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Full text of "Ancient pagan and modern Christian symbolism. With an essay on Baal worship, on the Assyrian sacred "grove" and other allied symbols by John Newton"

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THE woodcuts in the present volume originally appeared in a 
large work, in two thick volumes, entitled Ancient Faiths 
embodied in Ancient Names. It has been suggested to me 
by many, that a collection of these Figures, and their explana 
tion, are more likely to be generally examined than a very 
voluminous book. The one is, as it were, an alphabet; 
the other, an essay. The one opens the eyes; the other 
gives them opportunities to use their vision. The one 
teaches to read ; the other affords means for practice. As the 
larger work endeavours to demonstrate the existence of a 
state of things almost unknown to the British public, so it is 
necessary to furnish overwhelming proof that the allegations 
and accusations made against certain nations of antiquity, 
and some doctrines of Christianity, are substantially true. 
Consequently, the number of witnesses is greater than is 
absolutely necessary to prove the point. 

July, 1869. 


THE demand which has sprung up for this work has induced 
the Author to make it more complete than it was originally. 
But it could not be made perfect without being expanded 
into a volume whose size would be incompatible with cheap 
ness. When every Figure would supply a text for a long 
discourse, a close attention is required lest a description 
should be developed into a dissertation. 

In this work, the Author is obliged to confine himself to 
the explanation of symbols, and cannot launch out into 
ancient and modern faiths, except in so far as they are 
typified by the use of certain conventional signs. 

A great many who peruse a book like this for the first 
time, and find how strange were the ideas which for some 
thousands of years permeated the religious opinions of the 
civilised world, might naturally consider that the Author is a 
mere visionary one who is possessed of a hobby that he 
rides to death. Such a notion is strengthened by finding 
that there is scarcely any subject treated of except the one 
which associates religion, a matter of the highest aim to 
man, with ideas of the most intensely earthly kind. But 
a thoughtful reader will readily discern that an essay on 
Symbolism must be confined to visible emblems. By no 


fair means can an author who makes the crucifix his text 
introduce the subject of the Confessional, the Eucharist, or 
Extreme Unction. Nor can one, who knows that Buddha 
and Jesus alike inaugurated a faith which was unmarked by 
visible symbolism, bring into an interpretation of emblems a 
comparison between the preaching of two such distinguished 
men. In like manner, the Author is obliged to pass over 
the difference between Judaism, Christianity as propounded 
by the son of Mary, and that which passes current for 
Christianity in Rome and most countries of Europe. 

All these* points, and many more, have been somewhat 
fully discussed in the Author s larger work, so often referred 
to in this, and to that he must refer the curious. The 
following pages are simply a chapter taken from a book, 
complete perhaps in itself, but only as a brick may be 
perfect, without giving to an individual any idea of the size, 
style, or architecture of the house from which it has been 
taken. If readers will regard these pages as a beam in 
a building, the Author will be content. 



August, 1874. 


IT may, we think, be taken for granted, that nothing is, 
or has ever been, adopted into the service of Religion, 
without a definite purpose. If it be supposed that a religion 
is built upon the foundation of a distinct revelation from the 
Almighty, as the Hebrew is said to be, there is a full belief 
that every emblem, rite, ceremony, dress, symbol, etc., has 
a special signification. Many earnest Christians, indeed, see 
in Judaic ordinances a reference to Jesus of Nazareth. I 
have, for example, heard a pious man assert that " leprosy" 
was only another word for " sin " ; but he was greatly 
staggered in this belief when I pointed out to him that if 
a person s whole body was affected he was no longer unclean 
(Lev. xiii. 13), which seemed on the proposed hypothesis to 
demonstrate that when a sinner was as black as hell he 
was the equal of a saint. According to such an interpreter, 
the paschal lamb is a type of Jesus, and consequently all 
whom his blood sprinkles are blocks of wood, lintels, and 
side-posts (Exod. xii. 22, 23). By the same style of meta 
phorical reasoning, Jesus was typified by the "scape-goat," 
and the proof is clear, for one was driven away into the 
wilderness, and the other voluntarily went there one to 
be destroyed, the other to be tempted by the devil ! Hence 
we infer that there is nothing repugnant to the minds of the 
pious in an examination respecting the use of symbols, and 
into that which is shadowed forth by them. What has 
been done for Judaism may be attempted for other forms of 


As the Hebrews and Christians believe their religion 

to be God-given, so other nations, having a different 

theology, regard their own peculiar tenets. Though we may, 

with that unreasoning prejudice and blind bigotry which are 

common to the Briton and the Spaniard, and pre-eminently 

so to the mass of Irish and Scotchmen amongst ourselves, 

and to the Carlists in the peninsula, disbelieve a heathen 

pretension to a divine revelation, we cannot doubt that the 

symbols, etc., of Paganism have a meaning, and that it is as 

lawful to scrutinise the mysteries which they enfold as it is 

to speculate upon the Urim and Thummim of the Jews. 

Yet, even this freedom has, by some, been denied ; for there 

are a few amongst us who adhere rigidly to the precept 

addressed to the followers of Moses, viz., " Take heed that 

thou enquire not after their gods, saying, How did these 

nations serve their gods ? " (Deut. xii. 30.) The intention 

of the prohibition thus enunciated is well marked in the 

following words, 1 which indicate that the writer believed that 

the adoption of heathen gods would follow inquiry respecting 

them. It is not now-a-days feared that we may become 

Mahometans if we read the Koran, or Buddhists if we study 

the Dhammapada ; but there are priests who fear that an 

inquiry into ecclesiastical matters may make their followers 

Papists, Protestants, Wesleyans, Baptists, Unitarians, or 

some other religion which the Presbytery object to. The 

dislike of inquiry ever attends those who profess a religion 

which is believed or known to be weak. 

The philosopher of the present day, being freed from the 
shackles once riveted around him by a dominant hierarchy, 
may regard the precept in Deuteronomy in another light. 
Seeing that the same symbolism is common to many forms of 
religion, professed in countries widely apart both as regards 
time and space, he thinks that the danger of inquiry into 

1 " even so will I do likewise. " 


faiths is not the adoption of foreign, but the relinquishment 
of present methods of religious belief. When we see the 
same ideas promulgated as divine truth, on the ancient banks 
of the Ganges, and the modern shores of the Mediterranean, 
we are constrained to admit that they have something com 
mon in their source. They may be the result of celestial 
revelation, or they may all alike emanate from human 
ingenuity. As men invent new forms of religion now, there 
is a presumption that others may have done so formerly. As 
all men are essentially human, so we may believe that their 
inventions will be characterised by the virtues and the fail 
ings of humanity. Again, experience tells us that similarity 
in thought involves similarity in action. Two sportsmen, 
seeing a hare run off from between them, will fire at it 
so simultaneously that each is unaware that the other shot. 

SO a vfiHP.h1fl.rifl_fo ypligrinng holiftf W JH p.yftnt.imt.ft in t.TlP 

selection of analogous symboljsm. 

We search into emblems with an intention different from 
that with which we inquire into ordinary language. The 
last tells us of the relationship of nations upon Earth, the 
first of the probable connections of mankind with Heaven. 
The devout Christian believes that all who venerate the Cross 
may hope for a happy eternity, without ever dreaming that 
the sign of His faith is as ancient as Homeric Troy7"and was 
used by the Phoenicians probably before the Jews had any 
existence as a people ; whilst an equally pious Mahometan 
regards the Crescent as the passport to the realms of bliss, 
without a thought that the symbol was in use long before the 
Prophet of Allah was born, and amongst those nations which 
it was the Prophet s mission to convert or to destroy. 
Letters and words^mark the ordinary current of man s 
thought, whilsTreligious symbols jhow the nature of his 
aspirations. But all have this in common, viz., that they 
may be misunderstood. Many a Brahmin has uttered 

prayers in a language to him unintelligible ; and many 
a Christian uses words in his devotions of which he never 
seeks to know the meaning. " Om manee pani," " Om 
manee padme houm," "Amen," and " Ave Maria purissima " 
may fairly be placed in the same category. In like manner, 
the signification of an emblem may be unknown. The 
antiquary finds in Lycian coins, and in Aztec ruins, figures 
for which he can frame no meaning; whilst the ordinary 
church-goer also sees, in his place of worship, designs of 
which none can give him a rational explanation. Agam,_we 
find that a language may find professed interpreters, whose 
system of exposition is wholly wrong ; and the same may be 
saidjiLjgymbols. I have seen, for example, three distinctly 
different interpretations given to one Assyrian inscription, 
and have heard as many opposite explanations of a particu 
lar figure, all of which have been incorrect. 

In the interpretation of unknown languages and symbols, 
the observer gladly allows that much may be wrong ; but this 
does not prevent him believing that some may be right. In 
giving his judgment, he will examine as closely as he can 
into the system adopted by each inquirer, the amount of 
materials at his disposal, and, generally, the acumen which 
has been brought to the task. Perhaps, in an investigation 
such as we describe, the most important ingredient is care in 
collation and comparison. But a scholar can only collate 
satisfactorily when he has sufficient means, and these 
demand much time and research. The labour requires more 
time than ordinary working folk can command, and more 
patience than those who have leisure are generally disposed 
to give. Unquestionably, we have as yet had few attempts in 
England to classify and explain ancient and modern symbols. 
It is perhaps not strictly true that there has been so much a 
laxity in the research, of which we here speak, as a dread of 
making public the results of inquiry. Investigators, as a 


rule, have a respect for their own prejudices, and dislike 
to make known to others a knowledge which has brought 
pain to their own minds. Like the Brahmin of the story, 
they will destroy a fine microscope rather than permit their 
co-religionists to know that they drink living creatures in 
their water, or eat mites in their fruit. The motto of such 
people is, "If truth is disagreeable, cling to error." 

The following attempts to explain much of ancient and 
modern symbolism can only be regarded as tentative. The 
various devices contained herein seem to me to support the 
views which I have been led to form from other sources, by a 
careful inquiry into the signification of ancient names,- and 
the examination of ancient faiths. The figures were ori 
ginally intended as corroborative of evidence drawn from 
numerous ancient and modern writings; and the idea of 
collecting them, and, as it were, making them speak for 
themselves, has been an after-thought. In the following 
pages I have simply reprinted the figures, etc., which appear 
in Ancient Faiths embodied in Ancient Names (second 
edition). I make no attempt to exhaust the subject. There 
are hundreds of emblems which find herein no place ; and 
there are explanations of symbols current to which I make 
no reference, for they are simply exoteric. 

For the benefit of many of my readers, I must explain 
the meaning of the last word italicised. In_ most^ifjiot in 
all, forms of reliimij there ar Q t Qr>n tff nr 

to the vulgar, and only given to a select few under the 
of secrecy. A similar reticence exists in common life. 
There are secrets kept from children, for example, that are 
commonly known to all parents ; there are arcana, familiar 
to doctors, of which patients have no idea. For example, 
when a lad innocently asks the family surgeon, or his parent, 
^vhere the last new baby came from, he is put off with 
a reply, wide of the mark, yet sufficient for him. When I 

s * 


put such a question to the maids in the kitchen, to which 
place for a time I was relegated, the first answer was that the 
baby came from the parsley bed. On hearing this, I went 
into the garden, and, finding the bed had been unmoved, 
came back and reproached my informant for falsehood. 
Another then took up the word, and said it was the carrot 
bed which the baby came from. As a roar of laughter 
followed this remark, I felt that I was being cheated, and 
asked no more questions. Then I could not, now I can, 
understand the esoteric sense of the sayings. They had 
to the servants two distinct significations. The only one 
which I could then comprehend was exoteric; that which 
was known to my elders was the esoteric meaning. In 
what is called "religion" there has been a similar distinc 
tion. We see this, not only in the "mysteries" of Greece 
and Rome, but amongst the Jews; Esdras stating the follow 
ing as a command from God, " Some things shalt thou pub 
lish, and some things shalt thou show_secretlj to the wise " 
(2 Esdras xv. 26). 

When there exist two distinct explanations, or state 
ments, about the signification of an emblem, the one 
"esoteric," true, and known only to the few, the other 
"exoteric/ incorrect, and known to the many, it is clear 
that a time may come when the first may be lost, and 
the last alone remain. As an illustration, we can point to 
the original and correct pronunciation of the word nin% 
commonly pronounced Jehovah. Known only to a select 
few, it became lost when these died without imparting it; 
yet what is considered to be the incorrect method of pro 
nouncing the word survives until to-day.* 

* It is supposed by some that Jahveh is the proper pronunciation of this 
word, but as the first letter may represent i, ja, ya, or e, and the third u, v, 
or o, whilst the second and fourth are the soft h, one may read the word Jhuh. 
analogous to the Ju in Jupiter; Jehu, the name of a king of Israel; Yahu as 
it is read on Assyrian inscriptions ; JeJio, as in Jehoshaphat ; Ehoh, analogous to 


We may fairly assume that, when two such meanings 
exist, they are not identical, and that the one most com 
monly received is not the correct one. But when one alone 
is known to exist, it becomes a question whether another 
should be sought. If, it may be asked, the common people 
are contented with a fable, believing it true, why seek to 
enlighten them upon its hidden meaning ? To show the 
bearing of this subject, let us notice what has always struck 
me as remarkable. The second commandment declares to 
the Jews, "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven 
image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, 
or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under 
the earth ; thou shalt not bow down thyself to them," etc. 
(Exod. xx. 4). Yet we find, in Numbers xxi., that Jehovah 
ordered Moses to frame a brazen serpent, whose power was 
so miraculous that those who only looked at it were cured of 
the evils inflicted by thanatoid snakes. 

Then again, in the temple of the God who is reported 
to have thus spoken, and who is also said to have declared 
that He would dwell in the house that Solomon made 
for Him, an ark, or box, was worshipped, and over it 
Cherubim were seen. These were likenesses of something, 
and the first was worshipped. We find it described as 
being so sacred that death once followed a profane touching 
of it (2 Sam. vi. 6, 7), and no fewer than 50,070 people were 
done to death at Bethshemesh because somebody had ven 
tured to look inside the box, and had tried to search into 
the mystery contained therein (1 Sam. vi. 19). It is curious 

the Evoe or Euoe associated with Bacchus ; and Jaho, analogous to the J. A. O. 
of the Gnostics. The Greek "Fathers" give the word as if equivalent to yave, 
yaoh, yeho, and iao. 

But the question is not how the word may be pronounced, but how it was 
expressed in sound when used in religion by the Hebrew and other Semitic 
nations, amongst whom it was a sacred secret, or ineffable name, not lightly 
to be " taken in vain." 


that the Philistines, who must have touched the box to put 
ffoeir strange offerings beside it (see 1 Sam. vi. 8), were not 
particularly bothered. They were "profane"; and priests 
only invent stories, which are applicable to the arcana which 
they use in worship, to blind the eyes of and give a holy 
horror to the people whom they govern. How David wor 
shipped the ark as being the representative of God we see in 
2 Sam. vi. 14, 16, 17, 21. 

The ark of the covenant was indeed regarded by the Jews 
much as a saint s toe-nail, a crucifix, an image of the Virgin, 
a bit of wood, or a rusty old nail is by the Roman Catholics. 
So flagrant an apparent breach of the second commandment 
was covered for the common Hebrews by the assertion that 
the mysterious box was a token of God s covenant with His 
people ; but that this statement was " exoteric," we feel sure, 
when we find a similar ark existing and used in " the myste 
ries" of Egypt and Greece, amongst people who probably 
never heard of Jews, and could by no chance know what 
passed in the Hebrew temple. 

When become dissatisfied with a statement, which is 
evidently intended to be a blind, some individuals naturally 
endeavour to ascertain what is behind the curtain. In this 
they resemble the brave boy, who rushes upon a sheet and 
turnip lantern, which has imposed upon his companions and 
passed for a ghost. What is a bugbear to the many is often 
a contemptible reptile to the few. Yet there are a great 
number who would rather run from a phantom night after 
night than grapple with it once, and would dissuade others 
from being bold enough to encounter it. Nevertheless, even 
the former rejoice when the cheat is exposed. 

As when, by some courageous hand, that which has been 
mistaken by hundreds for a spectre has been demonstrated to 
be a crafty man, no one would endeavour to demonstrate the 
reality of ghosts by referring to the many scores of men 


of all ranks who had been duped by the apparition thus 
detected ; so, in like manner, when the falsehood of an 
exoteric story is exhibited, it is no argument in its favour 
that the vulgar in thousands and many a wise man have 
believed it. Speaking metaphorically, we have many such 
ghosts amongst ourselves ; phantoms, which pass for power 
ful giants, but are in reality perfect shams. Such we may 
describe by comparing them to the apocryphal vampires. It 
is to me a melancholy thinff to contemplata the manner 
in which mankinfl frfliYflj in pypry affi find Tinitifrnj mnidn for 

foUfoflr at them. We 

deride the African, who manufacturesa~Fetish, and then 
trembles at its power, but the learned know perfectly well 
that men made the devil, whom the pious fear, just as a 
negro dreads Mumbo Jumbo. 

In the fictitious narratives which passed for truth in the 
dark ages of Christianity, there were accounts of individuals 
who died and were buried, and who, after a brief repose in 
the tomb, rose again. Some imagined that the resusci 
tated being was the identical one who had been interred. 
Others believed that some evil spirit had appropriated the 
body, and restored to it apparent vitality. Whatever the fiction 
was, the statement remained unchallenged, that some dead 
folk returned to earth, having the same guise as when they 
quitted it. We believe that a^ PITH i 1 P v nn r " ",p has taken 
place in religion. Heathendom died, andwas buried ; yet, 
after a brief interval, it fOse a^aln~lromjtfl t.nh. But, 

unlike the vampire, it. garb waa ^VmngA^ ?n/] j 
not recogm sed.^_It_rnoved through Christendom in a seduc- 
tiyejlress! iTiTwere a devil, yet its clothing was that of a 
sheep ; if a wolf, it wore broadcloth. If it ravened, the 
victims were not pitied. Heathenism, by which I mean the 
manners, morals and rites prevalent in pagan times or 
countries, like a resuscitated vampire, once bore rule through- 


out Christendom, in which term is included all those parts 
where Christian baptism is used by all the people, or the 
vast majority. In most parts it still reigns supreme. 

When vampires were discovered by the acumen of any 
observer, they were, we are told, ignominiously killed, by a 
stake being driven through the body ; but experience showed 
them to have such tenacity of life that they rose again, 
and again, notwithstanding renewed impalement, and were 
not ultimately laid to rest till wholly burnt. In like manner, 
the regenerated Heathendom, which dominates over the fol 
lowers of Jesus of Nazareth, has risen again and again, after 
being transfixed. Still cherished by the many, it is 
denounced by the few. Amongst other accusers, I raise my 
voice against the Paganism which exists so extensively 
in ecclesiastical Christianity, and will do my utmost to 
expose the imposture. 

In a vampire story, told in Thalaba, by Southey, the 
resuscitated being takes the form of a dearly beloved maiden, 
and the hero is obliged to kill her with his own hand. He 
does so ; but, whilst he strikes the form of the loved one, he 
feels sure that he slays only a demon. In like manner, 
when I endeavour to destroy the current Heathenism, which 
has assumed the garb of Christianity, I do not attack real 
religion. Few would accuse a workman of malignancy who 
cleanses from filth the surface of a noble statue. There 
may be some who are too nice to touch a nasty subject; 
yet even they will rejoice when some one else removes 
the dirt. Such a scavenger is much wanted. 

If I were to assert, as a general proposition, that religion 
does not require any symbolism, I should probably win 
assent from every true Scotch Presbyterian, every Wesleyan, 
and every Independent. Yet I should be opposed by every 
Papist, and by most Anglican Churchmen. But why ? Is 
it not because their ecclesiastics have adopted symbolism into 


their churches and into their ritual ? They have broken the 
second commandment of Jehovah, and refuse to see anything 
wrong in their practice or gross in their imagery. But they 
adopt Jehovah rather than Elohim, and break the command 
ments, said to be given upon Sinai, in good company. 

The reader of the following pages will probably feel more 
interest therein if he has some clue whereby he may guide 
himself through their labyrinth. 

From the earliest known times there seems to have been 
in every civilised nation the idea of an unseen power. In 
the speculations of thoughtful minds a necessity is recog 
nised for the existence of a Being who made all things who 
is at times beneficent, sending rain and warmth, and who at 
others sends storm, plague, famine, and war. After the 
crude idea has taken possession of the thoughts, there has 
been a desire to know something more of this Creator, and 
an examination into the works of Nature has been made 
with the view to ascertain the will and designs of the 
Supreme. In every^ country this great ONE has been sup 
posed to inhabit the heaven above us, and consequently all 
celestiaF phenomena have been noticed carefully. But the 
mind soon got weary of contemplating about an essence, and, 
contenting itself with the belief that there was a POWER, 
began to investigate the nature of His ministers. These, 
amongst the Aryans, were the sun, fire, storm, wind, the 
sky, the day, night, etc. An intoxicating drink, too, was 
regarded as an emanation from the Supreme. With this 
form of belief men lived as they had done ere it existed, and 
in their relations with each other may be compared to such 
high class animals as elephants. Men can live peaceably 
together without religion, just as do the bisons, buffaloes, 
antelopes, and even wolves. The assumption that some 
form of faith is absolutely a necessity for man is only 



founded on the fancies of some religious fanatics who know 
little of the world.* 

But as there is variety in the workings of the human 
mind, so there were differences in the way wherein the 
religious idea was carried out. Some regarded the sun and 

* Whilst these sheets were passing through the press, there appeared a work, 
published anonymously, hut reported to he by one of the most esteemed theologians 
who ever sat upon an episcopal bench. It is entitled Supernatural Religion. 
London : Longmans, 1874. From it we quote the following, vol. ii., p. 489: 

" We gain infinitely more than we lose in abandoning belief in the reality of 
Divine Revelation. Whilst we retain pure and unimpaired the treasure of Christian 
Morality, we relinquish nothing but the debasing elements added to it by human 
superstition. We are no longer bound to believe a theology which outrages reason 
and moral sense. We are freed from base anthropomorphic views of God and His 
government of the universe ; and from Jewish Mythology we rise to higher con 
ceptions of an infinitely wise and beneficent Being, hidden from our finite minds, 
it is true, in the impenetrable glory of Divinity, but whose Laws of wondrous 
comprehensiveness and perfection we ever perceive in operation around us. We are 
no longer disturbed by visions of fitful interference with the order of Nature, but we 
recognise that the Being who regulates the universe is without variableness or 
shadow of turning. It is singular how little there is in the supposed Revelation of 
alleged information, however incredible, regarding that which is beyond the limits of 
human thought, but that little is of a character which reason declares to be the 
wildest delusion. Let no man whose belief in the reality of a Divine Revelation 
may be destroyed by such an inquiry complain that he has lost a precious posses 
sion, and that nothing is left but a blank. The Revelation not being a reality, that 
which he has lost was but an illusion, and that which is left is the Truth. If he be 
content with illusions, he will speedily be consoled ; if he be a lover only of truth, 
instead of a blank, he will recognise that the reality before him is full of great 

" If we know iQsa^thanwp, have supposed of man s destiny, we may at least 
rejoice Hiat we arejio^longer compelled to^55lteTe^Ttot which is Hrlwgrthy. The : 
limits of. thfltigTiFonce attained, we may well be unmoved in tBe^assurance that 
all that w | do know of the regulation of the universe being so perfect and wise, all 
that we do not know must be equally so. Here enters the true and noble Faith 
which is the child of reason. If we have believed a system, the details of which 
must at one time or another have shocked the mind of every intelligent man, and 
believed it simply because it was supposed to be revealed, we may equally believe in 
the wisdom and goodness of what is not revealed. The mere act of communication 
to us is nothing: Faith in the perfect ordering of all things is independent of 

" The argumenJL" often employed irj^TlieolOgtairB thaT^^MnSTRevelation is 
necessary for man, and that certain views contained in that Revelation are required 
^ by our moral .con8ciouBne88,jsjmrely imaginary, and derived iram^HrrrTfevftlafirm 
V ^whickit-eeeks-t^Tn ft"^^" ^T^-"" 1 ^ +*"" "V^vi^ly necessary for man is Truth 
andto that, and that alone, must our moral consciousness adapt itself." 


moon, the constellations and the planets, as ministers of the 
unseen ONE, and, reasoning from what was known to what 
was unknown, argued thus : " Throughout nature there 
seems to be a dualism. In the sky there are a sun and moon ; 
there are also sun and earth, earth and sea. In every set of 
animals there are males and females." An inquiry into the 
influence of the sun brought out the facts that by themselves 
its beams were destructive ; they were only beneficent when 
the earth was moist with rain. As the rain from heaven, 
then, caused things on earth to grow, it was natural that the 
main source of light and heat should be regarded as a male, 
and the earth as a female. Asj^alej_the_sun was supposed 
to have the emblems of virility, and a aponaa whnm he 
ho. thereby became- fertile. 

In examining ancient Jewish, Phoenician, and other 
Shemitic cognomens, I found that they consisted of a divine 
name and some attribute of the deity, and that the last was 
generally referrible equally to THE SUPREME, to the Sun, as 
a god, and to the masculine emblem. If the deity was a 
female, the name of her votary contained a reference to the 
moonjind the beauties or functions of women. The higher 
ideas of the Creator were held only by a few, the many 
adopted a lower and more debased view. In this manner 
the sun became a chief god and the moon his partner, and 
the former being supposed to be male and the latter female, 
both became associated with the ideas which all have of 
terrestrial animals. Consequently the solar deitv was asso 
ciated in symbolism with masculine and the moon with 
feniinine emblems. 

An inquiry into antiquity, as represented by Babylonians, 
Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Greeks, Etrus 
cans, Romans, and others, and into modern faiths still cur 
rent, as represented in the peninsula of India, in the 
Lebanon, and elsewhere, shows fVmj^TJAng nf P A X h RiYP beep 


very generally a&aacJBtejlwith^^ God has 

been described as a king, or as a queen, or as both united. 
As monarch, he is supposed to be man, or woman, or both. 
As man differs from woman in certain peculiarities, these 
very means of distinction have been incorporated into the 
worship of god and goddess. Rival sects have been ranged 
in ancient times under the symbol of the T an ^ the Q> as 
in later times they are under the cross and the crescent. 
^ with 

that of God the Mother, and the.:sa^ie_sjpJLm^ 
have worn badges characteristic of the sex of their deity. 
An illustration of this is to be seen amongst ourselves ; one 
sect of Christians adoring chiefly the Trinity, another reve 
rencing the Virgin. There is a well-known picture, indeed, 
of Mary worshipping her infant ; and to the former is given 
the title Mater Creatoris, " the mother of the Creator." Our 
sexual sections are as well marked as those in ancient Jeru 
salem, which swore by Jehovah and Ashtoreth respectively. 
The idea of sexuality in religion is quite compatible with 
a ritual and practice of an elaborate character, and a depth of 
piety which prefers starvation to impurity, or, as the Bible 
has it, to uncleanness. To eat "with the blood" was 
amongst the Hebrews a crime worthy of death ; to eat with 
unwashed hands was a dreadful offence in the eyes of the 
Pharisees of Jerusalem ; and in the recent famine in Bengal, 
we have seen that individuals would rather die of absolute 
hunger, and allow their children to perish too, than eat 
bread or rice which may have been touched by profane 
hands, or drink milk that had been expressed by British 
milkmaids from cows udders. Yet these same Hindoos, the 
very particular sect of the Brahmins, have amongst them 
selves a form of worship which to our ideas is incompatible 
with real religion. The folks referred to adore the Creator, 
and respect their ceremonial law even more deeply, than did 


the Hebrews after the time of the Babylonish captivity ; but 
they have a secret cult in which and in the most matter-of- 
fact way they pay a very practical homage to one or 
other of the parts which is thought by the worshipper to be 
a mundane emblem of the Creator. 

The curious will find in Essays on the Religion of the 
Hindus, by H. H. Wilson, in the Dabistan, translated by 
Shea and Troyer (Allen and Co., London), 3 vols., 8vo., and 
in Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of London 
(Triibner and Co.), vols. 1 and 2, much information on the 
method of conducting the worship referred to. The first 
named author thinks it advisable to leave the Brahminic 
rubric" for the "Sakti Sodhana," for the most part under 
the veil of the original Sanscrit, and I am not disposed wholly 
to withdraw it. 

But Christians are not pure ; some of my readers may 
have seen a work written by an Italian lady of high birth, 
who was in early life forced into a nunnery, and who left it 
as soon as she had a chance. In her account she tells 
us how the women in the monastery were seduced by reve 
rend Fathers, who were at one time the instruments of vice, 
at another the guides to penitence. Their practice was 
to instruct their victims that whatever was said or done must 
be accompanied by a pious sentence. Thus, "I love you 
dearly" was a profane expression; but "I desire your 
company in the name of Jesus," and " I embrace in you the 
Holy Virgin," were orthodox. In like manner, the Hindus 
have prayers prescribed for their use, when the parts are to 
be purified prior to proceeding to extremities, when they are 
introduced to each other, in the agitation which follows, and 
when the ceremony is completed. Everything is done, as 
Ritualists would say, decently and in order ; and a pious 
orgie, sanctified by pray^yR, rmnt ^ w ^rsf _ than the 

penance ordained by some " confessors" to those faithful 


damsels whose minds are plastic enough to believe that 
a priest is an embodiment of the Holy Ghost, and that they 
become assimilated to t.Vip, Hl^a&ad^Yirgiiijwben they are over 
shadowed by the power of the. Highest (Luke i. 35). 

There being, then, in "religion" a strong sensual 
element, ingenuity has been exercised to a wonderful extent 
in the contrivance of designs, nearly or remotely significant 
of this idea, or rather union of the conceptions to which we 
have referred. Jupiter is a Proteus in form ; now a man, 
now a bull, now a swan, now an androgyne. Juno, or her 
equivalent, is sometimes a woman, occasionally a lioness, and 
at times a cow. All conceivable attributes of man and 
woman were symbolised ; and gods were called by the names 
of power, love, anger, desire, revenge, fortune, etc. u Every- 
thing in creation that resembled in any way the presumed 
Creator^ whether m~name, in character, or in shape, was 
supposed to represent the deity. Hence a palm tree was a 
religious emblem, because it is long, erect, and round ; an 
oak, for it is hard and firm; a fig-tree, because its leaves 
resemble the male triad. The ivy was sacred from a similar 
cause. A myrtle was also a type, but of the female, because 
its leaf is a close representation of the vesica piscis. 
Everything, indeed, which in any way resembles the charac 
teristic organs of man and woman, became symbolic of the 
one_or the other deity. Jupiter or Juno, Jehovah or 
Astarte, the Father or the Virgin. Sometimes, but very 
rarely, the parts in question were depicted au naturel, and 
the means by which creation is effected became the mundane 
emblem of the Almighty ; and two huge phalli were seen 
before a temple, as we now see towers or spires before our 
churches, and minarets before mosques. (Lucian, Dea 

Generally, however, it was considered the most correct plan 
to represent the organs by some conventional form, understood 


by the initiated, but not by the unlearned. Whatever was 

Upright^ and longgr_t.hp.n hrnnrlj rfoprnp. HyTYihpl^. nf fha 
father; whilst that which was hollow, cavernous, oval, or 
circular, symbolised the mother. A sword, spear, arrow, 
dart, battering ram, spade, ship s prow, anything indeed 
intended to pierce into something else was emblematic of the 
male ; whilst the female was symbolised as a door, a hole, a 
sheath, a target, a shield, a field, anything indeed which was 
to be entered. The Hebrew names sufficiently indicate the 
plan upon which the sexes were distinguished ; the one 
is a "^ T zachar, a perforator or digger, and the other ^3p3 
nekebah, a hole or trench, i. e. male and female. 

These symbols were not necessarily those of religious 
belief. They might indicate war, heroism, prowess, royalty, 
command, etc., or be nothing more than they really were. 
They only symbolised the Creator when they were adopted 
into religion. Again, there was a still fftrf.1i fir rmmmif, ; 
and advantage was taken of the fact, that one symbol was 
tripliform. the other single ; onp nf rmp shap^ qnrLhA other 
different. Consequently, a triangle, or three things, arranged 
so that one should stand above the two T bAftamq fflpftlfimaf.^ 
of the Father, whilst an unit symbolised the Mother. 

These last three sentences deserve close attention, for 
some individuals have, in somewhat of a senseless fashion, 
objected, that a person who can see in a tortoise an emblem 
of the male, and in a horse-shoe an effigy of the female 
organ, must be quite too fantastical to deserve notice. But 
to me, as to other inquirers, these things are simply what 
they appear to be when they are seen in common life. Yet 
when the former creature occupies a large space in mytho 
logy ; when the Hindoo places it as the being upon which the 
world stands, and the Greeks represent one Venus as resting 
upon a tortoise and another on a goat; and when one knows 
that injlayg gonfl bv irL which people were less refined, the 


was displayed where the horse-shoe is now, and that 
some curiously mysterious attributes were assigned to the 
part in question ; we cannot refuse to see the thing signified 
in the sign. 

Again, inasmuch as what we may call the most prominent 
part of the tripliform organ was naturally changeable in 
character, being at one time soft, small, and pendent, and at 
another hard, large, and upright, those animals that resem 
bled it in these respects became symbolical. Two serpents, 
therefore, one Indian, and the other Egyptian, both of which 
are able to distend their heads and necks, and to raise them 
up erect, were emblematic, and each in its respective country 
typified the father, the great Creator. In like manner, 
another portion of the triad was regarded as similar in shape 
and size to the common hen s egg. As the celebrated physi 
ologist, Haller, remarked, " Omne vivum ex ovo" every 
living thing comes from an egg ; so more ancient biologists 
recognised that the dual part of the tripliform organ was as 
essential to the creation of a new being as the central pillar. 
Hence an pgg n.nri a. HArp^nt became a characteristic of "the 
Father," El, Ab, Ach, Baal, Asher, Melech, Adonai, Jahu, 
etc. Whenjio this was added a half moon, as_in certain 
Tyrian coins, the trinity and unity were symbolised, and 
a faith expressed like the one held in modern Home, that the 
mother of creation is co-equal with the father; the one 
seduces by her charms, and the other makes them fructify. 

To the Englishman, who, as a rule, avoids talking upon 
the subject which forms the basis of many an ancient 
religion, it may seem incredible that any individual, or set of 
writers, could have exercised their ingenuity in finding 
circumlocutory euphemisms for things which, though 
natural, are rarely named. Yet the wonder ceases when we 
find, in the writings of our lively neighbours, the French, a 
host of words intended to describe the parts referred to, 


which correspond wholly with the pictorial emblems adopted 
by the Greeks and others. 

As English writers have, as a rule, systematically avoided 
making any distinct reference to the sexual ideas embodied 
in ancient Paganism, so they have, by their silence, encou 
raged the formation of a school of theology which has no 
solid foundation, except a very animal one. As each indi 
vidual finds out this for himself, it becomes a question with 
him how far the information shall be imparted to others. So 
rarely has the determination to accuse the vampire been 
taken, that we can point to very few English books to which 
to refer our readers. We do not know one such that is 
easily accessible ; K. Payne Knight s work, and the addition 
thereto, having been privately printed, is not often to be 
found in the market. To give a list of the foreign works 
which the author has consulted, prior to and during the 
composition of his book on Ancient Faiths, would be almost 
equivalent to giving a catalogue of part of his library. He 
may, however, indicate the name of one work which is 
unusually valuable for reference, viz., Histoire abregee des 
Differens Cultes, par J. A. Dulaure, 2 vols., small 8vo., 
Paris, 1825. Though "out of print, copies can generally be 
procured through second-hand booksellers. Another work, 
Recherches sur les Mysteres de Paganisme, by St. Croix, is 
equally valuable, but it is very difficult to procure a copy. V 

TViA^RTimftriti - Tpwg fovTnftfl no exception t.n f.hfi pAiuuml law 
of reverence for the male emblem of the Creator ; and 
though we would, frorn^ their pretensions to be the chosen 
gladly find them exempt from what we 

consider to be imjjurjtka^fi TP ftnnai-.ririTiflfl to believe that, 
even in the worship of Jehovah, more respect was given to 
the_ symbol than- we, living in modern times, think that it 
deserves. In their Scriptures we read of Noah, whose infirm 
temper seems to have been on a par with his weakness for 


wine, cursing one of his three sons because, whilst drunk, he 
had negligently exposed his person, and the young man had 
thought the sight an amusing one. Ham had no reverence 
for the symbol of the Creator, but Shem and Japhet had, 
and covered it with a veil as respectfully as if it had been the 
ineffable framer of the world (Gen. ix. 21-27). As our feel 
ings of propriety induce us to think that the father was a 
far greater sinner than the son, we rejoice to know that the 
causeless curse never fell, and that Ham, in the lands of 
Canaan, Assyria, and Babylonia, and subsequently in Car 
thaginian Spain, were the masters of those Hebrews, whose 
main force, in old times, lay in impotent scoldings, such as 
Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Caliban. 

One of the best proofs of the strong sexual element 
which existed in the religion of the Jews is the fact that 
Elohim, one of the names of the Creator amongst the 
Hebrews, is represented, Gen. xvii. 10-14, as making cir 
cumcision a sign of his covenant with the seed of Abraham ; 
and in order to ascertain whether a man was to be regarded 
as being in the covenant, God is supposed to have looked at 
the state of the virile organ, or as the Scripture has it of 
the hill of the foreskin. We find, indeed, that Jehovah was 
quite as particular, and examined a male quite as closely as 
Elohim : for when Moses and Zipporah were on their way 
from Midian to Egypt, Exod. iv. 24, Jehovah having looked 
at the "trinity" of Moses son, and having found it as per 
fect as when the lad was born, sought to slay him, and would 
have done so unless the mother had mutilated the organ 
according to the sacred pattern. Again, we find in Josh. v. 2, 
and in the following verses, that Jehovah insisted upon all 
the Hebrew males having their virile member in the covenant 
condition ere they went to attack the Canaanites. Wa cannot 
suppose that any scribe could dwell so much as.almost every 
scriptural writer does upon the subject ...of. jcircumcision, had 


not the masculine emblem -been held in religious veneration 
amongst the Jewish nation. 

But the David who leaped and danced, obscenely as we 
should say, before the ark an emhlem of the female ( 
creator who purchased his wife from her royal father by 
mutilating a hundred Philistines, and presenting the foreskins 
which he had cut off therefrom " in full tale " to the king 
(1 Sam. xviii. 27, 2 Sam. iii. 14), who was once the captain 
of a monarch who thought it a shame beyond endurance to 
be abused, tortured, or slain by men whose persons were in 
a natural condition (1 Sam. xxxi. 4), and who imagined 
that he, although a stripling, could conquer a giant, because 
the one had a sanctified and the other a natural member is 
the man whom we know as the author of Psalms with which 
Christians still refresh their minds and comfort their souls. 
The king who, even in his old age, was supposed to think so 
much of women that his courtiers sought a lovely damsel as 
a comfort for his dying bed, is believed to have been the 
author of the noble nineteenth Psalm, and a number of 
others full of holy aspirations. It is .clear, then, that sexual 
ideas on religion_arg not inp.mnpn.t.ihlA with p dsir^ to be 
holy.. ___ The two were co-existent in Palestine i they are 

We next find that Abraham, the cherished man of God, 
the honoured patriarch of the Jews, makes his servant lay 
his hand upon the master s member, whilst he takes an 
oath to do his bidding, precisely like a more modern 
Palestinian might do ; and Jacob does the same with Joseph. 
See Gen. xxiv. 3, and xlvii. 29. 

As it is not generally known that the expression, "under 
myjhigh," is a euphemism for the words, " upon the symbol 
of the Creator," I may point to two or three other passages 
in which the thigh (translated in the authorised version 
loins) is used periphrastically : Genesis xxxv. 2, xlvi. 26 ; 


Exod. i. 5. See Ginsburg, in Kitto s Biblical Cyclopcedia, 
vol. 3, p. 848, s. v. OATH. 

I have on two occasions read, although I failed to make 
a note of it, that an Arab, during the Franco -Egyptian war, 
when accused by General Kleber of treachery, not only 
vehemently denied it, but when he saw himself still dis 
trusted, he uncovered himself before the whole military staff, 
and swore upon his trinity that he was guiltless. In the 
Lebanon, once in each year, every female considers it her 
duty to salute with her lips the reverenced organ of the Old 

Again we learn, from Deut. xxiii. 1, that any unsanctified 
mutilation of this part positively entailed expulsion from the 
congregation of the Lord. Even a priest of the house of 
Aaron could not minister, as such, if his masculinity had 
been in any way impaired (Lev. xxi. 20) ; and report says 
that, in our Christian times, Popes have to be privately 
perfect ; see also Deut. xxv. 11, 12. Moreover, the inquirer 
finds that the Jewish Scriptures teem with promises of 
abundant offspring to those who were the favourites of 
Jehovah ; and Solomon, the most glorious of their monarchs, 
is described as if he were a Hercules amongst the daughters 
of Thespius. Nothing can indicate the licentiousness of the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem more clearly than the writings of 
Ezekiel. 2 If, then, in Hebrew law and practice, we find 
such a strong infusion of the sexual element, we cannot be 
surprised if it should be found elsewhere, and gradually 
influence Christianity. 

We must next notice the fact, that what we call impurity 
in religious tenets does not necessarily involve indecency in 
practice. The ancient Eomans, in the time of the early 
kings, seem to have been as proper as early Christian 
maidens. It is true that, in the declining days of the empire 

2 See Ezekiel xxii. 1-30, and compare Jerem. v. 7, 8. 


city, exhibitions that called forth the fierce denunciations 
of the fathers of the Church took place ; but we find very 
similar occurrences in modern Christian capitals. In Spartan 
days, chastity and honesty were not virtues, but drunkenness 
was a vice. In Christian England, drunkenness is general, 
and we cannot pride ourselves upon universal honesty and 
chastity. It is not the national belief, but the national 
practice, which evidences a people s worth. Spain and Ire 
land, called respectively " Catholic " and " the land of 
saints," cannot boast of equality with "infidel" France and 
" free-thinking " Prussia. England will be as earnest, as 
upright, and as civilised, when shfiVm.a q,|mnflormfl the 
ien elements in her religion, as when she hugs them as 
if necessary to her spiritual wAlfarp.. Attachment to the 
good parts of religion is wholly distinct from a close embrace 
of the bad ones ; and we believe he deserves best of his 
country who endeavours to remove every possible source of 
discord. None can doubt the value of the order, "Do to 
others as you would wish others to do to you." If all unite 
to carry this out, small differences of opinion may at once 
be sunk. How worthless are many of the dogmas that 
people now fight about, the following pages will show. 

In our larger work we have endeavoured to show that 
there may be a deep sense of religion, a feeling of personal 
responsibility, so keen as to influence every act of life, with 
out there being a single symbol used. The earnest Sakya 
Muni, or Buddha, never used anything as a sacred emblem ; 
nor did Jesus, who followed him, and perhaps unconsciously 
propagated the Indian s doctrine. When the Apostles were 
sent out to teach and preach, they were not told to carry out 
any form of ark or crucifix. To them the doctrine of the 
Trinity was unknown, and not one of them had any parti- 


cular reverence for her whom we call the Virgin Mary, who, 
if she was virgo intacta when Jesus was born, was cer 
tainly different when she bore his brothers. Paul and Peter, 
though said to be the fathers of the Koman Church, never 
used or recommended the faithful to procure for themselves 
" a cross " as an aid to memory. The early Christians 
recognised each other by their deeds, and never had, like 
the Jews, to prove that they were in covenant with God, by 
putting a mutilated part of their body into full view. We, 
with the Society of Friends, prefer primitive to modern 

In the following pages the author has felt himself obliged 
to make use of words which are probably only known to 
those who are more or less " scholars." He has to treat of 
parts of the human body, and acts which occur habitually in 
the world, which in modern times are never referred to in 
polite society, but which, in the period when the Old Testa 
ment was written, were spoken of as freely as we now talk of 
our hands and feet. In those days f everything whi/.h was 
common was spoken of without shame,., and that which 
occurred throughout creation, and was seen by every one, 
was as much the subject of conversation as eating and 
drinking is now. The Hebrew writers were extremely coarse 
in their diction, and although this has been softened down 
by subsequent redactors, much which is in our modern 
judgment improper still remains. For example, where we 
simply indicate the sex, the Jewish historians used the word 
which was given to the symbol by which male and female 
are known ; for example, in Gen. i. 27, and v. 2, and in a 
host of other places, the masculine and feminine are spoken 
of as zachar and nekelah, which is best translated as 
borers " and " bored." Another equally vulgar way of 
describing men is to be found in 1 Kings xiv. 10. But 


these observations would not serve us much in symbolism 
did we not know that they were associated with certain 
euphemisms by which when one thing is said another is 
intended ; for an illustration let us take Isaiah vii. 20, and 
ask what is meant by the phrase, " the hair of the feet " ? 
It is certain that the feet are never hairy, and consequently 
can never be shaved. Again, when we find in Gen. xlix. 10, 
" the sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver 
from between his feet," and compare this with Deut. xxviii. 
57, and 2 Kings xviii. 27, where the words are, in the 
original, "the water of their feet," it is clear that symbolic 
language is used to express something which, if put into the 
vernacular, would be objectionable to ears polite. Again, in 
Genesis xxiv. 2 and xlvii. 29, and in Heb. xi. 21, it is well 
known to scholars that the word " thigh " and " staff" are 
euphemisms to express that part which represents the male. 
In Deut. xxiii. 1, we have evidence, as in the last three verses 
quoted, of the sanctity of the part referred to, but the lan 
guage is less refined. Now-a-days our ears are not attuned to 
the rough music which pleased our ancestors, and we have to 
use veiled language to express certain matters. In the 
following pages, the words which I select are drawn from the 
Latin, Greek, Sanscrit, Shemitic, or Egyptian. Hea, Anu, 
and Asher replace the parts referred to in Deut. xxiii. 1 ; 
Osiris, Asher, Linga, Mahadeva, Siva, Priapus, Phallus, etc., 
represent the Hebrew zachar ; whilst Isis, Parvati, Yoni, 
Sacti, Astarte, Ishtar, etc., replace the Jewish nekebah. The 
junction of these parts is spoken of as Ashtoreth, Baalim, 
Elohim, the trinity and unity, the androgyne deity, the arba, 
or mystic four, and the like. 

I will only add, that what I refer to has long been known 
to almost every scholar except English ones. Of these a few 
are learned ; but for a long period they have systematically 
refrained from speaking plainly, and have written in such a 


manner as to be guilty not only of suppressio veri but of 
suggestio falsi. 

After reading thus far, I can imagine many a person 
saying with astonishment, "Are these things so?" and 
following up his thoughts by wondering what style of per 
sons they were, or are, who could introduce into religion such 
matters as those of which we have treated. 

In reply, I can only say that I have nothing extenuated, 
and set down nought in malice. But the first clause of the 
assertion requires modification, for in this volume there are 
many things omitted which I have referred to at length in 
my larger work. In that I have shown, not only that 
religious fornication existed in ancient Babylon, but that 
there is reason to believe that it existed also in Palestine. 
The word ^P Kadesh, which signifies "pure, bright, 
young, to be holy, or to be consecrated," is also the root from 
which are formed the words Kadeshah and Kadeshim, which 
are used in the Hebrew writings, and are translated in our 
authorised version "whore" and "sodomite." See Deut. 
xxiii. 17. 

Athanasius tells us something of this as regards the 
Phoenicians, for he says, (Oratio Contr. Gent., part i., p. 24.) 
"Formerly, it is certain that Phoenician women prostituted 
themselves before their idols, offering their bodies to their 
gods in the place of first fruits, being persuaded that they 
pleased the goddess by that means, and made her propitious 
to them." 

Strabo mentions a similar occurrence at Comana, in 
Pontus, book xiii., c. iii. p. 36 and notices that an enor 
mous number of women were consecrated to the use of 
worshippers in the temple of Yenus at Corinth. 

Such women exist in India, and the priests of certain 
temples do everything in their power to select the loveliest 
of the sex, and to educate them so highly as to be attractive. 


The customs which existed in other places seem to have 
been known in Jerusalem, as we find in 1 Kings xiv. 24., 
xv. 12, that Kadeshim were common in Judea, and in 
2 Kings xxiii. 7, we discover that these " consecrated ones" 
were located " by the temple," and were associated with 
women whose business was " to t make hangings for the 

grove." What these tisanes wp.rft anrl wW TIP waa irm^^ 

of them will be seen in Ezekiel xvi. 16. 

Even David, when dancing before the ark, shamelessly 
exposed himself. Solomon erected two pillars in the porch 
of his temple, and called them Jachin and Boaz, and 
added pomegranate ornaments. We have seen how Abra 
ham and Jacob ordered their inferiors to swear by putting 
bhe hand upon " the thigh " ; and we have read of the 
atrocities which occurred in Jerusalem in the time of 
Ezekiel. Yet the Jews are still spoken of as God s chosen 
people, and the Psalmist as a man after God s own heart. 

But without going so far back, let us inquire into the 
conduct of the sensual Turks, and of the general run of the 
inhabitants of Hindostan. From everything that I can 
learn and I have repeatedly conversed with those who have 
known the Turks and Hindoos familiarly these are in every 
position in life as morally good as common Christians are. 

My readers must not now assert that I am either a 
partisan or a special pleader when I say this ; they must 
consider that I am making the comparison as man by man. 
I do not, as missionaries do, compare the most vicious 
Mahomedan and Brahmin with the most exemplary Christian ; 
nor do I, on the other hand, compare the best Ottoman and 
Indian with Christian criminals ; but I take the whole in a 
mass, and assert that there is as large a per centage of good 
folks in India and Turkey as there is in Spain and France, 
England or America. 

The grossest form of worship is compatible with general 


purity of morals. The story of Lucretia is told of a Pagan 
woman, whilst those of Er and Onan, Tamar and Judah relate 
to Hebrews. David, who seduced Bathsheba, and killed her 
husband, was not execrated by " (rod s people," nor was he 
consequently driven from his throne as Tarquin was by the 

In prowess and learning, the Babylonians, with their 
religious prostitution, were superior to the " chosen people." 
Of the wealth and enterprise of the Phoenicians, Ancient 
History tells us abundance. 

There are probably no three cities in ancient or modern 
times which contain so many vicious individuals as London, 
Paris, and New York. Yet there are none which history 
tells us of that were more powerful. No Babylonian army 
equalled in might or numbers the army of the Northern 
United States. Nineveh never wielded armies equal to 
those of the French Napoleon and the German William, 
and Eome never had an empire equal to that which is 
headed by London. 

The existence of personal vice does not ruin a nation in 
its collective capacity. Nor does the most sensual form of 
religion stunt the prosperity of a people, so long as the latter 
do not bow their necks to a priesthood. 

The greatest curse to a nation is not a bad religion, but a 
form of faith which prevents manly inquiry. I know of no 
nation of old that was priest-ridden which did not fall under 
the swords of those who did not care for hierarchs. 

The greatest danger is to be feared from those ecclesias 
tics who wink at vice, and encourage it as a means whereby 
they can gain power over their votaries. So long as every 
man does to other men as he would that they should do to 
him, and allows no one to interfere between him and his 
Maker, all will go well with the world. 


WHILST the following sheets were going through the press, 
my friend Mr. Newton, who has not only assisted me in a 
variety of ways, but who has taken a great deal of interest in 
the subject of symbolism, gave me to understand that there 
were some matters in which he differed very strongly from 
me in opinion. One of these was as to the correct interpre 
tation of the so-called Assyrian grove; another was the 
signification of one of Lajard s gems, Plate iv., Fig. 3 ; and 
the most conspicuous of our divergencies was respecting the 
fundamental, or basic idea, which prompted the use in 
religion of those organs of reproduction which have, from 
time immemorial, been venerated in Hindostan, and, as far as 
we can learn, in Ancient Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Tyre, 
Sidon, Carthage, Jerusalem, Etruria, Greece, and Kome, as 
well as in countries called uncivilised. I feel quite disposed 
to acquiesce in the opinions which my old friend has formed 
respecting the Assyrian grove, but I am not equally ready to 
assent to his other opinions. 

Where two individuals are working earnestly for the 
elucidation of truth, there ought, in my opinion, to be not 
only a tolerance of disagreement, but an honest effort to 
submit the subject to a jury of thoughtful readers. 

. As I should not feel satisfied to allow any other person 
to express my opinions in his words, it seemed to me only 
fair to Mr. Newton to give him the facility of enunciating 
his views in his own language. It was intended, originally, 
that my friend s observations upon the " grove " should be 
followed by a dissertation upon other relics of antiquity 
notably upon that known as Stonehenge but circumstances 
have prevented this design being carried into execution. 

When two individuals who have much in common go 


over the same ground, it is natural, indeed almost necessary, 
that they should dwell upon identical topics. Hence it will 
be found that there are points which are referred to by us 
both, although possibly in differing relationship. 

As my own part of the following remarks were printed 
long before I saw Mr. Newton s manuscript, I hope to be 
pardoned for allowing them to stand. The bulk of the 
volume will not be increased to the extent of a full page. 

If I were to be asked the reason why I differ from Mr. 
Newton in his exalted idea about the adoption of certain 
bodily organs as types, tokens, or emblems of an unseen and 
an inscrutable Creator, my answer would be drawn from the 
observations made upon every known order of priesthood, 
from the most remote antiquity to the present time. No 
matter what the creed, whether Ancient or Modern, the main 
object of its exponents and supporters is to gain over the 
minds of the populace. This has never yet been done, and 
probably never will be attempted, by educating the mind of 
the multitude to think. 

In Great Britain we find three sets of hierarchs opposed 
to each other, and all equally, by every means in their power, 
prohibit independent inquiry. 

A young Komanist convert, as we have recently seen, is 
discouraged from persevering in the study of history and 
logic ; a Presbyterian is persecuted, as far as the law of the 
land permits, if he should engage in an honest study of the 
Bible, of the God which it presents for our worship, and of 
the laws that it enforces. A bishop of the Church of 
England is visited by the puny and spiteful efforts of 
some of his nominal equals if he ventures to treat Jewish 
writings as other critics study the tomes of Livy or of 

One set of men have banded together to elect a god on 
earth, and endeavour to coerce their fellow-mortals to believe 


that a selection by a few old cardinals can make the one 
whom they choose to honour " infallible." 

Another set of men, who profess to eschew the idea of 
infallibility in a Pope, assume that they possess the quality 
themselves, and endeavour to blot out from the communion 
of the faithful those who differ from them " on points which 
God hath left at large." 

Surely, when with all our modern learning, thought, and 
scientific enquiry, hierarchs still set their faces against an 
advance in knowledge, and quell, if possible, every endeavour 
to search after truth, we are not far wrong when we assert, 
that the first priests of barbarism had no exalted views of 
such an abstract subject as life, in the higher and highest 
senses, if indeed in any sense of the word. 

Another small point of difference between my friend and 
me is, whether there has been at any time a figured represen 
tation of a kakodwmon except since the beginning of 
Christianity and if, by way of stretching a point, we call 
Typhon Satan or the Devil by this name, as being opposed 
to the Agathodoemon, whether we are justified in providing 
this evil genius with wings. As far as I can judge from 
Chaldean and Assyrian sculptures, wings were given to the 
lesser deities as our artists assign them to modern angels. 
The Babylonian Apollyon, by whatever name he went, was 
winged but so were all the good gods. The Egyptians 
seem to have assigned wings only to the favourable divinities. 
The Jews had in their mythology a set of fiery flying 
serpents, but we must notice that their cherubim and sera 
phim were all winged, some with no less than three pairs 
much as Hindoo gods have four heads and six, or any other 
number of arms. 

Mr. Newton assumes that the dragon mentioned in Eev. 
xii. was a winged creature, but it is clear from the context, 
especially from verses 14 and 15, that he had no pinions, for 

XXX VI 11 

he was unable to follow the woman to whom two aerial oars 
had been given. 

The dragon, as we know it, is, I believe, a mediaeval 
creation ; such a creature is only spoken of in the Bible in 
the book of Revelation, and the author of that strange pro 
duction drew his inspiration on this point from the Iliad, 
where a dragon is described as of huge size, coiled like a 
snake, of blood-red colour, shot with changeful hues, and 
having three heads. Homer, Liddell, and Scott add used 
Spaxcov and o$ig- indifferently for a serpent, So does the author 
of Rev. in ch. xx. 2. I have been unable to discover any 
gnostic gem with anything like a modern dragon on it. 

Holding these views, I cannot entertain the proposition 
that the winged creatures in the very remarkable gem already 
referred to are evil genii. 

In a question of this kind the mind is perhaps uncon 
sciously biassed by comparing one antiquarian idea with 
another. A searcher amongst Etruscan vases will see not 
only that the angel of death is winged, but that Cupid, Eros, 
or by whatever other name " desire " or love goes, frequently 
hovers over the bridal or otherwise voluptuous couch, and 
attends beauty at her toilet. The Greeks also gave to Eros 
a pair of wings, intended, it is fancied, to represent the 
flutterings of the heart, produced when lovers meet or even 
think of each other. Such a subordinate deity would be in 
place amongst so many sexual emblems as Plate iv. Fig. 3 
contains, whilst a koakdcemon would be a " spoil sport," and 
would make the erected serpents drop rather than remain in 
their glory. 

These matters are apparently of small importance, but 
when one is studying the signification of symbolical lan 
guage, he has to pay as close an attention, and extend the 
net of observation over as wide a sea as a scholar does when 
endeavouring to decipher some language written in long- 


forgotten characters, and some divergence of opinion between 
independent observers sharpens the intellect more than it 
tries the temper. 



This is taken from a photograph of a small bronze image 
in the Mayer collection of the Free Museum, in Liverpool. 
The figure stands about nine inches high, and represents 
Isis, Horus, and the fish. an apt illustration of an 
ancient custom, still prevalent amongst certain Christians, 
of reverencing a woman, said to be a virgin, giving suck to 
her child, and of the association of Isis, Venus T and Mary 
withthejish. Friday, for example, ia, 

and "diftn Vpnem" Fish are known, to 

.]^extraordinarily_pi olific . There was a belief that animals, 
noted for any peculiarity, imparted their virtues to those who 
ate them ; consequently, tigers flesh was supposed to give 
courage, and snails to give sexual power. The use of fish 
in connubial feasts is still common. Those who consider it 
pious or proper to eat fish on Venus day, or Friday, pro 
claim themselves, unconsciously, adherents to those heathen 
ideas which deified parts about which no one now likes to 
talk. The fish has in one respect affinity with the mandrake. 
Since the first publication of this work, a friend has sug 
gested to me another reason, besides its fertility, for the fish 
being emblematic of woman. From his extensive experience as 
a surgeon, and especially among the lower order of courtesans, 
he has repeatedly noticed during the hot months of the year 
that the parts which he had to examine have a very strong 
odour of fish. My own observations in the same department 
lead me to endorse his assertion. Consequently, I think 
that in warm climates, where the utmost cleanliness can 


scarcely keep a female free from odour, scent, as well as 
other attributes, has had to do with the selection of the fish 
as an emblem of woman. 

Still further, I have been informed by another friend 
that in Yorkshire, and I understand in other counties of 
England, the double entente connected with the fish is so 
marked that it is somewhat difficult to render it into decent 
phraseology. It will suffice to say that in the county men 
tioned, Lais or Phryne would be spoken of as "a choice bit 
of fish," and that a man who bore on his features the stamp 
which is imprinted by excessive indulgence, would be said to 
have indulged too much in " a fish diet." I do not suppose 
that in the Yorkshire Ridings the folks are unusually well 
acquainted with mythology, yet it is curious to find amongst 
their inhabitants a connection between Venus and the Fish, 
precisely similar to that which has obtained in the most 
remote ages and in far distant climes. 

It is clear from all these facts that the fish is a symbol 
not only of woman, but of the yoni. 


Is supposed to represent Cannes, Dagon, or some other fish 
god. It is copied from Lajard, Sur le Culte de Venus, 
pi. xxii., 1, la, and is thus described, " Statuette inedite, de 
gres houiller ou micace, d un brun verdatre. Elle porte par 
devant, sur une bande perpendiculaire, un legende en carac- 
teres Syriaques tres anciens (Cabinet de M. Lambert, 
a Lyon)." I can find no clue to the signification of the 
inscription. It would seem paradoxical to say that there is 
something in common between the bull-headed deity and 
Cannes. It is so, nevertheless. One indicates, par excel 
lence, physical, and the other sexual, power. That Oannes 
may, for the Assyrians, represent a man who played a part 
with them similar to that of Penn among the Indians of 
Pennsylvania, I do not deny; but, when we find a similar 
fish-god in Philistia and Hindostan, and know that Crishna 


^ / 


once appeared as a fish, the explanation does not suffice. 
It is mrfonfl t^ nf i Tn rMiff nf Na^nreth phould be called foflug, 
or "a fish /l^JmlJiii^^mljL^icjQYfis. that. the. religion. _of Christ 
has been adulterated by Paganism. 


Figs. 1 and 4 are illustrations of the antelope as a 
religious emblem amongst the Assyrians. The first is from 
Layard s Nineveh, and in it we see carried in one hand a 
triply branched lotus ; the second, showing the regard for the 
spotted antelope, and for "the branch," is from Bonomi s 
Nineveh and its Palaces. 

Fig. 2 illustrates Bacchus, with a mystic branch in one 
hand, and a cup in the other ; his robe is covered with spots 
arranged in threes. The branch is emblematic of the arbor 
vita, or tree of life, and its powers of sprouting. Such a 
symbol is, by outsiders, figured on the houses of newly 
married couples amongst the Jews of Morocco, and seems to 
indicate the desire of friends that the man will show that he 
is vigorous, and able to have many sprouts from the tree of 
life. It will be noticed that on the fillet round the god s 
head are arranged many crosses. From Hislop s Two I 
Babylons, and Smith s Dictionary, p. 208. 

Figs. 3 and 5 are intended to show the prevalence of the 
use of spots on priestly dresses ; they are copied from 
Hislop s Two Babylons, and Wilkinson, vol. vi., pi. 33, and 
vol. iv., pp. 341, 353. For an explanation of the significa 
tion of spots, see Plate iv., Fig. 6, infra* 


Fig. 1 represents an Assyrian priest worshipping by 
presentation of the thumb, which had a peculiar signifi 
cation. Sometimes the forefinger is pointed instead, and in 
both cases the male is symbolised. It is taken from a plate 
illustrating a paper by E. C. Kavenshaw, Esq., in Journal 
of Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xvi., p. 114. Amongst the 

Hebrews, and probably all the Shemitic tribes, bohen, the 
thumb, and ezba, the finger, were euphemisms. They are 
so in some parts of Europe to the present day.* The hand 
thus presented to the grove resembles a part of the Buddhist 
cross, and the shank of a key, whose signification is described 
in a subsequent page. 

Fig. 2 is a Buddhist emblem ; the two fishes forming the 
circle represent the mystic yoni, the sacti of Mahadeva, while 
the triad above them represents the mystic trinity, the triune 
father, Siva, Bel, or Asher, united with Anu and Hea. 
From Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xviii., p. 392, 
plate ii. 

Fig. 3 is a very remarkable production. It originally 
belonged to Mons. Lajard, and is described by him in his 
second Memoir e, entitled Recherches sur le Culte, les Sym- 
boles, les Attribute, et les Monumens Figures de Venus 
(Paris, 1837), in pages 32, et seq., and figured in plate i., 
fig. 1. The real age of the gem and its origin are not 
known, but the subject leads that author to believe it to be 
of late Babylonian workmanship. The stone is a white 
agate, shaped like a cone, and the cutting is on its lower 
face. The shape of this gem indicates its dedication to 
Venus. The central figures represent the androgyne deity, 
Baalim, Astaroth, Elohim, Jupiter genetrix, or the bearded 
Venus Mylitta. On the left side of the cutting we notice an 
erect serpent, whose rayed head makes us recognise the 
solar emblem, and its mundane representative, mentula 
arrecta ; on a spot opposite to the centre of the male s body 
we find a lozenge, symbolic of the yoni, whilst opposite to 
his feet is the amphora, whose mystic signification may 

* A friend has informed me, for example, that he happened, whilst at Pesth, 
to look at a gorgeously dressed and handsome young woman. To his astonishment 
she pointed her thumh precisely in the manner adopted by the Assyrian priests ; 
this surprised the young man still farther, and being, as it were, fascinated, he 
continued to gaze. The damsel then grasped the thumb by the other hand ; thus 
indicating her profession. My friend, who was wholly inexperienced in the ways of 
the world, only understood what was meant when he saw my explanation of Fig. 1. 


readily be recognised ; it is meant for Ouranos, or the Sun 
fructifying Terra, or the earth, by pouring from himself into 
her. The three stars over the head of the figure, and the 
inverted triangle on its head, are representations of the 
mythological four, equivalent to the Egyptian symbol of 
life " 

life (figs. 31, 32). Opposite to the female are the moon, 
and another serpent, which may be recognised by physiologists 
as symbolic of tensio clitoridis. In a part corresponding to 
the diamond, on the left side, is a six-rayed wheel, emblem 
atic, apparently, of the sun. At the female s feet is placed a 
cup, which is intended to represent the passive element in 
creation. As such it is analogous to the crescent moon, and 
is associated in the Roman church with the round wafer, the 
symbol of the sun ; the wa,fgr an^mip thus being^aynony- 
moua wiE5*^e sun fl.mj^jT3pnn jn coniuj^ctjfln. It will be 
observed that eacE serpent in the plate is apparently 
attacked by what we suppose is a dragon. There is some 
difficulty in understanding the exact idea intended to be 
conveyed by these ; my own opinion is that they symbolise 
Satan, the old serpent that tempted Eve, viz., fierce lust, 
Eros, Cupid, or desire, which, both in the male and female, 
brings about the arrectation which the serpents figure. It 
is not to be passed by without notice, that the snake which 
represents the male has the tail so curved as to suggest 
the idea of the second and third elements of the trinity. 
Monsieur Lajard takes the dragons to indicate the bad prin 
ciple in nature, i.e., darkness, night, Ahriman, etc. On the 
pyramidal portion of the gem the four sides are ornamented 
by figures three represent animals remarkable for their 
salacity, and the fourth represents Bel and Ishtar in con 
junction, in a fashion which can be more easily imagined 
than described in the mother tongue. The learned will 
find the position assumed in Lucretius, De Rerum Naturd,; 
book iv., lines 1256, seq. 

Fig. 4 is also copied from Lajard, plate i., fig. 10. It is 
the reverse of a bronze coin of Vespasian, struck in the 


island of Cyprus, and represents the conical stone, under 
whose form Venus was worshipped at Paphos, of which 
Tacitus remarks, Hist, ii., c. 3, " the statue bears no resem 
blance to the human form, but is round, broad at one end 
and gradually tapering at the other, like a goal. The reason 
of this is not ascertained." It is remarkable that a male 
emblem should be said to represent Venus, but the stone 
was an aerolite, like that which fell at Ephesus, and was 
said to represent Diana. It is clear that when a meteoric 
stone falls, the chief priests of the district can say that it 
is to be taken as a representative of their divinity. 

My very ingenious friend, Mr. Newton, suggests that the 
Venus in question was androgyne ; that the cone is a male 
emblem, within a door, gateway, or delta, thus resembling 
the Assyrian grove. It is certain that the serpents, the two 
stars, and the two candelabra, or altars with flame, favour his 

Fig. 5 represents the position of the hands assumed by 
Jewish priests when they give the benediction to their flock. 
It will be recognised that each hand separately indicates the 
trinity, whilst the junction of the two indicates the unit. 
The whole is symbolic of the mystic Arba the four, i. e., 
the trinity and unity. One of my informants told me that, 
being a " cohen " or priest, he had often administered the 
blessing, and, whilst showing to me this method of bene 
diction, placed his joined hands so that his nose entered the 
central aperture. On his doing so, I remarked " bene nasa- 
tus" and the expression did more to convince him of the 
probability of my views than anything else. 

Fig. 6, modified in one form or another, is the position 
assumed by the hand and fingers, when Roman and Angli 
can bishops 1 or other hierarchs give benediction to their 
people. A similar disposition is to be met with in Indian 
mythology, when the Creator doubles himself into male and 
female, so as to be in a position to originate new beings. 
Whilst the right hand in Plate VII. symbolises the male, 


the left hand represents the mystic feminine circle. In 
another plate, which is to be found in Moor s Hindu Pan 
theon, there is a similar figure, but draped fully, and in that 
the dress worn by the celestial spouse is covered with groups 
of spots arranged in triads and groups of four. With regard 
to the signification of spots, we may notice that they indi 
cated, either by their shape or by their name, the emblem of 
womankind. A story of Indra, the Hindoo god of the sky, 
confirms this. He is usually represented as bearing a robe 
covered with eyes ; but the legend runs that, like David, he 
became enamoured of the wife of another man, who was very 
beautiful and seen by chance, but her spouse was one whose 
austere piety made him almost equal to Brahma. The evil 
design of Indra was both frustrated and punished. The 
woman escaped, but the god became covered with marks that 
recalled his offence to mind, for they were pictures of the 
yoni. These, by the strong intercession of Brahma with the 
Rishi, were changed by the latter into eyes. This story 
enables us to recognise clearly the hidden symbolism of 
the Hindoo and Egyptian eye, the oval representing the 
female, and the circle the male lodged therein i.e., the 
androgyne creator. 


Is a copy of a mediaeval Virgin and Child, as painted in 
Delia Kobbia ware in the South Kensington Museum, a copy 
of which was given to me by my friend, Mr. Newton, to 
whose kindness I am indebted for many illustrations of 
ancient Christian art. It represents the Virgin and Child 
precisely as she used to be represented in Egypt, in India, 
in Assyria, Babylonia, Phoenicia, and Etruria ; the accident 
of dress being of no mythological consequence. In the 
framework around the group, we recognise the triformed 
leaf, emblematic of Asher ; the grapes, typical of Dionysus ; 
the wheat ears, symbolic of Ceres, Vabricot fendu, the mark 
of womankind, and the pomegranate rimmon, which charac- 


tenses the teeming mother. The living group, moreover, 
are placed in an archway, delta, or door, which is symbolic 
of the female, like the vesica piscis, the oval or the circle. 
This door is, moreover, surmounted by what appear to be 
snails, whose supposed virtue we have spoken of under Plate 
i. This identification of Mary with the Sacti is strong; 
by-and-by we shall see that it is as complete as it is possible 
to be made. 


Is a copy of figures given in Bryant s Ancient Mythology, 
plates xiii., xxviii., third edition, 1807. The first two illus 
trate the story of Palemon and Cetus, introducing the 
dolphin. That fish is symbolic of the female, in conse- 
quence * the, flflffrm Q/np q,in Greek between its name and that 
of thejHtfml^deZp/m an&delphus. The tree symbolises the 
arbor vita, the me^iving^prout ; and the ark is a symbol of 
the womb. The third figure, where a man rests upon a rock 
and dolphin, and toys with a mother and child, is equally 
suggestive. The maleJ^Te^atedly characterised as a rock, 
hermes, menhir, Jolmen, or un^S&Fstea^, TnTTfemale by the 
dolphin, or fish. The result of the junction of these 
elements^appears in the child, whom both parents welcome. 
The fourth figure represents two emblems, of the inajg,, 
creator, a man and ytride^t, and two~of TiheTemale, a dolphin 
and~sEip. The two last figures represent a coin of Apamea, 
representing Noah and the ark, called Cibotus. Bryant 
labours to prove that the group commemorates the story 
told in the Bible respecting the flood, but there is strong 
doubt whether the story was not of Babylonian origin. The 
city referred to was in Phrygia, and the coin appears to have 
been struck by Philip of Macedon. The inscription round 
the head is ATT. K. IOVA 4>IAiniIOC. ATT. ; on the 
MEHN. See Ancient Faiths, second edition, Vol. n., pp. 
123, and 385 - 392. 









Is a copy of an original drawing made by a learned Hindoo 
pundit for Wm. Simpson, Esq., of London, whilst he was 
in India studying its mythology. It represents Brahma 
supreme, who in the act of creation made himself double, 
i.e., male and female. In the original the central part 
of the figure is occupied by the triad and the unit, but 
far too grossly shown for reproduction here. They are 
replaced by the crux ansata. The reader will notice the 
triad and the serpent in the male hand, whilst in the female 
is to be seen a germinating seed, indicative of the relative 
duties of father and mother. The whole stands_jjpon a 
lotus, the symbol of androgyneity. The technical word for 
this incarnatTorrl^^^rddha Nari." 


Is Devi, the same as Parvati, or Bhavani. It is copied from 
Moor s Pantheon, plate xxx. The goddess represents the 
feminine element in the universe. Her forehead is marked 
by one of the symbols of the four creators, the triad, and 
the unit. Her dress is covered with symbolic spots, and one 
foot peculiarly placed is marked by a circle having a dot 
in the interior. The two bear the same signification as the 
Egyptian eye. I am not able to define the symbolic import 
of the articles held in the lower hands. Moor considers that 
they represent scrolls of paper, but this I doubt. The raised 
hands bear the unopened lotus flower, and the goddess sits 
upon another. 


Consists of six figures, copied from Maurice s Indian Anti 
quities, vol. vi., p. 273, and two from Bryant s Mythology, 
vol. ii., third edition, pp. 203 and 409. All are symbolic of 
the idea of the male triad : a central figure, erect, and rising 
above the other two. In one an altar and fire indicate, 
mystically, the linga ; in another, the same is pourtrayed as 


a man, as Madaheva always is ; in another, there is a tree 
stump and serpent, to indicate the same idea. The two 
appendages of the linga are variously described ; in two 
instances as serpents, in other two as tree and concha, and 
snake and shell. The two last seem to embody the idea 
that the right " egg " of the male germinates boys, whilst 
the left produces girls ; a theory common amongst ancient 
physiologists. The figure of the tree encircled by the ser 
pent, and supported by two stones resembling " tolmen," is 
very significant. The whole of these figures seem to point 
unmistakably to the origin of the very common belief that 
the male Creator is triune. In Assyrian theology the central 
figure is Bel, Baal, or Asher ; the one on the right Anu, 
that on the left Hea. See Ancient Faiths, second edition, 
Vol. i., pp. 83-85.* 

There are some authors who have treated of tree and 
serpent worship, and of its prevalence in ancient times, 
without having, so far as I can see, any idea of that which 
the two things typify. The tree of knowledge, the tree 
of life, the serpent that tempted Eve, and still tempts man 
by his subtlety, are so many figures of speech which the wise 
understand, but which to the vulgar are simply trees and 
snakes. In a fine old bas-relief over the door of the Cathe 
dral at Berne, we see an ancient representation of the last 
judgment. An angel is dividing the sheep from the goats, 
and devils are drawing men and women to perdition, by fixing 
hooks or pincers on the portions of the body whence their 

the work referred to, 

The principal gi 

lent of theTKucloo Mahadeva, the great holy one, and of the more modern Priapus. 
He was associated with Anu, lord of solids and of the lower world, equivalent to 
the " testis," or egg on the right side. Hea was lord of waters, and represented 
the left " stone." The three formed the trinity or triad. The female was named 
Ishtar or Astarte, and was equivalent to the female organ, the yoni or vulva the 
Kxei s of the Greeks. The male god in Egypt was Osiris, the female Isis, and these 
names are frequently used as being euphemistic, and preferable to the names which 
are in vulgar use to describe the male and female parts. 




sins sprung. One fat priest, nude as our risen bodies must 
be, is being savagely pulled to hell by the part symbolised 
by tree and serpent, whilst she whom he has adored and 
vainly sought to disgrace, is rising to take her place amongst 
the blest. It is not those of the sex of Eve alone that are 
inveigled to destruction by the serpent. 


Contains pagan symbols of the trinity or linga, with or 
without the unity or yoni. 

Fig. 1 represents a symbol frequently met with in ancient 
architecture, etc. It represents the male and female ele 
ments, the pillar and the half moon. 

Fig. 2 represents the mystic letters said to have been 
placed on the portal of the oracle of Delphi. By some it is 
proposed to read the two letters as signifying "he or she is;" 
by others the letters are taken to be symbolic of the triad 
and the unit. If they be, the pillar is a very unusual form 
for the yoni. An ingenious friend of mine regards the 
upright portion as a " slit," but I cannot wholly agree with 
him, for in Fig. 1 the pillar cannot be looked upon as an 

Fig. 3 is a Hindoo sectarial mark, copied from Moor s 
Hindu Pantheon, and is one out of many indicating the 
union of the male and female. 

Fig. 4 is emblematic of the virgin and child. It 
identifies the two with the crescent. It is singular that 
some designers should unite the moon with the solar symbol, 
and others with the virgin. We believe that the first indi 
cate ideas like that associated with Baalim, and Ashtaroth in 
the plural, the second that of Astarte or Venus in the 
singular. Or, as we may otherwise express it, the married 
and the immaculate virgin. 

Fig. 5 is copied from Sharpe s Egyptian Mythology, 
p. 15. It represents one of the Egyptian trinities, and 
is highly symbolic, not only indicating the triad, here 


Osiris, Isis, and Nepthys, but its union with the female 
element. The central god Osiris is himself triune, as he 
bears the horns symbolic of the goddess Athor and the 
feathers of the god Ka. 

Fig. 6 is a Hindoo sectarial mark, from Moor s Hindu 
Pantheon. The lozenge indicates the yoni. For this asser 
tion we not only have evidence in Babylonian gems, copied by 
Lajard, but in Indian and Etruscan designs. We find, for 
example, in vol. v., plate xlv., of Antiquites Etrusques, etc., 
par. F. A. David (Paris, 1785), a draped female, wearing on 
her breast a half moon and mural crown, holding her hands 
over the middle spot of the body, so as to form a "lozenge" 
with the forefingers and thumbs. The triad in this figure is 
very distinct; and we may add that a trinity expressed by 
three balls or three circles is to be met with in the remotest 
times and in most distant countries. 

Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10 are copied from Cabrera s account of 
an ancient city discovered near Palenque, in Guatemala, 
Spanish America (London, 1822). Although they appear to 
have a sexual design, yet I doubt whether the similarity is 
not accidental. After a close examination of the plates 
given by Cabrera, I am inclined to think that nothing of the 
ling-yoni element prevailed in the mind of the ancient 
American sculptors. All the males are carefully draped in 
appropriate girdles, although in some a grotesque or other 
ornament, such as a human or bestial head, a flower, etc., is 
attached to the apron or "fall" of the girdle, resembling the 
sporran of the Highlander and the codpiece of mediaeval 
knights and others. I may, however, mention some very 
remarkable sculptures copied ; one is a tree, whose trunk is 
surrounded by a serpent, and whose fruit is shaped like 
the vesica piscis ; in another is seen a youth wholly 
unclothed, save by a cap and gaiters, who kneels before a 
similar tree, being threatened before and behind by some 
fierce animal. This figure is peculiar, differing from all the 
rest in having an European rather than an American head 


and face. Indeed, the features, etc., remind me of the late 
Mr. Cobden, and the cap is such as yachting sailors usually 
wear. There is also another remarkable group, consisting 
apparently of a man and woman standing before a cross, 
proportioned like the conventional one in use amongst 
Christians. Everything indicates American ideas, and there 
are ornaments or designs wholly unlike any that I have seen 
elsewhere. The man appears to offer to the cross a gro 
tesque human figure, with a head not much unlike Punch, 
with a turned-up nose, and a short pipe shaped like a fig in 
his mouth. The body is well formed, but the arms and 
thighs are rounded off like "flippers" or "fins." Resting 
at the top of the cross is a bird, like a game cock, orna 
mented by a necklace. The male in this and the other 
sculptures is beardless, and that women are depicted, can 
only be guessed at by the inferior size of some of the 
figures. It would be unprofitable to carry the description 

Figs. 11, 12 are from vol. i., plates xix. and xxiii. of a 
remarkably interesting work, Recherches sur V origine, V esprit, 
et les pr ogres des Arts de la Grece, said to be written 
by D Harcanville, published at London, 1785. The first 
represents a serpent, coiled so as to symbolise the male triad, 
and the crescent, the emblem of the yoni. 

Fig. 12 accompanies the bull on certain coins, and sym 
bolises the sexual elements, le baton et V anneau. They 
were used, as the horse-shoe is now, as a charm against 
bad luck, or vicious demons or fairies. 

Fig. 13 is, like figure 5, from Sharpe s Egyptian Mytho 
logy, p. 14, and is said to represent Isis, Nepthys, and 
Osiris ; it is one of the many Mizraite triads. The Christian 
trinity is of Egyptian origin, and is as surely a pagan doctrine 
as the belief in heaven and hell, the existence of a devil, of 
archangels, angels, spirits and saints, martyrs and virgins, 
intercessors in heaven, gods and demigods, and other forms 
of faith which deface the greater part of modern religions. 


Figure 14 is a symbol frequently seen in Greek churches, 
but appears to be of pre-christian origin.* The cross 
we have elsewhere described as being a compound male 
emblem, whilst the crescent symbolises the female element 
in creation. 

Figure 15 is from D Harcanville, Op. Git., vol. i., plate 
xxiii. It resembles Figure 11, supra, and enables us by the 
introduction of the sun and moon to verify the deduction 
drawn from the arrangement of the serpent s coils. If the 
snake s body, instead of being curved above the 8 like 
tail, were straight, it would simply indicate the linga and 
the sun ; the bend in its neck, however, indicates the yoni 
and the moon. 

Figure 16 is copied from plate xvi., fig. 2, of Recueil de 
Pierres Antiques Graves, folio, by J. M. Eaponi (Kome, 
1786). The gem represents a sacrifice to Priapus, indicated 
by the rock, pillar, figure, and branches given in our plate. 
A nude male sacrifices a goat ; a draped female holds a kid 
ready for immolation ; a second man, nude, plays the double 
pipe, and a second woman, draped, bears a vessel on her 
head, probably containing wine for a libation. 

Figure 17 is from vol. i. Recherches, etc., plate xxii. In 
this medal the triad is formed by a man and two coiled 
serpents on the one side of the medal, whilst on the reverse 
are seen a tree, surrounded by a snake, situated between two 
rounded stones, with a dog and a conch shell below. See 
supra, Plate ix., Fig. 6. 


With two exceptions, Figs. 4 and 9, exhibits Christian 
emblems of the trinity or linga, and the unity or yoni, alone 
or combined ; the whole being copied from Pugin s Glossary 
of Ecclesiastical Ornament (London, 1869). 

Fig. 1 is copied from Pugin, plate xvii., and indicates a 

* There is an able essdy on this subject in No. 267 of the Edinburgh Review 
which almost exhausts the subject but is too long for quotation here. 


double union of the trinity with the unity, here represented 
as a ring, V anneau. 

Figs. 2, 3, are from Pugin, plate xiv. In figure 2, the 
two covered balls at the base of each limb of the cross are 
extremely significant, and if the artist had not mystified 
the free end, the most obtuse worshipper must have recog 
nised the symbol. We may add here that in the two forms 
of the Maltese cross, the position of the lingam is reversed, 
and the egg-shaped bodies, with their cover, are at the free 
end of each limb, whilst the natural end of the organ is left 
unchanged. See figs. 35 and 36. This form of cross is 
Etruscan. Fig. 3 is essentially the same as the preceding, 
and both may be compared with Fig. 4. The balls in this 
cross are uncovered, and the free end of each limb of the 
cross is but slightly modified. 

Fig. 4 is copied in a conventional form from plate xxxv., 
fig. 4, of Two Essays on the Worship of Priapus (London, 
1865). It is thus described (page 147) : " The object was 

found at St. Agati di Goti, near Naples It is a crux 

ansata formed by four phalli, with a circle of female organs 
round the centre ; and appears by the look to have been 
intended for suspension. As this cross is of gold, it had no 
doubt been made for some personage of rank, possibly an 
ecclesiastic." We see here very distinctly the design of the 
egg- and sistrum-shaped bodies. When we have such an 
unmistakable bi-sexual cross before our eyes, it is impossible 
to ignore the signification of Figs. 2 and 3, and Plate xii., 
Figs. 4 and 7. 

Figs. 5, 6 are from Pugin, plates xiv. and xv., and repre 
sent the trinity with the unity, the triune god and the virgin 
united in one. 

Fig. 7 represents the central lozenge and one limb of 
a cross, figured plate xiv. of Pugin. In this instance the 
Maltese cross is united with the symbol of the virgin, being 
essentially the same as Fig. 9, infra. It is a modified form 
of the crux ansata. 


Fig. 8 is a compound trinity, being the finial of each 
limb of an ornamental cross. Pugin, plate xv. 

Fig. 9 is a well-known Egyptian symbol, borne in the 
hand of almost every divinity. It is a cross, with one limb 
made to represent the female element in creation. The 
name that it technically bears is cwayjysata, or "the cross 
with a handle." A reference to Fig. 4 serves to verify the 
idea which it involves. 

Fig. 10 is from Pugin, plate xxxv. In this figure 
the cross is made by the intersection of two ovals, each 
a vesica piscis, an emblem of the yoni. Within each limb a 
symbol of the trinity is seen, each of which is associated 
with the central ring. 

Fig. 11 is from Pugin, plate xix., and represents the arbor 
vitce, the branch, or tree of life, as a triad, with which the 
ring is united. 

It has been said by some critics that the figures above 
referred to are mere architectural fancies, which never had 
pretensions to embody a mystery; and that any designer 
would pitch upon such a style of ornamentation although 
profoundly ignorant of the doctrine of the trinity and unity* 
But this assumption is not borne out by fact ; the ornaments 
on Buddhist topes have nothing in common with those of 
Christian churches ; whilst in the ruined temple of the 
sun at Marttand, India, the trefoil emblem of the trinity is 
common. Grecian temples were profusely ornamented there 
with, and so are innumerable Etruscan sculptures, but they do 
not represent the trinity and unity. It has been reserved for 
Christian art to crowd our churches with the emblems of 
Bel and Astarte, Baalim and Ashtoreth, linga and yoni, 
and to elevate the phallus to the position of the supreme 
deity, and assign to him a virgin as a companion, who 
can cajole him by her blandishment, weary him by wail 
ing, or induce him to change his mind by her interces 
sions. Christiajii^^eiiainiy^^ujres to be purged of its 




Contains both pagan and Christian emblems. 

Fig. 1 is from Pugin, plate xviii., and is a very common 
finial representing the trinity. Its shape is too significant to 
require an explanation ; yet with such emblems our Christian 
churches abound, that the Trinity may never be absent from 
the minds of man or woman ! 

Fig. 2 is from Pugin, plate xxi. It is a combination 
of ideas concealing the union patent in Fig. 4, Plate xi., supra. 

Fig. 3 is from Moor s Hindu Pantheon. It is an orna 
ment borne by Devi, and symbolises the union of the triad 
with the unit. 

Fig. 4 is from Pugin, plate xxxii. It is a double 
cross made up of the male and female emblems. It is 
a conventionalised form of Fig. 4, Plate xi., supra. Such 
eight-rayed figures, made like stars, seem to have been very 
ancient, and to have been designed to indicate the junction of 
male and female. 

Fig. 5 is from Pugin, plate xvii., and represents the 
trinity and the unity. 

Fig. 6 is a Buddhist emblem from Birmah, Journal 
of Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xviii., p. 392, plate i., fig. 
52. It represents the short sword, le bracquemard, a male 

Fig. 7. is from Pugin, plate xvii. See Plate xi., Fig. 3, 

Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 are Buddhist (see Fig. 6, supra), 
and symbolise the triad. 

Figs. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 are from Pugin, and simply 
represent the trinity. 

Figs. 18 and 19 are common Grecian emblems. The 
first is associated with Neptune and water, the second with 
Bacchus. With the one we see dolphins, emblems of the 
womb, the name of the two being assonant in Greek ; with 
the other, the saying, sine Baccho et Cerere friget Venus, 
must be coupled. 




Consists of various emblems of the triad and the unit, drawn 
almost exclusively from Grecian, Etruscan, Roman, and 
Indian gems, figures, coins, or sculptures, Maffei s Gemme 
Antiche Figurate, Raponi s Recueil, and Moor s Hindu Pan 
theon, being the chief authorities. 


Is a copy of a small Hindoo statuette in the Mayer Collec 
tion in the Free Museum, Liverpool. It probably repre 
sents Parvati, the Hindoo virgin, and her child. The right 
hand of the figure makes the symbol of the yoni with- the 
forefinjyerjmdjhnmb f the-^a-^-40m fingnm ^yjnfci^g the 
.Jriad. In the palm and on the navel is a lozenge, 
emblematic of woman. The child, perhaps Crishna, equi 
valent to the Egyptian Horus and the Christian Jesus, 
bears in its hand one of the many emblems of the linga, and 
stands upon a lotus. The monkey introduced into the group 
plays the same part as the cat, cow, lioness, and ape in the 
Egyptian mythology, being emblematic of that desire which 
eventuates in the production of offspring. 


Fig. 1, the cupola, is well known in modern Europe ; it is 
equally so in Hindostan, where it is sometimes accompanied 
by pillars of a peculiar shape. In one such compound the 
design is that of a cupola, supported by closely placed pillars, 
each of which has a "capital," resembling "the glans " of 
physiologists ; in the centre there is a door, wherein a nude 
female stands, resembling in all respects Figure 61, except in 
dress and the presence of the child. This was copied 
by the late Mr. Sellon, from a Buddhist Dagopa in the 
Jumnar Cave, Bombay Presidency, a tracing of his sketch 
having been given to me by William Simpson, Esq., London. 

The same emblem may be found amongst the ancient 
Italians. Whilst I was staying in Malta during the carnival 






time in 1872, 1 saw in all directions men and women selling 
cakes shaped like the yoni shown in Fig. 1. These sweet 
meats had no special name, but they came in and went out 
with the carnival. 

Fig. 2 represents Venus standing on a tortoise, whose 
symbolic import will be seen by referring to Fig. 74, infra. 
It is copied from Lajard, Sur le Culte de Venus, plate iiia., 
fig. 5, and is stated by him to be a drawing of an Etruscan 
candelabrum, existing in the Koyal Museum at Berlin. In 
his account of Greece, Pausanias mentions that he saw one 
figure of Venus standing on a tortoise, and another upon 
a ram, but he declines to give the reason of the conjunction. 


Is a representation of Siva, taken from Moor s Hindu Pan 
theon, plate xiii. Siva is supposed to be the oldest of the 
Indian deities, and to have been worshipped by the abori 
gines of Hindostan, before the Aryans invaded that country. 
It is thought that the Vedic religion opposed this degrading 
conception at the first, but was powerless to eradicate it. 
Though he is yet the most popular of all the gods, Siva is 
venerated, I understand, chiefly by the vulgar. Though he 
personifies the male principle, there is not anything indecent 
in pictorial representations of him. In one of his hands 
is seen the trident, one of the emblems of the masculine 
triad ; whilst in another is to be seen an oval sistrum-shaped 
loop, a symbol of the feminine unit. On his forehead he 
bears an eye, symbolic of the Omniscient, the sun, and the 
union of the sexes. 

As it has been doubted by some readers, whether I am 
justified in regarding the sistrum as a female emblem, I 
append here a quotation from Socrates Ecclesiastical History, 
Bonn s translation, p. 281, seq. In Eome, in the early time 
of Theodosius, "when a woman was detected in adultery 
. . . they shut her up in a narrow brothel, and obliged 
her to prostitute herself in a most disgusting manner ; causing 


little bells to be rung at tbe time ... As soon as the 
emperor was apprised of this indecent usage, he would by no 
means tolerate it; but having ordered the Sistra (for so 
these places of penal prostitution were denominated) to be 
pulled down," &c. One can as easily see why a female 
emblem should mark a brothel in Rome as a male symbol 
did at Pompeii. 

Figure 1. 

This Figure represents Assyrian priests offering in the 
presence of what is supposed to be Baal or the representa 
tive of the sun god and of the grove. The first is typified by 
the eye, with wings and a tail, which make it symbolic of 
the male triad and the female unit. The eye, with the 
central pupil, is in itself emblematic of the same. The 
grove represents mystically le verger de Cypris. On the 
right stands the king ; on the left are two priests, the fore 
most clothed with a fish s skin, the head forming the mitre, 
thus showing the origin of modern Christian bishops pecu 
liar head-dress. Arranged about the figures are, the sun ; 
a bird, perhaps the sacred dove, whose note, coa or coo, has, 
in the Shemitic, some resemblance to an invitation to 
amorous gratification ; in Latin coi, coite ; the oval, symbol 
of the yoni ; the basket, or bag, emblematic of the scrotum, 
and apparently the lotus. The trinity and unity are carried 
by the second priest. 

Figure 2 is copied from an ancient copper vase, covered 
with Egyptian hieroglyphic characters, found at Cairo, and 


figured in a book entitled Explication des 
singuliers, qui ont rapport a la religion 

plus anciens 

Figure 2. 

peuples, par le E. P. Dom ....... a Paris, 1739. The group 

of figures represents Isis and Horus in an unusual attitude. 
They are enclosed in a framework of the flowers of the 
Egyptian bean, or of the lotus. This framework may be 
compared to the Assyrian " grove," and another in which the 
Virgin Mary stands. The^bell was of nTj_j^aymhnl o f 
for Eastern_ma5ens 


(see Isa. iii. 16). The origin of this custom wastEe~Sesire 
that every maiden should have at her marriage, or sale, that 
which is spoken of in the Pentateuch as "the token of 
virginity." It was supposed that this membrane, technically 
called " the hymen," might be broken by too long a stride in 
walking or running, or by clambering over a stile or wall. 
To prevent such a catastrophe, a light chain or cord was 
worn, under or over the dress, at the level of the knees 
or just above. Its length only permitted a short step and a 
mincing gait. Slight bells were used as a sort of ornament, 
and when the bearer was walking their tinkling was a sort of 
proclamation that the lady who bore them was in the market 
as a virgin. After "the flower" had been plucked, the bells 


were no longer of use. They were analogous to the virgin 
snood worn on the head of Scotch maidens. Isis bears the 
horns of a cow, because that animal is equally noted for its 
propensity to seek the male and its care to preserve the 
offspring. As the bull with a human head, so a human 
being with cow s horns, was made to represent a deity. The 
solar orb between the horns, and the serpent round the body, 
indicate the union with the male ; an incongruous conjunc 
tion with the emblem of the sacred Virgin, nevertheless a 
very common one. In some of the coins pictured by R. P. 
Knight, in Worship of Priapus, etc., a cow caressing her 
sucking calf replaces Isis and Horus, just as a bull on other 
coins replaces Dionysus. The group is described in full in 
Ancient Faiths, second edition, Vol. i., pp. 53, 54. 

Kigure 8. 

Figure 4 


Figures 3, 4, are taken from Ginsburg s Kabbalah, and 
illustrate that in the arrangement of " potencies " two unite, 
like parents, to form a third. Sometimes we see also how 
three such male attributes as splendour, firmness, and 
solidity join with beauty to form the mystic arba, the trinity 
and unity. 

Figure 5. 

Figure 6. 

Figures 5, 6, are copies from figures found in Carthage 
and in Scotland, from Forbes Leslie s Early Races of 
Scotland, vol. i., plate vi., p. 46 (London, 1866). This 
book is one to which the reader s attention should be directed. 
The amount of valuable information which it contains is very 
large, and it is classified in a philosophical, and, we may 
add, attractive manner. The figures represent the arbor 

Figure 7 is from Bonomi, page 292, Nineveh and its 
Palaces (London, 1865). It apparently represents the 
mystic yoni, door, or delta ; and it may be regarded as 
an earlier form of the framework in Plate iv. It will be 


remarked, by those learned in symbols, that the outline 
of the hands of the priests who are nearest to the figure 

Figure 7. 

is a suggestive one, being analogous to the figure of a key 
and its shank, whilst those who stand behind these 
officers present the pine cone and bag, symbolic of 
Anu, Hea, and their residence. It is to be noticed, and 
once forjill_lrt-i IIP flBflfirti m i v Mipf -f.haT every detail in 
a icnlptrun rrtfmnf; tn rrHgiftn haa a signification ; that the 
first right hand figure carries a peculiarly shaped staff; and 
that the winged symbol above the yoni consists of a male 
archer in a winged circle, analagous to the symbolic bow, 
arrow, and target. The bow was an emblem amongst the 
Romans, and arcum tender e was equivalent to arrigere. In 
the Golden Ass of Apuleius we find the metaphor used in 
his account of his dealings with amorous frolicsome Fotis, 
" Ubi primam sagittam saevi cupidinis in ima prcecordia mea 
delapsam excepi, arcum meum et ipse vigore tetendi." 

Again, we find in P^tronius 

Astra igitur mea mens arcum dum tendit in ilia. 
Ex imo ad summum viva sagitta volat. 

Figures 8 to 14 are representations of the goddess 
mother, the virgin and child, Ishtar or Astarte, Mylitta, 
Ceres, Rhea, Venus, Sacti, Mary, Yoni, Juno, Mama Ocello, 


etc. Fig. 8 is a copy of the deified woman or celestial 
mother, from Idalium, in Cyprus. Fig. 9 is from Egypt, 

Figure 8. 

Figure 9. 

and is remarkable for the cow s horns (for whose signification 
see Vol. i., p. 54, Ancient Faiths, second edition), which 
here replace the lunar crescent, in conjunction with the sun, 
the two being symbolic of hermaphroditism, whilst above is a 
seat or throne, emblematic of royalty. The two figures are 
copied from Rawlinson s Herodotus, vol. ii., p. 447, in an 
essay by Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, wherein other illustrations of 
the celestial virgin are given. Fig. 10 is a copy of plate 59, 
Moor s Hindu Pantheon, wherein it is entitled, " Crishna 
nursed by Devaki, from a highly finished picture." In the 
account of Crishna s birth and early history, as given by 
Moor (Op. Cit., pp. 197, et seq.), there is as strong a 
resemblance to the story of Christ as the picture here 
described has to papal paintings of Mary and Jesus. Fig. 
11 is an enlarged representation of Devaki. Fig. 12 is 
copied from Rawlinson s Ancient Monarchies, vol. 



p. 399. Fig. 13 is a figure of the mother and child found 
in ancient Etruria at Volaterrse ; it is depicted in Fabretti s 

Figure 10. 

Italian Glossary, plate xxvi., figure 349. It is described as 
a marble statue, now in the Guarnacci Museum. The 
letters, which are Etruscan, and read from right to left, may 
be thus rendered into the ordinary Latin characters from 
left to right, MI : GANA : LARTHIAS ZANL : VELKINEI : 
ME - SE. ; the translation I take to be, " the votive offering 
of Larthias (a female) of Zanal, ( = Zancle = Messana in 
Sicily), (wife) of Velcinius, in the sixth month." It is 
uncertain whether we are to regard the statue as an effigy of 
the celestial mother and child, or as the representation 
of some devout lady who has been spared during her preg 
nancy, her parturition, or from some disease affecting herself 


and child. Analogy would lead us to infer that the Queen of 
Heaven is intended. Figure 14 is copied from Hislop s Two 
D Babylons ; it represents Indranee, the wife of Indra or 
Indur, and is to be found in Indur Subba, the south front of 
the Caves of Ellora, Asiatic Researches, vol. vi., p. 393. 

Figure 11. 

Figure 12. 

Indra is equivalent to Jupiter Tonans, and is represented as 
seated on an elephant ; " the waterspout is the trunk of this 
elephant, and the iris is his bow, which it is not auspicious 
to point out," Moor s Pantheon, p. 260. He is represented 
very much as if he were a satyr, Moor s Pantheon, p. 264 ; 
but his wife is always spoken of as personified chastity and 
propriety. Indranee is seated on a lioness, which replaces 
the cow of Isis, the former resembling the latter in her 
feminine and maternal instincts. 

Figures 15, 16, are copies of Diana of the Ephesians ; 
the first is from Hislop, who quotes Kitto s Illustrated 

Commentary, vol. v., p. 250; the second from Higgins 
Anacalypsis, who quotes Montfaucon, plate 47. I remember 
to have seen a figure similar to these in the Royal Museum 

Figure 13. 

Figure 14. 

at Naples. The tower upon the head represents virginity 
(see Ancient Faiths, second edition, Vol. i., p. 144) ; the 
position of the hand forms a cross with the body: the 
numerous breasts indicate abundance; the black colour of 
Figure 16 indicates the ordinary tint of the feminine lanugo, 
the almost universal colour of the hair of the Orientals 
being black about the yoni as well as on the head ; or, 
as some mythologists imagine, " Night," who is said to be 
one of the mothers of creation. (See Ancient Faiths, 
second edition, Vol. n., p. 382.) The emblems upon the 


body indicate the attributes or symbols of the male and 
female creators. 

Figure 15. 

Figure 16. 

Figure 17 is a complicated sign of the yoni, delta, 
or door of life. It is copied from Bonomi s Palaces of 
Nineveh, p. 309. 


Figure 17. 

Figure 18 signifies the same thing ; the priests adoring 
it present the pine cone and basket, symbolic of Anu, Hea, 

Figure 18. 

and their residence. Compare the object of the Assyrian 
priest s adoration with that adored by a Christian divine, in a 
subsequent figure. (See Ancient Faiths, second edition, 
Vol. i., p. 83, et seq., and Vol. n., p. 648.) 

Figure 19 is copied from Lajard (Op. Cit.), plate xxii., 
fig. 5. It is the impression of an ancient gem, and repre 
sents a man clothed with a fish, the head being the mitre ; 
priests thus clothed, often bearing in their hand the mystic 


bag, are common in Mesopotamian sculptures ; two such 
are figured on Figs. 63, 64, infra. In almost every instance it 

Figure 19. 

will be recognised that the fish s head is represented as 
of the same form as the modern bishop s mitre. 

Figure 20 represents two equilateral triangles, infolded so 

Figure 20. 

as to make a six-rayed star, the idea embodied being the 
androgyne nature of the deity, the pyramid with its apex 


upwards signifying the male, that with the apex downwards 
the female. The line at the central junction is not always 
seen, but the shape of the three parallel bars reappears 
in Hindoo frontlet signs in conjunction with a delta or door, 
shaped like the "grove" in Fig. 17; thus showing that the 
lines serve also to indicate the masculine triad. The two 
triangles are also understood as representing fire, which 
mounts upwards, and water, which flows downwards. Fire 
again is an emblem of the sun, and water of the passive or 
yielding element in nature. Fire also typifies Eros or Cupid. 
Hymen is always represented carrying a torch. It is also 
symbolic of love; e. g., Southey writes 

" But love is indestructible, 
Its holy flame for ever burneth ; 
From heaven it came, 
To heaven returneth." 

And again, Scott writes 

" It is not phantasy s hot fire 
Whose wishes, soon as granted, fly," &c. 

Figures 21, 22, are other indications of the same funda 
mental idea. The first represents Nebo, the Nahbi, or the 

Figure 21. Figure 22. 

navel, characterised by a ring with a central mound. The 
second represents the circular and upright stone so common 
in Oriental villages. The two indicate the male and female ; 
and a medical friend resident in India has told me, that he 
has seen women mount upon the lower stone and seat them 
selves reverently upon the upright one, having first adjusted 
their dress so as to prevent it interfering with their perfect 



contact with the miniature obelise. During the sitting, 
a short prayer seemed flitting over the worshippers lips, but 
the whole affair was soon over. 

Whilst upon this subject, it is right to call attention 
to the fact that animate as well as inorganic representatives 
of the Creator have been used by women with the same 
definite purpose. The dnir Q jnt[ id pa iff t-hnti 

gives a blessing. Just as many Hindoo females seek a 
benelactidn^by placing their own yoni upon the consecrated 
linga, so a few regard intercourse with certain high priests of 
the Maharajah sect as incarnations of Vishnu, and pay for 
the privilege of being spouses of the god. In Egypt, where 
the goat was a sacred animal, there were some religious 
women who sought good luck by uniting themselves there 
with. We have heard of British professors of religion 
endeavouring to persuade their penitents to procure purity by 
what others would call defilement and disgrace. And the 
"cord of St. Francis" replaces the stone "linga." Some 
times with this " cord " the rod is associated ; and those who 
have read the trial of Father Gerard, for his seduction of 
Miss Cadiere under a saintly guise, will know that Christian 
ity does not always go hand in hand with propriety. 

With the Hindoo custom compare that which was done 
by Liber on the grave of Prosumnus (Arnobius adversus 
Gentes, translated by Bryce and Campbell, T. and T. Clark, 
Edinburgh, pp. 252, 253), which is far too gross to be 
described here ; and as regards the sanctity of a stone whose 
top had been anointed with oil, see first sentence of para 
graph 39, ibid, page 81. The whole book will well repay 

Figures 23, 24, are discs, circles, aureoles, and wheels, to 
represent the sun. Sometimes the emblem of this luminary 
is associated with rays, as in Plate iii., Fig. 3, and in 
another Figure elsewhere. Occasionally, as in some of the 
ancient temples in Egypt discovered in 1854, the sun s rays 



are represented by lines terminating in hands. Sometimes 
one or more of these contain objects as if they were gifts 
sent by the god ; amongst other objects, the crux ansata is 
shown conspicuously. In a remarkable plate in the Transac 
tions of the Royal Society of Literature (second series, 
vol. i., p. 140), the sun is identified with the serpent ; its 
rays terminate in hands, some holding the handled cross or 
tau, and before it a queen, apparently, worships. She is 
offering what seems to be a lighted tobacco pipe, the bowl 
being of the same shape as that commonly used in Turkey ; 
from this a wavy pyramid of flame rises. Behind her, two 
female slaves elevate the sistrum ; whilst before her, and 
apparently between herself and her husband, are two altars 

Figure 23. 

Figure 24. 

occupied by round cakes and one crescent-shaped emblem. 
The aureole was used in ancient days by Babylonian artists or 
sculptors, when they wished to represent a being, apparently 
human, as a god. The same plan has been adopted by the 
moderns, who have varied the symbol by representing it now 
as a golden disc, now as a terrestrial orb, again as a rayed 
sphere. A writer, when describing a god as a man, can say 
that the object he sketches is divine ; but a painter thinks 
too much of his art to put on any of his designs, "this 
woman is a goddess," or "this creature is a god"; he 
therefore adds an aureole round the head of his subject, and 
thus converts a very ordinary man, woman, or child into a 


deity to be reverenced ; modern artists thus proving them 
selves to be far more skilful in depicting the Almighty than 
the carpenters and goldsmiths of the time of Isaiah (xl. 18, 
JL9, xli. 6, 7, xliv. 9-19), who used no such contrivance. 

Figure 24 is another representation of the solar disc, in 
which it is marked with a cross. This probably originated 
in the wheel of a chariot having four spokes, and the 
sun being likened to a charioteer. The chariots of the sun 
are referred to in 2 Kings xxiii. 11 as idolatrous emblems. 
Of these the wheel was symbolic. The identification of this 
emblem with the sun is very easy, for it has repeatedly been 
, found in Mesopotamian gems in conjunction with the moon. 
In a very remarkable one figured in Eawlinson s Ancient 
Monarchies, vol. ii., p. 249, the cross is contrived as five 
circles. It ig^remarkable that in many MnaLpictures the 
wafer and the cup are depicted precisely as the sun and 
moon in conjunction, 
plate iv., tig. 

Figures 25, 26, 27, are simply varieties of the solar 

Figure 26. 

Figure 27. 

wheel, intended to represent the idea of the sun and moon, 
the mystic triad and unit, the "arba," or four. In Figure 


26, the mural ornament is introduced, that being symbolic of 
feminine virginity. For explanation of Figure 27, see 
Figures 35, 36. 

Figure 28 is copied from Lajard, Op. Cit., plate xiv. F. 
That author states that he has taken it from a drawing of an 
Egyptian stele, made by M. E. Prisse (Monum. Egypt., 
plate xxxvii.), and that the original is in the British 

Figure 28. 

Museum. There is an imperfect copy of it in Rawlinson s 
Herodotus, vol. ii. The original is too indelicate to be 
represented fully. Isis, the central figure, is wholly nude, 
with the exception of her head-dress, and neck and breast 
ornaments. In one hand she holds two blades of corn 
apparently, whilst in the other she has three lotus flowers, 
two being egg-shaped, but the central one fully expanded ; 
with these, which evidently symbolise the mystic triad, 
is associated a circle emblematic of the yoni, thus indicating 
the fourfold creator. Isis stands upon a lioness ; on one 
side of her stands a clothed male figure, holding in one hand 
the crux ansata, and in the other an upright spear. On the 
opposite side is a male figure wholly nude, like the goddess, 
save his head-dress and collar, the ends of which are 
arranged so as to form a cross. His hand points to a 
flagellum ; behind him is a covert reference to the triad, 


whilst in front Osiris offers undisguised homage to Isis. The 
head-dress of the goddess appears to be a modified form of 

Figure 32. 

Figure 81. 

the crescent moon inverted. It is not exclusively Egyptian, 


as it has been found in conjunction with other emblems on 
an Assyrian obelise of Phallic form. 

Figures 29, 30, 31, 32, represent the various triangles 
and their union, which have been adopted in worship. 
Figure 29 is said to represent fire, which amongst the ancient 
Persians was depicted as a cone, whilst the figure inverted 
represents water. 

Figure 33 is an ancient Hindoo emblem, called Sri 




Figure 33. 

lantra. The circle represents the world, in which the living 
exist ; the triangle pointing upwards shows the male creator ; 
and the triangle with the apex downwards the female ; dis 
tinct, yet united. These have a world within themselves, in 
which the male is uppermost. In the central circle the image 
to be worshipped is placed. When used, the figure is placed 
on the ground, with Brahma to the east, and Laksmi to the 


west. Then a relic of any saint, or image of Buddha, like a 
modern papal crucifix, is added, and the shrine for worship is 
complete. It has now heen adopted in Christian churches 
and Freemasons lodges. 

It will be noticed that the male emblem points to the 
rising sun, and the female triangle points to the setting sun, 
when the earth seems to receive the god into her couch. 

Figure 34 is a very ancient Hindoo emblem, whose real 
signification I am unable to divine. It is used in calcula 
tion ; it forms the basis of some game, and 
it is a sign of vast import in sacti worship. 
A coin, bearing this figure upon it, and 
having a central cavity with the Etruscan 
letters SUPEN placed one between each two 
of the angles, was found in a fictile urn, 
Figure 34. a t Volaterrse, and is depicted in Fabretti s 
L alian Glossary, plate xxvi., fig. 358, bis a. As the coin is 
round, the reader will see that these letters may be read as 
Supen, Upens, Pensu, Ensup, or Nsupe. A search through 
Fabretti s Lexicon affords no clue to any meaning except for 
the third. There seems, indeed, strong reason to believe 
that pensu was the Etruscan form of the Pali panca, the 
Sanscrit pdnch, the Bengalli pdnch, and the Greek penta, 
i.e., five. Five, certainly, would be an appropriate word for 
the pentangle. It is almost impossible to avoid speculating 
upon the value of this fragment of archaeological evidence in 
support of the idea that the Greeks, Aryans, and Etruscans 
had something in common ; but into the question it would 
be unprofitable to enter here. 

But, although declining to enter upon this wide field of 
inquiry, I would notice that whilst searching Fabretti s 
Glossary my eye fell upon the figure of an equilateral 
triangle with the apex upwards, depicted plate xliii., fig. 
2440 ter. The triangle is of brass, and was found in the 
territory of the Falisci. It bears a rude representation of 
the outlines of the soles of two human feet, in this respect 


resembling a Buddhist emblem ; and there is on its edge an 
inscription which may be rendered thus in Roman letters, 
KAVI : TERTINEL POSTIKNU, which probably signifies 
" Gavia, the wife of Tertius, offered it." The occurrence of 
two Hindoo symbols in ancient Italy is very remarkable. 
It must, however, be noticed that similar symbols have been 
found on ancient sculptured stones in Ireland and Scotland. 
There may be no emblematic ideas whatever conveyed by the 
design ; but when the marks appear on Gnostic gems, they 
are supposed to indicate death, i. e., the impressions left 
by the feet of the individual as he springs from earth to 

Figures 35, 36, are Maltese crosses. In a large book of 

Figure 35. 


Etrurian antiquities, which came casually under my notice 
about twenty years ago, when I was endeavouring to master 
the language, theology, etc., of the Etruscans, but whose 
name, and other particulars of which, I cannot now remem 
ber ; I found depicted two crosses, made up of four mas 
culine triads, each asher being erect, and united to its 
fellows by the gland, forming a central diamond, emblem of 
the yoni. In one instance, the limbs of the cross were of 
equal length ; in the other, one asher was three times as 
long as the others. A somewhat similar cross, but one 
united with the circle, was found some time ago near Naples. 
It is made of gold, and has apparently been used as an 
amulet and suspended to the neck. It is figured in plate 35 
of An Essay on the Worship) of the Generative Powers 


during the Middle Ages (London, privately printed, 1865). 
It may be thus described : the centre of the circle is 
occupied by four oblate spheres arranged like a square ; from 
the salient curves of each of these springs a yoni (shaped as 
in Figure 59), with the point outwards, thus forming a 
cross, each ray of which is an egg and fig. At each junction 
of the ovoids a yoni is inserted with the apex inwards, whilst 
from the broad end arise four ashers, which project beyond 
the shield, each terminating in a few golden bead-like drops. 
The whole is a graphic natural representation of the intimate 
union of the male and female, sun and moon, cross and 
circle, Ouranos and Ge. The same idea is embodied in 
Figure 27, p. 36, but in that the mystery is deeply veiled, in 
that the long arms of the cross represent the sun, or male, 
indicated by the triad ; the short ones, the moon, or the 
female (see Plate xi. Fig. 4). 

The Maltese cross, a Phoenician emblem, was discovered 
cut on a rock in the island from which it takes its name. 
Though cruciform, it had nothing Christian about it ; for, 
like the Etruscan ones referred to above, it consisted of four 
lingas united together by the heads, the " eggs" being at the 
outside. It was an easy thing for an unscrupulous priest 
hood to represent this "invention " of the cross as a miracle, 
and to make it presentable to the eyes of the faithful by 
leaving the outlines of Anu and Hea incomplete. Some 
times this cross is figured as four triangles meeting at the 
points, which has the same meaning. Generally, however, 
the Church (as may be seen by a reference to Pugin s 
Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament) adopts the use of crosses 
where the inferior members of the trinity are more or less 
central, as in our Plate xi., Figs. 2, 3, and as in the Figures 
40, 41, 42, infra. When mice^ a peraQjD^Jmnwa^ the true 
origin_of the doctrine of the Trinity Qnewhich is far too 

Testament^*fe-is impOBBiblb tte^ fo r^ogni#e-4rr th? signs 
which are symbolic of it the thing which is -signified. 


It may readily be supposed that those who have know 
ledge of the heathenish origin of many of the cherished 
doctrines of the so-called Christian church, cannot remain 
enthusiastic members of her communion ; and it is equally 
easy for the enlightened philosopher to understand why such 
persons are detested and abused by the ignorant, and 
charged with being freethinkers, sceptics, or atheists. 
Sciolism is ever intolerant, and theological hatred is gene 
rally to be measured by the mental incapacity of those who 
indulge in the luxury. But no amount of abuse can reduce 
the intrinsic value of facts. Norjvill the most fiery persecu- 
tion demonstrate that the reliffiorL_oJLjQbJt, an 11 appears in 
our ^hnrcEes and cathedrals, especially if~4key~are papal, is 
not tainted "by a mass of paganism of disgusting origin. 

Figttre 37~ is copied from ihe~~jGWnal of the Royal 

Asiatic Society, vol. xviii., p 393, plate 4. It is a Buddhist 
emblem, and represents the same idea under different 
aspects. Each limb of the cross represents the fascinum at 
right angles with the body, and presented towards a barley 
corn, one of the symbols of the yoni. Each limb is marked 
by the same female emblem, and terminates with the triad 


triangle ; beyond this again is seen the conjunction of the 
sun and moon. The whole therefore represents the mystic 
arba, the creative four, by some called Thor s hammer. 
Copies of a cross similar to this have been recently found by 
Dr. Schliemann in a very ancient city, buried under the 
remains of two others, which he identifies as the Troy of 
Homer s Iliad. 

Figures 38 to 42 are developments of the triad triangle, 
or trinity. If the horizontal limb on the free end of the arm 

Figure 38. 


Figure 40. 

Figure 41. 

Figure 42. 

were to be prolonged to twice its length, the most obtuse 
would recognise Asher, and the inferior or lower members 
of the "triune." 

Figure 43 is by Egyptologists called the symbol of life. 

____|_ ^^ It is also called the handled cross, or crux 

P" ansata. It represents the male triad and 

Figure 43. the female unit, under a decent form. 
There are few symbols more commonly met with in Egyp- 

Figure 44. 

Figure 45. 

tian art than this. In some remarkable sculptures, where 


the sun s rays are represented as terminating in hands, the 
offerings which these bring are many a crux ansaia, 
emblematic of the truth that a fruitful union is a gift from 
the deity. 

Figures 44, 45, are ancient designs, in which the male 
and female elements are more disguised than is usual. In 
Fig. 44 the woman is indicated by the dolphin. 

Figures 46, 47, ~ are representatives of 

the ancient male J[ L ^^f^ triad, adopted by mo 

derns to symbolise v- J 1 / the Trinity. 

Figure 46. Figure 47. 

Figures 48, 49, represent the trefoil which was used by 

Figure 49. 

Figure 48. 

the ancient Hindoos as emblematic of the celestial triad, and 
adopted by modern Christians. It will be seen that from 
one stem arise three curiously- shaped segments, each of 
which is supposed to resemble the male scrotum, " purse," 
"bag," or "basket." 

Figure 50 is copied from Lajard, Culte de Venus, plate i., 
fig. 2. He states that it is from a gem cylinder in the 
British Museum. It represents a male and female figure 
dancing before the mystic palm-tree, into whos^ signification 
we need not enter beyond saying that it is a symbol of 
Asher. Opposite to a particular part of the figures is to be 


seen a diamond, or oval, and a fleur de lys, or symbolic 
triad. This gem is peculiarly valuable, as it illustrates in a 

Figure 50. 

graphic manner the meaning of the emblems in question, 
and how " the lilies of France " had a Pagan origin. 

Figure 60. 


Figures 51 to 60 are various representations of the union I 
of the four, the arba, the androgyne, or the linga-yoni. 

Figure 61. In modern Christian art this 
symbol is called vesica piscis, and is sometimes 
surrounded with rays. It commonly serves as 
a sort of framework in which female saints are 
placed, who are generally the representatives of 
the older Juno, Ceres, Diana, Venus, or other 
impersonations of the feminine element in crea 
tion. We should not feel obliged to demon- Figure ei. 
strate the truth of this assertion if decency permitted us to 
reproduce here designs which naughty youths so frequently 
chalk upon walls to the disgust of the proper part of the 
community. We must, therefore, have resort to a religious 
book, and in a subsequent figure demonstrate the meaning 
of the symbol unequivocally. 

Figure 62 represents one of the forms assumed by the 

sistrum of Isis. 

Figure 62. 

Sometimes the instrument is oval, and 


occasionally it terminates below in a horizontal line, instead 
of in an acute angle. The inquirer can very readily recog 
nise in the emblem the symbol of the female creator. If there 
should be any doubt in his mind, he will be satisfied after a 
reference to Maifei s Gemme Antiche Figurate (Rome, 1707), 
vol. ii., plate 61, wherein Diana of the Ephesians is depicted 
as having a body of the exact shape of the sistrum figured in 
Payne Knight s work on the remains of the worship of 
Priapus, etc. The bars across the sistrum show that it 
denotes a pure virgin (see Ancient Faiths, second edition, 
Vol. ii., pp. 743-746). On its handle is seen the figure of 
a cat a sacred animal amongst the Egyptians, for the same 
reason that Isis was figured sometimes as a cow viz., for its 
salacity and its love for its offspring. 

Figure 64. 


Figures 63 to 66 are all drawn from Assyrian sources. 

Figure 65. 

The central figure, which is probably the 
biblical " grove," represents the delta, or 
female " dnnr." To it the attendant 
genii offer the pine cone and basket. 
The signification of these is explained 
subsequently. I was unable at first to 
quote any authority to demonstrate that 
the pine cone was a distinct masculine 
symbol, but now the reader may be 
referred to Maffei, Gemme Antiche Figu- 
ee. rate (Rome, 1708), where, in vol. iii., 

plate 8, he will see a Venus Tirsigera. The goddess is 
nude, and carries in her hand the tripliform arrow, emblem 
of the male triad, whilst in the other she bears a thyrsus, 
terminating in a pine or fir cone. Now this cone and stem 
are carried in the Bacchic festivities, and can be readily 
recognised as virga cum ovo. Sometimes the thyrsus is 
replaced by ivy leaves, which, like the fig, are symbolic of 
the triple creator. Occasionally the thyrsus was a lance or 
pike, round which vine leaves and berries were clustered ; 
Bacchus cum vino being the companion of Venus cum cerere. 
But a stronger confirmation of my views may be found in a 
remarkable group (see Fig. 124 infra). This is entitled Sacri- 
fizio di Priapo, and represents a female offering to Priapus. 
The figure of the god stands upon a pillar of three stones, 



and it bears a thyrsus from which depend two ribbons. The 
devotee is accompanied by a boy, who carries a pine- or fir 
cone in his hand, and a basket on his head, in which may be 
recognised a male effigy. In Figure 64 the position of the 
advanced hand of each of the priests nearest to the grove is 
very suggestive to the physiologist. It resembles one limb 
of the Buddhist cross, Fig. 37, supra. The finger or thumb 
when thus pointed are figurative of Asher, in a horizontal 
position, with Anu or Hea hanging from one end. Figure 65 
is explained similarly. It is to be noticed that a door is 
adopted amongst modern Hindoos as an emblem of the sacti 
(see Figs. 152, 153, infra). 

My friend Mr. Newton, who has taken great interest in 
the subject of symbolism, regards these "groves" as not 
being simply emblems of the yoni, but of the union of that 
part with the lingam, or mystic palm tree. As his ideas are 
extremely ingenious, and his theory perfect, I have requested 
him to introduce them at the end of this work. 

Figures 67, 68, 69, are fancy sketches intended to repre- 

Figure 67. Figure 68. 

Figure 69. 

sent the "sacred shields" spoken of in Jewish and other 
history. The last is drawn from memory, and represents a 


Templar s shield. According to the method in which the 
shield is viewed, it appears like the os tinea or the navel. 
Figures 70, 71, represent the shape of the sistrum of 

Figure 70. Figure 71. 

Isis, the fruit of the fig, and the yoni. When a garment of 
this shape is made and worn, it becomes the " pallium " 
donned alike by the male and female individuals consecrated 
to Koman worship. 

King, in his Ancient Gnostics, remarks : " The circle of 
the sun is the navel, which marks the natural position of the 
womb the navel being considered in the microcosm as 
corresponding to the sun in the universe, an idea more fully 
exemplified in the famous hallucination of the Greek ancho 
rites touching the mystical Light of Tabor, which was 
revealed to the devotee after a fast of many days, all the time 
staring fixedly upon the region of the navel, whence at 
length this light streamed as from a focus." Pages 153, 154. 

Figures 72, 73, represent an ancient Christian bishop, 
and a modern nun wearing the emblem of the female sex. 
In the former, said (in Old England Pictorially Illustrated, 
by Knight) to be a drawing of St. Augustine, the amount of 
symbolism is great. The " nimbus " and the tonsure are 
solar emblems ; the pallium, the feminine sign, is studded 
with phallic crosses ; its lower end is the ancient T> the 
mark of the masculine triad; the right hand has the fore 
finger extended, like the Assyrian priests whilst doing 
homage to the grove, and within it is the fruit, tappuach, 
which is said to have tempted Eve. When a male dons 
the pallium in worship, he becomes the representative of the 
trinity in the unity, the arba, or mystic four. See Ancient 
Faiths, second edition, Vol. n., pp. 915-918. 

I take this opportunity to quote here a pregnant page of 
King s Gnostics and their Remains, (Bell & Daldy, London, 


1864). To this period belongs a beautiful sard in my 
collection representing Serapis, . . . whilst before him 
stands Isis, holding in one hand the sistrum, in the other 

Figure 72. 

Figure 73. 

a wheatsheaf, with the legend . . . Immaculate is 
our lady Isis, the very terms applied afterwards to that 
personage who succeeded to her form (the Black Virgins, 
so highly reverenced in certain French Cathedrals during the 
middle ages, proved, when examined critically, basalt figures 
of Isis), her symbols, rites, and ceremonies. . . . Her 
devotees carried into the new priesthood the former badges of 
their profession, the obligation to celibacy, the tonsure, and 
the surplice, omitting, unfortunately, the frequent ablutions 
prescribed by the ancient creed. The sacred image still 
moves in procession as when Juvenal laughed at it, vi. 530, 
Escorted by the tonsui-ed^surpliced train^- Her" proper 
title, Domina, the exacT^ranslation of Sanscrit Zsi r -atn-vivefl 
with slight change in the modern Madonna. Mater jjomina. 


By a singular permutation the flower WT^ by PH^, the 
lotus ancient emblem of the sun and fecundity now jjfrp lilv. is interpreted as signffifraaL of Lhe opposing 
quality. The tinkling sistrum ... is replaced by . 
the bell, taken from Buddhist usages. . . .. The erect 
oval symbol of the Female Principle of Nature became the 
Vesica Piscis, and the Crux Ansata, testifying the union of 
the male and female in the most obvious manner, is trans 
formed into the orb surmounted by the cross, as an ensign of 
royalty." Pp. 71, 72. 

Figure 74 is a well known Christian emblem, called " a 
foul anchor." The anchor, as a symbol, is of great antiquity. 
It may be seen on an old Etruscan coin in the British 
Museum, depicted in Veterum Populorum et Regum Nummi, 
etc. (London, 1814), plate ii., fig. 1. On the reverse there 
is a chariot wheel. The foul anchor represents the crescent 

Figure 74. 

moon, the yoni, ark, navis, or boat ; in this is placed the 
mast, round which the serpent, the emblem of life in the 
"verge," entwines itself. The cross beam completes the 
mystic four, symbolic alike of the sun and of androgeneity. 
The whole is a coverjuani^ nf that union whifibjTrmltf! in 
fecundity. It is^said by Christians to be the anchor of 
the soul, sureand steadfast. This it certainly cannot be, 
for alxml anchor will not hold the ground. 

Tigures 75 To 79 are Asiatic and Egyptian emblems 
in use amongst ourselves, and receive their explanation 
similarly to preceding ones. 

Figure 75. Figure 76. Figure 77. Figure 78. 


Figure 79. 

Figure 80 is copied from Godfrey Higgins Anacalypsis, 
vol. ii., fig. 27. It is drawn from Montfaugon, vol. ii., 
pi. cxxxii., fig. 6. In his text, Higgins refers to two similar 

Figure 80. 

groups, one which exists in the Egyptian temple of Ipsam- 

bul in Nubia, and is described by Wilson, On Buddhists and 
Jeynes, p. 127, another, found in a cave temple in the south 
of India, described by Col. Tod, in his History of Raj- 
pootanah. The group is not explained by Montfaucon. It 
is apparently Greek, and combines the story of Hercules with 
the seductiveness of Circe. The tree and serpent are 
common emblems, and have even been found in Indian 
temples in central America, grouped as in the woodcut. 

Figure 81 is copied from Lajard, Culte de Venus, plate 
xix., fig. 11. The origin of this, which 
is a silver statuette in that author s pos 
session, is unknown. The female repre 
sents Venus bearing in one hand an 
apple ; her arm rests upon what seems to 
be a representative of the mystic triad 
(the two additions to the upright stem 
not being seen in a front view) round 
which a dolphin (&eA4>/$, dolphin, for 
SsA4>u womb ) is entwined, from whose 
mouth comes the stream of life. The 
apple plays a strange part in Greek and 
Hebrew mythology. The story of " the 
apple of discord," awarded by Paris to Figure si. 

Venus, seems to indicate that where beauty contends against 
majesty and wisdom for the love of youth, it is sure to win 
the day. We learn from Arnobius that a certain Nana con 
ceived a son by an apple (Op. Cit., p. 236), although in 
another place the prolific fruit is said to have been a pome 
granate. Mythologically, that writer sees no difficulty in the 
story, for those who affirm that rocks and hard stones have 
brought forth. In the Song of Solomon, apples and the tree 
that bears them are often referred to ; and we have in 
Ch. ii. 5 the curious expression, " Comfort me with apples, 
for I am sick of love." We are familiar with the account of 
Eve being tempted by the same fruit. Critics imagine that 
as the apple in Palestine is not good eating, the quince 


is meant; if so, we know that a leaf of that tree is to 
be seen in every amorous picture found in Pompeii, the 
plant having been supposed to increase virile power. Others 
imagine that the citron is intended, whose shape makes it an 
emblem of the testis. However this may be decided, it is 
tolerably clear, from all the tales and pictures in which a 
fruit like the apple figures, that the emblem symbolised a 
desire for an intimate union between the sexes. The reader 
will doubtless remember how, in Genesis xxx, Leah is 
represented as purchasing her husband s company for a night 
by means of mandrakes, the result being the birth of 
Issachar ; and in the well-known story of the Creation we find 
that the apple gives birth to desire, as shown in the recogni 
tion for the first time of the respective nudity of the couple, 
which was followed immediately, or as soon as it was possible 
afterwards, by sexual intercourse and the conception of Cain. 
Figure 82 is from Lajard (Op. Cit.), plate xivfc, fig. 3. 

Figure 82. 

The gem is of unknown origin, but is apparently Babylo 
nish ; it represents the male and female in conjunction : 
each appears to be holding the symbol of the triad in much 
respect, whilst the curious cross suggests a new reading 
to an ancient symbol. 

I have of late heard it asserted, by a man of considerable 
learning, though of a very narrow mind in everything which 


bears upon religious subjects, that there is no proof that the 
sun was commonly regarded as a male, or the moon as a 
female ; and he based his strange assertion solely upon the 
ground that in German and some other languages the sun was 
represented by a feminine, and the moon by a masculine 
noun. The argument is of no value, for <ra|3uTToj, xo~ipo$, 
jtxy^oj, and other Greek and Latin names of the yoni, are 
masculine nouns, and Virga and Mentula, the Roman words 
for the Linga, are feminine. In Hindostan, the sun is 
always represented as a God; the moon is occasionally a 
male, and sometimes a female deity. In ancient Gaulish 
and Scandinavian figures, the sun was always a male, and 
the moon a female. Their identification will be seen in 
Figure 113 as their conjunction is in the one before us 
in the position of the individuals, and in the fleur-de-lys and 
oval symbol. 

Figure 83 may be found in Fabretti s Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum Italicarum (Turin, 1867), plate xxv., fig. 303 f. The 

Figure 83. 

coins which bear the figures are of brass, and were found at 
Volaterrae. In one the double head is associated with a 
dolphin and crescent moon on the reverse, and the letters 
VELATHRI, in Etruscan. A similar inscription exists on the 
one containing the club. The club, formed as in Figure 83, 
occurs frequently on Etruscan coins. For example, two 
clubs are joined with four balls on a Tudertine coin, having 
on the reverse a hand apparently gauntleted for fighting, and 


four balls arranged in a square. On other coins are to 
be seen a bee, a trident, a spear head, and other tripli- 
form figures, associated with three balls in a triangle ; some 
times two, and sometimes one. The double head with 
two balls is seen on a Telamonian coin, having on the 
reverse what appears to be a leg with the foot turned 
upwards. In a coin of Populonia the club is associated with 
a spear and two balls, whilst on the reverse is a single head. 
I must notice, too, that on other coins a hammer and pincers, 
or tongs, appear, as if the idea was to show that a maker, 
fabricator, or heavy hitter was intended to be symbolised. 
What that was is further indicated by other coins, on which a 
head appears thrusting out the tongue. At Cortona two 
statuettes of silver have been found, representing a double- 
faced individual. A lion s head for a cap, a collar, and 
buskins are the sole articles of dress worn. One face 
appears to be feminine, and the other masculine, but neither 
is bearded. The pectorals and the general form indicate 
the male, but the usual marks of sex are absent. On these 
have been found Etruscan inscriptions (1) v. CVINTI ARNTIAS 


ALPAN TURCE. Which may be rendered (1) "V. Quintus of 
Aruntia, to Culpian pleasing, a gift"; (2) "V. Quintus of 
Aruntia to Vulcan pleasing gave a gift," evidently showing 
that they were ex voto offerings. 

Figure 84. The figure here represented is, under one 

form or another, extremely com- s ^ ^ s. 

mon amongst the sculptured f ) f J 

stones in Scotland. Four varie- ^^_^L \. / 

ties may be seen in plate 48 of Figure 84. 

Col. Forbes Leslie s Early Races of Scotland. In plate 49 
it is associated with a serpent, apparently the cobra. The 
design is spoken of as " the spectacle ornament," and it is 
very commonly associated with another figure closely resem 
bling the letter Z- It is very natural for the inquirer to 
associate the twin circles with the sun and earth, or the sun 


and moon. On one Scottish monument the circles represent 
wheels, and they probably indicate the solar chariot. As 
yet I have only been able to meet with the Z and " spectacle 
ornament " once out of Scotland ; it is figured on apparently 
a Gnostic gem (The Gnostics and their Remains, by C. W. 
King, London, 1864, plate ii., fig. 5). In that we see in a 
serpent cartouche two Z figures, each having the down 
stroke crossed by a horizontal line, both ends terminating 
in a circle ; besides them is a six -rayed star, each ray termi 
nating in a circle, precisely resembling the star in Plate m., 
Fig. 3, supra. I can offer no satisfactory explanation of the 

Figures 85, 86, represent a Yorkshire and an Indian 

Figure 85. 


stone circle. The first is copied from Descriptions of 
Cairns, Cromlechs, Kistvaens, and other Celtic, Druidical, 


or Scythian Monuments in the Dekkan, by Col. Meadows 
Taylor, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxiv. 
The mound exists at Twizell, Yorkshire, and the centre of the 
circle indicates an ancient tomb, very similar to those found 
by Taylor in the Dekkan ; this contained only one single 
urn, but many of the Indian ones contained, besides the 
skeleton of the great man buried therein, skeletons of other 
individuals who had been slaughtered over his tomb, and 
buried above the kistvaen containing his bones ; in one 
instance two bodies and three heads were found in the 
principal grave, and twenty other skeletons above and beside 
it. A perusal of this very interesting paper will well repay 
the study bestowed upon it. Figure 86 is copied from Forbes 
Leslie s book mentioned above, plate 59. It represents a 
modern stone circle in the Dekkan, of very recent con 
struction. The dots upon the stones represent dabs of red 
paint, which again represent blood. The circles are similar 
to some which have been found in Palestine, and give evidence 
of the presence of the same religious ideas existing in 
ancient England and Hindostan, as well as in modern India. 
The name of the god worshipped in these recent shrines is 
Vetal, or Betal. It is worth mentioning, in passing, that 
there is a celebrated monolith in Scotland called the Newton 
Stone, on which are inscribed, evidently with a graving tool, 
an inscription in the Ogham, and another in some ancient 
Aryan character (see Moore s Ancient Pillar Stones of 

Figure 87. 


Figure 87 indicates the solar wheel, emblem of the 
chariot of Apollo. This sign is a very common one upon 
ancient coins ; sometimes the rays or spokes are four, at 
others they are more numerous. Occasionally the tire of 
the wheel is absent, and amongst the Etruscans the nave is 
omitted. The solar cross is very common in Ireland, and 
amongst the Komanists generally as a head dress for male 

Figure 88 is copied from Hyslop, who gives it on the 

Figure 88. 

authority of Col. Hamilton Smith, who copied it from the 
original collection made by the artists of the French Insti 
tute of Cairo. It is said to represent Osiris, but this is 
doubtful. There is much that is intensely mystical about 
the figure. The whip, or flagellum, placed over the tail, and 
the head passing through the yoni, the circular spots with 
their central dot, the horns with solar disc, and two curiously 
shaped feathers (?), the calf reclining upon a plinth, wherein 
a division into three is conspicuous, all have a meaning in 
reference to the mystic four. 

I have long had a doubt respecting the symbolic mean 
ing of the scourge. Some inquirers have asserted that it is 
simply an emblem of power or superiority, inasmuch as he 
who can castigate must be in a higher position than the one 
who is punished. But of this view I can find no proof. On 


the other hand, any one who is familiar with the effect upon 
the male produced by flagellation, and who notices that the 
representations of Osiris and the scourge show evidence that 
the deity is in the same condition as one who has been 
subjected to the rod, will be disposed to believe that the 
flagellum is an indication or symbol of the god who gives to 
man the power to reproduce his like, or who can restore the 
faculty after it has faded. It is not for a moment to be 
supposed that a deity who was to be worshipped would be 
depicted as a task-master, whose hands are more familiar 
with punishment than blessing. 

Figure 89 is taken from Lajard s Culte de Venus, plate i., 

Figure 89. 

fig. 14, and is an enlarged impression of a gem. A similar 
figure is to be found in Payne Knight s work On the 
Worship of Priapus. In both instances the female is fringed 
with male emblems. In the one before us a fish, apparently 
a dolphin, is borne in one hand. In the other the woman is 
bearded. These are representations of Ashtaroth the andro 
gyne deity in which the female predominates. 

Fig. 90 represents an ancient Italian form of the Indian 
Ling Yoni. It is copied from a part of the Frontispiece of 
Faber s Dissertation on the Cabiri, where it is stated that 
the plate is a copy of a picture of a nymphoeum found when 
excavating a foundation for the Barbarini Palace at Home. 
It deserves notice, because the round mound of masonry 
surmounted by the short pillars is precisely similar to 
similar erections found in Hindostan on the East and 

America on the West, as well as in various parts of Europe. 
The oval in the pediment and the solitary pillar have the 
same meaning as the Caaba and hole the upright stone 
and pit revered at Mecca long before Mahomet s time the 
tree serves to identify the pillar, and vice versa. Apertures 
were common in ancient sepulchral monuments, alike in- 

Figure 90. 

Hindostan and England ; one perforated stone is preserved as 
a relic in the precincts of an old church in modern Rome. 
The aperture is blackish with the grease of many hands, 
which have been put therein whilst their owners took a 
sacred oath. We have already remarked how ancient Abra 
ham and a modern Arab have sworn by the Linga ; it is 
therefore by no means remarkable that some of a different 
form of faith should swear by the Yoni. 

Figure 91 is stated by Higgins, Anacalypsis, p. 217, to 
be a mark on the breast of an Egyptian mummy in the 

Figure 91. 


Museum of University College, London. It is essentially 
the same symbol as the crux ansata, and is emblematic of 
the male triad and the female unit. 

Figure 92 is simply introduced to show that the papal 
tiara has not about it anything particularly Christian, a 

Figure 92. 

similar head-dress having been worn by gods or angels 
in ancient Assyria, where it appeared crowned by an emblem 
of "the trinity." We may mention, in passing, that as the 
Romanists adopted the mitre and the tiara from "the cursed 
brood of Ham," so they adopted the episcopalian crook from 
the augurs of Etruria, and the artistic form with which 
they clothe their angels from the painters and urn-makers of 
Magna Grrecia and Central Italy. 

Figure 93 is the Mithraic lion. It may be seen in 
Hyde s Religion of the Ancient Persians, second edition, 
plate i. It may also be seen in vol. ii., plates 10 and 11, of 
Maffei s Gemme Antiche Figurate (Rome, 1707). In plate 
10 the Mithraic lion has seven stars above it, around which 
are placed respectively, words written in Greek, Etruscan 


and Phoenician characters, ZEDCH. TELKAN. TELKON. 
showing that the emblem was adopted by the Gnostics. It 
would be unprofitable to dwell upon the meaning of these 
letters. After puzzling over them, I fancy that " Bad 
spirits, pity us," " Just one, I call on thee," may be made 


out by considering the words to be very bad Greek, and the 
letters to be much transposed. 

Figure 94 is copied by Higgins, Anacalypsis, on the 
authority of Dubois, who states, vol. iii., p. 33, that it was 
found on a stone in a church in France, where it had 
been kept religiously for six hundred years. Dubois regards 
it as wholly astrological, and as having no reference to 
the story told in Genesis. It is unprofitable to speculate on 
the draped figures as representatives of Adam and Eve. 
We have introduced it to show how such tales are inter 
mingled with Sabeanism. 

Figure 95 is a copy of a gem figured by Layard (Nineveh 
and Babylon, p. 156), and represents Harpocrates seated on 
a lotus, adoring the mundane representative of the 
mother of creation. I have not yet met with any 
ancient gem or sculpture which seems to identify 
the yoni so completely with various goddesses. 
Compare this with Figure 138, infra, wherein the Figure 95. 
emblem is even more strikingly identified with woman, and 
with the virgin Mary. Those who are familiar with the 
rude designs too often chalked on hoardings, will see that 
learned ancients and boorish moderns represent certain ideas 
in precisely similar fashion, and will understand the mystic 
meaning of Q and ~|. I have elsewhere called attention to 
the idea that a sight of the yoni is a source of health, and 
a charm against evil spirits ; however grotesque the idea may 
be, it has existed in all ages, and in civilised and savage 
nations alike. A rude image of a woman who shamelessly 
exhibits herself has been found over the doors of churches in 
Ireland, and at Servatos, in Spain, where she is standing on 
one side of the doorway, and an equally conspicuous man on 
the other. The same has been found in Mexico, Peru, and 
in North America. Nor must we forget how Baubo cured 
the intense grief of Ceres by exposing herself in a strange 
fashion to the distressed goddess. Arnobius, Op. Git., 
pp. 249, 250. 


As I have already noticed modern mttious on the 
influence produced by the exhibition of the yoni on those 
who ^r^e^sjijGCQniig^-Jim ...legend, referred to may be shortly 

described. The goddess, in the story, was miserable in 
consequence of her daughter, Proserpine, having been stolen 
away by Pluto. In her agony, snatching two Etna-lighted 
torches, she wanders round the earth in search of the lost 
one, and in due course visits Eleusis. Baubo receives her 
hospitably; but nothing that the hostess does induces the 
guest to depose her grief for a moment. In despair the 
mortal bethinks her of a scheme, shaves off what is called 
in Isaiah "the hair of the feet" and then exposes herself to 
the goddess. Ceres fixes her eyes upon the denuded spot, is 
pleased with the strange form of consolation, consents to 
take food and is restored to comfort. 

Figure 96 is copied from plate 22, fig. 3, of Lajard s 
Culte de Venus. He states that it is an impression of 

Figure 96. 

a cornelian cylinder, in the collection of the late Sir William 
Ouseley, and is supposed to represent Cannes, or Bel and 
two fish gods, the authors of fecundity. It_is thought 
that Dagon of the Philistines resembled the toT lfetH es 
supportinff~the central one. 

Figure 97 is a side view of plate 1. The idol represents 
a female. Dagon, the fish god, male above, piscine below, was 


one of the many symbols of an androgyne creator. In the 
first of the Avatars of Vishnu, he is represented as emerging 
from the mouth of a fish, and being a fish himself; the 

Figure 97. 

legend being that he was to be the saviour of the world in 
a deluge which was to follow. See Moor s Hindu Pantheon, 
and Coleman s Mythology of the Hindus. 

Figure 98 is a fancy sketch of the fleur-de~lys, the lily of 
France. It symbolises the male triad, whilst the ring 
around it represents the female. The identification 
of this emblem of the trinity with the tripliform Maha- 
Fi g . 98. <i eva> anc j O f t be ring with his sacti, may be seen in 
the next figure. 

Figure 99, which we have already given on page 46, 
is one of great value to the inquirer into the signification of 
certain symbols. It has been reintroduced here to show the 
identification of the eye, fish, or oval shape, with the yoni, 
and of the fleur-de-lys with the lingam, which is recognised 
by the respective positions of the emblems in front of parti- 


cular parts of the mystic animals, who both, on their 
part, adore the symbolic palni tree, with its pistil and 
stamens. The rayed branches of the upper part of the tree, 

Figure 99. 

and the nearness to it of the crescent moon, seem to indicate 
that the palm was a solar as well as a sexual emblem. 

The great similarity of the palm tree to the ancient 
round towers in Ireland and elsewhere will naturally strike 
the observer. He will perhaps remember also that on certain 
occasions dancing, feasting, and debauchery were practised 
about a round tower in Wicklow, such as were practised round 
the English may-pole, the modern substitute of the mystic 
palm tree. We have now humanised our practice, but 
we have not purified our land of all its veiled symbols. 

In some parts, where probably the palm tree does not 
flourish, the pine takes its place as an emblem. It was 
sacred to the mother of the gods, whose names, Rhoea, 
Ceres, Cybele, are paraphrastic of the yoni. We learn from 
Arnobius, Op. Cit., p. 239, that on fixed days that tree was 
introduced into the sanctuary of that august personage, being 
decorated by fleeces and violets. It does not require any 
recondite knowledge to understand the signification of the 
entrance of the pine into the temple of the divine mother, 
nor what the tree when buried in the midst of a fleece 
depicts. Those who have heard of the origin of the Spanish 


Royal Order of the Golden Fleece know that the word is an 
euphemism for the lanugo of the Romans. Parsley round a 
carrot root is a modern symbol, and the violet is as good an 
emblem of the lingam as the modern pistol. 

It has long been known that the ancient custom of erect 
ing a may-pole, surrounding it with wreaths of flowers, and 
then dancing round it in wild orgy, was a relic of the ancient 
custom of reverencing the symbol of creation, invigorated by 
the returning spring time, without whose powers the flocks 
and herds would fail to increase. It will not fail to attract 
the notice of my readers, that a pine cone is constantly 
being offered to the sacred "grove" by the priests of 

Figures 100, 101, represent the Buddhist cross and one 
of its arms. The first shows the union of four phalli. The 

Figure 100, Figure 101. 

single one being a conventional form of a well-known organ. 
This form of cross does not essentially differ from the 
Maltese cross. In the latter, Asher stands perpendicularly 
to Anu and Hea ; in the former it is at right angles to them. 
The pistol " is a well-known name amongst our soldiery, 
and four such joined together by the muzzle would form the 
Buddhist cross. Compare Figure 37, ante. 

Figures 102, 103, 104, indicate the union of the four 
creators, the trinity and the unity. Not having at hand any 
copy of an ancient key, I have used a modern one ; but this 
makes no essential difference in the symbol. 

Figure 102. Figure 103. Figure 104. 


Figures 105, 106, are copied from Lajard, Sur le Culte 
de Venus, plate ii. They represent ornaments held in the 
hands of a great female figure, sculptured in has relief on a 
rock at Yazili Kaia, near to Boghaz Keni, in Anatolia, and 
described by M. C. Texier in 1834. The goddess is crowned 
with a tower, to indicate virginity ; in her right hand she 
holds a staff, shown in Figure 106 ; in the other, that given 
in Figure 105, she stands upon a lioness, and is attended 
by an antelope. Figure 105 is a complicated emblem of the 

Figure 105. Figure 106. 

Figures 107, 108, 109, are copied from Moor s Hindu 
Pantheon, plate Ixxxiii. They represent the lingam and the 




Figure 108. 

Figaro 109. 


yoni, which amongst the Indians are regarded as holy 
emblems, much in the same way as a crucifix is esteemed by 
certain modern Christians. In worship, ghee, or oil, or 
water, is poured over the pillar, and allowed to run off by the 
spout. Sometimes the pillar is adorned by a necklace, and 
is associated with the serpent emblem. In Lucian s account 
of Alexander, the false prophet, which we have condensed in 
Ancient Faiths, second edition, there is a reference to one of 
his dupes, who was a distinguished Koman officer, but so very 
superstitious, or, as he would say of himself, so deeply 
imbued with religion, that at the sight of a stone he would 
fall prostrate and adore it for a considerable time, offering 
prayers and vows thereto. This may by some be thought 
quite as reasonable as the practice once enforced in Christian 
Rome, which obliged all persons in the street to kneel in 
reverence when an ugly black doll, called " the bambino," or 
a bit of bread, over which some cabalistic words had been 
muttered, was being carried in procession past them. Arno- 
bius, Op. Cit., p. 31, says, " I worshipped images produced 
from the furnace, gods made on anvils and by hammers, 
the bones of elephants, paintings, wreaths on aged trees ; 
whenever I espied an anointed stone, and one bedaubed with 
olive oil, as if some person resided in it, I worshipped it, 
I addressed myself to it, and begged blessings from a 
senseless stock." Compare Gen. xxviii. 18, wherein we find 
that Jacob set up a stone and anointed it with oil, and 
called the place Bethel, and Is. xxvii. 19, xl. 20, xliv. 10-20. 
I copy the following remarks from a paper by Mr. 
Sellon, in Memoirs of the London Anthropological Society, 
for 1863-4. Speaking of Hindostan, he remarks, " As 
every village has its temple so every temple has its Lingam, 
and these parochial Lingams are usually from two to three 
feet in height, and rather broad at the base. Here the 
village girls, who are anxious for lovers or husbands, repair 
early in the morning. They make a lustration by sprinkling 
the god with water brought from the Ganges ; they deck the 


Linga with garlands of the sweet-smelling bilwa flower ; 
they perform the mudra, or gesticulation with the fingers, 
and, reciting the prescribed mantras, or incantations, they 
rub themselves against the emblem, and entreat the deity to 
make them fruitful mothers of pulee-pullum (i.e., child 

" This is the celebrated Linga puja, during the perform 
ance of which the panchaty, or five lamps, must be lighted, 
and the gantha, or bell, be frequently rung to scare away the 
evil demons. The mala, or rosary of a hundred and eight 
round beads, is also used in this puja." 

See also Moor s Hindu Pantheon, plate xxii, pp. 68, 69, 
70. Again, in the Dabistan, a work written in the Persian 
language, by a travelled Mahometan, about A. D. 1660, and 
translated by David Shea, for the Oriental Translation Fund 
of Great Britain and Ireland (3 vols., 8vo., Allen and Co., 
Leadenhall Street, London), we read, vol. ii., pp. 148-160, 
" The belief of the Saktian is that Siva, that is, Mahadeva, 
who with little exception is the highest of deities and the 
greatest of the spirits, has a spouse whom they call Maya 

Sakti With them the power of Mahadeva s 

wife, who is Bhavani, surpasses that of the husband. The 
zealous of this sect worship the Siva Linga, although other 
Hindoos also venerate it. Linga is called the virile organ, 
and they say, on behalf of this worship, that as men and all 
living beings derive their existence from it, adoration is duly 
bestowed upon it. As the linga of Mahadeva, so do they 
venerate the bhaga, that is, the female organ. A man very 
familiar with them gave the information that, according to 
their belief, the high altar, or principal place in a mosque of 
the Mussulmans, is an emblem of the bhaga. Another man 
among them said that as the just-named place emblems the 
bhaga, the minar or turret of the mosque represents the 
linga." The author then goes on to describe the practices 
of the sect, which may be summed up in the words the 
most absolute freedom of love. 


Apropos of the Mahometan minaret and Christian church 
towers and spires, I may mention that Lucian describes the 
magnificent temple of the Syrian goddess as having two vast 
phalli before its main entrance, and how at certain seasons 
men ascended to their summit, and remained there some 
days, so as to utter from thence the prayers of the faithful. 

Figures 110, 111, both from Moor, plate Ixxxvi., are 
forms of the argha, or sacred sacrificial cup, bowl, or basin, 
which represent the yoni, and some other things besides. 
See Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pp. 393, 394. 

Figure 110. 

Figure 112. 

Figure 111. 

Copied from Rawlinson s Ancient Monar- 

Figure 112. 


chies, vol. i., p. 176, symbolises Ishtar, the Assyrian repre 
sentative of Devi, Parvati, Isis, Astarte, Venus, and Mary. 
The virgin and child are to be found everywhere, even in 
ancient Mexico. 

Figure 113 is copied from Lajard, Sur le Culte de Venus, 

Figure 113. 

plate xix., fig. 6, and represents the male and female as the 
sun and moon, thus identifying the symbolic sex of those 
luminaries. The legend in the Pehlevi characters has not 
been interpreted. 

Figure 114 is taken from a mediaeval woodcut, lent to me 
by my friend, Mr. John Newton, to whom I am indebted for 
the sight of, and the privilege to copy, many other figures. 
In it the virgin Mary is seen as the Queen of Heaven, 
nursing her infant, and identified with the crescent moon, the 
emblem of virginity. Being before the sun, she almost eclipses 
its light. Than this, nothing could more completely identify 
the Christian mother and child with Isis and Horus, Ishtar, 
Venus, Juno, and a host of other pagan goddesses, who have 
been called Queen of Heaven, Queen of the Universe/ 
Mother of God, Spouse of God, the Celestial Virgin, the 
Heavenly Peace Maker, etc. 

Figures 115, 116, are common devices in papal churches 
and pagan symbolism. They are intended to indicate the 
sun and moon in conjunction, the union of the triad with 


the unit. I may notice, in passing, that Mr. Newton has 
showed to me some mediaeval woodcuts, in which the young 

Figure 114. 

unmarried women in a mixed assemblage were indicated by 
wearing upon their foreheads a crescent moon. 

Figure 115. 

Figure 116. 


Figure 117 is a Buddhist symbol, or rather a copy of 

Figure 117. 

Maityna Bodhisatwa, from the monastery of Gopach, in the 
valley of Nepaul. It is taken from Journal of Royal Asiatic 
Society, vol. xviii., p. 394. The horse-shoe, like the vesica 
piscis of the Roman church, indicates the yoni; the last, 
taken from some cow, mare, or donkey, being used in eastern 
parts where we now use their shoes, to keep off the evil eye. 
It is remarkable that some nations should use the female 
organ, or an effigy thereof, as a charm against ill luck, whilst 
others adopt the male symbol. In Ireland, as we have 
previously remarked, a female shamelessly exhibiting her 
self, and called Shelah-na-gig, was to be seen in stone over 
the door of certain churches, within the last century. 

From the resemblance in the shape of the horse- shoe to 
the " grove " of the Assyrian worshippers, and from the man 
standing within it as the symbolic pine tree stands in the 
Mesopotamian, "Asherah," I think we may fairly conclude 


that the Indian, like the Shemitic emblem, typifies the union 
of the sexes the androgyne creator. 

That some Buddhists have mingled sexuality with their 
ideas of religion, may be seen in plate ii. of Emil Schlagin- 
tweit s Atlas of Buddhism in Tibet, wherein VAJAESATTVA, 
" The God above all," is represented as a male and female 
conjoined. Rays, as of the sun, pass from the group ; and 
all are enclosed in an ornate oval, or horse-shoe, like that in 
this figure. Few, however, but the initiated would recognise 
the nature of the group at first sight. 

I may also notice, in passing, that the goddess DOLJANG 
(A.D. 617-98) has the stigmata in her hands and feet, like 
those assigned to Jesus of Nazareth and Francis of Assisi. 

Figure 118 is a copy of the medal issued to pilgrims at 
the shrine of the virgin at Loretto. It was lent to me by 

Figure 118. 

Mr. Newton, but the engraver has omitted to make the face 
of the mother and child black, as the most ancient and 
renowned ones usually are. 

Instead of the explanation given in Ancient Faiths, 
Vol. ii., p. 262, of the adoption of a black skin for Mary and 
her son, D Harcanville suggests that it represents night, the 
period during which the feminine creator is most propitious 
or attentive to her duties. It is unnecessary to contest the 


point, for almost every symbol has more interpretations 
given to it than one. I have sought in vain for even a 
plausible reason for the blackness of sacred virgins and 
children, in certain papal shrines, which is compatible with 
decency and Christianity. It is clear that the matter will 
not bear the light. 

Figure 119 is from Lajard, Op. Cit., plate iii., fig. 8. 
It represents the sun, moon, and a star, probably Venus. 

Figure 119. 

The legend is in Phoenician, and may be read LNBRB. 
Levy, in Siegel und Gemmen, Breslau, 1869, reads the 
legend yrmrj 1 ?, LKBKBO, but does not attempt to explain it. 
Figure 120 is also from Lajard, plate i., fig. 8. It repre 
sents an act of worship before the symbols of the male and 

Figure 120. 

female creators, arranged in three pairs. Above are the 
heavenly symbols of the sun and moon. Below are the male 


palm tree, and the barred xr 
sistrum. i. e.. virao, 

jdrnticnl in Tnoanin" 1 Trith the 

fiomft_ihfi Jnale emblem, 

the cone, and the female symbol, the lozenge or yoni. 

Figure 121 represents also a worshipper before the barred 
female symbol, surmounted by the seven-rayed star, emblem 

Figure 121. 

of the male potency, and of the sun or the heavens. It will 
be noticed and the matter is significant that the hand 
which is raised in adoration is exactly opposite the conjunc 
tion of the two. Compare this with Fig. 95, where the 
female alone is the object of reverence. 

Lajard and others state that homage, such as is here 
depicted, is actually paid in some parts of Palestine and 
India to the living symbol ; the worshipper on bended knees 
offering to it, la louche inferieure, with or without a silent 
prayer, his food before he eats it. A corresponding homage 
is paid by female devotees to the masculine emblem of any 
very peculiarly holy fakir, one of whose peculiarities is, that 
no amount of excitement stimulates the organ into what may 
be called creative energy. It has long been a problem how 
such a state of apathy is brought about, but modern observa 
tion has proved that it is by the habitual use of weights. 
Such homage is depicted in Picart s Religious Ceremonies 


of all the People in the World, original French edition, 
plate 71. 

Figure 122 is copied from Bryant s Ancient Mythology, 
third edition, vol. iii., p. 193. That author states that he 

Figure 122. 

copied it from Spanheim, but gives no other reference. It 
is apparently from a Greek medal, and has the word 
CAMIHN as an inscription. It is said to represent Juno, 
Sami, or Selenitis, with the sacred peplum. The figure is 
remarkable for showing the identity of the moon, the 
lozenge, and the female. It is doubtful whether the attitude 
of the goddess is intended to represent the cross. 

As in religious Symbolism every detail has a signification, 
we naturally speculate upon the meaning of the beads which 
fringe the lower part of the diamond-shaped garment. We 
have noticed in a previous article that the Linga when 


worshipped was sometimes adorned with beads, which were 
the fruit of a tree sacred to Mahadeva ; in the original of 
fig. 4, plate xi. supra, the four arms of the cross have a series 
of beads depending from them. On a very ancient coin of 
Citium, a rosary of beads, with a cross, has been found 
arranged round a horse-shoe form ; and beads are common 
ornaments on Hindoo Divinities. They may only be used 
for decoration and without religious signification; if they 
have the last, I have not been able to discover it. 

Figure 123 is a composition taken from Bryant, vol. iv., 
p. 286. The rock, the water, the crescent moon as an ark, 

and the dove hovering over it, are all symbolical; but 
though the author of it is right in his grouping, it is clear 
that he is not aware of its full signification. The reader 
will readily gather their true meaning from our articles upon 
the ARK and WATER, and from our remarks upon the DOVE 
in Ancient Faiths, second edition. 


Figure 124 is copied from Maffei s Gemme Antiche 
Figurate, vol. 3, plate xl. In the original, the figure upon 

Figure 124. 

the pillar is very conspicuously phallic, and the whole com 
position indicates what was associated with the worship of 
Priapus. This so-called god was regarded much in the 
same light as St. Cosmo and St. Damian were at Isernia, 
and St. Foutin in Christian France. And it is not at all 
surprising that a church, which has deified or made saints of 
a spear and cloak, under the names Longinus and Amphi- 
bolus, should also adopt the " god of the gardens," and 
consecrate him as an object for Christian worship, and give 
him an appropriate name and emblem. But the patron saint 
of Lampsacus was not really a deity, only a sort of saint, 
whose business it was to attend to certain parts. The idea of 
guardian angels was once common, see Matt, xviii. 10, where 


we read, that each child has a guardian in heaven, who looks 
after his infantile charge. As the pagan Hymen and Lucina 
attended upon weddings and parturitions, so the Christian 
Cosmo and Damian attended to spouses, and assisted in 
making them fruitful. To the last two were offered, by 
sterile wives, wax effigies of the part left out from the nude 
figure in our plate. To the heathen saint, we see a female 
votary offer quince leaves, equivalent to la feuille de sage, 
egg-shaped bread, apparently a cake ; also an ass s head ; 
whilst her attendant offers a pine cone. This amongst the 
Greeks was sacred to Cybele, as it was in Assyria to Astarte 
or Ishtar, the name given there to * the mother of all saints. 
The basket contains apples and phalli, which may 
have been made of pastry. See Martial s Epigrams, b. xiv. 
69. This gem is valuable, inasmuch as it assists us to under 
stand the signification of the pine cone offered to the grove, 
the equivalent of le Verger de Cypris. The pillar and its 
base are curiously significant, and demonstrate how com 
pletely an artist can appear innocent, whilst to the initiated 
he unveils a mystery. 

Figures 125, 126, 127, are various contrivances for indi 
cating decently that which it was generally thought, religious 
to conceal, la bequilk, ou les instrumens. 

Figure 125. Figure 126. Figure 127. 

Figure 128 represents the same subject; the cuts are 
grouped so as to show how the knobbed stick, le baton, 
becomes converted either into a bent rod, la verge, or a 
priestly crook, le baton pastoral. There is no doubt that 
the episcopal crozier is a presentable effigy of a very private 
and once highly venerated portion of the human frame, 


which was used in long by-gone days by Etruscan augurs, 
when they mapped out the sky, prior to noticing the flight of 

Figure 128. 

birds. Perhaps we ought to be grateful to Popery for having 
consecrated to Christ what was so long used in that which 
divines call the service of the devil. 

Figures 129, 130, 131, are, like the preceding four, 
copied from various antique gems ; Fig. 129 represents 

Figure 129. 

Figure 130. 

Figure 131. 

a steering oar, le timon, and is usually held in the hand 
of good fortune, or as moderns would say " Saint Luck," or 
bonnes fortunes ; Fig. 130 is emblematic of Cupid, or Saint 
Desire ; it is synonymous with le dard, or la pique ; Fig. 
131 is a form less common in gems ; it represents the 
hammer, le marteau qui frappe Z enclume et forge les enfans. 
The ancients had as many pictorial euphemisms as our 
selves, and when these are understood they enable^ us to 
comprehend many a legend otherwise dim ; e. g., when 
Fortuna, or luck, always depicted as a woman, has for her 
characteristic le timon , and for her motto the proverb, "For- 


tune favours the bold," we readily understand the double 
entente. The steering oar indicates power, knowledge, 
skill, and bravery in him who wields it ; without such a 
guide, few boats would attain a prosperous haven. 

Figure 132 is copied from plate xxix. of Pugin s Glossary 
of Ecclesiastical Ornament (Lond., 1868). The plate repre- 

Figure 132. 

sents "a pattern for diapering," and is, I presume, 
thoroughly orthodox. It consists of the double triangle, see 
Figures 20, 30, 81, 32, pp. 32, 38, the emblems of Siva and 
Parvati, the male and female ; of Rimmon the pomegranate, 


the emblem of the womb, which is seen to be full of seed 
through the "vesica piscis," la fente, or la porte de la vie. 
There are also two new moons, emblems of Venus, or la 
nature, introduced. The crown above the pomegranate 
represents the triad, and the number four; whilst in the 
original the group which we copy is surrounded by various 
forms of the triad, all of which are as characteristic of man 
as Kimmon is of woman. There are also circles enclosing 
the triad, analogous to other symbols common in Hindo- 

Figure 133 is copied from Moor s Hindu Pantheon, pi. ix., 
fig. 3. It represents Bhavhani, Maia, Devi, Lakshmi, or 

Figure 183. 

Kamala, one of the many forms given to female nature. 
She bears in one hand the lotus, emblem of self-fructifica 
tion, in other similar figures an effigy of the phallus is 
placed, whilst in the other she holds her infant Krishna, 
Crishna, or Vishnu. Such groups are as common in India 


as in Italy, in pagan temples as in Christian churches. 
The idea of the mother and child is pictured in every ancient 
country of whose art any remains exist. 

Figure 134 is taken from plate xxiv., fig. 1, of Moor s 
Hindu Pantheon. It represents a subject often depicted by 

Figure 134. 

the Hindoos and the Greeks, viz., androgynism, the union 
of the male and female creators. The technical word is 
Arddha-Nari. The male on the right side bears the emblems 


of Siva or Mahadeva, the female on the left those of Parvati 
or Sacti. The bull and lioness are emblematic of the mas 
culine and feminine powers. The mark on the temple 
indicates the union of the two ; an aureole is seen around 
the head, as in modern pictures of saints. In this drawing 
the Ganges rises from the male, the idea being that the 
stream from Mahadeva is as copious and fertilising as that 
mighty river. The metaphor here depicted is common in 
the East, and is precisely the same as that quoted in Num. 
xxiv. 7, and also from some lost Hebrew book in John vii. 
38. It will be noticed, that the Hindoos express androgyneity 
quite as conspicuously, but generally much less indelicately, 
than the Grecian artists. 

Figure 135 is a common Egyptian emblem, said to 
signify eternity, but in truth it has another meaning. The 

Figure 135. 

serpent and the ring indicate V andouille and V anneau. 
The tail of the animal, which the mouth appears to swallow, 
is la queue dans la louche. The symbol resembles the crux 
ansata in its signification, and imports that life upon the 
earth is rendered perpetual by means of the union of the 
sexes. A ring, or circle, is one of the symbols of Venus, 
who carries indifferently this, or the triad emblem of the 
male. See Maffei s Gemme, vol. iii., page 1, plate viii. 

Figure 136 is the vesica piscis, or fish s bladder; the 

Figure 136. 


emblem of woman and of the virgin, as may be seen in the 
two following woodcuts. 

Figures 137, 138, are copied from an ancient Rosary 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, printed at Venice, 1524, with a 

Figure 137. 

license from the Inquisition ; the book being lent to me by 
my friend, Mr. Newton. The first represents the same part 
as the Assyrian "grove." It may appropriately be called 
the Holy Yoni. The book in question contains numerous 
figures, all resembling closely the Mesopotamian emblem of 
Ishtar. The presence of the woman therein identifies the 
two as symbolic of Isis, or la nature; and a man bowing 
down in adoration thereof shows the same idea as is depicted 
in Assyrian sculptures, where males offer to the goddess 
symbols of themselves. Compare Figs. 63, 64, 65, 66, 
pp. 48 seq. 


If I had been able to search through the once cele 
brated Alexandrian library, it is doubtful whether I 
could have found any pictorial representation more illus 
trative of the relationship of certain symbolic forms to 
each other than is Figure 138. A circle of angelic heads, 

Figure 138. 

forming a sort of sun, having luminous rays outside, and a 
dove, the emblem of Venus, dart a spear (la pique) down 
upon the earth (la terre), or the virgin. This being received, 
fertility follows. In Grecian story, Ouranos and Ge, or 
heaven and earth, were the parents of creation ; and Jupiter 
came from heaven to impregnate Alcmena. The same 
mythos prevailed throughout all civilised nations. Christian 
ity adopted the idea, merely altering the names of the 
respective parents, and attributed the regeneration of the 
world to "holy breath" and Mary. Every individual, indeed, 
extraordinarily conspicuous for wisdom, power, goodness, 


etc., is said to have been begotten on a woman by a celestial 
father. Within the vesica piscis, artists usually represent 
the virgin herself, with or without the child ; in the figure 
before us the child takes her place. It is difficult to believe 
that the ecclesiastics who sanctioned the publication of such 
a print could have been as ignorant as modern ritualists. It 
is equally difficult to believe that the latter, if they knew the 
real meaning of the symbols commonly used by the Roman 
church, would adopt them. 

The last two figures, symbolic of adoration before divine 
sexual emblems, afford me the opportunity to give a descrip 
tion of a similar worship existent in Hindostan at the present 
time. My authority is H. H. Wilson, in Essays on the 
Religion of the Hindoos, Triibner and Co., London. " The 
worshippers," he remarks, vol. i., p. 240, " of the Sakti, the 
power or energy of the divine nature in action, are exceedingly 
numerous amongst all classes of Hindoos about three- 
fourths are of this sect, while only a fifth are Vaishnavas and 
a sixteenth Saivas. This active energy is personified, and the 
form with which it is invested depends upon the bias of the 
individuals. The most favourite form is that of Parvati, 
Bhavani, or Durga, the wife of Siva, or Mahadeva." 

" The worship of the female principle, as distinct from the 
divinity, appears to have originated in the literal interpretation 
of the metaphorical language of the Vedas, in which the ivill 
or purpose to create the universe is represented as originating 
from the creator, and consistent with him as his bride." " The 
Sama-veda, for example, says, the creator felt not delight being 
alone ; he wished another, and caused his own self to fall in 
twain, and thus became husband and wife. He approached 
her, and thus were human beings produced." A sentiment or 
statement which we may notice in passing is very similar to 
that propounded in Genesis, ch. i. 27, and v. 1, 2, respecting 
Elohim viz., that he created man and woman in his own 
image, i.e., as male and female, bisexual but united an 


" This female principle goes by innumerable cognomens, 
inasmuch as every goddess, every nymph, and all women are 
identified with it. She the principle personified is the 
mother of all, as Mahadeva, the male principle, is the father 
of all." 

" The homage rendered to the Sakti may be done before an 
image of any goddess Prakriti, Lakshmi, Bhavani, Durga, 
Maya, Parvati, or Devi just in the same way as Komanists 
may pray to a local Mary, or any other. But in accordance 
with the weakness of human nature, there are many who 
consider it right to pay their devotions to the thing itself 
rather than to an abstraction. In this form of worship six 
elements are required, flesh, fish, wine, women, gesticu 
lations and mantras which consist of various unmeaning 
monosyllabic combinations of letters of great imaginary 

" The ceremonies are mostly gone through in a mixed 
society, the Sakti being personified by a naked female, to 
whom meat and wine are offered and then distributed 
amongst the company. These eat and drink alternately with 
gesticulations and mantras and when the religious part of 
the business is over, the males and females rush together and 
indulge in a wild orgy. This ceremony is entitled the Sri 
Chakra or Purnabhisheka, the Ring or Full Initiation." 

In a note apparently by the editor, Dr. Rost, a full 
account is given in Sanscrit of the Sakti Sodhana, as they 
are prescribed in the Devi Rahasya, a section of the Rudra 
Ydmala, so as to prove to his readers that the Sri Chakra is 
performed under a religious prescription. 

We learn that the woman should be an actress, dancing 
girl, a courtesan, washerwoman, barber s wife, flower-girl, 
milk-maid, or a female devotee. The ceremony is to take 
place at midnight with eight, nine, or eleven couples. At 
first there are sundry mantras said, then the female is 
disrobed, but richly ornamented, and is placed on the left 
of a circle (Chakra) described for the purpose, and after 

sundry gesticulations, mantras, and formulas she is purified 
by being sprinkled over with wine. If a novice, the girl has 
the radical mantra whispered thrice in her ear. Feasting 
then follows, lest Venus should languish in the absence of 
Ceres and Bacchus, and now, when the veins are full of rich 
blood, the actors are urged to do what desire dictates, but 
never to be so carried away by their zeal as to neglect the 
holy mantras appropriate to every act and to every stage 

It is natural that such a religion should be popular, 
especially amongst the young of both sexes. 

Figures 139 to 153 are copied from Moor s Hindu 
Pantheon ; they are sectarial marks in India, and are usually 


Fig. 139. 

Fig. 140. Fig. 141. 


Fig. 142. 


Fig. 144. 


Fig. 145. 

Fig. 146. 

Fig. 147. 

Fig. 143, 

Fig. 148. 

Fig. 149. 

Fig. 150. 

Fig. 151. 

Fig. 152. 

Fig. 153. 

traced on the forehead. Many resemble what are known as 
" mason s marks," i. e., designs found on tooled stones, 

* The above quotations from Wilson s work are selections from his and his 
Editor s account. In the original the observations extend over eighteen pages, and 
are too long to be given in their entirety : the parts omitted are of no consequence. 


in various ancient edifices, like our own, "trade marks." 
They are introduced here to illustrate the various designs 
employed to indicate the union of the "trinity" with the 
"unity," and the numerous forms representative of "la 
nature." A priori, it appears absurd to suppose that the 
eye could ever have been symbolical of anything but sight ; 
but the mythos of Indra, given in Ancient Faiths, second 
edition, Vol. n., p. 649, and p. 7 supra, proves that it has 
another and a hidden meaning. These figures are alike 
emblematic of the "trinity," "the virgin," and the "four." 

Figure 154 is from Pugin, plate v., figure 3. It is the 
outline of a pectoral ornament worn by some Koman eccle- 

Figure 154. 

siastic in Italy, A. D. 1400 ; it represents the Egyptian crux 
ansata under another form, the T signifying the triad, the 
O the unit. 

Figures 155, 156, are different forms of the sistrum, one 
of the emblems of Isis. In the latter, the triple bars have 
one signification, which will readily suggest itself to those 
who know the meaning of the triad. In the former, the 
emblem of the trinity, which we have been obliged to con 
ventionalise, is shown in a distinct manner. The cross bars 
indicate that Isis is a virgin. The cat at the top of the 
instrument indicates "desire," Cupid, or Eros. Fig. 155 
is copied from plate ix., R. P. Knight s Worship of Priapus. 

Figure 157 represents the cup and wafer, to be found 
in the hands of many effigies of papal bishops ; they 
are alike symbolic of the sun and moon, and of the 
elements in the Eucharist. See Pugin, plate iv figs 


Figure 158 is copied from Lajard, plate xv., tig. 6. It 


represents a temple in a conventional form ; whilst below, 
Ceres appears seated within a horse- shoe shaped ornament. 

Figure 156. 

Figxire 157. 

This, amongst other symbols, tends to show what we have so 
frequently before observed, that the female in creation is 

characterised by a great variety of designs, of which the 
succeeding woodcuts give us additional evidence. 

Figure 159 represents the various forms symbolic of 

Juno, Isis, Parvati, Ishtar, Mary, 

or woman, or the 

Figure lf>9. 

Figures 160, 161, 162, are copied from Audsley s Chris 
tian Symbolism (London, 1868). They are ornaments worn 
by the Virgin Mary, and represent her as the crescent moon, 


conjoined with the cross (in Fig. 160), with the collar 

Figure 160. 

Figure 161. 

Figure 162. 

of Isis (iii Fig. 161), and with the double triangle (in 
Fig. 162). 

Figure 163 represents a tortoise. When one sees a 

Figure 163. 

resemblance between this creature s head and neck and the 
linga, one can understand why both in India and in Greece the 
animal should be regarded as sacred to the goddess personi 
fying the female creator, and why in Hindoo myths it is 
said to support the world. 

In the British Museum there are three Assyrian obelises, 
all of which represent, in the most conspicuous way, the 
phallus, one of which has been apparently circumcised. The 
body is occupied with an inscription recording the sale of land, 
and also a figure of the reigning king, whilst upon the part 
known as the glans penis are a number of symbols, which 
are intended apparently to designate the generative powers 
in creation. The male is indicated by a serpent, a spear 
head, a hare, a tiara, a cock, and a tortoise. The female 


appears under precisely the same form as is seen on the head 
of the Egyptian Isis, Fig. 28. The tortoise is to this day a 
masculine emblem in Japan. See Figs. 174, 175. 

But there is no necessity for the animal itself always 
to be depicted, inasmuch as I have discovered that both in 
Assyrian and Greek art the tortoise is pourtrayed under the 

figure f El which resembles somewhat the markings upon 

the segments into which the shell is divided. In symbolism 
it is a very common thing for a part to stand for the whole ; 
thus an egg is made to do duty for the triad ; and a man 
is sometimes represented by a spade. A woman is in like 
manner represented by a comb, or a mirror; and a golden 
fleece typifies in the first place the " grove," which it over 
shadows, and the female who possesses both. 

It has been stated on page 19 supra, that Pausanias 
mentions having seen at some place in Greece one figure of 
Venus standing on a tortoise, and another upon a ram, 
but he leaves to the ingenious to discover why the association 
takes place. 

It was this intimation which led me to identify the 
tortoise as a male symbol. Any person who has ever 
watched this creature in repose, and seen the action of the 
head and neck when the quadruped is excited, will recognise 
why the animal is dear to the goddess of amorous delight, 
and that which it may remind her of. In like manner, those 
who are familiar with the ram will know that it is remarkable 
for persistent and excessive vigour. Like the cat, whose 
salacity caused it to be honoured in Egypt, the ram was in ! 
that country also sacred, as the bull was in Assyria and 

In fact, everything which in shape, habits, or sound 
could remind mankind of the creators and of the first part of !; 
creation was regarded with reverence. Thus tall stones or ji 
natural pinnacles of rock, the palm, pine, and oak trees, the 
fig tree and the ivy, with their tripliform leaves, the 


mandrake, with its strange human form, the thumb 
and finger, symbolised Bel, Baal, Asher, or Mahadeva. In 
like manner a hole in the ground, a crevice in a rock, a deep 
cave, the myrtle from the shape of its leaf, the fish from its 
scent, the dolphin and the mullet from their names, the 
dove from its note, and any umbrageous retreat surrounded 
with thick bushes, were symbolic of woman. 

So also the sword and sheath, the arrow and target, the 
spear and shield, the plough and furrow, the spade and 
trench, the pillar by a well, the thumb thrust between the 
two fore-fingers or grasped by the hand, and a host of other 
things were typical of the union which brings about the 
formation of a new being. 

I cannot help regarding the sexual element as the key 
which opens almost every lock of symbolism, and however 
much we may dislike the idea that modern religionists have 
adopted emblems of an obscene worship, we cannot deny the 
fact that it is so, and^we ^^.bop^ f ^ af w ith n Imnwlndgc of 
their impurity we shall cease to have a faith based upon a 
trinity a lin^a/m a.nd a. yom Somn niny cling 
still to n^ P ^nfvi ri p j fr^ fn raZ-if J H niiryly horrible 
blasphemous and hP R *,ViAnfgV> 

Figures 164, 165, represent a pagan and Christian cross 
and trinity. The first is copied from R. P. Knight (plate x., 

Figure 164. Figure 165. 

pg. 1), and represents a figure found on an ancient coin of 
^.pollonia. The second may be seen in any of our churches 

Figure 166 is from an old papal book lent to me by Mr. 
(Newton, Missale Romanum, illustrated by a monk (Venice, 


1509). It represents a confessor of the EomaTfohnrfth, who 
wears the^cmx ansat^ t t,hp F.gyptinn nymbol of life, the 

Figure 166. 

emblem of the four^creators, in_the place of the usual 
pallium. It is remarkable that a Christian church should 
have adopted so many pagan symbols as Borne has done. 
Figure 167 is copied from a small bronze figure in 

Figure 167. 


the Mayer collection in the Free Museum. Liverpool. It 
represents the feminine creator holding a well marked lingam 
in her hand, and is thus emblematic of the four, or the 
trinity and the virgin. 

Figure 168 represents two Egyptian deities in worship 
before an emblem of the male, which closely resembles 
an Irish round tower. 

Figure 168. 

Figure 169 represents the modern pallium worn by 
Roman priests. It represents the ancient sistrum of Isis, 
and the yoni of the Hindoos. It is symbolic of the celestial 
virgin, and the unit in the creative four. When donned 
by a Christian priest, he resembles the pagan male wor 
shippers, who wore a female dress when they ministered 
before the altar or shrine of a goddess. Possibly the 
Hebrew ephod was of this form and nature. 

Figure 169. 

Figure 170. 

Figure 170 is a copy of an ancient pallium, worn by 
papal ecclesiastics three or four centuries ago. It is the old 
Egyptian symbol described above. Its common name is 
crux ansata, or the cross with a handle. 


Figure 171 is the albe worn by Roman and other 
ecclesiastics when officiating at mass, etc. It is simply 

Figure 171. 

a copy of the chemise ordinarily worn by women as an under 

Figure 172 represents the chasuble worn by papal hier- 
archs. It is copied from Pugin s Glossary, etc. Its form is 
that of the vesica piscis, one of the most common emblems 
of the yoni. It is adorned by the triad. When worn by 
the priest, he forms the male element, and with the chasuble 
completes the sacred four. When worshipping the ancient 
goddesses, whom Mary has displaced, the officiating ministers 
clothed themselves in feminine attire. Hence the use of the 
chemise, etc. Even the tonsured head, adopted from the 
priests of the Egyptian Isis, represents " V anneau; " so that 
on head, shoulders, breast and body, we may see on Christian 
priests the relics of the worship of Venus, and the adoration 
of woman ! How horrible all this would sound if, instead of 
using veiled language, we had employed vulgar words. The 


idea of a man adorning himself, when ministering before God 
and the people, with the effigies of those parts which nature 

Figure 172. 

as well as civilisation teaches us to conceal, would be simply 
disgusting, but when all is said to be mysterious and con 
nected with hidden signification, almost everybody tolerates 
and many eulogise or admire it ! 






The study of sacred symbols is as yet in its infancy. It 
has hitherto been almost ignored by sacerdotal historians ; 
and thus a rich mine of knowledge on the most interesting 
of all subjects the history of the Religious Idea in man 
remains comparatively unexplored. The topic has a two-fold 
interest, for it equally applies to the present and the past. 
As nothing on earth is more conservative than religion^ we 
have still a world of symbolism existing amongst us which is 
far older~thnn oui 1 ueulu and bookZ ouTcreeds and articles, 
a relic of a forffotte^ st. Untold ages before 
writing was invented, it is believed that men attempted 
to express their ideas in visible forms. Yet how can a 
savage, who is unable to count his fingers up to five, and has 
no idea of abstract number, apart from things, whose habits 
and thoughts are of the earth, earthy, form a conception of 
the high and holy One who inhabiteth eternity ? Even 
under the highest forms of ancient civilisation, abundant 
proofs exist that the imagination of men, brooding over 
the idea of the Unseen and the Infinite, were bounded by 
the things"which were_presenieji in their daily experience, 
and-*^ntclirmost"moved their passions, hopes and fears. 
Through these, then, they attempted to embody such reli 
gious ideas as they felt. They could not teach others with 
out visible symbols to assist their conceptions ; and emblems 
were rather crutches for the halting than wings to help the 
healthy to soar. Mankind in all ages has clung to the 
visible and tangible. The people care little for the abstract 


and unseen. The Israelites preferred a calf of gold to the 
invisible Jehovah ; and sensuous forms of worship still fasci 
nate the multitude. 

Whilst studying a collection of symbols, gathered from 
many climes and ages, such as this volume presents, I feel 
sure that every intelligent student will have asked himself 
more than once Is there not some key which unlocks these 
enigmas, some grand idea which runs through them all, 
connecting them like a string of beads ? I believe that there 
is, and that it is not far to seek. What do men desire and 
long for most ? Life. " Skin for skin ; all that a man 
hath will he give for his life," is a saying as true now as in 
the days of Job. " Give me back my youth, and I will give 
you all I possess," was said by the aged Voltaire to his 
physician. And our poet laureate has sung, 

T is Life, whereof our nerves are scant, 
O life, not death, for which we pant ; 
More life, and fuller, that I want. 

But we must add, as necessarily contained in the idea of 
Life in its highest sense, those things which make Life 

This fulness of life has been the summum bonum, the 
highest good, which mankind has sighed for in every age 
and clime. For this the alchemists toiled, not to advance 
chemistry, but to discover the Elixir of Life and the Philo 
sopher s Stone. But what nature refused to science, the 
gods, it was believed, would surely give to the pious ! and 
the glorious prize referred to has been promised by every 
religion. " I am come that they might have Life, and that 
they might have it more abundantly." Life is the reward 
which has been promised under every system, including that 
of the founder of Christianity. A Tree of Life stood in the 
midst of that Paradise which is described in the book of 
Genesis ; and when the first human couple disobeyed their 
Maker s command, they were punished by being cut off from 


the perennial fount of vitality, lest they should eat its fruit 
and thus live for ever ; and in a second Paradise, which is 
promised to the blessed by the author of the book of Revela 
tion, a tree of life shall stand once more " for the healing of 
the nations." To the good man is promised, in the Hebrew 
Scriptures, long life, prosperity, and a numerous offspring. 
" Thy youth is renewed like the eagle s."* Ps. ciii. 5. 

In the wondrous theology of Ancient Egypt, which at 
length is open to us, the " Ritual of the Dead " celebrates, 
the mystical reconstruction of the body of the deceased, 
who.5e parts are to be reunited, as those of Osiris were by 
Isis ; the trials are recorded through which the deceased 
passes, and by which all remaining stains of corruption are 
wiped away; and the record ends when the defunct is born 
again glorious, like that Sun which typified the Egyptian 

In the ancient mythology of India, it is recounted that 
of old the gods in council united together to procure, by one 
supreme effort, the Amrita cup of immortality, which, after 
the success of their scheme, they partake of with their 
worshippers. Even for the Buddhist, his cold, atheistical 
creed promises a Nirvana, an escape from the horrors of 
metempsychosis, a haven of eternal calm, where " there 
shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither 
shall there be any more pain, for the former things are passed 
away ; " " there the weary be at rest." Rev. xxi. 4, Job iii. 17. 

This idea of tranquillity is in striking contrast to the 
heaven promised by the religion of the north of Europe, 
which was the one most congenial to a people whose delight 
was in conquest and battle. Those who had led a life of 
heroism, or perished bravely in fight, ascended to Valhalla ; 
and the eternal manhood which awaited them there was to 

* St. Paul points out (Eph. vi. 2) that to only one of the ten commandments is a 
promise added. And what is the promise ? " That thy days may be long." 
(Exod. xx. 12.) See also Psalm cxxxiii. 3, u the blessing, even life for evermore." 

f Apuleins, who had been initiated into the mysteries of Isis, informs us that 
long life was the reward promised to her votaries. (Metam. cap. xi.) 


be passed in scenes that were rapture to the imagination of a 
Dane or a Saxon. Every day in that abode of bliss was to 
be spent in furious conflict, in the struggle of armies and 
the cleaving of shields ; but at evening the conflict was to 
cease ; every wound to be suddenly healed. Then the con 
tending warriors were to sit down to a banquet, where, 
attended by lovely maidens, they could feast on the exhaust- 
less flesh of the boar Saehrimnir, and drink huge draughts of 
mead from the skulls of those enemies who had not attained 
to the glories of Valhalla. 

The paradise promised to the faithful by Mahomet is full 
of sensuous delights. The Arabian prophet dwells with 
rapture on its gardens and palaces, its rivers and bowers. 
Seventy-two houris, or black-eyed girls, rejoicing in beauty 
and ever-blooming youth, will be created for the use of the 
meanest believer ; a moment of" pleasure will be prolonged 
to a thousand years, and his powers will be increased a 
hundred-fold to render him worthy of his felicity. 

Thus we see that in all these great historical faiths the 
prize held out to the true believer has this in common, viz., 
Life, overflowing, ever-renewed, with the addition of tltose 
things which make Ufe desirable for mety; whether th^y &re 
sensuous pleasures, or those which, undejr the loftier ideal; of 
Christianity, are summed up in Life, both temporal and 
eternal, in the light of God. 

Such being the case, we might anticipate that the 
symbols of every religion would reproduce, in some shape or 
other, the ideal which is common to all. The earliest and 
rudest faiths were content with gross and simple emblems of 
life. In the later and more refined forms of worship, the 
ruder types were highly conventionalised, and replaced 
by a more intricate and less obvious symbolism. 

We_ proceed now _Jjn invent.] gate the r 1 ^ primitive 
emblems. Theorigin of life is, ej>rn to UP, with all our 
Hernias great a jnystp.ry as it. was__to_the ^ajiGientBT^ To the 
primitive races of mankind the^Joi^matroir^df^a. new being 


appeared to be a constant miracle, and men very naturally 
used as tokens of life, and even worshipped, those objects 
or organs by which the miracle appeared to be wrought. 
Thus, the glorious sun, that " god of this world," the source 
of life and light to our earth, was early adored, and an effigy 
thereof used as a symbol. Mankind watched with rapture 
its rays gain strength daily -in the Spring, until the golden 
glories of Midsummer had arrived, when the earth was 
bathed during the longest days in his beams, which ripened 
the fruits that his returning course had started into life. 
When the sun once more began its course downwards to the 
Winter solstice, his votaries sorrowed, for he seemed to 
sicken and grow paler at the advent of December, when his 
rays scarcely reached the earth, and all nature, benumbed 
and cold, sunk into a death-like sleep. Hence feasts and 
fasts were instituted to mark the commencement of the 
various phases of the solar year, which have continued from 
the earliest known period, under various names, to our own 

The daily disappearance and the subsequent rise of 
the sun, appeared to many of the ancients as a true resur 
rection ; thus, while the east came to be regarded as the 
source of light and warmth, happiness and glory, the west 
was associated with darkness and chill, decay and death. 
This led to the common custom of burying the dead so as to 
face the east when they rose again, and of building temples 
and shrines with an opening towards the east. To effect 
this, Vitruvius, two thousand years ago, gave precise rules, 
which are still followed by Christian architects. 

Sun-worship was spread all over the ancient world. It 
mingled with other faiths and assumed many forms.* Of the 
elements, fire was naturally chosen as its earthly symbol. 
A sacred fire, at first miraculously kindled, and subsequently 

Christ expirecLfowards 

suuKet r andjthe_sun Lecameeclipsghagjig^yardyiiig. ffH?osejigam exactly at day- 


kept up by the sedulous care of priests or priestesses, formed 
an important part of the religions of Judea, Babylonia, 
LJBersia, Greece and Kome, and the superstition lingers 
amongst us still. So late as the advent of the Reformation, 
a sacred fire was kept ever burning on a shrine at Kildare, 
in Ireland, and attended by virgins of high rank, called 
" inghean au dagha," or daughters of fire. Every year is 
the ceremony repeated at Jerusalem of the miraculous kin 
dling of the Holy Fire at the reputed sepulchre, and men and 
women crowd to light tapers at the sacred flame, which they 
/ pass through with a naked body. Indeed, solar myths 

form no unimportant part of 
^ _ * * 

the oeam of nature in the winl 

drawaToT the sun, wasjmppoaed to be caused- by thp. nqonrn- 
ifij^oTEhe ejgth^oddejsover the sickness and dioappoarajice 
into the realms of darkness of her husband and mate, the 

Mr. Fox Talbot has lately given the translation of an 
Egyptian poem, more than three thousand years old, and 
having for its subject the descent of Ishtar into Hades. To 
this region of darkness and death the goddess goes in search 
of her beloved Osiris, or Tammuz. This Ishtar is identical 
with the Assyrian female in the celestial quartette, the later 
Phoenician Astarte, " The Queen of Heaven with crescent 
horns," the moon-goddess, also with the Greek Aphrodite 
and Roman Venus ; and the Egyptian legend reappears in 
the wst as the mourning of Venus for the loss of Adonis. 

Again, the fable of Ceres mourning the death of her 
daughter Proserpine is another sun-myth. The Roman 
Ceres was the Greek A^pj-njp, or yrj ^r^p, Mother Earth, 
who through the winter time wanders inconsolable. Per 
sephone, her daughter, is the vegetable world, whose seeds 
or roots lie concealed underground in the darkness of 
winter. These, when Spring comes with its brightness, 
bud forth and dwell in the realms of light during a part of 
the year, and provide ample nourishment for men and 



animals with their fruits. The sun, being the active fructi- 

fying cause in nature, was generally regarded as male. Thus, 
in the Jewish scriptures, he is compared to " a bridegroom 
coming out of his chamber" (Ps. xix. 5), i.e., as a man full 
of generative, procreative vigour. The moon and the earth, 
being receptive only, were naturally regarded as female. 

At the vernal equinox, the ancients celebrated the bridal 
of the sun and the earth. Yet..inasmuch as the orbs ofjieaven 
and +JTAJW.PJ nf Trnfflfft remain me same from year to year, and . 
perpetually renew light and life, themselves remaining frpnb 
in vjgour and unharmed by age, the ancients conceived the 
bride^and mate of the sun-god as continuing ever virgin. 
Again, as the ancient month was always reckoned by the 
interval between one new moon and the y^t, QT1 

which also marks a certain re^n^rir ff QY OTif ^n 
that ceases at once on the occurrence of 

lunarT crescent became a symbol ^of virgin ity T and as such 

adorns f,hp Vn-nw of LLo^ri-rpplr Art^F"? P"^ "Rmnan Diana. 

This was used as a talisman at a very remote period, and 
was fixed over the doors of the early lake-dwellers in Switzer 
land, like the horse-shoe is to modern side-posts. With the 
sun and moon were often associated the five visible planets, 
forming a sacred seven, a figure which is continually crop 
ping up in religious emblems. 

So much for the great cosmic symbols of Life. But the 
primitive races of mankind found others nearer home, and 
still more suggestive the generative parts in the two sexes, 
by the union of which all animated life, and mankind, the 
most interesting of all to human beings, appeared to be 
created. This reverence for, or worship of, the organs of 
generation, has been traced to a very early period in the 
history of the human race. In a bone-cave recently exca 
vated near Venice, and beneath its ten feet of stalagmite, 
were found bones of animals, flint implements, a bone 
needle, and a phallus in baked clay. And if we turn to 
those savage tribes who still reproduce for us the pre- 



historic past, this form of religious symbolism meets us 
everywhere. In Dahomey, beyond the Ashantees, it is, 
according to Captain Burton, most uncomfortably prominent. 
In every street of their settlements are priapic figures. The 
" Tree of Life " is anointed with palm oil, which drips into 
a pot or shard placed below it, and the would-be mother of 
children prays before the image that the great god Legba 
would make her fertile. 

Burton tells us that he peeped into an Egba temple 
or lodge, and found it a building with three courts, of which 
the innermost was a sort of holy of holies. Its doors had 
carvings on them of a leopard, a fish, a serpent, and a land 
tortoise. The first two of these are female symbols, the two 
latter emblems of the male. There were also two rude 
figures representing their god Obatala, the deity of life, who 
is worshipped under two forms, a male and a female. Oppo 
site to these was the male symbol or phallus, conjoined 
in coitu with the female emblem. Du Chaillu met with 
some tribes in Africa who adore the female only. His guide, 
he informs us, carried a hideous little image of wood with 
him, and at every meal he would take the little fetish out of 
his pocket, and pour a libation over its feet before he would 
drink himself. 

We know that a similar superstition prevailed in Ireland 
long after the advent of Christianity. There a female, 
pointing to her symbol, was placed over the portal of many 
a church as a protector from evil spirits ; and the elaborate 
though rude manner in which these figures were sculptured 
shows that they were considered as objects of great import 
ance. It was the universal practice among the Arabs of 
Northern Africa to stick up over the door of their house or 
tent the genital parts of a cow, mare, or female camel, as a 
talisman to avert the influence of the evil eye. The figure of 
this organ being less definite than that of the male, it has 
assumed in symbolism very various forms. The commonest 
substitution for the part itself has been a horse-shoe, which 


is to this day fastened over many of the doors of stables and 
shippons in the country, and was formerly supposed to pro 
tect the cattle from witchcraft. From a lively story by 
Beroalde de Verville, we learn that in France a sight of the 
female organ was believed, as late as the sixteenth century, 
to be a powerful charm in curing any disease in, and for 
prolonging the life of, the fortunate beholder. 

As nivijjsfl.tinri adyfl/nfipdj fVm gynss symhnla nf flyffltjy^ 

power^were cast aside T and priestly ingenuity was taxed to 
Ine utmost in inventing a^rowd of less obvious emblems, 
which should represent the ancient ideas in a jiiecorous 
manner. The old belief was retained, but in a mysterious or 
sublimated form. As symbols of the male, or active element 
in creation, the sun, light, fire, a torch, the phallus or 
linga, an erect serpent, a tall straight tree, especially the 
palm and the fir or pine, were adopted. Equally useful 
for symbolism were a tall upright stone (menhir), a cone, a 
pyramid, a thumb or finger pointed straight, a mast, a rod, 
a trident, a narrow bottle or amphora, a bow, an arrow, a 
lance, a horse, a bull, a lion, and many other animals conspicu 
ous for masculine power. As symbols of the female, the 
passive though fruitful element in creation, the crescent 
moon, the earth, darkness, water, and its emblem a triangle 
with the apex downwards, " the yoni," a shallow vessel or 
cup for pouring fluid into (crater a), a ring or oval, a lozenge, 
any narrow cleft, either natural or artificial, an arch or door 
way, were employed. In the same category of symbols 
came a ship or boat, the female date-palm bearing fruit, a 
cow with her calf by her side, the fish, fruits having many 
seeds, such as the pomegranate, a shell (concha), a cavern, 
a garden, a fountain, a bower, a rose, a fig, and other things 
of suggestive form, etc. 

These two great classes of conventional symbols were f 
often represented in conjunction with each other, and 
thus symbolised in the highest degree the great source of 
life, ever originating, ever renewed. The Egyptian temple i 


at Denderah has lately been explored by M. Mariette. In a 
niche of the Holy of Holies he discovered the sacred secret. 
This was simply a GOLDEN SISTEUM (see ante, pp. 44 and 
70), an emblem formed by uniting the female oval with the 
male sacred Tau T ; and thus identical in meaning with the 
coarse emblem seen by Captain Burton in the African idol 
temple. A similar emblem is the linga standing in the 
centre of a yoni, the adoration of which is to this day 
characteristic of the leading dogma of Hindu religion. 
There is scarcely a temple in India which has not its lingam ; 
and in numerous instances this symbol is the only form 
under which the great- god Siva is worshipped. (See ante, 
pp. 72, 73.) 

The linga is generally a tall, polished, cylindrical, black 
stone, apparently inserted into another stone formed like an 
elongated saucer, though in reality the whole is sculptured 
out of one block of basalt. The outline of the frame, which 
reminds us of a Jew s harp (the conventional form of the 
female member), is termed argha or yoni. The former, or 
round perpendicular stone, the type of the virile organ, is 
the linga. The entire symbol, to which the name lingyoni 
is given, is also occasionally called lingam. This representa 
tive of the union ofJka-^exeiMTpif^ or 
productivejnrrgjrj in rim on \\\\\\ Mn 1 piTu?Anjj^OML nLiiLl.ivu 
power seen throughout^ature. The earth was the primitive 
pudendum, or yoni, which is fecundated by the solar heat, 
the sun, the primitive linga, to whose vivifying rays man and 
animals, plants and the fruits of the earth, owe their being 
and continued existence. These " lingas " vary in size from 
the tiny amulets worn about the neck, to the great monoliths 
of the temples. Thus th_JirigRm in nn rjnbjrm of the 
Creator, the fountain_of gfUlife^wbo is represented in Hindu 
mytholog^s^unitingin Hms^lfjtEe~ : Ewo^sexes. 

Another symBoT,"the caduceus, older than Greek and 
Eoman art, in which it is associated with Esculapius and 
Hermes, the gods of health and fertility, has precisely the 


Fig. 173. 

same signification as the sistrum and the lingam. This is 
made clear enough in the following extract from a letter by 
Dr. C. E. Balfour, published in Fergusson s Tree 
and Serpent Worship, 1873. " I have only once 
seen living snakes in the form of the Esculapian 
rod. It was at Ahmednuggar, in 1841, on a clear 
moonlight night. They dropped into the garden 
from the thatched roof of my house, and stood erect. They 
were all cobras, and no one could have seen them without at 
once recognising that they were in congress. Natives of 
India consider that it is most fortunate to witness serpents 
so engaged, and believe that if a person can throw a cloth at 
the pair so as to touch them with it, the material becomes 
a representative form of Lakshmi,* of the highest virtue, 
and is preserved as such." The serpent, which casts its 
skin and seems to renew its youth every year, has been 
used from remotest times as a living symbol of generative 
energy, and of immortality ; indeed, in the most ancient 
Eastern languages, the name for the serpent also signifies 
life.Jl_ It has Been usually worshipped as the Agathodcemon, 
the god of good fortune, life, and health; though in the 
Hebrew scriptures, and elsewhere, we meet with a good and 
a bad serpent Oriental dualism. The Kakodcemon, how 
ever, is usually represented as winged the Dragon, as in 
the following example. 

In the remarkable Babylonian seal, Plate iv., Fig. 3, the 
deity is represented as uniting in himself the male and the 
female. On each side is a serpent, as the emblem of the life 
flowing from the Creator ; that on the male side, having 
round his head the solar glory, is compared to the sun -god, 
as the active principle in creation ; that on the female side, 
over whose head is the lunar crescent, to the moon- and 
earth-goddess, the passive principle in creation. Both are 

* The consort, or life-giving energy of Vishuu. 

f Aajn French, the m/ma for.thr rmlft "rflin nnd fnr 

gn in 



attacked by a winged dragon, the kakodoemon, or the evil 
principle. This is according to the ancient Chaldean doctrine 
of two creations of living beings, the one good and the other 
malign. The Chinese still think that an eclipse is caused 
by the efforts of a furious dragon to destroy the sun and 
moon ; and Apollo, the sun-god, destroying the serpent 
Python, has reappeared on our coin as St. George killing the 
dragon. Even Apollyon appears in old paintings with huge 
wings, like those of a bat. 

Having thus explained what appears to be the key to 
a wide range of religious symbolism, and shown its appli 
cation in many cases, we shall further apply it to unlock the 
famous object of Assyrian worship. Soon after the dis 
coveries of Botta and Layard were published, it was conjec 
tured that this strange object, so continually represented as 
being adored, might be the asherah of the Hebrew scrip 
tures, translated " grove " in the English version. How 
far the view was correct we shall now proceed to examine. 

The religion of the East at a very remote period appears 
to have been the worship of one God, under several names. 
The most primitive was El, II, or Al, = the strong, the 
mighty one ; or its plural Elohim, as expressing His many 
powers and manifestations. Another name was Baal or 
Bel, the lord,, which also had a plural form, Baalim. The 
first word is continually used in the Hebrew scriptures, and 
applied both to the true God and the gods of the nations. 
Baal is only once thus applied, Hosea ii. 16; yet Balaam, 
inspired by God, prophesies from the high places of Baal. 
This name, though- B^^pprupriate^ to the Almighty, .became 
abhorrent to__the Jews when it was s^ frequently 
with idolatry, and a new cognnmp.n, nr "f.hp 
was adopted by them, viz., Jehovah, = the EternaL? the 

Exod. iii. 14. " Baal " 
was tne supreme god of all the great Syro -Phoenician 
nations, with the insignificant exception of the Jews ; and 
when the latter migrated into Canaan they were surrounded 


on all sides by his worshippers. Towns, temples, men, 
including even a son of Saul, of David and of Jonathan, viz., 
Eshbaal, Meribbaal, and Beelida, were called after him. As 
the sun-god, Baal-Hammon, Song of Sol. viii. 11 ; 2 Kings 
xxiii/5 flie was worshipped on high places, Num. xxii. 41 ; 
and an image of the sun appeared over his altars, 2 Chron. 
xxxiv. 4. As the generative and productive power, he was 
worshipped under the form of the phldlns, BooWPgor ; and 
youths and maidens, even of high birth, prostituted them 
selves in his honour or service; Num. xxv.; 2 Kings xxiii. 7. 
As the creator, he was represented to be of either or of both 
sexes; and Arnobius tells us that his worshippers invoked 

him thus : 

" Hear us, Baal ! whether thou be a god or a goddess." 
Though he is of the masculine gender in the Hebrew, 
ty?D, the lord, yet Baal is called >j BaaX, = the lady, in the 
Septuagint ; Hos. ii. 8 ; Zeph. i. 4 ; and in the New Testa 
ment, Komans xi. 4. At the licentious worship of this 
androgyne, or two-sexed god, the men on certain occasions 
wore female garments, whilst the women appeared in male 
attire, brandishing weapons. Each^of this_god^_names had 
a female counterpart ; and the feminine forrn^ of Baal was 
RfiltTg, Tshtar. and Ashtarte. Asjifi was. the sun-god,_she 
waajhe moon-goddess. Now, whilst the masculine name 
(as Bel or Bal, Baal, Baalim,) appears nearly one hundred 
times in the Hebrew Old Testament, the feminine equivalent 
is only found three times in the singular Ashtoreth, and six 
times in the plural Ashtaroth ; always in association with 
Baal-worship. Knowing, as we do, the immense diffusion of 
her worship amongst the Babylonians, Assyrians, and 
Phoenicians, this appears strange. There is a word of the 
feminine gender occurring in the Hebrew twenty-four times, 
-lPK, Asherah or Asharah ; plural, n?, Asharoth ; 



translated in the Septuagint and Latin vulgate, a tree, or 
" grove," in which they have been followed by most modern 
versions, including the English. This supplies the void, for 


Asharah may be regarded as another name for the goddess 
Ashtoreth, as is plainly seen by the following passages : 
" They forsook Jehovah and served Baal and Ashtoreth ; " 
Judges ii. 13 ; whilst in the following chapter we read, 
They forgot Jehovah their G-od, and served the Baalim and 
the Asharoth ; " iii. 7. What, then, was the Asharah? It 
was of wood, and of large size ; the Jews were ordered to 
cut it down ; Exod. xxxiv. 13, etc. ; and Gideon offered a 
bullock as a burnt sacrifice with the wood of the Asherah. 
Occasionally it was of stone. It was carved or graven as 
an image ; 2 Kings xxi. 7. It often stood close to the altar 
of Baal; Judges vi. 25 and 30; 1 Kings xvi. 32, 33; 
2 Chron. xxxiii. 3. Usually on high places and under 
shady trees ; 1 Kings xiv. 23 ; Jer. xvii. 2 ; but one was 
erected in the temple of Jehovah by Manasseh ; 2 Kings 
xxi. 7. It had priests ; 1 Kings xviii. 19 ; and its worship 
was as popular as that of Baal ; for whilst the priests of 
" the Baal " were four hundred and fifty, those of " the 
Asherah " were four hundred, who ate at the table of Queen 
Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidon. It was some 
times surrounded with hangings, and was worshipped by 
both sexes with licentious rites ; 2 Kings xxiii. 7 ; Ezek. 
xvi. 16. As Baal was associated with sun-worship, schwas 
the Asherah with that of the moon ; 2 Kings xxL 3; 
2 Chron. xxxiv. f. " 

Besides these Asheroth, female emblems of Baal, there 
were Asherim, D V?#N, male emblems of Baal, " symbolising 
his generative power" (Fiirst, Hebrew Lexicon), which are 
mentioned sixteen times in the Hebrew scriptures. It is 
only found in the plural, and must have been a multiple 
representation of the singular, Asher, "K?N, which means 
"to be firm, strong, straight, prosperous, happy," * and 
cognate with the Phoenician ">DN (Osir), " husband," " lord," 

+ The lupanars at Pompeii were distinguished by a sign over the street door, 
representing the erect phallus, painted or carved, and having the words underneath, 
" Hie habitat felicitas." 


an epithet of Baal. Doubtless this was also identical with 
the Egyptian Osiris, = the sun, = the phallus. He was 
said to have suffered death like the sun ; and Plutarch 
tells us that Isis, unable to discover all the remains of her 
husband, consecrated the phallus as his representative. Thus 
" the Asharim " were male symbols used in Baal-worship, 
and sometimes consisted of multiple phalli, of which the 
branch carried by an Assyrian priest, in Plate iii. Fig. 4, is a 
conventional form. They were then counterparts of the 
" multimammia " of Greek and Koman worship.* This is 
confirmed by a curious passage, 1 Kings xv. 13 (repeated 
2 Chron. xv. 16). We learn (xiv. 23) that the Jews, under 
Rehoboam, son of Solomon, having lapsed into idolatry, had 
" built them high places, images, and Asharim (" groves," 
A. V.) on every high hill, and under every green tree ; and 
that there were also consecrated ones (" sodomites," A. V.) 
in the land." But Asa, his brother, on succeeding to the 
throne, swept away all these things, and (xv. 13) deposed 
the queen mother, Maachah, because she had made a miphlet- 
zeth to an Asherah ("an idol in a grove," A. V.) n jP?, 
miphletzeth, is rendered by the Vulgate "simulacrum Priapi." 
The word is derived from Y^, palatz, "to be broken," "terri 
fied," or the cognate B^B, phalash, palash, " to break or go 
through," "to open up a way; " a word or root found in the 
Hebrew, Phoenician, Syriac, and Ethiopic. Doubtless the 
Greek <J>aAAo, phallus, was hence derived, since it has no 
independent meaning in Greek ; and Herodotus and Dio- 
dorus expressly assert that the chief gods of Greece and their 
mysteries, especially the Dionysiac or Bacchic revels, in 
which the phallus was carried in procession, were derived 
from the east. Compare also the Latin pales, English 
pale, pole, = Maypole. A similar word, with a corres 
ponding meaning, exists in the Sanscrit. Thus, then, 
according to the Hebrew scriptures, there were two chief 

See Figs. 15, 16. 


symbols used in the worship of Baal, one male, the other 

We can now look upon the very symbols themselves, 
which were so used perhaps the most remarkable in exist 
ence. It is well known that the Chaldeans, from whom all 
other nations derived their religion, astronomy, and science, 
gave the name of Bel or Baal to their chief god. In the 
most ancient inscription yet deciphered, written in the Baby 
lonian and Arcadian languages, a king rules by " the favour 
of Bel." Another name for Baal is Assur, or Asher, from 
whom Assyria is named. In the cuneiform inscriptions of 
Sennacherib, the great king of Assyria, Nineveh is called 
"the city of Bel," and "the city beloved by Ishtar." 
In another inscription he says of the king of Egypt: 
" the terror of Ashur and Ishtar overcame him and he fled." 
Assurbanipal thus commences his annals : " The great 
warrior, the delight of Assur and Ishtar, the royal offspring 
am I." In a cuneiform inscription of Nebobelzitri, we read : 
"Nineveh the city, the delight of Ishtar, wife of Bel." 
Again, " Beltis, the consort of Bel." " Assur and Beltis, the 
gods of Assyria." Thus we see that Baal and Bel were 
identical with Assur, and Ashur. Doubtless, then, " Asher ah" 
is the last name with the feminine termination (as Ish = 
man, Ishah= woman), and is identical with Ishtar, Ashteroth, 
Astarteand Beltis. The Septuagint has rendered "Asherah " 
by " Astarte," in 2 Chron. xv. 16, and the Vulgate by 
"Astaroth," in Judges iii. 7. Herodotus described (B.C. 450) 
the great temple of Belus at Babylon, and its seven stages 
dedicated to the sun, moon, and planets, on the top of which 
was the shrine. This contained no statue, but there was a 
golden couch, upon which a chosen female lay, and was 
nightly visited by the god. Now, therefore, that the palaces 
of the Assyrian kings, and their " chambers of imagery," 
have been by great good fortune laid open to us, we might 
expect to discover the long-lost symbolism of Baal-worship. 
And so we have. 


To commence with the simplest. The D "KPK (Askerim) 
is seen as the mystic palm-tree, the tree of life, Fig. 99 ; the 
phallic pillar putting forth branches like flames, Fig. 65 ; and 
the tree with seven phalloid branches, so common on Assy 
rian and Babylonian seals, Plate xvii., Fig. 4. See also the 
remarkable Syrian medals, Plate xvii , Fig. 2, on which is 
represented Baal as the sun-god, holding the bow, and 
surrounded by phalli. 

Or, least conventional of all, the simple phallus, of 
which there are two remarkable specimens in the British 
Museum. Each of these is about two and a half feet 
high, and once guarded the bounds of an estate. Among 
the Greeks and Romans, boundaries were also marked 
by a phallic statue of Hermes, the god of fertility. 
These Assyrian emblems have doubtless often been honoured 
with rural sacrifice. Themselves the most expressive sym 
bol of life, they are also covered with its conventional 
emblems. A back view of oneis given, Figure 174. The 
body is mainly occupied with a full length portrait of the great 
king- For as the Assyrians represented the T)p.ity r the source 
of all life, by the phallus, so themonarch was the god of this 
the jpp.H.vnfflnn nt Ind on earth He was the 
source of life to the empire, and as such was addressed " 
king, live for ever " (Dan. v. 10). He, like the gods, never dies. 
" Le Roi est mort ; Vive le Roi." The ensigns of royalty 
were also those of the creator-god. Accordingly, his gar 
ments and crown are embroidered with that sacred emblem, 
the Asherah. He bears the strung-bow and arrows, emblems 
of virile power, borne afterwards by the sun-god Apollo, and 
the western son of Venus. An erect serpent occupies the 
other side, and ends with forky tongue near the orifice. The 
glans is covered with symbols. On the summit is a triad of 
sun emblems ; beneath are three altars, over two of which are 
the glans-shaped caps, covered with bulls horns, always 
worn by the Assyrian guardian angels, and intense emblems 
of the male potency. For in ancient symbolism, a part of 


a symbol stands for the whole ; as here, the horns represent 
the bull, and the glans the phallus. Above the third altar 
is a tortoise, whose protruded head and neck reminded the 
initiated of the phallus ; and the altars are covered with a 
pattern drawn from the tortoise scales. We have, besides, 
a vase with a rod inserted, emblem of sexual union, and a 
cock, with wings and plumage ruffled, running after a hen in 
amorous heat. The glans only of the other is copied. 

Figure 175. 

Fig. 175. At the top are the sun-symbols, as before. 
Beneath is the horse-shoe-like head-dress of Isis, and there 
are two altars marked with the tortoise-emblem in front. 
Over both rises the erect serpent, and upon one lies the head 
of an arrow or a dart, both male symbols. The miphletzeth 
which Queen Maachah placed in or near the Asherah, pro 
bably resembled these Assyrian phalli, or the Asherim. 


And now we come to the Asherah, a much more complex 
and difficult symbol than any other which we have named. 
This object has long puzzled antiquarians, and though it 
is continually recurring in the sculptures from Nineveh, it 
has not yet been fully explained. In Fig. 176 we see it 

Figure 176. 

worshipped by human figures, with eagles heads and wings, 
who present to it the pine-cone, = the testis, and the basket, 
= the scrotum (?), intense emblems of the male creator. In 

Figure 177. 

Fig. 177 it is adored by the king and his son or successor, 


with their attendant genii. The kings present towards it a 
well-known symbol of life and good fortune T the fist with the 
foi sfinger extended, or" the phallic hand." Here, then, 
we have evidently the Asherah, or Ashtaroth-symbol, the 
female Baal, the life-producer, "the door " whence life issues 
to the world. As such the goddess is here symbolised as an 
arched door-way. In the Phoenician alphabet, the fourth 
letter, daleth, n | = a door, has the shape of a tent-door, as 
on the Moabite stone, A, and also in the Greek AeAra. But 
another form, perhaps as ancient, is D? which, when placed 
in its proper position, would be Q, the very form of the 
Asherah.* In the plural, this word stands for the labia 
pudendi, ^ 1$? TJJ *6 3, "because it shut not up the 
doors of the womb," Job iii. lO.t We infer from Numbers 
xxv. 6-8, that in the rites of Baal-peor, the Kadeshoth, or 
women devoted to the god, offered themselves to his wor 
shippers each in a peculiar bower or small arched tent, called 
a qubbah, n ?i^. The part also through which Phinehas drove 
his spear (see Num. xxv. 8), the woman s vulva, is also called 
qobbah, n3 P, the one word being derived from the other, 
according to Onkelos, Aquila, and others. Qubbah means, 
according to Fiirst, Heb. Lex., " something hollow and 
arched, an arched tent, like the Arabic El. Kubba, whence 
the Spanish Al-cova, and our Alcove." In the Latin also, 
the word fornix, a vault, an arch, meant a brothel, and from 
it was derived fornicatio. Qubbah is translated by the LXX. 
Koifjuvog, kaminos, "an oven or arched furnace" (Liddell and 
Scott) ; but it meant also the female parts. See Herodotus 
v. 92 (7). Thus, then, the Alcove was itself a symbol of 
woman, as though a place of entrance and emergence, and 
whence new life issues to the world. And when the male 

* The first letter, Aleph, = an ox, is, even on the Moabite stone, written thus, <, 
and has become the modern A. In the earlier hieroglyph it must have been thus V- 
The Egyptian hieroglyph for ten is fj . Compare the Greek Ae /ca and Latin Decem, 

| The first of the Orphic Hymns is addressed to the goddess Artemisias Hpoflvpcua. 
(Prothuraia) or the Door-keeper, who presided over childbirths, like the Koinan 
Diana Luciua. 


worshipper of Baal entered to the kadeshah, the living 
embodiment of the goddess, the analogy to the Asherah 
became complete, as we shall now show. 

The central object in the Assyrian " grove " is a male 
date-palm, which was well known as an emblem of Baal, 
the sun, the phallus, and life. This remarkable tree, 
"V?9, m., Zamar, in Phoenician and Hebrew, the plioenix 
(o $o/vi)-jfflrGrreek, was formerly abundant in Palestine and 
the neighbouring regions. The word Phoenicia, (Acts xi. 19, 
xv. 3) is derived from $o/vi, phoinix, as the country of 
palms ; like the " Idumece palmce " of Virgil. Palmyra, the 
city of the sun, was called in the Hebrew Tamar (1 Kings 
ix. 18). In Vespasian s famous coin, " Judaa capta," 
Judaea is represented as a female sitting under a palm-tree. 
The tree can at once be identified by its tall, straight, 
branchless stem, of equal thickness throughout, crowned at 
the top with a cluster of long, curved, feather-like branches, 
and by its singularly wrinkled bark. All these characteristics 
are readily recognised in the highly conventional forms of the 
religious emblem, even in the ornament on the king s robe, 
fig. 174. The date-palm is dioecious, the female trees, which 
are sometimes used as emblems, being always distinguished 
by the clusters of date fruit. "Thy stature is like to a palm- 
tree, thy breasts to clusters " (Cant. vii. 7). " The righteous 
shall flourish like the palm-tree " (Ps. xcii. 12), fruitful and 
ever green. " They are upright as the palm-tree, but speak 
not " (Jer. x. 3-5). The prophet is evidently describing the 
making of an Asherah. There was a Canaanite city called 
Baal-Tamar, = Baal, the palm-tree, designated so, it is pro 
bable, from the worship of Baal there "under the form of a 
priapus-column," says Fiirst, Heb. Lex. The real form was 
doubtless an " Asherim," a modified palm-tree, as we have 
already shown. Palm-branches haye^ been used in all n^ea 
as emblems of life, peace, and^victory. They were strewn 
befo re^Christ. Palm-Sunday, the feast of palms, is still 
kep Even within the present century, on this festival, in 



many towns of France, women and children carried in pro 
cession at the end of their palm-branches a phallus made of 
bread, which they called, undisguisedly, " la pine," whence 
the festival was called " La Fete des Pinnes." The " pine " 
having been blest by the priest, the women carefully pre 
served it during the following year as an amulet. (Dulaure, 
Hist, des different Cultes.) 

Again, the Greek name for the palm-tree, phoenix, was 
also the name of that mythical Egyptian bird, sacred to 
Osiris, and a symbol of the resurrection. With some early 
Christian writers, Christ was "the Phoenix." The date-palm 
is figured as a tree of life on an Egyptian sepulchral tablet, 
older than the Exodus, now preserved in the museum at 
Berlin. Two arms issue from the top of the tree ; one of 
which presents a tray of dates to the deceased, whilst the 
other gives him water, " the water of life." The tree of 
life is represented by a date-palm on some of the earliest 
Christian mosaics at Rome. Something very like the Assy 
rian Asherah, or sacred emblem, was sculptured on the great 
doors of Solomon s temple, by Hiram, the Tyrian (1 Kings 
vii. 13-21). We read " he carved upon them carvings of 
cherubims and palm-trees and open flowers, and spread gold 
upon the cherubims and palm-trees " (1 Kings vi. 32-35). 
He also erected two phallic pillars in front of the Temple, 
Jacliln and Boaz, = It stands In strength. No wonder 
Solomon fell to worship Astarte, Chemosh, and Milcom. 

Although to our modern ideas the mystical tree, symbol 
of life and immortality, seems out of place in Judaism, 
yet no sooner did the Jews possess a national coinage 
under the Maccabees than the palm-tree reappears, alway s 
witli seven branches (like the golden candlestick, Ex. xxv.), 
as on the shekel represented Plate xvii., Fig. 4. The Assyrian 
tree has ahvays the same number, and the tufts of foliage 
(symbolising the entire female tree) which deck the margins 
of the mystic Q apt emblems of fertility have also 
invariably seven branches. This may remind us of the 




seven visible spheres that move around our earth " in mystic 
dance," and of Balak s offering, upon seven altars, seven bulls 
and seven rams (Num. xxiii. 1 ; Bev. ii. 1) The mystic 
door is also barred, like the Egyptian sistrum carried by the 
priestesses of Isis, to represent the inviolable purity and 
eternal perfection which were associated with the idea of 
divinity. When Mary, the mother of Jesus, took the place 
in Christendom of " the great goddess," the dogmas whic 
propounded her immaculate conception and perpetual vir 
ginity followed as a matter of course. 

Thus, then, we explain the greatest symbol in Eastern 
worship, it is the " Tree of Life in the midst of the Garden," 
which has remained so long a mystery. To Dr. Inman 
belongs the distinguished merit of having first broken ground 
in the right direction. In his Ancient Faiths, vol. 1, 1868, 
he identified the Assyrian " Asherah " with the female " door 
of life," and pointed out its analogy to the hnTm(^n nt L rnm 
We have seen that it is really much more complex, being 
precisely analogous in meaning to the famous crux ansata 
(Fig. 170), the central mystery of Egyptian worship ; to the 
lingam or lingyoni of India (Fig. 109), the great emblem of 
Siva-worship ; and to the caduceus of Greece and Rome. 
As represented on the Assyrian sculptures, it is always 
substantially the same. Probably this stereotyped form was 
the result of a gradual refinement upon some rude primitive 
type, perhaps as coarse as that seen by Captain Burton in 
the African idol- temple. 

To exhibit all the strange developments and modifications 
which this idea has assumed in the religious symbolism of 
Eastern and Western nations would require a large volume. 
But the subject is so rich in varied interest that we cannot 
conclude without taking a glance at it. First, the simple Q, 
barred, is reproduced with a contraction towards the base, as 
in the Indian "yoni," and the Egyptian sistrum, used in the 
worship of Isis. Second, within the Q was represented the 
goddess herself, as revealed within her own symbol. This 


rJmwm beat? marie mrgi0 pfaltmui 

is mirabilib &im nitions rcf<rti<6 nouir &d ?cipthri% pft 


is illustrated in Plate xvii., Fig. 5, where Demeter or Ceres is 
thus depicted, with her cornucopia, from a bronze coin of 
Damascus. Thirdly, but much more commonly, the goddess 
holds in her hands emblems of the male potency in creation, 
and thus completes the symbol. As in the coin figured Plate 
xvii., Fig. 8, the goddess, standing within the Q, the portico 
of her temple, holds in her right hand the cross, that most 
ancient emblem of the male and of life. In the beautiful 
Greek coin of Sidon next figured, the goddess evidently 
Astarte, the moon-goddess, the Queen of Heaven - stands 
on a ship, the mystic Argha or Ark, holding in one hand a 
crozier, in the other the cross. (Plate xvii., Fig. 7.) 

Under Christianity, the Virgin Mary, who, as Queen of 
Heaven, stands on the crescent moon, is pictured beneath 
the mystic doorway, with (the God as) a male child in her 
arms. See Plate xviii., copied from the woodcut title to the 
Psalter of the Blessed Virgin, printed at Czenna, in old 
Prussia, 1492. Like Isis, she is the mother and yet the 
spouse^of God, " clothed with the sun, and having f,hf 
underjier feet " (Rev, xii. 1). The upper half of the picture 
is very like the A-ssynan scenes. On either side is a king, 
Frederick III. and his son the Emperor Maximilian, at their 
devotions. The alcove is of roses, an emblem of virginity. 
The famous Mediaeval " Romaunt de la Rose " turns upon 
this. Among^the many titles given to " the Virgin " in 
Mediaeval times, we find Santa Maria dellgJR l MUL r *h* : floiver 
Mng c^secratedjoifir^. Hence it is often represented in 
her hand. Dante writes :- 

" Here is the Rose, 
Wherein the Word Divine was made incarnate." 

In Plate xviii., the Virgin goddess is seated with the God-child 
in a bower, exactly the shape of the Assyrian, composed of 
fruits highly significant of sex, as has already been explained. 
In some Hindoo pictures, the child is naked, haviflg_^be 


member erect, and also making the phallic hand, with the 
right forefinger erected. (Plate xiv., Fig. 14.) 

In other conventional forms we have male symbols only 
within the female Q. This is a very numerous class. In 
the Fig. 3, Plate xvii., we see the fir-tree orpine take the place 
of the palm-tree, and in Fig. 6, Plate xvii., the cone. On this 
remarkable medal of Cyprus is a representation of the temple 
of Venus at Paphos, famous even in the days of Homer. 
(Odyss. viii. 362.) The worship of that divinity is said to 
have been imported into Cyprus from the East. The goddess 
united both sexes in her own person, and was served by 
castrated priests. We see here, within the innermost sanc 
tum of the temple, a cone as emblem of the male ; and the 
meaning is further pointed by the sun-emblem above, inserted 
within the crescent moon. 

Let us next examine how the cone came to be used 
as a masculine emblem. If we turn to Figs. 174 and 175, it 
will be seen that the " glans " was particularly honoured as 
the head of the phallus; it was also the part dedicated to 
God by effusion of blood in the rite of circumcision. Thi? 
" acorn " is conical or dome-shaped, and thus a part being 
taken for the whole the cone or pyramid was used as a 
conventional symbol of the male creator. Placed on a stem 
it is frequently represented as worshipped 
on Assyrian has reliefs. See Fig. 177. It 
was also a symbol of fire, the sun, and life ; 
as such it formed a fitting monument for 
the Egyptian kings. Our word pyramid is 
from the Greek nvpapic, puramis, itself 
derived from nvp, pur, fire, and 7rvpo$, puros, 
wheat, because pyramid-shaped cakes of 
wheat and honey were used in the Bacchic 
rites. It played an important part in sun- 
worship. The emperor Heliogabalus (who, as his name 
implies, had been a priest of Baal, the sun-god, in Syria,) 
established the Syrian worship at Home. He himself drove 

Fig. 177. 


the golden chariot of the sun, drawn by six white horses, 
through the streets of Rome to a splendid new temple on 
the Palatine mount, the god being represented by a conical 
black stone, said to have fallen from heaven ; and which the 
emperor removed from a temple of the sun, at Emesa, in 
Syria. At a subsequent period, an image of the moon- 
goddess, or Astarte, was brought by his orders from a cele 
brated fane at Carthage to Rome, and there solemnly 
married with licentious rites to the sun-god, amidst general 

A curious parallel to these mystic nuptials of the Assyrian 
god and goddess may be found in some of the religious 
ceremonies of the modern Hindoos. Fergusson tells us that 
"the most extraordinary buildings connected with Hindu 
temples are the vast pillared colonnades or choultries. By far 
their most important application is when used as nuptial 
halls, in which the mystic union of a male and female 
divinity is celebrated once a year." 

Again, in Indian mythology, the pyramid plays an 
important part. It belongs to Siva, = the sun, = fire, = the 
phallus, = life. By one complex symbol, very common 
on ancient Hindoo monuments in China 
and Thibet, .the universe was thus repre 
sented. Notice the upward gradation. Earth 
4- water = this globe. The creator-god, 
whose emblem, flame, mounts upwards, is 
the author and representative of all life upon 
it ; he is the connecting link, united by the 
crescent moon with heaven. The arrow- or 
spear-head inserted within the crescent is an 
emblem of Siva ; like the lingam it typified 
the divine source of life, and also the doctrine Fig. ITS. 
that perfect wisdom was to be found only in the combination 

* Iu Astrology, the conjunction of Jupiter and Venus was considered the most 
fortunate of all ; such as kings and princes should be born under. 




of the male and female principles in nature. It decorates 
the roofs of the Buddhist monasteries in Thibet, and like 
the sacred lotus flower and the linga, both of which became 
emblems of Buddha, was derived from older faiths. Other 
interpretations may suggest themselves. This will enable us 
to understand the remarkable sculptures of the second or 
third century, from the Amravati Tope, Plate xix., which 
present so many points in common with the religious symbols 
of the Chaldeans. In Fig. 2 we see a congregation of males 
and females, the sexes being separated, worshipping a linga, 
or stone conical pillar, on the front of which is sculptured 
the sacred tree, with branches like flames ; three symbols of 
life in one. It rises from a throne, on the seat of which are 
placed the two emblems of earth and water. In the other 
figure, the sacred tree takes the place of the linga, rising 
above the throne, as if from the trisul or trident, male 
emblems of Siva. Winged figures, Garudas, attend it above, 
floating over the heads of the worshippers. An intrusion of 
the newer faith is also to be recognised, as the feet of 
Buddha are sculptured before the throne. 

In the mysteries of Mithra, the symbols in Fig. 178 were 
also employed. They represented the elements to which the 
soul ought to be successively united in passing through the 
new birth. 

We will add but two more 
emblems, culled from mediae 
val heraldry, Figs. 179 and 180, 
in both of which the Asherah, 
the "grove" of Baal- worship, 
will be at once recognised ; the 
arrow and the cross, symbols 
of the male creator, taking the ^ 

plaee of the mystic palm- 

In all these, from the 

Fig. 179. 



rudest to the most complex, we are Jims able to trace a 
common idea^^nz^a feeling after God, as the Life and Light, 
of the Universe, and an attempt to express a common hope in 
visible forms. 



Abraham, xxviii., 63. 

Abricot fendu, 7. 

Abuse does not change facts, 43. 

Acorn, 132. 

Adam and Eve, 66. 

Adonis, 112. 

Adultery, how punished, 19. 

Aerolite, 6, 133. 

African and fetish, xv. 

AgathodaBmon, 117. 

Ahriman, 5. 

Al, 118. 

Albe, 104. 

Alcmena, 92. 

Alcove, 127. 

Aleph, 127. 

Alexander false prophet, 73. 

Alexandrian library, 92. 

Allah, prophet of, ix. 

Altar, 74. 

and fire, 9. 

Amphibolus, saint, a cloak, 84. 
Amravati tope, 133. 
Anacalypsis, Higgins , 54, 66. 
Anatolia, 70. 
Anchor, a symbol, 53. 

Ancient faiths and names, xi., 130. 

Androgyne, xxii., 9, 89, 93. 

Angels, 84. 
Animals live peaceably, xvii. 

Antelope, 3, 71. 

Anu and Hea, 4, 10, 50, 70. 

Aphrodite, 112. 

Apollo, 61. 

Apollyon, 118. 

Appendix, 107. 

Apple, 55. 

Apuleius, 25. 

Arabian paradise, 110. 

Arab swearing, xxviii., 63. 

Arabs and yoni, 114. 

Arba, the four, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 24, 


Arbor vita, 3, 8, 130. 
Arcana, 11. 
Architecture, 111. 
Arddha-nari, 9, 89. 
Argha, 75, 116. 
Arita cup, 109. 
Ark, xiii., xiv., 8, 83. 
Arnobius, 34, 55, 66, 69, 73, 119. 
Arrectation, 4, 5. 
Arrow, 49. 
Art Christian, 16. 
Artemis, 113. 
Aryans, xvii., 19. 
Asherah, 119 sg., 126. 
Asher, Anu and Hea, 4, 10, 41, 42, 

50, 70, 120. 

Ashtaroth, 4, 11, 62, 119. 
Ass, 84. 

the golden, 25. 
Assur, 122. 
Assurbanipal, 122. 
Assyrian, 21, 31, 49. 99. 
Astarte, 11, 25, 112, 129. 
Athanasius, xxxii. 
Atheists, 43. 
Athor, 12. 
Augurs, 86. 
Aureole, 34, 35, 36. 
Avatars, 68. 
Aztec ruins, x. 

Baal, 10, 119 sq. 
Baalim, 4, 11, 118. 
Baal-Peor, 119. 
Baal-Tamar, 128. 



Baby, where from, xi., xii. 
Babylonia, 4, 12, 117. 
Babylons, two, 3. 

Bacchus, 3, 34, 49, 95. 
festivities of, 49, 121. 

Bag, 25, 45, 126. 
Balaam, 118, 130. 

Balak, 130. 

Balfour, Dr., 116. 

Bambino, 73. 

Barberini palace, 63. 

Barleycorn, 43. 

Barred symbols, 80, 81. See Sis- 

Basket, 49, 50, 84. 

Bat, 118. 

Bathsheba and Lucretia, xxxiv, 

Baubo and Ceres, 66, 67. 

Beads, 82, 83. 

BEING, the Great, xvii. 

Bel, 4,5,67, 118. 

Bell and Sistrum, 53. 

Bells, 20, 22. 

Beltis, 122. 

Belus temple, 122. 

Bene nasatus, 6. 

Bengal and Palestine, xxvii. 
famine in, xx. 

Bequille, la, 85. 
Berlin Museum, 129. 
Berne Cathedral, 10. 
Beroalde de Verville, 115. 
Betal. a Hindoo god, 60. 
Bethel, 73. 
Bethshemesh, xiii. 
Bhaga, 74. 

Bhavani, 9, 74, 88, 94. 
Bifrons, 57. 
Bigotry, viii. 
Bishop, ancient, 51, 52. 

blessing, 6. 
Bishop s Crook, 64. 
Black divinities, 28. 29, 30, 52, 79, 


Blessing, 6, 7. 
Boaz and Jachin, xxxiii., 129. 

Bohen, 4. 

Bonnes fortunes, 86. 

Bonomi, 24. 

Botta, 118. 

Bouche inferieure, la, 81. 

Boundary stones, 123. 

Bow, 25. 

Bowls, sacred, 75. 

Box, or ark, xiii. 

Boy, a brave, xiv. 

Brahma, 7- 

Brahmin, ix. 

and microscope, xi. 
Branch, 3, 16. 

Bravery routs imposture, xiv. 
Brazen serpent, xiii. 
(Breasts, multiple, 29, 30. 
Breath, holy, 92. 
British Museum, 123. 
Brothels, called sistra, 20. 
Bryant, 8, 9, 82. 
Buddha and Jesus, xxix. 
Buddhist bells, 53. 

cross, 43. 

grove, 78. 

heaven, 109. 

Buddhists and Jeynes, 55. 
Bugbears, xiv. 
Bull, xxiii. 
Burton on Dahomey, 114, 116, 13 

Caaba, 63. 

Cabiri, Faber s, 62. 

Cabrera, 12. 

Cadiere, Miss, 34. 

Caduceus, 116. 

Cairo, 21. 

Cakes, round, 35. 

Calf, golden, 108. 

Candlestick, golden, 129. 

Carrot, xii, 70. 

Carthage, 24. 

Cat, 18, 48, 96, 100. 

Cave near Venice, 113. 

Celestial "Virgin, 76, 113. 

Celibacy of priests, 52. 



Central America, 55. 
Ceres, 7, 25, 69, 112, 131. 
and Bacchus, 95. 
and Baubo, 66, 67. 
Chaldeans, 122. 
Chariot of sun, 36. 
Chasuble, 104. 
Chemosh, 129. 
Cherubim, xiii. 
Child and Virgin, 1, 11, 18, 26, 

27, 28, 75, 131. 
fruit, 74. 

Children and secrets, xi. 
Chinese and eclipse, 118. 
%oipos choiros, 57. 
Choultries, 133. 
Chrishna, 2, 26, 88. 
Christendom, xv. 
Christianity, vii. 

and heathenism, 16, 102. 
wants a scavenger, xvi. 
Christians, xxviii. 
their Virgin and Child, 1, 11, 18, 

26, 27, 28, 75. 
Churches, sexual ornaments in, 16. 
on, 114 
Cibotus, 8. 
Circles, 34, 35, 36. 
Circumcision, xxvi, 99, 132. 
Citron, 56. 

Classification of symbols, x. 
Clitoris, 5. 
Club on coin, 57. 
Clusters, 128. 
Cobden, 13. 
Cock, 99, 125. 
Cognomens, xix. 

containing Baal, 119. 
Cohen, 6. 

Coins, x., 57, 58 129. 
Coleman s Mythology, 68. 
Collation of facts, x. 
Comana, xxxii. 
Comb, 100 ; see KTCLS. 
Combined symbols, 46. 
Commandment, second, xiii. 

Community of ideas, viii. , ix. 

Comparisons, xxxi., xxxiv. 

Cone and Venus, 6. 

Coniculstone, 133. 

Conjunction of sun and moon, 6. 

Consecrated ones, xxxiii. 

Conventional emblems, xxiii. 

Cord of St. Francis, 34. 

Corinth, xxxii. 

Coronation orb, 53. 

Cosmo, a saint, 84. 

Creation, xx. 

Creator, xvii., 6. 

Crescent, ix., xx., 11, 35, 38, 69. 

Crook of bishop, 64. 

Cross, ix., xx., 14, 15, 36, 41, 42, 

43, 53, 61, 70, 101. 
and rosary, 83. 
Crozier, episcopal, 64, 85. 
Crux ansata, 9, 15, 35, 37, 44, 45, 

53, 64, 102, 103. 
Culte de Venus, 2, 4, 19, 45, 55, 

62, 71. 

Cup and Wafer, 96. 
Cupid, 5, 96. 
Cupola, 18. 
Curse on a nation, xxxiv. 

Ham, 64. 
Cybele, 69, 85. 
Cypris, le Verger de, 21. 
Cyprus, 26, 132. 
and Venus, 6. 
Czenna, 131. 

Q, 127, 129, 130, 132. 
Dabistan, the, 74. 
Dagon, 2, 67. 
Dahomey, 114. 
Damian, a saint, 84. 
Dancing before a box, xiv. 
Danes, 110. 
Dard, le, 86. 
Date palm, 128. 
David and ark, xiv. 

and Tarquin, xxxiv. 

dances obscenely, xxvii.. xxxiii. 



Death and feet marks, 41. 

of the year, 111. 
Deities, 4, 11, 62. 
Dekkan, monuments in, 60. 
Delphi, 11. 
Delta, the, 8, 127. 
Demeter, 112, 131. 
Demon and Vampire, xvi. 
Denderah, 116. 
Desire, 5, 18. 
Devi, 9, 94. 
Devices symboli, xi. 
Devil, vii. 

a Fetish, xv. 
Deuteronomy, viii. 
D Harcanville, 79. 
Dhurga, 94. 
Diana of Ephesians, 28, 30, 48. 

Boman, 113. 
Diet, fish, 2. 
Digger and trench, xxiii. 
Diodorus, 121. 
Dionysus, 23. 

revels, 121. 

Dirty statue cleaned, xvi. 
Discs, 34, 36. 
Divine revelation, viii. 
Doljang and Francis of Assisi, 79. 
Dolphin, 8. 

and womb, 55. 
Door and yoni, 66, 49, 127. 
Double deities, 4, 11, 62. 

entente, 2, 87. 

face, 58. 

triangle, 87. 
Dove, 83. 

why sacred, 21. 
Dragon, 117. 
Dress, spotted, 3. 
Drink, intoxicating, divine, xvix. 
Drunkenness in England, xxix. 
Dualism in nature, xix. 
Dubois, 66. 
Du Chaillu, 114. 
Dulaure, xxv., 129. 

Early races of Scotland, 58. 
Earth and sun, xix. 

mother, 112. 
East, 111. 

Ecclesiastical emblems, 10. 
Eclipse, 118. 
Edinburgh Eeview, 14. 
Egba temples, 114. 
Egg, xxiv. 
Egypt, ark in, xiv. 

ritual of the dead in, 109. 
Egyptian crosses, 53. 

trinity, 11-13. 
El, 118. 

Elixir of life, 108. 
Elohim, 4, 93, 118. 
Emblems and language, ix. 

how selected, 100. 

of Mary, 7, 8. 

English writers, xxv., xxxi. 
Enjoyment, 110. 
Ephod, the, 103. 
Epigrams of Martial, 85. 
Equinox, 113. 
Erection of serpents, xxiv. 
Eros, 5, 96. 

Error pleasaiiter than truth, xi. 
Esculapius, 116. 
Esdras, xii. 
Esoteric, xii., xiv. 
Etruscans, 58, 64. 
Euphemisms, xxiv., xxvii., xxxi. 
Eve, 10, 11, 66. 

xoteric, xi., xii. 
Explanations, xi. 
Eyes, 7. 
Ezekiel and Jerusalem, xxviii. 

Faber s Cabiri, 62. 
Fables, xiii. 
Fabretti, 27, 40, 57. 
Facts, collation of, x. 
Faith, a, not necessary, xvii. 
Famine in Bengal, xx. 
Fascinum, 43. 
Feasts and fasts, 111. 

\ * 

\ E 



Feet and death, 41. 

hair of, xxxi., 67, 114. 

of Buddah, 134. 

soles of, 40. 

water of, xxxi. 
Female and fish, 1, 2, 8, 68. \ 

and male, xix., 56. 

for Bel, 122. 

symbols, 98, 115. 
Fente, la, 18. 
Ferguson, 117, 133. 
Fete des Pinnes, 129. 
Fetish, xv. 

Feuille, la, de sage, 85. 
Finger in worship, 3, 4, 50. 
Fire and altar, 9. 

and love, 33. 
sacred, 111. 
Fish, 1-4, 32, 68. 
Five, names of, 40. 
Flagellation, 61. 
Flagellum, 37, 61. 
Fleece, what, 69-70. 
Flcur de lys, 46, 53, 68. 
Flood, the, 8. 
Flower, the, 22. 
Forefinger and thumb, 3. 
Foreskins and Philistines, xxvii, 

Fornication, 127. 

Fornix, 127. 

Foul anchor, 53. 

Foundation of religion, vii. 

Four, the, 103. See ABBA. 

Foutin, a French saint, 84. 

Fox Talbot, 112. 

France and yoni, 115. 

Francis, St., cord of, 34, 79. 

Free love, 74. 

Freethinkers, 43. 

Friday and fish, 1-4. 

Ganges, ix., 73, 90. 
Gardens, god of, 84. 
Garudas, 134. 
Gaulish figures, 57. 
Ge, 92, 112. 

Giant, uncircumcised, weak, xxvii. 

Giants and shams, xv. 

Ginsburg, 24. 

Gerard, Father, 34. 

Glans penis, 99. 

Gnostics, 58, 65. 

Goat, vii., 14. 

and Venus, xxiii. 
Goats and sheep, 10. 
v Goddesses, 47. 
black, 79. 

Gods, xvii. 

Golden fleece, 70, 100. 

Graven image, xiii. 

GBEAT BEING, the, xvii. 

Greece, the ark in, xiv. 

Greeks and Venus, xxiii. 

Grove, the, 22, 49, 50, 70, 91, 100, 
118 sq. 126. 

Guardian angels, 84. 

Hades, 112. 
Hair of feet, xxxi., 67. 
Ham, xxvi., 64. 
Hammer of Thor, 44. 
Hand, 6, 7, 25, 81. 
Hare, ix., 99. 
Harpocrates, 66. 
Hatred, theological, 43. 
Hea, Anu and Asher, 4, 10. 

Heathendom, xv. 

Heathenism, xv., xvi. 
in Christianity, 43. 

Heavenly peace maker, 76. 

Hebrews, xxviii. 

Heliogabalus, 132. 

Hercules and Solomon, xxviii 

Hermes, 116. 

Herodotus, 121, 122, 127. 

Higgins Anacalypsis, 54. 

Hindoos, xx., xxi., xxviii., 89. 

Hindostan, x., xxiii., 73, 93. 

Hiram, 129. 

Hole and pillar, 63. 

Holy breath, 92. 
fire, 112. 


Holy Virgin, xxi. 

Homage to yoni, 81. 

Horseshoe, 13, 78, 98, 134. 

Horus and Isis, 1, 22, 23, 68. 

Hosea, 118. 

Houris, 110. 

How to make impropriety proper, 


Hyde, 64. 
Hymen, 22, 85. 
Hyslop, 61. 

Jachin and Boaz, xxxiii., 129. 

Jacob and pillar, 73. 
swears by " thigh," xxvii., xxxiii. 

Idumece palma, 128. 

ix& vs > ichthus, 2. 

Jehovah, name of, xii., xiii. 

Jerusalem, 112. 

Jesus, vii., xxix., 3. 

Jews, xxv. y 3. 

Jew s harp, 116. 


Image, graven, xiii. 

Images, Isaiah on, 73. 

Immortality, 109. 

Impaled vampires, xvi. 

Improprieties made proper, xxi. 
India, lingams in, 73. 
mythology of, 109. 
Indra. 7, 28. 
Indranee, 28. 
Inman, Dr., 130. 
Inquiry forbidden by priests, viii. 
Instrumens, Zes, 85. 
Interpretation, x. 
Invention of religion, ix. 
Ipsambul, 54. 
Ireland and Spain, 66. 

and yoni, 114. 
Isaiah on images, 73. 
Isernia, 84. 
Ishtar, 5, 25, 112. 
Jsis, 1, 10, 12, 22, 23, 37, 52, 91, 

96, 97, 109, 125. 
Issachar, 56. 


Judcea capta, 128. 
Judaism, vii. 
Juno, xxii., 25. 
Jupiter, xxii., 4. 
Juvenal, 52. 
Ivy leaves, 49. 

Kabbalah, 23, 24. 
Kadesh, xxxii., 128. 
Kakodaemon, 117. 

Ka/atvos, 127. 

Key, 4, 25, 70, 101. 
Kildare, 112. 
King, a God, xx., 123. 
King s "G-nostics," 51,58,65. 
Kistvaens, 60. 

Kneeling in modern Eome, 73. 
Knight, E, Payne, xxv., 23, 62. 
Krishna, 88. See Chrishna. 
is, kteis, xxiv., 10, 81. 

Labice pudendi, 127. 

Lais and fish, 2. 

Lajard, 2, 4, 5, 55. 

Lake dwellings, 113. 

Lakshmi, 94, 117. 

Lamp.sacus and St. Foutin, 84. 

Lamps in worship, 74. 

Language and emblems, ix. 

Lanugo, 70. 

Laws made and broken, xiii. 
Layard, 66, 118. 
Leah, 56. 

Lebanon, xxviii., 81. 
Legba, 114. 
Leprosy and sin, viii. 
Leslie s Scotland, 24, 58. 
Letters and Symbols, xi. 
Liber and Prosumnus, 34. 
Life, ideas of, 108 sq. 
Light of Tabor, 51. 

and life, 134 

Likeness not to be made, xiii. 
Lily, 46, 53, 68. 

Linga, xxviii., 9, 10, 33, 34, 63, 68, 
73, 74, 116, 133. 



Ling Yoni, 33, 62, 71, 72, 116. 

Lingam, 116. 

Lion Mithraic, 64, 65. 

Lioness, 18. 

Loins, what, xxvii. 

Longinus, St., a spear, 84. 

Loretto Virgin, 79. 

Lotus, 3, 21, 53, 66, 88. 

Love and fire, 33. 

Lozenge and yoni, 12, 18, 81. 

Lucian s dea Syria, 75. 

Lucina, 85. 

Luck and yoni, 78, 114. 

Saint, 86. 

Lucretia and Bathsheba, xxxiv. 
Lucretius, 5. 
Lustration for Linga, 73. 
Lycian coins, 10. 

Maacha, 121, 125. 
Maccabees, 129. 
Maffei, 49, 64, 84. 
Mahadeva, 4, 10, 68, 74, 90, 94. 
Maharajahs, sect of, 34. 
Mahomet, 110. 
Mahometans, ix. 
Maia, 94. 

Maidens, Scotch, 23. 
Male and female, xix., 56. < 
symbols, 2-19, 115. 
Venus, 62. 

Malignancy, 16. 

Malta cakes, 18, 19. 
cross, 41, 42, 70. 

Mama Ocello, 25. 

Mandrakes, 56. 

Mantras, 74, 95. 

Mariette, 116. 

Marriage of deities, 133. 

Marteau, le, 86. 

Martial s epigrams, 85. 

Marttand, 16. 

ary, 1, 7, 8, 22, 25, 52, 76, 91, 
104, 131. 

Masonic appropriations, 40. 

Masons marks, 95. 
Mater Creatoris, xx. 
Maypole, 69, 70, 121. 
Mecca, 63. 

Men and animals, xvii. 
Mexico, Virgin and Child in, 76. 
Microscope and Brahmin, xi. 
Milcom, 129. 

Minarets and spires, xxii., 74. 
Ministers of God, xvii. 
Mirror, 100. 
Miss Cadiere, 34. 
Misunderstanding, ix. 
Mithraic lion, 64, 65. 
Mitre. 21, 31. 
Modern nun, 51, 52. 
Monkey, 18. 
Montfaucon, 54. 
Moon and Isis, 97. 
and months, 113, 
and sun, 6. 
female, xix., 57, 76, 77. 

Moore on pillar stones, 60. 

Moor s Hindu Pantheon, 7, 9, 11, 
12, 19, 26, 28, 68, 71, 76, 88, 
89, 95. 

Morocco Jews, 3. 

Mosaics, Christian,, 129. 

Mother of God, 76.| 

uv\os, muchos, 57. 

Mudras, 74. 

Multimammia, 28, 30, 121. 

Mumbo Jumbo, xv. 

Mutilation, sacred, xxvi., xxviii. 

Mylitta, 4, 25. 

Myrtle leaf, xxii. 

Mysteries, 104, 105. 
in religion, xii., xiv. 

Myth and meaning, xii. 

Mythology, Coleman s, 68. 

Nabhi, 33. 

Names of sexual parts, xi., 10, 57. 

Nana, 55. 

Naples museum, 29. 



Narratives, fictitious, xv. 
Nations and religions, viii. 
Nature, la, 88, 91. 
Navel, 32, 51. 
Nebo, 33. 
Nepthys, 12, 13. 
Newton, Mr., 6, 50, 76, 77, 107. 
Newton stone, the, 60. 
Niceties in symbolism, xxiv. 
Night and creation, 29. 
Nimbus and tonsure, 51. 
Nirvana, 109. 
Noah, xxv., xxvi., 8. 
Nouns and genders, 57. 
Nun, modern, 51, 52. 
\Nuns and priests, xxi. 
Nymphffium, 62. 

and T, xx. , 96. 

Cannes, 2, 67. 

Oath, how sworn, xxviii., 62, 63. 

Obatala, 114. 

Obelises, 34, 99, 124, 125. 

Officer, Eoman, pious, 73. 

Ogham, 60. 

Orthodox love, xxi. 

improprieties, xxi. 
Osir, 120. 
Osiris, 10, 12, 13, 61, 109, 112, 


Ouranos, 5, 42, 92. 
Ouseley, Sir W., P . 

Palenque, 12, 13. 
Palestine, 55. 

and Bengal, xxvii. 
Pallium, 102. 
Palm Sunday, 1 28. 

tree, 45, 69, 123 sq. 
-Palmyra, 128. 
Paphian Venus, 6, 132. 
Paradise, 110. 
Paris and apple, 55. 
Parsley, xii, 70. 
Part for whole, 100, 124. 
Parvati, 90-94. 

Paschal lamb, viii. 

Pausanias, 100. 

Penn, 2. 

Pentangle, 40. 

Persephone, 112. 

Personal vice, xxiv. 

Pesth, 4. 

Phallic emblems, 15, 16. 
hand, 127. 
towers, 75. 

Phallus, xxii., 16, 121. 

found in ancient cave, 113. 

Phantoms, xiv. 

Philistines and foreskins, xxvii. 

Philosopher, viii. 

Philosopher s stone, 108. 

Phoenicia, 128. 

Phoenicians, ix. 

Phoenix, 129. 

Phryne, 2. 

Picart, 81. 

Pillar, 73. 
and hole, 63. 
phallic, 122 sq. 
Pine cone, 50, 84. 
tree, 78. 
and fleece, 69. 
Pipe in worship, 35. 
Pique, la, 86, 92. 
Pistol, 70. 
Pluto, 67. 
Porte de la vie, 88. 
POWER, the, xvii. 
Prakriti, 94. 
Prayers, x. 
" Prejudices, xi. 
Priapus, 14, 23, 49, 84. 
Priests, viii., xiv., xxi., 52. 91. 
Profane, the, xiv. 
Prophet of Allah, 9. 
Proserpine, 67, 112. 
Prostitution, xxxii., 19. 
Prosumnus and Liber, 34. 
\Psalter of Virgin, 131. 
Pudendum, 116. 
Pugin, 87, 96. 



Pyramid, 32, 33, 133. 

Quartette, Assyrian, 112. 

Qubbah, 127. 

Queen of heaven, 76, 131. 

Queue, la, 90. 

Quince, 56, 84. 

Ea, 12. 

Bain, xix. 

Bam, 100. 

Bawlinson s Monarchies, 26. 

Behoboam, 121. 

Belies and ark, xiv. 

Beligion, conservative, 107. 

supernatural, xviii. 

symbols in, vii., xvi., xvii. 

unnecessary to man, xvii. 
Beptile, mistaken, xiv. 
Besearch in symbolism, x. 
Besemblance, xi. 
Besurrection, 109. 
Beticence of English authors, xxv., 


Be view, Edinburgh, xiv. 
Bha3a, 25, 69. 
Bibbons and Thyrsus, 50. 
Bimmon, 7. 

Bishi, 7. : " 

Bitual and symbolism, xvii. 

of the dead, 109. 

Bitualists and second command 
ment, xvii. 
Bod, 34. 
Boman Catholic priests, 52, 102. 

priests of Isis, 52. 
Bomance of Bose, 131. 
Bomans, early, virtue of, xxviii. 
Bosary, ancient, 83. 
Bose, the, 131. 
Bound towers, Irish, 69. 

Sabeanism, 66. 
o-dftvTTos, sabuttos, 57. 
Sacred fire, 111. 

prostitution, xxxii, / 

shields, 50. 

Sacrifice to Priapus, 49. 
Sffihrimnir, 110. 
St. Croix, xxv. 
St. George, 118. 
Saintly impropriety, 34. 
Sakti, 4, 8, 25, 50, 90, 93. 116. 

sodhana, xxi., 94. 
Sakya muni, xxii. 
Sami, 82. 

Sanctified sins, xxi. 
Savages and religion, 107. 
Saxons, 110. 

Scandinavian figures, 57. 
Scavenger wanted, xvi. 
Sceptics, 43. 
Schliemann, Dr., 44. 
Sciolism is intolerant, 43. 
Scourge, 61. 
Scrotum, 45. 
Scythian burials, 60. 
Seal, 117. 

Second commandment, xiii. 
Secrets and children, xi. 

for the wise, xii. 
Sectarial symbols, 95. 
Sectarians, viii. 
Sects, rival, xx. 
Selenitis, 82. 
Sellon, Mr., 18, 73. 
Sennacherib, _122. 
Sensuality, JY-Wish, xxv. 
Septuagint, 119. 
Serapis, 52. 
Serpent, xiii., xxiv., 4, 5, 10, 13, 

14, 35, 90, 123. 
v Serpents in coitu, 117. 
Servatos, 66. 
Seven, sacred, 113, 130. 
\ Sex in religion, xx.-xxii. 
Sexual Christianity, 16. 
Shams, xv. 
Sharpe, Mr., 11, 13. 
Sheep and goats, 10. 
Shelah na gig, 66, 78. 
Shields, sacred, 50. 



Silence of English authors, xxv. 
x Simpson, Mr., 9. 
Sin, vii. 

Sinner, when a saint, vii. 
Sins, how punished, 10, 11. 
Sistra, 19, 20. 
Sistrum, 51, 53, 81, 96, 97, 116, 


Siva, 4, 19, 74, 116, 130, 134. 
Smith, Col. H., 61. 
Snails, 1, 8. 
Snakes, thanatoid, xiii. 
Snood, the Virgin, 23. 
Socrates Ecclesiastical History, 19. 
Sodomites, 121. 
Solar symbols, 61. 
Solomon, 129, 

and Hercules, xxviii. 
Solstice, 111. 
Song of Solomon, 55. 
Spain, curious church in, 66, 
Spanish order of Golden Fleece, 


Spartans and Christians, xxix. 
Spear, 99. 

Spectacle ornament, 58. 
Spectres, xiv. 

Spires and minarets, xxii., 75. 
Spots, 3, 7. 
Spouse of God, 76. 
sun, xix. 
Spring, 111. 
Sri-chakra, 94. 

-jantra, 39. 

Statue, a dirty, cleaned, xvi. 
Statuette of Venus, 55. 
Stigmata, 79. 
Stone circles, 59. 
Stories, xiv., xv., 115. 
Strabo, xxxii. 
Summary, 101. 
Summer, 111. 
Sun, xviii., xix., 6, 35, 36, 57, 76, 

109 sq. 

Supernatural religion xviii. 
SUPREME, THE, xvii., xix. 

Surgeons and secrets, xi. 

Surplice, 52. 

Swearing by sexual organ, 62, 63. 

Switzerland, 113. 

Symbolism, 82, 100, 107. 

Symbols, vii.-xxxiv. , 1-19, 5, 9, 

114, 115, 123. 
Syro Phoenicians, 118. 

T. and 0., xx., 96. 
Tabor, light of, 51. 
Talbot, Fox, 112 
Tamar, 128. 
Tammuz, 112. 
Tarquin and David, xxxiv. 
Taylor, Col. Meadows, 60. 
Templar s shield, 51. 
Temple, 98. 

door and yoni, 66 
Terra, 5. 
Terre, la, 92. 
Thalaba, xvi. 
Theodosius, 19. 
Thespius, xxviii. 
Thigh, meaning of, xxvii. 
Things, when symbolic, xxiii. 
Thor s hammer, 44, 
Three heads, two bodies, 60. 
Thumb, 3, 4. 
Thyrsus, 49, 50. 
Tiara, papal, 64, 99. 
Timon, le, 86. 
Tod s Bajpootanah, 55. 
Token of virginity, 22. 
Tombs in the Dekkan, 60. 
Tonsure and Nimbus, 51. 
Tortoise, xxiii., 19, 99, 100. 
Towers, 69, 75. 
Tree and serpent, 10, 55. 

of life, 108 sq., 130, 133. 

stump, 10. 

Trefoil ornament, 16, 45. 
Trench and digger, xxiii. 
Triad or Trinity, xx., xxvi, 4, 5, 9, 

16, 64, 101. 
Triangles, xxiii., 32, 38, 39, 40, 87. 



Trident, 8. 

Tripliform arrow, 49. 

Trisul, 134. 

Troy, ix. 

Truth, test of, x., xi., xiv., xv. 

Turks, xxxiii. 

Turnip lantern, xiv. 

Types, vii., xxii., xxiii. 

Unintelligible prayer, x. 
Unknown emblems, x. 
Urim and Thummim, viii. 

Vajarsvatta, 79. 

Valhalla, 109. 

Vampires, xv.-xvii. 

Veiled language, 104. 

Venice, 113. 

Venus, 1, 4, 6, 11, 19, 25, 49, 55, 

62, 88, 100, 112. 
Verge, la, 85. 

Verger de Cypris, le, 21, 85. 
Vesicapiscis, xxii., 8, 12, 16, 47, 53, 

90, 91, 93. 
Vespasian, 128. 

Vetal or Betal, a Hindoo deity, 60. 
Vine leaves, 49. 
Violets and Cybele, 
Virga, 49, 57. 
-Virgin, xx., xxi., 1-28, 52, 75, 77, 


black, 28, 29, 79, 80. 
Virginity, 22, 71. 
Virgo intacta, 81. 

Vishnu, 68, 88. 
Vitruvius, 111. 
Vive le Eoi, 123. 
Vulgate, 119. 

Wafer and cup, 5, 96. 

of life, 129. 
Water of feet, xxxi. 
West, 111. 
Wheel, 5, 34, 61. 
Whip in symbolism, 61. 
Wicklow, feasts in, 69. 
Wilderness, vii. 
Wilson, H. H., on Hindoo religion, 

55, 93. 
Winter, 111. 

Womb and dolphin, 8, 55. 
Women in Hindostan and linga, 
33, 81. 

in worship, xxxii., 94. 

naked on church doors, 66, 114. 
Worship of images, 73. 
sun, 111 sq. 

Yazili Kaia, sculpture at, 71. 
Yoni, 4, 7, 11-30, 62-73, 78. 91, 

on Irish churches, 114. 
Yorkshire, fish in, 2. 

stone circles in. 

Z ornament, 58, 59. 
Zipporah, xxvi. 




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Particulars of his Fabrication of the Shakspeare Manu 
scripts ; together with Anecdotes and Opinions of many 
Distinguished Persons in the Literary, Political, and The 
atrical World. A new edition, with additional Facsimiles, 
and an Introduction by RiCHARD GRANT WHITE. I vol 
ume I2mo, vellum cloth, uncut edges, $2.00; or on Large 
and Thick paper, 8vo, $3.50. Edition limited to 300 copies. 


Emigrants; Religious Exiles ; Political Rebels; Serving- 
men Sold for a Term of Years ; Apprentices ; Children 
Stolen ; Maidens Pressed ; and others who went from 
Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700. 
With their Ages, the Localities where they formerly Lived 
in the Mother Country, Names of the Ships in which they 
embarked, and other interesting particulars. From MSS. 
preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty s 
Public Record Office, England. Edited by JOHN CAMDEN 
HOTTEN. A very handsome volume, crown 4to, 700 
pages, elegantly bound in half roxburgh morocco, gilt top, 

A few Large Paper copies have been printed, small folio, 


An Appeal to Authors, Poets, Clergymen, and Public 
Speakers. By CHAS. MACKAY, LL.D. I vol. I2mo, cloth 
extra, $1.75. 

This is a perfect treasure of " Lost Beauties." Words change as well as men 
sometimes from no longer meeting the new wants of the people, but oftener from the 
attraction of novelty which impels everybody to change. A dictionary of obsolete 
words, and terms becoming obsolete, is a valuable reminder of the treasures which 
we are parting with ; not always wisely, for in them are comprised a wealth of ex 
pression, idiom, and even history, which the new words cannot acquire. Dr. 
Mackay has placed a host of such on record, with quotations to illustrate how they 
were read by the classical writers of the English language, not many centuries ago, 
and enables us to read those authors more understandingly. If he could induce us 
to recall some of them back to life, it would be a great boon to literature ; but hard 
as it might have been for Ccesar to add a new word to his native Latin language, it 
would have been infinitely more difficult to resuscitate an obsolete one, however 
more expressive and desirable. Many of the terms embalmed in this treatise are/ 
not dead as yet ; and others of them belong to that prolific department of our 
spoken language that does not get into dictionaries. But we all need to know 
them ; and they really are more homogeneous to our people than their successors, 
the stilted foreign-born and alien English, that " the Best" is laboring to naturalize 
into our language. The old words, like old shoes and well-worn apparel, sit most 




For Sale by 



in the First and Fourth Centuries after Christ. From the Sculptures of the 
Buddhist Topes at Sanchi and Amravati, prepared under the Authority of the 
Secretary of State for India. With Introductory Essays and Descriptions of 
the Plates, by James Ferguson, Esq., F.R.S., etc., author of " History of 
Architecture," etc. Illustrated with 99 Full-page Photographic and Litho 
graphic Plates, and numerous Woodcuts throughout the Text. One thick 
royal 410 volume, beautifully printed on heavy paper, and substantially bound 
in half morocco, gilt top. $40.00. 

London, Printed for the India Office, 1873. 

11 There are few things which at first sight appear to us at the present day so strange, or less 
easy to account for, than that worship which was once so generally offered to the Serpent-God 
If not the ranks at least among the earliest forms through which the human intellect 
sought to propitiate the unknown powers. 

"In so far as such glimmerings as we possess enable us to guess the locality of its origin, I 
would feel inclined to say that it came from the mud of the Lower Euphrates, among a people 
of Turanian origin, and spread thence as from a centre to every country or land of the Old 
World in which a Turanian people settled. Apparently no Semitic, or no people of Aryan 
race, ever adopted it as form of faith. It is true, we find it in Judea, but almost certainly it 
was there an outcrop from the older underlying strata of the population. We find it also in 
Greece and in Scandinavia, among people whom we know principally as Aryan, but there, 
too, it is like the tares of a previous crop springing up among the stems of a badly cultivated 
field of wheat. The essence of Serpent-\V orship is as diametrically opposed to the spirit of 
the Veda, or of the Bible, as is possible to conceive two faiths to be ; and, with varying degrees 
of dilution, the spirit of these two works pervades in a greater or less extent all the forms of 
the religions of the Aryan or Semitic races. On the other hand, any form of Animal worship 
is perfectly consistent with the lower intellectual status of the Turanian races ; and all history 
teRs us that it is among them, and essentially among them only, that Serpent- Worship is really 
found to prevail." Extract from Introduction. 

Co-u-n-TwiU, upward, of ,00 HU, 

This important, and now scarce work, represents all the Religious Systems of Antiquity. 


- All Books sold from this Catalog are warranted perfect, unless otherwise statsd 


The Confessions of William Henry Ireland, containing the 
Particulars of his Fabrication of the Shakspeare Manu 
scripts ; together with Anecdotes and Opinions of many 
Distinguished Persons in the Literary, Political, and The 
atrical World. A new edition, with additional Facsimiles, 
and an Introduction by RICHARD GRANT WHITE. I vol 
ume I2mo, vellum cloth, uncut edges, $2.00; or on Large 
and Thick paper, 8vo, $3.50. Edition limited to 300 copies. 


Emigrants; Religious Exiles ; Political Rebels; Serving- 
men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children 
Stolen ; Maidens Pressed ; and others who went from 
Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700. 
With their Ages, the Localities where they formerly Lived 
in the Mother Country, Names of the Ships in which they 
embarked, and other interesting particulars. From MSS. 
preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty s 
Public Record Office, England. Edited by JOHN CAMDEN 
HOTTEN. A very handsome volume, crown 4to, 700 
pages, elegantly bound in half roxburgh morocco, gilt top, 


A few Large Paper copies have been printed, small folio, 


An Appeal to Authors, Poets, Clergymen, and Public 
Speakers. By CHAS. MACKAY, LL.D. I vol. I2mo, cloth 
extra, $1.75. 

This is a perfect treasure of " Lost Beauties." Words change as well as men 
sometimes from no longer meeting the new wants of the people, but oftener from the 
attraction of novelty which impels everybody to change. A dictionary of obsolete 
words, and terms becoming obsolete, is a valuable reminder of the treasures which 
we are parting with ; not always wisely, for in them are comprised a wealth of ex 
pression, idiom, and even history, which the new words cannot acquire. Dr. 
Mackay has placed a host of such on record, with quotations to illustrate how they 
were read by the classical writers of the English language, not many centuries ago, 
1 ~,,oKi af . ,,,. f^ ..^0,1 tv-^c-o, o,,tV,o.- c more nnderstandinp-lv. If he could induce us 

>p. Si- Illustrated vnth plate 1S a ^ e iscussion thereon. 8vo., paper. Lond. 


not dead as yet ; and others of them belong to that prolihc department ui ^^ 
spoken language that does not get into dictionaries. But we all need to know 

them- or.rl. fb~,, -^ll,, ^v Vu-mlOfT^ner..,,. *~ - - l-.^V < --- 

^ER (W. R., F. R. S. L.). The Serpent Myths of Ancient Egypt, being a comparative his- 
f of these myths, from the "Ritual of the Dead," Egyptian Inscriptions, Papyri, and Monu- 
nts in the British and Continental Museums, with Notes and Remarks by Dr. S. Birch, M. jj 




For Sale by 




in the First and Fourth Centuries after Christ. From the Sculptures of the 
Buddhist Topes at Sanchi and Amravati, prepared under the Authority of the 
Secretary of State for India. With Introductory Essays and Descriptions of 
the Plates, by James Ferguson, Esq., F.R.S., etc., author of " History of 
Architecture," etc. Illustrated with 99 Full-page Photographic and Litho 
graphic Plates, and numerous Woodcuts throughout the Text. One thick 
royal 410 volume, beautifully printed on heavy paper, and substantially bound 
in half morocco, gilt top. $40.00. 

London, Printed for the India Office, 1873. 

" There are few things which at first sight appear to us at the present day so strange, or less 
easy to account for, than that worship which was once so generally offered to the Serpent-God. 
If not the oldest, it ranks at least among the earliest forms through which the human intellect 
sought to propitiate the unknown powers. 

"In so far as such glimmerings as we possess enable us to guess the locality of its origin, I 
would feel inclined to say that it came from the mud of the Lower Euphrates, among a people 
of Turanian origin, and spread thence as from a centre to every country or land of the Old 
World in which a Turanian people settled. Apparently no Semitic, or no people of Aryan 
race, ever adopted it as form of faith. It is true, we find it in Judea, but almost certainly it 
was there an outcrop from the older underlying strata of the population. We find it also in 
Greece and in Scandinavia, among people whom we know principally as Aryan, but there, 
too, it is like the tares of a previous crop springing up among the stems of a badly cultivated 
field of wheat. The essence of Serpent- W orship is as diametrically opposed to the spirit of 
the Veda, or of the Bible, as is possible to conceive two faiths to be ; and, with varying degrees 
of dilution, the spirit of these two works pervades in a greater or less extent all the forms of 
the religions of the Aryan or Semitic races. On the other hand, any form of Animal worship 
is perfectly consistent with the lower intellectual status of the Turanian races ; and all history 
teMs us that it is among them, and essentially among them only, that Serpent-Worship is really 
found to prevail." Extract from Introduction. 


Ascertained from Historical Testimony and Circumstantial Evidence. Map 
and plates. 3 vols, 4to, half calf, neat. $50.00. VERY SCARCE. 

London, 1816. 
This important, and now scarce work, represents all the Religious Systems of Antiquity. 

Rare and Valuable Books. 

EMBODIED IN ANCIENT NAMES; or, An Attempt to trace the Reli 
gious Beliff, Sacred Rites, and Holy Emblems of certain Nations, by an In 
terpretation of the Names given to Children by Priestly Authority, or assumed 
by IVophrts, Kings, and Hierarchs. By THOMAS INMAN, M.D. 2 thick 
volume , upward of i.oco pp. each. Profusely illustrated with Engravings 
on :< (/ 820.00. London, Printed for the Author* 1868-70. 

Only 500 copies printed, 

" Dr. Imnan s present at empt to trace the religious belief, sacred rites, and holy emblems of 
certain nations, has opened ui> to him many hitherto unexplored fields of research or at least 
hrlds that have not been over-cultivated, and the result is a most curious and miscellaneous 
harvest of tacts. The ideas on priapism developed in a former volume receive further exten 
sion in this Dr. Inman. as will be seen, does not fear to touch subjects usually considered 
sacred, in an independent manner, and some of the results at which he has arrived are such 
as will undoubtedly startle, if not shock, the orthodox. Hut this is what the author expects 
and for this he has thoroughly prepared himself. In illustration of his peculiar views he has 
ransacked a vast variety of historical storehouses, and with great trouble and at considerable 
co^t he places the conclusions at which he has arrived before the world With the arguments 
employed the majority of readers will, we expect, disagree ; even when the facts adduced 
will remain undisputed, their application is frequently inconsequent. In showing the absurdity 
of a narrative or an event in which he disbelieves, t tie Doctor is powerful but when he him- 

, m- 

t ventures upon a chain of arguments or propounds doctrines, positive or negative he 
ally appears to disadvantage. No expense has been spared on the volume, which like the 
one. i .veil and fully illustrated, aud cootains a good index." Bookseller. 

A most Important Contribution to A re hero logical Science. 


^ and its connecection with the Mystic Theology of the Ancients. By RICHARD 
PAYNE KNIGHT, Esq. A New Edition. To which is added AN ESSAY 
Fngravings (many of which are full-page), from Ancient Gems, Coins, Medals, 
Bronzes, Sculpture. Egyptian Figures, Ornaments, Monuments, etc. Printed, 
on heavy paper, at the Chiswick Press. I vol. 4(0. half Roxburghe morocco, 
gilt top. $35.00. London, privately printed, 1871. 

" This is a very extraordinary volume upon a subject that is now attracting the almost uni 
versal attention of the learned and curious in Europe. 

" Ever k ince the revival of learning, strange objects have from time to time been discovered 
objects which, although they may amaze or auv.-se the weak-minded, have induced earnest 
students to inquire into their origin and true meaning. Various matters and discoveries 
assisted in dea-ing up the mystery ; the emblems and symbols gradually explained their full 
meaning, and the outlines of an extraordinary creed unfolded itself. It was the DIV1NITE 
(rhXKRATRICK the worship or adoration of the God PR1APUS the ancient symbol of 
generation and fertility. The Round Towers in Ireland ; similar buildings in India ; the May 
pole in England, and e7rn rj te sfiircs of our churches, are *ov> x/i 7r.- to be nothing more nor 
le<s than txisting symbols rfthis ami strange worship. Almost all the great relics of 
antiquity bear traces of this impious adoration the rock caves of Elephanta, near Bombay, 
the e;irth and stone mounds of Europe, Asia, and America the Druidical piles and the remains 
of the so-called Kire-worshippers in every part of the world. Even existing popular customs. 
and beliefs are full of remnants of this extravagant devotion. 

" R. P. Knight, the writer of the fir t Kssa.. was a Kdlowofthe Royal Societv. a Member 
of the British Parliament, and one of the most learned antiquaries of his time. His Museum 
of Phallic objects is now most carefully preserved in tli" London British Musuem. The 
second Essay, bringing our knowledge of the worship of Priapus down to the present time, 
so as to include the more recent discoveries throwing any light upon the matter, is said to 
be by one of the most distinguished English antiquaries the author of numerous works which 
are held in high esteem. He was assisted, it is understood, by two prominent Fellows of the 
Royal Society, one of whom has recently presented a wonderful collection of Phallic objects 
to the British Museum authorities." 

Rare and Valuable Books. 



3 THEIR RITES AND MYSTERIES. With Chapters on th Ancient Fire- 
and Serpent-Worshippers, and Explanations of the Mystic ^symbols repre 
sented in the Monuments and Talismans of the primeval Philosophers. By 
HARGRAVE JENNINGS. Crown 8vo, 316 wood-engravings. $3.00. : 

London, 1870. 

A volume of startling facts and opinions upon this very mysterious subject. 


An attempt to draw aside the veil of the Sai tic Isis, or an Inquiry into the 
Origin of Languages, Nations, and Religions. 3 vols. in I. 4to, morocco, gilt. 
Plates. Very scarce. $75.00. London, 1833-36. 

On page vii. of the Preface this passage occurs: " I have printed only 200 copies of this 
work ; of these 200 onjy a few got at hrst into circulation. The tendency of the work is to 
overturn all the established systems of religion, to destroy received notions upon subjects 
generally considered sacred, and to substitute a simple unsacerdotal worship. Names hitherto 
looked upon with veneration by the world are stripped of their honors, and others are lifted 
from opprobrium to a position of reverence." 


An attempt to show that the Druids were the Priests of Oriental Colonies, who 
emigrated from India. 45 fine plates of Druidical Remains, on INDIA PAPER, 
and numerous vignettes. 4to, half calf. $22.50. London, 1829. 


or, DIALOGUES OF KREESHNA AND ARJOON ; in 18 Lectures, with Notes, 
translated from the Original Sanskreet by CHARLES WILKINS. 8vo, hand 
somely printed on fine paper. $3 . oo 

London, 1785, reprinted New York, 1867. 
Only 161 copies. 
Contains curious details of the Manners, Customs, Mythology, Worship, &c., of the 

The principal design of these dialogues seems to have been to unite all the prevailing modes 
of worship of those days ; the Brahmins esteem it to contain all the grand mysteries ot their 
religion, and have exercised particular care to conceal it from the knowledge of those of a 
different persuasion. 


From Professor SPIEGEL S German Translation of the Original Manuscripts, 
by A. H. BLEECK. svols.ini. 8vo, cloth. $7.50 London, 1864. 

English scholars, who wish to become acquainted with the " Bible of the Parsees," now for 
the first time published in English, should secure this work. 

To thinkers the " Avesta" will be a most valuable work ; they will now have an opportunity 
to compare its TRUTHS with those of the BIBLE the KOKAN, and the VEDS. 


with Notices of various Mountain and Island Tribes inhabiting the two Pen 
insulas of India. Numerous engravings of Hindoo Deities. 4to, half calf, neat. 
Scarce. $11.00. London, 1832. 

The Appendix in this valuable work comprises the Minor Avatars and the terms used in the 
Worship and Ceremonies of the Hindus. 

^ OV.HHI, ^^., Cliyiavcu it] AVIWIHIV. .^.mw^,, , tl t,,^. . ^ me .LMUWlllg 

To which is added a descriptive catalogue of each Print, together with the names of tho^e fc 

whom, and the places for which, the original pictures were first painted (taken from the ham 

writing of Claude on the back of each drawing), and of the present possessors of many of th 

original pictures 3 vols. folio (pub. at ^ 31 los.) half bound mor. extra, richly gilt backs and gi 

edges. 17771804. 60 & c 

L ZETTE DBS BEAUX ARTS, Courier European de L Art et de la Curiosite (edited by a 

Blanc), from its commencement in 1859 to 1874. 37 vols. roy. 8vo, in 32, beautifully bound i 

new half crimson mor , gilt tops. Paris. 1859 74. 325 o 

A handsome set of this French Art Journal, profusely illustrated with engravings on steel, portraits, etchings I 

Rare and Valuable Books. 

EMBODIED IN ANCIENT NAMES ; or, An Attempt to trace the Reli* 
gious Belief, Sacred Rites, and Holy Emblems of certain Nations, by an In 
terpretation of the Names given to Children by Priestly Authority, or assumed 
by 1 rophets. Kings, and Hierarchs. By THOMAS INMAN, M.D. 2 thick 
volume-, upward of i.oco pp. each. Profusely illustrated with Engravings 
on :<></ $20.00. London, Printed for the Author, 1868-70. 

Only 500 copies printed. 

Dr. Inman s present afempt to trace the religious belief, sacred rites, and holy emblems of 
certain nations, has opened < to him many hitherto unexplored fields of research or at least 
fit-Ids that .have not been over-cultivated, and the result is a most curious and miscellaneous 
harvest of facts. The ideas on priapism developed in a former volume receive further exten 

he places the conclusions at which he has arrived before the world. With the arguments 
employed the majority of readers will, we expect, disagree ; even when the facts adduced 
will remain undisputed, their application is frequently inconsequent. In showing the absurdity 
of a narrative or an event in which he disbelieves, the Doctor is powerful but when he him- 
iruures upon a chain of arguments or propounds doctrines, positive or negative he 
ally appears to disadvantage. No expense has been spared on the volume, which like the 
u-* one. i .veil and fully illustrated, aud contains a good Index." Bookseller. 

A most Important Contribution to Archa-ological Science. 


p and its connecection with the Mystic Theology of the Ancients. By RICHARD 
PAYNE KNIGHT. Esq. A New Edition. To which is added AN ESSAY 
Fngravings (many of which are full-page), from Ancient Gems, Coins, Medals, 
Bronzes, Sculpture. Egyptian Figures, Ornaments, Monuments, etc. Printed, 
on heavy paper, at the Chiswick Press. I vol. 410. half Roxburghe morocco, 
\t gilt top. $35.00. London, privately printed, 1871. 

" This is a very extraordinary volume upon a subject that is now attracting the almost uni 
versal attention of the learned and curious in Europe. 

"Ever -i nee the revival of learning, strange objects have from time to time been discovered 
objects which, although they may amaze or the weak-minded, have induced earnest 
students to inquire into their origin and true meaning. Various matters and discoveries 
assisted in dea-ing up the mystery ; the emblems and symbols gradually explained their full 
meaning, and the outlines of an extraordinary creed unfolded itself. It was the DIVINITE 
GhNEKATRICK the worship or adoration of the God PR1 A PUS the ancient symbol of 
generation and fertility. I he Round Towers in Ireland ; similar buildings in India "the May- 
pol in bngjand. ami r7rn ihe sfitrcs of our churches, are roiv slr-wi fr be nothing more nor 
les than ,-xistinz symbols rf : his pagan ami strange worship. Almost all the great relics of 
antiquity bear traces of this impious adoration the rock caves of Klephanta, near Bombay, 
the earth and stone mounds of Lurope. Asia, and America the Druidical piles and the remains 
of the so-called F ire-worshippers in every part of the world. Even existing popular customs- 
and beliefs are full of remnants of this extravagant devotion. 

t u ,/ Anight, the writer of the fir t Kssa , . was a Kellow of the Royal Societv. a Member 
c K ... ntish Parliament, and one of the most learned antiquaries of his time. His Museum 
of I bailie objects is now most carefully preserved in th" London British Musuem. The 
second hssav, bringing our knowledge of the worship of Priapus down to the present time, 
so as to include the more recent discoveries throwing any light upon the matter, is s:ud to 
be by one of the most distinguished English antiquaries the author of numerous works which 
are held in high esteem. He was assisted, it is understood, by two prominent Fellows of the 
Royal Society, one of whom has recently presented a wonderful collection of Phallic objects 
to the British Museum authorities." 

EIL OF ISIS (The). Or the Mysteries of the Druids, by W. Winwood Reade. i,ar 
8vo, new hf. cf. gilt. Lond. 1861. 3 

" There is no study so saddening, and none so sublime as that of the early Religions of Mankii 
to trace back the Worship of God to its simple Origin, and to mark the gradual progress of th< 
degrading superstitions, and unhallowed rites which darkened, and finally extinguished his preset 
in the Ancient World." 

This work has long been out of print and scarce, having secured a few copies, ,we are enabled to offer th 
at the above very low figure. 

55 VERITAS. Revelation of Mysteries, Biblical, Historical, and Social, by means of the Medi 
and Persian Laws. By Henry Melville. Edited by F. Tennyson and A. Tuder. Obloi 

Rare and Valuable Books. 

- THEIR RITES AND MYSTERIES. With Chapters on th Ancient Fire- 
and Serpent-Worshippers, and Explanations of the Mystic ^symbols repre 
sented in the Monuments and Talismans of the primeval Philosophers. By 
HARGRAVE JENNINGS. Crown 8vo, 316 wood-engravings. $3.00. : 

London, 1870. 

A volume of startling facts and opinions upon this very mysterious subject. 


An attempt to draw aside the veil of the Sai tic Isis, or an Inquiry into the 
Origin of Languages, Nations, and Religions. 3 vols. in i. 410, morocco, gilt. 
Plates. Very scarce. $75.00. London, 1833-36. 

On page vii. of the Preface this passage occurs: " I have printed only 200 copies of this 
work ; of these 200 oi\ly a few got at hrst into circulation. The tendency of the work is to 
overturn all the established systems of religion, to destroy received notions upon subjects 
generally considered sacred, and to substitute a simple unsacerdotal worship. Names hitherto 
looked upon with veneration by the world are stripped of their honors, and others are lifted 
from opprobrium to a position of reverence." 


An attempt to show that the Druids were the Priests of Oriental Colonies, who 
emigrated from India. 45 fine plates of Druidical Remains, on INDIA PAPER, 
and numerous vignettes. 4to, half calf. $22.50. London, 1829. 


or, DIALOGUES OF KREESHNA AND ARJOON ; in 18 Lectures, with Notes, 
translated from the Original Sanskreet by CHARLES WILKINS. 8vo, hand 
somely printed on fine paper. $3 . oo 

London, 1785, reprinted New York, 1867. 
Only 161 copies. i*fl*l& 

Contains curious details of the Manners, Customs, Mythology, Worship, &c., of the 

The princioal design of these dialogues seems to have been to unite all the prevailing modes 
of worship of those days ; the Brahmins esteem it to contain all the grand mysteries ot their 
relig on, and have exercised particular care to conceal it from the knowledge of those of a 
different persuasion. 


From Professor SPIEGEL S German Translation of the Original Manuscripts, 
by A. H. BLEECK. 3 vols. in I. 8vo, cloth. $7.50 London, 1864. 

English scholars, who wish to become acquainted with the " Bible of the Parsees," now for 
the first time published in English, should secure this work. 

To thinkers the " Avesta " will be a most valuable work ; they will now have an opportunity 
to compare its TRUTHS with those of the HIBLE the KORAN, and the VEDS. 


with Notices of various Mountain and Island Tribes inhabiting the two Pen 
insulas of India. Numerous engravings of Hindoo Deities. 4to, half calf, neat. 
Scarce. $11.00. London, 1832. 

The Appendix in this valuable work comprises the Minor Avatars and the terms used in the 
Worship and Ceremonies of the Hindus. 

Rare and Valuable Books. 


Anterior to the Anglo-Norman invasion. Numerous engravings of the RouisD 
TOWERS and other Architecture. 4*0, cloth. $20.00. London, 1845. 

LAR OK PAPER, scarce. 

This work comprises the Prize Essay on the Origin and Uses of the Round Towers of Ire 
land, greatly enlarged ; and distinct Essays on ancient Stone Churches, &c., of cotempora- 
neous ages. 


HISTORY AND DOCTRINE of, populary illustrated with NOTICES OF KAPPOO- 
ISM, OF DEMON-WORSHIP, and of the Bali or Planetary Incantations of Ceylon. 
43 plates from Sinhalese Designs. Folio, half calf neat. $19.00. 
SCARCE. London, 1829. 


(g Being an account of the Erotic Paintings, Bronzes, and Statues contained in 
that famous " Cabinet Secret." By Colonel FANIN. Now first translated 
from the French. With sixty full-page illustrations, mostly colored. I vol., 
medium 4to, half polished morocco, gilt top. $40.00. London, 1872, 

These relics, in which science takes so live. / yn muerest, have survived the lapse of centu 
ries. They have been preserved in the womb of che e-i-th to transmit to future generations 
the lessons of history. Those which we have chosen j form the subject of this bock were 
discovered in some of those towns situated on fhe side of Vesuvius which had been buried 
under its volcanic ashes: we allude to Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabia. 

During more than sixteen hundred years even the sites of these destroyed cities were un 
known ; learned men were still at controversy on the subject at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century when chance led to the discovery in a country-seat of the Duke of Lorraine, at Por- 
tici, of a fruitful mine of objects of Art and Antiquities of all kinds. The king of the two 
Sicilies caused excavations to be made, and in the month of December, 1738, the theatre of 
Herculaneum was found. The excavations made at this period, and continued down to our 
days, have furnished the Neapolitan government with the richest, most instructive, and most 
interesting collection of antiquities. 

This work was originally published by the Italian government, and given to men of science 
and learned institutions only. It is now for the first time presented in an English translation, 
with all of the illustrations of the original edition. 


or, Transactions of the Society for inquiring into the History, Antiquities, Arts, 
Literature, etc. of Asia, by the most eminent Oriental Scholars. 12 vols. 8vo r 
Russia gilt. $20.00. London, 1801-6* 

Contains the learned Essays by Colebrooke, Sir William Jones, Carey, Strachey, Dr. Wal- 
lich, Roxburgh, &c. 


And their Remains, ANCIENT AND MEDIAEVAL. Profusely illustrated. 8vo, 
new cloth gilt. $7.50. London, 1864. 

*** The only English work on the subject. Out of print and scarce. > 


A system of Hindu Mythology and Tradition translated from the original; 
Sanscrit, and illustrated by Notes derived chiefly from other Puranas, by 
H.H.Wilson. Thick 4to, cloth. $25.00. London, 1840. 

The " Vishnu Purana " embodies the real doctrine of the Indinn Scripture, the k> Unity of the 
Deity." This edition was published by the Oriental Translation Society, but is quite out of 
nrint and rare. 

AYLOR (Isaac). History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Times togethei 
with the Process of Historical Proof, etc. I2mo., new cloth. Lond., 1875. New edition, re 
vised and enlarged. f\ , r c 

3 4 oo 

P^ateofthe^^g*}* ?* f***fc*t.f**3k ofth f K^Z$: eprin 

o>s. beautifully printed on antique laid tai* v c PP e r-p^tes, am 



comprising a large number ot l * - Vrt. T i 

Wordsworth, Lamb, Leigh Hunt, Landseer and others. 2 vols., 8vo, cloth. 

ed with a Portrait and Fac-similes of many interesting sketches, including a Portrait of Haydon drawn 

He is worthy of his work: few men have lived, whose character presents more noble si 
Maritime Register. 

260 PARDOE (Miss). The Beauties of the Bosphorus- illustrated in a series of Views of Co 
nople and its Environs, from original drawings by W. H. Bartlett. 410, full mor. Lond. 

Fine early copy beautiful impressions of the many engravings. 

261 PARKER (George). Life s Painter of Variegated Characters in Public and Private Life 

J.*_*.,^.*. ____ - "Rfirt; /ins/ 

cal Sketch of Count Hamilton, numerous Historical and Illustrative Notes by Sir Walter S 
and 64 Copper Plate Portraits by Edward Scriven. Large 8vo., new cloth extra. Lond., I 

, i 

IK ILL, AINU, ..... i .-.-....- 

Anterior to the Anglo-Norman invasion. Numerous engravings of the Roui\D 

TOWERS and other Architecture. 410, cloth. $20.00. London, 1845. 

LAROK PAPER, scarce. 

A New Edition,"revised and corrected throughout, with additions and an Index of Subjects and Proper 
TROUT (Samuel) Hints on Light and Shadow, Composition, etc., as applicable to Land 
Painting. Large 4 to., cloth. Lond., 1876.^ Very"umermisplales.^^^^ IVA ^, UU . 
ISM, OF DEMON-WORSHIP, and of the Bali or Planetary Incantations of Ceylon. 
43 plates from Sinhalese Designs. Folio, half calf neat. $19.00. 
SCARCE. London, 1829. 


E OUINCEY S WORKS. Complete, comprising English Opium-Eater; Critical and 
graphical Sketches ; Studies on Secret Records, Personal and Historical ; Essays : 
tical and Anti- Sceptical, Leaders in Literature ; Classic Records, Autobiograpt 
Sketches on style and Rhetoric ; Speculations, Literary and Philosophic ; Letters 
Miscellanies. Also a copious Index to all the Works: 16 vols. cr. 8vo, new 

i uese rencs, in wmcn science takes so live. / an imetest, have survived the lapse of centu 
ries. They have been preserved in the womb of the e^-th to transmit to future generations 
the lessons of history. Those which we have chosen j form the subject of this bock were 
discovered in some of those towns situated on fhe side of Vesuvius which had been buried 
under its volcanic ashes: we allude to Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabia. 

cities were un 

During more than sixteen hundred years even the sites of these destroyed 
known : learned men were still at controversy on the subject at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century when chance led to the discovery in a country-seat of the Duke of Lorraine, at Por- 
tici, of a fruitful mine of objects of Art and Antiquities of all kinds. The king of the tivo 
Sicilies caused excavations to be made, and in the month of December, 1738, the theatre of 
Herculaneum was found. The exrjiyatinnc moH< it tv>;.- ~~~-- \ . * _, y^- , -. , 

27 BOCCACCIO. Spirit of Boccaccio s Decameron comprising Three Days Enter 
Translated, selected, connected and versified from the Italian. 2 vols. post 8vo, cf. Lo 

28 BOCCACCIO. The Decameron. Now fully translated into English, with introdi 
Thos. Wright, F. S. A., 8vo, new cloth, Lond. with the beautiful series of engravings by 
which adorned Pickering s fine edition published at 2 12s, 

or, Transactions of the Society for inquiring into the History, Antiquities, Arts, 
Literature, etc. of Asia, by the most eminent Oriental Scholars. 12 vols. 8vo, 
Russia gilt. $20.00. London, iSoi-6* 

Contains the learned Essays by Colebrooke, Sir William Jones, Carey, Strachey, Dr. Wal- 
lich, Roxburgh, &c. 


And their Remains, ANCIENT AND MEDIAEVAL. Profusely illustrated. 8vo, 
new cloth gilt. $7.50. London, 1864. 

*** The only English work on the subject. Out of print and scarce. 

WESTMINSTER DROLLERIES. Both parts of 1671, 1672- being a cho 
tion of Songs and Poems, sung at Court and Theatres, etc. Now first reprinted ?rom 
al editions and edited, with introduction on the Literature of the Drolleries with I 
by J. W. Elsworth. Post 8vo., new cloth. Lond., 1875. 

The il Vishnu Purana" embodies the real doctrine of t he lnriiTui Scripture, tne ""Unity 01 irAr 
Deity." This edition was published by the Oriental Translation Society, but is quite out ol 
orint and rare. 

USAJRUM DELICIJE; or, The Muses Recreation, 1656; Wit Restor d, 1658; and 
it s Recreations, 1640. Reprint. 1874. The whole compared with the Originals, with all the 
ood Engravings, Plates, Memoirs, and Notes; being a new edition, with additional Notes, 
dexes, and a portrait of Sir John Mennis. 2 vols. post 8vo, fine hf. levant mor. gilt tops, uncut. 
nd., 1874. Beautifully printed on antique laid paper. . 8 oo 

A. reprint of the " Musarum Deliciae," together with several other kindred pieces of the period now appears, 
ming two volumes of Facetiae, edited by Mr. E. Ditbois. author of " The Wreath," etc. It is an exquisite pro- 
ction, though free in language. Only 150 copies printed. 

3990 4 


t n -H- 

BL Inman, Thomas 

85 Ancient pagan and modern 

154 Christian symbolism 

1875 2d ed.,.rev., and enl.