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Corrected, enlarged and with some additions, 
BY C. S. R^FINESQUE, A. M. Ph, D, 

Professor of Historical and Natural Sci 
ences, Member of many Learned Societies in 
Philadelphia, New York, Lexington, Cincin 
nati^ Nashville, Paris, Bordeaux, Brussels, 
Bonn, Vienna, Zurich, Naples <$>c, the Amer 
ican Antiquarian Society, the Northern An 
tiquarian Society of Copenhagen 

The massive ruins the arts and skill unfold 
Of busy workers, and their styles reveal, 
The objects and designs of such devisers : 
In silent voices they speak, to thinking minds 
They teach, who were the human throngs that left 
Uplifted marks, for witness of past ages. 



Printed for the Author, 


This Essay or Introduction to my Resear 
ches on the Antiquities and Monuments of 
North and South America, was printed in Sep 
tember 1838 in the first Number of the Amer 
ican Museum of Baltirnorc, a literary monthly 
periodical undertaken by Messrs. Brooks and 
Snodgrass, as a new series of the North Amer 
ican Quarterly Magazine. Being printed in a 
hurry and at a distance several material errors 
oecured, which are now rectified, and this se 
cond edition will form thereby the Introduction 
to my long contemplated Work on the Ancient 
Monuments of this continent : to which I allu 
ded in my work on the Ancient Nations of 
America published in 1836, I will add some 
notes or additions thereto, and may gradualy 
publish my original descriptions and views, 
plans, maps &c, of such as I have surveyed, 
examined and studied between 1818 and this 
time ; comparing them with those observed by 
others in America or elsewhere of the same 
character such works are of a national im 
portance or interest, and ought to be patroni 
zed by the States or Learned Societies, or 
wealthy patriots ; but if there is little prospect 
of their doing so, I must either delay or curtail 
the publication of the interesting materials col 
lected for 20 years past. 


THE feelings that lead some men to investi 
gate remains of antiquity and search into their 
origin, dates and purposes, are similar to those 
actuating lofty minds, when not satisfied with 
the surface of things, they inquire into the 
source and origin of every thing accessible to 
human ken, and scrutinize or analize every tan 
gible object. Such feelings lead us to trace 
events and principles, to ascend rivers to their 
sources, to climb the rugged sides of mountains 
and reach their lofty summits, to plough the 
waves and dive into the sea, or even soar into 
the air, to scan and measure the heavenly 
bodies, and at last to lift our eyes and souls to 
the Supreme Being, the source of all. Appli 
ed to mankind the same feelings invite us to 
seek for the origin of arts and sciences, the 
steps of civilization on earth, the rise of nations, 
states and empires, tracing their cradles, dis 
persions and migrations by the dim records of 
traditional tales, or the more certain monumen 
tal evidence of human structures. 

This last evidence is but a branch of the ar- 
cheological science, embracing besides the 
study of documents, records, medals, coins, in 
scriptions, implements, &c., buried in the earth 
or hidden in recesses: while the ruins of cities, 
palaces and temples, altars and graves, pyra 
mids and towers, walls and roads, sculptures 
and idols reveal to our inquiries not only the 
existence of their devisers and framers at their 
locations, but give us a view of their civiliza 
tion, religions, manners and abilities. 


If the annals of the Greeks and Romans had 
been lost, as have been those of Egypt, of Assy 
ria and many other early empires, we should 
still have in the ruins and monuments of Italy, 
and Greece, complete evidence of the existence 
of those nations, their location, power and skill ; 
nay, even of the extent of their dominion by 
their colonial monuments, scattered from Syria 
to Spain, from Lybia to Britain. If the British 
annals should ever be lost hereafter by neglect 
or revolutions, the ruins of dwellings, churches, 
monuments &c., built in the British style, will 
reveal the existence or preserve the memory of 
the wide extent of British power by colonies 
sent from North America to Guyana, from Hin 
dustan to Ceylon, South Africa and Australia. 

And thus it is in both Americas where many 
nations and empires have dwelt and passed 
away, risen and fallen by turns, leaving few or 
no records, except the traces of their existence, 
and widely spread colonies by the ruins of their 
cities and monuments, standing yet as silent 
witnesses of past dominion and great power. It 
is only of late that they have begun to deserve 
the attention of learned men and historians 
what had been stated by Ulloa, Humboldt, 
Juarros, Delrio, &c., of some of them, chiefly 
found in the Spanish part of America, as well 
as the scattered accounts of the many frag 
ments found in North America, from the lakes 
of Canada to Louisiana, although confined to a 
few places or widely remote localities, have be 
gun to excite the curiosity of all inquiring men, 
and are soon likely to deserve as much interest 
as the famed ruins of Palmyra and Thebes, 
Babylon and Persepolis ; when the future his 
torians of America shall make known the won- 


dcrful and astonishing results that thr-y have 
suggested, or will soon unfold, particularly when 
accurately surveyed and explored, drawn and 
engraved; instead of being hidden and veiled, 
or hardly noticed by the detractors of the 
Americans, the false historians of the school of 
Depaw and Robertson, who have perverted or 
omitted the most striking features of American 

The most erroneous conceptions prevail as 
yet concerning them, and the most rude or ab 
surd ideas are entertained in our country of 
their objects and nature. As in modern Greece, 
every ruin is now a Paleo-castro or old castle 
for the vulgar peasant or herdsman, thus all 
our ruins of the West are Indian forts for the 
settlers of the Western states ; and every 
traveller gazing at random at a few, exclaims 
that nothing is known about them, nor their 
builders. The more refined writers can be 
very sentimental on their veiled origin, but 
scarcely any one takes the trouble to compare 
them with others elsewhere, in or out of Amer 
ica, which would be, however, the only means 
to attain the object they seem desirous of, or to 
unravel their historical riddle. Some writers 
speak of them as if they were onfy a few mounds 
and graves, scarcely worthy of notice ; yet 
they are such mounds as are found yet in the 
Trojan plains, sung by Homer, dating at least 
three thousand years ago, and even by many 
deemed earlier than the Trojan war, and still 
existing to this day to baffle our inquiries: 
while similar monuments existing by thousands 
in the plains of Scythia and Tartary, Persia and 
Arabia, as well as the forests and prairies of 
North America, evince a striking connexion of 


purpose and skill by remote ancient nations of 
both hemispheres. 

But our monuments do not merely consist in 
such mounds or tumuli, since we find besides in 
North America, ruins of cities, some of which 
were walled with earth or even stones, real forts 
or citadels, temples and altars of all shapes, but 
chiefly circular, square or polygonal, some ellip 
tical, hexagonal, octagonal, <c., quite regularly 
pointing to the cardinal points. We have also 
traces of buildings, foundations, roads, avenues, 
causeways, canals, bridges, dromes, or race 
courses, pillars and pyramids, wells, pits, are- 
. nas, <c. And of these not a few, but hundreds 
of them, many of which are unsurveyed and un- 
described as yet. These, it must be recollect 
ed, are all north of Mexico,or the region of the 
more perfect monuments of Mexican an$ Cen 
tral America, although often in the same style. 
There, as in South America, structures are met 
of the most elaborate workmanship, of cut and 
carved stones,with hard cement, vaulted arches, 
fine sculptures and even inscriptions. The ma 
terials of our Northern monuments are often 
rnder, chieffy of earth, clay, gravel, small stones, 
or even shells near the sea-shores, sometimes 
of piz& or beaten and rammed clay, (as in Pe 
ru,) unbaked bricks and rough stones. These 
facts may confirm the Mexican traditions, stat 
ing that the nations of Anahuac (now Mexico) 
once dwelt further north, in our fruitful Wes 
tern plains, where wood abounded and stones 
were scarce, wherefore they built their cities 
and /emples of wood, raising altars, platforms, 
walls and entrenchments of earth or clay. 

The dreams and false hypotheses upon Amer 
ica have amused the learned for ages: in attempt- 


ing to account for the origin of the Americans 
and their monuments, they have generally ne 
glected to compare them with the monuments 
and languages of all the other nations scattered 
over the whole earth, or else only taking a par 
tial view of them, comparing a few fragments of 
two or three nations or regions, a few words of 
a centesimal part of the actual languages, the 
writers or historians have fallen into egregious 
mistakes; more fond of systematic errors than 
hidden truth, they have indulged, without due 
consideration, in mere dreams or systems, bas 
ed on a few facts, that are overruled by hun 
dreds of other facts, unknown to them, or ne 
glected when known. It would be useless and 
tedious to refute again such false systems, that 
have been refuted and upset by each other. It 
may, however, be needful, perhaps, to mention 
three of the most absurd, in order to warn 
against them, or show their improbability and 
impossibility. They may be called for distinc 
tion sake, the Jewish system, the Mongolic 
system, and the American system. 

Among these the first named is one of the 
oldest, and at the same time, has yet a power 
ful hold upon many minds; it ascribes the 
whole American population with one hundred 
languages and one thousand dialects, myriads 
of ruins and monuments, to the Jews ! either of 
the ten dispersed tribes, who were not Jews but 
Israelites or of Solomon's time and voyages, 
while the Jews only began to exist as such after 
his death or of patriarchal times antecedent 
to their existence,when they were only OBR1M, 
whom we miscall Hebrews, or going still fur 
ther back to the times of Noah and Peleg, when 
not even the Obrim had any existence. It has 


been proved that the American nations did not 
possess the use of the plough, iron, alphabets, or 
week of seven days, which no Jewish nor He 
brew descendants could have forgotten. The 
American languages have as much, or more 
affinities with the Sanscrit, Greek, Latin,Celtic, 
Persian, Berber, Turkish, &c., languages, than 
with the old and modern Hebrew and Arabic. 
The Jews or IEUDI, who only began two thou 
sand four hundred years ago were not naviga 
tors; therefore it is evident that they cannot 
have come to America and produced here the 
two thousand nations and tribes of this vast 
continent : nay, not even a single one of them 
perhaps. $4 fafu 

The Mongolic opinion, lately revived by 
Ranking, is the most extravagant of all, since 
it ventures to assert seriously, and derive all 
these nations and languages from late colonies 
of Mongols within less than one thousand years 
ago, who came to America over the ice, bring 
ing with them tame elephants for sport, that are 
since become the fossil elephants and mam 
moths buried in our diluvial or alluvial soil to 
state these absurdities is a sufficient refutation, 
every man of any reading and scientific know 
ledge will perceive the impossibility. 

Galindo and Josiah Priest have quite lately 
revived also the opinion of some dreaming 
philosophers who had asserted that America 
was the cradle of mankind or one of them, 
instead of Central Asia. Galindo allows, how 
ever, the Caucasian race of men to be distinct; 
but he says " The human race of America 
I -must assert to be the most ancient on the 
* Letter to Col, Winthrop, in 2d vol. Archcologia Americana, 



He goes on to state that to the primaeval 
civilization of America must be assigned a great 
and indefinite antiquity, leaving however no 
palpable monuments ; but sending colonies to 
civilize China and Japan ! is not this preposte 
rous? where are the proofs either from tradi 
tions, languages, monuments or other sources ? 

Meantime Josiah Priest, in his compilation 
on American antiquities, has boldly asserted 
that Noah's ark rested in America, (where 
about ?) and that he had three sons, one white, 
one red and one black ! (what was the color 
of their wives?) from whom are descended the 
three races of mankind, who colonized the 
whole earth, leaving, however, neither white 
nor black in America The glaring incongruity, 
of these bold assertions, or of the indefinite ori 
gin of Galindo are equally palpable; but never 
theless it is not improbable that they will find 
now and hereafter other advocates, since the 
absurd Jewish origin of all the Americans has 
still many believers^ and even Ranking has per 
haps some supporters. 

To admit that America was the only cradle 
of mankind, is based on no evidence whatever, 
either historical or philological or monumental: 
while on the contrary all the monuments and 
records of the eastern continent trace this 
cradle to Central Asia. To suppose that Amer 
ica was one of the human cradles, is certainly 
worthy of inquiry ; but such a cradle must be 
sought for and located somewhere, and neither 
the volcanic mountains, nor swampy plains of 
South America, nor the frigid wilds of North 
America, appear calculated to offer it. Others 
have been thought of in Africa and Australia ; 
but seldom in the spirit of seeking truth, rather 


in that of supporting some favorite doctrine. 
Such speculations ought at least to be based on 
better foundations than mere assertions, evident 
philological proofs are required before they can 
be listened to, and no total and complete diver 
sity of mankind in every aspect has been found 
any where to support the theory of a plurality 
of human species arid Cradles. Europe and 
Africa have been repeatedly invaded by mi 
grations from Asia. In America such migra 
tions can be traced north and east by the At 
lantic ocean, or north west from Berhring's 
strait, while we have not the faintest indica 
tion of invasions of Asia from America, The 
only traditional account of the invasion of Eu 
rope, and North Africa by the Atlantes (pro 
bably Americans, for the great Atlantis was 
this continent) is involved in doubt, and besides 
these very Atlantes were deemed Neptunian co 
lonies; although it must be confessed that in 
almost every instance the colonists to America 
appear to have found previous inhabitants, who 
must have been still earlier and remote colo 
nies, if they were not indigenous. But the sea 
shores of North America from Labrador to 
Carolina were desert at a very late period com 
paratively, when the Western tribes came 

The actual purpose does not extend to all the 
details of these deep inquiries, but is chiefly 
confined to ascertain and prove the similarity of 
the oldest primitive monuments of both hemis 
pheres, and whereby a connection of coeval and 
similar civilization is evinced in the earliest 
times before the records of history. This evi 
dence, which may be called monumental, dives 
into the gloom of past ages, and hence descends 



to ours, reaching our understanding by gradual 
links : while the philological evidence of spoken 
modern languages, fragments or children of ol 
der primitive languages, ascends hy their means 
to equal antiquity ; both combining, therefore, 
to complete the history of mankind, where an 
nals and traditions cease to lead us or are quite 
obscure: these combined bring more certainty 
to the scrutinising mind than the mere phy 
sical features of men, and their complexions, so 
fluctuating and mingled. But neither of them 
solve the question of the actual original Cradle 
or Cradles of mankind. If indeed monuments 
and languages of various parts of the earth 
were quite different, and the features or colors 
of men likewise distinct there, we might sup 
pose there could have been several species and 
cradles of men: but it is not so, features and 
languages are so variable and mingling in our 
own times, and so diversified every where, as to 
baffle and preclude complete insulation. Mon 
uments are also after all so much alike in many 
remote parts, that although divisible into styles 
of various ages and stages of improvement, they 
do evince a great similarity in coeval ages or 
stages of civilization. 

To prove this great fact and the important 
results, might be the subject of a large work, 
and we have heard that Mr. Warden has been 
engaged in Paris in something of this kind. 
His work has not yet reached us; but when 
ever it will be completed, it shall be only one 
step towards the elucidation of this deep theme. 
Many facts are yearly evolved in America,new 
researches undertaken and discoveries made : 
while in Africa, Lybia, Arabia, Persia, India 
and even the Oceanic world of Australia and 

AM H It It: A. \ 

Polynesia, similar discoveries are progressing 
and new facts made known, that will unfold 
many new and unexpected analogies with 
American inquiries. Of the early Monuments 
of China, Tartary and Thibet, we know little 
or nothing, and in the very heart of Asia, the 
real Cradle of Arts and Sciences, if not man 
kind itself, our learned travellers have not yet 
penetrated, and the most interesting region of 
the globe is thus almost unknown to us. This 
subject is therefore in a progressive state of in 
quiries, and future ages will yet add thereto: 
although a number of Ruins and Monuments 
crumble or disappear under the plough or the 
leveling energy of men, little respecting these 
structures of antiquity, enough of unexplored 
sites will be discovered and surveyed : some of 
our rudest monuments appear indestructible, the 
lofty mounds of earth have withstood like the 
heavy pyramids of Egypt, the lapse of count 
less ages, some even appear now covered with 
a dress of new soil, or even diluvial coat, as if 
they were antediluvian ! 

Meantime we may endeavor to collect and 
compare the facts already known, and deduce 
therefrom some useful instruction to satisfy cu- 
riosity or gratify the greedy wish to ascend to 
the origin of every thing, and of mankind above 
all. The most proper and obvious way to elu 
cidate American Antiquities and Monuments, 
would be by classifying them, which has how- 
ever never been attempted, having always been 
noticed or elucidated loosely at random, or in 
a kind of geographical arrangement of the re 
gions where found. Such classification might 
be based either on their styles, forms and mate 
rials, or ultimately their ascertained scopes of 


purposes which arc even now often doubtful or 
elouhted. They might thus be divided into 
classes or series easily distinguished between 
themselves, but all finding their equivalents or 
similar structures in the .Eastern Continent, an 
important fact to be kept in mind. There are 
out of America some structures not found in it, 
but there are none in it that cannot be detected 
somewhere else, either in Europe, North Africa 
or Asia, Polynesia. &c, among the earliest 
Monuments or Ruins, or the rudest structures. 
None of the latest styles and improved Archi 
tecture, such as Colonnades, roofed temples, 
Budhist and Mahometan temples, Gothic or 
Modern Churches, fortifications with large 
towers or bastions are met in America, being 
a convincing proof that all the American struc 
tures were of a previous date, or of an earlier 
style, than these later. 

But even some very ancient Eastern struc 
tures are lacking in America, or only found in a 
modified form. Thus although the Cyclopian 
structures had been denied to America, they 
are not quite lacking ; although their Tyrin- 
thian style, the rudest of huge unshapen blocks 
of stone put together, has not yet been met 
with, the other Cyclopian styles are found of 
rough polygones or irregular squared stones : 
the most common however is of rough flat 
stones put together pretty much as our dry walls 
are to this day by us. 

If we do not exactly find in this Continent, 
the Celtic style of Stonehenge and circles of 
stones scattered from Persia to Scotland, we 
meet several other branches of the Celtic style, 
standing rough pillars, massive altars, circles 
of earth, fortified villages similar to those of Bri- 


AM Lit It A*. 

tain, miscalled Ho man Camps, although no 
such camps are found where the Romans went 
out of Celtica, and the American camps or forts 
are certainly not Roman ! Whether the Celtic 
race ever came to America has been doubted, 
and may be deemed doubtful yet : there are 
two strong arguments against it at least, the 
lack of Monuments like the Stonehenge tem 
ples, and the Celtic structure of Language, or 
regular series of interposed ideas not being 
widely spread in America, and chiefly found in 
Brazil and Florida, where nations of another 
lineage dwelt. Yet it is pretty certain, not 
withstanding that nearly all the writers, omit it 
or deny it, that the old Celts had an intercourse 
of trade in America once, even from Gaul. It 
has lately been discovered by Sir A. Brooke, 
that there are Celtic monuments in Morocco, 
he describes a large mound with a circle of 
stones around. The N. W. of Africa must in 
very early time have been one of the regions 
whence the Atlantes went or came ; this is an 
historical fact, and their posterity yet live in 
Africa from Mount Atlas to Nubia, their lan 
guage have the Celtic and Semetic structure. 
They gave name to the Atlantic Ocean, and 
this name is one of the few <hat have reached 
our times, Africa and Spain once joined, even 
the Berbers have a tradition of it. The same 
Nations filled Lybia and Spain, the Bas-Tules, 
As-Tures of Spain were Tulas, Turas, as in 
Central Asia and Central America ; so were 
also the Tur-tules or Tur-detani, &c. while 
the Cantes of Spain were akin to the Antes of 
Lybia, Hy antes of Greece. The Greeks have 
stated that their Atlantes or Atalantoi were 


formed of the united nations of Atlas and Antoi 
or Anteus. 

Pyramids exactly similar to those of Egypt, 
and pillared temples similar to those of Thebes, 
are not met with in America ; but \\e have 
their equivalent in the pyramidal Teocalis of 
Anahuac, and the temples of Peru, similar to 
the pyramidal temples of Assyria arid India, 
towers in stages like those of Lybia, Syria and 
China, In all cases the materials depend pretty 
much on the localities, and the kind of stones 
or proper materials at hand, although often car 
ried from a distance, and requiring the joint la 
bors of many thousand men during several 

But it has been ascertained that there were 
older inhabitants in the west of Europe, than 
these very Celts, Cantes and Atlantes. The 
Creons a superior race that erected the annual 
monumental pillars of Carnac in Brittany, the 
Cunis or Cynetes, that dvvelt at the S. W. of 
Spain and Portugal, the degraded Vassals or 
outcasts of the Celts called Cacoux, Cahets, 
dunigos, whose posterity is not yet quite ex 
tinct. The Eskuaras now called Basks and 
Gascons, but formerly Cantabrians were the 
Cantas of the river Ebro, they had great affini 
ties of Language with many American nations. 
The Atlantic monuments may be distinctly 
traced from Syria and Greece to Lybia. Moroc 
co, 4c. Immense mounds have been found as 
far South as the river Nun. Of these Atlantes 
their countries, deeds of yore, &c. much has 
been written, and much more remains to be elu 
cidated : they can be traced Eastward as far 
as the very Centre of Asia, once called Turan, 
through Scvthia, in the North and Persia in the 


South, to the utmost verge of Africa and Eu 
rope Westwards. Next to the famed Island 
Atlantis, or rather Megatlantides which was 
America ! the smaller Atlantis seated midway 
between the two continents, has been supposed 
to have sunk when the Volcanos of the Azores, 
Canaries and other African Islands did explode. 

The American Nations connected'with these 
were widely scattered in America, and chiefly 
wherever the earliest monuments were spread, 
even as far as Chili to the South, in Guyana to 
the East under the name of Alures or Atules, 
and Northwards as far as Ohio and Illinois, It 
is easy to trace surprising analogies of Langua 
ges between the early languages of South Eu 
rope and North Africa, with the Chilians, Peru 
vians, Muyzcas, Haytians, Tulansor Tol-tecas, 
&.C., and many other pre-eminent Nations of 
this Continent. 

By the useful process of generalization we 
may collect the following important results con 
cerning our monuments : 1. They are scattered 
all over Amer. from lat. 45d. N. to 45d. S. of the 
Equator, thus occupying 90d. of latitude, which 
is no where else the case. 2. They chiefly oc 
cupy a flexuose belt from our great Lakes to 
Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Quito, Peru and 
Chili. 3. There are few or none in Boreal 
America, the Eastern Shores of it as far as Vir 
ginia, the Western as far as California, nor in 
the Antilles, Guyana, Orinoco, Maragnon, Bra 
zil, Paraguay and Patagonia; although some of 
these regions not having yet been properly ex 
plored may hereafter offer some likewise. 4. 
Those known from our Eastern Shores, the 
Antilles and Brazil are few, and of a peculiar 
character, distinct from the general style of the 


others. In New Hampshire concentric castra- 
mations have been found as in Peru, but not of 
stone nor shaped like stars. In Massachusetts 
inscribed rocks are met with, those of Penn 
sylvania East of the mountains are rude and 
small, and such they are as far as Virginia and 
Carolina. In the Antilles or West Indies, they 
are chiefly caves, temples and tombs. In Bra 
zil we know of but few, but they are of stone 
and peculiar style. 5. Therefore the main 
monuments and structures occupy only one 
half of America or even less, they are mostly 
thickly scattered in the fertile regions near 
rivers, from Ohio to Florida, from Missouri to 
Texas, from Sonora to Honduras, from Bogota 
to Chili, &c. being often on high grounds and 
mountains, table lands and valleys, seldom in 
the low plains. 

Such are the most interesting by number and 
extensive spreading locations. Yet there are 
among them various ages and styles, the Flori- 
dan or North American, the Mexican or Ana- 
huac, the Guatimalan or Tulan, the Peruvian or 
Inca Series, are all somewhat different, min 
gled with others of earlier or various ages in 
Peru the Pucaras or oldest fortified cities in 
a stellate form are of earliest ages, the ruins of 
Tiahuanaco with sculptures of a remote period, 
the ruins of Chimu of another style yet, all dif 
ferent from the style of the Incas. In central 
America, the Cave-temples the fortified cities 
and Palaces and the Teocalis or Pyramids 
and Towers, offer as many eras and styles. 

In North America we have also at least three 
great Eras and styles of monuments, the first or 
most rude, somewhat similar to that of the An 
tilles; excavations, small houses &c. and this* 


although so rude, is found to have lasted till 
very lately, as our log-house style is lasting with 
us along with large stone buildings. 2. A pri 
mitive style using earth and wood or rough 
stones for large and fine structures, temple s, 
^e. 3. The most refined employing cut stores 
and ornaments, &c., rare in the North, but be 
coming more common towards Mexico. 

We may assert in ultimate result that Amer 
ica had no Monuments of Grecian or Roman 
structures, except such as belong to primitive 
Italy and Greece, ascribed to their ancestors 
as a different race the Pelagic, Curetes, Hyan- 
tes, Taulantes, Aones, and other similar old 
tribes or nations, long previous to Roman pow 
er and Grecian refinement, above all no colon 
nades and no baked bricks. None of our mon 
uments were like the best Celtic structures, but 
rather similar to the earliest or ruder Celtic 
Style, if not perhaps previous, such as standing 
or rocking stones, rough pillars and pilasters, 
tumuli and mounds, circular and angular areas 
and temples. None were like the Egyptian 
temples and pyramids, our American pyramids 
being rather in stages, as iu Ethiopia, Assyria, 
India, &c,, or in huge platforms bearing tem 
ples and palaces, as in Balbec and Persepolis, 
but by no means so ornamented, nor with such 
huge stones. None were like the Tyrinthian or 
Titanic style, but rather a modification of it. 
None like the slender pillars and round towers 
of India, Persia, Ireland. None like the modern 
structure of the Christians, Mahometans, Bud- 
hists, Chinese &c., no Gothic or Arabic style, 
nor domes were found. The inference cannot 
trace any of these religions to America by their 
peculiar structures. 


While on the ofher side, we can assert and 
prove that the American monuments were more 
or less alike to. 1, The oldest monuments, 
square and circular platforms of all shapes and 
sizes, some as large as hills or evtfi natural hills 
cut to shapes for altars, or support of temples 
and staged pyramids, <$-c., as are found from 
Celtica and Ireland to France, Spain, Italy, 
Greece, Russia, &c., from Morocco to Senegal, 
Lybia and Abyssinia ; in Asia, from Natolia 
and the Trojan plain, to Syria and Arabia, 
Persia, Media around the Caspian, and even in 
India, Tartary and China ; also, the Morals of 
Polynesia. All of which were the primitive al 
tars of early men or their imitation in later 
times as in China. 2. Or like the Cave temples, 
scattered also from Ireland to India, found in 
Greece, Syria, Egypt, Persia, &c., sometimes 
like the excavated cities of the Troglodyte na 
tions, found in Sicily, Crete, Cyprus, Syria, Ara 
bia, Cabul at Bamiyan, &c. 3d. Or like the 
massive structures of stones of earliest ages,the 
Norajes or Conical towers of Sardinia and the 
Balearic Islands, the angular towers of Lybia, 
&c. imitated in Peru, Brazil, Guatimala,Chiapa 
&c. 4th. Or like the fortified cities of oldest 
ages in Persia, India, Arabia, Turan, $c. imi 
tated in Peru, and Central America, often with 
concentric inclosures or curious shapes, some 
times with arks or citadels or acropolis, as in 
Persia, Greece, Etruria &c. 5th. Or like the 
vast inclosures and sacred areas of temples,with 
peculiar cells or holy recesses, shrines, oracles, 
&c., as in India, China, Thibet, formerly in Sy 
ria, Egypt, Assyria, even like the old temples 
of Mecca and Solomon ; such are found in Peru 
Tunca, Mexic6, North America as far as Mis- 


souri, where most were of wood as were the 
first temples of Solomon, Tyre, Delphos, and 
are yet in China very often. 

Then it is evident that the American Monu 
ments are similar to the oldest and earliest of 
the Eastern Continent, or the modern ones that 
are yet built there on the primitive models. We 
have some late instances of it even in Europe, 
when the huge mound of Waterloo was erected 
after the battle of that name. Grecian build 
ings are often built now in Europe and Amer 
ica, the Gothic style has travelled from Arabia 
to Europe and is not yet quite out of use. The 
national altars of the Celestial Empire at Pekin 
in China are yet exactly similar to those of ear 
liest times, and found in America. 

Architecture and the various styles it has 
employed for monuments, temples, cities &c. 
have undergone several changes and improve 
ments, from the rude imitations of a tent, or 
cottage, or hill, to that of pyramids, towers, pil 
lars, colonnades, caves, norajes, teocalis, &c., 
from irregular inclosures to square, circular, 
octagon forms, from heaps of earth forming 
ditches, canals, to regular walled excavations. 
Styles of building are fluctuating with the Na 
tions and times, taste and religion : some are 
occasionally revived or improved ; yet they 
have a certain duration, location, or age, and 
origin somewhere. Nevertheless they may hap 
pen to be blended by the same people ; our own 
modern civilization admits yet of the tents in 
camps, the loghouse, the shed, the hut, the cot 
tage, the houses of wood, brick or stone, pala 
ces and temples, theatres, Capitols, and negro 
huts ! We must not be surprised to see the 
same incongruity and admixture in various parts 


of America in former times. Many tribes fol 
lowed 300 years ago the style of 3000 years be 
fore, as yet partly done in China. 

Every thing on earth follows the universal 
law of terrestrial mutations, monuments and 
arts, as well as languages and human features! 
they rise and fall like the nations, mingle or 
blend as our modern English nation and lan 
guage formed out of many others. What di 
versity in any one of our cities in complexions, 
statures and features of men ! there are more 
differences between some men of our own race, 
than between negroes, red or white men. 
White, black and bay horses, are not peculiar 
species, nor are men of different hues, hairs, 
eyes, noses, &c. tttocr 

Inscriptions are monuments also, and of the 
highest value, even when we cannot read them. 
Some of these will be hereafter, since those of 
Egypt so long deemed inexplicable, have at last 
found interpreters. So it will be at a future day, 
with those of America. Few have been made 
known as yet, but there are many all over the 
range of the monumental regions. Those sculp 
tured in the temples and palaces of Otolum 
near Palenque, are not the only ones. Several 
in caves, or upon rocks, involve in rude paint 
ing, a symbolic meaning, to which we are ob 
taining a clue. Several nations of North Amer 
ica had a language of signs made or written ; 
although known sometimes to but few, these 
signs or symbols prevailed from Origon to Chili 
or else Quipos as in China, were used as re 
cords, in coloured strings or knots, wampums, 
belts, collars. All these however, appear to be 
long to the first attempt of mankind to perpetu 
ate ideas, they seem to have preceded the al- 


phabets of India, Persia and Europe, or the vo 
cal signs of China, although some of these date 
of the earliest ages. Tula, Oaxaca, Otolum, 
&c., had glyphs or a kind of combined alpha 
bet, where the letters or syllables were blended 
into words, as in our anagrams, and not in se 
rial order. A few traces of Alphabets have, 
however, been found in South America on the 
R. Cauca and elsewhere, which have not yet 
obtained sufficient atteution : that of Cauca 
given by Humboldt, is nearly Pelagic or Etrus 
can; traces of Runic signs were found in Caro 
lina other signs have occasionally been met 
in North America, but neglected. 

Painted symbols or hieroglyphics, or some 
times abridged outlines of them, were used 
chiefly in Anahuac, from Panuco to Panama; 
in North America, from Florida to New Mex 
ico, also in Cuba, Hayti, Yucatan, Bogota, Peru, 
by the Panos, Muyzcas and other nations. 
Those without any means to convey ideas could 
even in America, as in Scythia and Africa, use 
emblems or objects to which a peculiar mean 
ing was applied, and trace rude pictures of 
them on trees or rocks. 

The monuments connected with pictures, 
emblems, hieroglyphics, scattered in caves, on 
rocks, on cliffs above human reach -are very 
curious, and ought to be collected, sought for, 
and explained ; they will all impart historical 
events. The rock of Taunton and a few others, 
have alone exercised the ingenuity of antiqua 
rians, and perhaps to little purpose at yet, since 
the inscription has been ascribed by turns to the 
Phenicians, the Jews, the Atlantes, Norwegians 
or even to our modern tribes. It may not be 
properly understood until all the graphic sys- 


terns of America are studied and explained. 
The late successful attempt of the Cherokis to 
obtain a syllabic alphabet for their language, 
proves that the Americans were not devoid of 
graphic ingenuity. 

But the contents of mounds, graves, caves, 
&c., are also very interesting, affording us a 
clue to their purpose, and the arts of times when 
raised or inhabited. Many kinds of implements, 
ornaments, tools, weapons, vases, &c, have 
been found every where, displaying skill and 
taste. Idols and sculptures have given us the 
features and religious ideas of some nations. 
Astronomical stones and calendars have been 
found, recovered, and lost again, revealing pe 
culiar systems of astronomy and chronology. 
We possess the oomplex calendars of the Tu- 
lans, Mexicans, Chiapans, Muyzcas, Peruvians, 
&c , that of the Talegas of North America, a 
dodecagone with one hundred and forty-four 
parts and hieroglyphics, was found on the banks 
of the Ohio, and has since been lost or hidden. 

Humboldt's labors on American astronomy 
and his results coincide with those on antiquity 
to make the American systems quite different 
from the oriental, Hindu, Jewish, Egyptian, 
Greek, Roman, and Celtic systems of days, 
months, zodiac, and cycles; while they are 
more like those of Thibet, China, Japan, Lybia, 
Etruria, &c. At any rate the American sys 
tems were anterior to the admission of the 
week of seven days, being the fourth of a luna 
tion, each day dedicated to a planet, and the 
Sabatical observance of the Jews based there 
on. The American weeks were of three, five, 
nine, and even thirteen days, as in some parts 
of Asia, and Africa, in Java, Thibet, China, 


Guinea. The week of five days appears the 
most ancient of all and the most natural, includ 
ing exactly seventy-three weeks in the solar 
year, and sixty-nine in the lunar year; that of 
the three days is only the decimal part of a 
month ; in China the long week of fifteen days 
prevails as yet being half a lunation or month. 

Accounts of monuments with dry descriptions 
and measures, are often uninteresting, unless 
with figures and explanations to illustrate their 
nature and designs. The writer having him 
self surveyed many American sites of ancient 
.cities, may hereafter describe and explain some 
of them, with or without figures. He has also 
collected accounts of similar monuments all 
over the earth, and will be able to elucidate 
thereby our own monuments. Meantime who 
ever wishes to become acquainted with such as 
have been made known in the United States 
alone, must consult a host of writers who have 
described a few, such as Soto, Charlevoix, Bar 
ton, Belknap, Lewis, CrevecoEiir, Clinton, At- 
water, Brekenridge,Nuttal, McCulloh, Bartram, 
Priest, Beck, Madison, James, Schoolcraft, 
Keating, &c-; and in the appendix to the An 
cient History of Kentucky will be found my cata 
logue made in 1824. Such study in then a task, 
and requires the amending hand of a careful 
compiler at least, before we can even obtain the 
complete knowledge of what has been done with 
us already on this historical subject. 

Philadelphia, September -, 1838. 


1. The Mexican Antiquities have lately been 
illustrated in many splendid works, by Aglio, 
Kingsborough, Dupaix, Baraden, St. Priest, 
Nebel, Icaza, Gondra, Waldeck &c. In a 
clever review of these works (in the foreign re 
view) it is distinctly asserted Jhat the Tul-tecas 
(people of Tul,) or American Atlantes, were 
quite a different people from the Later Mexi 
can tribes, that their monuments are equal in 
interest to those of Egypt and Syria, with co 
lossal and even Cyclopian structures---which 
agrees with my former statements, and I have 
traced them in America from Missouri to Chi* 
li, but their central seats and empires were 
from Mexico to Quito. Their great temple at 
Otolum near Palenque was equal to Solomon's 
temple. Their mythology was quite peculiar 
and Asiatic, their maindeity was Hun-aku (first 
cause) comparable to Anuki the Syrian Cybele, 
their Astronomy was antediluvian, the year of 
360 days or 18 months of 20 days. 

2. The first monuments of the United States 
may be ascribed to the Talegas* a northern 
branch of these Atlantes. The oldest monu 
ments of Peru long before the Incas with those 
of Brazil and Oronoco are related thereto, and 
were erected by their Southern tribes, the Atu- 
les and Talahets. 

3. In a late work of Harcourt (1838) all these 
ancient monuments of America, Africa, Europe 
and Asia, are ascribed to the Arkites saved at 
the flood of Noah ; which was also the previous 
opinion of M'culloh in his American researches, 
But some Antiquaries are yet seeking in Amer- 
ea traces of the Adamites. 


4. The Tulawas and Telingas nations and 
languages of Decan of Southern India, are pro 
bably of Atlantic or Tulanic (Syn. of Turan or 
Tartary) descent; and these nations sent co 
lonies furher east in early times to Polynesia 
and perhaps as far as America! yet the bulk of 
Oceanic population from Madagascar to Japan 
and Australia is of Hamite descent, by the 
regular structure of all the languages ; while 
this seldom happens in America as in China 
and Tartary. 

5. The late attempts of tracing analogies of 
origin and descent between the Chinese and 
Polynesian Nations, are quite vain. The Chi 
nese Nations are evidently Asiatic and primi 
tive akin to the Tartars and Turks (the modern 
Turans,) their language have the same inverse 
position, and monosylabic structure. The idea 
of Harcourt to^eem the Chinese the real Sem- 
etic stock of Languages, is worthy of enquiry. 
He -has proved that the Obri (Hebrpw) was in 
reality a Hamite language, the posterity of 
Abraham having adopted a dialect of the Acuri 
(Assyrian) and Xnoni (Canaanit;) but the 
Arabic languages and nations, so akin thereto 
must then also be Hamites ! and the old Ara 
bians alone were Semites. 

5. Meantime the Turanic or Japhetic nations 
and languages (IFH meaning widely spread \9 
our Japhet) should be the real Turans and At- 
lantes, including the Medians,Caucasians,Hin- 
dus, Pelagians,Thracians, Slavonians,Goths,and 
nearly two thirds of the American Nations, the 
most civilized and powerful of them. But it ap 
pears to me that the Celts and Cantabrians 
were like the Etruscans and Phenicians of Ha 
mite Origin. It is strange that all the brown 


0r black nations of Africa, Asia and Oceania 
are also of similar descent. 

7. In my work on the Ancient American Na 
tions, may be seen which were the oldest or 
earliest in America, and to which other nations 
elsewhere they are most intimately connected. 
I have proved that two great nations of America 
the Aruac including the Haytians and tribes 
from Florida to Patagonia, with the Sekeh or 
old Chilians, having branches from Chili to 
Brazil; were certainly very akin in language 
with the ancient Greeks and Italians and Span 
iards, or rather their ancestors the Pelagic, 
Oscan and Cantabrian Nations. 

8. The American Atlantes of North America 
(Talegas) the Tols and Chontals of Anahuac 
and Central America, the Muyzcas of Tunca 
and Peru ; with the ancient Peruvians of mixt 
origin, were certainly the most civilized nations 
of this continent, as their monuments prove it, 
and their languages are of Japhetic or Turanic 
structure, having their major affinities in Cen 
tral Asia,the Caucasus,the Illyrians, Slavonians 
&c ; but some also with the African Atlantes 
or ancient and modern Lybians, Getulians, 
Shellus 4* c ' 

9. The Guarani group of languages and na 
tions in South America was most widely spread 
from Guyana to Paraguay, and all over Brazil. 
It is quite monosyllabic, with the Hamite or 
African structure, having its affinities all over 
Africa, where hardly any except the Qua or 
Hottentot nation are of Chinese ? or Turanic 
descent by structure of speech. 

10. In North America, 4 widely different 
stocks of nations had the Hamite structure, the 
Floridia including Chactas, the Wdkons or 


Missourians, the Ongwis or Iroquois, and the 
Uskimas or Esquimaux spread across the whole 
or Boreal America. This last stock is evident 
ly akin to the Northern Asiatic Hamites such 
as the Fins, Slaves, Chudis, Ostiaks $c. The 
Wakons and Ongwis appear also Asiatic, akin 
to the Tonguz and other Northern Tartars; 
but the Chactas with the Natchez, Seminoles 
and akin tribes appear of Eastern descent, and 
find their parents in North Africa. 

11. In my work on Historical Palingenesy or 
the restoration of ancient nations and languages 
presumed lost, I have been able to restore many 
of all the parts of the world (but chiefly Ameri 
ca and Europe) in the same manner as I once 
did for the Haytian nation and language,where- 
by many historical links will be evolved and 
traced. My process is similar to that of Cuvier 
and the modern Paleontologists, who restore ex 
tinct animals by fragments of their bones. I 
do the same with extinct languages by frag 
ments of their words and elements, discovered 
and put together. 

12. In result the monumental evidences com 
bine with the philological to descry and ascer 
tain whatever is obscure in Ancient History. 
By their mutual help and accordance, with the 
use of acurate comparisons in both Hemisphe 
res, we shall certainly be enabled to advance 
the Archeol6gical and Historical knowledge of 
Yore, beyond our most sanguine expectation. 
The path is open and becoming easy to pursue; 
much therefore will be achieved by following 
the comparative process and discarding all the 
conjectural systems. 

, .