of 11 'dairt '-heifer, two' dairt '-heifers in licu of 11 'colpach'- 
heifer , t" 0 'cul l ,,\Ch '-heifer!' in lieu of a cow, one eow with a 
d4r u 
'eolpach '-hci
rcilt bull, the' suasùamha ,_ du .
 f..r .I I:,..l
ox, and the 'd
lh-conehaitlh -ox do not come into the enumeration. c-,. p. Jut 
'Yhat is the reason of this 1 Alls,\er-The bull, in the first 
place, 1mlls p{Plally his own cattle, and the c.attle of all 
which arC with him in thc endosurp. The' damh-conchaidh '-ox 
equally prowets his own cattle and the cattle of his neighbours. 

the)' ha(l come to an agreement reciprocally to th:< effect, e"-eepting ah\ ays the 
case of wiM dogs (the property of one of the 1"trtil.). 




bp,em:h(( eomarchcf'fa ((n'õfo. 

MI':'i rs OF 
CO- Tt:s- 

c01l1wi;eué. 1 l' wrte 1'111 n1 naðu1'O cortm5te a nmrU1I1, altY-ï 
cU1l1a lwn1c cai; a tear. o "O t1 51.:Q. cui; bu((i;mtt a b1Clta'Ò..c [) tlÑt- (),ø 
t ! 
- k f;" t> 
muca 'O

a, n1 "GlUða'O Inlt aë"G muca all" 1n5c nIt 
F1'O bw 5 e co meal'. Comra 'OBt1a, rtall cai; c01l1ra cai; cumarD cai; 
com1n5U11te, al"G 11I'Olta'Ò no 111'O)tat 110 atsu 111. 

rÑ; Þ 

)m..J.'t' . L" 
CIU 1'211.U1 ccatl1.U céui; Flu ltalte aÜ:; Faqtb1'Oe 110 S1111\I'Oe, ':!.9 l.Ðuv

con(( a rUttÙU1'Ò alCdr'ltUr cai;"(( c1l1n Fui;"G'O l r uI5U1b"'l 111a'O mi iI.IJ
-T;<f"/fl 'f". ' - 
l to "G01P. ((n((\tt, 0lt5alt '00110 ((n as no n011t5. OCllr 11.((llna1'O 111 'Oa 
1IIap."G lIc"GUltlto 1 n'Oe, roblt Ùcr 'F111r
l"G lw5alt
1l0 c01l1m((p."G ((n ...
,. a5 'Ola t((\te; ai;"G ní e"Galt (( lwY!J1."G a nep."G 11e"Galtp.0. 110, 111(( 
F ea l t l t tU1r, 1'ocelt'Oa"G qWlIn 1111 ((n ((5 mùeo 'Our CI 'Oa Una 

ette_n '00 atwte!!f: 1I;e 
bp.e((ta annro q1.((, 11Iuna }:'eal"O((p. 
5uín1'Oe r O l t r 111 na"b lua1l1; 'OIU 1'caf'Oal1., ùeltea'Ò 111 Felt bel' ae 
lIJ((lt"G a U15e, ocur ((f11.ean (( celte a"b 1'0 twtt '00: ucur 11Ia'Ò t
/I lto frilh an a5, }:'o celt'OcaP. q1.ann }:'011.11.0 a hup.tann r eatú 'Our 
CIU 'Olb '00 "Got b1'Oba '00 "Gabwlu:, ocur '0011l0Cll1. lalulm 111 d '31(( 
"G111"G, ocur anelp.111e'O a celte '00 1111.tun'O reatb ocur CC((tIW. Ùlt 
1II(!tt"G ((11 m"be a"Gal1.11."Gu, OCl1r 
 nl1t FO'OU1tl"G an cqtce '1' Wflt U1'Ò 
l1.C!Ilnw'O tll(!tt"G an w"be (Kaltlw. )( 


, ,.;..J;J.


 P 21 
7lfOv 7\1.' 

6 If. - "" -rL-


((1' '()o at;a con'O bo (( buachaltL.I. 'I' '()o 'I' co'Onach '00 na bum!> 
{( mbuac11U1tt. IT m b u al t {( 1"D .1. l1a mùo:1o a ram)1.a'O. "HI a 'O"m u c a' /Y)A1J 
.1.1 J:U1t I J:aem:; na muca '1'111 11U1'Ot:I. 
",'1.-... (Co n) JI .1. muca 11ll11l t I W ; muc 01 t l1.O cui;u Ff1P, ocur bunb cai; ((111.tl1I1C, 
ocur a"b a nlJllte FeOI11.; (qt 'OtI5 ''Ò in f05cutw'Ò 1'111 a 1111COtllt-'O co 
2r U;llt. c.c FClr a FOIt 1'0 cc,t1!:,b1 to1'Ocut) in a'ÒU1"b,OCUr tllU1CW'OC ocwh 
Flu 'Oe. 11' 'OC '1' beltt '1'111 COI11. r(;111e ùíc; 
O1(( mbclJ nmcu 
11I0CUlJ"GCft,(!twr q1.U cU1hmltalt reII' rClJ((lJ ùClt 11IílJùu'Ò l'ltll1 11((1'0 
1I1ínp.a111'O naëcp.analt nm!lCnlt 1111 CUC(( ctmrc cui; acn COll1Ultba 

1. COl1t"Lner tll1tmíser. " 




H1 a'() bu, b 1'0 I In ùO'O ((I n se a n .1. bl;:; a n'<Jal1lS8n n(( mbo, I mùuat. 
trò 1101 mbO"l:151Ù. 
I COllln,nns.-The ,\(.nl 'Lomfu' hlte tralhl,!ted 'commons,' lltay mcan a 
'litter of pigs.' If so, thc Ivholeþl\ssage wouldsignif
', "A,to BlillcrQf l,igs, every 



'l. !Å;.A" P 'iff 
For thi::; reason' coslaithe '-mUle do not come into the enumeration, 
for all stand in neell of them ellually. Every herdsman is required 
to fee(l them. 

 . '. 
It. Pigs, too, d? not Olll
 into the enumerati
n of land stock lwess 
1"""'''''''' [fjo.;ç. they be old lllgs, eÀct'ptmg un "ood laml WIth mash!. .As tn com- 
mons, I every commons is free to m, ery grazier of the common 
pasturage, except for plunùer, or trer,pass, or knowledge of crime. 
\Vhy are the eattle of all placell together, except gorers amI 
fierce cattle, or that a Ì.\ò tì-tnu the 'WoIUl ding that--everyooe-Bfta-H 
cffltm the HnE for hi" ..LL<,,,1. [,om- him 1-If it be a calf that has e.j. 
 -- ......... 

llnJ.Qtller, lpt tl,p gtliel' thl!.t has killed it be slaughtered, and 
let them (tlte owners) divide tbe flesb of both between them into two 
equal parts, because of the killing by tbc former; or, let the flesh of 
the killeù calf be divilled hetween them; but this cannot be enforce(l 
het" een them. Or, if it be prefen
d, let them cast lots for the live 
calf to know which of the t" 0 r,hould P'IY the other for him. These 
are their judgment:; here, unless the calf had never neen known 
before as a gnrer; úut if he hall \Jeen kno" n w; suclt, let the man 
whose property he is take the flesh 0f the calf, and his neighbour 
shall gi.. e him another 'llf; amI if he slaughters the calf, lots sball 
he cast upon them on the green of the cattle to know to "bieh of 
them the guilty party hy right should be given; and the man to 
whom it has fallen aften....n-ds obtains bim, and his neighbour gives 
him away in tbe green of tbe flocks and cattle. Tbe flesh of tbe 
lâlled calf sball be between tbem, amI as they di\ ide tJH:) , 01 ie' Hlle , 
130 tbey divide tbe flesh of the calf be1\\ een them. 
From which is dcrived the saying "the cow's sense is 
her h er<h III a n." i.e. it is from this it is "lid that their iiJ the sense- 
e.uricr to the CO" 5. In a
.Jf)...c I 0 s 
...i.e. of the cows, i.e. in the summer. 
If l' i g s, i.e. into a st) c^,he ."ine 
o in the night, 
That iB, as to pigs: a pig is tlte fine upon them for C"ery , feis '-tres- 
pass,aml a farrow pig for e\ery' :lÍrliIll '-tre::;paðs,and a calf as 'dire '- . 
tine for grass; for it is right tbat pasture ðboulLl be wbolly guarded. 
They ::;hould lie in a stye at fuur roads by night, amI tbey shoul<<l 
have a swinebenl by day. :Frolll whence it iB said in the law 
called' Coir Feine Bee ;" "If there be a sv.incbcrd, it (tltefine) i
increased, for their ::.tye should ùe at tbe meeting of rmuls tbat leall 
into the middle of farm::; whicb are partitioned into small divisions, 
each 'coal'b's' di..i8ionlJeillg m.u' and di..ided byflll'rows." 
If cows, 1ct them ùe in a CO" fastn 5S, i.e. let th
m ùe in the 
fa:,tness [":Jall!! el'ectedfor tlte prul<ction of the cows, in an inclosure or in cow-houses. 



litter of pigs Ì:! free 10 graze on every comlllon., e\ cry common ra<turage," &c. 
. Coir F<ine Bec.--A tract not 111'1\\ n no", The trausl.1tion of the extract is 
only conjeclllT.1L 



b l tcadlG eoma1dlccrc( atl'ûr o . 

, C 7-57 
Z4 jt;DG- .1. CHI 1"0 ba'Darl rmaët::a marw ann, certrl1 ta ImVe'D na 11111- 
::\IESTS nil' 
 -kv C, W Co-TEN- 'Dltte, Ocur caemna in t::ll"e aUrtt1.Ol, na lIe'DlI' Ipn cg; reiI', a t::un- 
J.. _ J_. t2.S1 A.'I'CY. airelI' 'Data reiI', t
tD1tre ñel'C - ã'tJltoÍle7rf'tJa 11' 111 Tl"Htr reiI', 

 - _
oi>1tr e 11f1ë a'DllOlwr'tJall '1'111 ceaT
m Fir; ((lull' 
ë ocur ='ØlUV 'It.,'! 
} m::llat) HIfl I'm. 11' amne TJla arrWntl'tJair rmaënt cet:: amur, aët:: 
na11elltímeanìla 'DOrtHI 'tJltre. 
'i:: J_"


Ca'tJHI'D ral'tJe? l1m-e'1ltím ne1Ene llw com no 'Dume; elltím 
, ua t::oTwm'D no wveatt, no ellltlll1 g!;J; a'tJlwllllf'Daill a n'tJlam 
r lHI f1U 11 0 'DIlenEa'D t::all'r. 1t::é el11tllueanna im..J1'Djcea'D pnaë"La. 

/0 CO 'DUCO'D t::fla FOIl 'DalKa ocuf 'Dallt::w5c La caemna il1 tl11C 
ocur mel'tJ in p.e, conai> é rnwët:: rOIl({ 
ucl!!3> Q rE
"Í!' Cwr- hMt
bEl1a'D atalte 
rÓ5E11lt111l aët:: 'DO COlrEa'D- 'Da tHlË 'DEC il1'D. let 
melë caë'
t5.a!.1?o 'Dum co 'Dall"Cati> rlU reiI', aët:: 11' fEll' .:aë tlËe 
caë t::allTtaIËe. O
a'D be5 il1 LIlt 11.0 1I01lrall ann Imbl ni VI 
,r }'ealll" tnwë no 
, t::olwi> blr anl1, mlrCJl ani VEl' pu, ocur 
'DO VCI11 'Diabut roël1a1ce t::al" a elp;. 

::; fv..M J- 

... MM IqÐ.19)



.-' p.11 "" " Cerc-Cm ar a 11l1t:'CJl ron? 11111:- LI11 1'0 cp.ean bom co ceann 
 1) mbt1a'Dna, !'Q.
 tllwë 'Dec 'Dono rOCJlEal1
'Q ron; ocr: melë all -tIk b 
5eamruaët::, OCl1r a cEtwll ((p. rW11Fuaët::. nla'tJ EEmpwët:: oË 11.0 
;to oP.t::all ann, afTl.Eanl'tJall a 11oët:: m'D, OCl1r a;S a tmi'le I.2.!Jl.. nlai> ê 
ratnt!!ët:: 1" 0 11op. to ll ann, anlEnmEall CEltP.1 11lE1ë mn, ocur aË 
a n'Dlp.e a r eol 1 l . )l 
tqqA'"qAd DIC
CCfTl.eatl1'tJap. qw na pllaët::a 'DHI q1Clp HIll fOEwt 0 t::alëap.wr,. 
muna ellltlËt::Ell qw 1 C011atb vet; aen puaët:: all caë ceatlw(r!'tJ .<>M..t....,.;-. 
 tcoEma)foll dll. 1re in puaët:: pI., ap. caë cEatlla 'Dib, tll1aë cala 
fEIf1, ocur tet mClë caë e111tíme all caë reët:: mbuwb. 


etcll 1 CU 1 uf\each t;ectl t;U Il 0 Il (( 11111 'Oe .1. IlU helch ma 
) cUIOlf\ech 'Otlsteë, ÎIl cellll Vf\1 Lac ílla Il!'chmtvb. 
...W>1-' ... 1 e 11 . 1., " 
"V n .. IC, a rmaet::a wnal cae ceaq1u r05eatn:m rp.1 na hup.Ea- 
30 bata "OIQna1ll rell. CC'l 'DO EalV na 11eoëo OClir ëUÎ11lniLlur, OCl1r m::a- 

.tq.o/., 1 3 0.'1) 
1 The fr(Spasstr. . CU1IH ui-,' may T,osóiLly mcan "II tre"I'a<ser" or "criminnl," 
but, from the context, it is bard to see bow it can bem- sllch a S(,II
C here. 

 wf þ, 
Ik ) 


Y OJ" #v 




That is, though there were great 'bmacht '-fines therein, four sacl.:s In'G- 
with the increase of the cattle, and Nie P
'8tOOt.ie1J. gf the c{nmtry ; Cn-T..:s- 
jhrfJf 00.'1,., Dt;c
O r tho fir;;t 'feis '-trespass, :l second in A:Sl'Y. 
. thc case ofa sccond 'feis'-trespa..<;'\, forfeiture of half "\\hat 

t'" fn-r thc thir,l' feis '-trespa,>s, entire forfeiture of what ani"Ii'] ff}1' 
the fourth' felli'-trespabs; for it is:hing :lIllllh\elling' after that. c..f "f8"./7 
Thus they u
ed to diÜde the' slllacht '-fines at first, except in case 
vf the' airlim '-trcspasses, which 
hat are these 1 Answer.-Forced leaping before a dog or a 
man; leaping on account of tlnmdol' or sultrine"". or a le:1ping, Imt 
so as they are 
 before they could get over. Such are the 
 icr whichk smaeht '-fine 
 1;j J.. 
Until it amounts to a 'dairt '-heifer and a yearling wit]l tlwfi'le 
imposed ú!J the protection of the pl.tee and length of the 

 , -tire 
, I!macht '-tine to \\ hich it amount" i" to be proved. Though others 
S'lY that fullieaping-t/"espa s is committed, if twelve cah-es have 
g\\1lf' into it (tlt",field). A half>>ack is tllP fine for every animal from 
the ox to the' dartaidh '-heifer for' fpis '-trespass, but emery lyiug II 
do\\ n in which it (tlte ani/lud) is caught is 'feis.') If the e.};tent of 
land \\ hich had IJCEn damaged on the occasion be so small that 
the produce \\hich is there is not better (more vabl(lble) tban a sack 
 tr c:;pl\I,!:It;l' ,' let tbe value of it be estimated, and be shall 
obtain double tbe bire (rent) afterwards. 
Question.-Fl"Om what is thatestilllatedJ Answer.-Land wbich 

.Eor to tbe end of a year, it is twelve backs that would 
pnrcha..,>e this; eight b.teks for tlle cold season, and four sacks f01' 
the bot season. If the damage has been committed in full winter, 
cight s:lcks bhall be paid for it, and a calf as 'ùire '-fine -for grass. 
If it be in the summer that the damage ha..
 been committed, four 
sacks shall he paid for it, and a calf as 'dire '-fine for its gras.'1. 
Tbe,} bball pay the' smacht '-fines in three da,}s after the trespa
has been cOIllll1Ïtted
 Nuless indeed by verbal engagements it L'I 
otltenvise arranged; it is tbe saIDe 'smaeht '-tine tbat sball be paid 
for every kind ofmttle that i.! B"l
 t upon the lanll. The 'srnacht'. 
fine that is UpOIl e"\ ery cattle of them is a sack for every 'feis'. 
trespabs, aIllI a balf sack for C\ ery 'aÏ1'lim '-trespass llpon e\"ery 
I;e\'en CO\'!; 
Horses in thf'ir lawful fetters Or in their stables, i.e. the horses 
in their la" {ul (euer., lhe head to the staple in tlleir stables. 
That if!, ((,8 fOI" hOl"! 3, the 'i>I1laebt' tincs are like those of any 
other c:\ttle which conbUllle fotllier after tbeir being taken in t1'espasB. 
a!"y,. ,For the bOl'Seb ...... t,[kcn aud detained (i.p. impounded), anù notice 
 r{" IJP 



ho.t-. L z.>r J...aa 

f, "Vi
- ' 

... -d.rtd,;. 
1116- /6 


6W' IAÅo ;, IN-}UM 'fj ...,.. 
J.tJV..,'J.fI-t ..,...-J' 



.. CoOl> It. (Dy-ul.beA- [""-""'''"'if"'' Li;"foF)"!)'JIÑ] B tD"tA1i...."J COl1)rv'7)e D 



 l..- oiú 

1'A ?n(.ð 



btleadJa eoman::hcera atJ'Dr o . 


banH> 'DO pt1- be'De nelë, 'D1U11 reafDat1; mUl1a rear'Da}1, m:;aban1'D 
b A.. 8 1. . 
ac 'DUll t:;JEetUla er THJ.fom, oeur oc 'DUll vl1.elt:;ea1llal1 l1a t:;Ua1L1, 
Boc..o.." . 
oeur oe eel1,'Dea Eobal1l1, oeur oe Ptll11Jeltt l1a t:;uwt:;e; oeur at:;a- 
banH> ramtw;s FO l1a qllëa oteeana oeur eoml1kur eo.t,8 /II> 
5"* * · 1'011 'Dla eUle ta 'Dée, 110 penlt:; aröi'e, 110 mír, Or'DWI1 'DO 
LI vet1 bí'DC nflch t1e l1anl1Pt1 a I1rcma. 
 Cia FOEeatr:a'Ò pt ""..;? 
'Dolb? 11m :-mmë caëa 1Ilír 'DO bUa1b oeu1' eacllUlb,1IIíaë ocur tét 
111e1"(;h 'DO 'Do.111, 11111lla eUlblll;S<TP. ; 'Dla ëU1vl1í;Sr:etll11JUtlfl.O, '1' 1111aë 
caë tw co l1amël. '[;em ín t:;Jat1Fw;se ro eOllllll11tllee Flul' a roo.r e , 
lC)lamla1'D a F05eatca'D m::at1tWI í l1'De; mUl1a d IIllUtl1lO.l. '1' 0;5 a 
t . b ,. 11 . ,.
.,,!J D 
r05ea t:;a'D 'DOH pt1- CUI 1115r:et1. a tlO meat:;a a Fare fOp.r 111 Vt1 f\'I4, /,0""11'" 
cU1bl1ls<;et1-, oeur 'DW 'D1 a celte co níatW1p. t:;eët:;a, oeur co pa'D- 
tla1re ín'Dtl1C, oeu1' co l1aeta1U, rOt1Ua1rt1eeC!1t ín eOlm'De
, vetlw'Ò- 
rme a ceatp.a, oeur anteat1 rOEeatr:a'D. 

.".o,z,í () 

rJ 'rf,A1q) 


,ç Cwra rOEeatr:a'D rOil? .1. 111wë eaëa mlr, <it1 ul' FOEeatt:;a'D 
eeatp.a pt 'D01b al'U1be, ní ro;r;eatt:;a'D at:;hEabata. 

(n'lJ /1..,z..) 

ma'Ò 011 mí 1'111 ín 110nn, tlí hactw;s Cia FOEnw;Sr:ep.11111wb .1. 
a l1'Òa11Ja1U oeur eaëa1b oeur va bteët:;a 'Do bteo;sal1 ; laët:; tlí r:elt:; 
rOEeatt:;a'D FOt1t10 íl1 11é rO;Sl1a'D. 

'l.0 -8ma(;"(;a roi:ta OCUr mtt([. 
Ç"",MN D 



otta 'D1Il, 'DWll 'DO t:;.h!S oetlr reUlfl.ea'D anl1 a Llt1 a eelte, í1ll- 
comlp.e 'Doíb daru hWP.111 ín110 fetllfl.f1'D. no retllP.r"1l1 "p. íl1'D 
P1 1 r eó . ma F011con"S11
'OtTl a r:avw11t:; or naë Fuel.!!.!!rotll, Iré --rnJ'") 
urp.eul1a'D ewëe a neaen 1U1t 
 \Jl' 110 {(ltUlte 'Dono, {('Dcíputll tlo. 
l.S'Yfl.1Ul1a teo, oeur tlí íme0111!J
 _a 'DOlb, 11' t:;
ra {(l'1te{(n ín cucw;S 
1'111, ma'D aínupr 'Dono 'D{(ítll í I d11 ín 1'.0 feulfl.feat:; a neoëo. 
'[;ot:;nta 'D0110; arbelttr'UIll Ffl. ' 'Daí1ll 'a1lltta rcofl. ín ntte 

1 Are delainul.-There is all erasure here in the :M.S. 
. The keepill!l.-Thut is, of the mttle out at gra
s under the cate of proper herds- 
a' Tolltla '-tl'CffJOSS.-' t'olhla' usnally meliliS 'eluwng,' " eVUlling,' &c., .lIld 
'Tothla,' 'l\clllnlltl; 'cl.1Ïm,' 'requegt.' 




n to the man whose horses they are, ifhe be known; if he is 
not known, notice 
 at the' dun' -fort of the nearest lord, and 
at the 'ùtm'-fort of tIle Brehon of the territory, anll at the fOl-ge of AXCY . 
the smith, and at the lU"incipal church of the territory; and notice 
is likewise giyeu throughout the nei!1húouring territories, and they 
(the lwrses) are detained' till the expiration of fifteen da) s or twenty 
nights, or n, month, if the lUan whose horses they are does not arrive 
hefore that period v:lâclt is that of their delay in pound. Aud 
what expeuse of fpeding is due for them 
 Answer.-A sack e\ er) 
month for cows aIllI horses, a sack and half a saek for an ox, unless 
he has heen impounded; hut if he has heen imlJoumled, it is a sack 
fora day and night. 'l' hc kel
 comes under the same estimatiou 
as the impounding; they shall dÏ\-ide the e>"IJenses of feeding in 
t\\O between them; if he (tlte OWler oj tlte cattle) does not come, the 
expenses of feeding are entire to the person who has impounded. 
H the man \\ ho has impounded has failell to giye the notice, and 
if his neighbour should come with the la\\ful follo\\ing, amI 
with \\orthy witnesses, and with oaths, tl;Q--H, " relm e 
 4 'I" 
-hHtl, he shall obtain his cattle, and he shall pay the expenses of 
\Vhat are these expenses of feeding 
 A &ack every month, for 
it is feeding for cattle that is due for them in this inst,mce, not 
expense of feeding for distress. fhIh;.l 
 Ii<> .w- 
Hit be after this month llf1Tlfiig :
...m ,,,ç1 el+H sen ice Ñ1 obtained 
from them, i.e., from oxen, and horses, and milch cows which arc 

d; but no expense of fceding is charged" upon them \, hile . Jr. Goe.. 
they render senice, i.e., do w()rk 0/' gÜ'e milk. 
, Smach t '-fines for 'fothla' -trespa:ss and 'tothla': 
trespass. 3 
, Fothh '-trebpass is committed 1/.1.e,t a party of people come and 
unharness their horses iu the land of a neighbour, asking what place 
it is in which tbey haye unharnessed. X e h,n e unharnessed iu the W 
htnds of this mml. H he has ordpred them to 
ctake them
from thence, and th:It they do not comply, they shall pay for the 
trespa%es of their hOlses after\\:.lrds c01llmitted. Or-it is other- 
\\ise, indeed, iJ
 seest"the bridles with them, aUlI 
lu,.t Jil'1's:t;,," thC' lU, it is thou who shalt pay fur that trespass if 
the party are ignorant of what laud they ha, e unharnesbcd their 
hOlses in. 
As to 'tothht '-tre"pabs, now; t hi... if< ",,;,1 of LUl Hl:lkuown lmrlJ 
who k,.,:c _uHj
kcd- their Jw
 the-büd; and thou hast f:,'Íven 

Co- TE..'i- 



Calp.IS In a LIar, .1. nacUlp.IF;'OolJlt;hmacp.u. 

 [.1. Callt15 mlOplW, It; pnaët;a alpt11lle '00 rUI'01b, ap nl pt 
Fer a '001 b, .1. 'Oanl1la FelltLre eaëa a11tbme Ft1' tom, 'Oamna eept:te 
'Oe 'OlEum.] 
,"\ '0'.0. ,)7) 
8 .., L f""W"'""'/ c CN7\ 
 C. " 

c or-c.A -..t\,C.I",,-
1j o{.t 71'1 (,''1 0 -r- 
u' I., (,( D'CI<DIo)CCn( 'õ01l0AOltCC COllWt:11'i)(( Clll'Utn nU qtm:;,OOCt1}' <1b 
_A J ) 
. "- <I . OI'\-C.p
-cA.-A ,L 

U">' 2.J7 ('OIl1l((ll()(( [(,In'õnù 
' } t1 lwê; 011l CC pEm:n ÒI}' (( ttr no a: u flQ':U68 
FA.'lt.l;&e A IS 
 l'Je.I)1)-" o.nsC71"L 
e If 
loff!1t1li'p, t1tlEE((}' elpll1H (( nEOllt' 1-'((ltëe fa 'U1, f(( ql1, 
fU cearhm1l, e(11 ((En tmL'he; nj HnE 1m tltlJtO , 1n aët: 
6-41"''' 1: A 

 A , 
((En e1lttm; con1l((n'Ua'U chln'UL'a leqtum 1 n'De. 

 ........w II 


 t'IJ ,b7[--t 

11 (,!,-N- , 
o If i.f 
'C ,., LO'Þ &4 13) 

v.. . 



bll.eadlG eom((1t:hcera CCn'Dr o . 

Jt:DG- C(I]l1le ín
colree 'Oolb fCOlt ann, aët; na'O nÞlblw '00'0 betalb nama; 

Co-Tu- (11' LUra aT1tcan í11 eatars pn 1altum amult bl'O a eeatlta Fa'Oerm
ANC\. t:o pOlpi> ímbe'O f111aën( FartC1 bCIL1 a qtelb. 

 6t..tL?) W """'It D. 


.1.-" C-"!">,A,I)",A. II i II ../;II -f.rW...
.d ?,I. -,.- II tt-U- t 
aË 'õono, conrwnna Clnm'D f1l1 11e'õ,tr01l1lE1'D Eootear 
W1l Eelæ
1ë,.no nqt 1me llín'D1 uc . t/ !J4v ru 

'I"' C(t;a 'Oono .,. m::a 'Oono op.c U111wnnar CI1la1'O 1111' m p.'r 
111 nmLLin I fU1L!t; ff'ët; nanmanna 
P.I t;; .1. 1m eut;p.uma op.p.o. 
(Jeur as .1. as u11p.annar emf!!1) 111 t;; m nmLLin 1 fU1Ln:; reë'C 
nanmannaforímegt:p.uma. J)eat;a.,. 111 per;ap.oLIm(!l'p.c. 

I .1. 111 t;oll tC pe((ra bplrear alt 
:r Ocur bettear eotur per m 
20 rpeL, euqtuma 1-1U 'Oa nanmann(( '00 pnaét; FalP, ocur Ft11 lmen 
nnmann 'OatLhE11l. 1n 1-'eét; t;anlr'Oe Lel'O. euqU1mu 1-'PI eeltpl 
hanmannatb FalP '00 pnalT, oeur euqwma Ft1' 'Oa ((nm((nna 
'Oatt; h 5 11l . 1n qtear 1-'caët; "Celt;, euqwma 'Flu rpí hannwnna 
'OaI"Ch5 m , ocur 1-1).1 reét; 1wnmanna '00 rmuët; }'wp. 1n ceat- 
L, plmLe Fcët; Lel"C, euqtuma Ft1'r 111 qtf't: U1te raqt '00 pnul:"C, oeur 
eut:puma FPI CCltpl h((nmmma 'OalLh5m, ocnr ar e 111 qtet; 
be pear cuë FeaëL. 
I Sheep ill their fold.-The text here is from O'D., 122G (F.. 3. Ó, p. 2, eol. I). 
The reading in O'D., 2172 (Rawlinson 487, fol. Cj, p. I, col. b), is "eaíp.e (( 
twp" and that in C. 28 (II. 3. 18, p. 12), is .. emp.lF; ILLmr;" the orthography 
yarying as usual in the different 11188. in uearly e\ ery Bin
le word. 
2 The litte,'.--O'D., 2173, has here, "There is as large a fiue upon the pet young 
pig, as upon seven animals, '" ho goes if/to the !Ja,.de" the fk,t time. . . There 





JUDG- fjt !-y-Oç 

them to understand that it L'> allowable to unyoke there, although 
thou hast not said so by word of mouth; it ÍJ3 thou who payest for 
that trespass afterwards as if it were :!Jty. own cattle tl
at It(t(''-CC!l1!- 
tecJ jt. It m"y Tench th" \1WQ'lRt Qf 'smacht '-fine payable for 
trespass in a green aòJoiMiR
 It"trot1 Së. '? 
Sheep in their fold,' i.e., the sheep to be in their foM. 
The sheep have fines for' airlim '-trespass impose,l upon then:, 
for there is no fine for' feÍJ3 '-trespass, i.e., the makings of a spindle 
(of wool) for every' airlim '-trespass into bare grass, the makings 
of a ball into preserved grass. 
There is a small pig that shares the fines with the 
herd, and a heifer which shares the fines with the 
herd; a pet young pig which is kept in an enclosure, or 
in a green, which makes 'airlim '-trespasses into the 
garden of the green twice, thrice, four times in one 
day, but the herd makes but one 'airlim '-trespass; 
they divide the liability afterwards between them 
into two equal parts. 
The calf, too, pays equaJ fine with that of the herd 
where he is a trespasser that passes over the lawful 
pasture, or over the lawful fence. 
The rei s a s In all pig, i.e. there is a young pig which shares the fine" ith 
the herd, "ith the flock in \\ hich there are se\'en animals. ,,- i t h a her d, i.e. 
the same upon tIlcm. And a calf, i.e., a calf .....hich shares the crime \\ith the 
/Jock Or the herd in "hich there are seven animals, in equal part< I'e t young 
pig, i.e.,thepet
That is, the pet young l,ig whieh first breaks tltTOlIglt the felice, 
and shows the way to the herd, there is a 'smaeht '-fine 2 upon him 
uqual to that upon h\ 0 animal'!, and compensation equal to that 
of one animal. The second time that he goes, there is It 'smacht '- 
fine upon him equal to that of four animals, and compensation 
equal to that of two animals. The third time that he goes, there 
is compenl;,ation upon him equal to that of three animals, and a 
'smacht '-fine equal to that of seven animals. The fourth time 
that he goes, there is a ' smacht' -fine upon him equal to that npon 
the whole flock, and compensation equal to that upon four animals. 
And he leads the herd each time. 


"tJJa.;TJ M 


Ï3 on him only the same fine as on every other animal the first time, the Bame as. 
on hvo, however, e\ery time from that out." 
.' S"vlcht ':fine.-That is a fine for violating the law; 'aithghin' is com- 
pensation for the actual trespass committed in injuring the corn, grass, &.c. 


bp,eaLh(( eOfl1mrhrer(( af1"ùr o . 



nla '00 cuam a aCIlulL fa L)Li pa pa'Onalb, oeur 1"w híc)'ca'O 
caè na, ocur lwe qLe
 111 cetJ1-uma'O feèr, cuqUlma flu 'Oa nal1- 
mQ1l1lmb fallt '00 1'ma;;
 veur fill llm:n UUma1l1l 'Oa1<::115111. 

ma '00 Cuam na haencqL fO t:}u fla fla'Onmb oeur 1lilL hlcau 
> 1laè na, ocur 11,ue t:}l,e-c 1ap, 1'111, cuqluma nul' 111 qle
 fWP, '00 
rm aët , oeur eu-cp,uma flu ce1tp,1 hanmanna 'OmdI5111; 110, ma '00 
CUal'O a aenul" fa Ql', oeur nl p,o ll1ea'O, oeur lule qle
 111 L)l.EUr 
feaè-c, eU
J1-uma fILl re lwmnmm(( falP, '00 rmaè
, oeur euqwma 
1-1\' t;J1-1 hanmmma 'Ow-cllE111. 

10 111a 710 eua1'6 co fa 'Oi a aenUll, ocur ni 110 )l1ea'O In cet; fClT, 
oeur p,o hlea'O in feèt; -canlrue, euqwma flu 'Oa lwnmanna fall" 
'00 fmaè
 oeur fp'1 llafn anmann 'Om-ch"S111. 

'c:ð,t7,4- '\ 


111a '00 euam co fa '01 a aenU)l, oeur p,o )l1ca'Ò in ce
 feër, oeur 
1)i 110 ll1ca'O 111 feèt; ranir'Oe, eut:"J1-uma 1-T' 1'eè-c nanmannwb ral)L 
'{'OO pnaè
, ocur cuql.uma flu 'Oa allmanna 'OwdrS111. .samtal'Ò 
'Oono ill rat;. 
J blf 0: tlf' .1. t;att. 110 (! frrlt;hëe, .1. o:mUlch. t1UseO:f elp,Lim. 
. . tínS1"O f elc al' 0: telm ml', op, in f('P, no ap, in o:p,bo:l" ro: '01, .1. co ra '00. 
ro: t;p,I,.I.COfo:t;1'1. ra ceo:t;halp".I.COfo:C('t;hml" ('(n o:en to:1t;h(', 
.ù>.1. 1 no:en to t;Slt; Inunn he In t;an If CUt;l'uma mp, ocuf mtbin 1 rUltlt; 1'eët; 
no:nmcmno:. 11í tins Imul'l'() In t;;,.I.noco Llnsenn In t;mtbln o:ët; 
((en teull mp, In t;m) '1' cut;p,uma op,l'o. Con I'an '00:'0 Cl11 n 'Ot; 0: 1 rrp,u 01 
í n'Oe, .1.11' cain up,p,anmt; 0: Clnt;U et;o:l'p,u 1al'um ap, '00,101 cut;p,umo: 
mP,rlum 1 n'Out o:nunn co ro: Cet;hmp"ocurop,p,ofum 1 n'Out1l1un'O o:('nreo:cht; 
 CCs 'Oono, COI1p,O:I1I1O: CI11o:1'O, .1.11' e CUlt; in '001100:11'0, '00110: mucmù 
p,o mrne1"O p,omml1'O. rOp,P,SI'O Seo:teo:r, .1. rep, mmt OCCI, ocur t;elt; 
t;0:1' mp,b1"O 'OO1'msl'O reOlp, mtl; no 'Oono, seltt; Slf1l1I'C(1C 01CI, ocur t;el"(; 
t;o:p, íme nín'Op,mc. 


0J1-1l5m ar a!!..lm '00 0 lwc1wr ar a 'Oab felt fem a n'Oat; 
')0 FfJl nelè mLe, em all. Ime em cO
'Ò; no ar a 'O)wë t-"'f')l fem a 
nua5 fep, nelè aiLe 0 bur -call ime 'Oeaë, no 51'0 rall Imme 5iu co 
bea'O 'Oeaè ar a 'OWt; Felt Fem a n'O
 tep, nelch mte. 111 p,alre 
f O l L l l 5 ' 'O 1-1\1a em no_ 1l1
tC<:ï? ar a 'Ol1.Oeh fEp' Fcm a n'Ow;s telt 
ne1Ch mLe, munab ratL Imme 'Oeaè. 

I Laltýitl.- The word' 1I1'Op,UIC ' means' worth)". pure, honest, perI
ct, complete 



If he has gone alone thrice hefore witnesses, and he (ltis tres- 
pass) has been paid for each time, and tlmt he has led the herd the 
fllurth time, there is a ' smàeht '-fine upon him equal to that of t\\ 0 
animals, amI compensation equal to that of one animal. 
If he has gone alone thrice before witnesses and has not been 
paid for each time, and he has led the herd afterward,>, there is a 
, smacht' -fine upon him equal to that of the herd, and compens..'1.- 
tion equal to that upon four animals; or, according to others, if 
he has gone alone thrice, and bas not been l)àid for, and has lell 
the herd the third time, there i,> fl ' smacht '-fine upon him equal 
to that of six animals, amI eompen,>ation equal to that of three 
If he lIas gone twice alone, and has not been paid for the first 
time, and has heen paid for the second time. there is a 'smacht'. 
fine upon him equal to that upon two animab, and coml)ensation 
equ'11 to that of one Ilnimal. 
If he hac; gone twice alone, and has heen l)aid for the first time, 
and he bas not been paid for the second time, there is a 'smacht'- 
fine upon him equal to that of seven animals, and compensation 
('qual to that of two animals. The calf indeed is similar as to fims. 



"-hich iq kept in an enclosure, i.e., within. Or in a green, i.e., outside, 
111 akes 'a irli m '-ueqp asses, i.e.. he leaps a leap, a leap OYl'r upon the gra"S 
or upon the corn. Twice, i.e., two times. Thrice, i.e., three times. Four 
times, i.e., to four times. In one day, i.e.. it is in the one (lay he goes oyer the 
fern;e when there is a fille upon him equal to that upon the herd in "hich there are 
scyen animal.. But the herd makes but one 'ai,'lim'-tJ'espass, i.e., 
the llenlleaps but one oycr-leap when the fine on them is equal to thai on the p,t 
!/ouII!lpig. They diyide the liability afterwards between them into 
twO equal pal.ts, i.c., they diyide the fines afterwards fairly bet"ecn them into 
two e'Jualpm.ts, ane'lual .hare on him for having!;one over four times, and on them 
for going overoncc. The '0 
 If too pays eq ual fine, i.e. the force of the particle 
'too. here is, because it "aBof the pigs we havc o treated before. A trespasser 
that passes ove,' the lawful pastur., i.e., he had good grass himseU, and 
he goes over a palisade fence into other grass; or, indeed, he has unlawful pa.stura
and he goes over a lawful' fence. 

tJ...O'ÅJq. II 

A trespas
el' is the name gh'en to hi-)} (lIte C(I{f) when he goes 
from his ov.n good grass into the good b'rass of another, whether 
over a hedge or not; or from his 0" n hall gra<;s into the good grac;s 
of another over a good fence, or whether he has gone O"\-er a fence 
or not, he has gone fl'om his own good gra,>s into the gooll grass 
of anotlH'r. He should not be styled a trespasser though he should 
lht'-e passed from his own haù grass into the go(){1 g'-.lSS of another 
unless he ha" l'a
sed over a fence. 

113 b 1 leudJ(( eomcudlcer(( all'Dr o . 
. \ 1P5 .1-, 'I;

 F eWll-cc[1'qe 111 1me 111"011.1(' ?
111c('i) COlter, copo qu 

"'"" III .x
 tJA-r>v 1/ )( 
Co-TRY- l1((5, "("H' qW1;5Le 0 le1"("hea"O, 'D(( 'ùOj"ll1l1 'De]:;: 'ù1(( 1lCUlt'De ; 
ASCY. """"..LlW 1/ "7"" A 7 
m(m ('lor, t" l lt t" 1 wrri:e (( lC1t"he(('i) OC11r. a 'D01ml1e; 

A l}.
 II o
 a te1"("he(('i) nr ta11 1l1c1lLap" qu qlwËje a leldlea'ù 

4 -4 .
a 11101511e a C
r-"Si(ql 111 m111t, OC11
Ill((1;5L(', a I1Wll'De 
111 mt111l. 111 (m tloc!
S,.; wle, 5POW'Ò p'De rtl1 'ù(!1ll.s= -J o:ðr;w" J2.-7 
!ç) I 
4 SIT-on," 
,oft /Z- (t.I,$".(,..Io O'D. 2174. rCU1t"he; 111!'ùlcea"O rctl1dle (ql (( 'ùlt11te, OC111' [tl1J "Oll:eL 
",J oø4J1 _II 
'ù((m ((11. a Ilwll'Oe, OC11r.a: 'ùwm::1Ie: 'Pa'DOlltl'D 'Dec 'ù1(( 
..,1\ {l.. 
JI J<i.4.-11 7 A 
- llw l l "Ol'; qu Ù11l1cwll 111"01, 01111(;011. fOIl q: ]11(;((ql, OC11r 
ad" ......" 
,oJlwle 11l'õe (qw me"Ool1, OC11r a1w1te fWll 1(ql tlt1((c11- o',ð 'fU'1J 

rh oA 
rUll, CO
lUI5tl"O coch ctlG1lte 101t tlu((Chnlll, O(11)' l((111C111t 

'ùolb co tlartl 111 l focma 111 "("otom; 0('111' qu Ùelme((1l1ln 1 IV 71, z.5" 
"t I "L,' t""'" [ "' J [ A 0 7 ] ,( 
:::e 'J/
 O'D. 21ï5. fWll 'Da f 01t(;(( (( Ceal17). C11r ql2i"CO l l11l I)e 
rvlll<J-IJ If'ùelt 1101l

l: '()O ('UwUr; rDìL
11'lltl'O for 111 ---I! 
L;5wr rr{,x t- O'D.21ï:;.}(;uwlte ltOr C ( UtIOtllWtl, Oellr c1tt 'D1W15011l va'll. '{)1(( 
. f
" " Þ">><- 8 ").f.,l..,.
mol' fWlt [111 1me reo 1, '1' 'ùldlfO:-:;U1l Cql ceaqw. 1I-rtJt. 
uÂt-A ø,.,... A lC)( It ] " 
O'D.21ï:;. 11' omtle C1
 111 'ùltI111111l' K11t [(( alfl"Oe OClt)' [0] 
O'D. 2175. 'Dtu1dle, OCur [oJ 111'D1 lt1 C' u r. .....t.M"'" II 


M /;Ji[ 
ðP' l5"n 

OIJa.,.,. /lftE 


oJ C.tJ\. F"""", í-r. 32.- 

.. Call'-Cal'Oe In i111e 111"'O}l1C? .1. C0I1H11I'CI111 emn (ud,n""na 1111111' 
1o'OL1;st15 It;IIl.. 111 a'O Corta, .1. 'OIU ct01ch tlr Ocur cLoch rOll.l'u almar. 
lC telt;nea'O, .1. !l(1' nic1n::u1" CC telt;hea'O, .,. wl'l1uacht;ul" l.C 
'Ool11111e,.I,wl'llal}l.'Ol. 1((1' 111Cht;O:I',.I-1UI1.1l1cnt:ul' tlr. C(" Le,t;- 
I,I' a '0 11 (( 111 a15n e ,.1. ill 1I1U1'O 1 CU11't:el' 111 111UI' WI' nícht;all. a n' Ul ll.. 
wtC n((1I''Oe In mUlp., .1" fuarr. bI'ÙU1'Ô 1"'01' rru 'Oam, r cu1 t:he, 
1.<.1. 5((bCl1'O 1'1'01' p.11'm lI'OllIn oeur 11.11' 111 fcmC1 mbec. 111 'OICHI'O 
fCU It; n e, .1. noco t:f'It; 1
' !!i_1
c!!C:f 2.1(( f<
,! t;11.It; 01' 'OLurcll1. "D II; (' t; 
'Oam a I' a I, (1111. '0 P,.1 nocot:elt; In 'Oañ, t:U111.1f ((11. ((111.'01',.1- 111 'Oa '00P.1I- 
'Oec. (( '0((1115111', .1. nocu cumfcal5e1ln fe ((It a 'O((in;<;ne. "Da 'Oo11. n 'O 
'Oec, .1. na t;1'1 buncol" CQ...11.U5u'O cach cualLte,.1- cop.flb C11.U111 '0. 
J o 1o:I' nuacht;u11.,.1-na11.ab ctet l ' ((ma. tam cuI' 'Oolb,.,. acu l''Oo,b 
I Bunch01
balld8.-11ands of oziers intenyo\ en beh\ een the standard., or "t..h..s. 
· A malkt.-This ,\ a, for the purpose of flattening the bead or point of the 
stake to prevent it flOm burting cattle. See O'V. 1:;:;(;. 
· [nte"lcea
in!l fl'iel.erll"OI-1i.-For 'uara anama111,' of the text O'D. 217:5 
'uar .enama111.' 
.. BU'II'ho,"-band8.-There is sometbing \Hong here in the illS. 

Ç" t) r t 
 L O
 /Çsb) , vl'W !rt k t n lvrx '"" P ..JJw ì " ( 
Î WJ- t{ 1


Question-""'hat i
 the lawful fence ?-If it be a .hOG- 


r-; HI" 
stone wall, a wall of three stones, its dimensions are Co-Tn"- 
three feet in & thickness, twelve hands in height; if 
I h fì . . d 1 I . d 1 . . d I & Ir. 118. 
a trenc 1, t reê eet III WI t 1 all( III ept 1; Its WI t 1 
one foot below at the bottom, three feet is the 
breadth at the place where the wall is placed, and three c 
feet is b the height of the walL Ifit be a naked fence, b Ir. Tn. 
it shall bea defence against oxen, and small cattle; the 
small cattle could not pass throughitfrom its closeness, 
aud an ox could not pass over it from its height and 
its firmness; twel.e hands ({re its height; three 'bun- 
chor '-bands l in it, a ' bunchor '-band at the bottom, 
another in the middle, and another at the top; m IIÞ 
Btleh wise tl
at each stak-is rounded at the top, and 
they are pushed down by the hand 
t the 1Jl, 
 ground ftmY recei\'esthem, and they are each strucK 
on the head with three blows of a mallet. 2 17u' length 
of a foot as far as the joint of the big toe Ù to be 
between every two of the stakes; three hands the 
lenO'th of each stake , over the interwem'inO' wicker- 
o 0 
'wod., and a blackthorn crest upon it. If it be thus 
made,o it is -a defence-against the trespasses of cattle. .Ir. iflhis 
'I ' h I .. , l' " . 1 I fi d be upo.. 1M 
e '( UIrIme -lenCe IS SIlllI ar y O}'llW as to fence. 
height, and closeness, and lawfulness. 
Question-What is the lawful fence? i.e., I ask how is the lawful 
fence known. If a wall of th,'ee slonu, i.e., two stones below anti one 
stone over upon them. In thickness, i.e., at the bottom. In thicknes., 
i.e., at the top. In depth, i.e., in height. At the b.>ttom, i.e., below at the 
bottom. I. the breadth at the place ",here the ",all is placed, i.e., 
of the place where the wall is placed at the bottom of the wall. The he i g h t 
of the wall,i.e.,np. It øhall be a defence against oxen,&.c., i.e.. it 
shall be a fence aj;aiust the ox and the small cattle. The sma 11 cat tIe, &c., 
i.e., what crops the briars dol'S not pass throngh it in consequence of its cIosene"S. 
T hat an 0 x, &.c., Le., the ox does not go O'er it on account of its h,'ight, ie., 
tbetwehehands. Its firmneøs, i.e., it is not remO\edonacconut of its finnness.. 
Twelve honds, i.e.. the three 'bunchor'-hauds.' Each stake is 
rounded at the top, i.e., that they be At the top, i.e., tlrat 
they be not like oars. Pushed ,Iown by the ha nd, i.e., thrust It,)" the 

,TUDG- o tmm, COnar1tlraemann fe'OuLlr1l1 t:atma1n. '(;11a15 co l1U15e 'Oe1L 
F nop.'Oan, .1. CO "Oe"OaL na 011"Oan, .1. t:}1015 CO l11C1 111 1I1a'O, 1. CO bun 111 
CO- fEX- ., . tte t1 
AX(" 'OelLl5enn 10 Op."OU luf1n t:}lm51'O,It:1P. cac 'Oa cum . afa an amaIn, 
'.1. uap:! EI
_f!1'!!. ro Ul1commp. na CIP.1 'Op.m5ín. C111 ', .1. lUll 
,nu((cllt: u p.. "D, a m be r ((1 p., .1. ma 'OIU 1101b 111 'Oenam fin a111'f '01t:115- 
ta1'7)1 "00 na ced111U1b l1e. 1 f amn e, .1. If amtm'Ò fin 'Oono 1n "Ouíp.íme. 
1 t:1 P. a1}l'Oe oc U f '0 t U 1"L 11 e, .1. 111 'Oana '0011n'O 'Oec, ocuf co na '015 111 
fC l11clle t:P.It: ap. a 'OLU1t:lle. 1 n"O 11 U C u f' .1. cen fæS((' cen bep.a, cen 
p.f.hI,f, Ð e""""";' D C,it"L'f- D 
 A ...... A ...., A 
I. Smadn::: pea"La cht11ltp.e OCt1f. C111C
,xOCt1r peaca 01r, 
(H.te...- :l) .IoU1..I.M7V A ".vr.....1l 
OCt1r pem::a m1C"L1p.e, 
r: peOL(t re1fteolft, oC'ur pca"La 
fl11'DG1;S' (" 01p.E1tte ft01f1mb; 1"Le 1ft'Drl11 a can::hëe. C41nlj" Ii- 


"1r' 0 fJ ,rs

0-' 1z.3b 


. ft

cfo:ðM 1l+1i( 




{M, C/tV1Jí (, 1wJ.dWflv 


b 1 teadlG eOrtlO1"Lhcera all'Dr o . 


Smac11t: pea"La C11UI}11>.e, .1. na 11111te en U1te amU1tnaCe}1Ca,.I. 
let flnaèt: rOl1f na anmunna fa. peat:a 0If,,10 amulL na bu. 
.çpeat:a mlct:l}1e, .1. amU1t n(( cona cenn'Oa. tJeat:a felneoín, 
.1. febmcc. '(;al}151tLe n al}1alb, .,. '00 é1l1"O t:<<1}1F;llL11Ca1rl}1 a 
pnaé"L((, .1. 5etL t:01111t:llnecll W}11, F;ptt 'Oa fcp.epatL; ocuf If 'Oa}1 a 
cpnn Ictm}1 fmaè"L(( 111a r05Lmb commd1cefa. . 
D ,,,II" 7C.1. Ccm::êe g."Ch ' .!>e "Cp.a,
j OCl1r Eeol"O, ocur, OCl1f pea-;;-t.c-uv 
. .
r'<;i. 'Ca"Ôa ëmp.p.e, ocuf belel, ; a "Oa'p.E,tte mi\\l1t caê ceCltp.a "01<< mòe 
"Catp.E,tte 11atp.atÒ; trlU11a òe, a "Cat1'-5,Ue amult caë cem:; 11 11a 
 D (C.l,1) 
Cattëe beach "Cp.a, 1"0 cat"Che pt "00 fl1l"Ômb, 111 "CatP.5 Itte . 
CI"Ô FO "Oepa f011^ atp.e ern tuam11ars, OCur fli pt "Catp.ceatta 
2-1 FOP.atb, ocur Foblt 
a naqtteanEea"O ulte 1 matte, (qul'"Oo eqtU- 

qnt:! <:11.'"1_ fin .11a "C
a fmaêm ta comlttu? .;. ê'1"\.: 
tím "01<< 11ap.lf"((11t a '1e1"\.a"O H"\.lf. FO recha"Ofum "C1'.a cattat"Ôa, co 
11aê U1"\.ufa cafl hie a ëma"Ô. "Otif cat<1.l"Ô pt "OOIÙ, .1. catam "01<< 
"Co I "\.a"Õ. ,p, D 

Co he1"\.a11alt ífl catars "OIU "Col"\.a 111m - at1l1fC1t a cOlttGep. fla 
belch,"Oo bel It ífl rep. a"Õ5atp coml"\.uc FOI"\.f 111111lt ftn,co "Gem a t((1111 
Eabata, ocur FO 5eatta-o 1<<1"\.um. 1ft bl"\.eat If ëOll"\. 1<<1"\.u111 Ime, 
1"\.a111"O ín 111cata "OOlb 1 qtí .1. "Cp.1Gn "00 ul"\.E,wm, ocuf "Gp.tan "00 
l)caëmb, ocur q1.tan "00 np.. CC quafl ifl dlte )1.anm:ap. fOfl a q"\.i 


1 If he deta;,,! all tlwt will be to1<1 him.- This ver
- obscure passage may pos,ibly 
mean-" If he (the man injured by bees) rdains in hi, mind all I shall tell 
him, in that cnæ he lIlay look after trespassøs by becs in such manner that it will 
IIIIt he easy for the owner of the bees to escape pa
'ing him compensntion." Pcr- 



han<1,so that it cannot hut enter into the ground. A foot as far as the jointl)f 
the big toe, i.e., tl) tbe articlliadon of the big toe,i.e., a foot till it reachcs the place, 
i.e., tbe point" bere tbe hi,; toe separates from the foot, between l'\ e
- two stakes. 
. 0 ve r the in t e r w e a vi n g, i.e., over tbe fine interweaving of oziel"s ...... 

the"lackthorncrest. Blackthorn crest,i.e.,atthetop. If it be 
th liS made', i.e., if it be of thi- make it is impregnable to the cattle. Simila rly, 
i.e., the'duirime.-fence is a]oo thus COIlStl=tfd. As to height and 
cI 0 s e n e s
, i.e., the twelve hands, and so as tbat the small cattle could not 
pass through it on account of its closeness. Law f u In e s s. i.e., withollt spikes, 
"ithout spears, witbout points. 

MExr, OF' O
 ï ç- 
(.0- T. ,,- 


As to the 'smacht'-fine for pet herons and hens, 
and pet deer, and pet wolves, and pet old birds, and 
pet foxes; there is an additional pledge upon them; 
this is for their trespasses. 
The 'smacht'-fine for pet herons, i.e. all linàs of birds are liab'e to 
jiMS like the hen o , i e. there is half 'smacht '-fine upon these Iluin,als. Pet deer, 
i.e. like the cows. Pet wolves, i.e. like the domestie dog.. Pet old bird., 
i.e. hawks. Additional pledge upon them, i.e. for ad.lition their 'smacht'- 
fiues are paid, i.e. there i8 a relie\ ing pledge, a pledge of two' screpall.;' and it 
is for tbis 'smacbt'-fiues are.p;ÿ.d for their trespMSesiu co-occupancy. 

As to the fines upon.!.3.i.tb.ids,' i.e. 
 and geese, and hens, and pd 
herons and bees; their additionallJledge is the same as that of all 
animals, if they are liable to additional pledge; if not, their addi- 
tional pledge is like that of cattle in general. 
As for the trespasses of Lees, it is trespass fines which are due 
for these, not additional plcdge. 
 r;f. Cr.w-. J
 (f. 3;U) 
".,.. -tuo. 
hat is the reason of thÌB,?f
y are swift, amI tbere is no 
 u. '-1- 
restraint upon them, and beca
not all togetber, for tt"is llø / 

e 'airlim '-trespasses 

do not incur re:ititution or 
'CHtKm c.rl i.e. 'ai.rlim '-trespass,if 1w

 "j ;1 
 /'(. '<-.-<-ø/ "Y'"!-:rn. 

iÙ Le
í(l-illm,l he-ahall now leak to tn'SfJl1U;U;'; 
 it is l-t?! IO'T'
BOt e,'I>J to !tw.i,l P
) ÏD.g-fo r tJleir damage. There are two fines for 
them, i.e. a 
JI!l 0/) tbeir produce. 
How is the 
f tbeir produce paid 1 Answer-At the time 
of smothering the bees, the man who sues m

kes a seizure of that 
honey, and it
 into the kceping of safe hands: and
 after- . Jr. .IT.arul 
\\"rd" ISubmit\'N. to a\Hlrd. The decision which is right to make oisel,w!!. 
aftel'warù.s concerning it is, to ill \ ide the ]lOnpy between them into 
thrce parts, i.e. a third for attendance, and a third for the Lee,"" anù. 
a third for the OW'lCi" of the lan<L The thirel <tl1'Jtted for the land 


haps, it should be rendered, i.e., "an' airlim '-trespa
s in \I llich theJ' del..y so long as 
to C01nolit rl:mlage, it is not eas,Y to :l\-oid p3).in;; [(If their d..UHac;('," 
YOLo no. I 


.J UDG- 
'}; ./rtÄft D A

11 G bp,ccn::hl( e0111cm::hcera allDr O . 

 þ (Ct..,) 
.1. quan "Oe "Oon flIt be"O a belch 1=0 brdl ín np.e ar a t1"Op. ean 5 a "O, 
in qllan nmte 11.a1l1H;cq1. ron 1"L1P. na ee1t11.e COT!1mëmb ue"Oa 
neara "00, .1. 1 1IIb.!'IÈ bw"O. 111(( 1:çl,9:-ç.h tmr in LOnWr fin caé 
btmòam rmp" 1,
 belp. fmëe caé eommëarò bera ner om ." 


; L:'1.í e111m"O"Oo e1p,e .1. roxa
,oeur"OoIU;a"O,oeur"O. 'Leop.a 
bm11.5ena r f l1.r ume eona nanntann; oeur 're mel"L 111 anntal1lTJ 
r m eomn5m:; eaëa batp'5111e "01b, oeur ({ teta"L; oeur 111 ra11bup. 11' 
mo mltt1"O na eel
e, lr"Oe 1e"Lul1. na bmp.511la r11l1r 111 emm"O"Oo 
n1m:; na eqlea arrlE. "Damna "Leop.a rel1."Lar bera ríu tetrctleputt 
,0 111 a emam 1 t1r .1. maetrtuea"O beë, oeur tor 1101"01 oeur e0111"01, 
o('ur noeon amU1t r05wt eommtëer fin, aër ambIt amll1t bltb111ëe. , J" A 
(C q1.í emam .1. reërap. 
lr [.1. 11.e h((rhatu oeur mUlttennl 

 * * . . * . 

oeur 11.e "Ompb aI1U((p.; oeur all reë"L ee11emu 1.eor m:-a 1111 11Lh fin, 
') oeur noeo rnr rW111r. 11(( per(("Oa en U1tl amU1t na eel1.ea nna 
f 0 5 tmb eomwtecru; reol1a. -IF 

IO:ð2:Z.7 D 
J, cue-- 

$i.175. 11a hUlt1 en amult na ee11ea 1m a r05W eOlmeera. '
a ql1 

a a LIb' fOX((
, oeureoI1bcr6, oellr "O o l1.rcr6. U: <t1.1 ee r 0 5 ta a CI1v-f 
tll" maetrtue@ beeh, oeur to"L 1tórò oeur eamn111ne. ---.!. 

L: eo l w ball1.5111a 111a fOE<!!t Cf;"LJb' oeur tetrctlep att a t1r no a 
tuu50P.r.; oel1r mélt rOI1.1W a reë"LUI1. t1r,milUlt na l1.uba elte 119 
"Oot.!!> ë.ena, eomûf1aeh bltbmël uatlb 11' na bec1lmb oeur ir 111 
U1"Lh. 11' ann a"La a tWl111e a "Oubl1amup, 110mamn 0 na eel1.emb 
an 11lu m"Ò arú an eOÍ1n
 a "Oe111. "Otrb
 011.1ta .1. eoëmtt impa, 
1.> oeur muna bet, co mblcr6 paé "OlI1fle emtl or-l w . 


 t;:" I 

11a pera en Ult1 amU1tna e
ma f05tÇ!!þ commcera. 'L e0 1 w 
ball1.E111a a e11lmE, 'I\Q ree"L nan1llunn "01b a rIb, oeur Let rct 1e paU 
" Roidh '-plallt8.- rid.e "\012, P. 420 n, 42l. 
. ÁlI(17llills.-TweIItJ -five letters have been here cut away with part of the lower 
margin of E. 3, 5, page 3. 
. Of co-te"a"cy,-The :MS. E. 3, 5, is here defective. What follow8 np to the 
article on hound trespasses, p. ] 20, is supplied from O'D., 2176 et Ifq., and C. 29. 
See Welsh Laws, p. (j!)2, folio edition. 



is itself divided into tllree parts, i.e. a third of it is [Jiw
 to the 
man who owns the bees on account of the land from which they 
come, the other two-thinh are diÜded between the four nearest 
neighbouring farms, i.e. "\
here food (for the bees) is. If this dis- 
tt'ibution of it every year should be deemed tiresome, each nearest 
farm takes a swarm. 
Tlwre are three trespasses of the hen, i.e., snatching a\\ ay, .1-,/,;,,? 
spilling, ancb:rastil1g. T/
efine is three cakes of man-baking \\ ith J" 
their condiment; and the amount of this condiment is to e']Zwl the 
thickness and breadth of each cake of them; and the corn "hich is 
more injured than the rest, it is of it these cakes aI'e 'lnade 1c1ticl
are pÚd for the trespass the hens commit in a house. Three cctl.xs 
for tlteir trespass in tILe house. The makings of three spindle
(full of wool,) which are worth half a 'screptùl ' i.
 paid for their 
trespasses in an enclosure if a garden, ie. the soft swallowing of 
bees, and the injury of 'roidh '-plants), and garlic, and this is not 
as trespass in the co-occupancy, but is reg:u"(led as viciousness. 
Their three trf'spa.sses outside the enclosure, i.e. in kilns and c.f b',ð. 
 z. , C 
mills 2 · · -IF and on corn-stacks; and on seven hens this 
addition is, and it does not go beyond them \ tlwt number). All the 
petbirds are as the hens as regards their trespasses of co-tenancy ;3 
three -IF . ií- 
All the birds are as the hens, with respect to their trespassE's in 
the co-occupn.ncy. The three hen-trespasses in a house are snatch- 
ing away, v.asting, and spilling. The three hen-trespasses in an 
enclosure are soft swallowing of bees, ailll inj uring 'roidh' -plants amI 
Three cakes is the fine for their trespass in a house, amI half a 
'screpall' in an enclo>>ure or herb-garden; and' the sacks' are clwrged 
upon them outside the enclosure, like otller trespassers. Or, indeed, 
ctecording to others, it is fine for thievishness' that is paid for their 
slV(tllowillgthe bees, and for trespasses in the kiln. "-here the' eric'- 
fine which we have mentioned abo\'e is paid for the hens is when 
the restmint which the law orders is upon them, i.ees 
f rag:9! 
upon them, and if they be not upon them, a fine for man-=tI'm;pass 
shall be upon them. 
Alll'et ùinls are like the hens with respect to their trespasses 
in- co-tenancy. Three cakes is tl
e fine for the trespas.. of every - Ir. Of. 
se"en birds of them committed in a housE', and half a ' serepall . in an 

MEXTS 0"8 
Co- TE'1- 

. Tftiet"Ì.lll&csß.-Tbp . bithLinchc' of an animal i3 his acquire<! haLit uf injnring 


1) {1..(r 
11[. "g. 'S- 


bp.eadm eomWt;hcera al1'DfO. 

.J IiT>G- 

a Llff. ocur Let melch a 1'eé"Lap. Llrr. '(;al1. Lan ime aLa 1'111. 
ocura Let "Lap. Let 1l11e, ocurcm ni mar dn Ime ILll". Cu COChtU1b 
umpu l'Íl1; no "Oono, p.o cuI1" a mbqlte ar p.o bu dl1n"L1 LeII' a 
. . 1 [ I<'e-." ] 
nem"LWC"Lam arr; pac 1 "Oume Cal"Le ItJ1UllftO , P!.)..1.p.u muna 

.- fUlbL"L coéLa U1llPU, no munap. ta 1a"L conml" arr p.o bu ém"OLI 
LeIJ' a nemtmé"Lam. 

'(;eop.a bWN:;ma fell.fume co na nannLunn b1lerUIn caéa pmdl1 
ap. p
 ba11l51na bWlfume, qu bWl\S111a CUlllCI an"O, Ocur an 
cé"Lna "Oeop.lla; ump II' ((int
 ictall. melé 111 C01llwtcera, tet "00 
10 é0111.CI an"O ocur Let "Òeolwam; ocur nl ClIqluma'i> a tot;. tWlp. 
m "Loé"L1Ila'i> lwnn oét:-m05a<:; "00 pmE111n L05 na rpl mbwp.Eln 
c01p.ce,oclIpn reé-c1l1a"Ó1Wl11l rerCa"L "OoP11l5111"Oal1. na ql1 bWP5 ma 
eOlt11a"Ó. UClIr "Lab1111" na 1'é bmp.Ema rm Olt q1.i bWl1.5ina fep.- 
fume, feol1LmE co Let ocur qu lullma "OfC011.t11lE ocur "Oechma'i> 
,., in "Oechmm'i> "OreollLm5 L05 ann, no na q1.i mbmll5m Irm. Cin 
"00 maLL na ceal"ca Ir m "C15 a"La fm. 

'Damna"O "Lplu
;r"LlIr be"Oa 1--1U tet'l'C11.fp aLL ina cmw"O aLII', 
tet-,nelch ma c11latl'i>} a 1' eé-c all br. L'''
CC qll cmw"Ó a Ll5, foxat, oCllr "Oolu:a oCllr cop.òu. lC qli 
2D fOELa aLII', 1llaetrLucu"Ó beaé, ocur LO"L ltól'i> ocuf C011l"Oenn, no 
flU beuchu ocur Lur ocur qwacha. (C qu fOEw'ÒJ.I 1' eé "Ca l1. Llr, 
.1.1 le húr1Jalb oClIr 1IluILLS!!!! ocur l1.e "Ompb a1lba; no flu rabuLL 
ocur flu l1útl11b ocur 1-1'.1 5011.t:ulù; no "Oono, conú úu
wtëer a "OO1hptJ1ll na r05ta 1'111, aé"L a 1Ilbet amuIL ùltb11l51, oClJr co 
1.ç 1'eë-c a"La m 1U"Lh pn. 111wch ap. ë111.C na bl hmmll.lcr, cumu 
Let 11Ie1ë al" ëwteé; cuma dn CIT'.CI fill tuù501l"L oClIf befichwb. 
, [Cepca; a "CWPEILte ammL caé cetl1a, Wll. nl mpS'Lta"O "Lap. .,. 
Itl1J1WIC ocur 11111'e nm"Ollwc flur; ocur cua"O "Oa oll"Owë "Oec, "00 
El lún , 11' r1llaér. fit "OOlb fPI caé llall1LI1Il; ocur a COI11l1lH
"O ((1" na 
lo"OlCCre"O "Cap. m"Ollwc I'm, Im"Olbe a ne"O m 5 oClIr ullcomta f O l lUIÙ .]cJ 1!.!lS- If 
o I Enclosure.-' Lis' means bere, tbe elldosure of a gar"en "bere bees are kept. 

 COl1di7llellt.-' Âllnlanll ' is aD)' tbing tal.en with bread, such as butter, sauce, 
bacon. &.e. Dutler and bacon are the hinds of 'annlann' usually referred to in 
these 18"s. 



enclosure, I and half a sack for trespass outside an enclosure. This is 
wlLclL they have passed over a full fence, and it is half for trespass 
over a half fence, and nothing "if thcre be no fence at all. This is 
when they have boo ts of rags upon them; 01', indeed, according 
to otlters, Jle(the o 
) put them in a place from which he felt certain 
they could not come; but fine for man-trespass lies against them 
unless rag-boots be upon them, or unless they LA'-e beeR sent by 
a way through which he was sure they could not come,a aIr. Th,.i,' 
Three cakes of man-baking "" ith their condiment" of butter or non-co""R!1' 
b,)con every quarter of a year, are the equivalent for six cakes 
of woman-baking, which consist of three cakes of oats; and the 
S.-)Dle numúer of barley; for the manner in which the sacks of 
the co-tenancy are paid, is one-half in oats amI one-half in barley; 
and their price is nut equal, for the eighty-eighth part of a ' ping- 
inn' is thc price of the three cakes of oats, and the sixty-sevcnth 
part of a 'pinginn' is that of the three cakes of barley. And 
taking th('se SLX cakes as equivalent to tlll'ee cakes of man-baking, 
their price will amount to a farthing and a half, and three parts 
of a f,)rtJáng, and the tenth of the tenth of a farthing is their 
}'rice, or that of these three cakes. This isfor theJ:.æspass which 
the hens commit in the house. 
The makings of three spindles which are worth half a ' screpall ' 
are due for their trespasses in an enclosure, half a sack for their 
trespass outside an enclosure. 
Their three trespasses in a hom,e are snatching away, spilling 
. 8 Their three t)'espasses in an enclosure are soft 
S\\ allowing of bees, and the injuring of' roidh '-plants and garlic, or 
of bees, herbs; and corn ricks. Their three trespasses outside the 
enclosure, ie., in kilns and mills an(1 stacks of corD; or in a barn, 
in kilns and fields; or, according to others, these trespasses are 
not tr
spasses of the co-tenancy, but they are to be considered 
thieves,b and this fiue runs. to seven hens. A sack for a hen that b Ir. As 
L" not ban-en, and hence half a sack for a cock; equal is the thitvish- 
fine for trespass of the hen in an herb-garden and for tlte injury. Ir. This 
w7âch she does to Lees. run i. "1' ,. 
. . . . . 8H"eii he,,;;. 
LAn As to hens: theil' ad(litJonalvlpdgefine 16 lIkc th,tt of e' ery ki"d J") - 

fQf cattle, for t 
 11 not l'
--into a.lawfu ll'lace over a lawful . . rf.J1 /la.. S 

 fence; and a cUI' of twelve inches, of grain, is the' smacht '-fine 
"hich is paid for them for e"\ cry' airlim . -tre!>pass; and this" lien 
they arc guarlled so as that they may not pass over a la,\ful 
fence, their wings being clipped and spancels upon them. 



I Jra"ting.-'C'orb' is gll'ssed 'calt:l'arh,' srending, wllsting, or consuming 
'Corl>ao.l' (another form of the word) mcans als{>, dilt
'iI'g, lIe filing. p.J


 e-..r- ,. c'< 
 Þ #w. 
 /011. 1/,eJ if- 
'I' 'D.J;l ,r-114., It.t
""7__,. _ ( , .. 
Áe 'fl?". n'- 


) -- 


brteadla eommt"11cej'a an'Dr o . 

J Øl1,T l"DG- 


 Co- TF:S- 


11a com atb:-rr,ocur na f1nnwb, OCt:r na LTwm,no na bp.ulc OCur 
na "Oown anullt na conu cenn"Ou um a j:05twu comw"LTJCer a . 11a 
 att{;a WllUlt na hWb' ceann"Oa um a rObta u commtcera. 
11a 1JJuca att{;a "OU mLedr ap. cumur nClë, amult na muca 
f" cean n"Oa. 
11apa"Óu 1'0 amultna ceann"Oa II' COpllUlt nuu um rmaë{;; nOlI' 
tet pach ua"Oulb na nanmann II' cormult T-1'.IU, amalt II' tet pach 
m"OLlb 1'111. 
t:eolW bW)"lb ma a 1'ma{;{; a LIb; cu P.U151 reé{; tetrCTllpUltt 
10 rma{;{; a tlr, ocur melch a reé{;all. tlr. 

 TV /&1) . 

ne elte. 1n cOTlP. ocur m renen, amulé a{;w{; a cmam nnlJln. 
HIt m comwtcera cu TWIce Llll rcë{; IJanman"Oa, CI"O Ite rcuU'a 
Let ann, ach{; 5u p.aLu1"O a comín5wp.e cona mLet ac "OenulII 
na rOb ta ; no 111t rOIl cué rCltb muna rUltl{; a comín5wlle. 

. "'
I (,\"Z-'18"
 lL,( r:/sil/D J' "UJ
I I'Þ/).'"LC.1-1) ,"-Ccuft-ctaj'a cadwc11 FO pch cu FlU LIlt 111 comICW'D? 
t,"P\. Jt 

.1A,1I belftl'D dl1n cont0111. 


.t /I 

. 'o.w..... 4 
 It .t.......? It ... 
v II 
C1'D }'It a rm::a111? buaíne 1n contt1mn 1 mtam, orU f 
 rJto". It 
 'n. c..Jt...wh"" -......O
mt((m 'Dalt a e1j'e ; :.ocuj' q;t::e " olta helme1'De 111 chontuatn, 

 , __ 11 ' to 'I "lilt .....A 
({ l1cumem 'Do 1m, OCUj' 
a wmem 'Do J:l1- t dl, ocuf a 
i It 0-,.... lit - ....t- A- t'&...c.1:t Grr"f'e.c.kt"w A. 
2011e1mem 'DO t::ae)' :tna 'Dl l te
 "COlrCea'D caë -ae r 'D l lecllt:: 
flÞTII.setl - 
cona chmnt::cub 'DO neach fOltalj'ea'D, Kll1- -Dlfte OCt1r 
an:::115 111 . 


lAAb ... el.ol..ft4- It,,"- A 

8m((dlLa comlc11

ra came cot
tl'D (( 

!l 01 ù1 
O'D. 21ï8. j'macht:: ad It:: t(( cotal1l'D a Felch? Felt 1 Latb t10 [111 ] atft- 
.......""'"It z.>cean'D 1't::e cotan'D a Felch. 
i, h, .... Lot...,..". " 

1 Oll'nc,'ships.-A 'scilbh' mcans a di-tinct p08se
ion, Ihe stock of a particular 
· QIle.<tion.-The te....t in };. 3, 6, is defcctive here. 
· The feeding.-The term" conLon," or 'conLuan,' means" dogs' excrement," 
and is so glosscd in C. 
ïS3, where this .-cry paragraph is quoted, but in some- 
what ,liffHcnt language, thus :-" CaJt'-;-Clrl can:::1 fO pë 111 cu fIll LIt' 111 
commteera, en> befle Clll eonto1l1." It is evident, howe,cr, from the gloss on 
Ihe passage in the tcxt, that the author of that gloss underòtood it as "hound's 

'10 ",Ik
II The wild dogs, and the foxes 
 or the badgers, and the 'togans,' JI:DG- 
. . . "E
are as the tame dogs wIth respec to theIr trespasses III the co-ten- Co- TE:S- 
ancy. The wi]d fawns are 1ike the tame calves "ith respect to A:SCY. 
their trespasses in the co-tenancy. The wiM swine, if they shou]d 
be in one's power, are ]ike the tame swine. 
The wild deer are 1ike the tame deer which are ]ike them, with 
respect to ' smacht '-fine; or, according to others, it is ha]f the fine 
of the anima]s which are ]ike them, tlwt is paid for them, as it is 
ha]f fine t!tat is obtained for them. 
Three cakes i& their' smacht '-fine for trespass in a house; their 
, smacht '-fine for trespass in an endosure may amount to seven 
ha]f ' screpaHs,' amI sacks are due for trespass outside the endosure. 
Another version. .As to the heron and the hawk, their trespasses 
are outside on]y. JlAnd the fine in the case of co-occupancy 
exti'nds" as far as three times seven anima]s, e\ en though there' Jr. The 
shou]d be severa] distinct ownerships,l provided that they are under run. 
common herding at the time of committing the trespass; or it extends 
to each distinct ownership if they are not under common herding. 
--Wbat trespass does a hound commit 
on the land of a co-tenant? The feeding 3 of him 1tA 
Mt- b fJ.. liability for his 
 b Jr. Bfa/'s. 
"That is done in this case ?-To take a"Way the 
hound's orddte from the land, and settle the land 
after it ; and three times the bulk of the ordure is to 
be paid as C its ' dir
 '-fine, its bulk of butter, and its. 
r. In. Ø'?V- 
bulk of curds, and Its bulk of dough. The support ...v
of all pet animals and their troGpaCßos fall on t he 
ðn ,\ 1JO tn'I1.., tlwrn , both as regards 'dire'-fine 


and compensation. 
In the 'smacht '-fines of co-tenancy, what is the 
substance of the liabilityd incurred by them (i.e., on d Jr. Body 
their account), for there is no 'smacht '-fine unless of the debt. 
there be a su bsta
tialliability. d The destruction of 
the graf':s at the side or at the end of the field is 
the substance of the liability. d 

IJJAN fV't - û.Jt,... 

food," taking' ton ' to mean as it does in the modern language, · food,' . provision,. 
&c. .. CI'Í> bel\e em con tom," as quoted in the glo.s C. 27r\;J, means" who 
bears (or shall bear) the trespass of dogs' ordure," l\hich is probablJ. the true 
meaning of the clause in the text, though the glossarist understood it otherwise. 


bp.eadla eomWt;hcera an'Dr o . 

Co- Tm...- 

Calp., .1. c()mmp.clm Cia cm commtc:era }:'uuc1rc;r,al5Cr m cu p.e }:'ef1.unn 
tncommd115' belp.I'D Chili, .1. bmp.I'D emt;u m COli m t;1 t;UeUrt;ap. Lon 
bI'D'Don ëom. 

.1. Ca1te con 
1. a ceaëa1l1" .1. 'tJumeca1te, OCUf a UlI,bach 
r- ceatll,a, fobaè nan::lI,elbe, OCur conton 1 L:IIl.. CWf1-CrD 1 f05am 1 
Ouame in contuam I'm 1 "Cata1l1 ocur fOL: in'tJ 'tJ((lW eire, oeur 00- 
ëOll. fa1l1, co ceann mil" 1n cmari> a1te 0 L:Ú ín ceL: chinaI'D .1. 
a1L:hsm inelë 11,0 bl1.Onna in ceL: cín, Irm l:anlr'tJc, a bar inTI!' 
Cn'> fO 'tJef1a ron ,,cap. ni 1::elL: ceaëa1p. a céL: ëm 1 "i [) I].fr (t7-'i) 


y. D I""'Cr it z.,} 


10 [Cé f1.0 tfra
<::; 1tI cu ap.'O 1tI COlila1:Ö't; noèan i'ult ni ua'Ò 

 mUna 'tJclI.nna'Ò contuan fa1f1; ocur ma 'tJó'11.0111C, 111",nT1a'Õ 1 
ímWlnna1'Ò 'tJo L:0c11UltL:, OCur Ú11t 'tJo bU((1I1 arr 111 a11leL:
 11' t
tmt((dl 1tI con tua1l1, OCur ÚIf1. min a coma1"5111L:(( 11l'tJ. ....
''It':?'2.1 / 

;, f\ '/y'/,z.,

fPJ-y Af


\\ N q
. '7 

' n3

1 rre'tJ 'tJtq;uf1. buaill 111 ÇQlltÓ1tl a mt1l1u11l "Epn 'tJO 5((bull. a rÚÊ 
 anll, ocur a ronna'Ò ocur a rút á'Ò , ocur úlf1111in a c011la1"5111L:a ap. 
ron a1L:hsma. 11' 'tJef1.11Lc rtú1tln rm; aëL: co n'tJlc11eL: 'tJa e((ch hi COllU117G ((nTI olur cOllsteteL: an'tJ, oc11r conamsten 
(( pacta ni 'tJon feof1 05a stelt. Oeula t;j11 1111ne17G;m ëae
a a1t 
ron a1L:h5m((, olur a méL:'tJlm
OCUr a méL:'tJo taer, oeur a m(L: TIO 
"0 Ell.UL:h; oeurin ni 'tJlb 1'111 na f(('t;"Cfttl, 5elbæ 51le1111111 .11. L:((f1.élJ'1. 
Oeur ma'tJ 1 paTIna1f1 Pf1 buna'Ò 'tJO l1ét m eu eontu((t] ap, in P'l'M'Î 
co mbet paë 'tJumef
lt1 ua'Ò al1'tJ.] - 
K., . J IIv Of . 
X OJ Wi, 
: ()., 
Ií .to W\I,..IÅv #""",6 

ß. CI'D fit a r051:11n? .1. eI'D fILlrmnía'Dalrm,lrmf05mteomalt;hèera. 
buaine in tontua1n, .1 buml1 èuea m con ar m t;aLmam. Oeur 
.{t;atam 'Dap. a elre..I.t;o:LammLI'DaP.o:elf1,.I.arOllncmOeUraraLo:'D. 
CC t;eop.a l1elmel'De..I.inconLom in'Dap.ron'Dlp.e. 1na'Dlp.e\.1-ap. 
Iron rmuèt;a. 'C01 ree a'D cuë aer'Dp.ech t; .1. t;mrCe'D cm'[ap.eèt;a t ""
p' o r Ualf1 'Delrme cona 'Dep.nm:; t-'o5mL. COli a Chili n t; a 1 b, .1. 'VIe, 'Via ll fi 

] Fow'.-In C. 2U, the real1ing is cetmp., four; v.hich scuns to Le the correct 
one. . CeuëCU11.' 'bunUy means . dirt, filth: 11 sense" hich the coutpxt does not 
appear to warrant here. 
. Four time.o.-The original is defective here. Taking' cent;mp.',' four' or' A 
qna<1ruped' to Le the correct reading, the sentence may mean, ""'hat is the reason 
of this, for a quaùl'11ped doCt! not go ill lJnyment for its tirst crime?" 'fHking 



Question, i.e., I ask "hat tre<pass of co-temlncyùoes the hound commit in the 
neighbollr's land? Invol\"'es a liability for his trespass, i.e., the person 
who has given sVlre of food to the hound is accountable for the trespasses of the hound. 
That is, the trespasses of hounds, i.e., four', i.e., man-trespass, and 
mangling of cattle, breaking of d \VeIlings, and committing nuisances 
on land. Question-'Vhat is done in this latter case Y-To take 
that ordure outof the ground, and place asod thereon Rftcr\Vards, and 
cow-dung is to be left over it to the end of a month. 
4s to the other 
t.respasses from t]Je first trespass out, i.e. compensation is to be made 
for the thing injure(l bÿ the first trespass, for the second, the life of 
the Iwund is taken. a ? 
'- aIr. It. . 
"\Vhat is the reason of this; fut., IH\ no". :!lot r epeat 
st tres- 
ss fÆJ:!P time s 
. Q,.p.v,..
 h 7Lf1' 

Though the hound should come on the neighbour's land there 
is no fine b upon him (tl(e dog), lUlless he has committed nuisance !r.. 
upon it; and if he has, the spot on which he has done it, is to be llOlhlll!f. 
dug up, and the clay to be removed therefrom as long as the 
smell of the ordure is )1erceived, and fine clay of the same nature 
with tlwt taken away is to be pllLced thereon. 
'VIlat is required by law is, to remm-e the dog's ordure out of the 
ground as far as its juice is found, and it (tIle ground) is to be 
pressed and stamped upon with the heel, and fine clay of the same 
nature is to be put tltere as compensation. This is the test of re
tion; that two horses of a chariot in yoke come thcre and graze 
there, and if no part of the sod of grass stick to their teeth in 
gmzing on it the reparation is complete. And three times the size of 
the orùure 1'S due for compcnsation, and" its size of bntter, and its 
size of dough, and its l:,ÏZe of curds; and the part of them that is 
not obtained in the one is to be claimed in the other afterwards.' 
And if it be in the presence of thc owner that the hound has 
committed nuisance on the grass, a fine for man-trespass shall be 
paid by him for it. 
What is done in this case? What is the ,'ryaration in this caee, for the 
damogein the co-ocr'upancy? To take away the hound's ordure, i.e. to 
tahe awa)-thehound's excrement out of the ground. Anlt .etlle the 1an:d after 
it, i.e. to put other earth there after it, i.e. to pre.s it and to trample it with the heeL 
Three times the bulk, i.e. of the houud's excrement i. to be given for it as 
'dire'-fiue. As its 'dire'-fine, i.e. as 'smacht'-fine. The 
 of all, 
pet animals, i.e. e\ery 
l is re<trained h) it that they commit 
not trespas., And their trespasses, i.e. to pay, i.e. if they have committed 

J l"DG- 
CO-TEX- e 

'cea cU1 1' to mean' dirt,' or 'excrement,' the meaning would be for" excrement 
does not go as a first trespalls." 
. The 'ocuf. in the original seems superfluous, :mlells it is meant for .1. 
. Afte,'wal.a..-That is, if it be not obtained in butter, it shall be given in dough, &c. 


OfleadJa eomw
hcera Ul1'Dr O . 


n't>"C cína1't>. "Do neach rOJ1.alrea't>,.I.'OOneoch ruach"CnmS1"C. 
1"C1J1. '01J1.e,"CeoJ1.amme1"CI. ((I"ChSln,.I. ín teOlJ1.. 

mach"Ca com 1 ch eara,.I. 10 nírmaë"CmS"CeJ1.lrlO a"Chechurcuma1't>e, 
na rmaë"Ca .10 me1ch. Cal't>e cotan'O a reIch, .1. m"Chsm 10 n61ë 
í'mltt"CeJ1. ann. ((J1. 01 bí rmaë"C, .1. umJ1. noco bl 10 ní r maë "Cm51=eJ1. 
ann aë"C ta "Caeb m"Chsma cotta na rlaë .1 .melch. ,:'e J1. I "Cal b, .1. ín 
ra"Ca. 110 alJ1.Cean't>, .1. ín smru"C. l"Ce cotan'O a relch,.I.a 
m"Chsm 10 mbm'O II' e J1.0 tOl"Ce't> an't>. 

rs OF 

f-LC."" B 
" ,,"'2. 

.,tþ l1,frl
 eM /) 

., wv
1! -r" 
fl?)C n,g,ef,xnþflO;sa rOn, ap. 
lona hOßfl neach1bflo;S a comíca1'D, an ní bw 1'1'6,(( dne,af1. 
",,"1 I 
't ""
nue oflba, a11- nach alta,af1. nae wq1.eaba; alla L"Wfl;sealla 

'Ij 7 A 1/1 
each afla ceatlla FOft each nwle, FOfl each LalT1rce, FOlt 
....J/" F\ J. 
cae flt11p.e. 

 /I i 



n1 bJ1. u SJ1.1 ch"C, .1. J1.ech"C rJ1.1 bJ1.UIS .1. bJ1.UIS, no II' ní't> COlJ1. '01J1.5e"Cu. 
.I'Cla J1.0 neI P I'O a ll.?locl't>aJ1.aJ1.m"Cep.,noc;'OaJ1.a nmrne1'O"CeJ1.ereIC. 
Raë"C mbJ1.osa, .1. '01J1.W"CU1't>e'O 111 ní hiI'm. ((J1. na hOI11\ 
n each bJ1.oS, .1.1"c1J1. r e l1 ocur uJ1.buJ1.,.I. aJ1. na l1a rOll1J1.sea necJ{rep.ann lO
a commdl1S' ((J1. ní bla rl'Í> a "CíJ1.e, bomsep'O ar e l1 a m'O. 
((J1. n aë, .1. ml1be'Oa na nmte'Oa .1. "Cise an't>. aJ1. n ach aJ1.a, I 
J.<I .1. aJ1. na 'Oe1\na a ap.. ((J1. n aë a1 "CJ1.e ba,.10 a "CIS1, no alte, no a m;,'tte WI 
((J1.a "CalJ1.seatta cach.1o co "Cuca caë sett "C0IJ1.1tneë rl11 cach cma1't> 
'00 ma"C ace"Chl1a 1m 'Out"Cal1 ín alta. ,:'0J1. cach "CalJ1.r ce , .1. rl1 l r caë 
,rp.1 caë cae '00 mm:; "C mI11 r! ,:'0J1. caë J1.uIJ1.e, .1. r O l1cach 
J1. o I1 1 "Ch '00 nía"CÂ-" f4.r Wi, 

f),.,.-It-Lt3D) I 
 1. ((r:an::: r:eop.a reatba na belp.eQ'{) ba 'Oona Jllb cmtwb reo, . f J '- s.-

 Ni.6 . rf
 .1. p.u'i>, ocurp.oltbe, ocurroaé r:uwtl. 1rrOl1.5Wb i Clnw'i> in
uwp. Ira níltín'O '00 caé ceatp.a otceana. ::.?V


'Ceop.a cwte r ít '00 ceatp.a; ní cOlbelr arp.eana'Oap., .1. cwte 
t:ap., ocur cwte t:wp.rce, ocur cwtl p.ulp.l'Oa. nla'i> cwte 
'0 t:ap. wltbe, ocu)' bi'O anJme 1r:'1t caé 'Oa cOßl1tach, II' Let catw'i> 

I Two' øcrepalZ..'- That is, to secure the obsen-ance of tbe common u'age. This 
pledge was hung upon a rack in the neighbour's howe at the foot of his bcd. 
Vid. P. 75, ant

 C, 11 -4n: ill -h!r Ir -i r .-.,,.l, & 
 l! {/



1 '1- 

. To the person who own. them, i.e. to t ha pr88ft 19 whom they 
have done damage. 1I0th as regards 'dire'-fine,i.e.the three equal hulks. 
Compensatiou, i.e. of the grass. 
The 'smacht'-fines of co-tenancy, i.e. the thing which is 
in the common tenancy, the 'smacht'-fines, i.e. sacks. What is the 
substance of the liability, i.e. compensation for the thing which is 
damaged. For there is no . smacht'-fine, &1'., i.e. for the thing which is 
commanded for it is only for the sake of compensation for the substance of the 
liability, i.e. sacks. Grass at the side, i.e. lengthwise. Or at the end 
i.e. shortwise, or in brfadlh. Is the subs ta n 1'1' 0 f the li a bili t
., i.e. 
compensation when it is it that has been injured. 
Faull-law, why so called 1 That is the law 
of farms, that no one ma.y injure the farm of his 
neighbour, that he may not cut down the wood of his 
land, that he break not, that he maynot plough it, that 
he may not inhabit it; for every man shall give 
additional pledge for his cattle in rèspect of every 
passing o.rer a fence, for every breach, for every 
rushing over. 
Farm-law, i.e. the law for the farm, i.e. the farm, or the regulations....hich 
are required for it. Why so called? i.e. why is it sO called or denominated? 
The law of farms, i.e. that is, this is the regulations of the land, Tha t 
no one may injure the farm of hi. nei[Jhbour,i.e.eitherinitsgrassor 
com, i.e. that no one may injure the land of his neighbour. That he may not 
cut do\\n the wood of his Iand,i.e.that he may not cut the wood of his 
land. That he break not, i.e. the stakes or pales, i.e. of a house there. That he 
may not plough it,i.e. that he ma)'not till it. That he may not inhabit 
it, i.e. tlwt hf maynotfix upon it his houses, his kilns, or his mills. For every man 
shall give an additional pledge, i.e. that e\ery one may gin a relieving 
pledge (a pIfdge u:orth treo . .e,'epall. ') to insm-e ths paY7rU!nt of the fines impo.eá) for 
evef)' trespass which his cattle commit by going over the fence. :For every 
breach, i.e. for evelJ' cross\\ay, for every passage which they make over it. 
:For every r ushi n gover, i.e. for every great running oved! which they make. 
That is, there are three landsH1 which etnrna rø not íifted for these 
trespasses, viz., " trss-FRBB iIft a wood, (J, Irp."1'''o. -in a moor, anù a 
, foach-tuaithe '..trespass. T Heir trelìpp
'i is cOllù on f>11 

There are three t
spa..>ses of cattle; they arc not equally paid 
for, viz., a trespass over a palisade, and a trespa.\is by a breach, and 
a trespass by rushing over. If it be trespass over a 
c, and 
that there is a bad
 fence between e,ery t\\O neighbours, it is 


ft.'.. ,J) 

. Ba(I.-}'or 'an' in the Irish of this line, and also of the neJ<t line, C. 30, reads 
'a,n. 1 

j,..k, ') 
- '.If'.[' ,. 

oc.)I' (D2! qOr) 

rf !:! 121/. z.} 


:tE. #"r II J h. ,.. 
L' .... ç,.{1 . tt. '" Ii 

 th f/wr.. f' 



r n? 






12G b t le((r11a COmC(H:; llce r(( CCn'Dr O . . 

 tn-fit iJL 4,- tM 
fit an"O, all contu! an aníme ín rata1"
. 111ap.01> ap. CI1te ín fill bc"O 
a at "Od
r1"O, '1' o'ÓcatatÞ.,Flt atll>, (q
J1j }'o5na t([ím a 1 (um 
muna " all re111C, nO(!"")lí'omCl1n, nu ql} t]E(]':.!.l
!r. lr"Oc ([1'- 
l wb l W "O; ínplCl Ilépu (["05al1([ CU111l"015"Lelt 111a elb e . 


 -t D ""f"M
e. D T
 I-JMrJ.Wr II 
f "em1l---:-c((1'i)e 7ãnql1'ce?" lm5((dn:; tnp're1Lù no tnfl (( 
lI ,b
 11 nHvt\o 
'D1. ,. <';o
nrce 'oot1a, 'Dut nqt tlO'D, 'Dut mp. ((Ù1t1'D 11a 
be rn am 'D01Ù. "Cwlltlrce Lan FGb ne1reap.tu. D'kvrr9
l') II 


]\fENTS of 

Cá1f1., .,. commp.c1m can::1 In 

r C!!
 .,. c

 .t::<:,r1r' '0 a1 5 acn r:, 
.1. t:[msflcnr:l 't>ap. 't>o: mp.cenn, no 't>((ii C81tP.1 mrlëeln't>. 'Lap. r elLb 
10 .,. 't>ap. t:el1.t11ln In bomp.e .1. t:eol1.a t:01P.5e ocur ul'ëap. rLercal'6. 11 0 r:a p. 
0: 't>1, .1. r:ap. 't>a t:ep.((n'O. "OuL r:a p. p.O'O, .1. Letpacn t:mp.rc e I n't>uL 
t: u l1. LetcL(('O In tWlr: .1. co Let ,me .,. rp.1 tl1me amU1cn. 1) u L r: a p. 
abln'O, .1. ap. Ep.Plm Let ,me mni t:((P. a neca'O((p. ann. 11 a be r nam 
't>olb, .1- ma'O rnam 't>01b'r rlacn mIlLime In't>. '0UI p.p.rce r:((P. r0:5 
"tlelreap.r:a, .,. r:((P. rep.ann in r:1 811'5er ar a pp.r: .1. III t:e1rep.r:. 
'0ap. ra5,.1- r:o:p. r'c .1. r:1P.. 

.1. CC"LCI1"L "Oono ql1 "LClll111rCe .1. "LCI1p.rce "Lall p.o"O, ocur "LCI1p.r ce 
t"all atj111"O, ocur "LCI111p.rCe "Lap. 

' mcrn t"CI111rCe mIl CI1bín"O 
'Domam na be rp.e01p., 11' ó5catat:t; fit ann, ar-Ur5telt 'Dap. ín'D111C 
20 mn pn. 111a"O "LCI11111rCe "Lap. bel111(1 "Laft 1 110'D, 'DO "LUI"L cem:h- GD./J 12.4') 
l1uímte rp. l r m rop. "Latmam, ocur arp.eanal
 an Qltt, al1ur tet "00 
 B(__luo:ð) rattCl1b, an attt'DO 


;_a tet na rwtte p.annml1 amllt! 
 D í n'De. III a'Ó mlp.p.rce mp. conlltac mp.m í m blCl'Ó 'Da.!]H
Jl ím 
l!t.!l!tt,lrre'Ó 111 CC"Lna. 'Dono; l1annw'D a ]:wtt a.mllp.u in'Da5 

 D 2.(fme; ní J.
:Sl!.'D ime PTJa. n('
l!.bQP"" l1'1111111'U wp.mow pn; 
-3 ocur '1' ca.t<<.15 na.;;smb rota., a.p. ní 'Dtesap. Imumlll fota"O 

D (C )0) 

i! 1-31..-. t 

I Ina eighe.- This phrase may possibly mean, "What exists before it is prf'h,bited 
is maintained afterwards." 
'AiI'cem..-A piece of land containing ï,íïG fcet, or half a 'tir-cumIJ.lile.' 
"Half fince.-In O'D., 2Ií9-the gloss rnns thu!', ""OuL r:ap. p.or:r: 
.,. 61P.IC r:((1p.rce r:ap. LFt íJlle 1 n't>uL r:ap. Le((d1 cLUTI 111 P.01't>, &c. Going 
over a road, i.e. the 'eric'-fine for ø. Lreach over ø. half fence is dile forgoing 
over one wall of the road. Going o"er a river \\ hich they have not to 
.wi m, i.e. the' eric '-fine of a breach mer a half fence is due fur this also. "'hat 
makes the breaeh here the same as passing over land is, the going across thc rocel 
"hich has onl)'I.alf ø. fence, or across a.river "ilhout s"imming, and there is full 

(SJv.l.vJ ;..'>rN-k "-DJJt.., 
estinutted at half trespass, for the bad fence'ressens the trespass. If ![;

they have come over the fence of the man whose prop<,rty they are, Co- TI-.s- ,.t- <:10....., 
it is full trespass, for" Hand 
loes not 
; unless it-htts 
, '>) ,(,,

 40/ "7 
been done for love, or through fear, o
rdship." It is 

t ,vas saiù: "Inpia resiu adgara coimdigther ina eighe."l 

Question- 'Vhat is a breach 1 Passing over one 
land, or over two. A breach is also going across a 
across a river which they (the cattle) do 

A breach is going over the land of a '" / 
.f1 ZT . 

road, going 
not swim. 



Question, i.e. I a,k what is 'tarthu5-cae', i.e. the way over it. Passing 
o v e r , i.e. passing over two' aircenn '-lands,' or oyer four' aircenn '-lands. 0 v e r 
one land, i.e. o\er the land of the 'Boaire'-chief, i.e. three 'forrach'-men'u1'('S. aUlI t . 17 
the cast of a ad. Or over two, i.e. o\er two lands. Going across a 
r 0 a d, i.e. half the fine for brcach in going oyer one wall of the road, i. e. "ith 
l1alfafence,i.e."ilhafenceoutside. Going across a river, i.e. "hattheÿ 
ha\'e crossed in this case founds D claim of fine eql/al to that cif half fence.' 
": hie h th e y don 0 t 8 w Î;n, i.e. if they have to swim it, it is (amol/nt.. to) 
fine for 'airlim'-tre.pass. A brf'ach over the land of a fugitive, i.f'. 
o\'er the land of the person "ho has gone av.ay from his land, i.e. the deserter. 
O\'er the 1antl, i.e.o\er 'fkh,'i.e.lalld. 


Now, there are three kinds of breach, ,iz., a breach across a 
road, amI a breach across a river, anù a breach across a neighbour- 
hood. 4 If it be a breach across a deep ri, er without guiding, there 
is full fine for it, for it is c grazing beyond \
l:n\ fur in that 
case. If it be a breach 0' e1' a gap or across a road, the one-fourth of 
it (the fine) falls to the ground, and the rest is paid, for half is due 
for the neglects, the other fur the claimants; the half for the neglect 
is dhided between them in two. If it be a hreach over a neigh- 
bourhood of co-tenants \\ here there are t\\ 0 residents and one n
resident, it is the same thing: they divi de the- 
eglect bet; een 
them, of the good fence. K 0 fence is charged upon tIle non-resident. 
It is 'ruiriu' -trespass afterwards; and it is a trespass that does 
fence to the grass illto which the)' go, or a half fence, for the rivcr or the road is 
equal to half fence." 
Dr. O'Donovan obsen es here.- -" This gloss is 111so defective, and shou1d run 
thns :-Crossing over a road which has only a half fence, to commit trespass, or 
0\ er a shallow stream, which the animals can cross without swimming, is equal 
to a breach over a half fence i but if the rh er be so deep a' not to be cro,"ed" ith- 
out swimming, or the waIl of the road a perfect fpnce, the)' are equal to full fence, 
and the breach over them is accordingly e'timated.'" 
· A lIeig',bollrho n d._ Th8t i., a settlement of Ch-occurants, or co tenant-. 

.q /,j,A- 2- 

. CF# 

A ,,".v, 


OJtem::fIC( Comwr;hccra allÜro. 

JUDfi- "00 conlH::ea(; fPI n1 vel' tla oénlf1- .1. na CCltt1-1 com1tW5 1111(( b1alJ, 
T'i OF ocu r na ce1L t 1.1 eC01111t(U-;: a"ða neU t "'an) "Dolb t 'rDe. ,t 
Co- TRS- u 
A:SCY. -tD 
- Þ 1JD- (Co '0) 
Jvi II 
 AD J< 
8 _ "'01' atp,m 1 mblC(û "Da comal1,ba I Lneaba:l1. 1m eqrecqlr, 
C1û üQ,En1r;ecq1. t'1l1 helreap,r;? batbe((Ï) 1mme co 111mcua, 
/-.(trJ.,1! UA 
A- rr 
r or muna be rneab,Çt.Ï) 1I1FoJW1r twr,Embr;ean/a J:'1ne como- 

A i
Emr "DO co nlmCl1C((tü elne, 110 conr;((p,"O(("D rE11."Oltre co 
....""d, p. "'"'" It " II "Ii A .....11 "' '"' 
ceann mbLta"Ona. m((Ü re11.Ï)ltre "DO" oella a pne, :)m- 

 cv...J...h,..,('" 4ooV" It " -cc..1t 

A recm:ceachnqt In "0(( comcqlba ob111me, OCl1r "DO beJw"O 
- """,II ",
A ......,11 
comatfteam 111"0, OCl1f "DO 
1.Ee((tt((1\ cach "D1a-.Jwlte ((I' 
'0 1cqwm. 

d. TV 
o.8 1:: 
-. -- [G?J J-. ' 

Or. ma Ï)O n e1reaJ1.r; co q1.e((batne twr a neërwJ1, 
.../1 "' f:
A 711 
Le1û "OQ,c11l1111 a pne, FotonE(("O co cecm"O mbLta"On((, OCl1r 
n1 t)1a r;
Ip,e. r01t11.1E. 1I1<! nfl, (OCl1r) 11' "Oltear "00 
 ......... 4r 14 J..:4. ot.a ...;.t,; 4 
'f 0 I' a I p. ol, .1. or ap. acur, ocar mp.m bmLe n"Oma't>, 1 mblat; 't>a C01Olet;am t;p.ebap. I't> 1..n 
'r-Fel'_ ar a J-'!

 mlOn erep.t; .1. It;e 't>a ep'p.t; 
't> a met;hur, ocuf elrep.t; 't;arcnàOl!.Oletmr.'" CI't> 't>o Sn1t;eap., .1.;'t>omt;ep.p.'r lll eírep.{;. rp'1 helreap.t;,.I. ara }:1p.t;. r;albe(('t> 
1m m e, .1. sabmp. ad1submL f!1p.e co n't> Ime !!!1!f!).IJ1, .1. cop.a Irne In 
1-0 cae 11' c01t;echt;a 't>o. Or muna be, .1. mana p.01b t;Tteabmp.e mallUf 
mCI. 'ba 1 bt;e a p. a r 1 n e, .1. s<<bap. at;hs((bmL 't>on i,"lf ëoÌ1í'rocur 't>o 
't>on fíne. Co nírncuaa't>, .1. co n't>ep.nOt; Ime ernéo,p.. 110 cont;ap.- 
't>a't> rep.'t>ILre, .1. co t;ucat; 't>ILrl m re01p. op., .1.111 pne. Co 
ceann mbL1U't>na,.I. ap. p.e na fochp.aca. nla't> p'p.'t>1Lr e , .1. ma 
1-, 't>ILf' ín't>"o bep.((t; ín ríne ap. roé 't>o cmtern ín r e01 p.. 101- 
"}:ean ceacht;ap. 10 't>a com allba, .1. ímí't> .1. U1p.I01e't> ceChn(p."06 m 
't>a C01met;m't> rUlL írne, co p.01b írne cornL((n ((nn. "00 bep.a't>, .1. 
't>o; mp.em cumm't>e ín't> ím cUt;p.uma. "00 al p.seaLLa, .1. 't>o b61P. 



WU) ]-iw.trt 


1 II T earest to tltfm. 'TLi. c
mmcularJ' i. excrediugJr obscure and difficult. 
· A de,el.ter. I Lserl,' i. a laullIess man, a fngitive, or e,'ader of hi. dutiea. 



not involve reciprocal duties as regarùs good!=:, for reciprocity of Jl'DG- 
.1 . I f . Ib I " 
gOOus IS not enforceù by law ill t Ie caRe 0 nPlg I oms excee( mg C,,-T..,,- 
eight persons, viz., the fOllr co=tcnants 
t, A"U. 
anù the four non-co-tenaLts, who are nearest to them.1 
And in 
 place where there are two solven t land- 
holders, and a deserter, 2 what is to be done. with the 
deserter 1 Let him be di!:,;trained until he fences 
(makes his fence), and if he has not a habitab le 
residence, let the next of kin to him of his family be 
distrained until they make the fence for him, or give 
up the right of the grass to the end of a year. If it be 
that the family give up the right of the grass, thelliet 
each of the two' coarbs' of the families occupying tlte 
adjoining lands erect a perfect fence, and they shall 
bring equal stock upon it (the lewd), and afterwards 
each shall give the additional pledge to the other. 
And if the deserter com
lõûtside having with him 
his cattle-fiumer's requisites, he goes to his family, 
(t}ul they sustain him t.o the end of a year, and the 
part uf his farmer's requisites which 
 in the 
 all hi:,; property. 

"'-04 -4f

A nd in a place, i.e., 'os,' for 'aeus' (and), and 'airm,' meaDS place or localit)., 
i.e., where there are two solvent landholders in the land of the person "l'"ho goes 
away from his land, Or the de
erter, i.e., there are t"o kinds tifdeserters, a deserter 
1'\ho deserts his land, and a deserter "ho 
' ad
n..ibU ities. What is done, 
i.e., what is done to the deserter. A deser ter, i.e., 'lIS' (out of), 'a firt' (his land). 
Let him be distrainI'd, i.e., let a distress be made upon him, alld ld M.. 
goOfÙ be distrained, until he makes a proper fence, i.e., until the fence is in the 
way that is legitimate for it to be. And if he has not, 8..e.,i.e., if Le has not a 
habitable residence. Le t Lis ne x t of kin be d i str aiu ed, i.e., let seizure 
be made upon the next of kin to him of the familJ. Un ti I th I' J' m ak I' th e 
fen c e,i.e., until they make the legitimate fence. 0 r give up tL I' ri gh t of th I' 
grass as the relit, i.e.,thefamily. To the end of a year, i.e., for the term 
of the hire. If it be that thefami/y give up the right of the grass, i.e., if 
it be the forfeiture of the land that the familJ' consent to. for the hire to consnme the. Ir. Ci,'r. 
grass. Let each of the two' coarbs' I' r ec tap I' rf ect fence, i.e., they fence, 
i e., both of the two landholders who are adjoining it, shall make afence,Bo thatthere 
sball be a perfect fenre there. S h a II b r in g I' q n a I s to c k, i.e., of cattle, i.e., 
they shall bring a common stock there i1/to the desert r's la..d ill eqnaI proportions. 
Shall give the additioual pledge:, i.e., each vf thtm gi\CB the relie,in!:: 
\'OJ.. IV. K 



Op.eadJa eú11l(m:1IrerCl ( C1Iu r u . 

.'I-.STS O
(;0- TKS- 
ASCY. Of mu '00 t;, e'feattt;, .,. of aft acuf. ocuf mu '010 t;1 In t; el r e ftt; 
_ umUlch '010 nech'OO1ft cOf aní '1' t;fteuuft '00 Lelf '00 ettu'Ó. L e, '0 '00- 
r chum u t:ín e, .,. t;e1t aft tic, t;IC '00 cum (( pne bo'Oém. fott'Lonsa'O 
co cean'O mbL,u'Ona, .,. I1nr01Lns1't> U fíne he uft fochf1.ulc co cenn 
mbLIO'Ona, .,. atl. m 1'e blf 11\ reuftunn a1' fochtl.Ulc, .,. 'Oreo1' ocuf'O U1 I"Ce. 
O'D. 2183.11; 'OIU t;1'euba'1'e,.,. [Do'Oent;01b]-Do"DUlf1.beuUlbocufo mLe'OO1b. }:ott 
ftlS, .,. Ulft1>1t;eft afta em'O ín reftann. 1 f 'OILeaf '00 uILe, .1. 'Oon 
IV erettt;; ocuf aft fte nu fochfteca t;ÚI1l1C amUlch he ann r11l, ocuf 111 fOettUlC 

 O'D. 2183 'Oon pne, OCUf nu 'Oent;u, [nu 1wf1.bunnu OCUf na t;15 e ], 'Oon efef1.t;. 

 ,cD ø >< .1. 1n r:an vla'O"Óa r:p.eabap, im e'Oqteabap" EUibecrn elp,e, '01(( 
 zo, 3>'1 11mltrecrn; 1

mbea'O ap, fine eO"\!1\tleua'O f1l.IU nI" 
rJt. - r ii mbp,atap., oeuf co 
'O 'OILf1 felt ELelr:he co eeann mVL1C.!'011U, 
 cAJ .." v>rt-c,, """(, 1v#./" , Q.,t""n'i""-
. r;:,-- 
 ( Þ lS'oeur 'OILp eaë Let ear:ap,ba fIll hUl1e, oeur a'Oap,aEu'O 111"Oa eOIlI- 
1taê laJ,um amuIL bl'O Leo fu'Oef1n, oeur r: m ll.EeaLLa eaè fill I wILe . 
CC fmaêr:aqw, 1"D F.;eaLLa 'Oure'O, 1'0 fmbe; .1. EeaLL flU hime, l wma 
(.1. a np, bUle) fIl,l cLaIr, fep,epaLL a fiu, oeur a l.Ra5 a 'O aell 
reaër:; foe f11.l eop,ars, rep,epaLL a pu, oeur a LeC15a'Ó fa r:11.I; bimL 
ù>t11.1 'OU1p,-lme, .1. a Lea5a"Ó fa '01, EO 1w fiu fql.epaLL; PEva flu 
re Lm C15, no 1-lllr m nmLe, fql.e
aLL a fiu, oeur a LeC15a'O f'.l '01,110 
fltmLe 110 beoLeC15a"Ó. 11arca-gxp. lIa rmaêr:a fO W1 WIII . " 

cach 'Olb seLL t;01tl.ltnech 'OU C61Le, af IOf1.UIll, .1. 1>eLL 'Oa fCftepuLt. C o 1ll- 
u'lteam, .1. '00 m"DILL1b. "DIU ftuILe,.,. u t;1ft na e1rettt;a. 



:: W n-imJ, 



 iJ;, D 


. I 
O'D. 2181. [111 r:elre11.r: '1' he a mtne: 'Oume fan'O VII' 1r:1p, in 'Oa eon101tva 
. qteJla r:11.ébU1p,I; Eabu11. ar:h5ubmL 'Oe 1IIa'O r:mr: r e01 r: mee; 
vfoEeLLr:a oeuf vl.Rt '01 'OuL 1na eeall'O, oeur ni telr: Lo\)u. muna 
t uIL, r: r eOI1 :; mEI, atEabmL '00 EabmL 'Om inbLe05mn, oeuf fObelLr: 
oeur bLet '00 'OuL tna eenn, oeur ni theIr: Lo\)u. 

1T1u r:amíc in r:efep,r: amulb lap, fill, r:abll.ulr: a fine 1-'Eap,an'O 
'00 p,e p,é na foêlterea, oeur ,.-ine ill toehlwlc, oeuf ni 'Om 
"\0 tp,ebU1l1.llOlt1c ap. a ê111'O '00 bltelt 'Oon elffeltr:. 1ncrò r:a fep,mm 
aeon pne, oeuf n1 r:abll.ulr: 'Oofunr, a foeh11.U1e '00 bttet 'Oon Luêr: 
amaeh, oeuf in1 11a p.o 'OILf1b 'OL15e"Ó '00 11a 'Oenr:m\), eennmElr: 
I To each other.-The text is very defective here. 
I Fased.-' Leagadh' means, literaUy, 'melting.' The inøtruments mcntioned here 
were to be prepared by fusing the metal, the harder the material to be operated 
(.n, the more numerous were the fusions of the metal forming the implement, allli 
consequently the more valuable the instrnment. 
. E"pense of tendi 119'- The wages paid to shephenls, or caretakers of the cattle. 



1.5 -!YWO..t 


pled.;e to the other out of it afterwards, i.e., a pledge of the value of two'screpalls.' 
Eq ual stock, i.e. of cattle. To the other, i.e. out of the land of the deserter. 
Aud if the deserter come, i.e., 'os,' for 'acus,'.(aud), and if the deserter 
ide tl.e lal.d with the number of cattle which renders him solvent. H e 
goes 'to his famil
',i.e., 'he goes,' for 'he comes,'i.e. he comes to his own 
family. And they sustain him to the end of a )'ear, i.e., his family 
.upports him for pa)' to the end of a year, i.e., the term during which the laml 
is I t for hire, i.e., with grass and water. The part of his farmer's 
req uisites, i.e., of erections, of stakes and of poles. \Vhi ch arrive, i.e.,,, hich 
a- J"C
d of him in the land. Are all his property, i.e., of the 
deserter; and after the term of the hire he came outside in this case, and the hire is 
given to the family, and the erections, the corn crops and the houses. yo to the deserter. 

1\(EST::-t OF 

!iù 1J"f 'Then there are two men fulfilling their duty, and one who tM.,Gv) 
v 'does not fulfil his duty, let them dishain him, if 
y; 1Ivr V"1v
 not 1
1y, let them distrain his family until they 
fence their brother's land, or" until they give the right of the aIr. And. . JtJ, 
gm.zing to the end of a year, and the right of every half separation " 
respecting a fence, and the two co-tenants afterwards I
 as ..; , 
if it (tIle land) was their own, and they deliver pledges to each 
other.' The 'smacht'-fines now, wltiell tl.e!! pa!!, are the pledges 
which precede, i.e., they are these, i.e., a pledge for fence stalæs, 
a spaùe, i.e., in soft land, for a trench, a 'screpall' is its worth, 
and it is to be fused 2 (melted) once; a 'soc' for a stone wall, a 'screpall' 
i" its worth, and it is to he melted thrice; a bill-hook for a hanl 
fence, i.e., it is to be fused (melted) twice, so t!mt it is worth a 
'dcrepall '; a wood axe fur a 'felma '-fence, or for a palisade, its 
worth is a 'screpall,' and it is to be melted t
 ice, or to undergo, or live-melting is to take place. These' smacht' 
tines are made binding afterwards. 
The deserter is thus known: a weak person, "ho is situated 
hetween the two' coarbs' that do their duty; he is distrained if he 
has 'seds;' the grazing and the expense of tending" sllall be 
added, but fOifeiture shall not be a allowed. If lIe has not 'seds,' a Ir. Goes 
. nolo 
distraint shall be made on Lis next of kin, and e2l.pense of grazing 
awl temling shall be added, but forfeiture shall not. 
If the deser.ter has come from outside i,lto tILe territory after 
this, his family shall give him land during the term of the 
hire, and the family bhall obtain the hire, and the part of his 
farm-buildings "hieh he may have found on his coming hack shall 
be obtaineù by the deserter. If the family have land, and they give 
not of it to him, the hire is to he o}Jtained hy those lcho are outsidC', 
and the portion of the erections which the law has not declan.tI 
VOL. IV. K 2 



"f- !!1>U It. 

ct. II /1..0./'if 


13g 0ltead,ú COmWdlCera al1'Dr O . 

pne 'DOrum. tT1una fUlt rep.on'D 1l:1P. ac pne, comp.0111n1l: 1np, 
p.e OCur faotap, 'Don rOt'pU1C, OCU1' ren'Dca'Dfum p:i111 'DÓ Inl na 
1to'Dltfi 'DtIEei> 'DO na 'Denl:wb. 111ú tú:'D ac rlne, ocur nl 
Eabunnfum. 11' comp.0111'D 1np. p.é ocu1' raodlal\ 'Don r Oé p.U1C, 
S Ocur nl bell1.f1um nl 'DO na 'Denl:wb. 

 .'s OF 

tT1ár rop. Ó111 'DO 11.m::a"Ò 111 real1.an11, ocu1' nip. cln'Dei> lté Wl1.1
rwp" Cli> ra'Da bel' rwp., CI'D p.e "2..e!:
I!!1' cm p.e h111'Detbll1.1Ur 
'DeaCa1', 11' a 'Denr:u 'DO rcq:;bwt 'Do. ']1..'" 76) 
tllara rUcq:;l1.a"Ò al:a rwp" cm l1.e 'Detblp.IUr cm l1.e 111 n'Dctbl111 1Il' 
I. 'DO Enelt, 11' a 'Denr:a 'DO bl1elt 'DO tell" 
tT1úi> p.o C111'Dei> p.é ral11, ocu1' r:á1111c1n l1e, 11' a 'Dent:a 'DO fcq:;bfllt 
I 1 1 "'. 
'DO. tnar he p:i111 'DO coró arr roe 'Detblp.lIr, 11' comp.olnn n111te 
ocur 1'aotap.. tllar a nlt1'Detblp,lIr 'DO COI"Ó ar1', racuult: na'Dénr:a. 

mara rl1a511<<"Ó ar:ú r((111., cm '1' 111 tó 'Del"Óenach pWE 1I 1 1La P. 
Ie 'Dú I nln'DetbllWr, bell11"Ó tell' a "Óenr:a. 
tnúr 11.e 'Detbl11ur 110 rlla51w"Ó 'DÓ, 11' comp.olnn Kll1 p.P ocu1' 
r:raor:hup.. lllar 'DO tllalt no 'owtech ra111 'DO lwr:r:a"Ó, ocur ma"Ó 
11.0 cl11nei> 1té r<<1p., 11' a belt r O l 1111 l 1é . 

tT1u11a P.O cltlne"Ó p.é rwp. 1nl1, 11' Wl1'D1ile1' comwEtec11 r a l1 1 . 
lc tT1ar 1té C<<1tem a fe0111 ocur p.Ja r:p.ebulp.e 'DO lwr:r:ai>, '1' rp.lan 
each nut rop. a mbl In rur:. f
' t-fS 

mú1' p.e cwtenl reólp. nama l:uca"Ó he, '1' felt m-wÉ reë-c muu 
1 dl1. a ëélt1, fop.ra5ulo In 1'eér:ma"Ó bOln 'DJa bba'Duln, ocuf to'S bó 
'DO ëaoll1.1u nú r:ap.'D 1-'0p. á1P.'D 'DO bet a roe1r:1'eér: w51. 

L( 11la"Ó P.O al:l:wÉ c1n ap., ocu1' 110 hWl1e"Ó, 11' 'Dltf1 in a1p. co na 
i'lt, OCl1r CUIC reolt:. 111 unal1. aër:<<1'Sei> cm ((P., 11' rtún, acr: In 111 
'DJa qtebull11 fUlll11cC ap. a L1n'D In a ril1, 11' 'D1te1' 'DÓ. · 

"Oulne 1'0 11'1' núé ém1p. rubu na 11UUU a rel1al11n 'DO 'Denam, 
110 CI"Ó ém111. noca wt té1r a 'Denum; C011l"Ó c"Ó 'DO nír:helt 1111' 

I Jnc
/!..e.-That is, wl1ich increnseq in si
c, cn'II1ition, &c. 



forfeit, the family shall purchase for him (tlte deserter.) If the 
family have no land at all, they equally divide the hire between 
the time and the labour, amI he himself purchases the portion 
of the erections which the law has not confiscated. If the family 
ha\'e land, and he (the deserter) would not accept of it, the hire shall 
be divided equally between time and labour, and he shall obtain no 
portion of the erections. 
If the land has been let for hire,' and no time has been "pecified, . Ir. Loan. 
whatever length of time he shall be upon it, whether with necesbity 
or without necessity he goes, he shall leave behind his erectiuns. 
If he is noticed to quit, "hether it is done \\ ith necessity 
or without necessity, he may carry away his erections with him. 
If a term has been specified for him, and the term has e:1l.pired, b b Ir. C"me. 
he shall leave his erections beltind. If it is he himself that went 
away of his own accord with necessity, it (tlte value of the úuildings) 
is to be divided between time and labour. If he has gone a\\ay 
without necessity, he shall leave behind the erections. 
If he is noticed to quit, though he should be noticed on the last 
day of his term without necessity, he may carry off his erections. 
If he has been noticed to quit by necessity, there is to be a di\i- 
sion between time and labour. If it (tIle land) \\as given him 
for manure or dung, and if a time has been specified for it, it 
shall be according to the time. 
If a time has not been specified at all, it shall be settler} IJY 
the award of the neighbours. If it is to consume its gmss only, 
and for forming erections it was given, it is one-thinl of cvcry 
animal on which there is increase.. 
Ifit is to consume its grass only it (tlte land) was gi\en, he is as 
"a man who has placed seven cows on the land of his ncighbour;' 
the seventh cow shall be left as payment at the end of the year, 
and he has in reserve the value of another cow in bheep, which Ill' 
doeI'! fiAt bring iato tJHI accoY-Ut .. -4. 'l!ft' 
. c Ir. RI';"!! 
If he has stipulated not to plough, and it has been ploughcd, the fo,'wm'd. 
tillage and the seed are forfeited, and five' seds'. If no condition 
has been made as to not ploughing, he is free, but the lJortion of 
his farm buildings, which he found on the land before him, becomes 
his hy right. 
A deserter. This is a person \\ho is not able to perform senice 
of attack and defence for his land, or though IIC may bc al,le is noL 
\\illing to perfonn them; what is donc to him is to giu' liÍUlnotice 

.J, 00- 

fE.sT:'i 0 II' 
Co- TE'I- 


bfwm;ha eomaH
hcera ((ní)r O . 

C,J- TES- 

o _ 
" 0 
apa"O OCUr t::ßQrccrò "00 tabalp,t:: mp" OCur m:h5 abúlL "OQ: öabÛIL T>e 
tap, I'm ; ocur n oëa núlL cmne m1t1
tI rOlL in m:::h5abmL rin, aër; 
m:::h5 abmt "Oa raoltt::eT1. a r;1Uß7ain T1.e "Ob5e'Ô, oeuf' r;ér; F05eltr; oeur 
bt et ma eenn, oeur ni telr; Louu. 

 mana bUlL ep_oi> m5' p
m, r;ahp.crò apai> rop, i nbte0 5C!1n '1' 
neara "Of>, oeur m:::h5abá.IL "00 5abmL "Oe 1al1. I'm; oel1r noia 
n"Oe1tnna rubu oeur 1wbu in r
amn ; noëa "Oltrme in rep.ann "OOn 
n "00 "Oena"O rubu oeur lwbu. 

mQ:rei> "00 l"in"Oe in rine m reap,ann "00 r;abmp,r; aT1. roë11UIC, 
10 mai> r;á.mic in t::elrel1.r; amú15 1ap, p,é na roël1aca, "Oltp na 
roehp,eea "Oon tine, ocur ni "OIU tTtebulp,e fOT111.1CC 111a tilL, '1' 
"OiLer "Oóran .1. "Oo;:e'rfe11r;. 
H)ar l1.e l1.é na roëT1.mce r;úmic amú15 he, "Oenmr; in rine a 
imFutuIl5 5u din 11.é; ocur ma "00 belp, 111 tine feØ"l1Unn "Oó, oeur 
,f5eloli>rwm in realtÇ!!!-n, "OILf1 na foc11p,ulce "Oon tine,ocur "Oltf1 
nq: n"Otmr;a "Oon elrFer-r;. 

m una tabp,m:; in rine in re'lp,ann "00, oeur ar;a real',an"O acu, 
ur 5eibtf1
 rep,ann, mrec na Focp,eca ón pne amaë, ocur 
rUarLUICI"(;r; in tine a "Oénr;a ocur a reo"(;r;O: T>01'um. 

 111a"O r;mp,5,r; 111 pne rep,ann "Oó, ocur ni hÚIL "Oórum a 5abmt, 
caë ní p,o "Oltf1
 p,e "OOn rOëp,UIC um aea pile; cai' ni nf( 110 "011 fl5 
"Oon rOChp,ule iCU[O]ll 11.11' in rea11 a!llaë, ocur belTll'Ó in Fep, a!llC(ë 
,"'....,..lJc.A .. , 
na "Oenr;a, no rUarl1J.!.CI
 "Oorum la"O. 110 "Oono, ceana, C
X" p,o 
"01tr15 p,e "Oon rOëp,UIC bl'Ó aca pne, caë ni IJa p,o "OILn, 1'.é "Oon 
2.\ roëp.UIC, '1' a nmr'C on tine amach, ocur b
li> in Feap, amach 
na "Oénr;a, no ruartulc1"O 1a"(;r;. 

muna fUlL repp,ann a5 pne, ocur p,o 5ebu'Ó1'um fep,emn, caè 
n{ 110 "Oltr1"5 p,é "Oon foëp..UIC bm oca pne; caé ni na p.o "01tp5 
p,é "Oon rOCp,UIC a alr'CC 0 pne amach; cuë ni na 110 "Oltr'5 l1.é 
" "00 na "Oénr;alu, bel11.m 111 fep, amaë, no ruartU1Ce'ÓrUlil 1aL"l:::. 

Çcap,ann "OU1!lC elte r;ucufLatt ap.. Fvi-flulC annrin. mar e a"O bo"Oé111 r;ueuf<::al1 "Ouíne ap, rOëp.UIC, aër; IlW'Ó p,o Ci1l"OU1'nq1. 
I Who i8 Qutsidc.-This seems to mean" the man who holUe the land." 


hy warning amI fasting, and make a distress upon him afterwards, 
nnd there is no certain restriction upon this distress, but that it 
sllall be such a distress as that it may be thought sufficient to induce 
him to come (suúmit) to law, and expense of feeding and tending 
shall be a(lded a to it, hut fotfeiture is not added. a aIr. GOC8. 
If he hag not cattle himself, let him give notice to his nearest 
of kin, and let distress be taken from him afterwards; and he ha'! 
not performed the service of attack and defence due of the land; 
the land is not more the rightful property of him who should per- 
form service of attack and defence. 
If what the family llas done is to let out the land on hire, and 
if the deserter has come outside after the term of the hire, the hire 
is due to the family, and that part of his farm requisites which he 
found on his land belongs to him, i.e., to the deserter. 
If it is before the term of the hire he has come outside, tIle 
[;unily shall support him until the expiration of the time;b and if Jr.. lO"til 
the family have given him land, and he accepts of the land, the 
family are entitled to the hire, and the deserter is entitled to the 
If the family do not give him the land, when they have land, 
and he gets land elsewltere, the family shall return the hire out, 
amI the family shall redeem his ereëtions and his C seds' for llim. 
If the family have offered him land and he is unwilling to accept 
of it, every part of the hire which time has rendered fOlfeit shall 
belong to his family; every part of the hire which is not forfeit 
shall be paid to the man wltO is outside, and the man wltO 
s out 
side 1 shall bring away the erections, or they shall be rBdeemed for 
him. Or indeed, according to otltCTs, every part of tlle hire which 
time has rendered forfeit is due to his family, whatever part of the 
hire has not been forfeited hy time shall be returned by the family 
out, and the man who is outside takes the erections,2 or they (tlte 
otlu3rs) redeem them. 
If the family have not land, and he (tlte deserter) obtains land 
elsewltere, whatever part of the hire time has fOlfeited belongs to the 
family; whatever part of the hire time has not forfeited is to be re- 
turned by the family out; v. hatever part of the erections time has not 
forfeited the man outside takes; or he (tlte d p sC'/'te1') redeems them. 
It is the land of another man that he ha
, in this case, let out 
on hire. If it be his own land a man has let out on ]Iire, but so 


Co- TE:oi- 

. Ereclio118.-' 'Dém::a ' means houses, fold.. stall., sheels.. 


btteadm eoman::;11cern an'Dr o .' 

ð t.", -'"; H

> "'
'.w7 191 II 
 Co- TF"- 

p.é atr_lr:he ear:1]V-Ttu, cemu'Õ 11'111 'DalW Cét;Jú('De1'Oen((é 'DOn p.é p.o 
}'oSl!1!:ta he (("nin'DetbI111Ur' 'Don }'eap.((nn, 111 }'OChr.Ú1C ocur n(( 
'Denr:a 'DO'Dô lÉlf, ocuf CH

}1.VJ? lf1n 'Dap.a cér: lél 'De1"6111((eh 
'Don 11é 'DO 'De((c1]((fl1t11 a nin'Det151p.IUr 'De, in }'OëP.U1C ocur na 

'Dem;(( 'Dó. nla t((111k 'Det b U1.1!!r 'DO neaénql 'De, 11' coml1,oinn 
1t:11 1 p.é ocuf "Lfaorhu11 'Don }'OèP.U1C ocur 'DO na 'Dem;CI1u. 

CCp. }'oëp.CI1c r:ucufLa11 'DU111e a }'ea11unn ((11111'111, oeur mar '00 
'Df'nam 'DÉnr:(( ((111 r:ucur<;ap, he;acr: mú 110 e111nUrnQl11é CI1111r:he 
((11 1 ea"Lup.p.u, cm Tle 'Def cm 11e 1111 l'Oet b l1lUt' }'0CC!11ta ÉIf1U1Il 
10 'Don ret'{1lann, 1(11a 'Den"La ulle 'DO b11
 'DÓrUIll lelr. 

ma"Ò 1 10 C111'DUrr:((11 p.é ((Ip.lte e}:u1111U, aër: ma'D ra a1 1 in 
p'JlCIIlt1 he 1 11 1'111 11é 1'111, 11' 'DILfI na n'Dénr:a 'D}'e11 bun((l"ò in 
1-'e1U!111n 1 }'01 1bu na 11é. lle 'Dénum 'Den "La ClIP. r:UCUfL((11 'Dl1111e a 
1((!1t1 ((1]'D fin. nlnf 11e 'Denaln "Lua'11 tw ((OIleët&'fl, U(;r: 
IS m(("ò 1 10 elln'DeILt5urrap. 1'Æ alp.lte ((Ip., 111 },
1wnn 'DO bet ac on 
fl1 1 amui5 1 11 1' 111 11é pn. 111una11 cínnep;u1111é ((Ip.lte enr: U 1 1 1 lU 
1t:1P., in }'eu11ann 'Do bet acon fl11 a1llUlb, no 5u r:uca'Õ p.e a tU((I1 1 
nó a ((It!b'(IJT.] 


, I) I
" Lt 31) 
 c, Co J.J)n., I> 
. t 
'1l"Þ LilDr. .:..t; D d.
 At .....Æ sJ.k.v II J( 
· RUltl1Ui) 'D
 '('eOfl({ l;

tba, no celte01l(( 
) reaU)((. 01ca(::; har s an'D fl11, ap,ur ÓS í11 rottuSU'D. 
..,;...(..A,_ I "'"" A 1 l ] ti II ......q 
1'D lJta1'C
 'D 0110 J.,Jl1'Ch nqì LLJl1 1J;cntl (' ea1111 '('eotta 
reatba;; If ttUI111U'i), ocur II' rottusa'D, 111una I111S6 
'Deldlbw e . 


. .. 

RUIP.IU'O 'Oono .1. 're CUlt; m 'Oono ann, ump. t;(nI1P.fCG a 'Oubp.amap. 

 , wm mn"lJ. L:ap. t;Gop.a reatba .1. t;all. ,Gop.a ft'p.onno .1. bomllGch. 
110 celteof'.o reotbo .1. t;oll. cmtp.1 fep.onnmb. O'Ocat;hU1s .1. 
cm ó5, cín comtcm III 111 hlpn, .1. ((lll.tíme. (Cf'.u r ós ín r ottu sa'1', 
.1. If comton m rottusa-o fin '00 na buachmtL1b, If Ime m:;a elp.íc comtan 
111-0. RUIP.I'O f'.U1t;e .1. 110 rat;a '00 "lJCn01Tl 'OO1b 'Oono, no f'.elm- 
, ." nísu'O "lJOIb 'Oono, co 110 rat;Q. Rlt;h t;ap. t;P.1 halp.[c]eann .1. p.n:h 
t:ap. flP. cenn t;eop.a"lJ. 1 r p. u 1 P.I U '0 .1. '1' el111C p.umí-oa 11l"lJ. 1 r 
foLtusa'O .1.11' fcntL 05 '00 nft buochalUlb. 111una Imse 'Oelt;h- 
bl11e .1. mana fl.olb 'OÐlt:hbI11ur ((en nélm-:;/lt:m a mbuochcnUe. 
1\ ^ 



as he has specified a certain time between them, even though it Jt:DG- 
should be on the second la'it day of the term he has been noticed"Qi 



necessity to quit the land, he shall bring the rent and the erections Al'ICY. 
with him, and though it should be on the second last day of the. Ir . Off the 
term that he was warned Offb the land without necessitv, the rent lanrl. 
d h . his If . h h d .. h f bIr. Wt'1Il 
an t e erectIOns are . necessIty as appent' to elt er 0 off. 
them, the rent and erections are equally divided between time and 
It was for hire a llian let out his land in this case, and if he let 
it to erect buildings upon it, but in such a manner as that he has 
specified a certain time between them concerning it, 'whether it was 
of necessity or without necessity he (tlte tenant) has been warned off 
the land, he may take all the erections away with him. 
If he has specified a cert..Ün time hetween them, but so as he 
has been on the land during that time, the erections are the pro- 
pertyof the original owner of the land at the expiration of that 
time. It was to make buildin
 llpon it a man has let his land in 
this instance. If it was for the purpose of making manure or dung 
npon it, but so as a cert:tin time has been stipulated concerning it, 
the land shall belong to the" man ,,-ithout" during that time. If 
he has sl)ecified no particular time between them at all, the 
land shall belong to the cc man "ithout" until the time of his 
manure or of his dung has been taken out of it. 
Hunning over now, means running over three hold- 
ings, or four holdings. There is full fine for this, for 
the neglect is complete. But 
names running over the three head-lands of three 
holdings; it is running over, and it is neglect, unless "- 
necessity excuses it. 

Running o\"er now, i.e. the force of the 'now' here is bec
n<e it was of a 
'tairsce'-trespass we spoke befure. Tbree holdings, le., oyer the three landi 
(farm& 07' hol<Jing8), i.e., of a 'bo-aire'-chief. Or four holdings, i.e., o\er 
rour lands (holding8). Full fine, i.e., it is full crime, complete trespas., i.e., of 
'airlim'-trespass. For the neglect is complete, i.e., this is complete neglect 
on the part of the shepherds, and it is therefore that complete 'eric'-fine lies for it. 
A very long running, i.e., a very long running is made by them, or a running 
by them to a great length. J:unning over the three head-lands, i.e., 
running o\er the ver)" extremities of three lamis. It is running oyer, 
i.e., it is 'eric'-fine for rllnning o\-er, that is paid for it. It is neglect, i.e., it 
is perfect neglect on the part of the shepherds. t.nles! necessity, &c., i.e., 
unless there \\ as ncce
ity which 
 screens the sherhcrtls. 


138 bp.eæ:;ha eomm
hcera al1"Or O . 

I t- J1 ) 

V'J" .Tl"I1O- 

1. efran: 'tJono "Lp.í lUl1p.1'tJa ann: l1.Ulp.e "Lap. nop.a reatba, 
oeur l1U1p.e l1.U1"Le, oeur l1.ulp.e "Lp.aë"La. 

Cere-co'tJ a ml'tJí'tJap. Ttulr.e rp.aë"La ocur 11m; Co 
p.aba'tJal 1 oë"C nUl1eop.a 'tJec al1l> 'tJO ttea1'caë. 1 r e P.UIP.1u'iJ P.U1t1 
, armpn oeur qwëra, ap. ní "LU111"seatta neaë 1-ì'_1 p.U1te 1<<11. 1' m 
aë"C roll. Hne ínl>11íe, no abann 'tJomam, no' p..\ no attcro. J< 

/.......t1.þ -'v 

lTIa 'tJO CUCI"CUP. na 111n'tJlth rap. aen ml1-cm'tJ, no rap. 'tJa mr-- 
em'tJ, 1r "Cmp.rce ucroU1b al1'tJ; mar "Lap. t:p.1 wl1el'n'tJ 110 
"Lap. celtp.1 mp.cenn, 1r P.Ulp.1u'tJa op.11.o ann; Oel11' er1lfur ní 
lþma fClr ocu1' ma na111tím, ocu1' noeo ne"Lhm"C ní 111a l1Ull1lU'iJ 
f)"D. 2IRG. na l11a "CU1r1'Ce. [OCU1' ma 'tJO euan::<:!1l- "Lal 1 Fe
lwnn 51 1U1 'Ö 1!9 

" '"'- rnp.l>a fcap.a11n, 11' elp.1c "LU1t)fce op.p.a ann. paë felP 5 e1111 P.11> 
a l1UIP.1l1'Ò aoròëe m 5eI111111]2; f1aë mr-tlme tae a ltulP.1l1'Ò m 
tCle. ] 

I/Cðt.llf A
.lèz.Æ ., Cmp.-ea1"Oe an mrcean"O ?-'Ceor a rmrrSe ocur t1lt- 
p...A .."",../'r s"""1,I'r;.;+.;vA 
cop. rterc
m:::, 1r eJr1"Oe macc bun"Orm"be, a comta'D ((n"O 

 ""A" , 
 ..,J;.. f1n "Oono "00 qwc
,"teadl 111 11lTJl1.u1C 1mm
 1m rO'D. 1m- 

 :,..;""'-.....tlv ,l.,r
"'('"S)" r ean each ber f1utocur anatt, 1mr01tl1
a"O 1me 11l"Or 1C 
arru ramtm'D. 

if (2.41 

D r>"'LCJ''I 

IwD <<r7"<W'}"" .. 
",!t-: Ii 
'If tþ ....",. D 
....,,"e1(.J f' Ý - 
l.'emp.-ew me1"O rmachm pt a co m1cea r ?7,-a "Oó ; 
c.-I...tA. I'f 
 1me OCt1r CE((tl w , -Senmon;( c((1

 a.J. .ð L ,..ntf ) 
^ ,-,,,,,,,,,,,1-1.,,,, 
 n fII".( 
t- II e.",,,,,,,hH II I-.N. " 
q ;,,1) 
ea me1"O cm
he pt a comlchear ?-a 
eop.a; c((1
mte,ocur cmte centra, ocur "Ot:l1ne cm

"l t7{)., I 

CI11P. cal'De I1Ip.cel111'D? .1. comlI1p.cím carn lI1"Cnl1e l1a II1p.C1l1'Ue 
"j.) I"CIP.? t1p.cop. ]:' te 1' cl11 5, .1.11111 ]:'U1ttíu'U. 11' el1"'Ue mace ùun'U- 

, Sl'em"-ca8l8.- That is as far as a · flescach '-) ()Uth could. ca>t a "and or "penr. 
'if tT
 cattle, <j'c._The Irish for the fi
t part of this parngraph is found on the 
!oll"er margin of col. 1. p. 4, of th
 MS. E. 3, 5. 


CY ilEnE. 13!) 

There are iudeed three kinds of running over; running over 
three possessions, and ro
 running oveJ( and running over a 
strand. . 
Question-How are the strand running over and the road running 
over estimated 1-Answer : "Then there are eighteen spear casts 1 of 
a youth on it. That is.road running 0"\ er and strand running over, 
for no one shall give additional pledge to the other for this, 
cxcept over a lawful fence, or a deep river, or an inlet of the sea, 
or a cliff. 
If the cattle" have gone Q"I,er one l1cadland, or over two-headlands, 
'eric '-fine for breach sltaTl be paid for them therein; if over three 
headlands or over four headlands, there shall be 'eric '-fine for 
running over due from them for it; and they eat sometl1ing in 
their' feis '-trespass and in their' airlim '-trespass, and they eat 
nothing in their running over or in their' tairsce' -trespass. And 
if they have passed over the land of one of grade (a dignitary), 
or over two lands, the fine of 'tairsce '-tresfk' is charged upon 
them for it. There is the fine for winter' feis '-trespass for a 
nmning over on a night in winter; and the fine of an 'airlim'- 
trespass by day for a running over by day. 



Question- "That is the headland?-Three'forrach'- 
measures,2 and the shot of a rod cast by a ye-mh, i.;., Ce-ÇPi, 
the spear-youth, the extent of that of the strand 
is equal to half the lawful fence to a road. T-hey 
reclron tlte ditch on the one side and the other, so 
that it makes the full fence, and thus a lawful fence 
is sustained between them. 
Question-How many' smacht '-fines are there in 
a co-occupancy ?--Two; 'smacht '-fines of fence, and 
of cáttle, besides the trespasses. 
How many trespasses are there in a co-tenancy? 
_ Three. Trespass of palisades, b.'espass of cattle, 
and trespass of men. 

Question.-What i
 a headland, i.e. I ask how is the headland 
known? The shot of a rod cast by a )'outh, i.e., in addition to it. 
That is the spear-)'outh, i.e., it is th.e 'ßeascach'-)01\Ìh, i.e., the boy who 

.' Fo,.,.uch '-Jnm'U1'u.-The 'forrach' a meaHlre of land containing ,j:;
prds. (II. 3, 18, p. 146.) 




 !f ,,

O'JrIf,l/t " 

fJ (C3') 

{I) I'.... (Cn.) 

:;:',f 44 

z..d t:Z-, 3 


...., . 


bp,eac;ha .eommdlCetla all'Ur o . 

rUlse, .1. If e ín rLefcacn .1. m<<c'Olubftmcef1O mbunnfms. (( comþ<<"O 
.1. << cOlmer; no a cur;ftuma 10 ní fin a 't:ft<<cl1r; m<<ft<<, CI'O reftann mb al' a 
mbl r;ecr;us<<"O 'Ot'cnf<<r; n<< n1O'OILLI, bl<<1'0 elftlC ftuí'01'Oa 10'0. tear;n ín 
í n '0 ft U I C 1m me, .1. rmacr; Let íme 1O'Oftmce a n'OuL r;aft Let cL<<'O 10 1"tOlr;, 
ó If Lan Ime roftf 10 'O<<fta cLu'O .1. re 'Oulftn 'fm cLu'O ocuf re 'OU1ftn 11'111 
èumLLe, .J. Let íme roft æër;<<ft ín 'Oa cLa'O. 1 mrean, .1. alftlme'O 
c<<è 'Oon Let reo ocuf 'Oon Ler;n alLl Iman 11.Or;, co ft01b Lan íme <<n'O. 
1mrolLnsea'O Ime In'Oftlc, .1. ImrolLnsn::eft Ime 'OLIstecn er;aftftu 
amLm'O fm. CCt;<<ftftu ramLal'O .,.It;Jft ín 'Oa cLa'O. 

Co- TEN- 

(0 Calft-cl am el'O rm acn t;a? .1. cmmelt;fm<<l;t;aUlLlf m commt;necur, 
'r 10 nmt;naëuf cummi>e, .1. cm L10 rftlf a t;<<baft rm<<ët;<< I commt:ncer. 
Bmacnr; íme .1. 10 ní fmaët;msceft í n'OuL t;aft an mH'. Ceatfta .1. 
cet:nfta conb0111S rOft 'Oaínsen, no 'Oono aft nÎItl.mmn .1. 10 'Oa rcftepaLL .1. 
In p<<cn 'Ounacmt:ne, no fla melcn. ðenm
t;a c<<lt;ne .1. cenmota 10 
IS rmaër; U1L 0 na 'Oaím
'.no ma-c ftlf 10 ,\-'e)wn'O .1. bftlfEJ'O 10 mLe. 

Ca mel'O Calt;ne.l. cm mPlr; C1Ot;a '00 m<<t; na 'Oame fir 10 re)"tann 
If 10 mt;necuf cUmm'Oe. CUlt;n e UlLi'. 'Oaftt;aJ'O a q"t1 èumLLe. Catt;n e 
ceatft'a .1. a cet:nfta '00 CUrt 10'0 .1. na melcn. "Ouln e CUlt;n e .1. 
na cl1lr;a alLI '00 mar; na 'Oaíne ftlr 111 reftann ína ecmaíf fin. 

:1-Þ .1. Cefc-Ca'Ota'O can:he reaLüa? .1. ca1t:hSi 
ta1te cet:amuf, 
OCur a Ca1t:h;S1 fa'Oef1n, mmf1p. Imbl 11a1t calch a t:111e all, W11l;S- 
reaca1b OCur ap. cona1b attt:a1b, OCur crn:h;Si a p.olt:e. 


)( Cerc-Ca-o la-o ca1t:h;se a1Le? a: naroatJ It: telLb cene fota a1te 
a nUIp., ocur 1tat:huf aMme foP.t: la}'trU1'OIU, ocur 'OILf1 nelc 1 10 
2S o }'tt:ap. foP.t: t:a1p.If1n; OCUf 1n'OILfI nelch }'to op.t:a}'t Ua1t: fU11p.u. 
Ci'n 'DO cUa1Ltí foP.t:, OCur '00 Ltac, ocur '00 cta1f1, ocur '00 
C)lan'Oce; ocar Cia p.ulbet:, ocur cm p.o, cm 1 10b 'OU1'O. 
CU1te celme t:}'ta; a Let Ca1te foP.t: "Cat ãeñ òlAa'Ona, no o;scatU1;S 
cac afla bL1a'Oam.)( 'Do bm'Oet: cmte L1a n'Olba-o fa'Oepn. 

I Me""'" 

3. J<Cefc, q1.a,-c1'O frura narcmt:hep. clute mte laP. na n'Olbu'O ? 
a:'Oamt:et1 fru CUlmne reanca'O 1núp.a1ce '00 'OCl,.a11lP.It:he11. in ime, 
co cLan'Oa'O Leo in ime fa "C}'t1 cen rena, > 



Calts the rod. The ext e n t i.e. the .ame extent or the same proportion of the 
"ea shore, if the cattle should pus over it into another 1an<11a.....fully occupied, there 
shall be 'eñc'-ûne for the runnillg over due for it. Half for the 1awflll 
, i.e. the 'smacht'-fine for half the 1a"f1l1 fence is due for going over the 
olle monnd I of the road, it is fulljìne for go ill!} OVIJ' the second wall, i.e. six hands is 
the height of the moulld and six hands i. that 0 the palisade, i.e. half fence is 
,'eck<med for either of the two mounds. '.bt fnr '''0-3 ro,.],nn eac h 
on this side and the other of the road, 80 that t or amoun
 a fllll fence
A lawfnl fellce is .nstained, i.e. a 1awf1l1 fellce is thus SlIstained betwcen 
them. Between them thus, i.e. hetween the two mounds. 
Question-how many 'smacht'-fines? i.e. how many 'smacht'-filles are 
there in the co-tenallcy, in the commo.> tenancy, i.e. how many things are there 
for which 'smacht'-filles are paid in the co-tenancy. 'Smac h t'-fine of fence 
i.e. the thillg.....hich is commallded to be puidfor going over the fellce. Of cat tie, 
i.e. cattle .....hich break throllgh fastllesses, or illdeed on beillg driven b,'eakfences, 
i.e. the two 'screpalls,' i.e. the fine for man-trespass, or the' sacks.' Besides the 
trespasses, i.e. besides the 'smacht'-fine which is paid by men for the trespasses 
which they commit in the land, i.e. by breaking the palisades. - 
Row many trespasses, Le. how many damages do men do to the 1alld in the 
commontenancy? Trespasses of palisades, breaking of stakes, i.e. a'dartaidh'- 
he1fer for three stakes. Cattle trespasses, i.e. to put cattle into it, i.e. 'the 
Racks'. III e n tre.passes, i.e. the other faults "hich men committed regar(lillg 
the land besides the'... 

J I'DO- 
Co- TE'i- 

Question- "'hat are the damages of possessions 
 i.e. the tres- 
passes of another })erson, in the first instance, and his own tres- 
Îmsses, when every ten-itory requires to defend itself against 
pirates amI wild dogs, and the trespasses on his road
Question- \Vh. t are the trespasSE's of stakes 
 them in 
V it-{ 0;, H..- L<
 <t<tt- "v .
thy p')'iW

 w . I, after which 
thou art reslJonsible for theA ence, and the right to the thing 
damaged is upon thee besides that; and the making good by 
thee of the thing 1clâclt has been damaged is upon them. The 
default of thy stake is upon thee, and of thy flag-stone, and of thy 
trench, and of thy stake-fence; and 1clwtever (
 8h(l,1l resul t 
orÍJlg, QI. iLlJIlaging, or--w<mIHlmg. 
As to the trespas>!es in respect of a passage; half the fine upon 
thee every year, or full fine every second year. The h'espasses are 
merged by the' dibadh' of themselves. 
Question-By whom are the trespasses of stakes established 
after the 'diLadh' of themselYes
Ð;:' e restored f1dm the ' I 
I . 'èJ b .' , LLJ L 
memory of 11. wort IY antiquary the fenoe WM---Wlct- /1 
ftBt;:,e.l,..l!e that the fence was planted by them thrice without denial. 
I JJound.-' Cllldh . mealls a wall of earth, a d
.ke, but it is commonly trallslatoo '.J 
'Ii ditch,' as in the term, a 'furze ditch.' 

 jvlc ("t.! nc 


l (, 


b1teadla eoman:::hcep,a Un"Or o . 

.- Lt.;; 
.fr_14 luD<'- ]< 
Cal l 1--C1'O etanna r alte ? HOlt oeu f 1UalL 
- CWI1.-eaÍ"oe 1UWtt? (CIte lil Ime fa rp.1 cen rena. Or mcm 
" renW5Ce11. elre nOalt no ('tanna? 
1Æ5a feanéa mnp.lee fia'D a 

 111I1leu.)( Or muna ùe'D rt'aneame, 'Da bo-al11.
 InTlI UCI 'DO éup. 

 D f qwm'D, oeur ata hi 'Ow tU5a, oeur al11.e min5ear ICI11. 'O l f, 'rr etJ 
etannar alte ipn. 

Or ma'D in ep.lé ulte {to tatJ mna feêc naêa 'DIP. 1 5 Ce 11.? 
Hîn. (C11. acan:; in 'Oa ùta 'Oee nul" eunmp,15 Ce 11. quê. 
fv'Mv D J t..I 
Ca'D 1a'O f1m::? 11m. Cta11. bta.. all, bta, pn'O bta, noel' ùta, 

J,. D I. 1,ta muenw5e, oeur 5 no 9ta, ùta i1!lf05ta, oeuf tlnn bta, 1 w 'Da1 1e fIt11-
ùta, bta nearÙal;Se, ùta p,C1me [eta'O ùta J. 

Ctap. bta; cp.lê annrm na'O nmeol r eea'Of1aê eonw11'Oa, oeur na 
cumn1u'OL"e11 feaneal'O. 
Cere-co rUmaI5L"e1t? (C hlmmlllar I n'Oe,(!)re1tb llIl
.:ÙW'O. fh1t.Þ 
 nlu'O 110 be'O 'Oa eoma11ba, '00 Twnna!'O 1 uam . 


CÜt bta; ep.lê ineolree all, a'Op.a'Oa, no ait allnreU1te, no ep.ann, 
no ti;S, no alt teaéL"a. "Om IIlbe'O feê"C eoma11'Oa 'Olb an'O In "Cuê"C 
fin, eaé ae 'I' aJlaltiu, '1" qué ann I'm na eUmreal'O"Cea11. 



ptJota; q11é ron ineolfee bIte rea'Oa, 110 fI'O eotBap.<:a hé,(Jte 
1. retJa eOIlW11'O aé) eaé ae uar a11altl, no att ooÊ, no fen t OIl, 
CU'Dmame '00 telcea'O. Con'OIp.15ceP. 'Oono quêa nUt
 _t!1 e'O = 1ttM\.I- 
reancam co nit..rnorem F01t 111 If 'Oe11b. 
110er ota; .1. ep.lé ina eOlree = nOIre no rearea 1 ptJ no 
a tllU1S. CC'Orul5e ql1C eaucpn, munur 5tuwp::a'O reanealtJ, a11. 
,., 1'0 eonl<<1t'Oa qllée m pn. 
bta !!1_u_e!1
..! ; .1. eJllé fon incOIrcf ee"C ùona qwnn no eUaltte 1 f) 
L"atam no 'Olbttt mUttlll'O, tlO reanQlal5ea'O ro L"UIU'O. 11' 'Oai am 
C}1Ië, muna bé P.Ott con a 1Wtre
.- ;, -
1'Ìð4 V ? r/!Y /ll1I./} 
---- -- , 
bta .1'1i t !..O Lta eJlté ine01ree 'Oumae 110 bun nomna, 110 'Oumac - 
1 o ep.amn; a'OruI5mn;1t ep.têa J.'Jllf1n. 


. D 



I Shall tltl"u.t in the Btick. The Irish filly also mcuu, "Shun ca't II lot.' 
· Vi.lm,bed. The text must Le dcfccli
e I!erc. 





Question- \Vhat settles the stake 1 . An oath and prescription. 
Question- \Vhat is prebcriptiun1 The 
ticking of the fence thrice 
without denial. And if it be denied, by "\
 h..t oa
h shall it 
be settled 1 An oath of a worthy anti'luary to be a ,\itness of 
the fencing. And if there should not be an antiqnary, two 
worthy , bo-aire '-chiefs fillall tllrust in the stick, I and the one 
shall take his oath, and th"t' airè '-chief who swpars between two)ï:, j I,li4 Ì4 ...,;,ø 
lie ,,1'0 
ha..ll tl""l
t in tllf> 
t.a ke then. a.,4hrit- 
And if the whole territory be divided into seven parts so that 
they (the antiquaries) cannot direct them'j Ånswer- For there 
are the twelve marks by which a boundary is defined. 
\Vhat are these 1 Answer-
.\ flat mark, a stone mark, a tree 
mark, a deer mark, a stock mark, and a mound mark, a division 
mark, and a water mark, an eye mark, a defect mark, a way mark, 
A flat mark: this is a laml which is not distinguished by any 
land mark, and which antiquaries callnot define. 
Question-How is it settled 1 It is_ measured into two, into 
the posses
ion of those aruund it. If there be two' l'Darbs,' tht-y 
A stone mark: i.e. a district which is marked by a stone of 
lúp, or, an imnlO'able stone, or a tree, or a flag, or a Il..!QllU- (''&U^t _ 
m.ent:rl.. stone. If there be se, en land marks of them therein at 
that tiæ
, one over the other, it is a boundary that cannot be 
disturbed. 2 
A wood mark: this is a district which is marked by an ancient 
tree or a tree mark, the one wit/t the other, or an ' all hog' tree, 
 oak 3 which was allowed to futL The boundaries are 
de tined by these, unless there be anti(luaries to.-Lllstrw.:t as to the cf tit m 18 
certain thing. 
nv-ft,;,t' ["tin J lk
A deer mark: that is a district marked by the hair of deer or '7 "'W'Ç 
of .lry cows in a wood or in a plain. These determine meers, un- 
less the antiquaries remove them, for these are D1.C.CJ;S of a territory. 
A stock mark: i.e. this is a district marked by the first trunks 
of trees, or a stake in the earth on the ruin of a mill, or an old 
bridge under the water. 
 law} marks which define , un- 
.les&- there 
 thing to explain. 
A mound mark: i.e. a district marked by a mound or trunk 
of an oak, or mound of it tree; meers are defined by these. 

TS 01-" 

tuú. f..t 


".4/1.:i<nloak. See "-e\ab Law!!, p. 3ï3, tor ml'Cr-timlJer. 



J L"I>G- 
ltlEXTS or 
Co- TE'i'- 




1I.1C)1 Sic. 



.Þ J"){,Lc,,

-l1>fi..u,; D 


Ùtlead,a Comwd!cftW at1 "0 rO. 

lA11'O bta, .1. Cfuë incolrce Ulrce ((ua 110 lûèa 110 npfWH7. 
CCr-rUI5ann:t'P. cp'l'a ropfltI 1IIa 'Oilleaè all 11I'Our t:1ar'Oa. 
Ro'Óapc uta .1. què íncolrce comap.'Oa rea'Óa 110 IUUlbC' qU!t1l'O 
no t1a5. no comap'Oa r-atman. 11'1 CplC '00 mí'015t'afl flOrC, ocur 

 a'OruI;sa1'Ot:ep cplëe f111rm, ma p.o relreap. 111 'Oa ?
$Ð 'Ot' ul'Oé 
111la11 pa111'O 1'111. 
bta earba1'Óe j cplch ínCOlrCe earUa1É ratman .1. fan, 110 ft'lfe, 
no t:a1t Ete((1111, no tntl1.aë renn" 1"lO'Oa. Con'0111.1lTeap ql1l'a 
flclf1n '00110, ma'01a 1]

q'O reancal'Oe. 
bta ImfoËtaj què '00 r-el'O UlrCe 5ta1re a1p.m fO teal1a-p ill 'Oa in(''O fOP. ceët:al1. ill 'Oa ten::he. C.c'OrUI5a1'Ór-t'1t 
cp.lëa fOIl. fill. 
bta peíme j què 1'011 111C01rCe 1"lO'O ll1;S 110 r-ua1te, 110 11.0'0 
ímrca5'la, no botall.. 11' bta ql.lè1 a1111 1'111. 

\ Cta'O uta; ql.lë 1'011 Í11colrce 'Ouae, na up.cta1'Oe, 110 pat, 110 
feapr, no reClb 'Ouae j a11'1'1 ql.lè a1111 1'11111a 1'Ó((11 '00 'Oubur, ql.lë 
íllCOlrCC cta'Ó 110 cOll.a, 

 A.L< -Iv. So Þ 
CC'OrUI'OI;SLCll. ql.1('a t:p.a fOll.r na ha1Ùp'o j ocur 1l.((1111a ((11 mU 
OCur fotol15a'O Ca1d151 all a1b1all.l1m.'\l' 
20"Ca1q;e t:11l.e ql.a .1. fU5a OCur pU5a all. 1IIaca1b t:11l.e OCur 
t01115reaèa1b, OCur COll.Ur flU r:Ua1t, n::11l. rtol5ea'Ó ocur con5b((1t, 
OCl1r l 1.0 5 a . 
Ca1d15e pa1t:e .1. nne flur a aeI1Ull.. OCur a rtw5e OCur a llUll.- 
rèall.r-a'Ó, ocur a cocta1'Ó OCur 5ta11a'Ó a 115peallach all ((11111'111. 
), cua OCur ael1a1Ë, OCur 'OOIE a)1. am rUlb'Ó '00 caè Coba111 a1l.a1b. 11 í 
'OUrtl ca1q;e '00 rU1111, 'Ourl1 rOma111e. 
,. 80ma111e wtej a t:opa'O 'DO neoè 'DO pata 'Oé 1t:lp, OCur 'Dlpe 
af Ull. ba . t 
Ca1p-CO 'Dlpeal1ap fon? 11111; uan mott: 1 CUa1ttl '00 drCQ1t 
 ar t:a1b, uan b0111111'D all a 'OÓ, 'Oall.r-a1Ë aTla ql.1 COlla 11111'Dr-a1Ë; 
'Oa1pt: 111a ceata1p., cot
aè all. a fe, bo ana hOlT, CUIC re01t: ((11(( 
'00 'Oéc j aèt: f'O reOIt: 5abta a'Oa "fcomlllel'O.. 1IIa'O flu l1elte 1-'(>- 
felrea1l.f ocur wdJE111 an mte '00 Ime ítl'Õ, ocur belt}O 1wtur 
co Ce((11111Ì1btw'Ó11a: lDa.kiP) 
 C4iJ1,.u., h t;c., 
/4'" -11JO.l-ý 

, The eye. The e:re fixes the boundary, if two points of it remain, i.e. by rUD- 
ning a straight line between these points. 
· AI'e u'anlill!l. The lettcr which Dr. O'Dono\"an read as . r' in tbe word 
· rp.ebu'O,' seems the usual form of long I "hich precedes' p. . when that lettcr is 
I Road.. For the differcnt hinds of road among the ancicnt Irish, vide Cormac's 
Glossary. edited by Whittey Stokes, Esq.; also C. 80G-7, and nuoh of Rights, pp. 
I .e'l., Dublin, 1847. For ruleq a8 to the penalties incurrcd hy persor.B 
iJljUli'){; rood-, l'ide AJlciwt LJw, 01 IrclalJ(!. \'01. iii., 1'1'. :;0:;, :5(,;. :>U9. 


A water mark: i.e. a district defined by the water of a river, or 
of a lake, or of a well. Uoundarie;; are ùefined by these if they 
run in a straight direction. 

J (;"or.- 
Cu- T.;,,- 

An eye mark: i.e. a district defined by a mark of wood or of plain, 
of tree or of sLone, or by a mark of earth. This is the district 
estimated by tIle eye', and boundaries are defined by these, if the 
two certain heads which are to this di
ision be known. 
A defect mark: i.e. a district defined by want of land, i.e. a 
declivity, or a sedgy plaef', or stony vale, or track of an old
Boundaries are define(l by these, if antiquaries are wanting." 
A mark of division: t/tat is a district through 

hich the water 
of a streamlet flows where the two' coarbs' full....w--i1-; I' ,} 1 ,
 on -wfL,g a.rvv4- ;; '7t (- 
either side of it. Boundaries are settled by this. 
A way mark: that is a district marked by tIle road of a king 
or a people, or a rou(1 of carriage, or a cow-road. These are di&trict 
A mound mark: this is a district marke{l by a mound, or ditcb, 
or rath, or foss, or any mound whatever; for this is the !.:índ oJ 
district into which it is not proper to enter, namely, a district 
bounded by a ditch or stone wall. 
 [ . J 
 - J - 
M.e.: 1 ..."" r, _ 
Boundaries are settled by these 
 of land mm'!.:s; and they 
divide the stakes and sustain the fines for stakes afterwards. 
The liabilities of land now, i.e. service of attack and defenco 
against wolves and pirates, and attendance to the law of the terri- 
tory, both as to the hosting and feeding, and service of defence. 
Tile liabilities as regards roads,3 i.e. a fence is required for it alone, 
amI it is necessary to cut them and cleanse them, and remove tJleir 
"eeds and mire in the time of "'UtI' and of a fair, and because it is 
expecteù that each shuuld assist the other. 
he OU'1ler of the 
road) 4

e!'"J' e damages from that, bJÎ:t. hl\ merits profits. 
The profits of stakes are; the produce which comes of them in (þ.,.
the land, and the' dire '-fine for cutting them. CtftJr 
Question-How is this paid for 1 Answer: a wether Iamb for 
 removing a stake from it!! plaBe , a she lamb for two, a ' dartaigh '_ 
Ileifer for tIlree stakes with their appendages; a ' daÏJ:t '-heifer for 
four, a 'colpach' -heifer for six, a cow for eight, fi ve 'seds' for 
twelve; but they are' seds' of graduation of tIlc Mme vahlP, if it 
 'i IX 
bo Imowll t1at 
nGwl tA II {J igffiMry, and a restoration of tfit

the stakes to a perfect fence, and to be security for its safety to (
) 110# f4 
the end of a year. 1


YOLo no. 



OJ1.ear:ha eomcur:hcel1.a al1i)r O . 
 wÞ/.; D 

+ Ð JXW 1120 

ME....TS 011' 

80mame Ll1l.e;)., ILl 11. 1:1"6, Ocur re1l., ocur ínna11l., ocur UlrCe, ocur 
muí1l., ocur 1I1béu11., ocur "C"arCa1l., ocur flt1ëe 71l.t. 
1l. 0Ke ; 1L11l.e ocur a 1l.1r1 ocur <<151t>; 



[) 13"" , C. 31.JZ.) S [Ca1tël cet1l.a q1.U; ql.1 Ca1tce pt 'DO rUl'Dlb .1. ca1"C"ëe a nm5me, 
ocur C<<1"C"ce a na"Óa11l.ce, ocur ca1"C"ëe a m bet; ca1"C"nëe a n m 5 ne 
'DO 11eoë conrcafta, ocur concwl'o, ocur rta1"C"e; ca1"C"nëe a nat>- 
a11l.ce 'DO necn 5U1m::e, ocur COI1rC
1l.a"(;(;; caH::h(;e a mbet 'DO 
neo(; Ea1ber 'DO re1l.Ulb na cOTlla1È"Gech. 


,_ Co mroe'Da1l. ql.a na ca1tce 1'0, ocur co ne1l.amct:a1l.? beftt: ha 1l. 
coma1"Èteë 1 Tl111l.a1C 'DO mer na r05ta, ocur rore1Kna1l. relt r utu [1] 
11. 1a 1l. a1b na coma1Èteë t:a11. a eíf1. mu rép. rota [1] a rota ta r ea 1l. , 
@no 'Da n01ft5 ocur ré1l. Ua1'D 1 t:aeb,,(a11l.CmI1 bera 1-'ÍU 111 fC11. [71Æ>JI\ 
flOlft5 e r. l11una be re1l., 5a1ùt:hep. 'D1abta'D roëql.a1ce ua'D 'D1UIE' 
110 a1l.bal111, ama1t blr mer 111 reÓl1l. 111 famruë"C" r a 1 n5 em r üë t:. - 

I! 1i %. /7, rolf. Lt "Duma Ca1tce q1.a .1. Imre'Da11l t: a 1l. d1l. 'DO celte .1. a11.<<15, 
ocur (uql.eb, ocur rottrcut, ucur rotta, ocur a11, ocur a111.Cf1U.] 



) D 
1 \)''1 'o.,te.. VI\< o.l.' D - )( 
It """...., ..,.t ^ f 
Xecutt-ca'D 10'0 'DU1neca1r:he 1 .1. beall re'Da, el'D11 1 a1111b 
rea'Da ocur a-d1a1b rea'Da, octlr rOEta rea'Da, ocur tor a 

2.v rea'Da. Dr l(,..,,,M. ;...t"... I(. 

 .........."" """"It 
oalflr5 f. fE a: 'D a1 1 1 , cott, cU1tean'D, Ibup., lun'Dlt1f, 
..<J. l!1'1 ,s.
 ('/I ""A. . 

"""k- ocheaè, ab M '.. eÙIC reore:a n
lp.e cach ae; bo/hu111-

-- A ^
ùelme, cotpach fna nEabtãib, 'Da1P."C ma cp.aebwb.. 

c/...t ",.Ire, 
. . At 
 lÞ-f'1'VlIc. s<.Vf.'1. 
"'" ". d.v C, r- CA..v<"""""'" v ,( V 
a"C ha1 b t:'ea'Da.: refllln, fwt, fcelr:h, caep.r:an'D, beld1e, I.a j. 
.,....c . 'L
At b 
c. r1::;.ft 0 1- , 0-..- A "7 

') team, maio, 0 a n'Dlp.e cach ae ; ','D((1p."c ma cp.aebu.' ...- 
fr.."k.,. hC Ft"O.O.Ju. to """ C J) II 
oEta rea'Da: ''seãn,, reop.ur, rfncott, qu- 
\ I" (')A r-..... A 0 
tnaë, ca1tne,\) pp.. "Oa1t1"C a n'Dlp.e C
èL ae. 
I Their jointa. There is some defect in the :MS. here. 'ð Ale A 
. Birch.-' Deithe' is fouml in some ancient glossaries as a gloss on 'Dnxn8,' the 
Box-tree. It is now applied only to the' Birch.' 
. Idha. Dr. O'Donovan does not give an English eqnh alent for this term. 
Pruf. O'Curry suggest. . Palm.' ]t is, wuler the form 'Iodha,' cOll1nlOul) tr811S- 


.c. ,., lD') LfOÒ 



tW\ (-''''''.) 


"<1111 1 U 

-t!.tv ttM 6J I -wðwJv 
Lu f..IIl' J; 


 t4'wr, "44 
It.. I 3-'"J If" f/';';; ":þ f' 15
 1 fI.; 




The profits of the land are: every produce wIdell it bears, both 
,vood, and grass, and 
s, amI ,\ ater, and sea, and harbour, and 
what the sea casts ashore, and waifs, &c. 
Tbe profits of 
' are: their' dire '-fines, their btrays, their 
joints;1 four cows they share. 
The trespasses of cattle, now; there are three trespasses by 
them, i.e. the trespasses of their -tmiis, and the trespasses of their 
llOms, and the trespasses of t.heir mouths; the trespasses of their 

 by separating, and 
;'Pand plundering; the trespasses of 
their horns by goring and tearing; the trespasses of tIleir mout]ls 
by what they eat of the grass of the neighbours (co-tenants). 
How now are these trespasses estimated, and ]lUW are they 11ald 
 A worthy neighbour is brought to appraise the trespass, and 
grass of equal value is given at the decision of the neighbours. If 
the man who has committed the trespass has grass of equal value, Jet 
him give grass in the side or head of a field to the amount of the grass 
which he has plundel"C(l If he has not grass, let double the hire 
be given by him a
rds, or produce, according to the aplll'aise- 
ment of the grass in the hot or in the cold season. 
As to the man trespasses, now, i.e. passing over thy neighbour's 
land, i.e., ploughing, and residing, and burning, and casting him out, 
and driving, and examining. 




I #M
- ,'" 
Question- 'Vhat are the man trespasses? Cutting 
trees, both chieftain trees and common trees, and 
shrub trees, and bramble trees. 
The chieftain trees arc; oak, hhzel, holly, yew, ash, l.j- 
})ine, apple. There are five' seds ' for the I dire' -fine 
of each; a cow for cutting their trunks, a ' colpach '_ 
heifer .fine for their arms, a 'dairt '-heifer for their 
branches. .dt 
The common trees a1'C; alder, willow, :b.aõvthorn, 
"11A!, (mountain ash, birch/ elni, 'idha.'3 A cow is the 
'dire'-fine for each; a 'dairt'-heifer for their branches. 


 The shrub trees arc; blaclÜhorn, elder, spindle tree, 
-(.{)If!\.") white hazel) aspen, arbutus.., test-tre
. 4 A' dairt '_ 
heifer is the' dire '-fine for each. 
lated . yew,' but that tree is named before as . Ibur.' It maY
ecics of pine. 
The translations 
i\"en for' reoll.uf,' .'O f1P,' and' pan:,' are onl

· Te.t-t,'u.-Some tree probably from which lot, were mallc. --- 


 ../Hv J 

tl etnv

VOl,. [Vo 


to )? 
"- \0 t
 -t.j -{. 
" >r
' l v tU 




t-t- JIV A

"'1' irtt ,) 


t4r .Â7I


 OILCÚL:hl( eomú1"chce)'(( ((n'Dr O . 
· c.,r D LO'#V.') 
. J Ww c. ,. ,.
 AC, .-.4-t C 
JIDG- \..,Or a reaí)a; t1.a1dl, lW1L, at"cean'D, ', r1 laecl1 , 
1\IE'TS OF Þ}ry It , '"' C 
l'O-TES- et'Dean"ù, "t:'ltcac11, f pm. eup.a a 11'DIp.e each ae. o 
^SCY. Me. 0 
. "UIfa. 

Cm"" ca'O la'O 'Oulnecmt;he? .1. commfl.clm CU'D lat; na clnt;a '00 
niat; na 'Oalne In re""ann in a écmmr 1'111. belm re'Oa .1. t;erCU'D III 
ç re'Oa co h111'Ottstech. Ocht;aë.\o In'O Emir' CUIC reOlt; .1. 'Oa 
t;ecwt; 'Oa ba. bo bUI n-beim e .1.lna nwt;nSIn. CoLpacn .1. oët; fCp.epatt 
in wt;nS111. "'0 al ""t; .1. celtP.1 fCIl.lpatt.,. a"" 1'1'11"'8'0. bo a n'Olfl.e cac1, 
lIe .1. ocur ni tuc a nmt;nEIn a"" atll.'O. "'0 a I ""t;.1 c81tll.l rCfl.epaLL I n'0 1 1 11 
EabaL na ro'OLa .1. all. coLpaë 1'1' fCJl.epatt, OCur 11' '01""e a"" mt;11j;111 .\. no 
.0 '1' a"" ramatfC' e, 'Oe an '0.1. Let '0111.1 c""aeb 111 cU1LIn'O '1' é tan '01",,1 bun- 
be1111e In 8151n'O; no Let '0111.1 Eabat 111 CU1LIn'O '1' é t((n '0'''''' bun belme In 
eISIn'O. Cu""a .1. t;)11 rCIl.lpatt, nO ber pu 'Oa fC""eapatt ina '01""1'. 

!) "tr..I


.1. belm l'em)c( no a tomp.a'V, 'Vo p.at1ap. cae na 0 'Vlp.1 .1. atdr5111 
111'Vl 1 \C 111elc 11.0 b11Onnrap, 'Vé, ocu1' CUIC re01t:; 111a 'V111e. (Cèt:: 11; 
If com1'p.Utt cae p'Ò W' a1ulltl ; ap. It::att:: poet:: nat111E fea'Òa, OCU1' 
rect:: tHllt::hl5 fea'Òa, OCU1' rect:: "F05ta "Fea'Va, ocu1' rect:: to1' u 
fecl'Va, OCur ara111 'V111e cae ae. 

ri rJ'lJ Ib1>,g 
/lG v
34. T
 b l-;tJ=t:2 
'MtoM\t D 
1. cA4v 

(C1p.rt; Fea'Òa; 'Vat11, cott, cUltenn, 1Un'VIUr, lùap., oèrae, aùatt. 
"O I 1 1e n'Vu1 1ac ; bo re'ee 1 C0'11L5ea'V 'Va ùan uru?",ocu1' 'Vam 
r elCe 1 COI11t::;seai> 'Va Fep. ara, OCU1' a foqw'Ò co n'Vep.ofC a r ta111e 
.1. UIP. .!JI!I!.'1 OCU1' bocop, OCur temtact:: ñ
lt1e co t:: ta 5 cro 'Va me1'_ 
m1 1 1' 111 q1ect::
'aet:: tet 'VO belt fatP' 5011ab rtatl. CC mùul1- 
be;111 , bo m'Ò, OCUf Zu
c- Y;01t:: a'Vlpe. Cotpae 111a mop. 5 aùLa , no 
111a 'VatP_Ùl11 ùq;a, 'Vat11t:: 111a cp.aebcub. 11' amne 'V1p.e cue a111'5 
1S re'Va 'VI h. 


.0atP,; Cli> 'VombeIP' natp,echu1' hI? 11111-CC mear ocu1' a ratpe; 

1 A si:rth. A cow was worth 24 'screpalls,' and the young heifer called a 
, dairt,' was the sixth of the value of this cow. 
. A cow-hide. Dr. O'Donovan remarks on this. The original is certainly in- 
correct her
. It should be, "For the barking of the oak to the extent required for 
tanning a cow-hide, a pair of woman's shoes is the' dire'-fine." See O'D. Wi7. 

)- Clo
h 7TI4W 
 -ro-Wrv c{v /.a, 







I """' If1k iN -rt m.t 
The bramble trees are; fern, bog-myrtle, furze, 
briar, heath, ivy
broom, gooseberry. A sheep is the 
, dire '-fine for each. 'ï' L ':If'<- (/d 


IE'ï'S OF" 
<;0- TE"- 

Qnestion-'What are the ma n trespasses? i.e. I ask what are the crimes 
which people commit as regards the land besides these ab9v
 me1ltioned. C uttin g 
trees, i.e. cutting the timher unIawfully. Pine,i.e.thefir-tree. Five 'seds,' i.e. 
"hichamounttotwocows.- A COw for cutting their trunks,i.e.forcompensa- a Jr. ().f 
tion. A' col pach' -heifer, i.e. of t1,
 valuelifeight 'screpalls' as compensation. A lI:hjrh COIM 
'dairt'-heifer, i.e.offour 'screpalls,'i.e. for a sixth'. A,

,.. is the 'dire.- tu:o cow.. 
fine for each, i.e. dr he did not 
eir compensation lõt";t,
t A 'dairt '_ 
heifer, i.e. of fonr 'screpalls' as 'dire'-fine for the branches of the bramble trees, 
i.e. for a 'colpach '-heifer of the valne of six' screpalls' and' dire'-fine is h
for compensation, i.e. or it is for a 'Bamhaisc '-heifer. I TY, i.e. half the' dire '-tine 
of the branches of the holly is 
'l'tal to the fnll 'dire'-fine for cntting the trunk of 
the ivy; or half the 'dire'-fine for the branches of the holly is the fnll 'dire '-fine 
for cntting the trnnk of the Ï\J'. A sheep, i.e. of the t'aluelifUuee 'screpaIl<,' or 
worth two' serepalls ' u due as its' dire '-fine. 

That is,for cutting of trees or stripping tbem, full 'dire '-fine is paid 
for each, i.e., a perfect compensation for the portion of them which is 
damaged, and fiye 'seds' as 'dire'-fine. Dutall trees are not equally 
noble; for there are seven chieftain trees, and seven common trees, 
and seven shrub trees, and se"\ en bramble trees, and the' dire '-fine 
. for each is different. 

The chieftain trees are,. oak, llazel, holly, ash, yew, pine, apple. 
The' dire '-fine of the oak: a cow-hide" is due for It/'ipping off it 
the barking of a pair of woman's shoes'; and an ox-hide for the 
barking of a pair of men's shoes; and also to 
 it until the test 
h.. D 
of its recovery' is had, i.e., smooth' clay and cow-dung and new milk 
are to be put upon it until they extend two fingers beyond the wound 
on both sides, and IIRJfjìne sLaH be for it until it is whole. For 
cutting the trunk a cow is paid, and five' seds' are its' dire '-fine. 
A 'colpach '-heifer is the fine for their great anns, or for their smaJI 
oaklings, a 'dairt '-heifer for their branches. The' dire '-fine of 
every chieftain tree of them is such as we llave now Itated. 
Oak: what gives it dignity 1 Answer. Its acorns and its 

I A pair ofu:oman', ,hoe,. 'That i!, as much bark as wonld tan leather enongh 
to make a pair of woman's 
· The lelt of it, ,'ecor;e,'!I. lhat is, nntil it is secured against the effects of the 
ð Smooth. The Irish wor,1 read as 'mum' ma}' I.>e '1Ilum,' the ori.;inaJ bcillg 

*iIt '1J'U1I, '.J.vrv. t ' 


bp,em::ha eomarcheera CCn'Dr o , 

(W [) 


cott? a m
r ocur a caet; abatt? a meal' oeur a 1 1U r e ; l11rI11? Tf "I't-./t 
a glE'Oe faf'11a; eUltell11? fe11 f011 a11wL111111 1'111, oeur fC1p.r e r.f .:-- 
'O; U111'OIUr? fotae 'oCU1' 1t1EL1af'Oa, oeur tet a1ta'Ò Wp,lII. 
oeweh? a b, a "{;utea. "t
f CCLhw;S fea'Òa; feP,11, rwt, bete, tern, ql1Lhee, 1'Oa'Ò. eW11Lan'O. 
bo bU11bui1l1e eae ae, 'OW11"{; i11a nEabta, eaep.a 111a qlaeba, eUle 
reolL ap. eap,ba. 

o'Ota fea'Oa; reel"{;h, 'Op.wEean, 'l'", fe011U1', ep.w111 P1 1 , 
Cl'Oteaml, pneott. Cotpae butl0e11ne eae ae; eUle reorr n11 e((, 
. . D'D ((ë"{; '011al;sean, 
ll_ r
_ eU1e 1' e01 "{; .1. 'Op.m;S11eae bir 

 1 fat em::a11ba '00 fOI111ëe((P., no '011U1Eean euop,a. 

tL.l!:r ,,'3. 7a.


to1'a fea'Òa; '01111', aKeU11'O, waee, rp111, E,te((eh, P.U1t. teaeta 
1 'Olt1'e ((11 ((en Em1', oeUr'OU1p.L i11a nea11ba. 11' ún111e '00 p.((11a'O((1 1 
U1tl, ae"{; a n'Olt1'1 oeur P.O'Oltf1. (70{,. D) I 

q. tJ:ð-'n.ji>1f 

IS" "'Oetblp. ep.a111'O a p'Ò eomr(1teera, oeur can 'Oetbl11 Ep.w'Ò. 
"Ç>etbl11 EP.U1'Ò a p'Ò nellile'O, oeur e111 'Oetblp. ep.aI11'O. 8mat"{; a 
p'Ò ne1111e'Ò no eo mben"{;a11 U1te, oeu1' eneetUIl11 111'0 0 oennl11. 

"'Oa ba oeur bo 111'OtaeE oeu1' eolpae OèL rep.epatt ql1 '011 11 
na fe'Òa. tutEaeh oeur eotpaeh oè"{; rep.cpaLL oeur 'O W 1 tL 
10 ee1t111 rep.epatt, a LP.1 na , dlE"1C1. tmtEeë oeur eotpae oe"{; 
rqtepatt, oeu1' 'OU1P.L eelt1t1 rqlepatt, ql1 '01111 na nm:heè fc'Oa. 
8 amU1 r c ocur 'O U1 1 1L eeltp.1 rqlep((tt, oeur 'Oap."{;U1'O 'Da rep.epatt 
a ql1 nU1dlEena. 8amwrc oeur 'OU1p.r eelt1t1 rep.ßpntt oeu1' 
'P a P.LW1) 'Oa rq1epatt, ql1 '01111 na fo'Ota fe'Oa. Cotpaeh r e 
t.'>"rep.epaLL, oeur 'Dap.Lj:tI'O 'Pa fep.epatt, oeur cae11a rql1pU1tt, a 
"{;P.1 na1dlEena. 

J Noble ,1,-./clU7.t.. That is, the highly prized pieees of furniture mallUfactllfcd 
f rnm it. 
. Fe,' 1m. araili inn sin.. This pl,rn,e "as left utJtranslated by Dr. O'Doum an 
rrofe<sor O'Cnrry rendereù it, .. Thi. is tlw oml" as inviolable grass "; a meanin
1vhich seems very doubtful. It may mean, .. A man upon another in that," anù 
r fer to the l1S
 of hully 8lÏeks in fif



s j hazel1 its nuts and its wattles; apple 1 its fruit and 
its bark; yew1 its noble structures l ; holly1 'fer for araili inn sin,'2 
and the axle-trees of chariots are made of it; ash 1 supporting of 
a king's thigh, and lJalf furniture of his arms. Pine 1 its b
 the pmrclreon. 
The common trees are; alder, willow, birch, elm, aspen, 'idhadh/ 
mountain ash. A cow is tlte fine for cutting the trunk of each, a 
, dairt '-heifer for their arms, a sheep for their branches. Five 
, seds' is tlte fine for their lopping. 
The shrub trees are; whitethorn, blackthorn, elder, spindle-tree, 
test-tree, iW white hazel. A' colpach '-heifer is the fine for 
cutting the trunk of each; five 'seds' for their lopping, except 
the blackthorn, for which five 'lieds' are paid, i.e. blackthorn 
which is in an uÐpl"6fitablÐ.-fence
(òrokcn dOW1

', or sweet-smelling blackthorn. 
The bramble trees are; briar, furze, heath, gooseberry, broom, 
fern. 'Leacla' iR forfeited for one sprig, and a 'dairt '-heifer for 
their lopping. They are all thus paid for, except the right and 
the full right. 
Tltere is a difference of tree in a co-occupancy wood, without 
any difièrence of class. Tlure is difference of class in a sacred 
wood, without difference of tree. There i., 'smacht '-fine in a 
Racred wood until it is all cut down, and honour price is paid fo
it when it is cut. 
Two cows and an in-calf cow and a 'colpach '-heifer of the value 
of eight' screpalls' are the three' dire '-fines of the chieftain trees. 
A milch cow and a 'colpach '-heifer of eight' screpalls ' '1;alue and a 
'dairt'-heifer worth fOllr 'screpalls,' are their three compensation!!. 
A milch cow and a 'colpach'-heifer of eight 'screpalls' value and a 
'dairt'-heifer of four 'screpalls,' are the three 'dire"-fines of the 
common trees. A' samhaisc '-heifer and a 'dairt '-heifer worth 
fuur 'scrcpalls,' and a 'dairtaidh '.heifer of two 'screpalls,' are 
their three compensations. A 'samhaisc'-heifer and a'dairt'-heifer 
of four' screpalls' value, and a ' dairt!\idh '-heifer of two 'screpalls,' 
are the three 'dire'-fines of the shrub trees. A 'colpach '-heifer wortl
six' screpalls,' and a' dairtaidh '-heifcr worth two' screpalls,' and ß 
sheep of the value if one' Bcrepall,' are their three compensations. 
. Ivy. Thp Irish word here is 'eidleann,' whereas in the text before Oine 2, p.U8) 
it is' eiùeand.' Dr. O'Donovan r"garlled them as different forms of the same lIame; 
Profes"or O'Curry suggested' woodbine' as the translation of ' eidleann.' (rWr-) 



MltNTS Ol" 



II1J - I fAvta" 

' #i'\ 
 vrv"Wfv [-(.I1,J.r fwv ) k 

)k r . v' _ r '. 

'-6 Vl;,rr- .t

. 1,. 
t<- v ) I
 11 '1 


ha eoma1
hce1'a an'l>1'o. 


'et11 fCl1.1Pl11Lt ;11"Onb 1 t::1 p. m"l::11"5111 OCl1f 'Dlpe 11111nb fl11 111 nl11 
If a f1'D C01l1IctH'aff!, OCl1f 111 pl n; 11a 115autwb. 7t1t. rlla'D a 
f1'D 11f'lile beme 1111Ut1tlO, celttl1 p:t1IpU1Lt 1t1'Dt::elb ap, 'Dlt1e, ocuf 'Df! 
fct1epatt ap. wt::h5111, GCUr (( ql1(111 ;na 115nuLa, ocuf a 1'f'lf ea 'D 
J" 111 a qwebwb. ((11((1' afLh5111 'DO w11echmb re'Da Ifecl"Ò If 'Dlt1e 'DO 
<rrheëwu rea"Òa; a tlwt::h5111 1'111 lfre"Ò If 'Dlp.e 'DO F05LU1U rea"Òa. 

:M Il'STQ OF' 

 14'1b '7 ) c.13/ 

 Jv..iJ4 A 
",q oA 
 J,p. ,,q Q.1t 
lp.e 'õon({, 1l>Unacmte. uotlLa1"5 a qu Ct1mttl 

A 'þy iA IJI\.A,I'1 

 cona nín'l>
e({ch, 'l>({11l.
 ín"a Ct11C, cotp"ach afl(( hoch
v. r'" 
-,. "II 7 11 
CUIC 1'e01l:; ({fl({ 'õo
ec,Jõ('t1r: mdJE111 ta each n({; OCt11' 
.0 beH;h FO elna1'l> na bet1.11G'l> co cean'l> mbtm'l>na.' 

.6!!. 3'4.

aur\.bo: 1::11'e '00110: .1. rill.elbe 111 re1'W11'O '00110. 1'OU11aCa1te.1- 
If C111t:O: 'O011a 'Oaímb elf1'Oe. "OO:1't:aI5 .1. If ríu '00: fC1'epaU.. Co 11 a 
n í11'Ot:each .I.cuf aní If t:01ch 110 If 'Out:hm5 blf 01'11.0 a h111'Oe, ín cÚeLach. 
"O(1)l.t: In 0: CUI C .1. celt1'l fCIl.eapmLL. Co tp a ë .1- oët: fCIl.eapaLL. 
'SCUIC feolt: .1. 'Oat:ecmt: 'Oaba,.1- lUll. fut:. ((1t:h5In Lo: cach no: 
.1- mt:hS111 111 mLe La caë flnaët: 'Olb fin, ocuf 'Oame 1'0 bP.lf ann fin he. 
belt:h 1=0 CI11o:1'O .1. COIl. focLat: commdu5 111 w1'be. Co ceall'O 
mbLIO:'011ct .1. all. m 1'e co f10lb fell. buna1'O I nwt:lt:În 0: LefmELhl. 

1/ O',ô' QD.> 

lO'D. 40G) ["'OcQlt::n 1 5 1 ql1 cumtbb] .1. 'D({ fcr.epatt 0 mtlpcopt1111a tutat ; 
7.0 'D((111T cClrhtl1 p'p,lptl1lt ;n(( CUIC .1. tutm 111 'Dcot'-((m OCUf me'DOll- 
"{;m tat ;n U11tWrñ. Cotp((ë ocht:: fCt11pll1tt (( 1l1C'DOllL"W tat 111 
'Deop.a1"Ò, OCUf "0 111'Dl ((C5 0 Ul'-11a"Ò,OCUf tutm ;11 l1yttlCll"ò, umy>.. 
11Oët:: fCp,lpU1tt 0 l1t1p,a"Ò ;na tutw, OCUf bo 111'Dtae;s fe fcyu'patt 

1 Of its being ,'epllired. That ie, acknowledgps that it has been properly 
2 SmaUeßt nffillce, i.e. cutting three 6(ak
.s. lIIiddlc offence, i.e. cuttiDg fh-e or 



Three 'screpalls' both for compensatioll and' dire '-fine are paid 
for them when it i<; in a co-occupancy wood they are, and there 
is nothing for their large branches, J::c. If, however, it be in 
a sacred wood they are, there are four 'screpalls' for them as 
'dire '-fine, and two' screpalls' as compensation, and its one-third 
for their arms, and its one-sixth for their branches. The compen- 
sation for the chieftain trees is e']ual to the 'dUe '-fine of the 
common trees; and the compensation for them (t/w common trees) 
is equal to the' dire '.fine of the shrub trees. 

MENTS ú'" 

But cutting ofland is man-tresp ass. A' dartaigh'- 
heifer is the fine for three stakes with their appcoo - WW
ages, a 'dairt '-heifer for five, a 'colpach '-heifer for 
eight, five 'seds' for twelve, and compensation for 
everyone of them; and he (the trespasser) shall be 
accountable for the injury of the gap to the end of 
a year. 


ß ute u tti ng of la nd, i.e. but the real cutting of the land. Is m an- 
trespass, i.e. this is trespasses by the people. A 'dairtaigh'-heifer fo,- 
three, i.e. of the value of two'screpalls.' "'ith their appendages, i.e. 
with the thing which is natural or which is proper to be on them from the root, 
the slender twigs placed QC,.o... A' d air t '-h e i fer for f i v e, i.e. of four' screpalls ' 
value. A 'colpach'-heifer, i.e. of eight 'screpalls.' Five 'seds.,' i.e. which 
amount to two cows, i.e. altogether. Compensation for everyone of them, 
i.e. the restitution of the stal,.e fence wilh every 'smacht '-fine of these, and 
it was persons that broke it in this case. Shall be accountable, i.e. until 
neighboun(co-tenant.)appraiaethestakes. To the end of a year,i.e.un$ihhe 
time that the original proprietor admits that it has been repaired.' 

A 'dairlaidh '-heifer is due for three shkes, i.e. two 'screpalls' 
are to be paid Ly a foreigner for the smallest injury j" a ' dairt '-heifer 
of four' screpalls' vallie for five stakes, i.e. the small offence of the 
stranger is the same as" the middle offence of the native freeman. a Ir_ And. 
A 'colpach' -heifer wortheigLt 'screpalls' is due for the middle offence 
of the stranger, aDd an in-calf cow from a native freeman, and it is a 
small offence of the nath'c freeman, because the middle offenca of 
the stranger is the same as" the small offence of the native freeman, 
for eight' screpalls' are dUÆ from the native freeman for Ids small 
offence, and an in-calf cow worth si1\.tcen 'screpalls' for his middle 

eight stakes. Greatest or bigb
st offence or tre'pas', i.e. cutting Iweh e slal,.o-, 
and making by 
o doing a full I:ap in the fence. 

S2) .Tmo- 
v lom!<TS OF 
CO- TE"- 
:: V 
1Iv A
O"D. 406. 


C '" lo'l 11'7) 


 1/ o',(}wi 11'1 0 I 

. << 


bp.eadm eOmWdlCera CCn"Or O , 

'Òcclma f1leoonrm tm, ocur bo lf1'Otae5 0 'OeOt1.aI'D 111(( cterÖ tm ; 
CU1C }"'eon:; 'Oa t;ecUl'O 'Oa ba Otl11.a'Ò ína cte1t1 tm. 

[Cm 0 fU1t m elr.1CC 1'0, ocur cmllur 110 1'e5a'O m 'Va fClll'pult 
11' na t;1l1 cumtbb? .1. '01((1' '00 m\1p.çhup.rmb tet;h êumn ocu1' 
s-teILh celtte, fCt11putt uarhU1b If1 'Oa cumtte '{J1b .1. telt rcp.1putt 
o caê pup. '01b .1. aon mup.cup.ta co'On
!.;s. ocur fCp.lpatt ua'Ò 
- 1pn qte1' cumtte .1. 'Owr '00 mutlchutlta terh eumn ocur te1t 
eeltte ann, ocur rcp.lpatt uata m 'Oa cumt? e, ocu1' rp.wt1- '00 
mup.chup.ra co'OnuI5, rcp.1putt 0 e